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Full text of "The Electrical review"

MDIHI} LIST SEP ': 192/, 



Index to the Electrical fteview 
Janturyetb. 1933. 



THE 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



ludex lo the Electrical KerieW, 
Januarr 6tb. Itflii. 



fctii 



tndex to the Electrical luvie*, 
JuiaaryGth, 1923. 



THE 1 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW, 



J'l 



Vol. LXXXIX. 

JULY 1— DECEMBER 3 0, 1921 




LONDON : 

THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, LTD. 
4, LUDGATE HILL. E.G. 4. 



Index to the Electrical Rer 
Janaarr Cth, 1919. 



/ 

£ o It b n : 

Published by the Proprietors, 

AT 4, LUDGATE HlLI,, E.G. 4. 



January 0, 1922.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



INDEX. 



Lul 0/ tubheadingi :—&xiTBORS, Bankbuptct Phoceedinos, City Notes, Contracts Ciosed and Open, Cohbebponsence, Ibstithtion and Lecture Notes, Leuai., 
Lighting and Power Notes, Liquidation Notices, New Companies, New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant, Obituary, Ofticial Betcrss, 
Eailwav Notes, Reviews, Telegraph Notes, Telephone Notes, Tramway Notes. 



ACTION by London members of Ihe 
E.T.U., 821 
Accumulator patents, Surrender of, 676' 
Accumulators, New, 587 
Accuracy, The Press and, 591 
ng, Musical, 377 
absorption, 641 



A.E.G 

A. E.G. 
A.E.G 



Rus! 



893 



Austria, The, 85i 
A.E.G., The profits of, 698 
Aerial resistances, Transmitting, 894 
Aero engine ignition, 692. 835, 882 

trade considerations. Some 



137 



Constantii 



Agency arrangements 

pie, 280 
Agricultural & General Engineers, 

Ltd., at Derby, 53 
Agriculture, Electricity in, 122 
Air Conference, Forthcoming, 830 
Aircraft, Leader cable for, 774 
Air extractors, " Delas," 551 
Air torpedo post, 507 
Alby United Carbide Co., The, 782 
Algeria, Electrification of, 640 
Algeria, The trade of, 713 
All-Russian Electrical Congress, 646 
Alternating-stress testing machine, 

Haigh's, 668 
Aluminium in •Germany, Copper re- 

placing, 171 
Aluminium solder, A new, 575 
Aluminium, The production of, 246 
Amalgamation of transport and gen- 
eral workers, Proposed, 310 
America, Electrical wages reduced in, 

245 
America, Industrial engineering in 

Europe and, 169 
America, The metric system in, 540 
American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, The, 154 
American contemporaries. Our, 887 
American convention, An, 1 
Copper Research 
n. An, 332 

an electrical activity in Italy, 14 
electrical exports, 888 






impri 



Germany, An, 
an steel production, 280 
an steel workers' wages, 260 



Amsterdam, I 
Exhibition ; 
Antarctic, Elect 
Anti-Dumping 



Ants, Lead-eating, 189 



W:, 



Testing electrical, 30 
of electricity supply 
pal service. The, by S. 
1, 765 



.\ppi cnlii .^ .iiid short time, 234 

.\u u.MInt;. Electric, 266 

Arc welding in the manufactu 

new boilers. Electric, 208 
Are we behind America? 122 
Argentina and trusts, 86 
Argentina, Electrical progress in 
Argtntina, G«.'rman trade in. 8«! 
Argentina, Lighting plant! 
Argentine, Electric furnact 
Arirhmctical calculating slips, 659 
Armature bands, by L. Burstow, 774 
Armature winding and induction-motor 

diagr.ims, by C. Sylvester, 366 
Art of Siilesmanship, The, 730 
Assets taken on trust, 201 
Associated Municipal Electrical Engi- 



the, 14 



neers. 144 
Atlantic-Pacific Exhibitit 



887 



1925, An, 



Aton 



The structure of the, 393, 444 
Atoms, The stability of, 19 
Atmospheric electricity as a source 

energy, 122 
Attracting the consumer, 533, 568, 
Austin Motor Co.. 641 
Australasia, Electrolytic Zinc Co. of, 
Australasia, Trade conditions in, 86 
alia. Contractors' registration 



of 



Australia, Electrical wages in, 602 
Australia, Engineering wages and 

trade depression in, 888 
Australia, Germany and, 247 
Australia, Import and export trade of, 

546 
Australia, New steamship service to, 

603 
Australia, New w(*ks in, 89 
Australia, Porcelain in, 2,')3 
Australia, Trade conditions in, 86 

Australian cable company. New, 367, 

501 
Australian Customs tariffs, 88 
.Australian electric furnace. An, 682 
.Australian electrical company. New, 

344 
Australian E.T.U., and union labour, 

534 
Australian inquiry. An, 854 
Australian manufactures, 469 
Australian power scheme. An, by 

'• H. M. S.," 269 
Australian system of surtaxes, 311 
Australian Tariff Board, 116 
Australian telephone orders in arrears, 

184 
Australian test house, An, 412 
.Australian trade, German bid for, 439 
Australian wages, 13 
Australian zinc concentrates. 407 
Australia's future as a manufacturer, 

899 
Austria, Hopeful signs in, 294 
Austria, Hjdro-electric works in, 413 
Austria, The A.E.G. in, 854 
Austrian electrical industry, 246, 602 
•Austrian Succession States, Manufac- 
turing works in, 118 

Authors — 

Allen, N. A., on Breakdown tests on 
insulating materials. 876 

"Anode," on Leaves from an In- 
spector's Note-book, 238, 28tl, 795; 
on Electroculture, 463; on The 
Bandy motor, 666 

Ayton, F., on The use of electric ve- 
hicles for municipal purposes, 
764 

Baily, Prof. S. F., on The Linking- 
up of the small water powers in 
Scotland, 450 

Barclay, Dr. S. F., on Modern high- 
speed centrifugal pumps, 452 

Barfield, E. P., on Electric resistance 
furnaces, 364 
eh, A. 1'., on Mains photography. 



Benn 



738 
futi 



;t, E. P., on The 
431 



ntraclor : 



246, 711 



Ausi 



Dii 



to, S'iti 



Burnand. W. E, Inaugural address 

to the North Midland Centre, 

I.E.E., 763 
Burstow, L., on Armature bands, 774 
Byng, E. S.. on Telephone line work 

in the United States, 727, 799 
" Central Station Engineer, ' on 

Somo elements in the design of 

large fuses, 40; on Fuses, 703 
Chamberlain, VV., on Permanent way 

(public roads) maintenance, 515 
Charlcsworth, C. W., on Fin.ancial 

and business aspects of municipal 

ekx'tricity supply, 161 
Chattock, R. A.. Inaugural .address 

to the South Midland Centre 

I.E.E., 691 
Cortie, Rev. A. L., on The mag- 
netic storms of the present Solar 

Cycle, 151 
Cramp, W., on The path of a small 

permeable body in a magnetic 

field, 736 
Cross, E., on Commercial problems 

in electricity supply, 225 
Dalziel, J., on Battery locomotives, 

129 
De.acon, M., on The utilisation of 

exhaust steam in turbines. 228 
Deane, H. J., on Development of 

cranage facilities for ilischarging 

vessels of large size, « 



Authors — continued. 

Dolby. E. R., on Exhaust steam : 
its employment for power, heat- 
ing, S:c., 260 

Donkin, S. B., on Notes on the new 
electricity supply station of the 
Edinburgh Corporation, 419 

Dorey, E. W., on Power factor, 275, 
493, 733 

Eason, Alex. B., on Foreign langu- 
ages and engineering develop- 
ment, 878 

Edgar, James, on The foundry elec- 
tric furnace, 877 

" Electrode," on Notes concerning 
contact pyrometers, 526 

Flight, W. S., on Tests on insulating 
varnish, 771 

Forrest, F., on The supply of elec- 
trical energy in Birmingham and 
district, 291 

Freeman, C. H.. on Electricity in 
isolated buildings, 557. 633 

Frith, J., on Electric heating. 831 

Gibson, Prof. A. H., on Notes on 
water-power development, 386 

Griffiths, Dr. E., & F. H. Scho- 
lield, on Thermal characteristics 
of electric ovens and hot plates, 
30 

Hamilton, J. B., on The operation of 
tramways and 'bus undertakings 
under statutory powers as affected 
bv the Roads .Act. 1920, 482 

Hawkins, L. G., on The contractor's 
future, 365 

Hichens, W. L., on The principles 
by which wages are determined, 
451 

Hightield, J. S., Presidential ad- 
dress at the Institution of Elec- 
trical Engineers, 658, 689 

" H. M. S.," on An Australian 
power scheme, 269 

Hodgson. E. S., on More propaganda 
wanted, 737 

Holford, G. W.. Presidential ad- 
tlress at the Annual Conference 
of Ihe Municipal Tramways .As- 
sociation, Inc., 482 

Holt, R. B., on Tramway track 
maintenance, 131 

Houghton, T. E., on The allocation 
of boiler-house working costs in 
reducing steam-engine plants, 304 

Howell, M. Gwynne, on The electric 
washing machine ; from the 
housewife's point of view, 108: 
on Household m.achincrv and the 
housewife. 270; on The ideal 
electric kitchen, 4(!2; on Ser- 
vants and household machinery, 
632 

Impey, F. L., on The third factor in 
production, 243 

" Interested," on Ir 



froii 



496 



Jebb, Miss G., on Cost-of-living 
sliding scales, 357 

Jones, VV. J., on Ship lighting, 8li5 

Kapp. R. O., on Low power factor, 
43 

Kemp, F. French, on Carpets and 
the electric suction cleaner, 258 

Lapworth, H., on The relation of 
run-oB to rainfall. 259 

Lea, Prof. F. C, on The utilisation 
of tidal power, with special re- 
ference to the Severn Estuary, 
418 

" Legal Contributor," on Restrictive 
covenants. 179; on The duty of 
those who supply electrical fit- 
tings, '206; on the right to use 
water for condensing, 257; on 
Statutory companies and the law 
of nuisance. '2(7; on The rating 
of machinery. 617; on ExpiTl 
evidence, 759 

I.inlcv. O.. Nol<'S on the grinding 
of commutators, 302 

McElroy, J. M., on Some phases of 
tramway developments in the 
past, and the outlook, 613 



s — continued. 

McWhirter, A. C, Inaugural ad- 
dress to the Western Centre. 797 

Martin, P. F.,.on Electrical enter- 
prise in Spain, 579; on The 
electrical markets of South 
Africa, 631 

Matthews, R. B., on The Extra-high- 
pressure Transmission Lines Con- 
ference, 739; on An electrical 
review of e.-h.-p. transmission, 
796, 814 

Miles, W. M., on Boiler-house prac- 
tice, 197 

Mitchell, A. .A., on The breakdown 
of the minimum wage, 357 

Moberlcy. R. M., on The testing o( 
electricity meters, 331 

Mountain, W. C, on Steam v. elec- 
tric winding, 228 

Musker, A., on Mechanical appliances 
and labiour in loading and un- 
loading ships' cargoes, 259 

Nisbett, G. H., Inaugural address to 
Liverpool Sub-Centre I.E.E., 690 

Parker-Smith. S.. on Large electric 
units, 450 

Phillpot, \V., on Whv thcv fight, 
702; on We see them all, 846 

Porter, G., on Oil engines and elec- 
tricity supply, 798 

Rankin, Dr. Mary T.. on The ele- 
ment of compulsory arbitration 
in recent industrial legislation. 
419 

Raven, Sir V. L. R., on Mechanical 
advantages of electric locomotives 
compared with steam engines. 
194; on Railway elcctrificalion. 
906 

Richardson, H., Presidentiol address 
at the annual meeting of the 
I.M.E.A., 109 

Richardson. Prof. O. W., on Prob- 
lems of physics. 354 

" R. M. M..'' on An aid to meter 
testing, 879 

Rymer-Jones, J., on Submarine cable 
tests, 172; on .A high-resistance 
break test of submarine cable, 276 

Sampson, Prof. R. .A., on The micro- 
chronograph, ^2 

Sandbcrg, C. P., on Damage to 
tires and rails caused by brakes 
or slipping wheels, 229 

Sayirs. H. M., on Electric arc weld- 
ing, 164 

SchofK-ld. F. H.. & Dr. E. Griffiths, 
on Thermal characteristics of 
electric ovens and hot plates, 30 

Scott, E. Kilburn, on The co-opera- 
tive system of engineering educa- 
tion, 107 : on Electric trucks in 
New York City, 667; on Elec- 
tricallv-drivcn ' fire-fighting ap- 
parattis. 849 

Scott. Rivett E., on Water-power 
troubles. 877 

Scotl-Taggarl, J., on TIk Negatron : 
a new negative resistance device 
for use in wireless telegraphy. 
449; on The Biotron : a new 
device having negative-resistance 
characteristics, 450 

Stansfield, J. J. H., on Unemploy- 
ment insurance. 5. 56: on Un- 
employment insurance and elec- 
trical' engineers. S38 

Ste.-lc, L. J.. S: Martin, H., on " Cyc- 
are " automatic electric weld- 
ing, 800 

Stigant. S. .Austin. A note on the 
intcv'connectcd-star method of 
connecting three-phase trans- 
former windings, 268. 321 

Stubbings. G. W.. on Three-phase 
supply to Scott-connected trans- 
former banks under various con- 
ditions of two-phase loading. 76 

Sutton, C. on One solution of the 
frequency problem, 700 

Swinton. .A. .A. Campbell, on The re- 
eption of wirele 



shiclded-fran 



al, 35« 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[.Iantakv t;. 1!>-J 



AlTHOHS CPMilHHrJ. 

SyK-csl**, C. on Annnlurv windinj; 
anU induvMion nHilur di4grain>, 

aes 

T^unlofl, H. K,. oil AuUtnidttc lijihl- 
ing !»i>. ao*; on The :«l ul 
salo>ni.inship, 397 

Thom-i^. J W., on Thv spirit ol 
Ijo^iiiuill in rivrlricitv vupptv. XU 

Thornlon, IVol. W . M.. InauRural 
.i^Wn->s. rk^'tri%-itt in gjises. to 
Ihr N.E. Crnttv of the I.E.E.. 

Thorrowfiood. W. J., on M.icn*'tic 
(forms : Ihrir e!!tx-ls upon rail- 
wav fti^nal and teU-^ntph app;ira> 
tus, 2t») 

TowUion. J. T.. on "Turning" r. 
*' ilrinvlinj; " o( commutators, 461 

" Voltnt.in " on Some electrical sluntii 
on a Ford car, 41 : on High-fre- 
quency stray sparks on motor- 



878 



Walker. J.. 



M> 



Engir 



and the 



Mfd 



Walker. Aid. W.. InaUfHiral address 
to the North-Western Centre 

I.E.E.. rta 

Wall. T. K.. on Long-*Iistance trans- 
mission oi ekctriral enerfij. with 
special reference to tidal power, 
»7. 418 

Watson. E. ,\., on Magnetos for 
intemal-^ximbustion engines. 28 

Watson. S. J., on The application of 
clectricitt "Supply to munieip;il 

Welbuurn. B.. on Low-\'ollage over- 
head distribution. 97 

Williams-Ellis. M. I., on Electricity 
in Mines. 394. 4£8 

Wilson. D.. on Steam raising, 195 

Wilson, W.. on The design of liquid 
rheostats. 833 

Woodhouse. W. B., on The economic 
limits of distribution from coal- 
liretl stations. 97 

Woods. A. R. T.. on Ship and h.ir. 
bour design and equipment as 
affecting th<' r.ipid io;iding and 
discharging of cargo wssels. 44 

Wootton. Mrs. B.. on Self-supporting 
Industries : .\n inquiry into thi* 
principle of regulating wage^ 
and provision against unemploy- 
ment In accurOaiKC with indus- 
trial capacity. 451 

Automatic electric buoy lamp. Dvke's. 

57 
Automatic lighting sets, by H. R. 

Taunton. 304 
Auluinatic operation of sub-st.ition. 123 
.\ulumatic train control. 496 



BADEN, Hvdro-electric development 
in. 681 
Baker.' Exhibition. The. 382 
Ball lighting in l.«ndon. 189 
Ballot in trade disputes. The secrecy 

of th.-, 873 
Band<, Armature, bv 1.. Burstow, 774 
Bandy motor, The, by " Anode," liCili 



182 
B.irnetl, B., 886 
Barrarlough, V . 343. 374 
Bell, J. v., 467, SOU 
Bennitt, W.. 710. 747. Sl!>. NWi 
Blower. A. v.. .132. 567 
Bradburv. J. C. A.. eT.l 
Carpenter. C. A . 49. 8.-|. 110. 406 
Carr. H. E.. 467. 819 
Oonev. E.. 4.'>. MM 
DaU-.' B. T.. 11. 83. ll."! 
I»avi.. W. A.. 11 
Oickinson. A. E.. 278. 532 
IJolbv. G.. 710 

Dougherlv. S. M.. 34:1. 747. KTd 
nownie. »• P. M.. 374. 3«7. 710. 747 
Urrmlale. W.. 467. .'i<i7 
Elam. r. S.. an.1 J Walton. IWI 
Endall. )'• \\.. «I7. ,100. IM), 673, 886 
Kowlei. A \ H19, R-i2 
I.... 1. II . *■>. MS, .VC, 747 
1.1 . I W . 244. -Mt 

H .... ... I U*. 467. 747 

II. .It W . 40. 27N 

lUpL.t. J . ".•.. n.'i 

Hill. W . "in. Bwi 

ll..l<..n. 1 J . .in.1 II II. N.'onian, 

Hopkins. J II.. KU 

Hide. T . 278. Vm. TNl 

Janis. W. K !■ , «3!1. 7111 

Jone«, J . nn.1 ). R. Jun.s. 4UI.. IIMI 

Jnne«. R ('.. 49. lit!. 213 

Kerlool. E.. 467. .Vn 

Kerr (K. H.> K Cu . 4^. 83 

Kershaw. A., and t . II, W...I. II. 

278 
Kiven.n, r, l- , .VW 
Uivlon. J \V . 49. 710 
lawd. A . 278. .VtJ 
lion.. J. K . 1K2 
Martland. I-'. J.. BW 
Maskill. A.. 4fiT 

M.ilher.. E K . 4:17. .'i<«>. XK. .V.7 
Mrctrtt. A. R . 308 
Millcox. A. J.. 886 
Newman. B. H.. and I. J. Holson. 

IfQ 
Nichols. F. C. 467. .132. 800. 639 
NichoU. I. J.. 437 
Owen, J , 673, 710 
Pease. W, H.. 115 
R,iw»thorne, T . 747, 832 



lANKRirn-V PttOCttSDINOS 

K.iihwell, 11.. S. J. Watson, K. l'. 

Jinks. U 
Kowl.imls. A.. 49 
Skinner. J.. 467 
Smith. J. J.. 747. 819 
Stanton, t". T.. 244 
Si.v,l. 1-. H., 244. 538 
Stubhs, K. C. and K. P. U.iker, 113, 

1(S 
Sulclifle, G.. 85 
Tavlor, E. S., 213 
lailor, J. H.. 113. 148. 437 
1'homas. B. E., 115, 374 
Toms. J. H., 49. 85. 11.'.. 8.12 
'l"homson. J. C. 4tt7 
Wampach. ,\. I". A.. 308. 437 
W,TCd, W. H. S., 14*, 437 
Waring, T. 1),, 710, 781, 8}i6 
Watkinson, M., H. Walkinson, and 

A. Watkinson, 374, 40fi, 467, 567. 

710 
Wheatcroft. W.. 49 
Williams. J. C... 781. 819. 886 
Wollman. H. M.. 85. 213 
Wood. r. H., and A. Kershaw. 11 
Wornnill. F. A. S.. 600. ti73, 710, 886 
Worthington, \'. B., SCO, 538 
Wvnw. G. E. L., 115 



liri.ish l-ilaiui.il H'O. -■•• . , 

British firms in the Canadian eleilrual 

iii.irk.-t, Ihe new opporluimy lor, 

63 
British g.H«ls in Itali, 86 
British Induslrks Fair (19221, 130. 21a, 

782, !>07 
•• British Industry," The Iridc ship. 

711. SJ7 
British manufacturers and New /.ca- 

l.mJ. 87 
British parsimony : .\nierican expan- 
sion. 489. .135' 
British pro|>erlics in Germnny, 344 
British Samples. Ltd., 641 
British syndicate to lake over Nor- 

M.gia'n works. 46!< 
liiilish tt.chrical colleges. Training 

IKuninion students in. 19 
British Thomson-Houston electric 

shunting locomotives, 27 
Broken Hill plant extensions, 12 

1, 1 .- i-|..u-tp!.-iti. Worlds. Tl 



, A 



Barge ptxipulsior 
llarabffi. The «. 
Battery contract; 
" lottery lAXXimot 



647 

309 



method of, 219 



Battery locomotives on 

Batti-Wallahs' Society 

861 
BatlK-ship, 



229 



by J. Daliiel, 
le Isle of Man, 
The, 290, U75. 

.■\n electrically-propelletl. 

inlroUcd by wiirless, 160 



Battkships c 
Bauxite, Freni-n, wa 
Bciring material. New, 315 
Belfast. Elevlric furnaces in. 818 
Belfast imbroglio. The. 4!>1 
Belgian commrrvinl mission to Latin- 
America. 117 
Belgian companies. New. (i03. 642. 741> 
Belgian Congo. Radium in. 284 
lilgian Eltvtrical Construction lo.. 247 
Belgian electrical industry. The. ti41 
B..lgian electrical markei. The. 8.14 
Belgian Government contracts, Irregu- 

lariliK in tenders for. 34« 
Belgian interests in Russia. 503 
Belgian rail ointract. ,11 
Belgian trade conditions. 471 
Belgii 



620 



n. S47 



:«I3 



British As, 



.Vvres Electricity Works 



llelgium. Electric furnaces 
Bennis contracts, 821 
Bill, The Export Trade Facilities, 569 
Biotron : A new device having ncga- 
liw-resistance characteristics. The, 
bv J. Scott-Taggart. 450 
Birmingham and district. The supply 
of electrical energy in, bv F, For- 
rest. 291 
Birmingham trade, 281, 640 
Blackburn (East) Electricity Works, 

The, 523 
Blackpool, Electric vehicles at, 743 
Botird of Trade and industries, South 

African. 118 
Board of Trade Committers, 002 
Boiler house control, 266 
Boiler-house plant at Wimbledon Elec- 
tricity Works, New, 485 
Boiler house practice, bi W, M. .Miles, 

197 
Boiler house technique, ,127 
l*oiler-hoiise working costs in reilueing 
steam-engine plants. The allocation 
of. bv 1. E. Houghton. 304, 
Bailers, Eleitrir are welding in Ihe 

manufacture ol new, 208 
Boikxs. Elntriral. ,173 
IVjIshrvist dre.ims, 316 
Bombay Engineering Congress, 476 
IVwh operations in Ihe C.S.A,. 535 
lioston watir supply. Power from. 540 
Bournen outh. .■^" electrical demonstra- 
tion at. 280. 310 
lltal.i's exlensions, 407 
Br.i.lioid Health and Home Exhibition. 

n4l 
Bi.idforil housing sell. me. The. .136 
Brazil. I>uli-lree im|n«ts in, .168 
Brazil, Elei'tric iron ami steel luina.vs 

in, 88 
liraril. The import llaile ol, 399 
Bread kiking hi eheliiiitv. 383 
llre.^kdown ol the minimum wage, by 

A. A Mitchell, ;157 
Breakdown l..-.ts on Insulating ma- 
terials. I„ N A. Allen, 876 
Brewers' Exhibillon, The, 654 
Britain's gi.al.sl market, 806 

{, Congcs- 



106 

Building work. Contractors and, 534 
Bulgarian Economic Commission, 407 
Buoy lamp, Dyke's automatic cU'Ctric, 

Burglar and fire alarm. The Stephan. 

iMiO 
Burnk-v. Local electrical exhibition at. 

W^ . ,s- 

'Buses for London, Petrol-electric, 2(k> 

Business nspe»-ts of electricity supply. 

The, .140 .... 

Bu\iiig-in .\ssiKiation. .-V Norwegian. 14 



/~»ABLE, A 3S,000-voH, 18;l 

Cable armouring. New. 724 

Cable factory .-X new Hungarian. 888 

I'.ible guide "award, ,140 

C.ible M.>kers' Association. 215 

Cable riHiuirementi and unemployment. 

568 
Cable tests. Submarine, by J. Rymer- 

Jones. 172 
Cabk-s. P.icilie. 859 

Cakutia. Cci siTvancy vehicles lor, 501 
Calcutt.i distribution pillars, 246 
Cakulla Motor Show, 281 
California, Interlinking in, 22(1 
Culuimt power station of the Common- 
wealth Edison Co., 84 
Camera, Engineers ami Ihe, by J. 

Walker, itiO 
Canada ami overseas trade, 116 
Canada, Electrical applianivs in, 641 
Canada, Mining plant for, 116 
Canada, IVwer factor and charges lor 

electricity in, 826 
Canada, Trade with, 491, 602 
Canadian electrical market. The new- 
opportunity for British firms in the, 

('an.ulian pieferential tariff for West 

Indies. 311 
Canals and waterways. 123 
Canals. Ekvtric haulage on. 123 
Cancer hivspital's new X-rav plant, 718 
Cancer, X-ray treatment ol. 285 
Capital expansion in Germany, 363 
Capital inorcoses in Germany, Cause 

of. 783 
Car tor factories, .An electric, 575 
Carbtm munuxidi* in gas, 316 
CarlHinisalion of coal, The, low Icni- 



The, 298, 3.13, 385, 



Electrical ft Allieil Munular- 
rs' Aanrlatlon M'hoUrships, 



npire Exhibition, The, 118, 



Brill.h Fmpir 
British Kmpi 



rubber, S69 
', Water power 



lin 



664 



Cirgo 



ufaci 



407 



is,...|. An clivtricallyHlriven, 



Carpets and the electric suction cleaner, 

by F, French Kemp, 258 
Cast-iron Research .AssiH-iatlon, 14 
Celluloid in factories, 408 
Celluloid regulations, 344 
Central America, U.S. and trade with, 

888 
Centrifugal putiricalion of oil. The. 388 
Chnrgi-s for eleclricilv in Canada. 

I\)w.» factor ami, 820 
Charges for supply anil Industrial 

(\mncils, ,'k14 
Charler.-.l el.xlri.al engineeis, 267 
Cheap siiiiplv and good lighting, 716 
Chenii..il Industry wages, 310 
Cheniins de ler du Midi, Rectifiers lor 

Ihe, 281 
Cluster, Electricity supply at, 843 
Chickens eketrieallv. Rearing, 3l(i, 376, 

480 
Chile, The situation in, 713 
Chilean eintric railway contract, 502, 



Chiknii trade, 1'he imsition of, I.K) 
China, Demand for electrical pl.int i 

212 
China, Kl..etrieal granls In. lUi. 247 
I'liina. Engim-ering in. 281 
China. Engine-ring training in, 284 
China, Foreign firms in, 51 



Chii 



,Ahwdeen Suburban Tramw.iys t . 

387 
A.E.G., The, 721, 792 
Alldavs & . Onions, 897 
Allen' (E.) ,^ Co., 25 
Altrinchani EUvlric Supply Co.. 23 
Aluminium Corporation, 479. 793 
Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia), 

Amaion Telegraph Co., 649 
American Telephone & Telegraph 

Co.. 3.11. 577. «8S 
.•\nglo-..\merican Telegraph Co., 61, 

543 
.•\nglo-Porluguese Telephone Co., 127, 

157, 190 
,.\rgentinc Tramways & Power Co., 

35 
Armstrong (Sir W. G.). Whltworth 

& Co.. 383 
Assoeint«l Fire Alarms. 643 
Auckland Electric Tramway* Co., 

542. 615 
Australian English Electric Co., 33 
Austrian companies, 23, 383 
.'Vutoniatic Telephone Manufacturing 



ring induitrv. The pre- 
lent neMis of the. sea ' 
sh Enginrrring Sl.indards Associa- 
lion, 189. 241 



China, lm|Hirl trade ol. 463 

China, Suction gas plant liM, 12 

China. The cost of living in. 584 

China. Ihe lulure of. 699 

China, nw niaihiiierv |Hu.itiiin in, 439 

China's iiniK.rt lax. 7.4!t 

China's in.luslrial lulure. 7J5 

Chines., inquiry. A. .101 

Chinese market. Ihe, 265 

Chin.-se n..t..s. 4(BI, .KU. .170. 676. 712. 

7.UI. tea. 853 
Chinese students bv other countries. 

Training ol. 13 ' 
Chrlstiania Fair. .The. 117 
Church lighting. 18. 1.14 
Churrh telephones. 315 
Circuit breakers of large capafili, 517 



Automat 
.143 



Tekpho 



(Australasia), 



Babcoek it Wilcox, .177 

Barbados Electric Supply Corpora- 

lion, 897 
Barcelona Tcwtion, Light & Power 

Co., 23, 684. 756 
Barnslev and District Traction Co.. 

159' 
Belgian companies. 25, 223, 479, 542, 

577 
Birmingham District Power and 

Traction Co., 26 
Bolton (T.) & Sons, 159 
Bournemouth and l\)ole Electricity 

Supply Co., 128 
Brampton' Bros.. 577 
Braiilinn Traction, Light and Powri 

Co., 61, 1,18. 351. 793 
Brisbane Electric Tramways Invest- 
ment Co., 23 
Bristol Tramways & Carriage Co., 

159 



British Electric Tr.iction Co., 21. 721 
British Electric Transformer Manu- 
facturing Co., 287, 415 
British Insulated & Helsbv Cables, 

415 
British Mannesmnnn Tube Co., aiO 
British Thomson-Hoiiston Co., 685 
British Vacuum Cleaner Co.. 7.17 
Brompton and Kensington Electricity 

Supply Co., 256 
BrowTti, Lindlcv & Co.. 383 
Bruce Peebles & Co.. 447 
Biirmah Electric Tramways & Light. 

ing Co.. 864 
Calcutta Electric Supplv Corpor„'(on, 

577 
Calcutta Tramways Co., 61. 94. .177 
Callender's Cable & Construction 

Co.. 577 
Callender's Share & Investment 

Trust. 721 
Canadian General Electric Co., Ci, 

137, 3,11, 7.17 
Cape Asbestos Co., 06 
Cape Electric Tramways, 757, 863 
Cape Town Consolidatinl Tramways 

and Land Co., 127, 448 
Capital Increases in Germany, 615 
Cnstner-Kellner Alkali Co., 756 
Charing Cross, West End and City 

Electricity Supply Co.. 159 
Charlerol ' Electric Consjructlon 

Works. The. ,111 
Chatham and District Light Rail- 
way's Co., 223 
Chelsea Electricity Supply Co., 159 
Chemical and Metallurgical Cor|iora- 

Chili TeleTihone Co , 159, 191, 863 
Chilian |.;Wtriral Fusion, 793 
Chloride EliH'trical Storage Co., 683 
City ol Buenos Aires Tramways 

(I9(M), 1.19. 615 
City ol London Electric Lighting 

Co., 287 
Clarke, Chapman St Co., 388 
Clontarl & Hill of Howth Ifamroad 

Co.. 127 
Clyde \allrv Electrical Power Co., 

387, 447 
Comnanies striirk olT the Register, 

25, 62, 3.W. 685. 721 
Cordoba Light. Power & Traction 

Co.. RS8, B!K; 
County ol l.onikin Electric Supply 

Co.. 193 
Coventry Chain Co., 794 
Cnimplon ft Co.. 61, 12<i, 8!I7 
(*iiba Suhmarinr Telegraph Co., 479 
Davis & Tlmmins. .351 
Dirivt Snanish I'llegranh Co., 351 
Dir«t I'nited St ties Cable Co., 511 
Dir.rt West' India Cable Co., 415, 

447 
Drake * Gorham, 543, 614 
Dublin I'nited Tramways Co., !Hi 
Dumbarton Bureh >V County Irani- 
ways Co., 415 
Dundis-, Btoughlv Ferry and Dis- 
trict Tramwav Co., 383 
Dutch Heemaf, 2S5 
Eastern Extension, .Australasio and 
China Telegraph Co., 35, 383, 
7.17, 792, SS8 
Eastern Telegraph Co., 383, 7S0, 755, 
863 



Janiaky •;, 192?.. 



THE ELECTRICAL KEVIEW-INLEX. 



,..'. S-etV'—conll'iucd 
fc<iinuml»on'» Hia.uu.li) i.'Kft"' ' 

EIrclric Conilruclion Cm., tH-'i 
El««rk SuM-ly Co., ol Victoria, iw. 

El^lric Supply C*rpw3ilon. M, lai 
Etr^.ric W.W.ng <:o.. OU 
n.-.rical Uinribulion Co., ol ^ork- 
.hir"!, ISe ,' , ,_,, 

.rr,-BI«<:h aiKl By-I'wlut'*. «» 
. „h fckclric Co., ol Au.lralu, 
123, 61a 

^vTvliJ?, Co. .Gr^t BriUinW21 
Fairfcairn-Lawion Combe Barbour, 

•,»•» Magivito Co., 157. a-** 
--anti, tfiti 
.^:r & Chalmert, *»1 ._ __ 
4, compani«, 44. «>. >». ?^- 
m Ml" 3W. «7. 512. B"^- «•• 

!?'j f^i.«l Electric Work., 191, 
is, W? . ^ .., 

v)y Btrli .Maoul»<;turmi{_ Co., t*i 
.^ral Electric Co.. <il. "J. 1-^' 
•.ral E!«tric_Co. (L.S.^X.;. 41-' 

;.; »»-, ill, 577, 7a, 7*2, (163. 

o i. -graph and TruM Co., 22, 

(jreat .Sorlhwn TekKraph Co.. of 
Denmark. Sft t ~ 

O.eenock and Port Glaigow Tram- 
wan Co., 757 
,:.«n«ood fc Batley, 128 . 
.janaiualo Fower and Electric Co.. 

0»vnne» Engitveering Co., 61S 

Halilai and Bermudas Cable Co., 

H,n?ilLi%laud. -93, m 
Hart ,\tcumulator Co., 1« 
lunW^ (W.T.J Telegraph Work. 

Iloni'-iCcing Tramway Co.. IS3 
ii°r^l« Bridge and Engm«rr.ng 

Imperial Tramwayi Co.. ,B 
Iniia-Rubber. „9"i'^-^"*"Ju ?|f 
Telegraph Work» Co., «>, 7.J1, 

Indian Electric Supply and Traction 

Co., «85 
In.lo-Europ«.n Telegraph Co., ;>« 
Italian companie*, Z*, 'fei 
Kalgrxrrlie Electric Tramwayi Co., 

159, 191 ., c, 

Ivewington and KnighljbrKlge Elec- 

trie Lighting Co., Li9. 
Lanarkriiire Tramway. Co., >» 
Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Co., 

Lima Light, Power and Tramway* 

LiAon El«tric Trarnway., 22; 59 
Liveriwol Ov«h.;ad Railway Co., »l 
l:<^j,Tundergroun.l Railway., U.7, 

Mackay Company, :«« 

Madra. Electric Tramway. (1*«) 

C"- ♦♦7 „. 

Major fc Co., 25, 96 
Manao. Tramway, and Light t-o., 

25, 685 ., (^_ 

Manila EW <ric C«^poral«n, 4U, ^ 
Man. Electric Railway C^- , 7»*. 8W 
Marconi Internationa »la^e ^- 

municatir^ to,. U'. ^2. <!« 
Marconi-. Wirelw Telegraph Co.. 

255. 3W.De3 
Marshall, Son. & Co., fS, o77 
Mather Ik Ilatt, 139 
Melbuurne Electro .Supply Co., M 
Metropolitan Electric Supply Co., 

Uelropolilan Railway Co.. 192 
M>!»ican Light & Power Co.. a9 
M'KJIand Ei'^trK: (.flrporalion lor 

Power Distribution, lla 
Monterey Railway. Light & I owei 

Co.. 127. 479 
Monte Video Telephone Co., 577. OM. 

Montreal Power (Mt.Ja.Sn 
Montreal Tramway. Co.. 2*6 _ 
M/.nIreal Water * P*"'" Co ■ '"^ 
Morri.. H'-rberl. 192. 577 
Nairobi Eloc.ric Pwer k Lighting 

Co.. 61. 73« 

N.,i./nal Boiler * General Iniurance 

f" • 1'2 ^ «, 

,.i.,t.;,l Kleciric SuppW Co.. « 

Naiion.i' l.a. Engine Co., 139 

\e,ra»lle-upon-Tyne Electric Supply 

Co.. ilfr. 793, 829 
Sew General Traction Co^. 22 
New Vork Ediwn Co.. 793 
Wibamptnn Electric Light & Power 
<o. 223 .r .. 

Norih M'ltA'urne Electric Tramways 

and Lighting Co., «8S 
Norwegian companies, (89 
Norwich Electric Tramway. Co.. 5«2 
Orvnial Telephone * Electric Co., 

OnCord Electric Co., 2»7 .„.,.„ 

Para Electric Railway. * Lighting 

Co. 127 „ ^ 

Para Telephone Co.. KB 
Pari, wpply companie.. 158 
Parw>n» Marine Steam Turbine Co.. 

479 . „ f 

Pernamboeo Tramwa). & Power Co.. 

127, 157 
Plnchin John»n * Co . ^ ^ 

Power Ga. Corporation, 721, <93, 663 



•|Tr \inf.*t~tonlinurd . 

73i; 7.W, 793, H29 

lal Cinematograph iri<;aires. 



W7 ^. ,,, 

Proiincial Tramway. Oj., lit 
RanU'x.n Electric Tramway & Supply 

To,, 96, 256. «7. 511 
Ree. Roiurbo ManuUcluring Co., 

St U^e. * Pall Mall Electric Light 

' Co.. 95 
Shanghai Electric Comtruction Co.. 

Shanghai Mutual Telmhone Co.. .j77 
Shawlnigan Water & Power Co., «.., 

Shrop^ire, Worccterrfiire 4 Sta^rd- 

,hire Electric Power Co.. 22:J 
Siemens Bro... 6W 
Simms Motor Lniu, 128 
Soti<-t< Induitrielle de. TC-ltphun'.., 

Souih_ American Light & Power Co., 

South London Electric Supply Cor- 

poratton. 4L5 

South Metropolitan Electric Light 

and Power Co., E6 
S.«jthern Brazil Elwiric Co.. iU 
Spanish companies, .nj,**i. ou 
Stanton Ironworks Co^, 61j 
Stewart & Lloyds. »B 
Still Engine Co.. 3W 
(ftnrif Fichanfie iwlices, 2,i. tjl. J-'. 

m 159 l!fi. 22». 319. 351. 383. 

JS' 447 479 511. 5^. 577. 615. 

S^- S. 757; 793. 829, 863. SOT 
Stone (J) 4 Co., ♦« 
Stolhert * Pitt. 543 
Submersible Motors. 158 
Swedish EricsKKi Telephone <>.. 34 
Swedish telephone undertakings 

, t <M 



Commerct;>l travellers and the week- 
end ticket, 184 , ,, 

Commutaior., Note, on the grinding 
o(. b-. O. Linley. SIB 

Commuial'^i.. "Turning" «""' 
•• Grin-iing •• ol, by J. T. Towl- 
son, 461 ^ ,. „ 

Company registration, lor the hall- 



Swi« «m>^«, 159, 287, 543, 721, 

757. m .^ oM 

Tau companies. The, mi 
Taunton Electric Traction Co.. 62 
Te»-s Power Sution Co.. 829 
Telegraph Construction Jt Mainten- 
ance Co.. 95 rirww.i 
Telephone .Manulactunng Co. (UaO). 
'56. 792 . . ,- AA7 
Traction i Power Securitic. Co.. 447 
Tramway. 4 Light Railway Estate.. 

Tramwavs. Light .t- /<"'," ^-J''^ 
Trowbridge ElecirK: Supp^Co.. 9a 
Tube Investments. 7.j7, is» 
Tyneside Tramways & Tramroads 

Co., 287, 319 
Cnited Electric Tramway. Co. ol 
Caraca.. 685 , w ... 

United Electric Tramway, ol Monte- 
video, 2.1 , , ,. r-„ 
United River Plate Telephone Co., 

Uni^ Wire Work.. ??* 
Vandervell (C. A.) 4 Co , 828. 863. 



year. <» 
Compelilion in the Soulh Americai 

market. .38 ^_ 

Concession, lor electrical displays. ¥» 
CowlenKri. Cleaning. 212 
Conductivity ol gla». The. 123 
Conduit-return lighting system. Under- 
ground. 284 
Congo. l>.-velopmenl. on th/r. Jl** 
(x>ngr«.. Bombay engineering. 4,6 
O^ngress. Public works. &c., 641 
Conn.;ctions and diagram, ol Ihree- 

phaK motors, 254 
Coniervancy vehicle, lor CaWutta, M 
Consolidation ol interert. m SaKrfiy, 

Constantinople, Agency arrangements 

in, 280 , - I 

Consumers and local authority under- 
taker.. Large. 233 . 
Contact pvromet.r.. Note, concerning. 

by •' electrode." 526 
Continental glow lamp "ntere.U. 782 ^ 
Continental lamp trade, fhe. » 
Contract lorms, StandardiMiion ol. lU 
Contracting indu.try. The electrical. 
U7 „, ... 

Contracting industry. Wage, in the. 

2*>' *'* .... I, c-ia 

Contractors and building work, ».M 

Contractor's luture. The, by E P. 
B-:nnctt, 431; by L. G. Hawkin,, 

Contractor.* protest, Wolverhampton, 
Contractors' regiitration in Australia, 
246 



C'WTKVn. Cl»Ml>— CO"""'""'- 

Whit^naven, 858 
Wolverhampton, 219 
Worcester. SW 

Contract, lor the Nelberlands East 
dies, Public. 778 

ConTBJUrrs Om— 

Adelaide, 348, 381, 411. 64* 
Aldersh/.t, 17 

Jr^ennnt-^St' 3*.. 411. 443. 474. 
506. riMt. 010. 61.-.. 679 

^""itt-rr":^: 3U. 348. :«i 4n. 

443 474. .W. 53!(, .•;72. 61<J. b4*. 

m. 71.'. 752. 787. Ifi4. 857. Kti 
Aylabury. 121. 539. 572. «1« 
Barking. 187 

752; «S7 

Bentky-wilh-Arksey. «4a 
Bernv;ndMy. 314. 348 
Blackpool. 787, MM 

0-1. -._ T«7 



Vera Cruz EWtric LiRhl^ower and 

Traction O... 223. 287 
\-Kk<-r., Ltd.. lie. 8«a. 896 
Vicu,ria Fall, ', Transvaal P^er 

Co.. 25. 319. 447. 511, 7S6, 863 
Vukanite, Ltd.. 897 
Ward 4 Goldstone. lag . . _ 
W«« Heat 4 Ga. F>ctrical Gene- 

rating Station.. 2.>6 
Wavgw^d-Otis. 25. 794 
Weit Alrican Telegraph Co^j77 
We.tern Telegraph Co,. 383, 7.,7. 

792, 793 . _ 

Wert India 4 Panama Telegraph Co., 

21. 60 , , r- 

We.tmin.ler Electrk Supply Cor- 

poration, 159 
White (J. G.) 4 Co^. 59 
Yates 4 Thorn. 6I.1 
Vwkshire Elertric Power Co.. 191 , 
Y^kshire (West Riding) Electric 

Yorkii'i^"^ Woollen W«"'") Elec- 
tric Tramways. 127 
Zurich Bank lor Ekctrical Under- 
takings. 447, 684 
Claim against the S.dnev City Council. 

The £«0.(JOO. 602. 675 
Claim lor Siemens German shares. 64, 
ClaMic. and bu.ines.. OT 
(Vjache.. Diesel-electric. 4.« „,„,,„. 
Coal and iron in Ir''""-*- '^f'""' 

find of copper. 407 
Coal clauw! in """^^ J'''h/ 177 
charge.. The operation of th.^. 4w 
Coalcutter ,y,nnr. ti.,n.. I'^' ' ■ 
Coal mine.. I 'f 53 

C<»al minir,: ^j 2,-,2 

Coa'- 5r*"' .- ol. 717 

CmI. The ' ■ ,.,honi.a- 

Coal. The l'.» i'mp.r;,f,f carboni.a 

tion of. 684 
Cent V. oil. 245 , ., 

C"„age, ^opo»l. lorjin^mprged. ,1 

Coke-r/ven ga.. The u^ ,'fZi,. ;„ 
Coking «.nm. L-se ol electrkity 

.Scottish. 123. 314 
f^u-.mri^ Flectricitv lor. WJ4 
clmb": ^Kgineering development. 

in. 471 
Colonial research. 316 ,-,:__,iiirt 

a/mmercial education. Lniversitie. 

and. 235 . , , g, 

Commercial monopolie. rj,-!!i' The 
Commercial Motor E.hibltion. The, 

Com*,Il:;ci^t.rr,bIem. 1" 'l""-"" ""- 

dIv by E CroM. a» _, 

Commercia'l research lellowships. 67(1 



Coktiim:t» Closiid— 
Aldershot, 25l_ 
Argentina, 645 
A<hf:ird (Kent). (S5 
Australia. .55. 92. LW. 3«. 474. ..39. 

610. 679. 715. 752. 82o 
Aylesbury. 412 
Bangor. 252 
Barking, 381 

Battle. 282 , „. ^,, „, 

Belgium, -M, 15:*, 188. 349, 412. o,2. 

732, 787, 825, 8,58 
Birkenhead. 92 
Birmingham. 715 
Blackpool, 283 
Bolton. 858 

Bradford. 92. 381. i.72, «&. 
Bury. 188. Sll 
Canada. 787 
Cannock. 679 
Chester. 474 
CTiesterfield. 153 
Crewe. 381 
Crook (Durham). 219 
Darwen. 381 „„ 

Doncaster. 92. 412. 506. 679 
Dumfries, fC25 
Dundalk, 17 

Edinburgh, 92, 121. I-.). j08 
Erith. 412 
Franoe. 55 

Fulham. 858 ^^ 

Glasgow. 17. 188. 252. 381. 444. a06. 

572. 732 
Goi'-rnment contracts, 17, 188, a», 

474, 572, 715, 892 
G.P.O., 611 
Great Yarmouth, 121 
Grimsby, 188 

Hackney. 92. 925 ,^_ 

Han.iII^Wmith. 18, 121, 573. 893 
Hastings. 219 
Ha». 413 

&n*l8 55. 92. 121. 153. 188. 

4W' 444. ^6. 5:». 573. 6fc. 679. 

716. 752. »!5. 858. 893 
Macclesfield. 412 
.Maid.tone. 413 

Manche.ler. 92. 219. 4.... 573 
Melbourne. 55. 610. 679, 71 J, ,a 
Meter contracts, 153 
«-:»'.■.■■ 'is''. 55. 645 



r.il 



Bra'dl'-^d,"797, 884. 857 _ 
Brandon and Byshottl/:s, a* 

^r!fl^n"'lT.55, 645.679. 715 

E;;:!^! -92 1-^: i53'. m. ^. 314. 

Bulg^a^?7. 92. 314. 381. 411. 64-., 

679, 715, 857, 892 
CardiB, 55 „. „_, 

Chile, 121, 153. 857, 882 
Chorley. 679, 715 
Churchstoke (Mon,), M» 
Colne. 443, 474 

Cr,ventry, 153, 188, 219 

Crom (Mon). 539 

Distington, >^ 3^ 

Dorchester. 283. 314. «» 

Dublin. 610. 645. 715. 7a2. 787 

Durban, 892 _ _, 

SLStb'.urne. 314. 348. 381 

306. 539. 787, Se4 
Egypt. 645. 679. 71.., <j2. <«7 
Evlhonia, 645 
Farnworth, 715, 7a2 
Fife. 443 

P%'„J".«"'i2ri53. 283= 348, 506. 
645. 715. 752. 857 

Fulham 251. 314. 679. 715 

GUsp. 55: 92. 1.^. 188. 231. 381. 

Ss. 679. 715. 787 
Greery;, 506, 539. 645 
Halifax, 283. 314, 348. 64» 
Holmfirth. 55 

Holiworthr. 283 

Hor.ham. 219. 251. 283. 314 
I («d .55 261. 283. 314 _ .^ 

M\,: tJi. 251. 283. 474. 506. 539. 
572. 892 

Inlv 443. 715 

I oh'nn^lurg. 610, 858. 892 
ugo-Slavia. 17. 55. 645 
L.^^.. 474. 752. «2: 
l-'-d'oTu'w « •li^:'-219 «l. 283. 

-.39 372 CIO. 645. *.!». ,1a. 'a— 

787' 834. 8^>. 892 
Uondonderr, 153. 188 
LmighborouKh. 411. 441. 4,4 
Lourenco Marques. SO 
Madras. W2 .00, 

Maidens and Coombe, 892 

ji:!:^j^;t?-^..2...».2- 

314. 348. 645, 679, ,1a. '-a. ""7. 
sri^„*^17 55 152 1«7. 218. 2.5). 
'•"^4"'3i8!'b8f.-4^.tS'*»'«' 

572 610. 643. 679. ,15. 7S2, 787. 

837. 992 __ 

,)..•..,..■'.. 17. 53. 92 

■ 1 S3». S!Z. «1« 
i5. 92. 131 
r 92 121. ySi. 1B8. 
...l .... 1U.'34«: 3K1. 412. 443. 
17* »K1 rM. .572. 645. 679, 71... 
TV' 7«7 "34. «5I>. t02 
,, .. . ■ 1-1. 413. 443 
. a-.l. 645 

■:«. Ki" 
s \ I H93 



ft.moulh. 530 

,m|.,rd. 611 

,,h.rh;,m. .506 

js.ia. 787 

Annr*<m-Sea. 539 
Mar}leb..n'. 188. W3 

• |',„r, , l-,3. 539. 858 
■ ■ 149. 475 

.:. 679 



Sidnev. 610. 679 
Tasmania. 348 
Trindon .f.rhami. 121 
Turtoo (Co Durh.m,. 98 
Warrin^toi, S5 



'"4 
Ml. 283. 381. 539. '72. 



610 



Pretoria, 892 _ 

RawcliSe. near Goole. laJ. '» 

Rhyl. 17. 55 

St. Anne-onSea. 443. 4. S 

Sale. 1»<. 319. 2.51 

S.llofd. -3*0. 348 

S.,li.b<-.>. 474 

•ihrlTiMd. .572. 610. 64> 

Shiple. 715 ^ ^ 

^Z ' 131 !'-•«• 188. 

'~"'^ 14«' 3H1. 412. 

-,', .72. 610. TB7. 

"■-' -283 

Sou'- 

spai' • m 

StocV -„ 



Cibfi^riN*'*^- ^1 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[January c, 1922. 



\.ne2ucl.i. 533 

\'icloria. 17, 55, 645 

Warrington. lH. HI. 153. 3iS. 381. 

412. 539. .572. (ilO, 679, 715 
Wellinston (N.Z.), 17, 92, lil, 153, 

715, 752. 893 
West H.ini. 219. 351. SKi. 314 
Wcifcrrd. t>45. 679, 715 
Whiteh.nvcn. 610. 645. 679 
Worksop. 381, 412, 443 
York, 679 



Convenlion, A n.-ilion.il clectriciil. 106 

Convention, An Americin, 1 

Cooking at Glasgow. Ekctric, 674 

Cooking, New developments in elec- 
tric, 593 

Cooking tests. Electric, 56 

Ccwjperalivc s>-stcni oi engineering 
education. The, by E. Kilburn 
Scott, 107 

Copper, coal and iron in Ireland, Re- 
ported find of, 407 

Copper replacing aluminium in Ger- 
many, 171 

Copper tempering, 353 



Correspondence — 

Abnormal meter records, bv R. For- 
rest Preston, 33, 402:' by Fer- 
ranti, Ltd.. 82; by T. R. Kcr- 
nick, 167. 342; by T. Southgatc, 
178 
Accumulator froth, bv " Curious," 
274; bv A. E. Froit. 306: by W. 
Peto, 391; bv T. Hcskcth, 402, 
464; by J. Plummer. 437; by 
W. C. Coates, 437, 530; by D. 
S. Wilson, 437; by H. E. 
Clarke. 499; bv "J. H. H.." 
499: by R. E'. Beswick. 499; 
bv T. Stretton, 529; by B. Bar- 
ber. 530 
Armature core bands, by " .Arma- 
ture.*' 33: bv " Motor',** 47: by 
"G. E. W.,'** 82; bv "J. J. P. 
C..** 13S 
Battery carbons, bv S. Beeton. 567: 

by F. W. Challis. 598 
Batterv explosions, bv " Denzc,'* 178; 
bv F. J. Holmis, 212; by J. 
Thain, 212 
Books on lighting and heating, bv 

"Wireman.** 402 
Bradford housing schcmo. The, by 

" Pregress.'* 390 
Business methods, by Matt. Jennison, 

818 
CarmartheiT electricitv works. Fire 

at. by A. Preston. 850 
Carpets and the electric suction 
cleaner, bv G. M. Dates, 273; 
by Magic Appliances. Ltd., 273; 
by M. G. Howell, 306; by L. 
G. Hawkins, 342; bv C. B. 
Gates, 342; bv C. G. Nobbs, 
391; by A. Orr, 403 
Charges for ser\-ice mains, bv " Dis- 
gusted.'* 46; bv "J. A. G.,*' 
S3; bv F. .S. Paterson, 1.34; bv 
"Central Station Engineer.'* !(;7 
Cheapcr postage, bv H. Allcock. G71 
Cleaning enamelled slate, bv J. H. 
Robbords. 498: bv " H. C" 
■129: bv W. C. Fullor. .529; by 
" H. W.." 529; by R. C. Smith. 
565 
Coal shortage and oil fuel, by S. H. 
Fowles, 46; by "Junior Charge 
Engineer." 135 
Competition in the South .American 

market, by J. E. Stewart. 134 
Competitive trials of electrical ap- 
paratus, by A. J. Howard, .391 
Construction of rheostats, The, bv L. 

F. Fogarty. 709 
Contact arc splitter, by Whipp and 

Bourne. 40 
Contr.ictor's future. The, by " Brit- 
ain First." 436; bv H. Hodges. 
436; bv R. Durnford. 497; bv 
" Grimsbv." 498; by W. C. 
Je-iry, 498; b» C. N. Vernon. 
530; by A. G. Hudson, 565 
Conundrum, A, by Everett, Edg 

cumbe & Co., 404 
Converting 50-cyclc alternating to 
1 JOG V. direct current, by " K. 
W.." 34 
Correspondence ft the E.P.E.A.. by 
E. W. Dor.y, 46, by L. T. C. 
Ruuell. 135 
Cost of living in Spain, by E. Scotl- 

Rivett. 33 
Cost of living in West Africa, by R. 

N. Torpy, 402 
Country house lighting plant, by C. 
E. Atkinson. 342; by P, F. 
Roberts. 273; by M. Tate, 307 
Cos'entry Corporation and Iho 
E.P.E.A.. by "Fair Play," 499; 
by " One Interested." US!) 
Current limiting simplified, by A. 

Williams. 709 
Design of bakery machines. The, by 

W. Ellerd-Styles, 402. 444 
Design of switches, The, by 

" Seager," 671 
Dishonest employers, by " Justice," 

167 

Disputed meter re.iding, ;\, by 

" Perplexed," 780: bv " E. T. 

B.," 818; by " Stop Watch." 885 

Dover Corporation Electricitv Works 

. and its staff, by "P. W.,*' 32; 

by W. A. Jones, 46 



ORREsroNUKSCK — . t>H(inilCif . 
Durabililv of lead-covered wirii\t;. 
The.'bv •* W. T. J.,*' 497; bv O. 
Skidnioce, 5'29; by "Othello." 
,ili<>: bv A. K. Taylor, 566; by 
K. T.' Alldread, 566; bv G. 
White, 566; by "Contractor*! 



566; 



W. 



CoRRESPONDENCE^COritifltlcJ. 

M\slerious occurrence. A, bv "A. 
H.,** 82; bv A. Coates, 135 

Nation.il Electric Light Association 
o( .America : Chicago Conven- 
tion, bv J. W. Bcauchamp. 47 

Neon night lamps, by C. \V. Cook, 



Gothard, 597; by Tvler & Free- 
m.in, 597; by " M.'E. C. A..*' 
,W7: by A. J. Abraham, 597; bv 
W. H. F. Murdoch, 598: bv 
K. \. Andrew, 638; by " Con- 
tmctor,'* 672; by " Inspector," 
672; by W. A. Allwright, 672; 
bv \V. Lawrence, "45; by W. 
R. Clements, 745; bv R. A. 
Parsons. 745, 884; bv F. C. 
Raphael. 74.'i: 884: by H. T. 
Harrison, 780; bv R. Hanipson. 
872; bv P. T. 'Kimmins, 817; 
bv A. B. Randell, 8.50; by J. C. 
White, 884 
Dvnamo problem, A. by " Electron." 
671; by F. G. Johnson, 709; bv 
" Engineer,** 709; by R. W. 
Jones, 710; by G. W. L. Wol- 
land, 746 
Electric irons in Canada, by " Ex- 
port.*' 498 
Electric Lsmp Manufacturers' .Asso- 
ciation and retrospective lamp 
rebates, by " Paratus." 82 
Electric light wiring s\-stems. bv H. 
Verrall, 33; by J.' P. Gibb, 33; 
by J. H. Windibank. 47 
Electrical Trades Union and non-union 
labour. The, by " Draughtsman," 
242: bv "Fair Play," 242; bv 
" Non-Union," 275; by L. H. 
Edwards, 306 
Electricity for all, by F. M. West, 

390 
Electricity in isolated buildings, by 
R. F. Long, 038; bv F. Smith, 
671; by M. Tate. 747 
Enamel for mercurv meter discs, bv 
" F. B. S.,"'404; by R. M. 
Moberly, 404 
Engineering industry in Johannes- 
burg, bv B. San'kcv. 46 
E.P.E.A. and Dover. '&<:.. The. by 
"Wake Up," 167; by " Nothi- 
ninit," 179 
E.P.E.A. and the E.T.U.. bv W. J. 
Webb, 464. 671; bv W. A. Jones, 
497 
E.P.E..A. schedule and economy 
stunts. The, by W. A. Jones, 274; 
bv "Antl Bunkum,' 307; bv 
W. H. Simpson. 341: by 
" Borough Electrical Engineer," 
391 
E.T.U. and station engineers. The. 

by " Delta.*' .565 
Excessive heating of armature, by 

"A. R. M.," 638 
Fire at Carmarthen Electricitv 
Works, The. bv A. Preston. 8.50 
Flickering light." bv " L. R. I.,** 274: 

by S. E. Phillpot. 341 
Foreign competition, by W. A. C. 

Phillpot, 307 
Free wiring systems, by E. Hansom, 

709 
Gas V. Electricity, by E. P. Barfield. 

566 
Glasgow hiring system. The, by R. 

B. Mitchell, 465 
Grading of mains engineers, by 
" Rev. Counter,*' 34; by " It 
\Von*t Do,** 34; bv "Grade 8,** 
34 
Grinding v. Turning Commutators, 
by " .Adsum," 530; by J. 
Phillips & Co., 565; by A. A. 
Hurry, 598 
High-pressure fuses, by J. B. Rud- 

kin, 884 
High-pressure transmission line insu- 
lators, by R. E. Golden, 342 
I.E.E. informal meetings, by F. 

Pooley. 673 

I.E.E. rules. The. bv " Pilot," 598 

Installation and u«.- 'ol electricitv in 

coal mines, bv F. G. Travis, 747; 

by R. T. Norton, 780; bv R. J. 

Millard. 818; by A. W. Wil- 

liams, 884 

Keeping in touch with consumers, by 

E. G. Nicholson. .567 
L.C.C. tramway-car design competi- 
tion, by B. Lloyd Price. 273 
Lea<ling in from overhead mains, by 
" Spark," 391 ; by G. V. Twiss, 
498 
Leaves from an inspector's note-b<Kik, 
by A. J. Abraham, 818, 885; 
by N. W. Walker, 851; by 
" Contractor's Foreman," 885 
Leeds electrical training centre, bv 
" Rot.irv," 167; by R. E. Bar- 
nett, 21'1 
Lighting bakers' ovens, bv " Elec- 
tro." 497; by R. W. J. Stark. 
SSI; by " C. A. B.," 531; by 
J. B. Moncrieir. 637 
Liquid starters, by C. Jones, 886 
I^ocalily of situations advertised, by 

" E. A.," 46 
London electricitv inquiry, The, by 

" Municipal," 33 
Marin- . l.-ctrician, by " E. R. M.," 

34; bv A. Pcckston, 47 
Motor problem, A. by D. T. Davies, 
Um, 4.^5; by "A. C." 34<l; bv 
R. Swindlehurst, 341; by W. 
Pinkerton. 392; bv L. G. Hill- 
man. 499; by P. E. Ford. .529 
Municipal Tramways Conference, The, 
by W. B. Pinching, 685 



851 
.V dyn 
673 



A, by W. F. Higg» 



Novel sign. A, by " E. H. K. I*. " 

342;' by Marshall Tate. 4<rJ 
Oil consumption and prices, by l-^. 
F. Butler. 167, 308; by S. H. 
Fowles. '211; by Vickers-Pctlcrs, 
Ltd., 242; by R. Scott, 274 
One solution of the frequency prob- 
lem, by E. W. Dorcy, 745. 850; 
bv A. L. Firth, 780; by C. Sut- 
ton, 817 
Organ blowers, bv " Organ Blower." 
391, 531; bv—C. H. C." 403: 
bv II A. E.nster. 403: by The 
Rockingham Engineering Co., 
403; by " F. J. S.," 435; by R. 
A. Marples. 465; bv A. Brown, 
565: by " F. J. A.," 599; by G. 
T. Church, 599 
Overhead transmission costs, bv T. 

Stevens, 306 
Ozone, Dr. E. K. Rideal's book on. 

by E. L. Joseph, 166 
Paper-insulated wire for a.c. re- 
winds, by W. E. Rogers. 818 
Patents in Ireland, by E. K. Scott, 

436 
Patriotism and unemplovment. bv 

" Wake Up ! England.*' 598 

Principles of wages determination. 

The. bv G. Kapp. 565; bv J. E. 

Grant. '637; bv J. S. Hecht. 638 

Profits of the A. E.G., The, by L. 

M. Sandison, 740 
Question ol sincerity. A, by F. W. 

Shorrocks, 341, 402 
Rapid house-wiring, bv H. H. Pear- 
.son, 531; bv C. F. Barrow. 638 
Rearing chicken's electrically, by E. 

P. Barfield, 531 
Reduction in price of lamps, by C. 

C. Hodges. 166 
Repairing a.c. motors, by " Jaques,*' 

£29, 780; by "Tanner.** 710 
Review of "Armature Winding,*' 

The, by C. Sylvester, 135 
Russi.in electrical schemes, by " A 

Reader.*' 437 
Sane methods of providing employ- 
ment, bv N. H. Arthur, 404 
Sawdust .is 'fuel, bv T. C. Sohneidau, 

46; by W. W. Beaumont, 82 
Sclf-svnchronising rotary converters, 
by " L.'iOO kW..*' 178: bv " M. 
L. C." 272: by " W. T. P., 
Wh. Ex.," 272 
Sensitive meter, A. bv " Surprised. " 

465; bv " F. W. B.." 497 
Shipping. Engineering -V Machiner" 
F.\hil)ition, The, by G. Farquhar, 
435 
Short-range sea horizons for cable 
ships, bv V. Campos, 82; by 
W. H. Leech. 135 
Short-sighted employers, by " Con- 
tractor's Foreman," 435 
Single-phase traction on railways, by 

W. T. Rushton. .598 
Situations vacant, by "Watts.** 404; 
bv "Unsuccessful .Applicant?" 
498 
Small walcrpowers. bv A. C. Burt, 
497; bv P. Sylvester Fox, .528; 
by P. t. Kimmins, 529; bv E. 
Humphries, 529 
Spare armature incident, .A, bv " V. 
W. G.," 464; by " G. \V. T.." 
497 ■ 
Standard brushholders. by " Wor- 
ried,** 33 
Suction-gas problem. A, by " O. \. 
E. Morcquery,'* 530; by " Na- 
poleon,*' 565; by " D. G. T.," 
599 
Supply without statutory powers, by 
" A. O. G.," 341, 391, 404, 4.15, 
.565; by " Northwalian," 403; 
by H. Barber, 531 
Support for French industries, by C. 

T. Allan, 465 
Switching certificates, bv " Iiih-riiu-- 

diale," 886 
Synthesis of production, .A. by " D. 

Technical books, by " L. W. f.." 31; 
by T. .Stevens, 46 

Telephone line work, by .A. E. Tubb. 
746 

Telephony — or telepathy? by T. \V. 
Br-st, 638 

Test of salesmanship. The, bv " In- 
terested," 436 

Testing and repairing .magnetos, bv 
" M.ag." 160. 211, 274; by 
" Repairer,** 179; by J. • H. 
Owen. 211, 274; by J. Perry, 
242; by Taylor & Briggs. 308 

Testing of meters. The, by E. H. 
Miller. 404 

Thunderstorm phenomena, bv K. O. 
Alabaster. 530: by " M. E.,** 599 

Tracing mains, by S. C. Bartholo- 
mew, 850 

Trade cards and tr.ade discounts, by 
S. G. Allen & Son, 107; by 
" Interested,*' 273 

Trade terms and direct trading, by 
" Hall What?" 300; by " M. F.." 
341 

Unemployment and the cure, by 
" Qucster,** 747 



Vapour accumulator. The, hv B. 
Drake, 709 

Village electrieitv supply, bv W. 
Winterburn. 135; by "Water- 
wheel,** 780 

Warning to contractors, .A, by ** A 
Once-bitten Contractor,'* 341 

Wear of rotary-converter slip-rings, 
bv W. G. Stuart, 599 

Witi'l |.i.«,r machinery, by J. W. 
i;. Hi.hamp. 404 

ngs alarm device, by E. 



R. Sande 



885 



o(, 893 



Corrosion, Modern con 

Cost of hvdro-clectric t 
timated, 263 

Cost of living in China, The, 584 

Cost of living in Cuba, 893 

Cost-of-living sliding scales, by Miss 
G. Jebb, .3.57 

Cost of living. To reduce the, 468 

Cost of living. Wage reductions and 
unemployment. 116 

Cost of printing and publishing. Tin, 
56 

Cost of ventilating tunnels. The. 718 

Cost of wiring installations. The, 799 

County of London Co.*s Bill. 183, 219 

Coventry Corporation and the 

E.P.E.A., .533 

Cranage facilities for discharging ves- 
sels of large size, by H. J. Deane, 

Credit. A case for industrial, 627 

Credit. Currency and, 100 

Criticism of Japanese methods, 459 

Cuba, A mission from, 676 

Cuba, Cost of living in. 893 

Curative powers of radium, The, 581 

Currency and credit. 106 

Currency position and trade depression. 

The, 110 
Customs duties, Gorman. 533 
Customs tariff. Czecho-Slovaki.i. 2.S0 
Customs tariff, Italian, 314 
Customs tariff, Spanish, 118. 149. 309 
Customs tariffs, Australian, 88 
" Cyc-arc *' automatic electric welding. 

by L. J. Steele and H. Martin. 800 
Cycle and Motor-cycle Show, The. 788 
Czecho-Slovak Italian trade. 470 
Czecho-Slovakia Customs tariff. 280 
Czecho-Slovakia, Electrical enterprise 

in. 358 
Czecho-Slovakia, Electrification scheme 

Czecho-Slovakia, Radium in, 317 
Czecho-Slovakia travelling fair, 439 



DAM.AGE to tires and rails caused 
by brakes or slipping wheeU, by 

C. P. Sandberg, 2*29 
Darlington wages reduction, 210 
Debts, German pre-war, 280 
Decimal Association, The, 782 
Deed of assignment. 278 
" Delas " air extractors, 551 
Demonstration kitchen. A, 640 
Denationalised Russian Industrie 
Denbigh, North Wales Counties Asy 

lum, 547 
D<nmark, Trade with, 310 
Dental Exhibition. The Inlti national 



49 



400 

Derby, Royal Show, 14 
Derby, The Agricultural & General En 



Ltd., 



53 



Design of large fuses. Some elements 
in the, by " .A Central Station En- 
gineer," 40 

Design ol liquid rheostats. The, by W. 
Wilson, 833 

Development Commission. The, 901 

Development in Spain, 78 

Development in the Federated Malay 
States, 14 

Developments of illuminating engineer- 
ing, 742 

Developments on . the Congo, 118 

Diesel-electric coaches, 459 

Diesel-electric trawler. A, 518 

Di<^el engine repaired by welding, 34 

Diesel engine ships, .Auxiliary ma- 
chinery. 712 

l)i.-s,-l engines, Insurance ol. 675 

Uisabli<l ,-x-Service men as electricians. 
Iraining, 123, 040 

Disilnimer, A, 14 

Dish-washers, Electric, 253 

Disinfecting fluid. Electrolytic. 220 

Disputes, The mining and engineering, 
3 

Dissolutions of partnership. 11. .V), 85. 
115, 148, 213. 244. 278. 342. .MHI. .Va. 
(m. 073. 7in. 740. 781. H19. K;VJ. 8S0 

Distribution pillnr.. ('.,1. iill.i, J-tO 

District n.i.n.l W. 1 ..t I ni;l.iii,l. 8.^i2 

Dockyard .U- I, ,,. . mH 

Domestic .\i.|i:. I Ini.iiimi. A. IIB 

Domestic .iVk uim. Ii4i; 

Domestic electrical apparatus. Hiring 

out, 470 
Domestic electricity supply in Norway, 

477 
Dominion students in Itrillsli h-chnii-al 

colleges. 19 
Dover dispute, The. 117. 149 
Dowlais. New steel works at. 887 
Dowlais steel works reopened, 470 
Dransfield's special voltmeter, 317. 377, 



.502 



717 



Dundee Corporation contracts, 748 



January 6, 1022.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REYIEW— INDEX. 



Dun<l... MM,m ..I h.-..vy-.luly huu»: 
wii-inB. Th.'. Wtt 

Dusseldorf, Slrike at, 711 

Dust explosions, 342 

Dust removal <"quipnlent, 340 

Dutch electrical imports. 344 

Dutch electrical industry, Protection 
(or. 854 

Dutch enterprise.* in Germany, 748 

Duties on electrical imports in Spain, 
247 

Duly-lree imports in Brazil, SBB 

Duty o{ those who supply electrical fit- 
tings, by a Let;al Contributor, 205 

Dyke's automatic electric buoy lamp. 



57 



Dyna 



A new, 590 



I^CONOMlt-' Co 
407 



Bulj..-. 



Economic limits of distribution from 
coal-firol stations, The, by \V. H. 
Woodhouse. 97 
Econotuy and the minimum charge, l,b7 
Ecuador— A dwindling market, 87 
Ecuador. Machinery import e.xenip- 

,lons in, 570 
E.D.A. salesmanship conferences, 888 
E.D.A. activities, 52, 86, 439, 532. 675, 

711, 749 
Ediswan factory occupied. 858 
*' Ediswan " house-wiring system, The, 

133 
Education at Manchester, Practical, Jj3 
Educational, 18, 56. 93. 122. 154, 220, 
253, 285, 314, 381, 444. 475, 507, 540, 
573. 646, 717, 753, 788 
Eflect of lighting on output, 717 
Egyptian Government contracts, 344 
E.-h.-p. transmission, .^n electrical re- 
' view of, by R. B. Matthews, 796, 
814 
Eight-hour day, International, 184 
Einstein and ether, 753 
Electric arc welding, by H. M. Sayers, 

164 
Electric castles in the air, 39 
Electric cooking, New developments in. 



' 592 
Electric gas lighting, 646 
Elcctiic Lamp Manufacturers' .Associa- 
tion, The, 86 
Electric locomotives, 705 
Electric suction cleaner, C-arpets and 

the. by F. French Kemp. 258 
Electric units. Large, by S. Parker- 
Smith, 450 
Electric vehicle committee. The, 476 
Electrical apparatus in the home, 902 
Electrical conditions in Norway, 28 
Electrical conference in France, An, 

216 
Electrical Contractors' Association, The, 

215 
F.lectrical displays in large stores, 603 
Electrical engineering trade in Switzer- 
land, The, 193 
Electrical enterprise in Spain, by P. 

F. Martin. 579 
Electrical goods in South Africa, 52, 

149, 214 
l^i.-ctrical industrv. Concerted action 

to safeguard the, 778 
Eltctrical me.isuring instruments, 51 
Electrical plant in China, Demand lor, 

212 
Electrical Power Engineers' Associa- 
tion, The— Annual dinner, 620 
Electrical progress in Latin America, 



i;kclricity In mines, '298. 842. K17 
Electricity in Scottish coking s. 

Use of. 123 
Electricity in the home. 477 
Electricity in the textile industry. ii:> 
Electricity in working-class dwellings, 

454 . , , 

Electricity meters. The testing ol, by 

R. M. Moberly, 331 
Electricity sipply .administration. 209 
Electricity supply at Sheffield. 605. 628 
Electricltv (.Supply) Hill. The, 93 
Electricity Supply Conimc-rcial Associa- 
tion. 750 
Electricity supply in the United King- 
dom—Report of the Electricity 
Commissioners, 540, 582. 619. 651 
Electricity supply industry. Adjustment 

of wages in the. 677, 821 
Electricltv supply legislation. 534 
Electricity supplv. Oil engines and, by 

G. Porter, 798 
Electricity supply. Promoting, 662 
Electricity supply station of the Edin- 
burgh Corporation, Notes on the 
new bv S. B. Donkin, 419 
Electricitv supply, The business aspects 

of, 540 
Electricitv undertakings and factories, 

The rating of, 784 
Electricitv v. Gas, 416. 444. 476 
Electricity works. Speculative construc- 
tion of, 575 
Electrification of Algeria, 640 
Electrification of railways. The final 
a-eport of the .Wvisory Committee, 

Electrification, Railway, .W, 508, 569, 

591 
Electrification, Russia s, 239 
Electrification scheme in Czecho-SIo- 

vakia. 231 
Electrified sugar mill, 63 
Electrifving England, 427 
Electro-chemical industry, Norwegian, 

14, 555, 838 
Electro-chemical production. Swiss, -4b 
Electroeulturc, bv " Anode." 463 
Electro-Harmonic Society, The, 121. 

202. 788. 861 
Electrolytic disinfecting fluid. 320 
Electrolytic Zinc Co. of Austr.alia, 860 
Electrometer. The Quadrant. 114 
ElectTOmotive force. Human. 2'-J) 
Elements of compulsory arbitration in 

recent industrial legislation. The, 

bv Dr. Mary T. Rankin. 419 

ivitchgear works, Mr. George, 



i;,\hibillon at Amsterdam. Inlernalic 

electrical. 375 
Exhibition at Burnley. 855 
Exhibition at Huddersficld. 502 
Exhibition, Bradford Health and Ho 



641 

Exhibition concession, Riga. 1.50 
Exhibition, Glasgow. The Ideal Honu-s. 

184. 408 
Exhibition in 1925, .An Atlantic-Pacific, 

887 
Exhibition in Brazil next year, Intern,T 

tional, -279 
Exhibition, Inter-Allied Colonial, 118 
Exhibition, Newcastle Housing. 860 
Exhibition, The Brewers'. CM 
Exhibition, The British Empire, 118. 

8.54 
Exhibition. The Commercial Motor. 

471. 545 
Exhibition. The Gothenburg. 711 
Exhibition, The International Dental. 

Exhibition, The National Foo<l. 311. 602 
Exhibition. The Public Works, Roads, 

and Transport. 708 

Exhibition. The Shipping. Engineering. 

and Machinerv. 368. 430, 432. 444 

Exhibition, The tokio Peace. 785. 888 

Exhibition. The Welsh National. 309, 

784 
Expert evidence, by " Legal Contribu- 
tor," 759 
Exploitation of radium deposits, 184 
Explosion-proof mining switcheear. 508 
Export credit insurance and unemploy- 
ment, 501 
Export credit scheme. The, 311 
Export Trade Facilities Bill, 569 
Export trade. Japanese, 246 
Exports and imports of electrical goods 
for June, 1921. 78; for July, 263; 
for August. 398; for September, 
■564; for October, 692; for Novem- 
ber, 815 
Exports, German, 216 
Exports of electrical goods, U.S..\., ol. 

533. 723. 784 
Exports of energy, Swiss, 346 
Extra-high-pressure lines. The Inter- 
national Conference on, 753 
Extra-high-pressure Transmission Lines 
Conference. The. bv R. B. Mat- 
thews, 739 



Foundry eky:lric furn.ice, The, by 

James Edgar. 877 
France, An electrical conference in. 216 
France in the vacation. Engineering in, 

860 
France, High-pressure 



706 



Four 



Electrical progress in 

years', 215 
Electrical Review (Chicago), 81i7 
Electrical Review Service Depart- 
ment, 611 
Electrical stunts on a Ford car. Some, 

by " Voltman," 41 
Electrical Trades Benevolent Institu- 
tion, The, 18, 93. 427, 475, 491, 540 
Electrical Trades Benevolent Institu- 
tion, The— Annual festival dinner, 
621 
Electrical tr.ading association, A North- 

East Coast local, 740 
Electrical undertakings in Poland, To 

finance, 116 
Electrical undertakings, Ru-ssian, 502 
Electrically-driven cargo vessel. An, 444 
Electricallv-driven fire-fighting appara- 
tus, by E. Kilburn Scott, 849 
Klectric^ally-propelled battleship. An, 2SS 
Electricallv-propelled ships, 123, 188, 

717, ffi7, 860 
Klertricians' wages, .')2 

■ctricity charges: Ihe operation ol 

the coal clause in contracts, 477 

EltTtricity Commission at Melbourne, 

168 
Electricitv Commissioners, Report of 

the, 540. 582, 619, 651 
Electricity Commissioncns, The work 

of the, 554 
Electricity district, London and Home 
Counties — Commissioners' decisions. 



300 

Emotion, Measuring, 160 
Empire patents. 235 
Emplovers and leadership. 193 _ 
Employment in lead processes. .49 
Emplovment in Sweden. 782 
Emplovment. Lord Weir on measures 

for reviving. 534 
Employment. Profitable, 602 
Energv from a city water suoply, -aJ 
Fnfineering amalgamation, 407 
Engineering Conference. 1921. The. 42, 

97, 129, 194, 228. 259 
Engineering developments in Colombia. 

*^ . X, ej,.> 

Engineering discharges m Norway, 602 
Engineering disputes. The mining and, 

3 
Fnirineering education. The co-opera- 
^tive svstem of, by E. K. Scott. 107 
Fn0inecrine emplovment in India. '280 
EniineerinI F-xhibition. The, 330 
Engineering in China, 281 
Engineering industry, 503 
Engineering industrv. The present ni-cds 

of the British, 563 
Fncineering trade outlook. The, 88 
inl'inrer'ini trade, ballot. The, 59L 601 
Engineering training in China, ^K* 
Engineering wages and trade depres- 
sion in Australia, 888 ^ ^ 
Engineering wages dispute. The, 19, al, 

93. '279, 413. 438. .503. 820 
Engineers and the camera, by J. VAal- 

kor, 460 
Engineers' ballot. The, 569 
Engineers, Chartered electrical, 267 
Engineers' club for Birmingham, Ihc 

proposed. 509 
Engineers' Club (London). The. 224. 

•SB. 330, 4.59 
Engineers in confennce. 37 . 

Engineers invited to Russia, I'oreign 

electrical, 675 
Engines Magnetos for internal-com- 
bustion, bv E. A. Watson. 28 
F.ntz electric transmission, Ihe, 3,6 
E.P.D. arrears, 8.54 . 

E P.E.A. and the E.T.U. The. 439 
E P E.A., Coventry Corporation and 
the, 533 , .,„ 

E. P.E.A. Executive, The report of. /4« 
Equipment of motor-cars, The electrical, 

,n labour. The, '203, 



FACTORIES and workshops. The 
lighting of, 293, 422 
Factories, Celluloid in, 408 
F.actories. Electricity in— Report of 

H.M. Electrical Inspector, 198 
Factories., Russia's electrical, .533 
Factories, The rating of electricity 

undertakings and. 784 
Factories, Working conditions in. 240, 

290 
Factory lighting, 394 
Factorv occupied, Ediswan, 8a8 
Fair. i9'22, British Industries, 150 
Fair, Czecho-Slovak Travelling, 439 
False marking of German goods, 502 
Faraday Societv. The. 212. 836. 900 
Farming. The application of electricity 

to. 680 
Farms. Electricity on New Zealand, 

252 
Fatalities. .56. 93. 189. 219. 284. 314, 

349, 382, 476. 611, 682, 8-25 
Federation of British Industries. 190 
Federation of British Industries and 

Feder.-ition of British Industries, 

Miners' conference and. '279 
Federation ol British Induslries— Ihe 



87 

France, Hvdro-electric power in. 276 
France, Trade with, 501 
French amalgamation. A, HI 
French bauxite, 602 
French companies. New. 88. 150. 184. 
247, 278, 311, 471, 5:t6, 603, Ml. 
748, 820 
French company to reconstruct North- 
ern power stations, 470 
French failure. A, 820 
French manufacturing induslry. The, 

170 
French patents, 438 
French railway work, 711 
French transport conference. 611 
Frequencv problem. One solution ol 

the. by C. Sutton. 700 
Frequency. The measurement of, 121 
Fuel economy, 2, 574 
Fuel, Industry and cheap, 56 
Fuel. Sawdust as— Messrs. J. Sadd and 

Sons' timber mills. 236 
Furn.ace .\ high-frequency indlKt'ion, 

305 
Furnace, A rotary electric, 544 
Furnace, An Australian electric. 682 
Furnace, .\n electric vitreous enamel, 

317 
Furnace. The foundrv electric, by 

James Edgar. 877 
Furnaces. Electric resistance, by E. P. 

Barficld. 364 
Furn.aces in Belfast. Electric. 818 
Furnaces in Belgium. Electric. 247 
Furnaces in the .Argentine. Electric. 14 
Furniture, Electricallv-equipped, 8.59 
Fuses, bv " A Central Station Engi- 
neer." 703 
Fuses. Some elements in the design of 
large, by " A Central Station En- 



f^ .AS, Carbon monoxide in. 316 

Gas on trains. 555 
Gas plant for China. Suction. 12 
Gas, The use of coke-oven. 123 
G.a9 V. Electricity. 416. 444. 476 
Gases. Electricitv in. 6.52 
Gas-filled lamp patent. The. 842 
Gasification of coal, the electrical, 717 
Gem stones. Colouring. 253 
German activity in Spain, 748 



nbitii 



805 



nual 



761 



Film studio lights. '288 

Financial and business aspects of mum 

cipal electricity supply, by C. W 

Charlesworth, 161 
Finland, Insulated conductor 



-246, 



570 



686 



508 



Ele 



866 
'206 



ity district inquiry procedu 



.-ity for all, 362 

I'lectricitv in agriculture, 1'22 
Klc-ctricity in coal mines, 422 
Ele<-lricity in factories— Report of H.M 

Electrical Inspc-ctor, 198 
Electricity in g.ases, by Prof. W. M. 

Thornton, 653 
Electricitv in isolated buildings, by L. 

H. Freeman, 557, 633 
Electricity in Italy. 681 
Electricity in medicine, I'JO 
Electricitv in min«, by M. 1. W ll- 

liams-Ellis, 395, 438 



E.T.U. and m 

"15 
E.T.U. and the E.P.E.A.. The 439 
E.T.U. and theatrical empIoyi5s, The, 

344 
E.T.U. (London district). The. 662^ 
E.T.l'., I.x)ndon members' action, 821 
K.l'.l'., Suspension of the London Dis- 
trict Committee, 675 
Furopo and America, Industrial engi- 

nVering in, 169 , , 

Exchange situation. An eflect of the, 

676 
Exchange, Vagaries of. 470 
Excess profits duty. 215, 37j 
Exhaust steam: Its employmi^t for 
power, heating, &c., by t. N. 
Dolbv. 200 . 

Exhibition. A domestic appliances, uu 



Finland, Water powt 
Finnish amalgamation, .A, 470 
Finsburv Technical College Old Stu- 
dents' Association. 381. 716 

Fire alarm. The Stephan burglar and. 
860 

Fire extinction. 412 

Fire-fighting "PP'??::!"'' « "i'^cio'" 
driven, bv E. Kilburn Scott. 849 

Fres 13 51. 1'22. 220, '288, 376. 440, 
ri&. 626, 749. 830 

Fires in the I'nited States. Reduction 
of electrical, 686 

Filters and motor drivers for the 
R.A.F.. .508 

Floating Exhibition. S76. 4J3 

Fog and its dispersion. 717 

1-og signals. Wireless control of. .599 

fS^I Exhibition. National, 311. 002 

Ford car. Some electrical stunts on a, 
by "Voltman." 41 

Foreign firms in China, 51 

Foreign gl.assware. 7.. 

Foreign interest in Swedish works. 

Foreign languages and engineering d,-- 
velopment. by Alw. IV Eason, 878 

Foreign patents and iIk- Peace Treaty, 
74 

1.'n,.ei,,n nostagc. Insuflicient, 288 

Foreign fJl^dl^ S7. 246. 376. 500. 674, 
820 .,.,„. 

Foreign tr.-ide, Swedish.^ 40i 

Foreign trade, Swiss. 8( 

Formosa, Hvdro-elcctric enterprises in. 

Foundries in Brazil, Encouraging elec- 
tric, 3U 



German bid tor Australian trade. 439 
German cable industry. 400. 536 
German commercial intrigues in Italy. 

Reported, 310 
German commercial penetration in 

Switzerland, 3.57 
German commercial propaganda in 

Sweden. 654 
German companies. New. 784 
German competition in Italy, 185 
German competition in South -Africa, 

53 
German Customs duties. 533 
German dumping. The stand against, 

374 
German electrical industrv. The, 138, 

247 
German engineering combine. New. 117 
German-English-.\ni«>rican patent agree- 
ment, A, 88 
German export permits. 469 
German export pric-es, 376 
German exports. 216 
German exports to Spain. 534 
German goods masketl as foreign manu- 
factures, 458. 502 
German Insulating Tube Syndicate, 

The, 555 
German iron wire, 85 
German-Italian commercial agreement, 

311 
German lamp f.ictorv, .A new, 67;> 
r«^.rman m.ichinery in Japan. 13, 712 
German metal interests, 749 
German Metal Workers' Union, 118 
German plant tender, Sheffield lejects 

the. 215 
German porcelain insulators, 821 
German pre-war debts, 280 
German price contest in insulated con- 
ductors, A, 426 
German prices, 469 
German scheme for Italy. A, 89 
German steel industry. 453 
German subterfuges, 570 
Gerninn syndicates and the abuse of 

power, 490 
German trade in .Argentina. 889 
German tubing manufacturers com- 
bine, 216 
German wages and competition, 470 
Gernvtns in China, 675 
Germans in Jugo-Slavia, Tlie, 247 
Germany, An American ek^trical man s 

impressions in, 535 
Germany and Australia. 247 
Germnnv, British properties in, 344 
Gernianv, Capital expiinsion in. 36:1 
Germanv Cause of capital increaiics 

in. "783 
Germanv. Copper r<-placing aluminium 

in. in 
Germanv. Dutch enterprise in, 748 
Cn-rman'v, Electric heating apparatus 

in. '854 ^ 

Germany, Insulating tubes in. 820 
Germanv. I-amp taxation in. 311 
Germany, Metal working in, 373 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[January 6, 1922. 



dUL-e lor, 'Siit 
Ucrmany, Kailway inlcrests in. 503 
" Licnnany ready lo undersell Ihc 

World." li; 
Germany, Keplacemenl ol worn<.ul 

maehinery in. WiJ 
Germany. L ncmploynient in, 407 
Germany s Irade, il/ti 
Ghegan simplex main-line relay, The, 

Gilt lor scientific research. A, 18 
Glas-ow, ticelric eaaking at, 671 
Glasgow sale, A. 423 
Gla»t;ow hiring-out scheme, atil* 
Glasgow Shipbuilding, Kngineering, 

and Electrical Lxhibition, 4u(j 
Glasgow. Ihe Ideal Homes Exhibition, 

li*. 408 
Glass, Heat-resisting, 314 
Glass, ihe conductivity ol, 122 
Glass trade. Protection for the, 344 
Glassware, Foreign, 77r 
Glassware, Illuminating, 749 
Glow lamp holding company. A, 503 
Glow lamp intere-»ls. Continental, 7«2 
Gothenburg Exhibition, Ihe, 711 
Government contracts, 'Ihe wages 

clause in, 803 
Governn>ent of Greater London, The, 

220 
Gravesend tunnel. The, 198 
Greater London, The government of, 

220 
Greenock Corporation technical staff's 

wages, laO 
Grey (tarl) on trade as a remedy for 

unemployment, 508 
Grinding of commutators, Notes on the, 

by O. Linley, 302 
" Grinding *' ol commutators, " 1 urn- 

ing." rerjuj, by J. T. Towlson, 401 
Gyroscopic compass, The, 080 



1.1_.L., Model 



H 



ACKNEV 



The, (iSl 



of contract, 



Hadfields' Australian company, 603 
Haigh's alternating-stress testing ma- 
chine, 008 a 
" Hands oB " the electrical industry, 

739, 775, 813 
Haulage on canals, Electric, 123 
Heating appliances. Indicators for, 123 
Heating b\ " heat accumulation," Elec- 
tric, 243 
Heat-resisting glass, 314 
Heat, The human need of, 825 
Heating, Electric, by J. l-'rith, 831 
Height recorder, A, 893 
Helium fittings. 534 
Helsby twin wiring system. The, 776 
Highlkld, J. S., President of the 

I.E.E., 556 
High-frequency induction furnace. A, 

305 
High-frequency stray sparks on motor- 
cars, by •* Vollman," 878 
Highland Show, The, 184 
High-pressure transmission in France, 

87 
High-resistance break test of submar- 
ine cable. A, by J. Rymer-Jones, 
276 
High-voltage transmission, 507 
Hiring-oul domestic electrical appara- 
tus, 470 
Hispano-AnK-rican Electric Co., 533 
Home, Electrical apparatus in the, 902 
Home, Electricity in the, 477 
Household machinery and the house- 
wile, bv M. G. How.ll, 370 
Hou-iehuld ' n.achinerv. Servants and, 

by M. G. Howell. 632 
House wiring. The Dundee system of 

heavy-duty, 905 
Housing Exhibition, Newcastle, 860 
Housing scheme. Ihe Uradlord. 336 
Hu.l.l.rsfi.;ld. Exhibition at, 502 
Human electromotive force, 220 
Human nee<l of heat. The, 825 
Hungarian cable factory-, A new, 888 
liungarv End Poland, Future prospects 

in, 324 
nv.)ro-.-leclric ikvelopiiK-nl in liadcn, 

681 
Hydro-<l'<-lrir cl.-velapinenls in Sar- 
dinia, 616 
Hydro-^-lectric enterprises in 1' 

1.M 

Hydro-ekclrie plant, Ice formation at, 
Hvdro-electric Power Commission of 

Ontario, 694 
HydrrM-leclric power in France, 276 
Hvdrf»-electric problems in Scandinavia, 

80 
Hydro-ekclric scheme, The Scar House, 

810 
Hydrt»<l«'Ctric transmission. Estimated 

cost of. 263 
Hydrn-eleclric works in Austria, 413 
Hydro-electric works, Neckar, 075 



TCE cream eleclrieally, Making, 385 

Ice formation at hvdro-electric pl.inl, 
831 

lrt.al electric kilcli-n. The, by Mary 
<i. Howell, 402 

Ideal Homes Exhibition, Glasgow, The, 
184 

I.E.E. Presidential address by J. S. 
Highfield. 825, 658, 689 

I.E.E.. Uverpool Sub-Centre, Inaugu- 
ral address by Mr. G. H. Nishett, 
797 

I.E.E., Norlh-Easlern Centre. Inaugu- 
ral address bv Prof. \V. M. Thorn- 
ton, KV2 



I.E.E., North-Midland centre: In- 
augural address by vV. E. liurnand, 
■«J 

I.E.H., North-Western centre : In- 
augural address by Aid. U. W.il- 
ker, 762 

I.E.E., Royal charter. The, 384 

l.t..L., South Midland Centre, Inau- 
gural address by Mr. K. A. Chat- 
tuck, 691 

I.E.E., Ihe, Mr. Atkinson's letter, 330 

I.E.E., The new session of the, a91 

I.E.E., Western centre: inaugural ad- 
dress by A. C. McWhirter, 79/ 

Ignition, .Aero engine, 692, 835 

Illuminating engineering. Developments 
of, 742 

Illuminating glassware, 749 

Illumination, international Commission 
on, 16b 

Imalra Falls and Russia, The, 806 

Imperial communications, 203 

Import tax, China's, 749 

linpurt trade of Brazil, The, 399 

Import tnide ol China, 463 

lmi,orl trade ol India, 694 

Importers' criticisms of the working 
of the Safeguarding of Industries 

Imports, Dutch electrical, 344 

Imports in Spain, Duties on electrical, 
347 

Imports ol electrical goods for June, 
19'J1, Exports and, 78; for July, 
263; for .August, 398; for Septem- 
ber, 564; lor October, 692; lor 
November, 815 

Imports ol New Zealand, 549 

Imports, Swiss, 376 

Improving situation, -An, 589 

Income lax relief. Trade depression 
and, 854 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical .Asso- 
ciation : .Annual meeting, 74, 109, 
161, 195, 225 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical Asso- 
ciation, 1922 Convention, 858 

Increased revenue from small con- 
sumers, by " Interested," 49(i 

India : Britain's greatest market, 832 

India, Electrical notes from, 516, 838 

India, Engineering employment in, 280 

India, Import trade ol. 694 

New manufacturing plants in, 



51 

India, The future of, 783 
Indian electrical companies. New, 116, 

281 
Indian Government contracts, 171 
Indian steel contract. An, 279 
Indian stores and Indian students, 440 
Indian telegraph apparatus, 888 
Indicators io: heating appliances, 123 
Induction motor diagrams, Armature 
winding and, by C. Sylvester, 366 
Industrial affairs, 874 
Industrial conciliation, 310 
Industrial Council, Withdrawal from, 

86. 215, 246 
Industrial councils. Charges for supply 

and. 554 
Industrial credit, A case for, 027 
Industrial engineering in Europe anjl 

Am<-rica, 169 
Industrial League and Council, 'Ihe, 

1-22. 475 
Industrial lighting campaign. An, 640 
Industrial prop<Tty, Russian. 784 
lndustri;il res<-arch, 305, 563, 595 
Industrial w.iste, 117 
Industrial welfare, 770 
fnduslry and cheap fuel, 56 
Industry, The French manufacturing, 

170 
Influence of transformer connections 
on third harmonic voltages and 
currents, 788 
Inglehy it Co.'s works at Leeds. 533 
Installation cosis, and the development 
ol new fields for electric lighting, 



Association ol Consulting tngini-ers, 

124, 575, 753 
Association ol Engineers-in-Charge, 

285, 350, 477, 510 
AssoiHation of Mining Electrical En- 
gineers, 477,.. 175, 613 
Harrtw & District Association ol 

Engineers, .541 
B.-llast Ass<jci:ition of Engineers, 683 
liirkberk C:oll<ge (University ol Lon- 
don). .541 048 
Birmingham & District lilcclric Club, 

:«0, 3K2, .'■|09. 8'27 
Bradli.r.l Engin.-,-rlng S.«-ietj', 789 
Chiliiislord i;ngini-<:ring Society, 57.i, 

647, 718, 789, 827, 801, 894 
Cleveland Institution of Engineer>, 

648 
Edinburgh El.i Irical Society, 44.), 477, 

.575. 682. 789, H27 
Electrical Power llngineers' Asswi:.- 

tion. The, 134, 1.54 
Faraday House Old Students' Asso- 
ciation, 57S, 8I!I 
I'araday Society, 382 
Finsbury Technical College Old Stu- 
dents* Association, 509 
Glasgow & District Radio Club, 382, 

■09, S(il 
Glasgow Corporation Electricity De- 
partment Engineering Society, 477 
Grc<-nock Association of Electrical 

F.ngine.rs, 683, 7.55, 827, 895 
lncor[iorat«l Municipal Electrical 



NSTITUTION NOIKS — COtlliullltl. 

Institute of Cost & Works Account- 
ants, The, 613 
Institute ol Kngin.iers (India), 894 
Institute ol Melals, '220 
Institute of Physics, 541 
Institute of Transport, 413, 861 
Institution of Civil Engineers, 613, 

Institution ol Eleclrical Engineers, 

57, 124, 189, 320, 350, 382, 509, 

541, 575, 613, 647, 679. 718, 754, 

789, 837. 861, 894 

East Midlands Sub-Centre, 718, 

789, 894 
Liverpool Sub-Centre, 045, 861 
Norlh-Eastern Centre, 541, 575, 718 
North-W estern Centre, 647, 679, 718 
So)llis!i Cenlrc, 613, 079, 789, 861, 

894 
South Midland Centre, 541, 789,8-27 
Western Centre, 134, 2'30, 575, 647, 



Italian companies. New, 185, 345, € 

711 
Italian Customs tariff, 344 
Italian eleclrical industry. The, 1 
Italian Industrie's, Labour control 

315 
Italian lamp tax. 853 
Italian r;illways electrilicalion : G. n 

plant to be asked lor, 469 
Italian tariff. New, 149 
Italian trade activity at Riga, 713 
Italian wireless concessions, 468 
Italy, A German scheme lor, 89 
Italy, .American electrical activity in 
Italy, British goods in, 86 
Italy, Commercial monopolies in, ( 
Italy, Electric vehicles in, 826 
llalv, Elcctricitv in, 681 
Italv, German competition in, 185 
Italy, Tidal power in, 718 
Italy, Trade with, 344 



Institution of Mecha 
19 



al Engi. 



Inl< 






Inti 



lational Conference of Fli- 
Engineers, 717 
•rn:itional Conlerenre on 
Transmission Syslems. 646, 7 
■rnational f)enlal Exhibition, 
4(K) 



AI'AN after the (i 



W; 



of Post Office Engineers, 

The, 383 
Institution of Production Engineers, 

383, 647, 861 
Institution ol Rubber Industry, 827 
Iron & Steel Institute, '253 
Junior Institution of Engineers, 510, 

613, 827 
Keighley .Association of Engineers, 

.''■41 
King's College Engineering Society, 

683 
Manchester Association of Engineers, 

382 
Mining Institute of Scotland, 789 
Municipal Tramways Association 

(Inc.), 20, 413 
National Assoc'iation of Supervising 

Electricians, 382 
National Union of Scientific Workers, 

718 
Norlh-East Coast Institution of En- 
gineers, 683 
Nottingham Society ol Engineers, 718 
Oldham Technical & Old Students' 



gincors, 510 
Phvsical Societv, The, 648, 861, 894 
I'oit Office Telephone «: Telegraph 

Society of London, 541 
Roentgen So<-ielv, "20 
Roval Institution, The. 648 
Royal Society of Arts. 30, .WS, 648 
Society of Cheinical Industry, 648 
SiK-iety of Engineers, 895 
Society of 'I'echnical Enginwrs. W4 
South Wales Institute of Engineers, 

541 
West of Scotland Mining Electrical 

Engineers, 541 
Wireless Telegraphy, 541 

Institution of Chemical Engineers, Pro- 
posed, 683 

Institution of Rubber Indushv, The, 
.''.07 

Insulated Conduclors, A German price 
contest in, 430 

Insulated conductors in Finland, 240, 
570 

Insulating materials. Breakdown tests 
on, by N. A. Allen, 876 

Insulating oils. Research on, 687 

Insulating Tube Syndicate, The Ger- 

Insulalin'g luftcs in Germany, 8-20 
Insulating varnish, Tests on, by W. 

S. Flight, 771 
Insulators. German porcelain, 831 
Insurance and electrical engineers, Un- 

emplovment, by J. J. H. Stans- 

field, '5'38 
Insurance .tnd unemployment. ICxport 

credit, 501 
Insurance ol f)iesel engin.s. Ii75 
Insurance, llneinpluyment, by J. J. 

11. Stanslield, 5, 56 
Int.r-AUied Colonial ExhiMlion. 118 
lnterH;onnected-slar method of con- 

nectinii three-phase transformer 

windings. A nole on the, by S. 

Austen Stiganl. 368. 331 
Inter-linking in Calilornia. 230 
Inl.rnal-rombuslion engines. Magnetos 

for, l>v E. A. Watson ■- 



japan. Electric locomotives in, '279 
J.ipan, German machinery in, 13. 713 
Japan, Good news from, 522 
Japan, Metric system in, 167 
Japan, New steel works in, 407 
Japanese companies, New, 116 
J:ipanese delegation. The, 820 
Japanese export trade, 346 
Japanese methods, Criticism of, 459 
Japanese visitors, 676 



illii- 



The 



Jo 



Electh 



AUTHORlTiliS- 



London & Home Counties inquiry, 
5, 67, 100, 110, 140, 172, 826 

Mid-L.incashirc scheme postptShed, 
3.50 

North-East Midlands electricily dis- 
trict. 143 

The Niirlh Lancashire & South 
Cumb.-rl:.nd scheme, '230 

Tlie Norlh-West Midlands scheme, 
■231 

Ihe Sheffield Corporation's scheme, 
K13 

I'he South-East Lancashire elcctri- 
citv district, 454, 596 

South-\\.st Midlands electricity dis- 
trict. 175, 706 

West Riding (Aire &■ Calder) elec- 
tricity district, 657 

Jugoslav market. How to enter the, 

330 
Jugo-Slavia, The Germans in, 247 



K'^ 



.... 1 hydro-electric scheme, 310 

Kincmito'graphy, German professor of, 

716 
Kingsway wiring system. The, 3>*B 
Kitchen, .A demonstration, 640 
Kitchen, The ideal electric, by Mary 

G. Howell, 462 
Krupp group, Niw, 375 



LABOUR con 
tries, 315 



„1 (,( Italian indus- 



l.abour Exchanges, Closed, 285 
Labour-saving competition, .A domes- 
Labour, The Australian E.'I'.U. and 



Un 



534 



\\\ttC'^V 



•Xi 



.„., „..al right-hour dav. 184 

International Tramway & Light Rail- 
way yissociation. The, 326. 412 

Inter-Scandir.avian transmission ol 
energy, 367 

Inventions War, 122 

Inventors' competition at Lyons, 149 

Investment. A sound, 138 

Investment companies in Germany, 374 

Invisible ravs. Signalling by, 327 

Ireland. Reported find of copper, coal, 
and iron in, 407 

Irish water power. 646, 818 

Iron and steel furnaces in Brazil. 
Electric. 80 

Iron in Iri'land, Reporli<l find of cop- 
per, coal, and, 407 

Isle of Man, Battery locomotives on 
Ihe, 402 

Isolated buildings. Electricity in, by 
E. H. Freeman, .'>57 



Lamp lactory, A new German, 675 
Lamp patent, 'fhe gasfilled, 843 
l-amp tax, Italian, 853 
Lamp taxation in Germany. 311 
Lamp Irade in South America, 535 
I amp Hade, The Continental, 88 
Lamps Miners', 13, 502 
Languages and engineering develop- 
ment. Foreign, by Alec. B. Lason, 

Latin-America, Belgian commercial mis- 

sion to, 117 
Lntin-Anv rica, Electrical progress in, 

706 
Iftin-Ameiica, Electric vehicles in, 144 
Latin-Ameiican countries. Trade with, 

735 
Law ol Nuisance, Statutory companies 

and the, by A Legal Contributor, 

2" . , Tl, 

L.C C. turbo-generator contract, Ine, 

214 
Lead, 13, 88, 149, 246, 310, 344, 375, 

407, 439, 470, ,''>68, 640, 7aO, 820 
Le.ad-eating ants, 189 
U-ad proce-vses. Employment in. 749 
"Leader" cable lor aircraft, 774 
Leaves from an Inspector's Note-book, 

by " Anode," 238, 289, 785 
Leeds tramways, '280 



Accumulatois. Ltd. v. Auslrallii 

Commonwealth, 880 
.Action agains-t the Bradford Corpor 



" 583 



o( el.' 



Alleged improper 

343 

Arc welding electrodes, 803 
Armature repair claim, 669 
Attorney-General, The, „ Liverpool 

Corporation, .528, 638, 705 
Uastian Electric Co., 57, 84 
Birkdale & District Electricity Supply 

Co V. .Southport Corporation, 816, 



Januaby 6, 1922.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



htr..M.-co,Ui,iucd. 
Briti;^h Thomson-Houslon 
Corona Lamp ^^'oI■k^, 
705, 870 
Broken insulators, 147 
Hrook!,-\os V. rurdun. 1!)'J 
Bullers ]■. J. Hrceden & <.< 



Uli 
bol.i 



^ & Hookha 

Zahlerwcrke, 810 
Claim by Mr. A. Sit-nu-iis againsl 

Siemens & Halskc, 7« 
Connare v. 'Ihomas, 810 
,. " ..:.ns ,o mains. Wrongful, 880 
Hackney Borough Council, 



Dore 
li 
E. B 



070 



Electrical 
d. 117 



Co.— Pelili< 
Co., Ltd. 



80!) 



Elect 
880 

Edye and Others v. South Metropol 
un Electric Tramways Co., 

Electrical Apparatus Co. v. J. con- 
cord & CO., 231, 254 

Electrical company prosecuted in 
Australia, VOo 

Elciricil unemployment' msurance 
c.sL-, .\n. 4il . „ , , 

Eml> /^iliinent of " outing lunds, 

Enlu-ld-Ediswan CaWe Works_ v. The 

.\. & \. Electrical Co., 58o 
Excessive tramcar speeds, 342 
1-raudulent consumption of electricity, 

I Electric Trani- 

, The King, 10 



.11. HUSO ANU POWEK NolES— COIllillUCii. 
banll, 630, 8-J2 
Bangor, 18a, 'MS, 530, 822, 8jj 
Barmouth, 713 
Karnard Castle, 315 
Barnes, 118 
liarnsle^, 408 
B..rnstaple, 471 
Barrow, 8H, 185, 377, 822 
Barry, 8a2, 855 
Bartoii-on-Jlumber, a30, 1)1- 
Bath, 141, 281, 471 ^ 
Ik-ckenham, 713, (85 
Beckington ^Somcrsei), 248 
Bedforu, 503. 530, 003, UW 
Bedwas, 077 

Belfast 52, 281 312, 345, 503, 530, 003 
Belgium, 401), 440, 0O4, U4:i, V,-v, 85j 
Beriiiondsey, 111) 
Be.\hill, 4jt.' 
Bexley, b-^, 504, 8.>5 
Bingley, la, 750 
Birkenmad, 15, 52, 377 
Birmingham, Xi, 118, 530, 78j 
Bishop s Castle, 377 
Bishop's LyJcard tSoiiierset), 408 
BLickourn, 52, 8tl, 210, 408, 440, a70, 

881) 
Blackpool, 52, 210, .8j 
Blackrock (Dublin), 151, 210, laO 
Bognor, 530 



Bo I 



471 



Gibbs V. Metropolii 



ivay 



Hall (J. P.) & Co 



Ha 



V\i 



Telegraph Co., 070 

Harvey (F. W.) S Co. v. New En- 
terprises, 487 , . T 

Hastings Corporation and the tram- 
ways Co. : The Arbitrator s 
award, 84 

Hazell V. L.C.C., 199 

Holbrook UO & Co. V. Coiirt, 199 

Housing schemes and electric light 



49 



Light 



Hurst Electric Plant v. Ca 

and Power Co., 10, 49 
1 amps. Charge of stealing. 809. 880 
Lubiio, Benguella & Catunibella Elec- 
tric Light & Power Co.. 585 
Marconi wireless patents, 231 
Vlarconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. v. 

A. W. Gamage, Ltd., 84 
Martin k London & Cologne s.s. 

Co., 744 
M.itc V. Morgan, 518 
Mather & Plait v. Low & Co., <04 
.New'jury & Thomas 2>. Levinsky, a28 
Obtaining lamps by false pretences, 

Pe.acock (C.) & Co. V. J. R. West, 



Bootle, 822 

Brackley, 785, 822, 889 

Bradford, 89, 118, lal, 312, 34a, 3,,, 

440, 504, 570, 003, 785 
Brentwood, 89, 042, 855, 889 
Brierfield, 570 
Brighton, 185, 003 
Brisbane, 247 
Bristol, 471, 077 
Brownhills, 151 
Budleigh Salterton, 15 
Burnley, 15 
Burnham (Berks.), 822 

Burton, 504 

Bury, 118 

Canada, 15, 210, 312, 345, 408, a.O, 
042, 7S5 

Cannock, 042, 077, 889 

Carlisle 151, 248, 408 

Carlisle, 151, 248, 408 



LiGlinsc .iND Power Sons—conlinued. 

fluildford', 15, 472, 785 

lliilifax, 378. 409. 822 

HamnKTsmilh. SiK) 

Hampstead, H9 

Harrogate, 4<n, 889 

Haslingden. 15, 312 

Hastings, 24H, 889 

llawardcn, 403 

Haworlh (Vorks.). 312 

Hav, 409 

H.-ckmomlwike. 042 

Hemel Hempstead. 53i . Oi ( 

Hereford, 346, &56 

Hessic, 472 

Heston and IsJeworth, j3 

Hctton (Co. Durham), 077 

Hexham. 34'i 

High Wycombe, 889 

Hltchin, 281 

Holmfirth, 537 

Holsworthy. 537, 004 

Hornsey, 571 

Horsham, 889 

Houghton-le-Spring, 53 

Hove, 15, 151, 603, 642 

Hovlake, 89, 186 

Huddorsfleld, 89, 571, 7aO 

Hull, 889 

Hungary. 345 

Hurst, 604 

Hvthe, 677 

Iceland, 18o 

Ilklev 378, 409 

India.' 378, 409, 042, 750, 822, 85G 

Inverness. 281 

Ipswich, 186 

Irvinestown (Co. Fermanagh), 537 

Isle of Wight, 346, 856 

Italy, 248, 642, 855 

Japan, 53, 248 

Jersey, 642, 750 

Joint Electricitv Authorities, 180 

l<eighfeV,''ll 281, 378, 643, 822, 889 
Keith, 216, 340, 441 
Kells, 643 
Kendal, 119 



arthe 



785 



Caterha 



216 



487 



49 



& Cox, Ltd. -J. Be 
i'hitelayer's claim, 669 
Position of a telegraph pole, Ihe, j8a 
Postmaster-General v. The Mayor 

and Corporation of Liverpool, 

744, 803, 816 
Rio Tinto Co. !■. Brown, Boveri and 

Co., 49, 83 
Senion (C.) & Co. v. The Bradford 

Corporation, 596 
Shirtllff Bros. •... Albion Mills Co., 

816 
Smith (E.) & Co. Builders, 

518 
Smoke nuisance prosecu 



210 

Chatham, 52 

Cheadle and Gatley, 440 

Cheshunt, 785 

Chester, 281, 312, 471, 004, 822, 8ab 

Chesterfield, 52, 471 

Ohester-lc-Street, 89 

Chichester, 119, 889 

China, 281. 471, 570, 78o 

Chipping Norton, 119, 378 

Chrislleton, 889 

Clitheroe, 151 

Coleraine (Co. London.lerrv), lal, 3i8 

Colwyn Bay, 151, 004, 889 

Conway, 119 

Cookham, 52, 89, 210, 53b 

Coventry, 15, 52 

Crediton, 785 

Crieff. 312. 409 

Crovdon, b22. 889 

l/,dui-Mcv; kia. 004, 713, 8ao 

I) .rlin.'Uin, 119, 713, 750, 822 



Da 



889 



Woolf, 
wilh- 



dra 



070 



.,..,...^n— Winding-up order, 10 
Telephone companies' articles, 705 
Telephone pole waylcave case, i44 
Tramcar driver assaulted, 308 
Tryad Co. v. Franco Electrical Co., 

803 
Unemployment pay, 585, 637 
Valuation decision for_ clcclricity 

users. Important, 455 
Wecner & Co. v. J. B. Berry and 

Sons, 743 
We>ston Electric Lamp Co. V- 

Pe.-iree, 455 
Weston Electric Lamp Co. v. Dunn. 



704 



Ele 



Lai 



I 



Stuart, 487 
White V. Chambers & Fleming. 49 
Whitegale Brick Co. v. O'Brien and 

Co.. 147 . 

Workmen "a compensalinn. 48* , *4.J. 



LlCllTINO AND PoWEK NoTES— 

Al>erayron, 345 
Aberde-en. 89, 408. 8'22 
AbcrfeWv (Perthshire), 210 
Accrington. 14, 185, .210, 408, 4.1. 

713. 889 
Adwick-le-Strect (\orks.), 003 
.Mderley Edge, 750 
Aldershot, 



,,„„'sburv, la') 
Argentina, 118, 440, 471 

Ashin'gton (Northumberland). 312, 

Aust'Jllia, 14, 89, 118 150 ^7, 377 
408, 471, 502, 642. 713, 7oO, <84, 
855 

Austria, 312, 440, 536, a55 

Axminster, 713 

Avlesburv, 281, 377, 677, 85j 

Ayr, 247', 408, 855 



■en. 472 
Deal, 604, 077 
Denmark, .V2, 713 
Derry, 570 ..-,,„ 

Dominican Republic, 15, 118 
Doncasler, 409, 504 
Dorchester, 248, 530 
Dover, 378. 409, 823 
Dublin, 248. 345, 471, 6i . , 821 
Dumfries, 822 
Dundalk, 345, 504 
Dundee, 15, 713 
Eastbourne, 119, 409 
East Dean, 889 
East Grinstead, 077 

Edi^.mgh'.'^^V^L 186. 210. 281, 471, 
ElectrieityTfotrlcls, 53. 151, 186, '378, 

537, 570. a'4, 677, 78,., 889 
Elgin, 537 
Elland. 119 

Ellesmerc Pori. a3, 210 
Emsworth, .WO 
Enniscorthv, 440 
Erith, 180 
Esthonia, 248 
Exeter. 312 
Exmouih. 216_ 
Faversham. 570 
Federate^l Mal.iy States, 218. 40.1 

l-cltham, 822 

Fermov, 004 

File, 856 

Finland, 185. 471, 530 

Flint. 151 

Folkestone, 15. o3 

is--!;r8rf^i .«;;-:-; 

312. •.(77, 440. Ii42, iM. .8a. 8— 
l.raserburgh, 8'22 
l.-,iern B.irn.t. 713 
C.argrave (Vorks.). ao, 

CerSv: ™ .51, 345. 377 

(Vur.^w. II 118, 248, 378, 441, 504, 

,W7. 642. 856 
Gloucester, 53. 216 
Godalming. 89 

8r."n?^ian \lemo. 642, 750 
Gravescnd. 441 
Greece, 151. 750 
Greenock, 409, 472, 604 



Kilmallock, 643 
King's Lynn 119 
Kinfiston-on-lhames. on 
Kinistown (Co. Dublin), a37 
Kingussie, 15 
Kircudbright. 504 
Kirkcaldy, 89 
Knaresborough. 409. a04 
Lamberthurst (Sussex). 40J 

^ncaster,"'^?.^ M9, 643. 785. 823 

Langholm. 823 

Latvia. 345. 713 

Law. 643 

Leatherhead. 750 

I-eeds, 89, 504, 889 

Leek. 186, 312 

Leicester, 186 

Leigh (Lancs.l, 119 

Leominster. 89. 409, 5(1 

Levton, 151 

Lincoln, 677, 823 

Litherland, 537 

Littleborough, 604 . 

Liverpool, 89, 151, 248. 340. a3. . IA.i. 

Llandovery, 119, 248 
Llandrindod Welts, 472. 537. 5.1 

Llandudno, 537 _ 

I lanfairfechan. 537. 643. (13 
Londoi 15, 89. 119. 151. 248. 346. 

537. 604. 643. 856, 890 
Londonderry. 537 
I^ong Ashton, 537 
Lossiemouth. 714 
Lower Walton. 713 
Lowestoft, 785 
I.uddenilenfoot, 604 
Lurgan, 216 
Luton. 151, 4?2 
Lyme Regis. 15 
Lvlham, 409. 890 
Maidstone, 346. 472, 009, .4. h 
kl inchester. .53, 90, 378, 609, 0.. 
Mansfield. 119 
Market Drayton. 3,8 
Markinch (Fife). 009 
Matlock. 312. 409 
Medhurst and District, la 
Melbourne (Derbyshire). 3.8 
M.UHnune '(Vie.). 8!. 150 
M..ll,.n Mowhrav. 151 4.>1_ 
Mi.l.ll.sbiov^Bh, 180. 5J(. (H 
Mi.lgl.- 



LiGHiiNi; AND PowM Nons-«nlin»«l. 
Oldham. 312, 378, 571 
Oswaldtwistle. 151 
Oswes^try. 349, 504 
Oulton Broad. 151 
Paisley. 186. 8.5«_ 

\^7erb„?iugh*'V*l86. 346. 378. 410. 

504. 677 
Philippics, 15 
PoUnd. 312. 750. 8aS 
Portishead. 349 
Portrush. 217. 441 
PorUladc. 472 
Portsmouth, 349. j3»- 
Portstcwart (Co. Londond..-rry). 4(. 
Portugal. 440 
Preston. 53. 151 . 

Radclifle. 53S ," . 

Rilhmims and Pembroke (Co. Dub- 
lin). 472. 823. 890 
Redditch, 378, 504 
Keigate. 151, 340 
Rhuddlan. 890 
Rhvl. 15 

Richmond. 90 ^ 

Rickmansworth. 119, 538 

Ripon, 0O9 „ 

R<>chdak-. 90. 282, 441. 677 

Rugbv, 571. 750 
• Rugeley, 890 

Rumania, 185 

Runcorn, 7.50. 856 

Rushden. 119. 856 _ 

Russia, 185. .536, 67,^ (13 

St Annes-on-Sea, 217, 441. 823 

St. Helens. 823 

St. Marylebone, 890 

S>. Pancras. 151 

Sale (Cheshire). 349 

Salford, 346, Sn, ffiS 

i:rr.?ar.^^,?^.'^«>.B«' 

re:'e:;o3^. us, 217. 643. 856 
Shaldon, 441 

Sheffield. 90, 349. 410 a04 
Shipley. 714 
Shoreham (Sussex). 90 
Shrewsburv. 180, 8o6 
Sicilv, 604 
Singapore, 472, 643 
Skegiiss, 282. 410 571. .86 
Skipton. 472. 714. 823 

ilTufrtfrfcY; 1^. 312. 346. 441. 5'3«. 

Mfi: 643. 750. 786, 890 
South .America. 217 
Southampton. 786. 890 



Mi 



. 409 



Mirli.M iVnrk-.). .-.04 

M„n.,gl...n, '249, 37S 

Monmouth. 210 

M.,ri-.ambe, 312 

M„lh..rwell, 378 

Mumbles (Glamorgan), 8-3 

N.v.n (Me.ith), 441, 609 

Nelson, 378, 785, 856 

Nenagh. 441 

Newark. 823 

NewcasUe (Co. Down). 151. 04.) 

N..wcas.U-e.n-rvne, 409 

\oweastle-und.r-I.vnie. 90 

\,-wDort (I. «( WVl- W 

Nl.w^or! (Mon.),.2S.. 378. 609 



Abl 



7.'iO 



Sou*^Shields. 186. 312, 379, 571 

Southwick. 504 

Sovland, 90 . 

Spain. 119. 248, 677, .oO 

Spalding. Ii77, 856 

Spenborough. 609 

StafTor.1. 186. 379 

Stepnev. 248 

Stirling, 382. *4S 

Stoke--on-Trenl. 186. 571 

Stretford. 249 

Strichen (.Aberdeenshire). 249. 410 

Sunderland. 53 

Sw.nsea. 90. 282. 379. 504. 5.1 

Sw.Klen, 119. 281, 855 

Swindon, 609 

Swinton. 410 

Svdncv (N.S.W,). lal. .-03 

Taunton. 53._ 249 

Teignmouth,' 119. 313. 504. 571 
Tishury. 119. 443_ 
Torinorden. 34b. .aO 
TorMuav. 317, 856 
Truro, 538, 751 
Tuam (Co. Galway), 442 
Tullaniore, 6*3 
Tunbridge WelLs, 21. 
Turkev. 785 

Ivnemouth. 442 

Inili-d Stales. 90. 282. 410 

I pper Silesia, 604 

W'akefield. 312. ;»40 

Wal.s, 282 

Willasev, MS 

Walmer', 90, 346 

Walsall, 5:f. 410, 6.7 

WaU^nin-N.,^. 379, 443. 8.-S 



890 



Ner'/ealand"*',' 249. 410. 5:J7. 609, 

643, 714. 856 
Nordon. 537 
N'orthallerton. 8.>6 
N'orlhampton. 18h. 8j6 
\„rthwich. 217. 378 
Sorthwood. .537 
Norway. 004. 785 
Norwich, 180. 677 
is'oltingham, 378, iT. 



igion. 90. 249. 472 

\\.iteriord. 8.i6 
Watford. 151. 677_ 
Wellinghorough, l.> 
\\..|sh,wol. tW» 
West Broniwuh, 90, .Ni. N» 
West Cornforth. 410 
W.-it Ham. 151 
W.St Riding. 119 , 
W.vhri.lge. 53. S..0 
W.Mm.ulh. 346 _ 

Whll.liaven, 24!>, 856. 890 
WiekK.w. 8.16 

Will.s.len. 90. IStS. 24!>. t>43 
Wiml.1.-<lon. 15. '.146 

Wolverhampton. .A. 18«>, -I.. -♦••• 
8!)0 .... 

Wln»h.-ster. 249, '.Mti. »>4.t 

W'.m-.-ster, «>. M2. 5«>4. 04:1. .14 

Worksop. 249. 613 

Worthing. M*. S23. S..<. _. 

\Vr. "ham, 24!l. 2S2. M. 379. 677 

Wve (Kent). 473 

V.-WTilouth. 443, 677 

Y^k^'sw! 379, _504. .177. 786, 823 
Vstmdgynlnis. a.l 

Lighting c.imi«i«n. An industrial. 640 
Lighting. Church, 18, 1*4 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[.lAKlAEY 6, 1022. 



Ughling i 
vdopiT 



ol I 



Lighting of taclorics and workshops, 

Thf, 293. eS 
Lighting plants in .Argentina, S28 
Lighting sets, .Aulom-itic. by H. R. 

Taunton. d04 
Lighting. Ston-, 674 
Lighting system, L'ndergrutind conduit. 

Lighting. Theatre, 783 

Lima. A strike .it, 302 

Liiren mill eKvtrificiIion. ■W7 

Linking-up of the snuill u;itt-r powers 

in Scotl.md, The, by Prof. F. G. 

l^aily. «0 
Liquid rheost.Tts. The design of, by W. 

Wilson, K» 



LlQniwrios s — 

.\iaddin Renew Ektlric Lamp Cor- 
poration, 183 

AUies Electric L.-imp Repairing Co., 
781 

Amalgamated Electric Works, 532 

Ampere Electrical Engineering and 
Plating Co., 568 

.^nglo-Foreign Tramwav Syndicate. H 

Anglo-French Wireless Co.', Ltd.. 886 

Anglo - Norwegian Electro - Chemical 
and Finance Co., 49 

Aqua Electric Co.. 781 

.Arc & General Equipment, 308 

Argentine Electricitv Co.. 819 

.\rmorduct British Co.. 11. 183 

•Associated Trading & Engineering 
Co., 819 SI. 

.Automobile Electrical Repairers, 886 

Bower & Tavlor, 183 

City Electric Welding Co. (New- 
castle), 406 

Dakon, Downes 4- Co.. 11 

Devon Hvdr«-Electric & Development 
Co.. 11 

Dubilier Condenser Co., 710 

E.B.C. Electrical Co., SO 

Egyptian Power & .Nitrogen Syndi- 
cate, 819 

Electric Fishing Co.. 639 

Electrical & Engineering Develop- 
ment, 747 

Electrical Maintenance Co. (Liver- 
pool), 115, 183 

Engineering i Arc Lamps, SO, 118 

Engineering Depots. 747 

Florundum Flame Carbons, 406' 

Gratze, 1S3. 213 

Guildford Electricity Suppiv Co., 600, 
639 

Hall Bros. (Manchester), 568 

Hand (R. B.) &• Co., 500 

Hayward (W. G. C.) & Co., 115, 781 

He.ids (El..ctriral). 639 

Hudson's Electrical Engineering Co., 
244, 308. 639 

Husband. F.. 278 

Ilford Dry Battery Co., 819. 886 

Leeds .Alliance Electrical Manufac- 
turing Co., 819 

Lithanode. 148 

Little Wonder Batterv Co.. 115, 406 

Malaga Electricitv Co.. 308 

Maxim Lamp Works. 406. 532 

Mersev Electrical Engineering Co., 
600 

Mutual Electric Trust. 532 

Vational Electric Time Co.. 747 

New Process Electrical Lamp Co., 600 

OHham, .Ashton & Hvde Electric 
Tramways. 244 

Orizaba Tramways Syndicate. 213 

Oxford PorLible Projector, 406 

Peter Hariev. 11 

Phonopore Construction Co., 568, 60O, 
819 

Portable Electric Motors (1919), 50. 
344 

Power Gas Economy, 819 

Premier Accumulator Co.. The, 781 

Pritchett & Cold and Electrical 
Power Storage Co.. 747. 781 

Railless Electric Traction Co., 148, 
781 

Renew Ijmp Co. (Eastern). 468. «3H 

Selson Engineering Co. (France), 568 

.Signal Electric Co., 115 

Spenserj. 467 

Slols Electrophone Co. (1914), 115, 
I8S 

Sloneyrrolt Kleclrical Works. 710 

Sirachnn. Osw.ll *• Co.. 710 

Surrey Electrical Co.. IIS 

Sutton-in-A>hlield Motor & Electrical 
Engineering Co.. 213, 344, .343 

T.B.S. Eleruical Construction Co., 
SOO, 567 

Technical Intelligence Services and 
the Trchnical Rrrirw. IK) 

Telephone Manul.ictuting Co., fiOO 

Cniled Elerlrlr r.,r Co., 40 

Wellman. Head, Stolhert & Pitt. Ll I 
710, 8»i 

Wholesale Electrical Co., 146, 213 



Local authorities and the supply of 
fitting.*. 698 

!.nrnmotives, .\ new furbo-declric, ."m 

l^ocnmotivrs. British Thumion-Houston 
electric shunltnij. 27 

Lrwomntives, Electric. 705 

I.rt-omotives in Japan, Electric, 279 

Locomotives on the Isle of Man. Bat- 
tery, 462 

Locr>motives. Turbine, 314 

London .ind Home Counties Electricitv 
District — Commissior>ers* decisiotts. 
866 

London, Ball lighting in, 189 



U)ndon F.iir and Market, The, 100 

London inquiry. The, 171 

London " toll " telephone cxchant:e, .A, 

371 
London's electricity supply, 841 
Long-distance transmission of electrical 

energy, with .sptvial refenncE to 

tid.il power, by T. F. Wall, 3m. 118 
Ixnis, Profit and, 203 
lx>w-tcmperature carbonis:ilidh of co;il, 

The, 664 
l.ow-\-oltage overhead distribution, bv 

B. Welhoum, 97 
Lyons Fair, The. 150. 74.1 
l.\ons, Inwntors' competition at, 149 



MACHINERY for Diesel en, 
:>hips, .Auxiliary, 713 
Machinery imports e:cemptions 

Ecuador, 570 
Machinery in Germany, Rcplacen 



M.achinery position in China. The, 439 
Machinery, The rating of, by .A Legal 



Magn 



Contributor, 617 



Ho 



145 



.Magnetic field. The path of a small pel 
meablc body in a, by Prof. W. 
Cramp, 73d 

Magnetic properties of monel metal. 
The. 292 

Magnetic storms of the present Solar 
Cycle, by the Rev. A. L. Cortie, 
451 

Magnetic storms ; Their effects upon 
railway signal and telegraph 
appaiatus, by W. J. Tliorrowgood, 
260 

Magnetic suney, .A, 898 

Magnetooptical effect, .A novel, 122 

Magnetos for internal<ombustion en- 
gines, by E. A. Watson. 28 

Magnets for salvage operation. Electric 
lifting, 508 

Mains photography, by .A. F. Beach, 
738 

Mancheste- Electro-harmonic Society. 
The, 18 

Manchester Motor Parade, 160 

Manchester. Practical education at, 252 

Afann. Egerton & Co.'s showroom, 170 

Manuf.acli'rers' conference, 5(J8 

Markets of South .America, The elec- 
trical, by P. F. Martin, 631 

Measurement of frequency. The, 121 

.Measuring enrotion, 160 

Measuring instruments. Electrical, 51 

Measjring instruments, " Super-scale." 
139 

Mechanical advantages of electric loco- 
motives compared with steam en- 
gines, by Sir V. L. R. Raven, 191 

Mechanical appliances and labour in 
loading and unloading ships' car- 
goes, bv .A. Musker, 259 

Medals for resuscitation, 285 

Medicine. Electricity in, 190 

Melb-^u.-ne, Electricity Commission at, 



168 



fiers, Large, 192 
Metal interests, Cicrman, 749 
Metal Workers' Union, German, 118 
Metal-working in Germany, 373 
.Metallic-resistance materials. Specifics 

lion for, 471 
Meter inspection. The value of, 123 
Meter-testing, Phase-shifting device lo 



M., 



87n 



Mctor-testing Phase-shifting de 



494 



for, 



Metric system in .America, The, 540 
Metric svstem in Japan. 167 
Metraoolitan-\'ickers Elei-trical Co., 

Ltd.-Trnfford Park Works. 75 
Metropolitan-Vickers - howrooms. New, 

Mexico after revolution, C95 
Mexico, Trade with, 341 
Microchronograph, The, by R. .A. 

Sampson, 452 
Midland Electric Manufacturing Co 's 

Works, The, 807 
M 'I, .A new electric rolling, 475 
Mill. Electrified sugar. 63 
.Million-volt transmission, 394 
Mills, A.C. periodicity in. 416 
Miners' Conference aiid F.B.I.. 279 
Miners' lamps, 12, 502 
Miners' unions, 280 
Mines, Eliirtricitv in. 298. 842. K47 
Mini.«. Electcirilv in. bv M. I. Wil- 
liams-Ellis, 395, 428' 
Minimum charge. Economy and the, 

267 
Mining and engineering dis-puti-s. The. 3 
Mining Drngers Research Ikxird, 122 
Mining plant for Canada. 116 
Minister of Transport. The. 317 
Mission from Cuba, A, 676 
Modern high-spe«d centrifugal pumps, 

by Dr. S. F. Barclay. 452 
Monel metal. The magnetic pronertit.s 

of, 292 
Motor^-ar. Wireless^ontrolled, '253 
•Motor-cars, High-frequency stray 

sparks on, by " Voltman," 878 
Motrir-«ars, The electrical equipment of. 

Motcr-cvcl- .Show. The Cycle and. 788 
.Moli.r drivers lor the R.A.F.. Fitters 

and. .WR 
Mor'«- Kxhitition, The Commercial, 471, 



.Molo 



F>hibition, The Inlernati 



(»6 

Motor parade, Manchester, 160 
Motor Show. Calcutta. 281 
Motor vans in Sweden, Ekvrtric, 
Municipal refuse salvage, 734 



.Municipal Tramways Association (Inc.), 
Annual Conference at Salford, 481, 
513 
Municipal tramways at bay, 457 
iMumcipal Tramways Conference (1922), 



N.ATION'.AL .As.suciatiun of Supt-r- 
vising Electricians, 894 
National Cuuncil, Kecunslitution of the, 

170 
National Electrical Convention, A, 106 
National Joint Board, I'he, 39 
National Physical Laboratory : Annual 

visitation and report, 66, 80 
Ncalc Elictroniagnet, Submarine tests 

with the, 303 
Near East, Tlic outlook in the, 64 
Neckjr H\dro-eleclric Works, 675 
Negatron . A new negative resistance 
device foi use in wireless tele- 
graphy, The, by . Scott-Taggart, 

Netherlands East Indies, Public con- 
tracts for the, 778 
Ne\v;as,le Housing Exhibition, 860 

Nkw Compa.nies — 

.Advance Lamp Co., 720 

Allen (L. T.) (Ormskirk & Penrith) 
Co., 178 

Allenwest-BrookhirsI (1921), 221 

-Alliance Wholesale Electrical, 58 

" .A^ O." Reflector Co., 576 

Aqua Electric Co., 828 

-Arctic Fuse & Electrical Manufactur- 
ing Co.,446 

Arrowsmith {H.) & Co., 791 

Asbestos Supply and Covering Co., 
478 ■ 

Barnett, B. (Electrical Engineers), 414 

Baynes Electrical Co., 478 

Beecrott & Partners, 649 

13.T. Staff Stores, 222 

Blockley Electrical Engineering Co., 
861 

Bordesley Electrical Accessories Co., 
478 

British and European Trading Co.,, 

British .Association for the •Advance- 
ment of Radiology and Physio- 
therapy, 351 

British .Automatic Telephone Installa- 
tion Co,, 382 

British Engineering Units, 896 

British Samples, 286 

British Standard Centrifugal Pump 
Co., 510 

Broadbents Patents Co. (Southporl), 
576 

Car Ignition and Lighting Co., 681 

Carlton Lamp Co., 720 

Carndonagh Electric Supply, 896 

anema Engineering Co., 512 

Clear Hooters, 383 

Colley & Co., 20 

Davis Electrical Co., 576 

Davis; Hudson & Co., 649 

Delstar Engineering Co., 720 

Dewhurst, Edward, 542 

Dubilier Condenser Co. (1921). 828 

Electric and Railway Finance Cor- 






828 



221 



Co., 



El€s:trolu.\. 350 

Engineers' Club (London), Ltd.. 386 
Gaunt & Wilkinson, 94 
Hampstead Electrical Co.. 542 
Hands (G.) & Co. (Glasgow), 755 
Hall Telephone Accessories, LIS 
Hay Maryon Works (Stroud), 221 
Hitchcock's Magnetic Engine Co., 79 
Hugh Stanley Co., The. 58 
Industrial League and Council, 511 
International Ekctrolvlic Plant Co. 

478 
Jeary Electrical Co., 155 
Jesmond Electrical and General En 

ginrering Co., 446 
Jones & Pordes, 318 
l_-iwford Ross. 861 
Lloyd &■ Ramsden. 510 
London EmiTv Works (UfJl). '221 
Lowkc &• .Sons, 125 
Malleable Fillings, 135 
Marshall (A.) &■ Co., 58 
.Meridian Electric Co., 383 
Modern El..clriral Suppiv Co.. 286 
Moore «.• Bark.T. .^IS ' 
Morgan's (Hirmingham) Electric Mo 



Myriad Display Co.. 382 




Norwegian Radio Co., 222 




O.rlikon. 649 




Ohms. 286 




f)Isen Engine Syndicate. 94 




Payne IR. F.). Gallwev X Co.. 


720 


Pneumatic Power Useri Co., 30 




Portham Separators. :t83 




Po'ver House Components, 730 




Premier .Accumulator Co. (11921) 


791 


Railgrip Syndicate, 7.55 




Rawcliffe (F.) &• Co., 286 




Resisto Electric Wire and Tape 


Co., 



414 

Rose Bros. Electrical Co., 221 
R<ws & Co. (Electric), 125 
Rowland (S.) & Co.. 94 
Rubb-r Club of Great Britain, 155 
Scintillating Sign Co., 649 
Scottish Engineering Corporation, 350 



Sclect-o- 
Semaphi 



Pho 



321 



478 



Shoreham and District Electric Light. 

ing and Power Co., 478 
Standard Electric Sign Co., 221 
Stentaphone Motor Accessories (1921), 

684 
Spensers (Scotland), 791 
Strlchen Electric Suppiv Co., 049 
Supra Electrical Co., 896 
Sussex Electricity Supply Co., 125 
Symondsbury Electric Lighting Co., 

720 
Talbot & Loblcy, 614 
Tisbury Electric Suppiv Co., 350 
Tough (W. J.) & Partners, 221 
Union Electric Welding Co. (Egypt), 

Visco Engineering Co., 414 
Wheeler's Electric Shade Carrier, 755 
Whiffen, R., 383 
Wimbledon Electrical Co., 446 
Wintcrsgill & Worth, 684 
Wren Three-Link Patent Safety 
Coupler, 286 



New Electrical Devices. Fittings, 
AND Plant— 
" .Adjustalite " Pendant, The, 177 
" Agraf " Switch, The, 272 
Air compresser, A Reavell, 726 
" Airedale " Oil Circuit-breaker, The, 

466 
" .Airolite " power set, The, 622 
Alkal-acid indicator, Empson's, 455 
Ammeter, A simple form of, 519 
" Baby Par.agon " switch and fuse. 

The, 177 
" Baby-spot " projector. The, 587 
Belting, A new, 271 
" Brooklite " 1-kW set. The, 655 
Brush holder, .A new, 271 
" B.S.T." hand lamp. 401 
" Bungalyte " set. The, 79 
" Carron " grate suite. A, 655 
Circuit-breaker, A new, 455 
Coal and electric range, A combined, 

726 
Conduit and pip^-cloaning device. An 

electric, Sf71 
Continuity fitting, A new, 147 
Copier, the " Hail-Mark," 779 
(Coupling, Flexible insulating, 35 
" Coventry " chain coupling. The, 655 
" Creda " bowl fire. The, 586 
Current limiter, A new. 36 
Cut-outs for housing schemes. Service, 

210 
" Dictograph " telephone junction box. 

The, 273 
Dock cranes, .Mobile electric, 693 
*' Duros " accumulator. The, 147 
Egg tester. An electric, 79 
F^ry cell. The, 372 
Fires. Ornamental electric. 519 
Floodlight projectors, B.T.H., 401 
Foot-candle meter, .A, 373 
" Garage " converter, The. 35 
" Genii " electric distillers. 148 
" Gescha " cable connector. The, 210 
Glossing iron. An electric, 838 
Grubb non-dazzle motor-car headlamp. 

The. 467 
Hot-plate, An adaptable, 72a 
" Isco " loop-in cut-outs, 337 
Kettle and teapot, .A combined. 4(11 
Kinema projection lamp, .A new, 147 
Kinema projector, .A small, 726 
Kohler lighting plant. The, 587, 601 
Lamp guard, .A new, 779 
Lagip-locking device. A, 325 
Lantern, An improved electric. 79 
I.ightmeter, The " Benjamin," 90S 
I.ocking ring, " Lamlock " sealed. 65 
" Lowa " dimming switch. The. 466 
" Lowke " small power sets. 693 
Meter tester, .A watt-hour, 401 
■Mining apparatus, Flame-pfoof, 337 
Mosaic fittings, 241 
" Oliver " mortising machine. The, 871 
Phoenix lighting set. The, 726 
Pipe lighter. An electric, 519 
Porcelain handles with quick-break 

links, 622 
" Pre.scot " pillar. The, 693 
" Pride " patent bowl, ring, and 

silk-shade fitting. 466 
" Priorv " distribution board. The, 177 
Pulkv drawer, A 10-ton, 622 
Pulpit-lighting fitting, A. 904 
Reflector for showH;.isc lighting, A. 325 
" Rilter " X-ray dental oulfit. 550 
Rotary transformer. A new. 114 
Seam-welding machine, A new elec- 

trie, 114 
Selenium current regulator, A. 17S 
Shop-winding lighting, .A new niethoil 

of, 622 
Siren, An electric. 904 
Smoke detector? A, 210 
Soldering iron, fhc Wheatcroft, 519 
Speed-reducing gear, A new, 336 
.Stove for soldering irons, A heating, 

372 
Switch for overhead cables, Safety, 337 
Switch-fuses, New, 65 
*' Terra-grip " continuity system. The, 
Toaster, The '* Universal " electric, 

837 
Traffic regulator. A, 241 
Tramcar tire healer. A, 325 
Transformers, Toy, 147 
Triode valve and " Thermagnion," 

The •' R. M. R.," 79 
Trolley wire insulator. A new. 338 
" Universal " electric range, 325 
" Utility " current limiter. 35 
" Vincent " fuseboard. The, 779 
Wavne self-winding cable reel. The, 

550 
Wear of bearings alarm device, 837 



f 



Januaey 6, 1922.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



New liLECiKicu- Devicbs, Fittings and 

Tj-ANT — continued. 
" Win-Sum " radiator, The, 871 
VVitton-Kramcr bench drUls, 5B7 
W'illon-Krunier electric pulley block, 

871 

>i»\ Vork City, Electric trucks in, by 

E. K. Scott, «B7 
Now Zealand, British manufacturers 

and, tl7 
New Zealand farms. Electricity on, 252 
New Zealand, Imports of, 51il 
New Zealand preference, Change in, 

43!) 
New Zealand, Trade conditions in, 653 
News- value or nuisance value? 349 
Nitrogen products from the air, 405 
Non-union labour, The E.T.U. and, 

203, 215 
Notlh-East Coast Local Electrical 

TradiPij Association, A, 74U 
North Walts Counties .-Xsylum, Den- 
bigh, 547 

,vay, Domestic electricity supply in. 



«7 



459 



Norway, Electric pow 

Norway, Engineering discharges in, 
002 

Norwegian buying-in Association, A, 
14 

Norwegian electro-chemical industry, 
14, 555, 838 

Norwegian Hydro-electric Co., The, 344 

Norwegian loan, A big, 199 

Nottingham Electrical Wholesalers' As- 
sociation, 640 



o 



BITUAKY- 



\rmstrong. Prof. F. E., 014 
Atherton, Jacob, 895 
lialfour Browne, J. H., 445 
BaJfour of Burleigh, Lord, 94 
Booth, W. H., 083, 719 
Brain, Sir F., 350 
Coates, E., til4 
Crocker, F. B., 221 
Davidson, Sir Samuel, 2S6 
Day, A. A., 414 
Donop, Lt.-Col. P. G. von, 649 
FaUen, A., 124 
I Featherstone-Smith, E., 510 

Fielding, J., 542 
Fox, Sir D., 683 
Gibson, J., 828 
Harness, C. B., 446 
Hart, F. G., 720, 755 
Hewitt, P. Cooper, 31S, 
Hinchlifle, Aid. J. S., 755 
Jackson, F. H., 790 
Joyce, V. E., 3«) 
Kennedy, W. R., 720 
Laws, H., 542 
Ledger, G., 614 
Linsley, Aid. H., 286 
McHugh, VV., 720 
ManJelick, W. E., 542 
Mills, E. C, 94 
Milton, John, 895 
Mountain, M. B., 790 

Newgass, B., 382 

NichoUs, Senator F., 576 

Proece, Lt.-Col., P. J., 614 

Pvne, Sir S., 382 

Richards, E. VV., 6S3 

Koebling, K. G., 20 

Rogerison, A. C, 124 

Rowell, Sir H. B., 20 

Schlesinger, L. B., 414 

.sclater, A. \V., 94 

simmonds, K. R., 543 

Sloog, H., 649 

Suenson, t-'ommodore E., 445 

Swift, J., 318 

lalbot, G. W., 828 

I'aylor, C. E., 94 

Varley, S. A., 221 

Wilkinson, J., 94 

Wilson Fox, H., 755 

Worrall, F., 828 

Odometer, The, 253 

L OfFICI.U. RKTUKN.S— 

f A. & A. Electrical Co., 720, 755 

' Adelaide Electric Supply Co., 755 

Advance Engineering Co., 414 
A. G. E. Electric Motors, 791 
.\laddin Lamps (Midlands), 478 
.Aladdin Renew Electric Lamp Cor- 
poration, 94 
Arc & General Equipment. 2.55 
Armature Repairing & Suj^ply Co., 

684, 791 
Arnott & Harrison. 414 
Ashdown, H. E. (Birmingham), 255 
Associated Equipment Co., 511 
Automobile Electric Repairers, 125 
Uabcock Si Wilcox, 551 
Bastian Electric Co., 577 
Hath Electric Tramways, 94, 190 
Bndnle & District Electric Supply Co., 

Bell's Unit»-d Asbestos Co.. 351 
Birkdale District Supply Co., 4711 
Hisseker (H.), 755 
Bolton (T.) & -Sons, 222 
Bourne End & District Elcctricitv Cor- 
poration, 447, 791 
Bowran >Si Co., Robert, 896 
British Electric Traction Co.. 720, 7.55 
British Electric Transformer Co., 318 
British Illuminate.! Sign Co.. 286, 318 
British Insulated & Helsby Cables, 21 
British Mica Co., 318 
British Universal Variable Gears. 542 
Brompton & Kensington Electricity 
Supply Co., 125 



Brookmill Motor Si Engmcxring Cu., 

684 
Brush Electrical Engineering Co., 31li 
Butt (F. R.) Si Co., 58, 479 
Cambridge Electric Supply cc, 828 
Catchpole Si Maurice, a42 
Central Electric Supply Co., 222 
Chamberlain & Hookham, 447 
Chelsea Electricity Supply Co., 222 
Chesham Electric Light & I'ower Co., 

Chile Telephone Co., 447 
Chipperfield, 8b*2 

Chiswick Electricity Supply Corpora- 
City of Oxford Motor Services, 222, 

862 
Cleveland S: Durham Electric Power, 

125 
Comae Manufacturing Co., 828 
Conner Magneto & Ignition, i 111 
Cowey Engineering Co., 478 
Cox-Cavendish Electrical Co., 828 
Crompton & Co., 478 
Crowther Si Osborn, 542 
Cryselco, 155 

Cuba Submarine Telegraph Co., 222 
Cumberland Coal Power & Chemicals, 

828 
Dart-moor Electric Supply Co., 351 
Delhi Electric Tramway & Lighting 

Co., 577 
Direct West India Cable Co., 720 
Drake i Gorham, 12i 
Dudley, Stourbridge it District Elec- 
tric Traction Co., 222 
Duram, 155 
Durel & Co., 155 
East Anglian Electricity, 791 
Edison Swan Electric Co.. 318, 577 
Electric Motors (South WalesJ, 478, 

791 
Electric Supply Co. of Victoria, 720 
Electric Supply Corporation, 862 
Electric Welding Co., 862 
Electrical Appliances (Blackpool), 94 
Electrical Distribution of Yorkshire, 

255 
Electrical Finance & Securities Co., 

479 
Electrolite, 414 
Elwell, C. F., 222, 720 
Ely Gas Si Electricity Co., 318 
Evans, R. A., 542 
Everett, Edgcu nbe & '-O., 684 
Fluxo Welding Co., 791 
Fors Accumulator Foreign Patents, 

862 
Frinton-on-Sea St District Electric 

Light Si Power Co.. 828 
Fuller's United Electric Works, 614 
General Electric Co., 222, 414, 478, 

577 
Gilkes (G.) Si Co., 614 
Gillatt (S.) Si Co., 318 
Haden (G. M.) Si Sons, 447 
Hall Brothers (Manchester), 155, 222 
Hands (G.) & Co., 614 
Harris Electro Metal Co., 720 
Heads (Electrical), 21 
Healing (L. G.) & Co., 720 
High Temperature Generators (1918). 

94 
Hill Bros. (Magnetos), 21 
Hill, D. S: J., 318 
Hirst (A.) & Son, 286 
Hong Kong Tramway Co., 720 
Hooper's Tolegraph & India-rubber 

Works, 351 
Hulett (D.) Si Co., 383 
Hutchinson Bros., 255 
llfracombe EkH;tric Light Ji- Power 

Co., 318 
Isle of Thariet Electric Tramways and 

Lighting Co., 862 
Johnson & Phillips, 125, 318 
Kalgoorlie Electric Power & Lighting 

Corporation, 720 
Kalgoorlie Electric Tramways, 511, 

755 
Keith (J.) & Blackman Co., 1'25, 828 
Laminated Gears, 791 
Lancashire Electric Light & Power 

Co., 720 
Leadless While Manuf.acturing Co., 21 
Lee (A.) 8: Co., 21 
Liverpool Electric Cabl.- Co., 479 
London-Platino-Brazilian lelegrapli 

Co., 222 
Lowth Si Smith, 828 
McWhiltakcr, 318 
Magic Appliances, 828 
Malleable Fittings, 318 
Mansfield & District Tramways, 21 
Marconi International Marine Com- 
munication Co., 577 
Mersey Power Co., 577, 755 
Metropolitrrn Electric Supply Co., 125 
Metropolitan-Vickers Electricrrl Co., 

S86 
Milford-on-Soa Electric Supply Co., 1.55 
Monometor Manufacturing Co. (1918). 

Morrell Export Co., 318 

Moy, E. v., 755 

.Muirhriid & Co., 542 

New Gutta Percha Co., 222 

Newtons, 684 

New Welding Co., l.'ia, 577, ".V".^ 

Northampton Electric Light & Power 

Co., 125, 255, 479 
North Wales Power Si Traction Co., 

Orlontal Telephone Si Electric Co., S(S 
Oswestry Electric Lighting & Power 

Co., 684, 828 
P,acific & European Telegraph Co., 

863 
Patrick, F., 21 



>l-Ficl.U- RiiTUKNS — Continued. 
Pernambuco Tramways & Power Co., 

Peterboicugh Electric Traction Co., 

5U 
Pirelli-General Cable Works, 94 
Radio Communication Co., UtM 
Kamsden Groin, 414 
Rangoon Electric 1 ramway Xi Supply 

Co., 286 
Rawlings Bros., 58 
Khondua Tramway Co., 649 
Robertson (W. H. A.) & Co., 318 
Kubinson (A.) & Co., 125 
Rose Bros. Electrical Co., 318 
Royce, 755 

Rural Electricity Supply Co., 684 
Kussels (Manchesterj, 383, 755 
Saitax Manulaciuring Co., 862 
Sevenoaks Si District Electricity Co., 

720 
Scholes (G. H.) S: Co., 8-28 
Sentinel Instrument Co., 828 
Shanghai Electric Construction Co., 

laO 
Sheerness 8l District Electric Power 

and Tr.action Co., 577 
Shenton (F. J.) it Co., 21 
Simoon Engineering Co., 478 
Sisson (W.) Si Co., 684 
Sloan Electrical Co., 318 
South American Light it Power Co., 

318 
South iMetropoIitan Electric Light and 

Power Co., 684 
Southern Brazil Electric Co., 125 
Southern Electric Free Wiring Co., 

South-Western Engineeiing Co., 896 
Spanish Telephone Co., 577 
Splitdorf Electrical Co. of London, 720 
Staffordshire Electrical Accessories 

Stantoii' Si Co., 21 

Stentophone Motor Accessories (1921), 
896 

Sterling Telephone Si Electric Co., 94, 
190 

Sussex Electricity Supply Co., 255 

Swift Electrical, 6bi 

Sykes (VV. R.) Interlocking Signal 
Co., 684 

Technical it Electrotechnical Whole- 
sale Trade, Amsterdam (Telga), 
576 

Thermal Electric Works (Hack- 
bridge), 155 

Threadgill Electro Deposits, 577 

Tolield it Robinson, 190 

Torquay Tramways Co., 577 

Tramway Supplies, 828 

Tudor Accumulator Co., 383 

Turner, Atherton & Co., 684 

Twiss Electric Transmission, 542 

United Electric Tramways Co. of 

United Electric Tramways of Monte- 



Patcnls law, U.S.A., 189 

Path ul a >maU permeable body in a 

magnetic field, 1 be, by Prol. W. 

Cramp, 730 
Peace irealj, Foreign patents and the, 

74 
Pekin, Tramways for, 51 
Percentage, The curse of, 73 
Permanent way (public road) mainu-n- 

ance, by w . Chamberlain, ola 
Perth salaries disputes, 1»4 
Petrol-electric 'buses lor London, 285 
iVtrol-eleclric system, Th*-, 574 
Pelrol-ejeclrjc iransmission, 695 
Phase scquerice, iesting lor, 252 
Phase-shilling device for meter testing, 

494 
Phenomenon, A new, 3 
Photography, .Mains, by A. F. Beach, 



Ploughs in Russia, Ekctric, 315, 581 
Poland, Future prospecu in Hungary 

and, 324 
Poland, 'io finance electrical undertak- 



vide 



318 



ings 



U6 



Polish commercial restrictions. Aboli- 
tion ol, 817 
Polish elecirical congress, 612 
Porcelain in Australia, 253 
Post Office and trade. The, 3 

Office Engineering Department, 



The, 



735 



Postage, Insufficient foreign, 288 

Postal Congress at Stockholm, 1SB4, 118 

Postal rates reform. The urgent need 
for, 626 

Postponement of sinking-fund payments, 
681 

Power factor, by E. W. Dorey, 275, 
493, 723 

Power factor and charges for electri- 
city in Canada, 826 

Power factor. Low, by R. O. Kapp, 



43 



18 



United River Plate Telephone Co., 318 
Urban Electric Supply Co., 125 
Vandervell (C. A.) it Co., 447 
Veritys, 478 
Walter's Electrical Manufacturing 

Co., 577 
Ward, T. W., 863 
Watson (S. J.) Magneto Co., 755 
Western Electric Distributing Cor- 
poration, 896 
Western Electric Co., 58 
White, Jacoby & Co., 75S 
Wilson, Hartnell &: Co., 649, 791 
Wilson-Wolf Engineering Co., 414 
VVimblcHlon Electrical Co., 577 
VVinscombe Electric Light it Power 

Co., 720 
Yale Electric Power Co., 577 
Yorkshire Cable Co., 755 

Oil engines and electricity supply, by 
G. Porter, 798 

Oil, I'he centrifugal purificnlion of, 
388 

Oil -.■. Coal, 245 

Oils, Research on insulating, 687 

Old Brigade. The, 860 

Ontario, liydro.<'lectria Power Com- 
mission of, 694 

Operation of tramways and 'bus under- 
takings under statutory powers, as 
aBectcd by the Ro.ads Act, 1920, by 
J. B. Hamilton, 4S2 

Optical signalling, 476 

Outlook in the Near East, The, 64 

Ovens and hot plates, ThermnJ charac- 
teristics of electric, by Dr. E. 
UriHiths and F. H. Scholield, SO 

Overseas trade, Canada and, 116 



P.VCIFIC Cable Board— Annual Re- 
port, 731 

Pacific cables, 859 

Piuc-els by air, 240, 338 

Paris underground railways. The, 18 

Parliament. New electrical proposals 
foe the consideration of, 867 

Parliamentary Bills, 149, 8Q7 

" P.i..isimeter ' system on '* Under- 
ground," 85!) 

Patent agreement, A German-English- 
Amorican, 88 

Patent restorations, .-Vpplications for, 88, 
ISO, 184. 407, 5,12. 568, HS, 784 

Patents applii-d for, 1921, New. 36, Ti, 
104, 136, 16S, 2lHI, '232, 264, 286, 
328, 360. 3!t!, 424. 456, 488. .520. 
553, .W, 624, 660, 696, 738, 768, 
804. 840, 872, 908 

Patents, Empire, 235 

Patents, French, 438 



Power from a water i 

Power from Boston water supply, 540 

Power house equipment required (or 

Canada, 310 
Power in Norway, Electric, 459 
Power, Indirect storage of, 252 
Power station employes' £5,000 claim, 

285 
Power station's future, .\, 894 
Power stations. VVaterwais and, 87 

u 220,000 volts, 31 
Scandinavian, 19U 
Premier on signs ol trade revival. The, 

676 
Premier's advisers. The, 471 
Presidential address at the I.M.E.A. 

annual meeting, by H. Richardson, 

i09 
Press and accuracy. The, 591 
Pressure-rise in transformers, .\bnor- 

mal, 654 
Price lluctualions during 1921, 853 
Principles by which wages are deter- 
mined. The, by W. L. Hichens, 451 
Principles of wages determination. The, 

Printing and publishing. The cost of, 56 
Private meeungs, 12, ol, 86, 500, 781, 

887 
Problem of getting a job. The, 74 
Problems of physics, by Prof. O. W. 

Richardson, 354 
Produce for Germany on nine months' 

credit, 245 
Producer and consumer in Soa;ti 

Africa, 534 
Profit and lo-ss, 202 
Profit-sharing in coiU mining, .52 
Profit-sharing scheme at work. .\, 88 
Promoting electricity supply, 6<H 
Propaganda wanted. More, by E. S. 

Hodgson, 737 
Protection i-gainst X-ra)-s and radium, 

131 
Protection in Spain, 138 
Provincial Electric Supply Conunitlee 

of the United Kingdom, The, 464 
Public Works, (tc. Exhibition and 

Congress. 641, 70S, 7m 
Publishing, The cost ol printing and, 

56 
PyroiiK-tcr lor cold-junction icmpef.i- 

lurc. Selling a ncording, 1:£ 
Pyrometers. Notes concerning conlact, 

by " Electrode," 526 
•• Pylrani " lighting fillings, l»2 



UADRVNT elcclronvter, The, 114 



ADIOGKAPHV. .107 



Q 

R 

Radiography and radiology, 682 
Radium in Belgian Congo, 284 
Radium in Ciecho-Slovakia, 317 
Radium, Protection against X-rays and, 

121 
Radium, The curative powers of, 581 
Kail contract. Belgian, 51 
Rail shopmen's wages, 344 
Railway contracts, Chik-an electric, 503, 

534' 
Railway decontrol, 253 
Railwav electrification, 57, 508. 569, 

59i; 875 
Railway electrification, by Sir Vincent 

Railway elrclr'ification standards, 36S 
Railway fusion scheme, 658 
Railwav interests in Germarty, 503 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[January 6, 1922. 



Rui.«^\v Noits— 
Aiutr;ilia, Uff, -110, 472, lH^i, HM 
Aubtria, 54 
Brazil, IJU, So? 
Canada, 714 

CV-nlral Lomjon Knilw.tv, tt23 
Chile, 313, 751 
Cuba. iaU 
Finland, 41U 

Frvni-h Saulhern Kailw.iy, 472 
Grrn.anv, 41U 
Holland, 410 
llal>, 91, 442, 7S<i. N2a 
J.npan, IB, 54, 187, 472 
Java, 3M) 

Lancai>hiri^ r.iilway dKIrificntion, (iOil 
l-.U. S S.C. Kailwar, 91, 714, 890 
Londun, 54. 91, 187. 217, 250, J«0. 

410, 473, 505, 571, 009, 07.S, x£l, 

857 
Madagascar, 473 
Manch^lLT, 751 
Norway, 379. (XO, 078, 751 
Railways Uill, The, 250 
Ruchd.Ue, 75; 
S.K. i C. Railway, 610 
SouOi Alrica, 282,'s!IO 
.Spain, 504. W3 
Sweden. 379, 410 
Switzerland. 250. 442, 472, S23 
Uniied Stales, 505, 571, 751 



Railway work, French, 711 
Kailwavs, Ihe electrification of, 371 
Railways Joint Coinmiltee, Under- 
ground, 74S 
Railways. The Paris underground, 18 
Rainsay Memorial, The, 153, 219 
Rating of electricitv undertakings and 

lactories, Ihe, 784 
Rating of machinery. The, bv a Legal 

Contributor, 017 
Rebate in Spanish Customs duties on 

machinery. 001 
Receiver appoinli-d. 278, 407. 673 
Reception of wireless waves on a 
shielded frame aerial, by .\. A. 
Campbell Swinton, 350 
Rcconslitution of the National Coun- 
cil, 170 
■iectifjers for Ihe Chemins de ler du 

.Midi, 281 
Rectifiers, Large mercury arc, 492 
Refrigerating plant, 700' 
Registration of contractors in South 

Africa, 184 
Registration of electrical contractors in 

Australia, 711 
Regular inspection saves time, 507 
Relation of run<,ff to rainfall. The, by 

H. Lapworth. 259 
Relativity, The theory of, 349 
Research Fellowships, Commercial, 670 
RiT,earch on insulating oils, 687 
Resignation of Sir Eric Geddes, 541 
i<estaurant, A modern electric, 574 
K<:strictive covenants, by A Legal Con- 
tributor. 179 
Reval Port improvements, 280 

Reviews— 

.Advertising the t<chnical product, bv 
C. A. Sloan and J. L). .Mooney, 
323 

Arithmetic of telegraphy and tele- 
phony. The, by 'i", L. Herbert and 
R. G. de Wardt, 405 

Armature winding and motor repair, 
by 0. H. Braymer, 262 

Armature Winding ; A practical hand- 
book for students, armature 
winders, and engineers-in-charge, 
by C. Sylvester, 48 

Blue printing and modern plan-copy- 
ing, by B, J. Hall, 748 

Hook of the Ford, The, by R. T. 
.Nicholson, 711 

Book of the Ford Van, The, by R. 
T. .Nicholson, 820 

Catalogue of British scientific and 
technical books, 855 

Coil ignition lor motor-cars, bv C. 
SyfvestCT, 362 

Uomestic fuel consumption, by Prof. 
A. H. Barker, 181 

Dynamo and motor ert:ction and 
management, by A. H. Avery, 295 

Electric bells, alarma, and signalling 
systems, by H. G. White, 767 

EIrclric furnaces in the iron and steel 
industry, by W. Rodenhauscr, J. 
.Sclio.nawa, and C. H. Vom Uaur, 
359 

F.leclric motor installations : Their up- 
keep and lay-out, 623 

Electric power transmission, by A 
.Still, 2B3 

El.-clric welding, by E. Viall, 839 

Electrical ("onlraclors' Year Book. 
J!l21-22, 4:M 

Electrical .nginecTing, by T. F. Wall, 

Electrical Engineers' IJiary, TIm . 888 
Elfxlric.,1 handling of materials. Vol. 

II., Structural Work, by H. H. 

Broiighton, 023 
Electrical transmission of photograph'.. 

by M. J. Martin, :«» 
F.lrrlrician Annual, Tahh-s of elec 

tricily und«>rtakings, 279 
RIeclricity in *t. el works, by W. 

McFarlane, 839 
Klecirificalion of railways, bv II. F. 

Trewman. 182 
Elementary principles of continuous 

currt;nt armature windings, by I*. 

M. Denton. 48 
Elements of direct<urrent electrical 

■ ngin^.Ting, by H. E. Tr.wman 

and G. E. Condlille, 404 



Rkvibws — conlinHcc<. 
tlcnie-ns of illuminating engineering. 

by .\. P Trotter, 7tK) 
Elements of radiotelegraphy. by E. 

W. Stone. 323 
Engineering Inilex, 1920 88 
Engineering steels, by L. .Ulchison, 

359 
Engineers' Year-book, 1921. The, 

Compiled and edited b) H. R. 

Kempe, 181 
F.aclory .idministralion and cost ac- 
counts, by E. T. Ellbourne, 322 
Foreign Exchanges and How to 

Profit by Them, bv \'. I.. Gerard, 

(i39 
Foreign trade tablc-s, by .\. J. Law- 
son, 023 
l*>ench Polishers' Handbook, The, 

631 
Hardening and tempering engineers' 

tools, by G. Gentry, 639 
Heating systems ; Design of hot-water 

and sle;im-healing apparatus, by 

F. W. Raynes, 374 
High-tension switchboards, by H. E. - 

Poole, 839 
High-tension switchgear, by H. E. 

. Poole. 48 
Industrial control, by F. M. Lawson. 

296 
Induction coil design, by M. A. Codd, 

125 
Induction coils, by G. E. Bonney, 125 
Instruction for working Edison ac- 
cumulators, 149 
Kelly's Directory of Merchants, 

Manufacturers, and Shippers of 

the World, 88 
Lubricating and allied oils, by E. A. 



Eva 



296 



.Manual of Electrical Undertakings 

and Directory of Officials, by E. 

Garcke, 13 
.Mex fuel oil. 185 
Modern central stations, by C. W. 

Marshall, 767 
.Modern high-speed influence machines, 

by V. E. Johnson, 767 
Power factor correction, by A. E. 

(.Uayton, 358 
Power house design, by Sir John F. 

C. Snell, 880 
Pr.ictical Electricians' Pocket-book 

and Diary, 888 
Practical testing of electrical ma- 
chines, bv L. Oulton and N. J. 

\\ilson, 3.W 
Relativity and the electron theory, 

by E. Cunningham. 851 
Sni ill single-phase transformers, by E. 

T. Painton, 48 
South African Engineers', Electrical, 

and .Allied Trades Directory, 

1921-22 edition, 214 
Steam turbo-alternator. The. by L. 

C. Grant, 881 
Telegraphy, telephony, and yvircless, 

by J. Poole, 358' 
Testing of continubus current ma- 
chines. The, by C. F. Smith. 881 
Theory of wave transmission, by G. 

Constantinesco, 50 
Thermionic tubes in radio telegraphy 

and telephony, by J. Scoll-'lag- 

gart, 851 
Tidal power, by A. M. A. Struben, 

49 
Trade unionism sound:- Is, by J. H. 

Bunting, 405 
Universal exchange and interest 

tables. 888 
Winning the public, by S. M. Ken- 
nedy, 295 



Rheostats with the minimum of ma- 

malcrial, 681 
Richardsons, Westgarth & Co.. 12 
Riga Exhibition concession, 150 
Riga, Italian trade .-ictivity at, 712 
Right to live. The, 361 
Rivets yvith electricity. Heating, 219 
Rolling mill, A new electric, 475 
Rotary electric furnace. A, 544 
Royal Albert Docks, Electric wiring at 

'he, .'51'; 
Rubber, British Empire, 569 
Rubber crisis in Brazil, The, 13 
Rubber industry. Settlement of a strike 

in the, C76 
Rubber industry, The, 105 
Rubber, New uses of, 603 
Rumania, The hopeful outlook in, 38il 
Rumania, Trade with, 888 
Rumanian market. The, 311 
Rumanian .Samples Fair, 377 
Russia, A. E.G. .iclivities in, 893 
Russia, Belgian interests in, 503 
Russia, Belgian tramway concessions 

in, 820 
Russia, Electric ploughs in, 31S, 581 
Russia, Foreign elc.ctrical engineers in- 
vited to, 675 
Russia, Four years* electrical progress 

in, 215 
Rl/ssia, Imalra Falls and, 806 
Russia, .Swedish transformers for, 241 
Russia, Telegraph material in, 712 
Russian electrical congrc*ss, A. 50 
Russian electrical nolo, 52. 583 
Russian electrical undertakings, S02, 

887 
Russtan industries, Denationalised. 749 
Ru>si in in..'uBlrial property, 784 
Russian si.-lions. New, 870 
Russia's elrctrical factories, 533 
Russia's el.ctrification, 239 
Russo.ti.Tiii.in reconstruction scheme, 



SAFEGUARDING of Industries 
Act, 400 
Safeguarding of Industries .Act. Im- 
porters' criticisms of the yvorking 

of the, 535 
Salaries at Karachi, 149 
Salesmanship conferences, Electricitv, 

041, 697, 888, 902 
Salesm inship. Electrical, 627 
Salesmanship, The art of, 730, 875 
Salesmanship, The test of, by 11. K. 

Taunton, 397 
Salvage, Municipal refuse, 734 
Sanding rails, .New system ol, 352 
Sardinia, Uydro-clectric developments 

in, 016 
Sawdust as fuel— Messrs. J. Sad.l and 

Sons' limber mills, 236 
Saxony, Consolidation of interests in, 

601 
Saxony, The electrical industry in, 853 
Scandinavia, Hydro-electric problems 

in, SO . 

Scandinavian power transmission, 190 
Scar House hvdro-electric scheme. The, 

810 
Scholarships, " Beania," 859 
School ol instruction in radiography, 

Scientific and industrial research, 595 
Scientific research, A gift for, 18 
Scotland, Water power in, 758 
Scott-connected transformer banks 
under various conditions of tyvo- 
phase loading. Three-phase supply 
to, by G. W . Stubbings, 76 
Scottish coking seams. Use of electri- 
city in, l:i3, 314 
Scottish electricians' wages, 215, 503 
Seismological investigations, 452 
Selenium substitute, 717 
Selfridges— Flood lighting, 859 
Self-starting synchronous motor. A, 

123 
Self-supporting industries : .An inquiry 
into the principle of regulating 



ages 



pro 



ployment in accordar 

duslrial capacity, by Mrs. B. 

Wootton, 451 
Servants and household machinery, by 

.M. G. Hoyvcll, 632 
Service department. Electrical REVlEyv, 

611 
Service rotes, 16, 93, 122, 153, 317, 

349, 413, 540, 753, 860, 893 
Service ii. Trouble, 316 
Severn barrage scheme. The, 324 
Shacklelon-Rowett .Antartic expedition, 

438, 48.' 
Shadoyvless light, 349 
Sheffield, Electricity supply at, 605, 

628 
Sheffield rejects the German plant ten- 
Ship and harbour design and equip- 
ment ai affecting the rapid loading 

and discharging of cargo vessels, 

by .A. R. T. Woods. 44 
Shipbuilding Engineering, and Elec- 

iri-'il Exhibition. Glasgoyv, 406 
Ship .ighiing by W. J. Jones, 865 
Shipping, Engineering, and Machinery 

Exhibition, The, 368, 420. 432. 444 
Ship-propc'ling machinery, 284 
Ships' electrical auxiliaries, 716 
shiDS Electrically-oropcUed, 1'22, 188, 

'284. 717, 8-27, 860 
Shock, A 33.00O-volt, 253 
Short lime in Switzerland. 88 
Siberia, The resources of, 887 
.Siemens' German shares, A claim for, 

647 
Signalling by invisible rays, 327 
Signalling device, Neyv electric, 284 
Signalling, Optical, 476 
Sinking-fund payments, Postponement 

of, 681 
Smoke abatement, 898 
Smoke from, steam trains, 612 
Society of TechniciJ Engineers, The, 

350 
.Sofia, M.ichinery required in. 350 
Solder, A new aluminium, 675 
Solution of the frequency problem, One, 

bv C. Sutton, 700 
'• Sophocles." The s.s., 476 
South Africa as a market, 427 
South Africa, Electrical goods in, 52, 

149, 214, 279, 407, 470, .000, 708, 

82f, 
South .Africa, German competition in. 

South .Africa. Official provincial tour of 
H.M. Senior Trade Commissioner 
in, 37-) 
.South Africa. Producer and consumer 

in, 53) 
Soul 1 .Africa, Registration of cot Irac- 

turs in, 184 
.South Africa, Trade conditions in. 570 
South Africa, Trade statistics of, 294 
South African Board of 'Trade and In- 
dustries, 118 
South African trade and industrial po- 
tentialities, 452 
South .America, Lamp trade in, 535 
South America. The electrical markets 

of, by P F. Martin, 031 
South American market. Competition 

in the. 38 
Spiin. Conditions in, 209 
Spain, Development in, 78 
Spain. Duties on electrical iiT.ports 

in, 247 
Spain, Electric steel furnace for, 88 
Spain, I'Zlectrical enterprise in, by P. 

F. Martin. .''.79 
.Spain. Eieclrical units in, 476 
Spain, German activity in, 748 
Spain, German exports to, 535 



Spain, Protection in, 1:18 

Spain, Tariff uncertainty in, 502 

Spanish companies, N'eyv, 311 

Spanish Customs duties on machinery. 

Rebate in, 601 
Spanish Customs tariff, 118, 149, 309 
Sparks on motor-cars. High-frequency 

itrav, by " Vollman," 878 
Special orders, The cost of, 490 
Spi-cific.tlion for metallic resistance 

inal.rials, 471, 660 
Specilicilions, Published Patent, 36, 72, 

101, 130, 168, 200, 232, 264, 296. 

328, 360, »!t;, 124. 45(i, 488, 520, 

5!i2, 58S, 624, 696, 732, 768, 804, 

840 
Speculative construction ol ek-ctricily 

Speech projtclion, 285 
Spontaneous combustion of coal, 252 
Stability of atoms. The, 19 
" Staff-poaching," 440 
Stage lighting, 252, 381 
Stainless steel. 560 

Standardisation of contract forms, 117 

Statutory companies and the law of 

nuisance, by A U-gal Contributor, 



Steam accumulator patents, 602 
Steam-engine plants. The allocation of 
boiler-house yvorking costs in re- 
ducing, by T. E. Houghton, 304 
Steam raising, by D. Wilson, 195 
Steamship service to .Australia, New. 

603 
Steam versus electric winding, by W. 

C. Mountain, 228 
Steel furnace for Spain, Electric, 88 
Steel furnaces in Brazil, Ele-ctric iron 

and, 66 
Steel industry, German, 453 
Steel plates. Price of, 534 
Steel production, American, 280 
Steel, Stainless, 560 
Steel workers' wages, American, 280 
Steel workers' wages. Big rc-duclion 

Steel works at Doyvlais, New, 887 
Steel works in Japan, New. 407 
Stephan burglar and fire alarm, Th.'. 

860 
Sterling dispute settled, 216 
Stockholm, 19-24, Postal congress at, 

UH 
Stoker contracts, 310, 676 
Storage of power, Indirect, 2.'i2 
Store lighting, 674, 859 
" Straphanging," Defence of, 317, 349 
Strike at Dusseldorf, 711 
Strike at Lima, .A, 302 
Strike in the rubber industry, Settle- 



of 



676 



Structure of the atom. The, 393 
Submarine c^ble, .A high-resistance 
brcaK test ol, by J. RynuT-Jones, 

Submarine cable tests, bv J. Ryiner- 
Jones, 172 

Submarine tests with ihe Ncale electro- 
magnet, 303 

Sub-station, .Automatic operation of, 
123 

Sugar mill. Electrified, 63 

Summer-time, 858 

Summer-time, End of, 444 

Super-power survey in the U.S.A., 31] 

" Super-scale " measuring inslruinents, 
139 

Supply of fittings. Local authorities and 
the, 698 

Supply ol electric energy in Birming- 
ham and District, The, by F. For- 
rest, 291 

Supply without statutory powers, 329 

Surtaxes, Avstralian system of, 311 

Sweden, E'tctric motor vans in, 7.'i8 

Swcd-ii, En ployment in, 782 

Swcdrn, German commercial propa- 
ganda in, 654 

Sweden, Wages rt-ductions in; 675 

.Swedish companies, 150 

Swetlish electrical companies. Fusion 
of, 40.' 

Swedish electrical invention. A, 350 

Swedish exports, 184 

Sw.'dish foreign trade, 407 

Swedish Ho sewives' Union, 574 

Swedish telephone business abroad, 376 

Swedish Mephonc industry, 440, 469 

SwLHlish lelephonc manulacluring con- 
yerns. Fusion of, 278, 344. 887 

.Swedish tiansformers for Russia, 241 

.Swetlish tt tlo.loconioti,-e. A, 695 

Svved'^h wag(.s reduced to meet Ger- 
npelil 



Sw 


edish work 


, Fo 




interest i 


n, 85 


Sw 


iss lilectiOH 


hem 


cal r 


rpiluction. 


241. 


Sw 


iss ixpoits 


ol er 


ergv 


246 




Sw 


iss foreign 


trad. 


, 87 






Sw 


iss imports 


376 








Sw 


iss Oirlikon : 




eering Works, 




The, 601 










Sw 


Iss protiucl 


on, 


310 






Switchgear, 


lixplc 


sion- 


aroof mi 


ning. 




,■^08 










Sw 


itchgcar p 


ices. 


Reduction in. 


344 


Sw 


ilchgear w 


orks. 


Mr. 


George 


Elll- 



Switch's action " filmed," 310 
Switzerland, Gcrniim coinmcrci.il pent- 

(ration in, 357 
Switzerland, Short lime in, 88 
Switzerland, The chfctricil onj^inecrin^ 

trade in, 193 
Swit-erland, Unfinplovtxl en^^incerinf, 

workers in, flOI 
Sydney City Council, The £flO.(HH 

claim atjiinsi the, Ml, «02, GT.'i 



January 6, 1922.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



Sjclncy, lilcclrical installalions m, ili 
Sviitlironous motor, A buU-btarling, UJ 
Sy.ia, Tii.dt of, i8U 



'T'ARIFK Board, Australian, IIG 

Tarin, New Italian, 149 

Tariff uncertainty in Spain, 502 

Taxation : Its crushing c-IIccl on 

dustry, High, 1W4 
Taxation, Ihe burilun of, 4U7, Na.i 
TtachJng the truth, 55a 
Telegraph apparatus, Indian, H8M 
Telegraph material in Russia 712 



Alghanistan, 7bG 
Argentina, (i78 
\ustrali., ill, l->i, 473, 571, 



Tmaii'iioNli Kinns-canlhmcd. 

Rhodesia, 824 

Riga, 250 

Russia, al3, U78 

South Africa, 1)2, 250 

Spain, 411 

Storm tiamage, 644 

Sweden, 34S, 474 

Telephone service, The, 16, 54, 120, 
152, 187, 218, 230, 313, 340, 380, 
443, 505, (i44', 070, 715, 7a2, 787, 
857 

"'/oil" telephone e\changc, Ihe, 572 

Uruguay, 443 

U.S.A., 120 

\\ii,l.,^ lelephony, U2, 2.10, 11711, 71.".. 



Stale 



714 



Hel 



Igmn 



Urazil, 187 
Cable delays, 54 

Cables in the Dutch East Indies, 4(3 
Canada, 313, 443 
Chile, S24 

China, 91, 443, 473, 751, 780, 857 
' • ;elegranis, 824 



Cosl 



Ri( 



347 



714 



Ciecho-Slovakia, 857 
lJan2ig, 17 
Denmark, 538 
Empire wireless chain, 443 
iMHland, (ilO, 786 

France, 10, 91, 152. 250, 383. 380, 786 
I'rench Cable Co. and wireless inter- 
ests. The, 538 
French Soudan, 152 
Ger nan-American comnmnlcalions, 152 
Germany, 120, 714 
G.r.t). research, 473 
Greece, 380 
Imperial wireless chain. The, 473. 678, 

71 1, 8!ll 
ln,li;i, l(i, 610, 751 



16 



IreL.n.l, t~24 

li.di.m Marconi Co., An, 473 

h.ilv, 16, 152, 187, 380, 410, 443, (i44. 

'714, 824, 891 
Jan Maven Isl.md, 411 
Japan, 505, 679 
J..pa.i-America cable,. New, 473 



, 505 



.ed, 152 



MaKn Archipelago, 347 

Mauritius, 347 

Naval wireless stations 

Netherlands, 786 

New cables, 250 

Night telegraph service, 572 

North Africa, 443 

Norway, 250, 891 

Pacific cable, Ihe, 857 

Philippines, 16 

IVI.LO.I, 283, 443 

Pu>t Oilico Advisory Council, 54 

Post Oflico Board, 54 

Uestriclions on wireless appar.ilus re- 
moved, 347 

Riga, 250 

Russia, 152 187, 283, 313, 380, 572, 
678, 762, 824 

i-Swedish telegraph service. 



89' 

lO-Ar 

505 



eiephony in the air, 44:J 



South Africa. 250, 505 

Spain, 538 

Spaiish cables. New, 474 

Storm damage, 644 

siveden, 1K7, 313, 411, 474, 824 

Switzerland. 313 

Telegraph service, The, 92, 120, 187, 

218, 313, 715 
Turkestan, 610 
Uruguay, 610 

U.S.A., 251, 313, 348, ,'505, ,139, 644 
Venezuela, 251 
WiroHss telegraphy, 54, 92, 120, 1.12, 

318, 251, 283, 348, 539, 572, 715, 

b.i7, 891 
Wireless telegraphy on ships, 892 

Telegraphy and telephony in Ihe 

United States, 261 
Telephone cables, Trunk, 782 
lei. phone cables. Underground, 407 
I rle|,lu,ne exchange, A London " loll," 

371 
Telephone line work, 699 
Telephone line work in the I'.S.. hy 

K. S. Byng, 727, 799, 1K)0 

liriiiioNE Notes— 
Aiivii.ilia. 538 

Au-ni.m Succession States. 714 
.\uU,M,u.,o telephone receiver. An, I(i 
H;,Uie, Ihe, 443 
Iklgium, 283, 644 
Bradford, Mb 
Canada, 473 
China, 91, 380, 644 
Czecho-Slovakia, 91, 380, 505, 857 
Denmark, 538 
Electrical storm, 313 
France, 152, 218, 891 
Germanv, 10. 380, 411, 857 
India, 283, 473 

Italv, 10, 473, 714, 786 
Jersey, 283 

Ixjndon, 411. 644 

M.mritius, 538 

New Zealand, 91, 505 

Norway. 751, 891 

Post Oflice Ailvisorv Council, 54 

Post Oflice Board, 54 



Wirele 

IVlephone orders in arrears, Austra- 
lian, 184 
Telephones, Church, 315 
Telephony in the United States, Tele- 
graphy and, 261 
Ten-penny shilling, The, 491 
Tenders lor liiJgian Governi 

tracts. Irregularities in, 344 
Testing electrical appliances, 30 
Testing lor phase sequence, 2o2 
Test house. An Australian, 412 , 
Testing machine, Haigh's alternating- 
stress, 668 
Testing of electricity meters, The, by 

R. M. Moberly, 331 
Tests on insulating varnish, bv W. S. 

Flight, 771 
Textile industry. Electricity in the, 245 
Theatre lighting, 783 
Theatrical employes, The E.T.U. and, 

344 

Therma. characteristics of electric ovens 

and hot plates, by Dr. E. 

Griffiths and F. H. Scholield, 30 

Thermal efficiency of heat power 

plant. The, 44, 99, 130 
Thermionic discharges in tungsten 

lamps, 121 
Third factor in production, The, by F. 

L. Impey, 243 
Third Party, The, 425 
Three-phase motors. Simplified connec- 
tions and diagrams of, 254 
Three-phase supply to Scott-connected 
transformer banks under various 
conditions of two-phase loading, b; 
G. W. Stubbings, 76 
Ihree-phase transformer windings, A 
note on the interconnecteel-star me- 
thod of connecting, by S. Austen 
Stigant, 268, 321 
Tidal power in Italy, 718 
Tokio Peace Exhibition, The, 785, 888 
Trade and industrial potentialities. 

South African, 452 
Trade as a remedy for unemployment. 

Earl Grey on, 508 
Trade boards. Inquiry into, 439 
Trade Commissioner in South Africa, 
Official provincial tour of H.M. 
Senior, 375 
Trade conditions and unemployment in 

the electrical industry, 612, 640 
Trade conditions in .\ustralasia, 86 
Trade conditions in New Zealand, 053 
Trade conditions in South Africa, 0(0 
Trade conditions in Western Canada, 

674 
Trade, Czecho-Slovak-Italian. 470 
Trade deprc-ssion. The currency posi- 
tion and. 116 
Trade depression ; The F.B.I, sugges- 
tions, 534 
Trade disputes. The secrecy of the 

ballot in, 875 
" Trade Follows the Telegraph,' 860 
Trade, Foreign, 87, 246, 376 
Trade of Algeria, The, 713 
Trade of Australia, Import and ex- 
port, 546 
Trade of Syria, 280 . 

Trade outlook, Ihe engineering trade, 88 
Trade revival? .570 
IV.Kle reviv.d. The Premier on signs 



L'kamw.w Notus — continued. 
Uarrow-in-Kurncss, 217, 504, 714 
Belfast, 217. 347 
Belgium, 120, 009, 731 
Bexley, 504 

Birkenhead, 54. 313, 786 
Birmingham, .'j4, 152, 442, 538 
Blackburn, .>4. 6U9, 823 
Black Countr), 643 
Blackpool, 2.5(1, 890 
Bolton, 313, 504 
Bournemoulh, 217 
Bradford, 119, 317, 379, 172. 5114, 538, 

571, 856- 
Brighouse, :147 
iirighton, .i4, 217, 1109 
Bristol, 751 
Burnley, 90, .504 
Burton-on-'l rem, 64:*, 678 
Canada, 313 
Cannock Chas.:, 120 
Carnarvon, 714 
Chesterfield, 823 
China, 282, 410, 442 
Clay Cross, 823 
C'lavton-lc-Moor, 043 



ol. 



294 



Coin 



54 



Traile statistics of South .\fr 
-rra<l<-, Swiss foreign, 87 

Irade. The position of Chilean. I.ifl 

Trade, The Post Oflice and. 3 

■Trade Union Congress, 349 

Tirade union developmeni, .\n im- 
portant, 490 

Tr.nde .ship, HrilUh /iiidi.Wry. Ihe, ,11 

Trade with Canada, 491, (i02 

•Trade wilh Denmark, 310 

Trade with France, Ml 

'Trade with Italy, 344 

Trade with Latin-American counln.s, 
73.'> 

Tra.le willi Mevico, 344 

•Tra.l.- will. Kuin.nl. ,. S88 

Tr.ii.i ...■.....;, \.- ..'ic, 496 

IVainiig .l.-,il.l..l .^ Service men as 
eleclriciaiis, ;23, 640 

Training Dominion students in British 
twhnical collegrs, 19 

Training of Chinese students hy oih.r 
countries, 13 

Trains, Gas on, 555 

Trains, Smoke frtjm steam. 612 

Tramway concessions in Russia, Bel- 
gian, 820 

Tramway .levelopments in the past and 
the outlook. Some pha.ses ol. hy J. 
M. MeElroy, r,Vi 



\ustralia'. 16, 90. 152. 250. .104, 538, 



Coventry, 442 

Croydon, 16 

Darlington, 379, 609, 780 

Dart ford, 91, 410 

Dearne V'allev, 472 ' 

Doncaster, 217, 410 

Dover, 187 

East Ham. 678 

Edgehill, 823 

Edinburgh, 152, 571, 609, 751, 780 

Exeter, 217 

France, 751 

Gateshead-on-Tyne, 217, 313 

Glasgow, 16, 120, 313, 379, 442, 714. 

751, 823 
Gosforth Park, 379 
Grimsby, 152 
Halifax, 16, 187. '217, 282, 41u, 472, 

504, 571, 751, 786 
Hendon, 282 
Hudder.-fi.ld, 120, .571 
Hull, 644, 751 
India, 609, 644 
Ipswich, 187 
japan, 347, 472 
Keighlev, 473, 504. 044 
Ixirkcaldv, 91 
Lancaster. 282 
Leamington, 250 
Leeds, 16, 282, 347, 644, 751 
Liverpool, 347, 505, 538, 890 
Llandudno. 152, 347 
London, 1(1, .-,4 12(1, 282, 313, 347, 380, 
505, 571. IWll. 644, 078, 714, 731, 
786, 823, 857 
Luton, 823 
Maidstone, 380 

Manchester, 54, '282, 313, 347, 609, 823 
Melbourne, 90 
Middlesbrough, 571 

Middlesex, 751 

Ncwcastle-on-Tyne, 152, 217, 505, 5(1, 
823 

Newport (Mon.). 250 

New Zealand, 347, 609. 644. 714 

Northampton, 313 

North Shields, 187, 217 

Norwich, 678 

Nottingham, 152, 282 

Oldham, 473 

Paisley, 505 

Perth (\V. A.), 504 

Pontypridd, 120 

Portrush, 313, 347 

Portugal, 54 

Preston, 442, 473, 714 

Reading. 714 

Rothesay, 538 

St. Annes-on-Sea, 078 

St. Helens, 250 

Sallord, 347, 380, 410. 571 

Scarborough, 609, 857 

Seaforth, 91 

Sheflicld, 187, 282 

South Africa, 250 

Southend, 16 

Southport, 313, 380 

.South Shields, .571 

StalvUridge. 786 

Statutory chargi^s, .505 

SttKkport, 411 

Stockton, 91 

StokL--on-Tr,nt, .5(15, 610 

Spain, 442 
Sumlerl.ind, 2.50, .538 



Transmission, An eleclrical review ol 
e.h.p., by R. B. Malthews, rae. 

Transmission at 230,000 volu. Power, 

31 
Transmission line poles, 110-kV, 507 
Tran.mission, .Million-voll, 377, 394 
Transmission of energy, Inter-Scandl- 

navian, 307 
Transmission of X-rays, 717 
Transmission byslcms, Inlernalional 

conference on h.p., <i4« 
Transmitting aerial resistances, 894 
Transport and general workers. Pro- 
posed amalgamation of. 310 
Transport conference, l-rench. 611 
Travellers (" We see them all ' ), by 

W. A. C. Phillpot, 846 
Trawler, A Diesel-electric, 51H 
Trieste Samples Fair, 311 
'Tropics, Tall stories Irom the, 56 
Trucks. Ek-ctric. 713 . 

Trucks in New York City, Electric, by 

E. K. Scott, 067 
Trunk telephone cables, 782 
'Trusts, .\rgentina and, 86 
Tube extension scheme, 641 
'Tungsten lamps, 'Thermionic discharges 



121 



314 



Tauil 



538 
891 



, „ The, 678 

I r imw.ilm.-n's agreement. The, 8.57 

lAneiii..ulh, 411 

\V.ill.i.-v. '.147 

W.ilsall. 91. 411 

\\.,hh.ii,.-luw. 1.V2, 218, 473 

W.I 

\\. 



11,1 



473 
15 



Wolv.rh.impton, 1.52, 250, So( 

Vaniuniih. 443 

York, I.V2. 380, 411, 473, 505, 8.5; 



825 



wages reducti 



in, 5li!1, 
bv R. 



track maim 
B. Holt, 131 
Tramway S: Light Ra. ways Associa- 
tion, T1-e— Annual Congres.s, 131, 

Tr.imways Conference, Municipal, 788 
Trimwa« for Pekin, 51 
Translorniers, .M.norinal pressure, rise 

in 654 
Transformers for Russia, Swedish. 241 



'Turbine locomoti. ._, — 
'Turbo-elictric locomotive, A new, o» 
Turbo-generator contract, Sydney, 501 
'Turbtj-generalor contract, The L.C.C., 

214 
Turbo-locomotive, A Swedish, 895 
•• Turning " versus " Grinding " ol 

commutators, by J. T. Towlson, 



■["rKRAlNE electrical provision, 641 

I nilerground conduit-return lighting 

svsiem. -284 
Underground Railwavs Joint Commit- 
tee, 748 
Underground railways. The Paris, 18 
" Underground " " speeding-up " sys- 
tem. An, 859 
Underground telephone cables, 407 
Undertakers, Large consumers and 

local aulhofity, 233 
Unemployed engineering workers in 

Switzerland, 001 
IV.employed problem. The, 709 
Unemployment, 14, .52, 116. 184, 247, 

640, 674, 749, 831. 834, 887 
Unemployment and the cure, 580 
Unemployment, Cable requirements 

and. 568 
Un.inployment, Cost of living, wage 

reductions, and, 116 
Uncniplovment, Earl Grey on trade as 

a remcdv for, 508 
Unemplovment, Export credit insur- 

ance'and, 501 
Unemployment in Germany, 407 
Unemplovment in South Africa. 311 
Unemplovment in the electrical indus- 
try. Trade conditions and. 612, tHU 
UnemploMiient insurance, by J. J. H. 

Si.inslield. 3. 56 
1 n.iiipIoMiient insurance and ekxtrical 
engineers, by J. J. H. Stansfield, 
528 
Unemployment problem. Works com- 
mittees and the, 440 
Unemplovment, The cicatrical industry 

and,' 573 
United Kingdom, Elc-clricity supply 
;„ the — Report ol the Electricity 
Commissioners, 582, 619, 631 
United Kingdom, Wjitcr-powor re- 
sources of the, S25 
Units in Spain, Electrical, 4<6 
Universities and commercial edlKa- 
tion, 235 . ^ r- , 

U S \. and trade with Central 
Aim-rica. 888 _ . .. r« 

L'.S..\., l^sch operations in the, oso 
U S.A., Electric vehicles in the, 121, 

316, 647. 837 
U.S.A. electrical exports, 51 
U S.\ exports ol electrical goods, 533, 

733, 784 
U.S.A. patents law, 189 
V S.A., RedLCtion ol electrical fires in 

Ihe, 686 
I' S.A.. Super-power survey m Ihe, 

316 
I' S \. Telcgraphv and lelephony in 

the, 361 , . u 

U S A.. Telephone line work in the, 

by E. S. Byng, 727, 799. 900 
U S \., 'The eli-clriRcalion ol industry 

in the. 894 
U.S.A., Water power in the, 110 
Utilisation ol exhaust steam In tur- 
bines, hv M. Oea.-on, 238 
I'lilisation of tidal powvr, with special 
reference to Ihe S.-vern Estuary, 
bv Prof. 1-. C. Ua, 418 
rir.H'ht l-..ir. The, 150 



VAC.VTION, Engineering in France 
in the, 860 
Vacuum cleaners. Eleclric, 4 
Varnish. Tests on insulating, by \\ . 

S. Flight, 771 . . 

\'ehicle demonstrarion. A municipal. 

Vehicle results. Electrical- Bootle Cor- 

IKiT'ition's experience*. 339 
Vehicles at UUnckpool, Electric, 743 
Vehicles, Electric, 47" 
\ chicles lor Calcutta, Conservancy, 

X'ehicles for municipal purpo,<ics, The 
use ol electric, by F. Ayton, 764 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW— INDEX. 



[January G, 1922. 



Vehicl« in U.S.A., Electric, 121, 316. 

647, 827 
Vonlibling lunnrls. The cost of, 718 
\'cnlil3lion >chcnie for polyphase 

motors. 19 
\ision, A new theory of. 1!I0 
\'itreous enamo) furnace, An electric. 

317 
\'oltm<Icr, DransfielJ's special, 317, 



TXTACE-S. American stc«-l workers'. 

Wages, .Australian. 13 

Wages, Big reduction in steel 

worker*', 215 
Wages. Chemical industry, 310 
Wages clause in Government contracts, 

The, 363 
Wages determination. The principle: 

of, 521 
Wages dispute. The engineering, 19, 

51, 93, 279. 413, 438. 820 
Wages, Greenock Corporation technical 



staff's, 150 



Wages in Australia. Ivlectrical. 602 
Wagt-s in the contracting industry, 280, 



Wages in the eleclricitv suppiv indus- 
try. .Adjustment of.' 676. 821, 887 
Wages, Rail shopmen's, 344 
Wag*s reduced in .America, Electrical, 



Wagt- 



Swedish, 215 



r.iiuci: 
^•.1 ol li' 



ing. 



nploy. 



Wages reduction, Darlington, 216 
Wages reduction in Sweden, 675 
Wages reduction, Tramwavmcn's, 
Wages reductions, 247, 712 
Wages. Scottish electricians', 215, 
Date of the w>d of the, SJO 



War 



122 



Washing machine : from the housi 

wife's point of view. The electri- 

by M. G. Howell, 108 
W.tshing machines. New American, 61 
Water for condensing. The right l 

use, by A Legal Contributor, '257 
W'ater main. Power from a, 18 
Water-power, British, 873 
Water-power development. Notes or 

by I'rof. A. H. Gibson, 386 



Water-powe 

657 
Water-powei 
Water-powei 

" Ki^ddn 



Wa 



in Finland, 686 
in Scotland, 758 
in the British Empii 

in the U.S.A., 110 

Irish, 646. 818 
resources of the Unit 

825, 868 



r-pow 



uble 



bv I{. Scott 



Rivett, 877 
Waterways and power stations, 87 
Waterws>-s, Canals and, 123 
Water-wheel generator, A 22,000-kVA, 

253 
Watt memorial. A, 350 
" We see them all " (Travellers), by 

W. A. C. Phillpot, 846 



pluyment. Lord, 534 
Weliling, *' Cvc-arc " automatic elec- 
tric, bv L: J. Steele and H. M.ir- 

tin, 800 
Welding demonstration. Electric, 46 
Welding, Diesel engine repaired b\ , 

34 
Welding in the manufacture of new 

boilers. Electric' arc, ■>08 
Welding in wireless apparatus. Elec- 
tric, 2.53 
Welsh National Exhibition, The, 309, 

784 
Wesl.-rn Canada, Trade conditions in, 

674 
West Indies, Canadian preferential 

tariff tor, 311 
West of England District Board, 852 
West Riding decision, The, b-27 
Western ranch. Electric service on 

the, 612 
Why thcv light, by W. Phillpoll, 702 
Wills. 20, .W, 94, 124, 190, 318. 444, 

510, 649, 683, 791, 895 
\\'imbledon electricity works, New 

boiler-house plant at, 485 
Wire, German iron, 85 
Wireless, Battleships controlled by, ICfl 
Wireless concessions, Italian, 468 
Wireless control of fog signals, 599 
Wireless-controlled motor-car, 253 
Wireless listening station. A, 345 
Wireless service problems. X-ray and, 

681 
Wireless to Australia, Direct, 826 
Wireless valve, A new, 475 
Wiring at the Royal Albert Docks, 

Electric, 315 



Wiring instalLiliuns, The tO!,t of, 799 
Wiring system, Tlie llelsby twin, 776 
Wiring system. The Kingsway, 399 
Wiring, i he Dundee system of heavy. 

duty house, 905 
Wolverhampton contractors' protest, 

215 



Working-class dwe 


lings. Electricity in. 


454 




Working condition 


s in factories, 240, 


290 




Works conimittws 


and the unemploy- 


inent problem, 


m 


Works in Austral 


a. New, 89 


W'orks in Austria 


n Succession States, 


Manufacturing 


118 


Workshops, Lighti 


ng of factories and. 


293, 422 




Wounds currtl by 


electricity, 122 



X 



X-ray plant, Cancer Hospilal's new, 

718 
X-ray 'process. New, 382 
X-ray treatment of cancer. 285 
X-rays and radium. Protection against, 



ntrates, Australian, 40/ 



Primed by Wk. CiTi, Utb., WUO, Ot. StSroB Hill, E.G., ud Pohliitaed by the Proprietors, The Electiucai, Rhvikw Ltd., 4, Lade^te Hill, B.C. 4. 



T«» 



EXjIHIOTI^IOJLIj R,E1"7"IE"W 



Vol. LXXXIX. 



JULY 1, 1921. 



No. 2,275 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



AN AMERICAN CONVENTION. 



Vol. LXXXIX ] 



CONTENTS: July 1, liKl. 



An American Convention 

Fuel Economy 

The Mining and Engineering Disputes 

The Post, Office and Trade ... 

A New Phenomenon 

Electric Vacuum Cleaners 

Unemployment Insurance, by J. J. H Stansfield 

Joint Electricity Authorities («'«^««C(/) 

Legal 

Business Notes 

Not«« 

City Notes ... ... 

Stocks and Shares 

Market Quotations ... ■. 

B.T.H. Electric Shunting Locomotives (;//«.<.) 

Electrical Conditions in Norway 

Magnetos for Internal-combustion Engines 

Thermal Characteristics of Electric Ovens and Hot Plates 

Power Transmission at 220,000 volts {iUus.) 

Oorreapondence — 

The Dover Corporation Electricity Works and its StafiE ... 

Electric Light Wiring Systems 

The Cost of Living in Spain 

The London Electricity Inquiry 

Abnormal Meter Records 

Armature Core Bands 

Standard Brush-holders 

The Grading of Mains Engineers ... 

Converting 50-cycle Alternating to liBOO-V Direct Current 

Marine Electrician 

Technical Books 

New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant (illtu.) 

New Patents Applied for, 1921 

Abatraoti of Published Specifioationi 



Contractois' Ooluinn 



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While we on this side of the Atlantic have been coin- 
pelled this year to abandon suiuiner conventions, public 
dinners, and other functions which in the ordinary 
coiii-.se provide those opportunities for relaxation anil 
li utcrnisation which go so far to sweeten professional 
and trade relations, events of this class seem to have 
liL'eii tiikinir place very much as usual in the I'nited 
States. 

Indeed, from the American electrical journals lately 
received we gather that the May convention of the 
National Electric Light Association in Chicago was not 
merely " as usual," for it is described as the greatest 
convention the Association has ever lield, great in point 
of numbers, but greater " in point of accompli.shment." 
It seems that a spirit of optimism swayed the minds of 
many liundreds of central-station leaders, their asso- 
ciates, and affiliated interests. 

We confess to something akin to envj', as we regard 
tilt' periodical doings of the N.E.L.A., and remember 
our own failures to bring all similar electrical in- 
terests ill the United Kingdom into like fellowship. 
It is but natural that the success of the Chicago con- 
vention should make keener the feelings with which we 
deplore the necessity for the abandonment of even the 
comparatively small, but by no means unimportant. 
congresses that it was hoped might have taken place 
in Scotland last month. 

We wonder whether the time will ever come when we 
shall regularly look forward to a mid-year gathering 
of men (and perhaps women !) representative of all 
branches of British electrical engineering and trading — 
an event by the date of which our overseas relations 
might regulate their travels to the Mother Country. 
That engineers are sociable beings is demonstrated by the 
large support that is being given to the Engineers* Club 
movement, and we believe that electrical and allied in- 
terests would, under proper organisation, and with the 
boosting influence of a second Commerford Martin, holt! 
what would be for us very big and profitable annual 
congresses. Our colonial and other overseas friends 
might send their special delegates, and representatives 
could be elected to attend on behalf of all sorts and 
conditions of electrical associations in the Britisii Isles. 
We have innumerable small bodies normally acting for 
limited and specialised interests. Surely these could 
all concentrate now and then for the consideration of 
matters of common interest to tiie profession and in- 
dustry — not merely for the sake of making a big 
event do we advocate such a development, though 
there is something to l)c said for tlic big thing 
even if wc arc only on this side of tlic -\tlantii-. We 
believe that tliis would result in the industry reai)ing 
liLiietit internally in its own doiiu^stic relations, while 
tiiere woulil be external advantagt>s, such as tlie impres- 
sion that would bo made upon the mimls of millions 
of iii'o)ile who know practically notiiing about the extent 
(ii- iinpcirtance of British electrical industry, as well as 
upon tlic minds of men whose avocation calls them to 
tiie centre of the City of London, and to whom we must 
look for tlnancial backing for the onormous expenditure 
of capital that the electrical industry h<gitimatety an- 
ticipates within the next live or ten years. We will not 
make comjiarisons between the British Association, wliicli 
exists for the Mdvaiiremeiit of all branches of science. 



[1] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



[Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



aud oiie sectjou of it, but large centres in the Biitisli 
Isles wbicli are eager to show liospitulity and sheher 
to tlie H.-V, whose atteudanees suiiietinies run to several 
thousands, might tind it of equal advantage to enter- 
tain in their cities a thousand or two electrical men, 
especially if certain electrical organisations were to 
concentrate simultaneously upon making an electrieal 
gala and exhibition demonstration in the same area. 

We do not think it possible to indulge too frequently 
in prophecy regarding the future greatness of the elec- 
trical industry, and we observe that Mr. Samuel Insull, 
president of the Commonwealth Edison Co., in an ad- 
dress on the future expansion in the use of central 
station power, delivered at one of the large general 
sessions of the Chicago convention, was full of the spirit 
of progress. He referred to the troubled waters through 
which industrial concerns had been passing, and their 
consequent failure to pay dividends, and placed this 
state of affairs in contrast with the central-station 
business which was "getting back to its own," and 
getting ready for the time when the financial clouds 
would roll by and more stable conditions would j)revail 
in business generally. The fundamental cause of this 
Mr. Insull describes as the inherent strength of the 
central-station business. " We are engaged in a busi- 
ness that has not yet reached a point of saturation, 
and are not so much governed by the ordinary laws of 
supply and demand as some of our friends in other 
forms of public utility business " (such as street 
railroad, water, and gas supplies). '' Therefore," he 
added, "when hard times come along the main effect 
on us is a reduction in the percentage of increased busi- 
ness." " It would take a long period of depression to 
put the electric light and power industry in a position 
where its actual business, taking the countrj' as a whole, 
would show a decrease in outjjut, as compared with the 
previous year." While the difficulty of the last few- 
years in coping with the increased business owing to 
lack of plant and equipment may have been such that 
" business-getting " departments have been practically 
disbanded, Mr. Insull now urges that if the present 
depi-ession continues, his hearers should get busy with 
their business-getting departments. In the later parts 
of his address he dwelt upon some of the vast terri- 
torial areas in the States in which there is scope for elec- 
trical men, and the ample water power " that nobodv 
but the Creator can interfere with." But he warned 
his hearers of the dangers that would follow if the heads 
of bureaus in Washington, in their efforts to enlarge 
their sphere, got sucli a hold on the electricity supply 
business as to curtail its development during the nest 
quarter of a century. He held us up as the horrible 
example which should be avoided at all costs, as tlie 
following quotation will show: — 

\\c ought to prolit somewhat by the experience of the 
Enalisii. who have been ttyint; for years to cct out of the 
situation created by tlie Chanil)erlain Bill in the '80's, which 
resulted in the cstablishini,' of Gl difTert'nt undortakings for 
the supply of enerey in the County of Lonilon, and resulted 
in the territory of 7,.')(K),fKKI people usinc less oner^jy tbiui 
the city of Chicago with •2.')iH),iH)0 jx'onle, and nt a cost to 
the u.ser in the County of I.omlim tireater — that is, the baii' 
cost of production, without int<Mc.Kt or anythiiiK else — areatcr 
than the average selling! price of the s;iine product in the city 
of Chicago. Those are the things we ought to guard against." 

Mr. .Martin J. Insull, president of the N.E.L.A., in 
the course of his opening address to the convention, re- 
ferred to the immense amount of work that lay before 
the .American electric supply industry. He said it was 
estimated that for the next five years the electric light 
;ind power indu.stry would require, to jirovide for (lie 
demairds that would be made ujion it bv the jiublii'. 
ajqiroximately $1 ,000, 000, 000 per year. This sum will 
be Njient upon the necessary steam and hyrlroelectric 
generating equipment and transmission and distribution 
systems with all the appurtenances necessary to give 
service. " Put into figures that may be more easily 
appreciated, ai>proxiniately .'?.3,000,ObO every day or 
$125,000 every hour for the next five years must be 
provided and used for the public benefit." If it could 
not be provided the public would he the sufferer. 

Mr. Insull mentioned the necessity for securing the 



c.mtidence of the imljlic, to whom they must look to.pro- 
viile this luipilal. It must be recognised by tlieiu tliat 
the money was jiidiiiously spent on property that could 
l)e economically and elliciently o])erated, and those con- 
cerned must plan to bring to the properties such different 
classes of business as would give the greatest return on 
the dollar invested. He added that on entering this 
period of vast money requirement they must give this 
question of tlieir public relations the most careful con- 
sideration, as ujjon this very Jargely depended their 
ability successfully to take care of the anticipated 
requirements of the public. " Cnder present regulatory 
<■( nditions the public, through tlieir representatives, de- 
termine the class of service we shall give, the rates we 
shall charge, and the securities we shall issue. These 
rejiresentatives cannot helj^ but have their judgment, 
more or less affected by public opinion. The investoi 
would be more easily attracted to our business, which 
is one affected by a 2)ublic interest, if he knew that it 
had a generally favourable public opinion." 

The unfortunate fact is that in this country, as .Mr. 
Samuel Insull indicated, the industrial aspect of the 
business has for 40 years been subordinated to political 
considerations, from which it appears impossible to 
break looije. True, we have at last a body of Electricity 
Commissioners who can be trusted to do their utmost 
to develop the industry on sounder lines than have been 
followed in the past ; but it is a Herculean task to 
burst the trammels that afflict tlie industry, and we 
see the political element constantly cropping up when 
electrical (questions are under discussion. In passing, 
we must confess that we are seriously concerned for the 
physical welfare of the Commissioners, whose labours 
are almost superhuman, and who must undoubtedly be 
undergoing a strain upon their mental and corporeal 
faculties approaching the limit of endurance. 

With regard to the fviture of the electrical industry, 
we are no less optimistic than Mr. Samuel Insull, whose 
remarks apply almost as aptly to British conditions as 
to those of his adopted country. Mr. Martin J. Insull 
quotes figures that almost leave one breathless, and can- 
not here be paralleled, but the principle which he puts 
forward — that the industry- nmst command the con- 
fidence of the public in order to obtain the relatively 
immense capital sums that are essential to the due 
development of electricity supply — is wholly sound and 
equally applicable to British conditions. We recently 
explained at some length the functions of the Public 
I'tility Commissioners to which lie refers; similar func- 
tions will be exercised by our I'^lectricity Conunissioners 
and Joint Electricity Authorities, if all goes well, and 
on theii- policy it will depend whether the confidence 
of the investing ]nililic is gained for the industry, or 
not. Much niiglil lie done to enlighten the lay Press 
with regard to the true circumstances, in order to pre- 
vent the harmful " scares " which are periodically 
stirred up by those who ^vor.ship " the goil of things as 
they are." The British popular Press is not venal, 
but it is extraonliniuily amenable to the persuasion 
111' any w ir<' -pullii- wlm conies along with a pn|iiilar cry. 



Oxcic more we may ri'iall (he fact 

Fuel lliMt one, if not the only, iiiiiiort init 

Kconom')'. piinciple at llie base of llie i-e|iiil-ts 

which led to the formulation of a 

national schcirie for electricity sup))ly ^vas tlie necessity 

for I'conomising fuel. That factor has not in the least 

iliiiiinislied in weight — rather the contrai'y though it 

lilies not appear to receive niui'h attention nowadays. 

We were sli.-irpiv reiriiiidnl of llie fart by one of the 

argiiiueiils put fiirwaril on lieli.ilf nf linking-uji rcrnus 

the erection of super-stations for the sujiply of the 

London area — namely, that, as many of the existing 

stations were uneconomical, the advantage of a fall 

in thep rice of coal would be greater in the case of the 

former than in that of the latter. 

That is an argument w-hich makes for cheapness, it 
is true — but at the expense of economy of fuel. 



Vol. 89. No. 2,275. JuLT 1, 1921.] THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. 



We by no means advocate the hasty erection of huge 
generating stations at & fabulous cost, merely to econo- 
mise fuel ; the engineers responsible for tlie schemes 
before the Commissioners have made the rather belated 
discovery, since last October, that the linking-up system 
will meet all present needs, and it is certainly the least 
costly method of dealing with the situation ; but the 
economy of coal thereby effected is so small that the 
hoped-for reduction in the price of coal is actually used 
as an argument in its favour I 

Whilst working out the most rational procedure in 
dealing with this complex question, let us not forget 
all about the main plank of our platform — fuel economy . 



On Tuesday last the Prime Minister 
The Mining and announced in the House of Commons 
Engineering that as a result of the negotiations be- 
Disputes. tween the miners, the mine-owners, and 
the Government, an agreement had 
been reached. The men's Executive will recommend the 
miners to accept the terms of settlement, and if they do 
80 will ask the men to return to work on Monday 
next. There will thus have been a cessation of work 
from April 1st until July 4th. Wages are to form a first 
charge on the mining industry, and a standard is to be 
set up below which wages will not fall. The standard is 
20 per cent, above the pre-war rate of earnings. For 
every £100 received by the workman in respect of his 
standard wage, the owner is to take £17, and further 
proceeds are divisible in the proportion of 83 to the 
workman and 17 to the owner. The settlement is to be 
effective until September 30th, 1922, and may be ter- 
minated then or thereafter by giving three months' 
notice. The first reduction in wages will take place in 
July, and will not exceed 2s. per shift, 2s. 6d. in August, 
and in September 3s. per shift. After that the per- 
manent arrangement comes into full operation. The 
Government subsidy of £10,o00,000, which had been 
withdrawn, will be reinstated, and the House of Com- 
mons will be asked to vote the grant. 

Everybody interested in the revival of British in- 
dustry will feel relieved that the struggle is ended, and 
that there is a prospect of eighteen months' coal peace. 
The engineers who are balloting this week on tlie revised 
terms offered by the emploj'ers stand under a great re- 
sponsibility. It would be deplorable if just as there was 
a resumption of operations in the pits a period of idle- 
ness should commence in the engineering works. The 
reports available at the moment are not very promising, 
but the case for a reduction of wages as a means of 
lowering the cost of production is overwhelmingly strong. 
W^e cannot imagine that the engineers will desiro to 
resort to an endurance strike which can only be wasteful 
to everybody — employe, employer, the engineering in- 
dustry and the nation as a whole. We trust that a way 
will be found for a speedier settlement to be reached 
than proved possible in the mining industry. It was 
never so urgently necessary as it is now that we should 
»11 settle down to real hard word. 



Mr. Kellawat, addressing a Prini- 
The Post Office rose League gathering in Bedfordshire, 
and Trade. said he had had to begin his work as 
Postmaster-General by doing a most 
unpopular thing in raising the postal charges. We 
believe that he knew the seriousness of his proposals 
before the public heard of them : the public by its loud 
and unanimous condemnation of them merely confirmed 
what he knew already ; r>nd when he stood up in the 
House of Commons to make his statement the atmosphere 
was uncomfortably chilly. Mr. Kellaway now says that 
he looks forward to the time when these increased 
charges will be taken off. If only industrial conditions 
improve and trade picks up, he hopes to remove 
them. We hope he will. The dropping of his ad- 
risers' proposals to tax prohihitirely the circulation of 
printed papers and catalogues abroad was a relief to all 
who want to see an early revival of export trade, but 
we would point out that what remains of the KellawRv 



policy is still in restraint of trade; the increased 
charges are more likely to handicap British trade than 
to give it any chance of picking up. At the same time 
it seems almost certain that the aforesaid policy will not 
bring increased revenue or effect any saving. It may 
be that the postman will call at the door with one letter 
and one postcard, instead of two letters and two post- 
cards. He will walk his rounds just the same, and 
there will be no saving in his wages. The abolition of 
Sunday collections and deliveries in the Provinces as 
well as in London, is a serious iiardsbip, and one which 
places us still further back in comparison with Con- 
tinental nations, who are amazed at our methods. It 
has been noticed in many business houses that Monday 
morning's mail is smaller than it used to be. 

We believe that the increased charges on railway tra- 
velling are also penalising commercial travellers and 
the general public as well, without bringing any real 
help and assistance to the companies, except in the case 
of the tubes, and some local services, where people are 
obliged to travel to their business, and are, therefore, 
at the mercy of this method of obtaining revenue. In 
other cases, we believe that the reduction in travelling 
more than counterbalances the increased charges, and 
many trains are running half empty, even in these 
times of reduced services. 

Such methods of management damage trade, and in- 
jure the travelling public, and do no one any good. 

It is high time that the Government dropped the 
delusion that the only way to make a business pay is to 
charge more for the services rendered. The adoption 
of this as the one and only panacea for the present 
deplorable state of expensive ineflSciency into which it 
has allowed our public services to fall, should be 
abandoned. 

In a long and interesting letter to 
A New Nature of June 23rd, Prof. Elihu 

Phenomenon. Thomson announces the discovery in 
April last of a new magneto-optical 
effect. His son, Mr. Malcolm Thomson, was using a 
resistance welder by which the current was applied inter- 
mittently, when one of the operators, Mr. Davis, drew 
his attention to a peculiar intermittent illumination of 
the space near the welder as the current went on and off. 
Sunlight was shining across the space, and a single-turn 
loop from the welding transformer, forming the connec- 
tion with the work, was carrying 7,000 amperes. On 
investigating the conditions, Mr. Thomson found that 
the effect was most conspicuous when viewed at right 
angles to the magnetic field and to the beam of sunlight. 
Prof. Thomson examined the luminous effect with a Nicol 
prism, and found that the light was polarised. Further 
investigations showed that the effect was dependent upon 
the presence of finely divided particles from iron arcs 
used for welding in the building, particularly associated 
with a yellowish-grey fume arising from the arc, and 
that the polarisation was complete in the case of this 
fume, though the magnetic field was strongly curved. 
An exceedingly small amount of the material makes the 
whole of the air in a large room cap,\ble of showing the 
effect, the particles being extremely fine, remaining sus- 
pended in the air for a long time, and being quickly 
diffused throughout the space. Microscopic ex.'\min,'>tion 
of the fumes suggested that the minute particles were 
often strung together like tiny chains. 

We have not space to pursue the matter further, and 
w© do not suggest that the phenonu»non has any direct 
bearing on industry; whether it will lead to iitilitari.on 
results remains to be seen. Rut it is unquestionably of 
great interest from the point of view of pure science, 
and it affords an apt illustration of intelligent observa- 
tion. Mr. Davis noticed an effect which appeared to bo 
novel and unexpected ; probably many others had seen it 
before him, but it had made no impression on their 
minds. The history of science is full of instances of 
phenomena thus seen but not appreciated — the man who 
eventually realises the fact th.nt he is face to fr\o« with 
something new is called a genius, simply hecanse his 
mind is on the alert. 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



[Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



ELECTRIC VACUUM CLEANERS. 



BY ONE WHO HAS USED THEM. 



That there is a wide demuud lor au efiective and in- 
eipensive cleaning macliine cannot be doubted, for 
science has been making such strides lately, that the 
housewife takes it as a matter of course that some 
machine to lighten the labour of cleaning her house has 
been devised. 

It has been proved, and, indeed, does not need much 
demonstration, that the simplest, cleanliest, and most 
healthy way of removing dirt, is by introducing it to a 
vacuum. The dirt does not stop to argue — it goes. 

But, like everything else, knowledge is essential to 
the use of an electric vacuum cleaner — the knowledge 
of how to utilise it to the best advantage. 

The salesman selling the machine is familiar with its 
demonstration points, but he will not enlarge on such 
common faults as clogging of the dustbag, the motor 
running without oil, tUe nozzle rubbing right into the 
carpet, ic. — indeed, it is doubtful if he has ever con- 
cerned himself about its working troubles at all. The 
luckless purchaser is left to find these out for himself, 
and discover the remedy by sad experience. 

In view of this fact, the dealer will find it worth while 
to acquaint himself with the common misuses of electric 
vacuum cleaners, and to forearm liis prospective cus- 
tomer by forewarning him. 

As one who has witnessed many scrapes with trouble- 
some and rebellious vacuum cleaners, I propose to dis- 
cuss in the following article the various troubles and 
drawbacks attendant on the use of vacuum cleaners, in 
the hope that it may prove of some assistance to the 
dealer. 

One of the chief reasons of a cleaner not proving effec- 
tive is that the common mistake of lowering the nozzle 
right down on to the carpet has been made. When a 
vacuum cleaner is provided with adjustable wheels this 
is a very serious error, for instead of gaining a better 
suction, the suction power is diminished. The user 
should always see that the wheels are adjusted to keep 
the nozzle the correct distance from the floor or carpet to 
be cleaned. 

What should happen is that the carpet should be 
lifted a short distance off the floor and held there by 
the suction. In addition to getting a strong suction, 
there is also a current of fresh air flowing through the 
carpet. 

When cleaning felt, or some similar floor covering, 
this is sometimes too heavy to rise to the nozzle, and 
should this be the case, the latter should be lowered, 
but not, if possible, actually to the level of the felt. 
The principle of keeping the nozzle at least one-eighth 
of an inch oS the carpet or rug should be strictly ad- 
hered to, unless the carpet is nailed down to the floor. 

The prospective owner of a vacuum cleaner should 
be made well aware of this fact. 

Any cleaner which does not provide a suction capable 
of lifting the carpet this distance is not worth considera- 
tion, and the dealer is strongly advised to leave it alone. 
Users are often great sinners with regard to the 
dustb.'igs. It is very painful to see a good vacuum 
cleaner rendered almost useless, because the bag has 
become too full or, as sometimes happens, choked at the 
neck. 

Where there is no exit for the air there can be no 
suction, and it frequently happens that through the 
bap not being properly emptied, the inlet becomen 
choked, and the suction is considerably reduced. 

This is particularly true of bags which are emptied 
at the opposite end to the inlet, and those bags which 
are provided with »ide pockets for the dust to collect in. 
the latter b»ing particularly subject to the nuisance of 
choking. 



The bag cannot be emptied too often. 

Most dealers have no doubt met the old lady who, 
having purchased some electrical appliance, couiplains 
some months later that it won't work properly, and 
makes a noise, and she is getting afraid of it. And 
slie has to be told that it won't work properlj* or cease 
making a noise — until it is oiled again. 

It is extraordinary liow many people will use au 
electric vacuum cleaner many hours a day and never 
think of oiling it. Needless to say, this considerably 
shortens the life of the motor, and makes the mai^-hine 
mucu more noisy than it should be. 

There has been much controversy of late as to 
whether revolving brushes inside the nozzle are efiective 
or otherwise. 

From my own observations, I should prefer not to 
use a machine with a motor-driven brush in preference 
to a simple vacuum cleaner,' for several reasons. 

A motor-driven brush certainly takes up any flufl' or 
nails which may be lying about, but it is also certain 
that it takes up the nap of the carpet. Also, should the 
carpet be delicate, or be of felt, the revolving brush will 
injure it. 

It has been claimed that the vibration of the brusli 
will loosen the embedded dirt, so that the suction can 
bring the dirt out of the carjjet more readily. There is 
certainly some truth in this, but it will not, contrary to 
popular belief, bring dirt right through the carpet. 

1 have often seen a most effective demonstration where 
a machine with a motor-driven brush inside the nozzle 
has been stood upside down, and a piece of fell put 
over the nozzle. 

Some dirt is then put on the felt, and the cleaner 
switched on. The beating action of the brush vibrates 
the felt, and the dirt is seen to disappear througu it. 
But it is the vibration which pulls the dirt through, 
not the suction, for should the same piece of felt be 
laid on the floor, and the dirt put under it, the same 
cleaner will not affect it in the slightest. 

Vibration under a carpet may draw the dust dowi., 
but vibration over the carpet will not draw the dirt uj). 
A small fixed brush inside the nozzle is often met witli, 
but, although a useful addition, it is not very efi'ective. 

Lately vacuum cleaners have been put on the market 
with a small revolving brush inside the nozzle, simply 
driven by wheels making contact with the floor, but tliis 
is not reall_y of any material assistance to the suction, 
provided the suction is all that it should be. 

Simplicity is an essential in any electric household 
appliance. The average housewife does not appreciate 
complicated actions. She is afraid of them. Certainly, 
as regards vacuum cleaners, simplicity is one of the most 
important features, and the dealer would do well to con- 
centrate on the more simple type of cleaner rather than 
oii the more complicated one. 

For constant use, especially where subjected to hard 
wear, the fewer parts there are to get out of order the 
better. The vacuum cleaner is necessarily often in the 
hands of those who understand nothing about it, and it 
is subjected to sundry shocks and blows in consequence. 

Switches operated automatically by a movement of 
the handle and other ingenious contrivances are all 
very well, but in actual everyday use they have their 
drawbacks. The most convenient form of switch is the 
one on the end of the handle, which, by slightly twisting, 
tlie machine is switched on or off. 

Another important feature of the simpler machine 
is its lighter weight, a considerable ailvant.age when 
the machine has to be lifted about by a woman. 

And last, but not least, the simpler inacliiiie is usually 
cheaper. But apart from the question of price, the 
simpler type of machine in undoubtedly superior to the 
more fonifilimtcd cleaner, for many reasons. 



iVoi. 89. No. 2,275, jdlt 1, 1921 ] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



Enthusiastic salesmen should ba warned that a 
vacuum will not do impossibilities in cleaning. 

There is a popular impression that a vacuum takes 
up dirt in a fashion that puts all other cleaning devices 
to shame, but this is somewhat erroneous. 

A vacuum cleaner will clean a carpet more effectively 
than any known form of household appliance, but very 
often a little work on the furniture with a duster will 
be more effective tlian the accessories of the cleaner. 

Should the place to be cleaned be an out-of-the-way 
corner or cornice, or shelf, however, one of the attach- 
ments is very useful, and there is no doubt tliat for the 
cleaning of mattresses and upholstery tlie cleaner is very 
effective, and much more thorougli than the ordinary 
beating and brushing. 

One of the most useful attachments in actual prac- 
tice is the blowing device, the strong blast of air being 
much more effective in moving the dust from crevices 
than suction. 

The result of my experience with all kinds and classes 
of electric vacuum cleaners is to strongly recommend 
the simple effective suction sweeper, with no motor- 
driven brush, and a suction strong enough to lift the 
carpet 3/16 in. off the floor. 

While cheap and inferior machines should be avoided, 
the dealer would be well advised not to harbour the 
ultra expensive cleaner. 

Simplicity should always be the watchword of the 
dealer wlien handling electric vacuum cleaners. 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE. 



By JOS. J. H. ST.\NRFIELD, P.C.I. S. 



About ten months ago (August 9th, 1920, to be exact) 
the Unemployment Insurance Act, 1920, received I\oyal 
Assent, and due, or partly due to the exceptional cir- 
cumstances of the times, two amendments of that Act 
have since become law, and a Bill has now been pre- 
sented by Dr. Macnamara under the "ten minutes 
rule," to reduce as from July 4th, 1921, the benefits 
to be received and increase tlie contributions to be paid 
as provided by the principal Act, and the amendments 
above mentioned. 

Under the Unemployment Insurance Act, 1921, the 
weekly benefits of 15s. for men and 12s. for women 
were increa.sed to 20s. and 16s. respectively, and from 
July 3rd, 1921, the weekly rates payable by employed 
persons and employers were to be increased as follows : — 
Prom the employed perison Ant;.. ]9'20 July. 1921 

Men id. 5d. 

Women 3d. -Id. 

Boys under 18 2d. 2Jd. 

Girls under 18 Ud. 2d. 



rom the employer 


Aug.. VM) 


,luly, 19'il 


For Men 


id. 


6d. 


Women 


Sid. 


5d. 


Boys under IS 


2d. 


2id. 


Girls under 18 


2d. 


2d. 



Should the Bill now introduced become law, the rates 
payable from next July will be materially increased 
before the Act passed last March comes into force, de- 
tails of which will in due course be published. 

Last March the Insurance P und had a credit of over 
22 million pounds, and the Government agreed to in- 
crease out-of-work pay as mentioned above, as they cal- 
culated that the accumulations which had been made 
during the war would last until July, 1922. The rapid 
growth of unemployment (which has reached 23 per 
cent, against the estimated percentage of 91) has, how- 
ever, upset all calculations, and the fund has fallen 
to S\ millions, with entire exhaustion within early sight. 

The Act of last March provided for Treasury advances 
not exceeding a total of 10 millions, but the new Bill 
proposes to increase these to double that amount, thousrh 



the advances are only intended to be temporary, and 
are repayable with interest thereon to the Unemploy- 
ment Fund. 

Part of the increased cost of insurance is due to the 
ever increasing unemployment. Many employes have 
been compelled to exhaust the 16 week.s' bt-netit allowed 
by the Acts, and they cannot, as matters stand, obtain 
any further assistance until October or November of 
this year, a condition which may again arise between 
November, 1921, and July, 1922, and although the 
waiting period is to be increased from three to six days, 
it is proposed to ameliorate the difficulty and extend 
the benefits by six weeks. 

The Unemployment Insurance Act, 1920, provided 
that the increased benefits and contributions should 
cease on July 1st, 1923. It will be of general interest 
to " wait and see " wliothfr tip Bill will vary thin 
limited period. 



JOINT ELECTRICITY AUTHORITIES. 



London and home Conntles Icqulry. 



iContinued from page 810.) 

The Confere\xe Scheme. 

On the conclusion of the London County Councils case on 
Tuesday, June 21st, Mr. Turnkh presented the proposal for the 
Conference of Local Authorities Owumg Electricity Lnder- 
takings in the area delimited, repre&enting all local authorities 
owning electricity works except I'oplar, Keigate, Epsom, aad 
Watford. The scheme of the Conference, he said, adopted 
the area scheduled by the Commissioners. The Joint Electri- 
city Authority would, under the terms of Section 6 of the Act 
of 1919, be representative of tlie authorised undertakers, and 
to that end, the total of 29 would constitute 12 representatives 
of the local authorities. 12 of the companies (of whom eight 
would be appointed by the purchasers), three representatives 
of large consumers and labour, and a chairman and vice- 
chauman. In that way the authorised undertakers would 
always be in a majority, as he contended was contemplated 
by Section 6 of the .Act of 1919. instead of in a minority, as 
under the L.C.C. scheme. 

Counsel went on to deal with Clause 14 of the L.O.C 
scheme, which lays it down that all undertakings must be 
transferred to the Joint Electricity .Authority. He argued that 
this clause was ultra vires, inasmuch as it was virtual com- 
pulsion, whereas by Section 6 of the Electricity (Supply) Act 
of 1919. the consent of the authorised undertaker must be 
obtained. 

Sir John Sxell said the Commissioners would not be satis- 
fied with any scheme which left it doubtful whether the 
authorised undertakers would agree or not. If all the autho- 
rised undertakers iu the whole area except four were in 
agreement, as he gathered they were, then he could see no 
objection to compulsion. 

Mr. Turner said he was bound to regard the legal position. 
and he would show that the Conference scheme would give 
the same result as the L.C.C. scheme, without the same wide 
measure of control as was suggested in Clause 14 of the L.C.C. 
scheme which, he contended, was ultra t-ires. 

Mr. DoNCAN W.ATsoN, chairman u( the Conference, was the 
first witness. 

Mr. \\atso.n, continuing his evidence on Wednesday. 
June 22nd. said the Conference had been fully alive to the 
necessitv for an improvement in the control of electricity 
supply in the area, but it was felt that Clause 21 of the Con- 
ference scheme which made provision for voluntary arrange- 
ments or in the alternative by an order of the .Authority, sub- 
ject to an appeal to the Commi.ssioners. met the case. There 
were at the moment 34 local authorities willing to work the 
scheme voluntarily, and to use their borrowing powers. 
Already in the eastern and western portions of tlie area such 
voluntary Unking up had been put into force. 

Mr. Henderson. K.C.. cross-ex,imined on behalf of the 
Tv.C.C.. and dealt first with the question of control. Mr. 
Watson said the view of the conference was that the local 
authorities should have the right of ap|vnl to the Commis- 
sioners, thus making the Joint Electricity Authority an effec- 
tive link between the authorities and the Commissioners. 

Counsel put it that the whole aim of the scheme seemed to 
he to cut down the powers of the Joint .Vutliority. whereas 
the object of the T..C.C. scheme was to give the Joint Autho- 
rity absolute control a."! repnrded generation. Under the I-ocol 
Authorities' scheme, the .Toint Authority had to approve of 
new proposals for genemtins stations, and apparently conld 
give its own consent to stations which it prop»is<Hl to erect 
itself, without the consent of the Commissioners. The L.C.C 
scheme provided for the consent of the Commissioner*. 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIE\\'. [Vrf. 89. No. 2,276, jult 1, 1921. 



Sir JoHK Skell said that nothing in any of the schemes 
could take away from the Commissjoners the powers of con- 
sent to the erection of generating stations conferred on them 
by ir'arliameut. 

Air. Wakos, answering questions regarding purchase, 
said there would be no objection on the part of the local 
authorities to the principle of transferring their generating 
stations to the Joint Authority, provided the terms were satis- 
factory, but the objection was to the expenditure of such a 
large capital sum now as would be necessary. 

bir John Sxkll asked if the members of the Conference 
would object to the transference of their stations on the p;iy- 
ment by the Joint Authority of the outstaiidmg debt charges. 
Mr. W.^TSON said a resolution had been passed by the Conler- 
ence, on March 'J'2ud, iy-21, to the elVect that the terms of any 
transfer of generating stations or transmission lines to the 
Joint Authority should be : (1) The taking over of the out- 
standing debt, or (2) payment of the capital cost less depre- 
ciation, whichever was the higher. 

Another point mentioned by Mr. Henderson in cross- 
exammation was that the Conference scheme gave the Joint 
Authority power to manutacture electrical machinery, and 
Mr. Watson thought there should be this power, if necessary. 
so long as the plant required was for the London scheme. 
The Conference scheme also provided for the payment oi the 
chairman and vice-chairman of the Joint Authority, and 
also the reasonable expenses of the members, which Mr. Hen- 
derson said would increase the administrative expenses. Mr. 
Watson said the idea was to get the best men. 

Mr. Ke.nnedy. for the nine companies, put some questions 
with regard to pmchasc. He asked if for the companies' 
generatmg stations the same principle should be applied as 
had been suggested for the local authorities. 

On the subject of control by the Joint Authority, Mr. 
Ketmedy said the companies took the view that the Joint 
Authority should have a more practical control than was 
suggested by the Conference scheme. Bearing in mina the 
proposed appeal to the Commissioners referred to by Mr. 
Henderson in his cross-examination, he mentioned that no 
appeal to the Commissioners was suggested with regard to 
the technical scheme. Mr. Watson said there was no need 
for that, as the technical scheme was agreed. So far, however, 
he admitted that the local authorities had not passed any 
resolution pledging themselves to work it. Similarly, with 
regard to the capital expenditure of il.OoO.OOO contemplated 
to be necessary during the hrst few years, no resolution had 
been passed, but the money would have to be raised, although 
he was not prepared to say whether the money would be 
raised on the security of the rates or only on the undertaking. 
If v\ith the security of the rates that would give an advantage 
of 2 per cent, to the Joint Authority. 

Sir John Snlll asked specifically whether Mr. Watson could 
give a definite assurance that the money would be raised on 
the security of the rates of the various districts. Unless the 
Commi.<.;ioners had some definite evidence that the scheme 
would be supported favourably by the Conference authorities. 
they could not fairly judge between the dili'erent schemes. 
Mr. Watson said he could not give a definite assurance, but 
the estimates had been drawn up, in the engineering scheme. 
on the basis that the rates would be behind the raising of 
the capital. 

Mr. Kennedy, dealing with the representation on the Joint 
Authority, put it that flie L.C.C. or companies, if they found 
the money, should, have a preponderating representation, but 
witness nould not agree to that proposition. 

.Answering a question by the chairman. Mr. Watson said 
that the M authorities representing the Conference would 
agree to work the scheme, so that any difficulty with regard 
to Section 14 of the L.C.C. scheme being ultra vires would be 
got over in that way. 

The L.CC. proposal of autocratic control on the part of the 
Joint Authority was discussed between Mr. Donald, repre- 
senting the East London scheme, and Mr. Watson, the result 
of which was complete agreement between them that, as in 
some parts of London linking-up had been carried out quite 
successfully on voluntary lines, there was no need to intro- 
duce an Authority with autocratic powers. 

Mr. Donald asked specifically whether the Conference would 
agree to an amendment of the scheme to the effect that if n 
number of local authorities con.bined. and could provide an 
area which would absorb the activities of one capital station. 
then such an area should be formed, subject to the consent 
of the Commissioners. Mr. Watson replied in the negative, 
the reason being that it would depart from the general scheme 
of the proposal that there should be unification over the whole 
area. 

QueBtions followed as to where economy was to come in 
from the work of the Joint Authority for so large an area. 
Mr. Watson did not agree with the figure of £40.000 or 
£.50.000 per annum for tli<> administrative cspon.sps of the 
Joint Authority during the early years, and put the cost at 
nearer £20.000, because ft was not proposed under the Oon- 
ference scheme to set up a large admrnistrative staff at the 
beirinning. 

Mr. Donald's case was that septir.nting the area into a few 
RmsHer dietrict.q would result in n fhcnper supply being given 
to industrial I>ondofi. Linking-up ol'-rtrically was part of hia 
rape, but he wished to be independent financially. 

Mr. Watson said the aim nS the Conference was the Unk- 
ing-up of the east of Tjondon. and at one time linking-up 



with the west had been suggested. Mr. Donald's retort was 
that this linking-up was not connected with any financial 
grouping ; it only related to electrical huking-up. ' Following 
this up, he put it to witness that originally there was a 
proposal that the rates should be pledgeil with regard to the 
capital, but that it had been withdrawn in the discussions 
of the Conference m order to secure unanimity. Mr. Watson 
said it was not felt necessary to state this Oefinitely in the 
scheme, but he could not imagine how the money could be 
raised in any other way. 

Counsel for the Metropolitan Electric Supply Co. suggested 
that the best plan would be to deal with the County of Lon- 
don first, and leave the surrounding districts alone. 

Mr. Bagg.vllav, for the Middlesex County Council, raised 
the question of how much of the Conference scheme would 
fall to the ground if the Electricity Supply Bill (No. 2) did 
not go through, as many of the clauses ot the scheme were 
taken from the Bill. Mr. Watson said there was no reason 
why any part of the scheme should go. The authorities were 
ready to co-ordinate the demands of the area. 

Sir Herbert Nield, K.C. then cross-examined for the Hert- 
fordshire and Surrey County Councils on the same Unes as 
he had previously done, pointing out that as the Conference 
scheme, equally with the L.C.C. scheme, did not offer any 
immediate benefit to Hertfordshire, that county should be 
left out. 

Mr. Kennedy, who had submitted a scheme, as the inquiry 
was closing for the dav. said that after having heard what 
had taken place so far. the companies desired to make certain 
modifications in their scheme. Mr. Donald, for the East Lon- 
don district scueme. asked that a similar indulgence should 
be extended to the other parties if they desired. 

Sir John Snf.ll said that what was allowed to one roust 
be allowed to all. 

When the inquiry opened on Thursday. June iSrd. Mr. 
Wrottesley, who appeared with Mr. Baggallay. for the Mid- 
dlesex County Council, explained preci-sely the attitude of 
that body. He said there were certain objections on the part 
of tiie Middlesex County Council to all the schemes, such 
as those dealing with representation and finance. If certain 
modifications were made in the scheme of the Conference of 
Ijocai Authorities, it might be that the Middlesex County 
Council would withdraw its objection to inclusion in the area. 

Mr. Duncan Watson's cross-examination was then con- 
tinued. Attention was given to the method of meeting the 
administrative expenses of the Joint Electricity Authority 
during the early years. According to the scheme, the expenses 
would be met by the authorised distributors taking a supply 
from the Joint Authority. 

Sir Harry Haward said it was not quite clear what was 
going to happen if pone of the authorised distributors took 
a supply from the Joint Authority during the first year or 
two. Who was going to meet the administrative expenses.' 

After considerable discussion, Mr. Watson stated that in 
his view all the parties concerned, whether taking a supply 
or not, should contribute, and to that extent he agreed with 
the proposals of the L.C.C. 

Mr. Baker, for the North Metropolitan Power Co., said 
that as the scheme had been deposited, no portion of 'he. 
administrative expenses would fall on his company. Now, 
it would seem that the company would have to bear a share 
of the administrative expenses in proportion to its output. 
Thus the larger the business of the authorised distributor the 
larger the sum which would have to be paid towards th*^ 
administrative expenses, and the North Metropolitan Power 
Co. as admitted, would receive no assistance from the Joint 
Authority for some years. 

Mr. Watson agreed, but said that the amount would be 
very small, as only that proportion of the administrative 
expenses would be levied upon the authorised distributors 
which was not chargeable to capital expenditure. 

Mr. Watson,- in reply to Mr. Baker, said the Commissioners 
had put forward the area, and he assumed that it had to be 
adhered to. On the other hand, Mr. Rider, who had advised 
the local authorities as well as the L.C.C. had stated that 
it would not hurt the scheme to cut out certain areas, 
having been told during the inquiry that it was not essential 
to feel l)ound to the provisional area. In that respect, Mr. 
Watson and Mr. Rider did not agree, because Mr. Watson 
had said the North Metropolitan area was essential, whilst 
Mr. Rider, although desiring to have the whole area, as 
being a .suitable one for the purpose.s of electricity supply, had 
admitted that parts of the North Metropoliton area miiint be 
left out. Mr. Baker also ascertained that the basis of com- 
pany representation on the Joint Electricity Authority was 
that all tho companies were purcliaseahle. whereas the North 
Metropolitan Power Co. was not purchaseablo. Mr. Watson 
agreed that this would require a modification of the basis of 
represeritiition. 

Mr. Turner, in his re-examination, pointed to an answer 
by Mr. Rider in which he stated that the North Metropolitan 
Power Co.'s area was essential to the scheme, in that it misht 
contribute to the general supply, as well a-s eventually reoeivi* 
assistance from the general scheme. As to the proposal of 
the local authorities to split the area info four separate autho- 
rities, Mr. Watson said the idea T(as to h.ive four divisional 
committees to collect information, but only one .Joint Elec- 
tricity Authority was intended all along. The Conference 
did not feel itself bound to adhere to the terms of the resolu- 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, JuM 1, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



tions already passed aa to the purchase of the local authorities' 
generatiug st^tiuua. « 

Sir ilAKUY Ha WARD said he still could not understana the 
position of the lotul authorities as to raising capital lor the 
purposes of the Joint Electricity Authority. Until the Elec- 
tricity Supply (No. 2) Bill was passed, the local authorities 
had not the power to assist the Joint Authority. Even when 
that was possible, he did not sec how the local authorities 
could raise money and lend it to the Joint Authority. Usually 
the local authorities borrowed from the L.C.C.. and the best 
plan would be for the L.C.C. to guarantee the interest on the 
Joint Electricity Authority's capital. 

Mr. W'atso.n said the one thing he wished to emphasi.se was 
that the local authorities did intend that the money should 
be raised on the security of the rates. 

Sir Harry Hawakd, dealing with the proposal to give the 
companies and the local authorities equal representation on 
the Joint -Authority, pointed out that the capital expenditure 
in the case of the companies was ^'20,OO0,0UO and the local 
authorities £'12,0UU.U00, and therefore the representation should 
be as 3/5 to 2/5, instead of equal, 

Mr. Watson replied that the local authorities' interest was 
freehold, whereas the companies' mterest was leasehold. 

Sir Harkv questioned whether the companies and the pur- 
chasing authorities should be held as one and the same. Mr. 
VVatson' thought it was right, as when the prnx-hase took 
place the purchasing authorities would then have the same 
representation as the other local authorities. If the North 
Metropolitan Power Co. was taken over by the Joint Autho- 
rity, he saw no reason why it should not have separate repre- 
sentation. 

Sir Harry said that if the local authorities did not exercise 
their purchase rights, the extra representation would go to 
the companies, and that, again, rather suggested that the 
principle adopted in arriving at the proportion of representa- 
tion was not a sound one. Another point made by Sir Harry 
Haward was that the City of London Corporation was given 
one representative, as an authority with purchase rights, and 
Mr. Watson said he would not deny that that was also 
done partly with the hope of financial assistance for the Joint 
■ Authority. 

Mr. Watson agreed that if separate representation was given 
to the Middlesex County Council, similar claims would be 
made by the other counties, and that that would constitute 
an important alteration in this part of the scheme. 

Sir Harry Haward, referring to the three representatives 
for railway companies, large consumers, and labour, elicited 
that this meant only one representative each, so that the 
railway companies and large consumers would only have the 
same representation as labour. He asked why labour should 
have any representation at all. Labour was already largely 
represented on local authorities. 

Answ-ering Mr. Page, witness said the absolute control of 
the Joint Authority was quite right in principle, but his ex- 
perience of the past few years indicated that the same thing 
could be effected voluntarily, and at less expense. The abso- 
lute control aimed at by the L.C.C. scheme might probably 
come into effect later, when the capital stations were built, 
but during the first stage he believed the authorities would 
agree among themselves to do all that was necessary. 

Mr. L.\CKiE followed up the question, and asked if, say. 
eight engineers in eight stations in a particular area did not 
agree, the result would not be better obtained with an absolute 
control from the beginning by the Joint Authority. Mr. 
Watson said the experience was that differences did not occur 
in practice, but the existence of the Joint Electricity Authority 
to come in also, would improve the position, and was what 
was wanted. 

Replying to the chairman, Mr. Watson said he was in favour 
of perpetual tenure to the companies, if the sliding scale of 
prices and dividends was applied. This applied to distribution, 
and he considered it urgent and necessary that the whole of 
the generating stations should in some form pass to a central 
authority. 

Sir John Snell suggested that it the Commissioners were 
able to evolve a scheme out of the first three schemes, it would 
be desirable that .some definite principle should be inserted, 
upon w'hich the stations should be acquired and the distribu- 
tors controlled. 

Mr. Watson replied that if that could be done the Com- 
missioners would amply have justified their appointment. 

Sir John Snell suggested that the promoters of the three 
first proposals should confer on the matter. He did not, how- 
ever, wish other promoters to think that the most impartial 
consideration would not be gi\eu to their schemes. That was 
a risk he ran in making such a suggestion. He added that 
the difl'eronces between the Conference and the Tj.C.C. were 
so small that they ought to be capable of easy solution. 

Mr. C. H. WoRDiNT.HAM, wdio took part; with Mr. Rider, 
Sir Alexander Kennedy, and Mr. (1. W. Partridge, in drawing 
up the technical scheme, was then called. On the question 
of control by the Joint Authority, he said he would prefer 
autocratic powers. The difficulty, however, was that there was 
no power of compulsion under the .\ct of lillO, and that 
made it extremely difficult to draft these schemes. The 
clauses in the Conference scheme gave a very large niensure of 
control nevertheless. .Although there were not autocratic 
powers of control in the Joint .Authority, the initiative came 
from it, and its decisions were subject to the approval of the 
CommisBioners. On the questioii of the reasons for advising 



the Unking-up scheme as opposed to erecting capital stations 
at once. Ml. VSorUiugham agreed with the views already put 
forward by Mr. uiuer, adding tuat as many ol the existmg 
stations were unecououiicui, me advantage ot a tail in price 
ol coal would be greater tliau would De lUe case m a capital 
station worioug under moie economical conditions, btaitina 
irom the pumi, tuereiore, that the cost ol suppiy from tn» 
Imiung-Lip ocueme and Irom capital stations ount at once, 
would be about lUe same, it iouowed that greater advantages 
w-ould be oblameu trom a lall in tlie price ol coal Irom tue 
huKiug up scucme m lUe early years. As to railway suppiy, 
Mr. Worumgbam said that any supply to the railways should 
be on the basis of a dehnite ma.vimum demand, a dehnite 
aunui^l consumption, a price which mvolved no loss, a con- 
tract lor a ix;riod of years to enable the capital expenditure 
to be justilicd, and, hnaily, reasonable notice of the rauway 
companies' demand. At the same time, he said that railway 
companies could supply themselves more cheaply. The com- 
bined supply would benefit Irom the existence of the rauway 
load, but the railway would suUer fiom the combination, 
because it would have to bear part of the expenditure on 
transmission and admmistration not connected with the rail- 
way load. 

Sir John Snell said there seemed no reason why the rail- 
way companies should be charged more than the actual costs 
attributable to their load, properly apportioned out. In that 
case, he did not see that the railway companies could generate 
more cheaply than a capital station for a joint supply. Indeed, 
he thought that by combining the two loads m one station 
both must benefit compared with deahng with the railway 
load from one station and the general supply, less railway 
load, from another station. 

Continuing his evidence, Mr. Wordingham referred to the 
advantage of being able to supply the outlying districts from 
the railway mains, as ah'eady indicated by the chairman. On 
the general technical details, he agreed with the scheme put 
forward by Mr. Rider. 

Mr. Craig Henderson cross-examined to the etiect that 
autocratic powers of control on the part of the Joint Autho- 
rity were necessary. 

Sir. Wordingham said it would be necessary for someone 
to control the use of the stations in the best interests, but 
that was a control dealing with the needs of the moment. 
which was quite dilierent from deciding a general policy. 

A discussion took place as to the desirabihty of erecting 
capital stations, with a long loan repayment period. Mr. 
Wordingham said he had very little hope that the Commis- 
sioners would grant a longer period than was usually allowed. 
In any case, in present conditions, he would prefer to put in 
new plant — much of which was already ordered — m the exist- 
ing stations rather than to erect new buildings for them in 
the form of a capital station, involving new transmission 
mains. 



On Friday, ^une 24th. Mr. Donald continued his cross- 
examination of Mr. Wordingham. Dealing with the powers 
given to the Electricity Commissioners under Section 19 of 
the Act of 1919, Mr. Donald said that so long as the Com- 
missioners refrained from setting up a Joint Authority for 
London they could do the whole of the work proposed under 
Part I of the scheme under consideration. That being the 
case, if the new capital stations were not to be erected for 
ten years, he suggested that the better course for the Com- 
missioners to take would be to refrain from setting up any 
Joint Authority until that work was carried out. This woiild 
r.esvilt in a considerable saving in the way of administrative 
expenses. The chairman, however, intimated that the ques- 
tion of the advisability ot setting up a Joint .\uthority or not 
under the powers given them was one upon which he would 
like the help ot counsel at a later stage. 

In answer to Mr. Tyndal .\tkinson, who cross-examined 
on behalf of the Hertfordshire County Council, Mr. Word- 
ingham said that the exclusion of Hertfordshire froni the 
area to be supplied would not affect the position of the inner 
districts of London very much, but Hertfordshire would 
benefit by coming into the scheme now. .Vfter some dis- 
cussion on the subject of price, witness agreed that there 
would be a point in length of transmission at which the price 
of 1.326d. per unit, which was the price at which it would 
be received at the bus bars of the authorised distributors, 
would be increased, due to transmission losses. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Szlumper, for the Surrey County 
Council. -Mr. WoiiOiNGHAM said that if the supply area of 
any particular umlert^iking were cut in two by the boundary 
of the present scheme, by all means it should be brought in. 
Tie had no sympathy with the idea of enlarging the area to 
a county boundary just because it was a county boundary. 

Mr. WouniNGHAM assured Mr. Wrottesley, who cross-ex- 
amined on behalf of the Middlesex County Council, that 
under the proposed scheme the Joint .\uthority would be able 
to supply at such a pressure as would enable it geographically 
to supply the whole area. In the first stage it was proposed 
to supply at ti.OdO to lO.OiX) volts, but in certain cases it 
could transform up to :W,t)00 volts. It could supply at a 
pressure of O.tXX) to lO.OtX) volts at any distance up to ten 
miles. The mains would he uiulerground, except where the 
country was oivn, when overhead mains would be adopted. 
In the last stage of the scheme the Middlesex area would 
be supplied from the Chiswick station in normal times, but, 



THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. 



[Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



of course, the whole of the stations would be linked-up in 
order to help each other in abnormal times. 

In answer to the chairman, who raised the point of zoning 
in connection with charges. Air. Woudinguam said he would 
not propose a series of circles round the various geueratmg 
stations, within which the price dillered from that in the 
outer areas. In his own view there would have to be a 
vei-y large central zone in which the rates and charges on 
the load-factor basis would be uniform. He did not think 
they would be justihed in charging the same rates anywhere 
on the fringe of the area as in the cential parts of Loudon. 

Sir Harkv HAWAiiii put a number of questions witu re- 
gard to the future fall in prices of plant, but Mr. Wordi.ng- 
HAM could not give any estimate as to the extent to which 
they would fall. If. as assumed by Sir liarry. the fall in 
prices during the next three years amounted to 25 per cent., 
thus reducing the estimated expenditure of 13 milliona to 
'Ji millions, the scheme would be much more promising. 
The price of coal must not be left out of account. Assuming 
a reduction in the cost of plant of 25 per cent., and a fall 
of i per cent, on capital during the next three years, there 
would be, said Sir Harry, a reduction in capital charges on 
the 13 millions of i;'itX),'0U0 a year. Such assumptions Mi. 
Wordiugham did not consider unreasonable. 

Mr. Page, following up the railway load question, got from 
Mr. Wordingham the opinion that the cost of generation 
in a station supplying railways as well as general supply 
would be lower than in ii station without the railway 
load, but he was not able to give a figure of the difference 
in cost per unit. If the Joint Authority could get the rail- 
ways, said Mr. Wordingham, he would be only too glad. 
His evidence had been on the assumption that a railway 
company would have sufificient load to put up its own capital 
station. 

Mr. Page : Yesterday you rather gave the impression that 
it would not pay a railway company to buy its energy from 
the .Joint .\uthority, but now that we have examined the 
matter furtlier. would you he prepared to say that in certain 
circumstances what you said yesterday will not hold? 

Mr. Wordingham said he ought to have said he was 
" afraid " the Joint Authority would not get the railway 
load. If the assumptions he had made were not sound, then 
his opinion would not hold. In certain events it might be 
worth the while of the railway companies to buy from the 
Joint Authority. In any case, he looked forward to inter- 
linking between the railway power stations. 

Mr. Booth, in the course of his questions, said the railway 
companies had told the Board of Trade Electric Supply Com- 
mittee that they would be prepared to purchase electrical 
energy if they could be assured that it would be cheap, and 
the supply reliable. So far there was no railway company in 
the area whose load would be sufficient to justify a capital 
station to deal with it. Moreover, he put it that a supply 
would be more reliable from a linked-up systoia than if rehance 
were placed on the railway company's own station. 

Mr. Wordingham said that it could be argued that the 
linked-up supply would be the more reliable. He added, how- 
ever, that with the one exception of the L.B. & S.C. Railway. 
all the London railway companies which wanted a supply 
had put up their own stations. 

Sir JoH.N S.NELL suggested that that was due to the fact 
that there was no other available source of supply. Sir John 
also brought out the point, which he .said had not been 
mentioned, that existing undertakers, such as the power com- 
panies, might be helped considerably by assistance from the 
Joint Authority in enabling them to deal with districts which 
they had not supplied hitherto. Moreover, Sir John put it. 
and obtained Mr. Wordingham's acquiescence, that the mere 
fact of the availability of supply to the existing undertakings 
from the Joint Authority would go a long way to breaking 
down the barriers which had hitherto hampered electrical 
development in this country. 

The promoters of the Conference scheme had intended to 
call Mr. Arthur Collins, the financial expert. Unfortunately, 
Mr. Collins had been taken ill and could not attend, and it 
was agreed to call him later. 

Mr. Rider was then recalled to explain further tables which 
he had prepared, putting in greater detail some of the tables 
already given, and elaborating certain figures given during 
his evidence. 

Very few questions were put on these tables by way of 
cross-examination. Mr. DoNAf.D, however, mentioned that 
therfe was an actual case of two stations, one of which was 
shut down for a certain period of the day, in which there 
had been an actual saving of £2.700 per "annum in wages. 
On this basis, it did not spem to him that Mr. Rider, in his 
estimates, had allowfd sufficient in respect of this saving. 

Mr. RiDEit said the estimates had been prepared in such 
a way that nobody could ,'!ay that they unduly favoured the 
scheme. 

In answer to Sir Harry Haward, he added thi^t no pro- 
vision had been made for savings in wages due to linking-up. 
because whilst the station was working at all there would 
not be much saving in this respect. The chief saving would 
be in respect of the coal used. There would be certain savings 
in wages as regarded actual generation, but for the most part 
the wages so .saved would have to go on to distribution. 

Mr. Ken.vedy then opened the case for the proposal by the 
nine London companies which had put forward a scheme as the 



London Electricity Joint Committee, 1920, Ltd. This scheme 
has been considerably' moditied since it was first drafted, and 
we deal with it in the words of Mr. Kennedy. The nine 
companies concerned, viz., the London Electric, the Char- 
ing Cross, City & \Vest End, Metropohtan, Central, West- 
minster, iiensmgton »ic Knightsbridge, Brompton ik Kensing- 
ton, Chelsea, and St. James s & I'all Mall, have a capital of 
approximately £10,250,000, and the units generated in 1919 
were roughly 190.500,000. The companies' capital, he con- 
tinued, represented 62 per cent, of the lot-al capital and the 
output 05 per cent, of the units sold by all the companies in 
London. 'Ihe City of London Co., although not associated 
with the scheme, was in Iriendly communication witn the 
promoters, and it was hoped to secure its co-operation even- 
tually. Taking the area delimited by the Commissioners, the 
nine companies concerned in the present scheme represented 
olj per cent, of the total subscribed capital and 21i per cent. I 

of the units sold by both the companies and local authorities. | 

The area served by the nine companies represented a very 
sub.stautial and compact nucleus around which to build a 
scheme, even if the nine companies stood alone, which ne did 
not believe they would do. .A-fter mentioning that the tech- 
nical part of the scheme was the same as that already 
described in respect of the two previous proposals, counsel 
explained that during the past few years, excluding the war 
period, the average total increase m demand in the area 
had been 20,5t)0 kW per annum, but the estimates in the 
engineering scheme had been based on an increa.se of 26,000 
kW per annum dm-ing the next six years, and 30.000 k\V per 
annum during the succeeding five years. The estimates were 
got out when the figures for 1919 only were known, but the 
subsequent figures for 19'20 had shown that the estimate was 
within 2 per cent, of the actual. The figures did not include 
railway load. A calculation had been made which showed 
that in an area represented by a circle with a radius of ten 
miles, with St. Paul's as the centre, the nine companies were 
supplying 93 per cent, of the total load of the whole area 
delimited by the Commissioners. The total load inside the 
circle was 432,866 kW. and the bulk of the load outside was 
in the hands of the North Metropolitan Electric Power Co., 
viz., 25.000 kW out of a total of 32,100 kW. Moreover, the' 
North Metropohtan Electric Power Co. was in friendly rela- 
tionship with the nine promoting companies, and there would 
be no difficulty in arranging for mutual supply. It was for 
these reasons that in the amended scheme the area to be 
dealt with by the Joint Authority proposed was represented 
by a circle with a radius of ten miles having St. Paul's as 
the centre. At the same time, from the administrative point 
of view, it might be well that the outside districts should 
come under the Joint Authority in order that they might 
have the benefit of its advice, and in the future, be connected 
up to the transmission system in the inner area. If the Com- 
missioners thought it right that the Joint Authority should 
have control over the outside districts, the promoters of tho 
present scheme would have no objection, although they did 
not think it would make for economy for one authority to 
have control over so large an area. Counsel went through 
the figures of generating plant now available and on order, 
already given by Mr. Rider, leading up to the expenaituro 
of i.'l,050,0fX) during the first five years on linking-up mains, 
adding that i£4,.500,000 capital expenditure had already been 
sanctioned by the Commissioners for new plant in the existing 
stations, and the capital charges upon it must be paid in any 
event. That new plant represented the additions taken into 
account in the estimates for the first five years, and the cost 
of energy when that plant was installed, and the linking-up 
scheme was complete, would be considerably lower than the 
average now. Then came the next stage, and the problem 
was not to be dealt with by calling the linking-up scheme 
parochial and the capital power station scheme visionary. 
There were two alternatives, either to extend the existing 
stations to their full po-ssible capacity, which was estimated 
at 832.000 kW, which would deal with a maximum demand 
of 6,50.000 kW at a capital expenditure of £9,7.50,000, of which 
£2,500,000 would represent initial expenditure during this 
period in preparing for the capital stations to come later ; 
or, to build new capital stations to deal with the load after 
1925 at a capital expenditure of nearly £21,000,000. The 
advantage in costs of energy was estimated at 0.034d. per 
unit by adopting this course. On this matter, he confessed 
to some difference of opinion between the engineers' com- 
mittee. Mr. Rider was inclined to the first course, and Sir 
.Alexander Kennedy and Mr. Partridge were inclined to the 
second, viz., to build capital stations to deal with the load 
after 1925. At the same time, all the engineers concerned 
felt that now was not the proper time to settle the point, 
and that it might vvell be left for the Joint Authority to 
determine when, it came into being. 

Coming to the administrative part of the scheme, Mr. 
Kennedy said he had grave doubts whether it was competent 
for the Commissioners to give any compulsory powers to tho 
Joint Electricity Authority for any area that might be decided 
upon, and even if it were, he did not believe that any schemt! 
could be satisfactorily worked by unwilling co-operators. 
Therefore, the essence of the scheme mu.st be agreement on 
the part of the local authorities and companies. If no other 
undertakers would join the scheme, the Committee of the 
Companies now concerned had passed a resolutioii pledging 
themselves to recommend their constituent companies to find 
the £1,050,000 which would be necessary in the first instance. 



vai. 80. No. 2,275, Juw 1, i»2i.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



and to start to get eomethiug done at once. At the same 
time it was sincerely hoped that the other undertakers would 
join the scheme, which had been framed so that this could 
be done from time to time. That applied to the local autho- 
rities; to the companies a time Imiit had been given. 

The con.5titution of the Joint .Authority was next dealt 
with. No dehnite number had been assigned to the number 
of representatives, the basis of representation being that each 
authorised undertaker who. entered into an agreement to take 
a supply, or had agreed to lend not less than I'iUO.OtX), or 
guarantee the interest on not less than ;6100,000, shouw have 
one representative, the voting powers being one vote for 
every £100,000 so dealt with. In addition, the L.C.C. would 
appoint live representatives, the City Corporation one, rail- 
way companies 3, and local authorities outside the County of 
London from whom any purchasing rights had been trans- 
ferred to the Joint Authority tw(j. In addition, the chairman 
and vice-chairman would be elected from outside. 

Sir Harry Haward asked how many possible members there 
were from the authorised distributors who could enter into 
agreements to take a supply. 

Mr. Kennedv said the total number was 44. 

Sir John Snell said it would help the Commissioners if 
a statement could be prepared showing under one or two 
possible cases, what would be the ultimate constitution of 
the proposed Joint Authority. 

Sir Harri: Haward also asked for it to be explained why 
agreements to take a supply or to guarantee £100.000 were 
put on a parity as regards voting power. 

The inquiry was about to close for the day when Codnsel 
for the railway companies said he did not wish it to be under- 
stood that the railway companies liad definitely refused to 
come into any scheme They were out to buy in the cheapest 
market. 

Sir John S.^jell said he hoped the railway companies would 
give the Commissioners all the assistance they could by put- 
ting forward a scheme showing what they hoped to do in 
separate generating stations. 

CoHNSEL for the railway companies said there were diffi- 
culties in the way of putting forward definite proposals, but 
all he wished to make clear now was that the railway com- 
panies would buy in the cheapest market. 

On Tuesday, June 2Sth, Mr. Kennedy continued his state- 
ment of the case for the proposal of the nine companies, 
and dealt first with a request by Su' Harry Haward on Friday 
for the reasons why a distributing authority entering into 
an agreement for supply and one guaranteeing a sum of money 
should be given the same representation. He confessed that 
there was no definite basis, but the undertakers who entered 
into an agreement were obviously entitled to representation. 
There were cases in which authorised distributors did not 
own generating stations, such as Bethnal Green, and such 
people might come in by guaranteeing a sum of money. He 
could not go further than to say that both classes of under- 
takers ought to be represented on the Joint Authority ; under 
the Technical Committee's scheme to be dealt with later, 
each of the undertakers that leased their undertakings to the 
Joint Authority would be entitled to a representative. In 
order to prevent a local authority obtaining an undue pro- 
portion of votes by putting up an exceptionally large sum 
of money, it was proposed to hmit the number of votes 
which any authority could have. At present, in the scheme, 
no number was inserted, but it was felt that five might 
be a fair number as a total for any particular authority. 

In answer to Sir Harry Haward, Mr. Kennedy said he 
could find no precedent for constituting a Joint ."Authority 
on this basis, but neither could he find any precedent for 
the constitution of such an authority at all. viz.. by agree- 
ment. 

Continuing, counsel said it was proposed to pay the chairman 
and vice-chairman, but not the members of the Joint Autho- 
rity; in that the scheme agreed with the L.C.C. scueme. 
but differed from the scheme of the Conference of Local 
Authorities. Local authorities could come in and join the 
Joint Authority, with the consent of the Commissioners, 
but a time limit was placed upon the companies coming in. 

Some questions were put by the Commissioners with regard 
to this proposed constitution of the Joint Authority, particu- 
larly as to when it could be regarded as complete. 

Sir John Snell said it seemed to him that the broad prin- 
ciple was that at dift'erent stages a finite number of repre- 
sentatives would be arrived at. e.g., when all the authorised 
distributors had come in : and that thereafter their measure 
of voting power might increase or vary according to the 
degree of financial responsibility assumed. 

Mr. Kennedy agreed that that was so. For instance, it 
might be that the companies with a smaller number of repre- 
sentatives would have a larger voting power than the local 
authorities. 

Answering further questions, Mr. Kennedy said that the 
companies must enter into agreements with the Joint Autho- 
rity after the making but before the confirmation of the 
scheme, because it was felt that it would be u.seless to con- 
firm a scheme if there w-as no chance of there being sufficient 
undertakers who would transfer their generating stations 
and transmission lines. .\s an inducement to the companies, 
an extension of tenure as distributors was offered, which 
point he would deal with later. 



Coming to the terms upon which the Joint Authority 
would acquire the generating stations and tr^namission lines, 
counsel said there would be a rent equal to 7 per cent, on 
the cost of the station appearing in the books of the under- 
taking, less euch depreciation as bad been allowed by (b« 
income tax authorities, with the addition of an annual sum 
which would wipe out the cost so arrived at in a certain 
number of years, so that at the end of that perioa tn© 
generating station and transmission lines would become the 
property of the Joint Authority. 

Counsel confessed it was a complicated matter. In terms. 
this proposal applied to local authorities as well as companies. 
If the local authorities made other suggestions, which had 
the same effect, the companies w'ould not object. Really, the 
proposal was a hire-purchase rather than a lease, and was 
suggested in order that the money should not have to be 
found in a lump sum. A later clause in the scheme gave 
an option for the undertaker to go to arbitration to deter- 
mine the price to be paid. 

Sir John Snell said it would be helpful if the Commi»- 
sioners could be told whether the nine companies were willing 
to accept the principle of cost less depreciation without the 
option to ask for arbitration, because the former was detinito. 
whereas the latter was very indefinite. 

Mr. Kennedy promised to confer with his clients and let 
the Commissioners know. 

Continuing, counsel pointed out the other leading features 
of the scheme. Thus, the Joint Authority would have no 
control over any authorised distributor not taking a supply. 
The extension of the life of the companies as distributors was 
to be for 60 years from a date to be fixed. Later, it was 
provided that the Joint Authority must supply authorised 
distributors at a price not higher than that at which the 
authorised distributors could have generated ^ectricity them- 
selves. 

Sir John Snell asked whether it had been considered that 
the terms of purchase proposed would allow the Joint Autho- 
rity to supply at as low a price as that previously obtaining. 
Mr. Kennedy said the engineers considered they would if 
a proper scheme of co-ordinated control was adopted. 

Continuing, counsel said that the Joint .Authority was to 
appoint a Finance Committee, and no expenditure exceeding 
£1,000 was to be incurred without the recommendation of 
that committee. Further, a Technical Committee, consisting 
of five members, was to be appointed, three of whom were to 
be members of the Authority and two might, but need not, 
be elected from outside the .\uthority. .\s to capital, the com- 
panies had been advised by eminent counsel that it would 
only have powers to mortgage the undertaking but not to 
issue stock, until the Ko. 2 Electricity Bill was passed. 

Dealing with the expenses of the .Authority, it was provided 
that these should be met and defrayed out of (1) the proceeds 
of the sale of electrical energy ; ('2) grants from the Imperial 
Exchequer made on the recommendations of the Commis- 
sioners; (3) contributions by any bodies entitled to make them. 
Sir John Snell drew attention to the proposed grants from 
the Imperial Exchequer, and asked how they were to be 
obtained. 

Mr. Kennedy replied, amidst some laughter, that he had 
no doubt the Imperial Exchequer would look with a kindly 
eye upon any recommendations by the Commissioners. 

Describing the area proposed — it w-a.s originally that de- 
limited by the Commissioners — counsel said it was now 
a district within a radius of ten miles from St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, but exclusive of any parts of the respective areas of 
supply of the North Metropolitan Electric Power Supply Co.. 
and the Metropolitan Electric Supply Co.. that were outside 
the administrative County of London. 

Sir John Snell said the Commissioners would have to put 
many questions on the subject of the area, as, according to 
the map. there would arise several complications as between 
authorities within it which were giving bulk supplies outside 
the area now propo.sed. 

In his concluding remarks, Mr. Kennedy said that both the 
L.C.C. and local authorities' .schemes were unacceptable, be- 
cau.ie the companies were not given adequate representation 
on the .Toint .\uthority. The companies did not object to » 
municipal scheme so long as the .\uthoritv purchased tbi» 
companies' generating stations outright, and came under an 
agreement to give a supply, but they were not prepared to 
lease their cenerating stations to such an .Authority. .\s to the 
railways, it seemed to the companies that this w.ts lamely » 
matter for the railways themselves. It would not pay thp 
railway companies to erect power stations of their own. and 
put quite generally, it was purely an economic problem. 

Mr. \V. F. Fi.AnovTF. chairman of the T^ondon Electricity 
Joint Committee (lO'iOK Ltd.. and of the Charinij Cross. West 
End S: Citv Electricity Supplv Co.. said the Joint Committee 
had been formed to act as a .Joint Electricity .-Vufhority under 
the Electricity Supnly Act of 1910. Tlie individual nine 
companies concerned would have to be consulted through 
their shareholders liefore anv definite scheme was decided 
unon. but he had had the advantage of consulting with the 
nine companies, and knew their views. So far as the area 
was concerned, hi.'i own opinion was that the area delimited 
by the Commissioners was too large. The comp:inies did not 
look upon a possible purchase by the L.C.C. with any par- 
ticular fear. They could perfectly well meet all tb.ir statutory 



10 



IHE ELECTRICAL REVIE"W. [VoL 89. No. 2,276, July 1. 1921. 



obli^atdons until 1931, and have a surplus, although there 
might be some difficulty in raising the necessary capital during 
the last few years. At the same tmie, it was greatly to the 
advantage of "the purchasmg authority that something should 
be done, otherwise the position from the pubhc pomt of view 
m lyal would be very unsatisiactory, because the compames. 
without some prospects be>ond iydl. could not aflord to lay 
intercoanectmg mains, which was the first and a most im- 
portant step. Ihe board of the Joint Committee of the 
companies had passed a resolution approving of the amended 
scheme as now submitted to the Commissioners, and recom- 
mendmg that the compames should guarantee up to i'l,2UU,0(X) 
either alone or in conjunction with the other London com- 
ixmies. He did not believe he would have any difficulty in 
obtaining the consent of the Charing Cross Co.'s shareholders 
to providing their share of this amount. The terms of the 
lease proposed were that the rent was to be ascertained bj- 
taking the cost of the station in the books of the local autho- 
rity or company. As regards land and buikliugs, there snould 
be" no depreciation, because in the case of land, this would 
have appreciated, whilst buildings erected some years ago 
louid not now be erected for three or four times the cost. 
As to mains, it had been suggested that they should be 
depreciated 3 per cent, on a Hiininis hing value, and plant at 
5 per cent, on a diminishing value. This was the income tax 
basis. Having arrived at the total hgure, it was suggested 
that 7 per cent, should be the rent, although, personally, he 
would be content with 6 or 6§ per cent., because if too high 
a rate was asked, it would be cheaper for the Joint Authority 
to raise the money at once and pay the companies out. That 
he would like to avoid. In addition, there must be a percentage 
for paymg oil the cost, and that should be spread over as 
long a period as possible; say, 6u years, to coincide with the 
proposed extended tenure of the companies as distributors. 

In answer ,to the chairman. Mr. lL.4DGATii said he would 
recommend all the nine companies to take the purchase terms 
as set out without requiring the option of arbitration, it the 
scheme was sanctioned by the Commissioners, the nine com- 
panies would be advised by the Jomt Committee to find 
the il.UoO.OOO required for the first stage as set out in 
the engineers' technical scheme, if. before the scheme was 
finally confirmed, it was made sure that there were a suffi- 
cient number of authorised distributors willing to join the 
scheme to make it worth while. As things stood at present, 
the companies were in a very unsatisfactory state, because 
they did not know whether they would be purchased in 1931 
or not, and that was boimd to be reflected in the condition 
which the purchasing authority would find when the time 
came to purchase. 

Discussmg the area, llr. Fl.\dgate said he was not bound 
by the ten miles now suggested, and he was quite willing 
to modify the area. The point was that the four capital 
stations were within tho limits now proposed, and it would 
not be wise to extend unduly beyond the area which could 
be served by these stations most economically. That area 
was practically contained in the ten miles circle, because 
outside that area the load was comparatively small. 

Discussing with counsel for the L.C'.C, Mr. Fladq.we said 
that as the scheme now stood, those companies whicb did 
not agree to come in before the scheme was confirmed would 
not have an opportunity of coming in afterwards. It was, 
however, for the Commissioners to say whether further time 
should bo given, as in the case of the local authorities. 

Mr. 1 LADOATE also said that the scheme provided for abso- 
lute control by the Finance Committee of finance, and by the 
Technical Committee of engineering, without any supervision 
by the Joint Authority. He regarded the other members of 
the Joint Authority in the same way as shareholders who had 
appointed a board of directors. 

Continuing. Mr. Fladgatb said it was a difficult thing to 
decide what powers the Commissioners had under the Act 
of 1919 oefore such a scheme as this could be put into opera- 
tion. For instance, he did not believe the Commissioners 
lOuld give an extension of the companies' period of life as 
distributors. 

Mr. Tdbser, for the Conference scheme, and Sir Harkv 
Haward raised the question of how the pubhc was to benefit 
by any reduction in the price of energy, and Mr. Fladgate 
said that involved the whole matter of charges which would 
have to be dealt with by Parliament. He was willing to 
accept the principle that reductions in working costs should 
inure to the consumer. 

Mr. DoxAi-b said that if the proposed terms of purchase 
were applied, the consumer would suffer unless the Joint 
Authority was able to effect economies seeing that the 7 per 
cent, rental paid to the distributor by the Joint Authority 
must fall on the consumer eventually. The 7 per cent, would 
have to be charged to the distributor in the price of current 
if economies could not be made to enable the Joint Authority 
to supply at the same rates as the distributors were now 
generating at for themselves. 

Mr. Flmigxtt. was of the emphatic opinion that the consumer 
would not suffer in any way. The whole object was to 
cheapen supply, and he believed it would do this eventually. 
He also agreed to take in, say. Middlesex and other parts 
if the power stations in these areas were transferred. Other- 
wise he would not agree. At the same time, he preferred a 
small area to begin with. 

{To 6« continued.) 



LEGAL. 



HuBST Electric Plam, Ltd., v. Cavas Light and Powe» Co. 

At DubUn recently, before Mr. Justice Gordon, plaintiffs, 
who carry on busmess at Belfast, sought to recover £'Sia for 
a switchboard which they had made and completed for the 
defendants. The defendants denied the contract, and pleaded 
that the switchboard was not supphed by plaintiffs within the 
time agreed upon. The plaintiffs, in their reply, stated that 
there was no specified time, and that if there was. it had been 
waived by mutual consent. Judgment was reserved. 



J. P. Hall & Co. u. The King. 

L\ the Court of Appeal, on June '23rd. the hearing of thi» 
case was concluded, the company having appealed from a 
decision of Mr. Justice Bailhache in favour of the Crown. 
According to the report of the case in the Financial 'linie$, 
the appellants by Petition of Right claimed to recover the 
cost of providing a canteen for their workers during the 
war when they were a controlled estabhshment. In common 
with other controlled estabhshments, they were urged by the 
Ministry of Munitions to supply adequate facilities for the 
supply of food and refreshment for rlieir workers. In response 
to that request the appellants exncuded i.l,7U0 in erecting 
the canteen, and the Liquor Control Board recommended that 
il,5U0 should be returned to the supphants. However, when 
the E.P.D. Act came into force the authorities decided to 
deal with the matter under E.P.D., in which case appellants 
said they would only get 60 per cent, of their £1,500. Mr. 
Justice Bailhache held that the authorities had treated the 
matter properly, and discharged the petition. 

At the conclusion of the arguments in the Court of Appeal, 
Lord Justice Ba.nkes, in giving judgment, said that the agree- 
ment w-as that the cost of the canteen might be written off 
against current profits. Lender that provision and the then 
existing legislation the whole cost would have been thrown 
upon the Government, but E.P.D. became applicable to 
suppliants' business before the time came for ascertaming 
how the agreement was to be carried out. Therefore, instead 
of the Government paying the whole of the cost, they would 
only have to pay a portion of it if the essential term of the 
agreement were complied with — namely, that the cost should 
be written oft' against current profits. The supphants were 
not entitled to depart from that essential term of the contract, 
and the cost must be written off current profits and not against 
the sum payable to the Government by way of excess profits. 
The other members of the Court concurred, and the appeal 
was dismissed. 



SwARREN, Ltd. 



Mr. Justice P. 0. Lawhekce, in the Ccmpanie.s Winding-u? 
Court on Tuesday, made an order for the compulsory liquida- 
tion of Swarren, Ltd., upon the petition of the Electrical Sup- 
plies Co., of Tottenham Court Road. Mr. J. E. Harman ap- 
peared for the petitioners, who. he said, were judgment 
creditors, and the company did not appear. 



New X-Ray Apparatus, — The authorities of the West 
London Hospital announce that they are in posBesaion of newX-rsy 
apparatus wh'ch makes use of 'ays of a wave-length not hitherto 
employed. The voltage U 200 i>00. The apparatus is the design of 
a Bavarian radiolPEfist, and the equipoannt is the only one in 
England. The high claim is made, aocordiner to 'J'/ie Timex, by the 
hospital authorities that: " Surgery as a treatment for oanoer may 
be entirely out of date in a few years' time through the special 
form of X-rays now in use in the West London Hospital, A figure 
of cures as high as >S0 per cent, of the cases thus treated is looked 
for by those who are by no means extravaerantly hopeful. ' It is 
also stated that the rays do not injure the patient in the slightest 
degree. The tendency of radiolo'iats has been to obtain tubes 
eriviiig rays of higher penetration, and the tubes referred to by the 
'West London Hospital authorities afford the " hardest ' rays yet 
achieved. Opinion is on the whole favourable to the movement, 
though some authorities are of opinion that the present method of 
uaintr radium with .X-rayi is probably as pood as anjthinpr that ii 
likely to be achieved by X-rays alone, no matter how penetratinR 
they may be. The point in connection with cancer is that the 
hard rays have a selective action on cancerous tissues. They have 
also an action on some normal human tisfiu-s, but it is possible 
that when a very preat degree of hardness is reached, the action 
may be on the malignant tissue only. In any case, Coolidge has it 
is said, reported favourably on the new movement. It is also stated 
that American makers believe they can supply tubes capable of 
being used with voltages of 1,000,000. It is evidently too early as 
yet to dogmatise. The work is in an experimental stage. We OMi 
only watch it with interest and hope. 



Yol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921.] 



I'HE ELECTRICAL KEVIEW. 



11 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



The " Electrical Review " Index. — The Index to 

Vol. LXXXVIII of the Electrical Review, which will ahortly 
be printed, will bv. supplied only to those who, through the post, 
specially apply for it. To such it will be supplied for 6d. post free. 
Any reader or advertiser, at home or abroad, who requires a copy 
for binding, or for other purposes, is asked to make early applica- 
tion therefor to the Publisher, Electrical Review, 4, Ludgate 
Hill, E.C. 4. 

Onr Telephone Numbers. — The telephone numbers of 
the Electrical Review have been changed, and are now both 
on the Central Exchange. The numbers are : — Central 821)0 and 
8261. We shall be glad if our readers will kindly take note. 

Bankruptcy Proceedings. — William Aaron Davis, elec- 
trical engineer, 14, Basingliall Street. Leeds, late 3, Coronation 
Street, Leeds. The following are creditors herein : — 

Majichester l.o:iii and Discount 

.. WIG 



British Pure Oil, Grease, and 

Carbide Co ilOS 

Cuthbie & Co., Chas. L HI Munro, A. R. B 

Dawson, Henry 76 Bankers J'Ki 

Denison, E. A 13 Newby & Sons, T 23 

Endurance Cycle Co 10 Westwood & Co., Wd 448 

Grassham, T. & W 21 

The public examination of this debtor was held on June 21st 
at the County Court House, Albion Place, Leeds. Debtor 
stated that the receiving order was made on May "Jth last, 
on a creditor's petition. According to the statement of affairs 
the ranking liabilities were returned at £2,004, against assets 
£244, or a deficiency of £1,760. It appeared that he went 
to Leeds in 1918, after being discharged from the Army. He 
commenced business at 3, Coronation Street, Leeds, without 
capital, but borrowed CliO from a friend, and £40 from a money- 
lender. After a few weeks he entered into partnership with two 
others, who brought in £150 and £250 respectively. In December, 
1919, the partnership was dissolved, debtor paying out his partners' 
capital, and continuing the business alone. He engaged travellers 
and others on the condition that they invested money in the 
business, being paid 10 per cent, interest and £4 10s. a week salary. 
In this way he obtained £3,000 capital, of which £500 had subse- 
quently been repaid. In March, 1919, he commenced at 44, SUver 
Royd Hill, Wortley, Leeds, as an electrical battery maker, engaging 
travellers and others who put money into the concern in amounts 
ranging from £100 to £600. This business was incorporated aa a 
limited company in November, 1919, and at the close of 1920 
debtor sold to the same company for £1,000 cash and 2,000 shares, 
his Coronation Street business. The shares were allotted to him, 
but he stated that he did not receive the £1,000 caah. The house- 
hold furniture was claimed by his wife. The examination was 
closed. 

B. T. Dale, electrical engineer, Erick Street, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. — Receiving order made June 18th, on debtor's own petition. 
First meeting July 6th, at Official Receiver's Offices, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Public examination, July 14th, at the County Court, 
Newoastle-on-Tyne. 

A. Kershaw and C. H. Wood (Kershaw & Wood), electrical 
engineers and merchants, 9, Bradford Road, Dewsbury. — Last day 
for proofs for dividend, July 11th. Trustee, Mr. C. Turner, 155, 
Norfolk Street, Sheffield. 

H. ROTHWBLL, S. J. Watson, F. C. Jinks (Vulco Magneto Co.), 
11, Long Acre, W.C. — Receiving order made June 23rd on 
creditors' petition. First meeting, July 7th ; public examination, 
September 27th ; both at Carey Street, W.C. 

Dissolution of Partnership. — " Gibsons," electricians, 

47, Kent Street, Great Grimsby. — Mr. F. T. Habershaw and Mr. 
J. E. Brader have dissolved partnership. Debts will be attended 
to by Mr. F. T. Habershaw, who will continue the business. 

Company Liquidations. — Dalton, Downes & Go., Ltd., 

wholesale electrical factors. Manchester. — Pursuant to Section 188 
of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, a meeting of the creditors of 
the above was held recently at the offices of the liquidator, Mr. 
Perkin S. Booth, 2, Bixteth Street, Liverpool. A statement ot 
affairs was presented which showed unsecured liabilities £4,54 7, 
of which £4,324 was due to trade creditors, £1G7 to cash creditors, 
and £5G to the bank. There were contingent liabilities £236, not 
expected to rank. The assets comprised stock-in-trade, at cost, 
£728, estimated to realise £400 ; trade fixtures, fittings, utensils, 
&c., at cost, £250, valued at £50 ; and book debts £1,772, expected 
to produce £1,419. The total assets were, therefore, £l,8i;!l, from 
which £50 had to be deducted for preferential claims, leaving net 
assets of £1,510, or a deficiency as regarded the unsecured creditors 
of £2,737. 

The li([uidator stated that the company was registered on 
December 10th, 1920, to take over an existing business. The 
nominal capital was £5,000 made up as follows : — 200 preference 
shares of £10 each and 3,000 ordinary shares of £1 each. The 
total issued share capital consisted of 10 preference shares and 
1,347 ordinary shares, which were issued for cash, with the 
exception of 750 to the vendor of the business. No directors' fees 
had been paid. The rent of the premises was £52 per annum on 
a lease of three years from January 24th, 1920. The books had 
not been made up to date, but the liquidator stated that the turn- 
over in December, 1920, amounted to £886 ; in January, 1921, £ 1 ,."i58 ; 
February, 1921, £484; and March, 1921, .£447. There was an 
estimated loss on the trading of £780, while the balance of the 
deficiency was accounted for by depreciation of stock, £328 ; 
depreciation of fixtures, £200 ; depreciation of book debts, £354 ; 



amount paid for goodwill, £750 ; premium paid for premises, £300; 
and preliminary expenses, £135. After discussing the position the 
creditors resolved to confirm the appointment of Mr. Booth as 
li(luidator, while a committee of inspection was also appointed. 
The following are creditors : — 

A. ,S A. Klcctrical Co. ,. 
Ashworth 4 Smith, Ltd. 

Branlik, G 

Bearsall * Co., Ltd. 
B.B. Co. 



B.T.T. Kluc. Lamp* Accfs. Co. 

Barnes, H 

O'Brien, H., & Co 

Buckland, C., , . .. „ 

Oahimet Maker 

Cheadle 4 Waltho, Ltd. 
Clareniont Johnson 

Casellian Marble Co 

Dainty Modern Machines 
Driver, Drennan & Cooper 
Edison Swan Elec. Co., Ltd. . . 

Electric Pires, Ltd 

Elec. Eng.& Equit. Co 

Electric Heating Co 

Electrical Supplies Co 

Electric Block Co., Ltd. 
Ele«tric Brasswares, Ltd. 
tiardware Tra4e Journal 
Holt, W., &Co 



fiir, 


Hills, II. (; 


.. x«o 


n 


.lonea & Pordes 


.. 13 


41 


Lutley, J 


10 


52 


Lowth& Smith, Ltd. .. 


.. lai 


i:i 


.Maedonald, C. J., & Son 


148 



Manche$ter City Newa 

14 Guardian, Ltd 

10.T Niell, .lobn. Ltd 

10 Newman, E. C, & Co., Ltd. 

CT Napier-Kimber, Ltd. |.. 

65 OdhamB Press, Ltd. 

22 Photector Co 

254 Richardson A Co 

49 Rhodes, Ltd 

37 Rainsford & Lynes 

25 Read, F. O., A Co., Ltd. 

79 Shepherd A Hope . . 

45 Southw;ird Lighting Co. 

lOti Spencer Works 

HI Stella Lamp Co. . 

12 Stella Conduit Co., Ltd. . . 

20 Sloan Electrical Co., Ltd. 

3i Shrimpton A rions.. 

18 Svenska Elec. Co 



.. 1,1 



12 



Messrs. Peter Harvey, Ltd., general engineers and brass- 
founders, Victoria Bridge Engineering Works, Stockton-on-Tees. — 
Meeting of creditors called for July 7th. Liquidator, Mr. T. R. G. 
Rowland, Victoria Buildings, Stockton-on-Tees. 

Anolo-Foreion Tramway Syndicate, Ltd. — A meeting is 
called for July 27th, at Sardinia House, Sardinia Street, W.C, to 
hear an account of the winding-up from the liquidator, Mr. A. F. 
Dickin. 

Armorduct British Co., Ltd. — Winding up voluntarily. 
Liquidator, Mr. H. A. Pepper, 14, Temple Street, Birmingham. A 
meeting of creditors is called for July 14 th. 

Devon Hydro-Electric and Development Co., Ltd. — 
Winding up voluntarily. Liquidator, Mr. T. W. W. Melhuish, the 
secretary of the company. 

Trade Announcements. — The general ofiices and storeB 
of Messrs. A. Vebey & Co., Ltd., have now been removed to 27, 
Buckingham Gate, Victoria Street. S.W. 1. They retain only a 
small part of the premises at 67, Borough Road. New telephone 
number, "Victoria 3180." 

Mr. S. G. Jones has removed to 72-74, Victoria Street. London, 
S.W. 1. Telephone number, " Victoria 3650 " ; telegraphic address, 
" Jonofied Sowest, London. " 

The Edison Swan Electric Co., Ltd., announces that, having 
just completed considerable alterations and extensions at its 
City warehouse, 123-5, Queen Victoria Street, B.C. 4, large stocks of 
lamps, fittings, accessories, kc, will be held at that address as from 
to-day, and all orders, inquiries, &c., in the London area will be 
dealt with from there instead of from the works. 

Catalogues and Lists. — Messrs. W. T. Henley's 

Tele(*raph Works Co., Ltd., Blomfield Street, London Weil, 
E.C. 2. — Publication W.L. I (40 pp.). A very comprehensive 
catalogue of cut-outs of many types. The list, which gives prices, 
and is profusely illustrated, includes 1, 2, 3, and'4-pole boxes with 
open, bridge and cartridge type fuses. Mounted sets consisting of 
cut-outs and sealing chambers are illustrated, as well aa water- 
tight and other specially-arranged boxes. 

Messrs. Richard Garrett & Sons, Ltd., Leiston, Suffolk. — An 
illustrated card giving particulars of the Garrett power plant, 
which combines boiler, superheater, engine, and condenser in 
one unit. 

Simple.x Conduits, Ltd., Garrison Lane, Birmingham. — An 
illustrated price list of conduits, conduit fittings, lighting fixtures 
and appliances, including distribution boards, bowl fittings, and 
electric irons. 

Messrs. W. II. Dorman A: Co., Ltd., Stafford. — A well illustrated 
brochure (68 pp.) dealing with " wave-power " tools and machinery, 
including rock drills, rivetters, pile-driving e<juipment, kc. A 
description of this method of transmitting power is included in 
the publication. 

The Pyne Manui'ACTurin(i Co., Latimer Road, Teddington. — 
An illustrated and priced catalogue of awitohgear, f usegear, switch- 
boards for kinemaa and country houses, arc lamps for kinema 
projection, &c. 

The British Cellulose and Che.mical Manukacturino Co., 
Ltd., 8, Waterloo Place, S.W. 1. -A pamphlet dealing with the 
properties aiul uses of " Celastoid ' safety celluloid. 

Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd., Trafford Park, 
Manchester. Supply List No. 150/12, giving numerous illustrations, 
prices, and descriptions of all kinds of domestic electric heating 
and cooking apparatus such as fires, kettles, irons, urns, hotplates, 
.'CO. Also Publication No. 4,1.50/3. dealing with "Cosmos" electric 
radiators. 

Mussus. Gkouok l^LLisoN, Perry Barr. Birmingham. — .V publi- 
cation giving eight pages of illustrations of control gear, including 
circuit-breakers, starters, crane-control equipment, and >mit-type 
switoligear. 

The General Electric Co., Ltd., Magnet House, Kin.gsway, 
W.C. — Installation LeaHet No. P 2479, describiug and illustrating 
tlie electrical equipment of an hotel. 

The Edison Swan Electric Co.. Ltd., Ponders End, Middlesex. 
— List No. LL 299, giving prices of various sizes of " Fullolito " and 
" Daylight " gaafllled lamps. 

B 



12 



THE ELECTRICAl, REV1E\V. 



[Vol. »9. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



MuLLABD Radio Valve Co., Ltd., Claybrooke Road, Hammer- 
smith. W. 6. — A well-produced catalogue driving detail* and 
illastratiom of a number of receivine, trangmitting, and rectifying 
ralves. Fully priced. 

MtssRS Gabbigl Jc Co., 4 and 5. A B Row, Birmingrham. — An 
illustrated leaflet dealing with an improved electric lantern and 
■pares and accesaorieg, including a nharging board. 

HloHTENSiTE. LTD.. Normandy Works, Custom House, E. — 
"Improvements in Insulating- M.-vterials," a list describing the 
advantage* and eharactistios of " Hightensite," and giving illustra- 
tions of many parts and articles made of this material. 

Messr."*. G. Hogg k Sons. 66. Waterloo Road, Smethwick. — 
Leaflet giving reduced prioes of porcelain electrical goods. 

The Elkctbical Apparatus Co., Ltd., Vauxhall Works, South 
Lambeth Road, S.W. 8.— Leaflet H 42/6 illustrating and describing 
air-break and oil-immersed auto-transformer starters (drum type) 
for two and three-phase squirrel-cage motors. Fully priced. 

British axd Allied Electrical Agency, Ltd., Ely House, 
13, Charterhouse Street, E.G. 1. — An illustrated and priced leaflet 
dealing with the " Lowa " dimming switch. 

The Cressall MANDFACTtjRiso Co., 40 and 41, Staniforth 
Street, Birmingham. — List No. C.R. 1921, giving illustrated 
descriptions of controller resistances for cranes, lifts, hoists, &o. 

Messrs. W. Robinson A: Co., 53, Summer Row, Birmingham. — 
A catalogue Ulustrating monorail hoists, electric lifting blocks, 
spur-gear winches, friction hoists, A;c. 

Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd., 20, Brazennoae 
Street, Manchester. — Special Publication No. 7,840/2. — A well- 
illtistrated and fully descriptive brochure dealing with individual 
drive and control of machine tools. The illustrations show the 
application of electric motors to various types of machines, 
enclosed ventilating motors and control units. 

Catalognes Wanted, — Messrs. A. Ormrod & Co., 

wholesale merchants and factors, of Wigan, wish to receive trade 
price-lists and discoumt particulars from manufacturers of domestic 
electric labour-saving devices. 

Miners' Lamps. — The Mines Department of the Board 

of Trade lia.s just issued the Safety Lamps Order of April 
•JOth, lit'il (No. (i7"2), naniing and describing in Part i live 
new electric .safety lamps which have been approved for 
use in all mines to which the Coal Mines Act, 1911, applies. 
The first is the " Pearson Ni + Fe " {.Vlkaline Miners' Lamps, 
Ltd.) cylindrical accumulator lamp, which gives not less than 
1-1.5 c.p. for nine hours, its weight being 4. .5 lb. The 
" .•\dams " (Adams Bros. (Longton). Ltd.) is also a cylindrical 
lamp, but it possesses two lamp bulbs, fixed bulb to bulb 
vertically and connected in parallel, each having a current 
consumption of 0.,S amp. The laniji's total weight is 6. .5 Jb. 
The ■■ O. 1 " type of lamp (Patterson & Co.) has a li amp.- 
hour capacity, and weighs 5.7.5 lb., its siJecial feature being 
the locking arrangement. In the " Federation " (Federation 
Lamp Co.) a semi-solid or dry electrolyte is used; it has a 
fi amp. -hour capacity, and weighs 5 lb. 14 oz. Finally, the 
■" Oldham " cap lamp (Oldham & Son. Ltd.) is provided with 
an attachment for securing the lamp U^ the miner's cap. and a 
belt for carrying the accumulator case; a protected flexible 
conductor connects the latter to the lamp bulb, which takes 
0.7 amp., and the total weight of the outfit is 5 lb. 9 oz. 
Part n of the Order deals with amendments to the schedules 
to previous orders, and an appendix contains a li.st of all flame 
and electric .safety lamps. l)otli fur general and special use, 
which have been approved by the department. 

Private Meeting. — Frederick Vigers & Charles 

Herbert Vioers, timber merchants (trading as Vigers Bros.'), 
Balfour House, Finsbury Pavement, E.C. — In response to a circular 
letter issued by Messrs. Tribe, Clarke, Painter, Darton k Co., 
chartered accountants, a meeting of the creditors of the above waa 
held on June 21st at the Institute of Chartered Accountants, 
London, E.C. According to the statement of affairs presented the 
unsecured liabQities amounted to £112,574. The assets were 
estimated to realise £50,121, or a deficiency of £(>2.453. The assets 
were as follows : — Cash in hand, £45 ; sundry debtors, £12,718 ; 
bills receivable, £862; E.P.D. recoverable, €16, 638; plant at 
HilU Wharf, £4,900 ; Hills Wharf and buildings, £5,393 ; office 
furniture, £100; motor lorry, £162; and stocks, £9,309. The 
amount due to the sundry creditors was stated to be £71,339, but 
■tock was held of the estimatec" value of £11,6'.I3, leaving an 
unsecured balance of £50,640. The bills payable were £98,661, but 
security was held, consisting of stock, £1,380 ; stocks accepted, but 
not delivered, £39,847, and contra accounts. £8,632. Thesecurities 
totalled £47,859 ; the balance of £50,806 was included as an 
nnaecnred liability in the statement. There were also cash 
creditors for £9,908, but they held stock and ether assets valued at 
£7,784, and were unsecured for £2,123. The bank were fully 
secured creditors for £6,951, their security consisting of a charge 
on a debt due by Messrs. Thornborough k Co., Ltd. With regard 
to the assets, the debtors on open accounts were £23,4 11, but a 
a reserve had been allowed of £4.090, and there were contra 
accounte of £6,6J2. That left net assets of £12,718. The 
partners had a claim for the repayment of E.P.D. of £20,216, but 
that amount was subject to £3,577 for arrears of income-tax. The 
balance of the purchase price of the plant at Hills Wharf was 
£11,865, but it was charged to secure the bank, who were creditors 
for £6,954, or a balance of £4,900. The land and buildings at 
Hills Wharf were valued in the books at £10,060, but there was a 
mortgage of £4,666, leaving a free balanoe of £5,393. One portion 



of the stocks was valued at £28,967, but a large amount was held 
by creditors, and there was a free balanoe of £9,309. There were 
further stocks which had not yet been delivered, to the value of 
£3;',S4 7. Those stocks were held as security by the parties from 
whom they had been purchased. The partners also held shares of 
the face value of £5,000 in Associated Importers, Ltd., but no 
value had been placed upon them at present. The sundry creditors, 
claims of £71,339 were made Mp as follows: — Trade creditors, 
£18.i;85 ; cash creditors, £12,274, and compensation creditors' 
£40,379. The latter were five in number, and were firms with 
whom contracts had been entered into for goods at future dates. 
It was possible that the figure mentioned would have to be amended. 
Mr. A. G. Westacott inquired what was the position when the last 
accounts were prepared on March 3l8t last, and the accountants 
stated that the figures were only prepared this month, and they 
showed a deficiency of £73,700. In those accounts, however, the 
amount recoverable for E.P.D. was not included, although the 
shares referred to were taken in at £5,000. In March, 1920, there 
was a surplus of over £47,000, and within the year that was con- 
verted into a deficiency of £7:i,700. The total amount paid in 
E.P.D. was £24,679, of which £4,463 had been recovered, leaving a 
balance of £20,216. which had been certified as repayable. Mr. 
Biddle, of Messrs. Biddle k Co., solicitors, who appeared for the 
debtors, stated that his clients desired to continue the business, bat 
it was difficult for them to make an offer, as they could not tell 
what the compensation claims would finally be. Under the most 
favourable circumstances, however, they would make an offer of 
78. 6d. in the £, payable as to 2s. Rd. in the £ when the amount 
recoverable from the Government for E.P.D. had been received. 
The balance would be paid by two equal instalments of 2s. 6d, in 
the £, each on November 1st and March Ist next. No guarantee 
could be offered. The position disclosed was discussed at some 
length, and eventually it was decided that the meeting should be 
adjourned for 14 days. It was understood that in the meantime a 
copy of the statement of affairs submitted would be circulated to 
the creditors, and that a committee of the principal creditors would 
supervise the trading. 

Sactlon Gas Plant for China.— Attention is again 

drawn to the demand for suction gas plant in China. Its relative 
cheapness appeals strongly to the Chinese. Whilst the course of 
exchange is just now retarding the installation of new machinery 
on a large scale, the demand for new plant by local electric 
lighting companies is becoming increasingly urgent, says the 
Slianghai Times. In these circumstances the employment of 
suction gas is recommended. In the centres most concerned coal 
is obtained locally, anthracite usually being available, and its price 
is not subject to the vagaries of exchange. The installations of 
suction gas plant at present in operation have created a very favour- 
able impression. Several concernsin China supplying light and power 
are taking steps to obtain additional capital. As they must soon 
come into the market for machinery for extensions and renewals, 
it is believed that an important potential demand is developing 
for prime movers operating on suction gas. — Heuter^t Trade Sen-ire 
(Shanghai). 

Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd.— Presidine- at the 

annual m(3eeting of the company, Mr. D. B. Morison said that 
notwithstanding the exceptional difficulties of the year, due 
largely to the aftermath of the moulders' strike, the actual pre fits 
earned were considerably greater than in the previous year. 
Owing, however, to the E.P.D. being raised to 60 per cent., ana 
to the addition of the Corporation profits tax, the retainable 
profit of £I.")5,635, shown in the accounts, was £80,000 less than it 
would have been had the duty remained at 40 per cent, as in I91C 
Last year he foretold a difficult future for the marine engineering 
industry. Events had proved that their conservative policy was 
eminently sound, and the result had been to place the company 
in a strong position, both financially and in its ability to produce 
much more cheaply relatively than in the past. The number of 
ships ongined by the company during the year was 38, the 
aggregate marine h.p. of 96,300 being the highest in the Kingdom. 
The machinery comprised geared turbines and the latest type of 
" Richardsons " reciprocating engines, which embodied improve- 
ments that were very favourably affecting the coal consumption 
and the upkeep costs. In the land department, numerous turbines 
were supplied for the generation of eleitric power, whilst the 
number and size of " Contraflo " high-vacuum condensing plants and 
marine auxiliaries exceeded all previous records. The steel works 
department was normally busy, noteworthy features being the 
building of rolling mill engines of 20,000-h.p. for the Cargo Fleet 
Iron Co., and of many " Nesdrum " water-tube boilers, which 
continued to give great satisfaction in use. 

Broken Hill Plant Extensions.- According to reports in 

the Indiittriiil Auttnt/wn, in consequence of the rapid progress 
being made in its subsidiary industries, the Broken Hill Proprie- 
tary Co. has to make provision for increased steel production, and 
the following additions to the plant will be made at an early 
date : — A further blast furnace ; a by-product plant, to be used in 
oonjimction with the present and the new coke ovens ; a Duplex 
steel plant ; a continuous mill for the production of billets and 
sheet bars ; a duplication of the present rod mill ; and a sulphuric 
acid plant for the supply of acid in connection with the production 
of sulphate of ammonia, and also for galvanising in connection 
with wire-drawing, wire netting, galvanised sheets, kc. In addition, 
further locomotives and railway trucks, wharfage accommodation, 
steam shovels and railway sidings to cope with the enlarged 
output will be required. The estimated expenditure is £3,500,000. 
-r-Benter'> Trade Service (Melbourne). 



Tol. 89. 



No. 2,275, JULY 1, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



18 



The Rnbber Crisis in Brazil.— A dispatch in the 

Flnaneiiil Tinie.i states that the Brazilian Government has been 
forced to assist the people of the State of Amazon, who have been 
bidly hit by the crisis in rubber. 

Lead. — In their report, dated -lune 25th, Messrs. 
Jambs Forstee & Co. state that the Metal Exchanpre statistics for 
the 12 months endine May :U6t last are :— Total supplies (includ- 
ing stock held Viy the Government and on wharves on May 3l8t, 
iy20, 202,:iS<; tons ; deducting exports during the 12 months and 
stock remaining on May :;ist, );i21, 64,008 tons; apparent con- 
sumption, US,H28 tons ; monthly average, 12,3ii0 tons. To this 
must be added an enormous quantity of old chemical lead from 
dismantled war plant disposed of to consumers by the Government, 
and which kept many important consumers in different parts of the 
country entirely out of the market for six or eight months last 
year. The average per month of the first five months this year 
left for home absorption is 10,342 tons. The monthly averaije for 
April and May of imports over exports is exactly 7,000 tons. With 
consumption on the level of last year (which we may fairly look 
for after the coal strike), it is obvious that much more lead will be 
needed than is coming in at present. 

Book Notices. — Manual of EliclricCd Umlrrlakiiiiis and 
Dirertin'i/ ,1/ (iflii'hiU,lim-2l. Vol. XXIV. E. Garcke. London: 
Electrical Press, Ltd. Price 3<ij. net. — This volume hardly needs 
commendation nowadays. It has long justified its existence and 
provtd its usefulness to all who require at hand, financial, technical 
and other statistical and general data, respecting the electrical in- 
dustry audits varied undertakings. Many changes following upon 
the period of reorganisation and reconstruction with regard to the 
industry and electricity supply are recorded. No fewer than 2,760 
utdertakings are reviewed. The financial analysis shows a total 
capital of £B ll,8i)2,'.i8s subscribed in 1,:!74 undertakings in all 
branches of the industry, an increase of approximately 47 million 
pounds over last year s figure. The average return on capital in- 
veited has advanced from 4'7(i per cent, to 5"(il per cent, over-all. 
The yield per cent, in the various branches of the industry is shown 
in the following table, which is extracted from the statistical section 
of the volume: — 

No. of Average yield 



Class. 


imdei-takin§ 


;s. Capital. 


per cent 


Telegraph 


22 


£35,467,3,53 


8-49 


Telephone 


8 


4,418,002 


6-76 


Supply 


185 


60,622,2115 


6-58 


Traction 


124 


166,0.82,679 


3-47 


Manufacturing 


127 


53,106,141 


9'9S 


Miscellaneous 


32 


7,716,860 


7'91 



498 £327,413,3,30 ST.l 

The '' jirogress of the year ' section provides a record of new and 
proposed legislation affecting the industry, together with particulars 
of applications for private bills, light railway and tramway orders 
and special orders for electricity supply. The main portions of the 
"Manual,'' as usual, comprise information relating to electricity sup- 
ply, traction, telegraph, telephone, manufacturing, financial, and mis- 
ceilaneou.s electrical undertakings in the United Kingdom and British 
Dominions overseas. The largest section is devoted to a financial, 
statistical and commercial record of electricity supply and traction 
undertakings in the United Kingdom: these public services are 
provided by nearly 7ni ) companies and 4( id local authorities. Another 
and smaller section deals with telegraph and telephone undertakings 
in the Empire, giving names of the chief officials, the capital 
authorised and issued, full accounts, comparative tables, divi- 
dends paid, &c. An account of electrical manufacturing and 
allied companies and associations is contained in a further section, 
while another presents particulars of electric traction, lighting 
and power undertakings in Canada. West Indies, Africa, Australia, 
India, Mauritius, and other British Possessions overseas. The 
Directory section combines the names and addresses, verified to date, 
of about 20,U00 company and municipal officials engaged in the 
industry, including members of the I.E.E., members of tramway 
and lighting committees, electrical contractors, and electrical 
engineers in general. The supplements include about 35 maps 
showing the principal electric tramway systems, the elactrified 
railways, power undertukings in the United Kingdom and the 
Colonies and Dominions overseas, the areas of electric supply under- 
takings, and routes of electric railways in and adjoining greater 
London. A special feature of the present volume is the series of 
1 3 maps showing the areas of the Electricity Districts provisionally 
determined by the Electricity Commissioners. 

"The Journal of the Institution of Electrical Eneineers." 
Vol. LIX, No. 300. April, 1921. London: E. & F. X. Spon, 
Ltd. Price lOs. 6d. — The following papers are embodied in this 
issue : — " Some Thermal Characteristics of Electric Ovens and Hot 
Plates," by E. Griffiths, D.Pc, and F. H. Schofield. B.A., B.Sc. ; 
'' The Long-Distance Telephone System of the United Kingdom," by 
Sir W. Noble ; " The Effect of Electron Amission on the Tempera- 
ture of the Filament ard Anc)de of a Thermionic Valve," by G. 
Stead, M.A. ; ' Some Thermionic Tube Circuits for Relaying and 
Measuring," by W. H. Eccles, D.Sc, F.R.S., and Miss W. A. Leyshon, 
B.Sc; and "The Radiation Resistance of Various Types of 
Antenna (Jontruction, ' by A. Press. 

" Electrical Machinery." By F. Anuett. Pp. xiv -h 432 ; 
491 figs. London : MoGraw-IIiU Publishing Co., Ltd. Price 
18s. net. 

" Motor-Coach A.B.C." No. 1. .Tune, l;>21 (100 pp.). London: 
E. J. Larby, Ltd. (for the British Road-Traffic Association). 
Price lid. — This forms a complete guide to motor-coach and 
omnibus services in all parts of the country, with details of fares 
and times. In addition to these, particulars of river excursions 



and aeroplane services are also given, as well as an alphabetical list 
of motor-coach proprietors. 

The /Jiil/etiii of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario." Vol. VIII, No. 2. March-April, 1921.— An address by 
Sir Adam Beck on the share of London (Ont.) in hydro-electric 
developmentj is given prominence. A report, in tabular form. 
showing the operation of all municipal hydro-electric stations in 
the province occupies several pages, and in the Technical Section 
methods of measuring supplies are described. 

Training of Chinese Students by Other Coantrles.— 

The following are extracts from notes communicated by H.M. 
Commercial Counsellor at Shanghai to the Department of Overseas 
Trade :— 

I itited States of America. — "The Chinese Chamber of Com- 
merce, says the Asiatic News Agency, has been notified by some 
American firms in the United States that for the purpose of 
further promoting Sino-American Commercial relations, leading 
American engineering and other houses are willing to admit 
Chinese students to learn modern business methods after com- 
pletion of their studies in American schools and colleges. The 
American firm promise to pay reasonable salaries to these Chinese." 
— milunrs lleriew. 

Helg i II m.—&.cooiHns to a Chinese paper, the Belgian Govem- 
m 'nt is planning to establish a university at Brussels for Chinese 
students, and has approached the Chinese Minister at Brussels to 
obtain the views of his Government regarding the project. 

Si nil- French Engineering Schonl at Shanghai. — "The foreign 
commissioner has been notified by the Ministry of Educa- 
tion to the effect that at the suggestion of the French 
Government, the Peking Government will reorganise the former 
German commercial and engineering college in the French Con- 
cession of Shanghai for the purpose of training commercial 
students for the development of Sino-Frenoh commerce and 
industry. The initial and maintenance expenses of the said college 
wUl be equally borne by the Chinese and the French Governments. 
The French director is a prominent French resident in Shanghai 
who has been cani'assing subscriptions in France, while the 
Chinese Government will provide a sum of ? 1 50,000. The college 
will be called the Sino-French Engineering and Commercial 
College, and its chief aim is to train Chinese engineers on French 
lines with the hope th.at in the coming industrial development of 
China, the French Republic may catch the lion's share of it. The 
civil governor of Kiangsu has been instructed by the Peking 
Government to make preparations so that the proposed college can 
be established as soon as the French promoter returns to Shanghai." 
— Asiatic Xews Agency, Shanghai. 

Applications for British Trade Marks.— Appended is a 

summary of the recent applications for British trade marks in 
respect of goods and productions connected with the electrical 
trades and industries : — 

Slipper. No. 412,163. Class 13. Sparking plugs. (Jeorge H. 
Ward and Henry F. Kerney, trading in co-partnership, 114, Dun- 
combe Road, Upper Holloway, London, N. February 4th, l'.i21. 

Tangent Sound Signals (lettering and design). No. 413,023. 
Class 18. Electric and pneumatic bells, alarms, and engineering 
contrivances. Gent & Co., Ltd., Faraday Works, St. Saviour's Road 
East, Leicester. May ."ith, 1921. 

(lettering and design). JIo. 413.026. Class 18. Electric and 
pneumatic bells, alarms, and engineering contrivances. Gent and 
Co., Ltd., Faraday Works, St. Saviours Road East, Leicester, 
May 3rd, 1921. 

Fonoto. No. 412,308. Class 8. Telephone call-recorders. Jarvis 
Perkin & Co., 2, Drapers' Gardens, Throgmorton Street, London. 
B.C. February 9th, 1921. 

Pinnacle. No. 413,;)07. Class 8. Electrical instruments and 
apparatus. No. 413,908, Class 13. Electrical fittings of metal. 
The Wholesale Electrical Co., Ltd., 54-56, Oxford Street. London, 
W. 1. April 1st, 1921. 

Kantark. No. 404.810. Class 13. Electrical switches (ordinary), 
fuses, and cut-outs. Midland Electrical Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 
Stafford Works, Barford Street, Birmingham. June 3rd, 1920. 

LilMput. No. 413.603. Class r>. Electric dynamos, motors, fans, 
and blowers. Societe des Moteurs et Appareils Electriques Lillipnt, 
41bis., Rue de Chateaudun, Paris. March 19th, r.'21. 

Wing Design. No. 405,158. Class 13. Sparking plags. The 
Brewster Goldsmith Corporation, 33. Gold Street, New York, U.S.A. 
June 11th, 1920. 

Delagazo. No. 410,464. Class 13. Electric lamps. Osram 
Gesellsohaft, 11-14, Ehrenbergstrasse. Berlin, 017. December 7th, 

r.»20. 

German Machinery In Japan.— i-emian importers of 
machinery are reported to be very actively canvassing hydro- 
electric companies for orders to supply electrical machinery. — 

Renter's Trade Sircice (Tokio). 

Fire. — The Cable Accessories Co., Ltd.. of Tividale, 

Tipton, inform us that certain Press reports having given a very 
much exaggerated version of the fire at their works a few weeks 
ago, they wish it to be known that their main factory was in no 
way harmed. The fire was confined to outbuildings and a yard : 
production and prompt delivery of goods are not interfered with. 

Australian Wages. — Fitters' wages in Australia, 
except in the case of Queensland, have been fixed at £6 per week 
of 44 hours. Labourers in the engineering trade are to receive 14s. 
per day. A Victorian Wages Board determination with regard to 
boilermakers fixes the rates of pay at from £4 i'>3. up to £15, the 
latter being payable for certain classes of night work. — lieuter's 
Trade Sfrrice. 



14 



THE ELECTRICAL EIEVTE.T\' 



[Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



Forthcoming Exhibitions.— The following exhibitions are 

being organised : — 

London.— September 7th to 28th, Shipping, En>rineerintr and 
Machinery Exhibition ; September and October, Ttxtile Industries 
Exhibition : October 14th to 22nd, Commercial Motor Exhibition : 
November 4th to 12th. Passenger Motor Exhibition ; November 
17th to 25th, Public Works, Roads and Transport Exhibition ; 
1923. British Empire Exhibition. 

Cardiff. — 1922. Welsh National Exhibition. 

Gla:>i'.ow. — November Ist to 19th, Shipbuilding, Engineering, 
and Electrical Exhibition. 

Leeds. — July 2l9t. Yorkshire Agricultural Show. 

Canada (7i>r,i«',>). — August 27th to September 10th. Canadian 
National Exhibition. 

Austria {VimiuO. — September 11th to 17th, International Fair. 

Czecho-Slo\ AKIA iPresshunj). — iugust 6th to loth. Czecho- 
slovak Industrial Fair ; iReichenherg), August 13th to 2l8t, 
International Fair. 

Holland (_rtrecltt\ — September 6th to 16th, International 
Industrial Fair. 

Italy (_-yit/>les). — September, Samples Fair. 

Latvia U>i'J")- — August lat to 28th, International Agricultural 
and Industrial Exhibition. 

Norway {ChristianUi'). — September 4th to 11th, Norwegian 
Indnstries Fair. 

Poland (Lemberg). — September, International Fair. 

Spain {llarcelona). — September Ist to 10th, International 
Samples Fair. 

Trieste. — September 11th to 2Bth, International Samples Fair. 

Abrentina (J?«««o» Ayrex). — 1922, International Exhibition. 

Brazil (Ria de Janeiro). — 1922, International Centenary 
Exhibition. 

Java (^(;»(<i/cny).— September 9th to October 19th, Netherlands 
East Indies Fair. 

Mexico. — September, Commercial and Industrial Fair. 

Japan (r.^iio).— March 10th to July 31st, 1922, International 
Exhibition. 

Annnal Oatlngs. — The employes of Mr. John Walsh, 
electrical engineer, of Blackburn, had their annual picnic on 
Friday last, when they went for a motor run to Windermere. 

The staff of the General Electric Co.. Ltd., held their third 
annual sports at the London County Ground, Heme Hill, on 
Saturday, June 2i'>th, in beautiful weather. A large gathering of 
members of the staff of Magnet House, and of the other establish- 
ments and associated companies of the G.E.C., with their friends, 
witnessed the proceedings. The directors were represented by Mr. 
Hugo Hirst and family, Mr. and Mrs. Max Railing and family, and 
Mr. S. D. White. A long programme was carried through with a 
promptness which reflected much credit on the Welfare Super- 
intendent, Mr. U. B. Duce, who was responsible for the organisation 
of the meeting. Among the more notable athletic achievements 
in the competitions may be mentioned the High Jump — 5 ft. 7 in. — 
which was won by Mr. Rutherford, of the Express Lift Co., Ltd., and 
the 100 Yards' Chamoionshio, which was carried off by Mr. Bird, 
of Witton Works (10; seconds). Witton Works were also successful 
in winning the Quarter-Mile Championship and the Relay Race. 
The Express Lift Co. were successful in the Tug-of-War. easily 
beating teams from head office and Fraser & Chalmers' Engi- 
neering Works. A similar event for ladies was won by the staff of 
the lEntering Room, Magnet Houte. In a competition for Fire 
Brigades, the team from Eraser & Chalmers' Engineering Works 
was successful. At the conclusion of the sports the prizes were 
distributed by Mrs. Hugo Hirst, who was introduced by Mr. Hirst. 
An excellent military band was in attendance the whole afternoon, 
and provided music for dancing on the green until late in the 
evening. 

The Derby Royal Show. — Among the many exhibits at 

the Royal Show, Derby, held from June 28th to July 2nd, are 
a number of agricultural appliances made by member-firms of 
Aobicultcbal andGener.al Enhineebs, Ltd. In addition to 
many machines suitable for electrir-raotor drive, and electric 
motors and parts, the " Bull " electric lighting and power plant 
was shown. This is a very robust set designed for farms of 
various sizes. The engine is suitable for operating upon gas or 
petrol. Mes.srs. Richard Garrett & Sons, Ltd., displayed a 
2 J -ton electric vehicle. 

Development in the Federated Malay States. — The 

Federated Malay States Government is losing no opportunity of 
securing expert advice on the develoi>ment of the country. The 
services of Mr. C. C. Beade, of the Town Planning Department of 
South Australia, have been requisitioned for a year to give general 
gnidance on town planning. Prof. Gilbert J. Fowler, D.Sc, of the 
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, is at present occupied with 
the (ineetion of sewage disposal in the four largest towns in the 
Federated Malay .States, namely, Kuala Lumpur. Ipoh, Sereraban, 
and Klang. Mr. F. Eolton haa also recently visited the country to 
give advice on the provision of electric power and light in the 
larger towns. Apart from town development, the question of 
irrigation has been receiving attention, Mr. C. E, Dupuis having 
recently spent six months in the country reporting on existent and 
proposed systems of drainage and irrigation. 

A Disclaimer. — Messrs. C. A. Vandervell & Co. Ltd., 

who have extended the field of their industrial activities, inform 
ui that there is no truth in certain rumours that they intend to 
associate themselves with the manufacture of a motor-car. Such a 
policy would be against their own interests as manufacturers of 
electrical equipments for motor-cars. 



A Norwegian Bnying-in Association.— The members of 

the Norwegian Electricity Supply Works Association (.Norske 
Elektricitets Verkers Landsforening) met in annual conference at 
Christiania recently, when the question, among others, of e»tal)- 
lishing a central buying-in department for the purchase of all the 
plant and materials required by the works was discussed. It was 
decide! to authorise the council further to consider the problem. 

Norwegian Electro-Cheralcal Industry.— The directors of 

Det Norske Aktiesilskat vor Elektrokemisk Industri, reporting on 
the year ended March Slst, 1921, state that considerable losses have 
been incurred through subsidiary companies, and the necessity for 
writing down sliares and undertakings. It is proposed to meet 
these losses by appropriating the reserve fund of 522,710 kr., and 
by writing down the share capital from 28.000,000 kr. to 5,7r,0,000 
kr.. leaving 2,278,000 kr. to be placed to the equalisation fund. 

For Sale. — -Morley Corporation Electricity Committee 
has for sale one boiler feed-pump and injector, two horizontal 
cross-compound Corliss valve engines with alternators, one vertical 
Bellisi \ Morcom high-speed engine, direct-coupled to alternator 
and exciter, piping, shafting, &c. 

Birmingham Corporation Electricity Department has for disposal 
a steam-driven electrical generating plant. 

Walsall Corporation Electricity Department invites offers for 
two natural-draught cooling towers, each with an approximate 
capacity of 100,000 gallons per hour. For particulars see our ._ 
advertisement columns to-day, 

American Electrical Activity in Italy. — A financial 

contemporary quotes an Exchange telegram from Milan, stating 
that a persistent report is current there that the Galileo Ferraris 
Electric Co. has passed under the control of the American General 
Electric Co. 

Unemployment. — The returns of the Ministry of Labour 
for the week ended June 17th, show that the number of persons 
registered as unemployed was 2,17.S,294, a slight decrease from the 
previous week's total. The number of men increased, the reduction 
being in the number of women, boys, and girls unemployed. 

Cast-Iron Research Association. — We have received 

from the British Cast-iron Research Association a copy of a 
booklet setting forth the constitution, objects, and activities of the 
Association. Complete lists of members of Council, and the 
personnel of Committee? are given. Details of subscriptions are 
included, and much information as to the Association's methods 
and capabilities is embodied in the 24 pages of the publication. 

Electric Fornaces In the Argentine. — There are three 

important steel foundries in the Argentine — Pedro Vasena e Hijos, 
Cia. Industrial de Electricidad, and Juan Pinogee. The first and 
last operate on the Siemens-Martin principle, while the other uses 
two three-phase electric-arc furnaces of 1 J- tons capacity each. The 
Vasena installation consists of one oven holding 20 tons at a 
charge and a second holding 35 tons, preparations being in pro- 
gress for a third one of 100 tons. The Pinoges plant has five 20-ton 
ovens. The electrodes for all these plants have to be imported. 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 

Accrington. — PfeiCE Increase. — The Electricity Com- 
mittee has revised its scale of charges from July 1st following the 
loss of £12.001' on the undertaking last year. It is e.stimated the 
increased charges will produce an additional revenue of £12,000 
per annum. The scale includes : — Lighting, Hat rate 8d. per unit ; 
heating and domestic purposes other than lighting through 
separate meter, 3d. ; with a minimum charge of 5s. per quarter 
during the summer, and lOs. per quarter during winter. Rateable 
value basis (alternative tariff for domestic lighting, heating, and 
power), a fixed charge of 15 per cent, per annum on the rateable 
value of the house occupied, plus a charge of 2Sd. per unit for all 
units consumed Consumers electing to take a minimum of 15,000 
units per month for a year will be charged on the following 
scale :— From 15,000 to 40,000 per month, r2d. ; 40,001 to 80,000, 
ri5d. ; 80,001 to 100,000, I'ld. ; over 160,000, r05d., subject to 
fluctuation with the cost of fuel. 

Australia. — Melhourne. — During the first quarter of 
the present year the Sydney City Council lost £39,260 in operating 
its electricity department. Generating costs increased by £14,000, 
as compared with the same period in 1920. — I/futer'x Trade Sen- ice 
(Melbourne). 

Sydney. — It was reported in May that a serious position had 
arisen with regard to the finances of the electricity undertaking. 
Owing to the department s overdraft on the Commonwealth Bank, 
amounting to about £()7C,000, the bank intimated that further 
cheques on capital account could not be honoured. The city 
electrical engineer stated that he would require in the ensuing 
nine weeks no less than £24(1,800 to meet necessary capital 
expenditure, wages, and commitments. It was resolved to ask 
the bank to honour cheques for capital expenditure, as the over- 
draft would be reduced by the rates and by the proceeds of a local 
loan of £250,000, 

Elbctuicai, Dhvelopmbnts. — A Ileuter's Trade Serrlre oom- 
munication, dated Melbourne, May 1 9th, states that throughout 
the length Bnd breadth of Australia and New Zealand the expan- 
sion of electricity is nowhere more marked than in the smaller 
type of township. A scheme of some magnitude has been under- 



Vol. 89. No. 2,27,5, July 1, 1921.] THE ELECTEICAL liEVIEW. 



15 



taken in connection with the supply of power to Wellington, N.Z. 
The power from the River Manfrahao will be derived by 
damming two small rivers, about one mile apart, and connectinfr 
them by a tunnel 7 ft. in diameter, cut through a hill. Approxi- 
mately 2-1,000 h.p. will be generated, 12,000 of which will supply 
Welling-ton City. Outside Wellington itself the town of Lower 
Hutt is discussing a plan to urovide a special hydroelectric supply 
by utilising the Mangaroa River. 

The city of Christchurch, N.Z., hai been authorised to borrow 
je98,0n0 for the distribution of electricity, and the Commonwealth 
Bank of Australia has agreed to advance £10,000 to the Stephens 
Shire Council, in i,>ueen3land, for the purpose of installing an 
electric light service in the shire. 

The residents of the Grafton district in northern New South 
Wales are urging the authorities responsible to push on with the 
Nymboida hydro-electric proposal. The acceptance of tenders 
received in January last for a portion of the plant was held up 
owing to the financial stringency. 

The committee which was appointed same time ago by the 
Brisbane Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board to consider the 
most efficient and economical scheme for supplying electrical energy 
in bulk for sewerage purposes, has reported in favour of the accept- 
ance of the recommendation of the (Jovernment electrical engineer. 
that transmission mains be erected to transmit 700 kW, the mains 
be erected in such a manner that they will be suitable, without 
alteration, to carry a pressure of 22,000 V, instead of the proposed 
5,000. 

The capital of the Electric Energy Supply Co . Ltd., Warwick 
(Q.), is to be increased from £12,000 to £20,000, to provide for 
additions to the power plant. 

Bingley. — Year's Working. — At a meeting of the 

District Council it was stated by the chairman of the Electricity 
Committee that the loss on the past year's working was £2,5Cii>, of 
which £1,000 was due to the policy of meeting the cost of new 
services out of revenue account instead of borrowing and adding 
to the capital account. The Council approved an advance in the 
price of electricity by Id. per unit for heating, and to small power 
users, and by |d. to large power users and for lighting, the new 
charges running from Id. to 4id. and 7d. per unit. 

Birkenhead. — Electricity Failure. — On June i'7th, 

owing to the inferior quality of coal, there was a failure of the 
electricity supply, due to the impossibility of maintaining a sufficient 
head of steam to drive the turbines. For an hour and a half the 
municipal electric tramway service was at a standstill. 

Bodleigh Salterton. — Order Revoked. — The Minister 

of Transport has revoked the Budleigh Salterton Electric Lighting 
Order, 1911, as confirmed by the Electric Lighting Orders Con- 
firmation CNo. 1) Act, 1911, as to the whole of the area of supply, 
as from June 20th, 1921. 

Bnrnley. — New Plant Delayed. — Industrial disputes 
have made it unlikely that the additional plant at Burnley will be 
completed in time for the winter load. The Committee has, there- 
fore, decided not to sanction further extensions of mains for the 
present. 

Pbice Ixcbease. — Tie Electricity Committee has decided to 
revise the scale of charges as follows : — For power purposes, for the 
fij-st 39 hours used per quarter of maximum demand, from 2'57d. 
to 2a0d. per unit, and for all units above from r75d. to 2'08d. ; 
for heating and domestic purposes, from 2'2d. to 2'63d. per unit ; 
lighting, from 5Jd. to 6d. per unit ; for traction, from I'Sd. to 2 Id. 
per unit. The new scale will come into operation as from the next 
reading of the meters. 

Canada. — Nova Scotia. — A plant is under construction 

at St. Margaret's Bay, about 15 miles from Halifax, which is 
expected to furnish sufficient light and power for the city, 
according to the American Consul-General. This is under the 
direction of the Nova Scotia Commission, and will mark the partial 
completion of its first important development. The question is 
yet to be decided whether the Halifax municipality or the tram- 
way company will receive and distribute the power. Other private 
interests are constructing plant which will utilise the large river 
power of Nova Scotia. 

Ontario's Financial Results. — A recent issue of the 
Bulletin of the Hydro - Electric Power Commission, gives 
financial details of working for the year ended December 31st 
last. The figures refer only to municipalitiea. In the Niagara 
system, which includes the greater part of the province, out of 125 
undertakings only 12 showed a deficit, the net surplus amounting 
to J651,719 and a net accumulated surplus of S2, 697,908. The 
other parts of the province, embraced by the Thunder Bay, Severn, 
St. Lawrence, Wasdell's, Eugenia, Ottawa. Muskoka, Rideau, and 
Trent Systems, include 59 undertakings. Of these only 21 showed 
surpluses. In spite of this however, there was a net surplus of 
$51,815, making the total for the province $703,531. 

Coventry. — Temporary Price Increase. — The elec- 
tricity department is miking a temporary increase in charges 
owing to the heavy additional expenditure incurred during the 
present coal shortage. The flat rate for lighting is to be sd. per 
unit, and maximum demand rate* are also increased. The lamp 
rate is increased by Id. per house per week. The rate for bulk 
supplies is increased by O'nd. per unit, low-pressure power is 2id. per 
unit, while for domestic purposes, other than lighting, the price 
is 3d. per unit. It Is notified that the temporary increases will be 
removed immediately the department has recouped the additional 
expenditure incurred during the crisis. 



Dominican Republic. — Plant .Shut Down. — According 

to an Aniericaii Consular report, the towns of Santiago and Paerlo 
Plata have not been able to reach an agreement for the purchase 
of the local electric plant, and at present it is uncertain when the 
plant will resume operations. 

Dundee. — Price Increase. — Owing to a loss of £8,068 
upon the past year's working, an increase of 20 per cent, in the 
charges for electricity hsis been put into force ; the new rates are 
retrospective to May. 

Folkestone. — Api'lication for Order. — The Elec- 
tricity Supply Co.. Ltd., has applied for a special order to enable it 
to supply electricity in the I'rban District of Cheriton, and in 
the parishes of Saltwood, Newington, and Hawkinge, in the area 
of the Elhaui Rural District Council. 

Guildford. — ilDNICIPALISATION OF UNDERTAKING. — It 

was stated at the annual meeting of the Guildford Electricity 
Supply Co. that an agreement had been entered into for the sale of 
the undertaking to the Corporation, but the date of handing over 
had not been settled. 

Haslingden. — liOAN. — The Town Council is applying to 
the Electricity Commissioners for sanction to borrow £10,000, the 
amount being made up as follows : Mains, £5,000 ; services, 
£2,000 : sub-station, £3,000. 

Hove. — Prue Increase. — The Town Council has 
raised the price of electricity for power purposes from 2Jd. to 3d. 
per unit. This increase is necessitated by the financial position of 
the undertaking. 

Keighley. — CuRTAiLiiENT of Supply. — Owing to the 
continued fuel shortage, the Corporation electricity department has 
now had to curtail supplies, and consequently two of the largest 
engineering shops in the town, hitherto working full time, have 
had to go on short time, and one or two smaller firms are similarly 
affected. The position is unfortunate, as all the engineering firms 
have sufficient work to keep their employes working full time. 

Kingussie. — Proposed Water-power Scheme. — 

Having secured the permission of Mr. Fletcher to utilise the water 
power of Loch Guynack for generating electricity, the Town 
Council is convening a special meeting to discuss the scheme. 

London. — St. Panoras. — A profit of £34,S96 was made 
by the electricity undertaking during the year ended March 31st 
last. Of this balance £20,000 is being devoted to rate relief. 

Lyme Regis. — Applhation for Order. — The Town 

Council proposes to apply for an Order to authorise it to supply 
electricity within the borough and the parish of Tplyme, and to 
acquire the undertaking of the Lyme Regis Electric Light and 
Power Co., Ltd., for this purpose. 

M ediiurst and District. — Order Revoked. — The Minister 

of Transport has revoked the Medhurst and District Electric 
Lighting Orders Confirmation (No. 4) Act, 1914, as to the whole of 
the area of supply, as from June 20th, 1921. 

Philippines. — Hydro-electric Power. — What promises 

to be the most extensive private venture of the kind in the 
Philippines is now well under way in the form of a hydro-electric 
project designed to furnish lighting and electric power to the 
Provinces of Bataan and Pampamga, comprising a population of 
approximately 48,000. The Abo-Abo and Tiawir rivers, believed 
to be able to yield a capacity of some 200 h.p. each, will be utilised 
for the project. Field explorations of the district from which the 
company will develop electric power has revealed the existence of 
large deposits of magnetic iron ore. The iron is known to stand a 
high degree of temperature, and is very suitable for internal-com- 
bustion engines. Its electrical treatment has proved quite successful, 
and the company expects to be able to exploit it to a maxlmnm 
degree. — ( ommerce Reports. 

Rhyl. — Loan. — The Urban Distrit^t Council is applying 
to the Electricity Commissioners for sanction to borrow £2,400 in 
connection with the electricity undertaking, £1,900 being for 
additional feeders, and £500 for strengthening the cable at the 
Marine Lake. 

Southend-on-Sea. — liOAN.— The Town Council has 
applied for sanction to a loan for the cost of over-hanling, 
adjusting, and setting up a Diesel engine plant, the provision 
of spare parts and accessories, &o., in excess of a sum already 
sanctioned. 

Stirling. — E.xtensions. — The Town Council is applying 
for sanction to borrow £4,000 for the purchase of two generating 
sets, and £3.700 for building extensions. It has been decided to 
purchase immediately a second-hand 300-kW generator from 
Hereford at a cost of £2,000. 

Wellingborough. — 1?flk Supply. — The Urban District 
Council has decided to support the application of the Northampton 
Electric Light and Power Co. to the Electricity Commissioners for 
an order for the supply of electricity in bulk to Wellingborough. 

Wimbledon, — Hlbctricity for Houses. — In spite of 

the ruling of the Ministry of Health that only the cost of 
installing gas in the new houses would be considered for subsidy, 
the Borough Council has decided that electricity shall also be pro- 
vided, any additional cost being defrayed by the Council. 



16 



EH£ ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 89. no. 2,275, july 1,1921. 



TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY NOTES. TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE NOTES. 



Anstralia.— ToowooMBA. — At a recent meeting of the 
City Council, Messrs. F. A. McCarty & Co., consulting enffineers, 
Sydney, submitted a revised estimate for a power house and a sub- 
station for the proposed tramway scheme, in accordance with 
up-to-date prices. The estimated coat of the complete grenerating 
station is £">8,7O0. and of the sub-station £14,000, a total of 
£72,700. It was decided to ask the Government to provide an 
expert to go into the whole matter. — Temlrrx. 

MELnoruNE. — The City Conncil's engineer, who has recently 
returned from a tour of America and Europe, has expressed his 
opinion, in a report presented to the Council, that two electric 
vehicles should be purchased for the collection of street refuse. 
The engineer estimates the cost of the chassis at£l,SOO. While 
he thinks th;it. generally speaking, motor or electric haulage will 
not prove cheaper in Melbourne, owing to the comparative reason- 
ableness of liorse feed prices, he is of opinion that eventually the 
rising cost of wages and feed must turn the scale in favour of the 
electric vehicle. — B^iiter'x Trade Service (Melbourne). 

Croydon- — Year's Working. — The annual report of the 
tramways manager for the year ended March 31st last, shows that 
the total income of the department was .< 178,772, as compared with 
£163,037 in 1919-20. Working expenses. &c., amounted to 
£183,387, as against £1.')9,306, making a gross deficit of £4,615, as 
compared with a gross profit of £3,731 in the previous year. The 
payment of loan interest and other capital charges, resulted in a 
net deficit of £ 19, 1'.l 1, which is greater than last year's debtor 
balance of .£17.253. The unsatisfactory result is attributed to the 
increased coat of labour, materials, and electricity ; the increased 
fares have only been in operation since July 29th, 1920. The 
number of miles run (2,632. 60.">) is smaller than the pre-war figure 
(2,(!01.302), bat the number of passengers carried has increased by 
39 per cent. 

Glasgow, — Year's Working. — The annual report of 
the Tramways Committee for the year ended March 31st last, 
shows total receipts of £2,3:12,854, a large increase on the previous 
year's figure — £1,721,578. Working expenses (in which are 
included allowances to dependents of employes serving with the 
Forces), amounted to £l,'.i37.6(i5, as against .tl,558,l(il, leaving 
a gross surplus of / I55,18'.l (£163,417). This, with interest on 
investments, made an available total of £470,430. Capital charges 
absorbeti £364,iiJ4. leiving a net profit of £105,7Ui'., which com- 
pared very favourably with a deficit of £108,531 on the working of 
the previous year. 

Halifax. — Fare REUU(rio>j. — The Tramways (I'oiii- 
mittee, after hearing a deputation from the Stainland District 
Council, has decided, in respect of the newly-established tramway 
service to Stainland, to reduce the fare from 7d. to ud. 

Leeds. — Tramway Services Endangered A great fire 

at the motor works of Messrs. W. Appleyard & Co., and of other 
concerns in Park Row, in the centre of Leeds, last week, doing 
damage amounting to between £70 000 and £80,000, has left the 
walls in such a dangeroas condition, that the tramway service 
along Park Row is being run only on the outside set of 
rails for half-amile, a factor %vhich has dislocated the .service 
materially. 

London. — I..C.C. Tramuays. — The recently-published 
accounts of the L.C.C. tramways for the year ended March 3l8t last 
disclose another heavy loss. The total receipts amounted to 
£4,904.427, as compared with £4,295,846 in the previous year. 
Working expenses (including special charges) totalled £4,623,654, 
ai against £3,680,899 in 19r.i-20, leaving a gross surplus of 
£280,773 (£614,947). Of this surplus £l' 15,639 was absorbed by 
renewals, leaving a balance of £65,134 to meet capital charges. 
Deducting these, and crediting other items amounting to £69,481, 
left a net deficit of £590,6x0. The number of car-miles run rose from 
53,156,000 to 57,488,232, and the number of passengers from 
686,124,156 to 689,452,036. The estimates for the current 
financial year provide for a deficit of £7, 1 17. 

Japan.— -New Electric Lines. — According to " (lom- 
merce Reports, a company has been formed for the con- 
struction and operation of a new <;lectric line from Tokio to 
Yokohama, running approximately IJ miles inland from the 
preaent railroad. The Musaahi Electric Tramway Co,, as the 
newly-organisec] firm is called, will also furnish electricity to the 
villages < " runir. Plans are being made for the construction of a 
railroad '1 milen long between Nagoya and Yamada for the 
accommodation of visitors to the <ireat Shrines of Ise. Power is to 
be supplied by th"; Ibngawa E'ectric Power Co. Another line, 
30 milei long, around the Chita P^ninBula, is planned by a com- 
pany to be capitalised at from 1,000,C00 to 5,0CO,000 yen. There 
is also a project for the construction of an electric railway between 
Nagoya and Gifu, as the traffic between these two places is very 
heavy. It U proposed to construct a double-track line paralleling 
the present steam railway, at an estimated cost of 7,000,000 yen. 
A line between Gifu and Ogaki is a'so planned. 

Southend. — Amolition ok Pk.vxy Fares. — Owing to a 
lo«» of £22,000 brought about by curtailments rendered necessary 
by the coal dispute, the Town Council has decided to abolish 
[lenny fare* except on one small section of the system. 



France. — International Wireless Conference. — 

M. Paul Laffont, Under Secretary of State for Posts, Telegraphs, 
and Telephones, presided over the inaugural sitting of the Inter- 
national Technical Committee on Wireless Telegraphy, on Juno 
L'lst, at Paris. The Committee comprises representatives of the 
Governments of Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the U.S.A., 
who have been eilled together by the French Government in order 
to carry out the cecisions arrived at by the Communications Con- 
ference which met at Washington at the end of last year. The 
delegates' labours will, in all probability, occupy the next two 
months. — Jtenter'.i Triiilr Srrrice (Paris). 

Germany.— WiRt less Telephony. — The Nauen Tele- 

funken station claims to have established wireless telephonic 
communication over distances of 2,700 miles. The experiment was 
carried out with the Argentine Government steamer Jlali'ui Jtliuifn, 
which was on the return voyage to South America, and on board 
which messages were distinctly heard. Beyond the distance named 
the vessel entered an area of the Atlantic where atmospheric dis- 
turbances interfered with the experiments. Before long it is 
hoped to establish wireless telephonic communication between 
Berlin and New York.— Dn ill/ '/'eliymp/i. 

Italy.— Strike Ending. — While the widespread postal 
and telegraph operators' strike has partially collapsed, and the 
majority of the employes have returned to work, great delays nnd 
innumerable losies in handling correspondence continue, and it 
will be some time before normality can be restored. The telegraphs 
are fast being restored to their ordinary service, and foreign 
messages are now being accepted, subject to possible delay and 
interruption. — Iteiiier\: Tnule .Serr/rc (Rome). 

India. -Wireless Telegrai'iiy. — According to the 
report of the Post and Telegraph Department of India for the year 
endinsf March 31st, lli20, it was decided during the year to form a 
separate wireless branch of the Telegraph Department to deal with 
all matters connected with civil wireless telegraphy in India. 
Communfeation was carried on between Bombay and Aden, Bombay 
and Ceylon, the bay stations and Penang and Karachi and the 
Persian Gulf. New apparatus was imported which considerably 
improved the efficiency of the several stations, particularly as 
regards receptivity during unfavourable conditions, and certain 
modern transmitting apparatus was also tested for use in India, 
It was found nectssary to form a combined eivil and military 
school at Karachi as a temporary measure to meet a serious 
shortage of operators for both civil and military requirements. 

Indo-Chtna. — Wireless Telegraphy. — Wireless tele- 
graphy is to l>e used as a means of communication between Saigon 
and Hanoi. The submarine cable which connects Cochin-China 
and Tonkin is subject to frequent breakage, the cost of repairing 
which entails greater expense than the credits allowed, and for 
lack of credits it has been impossible to repair a breakage wh>ch 
occurred in October, 1919. However, in order to assure continuity, 
permanence, and the regular service of telegraphic communication, 
the Governor-General of Indo-China considers the employment of 
the coast cable still necessary, and he proposes to assure all the 
expenditures entailed for the latter out of the Budget of the 
Colony. This decision would place Indo-China in possession of a 
submarine cable which connects its two most important points — 
Saigon and Haiphong. — ('ommrrrr lii'porls. 

The Telephone Service. — New Trunk Cable. — The new 

telephone trunk cable between Liverpool and Chester, which has just 
been completed, contains 108 wires, each weighing 70 lb. per mile, 
and provides 54 new circuits, having a speiiking efliciency six times 
as great as a standard cable with wires weighing 201b. per mile. 

Philippines. — Wireless Telegraphy. — According to 
the Hull/iiii of the Philippine Government Commercial Agency in 
New York, recent improvements in the naval wireless telegraph 
station at Cavite now enable the transmission of messages from 
the Philippines to San Francisco without relay. A large increase 
in electrical power, and the construction of telegraph lines between 
Cavite and Los Banos, arxj responsible for this direct Pacific wireless 
service, covering some 7,000 miles. Formerly dispatches from the 
islands to points in the United States were copied at Honolulu and 
relayed to the mainland. This meant unnecessary delay in trans- 
mission. The improvitments will treble the capacity of the naval 
wireless service to and from the Philippines. 

. An Automatic Telephone Receiver.- -It is reported that 

the Vogel Telegraph Wire Co., of Berlin, has sold through a Dutch 
company a patent in England for an automatic receiving apparatus 
for telephone conversations, termed the " telegraphon." The 
proceeds of the transaction are estimated at £1.000,000 (.'), 
althoui;h ultimately dep(!nding on the use made of the invention. 

The Poulaen " telegraphone," which receives and records tele- 
phone messages on a steel wire by electromagnetism, was fully 
described in the Elkotkical Revikw of October 12th, 1900, and 
May 10th, 1901. Whether the receiver mentioned above is 
identical with the Poulsen instrument or not, we do not know ; but 
the name is the same. 

I 

Danzig. — Telegraph Rates. — It is announced that the 
rate for telegrams to the Danzig area is now 3d, per word. 



Tol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921.] 



rHE. ELECTRICAL RETJEW 



17 



CONTRACTS OPEN AND CLOSED. 

(Tki date given in parenthsset at the end of the paragraph indicatet 
the itiue of the Eleotbioal Bkvucw in which ths " OffiaM 
Ntttiee " appeared.) 

OPEN. 

Aldershot. — July 2nd. Urban District Council. Elec- 
tric light wiring, Park housing scheme. F. Garside, electrical 
engineer. 

July 5th. Urban District Council. Electricity Department. 
E.h.p. switohgear ; l.p., d.c. switchboard, rotary converters and 
starting gear. (3\xae 24th.) 

Australia. — Melbourne. — August 10th. Victorian 
Railways. 250 core - type impedance bonds for power sig- 
nalling, with a capacity of 1,000 amperes per rail ; also 50 
miles of solid insulated copper wire. No. 14 Brown k Sharp* 
gauge, and 60 miles of solid insulated copper wire, 16 standard 
gauge. 

July 27th. Victorian Railways. Incandescent lamps for elec- 
tric car lighting : 21,000 metal filament, 46 W, 116 V ; 4,000 carbon 
filament, 32 W, 140 V. o-h.p. electric motor, controller and 
resistances, or, alternatively, 5-h.p. electric motor and equipment.* 

August 17th. 3,000 sets of renewals for caustic soda primary 
oelU. 

August 30th. Board of Works. Four electrical centrifugal 
pumps, each with a capacity of twelve million gallons daily. 

September 7th. Victorian Railways. Sixteen sets of air-brake 
equipment, 450 to 600 V, d.c, for single-deck tramcars. — Neuter's 
I'raie Si-rrife (.Melbourne). 

August 24th. Victorian Railways. Motor-generator set, acces- 
sories and switchgear (for automatic telephone exchange, Contract 
No. 34,132).* 

August 31st. Victorian Railways. Accumulator cells and acces- 
sories, Contract No. 34,171 ; electric light equipment (axle generator 
system. Contract No. 34,172).* 

October 19th. Victorian Railways. Fresh tenders are invited 
for the supply of an electrical furnace for the Newport workshops. 
— Tifiiter'.'i Trade Serrici- (Melbourne). 

Shire op Hampden (ViCTORii). — August 17th. Boiler-house 
plant, steam-driven electricity generators, transformers, meters, 
switchgear, cables, poles. Specifications from Mr. H. C. Ingleton, 
Shire Hall, Camperdown, Victoria. — Tenders. 

Brisbane. — July 1 8th. Queensland Water Supply Department. 
54,000 yd. h.d. copper cables, various diameters, for overhead trans- 
mission wires ; 2,980 ft. lead-covered, armoured copper cables, 
various gauges, with accessories.* 

Belglnm. — August 9th. Provincial Government authori- 
ties at Mons. Either a gaa engine or electric motor, together with 
a pump, to raise from 150 to 200 cubic metres of water per hour 
from the Strepy waterworks to the Houdeng reservoirs. 

Bulgaria. — July nth. Department of Posts, Tele- 
graphs and Telephones. Supply and delivery of various tools, 
instruments and materials. The specification and conditions of 
tender (in French) may be inspected on application to the Inquiry 
Room, Department of Overseas Trade, 35, Old Queen Street, S.W. 1 . 

Dlstlngton. — July 6th. Whitehaven Urban District 
Council. Electricity generating plant, overhead cables, lamp 
fittings, cables and poles, &c., for street lighting. Mr. E. B. 
Croasdell, Clerk, Union Hall, Whitehaven. 

Edinburgh. — July Uth. Electricity Supply Depart- 
ment. H.p. steam pipes and valves. Specification 33. (June 17th.) 

July 11th. Electricity Supply Department. Storage battery 
(Specification No. 35). (See this issue.) 

Jugo-Slavla.— July I3th. 

graphs. Telephone material.* 

London.— E.C.C. Julyllth. 
eUotric cables, ko. (June 24th.) 

Manchester. — July 12th. Tramways Committee. Steel 
tramway poles and silicium bronza trolley wire. Mr. J. M. MoElroy, 
General Manager. 

Mexborough. — July 23rd. Urban District Council. 
Electricity Department. E.h.p. switchgear ; l.p., d.o. switchboard. 
(See this issue.) 

New Zealand. — Wellington.— August 9th. Public 
Works Department. Suspension-type porcelain inaolatora for the 
Waikato power scheme.* 

Southampton. — July 9tli. Electricity Department. 
Twelve months' supply of meters. (See this issue.) 

Rhyl.— July 9th. Urban District Council. Electricity 
Department. 1,000 yd. "3 X 3 x '15 l.p. cable, l-.6-way feeder 
lillar switchboard panel and gear. (June 24th.) 



Miniiter of Posts and T»le- 



Supplying and laying h.p. 



South Africa. — B.^rbeeton. — July 29th. Municipal 
Council. Plant in connection with the proposed scheme for the 
supply of electricity : — Two steam boilers, two 75-kW steam-driven 
alternators, switchboard, and instruments, steel chimney piping, 
feed pumps, cables, 4:c., steel poles, conductors, ic, transformers, 
house service meters, ice. Specifications, £2 2s., from Prof. W. 
Buchanan, 75, Louis Botha Avenue, Johannesburg. 

Transvaal.— Rand Water Board. September 9th. Erection of 
a complete installation of mechanical or other filters capable of 
filtering 5 J million gallons of water per 24 hours at the Vereeniging 
main pumping Station (Contract No. 232). Copies of the contract 
documents may be obtained from the Chief Engineer, Band Water 
Board, Johannesburg, upon a deposit of three guineas.* 

Uruguay. — Monte Video. — August 18th. State Elec- 
tricity Works. Steel petroleum tank, Worthington duplex steam 
pump for oil, 250 metres steel tubing.* 

September 3rd. The Commercial Secretary to His Majesty s 
Legation at Monte Video reports by cable to the Department of 
Overseas Trade, that the local authorities are advertising for 
tenders for the supply of 59,250 metallic-filament lamps of assorted 
siiss, from 10 to 300 c.p., 225 volts, which are required by the State 
Power House. 

* A copy of the specification, ko., can be consulted at the Depart- 
ment of Uverseaa Trade, 36, Old Queen Street, S.W.I. 



CLOSED. 

Dandalk. — Urban District Council. Electricity Depart- 
ment. Many offers were received for the supply of a 1 5-h.p. 
second-hand motor, and one has been accepted. 

Glasgow. — Tramways Committee. Accepted : — 

Switchgear for tutbo-alternator for Pinkston. -Britiah Tbomaon Hoaiton 
Co., Ltd. 

Government Contracts. — The following Government 

LuntiiK'ts have been i)liiced during May, 1921 : — 



Plb 



Depa 



TV (CONIR 

on Si Phillips, Ltd. 
•s' United Ek-ctric Works, Ltd 
s.— General Electric Co., Ltd. 
— Melropolitan-Vickers Lkctrical Co., Ltd. 
Fuller Ekilrical Manufacturing Co. 



Co., Ltd.; Iingli!.h Elfclric i Siemens Sup- 
Lid., Maxim Lamp Works, Ltd.; 



Cables. &c.— John 
Inert cells.— Kulk 
Electric fan span 
Watt-hour meters 
.Motor and 

War Office 

Electric cells.— Siemens Bros, it Co. 

Electric lamps.— British 'Ilionison-Houston Co., Ltd.; Cryseico, Ltd 

Edison Swan Elec ' ' 

plies, Ltd. ; General Elect 

Mctropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd. 

.'ViR Ministry. 
Magneto spares.— North & Sons, Ltd.; British Thomson-Houston Co., 

Ltd. 
Electric cable laying.— Pirelli General Cable Works, Ltd. 
Electric wiring.— T. Clarke & Co., Ltd. 
Lilts.— Mcdway Safety Lift Co., Ltd. 
Motors. — Electric Construction Co., Ltd. 
Post Office. 
Tileplmne apparatus.— .Vutoniatic Telephone Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; 
British L. M. Ericsson Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; Pe,l-Conner Tele- 
phone Works, Ltd.; Phoenix Telephone & Electric Works, Ltd.; 
Siemens Bros. & Co., Ltd.; Sterling IVlephonu S Ekvtric Co., Ltd.; 
Western Ek-ctric Co., Ltd. 
Testing apparatus. — H. W. Sullivan. 
Telegraph and telephone cable.— British Insulated .»t llelshy Cables, Ltd.; 

Hackbridge Cable Co., Ltd.; Pirelli Cieneral Cable Works, Lid. 
r.kphone cords.— Western Eks:tric Co., Ltd. 

Laving conduits.— HampIon-Egham-.^scol (Sec. I) (Sec. II), London-Ux- 
■ bridge-High Wvcombe (S. Mid. Sec. Ill), and Slepney, Sic: J. 
Kwart, Lid. TraBord Park: W. Pollett S Co. Sunbury : S. 
Kavanagh & Co. Nottingham (West Park): J. Mowlcm S: Co., Ltd. 
Tufnell Pi.rk: W. & C. French. Bexhill-Hastings. Hi.ckney (Care- 
nove Road), and Gerr:ird .^rea (N.W. of Regent Sireet) : H. Farrow. 
Cheshunt (Goffs Oak) : Greig & M:.tthe\vs, Finchk-y (Tornnglon 
Park) : G. J. Anderson. 
Motors.— Crypto Electrical Co., Ltil. 
Motors and switchboard. — S. G. Leach & Co. 

Telephone exchange equipment.— Stockport : Siemens Bros. & Co.. Ltd. 
Norwich :md Jesniond (Newcaslk<in-Tyne) : Western Electric Co., 
Ltd l.iH'ds ; .Xutomalii- Telephone M;mutacluring Co., Lid. " Liver- 
pool Courier " office, Liverpool : Relay .\ulom:itic Telephone Co., Ltd. 
Sub-contractors for batteries : IJ.P. B:iltery Co., Lid. 
High Commissioner for Ivdia. 
Carbon pellets.— Peel Conner Telephone Works. Ltd. 
('ars:ick eknKnts— Siemens Bros & Co.; General hiectnc Co., Ltd. 
Celling fans.— Veritys. Ltd. 
Electric fittings.- J. Stone & Co., Ltd. 

Generating sets.— J. Birch S: Co.. Ltd.; Laurence Sa>tl & Co. 
Generator and spares.— Lancashire Dynamo & Motor Co., Lid. 
Switchboard.— Relay Automatic Telephone Co., Lid. 
Crown Agents for tub Colonies. 
Cable —Johnson & Phillips, Ltd. ; London Electric Wire Co. & Smiths, 

Ltd.; India Rubber. Gutta Percho & Telegraph Works Co.. Ltd. 
Copper wire. &c.— Shropshire Iron Co., Ltd. 
Electrical m..terial.-C«neral Electric Co., Ltd. 
Motors and switchgear.— British Thomson-Houston Co., Lid. 
Switchboard.— British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd. 
Telcgr.iph line material.— Siemens Bros. & Co. Ltd.; Bullers, Lid. 
Telephone apparalus.-Western Electric Co.. Ltd. 
Telephone materials.— British L. M. hrics.«on Mai 

H.M. Office of Works. 
Fneineerin-' „rvic.s.— .Vcton. Minislrv of Pensions, switchgear : Draki 
ind Gorli.iiii. I.id. Bedford housing scheme, electric wiring : .Alph.-i 
Manulu luring Co. Ltd. British Museum, additional generating 
olint Ci..nu)ton '&• Co.. Ltd.; Grantham, Ministry of Pensions, 
hospit.,1, H.r'owby Camp, electric wiring : T. Cl.irke S: Co.. Ltd. 



ufarturin^ Co.. Ltd. 



18 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



[Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



London. — Hammbbssuth. — Electricity Committee. 

Recommended : — 

SUei piping, Ac, in connection with the installation of the tirst lO,000-kW 
turbine.— Foster Bros., fiKi. 
Cable in connection with the supply of electricity to the 
Wormholt estate : — 

I.OOO vd. 15-3-core. 1,000 yd. 1 ,lo., 2,0U0 yd. 7/20 and 1,000 yd. 7/2Q Lp. cable, 

Xl.itS.-Enlield Ediswan Cable Works. 
A,lditioDat swilchgear, £2,350.— Terpiison, Pailin, Ltd. 

New Zealand. — The New Zealand Public Works Depart- 
ment has accepted the tentier of S. Green, Ltd., of Sydney, amounting 
to 1 26,3 7 7, for the supply of copper cable in connection with the 
Waikato hydro-electric power undertaking. — /•'enter's Trade Serriee 
(Melbourne). 



FORTHCOMINQ EVENTS. 



Institation of Civil Engineers.— July 1st. At the lustitution of Civil Engi- 
neers, Gri^at George street, Westminster. Engineering Conference. 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers.— Friday,. July 1st. At the Institution, 
Stcrey'B Gate, 8.W. .\t 10.3U a m. London Summer Meeting. 

tlie Royal Agricultural Hall, Islington, N. 

lostltution of Railway Signal Engineers.— Thursday, July 7th. At the 
.Midland Grand Hotel, London. At 6 p.m. Paper on "Problems of 
Automatic Train Control," by Mr. W. J. Thorrowgood. 



NOTES. 



A Gift for Scientific Research.— 7"//' Tiwrs Paris corres- 
pondent says that Baron Edmond de Rothschild, member of the 
French Institute, has announced to the Academie des Sciences his 
intention to devote the sum of 1 0,000.000 fr. (.1:200,000) to the 
foundation of a laboratory of scientific research. The proposed 
institute will be chiefly devoted to the development of physical 
and chemical science, and its application to industry and 
agriculture. 

Service Notes. — Commissioned Telegraphist W. (t. Pulley- 
blank has been appointed to the battleship Co/u/iieror. and Com- 
missioned Telegraphist A. Boniface to the Victory (Nelson's old 
flagship), at Portsmouth, for Signal School duties, from the 
27th inst. Warrant Telegraphist T. F. Perrow has been appointed 
to the Virid, for Signal School ; Warrant Telegraphist E. W. Penny 
to the battle cruiser t,iiiee«. Elizaheth ; Warrant Telegraphist W. 
Small to dunges II, for Shotley Training Establishment; Warrant 
Telegraphist H. Shirley to the destroyer Malenlm ; and Warrant 
Telegraphist F. Burnish to the light cruiser ('ofentri/. Recruiting 
for the electrical departments of the Navy and Army is improving. 
Wireless men are still wanted, and the Uoyal Air Service is taking 
likely mechanics. There does not seem to be any immediate 
prospect of a reduction in the Air Force. 

Church Lighting. — Correction. — In an illustrated 
" Note " published in our issue of June 1 7th, under the above heading, 
the contractors were stated to be Messrs. Stanley Gaynor & Co., of 
Cardiff. This was an error, due to the fact that we received, at 
the same time, an illustration of the interior of a church wired by 
this firm. St. S aviour's Church, Bath, which we illustrated, was 
wired by Messrs. J. Lambert & Sons, of Bath. 

Fire. — A fire in the Leven Creosote Works of Messrs. 
Alex. Bruce k Co., Ltd., Glasgow, destroyed valuable machinery and 
electrical plant recently installed. 

The Manchester Electro-Harmonic Society.— We are 

pleased to learn from Mr. J. Hill, the Hon. Sec. of this Society, 
that it h£i8 been decided to resume the concerts this year. So hip of 
our readers will remember that the Society was formed in Iili2, 
and after two seasons operations were suspended owing to the war. 
Arrangements have been made for six concerts, and these will be 
held on the last Fridays of October, November, and December, 
1921, and January, February, ami March. Ili22, in the Marble Hall, 
Albion Hotel. Piccadilly, Manchester. The hon. musical director, 
Mr. W. J. Smith, has consented to act for the season, and it is his 
intention to maintain the high quality of the programmes. 

Appointments Vacant. — Kleitrical foreman, also elec- 
trical inspector (salary 500 R?. per month in each case) for the 
East Indian Railway Co. ; station superintendent (£556) for the 
Coventry Corporation Electricity Department. See our advertise- 
ment pages to-day. 

The Electrical Trades Benevolent Institution.— At a 

general meeting, held on Monday last, the alterations in the rules 
passed at the annual general meeting were confirmed. These 
alterations extend the powers of Local Advisory Committees with 
regard to the grant of relief in urgent cases. 

Educational. — Imi'eiual College of Scienck and 

TECHNOLO(iY.— On Friday last Mr. A. J. Balfour opened a new 
chemistry laboratory presented Ijy Mr. G. W. Whiffen, in which 
apparatus is installed reproducing on a smaller scale the plant of 
industrial works, to enable the student to work under conditions 
approximating to those met with in actual practice. He said that 
the new laboratory had no parallel in any part of the world. 



The Paris Undergronnd Railways.- As a consequence 

of tho great chauilr.s wrou^'Lit liy tlio war. ami particularly 
by Ike bubsequeiiv enormous mcrease m the sale prices ol all 
kinds of materials aiul the large advances in wages, the com- 
panies which render service to the juiblic in the i'"reuch 
capital have found it necessary to seek a rearrangement of 
the terms of their original concessions which were granted 
to them by the Paris City Council. As was mentioned some 
time ago. the tirst to undergo reorganisation were tiie surface 
tran.spt)rt undertakings (tramways and omnibuses), whicli 
Were expropriated by the City Council and formed into an 
amalgamated lea.sing company as from January 1st, 1921. The 
turn of the Compagnie I'arisienne de Distribution d'Elec- 
tricite lias now arrived for the conclusion of a supplementary 
agreement with the City Council in order to meet the general 
change.'* in conditions, and a similar observation also applies 
to the i'aris Gas Co. and the Metropolitan and Nord-Sud Rail- 
way Companies. It is estimated that tiie City Council has 
incurred an exfienditure of b\J(_>.000.0(X) fr. on the construction 
of the tunnels. &c., for the Metropolitan railway and on 
incidental exi^enses. while the company's combined share and 
loan capital amounts to 'iOO.iXtO.OilO fr." 

The fact may be recorded that according to tho law passed 
authorising the City of Paris to raise loans for the establish- 
ment of the Metropolitan Railway, all the expenditure for 
llie construction of the underground earthworks (tunnels. &c.) 
and the station platforms, was placed to the charge of the 
city, whilst the other expenditure (the construction of the 
tracks and electrical transmi.s,sion. the provision of access to 
the stations, the generating stations. rolUng stock. &c.) had to 
be borne by the concessionnairo company, and represented 
nearly one-third of tho total outlay on the entire railway 
undertaking. In order to provide for the annual interest upon 
the loans contracted by the city, the oldigatiou was placed 
upon the company to pay to the city a royalty per passenger 
carried, the amount increasing in accordance with the number 
of tickets issued l)eyond a specified total, but in case the 
yield from this source should be inadequate to meet the 
service of the loans, the deficiency would be defrayed out of 
the .general resources of the municipal Budget. But the 
Metropolitan Co. before the ^^ar. together with the gas imder- 
taking, was said to repre.sent the best financial transaction 
which the city had ever made, since it was always remunera- 
tive. 

A new agreement has now been provisionally concluded 
between the company and the City Council imder which the 
concession will definitely terminate in 1955 under what is 
termed " postponed redemption." The compensation to be 
]iaid for the purchase has been fixed Ijy the operation of a 
system of premiums which represent both payment for the 
services of the company and the compensation for expropria- 
tion, and which are based upon the number of tickets is.sued 
and the economics elTected in management. It is calculated 
that the premiums will produce an annuity of about 11.5(IO.()0<l 
fi-. at the beginning and I3.(KIO.0O(> fr. subsequently, but if 
the amount should exceed the latter sum a large part of the 
excess would devolve upon the city. The new convenwou 
also makes provision for the possible expropriation of the 
raihvay as from the year 1931. 

'I'lh- situation of the Societe du Nord-Sud Co. is niateri.illy 
dilTriviit from that of the Metropolitan Co.. as the^ former 
constructed its railway without any financial participation 
by the City of Paris, and its conces.sion will expire at the end 
of 1955. In tliis case also the city receives a I'oyalty per 
ticket issued and to some extent shares in the financial charges 
of the company. 

Power from a Water Main. — The Elvrtriral News 

recently published a description of a unique water power plant 
which is being installed at Port ■Albcrni, B.C. The water 
supply station of this town was built on a scale of permanence, 
tlie supply being taken from C'hina Creek, seven miles distant, 
and a main capable of maintaining a flow of water sulUcieni 
fcjr a population of iiO.iHK) people was installed. The first five 
miles of the main are of Ui-in. wood-stave pipe. At the end 
of the IG-in. main is a 1'2-in. Crane pressure reducer, followed 
by IJ miles of 1'2-in. welded steel pipe, with a second pressure 
reducer about miilway of its length. The size again changes 
at the head of the main street of the town to 10 in. .stocl, 
continuing to the end of this street at tide level, and serving 
the various laterals. \ third pressure reducer is installed 
on this line, making the final iiressure in the lower portion of 
the town usually about 160 lb. per sq. in. under present con- 
ditions f)f consumption — a rather excessive W'orking pressure 
for a town supply .system. 

Investigations showed that absolute minimum flow in the 
main was 4 cu. ft. per second, whereas the requirement of a 
population double the size of that of the town was only 
.5 cu. ft. jier second. It was decided, therefore, to nlilise the 
surplus for generating electricity for the town. Consideration 
of altiTuative methods led to the decision that the best niethod 
of employing the surplus was to tap into the lO-in. section of 
the main and install '1,<W ft. of 10-in. wood-stave pipe leading 
to a power luiuse. 

The elevation of the dam being filO feet, and that of the 
pfjwer liouse 25 ft. above sea level, the total head on tlie main 
at the r>'>w'er liouse was .585 ft., of which '25'2 ft. was lost in 
friction head, A-c. leaving an effective head of 3.33 ft. Using 
4 second-feet of water at 80 per cent. etEcieucy, this head 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July 1, 1921.] 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. 



19 



represented an available power of 121 h.p., sufficient to carry 
the ligbtini; plant load for some time to come at the existing 
rate of increase. 

It has been decided to install a 30-in. McKinnon special 
impulse waterwheel. fitted with hand-operated stream-deflec- 
tor, needle nozzle, cast-iron lower ;ind steel upper casing, 
overhung on a 3 7/16-in. shaft. The shaft will run in ring- 
iilU'il iiraiiii^'.s uii .'.pcriiil Miljustalilc iicilfstiil.s. iiiiii a ill'i-iiK 
flywheel of 800 lb. rim weight will be mounted on it. with 
a '26-in. diameter by 15-in. face driving pulley, provided with 
a disengaging spiral jaw clutch. The wheel will run at a 
normal speed of 475 r.p.m. 

Tralolng Dominion Stndents lo British Techolcal 

Colleges. — The Department of Overseas Trade informs us 
that His Majesty's Trade Commissioners in South Africa 
have recently been considering the question of attracting young 
South Africans to British eu^jineeriug and other technical 
colleges and training establishments in the United Kingdom, 
and m this connection Major Guy Fetherston. D.S.U., M.C.. 
Trade Commissioner at Cape Town, has received from Prof. 
McMillan, of the Cape Town University, some remarks on 
the commercial advantages of the system, from which the 
following notes are extracted : It is known that the United 
States is most anxious to attract students, and especially pcisl- 
^.'raduatf students, to its univer.sities. No better niethua <ii 
increasing trade between the two countries exists. The South 
African goes to -America as a student, he works with American 
machinery, and becomes acquainted with American methods' 
and American standards, and he forms friendships there which 
probably last throughout his life. In due course the e.\-staili'iit 
returns to South Africa to embark on a business career, still 
thinking in American measures, and even if he is inclined to 
deal in the products of other countries, in nine cases out 
of ten the American products remain as his standard for 
comparison of all other goods. 

It is. of course, known that a large number of young South 
Africans proceed to England to complete their education, 
even more than go to America, but the greater proportion 
of these go to study medicine and law, or else they take a 
course for Bachelor of Arts at Oxford or Cambridge. America 
appears to be attracting the bulk of the agricultural students, 
the engineers, and the science men. The case of Germany 
before the war is interesting in this connection. Germany 
attracted the post-graduate student from all over the world, 
and there would appear to be little doubt that America is 
eventually to take her place unless Great Britain makes greater 
efforts than in the past. 

It is. of course, understood that British universities are 
very full, and that there would be difficulty in accommodating 
more students from overseas. However, it would pay in the 
long run to attract overseas students, even if further accom 
modation had to be provided. 

It is felt strongly that the manufacturers of the United 
Kingdom should do everything in their power to attract the 
future leaders of colonial industries to the British research 
laboratories, and even if they had to offer a number of main- 
tenance scholarships to accomplish this, there could be no 
better capital investment for the future. 

Then there is the question of the equipment of the univer- 
sities and technical schools in South Africa. While a pro- 
portio.'i of graduates proceed to America or to Europe for 
'their practical training after their college course, a still greater 
number are absorbed direct from college into business. It 
is. therefore, in the interests of the United Kingdom that such 
men should handle British apparatus in the laboratories during 
their training, and every etlort should be made by the 
representatives of the manufacturers to see that the testing 
plant and equipment is British. Before the war if a British 
firm and a German firm were asked to quote for some piece 
nf apparatus or machine for use in a university, the German 
firm generally offered to supply it for less than the British 
firm, no matter how low the British tender was. 

In connection with the above, it may be stated that the 
American Consul-General in Cape Town has recently given 
publicity to the fact that he has literature dealing with over 
one hundred American universities, agricultural, engineering, 
and other technical colleges, which may be consulted at the 
American Consulate-General. Information ciuicernirig en- 
trance requirements, cost of tuition, cost of living, and the 
general opp<irtunities for South .\frican students existing at 
St,ate and other institutions is offered. It is desirable that 
similar facilities with regard to British institutions .should al.so 
be available, not only at Cape Town, but at other centres of 
population throughout the Empire. British educational in- 
stitutions or firms .supplying educational apparatus who are 
interested in the above statement, and w'ho are prepared id 
supply information or apparatus, should communicate with 
•he benartment of Overseas Trade, referring to D.O.T. 
55.5G/E.D. 

Ventilation Scheme for Polyphase Motors.— To prevent 

the accumulation of oil on motor windings and the resulting 
collectiiin nf dii't. a lino of pdlyiibasr induction inotcirs has 
been brought out recently in which an unusual method of 
ventilation is used. The scheme is to screen the ventilating 
air before it enters the windings and so to direct this air that 
it opposes the entrance of oil into the windings from the 
waste-packed bearings. The waste-packed oiling method has 



Ixien adopted also to overcome any tendency toward the spil- 
ling ol oil when vibration is iiarticularly severe. 

While the motors are veulilated or air-cooled, they are 
virtually enclosed from a mechanical standpoint. Air enters 
at the periphery of the machine and is discharged at each 
end. the direction of air llow being exactly opposite to that 
found in most motors. It is claimed that oil leakage caused 
by careless tilling cannot occasion bad results, because such 
oil 18 expelled from the ends of the motor instead of being 
driven into it. 

These motors are provided with a novel frame or casing 
consisting of a scries of corrugations formed from a smgle 
piece of sheet steel. These corrugations are equidistantly 
spaced and in intimate mechanical contact with the Biator 
core, so that most of the heat generated in this core and its 
winding is conducted to this casing, which therefore lorms 
an efficient means for transferring heat to the ventilated air 
by radiation. Air entering at any point along the surface 
ol the M rein travels over the oulsidf of the- iDrrugatKins 
through holes provided at the centre of these corrugations, then 
thr<iuyh the lateral ducts bftween the casing and core, then 
cjver tlH' wmdings at the end, and finally is di.seharged at each 
end of the motor. 'This corrugated casing, therefore, con- 
tributes to the efficiency of the ventilating system to a marked 
degree and at the same time forms an exceedingly rigid and 
accurate frame for the stator core. 

Fans are provided at the ends of the rotor for the purpose 
ol diaxMiig the coolinj,' air through the inadiini-. lliev are 
said to be of unique design and construction in that a stream 
of air is drawn directly over the bearing housings and imme- 
diately expelled without entering the motor, while another 
stream is drawn through the machine and expelled at the 
same points. These fans are made of a single piece of sheet 
steel and welded to the thrust collars. 

The rotor windings have bars and end rings made of one 
piece of metal, entirely eliminating mechanical or electrical 
joints, the windings being moulded or cast on the magnetic 
core. 

These motors are now built in sizes up to 30 h.p. at 1,800 
r.p.m. for 60-cycle i]oIyphaEe circuits, with corresponding 
capacities at other standard speeds and frequencies. — Elec- 
trical M'orld. 

The Stability of Atoms.— Prof. Sir E. Rutherford. 

F.R.S., commenced his lecture on the above subject to the 
members of the Physical Society of London, on .Tune lOth. by 
referring to the earlier work in which attempts at the dis- 
integration of atoms had been made. Traces of hydrogen 
and helium had been found in discharge tubes believed to 
be initially free from these gases; but it was clearly impossible 
to establish that no source of contamination was available, 
and that the results were due to disintegration of the atoms 
of other substances. The properties of the nucleus atom were 
then recalled and the method of attack most likely to succeed 
in breaking it up was discus.sed. It is easy to remove elec- 
trons, but these are replaced almost immediately and the 
atom remains as before. It is necessary therefore to attack 
the nucleus, and to do this successfully requires extremely 
swift particles. 

Slides were shown illustrating the effects produced when 
ex-particles fired through hydrogen collide with an atom, and 
experiments were illustrated and described from which the 
conclusion has been drawn that when an ex-particle collides 
with a nitrogen atom, a hydrogen atom is expelled from the 
nucleus. The speed of these is in excess of what can be 
obtained by collisions in hydrogen gas itself, so that the result 
c'ann(.)t be account<^d for by contamination of the nitrogen with 
hydrogen, but must l>e due to the disintegration of tlie nitro- 
gen nucleus. Recent results on the disintegration of alumi- 
nium and other elements were briefly indicated. 

The Engineering Wages Dispute.- The result of the 

ballot in th(< cngineei iiij; trades, upon the new schedule of 
\\a;;es ]iropose(l by the <-mi>loyers, was a decisive majority 
against ai'ccjitance. The figures were a.s follows: — .\gainst 
acceptance. •2.")7.o3'2; for acceptance. I'io.Oll: majority against 
acceptance. l;>2..518. In spite of the.se figures, however, it was 
announced early yesterday morning that a provisional agree- 
nuMit had been reached between the two parties to the dispute; 
no details are available up to the time of our going to press. 
Little more than one-third of th«- ineinbership of the unions 
concerned took part in the voting. 



INSTITUTION NOTES. 



lastltutlon of Mechanical Engineers. — London Su.mmes 
Meeting.— .\ confererce of an informal nature was commenced 
yesterday, and ends to-day, at the Institution building, dea'ino' 
with means of improving the thermal efficiency of heat power 
plant ; there was also an exhibition of boiler-house appliances and 
a short meeting of the F.B.I. Fuel Economy Technical Sub-Com- 
mittee was to be held to-day. Yesterday morning the general 
meeting took place, at which the president of the Institution, 
Capt. H. Riall Sankey, made hia opening remarks, after which the 
deputation of American enpneers, which ia on a visit to this 



20 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [voi. 89. No. 2,275, juit i, i9si. 



countty, was received. Visits of inspection were also to 
be paid to the following electricity generating stations : — 
Boroairbs of Hammersmith and Stepney, Corporation of Kinp- 
Bton-upon-Thames. Underground Electric Railways Co., Ltd., 
Westminatfir ElecLri: Supply Corporation, Ltd., and the Charing 
Cross. West-End. and City Electricity Supply Co , Ltd. ; the 
laboratories at H.M. Fuel Research St.ition. Imperial College of 
Science and Technology, City and Guilds (Engineering) College, and 
the Department of Chemical Technology were also inspected. The 
papsrs read at the Conference dealt with the following subjects ; — 
"Theory of Internal-combu«tion Engines with Relation to Thermal 
E65ciency," by Mr. H. E. Wimperis ; " High Steam-pressure and 
other Means of Increasing Economy of Steam Engines," by Mr. F. 
Samuelson, who suggested that the addition of a mercury boiler and 
turbiae to an ordinary steam plant would give a considerable 
increase in the range of temperature, and would result in a large 
gain in efficiency ; he also gave practical results obtained from 
h.p. and high-temperature steam-turbine plant. Mr. E. V. 
Evans disoiiased the " Chemistry of Combustion, ' including the 
mode of combustion in producer and furnace-gas reactions 
and the cause of smoke production. A paper by Messrs. A. 
Hutchinson and F. Bainbridge on " Blast-Furnace Gases," indicated 
the future lines of development in the use of a mixture of blast- 
furnace and coke-oven gases and the saving of coal thereby. 
" Boiler-house Management : General Causes of Boiler Inefficiercy, ' 
was dealt with by Mr. D. Wilson, while the " Low-Temperature 
Carbonisation of Coal ' was Prof. W. A. Bone's subject, and that 
of " Engine-house Management ' Mr. H. Dunell's. The subject 
of " Super Compression and Other Means for Improving the 
Ekjonomy of Internal-Combustion Engines, ' was considered by Mr 
A. E. L. Chorlton ; and that of "Waste Heat Utilisation," by Mr. 
R. Xelson, whose final conclusion was tliat " radical changes are 
better than limited and tentative reforms which tend merely to 
perpetuate the old order." "Superheating" was discussed by Sir 
H. Fowler, and " Liquid, Powdered, and Colloidal Fuels," by Dr. 
W. R. Ormandy, who enumerated their advantages and limitations, 
and compared their costs of adoption and relative prices. " Liquid 
Fuel for Internal-Combustion Engines " was Mr. H. Moore's 
subject, and Mr. A. W. Bennis dealt with " Automatic ."-^tokers" ; 
Mr. W. H. Patchell, with " Air Heaters ' ; Mr. C. E. Stiomeyer, 
with "Feed Heating and Eoonomisers " ; and Prof. W. E. Dalby, 
with the '■ Indicator as an Aid to Economy." 

Royal Society of Arts On June 27th the Council attended at 

Clarence Houae, when the Duke of Connaught, President of the 
Society, presented to Prof. J. A. Fleming, D.Sc, F.R.S., the Albert 
Medal of the Society awarded to him in recognition of his many 
valuable contributions to electrical science and its applications, 
and especially of his original invention of the thermionic valve. 

Municipal Tramways Association.— In connection with the 
private meeting at Huddersfield. on June 22nd, of the Association 
(Managers' Section), Mr. R. H. Wilkinson, general manager of the 
Bradford tramways, read a paper on " Railless Trolley Traction," 
and on the following day the delegates proceeded to Bradford to 
see the latest type of railless vehicle in use there, produced from 
Mr. Wilkinson's designs. 

The Roentgen Society.— The officers and Council elected for the 
1920-L'l session are as follows : — President, Prof. J. W. Nicholson, 
F.R S. ; Vice-Presidents, Mr. C. H. Rodman, M.D., Prof. Sir Ernest 
Rutherford, F.R S., Prof. Sir William Bragg, K.B.E., F.R.S. ; Hon. 
Treasurer, Mr. Geoffrey Pearce ; Hon. Secretaries, Messrs. E. A. 
Owen, D.Sc. and J. Russell Reynolds, B.S., M.B. ; Hon. Editor, 
Major G. W. C. Kaye. O.B.E., D.Sc. ; Council, Mr. Cuthbert 
Andrews, Mr. Harold Black, M.D., Mr. A. E. Dean, Major Kenelm 
Edgcumbe, Mr. N. S. Finzi, M.B., Mr. F. L. Hopwood, D.Sc , Mr. F. 
Hernaman Johnson, M.D.. Mr. Reginald Morton, M.D,, Mr. C. E. S. 
PhUlips, O.R E , F.R.S.E., Prof. A. W. Porter, F.R.8., Prof. A. 0. 
Rankine, O.B.E., D.So., Sir Archibald D. Reid, K B.E,, C.M.G. 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 

Th« Editorg incite electrical engiiieers, wivetfter connected with the 
technical or the commercial side of the profession and industry^ 
also electric tramway and railway officials, to keep readers of the 
Elbotbical Bevibw posted as to their vunements. 



Sir Samukl C. Davidson, K.B E.— Sir Samuel Davidson, K.B.E., 
M.I Mech.E, chairman and managing director of the "Sirocco" 
Engineering Works, Belfast, upon whom the King conferred the 
honour of a Knighthood of the British Empire, is both a successful 
inventor and one of the oldest living representatives of the tea 
planting community. He took a keen interest in science and 
engineering from his earliest days. After he had spent several years 
in the office of Mr. Wm, Hastings, a Belfast oivll engineer, his 
father sent him out to India to manage his tea estate. During his 
sojourn in the East he realised the inadequacy of the primitive 
methods then employed for tea manufacture, and practical experi- 
ence, combined with bis inventive genius, suggested to him the 
possibility of using mechanical apparatus for drying the tea leaf 
at the plantations. The result of his study of this subject promised 
■o well that he subsequently gave up tea planting and returned to 
Ireland, where he founded the " Sirocco " Engineering Works. 
From these works he introduced to a sceptical community the first 
tea-drying machines, which met with great success. Sir Samuel 
Davidson has taken out a very large number of patents, «nd in 



addition to " Sirocco " machinery for every process in the manu' 
facture of tea. his inventions include the " Sirocco " fan, so much 
used in factories^ and mines, and on board ship. Sir Samuel 
Davidson started the "Sirocco' Engineering Works in 1881 with 
one small workshop and seven workmen. The works are now very 
extensive and well equipped, and employ about 1,000 hands. 
There are also branches and representatives of the works in all 
parts of the world. Sir Samuel Davidson's latest invention 
consists of a new process for the manufacture of raw rubber, and 
of machines specially designed for the purpose. This process was 
shown for the first time at the recent Rubber Exhibition in London 




Sib Samuel C. Davidson, K.B.E. 

Among other matters now receiving his attention is the manu- 
facture of peat into briquette form. We offer Sir Samuel ouv 
congratulations upon the honour now conferred upon him. We 
regret to learn that owing to indisposition, he was unable to be 
present at the investiture ceremony and receive the honour 
personally. 

Mr. .\li'reo S. E. Ackermann has removed to 17, Viitoria 
Street, Westminster. His telephone number is still " Victoria, 
244." 

Over 100 applications have been received by the Wallasey Elec- 
tricity Committee for the vacant position of electrical engineer to 
the Corporation. Seven candidates are to be interviewed by '■'ae 
Committee. 

It is announced that Dr. Walther Rathenad, consequent upon 
his appointment as Minister for Reconstruction, has retired from 
the presidency of the A.E.6., and from the boards of other companies 
with which he was associated. 

Obituary.— Sib H. B. Rowell. — We regret to record that 
Sir Herbert Babington Rowell, K.B.E., chairman of Messrs. R. and 
W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., died suddenly on June 23rd, aged (il 
years. Sir Herbert was a vice-president of the Federation of 
British Industries. 

Our American namesake states that Kabl G. Rokblinq, head 
of the John A. Roebling's Sons Co., Trenton, N.J., manufacturers 
of wire rope, insulated wire and cable, &c., died recently. 

Will. -The late Baron Moulton left £1G2,50C. 



NEW COMPANIES REQISTERED. 



Pneumatic Power Users Co., Ltd. — Private company. 

K.,(4isler..) June- irth, Capil.il, i;.500 in fl -shart-s. To carry on as agents, 
ilistriljutors .ind manufacturers of poWtr proilucinfj machinery, &c. The first 
directors arc: A. K. I'oric, 27, I..owcr Lecson Street. Dublin; K. Bereslord, 28, 
i.cinstor Road, Dublin ; Mrs. S. M. Bercsford. iS, Lcinstcr Road, Dublin. 
Registered office : 27, Lower Leeson Street, Dublin. 

Colley & Co., Ltd. (17.'). .■i<)4). — Private company. Regis- 

nred Jun<- 2Kl. Capital i'2..'><KI in XI -Ii.h., To carry on thl- business of 

(acturcrs o( and dealers in all kinds of .Imrical. ijas, oil and lighting goods 
and .iccssorics. &c. The subscribers (each with one share) are: H. A. 
Woodman, 51. Great Ormond Street, W.C.I, electrical engineer; G. McForlane, 
51, Great Ormond Street, W.C.l. electrical engineer. The subscribers are to 
appoint the first directors. Solicitor : H. Craller, 7, Southampton Street, 
Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 



litliiaiiBBadlU 



MiMtiMfi*«^iM«B^rittHlrt 



yol. 89. No. 2,276, JnLT 1,11921.] 



'THE ILECTMCM^ MSTIEWo 



21 



OFFICIAL RETURNS OF ELECTRICAL 
COMPANIES. 



British Insulated & Helsby Cables, Ltd, (52,285).— Return 

d,.iMi April -llh, 1921. Capiljl, ii,mm,mu 111 il shares (SOO.OIK) piekrein.-. 
1,0UIM"I« iircliii.iry and MU.diHI unib»ui-cl). l.ajU.tKXJ shares takon up. fl.072,li7.j 
|.;iid on :)72,H50 pretercncu and 700,:M.i ordinary shares. £427,32.5 eonsidenrd 
i> paid on 127,6MI preference ami 2ill),G75 ordinar\ . Mortgages and chary<s, 
i7(K),000. 

Chlswick Electricity Supply Corporation, Ltd. (38,854). — 

k,turn dated June 1st, 1921. Capital, jElOO.OOtl in £1 shares. (i2,SO0 shares 
laken up. i'la.BOO paid. Mortgages and charges, £7i;,WI(l. 

Heads (Electrical), Ltd.^ — Debenture dated Juno 1st, 1921, 

l.> secure £400; chargtsi on the eompanv's properly, present and future, in- 
cluding unealled capital. lloWer: Mrs\ I.. H. liead, 20, Cioldsniid Koad. 

r.nghlon. 

Hill Bros. (Magnetos), Ltd. — Satisfaiiinn in full mi June 

1 I. lll-JI, ol th.Mg.- .I.,l..l .\pril 2.111), 1918, se.urinu; all iM..n.->s .lu.'or lu 

Mansfield and District Tramways, "Ltd. — Tru.st decil dated 

June (iih. 1921, lo sr.ure IHMMNI deb'nture.s, charged on l.'i.lMW r< per ceni. 
prefer.nc- .mil -tr.^m ordin.uv sh.ires of £1 .ind £la,IKIO inortg.igc dehenlures 
and £IO,l>OU niorlgage debenture stock of the MansKeld and District Light 
Railwav ('o., Ltd., and the company's undertaking and assets, present and 
(iituri-, including uncalled capital. Trustees: Utilities and General IVust, Ltd., 
Ii.linburgh. 



Albert Lee & Co., Ltd. 

Jun. 17lh. 11)21, ul £:l(m debenti 



-Issues of June 7th of £700 and on 

Ls, parts ol a series already regisiered. 

F. J. Shenton & Co., Ltd.— Particulars of .£6,500 deben- 
tures auihoriMd June IHlh, 1921; whole amount issued; charged on the euni- 
|i.in\*s propert). present and future, including uncalleii capital. 

Leadless White Manufacturing Co., Ltd. — Particulars of a 

series of debentures for an amount not exceeding the issued capitiil for the 
time being of the company, authorised June 10th, 1921, amount of preseni 
issue being £:i,(KKJ ; charged (u) as a specilic charg.- on the company's freehold 
properly in \.iU\ Glos,. and buildings, plant, machinery, fixtures :ind fittings 
thereon, and (/») as a Hoating charge on the cotnpany's undertaking and pro- 
p<'rty, present .and luture, including uncalled capital. 

Stanton & Co., Ltd. — Mortgage on certain land and pre- 
mises in Hinckley, Leicestershire, daled June lUih. 1921. lo .secure all inone>s 
due or to become due from company to Lontinn |uin. fiu .ind Midl.mLl Hank. 
Ltd. 

F. Patrick, Ltd. — Particulars of MMX) debentures autho- 
rised June 14lh, 1921; whole amount is-sued ; charged on the company's under- 
taking and propirlx. pr. s./nt and future, including uncalleii capital. The com- 
pany mav mortgage an\ fri-ihokl or leasehold heretlit.iments subsequenth" 
acquired in prioiiK lo Ih.s.- ilebentures lo the exl.nl ol £:i,OIKI, 



CITY NOTES. 



The report for tlie year 1920 submitted 
West India and at the annual meeting held ou Wednesday, 
Panama .sttites that the amount to credit of revenue 

Telegraph wa.s i;8U,177, but the expenses were 

Co., Ltd. £ViS,3'J^. resulting in a loss for the year 

of i;58,148. The balance brought forward 
was £10,038, and interest on investments was £2.104, and 
the result was a net dehcieucy of ,t'4C,0ll at December, 1920. 
'the balance of the cost of the third survey of the company's 
table ship, amounting to £38,579, also felt to be dealt with. 
Inasmuch as the total cost was £74,2.03, of which a part, 
£3.5, ()/4, was dealt with in the 1919 accoums, the directors 
have added the £38,579 to the original cost of the ship, being 
•satisfied that the increased amount at which she thus stands 
111 the company's books is within her present commercial 
value. The unfortunate position of the company disclosetl 
by these hgures is due mainly to the cumulative results of 
ntrusting the cable ship llcnnj Holmes to the Uoverument 
I'ock at Trinidad for her third survey rejjairs, and, in a lesser 
'Ifgree, to the increases in working expenses. As regards 
the main cause, it will be remembered that the Hcitin Holiiies 
went to 'Triniii.ul in .lanuary. f919. Before going there she 
liitd put the company's commiinicatious in good order, ami 
liir some period in the first half of that year her absence was 
not .seriously felt anil the tniftic receipts were comparatively 
large. But m a cable system like that of this company breaks 
iiiust occur from time to time, tmd, as it was only oct-asionally 
possible til secure the .services of other repairing siiips, the 
rijinlitiiins gradually became worse anil worse, .sb much .so 
Ihat ill the' spring'of 1920, when if u;is found possllile to 
charter a .ship ftir hve months, there were as many as lb of 
the cables interrupted. Although the eluirtered ship worketl 
Aell, some sections were still interruptetl when the llrniij 
Holmen wan released from TVinitlail. early in October last. 
It is a matter of exi)erience that telegraiih trallie, when lost. 
i.4 recovered but .slowly, and. although by the end of 19'20 it 
was steadily moving towards recovery, the traffic receipts 
during the year were over £30.000 below those of 1919. 
Vntither etmsequence of the interrui)tioiis was the loss ot over 
flO.IHK) of the Imperial, Canailian. iinil Colonial subsidies. 
The hiring of cable ships in the nine months cost at least 
t'28, 0(M) more than tht^ expenses of the Hciiru Holmes would 
have amounted to; and there was also an expenditure of 
i'2.109 in the hire of sloops for inter-colony communications. 
< )f the increases in expenses an important one was in respect 
of cable. With such an accumulation of interruptions a large 



ijuantity of cable hail to be used in repairs, of which the 
cost wa.s i'lOjlKj. as comiwred with an average of ±'9,2.53 
lor each ol the three preceding years. Another large increase 
was in respect of the Henry holmes; the wages of the sailors 
and nremeii tiad to be increased by over -jo per cent.; the 
(list ot victualling mcrcased iuu jier cent., and the pnce of 
coal had been at least fJO per cent, nigher than in 1918. luere 
had also been some increase in the exjienses at the stations, 
and it is probable that the high prices still prevailing in the 
West Indies may necessitate lurtner increases this year. To 
meet the general heavy expen.ses in 192(1, coupled with loss 
of revenue, it was necessary during the year to sell the bulk 
of the company's investments. Owing to the state ot the 
miiney inarKet the .sales realised only £UG,027 for securities 
which hail cost £9(j,.582. The investments now .stand at 
£l2.,s.S9, as again.st £109,471 at the end of 1919. Tue posiiitjii 
ol the cimijiaiiy at the end of 11120 was .so iliHicult Inai the 
iliicft.irs tlecideil to approach tlit' Lords ComiiiissionerK ol His 
.Vhtjesty's Tre.istiry and ask fur linaiieitil helji. Their Lord- 
.s|iips were iiiiaiile to ;ticfilc to the retjuf.st for a special grant; 
but before the eiiil of their hnancial year, they obtainea the 
s;;nction of the House of Commons to the waiving of Clause 
14 of the agreement of 1914, under wliicu clause the company 
criiild have Oeen called on to repay as much as £13,000 ol the 
Imperial and Canadian subsidies, in respect of the year to 
September 30th, 1919. In consideration of this rehef the 
diiiitors agreed that whenever the cable between British 
(iiiitiiui and Trinidad is interrupted (as it is at present) the 
siibsiily [layable by British Ouiana shall he reduced by mree- 
fiiiirths. For the first four months of this year the traffic 
receipts, although not as large as in 1919, .show a considerable 
increa.se over 1920; and, now that the cable ship is available 
for repairs, it is hopeil that will be no check on the growm of 
trtirilc. But in any event, in view of the debit balance of 
£70, .500. there can be no question of any dividends for the 
.M'lir 1920; ami the directors regret that, in their opinion, this 
tiebit bahiiice must be completely dispo.sed of before any 
dividenils i-im be declared. 

The annual meeting was held on Friday 
British last at the fdolborn ivestaurant, Air. J. S. 

Electric Traction .Vii.sten presiding. In proposing the adop- 
Co., Ltd. tion of the report, the chairman said it 

was not his intention to emulate ilr. 
Oarcke, who usually gave a general ridsume of the position 
of the electrical industry at that meeting. A year ago Mr. 
(Jarcke pointed out how the nature of the business done 
by the company had changed. In the past it had consisted in 
the construction of electrical undertakings, usually of a publit: 
utility nature, with the object of either selling or running 
them at a profit. To-day it was doubtful whetner any elec- 
trical undertaking could be constructed with any prospect 
either of .selling it or running it at a profit. It was true 
that electrical undertakings built before the war could now 
be operated at a profit, because, speaking generally, tlie fares 
ami rates had been raised, but were similar umlertakings to 
be built to-day, although it might be possible to run them 
without a loss, they would not be able to run them w-ith 
any prospect of securing a fan- return on the capital ex- 
penditure. Tliat department of their business, therefore, had 
gone for the time being and they were now engaged in 
managing those companies of which they held contrij ami 
in financing them. He need not tell them that every com 
ptiny neeiled more money to carry on its business as compareil 
with the days before the war, and when it came to ext<'nsions 
of power companies, they had to be made at double pre-war 
co.sts. Those extensions were lenilered necessary because the 
oi>erative side of the hoard informed him that there was 
distinct evidence that the use of electricity was increasing. 
The cotil strike had taught manufacturers the value of elec- 
trical power, and they had also found that it was cheaper to 
buy their power from a central station than to erect iustxilla- 
tions of their own. Proceeding to refer in iletail to some of 
the umlertakings in which the company had a large stake, he 
sail! that the Rio Grandense Light & Power Syntiicate. Ltd., 
which supplietl the city of Pelotas. in Brazil, was started 
before the war. but the tramways were not completed. In- 
creaseil winking costs rendered it necessary to tipply to the 
city authorities for leave to increase the rates, ami that per- 
mission was only obtained upon the eonditittn that they 
ciiiupletetl a further portion of the tramway. The company 
w;is <'aruing money, but it hiid been difficult to find the 
ailtlitional capital which was nece.ssary for the extensions. 
With regard to the Brush Co.. in order to maintain its busi- 
ness it was neces.sary for the board to extend its plant, and 
the B.E.T. Co. had, therefore, largely increased its interest 
ill the company; it returned them 15 jvr cent, last year, 
so it was a profitable investment, and he hoped it would 
continue tt> be so. Then they had had to find the mtmey for 
their calls upon the Sbill Film Co.'s shares. The necessary 
money hail been fmmd. ehiefiy by the sale of Northern 
Ont-ario Light &• Power debenture and preference stock, war 
stock, ami from the reilt-mption of the ilebentures which thev 
belli in the Yorkshire F,lectric IVamways, Ltd. Referring to 
the tiiimibus business, he said that for a considerable tim« 
before the war the directors appreciated the value of motor 
'buses in rural districts, and they formed the British .'\uto- 
inobile Traction Co. Prior to the war, that company was 
earning a handsome rate of dividend, but when the war 
came most of its 'buses were taken from it, and although 



22 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [voi. 89. No. 2,275, jult 1. 1921. 



it had continued to pay dividends, they were not of an im- 
portant character. Smce the war had been over the business 
had revived in a reiuaika ble nianiuT, ;in(l the returns were 
again of a very satisfactory character; but the rate of earnings 
did not exceed that which was obtained before the war. 
As to the results of the B.K.T. fur the past year, there had 
been a small increase in the pioht over that of the previous 
12 months, but not suliicient to justify an mcrease in the 
dividend. Looking to the current year, they could not get 
rid of the fact that they were in the middle of a coal strike 
which liad existed for many weeks. It was not so much 
the strike it.'vlf tliat they feared as its results which might 
continue to show themselves for years after it was settloil. 
He did not feel that he could in aiiy way forecast the future, 
but regarding the company as a trust company, he was cou- 
vmced that it was all right, and that it would be a really 
.successful and prosperous concern in the future. 

Mr. E. (Jarcke seconded the motion, which was agreed to 
after a brief discussion. 

l"he revenue for the year ended March, 
New General 19-21, amouuted to illt.^bO and the expeudi- 
Tractioa ture, including debenture interest and m- 

Co,, l.til. couie tax^ to £fi,5Ul. ihe profit is thus 

JflO.ySJ, and iil.au'J was brought forward. 
making .i'-2U,'iil3. .i*l(l,-l.sn is to be appropriated for tlie pay- 
ment of a dividend of -1 per cent., less income tax, aiid 
i;y,S13 carried forward. Tlie reports and accounts of the 
Norwich Electric Tramways Co. for the year endou .June, IWi. 
and the Douglas Southern Electric lYamways, Ltd., for the 
year ended October, lll'itl, are annexed to the report. Not- 
withstanding the continued satisfactory expansion of the 
Norwich Electric Tramways trathcs, the expenditure still 
further increased, mainly in wages, which were beyona the 
control of the management, resulting in a decrease oi the 
net revenue. In view of the large amounts requirea for 
reconstruction of the track and renewal of equipment, the 
directors of that company considered it wise to pass the divi- 
dend and transfer the whole balance of profit to reserve for 
the abov.- -mentioned purposes. On the other hand, the Doug- 
las Tramways Co. has resumed payment of dividends on both 
classes of its shares. There is no change in the position of 
the guaranteed investment in the Philadelphia undertaking 
(the Darby, Media .V Chester Street Railway Co.), but the 
course of sterling exchange has again further materially bene- 
fited the company in its remittances to this country" of the 
dollar interest and dividend. 

In their report for 19'20, the directors 
Imperial give details of the operations of the sub- 

Tram wavs sidiary companies. The gross receipts of 

Co,, nil. the Middlesbrough, Stockton & Thornahy 

Electric Ti-amways amouuted to i'1-10,447. 
as compared with iU4:M>, an increase of ±-26,188. The total 
number of pas,sengers carried was 1.5,6'26,56-2. an increase of 
OOT.Olil. The net profit for the year was ^19.466, as compared 
with ±'14,498 for the corresponding jieriod. In connection 
with the acquisition of the undertaking l)y the Corporations 
of Middlesbrough, Stockton, and Tliornaby, in accordance 
with the provisions of Section 43 of the Tramways .\ct. 1870. 
the arbitrator. Sir Robert Elliott-Coo|)er. K.C.B.. awarded 
the company .sums which, including the item of consumable 
stores, amounted in the total to i;41.5.380, and also directed 
that the Cori»rations .should pay the costs of the arbitration. 
The Corp(jrations took steps to submit to the Court certain 
questions arising on the award, but ultimately discontinued 
the proceedings. Tlie .settlement of the purchase was. there- 
fore, duly completed, and the undertaking transferred to the 
Corporations on April ^nd of the jirf-stMit year. The Corris 
Railway Co. showed an increase in receipt.s of £].()(i.5. while 
the working exixmses increased by .£1,473. The holding of 
the Imperial Co. in the Ivondon & Suburban Co. remains the 
name. viz.. lixtXHl 5 per cent, cumulative preference shares 
of £1 each, and 122.120 ordinary shares of i'l each. For the 
year 19-20 the revenue of the latter company was again in- 
suiBcient to enable the payment of any dividend on either 
preference or ordinary capital. Tlie Imperial Co.'s net re- 
venue account for the year nhows an available balance of 
±-24.M], and after payment of debenture stock interest and 
6 per cent, preference dividend (less tax) for the year. 4 per 
cent, for the year is to be |)aid on the ordinary capital, leaving 
i,'l,.'i91 to carry forward. 

Sir .John Denisnn-Pendcr, G.B.E.. (cfiair- 
Globe Telefjraph man), presided at the annual meeting on 
and Trust .June -21st. Tie said that the year had been 

Co., Ltd. a sMcccssful one. but. in order to nay full 

dividends. i'iO.OOO had been transferred to 
revenue account from reserve, reducing the latter to ±'78.000 • 
:>2.r/^') of the r/!.:i7(; new shares had been taken un by the 
ordinary shareboldiTS, and the Eastern Telegranli Co." took 
over 1..W8, the balance remaining unissued. The total cost 
of new- .shares in the Eastern. Eastern Extension, and Western 
TelegraDh Companies was ±'80:L4ir,. Of this amount, the new 
sharps issued and the sale of South American Telc'iaph (!o 's 
shares brought in ±'748,71.->. leaving £.54.701 to be provided 
on capital a.rount. Tt) m.et this amount fCO.OflO had been 
borrowed. The chairman n-fcrred to the sale of the interests 
of the United States Cable Co. to the British Covernment. 
and stated that the company was at present paying a dividend 
of 4 per cent, per annum. Increased reccints were obtained 



from the Eastern, Eastern Extensipn and Western Telegrajih 
Co.'s owing to the allotment of new shares, but the full 
10 per cent, had not been received on the hokhngs. The 
Great Northern Telegraph Co. had increased its dividend from 
'2'2 to 'M iier cent. The return of shares temporarily held 
by the Government, which paid an added interest of J [wr 
cent., represented a loss of .£'950 to the company. The appre- 
ciation of the company's securities over the original cajutal 
invested was about £l,50(.l,000. 

Tho twentieth annual general mcetiug 
Brisbane Electric was held on June loth, Mr. II. R. Beetou, 
Tramways ln= tiie ihairmau of the compauy, presiding. 
vestment Co., Ihe chairman said that the total receipts 
Ltd, of the Brisltaue IVamwuys Co. were 

±'oGl,-2()0, as compared with i;47G,;386 for 
1919; the total expemliture was ±'448,90.j, as compared with 
t':i(>l,98o for the previous year, and the net profit was ±'11-2,300, 
which, with ±'34.1tJl brought in from 1919, left an available 
balance of illG.lC.H. Of this amount ±8,000 had been creditea 
to depreciation of investments fund, bringing that fund up to 
±'l.i.oOt», and ±'llu.(XKI had been applied in payment of a divi- 
dend, leaving ±'-2;i,401 to be carried forward. The net balance 
of revenue account of the Investment Co. available was 
±'147. .343. .\fter allocating ±'8.000 to the depreciation of invest- 
ments fund, bringing it up to ±11,500, and ±'-20,000 to the 
reserve fund, bringing it up to ±'100,000, and providing for 
delK'iiture .stock interest and preference dividend, and 8 per 
cent on the ordinary shares, there remained to carry forward 
±42.837. subject to corporation profits tax. Owing to the 
C^ucensland Government not acquu'iug the tramways, as they 
announced they would do in October last, the board had to 
come to an arrangement with the debenture stockholders post- 
poning the redemption of the debenture stock, wuich became 
due on January 1st, 19-21, until January 1st, 19-24, raising the 
rate of interest from 4J per cent, to 8 per cent, per annum, 
and stipulating that a premium of -2 per cent, should be 
payable in the event of the debenture stock being redeemed 
before expiry. Tlie bulk of the increased expenditure was due 
to continuous increases in wages. The Government had passed 
an .\ct. entitled the Profiteering Prevention Act, enabling 
them to depreciate the tramways by feing fares at their abso- 
lute discretion regardless of the rights of the company. In 
March last year the Tramways Purchase .\ct, which had been 
twice rejected by the Legislative Council, was passed. The 
directors had had several interviews with Mr. Theodore, at 
which they conveyed to him that the company in no way 
demurred to the principle of expropriation, but only claimed 
to be fairly treated, and that they relied on him to apply the 
provisions of the Purchase .\ct in a manner which would do 
justice to the company and redound to the credit of Queens- 
land. Mr. Theodore expressed his desire to protect investors 
to the best of his ability, promising, among other things, that 
the debentures, in which payment might have to be made, 
would be taken at their market price at the date of settlement, 
that whatever might be necessary to constitute them trustee 
securities would be done, and that interest at fi per cent, per 
annum on the purchase price, as ultimately settled, would be 
paid from the date of taking over the undertaking until the 
date of payment. The Govermuent, however, found tljem- 
selves confronted with tie prospect of not only having to issue 
6 per cent, debentures at market price to an unexpected 
amount, but also of raising a large amount of new capital at 
a time when their exiguous financial resources were strained 
to the utmost to meet their pressing liabilities. In tb^je 
circumstances, a policy of postponement was obviously in- 
dicated, and after some delay the State Treasurer announced 
that the Government would only acquire the tramways " at 
their convenience." The so-called Profiteering Prerention Act 
did nf)t define profiteering and was administered at the abso- 
lute discretion of tho Executive Government. The directors 
had entered a .strong protest against this abridgment of the 
company's rights conferred by the General Acts of 1882 and 
1890, under which it was constituted, and confirmed by tho 
C.ovcrn nt under the .special Act of 1913. 

The directors have issued their report 
Lisbon Llectric covering the years 1919 and 19-20, together k 
Tramwavs, Ltd. w-ith balance sheets for both vears. For ■ 

1919 there was a net profit of ±74.50.5. but 
for 19-20 a net loss of ±1-20,000. the net loss on the two years' 
wDrking being .±'45, .500. The balance to the credit of profit 
anil loss account brought forward from 1918 was ±] 1.2-29, 
and the balance to the credit of the exchange reserve ±1.5,000, 
thus leaving to be carried forward to the debit of next year's 
profit and loss account .±19,271. Ilie passengers carried during 
1919 were 92.143.345. and the receints Esc. 4,454,174: in 1920 
(hey were 80,5fi7,940, and the receipts Esc. 6.088.286; while 
in 1918 they were 80.806,364 and the receipts Esc. 3,523,069. 
Tlie decrease in pas.sengers in 1920 was due to the strike, 
from the end of July until the beginning of September, when 
the service was entirely suspended, and also to some small 
fallinu' off from the increased fares. Expenditure has again 
eonsiderablv increased, viz.: 1918 Esc. 3.0*>2 536$74 ■ 1919 
Esc. 3.-294. -'11 $-26; 1920, Esc. 8.S08..594.$fi3. Tlie rate 'of ex- 
chance which stood at 34d. on Januarv 1st, 1919, had fallen 
to '2fld. on December 3]st, 1919, and by December .31st, 1920. 
to 63d. Tlie heavy increase in the expen.ses in 1920 was not 
only brought about by the higher wages paid and the 
increased cost of all local supplies; it was particularly accen- 



Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921.]l THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW 



28 



tiiated by the cost of uU those supplies which had to be 
imrchased outside of Portugal at enhanced prices, this cost 
iiaving to be ultimately borne m tue very depreciated cur- 
rency of that country. On account of the diHastrous collapse 
in exchange during tUe period under review, it had been ueces- 
Bury to make applications to the Camara from time to time 
lur increases ol the tarilf, witli the result that only partial 
relief had been granted, and this after the greatest ditliculty 
and prolonged negotiations. The last increase uf fares ob- 
tained was yut into force in December last, but as this was 
tiitally inadequate to meet the expenditure, an application had 
been made to the Canuira for a further advance, which it 
was hoped would sciun be granted. " The granting of the 
application by the Camara is one of urgent necessity, and 
permits of no delay it the public is to continue to receive 
tramway facilities as heretofore, it being self-evident that the 
service cannot continue to be run at a loss." 

The seventeenth ordinary general meet- 
United. Electric ing was held on June 16th, Sir (jeorge A. 
Tramways of Touche, Bart, (chahman), presiding. The 
Montevideo, chairman, iu moving the adoption of the 
Ltd. report and accounts and the payment of 

the dividends, said that receipts again 
showed an increase. Unfortunately, expenses had inoteased 
too, and had absorbed 7'i,4.5 per cent, of the gross increase- 
The increase was due mainly to higher wages, and there was 
little prospect of this item being reduced. Another important 
factor was the serious fall in the value of the dollar. Uru- 
guayan currency had a remarkable record for stability. Being 
on a gold basis, for many years before the war it hardly varied 
at all. The normal rate of exchange was $4.7 to the pound, 
or'Sld. to the dollar. During the past year it fell as low 
as 39d. to the dollar, and was now only 4'25d. This depre- 
ciation had naturally affected remittances. In spite of addi- 
tional burdens, the company had not yet received permission 
from the Government to increase its tariffs. This had been 
granted to tramway and transport companies by other coun- 
tries — all over the world, in fact — but not by Uruguay. 
Thi'oughout the year every endeavour had been made to 
obtain a settlement of this all-important question, but with- 
out any result, although it had been before the Chambers 
for discussion many times. The po\erty of the returns to the 
shareholders showed how irresistible was the company's claim 
to a revision of tariffs. The directors had every sympathy 
with the desire of the men for a better wage. It was in their 
best interests that an increase in fares Was necessary, as the 
fares provided the only fund from which wages could be paid. 
The more restricted^ the fund the less must be the wage in- 
crease. The speaker took the opportunity of saying how 
admu'ably legitimate British interests were watched by Sir 
Claude Mallet, the British Minister, without iu any way tres- 
passing on territory which was not his or doing anything to 
antagonise local rights and susceptibilities. The profit and 
loss account showed a balance of f 74.906. The balance brought 
forward was i;7,03'2, making a total credit balance of i£81,938. 
i'5,961 had been set aside for the redemption of debenture 
stock and ^2,500 for the preference and ordinary share capital 
redemption fund. This fund was invested separately, and the 
cost of investments was shown in the balance sheet at £'23.4'24. 
These investments W'cre chiefly in British Government Bonds, 
and present quotations showed a depreciation of 10 per cent. 
The sum of i;30,UOO had been placed to the renewals and con- 
tingency account. The dividends were a poor yield in a 
year of record takings, but the legalised impositions, for 
which, as yet, the company had bad no compensation, were re- 
sponsible. 
The motion was carried unanimously. 

A meeting of the first debenture stockholders was then held, 
at which the appointment of Mr. George Norman Touche as 
trustee was confirmed. 

-Vccnrding td tlic Siidncij Morning Herald 
The Australian a net iiii'lit (.1 i"j;.7.")0 was shown liy Ihe 
English E-uglish Elnliir Co., Ltd. (formerly Stau- 

Electric Co. dard Waygood Ihnules), for the year ended 

March 31st, and with M'd,ob9 brought for- 
«;mi1 fi-Diii the old company .i':iO,3(H) «a.s available. In view 
uf the large amount of money required to complete the com- 
pany's new workshops and equip them with plant, and the 
cost of financing current, business, no dividend was recom- 
mended ■while the fin.Tucial sti-in,ui'iii-v cunfinued. To conserve 
the ,L;(in(l\\ ill 111' till- lift hu.^inrxs :i nii;ip:iiiy has been registered 
uiHJer the name uf Slamlanl, \\;i\^;r«iil, l^td., with a nominal 
("ipital of itiOl.l.tHIII. The stock l.ielnnHing to the department 
will be represented by shares which will belong to the English 
i;iectric Co. 0. Weymouth Pty.. Ltd., has been reconstructed 
under the name of Weymouths. Ltd. Out of the funds pru- 
vided for the purpose bv the debenture i.ssue (£108,(XMI ]iliis 
i'.i.fJOO since issued, £113,6(K1) the Engli.sh Electric Co. had 
pent in workshops and equipment at date of balance £110, 7i'^. 
It was. therefore, proposi^d to issue the balance of the delieii- 
lures created, viz.. ±'30,400. The directors stated that they 
p;issed the dividend with the great<>st reluidauce. A good 
piofit hiid been made and the comiiany had the money. But 
the biiiird did not know how its proposals for fresh capital 
might be received or whether assets which were liquid a few 
months ago were now s;ileable even at much reduced prices. 
Hence' the board had decided upon a conservative policy, 
although, as some of the board were the largest shareholders 
in the company, their own interests were affected. 



The report for iy'20 states that the net 
Barcelona revenue was $2.731.769. Interest payablo 

Traction, Light m cash on bonds for 1920 amounted to 
and Power Co. !)il.lX>148o. Usual provision was made for 
amortisation of underlying bonds, and iu 
addition reserves for depreciation were made by chief operat- 
ing companies, as follows : Light and power companies, 
.ii(i.).j,.s2(.t: railway company, $28:^,364, In December, 1920, 
i'l.O.iO.OOO of a ix'r cent, secured delientures were, sold in 
London, and with the proceeds i;l,91o,.50O of outstanding 6 per 
cent, prior lien " B " lionds were acquired. The difference iu 
the nominal amount of 8 per cent, secured debentures sold and 
" B " bonds acquired, ±86.5, .'iOO, has been placed to capital 
reserve, as " B " bonds acquired are held as security for 6 per 
cent, .secured debentures. The board during 1920 was able 
to liquidate all loans, which at December. 1919, amounted to 
$1,094,706. There was an increase of 6,128,683 pesetas in 
gross earnings of combined enterprises of companies operating 
in Spain, and net earnings increa.sed .j, 044. 321 pesetas. With 
the completion of new hydro-electric installation at Camarasa. 
the major construction projects of Ebro company may be 
regarded as realised. 

„ , . The reports for 1920 have been issued by 

!>weaisn [[^g three telephone companies which are 

• T J F . "t incorporated in the Swedish-Danish-Rus- 

Ah rt " '"'"^ telephone Co.. which owns the tele- 

Abroad. phone system in AIoscow. the Cedergren 

Telephone Co., in whose hands the Warsaw network is 

vestei.1, and the Mexican Ericsson Telephone Co., which carries 

on the exchange system in the city of Mexico. 

The report of the Mexican company states that operations 
proceeded in a satisfactory manner, and the number of sub- 
scriljers increased from 12,680 in 1919 to 13,892 last year, and 
a further augmentation has taken place in the current year 
notwithstanding the higher rentals which were sanctioned by 
the 'Government last autumn. As in the immediately preced- 
ing years, so in 1920 was the circulating medium formed of 
metallic currency, and the still prevailing advantageous con- 
ditions between the Mexican and Swedish exchange yielded 
considerable profits in exchange in connection with the remit- 
tances. The net profits amounted to 361.576 gold pesos, as 
compared with 26(.l,92.5 iiesos in 1919, and the directors propose 
to (lay a. dividend at the rate of 7 i>er cent., as contrasted 
with 6 per cent., and an addition of 4 per cent. (2 per cent. 
in 1919) for profits arising from exchange. 

Concerning the Svensk-Dansk-Ryska Telephone Co., the 
report states that it was naturally impossible to carry on 
un\ hu.sine.^.s whatever in Russia last year, and it was still 
illlpn^Mllle I or the liiiietnrs to enter into, direct negotiations 
with the Kii.sMan iiutiiiiiities for the regulation of payment 
for the company's assets in Moscow, which were taken over 
by the Imperial Government in the year of 1917. The de- 
velopment of circumstances, however, were being followed 
by the directors in order to be able to put the matter forward 
on the first possible opportunity. On this basis a loss of 
l,3i;.j,613 kr. was incurred last year, as compared with 
i,294,(J74 kr. in 1919, chiefly on account of interest payments 
on the company's loan. The telephone system at Moscow is 
still entered in the company's books at its original cost of 
installation of 51,4(-KJ,(XX) kr. The balance sheet of the Mos- 
cow department closes at 65,500,000 kr., as against 61,800,000 
kr. in 1919, with a balanced loss of 4.100.00O kr. for the 
veai-s 1917 to 1920, while the Stockholm department closes 
at lli,',KH),l)00 kr., as compared with 29,400,000 kr., with a 
loss of 3,374 kr. for 1920. 

As to the Warsaw system, the reixirt states that the 
activity of the Cedergren Telephone Co. sutt'ered from the 
uncertain and depressed political and economic conditions 
which jirevailed in Poland last year. The working exj^enses 
greatly increa.sed as a consequence of the increasing fall in 
rolish currenc,v — wages alone were five times greater at the 
end than at the beginning of the year— while the considerable 
iucrctises in the subscription rates which were made every 
(piarter were only able to defray the working expenses, but 
were insufficient to cover the interest on the company's loan. 
\s a result the year showed a loss of 903.000 kr.. as com- 
pared with a- loss of 1.889.(XX) kr. in 1919. the total losses 
for the years 1916 to 1920 con.sequently rising to (i.378.tRX) kr. 
The directors of the Austrian Siemens- 
The Austrian Schuckert Works Co.. of Vienna, report 
Siemens- tliat as a result of the better food supplies 

Schuckert and the improvement in the willingness 

Works. to work, the efficiency of the individual 

workman in 1920 was raised a considerable 
ilegree nearer to the pre-war level. Notwith.standing many 
cidiiiil I'veiit.s it was possible adequately to occupy the work- 
shops; and the decline in .\ustrian orders and in orders from 
the Succession States was equalised by the cultivation of new 
business connections abroad. The first contracts, although of 
small extent, were received for the electrification of individual 
.Vustrian State railways. Sufficient orders, particularly for 
export, were on hand in the new financial year, so that it 
was expected that the shops would be occupied to the same 
extenti iis in 1920. .\ power station and 20 main line loco- 
motives liad been ordered bv the .'Austrian St-iit*^ railways. 
although these would only be executed next year ou the 
completion of the preparatory works. Sale prices had now 
reached the parity of the world's market prices, and had 
consequently to follow those of keen foreign competitors. 



24 



•THE ELECTEICAL KETil^W; [voi. 89. No. 2,275, july 1, 1921. 



while rivalry was oxpecteil iurtlur to increase owing to the 
reduced purchasing iwwer of customers. The number of \\ ork- 
inen and otiicial.-^ employed was o.'M) at the end of JMJ. as 
compared with i.9ii at the close of the preceding year, .\lter 
aiHivmy I.iw.OjO kr. to depreciation, as against l.iUU.HUU l;i . 
m liii'J, the accounts indicate net profits of 8,010,000 kr.. as 
contrasted with 3,(.i01.0(,K.) kr.. and a dividend at the rate of 
(> per cent, has been declared, comparing with o per cent, 
in 1919. It lias now been decided to increase the share capital 
by To.OtKJ.tKN) kr. to -JOtKOtKLOOU kr. to provide the funds neces- 
sary for the undistributed maintenance of working and the 
acquisition of stocks. 

The report of the directors of the AU- 
The Swedish miinna 'lelefon ."Vktiebolag L. M. Ericsson 
Ericsson lor 19'20 states that as in the imiiiediati'ly 

Telephone Co. preceding years, the high costs of produc- 
tion which were increased by the law intro- 
dtrcing an eight-hour day. placed the company in an unfavour- 
able |>i)sition in competing in the world's luarket^. In order 
to maintain its position in these markets and retain the old 
circle of customers, the company was compelled to keep its 
sale prices on a lower level than was warranted by the costs 
of production. The result was that the volume of sales was 
satisfactory. At the beginning of iy'20 the orders on hand 
repre.«ente"d about lO.iKKi.iiiKl kr.. and at the close of the year 
they reached 17.<KXI,tRH) kr. A reduction in the cost of pro- 
duction, however, was indispensable if these circumstances 
were to continue in the new financial year, and some steps in 
this direction had already been taken. 'I he number of work- 
men at the Stockholm shops increased from 1,359 to 1,044 
during the year The value of the turnover was 14,843,000 kr., 
as compared with 1 -5. 775.000 kr. in 1919. the exports included 
in the.se totals having comprised 10.685.000 kr. (72 per cent.) 
and 10.843.000 kr. (68.7 per cent.) in the two years respec- 
tively. 

Concerning the subsidiary manufacturing companies, the 
report states that the Petrograd workshops of the Russian 
Erics.son company continued to be immune from damage, and 
work was being still carried on for the account of the Soviet 
Government under the management of its delegate. The 
English company was well occupied in 1920 and the dividend 
on the ordinary shares was at the rate of 8 per cent. The 
Austrian and Hungarian companies were fully and profitably 
occupied, although the prevailing exchange conditions occa- 
sioned difficulties and rendered it impos-^ible for remittances 
to be made to the parent company ; their dividends would be 
at least 20 per cent, for 1920. ITie activity of the French 
company developed satisfactorily in the first nine months, but 
towards the close .of the year the company was affected by 
the general depression, and no profits were realised. The 
stocks of raw and semi-finished materials held by the Swedish 
company at the end of the year were entered at such values 
that they could be .secure even if a further fall in prices took 
place. As to the shares held in certain other companies, the 
report states that the.se must now be considered as of no value, 
and the holdings in the Swedi-sh Air Traffic Co.. the Svenska 
Radio Co.. the Elektrolyte Works, the Triton Co.. and the 
.American subsidiary company had each been written down to 
one kroner. The accounts for 1920 show n loss of 3.322.0IX) kr.. 
as contrasted vvith net profits of 3.7.53.(KIO kr. in 1919. The 
loss is due to the necessity for writing off 1.429,(X)0 kr. on the 
company's stocks in Russia and of 3.695.000 kr. on shares, as 
just mentioned, chiefly in the American company. 

The directors add to the report a supplementary statement 
relating to the reconstruction of the company consequent upon 
the situation of the Ru.ssian subsidiarv. It was necessary, 
they say. to write oil' tliesi> slJarl■^. wliile debts owiiif; bv 
the latter would remain in the books at the amount at which 
they stood at present. On the other hand, by relying upon 
the reserve fund and one-half of the .share capital, a guarantee 
fund would be formed sufficient to cover the amount of the.se 
claims. The total sum con.seqiiently written off the various 
Russian share intere.its is 6..591.(HI0 kr.. which is covered by 
the reserve fund, leaving .'i8.264 kr. to be carried to the 
Cuarant<'e fund in <piestion which, including one-half of the 
share capital, will then reach 36.93K,0{K) kr. The Russian 
credits to be covered bv this fund are claims aaiinst bills of 
till- S«cdi...li-r)anish-Hiissi;m Teleplmne Co, for lO.OCd.fKIO kr.. 
and 1.5.084.000 kr. in other claims against the Russian sub- 
sidiary: the bank debts 85.803 kr., and claims for telephone 
works 2.K16.OOO kr. If approved by the shareholders the result 
of the.se operations will be a reduction in the ordinary share 
capital from 73.800,000 kr. to .36.;XIO.Om) kr., and the formation 
<5f a guarantee fund for .36.940.000 kr. 

Thr Sncirti' AitparriVii^ie Klccir'uiiie Gen- 

French fo/r has decided to raise its capital from 

Companies. l.fKiO.OflO to 3.000.0fKl fr.. and to issue on a 

suitable date bonds to a total of 2fHi.0llO fr. 

Kleciricite ft Gar. dn Nnrd. — The profits of the working 

year closing September 30th last, which totalled 2.6'2(J.295 fr.. 

after allottinc fil7 085 fr. to the sinking fund, and allowim,' 

of a distribution of 12.50 fr. per sliare and 19.28 fr. per part. 

were f.btained solely by means of the .leuinont station and the 

'.'as works. The outcome of the pre.sent year will be much 

larger, for. besides the enlargements to meet existing demands 

fif the .leumont works, other productive elements will yield 

their quota. The Lille station, for instance, started at the 

end of .January, and the Maubeugc station was to be available 



in April. As to shares in other concerns, the Societe d'Elec- 
tricitiS de la Region de \"alenciennes-Anzin obtained results in 
its financial year closing with December 31st last, which 
ix'rmitted it to enter a dividend-iiaying period; and the 
Societal' Gaz et Electricite du llaiuaut was in an extremely 
favourable situation owing to the increased tarilfs sanctioned, 
and the starting in August last of the Ville-sur-Haisne works, 
and the improvements and extensions of its plants at its 
several stations. 

Comintgnic Vciitralc d'Eiicryic Elcctriquc. — The rcpnit pre- 
sented at the ordinary meeting showed that the output, of 
electricity of the stations serving the Rouen district had 
advanced from 42,944,400 kWh in 1919 to 40.057.9.50 kWh 
in 19'20. The increase would have been greater but for the 
rise in the price of coal and the crisis in various industries 
shown towards the end of the year. The management had 
devoted all its energies to realise the plans laid dov\n in 
1918. and revised in 1920, including the erection of four new 
boilers at the Grand Quevilly station, of four groups of 0,0(M)- 
k\\' turbo-alternators, vi two groups, 10,000 kW each, of 
Schneider-Thomson, and the establishment of two main lines 
— one from Grand Quevilly to Monvilly and the other from 
Grand Quevilly to Elbceuf. The meeting fixed the dividend 
payable at 20 fr. per share. The profit and loss account 
showed a balance of 850,080 fr. ; receipts 36,984,402 fr., and 
expenditure 21,744,405 fr. 

(.'iD/ipiiy/iic rcunics dc Gaz ct d' Electricite. —The ordinary 
meeting of this society, held at Lyons on April 5th. voted a 
dividend of 7 fr. per share, and authorised its board to issue 
bonds to the ext«.mt of 14,000.01X1 fr. 

Societa anonima Elcttricita .iUa Italiq. — 
Italian (Turin). — .^fter reference to the regularly- 

Companies. effected increase of the capital of the com- 
pany, which now stands at 48,000,000 lire, 
the report set forth the steady expansion of the company's 
business, its network now extending throughout the province 
of Piedmont either directly or through the medium of con- 
trolled companies. Thanks to suitable agreements with the 
Swiss group, the company had conveniently systematised its 
obligations. The financial year closing with December 31st 
had given a useful net balance of 3,788.957 lire, which allowed 
of a dividend of 0.80 per cent., or 17 lire per share. 

Societa idroelettrica Piemonte (Turin). — The yearly report 
of this company, after allusion to the exaggerated price of raw 
materials and the increase in staff wages, v^hich had affected 
the balance, referred to the large share which the cuiiipany 
had taken in the Societa Idroelettrica Monviso and the Societa 
Idroelettrica Piemontese-Lombarda Ernesta Breda, which as- 
sured to them a further 150,000 h.p. or over half a milliard 
kWh. The accounts closed with an available balance of 
3,269,556 lire, which enabled a distribution of 7 per cent., or 
8.75 lire per share. 

Societa Ligure Toscana di Elcttricita (Ijeghorn). — The last 
report of this company, whose capital is 100.000.000 lire, shows 
that notwithstanding the hindrances of many kinds encoun- 
tered, especially the agitations of the workmen, the production 
of 1920 <-xceeded that of the preceding year by 7,600,000 kWli. 
The erection of new plant was proceeding actively de.ipite 
the scarcity of material, difficulties of trau.sport, &c. The 
accounts clo.sed to December .31st last with a net balance, of 
5.454,410 lire, which allowed of a distribution of 8 per cent. 

The Kabelwerk Wilhelminenhog, of Ber- 

Germaa lin. which belongs to the Felten & Guil- 

Companies. leaume group, reports net profits of 

l.StJO.OOO marks for 1920, as compared with 

580.000 marks in the prevous years. 

The Dr. }'aul Meyer ,4.6'., of Berlin, proposes to pay a divi 
deiid at the rate of 12 per cent, for 1920 on share capital of 
12,000,(JOO marks, this comparing with 10 per cent, in the pre- 
vious year. The share capital is now to be increased t<; 
24.000.000 marks. 

TItc .-l.G . far KUiitrutechnische I ' nt c rnehmun gen , of Munich, 
reports net profits of 171,000 marks for 1920. as compared with 
26.000 marks in the preceding year, and a dividend at the 
rate of 4 per cent, on the ordinary shares, which received no 
distribution for 1919. 

The accounts of the Treuhand lianlt fur die EleTitrische In- 
dustrie .4.6'., of Berlin, indicate net profits of 1.684,000 marks, 
as contrasted with 948.(K)0 marks in 1919. which sum was 
reaclu'd after extinguishing the deficit of 1,139,(X)0 marks 
brought forward from the previous year. It is intended to 
pay a dividend at the rate of 6 per cent, on share capital of 
'2;'j.0(« 1.0(10 marks, as compared with the same rate on about 
half this capital in 1919. 

The report of Uartmann <f liraun A.G., of Frankfort-OD- 
Main. states that the degree of activity in 1920 showed a 
considerable improvement over the preceding year, but it was 
much less than in the pre-war period. Besides the exports 
to neutral countries, the operations of the Electroln.stallatiou 
.Material Co.. a .subsidiary of the company, contributed towards 
the better results. After making provision for depreciation, 
the accounts show net profits of 1,223,000 marks, as against 
2(J7.0(MI marks, and the directors recommend a dividend at the 
rate of 10 per cent., this contrastinu with 6 per c<mt. in 1919. 

'Ilie report <if the liergnuinn I'Acktrizitatswerke A.G.. of 
Berlin, states that the central station denartment obtained 
considerable orders in 1920 through participation in schemes 
for the electrification of the States and provinces, and the 



Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921.] . THE ELECTRIO^l 



,>_: ^ iJt >/i. 



25 



railway department was fully occupied both for main line 
and light railway work. A tube rolling mill was added to 
the metal works and was developing satistacturily, orders being 
on hand until the end of 1921. Aft<:'r writing off 4,M'2H.(I(1(I marks 
for depreciation, as against 1.937.0(10 marks in 1919. the ac- 
counts show net prohts of 13,13.'5,OUO marks, as compared with 
8.488.00(1 marks in the preceding year, and the dividend is 
increased from 1'2 per cent, in 191.9 to 15 per cent, in 19'iO. At 
the recent annual meeting, when it was decided to increase the 
ordinary share capital from 80.000,000 to 100,000,000 marks. 
it was mentioned that the prospects for the new financial 
year were very favourable, and the- existing orders would 
provide activity for months forward. The foreign engineering 
and sales offices have been extended so as to promote the 
export trade. 

The Societe d'Electricite et de Mecanique 
Belgian (I'rocedes Thomson-Houston et Carels), of 

Companies. Ulient. an amalgamation of the Belgian 
'lhom.son-Houston electrical engineering 
business with the engineering undertaking of Carels 
i'rtics. la.st week invited applications for '24, 500 shares ol 500 
francs, representing an increase of capital ol l'2,'250,OO0 francs, 
the .shares being ottered at 050 francs each. Since the war the 
works of the company in Ghent have been remodelled and 
largely extended. At the eommeneement of the present year 
the company was turning out large numbers of electric motors, 
transformers, and other electrical apparatus, while in the 
engineering shops extensive orders were in progress for Oiet-el 
and .steam engines. Over 90 i>er cent, of the work in hand 
in this department was for foreign countries. The company 
has a 'board of '26 directors, among them being Mr. Howard 
0. Levis, the managing director of the British Tboinsuu- 
Houston Co., Ltd., London. 

The report of the Societe d'Electricite du Bassin de Char- 
leroi for last year shows a profit of 511,718 francs, as compared 
with ■10U,4.'^9 francs in the preceding 1'2 months. 



Companies Struck off the Register.— The following;, il is 
(jjlicially announced, have been struck off the Register and 

are dissolved : — 

" A.B. Vibro & Domestic Electrics. Ltd. 

Feltham & Di.strict Electric Lighting Co., Ltd. 

Non-conductors, Ltd. 

Snyder Electric Furnace Co.. Ltil. 

Wholesale Battery Co.. Ltd. 

Carboniti'. Ltd. 

.Major & Co., Ltd.— I'inal dividend of 45 per cent, on the 
ineferred ordinary share..., making 8 per cent, for the year; 
10 per cent, on the ordinary shares for th« year; £6,479 
carried forward. 



Altrincham Electric Supply Co., Ltd. — Uurint^ lOi'U 109 
new installations were connected, making the total 2,1'28. 
After providing for debenture interest, putting i;500 to de- 
preciation, writing ±'1..58V oil the expenses of the ordinary 
share issue, a hual dividend of 7^ iku' cent, per annum lor 
the December half-year is paid on the ordinary shares, and 
10s. for the year on the deferred shan's, leaving i;l.0ii4 to 
be carried forward. In spite of mauy adverse ciri'umstuuces, 
the prohts continue to increase. The additional plant will 
be ready in the course of the next few months, and should 
effect further economies in generating, costs. The above 
results were secured in spite of the falling olf in demand 
for power due to industrial conditions. The outlook for the 
future is favourable. The times are not propitious for making 
a new issue of capital, but this will have to be .seen to when 
conditions improve. Mr. C. E. Hunter has resigiicd from 
the board. 

Waygood=Otis, Ltd. — .At the annual nieeling, held un 
June '22ud, the chairman (Mr. Henry C. \Valker) said that, 
although the profit made would seem to allow of the payment 
of a higher dividend. 9 pei cent, would be paid on the ordinaiy 
shares, as. owing to the falling off in business, it was con- 
sidered wise to conserve their resources. The company hud 
many important contracts in hand, including orders from 
Selfridge & Co.. and .John Barker & Co., and a contract for 
installing passenger lifts in the new- County Hall of the L.C.C. 

Manaos Tramways & Light Co., Ltd. — The receiver nnd 
uiiinager who was appointed on .luntJ 10th. announces that 
owing to the unprecedented fall in the sterling value of tin- 
Brazilian currency it is not pos.^ible for the interest due .lu!,\ 
1st on the 5 per cent, debentures to be paid. — Financial Ncirs. 

Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power Co. — The " Finnnc i;d 
Times " .states that the net earnings, including those ol the 
Rand Min<'s Power Supply Co., for the (luartei- ended Miircli 
:-!l.st aiiiounf<'d to f;l7-2,:i!Kl, before iinividing for taxation in 
South .\(|-ii-a ami the I'liited Kingdom. 

.\rgentine Tramways & Power Co. — Thv ;icciiuni> fm ihe 
year ende.l Septeniber. 19-20, .-.how that after paynieiil of 
interest and sinking fund on debenture stock, and transOrrin:; 
£4.000 to reserve for renewals, there is a profit of j£9.569. 
increa.sing the credit balance carried forw-ard to i'l.s,:-i'24,( 
subject to coi-poration tax. if any. '^ 

Montreal Power Companies. — The .Munlieal l.i^hl, lleatV 
and Power Co. is paymg a dividend on the comiiKHi .shares of 
$■1.. and the Montreal Light. Heat A Power Consolidated CoJ 
one of $U. 

Eastern Extension, Australasia & China Telegraph Co. 4 
Ltd. — Inlerin-i cli\idend, for the llirei- nionlhs ended Marcm 
Hist last, of 5w. pel- share, free of income tax. J. 

Tramways & Light Railways Estates, Ltd. — Dividend all, 
the rale nf .'! per ccni. per annum; carried forward £'2]',]. f 

Stock Exchange Notice. — I)ea<lin,t;s in the following; ; 
.«ecuriti(\s have been specially allowed by the Committee under 1 
Te'uporarv liegulation i (3) : — ] 

Pernambuco Tramways & Power Co.— £500.000 8 per cent. I 
prior lien debentures to hearer, of £1(X) each, issued at 90 ! 
per cent., of which .£30 is paid and fully paid, Nos. 1 to 5.000. J'. 

Edgar .\llen & Co., Ltd. — Final dividend of Is. per share.flJ 
free of tax. making 2s. per share. £30,246 carried forward. "2 



STOCKS AND SHARES. 



TutSDAX EVENINS. 

Thf; unexpected lowering -of the Bank rate to per cent, came 
ai> an agreeable shock to the .Stock Exchange and its markets. 
.\t the same time there arose a fresh breath of hope for settle- 
ment of the coal dispute. The two factors, coming together, 
exercised a strengthening eflect upon prices, although Stock 
Exchange men are apt to complain that they have been fol- 
lowed by very little increase in busiue.ss. The fact is that the 
public are not in a speculative mood. The end of the half- 
year is clo.se at hand, and the usual inclination to indulge in 
window-dressing will certairdy not be less at the present time 
than it4s in days when funds are more liquid, and there is 
more money about. The purely investment .stocks arc very 
firm, but apart from this, neither the Bank Rate nor the coal 
settlement has affected prices to any noticeable extent. 

The Ixmdon & Suburban Tra'ction Co.. Ltd.. is inviting 
tenders for the redemption of a portion of the 5 per cent. " A " 
debenture stock under the sinking fund provisions contained 
in the tru.st deed. The price of the stock in the market is 
06-70. but in a letter to the stockholders, the company pointed 
out that the price of the sto(-k was 61 in the last transaction 
recorded, according to the oOicial list of the London Stock 
P^.M-hange. This partic-iilar transaction was effected in August, 
19-20, so it is not surprising that some exception should have 
been taken to the quotation of this price, at a time w-hen the 
actual value is 06 upwards. Naturally the company wants to 
buy the stock as cheaply as po.ssible. but, equally naturally, 
the debenture holders have the right to be told what is the 
current market price, as well as that which ruled last August. 
Therefore the announcement that the company is about to 
send out .another letter to the stockholders, informing them of 
the higher prices which are quoted in the Stock Exchange 
official list, has given satisfaction. Tlie secretary explains 
that the statement in his previous letter overlooked the recent 
markings of the price of the stock. 

There are no changes to record in the li^t of home electri- 
city .shares. The ninrket is very quiet, and .settlement of the 
c-oal strik<' has hud no effect so far. The tone of the niai-ket 
is described as being rather harder. Metropolitan Electric 
7i per cent, debenture stock has further ris<>n to 4j premium. 
The i.ssiie of North Metropolitan 7J per cent, debenture at 95. 
to whi(-b reference was made here tw-o or three weeks ago. is 
on the point of emission. There was a keen demand for the 
underwriting, and it may Ix- rea.sonable to expect a prompt 
subscription of the .stock. 

(leneral Electric- new debenture has been down to 4 dis- 
count, but rallied to 3i discount. The company's 6{ per cent. 
prefeietu-e shares are easier at 16s.. and the oi'dinary drooped 
to I 1/32. Eniilish Electric preference at 15s. are 6d. harder. 
and 'the manufac-turing grouji as a whole is steady. Some of 
the arnianient shares iinprcived on bear c-overing. induced by 
the fortbc-oming resiinipfion of work in the coal mines. 
Vic-kers oiilinary picked up to 13s. Od., .ind the 5 per cent, 
tax free nrcd'erenei- haiclened to 13s. 9d. .Vrmstrongs also are 
.better. B.dic-oc-k cV Wilcox r.-main at 2i. 

rndergrouncl F!ei-tric- Inc-onie Bonds at 8'2J are a couple of 
,-jic)iiits to the good: otherwi.si> the T'nderground market is dull. 
>\ith Disfric-ts and Mi-trooolitans both i down on the week 
jTbiM-e is a steady demand for the incomes, which has extended 
al.so to the c-oinpany's 4il per cent, bonds, the price of which 
is oiioted hi'dier at 95 middle. 

Cable stcK-ks are a trifle easier, in spite of the fall to (! per 
cent, in the Bank Rate. Eastern Telegraph, Eastern Exten- 
sions, Creat Nortlierns and Indo-Ruroneans are all lower, the 
last-named shpclding 5 nciints to 30. It may be that stock has 
come in from people w-ho recpiire money for bu.siness purposes 
I'dt the end of the lialf-yc^'ir. while the .luly demands of the 
lt-ix-c-olleet<ir tend to forc-e into the market -' certain amount of 
the good-class .securities. The West India & Pannma Co. 
ibows a loss in its report of f.58.0(X> on the year. To meet 
lieavv rti>neral exnen-^es, i-oiipled with loss ef revenue, the cim- 
oanv sold .sec-urities for £66.000. whic-h had cost £9*'...)ilO. The 
■investments now stand at fl2.i100. as against £109.400 at the 
'11(1 of 1910. On this lugubrious showing, the ordinary shares 
live dropped to 7s. fid., and both classics of preference are 
(noted at .50s. middle. 

Briti.sh Electric- Traction at 35} is quietly steady, the meetinc 

having no influence upon the price. The 6 per cent, prefer- 

[•lencc stock changed hands the other day at 59. Brush ordinary 



26 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



[Vol.89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



->h;iro5 :iro 17s. Oil., und the ■") ivr cont. inior lien stodi roiiuiiiis 
at tH); it has not alt'ered this year. 

Marconi's have In-eu down to '2J before rallyiuf; to ^J. Divi- 
dend estimates have been niodilied eonsiderahly since the 
pmiihets \\ere gaily talkinji. last April, of 13 to 'D per cent. 
The wild state of Ireland has had soniethintJ to do with the 
recent neglect of a market which, as a rule, offers peculiar 
fascination to o|)erators iu the si-stt-r isle. 

Brazilian Tractions have lost a further IJ pofnts. owing to 
the movements in the exchange. It is said iu the Stock Ex- 
change market that the company is pursuing the policy of 
putting large sums into the '" road." insteail of attemptmg to 
remit funds at the prc-^'ut unfavourable rate of exchange. If 
this is correct, its good ell'ect will be felt. i;f cour.se. in the 
future. Mexicans keep their prices, and other fon'ign descrip 
tions show no variations worth mentioning. The stocks in- 
rtuenced by the American rate of exchange are mostly lower on 
the week. 

There was a lunch given on the Wednesday of this week to 
the Mayor of the City of Vancouver, who is in England on a 
visit ju.st now. and who was asked to meet a number of Ixindon 
bankers. Stock Exchange men and others with interests in 
British Columbia. In the past, there have arisen octsisions 
when those on this side who own stwk in the British Columbia 
Electric Railway have not been able to see eye-to-eye with 
the I(K-al authorities. The lunch should have helped to clear 
the air on various minor points of uncertainty that might dis- 
turb a cordiality of relationship which both t;ides are sincerely 
anxious to maintain for tlieir mutual ailvantagc. The gather- 
ing itself was a purely informal alfair. but it will doubtless 
create a |>er.sonal touch which will serve to a.s.sist uiaiut<?uancc 
of bett4?r fellowship in the future. 



SHARE LIST OF ELECTRICAL COMPANIES. 

HoMK Electricitt Coupanies. 

Dividend Price 

. ■ V Jane 2s, 

1919. 1990. 1921. Rise or tall 

Brompton Ordinary IQ 19 6 — 

Charing Cross Ordinary ... 7 8 BJ — 

do. do. do. 4iPref... 4} 4) 3 — 

Chelsea 4 6 8J — 

City of London 18 14 1,% — 

do. do. 6 per cent, Pre!... 6 6 111- — 

County ot London 6 8 8J — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref... 6 6 fj - 

Kensington Ordinary .... 7 9 4| — 

London Electric 3)3^ 1 — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Prel. ..66 2j — 

Metropolitan 6 7 8i — 

do. 4i per cent. Pref. .. ii 4) a^J — 

St. James' and Pall Mall . . .. 19 19 6 — 

South London 6 7 3} — 

South MetropoUtan Pref 7 7 16/9 — 

Westminster Ordinary .... 10 10 6i — 

Teleqraphs and Telephones. 

Anglo-Am. Tel. Pref 6 6 88} — 

do. Def IJ li 163 — S 

Chile Telephone 6 6 5 — i 

Cuba Sub. Ord 7 7 7i — 

Eastern Eitension 10 10 16^ — i 

Astern Tel. Ord 10 10 ItiO* —1 

Globe Tel. and T. Ord 10 10 IBj — 

do. do. Pref 6 8 9i — 

Great Northern Tel 39 34 3^1 — g 

Indo-European 10 10 en —5 

Marconi 96 — 9^ — 

Oriental Telephone Ord 19 19 3A — 

United R. Plate Tel 8 8 fii — 

West India and Panama .. .. Nil Nil J^ — | 

Western Telegraph 10 10 ItJ — 

Home Railb. 

Central London Ord. Assented ..44 48) — 

Metropolitan IJ li 96| — J 

do. District .. Nil Nil IS — J 

Underground Electric Ordinary . . Nil Nil 9i — 

do. do. "A" .. Nil Nil 7/- - 

do. do. Income .. 4 9 62) -f*2 

FOBEIOH Tbaus, fto, 

AngloArg. Trams, First Pref. .. 6) 12) !f — 

do. do. 9nd Pref. . . Nil 6J sj _ 

do. do. 6 % Deb. ..65 66* — 

Brazil Tractions Nil Nil 81* — IJ 

British Columbia Elcc. Rly. Ptoe. 6 6 66 — 

do. do. Preferred 5 6 68t — 

do. do. Deferred 3 8 61* — 

do. do. Deb. .. 4} 4} 69) — 

Mexico Trams 5 per cent. Bonds.. Nil Nil 62* — 

do. 6per cent. Bonds.. Nil Nil 

Mexican Light Common . . . . Nil Nil 

do. Pref Nil Nil 

do. Ist Bonds . . . . Nil Nil 

Mancfaotubino Coupanies. 

Babcock 4 Wilcox 16 16 S2 — 

British Aluminium Ord 10 10 15/'.) — 

British Insulated Ord 16 10 lA — 

Callendcrs 16 16 \\ 

64 Pref 6) 6J 17/6 — 

Cromplon Ord 10 10 16/8 — 

Edison-Swan 10 _ n/a _ 

do. do. 5 per cent. Deb. ..66 70 — 

Electric Construction . . . . 10 10 16/8 — 

English Electric 8 8 12/. — 

Do. Prel 8 6 It/. +fiil. 

Gen. Elec. Pref 6) 6) IB/- -6d. 

do. Ord 10 10 1 ' — • 

Henley 16 16 la" — 

do. 44 Pref H H Bi — 

India-Rubber 10 -- i^ 

Met.-Vlckers Pref 8 8 1{| — 

Siemens Ord. 10 10 1 

TtUgrapb Con 90 90 30) — 

• Dividends paid free of Incoma Tax. 



£10 
10 6 6 
7 10 6 



10 18 


3 


7 10 


II 


10 18 


9 


10 


(I 


7 18 


2 


10 





9 3 


10 


8 17 10 


9 10 


6 


7 3 


9 


8 19 


11 


6 


U 



•6 18 I 

6 13 

Nil. 



9 11 


4 


7 12 


H 


Nil 




8 18 


B 


*8 16 


(1 


U 17 


6 


7 2 10 



6 14 
13 M 
9 12 



»9 18 8 
10 18 3 
6 18 6 



MARKET QUOTATIONS. 

It should be remembered, in making uae of the figures appearlni; 
in the following list, that in gome cases the prices are only general, 
and they may vary according to quantities and other circumstances. 



Tuesday, June 28th. 



CHEMICALS. &c. 



a Acid, Oxalic per lb. 

a Ammoniac Sal per ton 

a Ammonia, Muriate (large crystal) „ 
a Bisulphide of Carbon . . „ 

a Borax ., 

a Copper Sulphate 

a Potash, Chlorate per lb. 

a ., Perchlorate 

a Shellac per cwt. 

a Sulphur, Sublimed Flowers . . „ 

a M Lump „ 

a Soda, Chlorate per lb. 

a ,. Crystals per ton 

a Sodium Bichromate, casks . . per lb. 

METALS. &c. 
p Babbitt's Metal Ingots . . per ton 

c Brass (rolled metal 2" to 12" basis) per lb. 
c .. Tubes (solid drawn) . . „ 

c ,. Wire, basis „ 

c Copper Tubes (solid drawn) . . „ 
c „ Bars (best selected) . . per ton 

c .. Sheet „ 

c „ Rod 

d „ (Electrolytic) Bars . . „ 

d „ ,1 Sheets . . „ 

d „ „ Wire Rods. . 

d „ „ H.C. Wire. . per lb. 

/ Ebonite Rod 

/ „ Sheet 

a German Silver Wire 

h Gutta-percha, fine „ 

h India-rubber, Para fine 

/ Iron Pig (Cleveland Warrants) . . per tun 
/ „ Wire, galv. No. 8, P.O. qual. „ 

g Lead, English Pig „ 

g Mercury per bo*. 

e Mica (in original cases) small . . per lb. 
e „ „ .. medium.. „ 

e .. „ .. large 

p Phosphor Bronze, plain castings.. „ 
p „ „ rolled bars and rods ,. 

p ,, „ rolled strip & sheet ,. 

(/ Silicium Bronze Wire .. .. per lb. 
r S teel. Magnet, in bars . . . . „ 
a -?>in, Block (English) . . . . per ton 

a .. Wire, Nos. 1 to 16 . . . . per lb. 
p White Anti-friction Metals . . per ton 



9Jd. 
i75 
£65 



£17 
£18 
£16 



£96 to £300 

Uid. 
1/12 to 1/2 

ii;d. 

1/33 
£112 
£113 
£113 

£76 
£146 
£99 
11 .sd, 

3yb 

3/- 

14/- to 16/. 

10-^d. 

Nom. 

£40 

£91 10s. 

£10 16 to £11 

4d. to 4/- 

6/- to 10/. 

13/6 to 35/- & up 

1/4 to 1/9 

2/1 to 2/6 

9/2 to 2/7 

1/4 

1/8 

£166 nom. 

4/- 
£78 to £300 



4d. dec, 

£3'deo. 

£3 lOs. dec. 

Id. dec. 
I.U.'deo. 



£4 dec. 
£4 deo. 
£4 dec. 
£3 deo. 



Jd. deo, 
35/-' inc. 



tCo. 



a a. Boor 

c Thos. Bolton & Sons, Ltd 
d Frederick Smith & Co. 
e F. Wiggins & Sons. 
/ India-Rubber. Guttapercha and 
Telegraph Works Co., Ltd 



Quotations supplied by— 

g James A Shakespeare. 

h Edward Till & Co. 

/ Boiling it Lowe. 

/ Richard Johnson & Nephew, Ltd. 

a P. Ormiston & Sons. 



r W. F. Dennis & Co. 



Birmingham District Power & Traction Co., Ltd. — The 

general meeting was held on June '2'2nd. Mr. C. S. B. Hilton 
(chairman and managing director) presiding. The chairman 
said that there was a small falling oil in net receipts of MSC'^'. 
The gross traffic receipts were about £l'2.00i) more than in 
the previous year, but dividends and interest on investments 
liad fallen by almost a corresponding figure. The business 
of the Shropshire Power Co. had been luejudically affected by 
indiistvial unrest, and the result of that company's operations 
fur the year had therefore not come up to expectations. The 
Biniiingham & Midland Motor Onmihus Co. had, however, 
steadily progres.sed. and had again paid the substantial dividend 
of 10 per cent. Power and running expen.ses .showed an in- 
rre.ise of ±'10,000. but repairs and maintenance had cost 
f'.l.iiiiil less, while administration expenses had gone up from 
(.''.1,77.") to ±11.3.5]. The net result was that tliev had an 
a\ailMblo balance of ±71,140 compared with ±73,953 in 1919. 
and the directors recommended the payment of a dividend on 
the ordinary .shares at the rate of 6 per cent. 

(iermany. — .\ccor-dinj4 to the " Frankfurter Zeilung " a 
biiiiti'd coinpanv is about to be founded called the Eilvese, 
with its seat in Berlin and a capital of 1 ],i")0.(XH) marks. The 
big wireless station of Jiilvese will be brought into this I'oin- 
pauy by its owners, the Hochfreguenz Aktien (jcsellscliaft. 
who. with the Telefunken group, will form the ownership 
of the new company. The compeii.sation for the transfer of 
the statigii is iO.(KX),000 marks. 'Tliese arrangements place 
long-distance transmission in one hand, and render competi- 
tion impo.s.sible. The position of the Hochfrequenz share- 
lioldcrs is now as follows: Their company is now only a, 
" holding company." which possesses the 40 per cent, with 
7 per cent, guaranteed minority share in the Kilvese Co.; 
the i-laiiris to the Kl.OtX) Marconi shares; a remainder of their 
litlc in the Compagnie TJniver.selle de Telegraphic sansFil; 
,ind. lastlv. claims in .Xmerica on the Tuckerton. N..T.. station, 
estimated before the war at J,SIO.n(K) marks. Tliere may 
also be patent rights and plans, but no manufacturing works. 



Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL KEVIE^V 



27 



B.T.H. ELECTRIC SHUNTING LOCOMOTIVES. 



The advantages and e<:onomies that result from the introduc- 
tion of electric locomotives into shunting yards were amply 
proved some considerable time ago, and are well known to 
those interested in the subject. Nevertheless, progress in 
this country has been slow, not because of the lack of suit- 
able material, but rather owing to a reluctance to part with 
a system with which all parties are familiar. Further, the 
actual costs of shunting operations were seldom kept sepa- 
rately and, in con.sequence, the possibiHties of economy were 
not appreciated. However, the present high prices of fuel, 
materials, and labour have served to draw attention to everv 




IMl, K 



channel of expenditure and. as a result, the cost of railway 
goods-yard operations has been realised m many cases for 
the first time. 

Apart from the que.stion of fuel and maintenance charges, 
the electric locomotive has certain inherent advantages for 

this class of work. It is simple in opera- 

tion; the actual machinery requires 
none of the driver's attention ; it is in- 
stantly ready for work at all times; re- 
quires the minimum of attention out.'^idi' 
working hours; and is not subject to the 
periodical lie-offs for boiler cleaning and 
repairs which are necessary with the 
steam locomotive. Add to this the fact 
that, due to its uniform torque, the elec- 
tric locomotive is more powerful, weight 
for weight, than a steam locomotive, 
and can accelerate a load more quickly, 
and it becomes evident why in all elec- 
trification schemes it has been found 
possible to do more work with fewer 
locomotives. In recent experiments in 
this country it was shown that the aver- 
age working speed of a steam shunting 
locomotive was appro.\imately '2.5 miles 
per hour, whereas an electric locomotive 
would do the same work at an average 
speed of over 5 m.p.h.. and that under 
by no means ideal conditions. 

The steam shunting locomotive is 
notoriously ineflicient. Considered 

purely on its merits as a steam engine and without 
reference to the work on which it is engaged, the fact 
that it is non-condensing tells heavily against it. Even under 
the best conditions of continuous full load it burns at least 
twice a.s much coal per horse-powcr-hour as is I'cquired for 
a turbo-generator of moderate size. It must be remembered, 
however, that a shunting locomotive usually work under very 
poor conditions. Even a hard wui'ked shunting locomotive 
stands idle for approximately half its time, although it must 
always keep up steam pressure for full load. Further, ihe 
service is so intermittent that at each start, steam is admitted 
to cylinders which have had time to cool ; also, in order to 
obtain a sustained tractive effort at low speed the valves must 
be set for a late cut off. It is not generally realised how 
very little useful work is done by a shunting locomotive. 
but it is doubtful if its average hor.se power output over the 
day exceeds 10 per cent, of its nominal rating. 

In the case of the electric locomotive, it may be said that 
there are no stand-by losses. Power taken by any one loco- 
motive will always be a small part of the total load on the 
generator; also, owing to the diversity of the load, the 
temporary overloads on any part of the system will not over- 
load the generator as they will not all occur at the same time. 



With regard to driving, the electric locomotive is very 
simple and easily handled. One man only is required per 
Ujcomotive and, ovMog to the fact that there are no parts 
of the apparatus which require bis attention while running, 
he can concentrate altogether on the control of the locomo- 
tive and its load. The locomotive is always ready in the 
shed first thuig in the morning, and there are no additional 
labour charges for lighting up the furnace and raising steam. 
Shed cleaning charges will also be considerably lower, and 
it may be pointed out that the locomotive may be boused 
ill any convenient shed without any danger of fire. 

With regard to maintenance, the electric 
locomotive has proved itself definitely 
sui^erior to the steam locomotive. Against 
boiler renewals and the upkeep of a com- 
plicated, if familiar, system of cranks and 
valves involving many bearings, rubbing 
surfaces, glands, and jomts. we have to set 
the maintenance of two simple motors and 
gears, a controller, a current collector, and 
one or two switches; the renewable parts 
for these are small and inexpensive. The 
cost of maintenance of an electric locomo- 
tive has been found not to exceed one-third 
of that of a steam locomotive of equal capa- 
city, and the prospective user of electoic 
.shunting locomotives need have no fears as 
to the reliability of the material. 

The British Thomson-Houston Co.. Ltd.. 
of Rugby, supphed in 1906 to one of the 
home railway companies two shunting 
locomotives which weigh 56 tons each, and 
are handling the quayside traffic at New- 
castle-on-Tyne. Each locomotive is fitted 
with four 90-h.p. motors, which can start 
a train weighing 160 tons on a grade of 1 
in 27 and haul it on that grade at 10 miles 
l)er hour. They operate at 550 volts, the 
supply being collected from either a third 
rail or overhead conductor. Air brakes are 
fitted, which are supplied with air by a 
motor-driven compressor controlled by an automatic 
governor. Fig. 1 shows a 2'2-ton locomotive supplied to a 
large firm of steel makers in 1914. It is operated at 500 
volts from an overhead conductor, and is fitted with two 
85-h.p, motflrs- It i<; emplnvprl in haulintr pla? on a grade 




of 1 in 'Ai, and is equipped with tlic faui.- j,\.--tom of air 
brakes as the locomotive described above. \ duplicate was 
supplied in 1916. Fig. 2 shows a smaller locomotive in use 
at a power station for hauling and shunting coal trucks. It 
weighs 10 tons and is fitted with two •J6-h.p. motors. 

With regard to the syst-em of distribution, there can be 
little iloubt that d.c. power at 5UU/60U volts collected from 
an overhead conductor or trolley line is the best for a private 
shunting yard electrification system, and this voltage is 
usually obtainable without the necessity of laying dov\n con- 
verting plant. Further, this pressure being a standard for 
tramway and railway work, there is a big selection of stan- 
dard and well-tried apparatus from which to choose. The 
overhead system is the most generally suitable, although it 
may bo necessary in certain circumstances to leave gaps in 
the lino for the passage of cranes. Ac. If the arrangement 
of the track is such that the gap would seriously interfere 
with the efficient working of the locomotive, it would be 
possible to arrange a short length of third rail at such points 
which would only bo alive when the train was passing over 
it. Failing this, a small battery could be carried on the 
locomotive of suflScient capacity to carry it over the Je»d 
section. 



28 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,275. jclt 1, 1921. 



An aspect of the matter upou which there is some misconcep- 
tion is the appUeation of storage batteries to electric loco- 
motives. Electric battery locomotives have shown very real 
economies m some specialised helds — for instance, in the 
case of mines where a trolley wire is sometimes inadmissible. 
or for handling contractors' railways where the run oi the 
track is being altered from day to day. In these instances 
the locomotives have been extremely successful, and there is 
every reason to belivo that at an early date they will com- 
pletely supersde the ccistly system of haulage by man power 
or animals. They have also been used to a considerable 
extent in workshops for the same reason. In some cases, too. 
where the traffic is very light and the yard extensive, it 
may not be economical to install an overhead conductor line, 
but such conditions do not often occur in ordinary shunting 
practice, and in the majority of cases it is certain that the 
battery system cannot compete with a system drawing its 
power from an overhead line. Apart from the disadvantages 
which are inherent in storage batteries, enough has been said 
to show that in cases where it is impossible to fix an overhead 
or third rail, the battery locomotive may be able to show a 
considerable saving on haulage by steam locomotives, but 
that it cannot compete with an overhead conductor system as 
regards maintenance costs or convenience of operation. 

In conclusion, it would appear that under the conditions 
obtaining to-day. when it is so necessary to prevent any 
waste of either labour or material, users of steam shunting 
locomotives would find it to their advantage to consider very 
carefully the conversion to electric working. 



ELECTRICAL CONDITIONS IN NORWAY, 



Since referring in our issue of May 27th to the question of 
German competition in Norway, information has been pub- 
lished in Christiania with the object of throwing light on elec- 
trical conditions in that country. The information, which 
appeared in the Norjvegian contemporary referred to on the 
previous occasion, consists of a statement made by Mr. 
Bruun. director of the Norwegian A. E.G.. and a reply by the 
Industrial Union of Norway on behalf of the native manu- 
facturing industry. 

Mr. Bruun first recalled the fact that many Norwegian muni- 
cipal authorities were compelled to suspend the work of estab- 
lishing hydro-electric works in 1920, owing to the unusually 
high prices brought about by the war-time events. There 
was no question of proceeding with new works, because high 
prices exc-ftidea the possibility of such w'orks becoming profit- 
able unless the charges for electrical energy were to be fixed 
on a level which could not be reached by thousands of small 
consmuers in town and country districts. Now when prices 
had fallen somewhat it must have a disconcerting effect for 
cries to be raised that foreign competition was too strong. 
In his opinion the fall in prices had not taken place to the 
extent which must occur if prices were to stand in proportion 
to what installations cost before the war. At present Norwe- 
gian prices were at least two and a half times greater than 
the former peace quotations, and they were not jn proportion 
to the cost of the most important raw materials. If, therefore, 
the German prices lately had fallen to about double the 
pre-war prices, complaints could not be made that the Ger- 
mans were dumping or that the installations were too cheap. 
The question must, therefore, involuntarily arise as to which 
factor was the more important in the economy of Norway— 
either the few electrical engineering works, of which some 
were financed during the favourable trade situation of the 
■war, or the hundreds of thousands of consumers who have an 
interest in obtaining cheap powder at the present time when 
labour is so costly. When cheap, electricity contributed to- 
wards the furtherance of Norwegian industry by rendering 
it able to compete, and not the least the export industry. 

Deahng with the many newspaper articles recently published 
on the subject, Mr. Bruun stated that he was struck by the 
partiality and the extraordinary lack of knowledge displayed 
in them. People spoke of orders for electrical plant just as if 
the question concerned a sack of cofl'ee or a bag of sugar. 
Yet everyone familiar with the orders knew that a large part 
of the machines must be supplied from abroad, because {]) the 
machinery was too large to be constructed by the Norwegian 
works, and (2) it was frequently the case that even if the 
plant could be built in the country it would be dispropor- 
tionately dear owing to the fact that the works concerned 
were not laid out for such manufactures. In individual 
instances there was no Norwegian production of the plant 
ordered abroad. 

M. Bruun proceeded to remark that he was in complete 
agreement with the idea that Norwegian industry should have 
reasonable protection in the case of orders for the State and 
the municipal authorities if the matter concerned sometliing 
within their competency and their experience. The amount 
of the protection was a matter of opinion. Besides the pre- 
vailing import duties, the State had protected Norwegian 
industry up to 15 per cent., and had also stipulated that 



Norw-egian plant should be protected for works built under 
State concessions, when equally good, by lu per cent. In his 
opmion. these rates were proper if the protection was given 
only on goods m a tender which actually was oi advantage to 
Norwegian mdustry. But it was quite obvious that it foreign 
firms were to place their technical knowledge and experience 
at their disposal in the submission ut tenders, they must in 
fairness be able to demand to be previously informed ol the 
amount of protection to be granted to native works. Other- 
wise foreign firms would naturally say that they would not 
incur the large expenses incidental to the preparation of all 
these schemes merely to exercise a controUmg or regulating 
influence on Norwegian prices. The result would then be 
that all competition from abroad, both technical and com- 
mercial, would coase. and that would surely not be in the in- 
terests of the Norwegian community. Much was said ot pre- 
venting unemployment and that, to that end, orders must only 
be placed with native works whatever the cost. But when 
there was a great difference m price, could not the local 
authorities order the plant from the lowest tenderer, and 
employ the amount of the economy effected for the starting 
of other works so that the difference would wholly be of 
profit to Norwegian labour? In this connection the director 
remarked that as a consequence of the changed conditions of 
the world since the war, Germany could become a fairly good 
customer of Norway as a consumer of iron ore, pyrites, car- 
bide, fish, &c. It was, however, to be feared that under 
present circumstances Germany would be unable to pay for 
these products in any other way than by exports. 

The Industrial Union of Norway (Norges Industrie For- 
bund), referring to the assertion of Mr. Bruun that the level 
of prices bad not by far fallen so as to be in proportion to 
what machinery cost before the war, states that this is a 
matter which has nothing whatever to do with the present 
question, which exclusively concerns competition due to ex- 
change conditions. Norwegian industry does not com- 
plain if Germany is able to deliver cheaper under other- 
wise equal monetary conditions. As to the statement that 
the question concerns the few electrical manufacturing works 
on the one hand and the consumers on the other, the 
Union remarks that this is not quite correct. German ex- 
change dumping threatens to destroy the whole of the coun- 
try's economy through increasing unemployment, diminished 
taxation revenue, and fall in the Norwegian exchange owing 
to larger imports and demoralisation as a consequence of 
unemployment. Concerning the charges made of inadequate 
productive capacity of native works, the Union states that the 
works are equipped so as to be able advantageously to turn 
out the largest types of machines in normal times. The pro- 
tection of 10 per cent, granted to Norwegian industry was 
fixed by Parliament in 1894. But such protection is quit* 
problematical when firms have to contend with an exchange 
like the German, which is about one-ninth part of the par 
value in relation to the Norwegian kroner ; and there is, 
therefore, no question of competition when it takes place on 
such a difficult basis. The difference in exchange must first 
be eliminated before a protection of 10 or 1.5 per cent, can be 
of any practical importance. The Union dismisses as net being 
serious the suggestion that economies effected by local autnori- 
ties in placing orders abroad should be utilised for pre viding 
employment; it states that the trained workmen can only bo 
advantageously employed in their particular branches, and 
that it is doubtful whether the authorities would adopt such 
a proposal. As to the remark that Germany can only pay 
for imports by means of exports, the Union observes that -his 
does not concern Norway, but that it can be taken for granted 
that Germany will not buy more than she absolutely needs 
from Norway just as the latter cannot import more than the 
absolute minimum. 



MAGNETOS FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION 
ENGINES. 



DiSCOSSION AT Man'chestee. 
Mr. E. A. Watson's paper, which was abstracted in our 
issues of May Gth and i3th, was discussed by members of 
the North-Western Centre of the Institdtion ok Electrical, 
Enoinef.rs on February 22nd, when Mr. J. Frith presided. 

Prof. E. H. Crapper said he came from Shelfield, and the 
part it had played in the magneto business had been 
to supply magnet steel. The University of Sheffield was 
the only institution which demanded that its graduates for 
the degree of metallurgy should pass a written examination 
and a practical test in the magnetic properties of iron and 
steel. He was responsible for that particular section, and it 
had taken on in the engineering side rather than the metal- 
lurgical side. He soon found that there seemed to be a 
necessity to formulate some kind of analysis of the magnetic 
elements, and a good deal of work had been done. There were 
the working constants which had been referred to by Mr. 
Wat.son, and there were also constants relating to the nature 
of the material. Many of the constants they had to deal 
with, as regarded magnetic substances, were hyperboUc fnnc- 



Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921.] THE ELECTEICAL KEVIEW. 



29 



tions of the magnetising force; that opened up a field of 
research which was bound to be productive of a good deal 
when they were endeavouring to see what was the actual 
nature of the material. Ihe saturation value of the material 
was the most critical constant they had of it. The 
saturation value for B wa_8 an important constant, and if 
they were gomg to judge a material it must be taken up to 
a point suluciently high to enable them to get the saturation 
value. He was quite convinced, as Sir Robert Hadtielu and 
Prof. Hopkinson said in the paper that they read on the 
magnetic properties of iron and steel, that there were many 
cases in which if they once got the magnetic properties, they 
.could actually tell the amount of carbon which was present 
in the steel. The better the steel the better the magnet, the 
greater the value of B, and the less would be the saturation 
value. With regard to cobalt steel, or Japanese steel, the 
first reference to the beneficial iutiueoce of cobalt on iron 
was by Prof. Weiss, of Zurich, who gave the results of his 
tests which were conducted at almost zero, and they were 
remarkable. Cobalt steel which was made in Sheltield during 
the last I'J months brought out very prominently the fact 
that if they wanted to know its real quality they must take 
the magnetising forces up to their highest value. With three 
curves (one correspondiug to 400 units, another to UOO units, 
and finally one of 1.5UU), in the case of the 400 one. the magne- 
tising force was about 175, and when H (by substitution) was 
100 it gave, practically speaking, 200 units of magnetising 
force. The maximum values corresponding to the 1,500 units 
of H gave the value 714,000, whereas tungsten steel went 
approximately up to 300.000, which showed the influence of 
cobalt steel on the design of the magneto. It was also im- 
portant to take the magnetising force up to the maximum 
value, because there was a difference of 214.000 between the 
points of 400 units and i,.500 units. Of the truth of the state- 
ment that " whatever changes take place in a magnet in 
consequence of external influences occur because the elastic 
Limit of the material is such as to permit the movement of 
the molecules of the magnet to take place slowly or quickly 
~ as the case may be," he was perfectly convinced in his own 
mind, although he could not give a definite proof of it. 
There was no doubt about it, magnetically it was truly 
elastic, and he was convinced that for permanent magnet 
steel B could not be used logically, but intensity of magnetisa- 
tion should be used. Not the permeability of a magnet steel, 
but its susceptibiUty, was the root of the matter. It was 
closely associated with elastic material from the mechanical 
point of view. The rate of change in the susceptibility was 
equal to E constant multiplied by the square of the suscepti- 
bility of that point, and E was a quantity associated witli. or 
in some measure, the elastic limit of material. Prof. Crapper 
exhibited lantern slides, curves, formulae, and tables illustrat- 
ing the properties of various steels. 

Mr. T. T. Kavsee explained that it was easy to get the 
wrong magnet to do the job quite satisfactorily if they did not 
trouble about the amount of steel they were using and the 
shape of it. But if they desired to have an economical design 
they must apply Mr. W atson's reasoning. The usual view had 
been that they were required a certain remanence in order to 
give the working flux, and a coercive ;^- l- ol about (10 or 7(1 
to give permanence. Such a view was absolutely ridiculous; 
in the first place, coercive force did not give permanence. If 
two steels with the same remanence and the same coercive 
force were allowed to age, one would lose its properties very 
rapidly, and the other would keep them. What they really 
wanted to know was the maximum demagnetising force that 
steel would lose and the flux it would retain, and that was very 
clearly shown by the B H line. Really the remanence of steel 
was of little use to any designer ; it was simply a property of a 
closed magnetic circuit, and so of very httle use. because it 
could not be used with any external available energy. Re- 
ferring to cobalt steel, he confirmed the figures given by Mr. 
Watson, and mentioned the figure 900,0o0. Working witli 
such a steel he had obtained a figure as high as a million, 
but steels with such a high efficiency were not commercial 
possibilities at the present moment. But there were steels 
containing chromium cobalt giving about 700.000 which wer<> 
already being commercially produced. He hoped that Sheffield 
University would not burden them with any more constants. 
they had got quite enough, and those interested in the develop- 
ment of magnet steel were not at all interested in the rate 
of change of susceptibility when they were making a per- 
manent magnet. 

Mr. G. A. Cheetham pointed out that finality in magneto 
design could not be attained until the problems relating to 
the function which magnetos had to perform were definitely 
solved. The electrical ignition of explosive mixtures must, 
therefore, be carried towards a conclusion before they could 
hope to see finahty in magneto design. There was usually a 
tendency for factors of safety to be high when knowledge of 
the problem to be solved was incomplete. When war broke 
out the main problem was to fulfil a performance specifica- 
tion by all the machines completed with as little difficulty 
as possible, and without radical departure from fairly well-de- 
fined designs. That was quite a different problem from that 
which Mr. Watson and his colleagues now had before them, 
but the investigations undertaken in the solution of the first 
problem must have been invaluable when design itself began 
to evolve along scientific lines. .\ committee of the British 
Engineering Standards Association was at present sitting to 



standardise the commercial measurements of permanent 
magnets for all purposes. A further requirement in addition 
to the remanent induction and coercive force was essential 
for magneto work. This additional figure usually specified 
was the maximum product of B and H obtained on the design, 
which approximated to the maximum energy available. Ex- 
periments regarding the effect of increaamg the au gap of a 
magneto showed that, in some cases, it was possible to obtain 
higher open-circuit voltage values across the primary winding 
ol the magneto at a given speed with a larger air gap, pro- 
vided the magneto was runnmg under short-circuit conditions 
for a short period before the tests were caried out, although 
the voltage curves obtained before running under short-circuit 
conditions showed reduced values with increasing air gap in 
every case as expected; and it was felt that the very fine 
tolerance allowed in the air gap could be widened consider- 
ably without seriously reducing the ability of the machine 
to meet its requirements. The bearing in the magneto con- 
tact-breaker should be capable of operating satisfactorily with- 
out lubrication, and to obtain that object a fibre bush had 
been used for some time, but unless the material was well 
treated before it was put into position in the contact breaker 
considerable trouble was experienced due to seizing and pack- 
ing. 

Mr. J. D. Paton explained, with reference to that function 
of steel which practically had to be destroyed before they got 
the full zero, that Prof. Bragg's paper on molecular structure 
indicated an internal relation between the individual atoms, 
and a study of what took place in the Laval furnace ex- 
plained the inherent property in any composite material, 
which was cited as existent m steel before the normal zero 
was defined. In steel which was a composite material there 
were numerous thermocouples, and there was a relationship 
between them which had to be destroyed. It was also a 
material fact that iron taken from the lowest normal tem- 
perature to the fluid state exhibited utiUty effects due to the 
different constituents which produced those internal currents. 
The reaction of those currents upon the iron was the destroying 
power of magnetism and, therefore, all magnetism disap- 
peared at the red point. 

Mr. Sii.LS was surprised to hear the remark made by Mr. 
Watson that " as long as you get a spark you get ignition." 
All ordinary magnetos should have a sort of fixed starting 
device, fitted so that one could start the engine wiiu the 
absolute minimum amount of cam trouble. 

The Chairman pointed out that they had heard a lot about 
the expense of cobalt-steel alloy, but in view of the reduction 
of the size of the magnet to get the same amount of work, 
how many pence would it amount to in the cost of a magnet? 
He felt sure it w-as not correct to say that " if there was a 
spark it was all right " ; there were sparks and sparks. It was 
a very poor example of battery-coil firing that was represented 
in the paper. He had a car that had done '25.000 miles on 
battery firing, and he was rather glad he had not got a 
magneto. He had never had the slightest trouble. 

Mr. E. A. Watson, in reply, said that what an average 
man called a " fat " spark was very often simply a spark 
followed by a long flame, which was no good. He 
referred to the magnetic equation for steels, and the import- 
ance of saturation value, saying that there were three different 
quantities to represent the steel, and one could easily recon- 
struct the B H loop from them and calculate the flux of the 
machine for any definite conditions. Higher saturation value 
meant a better steel. The increased permeability was nothing 
like so wonderful as the increased coercive force; a 35 per 
cent, alloy of iron and cobalt had a saturation intensity about 
25 per cent, higher than that of pure iron. The material had 
about from 3i to 4 times the coercive force of the best 
tungsten steel, and about five or six times the coercive force 
of ordinary carbon steel. That was not pointed out by Weiss, 
whose paper only dealt with the carbon-free alloys, with the 
saturation density, and the permeabiUty. not witii the coer- 
cive force. In manufacturing cobalt steels, British manu- 
facturers were taking the lead; Sheflield had produced many 
high-speed steels, and had now taken up the manufacture of 
those new magnet steels. The only thing that really mattered 
to the British manufacturer was the B H maximum of the 
steel; but at the same time one liked to know a bit more 
about what one was using than the bare facts of what it 
would do. Cobalt-chromium steels were certainly interesting, 
and they promised to give very good results with a smaller 
amount of cobalt. In view of the high price of cobalt that was 
very important; 35 per cent, cobalt, at its present price, was 
quite out of tho question. The present price of cobalt steel 
per magnetic unit was certainly higher than the price of 
tungsten steel. On the other hand, it enabled other savings 
to be made. The machine could he made lighter and smaller. 
That did not mean less cost, but it saved a lot of useless 
material. In many cases the dimensions of the machine were 
controlled by the dimensions of the magnet, the latter de- 
termined the amount of aluminium, copper loss, and insula- 
tion, so one could cheapen the machine on that account as 
well as by reducing the magnet itself. It would not pay to 
substitute a cobalt-steel magnet for an ordinary tungsten-steel 
magnet; to make it a commercial proposition one had got to 
redesign the magneto. An advantage was that by using 
cobalt steel the magnet could be made straight. Regarding 
condenser breakdowns, the speaker had made testa of the 
transient voUaga which sometimes reached a fairly high 



so 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,2:5, july 1. 1921. 



figure; his own practice was 600 volts a.c^with a fairly high 
frequency. Very rarely did they get breakdowns for purely 
electrical reasons; usually breakdown troubles were to a large 
extent due to mechanical reasons — vibration or faults or 
cracks starting in the mica. A number of British firms were 
now using BaJielite in preference to fibre bushes. Into th« 
concentricity of cams half a dozen elements entered, and 
no matter how fine limits were worked to. it was quite 
impossible to work on each part to limits sufficiently fine to 
ensure concentricity. Magneto makers did not like to aomit 
it, but it was a common practice to do some sort of correcting 
oi>eration on the complete machine to ensure concentricity. 
The problem of getting the cam concentric had been aoout 
the most serious mechanical problem which the magneto 
industry had had to face. The speaker had heard a good 
many nasty things said about American magnetos, and some 
of them were undoubtedly l)ad. They us<.>d very fine screws 
with very coarse threads without locking them, and, of course. 
the screws very soon fell out. They did all sorts of little 
foolish things like that which caused the magnetos to give 
trouble, and they got a bad name. It was not so much in the 
design itself — that was not bad — but simply because oi the 
way the work was carried out. 



THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC 
0VEN5 AND HOT PLATES. 



Discussion .\t Biemi.ngham. 

Mr. E. A. Watson's paper was also discussed by members 
of the SocTH-MiDL-iND C'E.NTUE of the Institution of iiLEC- 
TRICAL Engineers at Birmingham, on April 27th. 

Mr. \V. Wilson referred to the earher practice of fitting 
magnetos with a plurality of narrow magnets and contrasted 
that with the present practice of fitting a single magnet. 
He had heard it explained that the reason for the use oi 
several magnets was that, owing to the superficial nature 
of permanent magnetism, it was necessary to provide as 
large an area of free surfaces as possible, but he did not 
consider the explanation convincing, and asked whether a 
more satisfactory reason could be given. 

Capt. Cave-Bkown-Lave spoke on the advantages of a gap 
in series between the h.p. wmuing ol the luaguetu ana lue 
engme sparKmg plug, and relerred to the practice, now 
common, ot proviuing " jump-spark " dibtribuiors. tic Had 
heard of occasional trouble with those distributors owing to 
mewl particies short-cu-cuitmg the h.p. leads, but his own 
experience with them was satisfactory. He also mentioned 
the possibilities of usmg mfluence machines for ignition pur- 
poses. 

Mr. E. O. TtJRNER questioned the advisability of using the 
same leak resistance lor utility tests at high and low speeds, 
and thought that at high speeds a higher leak resistance than 
that used at low speeds wouid be more cunsistent with engme 
workmg conditions. He commented unlavourably on Mr. 
Watson s curve showing the perlormancc of a battery and 
coil Ignition apparatus, and thought that the curve was not 
rcprooentative ol the \\ell-de.-iigned apparatus now obtainable, 
further, he did not agree with Mr. VSatson's advocacy oi the 
jump spark distributor, but preferred the rubbing contact. 

Dr. D. K. MoKKis referred to the important fact that, in 
determining from the demagnetisation curve the suitability 
of the joermanent magnet for magneto work, the useful figure 
was not remanence, nor coercive force, nor their product, but 
the jiroduct of those values of B and h on the curve which 
gave the greatest value. 

Prof. W. Cramp said that the paper not only provided new 
and useful information for the benefit of makers and users 
i)f magnetos, but lifted the subject from the region of em- 
pirical guesswork to that of scientific design. After discussing 
certain points in the paper in detail, Prof. Cramp asked the 
author whether he had ever tried to measure mechanically the 
energy due to a given displacement of the armature. It 
seemed to him quite possible to accumulate energy in a moving 
mass, and so render the treatment of the subject independent 
of mental pictures. 



Testing Electrical Appliances. — Amdng the many 

interesting subjects dealt with in the rccently-publibhed report 
of the Merchandise Sales Bureau of the American N.E.L.A., 
is the testing of electrical appliances by a special division. 
'These tests are to be carried out for manufacturers principally 
in order that they may have something to refer customers 
to when guaranteeing the rehability of their products. Among 
the tested appliances. &c., will be flexible cords, incandescent 
lamps, electric irons, washers, toasters. Ac. Tests upon elec- 
tric irons are already in progress. The main point which is 
receiving attention is the efficiency, i.e., the ratio between 
the total wattage input and the useful work done. There will 
be tests for heating and cooking and observation of tempera- 
tures at difiercnt points as on the handle and at the point 
and centre of the sole plate. TTie effects of long-continued 
heating will be noted, and tests of mechanical or physical 
strength will also be carried out. The tests will be stan- 
dardised so that they can be repeated on future occasions or 
elsewhere than the .Vssociation's laboratories. 



DisoDSBiON AT Newcastle-on-Tync. 
.\t a meeting of the IS'obth-Eastern Centre of the Institution 
of ELtciKiCAL Ji.NiiiNEi,KS bt Aewcustie-on-lyue, on April '.iotti. 
Mr. J. K. i>eard presidmg, JJr. li. Urilfiths and Mr. i*. 11. 
bchoheld submitted their paper upon " bume ihermal Chaiac- 
u-nstics of Jiilectric Ovens and riot Plates," which was ab- 
.^Hacled m our issue of February ibth, and a short discussion 
loUowed. 

Mr. UOWNIK said the cm-ve showing the influence of metallic 
contact between ine hot plat* and tne disk was striking, and 
made the point quite clear. Kegai'dmg hot plates geiieiaily, 
he drew attention to the lact. that should nut be overlooked, 
that their use required the provision of special pots and pans 
il economic use Was to be obtained, lie relerred to the 
mfluence ot surlace oxidation ot the copper disk and the poiul 
at which It reached maximum temperature, and asked whelhei- 
a coatmg of black paint would improve the laclor referred to. 
The condition they wanted lor cooking and baking was 
dilferent from what, was wanted lor boihng. I'or the tormer 
they requned a very considerable heat, but for a compara- 
tively short time, and from the point of view of economy the 
oven that reached its maximum heat quickly was mucu the 
best. 

Prof. Stroud said it seemed to him there was too generally 
a teuuency to copy olaer methods rather than to nnd new 
methods lor themselves. He was giaa to see the lact stressed 
about the sheetmg ot the oven auu the couuition ol the vessel 
on the piate. Ihe size ot the uient>ii havmg regard to the 
size of the hot piate was ol importance, anu in some cases 
there must be considerable waste ol heat irom disregard ot 
that fact. \\ hy did they not get away Irom the gas-oven 
type of cooker".' I'hey needed to go into the question oi design 
exhaustively; one in the torm ot a dome, with the heaters 
placed around it, had the advantage that there was no loss 
of heat due to the opening ot the door, because the heat 
mounted upwards and couid not escape, that type could 
be slung from the ceiung. and the articles to be cooKed could 
be placed on a plate msiae it. It was curious that people 
would look into the oven instead of ascertaming the heat 
otherwise. 

i\ir. i-'iKKNEY thought the paper, excellent as it was, would 
bo of service ctueny to those engaged in the manuiacture oi 
coOKers. V\ hat was it they Wanted the mauuiaciurer to 
embody m the oven.' Most of lue modern ovens were pretty 
yoou, and he thoughli the chief weuKuess was the hot plate. 
What they requirca was a quicK-heaiiug hot plate — it must be 
elhcient, reasonably quick ucatmg. but above aU they asked 
lor renabiiity; that last jJomt was au eosential, and with 
respect to it they had much trouble and irequeut uemands 
lor repairs. How far could the use of chrome steel, when it 
became more gcueiaily used, be utilised in the construction 
of utensils lor electric cookmg'.' The manufacture of suitable 
utensils should have then- careful consiueration, and mauu- 
lacturers should do more towards Buppiying suitable artwles. 
Another device deservmg of attention was a heater for water 
boiung. Ihere was much objection to the light type of oven 
owing to its lack of mechanical utrength. and when thai was 
remedied and they could get a cooker reasonably hght, but 
pussessmg adequate strength tor its intended purpose, th^y 
would have made considerable progress towards populansmg 
the electric cooker. 

Mr. \\ ard questioned somewhat the utility of the tests, and 
thought all-round tests would have been the best. He re- 
gretted that the authors had been more or less restricted in 
their inquuies. It seemed that the tests should have been 
of a more practical character. The facts that had been elicited 
were not of such a character that they could be used when 
speakmg to prospective customers, or with those who already 
used electric cookers. The temperature curves for air in ovens 
and for the interior and exterior walls was excessive; the 
maximum of io minutes was too long, it seemed to him. 
Pefcrnng to Prof. Stroud's suggested dome oven, while with 
a door opening at the bottom there would be no loss of heat 
he thought it would be costly to maintain. They might devise 
a way of getting into it which would minimise any possible 
damage to the elements such as might follow from the frequent 
raising and lowering of the dome. 

Mr. Viall's own experience was that the sheet metal lined 
ovens were more economical than those which followed the 
gas-stove design. 

'The Chairman raised the question of how far it would be 
possible to use vacuum blocks for insulation purposes between 
the linings of the oven. 

Dr. GRiFirrus, in reply, said they must have good thermal 
contact on the hot plate. Regarding Prof. Stroud's sug„'estion 
an enormous amount of heat was wasted in the opeumg of 
the oven door to see the progress of the cooking, and when 
they seut in their report they suggested that the ovens should 
have a thermometer, but it was stated that those instruments 
would not last and, even if they did, cooks would not pay 
any heed to them. He was afraid the chairman's suggestion 
was not practicable. 



Tol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



81 



POWER TRANSMISSION AT 220,000 V0LT5. 



A California!! Scheme. ' 



Confidence in the attainment of a 230,000-volt transmission 
pressure has long been mspired by the successful operation 
of the American ioO.lMI-volt lines, but the actual construction 
of such an installation was delayed by the engrossing activities 
of the war period. That power transmission at this pressure 
will nevertheless become an accomplished fact in the near 
future is proved by the active steps which the Southern 
California Edison Co. is now taking in that direction. lu 
what follows the auto-transformers referred to (for raising the 
line pressure from 1.50,(HX) to 'JJtt.OOO volts) should not be 
confused with those described later, which are to be used for 
linking up a new generating station through a single trans- 
formation from 11.000 to '320,000 volts. 

For some years past the Southern California. Edison Co. 
has been studying the power resources of the San Joaquin 



m 




Ftg. 1. — Increase of Maximum 
Transformer Pressure. 



Fig. 2. — Diagram of 
Connections. 



river and preparing to develop them as the demand for power 
jirows. The studies revealed the fact that there was between 
700.000 and 800:000 kW available, the larger part of which 
must be transmitted to Los Angeles, a distance of 240 miles. 
Since the capacity of the two loO,000-volt circuits now operat- 
ing over that distance is 55,000 kW each, it was apparent that 
the possibilities of higher voltages must be studied to reduce 
the number of circuits and to obtain a correspondingly re- 
duced cost per kW transmitted. 

The rapid growth of the load indicates that additional 
plant must be placed in operation by 19'23, at which time 
additional capacity will be needed, and raising the voltage 
of the present Big Creek 150.000-volt lines to 220,000 volts 
promises to be the quickest and cheapest method of obtaining 
the increased capacity. Gn account of the fact that, in case 
anything develops to make this plan impracticable, additional 
circuits must be built in time to coincide with the completion 
of the power plant, the company is proceeding as actively as 
possible with the necessary development work on the trans- 
mission line at the present time. The prolilem is, therefore. 
not the general one of how to build a 220,000-volt transmission 
system, but the more specific one of how to convert the 
existing 150.000-volt system into one for 220.000 volts. 

The studies have now progressed to the point where a 
concrete plan of tests is ready to be carried out. 

Considering first the line, the experiments of Peek, Ryan, 
and others indicated the use of shield rings, the effect of 
which is to cause a more uniform distribution of potential 
across the individual units of an insulator string. With such 
an arrangement the stresses on the individual units are con- 
siderably less at 220.000 than at 1.50.000 volts without the 
shield rings, as far as fundamental voltages are concerned. 
The occasional flashing over of insulators on this hue has 
not yet been acocunted for, and while perhaps it is not due to 
any one cause, the normal line potential probably has little to 
do with it. 

The first step, therefore, will be to equip one circuit with 
guard rings throughout, and continue to operate, it for a 
time at 1.50,000 volts, which will possibly throw some light 
on the reason for the flashovers. The next step will be tn 
isolate the lower 40 miles, of this circuit and operate it at 
220.000 volts energised from some transformers on hand, 
but not carrying a commercial load, while the remainder 
continues to operate at 150.000 volts. There are strong prob- 
abilities that this may be all that it is necessary to do. but 
in case additional length of insulator strings is needed and 
additional shielding, the tower tops will be modified to provide 
the increased clearances necessary and further tests will l>e 
carrisd out. 

Passing to the varioiis stations on the line, the present 
stations are all completely eauipped for two entering Une 
positions and for double iSO.OOO-volt bus connections inside. 



It is proposed to leave the inside of the stations exactly as 
tney are now and to install in Wie outgoing lines banKd ol 
irauslormers for raising the voltage Irom liiO.OUvJ to '.i^^U.UUU. 
iUe Irauslormers are lo bo star-connecied on the h.p. side 
and delta on the low. the h.p. siUe will Pe arrangea as an 
auto-transformer with iou.Ouu-volt taps on ttie ■^'zO.OtW-volt 
wmding, and the l.p. delta wmdings will be approximately 
JO per cent, capacity and ol tbe simplest possible design; no 
attempt will be maae to utilise them lor any other functions. 

There will be one bank of these trausioriners in eacn line, 
installed between the hue and the station, and each bank 
will be equal to the capacity of the station. The transformers 
will become a part ot the line, and will be treated as such, 
and the full capacity of any station can be supplied over 
either line through the transformers connected to that line. 
No switching equipment of any kind will be used on either 
side of these transformers; the only instruments will be am- 
meters and the earth connection. 

While the capacity of the transformers is spoken of as 
being equal to the capacity of the station, it must be remem- 
bered that their prmcipal function is to act as auto-trans- 
formers, and they «ill be actually only 35 or 40 per cent, of 
the size of ordinary transformers of the same rating. Moreover, 
they can be designed for maximum etliciency at one-half 
load and a slight fallmg otf permitted when one bank is carry- 
ing the whole load of a station.- This plan has the advantages 
of low first cost, high electrical aud financial efficiency, 
elimination of high-voltage oil switches of high capacity, and 
does not disturb or render obsolete any existing plant or 
investment. 

The fact that the circular-coil concentric winding type of 
transformer is to be used in building the highest voltage 
power transformers in the world gives special significance 
to this fo;'m of construction. The line pressure of 220,000 
volts, which has been tacitly agreed upon as being the ap- 
proximate economic potential for the extensions and inter- 
connections under consideration, constitutes a very abrupt 
step in the curve of maximum transformer voltages, as in- 
dicated by fig. 1. Nevertheless, there is every indication that 
its use will be as successful as that which characterised the 
operation of the 150,000-volt apparatus. The circular-coil de- 
sign tends towards safety, and the elimination of the air space 
in the main containing tank is a noteworthy improvement, as 
is also the new oil-filled bushing. 

Last summer the S.C. Edison Co. placed an order with the 
General Electric Co., U.S.A., for four water-cooled. 50-cycle, 
8,333-kVA transformers -which will step up the 11,000-volt 
pressure generated at the Big Creek No. 8 hydro-electric 
station to 220.000 volts. This transmission line is of interest 
in that it will be available as a permanent link in the 




Fig. 3.— Helical l.p. Coil being Wound on Insulating 
cylinder. 

220,000-volt bus by which it is proposed to interconnect all 
the large natural powers throughout California. t 

Tlie transformers under discus.'sion emphasise clearly the 
general advantages of the circular-coil design (viz., important 
simplification of the major insulation, superior mechanical 
strength against short-circuit forces, improved thermal charac- 
teristics, and the prevention of the concentration of electro- 
static flux due to abnormal volt^cres). as well as the G.E. Co.'s 
novel nrran cement of windings for Y-connected permanently- 
earthed units. 

The schematic sketch, fig. 2. shows tbe connections on the 
h.p. side of a sintrle-phase transformer, not the number of 
coils or their spacing: the slanting lines indicate series con- 
nections between the tvio core legs and the sjinmetrical sec- 



From the General Electric Feview. May 19th. 1921. 



t P.%per by Sorensen. Cox and .Vmistrong. .\.I.E.E. 



1919. 



82 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, [voi. 89. No. 2,276, jult i, 1921. 



tions in the body of the windinfi on either side of L may be 
paralleled to provide t-ap voltages. The h.p. line enters the 
■■ buffer coOs " L at the centre of the stacks, or groups of 
h.p. windings, and progresses in either direction in two 
multiple circuits to earth, a method which avoids the necessity 
of insulating the winding from the core clamps except for 
the voltage of one coil, and eliminates the striking distances 
and creepage surfaces which would be necessary at these 
points for unearthed or delta-connected transformers. The 
insulation between turns and coils is graded so as to afford 
» very high safety factor at the line end where, in this 
design, abnormal stresses would reach a maximum. It is 
not necessary to repeat this extra insulation in the body of 
the windings as might be required with intermixed groups 
of high- and low -voltage coils. 

Ite low-voltage windings consist of a single helical coil 
for each core leg (fig. 3). and are wound on ventilated 
insulating cylinders as illustrated, and are so proportioned 
with respect to diameter and thickness as to give ample sup- 
porting surface and rigidity. They are installed next to the 
core iron and inside of the high-voltage disk Coils. Support is 
provided at the top and bottom by insulating blocks resting 
on the core frames. Both the high- and l.p. coils are of the 
one turn per layer type, built of round cornered rectangular 
copper and ventilated and supported throughout by " U " 
spacers. 

The transformers are of the same general construction as 
the 10,000-kV.\. 120.fi00-volt unit shown in fig. 4. but. unlike 
the latter, have no porcelain supports at the ends of the 




Fig. 4.— a 10,000-kV.\ 
120,000-voLT Transformer. 



Fig. 5.— An Oil-filleu 
'2o0,0G0-voLT Boshing. 



•tacks, the h.p. coils resting directly on steel plates anchored 
to the top and bottom core frames. 

The line end of the h.p. winding, coming from the centre 
of the stacks as shown in fig. 2, is brought out through a 
new standard oil-filled 250,000-volt bushing, fig. 5, which i.s 
interchangeable between the transformers and h.p. oil cncuit 
breakers. The external shell consists of two porcelain pieces 
above the transformer cover, one porcelain piece below the 
cover, and an intermediate metal cylinder which is flanged 
at the upper end to support the bushing. This metal portion 
always extends below the transformer oil level to avoid any 
possibility of corona in transformers having an air space 
between the oil level and cover. A metal tube extends from 
top to bottom through the centre of the bushing, and the 
intervening space between this tube and the porcelain shell 
is filled with " transit " oil and concentric cylindrical insulating 
barriers. The gla.=s chamber at the top provides space for 
expansion of the oil and indicates its level. The joints be- 
tween the shell sections are made with treated cork gaskets 
compressed locally by numerous bolts engaging metal clamp- 
ing rings. The central tube serves as the conductor when 
used in a breaker and as s conduit for a cable conductor in 
a transformer. 

The bushing has a dry flashover voltage of 660.000. The 
lightning flashover is estimated at more than twice the 
normal frequency figure and is equal for wet or dry con- 
ditions. In the event of any hieh imnreswd voltages the 
bushing will not puncture, but will arc from the (erminal to 
earth without damage, and an essentially uniform nurface 
distribution of potential is ohtnin<>d, thus preventing corona 
on the snrfacei. 



The containing tank is of the " oil conservator " type, hav- 
ing a fiep.irate chamber for oil expansion, and involving the 
elimination of the usual air space above the oil in the main 
tank and the isolation of the hot oil and transformer insula- 
tion from the surrounding air. The main tank is always 
completely filled with oil, and pressure is prevented by open- 
ing the ausiUary tank to the outside air through a. " breath- 
ing " device. Any accumulation of moisture iu the auxiliary 
tank due to condensation is caught in a sump and drawn off 
through a pet-cock at the bottom. This con.struction elimmatcs 
" breathing " in the main tank and keeps the oil absoluU'ly 
dry; avoids explosions due to a possible mixture of air 'inj 
gas formed from hot or decomposed oil; protects the luI 
from " sludging," and preserves the transformer insulation 
to a remarkable extent. 

The total weight of the transformer is 50 tons includmi; 
oil. The height from rail to top of bushing is 24 ft., and th.- 
diameter is lOi ft. 

A current transformer is mounted on the cover and connected 
into the neutral circuit before the tank is earthed, and the 
current transformers of three units (one three-phase bank! 
have their secondaries connected in parallel so that any 
unbalanced current (earth current) can be measured. 

It is an interesting fact that the manufacturers had actually 
designed the 220-kV transformers long before any definite 
plans had been made by power interests for operation at this 
voltage. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Letter* received hy us after 6 P.M. ON TUBSDAT cannot appear until 
the following week. Corretpondents should forward their communi- 
cations at ths earliest possible moment. A'o letter can be published 
unless we hare the writer's name and address in our possession. 



The Dover Corporation Electricity Works and its Staff. 

In the "Personal Column" of your current issue, it is 
stated that the Dover Town CJouncil has decided to give notice 
to practically the whole of the technical staff at the electricity 
works, and to offer them the option of re-engaging at a much 
lower salary for each appointment. 

This move must be resisted, not only with firmness, but 
with promptitude. ,_ It is to be hoped that as far as the 
E.P.E.A. is concerned, the official order will be that no 
official who is a member of the ii.P.E..\. shall continue for 
a single week in the employ of the Dover Council at thts 
reduced rate of pay. 

There is no time for arguing and shilly-shallying about the 
matter. Either these notices are withdrawn or our members 
cease to serve the Dover Council. 

Any other poUcy means that Councils up and down the 
country will be only too glad to follow suit, and to back 
Dover Council up, if they think there is any chance of 
forcing these terms on their staffs. 

It IS a matter of vital mterest to every member; and if 
necessary we must be prepared to pay a high levy in order 
to support those of our members who may be temporarily 
out of a berth. 

The only policy for the E.P.E.A. to take is to shut the 
place down. Any half measures, any vacillating or com- 
promising, will mean a wholesale slump in salaries from Dover 
to Aberdeen. 

The latter place has been humoured a good deal. The 
logical result is seen in the present " try on " at Dovev. 
This must be stopped; and stopped with a jerk. 

It is to be hoped that mains men and shift men (I happen 
to belong to the latter) will now drop their public quarrelling, 
and w'ill baek the E.P.E.A. through what promises to be a 
most serious crisis. 

Our point is that we were so miserably underpaid in 1914, 
that any salary Ust based on double the 1914 rate would leave 
us far below the wretched economic level of that year. 

The senior shift job at Dover is quoted as being paid at 
the princely salary of £100 a year in 1914. If the berth 
had been paid at a reasonable rate, the lowest salary would 
then have been i'160. rising to £200 by £10 a year. 

The salary acceptable to-day should, therefore, be at least 
£320. That post now carries £293. and it is proposed to 
reduce it to £2.36. 

Ijct our National Executive handle this matter firmly and 
promptly, and it will have every member in the Association 
behind it. 

P. W. 

June 11th. 1921. 

Electric Light AViring Systems. 

T have always viewed the intelligence of my fellow followers 
of the art with some considerable feelings of pride, but your 
correspondent's remarks on the relative merits of wiring 
systems livive given rise to some misgivings. 

Surely it is only a matter of common sense that a wiring 
system which, under certain conditions may be excellent, will 
be. nnder other conditions, out of the question. 

Because one thinks personally that screwed tubo tnakt"" 
the best wiring job. it does not necessarily rule out of court 
all other systems, when under consideration of installation 



Vol. 89. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



33 



costs or the interference with decorations C.T.8.. Henley'*, 
or some such system would be the one to adopt. 

' I agree that Mr. AUdread's trouble with C.T.S. cable was 
! probably due to careless handling and sharp bends. 
i I am amused by the remark of Mr. J. M. Ward that cement.- 
ing the ends of the underground conduit gave more trouble 
from condensation. I should have thought that the remedy 
was to provide an outlet for the water, and not to seal the 
trouble up. 

Lead sheathing is likely to give trouble under certain 
conditions, unless the sheathing is itself protected, e.g., by 
compounding. 

The writer remembers a lead telephone cable fixed in a 
brick wall losing practically all of its sheathing in six months 
owing to salt being present in the sand used by the builderp. 
I should like to deprecate the practice of some conduit manu- 
facturers in elfectually enamelling the female threaded portion 
of conduit fittings; this is liable to occasion bad electrical 
continuity. The writer remembers instances of trouble in 
this direction. 

In conclusion, whatever the system adopted, however well 
engineered the installation, the degree of skill of the wireman 
employed must be the deciding factor in a perfect installation. 

H. Verrall. 
June 11th, 1921. 

With reference to Mr. J. M. Ward's letter in this week's 
Review, I note from his remarks he has had considerable ex- 
perience in electrical work, and I am astonished at his atti- 
tude towards screwed conduit. 

He refers to a church building, where cables are run 
underground in screwed conduit covered with cement. Was it 
necessary to cover the conduit with cement? In buildings of 
this size, a trench is usually provided for this, whereby access 
can always be obtained. On the other hand, and in this 
particular instance, where the conduit w'as covered with 
cement, may I ask Mr. Ward if he is assured that condensa- 
tion did occur? It is possible that the job may not have been 
watertight in the first instance. Much depends on what 
class of conduit was used. It must be borne in mind that 
various qualities are on the market, and in the electrical trade 
as well as other trades, inferior material is prevalent. Nothing 
gives more satisfaction than a well-laid-out installation of 
steel conduit, and I am confident that this particular diffi- 
culty could have been avoided in the first instance had a 
little more thought been given. 

I am in constant touch with consulting engineers, archi- 
tects, and electrical contractors and with due respect to the 
other systems of lighting, they uighly recommend the screwed 
conduit system, and when possible insist on this system being 
employed. 

J. P. Gibb. 

Dundee. 
June llth. 1921. 

The Cost of Living in Spain. 

If your correspondent " Rover " is going out alone to a 
Spanish village he will probably have no alternative but to 
put up at the local " fonda " or inn, when board and lodgings 
will cost him up to 12 pesetas (approximately 9s. at present 
exchange) a day. Accommodation is about on a par with that 
provided in remote English villages. The food is good and 
plentiful, but it generally takes an Englishman a week or 
two to get used to it, owing to the prevalence of olive oil 
and garlic. The sanitary arrangements are crude. 

If two or three Englishmen are working together, the best 
way for them is to rent a small house and furnish it with 
a minimum of cheap furniture, but taking care to provide 
adequate kitchen utensils and cutlery. Domestic help can 
be hired for 40 or 50 pesetas a month, and a servant will do 
all the necessary buying of food, &c. She will doubtless 
receive a commission on her buyings from the shop-keepers, 
but will nevertheless buy cheajier than an Englishman can. 
Expenses by this method work out about the .same as inn 
charges, hut there is the advantage that fare more nearly ap- 
proximating English food can be thus obtained. Also, ex- 
penses are more under control, and if one of the Englishmen 
is put in charge of the management of the house, the total 
cost of living need not be more than £i> or £9 per head per 
month, including wine. 

" Rover " will find the Spaniards of all classes very sociable. 
They will be pleased to give him all kinds of a.ssistance, and 
if he has a knowledge of the language (no matter how slight) 
he should find his stay in Spain a pleasant one. 

E. Scoft Riveff. 

London. 

June 15th, 1921. 



The London Electricity Inquiry. 

I should like to call your attention to the last parngrsph in 
your Editori«l of last week upon the above subject, which 
I think is not only misleading, but in part inaccurate. 

The main reason that the railways can supply themselves 
with electrical energy nt a cheaper rate than they could 
obtain it at from a Joint Electricity Authority is because 
the load factor of the railways is very much higher th»n that 
of the .Toint Authority. 



No doubt the sinking fund is a secondary and minor factor, 
and would depend, for its effect, upon the amount set aside 
by the railways for depreciation. 

When you state, however, or rather infer, that generally 
private enterprise can compete favourably with municipal 
supply, you are making a statement which is entirely opposed 
to the evidence shown in all the published comparative state- 
ments of costs and prices charged, which is overwhelmmgly 
in favour of the municipal undertakings. 

Municipal. 
June 15th, 1921. 

Abnormal Meter Records. 

May I bring to your notice the peculiar behaviour of 20 
meters installed for lighting installations in this city? There 
was a sudden rise in consumption during the month of March 
out of all proportion to the size of the installations connected; 
in April all these meters showed their norma! readings. 

It may further be noted that the meters, which are of the 
Ferranti a.c, single-pha.se. 2;iO-volt, 60-cycle type, are not all 
connected to the same distributor or transformer. Figures 
are enclosed showmg the readings of eight of these for four 
months of this year and the corresponding mouths of laflt 
year. 



Units Consuiibd 


1920. 


Jan. Feb. 


Mar. Apr. 


Total. 


15 1.5 


14 31 


76 


11 6 


11 8 


36 


53 42 


54 41 


190 


36 29 


37 18 


120 


17 14 


11 40 


82 


17 22 


7 20 


66 


23 20 


18 18 


79 



TJnitb Coksomed 


1921 


Jan. Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Total. 


35 18 


123 


21 


197 


5 8 


9« 


27 


138 


71 35 


115 


44 


265 


12 13 


105 


27 


157 


8 10 


202 


20 


240 


30 28 


228 


13 


299 


8 2 


93 


8 


111 


15 14 


139 


27 


195 



I shall be obliged if you can give me any reason for the 
above. 



Electricity Works, Ahmedabad. 
May Wth. 1921. 



Forrest Preston, 

Engineer and Manager. 



Armature Core Bands. 

I would be pleased if you could give me your opinion, or 
any of your readers theirs, on the following, which I think 
would be of interest to a great number of subscribers to the 
Review. During the course of my business (electrical) we 
have come across an armature which is rated at 1,750 r.p.m., 
this h wound with copper strip of size ..5 X .048 ; after winding 
it is banded on the core with No. 20 steel banding wire, i in. 
wide, the outer bands with No. 18 steel banding wire ; after 
running some time the core bands began to spread, and 
ultima te\y break away. Double layer bands were then used. 
and after running about four months, burst; the outer bands 
(on the winding) still remain and seem quite as good as when 
put on, ai^d do not show any signs of breaking away. As I 
have nevei*. in my 15 years' experience, come across any- 
thing like this before. I trust that you will endeavour to give 
me the benefit of your readers' opinions, which will be greatly 
appreciated i^y 

\ Armature. 

June 21s<\ 1921. 



\^ Standard Brush>holders. 

Some 12 mon'ths or so ago I was shown a small brush- 
holder which I vbs informed was likely to become the stan- 
dard, or one of t\je standards, for use on d.c. machines. Al- 
though I have m^de several inquiries recently I cannot find 
out anything furtltpr with regard to the matter, and shall be 
glad if you can givA me any information. 

The whole questici^] of brush gear and brushes sadly needs 
overhauling, and, psr.sonally, whenever I hear of a designer 
having brought out i new type of brush-holder— an item of 
news I occasionally c^ine across — I must admit I feel rather 
inclined to slay him. \s I am quite certain there are enough 
types of holder on tl>e\ market already to satisfy any reason- 
able person's requircmVnts. 

Any information whi* you can give on this matter will, 
I am sure, be appreciated by a good many engineer.'. 

\ Worried. 

June list, 1921. 



The Grading y Mains Engineers. 

Like " Another Meter En&neor," the writer is very pleased 
to see that at last .soinoone Kas dared to " break the ice. ' so 
to speak, regarding the statts of the man in charge of the 
meters. \ 

It is. indeed, a lamentable fmf that amongst a great number 
of supply authorities the metei superintendent, meter tester, 
or whatsoever name they chosi to give him. is looked upon 
as an individual who is oxpectedyo be able to satisfy any scep- 
tical consumer an to the accuraW of his or her meter (not 
an ea,5y job by any means), ann to be at the becJ; and call 
of all and sundry on the undei^king. from the managing 
engineer to the office boy. 

What is the use of the powei' sta^on technical .'taff carefully 
I'ompiling the cost of ctwl per \nit sent out. ounces of 



34 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [voi.ss. No. 2,275, july i, 1921. 



■team per unit (generated, &c., if the man in cbaree of the 
meters is not conscientiously carrying out his duties? Is it 
not akin to the old saying of straining out gnats and swallow - 
iog camels? 

There can be no doubt what<?Ter that on the meter miin 
depends the revenue of the concern; his responsibility in 
this re-spect shouid. therefore. I>e, recognised to the full, and 
every consideration and facility should be given him to carry 
out his work efficiently. He should have at least a respect- 
able test room and reliable instruments, which shouia re- 
main his as long as he is employed [ly the authority concerned, 
and not be used as a workshop for the wiremen. nor should 
his instruments be placed at the disposal of apprentices, itc. 
Yet how of tea does one find that the meter department con- 
sists of some out-of-the-way corner of the power house, badly 
lit, and filthy dirty, and what instruments he is fortunate 
(or unfortunate) enough to possess are badly in need of 
repair. .V few pounds laid out on the meter department will 
more thau repay themselves in a very short time if the right 
man is there to carry out the work, and if the right man is 
there, purely he should be placed on an equal footing in 
every way with the mains engineer, with whom more often 
than not he has to work in co-ordination. 

The writer hones to see more correspondence on this subject. 
and trusts that the day is not far distant when the long- 
forgotten meter engineer will receive his dues in more ways 
than one. 

Rev. Counter. 

June 2-th. laa. 



In your issue of June 17th. one of vour correspondents 
asks if any reader knows of any grading for the meter 
engineer. I know of a 4.000-kW station where the meter 
engineer had a pre-war weekly salary of o.5s. This gentleman 
is now in receipt of ^354 per annum, being graded on the 
salary of the mains superintendent, according to the E.P.E.A. 
Schedule. It is clear, therefore, that he must be in grade T. 
In the same station the charge engineers were getting a pie- 
war salary of 50s. per week — they now get j6295 per annum. 
That does not look, on the face of it, as though the meter 
engineer had a lot of grounds for grousing : whereas the 
charge engineer (one of whose snare-time duties used to bc» 
the caUbrating and testing of meters) is in grade S: one below 
that of the meter engineer. This is one of the many reasons 
why the charge engineer is fed up with the E.P.E.A. 

It Won't Do. 



Perhaps you will allow me to correct a misconstruction 
which " C. S. W." has placed upon certain statements in 
my recent letter wherein I urged the desirability of a leaven- 
ing of shift men being elected to the E.P.E.A. committees. 
To argue from this that I advocated the packing of these 
committees with shift engineers merely because they are 
shift engineers, and without regard for their fitness or ability. 
ia absurd, although the absurdity of the suggestion :hat brains 
are the exclusive prerogative of day men is no less obvious. 

It is a Uttle amusing to note " C. S. W.'s " estimate of 
the caUbra of the genus shift engineer. He is an unskilful 
or hot-headed operator, to whose tender mercies the Asso- 
ciation i.s not to be Ughtly handed over. This ftartling truth 
presages a serious state of allairs when the present supply 
of day men begins to give out and has to be replenished 
from the ranks of the lower grades. Will noc the electricity 
supply industry then be in a parlous plight indeed? 

Without disputing for a moment the e'Jcellence of the 
advice to select the best man for the job and vote for him. 
I still hold that p.sychology should be considered, and it is 
only common sense to beheve that those who are bearing 
the heat and burden of the day on shift duties must neces- 
sarily have a more vivid .sense of the problems pecuUar to 
their grades than tho.5e who are fortumte enough — not in- 
variably nor essentially clever enough — tj have become eman- 
cipated. It is for this reason chiefly tnat I consider a pro- 
portion of shift men on the various committees highly de- 
sirable. 

I fully concur in the opinion of ' C. S. W." that the 
Association has been mo.st skilfully steered so far through 
troublous times. All honour to the sen who have succeeded 
so well in a difficult task. With Kgard to the Negotiating 
Committee, of course it is easy for those with a grievance 
to seize upon the first scapegoat that presents itself, and 
possibly the severe criticism to ivhich this body has been 
subjected is undeserved. I havf little doubt the member 
did their best in the interests o all, according to the faith 
that was in them. I would rot dream of doubting their 
integrity, only I feel it is unfrrtunate that I, along with so 
large a number of members of the E.P.E.A., should have 
occasion to regret the necessit/ of signing myself 

Grade 8. 
June 'XJth, 1921. 



My reason would be that the mercviry rectifier is irreversibla 
and as regenerative control would probably be used, it is 
conceivable that the regenerated power of the system might 
occasionally exceed the load for a few minutes. L'nder those 
conditions, if the supply were wholly through rectifiers, the 
line volt.-i might bicome excessive, and the only regenerative 
brake then available to the locomotives would" be that pro- 
vided b\- a resistance which. I uuagine. would be required 
to maintain the arcs under such circumstances. Of course, 
I admit that the occurrence of the above condition would 
be more frequent in the case of the electrification of a com- 
paratively short mountain section such as has been done 
m the United States, than in the case of a whole system like 
the S.E. & C.R. 

The title (not my choice) of " M..-\.R.'s " letter and my 
previou.s one is somewhat unfortunate, as the case was not one 
of the conversion of l..iOO V a.c. but of. I imagine, about 
tJ,(X)0 V a.e. 

Up to about I'J.OOf) A' a.c. the motor converter, of cour.se, 
needs no transformer. 

K W 

June Tilh, 19-21. 

Marine Electrician. 

Could you give me any information as to how I could 
get mto the mercantile marine as an electrician, or where 
I C'luld get such information? 

E. R. M. 

LThe usual course, we beheve. is to apply direct to shipping 
companies. Possibly our readers will help our correspondent. 
—Eds. Elec. Rev.] 

Technical Books. 

I should be very grateful to any of yoiir readers who could 
express an opinion on a technical work which is in my pos- 
session, namely, the " Cyclopedia of .Applied Electricity," 
published by the .\merican Technical Society (1921). 

I am only a young engineer, and would like to know from 
more experienced authorities if this work can be relied on 
for general information regarding electrical engineering in 
this country. 

I should also be glad to hear of a similar complete and 
up-to-date publication dealing with practical electrical en- 
gineerine as applied in England. 

L. W. C. 

June mth, 1921. 

[" Modern Electrical Engineering " (1919), edited by Prof. 
M. Maclean, is the most encyclopKdic British work on this 
subject.— Eds. Elec. Eev..] 



Convertiiif? SO-cycle Alternitlnf; to l,50O-V Direct Current. 

I am obliged to " M. .\ R." for hi.i criticism, and admit 
that for the moment. I had forgotten the mercury arc rectifier. 

I am not an expert in electri- traction, but in the case 
nnder discussion. I shoild be inclined to install mercury 
pectifiors in most of th« sub-stations; but I would install, 
say, two motor converte.-i! somewhere on the system. 



Diesel Engine Repaired by Welding, — Much has 

recently been written on the subjecl of electric welding, but 
the following brief description of the repair of a 600-b.h.p. 
Diesel engine carried out by this means may be of interest 
to engineers. The repair was effected without dismounting 
the engine, for the Charing Cross. West End & City Elec- 
tricity Supply Co.. Lt<l.. at the St. Martin's Lane station. 

Tlie base of the main A column of the engine was cracked 
as the result of an accident, the crack on one column extend- 
ing right round the front half and about two-thirds roun'' 
the back half of the column through metal varying from 
i\ to .3i in. thick, whilst the other column was cracked at the 
ends inside and outside. Work was commenced by chipping 
out the metal surrounding the crack from both sides of the 
ca.sting. to form a " vee " for the reception of the \\eld 
metal. 34 in. wide and varying in depth with the thickness 
of the casting. The welding, which was carried out with 
" A. W. P." electrodes, was commenced as soon as one-half 
of the crack had been chipped out and other operations 
necessary on this class of work were completed. 

It may here be mentioned that welding cast iron is at 
all times a difficult matter, and that the difficulties are in- 
creased where, as in this case, the casting cannot be pre- 
heated. The Union Electric Welding Co., Ltd.. which was 
responsible for the work, is able, however, as has been 
pointed out in our columns by Major ,J. Caldwell, t,o weld 
this metal with good results owing to the fact that its 
operators can reduce to a minimum the injurious strains set 
up in the metal due to the contraction of the casting on 
cooling. 

Welding was proceeded with in section."? of about 9 in., 
great care being taken that the added metal was thoroughly 
united with the original metal. Approximately 700 ft. of 
" .\.W.P." electrodes were used, representing ."50 lb. of added 
metal, and n<! the electricity for welding was supplied by 
the Charin? Cross Co.. the onlv enuinment required consisted 
of 3 nortahle resistance, electrode holders, and cab'en. A 
portable air-comnressinc plant was used to servo the pneumatic 
to-ilfl iioed f'^r the chippini? operation. 

Great credit U due to the encrineer of the Charing Cross 
0>. for bavin? this import.int repair carried out by means 
of electric welding, thereby savine the company a considerable 
amount of time and money. The engine was run on load 
within four weeks from the commencement of the repair. 



Vol. 8;t. No. 2,275, July 1, 1921. 



fHE ELECTMOii KEYIEW. 



NEW ELECTRICAL DEVICES, FITTINGS AND PLANT. 



Readert are int'Ued to futTwU piurticula/ri of new or vmyroved devictt and apparatU4, tok/ieh will be pubUthei 
if oontidered of tuficient interett. 



The " Oarage " Converter. 

Till' |iiiil)lcin of i-hiii-giiig tliu .saialler sizes of accumulator 
lidiu Mil II. c. circuit may l>o easily solved by moaus of the 
" (laratje " current coMverter (fin. I) made by tlie Ovkrskas 
Bngin'kkiunu Co., Ltd., l()3-iG.5, Great Portland Street, vv. 1. 
This device consists of a small auto-transformer which reduces 
the pressure of an ordinary lifihtinj:; circuit to the lower Volthgc 
necessary for charging accumulators. Combined with tlie 




Fig. 1. — The " G.ar.-vge " CuHiiEXT Converter. 

transformer is an ordinary vibrator which ensures that the 
current pas.ses in one direction only. As the current taken 
by the converter is small, the appliance may be connected to 
any wall plug or lamp socket on a circuit of the correct 
voltage and frequency. The usual sizes range from 4 to 1'2 
volts for 110- or '200/tMO-volt circuits; they are supplied for 
;iny rre(]uency from '25 to KJO cycles. 

A Flexible Insulating Coupling. 

Among the exhibits at the recent Rubber Exhibition at the 
Agricultural Hall was a patent flexible coupling, shown by 
its makers. Messrs. R. Pauset Gillespie & Co.. 42, Frederick 
Street, Edinburgh.. This coupling (fig. 4) consi.sts of two 




TTtIMTV " Cl'KRI'AT I.IMITRI! 



c.i.stings only with a number of rubber bulTcrs which are 
\ery durable. As the coupling is virtually a universal jomt 
(the maximum degree of angularity being fixed by the clear- 
iiiice allowed between the two parts) all inaccuracies ot align- 
ment are neutralised. The coupling can be driven, in either 
direction, and either of the tw^o halves can be keyed to the 
driving shaft. The contact area between the iron and the 
rubber is automatically adju.sted to suit the load. 

The " Utility " Current Limiter, 

The ■• riililv " cuneiit limib'r was described in these 
rolumus s.inie ni.mths ngo. The niiikers, ELECTRICAL Ih'll.lTlKS, 
1 Til ]-■', Shel.<atr Road, S.W. 11. have sent us particulars 



of an iiiipioviiiiiiil iiiaient applied loij introduced into this 
instrument. 

As in other types, the " Utility " current limiter provides 
for a flicker when excessive current is used, but a certain 
amount of heat can be obtained even with this flickering 
current. Hence a neat little imnrovement iii the ebonite 
mercury tube has been introduced. From the illustration (fig. 
'2) it will l)e seen that a griMjve A is provided in the lower 
part of (he tube. This groove does not affect the working of 
the liiniter in normal operation or even when there is a 
small dverload, as the plunger does not rise high enough. If. 




ex ® 0: ;ia ■ 



Fig. 3. — Ediswan Current I>imiter. 



SPtciAL Rueaen balls ^ 




SECTIONS OF tWTENT FLEXIBLE COUPUNC. 

Fio. -4.— A I'licmulk Insii.uing Coicling. 

however, a consumer who has. say, a 1 amp. limiter in his 
IhiiiM'. endeavours to use a Mat iron or other healing device. 
using, say. I .o amps, the .plunger in its flickering operation 
w ill "rise sullicientlv for the bottom flange to slip into the 
groove and rest on "the bottom face. There is no uncertainty 
m this action, as the ])Uinger, although floating in inercury. is 
in unstable equililirium. and tends to a*ume a tilting posi- 
tion in the tube, thus forcing one \wh\t ot the bottom flange 
into the groove. W ith the plunger in this position the circuit 
is defmitelv broken, and will remain .so until the liraUer 
ca.se is tapiM'd. .\ comparatively slight tap will n-lease the 
plme'er. but if the exces.sive load continues the plunger again 
risi's^aiid imiiicliatelv drops into the groove again. A further 



IN -.1 ic.ui.s,-. no openiutj in the cover. • 

A New Current Limiter. 

proper consists of a l-slianed lam mated vnk^^' l^\ i "'• ' 

a main series coil (B) on tnr W o., I'l • '•■^*' S''"''""'"^ 

iiiipsil 

in circuit. Below the fibre arm (D) will be noted a fi rthpr 
stop screw (H) and this, together with the screw frM;« 
r" 'kef i?'"""* necess.^r.vf the ad ustine^it'T theS.mit 
ZJf u e^'^eedmgly simple, and can be carried ont hi 
practica ly ine.xperienced people quit*, readil^ In addition 
resist!nce'\F?%,'''^''" Proper, the case contains the lam 
resistance (I<), two single-pole fuses (.T) and (K) a termin , 

chamb •' InXrur "1 "" l^IvVsyst^ni^'and Smg 
cable is emnoved?..w ,1'"''^'*' lead-covered paper-insulated 
r,ll tu '^'"P'°>ed). as well as an earthing c amp (N) Therp 
fore, the case contains absolutelv all tl,;,l is nr , si r v in nnW 
to give service to a consumer. It is mm. , , s , , ?i 

authority to buy separately tiJ^C'r ,■ hH^'Si;^^ 
chamber. &c., and to mount them all on , ,4 alate boa?d 
and mterconenet them; all supply authorities d< not u^ the 
loop-in system, but at least one Corporation wiichusef this 
!;trj° '^""'b'nation with the Ediswan C'ting device 
..t nn'. h r '"fo^^d, that it can by this means give ser v ce 

UeZ,il^.f ,.,'''";.■ r. "'''•■ r T'' "'"'h *'""'' ^n^end 
nil iMiiiKM to MMif)ns consKlcnitirin. 



NBW PATENTS APPLIED FOR, |»ai. 

(MOT THT PUBUBBKO.) 



.ompiled »prc3&ly for ih 
SlBPHBNS. Charteri^d Fa: 



. " >■""»■ -»•'. Hijjti Holborn, London, W.C.I. 

S: "lEE £S^'i^;;'/£i'^" ^"NS;:iuno „.. 

ClouKh. Jun.; 13lh. IhoiMSon-Houslon Co., Ltd., and I-. H. 

Wo]yJamJ"iu'!!:'lZh. '"'""' ''"■ P'"""'«"P'>^ »"<' telephones. •• M. |.;. 
<:i.*'Lfj. "junTKlMT"""" '"' '■'*'"'" "•°"'"" H-. «. Creed .-.nd Creel &■ 

IS; "aI;:;::;,;;;^":*,*"^:;," ^ w, whis,,,..,,,,. ;„„. ,3,1,. 

coii;," >. Greenh:d«h^.,nd'T''I ^;!l;:tZ'°" l,T',i"f "'"«•'• "'"l!"""*. »nd 

16,302. •■El.r.ri..dlv.h,.a..d {'JkCnJlenJ" C \ ,■ r, 
Ihynne. June 14th. ' -^"ontnt-oien.. G. A. I,. Ihynne :.nd H. S. 

16.312. ■• .M.iKn.lo-.k.ctric mac-hin,= " p ur . . . 
16,317. "D-vices lor nr,-^n,i^ F. Weslwood. June 14lh. 

''\T^r. !'"<'>"'■■■ H. £;::tV''."Tune"T47h!' "' '■'•'""'' '"-ndescen, ,on,p, 

16.363. •• Eieclric.il siunallinK .Methods •■p'p''T- '""', """• 
10.369. •• Motor inLthnnk „ 1,^ , . •• ^; ?"""'• J""" "'h. 

L.n.-,Ehan. June u!h ••■ulomafc telephone s>.tems, ir." J, 

Irf??' ."^'Bi'lerinK system,. " T. Len.i^han JuneUth 

ig^o .. ^y"""."","^ telephone svs.etn.." T. LenaHh..^ Fun,- U,h 

'6,J72. Eleetr.cal lime snitches." I-, Roe. Jun'*"liih 



16,388. "Telephone s>.l,,„. - i ,, 
|l-rance, June IBth 102(11 

16,393. " Automali,- ,„iv;,„„„ 
lunc' Uih •„V'°"''""- "laMmum-currenl 
June I4tt). ((jerinanv uni- Ilrh l<M/i \ ". .* 

M'^r-Jnni^^^h:^-'"^'" ""•"="-" J- "^^ '^-'■er, H. M. ,„„ „„ ,,. ,. 



J A. Ihoma,. Ju„6 u,|,, 
Sieniens-Sehuck< itwerLi. 



. June Hih! 
164'5' '• Kir?-" """S "'"' '"">=' "^"nnections." J B r. 



June 14lli. 



loll 

,,1«.M1. "Vulcanite 

Co.. Ltd. June 13th. 



ulator bo.\ 



L. Un 



I'l C. M...■into^h \ 



^ J^^BLISHBD £PBCSPlCATiON8. 

prhM and abridgeo"'^'^ 



subsequent pn 



whirh 



spocJfiealions will be 
I be taken. 



39,526 " Galvanic batteries. 
Slates March 8th.) (140,052.) 

-J.aJi. " Uynanio-electric in 
1!'18. (135,801.) 

•i!t,53B. " l£lvctrically.driven motor." A Ucor»t \-„v , 

jiTanre, .Nuvcmber ''r.h I'llH ^ iric iw-^ . '-eiorjt. .\oveml 

:W.06:i. •• Windinjso' alter! ;•' 
ISiilish Thomson-Houston Co I rj'" I."''ii"T.^"' , ''.^'"""O-eleetri 
ber 2nd, 1919. (184,046.) ' ' ' " "• '"''"'S'' ^""1 «■ W- 1 



'te. NoVLinber 2<ith, 1919. |lJ„ii,,| 

I.. J. .Stephenson. (J,i„l„., io,|,. 

Ucorat. November L'Oih, 191:). 



(136,175.) 



s-fillcd lamps with glo 
ent clectr 



Dec 



iKlli, 
eratid 



30,SI3. 
3rd. 191; 

31.816. 
1919.^ (104,058.) 
.liindl"; ".'}'"■?."'' '""■ ""-• production o( sound bv electro n,-, ,„ ,• „ 

December 3flth, 1919. "llG4,0«2.) "^ """"""- ••'• eoclicr and A. Eichholl 

2 445 "Ml X©»0, 

4:965: " AppiTratts'torholding X J^^-''i;.J'""V "*"'■ '"^0. (164.009.) 

December 2Sth, 1917. (139,192."^ " '"''"• •''"^'"="S & Halske Akt.-G, s 

Mag; r|'ui;:^i9;^ir'(i^j;^r '" ^'^""'""^ ""p--'^-" >=■ '•■ 
'^53'=^ii:iS;3?^'»f (S5.r- - '-••• "• 

■> ncated <kv,ce. Landers, I'rary & Clark. June 11,1,. 



discharge." K. Schr, 
A. de Decker. l),-cci 



s, Frary & Clark. AuHi, 
s, Frary & Cl.irk. Au^u 



5,433 
1919. (144,610.) 

ni^''}919:^S:^5'r"'"' ^--■" Lande 

i«ff 1-919.' ','s:js'.')'-''"""' """''■" '---'= 

(.fS.i,|^fl^^;l.E?'|^- .^'^-.-.mson-Houston Co., I..„ 
ar;4th,19l1";39VG)^^ '"""'■"=»■ ^'"'"'' '"-«" "• '• Pupin. Febru. 

Moehl. F,l -,,, 1920 (leMOo" "•l-'grnphy and th, lik,." 

n blocks, hoists, and the like." J. Ojjden. I-Vb,„ 



0.055. 
arv 28th, l:ij 

0.079. " «,, ,,i,|j,nnv " W T 

(164,105.) ' ^- ^ 

0.117. " Electric tmckless or railless t 

a«ons." G. A. Bishop and R. A. Chad 



Ditcha 



ebruary 28th, 



19211. 



V cars and electric transmn i 
0V221. "5yn.Vmo.d;;.rric"machinVs"""r'"B''-FM7'''' t'^'v, '^=*'- 'l*''*'"'^' 

'■•',^':ia"'..^"S' '■"'• ^■■"''' !»• i*^«- (iM.lM) ' """ M^-Poli'-Vickers 
oTm. " Re'netaV'or-i'nca'^nSnt^eC?! "-'?■ "arch 13,1,, ,9,9. „.n.Ofi.-.., 

2nd, 1920. (164,131.) '"""<'"':='« electr.c lamps." J. J. Russc-II. Ma,,h 
0,591. " Telephone systems " Ai.t^mo.;.. x 1 1 

^fl-'.r'^-^M """V"- '^^"'' ^"'- 1920- UM 1350 ' """"'■'■■'"-"« Co.. 

I , ,H "■'■■'' ~"'--":ls lor electrical .apbara us " M S <-„„ , . 

I.yttlemore. March 5lh, 1920. (164 142) '^l''"^'""^- '^'- -S- < onner and S. 

in«'Co", L,;).""\rR c\7^,r": JT'lC A"'°n'='ic Telephone ManufaCur- 

0,850. " ArVan.ements "lor d teains and" utiKin"; "libr",*"'"- ""'•'•''•) 
Automatic T.l.phone Manufacturinc Co I Nl „ 5 v,br:,t„rv movcnents, ■ 
1920. (Addition' ,0 138,9GB.) (164 148) ' '' ^- "*• •^"""'- "arch f-J,. 

inSsc^nf ir;''base'ran"f"r'|':Cl^?^ Br'f r^J" ""^i'"" '"' -'-^' 
(G_enera. Electric "co.). ^^^^'h th.'i'slb. fi^,','^ ^ '"'"'^-"'-'- ^o., Ltd. 

/.431. Device for use in windine armiti r ', " ? 

Fleming. March 12lh, 1920. (164,162) ■'' ' ''-'"'"> ""' '■ 

192a''''il64,m)''"""'' '"'"'l='i"B-<^<''"P<''^i>ion." F. D. Cull. Ma,cl, 17,1,, 

8,249. " Electron discharge devices." General Fli-cirlcr- ii <r ^ ,. 
""L^- C;, Harllett. March )9th, 1920. (iw"^ ) ' "■ '^^ '^°"''" = 

19^ il64.1^5r" '"""""■" "-■ '''"•'°" ••-"" ■-■ J- ^■""""- M-'-H 26,1,, 

9,083. " Electricallv-healed inrub-,lnr " W t « , 
(164,193.) ■ ■"™ '"'^"''■"'"•- ". J. Anderson. March 2nth, 1920. 

M.ay'l'st; 1920.'''''(164','2'l.5'")''"'"' " '^^ ^''"'"'* ^ ''ha.nb.-rl.ain and Hookhain. Lid. 
tat'i^d^l;,- " ■''''.'■'■"""■■"'''' "PPa'-atus." J. Kicll and VV. Moon (le,.-,l renre,^,, 

"i^^i' "EttS^°Cn^^:^s."^'':::;''^;H":it-"'-' ■ 
'"l!?5;^'''^^G;:;vaI;ic^s-;.s.^%^^.J"iif iV" ?F?^^ 

L. Fuller. May 13lh, 1920. (164,221) " ^^'"■'"' '•"'" =""' 

(l&tl) " '^"^^'^"= "■^'-''"'-8 ^>-:™--" '■-. A. Ross. ^^.,y ,7,,,, ,^„. 

(Im'S) "'""'' P'"«"" ^- "• t^'-^'"-- -I J- "-•"'- M.y 17,1,. ,920, 

(164,235;) " "°''''"''= ''■■■"•■'•!«■" G. Oldham and J. Oldhn.n. J„nc 4,h, 1920. 

June l_6lh. Vm aUZti) '"" ^"•->l-™'"lH'M.on engines." G. M. s,k,... 

17,179. " Tclcmoiors." .Amos X* Sniiih I td ..«,i w c n- , . 
1920. (164.2.W.) • '" ''"'' "• ''^ ""''•• J'""- -tih. 

o^?^I■ ;; ^-leetric stoves." L. C. Eddv. D.-c-mber 4lh. 1916 (145 rn", 1 

l.Tl"; c Moor-cvcle magneto dr,%es." .Km-. ,\nnn D. s l\l-,l,lil, „,= 

»-allot. .Se^teml^r 2nd. 1919. (150.710.) i-M..i.i.s.. 



36.6.53. .'•Aloans for communicating 'between ,l„. v.hi, I,. 
iriven trains. J. Belheno<L January 3rd, '920. (1.57.081.) 



o( .krlricalh 



for electrical ci 



1,297. " Prolectiv, 
1918. (157..376.) 

7.817. " Induction regulnlor for 
•''f^""'.','-;!',"'' .".'■'•lil<"n and J. Kri 

8.9<4. Eleclncily meters." \\ . I 
102702.) (164.293.) 



W.065. 

nil,. 1914. (I 



and polvphasOM-urrenl riiviiit ' 
larch 2.1rd. 1920. II(X).774.) 
July 31sl, 1920. (Divided appli- 



FN- 



id..d applie: 



iVSte 



lis and apparatus." E. A. .Kne 
',n 135,871.) I Mil. ion.) 



"riaiB 



HlIjE30m?/I0-A_nii K/E'VIE'W 



Vol. LXXXIX. 



JULY 8, 1921. 



No. 2,276 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



ENGINEERS IN CONFERENCE. 



Vol. LXXXIX ] 



CONTENTS: July 8, 1921. 



El erineers in Conference ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Competition in the South American Market 

Electric Castles in the Air 

The National Board 

Some Elements in the Deaiprn of Larfre Fnaea 07/j«.) 

Some Electrical Stunts on a Ford Car 

The Engineering' Conference, 1921 (iWttjf.) ... ... ... 

Low Power Factor, by R. 0. Kapp 

Ship and Harbour Design and Equipment aa affecting the 
Rapid Loading and Discharging of Cargo Vessels, by 

A. R. T. Woods 

Development of Cranage Facilities for Discharging Vessels 

of Large Size, by H. J. Deane 

The Thermal Efficiency of Heat Power Plants 

Correspondence — 

Dover Corporation Electricity Works and its Staff 

Sawdust as Fuel 

Correspondence rr the E.P.E.A. 

Charges for Service Mains 

Technical Books 

A Contact Arc Splitter 

Coal Shortage and Oil Fuel 

Locality of Situations Advertised ... 

The Engineering Industry in Johannesburg 

Marine Electrician 

Armature Core Bands 

Electric Light Wiring Systems 

National Electric Light Association of America (Chicago 

Convention) 

Reviews 

Ijrgal 

BnsineBB Notes 

TTuemployment Insurance 

Nctes 

City Notes ... ... 

Stocks and Shues 

The New Opportunity for British Firms in the Canadian 

Electrical Market ... 

The Outlook in the Near East 

New Electrical Devices. Fittings and Plant (tW«M.) 

The National Physical Laboratory 

Joint Electricity Authorities (((i/f^Kwfrf) 

New Patents Applied for, 1921 

Abatracts of Published Specifications 



Contractors' Column 



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Last week was signalised by the resumption of the series 
of Engineering Conferences organised by the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, which was interrupted by the war ; 
a very full programme was laid before the members, and 
there was a great deal that was interesting in the pro- 
ceedings, which, despite one or two small hitches, proved 
very successful. 

The presence of the American engineers delegated to 
confer upon Sir Robert Hadfield — and, through him. 
the British engineering profession in general — the 
highest honour at the command of the kindred fraternity 
in the United States, greatly enhanced the dignity and 
significance of the assembly over which Mr. John A. 
Brodie presided, and the large attendance of engineers 
from all parts of the country bore witness to their 
interest in the proceedings. 

We were glad that the President, in opening the Con- 
ference, seized the opportunity to impress upon the 
audience the fact that the engineer owed it to the com- 
munity to take an active part in the solution of the 
social and industrial problems with which the nation 
is confronted to-day. It is an old theme with us; we 
have always held that the training of an engineer, which 
involved not onh' the development of a logical and 
scientific habit of thought, but also an intimate associa- 
tion from the commencement of his apprenticeship with 
the manual workers in the industry, peculiarly fitted 
him to deal with labour questions, while the constant 
necessity of studying ways and means of attaining de- 
sired results with the minimum expenditure of time, 
effort, and money — in other words, the science of com- 
mercial efficiency — similarly equipped him with qualities 
essential to the successful conduct of public affairs. 
These are not all the requirements, it is true; the study 
of economics in the broadest sense, and of politics (but 
not the politics of the professional politician, from whom 
deliver us) is also necessary, but the competent en- 
gineer is a student to the end of his life, and may be 
trusted to acquire such information when he needs it. 
The same note was struck by Dr. Ira N. HoUis in re- 
sponding to the President's welcome; he emphasised the 
necessity for the engineer to take his share in the social 
and political work of the world, and in evolving a new 
social system based on the doctrines of Christianity. 

Turning to the work of the Conference, we may remark 
tliat there were over 50 short papers introducing discus- 
sions in seven Sections, sitting simultaneously, and that 
to attempt to survey this mass of matter would call for 
the qualities of a superman. Add to this the fact that 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers was holding 
its London Summer Meeting at the same time, dis- 
cussing 16 branches of the subject of " Thermal Effi- 
ciency of Heat Power Plants " during two of the thre« 



[87] 



88 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921. 



daya, and we Lave the conditions for a severe attack 
of mental indigestion. Unlike the proceedings of the 
Engineering Conference, the whole of the work of tlie 
Mechanical Engineers' Conference was of more nr less 
immediate interest to the electrical and allied industries, 
and we are glad to know that it will be made available in 
printed form hv the Institution concerned. 

Whilst we do not question the obvious necessity of 
holding sectional meetings simultaneously on occasions 
of this nature, we doubt the wisdom of holding fwu en- 
gineering conferences at the same time, and we feel that 
it indicates a lack of co-ordination or co-operation be- 
tween the two societies. We know that those words are 
becoming somewhat wearisome, but there never was a 
time in our industrial history when the observance of 
the principles which thej- denote was more imperatively 
necessary. We understand that the Summer Meeting 
was originally fixed for the preceding week ; was the 
date altered merely in order to receive the American 
delegation, or was it true — as we have heard — that a 
spirit of rivalry (we would not say jealousy) was the 
cause) Whatever the reason, we think the decision was 
somewhat ill-advised and unfortunate. By all means 
let us have a large joint conference, but let it be one. 
We look forward to the day when the electrical societies 
in this country will join hands, under the aegis of 
E.D.A., in holding a convention comparable to the huge 
and enthusiastic gatherings of the N.E.L.A. in the 
United States — united and harmonious. 



COMPETITION IN THE SOUTH 
A:\IERICAN MARKET. 



DuKixo the course of the war the South ."American 
market was necessarily deprived of most of the cus- 
tomary imports of electrical machinery and plant from 
Europe, and both Japanese and American firms en- 
deavoured to step into the breach. Swiss engineering 
works did a certain amount of business, or rather, made 
efforts to execute old orders when export and transport 
facilities were available to them. To the credit of at 
least two Swiss engineering firms can be set on record 
the fact that they definitely refused oSers made to them 
by German firms to act as the intermediaries for the 
latter in the oversea export trade, in contradistinction 
to what happened or what was sought to be accomplished 
in certain other countries in Europe. As already men- 
tioned, the Japanese succeeded in entering the South 
American market, while American firms tried greatly 
to extend the scope of their business in that part of the 
world. On the other hand, the German agents of all 
kinds in South America or their nominees made a prac- 
tice of purchasing electrical and other engineering manu- 
factures from American works for the purpose of keeping 
alive the German connections during the war. Black 
lists or no black lists, the intermediaries of the German 
agents managed to retain the connections for the latter 
in some form or other, for while it was possible to pre- 
vent German trading through intermediaries in Euro- 
pean countries, it was impossible entirely to stop such 
trading by the operation of black lists enforced as far 
at) possible by Allied diplomatic action in South America. 
Now the turn of the tide appears to have begun. 
Japan, which in pre-war times had no labour question 
in the European sense of the term, haa one at present, 
»nd it is said that the yery cheap Japanese labour is a 



matter of the past, owing to labour disputes and the 
higher wages w;hich have to be paid to the men, who have 
awakened from their former ready resignation to cir- 
1 umstances. The Americans, too, have a labour pro- 
blem to some extentj but not of the kind which will 
probably confront thenj, because they cannot expect to 
escape a reaction of the European labour movements at 
some future time. What these facts mean in connection 
with the South American market is that by way of 
comparison with the goods which the Germans are pour- 
ing into that continent, the Japanese and the American 
goods, at all events the latter, have become very deai^ 
and are unsaleable. Large shipments of German irofl 
and steel, mechanical appliances of various descriptions, 
and electrical machinery, are understood to have reached 
South America at prices at which American manufac- 
turers are unable to compete because they were produced 
at high prime costs, and are now lying unsold at the 
ports and warehouses in South America. Xo wonder 
the Americans are becoming alarmed at the change in 
the situation of affairs. 

There is no doubt that German rompetitioii in the 
South American market has now set in with renewed 
vigour for many reasons. Apart from the facilities 
afforded hj the depreciated German currency, wages in 
Germany are really insignificant, notwithstanding that 
they have been repeatedly increased during tlie past 
twelve months. The rates paid to mechanics, for in- 
stance, are, and were, is. 5d. for an eight-hour shift 
at the beginning of May of the present year on the 
basis of the then rate of exchange, which is the only 
true measure of the value of the wages as compared with 
those paid in other countries. The price of coal was', 
and still is, considerably cheaper in German}' than in 
England and perhaps also in America; shij^ping rates 
from (Jerman ports to South America are considerably 
lower because the wages paid to the crews are only one- 
third of those paid on British and American ships — it is 
even said that they are much less than one-third — the 
consequence is that the Germans either alone or in con- 
junction with their Dutch shipping friends are able to 
transport cargo at rates at which all other shipping 
companies in the world would be involved in a loss. 
The Germans have a growing number of their own ships ; 
tliey constructed over 200,000 tons last year, and as 
soon as the}- are able further to increase the number of 
lines in service it is believed, at least in Scandinavian 
shipping circles, that they will secure a considerably 
greater amount of the carrying trade of the world, be- 
cause under existing circumstances they can run their 
vessels on a much more economical basis than the ship- 
ping companies of any other country. It is of no use 
blinking the facts; the Germans are out to win if pos- 
sible, by " peaceful trade penetration " what they failed 
to achieve by force of arms. Let us take, for instance, 
the German trade returns, the tardy publication of which 
has now been resumed by the Statistical Board of Benin. 
Leaving out of consideration the question of values, 
which would be misleading under the present depre- 
ciated condition of the mark, the official German figures 
show that while the imports of machinery and of elec- 
trical manufactures in the eleven months ended with 
last November amounted only to 5,26.3 tons, the exports 
of machinery in the same period totalled 344,900 tons, 
and those of electrical manufactures reached 60,700 tons 
in the same term of months. And we see no reason for 
refusing to accept these statistics as representing the 
actual turnover of the foreign trade of the country. It 
will be impossible until a later date to ascertain what 
proportion of these tonnages was sent to South America 
or what tonnage has been also forwarded tliere in tha 
present year. On the other liand, unofficial figures, 
given in values, purport to sliow that the Germans ex- 
ported to Russia insulators for 4,700,000 marks, electric 
lamps for 20,300,000 marks, and wire and electrical 



Vol. 89. No. 2,27t;, July », lii21.] 



THE ELECTRICAL KEViEW. 



B9 



equi()iueiit for 2,5UU,UQU iiiurks between May and De- 
cember last year. 

it is impossible not to conclude that the Germans are 
niak.ing a big bid to recover aJid develop the export trade 
ia general and the South American liiarket in particular. 
The South American branches of the German banks 
iiave been at work for a long time past, and one — the 
German Transmarine Bank — has just declared a divi- 
dend at the rate of .'iO per cent. 'Ilie German branches 
of the mechanical and electrical manufacturing works 
are actively pushing business, and every German mer- 
cliant is an assiduous promoter of German trade, whether 
on the coast line or in the interior, while the electricity 
supply companies in which German coticerns still have 
interests are active in the advancement of the sale of 
German plant and apparatus. In this connection we 
have yet to learn that the transfer to Spanish ownership 
of the various undertakings of the (ierman Transmarine 
Electricity Co., and of its ramifications, will make any 
change in the furtherance of the use of German plant 
by these different works and departments or whether 
Spanish manufactures will now be put forward as sub- 
stitutes. It must also be remembered that the German 
home works are lavish in their expenditure on the pre- 
paration of detailed schemes and estimates and drawings 
of proposed installations at mines and industrial works 
in accordance with the requests which they receive from 
their branches in South America. 

The (]uestion now arises where British firms come 
in. It is a very big problem. Unless branch houses are 
established or extended in South America, or the services 
of British engineering firms already on the spot are 
secured, and they are treated in a very liberal manner, 
it seems hopeless to expect to do a large amount of busi- 
ness by correspondence. Engineering travellers occa- 
sionally visiting branch houses when the latter exist, 
and making a series of calls upon clients or prospective 
customers are all very well, but the people who will actu- 
ally transact the business are those who can get and 
keep in touch with the industrial establishments which 
are being erected or modernised, the owners of which 
can only treat with local and qualified representatives, • 
while the showroom business would be a further advan- 
tage for the development of trade. It is only the men 
on the spot who can make the necessary inspections and 
gain the essential details in the case of possible large 
contracts in order to prepare or obtain from home the 
specifications and estimate'^ so as to secure the orders. 
All these matters mean money, and unless a liberal puliry 
ill this respect is adopted we must not l)e surprisnl 
if the (jeriuans get a stronger hold on the South American 
market. In conclusion, attention may be directed to 
the resolution which was passed at the recent meeting 
of tiic .Vssoiiation of British Chambers of .Commerce 
urging upon the (Hiveriiment the desirability of (5overn- 
iiient iiarticii)ation in the Brazilian Centenary Exhibi- 
tion. During the course of the discussion. Messrs. K. 
Wicliello and G. Marr, of the Brazil Chamber of Com- 
merce, and .Mr. G. H. Coo]ier, of Crugiiay. ]>ut forward 
strong advocacy that British traders should take part 
in the exhibition on thi- ground tliiit if they failed to 
do so. the effects on Britisli trade in South .Vmcrica 
Would l)c verv detrimental. 



OuH reference last week (o tlie credu- 

Hlectric Castles lily of the lay Press was promptly illus- 

in the Air. tr.ited, after tlie journal had left our 

hands, by a leaderette in The Tinux 

uii(h'r the above titte,' supjiorting the assertions of our 

of its corn^spiindeiits, who betrayed a pathetic ignoranrc 

(if the facts regarding the London lii([uiry, Nothini;- 

can be more certain, from tlie evidence brought fiu'ward, 

than that the local authorities, and the Joint Electricity 

.\iithority, will not embark upon an eiuu-mous outlav 

for new capital stations within the next few years: yi>t 

" Jjondon Eleetor " declares that evpry one of the 

" grandiose " schemes before the Commissioners involves 



'enormous sums of capital expenditure, ' and that 
Parliament instead of passing the Electricity Bill would 
properly say : " Carry on as best you can under existing 
conditions until times improve." That U txuctly what 
the schtmts propose to do. But " London Elector " 
says: " llow utterly unbalanced and untimely, there- 
fore, are these extravagant notions of the Electricity 
Commissioners and the Ministry of Transport " ! and 
Tlin 'fii/ui dutifully elaborates the theme, stating that 
" four new capital stations are to be erected in tlie first 
stage, thirty-four existing stations are to be progres- 
sively closed," and so on. It indicates a propo.sed ex- 
penditure of £13,050,000 in the next four years, and 
a further £-30,750,000 by 1!):30, and states that " public 
authorities will not dare to borrow the necessary 
capital." 

In [loiiit (^f fact, the main technical scheme involves 
an outlay of only £1,050,000 by the Joint Electricity 
.Vuthority within the next five years, and the whole 
tendency of the proceedings is towards restricting 
capital expenditure to the minimum. Capital will have 
to be spent, in order to meet the increasing demand, in 
any event — Bill or no Bill, Authority or no Authority — 
and the problem that is being solved is how to economise 
in every possible direction, but especially by co-operative 
action. 

In one respect, it must lie admitted. The Times and 
its correspondent are in the right — where thej- criticise 
the heavy cost of the Inquiries. Unfortunately the con- 
duct of the proceedings is largely in the hands of 
counsel, able indeed, but myopic ; with meticulous care 
they fasten upon points of insignificant detail — such as, 
for example, the fact that a public footpath runs across 
the Beckton site — and labour them ad ahsurdum, wast- 
ing time and money in the process. Such points are 
utterly unimportant — what is wanted is the broad view 
of the service of the public interests. The question 
whether the (ias Light & Coke Co. would feel comfortable 
with an electric super-station erected on its premises 
(seven j-ears hence) was the subject of irrelevant conver- 
sation — the Gas Company and the electricity companies 
were quite happy about it. In such discussions time 
passes pleasantl.v but unprofitably. The Inquiry is now 
in its fourth week, and may go on for another fortnight 
according to present indications, and there is no doubt 
that the expense is out of all proportion to the work 
accomplished. 

Till-; fact that the Electric Supply 
The National (cimmercial .Vssoci:ition has dropped 
Joint Board. out of liic National Board leaves the 
Board now exclusively representative of 
the technical staffs through the E.P.E.A. Seeing that 
the inclusion of the clerical staffs was the chief cause of 
opposition to the National Board on the part of a very 
large number of undertakings, tliore is now an oppor- 
tunity for the Board to get on a better footing, and ,to 
secure, at last, the establishment of District Boards 
throughout the country. -Vt present only a few districts 
have such Boards to deal with technical staff matters. 
London itself has no Board. An effort should certainly 
be made to get the whole matter properly systematised, 
since it is only looking for trouble to wait till difficult 
questions arise before providing the organisation. It 
will be reiuciiiUM-ed that practically the whole of the last 
widespread dis|nitr with the E.P.E.A. leading to a uni- 
versal throat to strike was due to the absence of any 
hual machincrv such as District Boards which could 
ha\r adjusted the numerous queries and misunderstand- 
iuizs. And a fiuihcr warning that it is time to regularise 
the Hoard is the sngL;.-Niion recently maile by the (Jeneral 
Purposes (dinmittcc of Hackney that the technical staff 
should be included under the District Councils: that is. 
the ciuriiieers anil workmen would sit side by side in the 
same Whitley Council. This is disapproved in all 
.|uarters, iiiclinling, we think, the E.P.E.A. Every- 
thing, therefore, points to the necessity of at once fully 
organising the National and District Boards on a per- 
manent basis. 



40 



THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. [Voi.so. No. 2,276, jult g, 1921. 



50ME ELEMENTS IN THE DESIGN OF LARGE FUSES. 



By "A CZNTRAL STATION ENQINEE:: 



If one should ask " What most makes for progress in 
national, scientific, or otlior matters? " the answer niipht 
well be: "The proper anil comprehensive understaiid- 
ing of elements." Most prreat advances in knowledge 
arise from an intimate understanding of facts which are 
elementary and fundamental, and most of our stupidi- 
ties arise from a refusal to acknowledge truths whicli 
ought to be self-evident. The calculus was discovered 
by men who got to grips with the elements of curves, 
and Whitworth's great invention of the method of 
making plane surfaces by scraping, was also elementary. 
These two inventions made revolutions, the effects of 
\\hich will be felt when the Russian Kevolution is a 




Amps 
Fig. 1. 

vague memory. Conversely our nation is now impeded 
by the belief, held by multitudes of people, that the 
less work a man does, the more wealth there is for 
everyone. 

These ideas are not truisms, at any rate, to the 
writers of text-books. They mostly believe that the 
word elementary connotes something easj-. " \evy ele- 
mentary," says the learned man, as he turns away to 
something worthy of his metal. If writers could get out 
of that attitude, they would put into their books a 
great deal more explanation of what the elements really 
mean, and more people would understand them. It 
should be the constant aim of thinkers to state their 
advanced conclusions in' terms of the elements. This 
is not easy, as one may find on reading Einstein's 
work on relativity, which is profoundly elementary, but 
it makes for clearness of thought. 

The elements of fuse design are easy, u]i to a point, 
but they have been neglected, for which reason many 
of the designs for large size fuses are so bad that most 
engineers have come to the conclusion that thej- must 
be replaced by oil breakers, even for 400 volts. This 
has increased costs, and it has hindered the development 
of electricity. 

To get to business, let us consider a fuse for a normal 
current of 500 amps., say, at 400 volts a.c, with 
abundant power behind it. The ordinary design for 
this will consist of a porcelain handle, with a tube 
filled with fuse wires, so congested that there is very 
little ventilation. The heat generated, at normal loads, 
must escape the best way it can through the end pieces 
and through the tube, and as the facilities are small, 
the current density will be low. Let us suppose the 
drop of pressure is .1 volt. It may be less. The loss 
at 500 amjis. will be only 50 watts. At 100 per cent. 
overload, the loss will be 200 watts, and at 2,000 amjis., 
it will be only 800 watts pillowing nothing for the in- 
creased resistance of the liot fuse which would improve 
matters .somewhat). It is evident that the melting would 
be far from instantaneous, even at the highest load 
mentioned. 

Let us redesign the fuse, placing the strands well 
apart, in separate tubes, with ample ventilation. We 
may increase the drop to .2 volt, when the loss at 



full load will be 100 watts, at l.UUO ;mips., 100 watts, 
and at 2,000 amps., 1,600 watts. The heat is further 
concentrated on half the volume of metal. Even with 
tiie greater cooling facilities, the temperature will rise 
more rapidlj-, and the fuse blow with more certainty. 
The smaller amount of metal, spread over a larger 
volume, will also blow witii less explosive power, and 
there will be less tendency to arc over. The extra loss 
in running may be parti}' compensated by making the 
fuse shorter than in the tirst design. 

We now come to the operation of the sijuaro law of 
heating. To give a full description of the rise of tem- 
perature, we must also know the law of cooling for any 
jiarticular fuse. This seems to be a subject which might 
be explored by the young lions in our technical colleges. 
1 will, however, put forward a suggestion, which may 
not be accurate, but it will serve to arouse attention. 
In fig. 1 the curve represents the heat generated with the 
various currents. The line A B represents the amount 
of heat which the fuse can get rid of continuously, 
without the temperature of the fuse wire rising above 
the safe limit. If we assume (for simplicity) that the 
fuse radiates this amount of heat even at the higher 
temperature of the fuse, it will be seen that the increase 
of ten'iperature beyond A B will be relatively slow. If 
we increase cooling facilities so that we may increase 
the current to the position of the line CD, it will be 
seen that the rise of temperature of the wire will be 
now much more rapid when the current increases on 
overload. Even when allowance is made for the more 
rapid escape of heat at the higher temperature, one 
may reasonablj- suppose that the fuse which is run 
at a high density will melt more quickly and with more 
certainty than one run at a low density. Not only will 
this be so, but with its good ventilation, it will be 
cooler at normal loads. 

A simple calculation will show how it comes about 
that a rush of current of extreme violence may get 
through a fuse before it blows. Let us suppose that 




e 




the fuse consists of six No. Ki S.W.(;. copper wires, 
aljout 8 in. long, and that there is a sudden passage of 
100,000 amps. (In one case, sucii a fuse was put right 
across a large battery, and there was reason to believe 
that some such current actually did flow, for an in- 
stant.) At this load the drop of pressure across the 
fuse would be about 28 V, so that the kW would be 
1.'.800. In one second about tliree-i|uarters of a kilowatt- 
hour would be consumed in hciitiiig the fuse. Just how 
soon tills rate would serve to va]iorise the metal 1 do not 
know, but the amount of the energy used in the fuse 
at this enormous current is much less than one would 
imagine at first sight. The method of calculation should 
be Tiseful for working out the time lag in fuses under 
varying loads. 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, JnLi 8, 1921.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



41 



It might be thought that such a rush of current would 
be impossible. It would certainly be rare, but on pre- 
sent-day large power systems, with big transformers, 
the possibilities of large current rushes are enormous, 
particularly if the fault occurs close to the transformer 
and near to the generating station. Some of those who 
have been fortunate ( 1) enough to witness the etlccts 
of current rushes at close quarters, can give graphic 
accounts of what it all means. They do not usually 
wish to rej)eat the experience. 

To make the subject controversial, let us consider 
Bonie actual types of fuses in common use. The really 
bad fuses are those which consist of a bundle of wires, 
bunched together in a porcelain handle. The space 
is so filled with wires that there is little ventilation. 
The fuses become hot at low densities, which means that 
far more metal must be used than is desirable. On 
short circuits, they pass enormous currents, and when 
they do go, they blow with explosive effects. When 
they are of the clip replaceable type, with fixed ends, 
which are not self-aligning, they may be trusted to 
heat in the clips also, thus adding to the delight of the 
user. The type is all too common, and need not be 
illustrated. 

A good fuse should run cool at normal loads, and 
should melt suddenly and break the circuit without arc- 
ing. This suggests that lead alloys should be suitable. 
They might be suitable if the resistance were not so 
high that too much bulk of metal is required, at any 
rate, in long break types. In enclosed fuses, lead alloy 
is used, but its length is kept short, and the arc is 
suppressed by dust, liquid, or other means. These 
seem to break the arc satisfactorily, but they have 
other defects, with some of which 1 have dealt in a 
preceding article.* 

Magnetic blow-out fuses offer attractions. The fuse 
is very short, and the arc is blown out magnetically. 
I have had some in use for years, but have never had 
them blown. Whether they are certain to clear the arc 
or not, I do not know. If they are, they should be 
more used. The British Thomson-Houston Co. has a 
fuse which consists of a piece of thin sheet metal put 
across a breaker. When the fuse goes, the breaker files 
open, and the arc blows out on carbon terminals. The 
design i.s ingenious, and as tlie fuse itself i.s very short, 
it is cooled by conduction, and may be run at a very 
high density, without much loss of voltage. It looks 
attractive, but is very expensive. 

Aluminium fuses have been used. It was anticipated 
that the metal would oxidise on blowdng, and cut out 
rapidly. They seem to have gone out of use, and 
report says that they were not a success. 

A design of fuse is shown in figs. 2 and ■]. This con- 
sists of thin sheet metal, cut witli a. slight waist. It 
is screwed right on to a bku'k of metal, and taken 
through a tube, to allow of good ventilation. The waist 
ought to ensure that the blowing takes ]ilace in the tube, 
and yet the fuse should melt for a sufiicient length to 
break the circuit. Fuses made with a sudden narrowing 
of section, as shown in fig. 4, are liable to arc over, 
after they have melted at the neck. 

The above fuses should be suitable for about .'itlO 
amps. Larger currents can be taken care of by several 
in parallel. The ventilation should make for cool run- 
ning, while the high density should bring about sudtlen 
melting on a rusli of current, and the small amount of 
metal should prevent explosion. Criticism is invited. 

Conclusion . — This article doesj not pretend to be ex- 
haustive, but it will serve its purpose if it brings for- 
ward experiences of users, be they favourable or bad. 

It is suggested that fuses are primarily used to inter- 
rupt the circuit when heavy ru.shcs of current take 
place. Generally they are not intended to operate fur 
plain overload. 

They should be run at high densities, wilh aniidc 
cooling facilities. Heavy current fuses should l)e sjilit 
into sections. Ample exits should be provided to allow 

* Electrical Review, April 1.5th, 1921, p. 468. 



for the escape of the products of vaporisation, without 
danger to the attendants. 

The designer of heavy-current fuses should always 
be invited lo switch them on to a dead short circuit, 
with large power behind them. This will ensure that 
adc(|uate care will be taken in the details. 

Who invented the fusel Does any one know? Or 
(lid it invent itself in the early days, when people did 
not know what an amjiere was, and when they found 
out that a wire was too small by noting that it melted 
when the current was switched on? However the in- 
vention came into being, it was a great idea. We have 
neglected the necessary research work to make it 
thoroughly efficient on heavy currents, but that defect 
may be overcome by the expenditure of time, patience, 
and money. That would be readily forthcoming if it 
were required for horse racing or something equally use- 
less, and why not for something sensible? If we will 
only take the trouble to study its little ways, the big 
fuse may become as good a servant as the little one, 
and probably far more reliable. 



SOME ELECTRICAL STUNTS ON A FORD CAR. 



By " VOLTMAN." 



As one who has owned and driven a " flying bedstead," 
one of many synonyms given by skittish Americans to 
the Ford car, the writer never failed to find plenty of 
fun and instruction combined in its electrical side. 
When Henry Ford worked out the peculiar electric 
ignition system as the only really fool-proof and simple 
arrangement to put into the hands of thousands of Ford 
users he probably little thought that he had opened 
up something new and interesting to the electrical en- 
gineer, because funny and obscure happenings will 
occur with it never met before with electrical appliances. 

The severely electrotechnical man would hardly ex- 
pect the Ford contrivance to work as a practical pro- 
position, yet it does so, and in thousands of cases. 
Crude, perhaps, and elemental in its simplicity, the 
Ford alternator is successful because it is elemental, a 
circle of magnets rotating in front of a ring of copper 
tape coils each with an iron core. There is no rubbing 
contact; one end of the tape goes to a terminal and the 
other to " frame." 

Of course, one would expect that with the terrific 
banging and vibration the rotating ring of magnets 
would have very little magnetism after a week's use; 
yet they show little weakening even after three or four 
jears' use, but what the magnets do is to gather 
" whiskers " of iron ])artirles from the engine and 
gears as they wear. These " whiskers " are shot off 
by centrifugal force and get into the oil again and 
cause more wear. 

Someone, however, discovered that it was quite easy 
to " clean shave " the magnets and wash out the trouble- 
some " whiskers " with paraffin by sending a fairly 
heavy current through the bobbins, and reversing the 
magnetism of the magnets. Then, off drop the whiskers 
on spinning the engine round. For a long time no 
one seemed to think of the possibility of remagnetising 
the alternator by utilising the flux of the inductor 
bobbins, and consequently it proved a long and tire- 
some job putting a new lot of magnets in.- Now, one 
simply plays about with a compass needle to get tlie 
right polarity, connects up a battery with a tapping 
key to the magneto terminal, and the operation is 
done without unscrewing a single nut in less time than 
it takes to write about it. 

One of the obscure troubles the writer had experience 
of wa.s a "short" or "ground" from one or more 
of the bobbins. It might have been caused by one of 
the aforesaid " whiskers " lodging behind a coil or 
else by a fragment of fine brass or copper wire thrown 
up o>it of the transmission case, such wire being used 
in the friction bands. Previously, • to locate such a 
" short " was like looking for the proverbial needle in 



42 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW [foi. f<> No. 2,276, July s, 1921. 



a haystack. Now, one quickly finds out the existence 
of a " short " by a voltmeter, or even a lamp test, either 
being put in series with the oobbins when there will 
be very little current evident. The nest operation is 
to put a few accumulator colls between the magneto 
terminal and frame, and in a few seconds burn, out the 
"short," again without disturbing a screw or nut, or 
seeing anything of the machine, as it is, of ■ course, 
all cased in. 



A. curious e.\perience that puzzled the writer was 
concerned witli the high-pressure coils wliich take cur- 
rent from the alternator and o|jerate the sparking pUfs. 
Frequently it was found that two and sometimes tliree 
plugs would sjiark simultaneously, though only one 
would fire. This effect was traced to magnetic leakage 
from one coil to tlie adjacent ones, and consequent in- 
duction of weak currents, fortunately too weak to do 
any harm to the Sdiucncc of firing. 



THE ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, 1921, 



U-N Tuesday. June L'^lh, .Sir G. T. Beilby, F.lt.S., de- 
livered the twenty-seventh James Forrest Lecture at the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, taking as his subject the 
' Fuel Problems of the Future," thus inaugurating the 
Engineering Conference, 1921 : tlie proceedings were 
continued on June 29th and 30tb and July 1st. 

Coal, Sir George concluded, was likely to remain for 
a long time tiie world's chief source of energ}-. Its more 
efficient use might be secured by more careful sorting 
and preparation at the.iniae;, by the improvement of 
boiler firing; and by the sorting out of its combustible 
constituents into fuels of higher availability or conveni- 
ence by preliniinarv carbonisation carried out either at 
high or at low temperatures. This had an important 
bearing on the development of home sources of fuel oil 
and motor spirit, and on the production of smokeless 
solid fuel for domestic purposes. Expressed in tons, the 
oil output of the world was 7 per cent, of its fuel ; in 
therms, it was 10 per cent. Sir George examined the 
position of fuel alcohol, and said that until alcohol could 
be made from waste materials w-hich could be collected 
and treated at small cost, it did not seem likely that 
Empire-produced alcohol could be imported into this 
country on any considerable scale. The production of 
alcohol on a really large scale as a motor fuel of high 
availability bristled with economic and technical diffi- 
culties, and it was still too soon to pronounce an opinion 
on the possibilities of the future. 

On June 2;)th the president, Mr. J. A. Brodie, opened 
the Conference, and welcomed the delegates from the 
.■Vrneriean Engineering Societies. Thereafter Dr. Ira 
X. HoUis. past President of the American Society of 
Mceiianical Engineers, presented to him an illuminated 
address expressing sentiments of goodwill and frater- 
nity towards British engineers, and looking forward to 
the close association of all the English-speaking nations 
for the welfare of tlie whole world. 

.Mr. Ambrose Swasey, chairman of the John Fritz 
.Medal Board of Award, then presented to Sir Robert 
Hadfield the medal which the deputation had been com- 
missioned to hand to him. In response, Sir Robert re- 
marked that the distinction was intended not only for 
himself, but as an expression of the high regard and 
appreciation of the engineers of the United States for 
the work of British engineers during the .lyar, for 
the ijreservation of civilisation, and he ^■y\el,c,o!ped this 
cheering message as a happy portent fpj ^h^- f iifcvEr^ of 
the race. • , ' . • i^. ; ■ 

In acknowledgment of the high distiiiction':coiiferred 
upon liim, he distributied an " Address, of X'lanks " in 
the form of a most interesting brochure of some 40 
pages, dealing with a variety of subjects, such as the 
work of British and .'\merican engineers during the war. 
the history of the John Fritz Medal, the invention of 
manganese steel and low hysteresis steel (the latter is 
estimated to be saving at least £7,0OP.000 a year to, the 
world in cost of coal alone); and the growth of science 
in general, with many portraits of men of note in con- 
nection with science and engineering, Sir Ro))Rrt's 
own portrait, however, was not included in the brochure, 
and we have pleasure in supplying the deficiency. 



Sir Robert Hadfield is so well known in the electrical 
world, which has derived incalculable benefit from his 
work, a benefit, moreover, which increases as the years 
go by, that he needs no introduction; we shall content 
ourselves, therefore, with remarking that he has been 
awarded the John Scott medal and premium for the in- 
vention of manganese steel, and the Elliott-Cresson gold 
medal for metallurgical advances, by the Franklin In- 
stitute; three gold medals by the Societe d'Encouragc- 
ment pour I'lndustrie Nationale of France; the Telford 
and George Stephenson gold medals and premiums, and 
the Howard Quinquennial prize and James Forrest pre- 
mium hy the Institution of Civil Engineers, and the 
Bessemer gold medal bv the Iron and Steel Institute. 




., Sw;Bobeb,t.,A;.Hai)fikld, Bt., B'.R.S.iMilNS'r.e.'E 



II.- is, „r , oMI.-r. .1 Krllow .,f lllc l;,.val .ScK-irlv. atld has 

Ij.'cii Master Culler <.r SlictHcM, liis biiiliplacc, bcsid.-s 
lH'csidc^yt ot.jiuitiei-ouS;i>cientific bodies. , IjJi«,fauiiIy, of 
l.»i'rl>yshir,e. (jcJgin.,, has for gencr.fiti(>n^ ;beqn .conuectc<l 
with SliofReld. to whidi Sir Robert's jftY'Ofjwwk; -has 
brvught jiot only hpnour but akfttarj^rge, nieaijure of 
l>jfospe;'itjy.,,. .;. .,.,,- ■- , -;:.'t , -.;p;;;,,, 1 ■•;•;' 

Jiheeoniplete.f^jjerifswf papers ntitnbered :5v'Jv .but, vp 
can here deal briefly with those of an eleetriealor allied 
nature ODly/i .JS-gl .ftli.tJhifA ,w.-oivi.i.uiaJL'iiau^ * 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



43 



The proceedings were divided into seven sections, 
respectively: (Ij liailways, roads, bridges, and tun- 
nels; (2) harbours, docks, rivers, and canals; (3) 
machinery,; (4) mining and metallurgical processes; 
(.')) sliii) building; (6) waterworks, sewerage, and 
gasworks; (7) electricity works and ])o\ver transmis- 
sion. Unfortunately, an error was made in printing 
the programme which led to some confusion in connec- 
tion with the reading and discussion of some of the 
papers, which occupied the mornings. During the after- 
noons visits were paid to a number of works, including 
tlie Sto'nebridge Park electricity station of the London 
and Nortli-Western Railwiiy Co.; Messrs. Siemens Bros.' 
works at Charlton ; tlie Lots lload electricity station of 
the London Electric Railways, Ltd. ; Messrs. Fraser and 
Chalmers's works at Erith ; the Wimbledon electricity 
station and repair shops of the London and South- 
western Railway Co. ; and the automatic and trunk 
line telephone exchanges of the Ceneral Post Office. 

Low Power Factor, 

Bi' E. O. KAPP, B.Sc. iahxtract). 

Tlie principal disadvantages of a low power-factor from, the 
fciijiply engineer's point of view are ; — 

,1.. The capital cost of the electrical part of an undertaking 
is inversely proportional to the power-factor. If the cost of 
this part is i'1.5 per kV.\ of maximum demand (a moderate 
tigure) this becomes iil8.8 per kW of maximum demarld at a 
power-factor of 0.8Q. So the bad power-factor necessitates an 
additional expenditure of £3 8s. per kW. The capital charges 
on this at 15 per cent, are 137 pence per year. If the load- 
factor is '25 per cent., a maximum demand of 1 kW represents 
about '2,'20U kWh sold per year, and the bad power-factor costs 
0.062 pence per unit. If the tariff was worked out on the 
assumption that the average pow-er-factor would be 0.8. it 
would pay the undertaking to offer a rebate of anything up to, 
roughly, five shillings per 1,000 kWh to any consumer im- 
proving his power-factor to unity. 

'2. Wherever the station busbars are sub-divided by react- 
ances and power has to be supplied from one busbar section 
to another (the normal working condition) with a bad power- 
factor the regulation is very bad and the alternators on the 
more heavily loaded sections supply an undue proportion of 
wattless current, so that the alternators on this section, if 
designed for the average power-factor of the system, are fully 
loaded while the steam turbines ai'e not. The result is high 
steam consumption.' 

3. Wherever a district has a high-voltage supply through 
step-up and step-down transformers, the fluctuation of the 
consumer's voltage is. greatly increased by a bad power-factor. 
So a consumer having a bad power-factor becomes a nuisance 
and an expense. 

4. Unless special methods of power-factor improvement are 
installed the light load power-factor is considerably worse 
tlian that at full load on most installations. A low power- 
factor has also other minor drawbacks, such as increa.sed 
distribution losses. 

To be effective, power-factor improvement must be carried 
out on the consumer's premi.ses. There is no techincal difB- 
<'ulty about this. The difficulties of supervision and divided 
responsibihty make it undesirable for the supply undertaking 
to pay for devices which are accessories to the consumer's 
plant, and so the problem for the .supply engineer is to devise 
a tariff which will cause the consumer to install such devices. 

To be eflective, such a tariff must make sufficient difference 
between the electricity bill for a good and a bad power-factor 
to make it worth the consumer's while to effect the necessary 
improvement; it must be simple and free from ambiguity; the 
consumer must be convinced that it is fair. It should be ba.'?ed 
on integrating or recording instruments rather than on in- 
cheating instruments, as the latter type of instrument may 
be giving anything luit a fair average tigure at the time when 
it is read. It must lie possible to determine the quantities 
Inr which a'charge is made with accuracy, and the instruments 
l.ir- doing this must be inexpensive. 

,\ method of charging frequently employed is a slight ex- 
tension of the usual two-part tariff. , The power-factor is under 
llic consumer's control ; generally the load-fact<ir is not. .\ 
tiiriff ..which deals jointly with both is not likely to make it 
sul'ficii>nllv (ibvious to the consumer how. he can reduce his 
bill by in«t;iilinR power-factor unproving devices. Other more 
direc-t mctli.nls would appear to meet the case better. One 
^Mch is the well-known Arno tariff. This is a charge per 
unit consisting of two parts. The first part covers the works 
■ osts and as much of establishment charges and capital charges 
on the nonelectrical part of the undertaUing as is to be paid 
inr bv power consumer.-,. The sci'on<l niu't covers the capital 
charges on the electrical part of the imdcrtaking. The cost of 
flic electrical part was assumed above to be £15 per kVA. 
The capital charges on this are 540 pence a year. .\t 2.5 per 
cent, load factor and unity power factor, the .sale (if kWli is 
•2,'200 per year. Tins is 0.i5d. jier kW-hour. l,et the llrst 



part of the tariff be Id. per kWh. The total charge would 
then be Id. jjer kWh plus 0.2od. per kV.Ah. 

At unity power-factor the consumer would pay l."25d. per 
kVVh; at a power-factor of 0.8 be would pay l.rJl-2d. per k\Vh. 
'I'hat is U> say, he would pay the O.06'2il. more that his bad 
power-factor costs the undertaking. A single meter is used 
iu connection with the Arno tariff which integrates kW hours. 
plus a fraction of kV.\ hours, so that the bill can be based 
on a single reading. A modification of this tarilt was sug- 
gested by Mr. Parbagaleta in a communication to the Italian 
Association of Electrical Engineers, and later independently 
by Mr. C. G. Carrothers in the Electuical Kevhcw,* in which 
two .standard watt-hour meters are used, and a simple com- 
putation from their readings gives a very close approximation 
to the Arno charge, which is the scientifically accuracte one. 

All these methods suffer from one drawback. The consumer 
is paying for something of which he does not get the benefit; 
that is, he is paying in one way or another for the idle com- 
ponent of the power. No doubt if supply undertakings start 
an educational campaign consumers will eventually understand 
that such charges are not only fair, but to the interest of 
everyone concerned. They will find it much easier to under- 
stand this, however, if the adjustment takes the form of a 
bonus for a good power-factor rather than a penalty for a bad 
one. It is suggested that tariffs should be based on the 
assumption that the average power-factor will be 0.8. It is 
reasonable to expect consumers to have a power-factor of this 
value without any special appliances, so very heavy penalties 
may be exacted for values below 0.8. If the consumer im- 
proves his power-factor abov« 0.8 the supply undertaking 
should allow a bonus of so many pence per 1,000 kWh for every 
1 per cent, by which the average power-factor as shown liy the 
readings of two standard integrating watt-hour-meters is im- 
proved . 

Discussion. 

The Ce.tiRM.4N, Mr. LI. B. .Atkinson, opened the discussion 
by explaining that the problem was a very real one, and 
briefiy referring to several methods of improving low power- 
factor. All of them, however, except the use of the over-ex- 
cited synchronous motor, involved the provision of extra 
appliances. This country had not devoted sufficient attention 
to the production of an a.c. commutator motor, whicU he 
thought would solve all their difficulties. That type of machine 
had been developed considerably in the U.S. -A., and it was 
probable that if the author's suggestions were adopted they 
would stimulate the revival of interest in unity power-factor 
motors. 

Dr. S. P. Smith pointed out that the subject was pretty 
well understood technically, but "machine men " wanted the 
help of station engineers. The subject had been rendered 
more acute by the prevalent high costs. Pi-ance had given 
the matter more serious consideration of late, and it should 
be understood that the consumer in some way or other paid 
for low power factor in the end; therefore, to make him 
rectify it was the most fair method. The rectifying apparatus 
might need more skilled attention than was given to the 
consumers' ordinary motors, and that point must be considered 
before tariffs were 'adjusted. He thought the use of reactance 
was only transitory, and they might attain a point where it 
need no longer be employed. The speaker was very pleased 
to hear the chairman draw attention to the a.c. conunutator 
motor, because with that type of machine they could do prac- 
tically anything they wished, but not with the induction motor. 
He thought the bad feeling against the a.c. comuuitatoi- 
machine was dying away, and they must remember that speed 
control was oiily to be obtained by paying for it in some 
way or other. The synchronous induction motor had a future 
before it; where constant speed or unity power factor was re- 
quired its use was the simplest way of solving the difficulty. 

Mr W. E. CoornR explained that if he were a consumer 
he would not care to be bothered with the installation of extra 
plant, but if the supply authority cared to install plant which 
would not bother him it was at liberty to do so. I'or that 
reason he favoured the use of I'ondensers. 

Mr. S. E. Kbodkn, after recalling some of his experiences 
in the early davs at Sheflield, mentioned that an electric fur- 
nace was a" wonderful power factor rectifier up to a certain 
point Variation in power factor seemed to depend on the 
type of plant that was installed, but the groat<'st sinner was 
a' rolling null, and its owner should be made to pay or rectify 
his bad power factor. Another ditliculty was in counection 
with swilchgear; some old Ferranti switches used to break 
the circuit all right with a. high power factor, but would flash 
over with a low one. He had eliminated that trouble by 
connecting oil swiUhes in series with the old ones. The 
consumer paid in any case, which was unfair; the man who 
caused the trouble should be made to pay. He therefore 
holied some suitable tariff would be found, and agri><-d that 
a power fai'tor of 0.8 should be .satisfactory. 

ih. W. M. Skl\ky was of the opinion that there wore 
many ways of improving power factor, all having disadvan- 
ti"es but no single one with a decided advantage. There 
were four aspects <if the case: (ii) Technically, the apparatus 
was available, and there was no problem whicli could not be 
solved— at a cost; {!>) commen-ially no measure of agreement 
on the matter had been come to at all; (r) from the lepal 



April 1st. U>21. 



44 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,270, joly 8, mi. 



point of view it was very encouraging that tbe British Elec- 
trical Development Association was memorialising tbe elec- 
tricity Commissioners with regard to the legalising of some 
form of suitable tariff; (if) the psychological asi)ect arose from 
the legal one, i.e., an implied contract whicb was fouud to be- 
come onerous to one of the parties and was broken. They 
must get away from the Hat to the measured rate of charging 
for electricity, but the diliiculty was to get consumers to 
understand the latter and the reason for the change. 

Mr. C. P. Smkks gave some particulars of two undertakings 
of quite a different character, one being an oil-lield supply 
with a power factor of U.o, where some form of correction was 
necessary at group jioints. .\.c. winding and haulage in 
mining work was another case wherein it was advantageous 
to correct, but in both those instances the supply, distribution, 
and consumption were all in the hands of one concern. In 
the ordinary way only a certain percentage of the consumers 
was to blame. It would not pay to provide apparatus to 
correct for a very high power factor. It was very ditiicult to 
induce consumers to spend money on correcting devices which 
would only give them the benelH of a small bonus, lie was 
of the opinion that it was up to the supply authorities to 
make the correction. 

Mr. A. H. Dykk-s gave some particulars of methods of charg- 
ing he had adopted on the kV.\ basis, and thought the proper 
l)lace to rectify was on the consumer's premises, ile had 
obtained good results with the use of condensers on the b.p. 
side with transformers on the consumer's premises. 

Mr. J. R. Bl.mkik discussed tariffs and how they .should be 
ajiplied, expressing the opinion that they must classily con- 
sumers. The Creedy motor, made by .\k-ssrs. Parkmson. was 
a marvellous machine, and its success, he thought, was largely 
due to the improvement in carbon brushes and the attjinmeut 
of sparkless commutation. How far did the generating station 
contribute itself to tbe low power factor'.' That point was 
particularly noticeable in stations working on light load. 

Mr. R. O. Kapp, in reply, pointed out that they could 
maintain a power factor of U.y by using any reasonably good 
motors, but to attain a higher figure they must install special 
appliances. It would pay to install plant to correct up to 
O.b, but it cost a great deal to reach ligures of from O.60 to 
0.9. He was of the opinion that in future supply undertak- 
ings' would have to provide publicity departments, not for 
advertising purposes, but to help and advise consumers. 



Ship aod Harbour Design and Equipment as aifecting th; 
Kap.tl LkaJiog and Discharging uf Cargo Vcnieli'. 

Bv A. K. T. WUODS. (Abstract.) 
Dl'iu.NO 192(_( the ports of the United Kingdom had to provide 
tran.-^purt and handling facilities for over iUU miUion tons of 
trallic. L'uder present conditions the failure of the machinery 
provided on shore for the handling and distribution of goods 
to give quick dispatch, has led to levver voyages being made 
and tnus reduced the potential carrying capacity of tlie snips 
engaged in the foreign trade by scmetbing like 'Ai per cent. 
We are thus compelled to explore the avenue of possible 
improvements in the cargo-handling equipment of ships and 
docks. 

However efficient a ship's gear may be, it is essential that 
it should be supplemented by good organisation on shore and 
also by the provision of mechanical appliances in accordance 
with the best practice. 

It is an obvious but unpleasant truth that the majority of 
British dock systems sutler from want of foresight. 

What we are more concerned with, however, at present is 
the provision of additional mechanical equipment to enable 
shipping to increase its earning power by a reduction 01 tbe 
time spent in loading and di.scharging. The winch and the 
cargo crane have been good servants in the past, but there is 
a tendency on the part of dock authorities to rely too much 
upon devices of this type. The conveyor system has demons- 
trated its applicability to grain cargoes and generally to what 
may be termed " purc-el and bag cargo, the extension of 
facilities of this type would prove of undoubted value in in- 
creasing the rate of discharge. Double-storey sheds eijuippcd 
with roof cranes which have done such good wnrk at Liverpool 
."ihould lie more generally adopted. Simultaneously with dis- 
cliarge into the sheds cargo can be swung from ship to roadway 
and iiMini'diately Inaded into rail trucks or r. ad vehicles. It 
is only by the provi.-ion of increa'^ed mechani al contrivances 
for rlealing with cargo that the free How of ti-.illic through the 
ports neicss;ny to enable ships to work at full capacity can 
lie secured. '1 be solutioii must not be ilelayed, for upon it 
depends ill great measure the wcll-lwiug. and, indeed, the 
maintenance, of our overseas trade. 

Development of Cranage I'acllltles tor D!scharglrg Vessels 
of Large Siie, 
Bv 11. .7. DEANE, B.E.. M.I.vst.CE. (Ah^lrart.) 
PltoonKss in cranage facilities has been parallel with the 
growth in the size of ships, anci has been amplilied by the 
introduction of electrical power as applied to cranes. After 
comparing the speeds and dimensions of the early hydraulic 
with a typical mndern electric quay crane, the author points 
out that cranage facilities necessarily have to be designed 



to suit the shipping which is likely to frequent the port, and, 
in preiiaring specihcatious, a large number of considerations 
must therefore be taken into account. In dealing with these 
il IS III importance to keep in view the very debatable question 
whether cranage equipment provided by the port authority 
should be reckoned as a dividend earning facility ur whether 
it .should be Icxiked u|)on as a necessary expenditure which 
is only partly met by the revenues directly derived therefrom. 
Discussion. 

In tiie discussion following the reading of the papers 
contributed to Section if (chairman. Sir Maurice Fitzinaurice, 
C.M.U.), on the opening day of the Conference. Mr. i'\ K. 
NVentwohtu-Shiklus, referring to Mr. Woods's paper, said 
that he had seen the ships' winches and the quay cranes 
pulling cargo out of the same hatch, a fact rendered possiljle 
oy the use of electrically-driven trucks to carry the cargo 
away as fast as it was got out. 

Dealing with Mr. Deane's paper. Mr. M. F. U. Wilson re- 
marked that there was no doubt that the electric crane was 
displacing the hydraulic crane everywhere, and a new in- 
stallation <)f hydraulic cranes was now very seldom seen. He- 
garding tirst co.st. there was not much ditterence in the prices 
ot hydraulic and electric cranes, but the cost of laying the 
hydraulic pip<>s, installing accumulators, ic, adilcd greatly to 
lue cost ol tue hydraulic system, while, of course, the electric 
crane was much more llexible. 

Continuing the discussion, and dealing with Mr. Deane's 
paper, .Mr. U. K. S. Kikkpatiuck said it was well known that 
the advantage of the electric crane over the hydraulic crane 
was that with the former the power consumption was directly 
proportional to the load, whereas the latter used the same 
^iiiiouut of water, irrespective of whether it was working with 
a light or full load. Touching upon the demand of ship- 
owners for an increased crane radius and the loss of lime 
its adoption would entail, the speaker suid that he was trying 
to solve the problem by a new type of crane in which, instcail 
of travelling the loud on a (iU-ft. radius, he would employ a 
horizontal beam travelling with a .'^mall monkey crane on the 
top. The load would thus move in a radius of about 30 ft. 
only, the backward and forward motion being along a straight 
line. He hoped with this arrangement to speed up the slew- 
ing time by about 'lo per cent. 

Sir .\ucHiBALD Dr.N.w, Bart., speaking with regard to cranes 
on ship and .shore, said only one or two ports had a large 
crane equipment, and urged that ports should extend their 
cranage facilities with the most modern appliances. 

The following speaker, Mr. A. T. WAL.\lSLliV, also favoured 
the placing of cranes on the quays instead of on the ships, 
as quay cranes gave a greater command of trucks and rails. 
(To be continued.) 



THE THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF HEAT 
POWER PLANT. 



At the London summer meeting of the L\stitl'tio.\ 01^ Mech- 
anical ENOiNEiiUS, which was held on 'fhursday and I'ridiy 
last wecK, an intormul conference took place on " Means ot 
Improving the thermal Lfhciency of Lieat Power Plants." 
During the two days, separate meetings were held in four 
rooms simultaneously, at which IG short papers were read 
and di-scussed. 

Uealing with " Engine-house Mana!;ciiicnt." .Mr. 11. Dunell. 
U..B.K.. referred mainly to tiie smaiier power slations, anil 
attributed the losses in the engine house to (1) waste of steam 
before it reached the engine; (■.!) mellicient conditiop 01 the 
engine. Cnder the hrst head he drew attention to leaky joints, 
ineU'ective steam traps, inadequate lagging. &c. ; pointing 
out that, esijecially with superheated steam which was not 
visible, a leak in a steam pipe might mean a very serious 
loss; a one-inch open pipe could disciiarge all the steam taat a 
;fO-ft. Lancashire boiler could generate. To keep the joints 
tight, the pipes should be kept warm on light load, and there 
was no better lagging than magnesia. Steam traps were a 
source of lo.ss, and he preferred plug i-ocks for intermittent 
drainage, where possible, with periodical attention. The di.s- 
charge Ironi traps should be visible, and they should receive 
constant attention. He preferred the dotation type. 

Turning to the engine. wliiJe reaclinn turbines retained their 
efliciency for long periods. Mr. Dunell remarked that impulse 
blading needed inspection to detect erosion. Indicator dia- 
grams of reciprocating engines should be taken periodically, tn 
ii'veal hidden defects. Mixed-iiressure plant needed most 
attention; oil should not be allowed to coat the blading of 
exhaust steam turbines, and if it was found it could be cleaned 
(■,lf with paraffin followed by a steam jet. Surface condensers 
should not be neglected fi:r long; the scale could easily be 
cleaned off' in the early stages, but when it attained a certain 
thickness it developed rapidly. Warm caustic soda solution 
Was useful for removing it. Kivcr steamers in the Far East, 
using sandy water, had clean comlen.sers, and he a.^ked whether 
sandy water could be used with advantage here. Periodical 
running tests of the plant should be made and used. 

Mr. Gillespie said that between magnesia and clay there 
was a very large range of effirient coverings; magnesia was 
the best, but otliers were good. 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921.] THE ELECTllICAL REVIEW. 



46 



Mr. Maiitlew emphasised the importance of a proper lay-out 
ol the steam piping; some arrangemcuts invited leakage owing 
to the inadequate provision lor expansion. Jn some cases a 
cold blast of air trom a window would he found hlowing 
across hot pipes. Water was liable to cause blade stripping 
in turbines; oil should al.so be kept out of them. He had lounU 
an electrical method of removing oil both effective and inex- 
pensive. He wa.s dubious as to the use of hydrochloric acid 
lor cleaning condensers, 'i'lie metering of steam, water, elec- 
tricity. &c., was very desirable, but unfortunately steam flow 
meters were very costly. 

Mr. Edwards, referring to the author's advocacy of indicator 
diagrams, said there were all sorts of losses outside the engine 
which could only be found by keeping records. As a case 
in point, he mentioned a heavy loss which was traced to steam 
traps discharging underground; by converting them to dis- 
charge above ground, in sight, a saving of i'l.OUU a year was 
made. By laying steam pipes in trenches, covered with lo;).se 
fossil meal, as good results were obtained as with magnesia. 
Perfect separation of oil from exhaust steam had been elfected 
with an oil separator followed by three old Lancashire boilers 
in series, used for thermal storage ; there was not a trace of 
oil ou the turbine blades after two years' use. 

After other speakers had taken part in the discussion, the 
chairman, Mr. iP. H. Livens, remaiKed that the ability ol the 
reciprocating engine to run on from year to year without 
revealing delects would seal its doom; the internal-combustion 
engine called for immediate attention when anything went 
wrong. Routine records might be troublesome and of uMe 
service, but frequent tests of individual items of plant led to 
great savings, and the indicator was a very valuable aid. im- 
purities in the working fluids — water, steam, and oil — were 
the source of many los.ses. 

In reply. Mr. Dunkll said that with magnesia two inches 
thick, only 7 per cent, of the heat pa.ssing through a pipe 
was lost. Steam pipes were continually spewing scraps of 
scale, &c., which got under the valves of steam traps and 
caused \>aste. He doubted the advisability of placing pipes 
out of sight in trenches. 

A paper on " High Steam-pressure and other means of 
Increasing the Economy of Steam Engines," by Mr. P. 
Samuelson, was read in the author's absence by Mr. Halhwell. 
Pointing out that the present methods of generating power 
with steam were very inefficient, the author said that improved 
efficiency was mo.st readily obtained by increasing the range 
of working temperature ; the addition of a mercury boiler and 
turbine * to an ordinary steam plant considerably raiseu the 
range nf temperature and resulted m a saving of 40 to (iU per 
cent. In 'ajing down new plant, the easiest method nf 
increasing ihe temperature range was by superheating the 
steam, raising its pressure, or both. Data were given showing 
the comparative efficiency ratios corresponding with various 
initial pressures and. temperatures of steam. The practical 
limit of working temperature was 800 degrees; hence they 
must resort to higher pre.ssures. The advantages of feed-water 
heating, and nf extracting steam from an intermediate stage 
of expansion for industrial heating purposes, were pointed out, 
but the author thought there was little overall benefit to be 
derived from reheating l)etween stages. Finally, it was stated 
that the British Thomson-Houston Co.'s experimental plant 
at Rugby, working at 350 Ib./sq. in. pressure and 700 deg. F., 
had proved quite successful, and gave an economy of over 18 
per cent. The output was 5,(X)0 kW, and the maximum tem- 
perature 7.50 deg. Trouble was experienced at first due to the 
use of brass spacers in the turbine blading, but this was over- 
came by the use of steel. Complete tests had not yet been 
carried out. 

Mr. S. B. Feddkn, commenting on the mercury vapour tur- 
bine, referred to experiments in Berlin .some 15 or IG years ago, 
and asked whether it had not been found that leakages of the 
mercury vapour were very dangerous. The diagram of the 
mercury vapour plant at its present stage of development 
looked rather like that of a toy. Dealing with the curves pro- 
vided with the paper, Mr. Fedden pointed out that the gain 
in efficiency at the high pressures and temperatures was small, 
and suggested that the increa.sed capital and running costs 
might easily swallow up the saving. He would not go above 
7(K) deg. Steel economisers and a pure water supply would 
be necessary, and there were many details to consider before 
advancing to the higher figures. What was the effect of 
" bleeding " the turbine on the efficiency of the whole plant'' 
One might lose as much as one gained, and he called for proof 
regarding the total efficiency between the coal fired and (he 
switchboard. He had used liir heaters for '20 years, and found 
the cost of maintenance was high; in one ca.w the increased 
furnace temperature burnt the fire bars, and much of the 
hot air to be by-passed. 

Mr. W. M. Sri.vey .said Mr. Emmet's work was now pretty 
well known, and the use of two working fluids had often been 
tried; in the long run the saving made in one way was lost in 
another. But they must not always turn down new pro- 
pos,Tls; exi>erience must be gained with them before progress 
could be made. Steam pressures had been raised to 300 or 
350 lb. years ago. but when boilers geni>va(iug lOO.OOO lb. of 
steam per hour were in question, mechauic.Tl considerations 
became important. There was no inlierent difficulty in work- 

• Tlie Emmet mercury vapour plant was described in the 
Eu-rTKicM, Review of (Ictnber 'i'ind, 10'30. 



lug ut 3j0 lb., and the North Tees station was using 475 lb. 
pressure with promising results; but there was a hunt to the 
permi.ssible temijerature, and manufacturing firms were not 
prepared at presj-nt to go far above 700 deg. J-'. The use of 
liigU-grude heat for feeawater. and heating the air supph , 
up.set the delicate balance of temperature ou the grate oars', 
and they niust be very cautious lest attempts to obtain in- 
'^'■'^s^u *-'U'ciency led to increased cost of maintenance. 

Mr. Oxi.EV thought they were all moving in a groove in 
search of improvements ol J or 1 per cent, clljciency ; could 
they not strike a.vay from customary methods ;' In ttiis sense 
the attempt to use. mercury vapour at high temperatures was 
worthy of serious consideration. Endeavours to improve 
steam or gas engines depended upon the materials avaUable, 
and only led to gains ol one or two per cent. The material 
ol construction ol a turbine for mercury vapour was a matter 
of great importance. It was generally held abroad that to 
go beyond SoO lb. and 750 deg. was very questionable, and 
even those limits were somewhat ri.sky. owing to the qualities 
of the materials. At 750 deg. the live steam parts ol the 
turbine began to glow in the dark. 

Mr. Hon'H said that cast-iron of greatly improved qualities 
was likely to be available shortly, and researches on turbine 
blading, &c., were in progress. 

Mr. L. M. JocKEL had hoped for more data about the mer- 
cury vapour system. He referred to the very interesting in- 
stallations at work at Dalmarnock, and in progress at Necnells 
and Barton, and drew attention to the important opportuni- 
ties for improving efficiency at the low-temperature end of 
the steam cycle, where the dilference of 5 deg. between the 
exhaust steam and the condensate meant a heavy loss of 
energy. Great waste occurred in condensing plant; he had 
tested various condensers, and got the best results witti the 
Kinetic Contraflo type, which with a radial flow reaction 
turbine made a good combination. 

The chairman. Mr. R. W. Allen, C.B.E.. referred to the 
use of 300 lb. pressure in the Navy; no difficulty was met 
with in obtaining boilers for this pressure with low superheat 
—the difficulties came in with high superheat. The war had 
taught them what could be done by research; at Sheffield 
they produced the special steels required for aeroplane engines 
in a few months, and if these high pressures were necessary. 
they should get Sheffield to solve the problem. 

Replying on the discussion, Mr. Halliwf.ll said the paper, 
limited to 1,000 words, was only a guide-post for the aiscus- 
sion on economy. The 1,000-kW mercury-vapour turbine could 
hardly be regarded as a toy. It was a u.seful size to experi- 
ment with, and was driving part of the (leneral Electric Works. 
The joints in the mercury pipes were mainly welded and 
leakage was taken care of. With regard to the use of steel 
tubes and pure water, it was the gases in the water that 
created the worst troubles in these high-pressure and high- 
temperature plants, and they must keep air from the fee<l 
water. As Mr. Selvey said, the troubles were mostly mecUani- 
cal, and it was up to mechanical engineers to overcome them. 
In turbine work 5(X) deg. F. was the limiting temperature 
for cast u'on ; for higher temperatures steel was necessary 
except for the blading, which was of phosphor-bronze. Mild 
steel was satisfactory up to 800 deg. The trouldes so far met 
which were not due to the materials, but to the novel mech- 
anical conditions. 

[To be coiiiinucil.) 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Letters receired by us after 5 P.M. ON Tuesday cannot appear until 
tli^ following week. Correspondents should forward their communi- 
cations at the earliest possible moment. No letter can be published 
■unless we hare the writer's name ami add res.; in our possession. 



Dover Corporation Hlectricity 'Works and its Staff. 

The timely letter o( " R. W." with regar.l to the above 
in .vour last issue should serve to call the attention of all 
electrical engineers to the reprehensible course of action which 
the Dover Corporation i)roposes to adopt. 

In December of last year this Association received a definite 
promi.se in writing from the Corporation, to the effect that 
it inteiideil to put into operation the scliedule of -salaries a.s 
issued by the National .loint Board. The recent decision of 
the (\)rporafion to throw over the schedule and to elTect .such 
drastic reductions in the salaries of tlie technical sUilf is a 
direct violation of that promis(\ and is calculated to give a 
staggering blow to one's faith in the integrity of public autho- 
rities. 

One frequently bears criticism!; of the lack of faith shown 
on the part of employes, and of their failure to honourably 
carry out agreements to which they were parties, but surely 
it would be hard to find a parallel to the decision of the 
Dover Corporation. 

If the Dover Corporati<in feels that the present payment of 
the schedule is bearing hardly upon it, there exists in its 
district area the constitutional machinery in the form of a 
District Board at which its grievances could l>e ventilated, and. 
if substantiated, could be corrected. To ignore that machinery 
is to undo all the good work that has recently been done in 
the conciliatory machinery and uniform methods of negotia- 



46 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Yoi. 89. No. 2,276, jitlt s. mi. 



tion, and to bring about a reversion to the old bad methods of 
indindOal bargaining. 

I may state in reply to your correspondent that the Associa- 
tion does propose to take prompt and lirm action in the matter, 
as it recofjnises that this is a test case, and that if the action 
of Dover js allowed to pass unchallenged, there will be no end 
of the same thing throughout the country. The first stone 
must be arrested, otherwise there will be an avalanche. 

Steps are being taken by the Association to warn all its 
members against even applying for. still less accepting, the 
positions at present occupied by our members when they 
become vacant, and it ventures to hope that other engmeera 
who are outside the ranks of the Association will refrain from 
applying for the positions, and so impress the Dover Cor- 
poration with the sense of the folly of its contemplated action. 
If all electrical engineers will take a proper view of the matter 
and refuse to accept positions, the Corporation will be forced 
to reconsider its decision. 

W. Arthur Jones, 
General Secretary, E.P.E.A. 

London. 
July 4th, 1921. 

Correspondence re the E.P.E..4. 

Almost every week one is presented in your " Correspond- 
ence " columns with a whole sheat of letters written by 
aggrieved members of the E.P.E.A. 

i think it is high time these " grousers " desisted from fight- 
ing one another and anybody and everybody in general through 
the medium of your columns, and loyally supported their 
Association. If they are not satisfied with their executive, 
then why do they not go to the Association meetings and 
stand auit deliver themselves of all their woes? Perhaps they 
have not the pluck to face it out, but must resort to a nom-de- 
plumc in your " Correspondence " columns. 

1 am not a member of the E.P.E..^., as I am not in the 
supply industry, and therefore have no axe to grind; it is 
merely that this corre.spondence makes me tired, and I should 
welcome something of more general interest. 

May I suggest that correspondence re the E.P.E..\. should 
only be published if the writers give their names, as it seems 
to me a very back-handed action to slate the Association under 
a notn-de-plume. 

E. W. Dorey. 

London. 
July -htd, 19'21. 

Sawdust as Fuel. 
Could any of your readers inform me of any process, briquet- 
ting. &c., by which saw-dust can be u.sed as fuel, either for 
domestic or steam-raising purposes'.' 

Tom C. Sfihneidau. 
Wolverton. 
July -Ind, 19-21. 

[.\n installation of 200 h.p. driven with gas from wood-refuse 
at a timber mill at Maldoii. Essex, put down by Mr. H .P. 
Girling, was de.scribed in our issue of December 'iTth, 1912. A 
Swedish installation of similar type was described in our issue 
of .\pril 10th, 1915, and a s;iwmill plant whore the refuse was 
burnt under l)oilers. to the designs of .\lr. \V. Worby Beau- 
mont, in our issue of .-Xpril 7th, 191t). For briquetting methods 
we must appeal to our readers. — Ens. Kt.Ki'. Rkv.] 



" Power Factor Correction "; and A. P. Tiotter's " Elements 
of Illuminating Engineering/' but these are not encyclopaedic. 
They are modest in Jjrice and size, and excellent in contents. 

Theodore Steveni. 

London. 
July 1st. 19-21. 

A Contact Art Splitter. 

With reference to your article on page 834 of the Elec- 
TiucAL Review of June -24th, l'.i'21. regarding a contact arc 
splitter which, we note, you state has recently been developed 
by the Wcstinghouse Electric International Co., of East Pitts- 
burg, Pen., U.S.A., we should like to point out that this 
has been a device w hich we have fitted on circuit breakers in 
cases, and, as a matter of fact, on all the Admiralty circuit 
breakers which we have supplied for the British Admiralty 
during the last nine years, so we feel that the device shown 
is not new in any way. NVe enclose herewith lithos which we 
have torn from a pamphlet which we prepared some years ago 
for use in the Navy, which shows the arc splitters as mounted 
on our circuit breakers, and which you will see, on referring 
to your diagram in the Electrical .Review, fig. 1, page 834, 
is exactly the .same. We feel that we are entitled to any credit ' 
there may be regarding this device, and this is our reason for 
writing this letter. 

For Whipp & Bourne, Ltd. 

Fra.nk R. Whipp. 

Castleton. 
June mh, 1921. 

[The arc splitter devised by Messrs. Whipp & Bourne, 
Ltd., over nine years ago is, as they state, a direct anticipa- 
tion of the American arc splitter which we illustrated, and 
we are glad to know that their design was so earlv in the 
tie Id .—Eds. Elec. Rev.] 



Coal Shortage and Oil Fuel. 

In reply to the letter from ' Due .Junior Charge Engineer," 
first it is stated that aliout three times as much oil is used 
under a boiler as under a Diesel cylinder cover. (I take it 
this means per kWh.) If so, should it not be six times as 
much '.' 

I am at a loss to understand several of the paragraphs, which 
are so incousi.stent as to become almost unreadahle, and I 
can only surmise that the experience gained it, as quoted, in 
a junior stage; this is certainly not the discussion looked for 
at this age. when we are hoping to make the best cu our 
enormous fuel problem for the future. 

I am afraid " Junior Charge Engineer " is very wide of the 
mark in such paragraphs as : — 

Twenty minutes to get a boiler on the range. 

Twenty seconds to get a Diesel on load; of course, if you miss 
synchronising, you may have to operate the governor gear. 

I fail to see what engine-room crews lying in ports have 
to do with our internal power supply, and it is the first time 
I have heard that reliable Diesels were not built in this 
country. 

In conclusion, I am afraid " Junior Charge Engineer " must 
have ill-treated the very few Diesel engines he may have seer>'. 

S. H. Fowles. 

Jarrow-on-Tviu'. 
Jiiiir -llth. 111-21. 



Charges for Service Mains. 

I would like to ask your readers, througli your valuable 
journal, why the South London Electric Suj>ply Corporation 
makes .such excessive charges for out.side mains leading to 
new- consumers' premises. Could not this be covered in the 
price charged per unit'.' If the late war has brought about 
these charges, then let the pre-war consumers, who were lucky 
enough to mi.ss these mains charges, bear some of the costs 
of their less fortunah' brethren. It is obvious that these 
charges for outside works must be holding up wiring con 
tracts, to the benefit of gas companies. 

I should like to learn of the experiences and opinions of wir- 
ing contractors on this very important sut)ject. 

Disgusted. 

June -2S(/i, 19-21. 

Technical Books. 

li. W. ('.'- " inqiiirii's in to-day's issue of your Electrical 
REvrRW are answered capal»ly in i>art, but no single hook 
can ■■ completely " repre.setit the practice in any branch of 
engineering which is daily advani-ing. Tlie student, to tit 
himself to handle auy practical problem, niii.st not be satisfied 
with the opinion of any individual, but must learn to cull 
from many writer.s tlieir ideas and methods: anil tlien select 
therefrom what l)ost suits his particular needs in any specific, 
case. 

A cyclopedia by experts leads one to more specialised writ- 
ings on each particular subject, e.g., I have no hesitation in 
couunending to " L. W. C." iKjoks dealing practically with the 
fundamentals of electrical engine'Ting in England such as 
F. M. Denton's " C.C. .\rmatiir'e Winding"; II. E. Poole's 
" II.T. Switch (!ear " anil " Switchboards "; .\. E. Clayion's 



Locality of Situations Advertised. 

I think it Would be a great advantage and save considerable 
disappointment if euiployers when advertising vacancies in 
your columns and using a box number would state whether 
the job is in London, the Midlands, or the North, or give 
.some indication of the district. 

E. A. 

Jiilii 'Ind, 1921. 

The Engineering Industry in Johannesburg. 

I .should like to draw the attention of readers of your paper 
who may be considering emigration to this country to the 
fact that at the present moment there is a considerable 
amount of unemployment in the skilled engineering trades 
here; just now the municipalities and employers generally, 
including the Government, are having considerable difficulty 
in coping with this unemployment problem, and it is possible 
that the coal strike at home may prolong this present tem- 
porary slump. 

It ialls to my lot to interview a consideiable number of 
iiii'ii arriving from the Old Country, some .seeking for employ- 
irient, and others requiring liceuces to enable them to under- 
take electrii'al wiring work in this town. 

1 wish to impress upon intending emigrants that it is 
essential to bring out with them all available testimonials and 
references covering their careers from apprenticeship upwards, 
as it is dit'tiiiilt for a man to obtain enuiloyment unless he 
can produce a proper set of credentials to show what his 
experience and training have l)een. It is surprising how many 
men come out apparently with the idea that credentials and 
references are of no value. Licences to undertake wiring in 
this town can only be obtained on production of credentials 
proving at least live years' suitable experience, and wiring 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July «, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



47 



contractors, both in this town, and to an increasing extent 
in other towns, five preference to men possessing the wire- 
man's licence granted by the Johannesburg municipahty. 

B. Sankey, 

Ueneral Manayer, Cjas and Electric Suijply Depart- 
ment ; ChaiDiian, Board for the Licensum of Elec- 
trivians, Johannesburt/. 
June 6th, 19-21. 

[In a subsequent letter Mr. Sankey encloses a cutting from 
the Rand Daily Mail, showing that the situation is still worse 
than he had supposed, and that mechanics and others s'uould 
not go out to the Cape " on spec." at present. The extract 
reads : — 

The Cape Peninsula is faced with a serious problem in con- 
nection with unemployment. The ranks of the unemployed, 
both Europeans and coloui'ed, are becoming larger week by 
week. This is due partly to the present depression in trade, 
but mamly to the fact that men, skilled mechanics as well as 
unskilled labourers, are drifting into the city from all parts. 
There seems to be an impression abroad that work can be 
obtained. This is a mistake. They not only cannot find work, 
but they cannot readily obtain accommodation, for the housing 
problezn has not yet been solved. . . . Another factor wliich 
is operating towards increasing the ranks of the unemployed 
is that steamers are bringing to South Africa numbers of men 
from Europe, who have been persuaded that work can be 
obtained here easily. The labour bureaux are being besieged 
by 'men, many of them pood mechanics, seeking employment, 
and they cannot be placed. 

Mr. Sankey's warning is very useful and timely. Similar 
comments on industrial conditions elsewhere overseas are 
invited, on behalf of our readers— but we hope they will be 
more cheering !— Eds. Elec. Rev.] 



' Marine Electrician. 

Referring to the query of " E. R. M." in the current issue 
of the Electrical Review, with regard to taking up a situation 
as a marine electrician, I trust the following information will 
prove useful to the intending applicant. 

In the first place, it is usual for anyone desirous of going 
to sea to serve an apprenticeship of possibly six months with 
the shipping companies' shore staff of engineers, and then as 
his abilities are proved, he is drafted aboard one of their 
vessels, as a vacancy arises. 

There are several of the first-class passenger companies, the 
addresses of which can be obtained from any shipping office, 
who carry an electrician to look after all the maintenance 
and repairs of the electrical appliances aboard ship, and if 
" E. R. M." writes to the superintendent engineer, stating all 
his experience, and with copies of testimonials, he will no 
doubt receive a reply, requesting him to appear before the 
head engineer, for an interview. 

A. Peckston. 

Middlesbrough, 
July 2nd, 1921. 



Armature Core Bands. 

With reference to " Armature's " letter in this week's 
Review, I experienced a similar case to that quoted, some 
twelve months ago. 

The motor was direct coupled to a centrifugal pump running 
at 2,000 r.p.m. On three occasions the bands burst, mnich 
eventually necessitated the armature being rewound. 

During the process of stripping, T found the coils were a 
loose fit in the slots, and concluded that owing to their rising, 
due to centrifugal force when the machine was running, » 
continual pressure was being exerted on the undersides of the 
core bands, with the result that after the machine had been 
running for a time the bands burst. 

I increased the slot insulation, making the coils a reasonably 
tight fit, and encased the steel b.ands in a copper casing, sweat- 
ing the whole up solid. . „ . • 

This machine has now been running continually for nine 
months and the bands show no signs of slackening. 

On the other hand, " Armature " mav have struck a bad 
consignment of banding wire. Recently I had occasion to test 
a reel of No, 18 steel banding wire, taking three samplesfrom 
different parts of the reel, and found a considerable variation 
ill the breaking strain in each case, 

I should be pleased to bear when " Armature " has overcome 
his trouble and what he found to be the cause of it. 

Motor. 

Jvhj ith, 19i\. 

Electric Light Wiring Systems. 

With reference to the paper on the above subject read 
before the National Association of Sup<M-vising Electricians, T 
much regret the tone of the letter of " Two Phase " that 
appears in yovir issue of tbo 24th inst.. and quite expected to 
, find at the end of it : " This correspondence must now cease." 
■'Two Phase " has brought an enlightening technical dis- 
cusrioii iawn to the l*vel of acrimoniouB persontlitiei. 



If your correspondent cares to accept my invitation to the 
next technical debate of the N.A,S.E.. he wUl find that by 
design they are frankly, though fairly, critical, and for that 
reason educational. 

That supervising electricians depend in any degree upon 
manufacturers for their daily bread is, on the face of it. 
simply frothy verbosity. The Association has a long record 
of lectures by inventors and manufacturers, who have all 
been grateful for the practical criticism our members have 
been able to offer. 

I do not agree that C.T.S. has received greater condemna- 
tion than other systems. It has been brought into greater 
proininence in this discussion by the frantic efforts of its 
disciples to justify its u.se under all conditions, which is a 
ubiquity the makers do not claim. In any case, the letter 
of "Two Phase" contains nothing that is illuminating on 
the subject. In a certain gas works in Ixindon, C.T.S. waa 
installed in the retort houses, and ordinary V.I.R. taped 
and braided drawn into screwed welded tube in other parts 
of the works. 

I have examined the job superficially in the light of these 
di.scussions, and find that there is a tendency for the sheath- 
ing to crack on the outside of sharp bends, and, of course, 
there is a certain amount of sag in the horizontal runs, which 
as far as I know can only be avoided by using some adhesive 
paste when erecting. 

I have also examined the conduit job. and find that air 
and water, and possibly free gases, have attacked the tubing, 
and rust bas practically entirely displaced the enamel. Tha 
interior of the tube appears in fair condition, but I should 
venture to say that C.T.S. will prove the more durable job. 
On the other hand. I know a small motor garage where the 
hand lamp lead spends most of its time in the oil and grease 
of the floor and pit, and after 18 months required replacing. 
Now, the point I arrive at is that, by this review of facts, I 
am not condemning C,T,S, because it cracked at a sharp 
bend; I shall simply see that when it is used again there 
is no sharp bend. Because rust heavily attacked conduit in 
a gas works, I shall not rule out conduit always. In a gaa 
works T should use a sherardised tube system in conjunction 
with C,T,S. 

In a motor garage that allows oil to be about the floor, 
obviously the lead must be protected by a flexible metallic 
tube, although even this has faults. In other words, we 
have gained experience. 

If " Two Phase " cares to send me his address, I shall be 
plea.sed to advise him of the date of our next lecture, and, 
indeed, any other electrical gentleman interested, 

J. n. Windibank, 

Vice-chairman. 
National Association of SuptroiBing Eleciriciant. 
South Norwood. 
June ^th, 1921. 

'■ t -' .:.■ • 



National Electric Light Association of America: Chicago 
Convention. 

With reference to the Leader in your issue of .July 1st, the 
Council of the E.D.A. has already had under consideration 
the possiblitv of arranging for joint conventions of the variops 
electrical interests in this country, and althouch the existing 
subdivision of Electricity Supply and other Electrical ,^s80cia- 
tions has hitherto made anything of the kind difflcult. yet 
there apnears every rea,'=on to hope that with a little persever- 
ance and goodwill we may ultimately look forward to some 
a'Tongement for bringing together the members of all sections 
of the industry once a year, Tlie value of such an effort 
would repay almo.st anv trouble involved in it, 

.'Vs at present, working meetings and conventions of the 
different sections are of great benefit to the members, .inrt 
to the branches of the industry represented by the several 
sections, but they carry little propaganda value towards the 
public. 

.Associated together in the form of n general meetins denljng 
with every interest comnrised in the e'ectrical industry, thev 
would, in addition to the proper work carried out by e,ieh 
section, make a very notable cumulative impression on ^be 
public mind, secure the interest of the Press, and probablv 
produce a business-getling influence out of all proportion to 
the cost involved. 

J. W, Beanchamp, 
Director and Serretapi. 
lirififh Elfdrical Development Aatocialion, Inc. 
Tjondon. 
Jvhj ^th. 1921. 



Blrmin^bam ElfctrFcal (lOlHnj! Soflety— The Summe 
Meetirs- of ^>"'n PooiVtv wn.s held »t Pandwell Park, onder idea 
rondiHoi'ii TVe "svlisii Cup wag up for rompotit'on, thi« beinfr 
wri) br Mr. .T. P. Jf-»ter8, vith a fore cf 9t_l,-, = T<i, The other 
nrizfwinrfp wee fifffMf.W. A. Jackfrn, .T, H. Hsrpir, W. A. 
PpTter, sr<' 0, HiirdlfT-, tbfi 'net-rorpfd s'<'»'Hfn3an fecnririr the 
prive for the peslfd nire hplfi". T>p"- wsa a repif6enl»tive 
(ratherinGr. and the event wa« very enjoyable. 



48 



THE ELECTEia\L EEVIEW. [Voi. 89. No, 2,276, juxy s, mi. 



REVIEWS. 



Elementary Principles of Continuous Current Armature Wind- 
tnga. By F. M. Denton, A.C.G.I., A.Amer.I.E.E. Pp. 
I(h3+x; hgs. 44. London ; Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons. Ltd. 
Price :is. 6d. net. 

Small Single-phase Transformers. By E. T. Paujton B Sc 

A.M.LE.E. Pp. a5 + x; figs. 40. London: Sir Isaac 

Pitman i bons. Ltd. Price :is. 6d. net. 
High Tension Switchgear. By H. E. Poole, B.Sc. A.C G.I 

A.M.LE.E. Pp. llS+ix; figs. 26. London :' Sir Isaac 

Pitman Ji Sons, Ltd. Price -is. 6d. net. 

These three books form a part of Messrs. Pitman's series 
of techmcal pruuers which is designed to provide information 
m the various branches of engineering tt\hnolopy in a cheap 
and concise form. The series, which is edited by Mr. E E 
^eale, B.Sc. A.C.G.I.. A.M.LE.E., compri.^tfs a set of volumes 
whose size is foolscap 8vo, and which are therefore, conve- 
ment for the pocket; they are distmguished bv clear printing 
and the diagrams are well reproduced. 

Mr. Denton's book forms a comprehensive study of direct 
current armature wmdings, and is mtended for use by pro- 
fessional electrical engineers. Many years ago Prof. Cramp 
TOggested a method whereby drum lap windings might be 
looked on as being derived from ring windings; the present 
writer carries this idea further and shows that drum wave 
windings may also be looked upon as derived from ring 
wmdmgs of the multiple.x type. Readers who have had diffi- 
culties in following the more usual explanations of the action 
of wave windings may lind this new method of approach of 
great utility. In addition to the consideration of simplex 
wmdmgs of the lap and wave types, multiplex drum windings 
receive a fair share of attention and, in particular, the series- 
parallel type of winding is carefully considered. ' 

A full exposition of the uses and correct application of 
equalising connectors to the types of winding to which they 
are applicable is also given, and the book concludes with a 
schedule of examples of windings actually emploved by a 
number of well-known firms, with explanatorv notes when 
necessary. We can cordially recommend the book to students, 
and also to electrical engineers who have occasion to go into 
the subject under consideration. It is clearlv written by a 
man thoroughly conversant with his subject! which is pre- 
sented in a compact and efficient form likely to appeal to 
all technical readers. 

The second of these primers is written largely with a view 
to assisting amateurs who wish to construct small transformers 
to their own calculations. The first half of the book is con- 
cerned with explanations of transformer action in language 
suitable for men without any considerable technical know- 
ledge. Vector diagrams are not used, and anything but the 
simplest mathematics is avoided, but it give's a good and 
accurate idea of transformer working for the tvpe of men for 
whom the book is written. Subjects included in this part 
of the work are voltage regulation, efficiency and losses, and 
an account of the magnetic and electrical "circuits of trans- 
formers. 

The second part of the work is concerned with the design 
of small transformers (particularly up to 1 kW), the main 
point kept in view being to produce a transformer having 
pven op#ating characteristics at a minimum cost. The calcu- 
lations, though involving only simple mathematics, are per- 
haps likely to be somewh.it laborious to the amateur, and we 
feel that this section of the work is likely to appeal more to 
men having greater technical knowledge. The method out- 
lined is of great interest, the few a.-'sumptions made being 
of quite a minor character. An alternative method of calcula- 
tion is also given in which reasonable assumptions as to the 
main dimensions are first made, followed by checks to see if 
the de,sired characteristics have been attained. The book may 
he well recommended to men who desire to construct a trans- 
former for their own use. and many parts will he of con- 
siderable interest to men engaged in transformer design and 
construction as a profession. 

In the third book we feel that the author has endeavoured 
to treat a very large subject in too small a space, with the 
result, despite the concise stvle adopted, that the clearness of 
the explanations suffers, and in some cases tbev are not readily 
followed. After an introductory chapter we find anprnximatelv 
one half of the book is devoted to an account of the trereral 
arrangements and mechanism of oil break swit/-hes. In these 
sections it is cVar that the author is thor'>uahlv nt home, and 
he conveys a large amount of informntion in the ninimnm 
of space. At times he seems to fall into the error of iman'n- 
ine that his readers are as conversant with the general outline 
of the snhiect as he is himself, and those who are not will. 
as a resnlt. have to follow the subject matter very closelv! 
and possihlv simply certain gaps from other sources. As an 
instance of this we mav quote the consideration of fuse shunted 
overload trip coils where it is pointed out that the absence 
of fnse shunting mav adversoly affect the accuracy of the 
readings of the switch board instruments. Readers who sre 
familiar wit^ the_ usual arrangements will have no difficulty 
in snpreeiating this point, but others, of less experience, may. 
in the ahsence of further information, wonder why this effect 
IS brgaght abw*- The latter portion of the book if deroW 



to the cuusideration of isolating switches, arrester gear hign 
pressmo fuses, and methods of switch testing, and concludes 
with a short bibliography of the subject. 

'I'he book will be useful to those who have a general know- 
ledge ot the usual arraugemeuts in high pressure switches and 
who wish to obtain additional information in the most concise 
form. 



E X 10" _ 110 X 10,000,000 
z X « ~ 1,152 X 35 



272,000. 



On this page alone (p. 37) there are no fewer than seven 
blatant errors, and some of them cannot fail to have a decidedly 
harmful influence in misleading uninformed readers an.sious 
to learn. On page 157 is the following amazing arithmetic 
for showing the student how to calculate the total resistance 
of two 30 ohm resistances in parallel : — 



+ 



3'fy "1" .TO — 



= 15 ohms. 



Errors in simple arithmetic are very numerous, and in 
some cases must confuse the raw mind. For example, the 
author sets out to show how to design a dynamo for an 
output of 500 watts, and the first step he takes is to prove, 
by his ela.stic arithmetic, that the output of a 500-watt gene- 
rator is really 506 watts. 

We turn in despair from these technical matters in the 
hope of finding some merit in the way the author deals with 
the practical side of his subject, but only again to be dis- 
appointed. The reader is solemnly told that all core plates 
are bent in the act of punching, and that a pair of rolls for 
straightening the plates is an essential piece of machinery. 
When describing a baking oven for a repair shop, the author 
says : " The oven should be preferably steam heated, with 
pipes sufficient to produce a temperature of about 1,50 deg. P. 
A small fan fitted in the side of the oven will draw air through 
these pipes and this temperature will be maintained." Draw- 
ing air through steam heating pijies can hardly add to the 
heating effect, and, no doubt, what the author has seen is 
a fan for ventilating the oven, and he has not understood its 
purpose. On page 73. the would-be designer is informed that 
cotton-covered wire for coils for machines having a voltage 
al>ove 200 sometimes has six layers of cotton. A definition is 
given for wave and lap windings that no winder could under- 
stand, and to make the confusion complete, a clear illustration 
of a wave winding is called a lap winding, and what is really 
a lap winding is called a wave winding. On page 53 is given 
a description and illustration of a former for turbo-alternator 
field coils, both of which entirely fail to give any idea of 
how Buch a jig should he designed. 

Altogether the errors are so numerous and so gross thai 
it ie not possible to come to any other conclusion than that 
the book is one that should never have been poblisbed. 



Armature Winding. A Practical Handbook for Students 
Armature Minders, and Engineers in Charge. By c' 
Sylvestek. Pp. xiii-H171, figs. P2a. Loudon : Kentell and 
Co., Ltd. Price 7s. 6d. net. 

There must be many winders wishing to advance their 
technical knowledge who find difficulty with standard text 
books owing to the limitation of their knowledge of first 
principles. There is thus a real need for books to bridge the 
gap between the usual text book and the ambitious winder's 
technical capacity. The intention of the author was to produce 
a book of this kind, for in the preface he promises that the 
winder who " will allow himself to be assisted by the advice 
contained in the following pages" will become "expert iu 
every sense of the word." 

One might deduce from the wording of the preface that 
the author has not had a conventional scientific training, but 
that he has mastered the technology of his subject by 'self- 
study, and is, therefore, qualified to teach others. A very 
careful and sympathetic study of the Uttle book, however. 
serves only to reveal that the author does not really under- 
stand the essentials of the subject with which he deals, and 
his uninitiated readers are much more likely to be misled'than 
helped. Incorrect statements and partial truths are rife 
throughout the book. .A fair idea of the gross inaccuracies 
can be given by quoting an extract from Chapter 3. in which 
the author explains how a small generator is designed. 

" A good formula for finding the electromotive force of a 
two-pole machine is : — 

E = z /t/10* 

that is where E=the electromotive force. 

C = the total number of lines of force cut by the 

armature conductors. 
n = number of revolutions of the armature per 
minute. 
10'"= number of lines of force which is necessary 
for one conductor to cut to produce one volt. 
2 = number of conductors on the face of the 
armature. 
Prom the above formula it will be seen that the electro- 
motive force depends upon, and is proportional to. the three 
values, 10", z, and n. If any one, or all three, are altered, the 
electromotive force will also be altered accordingly." 
This senseless statement is followed by : — 



Vol. M. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921.] THEl ELECTRICAL REVIEW, 



49 



Tidd Power. By A. M. A. Stkuben, O.B.E.. A.M.I.C.E. Pp. 
xii+112; figs. 13. London : Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd. 
Price 2s. 6d. net. 

Mr. Struben's little book comes at a moment when there 
is a revival of interest in the subject, and it is unfortunate 
that it was written just before the particulars of the great 
Severn scheme were published. Still, in spite of the absence 
of any comments by the author on that project, the book is 
very useful as a Tcsumii of our present knowledge of the 
economic use of power from the tides. 

The author does not minimise the difficulties that confront 
tidal povv'er development, of which the chief is the great 
difference in " range " between spring and neap tides, but 
is of opinion that our increasing experience of hydro-electric 
plants will prove of great service in the solution of the technical 
side of the problem. He discusses various tidal basin systems. 
and gives a series of diagrammatic sketches of such systems 
capable of developing (at 100 per cent, efficiency) from 113 to 
1,032 kW per basin area of 100 acres. He does not give con- 
sideration to the proposal popularised by Mr. J. 0. Boving to 
generate at two or more points where the tide-times do not 
ciiincide and supply power to a common network. 

The chapter on " Financial Considerations " is necessarily 
r:;thcr indelinite, seeing the lack of precedent in the establish- 
iiH-at of tidal power schemes and the great physical differences 
til be encountered in the bays and estuaries of the British Isles. 
Mr. Struben gives it as his opinion that " tidal power can 
riimpete on a footing of equality with steam power as regards 
lost per unit produced by existing undertakings, when the 
capital invested in the latter amounts to £50 per kW installed, 
even when the cost of tidal power stations reaches as high 
II ligure as £1'37 per k\V installed." It does not appear that 
the -Costs and losses of long-distance transmission have been 
considered when arriving at this figure, and working costs 
fi'Xi'hisive of management) have been taken as .20d. per 
unit generated — an estimate which will probably need revision 
upward. 

The two chapters on " Preparation of Projects " and " Re- 
search " are stimulating, and will appeal to all British en- 
gineers. The whole book serves as a timely reminder that 
the T.Tnited Kinsdoiii is a thickly populated and industrial 
country, with all parts comparatively close to the seashore, and 
with a greatly indented coast line — natural advantages for tidal 
power development which none of our great national rivals 
possess. — B. S. R. 



LEGAL. 



An Electrical Unemployment Insurance Case. 
At Loughborough, last week, the Ministry of Labour prose- 
cuted a switchboard oi^erator employed by the Corporation for 
not providing an Unemployment Insurance book. According 
to the Nottingham Express, Mr. R. B. I^each, the manager 
of the electricity works, said that the defendant refused to have 
the book, and that they had stamped it up for him on the 
temporary cards specially provided. It was manual work. On 
the average his earnings amounted to more than £5 per week. 

An insj>ector of the Ministry of Labour said defendant when 
seen by him emphatically refused to have a card, saying he 
did not want to have anything to do with it. 

Mr. Heane submitted that the defendant was not a manual 
labourer within tlie meaning of the ."Vet. He quoted a High 
Court decision, which ruled that dairy foremen and tailors' 
cutters were not manual labourers. He submitted that he had 
no case to answer, as the prosecution had not made out their 



case. Defendant was a responsible worker, in charge of thou- 
sands of pounds' worth of machinery. 

The Bench unanimously agreed that the defendant was not 
a manual labourer, and they allowed costs. 



Pebson & Cox. L/TD., V. Bebey. 
In the Mayor's and City of London Court, last week, before 
Judge Jackson, an action was brought by Person & Cox. Ltd. 
(m kquidation), by M. Morgan, its liquidator, 17, Eldon 
Street, E.C.. agamst Mr. \V. J. Berry, dry cell manufacturer, 
ol Southwark Street, to recover £-25 lis. 4d. for electric 
accessories supplied. Defendant's counsel asked for an ad- 
journment, and said that the plaintiffs had signed a deed 
of arrangement. 

Mr. Reginald G. Davis, plaintiffs' solicitor, opposed the 
adjournment, and said plaintiffs had never signed the deed of 
arrangement. They always refused. The debt was admitted. 
He had every sympathy with the defendant, who had sold 
his business to a gentleman who undertook to pay off 
his habilities. He did not propose to enforce the judgment 
for a time, so that the defendant could recover the money 
from the purchasers of the business. 

•fudge Jackson thought that very fair, and judgment was 
given for the plaintiffs, execution being staged for two months. 

White v. Chambers & Fleming. 
Before Mr. Justice Gordon, in the High Court of Ireland. 
Dublin, a convention was made a rule of Court in an action by 
Mr. James White, of North Frederick Street, in that city, 
against Messrs. F. W. Chambers and G. P. Fleming, La 
Scala Theatre, Dublin, for i;l50, balance due in respect of 
electrical work. The settlement provided for the payment 
of ±'44 odd lodged with the defence, and a further £35, the 
parties to abide their own costs. 

Hurst Electric Plant, I/td., v. Cavan Light & Power Co. 
In this case, which was reported here last week, his Lordship 
ha.s given judgment against defendants for ±130 and costs 
for breach of contract, remarking that plaintiffs could realise 
on the switchboard, which was in their possession. 



Housing Schemes and Electric Light Accounts. 
At the Liverpool Police Court, recently, thirty or more tenants 
cif Corporation hutments at Knotty Ash were summoned for 
non-payment of their electric light accounts. Many of them 
said they had refused to pay because they were under the 
impression that the rent of from 16s. to 20s. per week included 
the cost of lighting. " It was understood when they charged 
such high rents," said one, " that hght would be included." 
It was pointed out. however, there was no ground for this 
assumption, and the Bench made orders for the payment of 
the accounts. — Liverpool Post. 

Rio Tinto Co., Ltd., v. A. G. Brown, Boveri & Cie. 
In the Commercial Court of the King's Bench Division on 
July 5th, this case came on for hearing. It is an action for 
damages for alleged breach of contract relating to the con- 
struction of an electric railway in Spain by the defendants for 
the plaintiffs. 

Sir John Simon opened the case for the plaintiffs. 

On July 6th, it was intimated that the parties had arrived 
at a settlement, but as the defendants were a Swiss company, 
it was agreed that the case should stand over until Friday 
so that they might get confirmation from Baden. We shall 
report the matter next week. 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



Bankruptcy Proceedings. — K. H. Kerr & Co., makers 

of electrical acceaaories. Barrhill Works, Ifalbeattie, Scotland. — A 
meetinff of oreditora waa called for July 5th (the firm having been 
obliged to auapend payment), to consider the atate of affairs and 
anoh proposal for settlement as might be made by the debtors. 
With the approval of creditors largely interested, Meeara. W. and 
W. B. Galbraith, of Glasgow, had been instrnoted to iuveatigata 
the debtora' affairs, and prepare a statement. 

William Wheatcroft, 162, Freeman Street. Great Qrimaby, 
labourer, previously e'ectrician. The following are creditors : — 

Colbrook.W £400 Arrota Eleo. Mtr. Co. (Louth) £24 

Kirkland 41 Tyson, H., 21 

Dring, H. Saltflectby .. .. .10 Swaoy, Thos., 20 

Allen, P. W 38 Cross, G 1!) 

Beadle, T.,& Co., Ltd 30 Chapman, Dr., 10 

Gibbons 2.') Cleveleys Advertising Co. .. 10 

C, A. Cabpentbb, electrical engineer, 4-5, Mason's Avenue. 
Basinghiill Street, E.G. — Receiving order made June 27th on 
creditor's petition. First meeting, July 11th ; public examination, 
September 13th ; both at Carey Street, W.C. 

J. H, Toms, electrical engineer, 13, Gray'* Inn Bead, W.C. — 
Receiving order male June 27th on debtor's own petition. 
Fint meeting, July 11th; public examination, September 27th; 
both at Carey Street, W.O. 

Q. H. Geb, electrician, 10, Front Street, Annfield, Durham. — 
Reoeiving order made June 24th on creditors' petition, First 



meeting. July 12th ; public examination, July 28th ; both at 
Newoa«tle-on-Tyne. 

B. Cloney, tramway divisional traffic superintendent. — Fourth 
and final dividend of 58. 6d. in the £, pavable July 8th, at Carey 
Street, W.C. 

J. W. Layton, electrician, 5, Nobles Bank, Hendon. — First and 
final dividend of la. 4Jd. in the £,. payable July 7th, at the Official 
Receiver's Offices, Sunderland. 

R. C. Jones (Elect-Ma Engineering Oo.X 10. Caledonia Street, 
King'a Croaa, W.C. Adjourned public examination, July 29th, at 
Carey Street, W.C. 

A. Rowlands, electrical engineer, 45, Thrnmpton Lane, Eaat 
Retford, Notts. — Last day for proofa for dividend, July 20th. 
Truatee, Mr. F. C. Brogden, Official Receiver, 10, Bank Street, 
Lincoln. 

W. Hedgkcox, electrical engineer, 121, Salop Street, Wolver- 
hampton. — Last day for uroofa for dividend, July 22nd. Trustee, 
Mr. S W. Page, Official Receiver'* Office, .SO, Leohfield Street, 
Wolverhampton. 

Company Llqaidations. — Anglo-Norwkgian Elkctro- 
Ohbmical and Finance Co., Ltd. — Winding up voluntarily. 

United Electric Cab Co., Ltd. — Winding up volnntarily. 
Liquidator, Mr. G. R. Freeman, 66, Coleman Street, E.C. A 
meeting of creditors waa called for July 7th. Particulars of claims 
must be sent to the liquidator by Aug^uat SIst. 



,60 



THE ELECTRICAL RE^VTE^ 



[Vol. 89. No. 2,276, Jdlt S, 1921. 



ExGiSEERiNG AND Abc Lamps, Ltd. — A meeting of members 
ii called for Angnst 4th. at 29, Graceohuroh Street, E.G., to hear an 
account of the windinp-op from the liqnidator, Mr. W. A. 
Henderson. 

POBTABI.E Electkic MOTORS (19Ii'). LTD. — First meetingr of 
creditors and coutributories, July 12th, at Carey Street. W.C. 

E B.C. Electrical Co., Ltd. — A petition for the winding-up 
has been presented to the High Court by Mr. L. C. Harvey, con- 
snltinfr enaineer, of 25, Victoria Street, S.W., and will be heard in 
London on July 1 9th. 

DIssolntiong of Partnarshlp.— Adam .<: Gayler, elec- 
tricians, Dynoto Works. Suffolk Place, Birmingham. — Mr. F. J. 
Adam and Mr. W. E. Gayler have dissolved partnership. Mr. F. J. 
Adam will attend to debts and continue the business. 

Electrical Et,>niPMENT and Installation Co., electrical 
engineers, (J4, Finsbury Pavement, E.G. — Mr. J. P. Castle and Mr. 
C. J. Arnold have dissolved partnership. Messrs. Csatle &: Co., 
solicitors, 31, Graoechurch Street, E.G., will attend to debts. 

Trade Annonncements. — The firm of A. Y. "Willmott, 

124-127, Minories, London, E. 1, has been re-constituted, and will be 
known as A. V. WUlniott, Son, & Phillips, Messrs. 11. 0. Willmott 
and Mr. F. S. C. Phillips having joined the firm, which will 
specialise at the same address in insulating materials, traction and 
transmission material. &c. 

Messrs. Leslie Di.\on A: Co.. 91, Qaeen Victoria Street, London. 
E.G. 4, are now the representatives in the South of England for 
Messrs. John Fletcher. Ltd., electrical slate manufacturers, whose 
works are at Carnarvon, 

5lB. David G. Brooks, representing the Walsall Hardware Manu- 
facturing Co., Ltd., has moved from 79, Lincoln's Inn, Corporation 
Street, to Daimler House, Paradise Street, Birmingham. 

Messrs. Bruce Peebles & Co , Ltd., have recently appointed 
Messrs. Gharlesworth, Peebles & Co,, of 134, St. Vincent 
Street. Glasgow, as their agents for the whole of Scotland, with 
the exception of the area in the East of Scotland which, as for 
many years past, will still be covered by Messrs. Mitcjell, 
Graham k Son, Ltd., 56, Buccleuoh Street, Edinburgh. Mr. J. A. 
Hood still remains the Bruce Peebles Scottish representative. 

Catalogues and Lists. — Mr. C. Gordon Smith, Royal 

London Buildings, Lichfield Street, Wolverhampton, — An illus- 
trated and priced leaflet dealing with a patent " Economy " flood 
lamp for stage lighting, &o. 

Messrs. E. G. Appleby & Co., Ltd., 70, Victoria Street, West- 
minster, S.W. 1. — A series of leaflets in volume form illustrating and 
describing " Phfjenix " electro-magnets for various purposes, such 
as scrap handling, steel rail conveying, lifting castings, &c. The 
leaflete include a description of a 6-ton crane adapted for uee with 
a magnet. 

Messrs. Higgs Bros., Sand Pits, Birmingham. — "Monthly 
Magazine," July, 1921, containing stock and price-lists of motors 
and dynamos, notes on starting gear, and anecdotes. 

Messrs. W. T. Henlev's Telegraph Works Co., Ltd., 
Blomfield Street. London Wall. E.G. 2.— List U L 1, "Industrial 
Lighting Boxes," giving full details, illustrations, and prices of 
small ioint boxes for use in the lighting of collieries, shipyards, 
factories, warehouses, ice. 

Messrs. Scholey & Co.. Ltd., 56, Victoria Street, Westminster, 
S.W. 1. — A folder advertising the 'Croydon Premier " suction cleaner, 
giving several views of the works of the Electric Suction Cleaner Go. 
Simplex Conduits, Ltd., Garrison Lane, Birmingham. — 
"Installation News," New Series, No. 7, July, 1921, containing 
notes on " Earthing of Factory and Works Installations," and 
descriptions of the "Simplex" hand-lamp and colliery-lighting 
system and " Stellite" lanterns for industrial and street lighting. 

Messrs. George Ellison. Perry Bir, Birmingham — List 
No. 17, illustrating and describing " Mill "-type free-haidle air- 
break circuit breakers ; and List No. in, dealing with trailing cable 
sockets and plugs for air-break gate-end boxes, giving illustrations 
and dimensions. Both lists are fully priced. 

Keiohley Gas and Oil Engine Co., Imperial Works. 
Keighley. ^ An Illustrated blotter advertising " Imperial 
(Keighley) ' gas, oil, and spirit engines. 

Messrs. Haslam k Stretton, Ltd., U, Windsor Place, Cardiff. — 
A descriptive ciroolar of the approved " Thor " miners' safety lamp. 
Illustrated. 

The ExcEtsiOE Shade Mancfactoring Co., Betterway 
House, Stamford Street, Nottingham.— A well-illustrated catalogue 
of " Betterway " lamp shades and fittings in various metal finishes. 
Also two of a series of office mottoes. 

Messrs. G. A. Parsons k Co., Ltd., Heaton Works, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. — Pamphlet No. 3, illustrating and describing the applica- 
tion of steam turbines to paper mills. This shows the advantages 
of the turbine or turbo-electric drive for mill machinery, as well as 
the auxiliary advantage of the turbines in the provision of the steam 
necessary in certain processes. 

Messrs. E. P. Allam k Co., 107-109, Gray's Inn Road, W.C. 1.— 
Monthly stock list, No. 10, July, 1921, giving particulars of d.c. 
motors, new and second-hand. 

The Anglo-Swedish Electric WbldinoGo., Ltd., Wood Wharf, 
Greenwich, S.E 10, — A profusely-illustrated publication (35 pp.), 
describing the Kjellberg arc welding process and its applications. 

Mesjbs. F. J. SiiENTON k Co., Ltd., G8 and 69, Shoe Lane, E.G. 4. 
— A leaflet illustrating "Supreme" standard accumulators and 
bur ;lar alarms. Fully priced. 

Messrs. Bruntons, Musselburgh, Scotland. — A well-illustrated 
catalogue of cold rolled-steel strip of many siites ; the list gives 
fall instructions for ordering, and tables of decimal and metric 
equivalents, kc. 



Messrs. Watson & Sons (Electuo-Medical), Ltd., Sunio 
House, Parker Street, Kingsway, W.C. 2. — Bulletins Nos. 35s and I 
3i;s dealing respectively with "Sunio" automatic X-ray combina- | 
tion, couches and screening stands, and a portable transformer j 
unit (both illustrated and priced) ; Folder No. 3.Ss giving si/eg and i 
prices of back and front intensifier screens ; and " Sunic Record," 
No. 14, giving the preliminary report of the X-Ray and Radium 
Protection Committee. ] 

The General Electric Co., Ltd., Magnet House, Kingsway, | 
W.C. 2. — Pamphlet E. 2,351, giving an illustrated description, with ' 
prices, of studio arc lamps. 

Messrs. Samuel Jackson Jk Co., 53, Briggate, Shipley, Yorks.— 
An illustrated and priced leaflet advertising the "Empira " elec- 
tric washing machine, 

Catalognes Wanted. — l^lR. R. A. Jones, who has recently 

taken over control of Messrs. Bass & Co., 402, Essex Road, wishes 
to receive catalogues. 

Inquiries. — Makers of the " Manchester " oil engine, and 
of the " Lombard " 5-A intermediate corridor switch, are asked for. 

Boole Notices. — " Thermionic Tubes in Radio Tele- 
graphy and Telephony." By J. Scott-Taggart. Pp. xxiv + 424 j 
344 fijs. London : The Wireless Press, Ltd, Prioj 25s, net. 

" Kelly's Directory of Merchants, Manufacturers, and Shippers 
of the World for 1921." In two vols. Pricc01s.net. London: 
Kelly's Directories, Ltd. 

"The Jiiurnul of the South African Institution of Engineers." 
Vol. XIX, No. II. June, 1921. The subject of the paper included 
in this issue is — "Factors Affecting Mining Elliciency." The 
Institution's comments on the Electricity Power Supply Bill and the 
Apprenticeship Bill are also given. Accompanyicg this number of 
the Jonrnal is a complete list of members. 

" Theory of Wave Transmission." By G. Constantinesso, Vol.1. 
Pp. iv. + 211 : figs. 51. London: Proprietors of Patents Con- 
trolling Wave Transmission. — This is a treatise on the transmission 
of power by vibrations, by the inventor of the system ; an alter- 
native title is " Theory of Sonios," from which it will be gathered 
that the transmission of energy " by means of impressed periodic 
variations of pressure or tension producing longitudinal vibrations 
in solid, liquid, or gaseous columns,' h.as attained the dignity of a 
new branch of engineering science— that which deals with all 
applications of elastic properties of liquids for the transmission 
of power as distinct from " Hydraulics," which deals with liquids 
treated as being incompressible. The author first explains the pro- 
duction of impulses, their propagation along a column of matter, 
and their application to the performance of work at a remote point, 
•after which he develops the theory of the subject, which naturally 
bears a close resemblance to that of alternating electric currents ; 
terms 8ucha3"sonomotive pressure," "sonic current," capacities and 
condensers &c., as well as power factor, and workless components, 
not only heighten the similarity, but represent analogous quantities. 
Further on, when we come to the description of the actual apparatus 
employed, we meet with rotors and stators, synchronous and 
asynchronous three-phase motors, collectors, and so on, while later 
sections deal with "high-frequency currents," "charged lines," 
■' transformers," &c. In the appendix numerous tables of constants 
and mathematical functions employed in the calculations are given. 
While it is not within our sphere to discuss in detail a w ark on 
" Sonios," we are interested in observing that a new science has 
thus been created and developed to so advanced a degree by the 
efforts of a single man, and we congratulate Mr, Gonetantinesco on 
the result of his labours. 

"The M. and G. Apprentices' Magazine.' Vol. V, No. 18. 
Summer, 1921. (54 pp.). — This number contains a talk on wages, 
&c , by Mr. Sam Mavor, and many other interesting articles andnotrs. 

" Memorandum on Electric Arc Welding.' Form 329 of the 
Factory Department, Home Office. (10 pp.) London : H.M. 
Stationery Office. Price 3d. net. 

Punch Summer Number (Is.) celebrates Mr. Punch's eightieth 

birthday. In addition to other features, which are up to the usual 

standard, the number contains a section in colour depicting in 

contrast many interesting changes that have been witnessed 

■ during the period, 

E.P.D. — The Federation of British Industries, last week, 
addressed a communication to the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
urging upon his sympathetic consideration two clauses dealing 
with the question of forward contracts and bad debts, which will 
be moved upon the report stage of the present Finance Bill, The 
object of both clauses is similar — viz,, to secure that all firms 
should be placed as nearly as possible upon an equal footing aa 
regards the burdens to be borne and the relief to be obtained under 
the provisions for the termination of E,P.D. 

Lantern Slides. — Messrs. Brdoe Peeisles & Co., 

Ltd., of Edinburgh, have prepared a very complete set of nearly 
80 lantern slides showing their works and manufactures, and these 
are available for illustrating lectures on electrical machinery. In 
addition to views of their works, there are others dealing with 
generators and motors, motor generators, rotary converters, 
frequency changers, and the Peebles-la-Cour motor converter. 

Copper and Lead Prices.— Messrs. F. Smith & Co. 

report, .Tuly 5th:— "Copper (electrolytic) bars, £77 10s., 30s. 
increase ; do. sheets, no change ; do. wire rods, £93 IDs., 308. 
increase ; do. h.c, wire, 11 |,'d., Jd. increase ; silicium bronze wire, 
18. 3id., id. decrease." 

Messrs. James k Shakespeare report, July 6th: — ''Coppr 
bars (best selected), sheet and rod, and English pig lead, no change 
in last week's quotationa." 



Vol. 89. No. 2,27c, JuLT 8, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL R1:YIEW. 



51 



Fire, — Messrs. Albert ]jee & Co., Ltd., usk us to 

itate that the fire which occurred at their works at Andrews Road. 
Hackney, was not of a serious nature, and it in no way interfered 
with the business. They are still able to execute orders for glass- 
ware of all types from btock. 

Electrical Measuring Instraments. — The publication of 

a special article in the Wext minster (inzettc of May I8th, dealing- 
with some of the possible effects of the then proposed Safofruardinjj 
of Industries Bill on certain electrical products, in particular 
measnrinpr instruments of precision, has been followed by a letter 
from Mr. D. N. Dunlop, on behalf of the B.E.A.M.A., dated June 
23rd, and appearing in the GnxeMe for July 1st. Mr. Dunlop writes 
as follows : — " The article laid it down as practically indisputable 
that an American instrument, the ' Westjn,' is so essentially 
different from, and superior to, any English instrument of the 
same kind, that it must be regarded by manufacturers in this 
country as a ' basic tool.' I am to say that while the Weston 
instrument is admittedly excellent of its kind, it is not in any sense 
unique, and that there are a number of English makers of electrical 
instruments (whose names are available) capable of producing, and 
now producing in amply sufficient numbers, instruments performing 
precisely the same functions, and with quite as high a degree of 
accuracy. With regard to the statement that Mr. Enthoven, of 
the late Import Restrictions Department, gave special permits for 
the importation of ' some tons ' of Weston instruments, thus indi- 
cating their indispensability, the writer of the article appears to be 
misinformed. Licences to import were issued during the war not 
because equivalent instruments were not made in this country, but 
because English makers were then engaged on other products con- 
iidered by the authorities to be of greater immediate importance for 
war purposes, and ammeters and voltmeters of the Weston class 
were, therefore, not available in sufficient numbers." 

U.S. Electrical Exports. — The Department of Commerce 
reports that exports of electrical goods from the United States in 
April were valued at $9,085,598, or about 82,000,000 more than the 
total in April, 1920. So far this year the exports are averaging 
nearly $12,OUO,000 a month, which, if continued, would make a 
record year. The total for 1920 was S102,618,508.— 7?«Htor\- Trade 
berrice (Washington, June 14th). 

Engineering Wages. — As briefly mentioned in our last 
issue, a provisional agreement between the parties to the engineer- 
ing wages dispute was reached on June 30th, in time to avert a 
cessation of work. The terms of the agreement, which is being 
voted upon by the employes, are as follows : — The wage reductions 
are to be effected in three stages. The iirst redustion will take 
effect upon July loth, and will consist of 3s. off weekly wages, and 
'\. per cent, off time rates. A similar reduction will ba made as 
from August 15th. The third stage, which concerns the 
"Churchill" munitions bonus of 12i per cent, on time rates, and 
7 J per cent, on piece rates, is to be the subject of negotiation in 
September. The proposals were adopted by the Trade Union 
delegates with but few dissentients, and the prospect of acceptance 
by the workers concerned is regarded with optimism, as the leaders 
recommend this course. 

In announcing the arrival at the above agreement in the House 
of Commons on June 30th, Dr. Macnamara (Minister of Labour) 
paid a tribute to both sides, and said : — 'The successful issue of 
the negotiations is a signal illustration of what can be done when 
employers and workpeople's leaders sit down together to face a 
problem with a real intention of grappling with it untU a solution 
has been found. ' 

Private Meeting.— Albert Harry OsBmir, electrical 

engineer, 67, Southgate Street, and 101, Wtlford Road, Leicester. — 
The creditors interested herein were called togethsr recently at the 
offices of Messrs. Aspell & Barnes. Leicester, when a statement of 
affairs was presented which showed liabilities of £587, all of which 
were due to trade creditors. The assets were estimated to realise 
£290, from which had to be deducted £5 for preferential claims, 
leaving net assets of £285, or a deficiency of £302. It was reported 
that the values placed on the assets were thohe of the debtor. A 
full set of books had not been kept, and the only explanation of the 
deficiency was bad debts to the extent of £125, and loss made on 
contracts. The drawings had only averaged £3 a week. The 
debtor had been in business for some six or seven years. Recently 
creditors had been pressing, and in order to protect the estate, a 
deed of assignment had been executed, the trustee being Mr. R. 
Dunn, chartered accountant, of Messrs. Aspell & Barnes, 3, Welford 
Road, Leicester. An offer was made of a cash composition of 5s. in 
the £, but after discussing the position, it was decided that the 
estate should be dealt with under the deed already executed. 

New Mannfactnrlng Plants in India.— The directors of 

the Tata Co. are negotiating for the establishment of plants for the 
manufacture of railway wagons and locomotives, agricultural 
implements, wire products, tin plates, enamelled wire cables, and 
special steeU for reinforcsments. It is expected that these and 
other plants will ultimately be established at Jamshedpur. — 
Renter's Trade Service, Bombay, June 10th. 

China. — Tramways for Peking.— The Peking muni- 
cipal authorities conciudul a loan with the Banque Indnstrielle de 
Chine on May 9th for the construction of tramways in the capital. 
The capital of the tramway company will be -S 1,000,000, half of 
which will be raised by public subscription. Work will start 
when the money is raised, 



Belgian Rail Contract. — The T'mis Bruetels cones- 

pondent states that a Belgian firm of Marchienne has secured the 
contract for 9.',.0Cii tons of rails offered by the Argentine (Govern- 
ment. The Belgian tender worked out at 46:1 fr. (about £ 10) a ton, 
as against the lowest French tenderof 528 fr. (£11 lOs.). a German 
tender of 2,550 .M, (£9 Us.), an Ameri-an tender of iOrus (about 
£16 IDs.), and a British tender of £14 lOs. 

Foreign Firms In China. — Foreign firms in China are 

increasing rapidly. The latest report shows the following :— 

U.S.A 413 finns 0,660 personnel. 

Belgium 20 ,. 391 „ 

Denmark 27 ,, 546 „ 

Austria 5 „ 27 ,, 

Great Britain ... 644 „ 13,234 „ 

Netherlands 25 „ 367 „ 

France 171 ., 4.409 „ 

Germany 2 „ 1,235 „ 

Italy 19 ., 367 „ 

Japan 4,878 „ 171,485 „ 

Norway 12 „ 249 „ 

Portugal 93 .. 2,390 

Russia 1,780 ,, 148.170 

Spain 8 „ 272 „ 

Switzerland 4 ,, 632 „ 

Others, unclassified ... 33 „ 537 „ 

— Jmirnal of the Office of the High Industrial Commissioner. 

Annual Oatings. — On Saturday, .June 25th, the staff 
of Messrs. Aish & Co., electrical contractors, Bournemouth, 
went by motor-coach to Brishton. On the outward journey, 
Bognor, Littlehampton, and Worthing were visited ; the return 
journey was made through Arundel and Chichester. 

On Saturday last the employes of the Hackney Borough Council 
Electricity Department held their annual outing, proceeding to 
Southend by charabanc. A large party sat down to lunch at the 
Palace Hotel, Mr. L. L. Robinson, borough electrical engineer, 
being in the chair, supported by the Mayor of Southend, the Mayor 
of Hackney, Councillor B. A. Little, vice-chairman of the Elec- 
tricity Committee ; Mr. R. Birkett, electrical engineer at Southend ; 
Mr. J. R. J. Bowden, deputy electrical engineer of Hackney : Mr. 
T. Dalby, power-house superintendent ; Mr. J. F. Heathman, chief 
cleik. Electricity Department, who was responsible for the arrange- 
ments, and others. The chairman proposed the toast of "The 
Mayor and Corporation of Southend and the Southend Electricity 
Department," and expressed the pleasure of the company at the 
piesence of Mr. Birkett. Responding to the toast, the Mayor of 
Southend recalled the fact that he was born in the Borough of 
Hackney, and had spent many happy years within its boundaries. 
He was very pleased to have them in the town, and trusted thaC 
they would have a very enjoyable time, and that this would 
not be the last time that the Hackney Eleotrijity Department 
would make Southend the place of their annual outing. 
Mr. Birkett also responded, inviting those who so desired 
to inspect the electricity works and the boulevard tramway 
system. The Mayor of Hackney, in prop:sing the toast of 
" The Hackney Electricity Undertaking," paid a tribute to the 
ability of Mr. Robinson, and expressed his pleasure at his return to 
duty after a succeiaful operation. The Mayor pleaded for cordial 
relations between the technical and operative staffs. Mr. Ingrey, 
the chairman of the Shop Stewards, responded on behalf of the 
employes. Mr. Heathman, chief clerk. Electricity Department, 
proposed the toast of " The Guests," which was responded to by 
Councillor W. Parker, J.P. 

The staff and workmen of the Tunbridge Wells Corporation 
electricity department held their annual outing on the 29th ult., 
going by motor charabanc to Ea9tbo,.rne, Pevensey. and Hastings. 
This was the first outing since 1914, and a party of 33 (including 
the borough electrical engineer) had a delightful drive through 
some of the most picturesque country in Sussex. Lunch was 
partaken of during a three hours' stay at Eastbourne. At Pevensey 
an inspection was made of the famous old Slint House and Castle 
ruins, followed by an excellent tea. The party then made for 
Hastings, where a halt of two hours was made prior to the run 
home. 

The staff of the Electrical Supplies Co. held their outing on 
Saturday, June 25th. They went by charabanc to Marlow, where 
a very varied programme was provided, including numerous round 
games, ending up with a dance in the evening. Owing to the 
temperature, the more strenuous items were omitted, and the whole 
party spent a good time on the river. At the dinner the chairman 
gave a few very encouraging remarks to the staff, pointinK out 
that the present slump could not continue for long, and they were 
quite prepared for the revival when it came. 

For Sale. — By direction of the Disposal Board, ^lessrs. 
Douglas Young & Co. will sell by auction, at the National Filling 
Factory, on July 14th, the remaining plant and machinery, 
inoludinir motors, pumps, &c. 

Newport Corporation has for disposal one nOO-kW set consisting 
of a cross-componnd reciprocating type engine (Markham ic Co.), 
coupled to a liiO'oOO-V d.c. generator. 

Burnley Corp.iration electricity department invites offers for 
one 250-kW Bellisa-Dick-Kerr generating set 440-550 V, complete 
with condensing plant, and one 30 ft. x 8 ft. Lancashire boiler, 
with Bennis stoker. 

Messrs. Churchill & Sim will offer by auction at Hendon on 
July 12th and 13th, the stook of timber of the Aircraft Manu- 
facturing Co., Ltd. (in voluntary liquidation). For particulars lee 
oar advertisement pages. 



52 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEWo 



[Vol. 89. No. 2,276, Jolt 8, 1921. 



Rassiaa Electrical Notes-— According to a Russian 
paper, a plan has been prepared for the electrification of the peat 
workinp machines, &c., of the Komaroff marshes, near the shore of 
the Gulf of Finland, in the Peterhoff district. It is proposed to 
raise the steam required with boilers that are groing- to be removed 
from certain ships. The electrotechnical section of the Govern- 
ment has prepared plans for the electrification of 13 villages in the 
PelfTorsk district of the Novgorod Government. Preparatory work 
has been began for the construction of the temporary electrical 
station at Vologda, and the extension of the Novgorod station, 
whilst considerable progress has been made with the distribution 
sohemes for various electrical stations in the country, and the 
central electricity works of Staroi Ruas is be'ng completed. 

A message from Homel saya that in Peninitzs an electrical 
station has been constructed, and the chief streets of the town and 
the public institutions are now lighted by current from it. It is 
stated that work is about completed for starting the electrical 
plant at the Treugolnik factory ; but fuel is assured for a month 
only, and the furnaces have been adapted to burn liquid fuel in the 
future. 

It is reported, says an article in the L^ve.ttia, that there has been 
a feverish activity in the installation of small electrical plants in 
the country. 

Readers concerned with Russian affairs may be interested to 
learn that the Russian papers may be seen at a Reading Room at 
116, Oxford Street, W. 1. 

Electricians' Wages. — Notices have been posted in all 
affected works, reminding the electricians that, in accordance with 
the agreement made at York between the E.T.tJ. and N.F.E.A., the 
second wage reduction comes into effect on the first pay-day follow- 
ing July 9th. This makes a total reduction of 10 par cent, from 
the wages being paid prior to the agreement. 

Profit-Sharing in Coal Mining.— The Executive of the 
Labour Co-partnership Association has issued the following : — 
"The Executive of this Association has had before it the official 
settlement of the coal crisis. There is one part of the settlement 
that specially interests this Association, and that is the adoption of 
the principle of co-partnership and profit-sharing for which it has 
worked for many years. The standard wage which has been eet 
implies that profits shall be paid out of a fund secured by the 
united goodwill of the miners and mine owners, and that a large 
share of the surplus shall go to the workers themselves. Now that 
the first step has been taken, this Association looks forward hope- 
fully to the development, as circumstances permit, of the com- 
plete CO partnership idea." 

Unemployment. — The latest available returns of the 
Ministry of Labour show that the total number of unemployed 
registered at labour exchanges for the week ended June 24th was 
2,178,000, an increase of 10,000 upon the preceding week's total. 
This was in addition to workers on short time, who numbered 
963,290. 

E.D.A. Activities. — " Selective Publicity for Installation 
Contractors and Electricity Supply Undertakings " (E.D A. 166), 
recently issued by the British Electrical Development Association, 
may be described as a complete letter writer for the use of those 
named in the title. It comprises a set of twelve circular letters 
pointing out to the recipients the labour-saving properties, 
cleanliness, &o., of electrical methods in the home. Each is 
suitably illustrated, and the arrangement is such that a seasonable 
appeal is made month by month throughout the year. Hints 
as to the best way to prepare and dispatch these letters are 
given, and the cost per 1,0 jO is shown in detail. 

The A. <S G.E. at Derby.— At the R.A.S.B. Show at 
Derby, the King visited Stand 47 of Aobicoltdhal and Gbnbbal 
Enoineebs, Ltd , and was received by Mr. J. G. B trford and Mr. 
G. M. Blajk^tone, directors, and Lieut.-Cjl. C. F. Hitchins, D.S.O , 
general manager of the company. The general manager informed 
His Majesty that the company was an association of 14 of the 
oldest and best known engineering firms in tlie country, employing 
in normal times some 18,000 workpeople, producing a'l types of 
engines both steam and internal combustion, also every description 
of agricultural imp'ements, &c. His Majesty expressed his 
pleasure at the initiative displayed by British manufacturers. 

Electrical Goods in Sonih Africa. — 'Soulh African 

Mining aid Engineering for June 4th, says that owing to the 
insufficiency of current and the inactivity in the building trade at 
present, business is rather tlosv in Johannesburg and along the 
Reef, and not so many orders are now coming in from other parts 
of the Union. There is iio change to report in prices, but the 
tendency is for them to come down, as the latest quotations 
from Britain are coming in easier, tubing especially so. Material 
is arriving regularly from Britain, but none at all from the 
Continent, owing to the 26 per c^nt. Customs levy recently im- 
posed, whose vagaries are not yet rightly u ideratood on either 
side of the water. The recniut reduction in freights will halp to 
cheapen electrical goods later on. At present all lines are well 
itooked here. 

German Competitinn In Sonlh Africa. — At the annual 

meeting of the Port Elizibath Chamber of Commerce, the President 
•aid : — •' Many of us have not handled German goods, but we must 
now seriously consider whether it is not fu ile to attempt to ignore 
the commercial activities of seventy millions of people. The 
Germans are at werk again, and supply certain goods below 
American and British cost. The up-country man considers price, 
anl if we decline to handle German goods it is useless to import 
British or American goods to sell at a loss."— iJeuter. 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 

Belfast — Price Increase. — At the monthly meeting of 
the Corporation on the 1st inst., a recommendation was put tor- 
ward by the Electricity Committee, fixing the tariff for electric 
light and power at 30 per cent, above the existing rate, as from 
July 1st. 

Bexley. — Increased Price for Bulk Supply. — The 

Urban District Council has asked the Foots Cray Electricity Supply 
Co. to agree to accept for bulk supply of electricity, the amended 
terms of 2'30id. per kWh against '94d. now paid. The Council is 
advised that the company could obtain a bulk supply from the 
Woolwich Borough Council if the agreement with Bexley were 
revoked. 

Birkenhead. — Bulk Supplt. — An arrangement has been 
come to between the Electricity Committees of Birkenhead and 
Wallasey, subject to the approval of both Town Councils, for the 
supply of electricity in bulk by Wallasey to Birkenhead, with a 
minimum annual payment of £3,500. The Birkenhead "Town 
Council, at its monthly meeting on July 6th, was tisked to accept a 
tender for the laying of cables from the Marshall Street sub- 
station, Birkenhead, to the Wallasey generating station at a cost 
of £9,241. 

Birmingham. — Extensions. — The Finance Committee 

has approved the application of the Electric Supply Committee for 
the sum of £39.5 QUO to cover a part of the extension scheme 
spread over a period untU 1925. 

Restrictions Relaxed. — The Emergency Committee of the 
City Council had under consideration last week the question of the 
emergency restrictions in the light of the altered ojnditions (the 
return of miners to pits in the Midlands). The Committee came to 
the conclusion that a relaxation of the restrictions could be made 
so far as they affected the lighting and small power taers, and 
recommended that these be immediately removed. When, at a 
later date, supplies of coal of good quality were forthcoming, the 
restrictions on tramway services and large power consumer.s would 
also be reUxed. Tnia immediate relief for the electricity users is 
greatly appreciated, and the effect has been that many factories 
have resumtd almost normal working. 

Blackbnrn. — Year's Working. — The total revenue of 

the Corporation electricity department for the year ended March 
3Ut last wa% £110,165, as compared with £91,321 in the preceding 
year. Working expenses amounted to £91.949, as against £70 714, 
leaving a gross balance of £18,216 (£20,577). This balance was 
absorbed by capital charges, and the net result was a deficit of 
£2,321, comparing unfavourably with a net loss of £345 on the 
previous year's working. 

Blackpool. — Suspension of Meter Rents. — The 

Corporation Electricity Committee has decided to suspend the 
operdtion of meter rentals for the June quarter, in consequence of 
the restrictions on supply. 

Chatham. — Price Increase. — The Kent Electric Power 

Co. has increased the price of electricity for lighting by Id. per 
unit, and for power and heating by id. per unit. 

Chesterfield. — Loans. — The Town Council has applied 
for loans of £1,000 for service cables, £1,000 for distri'mtors, 
£2,000 for e h.p. cables, and £750 for the coverlng-in of the river 
at the electricity works. 

Continental. — France — It was reported, last week, that 
the electricity works at Dieppe had baen destroyed by fire, 
depriving the town of light and power. The damage is estimated 
at 2,000,000 fr. 

Denmabk. — The Technical Commission appointed by the Home 
Ministry is exploring the posaioility of utilising sea currents for 
the production of electrical power. A systematic investigation has 
been instituted of the currents in tha Little Belt, which are known 
to be strong at times but which have not yet been ajcurately 
measured, in order to determine whether they would yield sufficient 
constant power to render exploitation profitable. — Reuter't Trade 
Serricp (Copenhagen). 

Germany. — The nationalisation of the electrical industry 
in Germany began, according to an article in the 7? ehtroterhnisihe 
y^eU.ichri/t, in Ddcember, 1919. The law of that year permitted the 
State by way of compensation, to appropriate every undertaking 
generating electricity exceeding 50,0U0 V or 5,000 kW. By this 
means the State became tue owner of all the high pressure lines 
which were capable of being interlinked and worked by the State 
and the local companies. Among the new schemes complementary 
thereto, mention may be made of the canalisation of the Rivfr 
Neckar from Ma' nboim to Plochingen. Up to the present, fuuds 
have beea licking lor this, altb >ngti Dr. Binch, of Stuttgart, 
offered to contribute 13,000 lO mams. In a distance of HOO km., 
the Neckar I alls 16 1 metres between Piojhiiigen and the Rhine; 
34 sluicej would auffioe, with talU ranging from 2 6 to 8 5 metres, 
pe m tting the pussage of ships of l,2o0 tons bu'deo. It is 
reckoned that 300,000 kWh cjuld ba generated yearly allowing 
for all losses. The details of the schema for the linking of the 
Rhine with the Danube by a canal are complicated, and con- 
struction at certain poin's would b^ difficult. The canal would use 
the winding part of the Muin River, and would pass through 
Wurtzburg, Niirnberg. Aschaffenburg, &c. This scheme would have 
a yearly outpui; of between 700,0(JO,000 and 1,000.000 000 kWh. 
There is also a scheme for the building of a canal on the Rhine 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921.] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



53 



between Baale and Strassbarg:. It is reckoned that 1,800,000 kWh 
oonld be obtained yearly from the falls below Basle, and 
1,200,000.000 kWh from the falls above that city. In the North 
of Germany there is a question of linkin? the Weser with the 
Falda, and it is proposed to replace the exiatine sluices by larger 
ones. It is believed that 70,000,000 kWh yearly could be obtained, 
which would be enoush to cover the outlay. There is likewise 
the Oder River project (100,000,000 kWh), that of the Weser, and 
lastly, the Masurian Canal, which would furnish electricity to East 
Prusoia (20,000,000 kWh^.—L'Elecfricien. 

Cookham.— Provisional Order. — Application has been 
made to the Electricity Commissioners by Lord Weston, Sir Geo. 
Tonne, Bart., and others, for authority to generate and distribute 
electricity for public and private purposes in the villages of 
Cookham and Cookham Dean. 

Coventry. — Year's Working. — The results of the 

working of the city electricity department for the year ended 
Maroh 3lat were as follows : —Total revenue, £2213,145, as compared 
with £192,488 in the previous year ; working expenses, £168.501, 
as against £134,748 ; grots profit, £57,644, as against £.t7,740 ; 
capital charges, £52,434 (£47,685); net profit. £5,209 (£10,055"). 
The greater part of this profit is to be utilised for works expendi- 
ture and for new plant ; only a balance of £31 is to be carried 
forward. 

Electricity District.— N.E. Midlands. — The Yorkshire 

Ptst says that the Shefiield Corporation has lodged with the Elec- 
tricity Commissioners a comprehensive scbeme for the constitution 
of an electricity authority for the \orth-Eaat Midlands area. The 
new authority will be composed of 18 members — 12 appointed by 
the SbefBfld and Rotherham Councils, and one each for the 
Chesteifield and Doncaster Councils, the West Riding, Derbyshire, 
Notts , and Lindsey County Councils. It is proposed to link up the 
big Sheffield pjwer stations at Neepsend and Blackburn Meadows 
with the Rotherham generating station, and later, as rnq aired, 
further links wUl be made between Mexborough, Doncaster, Chester- 
field, Chapeltown, and the intermediate districts. The diatrict 
includes the big collieries of South Yorkshire. 

The additional plant required under the scheme is proposed to be 
provided as follows : — Blackburn Men'^ows, 3ii,OoOkW ; Rotherham, 
30,000 kW ; the new stations at D noaster and Mexborough, 90 000 
kW, increasing later to 120,000 k W. As the plant at the following 
■tations becomes obsolete, it will be discarded, provided an alter- 
native and cheaper supply is available ; the East Street and Kelham 
Island stations of the ShefiBeld Corporation, and the existing 
stations at Chesterfield, Doncaster, Worksop, and Mexborough, and 
the Rotherham No. 1 station. 

Ellesmere Port, — Transfer of Order. — Having 

written to the Electricity Commissioners asking them the terms 
npon which they suggest that the Ellesmere Port EUectric 
Lighting Order should be transferred to the Mersey Power Co., 
the Council has now received from the Commissioners a draft 
deed of trausfer, which provides for the re-pnrohaae of the under- 
taking by the Joint Electricity Authority on ajreei terms in 
1952-3, the date when the Runcorn and Widnes undertakings of 
the Mersey Power Co. are re-purchasable. The Commissioiers added 
that In their opinion the best interests of the district would be 
served by the transfer of the order to the company. Some of the 
Commissioners had personally visited the Ellesmere Port district 
on the termination of the recent Liverpool Inquiry, and the 
district was one in which there were alrealy established important 
industries extensive in character, though few in number. The 
Ojunoil's consulting engineer agreed that the amount of electricity 
to be distributed in Ellesmere Port for public lighting or for 
domestic purposes would be small and insignificant compared with 
the amount required for industrial purposes, and the Commis- 
sioners pointed out that for the Council to establish a small and 
necessarily limited system of distribution for private and public 
lighting separate from the system which had been laid, and would 
have to be laid, for the supply to existing and future industrial 
works, would entail a duplication which would add unnecessarily to 
the capital expenditure, and would, therefore, increase the cost of 
electricity to tho district. The clerk to the Council stated that 
the Commissioners had omitted the most important point from 
their reply— that was the matter of a bulk supply to the Council. 

Folkestone.— Extension of Area of Supply. — The 

Folkestone Electricity Supply Co., Ltd., is applying to the Elec- 
tricity Commissioners for a special order authorising the extension 
of the area of supply to include the Urban District of Cheriton and 
the parishes of Saltwood, Newington, and Hawkinge. 

Gloucester.- Prick Ad.tustmrnt. — The Town Council 
has decided to inoreasi the prioe of electricity by one fortieth of a 
penny per unit for each shilling above 25a. per ton, which the 
Corporation has to pay for coal. 

Heston and Isleworth.- Proposed New Station.— Tlie 

FA'uning Standar.i stato that the Diat'ict Council, in conjunrtion 
with the boraugh of Ealing, bus decided to submit to tne Elec- 
tricity Commissioners a scheme for estiiblishiiig a new power 
station for the combined districts near the Duke of Northumber- 
land's residence on the banks of the Thames. The total area of 
the district is about 9, '00 acres. The assessments are nearly 
£1,000 000. The present generating stations are very incon- 
veniently placed, and sanc'ion for the extension of these stations 
oould not be obtained from the Commissioners, 



Honghton-le-Sprlng. — House Lighting. — The Rural 

District Council has approached the Honghton-le-8pring District 
Electric Lighting Co. with regard to a supply to the new houses 
on various loc»l sites. The company has expressed its willingnem 
to snpply electricity provided that the Council guarantee* s fair 
return upon the capital expenditure which will be incurred. 

Japan. — New Power Companies. — A scheme is under 
way to establish the Abnkumagawa Hydro-Electric Co., and the 
Tokio Electric Transmission Co. The first will have a capital of 
10 000,000, and develop 55,000 kW by harnessing the Abuknma 
River, Fukushimaken, while the other company will have a 
capital of 30,000,000 yen, and supply thij power to Tokio.— 
Jteutir'x Trade Sen-ice (Tokio"). 

Kingston - on - Thames. — Year's Working. — Tha 

accounts of the Corporation's electricity undertaking for the year 
ended March 31st last, show a total income of £43,251, m against 
£36,705 in the previous year. Working expenses totalled £31.199, 
as against £24 003, leaving a gross balance of £12,055 (£12.702). 
After the payment of capital charges, the net result was a profit of 
£697, a considerable decrease upon last year's profit of £2,256. 
The total number of kWh gold Increased from 1,848,038 to 
1,928,470. 

Manchester. — Tear's Working. — The annual report 

upon the City electricity undertaking for the year ended 
March 31st, 1921, has recently been published. The total revenue 
from all sources amounted to £1,547.226, as against £1,197,199 in 
the preceding year. Wurking expenses totalled £1,115,239, aa 
compared with £705,357. The gross surplus was, therefore, 
practically the same as in the year 1919-20, amounting to £431,987, 
as against £431,842. Capital charges were, however, heavier, 
reducing the net profit of the undertaking from £87,634 to 
£69,123. Of this balance, £37,230 was appropriated in aid of the 
city rates, while the remainder was transferred to reserve. The 
number of kWh sold rose from 182.419.070 to 199,618,813. The total 
expenditure on capital account during the year wm £426,273, and 
additional borrowing powers to the extent of £1,760,277 were 
obtained. Of this last amount, £1,392,000 was in respect of the 
new Barton station and high-pressure mains. In the course of the 
year many contracts were placed for the supply of equipment for 
the Barton station, including e.h.p. and l.p. switchgear, transformers, 
steelwork, circulating- water pumps, and water-screening plant. One 
2,000-kW motor-generator was piased in the Dickinson Street sub- 
station, and one 1.500 kW motor-converter. Orders were placed 
with Messrs. Bruce Peebles & Co., Ltd., for eight motor -converters 
for installation in distributing stations. Mains were extended by 
a length of over 13 mUes, and contracts were allotted for the 
supply of 33,OoO-V cables in connection with the first section of 
the Barton station. 

Preston, — Proposed Purchase. — The Corporation is 

applying to the Electricity Commissioners for authority to generate 
and supply electricity for public and private purposes, and to 
purchase the undertaking of the National Electric Supply Co., Ltd. 

Sanderland. — Year's Working. — The annual report of 

the Corporation electricity department for the past financial year 
shows a total revenue from all sources of £170.668, as compared 
with £137,240 in the previous year. The working expenditure 
was £121,913, as against £9i<,718, leaving a gross ba'anoe of 
£48,755 (£46,522). This balance was applied as follows :— 
Interest on capital, £13,504; income-tax, £1,778; repaym nt of 
loans £21,258; cost of boilers, .fee., £1.940; battery vehicles, 
£4,295; and depreciation of stock. £165, the balance of £5,485 
being carried forward to the present account. The total number 
of units sold was 21,150,197, an increase of 9 per cent, upon the 
previous year's sales. The cost per unit rose from l'54d. to r79d. 

The department has been able to maintain a good suppfy of 
electricity during the whole period of the coal trade dispute. 
Restrictions had to be imposed on consumers for a time, but for the 
last month of the strike a full supply was maintained. The main 
source of coal supply has been an old copperas bank near the river- 
side a few miles away, and from this heap some thousands of tons 
of small coal have been obtained. The heap has lasted only jiut 
long enough for the purpose. The two largest of the 12 boUer* 
have been kept going by means of oil-burning plant which waa 
temporarily installed. 

Tannton. — Extension of Sdpplt Approved. — The 

Rural District Council has given conditional consent to the 
application of the Town Council to supply electricity to the 
Parishes of Bishop's Lydaard, Norton Fitz>varren, and Staplegrove. 

Walsall. — Year's Working. — The report upon the 

Corporation electricity undertaking for the year ended Maroh Slit, 
1921, record! a to.al income of £90,001, ns against £78,251, in tho 
previous year. Working exjwnses totalled £74.378, as compared 
with £»7 800, leaving a gross bJance of £21,683 (£30,391). Loan 
in'erest, debt redemption and other capital charge* absorbd 
£20,069, making the net result a profit of £1.614, a considerable 
decrease on the figure for the previous year— £I0.K24. The total 
numberof kWh sold rose from 7 419 265 to 8.397 868. While the 
oo>t per kWh sold, including capital charges, increased from 
219J. to 2 70i., the price obtained only rose from 2'63 to 2'74d. 

Weybridge. — Price Increase Refused. — It is stated 

that the Electricity Commissioners have declined to sanction an 
increase in tho maximum price of electricity from lOd. to U. per 
kWh at Walton-on-Thame» and Weybridge. 



54 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. 



[Vol. 89, No. 2,276, July 8, 1921. 



Wolverhampton. — Electricity Scheme Recommended. 

— The Electric Supply Committee has recommended the Council to 
accept the Electricity Commiaaioners' scheme for the re-orgranisa- 
tion of the various Midland electrical undertakings. For some 
time the attitude ot the Wolverhampton authority had been a little 
doubtful, and a decision to stand apart mijrht have decisively 
influenced the fate of the scheme. The proposed reorganisation 
will embrace Wolverhampton, West Bromwich, Stoke-on-Trent, 
Ironbrid^e, Rucreley, and Cannock. This development is of con- 
siderable importance to industry in South Staffordshire and the 
Black Country, 



TRAMWAY AND RAILWAY NOTES. 



Blrkeohead. — Revi.<ed Fares. — The Tramways Com- 
mittee hag prepared a scheme for the revision of fares and staples 
to come into operation on August 1st, In gome instances it is pro- 
posed to curtail the stages, whilst in others the fare for the whole 
route is to be increased. 

Birmingham, — Railless Cars. — The Tramways Com- 
mittee recommends the institution of a raillesa car service on the 
NeoheUs route as an alternative to track reconstruction. Although 
12 new cars, costin? £3,000 each, will be required, the Committee 
considers that a considerable saving will be effected by the adoption 
of this system, 

Blackbnm. — Year's Working. — The report upon the 

Corporation tramways for the year ended March Slst, 19l'1. records 
a total income of £137,758, as compared with £119,958, Working 
expenses amounted to £119,810, as against £91,911, leaving a 
gross trading balance of £17,918 (£28,047), After payment of 
capital charges, the net result was a profit of £751, compared with 
£41o for the preceding year. Receipts per car-mUe increased from 
22'52d. to 26'1-d., and the number of passengers carried from 
17,902,546 to 18,260,154. 

Brighton. — Short-term Loan. — la order to cover a 

deficit in the tramway accounts for the year ended March Slst 
last, stated to be due to exceptionally heavy track renewals 
charged against revenue, the Tramways Committee is seeking to 
raise money by means of a short-term loan. The Finance Com- 
mittee does not look with favour upon this course as the deficit is 
properly chargeable against local rates. 

Colne. — Loan. — The Town Council is making appli- 
cation to the Ministry of Transport for sanction to borrow £6,600 
for the purchase of new tramcars. 

Continental. — Austria. — The Eronomii- Reviftr, quoting 

the Xeii-e Freie Presxe, says that the loss of almost all her coal 
mines at the end of the war turned Austria's eyes to the question 
of the development of her water-power. Failing foreign credit, 
Austrian capital has supplied the means to begin the electrification 
of the railways, and in some measure to make good the deficiencies 
of the coal supply. The yearly coal requirement of the State 
lailways is about 3,000,000 tons, to produce an output of 
116,000 h.p. Of the total 3,40ii km. of railway, 650 km. on the 
Arlberg and Tanern lines will first be electrified, with a demand 
of about 25,000 h.p„ or, if the Salzkammergut line be included, 
40,COO h.p. that is, about a third of the output of the yearly coal 
consumption. The power stations on the Spuller Lake and the 
River Rnetz are nearing completion, and the unemployed are 
building the Mallnitz and Stub Kiver stations. At Arlberg, on the 
Innabruck-Bregenz line, the installation of the lines is now in 
progress, electric locomotives, heavy and light, for passenger and 
goods traffic are in preparation, and special accumulator-trucks are 
to serve side-lines. All the important apparatus is the product of 
Austrian factories. 

Portugal, — The tramway strike, which has been in operation 
for more than a month, came to an end to-d&y.—Hetiter (Lisbon, 
July 3rd), 

Japan- — Hioh-hpeed Electric Railway. — Application 

baa been made to the Government for a charter to construct a 
ligh-speed electric railway l)etween Tokio and Nikko, a distance 
of 80 miles. Under this scheme it is proposed to cover the 
distance in two hours. — Heuter'x 'J'rade Service (Tokio). 

London. — Underground Fares. — On June 30th Mr. A. 
Neal, Parliamentary Secretary to thf Ministry of Transport, replying 
to Mr, Leonard Lyle, who asked whether, in view of the decrease 
in the coat of labour owing to the fall in the Board of Trade 
index number, the public might anticipate in the near future some 
reduction in the heavy fares on the underground railways of 
London, and called attention to the increase in the value of the 
■bare* of the company operating these railwayo, said : — " My right 
hon. friend has not overlooked the powers of review conferred 
upon him by Sub-.Scc, 3 of Sec. r, of the London Electric Railway 
Companies (Faros, &c.) Act, 1920, and at the termination of the 
present half-year the companies will be called upon to submit 
statements of the financial results of working for examination. It 
if upon these figures, and not upon fluctuations in the market price 
*f sharei, that any adjustment of charges must be bated. ' — The 
'Jlmen. 

Thk Leytos Tramways.— The municipal tramway undertalting 
of Leyton was to be transferred to the L.O.C, as from July Ist. 



Manchester. — Tear's Working. — The working of the 

Corporation tramways during the year ended March 3l8t, 1921, 
brought in a total revenue of £1,813,401, as compared with 
£1,586,863 in the preceding year, Theworkingexpenses amounted to 
£l,,507,56i;, as against £1,207,231 in 1919-20, leaving a gross surplus 
of £305,835 (£379,632), Adding interest on investments, ,>co., the 
total was £316,147 (£398,495). Capital charges absorbed £191,718 
(£170,658), leaving a balance of £124,429 (£227,837), From this, 
£ls,2r,3 was deducted for income-tax, and the balande (£106.165) 
transferred to the renewals fund. The number of passengers 
carried decreased from 285,046,914 in 1919-20 to 277,738,710 in ^he 
year under review. The car-mileage also decreased from 18,906,654 
to 18,711,007, in spite of an increase of over four miles of track. 
The total mileage (single track) owned or leased or over which the 
Corporation exercises running powers ia now over 208 miles. 

E.XTENSiON OF Sebvice, — Following upon the municipalisation 
of the Denton and Audenshaw tramways, the Manchester Corpora- 
tion has secured running powers over 24 miles of the route. The 
Corporation intends to run a service straight through to Hyde, a 
distance of seven miles, when the track has been relaid. 



TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE NOTES. 



Cable Delays. — Considerable improvement has recently 
been effected in the transmission times of telegrams between this 
country and South Africa, but, unfortunately, increased general 
delay has again to be apprehended owing to the interruption of 
the Eastern Telegraph Co.'s cable between Aden and Zanzibar at a 
position where, at this time of the year, the S.W, Monsoon blows 
with great strength. It is feared that, owing to the weather, the 
restoration cannot be expected for some considerable time. — 
Iteutcr's Trade Serrice. 

Mr. Pike Pease, replying to questions in Parliament, said that 
as soon as cable repair work in the Red Sea was completed (pro- 
bably within the next week) it was hoped that the present 
exceptional delays in cable service to the Far Bast would cease. 

The Telephone Service. — Committee's Inquiry. — 

The Select Committee on Telephones, of which Mr. Evelyn 
Cecil is chairman, hopes to conclude the taking of evidence 
before the end of the session. It intends afterwards to send 
its expert assessor. Mr. W. W. Cook, to report on the telephone 
systems of the United States, Canada, Sweden, Norway, and 
Denmark. The Committee is of opinion that the inquiry 
cannot be complete without an independent report of this 
character from an expert not connected with the Post Oflice, says 
Tlie Times. A formal interim report may be made at the end of 
the session, but it will be necessary for the Committee to be 
re-appointed next year. The drafting of the final report will be 
proceeded with in the autumn, and it will be presented, it is 
probable, not long after the re-aaaembly of Parliament. 

LowebReceipts, — The Post Office has issued the following explan- 
ation of the decrease of 1 million sterling in the telephone receipts for 
the quarter ended June 30th, shown in the Revenue Returns published 
on July 1st : — 'The falling off in the telephone receipts paid over 
to the Exchequer in the quarter just ended, is due merely to the 
fact that under the new tariff subscribers pay their rental and aall 
fees quarterly, and to some extent in arrear, whereas under the old 
tariff the rratal was paid annually in advance, and call fees period- 
ically in advance. The total shortage of cash revenue in the year 
of transition due to this change-over is estimated at £2,(i00,000. 
The change of system was introduced for the convenience of tb' 
public, and has all along been part of the scheme of the new tariff." 
— 7'/ie Times. 

Post Office Board. — The Postmaster-Greneral has 

appointed a Post Office Board, consisting of the heads of the most 

important branches of Post Office work. The members are : - 

Right Hon, F, G. Kellaway, M,P,, Postmaster-General, 

Right Hon, H, Pike Pease, M.P., Assistant Postmaster-General. 

Sir Evelyn Murray, K.CB., Secretary to the Post Office. 

Mr, E, Kiven, O.B., Second Secretary to the Post Office, 

Sir Henry N, Bunbury, K.C.B., Comptroller and Acoountant- 

General. 

Assistant Secbetabies to the Post Office. 
Mr. W. G. Gates, C.B., Home Mails Branch, 
Mr, F, J, Brown, CB.E., Telegraph Branch. 
Brig. -General F. H. Williamson, C.B,E., Foreign and Colonial 

Branch. 
Mr. J. Y. Bell, Establishment Branch. 
Mr. A. R. Kidner, Telephone Branch, 
Mr. W, T, Leech, Staff Branch. 
Mr. W. E. Parsons, Buildings and Supplies Branch 
Sir William Noble, Engineer-in-Chief, 
Lieut.-Col. T. M, Banks, D,S.O., M.C, Secretary. 

Wireless Telegraphy. — At the (conference in London of 
the Prime Ministers of the Empire on .July 5th, a committee was 
appointed, says the Dailij M<iU, to consider the practical means 
available at the present time for developing Imperial communica- 
tions by land, sea, air, cable, and wireless telegraphy and telephony. 

Post Office Advisory Conncil. — The Postmaster-Cieneral 
has appointed Lord Colwyn and Sir John Dewranoe, K.B.E,, to be 
vioe-ohairmen of the Post Office Advisory Council, says T/ie Tim«s, 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, jdly 8, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAl. REVIEW 



55 



CONTRACTS OPEN AND CLOSED. 

(The date gii'en in parentheses at the end of the paragraph indicatet 
the issue of tlie Elbotbioal Bevikw in which th« " Official 
Notice " appeared.) 



OPEN. 

Australia. — Melbodbne. — August I'lth. Victorian 
Railways. Motor-efenerator set, aoceasories and switohgear (for 
automatic telephone exchange, Contract No. 34.132).* 

August iUst. Victorian Railways. Accumulator cells and acces- 
sories. Contract No. 34,171 ; electric light equipment (axle generator 
system. Contract No. 31,172).* 

October 19th. Victorian Railways. Fresh tenders are invited 
for the supply of an electric furnace for the Newport workshops. 
Hfiiter's Trade Serrirr (Melbourne). 

Shire op Hampden (Victoria). — August 17th. Boiler-house 
plant, steam-driven electricity generators, transformers, meters, 
switohgear, cables, poles. Specifications from Mr. H. C. Ingleton, 
Shire Hall, Camperdown, Victoria. — Tenders. 

Brisbane. — July 18th. Queensland Water Supply Department. 
.".1,000 yd. h.d. copper cables, various diameters, for overhead trans- 
missiou ; 2,980 ft. lead-covered, armoured copper cables, various 
gauges, with accessories.* 

Tasmania. — August 1.5th. P.M.G.'s Department. Switchboard 
material. (See this issue.) 

Belgiam. — August 9th. Provincial Government authori- 
ties at Mons. Either a gas engine or electric motor, together with 
a pump, to raise from 160 to 200 cubic metres of water per hour 
from the Strepy waterworks to the Houdeng reservoirs. 

Brandon and Byshottles. — Electric light installation, 

houses for the Urban District CounoU. J. A. Bobaon, architect, 
Langley Moor. 

Cardiff. — July 18th. Electric light wiring and fittings 
in concrete houses at Ely. City Eleatrical Engineer, Cardiff. 

Edlnbargh. — July nth. Electricity Supply Depart- 
ment. Storage battery (Spscifioation No. 8,5). (July Ist.) 

France. — July 15th. The French Ministry of Posts and 
Telegraphs. Miscellaneous telegraph material, including 15,000 
zincs for Callaud batteries, 60,000 zinc rods for Leolanche batteries, 
20,000 zincs for manganese batteries, 20,C0o compound positives for 
Leclanche batteries and 15,000 compound positives for manganese 
cells. In the case of the first three lots, the auooessful tendering 
firm will be required to manufacture the new supplies from existing 
old material. Particulars from the Service de la Verification du 
Materiel, 75, Boulevard Brune ; tenders are to be sent to the 
Direction de I'Exploitation Telegraphique, 103, Rue de Grenelle, 
Paris. 

Glasgow. — The District Committee of the Tower Ward 
of the County of Lanark. Electric lighting for 50 houses to 
be erected at Gartcosh. Mr. Jas, A. MoCallum, District Clerk, 15, 
West George Street, Glasgow. 

Holmflrtb. — July 15bh. Urban District Council Elec- 
tricity Department. One i')0-kW, 480-V d.c. generator, shunt- 
wound, with regulator and' slide rails. (See this issue.) 

Ilford. — July 11th. Electric light installation, Christ- 
church Road School, for the Electricity Committee. Mr. A. H. 
Shaw, electrical engineer. Ley Street. 

Jngo-Slavla. — July 13th. Minister of Posts and Tele- 
graphs. Telephone material.* 

London. — L.C.C. Julyllth. Supplying and laying h,p. 
electric cables, &o. (June 24th.) 

Metropolitan Asylums Board. July 20th. Alterations and repairs 
to the electric lighting, fire alarms and domestic bell installations 
at St. George 8 Home, Chelsea. (See this issue.) 

Manchester- — July 12th. Tramways Committee. Steel 

tramway poles and silicium bronze trolley wire. Mr. J. M. McElroy, 
General Manager. 

July 29th. Electricity Committee. Five 2,BO0-kW rotary con- 
verters, static transformers, switohgear, two l.p. starting trans- 
formers, &c., or motor-converters, switchgear,&c., and one I,r)00-kW 
rotary converter, static transformer, switchgear, l.p. starting 
transformer, &c., or motor-converter, switchgear, &c. (See this 
issue.) 

Mexborongh. — July 23rd. Urban District Council. 
Electricity Department. E.h.p. switchgear ; l.p., d.c. switchboard. 
(July iBt.) 

Newport. — July 25th. Electricity Department. 750-kW 
rotary converter, transformer and switohgear. (See this issue.) 

Rhyl. — July 9th. Urban District Council. Electricity 
Department. 1,000 yd. "3 x '3 X '15 l.p. cable, one 5-way feeder 
pillar, switchboard panel and gear. (June 24th.) 

Sontb Africa. — Barberton. — July 29th. Municipal 
Council. Plant in connection with the proposed scheme for the 
supply of electricity ; — Two steam boilers, two 75-kW steiun-driven 



alternatorH, switchboard, and LDStruments, steel chimney, pipibg, 
feed pumps, cables, &o., steel poles, conductors, ace., transformers, 
house service meters, fa;. Specifications, £2 28., from Prof. W. 
Buchanan, 75, Louis Botha Avenue, Johannesburg. 

Sontbampton. — July 9tL Electricity Department. 
Twelve months' supply of meters. (July Ist.) 

^. Spain. — August ist. Municipality of .'^an Sebastian 
(Guipuzcoa). Supply and installation of the electrical material 
required for the new lighting system of the Uyviu.—Reutrr't Tradr 
Sri-nrr (Madrid). 

Urnguay. — Monte Video. — September 3rd. State 

Electricity Works. The Commercial Secretary to His Majesty's 
Legation at Monte Video reports by cable to the Department of 
Overseas Trade, that the local authorities are advertising for 
tenders for the supply of 59,250 metallic-filament lamps of assorted 
sizes, from 10 to 300 o.p., 225 volts, which are required by the State 
Power House. 

' A copy of the specification, 4c., can be conaolted at the Depart- 
ment of Oveneai Trade, 36, Old Queen Street, B.W.I. 



CLOSE D, 

Australia. — Sydney City Council has accepted a Victorian 
tender of £125,000 for turbo-alternators in connection with the 
installation of new plant, costing £500,000. — lieuterU Trade Ser- 
vice (Sydney). 

Melbourne.— The Victorian Electricity Commissioners have 
accepted the tender of Messrs. Milliken Bros., London, of £72,86.s, 
for the construction of 643 galvanised steel towers for the trans- 
mission of power from Morwell to Melbourne. Messrs. Milliken's 
tender was £23,250 under the lowest tender for manufacture in 
Australia. — Meuter's Trade Service (Melbourne). 

Belginm. — Six concerns submitted tenders, la«t week, to 
the Belgian Post and Telegraph authorities in Brussels for the 
supply of a quantity of cable heads, the lowest (15,430 francs) 
being that of P. Wilhelm, of Brussels. The offers varied consider- 
ably, one firm quoting up to 66, 1.S5 francs, 

France. — The French Jlinistry of the Colonies in Paris 
has just placed a contract with the Societe d'EIectro-Metallurgie de 
Dives for the supply of 8 tons of high-conductivity copper wire at 
5,530 francs per metric ton and 500 kilog. of bronze wire at 
703 francs per 100 kilog. 

London. — St. Marylebone.— Electricity 1 »epartment. 
Recommended : — 

House service meters tor one year.— Chamberlain A Hookham, Ltd., and 

Ferranti, Ltd. 
Steelwork required for the boiler-house and pump-room extension, f S.500. 

—Sanders & Forster, Ltd. 

Mexborongb. — Urban District Council, Accepted : — 

'ith transformer, £4,405.— General Blectric 

Salford. — Tramways Committee. Accepted : — 

Four tramoar controllers, i'3<10.— English Electric Co., Ltd. 
Electricity Committee. Accepted : — 

L.p. cable, various sizes, in connection with the housing scheme at Lower 
Kersaland Wea3te,X91i<(approi.).— Eofleld Ediswan Cable Works, Ltd. 

Additional plant for the two new water-tube boilers, comprising steel 
chimneys and Hues, induced-draught plant, coal bunkers and supple- 
mentary oil burners, £7,897.— Baboock & Wilcox, Ltd. 

"Usoo" asb-handling plant in connection with the two new water-tnbe 
boilers, £3,144.— Underfeed Stoker Co., Ltd. 

Three cast-iron feed-water tanks, £260.— J. Wolstenholme & Son, Ltd. 

Duplicate feed-water heater, £170.— J. A Q. Weir, Ltd. 

Warrington. — The Electricity and Tramways Committee 
has cancelled its contract with the Anglo-Belgian Improvements 
Corporation for tramway rails. 



PORTHCOMINQ EVENTS. 



Tramways and Light Bailwajrs Association. — Friday, .Tuly 16lh, At 
Caxtou Hall, Caxton Street, Westminster, S.W. At 3 p.m. Annual 

Congress. 



A New Tnrbo-electric Locomotive. — The new tnrbo- 

electric locomotive intended for use rn railways, which has been 
patented by Mr. Ramsay, of Newcastleon-Tyne. is creating Seen 
interest in railway and engineering circles. The locomotive has 
been built at Messrs. Armstrong's works, and will shortly undergo 
its trials ; the London and North-Western Railw,>»y Co. will carry 
out the experiments. Either oil or coal can be burnt in the ordi- 
nary boiler, which supplies steam to a turbine, the latter in turn 
driving an electric.il generator. The turbine exhausts into an air- 
cooled condenser, and important economies aie expected to te 
realised by the use of this new type of locomotive. Existing engine 
frames can be fitted with the new equipment with very little 
alteration. The first steam-electric locomotive was the Heilmann 
type, which was tried some 20 years ago. 



66 



THE' ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi.89. No. 2,276, jult s, 1921. 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE. 



By JOS. J. H. STANSFIELD, F.C.I.S. 



In the i»gne of July Ist, it was stated that the weekly rates 
payable by eiiployed persona and employers were to be increased as 
fiom July 4th, and the rates were given for comparison with those 
previously payable. 

It was also stated that a Bill had been presented by Dr. 
Maonamara which would, if pawed, increase these rates before the 
Act which was passed last Ma>ch came into force, and that details 
would, in due course, be published. 

These are now to hand, and from the comparison which is 
given below it will be noted how materially the rates have been 
inoreased. 

From the Employed Person. 
August, 1920. Juli/. 19S1. Jiihj. l[)il amended. 

Men 4d. ad. 7d. 

Women 3d. <d. 6d. 

Bojs under 18 ... 2d. 2Jd. 3id. 

Girls „ „ ... lid. 2d. 3d. 

From the Employer. 

Men 4d. 6d. 8d. 

Women 3id. Sd. 7d. 

Boys under 18 ... 2d. 2Jd. 4d. 

Girls „ ,, ... 2d. 2d. 3Jd. 

Unfortunately the increased rates do not mean increased benefits, 
for unemployment benefit is to be reduced as folio W8 : — 
& 8. d. B. d. 

Men From 1 to 15 

Women From 16 to 12 

Boys From 10 to 7 6 

Girls From 8 to 6 



NOTES. 



Edacatlonal. — The Education Commitoe of the London 
County Council has prepared a schedule of revised fees for day and 
evening course? at the technical institutes, &c., maintained or 
aided by the Council. Gfnerally, the minima proposed are not 
greatly in excess of the existing fees, and ia some instances no 
alteration is suggested, but in one or two casen the recommended 
increase represents a conaiderab'e advance. Upon the whole, the 
fees for technical and apprenticeship courpes are not augmented to 
a large extent. The effects of the adoption of the schedule are 
briefly summarised by the Finance Committee as follows : — Under 
existing conditions the percentage of fees to total expenditure in 
maintained technical institutes for the year 1921-22 would be 
35 ; and for polytechnics. &3., 14'5. Under the schedule these 
percentages will be raised to 6'2 and 19'4 respectively. 

The Education Committee also recommends a grant of £5,000 
towaids the cost of completing the south-west wing of the 
Engineering Department of University College. In connection 
with this, it is stated that £70,000 is required for building and 
initial equipment and £30,000 for maintaining and improving 
equipment. £33 000 has been subscribed in response to an appeal 
for funds, and Lord Cowdray has promised £10,000 as soon as the 
initial £70,000 has been raised. 

Students from the Dominions.— On Mondav the Government 
entertained the delegates to the Congress of the Universities of the 
Empire at luncheon at the Savoy Hotel. Mr. A. J. Balfour pre- 
■ided. and, referring to the increased appreciation of University 
training which had been manifested since the war, emphasised the 
yalne of exchange of students and teachers with the United 
States. Sir Robert Falconer (president of the University of 
Toronto) said that in the Dominiona the same demand for higher 
education was experienced, and it was of the utmost importance 
that the British universities should become a centre to which the 
Dominion graduates would turn after they had completed their 
work overseas. For years to come they would be reluctant to go 
to German universities, and the old universities would benefit by 
the influx of the vigorous youth from the Dominions. 

The Cost ol Printing and Poblishlng.— In reply to a 

letter in 'J'he Times, signed by a numbar of officers of learned 
societies and librarians, and protesMng against the high price of 
•oientific and other serious books, Mr. OeofTrey S. Williams, 
president of the Pahlisie.s' Association, points out th»t pub isriers 
are dependent on the printing, binding, and papier-making tial'S, 
and cannot poisibly issue books at lower prices until the charges 
made by these trades are materinlly reduced. The coat of printiug, 
he states is now ab mt -li limei what it was in 1914 ; paper (of an 
infMrior quality) costs m re than rtonble ; binding (also inf-iri ir) 
costs over three times as mu.;h and the total cont of a largo 
edition of a small book works out at 180 per cent above the 1914 
figure. The maximum iicreas; in the selling price, however, is 
150 percejt. above the 1914 price, and it is generally much less. In 
the case of scientific books the cost of production has been 
trebled since 1914. The cost of materials has begun to fall, but 
wages, which are the dominant factor, remain at the higheat 
point yet reached. 



Appointments Vacant. — Teacher in electrical engineering, 
for the E at Ham Technical College ; evening cla'ses demonstrator 
in elec'-.ricil engineering, for the City snd Guilds Engiaeerin? 
College; 'eVphone inspeti'or (£250 + £115), for the Government of 
British Guiana. For pirticulars, see our advertisement pages to-day. 

Fatality. — " Death from misadventure " was the verdict 

at an inquest held on June 3 'th, at New Tredegar, on a boy of 10 
who, while attempting to reach a bird's nest, cime into contact 
with a wire carrying current at 3.000 V, at the engine house of the 
Old Pit. A companion said the lad was in flames on the wire 
when be looked round. The colliery engineer, Mr. W J Jones, 
undertook to carry out certain preeautionary measures with a view 
to prevtnting such accidents in the future. 

Electric Cooking Tests. — A considerable advance in the 
efliciency of electric cooking is indicated by a report of tests 
carried out with "Lightning' ovens for various classes of cooking. 
The information has been supplied by Electrical Utilities, Ltd., 
from details gathered from various sou'oes. Joints of meat 
ranging in weight from 2o to 25'75 lb. uiere oooked ; the eneigy 
consumption in the ca^e of the foraaer was "987 kWh, and the loai 
in cooking, 6 :i3 per cent. The wastage in the case of the largest 
joint was only 3 22 per cent., and the energy consumption 225 kWh. 
The results are naturally better for the larger joints, as an 
appi-eciable portion of the energy is absorbed in raising the tem- 
perature of the oven. It is po-isible to bake 18 lb. of bread at one 
time in the oven, and the energy consumption for this is about 
15 kWh. For cooking cakes it is neoeuaary first to heat the oven 
for 15 mi antes, which takes about 5 kWh; the actual cooking only 
consumes 33 kWh. 

A Russian Electrical Congress. — An important elec- 
trical congress has juat been held in Moscosv. At one of the 
sessions the chairman, Baahkoff, said that the position of the elec- 
trical industry in the country was a very difficult one, mostly 
because of the scarcity of skilled hands. He warned his hearers 
that the electrisal industry had to confront a great problem, and 
that all their energies must be direc:ed to its solution, taking 
account of all pnssihilities. There was relatively very little elec- 
trical material availiible, but still they must not bepoaeimiHtio. In 
the country there was yet a fair quantity of electrical equipment. 
What was wanted was its proper distribution amongst those who 
could use it. In this direction a great deal had already been done, 
but the organisation might be much better. It must be more 
systematic. Greater scope must be left to the local councils in the 
matter of electricity, and assistance should be given by the forma- 
tion of local committees, the whole, however, being controlled by 
the Chief Department of Electrical Industry. In the discussion 
following the chairman's address, a number of delegates held that 
fixed prices must be made for goods, particularly for the smaller 
industries ; the importance of local manufacture of ehctrical 
material was insisted on, and also that the central body should 
organise industries in various localities where hands strould be 
instructed or encouraged to make themselves acquainted with the 
industry, so that they might be fit to be employed in the larger 
factories later. 

Tall Stories from the Tropics.— Under this heading 

the Ere/ling Standard, of July 2nd, printed the following startling 
item: — "Weird tales of the tropics were told by Captain R. H. 
Torrible, of the steamer Denis, whioh plies between New York and 
Manaos, a port about a thousand miles up the Amazon River. 
What is more, says the Central News New York correspondent, the 
captain declared that, strange as were the things he described, they 
were quite true. 

" He told how on a river that emptiea into the Amazon, near 
Manaos, he saw myriads of electric eels so strongly charged with 
electricity that the bosom of the stream was flooded with light, and 
the orew were able to read their pocket Bibles by the glow, which 
was estimated at 40 watts per eel. 

" When some of the eels were brought on deck, the captain added, 
the ship's dynamos were short-oircuited. When the vessel wa« 
tied up at the p'.er ahoy fell into the river. The eels surged ronnd 
him and when he was taken out of the water he was dead. A 
doctor who examined the body said the lad had been killed by an 
overcharge of electricity." 

We knew there was a strong current in the Amazon, but evi- 
dently the eels make light of it. 

Industry and Cheap Fnei. — An important statement has 
been submitted to the Prime Minister by the National Federation 
of Iron and Steel Manufacturers and the Iron and Steel Trades 
Confederation (representing the workers), with regard to the con- 
dition of the iron and steel industry, which ociiupieg 1? million 
workers. As the result of the coal strike, the industry is at a 
standstill, and destitution prevaila in iron and steel producing 
dis'.riots throughout the country. European competition is severe 
owing to th"! low levrtl of real wages in Germany, due partly to the 
fact that the German working classes are working up from the 
very low sc^ndarl of living imposed by our bioctade during the 
war. and are. th-jrefore, for thu nreaeut, rulatively content with 
ad/anoea in wagis which leave their real earnings still far below 
the pre-wa' level ; and partly to the system of fanily and other 
bonuses, which enabln th>i working man to meet hia expanses at a 
minimum cost to the total wages bill. These considerations apply, 
though to a less extent, in France and Bjlgium. 

It is the considered opinion of employers in the trade that, in 
view of foreign conditions, the industry will not be able to re-start 
unless fuel, as well as other items of cost, is reduced to a level not 
higher than from 75 to 100 per cent, above pre-war valnei. 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



67 



A Mnniclpal Vehicle Demonstration. — With regard to 

the note uuaer the above heading on p. 82 1 of our isane of Jane 
24th, it was stated in error that Messrs. Elcctrioars had on view a 
16cwt. Vehicle, whereas it actually had a 60cwt. carrying capacity. 
The chassis was an improved type of the model originally produjtd 
by Messrs. Edisuu Acoumulatois, iita. It is kuoivn as the Model 
" E. A.," and has proved lo bu very satisfactory. The uhacsis Irame 
ia of tne built-up type, the side membtrs boiuK ojnetructed ot two 
high- tensile steel flitch plate* reinforced by well- seasoned American 
ash filler piecas. Solid-drawn steel tuoe cross members are used, 
and the rear wheels are each driven independently thrcuijh 
totally -enclosed continuously-lubricated gearing- irom a seiies- 
woQiid motor, which is mounted outside the ohaeais frame, thus 
providing accessibility should the brush gear need adjustment. 
The controller bux is also mounted outaide tne Irame on 
the near side immediately behind the front mudguard ; the 
battery compartments are situated under the drivers stsa. ana 
under the bonnet m front ot the dash respectively. 

The body, which is entirely constructed of sheet-steel, is tippjd 
by an automatic electric tippmg gear, which is put into action uy a 
simple reversing switch. As soon as the switch is closed, a small 
electric motor raises the front end of the body by means ot a 
square-thieaded screw (.through a suitable reduction gear), and a 
nut to which is anchored a series of toggle-jomted levers which 
have a suissor-line action. The process of tipping ia effeo.ed 
within no seconds. All channel section bracing piecas are kept on 
the outside of the body, thus allowing the loau a clean sweep when 
tipping. 

Jit present this type of vehicle is manufactured in two aizes, 
which have carrying capacities of 60 and 70 cwt. respectively. 

Railway Electriflcaiion, — In the Swedish daily paper, 
Nya Dayens Aiiehanda, for April 7th. Mr. C- Kossander, one 
of the leading consulting engmeers ot iStockhokn. gave- au 
interesting account of a iive weeks' tour he had just earned 
out in Germany, Prance and Switzerland on behalf ot the 
Swedish State Kailway Jilectrihcation Committee. 

It is proposed to ca.iy out the electrincation of all the main 
lines in Sueden, and it was almost decided to employ .-^lugle- 
phase a-c excellent results having already been obtained 
with that system on the section, Gellivare-iiiksgraensen. But 
when the engineers were considering the next portion to be 
electrihed, i.e., Stockholm-Gothenburg, the possibilities ot 
danger to the telephone system, the lines of which follow the 
railway, were realised, and it was desired to consider the 
practicability of employing direct current. This was the main 
object of Iilr. Rossander s tour, with the study of mercury 
rectifiers as a special inquiry. 

Mr. Rossander visited the works of Messrs. Brown, Boveri 
at Baden and at Mannheim, rectifiers being constructed at 
both factories. He also inspected the apparatus under work- 
ing conditions at Berne, and in the Cologne district. The 
plants in both cases had been in use for two years, were de- 
signed for tiUO volts, and were employed for tramway work, 
with excellent results. The German A. E.G. and Siemens con- 
cerns were reported to have taken up the manufacture of 
mercury rectifiers seriously. 

For the purpose of the Swedish State Railways a pressure 
of 600 volts was insufficient, in fact 3,000 volts would be desir- 
able, but no mercury rectifiers have yet been constructed for 
such a high pressure. 

Mr. Kossander ascertained that Messrs. Brown, Boveri had 
undertaken to supply a number of rectifiers for 1.500 volts 
pressure for an electrified railway in the South of France, 
under the severe condition that if they did not function en- 
tirely satisfactorily they would be rejected. The makers felt 
confidence in their abihty to carry out the contract satia- 
factorily. 

Mr. Kossander reports finding the question of railway electri- 
fication exciting wide interest abroad. In France the matter 
is mainly in the planning stage, although attempts at standar- 
disation are being made, and systems previously employing 
alternating current have been converted to direct current at 
1,600 volts. 

In Switzerland electrification is in rapid progress, the 
■ingle-phase system being used almost exclusively. 

Mr. Rossander had an opportunity of inspecting the power 
rtation at Lyons, whence power is distributed to three power 
itations and two sub-stations, all coupled in series. Direct 
current at from 70,000 to 100,0(XI volts pressure is employed. 
and the whole system has been found exceedingly reliable. The 
French Company, Societe ./Vnonyrae des .ateliers de Secheron, 
makes a speciality of this class of business, and is at present 
co-operating with Messrs. Brown. Boveri in working out a 
scheme for electrical power transmission from Norway to Den- 
mark, which is thought to be practicable at 300,000 volts d.c. 

Dyke's Antomattc Electric Bufiy Lamp.— Since the 

repair of the first submarine telegraph cable, the need of 
adequate means of illumination for mark buoys during night 
operation has been felt by all repairing ship.s. At the present 
time the original type of oil lamp, with a few improvements, 
is still in use. but is far from satisfactory; therefore, with 
these defects in mind, an automatic electric buoy lamp was pro- 
duced, and was patented in ."Vmorica in August, 1919. 

The following description <il tlie lamp and its method of 
operation is abstracted from the T. atui T. Age : — 

The lower part of the lamp consisti of a circular, water- 
tight, galTaniaed sheet iron can. 



The top closure plate contains an opening in its centre, 
around the upper edge of which is a small metal collar holding 
a circular dioptric lens. A second closure plate, bavmg a 
similar metal collar on its under side, covers the top ot the 
lens, rubber gaskets being used to make the junction ot the 
lens and the closure plates watertight. The can contains a 
wooden carrier supporting eight dry cells and an eight-day 
clock, the gearing of which is so constructed that the arbor of 
the clock revolves once in 24 hours, and is provided with a 
timing disk, which is made of insulating material and is 
secured in position on the arbor by a wing nut. The face of 
the disk is divided into twenty-four hours, the numbering of 
the divisions being in two groups of twelve hours eacn. A 
portion of the periphery of the disk is slightly cut away and a 
segmental metal contact plate inset, the length of which 
depends on the number of hours the light is required to bum. 
A pair of contact fingers are mounted on a small insulating 
block on the frame of the clock at the side of the disk. The 
ends of the contact fingers rest firmly on the periphery of the 
disk, and the tips of the contact fingers and also the segmental 
contact piece in the disk are gold plated to prevent corrosion 
by the sea air and to give as perfect a contact as possible. The 
eight dry cells are connected in series-parallel to give from 
5 to 6 volts, the lamps being 5-5-volt ones, taking .30 ampere 
each. 

The method of operation is as follows : Assuming that an 
eight-hour disk is being used having the contact piece mset 
from S p.m. to 4 a.m.. if the lamp is being placed on the 
buoy at '2 p.m., the wing nut holding the disk is loosened 
and the di.sk turned until the division marked 2 p.m. comel 
directly under the point of contact of the two fingers. The 
wing nut is then tightened, and the lamp assembled and made 
ready for use. The method of attaching the lamp to the 
buoy staff is immaterial so long as it is securely held in 
place. As the contact fingers now rest on the insulated 
portion of the disk periphery, there will be no circuit between 
the battery and the lamps, but as the disk revolves, the 
contact piece will come under the contact fingers at 
8 p.m., and the lamp will then light and continue thus until 
4 a.m., when the contact piece will pass from under the 
fingers, thus extinguishing the light. This cycle of operations 
will continue until the timing mechanism stops, which occurs 
generally on the tenth day. Exi>erimental models of this lamp 
have been supplied to the Commercial Cable Co., the French 
Cable Co.. and the Western Union Cable System, and have 
proved satisfactory in operation. 

The Bastian Electric Co , Ltd. — The adjonrned petition 

of \V. P. N. May and Another for an order for the compulsory 
liquidation of this company was again before Mr. Justice P. O. 
Lawrence in the Companies' Winding-up Court on Tuesday. 
Negotiations for a settlement with the petitioners have been 
going on for some weeks, and it was now stated that no settle- 
ment had been reached yet. But a certain sum had been 
found, and that was the inducement to ask for another week's 
adjournment. This was granted. 



INSTITUTION NOTES. 



Institution of Electrical Engineers' Conversazione — The follow- 
ing is a list of the principal guests present at the conversazione of the 
Institution, at the Natural History Museum, Sonth Kensington, 
on Thursday last week : — 



Sir William Barrett. 

Sir Tom Callender, J.P. 

Sir G. H. Collier. 

Sir Robert Elliott Coopor. 

Sir H. J. Greedy. 

Sir Philip Dawson. 

Sir G. K. B. Elphinstone. 

Sir Arnold B. Gridley, K.B.E. 

Sir S. F. Harmer. 

Sir A. W. Watson. 



Brigadier-General Sir W. T. F. 

Horwood. 
Sir Herbert .lackson. 
Rear-Admiial F. C. Learmontb. 
Sir Gfrard and Lady Munti. 
Sir Philip Nash. 

Sir A. M. J. Ogilvie. K.B.E.,C.B. 
Vice-Admiral Sir Laurence 

Power. 



Delegates of American Engineering Institutions : 



Mr. Ambrose Swasey. 
Colonel A. S. Dwight. 
Mr. Charles F. Rand. 
Dr. Ira N. HoUis. 
Mr. John R. Freeman. 

Members of Council : — 
Mr. W. A. Chamen. 
Mr. H. W. Clothier. 
Mr. J. R. Cowie. 
Col. R. E. Crompton, C B. 
Mr. W. Crrss. 

Sir Jamei Devonshire, K.B E. 
Dr. W. H. Ecclee. 
Mr. S. E. Fedden. 
Dr. C. C. Garrard. 
Mr. F. Gill. O.B E. 
Mr. J. S. Highfleld. 



Mr. Charles T. Main. 
Mr. Robert A. Cnmmings. 
Mr. .Tesse M. Smith. 
Dr. F. B. Jewett. 
Mr. William Kelly. 



Mr. P. V. Hunter, C.B.E. 

Sir Wdliam Noble. 

Mr. C. C. Patereon, O.B.E. 

Dr. A. Rns'ell. 

Mr. W. M Selvpy. 

Mr. Hoser T Smith. 

Mr. C P Sparks, C.B.E. 

Mr. A. A. C. Swinton. 

Mr. C. H. Wordingham, C.B.B, 

Mr. P. F. Rowell, Secretary 



68 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,276, jdlt 8, 1921 



L r 



The president, Mr. LI. B. Atkiason, and Mrs. Atkinson, with the 
CJooncilof the Institution, received the uueats, who numbered in all 
about 1,500. An exceUent programme of music was provided bv the 
string band of the Royal Engineers, under Lieut. Neville Flux, 
F.B.A.M., and a concs.t in three sections was given by Misa Phyllis 
Carey-Foater and Misa Miy Peters, with the Allitd String Quartet. 
At 10 o'clock the gathering was called lo attention by the notes of 
a bugle, and the President introduced Mr. Ambrose Swasey, chair- 
man of the deputation of American engineers in this country, 
referring to his great achievements in connection with the construc- 
tion of the largest telescopes in the world, as well as Dr. F. B. 
Jewett, Vice-President of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, and chairman of the electrical branch of the delegation, 
who recently gave « lecture on research before the Institution, and 
is at the head of the largest research organisation in the world. 
Mr. Swasey expressed his admiration at the manner in which the 
British nation had come through the war, and still maintained its 
upright and resolute attitude in the face of the many difficulties 
with which it had to contend ; he expressed the firm solidarity 
between the T'nited States and the British Empire, and advocated 
the utmost possible co-operation between the two nations, in the 
best interests of the whole world. Dr. Jewett, after heartily 
endorsing these sentiments, resd a letter from Mr. A. W. Berres- 
ford. President of the American I.E.E., to the same effect, the 
message being greeted with enthusiastic applause. 

The ofTer of Mr. E, M. Hnghman, of Bombay, to give a donation 
of £2.50 to the Benevolent Fund of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, on condition that 19 similar amounts were contributed 
by June 30th, has been extended by him to Decsmber 31st, 1921. 



OUR PERSONAL COLUMN. 

The Editor! inrite electrical engineers, whether cumiected with ths 
technical in- the commercial side of the profession and industry, 
also electric tramway and railway officials, to keep readers of the 
Electbical Review posted as to their movements. 



Mb. H. L. Kibby Johnson has commenced business at 68, 
Gordon Street. Glasgow, and has been appointed representative for 
Scotland for Messrs. Drake & Gorham Wholesale, Ltd., of London. 
For the last eijht years Mr. Johnson has been supply department 
branch manager for Scotland with the Metropolitan-Vickers Elec- 
trical Co . Ltd., Trafford Park, and on severing his connection with 
this company, he was the recipient of a silver cigarette and cigar 
box from his oolleaguea in Glasgow and Manchester. 

Messrs. Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., have 
secured the services of Mb. R. P. Tod, M.I.Mech.E , M.I.Met., in 
connection with their hydro-electric work. Mr. Tod has been at 
the British Aluminium Co.'s Works, at Kinlochleven, since 1907, 
and readers who have visited these works wi),l know him as 
having been originally in charge there of the erection of the pipe 
lines and turbines of 30,000 h.p. Until recently Mr. Tod has been 
manager-in-chi6f over the whole of the British Aluminium Co.'s 
undertaking at Kinlochleven. 

Col. and Mb.s. Cro.mpton recently celebrated their golden 
wedding, and several of Col. Crompton's old pupils (through the 
instrumentality of Mr. Llewellyn Foster) took the opportunity to 
present them with a small token of their esteem, affection and 
goodwill. This gift, which has been suitably acknowledged by 
Mrs. Crompton, was accompanied by an album containing the 
signatures of those who contributed. 

After considering lltO applications for the position, the Wallasey 
Electricity Committee is recommending the appointment of Mr. 
B. T. Hawkins, electrical engineer to the St. Helens Corporation, 
as electrical engineer and manager of the Wallasey undertaking, in 
succession to Mr. J. A. Crowther who resigned. The salary recom- 
mended is £1,000 per annum, or £900 if the electrical engineer is 
allowed to take two articled pupils. 

Darwen Town Council has been recommended to increase the 
salary of Mb. Pebcy Taylob, assistant electrical engineer, from 
£250 per annum to the basic salary of £427, rising by three 
instalments to £471, with the usual bonus from November 20th 
last, in accordance with the schedule of salaries of the National 
Joint Board. 

Mb. John McDonalij, late of the Telegraph Department, Post 
Office, Aberdeen, who left this country a few months ago to take 
up a post under the Colonial Gove'nment, has been appointed 
traffic manager for the telegraph system of Eist Africa and 
Uganda, with headquarters at Nairobi. 

Mb. R. a. Watsdn Watt, Brechin, has been appointed suner- 
intendent of the Radio Research Board Wireless .Station, Aldersho';. 
The Wigau Corporation has appointed Mr. W. M. Milnes, of 
Coventry, tramway manager, at €700 a year. 

Mr. W. S. Askham (of 17, Regent Park Terrace, Hyde Park, 
Leeds) announces that he has severed his connection as North 
Country representative with Messrs. J. H. Tucker & Co., Ltd., after 
17 years' service, and has joined Messrs. J. A. Crabtree & Co., Ltd., 
of Walsall. 

We understand that Mb. Charles L. Tomlinson, late sales 
manager for primary and secondary batteries to the Elison and 
Swan Co., Ltd., has recently vacated an engagement he had taken 
up with the Hart Accumulator Co., Ltd. 

Mb. W. N. Y. Kino, A.C.G.I., A.M.I.E.E., until recently 
Msociated with the Austin Motor Co., Ltd., has entered into 



partnership with Mb. Brazieb, under the style of Brazier k King, 
engineers, of 14, New Street, Birmingham ; the firm will deal with 
electric power and lighting installations, factory e<iuipment, steam 
plant, &c. 

Mr. H. C. Lones, of the Shropshire. Worcestershire, and Stafford- 
shire Electric Power Co., whose marriage to Miss Nellie L. 
Tregg. took place last week, has been presented by the staff with a 
clock. 

Mb. Geobge Hallv, of Birmingham, has been appointed chief 
works manager of the engineering side of the Edison Swan 
Electric Co., Ltd., Ponder s End. We understand that Mr. ifally 
has had a wide experience with some of the leading firms of 
engineers in this country and abroad. 

Will. — Mb. R. J. West, a director of the New General Traction 
Co. and the Norwich Electric Tramways Co., left £50,705. 



NEW COMPANIES REQISTERED. 



Private 

carry -on 
rs in aH 
tribution, 

i;"H."T 



Alliance Wholesale Electrical, Ltd. (175,447).— 

conip.inv. Registered June 29th. Capilul, £3,000 in £1 shares. To 
the business of wholes;tle suppliers and manufacturers of and dealt 
machinery and apparatus used in connection with the generation, di; 
supply, accumulation, and employment of electricity, itc. The first 
are: W. F. White, 93, Hamlet Gardens, Ravenscourt Park, W. 
Grant, 89. Carlton Mansions, Maida Vale. W. 9; Elizabeth McAi 
Dorset Road, Merton Park, S.W. 19. Secretary : E. McArthur. Solicitor : 
W. P. Scott, 150-151. Fenchurch Street, E.G. 

The Hugh Stanley Co., Ltd. — Private company. Regis- 
tered in Dublin June 2rth. Capital, £1,250 in £1 shares. To carry on the 
business of mechanical and electrical engineers, &c. The first directors arc ; 
D. Harrison, 75, South Circular Road. Dublin; A. R. EliassoS, 75, South 
Circular Road, Dublin; H. Stanley. 17, Anglesea Street, Dublin. Registered 
office : 41, Temple Bar, Dublin. 

Alexander Marshall & Co., Ltd. (11,772). — Registered in 

Edinburgh June 24th. Private company. Capital, £30,000 in £1 shares 
(15,000 preference). To acquire the business of a boiler and accessories maker 
carried on by A. Marshall, and to carry on the business of ia-onfounders. 
engineers, tube manufacturers, &c. The subscribers {each with one share) are ; 
A. Marshall, Murravfield, Motherwell, boiler maker; A. Marshall, junior, 
Murravfield, Motherwell, boilt-r maker; J. Marshall. Murra^field. Motherwell, 
boiler maker ; J. Pitceathly. Glenparg, Hamilton, engineer; ' \V. A. Campbell. 
Murrayfield, Motherwell, clerk; A. B. White, 1, HolVrood Crescent, Glasgow, 
boiler maker. The first directors are: A. Marshall, A. Marshall, junior, J. 
Marshall, J. Pitceathly. W. A. Campbell, and A. B. White. Qualification: 
500 shares. Registered office ; Coursington Road, Motherwell. 



OFFICIAL RETURNS OF ELECTRICAL 
COMPANIES. 



Frederick R. Butt & Co., Ltd. — Satisfaction to the extent 

of £2,(100 on October 18th of debentures dated M.-u-ch 29lh. 1920, securing 
£10.(XM) (notified June 24th, 1921). 

Rawlings Bros., Ltd. — Satisfaction tptlje extent of .£7,300 

(balance) on March 31st, 1921, of charge dated December 4:th, 1918, secut'ng 
£8,750. 

Lyell, Ltd.— Issue on June 17th, 1921, of .£500 debentures, 

part of a series already registered. 

Western Electric Co.. Ltd. (106,921).— Return dated June 

Gth. I!t21. Capital. £500.000 in £5 shares, 99,995 shares taken up, £156,975 
paid, £344,000 considered as paid. Mortgages and charges: Nil. 



CITY NOTES. 



Great Northern I" ^^^''^ f.^P°'\ ^?' ^^f' *« ^e submitted 
Telei3raDh meeting at Copenhagen on July J.btn. 

Co Ltd of *'^® directors say that the ^hole of the 
Denmark ^'^^'^ passed without the minefields having 

been swept at the places where one Franco- 
Danish and one Anglo-Danish cable, as well as the cable 
between Petrograd and Libau, were broken, and repairs had 
consequently been impossible. There was, however, some 
prospect of the two first-mentioned cables being put in work- 
ing order l)etore long. Eight of the company's other European 
cahles had been sul)ject to 16 interruptions, whilst 19 ioterrup- 
tions had occurred in six of the Far East cables. The Wiadi- 
wostok and Kiat^hta routes are still closed so far a.s the trans- 
mission of traffic between Europe and the Far East is con- 
cerned, but the company's offices at Wladiwostock and 
Kiachta. as well as at Irkutsk, have throughout the year been 
worked by Diinish staff who have transmitted the Siberian 
correspondenci> to and from .lapan and China and beyond 
via the \Vladiwostnck->.';igasaki cables and the Irkutsk-Kiachta- 
Peking hne respectively. The general condifions in Siberia 
are tis yet not quite settled ; at times it has proved difficult to 
furnish cash for the staffs at Irkutsk and Kiachta. At th« 
beginning of 1921 the Kiachta-Peking line became interrupted 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921..] 



THE ELECTRICAL EEYIEW. 



69 



in Northern Mongolia, where Russo-'Mongolian forces dislodged 
the Chiuese troops and captured the town of Urga. It is im- 
possible to predict when telegraphic connections between 
Kiachta and Peking may be re-established. The traffic over 
the company's cables both in Europe and the Far East has 
been satialactory. The economic and industrial crisis, now- 
ever, caused a decrease m the traffic carried over the com- 
pany's European cables during the latter hall of the year, and 
this decrease has continued during the early part of the 
current year. (Jompared with the corresponding period of 
i'd'JU the decrease is estimated at approximately 3(J per 
cent, in the Ear East the traffic carried durmg i'J20 snows, 
on the other hand, an increase compared with that of 1919. 
but the reaction has set in also there, and the anormous traffic 
dealt with during the war and the pe^'iod immediately alter 
IS gradually attaming more normal proportions. The negotia- 
tions with Poland have been continued. The object has been 
the laymg of a cable between Denmark and a ixjmt on the 
Polish coast near Dantzig, and the working of the cable by 
the company's stall at Warsaw by means of an aerial wu'e 
to the laudmg place. It is very doubtful whether the negotia- 
tions will be brought to a successful issue, because the terms 
for laying and working the proposed cable, which the Polish 
Government has hitherto thought it possible to offer, are 
unacceptable to the company. The company had to close 
down in European Bussia in April. 1918. when the com- 
pany's routes became interrupted owing to the state of war 
between Kussia and her western neighbours. It is important 
for both parties that the company should recommence its 
operations in Russia. The negotiations are being continued, 
and the board hopes that before long an arrangement will be 
arrived at which will make it possible for the company to 
reopen its station at Petrograd — where all the instruments are 
intact — as well as to take its proper share in the transmission 
of the traffic between Europe and the Far East via the 
Russian landlines to Ii'kutsk and Wladiwostock. Last year 
the directors expressed the opinion that the financial results of 
the year 1920 would not be as favourable as those of the year 
1919. This forecast has proved wrong, the reason being the 
depreciation of the value of the Danish crown taken in rela- 
tion to sterling, Mexican dollars, and yen. the currencies in 
which the principal income of the company is received. Whilst 
the company's receipts from the traffic between Europe and the 
Far Easf have decreased considerably owing to the continued 
interruption of the Siberian Ime, the satisfactory development 
of the telegraphic correspondence in 1920 taken as a whole 
has, to a certain extent, acted as a set-off. There appears no 
prospect of such compensation in the current year, and from 
the general natm-e and scope of the company's operations 
it is clear that it must feel the full effect of the world-wide 
stagnation of commerce, industry, and shipping. The pro- 
posed increase of the international telegraph rates, by which 
also the company should benefit, has been postponed sine die, 
and no important reduction in the enormous expenses under 
the heading " salaries, Ac," may be expected to take place 
until a general decrease in the cost of living has set in ■ 
therefore the immediate future is not very promising. It is 
proposed to distribute a total dividend and bonus of 24 per 
cent., or 2 per cent, more than for each of the previous three 
years. ^6285.892, or £144,285 more than last year, is carried 
forward. 

The directors in their report for the year 

J. G, ■White & ended February 28th, 1921, say that during 
Co., Ltd. a considerable portion of the period the 

company was faced with difficult and anxi- 
ous conditions. The result of working was a net profit of 
£4,207. which, with £15.286 brought forward, shows a credit 
in the profit and loss account of £19,493. In January last an 
intermi dividend was paid on the 7 per cent, preference shares, 
absorbing £6,300. but in view of the general conditions obtain- 
ing to-day the board has come to the conclusion that the final 
dividend on the preference shares .should not be paid at present, 
and recommends that the balance of £13,193 be carried forward. 
The nominal capital was increased to £500,000. and £160,000 
of the reserve fund was capitalised in the form of ordinary 
shares, the issued amount of which now stands at £200,000. 
Tlie conditions during most of the period under review were 
adverse to the contracting and construction business, but con- 
struction contracts on satisfactory terms, the results of which 
do not, ho-wever. aft'ect the past year's trading accounts, have 
recently been entered into. J. G. White Commercial Co., J-ztd., 
whose share capital is held by this company, has had to meet 
a period of almost complete stagnation in the South American 
trade, where confidence was severely tried by the effect of the 
break in prices on a market over-stocked with commodities. 
Since the autumn of last year there has been a oontinuou.s 
decline in market prices which has resulted in considerahio 
losses to the Commercial Co. The precise extent of the loss 
cannot be gauged at the moment, but the position should bo 
cleared by the end of the year and a sounder condition of 
things re-established. 

The annual general meeting was held in 

Lisbon Electric London on June 29th. Mr. Ludwig Breit- 
Tramways, Ltd. meyer (chairman) presiding. The cha.ir- 
man said that the report covered two years 
—1919 and 1920. the collapse of the exchange in 1920 rendered 
this necessary. The company had sustained severe loss by 
the restrictions placed by the Portuguese Government >ipon 
Temittancea from the country, and also from the high price 



of coal which had reached 1428. per ton. Increased fares bad 
been sanctioned, but these were insufficient to balance the 
rising coiits. At present the lowest fare was equivalent to 
Jd. About 8 per cent, of the traffic receipts had been paid 
to the Government, in addition to a tax uixin tickets. The 
net result of working dui'mg the two years was a loss of 
£45,500. No provision had been made for depreciation since 
191'/, these arrears would have to be made good as soon as 
circumstances ijermitted. Every endeavour was bemg made 
to procure further tariff increases and to cut down expenditure 
to the lowest economic limit. 

A meeting of the holders of the com- 
Mexicaa Light & pauy's 5 per cent, lirst mortgage gold bonds 
Power Co., Ltd. was held un June 29th. Mr. Harold G. 
Brown, representing the trustee (National 
Trust Co., Ltd.), presiding. Mr. E. K. Peacock (chairman 
ut the Bondholders' Committee) dealt with the position of the 
undertakings under the rcyime of Preoidents Diaz, Carranza. 
and Ubregon, and stated that of late the position had been 
difficult owing to acute labour dialurbances. He said that 
no arrears of mterest were being paid at present, but it was 
hoped that the works in hand would result in ability to pay 
off' the arrears un the lirst mortgage bonds. There was a 
prospect of several years' waiting before interest on the 
second mortgage bonds was available. A claim for damages 
amounting to 19,000.000 pesos had been lodged with the 
Government, and there was a reasonable prospect of this 
being paid. The working of the hydro-electric plants had 
been prejudiced by the scarcity of ram during last autumn, 
and the irregularity of the supply of fuel oil had also handi- 
capped the steam reserves. Money for reconstruction purposes 
was not available; their efforts to secure payment of 7,0(JO,00O 
pesos owing by the Government and the Mexico City autho- 
rities had been unsuccessful. Mr. Peacock was hopeful that 
in the future the position of the companies would steadily 
improve, although Mexico had many financial, social, and 
political difficulties to overcome. 

The annual meeting was held on June 
Edmundsoo's 30th. at Wmchester House, E.G., Mr. P. D. 
Electricity Tuckett presiding. The chairman congra- 
Corporation, Ltd. tulated the shareholders on the improved 
accounts, which enabled them to recom- 
mend the resumed payment of the cumulative preference divi- 
dend. In most cases their prices still lagged some way behind 
then' costs, but they eventually succeeded in securing substan- 
tial increases in then- authorised maximum rates, the relief so 
obtained, combined with the removal of the Ughting restric- 
tions and an increased power demand, enabling them to 
realise the better results shown, despite a further enormous 
increase in their wages and fuel bills. Apart from the Lanca- 
shire Power Co., their wages bill increased by over £40,000 
and their fuel bill by over £64,000, yet the various under- 
takings managed to increase their gross profits by nearly 
£100.000. Of that increase about £17,(XI0 appears in their 
profit and loss account, the balance having gone to outside 
shareholders or been applied m increasmg the reserves set 
aside and the amounts carried forward by the sub-companies. 
The gross trading profit was increased by £1.800. In the 
earlier part of last year the contracting business was very 
active and the trading conditions were exceptionally favour- 
able, whereas they had recently become the very reverse, so 
that for the current year they were likely to see a substantial 
drop in that item. With the balance of £10.0i.H) brought for- 
ward there was a total available profit of £26.143, £12,000 of 
which they proposed to apply in the payment of one year's 
dividend on the cumulative preference shares, carrying forward 
£14,143. That still left the cumulative preference dividend 
one year in arrear, but under the present uncertain conditions, 
and in view of the necessity of making provision for the 
repayment of the three-year notes, they felt it would be 
imprudent tti commit themselves prematurely to the wiping 
out of these arre.irs. So far as it was possible to forecast the 
future in these anxious and difficult times, they confidently 
believed that they had definitely turned the corner, but, until 
they enjoyed a return to more normal conditions and secured 
the regulation of their selling prices on a more permanent and 
rational ba.sis, they could not be sure of the steadily improv- 
ing results to which they l(X)ked forward. Proceeding to refer 
to tho conditions governing their authorised rates of charge. 
which were still far from satisf.ietory, he said that most of 
then- maximum rates had been granted, and with very few 
exceptions any further adjustment of them could only Ih' 
made, under the powers of the Statutory ITndertflkings (IVni- 
porary Increase of Charges) Act. 191,'^. which restricted profits 
to an amount sufficient to yield three-quarters of the average 
pre-war ordinary dividend. .\ more stupidly unfair and utterly 
uncommercial restriction to impose on a progressive industry 
it was difficult to imagine, and he entirelv failed to under- 
stand how it was suppo.^^^d that any healthy progress could 
be made under such conditions. It condemned them Ui a 
smaller return than they were earning before the war. despite 
the fact that their connect^^d load had increased i)y over 
80 per cent, in the intervening seven years, and that plant 
which was then only partially loaded was now in manv cases 
overlondeil. Lender such cireun\stanees what inducement 
could there be to extend the business by the expenditure of 
further capital, even if the cost of capital were not now nearly 



60 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



[Vol. 89. No. 3,276, July 8, 1921, 



twice what it was? The increased rates, which they had been 
granted, materially eased the position with which they were 
confronted last year, but under existing conditions of cost 
they were still in most cases quite inadequat-e to afford a 
reasonable returu on capital. Small undertakings had been 
far more seriously affected than the larger ones by the con- 
ditions which the war had brought about. Speaking generally. 
they were called upon to bear mcreased costs relatively twice 
as great as those which the larger imdertakings were carrying. 
Before the war Sd. per unit was the general authorised maxi- 
mum rate for large and small undertakings alike, irrespective 
of the character of their areas of supply. That afforded the 
Emaller undertakings a sufficient margm over the hguting 
rates which they actually required to charge, whilst it gave 
the larger undertakings a more than ample margin over theirs. 
As it was, the smaller undertakings had no lonjjor any margin, 
and consequently their maximum rates had practically become 
their standard lighting rates, in order that they might recover 
from the more remunerative consumers the losses they were 
obliged to incur in supplying the less remunerative. It was a 
miserably unsatisfac-tory state of things that they shoulu be 
forced to conduct a commercial business in such a way, with 
no freedom to vary prices in accordance with the varying con- 
ditions. His own feeling was that the whole system of con- 
trol by maximum rates was wrong. Either they were high 
enough to be inoperative, as before the war. or by their 
inadequacy, as at present, they ran counter to every economic 
law and so destroyed the very basis on which the development 
of the business depended. Last year they promoted a Bill, 
under which they sought power to establish a sliding scale 
of prices and dividends. He thought it was a great pity that 
it failed to receive more sympathetic consideration from 
Parliament, for he could not help believing that the principle 
which it embodied, securing a reasonable latitude in the matter 
of prices, would be in the best interests of the consumer no 
less than in their own, and would prove entirely practical 
and fair. However, they had to deal with the situation as it 
existed, and they would naturally wish to know what hope 
there was of getting the paralysing conditions, to which he 
had referred, removed. Krst there was the possibiUty, and 
he hoped the probability, of costs falling, and this would, of 
course, afford far the most satisfactory means of enabling 
prices to overtake costs, but even so, they would still require 
the removal of the statutory restiiction now imposed on their 
earning powers. Provision was made for that in the Elec- 
tricity (Supply) Bill now before Parliament, but. as other 
clauses of the Bill deahng with the setting up of Joint Elec- 
tricity Authorities were likely to meet with strenuous opposi- 
tion, he feared the Government might sacrifice their needs to 
the exigencies of the political situation, and fail to secure 
for the Ministi-y of Transport the enlarged powers with regard 
to prices w'hich it was so vital for them to possess. The 
position in which the smaller companies were at present 
placed was. however, so manifestly and flagrantly unfair, 
besides being so detrimental to the interests of the districts 
they served, that it was impossible to believe that it could 
be allowed to continue indefinitely. It had aheady been 
remedied in the case of the gas and other public service un- 
dertakings, and he felt sure that the Electricity Commissioners 
would endeavour to get it remedied in their case also witB as 
little delay as possible. The gross profit increase of nearly 
£100.000 on the various undertakings was gratifying in so far 
as it went, but it was also a measure of the cripphng loss 
which they v^•ere most undeservedly called upon to suffer as 
the result of their unrelieved distress, or at any rate ot the 
utterly inadequate and belated relief which they received, 
during the two prerious years, for, even now, despite their 
largely increased losd, they were not as well off as before 
the war. Omitting the Ijanca.chire Power Co.. the connections 
Rho\yed an increase of 8.3-58 kW. compared with 7,3.56 kW the 
previous year, and capital expenditure an increase of £125.176. 
as compared with £149.476. For the current year, and in 
future, until they were once more allowed to conduct the 
business on a commercial basis, both the.se figures would show 
lu'ge reductions. 

The directors have communicated with 
I ndia= Rubber, the shareholders as follows, under date June 

Gutta Percha & 29tli " As the circular letter of 28th ult. ap- 
Telejjraph Works pears to have given rise to some mi.sunder- 
Cc, Ltd. standing, the directors de.sire to make the 

matter clear by a brief statement of facts 
which have occurred since the last general meeting, and which 
again render it impossible for them to recommend the pay- 
ment of any dividend on the ordinary shares for the sarne 
reason given at the annual general meeting, viz., the Rhortage 
of cash. In the chairman's speech at the last general meeting 
the cause of the then rash shortage was explained in detail, 
and the belief expressed that the cash position would be greatly 
improved within the next six montlis. But such, unfor- 
tunately, has not been the case, owing in a great measure to 
the extraordinary slump in trade generally and the tire section 
in particular. This condition of fr.-'de left us with storks 
difficult to move, and forward commitments which had to be 
met. with the result that the cash pasition has not improved. 
We have realised a considerable amount of our colonial stocks. 

but our hom« market has not been able to consume enough 
of onr Persan manufactured artirles to greatly influence the 
return to England, by means of the sale of these goods, of the 

capital which had been deflected to PY»nce during the war. 



Labour unrest generally, culminating in the present coal strike, 
has caused thi'oughout the cotmtry an extraordinary dislocation 
of industry of far-reaching effect, difficult to measure and not 
easy to cope with. Under the existmg conditions of disor- 
ganised trade, it is dithcult to forecast the future, but a clear 
line of action is indicated along which the company must work, 
and that is to produce and sell goods at a i)rico within the 
consumer's reach, and to readjust the present iulialed wages 
to such a. figure as will enable us to do so on a profitable 
basis. Your directors are pleased to inform you that our 
workpeople at Silvertown are looking wisely at the economic 
position as it affects them, and we have already been able to 
make an arrangement with them which has brought aoout 
a preliminary reduction in wages. In the near future we 
expect to meet considerable competition from those countries 
w here the rate of exchange and cost of living make cheap pro- 
duction possible. Nevertheless, your dnectors have a feeling 
of confidence that the company will be able to steer through the 
troublous times ahead — aided by new methods and by economi- 
cal and efficient labour and administration. With all hands 
pulling together in the true interests of the company, as is 
their duty, we may iJerhaps be able to look back at the coal 
strike as a blessing iu disguise, however hard the country may 
have been hit by this action of gross economic folly." 

At the meeting held on June 29th. Sir 
M'est India A. F. King, who presided, said that in the 

and Panama report of a year ago they said that 1919 had 
Telegraph been the most disastrous year in the history 

Co., Ltd. of the company. They then hoped, and 

thought, that the company had touched 
bottom ; but they were wrong, for in the year now- under review 
the company sank even lower. They had, after several pre- 
vious forecasts, been led to expect that the company's cable 
steamer would be released from the Trinidad Dock by the end 
of June last, that was after 17 months' detention; she came 
out only in October, more than "20 months after she was handed 
over; and the cost of her survey and repairs, which had 
originally been estimated at about £10,000. came to as much 
as £74.2-52. nearly three and a halt times the reserve of £21.689 
which had been accumulated to meet her depreciation. But 
this heavy bill was only one of the unfortunate results ot the 
long detention of the cable ship at Trinidad. Iu normal times 
with the ship available to effect quick repairs of interrupted 
cables, the company would have had funds in hand from traffic 
and other receipts with which to meet at any rate a consider, 
able part of the excess of ^£-53.000 over the ship's accumulated 
reserve; but, in the absence of the Henry Holmes, they found 
it impossible to get the cables repaired quickly, and naturally 
the traffic receipts fell off', so much so that they were in 1920 
more than £30,000 less than in 1919. Consequently, to find 
the money for discharging their debt to the Trinidad Dock, for 
paying for the hire of cable ships, for buying new cable and 
for meeting increased expenses generally, they had been ouiiged 
to sell most of the company's investments — at a loss, owing to 
the state ot the money market, of £30.555. They had also 
taken an opportunity which offered of issuing during this 
current year one hundred more debentures of £100 each. This 
third survey of the cable ship had in all cost the company : 
£74,252 payments to the Trinidad Dock and purchase of raute- 
rials, £38.(HX) for hire of cable ships over and above what the 
cost would have been if the Henry Hohncs had done the work. 
£31.370 reduced traffic receipts, £30.555 loss on sale of invest- 
ments, £12.450 forfeited subsidies, totalling £186,627, of which 
about i£l37.134 was proper to the year 1920. The speaker went 
on to refer to the various items in the accounts. We published 
the directors' report in our last issue. In conclu.sion, the cnair- 
man said that they were told that it was the intention of one 
of the large .Iraerican cable companies to lay a cable from 
Porto Rico to Cuba, whence they already had cables to New 
York. This cable, when it began working, could not fail to 
be a serious rival to the company, and it must have consider- 
able effect on their revenue in Porto Rico. 

The Societe du Materiel Isolant, of 
Freacb Lyons, reports that its factory for the 

Companies. manufacture of " clematite " is fully equip- 
ped for meeting requirements in insulating 
materials, and that the net profits of 302.000 fr. in 1920 permit 
of the payment of a dividend of 60 fr. net per share. 

The Compagnie Generale de Constructions de Locomotive$ 
fBatignolles-Chatillon) reports net profits of 303,000 fr. for 
1920, which amount has been carried forward. Apart from 
steam locomotives, the directors state that foreseeing that the 
projected electrification of the railways would be capable of 
providing work for the shops, they had entered into an agree- 
ment with the Society de Construction des Batignolles and 
the Society Ocrlikon for the construction of electric loco- 
motives. 

The report of the Societd Anonyme des Etablissr.ments In- 
diistrieU de B.C. Grammont rf de Alessnndre Grammnnt, 
which was subtnitted at the special meeting held on June ISth. 
stated that thanks to the development of new manufactures 
it had been possible for the company advantageously to 
guard against the general industrial crisis, and that despite 
a strike in March and April. 1920. the value of the turnover 
in 1920-21 was greater than in the preceding year. The par- 
ticipations had been extended in various associated under- 
takingB, and the company in coimection with iti (ubndiAriM 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, J01.Y 8, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



61 



had formed an export department which had already nego- 
tiated foreign transactioMs, which rcquii'ed large capital re- 
sources, owmg to the long periods of transport and of credit. 
In order to deal with the considerable orders expected, par- 
ticularly from public authorities, for the construction of 
long-distance telephone cables, it was necessary to have a 
basis as large and sound as possible from the financial point of 
view, especially in order to place the company on a level with 
its most direct competitors. Having regard to these circum- 
itaiices the directors proposed and the shareholders sanctioned 
an increase in the share capital from 30,000,000 to 5U,U0U,0OO fr. 

The Societe des Ateliers de Conatruclions Electriqucs du 
Nord et de I' list (Jeumont), at tue general meeting held on 
June 18th, reported that all the manufacturing shops could 
now be considered as having been practically reconstructed, 
the equipment had been improved and augmented, ana the 
productive capacity was substantially greater than in 1913. 
So far the company had not sufi'ered from the industrial 
crisis, although the volume of new business being booked 
was diminishing in the case of electrical plant of low capacity, 
while the orders for large machines would ensure activity for 
a long time forward. As net profits the accounts for 1920 
show a total of 4,619,000 fr., permitting of the payment of 
a net dividend of 25,'25 fr. per registered share, 18.70 fr. per 
bearer share, 13. .50 fr. per partly-paid share, and 38.80 fr. per 
profit share. At the conclusion of the ordinary proceedings 
a special meeting was held, when it was decided to amalga- 
mate the company with the Forges et Ateliers de la l,ongue- 
ville under the title of the Forges et Ateliers de Constructions 
Electriques de Jeumont, with a share capital of 80,000,000 fr. 
The Land und Seekabel Werke A.G., of 
German Cologne-Nippes, which has a paid ordinary 

Companies. share capital of 7,500,000 marks, reports 
that the works was satisfactorily employed 
in 1920, and orders have also been favourable in the new 
financial year. The net profits amounted to 2,700,000 marks. 
as against 1,040,000 marks in 1919, and the dividend is in- 
creased from 15 per cent, in the latter year to 20 per cent. 
for 1920. 

The A.E.G.-SchneJlbahn. A.G., of Berlin, the construction 
of whose high-speed railway is being delayed owing to the 
cost of construction and disputes with the municipal autho- 
rities, has ceased paying interest on the shares during building 
as the guarantee expii-ed in 19J9. On the other hand, the 
A. E.G. is paying 50 marks per share on the preference shares 
for 1920. 

The C. Lorenz A.G., of Berlin, after writing off 2.709,000 
marks for depreciation in 1920. as against 1,151,000 marks in 
1919, reports net profits of 2,742,000 marks, as compared with 
1,568,000 marks. It is proposed to pay a dividend and bonus 
of 35 per cent., as contrasted with 20 per cent, in 1919. and 
to increase the share capital from 10,125.000 to 20.250,000 
marks. 

The report of the Elektrizitats A.G. vorm. Lahmeyer & Co., 
of Prankfort-on-Main, dealing with the year 1920-21, states 
that the electricity supply industry was able to resume and 
continue satisfactory development, although the profits realised 
were not high, having regard to the depreciation of currency 
and the extraordinary expenditure for maintenance, renewals, 
and new works. On the other hand, the situation of the 
tramways was substantially more unfavourable than the 
supply works, most of them yielded no profits, and it was at 
present doubtful whether any change in this direction would 
take place in the future. The accounts show net profits and 
balance forward amounting to 4,388,000 marks, as compared 
with 3,015,000 marks in 1919-20, and the dividend is at the 
rate of 10 per cent, on share capital of 40,000,000 marks, this 
contrasting with 8 per cent, in the previous year. It is pro- 
posed to increase the capital to 60,000,000 marks in order to 
finance new undertakings and provide for the future needs 
of subsidiary companies. 

The directors of Felten & Guilleaume Carlswerk A.G., of 
Cologne and Mulheim, state that in general 1920 was a quiet 
year. The scarcity of coal, specially in the first quarter, 
prejudiced the company, as it prevented all departments from 
being kept in full operation so that it was impossible to 
meet the market requirements. Quantitatively the production 
was about half of that turned out in 1913, the reduction being 
due to the manufacture of more highly finished products, but 
more particularly to the shorter working shift and the de- 
creased hourly efficiency, which represented 86 per cent, of 
the efficiency in 1913. The number of workmen employed 
averaged 5,763, and had thus reached the pre-war level. After 
setting aside 1,106,000 marks for depreciation, as against 
1,418.000 marks in 1919, the accounts record net profits of 
25,992,0(X) marks, as compared with 10,139.000 marks, and the 
dividend is incrensed from 15 per cent, in 1919 to 20 per cent. 
last year. At the recent general meeting it was stated that 
with an increased turnover of 30 per cent, in the five months 
ended with May, 1921. the invoice values were about the 
eame as in the corresponding period of last year. The degree 
of activity in telephone and telegraph cables was satisfactory, 
but was less so in heavy cables. 

Canadian General Electric Co., Ltd.— Dividend of 20 pea- 
cent, on the common stock. 

Nairobi Electric Power A Lighting Co., Ltd.— Interim 
dividend of 6 per cent, for the year ended December, 1921. 



Stock Exchange Notices, — Application has been made to 

the committee to allow the following to be officially quoted : — 
Hadfields, Ltd.— il, 000.000 7i per cent. 10-year first mort- 
gage debenture stock. 

Mississippi River Power Co.— 71.179 6 per cent, preferred 
bhares of $100 each, fully paid (stamped) ; and 8,138 6 per 
cent, preferred shares of $KX) each, fully paid (unstamped). 

The undermentioned have been ordered to be officially 
quoted : — 

Mather & Piatt.— 313,6(30 ordinary shares of £1 each, fully 
paid (Nos. 1,050.001 to 1,3&3,660). 

Mississippi River Power Co.— 71,179 6 per cent, preferred 
.shares of $100 each, fully paid (stamped). 

Shanghai Electric Construction Co. — 4,510 shares of iElO each, 
fully paid (Nos. 32.001 to 36.510). 

Shawinigan Water & Power Co.— 90.000 shares of $100 each. 
fully paid. 

Westinghouse Brake & Saxby Signal Co.— £350,000 8 per 
ce^t. first mortgage debentures (Nos. 1 to 200, £500) (201 to 
1,700, ±100), and (1,701 to 3,700. £.50), (registered). ' 

Brazilian Traction, Light & Power Co. — Revenue received 

under contracts with subsidiary companies for 1920 totalled 
$7,036,824, plus interest on investments and miscellaneous 
income $206,618, together $7,243,443, less general and legal 
expenses, administration charges and depreciation on securities 
$313,782, interest and charges on secured gold notes and other 
loans $674,537, provision for general amortisation $260,000. 
leaving net revenue $5,995,122. Dividends on preference shares 
at 6 per cent, per annum absorb $600,000, leaving surplus of 
$5,395,122, plus $2,587,008 brought forward, makmg $7,982,131. 
Approximately $4,900,000 has been utilised towards meeting 
capital expenditure on properties, leaving .$3,082,131 to be car- 
ried forward. The board are much disappointed that they 
have been unable to authorise resumption of payment of 
dividends on ordinary share capital. This has been due to 
extremely unfavourable exchange conditions which have pre- 
vailed and still continue, and stringency of money which has 
made it impracticable to finance neces.sary capital expenditure 
by sale of securities. — Financial Times. 

Calcutta Tramways Co.. Ltd. — Revenue for 1920. includ- 
ing interest on investments and deposits, less tax. £222,121, 
plus £-55,959 brought forward, making £278,0.80. less debenture 
stock interest £15,7.50. Preference share dividend £12..500. 
interim dividend on ordinarv shares, free of tax, £24,081 ; 
B.P.D. for 1919 £36,672. leaving £189.075. The directors 
propose to pay a final dividend of 3s. 6d. per share, making 

7 per cent., free of tax, placing to reserve for depreciation 
£40.000, to taxation reserve £80,000. to staff provident fund 
£2.402, carrying forward, subject to Indian super tax. ^£42,591. 
Reserve for depreciation now stands at £144.619. Owing to 
the increase in salaries and wages made in 1920, the full effect 
of which will not be felt until the current year, it has been 
necessary to consider the adoption of a scheme for a higher 
scale of fares which, however, has not yet been brought into 
operation. 

Crompton & Co., Ltd. — The net profit for the year ended 
March 31st, ]921, after providing for depreciation, interest on 
debentures, directors' fees. &c., and a reserve estimated to 
cover B.P.D., Corporation Profits 'lax and Income Tax for the 
year, is £66,292, plus £18,177 brought forward, making 
£84,468. There is to be put to general reserve fund (making 
it £75,000) £19,500; 10 per cent, is paid on the preference 
shares for the year, and a dividend of 10 per cent, per annum 
on the ordinary shares (£32,677), leaving £18.370 to be carried 
forward. In order to cover the abnormal fall in prices of 
material, an exceptionally large sum has been written off 
stocks, .\nnual meeting July 14th. 

New Issues. — North Metropolitan Electric Power Supplu 
Co. — The list was to close to-day (Friday) in an issue of 
£228.460 7.i per cent, debenture stock at 95 per cent., the pro- 
ceeds of which will be applied to the discharge of outstanding 
loans from the bankers and the general development of the 
company's business. The list, however, was c1o.s<h1 within an 
hour or two of opening on Monday morning, but country 
applications were being considered up to the foUow-ing 
morning. 

Horseley Bridge & Engineering Co.. Ltd. — The result of 
trading for the year ended March. ]9'21. is considered satis- 
factory. Additioiis and inipi-ovcnients to the buildings and 
plant have been made out of the proceeds of the new capital. 
and they are now thoroughly modern and efficient. Dividend 

8 per cent., free of tax. for the year; £10,000 to reserve; car- 
ried forward £12,385. 

Provincial Tramways Co.— Owin.sj to the industrial un- 
rest, increased wages. "and the coal strike, the directors are 
unaiile to reconnuend an interim dividend on the ordinary 
shares in respect of the year ending September 30th, 1921. 

General Electric Co., Ltd. — Profit for vear ended M.irch. 
1921. £796.140. against £&i0,143 for previous year. Dividend 
for the year 10 p<>r cent., free of tax. on the increased ordinary 
capital. £;^8.094 carried forward. 

Anglo-American Telegraph Co.. Ltd.— Dividends of 15s. 
per cent, on the ordinary and SOs. per cent, on the profereno* 
ftook, less tax, for the quarter ended Juno. 



62 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [voi. 89, No. 2,276, jult ». mi. 



Companies struck off the Register.— The following com- 
paIlie^ have been struck oS the register, and are dissolved : — 

Carbonoid, Ltd. 

Colston Electrical Works. Ltd. 

Globe Ast^ociated Cable A- Telegraphic Services, Ltd. 

Stulz Llectrophone Co. (1913), Ltd. 

Taunton Electric Traction Co., Ltd. — Receipts for 1920, 
including £-J14 brought forward, £5,478; after deducting ul: 
expenses and debenture interest. wEGLl is carried forward. 

Marshall, Sons & Co., Ltd. — Dividend of 5 per cent., les.s 
tax, on the ordinary shares for the year. ±'65,499 carriea 
forward. 

National Electric Supply Co., Ltd.— Inlerim dividend 
■is. tJd. per share, less tax, on the ordinary shares. 



STOCKS AND SHARES. 



TuESD.^Y Evening. 
Thb resumption this week of work by tiie miners has given 
the Stock Exchange more hopefulness if not a greater volume 
of business. The markets for industrial shares are generally 
better. There was a scramble for the underwriting of tue 
North MetropoUtau Electric Power debenture stock, and the 
issue is said to have been stagged faiily extensively. Some of 
those who applied for the V per cent. Extension debentm-e 
stock recently issued by the MetropoUtan Electric Co.- the 
price is 5 premium— are said to have been selling this in order 
to exchange into the new North Metropolitan 7^ per- cent, de- 
benture stock offered at 95. The amount is the comparatively 
small total of i'2'i6,4t)U, and the subscription-lists were open for 
less than two hours. General Electric new debentm-e has im- 
proved to '23s. 4d. discount, and the other recent new issues 
in the electrical world are very steady. The new form of 
Government borrowing came rather as a surprise. 

Siemens 10 per cent, preference remain at 'Ms., but the ordi- 
nary rose to dis. 6d. Mond Nickel 8 per cent, debeutm'es are 

5 premium, City of London Electric new ordinary stand at 
•23s., and the new preference at '2Is. 6d., while Central Electric 
Notes, which came out at 97. are now 102. The effect oi the 

6 per cent. Bank Kate is beginning to make itself more felt, 
and now that the half-year has turned, people with money on 
deposit at the bank are asking whether it is worth their while 
to keep their capital in the banks at 4 per cent, when they 
can get 7 per cent, on a first-class security. 

The railway market is better, the steam stocks recovering 
on a mere modicum of investment buying, while the "Under- 
grounds have continued to improve, with Central Londons 
still to the fore, at rising prices. 

Prices of cable shares show a disposition to weaken. This 
is so miich of a change from the usual conditions in the market 
that it is worth noticing by those who have been on the look- 
out for an opiwrtunity to buy such sound investments as the 
Eastern group, for mstance, is able to offer, provided the 
prices are reasonable. Westerns are Ss. down, Eastern ordi- 
nary has lost 2 points. Globes are 16i ex dividend, while 
Eastern Extensions remain unchanged at 16J. It is said that 
a certain amount of " dead " stock has recently come in, and 
that this is the reason for the unusual appearance of dulness 
which overspreads the li.st. If either of the stocks in this 
quartette go back to the level 16 (equal to 160 for Eastern 
Telegraph ordinary), it will be worth picking up by those who 
value security and six per cent., free of tax, on their money. 

Everybody is asking what prospect there may be of the In- 
come Tax coming down in the next Budget, and the general 
view carries little consolation to the Income Tax-payer. This 
is in itself an indirect factor for keeping prices good in such 
cases as tho.se where the dividends are paid free of tax. 
Anglo-American deferred is J lower at 161, following its fall 
of 15s. last week. In do-Europeans have not recovered from 
their £5 drop. Shares changes hands at 26 early in the pre- 
sent week. West India & Panama have fallen still further to 
68. 3d., on the disastrous report, while the first and second 
preferences are still quiet about .50s. The last recorded trans- 
action in the first preference took place on May 3rd at that 
price, but no business has been marked in the second prefer- 
ence since the middle of August. 1920, when shares changed 
hands at £4. 

The protest raised against the sending out by the London cV 
Suburban Traction Co. of an invitation to tender, together 
with a letter stating that the last recorded transaction in the 
StfK-k Exchange U>r>]i place at 61. whereas the present price is 
66-70, elicited an apology from the Company, together with a 
notification giving the current quoted price. As it is at this 
time of the year that wjmpanies are apt to invite these appli- 
cations for tender of stock from proprietors, it may be worth 
while to repeat that the safest course for the stockholder to 
pursue IS to inquire of his stockbroker what is the market posi- 
tion. Experience goes to sh.iw tliat the stockholder need not 
be afraid of putting a tolerably high price on his tender if he 
wishes to sell, though there is. of course, no obligation for 
him to part with the stock. If the company does not buy the 
stock at the price proposed by the stockholder, the latter is 
left with his security, and is in none the worse position. It 
may be doubted whether the system is a good one. though 



candour will compel the admission that any other procedure 
which may be adopted will be found to have its disadvantages. 

The foreign group is irregular. Brazilian Tractions fell 
again, but rallied sharply. The recent report, however, has 
disappointed those holders who looked for early resumption 
of the quarterly dividends of I per cent. Of such resumption 
there seems to be little immediate probability, and it is obvious 
that Brazil is passing through a diHicult time. The 6 per cent, 
preference shares are changing hands fairly freely on the basis 
of 74}. British Columbia Electric Bailway stocks show good 
rises. The Mayor of Vancouver, who has been over here on a 
visit, did no little good by his frank exposition of the manner 
in which points of friction which have hitherto arisen, between 
this side and the other, can be negotiated by the exercise of a 
little goodwill on the part of the British board of directors and 
the customers in Vancouver. His remarks as to the steady 
prosperity of the municipality and of the province have en- 
couraged fresh confidence in the minds of those financially 
interested. Mexicans are inclined to be heavy, owing to the 
non-arrival of the coupon-money which some had expected 
would be paid on July 1st in respect of the Mexican Govern- 
ment 5 per cent. Loan. This has disturbed various Mexican 
prices, although those in the utility group show no quotable 
changes. The Argentine list is .steady. Anglo-Argentine .first 
preference are now quoted ex the dividend of 3s. 9d. per share 
due at the end of last month. 

Electricity supply .shares are unchanged, beyond the recovery 
of the dividend on Metropolitan preference. EngUsh Electrics 
are sixpence harder, and General Electrics 7}d. lower. Hen- 
ley's and Callender's have come together at the common price 
of 28s. 9d. Engineering issues keep steady, and the arma- 
ment group is a little better, on the end of the coal strike. 
Rubber shares are the turn harder in consequence of a trifling 
rally in the price of the produce. 



SHARE LIST OF ELECTRICAL COMPANIES. 

Home Electricity Cohpanies, 

Dividend Prioe 

y ' V Jolv 6, 

1919. 1990. 1991. Rise or tall 

Brompton Ordinary 19 19 6 

Oharing Cross Ordinary .... 7 8 8K — 

do. do. do. 4iPref... 4) U 8 — 

Chelsea 4 6 8* — 

City of London 18 14 Ijs, — 

do. do, 6 per cent. Pref,.. 6 B 17;. — 

County of London ... . . B 8 8J — 

do. do. 6 per cent. Pref... 6 6 Bi — 

Kengington Ordinary .... 7 9 4g — 

London Electrio 24 2J I — 

do. do. 6 per cent, Pref. ..66 9? — 

Metropolitan 6 7 84 — 

do. 4* per cent. Prel. .. 44 44 iiiii + , 

St. James' and Pall Mall . . .. 19 19 6 — 

South London 8 7 94 — 

South Metropolitan Pref 7 7 16/9 — 

Westminster Ordinary .... 10 10 6J — 
Teleoraphs aSd Telbphoneb. 

Anglo- Am. Tel. Pref 8 6 83* — 

do, Def 14 14 16(1 — ji 

Chile Telephone 6 6 5 

Cuba Sub. Ord 7 7 71 _ 

Eastern Extension 10 10 IW — 

Eastern Tel. Ord 10 10 lti44 —2 

Globe Tel, and T. Ord 10 10 16|xd — 

do. do. Pref 6 6 91xd — 

Great Northern Tel, ., .. 29 94 96j — 

Indo-European 10 10 80 

Marconi 96 — 2yV ^\- 

Oriental Telephone Ord 19 19 gX ."' 

United R. Plate Tel 8 8 6S + i 

West India and Panama .. .. Nil Nil 6/3 ^V 

Western Telegraph 10 10 16| ^'' 

Home Bails. 

Central London Ord. Assented ..4 4 4S4 +1 

Metropolitan 1} ij 36 -^ 4 

do. District .. .. Nil Nil 18 — 

Underground Electric Ordinary .. Nil Nil 9? -|- •. 

do. do. "A" .. Nil Nil 7/- — 

do, do. Income .. 4 9 BI4 —1 
FoBEiaN Tkahs, &a. 

Anglo- Arg, Trams, First Pref. .. 64 I24 95xil 4-1 

do. do. 2nd Pref, . . Nil 6J 21 — 

do, do, 6% Deb, ..6 6 6s| — 

Brazil Tractions . .. Nil Nil 82 -^1 

British Columbia Elec. RIy. Pfoe. B 6 674 1 14 

do. do. Preferred 5 i; 664 +3 

do. do. Deterred 3 6 554 *4 

do. do. Deb. .. 4} 4* 694 — 

Mexico Trams 5 per cent. Bonds.. Nil Nil 624 — 

do. 6 per cent. Bonds.. Nil Nil 234 — 

Mexican Light Common . . . . Nil Nil 114 — 

do, Pref Nil Nil 184 — 

do. 1st Bonds . . . . Nil Nil 704 — 
Manufacturing Companies, 

Babcook & Wilcox 16 16 2g — 

British Aluminium Ord 10 10 15/9 — 

British Insulated Ord 15 — ijxd — 

Callonders 15 15 ^7^,1 

f'iProf 64 64 17/6 — 

Crompton Ord 10 10 16/3 — 

Edison-Swan 10 — n/s 

do. do. 6 per cent. Deb, .. 6 6 BRxd — 

Electric Construction . . 10 10 16/8 — 

English Electrio 8 8 12/6 46(1. 

Do, Pret B 6 16/- — 

Gen. Elec, Pref 64 64 l.';/6xd — 

do. Ord 10 10 1;, — ,' 

Henloy 15 15 1 ;■ + , 

do, 44 Pref 44 41 Bi — ' 

Indla-Rubber 10 - jj — 

Mel.-Vlokers Pret 8 8 1*3 — ■ 

Siemens Ord, 10 10 U +1 

Telepspb OoD ao 90 904 — 

* Dividends (aid treq of looome T^z. 



— £10 a 



10 18 


9 


7 10 





10 18 


9 


10 





7 18 


9 


10 





II a 10 


8 17 10 


9 10 


u 



6 16 

8 a 6 

8 6 8 



8 18 10 
♦8 9 
>10 IR 2 

7 9 10 



6 14 6 
12 14 
9 I'J 



8 16 10 
'8 17 10 
•6 17 



TA 89. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW 



63 



THE NEW OPPORTUNITY FOR BRITISH FIRMS IN THE CANADIAN ELECTRICAL MARKET. 



[Communicated ] 



The Emergency T;iril'f of the United States has now 
gone into effect, and British firms could do mucli worse 
— now that tlie coal strike has been settled — than to 
study the possible results of that measure upon the pro- 
spects open to them for developing business in tiie 
Dominion in competition with American manufacturers 
at present holding such a large proportion of that valu- 
able market. Vox some time past, of course, the British 
Bovereign has been depreciated in Canada, and this de- 
preciation in sterling has, coupled with the tariff pre- 
ference, been a considerable incentive to exporters in 
the United Kingdom. At the same tinie, the Canadian 
dollar has undergone a corresponding depreciation when 
purchasing goods from the United States, and whole- 
salers in the Dominion have experienced endless annoy- 
ance and difficulty in connection with the financing of 
purchases south of the international boundary line. 

As the result, however, of the exchange situation be- 
tween Canada and the United States, the Canadian pro- 
ducer of grain, livestock, dairy produce and other 
natural products — disappointed with the prospects in 
the British market owing to the cessation of Govern- 
ment buying last autumn — marketed great quantities of 
his produce in the United States, so much to the alarm 
of the American farmer that influence has been brought 
to bear on Congress resulting in the imposition of such 
heavy duties on Canadian farm products that a trade 
worth about $160,000,000 a year is almost certain to be 
entirely killed. The obvious result of this manoeuvre on 
behalf of the agriculturists of the United States must 
be to increase the sale of Canadian agricultural produce 
in the United Kingdom, further encouraged by the rever- 
sal of the British Government's agricultural policy, and 
a resultant further discount on sterling funds when east- 
ward shipments are resumed next Fall; and a heavy 
drop in the value of Canadian funds in the United 
States, vastly increasing the existing difficulties experi- 
enced in purchasing American goods. The decision of 
the Canadian authorities to assess duties on American 
goods at the face value in the United States of the con- 
signments plus the exchange margin increases the bur- 
den carried b}' American exporters immediately by 
15 per cent, of the duties payable, and will operate dur- 
ing the next few months — as exchange rates tend to 
fluctuate still further against him — as an almost in- 
superable bar to sales of goods which can be obtained 
from Canadian or from British manufacturers. British 
manufacturers of electrical goods should therefore make 
every effort to meet the demand of Canadian importers 
seeking alternative supplies, and from the statistics 
(|U0ted below, it will be seen that, although the market 
is largely supjilied by the domestic manufacturers, there 
IS still a considerable trade to be secured by exporters 
here who can seize the opportunity in time. Canadian 
imports of electrical goods during the fiscal year ended 
March 31st last amounted in value to $16,918,508, and 
"i this trade the United States secured $16,09o.28:i. 
Iraving only $572,67;! for British imports of every dcs- 
niptiun of electrical apparatus. Xo reliable infoiMiia- 
licii is available regarding home |irii(luc(ion in the Ixiom 
IktIiiiI of 1920, but during- 1919 Canadian iiumufac- 
Uirers produced electrical a])paratus worth $.'51,187,658, 
x|iorts amounting to oidy $651,-161 last year, and to 
$121,470 in 1919-20. 'I'hV Ciniadinn niarki't for rlcc- 
t'-ical goods is therefoi'e worth in ihr iicighlinuriKuid of 
twelve million pounds sterling, with a prosjicctive ex- 
pansion during the next few years to a very much higher 
total, in view of tht> ])hcnomcnal development of hydro- 
electric energy in the Dominion. nriKinnting already to 
between two aiTd three iiiillion liorse -power. Last year 



there was in process of installation in the Dominion 
some 650,000 h.p., about half a million horse-power be- 
ing in Ontario alone, and with the prospective comple- 
tion of the Queenston-Chippawa power canal and the 
coming into operation of the Krst sets at the new Niagara 
power station, a great increase in the use of power by 
industralists, farmers, railways, and other consumers 
is to be expected. 

Taking the Canadian imports of electrical goods 
seriatim, we find that during the twelve months ended 
March 31st, 1921, the Dominion bought from abroad 
electric primary batteries worth $61,7S3, in addition to 
89,341 electric storage batteries valued at $1,304,456, 
practically all from the United States. The domestic 
production was worth, according to the 1919 figures, 
$1,707,094 for primary batteries, and there was an out- 
put of $501,974 worth of storage batteries. Imports of 
dynamos and generators reached last year $l,323,6b4 
(only .$93,760 from this country), the Canadian produc- 
tion in 1919 amounting to $1,804, GS7. Electricity meters 
worth $24,620 came from the United Kingdom, and im- 
ports from south of the international boundary reached 
.$352,348, the domestic production of meters not being 
stated in the returns. Canada imported electric light 
fixtures and metal parts thereof worth $668,475 and 
manufactured herself (1919) goods worth $1,248,640.' 
Imports of electric arc lamps amounted to $28,742, and 
of electric incandescent lamps there were imported from 
the United Kingdom 52,045 lamps worth .$8,952; from 
the United States, 3,372,608 worth $970,163; from 
Japan, 777,207 worth $58,770; from the Netherlands 
832,590 worth $141,536; and from other countries, 
13,019 worth $5,083; a total of 5,047,469 lamps valued 
in all at $1,184,504, as compared with the domestic 
output (1919) of 7,971,105 lamps worth $2,424,720.' 
Imports of electric cooking and heating apparatus 
amounted to $129,575, compared with a domestic pro- 
duction worth $1,009,353 in 1919. Electric motors' 
worth $2,628,734 were imported last year, this figure 
being greatly in excess of the 1919 domestic production 
amounting to $1,629,823 (representing 4,076 motors). 
Imports of sockets^eached $304,160, the 1919 domestic 
I)roduction being $769,382. Telegraph instruments and 
wireless apparatus were imported to the total of $121 ,298 
home production reaching only $15,677; the correspond- 
ing figures for telephone apparatus being respectively 
$922, .357 and $1,835,979. Imports of " transformers 
amounted to $167,427, home jiroduction to $1,502,261, 
and the returns included electric ajiparatus, not other- 
wise provided for, totalling .$7,633,425 ; the domestic 
production (1919) of which $1.011,8.'!" was for' switch- 
boards, panel boards, and cabinets; carbons, .$1,243,631 ; 
insulated wires and cables, .>8, 536, 120; electric irons 
and fans $453,085; fuses, $313,550: and other elec- 
trical ai)paratus and su]iiilics $5,009,514, apart from 
]iarts of dynamos, generators, niotors, batteries. &c., 
worth altogether .$6-'!6,963. The Canadian electric ap- 
paratus industry comprises 95 works capitalised in 
1!)19 at $45,956,399, and emjiloyiiig then 9.560 persons, 
,it wages or salaries amounting to .$9,685,705, the in- 
<histi-v l)cing centred almost entirely in Ontario and 
t^leb.'f. 



Electrified Soijar Mill. — The new sugar mill of the 

Su'a Sugar Co.. at La Lima, Honijuraa. will l>e the larjrest el'C- 
trififtil su^ar mill in Central America. Pder will be develop"^) 
by a l.fOO-kW turbo-jrenprator set with an auxiliary set of 2iXlk\V 
for lisrhtiDK and treneral purpofes. The ITniteii Stat«i> Consul 
reports th.it all the electrical equipment will be furnished by 
an American company and installation will be mal" by the same 
Americnn coaipaiiy ns is constructin? the mill. The fuel to b»^ 
used for running this system is cane foilder and scraps. 



64 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. ss, No. 8,276. Jtnr s, 1921. 



THE OUTLOOK IN THE NEAR EAST. 



Market Conditions in Greece and Egypt. 



Greece. 

No hope of an early revival in the Greek market can bo 
drawn from a general survey of conditions there, lu fact 
the prospects of developing business lie in the distaut future. 
bucU is llie only conclusion that can be reached alter a study 
of a report by il..\l. Commercial Secretary at Athens, wnicu 
has recently been issued by the Department of Overseas 
'Irade (H.M. Stationery Othce, price Is. Ud.). Since the 
report was penned events of a political nature have further 
postponed the recovery which the British manufacturer would 
like to see. Depreciated exchange is the mam dilhcully. 
'Ihe Commercial Secretary shows liow this has been a con- 
tributory cause of the accumulation of stocks, including, 
amongst general merchandise, gas engines. Should the 
pohtical situation be cleared^ up, be says, local currency will 
immediately improve in value. In the meantime, the market 
IS gradually becoming depleted of stocks, and when the ex- 
change again becomes more or less stable, there should be a 
renewed demand for British goods. 

The general position in Greece, ■nhile 
Foreign reacting unfavourably on British trade, has 

Competition. to a large extent given German and Aus- 
trian goods the needed opportunity of re- 
covering their former iurtuence in the maiKet. \ery con- 
siderable quantities of German goods are now in Greece, and 
contmue lo arrive by every steamer, in view of the low 
quotation of the German mark, German manufacturers are 
in a position to supply their products to Greece at prices 
ranging from 40 to bO per cent, cheaper than those of British 
manufacturers. Ihe principal products arriving are chemicals 
and drugs, which are re-establishing their former position in 
the market; engines (Diesel. semi-Diesel, gas, and oil), motor 
cars, small machines, ice-making machines, pumps, tools, 
hardware, paper, pianos, leather goods, &c. 

Local opinion attributes the uifdculties in the way of 
developing British trade, first, to the great ri.se in the ex- 
change value of the i,' ; secondly, to tlie fact that British 
manufacturers and firms do not send their wares on con- 
signment basis even to first-rate firms in the country, and 
they give no facilities in general as to payment, while German 
manuiacturers and firms do; thirdly, to the fact that the 
British never, or rarely, send travellers round the principal 
towns, and do not advertise to any extent in the local Press 
or otherwise, important points never neglected by the Ger- 
mans. 

It can hardly be doubted, however, that there is still a 
strong local predilection for British goods and British agents, 
and that, given anything like a return to normal industrial 
conditions at home and normal financial relations between 
the two countries, British trade would^have little to fear 
from competition from whatever quarter it came. 

Tlie Electric Co. of Volo, which bought 

Engineering up the Electric & Gas Co. some years ago, 
De\elopineots. since when, for reasons connected with the 
war, gas has no longer been produced, has 
U-en preparing to supply it again from the existing plant. It 
was exjiected to be available, for houses already possessing in- 
stallations, by April, and owing to the inferiority and high 
price of charcoal will be extensively used for cooking purposes. 
Were it not for the present rate of exchange, there should 
be, in this connection, a good demand for British cooking 
and other domestic appliances. 

Messrs. M. G. Stamatopoulos Fils are engaged in various 
engineering activities, including electric lighting at l>ikkalu 
and Karditza. They are also undertaking for next year the 
lighting, by hydro-electric power, of Makrynitza. 'Ihis firm 
has offices at .■Vthens and other centres. 

Before the war Patras was lighted by gas, and a tramway 
service, with electric power, linked up the town. Both these 
concerns belonged to the Society Thomson-Houston of Athens. 
Tliey were discontinued during the war, and have not since 
been resumed, negotiations between the company ana the 
caunicipal council for a resumption having failed. Electric 
lighting for the t^jwn is supplied by a private concern. The 
light is poor and costly and the installation crude. 

A company was formed in i'JIU to utili.se the water power 
of the river Glaucus which falls into the plain of Patras at 
a distance of some five miles from the town. Surveyors 
Lave estimated that sufficient power could be obtained for 
the whole of the electric supply of the town, i.e., lighting. 
power to the various works, and for the running of the tram- 
ways. The proposals of the company are being considered 
by the Government. 

The report contains some indications regarding method* 
of business, terms of payment and the appointment of agents 
and commercial travellers. These will repay study against 
the time when operations in the Greek market may be profit- 
»bly resumed. 



Egypt. 

Little encouragement to cultivate the Egyiitian market is 
contained in the recent report of H.M. Commercial Agent at 
Cairo (H.M. Stationery UUice, price Is.). 

He records the series of crises through which the country 
passed last year, resulting in a complete reversal of the excep- 
tionally favouraulo trada balance ol IDIi), and summarises us 
follows the disabihties under which import trade is sullci- 
ing : — 

(1) The enormous stocks held in the Egyptian bonded \\ ale- 
houses; (2) the present shortage of reauy money due to the 
cotton crisis; (3) the number of small local manufacturers ol 
various classes of goods which sprang into being uuring the 
war and are now, naturally, competing with United ivingdom 
products; and (4) the increase m the number of firms of 
doubtful character which is the usual aftermath of war. 

Complaints^ with regard to the high prices demandeu for 
machinery by the Briush exporters, whose goods are admitted 
to be the best on the market, are made on every possible 
occasion, and in the majority of cases it is the cheapest price 
that is preferred to superior quality of inateiial. sometimes 
even in the case of Egyptian Government contracts. Large 
orders for railway material and rolling stock, steel v\ork, 
dynamos, lic, have thus gone to foreign firms because the 
British quotations have been too high, added to the fact that 
the date of guaranteed delivery was not satisfactory. 

It is unfortunate that, owing to German 
Return firms being able to accept such very low 

of the Teuton, prices, they have succeeded in wresting 
faiily large contracts from United iMug- 
dom exporters for railway material required by the Egyptian 
State Kailways, and other kmds of material and plant required 
by other Government Departments; e.y., light railway per- 
luaueut way for use in connection with oil workings by the 
Department of Mines on the Sinai Coast. Unless British 
steel firms are prepared to make a big sacrifice, in spite of 
prices at present ruling in Sheffield, and to guarantee within 
a specified period, in order to keep their hold on the market 
for Egyptian Government contracts, they must not be sur- 
prised to see all future orders secured by German. Austrian, 
or Belgian firms, particularly for railway material and rolling 
btock. 

German (" Bosche ") dynamos have been arriving in great 
nmubers and were quickly sold owing to the low price de- 
manded, and also to the fact that either United Kingdom 
exporters had apparently overlooked the Egyptian market 
for some months, or had not delivered them in sulficient 
quantities for its needs, as British dynamos appear to be very 
fccarce at present. 

Quantities of German fittings and spare parts are returning 
to this market. 

As in pre-war days, the Germans are pinning their faitii 
to advertising efficiency, a steady How of propaganda, both 
printed and verbal, and the excellent quahty of then samples. 
The rate of exchange is so much in then' favour as regards 
competition abroad that they are now in a position to under- 
sell both the United Kingdom and other Allied and neutral 
countries in most manufactured articles. 

It is to be regretted that the etl'orts of the British Chamber 
of Commerce to hold a trade exhibition and create a permanent 
sample room of British goods should so far have met with 
failure owing to lack of support from the United Kingdom. 
There is no gainsaying the value, from the point of view of 
advertisement and commercial propaganda, of enabling native 
and European buyers, particularly the former, to see the 
actual article w'ith theh own eyes, instead of being lott to 
form vague and often erroneous impressions about it Iroin 
a catalogue, which may not even be in a language they 
understand. 

I'ailing a trade exhibition, there is a 

Advertising and g(iod deal to be said for advertisement in 

Commercial the Press and elsewhere, and for commer- 

Propaganda. rial propaganda by films as well a.s by the 
more ordinary media such as trade jour- 
nals, articles in the local European and native Press, iiuiiilhly 
<ir quart<'rly booklet.?, d'C. 

Advertising is done extensively by means of drop-curtaiua 
at theatres and kinenia houses, and of programmes, &c., and 
it is to be regretted that very little advertisement is done 
in this way by United Kingdom firms, in view of the extent 
to which it 18 used by German, French, Italian, and Greek 
firms. 

The kinematograph appeals to all nationahties. and is very 
popular with the natives, and it is to be hoped that United 
Kirigdcmi manufacturers will make the most of the medium 
now employed by one enterprising local firm for advertising 
its goods, viz.. short and amusing films throv\wi on the screen 
during the half-time interval or between two long films. 



foi. 89. No. 2,27«, jtJLT 8, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



66 



NEW ELECTRICAL DEVICES, FITTINGS AND PLANT. 



Beadert are invited to raiimt particulars of new or imprifved devicei a7id apparatiu, wMcK loiU be putHshei 
if eonsidered «/ mfioisnt intereH. 



A New London Showroom. 

The Sloan Electrical Co., Ltd., has recently opened s 
fittings showroom in newly acquired premises adjoining its 
London office in Golden Lane. The room is designed witli 
oak panels, green ribbed canvas wallpaper, and polished 
parquet flooring with a few Oriental rugs, the furniture being 
of the Jacobean period. The accompanying illustration will con- 
vey some idea of the artistic taste displayed in designing the 
showroom. The firm has been appointed agent in London, 
the South Coast, and the East Coast of Scotland by Messrs. 
Peyton & Peyton, Ltd., of Birmingham, manufacturers of 
decorative electrical fittings and art metal work. This firm 
has had a wide and varied experience in the design and 



wilful damage excepted. The fuse strip is made of zinc, which 
combines the advantages of low melting temperature and 
minimum explosive cllect. These fuses are made in size* 
up to and including OUO amps, normal current capacity. 

For larger currents, Messrs. Sprecher & Schuh manufacture 
a horn-type fuse. This apparatus consists of a movable arm, 
which at its upper end carries a horn-shaped sparking tip. 
The main fuse strips are carried by substantial contact pieces 
below the horn-gap. The movable arm is held in its closed 
position by means of a second fuse strip of small capacity, 
which is connected in parallel to the main strips. The 
switch-arm having a tendency to fall to its lower posi- 
tion, will keep this auxiliary strip under a mechanical strain. 





Fig. 1. — The Sloan Eli.ctkr Sii..ui>.i. 

manufacture of fittings for theatres, kinemas, and public 
builUmgs, havmg recently equipped the Futurists' Theatre, 
iiirmmgham, and the Manor Park Kinema. in addition to 
this class ot work it manufactures a comprehensive range 
of fittings for ordinary domestic lighting, comprising many 
exclusive and new designs m dining and dressing room pen- 
dants, indirect lighting bowls, and other items, i'he fittings 
are well lacquered to withstand the various climatic and 
atmospheric conditions met with. All the classic styles aud 
periods such as Louis XIII, Ijouis XIV, Adam, Empire. Geor- 
gian, li-c, are represented, as well as a choice selection of 
bronze figures and porcelain table standards. 

In the showroom is also a full range of heating and cooking 
apparatus of the " Slouetric " type, in addition to vacuum 
cleaners and other labour-saving devices, ready wired for 
demonstration and display. 

In our issue of June 10th (p. 764) we described the 
" Philips " night lamp, of the neon gas type, which has been 
placed on the market by the Sloan Electrical Co., Ltd. \Ve 
have obtained from that firm the accompanying illustration 
(fig. 'i) showing the construction of the' lamp — two helical 
electrodes, without any metallic connection between them. 

New Switch=Fuses. 

Mr. J. B. RuDKi.N, of -21^1, Shaftesbury A\enuc, \V.C.'2. has 
enabled us to inspect some switch-fuse gear made by his prin- 
cipals, Messrs. Sprecher & Schuh, of Aarau, Switzerland. 

The fuse .shown in fig. 3 consists of a stationary part and 
a removable carrier. 'I'he stationiiry part is designed Un- 
fixing to central iron or tubular framework. The contacts are 
carried on porcelain insulators, the latter being fixed to a cast- 
iron base. The contact pieces are fixed mechanically to the 
supporting in.sulator, which in its turn is also held by suitable 
clamps in the cast-iron base. All cementing, which so often 
gives rise to disturbances in the service and supply of power, 
has been carefully avoided. This mechanical fixing ol all 
parts enables rapid" exchange of porcelains, or any other details 
to lie made. The contacts are coinpo.sed of copper clips 
fixed in brass sockets, and are also supplied with bolts tor 
switchboard mounting. These parts are massive, and have a 
dull nickel finish. The fuse carrier consists of a tubular 
handle with suitable detachable hand-shields, and is made 
of a tough, non-combustible, and arc-resisting material. This 
material, under ordinary working conditions, is indestructible. 



-The " Philip.'; " 
Night-lamp. 

When the fuse blows, the main fuse strips will melt through, 
throwing the entire load on to the auxiliary strip, which will 
rapidly melt through, relea.sing the switch-arm, which wilt 
fall to its open position. During this action the arc set up 
by this auxiliary strip will be taken up by the horn-shaped 




Fic. 3.— MKDiuM-rnr.ssuuK Switch-i-l'se. 

spark lips, and it will bo rapidly extinguished owing to the 
breaking distance being thus rapidly increased. Those fuses 
are particularly designed for very heavy eurronts, and are 
made in .sizes,up to S.IKKI amps. Mr. Hiidkin claims that thoy 
fulfil all the reiiuirements set out by " A Central-Station Engi- 
neer " in his luticlo " Fuses in Sub-stati.. :s " (Elec. Rev.. 
April 1.5lh, ID'il, p. 408). 

" Lamlok " Sealed Locking Ring, 

.\s new needs arise, now devices are produced to cope with 
thcni, and Mkssus. " Lamlok," liTD., of 3ti, Kusthall Avenue. 
Chiswick, \\A. who have demonstrated tiieir fertility of re- 
source on previous occasions, have again had occasion to solve 
a jiroblem. The rapid ilevelopment ot electricity supply to 
small houFOs for lighting at a fixed charge per lamp per week 
or per quarter, in connection with housing schemes, has drawn 
attenticm to the necessity of a device which «ill not only pre- 
vent a customer with lax views on morality from replacing the 
lamp.i originally installed with lamps of higher wattage — a 
function efficiently performed by the ordinary " Lamlok " 



66 



THE ELECTRICAL EEVIEW. [Voi. se. no. 2,276, jult s, 1921. 



lockinR ring — hut will also enahle an insjicitor to ascertain at 
a glance -nhether the lock has been tampered with, for the 
ingenuity of the unmoral is notorious, and if a consumer by 
some means gains possession of a key, he can change the 
lamps and lock them again, leaving no obvious indication of 
the substitution. , 

To meet this case, the firm has made a slightly modified ring 
which, at a trifling increase of cost, provides an efl'ecti>'e 
check. Instead of tlie ordinary round boss on the ring, a 



Fig. 4.—" Lami.hk 




J. (U KING RlN( 
SE.4LING. 



WITH Provision i'OR 



square bo.ss is u.sed, through which holes are drilled for the 
insertion of a wire to which a lead seal can be attached. So 
long as the seal and wire are intact, which can be readily 
verified by the inspector, it is certain that the original lamp is 
still in place. The .sealing ring is illustrated in fig. 4. 



THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 

AxNU.4L Visitation. 
The annual visit to the National Physical Laboratory of the 
members of the general board Uiok place on June 28th. when 
a large number of guests ■s\as invited, who were received 
by Prof. C. S. Sherrington, iiresident of the Royal Society, 
the chairman of the board, and by the director of the LaOora- 
tory. Sii- Joseph Petavel. 

An interesting ceremony preceded the visit, when a bas- 
relief in bronze of the late director, Sir Richard Glazebrook, 
was presented to the Laboratory. The presentation was made 
by Sir Joseph Ihomson, Master of Irinity College, Cambridge, 
and was received on behalf of the Lal)oratory by Prof. Sher- 
rington. The bas-relief is the gift of a large number of friends 
of the late director, including many past and present members 
of the general board, and has been placed in the hall ot the 
administration building. The artist is Mr. J. Cluysenaar, of 
Brussels, who has produced a most successful and striking 
likeness of Sir Richard Ulazebrook. 

It is now over 18 months since Sir Richard was succeeded 
by Sir Joseph Petavel, who has carried on very actively the 
work of his predecessor. Building operations are still in pro- 
gress at Teddington, indicating that the \\ork of the Labora- 
tory continues to increa.se in magnitude and importance, and 
the .\dmiralty lias erected a re.search laboratory within the 
-N.P.L. grounds, so that much of its special work may be 
carried (ju in close co-operation with the N.P.L. 

All departments of the Laboratory were on view, and many 
interesting experiments were performed and apparatus de- 
monstrated in the various departments. 

Annual Repout i-on 1920. 

The report of the E.xecutive Cuininitl(>o for 1920 refers to 
the continued growth <jf the activities of the Laboratory which 
will render further extensions nece.s.sary in the near future. 

During the year the fees charged for testing nave been 
completely revi.sed in relation to the increased cost ot the 
work. The number of optical and electrical instruments sent 
for test is appreciably less than before the war, but there 
is a tendency towards recovery. The number of tests 
ill radiology decreased by 75 to 17; tests of electrical measuring 
Iiistniinerits decreased by '228 to 473; in electrotecbnics a de- 
crease of 4,494 to 2,134 tests is Bhowii ; and in photometry 
a decrease of 4,382 to 1,275. On the other hnm], the total 
number of tests increased by 353, .558 to L()5G,8'ra during the 
year. The followi.:- are absti'acts of the scvcial sections of 
the report : — 

I'ltiisiin Department. — Hadioloyii. — Uadiiiin preparations 
have Im'Cm standarilised by comparison with the Britisli radium 
standard, which contains the eqiiivaleiit of about 30 milli- 
gramnifs of hydrated radium bromide, but is not very suitable 
for the standardisation of amounts of the order of a iiiilli- 
gramme. .\bout four years ago a small subsidiary standard 
was priH-ured. and since that date small amount."! have been 
standardised by comparison with it. To obviate the use of 
the Britisli radium standard as a working standard two addi- 
tional subsidiary standaril.'* wimc purchased this year, con- 
taining respectively about 10 and 13.5 milligrammes of very 
pure hydrated radium bromide. By using these standards in 
conjunction 'with the ultimate standard, single quantities of 



radium up to at least 120 milligraiiiiiifs (if hydrated bromide 
can be tested with accuracy at the I ,:ili.ii:itiir\ . 

The two >-ray methods of stanH:iMli-;iu.Hi at present in 
use at the Laboratory are the Rutliniunl direct method and 
the Rutherford and Chadwick balance method. The four 
standards have recently been thoroughly int^ercompared by 
these two methods. They were grouped together so as to 
give nine ditl'erent combinations, and the value of each ratio 
agreed by the two methods to within about 0.5 per I'eni. A 
third y-ray method, due to Madame Curie, is to be added 
to those already in use. In this ca.se the radium is placed ou, 
top of a lai'ge circular plato comlenser, consisting ot two 
sheets of lead about 80 cms. in diameter and 5 mm. in thick- 
ness. An insulated aluminium plate situated between the 
lead plates with a clearance of about 2 mm. on either side 
serves as the electrode. The ionisation current produced is 
balanced by means of a quartz piezo-electriqiie. The relative 
saturation currents produced by the test and standard prepara- 
tions afford a delinite measure of the quantity of radium 
present. 

Some work has been done on the estimation of the radium 
content of luminous compounds. Several modifications were 
made in the method of procedure, and investigation showed 
that the absorption coefficient \\as the same before and after 
mixing the radium with the sulphide. In addition to zinc 
sulphide other salts were examined, the values of the absorp- 
tion ot radiation in which will be useful in a number of direc- 
tions. An investigation is at present being undert;ikcn in coii- 
junction with the electrotecbnics department on various points 
connected with the production of luminous compounds. The 
liaboratory is co-operating in this work with the British 
Scientific Instruments Research Association. | 

A re.search on the alisorption and scattering of penetratujg 
y-radiation from radium C in dill'erent metals has yielded 
int^-resting results. The apparatus employed for this work 'is 
entirely different from that used for the absorption of y-rays 
ill salts. In the case of alnrniniuin, zinc, tin and lead, a selec- 
tive or " fluorescent " absorption was observed. Both the 
" forward " and the " backward " scattering coefScients 
were also measured. The latter is difficult to measure, 
even with this improved method, which was made sen- 
sitive by the use of a special ionisation chamber and 
a tilted gold-leaf electroscope. The value of the total scatter- 
ing coefficient of y-radiation in light substances is compara- 
tively high, so that it is important to take scattering into 
account in radium measurements. A light object, such as a 
wall, is a powerful scatterer of y-radiation, and for this reason 
apparatus tor standardising radium should, whenever possible, 
be situated in the middle of the room, so that the intensiV 
of the scattered radiation from the walls should be reduced 
to a minimum in the neighbourhood of the measuring appara- 
tus. 

The examination of materials by X-rays is now carried out 
on a routine basis. 

The X-ray spectrometer for the measurement of the absorp- 
tion qualities of materials used for protective purposes in 
radiography is Hearing completion. The instrument, which 
reads to 5 .seconds of ai'c, is designed so that a portion of 
the beam reflected at the crystal face may be used as a stan- 
dard of reference whilst the remaining portion is used for the 
mea.surement ot the absorption, so that errors due to :he 
variable output of the bulb will be eliminated. A battery of 
X-ray tubes is being obtained for use with the instrument. 
These will have anticathodes ot palladium, rhodium, silver, 
copper, nickel, platinum, and tungsten, and will siijiply a. 
number of standard wave-lengths which will bo employed for 
standardising purposes. 

The method of mea.suring the intensity of an X-ray beam 
depending upon the change of colour of barium platinocyanide 
pastilles produced by the rays has been thoroughly examined 
and a number of useful results have been obtained. The dose 
ol' X-rays measured by the pa.stille has been compared with 
the ionisation produced in a gold-leaf electroscope placed in a 
fixed position relative to the bulb. The following quantities 
have been varied, and the effect of th<^se variations on the 
time of dose as measured by the pa.stille has been studied : 
(I) Voltage on the tube, (2) current through the tube, (3) rate 
of interruption of primary current of the induction coil, (4) 
length of time of " make " of primary current, (5) typo of 
interrupter. The pastille used throughout was the original 
Sabouraud pastille. The investigation is now being extended 
to pastilles supplied by other makers. 

Tlie thermometry division had for some time been exer- 
ci.sed as to the degree, of vacuum prevailing in the bulb of 
the solar radiation thermometer which the Laboratory uses 
as a standard. .'\ny method involving the opening of the bulb 
would result in a dislocation of continuity in the measureineiilH 
made in the test work. The radiology division thought that 
Ibe only safe method was that of the e.lectrodeless discharge. 
Acordingly a bulb of the same dimensions as that of the ther- 
mometer was constructed and an electrodeless discharge was 
passed simultaneously through the two bulbs. 'Hie experi- 
mental bulb was connected to a Oaede pump and a pressure 
gauge capable of reading pressures to the nearest 0.02 mm. 
The two bulbs were placed side by side and the pressure in 
the one altered until the (-olour of the discharge through it 
matched that through the bulb of tlie radiation thermometer. 
The mean of a number of readings of the pressure in the 
experimental bulb when the colours of the discharges were 



Vol. 89. No. 2,276, July 8, 1921.] THE ELECTEICAL REVIEW. 



67 



the same jjave au approximate value of the pressure inside the 
thermoinctor bulb. Auuther inijuuy uu much the same lines 
came from the electrotechnics department. In this instance 
the approximate pressure was rcijun-ed inside the bulbs of 
certain electric lamps which formed the subject of a particular 
investigation. Au estimate of the pressure was made along 
similar lines to that described above, and a simple piece of 
apparatus to accommodate any shape of bulb has been con- 
structed which will facilitate the carrying out of this test 
in future. 

Oscillograph records of the secondary potential of an induc- 
tion coil, taken with the Taylor Jones oscillograph, proved 
useful in explaining certain discrepancies which arose during 
the course ol the investigation on the measurement of intensity 
of X-rays. An improved design of ordinary gold-leaf electro- 
scope has been put into use. The insulation of the gold-leaf 
sysU^m has been effected by means of au ebonite plug into 
which a broad sulphur ring is fitted. In an instrument having 
a leaf about 4. .5 cm. long, the cud of the leaf falls through 
U.ll mm. iu an hour when its initial potential is 'JSO volts, and 
a change of pot*^ntial of 1 volt on ttie leaf moves it through 
0.51 mm. It has kept at this rate of natural leak and sen- 
sitivity for over four months and has worked throughout that 
ix'riod sati.sfactorily. The chief feature of the instrument is 
the arrangement for charging the leaf .system, which is un- 
doubtedly superior to that previously employed. A number 
of tilted gold-leaf electi'oscopes to new designs have been 
constructed. 

The War Office X-ray laboratory developed during the war 
a method of testing the definition of X-ray tubes which were 
classified aa having fine, medium, or broad focus. The test 
can now be carried out at the I^aboratory by means of a 
simple apparatus which has been constructed for the purpose. 

The observation that different types of mercury arc varied 
greatly in theii" suitability for interference work led to an 
investigation into the causes of these variations. As a result 
a lamp was designed to strike the best compromise, for general 
interference work, between the mutually incompatible pro- 
perties of high intrinsic brightness and homogeneity ot the 
spectral lines. A lamp to this design has been constructed 
and found very satisfactory. Its intrinsic brightness lies be- 
tween that of the ordinary laboratory quartz arc, in which 
the spectrum lines are much broadened, and that of the or- 
dinary long tubular glass arc used for workshop lighting. 
which gives fairly homogeneous lines, but is not bright enougli 
for some purposes, while its homogeneity is similar to that 
of the latter. 

{To be continued.) 



JOINT ELECTRICITY AUTHORITIES. 



London and Home Counties Inquiry. 



(^Continued from page 10.) 

On Wednesday morning. June 'iOth, Mr. Fladg.me's cross- 
examination was resumed. 

In reply to Mr. Paddon, who askeil whether he would 
have any objection to the Port of London Authority having 
direct representation upon the joint body under the com- 
panies' .scheme. Mr. Fl.4L)G.we said he regarded them as large 
consumers, and they might come in under that category. 
Me would, however, raise no objection to their direct repre- 
sentation. 

In reply to Mr. Tyler, witness said he would be extremely 
glad if the railway companies were represented. Their coming 
ill would react on the success of the scheme. He could not 
go into the question of the representation of the railway 
companies, however, until the railway companies had decided 
what they really wanted. If they were represented on the 
■Toint Board they would be useful, in that they and the other 
undertakers would render mutual assistance to each other, 
but apart from that he did not think the railway companies 
would do the .scheme any good. 

Mr. Mor.se questioned the right of an electric lighting 
iiuthority to lease any part of its undertaking to the Joint 
Authnrity under existing statutes, and contended that this 
ciiuld not be done unless express powers were obtained. Wit- 
ness, however, said there was nothing to prevent a company 
leasing a generating station. 

It was pointed out that Clau.se i'l. Sub-.section 1, of the 
1910 Act. would probably meet that point. 

With regard to administrative expenses, assuming there 
was no revenue in the early part of the scheme, witness .said 
these would have to be met out of capital. With regard to 
the suggestion iu the icheiiie that the Joint Authority might 
get a grant from the Exchequer, witness said he did not 
expect this, but would get it if possible. 

Tlie Cn.«RM.AN said he understood fh.at the revenue would 
come from the nucleus companies and local authority under 
takers which it was hoped would join together to form a 
working body. 

Mr. Fb.^nGATK at this point left tlie inquiry owing to urgent 
business. His crorfs-examination will be resumed later. 

Sir .^i.E.x.^NnKn Ki:.sNrDV (executive engineer to the Ijondon 
Electricity Joint Committee (1920). l>td.) then gave evidence. 



and corroborated the statement made by Mr. Kennedy in 
his opening speech. Sixjaking with regard to the area pro- 
posed under tlie present scheme, he said that rather to his 
surprise it was found that practically the whole of the demand 
within the area provisionally dehmited by the Commissioners 
camo within the smaller area, dehued by the companies. It 
was not only de.-irable, but es.sential, that the greatest possible 
number of undertakers should come into the scheme under 
some joint technical control if the highest degree of eliiciency 
was to be obtained. It was the opinion of the engineers that 
that control should be very complete. The difference between 
generating costs in the existing stations when enlarged and 
improved and the cost of energy generated and transmitted 
Irom capital stations was not now nearly so much as it would 
have been a few years ago. In the past economy in some 
Lx)ndon stations had left much to be desired, but the addi- 
tional 'iSU.UUU kW of plant which the Commissioners had 
recently sanctioned was to be plant which would ensure the 
highest degree of economy. As to the capital expenditure, he 
and Mr. Partridge had worked out s(jme supplementary par- 
ticulars ba.sed on assumed reductions in cost of plant, rate of 
interest. &c. They had assumed that the rate of interest 
would be reduced from tii per cent, to 5 per cent., the cost 
of extra plant would be reduced by 30 per cent., coal to iJs. 
per ton. and other costs reduced by -25 per cent. On these 
assumptions, the new capital required, for the first stage, 
in.stead of being ;£1.0.50.0UO. would be reduced to £9ii:,W0, 
and the new capital in the second stage would be reduced 
from £iiAoO.(M> to £7,115.000. It would be more advan- 
tageous to develop existing organisations for the time being 
under central control than to put down capital stations at 
once. The conclusion he drew from the hgures was that 
when the time came for the erection of the capital stations 
he did not think it would be desirable to spend £5,000,000 
on existing stations, as the difference between the cost of 
enlarging the existing stations and of erecting capital stations 
would be so small. 

In answer to the chairman, Sir Alex.ander said that the 
action of the Commissioners in authorising the erection of 
additional plant with a capacity of 2-50,000 kW by existing 
London undertakings, had made it unnecessary at present to 
erect new capital stations. 

The Chairman said the Commissioners had sanctioned that 
additional plant because the undertakings concerned would 
not have been able to meet their statutory obligations other- 
wise. 

Continuing. Sir .iVlesaxder Kek.xedy referred to the en- 
gineers' estimates of future demands. The increase for the 
six yeara following the year 1919 was based on an increase 
of 26,000 kW iier annum, which was 26 per cent, more than 
the maximum obtained during the previous six years. For 
the next live years they had assumed an increase of 3G.00O 
kW per annum. With regard to grouping and interconnect- 
ing, they had endeavoured to provide for an increase of load 
where this would occur. It would probably be six or seven 
years before the capital stations would be necessary. In 
three or four years the capital stations would probably have 
to be designed and their erection decided u|)ou. and at that 
time those responsible would have ;i much better chance of 
seeing what the future demand was likely to be. If after 
four years the engint^er to the Joint .\uthority had made up 
his mind that the capital station would be required in another 
three years, he would still have, under the estimates set out 
in the supplementary particulars, a suthcient margin of reserve 
plant to carry him on for those, three years. .-Vs to the rail- 
way companies, in the technical scheme provision had been 
included for the electrification of the South Ea.stern, Oreat 
jEast<nn, and Brighton Railways. The Soulh-Western and 
North- Western Railways proposed to meet their own demands 
by extending their existing works. There were other railways 
which had no intention of electrifying their systems, .■\fter- 
waids it was found that the Great Ea.stern and Brighton 
Railways were putting forward proposals to the Commissioners. 
The Great Eastern Railway had a particularly advantageous 
site of its own for the generation of electricity, and had 
expressed its willingne.s.s to sell any surplus electricity gene- 
rated to the Joint Authority. The Great Eastern. Korth- 
Western, and South-Western had allowed him to say that 
under proper arrangements they would be quite willing to 
supply surplus electricity, if desired. 

He had prepared a diagr.ini of the diversity factor which 
would be obtained if all the London undertakers, both local 
authorities and companies, the tramways, and the railways, 
were worked from one single station. The engineers had 
been given the maximum demand on two winter days by all 
rhe London unilertakers. They had tabulat«nl those hour by 
hour, and added together the total demand at each hour, 
and had .separately added up (he maxim.a at each particular 
undertaking which occurred at different hours. The result 
was that, taking the aggregate instantaneous demand, this 
was .SlO.OflO kW, and the aggregate sum of (he maxima was 
;ill.(X)0 kW. the ratio between thos<> being 1.07. His inter- 
pretation of that was that if the whole of the.^ie companies 
and local authorities, including tramways and railways, were 
all worked froni one station, the difference between (he siiiii 
of the maxima, and the actual instantaneous maximum would 
be 7 per cent. Without the railways the instantaneous maxi- 
mum would be 214.000 kW. and the sum of the maxima, 
•2-2'2.70O k\\'. The ratio between them was 1.04, and 1.07 



68 



THE ELECTRICAL: RE.VIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,276, july s, 1931. 



with the railways, so that, taking the winter load, the 
diflerence was ouly 3 per cent. That 3 per cent, would be 
swallowed up by a number uf other considerations. 

Mr. Tlrnkr, cross-examining on behalf of the Conference 
of Lociil Authorities, referred to the question of control. 
Under the companies' scheme it was proposed that there 
should be complete control, whereas under the local autho- 
rities' scheme there would be some measure of control, but 
not complete control. In the companies' sclicme only those 
undertakers who agreed would be controlled, .\ssuming that 
only the nine companies which constituted the Joint Com- 
mittee came into the .scliemo. which would be more likely 
to improve the supply'.' The nine companies under complete 
contiol. or the whole of the undertakers in the area uniU-r the 
measure of control suggested in the local authorities' scheme'.' 
WlT.NESS .Slid that if only nine companies came in they 
must be taken as a nucleus of a much larger authority. 

Further discussion on the point of the degree of control 
to be exercised by the Joint .Vuthority, as provided for by the 
two schemes, was terminated by an intimation from the 
chairman that this was a matter which could be dealt with 
by counsel in their closing observations. 

Mr. Turner then dealt with Clause '24 of the companies' 
scheme, which provided that when the generating station 
and main transmission lines of an undertaker were leased to 
the Joint Authority, the latter body should supply to the 
undertaker energy to meet his statutory obligations at a price 
at which the equivalent price per unit sent out should not 
be greater than the cost at which the undertaker would have 
been able to generate and send out if the lease had not taken 
place. In addition. Clause 34 provided that the prices 
charged by the Joint Authority should be fixed with a view 
to securing that the receipts therefrom would meet the liabili- 
ties on revenue account and provide a reserve fund for depre- 
ciation and renewal of plant, &c. Mr. Turner suggested that 
there would be no funds available when the Joint Authority 
came to apply to Clause 34. 

The Chairjw.n said that Clause 24 referred to the cost of 
energy at the undertaker's existing stations, and as soon as 
the maximum loads were reached, the obligation imposed 
under that clause, as he understood it, would cease in respect 
of supplementary units. It was unreasonable to expect any 
new authority to undertake for all time and under all circum- 
stances to supply at prices which were possible with plant 
at pre-war prices. If the plant had to be extended at present- 
day prices, the costs would go up. 

Mr. Kennedy said the intention of the clause was as ex- 
pressed by the chairman. 

The Ch.mrman pointed out that the whole object of the 
Bcheuie was to provide electrical energy more cheaply than 
it could be supplied under existing conditions, and instanced 
the case of the Central Co., and its arrangement to supply 
to the Westminster and Pall Mall Co., which was an example 
of what it ■was hoped to bring about under the proposed 
scheme. 

The economy to be effected by the operations of the Joint 
.Authority was further discussed, the conclusion of Sir Alex- 
ander Kennedy being that a substantial saving would be 
effected. The extent of this saving could ouly be ascertained 
by an investigation into every one of the present under- 
takers' accounts. 

Mr. Rider and Mr. Wordingham here said they were unable 
to give any figures in this connection, but Mr. Donald, for 
the Poplar sc-heme, said he would be able to give actual 
figures when his scheme was dealt with. 

Mr. Donald, cross-examining, askeil a number of questions 
with regard to the effect of the rental clause in the present 
scheme on the figures submitted in the supplementary par- 
ticulars, and the extent to which that clause modilied the 
figures. Sir Alexander, however, could not deal with this 
point, which, it was pointed out, Mr. i'ladgate had said 
would be dealt W'ith by the engineering , w'itnesses. In the 
end it was agreed that if Mr. Fladgate could not deal with 
the point on Thursday the promoters would bring forward 
another witness to deal with it. 

Sir Herbert Nield, on behalf of the Surrey County Council, 
suggested that the companies should confine their area on 
the north and south to the London County area, so that 
Surrey could bring up its own scheme to deal with the county. 
The South-Western and Brighton railways had generating 
stations in the county, and the South-Western Railway was 
willing to consider the installation of additional plant at its 
station in order to help with the supply so long as this did 
not interfere with its own railway supply. Supposing 
terms could he arranged with the railway companies in the 
reasonably near future, would it not be reasonable to ask 
that the whole of the county of Surrey should be left out 
of the present scheme, so that the county could bring up 
its own scheme'.' Sir Alexander replied that if such a scheme 
could be brought up there might be something to be said for it. 
In reply to Mr. Tyler, Witness said the load factors taken 
by him for traction were, for the L.C.C. tramways. 47.4fi. 
Lots Road. 47.4. Nor(h-We.>tern Railway, .34.01, Metropolitiin, 
32. Great Western. 4.'i8, and he put it at an average nl 10 per 
cent. He admitted that the load factor would be improved 
by goods traffic, a good deal of which was worked during the 
night, but he did not think the diversity factor ■n'ould be 
very much affected. 
The inquiry then adjourned until Thursday. 



Mr. Fladgate was recalled towards the end of the Thursday 
morning session for further cross-examination. Sir Alexander 
Kennedy's cross-cxammation having been concluded without 
throwing much fresh light on the question. 

Mr. Donald, for the iiast London scheme, questioned Mr. 
Fladgate at length on the supplementary particulars of the 
nine companies, with a view to showing that the finance of 
the proposal was unsound. The point was that under the 
revised scheme, with the smaller area, the financial position 
could be changed, and counsel wished to get at the exact 
quantity of the change. 

Mr. I'ladgate found himself unable to answer, and it was 
left to the financial export who is to be called. 

Sir John Snell .said that if it was intended by the scheme 
that the rent of 7 jwr cent, on the cost of the plant less 
depreciation should continue for 60 years, it might be that 
it would have to be paid long after the life of the plant 
in the station at the time of the acquisition. Therefore, 
the Joint Authority would be paying upon plant which it did 
not have the use of. 

Sir Harry Hawauu, on the other hand, said the position 
was that the rental of 7 per cent, was in lieu of a lump sum, 
and it did not matter over what period the rental was paid. 
.•\t the same time he said none of the tables in any ot the 
three schemes showed precisely what the financial position 
of the Joint Authority as a sepai'ate entity would be. 

Mr. Donald said the effect of the rental scheme for acquii-- 
ing the generating stations had not been taken into account 
in the tables in the scheme, because this method of acquisi- 
tion was not before the engineers when they drew up the 
technical scheme upon which the finances were based. 

Answering Mr. Baker, for the North Metropolitan Electric 
Power Co., Mr. Fladgate said he personally saw no reason 
why the power areas of the North Metropolitan and Metro- 
politan Co.'s should not be excluded from the area, because 
it w-as hoped to make satisfactory arrangements with the 
power companies. 

Mr. Baker said that w-as precisely the North Metropolitan 
Power Co.'s position and, moreover, there was already the 
necessary statutory provisions to enable that to be done. 
He asked for the exclusion of the whole of the company's 
power area, as well as the Willesden power station, which 
w-as not in the Power Co.'s power area. 

Mr. Henderson, for the L.C.C, said he was anxious to 
understand the legal questions involved in the proposed leas- 
ing or hire purchase scheme. A company had no powers to 
transfer its generating station without a/ special order or an 
Act of Parliament. 

W'lTNESs said he was not divesting himself of any of his 
powers. He was only transferring his plant, and could erect 
a station elsewhere. 

Sir John Snell suggested that the point might be met by 
the last words of Section 14 of the Act of 1919. which said a 
company could divest itself of its powers by a Special Order 
or Act of Parliament. The Commissioners could make the 
Special Order in setting up the Joint Authority. 

Mr. Henderson said it depended on the true interpretation 
of the words in question. Did it mean that where a company 
was con.stituted by a Special Order, such a lease could only 
be granted by a Special Order, and where a company was 
constituted by an Act of Parliament any transfer of the powers 
niust be by Act of Parliament. His point was that th^!re 
was a doubt whether the Commissioners had any powers to 
authorise companies to lease their stations, without there 
being special .statutory authority to do so. 

.Mr. Kennedy, for the companies, .said he agreed there might 
bo legal ditiiculties. but they could be got over. 

Mr. Henderson said that under the L.C.C. scheme there 
was onl.y an acquisition of the generating stations for which 
there existed statutory powers, but there were no statutory 
powers authorising a lease in the way suggested in the scheme. 

Mr. Fladgate said that if such a proposal could be carried 
through, it would save a very great deal of movement of 
money. If the scheme was so good in its merits that the 
Commissioners recommended it for acceptance, whatever diffi- 
culties there might be he could not imagine Parliament would 
not grant the necessary permission. It would certainly be 
necessary, in his opinion, to go to Parliament for permission 
to extend the tenure of the distributors and the powers to 
lease the generating stations could be dealt with at the same 
time. 

At the conclusion of his cross-examination, Mr. Fladgate 
was questioned by the Commissioners. Asked by Sir Harry 
Haward why the constitution of the Joint Authority set out 
in the original scheme had been abandoned. Mr. Fladgate 
said that gave representation to authorised distributors, 
because they were authorised distributors, but the revised 
scheme only gave representation to those authorities which 
were financially or in some other way interested in the Joint 
.Vuthority. 

Sir Harry Haward said that on the system of representation 
now suggested, the Joint .-Vuthority might consist of 84 mem- 
bers if the Corami.s.sioners' arm \vorp t.iken or 62 if the com- 
panies' area was taken, and (IkiI would make a very large 
body. 

Mr. Fladgate said that was the reason why it was proposed 
to delegate the work to the Technical and Finam-e Com- 
mittees and no doubt others would be appointed. He con- 
sidered 29 or 31 working members as in the case of the L.C.C. 



Td. 89. No. 2,276, J0I.T 8, 1981.] ^HE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



69 



gcheme, and even in that case there would have to be com- 
mittees. 11' the general body of members was increased, and 
the work done by committees, he (.'onsidered there would be 
ffeater efficiency, because of the ^'reater choice. Even 'Ji) 
or 25 members as workinj^ members of an authority such as 
this was too large if any practical work was to be done. 

Sir Harrv Hawarii said that as he saw the matter at present. 
the introduction of the financial qualitication for membership 
of the Joint Authority would create considerable complication. 
Mr. Fla:iu.\te said the object of the scheme was to get 
something done soon. For that purpose, the .Joint lilectricity 
Authority required stations and money. The hope, wa.s that 
the local auttiorities would come in, and that the Companies 
would find the money necessary for the lirst few years, and in 
that event he felt a great deal would have been achieved for 
the benefit of London. It was the first step which was im- 
portant, and when that first step w'as taken, the rest would 
follow, and the Electricity Authority would be handed over an 
undertaking wliich could be developed on the right lines. 

Discussing labour representation on the .Joint Authority. Mr. 
Fladgate said he had no objection, but he did iiot think for 
practical purposes it would be of any advantage. Payment of 
the chairman of the Finance and Technical (Jommittees was 
liiuched upon by Sir Plarry Haward. who suggested that 
this was not necessary, but Mr. Fladgate thought the duties 
would be very onerous, and should be paid for. 

Answering further questions, Mr. Fladgate agreed this was 
a private company enterprise scheme, and the companies were 
.prepared to find ±T,'2UU,0UO necessary for the initial stage. That 
was, he contended, evidence of the bona-fidcs of the companies. 
So far as capital was concerned, he agreed that in existing 
lircumstances there would be a dilference of at least 1 per 
ioiit. in favour of the L.O.C. over a Joint Authority without 
the security of the rates. Unless the Joint Authority had 
complete control of the generating stations iu some form, 
he believed it would be absolutely impossible to effect any 
uuprovement in the present conditions. 

Sir Harrv JUaward compared the proposal of the companies 
;is regarded purchase with that of the L.C.C., and pointed out 
that the L.C.C. scheme did not propose to take over obsolete 
plant, whereas the companies did. 

Mr. Fladgate said the L.C.C. suggestion would have the 
ollect of the stations being acquired at different periods, which 
would be most unsatisfactory. He would prefer that the 
companies should hand over their generaTing stations in. say, 
three or four years, which would give the Joint Aulhority 
an opportunity of doing the important work of linking-up, the 
companies being meanwhile under the control of the Joint 
Authority. 

The term of years for extension of the distributing rights was 
next discussed. Sir Harry Haward pointed out that whereas 
the L.C.C. did not propose any term of years, the companies 
now proposed that the period should be 5U years from 193L 
Mr. ITladgate said that somewhat similar terms were proposed 
by the L.C.C in its Bill of 1914, but that was a proposal to 
form a new operating company which should have a concession 
for 50 years. 

Mr. Henderson said it would have to be a matter of bar- 
gaining between the L.C.C. and the companies. 

As to the mode of payment, Mr. Fladg.we said he had no 
objection to the L.C.C. 's paying off the capital sum by giving 
notice instead of paying 7 per cent, for the whole period. 
Personally, he felt tnat 6 per cent, might be a sufficient sum 
for the rental figure. 

Sir Harrv Hawaru appeared to think that the purchasing 
authority should have the right of paying off the cost of the 
generating stations and mains, if it desired, and witness saw 
no objection. 

.Mr. Page referred to the representation on the Joint Autho- 
rity, and Mr. Fladgate said the intention was that authorities 
i^ivmg financial assistance should have a greater representation, 
i'V increasing the financial assistance given, than an authorised 
flistributor entei'ing into an agreement to take a supply from 
tb.c Joint Authority. The latter could only have one vote in 
any event, whereas the former would have one vote for 
every £1(HJ,0U0 subscribed or guaranteed. 



I On ]<\-iday. July 1st, Mr. G. W. Partridge (Chief Engineer 

(to the London Electric Supply Corporation) gave evidence in 
Rupiwrt of the Comjianies' scheme. He referred particularly 
to an arrangement which had been made with the Governor of 
the Gas Light & Coke Co. with regard to leasing part of that 
company's site at Beckton. The advantages which would 
accrue ifrom generating electricity on this site would result 
in effecting large economies. Arrangements had been made 
with the Gas Light & Coke Co. to lease part of its site to the 
Miint Authority for 99 years^although. of course, a binding 
uicement had not l>een entered into. The site would accom- 
Mi.idate a generating station with a capacity up to 200,000 kW. 
t was not proposed to erect the station all at once, but in 
■irtions. as the demand grew. 

Dealing with the advantages of such an arrangement. Mr. 
f.irtridgo .siid that in the first place the cost of fuel would 
be largelv reduced, owing to the large quantity of coke and 
. coke breeze available on the site. This would be burned in 
boilers specially designed for the puriio.^e. and there was no 
rliflicultv in burning it. lliere would also be a great saving 
in capital outlay, because of the existing wharves, piers, rail- 



way sidings. &c., which were available, and the fact that the 
river would not need to be dredged. Thero were three means 
ol gettmg fuel. The first was the coke breeze and coke from 
the gas works ; secondly, the coal required for the generating' 
station would be handled by the existmg piers and other facili- 
ties; and thirdly, the coal contractors had an unloading jetty 
immediately alongside of the site, bo that colliers could bo 
unloaded, and special railway sidings or transporters would be 
installed connected directly to the power station. The con- 
tractors had facilities, he believed, for unloading about 5.00U 
tons of coal on one tide. The Gaa Ijght & Coke Co. was 
handlmg about 2 million tfms of coal per annum at this site, 
and the additional coal required for the generating station 
would not be a very great amount. There would also be no 
difficulty m housing the employes of the power station, and 
there were tramway and railway facilities. The joint working 
of the two companies could be a further advantage in con- 
Me( tion with the utilisation of coal. If any further improvc- 
meuts w-ere made in the carbonisation of coal, or if the utili- 
sation of w;aste heat or by-products became practicable and 
economical in the future, such improvements could be utilised 
for the mutual benefit of the two companies. Again, there 
was an advantage due to the close proximity of the northern 
outfall sewer, which would be of great value in connection 
with the laying of transmission hnes, and would save a con- 
siderable amount of money in the reopening and repair of 
pubhc streets. 

Mr. Partridge added that Sir Alexander Kennedy. Mr. Rider, 
and Mr. Wordingham thoroughly endorsed all he had to say 
in this matter. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Donald, for the Poplar scheme, wit- 
ness said the saving in connection with the provision of jetties 
would be approximately anythmg from i'300,000 to i'400.000 
in capital cost. 

Mr. Page, one of the Commissioners, pointed out that the 
electricity authority would have to pay for the use of the 
jetties. 

Mr. Partridge agreed. Continuing, he said that the figure 
he had mentioned would include the cost of dredging the 
river, and the erection of piers, railway sidings, gantries. &c., 
for a 100.000-k\V station. The figure was a conservative one. 
He could not estimate the annual saving which would be 
effected by the use of the special facilities at the Beckton site, 
but it would be considerable. The saving with regard to the 
disposal of ash would also be considerable. 

Mr. Donald then dealt with the three capital stations which 
it was proposed to erect in the eastern part of the area under 
the scheme, and suggested that these were too near each other. 
Also two of the sites were chosen primarily in order to deal 
with the railway load. Mr. Partridge said the particular sites 
were chosen because the densest part of the load was in that 
district. In addition to the railway load, there was also the 
load on the south side of the river, which would be dealt with 
by the suggested capital station on the south side. Mr. Donald 
poiuted out that by putting the stations lower down the river, 
out of the London area, there would be a saving in rates. 

Sir Harry Haward referred to the difficulty of holding pos- 
sible sites for. say. seven years, because it was not proposed 
to build capital stations until then, and it was a difficult thing 
to hold options over sites which would not be required for 
seven years. 

Mr. Partridge said he thought the Governor of the Gas 
Light & Coke Co. would be prepared to leave the matter over. 
Sir Harry Haward expressed some doubt as to the advan- 
tage of erecting a costly generating station on a leasehold 
site, but Mr. Partridge said he thought there was no dis- 
advantage in doing this. 

Continuing, Sir Harry said that if the station were erected 
and the plant installed by the Joint Electricity Authority, they 
would probably have paid off the whole of the loan raised for 
that purpose in, say. 60 years. What was to be the position 
for the remainder of the lease'.' Surely it would be impos- 
sible to put in new plant if the whole building were to be- 
come the property of the Gas Light & Coke Co. in the end? 
Mr. Partridge said that the saving effected by using the Beck- 
ton site would be such that in his opinion it would be worth 
while erecting the station. Moreover, he should imagine that 
in GO years gas and electricity would, at any rate, be produced 
by entirely different methods. In reply to a further question 
by Sir Harry, witness said there were some London stations 
erected on leasehold lands. 

T^eplying tc Mr. Page, Mr. Partridge said the electricity 
authority would pay for the privilege of using the various 
facilities already existing at the Beckton site, but he did not 
anticipate that this would amount to very much. The amount 
saved on fuel would depend on the cost of coke. The average 
cost of the coke would be slightly less than that of coal, but 
the cost of the breeze would only be half that of coal. They 
would not get the same efficiency in burning breeze as with 
e<ial. IJo had burned a great deal of breeze, and although 
there had been a certain amount of trouble, he was burning it 
very efficiently to-day. 

In reply to Mr. Lackie. one of the Commissioners, Mr. 
rAUTRinoE said the coal storage would be independent, and 
there would be room for about liO.OtX) tons. 

Mr. D. Mu.XE Watson. Governor of the Gas Light & Coke 
Co.. was then called, and said he had had many interviews 
with Sir .\lexander Kennedy and Mr. l^artridge. two of the 
engineers for this si-heme, with regard to the erection of a 



70 



THE ELECTKICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,276, jult s, 1921. 



power station on the Gas Co.'s site at Beckton. and the site 
had been gone ovci- with the Gas Co.'s engineei-s, with a view 
to seeing il an acL-eptable arrangement was possible. Person- 
ally, he considered it would be \ery advantageous from the 
point of view of his company and the supply of electricity for 
the reasons \\hich had been outlined liy Air. Partridge. He 
would be prepai'ed to advise his Board, if a satisfactory ar- 
rangement could be come to. to grant a lease to the London 
Electricity Joint Committee (i9"2U). Ltd., for 99 years for the 
purpose of erecting an electric power house and working in 
conjunction with the gas comiiany. Such a leaae woulu not 
require statutory authority. 

bir JluiiiKiiT Nibxu, who appears for the Hertfordshire 
County Council in opposition to the electrical schemes, asked 
if Mr. Milne Watjjon had not some apprehensions as to what 
might happen to hiiu if he got into such close contact u ith an 
electrical neighbour. Mr. AIiLMi Watso.n said he had none 
whatever. 

Su- lliiihiJiT NiELD : I sliould have thought it was a case of 
the \ iiuiig lady who went for a ride on the tiger. 

Mr. .Mii.Nii Watso.n : It depends on who is the tiger. 

Su- Hakri' Haward (one of the Conimis.-^ioneis) raised the 
question of preserving the buildings and plant for the lessees 
at the end of the term, supix)sing thorn to have a value. 

.Mr. MiLXE Watson said it would all dcix-nd on the terms 
of the lease. If the Gas Co. was going to lose the right to 
take over the plant at the end of the lease, it would be 
necessary for the terms to be different from wbat they other- 
wise would be. 

Mr. Booth (one of the Commissioners), taking up the 
point dealt with by Sir Herbert Isield, said he had heard Mr. 
Watson give evidence on another occasion to the eQect that 
he had satisfied himself that the time had come when the 
cut-thrixit policy as between gas and electricity supply had 
gone. He imagined Mr. Watson was of opinion that there 
was no reason why the gas and electrical industries should 
not work side by side, and that the lield was big enough 
for both of them. 

Mr. MiL.NE Watson agreed, and said that such a scheme 
as this would be in the national interest. Indeed, it would 
be in the national interest to bring both industries together 
generally. The gas companies , had a large amount ot solid 
fuel which had to be disposed of, and if it could be disposed 
of close at hand it was better for both parties ; it saveu the 
transport and possible double handling of large quantities 
of bulky solid fuel. It was not a question of one swallowing 
the other, but of their helping each other. 

.Vnswering Mr. Page, Mr. \Vatson said there was always 
a surplus of coke available. A got.d deal of it was exported 
at present, and there would be no difficulty in always having 
suflu-ient for an electricity gencratmg station. 

Sir John S.nei.l (chairman) said he gathered that there 
would be no dilticulty, in Mr. WaLson's view, in the elec- 
tricity \Mirks having the use of the coaling facilities at Beckton, 
and that such use would not interfere with the gasworks. 

Mr. Watson said arrangements ci.uld ea.sily be made for 
taking fuel in without interference with the gasworks. Coke 
could be taken direct from the gasworks retorts into the other 
works. 

Sir John Snell said he presumed that the Gas Light and 
Coke Co.. with its great organisation, was watching the 
question of iriiproveil methods of carboni.'^ation, and if any 
process of low-tcniiicralure carbonisation became practicable 
it would be pos.silile for the gas company to carry it out. 

Mr. Mll^NE Watson replied that that was so, and if such 
a development did take place, an electric power station was 
one of the best means for utilising the gas so produced. 

Mr. W. A. Peahman, secretary to the VVestrain.ster Elec- 
tric Supply Co., was ue.\t called, and handed in a table deal- 
ing with the proposal by which the .kiint .\uthority will pur- 
chase the generating stations of the companies and local 
authorities. Great difliculty was experienced in understand- 
ing the purport of it, and it was arranged that .Mr. Pcniiiiiii 
should be called at a later stage to be cross-exaniined with 
regard to it. Mr. Pearman's explanation may be siaiimarised 
as follows: The Joint Electricity .Authority should purcha.se 
the generating stations and transmission mains on the basis 
of cost less depreciation, either by i)ayment of a lump sum 
or 111 the fnriu of a rental calculated on the basis of 7 p<'r 
cent, per annum of the ascertained value, plus a sinking fund 
to \\i|ie out the capital cost at the end ot a period correspond- 
ing with the termination of the companies' cxtenih'd tenure 
as distributors, say, .50 years from J931. .According to the 
calculations the value of the plant to be purchased in the 
area taken Ijy the companies' scheme, is at present Id.li 
milli(iiis sterling, this hgure including companies and local 
aiitlmrities. la 1931, the value would be reduced to 4.77o 
iMillioos sterling. 

Sir llMiitY HAWAtm said it was quite impossible to judge 
the elTect of the i)roposal unless the companies' undertakings 
were kept s«'parate from the local authorities, and Mr. Pear- 
man agreed to bring up further statistics on these lines. 

Mr. .\RTHt-R CoixiNs. city treasurer of Birmingham, wns 
then (Mlled as thr> linam-ial witness for the Confeienee of Local 
Aiitlidrities' selieiiie. he haviriL.' been prevented by illness from 
altendinu when this scheme was previously before the Coiii- 
niissioners. He put it that the .Joint Authority should be 
able to raise monev at 6i per cent, without the security of 
the rates, because of the guaranteed income it would have. 



This should be 2 per cent, better than the railways would 
be able to raise money at for erecting generating stations. 
At the beginning, the Joint Electricity Authority would not 
need to raise much money, and he strongly urged that the 
Commissioners should recommend the 'lYeasury to assist iu 
the early period with a loan. Under the .\ct of 1919, the 
IVeasury could advance money to the Ministry of Ti'ansport 
for the erection of generating stations, and he should think 
the Joint .\uthority could be assisted in this way. It was 
true that such loans to the Ministry of Transport could only 
be for a period of two years, but under the ISo. '2 Eleclruitv 
Bill it was proposed to increase that period to hve yeaih, 
and that shoiTid be sufficient for the early needs of the .Joint 
.\uthority. With regai'd to meeting the administrative ex- 
penses of the Joint .Authority, as a result of the evidence 
given to the Commissioners, he was of the opinion that tUvx 
exix;nses should be met by the distributors who took supply, 
in proportion to the units taken, by the authorised distributors 
who did not take supply, in a smaller ratio, and on soiiu^ 
basis by the other authorities, so that all parties concerned 
contributed. He put such contributions to the adminislratnc 
expenses on the .same basis as a subscription to the I..M.K.A. 
or the Municipal lYamways .A.ssociation, or the .'\ss()ciat)(in 
of Municipal Corjiorations, ui that the Joint Authority would 
have in its charge the general good of the electricity supply 
in the whole area. 'Hie terms of purchase of the local autho 
rities' undertakings should be either the transference of tln' 
stations with outstanding debts or the payment of capital cu.-l 
less dej>reciation, whichever was the greater. 

."Vuswering Mr. Henderson, for the L.C.C, Mr. CoiAlNS 
said that authority should pay a substantial share of tht 
administrative expenses of the Joint Authority. . , , 



On Tuesday, July Jth, .Mr. CV)LL1ns was cross-examined by 
Mr. Donald on the estimates of the scheme, and admitted that 
the liguies concerning the Conference scheme did not give any 
estimate of the cost of electricity at any particular stage' of 
the undert-aking. 

Sir JuuN Snell put a number of questions on this point, 
and suggested that it would have been an advantage to have 
had ligures of this character. It rather seemed that the pro- 
moters had not given consideration to the matter, yet it waiB 
a most importani one. 

Mr. Collins said that although he had put in similar 
figures in other inquiries held by the Commissioners, and the 
terms of the Commissioners' notice with regard to the present 
inquiry called for such figures, he must frankly say that in the 
case of London the conditions were such that it was impos- 
sible to put forward such ligures. 

Counsel then asked questions about the proposed purchase 
terms in the companies' .scheme. Mr. Collins .said that al- 
though this was not his proposal, he was willing to discuss it. 
.■\fter a great deal of argument, it was agaiu made clear by 
Mr. Kennedy that the eomiianies wanted the cost of the plant 
paid either as a caiutal sum or by instaliiients iu the form of a 
rental. 

Sir John Smi.l asked if il wi-vr I he intenlioii of the Com- 
l)anies that the amount paid tn them shniild not he gieater 
than the interest and sinking fund charges payable on the 
debt. If that were so, it was a simple issue which he could 
understand. 

Mr. Sydney Mouse, fur the (c iinty of London and other 
companies, said he diil iicit uiideistand the proposal in that 
way. 

Sir Hauri' Hawahd .said he thought the position was clear 
so far as the Companies were concerned, it they wanted a cer- 
tain sum either as a lump sum or in instalments. 'The posi- 
tion, however, was diflerent from the point of view of the 
.loint Electricity .\iithority. because if the ;unoiint was paid 
by instalments over, say, 50 e.r (it) years, it would happen that 
some of the plant, if not all the plant, would be worn out 
before the instalments to the Companies were pai<l, and it 
would not do to have another loan running while the instal- 
ments were unfinished. 

Eventually, it was agreed that the financial experts should 
i-onfer and try and arrive at a definite scheme fur the pur- 
ebase of the generating stations and Iransmi.ssion mains, in 
order that it could be seen in figures exactly what the linaii 
eial result would be. An drawn, the sebeine was inribigiious. 
as already pointed (Jiit. 

Mr. Henderson, for the L.C.C, said llial it the stati'inent 
of the eompani(^s' position made by Sir Many Haward 
was accepted, it would remove many of his objections. 

Mr. Kenxrdv said that at the moment he thought that 
statement did explain the position, but he would like an 
opportunity of consulting with his clients, and the Companies 
would also bo very willing for their financial experts to con- 
sult with the experts of the L.C.C. on the point. 

Discussion of the question was therefore postpnned until 
such n conference was hehl. Cross-examination of Mr. ('(jllins, 
on other matters, however, proceeded. 

Sir TlF.nnERT Nield. for the Hi;rtfordshire County Council, 
soi.ght to get an expression of opinion from witness that smb 
.•1 seh"me -hould be eopriiieil to. s'lv coiiiitry areas, and that 
therefore the present scheme should be restricted to liondon. 

Mr. Collins said his opinion would not be worth anythini.'. 
The area must be left to the Commissioners, and he had 
sufficient faith in the people behind the Conference scheme to 



foi. 89. No. 2,276, juw 8, 1921.] THE ELECTMCAL KEVIEW. 



71 



believe that they would make a success of it even il' the area 

I was larger than the ('<junty of J.ondon. As to represe-ntatiou, 
it might be for the beuctit of the scheme that there should be 
direct county representation. As lor counties and other aiitlio 
rities paying a share of the administrative expenses ot the 
Joint Authority. Mr. Collins said that it must be regarded as 
an insurance for the protection of the general interests alfect- 
iijg electricity supply. It was necessary to take a broad view 
of a matter of this kind, and certainly in the case of repre- 
s(mtatiou there should be contribution to the administrative 
expenses, notwithstanding that .some portions of the counties 
so represented and contributing might get no iumiediate 
lieneht from the scheme. As a rough hgure, the authorities 
\vhich did not take a supply would only have to pay, say, MH) 
:i year. whiLst in the case of a county the contribution should 
l)e round about JiUKJ. He could not, however, agree to a 
proposal made by Mr. Wrottesley, for the Middlesex County 
I 'ouncil. that county councils should have a minimum repre- 
sentation without contribution, leaving them to subscribe if 
they pleased and have larger representation in proportion to 
the financial assistance oil'ered voluntarily. 

Discussing charges, Mr. Collins said he favoured the zone 
system of charging because the area was too large for a flat- 
rate charge. It might be possible to apply the principle of 
charging the cost of the main to supply a certain district to 
that district, and in that way the zonal .system might be 
avoided. This had been done m connection with other power 
schemes, but in the case of the London area delimited by the 
Commissioners it was so large that this principle might not 
be applicable. 

Breaking into his cros.s-examination, Mr. Collins said a 
broad view must be taken. In placing schemes before Parlia- 
ment for the development of areas, for administi'ative pur- 
poses, such as town planning, it was the custom to look 50 
years ahead, and to look even 20 years ahead was not taking 
the long view. In his opinion the most practical peojile were 
those who looked furthest ahead. 

During some questions as to the administrative expenses of 
the Joint Authority, Sir Haeky Ha ward pointed out that the 
only expenses w'ould be that portion of the total not pro- 
perly chargeable to capital or to the consumers taking supply. 
Thus there would only be a balance to be provided for. 

Mr. Collins said he doubted whether the total would be 
much more than i'10,000. 

Sir ,IoHN Snell said it would be an advantage if the Com- 
missioners could have a precise statement showing the total 
administrative expenses and the amount that would have to 
be found by those bodies not taking a supply. 
Mr. Tdenek promi.sed that this should be done. 
Mr. Collins, in the course of further questions, said he re- 
garded the Joint Electricity Authority as a conciliatory body 
between authorised disiributors, such as the North Metro- 
politan Power Co., and the local authorities. The Joint Elec- 
tricity Authority would have a great influence in preventing 
litigation and inducing the small local bodies to take the long 
view in regard to electricity. In that way, a great deal of 
expense would be saved in litigation which now took place. 
That was an important instance of the advantage to be gained 
if all the authorised distributors should come into the scheme, 
and he personally felt that it was a wrong policy for the North 
Metropolitan Power Co. and the Metropolitan Electric Supply 
Co. to ask to be left out of the scheme. 

Later, Mr. Collins said that sooner or later all Joint Elec- 
tricity Authorities would have to go to Parliament to clothe 
themselves with the powers necessary to carry on their under- 
takings. 

At this point further cross-examination of Mr. Collins was 
postponed until after the result of the conferences which are 
being held by the financial experts is known. 

Mr. Donald then outlined the East London and District 
scheme, prefacing his remarks by pointing out certain modi- 
fications in the scheme as originally deposited with the Com- 
missioners. ITiese are dealt with as the scheme is described 
below. The general proposals for the supply of electricity in 
East London would, said Mr. Donald, have been more or less 
gathered from his cross-examination. Briefly, the case was that 
wheie there was an industrial area sufficiently large to absorb 
the output of its own plant, such an area should be recog- 
nised as an independent area. In putting forward the East 
London scheme, however, he did not ask that that area should 
be cut off from electrical communication with the outside 
areas. He did ask, however, for financial autonomy. More- 
over, it might be necessary that there should be some centx'al 
authority to control a large area containing, say, 6 or 6 areas 
nf the nature of the East London scheme, and no objection 
was taken to that degree of control in order that the various 
areas might be of mutual assistance to each other. In in- 
(lu.strial areas of the nature of that of the East London 
scheme, however, it wa.s not in the interests of industry that 
thev should I'e linked up financially with other areas, because 
.such a financial linking-up might tend to increase the price 
of energv in the one area. ."Vt the same time, he recognised 
the difiiculties with which he had to contend in putting for- 
ward the scheme, inasmuch as he only had one local autho- 
ritv liehind him. llie area included in his scheme comprised 
Islington. Shoreditch. Bethnal Green and Stepney; crossing 
the Thiimes it included Bockenham and the supply companies' 
areas south of the Thames ilown to Lambeth, Woolwich. 
Bexley, Dartford, Gra.vesend, and crossing to the north again 



the area included the whole of the Kouiford area of the Counts 
ul London Go., lllord, \Valtli.Tmstow and Stoke Newington. 
.None of tlw companies in the area had signilied any intention 
of joining the scheme, and nearly all the local authorities, with 
the exception of J'oplar. were uieiubers of the Coiilereijc« ol 
Local .ViitlKjrities. However, he did ikjI suggest that the 
ConiinissKjncrs .should do more than mdicute tiiat they would 
be willing lo constitute u Joint Aulhorily lor thi.s area il the 
authorities in it were willing for that to be d(jne. He could 
not do more than that. Hs whole point was that this area 
was the industrial area of Ixjndon, as could be seen from the 
following ligures. The units supplied in the East London area 
increased liy 4li pei cent. I>ctween l'J14 and 1\>M); in the same 
period the units supiilied in the remainder of the area de- 
limited by the Cominist-Kjinis increased only by as per tent.; 
the corresponding figures for maximum demand were 39 per 
cent, and -26 per cent., and whereas in the East London area 
during the same pcikid the load factor increa.sed by i.-^ per 
cent., in the remainder of tlie area there was actually a de- 
crea.se, Again, the respective total costs were 1.4ci4d. per unit 
and 1.834d. per unit, whilst the percentage of capital charges 
to total charges was 17.3 per cent, in the East London area 
against '2'2.4 per cent, in the area outside. Perhaps, however. 
the most striking evidence of the industrial ciiaracter of the 
area w'as that 80 per cent, was for power purposes; only 50 iier 
cent, of the demand in the remainder of the area "was for 
power purposes. It was proposed to erect a capital station 
at Dagenham. becau.se it was calculated that by iy-i«j the 
greater part of 1(K),000 k\V would be required, and it was 
regarded as best to put this into a capital station at once. 
rather than extend the existing stations. 

Developing his ca.se, Mr. Donald suggested the po.ssibility of 
grouping local authority undertakings and company under- 
takings, and that would apiily resjiectively to the East of 
London and Central and West of London, the local authoi'ities 
being situated in the East. 

The Joint .Authority under the .scheme is to consist of '2:1 
reiire.sentatives of the local authority distributors, .seven repre- 
sentatives of councils having purchasing rights, three repre- 
sentatives of other local authorities, five representatives of the 
supply companies in the area, three representatives of large 
consumers and railway companies, and two i-epresentatives of 
labour, or 43 in all. 

During the course of discussion between the Commissioners 
and Mr. Donald, it came out that tlie .Toint .Authority might, 
in certain circumstances, be a committee under a Joint Autho- 
rity for the whole area, Mr. Donald being anxious to provide 
for both contingencies. 

Mr. J. H. BowDEN, chief engineer to the Poplar Electricity 
Undertaking, then gave evidence in support of the scheme as 
outlined. 

(To he continued.) 



Proposals for an Improved Coinage. — Mr. Harry 

Allcock, M.I.E.E., M.I.Mech.E., draws our attention to the 
following proposal which has been put forward with the 
object of simultaneously secm'ing (a) a low'er cost of living, 
(li) national and private economy, and (c) simpUfied home and 
foreign accounts. • 

The proposal is to increase the token value of tlie* penny 
by 20 per cent., thus dividing the sliilling into 10 pence 
instead of 12, while leaving the present values of the shilling 
and the £ sterling unaffected; to employ the existing bronze 
coins to represent these higher values instead of their present 
values, and to convert the prices now expressed in " low 
pence " to their equivalents in " high pence " by deducting 
one-sixth; e.y., three "low pence" would be exactly equal 
to "ij " high pence." 

The existing sixpenny and threepenny silver coins would 
still represent the half and the quarter of the shilling, but 
they would be exchangeable into 5 and 2i '" high pence " 
instead of 6 and 3 " low pence " respectively. 

The following advantages would be secured : — 

Lower Cost of Licing. — The prices of many pre-war (lenny- 
worths now sold at lid. could be reduced by 20 per cent, to 
one " penny." Under existing circumstances no reduction 
can be made, due to the impos.sibility of restoring the original 
penny price, and the impracticability of charging lid. by 
rea.son of the scarcity and unpopularity of farthing coins. 

SimplifieJ Home and Forcinn Accounts. — Wlule still retain- 
ing the present method of keeping accounts in £ s. d.. the 
home public would gain many of the adv.antages of decimal 
coinage (without employing the decimal point) due to the 
elimination of much conuwund arithmetic, e.g., 89 pence 
would be Ss. 9d. instead of 7s. 5d. 

In their foreign accounts British exporters could express 
all .i' s. d. values in £ and decimal parts thereof (because the 
" penny " would then be a decimal .submultiple of the £), 
thus meeting the convenience of tlieu: foreign customers, who 
all employ and prefer decim.il coinage. 

.\t convenience this practice of expressing shillings and 
pence as a dix-imal fraction of the £ could he adopted in home 
trade »a well as in foreign trade without any further altera- 
tion of coin values. The old problem of completing the d». 
rimalisatioD ol the £ would thus be eolved in easy stages. 



NEW PATENT5 APPLIED FOR. |,21. 



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September "th. laSO.) "• ^"SB'^nbuhl. June irth. (Switzerland 

;^^jps:^«^-^,'<'^,^i-i=^^wi.ch. ,. ,„„^; 

,I;'t!;„"«">a(;. June irth. 'Ecirische en Mechanische .\pparalen- 

Ki'do"'-June*'l7^,;,^ high-tension electrical machines with oil bath" K- v 

I6.V8O "Appat,"us?^" f. H. liutler. j'une 17,h. 
June Wth. ^f!"'-'"" '■"■ connecting flexible wire cables " A A T I 

'^<^-''"^^"^- '■ '--'• '■ "' *'• ^- '—. -.-'sieml; 
16,V93; "Mrnrilrinicati'^r'^C •"• ''■ '-"'"'''• J-' "th. 

"■^sS^""^^/'^'""'^^' /-'•'K^ ""'^^'' Thomson-Houston Co., 

""'^■^ . '""""" ''■^'''— " voltages." G. Sutton. June 

^^^^.^••SiS2?if?^"^^^^So" -■-- — -eri 
EI«^;Co.,. %ne llth! """ '"■""■'■ ""■"^'n-Houston Co.. Ltd. (General 

vi./Z'^H.'V'^T^S^hUll^er-'i-.l'Sr'-.r -r'^'^ ^y ''«-'c conducti. 
16.884. " Telephone sv.t,,^c." 7 ''^""«- J""* lS>h, 1920.) 

'■iU""="T^->""-^"^-- No^e-'r-r^thysT' *•-"'--'-« ^o., 

Meri&A. li""!^M^.'"}Zl'-^T""!JrLl!r"A'' T""" Merz-Werke (Geb 
16,894. •• Elc.ctric radiators " j' V K "T" ."^^ ""'' ^=**' 
16,907. "Automatic telephone LLni "V",1 "• ^^ "' ""'■ J"- ^Oth. 

^JMli;'^t2^.SallXejiS : ok""" '"' '"^ "■°- 

..;t2jha:^-i- s^?- -- - --^;=p{:;r^:^a.us. ..- 

j^g. S... o( secret wireless communication." E. G. „. Beresford. 

p,^-. in induction coiu S!';:!:^^:^:„ z^^^-^'tt ptrr-f^ 

16 966 " Fi • o . »-. rtrrrem. June 

J"i^■2'^^.(Swede'n. June'^i; Igl'l"""' ^'"""""""or Aktiebolaget Jungner. 
""l/o'ia'rsf r-'P^'i-Xlon. Tune-^S- ''•^••'■- ^"'^'^ '''-«» 

^"ifd^'-T " "" "■'""'"-"■'>""- -8-es." C. Pressland 

Juneft. S*-"'— ui. detector.." Am-O-Meter Co. and S T She 11 
Ju«'*^d."^"'""^ "' "-^'"1 current .0 factories, Ac" R E S ih 
Tud^Ju^e'^'r' ''^'■''™' ''^"•"' 'or half-wa.t lamp., &c." ' H V 
^rZ: "RrcIpirrX'r,""'' ''^■'"" ^^ -^^ '■ ^^-"y- J-e 22nd 

C.^A\ VandeiverrK>':,\^rj?„« 5^„r'- "«-'». *c." J. Hettinger and 
Brci«g.- June's.'"'"'^ "'"'■""' '" "-"'P^'r .dephone cable,. 4c." F 



342 " s k- isao. 

"st? ''!^'J'''^^"^91^'^am3^r'°''''' '''■"' ''E-'P'-'^'ion De L. 

OfOiib. " Tt?lephoncs "Pis* ' ^» 

^Trk-'-'^-D^'""''' '''' ''•^■' am:^ir' ''*"'"'"' "-"'acturing Co. 

4 lj.^!'.''5;j.'">' "^'h. 1920. (164,427 ) '"'"""'•"'■"bustion engines," D. A. V 
''T?li'"-..&^"f'^'lS"^^4Sr" "" -^'"^'^'^ accumulators." A 
■■"■'yjglO'h. laio.'7lG4,4^''.)^' ''"■ "'"■"■''^ accumulators." A. Pouchain. Feb- 

^"J^='"-,. f '"-o'"lOth:^S''a^4,.r33T '" ''"'"■-' -""-latcrs." A. 
bl7"8.''" Se^h^o;. '-■f a^*^/^^" =*'"■ lS(164;45l!) ' ^^ '• '"'"'^"^ anj J. 

,^^,;;.:^J:i--:;;:^:a^-ve..,--^,i^^^,.^^ 

'^-"•'^^tlS;^?^""'"-- ^O?.,-^'--^ —Co.. 
M..H :2,h ll^.^SZoT3i:8^«".r'(l^•=!«,^• ^^-- and J. L. Major. 
lA. ''a"sl%ir "' ""'^'^ -istaiic^^"-^ R. ,. R. 3„„„„ ^^^^^ 

''l^^'^.El'""" """' """"■" ^' ^- °'""''- ''^"'' ^«"'- 1^- 
""f^,^- ,,March;^'nd':Ym aets^f"'" ""■ "■ J°"'"' ="" H. N. H. 

Ti, .Protective devices for electrir oir.. •. 

i homson-Houston Co.. Ltd (a»,.r, r-i . f^'uits and apparatus." British 
9.681. "Electric sw.iXs.' sockets i^J'';';,,''"-.'; Ma-t-ast. 1920. (16^559.'^ 

loTfif- "'V^l' '"^V-^- 164.565 '■'''• "■ -f- C-"h'and g! 

lU.UtJl, Telegraph circuirc »' a /-\ i- 

""nl^'^^Kt'- k''- ^P"'10-h,im'"(f64.OT,°^""«'^ ^^'^Braph Ins.ru- 

i2:c«6: ■•E,S"fajp''^^'d-,::.J^- a-, "a""; 1r;'lh^"^"f-^"«^.5«2.) 

logS;' „ ^°°'''' '^Pril 30th. 1920. 

flRr'-viii'i Electric light fittings." W S T H j 
"'4^ "V "■•»■(. Hards. May 4lh, 1920. 

1935: '!m.5!)2T""' ""'""■ *'"'"' "'■'' 'ako-up." B. J. Tamarin May 5,h 

"IS "m'""'""' ""'^^•" '"'"'" '■'■^^' '^'^''■^' ^- ^"'^ ^«'^. ""• 

"J.l8>'.-7^0 ' '""' '"'"''"^^' «'-Io" i:,d!'1iSber 8th, 

r--J.' July Wtlr'JSs. 7f47,lio.f '^"'™-" "'■"■^'^ Thomson-Houston Co., 
Julv ^th, 1914. (147,fe0) vehicles." British Thomson-Houston Co.. Ltd 

J0,4n4. " Electrodes for electric searrhr h, •• r^ 

ooo°,'^- .fTl'"'u" '""'■ "18- (148.449) ^'-''-'ch^ Anstalt C. P. Goerj 

.■5.5.195 "rl^rrfr-, -^ov^ber 20th. 1920. (lB4.fi70.) Da.mler Co.. Ltd.. 

'Ifi?,.- '■.'.''p J-.^V'i'^."mg78'r""'^" "--Poli'an-Vickers Elecr,. 
im ^i64,68'i'r'^" *"^^""« ""' "^"^ '"-■" E ^-".inoy. December 30th. 

" .^r"^r-jSie™en.Schu££r^4: K;^ 



^XXli^ 



:E3XiECTK/IC-A-Xj R/E'VIE'W". 




JULY 15, 1921. 



No. 2,277 



ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



THE CURSE OF PEECENTAGE. 



Vol. ijcxxix.] 



OONTHNTS: July 15, 1921, 



The < 'urse of Percentage 

Foreign Patents and the Peace Treaty ... 

The Problem of Getting a Job 

The I. M.E. A. Convention 

Metropolitan- Viokers Electrical Co., Ltd.: Tralfjrd Tark Works 

('VA«.v) 

Three-phase Supply to Scott- Connected Transfrrmer Banks 
under Various Conditions of Two-phase lioadiiisr, by G. W. 

Stubbings (;///«.) 

■Exports and Imports of Electrical Goods for June, 1921 ... 

New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant (,iUii.i.) 

Hydro-electrio Problems in Scandinavia 

The National Physical Laboratory (runclndpil) 

Oorrespondence — 

E.M.L.A. and Retrospective Lamp Rebates 

Short-range Sea Horizons for Cable Ships 

A Mysterious Occurrence 

Armatnre Core Bands 

Abnormal Meter Records 

Sawdust as Fuel 

Charges for Service Mains 

Letral ... , ... 

Business Notea 

Notet... .... 

OitT Not« 

Btooka and Sharei ... 

Market Quotations 

The Engineering Conference, 1921 

The Economic Limits of Distribution from Coal-fired 
Stations, by W. B. Woodhouse 

Low Voltage Overhead Distribution, by B. Welbourn ... 
The Thermal Efficiency of Heat Power Plant icmitiniinl) ... 
The London Fair and Market 

Joint Electricity Authorities {,eontbiued) 

New Patents Applied for, 1921 ... „ 

Abstracts of Published Specifications 



No, 2,217. 
Page 

... 7.S 

... 74 

... 74 

... 74 



82 
82 
82 
82 
82 
82 
83 
85 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 

97 
97 
99 
100 
100 
104 
104 



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.i.T3niiis"ii liioini 



A .STUPENDOUS gain that lias been achieved by elei;trical 
engineers is the ability to work out eflSciencifes with 
accuracy. Compared with ma iiie engineers, electrical 
men seem faddy to a ridioulousi extent, but they have 
proved their case. The older marine men could tell when 
they made a really big advance, as when they went from 
compound to triple-expansion engines, but they were in 
a somewhat confused state when it came to finding out 
what arose from changes in detail, and indeed sometimes 
altered their engines in a way which reduced their 
efficiency, without knowing what had happened. 

Nevertheless, the time has come when electrical men 
must make a new step forwards; They have got into 
too rooted a habit of working on the percentage and 
similar bases, and good as this may be in a general way, 
it is possible for a good custom to hamper progress. 
Years ago, designers tried to work out steam engine 
consumptions on the b.h,p.-hour basis, but they stuck 
over it. At no load the engine was using steam, with- 
out output, so that the consumption per b.h.p.-hour 
was infinite. It came down as the load came on, and 
reached its minimum somewhere about full load. De- 
signers drew out curves, but they did not seem to lead 
to anything. Then Willans threw over the " per " 
basis, plotted the total steam consumption against out- 
put, and got his straight-line law, which threw^ a flood 
of light on the whole matter. 

In the March number of the I.E,E. Journal, Prof. 
Miles Walker puts forward suggestions which, if followed 
up, may have results not less important than the Willans 
straight-line law. He points out that b}' spending £600 
oil a certain 20,000-kW generator, it is possible to 
reduce the loss by 40 kW. Now if one were to put this 
forward to the ordinary designer, he would look up 
in an abstracted way and say that on 20(000 kW, 40 
kW is 0,2 per cent,, and he would state that he could 
not see his way to alter the standard patterns to make 
a saving which one could not trace in a steam consump- 
tion test. True enough, one could not, let 40 kW, 
if saved for 4,000 hours per annum, would amount to 
160,000 kWh, and that is worth saving! ihe upshot 
of the argument, then, is this : First of all, one should 
design a generator to give as good results as possible, 
oil ordinary lines, and siibsecjuently one should revise 
the design to make savings, even though they cannot 
be recognised on the percentage basis, savings which 
cannot be measured even on careful steam consump- 
tion tests. As Prof, Miles Walker points out, we 
must not let the desire to get the utmost out of. the 
materials prevail too much over us. What we want 
is to get the utmost commercially, and that may even 
mean that we must work the materials at a point below 
their limit. This may have the ailditional advantage 
of making the generator more reliable, an important 
consideration. 

Prof. Miles Walker's point is so weigiity that one 
hopes it will speedily be recognised. One knows, of 
course, that designers, in large factories, are neces- 
sarily tied down by their shop practice, and one can 
hardly expect them to work out the problem whether 
40 kW can be saved on a 20,000-kW set. This work 
should properly be done by men of Prof. .Miles Walker's 
stamp. It is. indeed, just the kind of work that our 
colleges should encoiirage their technical staff to tak« 
[78J . • « 



74 



THE ELECTEICAL KEYIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,277. jult 15. 1931. 



up, with benefit to everyone. A practice of this kind 
would also help the financial side of a professorship, 
besides keeping the holder of the position in touch with 
actual work. 

One mav add a word here on the choosing of pro- 
fessors for our colleges. The selecting committees some- 
times think that they have done a good stroke in getting 
a man who has been a designer in a large works. While 
experience of this kind is invaluable, it is not enough. 
A professor should first of all be able to impart know- 
ledge to the average student, a most ditHcult thing, be 
it said. The man who has been designing in a factory 
for many years may have a profound knowledge of a 
certain subject, but he may also be narrow, and incap- 
able of understanding the student mind. He may even 
have become afflicted with the disease of keeping things 
secret, a disease not unknown in large factories, and 
that is fatal to good teaching. The man who has pro- 
found practical and theoretical knowledge, and who 
also can teach, is rare, but, when caught, everything 
should be done to keep his wits alive. A certain amount 
of consulting work on the above lines will act as an 
admirable stimulant, and the students will reap the 
benefit. 



A CASE is reported which seems to 
Foreign Patents show that those who drafted the Peace 
and the Treaty were not fully alive to the in- ' 

Peace Treaty, terests of persons in England who had 
made use of enemy patents. We refer to 
Cooksley v. Crowthorne Engineering Co., which came 
before Mr. Justice Peterson on June 29th. As our 
readers are aware, a patent lapses if the renewal fees 
are not paid. This accident happened to many German 
patents during the war, and English manufacturers, 
as they lawfully might, not unnaturally began to avail 
themselves of enemy property. It is obvious, however, 
that a patented article may be a thing of some com- 
plexity which cannot be made or perfected in some 
cases for many years. When the Peace Treaty was 
under consideration, as it was realised that patents 
belonging to Englishmen in Germany might have lapsed 
during the war, a clause was inserted giving the patentee 
the right to renew, but subject to the protection of the 
interests of those who had infringed between the date 
of the lapse and the date of the renewal. Rules have 
been made to carry this provision into effect, but as the 
facts of the case under consideration seem to show, 
they are not sufficiently wide to protect and indemnify 
a person against loss incurred owing to his reasonable 
belief that he was and would remain entitled to work 
the enemy patent. It appeared that on September ISlli, 
1917, a certain patent held by a German subject for a 
mortising machine lapsed, owing to the non-payment 
of renewal fees. An English company thereupon com- 
menced to manufacture parts of the machines. It was 
provided, however (in effect), by a clause in the Peace 
Treatj', which came into force on July 31st, 1919, that 
within a year after the signing of that document a 
German subject might pay the renewal fees, and have 
his patent renewed, " but subject to such conditions 
as each Power may deem reasonably necessary for the 
protection of persons who have manufactured or made 
<ise of the subject mattei of such property while the 
rights had lapsed." In March, 1920, the German 
patentee paid the renewal fees, and thereupon became 
entitled to his patent, subject to the rights of persons 
who had infringed since September, 1917. After the 
renewal of the patent, the defendants manufactured some 
parts and assembled 32 machines, mainly of the parts 
already in stock at the renewal date; the patent was 
for the combination. In these circumstances they were 
sued for infrinirfinpnt by or on behalf of the patentee. 
They relied on a " restoration order " dated March 
20th, 1920. whereby it was provided that no action 
lihould becommenred in respect of the use or employment 
of any mechanism or the sale or use of any article in 
the T'nited Kingdom made in infringement of the re- 



newed letters patent " after September 18th, 1917, &nd 
before the date of this order." Mr. Justice Peterson, 
however, held that this did not protect the defendants, 
inasmuch as, the patent being for a combination, th« 
use of that coiubination constituted an infringement 
of the patent, and that such user, after March 20th, 
1920, could be restrained by injunction. 

It appears to us that the learned judge arrived or 
was compelled to arrive, at a somewhat harsh conclu- 
sion. Had the defendants known when they first began 
to manufacture parts of the patented article that their 
ultimate user in the finished machine might be pro- 
secuted by the patentee, they would never have embarked 
upon the enterprise. 

The difficulty of securing employ- 
The Problem ol ment in industrial life after leaving it 
tietting a Job. for a period is often brought home to us 
by letters which, though by no means 
despairing — our correspondents almost always retain a 
spirit of inexhaustible optimism and confidence in the 
future, we are glad to say — often tell a tale of persever- 
ing effort unrewarded by success, which makes us wish 
we had an unlimited number of vacancies to place at 
their disposal. 

The question is particularly pressing in the case of ex- 
Service men, who before all ought to be installed in suit- 
able situations. Many of them are highly skilled in elec- 
trical work, but cannot readily gain admission into a 
trade union except as " auxiliaries " or " improvers " 
ac a low wage — if, indeed, they are lucky enough to 
secure a berth. For instance, one who writes us describes 
himself as having initiative, " conscientious, willing to 
be told, ambitious, and cheerful under all circum- 
stances." Apart from technical qualifications, that is 
the sort of man that anyone would be glad to engage. 
Yet, somehow, it is surprisingly difficult for the would- 
be employe to find the willing employer. We can only 
hope that the period of depression through which the 
country is passing will soon give place to renewed acti- 
vity, when everyone willing to work will find work wait- 
ing for him. 

After a variety of vicissitudes, un- 
The I.M.E.A, precedented, we believe, in its history, 
Convention. the annual Convention of the Incor- 
porated Municipal Electrical Associa- 
tion is to take place next week, in London. It is true 
that the function is called the annual meeting, and at 
first, when the Dundee Convention was abandoned, it 
was intended that the proceedings should be limited to 
the annual general meeting and the annual dinner; but 
apparently +his was not agreeable to the members, and 
the programme has gradually been extended until it 
includes all the usual items except " visits to works and 
places of interest." It is, in fact, a severely profes- 
sional meeting — during working hours; the members 
may be trusted to see that the tension is relaxed between- 
wliiles, and if the Council's deliberations have shown 
a certain amount of indecision and " cut and try " that 
we have not hitherto associated with the I.M.E.A., we 
can congratulate both the Council and the members on 
arriving at last at a very satisfactory solution of the 
]iroblem. Major Richardson, deprived by fate of the 
privilege of presiding over the Convention at home, hag 
our sympathy and, we are sure, that of the Association 
as a whole; apart from that misfortune, we see no reason 
why the proceedings should he less profitable or less 
enjoyable than usual. 

The papers deal with two sul)jccts — the financial and 
commercial aspects of electricity supply, by Mr. C. W. 
Charlesworth and Mr. E. Cross, and boiler-house prac- 
tice, by Mr. D. Wilson and Mr. W. M. Miles — questions 
which are in the forefront to-day, apd should afford 
abundance of material for discussion. Incidentally, we 
inferred from the programme that the London and Home 
Counties Inquiry was expected to conclude by Wednes- 
day next. We hope it will — l)ut unfortunately a doubt 
has arisen, and the meetings maj' have to be held at the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 



T.I. 89. Mo. S,J77, Jolt IB, 1121.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



75 



METROPOLITAN-VICKERS ELECTRICAL CO., LTD.— TRAFFORD PARK WORKS. 



VISIT BY THE PRINCE OF WALES. 



Brilliant weather prevailed last week when His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales, accompanied by Lord 
Derby and suite, toured Lancashire. He was received 
witli enthusiasm and accorded a wonderful welcome 
wherever he went, and it is not surprising after the ex- 
perience of the first day that the programme of tlie tour 
had to be modified. Certain visits to industrial estab- 
lishments had to be omitted, and at Manchester on 
Jwlv 7th his tour of tlie Trafford Park Works of the 



■""■■ 








I 


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ife:i 


|P|';' 


'^I'T^w**!!! ^Sllif ... 


^amw^msF'. siia 




i-i'-'ir'"-''^'--*. 




J.-..' At-)'''*;,' 'i£*r,»/ ■ ' 


P 


—£— : »-J '— 



Fig. 1.— H.R.H. The Prince op Wales Passing Through the 
Trafford Park Works. 



Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd., was materi- 
al'y curtailed. 

Nevertheless, after luncheon on Thursday afternoon 
the Prince was received at the North Gate of the works 
by the directors of the company, represented by 
Capt. 11. S. Hilton, managing director, and Col. 
Montague Cradock, C.B., C.M.G. Following the presen- 
tation of certain members of the managerial staff and 
members of the Stretford Urban District Council, in 
whose area the works are situated, the Prince inspected 
1,300 ex-Service men who were lined up in charge of 
Lieut. -Col. Maxwell, D.S.O. On leaving the works. His 
Highness proceeded down the main avenue to the South 
Gate, fig. 1, passing the new Research Department build- 
ing on the right, and recording the time of his visit by 
"clocking on " in the same way that his father, H.M. 
King George V, registered the time of his visit to the 
works ill May, 1917. 

The foundation stone of the company's works was laid 
in 1901 ; they are now amongst the largest of their kind 
ill this country, the principal products comprising com- 
plete equipments of every description for the generation 
and application of electricity. The works occupy an 
area of 70 acres, ."^5 of which are roofed in, with canteen 
arcommodation for mid-day meals for over 4r,000 people. 
The number of men at present employed is 10,000, and 
that of employes who enlisted during the whole period 
I'f the war 3,522; 326 men made the supreme sacrifice. 
.1 id 2,000 ex-Service men, including a large number of 
)isablod, are at present employed in the works. 

')uring the years 101 ] to 11U8 the company was exten- 
sively engaged on munition work. Shells from the 3.3- 
in. high-explosive up to the 15-in. howitzer type were 
made, besides Diesel engines for submarines, Ricardo 
engines for tanks, mines, paravanes, gun carriages, mag- 
netos, time fuses, itc, to mention only a few items. In 
all 16,000 tons of war material of every description was 



produced. This was entirely apart from the normal 
manufactures of the company, which attained a total of 
92,000 tons during this period, and were used almost 
exclusively for war purposes in munition factories and 
base depots. 

Conspicuous features of the organisation are the 
educational facilities provided for the various grades of 
ap[)rentices eiiii>loyed, numbering about one thousand, 
and the large number of associations formed by the em- 
ployes for mutual aid, instruction, 
or recreation. Sixteen such associa- 
tions are now active. The War 
Relief Committee has collected a 
total of £71,900, and distributed a 
total of £56,200. The balance i.s 
being distributed to the widows and 
orphans still on the books at the rate 
of £50 per week. The Works Com- 
mittee was inaugurated in January, 
1917, by the company, and so antici- 
pated the recommendations in the 
Whitley Report. 

Over 100 truck loads of finished 
goods are dispatched from the works 
every month, and in addition to the 
Trafford Park works the company 
also has control of the electrical de- 
partments of the River Don works at 
Sheffield, and the works at Brims- 
down, where the "Cosmos" lamps 
and heating and cooking appliances 
are manufactured. 

The works at Trafford Park 
possess unusual facilities for trans- 
port by means of rail, canal or 
steamship. A new building has re- 
cently been completed which contains 
the warehouse and traffic department 
and also a works canteen, where 2,000 men can be accom- 
modated simultaneously. At one end of the main 
machine shop is situated the firm's private power 
station, wherein turbines and gas engines drive genera- 
tors delivering a total of 7.500 h.p., both d.c. and three- 




Fia. '2.— Making a 30-ton Casting in the ForNDRt. 



phase energy, for the various power requirements of the 
works. Adjacent to the site the company has purchased 
55 acres of land for future developments, and within the 
space occupied by the works there are some 15 miles of 
standard railway track, which links up directly with the 
Manchester Ship Canal Co.'s system in Trafford Park 
and also with tlie Cheshire Lines Railway. 

A special staff of engineers is engaged upon the ques- 
tion of the standardisation of all parts that can be made 
interchangeable or common to more than one type of 



76 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,277, Jult 15, iwi. 



apparatus, and one of the juo.sl interesting developments 
taking place at the present time is the erection and 
equipment of a block of buildings to be devoted entirely 
to research work. The buildings, which have been located 
as far away as possible from the noise and dirt of the 
works, consist of a two-storey office block, the ground 
Hoor of which will be used for administrative purposes 
and the first floor as a research library, together with 
three single-storey buildings specially designed and 
equipped for chomic.il. mei-hanieal. iiliysiiul jijid elec- 
trical research, one building being reserved entirely for 
testing different manufacturing processes on a small 
scale. Very careful consideration has been jriven to the 




Fio. 



^RGE Motor por Italy. 



desigjQ aid ^uipment, of . these buildings; each is 
designed on a unit basis and is easily capable of exten- 
sion. At a later date a laboratory will be erected for 
carrying out investigation work on extra-high-pressure 
transmission, and will have a specially prepared outdoor 
area connected to it for research work on outdoor sub- 
stations. 

A large number of the employes have to travel 
considerable distances every day to and from home, and 
it will Ije readily appreciated that it is no small under- 



taking to provide catering facilities for such a large 
number of people. The canteen buildings include stores 
for vegetables, itc, and refrigerating plant. The venti- 
lation and heating are carried out by means of the 
'"plenum" system, which combines heating or cooling 
and ventilation and gives a complete change of air one 
and a half times per liour on the canteen floor, once an 
hour elsewhere in the building. Protection against tire 
is given by the sprinkler system, also employed in the 
works; lighting is effected by means of gasfilled Keflex 
pattern lamps, and eiecLric cooking apparatus is em- 
ployed. 

Two well equipped ambulance rooms are also provided, 
one for men and one for women, in addition to the 
numerous first-aid stations throughout the works, 
together with a motor ambulance, and the company 
claims to have anticipated the advent of welfare work. 

The Works Committee has done a great deal of useful 
service in providing a means for bringing workers into 
direct contact with the management. The successful 
work accomplished by this committee led to the formation 
of a Staff Committee conducted on similar lines. The 
foremen have also banded themselves together to form an 
association for their mutual benefit, and there is no doubt 
that the foremen themselves, as well as the management, 
realise that there are very great advantages to be ob- 
tained by the interchange of experience and ideas. The 
management meets the works officials and foremen at fre- 
quent and regular intervals for the purpose of discussing 
any suggestions which may be put forward. 

Referring to the illustrations, tig. 1 is a view of the 
passage of the Prince of Wales through the works, while 
fig. 2 was reproduced from a photograph taken in the 
foundry as a 30-ton casting was being made for a 25,000- 
kW turbo-alternator set destined for the Manchester Cor^ 
poration's power station now in course of erection at 
Barton ; the cast was intended to be carried out by means 
of remote electrical control. Fig. 3 shows one half of a 
stator of one of the 1.200-h.p. a.c. motors which are 
being built for Italy, at the north end of the electrical 
erecting department. A similar arch was formed at the 
south end of the aisle. The inspection of the work pass- 
ing through the shops proved of very great interest. 



THREE-PHASE SUPPLY TO SCOTT-CONNECTED TRANSFORMER BANKS UNDER VARIOUS 
CONDITIONS OF TWO-PHASE LOADING. 



By a. W. STUBBINQS. 



In view of the increasing use of Scott-connected trans- 
former banks for the supply of one-]iha8e low-pressure net- 
works from three-phase alternators, a discusBion of the 
Datnre of the three-phase supply to such transformers under 
various conditions of two-phase demand is not without 
interest. In actual practice the two-jibase side of Scott- 




may be met with, in the hope that this may be of interest to 
engineers who have charge of Scott-coDnected transformer 
banks. 

The elementary theory of the Scott connection is simple. 
Consider, in fig. 1, the primary of a transformer connected 
between phases is and c of a three-phase system. It is clear 
that, if V be the phase voltage, the pressure between phase 
A and the mid-point tapping on the transformer winding will 




connected banks is rarely balanced, the currents usually 
being dissimilar in the two phases, and the power factors not 
always being identical. The writer gives below a simple 
inveetigation of some of the conditions of unbalancing that 



be V X Va|2. If the primary of a second transformer, 
having \/3/2 times the number of turns of the first, be con- 
nected to the points a and d, the potential of d will remain 
unaltered. If the secondaries of these transformers have an 



?ri. s». No. j,277, J0LT 16, 1931.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



n 



equal number of turns, then the ratio of transformation in 
the transformer b c being //, its secondary voltage will be 
nv = r, and the ratio of the transformer A d will be 
2 w/>/3, and its secondary voltage will be v x V3/2 x 

2/(^/3 = // V = r. The secondary voltages will be equal, 
and it is at once seen from the diagram that they will be 
in quadrature. 

When e((ual currents, considered for the moment at unity 
power factor, are drawn from the two-phase side, the cur- 
rents in the primary windings required to balance the 
magnetic effects of the secondary currents will be different. 
If each secondary current be /, the current in the primary 
of the transformer a d, or the teaser transformer, as it is 
often designated, will be 2 w Ij^/s. The current required 
in the primary winding of the main transformer b c to 
balance the secondary current will be // i. The vector 
diagram of these currents is given in fig. 2. The current in 



of two separate currents has a bearing on the rating of the 
transformer bank. The power factor of th'- main trans- 
former with balanced secondary load of unity power-factor 
is seen to beO'86G. For a given factor w in each phase on 
the secondary side, the kVA in the primary windings will 
be w (1 -I- l/O-.SDC). The ratio of the three-phase kVA to 
the two-phaee power will be 2-15/2, or 1'07. The rating 
of the main transformer must be increased by 15 per cent, 
when used for Scott connection. 

The case may now be considered of a secondary load of 
unity power-factor, but unbalanced in magnitude. Let the 
ratio of the load drawn from the main transformer to that 
drawn from the teaser transformer be m, m being less than 1. 
The vector diagram for this condition is given in fig. 4. 
It is evident from the diagram that the currents in lines 
B and (■ are each // / ^/ ni^^ ifa, whilst the phase angle of 
the current in these lines is tan"' (l/v/s^ »') — -'50', being 





Fis. 3. 



Flo. 5. 



the teaser transformer is in phase with the star voltage o a. 
The current in the main transformer is the resultant of two 
components. The first component is // / required to balance 
the secondary current. In addition to carrying this cur- 
rent, the main transformer forms a return path for the 
current in the teaser transformer primary, this current 
dividing into two halves at the mid-point tapping d, one 
half flowing in each direction. In fig. i e h and/ r are the 
two halves of the teaser primary current, whilst the com- 
ponents e and o /', being opposed both in phase and 
direction form a one-phase current through the transformer 
primary. It will be noticed tliat the components /■ o and 
o / are identical in phase, but flow in opposite directions 
from the mid-point. These components, therefore, produce 
no magnetic effect in the core of the transformer. 

The currents in lines b and c are each >/ I V 1 + | = 
2 /' I'l^'i, the angle ^' B is also clearly sin~' h or 30 . 
The line currents are, therefore, equal and symmetrical for 
a balanced two-phase load at unity power factor. 



leading in line b and lagging in line c. A curve showing 
the ratio of the current in lines n and c to that in line a for 
various values of m is given in fig. 5, and fig. G shows the 
increase of phase angle as in diminishes from 1 to zero. 
The condition iii = o corresponds to a single-phase load 
being drawn from the secondary of the bank, in which 
circumstances the load on the three-phase side must be 
single-phase only. 

As a numerical illustration the case may be taken of the 
load on the main transformer being 0'-4 of that on the teaser 
transformer. In these circumstances, the ratio of the 
currents in lines b and c to that in line a is 0'61, whilst the 
phase angle of these currents is about 25"' — 

Two-phase power = i r + 0"4 / /• = 1*4 /v. 
Three-phase power 

= ^."_i. . '' + 2 X OCl X ^"Ix '' X cos 25' 
V ;! \/3 // A v/:! // 

= 5 ' /■ ( I + 1-22 . cos 25 ) = 1-4 / r. 




Fio. 4. 

If the two-phase load remains balanced, but of a power 
factor less than unity, the vector diagram for the three- 
phase side is shown in fig. 3. The main transformer carries 
a current, it is seen, which is the resultant of that balancing 
the secondary current, and the two halves of the teaser 
primary current. It is readily seen that in these circum- 
stances the three-phase supply is still balanced, and the 
phase angle on this side is the same as that on the two- 
phase side. 

The fact that the main transformer carries the resultant 




If the main transformer has the relatively greater load, 
the currents in the three- i>hase lines can be similarly worked 
out. A typical vector diagram is given in fig. 7. If in be 
the ratio of the smaller to the larger current on the 
secondary side, the ratio of the current in line a to those in 
lines B and c is now 2 -^ w,'-'/ {■'• + »ii"), while the phase angle 
of the current in lines b and c is :!0 — tan"' /m'v/3. 
Curves giving the ratios of the currents in line a to 
corresponding currents in lines b and c, and the phase 
angles of these latter currents for various values of m, are 



78 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 8». No. j,j77, joit 15, 1921. 



shown in figs. 8 and 9. When )iii = the load on the 
three-phase side is single-phase, the line a supplying no 
current. I'rom the foregoiiii: it is seen that a better 
balance on the three-phafe side for a given amount of two- 
phase unloading is obtained when the teaser transformer 
carries the heavier load. 

If equal currents be drawn from each phase of the 
secondary, but these currents be of different power factor, 
the three-phase supply will no longer be balanced. Two 
typical cases are shown in figs. 10 and 11. The power 
factor of the phase supplying the lagging current is the 



I 



Fig. 8. Fig. 9. 

same in each case. It is evident from the geometry of 
these diagrams that fig. 11 can be derived from fig. 10 by 
rotating the current vectors as a whole through an angle 
equal to the angle of lag ronsidered, in a positive direction, 
and then by rotating the vector /, symmetrically about its 
voltage vector in a negative direction through twice this 
angle. This being so, it follows that the three-phase 




loading in the two cases is similar as regards mngiiitude, 
excepting that in fig. 11 line c carries the curunD that in 
fig. 10 is carried by line ii. The magnitudes of the currents 
for typical cases are given in the following table : — 

Equal currents on two- phase side. 
One- phase unity power-factor. 
One-phase power-factor cos '/<. 

= <p = 30" <f> = 45 (f> = i;0° <l> = 90 

Cotient in line A ... I'l5?ii ri5«i ri5«/ Vlh ni ri5M» 

„ „ 1!... 1-15«; lH8nt Vilni VBSni VbS n i 

„ „ c ... riBw, 87 ni OTini 0'58 « / 0'4a « i 

Cases in which there is out of balance on the two-phase 
side, both as regards magnitude of current and power factor, 
are complicated to calculate, and are best solved b 



graphical methods. A typical case is shown in fig. 12, in 
which the teaser is supplying one-half the full-load at unity 
power-factor, whilst the main transformer supplies full 
load current at a power factor of 0'8G6. 




I 



It may be well to repeat that the above discufsion has 
been of an elementary character, and that magnetising 
cui rents and small disturbing cauieshave been neglected. 



EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF ELECTRICAL 
GOODS FOR JUNE, 1921. 



Although the imports tolal for last month was only slightly 
below May's figure, a serious fall occurred in the total value of 
exported goods. The difference was over a million pounds, or 
about 46 per cent, decrease. This decrease was distributed fairly 
evenly among the constituent items, but exports of submarine 
cable fell by 92 per cent., but the May total under this head 
was much higher than usual. The only increases on the previous 
month's export values were in switchboards and meters. As 
regards imports, the chief increases were apparent in the casts of 
batteries, glow lamps, and telegraph and telephone instruments : 
decreases occurred in the values of insulated wire, electrical 
machinery, and arc lamps. There were no noteworthy changes in 
the re-export values. 

Values of Electrical Exports and Imports fob 
June, 1921. 





EsportB. 


ImportB. 


Ro-ezportB 


Electrical goods and apparatus 








(unenumerated) 


£162,568 


«49,134 


£1,068 


Insulated wire 


228 066 


7,570 


404 


Glow lamps 


35,906 


40,U2 


609 


Switchboards (not telegraph or 








telephone) 


19,999 


2,749 


— 


Arc lamps and parts 


2,572 


2(J0 


— 


Batteries 


40,488 


16,877 


— 


Meters 


50,014 


11.7119 


3,169 


Carbons 


1,672 


13,41d 


2,154 


Electrical inaohiTiery : — 








Railway and tramway motors ... 


1,S82 


_ 


— 


Other motors and generators ... 


191,342 


— 


- . 


Electrical machinery (unenu- 








merated) 


138,063 


51,463 


712 


Telegraph anA. telephone cable 








and material : — 








Telegraph and telephone wire 








and cable (not submarine) 


115,342 


8,153 


— 


Submarine telegraph and tele- 








phone cable 


63,338 


— 





Telegraph and telephone instru- 








ments and apparatus ... 


157,237 


41,509 
£242,922 


3,681 


Totals 


£1,207,977 


£14,797 



Development la Spain. — The report of the Sociedad 

Eapanola de Ccnstruction Naval states that the new works st 
Hcinoia have begun to supply to all the company's works special 
steel", forginge, and castings. Thanks to the?9 works, the Carraca 
artillery woiks, and the Sestao engine and boiler works, which 
complement those of Ferrol and Uaitagena, the company is now 
able to meet all its own requirements for the complete con- 
struction of ships of all kinds, war material, and railway material. 
To promote the latter olais of work with responaible guarantees, 
the company has concluded agreements with foreign firms, as, for 
instance, the Metropolitan Wagon and Finance Co., and in agree- 
ment with other Spanish industries has secured contracts for 
wagons and other works for the Madrid Railway and other com- 
panies. Moreover, in order to be prepared to submit schemes and 
plans for the electrification of railways, the company has signed 
guarantee agreements with the American Westinghouse Co., the 
Metropolitan- Vickera Co., of Manchester, and Vickers, Ltd. 



T.I. 19. No. J,277, July 15, 1921.] iHJli ELECTBlOALi ft£VIEW 



79 



NEW ELECTRICAL D EVICES. FIT TINGS, AND PLANT. 

Jleuiirn arc inritcl la ,„hmit p„rlicHla,:^ of ntw or unproved <lccicc-s o lul apparatu,, which will be p„hl„hcil 
ijicuimdered of KvJJiclent interest. 



The " R.M.R." Triode Valve and " Tbermagnlon." 

An interesting demonstration of some new wireless develop- 
ments was given by Messks. U. M. liADio, I/td., on June i23rd, 
at their engineers' offices, now situated at 5, Regent Square, 
W. 1. 

The first exhibit was an entirely new form of triode (fig. 1), 
which has been designed to give an increased signal strength 
with the absence of the usual parasitic and microphonic noises. 
The anode and grid of this triode take the form of hemii- 
pheres, nested one within the other, with a substantially 
uniform gap between them. The filament is of tungsten 
wire, and is formed into the shape of a semi-circle, and so 
•rranged that it is concentric with the other two electrodei. 




Fig. 1.— The " R.M.R." Triode. 

The bulb is so exhausted that there is a slight trace of gai 
left. BO that the triode functions as a soft valve. The superior 
results obtained with this form of triode are due to the 
particular construction of the two hemispherical electrodei 
and can be explained as follows: — 
Electrons moving in the same direction and each possessing 



•bly adjustmg the electricity and position of the field, it it 
possible to produce a magnification of the signali received 
m the anode circuit. 

Another most interesting feature of the " Thermagnion '• 
is that, by further adjustment of the field, it is posBible to 
produce ionic oscillation in the triode itself, so that a hetero- 
dyne effect is obtained and C.W. signals are detected. 

A new type of recorder was also shown. In this, relays ar* 
operated by the " over-bulaucing " of an arrangement sunilar 
to a Wheatstone bridge. 

The " Bungalyte " Set. 

Messrs. Arthub Lvon & Co., 30, Victoria Street, West- 
minster. S.W.I, have sent us details of their small ' Bunga- 
lyte " lighting set recently placed upon the market. 

This set. which is illustrated in lig. '2, consists of a Bmall 
4-stroke air-cooled petrol engine, direct coupled to a 300-watt. 
24-volt generator, together with a battery, switchboard, oil 
tanks. (Stc. Working on full load, the engme consumes 1 gal. 
of petrol in ten hours. The dynamo is constructed with 
laminated fields, and is fitted with a cooling fan. The set ia 
put into operation by a simple mechanical starter. 

The battery consists of I'J glass cells capable of lighting six 
lamps for 10 hours without recharging. The set was designed 
with a view to portability {the portable type weighs only 55 
lb.), and occupies a space of 20 in. by 18 in. by 10 in. 

The accessories supplied with the set include everything 
necessary for a lighting installation such as cables, lamps, 
switches, blocks, and other fittings. 

An Improved Electric Lantern. 

We have received from Messrs. Gabriel k Co., 4 and 5, A B 
Row, Birmingham, details of their improved electric lantern 
(fig. 3) which has been designed principally for the use ot 
police and night watchmen. The light is provided by a 4-V. 
4 c.p. lamp, energy for which is supplied by a " Bipol " bat- 
tery capable of maintaining the light for 14 hours continu- 
ously. The case is made of tin or of " Claras " aluminium 
alloy. A central combination switch is fitted in the top of 
the lantern, and in the middle of this is a tapping key for 




Pig. 



-The " BuNi'rAi.YTE " Set. 




its own field of force, tend to mutual repulsion, so that in 
the ordinary cylindrical-anode type of triode a large propor- 
tion of the electron strain is diverted from this anode. In the 
case of the hemispherical anode there is a very marked in- 
crease in the discharge against the plate, the strays due to 
repulsion being reduced to a miniiuum. 

l<\irthermore, the hollow rigid hemispherical form of grid 
has 3 natural mechanical period of vibration which is ex- 
tremely short. In this way any vibration transmitted to 
the valve and thence to the grid is damped out unmediately 
in the grid itself, and so does not give rise to objectionable 
microphonic noises so noticeable with the spiral wire form 
of grid. 

The " Thermagnion " which was demonstrated is an entirely 
new method for magnifying signals, wluoli operation has liithci- 
to been accomplished by the aid of amplifiers and reaction cir- 
cuits. In this case the simplest one-valve circuit is in no way 
altered, and the magnification is brought about by the action 
of a magnetic field exerted on the space occupied by the three 
electrodes of the soft " li.MR." triode in such a manner 
that the positive ions can be controlled to advantage. By luit- 



3.— Gabriel's Improved 
Electric Lantrrn. 

'signalling purposes. A special feature of the lantern is a 
pair of contact sockets into which plugs can be inserted for 
charging purposes. These sockets can also be used to supply 
a small auxiliary lamp The contact plate is of fibre, and ia 
fitted with two contact springs on either side with a plate in 
the centre; it is arranged t<i carry a spare lamp bulb. A 
special focusing arrangement is embodied in the lantern. This 
consists of two telescopic tubes; the outer one has two slots 
cut in the top and bottom, and the inner tube bears two 
springs which fit into these slots. Focusing is effected by the 
movement of the knob seen in the illustration. The lantern 
weighs about 2 lb. A charging bojird i.s made by the firm to 
deal with 20 of these lanterns at a time. The b<xird is fitted 
with a resistance, pilot lamp, voltmeter, ammeter, two-pol« 
switch, fuse, and three terininals. 

An Electric Egg Tester. 

The TELErHONF, A Microphone Co., Ltd.. Throwley Road, 
Sutton. Surrev. have sent us particulars of their egg te«ter, 
illustrated in fig. -1. p. SO. 

Th« case is made of solid oak, varnished and polished, 7| in. 



80 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [m 8». No. J.STT, July IB, IMl. 



by 3i in. by IJ in. deep. The aperture for the egg it m&rked 
by three ra<Iium points, thus enabling testing to be carried 
on in the dark. The egg, when placed in position, auto- 
matically switches on the light, which allows both hands of 




Fig. 4.— An Electric Egg Tester. 

the operator to be free and the testing to be done with great 
rapidity. The lamp is attached to the base, of the case, the 
current being supplied by an ordmary flash lamp battery. 



HYDRO-ELECTRIC PROBLEMS IN 
SCANDINAVIA. 



The annual conference of the Swedish Hydro-Electric Asso- 
ciation (\atteu Kraft Foreniug) was recently held at Stock- 
holm, when Mr. Dahlander. in declaring the proceedings 
open, stated that during the critical times of the war the 
Swedes had learned how to appreciate the value of their 
water power. The time of high coal prices, however, was 
past, and it was. therefore, of special m^portance to reduce 
the costs of erecting hydro-electric works. 

Mr. Sven Lubeck then read a paper on water-power ques- 
tions in 1921. He said that the rapid development of the 
unfavourable situation of trade had also impressed its mark 
on water-power conditions in Sweden. Notwithstandmg the 
great demand for water power which was evoked by the 
scarcity of coal during the critical years, the more extended 
utilisation of wat<?rfalls was only forced where special reasons 
existed for doing so. This was due to the rapidly growing 
cost of buildings and of machinery. The author stated that 
at the close of 19'30 the plant installed in hydro-electric works 
in Sweden represented about 1,-2U0,000 h.p.. while works for 
a further 360.000 h.p. were in course of construction, of which 
■23.5,tKjO h.p. was for the State and li5,(.)(X) h.p. for private 
owners. The.se works included the State works at Motala. 
the Porjus extension, and the Bergslags power station which 
were approaching completion, wnereas the works at Lan- 
fossen for the Sandviks Ironworks, and Harsprang, had only 
progressed to an inconsiderable extent. ITie ironworks com- 
pany had applied for an extension of time for the completion 
of the works in order to Ix; able to do so at a more reasonable 
outlay, but the Board of Trade had opposed the application 
for the reason, among others, that by being compelled to 
construct quickly the company would be prevented from 
making a profit arising from the situation. Such an argu- 
ment was actually brought forward, the author remarked, 
at a time when similar works for State account were for 
well-known reasons being restricted or suspended. Thus 
Parliament had decided that the preparatory works at Har- 
sprang were to lie completed and the remainder discontinued. 
Yet it had been proposed to base an electnj-chemical industry 
on the power of the Har.sprang works, liut this was deemed 
to be hopeless in the face of foreign competition, having 
regard to the cost of completing the Harsprang works and 
the resulting price for energy, the cost of other raw materials 
and the labour ditiiculties. 

Major H. .Johansen. of Christiania. who introduced the 
eubject of inter-Scandinavian transmi.s.sion of power, pointed 
out that according to estimates, Norway possessed a water 
power capacity of ].5,f)()0,000 h.p., which would not only meet 
the requirements of the country itself, but would al.so permit 
of the export of a considerable amount of energy to neigh- 
bouring countries. By means of tables prepared from his 
own calculations, the author showed that the price of power 
imported into adjoining countries from Norway would be as 
low as 'i ore per kWh. as compared with the pre.'^t'nt Swedish 
sale price of about -5 ore per kWh. Direct advantages would 
be derived by Swedish indu.stries through the import of 
power from Norway because the indu.'^tries were dependent 
in a great measure upon the imports of coal, which were 
frequently uncertain. The requirements of Denmark could 
also be met by Norway; Sweden would need all her power 
resoiirces for her.self. and would have no surplus to export. 

Mr. B. Borgquist, who dealt with the same question from 
the Swedish point of view, expre.';.s<'d the opinion, having 
regard to the long distance of transmission— 7.50 kilometres 
from Hardangerfjord-Sweden-Copenhagen, that such a line 
would not prove to be remunerative until a considerably 
greater load was obtainable th.-iii tould be procured at the 



present time If consideration were slso given to the risks 
which were incidental to the starting of new works on 
account of the deflation now in progress, it could be foreseen 
with great probability that transmission from Norway via 
Sweden to Denmark would not be brought about for a long 
period, probably ten years. 

The author submitted that there were no opposing factors 
of practical importance as between Norwegian and Swedish 
interests concerning transmission to Denmark. Some surplus 
power was already being supplied by the Southern Swedish 
Power Co. to Zealand, and it would be possible to deliver 
power to a greater extent if the main line from 'lYullehattan 
were carried down to Skane, but that would have to be 
postponed owing to the present high cost. In general, the 
power produced in South and Central Sweden was cheaper 
than Norwegian, which would have to bear the cost of 
transmission. 

Mr. A. S. Faber, of Copenhagen, discussed the problem 
from the Danish point of view, and said that a transmission 
undertaking in Norway would be self-supixirting if the sale 
price of electricity delivered in Denmark could compet.e with 
that of coal and other fuels. 



THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 



(^Concluded from page 67J. 
Electricity Department. — Electrical Standards. — Mr. F. E. 
Smith (now director of scientific research and experiment to 
the Admiralty) is of the opinion that at the present time the 
ohm and the ampere, which are the two fundamental electrical 
units, can be realised with as great an accuracy as the inter- 
national ohm (by means of mercury columns) and the mter- 
natioual ampere (by means of the silver voltameter), and he 
urges therefore that the time is opportune to revert to the 
ideal of 1863 and measure all electrical quantities in C.G.S. 
units. It is now possible to measure resistance, current, and 
voltage with a precision greater than is required by industry, 
and unless all values are stated within the limits of accuracy 
of measurement (not comparison) difficulties will certainly 
ari.se in the future. As an instance, it is possible at the present 
time by means of capacities and inductances to measure the 
frequency of a tuning fork, but unless the electrical quantities 
are in C.G.S. measure the frequency does not agree with that 
calculated from a direct measurement of the number of 
viorations in a given time. 

The Schuster magnetometer is practically finished, and 
measurements of the horizontal magnetic intensity will be 
made in the near future. To make the instrument an absolute 
one it might be modified so as to include an interior swinging 
coil ; in this way the current could be measured. A design 
for a vertical force magnetograph has also been prepared. 

General Electrical Measurements. — Some investigations on 
new magnet steel have been made and valuable results oL 
tained. A new simple method has been tried for measuring 
effective permeability and energy losses in thin sheet-iron at 
radio frequencies. It consists in making up the thin iron 
rings into an inductance of toroid form with a smgle layer 
winding. The effective inductance and resistance of this 
wound ring ara then measured by insertion in a wavemeter. 
Corrections for effective inductance of the winding without 
iron are small and easily made, and the accuracy of the 
method is within about 1 per cent, for permeability and a 
few per cent, for losses. A duplicate of the apparatus lor 
magnetic testing has been installed which will allow magnetic 
research to proceed simultaneously with the test work. 

A new method for measuring the elfective inductance of 
four terminal resistances has been investigated which is of 
greater range than those developed by Campbell, but similar 
in principle. By comparison with a standard whose effective 
inductance was calculable, it was found that with a 1 ohm 
resistance the inductance could l)e determined to the nearest 
0.01 microhenry. 

A new method of measuring the capacity of condensers in 
terms of mutual inductance and resistance was found suc- 
cessful. It avoids the double " kick " obtained with the 
Carey-Foster method on the ballistic galvanometer ; the 
method does, however, involve comparison of two practically 
equal throws. The accuracy is about 5 in 10,000. 

Regarding wireless standards, an accurate comparison of 
the standard wavemeter has been made against the Abraham 
Bloch " multibrator." Tliis apparatus produces a very 
peaky wave by means of three-electrode valves. Every har- 
monic from the 40th to the 1.50th can be picked out by the 
standard wavemeter. The average agreement over the range 
{■2,OOO-7,5f)0 metres), using a number of different inductances, 
was I in lO.tXiO. and a 'report has been made to the .Xdmiralty 
and will be published in dctiul shortly. 

.\ new type of variable air condenser is being constructed 
which, it is hoped, will l>e an advance on any condenser yet 
made, from the point of view of permanence and accuracy. 
Amber insulation is provided, and the condenser will have a 
range up to 5,0(X) inmfd. Conjointly a standard self-induct- 
ance coil of 20 millihenries has been designed .vhich will have 
spaced windings to reduce elfective resistance and self-capacity. 
The design is such as to ensure constancy also. These two 



Tol. 89. No. 2,277, July 15, 1921..] 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



81 



nieces of Btandard apparatus will increase the range of the 

standard wavemeU;r to 20.U<X) metres. 

A £atisfactory method of measurmg at radio frequency the 
high resistances used in connection with radio amplifiers 
consists in first shuntiug the condenser of a tuned wave- 
meter with the unknoviu resistance. Observation ot the 
ma^mum current is made, and the hiyh resistance is then 
removed and a hno low-resistance wire is mserted in series 
with the wavemeter and adjusted until the same current is 
obtained at resonance, fvelunmg of the condenser may be 
necessary on account of the capacity of the resistance. When 
equahty of current in the two cases is obtained S = L/UR, 
where S = high resistance; L = inductance of wavemeter coil; 
0= capacity of wavemeter condenser; fl = added equivalent 
series resistance, and the accm'acy of the method is probably 
within a few per cent. 

Apparatus has been installed for the investigation of the 
characteristics of thernuonic valves, and mercury con- 
densation pumps for the exhaustiiig of the valves iu- 
.dicated vacuum pressm'es of one or two hundredths of 
a bar (1 bar = 0.UtKJ7s mm. of mercury). The gauges 
available, however, do not allow of accurate measure- 
ments being made at such a pressure, and an associated 
investigation is iu progress mto other methods of measuring 
extremely low pressures. Valves of the standard types are 
being carefully measured for characteristics, when filled with 
various gases at different internal pressures. A research is 
also in progress iuto the use of silica iu place of glass for the 
envelope and internal mountiug of thermionic valves. The 
sihca bulb will enable it to be raised to a much higher tem- 
perature durmg exhaustion, thus facilitating the elimination 
of occuluded gases and the obtaining of a higher and more 
permanent vacuum. 

Electrotechnics. — Since the a.c. work of a routine character 
has been very large, little opportunity has been available for 
special research work. Much of the work, however, is ot a 
research nature. The number of instruments used for accept- 
ance tests of steam turbo-generators continues to increase 
steadily, and the capacity of the plant for generating the 
alternating currents and voltages required has been outstripped 
by the progress of modern electrical engineering. Taking the 
work on tests of instruments used on steam economy trials 
of turbo-generators alone, these are now being carried out at 
a rate ot about lUU.UUO kW a year, while similar tests for 
other than steam trials amount to practically the same bgure. 

There has been little opportunity to make a serious be- 
ginning on the research on the design of instrument trans- 
formers. Mr. Spilsbury has devised a new method of carrying 
out measurements of this nature, by which much higher accu- 
racy in the measurement of small-phase angles, and ot the 
departure of current transformers from the nominal ratio of 
primary to secondary current, can be obtained. The method 
is to use a high-ratio transformer to magnify the departure 
from perfection, using an electrostatic wattmeter as the 
indicating instrument. Incidentally the method has demon- 
strated how important stray magnetic fields are when large 
currents are used. When placed several feet away Irom 
such currents the high-ratio transformer may give quite an 
appreciable voltage in the secondary without the primary 
circuit being in use. For tests of this nature the transformer 
is turned round until the effect disappears. A lengtliy series 
of testa by this method on a special current transformer of 
the highest quality showed incidentally that the small residual 
inductances of the standard tubular water-cooled resistances 
corresponded very closely with the calculated values. Work of 
this nature gives added importiince to the reduction of the 
inductance of resistances for very large currents to the lowest 
practicable value. 

In furtherance of the advancement of British electrical 
instruments, especially in foreign countries, the British Elec- 
trical and Allied Manufacturers' Association issued a joint 
publication, descriptive of the capabilities of apparatus made 
by its members, which was compiled by Dr. Eayner in order 
to give it the advantage of the experience and impartiality 
which might be obtained from its association with the 
Laboratory. 

The experience of the staff has been much in request in 
relation to the work of the British Engineering Standards 
Association and the Electrical Research Association, and most 
of this work has fallen to Dr. Rayner. The work has included 
the drafting of specifications for several varieties of switchgear, 
the consideration of nomenclature and symbols, and the wave 
lorm of a.c. plant, especially from the point of view of avoid- 
i^ inttn-ferenco with telegraph and telephone communication. 
Tlie qualities required of oils to be used in insulating electrical 
plant, such as transformers and switches, have been among 
tlie subjects on which assistance has been given to the Elec- 
trical Research Asswciation. Dr. Rayner has been chairman 
of a committee set up to draft a specification for such oils, 
which is practically finished. 

Other committees on which work has begun deal with mica 
and porcelain. A special joint sub-committee to consider 
dielectric losses has been formed, and its present aim is to 
develop stimdard methods of testing materials at all frequen- 
cies used in the applications of electricity from 25 to 1,000.000 
periods ()er second. 

Regarding d.c. work, the further programme relating to the 
buried cables research is being proceeded with, and the in- 
formation obtained at various times with cables of all kinds 



has been used to supply to the Wiring Rules Committee of 
the Institution of Electrical Engineers complete tables of 
permissible currents for concentric and three-core l.p. cablei 
used fur distribution in buildings. Similar information to 
meet the special requirements of ship's wiring is now oeing 
oupplied to the Admiralty. A special investigation has been 
carried out for the British Aluminium Co. regarding the 
contact resistance ot clamped and bolted joints m aluminium 
busbars, and also the heating with current of bars and rods 
of various sizes and sections. Interesting results have been 
obtained, in particular, with regard to the proper conditions 
under which a satisfactory joint can be made with aluminium, 
and a formula was evolved which allows of the pre-de termina- 
tion of the resistance of joints of a given thickness, overlap and 
contact pressure. Tests have also been made with copper 
busbars and some switch contacts. 

In the photometry section the provision of sub-standards 
for measmements of gasfilled lamps is still urgent, anu the 
most promising line of approach seems to lie in the direction 
of a blue glass combination with a vacuum sub-standard. 
Early in the year the Board of Trade set up a committee to 
consider the unprovement of the regulations dealing with 
ships' navigation hghts, and a large amount of work has been 
done at the laboratory for the committee. One of the subjects 
has been the spectral transmission of coloured glasses with 
the object of attaining greater uniformity of practice and a 
more satisfactory glass fur the starboard hght. A design is 
being prepared for a suitable form of lens for the side and 
masthead hghts. 

An extended investigation of the candle-power of existing 
types of miners' lamps has been undertaken at the request of 
the Home Office Committee on this subject. 

At the request of the Ministry of Transport, a number of 
motor car headhghts, fitted with various devices for the 
reduction of glare, has been examined at the Laboratory. 
The method adopted has l>een that of measurement of illu- 
mination distribution along selected lines on a screen placed 
7'i ft. from the headlight. 

At the request of the Director of H.M. Office of 
\\orks, the Laboratory has given assistance with regard to 
certain details of a design got out to suit the special conditions 
of the hghting of one of the galleries of the National Gallery. 
The principal objects of the research were to secure adequate 
illumination on the walls, while avoiding direct sunlight, and 
to diminish as far as possiijle reflections of objects and people 
in the glass covering the pictures. The arrangement evolved 
for a gallery running E. and W. has a ceiling covering the 
middle third of the room. Direct sunhght is kept off the 
pictures on the N. wall by a vertical screen placed outside 
over the ceiling. By making this of a suitable size and 
white on the N. side so as to reflect the hght from the N. 
part of the sky, the illumination of the N. and S. walls can 
be rendered equal for practically all conditions of weather. 
The scheme avoids direct top light, which illuminates the 
people, and makes the reflections in the glazing of the pictures 
very troublesome. At the same time the sensation of glare 
is much diminished. For a gaUery whose length is N. and S. 
a series of transverse screens is used to keep direct sunhght 
from falling on the walls. 

The assistance of the Laboratory has also been requested 
by the Office of Works in the matter of the artificial illumina- 
tion of the Houses of Parliament and public buildings. 

The galvanometers, formerly working with Nernst spot 
lamps, have all been refitted with metal-filament gasfilled 
lamps which work at 10 volts 3 amps. The energy is fur- 
nished from a temporary a.c. supply run round the rooms, 
the step down from 100 to 10 volts being effected by trans- 
formers made in the department. 

A satisfactory substitute has been found for Nemst galvano- 
meter lamps in the form of lamp used for the Aldis dayhght 
signalling lamp. This is a gasfilled bulb of 50-mm. diameter 
containing a double spiral filament capped with an ordmary 
Edison screw cap. and rated at 10 volts and approximately 
■ii amperes. The bulb is filled with argon and the lamp is 
intended to burn upright, though there is no reason to suppose 
that it will not burn satisfactorily in other positions if neces- 
sary. Its life at U) volts exceeds l.OtH) hours. With a lens 
of 8-in. focus and a galvanometer mirror of 3 metrea radius, 
the " spot " has a brightness of over 1 foot-candle. If two 
or more of these lamps are used in series for economy of 
current, it is necessary to select them carefully, as ihese 
lamps vary considerably in current rating at the same voltage. 

Mefrrolomi Dcinutiiwnt. — An investigation into the dimen- 
■ sions of Edison threads for lamp holders and caps has been 
undertaken for the British Engineering Standards Association. 
The object of the ivstMrcli is to find an iiit<-rnationa! system of 
dunensions for lamp holders and caps of Coliath and ordinary 
si/es xvhicli can be adopted with reasonable degree of inter- 
changeaiiility between parts made to the new dimensions and 
those made to the existing American and Verband Deutscher 
Elektrotechniker systems. 

Twi> " quiet " electromagnetic clock units, for silent and 
balanced step-by-step driving or synchronising mechanism 
were examined and reported upon for the patentee. Capt. 
Craig, of Haslemere. This is a very ingenious arrangement. 
silent in action, and applicable for everv second, or any agreed 
number of seconds. The question of the provision of a more 
satisfactory type of electric contact on the standard clock, 
to replace the mercurial one hitherto used, has been under 

F 



82 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. 89. No. 2,277. Juit ib, 1921. 



consideration for some time, and the form finally decided upon 
has been in use for several months with satisfactory results. 
It consists of a phosphor-bronze wire bent in a sflnii-circle and 
attached to the Invar pendulum rod. to the two horns of 
which 3 strip of platinum foil is fixed Ln tension. The system 
is pivoted, and moves in a vertical plane, the amount of drop 
bemg controlled by a detent. Below it a " gold " watch 
balance-wheel is fixed on a small adjustable carriage. As the 
platinum strip is carried to and fro by the pendulum it 
brushes over a small segment of the balance wheel, thus 
making a contact, the duration and intensity of which can 
be closely adjusted. 

A " wireless " receiving and recording apparatus has been 
fitted up in the clock room, and will be a valuable additional 
help in determining the daily rates of the reference standard 
clocks. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Letteri rteeii>ed by us after 5 P.M. OS Tuesday cannot appear until 
the following lotek. Corresponde/Us shculd forward their communi- 
eatioHM at the tarlieit potsible moment. So letter can be publithed 
vnleu tcf have the wriier't Kame and address in our posgession. 



E.L.M.A. and Retrospective Lamp Rebates. 

Ever since the Osram lamp was put on the market I have 
been a wholesale lamp factor to the trade, and although in 
a comparatively small way, my turnover for each of the last 
two years has' been £6,000, entitUng me to a rebate of 36 
per cent. 

To-day I notice that one of my user customers is graded 
for the ensuing year at 34 per cent., his previous grading 
being "38 per cent., and his purchases from me last year £1,SOO 
net. 

I have no grievance in so far as the new grading is con- 
cerned. It is, however, concerning the system of allowing 
retrospective rebates that I complain, because in the case 
referred to, a credit will have to be sent for the difference 
between 28 per cent, and 3'2 per cent, on last year's turnover 
of £1.800, which at 4 per cent, on the gross price of the lamps 
will mean exactly £100. 

The same thing arises every year, but it seems unfair that 
ft trader should be called upon to give back, as in this case, 
what represents nearly the whole of the profits made during 
fhe period referred to. 

Perhaps the E.L.M..\. will recognise the hardship this 
causes, and perhaps also it may see its way to remedy this 
grievance, because in such cases a trader scarcely knows how 
he stands at the end of his financial year, nor can he possibly 
know what his annual net profits may be so long as this 
system of retrospective rebates is allowed to prevail. 

Paratns. 

July 5fh, 1921. 



Short-range Sea Horizons for Cable Ships. 

During a recent voyage of the Telegraph Construction and 
Maintenance Co.'s cable ship Colonia. I carried out some very 
successful experiments with short-range sea horizons which 
I venture to think will be of interest. 

In these experiments I was very ably assisted by the navigat- 
inff officers. 

It is well known that at night the horizon, except under 
very exceptional circumstances, cannot be used for obtaining 
Dositions. but by using a calcium light as a short-rance sea 
horizon at a known distance, and manneuvring the ship so 
as to get the reauired star vertically over this hVht. the altitude 
can be obtained. This operation reneated with two or more 
stars will give a very acurate positicon. In doing this it is 
best to nse port helm, so that the calcium light comes in the 
clear glass of the sextant before being under the vertical direc- 
tion of the star. Likewise, in the daytime accurate results can 
be obtained by a calcium light or a cask with a required 
interval between observations. 

Althonah similar observations have been attempted before 
in davliffht the siibiVrt does not seem to have heen taken np 
with reeard to obtaining positions nt night. Owing to the 
uncertainty of the ordinarv sea horizon, the above method 
sh-Mi'd overcome many difBcnlties. , 

When the sky is covered with cloud, which is frenuentlv tVip 
case, it is impossible to obtain a star nositinn at n.m. twilight, 
but the stars often show through a few hours later, and as 
by that time, the sea horizon has become invisible, excepting 
perhana during a favourable m^on. observation is p*ilj im- 
nossible. If bv my suggested method a short-range sea horizon 
is arranged, then, at any time during the night, observations 
can be taken and position defined, provided that known stars 
are visible. 

lam. therefore, inclined to think that with regard to cable- 
laying and repairing ships, this method may be of considerable 
imoortance. 

I am hoping in the near future to hav*> constructed a pro- 
jectile flare to be thrown from a suitable gun to a known 
distance in any direction, so that at times when the sea 
horizon cannot be depended upon, or at night lime, accurate 



positions can be got without actually stopping the ship or 
altering course, provided the weather is moderately fine. 

My experiments were facilitated by a dip table which has 
been recently pubhshed by Mr. Percy H. L. Davis, late of the 
Nautical Almanac Office, for the purpose of the correction of 
altitudes at given distances in yards for use with short-range 
found sea horizons. 1 understand that this table will be in- 
cluded in Inman's Nautical Tables. 

Victor Campos, 
Master, Cable Hhip " Colonia." 
June iith, 19-21. 



A Mysterious Occurrence. 

On a small mixed lighting and power plant. 'i'JO volts d.c. 
two 220-volt lamps of 16 c.p. with carbon filaments, wired in 
series, with the middle point earthed, are used for earth 
detection. 

Quite frequently one or the other of the lamps bursts with 
a loud report, and the fuse in circuit with the lamps blows. 

On replacing with new lamp and fuse, both lamps give half 
light as normal. 

The question which puzzles me is why the lamp should 
burst, as at most it only gets 220 volts and is a 220-volt lamp. 

A. H. 

July oth. 1921. 



Armature Core Bands. 

With reference to " Armature's " letter on armature core 
bands, it is not stated whether he sweated up the bandings 
with clips of tinned copper, the solder being run in all round 
the wires on each band. 

If not, I am confident that this will prove satisfactory pro- 
vided the armature is balanced for absolutely steady running, 
which is very essential with high-speed machines. 

With regard to the copper clips, there should be from four 
to six clips for each band on armatures up to half a metre 
diameter, and on larger armatures one clip lor about every 
25 cm. of periphery. 

G. E. W. 

July Uh. 1921. 



Abnormal Meter Records. 

We have noted with great interest the letter from your corre- 
spondent, Mr. E. Foirest Preston. 

The explanation is not difficult to see, but we think it might 
be interesting to yoar readers if a little competition were 
established. We are prepared to give a small prize to the 
sender of the first solution received. 

We hope you will be good enough to insert this letter, be- 
cause otherwise the pubhcation of the letter as it stands is 
calculated to damage the reputation of the Ferranti meter. 
Ferranti Limited, 

R. H. SCHOFIELD, 

Sales Manager. 
HolUnwood. 
Jiilii nth. 1921. 



Sawdust as FueL 

The sawdust and wood-refuse burning plant to which you 
refer in your editorial reply to Mr. Schneidau, as carried o'".t 
under my instructions, is part of the plant of a large saw 
and wood conversion mill in England, operated by steam 
power, the steam being provided by burning the wood refuse. 

I employed a modified method in two other saw mills, one 
in England and one in Burmah. If Mr. Schneidau will say 
how much saw-dust he has to dispose of per day or week, and 
whether it is avaUable as in the case of a saw-mill producing 
it by machinery operated by steam power, it might be possible 
to suggest a suitable means of utilising it. 

W. Worby Beaumont. 

London. 
July Uth. 1921. 



Charges for Service Mains. 

With regard to " Disgusted's " letter in your issue of July 
8th. respecting charges for service mains, this is only one t)f 
the many annoyances we wiring contractors have to put up 
with. Tiie reason of the charge is the. high cost of material, 
&c., at present, and the idea that if our clients can afford to 
have an electrical installation carried out in these times they 
can afford the extra expen.se. I. personally, have lost a good 
many contracts through tliese charges. 

It has been said many times that the use of electricity is 
in its infancy, and according to the present rate of progress 
of electrical distribution in this part of the country it will be 
another century before we get going at all. The well-to-do 
classes recognise electric lighting, &c.. as a necessity, while 
the working classes, who would be most benefited by it. regard 
it as a luxury because it is not available. There is more 
revenue waiting for the supply companies in 100 feet of front- 
age of working-class property than they will get from a similar 



Vol 89. No. j,277, JoiT 15, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



83 



frontage of higher-class property, as the average frontage is 
15 feet, two or more families live in one house, rooms are 
dark, and washing is done at home. The working-class people 
are the same people who have built up the big multiple-shop 
concerns, and will do the same for the electricity supply under- 
taking which will tackle the problem in the right way and 
cater for them. Of course, there are difficulties in the way. 
and we cannot think that the gas companies had roses from 
the start. 

The electrical industry in this country seems to be fast asleep, 
from which it can be assumed that it pays large interests to 
let it sleep. 

Controversies are waged over systems of distribution, metliods 
of interior wiring, pressures of supply, whether a.c. or d.c, 
and, if a.c, phase and periodicity. No attempt is made to 
grade classes of interior wiring, or the workmen either, or to 
standardise accessories or other httings. We allow other trades 
to Tetail electi-ical goods, while we fail to get the goods of 
other trades allied to our ov\n at trade terms. 

We also allow the newest part of the electrical industry, 
wireless telegraphy and telephony, to pass into the hands of 
the Government and its progress to be retarded for years. 

In the electrical world there does not seem to be any t€am 
work, and it is time we woke up and started business. I 
have various suggestions to offer to help achieve this, which 
your readers will no doubt be able to improve on. 

J. A. G. 

London, N.W. 
July nth. 1921. 



LEGAL, 



Weston Electric Lamp Co. v. Street. 
At the Shoreditch County Court on Friday, before Judge 
Cluer, the Weston Electric Lamp Co., of 1-3, Sun Street, Fins- 
bury, E.G., sued Mr. Street, of 12S, Hill Street, Peckham, 
dealer in electrical lamps and httings, for £5 3s. 6d., for goods 
supplied, ivlr. Cripwell appeared on behalf of the plaintiffs. 
The delivery was proved to Alfred Street, and the man who 
had been served with the summons said he was that individual. 
He admitted the signature, but said the goods had nothing 
to do with him. but were for his son's business. His son 
was aged 'ii years, and dealt in electrical goods, using the 
front window of his (defendant's) shop to show them off'. 
Defendant was a hairdresser, and always had been, and he 
knew nothing about electric lamps and bulbs. 

Judge Cloeb : I see the customer's signature to the order 
is " B. Street." 

Defendant : That is my son. I am a hairdresser, and don't 
understand the goods. 

Mr. Cripwell : But you have served customers with them. 

Defendant : I might have done if my son was away. 

In further answers defendant said he did not know exactly 
where his son lived, but he used the Peckham address. He 
was sometimes away for months. Certainly he was at home 
on Sunday, but he did n-'t know where he lived. 

Judge Clder : That is the answer of a hairdresser, and not 
an honest man. He might just as well say he does not know 
where a twenty-month-old baby lives because it is out in 
the pram. (Laughter.) 

Continuing, the defendant said that so far as he was con- 
cerned, he had nothing to do with the goods, and none of 
them had been used in his business. 

Judge CLUEit said it was evident they had got hold of the 
wrong man, so the summons would have to be dismissed 
against this defendant, with costs, and it would have to be 
re-served on the son. 

The father promised to do his best to get the son's address. 



Rio TiNTO Co., Ltd., v. Brown, Boveri & Co. 
As briefly reported in our last issue, in the Commercial Court 
of the King's Bench Division on July 5th, Mr. Justice Bail- 
hache began the hearing of an important action for damages 
for alleged breach of contract brought by plaintiff company 
against defendants, the action relating to the construction of 
an electric railway in Spain by the defendant company for the 
plaintiffs. 

Sir John Simon, K.C., Mr. R. A. Wright, K.C.. and Mr. F. 
Baber appeared for the plaintiffs. Mr. Douglas Hogg, K.C.. 
Mr. Eustace Hills, K.C., and Mr. W. A. Jowitt represented 
the defendants. 

Sir John Simon, in opening the case, said the defendants 
carried on bu-siness at Baden, Switzerland. The subject 
matter of the contract between the parties was the supply, 
erection and handing over in full working order of all the 
material and plant needed for working the trafiic on a railway 
whiHi the Rio Tinto Co. had betw-een their mines at Rio Tinto, 
in the South of Spain, and the port of Huelva. about 50 miles. 
This railway was extensively used both for mineral traffic and 
certain kinds of passenger traffic, and it had hitherto been 
worked by steam. 

The question in the case was primarily whether, as the 
plaintiffs alleged, the contract survived and had be«n 



repudiated by the defendants. The defendants, on their side, 
said that hrst of all the people who repudiated were not them- 
selves but the plaintiffs. Then they set up tne further defence 
that the contract had in the circumstances become frustrated 
by supervemng illegahty. They suggested illegahty by Swiss 
law, inasmuch as they said that the Swiss law or the opera- 
tion of the law prohibited the export of machinery and plant 
of this kind, to which the short answer was that it only did 
so subject to provisions for Ucences, and as a matter of fact 
there was abundant export by this company of this particular 
plant. Secondly, the defendants suggested supervening 
illegality by English law, viz.. the illegahty of the plaintiff 
company paying anything to the Swiss company if the 
latter was getting any of its supphes from Germany or 
Austria — to which the answer was that a very small 
portion of the whole would come under thia stipulation, and 
in any event, the Rio Tinto Co. was in a position to get the 
necessary licence supposing that the defendants had been in a 
position to fulfil their obligations. The Rio Tinto Co. was a 
company which played an extremely important part in con- 
nection with the munitions output in the war, and had been 
in the closest relations with our own fighting departrqents, 
and the authorities here were very anxious to faciUtite in 
every possible way the output of the Rio Tinto Co., for it was 
by that company's output that the sulphuric acid for the 
manufacture of high explosives was produced in the necessary 
quantities. 

There was a further defence suggesting that the contract 
was in some way put an end to by force majeure, to which the 
answer was that there was not a force majeuTe clause in the 
contract. As a last resource, the defendants brought in a 
reference to the Courts Emergency Powers Act for relief. 

The contract was dated July 3rd, 1914. There were two 
turbo generators, and they were in fact manufactured. What 
was rather surprising was that having manufactured them 
the defendants disposed of them to other purchasers in prefer- 
ence to the plaintiff's. There was eqmpment for six sub- 
stations, each containing two transformers. There were to be 
two complete three-phase transmission lines, complete over- 
head trolley line equipment, and 13 electric locomotives, and 
these things were to be supplied and erected in full working 
order so that the plaintiffs would have a properly equipped 
electric railway. There were certain things that the Rio 
Tinto were to do. such as to erect the buildings necessary to 
contain the electrical plant. These things they had done, and 
spent some £20,000 in making preparations to receive thia 
plant. 

The defendants in Switzerland had made nearly all the 
plant. They had performed their part of the contract as far 
as the construction of these things was concerned, but instead 
of supplying them and putting them up in Spain, they had 
sold them to other people. The contract price for the work 
was j£163,000 sterling, which was to include deUvery alongside 
the plaintiff company's pier and the complete erection. The 
contractors undertook completely to deliver up the whole plant 
so that it was ready for working within IS months of the date 
of the contract. That would carry them to the early part of 
1916. There was a penalty clause of j£400 penalty a week. 
Also there was to be attached to the contract a Ust of firms 
to whom the contractors might sublet part of the work, but 
they were not to sublet to other firms without the con.sent of 
the company. The only reference to force majeure began by 
saying the contractor took the risk of executing the contract, 
and said it was understood the contractor should not be Uable 
for any damages due to force majeure. Also, the contractors 
appointed Brown, Boveri & Co., of Caxton House, Westmin- 
ster, as their agents. 

For some time, counsel went on, the defendants treated this 
contract as a thing they were dealing with and pursuing, but 
the scene changed in the early part of 1916, when they found 
themselves overwhelmed with orders from other quarters. It 
was not true that the plaintiffs repudiat.ed the contract, or 
that the contract had collapsed or been brought to an end by 
the circumstances of the war. The truth was that down to 
1916 the parties were treating themselves as contractually 
bound to one another. Then it suited the defendants to treat 
the plaintiffs as people with whom they had no contract, and 
they rapidly assumed that position. 

His Lordship : When do you say the contract was com- 
pletely broken? 

Counsel replied that defendants put it on record that they 
treated the contract as completely broken by letters in 1919. 
But in 1916 they were taking up the position that they were 
only prepared to deal with this cofitract upon the basis that 
they were given new terms and new prices. 
Evidence was then given. 

Mr. HoGQ for the defence, submitted that there was no 
case for him to answer. Fir.st of all. this was a pre-war con- 
tract. Secondly, it was a contract which by its terms contem- 
plated that some of the work would he sub-contracted, and 
of course it was manifest that some of the work would be con- 
tracted with Germany and .Nustria. Thirdly, when the defen- 
dants told the iilaintiffs in tonus that the contractors whom 
the former proposed to employ included not only a very largo 
number of Germans, but with regard to some items, nothing 
hut them, the plaintiff,^ replied that the defendants were per- 
fectly at liberty to do it. So that from that date they had an 
express agreement that defendants miaht supply German ma- 
terial. At the end of 1915 the plaintiffs said in terms, " We 



84 



THE ELECTRICAL BEVIE^ 



[Vol. 89. No. 2,277, July 15, 1881. 



will not pay you for goods of enemy origin." The position 
then was this : having a contract under which by its terms the 
defendants were entitled to supply German goods, and being a 
neutral country they were, of course, at hberty to get German 
goods, the plaintiffs said. " If you supply goods which under 
the contract you are entitled to supply and we are bound to 
accept, we shall not pay for them." That was as clear a 
repudiation of the contract as one could have. It mignt be 
that the plaintiffs could not have paid for them without com- 
mitting a breach of the law over here. He rather gathered 
from the plaintiffs' evidence that that answer was not open 
to them, because they could have got a licence if they had 
tried, but whether they could or could not, they told the 
defendants in December, " We cannot and will not perform 
any part of the contract if you deliver goods which under the 
contract we know you intend to deliver and are entitled to 
deliver." The defendants, further, were saying quite plainly 
in 1916 that inasmuch as both sides could not perform the 
contract according to its terms, it would have to be modified. 
It was clear that by the end of 1916 both parties had acquiesced 
in the position that although the defendants still wanted to 
do the work when it became possible and the plaintiffs also 
wanted it to be done, the terms upon which it was to be done 
were to be a matter of negotiation between them, and these 
terms had never been arranged. The contract waa ended at 
the latest by the end of 1916. 

^Mien the hearing was resumed on July 6th, Mr. Hogg 
stated that since the adjournment the parties had been dis- 
cussing the matter, and he thought they had arrived at a 
settlement. His cUents, however, were a Swiss company, and 
they had to get confirmation from Baden. They therefore 
wished the case to stand over until Friday, when it waa hoped 
there would be an end of the case. 

His Lordship agreed. 



Hastings Corporation and the Tramways Co. 
The Arbitrator's Award. 
Mr. Willum Weeks Szlumper, barrister-at-law, and a member 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers, as arbitrator, has issued 
his award in the case of the Hastings Corporation and the 
Hastings Tramways Co. It concerned a point of controversy 
in the matter of the relighting on the line of tramways on the 
JPront, which the Tramways Co. has to undertake under its 
Act of last year. The arbitration recently took place at the 
Surveyors' Institution, Westminster, as reported in our 
columns. 

The Arbitbator states his award in the form of a special 
case, and explains that he has done so at the request of the 
Tramways Co. He proceeds to state that the facts were 
proved before him as follows : The current required for the 
lamps upon the existing electric standards of the Corporation 
along the route of Tramway No. 1 referred to in Sub-section 3 
of Section 6 of the Hastings Tramways Act. 1930. was conveyed 
by means of a cable belonging to the Corporation laid in the 
roadway. The substituted electric lamps necessitated either a 
new cable or an addition to the existing one. It was con- 
tended on the part of the Corporation that the proper legal 
construction of the said Sub-section .3 provided that the com- 
pany should at its own expense either lay a new cable or 
by addition to the existing one render it capable of satisfactorily 
conveying current to the substituted electric lamps. It was 
contended on the part of the company that the word " cable " 
in Sub-section 3 referred only to a part of the connection 
between the substituted electric lamps and the said cable of 
the Corporation, and that the provi.sions of Sub-section 3 did 
not place upon the company the obligation to lay any cable 
other than that necessary for connection between the sub- 
stituted electric lamps and the cable conveying current along 
the route of Tramwav No. 1. The Arbitrator states his decision 
in the following terms: "I award and determine, subject to 
the opinion of the Court, that having regard to the fact that 
either a new cable laid along the route of Tr.nmnay No. 1 or 
a snflRcient addition to the existing cable is necessary in con- 
nection with the substituted lighting, the provisions of Riih- 
spction 3 of Section 6 of the Hastings Tramways Act. 1920. 
nlace unon the company an obligation nt their own expense 
to provide and lay Rurh a cabl'^ or such an addition to the 
existing cable and T direct (suhicct to my directions herein- 
after made) that the companv do pav to the Corporation its 
cost of the reference to be taxed, and that the company do 
nav costs of this my sward which I have taxed or settled at 
the sum of £44 15s. 6d." 



Preston Electricity Undertaking. 
Actordtno to the Manchmter Gnardinn on .Tuly 3rd. the 
■"National Klectri'" Pnpniy Co.. L*d.. of Preston, annlied to 
Vicp-Chnncellor R. B. T.awrenee, K.C., at the Chancery Court 
in Manchester, for sanction to be given to a scheme of arrange- 
ment with regard to the basis upon which the distribution 
of the profits and of the assets in .'' windinp-nn should proceed 
as het"'een tKe various classes of sha^'eholders. 

Mr. F. J. Kp.RR 'who annearpfl for <lie applicants! siiid the 
company was incorporated in ■'R.''9 with the object of carrying 
on the business, of eloetnV lighting and of prodnejng and 
supplying electricity. The issued capital was now 16,545 pre- 



ference shares of i'5 each, 10,850 ordinary shares of £3 128. 6fl 
each, and 100 founders' shares of ^£3 I'is. 6d. each, all full 
paid. For the year ending December 31st, 1920, the gros 
profit was f 20.062. and the assets shown by the balance sheei 
amounted tu ±'2Sy.572, agamst which were liabilities to tradil 
creditors (£41,497) and sums borrowed from time to time oil 
loan (^39,738). By a provisional agreement dated March 30th| 
1921. the Preston Corporation agreed to buy the undertaking! 
upon terms which, Mr. Kerr said, would work out at a total' 
of £2(j6.000; ±'61,0UU would be paid by the Corporation in cash' 
and the remaining i'205,000 would be satisfied by the issue 
of mortgages secured on the borough rates. At present the; 
agreement was only conditional. Doubts had arisen as to the! 
rights of the various classes of shareholders with regard to the 
return of capital and participation in surplus assets in the 
event of a winding up, but a scheme had been approved at 
the meetings of the shareholders, and his Honour was now 
asked to give his sanction. 

It was stated that a provision for payment of a fixed sum 
as compensation to the directors had "been disclosed to the 
shareholders. The Vice-Chancellor said the payment was quite 
regular, but the Registrar must be satisfied that it had been 
disclosed to the shareholders. Subject to the filing of an 
affidavit on that point he sanctioned the scheme. 



The Bastian Electric Co., Ltd. 
Petition Dismissed. 
The petition of W. F. N. May and Another for an order for 
the compulsory liquidation of the above company was disposed 
of by Mr. Justice P. O. Lawrence in the Companies' Winding- 
up Court on Tuesday. 

Mr. DiOHTON Pollock, for the petitioners, said that last 
week they were paid £25, and they had now been paid out, 
and he asked for the petition to be dismissed. 

Counsel for the company said it had been agreed that there 
would be no infringement of their patents, and that the peti- 
tioners would hand over certain management shares. 

His Lordship dismissed the petition upon payment of the 
petitioners' costs. 

Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd., v. A. W. Gamage, 

Ltd. 
Mr. Justice Eve, in the Chancery Division on July 12th, heard 
a motion for judgment in this case. 

Mr. J. Whitehead, who moved on behalf of the plaintiff 
company, said that this was a patent action, and the infrmge- 
ment alleged was in respect of the sale and offer for sale of a 
certain wireless receiving set known as the " Polaris Receiving 
Set." 

The motion was by consent. Mr. Eric Bousfield appearing for 
the defendants. 

The terms provided for an injunction restraining infringe- 
ment as .set out in the settlement of claim, flSO agreed dam- 
ages, and the destruction of infringing apparatus by dismant- 
ling and breaking up into their constituent parts. 



Calnmet Power Station of the Commonwealth Edison Co. 

— Tlie new power station at Calumet, which is designed to 
contain generators of 180,000 k\V, will include the latest de- 
vices for economising energy. The boilers are of the Babcock 
& Wilcox type, built for a pressure of 350 lb. per sq. in., and 
a superheat of 2.50 deg. Fah.. the temperature of the steam 
being 685 deg. Fah. Each boiler will be capable of evaporat- 
ing 150.000 lb. of water per hour. Chain-grate stokers and 
forced draught will be used. The boiler tubes are 20 ft. long 
and four inches in diameter, and the total heating surface is 
15,089 sq. ft., the superheating surface adding 4.000 sq. ft. 
The grate surface is 376 sq. ft., and the volume of the furnace 
6,700 cu. ft., the head-room beneath the tubes being 20 ft. 
Induced-draught fans will be provided, and the steel chimneys 
will have a height of 167 ft. The economi.sers will have steel 
tubes and .steel headers, of a total heating surface of 9,600 sq. 
ft. per boiler. The boOer efficiency is expected to be 74 or 
75 per cent., to which the economiser will add 7 or 8 per cent. 
The temperature of the feedwater will be raised to 175 deg. 
Fah. before entering the economi.ser, to prevent condensation, 
with steam derived from the later stages of the turbines. Air 
beaters may be provided, reducing the temperature of the flu© 
gases from 3.50 to 2.50 deg. and heating the air to 2(X) deg. Fah.. 
but the probability of serious corrosion through condensation 
renders the use of air boaters doubtful, the coal containing 
nearly 5 per cent, of sulphur. Two generating seta are being 
installed, one having a General Electric 7-.stage impulse turbine 
with maximum economy at 2 load, and the other having a, 
Westinghouse tandem compound turbine. Eventually the 
station will contain six sets of .30,000 kW at 85 per cent, power 
factor, ]2.0(X) volts. 1.200 r.p.m. The condensers will have a 
surface of .52.000 sq. ft., and provision will be made for clean- 
ing them whilst in operation. There will be four boilers to 
each generating set, and the boiler-room occupies two-thirds of 
the total building area. Fuel costs will be about 86 per cent, 
of the total operating costs. It is expected that the kWh will 
be generated with an expenditure of 19,000 B.th.u. 



Toi. 89. No. 2,277, jult 16, 1921.] TKE ELECTRICAL REVIEW, 



85 



BUSINESS NOTES. 



Bankruptcy Proceedings. — ^' Charles Augustus Car- 

PKNTKB, electrical enjrineer, Mason's Avenue, Basinffhall Street, E.G. — 
Creditors under this failure met on July 11th, before Mr. W. P. 
Bowyer, senior Official Receiver at the London Bankruptcy Court. 
The chairman reported that the debtor had stated that he com- 
menced business in June, 1917, with stock £100 and cash £50. 
Previous to that he was partner with Mr. W. R. Fardon, a con- 
tracting electrician, and their business was converted into Fardon 
and Carpenter, Ltd., which went into voluntary liquidation in 
1914, the debtor being appointed receiver for the debenture-holder. 
He next started to make electrical apparatus, and in 1916 he was 
joined in partnership with Mr. O. Brink, but that partnership was 
dissolved shortly afterwards, Mr. Brink remaining in possession of 
the business in consideration of the £200 capital which he had 
introduced. The debtor next became managing director of C. A. 
Carpenter, Ltd., which was formed to exploit a patent burglar and 
fire alarm of his own invention. Twelve months later he resigned 
that office, and started business on his own account as C. A. Car- 
penter ; the company of that name having changed to Alexander 
Bruce, Ltd. Early in 1919 the debtor was joined by two partners, 
and in March, 1921, the assets of that business were sold to C. A. 
Carpenter, Ltd., a private company, the debtor receiving 800 fully- 
paid £1 shares, and being appointed managing director, which 
position he still held. No accounts had been lodged ; the debtor 
estimated his liabilities at £1,200 ; he had no assets, and he 
attributed his failure to losses in trading, difficulties with labour, 
lack of capital, two serious illnesses, the trade slump since 
December last, and the withdrawal of banking facilities. In the 
absence of any offer, the case was left to the Official Receiver to be 
wound up in bankruptcy. 

Bf John Henby Toms, electrical engineer, 16, Cecil Road, 
Muflwell Hill, trading at 13, Gray's Inn Road, W.C, under the style 
of J. H. Toms & Co. — The first meeting of creditors in this case 
was held on July 1 1th before Mr. Walter Boyle, Official Receiver, 
at the London Bankruptcy Court, when accounts were presented, 
showing total liabilities £1,985 (unsecured £1,693'), and net assets 
valued at £193. The chairman reported that it appeared from the 
debtor's statements that in June, 1918, he commenced business as 
above, but he had no partner ; his capital of £75 was raised on a 
bill of sale for £100 over his household furniture, but that amount 
proved insufficient, and he had recourse to professional money- 
lenders. During the first 12 months, the trading did fairly well, 
and he reduced the amount on the bill of sale, but after the 
Armistice it dropped away, and requiring further capital, he 
renewed the bill of sale twice, eventually paying it off out of a loan 
of £500, the balance of the loan being used in discharging personal 
debts. The business was brought to a standstill by the action of 
creditors, who levied execution at the Gray's Inn Road premises. 
The failure was attributed to want of capital and heavy interest 
charges. Mr. H. J. de Coursey Moore, chartered accountant, 2, 
Gresham Buildings, B.C., was elected trustee to wind up the estate 
I in bankruptcy. 

I K. H. Kbbe & Co., electrical accessories manufacturers, Barr 
1 Hill Works, Dalbeattie. — At the meeting of creditors on July 5th, 
Mr. W. B. Galbraith gave an account of his investigations. A 
trading and profit and loss account from June 1st, 1919, to June 
30th, 1921, was submitted, the loss on trading during the period 
being £810. The liabilities were £1,876, and the net assets £1,066. 
After discussion, the meeting resolved, with two dissentients, to 
recommend the acceptance of a cash composition of 10s. in the £, 
and the debtors were allowed 10 days in which to obtain the neces- 
sary financial assistance to pay the composition. A committee was 
appointed to advise with Mr. Galbraith. 

WoLLMAN, H. M., electrical factor, lately carrying on business 
at 9, Greasbro' Road, Parkgate. near Rotherham. — Petition granted 
at Sheffield, on debtor's own petition, on July 5th. First meeting, 
July 19th ; public examination, August -tth ; both at Sheffield. 

Dale, B. T., electrical engineer, trading at Erick Street, New- 
oastle-on-Tyne. — Trustee, Mr. Brittain, 15, Pilgrim Street, New- 
oa«tle-on-Tyne. 

Hephbb, J. (trading as the Croft Electric Cabinet and Joinery 
Works), Spital Tongues, Newcastle-on-Tyne. — Trustee, J. A. Gardner, 
24, Grey Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

SuTCLlFPE, G., AbertiUery, electrical engineer. — Order made on 
May 25th, suspending discharge for two years. 

Catalognes and Lists. — British Insulated and 

Helsbt Cables, Ltd., Prescot, Lanes. — Publication P 167. An 
illustrated catalogue of paper-insulated cables of many types — 
single, twin, concentric, &o — and of all sizes. Bach type is illus- 
trated, and full details of conductors, dielectrics, &c., are given. 

Messbs. Cookson & Co., 25, New Oxford Street, W.C— A 
leaflet giving prices, particulars, and illustrations of various 
aocumnlator accessories, such as hydrometers, india-rubber corks, 
voltmeters, Sc. 

The Whitwobth Electbic Lamp Co., Ltd., 195. North End 
Road, West Kensington, W. 14. — A priced, illustrated leaflet show- 
ing various types of opal glass bowl fittings. 

The Vauohan Cbane Co., Ltd., Openshaw, Manchester. — 
A booklet (No. 8) of reproduced photographs of a number of 
electric crane and hoist installations and views of the company's 
works. 

Messrs. Clayton & Shuttlswobth, Ltd., Stamp End Works, 
Lincoln. — Publication No. 320. A well-illustrated descriptive 
catalogue of " Clayton " valveless crude oil engines of various sizes, 
Buuiy laitable for driving generators for farm work. 



ME.SSBS. Saltebns, Ltd., Salterns Works, Parkstone.— A cata- 
logue dealing with the development of water power, illustrating 
and describing several tvpes of turbines and Pelton wheels. 

Mr. H. C.Slinosby, '142-146, Old Street, B.C. 1.— Publication 
No. 170, giving numerous illustrations and specifications of electric 
industrial trucks, tractors, A:c. 

Z Eleotbic Lamp and Supphes Co., Ltd., 73, Newman Street, 
W. I. — A priced and illustrated booklet, advertising the " Blec- 
trolux " electric suction cleaner. 

W. R. Patents, Ltd., S, Old Jewry, B.C. 2.— A folding card, 
illustrating the " W.R.'' CO-., indicator with application card for 
booklet. 

loBANic Electbic Co , Ltd., 147, i^ueen Victoria Street, E.G. 4. 
— An illustrated folder, dealing with various descriptions of coils 
for electrical purposes, embodying an order postcard. 

The Geneeal Electbic Co., Ltd., Magnet House, Eingiway, 
W.C. 2.— Leaflet O.S. 2,538. An illustrated and priced pamphlet, 
advertising a case for spare automobile lamps. 

Messbs. Meldbums, Ltd., Timperley. near Manchester. — A 
priced and illustrated pamphlet, giving full particulars of the con- 
struction and use of the " Sack ' portable steam-disinfector. 

Messbs. F. J. Shenton & Co., Ltd., 68 and 69, Shoe Lane, 
B.C. 4. — A price-list of silk-covered copper wire. 

Messrs. ABCHinALD J. Wbight, Ltd., 395, City Road, B.C. 1. 
—Two illustrated price-lists of electrical goods, including small 
instruments, accumulators, pocket lamps, magnetos, &c. 

The General Electric Co., Ltd., Magnet House, Kingsway, 
W.C. 2. — Pamphlet S 2,352. An illustrated and priced publication 
dealing with " Fairyland " strip, which consists of lighting cable 
in which lamphoiders are fitted at equal distances. It is intended 
for decorative illumination. 

Messbs. Ratneb & Heald, Ltd., Duke Street, Derby. — A 
stock-list giving details of squirrel-cage and slip-ring motors of 
various powers. 

" Attbacta " Electrical Co., 11, Hanway Place, Oxford Street, 
W. 1. — -An illustrated leaflet giving prices of " Anto " electric 
flashers for signs, &c. 

Messrs. Scholey & Co., Ltd., 56. Victoria Street, Westminster, 
S.W. 1. — A priced pamphlet illustrating and describing the 
" Croydon " electric suction and blowing cleaner. Also Pam- 
phlet M 2, giving an illustrated description of fractional h.p. motors 
ranging from 55 to h h.p. Priced. 

Dissolutions of Partnership.— Cayless a Potter, 

electrical and general engineers, Gladstone Mews. Wood Green, 
Middlesex. — Messrs. H. G. Cayless & P. F. G. Potter have dissolved 
partnership. Mi. Cayless attends to debts, &o., and continues the 
business under the old title. 

Messrs. John Palmer Castle and Cyril John Arnold, 
trading under the style of '' The Electrical Equipment and Installa- 
tion Co., " at 6 4, Finsbury Pavement, B.C., have dissolved partnership. 
All debts will be attended to by their solicitors, Messrs. Castle & Co., 
31, Gracechurch Street, E.G. 3. 

Trade Annonncements. — Me.ssrs. London Factors and 

Agents, Ltd., inform us that Mr. F. L. Strawson has left the board 
of directors, and has severed his connection with the company. 

The Alton Battery Co., Ltd., of Alton, Hants, has opened a 
branch office at 90-91, Queen Street. Cheapside, London, B.C. 
(Telephone No. "Central 8112"), under the management of Mr. 
D. Mackay Robertson, who will deal with the sales of A.B.C. 
accumulators in London and the Home Counties. 

The British Electric Plant Co., Ltd., of 66, Carrick Street, 
Glasgow, has removed its London office to 11, Upper Wobum 
Place, W.C. I. 

The new telephone number of Messrs. A. Verey i Co. is 
" Victoria 3189," n»t 3180, as stated in our issue of July Ist. 

The Cardiff branch office of the Edison Swan Electbic Co.. 
Ltd., has been removed to larger premises at 25-27, Charles 
Street. The branch is now in direct touch with the company's 
works, instead of being a subsidiary branch working from Bristol. 
Mr. W. Elliott, B.Sc, A.M.I.E.B., has been appointed superintendent 
of the new district. 

Mr. W. Dundas Fox has opened offices and stores at 80a to 86a, 
Manningham Lane, Bradford, as an electrical and mechanical 
engineer and textile electric drive specialist. 

Messrs. Forrester & Fox, Ltd., conduit fittings manufacturers, 
of Beehive Wharf, Brentford, have obtained the permission of the 
Board of Trade to change their name to that of " Pelican Electric, 
Ltd." Messrs. A. Fox and Mr. F. F. Whiteing are the directors. 
The works staff is the same, and the business is carried on at the 
game works. 

German Iron Wire. — The Waterfalls Board has 
requested authorisation of the Government for the purchase in 
Germany of galvanised iron wire for high-power lines. The Board 
points out that, although the Swedish Government has emphasised 
the desirability of placing orders with Swedish firms, in the ca.«e in 
question there is financial disadvantage in purchasing the wire in 
Sweden, the Swodish quotation being 63 per cent, higher than the 
German. — I!eut,rs Truth- Srrrice (Stocfeholm). 

Foreign Interest in Swedish Works.— A foreisn firm 

is reported to have sought to acquire an interest in the Swedish 
electrical company of Luth and Rosen, but the negotiations have 
not led to any practical results. It is denied that Herr Hugo 
Stinnes was associated with the discussions. 



86 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [Voi. as. No. 8,277, juit is, mi. 



Private Meeting. — Fkedekuk Vigers and Charles H. 
ViOEBS, trading aa Vi?cr8 Bro«.. Balfour Hoose, Finabury Pave- 
ment, London, E.C. — The adjourned meeting of the creditors was 
held on July 5th, at the Institute of Chartered Accountants, Moor- 
gate Place, B.C., when Mr. Agar, who represented the Associated 
Importers, Ltd., wa« elected to the chair. 

The statement of affairs, which had been prepared by Messrs. 
Tribe, Clarke, Painter, Darton & Co., chartered accountants, of 
Balfour House, Finsbury Pavement, E.G., disclosed ranking 
liabilities of i6143,490, against netasaets of £52,869, or a deficiency 
of £90,621. 

The chairman said it would be recalled that the meeting was 
originally adjourned in order that a printed statement of affairs 
might be prepared and circulated while a committee was also 
appointed to consider the position. That committee had met and 
gone fully into the matter, and would make a report to the 
creditor*. 

Mr. Gordon Clarke (Messrs. Churchill & Sims) said he was one of 
the committee appointed at the last meeting. In the first place, 
the committee satisfied themselves that the partners had given all 
the information that it was possible for them to give, and the 
committee also satisfied themselves as to the assets of the partner- 
ship and the private estate. A close examination of the figures 
would show that the estate would not produce the 7s. 6d. in the 
£ which was suggested as the composition to be paid at the last 
meeting of the creditors. It appeared to the committee that the 
utmost which could be paid was lis. in the £. His own opinion 
was that a dividend of that amount should be accepted. He read 
the full recommendation of the committee. 

Mr. A. G. Westaoott (Messrs. A. G. Westacott k Co.) said that he 
understood the scheme to be that there would be a deed of 
inspectorship and the creditors would accept a composition of 68. 
in the £. The creditors would accept that 68. in full discharge if 
nothing unforeseen happened. The statement showed about 7a. in 
the £, but the creditors would accept 6g,, and they were also given 
an opportunity of getting a further 9a. in the £. If liquidation 
took place after the 68. in the £ had been accepted, the creditors 
would take 25 per cent, of the assets. He proposed a resolution in 
favour of the acceptance of the scheme outlined by the committee. 

Mr. W. Crow seconded the motion. 

The resolution waa carried by a large majority, only the repre- 
sentative of one firm voting against it. 

Three of the principal creditors were appointed to act aa 
inapeotori. 

E.D.A. Activities.— The latest publication of the 
British Electrical Development Association (E.D.A. 175) is an 
endeavour to explain to the uninitiated consumer of electricity the 
necessity of a fixed minimum charge. It showa that even if the 
quantity covered by the charge is not used, the station plant and 
staff must always be ready to answer the call of the consumer. 
Moreover, it points out that the cost to the consumer of thia 
tireless service ia really email when apread over the year ; indeed, 
in the average example quoted, it amounts to no more than lid a 
day even if no energy is used at all. It further explains that if 
the minimum is exceeded there ia virtually no direo! charge at all 
for the station's '' readinesa to eerve." 

Stoker Contracts.— Recent sales effected by the 
Underfeed Stokeb Co., Ltd., include the following for electrical 
stationa : — 

Wolverhampton, eight travelling gratea ; St. Helena, four 
travelling grates ; Sheffield, two travelling gratea ; Newcastle 
Electric Supply, one travelling grate and air heater; Rotterdam, 
four travelling grates ; Coatipore, India, four travelling grates ; 
Poplar, Bury, and Bradford, ash conveyors. 

Oil Foel. — Messrs. MELDaoiis, Ltd., of Timperley, 
have recently received orders for oil fuel burnera for the Bangor 
and Altrincham electricity departments. 

The Electric Lamp Mannfactorers' Association.— 

Mr. J. E. Ejgecombe, the director, notifies us that the "ddreis of the 
Electric Lamp Manufactoreia' Association of Great Britain, Ltd., is 
now Elma Hou«e, 25, Bedford Square. London, W.C. 1. Telephone 
numbers : ' Museum 7828 and 7829 " ; telegraphic addreas : 
" Britelma, Weatcent, London." 

Trade Conditions in Australasia.- On June 80th ended 

one of the most trying pericdi for many years. The policy of 
dtflition has resulted in a good deal of writing-down lately, 
much of which haa been aubstantial. Owing to the proaperity 
inland and in town and country, buying stocks in the warehoasea 
have been largely reduced, which, combined with tha skilful 
handling of the situation by the banks, has resulted in only a low 
percentage of oompojitions. The favourable seasonal outlook la 
imbuing business men with a more hope'ul feeling. In the 
opinion of au authority at Sydney, the outlook is uacertain, with a 
tendency towards an immediate mild revival of trade, attended by 
a partial riae in prices. Piicea in New Zealand are generally 
firmer, warranting the opinion that a steady revival hai set in, 
but the curtailment of indents, following unprecedented iaaports, 
haa resulted in an almoHt acute shortage in some lines ol neoes- 
■itiea. — RmUer't Trade Service (Melbourne). 

Withdrawal from lodnstrial Council.— By a large 

majority the Aberdeen Town Council, on July 1th, decided to with- 
draw from the Scottish District Industrial Council. The deoLsion 
was made principally on account of the Corporation's disagreement 
with a re-arrangement of working hours and conditiona of service 
made by the Indnatrial Coonoil. 



British Goods in Italy. — The Advisory Commission for i 
Importation, representing the Ministry of Finance, has received a 
telesrram from the Federation of British Industries' Commissioner 
in Italy, asking for a commercial amnesty for British goods stopped 
by the Italian Customs owing to the absence of import permits. 
The Commissioner observes that the goods are being ruined, while 
the Customs might seonre considerable auma in the shape of import 
duties, and at the same time help the good relations between the 
two countries. — Reutfr's Trade Serrice iVLi\&n). 

Australian Anti-Dumping Measures.-Mr. Massy Greene, 

Minister of State for Trade and Customs, introduced a Bill in the 
House of Representatives, on July 7th, to constitute a Tariff Board, 
composed of three members, to which the Minister could refer 
matters relating to the classification and value of dutiable goods, 
the necessity of Tariff and Excise increases and reductions and the 
granting of bounties. The Minister added that Parliament would 
retain the right of final decision in all matters. Mr. Massy Greene 
also explained a resolution to prevent dumping by countries whose 
currency had depreciated. The resolution innluded the impoaition 
of special anti-dumping duties in addition to the ordinary Customa 
duties. — Renter's Trade Service (Melbourne). 

Electric Iron and Steel Furnaces in Brazil. — The 

Commercial Sacretary to His Majesty's Embassy at Rio de Janeiro 
(Mr. Ernest Hambloch), haa forwarded to the Department of Over- 
seas Trade some notes on the Brazilian President's message to 
Congress at the opening of the firat session of the neiv legislature. 
The President dealt at some length with the subject of the utilisa- 
tion of Brazil's immenae resources of coal and iron, and said that 
with a view to establishing not only the poasibUity of the manu- 
facture of metallurgical coke from Brazilian coal, but also the cost 
of production of pig iron and steel in electric furnaces either with 
national coke or with charcoal, the Government aent to Belgium 
several tons of coal from the mines in Santa Catharina and Rio 
Grande do Sul, and appointed a professor of the Ouro Preto School 
of Mines to accompany and control the tests in first-class estab- 
lishments. In the Copp6e works of Belgium, metallurgical coke 
has been manufactured from BrazUian coal, with highly satisfactory 
resulta. 

The experimental manufacture of pig iron and ateel from 
Brazilian ore and Brazilian metallurgical coke or charcoal ia to be 
carried out in electric furnaoea in Sweden, to which country the 
neoeeaary coal haa also been sent. Simultaneously the Govern- 
ment ia taking stock of the hydro-electric resources of Brazil. 

The Eaperanoa (Uaina Esperanoa), in Minaa Geraes ia the only 
source of supply for national foundries and mechanical works. 
Its production of pig iron ia approximately 15,000 metric tona per 
annum. The company hopea to erect within a short time small 
worka for the manufacture of steel in an electric furnace. 

One electric furnace is at present in existence in Sao Paulo with 
a capacity of l,OuO kg. for the manufacture of steel from pig iron, 
and besides this there ia another amall electric furnace for the 
melting of pig iron. 

It is atated that the Companhia Electro-Metallurgica Biasileira 
will, by the end of the year, have in operation at Ribeirao Preto a 
factory for rolled steel, and be able to produce everything from 
pig iron in electric furnaces with charcoal to the most complex 
aiderurgical operationa. 

The Anglo-Brazilian Iron and Steel Syndicate alao intenda to 
erect not far from the city of Rio de Janeiro iron and ateel worka 
which will employ electro-metallurgical methods. 

Trade Conditions In Australia. — Id its report for 

the year ended April, 1921, the Klectrical Traders' and Contractors' 
Association of Victoria, says that while the conditiona under which 
buainess has been conducted during the year have materially 
changed from those which existed at the time of the last report, it 
cannot be sad that the hope then exprenaed, that affairs would 
soon have straightened themaelvea, has yet been realised. The 
transition period is not yet at an end, and industrial affairs still 
figure prominently in all commetcial arrangements. '' In add t'on, 
a world wide trade depression, being the unavoidable reaction 
following upon the abnormal conditions of the war period, has 
taken place within the last few mouths, and all business men are 
faced with the problems arising out of the contraction uf trade 
and falling markets." 

Industrial affairs have occupied a good deal of attention. 
Last year the Aasociation announced that licensing of wiremen waa 
an accomplished fact. The Association waa exceedingly sorry that 
it hai been unable to secure the much needed licensing of 
employers, but it waa hoped that before long thia would be 
accomplished. 

With regard to co-operation for improvement in the electrical 
industry, early in the year the question of the reorganisation of 
the Association, in order that this question might be completely 
dealt with in all its aspects, wai referred to the members of the 
Inter-Trade Relationships Committee, who have spent a large 
amount of time and trouble in connection therewith, and a g0(xl 
deal of information regarding similar Associations in Great 
Britain and A'nerici haa been obtained As, however, the time 
which the members of this Committee had to spare to give to this 
important work waa limited, it was de ided to call in the assistance 
of an experienced trade organiser, and it was hoped that something 
in the nature of a definite recommendation would be available at 
the annual meeting of the Association to be held in Jane. 

Argentina and Trusts. — The Chamber has passed a 
Bill for the repression of trusts. — lieuter'a 'IVade Servict (Buenoa 
Aiiea). 



Toi. 89. No. j,277, JuLT 16. 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



87 



Heating and Cooking Apparatus : Prices Reduced.— 

The General Electric Co., Ltd., has issued an annonnoement 
of a reduction of 15 per cent, in prices of " Magnet " electric heat- 
ing and cookir g appliances. 

Commercial Monopolies In Italy.— The Gazzetta Uffiriak 

publishes a decree replacingr thd electric lamp monopoly by a tax 
on manafactnre. Certain other articles are similarly dealt with. 

Swiss Foreign Trade. — It is announced that the members 
of the Swiss Society for the Development of Foreiffn Trade have 
decided to dissolve the society. This decision has been arrived at 
inasmuch as the neerotiations entered into between States and the 
various countries in Eastern Europe have shown that by a mere 
exohangfe of goods it was impossible to develop foreign commerce, 
owing to the existing international economic crisis and the com- 
plete transformation of the general economic situation which has 
taken plaoe since the establishment of the society. The assembly 
which adopted the above decision, expressed a desire that the 
States' authorities should assume in future the task under- 
taken by the society, which included, besides the exchange of 
goods, services of information, commercial aid, organisation and 
transit of goods trains, and the utilisation of Swiss capital in 
foreign countries. — Renter's Trade Service (Berne). 

Ontlngs. — A very successful picnic, arranged by the 
Liverpool Social Committee of the local factors and members of 
the N.F.B.A., took place on Saturday, July 2nd. A party of nearly 
100 persons went for a charabanc drive to Llangollen. Luncheon and 
tea were partaken of at the " Woodlands," a large private residence 
taken over by the garage proprietors for catering purposes. In the 
interval between luncheon and tea impromptu sports were held on 
the recreation field attached to the house, and after tea Mrs. Crawford, 
wife of Mr. F. Crawford, of the General Electric Co., distributed 
the prizes. Mr. Crawford moved a vote of thanks to the Social 
Clommittee. Mr. Percy Davies (Wessrs. Downes & Davies) seconded, 
and Mr. Tom Woods replied for the Committee. The hope was 
expressed that the outing would be an annual affair, as it was the 
means of bringing factors and contractors into closer contact with 
each other. The party drove back from Llangollen to Birkenhead 
in the evening. 

An outing of the London staff of Messrs. Falk, Stadelmann and 
Co., Ltd., took place on Monday, July 4th. The party, numbaring 
630, travelled by motor-charabancs to Southend-on-Sea, where 
luncheon was served at the Palace Hotel. Following the loyal 
toast, Mr. Stockwell, the senior representative of the firm, proposed 
the toast of " The Firm," which was replied to by the chairman, 
Mr. Max Falk. 

On Saturday last the employes of Messrs. S. Charlesworth and 
Co., electrical engineers, Oldham, held their second annual picnic, 
journeying by charabanc to Neston via Liverpool and Birkenhead. 
At Liverpool the party made a halt, and were shown over the phow- 
looms of Messrs Downes & Davies. Mr. Batty, their Manchester 
lepresentative, introduced the party, and conducted them over the 
premises. At Nescon, dinner was partaken of, followed by a game 
of bowls. Daring the afternoon the party went for a run to 
Hoylake,aud after tea returned, travelling ri^t Chester. 

British Trade- Mark Applications. — Appended is a 

lummary of the recent applications for British trade-marks in 
respect of goods and productions connected with the electrical 
trades and industries : — 

I.D. (.lettering combined with design) No. 409,235. Class 6. 
Electric wire. No. 4t 9,236. Class 6. Electrical machinery and 
parts. No. 409,2.17. Class 7. Electrical inntruments. No. 409,238. 
Class 13. Klectrical fi.tings of metal. No. 4i'9,239 Class 16. 
Electrical fittings of porcelain or earthenware. No 409, MO. Class 
18. blecirical installations. Ernestine J. G. Pacault, IS. Rue Van 
den Corput, Forest, Brussels, Belgium. October 29th, 19^0. 

Mercury. No. 407,984. Clais 13. Sparking plugs. Wm. H. 
Go d and Walter Gold, trading in co-partnership, 309, Summer 
Line, Birmingham, Sep:ember 13ih, 1920. 

Gripaoa motor lotk for cars and cycles. " A Policeman on your 
Motor " (.lettering combined with dtsifjn). No. 408,153. Class 13. 
Electric switch for use in connection with the starting gear of 
motor vehiclt 8, so as to prevent theft. Motor Inventions, Ltd., 
30-32, Ludgate Hill, London, EC. September 21th, 1920. 

Insuflixa. No. 414 424. Class 50. Electrical insulating pre- 
parations and materials. Bobt. Ingham Clark Jt Co., Ltd., 24, 
Grosvenor Gardens, London, 8 W. April 19th. 1921. 

Celestron. No. 414,855. Class 60. Eientric insulators and 
electric insulating matedals. Siluminite Insulator Co., Ltd., The 
Green, Southall, Middlesex. May 3rd, 1921. 

N.E. (Ittttring and design). No. 414,331. Class 6. Electric 
motors and generators. North-East Electric Co., 348, Whitney 
Street, Rochester, N.Y,, U.S.A. April 14th, 1921. 

Wizzi. No. 413, 19 (. olass 13. An el^^ctric spark increaser for 
use in the igiiitiou circuit of internal cotubusiion e gines. Ivardoc 
and Elliott, l7, Russtli Strtew Brixion, S.W. March 8th, 19il. 

For Sale, — Amoiig the plant to be sold by auction at 

Bekeubourue Aerodio.ije near Cante'bury, on July 29lh, by order 
of the Di-pi sal Board, a^e : - Two 20 h p. ' Aster " petrol eugints, 
two U kW K.tJ.C dynamos, an electiitalydnveucentiilugal pump, 
cable, lusulatois, &j. 

Among the maienal to be sold by auction at Eastleigh Aerodrome, 
on July 28tti ai,d 29th, by order c f the l).8p>sal board, are a 3-ton 
electric winch, electric motors from i to 20 h.p, portable eltctiic 
tools, and a quantity of other electrical material, including motor 
•tarters, blowers, ko. For further particulars see our advertise- 
ment pagea. 



British Manufacturers and New Zealand. — The 

Auckland Weekly News says that Mr. A. Wyllie, the Auckland 
electrical engineer, referring to the arrangements made with regard 
to the purchase of the necessary equipment and machinery for the 
extension of the city electrical plant, said that when he left for 
Britain he was afraid he would not be able to carry out the scheme 
within the estimates that had been made. On his arrival he found 
that manufacturers were bezinning to look for orders after s 
period of exceptional activity, and prices were beginning to fall. 
He, therefore, left the date for the return of tenders as late aa 
possible, with the result that excellent competition was obtained 
and good contracts were made. In view of this the scheme should 
be completed within the coat originally estimated. Mr. Wyllie added 
that the fact that he was able to notify tenderers that the Council 
would provide cash against documents was a strong factor in 
attracting competition among the manufacturers. 

Foreign Trade. — June Figures. — The following are 

the values of imports and exports of electrical goods and 
machinery in June : — 

June. 6 months, 1921. 

1921. Inc. or dee. Inc. or dec. 

IMPOBTS. £ £ A 

Electrical goods, to. 191,459 -!- 67,087 -f 644,302 

Machinery 783,364 - 934,533 - 3,217,577 

Electrical machinery 51,463 - 43,605 - 215,101 
(included above) 
Exports. 
Electrical goods, &c. 877,190 - 335,170 + 2,426,165 

Machinery 5,285,130 -I- 258,847 -1-17,297.463 

Electrical machinery 330,787 + 157,173 + 1,608,814 
(included above) 
Rb-expobts. 
Electrical goods, &o. 14,085 + 3,816 + 79,321 

Machinery 102,092 - 57,828 - 157,349 

Electrical machinery 712 - 1,531 + 6,027 

(included above) 

Ecuador. — A DwraDLiNO Market. — Machinery and 
apparatus was imported into Ecuador to the value of £220,000 in 
1919 (the latest year for which statistics are available), ai com- 
pared with £106,000 in 1918, and only £97,000 in 1917. It U not 
recorded exactly what share the United Kingdom took in thii 
trade, but it is known that her share in Ecuador's total trade 
dwindled from 25 per cent, in 1917 to nearly as low as 12i per 
cent, in 1919. The Consul-General at Quito says in his recent 
report that although the bulk of the trade of Ecuador has been 
carried on with the United States of America, local importers are 
now inclining towards the establishment of commercial relation* 
with British firms to the exclusion of their American competitors. 
The following are some of the reasons to which this change of 
attitude may be ascribed : — 

1. The high rate of New York exchange comparing unfavourably 
with that ruling for the £ sterling. 

2. The long recognised superiority of British goods. 

3. Increasing tendency on the part of Ecuadoreans to avoid 
dependence in any form — commercial, financial, or political— on 
the United States. 

If British manufacturers are prepared to offer facilities, and at 
least, meet Ecuadorean merchants half way, there is every 
probability of a substantial increase of British imports. 

At present, however, depression prevails owing to excess import- 
ation of manufactures and the poor demand for cocoa, which is 
Ecuador's staple export. 

Waterways and Power Stations.— A joint conference 

of the Cential Association for German Inland Navigation, the 
Main-Danube River Union, and the German-Austrian-Hungarian- 
Swiss Union for Inland Navigation has just been held at Munich 
in connection with the Waterways Exhibition in that city. The 
Prime Minister of Bavaria stated that the question before them was 
to endeavour to realise the long-discussed object of establishing • 
permanent connection between the Rhine and the Danube, the 
North Sea and the Blai;k Sea by means of an adequate navigable 
netwoik for ships up to 1,500 tons. The scheme included the 
erection of 45 power stations, having an annual production of 
2.000,000,000 kWh, which were to be incorporated in the great ring 
of the Bnvarian electricity works, and be of advantage also to 
Baden. Hesse, Wurtemberg, and the districts in Central Germany. 
It was expncted that the revenue from the sale of power wonld 
suffice for the financing of the entire great navigable route. The 
General Minister of Communicatious said that Bavaria entertained 
the idea that the scheme should be carried out on a joint 
economic basis, and he euggcstod that a limited company shonld be 
foimed for the lealisation of ihe project. 

High-Pressure Transmission In France.— The French 

Comp.giiie EiecroMi'Caniq'ie is leportefl to have received an order 
for transfoimirs and aciessury apparatus in oontiection with the 
electriBcation of a p. rt on of thefy^temo' th. Southein Railway Co. 
The tra: soiission is to be at I.")U,i.i(jO volts, which is said lo bo the 
first at this prt^ssure in Eurojie. The i 'i mpagnie Electro-M^ja'.iqoe 
is a licC'iset^ of the Swiss Brown B>iveii (Jo . a> d from Ihe fact of 
its recent ab»orption of the French Westing house Co. is assured of 
the pupport of the American WeKtinghouse Co., as well a«, it is 
stated, of the Metropolitan-Viokers Electrical Co. 

Abolition of Polish Commercial Restrictions.— The 

Jour lire JnduitriiUe learns from Warsaw that the Counoil of 
Ministers has decided to render trade in products free, as from 
September 1st next. — Reuttrt IVade Service (Paris). 



88 



THE ELECTRICAL KEATEW. [voi. 89. No. 2,277, Jul? is, 1921. 



Book Notices.—" The Endneering Index, 19i'0 '' 
(586 pp.). Xewr York : The Amfrican Society of Mechtmical 
Engineers. Price $6. — This is the 19th appearance of an index 
which is compiled from the leading technical journals and the 
" proceedings " of technical societies in all parts of the world. It 
is impossible to indicate properly its very wide scope, but the 
method of arrangement enables the reader to find information on 
practically every branch of science and engineering. The brief 
ritiinitK are adequate guides to the suitability of the articles 
indexed. 

" Kelly's Directory of Merchants, Manufacturers, and Shippers 
of the World." Thirty-fifth annual edition. Two volumes. 6ta. 
net. London : Kelly's Directories, Ltd., 18(1, Strand, W.C. 2. — 
While it is true that these volumes appear, as the preface says, 
during a period of international unsettlement, it is equally true 
that they appear at a time when a host of British trade-seekers 
are eagerly intent on foreign trade expansion. This means that 
they are on the look-out for helps to information which will enable 
them to approach, with a certain measure of confidence that their 
time and money will not be wasted, possible buyers in the various 
overseas markets. New markets have to be- found, and old con- 
nections remade, if we are to find an outlet for the very large 
production of which the industrial millions of these Islands are 
capable. Whether we have representatives abroad or not, we all 
need volumes which contain directory information which can only 
be gathered together efficiently as the result of an experienced 
and well-organised central effort such as has been put forth by the 
compilers of the two bulky volumes that are now before us. 
When it is stated that this edition involved over 600,000 siltera- 
tions in trade references alone, some idea may be gathered of the 
magnitude of the work. The books are largely used in other 
countries of the world, and, in view of the importance of foreign- 
trade activity on our part at this vital stage in onr history, a 
strong effort is this year being made to extend their use at home. 
We hope it will succeed. It certainly should, for, to many traders, 
the volumes are well worth the cost. 

Miscellaneous Publication No. 46 of the U.S. Bureau of 
Standards. '■ War Work of the Bureau of Standards" (229 pp.). 
Washington : (Jovernment Printing Office. Price 70 cents. — In 
this volume is briefly outlined the work carried out by the Bureau 
in a number of directions — chiefly for the military departments. 
Aeronautics occupies a large part of the publication, but practically 
every other science has its place. Teats were carried out on a wide 
range of subjects, from ink to ordnance. 

Technologic Paper No. 186 of the U.S. Bureau of Standards, 
" Oscillograpii Measurements of the Instantaneous 'Values of the 
Current and 'Voltage in the Battery Circuit of Automobiles. ' 
(23 pp.) Washington : Government Printing Office. Price 10 
cents. — This is an account of investigations into the demands upon 
starting and lighting batteries in various types of automobiles. 

"The Metropolitan-Vickera Gazatte, " Vol. VI, No. 99, June, 1921, 
contains illustrated articles on ibe visit of the Crown Prince of 
Japan to the Trafford Park Works, " Breaking Capacity of Oil 
Switches and Circuit Breakers," by W. A. Coates, M.I.E.E., '' Salford 
Electricity Works Extensions,'' &c. 

" Engineering Steels." By L. Aitchison. Pp. xxxii + 396 ; 119 
figs. Loudon : MacDonald 4i Evans. Price 25s. net. 

" Proceedingn of the Physical Society of London." 'Vol. XXXIIl, 
Part 4. June 1.5th, 1921. London : Fleetway Press, Ltd. Price 
6s. net. 

"Power-House Design." By Sir John F. C. Snell. Second 
Edition. Pp. viii I- 536, 20 plates, 201 figs. London : Longmans, 
Green & Co. Price 42s. net. 

Anstralla. — The Australian Customs authorities have 
recently made some amendments in the Customs tariff, amojig 
which may be mentioned the following : — No. 180 (1) (D), filament 
lamps for lighting and heating, British goods, Is. per lb. ; foreign 
38. per lb. ; No. 181 (A) arc lamps, n.e.i. ; covered cable and wire, 
n.e.i., British goods free ; foreign, 15 per cent. ; No. 181 (B), cables 
and wires, cotton covered, British, 25 per cent. ; foreign, 40 par 
cent. 

The Continental Lamp Trade. — Negotiations are reported 
to have been resumed by the Osram Co., of Berlin, with the 
Philips Lamp Co.. of Holland, with a view to reaching an under- 
standing. 

Change ol Address. — On July nth the offices of our 

contemporary The J'JUrtric Uailway and Tramway Journal were 
moved to 37 and 38, Strand, W.C. 2. 

Short Time )n Switzerland. — Swis3 newspapers announce 

that Brown, Boveri A; Cie., of Baden, are reducing the number of 
their clerical staff by 10 percent, and the technical staff by 15 per 
cent. At the same time reductions in wages are taking place in 
accordance with an agreement between the engineering manu- 
facturers and the Metal- Workers' Union. 

A Profit-Sharing Scheme at Work.— The daily Press 

reports that under the profic-shariog scheme of Sir William 
Gray Jc Co., shipbuilders, West Hartlepool, the profit divisible lor 
last year is £31,781, in which over 1,000 workmen participate. 
This is an average of nearly £8 per man. 

Electric Steel Farnace lor Spain.— La Sociedad Espanola 

de Constrnccionea Navalea, of Bilbao, has lately placed a contract 
with the Electric Furnace Construction Co., of I'hiladelphia, 
U.S.A., for the .supply of an electric steel re-heating furnace 
capable of dealing with 60 tons per .'4 hours. 



Number 




egistered 


Capital. 


59 


£481,600 


191 


1,310,990 


233 


4,765,096 


18 


246,200 


190 


2,771,600 


141 


1,016,384 


19 


5,513,500 


3 


621,000 


14 


574,760 


2 


7,000 


3,125 


£52,247,158 



Lead. — Messrs. .Ia^mes Forster & Co;, reporting under 
date July 9th, state : — " A considerable quantity of lead is arriving 
in the next few days, including several hundred tons of Broken 
Hill lead, ' Sulphide ' brand, from Australia, .500 tons ' Perth 
Amboy ' from America, and a large quantity from Spain, all of 
which is earmarked for consumption. The Australian lead is the 
first of any consequence since the strike, and it is singular that this 
shipment must have crossed lead on the way from London to 
Australia, as at least 1,000 tons were shipped in the spring. 

"There has been quite a steady demand from consumers for 
delivery this month and during August. There is. however, very 
little surplus lead about, and a premium of 10s. per ton has been 
freely paid to obtain prompt delivery, but it is expected that the 
arrivals in the near future will ease the position. 

"With labour conditions looking more settled than for a long 
time past, and a steady demand from the trade in prospect, the 
outlook points to less fluctuating markets at roundabout present 
prices." 

Application for Patent Restoration.— An application has 

been made for the restoration of Patent No. 11,11(1, of 1914, 
"Improvements in or relating to electrical reactance coils," and 
Patent of Addition 3,433, of 1915, both of which lapsed on May 6th, 
1918, owing to the non-payment of the prescribed renewal fee. 

The Half-Year's New Companies.— In their list of 

company registrations at Somerset House, between January 1st and 
June SOth, 1921, Messrs. Jordan & Sons, Ltd., include the 
following figures : — _ 

Classes. 

Electric and gas 

Engineers 

Food 

Glass and china 

Iron, brass, &c 

Motors 

Oil 

Railways 

Rubber 

Telephones 

Totals (first half of 1921)... 

Corresponding figures in 1920 ... 6,415 £448,738,316 
It will be observed that there is a great decrease in the number 
of companies registered compared with the corresponding period 
of 1920, a comparison of the huge totals attained during the 
then boom period with the meagre totals attained during the 
present trade slump being indeed remarkable. 

A German-English-American Patent Agreement. — The 

following apparently inspired notice appears in the German news- 
papers : — " Already before the war the Siemens & Halske Co. had 
concluded an agreement with the European companies associated 
with the Western Electric Co. regarding the exchange of patents, the 
object of which was to spare both parties costly legal proceediags, 
and to render possible to each the undisturbed extension ol its 
special system. The war rendered this agreement of no effect. 
Now, however, the agreement — a gratifying indication of the 
coming together of the interested industrial circles — has been 
renewed for a number of years. A similar agreement also existed 
between Siemens & Halske and the Automatic Electric Co., oi 
Chicago ; it has now expired, and its place has been taken by an 
agreement with the International Automatic Telephone Co., which 
is connected with the Automatic Electric Co. It refers to the 
extension and the exchange of patents concerning the Strowger 
automatic telephone system." 

The Engineering Trade Ontlook. — Interviewed by the 

J<'iniuuner, Mr. T. W. How, M.I.Mech.E., chairman of the engineering 
section of the London Chamber of Commerce, said : — " The f.eneral 
impression is that as the labour troubles adjust themselves there 
will be a revival in the engineering trade. It will, however, be 
very gradual at first, but I think it should culminate next year in 
something approaching a boom. The price of engineering com- 
modities will sympathetically recede with decreased working costs. 

" The question of surplus stocks, manufactured under conditions 
of high costs, may, perhaps, present initial difficulties in bringing 
down prevailing prices, but I think there will be a tendency to 
reduce profits and dispose of existing stocks expeditiously in order 
to create room for further production. Once the demand is 
created it is the wisest policy further to stimulate that demand by, 
whenever possible, a aystem of mass production, by which the 
prices of commodities can alone be lowered and thus preserve or 
even strengthen the wage status of the workers. 

" It should not be forgotten, moreover, that in certain branches 
of engineering British workmanship excels, and its greater 
efficiency and durability will always command a higher price than 
that asked by foreign competitors. Taking this into consideration, 
I am of opinion that efforts towards lowering the cost of pro- 
duction muit tend to place British engineering goods on an 
economically sound basis as regards foreign competition. " 

New French Companies. — l^a Socittu des Btabliesements 

Labinal (Piises Detachces de Mi'oanique et Appareils Eleotriqoes) 
is the name of a new company which has lately been formed in 
Paris (29. Rue de Londres), with a capital of 4,000,000 fr. 

La Sociute Hydro- Electriquc du Val-Vernier is the name of anew 
conpany which has lately been formed in Paris (12, Rue Cistez), 
with a capital of 2,000,000 fr. 



Tol. 89. No. 2,277, Jew 15, 1921.] THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. 



A German Scheme for Italy. — The management of the 

Italian Fiat Co., of Turin, lias issued a definite denial of the 
report circulated that the company's works had been practically 
ceded to the Siemens-Schuokert Co., and that the latter had 
acquired 100,000 shares in the company with the object of its 
inclusion in the Siemens-Rhine-Elbe-Sohuckert Union. What has 
really happened, it is explained, is that the German company last 
year songht to obtain possession of one of the Fiat departments 
for the construction of electric locomotives, and the nesotiations, 
after interruption, were resumed recently. However, the Italian 
company found it impossible for the scheme to be retiliaed at 
present, and on the same day as the report of the aliened 
cession was published at Rome, the German company caused a letter 
to be delivered to the Fiat company renouncing any further negotia- 
tions in the matter. 

New Works in Aastralla. — The new works built at 

Waratah by John Lysaght (Australia), Ltd., for the manufacture 
of galvanised iron have, with their plant, cost over £250,000. 
They occupy 28 acres, and will produce 600 tons of galvanised iron 
per month. The employes number 225, and the wage bill is £1,400 
perweek. The company has built 64 cottages at a cost of £57,600, 
and the men may become owners of them on a 5| per cent, rent 
purchase basis. The electrical installation at the works generates 
at 6,600 volts alternating, and the machinery is all driven by d.c. 
motors, 



LIGHTING AND POWER NOTES. 



Aberdeen. — Extension of Supply. — The Corporation 
electrical engineer has been authorised to enter into an agreement 
with the village of Dyce for the lighting of streets. The terms are 
similar to those fixed by the Corporation for the village of Stoney- 
wood, five miles from the Corporation electricity works. 

Australia. — Melbourne. — Year's Working. — The 

reports of the City Electric Supply Committee and electrical 
engineer for the year ended December 31st, 1920, have just come 
to hand. The accounts show a total revenue from all sources of 
£303,589, as against £240,081 in the previous year. The total 
working expenditure was £187,3J9, as compared with £13'i,854 
in 1919. The gross profit was thus £116.250, as against £105,227. 
Capital charges and other expen.ses not chargeable to revenue 
account absorbed £77,273 (£30,492'), leaving a net profit of 
£38,977, an increase of £8,48 i. After contributing to town funds, 
a balance of £12,254 is carried forward. The total number of 
units sold rose from 33,113,841 to 41,954,531, an increase of 26'" 
per cent. The maximum simultaneous load was about 18,300 kW. 
St. Geoboe (N.S.W.).— The St. George County Council has 
arranged a loan of £100,000 at 5 per cent, per annum for the pur- 
pose of carrying out an electricity supply scheme. The scheme pro- 
vides for the lighting of 400 miles of streets, with over 2,000 
street lights. The electricity will be supplied in bulk by the Rail- 
way Commissioners from the Ilia warra power house, and the County 
Council will undertake the distribution to private consumers. 
Tenders are being invited for the work, receivable during July, and 
it is expected the work will be put in hand early in August. — 
Meuter'': I'rade Sen- ice (Melbourne). 

Barrow. — Year's Working The recently published 

report of the borough electrical engineer for the year ended March 
31st last, recordsatotalrevenueof £87,068, as compared with £69,147 
in the previous year. Working expenses amounted to £(>8,6(i3 as 
compared with £46,368 in 1910-20, leaving a gross working 
balance of £18,405, as against £12,779. Capital charges absorbed 
£20,944, causing a net deficit of £2,539, which, however, compares 
favourably with the deficit of £4,488 upon the working for the 
preceding year. Large increases occurred in the number of units 
sold, and in the maximum demand ; the former rose from 6,648,423, 
to 9,282,017, and the latter from 3 200 kW to 1,525 kW. The load 
factor (23'42 per cent.) represented a decline, and was the lowest 
for the last six years. The average price obtained per unit 
increased from 2123d. to 2'218d. 

Blackburn. — Proposed Tariff Alteration?. —The 

electrical engineer (Mr. P. P. Wheelwright), in his annual 
report, says : — " I have given careful consideration to the question 
whether an alteration in the method of charging would encourage 
consumption, and have come to the coDclusion that this question 
would repay consideration. At the present time, many house- 
holders are considering the installation of electrical appliances for 
domestic purposes, and are beicg irnshed by enterprising manu- 
facturers and dealers. Owing to me system by which the charge 
for lighting is kept distinct from that for power, separate con- 
nections have to be made, wh'ch is a real obstacle to this develop- 
ment. Schemes of charging have been proposed which avoid the 
difficulty, and I shall be glad if the committee will instruct me 
to report specially on the subject for their consideration." 

Bradford. — Demokstiiations for Cok.<dmers. — I'nder 

the scheme for development of the use of electricity for domestic 
purposes at Idle and Thackley, the Bradford Electricity Department 
has opened a temporary showroom at the Old Chapel, Town Gate, 
Idle. In this connection, and for purposes of general domestic 
dev^opment, demonstrations and lectures on the use of all classes 
of electric appliances in the home have been given at the Idle show- 
room, from July 4th to 8th, and at the city showrooms from July 
11th to 15th, by Mrs. Reynolds, of the Western Electric Co., Ltd. 



Brentwood. — Eleitric Lighting < laoER.— The I'.rejit- 

wood District Electric Co., Ltd., has applied for the Coancil's 
consent to the granting of an order to supply electricity for public 
and private purposes within the area, including the urban district. 
The matter has been referred to a Committee. 

Chester-le-Street. — Loan Sanctioned. — The Urban 

District Council has received sanction to borrow £4,000 in con- 
nection with the electric lighting scheme. 

Continental. — France. — T/ip Times states that the 
Asnicres power station, which supplies the north-western aubnrbi 
of Paris, was destroyed by fire on July 8th. 

Cookham. — Electric T-ighting Order. — Mr. H. Finder 

Brown, who is applying for powers to supply electricity to Cookham, 
has asked for the support of the Rural District Council. The 
matter is to be considered at a future meeting of the Council. 

G Iff nock.— Electricity Supply.— The Clyde Valley 
Electric Power Co. has acquired a site for a sub-station, and work 
is to be cimmenced shortly in connection with the supply of elec- 
tricity to Giffnock. 

Glasgow.— Electricity and Gas for Houses. — In a 

report to the Corporation, the electrical engineer thinks that the 
best way of dealing with the new housing schemes would be to 
allot one area to the electricity department, and another to the gas 
department to save duplication of mains and services. If this 
were done he estimates that electricity could be supplied at a rate 
of 2s. per week, plus id. per unit consumed. He suggests that each 
electric house should have one coal fire for the provision of hot 
water for the whole of the house, and points out that the saving 
effected in construction would cover the cost of the electrical 
installations. 

Sinking Fund. — It was recently reported that the Electricity 
Commissioners had intimated that they were prepared to sanction 
the borrowing of the £1,800,COU desired by the Corporation, on 
condition that the sum to be set aside for sinking fund be 4 per 
cent, per annum on the amount borrowed, and without any stipula- 
tion as to depreciation. This was agreed to. 

Godalmlng. — Increased Minimum for Public 
Lighting. — At its meeting on June 28th, the Town Council 
approved an application from the Urban Electric Supply Co. to 
permit an increased minimum of £1,000 to be charged, in place of 
the present minimum of £600. This is equivalent to a charge for 
16,000 units. 

Hoylake, — Loan. — The Hoylake and West Kirby 
CouncU has applied for sanction to borrow £ 1,000 for mains, services, 
and tranformers. 

Hnddersfield. — Area Moiufication. — The Corporation 
is applying to the Electricity Commissioners for an amendment of 
the proposed area of supply under the Hnddersfield (Extension to 
Kirkheaton, &c.), Special Order, by the inclusion of the nrbin 
district of Marsden. 

Kltkcaldy. — Year's Working. — The annual report for 

the year 1920-21 of the electricity department records a total 
income of £40,727, as against £32.221 in the previous year. The 
total working expenditure was £34,914, as compared with £25,223, 
leaving a gross profit of £5,813 (£6,998). The net result, after 
payment of capital charges, was a deficit of £988. In the preceding 
year there was a net profit of £841. The total number of units 
fold was £3,78."i,.")44, and the average price obtained 2'r)78d. ; the 
figures for 1919-20 were 3,178,397 and 2'429d. 

Leeds. — Effects of Coal Dispute. — In a report upon 
the effects of the miners' strike, the manager of the Corporation 
electricity department estimates that the total loss during the 
whole period amounted to about £18,5C0. This waa brought about 
to the extent of £16,250 by the high price of the "emersency" 
coal ; the price averaged 52s. 6d. per ton, as against the pre- 
strike rate of 20s. 

Leominster. — Supply kroji Hereford. — With reirard 

to the supply of electricity to the town of Leominster, by the 
Corporation of Hereford, the Leominster Town CouncU last week 
appointed a deputation to discuss the question with the Hereford 
Council and electrical engineer at a special meeting. 

Liverpool. — Bulk Supply. — The Electricity Commit) ee 
recommends that an application be maile to the Electricity 
Commissioners for an order to enable a supply of electrioiiy 
in bulk to be given by the Corporation to the Liverpool Disttiit 
Lighting Co., Ltd., and to authorise the laying of any mains or 
works in the City of Liverpool, the Borough of Bootle, the I'rbau 
District of Litherland, and the Urban District of Waterloo- with- 
Seaforth, which may be necessary to enable the supply to be given. 

London. — Hampstead. — The UorouL'h Council has under 
consideration the cessation of generating its own electricity, and 
the conversion of the station to deal with a bulk supply. 

It is reported that sanction to borrow £38,693, for works in 
connection with the St. Jlarylebone bulk supply has been received 
from the Electricity Commissioners. 

County cm' London Co.'s Bill— On Monday, the Bill was real a 
second time in the House of Commons, after a division. An 
attempt waa made to block its progress, on the ground that it 
should wait until the Electricity Commifsioners had concluded the 
inquiry which is now in progress, and made an order. Mr. Neal, 



90 



THE ELECTRICAL REVIEW. [vei. 89. No. 2,277, jttlt ib, i9si. 



Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Transport, stated that 
the Commiggioners had an open mind on the question. 

Woolwich. — The Boroaph Council has approved a recommenda- 
tion of the Hectricity Committee to apply for sanction to borrow 
£38,500 for the following purposes :— Mains, £9,500 ; services, 
£8 000; meters, £8,000; hire rentals, £1,600; and hire purchase, 
£1,600. 

Manchester. — Bulk Sopplt. — The Electricity Com- 
mittee rfcommenda the sealing of an agrfement with the Sale 
Urbin District Cooncil for the supply of electricity in bulk to that 
district. 

Newcastle-nnder-Lyme. — Yeab's Working. — The 

following are the results of working for the year ended March 3 let 
iMt of the Corporation electricity undeitiking (last year's figures 
are given in parentheses) :— Total revenue. £7,8 IB (£r,.28.3) ; 
working expenses, £.".,295 (£4,07S) ; gross prodt, £2.521 C£2,207) ; 
net profit, £24 (£414). The total number of units sold rose from 
264,039 to 303,145. Oil and gas fuel are used in this station, and 
part of the supply is bought in bulk. 

New Zealand, — Auckland.— The Minister for Public 

Works, Hon. J. G. Coates, said recently that the decision as to 
which hydro-electric power scheme should be first developed iu the 
Auckland Provinceno w depsnded upon the investigations as to which 
proposal would be the best economically — Arapuni, with the new dam 
proposal, Aratiatia, or two other smaller schemes. The experts 
would work ont the cost of transmission lines and construction 
work, and the way would then be prepared for a decision. One 
advantage possessed by Aratiatia, which was mentioned in the 
report, but was not generally appreciated, was that it could be 
developed gradually and yet economioally. Arapuni, on the other 
hand, would not be really payable until they had a Iprge develop- 
ment—say, about 40,000 h.p.—Atir/tland Weelihj Xews. 

Peterborongh. — Loan. — The Electricity Committee 
recommends application for permission to borrow £8,776 for the 
provision of low-pressure mains and feeders. 

Richmond.— Price Increase Piefusbd. — The Town 

Council has refused to allow the Richmond Electric Light Co. to 
increase its charges. It was stated that the average dividend of 
the company was 4i per cent. 

Rochdale. — Year's Working. — The 1920-21 accoants 

of the Corporation electricity department show that the total 
income was £151.959 and the working expenses £105,212, leaving 
a gross profit of £46,747. After payment of interest and sinking 
fund charges £28,744, war bonus £1,895, a total of £30,639, less 
other receipts of £79, there remained a net profit of £16,187, as 
against £14,321 in the previous ypar. Of this amount, £7,000 
was transferred in aid of the rates, and the balance to the reserve 
fund. The prices charged for electricity supplied for purposes 
other than lighting were further increased during the year, and 
became operative in the March quirter. The amount standing 
to the credit of the sinking fund is £ti:i,250, an increase of 
£12,783. 

Loan Sanctioned.— The Corporation has received the sanction 
of the Electricity Commitsioners to the Ixirrowing of £77,132 for 
work in connection with the electricity undertaking. 

Sheffield.— German Plant.— The Corporation's proposal 
to buy Uerman electrical plant will receive widespread criticism, 
bnt it has no op ion. It requires a new 10,000-kW generating 
plant. The Amsterdam Coipjration can supply this plant, of 
German manufa ture, for £49,9 >0. The lowest British qujtat on 
waa between £90 00 ) and £ luo.OOO. Th^re was a qaotition from 
Sw