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Full text of "An encyclopaedia of Hindu architecture"

J 



KURT L. SCHWARZ 



AN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



OF 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



FRONTISPIECE 




SVASTIKA MANSION (FRONT VIEW) 



AN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

OF 

HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



BY 

PRASANNA KUMAR ACHARYA, I.E.S. 

M.A. (CAL.), PH.D. (LEYDEN), D.LIT. (LONDON) 

HEAD OF THE ORIENTAL DEPARTMENTS 

PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT, UNIVERSITY 

OF ALLAHABAD 




MANASARA SERIES : VOLUME VII 



PUBLISHED BY THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
LONDON, NEW YORK, BOMBAY 
CALCUTTA. MADRAS 
CHINA, JAPAN 



/V/) 



ft* 



PBINTBD BY THE SUPBPfNTENDBNT, PBINTINO AND STATIONERY, U. P., ALLAHABAD, INDIA 



LIBRARY 

747610 

.UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



' What the learned world demand 
of us in India is to be quite 
certain of our data, to place the 
monumental record before them 
exactly as it now exists, and to in- 
terpret it faithfully and literally.' 



MANASARA SERIES 

VOLUME I A Dictionary of Hindu Architecture ( 1927). 

VOLUME II Indian Architecture according to Mdnasdra Silpd- 
Sdstra (1927). 

VOLUME III Mdnasdra Sanskrit Text with Critical Notes (1934). 

VOLUME IV Architecture of Mdnasdra Translation in English 
(i934)- 

VOLUME V Architecture of Mdnasdra Plates i-cxxxv (Architec- 
tural), GXXXVI-CLVII (Sculptural) (1934). 

VOLUME VI Hindu Architecture in India and Abroad (1946). 
VOLUME VII An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Architecture (1946). 






FOREWORD 

THIS is the seventh and the last volume of the Mdnasdra series so far 
as the present writer is concerned. A few more volumes are, however, 
required to complete the work. Those new volumes will have to 
deal with the practical conclusions and workable plans and designs. 
This remaining work will involve an additional expenditure and an 
engineering study and draughtsmen's survey, estimate, calculations 
and comparisons with the few extant structures referred to in the 
writer's sixth volume, the Hindu Architecture in India and Abroad. In 
fulfilment of the fateful prediction of the late Professor E. J. Rapson 
of Cambridge University, the whole of the official career of the pre- 
sent writer commencing from the eventful year of 1914 has been fully 
occupied in preparing and seeing through press some 5,000 pages 
of these seven volumes. As the decree of fate would have it the war 
of 1914-18 caused from the very beginning of this task all possible 
interruption, risk and inconvenience while the work was carried out 
in London, Oxford, Cambridge, and Leyden. The difficult Indian 
conditions presented the familiar dilemma either to give up the self- 
imposed task altogether as is usually done by us after securing a degree 
and an appointment to a permanent post, or to carry it through, with- 
out much encouragement and assistance from any quarter, shoulder- 
ing in addition to the peculiar duties of an occasionally unfortunate 
Professor of an Indian University the heavy burden of research. 
The unusual exigencies of the reconstructed Allahabad University 
demanded of the writer preparation and delivery of lectures to 
B. A., M. A., and Research classes up to 30 times per week and 
never less than 18, and also to do the departmental administration, 
and the routine work of various committees and examinations. 

Contrary to the Sadler Committee's policy recommended for the 
new type of Indian Universities research activities even for the 
professors of the highest rank became practically of no importance, 
the teaching and social activities, as in schools and colleges, being 
much better appreciated by the authorities. Thus for instance our 
autonomous University considered it a useless waste of public funds 
to include a few pages in its annual report in order to give publi- 
city to the mere titles of papers and books written and published 
by their teachers. Our non-interfering Government authorities also 
ceased to take any notice of their own servants who were sent on 
' foreign service,' or rather banished to the universities. 

ix 



FOREWORD AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The great educationist Governor, late Sir Harcourt Butler, 
sanctioned the cost of publication of these volumes to be advanced 
from the public funds before the delegation of the writer to the 
Allahabad University. But he left to Sir Claude de la Fosse, who 
was the first Vice-Chancellor of the reconstructed Allahabad Univer- 
sity for a few months, to settle the terms of the publications includ- 
ing the author's royalty and reward. Sir Harcourt was sorry to 
learn of the changes which had taken place since his retirement from 
India and was ' shocked ' when he was told in London in 1933 that 
an Indian successor of Sir Claude, as the Head of the Education 
Department of the Government, actually questioned in an official 
correspondence ' the public importance of printing Indian Architec- 
tural researches.' 

The commitment of his predecessor had, however, to be carried out, 
and the Government, at the suggestion of again an Indian Adviser 
to the Governor, have since decided that after the realization of 
the full sum of money advanced by the Government for the cost of 
printing and publishing through the Oxford University Press, the 
further sale-proceeds, if there be any, will go to the successors of the 
writer. This is certainly a business arrangement. But the question 
of profits was not unfortunately considered when the first five 
volumes were published, for, the first two volumes published in 1927 
actually gave a small profit to the Government of Rs.$oo to .5.400 
despite the fact that only 250 copies were then published for circula- 
tion among scholars and that the prices of those volumes were fixed 
not as a business proposition, but merely to realize the cost of publica- 
tion. 

Naturally under such circumstances one would not feel encouraged 
to put in further labour and incur enormous expenditure, which are 
needed for the preparation of the remaining volumes and completion 
of the series. And there is not much hope either that the Govern- 
ments and the various corporations, municipal boards, and other 
authorities who sanction the plan of a private building or erect a public 
structure will interest themselves in introducing an Indian policy 
in architecture until the new order following the present devastating 
war comes into being and until the new nations are able to 
rebuild and repair the rackless destruction. In the pre-war and 
peaceful times, however, facilities were freely provided by the State, 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE FOREWORD 

especially in the big European and American cities like London, 
Leyden, Paris, Berlin, Rome, Washington, New York, etc., to hold 
extramural evening classes and deliver popular lectures on architec- 
ture. Cities like Milan used to hold perpetual exhibition of 
model houses in order to educate the public in the construction of 
suitable dwellings. Perhaps a time will come even in countries like 
India, when it may be considered barbarous to question ' the public 
importance of architectural researches.' The common sense of civiliz- 
ed and progressive peoples has recognized that residential buildings 
are more important in some respects than even food and clothes. It 
is well known that among the amenities of life, houses afford in a 
large degree not only comfort and convenience but also health and 
longevity of life, safety, and security. Nomads are not considered 
civilized ; they are not attached to any locality ; they have no fixed 
hearth and home ; they are not inclined to spend their fortune in 
erecting dignified edifices, everlasting ancestral residences, memorials, 
monuments, temples, churches, mosques, mausoleums, towers of 
silence, monasteries and pagodas. The art and culture of a people 
are reflected and preserved in such monuments. They sustain and 
stimulate national pride. Thus the architectural structures differ in 
various countries to suit their economic and climatic conditions, 
weather and soil, taste and aspiration, and material, moral and 
spiritual progress. It is, therefore, necessary to settle the architectural 
policy of each country in its own way. For India no better 
authority containing the experience of generations and experiments 
of centuries will ever be available than what is revealed by the 
Mdnasdra series. 

Apart from supplying cultural and historical information these 
volumes contain a key which when understood may help the tackling 
of Indian housing problems. It has been shewn and recognized by 
discerning authorities that whatever elements have been introduced 
to India by the Persians, Moghals, Pathans, and the Europeans, have 
failed to suit the Indian climatic and soil conditions. Neither the 
desert houses of Arabia nor the rain-coats and the snow covers of Euro- 
pean countries can ever suit the peculiar conditions of India. Ex- 
perience of generations and experiments of centuries are contained in 
our Vdstu-sdstras (science of architecture). Like the Indian dietary 
of predominantly vegetarian dishes and Indian clothes of loose types, 

xi 



FOREWORD AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Indian houses of our Sastra (scientific) styles are naturally more 
suitable for us. A wide dissemination of an accurate knowledge of 
true Indian architecture as revealed for the first time in these volumes 
must be the first step of the housing reform in India. 

The present volume is a revised and enlarged edition of the writer's 
Dictionary of Hindu Architecture which was published in 1927, without 
any plates. Its change of title to An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Architecture 
was originally suggested to the London University and missed by 
several learned scholars. A respected one 1 commented in his 
review of the Dictionary on this point very strongly : ' The Dictionary 
is a book which is so well done that it appears to be no exaggeration 
to say that for many decades it cannot be improved upon unless, of 
course, the South reveals to us more hidden treasures. If there is 
anything to object to, it is the tide of the book, which does less than 
justice to it. ''Encyclopaedia" would be a fitter title. The term 
'' Dictionary " is associated in our minds with word-meanings, while 
Dr. Acharya's work is very much more than '' word- meaning." Each 
term is followed by its meanings, mostly technical, an exhaustive 
account of the subject, and references to standard works of a wide 
range of literature. Thus, it will be seen, the work deserves a 
better title than " Dictionary." In fact Dr. Acharya himself suggested 
to the London University the compiling of "An Encyclopaedia of 
Hindu Architecture," and it appears to have been a mere freak of 
fortune that when the University decided to entrust the learned 
Doctor with the work of compiling, they chose the term " Dictionary." 
.They appear to have been led to do this by the nature of the usual run 
of work done by modern scholars who hi many cases have the, 
unhappy knack of " shirking work "; but in being led away by the 
prejudice, the University were unfair to their alumnus, who has, by this 
work, more than justified the title that he had himself suggested. 
. . . It is a matter of special gratification to us of the Allahabad 
University that we have at the head of our Sanskrit Department a 
scholar capable of doing work which, as a monument of industry 
and patience, compares favourably with the best of that class of 
scholarly work which has liitherto been regarded as German.""* 

1 Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Sir Ganganatha Jha, Indian Review, March, 1928. 

For similar comments by several other Reviewers, please see the concluding 
appendix of this volume and also pp. IA to IIA of the writer's Architecture of 
Manasnra (Volume IV of the Manasara Series). 

xU 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE FOREWORD 

The distinguished artist, Dr. Abanindra Nath Tagore, C.I.E., 
observes also that the Dictionary is ' in the nature of an Encyclopaedia 
embracing all the existing treatises on Indian art. He (the author] 
has herein presented before us all the information that so long lay 
hidden and scattered all over the world ... it may be appro- 
priately called the Mahdbhdrata of the literature on Indian art, for, 
in it we find all that there is to know about Indian art. . . . 
Hitherto it has been extremely difficult to be able to read all the con- 
nected literature that is to be found in libraries whether in India or- 
outside. Everyone of us does not know the language in which the 
treatises are written. Moreover, most of the original texts are preserved 
in distant lands. In the circumstances, a volume of this nature, 
written in English and containing as perfect a compendium as is 
possible, of all the existing treatises on art, came to be a necessity, not 
only for us but for foreign artists as well. ... I cannot adequately 
express the extent to which I shall be able to make use of it . . . 
and the profit which my pupils will derive from it.' l 

' Students of Indian architecture should be grateful to him (author] 
for accomplishing with such thoroughness a task which has been long 
overdue, and which must have entailed a tremendous amount of 
patient and often disinteresting work, in a number of different lan- 
guages. The Dictionary of Hindu Architecture contains all the architec- 
tural terms used in the Mdnasdra and in the known Vdstu-$dstras, 
published inscriptions and other archaeological records with full 
references and explanations.' 2 

' Professor Acharya's Dictionary of Hindu Architecture is a monumen- 
tal work, the first of its kind. It deals with three thousand words 
relating to architecture and sculpture and cognate arts. Under each 
term is brought together all the necessary information in the form of a 
short article illustrated with copious quotations from the ancient 
printed books, as well as manuscripts, the general literature and the 
archaeological records. And this has been done with a thoroughness 
and accuracy which are the author's own. Full quotations for 
bringing out each and every shade of the meaning of a word are 

' Translated by Mr. B. N. Lahiri, M.A., I.P., from the Pravasi, April, 1928. 
2 The Times Literary Supplement, May 31, 1928. 

xiii 



FOREWORD AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

given. In effect the Dictionary becomes more of an Encyclopaedia 
rather than a dictionary.' 1 

In consideration of such comments and in view of the fact tbat 
illustrative plates containing measured drawings and photographs 
have been added, the Government and the Oxford University Press 
have agreed to the present title. But ' the freak of fortune ' truly 
designated by Sir Ganganatha has continued to the very end in other 
respects as referred to in the opening paragraphs and mentioned 
later on. 

The prediction that ' for many decades it cannot be improved upon' 
has also proved literally true. ' No hidden treasures ' have been 
revealed in any quarter. All the new publications including all 
archaeological explorations and reports which came out between 
1928 and 1943 have been closely searched. The very extensive 
volumes, reports, and explorations relating to Central Asia which have 
been largely due to Sir Aurel Stein, as well as the voluminous publica- 
tions of the Dutch, the French and lately of the Indian scholars 
relating to the Far East and Insulindia have also been patiently gone 
through. 2 But not many new ' terms ' have been discovered. The 
new terms added in this volume will be hardly one or two per cent, 
of the original list. But a number of new ' articles ' under the old and 
the new terms have been added. Articles like the playhouse (under 
RANGA) and Svastika symbol, etc., contain all information which is at 
present available. Articles on fine arts (under KALA) and Indo- 
Persian Architecture, and Maya Architecture of Central America, 
etc., are also new. 3 

Thus although the matter has largely increased, Lt.-Col. D. W. 
Crighton decided to reduce the unwieldy bulk of the volume by the 
device of smaller types, larger pages, and closer printing, which, it 
is hoped, will not cause any inconvenience to the readers. Colonel 
Crighton and Mr. M. G. Shome, his successor, as the Superin- 
tendent of Government Press, have endeavoured to produce a faultless 
volume comparable with the best of European publications. 

1 The Pioneer, February 13, 1928. 

See further reference to these works under " Sources " in the Preface which 
follows this Foreword (pp. xvii-xviii) and also the Bibliography, pp. 679-84. 

s Another additional and very expensive effort, which is not directly concerned 
with the present volume, has been made in erecting a residential house for a demons- 
tration, the result of which is elaborated in the Preface of Volume VI (Hindu Archi- 
tecture in India and Abroad}. 

xiv 



HMDU ARCHITECTURE FOREWORD 

The original plan and scope as well as the ideal and general method 
followed in the Dictionary l have been retained in this Encyclopaedia 
also. 2 

What remains to be added refers to further instances of the ' freak 
of fortune.' Under the war conditions of 1914-18 the work was 
commenced and under the present devastating war conditions it is 
completed. Among various other disappointments it is painful to 
recall that in April, 1939, Lt.-Col. D. W. Crighton took to England 
about 250 pages manuscripts of the present volume and after the 
declaration of the war in the fateful month of September, the Colonel 
wrote that he would send back the manuscripts together with his sug- 
gestions for printing. His suggestions were received and have been 
followed but the original manuscripts never came back. They had 
to be prepared again with all the annoyance and labour involved in 
such a process. Some of the new entries and additions and altera- 
tions made in the missing pages during the past twelve years may 
have been, however, lost altogether. Those who work along this line 
may share the writer's disappointment and will recognize the fact 
that it is hardly possible for a writer to rc-writc an article in the 
same spirit, with the same fulness and satisfaction as at the first 
inspiration. 

Another unfortunate incident alluded to in the Preface refers to 
the eye-trouble which started as the result of a very close examination 
and decipherment for several years of a huge quantity of very badly 
preserved old manuscripts on ' Silpa-sastras written in five different 
scripts, and of some 50,000 lines of inscriptions.' Over and above this 
the eyes were severely exercised by the reading of three proofs of 
some 5,000 pages of these seven volumes, of which not only every 
word but also every letter and every line thereof had to be minutely 
scrutinized at least three times each. All this strain for the past 
thirty years aggravated the ailment to such an extent that the 
proofs of this last volume had to be read, despite medical advice, with 
one eye only, the other being unserviceable and requiring a risky 
and expensive operation which had to be postponed with a view to 
completing this work. 

1 See pp. x-xii. 2 For details, see pp. xx-xxii. 

XV 



FOREWORD AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

I take this occasion to record my most respectful thanks to 
the Government of the United Provinces for generously advancing the 
cost of publication of all die seven volumes. My respectful acknowl- 
edgments are also due to the Government of India, especially to the 
Department of Archaeology whose Directors General and Provincial 
Superintendents very generously supplied all the necessary photo- 
graphs of the extant monuments and reprints from the Government 
publications. I also take this opportunity to express my indebtedness 
to the Governments of Siam, Netherlands (Java and Sumatra), and 
French Indo-China for supply of photographic views of Indian 
monuments in Insulinclia and for permission to reprint certain plates 
from their official publications. Mr. S. G. Mukerjee, B.A., C.D., A.R.C., 
A.I.I.A., and his draughtsmen have supplied all the measured drawings 
and the plates for the illustration of certain objects of which no extant 
examples are available. These drawings and plates had to be pre- 
pared from the description found in the texts and required great skill 
in representation. Thus they have earned my gratitude. 

Lt.-Col. D. W. Crighton, and, after his ictirement, his successor, 
as the Superintendent of the Government Printing and Stationery, 
Mr. M. G. Shome, and their staff have endeavoured to produce 
a faultless volume. Colonel Grigh ton's plan and arrangement 
of the matter has been strictly followed. In his great wisdom he 
cast the new types for the last two volumes of the series and 
stocked the required amount of paper excepting those for plates 
before the war of 1939 was declared. I shall always remain 
grateful to Colonel Crighton, Mr. Shome and their staff for all they 
have done to bring out these volumes and to mitigate my drudgery 
for more than a quarter of a century during which these volumes 
passed through the Press. 

My thanks are due to Mr. M. S. Sharma, M.A.,L.T., who assisted me 
substantially in preparing the Index of the modern architectural 
terms as translated in the body of the work together with their 
Sanskrit equivalents. 

I am also thankful to Mr. M. G. Nayar, Senior Reader of 
the Government Press, for arranging the plates and the final 
revision of the last proof. 

P. K. ACHARYA. 
ALLAHABAD UNIVERSITY : 

April, 1944-46. 

xvi 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 

Origin and scope of the work This Dictionary (encyclopaedia) owes its 
name to the University of London. 1 A glossary of the architectural 
terms used in the Mdnasdra, the standard work on Hindu architecture, 
was prepared for my private use when I found it indispensable, 
after struggling for two and a half years to edit for the first time and 
translate into English a text, which is written in five different scripts, 3 
possesses eleven badly preserved manuscripts, has undergone five 
recensions, and comprises more than 10,000 lines of a language 
rightly remarked by Dr. Biihler as the { most barbarous Sanskrit.' 3 
In this connexion there arose an occasion for me to express to the 
University the opinion that an encyclopaedia of Hindu architecture 
was badly needed. Architectural expressions appear throughout 
the whole field of general Sanskrit literature and epigraphical 
records, as well as in the extensive special branch of literature 
known as Vdstu-Sdstras, more familiarly called Silpa-fdstras. Existing 
dictionaries, in Sanskrit, English or any other language, do not 
elucidate architectural expressions ; and the texts of the Vdstu- 
fdstras have been waiting for hundreds of years to be unearthed 
from manuscripts which are quite inaccessible without the guidance 
of a special dictionary that would also be instrumental in bringing 
to light many new things hitherto left unexplained in inscriptions 
and general literature. The University selected me as the person 
most immediately concerned and entrusted me with the task, 
suggesting that I should ' make a full " dictionary " of all architec- 
tural terms used in the Mdnasdra, with explanations in English, 
and illustrative quotations from cognate literature where available 
for the purpose.' 

Thus the terms included in this encyclopaedia are primarily those 
found in the Mdnasdra. But all the new architectural terms of 

1 It has developed out of a Thesis, which was accepted by the University for 
the D. Lit. degree. See the Foreword for the change of title to ' Encyclopaedia.' 

8 Grantha, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Nagari. 

* Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 377 ; compare also Sir R. G. Bhandarkar, Ind. Ant., Vol. 
XII, pp. 140, 141. 

xvij 



PREFACE AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

any importance discovered in all the known architectural treatises, 
epigraphical documents, and general literature have also been 
added. I should estimate the new terms at about one-fourth of the 
total, numbering approximately three thousand. 1 No record has, 
however, been kept of the extent of the architectural manuscripts 
or the general literature searched, but some 50,000 pages of 
archaeological documents have been gone through almost line by 
line. 

Extent of architectural terms comprehended In the Vdstu-sastras 
architecture is taken in its broadest sense and implies what is built 
or constructed in lasting materials and with a design and an 
ornamental finis. Thus, in the first place, it denotes all sorts of 
buildings, religious, residential and military, and their auxiliary 
members and component mouldings. Secondly, it implies town- 
planning ; laying out gardens ; constructing market places ; making 
roads, bridges, gates ; digging wells, tanks, trenches, drains, sewers, 
moats ; building enclosure walls, embankments, dams, railings, 
ghats, flights of steps for hills, ladders, etc. Thirdly, it denotes 
articles of house furniture, such as bedsteads, couches, tables, chairs, 
thrones, fans, wardrobes, clocks, baskets, conveyances, cages, nests, 
mills, etc. 

Architecture also implies sculpture, and deals with the making 
of phalli, idols of deities, statues of sages, images of animals and 
birds. It includes the making of garments and ornaments, etc. 

Architecture is also concerned with such preliminary matters 
as the selection of site, testing of soil, planning, designing, finding 
out cardinal points by means of a gnomon, dialling ; and astrono- 
mical and astrological calculations. 

These and similar matters are expressed by technical names 
which are to be understood as architectural terms for the purpose 
of this dictionary (encyclopaedia). 

Principal sources and arrangement of materials The sources drawn 
upon in this compilation may be classified under two divisions, 
namely, literary and archaeological. The former includes all the 
known Vdstu-sdstras, mostly in manuscript, which are avowedly 
architectural treatises, such as the Mdnasdra, etc. ; architectural 

See the Foreword for a reference to the further additional terms discovered 
since 1928 and incorporated in this volume. 

xvjii 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PREFACE 

portions of the Agamas, and the Purdnas, cognate portions of the 
Vedic and classical literature, such as the Brdhmanas, the Sutras, 
the Epics, Kdvyas, dramas, etc. The archaeological records 
comprise all the inscriptions and other cognate matters published 
in the following series : Epigraphia Indica (first 1 3 volumes) ; Indian 
Antiquary (fiist 44 volumes) ; Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum (2 
volumes) ; Epigraphia Carnatica (12 volumes, in 15 parts) ; South 
Indian Inscriptions of Dr. E. Hultzsch, late Rai Bahadur V. 
Venkayya, and Rao Sahib H. Krishna Sastri (3 volumes, in 8 
parts) ; General Sir A. Cunningham's Archaeological Survey Reports 
(23 volumes) ; Archaeological Survey, New Imperial Series (Vols. IV, 
XI, XII, XVIII, XXI, XXIII, XXIV, XXXIII, XXXIV) ; 
and Mysore Archaeological Survey Reports (Vols. I, II, III), [Serindia, 
by Sir Aurel Stein ; Report on Archaeological Tour with 
Bunar Field Force (1900), by Stein ; Ancient Khotan (Vols. I, II), 
by Stein, Ville de Khotan, by Remusat ; L'Art de Gandhara, 
by M. Foucher ; Notes Chinoise, by M. S. Levi ; Fa-hien's Travels, 
by Legge ; Asiatic Researches (Vols. I XIV) ; Marco Polo (Vols. I, 
II), by Yule ; Ancient Colonies in the Far East, by R. C. Mazumdar ; 
History of Siam, by Wood ; History of Burma, by Phare ; Inventaire 
Descriptif des Monuments Chams de L'Annam (Vols. I, II), by 
M. H. Parmentier ; Cambodge (Vols. I, II, III), by E. Aymonier ; 
Le Cambodge, by M. L. Delaparte ; Java and Her Neighbours, by 
A. S. Walcott ; De Sutrantraasche Period der Javansche Geschiedenis 
(1922), by Krom ; Bijdragen tot-de Taal-Land en Volken-Kunde 
van Nederlandsche Indie (1918); Buddhist Records, translated by 
Bill ; History of Art in Persia, by Perrot and Chipiez ; Etudes 
Iraniennes, by Darmesteter ; Scritores rerum Alexandri Magni, 
by C. Miiller ; Architectural Remains : Anuradhapur (Ceylon), by 
Smitter; etc. 1 ]. 

Illustrative quotations from these sources are, to speak very 
generally, arranged in the order in which they are mentioned above. 
Illustrations from other sources of smaller extent have been given 
where they seemed most suitable. 

Appendices A sketch of the important Sanskrit treatises on 
architecture is given in Appendix I. In Appendix II is given an 



1 Stt further details under Bibliography. 

xix 



PREFACE AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

alphabetical list of the historical architects mentioned in the 
archaeological records, together with short notes on their works 
and dates, where available. This list does not include those names 
which are casually mentioned without a reference to their works in 
the general literature, Purdnas, Agamas, and in the Silpa-sdstras. 

Ideal and general method Dr. F. W. Thomas was the first to 
suggest the idea of compiling such an encyclopaedia long before 
I felt the necessity of the glossary mentioned above. In carrying out 
Dr. Thomtes's kind advice it seemed to me that the most natural 
method was the one suggested by Dr. Burgess (Ind. Ant., Vol. XIV, 
pp. 319-20), for collecting materials for the ancient Geography of 
India by indexing separately all the geographical words occurring 
in the archaeological and literary documents. Dr. Fleet illustrated 
this principle by making a topographical list of such words found 
in the Brihat-sarhhitd (Ind. Ant., Vol. XXII, p. 169). This was 
followed by a similar list of words from the Bhdgavata-Purdna, by 
Revd. J. E. Abbott (Ind. Ant., Vol. XXVIII, p. i, f.). There such 
list-making stopped. It would have been much easier for me if 
I could have made use of any such list of architectural terms from 
any of the documents consulted. 1 

Professor L. D. Barnett, M.A., LITT.D., suggested that I should 
take Dr. S. Sorensen's Index to the names in the Mahdbhdrata as 
my model. I have followed his method, as well as that of Professors 
Macdonell and Keith in the Vedic Index, so far as these indices are 
concerned in bringing together everything useful in the form of a 
short article. 

Despite its bulk, Sorensen's Index mostly confines itself to 
the proper names contained in the Mahdbhdrata, and does not 
include any illustrative quotations. But I had to go much beyond 
a single work and consult an extensive field of literature, like the 
veteran workers of the Vedic Index of names and subjects, which, 
though it contains subjects in addition to proper names, has not, for 
obvious reasons, cited the original passages in text or translation in 
addition to giving references to them. In this respect I took the 

1 Dr. A. K. Coomaraswamy published a short list after the publication of my 
Dictionary referring to a few new terms from the Buddhist literature and the 
writer's Indian Architecture (1927). 

XX 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PREFACE 

largest Sanskrit work, the St. Petersburg Dictionary, as my ideal. 
But there, too, I had to differ from its immortal authors, Messrs. 
Bohtlingk and Roth, the fathers of the most useful Sanskrit re- 
searches, in two important points. First, the St. Petersburg Dic- 
tionary does not, for obvious reasons, give in all cases the full context 
of the passages quoted therein. For instance, from the illustrations 
like 'prasadarudha' and 'prasadangana ' (see St. Pet. Diet., 
under PRASADA), it is difficult to see whether 'prasada' implies a 
temple, or a palace, or an ordinary residential building, or the 
assembly room and confessional hall of the Buddhist priesthood. 
In spite of some tremendous difficulties, I found it unavoidably 
necessary to cite long passages, in text or translation, or sometimes 
both, to illustrate the particular bearing of a term. 'Pitha,' 
for example, implies a seat, an altar, a platform, the pedestal of a 
column, the basement of a building, the plinth, the yoni part of the 
linga, etc. ; these different shades of meanings cannot be made 
clear by such quotations as 'pithopari ' or 'pitham ashtangu- 
lam.' The second point, by far the more significant, will further 
explain the need of long contexts. The St. Petersburg Dictionary 
refers only to well-known treatises which, though covering an 
extensive field, are yet easily accessible, and does not deal with 
manuscripts locked up and preserved as relics ; nor has it anything 
to do with the epigraphical documents. My literary quotations 
are in most cases from a large number of works and manuscripts 
some of which are written in unfamiliar scripts and most of which 
are neither well known nor easily accessible ; and the illustrations 
from all the published inscriptions and other archaeological records, 
comprising approximately 50,000 pages, also necessitated the 
full context, partly for reasons stated above, and partly with a view 
to avoiding the possibility of distracting the attention of the reader 
and interfering with his grasping the argument rapidly. 

Alphabetical order and transliteration I could not avail myself of 
the express advice of Dr. Fleet in his highly appreciative Review 
of Dr. Sorenson's masterly Index (Ind. Ant., Vol. XXXIV, p. 92) to 
arrange the words according to the European alphabetical order, 
which, in the opinion of the reviewer, has enhanced the value of the 
work. The European alphabet, being more imperfect than the Sans- 
krit alphabet with regard to the number of characters, especially 

xxi 



PREFACE AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

the vowels and the phonetical arrangement of them, seemed 
unsuitable for the terms which are included in this dictionary 
(encyclopedia.) In either of the alphabets, the transliterated 
Sanskrit words in some cases would be more or less confusing (e.g. 
Rishi, Riksha, Rintika, Ripu). But for the difficulties of making 
typewritten copies l before the dictionary went to press, I 
should have preferred to have Sanskrit words written in Sanskrit 
characters. Following the order of the Sanskrit alphabet, words 
like ' varhsa,' and ' sanku ' are given not before ' vakra ' and 
's"aka' (as in the St. Pet. Diet., M. W. Dictionary and the Vedic 
Index), but after 'vahana' and 'Sashpa.' The anusvdra is derived 
from at least four nasal characters of the Sanskrit alphabet (h, n, 
n, m). Logically the anusvdra should follow the order of the 
original letters : ' sarhku ' should be where ' sanku ' would be 
placed ; but this is an extremely confusing arrangement (see Apte's 
Dictionary) . There is no reason why ' samku ' should be read 
before ' s"aka,' there is also no reason for its being placed after 
' Sashpa,' although one should be quite justified in doing so when 
he is following the order of a particular alphabet, and does 
not hesitate to read in another alphabet e after d, i after h, o 
after n, and u after t, or / after k, h after g, and so forth. 

In transliteration I have followed the system of the Archaeologi- 
cal Survey of India. But I have not made any distinction between 
e and ^, o and 6, simply because there is no such distinction in the 
Sanskrit language. These deviations from the trodden paths, 
which seem to be untenable, will not, it may be hoped, cause any 
inconvenience to readers. 

Acknowledgment Except in important cases which deserve 
special notice, the names of the scholars who have edited a parti- 
cular inscription or written an article have not been added after 
the quotations. This need not offend anybody. I am sincerely 
grateful to the scholars to whom I owe the quotations. It seems, 
however, of little interest to know the name or names of the authors 
or editors of a particular passage, quoted occasionally a dozen 
times with full references to the article where it occurs. ' Vedi,' 

1 Four copies of the Thesis referred to above had to be submitted to the 
University of London. 

xxii 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PREFACE 

for example, implying a throne, has a parallel instance in a passage 
quoted from an inscription. The passage is borrowed from the 
editors and my indebtedness is shown by the usual quotation 
marks, and I have stated that this passage occurs in ' Inscription 
from Nepal, no. 15, inscription of Jayadeva, verse 25, Ind. Ant., 
Vol. IX, pp. 179, 182.' It, however, in no way enlightens the 
reader to know the names of the editors, Pandit Bhagwanlal 
Indraji and Dr. G. Biihler, C.I.E. 

Again, a portion of a verse of the Sdnkhayana Srauta-sutra is 
quoted in the St. Petersburg Dictionary, but the full context is given in 
our encyclopaedia, and it is stated thus : Sdnkhayana Srauta-sutra, 
XVI, 1 8, 13 (St. Pet. Diet.}. Beyond this, it seems unnecessary to 
add the names of Messrs. Bohtlingk and Roth. Lastly, in cases of 
quotations from general literature, the extent of which cannot 
be indicated even by an approximate number of books, it was 
impossible in some instances to mention the author's name. 
Compare, for example, a Glossary of Grecian Architecture, an 
anonymous work ; and Silpa-sastra-sdra-samgrahah Sivandrdya- 
ndtmajena prdchlna-granthebhyah sdram uddhritya prakdsitah Silpa-sdstra- 
sdra-samgraha, compiled by collecting essential portions of the 
ancient treatises by a son of Sivanarayana' ; again, Visvakarma- 
jndna, corrected (s'arhs'odhita) by Krishna-s'ankara-s'astri ; the 
author, if there were a real one beyond the mythical VisVakarman 
(Creator of the Universe), is not stated anywhere in the treatise 
itself. 

Need of showing the results achieved Although it would be 
presumptuous for anybody to say that the subject of a dictionary 
like this has been exhausted in a pioneer work, I might be permitted, 
in justice to myself, to add that all the known and knowable 
materials which were likely to be of any use for this encyclopaedia, 
have been closely consulted and utilized. Whether the results will 
justify the great labour involved will have to be left to the actual 
experiment of those who are in need of such a work. 1 But the 

i See the ' Extracts from Opinions and Reviews,' at the end of this volume, 
also of the Architecture of Mdnasara, Volume IV (1934), by the writer, and |What 
Others Think ' in the writer's Hindu Architecture in India and Abroad, Appendix III, 
pp. 422-49. 

xxiii 



PREFACE AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

tremendous difficulties of a compilation like this will perhaps be not 
fully brought home to all readers, because ' no one but those who 
have taken part in similar labours, can at all realize the amount of 
tedious toil, I might almost say drudgery, involved in doing 
everything singlehanded, collecting the quotations and verifying 
references and meanings, making indices and lists of words, sorting 
and sifting an ever-increasing store of materials, revising old work, 
arranging and re-arranging new, correcting and re-correcting, 
writing and re-writing, and interlineating " copy," till reams upon 
reams of paper have been filled, putting the eyesight, patience, 
and temper to a severe trial.' 

Aids and encouragement received My sincere obligations are due, 
to the Secretary of State for India in Council for all facilities and 
help which I had the privilege of receiving as a Government of 
India State scholar and which were needed by a pioneer in this 
most exacting branch of oriental researches, specially during the 
Great European War of 1914-18. I take this opportunity to offer 
my respectful thanks in particular to late Sir Austen Chamberlain, 
late Sir T. W. Arnold, C.I.E., and late Mr. N. C. Sen, O.B.E. Words 
fail me to express adequately my gratitude to Professor Dr. F. W. 
Thomas, C.I.E., the then Librarian of India Office, London. As stated 
above, I owe to him the inception of the idea and courage to under- 
take this task. He placed at my disposal all the materials in the India 
Office and procured for me most of the available manuscripts from 
different libraries in India and Europe. He facilitated my work 
in Holland. He arranged, through the appreciation and kindness 
of Sir John H. Marshall, C.I.E., D.LITT., the then Director General of 
Archaeology in India, the creation of a prize post for me directly 
under the Governor in Madras for the publication of this work ; 
this arrangement, unfortunately, fell through owing to absence 
on leave of Sir John Marshall and retirement of Lord Pentland at 
the time when I went to take up this appointment. It was again 
through Dr. Thomas's introduction that Sir Claude de la Fosse, 
C.I.E., M.A., D.LITT., the first Vice-Chancellor of the reconstructed 
Allahabad University, became personally interested in this work 
and readily induced the great educationist Governor, Sir Harcourt 
Butler, to recommend to the Government of the United Provinces 
to advance the cost of its publication. 

jcxiv 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE P sir AC 

I take this opportunity to express my respectful gratitude to Sir 
Harcourt Butler and his Government. And to Sir Claude I am 
further indebted for his scholarly sympathy, friendly advice, and 
constant encouragement. To those great lovers of oriental scholar- 
ship, Rai Rajeshwar Bali Sahib, O.B.E., the then Minister of Educa- 
tion ; Kunwar Jagdish Prasad, C.I.E., O.B.E., i.c.s., the Education 
(then Chief) Secretary; and late Mr. A. H. Mackenzie, M.A., B.SG., 
the Director of Public Instruction, I am in a debt of gratitude 
for further encouragement, which has kept up the energy and 
spirit needed in bringing out this dictionary, after working on it for 
the past twelve years. 

For suggesting many improvements I am indebted to the veteran 
orientalists, Dr. L. D. Barnett, of British Museum, London, and late 
Professor E. J. Rapson, of Cambridge University, who examined the 
whole manuscript before it went to press. I am thankful to Pro- 
fessor J. Ph. Vogel, PH.D., of Leiden University, for helping me with 
all necessary books during my stay there. To Mr. E. L. G. den 
Doore-n de Jong and Miss Ch. L. Du Ry van Beest Holle of Zooto- 
mical Laboratory, Leiden, I owe many friendly services in con- 
nexion with this work, but for which it would have been impos- 
sible for me to get on in Holland. To another talented lady friend, 
late Miss E. J. Beck, who took the trouble of putting in the 
diacritical marks to a duplicate typewritten copy of this dictionary, 
I owe, like many other Indian students, more obligations than I can 
adequately express. 

Last but not least I am pleased to record my grateful thanks 
to Major W. C. Abel, M.B.E., V.D., lately the Superintendent 
of Government Press, Allahabad, and to his able successor, 
Mr. D. W. Crighton, and to their staff for their ever sympathetic 
and kind treatment towards me and their zealous and careful 
handling which was necessary in printing an encyclopaedia like 
this. 

P. K. ACHARYA. 

SANSKRIT DEPARTMENT, 

UNIVERSITY OF ALLAHABAD : 

August, 1937. 



XXV 



THE ORDER OF THE ROMAN CHARACTERS AND THE METHOD 
OF TRANSLITERATION ADOPTED 

a, a ; i, I ; u, u ; ri, ri ; e, ai ; o, au ; 
k, kh ; g, gh ; n ; ch, chh ; j, jh ; n ; 
t, th ; d, dh ; n ; t, th ; d, dh ; n ; 
p, ph ; b, bh ; m ; y, r, 1, v ; 
5, sh, s ; h ; m ; h. 



CONTENTS 

PAGES 

ix-xviii 
FOREWORD 

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION (DICTIONARY) 
THE ORDER OF ROMAN CHARACTERS AND THE METHOD OF 
TRANSLITERATION ADOPTED 

xxxi-xxxiv 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

TEXT OF THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

APPENDIX I-A SKETCH OF SANSKRIT TREATISES ON ARCHITEC- 
TURE .. 6I5 ~ 59 

APPENDIX II-A LIST OF HISTORICAL ARCHITECTS WITH SHORT 

NOTES ON THEIR WORKS .. '77 

670-84 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 

EXTRACTS FROM OPINIONS ON THE DICTIONARY .. iA-i8A 

INDEX TO MODERN ARCHITECTURAL TERMS WITH THEIR 

CORRESPONDING SANSKRIT EQUIVALENTS . . I tO l8 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Serial no. Facing page 

. . Frontispiece 



I. 


Svastika Mansion (front view) 


f f 


2. 


Anghri (Half plans looking up and looking 


down) 


3- 


Ahghrika-vari 




4- 


Anda 




5- 


Atibhanga 





6. 


Adhishthana 





7- 


Anu-sala 




8. 


Antara 




9- 


Anila-bhadraka 





11. 


Amrita-nandana 





12. 


Alaksha 




13- 


Ardha-prana 




14. 


Ardha-mandapa 


* 


'5- 


Amsuka 




16. 


Ayaka-skambha 





17- 


Ardha-hara 





18. 


Alindaka 




19- 


Alpa-nasika 




20. 


Abhaiiga 




21. 


Aliiiga 




22. 


Andola 




23- 


Asana 




24. 


Asana 




25- 


Indra-kila 




26. 


Indra-kos"a 




27- 


Ishtaka 


* 


28. 


Upa-pada 




29- 


Upana 


t 


30. 


Ugrapitha 


f f 


31- 


Uttara 




32. 


Uttana-patta 




33- 


Upa-vedi 





34- 


Upa-tula 





35- 


Upa-pitha 





36. 


Ushnisha 





37- 


Kataka 





38. 


Kapota 





39- 


Kapota-palika 





40. 


Karoti 


. . 


41. 


Karna-patra . . 





42. 


Kala'^a 




43- 


Kirtti-vaktra 





44- 


Kampa 






I2 
I2 
I2 
I2 



o Q 

Ov7 

3 8 
oq 
3 g 

g 
.5 
.g 
4 g 

4 g 
. 

4 g 
4 g 
4 g 



54 

g6 

67 

66 

66 

67 

68 

70 

70 

70 

71 

76 

90 

100 

ioo 

ioo 

ioo 

ioo 

ioo 

ioo 

102 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Semi no. Facing page 

45. Kampa-bandha .. .. .. 102 

46. Kadanga .. ..104 

47. Kabandhana . . . . . . 104 

48. Karnika . . 104 

49. Kama .... 104 

50. Karnika . . ;" 104 

51. Kalpadruma 112 

52. Kavata .. 118 

53. Kunjaraksha . . . . . . . . . . 1 18 

54. Kumari-pura .. .. 118 

55. Kuntala .. 124 

56. Kumbha-panjara 128 

57. Kuta .. .. ..128 

58. Kokila .. .. .. 128 

59. Kubjaka . . . . . . . . . . 130 

60. Keyura .. .. .. .. 130 

61. Kokilargala .. .. .. .. .. 131 

62. Kona-loshta .. .. .. .. 130 

63. Kumbha-stambha .. .. .. .. 132 

64. Kostha-stambha . . . . . . . . 132 

65. Kudya-stambha .. .. .. .. 136 

66. Kumuda . . . . . . . . . . 1 36 

67. Kshudra-nasa .. .. .. .. 136 

68. Kshepana . . . . . . . . . . 136 

69. Kharvata . . . . . . . . . . 138 

70. Kheta . . . . . . . . . . 138 

71. Garbha .. .. .. .. .. 146 

72. Ganda-bherunda . . . . . . . . 148 

73. Gabhara . . . . . . . . . . 148 

74. Garuda-stambha . . . . . . . . 149 

75. Gavaksha . . . . . . . . . . 148 

76. Guru-dvara . . . . . . . . 1 48 

77. Goji .. .. .. .. .. 15 6 

78. Gopana .. .. .. .. .. 156 

79. Graha-kundala . . . . . . . . 156 

80. Ghatika-sthana .. .. .. .. 156 

81. Gopura .. .. .. .. .. 158 

82. Chauvadi .. .. .. .. .. 174 

83. Chandra-gala .. .. .. .. 174 

84. Chaitya . . . . . . . . . . 1 74 

85. Chitra-torana .. .. .. .. 174 

86. Jagati . . . . . . . . . . 184 

87. Jaya-stambha .. .. .. .. 184 

88. Jala-garbha . . . . . . . . . . 184 

89. Jala-dvara . . . . . . . . . . 1 84 

90. Tala-mana . . . . . . . . . . 196 

cji. Torana .. .. .. .. .. 218 

XXXII 



LIST Off ILLUSTRATIONS 

Serial no. Facing page 

92. Tarahga . . . . . . . . . . 222 

93. Tatika .. .. .. .. .. 222 

94. Trikarna . . . . . . . . . . 322 

95. Tripatta .. .. .. 222 

96. Tribhanga . . . . . . . . 222 

97. Danta-klla . . . . . . . . 226 

98. Danta-nala . . . . . . . . 226 

99. Dipa-danda . . . . . . . . 226 

100. Dipa-stambha . . . . . . . . 226 

101. Dhara-kumbha .. .. .. .. 226 

102. Dhvaja-stambha . . . . . . . . 226 

103. Natya-griha . . . . . . . . 274 

104. Natya-griha . . . . . . . . 274 

105. Nala-geha .. .. .. .. 278 

1 06. Naga-kala . . . . . . . . 280 

107. Nataka . . . . . . . . . . 280 

108. Nasika . . . . . . . . . . 280 

109. Nidhana . . . . . . . . . . 280 

no. Nidra .. .. .. .. .. 280 

in. Pafijara . . . . . . . . . . 288 

112. Pafijara-lala .. .. .. .. 288 

113. Patra .. .. .. .. .. 288 

1 14. Patra-torana . . . . . . . . 288 

115. Padmasana .. .. .. .. 298 

1 16. Padma . . . . . . . . . . 302 

117. Padma-pltha .. .. .. .. 302 

118. Parigha .. .. .. .. .. 302 

119. Parna-mafljusha 302 

120. Padajala . . . . . . . . . . 302 

121. Palika .. .. .. ..302 

122. Pitha .... 309 

123. Potra .. .. .. .. 308 

124. Prachchhadana . . . . . . . . 308 

125. Pratoli .. .. .. 309 

126. Phana .. .. .. .. .. 308 

127. Phalaka .. .. .. .. . 3 8 

128. Pralamba . . . . S 2 ^ 

129. Prastara . . . . . . . . . . 33 

130. Balika . . . . . 366 

131. Bali-pltha .. .. 3^6 

132. Bahala . . . . . . 3^6 

133. Bahula .. .. .. .. . 366 

134. Brahma-mastaka . . . 3^8 

135. Bhadra .. .. .. ..388 

136. Bhrama .. .. .. 3^8 

137. Bhrama-danda .. .. .. 388 

138. Maftjusha .... 39 

xxxi n 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 

Serial no. Fac'ng page 

139. Manika .. .. .. .. .. 3^4 

140. Mani-dvara .. .. .. .. 394 

141. Mandapa .. .. .. .. .. 396 

142. Mandapa . . . . . . . . . . 406 

143. Masiti .. .. .. .. .. 414 

144. Masuraka .. .. .. .. .. 414 

145. Mukula . . . . . . . . . . 414 

146. Yupa-stambha .. .. .. .. 414 

147. Raja-harmya . . . . . . . . 438 

148. Lakshmi-stambha . . . . . . . . 442 

149. Lupa . . . . . . . . . . 442 

150. Vedi .. .. .. .. .. 442 

151. Sariku .. .. .. .. .. 476 

152. Sala (Dandaka) . . . . . . . . 484 

153. Sikhara .. .. .. .. .. 526 

154. Srivatsa . . . . . . . . . . 526 

155. Setu . . . . . . . . . . 526 

156. Stupi . . . . . . . . . . 526 

157. Stambha . . . . . . . . . . 534 

1 58. Svastika . . . . . . . . . . 604 

159. Hasti-nakha .. .. .. .. 612 

1 60. Hasti-hasta 612 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 
HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



AKSHA The base of a column, the eye, a die. 

(1) The base of a column : 

Athavaksharh (=adhishthanarh) navarhsochcharh janma chaikena 
karayet I (Manasara, xiv, 17, note.) 

(2) The eye : 

Asyayamam tri-matrarh syad vistararh chaika-matrakam I 
Akshayamardha-matrarh syad vistararh yuktito nyaset I 

(M., LX, 29-30) 

(3) A die : 

Akshaih sphatika-sarhyuktarh tula-bhajanam eva chai 

(M., LXVIII, 28.) 

(4) Referring to the window-like part of a dold (swing, hammock, 
palanquin), and of a chariot : 

Puratah prishthato madhye parva(darpa)narh bhadra-samyutam I 
Parsvayor va(dva)ranarh kuryat tasyadho'ksharh susamyutam I 

(M., L, 165-166 ) 
Tasyadhah karnanarh kuryad akshotsedhardham eva cha I 

(M., XLI, 51, see further context under AKSHA-BHARA.) 
See GAVAKSHA Cf. Mitdkshara (ed. Gal. 1829) 146, i (Pet. Diet.) : 

Akshah pada-stambhayor upari-nivishta-tuladhara-pattah I 

Akshagra-kila I 

Pushkaraksha (see Pdnini, 5, 4, 76). 

Dharabhir aksha-matradhih (Arjunasamdgama, ed. Bopp, 8, 4.) 

AKSHA-BHARA A lower part of a chariot. 

Tasyadho (below the pada or pillar) karnarh kuryad akshotsedhar- 
dham eva cha i 

Tat-tad-dese tu chhidrarh syad aksha-bhare rathantakam I 
Chhidre pravesayet kilam yuktya cha pattayojitam I 

(M.,KW, 51-53.) 

i 



AKSHI-REKHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

AKSHI-REKHA The eye-lines. 

Akshi-rekham samalikhya savye'kshi krishna-mandalam I 

(M., LXX, 69.) 
AKSHI-SUTRA The line of the eyes. 

Mukhayamarh tridha bhavet I 

Akshi-sutravaanam cha tasyadhas tat-padantakam I 

Hikka-sutrad adho bahu-dirghaih rikshangulam bhavet I 

(M., LXV, 12-13.) 
AGNI-DVARA The door on the south-east. 

Ghatur-dikshu chatush-kone maha-dvaram prakalpayet I 
Purva-dvaram athaisane chagni-dvaram tu dakshine I 
Pitur-dvararh tu tat-pratyag vayau dvaram tathottaram I 

(M., ix, 292, 294-295.) 
AGRAHARA A village inhabited by the Brahmanas. 

Viprair vidvadbhir abhogyam mangalam cheti kfrtitam i 
Agraharas tad evam uktaih viprendrah Kamikagame n 

(Kamikagama, xx, 3.) 

Agraharam vinanyeshu sthan!yadishu vastushu I 
Prag-adishu chatur-dikshu vayau ise sivalayah II (ibid., xxvi, 32.) 

NlLAKANTHA, 1 6, 3^. Diet.) : 
Agrarh brahmana-bhojanam tad-artham hriyante raja-dhanat prithak 

kriyante te agraharah kshetradayah I 
Chatur-bhuja (ibid ; comm. Mbh.) : Agrahara Sasana. 

AGHANA Not solid, a hollow moulding, column or pillar. 

Ghanan-chapy aghananchaiva vinyasam atha vakshyate I 

( Vistarayama-sobhadi-p urvavad-gopurantakam) I 

Yam manam bahir anyena chulika-mana-sammitam I 

(M., xxxiu, 290-292, see also 293-309.) 
Referring to windows (or rather window-post) : 

Tad-vistara-ghanarin sarvam kuryad vai silpi(a)vit-tamah I 

Gopure kuta-kosht(h)adi-grive padantare tatha i 

Ghane vapy aghane vapi yatha vatayanair-yutam I (ibid., 592-594.) 
Cf. Vistaram cha dvi-matram syad agram ekarigulam bhavet I 

Ghanam ekangulam chaiva i (M., LX, 17-18.) 

Referring to the image of a bull : 

Ghanam vapy aghanam vapikuryattu silpi(a)-vit-tamah I 

(A/..LXU, 17.) 

2 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE AftKA(GA)NA 

AGHANA-MANA (see GHANA) Measurement by the interior 
of a structure. 

Evarh tat(d) ghana-manam uktam aghanarh vakshyate' dhuna II 
Vistarayama-bhaktih syad uktavat(d)yuktito nyaset I 
Dvi-tribhaga-visale tu ayatam tat prakalpayet I 
Bhakti-tri-bhagam ekarhsaih bhitti-vistaram eva cha I 
Sesharh tad garbha geharh tu madhya-bhage tu veSanam I 

(M., xxxm, 331-335.) 

AfrKA(GA)NA (see PRANGANA) Same as Angana, a court, 
a courtyard. 

Yatha madhye'rikanam kuryat pancha-bhagena vistritam I 

(M., xxxiv, 143.) 

Kalpa-drumasya purato bahir ankanam syat I (M., XLVIII, 72.) 
Athatah sarhpravakshye'ham ariganasya tu lakshanam I 
Anganarii dhvaja-yonih syan mukhayamabhisamyutam II 
Padukanam bahir-bhagam anganam tat vidur budhah I 
Dhvajah sarvatra sarhpanna iti sastra-nidar^anam i 

(Vastu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, vi, 1-2.) 
Madhye tu pranganam karyam vi^alenaika-pamktikam ! 
Ardha-parhkti-vivridhya tu trimsat pamkty antam ishyate I 
Ayame chaika-pamkty adi tri-gunantam visalata I 
Evam brahmanganarh karyam jala-pata-yutam nava i| 
Madhyamaih changana-sthanam mandapena yutam tu va II 
Prag anganam pradhanam syat pragavaganganam jvarah I' 

(KSmikdgama, xxxv, 40, 41, 66, 131.) 

Ujatangana-bhumishu I (Raghuvamsa, ed. Gal. i, 52, Pet. Diet.). 
Vimanam hamsa-y uktam etat tishthati te'ngane I 

(Devimahdtmya, ed. Cal. 5, 50.) 
Nripangana (Kavya chandrikd, 166, 15 ibid.). 
Nripangana (dental n, Bhartrihari, 2, 46, ibid.). 
Maharajahganam 5urah pravisantu mahodayam I 

(Ramayana, II, 3, 19, ibid.) 

Matsya-tirthada sannidhanadali Linganna bagitinda dodda-asvathada 
balige angana 12 madida seva ' Linganna with devotion erected 
(a mantapa of) 12 anganas near the big asvattha tree in proximity to 
the Matsyatlrtha, on the bank of the Arkapushkarini.' (Ep. Carnal., 
Vol. iv, Edatore Taluq, no. 3, Roman text, p. 84, Transl., p. 52). 

3 



AttGA-DOSHANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

AftGA-DOSHANA The defects of the limbs ; the penalties for 
a defective construction. 

Mdnasdra, Chap. LXIX, 1-73 : 

The chapter is named Angadushana in the colophon. The term would 
literally mean the defects of the limbs. The chapter opens with the 
proposal that the penalties on the master, the king, and the kingdom 
following a defective construction will be described : 
Alayadyanga-sarveshu hinadhikyarh bhaved yadi I 
Raja-rashtradi-kartrinam dosha-praptim(-r)ihochyate (1-2). 
There should not be, as stated, any defect in the width, height, plinth, 
lintel, pillar, entablature, finial, dome, door, adytum, staircase, terrace, 
gate house, pavilion, wall, etc. (3-10). 

Cf. Tasmat tu dosha-sarhprapti(h) sllpidrishti(r) nivarayet (n). 

The illustrations, too, of penalties for defective construction are taken 
from the different architectural objects, such as door, staircase, pillar, 
wall, dome, spire, etc. Thus it is stated that if the altar (vedika) be 
defective, the master would lose his eyesight (26) ; if the dome be larger 
or shorter, the people would suffer from poverty (29) ; if the pillars 
be larger or shorter, the race of the master would be exterminated (23), 
and so forth. 

AlSJGULA A finger, a finger-breadth, a measure of about three- 
fourths of an inch ; one of some equal parts, into which an architec- 
tural or sculptural object is divided for proportional measurement. 

(i) Mdnasdra, Chap, n : 

The definition of paramanu or atom : 

Muninam nayanodvikshya(s) tat paramanur udahritam (40). 
Cf. Brihat-Samhitd (below). 
(Paramanu or atom is the lowest measurement.) 
The details of the angula-measure (41-46) : 

8 Paramanu (atoms) = i Ratha-dhuli (car-dust), 

8 Car dusts = i Valagra (hair's end), 

8 Hair's ends = i Liksha (nit), 

8 Nits = i Yuka (louse), 

8 Lice = i Yava (barley corn), 

8 Barley corns = i Arigula (finger). 

Three kinds of angulas are distinguished, the largest of which is equal 
to 8 yavas, the intermediate one 7 yavas, and the smallest one 6 yavas 
(47-48). 

4 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ANGULA 



Further details (49-53) : 

12 Arigulas = Vitasti (span). 

2 Spans or 24 arigulas = Kishku-hasta (smallest cubit) . 

25 Angulas = Prajapatya-hasta. 

26 = Dhanur-mushti-hasta. 

27 = Dhanur-graha-hasta. 

4 Cubits = Dhanuh or danda (bow or rod). 

8 Dandas (rods) = Rajju (rope). 

Direction is given with regard to the use of the cubits of different lengths 
and other measures (54-58) : conveyances and bedsteads, etc. are stated 
to be measured in the cubit of 24 angulas, buildings in general (vimana) 
in the cubit of 25 angulas, the ground or land (vastu) in the cubit of 26 
angulas, and the villages, etc. in the cubit of 27 angulas. The cubit of 24 
angulas can, however, be employed, as stated in measuring all these 
objects. 
Chap. LV : 
Three kinds of the angula-measure : 

Matrangula-gatam proktam arigulam tri-vidham bhavet I (53). 
The manangula is the standard measure ; it is equal to 8 barley corns : 

Yava-tarashta-matrarh syan manangulam iti smritam I (56) . 
The matrangula is the measure taken in the middle finger of the master : 
Kartur dakshina-hastasya madhyamangula-madhyame I 
Parva-dirgharh tan-naham matrangulam udahritam I (57-58). 
The details of the deha-labdhaiigula are left out ; but this measure is 
frequently referred to : 

Trayas-trirhsach chhatantam syad deha-labdhangulena va I (64). 
The deha-labdhangula is to be understood as the measure, which is 
equal to one of the equal parts, into which the whole height of a statue 
is divided for sculptural measurement. This alone should otherwise be 
called ams'a (part) ; but the term (ams'a) is indiscriminately used for all 
the three angula-measures, as well as for the term matra. Compare, for 
example, Chap. LXV : 

Murdh(n)adi-pada-paryantam tunga-manam praSasyate I (2). 
Chatur-virhsach-chhatam kritva tathaivarhs'ena manayet I (3). 
Ushnishat kesa-paryantarh chatur-matram praSasyate I (4). 
Ardharhsarh gala-manam syad vedams'am gala-tuhgakam I (6). 
Sa yava-tryarhsakarh chaivanamikayamam ishyate I (26). 
Medhrantam uru-dirgharh syat sapta-virhsangulam bhavet I (9). 
The deha-labdhangula is also called the bera- (idol) ahgula and the 
linga- (phallus) angula, Chap. LXIV, 49-53 : 

Arhsakam manam evoktam angulair manam uchyate I 
Yal-linga-tungarh samgrahya chatur-virh^ach-chhatantakam I 
Lingangulam iti proktam berarh talava^ad api l 
Kritva berangularh proktam manangulam ihochyate I 
Yava-tarashta-matrarh syad devanam angulam bhavet | 



ANGULA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The deva- (god's) angula mentioned in the last line (53) is apparently 
the mana- (standard) angula. 

(2) Brihat-Samhitd, LVIII, 1-2 : 

Jalantarage bhanau yad-anutararh daiianam rajo yati i 
Tad vindyat paramanum prathamam tad-dhi pramananam n 
Paramanu-rajo-valagra-liksha-yuka yavo'ngulam cheti i 
Ashta-gunani yathottaram angulam ekam bhavati matra u 
Commentary quotes a parallel passage, the former stanza of which 
recurs in Manu, vni, 132 (cf. below), whereas the latter wholly differs ; 
Tatha cha jalantara-gate bhanau yat sukshmam drisyate rajah I 
Prathamam tat pramananam trasa-renum prachakshate II 
Tasmad rajah kachagraih cha liksha yuka yavo'ngulam I 
Kramad ashta-gunarh jneyam jina-samkhyangulaih samah It 
From an unknown author are the verses quoted by 

(3) Bapu-Deva in his edition of the Siddhdnta-siromani, p. 52 : 

VeSmantah patiteshu bhaskara-kareshvalokyate yad-rajah i 
Sa proktah paramanur ashta gunitais tair eva renur bhavet n 
Tair valagram athashtabhih kacha-mukhair liksha cha yukashtabhih I 
Syat tribhi^cha tadashtakena cha yavo'shtabhis cha tair angulam i 
'Digit (angula) has here (B.S., LVIII, 4) no absolute, but a relative value ; 
it is the module and equal to T J T of the whole height of the idol, or T ^ of 
idol and seat together.' 

Commentary : yasmat kashthat pashanadikad va pratima kriyate tad 
dairghyarh pitha-pramana-vivarjitarh dvadaSa-bhagavibhaktam kritva 
tatraiko bhago navadha karyah, so'ngula-sajnako bhavati, yasmad 
ashtadhikam angula-Satam pratima pramanam vakshyati (Kern, jf.R.A.S. 
N. S., Vol. vi, p. 323, notes i, 2). 

(4) Introduction (pp. 8-9) to Rdjavallabha Mandana, ed. Narayana 
Bharati and Ya^ovanta Bharati : 



1 Angula = matra. 

2 Angulas = kala. 

3 = parvan. 

4 = mushti. 

5 = tala. 

6 = kara-pada. 

7 = drishti. 

8 = tuni. 

9 = prade^a. 
10 = saya-tala. 



1 1 Angulas = go-karna. 

12 = vitasti (span). 
14 = anaha-pada. 
21 = ratni. 

24 = aratni. 
42 = kishku. 
84 = purusha 

(height of a man). 
96 dhanus. 
106 = danda. 



This is apparently taken from the Brahmdnda-Purana (see below). 

6 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE AftGULA 

(5) Brahmdnda-Purdna, Chap, vn (Vayu-prokte purva-bhage dvitlye 
anushariga-pade) gives a curious origin of the angula measure : 

It is stated (in w. 91-95) that people at first used to live in caves, 
mountains, rivers, etc. They began to build houses in order to protect 
themselves from cold and heat (sitoshna-varanat) . Then they built khetas 
(towns), puras (houses), gramas (villages) and nagaras (cities). And to 
measure their length, breadth, and the intermediate distance between 
two settlements (sanniveSa) the people instinctively (yatha-jnanam) em- 
ployed their own fingers. Thence forward the arigulas are used as 
standards of measurement. 

Then follow the details of the angula measurement (vv. 96-101) : 
Jayangula-pradesams trin hastah kishkum dhanumshi cha I 
Dasatvangula-parvani pradeSa iti samjfiitah n (96). 
Angushthasya pradesinya vyasa(h) prades"a uchyate I 
Talah smrito madhyamaya gokarnas" chapyanamaya It (97). 
Kanishthaya vitastis tu dvadasangula uchyate | 
Ratnir angula-parvani samkhyaya tvekavims'atih II (98). 
Chatvari-vims'atis chaiva hastah syad ahgulani tu | 
Kishkuh smrito dviratnis tu dvi-chatvarimad angulah l| (9^). 
Chatur hasto dhanur dando nalika yugam eva cha I 
Dhanuh sahasre dve tatra gavyutis taih krita tada u (100). 
Ashtau dhanuh sahasrani yojanam tair vibhavitam I 
Etena jojaneneha sannivesas tatah kritah II (101). 

(6) Matsya-Purana, Chap. CGLVIII, vv. 17-19 : 

Jalantara-pravishtanam bhanunam yad rajah sphutam I 
Trasa-renuh sa vijneyo valagrarh tair athashtabhih II (17). 
Tad-ashtakena tu likhyatu yuka likhyashtakair mata I 
Javo yukashtakam tad-vad ashtabhis tais tad angulam II (18). 
Svakiyanguli-manena mukham syad dvadasangulam | 
Mukha-manena karta^a sarvavayava-kalpana u (19). 

(7) Vdstu-vidyd, ed. Ganapati Sastri, i, 3-5 f : 

Tatradau sampravakshyami sarvesharh mana-sadhanam i 
Manenaivakhilam loke vastu samsadhyate yatah n 
Paramanuh kramad vriddho manangula iti smritah | 
Paramanur iti prokto yoginarii drish^i-gocharah II 
Paramanur ashtabhis trasa-renur_.iti smritah I 
Trasa-renu cha romagram liksha-yuka-yavas tatha II 

and so forth (see Manas am). 

7 



ANGULA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(8) Bimbamdna, MS. (British Museum 558, 5292), v. 9 : 

Yad-bimba-pramanena manangula(m) vibhajite i 
Tena bimbasya manam tu tatra(m) ayamam ishyate I 

(9) Suprabheddgama, Patala, xxx, w. 1-9 : 

Athatah sampravakshyami angulanam tu lakshanam I 
Manangulam tu prathamam syat matrarigulam dvitiyakam u (i) 
Deha-labdha-pramanam tu tritiyam angularh smritam I 
Yasmat param amir nasti paramanus tad uchyate n (2) 
Paramanur adhaS chaivapi cha kes"agra eva cha i 
R(l)iksha-yuka-yavas tatra kramaso'shta-gunair matam si (3). 
Manangulam iti proktarh tato matrangulam s"rinu I 
Acharya-dakshine haste madhyamanguli-madhyame II (4). 
Parva(m) matrangulam jneyarh deha-labdhangulam Srinu I 
Pratimayas tathotsedhe tala-ganycna bhajite n (5). 
Teshvekarh bhaga-van-manarh deha-labdhangulam smritam | 

The objects measured in the three kinds of angulas : 

Prasada-mand Spams' chaiva prakaran gopuran api u (6). 
Gramadya-kshetra-ganyeshu manangula-vidhanatah I 
Acharya-dakshangulibhir mite vyasa-mitadhikaih (sic) II (7). 
Kurche pavitrake chaiva sruve srugbhir athanyakaih I 
Yage prayojitaniha matranguli-vidhi^ charet II (8). 
Atha manangulair vapi karayed yaga-karmani | 
Deha-labdhangulenaiva pratimam karayed budhah n (9). 
Then follow the technical names of the angulas (w. 10-16) : 

One angula is called bindu, moksha. 

Two angulas are kala (elsewhere it is the name of one 

angula), kolaka, padma, akshi, asvini. 

Three rudrakshi, agni, guna, Sula (and) vidya. 

Four yuga (and) bhaga, veda, and turiya. 

Five rudranana, indriya, bhuta, and vana. 

Six karman, anga, ayana, and rasa. 

Seven patala, muni, dhatu, and abdhi. 

Eight basu, lokeSa, and murti. 

Nine dvara, sutra, graha, and s"akti. 

Ten di$, nadi, ayudha, and pradurbhava. 

Twenty trishu (and) vishku. 

Thirty gati. 

Forty trijagat (?). 

Fifty ^akvari. 

Sixty ati^akvari. 

8 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE AftGULA 

Seventy arigulas are called yashti. 

Eighty atyashti. 

Ninety clhriti. 

Hundred atidhriti. 

The cardinal numbers are described (vv. 17-20) : 

Ekam dasam Satam chaiva sahasram ayutam punah u (17). 
Niyutaih prayutam chaiva kotirh chaiva yatharbudam I 
Brindarh kharvam nikhvararh cha Sankham padmam atah param II (18). 
Samudra-madhyantarakhyam apararh tatha I 
Parardham evakhyatarh das"a-vritt(-ddh)yuttarottaram II (19). 
Evam etani choktani samkhya-sthanam vimsatih I 

Three kinds of the vitasi (span), which is equal to 12 angulas, are dis- 
tinguished by their technical names : 

Talam yamam tri-bhagarh cha shat-kalas" cha vitastakamll (20). 
Shat-kolakarh mukham chaiva dvadaSangula-sarhjnakam I 
Ahgushtha-tarjani-yuktam prade^am iti klrtitamll (21). 
(Madhyamangushtha-samyuktarh tala-manam iti smritam l) 
Angushthanamika-yuktarh vitastir iti chochyate II (22). 
Kanishthangushthayor yuktarh go-karnam iti sarhjnikam | 
The correct reading of the last two lines should be : 

Ahgushthanamika-yuktarh go-karnam iti samjnikam II (22). 
Kanishthangushthayor yuktam(-ta) vitastir iti chochyate I 

Cf. Brahmanda-Purana, i, VH, 97, 98. 
(See under GOKARNA and VITASTI.) 

Pradesas cha vitastis cha gokarna cha ime trayah II (23). 
The two kinds of the measure by the fist : 

Jajnadike prayoktavyah prasadadau na mapayet I 

Ratnih samvrita-mushtih syad aratnih prasritangulih 1 1 (24). 

Different kinds of the hasta or cubit measures : 

Kishkus cha prajapatayaS cha dhanur-mushti-dhanu(r)grahau I 
Angulas tu chatur-virhs'at kishkur ityuchyate budhaih I) (25). 
Pancha-virhsatibhiS chaiva prajapatyam udahritam I 
Shad-vimsati-dhanur-mushtih sapta-vim5ad-dhanu(r)grahah II (26). 

The objects measured in these cubits : 

Kishku-hastadi-chatvari-manangula-vas'at-tamah (?) I 
Ebhir hasta-pramanais tu prasadadini karayetll (27). 
Sayanam chasanam chaiva kishku-mana-va^at kuru I 
Lingarh cha pindikam chaiva prasadarh gopuram tatha II (28). 
Prakara-mandaparh chaiva prajapatya-karena tu I 

9 



AftGULA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The higher measures : 

Dhanu(r)grahas" chatushkam yad danda-manam prakirtitam II (29). 
Sahasra-danda-manena krosa-matrarh vidhiyate I 
Gavyutir dvi-gunarh jneyam tad-dhi(dvi)-gunarh cha ghatakam n (30). 
Ghatakasya chatushkam tu yojana parikirtita 1 1 (31). 

(10) Manu-Samhitd, vm, 271 (cf. under Brihat-Sarhhitd above) : 
Nikshepyo'yomayah Sarikur jvalannasye dasaiigulah I 

(u) Rdmqyana, vi, 20, 22 : 

Na hyaviddharht ayor gatre babhuvangulam antaram I 

(12) Aratni, cubit. According to the Sulvasutra of Baudhayana (Fleet, 
J.R.A.S., 1912, 231, 2), this measure is equal to 24 angulas or finger- 
breadths. The Satapatha-Brdhmana (x, 2, i, 3) also mentions 24 
angulas or finger-breadths as a measure, but without reference to 
the aratni (see below), cf. Eggeling, Sacred Books of the East, 43, 300, 
n. 3. 

(13) ' Pradesa frequently occurs in the Brahmanas (Vedic Index 
n, 152), (Aitareya, vm, 5 : Satapatha, HI, 5, 4, 5, 'chhandogya Upani- 
shad, v. 1 8, i, etc.,) as a measure of length, a span ' (ibid., n, 50). 

(14) The Satapatha-Brdhmana, 10, 2, i, 2 : Tasy-aish-avama matra 
yad angulayah, this is his lowest measure, namely the fingers. 

(15) ' In some table the aratni is distinguished from the hasta, and 
is defined as measuring 21 angulas. But the Sulvasutra of Bau- 
dhayana defines it as equal to 2 pradesa, each of 12 angulas, and so 
agrees in making it equal to 24 angulas. In any case, our present 
point is that the Kautiliya-Artha-sdstra gives its value as 24 angulas.' 
(Fleet, J.R.A.S., 1912, p. 231, notes i, 2.) 

Compare also ibid., pp. 231, 232, 233. 

(1 6) ' Like some of the other Hindu tables, it (Kautiliya-Artha- 
sdstra) starts (p. 106, line 3) with the paramanu or ' most minute 
atom.' It takes its measures up to the angula, through four inter- 
mediate grades, by eights ; it defines the angula (line 7) as being 
equal to 8 yava-madhya, or 8 barley-corns laid side by side ; and it 
further defines it as the middle breadth of the middle finger of a 
middle-sized man. It tells us (line n) that 12 angulas are i vitasti 
or span, and (line 13) that 2 vitastis are i aratni ; here, by its aratni 
of 24 angulas it means the measure which in other tables is usually 

10 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ANGHRI 

called hasta or kara, the forearm, the cubit ; and, in fact, it adds 
prajapatya hasta as another name of the its aratni. 

' In the regular course of the table it tells us next (line 20) that 4 
aratnis (i.e. 4 hasta or cubits) are i danda,, staff or dhanus, bow (from 
which it follows that i dhanus = 96 angulas).' 

' Now the angula or finger-breadth may be the theoretical unit 
it may well have been originally the actual unit and the source of the 
other measures. But we can hardly doubt that the hasta or cubit 
eventually took its place as the practical unit ; and that a correct 
scale was maintained by keeping in public offices a standard hasta 
marked off into 2 vitasti and 24 angulas. At any rate, the hasta 
is the practical measures to which we must attend in estimating 
all the others.' 

(17) ' Following Colebrooke (Essays, I, 540, note), I take the hasta 
for easy computation at exactly 18 inches, which gives inch as the 
value of the angula.' 

ANGHRI A foot, generally a small (dwarf) pillar constructed on 
a large one, or in the upper parts of a storey, and pilaster ; a turret. 

Tad-dvayam changhri-tungarh syad ekamSam prastaranvitam I 

(M., xn, 35.) 

Chatush-padam tri-padam cha dvi-padaikanghrim eva va I 

(M., LXVII, 8.) 

Tatra hinadhikam chet pada-sthananghrikasYayam I 

Sarvesham bhitti-maneshu tatra dosho na vidyate I (M, LXIX, 60-61.) 

As a synonym of the pillar : 

Taneha cha charanam chaiva sthali stambhamanghrikam I 

(M, xv, 4.) 

As a pillar of the first floor : 

Tadurdhve'nghri SaramSam syat I (M., xx, 16.) 
Adri-sopana-parsve tu na kuryat parSvayor anghrikam I 

(M., xxx, 163.) 

As a dwarf pillar placed upon a larger column : 

Athava sapta-saptamSam vibhajet tritalodaye I 
Chatur-bhagam adhishthanam tad-dvayam pada-tungakam I 
Adhishthana-samam mancham manchordhve'rdhena vapra-yuk I 
Sa-tripada-shadamsena chordhve padodayaih bhavet I 
Tadurdhve prastarottungam sa-tri-padam tri-padakam I 
Tadurdhve'rdhena vaprarh syat tadurdhve'nghri shad-amsakam I 

(M., xxi, 12-17.) 



II 



AftGHRIKA-VARI AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

A subordinate pillar : 

Mula-pada-visalam va tat-tri-pada-visalakam I 

Etat kumbhanghrikarh proktam antaralam cha yojayet I 

(M., xv, 228-29.) 

AftGHRIKA-VARI A moulding of the lamp-post (dipa-danda) 
of the shape of a water-pot, a rope, a trap, a cover, or a band. 
Agrc cha phalakantam cha tatikadyair vibhushitam I 
Athavanghrika-varirh syad urdhve cha kudmalanvitam i 

(M., L, 78-79.) 

ACHALA-SOPANA (see SOPANA) A flight of stationary or immov- 
able steps. 

Achalam cha chalarh chaiva dvidha sopanam iritam I (A/., xxx, 90.) 

See the contents of lines 93-124 under SOPANA. 

Cf. Evam tu chala-sopanam achalam tat pravakshyate I (151) 

Then follows the measurement (152-54). 
ATTA, ATTALA High, lofty. 

ATTALAKA An apartment on the roof, an upper storey, a tower, 
a military post. 

ATTALIKA ' A house of two or more storeys, a lofty house 
palace.' (M. W.Dict.} 

(1) Kautiliya-Artha-Sdstra : 

Vishkambha-chaturasYam attalakam utsedha-samavakshepa-sopanam 

karayet. 
TrimSad-dandantaram cha dvayor attalakayor madhye sa-harmya. 

dvi-talam dvyardhayamam pratolirii karayet. 
Attalaka-pratoli-madhye trl-dhanushkadhishthanam sapididhana-chch- 

hidra-phalaka-sariihatam itmdrakosarh karayet. (Chap, xxiv, 52.) 

(2) Kdmikdgama, xxxv : 

Agrato'lindakopetam attalam salakantare I 
Gopurasya tu . . . II (126). 

(3) Rajatarangini : 

I. 274 : prakarattala-mandalam . . . kinnara-puram I 
I. 301 : nagaryah . . . trutyad attala-mekhalah I 

(4) Mahdbhdrata (Cock) : 

II. 80, 30 : prakarattalakeshu I 
III. 15, 1 6 : purl . . . sattalakagopura I 
III. 160, 30 : VaiSravanavasam . . . prakarena parikshiptam I 

. . . chayattalaka-s'obhinam I 
III. 173, 3 : puram . . . gopurattalakopetam I 
III. 207, 7 : Mithilam . . . gopurattalakavatim I 
XV. 5, 1 6 : puram attalaka-sambadham (with very high storey). 
XVI. 6, 24 : nagarim . . . prakarattalakopetam i 

12 





ANOA 



AflGURIKA-VARI 




ANUHRI. 




HALF PLAN 
!_ooking-up 



HALF PLAN 
Looking-down. 



POLC 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ATI-BHAttGA 

(5) Ramayana : 

I. 5, ii : Uchchattala-dhvaja-vatim sataghni-sata-sarhkulam I 
Commentary : attala upari griham (lit. house at the top). 
II. 6, n : Chaityeshvattalakeshu cha I 

Commentary : attalakah prakaroparitana-yuddha-sthanam (atta- 
lakas imply the military towers built on the top of the enclosure walls). 
V. 3, 33 ' lankam . . . satta-prakara-toranam I 
V. 37, 39 : satta-prakara-toranam lankam I 
V. 55, 32 : lanka satta-prakara-torana I 
V. 51, 36 : purlrh satta-pratolikam I 
V. 58, 158 : purim satta-gopuram I 
V. 2, 17 : lankam . . . attalaka-Satakirnam I 
V. 2, 21 : purim . . . vapra-prakara-jaghanam I 

sataghni-sula-kesantam attalakavatarhsakam I 
VI 75, 6 : gopuratta-pratolishu charyasu cha vividhasu cha I 

(6) Turrets : 

Giri-sikhara-taru-tat-attalak-opatalpa-dvara-saranochchhraya. Com- 
pare with : Raghuvamsa. xvi, n, visirna talpatta Sato nivesah-(K ie lhorn, 
Jundgadh Rock Inscrip. of Rudradaman, Une 6, Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 43, 46 
and note 3.) 
ANDA A cupola. 

Shodasandayutah (furnished with 16 cupolas), vibhushito'ndais cha 
vimsatya (adorned with 20 C upolas)-(B^-5amAf^ LVI, 22 , 24, * I Kern, 
J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 319. 320). 

Sobhanaih patra-vallibhir andakaii cha vibhushitah I 

(Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CGLXIX, v. 20, see also v. 37.) 

ATI-BHAftGA (see BHANGA)-A pose, in which the idol is bent 

n more than two or three places. 

Sarvesham deva-devinarh bhanga-manam ihochyate I 
Abhahgam sama-bhahgam cha ati-bhangam tridha bhavet I 

(M., LXVII, 95-9 6 -) 

Evam tu sama-bhangam syad ati-bhangam ihochyate I 
Parshnyantaram Sarafigulyarh tat-padangushthayor antare I 
Tad dvayor madhyame vimSad ahgulyarh dvyantaram bhavet , 
Tai-ianu-dvayor madhye dvyantaram dvadasangulam I 
tjru-mula-dvayor madhye -^ha-dvyangula-kantakam 
Evam ati-bhahgarh syad etani yuktito nyaset I - M* "7 a 

13 



ADBHUTA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

ADBHUTA (see UTSEDHA) One of the five proportions of the 
measurement of the height ; in this proportion the height is twice 
the breadth. 

1 i ) Mdnasdra : 

Panchadhotsedham utkrishtam manat paficha-vidharh nama I 
Santikam paushtikaih Sreshtharh parshnikam (also, jayadam) 

madhya-mane tu I 

Hinam tu dvayam ta(rf)-dvi-gunorh chadbhutarh kathitam I 
Kara(sama)dhikodayam-harmye sarvakamikam udiritam I 

(M., xi, 20-22.) 

Santikam paushtikaih jayadam chadbhutarh utturigurh sarvakami- 
kam I (M, xi, 76). 
A clear statement of the rule : 

Tad-vistara-samottungarh sapadardharh tu tuiigakam I 
Tri-padahikam utsedharh vistararh dvi-gunodayam 1 1 
Prathamarh Santikotsedharh dvitiyam paushtikodayam I 
Tritiyarh jayadottungarh chaturtham dhanadodayam (i.e. sarvaka- 
mikam) I 
Panchamam chadbhutotsedharh janmadi-stupikantakam I 

(M., xxxv, 21-25.) 

(2) Kdmikdgama, L, 24-28 : 

A measurement of the height : 

Santikam pushti-jayadam adbhutarh sarvakamikam | 
Utsedhe dvi-guna-vyasah padadhikyarh cha sammatam II (24). 
Vistara-dvi-gunad ashtaihsadhikarh vadhiyojayet I 
Kshudranam evam uddishtam kanishthanam athochyate II (25). 
Saptarhse tu krite vyase saptarhsarh va shad-amsakam I 
Visfarad adhikas tungo madhya-manam athochyate II (26). 
Vistararh purvavat kritva chatush-panchadhikarh tu yat I 
Madhya-manam idarh proktarh uttamanarh trayarhsakam n 
Purvam uddesa-manarh syad etarh nirddesa-manakam li (27). 
Eka-dvi-tri-karayor yuktarh mana-hinarh tu vadhikam I 
Utsedham kalpayed dhiman sarvesham api sadmanam II (28). 

(3) A class of the two-storeyed buildings. 

(See M., xx, 94, 28-33, under PRASADA. 

A class of buildings (See Kdmikdgama, XLV, 6ia, under MALIKA.) 

ADRI-SOPANA (see SOPANA) A flight of steps for a hill : 

Adri-sopana-parsVe tu na kuryat parsvayo ahghrikam I 

(M., xxx, 163.) 

Adri-sopana-dese tu dirgha-manarh yatheshtakam I (ibid., 136.) 
Adri-defc samarohya yatra tatraiva karayet I (ibid., 118.) 

14 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

ADHIMANDAPA A pavilion built over and above another, a 
double-storeyed pavilion. (Pavilions are generally single-storeyed 
buildings, see MANDAPA.) 

Kshudra-devalayam sarvarh purvavaj janmadim uditam | 
Mandapaih nava-talam kuryad bhavanam anya(madhya)-rarigarh 
vadhimandapakaram (M., x, 143-44). 

ADHISHTHANA Etymologic ally (adhi-stha, to stand) it denotes 
an object on which something stands. Hence it is the basement 
or the lowest member of a building. In the same way, it implies 
the stand or base of the column, being the member between the 
shaft and the pedestal, if there be any. Its identification with the 
base and the basement need not be questioned. It is clear beyond 
doubt by a comparison of the component parts and the offices it 
serves with the corresponding details (quoted below) of the Grecian 
and Roman architecture. 

(1) Kdmikagdma, xxxv : 

Yajamanasya janvantam navyantam hridayavadhi I 
Galavadhi siro'ntam cha padardharh va tri-bhagikam II (22). 
Tri(tra)yadi-shodasa-bhaganam adhikam vokta-manatah I 
Adhisthanasya manam syat ... II (23). 
Taladhishthana-padebhyah kirhchid-una-pramanakam II (114). 
Mula-dhama-talottungadhishthana-tala-sarhyutam I 
Tad-vihina-talam vapi sama-sthala-yutam tu vail (116). 
Adhishthanadi shad-vargarh tan-manam upapithake I 
Dvarotsedhaya datavyarh samam vapyadhikam tu va II (122). 

Ibid., LV, 202 : 

Masurakam adhishthanam vastvadharam dharatalam I 
Talam kuttimadyahgam adhishthanasya kirtitam II 
These are stated to be the synonyms of adhishthana. But they appear 
as the component parts of it. 

(2) Suprabheddgama, xxxi : 

Tato jangala-bhumis ched adhishthanam prakalpayet I 
Tach-chatur-vidham akhyatam iha sastre vi^eshatah II (16). 
Padma-bandham charu-bandham pada-bandham prati-kramam I 
Vistarasya chaturthamsam adhishthanochchhrayam bhavet II (17). 
(See the mouldings of these four bases under those terms.) 
Padayamam adhishthanam dvi-gunam sarva-sammatam II (28). 

15 



ADHISHTHANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(3) Mdnasdra, Chap, xiv (named Adhishthana, 1-412) : 

Twelve kinds of heights (from one large span to four large cubits) to be 
employed in twelve storeyes, one above the other : 

Trayodasangulam arabhya shat-shad-angula-vardhanat I 
Chatur-hastavasanarh syat kuttima ( adhishthana)-dva- 

daSonnatam I 
Eka-dva-dasa-bhumyantam harmyantarh tat kramat nyaset I (2-4). 

These heights vary in buildings of the different castes and ranks : 
Vipranarh tu chatur-hastarh bhu-patinarii trl-hastakam I 
Sardha-dvi-hastam utsedharh yuva-rajasya harmyake I 
Dvi-hastarh tu visarh proktam eka-hastam tu Sudrake I (5-7). 

These heights are stated to be proportionate to the heights of the 
buildings : 

Harmya-tuhga-vas'at proktam tasya masu(u)rakonnatam I 
Janmadi-vajanantarh syat kuttimodayam iritam I (8-9). 
The height of the base as compared with that of the pedestal : 
Adhishthanonnate dese chopapitharh hi sarhsritam I 
Etam tat-tvam adhishthanam tungarii tach chatur-arhsakam I 

(M., xiii, 2-3.) 
The comparative heights of the base, pedestal and shaft or pillar : 

In a Tamil fragment of a manuscript, purporting to be a 
translation of Mdydmata (? Mayamata), it is said : ' The height 
of the shaft or pillar is to be divided into four parts, and one to be 
given to the base, which may or may not be accompanied by a 
pedestal, and in the case where a pedestal is joined to the base, 
the height of the pedestal may be either equal to that of the base, or 
twice or three times as much.' (Ram Raz, Ess. Arch, of Hind., p. 26.) 

According to Ram Raz, the passage, M., xm, 2-3, quoted above, 
is meant to imply that the height of the pedestal consists ' of from 
one-quarter to six times the height of the base.' (Ibid., p. 26.) 

According to the Mdnasdra (xxi, 13, see below) and the Supra- 
bheddgama (xxxi, quoted above) the base is half of the pillar (pada) . 
The Kdmikdgama does not give exact proportion, but says (xxxv, 
114, see above) that the tala (the lowest part, or the pedestal 
and the base) is a little less (kirhchid una) than the pillar or shaft 
(pada). 
Compare also verses 22, 23 of the same Agama quoted above. 

The height of the base is sometimes included in that of the 
pillar : 

Padayamavasanam cha adhishthanodayena cha I (M., xv, 9.) 

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HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

Further comparative measurement of the base : 
Athava sapta-saptamsam vibhajet tri-talodaye I 
Chatur-bhagam adhishthanarh tad-dvayam pada-tuhgakam I 
Adhishthana-samarhmaficham manchordhve'rdhcna vaprayuk I 

(A/., xxi, 12-14.) 
Adhishthana implying the basement of a building : 

Garbhavatasya (of the foundation pit) nimnarh syad 

adhishthana(rh)-samonnatam I 
Ishtakair api pashanais chaturasrarh samarii bhavet I 

(M., XH, 6-7.) 

The employment of various bases recommended, referring to 
the building of three storeys : 

Nanadhishthana-sarhyuktam nana-padair alankritam I 
Nana-gopana-sarhyuktaih kshudra-nasyair vibhushitam I 

(A/., xx, 65-66.) 
The penalty for having a disproportionate base : 

Adhishthanotturiga-hlnam syat sthana-nasarh dhana-kshayam I 

(M., LXIX, 20.) 

The 64 types of bases : 

Evarh chatuh-shashti-masurakani( adhishthanam) sastrokta- 
manena vibhajitani I 

Jnatva prakurvann iha gilpi-varyas tad vastu-bhartuh pradadati 
sarhpat I (M., xiv, 393-96.) 

These 64 bases are described under 19 technical class names 
(10-372) ; the details thereof are as follows : 

Mdnasdra, Chap, xiv (The mouldings are arranged in the successive 
order, as given in the text, from the bottom upwards) : 
I. Pada-bandha (10-22) : 

(a) 24 parts : Parts 

(1) Vapraka (plinth) .. .. ..8 

(2) Kumuda (astragal) . . . . . . 7 

(3) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(4) Karna (ear) 3 

(5) Kampa (fillet) . . . . i 

(6) Pattika (band, fillet) . . . . 3 

(7) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . I 

(b) 29 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . 2 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . I 

The rest as before. 

17 



ADHISHTHANA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



(c) 29 parts : 

(i) Janman (plinth) 
The rest as befoie. 

(d) 28 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) 

(2) Kampa (fillet) 

(3) Vapra (cavetto) 

(4) Kandhara (dado) 
The rest as before. 

II. Uraga-bandha (23-43) : 

(a) 1 8 parts : 

(1) Vapra (plinth) 

(2) Kumuda (astragal) 

(3) Kampa (fillet) 

(4) Kandhara (dado) 

(5) Patta 1 (fiu t) 

(6) Pattikaj v 

(7) Kampa (fillet) 

(b) 20 parts : 

(i) Vajana (fillet) 
(a) Kandhara (dado) 
(3) Vajana (fillet) 
The rest as before. 

(c) 22 parts : 

(1) Kampa (fillet) above kumbha (pitcher) 

(2) Karna (ear) .. 

(3) Kampa (fillet) 

(4) Kampa (fillet) 

(5) Kandhara (dado) 

(6) Vajana (fillet) 

(7) Kandhara (dado) 

(8) Gopanaka (beam) 

(9) Prati-vajana (cavetto) . . 

(d) 24 parts : 

(i) Vapra (plinth) 

(a) Kumuda (torus) (the peculiarity of this part is 
that it is decorated with makara or shark), etc. 

(3) Vajana (fillet) 

(4) Kampana (fillet) 

(5) Kampa (fillet) 

(6) Prati-vajana (cavetto) . . 

18 



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HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

These four types of bases are shaped like the face of a snake and fur- 
nished with two pratis or ... at the top : and their kumbha (pitcher) 
is circular. These are employed in the buildings of gods (i.e. temples), 
Brahmans, and kings. 

III. Prati-krama (44-64) : 

(a) 21 parts : Parts 

(1) Kshudropana (small plinth) .. .. i 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 2 J 

(3) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i\ 

(4) Vapra (cavetto) . . . . . . 7 

(5) Dhara-kumbha (supporting pitcher) . . 6 

(6) Alihga (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(7) Antarita (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(8) Padma (cyma) or Kampa (fillet) Patta (band) i or 2 
This base is decorated with elephants, horses, and makaras (sharks), 

etc. (xiv, 53^. 

(b) 22 parts (kumbhe kumudordhvc viseshatah, specially above 
the pitcher and torus) : 

Parts 

(i) Alinga (fillet) .. .. .. I 

(a) Vajana (fillet) . . . . . . I 

(3) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . 2 

(4) Pattika (band) . . . . . . i 

(5) Vajana (fillet) (this part is decorated with the 
carvings of trees and all ornaments) . . i 

The rest should be as before. 

(c) 23 parts (Kumbhantam purvavat sordhve) : 

(1) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(2) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . i 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . I 

(4) Karna (ear) . . . . . . 2 

(5) Vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

The rest should be as before. 

(d\ 24 parts : 



(i) Kampana (fillet) (upper and lower). . 



each 



(2) Antara(rita) (intervening fillet) 

(3) Tripatta (three bands) . . 

(4) Antara (intervening fillet) 

(5) Pratima ( ? Prati-vajana= cavetto) 

(6) Vajana (fillet) 

The rest should be as before. 

These are employed in the buildings of gods and three higher castes 
(xiv, 100-101). 

19 



ADHISHTHANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

IV. Kumuda-bandha (65-77) : 

(a) 27 parts : Paris 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Ambuja (cyma) . . . . . . u 

(3) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(4) Vapra (cavctto) . . . . . . 6 

(5) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(6) Karna (ear) . . . . . . i 

(7) Ams"u (filament) . . . . . . i 

(8) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(9) Kumuda (astragal) . . . . . . 3 

(10) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(n) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(12) Karna (ear) . . . . . . i 

(13) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(14) Abja (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(15) Pa{ta (band) .. .. .. 2 

( 1 6) Abja (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(17) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(b) 27 parts (pattike tu viseshatah) : 

Gopana (beam) . . . . . . . . 2 

Some authorities recommend Tripatta in place of kumuda (astragal) 
which should be equal to the naga or snake. 

Pattas (bands) in the middle are decorated with flowers and jewels. 

It is supplied with a declivity (kataka) or it may be circular. 

Kumuda (astragal) may be triangular or hexagonal. 

In this way, eight kinds of (such) bases should be made : Evam ashta- 

vidharh kuryat. 

V. Padma-kesara (suitable for all buildings) (78-91) : 

(a) 19 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. ..2 

(2) Vapra (cavetto) . . . . . . 4 

(3) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 

(4) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . | 

(5) Ardha-padma (half cyma) . . . . f 

(6) Kumuda (astragal) . . . . . . i 

(7) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 1 1 

(8) Kampa (fillet) .. ., .. i\ 

(9) Karna (ear) . . . . . . 2 

20 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

Parts 

(10) Kampa (fillet) .. .. 

( 1 1 ) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 

(12) Pattika (band) .. .. .. 2 

(13) Padma (cyma) .. .. i 

(14) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(b) 19 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. ii 

(2) Kampa (fillet) . . . . | 
The rest should be as before. 

(c) 19 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) . .. .. i 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 

The rest should be as before. 

(rf) 19 parts : 

In this last sort of this base, there is a slight difference 
(kinchit Sesham viSeshatah). There should be two pattikas or (one) 
kapota and the rest as before. 

VI. Pushpa-pushkala (suitable, as stated, for all the storeys of the 

buildings of the small, intermediate, and large sizes) (92-108) : 

(a] 32 parts : Parts 
(i) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(a) Vajana (fillet) . . . . i 

(3) Maha-padma (large cyma) . . 7 

(4) Karna (ear) . . i 

(5) Ambuja (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(6) Kumbha (pitcher) . . . . 4 

(7) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(8) Kampa (fillet) . . . . i 

(9) Gala (dado) .. .. 3 

(10) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(11) Gala (dado) .. .. . . i 

(12) Gopana (beam) .. .. ..4 

(13) Alinga (fillet) .. . . .. i 

(14) Antarita (fillet) .. .. .. I 

(15) Prati-mukha (a face-like ornament) .. 2 

(16) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(b) 32 parts : 

Padma (cyma) above the large portion is one part more and 
the rest should be as before. 

21 



ADHISHTHANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(c) 32 parts : 

The cyma above the plinth is one part and the rest should be 
as before. 

(d) 32 parts : Parts 

(1) Kampa (fillet) below mahambuja (large cyma) i 

(2) Mahambuja (large cyma) 6 
The rest should be as before. 

VII. Sri-bandha (suitable for the palaces of emperors and the 
temples of Vishnu and Siva) (109-22) : 

(a) 26 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) * 

(2) Vapra (cavetto) 6 

(3) Kumuda (torus) 6 

(4) Karna (ear) 1 

(5) Karna (ear) . . 4 

(6) Kampa (fillet) i 

(7) Padma (cyma) i 

(8) Gopana (beam) i 

(9) Alinga (fillet) I 
(id) Antarita (fillet) i 
(n) Prati-vaktra (a face-like ornament) 2 
(12) Vajana (fillet) i 

(b) 26 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) 2 

(2) Pratika ( = Prati-vaktra, a face-like ornament) i 

The rest should be as before. 

(c) 26 parts : 

(1) Kshepana (above Janman or plinth) (projection) i 

(2) Gopana (beam) I 

(3) Alinga (fillet) i 

(4) Antarita (fillet) i 

(5) Prati-vaktra (a face-like ornament) i 

(6) Ardha-vajana (half fillet) i 
The rest should be as before. 

(d) 26 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. i 

(2) Abjaka (small cyma) . . . . i 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . i 
The rest should be as before. 

22 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

VIII. Mancha-bandha (for temples and palaces) (123-143) : 

(a) 26 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. \ 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 2 

(3) Kampa (fillet) .. .. ..2 

(4) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . 2 

(5) Vapra (cavetto) . . . . . . 6 

(6) Kumbha (pitcher) . . . . . . 4 

(7) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(8) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . 2 

(9) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(10) Patta (band) . . .. .. i 

(11) Kshepana (projection) .. .. .. i 

(12) Alinga (fillet) .. .. \ 

(13) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(14) Prati (fillet).. .. .. .. \\ 

(15) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

This is decorated with the carvings (rupa) of vyalas (snakes) 

lions, and sharks, etc. (137). 

(b) 26 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Ambuja (cyma) . . . . . . 2 

(3) Kshepana (projection) . . . . . . i 

(4) Vapra (cavetto) . . . . . . 6 

(5) Kumuda (torus) . . . . . . 4 

(6) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(7) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . 2 

(8) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(9) Pattika (band) . . . . . . 2 

(10) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(n) Karna (ear).. .. .. .. i 

(12) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(13) Prati (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(14) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(c) 26 parts : 

The Kumuda and prati are furnished with a tripatta 
(threefold band) ; and the rest as before, and the ornaments also 
are the same. 

(d) 26 parts : Parts 

(1) Pattika (fillet) same as before ; 

(2) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . i 

The rest as before. 

23 



ADHISHTHANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(e) 26 parts : 

The Pattika is the same but the Kandhara above is one part, 
and the rest as before. The ornaments should be discreetly made 
(148). 
IX. Sreni-bandha (for temples and all other buildings) (144-169) : 

(a) 1 8 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. il 

(2) Kshudra-kampa (small fillet) . . . . \ 

(3) Mahambuja (large cyma) . . . . 5 

(4) Kandhara (dado) 

(5) Abja (cyma) 

(6) Kumbha (pitcher) 

(7) Padma (cyma) 

(8) Alinga (fillet) 

(9) Vajana (fillet) 

(10) Prati (fillet) .. .. ..2 

(n) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. I 

(b) 22 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Kshudra-kshepana (small projection) . . \ 

(3) Ambuja (cyma) 4$ 

(4) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . i 

(5) Abjaka (small cyma) . . . . . . i 

(6) Kumbha (pitcher) . . . . . . 3 

(7) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(8) Kampa (fillet) .. . i 

(9) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . 2 

(10) Kshepana (projection) .. .. .. i 

(u) Padma (cyma) .. .. i 

(12) Pattika (band) .. ..2 

(13) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(14) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(c) 23 parts : 

(1) Paduka (plinth) .. .. .. 2j 

(2) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . $ 

(3) Mahambuja (large cyma) . . . . 5 

(4) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . i 

(5) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(6) Kumuda (astragal) . . . . . . 3 

(7) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

24 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

Parts 

(8) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. l 

(9) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . j 

(10) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. j 

( 1 1 ) Antarita (fillet) . . . . . . 3 

(12) Prati (fillet) .. .. .. ..2 

(13) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. j 

(d] 24 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. \ 

(2) Kshudra-padma (small cyma) . . . . t 

(3) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. x 

(4) Maha-padma (large cyma) . . . . r 

(5) Dala (petal) . . . . . . l 

The rest as before. 

These are decorated with lions, etc. (174). 
X. Padma-bandha (for the temples of gods and goddesses) (170-194): 

(a) 21 parts : p ar ts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. x 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(4) Kumbha (pitcher) . . . . . . x 

(5) Kshepana (projection) . . . . . . i 

(6) Adhah-padma (lower cyma) . . . . 3 

(7) Karna (ear) . . . . . . i 

(8) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . 2 

(9) Pattika (band) . . . . . . 2 

(10) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(n) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. i 

(12) Patta (band) .. .. ..2 

(b) 21 parts : 

(1) Upana (plinth) . . . . . . 3 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(3) Kumuda (astragal) . . . . . . 5 

(4) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(5) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 4 

(6) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(7) Gala (dado) . . . . . . 2 

(8) Kshepana (projection) . . . . . . i 

(9) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(10) Kapota (dove-cot) .. .. .. 2 

(u) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

25 



ADHISHTHANA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



(c) 21 parts : 

(i) Abja (cyma) as before ; 
(a) Kampa (fillet) 

(3) Karna (ear) . . 

(4) Kampa (fillet) 

(5) Antarita (fillet) 

(6) Prati (fillet) . . 

(7) Vajana (fillet) 
The rest as before. 



Parts 

i 

2 
I 
2 

I 

I 



(d) 19 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) 

(2) Padma (cyma) 

(3) Kandhara (dado) 

(4) Padma (cyma) 

(5) Kumbha (pitcher) 

(6) Padma (cyma) 

(7) Kampa (fillet) 

(8) Karna (ear) .. 

(9) Padma (cyma) 
(10) Kapota (dove-cot) 
(u) Alinga (fillet) 

(12) Antarita (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(13) Prati-vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

These are discreetly adorned with grahas (sharks), lions, etc. (203). 

XI. Kumbha-bandha (195-239) : 

(a) 24 parts : Parts 

1 i ) Janman (plinth) . . . . . . 2 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 3 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(4) Karna (ear) . . . . . . 3 

(5) Kampa (fillet) 

(6) Pattika (band) 

(7) Kampa (fillet) 

(8) Padma (cyma) 

(9) Karna (ear) 

(10) Padma (cyma) 

(11) Kumbha (pitcher) 

(12) Padma (cyma) 

(13) Nimna (drip) 

(14) Kampa (fillet) 

(15) Nimna (drip) .. .. .. 

(16) Prati (fillet) .. .. .. 

26 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISITTIIANA 



(b] 24 parts : Parts 

(1) Kumbha (pitcher) .. .. .. i 

(2) Nimnaka (drip) . . . . . . i 

(3) Janman (plinth) . . . . . . 2 

(4) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 2 

(5) Nimna (drip) 

(6) Kumbha (pitcher) 

(7) Kampa (fillet) 

(8) Kandhara (dado) 

(9) Kampa (fillet) 
(10) Kampa (fillet) 
(u) Kapota (dove-cot) 

(12) Vajana (fillet) 

(13) Padma (cyma) 

(14) Nimna (drip) 

(15) Padma (cyma) 

(16) Kumbha (pitcher) 

(17) Padma (cyma) 

(18) Nimna (drip) 

(19) Kshepana (projection) .. 

(20) Nimna (drip) 

(21) Prati (fillet) 

(c) 24 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .2 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 2 

(3) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . i 

(4) Kumbha (pitcher) . . . . . . i 

(5) Nimna (drip) . . . . . . i 

(6) Kshudra-patta (small band) . . . . i 

(7) Abja (cyma) .. .. i 

(8) Kapota (dove-cot) . . . . . . 2 

(9) Kshepana (projection) . . i 
(10) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. i| 

(u) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. il 

(12) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. ii 

(13) Kumbha (pitcher) .. .. .. 3 

(14) Adhah-padma (lower cyma) .. i 

(15) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. i 

(16) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(17) Kshudrabja (small cyma) .. i 

(18) Kapota (dove-cot) .. .. .. 2(?-J) 

(19) Prati-vajana (fillet), the remainder. 

27 



ADHISHTHANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(d) 26 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 2 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(4) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . 2 

(5) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(6) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(7) Pa{tika (band) . . . . . . 2 

(8) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(9) Alinga (fillet) .. .. i 

(10) Padma (cyma) .. .. i 

(11) Kumbha (pitcher) .. .. .. 3 

(12) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. j 

(13) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(14) Kendra (central part) . ..2 

(15) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(16) Abja (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(17) Kapota (dove cot) .. .. .. i 

(18) Kampa (fillet) .. .. i 
The rest should be discreetly made. 

These should be decorated with sharks, etc. and kshudra-nasi (small 
nose) (246). 

This is stated to be of five kinds [see (b) (i), (2) above] specially in the 
Kumbha part (247). 

These may be circular, triangular (tri-pajta), rectangular (? dharSya), 
and should be furnished with katakas. These are suitable for temples 
and palaces (248). 

XII. Vapra-bandha (240-248) : 

(a) (?) 31 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. o 

(2) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(3) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. jj 

(4) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. }" 

(5) Vapra (cavetto) . . . . . . g 

(6) Padma (cyma) . . . . . i J 

(7) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i" 

(8) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . 2 

(9) Kampa (fillet) ... .. .. i 

(10) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(u) Pat^ika (band) .. .. .. i 

(12) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. i 

28 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

(13) Vajana (fillet) 

(14) Karna (ear) 

(15) Kshepana (projection) .. x 

(16) Ambuja (cyma) .. tt i 

(17) Kapota (dove-cot) .. . . ~ 

( 1 8) Prati-vajana (fillet) 

XIII. Vajra-bandha (249-259) : 

(a) 31 parts : Par(s 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. j 

(2) Kampa (fillet) . . ^ 

(3) Padma (cyma) . . . . ^ 

(4) Kampa (fillet) .. .. " ^ 

(5) Kandhara (dado) . . , , ] 

(6) Kampa (fillet) .. | 

(7) Padma (cyma) . . g t J 

(8) Vajra-kumbha (round pitcher) . . 2 

(9) Saro-ruha (cyma) . . i 
(10) Kampa (fillet) 

(u) Karna (ear) .. . , j 

(it) Kampa (fillet) .. .. . } 

(13) Ambuja (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(14) Kapota (dovecot) .. .. " y 

(15) Prati-vajana (fillet) .. .. . x 

(16) Kandhara (dado) .. .. 2 

(17) Kampa-padma (fillet and cyma) .. x 

(18) Vajra-patta (round band) .. 2 

(19) Padma-kampa (cyma and fillet) .. .. j 
XIV. Sri-bhoga (260-280) : 

(a) 27 parts : Pafts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. 2 j 

(2) Kshudra-kampa (small fillet) .. .. j" 

(3) Ambuja (cyma) . . . . 3 

(4) Kshudra-padma (small cyma) (it is attached to i 

the small karna, line 275) ; 

(5) Karna (ear) . . . . . . l 

(6) Kampa (fillet) . . . . ... | 

(7) Kshudrabja (small cyma) . . . . 3(?i) 

(8) Kumuda (astragal) 

(9) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. j 

29 



ADHISHTHANA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Paris 

(10) Kshepana (projection) .. .. .. J 

(11) Karna (ear) . . . . . . i 

(12) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. | 

(13) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. |(?i) 

(14) Pattika (band) .. .. .. i 

(15) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. | 

(16) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(17) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. 2 

(18) Kampa padma (fillet and cyma) ... .. i(?i-fi) 

(19) Kapotaka(dove-cot) .. .. .. 2 

(20) Alinga (fillet) . . . . . . 2 

(V) 27 parts : Parts 

1 i ) Janman (plinth) . . . . . . 2 

(2) Kshudropana (small plinth) . . . . i 

(3) Mahambuja (large cyma) , , . . 3 

(4) Kshudra-pankaja (: mall cyma) 

(5) Kampa-karna (fillet and car) . . . . 

(6) Kampa-padma (fillet and cyma) . . . . i 

(7) two Kapotas (dove-cots) . . . . 2 

(8) Gala (dado) .. .. .. i 

(9) Prati-vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(10) Gala (dado) .. .. \ 

(11) Padma -kampa (cyma and fillet) .. .. i 

(12) Pattika (band) . .. ..2 

(13) Gala (dado) .. .. \ 

(14) Vajana (fillet) .. .. \ 

(15) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(16) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. 2^ 

(17) Kapota (dove-cot) .. .. .. 2^ 

(18) Prati(ma) (fillet) .. .. ..2" 

XV. Ratna-bandha (281-296) : 

(a) 26 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) . . . . . . i 

(2) Kshudra-vajana (small fillet) . . . . J 

(3) Vapra (cavetto) . . . . . . i (?3) 

(4) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(5) Asana (seat) . . . . . . i 

(6) Ratna-vapra (jewelled cavetto) . . . . 4^ 

(7) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. 4] 

(8) Nimna (drip) . . . . . . \ 

30 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

Paris 

(9) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. |- 

(10) Abja (cyma) .. .. .. | 

(n) Ratna-kampa (jewelled fillet) .. .. 2 

(12) Kampaja (fillet) .. .. .. ^ 

(13) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. f 

(14) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. 2 

(15) Kampa padma (fillet and cyma) . . . . i 

(16) Ratna-patta (jewelled fillet) .. .. i 

(17) Padma-kampa (cyma and fillet) .. .. i 

(18) Karna(ear) .. .. .. i 

(19) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. * 

(20) Abja (cyma) . . . . . . | 

(21) Kapota (dove-cot) .. .. .. 2 

(22) Alinga (fillet) .. .. .. i| 

(23) Prati-vajana (fillet), the remainder. 

This part is adorned with the carvings of snakes and sharks, etc., and 
all other parts are decorated with jewelled lotuses. This base should be 
made in the temples of Siva and Vishnu (lines 307-309). 

XVI. Patta-bandha (297-304) : 

26 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Vajana (fillet) . . . . . . J 

(3) Mahabja (large cyma) . . . . . . <2.\ 

(4) Padma-kampa (cyma and fillet) . . . . i 

(5) Nimna-kampa (drip and fillet) . . . . \ 

(6) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(7) Maha-patta (large band) . . . . 2 

(8) Padma-kampa (cyma and fillet) . . . . i 

(9) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . i 

(10) Kshepana-abja (projection and cyma) 5 

(11) Kapota (dove-cot) .. .. . 2 

(12) Prati-vajana (fillet), the remainder. 
This is adorned with all ornaments (line 318). 

XVII. Kaksha-bandha (305-346) : 

(a) 1 8 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Kampa (fillet) , . . . . . 

(3) Mahambuja (large cyma) . . . . 2^ 

(4) Padma-kampa (cyma and fillet) . . . i 

(5) Nimna (drip) . . I 

31 



ADHISimiANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Parts 

(6) Antarita (fillet) .. .. ... i 

(7) Prati (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(8) Vajana (fillet) 

(g) Kandhara (dado) 

(10) Kampa-padma (fillet and cyma) 

(11) Vritta-kumbha (round pitcher) 

(12) Padma-kshepana (cyma and projection) 

(13) Kama (ear) 

( i .1 ) Kampa-padma (fillet and cyma) . . 

( 1 5) Kapota (dove-cot) 

(16) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. A 

This is adorned with all ornaments, and sharks and snakes, etc. (line 328). 

(b) 19 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. i 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . j 

(4) Mahambuja (large cyma) ... . . 2 

(5) Padma-nimna (cyma and drip) . . . . i 

(6) Abja (cyma) . . . . . . 

(7) Kumuda (astragal) .. .. .. i\ 

(8) Abja (cyma) . . . . . . \ 

(9) Karna (ear) . . . . . . J 

(10) Abja (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(11) Pattika (band) .. .. .. i\ 

(12) Padma-kampa (cyma and fillet) .. , i 

(13) Nimnaka (drip) .. .. . . i 

(14.) Antarita (fillet) .. .. -I 

(15) Prati (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(16) Vajana (fillet) .. .. \ 

( 1 7) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . i 

(1 8) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. } 

( 1 9) Padma (cyma) 

(20) Kapota (dove-cot) . . . . , . 1 1 

(21) Vajana (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(22) Prati-bandha (fillet and band) . . . . i 

The rest should be as before and it should be decorated with 
all ornaments (line 340). 

(c) 26 parts : Paris 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. I 

(2) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

32 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



ADHISHTHANA 



Parts 

(3) Kandhara (dado) v . . . . 2 

(4) Kampa (fillet) 

(5) Padma (cyma) 

(6) Kampa (fillet) 

(7) Argala (bar) 

(8) Kampa (fillet) 

(9) Padma (cyma) 

(10) Kapota (dove-cot) .. .. .. 2 

(n) Prati-vajana (fillet), the remainder. 

Patta-kampa, Kapota, and the two Paftas may be circular 
(line 348). 

The parts of the two lower karnas are adorned with images of snakes, 
etc. (line 349 \ 

(d) 24 parts : Paris 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 3 

(2) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(3) Nimna (drip) . . . . . . i 

(4) Bhadras (projecting ornaments) .. .. 5(each) 

(5) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(6) Nimnaka (drip) . . . . . . i 

(7) Antarita (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(8) Prati (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(9) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . I 

(10) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. i 

(u) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(12) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(13) Kapota (dove-cot) .. ... .. 3 

(14) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. i 

(15) Prati (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(16) Kumbha (pitcher) .. .. .. 8 

(? octangular). 

There should be Bhadra-patta (front fillet) and Patra-patta (leaf 
fillet) in the Kapota part (line 359). 
XVIII. Kampa-bandha (347-358) : 

36 parts : Parts 

(1) Tunga (elevation) .. .. ..4 

(2) Kshudra-upana (small plinth) . . . . I 

(3) Mahabja (large cyma) . . . . 5 

(4) Kshudrabja (small cyma) . . . . I 

(5) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

33 



ADHISHTHANA S AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Parts 

(6) Nimna (drip) 

(7) Vajana (fillet) 

(8) Padma (cyma) 

(9) Kumbha-mahabja (pitcher and cyma) 5 

(10) Abja (cyma) 
(n) Kampa (fillet) 

(12) Alinga (fillet) 

(13) Antarita (fillet) 

(14) Prati (fillet) 

(15) Vajana (fillet) 

(16) Kshepana (projection) . . 

(17) Kandhara (dado) 

(18) Kampa (fillet) 

(19) Padma (cyma) 

(20) Kapota (dove-cot) 3 

(21) Alinga (fillet) .. 1 

(22) Prati (fillet) 1 
XIX. Sri-kanta (359-372) : 

36 parts : Parts 

(1) Upana (plinth) .. 3 

(2) Kshudropana (small plinth) i 

(3) Mahambuja (large cyma) 

(4) Kshudrabja (small cyma) . . ' 

(5) Kandhara (dado) . . . ' 

(6) Padma (cyma) i 

(7) Pattika (band) .. 3 

(8) Kshudra-kampa (small fillet) . . i 

(9) Padma (cyma) . . 4 

(10) Kshudrabja (small cyma) i 

(11) Nimna (drip) . . . . i 

(12) Padma (cyma) .. .. i 

(13) Kumbha (pitcher) .. ... 3 

(14) Kampa (fillet) i 

(15) Kshepana (projection) .. i 

(16) Kandhara (dado) .. 2 

(17) Kampa (fillet) .. - l 

(18) Padma (cyma) .. * 

(19) Kapota (dove-cot) .. .. J 

(20) Alinga (fillet) . . . . i 

(21) Prati (fillet) .. i 

34 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ADHISHTHANA 

This Sri-kanta is stated to be of four kinds (line 376) but only one 
type is illustrated. 

In the kumbha-part it should be round or there should be patta 
(line 372). These should be constructed in the temples of Siva and 
Vishnu (line 387). 

Projections (lines 318-409) : 

Projections are the peculiarities of the mouldings from the plinth 
to the crowning fillet : 

Janmadi-vajanantaim cha arhsanam tad viseshatah | (373) 
These projections vary from being equal to one-fourth of the mould- 
ings (lines 37 6 ~3 8 4) : 

Tat-samarh nirgamam vapi tri-padam ardhardham eva cha I 
Tad-eva kshepanarh sarve yatha-sobham tu karayet I 
Upana-tunga-samam vapi tat-padona-vivardhanat I 
Tungena tri-vidhanam cha tri-padam nirgamarh bhavet | 
Vaprochcham tu samaih vapi yavat kumuda-nirgamam | 
Kumudochcharh vapra-pattantam pattika-nirgamarh bhavet | 
Tat-samam nirgamam vapi pattam gopana-nirgamarh I 
Kshudra-pankaja-sarvesham tat-samam nirgamam bhavet I 
Yatha-Sobharh balat sarvam anganarh sahito(-arh) nyaset I 
These general rules are illustrated by giving in danda (rod) and hasta 
(cubit) measures the projections of some plinth (lines 402-409). 

For a comparative study and general knowledge of the subject the 
details of the bases employed in early European architecture are given 
below. Each column has its particular base : 

I. Tuscan order (Gwilt, Encycl., Art. 2555): 
Base of the column 1 2 parts : 

Projection from the axis of 

column in parts of a 

module 

(1) Fillet .. ..i 13^ 

(2) Torus . . 5 i6 

(3) Plinth ..6 16^ 
II. Doric order (Art. 2565) : 

Base of the column 1 2 parts : 

Projection 

(1) Apophyge or cong6 ..2 12 

(2) Fillet .. f 14 

(3) Astragal .. . . ij 14! 

(4) Torus . . . . 4 17 

(5) Plinth .. ..1 17 

35 



ADHISHTHANA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



Grecian Doric : 

Cornice 15-32 parts; Entablature Frieze 14-88 parts; 
architrave 17-10 parts; Capital 11- 16 parts. 

Column (proper) Shaft 20-30 modules; ist step or plinth 
6-90 ; 2nd step or plinth 6-70 ; 3rd step or plinth 6-90. 
III._Ionic order (Art. 2573) : 

Base of the column ig| parts, excluding apophyge 2 parts and 
projection 18 : 



(1) Fillet 

(2) Torus 

(3) Fillet 

(4) Scotia 

(5) Fillet 

(6) Two beads 

(7) Fillet 

(8) Scotia 

(9) Fillet 
(10) Plinth 

Grecian Ionic (art. 2581) : 

Base of the column 33.27 parts : 

(1) Apophyge 

(2) Fillet .. . 

(3) Bead 

(4) Torus (horizontally 

fluted) 

(5) Fillet 

(6) Scotia 

(7) Fillet 

(8) Torus 

(9) Plinth 

IV. Corinthian order (Art. 2582) 
Base of the column 14! parts : 

(i) Torus 
() Fillet 

(3) Scotia 

(4) Fillet 

36 



Projection in parts of a 

module from axis of 

the column 

20 



20 

i 22 

2 22 

i 22 

2 21 

i 24 

6 25 



i -080 

0-450 18-960 

1-080 19-320 

6-120 22-500 

0-450 22-500 

6-000 21-840 

0-450 23-640 

5*760 24-960 

1 1 -880 26-520 



Height in parts 
of a module 

3 

i 
it 

i 



Projection in parti 
of a module 

22 



2O 

ail 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



ANU-GRIHA 



Height in parts 
of a module 



(5) Two beads 

(6) Fillet 

(7) Scotia 

(8) Fillet 

(9) Torus 
(10) Plinth 

V. Composite order (Art. 2591) : 
The base of the column 18 parts 



4 
6 



Height in parts 
of a module 



Projection in parts 
of a module 

22 
2lf 

23 
25 
25 



Projection in parts 

of a module 

20 

20 

22 



2O 

21* 
2 if 

21* 
20f 

23 
25 
25 



(i) Gong6 .. .. 2 

(a) Fillet .. .. 1 1 

(3) Torus .. .. 3 

(4) Fillet i 

(5) Scotia .. .. i* 

(6) Fillet .. .. i 

(7) Bead .. .. * 

(8) Fillet i 

(9) Scotia . . . 2 
(10) Fillet .. i 
(n) Torus . . 4 
(12) Plinth .. 6 

From the details given above it would be easy to understand and 
subscribe to the following remark : 

' The Indian (pedestals and) bases are made more systematically, 
and afford by far a greater variety of proportions and ornaments 
than the Grecian and Roman. In the European architecture, the 
forms and dimensions of pedestals and bases are fixed by invariable 
rules, with respect to the orders in which they are employed, but in 
the Indian, the choice is left to the option of the artists.' (Ram Raz 
Ess. Arch, of Hind., pp. 39-40 and see Plate n.) 

ANANTA (see LUPA) A kind of lupa or ' a sloping and projecting 
member of the entablature representing a continued pent-roof. ' 
Ambaram cha vyayarh jyotir gaganam cha vihayasi i 
Anantarh chantariksham cha prastaram (? pushkalarh) chash- 
tadha lupah I (M, xvni, 174-175-) 
ANU-GRIHA The roof of a house. 

Cf. Karna-kilaya-sambandho'nugriham setuh ' The fastening of 
the roof of a house to the transverse beam by means of iron bolts is called 
Setu.' (Kautiliya-Artha-stistra, Chap. LXV, p. 166.) 

37 



ANU-SALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

ANU-&ALA (cf. SALA) An ante-chamber, a hall or room behind 
or at the side of a main hall. 

Mdnasdra, xxvi : 9, 19, 23 : 

(a) ShodasamSakam adhikyam bhagam harmya-visalakam | (7) 
Ekarhsarh karna-kutarh syad dharantara(ih) sivamsakam I (8) 
Dvi-bhagenanu-sala cha tad-ardham chantaralakam I (9) 
Saptaihsena maha-Sala harmyam etat tu vinyaset I (10) 

(b) AthavashtadaSamSe tu kuta-hara cha purvavat I'(i6) 
Shad-bhagena maha-sala chatuh-sala tri-bhagikam 1(17) 
Madhya-sala yugaihgena bhadra-sala cha madhyame I (18) 
AnuSala cha madhye cha chaika-bhagena bhadrakam I (19) 

(c) Ekona-vimSad-arhsena ashta-bhumi-visalake I (21) 
Ekaika-kuta-vistaram maha-ala sararhSakam I (22) 
Anu^ala tri-bhaga va bha(ha)rantara(m) dvi-bhagikam I (23) 
Maha-ala tri-bhagena bhadra-Sala visalata I (24) 

ANEKA-LlftGA (see LINGA) A class of the phallus, phalli in 
group as exist in many places. 

VedaSrarh vasvasrakam va vrittarh chaivarh proktaneka-linga- 

mule I 

Ekanekan chokta-linge livamfie kuryad dhara shodaSadi-dvayena I 

(M., LII, 128-129, "SS-iSS-) 
ANILA-BHADRAKA A kind of chariot. 

(See M., XLIII, 114, under RATH A) 

ANTARA (see ANTARITA) Literally the distance between any two 
objects, hence it implies a moulding which separates two other larger 
mouldings. In this office it would resemble the fillet, listel or annu- 
let (see Gwilt, Art. 2532, fig. 874). A moulding of the pedestal and 
the base. 

Shad-amSam chantare karne uttararhSam tad-urdhake I 

(M,xm, 121.) 

Purvottara-pradeSe tu kampanam chantaramSakam I 
Dviihsakarh cha tri-pattam syat tad-urdhve chantaram bhavet I 

(M., xiv, 59-60.) 

ANTARALA(KA) The intermediate space, the interior (=antara- 
laya), corridor. (M., XXIH, 39.) 

(i) Intercolumnation : 

Mula-pada-vialam va tat-tri-pada-vialakam I 

Etat kumbhahghrikam proktam antaralarh cha yojayet I 

(M., xv, 231-232.) 
38 



ANU-SAL 

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A-SALA 





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SECTION THRO 
BOSS STONE (ANGHRI.) 



LONG SECTION. 
ALAKSHA, 





ABJA 




ELEVATION 




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ANILA BHADRAKA 











m M m 


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m m m 


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m m m m 






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AMRITA-NANDANA. 



Page 39 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ANTARITA 

(2) Referring to corrider of the fifth storey : 

Tasmat tri-mula-harmyantarh tad-dvayor mula-desake I 
Antaralam prakurvita parsve sopana-samyutam I 
Sarva-pradakshinarh kuryad yuktya dvararh prakalpayet | 

(M., xxui, 20-22, see also 23-39.) 

(3) Interior parts of a building : 

Gopurair rnandapadyais cha chantarale tvalindake I 

(M., LXIX, 8, see also xxx, 60.) 

(4) 'The second mandapa of a temple, between the ardha-mandpa and 
the shrine, J. B.' 

Cf. Gorakshakarh bhairavam anjaneyarh Sarasvatim Siddhi-vina- 
yakam cha I 

Chakara panchayatanantaralebalendu-mauli-sthita-manaso yah I 

(Cintra prasasti of the reign of Sarangadeva, 
v. 45, Ep. Indie., Vol. i, pp. 284, 276, note 15.) 

(5) ' In the antarala (or interior), they erected a most beautiful ranga- 
mntapa, and a fine chandra-s"ala (or upper storey) according to the 
directions given by the King Timmendra.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. xii, Pavugada 
Taluq, no. 46, pp. 122 ; Translation, line 14, 203, Roman Text, v. 9.) 

(6) ' An antarala or intermediate porch (Fergusson, quoted by Rice 
Ep. Carnat., Vol. v, Part I, Introduc., p. xxxix, para. 2, line 6.) 

(7) Antarale yatha yuktya mandapakaram vinyaset I (M, xxiii, 39.) 

ANTARIKSHA A quarter. 

Jayante tat-pare saumye antarikshe'ka-purvake I (M., vn, 39.) 
Mrige chaivantarikshe va bhrihgaraja-mrishe tatha I (M., ix, 357.) 

A synonym of the lupa or pent-roof : 

Arhbararh cha vyayam jyotir gaganarh cha vihayasi I 
Anantarh cha antariksham cha pushkalam chashtadha lupah I 

(M., xvm, 174-175.) 
ANTARIKSHA-KANTA A class of ten-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxvni, 14-15, set under PRASADA.) 

ANTARITA A fillet, a moulding of the pedestal, the base and 
also of the entablature. In base it is connected with another crown- 
ing moulding called alinga and in pedestal with prati-vajana. 
In its office and situation it would resemble a fillet. Its synonyms 
are _vajana, kshepana, vetra, patta, uttara, pattika, kampa, drikka, 
and manda, etc. (M., *vi, 46-4?-) 

39 



ANTAR-JANMAN AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

A crowning moulding of the pedestal and the base : 

(1) Tad-urdhve'ntaritarh charhsarh tat-samam prativajanam I 
Ekarh chantaritarh chordhve sardhamsarh prativajanam | 

(M., xin, 58, 69, etc.) 

Alingam amSakam chaiva tat-samantaritam tatha I 
Alingam amSakarh chordhve arhsenantaritarh tatha I 

(M., xiv, 51, 101, etc.) 

(2) The tenth moulding from the top of the entablature. (See Kamik 
agama, LIV, 2, under PRASADA.) 

(See Ram Raz, Ess. Arch, of Hind., p. 25- 
ANTAR-JANMAN An. inner plinth. 

Antarjanma bahirjanma nimnonnataya sthitam II 
Nirvarhs'ameva tat sarvarh kartri-varhsam bhaved dhruvam I 

(M., LXIX, 16, 17.) 
ANTARITA-MANDAPA The ante-chamber in front of a shrine. 

(Chalukyan Architecture, Arch. Surv., 
New. Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, p. 37. 

ANTAR-BHITTI An inner wall, partition wall, etc. 

Tan-mane tu salanarh vina-bhittim sabhittikam I 
Antar-bhittis tu chaivam syad bahir-bhittis tu sarvada II 

(M., XL, 51, 52. 

ANTAR-MANPALA The circular court in the interior of a com-) 
pound. 

Antar-mandalam arabhya mahamaryadikantakam I 
Pancha-kut(d)yasya chotsedham pratyekam panchadha bhavet I 

(M., xxxi, 57-58.) 

ANTAR-MUKHA Literally, with face towards the inside. 

Cf. Griha-garbharh (=foundations) antar-mukham syad grama- 
garbham bahir-mukhan 1 (M., xii, 216.) 

ANTAR-VAPRA The internal rampart, the internal side of the 
rampart. 

Cf. Antar-vaprarh bahir-bhittiS cheshtam dirgham cha chulika I 

(M., ix, 362.) 

ANTAR-VlTHl Internal roads, lanes, in a village or town. 

Antar-vithi chaika-paksha bahya-vithl dvi-pakshaka I (M., ix, 396.) 
ANTAH-PURA The female apartments. 

40 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ANTAH-SALA 

(1) Rdmdyana (Cock) : 

II. 3, 13 : Antah-purasya dvarani sarvasya nagarasya cha I 

II. 14, 29 : Dadaiiantah-puram sriman nana-dhvaja-ganayutam I 

II. 14, 66 : Nirjagama . . . sagara-hrada-samkasat sumant- 

ro'ntah-purach chhubhat I 

II. 15, 1 8 : Ityuktvantahpura-dvaram ajagama puranavit I 
V. 4, 30 : Sa hema-jambu-nada-chakravalaih maharha-muktamani 

bhushitantam I 
Pararghya-kalaguru-chandanarharii sa Ravanantahpuram 

pravivesa 1 1 

II. 15, 47 : Sarhriddham antahpuram avives"a ha II 

Tatodri'-kuta-chala-megha-sannibham mahavimano- 

pama-ves'ma-samyutam I 
VII. 42, 27 : Purvahne dharma-karyani kritva dharmena dharma- 

vitl 
Sesham divasa-bhagardham antahpura-gato bhavet II 

Compare also 11,10,11-17; 70,20; 11,70,27; II, 114,29; 111,54, 
13 ; IV, 26, 22 ; V, 4, 24. 

(2) Panchatantra, ed. Bombay, I, pp. 38, 58, 61, 168 : 

Gatva kanyantahpure . . . raja-kanyam . . . sapta-bhumi-ka- 

prasada pranta-gatam . . . bhaja II 
Iha rajfias tu tanaya Patalityasti kanyaka I 
Uparyantah-pure a cha ratnam ityabhirakshyate 1 1 
Pravisya so'drisringagra-tunga-vatayanena tarn I 
Antahpure dadarSatha suptam rahasi Patalim 1 1 
Pravrajakas cha gatvaiva vatayana-pathena sah I 
Pravisyantah-purarh prapa suptam niSi nripatmajam II 

(3) ' When the great minister, Verggade of the female apartments 
(antahpura), great master of robes ' . . . (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikar- 
pur Taluq. no. 144, Transl., p. 107 ; Roman text, p. 191.) 

ANTAH-HARA The second inner court, internal enclosure in a 
temple or house, the whole compound being divided into five courts 

or enclosures. (M., xxxi, 11-14.) 

(See under PRAKARA.) 

ANTAH-SALA Inner rooms, internal portions of a mansion. 

Antah-sala yatha-dvaram dandakasyoktavat kuru I (M., xxxv, 281.) 

ANTAH-SALA Inner wall, internal partition. 

Antah-salam-iti praktam bahya-salam-ihochyate I 

(M., XL, 1 14, see also xxxvi, 79 ; XL, 44.) 
41 



.\NTIKA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

ANTIKA A class of the two-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xx, 94, 26-27, see under PRASADA.) 

ANTIMA Limit, boundary, pilaster terminating the side-woll of a 

temple, and having base and capital generally differing from those 
of adjacent columns, same as prastara (entablature or plinth). 

Tad (r^prati)-urdhve sardha-panchamsam padayamarh tritlyakam I 
Antimam cha dvi-bhagarh syad vedikodayam Iritam I 

(M., xxxm, 226-227.) 

ANYA-RAftGA The second court or theatre of a compound. 

Mandapam nava-talarh kuryad bhavanam anya-rangam vadhiman 
dapakaram I (Af., xi, 144.) 

ANVANTA A synonym of mancha or a raised platform or couch. 

(M., xvi, 43, see under MANCHA.) 

APAGHCHHAYA A light shadow. 

(See AVACHCHHAYA.) 

APASAMCHITA A class of buildings in which the width (at the 
bottom) is the standard of measurement ; the temples in which the 
principal idol is in the recumbent posture. 

Pratyekaih tri-vidharh proktam samchitam chapy-asamchitam upa- 
(apa)-sarhchitamityeva I (Kdmikagama, XLV, 6-7.) 

Utsedhe manam grihyaih chet sthanakam tat prakathyate I 
Vistare manam samkalpya chasanam tad udiritam I 
Parinahe pade vapi manam sayanam iritam I 
Asanaih samchitam proktam sthanakam syad asarhchitam I 
Apasarhchitam sayanam chet tat tat tri-vidha-harmyake I 

(A/., xix, 7-11.) 

Saihchitasariichitanam cha amsair ayadibhir yutam I 
Apasamchita-harmyanam tithyantam shad grahishyate I 

(M., xxx, 173-174.) 

APOHA (see X)HA) An additional or unprescribed member 
attached to a structure. 

ABJA (see PADMA) A lotus, the cyma or ' a moulding taking its 
name from its contour resembling that of a wave, being hollow in 
its upper part and swelling below. Of this moulding there are 
two sorts, the cyma recta, just described ; and the cyma reversa 

4 2 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE AMBARA 

wherein the upper part swells, whilst the lower is hollow. By the 
workmen these are called " ogees." 

Compare the lists of mouldings given under ADHISHTHANA and 
UPAPITHA. 

ABJA-KANTA A class of the ten-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxvin, 18, see under PRASADA.) 

ABHAYA Fearless, a refuge-offering pose of the hand of an image 
Chatur-bhujam tri-netrarh cha jata-mukuta-bhushitam I 
Varadabhaya-samyuktam krishna-paras'u-dharinam I 

(A/., xn, 120-121.) 

Abhayarh dakshine . . . (M., vn, 159.) 
Purve cha tvabhayam . . . (ibid., 166.) 
Varadam chabhayam purve vame tu dvara-hastakam I 

(M., LIV, 154.) 

ABHAYA-HASTA (see ABHAYA) With hand in the pose of offering 
refuge. 

Varadabhaya-hastam cha jata-mukuta-manditam I (M., u, 30.) 

ABHISHEKA-MANDAPA (see MANDAPA) The coronation hall. 
Nripanam abhishekartharh mandapam I (M., xxxiv, 38.) 
See Inscrip. of Rajaraja III (no. 39, H.S.I.I., Vol. in, p. 86) under 
MANDAPA. 

ABHYAVAHARA-MANDAPA A dining-hall. 

See Ranganatha inscript. of Sundarapandya (v. 23, Ep. Ind., Vol. m, 
pp. 13, 1 6) under MANDAPA. 

AMALA&ILA The crowning part of the (Hindu) Sikhara. 

(Fergussion, History of Indian and Eastern 
Architecture, p. 323, note ; n, p. 129.) 

AMALASARA (see AMALAKA) The flat scolloped cushion or cog- 
wheel member surmounting the Sikhara (dome or tower). 

(Gousens : Somanath and other Medieval 
Temples in Kathiavad, pp. 41, 45, 17.) 

AMRITA-NANDANA. A pavilion with 58 pillars. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 8, see under MANDAPA.) 
AMBARA The sky, one of the eight kinds of the lupa or pent -roof. 

(M., xvra, 174-175, see under ANANTA.) 

Cf. Lupakaradi jadanarh manayen manavit-tamah \ 

Ambaradyashtadhamani nidanam lupamanayet I (A/., xvin, 329-330.) 

43 



AMBUJA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

AMBUJA Lotus, the cyma (see ABJA and PADMA) . 

Cf. Tad-dvayaih chambujarh chordhve kapotochchaih gunams'aka | 

(M., xm, 57.) 
(A)RANGA A synonym of harmya (building). 

Arangam iti chaitani harmyam uktam puratanaih I (M., m, 8.) 
ARATNI (see under ANGULA) A measure. 

(1) A cubit of 24 angulas (Introduct., Rdjavallabha Mandarin and Brah- 
mdndana-Purdna, i. vii, 99 see under ANGULA). 

A measure equal to the length of the forearms with the fingers fully 
stretched (Suprabheddgama, xxx, 24, see under ANGULA). 

(2) A measure equal to the first with fully stretched fingers (Suprabhedd 
gama, xxx, 24, see under ANGULA). 

According to this Agama 'ibid., v. 25) and the Mdnasara (n, 49) a 
measure of 24 angulas is called kishku (hasta). 

' This word (aratni), which primarily means ' elbow," occurs fre- 
quently from the Rig-Veda onwards. (R.-V., vm, 80, 8 ; A.-V. y xix, 57, 
6; Aitareya Brdhmana, vm, 5; Satapatha-Brdhmana, vi, 3, i, 33, etc.) 
as denoting a measure of length (ell or cubit), the distance from the elbow 
to the tip of the hand. The exact length nowhere appears from the 
early texts.' (Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, i, 34.) 

Satapatha-Brdhmana also vn, i, 2, 6. 

Kauslka-Sutra, 85 (Pet. Diet.) : Bahur va aratnih I 

ARKA-KANTA A class of the eleven-storeyed buildings. 

Evarh tu vajra-kantam syad arka-kantam ihocyhate I 
Tad eva sala-prante tu parsve chaikena saushtikam I 
Tad-dvayor antare des"e tat-samarh kshudra-harayoh I 
Purvavat kuta-vistararh Sesharh hararhSa-panjaram I 
Tan-madhye tu tri-bhagena kshudra-^ala-visalatah(ta) I 
Tat-parSve tri-tri-bhagena hara-madhye sa-bhadrakam I 
Kshudra-ala-tri-bhagena madhya-bhadram samanvitam I 
Kshudra-hara cha sarvesharh nasika-panjaranvitam I 
Madhye madhye mahanasi netra-Sala cha par^vayoh I 
Sarvalankara-sarhyuktarh shad-vidham (ekadaSa-talam) pariklrtitam I 

(M., xxix, 25-34.) 
ARGALA A bolt or pin for fastening a door. 

Argalarh dakshine bhage vama-bhage tu talpakam 1 1 
Kavata-yugmam kartavyam kokilargala-sarhyutam II 

(KamikSgama, LV, 49, 52.) 

44 



ttWDU ARCHITECTURE ARDHA-MANDAPA 

A moulding of the base (see Kakshabandha, under ADHISHTHANA). 
Kampam ekarh tad-urdhve cha ekenargalam eva cha I 

(M., xiv, 331, note.) 

ARDHA-CHITRA (see ABHASA) An image made in half or middle 
relief. 

Ardhanga-drisyamanam cha tad ardha-chitram iti smritam I 

(M., LI, 10.) 
Chitrangam ardha-chitrangam abhasangarh tridhochyate I 

(M., u, 8.) 
Sthavaram jangam vapi daru-sailarh cha lohajam I 

Chitram va chardha-chitram cha chitrabhasam athapi va I 

(M., LVI, 14-15.) 

ARDHA-NARI$VARA A name of Siva, an image the right half of 
which is the representation of Siva and the left half of his consort 
Durga. 

Paschima-mula-tale madhye koshthe lingam adbhutam I 
Athavardha-narlsvara(m) sthanakam I (M. t xix, 224-225.) 

ARDHA-PRANA (see SANDHI-KARMAN) A kind of joinery resem- 
bling the shape of the bisected heart. 

Sarvesham api darunam sandheh prante tu yojayet I 
Yatheshtam phana(m)-samgrahyam chodayed vistarantakam I 
Mulagre kilakam yuktam ardha-pranam iti smritam I 
Tad eva dvi-lalate cha vistarardhardha-chandravat I 
Madhye cha danta-samyuktam agra-mule tu yojayet I 
Sesham tu purvavat kuryat mahavritam iti smritam I 

(M., xvn, 97-102.) 

ARDHA-MANDAPA A half-pavilion, a vestibule, a court, a 
porch. 

1 i ) Idam ayadikarh chardha-mandape sishta-mandape 1 1 

(Kamikagama, L, 68.) 
Ardha-mandapa-dakshamse vighnesa-nritta-rupinam I 

(ibid., LV, 73.) 

(2) ' On the west wall of the ardha-mandapa in front of the rock-cut 
Jambukesvara shrine at Tiruvellarai.' (Inscription no. XH, Ind. Ant., 

Vol. xxxiv, p. 268.) 

(3) The ' court in a temple next to the sacred shrine.' Winslow, 
Tamil Dictionary (loc. cit.) . 

45 



ARDHA-SALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(4) ' Ardha-mandapa : the enclosed building in front of a shrine.' 

(Chalukyam Architecture, Rea, Arch. Surv., 
New. Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, p. 37.) 

The detached building, sometimes open and sometimes enclosed, in 
front of a shrine, is generally called the mukhamandapa (the pavilion in 
front of the shrine) . 

(5) The ardha-mandapa is ' a narrow passage or vestibule connecting' 
the garbha-griha and mukha-mandapa, and ' is open on two sides to 
permit the priestly worshipper circumambulating the central shrine.' 

(H. Krishna Sastri, South Indian Images of Gods 

and Goddesses, p. 2. For this reference I 

am indebted to Prof. R. W. Frazer.) 

ARDHA-SALA A half-hall, an antechamber with one or more 

closed sides. 

Ardha-sala visesho'sti chordhva-sala-samanvitam I 
Madhya-koshtham dvi-parsve tu chardha-sala-samanvitam I 

(M., xx, 67, 73.) 

Netra-s"alardha-s"ala cha bhadra-Saladi-bhushitam I- (M., xxvi, 67.) 
Bhadra-sala maha-nasi chardha-saladhyalankritam I (M., xxv, 34.) 

ARDHA-HARA A half chain of 64 strings, an ornament, a string 

of pearls worn round the neck. 

Nakshatra-malam api chardha-haram I 
Suvarna-sutrarh paritah stanabhyam I (M., L, 297-298.) 
Cf. Brihat-Samhitd, LXXXII, 32. 

ALAKSHA A member of the entablature, some screen-work with 

small (invisible) apertures. 

Etat tu sarvato-bhadram alakshakritir ihochyate I 
Tad eva karnavaSad varhsam prastiryat tu sarvasah I 
Uttaraih prag-uktahghrih syat tad-vasat parito nyaset I 
Tad evantam alaksham cha karnayos chottararh vina I 

(M., xvi, 185-188.) 

ALAftKARA-MANDAPA The dressing room, an attached hall 
or detached pavilion of a temple where the idols are dressed. 

(//. S. I. /., Vol. i, p. 127, first para., see under MANDAPA.) 
ALINDA(KA) A corridor, a terrace, a balcony, a gallery. 

(i) ' Alinda-sabdena sala-bhitter bahye ya gamanika jalakavritangana- 
sammukha kriyante ' (commentary on Brihat-Samhitd or Kirana-tantra, see 

46 



ARDHA. MANDAPA 




ELEVATION 



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ELEVATION 




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HINDU ARCHITECTURE ALINDA(KA) 

below). By the word ' alinda ' is understood the lattice-covered path 
beyond the wall of a hall and facing (or in front of) the courtyard. 
Cf. Amarakosha (2, 2, 12). 

(2) Senapati-nripatinarii saptati-sahite dvidha-krite vyase I 
Sala-chatur-das"a-hiite pancha-trirhsad-vrite '(a)lindah II 

' Add the number of 70 to those for the breadth of the mansions of the 
King and the Commander-in-Chief.' 

The same is more plainly expressed in Visvak : 

' Write down the sum at two places. Divide it, in one place, by 
14; this gives the measure for a hall. Divide the sum by 35 ; the 
quotation is the measure of the terrace.' 

Pramitam tveka-salaih tu s"ubhadam tat praklrtitam I 

Senapati-nripadinam saptatya sahite krite 1 1 

Vyase chaturdasa-hrite sala-manam vinirdiSet I 

Pancha-trimsad-hrite'nyatralinda-manarh bhavech cha tat II 
' The word might as well be rendered by balcony, gallery.' 

(Kern, Bfihat-Samhild, LIII, 17 ; J.R.A.S., 
N. S., Vol. vi, p. 282, note 3.) 

Apratishiddhalindarii samantato vastu sarvato-bhadrarh I 
' An edifice with uninterrupted terraces on every side is termed 
Sarvato-bhadra.' 

Nandyavartam alindaih sala-kudyat pradakshinantargataih I 

' Nandyavarta is the name of a -building with terraces that form the 
wall of the room extending to the extremity in a direction from east to 
south (alias from left to right).' 

' The Vardhamana has a terrace before the (chief) entrance, ex- 
tending to the end ; then, when you proceed in a direction from left 
to right, another beautiful terrace, and there on, again, another in the 
aforesaid direction.' 

' The Svastika (house) is auspicious, if it has the terrace on the east 
side, and one continual terrace along the west side, at the ends whereof 
begin two other terraces going from west to east, while between the 
extremities of the latter lies a fourth terrace.' 

' The Ruchaka (house) has a western and eastern terrace running 
to the end, and between their extremities two others.' (Ibid., vv. 31-351 
pp. 285-286.) 

(3) Agni-Purdna, Chap, cvi, w. 20-24 : 

Chatuh-salarh tri-salarh va dvi-salarh chaika-salakam I 
Chatuh-sala-grihanarh tu Salalindaka-bhedatah II 

47 



ALPA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Sata-dvayam tu jayante panchas'at-pancha teshvapi I 
Tri-Salani tu chatvari dvi-s"alani tu panchadha 1 1 
Eka-s"alani chatvari ekalindani vachmi cha I 
Ashta-vimsad-alindani grihani nagarani cha 1 1 
Chaturbhih saptabhiS chaiva pancha-panchas'ad cva tu I 
Shad-alindani virhsaiva ashtabhir virhSa cva hi 1 1 
Ashtalindarh bhaved evarh nagaradau grihani hi I 

(4) Kdmikagama. xxxv : 

Asam ( salanam) agre tu alinda(h) syuh pradhane va viseshatah I 
Eka-dvi-tri-chatush-pancha-shat-saptalinda-samyutah II (37) 
Prishthe parsve tathaiva syuh ishta-dese'thava punah I 
Prithu-dvaras cha dvaramS cha evam eva prakalpayet 1 1 (38) 
Alindah prithu-dvarena samo va chardha-manatah 1 1 (44) 
Alinde dvaram evam syad anyatrapy-evam eva tu II (49) 
Alindasya samantat tu bhagenaikena-varakam II (77) 

See also ibid., L, 74, 75, 87. 

Ibid., iv, 201 (the synonyms of alinda). 
. . . andharam griham adyakam I 
Parimandana(m) salinda va alindasyabhidanakam II 

(5) Chantarale tvalindake I (M., LXIX, 8.) 
Urdhvordhva-talanam tu chaika-bhagenalindakam I 

(M., xxiv, 45, etc.) 

(6) See the views of the corridors (Pallaba Architecture, Arch. Surv., 
New. Imp. Series, Vol. xxxiv, plates vi, vn, vm, ix.) 

ALPA A class of buildings. (Kamikagama, XLV, 53-54, see under MALIKA.) 
ALPA-NASIKA (see NASA) A small nose, a small vestibule. 
Chatur-dikshu chatur-dvararh chatuh-shashty-alpa-nasikam I 

(M., xxxiv, 106.) 
AVACHCHHAYA A dim light, shadowless spot, a light shadow. 

Kanya-vrishabha-masau cha-avachchhaya na vidyate I 
Meshe cha mithune chaiva tula-simha-chatushtaye I 
Evam hi dvyangularii nyastam vrischikashadha-minayoh I 
Chatur-ahgulam prakartavyam dhanuh-kumbhau shad angulam I 
Makare'shtangulam proktam apachchhayam viseshatah I 

(M., vi, 31-35.) 
Cf. Vitruvius, Book ix, Chap, vm, under SANKU. 

AVALAMBANA A pendant. 

Bahu-valaya-dama cha skandha-malavalambanam I (M., L, 15.) 
AVASATHA (see PRATISRAYA) the rest-house, a house. 

Ramyamavasatham chaiva datvamum lokamasritah I 
' Having given away a charming house, he attained the other 

world.' (Hcmadri, p. 646.) 

48 




ABHANGA 




ALINGA 



ALINGA. 







PL AM* 
ALPA-NAblKA 




ALINDAKA. 



P&<>e 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ASHTA-TALA 

Ramyaihs chavasathan datva dvijebhyo divam agatah I 
' Having given away charming houses to the twice-born and gone 
to heaven.' (Mbh. Anusdsanika-parvan, Chap, cxxxvn, v. 10). 

(Ind. Ant., Vol. xii, p. 142, c. 1-2.) 

AVASANA (see MA^CHA) A synonym of the mancha or a raised 
platform. (M. xvi, 43.) 

ASVATTHA-VRIKSHA The holy fig-tree, carved along with 
Buddha images. 

Referring to the Bauddha images : 

Sthanakarh chasanarh vapi simhasanadi-sarhyutam I 
Asvattha-vriksha-sarhyuktarh kalpa-vriksharh tatha nyaset I 

(M., LVI, 3-4.) 

ASHTA-TALA The eighth storey. 

(Manasdra, xxvi, 1-76, see under PRASADA.) 

A description of the seventh floor including the proportion and orna- 
ments of the component pans (lit. limbs) from the plinth to the tower : 
Evarh sreshtharh tvashta-tale sarvalankara-sarhyutam I 
Janmadi-stupi-paryantam changa-manam ihochyatc I 
Saikashta-panchakarhsa-harmye tungaih vibhajite I 
Adhararh chashta-bhagena vedamsam charanayatam I 
Tad-ardham valabhyutsedham sardharh vahnyarh^am aiighrikam I 
Sa-tri-padarhsakam maficham urdhve padam gunamsakam I 
* Tad-ardharh chordhva-mancham syat tri-padakshanghri-tungakam I 
Sa-padamsarii prastarottungam dvyardhariis"arh charanayatam I 
Tad-ardharh prastarotsedharh jahghayamarh cha sardhakam I 
Prastararh chaika-bhagena dvyamsa-padadhikanghrikam I 
Urdhva-mancharh tri-padarh syat sa-bhagam pada-tungakam I 
Ekamsam prastarotsedharh tad-urdhve cha tri-bhagikam I 
Tat-tri-bhagaika(a) vedim(h) syad dvi-bhagam gala-tuiigakam I 
Sa-padarh chamsakarh chordhve sirah-sesharh sikhodayam I 
Kechit tad eva tunge tu sapta-bhagadhikam tatha I 
Urdhvordhva-pada-mule tu yuktyamsena masurakam I 
Talanam chaika-bhagena karna-harmyavritarh nyaset I 
Antara(m) prastaropetarh sarvalankara-sarhyutam I 
Tasyantasyaika-bhagena kuryad avartyalindakam I 
Mule bhage padamSena chordhve'rdha-talarhsakam I 
Netra-salardha-sala cha bhadra-saladi-bhiishitam I 
Toranair nida-^aladi nasikabhir alankritam I 
Kosht(h)c sitadi-madhye cha chordhva-Sala cha manditam I 
Nasika-pafijara-sala kuta-kosthe tu bhushitam I 
Nasika-pafijaradyasya bhadra-salyair alankritam I 
Kshudra-sala-pradek tu sarvalankara-sarhyutam I 

49 



ASHTA TALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Karna-kutanga-madhye tu nasika-panjaranvitam I 
Sarvangarh kshudra-nasyangam prastaralankriti-kriya I 
Nanadhishthana-sarhyuktarh nana-padair alankritam I 
Nagara-dravidadlnam vesaradin Sikhanvitam I 
Sarvalankara-sarhyuktaih purvavat parikalpayet I 

(M., xxvi, 47-76.) 

ASHTA-TALA (see under TALA-MANA) A kind of sculptural mea- 
surement in which the whole height of an idol is generally eight 
times the face. 

ASHTA-TRIMSAT-KALA Thirty-eight kinds of mystic marks 
on the body of an image. 

Padadi-murdha-paryanta(m) paryayadi-chaksharam nyaset I 
Ashta-trirhs'at-kalah sarvas tat-tad angani vinyaset I 

(M., LXX, 90-91. 

ASHTA- VARGA The eight component parts of a single-storeyed 
building, namely, adhishthana (basement), anghri (dwarf pillar), 
prastara (entablature), grlva (a platform or neck), sikhara (tower) 
stupi (dome), grlva-mancha (a projecting seat at the neck) and 
vedika (a raised platform). (M., xix, 80-^5.) 

ASHTA(S)RA Eight-cornered, a kind of single-storeyed building 
which is octangular in plan and has one cupola. 

(1) Bfihat-Samhitd, LVI, 28, Kasyapa, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 320, 
note i (see under PRASADA). 

(2) Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXIX, w. 29, 53 (see under PRASADA). 

(3) Bhavisfya-Purdna, Chap, cxxx, v. 25 (see under PRASADA). 

ASAMCHITA A class of buildings in which the height is the 
standard of measurement, the temples in which the main idol is in 
the erect posture. (M., xix, 7-11 ; xxx, 173-174, see under APASAMGHITA.) 
Pratyekam tri-vidham proktaih samchitarh chapyasarhchitam upasarii- 
chitam ityevam I (Kamikagama, XLV, 6-7.) 

AM&A (see SHADVARGA). A part, one of the six varga formulas 
for ascertaining the right proportion. 

AM$ARU The rim, the edge. 

Cf. Darpanam suvrittarh syad arharu kiihchid unnatam I 



A moulding of the pedestal, generally placed between a 
cyma and a corona (kapota). (M. y xv, 122, see under UPAPITHA.) 

50 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE AGARA 



ACHARYA-KULA Residences of professors, sufficiently comfort- 
able even for princes and ordinary male and female pupils to be in 
residence for instruction, teachers' family establishment with pupils ' 
quarters in separate blocks. These might have supplied the general 
plan of the later monastic establishments of Buddhists, Jains, Brah- 
mans, comprising a quadrangular structure with cells on all sides 
and the shrine and abbot's cell in the centre or the east. ' These 
may be looked upon as the beginnings out of which the pre-Buddhistic 
and Buddhistic centres of learning like in Nalanda of the residential 
university type were evolved.' (Sarkar, Social History of India, 

P- 13-) 

AGAMA The scriptures, different from the Agama treatises of 
Southern India some of which are predominently architectural texts. 
Cf. M., XLIX, 176. 

AGARA A house, a room, a cell. 

For synonyms, see Amarak~>sha (II, 2, 5). 
Cf. (i) Ramayana (Cock) : 

V. 3, 1 8 : Koshthagaravatarhsikam . . . nagarim I 
II. 3, 44 : Koshthagara-yudhagaraih kritva saihnichayan bahun I 
VI. 127, 56 : Aneka-satarh bhavan kosam koshthagaram griham 
balam I 

(2) Mahdbhdrata (Cock) : 

XII. 69, 54 : Bhadagara-yudhagaran yodhagarams cha sarvasah I 

Asvagaran gajagaran baladhikaranani cha I 

XII. 86, 121 : Bhandagara-yudhagaran prayatnenabhivardhayet I 
I. 134, ii : Prekshagararh suvihitam chakrus te tasya silpinah I 

Rajnah sarvayudhopetam strinam chaiva narar- 

shabha II 
I. 134, 14 : Mukta-jala-parikshiptarh vaidurya-mani-Sobhitam I 

Sata-kumbhamayam divyam prekshagaram upaga- 

tam II 
IV. 23, 1 6 : Yad etan nartanagararh matsya-rajena karitam I 

Divya-atra kanya nrityanti ratrau yanti yathagri- 
ham II 

(3) Mdnasdra (xxv, 29, etc.) : 

Tale tale bhadra-koshthasramagararh pariklrtitam I 

51 



ACHCHHADANA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(4) Dharmma-sastra-prachoditam yogi-(a)garam idam proktarh 
suribhih pariveshtitam I 

' Agara, abode, room, covered place, cell.' Fleet. (Skt. and Old 
Canarese Inscriptions, no. cxxx, line 3, Ind. Ant., Vol. XIH, p. 222, note 44.) 

(5) Vikhyata Santalakhya sa Jinagaram akarayat ' The celebrated 
lady had this Jina temple made'. (Ep. Carnal., Vol. 11, no. 62, Roman 
Text, p. 59, last line, Translation, p. 148, last line.) 

ACHCHHADANA A roof, the eighth covering moulding from 

the top of the entablature. 

(Kdmikagama, LIV, 2, see under PRASADA.) 

ADIKA Literally first or principal, ? a fast conveyance. 
Adikam syandanarh Silpi(n) sibika cha ratham tatha I 
Sarvair yanam iti khyatarh Sayanam vakshyate tatha I 

(M., m, 9-10.) 

A(R)DRA-PUSHAKRITI (see under LINGA) A kind of phallus 
looking like the rising sun. 

Lingakaram ihochyate . . . 

Daivikarh dindimakaram manush(am)a(r)dra-pushakriti(h) I 

(M., LII, 237, 240.) 

ADHARA The basement, the plinth. 

Dvitalanam alankaram vakshye samkshipyate'dhuna I 
Upanadi-stupi-paryantam ashtavimsad vibhajite I 
Adharochcharh gunamsarh syat pada-tungam shad-amsakam I 

(M., xx, i, 3-4.) 

Janmadi-stupi paryantam changa-manam ihochyate I 
Saikashta-panchakarhsarh harmye tungam vibhajite I 
Adhararh chashta-bhagena vedamsam charanayatam I 

(M., xvi, 48-50.) 

Uttaram vajanadharam adheyam sayanarh tatha I 
Uddhritam cha mGrdhakam chaiva maha-tauli svavarhsakam I 
Prachchhadanasy(am) adharam etat paryayam Iritam I 

(M., xvi, 56-58.) 

Parimana-virodhena rekha-vaishamya-bhushita I 
Adharas tu chatur-dvaras" chatur-mandapa-sobhitah II 
Sata-sringa-samayukto Meruh prasada-uttamah I 
Mandapas tasya karttavya bhadrais tribhir alankrita(h) II 
Ghatanakara-mananam bhinna bhinna bhavanti te (prasadah) I 
Kiyanto yeshu chadhara niradharaS cha kechana II 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, vv. 38-40.) 
Valabhi chhadiradharah I 

(Hemachandra, Abhidhana-chintdmani, ion, Pet. Diet.) 

52 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



APANA 



ADHI Foundations. (An inscription from Dabhoi, v. m, Ep. Indie., 
Vol. i, p. 31, see footnote, p. 24.) 

ANDOLA A swing, a hammock. 

Tad-urdhve pattikam nyasya kilagre cha kabandhanam I 
Chaturbhih srinkhala-yuktam andolarh chaikatopari I 
Deva-bhu-sura-bhupanam anyesharh sayanarthakam I 

(M., xuv, 69-71.) 

ANDHARA (-RIKA) A closed verandah, a balcony, a blind 

screen. 

Kdmikdgama, L : 

Panjaro(ras) chardha-bhago va tri-pado vatha bhagikah I 
Alindandharikandhara-hara bhagena kalpitah 1 1 (74) 
Nava-bhaga-tri-bhago va vyasa-nali-grihanvitah I 
Bahir andharikandhara-hara bhagena vistritah 1 1 (76) 
Panchalindam shat-kudyarh bahir andharikavritam 1 1 (83) 
Andharandhari-harokta-khanda-harmya-viseshitam(vimanam) II (91) 
' Andharika ' and ' andhara ' are used as the synonyms of ' griha-pindi ' 
and 'alinda ' respectively (see Kdmikdgama, LV, 201, under ALINDA). 

APANA A shop, a market-place. 

(i) Ramayana (Cock) : 

II. 6, 12 Nana-panya-samriddheshu vanijam apaneshu l 

II. 14, 27 Samriddha-vipanapanaih . . . (purim) l 

II. 114, 13 Sarhkshipta-vipanapanam (Ayodhyam) I 

VII. 43, 13 Chatvarapana-rathyasu l 

II. 71, 41 Malyapaneshu rajante nadya panyani va tatha I 

II. 42, 23 Samvritapana-vedikam . . . (purim) l 

II. 41, 21 Samvritapana-vlthika I 

I. 5, 10 Su-vibhaktantarapanam . . . (purim) I 

II- 57 > J 5 Anvantarapanara I 

VI. 112,42 (Ayodhyam) sikta-rathantarapanam l 

VII. 101,13 Ubhe (Takshasila and Pushkalavati) . . . suvibhaktan- 
tarapane I 

2) Rdjatarangim, I, 201, etc. : Riddhapanam . . . nagaram l 
(3) Mahdbhdrata (ibid.} : 

XII. 86, 8 : Chatvarapana-sobhitam (puram) I 
XIII. 30, 17 : (Varanasim) . . . samriddha-vipanapanam I 
II. 21, 25 : Malyapananarh cha dadriSuh sriyam uttamam I 

53 



APANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

IX. 25, 33 : Vipanyapana-panyanam I 

Comm. Nilkantha : Vipanaih panya-vithika I 
Apana hattah panyani vikreya-dravyani I 

(4) Vapi-kupa-tadaga-kuttima-matha-prasada-satralayan I 
Sauvarna-dhvaja-toranapana-pura-grama-prapa-mandapan I 
. . . vyadhapayad ayarh Chaulukya-chudamanih I 

(Sridhara's Deva pattana Pra^asti, v. 10, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. n, pp. 440-441.) 

APANA A tavern, a liquor-shop, a watering station, huts on road- 
sides where drinking water is distributed gratis. 

Devanam-piye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (:) magesu-pi me nigohani 
lopapitani (:) chhayopagani hosamti pasumunisanarh ; ambavadikya 
lopapita (;) adhak(o)s(i)kyani pi me uda-panani (2) khanapitani (;) 
niiiisidhiya cha kalapita (;) apanan ime bahukani tata tata kalapitani 
patibhogyaye pasu-munisanam (.) 

' Apana cannot have here its usual meaning, namely, tavern, liquor 
shop.' 

' As professor Kern (Der Buddhismus, Vol. n, p. 385) assumes, it must 
denote a watering station. Probably the huts on the roads are meant, 
where water is distributed to travellers and their beasts gratis or against 
payment. The usual Sanskrit name is prapa.' Dr. Biihler. 

(Pillar edict of Asoka, no. vn, lines 2-3, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. H, pp. 270, 274.) 

ABHANGA (see under ATIBHANGA and BHANGA) A pose in which 

the idol is slightly bent. 

Sarvesharh deva-devinam bhanga-manam ihochyate I 
Abhanga-sama-bhangarh chaati-bhangam tridha bhavet I 

(M., LXVII, 95-96.) 

ABHASA A class of buildings, pavilions, doors, etc. One of the 

nine materials of which idols are made, sand glass, lacquer (A/., 

Lxn, 15-16), a marble, bas-relief (M., LI, n), painting (ibid., 12, LVI, 

14-16). 

A class of buildings : 

(i) Etaj jati-vaat proktam chhandadinam santikotsedham I 

Nava-tale tri-pancha-vidham vai vipulam kanyasadi-Sreshtham 

pravakshyate I 

Kramatas tri-padam ardha-karam padam cha idam sariikalpam 
abhasam idam I (M., ix. 103-104.) 

54 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ABHASA 

Eka-bhumi-vidhim vakshye lakshanarh vakshyate'dhuna I 
Jatis chhandam vikalpam tu chabhasarh tu chatur-vidham I 
Purva-hastena sarh-yuktam harmyarh jatir iti smritam I 
Chhandam tri-pada-hastena vikalpam syat tad-ardhakam I 
Abhasam chardha-hastena harmyadlnam tu manayet I 

(M., xix, 1-5.) 

Eka-tri-padam ardham cha pada-hastarh yatha-kramam I 
Jatis chhanda(m) vikalpam cha-abhasaih chatur-vidham I 
Etat tad eva samyuktarh harmyanarh mana-kalpanam I 

(M., xxx, 175-177.) 

Pavilions of some particular shape : 

Devanam bhu-suranarh cha mandapam jati-rupakam I 
Bhupanam mandape sarve chhanda-rupam itiritam I 
Vaisyakanam tu sarveshath vikalpam cheti kathyate I 
Sudranam mandapam sarvam chabhasam iti klrtitam I 

(M., xxxrv, 547-55-) 

In connexion with door^ : 

Sapta-vimsodayarh hy-evam tad-ardharh vistritarh bhavet I 
Evaih jati-vasat proktam chhandadinam pravakshyate I 
Trayovimsa-satantaih syach chhanda-dvara-visalakam I 
Pancha-vimsangulam arabhya dvi-dvyangula-vivardhanat I 
Eka-vimsangulam arabhya dvi-dvyangula-vivardhanat I 
Eka-virha(m)-atantarh syad vikalpa-dvara-vistritam I 
Nava-panktyahgulam arabhya dvi-dvyangula-vivardhanat I 
Eka-panktyanguladhikyam satantam abhasa-vistritam I 

(M.y xxxix, 28-35.) 
In connexion with the phallus : 

Jatich-chhanda-vikalparh cha-abhasam tu chatur-vidham I 

(M., tn, 49.) 

A kind of glass of which idols and statues are made : 

Brahma-vishnu-mahes'anam lakshanam vakshyate'dhuna I 
Hiranya-rajatenaiva tamrenaiva ile vapi I 
Darve va sudhe vapi sarkarabhasa-mrittika(-bhih) I 
Etais tu navadha dravyai(S) chottamadi trayam trayam I 
Chalam chapy-achalam chapi nava-dravyais tu nirmitah I 
Lohajair mrit-sudha chaiva Sarkarabhasa-mrittika I 
Ghala-dravyam iti proktam anyesham chachalam viduh I 

(M., LI, 1-7.) 

55 



ABHASA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Three kinds : 

Chitrangam ardha-chitrangam abhasangarh tridhochyate I 
Sarvangam drisya-manam yat chitram evam prakathyate I 
Ardhanga-driSyamanaiti cha tad ardha-chitram iti smritam I 
Ardhardha-darsanam(drisya)-manam abhasam iti kathyate I 

(A/., LI, 8-1 1.) 
Uttamarh lohajarh bimbarh pithabhasarh tu chottamam I 

(ibid., 19.) 
Cf. Eka-kale kritarh sarvam sudha-mrit-kata-sarkaraih I 

(ibid., 24-25.) 

Beranarh dravyam ityuktam . . . lohaje va Sile'thava I 
Darvabhasa-ratnena sudha-mrit-kata-s'arkara(aih) I 
Ghanam vapy-aghanarh vapi kuryat tu ilpi(a)vit-tamah I 

(M., LXH, 15-17.) 

(2) Silodbhavanam v(b)imbanarh chitrabhasasya va punah I 
Jaladhivasanam proktarh vrishendrasya prakirtitam II 

(Linga-Purana, Part II, uttara-bhaga, 
Chap. XLVIII, v. 43.) 

(3) Pratima saptadha prokta bhaktanaiii Suddha-vriddhaye I 
Kanchanl rajati tamrl parthivl sailaja smrita 1 1 
Varkshl chalekhyaka veti murti-sthanani sapta vai I 

' Alckhyaka ' and ' abhasa ' seem to have the same meaning and 
indicate the same material. (Bhavistya-Purdna, Chap, cxxxi, vv. a, 3.) 

(4) Indhanani cha vinyasya palalani cha vinyaset I 
Tasmin loshtani vinyasya palalai.4 chhadayet punah II 
Palalabhasakaih paSchad brihyabhasais tushais tatha I 
Achchhadyadbhir atha sinchech chhakham prajjvalayet punah 1 1 

(Vastu-vidyd, ed. Ganapati Sastri, xvi, 32-33.) 

(5) Another class of buildings : 

( Jati) Ghhandam Vikalpam Abhasam ekaike tu dvisamkhyakam I 

(Kamikagama, L, 13.) 

A class of kuta-koshtha or top-room, being a combination of the chhanda 
and vikalpa classes (Kamikagama, LV, 130, 123-127, see under KARNA- 
KUTA). 

(6) Suprabheddgama, xxxiv, 3-4 (refers to the image of ISvara) : 

Chitram chitrardham evam tu chitrabhasam tathaiva cha I 
Sarvavayava-sarhpurnam dri^yam tach chitram uchyate 1 1 
Ardhavayava-samdrijyam ardha-chitram chaiva cha I 
Pate bhittau cha yo(ya) likhyam chitrabhasam ihochyate II 

56 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ABHASA 

Exactly similar definitions are given in the Mdnasdra, but therein 
' abhasa ' refers to a material of which an idol is made, whereas in this 
Agama, ' abhasa ' refers to the image itself made in full, middle or quar- 
ter relief, and to the paintings made on cloth and walls. 

Materials of which images are made : 

Mrinmayam yadi kuryach chech chhulana(m) tatra prakalpayet I 
Lohajam cha viSeshena madhuchchhishtena nirmitam I (ibid., 31.) 

(7) Lohajatve madhuchchhishtam agninardrikritas tu yat I 
Vastrena sodhayet sarvam doshaih tyaktva tu Silpina II 

(Karanagama, xi, 41.) 

(8) Murtis tu vriksha-pashana-loha-dravyaih prakarayet I 

The image should be made of materials like timber, stone, and iron. 

(Silpa-SSstra-sara-sarhgraha, xi, 5.) 

(9) Sauvarni rajati vapi tamri ratnamayi tatha I 
Saili darumayi chapi loha-slsa-mayi tatha 1 1 
Ritika-dhatu-yukta va tamra-kamsa-mayi tatha I 
Sudha-daru-mayi vapi devatarcha pra^asyate 1 1 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLVIH, w. 20-21.) 

(10) Mrinmayl daru-ghatita lohaja ratnaja tatha II 
Sailaja gandhaja chaiva kaumudi saptadha smrita I 
Kamsamayi gandhaja chaiva mrinmayi pratima tatha II 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLHI, vv. 9-10.) 

(u) Mrinmaye prativ(b)imbe tu vaset kalpa-yutam divi I 
Daru-pashana-dhatunam kramad da^a-gunadhikam 1 1 
Mrinmaye vahane datte yat phalam jayate bhuvi I 
Daruje tad-dasa-gunam Silaje tad-da^adhikam 1 1 
Ritika-kamsa-tamradi-nirmite deva-vahane I 
Datte phalam apnoti kramat ^ata-gunadhikam 1 1 

(Mahanirvana-Tantra, xin, 22, 30, 31.) 

(12) Svarnadi-lauha-bimbe cha deha-garbham na karayet II (4) 

Kashtha-pashana-bimbe cha yat sandhau vidhir uchyate II (6) 
Yat bimbe cha krite dravyam svarnam tamram tu mrinmaye I 
Saile kashthe ishtika-churnam bimbam tatra prachakshate II (3) 

(Bimbamana, British Museum, MS. i, 558, 
5292, w. 4, 6 ; MS. 2, 5291, 559, v. 3.) 

(13) ' Here they produced a linga, of seven metals, viz. gold, silver, 
tin, lead, copper, iron and bell-metal.' (Sahyadri-khanda of the Skanda- 
PurSna, Ind. Ant., Vol. m, p. 194, c. i, last para.) 

57 



AMALAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Cf. ' Again, when the people make images and chaityas which consist 
of gold, silver, copper, iron, earth, lacquer, bricks, and stone, or (? and) 
when they heap up the snowy sand (lit. sand-snow, ? abhasa), they put 
in images or chaityas two kinds of sariras (relics) (i) the relics of the great 
Teacher, and (2) the gatha of the chain of causation'. (Itsing's work, 
Record of the Buddhist Religion, Transl., Takakusu, p. 150, quoted by V. A. 
Smith, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxni, p. 175.) 

AMALAKA (cf. AMALASITA and AMALASARA) A massive circular 
stone supporting a vase known as kalata. It figures as the crowning 
member of sikhara (tower), as the crown of the simulated roofs, 
and as the cushion-shaped portion of the capital of massive columns 
(of Asoka and at Elephanta). In Sikhara it has a structural purpose 
to serve, while in other places it is a mere ornament. It has 
been frequently referred to by Fergusson, Burgess, Hanell, Coomara- 
swamy and their followers, but rarely occurs in the Silpa-sastras 
or other Sanskrit texts. The following line has been quoted by some 
writer from some text of the Mayamata Silpa-sastra : 

Tathamalaka-pakvabham dirgha-vrittarh cha golakam 1 1 
It is held that the term as referring to the crown of a temple ' must 
have arisen from a wrong rendering of the Chinese symbols O-mo-lo-kia- 
ko, describing the great vihara at Buddha Gaya as Amalaka. ' 

Free conjectures have thus been made by modern writers on its origin 
from the dmalaka, fruit or tree, or from lotus. A writer has referred to the 
matter in the Calcutta Oriental Journal (1934, Vol. i, pp. 189-195) and 
accepts the lotus-theory because of its popularity as a Buddhist and Hindu 
symbol, and also because it fits in well as a part of the Sikhara. 

AMALAKA- VANTIKA-PITHA Chairs with many legs. 

(Mahavagga, vv. v>, a.) 

AYA (see under SHADVARGA) One of the six varga formulas for 
ascertaining the right proportion of measurement. 

AYAKA-SKAMBHA (see under STAMBHA) A sort of pillar built 
upon the rectangular projection from the dome and drum-like 
parts of the Mahachaityas (of Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda). 
Their identification has been rendered certain by the inscriptions 
they contain ; therein these pillars are designated as ' Ayaka- 
khambha.' According to Vogel (Ep. Ind., xx, p. 2) it ' had no 
structural function but utilized for sculpturing in low relief, 

58 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE AYATANA 

Buddhist emblems and dedicatory inscriptions.' Vaddari Apparao 
thinks that it means ' a pillar erected near the gate.' (Indian Culture, 
October, 1936, pp. 389-390.) 

AYATANA An enclosure, earlier an abode, a house, later an 
enclosed settlement, temples and monasteries, an assembly hall. 

(R.-V. iv, 4, 3 ; 37, i ; v. 3, 6 ; vi, 21, 4, 
vn, 56, 22; 61,3; x, 91,2.) 

A dwelling, a temple where an idol is installed : 

(1) Purvena phalino vrikshah kshira-vrikshas tu dakshine I 
Paschimena jalam Sreshtham padmotpala-vibhushitam II 
Uttare saralais talaih subha syat pushpa-vatika 1 1 
Sarvatas tu jalam sreshthaih sthiram asthiram eva cha I 
Parsve chapi kartavyam parivaradikalayam I 

Yamye tapovana-sthanarh uttare matrika-griham I 
Mahanasam tathagneye nairritye'tha vinayakam II 
Varune srlnivasas tu vayavye griha-malika I 
Uttare yajna-Sala tu nirmalya-sthanam uttare 1 1 
Varune soma-daivatye bali-nirvapanam smritam I 
Purato vrishabha-sthanam seshe syat kusumayudhah 1 1 
Jale vapi tathaisane Vishnus tu jala-Sayyapi I 
Evam ayatanam kuryat kunda-mandapa-samyutam II 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, vv. 28-34.) 

(2) Panchayatana-madhye tu Vasudevam nivesayet I 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLIII, v. i.) 

(3) Devatayatana-vapl-kupa-tadagadi-nirmanam I 

(Narada-Purana, Part I, Purva-bhaga, 
Chap, xin, Colophon.) 

(4) Chatuh-shashti-padam kuryat devayatanarh sada I 

(Bhauishya-Purdna, Chap, cxxx, v. 17 ; 
Brihat-Samhita, LVI, 10.) 
Pura-madhyarh sama^ritya kuryad ayatanam raveh II 

(Bhaviskya-Purdna, Chap, cxxx, v. 40 ; see also v. 41.) 

(5) Rdmayana (Cock) : 

I. 5, 13 : purim . . . devayatanaiS chaiva vimanair api 

Sobhitam I 

I- T 3> 37 : yajnayatana | 
I. 77, 13 : devatayatanani I 
II. 6, 4 : srimatyayatane vishnoh I 

59 



AYADI-KARMAN AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



II. 6, ii 

II. 3, 18 

II. 25, 4 

II. 52, 90 

II. 5 6 . 33 

II. 71, 42 

VII. 101, 15 



sitabhra-likharabheshu devatayataneshu I 

devayatana-chaityeshu I 

chaityeshv-ayataneshu cha I 

tlrthany-ayatanani cha I 

chaityanyayatanani cha I 

devayatana-chaityeshu I 

ubhe purottame . . . s"obhite Sobhaniyais cha 



devayatana-vistaraih I 

(6) Mahdbkdrata, n, 80, 30, etc. (ibid.) : 

Devayatana-chaityeshu I 

(7) Taittiriya-Samhitd, 2, 2, 6, I, etc. (Pet. Diet.) : 

Devanam evayatane yatate jayati tarn sarhgramam I 

(8) Satapatha-Brahmana, 4, 4, 5, 3 ; 5, 2, 13 ; 6, 2, 1,14; 12, 5, i, 17, 
etc. (ibid.) : 

Kupa iva hi sarpapam ayatanani I 
Chhandogya-upanishad, 6, 8, 2, etc. (ibid.) : 

Sa yatha sakunili sutrena prabaddho disarh diSarh patitvanya- 
trayatanamalabdhva bandhanam evopaSrayate I 

(9) Sivasyayatanam ramyarh chakre ' built a beautiful temple of 
Siva.' (An Abu Inscrip. of the reign of Bhimadeva II, Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, 
pp. 221, 222.; 

(10) Chakarayatanam sarhbhor ambhonidhi-samam sarah 'he built 
the temple of Sambhu and a tank equal to the sea.' (Harsauda Inscrip. of 
Devapaladeva, line 13-14, Ind. Ant., Vol. xx, p. 312.) 

(n) Sri-Nanigasvami devayatanarh karapitam I 

' The temple of the illustrious god Nanigasvamin was caused to be 
made.' (Atpur Inscrip. of Sakti-kumara, line 1-2, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxix, 
p. 191.) 

(12) Somesvarayatana-mandapam uttarena I (Cintra PraSasti of the reign 
of Sarangadeva, w. 40, 41, 42, 45, 72 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 284.) 

AYADI-KARMAN (see under SHAD-VARGA) The consideration of 
Aya and other formulas for the verification of correct dimensions. 

Evarh tu dandakarh (gramam) proktarh tasyayamam ihochyate I 
Vistarad dvi-dandena vardhayed dvigunantakam I 
Yah Subhayadi-karmartham danda-hinadhikam tu va I 

(M., K, 12-14.) 

AYADI-BHtJSHANA (see under SHAP-VARGA) The consideration 
of Aya, and other formulas for ascertaining right proportions. 

Padanam api sarvesharh lakshanam vakshyate'dhuna I 
Ayamam cha vi^alam cha ayadi bhushanadikam I (M., xv, 1-2.) 

60 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ARAMA 

AYADI-SHAlp-VARGA (see under SHAD-VARGA.) The six formulas 
for the verification of correct dimensions called aya, vyaya, riksha, 
yoni, vara, and arhsa or tithi. 

Evam ayadi shad-vargarh kuryat tatra vichakshanaih(nah) I 

(A/., ix, 74.) 
AYIKA-PADA (cf. STAMBHA) A kind of pillar. 

Vedamsarh changhri-tungam chardham prastarotsedham I 
Tad-dvayaih ayika-padam sardharhsam prastaram uttungam I 
Tad-urdhvanghri gunariisam tad-ardham urdhva-manchochcham I 

(A/., xxvm, 25-27.) 

ARAMA (cf. UDYANA) A pleasure-garden, a garden-house, an 
orchard. A Buddhist convent (vihara), rest-house for quiet people 
built ' not too far from the town and not too near, convenient for 
going and for coming, easily accessible for all who wish to visit him, 
by day not two crowded, by night not exposed to too much noise 
and alarm.' The whole compound is enclosed with ramparts of 
three kinds, namely, brick walls, stone walls and wooden fences, 
which are again surrounded with bamboo fences, thorn fences and 
ditches. (Chullavagga, vi, 4, 8 ; 3, 10.) 

(1) Nagasya vamake yamye kuryad arama-desakam I 
Pushpodyanam tatah kuryat mukhya-bhalla{ake'pi cha I 
Nrittagaram tatah kuryan nana-nrittahganani cha I 

(A/., XL, 119-121.) 

(2) Prantach-chhaya-vinir-mukta na manqjna jalasayah I 
Yasmad ato jala-pranteshvaraman vinivesayet 1 1 

' Considering that water reservoirs without shade on the margin are 
not lovely, one ought to have gardens laid out on the banks of the water.' 

(Brihat-Samhita, LV, i, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. 

vi, p. 312.) 

(3) Rdmqyana (Cock) : 

II. 51, 23 : aramodyana-sarhpannam . . . rajadhanim I 
VII. 70, 13 : aramais cha viharais cha sobhamanam(-naih) saman- 
tatah II 
Sobhitam . . . purim 1 1 

(4) Mahdbhdrata (ibid.), xu, 69, 11, etc. : 
Vihareshu . . . arameshu tathodyane I 

(5) Garden : 

Kashte kale kalavapy-abhibhavati jagat kupa-vapi-tadagair asan- 
narama-sattraih sura-sadana-mathairm-manditayam amushyam . . . 
nagaryam I (Dewal Prasasti of Lalla the Chhinda, v. 20, Ep. Ind., Vol 
' PP- 79. 83-) 

61 



ARSHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(6) Pleasure-garden houses, orchards : 

Aramany-atanot saran sarobhis Sobhitarhtaraih I 
Utphulla-karhja-kirhjalka-purhja-pirhjaritantaraih 1 1 

(Two pillar inscriptions at Amaravati, 

no. A, Inscrip. of Keta, II, v. 42, 

Ep. Ind., vi, p. 152.) 

(7) Satra-prapa-prasraya-vrishotsargga-vapl-kupa-tadagarama-devalaya- 
di-karanopakaranartharh cha I 

(Cambay Plates of Govinda IV, line 58, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vii, pp. 41-46.) 

(8) KrishnayaSasa arama garden (Sir E. C. Bayley, Dr. Vogel) : vihdra 
or monastery (Sir A. Cunningham) of Krishnayas'a. 

(Rock Inscriptions in the Kangra valley, 

the Kanhiara Inscrip., Ep. Ind., Vol. 

vn, pp. 117-118.) 

(9) Grove (Dr. Liiders) : 

Yamoda-pushkaraninarh paschima pushkarani udapano drdmo stambho 
. . . Sila patto cha ' a tank, the western tank of these twin tanks, a 
reservoir, a grove, a pillar and this stone slab ' (was caused to be made). 

(Three early Brahmi inscriptions, iii, 
Mathura stone inscrip. of the time of 
Sondasa, lines 2-3, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, 

p. 247.) 

( i o) Nana-desa - prabhava - suphala - vrata - bharati - namra - vriksha - sreni - 

niyama-khachitah sala-samgupta-madhyah I 

Aramo'yarh surabhi-sumanoraji-samarajamanah nana-virullal 
tasaranih purna-kamah sadastam 1 1 

(Inscriptions from Nepal, no. 23, Inscrip. 
of Queen Lalita-tripura-sundari, v. 2, 
second series, Ind. Ant., ix, p. 194.) 

ARSHA Belonging or relating to the ascetics, a phallus of Siva. 

A kind of phallus. (Kdmikdgama, L, 35, 37, see under LINGA ) (M., ui 
232, see under LINGA.) 

ALAMBANA The base, plinth of a railing (vedi) or balustrade. 

Sarvesharh mukha-bhadranam syat lakshanam vakshyate' dhuna I 
Sikharalambanaih chadau tat palikavasanakam I 

(M., xvra, 275-276, etc.) 

ALAMBANA-BAHU ^The balustrade, a small pillar used as a 
support to the rail of a staircase : balustrade or a row of balusters 

62 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE AVRITA 

joined by a rail forming an ornamental parapet to a balcony. 
See Indian Architecture, p. 13, Mahasudassana Sutta, i, 59 : Chullavagga, 
vr, 3, 3- 
ALAYA A temple, a house. 

Ramesvaraya ghanamantapa-vapra-saudharamalayam samatanot sama- 
tarasajnah ' he erected a temple (alaya), adorned with a solid hall (man. 
tapa), a wall (vapra), and a plastered mansion (saudha) to Ramesvara' . 

(Mangalagiri pillar inscrip., v. 39, Ep. 
Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 123, 114.) 

ALlftGA (cf. ANTARITA) A moulding like the fillet, but with 
greater projection. It is a flat moulding placed alternately together 
with the Antarita and is inseparably connected with the latter. 

The ninth moulding from the top of the entablature (Kdmikdgama, LIV, 
2, see under PRASADA). 

A crowning moulding of the pedestal and the base (e.g. M., xin, 126 ; 
xiv, 50, etc., see the lists of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA and UPAPITHA). 
A similar moulding of a throne : 

Alingantaritam chordhve prativajanam uchyate I (M., xiv, no.) 

AVASATHA A dwelling, an abode, ' a structure of some sort 
for the reception of guests on the occasions of feasts and sacrifice, 
later Dharma-sala or rest-houses. 

(A.-V., ix, 6, 5 ; Taitt. Bra., i, i, 10, 6; 
in, 7, 4, 6, Sat. Bra., xn, 4, 4, 6; 
Chhand. Upa., iv, I, i ; Apa. Stambha 
Srauta Sutra., v, 9, 3 ; Apa. Dh. Sutra., 
n, 9, 25, 4 ; A.-V., xiv, 2, 6.) 

A VARAN A Minor and associated deites. 

(M., xv, 400.) 

AVASA A residence, a dwelling-house. 

Avasa-vasa-vesmadau pure grame vanik-pathe II 
Prasadarama-durgeshu devalaya-matheshu cha I 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVI, w. 2, 3.) 
Nirjagama nripavasan manya-manah priyam mahat I 

(Ramayana, n, 15-28.) 

AVRITA (see PRAKARA) An enclosure. 

Sikhare chavrite pare sabha-mandapa gopure . . . manayet I 

(M., XVIII, 200 f.) 

63 



AVRITA-MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

AVRITA-MANDAPA An open pavilion surrounding a building 

1 i) Kdmikdgama, xxxv : 

Evarhbhutasya vasasya samantan mandapam nayetll (97) 
Pancha-bhagavasanantam kuryad avrita-mandapam II (98) 
Hasta-manena va kuryat tri-hastad arddha-vriddhitah I 
Pancha-daSa-karantam tu kuryad avrita-mandapam II (99) 
Mandapena vina vapi tena manena pithika II (100) 

(2) Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 137 : 

Prakara-bhittim asVitya kuryad avrita-mandapam II 

AVE&ANA An architectural office, a studio, a place where ar 
works are taught and carried out. 

Avesanarh silpi-sala prapa panlya-salika I (Amarakdsha, n, 5, 7.) 

ASRAMA (see under SHODASA-MANDIRA-CHAKRA) A temple, a hei 
mitage, a dwelling. A religious establishment comprising the mai 
temple, its attached tank, kitchen, alms-house, guest-house, stori 
house, cow-sheds, halls dressing-houses for the deity, bed-roon 
and other houses and flower gardens, orchards and the surroundin 
walls. 

Surebhyah puratah karyo yasyagneyyarh mahanasam I 
Va(? ka)pi-nirgamane yena purwatah sat(t)ra-mandapam II 
Gandha-pushpa-griham karyyam aisanyam patta-samyutam I 
Bhandagaram cha kauberyyam goshthagaram cha vayave II 
Udagasrayam cha varunyam vatayana-samanvitam I 
Samit-kusendhana-sthanam ayudhanam cha nairrite 1 1 
Abhyagatalayam ramya-sa^ayyasana-padukam I 
Toyagni-dipa-sad-bhrityair yuktam dakshinato bhavet 1 1 
Grihantarani sarvani sajalaih kadali-grihaih I 
Pancha-varnai^ cha kusumaih sobhitani prakalpayet II 
Prakaram tad-bahir dadyat pancha-hasta-pramanatah I 
Evam vishnva^ramarh kuryyad vanais chopavanair yutam II 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVI, vv. 14-15 

A&RAMAGARA A class of the seven -storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxv, 29, see under PRASADA 

ASANA A class of buildings, a seat, a throne, a bedstead, a mouk 
ing, a site-plan, a temple, a type of dwellings, a sitting posture. 

( i ) Mdnasdra : 

A class of the three-storeyed buildings. 

(A/., xxx, 12-31, see under PRASADA 

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65 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE ASANA 

A class of buildings in which the breadth is the standard of measure- 
ment ; the temples in which the idol is in the sitting posture. 

(M., XK, 7-11, see under APASA&CHITA.) 

A synonym of Sayana or bedstead. (M., m, 10-12, see under SAYANA.) 
A site-plan the area of which is divided into 100 equal squares : 
Dasamarh sata-padam syan namanam(namna) asanam Iritam I 

(M., vm, n, see details under PADAVINYASA.) 
A moulding of the base. (M., xiv, 296, see under ADHISHTHANA.) 
The seat underneath the base of a pillar : 

Tan (pillar's)-mule chasanam kuryat padukarh va sahambujam I 

(M., xv, 31.) 

A seat as opposed to a bedstead : 

Evarh tu Sayanadinam asananarh cha darubhih(runi) I 

(M., XLIV, 74.) 
A throne : 

Devanaih bhu-patinarh cha bhushanartham tu toranam I 
Asanopari vinyasya sarvesharh toranam I (M., XLVI, i, 3.) 
. . . toranam I 
Devanarh bhu-patmam cha sthanakasyasanasya cha I 

(ibid., 29-30.) 

Devanam bhu-patinam cha sthanakasana-yogyakam I 
Mukta-prapanga-manarh cha lakshanam vakshyate'dhuna I 

(M., XLVII, 1-2.) 

Devanarh chakravaryadi-bhu-palanarh cha yogyakam I 
Kalpa-vriskhadinam tararh manam lakshanam uchyate I 
Toranodaya-padarh tu padardhadhikodayam I 
Evam vrikshasya tungasya asanasyopari nyaset I 
Asanayama-madhye tu toranasyopari nyaset I (M., XLVIH, 1-5.) 
The sitting posture (of the Garuda image) : 

Sthankam chasanarh chaiva gamanarh cha yathavidhi I 

(M., LXI, 19.) 

Evarh proktam simha-rupam ... I 

Sayanam va sthanakam chasanarh va . . . I (M., LXIII, 44, 49.) 
The sitting posture in connexion with the plumb-lines : 
Sarvesharh deva-edvlnarh riju-sthanakarh chasane I 
Mana-sutra-vidhirh samyak(g) lakshanam vakshyate'dhuna I 

(M., LXVII, 1-2.) 



ASANDA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(2) Rdmdyana (Cock) : 

V, 15, 4 : Bahvasana-kuthopetam . . . (aSoka-vanikam) I 
VII, 42, 1 6 f. : Bahvasana-grihopetam . . . asoka vanikam I 
. . . praviSya Raghu-nandanah I 
Asane cha Subhakare pushpa-prakara-bhushite II 
Kusastarana-samstlrne Ramah sarhnisasada ha I 

(3) Katydyana-Srauta-sutra (Pet. Diet.) Sabhasana (4, 15, 33) ; 

Salasana (7, 5, 8) ; Brahma-yajamanayor asane (i, 8, 27 ; 7, 4, 32 ; 
9> 9> J 2, 4. J 5> etc -)- 

(4) Manu-Sarhhitd (ibid.) : 

Sahasana (8,281) ; Sahakhatvasana (8,357) ! Rahah sthanasanam 
(6,59) ; asaneshupakalpiteshu (3,208) ; and Kumara-sambhava (7,12) ; 
Sampraptaya tvathithaye pradadyad asanodake (3,99) ; dadyach chaivasa- 
nam svakam (4,154) ; cf. : 

Rajno mahatmike sthane sadyah sauchaih vidhlyate I 

Prajanaih parirakshartham asanam channa-karanam II (5, 94). 

Amatya-mukham ... I 

Sthapayed asane tasmin iva nah karye kshane nrinam II (7, 141). 

(5) Bhagavadgltd (ibid.), 6, n : 

Suchau dese pratishthapya sthiram asanam atmanah I 

(6) Nalopdkhydna (ibid.) 5, 4 : 

Asaneshu vivid heshvaslnah I 

(7) Raghu-varhSa (ed. Cal. Bibl. 134), 2, 6 : 

Sayyasane'dhyacharite preyasa I 

Cf. padmasana, bhadrasana, vajrasana, virasana, and svastikasana 
(see M. W. Diet., loc. cit.). 

(8) Bahu-hathika-asana bhagavato Mahadevasa ' The seat of 
the blessed Mahadeva (under the banyan tree) Bahuhastika (where 
many elephants are worshipping).' 

(Bharaut Inscriptions, no. 160, Ind. Ant., xxi, p. 239.) 

ASANDA "1 A settee, a throne-like seat, large couches, cushions, 
ASANDI /chairs, rectangular chairs, a throne carried by four 
persons (Digha Nikaya n, 23 ; Chullavagga, vi, 14, i ; Mahdvagga, 
v, 10, 3. See Child ers Dictionary, Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, Bud- 
dhist Sutta, 27, 197, 2-09), with wooden frame-work for chiefs and 
kings. (A.-V., xv, 3, Ait. Bra. viu, 556; 12.) 

66 



THt WIDTH OF THIS 
rOUHIXtlOHMASB 

TAKEM T06t SCUNTS 



ISHTAKA 




INDRA-KILA. 



MINOR PILLAR. 




or 



r^r 



3XX 



77? 



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PLAN 



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J 



UPA-PADA. 



fagtet 




UPANA 




UPANA 




FORT GATE-AVAY 
INDRA-KOSA. 



S7 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE INDRA KlLA(-KA) 

ASTHANA-MANDAPA (see under MANDAPA) An assembly room, 
an audience-hall, a sitting room, a drawing room, a recreation 
ground with a pavilion in it. 

(1) Asthana-mandapam chaiva chatur-dikshu vidikshu cha I 

(M., xxxn, 73.) 
Samasram vatha vedasram kuryad asthana-mandapam I 

(M., xxxiv, 208.) 
Asthana-mandapam kuryat pushkarinyam cha vayave I 

(M., XL, 1 18.) 

(2) Riksha-bhallata-someshu bhaved asthana-mandapam I 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 191.) 

(3) See first Draksharama pillar Inscrip. i, 9, Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, pp. 
3 2 9> 33) under MANDAPA. 

(4) A hall (Vanapalli Plates of Anna-Vema, v. 10, Ep. Ind,, Vol. in, 
PP- 61, 59). 

Cf. Asthana-sila-mandapa (First Draksharama pillar Inscrip., line 9, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, pp. 329, 330). 

(5) Of- ' The curious long series of subterranean chambers to the 
west of Chitaldoorg, now forming part of the Ankli matha, are deserv- 
ing of notice. They are approached by a good stone staircase, which 
leads down to rooms of various sizes at different levels. In these are 
shrines, lingas, baths, and pedestals, the latter apparently for yogasana.' 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. xi, Introduct., pp. 31-32.) 
ASYA A facia. 

1 

IKSHU-KANTA A class of the six-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxiv, 55, see under PRASADA.) 

INDRA-KANTA A class of the four-storeyed buildings, and of the 
gate-houses. 

(M., xxn, 60-88, see under PRASADA.) 

A class of gate-houses. (M., xxxni, 558, see under GOPURA.) 

INDRA KILA(-KA) A pin, a nail, a bolt. 

Phalaka bhajanordhve tu tad-urdhve chendrakllakam I 
Tatah pratima-samyuktam sthapayet sthapatir budhah I 

(M., xii, 125-126.) 
An iron bolt : aratnir indrakilah the iron bolt is one cubit long. 

(Kautillya-Artha-sdstra, Chap, xxiv, p. 53.) 

67 



INDRA-KO^A AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

INDRA-KOSA "1 A projection of the roof of a house forming 
INDRA-KOSHTHA - Ja kind of balcony, holes or jali work in 
arches, crenelle, an opening in a parapet for shooting through. 

Attalaka-pratoli-madhye tri-dhanushkadhishthanarh sapi-dhanach- 
chhidra-phalaka-samhatam itindrakos"aih karayet I 

(Kautillya-Artha-sdstra, Chap, xxiv, p. 52.) 

ISHTAKA Brick, a building material, burnt (pakva, Sat. Bra., 
vi, i, 2, 22 ; vii, 2, i, 7), naturally perforated (svayamatrinna, Tailt. 
Sam., iv, 2, 9 ; 3, 2 ; etc., v, 2, 3), of all colours (Taitt. Sam., v, 7, 8), 
circular (mandala, Tattt. Sam., iv, 4, 5 ; v, 3, 9), cornerless 
(vikarni, Taitt., v, 3, 7), conical (choda, Taitt. Sam., iv, 4, 3), gold- 
headed or enamelled (vamabhrit, Taitt. Sam., iv, 2, 9; v, 5, 3), 
pot-shaped (kumbha, Taitt. Sam., v, 6, i). Thus the brick- 
laying was already a developed art in the age of the Tajurveda 
(1000 B.C.). But in 3000 B.C. burnt bricks were in use in Mohen- 
jodaro, etc. 

(i) Silabhis cheshtakair vapi darubhih . . . (M., xxx, 95.) 
Eka-dva-dala-bhumyantam cheshtake dva-dasantatah I 
Harmyam nirmanato vakshye prathameshtaka-lakshanam | 

(M., xn, 188-189.) 
(a) Trinadi-nirmitarii yo dadyat paramesvari I 

Varsha-koti-sahasrani sa vased deva-vesmani II 
Ishtaka-griha-dane tu tasmach chhata-gunam phalam I 
Tato'yuta-gunam punyam sila-geha-pradanatah II 

(Mahanirvana-Tantra, xin, 24, 25.) 

(3) ' The following written declaration (vyavastha) is (also) granted 
(for the guidance of the donee) : Mansions of burnt tiles (bricks) may 
be built (without special permission) ; . . . with the written declaration 
thus denned (the village) was placed in the (hands) of the assembly 
as a deva dana, with all immunities, to the (God) Mahadeva of the 
Yajfiesvara (temple).' (Velurpalaiyam plates, lines 47 to 63 ; no. 98, K. S. 
I. I., Vol. ii, p. 512.) 

(4) ' Mansions and large edifices may be built of burnt bricks.' 

(Tandantottam Plates, no. 99, lines 26-38 : 
K. S. I. /., Vol. n, p. 531.) 

(5) ' The walls of the temple ... are in great preservation, the 
bricks, which compose them, are of well-burnt red earth, each measur- 
ing 12 inches by 7 and i| thick, disposed with about one-eighth of an 
inch of chunam between them, and the layers, being quite even, look 
as if the plaster had just been stripped off.' 

68 



THL 51TL PLANS 

UGRAPlTHA PUN OF 36 PLOTS 




VMU 


MUKHYA 


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SOSHA, 


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PITR! 


BHRINOfc- 
RAifv 


YAttA 


VrTATH^ 




A GUI 



IS AH AKipUFICftTIOH QF 
TMt UPA PITH* TYPE 



Page OS 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE UGHCHHRAYA 

Lieutenant Fagan (Cylon Government Gazette, August i, 1820) after 
describing about twenty buildings (temples and edifices) made of such 
burnt bricks concludes : 

' I will leave it to the curious in Ceylon antiquities to discover 
the reason that the people, who built these great edifices, should take 
the trouble of making so many millions of bricks for the work, where 
there was abundance of fine stone well calculated for their construc- 
tion in the immediate neighbourhood.' (An account of the ruins of 
Topary, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxvin, p. no, c. 2, line 12 f. ; c. 2, para. 2.) 

I 

ISA-KANTA A class of the eleven -storey ed buildings. 

(M., xxix, 10-11, see under PRASADA.) 
ISVARA-KANTA A site-plan, a class of buildings. 

A site-plan in which the whole area is divided into 961 equal 
squares : 

. . . chaika trimsat-vidhane tu I 
Eka-shashti-samadhikyam padam nava-s"ata-yutam I 
Evam Isvara-kantam syat ... I 

(M., vii, 46-48, see further context under PADA-VINYASA.) 
A class of the four-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxii, 44-46, see under PRASADA.) 

u 

UGRA-JATI Base-born, people of low castes, for whom buildings 
of certain number of storeys are prescribed. 

(M., xi, 138.) 

UGRA-PlTHA A site-plan in which the whole area is divided 
into 36 equal squares. 

(M., vn, 7, see further details under PADA-VTNYASA.) 

UCHCHHRAYA A kind of pillar, pillars of victory. 

Giri-s'ikhara-taru-talattalakopatalpa-dvara-s'aranochchhraya (raised 
places of shelter) Kielhorn quotes also Drs. Indraji and Biihler who 
translate ' Parana ' by ' shelter ' and ' uchchhraya ' by ' pillars of 
victory '. 

(Junagadh rock Inscrip. of Rudradaman, line 6, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vii, pp. 43, 46 and note 3.) 

69 



UNHISA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

UNHISA A headline running along the top of the banisters, a 
figure-head at the lower end of such a head line. 

(Rhys David's Buddhist Sutta, p. 262 
Sudassanasutta, i, 59.) 

UTTAMA-NAVA-TALA A sculptural measurement : in this sys- 
tem the whole height of an image is divided into 112 equal parts 
which are proportionately distributed among the different parts of 
the body from head to foot. The measurement of breadth of the 
various limbs is not included in these 112 parts. The measurement 
of the arms is also excluded from these. 
For details, see M., LIX, 14-64, under TALA. 

UTTAMA-DA&A-TALA A sculptural measurement in which the 
whole height of an image is generally divided into 1 20 equal parts. 

(M., LXV, 2-179, see details under TALA.) 
UTTAMBHA A kind of rectangular building. 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, w. 21-22 
26-27, see under PRASADA.) 

UTTARA A rectangular moulding, a fillet. (For its synonyms, 
see M., xvi, 56-58 below.) It is used sometimes to signify the whole 
architrave or the beam, i.e. the lowest division of the entablature, 
which extends from column to column ; also applied to the moulded 
frame which bounds the sides and head of a door or window open- 
ing. It also denotes a particular member of the pedestal and en- 
tablature and resembles the corona or the square projection of the 
upp er part of the cornice, having a broad and vertical face generally 
plain. 

(Cf. Ram Raz, Ess. Arch. Hind., p. 25.) 
( i) Mdnasdra : 

A crowning moulding of the pedestal : 

Uttaram charhs'akarh chordhve kshepanardhadhikambujam I 
Uttaram chardha-kampam syat tad-urdhve cha saro-ruham I 

(M., xni, 67, 76, etc., see the lists of 
mouldings under UPAP!THA.) 
A similar moulding of the column : 

Adhishthanoparisht(h)at tu chottaradho'vasanakam I 
Upapithoparisht(h)at tu janmadau chottarantakam I 
Padayamavasanam cha adhishthanodayena cha I 

(M., xv, 7-9.) 
70 



UPA.VEDI. 




UPA-VEDI. 



f 



.UTTARA 




I 



UTTARA. 




UTTANA-PATTA. 



Page 70 



U PA TULA. 




UFA TULA. 



Page 71 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE UTSAVA 

A similar moulding of the entablature : 

Uttarordhve chatush-pancha-shat-saptashtakam bhavet I 
Purva-bhagika-manena chottarochcharh gunamsakam I 

(M., xvi, 30, 59, etc., see the lists of 
mouldings under PRASTARA.) 
Its synonyms (or terms of similar signification) : 

Uttararh bhajanam adhararh adheyam s"ayanarh tatha I 
Uddhritarii cha murdhakam chaiva mahatauli svavarhsakam I 
Prachchhadanasyadharam etat paryayam iritam I 

(M., xvi, 56-58.) 

(2) Vdstu-vidyd, ed. Ganapati Sastri, ix, i : 

Atha vakshyami samkshepat pada-manam yathavidhi I 
Uttaropanayor madhya-gatam etat praklrtitam II 

(3) Kdmikdgama, (LIV, see under STAMBHA) : The moulding at the top 

of the entablature. 

(4) Suprabheddgama (xxxi, 107, see STAMBHA) : A crowning moulding 

of a column. 

UTTAROSHTHA (see under STAMBHA) The upper lip, the 
ovolo or the moulding above the cavetto or mouth (see Gwilt., 
Encycl , fig. 867, and also the list of mouldings in the five orders, 
e.g. Art. 2553). 

Stambharh vibhajya navadha vahanarh bhago ghato'sya 

bhago'nyah I 
Padmarh tathottaroshtharh kuryad bhagena it 

(Brihat-Samhita, LIII, 29.) 
UTTANA-PATTA A pavement. 

Vyddham chottana-pattam sakala-kanakhale . . . yas" chakara ' who 
made a broad pavement of (stone) slabs in the whole of Kanakhala.' 

(An Abu inscrip. of the reign of Bhumadeva II, 
v. 9, Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, pp. 221, 222.) 

UTSAVA (J^UTSEDHA) The height of a draught animal (vahana) 
in comparison with that of the idol of whom the former is the 
vehicle. 

(i) Mula-bera-vas"arh manam utsavodayam iritam I (M., LV, 34.) 
Brahma vishnu(s cha)-rudranam buddhasya ja(ji)nakasya cha I 
AnyaiS cha . . . manam tu samgraham I 
Evam tu chotsavadlnam sthavara(m)-jamgamadinam I 

(M. LXIV, 91-93.) 

7 1 



UTSAVA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Vihanga-raja-manaih cha lakshanam vakshyate'dhuna I 
Mula-bera-samottunga(m) tat-tri-padardham eva va I 
Utsavochcha-samarh vapi dvi-gunam tri-gunam tu va I 
Tri-gunam vadhikarh vapi tach-chatur-gunam eva va I 
Evam navodayam proktam uttamadi trayarh trayam I 

(M., LXI, 1-5.) 

Vrishasya lakshanam samyag vakshyate'dhuna I 
Vayor abhimukharh sthapyarh pithe va chotsave'pi va I 
Vimane mandape vapi charopari parinyaset I (M., LXII, 1-3.) 

Three types : 

Mula-berodayam s"reshtha(rh) tri-padam madhyamam bhavet l 
Tungardham kanyasam proktam tri-vidham chotsavodayam I 

(M., LV, 35 -36. 

Berotsedha-samarh ^reshtham karnantam madhyamam bhavet I 
Bahvantaih kanyasam proktam utsavam vrishabhodayam I 

(Af., Lxn, 10-11.) 
Nine kinds : 

Evam lihga-vas"at proktam vishnu-bera-vaso(ad u)chyate I 
Mula-bera-samam vapi netrantam va putantakam I 
Hanvantam bahu-slmantam stanlntam hridayantakam I 
Nabhyantam medhra-simantam nava-manam chotsavodayam I 
Tad-ardham kautukotsedham kanyasadi trayam trayam I 

(M., LXIV, 2 4-28. 

Athava tena mancna shoda^am^am vibhajite I 
Ekaikams'akam tasmat pancha-vim^amsakantakam I 
Kanyasad uttamantam syan nava-manam utsavodayam I 
Athava mula-berasya kesantarii tu bhruvantakam I 
Netrantam nasikagrantam hanvantam bahu-simakam I 
Stanantam hridayantam cha navyantam cha navodayam I 
Kanyasad uttamantam syat nava tad utsavodayam I 
Utsave chardha-manena kautukodayam iritam I 
Tan-manam chashta-bhagaikam nava-bhagavasanakam I 
Kanyasad uttamantam syan nava-manam kautukodayam I 

(M., LV, 37-46. 

It is measured in the idol's finger : 

Mula-berangularh chaiva manayed utsavodayam I (M., LV, 55.) 
Tat-tan-mana-vasat kechin mula-bera-vasan nayet I 
Utsave chotsavam proktam angulam mana-vi^vatah | 

(M., LXI, 21-22.) 
72 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE UTSEDHA 

UTSAVA-MANDAPA A festive hall. 

See under MANDAPA and cf. : 

Gopura-prakarotsava-maihtapair upachitarh sriramabhadraya 

(Kondavidu Inscrip. of Krishnaraya, v. 27, 

Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 237, 231.) 

UTSAVA-VIGRAHA Images for procession, idols to be carried in 

procession. 

Utsava-vigrahala samarpimchi-' presented idols to be carried m pro 

cession '. 

(Kondavidu Inscrip. of Krishnaraya, v. 28, lines 118-119, 

Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 231, 232, 237.) 

UTSEDHA (see MANA) The height called santika, paushtika, 
jayada, sarvakamika or dhanada, and adbhuta : they are respectively 
equal to the breadth, i J, i\, i J , and twice of it. 

(See M., xxxv, 22-26, under ADBHUTA.) 

The height of a buidling is stated to be measured from the basement to 
the top of the dome : 

Utsedharh janmadi-stupikantam (M., xxxv, 26.) 

The technical names of the proportions of the height are significant. 
The first one is called Santika ' or peaceful. In this proportion the he lg ht is 
equal to the breadth (M., xxxv line 22) ; and this is aesthetically a gracefu 
proportion. The second one is called 'paushtika' which might be 
rendered as strong, eminent, rich, complete, or perfect. In this proportion 
the height is 1 1 of the breadth (ibid., line 22) ; and this would give 
building a good stability. The third one is called ; jayada ' or joy-giving. 
In this proportion the height is i* of the breadth (ibid., line 22) ; and this 
gives a pleasant appearance to the building. The fourth one has two names, 
' sarva-kamika ' or good in every way, and ' dhanada ' or wealth-giving. In 
this proportion the height is if of the breadth (ibid., line 23) ; and according 
to the literal meaning of the term sarvakamika ' this would make the 
building strong as well as beautiful. The fifth or last one is called adbhuta ' 
or marvellous. In this proportion the height is twice the breadth (ibid., 
line 22) ; and this would give a wonderful loftiness and gorgeous look 
to the building. 

The comparative height of the component members of an architectural 
structure is technically called 'ganya-mana.' The details thereof will be 
found under GANYA-MANA. 

Six kinds of measurements are prescribed for an image : mana 
(full height of the image), pramana (breadth), parimana (width 

73 



UDAPANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

or circumference), lambamana (length by the plumb-lines), unmana 
(thickness) and upamana (measurement of the interspace, e.g. between 
the two feet, M., LV, 3-9, see under MANA). Of these, mana or height 
is stated to be compared with nine objects such as the adytum, door, 
basement, and the height of the worshipper, etc. (ibid., lines 11-14, see 
under MANA). In each case, the height of the idol admits of nine kinds 
as it is made equal to nine successive parts of the object (ibid., lines 15-33). 
When compared with the worshipper, it is equal to his full height, 
reaches his hair-limit (on the forehead), nose-tip, chin, arm-limit (to the 
shoulder), breast, heart, navel and sex-organ : 

Kanyasad uttamantam syad yajamanodayam param I 
KeSantam nasikagrantaih hanvantam bahu-slmakam I 
Stanantarh hridayantarh cha nabhyantam medhra-simakam I 
Navadha kanyasantam syat sthavaram jangamodayam I 

(M., LV, 30-33.) 

The height of the riding animals (vahana) of the gods is divided 
into two kinds, utsava and kautuka (see details under these terms). The 
latter is stated to be half of the former, and it does not seem to bear 
any other independent signification. The former is compared with 
the height of the main idol, exactly in the same way as the idol is com- 
pared with the height of the worshipper (see e.g. M., LXIV, 24-28 ; LV, 
40-43, under UTSAVA). 

UDAPANA A well, a pool or pond near a well. 

Ima-kshayamada-pushkaranlnam paSchima-pushkaraniih udapana- 
arama-stambhah I (Mathura inscriptions, no. i, line 2, Cunningham, Arch. 
Surv. Reports., Vol. m, p. 30.) 

See Bhdgavadgltd, n, 46. 
UDUMBARA The threshold of a house, a door. 

(1) Uchchhrayat pada-vistlrna Sakha tad-vad udumbarah ' the 
side-frame of the door has a breadth of J of the altitude ; likewise 
the threshold.' Sakha-dvaye'pi karyam sardham tat syad udum- 
barayoh ' the thickness of the two side-frames of a door is as many digits 
(angulas) as the altitude numbers cubits, one and a half that measure 
gives the thickness of the threshold and upper timber.' 

(Bfihat-Sathhita, LIII, 26 j LVI, 13, Kern, 
J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, pp. 284, 318.) 

(2) Garbha-griha-udumbara-pramana ' measures of the central hall 
and the threshold'. (Prdsddamandana-Vdstu-^astraofSutra-dhara Mandana, HI, 
MSS., Egg. 3147, 2253 fol. 150.) 

74 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE UDYANA 

(3) Plaksha-dvaram bhavet purvarh yamye chodumbaram bhavet I 
T^he back-door should be at the east and the udumbara or front-do or 
at the south'. (Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXIV, v. 15.) 

Tatha dvi-guna-vistlrna-mukhas tad-vad udumbarah I 

(Ibid., Chap. CCLXX, v. 20.) 

(4) Vistarad dvi-gunarh dvararh kartavyarh tu susobhanam I 
Udumbarau tad-urddhvarh cha nyasech chhasnarh (?) suman 

galaih II 

Dvarasya tu chaturthamse karyau chanda-prachandakau II 
Visvak senavat sadantau sikharddhodumbara-sriyarh II 

(Agni-Purdna, Chap. XLII, vv. 19-20.) 

(5) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 20) has the same verse as (i) 
except that it reads ' udumbarl ' in place of ' udumbarah ' in the Brihat- 
Sarhhitd. 

(6) See jamb ornaments, Chalukyan Architecture, Arch. Surv., 
New Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, plates CL, figs. 2, 3. 

UDDHRITA A synonym of uttara or a crowning fillet. 

(M., xvi, 56-58, see under UTTARA.) 

UDBHUTA A kind of phallus. 

(M., LH, 226, 233, 236, 238, 241, see under LINOA.) 
UDYANA (cf. ARAMA) A pleasure-garden. 

(i) Rdmayana (Cock) n, 71, 21 : 

Esha natipratita me punyodyana yaSasvim I 
Ayodhya dris"yate durat ... II 

Ibid., 22-26 : 

Udyanani hi sayahne kriditvoparatair naraih M 
Samantad vipradhavadbhih prakas"ante mamanyatha I 
Tanyadyanurudantiva parityaktani kamibhih 1 1 
Aranya-bhuteva puri sarathe pratibhati mam I 
Nahyatra yanair dri^yante na gajair na cha vajibhih 1 1 
Niryanto vabhiyanto va nara-mukhya yatha pura I 
Udyanani pura bhanti matta-pramuditani cha 1 1 
Jananam rati-samyogeshvatyanta-gunavanti cha I 
Tanyetanyadya pasyami niranandani sarvas"ah II 

Ibid, n, 67, 19 : 

Narajake jana-pade vahanaih Sighra-vahibhih I 
Nara niryantyaranyani naribhih saha kaminah II 

75 



UNMANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(2) Lilodyana or pramadodyana pleasure-garden, on the Dharagiri 
hill, the scene of the second Art. 

(Dhar Prasasti of Arjunavarman, lines 6, 

12, 31, verse 30, lines 36, 75, Ep. Ind., 

Vol. VIH, pp. 99-100.) 

UNMANA (see MANA) The measurement of thickness or diameter. 

(M. y LV, 3-9, see under MANA.) 
Atah-pararh pravakshyami manonmanarh vis"eshatah I 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLVIII, v. 16.) 

Manarh tad-vistararh proktarh unmanam naham eva cha II 
Pramanarh dirgham ityuktarh manonmana-pramanatah II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxiv, 35, 36.) 

UPAKANTA A class of the six-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxiv, 16, see under PRASADA.) 

UPATULA (see TULA) A part of the column. 

(Brihat-Samhita, LIII, 30, see under TULA.) 

UPATALPA An upper storey, a room on the top of a house. 

(Raghu-vamsa, xvi, n, etc.) 
UPADVARA The smaller door. 

(See Mdnasara, ix, 306, 309, 354, 360, under DVARA.) 
Upadvaro(ramu)ktavat kuryad vishnu-dhisnam tu paschime I 

(M., ix, 109.) 
Chatur-dikshu chatur dvaram upadvaram antaralake I 

(M., xxxi, 77.) 
UPADHANA (see under SAYANA) A pillow, an article of furniture. 

UPAPADA The upper or dwarf pillar which is subordinate to a 
larger column. 

Upapadani sarvesharh purva (? mula)-pade tu yojayet I 
Ekopapada-sarhyuktam dvi-try-upapadena sarhyutam I 
Vedopapada-sarhyuktarh brahma-kantam Iritam I 

(M., xv, 239, 242, 244, see also 245, 247.) 

UPAPITHA (cf. PITHA) The pedestal, the upper pedestal, the 

outer surface, a site-plan. The pedestal is the lowest division 

in an order of columns, called also stylobates and stereobates. It 

consists of three principal parts the die, the cornice, and the base. 

(i) ' The pedestal is not only placed under the base of a column or 

pilaster, but frequently employed, both singly and together with the 

76 



THL 5iTL PLXNS 

U PA-pJTHA PLAM OF ZS PLOTS 




JAABUT 


)AUKHYA 


SOKA 


ADIT) 


ISA 


SOSH* 


RUDP.A 


BH13DHARA 


APAVATSA 


MXANTA 


VARUN^ 




M1TRN 


BR^I^X 


ARYAKA 


ADHYA 


SUGRWA 


INDRA 


VIVASVAT 


SKVITRA 


BHP'.SA 




PITRI 


BHRINGA- 
-RAJA 


YAM 


VITATKA 


AGNl 



Page 7 6 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE UPAPlTHA 

latter, as a pavement for temples and porticoes, over cornices of edifices 
consisting of several storeys in height, and also as a platform for thrones, 
and as seats for statues.' 

In a Tamil fragment of a manuscript, purporting to be a translation 
of Mayamata, it is said that ' the height of the shaft or pillar is to be 
divided into four parts, and one to be given to the base which may or 
may not be accompanied by a pedestal, and in the case where a pedestal 
is joined to the base, the height of the pedestal may be either equal to 
that of the base, or twice, or three times as much. Here, the greatest 
height, given to a pedestal, namely, three times that of the base, is equal 
to a little more than a third part of the highest column, which is not 
perhaps a bad proportion.' 

(Ram Raz, Ess. Arch. Hind., pp. 23, 26.) 

(2) Kdmikdgama, xxxv : 

Tad-varddhitopapitharh va tad-varddhita-masurakam II (115). 
Adhishthanadi-shad-vargarh tan-manam upapithake II (122). 

(3) Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 12 : 

Pithasya tri-gunam garbhaiii ta(t)-tri-bhagaika-bhittikam I 
Sarhvikshya sama-bhumis' ched upapitham prakalpayet II 

(4) Mdnasdra : 

A site-plan in which the whole area is divided into 25 equal 
squares (see under PADAVINYASA) : 

Panchamam pancha-panchamsam upapitham iti smritam I 

(M, vn, 6.) 

Evam sutra-sthitan devan padastharhs chopapithake I (ibid., 70.) 
In connexion with foundations : 
Ekamsam koshtha-bhittyuchchhra(ya)rh ghanam prag-uktavan- 

nayet I 
Upapitham pade devan koshtham chokta-kramam nyaset I 

(M., XH, 38-39.) 

In connexion with the ' pita ' or yoni part of the linga : 

Athava kumbha-dig-bhagarh padma-tunga(m) yugarhsakam I 
Sesham prag-ukta-vat kuryad upapitham prakalpayet I 

The pedestal of the column (M., xm, 2-156) : 

Its situation : 
Adhishthanonnate dese chopapitham hi samsritam I (2) 

Its heights (cf. also Mayamata, quoted above) : 

Ete tattvam adhishthanam tach-chatur-amsakam I 
Vibhajet tvadimamsena ekaikamsam vivardhanat I 
Tad ashtamsavasanaih syaj janmadi-pattikantikam I 

77 



UPAPITHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Evam tu chopaplthochcham navabhir bhedam iritam I 
Athava kshudra-harmye tu chatur-bhagarhs"am unnatam I 
Dvi-bhagam va tri-bhagam va chatur-bhagam athapi va. I 
Pancha-daSodayam vapi ri(s"a)ntikadi-sarodayam I 

(3~9 ftt also 10-15, under UTSEDHA.) 
The general description : 

Bhaga-padadi-sarvesham udgrivaih vastu-vaSan nyaset I 
Padanam api sarvesham patrajatibhir alahkritam I 
Antre natakair yuktam padmanam tu dalair yutam I 
Chatur-asYakritim chaiva prathamadin kampa-vajanaih I 
Athava ratna-pushapas' cha patradyair alankritam syat I 
Anyair yuktam svalankritya prativajana-de^ake I 
Prativajanakam tesham krite karkarikritam I 
Anyena vantaram chaiva vyala-sirhhadi-rupakaih I 
Khadgeva Srohi-samyuktam vrittasram pushpakair yutam I 
Anyanyamuktarh cha sarvesham yuktya tatraiva yojayet I (145-154). 
Sixteen types of pedestals are described under three technical names, 
details whereof are given below (37-127). (The mouldings are arranged 
in the successive order, as given in the text, from bottom upwards.) 
I. Vedibhadra (lines 27-53) : 

(a) 24 parts : Parts 

(1) Upana (plinth) .. .. .. 5 

(2) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(3) Griva (dado) .. .. ..12 

(4) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(5) Vajana (fillet with greater projection) . . 4 

(6) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(b) 12 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(3) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. $ 

(4) Kantha (dado) .. .. 5 

(5) Kshepana (projection) .. .. .. i| 

(6) Padma (cyma) . . .. . . . i 

(7) Pattika (fillet) . . . . . . \ 

(8) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . \ 

(c) 12 parts : 

(1) Paduka (plinth) .. ... .. ij 

(2) Abja (cyma) .. .. .. i| 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . J 

(4) Griva (dado) .. .. .. 5^ 

78 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE UPAPlTHA 

Parts 

(5) Kshepana (projection) . . . . . . 

(6) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . \ 

(7) Vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(8) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . \ 

(d) 12 parts : 

(1) Upana (plinth) .. .. .. i 

(2) Abja (cyma) . . 

(3) Kampa (fillet) . . , . . . 



(4) Karna (ear) . . 

(5) Pattika (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(6) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . 5 

(7) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. 

(8) Vajana (fillet) .. .. ..2 

(9) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . 

These are suitable for all kinds of buildings : 

Sarva-harmyeshu yogarh syad vedibhadram chaturvidham I (52) 
II. Pratibhadra (lines 53-89) : 

(a) 26 parts : Parts 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 3 

(2) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(3) Abja (cyma) . . . . . . 2 

(4) Kampa (fillet) . . , . . . i 

(5) Griva (dado) . . . . 1 1 

(6) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(7) Ambuja (cyma) . . . . . . 2 

(8) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. 3 

(9) Antarita (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(10) Prati-vajana (cavetto) .. .. .. i 

(b) 32 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Kshepana (projection) . . . . . . 

(3) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . z\ 

(4) Kshudrabja (small cyma) . . . . | 

(5) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . J 

(6) Kandhara (dado) . . . . . . 2 

(7) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. 

(8) Abja (cyma) .. .. | 

(9) Pattika (fillet) .. .. ..2 

(10) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. 

79 



UPAPITHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Parts 

(u) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. 

(12) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. 10 

(if) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. | 

(14) Padma (cyma) 

(15) Kampa (fillet) .. .. j 

(16) Kandhara (dado) .. .. .. z 

(17) Uttara (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(18) Kshcpana (projection) .. .. .. 

(19) Ambuja (cyma) .. .. .. 

(20) Kapota (corona) 

(21) Alinga (fillet) .. .. j 

(22) Antarita (fillet) .. .. .. z 

(23) Prati-vajana (cavetto) .. .. .. ij 

(e) 33 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 3 | 

(2) Kampa (fillet) .. .. j 

(3) Padma (cyma) . . . . It 3 

(4) Kampa (fillet) .. .. j 

(5) Kandhara (dado) 

(6) Kampa (fillet) 

(7) Ambuja (cyma) .. .. J 

(8) Vajrakumbha (round pitcher) . . . . 2 

(9) Dala (petal) .. .. .. f j 

(10) Gala (dado) .. .. .. 5 

(u) Uttara (fillet) .. .. ..2 

(12) Ardha-kampa (half-fillet) .. .. 7 

(13) Saroruha (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(14) Kapota (corona) .. .. .. 3 

(15) Alinga (fillet) 

(1 6) Antarita (fillet) .. .. .. j" 

(17) Prati-vajana (cavetto) .. .. .. r j 

(d) 33 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 2 J 

(2) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. j" 

(3) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . 3 

(4) Kampa (fillet) . . . . j 

(5) Karna (ear) 

(6) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. j 

(7) Ambuja (cyma) . . . . . . | 

80 



Hl.VDU ARCHITECTURE UPAPTTHA 



(19) Kapota (corona) 

(20) Afinga (filet) 

(21) Antarita (fillet) 

(23) Vajana (fiDetj 

C *X<C- 1 

of kings (91) 

HI- Maacfaahbadia (fines 90-124) 



(8) lUtna-patta (jewdled filet) .. .. \ 

<< U-'-.-<. frrito] .. .. .. \ 

(10) Ksfaepana (projection) .. .. J 

(n) Kar9a(6K) .. .. .. .. i 

(w) KjfaefKua (projection) .. J 

(13) Ambaja (cyma) .. .. i 

(14) KAe{pa (projection).. .. .. , 

(15) Ka*ha (dado) ...... 

(16) Uttaza (fillet) .. ,. .. | 

(17) Aidk^aMpaCkaM^let) .. .. \ 

(18) Ambuja (cyma) .... 2 



| 




UPAPlTHA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(b) 31 parts : Parts 

(1) Upana (plinth) .. .. .. 3 

(2) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . \ 

(3) Saroruha (cyma) . . . . . . 3! 

(4) Kshepana (projection) .. .. i| 

(5) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. J 

(6) Karna (ear) .. .. .. | 

(7) Ambuja (cyma) .. .. .. 

(8) Gopana (beam) .. .. .. aj 

(9) Prati-vajana (cavetto) . . . . . . 3 

(to) Gala (dado) . . . . . . 8 

(n) Uttara (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(12) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(13) Abja (cyma) .. .. .. i 

(14) Kapota (corona) .. .. .. 3 

(15) Alinga (fillet) .. .. .. 

(16) Antarita (fillet) .. .. \ 

(17) Prati-vajana (cavetto) .. .. .. i\ 

(e) 32 parts : 

(1) Upana (plinth) .. .. .. 2 

(2) Kampa (fillet) .. .. \ 

(3) Mahambuja (large cyma) . . . . 2^ 

(4) Kshudrabja (small cyma) .. .. ij 

(5) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . \ 

(6) Antarita (fillet) . . . . . . 2 

(7) Kampa (fillet) . . . . . . \ 

(8) Padma (cyma) . . . . . . \ 

(9) Pajtika (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(10) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. \ 

(n) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(12) Gala (dado) .. .. .. 5 

(13) Uttara (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(14) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(15) Ambuja (cyma) .. .. .. \ 

(16) Ardha-kampa (half-fillet) .. .. \ 

(17) Prati-vajana (cavetto) .. .. .. \ 

(18) Antarita (fillet) . . . . . . \ 

(19) Karna (ear) .. .. .. 3 

(20) Uttara (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(21) Kampa (fillet) .. .. \ 

(22) Padma (cyma) ... . . \ 

82 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE UPAPlTHA 

Parts 

(23) Kapota (corona) . . . . . . 3 

(24) Alinga (fillet) . . . . 

(25) Antarita (fillet) . , . . . . \ 

(26) Gala (dado) . . . . . . . . 2 

(27) Uttara (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(d) 34 parts : 

(1) Janman (plinth) .. .. .. 3 

(2) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(3) Abja (cyma) .. .. 3 

(4) Kshudra-padma (small cyma) .. .. 

(5) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(6) Gala (dado) . . . . . . 7 

(7) Antara (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(8) Kampa (fillet) ... . . . . \ 

(9) Padma (cyma) .. .. .. \ 

(10) Amsuka (filament) .. .. .. z 

(n) Kapota (corona) .. .. .. ij 

(12) Antara (fillet) .. .. ..6 

(13) Karna (ear) and 

( 14) Uttara (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(15) Kampa (fillet) .. .. .. \ 

(16) Abja (cyma) .. .. .. J 

(17) Gopana (beam) .. .. .. 3 

(18) Vajana (fillet) .. .. ..2 

Projections (lines 125-144) : 

The projection of the plinth (and other members) is equal to the 
moulding, larger by one-fourth, one-half, three-fourths, or twice : 
Tat-tad-angani sarvesham upanadi tathakramam I 
Tat-samam nirgamam vapi tat padadhikam eva cha I 
Tad ardhadhika-bhagam vapi tat tri-bhagadhikam tatah I 
Tat samadhikam evam va padad upana-nirgamam I (128-131). 
Janma-nirgamam evoktam padma nirgamam ishyate I (138). 

The projection of the cyma is not up to twice of it : 

Tungarh tat-samam evam va padadhikyardham adhikam I 
Padonadvi -gun aril vapi padmam evam tu nirgamam I (139-140). 
Upamanasya manena yuktya padmasya tu nirgamam I (142). 

The projections of the other mouldings are (generally) equal to them : 
Kshudra-padmani kampani tat-samam vatha nirgamam I 
Pattikadini sarvani tat samam nirgamam bhavet | (143-144). 

83 



UPAPITHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The projection of the (whole) pedestal (lines 20-35) : 

The height of the pedestal is divided into 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, n, 
12, 13, 14, or 15 equal parts ; of these i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 parts are 
projections (lines 20-26). But the choice of that proportion which 
would make it look beautiful is left to the discretion of the artist : 

Purvarh nirgamarh proktarh yan-manoramyam anayet I (26). 
The extent of projection : 

Nirgamam chopapitham(thasya) syat pada-bahyavasanakam I (34). 

These pedestals of the Indian architecture may be compared, in the 
following pages, with those of the early European orders, for a general 
knowledge of the subject. 

(5) ' Whether the pedestal is to be considered a component part of an 
order is of little importance. There are so many cases that arise in 
designing a building, in which it cannot be dispensed with, that we 
think it useful to connect it with the column and entablature. Vitru- 
vius, in the Doric, Corinthian and Tuscan orders, makes no mention 
of pedestals, and in the Ionic order he seems to consider them rather as 
a necessary part in the construction of a temple than as belonging to 
the order itself.' (Gwilt, Encycl, Art. 2601.) 

' The height of the podium, or pedestal, with its cornice and base, 
from the level of the pulpitum, is one-twelfth part of the diameter of the 
orchestra (in a theatre). The columns on the podium, with their 
capitals and bases, are to be one-fourth of its diameter high. The 
architraves and cornices of those columns are one-fifth of their height. 
The upper pedestal, including the base and cornice, is half the height 
of the lower pedestal. The columns on this pedestal are one fourth 
less in height than the lower columns.' 

' The architrave and its cornice are one-fifth of the columns. If 
there is to be a third order, the upper pedestal is to be half the height 
of that under the middle order and the architrave and cornice one-fifth 
of the columns.' (Vitruvius, Book V, Chap, vn.) 

Tables showing the height of pedestals in ancient and modern works 

Plinth (basel Mouldings 

* Die 



Doric : 

Palladio ..26 14 80 20 = 140 

Scamozzi , .. 30 15 88- 22j = 

84 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



UPAPITHA 



Plinth (base) Mouldings 

in above 

minutes plinths 



Ionic : 



Temple of Fortune 

Virilis . . 44 

Coliseum . . 33^ 

Palladio . . 28 

Scamozzi . . 30 

Corinthian : 

Arch of Constan- 

tine .. 17^ 

Coliseum . . 23 

Palladio . . 23 \ 

Scamozzi . . 30 

Composite : 

Arch of Titus . . 55 
Arch of the Gold- 
smiths . . 46 
Arch of Septimus 

Severus . . 30 

Palladio . . 33 

Scamozzi . . 30 



9* 
14* 
15 



29 



15 



'5 



Die 



93l 

'S 

971 



141 

144* 

'4<>i 
133 



Cornice 



i? = 



Total 



= I80J 



150 



153 


295 


= 229 


78 


i9l 


= 131 


93 


19 


= 150 


132* 


22^ 


200 



29 = 255 



= 241 



' The minutes used in the above table are each equal to i 60 
diameter of the shaft.' (Gwilt, Encycl., Art. 2600). 



231* 

2OO 
1 80 

of the 



PEDESTALS 



I. In the Tuscan order (Art. 2555) 



Cornice cymatium, 
6 parts 

Die, 44 parts 
Base, 6 parts 



(Listel) 



Die or dado 3 modules 

and 

Cong6 or apophyge 
Fillet 
Plinth 

85 



Height in 

parts of a 

module 



2 
I 

5 



Projection 
from the axis 
of column in 

parts of a 
module 



2O 
4 



UPAPITHA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



II. In the Doric order (Art. 2665) 
r i. Listel 
2. Echinus 



Cornice, 6 parts . . { 3. 


Fillet 




4- 


Corona 


I 5. 


Cyma reversa 


Die .. ..6. 


Die, 4 modules. 


f 7 ' 


Cong6 


8. 


Fillet 


| 
Base . . . . { 


Astragal 
Cyma (inverted) 




n. 


Second plinth 


I 12 - 


First plinth 


III. In the Ionic order : 






i. 


Fillet 




2. 


Cyma reversa 




3- 


Corona 


Cornice, 1 1 f parts ^ 


4- 


Fillet of the drip 




5- 


Ovolo 




6. 


Bead 




7- 


Fillet 


*- 8. 


Cong6 


Die (4 modus) . . 9. 


Die 




'10. 


Cong4 




n. 


Fillet 


Base, i o parts . . < 


12. 
'3- 


Bead 
Cyma reversa 




14. 


Fillet 


Li* 


Plinth 


IV. In the Corinthian order (Art. 2582) : 




" I. 


Fillet 




2. 


Cyma reversa 




3- 


Corona 


Cornice, 14^ parts < 


4. 

5- 


Throat 
Bead 




6. 


Fillet 




7- 


Frieze 


* 


. 8. 


Bead 



Height in 


Projection 
from the axis 


parts of a 


of column in 


module 


parts of a 
module 


i 


23 


I 


22| 


1 


2l| 


2\ 


21 


li 


|B| 


I 


17 


I 


18 


I 


i8| 


2 


19 


2* 


21 


4 


i 





35 


J l 


S4l 


3 


33l 


1 


30 


3 


29! 


i 


27 


i 


26J 


ii 


25 


I2f I 


mod. 7 


2 


25 


I 


27 


l| 


28 


3 


271 


4 


33 





33i 


*$ 


33i 


3 


32 


ii 


3f 


i 


26 


1 


2 5f 


5 


25 


i* 


26| 



86 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



UPAPITHA 



Height in 
parts of a 
module 


Projection 
from the axis 
of column in 
parts of a 
module 


f 9- Fillet .. .. f 


26J 


j 10. Cong6 . . i| 


25 


Die, 91 J parts . . -{ n. Die .. .. 87^ 


25 


| 12. Fillet .. i 
^13. Cong6 .. .. f 


25 


("14. Bead .. . . i J 


27i 


j 15. Inverted cyma reversa 3 


26f 


Bnse, I4i parts . . { 16. Fillet .. .. i 


3t 


17. Torus .. 3 


32^ 


[18. Plinth .. ..6 


32| 


V. In the Composite order (Art. 2591) : 




r i. Fillet .. .. 


33 


2. Cyma reyersa . . ij 


3 2 I 


3. Corona . . 3 


3i| 


4. Cyma recta il 
Cornice, 1 4 parts ^ F;11 

Q. Irliict . . . . 


26^ 


6. Cavetto . . i 


2 5i 


7. Frieze . . 5 


25 


8. Bead .. .. i 


27 


f 9. Fillet .. ..i 


27i 


j 10. Cong6 .. . . ii 


25 


Die, 94 parts .J n. Die .. .. 88f 


25 


j 12. Apophyge.. .. 2 


27 


^13. Fillet .. ..i 


27 


14. Bead . . i 


271 


15. Inverted cyma reversa 3 


3i 


16. Fillet .. ..i 


3 J i 


17. Torus .. --3 


33 


18. Plinth .. ..4 


33 



On the comparison of the pedestals employed in the early periods of 
Indian and European architecture, Ram Raz and others are of 
opinion that ' the most finished specimens of them (Indian pedestals) 
may be justly said to surpass anything of the kind in the Grecian or 
Roman orders, both in the beauty of their proportions and the richness 
of their ornament.' (Ram Raz, p. 23.) 

(6) See Ranganatha inscription of Sundarapandya. (Verse 19, Ep. 
Ind., Vol. in, pp. 13, 16.) 



UPABHAVANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The ends of the ring (of the Konkadara plates of Allava-Dodda) are 
secured in the crescent-shaped base of an oblong pedestal which bears a 
recumbent figure of the sacred bull Nandin, with the symbols of the 
sun and the moon in front of it. (Ep. Ind., Vol. v, p. 53.) 

(7) ' One lower pedestal (upapitha), on which this image stood, set 
with jewels (and measuring) one muram and eleven viral in length, 
three-quarters (of a muram) and five viral in breadth, and seven viral 
in height.' (Inscription of Rajaraja, no. 34, para. 6, H.S.LI., Vol. n, p. 144.) 

(8) 'One pedestal (having or called) an auspicious mark (bhadra). 
The word, Hiadra, occurs in two other inscriptions in the description 

of a pedestal (above, p. 223, para. 4 ; p. 225, para. 4).' (V.S.I.I., Vol. 
ii, no. 79, para. 4, p. 398, note 2.) 

(9) See Essay on Arch, of Hind., Ram Raz, Plate i, figs. 1-12. 

(10) See pedestal of statue inside the great temple at Gaya, Cunning- 
ham, Arch. Surv. Reports, Vol. i, Plate v, p. 6, ibid., Vol, ix, Plate in 
(plan and section of pedestal for statues). 

UPABHAVANA A sub-temple. 

' Caused to be erected a sub-temple (upabhavana) adorned with the 
images of Hari and GanesV. (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part i, Arsikere Taluq 
n - 79. Transl., p. 142, last two lines.) 

UPAMANA The measurement of the interspace. 



UPALEPANA-Plastering. 

Tad-vasati-sambandhi -nava-karmmottara -bhavi -khanda - sphutita- 
sam-marjjanopalepana-paripalanadi I (Konnur Inscrip. of Amogha- 
varsha I, line 37, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 31, 36.) 

Deva-griham karapya punas tasya upalepana I (Buchkala Inscrip. of 
Naga Bhatta, lines 17-18, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, p. 200.) 

UPAVANA A pleasure-garden, a planted forest. 

Upavanam atha chakre tena meghesVarasya sphurita-kusumarenu- 

s'reni-chandratapa-s'rl i 
Avirata - makaranda - syanda -sandoha - varshair ddhrita -rati -pati- 

lilayan-tradharagrihatvam II (Two BhuvanesVar Inscriptions, no. A 

of SvapnesVara, v. 26, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 202.) 

UPAVASANA A coverlet, an upper garment. 

UPAVEDI The upper or the smaller pedestal, a seat or dais. 
Suddha-toyena sampurya vedikopari vinyaset | 
Upavedyopari sthapya choktavach chashta-mangalam | 

(M., LXX, 41, 45.) 






HIJ\DU ARCHITECTURE UPANA 

UPASATHAGARA A building belonging to a Buddhist monastery 
used for the performance of the priestly ceremony of confession, in 
which every member of the order is to acknowledge the faults he has 
committed. (Childer's 5. F., Kern, quoted by W. Geiger : MahavamSa, p. 296.) 
UPASTHANA (cf. Asthana-mandapa) A reception-room. 

' The meritorious gift of a reception-room (upasthana) by the two 
men ' (Junnar Inscriptions, no. 2, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. iv, 

P- 92.) 
UPASTHANA-BHUMI A hall of audience. 

Yasyopasthana-bhumi . . . ' whose hall of audience.' (Kahaun Stone 
Pillar Inscrip. of Skandagupta, line i, C. I. /., Vol. in, F. G. I., no. 15, p. 67.) 

UPANA A rectangular moulding, a fillet ; it corresponds, in the 
import of the term and the purpose to which it is applied, to the 
plinth or the lower square member of the base of a column or the 
projecting base of any moulding (cf. Ram Raz, Ess. Arch. Hind., 

P- 25). 

Atha vakshyami samkshepat pada-manam yatha-vidhi I 
Uttaropanah(-y)or madhya-gatam etat prakirtitam II 
Apparently ' upanaha ' is used in the sense of ' upana.' 

(Vastu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, ix, i.) 

The bottom of the foundation-pit : 

Tat-pada-mule dese va tathopana-prades'ake I 
Kudya-stambhe griha-stambhe harmya-garbham vinikshipet I 

(M., xn, 130-131.) 

The moulding (plinth) at the bottom of a pedestal, it is also called 
Janman : 

Utesedhe tu chatur-vims'at panchamsam upanam Iritam I 
Ekena kampam ityuktarh grivochcham dva-dasarhs'akam I 
Kampam ekam tu vedarhs'am vajanam kampam ariisakam I 
Vedibhadram iti proktam athava dva-das'ariis'akam I 
Janma dvayarhs'akarh padam kampam ardhena karayet I 

(M., xra, 36-40, see the lists of mouldings under UPAP!THA.) 
The similar moulding of the base is also called ' janman ': 
Eka-vims'ams'akam tunge kshudropanarh s'iva.riis'akani I 
Janmadi-vajanantam cha sapta-vimsamSam uchchhrayet I 
Dvi-bhagam janma-tungarii syat tat-samarh chambujodayam I 

(M., xiv, 44, 65-66.) 

It is also called pdduka and vapra, see the lists of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA. 

89 



UBHAYA-CHANDITA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

UBHAYA-CHANDITA-A site plan of one hundred and sixty- 
nine square plots. 

(M. vii, 15-16, cf. PADA-VINYASA.) 

URAGA-BANDHA (See under ADHISHTHANA)-A class of bases It 
has four types differing from one another in the height and num- 
ber of the mouldings. (See the details under ADHISHTHANA.) 

It is shaped like the face of a snake (uraga) and is furnished with two 
pratts at the top (M., xiv, 44). The pitcher-shaped moulding of this 
class of bases is circular or round. (M., xiv, 45.) 

USHNISHA The top of a building, a diadem, a crownet, the top 

knot on the Buddha's head. 

(i) Mdnasdra : 

The top of a building : 

Salavrite salakute cha nide cha Sikhare chordhva-kutake I 
Lupa-yukta-bhramakare tat-tad-ushmsha-desike I 
. . . Stupikavahanam bhavct I (M> xvni> 333,334.) 

The top knot on the crown of a Buddhist image : 
Bauddhasya lakshanarh vakshye samyak cha vidhinadhuna | 
Dvi-bhujam cha dvi-netram cha choshnishojjvala-maulikam I 

_,, (M., LVI, I, 10.) 

The crown of the statue of a devotee (bhaktd) : 
Ushnishat pada-paryantam bhavottara-Satamlakam I 
Ushnlsham tu chatur-matram netrantam tu yugangulam I 

. (M., ux, 14-15.) 

Referring to the situation of the plumb-lines : 

Ushnlsha-madhyame chaiva lalatam(sya) chaiva madhyame I 
Ushnishat tu yatha parsve lalajasya tu partake I 
Ushnishat purva-parsve tu yathoktam netra-madhyame I 

(M., LXVII, 98, 103, 107.) 

The word ushnisha ' usually means a turban, but is used by the 
Buddhists as a technical term for the top knot on Buddha's head by 
which all figures of him are distinguished : he is never represented in 
Indian sculpture with any sort of covering on his head.' Dr Bureess - 
(Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, p. 195, note 3.) 

USHNISHI A type of round buildings. 

(i) Agni-Purdna, Chap, civ, vv. 17-18 (see under PRASADA) 

Garuda-Purdna, Chap. XLVII, vv. 21, 23, 28-29 (see under PRASADA). 

9 




USHNISHA 



Pane 96 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE OHAPOHA 

U 

OHAPOHA Philosophically ' uha ' implies a conjecture, a 
guess, ' a hypothetical reasoning which helps the right recognition,' 
hence architecturally an additional moulding or member to fill 
up any unspecified gap ; ' apoha ' or ' pratyuha ' means ' a removal,' 
hence leaving out a moulding, or an architectural member to complete 
a structure. Thus the former implies the addition and the latter 
the omission of a moulding. 

(1) Mdnasdra : 

In connexion with the ground-plan : 
Ajnanad anga-hinam cha karta chaiva vinagyati I 
Tasmat tu silpibhih prajnair uhapohan na yojayet I 

(M., VH, 268-269.) 

Referring to two-storeyed buildings : 

Sarvesham devata-harmye purvavad devatah nyaset I 
Ukta-vach chhastra-margena uhapohena yojayet I 

(M., xx, 105-106.) 

In connexion with penalties for defects in important members : 
Uhapohadi-klrtibhyam Sastrokte tu yad(th)a tatha I 
Uhi(uha)-hina chokta-hma tvadhikartri(ta) vinalyati I 
Tasmat tu s"ilpa-vidvadbhih parigrahoktavat kuru I 

(M., LXIX, 66-68. 

(2) Kdmikagama, XLI : 

Sabhavad vihita bahye prasadavad alankrita I 
Cha-pratyuha-samyukta ya sabha sa cha malika II (3). 
Antara-prastaropetam uha-pratyuha-samyutam 1 1 (13). 

Ibid, XLI: 

Cha-pratyuha-samyuktam yatha-yukti yatha-ruchi II (37). 

(3) Suprabheddgama, XXXI, 71 : 

A quadrangular moulding of an arch : 

Vritter urdhve u(u)ham kritva chatur-ayatam eva tu II 

(For the context, see vv. 68-70, under TORANA.) 

(4) Mahdbhdrata, i, 3, 133 : 

Nagalokam . . . aneka-vidha-prasada-harmya-valabhi- 
niryuha-fiata-samkulam I 

9 1 



DRDHVA-DHARANA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

ORDHVA-DHARANA A kind of phallus and pedestal combined. 
In connexion with the phallus : 

Berasyaika-sila proktarh linganarh tach-chatuh-s"ila I 
Nandyavarta(a)-kritih sthapya tatha chaikaSmana bhavet I 
Atho(dhah) pashana-kurmakhyarh chordhva-dharanam iti smri- 
tam I (M., LII, 176-178.) 

ORDHVA-SALA (see &ALA) The upper room or hall. 
Referring to two-storeyed buildings : 

Nana-gopana-sarhyuktam kshudra-nasyair vibhusitam I 
Ardha-Sala-visesho'sti chordhva-s'ala-samanvitam I 

(M., xx, 66-67, etc.) 

OVARAKA A kind of room, an inner room, a store room, an 
apartment. 

Ramadattasya deya-dhamas" cha bhikshu-griharh uyarakas" cha- 

bharyayah sa velidattaya deyadharma uyarakah I 
A dwelling for the ascetics and an uyaraka (has) been dedicated as 
a charitable gift by Ramadatta . . . and an uyaraka (has been given) 
as a charitable gift by his wife Velidata (Velidatta), whose husband is 
alive. 

' Uyaraka apparently corresponds with uvaraka of Nasik no. 24. 
Transactions of Congr. 1874, p. 347, which Professor Bhandarkar renders 
by apartment. Childers' Pali Diet, gives ovaraka with the meaning of 
inner or store room and this explanation fits here also very well.'^ Trof. 
H. Jacobi. (Ind. Ant., Vol. vn, Kuda inscriptions, no. 8, p. 256.) 



RIKSHA-NAYAKA (see SI&HA) A kind of round buildings. 

(Agni-Purana, Chap, civ, w. 19-20, see under PRASADA.) 

E 

EKA-TALA(-BHUMI) (see under PRASADA) A single-storey 

building, the ground floor. 

Ahatyam (vibhajya) ashtadha harmyarh ganya-manam ihochyate I 
Utsedhe chashta-bhage tu charhsena masurakam I 
Dvi-bhagarh changhrikottungarh mancham ekena karayet I 
Kandhararh tat-samam kuryat tad-dvayarh Sikharodayam I 
Tad-ardharh stupikottungarh vaktrarh shad-vidham iritam I 

(M., xix, 20-24.) 

92 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE EKA-PAKSHA 

Athava manu-bhagarh tu harmya-tunga(m) vibhajite I 
Sa-tri-padam adhishthanarh tad-dvayam changhri-bhajite(-kon- 

natam) \ 

Tad-ardham prastarotsedharh yugarhsam griva-tungakam I 
Tad-ardharii sikharottuhgam tad-urdhve stupikams'akain I 
Griva-manchordhvam arhsena yatheshtadhishthana-sariiyutam I 
Urdhve padodaye bandham(=4)bhagam ekamsa(rh)-vedikaml 
Sesharh purvavat kuryad ashta-varga-vido viduh I (Ibid., 80-86.) 
Evam proktarh harmyake madhya-bhadram I 
Sala-koshtham dig-vidike kuta-yuktam I 
Hara-sranta-nasika-panjaradhyam I 
Kuryat sarvam vedika-bhadra-yuktam I 
Harmya-tara-samarh chatur-asrakam tat-tri-padam ardham athapi 

cha I 

Kudya-tara-samadi (?) yatha-kramam I 
Kanyasarh tri-vidham mukha-mandapam I 
Tan-mukha-mandapam mukhya-vimane I 
Madhya-vimanasya mandapa-parsve I 
Ambaram dandam atha dvayam I 
Harmya-vagad upaveSana-yuktam I 
Yat tat kshudra-vimane tan-mukhe mandapam syat I (Ibid. 

192-203.) 

Anya-mandapa-deSe yan-manoramyam alankritam I 
Mandape prastarasyordhve karna-harmyadi-manditam I 
Yat tan namantaralarh chordhve nasika jala-panjararh vapi I 
Tat-tan-mandapa-madhye prasada-vasad dvara(m)-saihkalpyam | 
Purvavat kavata-yuktaih mandapasyantah sa-kila-yuktam I 

(Ibid., 213-217.) 

Eka-bhumirh kuryad adhikam chopapitha(m) ruchirartha(ih)- 

sarh-yutam I 

Sopapltha-bhavanair yutam tu va karayet tu kathitarh puratanaih I 
Evam sarva-harmyalankara-yuktya nana-padair vedika-tara-mafi, 

cham (kuryat) ((Ibid., 258-261.) 

EKATALA (see under TALA) A kind of sculptural measurement. 

EKA-PAKSHA (cf. DVIPAKSHA) One side, a road or wall having 
the footpath on one side only. 

Antar-vithI chaika-pakshaih bahya-vithi dvi-pakshakam I 

(M., ix, 396., 

Anyat salam tu sarvesharh chaika-pakshalaya-kramat I 
Anyat salam tu sarvesham alayartham dvi-pakshakam I 

(M., xxxvi, 86-87.) 

See also M., ix, 351-354, 465, under DVI-PAKSHA. 

93 



EKA-LlftGA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

EKA-LlNGA The single phallus as opposed to phalli in group. 
Sarvesham chaika-harmye tu ekaika-linge tu sarhmatam I 
Bahudha sarva-lingeshu tat-tri-karnam na karayet I 
Dvi karnam bahu linge tu tri karnarh-chaika-lingake I 
Evam tu chaika lingam syad vistaram parikirtitam I 

(M., ui, 71-73, 82.) 
EKA-SALA Mansion consisting of one row of buildings. 

(M., xxxv, 9, 35.) 

EKA-HARA (cf. KARA) With one chain-like ornament below the 
neck of the column, head or astragal. 

In connexion with a single storey ed building : 

Sala-kuta-dvayor madhye chaika-hara sapanjaram I (M., xix, 57.) 

EKADA&A-TALA An eleven-storeyed building, the eleventh storey. 
Tad-adhastat talarh chaika-das"a-dva das"a bhumikam I 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 86.) 

Sesha-bhagam tu sarvesham yuktya tatraiva yojayet I 
Evam vistara-ganyam syat tunga-ganyam ihochyate I 
Janmadi stupi-paryantam uktavat samgraham viduh I 
Eka dasarhga-bhagena dala-talodayadhikam I 
Tad eva sardha-bandh(v)amiam masurakottungam ishyate I 
Saptamsam pada-dirgham syat tad-ardam prastarodayam I 
Sesham prag-uktavad ganyam eka das"a-talodaye I 
Talordhvordhva-tale sarve karna harmyadi-manditam I 
Eka bhaga-dvi-bhagarh va parito'lindam ishyate I 
Nanadhishthana-samyuktam nana-padair alahkritam I 
Sala-kutaig cha uktavat samalahkritam I 
Harantare kuta-ala cha griva-de^okta-devatan(h) I 
Anu-salashta-dik-palas tat-tad-vahana-samyutam I 
Yaksha-vidyadharadinam garudadini vinyaset I 
Ganetyadi ganaiS chaiva sarva-harmyeshu nikshipet I 

(M., xxix, 35-49.) 

ETAKA-PADAKA-PITHA A chair raised on a pedestal. 

(Mahavagga, v, 10, 2.) 

EVAMKANTA A column connected with one, two or three minor 

pillars, and having a lotus-shaped base. 

Ekopapada-samyukt 'in dvi-try-upapadena sarhvutam I 
Evam-kantam iti proktam mule padmasananvitam I 

(M., xv, 242-243.) 
94 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KATAKA 

AI 

AIRAVATA The great elephant, the riding animal (vahana) of 
the god Isa (? Indra). 

Is"a murtim iti dhyatva rakta-varnam cha Sishpatam (Sachipatim) I 
Dvi-bhujam dvi netraih cha rathairavata-vahanam I 

(M., vii, 190-191.) 
A class of the five-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxiu, 3-12, see under PRASADA.) 

K 

KAKSHA The armpit of an image, a residential room. 

Kakshayor antararh tararh vimSa-matram prasasyate I 

(M., LIX, 29.) 

Eka-vimsangulam chordhve kakshayor antara-sthale I 

(M., LXV, 52, etc.) 
KAKSHA-BANDHA A class of bases. 

See the four types, the component mouldings and other details under 
ADHISHTHANA. (M., xiv, 320-358.) 

KATA A mat of split cane or bamboo. 

(Taitt. Sam., v, 3, 12, 2 : Sat. Bra., XIH, 3, i, 3.) 

KATAKA An architectural ornament (like a ring) of a base, a 
bracelet for an image, camp, capital. 

Madhye pattair viSesham tu pushpa-ratnais cha sobhitam I 
Katakavritam eva va Suddha-vrittam athapi va I (M,, xiv, 75-76.) 
Compare also the list of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA. 

Vrittarh vidhim tri pattarh va dharaya katakanvitam I (Ibid., 238.) 
Etat tu chitra-kalpam (=an ornament) tu natakabhi(kai)r alankri- 

tam I (M., L, 11.) 

Keyura-katakak yuktarh prakoshtha-valayam tatha I (M., LIV, 13- 
See also M. LI, 57, udder KATI-SUTRA. 
In connexion with the plumb lines : 

Saktlnarh pushpa-hastam tu stanantam katakagrakam I 
Tad-angushthavasanantam cha dvyantaram chatur angulam I 

(M., LXVH, 135-136.) 

c One pair of bracelets (kataka) for the arms of the goddess (consisting 
of) fifty-six karanju, two manjadi and (one) kunri of gold.' (Inscriptions of 
Rajaraja, no. 2, line 37, H.S.I.I., Vol. u, p. 19.) 

95 



KATAKAKARA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

' One pair of bracelets (kataka) for the arms of the goddess, consist- 
ing of thirty-nine karanju and seven manjadi of gold.' (Inscriptions of 
Rajendra-Chola, no. 8, line 19, H. S. 1. 1., Vol. n, p. 89.) 

Astyuttara-giri katake (declivity of the Northern Mountain) Vijaya- 
puram-nama nripa-dhanl I (Grant of Jayaditya of Vijaya-pura, line 6, Ind. 
Ant., Vol. xxi, p. 170.) 

' In the world-renowned Raya-chalukya's camp (or capital, kataka), 
the bodyguard Keta-nayaka gained unlimited fame and the greatest 
reputation for energy and readiness.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Chan- 
narayapatna Taluq, no. 210 ; Transl., p. 216, line 9 of no. 210.) 

KATAKAKARA An ornament shaped like a bracelet or ring. 

Referring to lupa or a pent-roof : 

Evam cha lakshanam proktam katakakaram tu yojayet I 

(M., xvm, 249.) 

KATI The hip-part of a building, the hip of an image, a flight 
of steps. 

(1) Yo vistaro bhaved yasya dvi-guna-tat-samunnatih I 
Uchchhrayad yas tritiyo'ms'as tena tulya katir bhavet I 

' The height of a building should be twice its width and its kati 
(lit. hip) should be (equal to) of its height.' (Brihat-Samhita, LVI, 11.) 

Dr. Kern translates ' kati ' by the flight of steps ' (J.R.A.S., N. S., 
Vol. vi, p. 318) ; but in this sense the word never occurs in dictionaries 
or literature ; nor does this rendering suit the context here, first, because 
the description concerns a single-storeyed building, where the flight 
of steps, if there be any at the entrance, would not be usually one-third 
of the height of the whole building ; secondly, the measures of the flight 
of steps mostly in buildings of more than one storey are never considered 
in any architectural treatises as being dependent on the height of the 
building or the storey. 

(2) Chatuh-shashti-padam kritva madhye dvararii prakalpayet I 
Vistarad dvi-gunochhrayam tat-tri-bhagah katir bhavet II 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CGLXX, v, 18.) 

(3) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxx, v. 18) has the same verse as (i), 
except ' tasya ' in place of ' yasya ' in the first line, and ' atha ' for 
' ariisa ' in the second line. Brihat-Samhita seems to have improved 
the lines. 

96 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KANTHA 

(4) In the sense of the hip or buttocks : 

Katrs) choru-visalarh syan madhya-kanchina-lambavat I 

(M., LIV, 91.) 

Kati-tararh bhaskaramsam syad ashtamsarh choru-vistritam I 
Mukharii vakshas cha kukshis cha kati-dirghe dvudasarhsakam I 

(M., LVII, 32, 55.) 
Virhsamsam cha kati-taram urdhve sroni-visalakam I (M., LXV, 48.) 

KATI-SOTRA The (plumb) line by the hip or buttocks, a girdle. 

Kati-sutravasanarh syat pura-sutram iti smritam I 
Kati-sutram tu sarhyuktarh kati-prante sa-pattika I (M., L, 21, 27.) 
Tasmat kati-sutrantarh sapta-virhsangularh bhavet I 
Trayodasamsakarh chaiva kati-sutram tu vistritam I 

(M., LXV, 150, 164.) 

A girdle. 

Katakam kati-sutram cha keyurarh ratna-puritam I (M. , LI, 57.) 

KANTHA Also called ' gala,' ' gnva,' ' kandhara,' meaning literally 
the neck or throat. This is a quadrangular moulding, sometimes 
square and sometimes rectangular. ' When employed in pedestals 
(see the lists of mouldings under UPAPITHA), it is made very high and 
it resembles the dado (or the portion of a pedestal between its base 
and cornice, also applied to the lower portions of the walls). But 
everywhere else it serves as a neutral member from which the pro- 
ection of the rest of the mouldings are generally measured.' 

(Ram Raz, Ess. Arch. Hind., p. 25.) 

The neck of a column (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 58, see under STAMBHA). 

Tuiige trimsati-bhagena ... I 

Tad-urdhve kantharh ashtarhsam . . . I (M., XIH, 90, 94.) 

Utsedhe tu chatur-virhsat . . . | 

Grivochcharh dva-dasamsakam I (Ibid., 36-37.) 

Tad-evamsena . . . 

Pancharhsa(rh) kandhararh proktarh . . . (Ibid., 48, 50.) 

Tad-evarhsa (of 30 parts) . . . 

Tad-urdhve galam ashtarhsam . . . (Ibid., 97, 101.) 
For further examples, see the lists of mouldings under UPAPITHA. 

Gala-tuiigarii yugangulam I 

Gala-tararh sardham ashtarhsam . . . I (M., nx, 71,81.) 
For further examples, see the lists of limbs under TALA-MANA. 

97 



KADAftGA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

KADAftGA A large trench, a ditch, a boundary mark. 

' Kadangas or war-trenches are described in the Rev. G. Ritcher's Manual 
of Coorg (pp. 190-191) : these are enormous trenches defended by a bank 
of the excavated soil, and stretch over hills, woods, and comparatively 
flat countries, for miles and miles, at some place branching off in various 
directions, or encircling hilltops. Mr. Ritcher quotes old records to show 
that they were constructed by ancient Rajas to fortify the principality. 
In South Kanara also these trenches abound.' 

' So, too, great and massive walls, 8 feet high, half as thick, and ex- 
tending for long distances, are found buried in desp forest on the crest of 
the ghats between Kanara and Maisur, with large trees rooted in them.' 
(See GRAMA and compare the above with the surrounding defensive 
ditches of the village as given in the Mdnasdra.) 

(Ind. Ant., Vol. iv, p. 162, c. i., last para, 
line 2 f. ; c. 2, line 6.) 

' From this it appears to follow that the Coorg Kadangas or large 
trenches, originally were intended for landmarks.' (Three Kongu inscrip- 
tions, no. n, Ind. Ant., Vol. vi, p. 103, c. i, line 29, Transl. and footnote, 
last para.) 

KANDARA-GRIHA (see DARI-GRIHA) A cave-house. 

Khyatam ( ? syatarh) kanakadi-kandaragrihodlrna-pratapam divi 
khyatam naikavanig-visala-bibhavo bhutabhisobham Subham I 

(Description of the town of Atapura, Atpur 

inscrip. of Saktikumara, v, n, Ind. Ant., 

Vol. xxxix, pp. 191, note 25, 187.) 

KANDHARA The neck, the dado. 

See KANTHA and compare the lists of mouldings under UPAPITHA. 

KANYA A girl, a virgin, the name of a month, the lower part of an 

architectural object. 

Luparh prag-ukta-vistaram tat-tad-vamsanghri-kantakam I 
Adho(ah)-padasya lupadyais cha tatra dosho na vidyate I 
Karnat kanyavasanarh syan nava-sutr rh prasarayet I 

(M., xvni, 231-233.) 

KAPATA (see KAVATA) A door, the panel of a door. 

Kapata-torana-vatim suvibhakantarapanam I (Rdmayana, i, 5, 10.) 
Dridha-baddha- kapatani mahaparighavanti cha I (Ibid., vi, 3, n.) 

KAPOTA A pigeon, a section of circular moulding made in the form 
of a pigeon's head, from which it takes it name. It is a crowning 

98 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KAPOTA 

member of bases, pedestals, and entablatures. Compare the lists of 
mouldings, from the Mdnasdra, given under UPAPITHA (where Kapota 
occurs eight times), ADHISTHANA (fifteen times), and PRASTARA (five 
times) and also see Gwilt (Encycl. of Arch., Art. 2532, 2555, pp. 806, 
813 814). When employed in the entablature, it serves the pur- 
pose of a spout in the shape of a pigeon's beak to throw off water 
falling on the cornice. In this office it resembles, in some measure, 
the corona having a broad vertical face and with its soffit or under 
portion recessed so as to form a drip which prevents water running 
down the building. Its synonyms are : vaktra-hasta (face supported 
by hand, wherefrom it takes its shape), lupd (pent-roof), gopdnaka 
(beam), and chandra (the moon). (Also see M. } xvi, 18-20.) 

(i) Mdnasdra : 
Referring to the pedestal : 

Tad-dvayarh chambujarh chordhve kapotochcham gunamsakam I 

(M., xiii, 57.) 
For further illustrations, see the lists of mouldings under UPAPITHA. 

Referring to the base : 

Padmam arhsarh tad-urdhve tu kapotochcham tri(y)arhsakam I 

(M., xiv, 357.) 

For further illustrations, see the lists of mouldings under ADHISH- 
THANA. 

Referring to the entablature : 
Tad-urdhve vajanam chaikam dhatu-bhagam kapotakam I 

(M., xvi, 27.) 

For further illustrations see the lists of mouldings under PRASTARA. 
A synonym of the entablature : 

Kapotam prastram chaiva mancham prachchhadanam tatha I 

. . . paryaya-vachakah I (Ibid., 18, 20.) 
Referring to the six-storeyed buildings : 

Prastaradi-kapotantarh khsudra-nasya vibhushitam I 

(M., xxiv, 39.) 

(2) ' A kapotam is a section of moulding made in the form of a 
pigeon's head. It is a crowning member of cornices, pedestals and 
entablatures. When employed in the latter, it often connects 
utility with beauty, inasmuch as the beak of the bird is so 
placed as to serve the purpose of a spout.' (Ram Raz, Ess. Arch, of 
Hind., p. 24.) 

99 



KAPOTA-PALIKA(-PALI) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

KAPOTA-PALIKA(-PALI) A pigeon -house, an aviary, 'properly 
dove-ridge, dove-list, may be rendered by crown-work, fillet, gable- 
edge, and even by cornice. A water-spout used at the roof to drain 
off water having the shape of pigeon's head or beak. In Tamil, 
kapotakam is explained as a moulding in masonry : sec Winslow's 
Tarn. Diet. i. v.' Then Dr. Kern quotes Ram Raz's passage noticed 
under ' Kapota ' and adds ' the same author (Ram Raz) notices 
(p. 51) that the spout may be made to spring from the head of a 
lion, etc.' 

With this, Kern compares Utpala's definition : 

Kapota-palika grahanena bahir nirgata mukhani kashthany 
uchyante by the acceptation of Kapota-pali, the projecting lion- 
face timbers (mouldings) are understood ; (and also Visvak, 6 
767) : 

Prasadau nirgatau karyau kapotau garbha-manatah I 
Ordhvarh bhitty-uchchhrayat tasya manjaram tu prakalpayet I 
Manjaryas chardha-bhagena suka-nasarh prakalpayet | 
Crdhvarh tathiirdha-bhagena vedi-bandho bhaved iha II 
Then Kern finds fault with Colebrooke's rendering of Kapota- 
palika and vitanka (in his Amara-Kosha, quoted below) as ' dove- 
cot ' and says ' Colebrooke's error, strange to say, has been per 
petuated in all dictionaries ; the more reason now to draw atten- 
tion to it.' (J.R.A.S., N. S., vi, p. 320, note 2.) 

' A storey's altitude is of 108 digits (angulas) according to Maya 
but Visva-karman pronounces it to be of 3 cubits and a half, 
(i. e. 84 digits). As to this, however, able architects have declared 
that in reality there is no discrepancy of opinion, for, if you add 
the height of the crown-work (kapota-pali), the smaller number 
will equal (the greater).' (Brihat-Samhitd, LVI, 29, 30.) 

There is a compound word ' kapota-palika ' or ' kapota-pali ' 
(dove-cot) in Sir William's Diet., p. 202, c. 3. Similarly the 
words, ' kapota ' and ' palika ' or ' pali ' occur together in the 
Brihat-Samhitd and (its commentary) Dtpala quoted above. But they 
do not occur as one word in Winslow's Tamil Diet., in Visvak 
and in Ram Raz. In the twenty-eight instances in the Manasdra, 
too, pointed out above (under KAPOTA), only the word ' Kapota ' 
occurs. There is a different moulding called both ' Pali ' and ' Palika ' 
in the Manasdra. As regards the correctness of Dr. Kern's render- 
ing of the term by ' dove-ridge,' or of Colebrooke's and Sir M. 
William's by ' dove-cot ' nothing can be stated definitely as the term 

100 






\ 



KALASA AS CAP MOULOINO. 



KALASA 





KARNA PATRA 




KAPOTA-PALIKA. 




KIRTTI-VAKTRA. 



KAROTI. 




KAROTI- 



I'age 100 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE K(H)A-BHITTI 

is used figuratively to indicate a moulding and both the interpre- 
tations are possible. 
Kapota-palinl-yukta-mato gachchhati tulyatam I 

(Bliavishya-Purana, Chap, cxxx, v. 37.) 

Kona-paravatarh kuryat stupy-achchhadanakani cha II 
Kona-paravatarh nyasya kona-loshtani vinyaset II 

( Vdstu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, xvi, 27, 36.) 
Bahih kapota-karanam vajanopari kalpayet II 
Ardha-tri-pada-dandam va kapota-lambanarh bhavet II 

(Kdmikagama, LIV, ai, 22 : see also vv. 36, 37.) 
Chatur-gunam (of the main temple) mukhayamam prakaranarh 

viseshatah I 
Kapotantam samutsedham hasta-vistara-bhittikam II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 119.) 
Kapota-palikayam tu vitankarii purii-napumsakarh II 

(Amarakosha, n, 3, 15.) 
KAPOLA The cheek of an image, an upper part of a building. 

(1) Prasadau nirgatau karyau kapolau garbha-manatah I 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIX, v. 11.) 

(2) Chaturdha sikhararh bhajya(m) ardha-bhaga-dvayasya tu I 
Suka-nasam prakurvlta tritiye vedika mata II 
Kantham amalasararii tu chaturthe parikalpayet I 
Kapolayos tu samharo dvi-guno'tra vidhlyate II 

(Ibid., Chap. CCLXIX, 18-19.) 

(3) Mukha-taram kapolantarii nava-matram prasasyate I 

(M., LXIII, 7>\ 

KABANDHANA A knob at the end of the nail above the post of 

the bedstead. 

Adhah kilena padanarh madhye randhram pravesayet I 
Tad-urdhve pattikam nyasya kilagre cha kabandhanam I 
Chaturbhih srinkhala-yuktam andolam chaikatopari I 
Deva-bhu-sura-bhupanam anyesham sayanarthakam I 

(M., XLIV, 68-71.) 

K(H)A-BHITTI An upper storey- wall, an upper wall, ' kha ' 

implying ' sky ' and ' bhitti ' wall. 

Garbhadhana-kramanakarh kah(kha)-bhittir mukhya-dhamani I 
Kah(kha)-bhittir dakshine bhage saumyavasah prasasyate || 

101 



KAMALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Kah-(kha)-bhitty-agrabhittcr dvara-dvayarh kuryad viseshatah I 
Vastu-dvara-yutam chaiva k(h)a-bhittes cha viseshatah II 
Vastunarh parsvayor madhye stambha-sajnam nidhapayet I 
K(h)a-buitti-vistritartharh tu tat-parsvayor dvayor hi (tat) II 

(Kamikdgama, xxxv, 45, 47, 48, 62 : LV, 31.) 
KAMALA A lotus, a class of the six-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxiv, 17-18, see under PRASADA.) 
KAMALAftGA A class of the three-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxi, 33-38, see under PRASADA.) 

KAMPA A fillet, a small flat band which occurs chiefly between 
mouldings to connect or separate them. ' Of all the rectangular 
mouldings it has the least height. Its projection, though generally 
equal to its altitude, frequently varies according to the position of 
the principal members, which it is employed, to connect or to separate. 
It answers in every respect to the fillet.' 

(Ram Raz, Ess. Arch. Hind., p. 24.) 
Referring to the pedestal : 

Utsedhe tu chatur-virhsat ... I 

Ekena kampam ityuktam ... I 

Kampam ardharh tatha karnam . . . I (M., xm, 36-37, 49.) 
For further examples, see the lists of mouldings under UPAPITHA. 
Referring to the base : 

Ekena-trimsad angarh (=amsam) lu tuhgarh kritva ... I 

Kampam ekena kartavyam . . . I (M., xiv, 14-16.) 
For further examples, see the lists of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA. 

KAMPA-DVARA A side-door, a private entrance. 

(1) Kampa-dvararh tu va kuryan madhya-parsva-dvayos tatha I 

(Kamikdgama, xxxv, 49.) 

(2) Mukhya-dvaram tu tad-vame kampa-dvaram tad-anyake I 

(Ibid., LV, 32.) 
KAMPANA (same as KAMPA) A fillet. 

Cf. the lists o mouldings under ADHISHTHANA. 

KAMPA-BANDHA A class of bases. It has four types differing 
from one another in height and in the addition or omission of some 
mouldings. (See M., xiv, 361-372, under ADHISHTHANA.) 

KAMPA- VRITTA The round or circular fillet. 

Kampa-vrittam cha lupa-mule sobhartham tu balarthakam I 

(M., xvni, 274.) 

I O2 



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HINDU ARCHITECTURE KAROTI(I) 

KARANDA A head-gear, a basket or bee-hive-like ornament. 
Karanda-mukutopctarii rakta-vastrottariyakam I 
Karanda-mukutopctam dhyatva . . . I (M., vir, 164, 205.) 
Devanarh bhupatinaih cha mauli-lakshanam uchyatc I 
Jata-mauli-kirltam cha karandaih cha sirastrakam(-stranam) I 
Kanyasa(m) devatanarii cha karanda-makutanvilam I 

(M., XLIX, 12-13, 19.) 
Dvi-bhujam cha dvi-netrarh cha karanda-mukutanvitam I 

(M., LIV, 69, 76.) 

KARAVlRA A fragrant plant, or flower (oleander or Nerintn 
odorum), an ornament of that shape, a pent-roof having the slope 
(or colour) of that flower. 

In connexion with the pent roof : 

Sroynam madhya-lupah sarve(va) lupa-samkhya yathcshtaka I 
Karavira-bahu-varna sarhputabham vikalpayet I 

(M, xxvm, 242-243.) 

KARI-KARNA(NIKA) The car of the elephant, (? the tip of an 
elephant's trunk, karnika), an ornament of that shape. 

Upabja(m) karikarna- (another reading, karnika) -yuktam kuryat 
tat kshudra-pithakam I (M., xxxii, 117.) 

KARIKA A moulding of a column. 

VIra-karna(-kantha)syodayarh jnatva nava-bhaga(e) vibhajite I 
Ekaihsarh padukarh kuryat pancha-bhagam tu samgraham I 
Tad-urdhve karikamsaih syad abjam aihsena yojayet I 

(M, xv, 176-178.) 

KARUNA-VINA A flute, a sculptural ornament. 

Vadana-garuda-bhavarh bahukau paksha-yuktau I 
Mukuta-kamala-yuktam pushpa-sachchhaya-varnam I 
Parita(h) karunavlna kinnarasya rupakam I (A/., LVIII, 21-22.) 

KAROTI(I) A basin, the drum of the ear of an image, an archi- 
tectural ornament. 

An ornament of the pent-roof: 

Evam uktarh lupa chordhve sikharair vambare'pi va I 
Phalaka-kshepanam vapi tamram vayasi kllayet I 
Hemajena karotirh va mrit-karotirh vidhanayet I 

(M., xviii, 269-271 .) 
Referring to a single-storeyed building : 

Karotivad alarikrilya lambane patra-samyutam I (M, xix, 41.) 

103 



KARKATA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA Ol< 

KARKATA A crab, a moulding, a kind of joinery resembling the 

crab's leg. 

Karkatakanghrivat kri;va pautra-nasaiighrhh vesayet I 
Etat sarhkirna-sandhih syat sarva-harmyeshu yogyakam I 

(M., xvii, 143-148.) 

KARKARI-KRITA Paved with small pieces of stone. Consoli- 
dated with kankar (nodular limestone or gravels). 

(1) Maha-margarh tu sarvesham vlthlnarh karkari-kritam I 
Vither(thyah) etad dvayam proktam tan-madhye karkari- 
kritam I (M., ix, 197, 333.) 

Referring to the pedestal : 

Prativajanakarh tesharh kriteh karkari-kritam I (A/., xm, 151.) 
Referring to the gate-house (gopura) : 

Etat tu gikharam proktam karkari-nasika-kritam I 

(M., xxxm, 561.) 
Referring to the mandapa (pavilion) : 

Tach-chatush-karna-dese tu karkari chashta-bhadrakam I 

Tat karnarh cha dvayor bhadrarh chaturtharii karkari-kritam I 

Karkarl-bhadra-sarhyuktarh mandapasya visalakam I 

(M, xxxiv, 305, 308, 309.) 

Mandape chordhva-kutarh syat salakararh tu yojayet I 
Ashta-vaktra-samayuktarh karneshu karkari-kritam I 

(Ibid., 530-531.) 
Referring to the sala (haU, mansion) : 

Veda-vedamsakarh madhye vivritarh samvritank(g)anam I 
Tad-bahis chavritarhsena karkarl-samalankritam I 

(M., xxxv, 300-301.) 

(2) In connexion with the description of a Svastika (shaped) -house : 
Prishtiie tu dirgha-koshtharh syat purva-koshtham tatha bhavet I 
Bahya(-e) bahya(-e) sala-dvayam netram yuktam tu karkari-yutam 1 1 

(K ' amikdgama, XLII, 7.) 

KARNA The ear of an image, a moulding, any side-object, 
a corner-tower. 

Kampam ardharh tatha karnarh tad-urdhve'rhsena pattika I 

(M., xm, 49.) 

For further examples, see the lists of mouldings under UPAPITHA. 
A moulding of the base : 

Karna-tunga(rh) tr(i)yarhsarh syat tad-urdhve kampa(m) sivamsa- 
kam II (M. t xiv, 12.) 

104 




FORTIFICATION TRENCH. 

KAOANGA 



KARNA 



(XXXXXXXXXXXXXJO 

KARIKA. 



KARNIKA 




KARNIKA. 



COVER FILLED 

,-KABANDHANA. 




KABANDHANA 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KARNA-KCTA 

For further examples, see the lists of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA. 
A moulding of the column : 

Kumbhayamam tathotkarnam urdhve karna(rh) samarh bhavet I 

(M., xv, 54.) 
Referring to the vimana (building in general, temple) : 

Padmasyopari karnarh syat tat-tridha kumbha-vistritam I 

(M., xvin, 129.) 

Karnat kanyavasanam syan nava-sutrarii prasarayct I (Ibid., 235.) 
Referring to the door : 

Ardhena kampa-sarhyukatarh karna(rh) bandh(v)amsam Iritam I 

(M., xxxix, 69.) 
Referring to the tula (balance) : 

Suvritta-nala-dese tu patra-mule tu karna-yuk I (M., L, 205.) 
A moulding of a vedika (altar, railing, platform) : 

Vedikayarh vihinarh chet kartri-drishti(r) dinam vrajet I 
Tat-karne'dhika-hinarh ched bhojanena vinasanam I 

(M., LXIX, 26-27.) 
Referring to a single-storeycd building : 

Tad eva vedikamsena nava-bhaga(-e) vibhajite) I 
Dvi-bhagarh vajanam mule chordhve karnam gunamsakam I 

(M., xix, 64-65.) 
KARNASHTAKA A site-plan of 324 square plots. 

(M. vii, 213-24, see PADA-VINYASA.) 

KARNA-K.UTA (see KUTA-KOSHTHA) The tower at the corner of 
the roof, the side-niches, corner pavilions, the attic. 

(i) Karna-harmyasya vistararh shad-bhagam(ge) tu vibhajite I 
Ekarhsarh karna-kutarh syan madhye sala dvayarhsakam I 

(M., xix, 54-55, see also 167.) 
In connexion with the six-storeyed buildings : 

Ekarh vatha dvi-bhagam va karna-kuta-visalakam I 
Tale tale karna-kuta-koshtha-haradi-bhushitam I 
Karna-kuta-visale tu tri-bhagaikarh madhya-bhadrakam I 

(M., xxiv, 29, 30, 33.) 

Ekarh vatha dvi-bhagam va karna-kuta-visalakam I (M., xxv, 17.) 
In connexion with the gate-house (gopura) : 

Evam lalatayos chaiva dirgham vinyasyam uchyate I 
Karna-kuta-dvayam chaiva tad-bhaga-dvayam Iritam I 
Madhya-koshtharh chaturtharh cha karna-kutam chatushtayam I 

(M., xxxni, 418-424.) 
105 



KARNA-PATRA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(2) A^ra-karna-samayukUirii karna-kuta-dvayanvitam II 
Karna-kuta-vihmarh va chanyat sarvam tu vastushu 1 1 
Chatush-kone chatush-kutarh tad-vistarena nirniitain II 
Pafijara-dvitayam karyarh karna-kuta-samodayam I 
Pradhanavasa-netrastha-nctra-kuta-dvayarii nayet 1 1 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 65, 66, 73, 75.) 

Sarvam arigarh sabhakararh karna-kuta-vivarjitam II 
Chatasras tu sabha karya kona-kuta-chatushtayam II 

(Ibid., XLV, 41, 44.) 

Kula-koshthaka-mdanarh pramanam ilia kirlitain I 
Kuta-koshthadi-sarvangam mana-sutrad bahir nayet II 
Antah pramana-sutrat tu vcsanarh sarva-desadam I 
Chatur-asrarh vasvasram shodasasraih tu vartulam 1 1 
Mastakam stupikopetarh karna-kutam idarh matam I 
Madhyc nasa-samayuktam ardha-kuti-samanvitam II 
Mukha-pattikayopctarh sakti-dvaya-sama vitam I 
Ancka-stupikopctarh koshthakarii madhyaso bhavet 1 1 
Haihsa-tunda-nibham prishthe salakaram mukhc mukhe I 
Pafijaraiii vihitam kuta-koshthayor antaram dvijah 1 1 
Parsva-vaktram tad evashtarh hasti-tunda-sa-mandanam I 
Esha jati-kramat proktah karna-koshtlia-samanvitam 1 1 
Madhyc kutaih tayor madhye kshudra-koshthadi-sobhitam I 
Chhandom etat samuddishtarh kutaih va koshthakam tu va II 
Antara-prastaYopetarh nimnam vonnatam eva va I 
Vikalpam iti nirdishtam abhasam tad vimisritam II 

(Ibid., LV, 123-130.) 

(3) Prastarad-urdhva-bhage tu karna-kuta-samayutam II 

(Suprabheddgama, xxx, 30.) 

' The attic is formed of different kinds of little pavilions. Those which arc 
at the angles of the edifice are called karna-kuta. They have a roof of 
square or circular section and are surrounded by a single awn, stupi.' 

' Those which are placed in the middle are called said, they have an 
elongated roof and have three stupis.' (Cf. M., xix , 54-55.) 

' Between the karna-kuta and sala are found some kinds of little 
windows called panjara.' (Dravidian Architecture, by Jouveau-Dubreuil, ed. S. 
Krishna Swami Aiyangar, pp. 1 3, 5.) 

KARNA-PATRA A leaf-like ornament for the ear, a corner leaf. 
Tasyadho ratna-damais' cha lalatordhve'rdha-chandravat I 
Karna-patra-samayuktam srotrordhve karna-pushpayuk I 
Tasmat tu lambanam dama sarva-ratnair alankritam I 

(M., XLIX, II2-I 14.) 
I O6 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KARNA-HARMYA 

KARNA-PCRAKA An car ornament. 

Kuryat tri-valayopetam na kuryat tu sikha-manim I 
Sarva-ratnarh vinyasya vina cha karna-purakam I 

(M., XLIX, 138-139.) 

KARNA-BANDHA An ornament for the ear, a part of the ear. 

Karna-bandhaih karna-rudraksha-mala I (M., LXH, 67.) 
The lower part of the ear : 

Hanvantam karna-bandhantam dvayantaram dasangulam I 

(M., LXV, 1 02.) 
KARNA-HARMYA A tower, a side-tower, a minaret, a turret. 

In connexion with single-storey ed buildings : 

Karna-harmyasya vistararh shad-bhagam tu vibhajite I 
Ekamsam karna-kutarii syan madhye sala dvayamsakam I 
Ekarh va dvi-tri-dandcna nirgamam bhadram eva va I 
Sala-kuta-dvayor madhye chaika-harasa-panjaram I 
Tat-tunga(rh) sapta-bhagaih syad ekarii^am vedikodayam I 
Tad-urdhve'dhyardha-bhagena galam tryamsena mastakam I 
Tad-ardharh stupikottuhgam karna-harmyam iti smritam I 

(M., xix, 54-60.) 
Mandape prastarasyordhve karna (another reading, khanda)- 

harmyadi-manditam I (Ibid., 214.) 

Stupi-tungam dvayamsam syad dvi-tale tad dvitiyakam I 
Tad evordhvam adhishthanam vimanamseka(aika)-vitastikam I 
Tad-urdhve'hghrl saramsam syat karna-harmyadi-manditam I 

(At., xx, 14-16.) 
Prachchhadanopari stambhaih k rna-harmyadi-manditam I 

(M., xxxr, 10.) 
Tad-urdhve mandapanam cha chu ika kaina-harmyakam I 

(M., xxxiv, 64.) 

Harmyc chordhva-tale padam bahya-kutadi(m) vinyaset I 
Karna-harmyakritim vatha santara-prastaram tu va I 

(M., xx, 57-58.) 

Cf. ' They (tomb of the Rajas at Mahadevapura in Coorg from iCog) 
are square building , much in the Muhammadan style, on well raised 
basements, with a handsome dome in the centre, and minaret-like turrets 
at the four corners (? karna-harmya ) surmounted by basavas or bulls. 
On the top of the dome is a gilded ball, with a vane. All the windows 
have well-carved syenite frames with solid brass bar . . . Good wood- 
carving may sometimes be seen in the domestic architecture.' (Ep. Car- 
nat., Vol. i, Introduction, p. 27, last paragraph.) 

107 



KARNIKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

KARNIKA Generally implies a crowning projection and resembles 
the cornice, i.e., the crowning or upper portion of the entablature, 
a creeper-like ornament. 

Vistare pancha-bhage tu vcdardham paclma-vistritam I 
Padma-tara-tri-bhagaikarh karnika-vistritam bhavct I 

(M., xxxu, iio-i u.) 
A moulding of the entablature : 

Kapota-nasika-kshudra-nivrordhve sthita-karnik'i II 
Vatahata-cha'ach-charu-latavat karnika-kriya II 

(Kamikagama, LIV, 37, 40.) 

KARNIKARA A pavilion with twenty pillars, a tree, a class of 
people. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 13; 
see under MANDAPA.) 

Mahendre vatha satye va karnikaral jyarii bhavet I 

(M., ix, 238, XL, 109.) 

KALA$(S)A (cf. STUPI) A pitcher, a cupola, a finial, a dome, 
a pinnacle, a tower, a type of round buildings. 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 17-18, see under PRASADA). 

(2) Gamda-Purdna (Chap. XLVH, vv. 21, 23, 28-29, see under PRASADA). 

(3) Stambhardham kalasad bahye lata-vartanam ishyate II 
Mushti-bandhopari kshiptarh vyalantarh kalasavadhi II 

(Kamikagama, LV, 103, 109.) 

(4) Dome : Kandhananda-kalasa I (Khajuraho Inscrip. no. v, line 19, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. i, p. 150.) 

(5) Pinnacle : Vimanopari sauvarnnah kalasa . . . pratishthiipitah I 
Placed golden pinnacle on the shrine. (Yena-Madala Inscrip. of Gana- 
painba, v. 17, Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 99, 102.) 

(6) Dome or pinnacle : 

Devalayais sudha-subhrais suvarna-kalasamkitah I 
Pataka-churhbitambhodair yyad-dharmmo nita unnatim II 

(Two pillar Inscrip. at Amaravati, no. A, Inscrip. of 
Keta, II, v. 43, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 152.) 

(7) Prasadarh navabhis cha hema-kalasair atyunnatarh gopura- 

prakarotsava-marhtapair upachitarh sri-Ramabhadraya cha I 
' An exceedingly high temple furnished with nine gilt domes, a gate- 
tower, a wall, and a festive hall, to the holy Ramabhadra.' 

(Kondavidu Inscrip. of Krishnaraya, v, 27, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 237, 331.) 

1 08 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KALASA 

(3) Suvarnna-kalasa-sthapana cha ' in setting golden pinnacles (on 
temples)'. (Karkala Inscrip. of Bhairava II, line 18, Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, 

PP- 132. I35-) 

(9) Abhinava-nlshpanna-prcksha-madhya-mamdapc . . . 

Suvarnnamaya-kalasa-ropana-pratishtha krita ' the ceremony of 
placing a golden cupola on the newly-made central hall, intended for 
dramatic performances, was carried out.' (The Chahamanas of Marwar, 
no. XIX, Jalor stone Inscrip. of Samarasirhhadeva, lines 5, 6, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. xi, p. 55.) 

(10) Utturhgataspada-devayatanagra-hema-kalasarh . . . purnna- 
kalasam . . . ' The golden cupola on the summit of the god's dwelling, 
a seat of exaltation . . . like a full pitcher.' (Inscrip. at Ittagi, A of 
A. D. 1 1 12, v. 64, Ep. Ind., Vol. XHI, pp. 46, 56.) 

(n) 'And Visvakarmma built his temple (Ananta-Kotisvara) with 
complete devotion, adorned with all manner of pictures, its fronts 
brilliant with many golden kalasas decked with precious stones, its tower 
kissing the clouds.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vin, Part i, Sorab Taluq, no. 276 ; 
Transl., p. 475 second para, last sentence.) 

(12) ' We grant to you, in addition, two five-branched torches, five 
kalasas above the palanquin and so forth.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vm, Part i, 
Nagar Taluq, no. 68, p. 158 ; Transl., line 12.) 

(13) Chakre jambu-nadyair gurutara-kalasair bhasvarair ekavimsaih I 
Nepala-kshonl-palah prathita-bhuja-bhushanarh tanmathasya II 

(Inscrip. from Nepal, no. 17,. Inscrip. of Siddhi 

Nrisimha of Lalita pattana, v. 17, Ind. Ant., 

Vol. ix, pp. 185, 187, c. i.) 

(14) ' Above the seventh or highest row of cells, there is a roomy 
terrace occupied by four large bulls couchant at the corners, and from 
the centre rises a comparatively slender neck surmounted by an 
umbrella or semi-dome crowned by the usual kalasa or finial.' (Gangai- 
Konda-puram Saiva temple, Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, p. 118, c. I.) 

(15) ' Erected a new gopura with golden finials (suvarna-kalasa) in 
the Chamundesvari hill.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. HI, Mysore Taluq, no. 20 ; 
Transl., p. 3 ; Roman text, p. 6.) 

(16) 'The pinnacle (kalasa) of a ruined temple in the fort of Bel- 
lur, in Naga-mahgala Taluq, shows exactly what the finial ornament 
of this style of temple was, which Fergusson, from its appearance in 
photographs mistook for a lantern and though unable to account for 
so incongruous a feature introduced it into his picture of Halebid tem- 
ple restored' (Hist, of Ind. and East. Arch., p. 400). 'The crowning 
ornament is really a kalasa or sacrificial vase, such as is used at the 

109 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KALA$A-BANDHA 

final consecration ceremonies round the rim of which is tied a cloth 
in narrow folds and knotted into a bunch at each of the four cardinal 
points. In later ornamentation the cloth was replaced by wreaths of 
leave? and flowers with a cluster or bouquet at the four points, the 
sprays and flowers depending from which went down as far as the foot 
of the vase, and thus produced the appearance which in the picture 
suggested a lantern.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Introduction, p. 38.) 

(17) Saumya-kes'ava-nathasya gopuragre hiranmayi | 
Sthapita kalasi gunda-danda-nathena sasvatl u 
Saudhfigram ujvalad anyun a-divakarabho I 
Balatapa-pratima-kantir aharnisam yah II 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part i, Belur Taluq, no. 3 ; 

Roman text, p. 103, last two verses ; Transl., 

p. 45, para, i, last two lines.) 

(18) Murahara-bhavanada salakheyam madisi vistaradirh kalasama 
nilisida ' He made a spire to the temple of Murahara, and fixed a 
kalasa upon it.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. v, Part i, Arsikere Taluq, no. 131 ; Roman 
text, p. 396; Transl., p. 172.) 

( 1 9) Aneka-ratna-khachita-ruchira-mani-kulas'a-kalita-kuta-koti-ghati- 
tam-apy- ittu iga-chaityalayam 'having erected ... a lofty chaitya- 
laya, with kalas"as (perhaps by mistake Mr. Rice has put in gopuras) 
or towers surmounted by rounded pinnacles set with all manner of 
jewels.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. vi, Mudgere Taluq, no. 22 ; Roman text, p. 148, 
line 12 ; Transl., p. 63, para. 2.) 

(20) ' Kalasa, a term applied generally to the summit of a tower ; 
also a pot or vessel with water and some grains in it.' (Rca, Chalukyan 
Architecture, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, p. 38.) 

(21) ' Kalasa (Kalas) pinnacle of temple steeple.' (Smith, Gloss., 
loc. cit., to Cunningham Arch. Surv. Reports.) 

(22) See Maghul Arch, of Fatehpur-Sikri, Smith, Arch. Surv., New 
Imp. Series, Vol. xvm, Plate LXH, fig. i, 2, 3. 

(2,3) Essay on Arch, of Hind., Ram Raz, Plates xx to XLII ; 

(24) Mysore Arch. Report, 1914-15, Plate xiv, fig. 3, p. 28 ; fig. i, 
p. 22 ; Plate v, fig. 2, p. 10 ; Top of tower of Bhoganandlsvara 
shrine at Nandi, ibid., 1913-14, Plate vi, fig. 2, p. 16. 

(25) Cunningham.. Arch. Surv. Reports, Vol. vii, Plates xvn (showing 
the details of the mouldings of the tower of the temple at Khalari), 
xiv (showing the mouldings and section of another temple tower). 

KALA&A-BANDHA (see KUMBHA-BANDHA) -A class of bases. 

(Af., xrv, 195-239; see under ADHISHTHANA.) 
110 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KALA 

KALA Art, sciences dealing with the traditional sixty-four branches 
which some authorities reckon as 528. 

(i) Glta, (2) vadya, (3) nritya, (4) alekhya, (5) viseshaka-chchhedya, 

(6) tandula-kusuma-vali-vikara, (7) pushpastaruna, (8) dasana-vasana- 
anga-raga, (9) mani-bhumika-karma, (10) Sayana-rachana, (u) udaka- 
vaclya, (12) udakaghata, (13) chitra-yoga, (14) malya-grathana-vikalpa, (15) 
s"ekharaka-pidana-yojana, (16) ncpathya-prayoga, (17) karna-patra-bhanga, 
(18) gandha-yukti, (19) bhushana-yojana, (20) aindra-jala, (21) kauchumara- 
yoga. (22) hasta-laghava, (23) vichitra-saka-yusha-pupa-bhakshya-vikara 
kriya, (24) panakarasa-ragasava-yojana, (25) suchi-vaya-karma, (26) sutra- 
krida (27) vina-damaruka-vadya, (28) prahelika, (29) pratimala, (30) durva- 
chaka-yoga, (31) pustaka-vachana, (32) natakakhyayika-darsana, (33) kavya- 
samasya-purana, (34) pattika-vetra-vana-vikalpa, (35) tarku-karman, (36^ 
takshana, (37) vastu-vidya, (38) suvarna-rupya-pariksha, (39) dhatuvada, 
(40) mani-ragakara-jnana, (41) vrikshayur-veda-yoga, (42) mesha-kukkuta- 
lavaka-yuddha-vidhi, (43) suka-sarika-pralapana, (44) utsadana-samva- 
hana-kesamardana-marjana-kausala, (45) akshara-mushtika-kathana, (46) 
mlechchhita-kutarka-vikalpa, (47) desa-bhasha-vijnana, (48) pushpa-saka- 
tika, (49) nimitta-jfiana, (50) yantra-matrika, (51) dharana-matrika, (52) 
sampathya, (53) manasi-kavya-kriya, (54) abhidhana-kosha, (55) chhanda- 
jnana, (56) kriya-vikalpa, (57) chhalitaka-yoga, (58) vastra-gopana, (59) 
dyuta-visesha, (Go) akarsha-krlcla, (61) bala-krldanaka, (62) vaitalika, (63) 
vaijayika, (64) vyayamika-vainayika-vidya-jnana. (Kamasutra of Vatsya- 
yana, ed. Bombay, pp. 32-35; see also pp. 43, 95.) 

See J.R.A.S., 1924, pp. 355-367- 

Compare the lists from (i) Kalpasutra (211), (2) Dasakumara-charita 
(u, 21), (3) Kadamban, p. 75, (4) Kaldvilasa by Kshemendra, (5) Samavdya- 
sfitra, (6) Ramachandra's Commentary on Champurdmayana by Vidabharaya, 

(7) Narayana's Commentary on Lalita-sahasranama, (8) Srimad-Bhdgavata, (9) 
Kamasutra of Vatsyayana, and (10) Bhaskararaya's Commentary on Lalita- 
sahasranama (N. S. P., 1917), p. 72. 

Similar lists are also given by Sridhara in his Commentary .on Srimad- 
Bhdgavata (Part x, Chap. XLV, v. 36), Jiva-gosvami in explaining Sridhara's 
commentary refers also to the Vishnu- Pur dna, and Hari-vamsa ; in the Buddhist 
Lalitavistara (Chap, x, ed. R. L. Mitra, p. 182 ; see also p. 186), and in 
the Jain Uttarddhydyana-stitra (text, Chap, xxi, 6, Transl., S. B. E., Vol. XLV, 
p. 108). See also The Kalds, by Venkatasubbia (pp. 25-32). 

Chatuhshashthikalah, Sarngadharlye kathamse cha Srldharlya-Lak- 
shmTpithikayarh cha vailakshanyena ganitasta nishkrishya likhyante : Then 
follows a list of sixty-four arts including eighteen scripts, various languages, 

III 






KALAPAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

poetry books, Natakas (dramas), alankar (poetics), vedas, upa-vedas, 
vedangas, Sastras (without specification), Tantras, Puriinas, Smritis, 
agriculture, witchcraft, sorcery, gambling, etc. 

For fuller details see the writer's article ' Fine Arts ' (Indian Historical 
Quarterly} and 'Fine Arts in Our System of Education' (Convocation 
address, Gurukula, Brindavan, 1937, The Hindustan Review, June, 1936, 
pp. 784-796). Vide the Introduction to the writer's Hindu Architecture in 
India and Abroad. 

KALAPAKA A tuft of braided hair, a sectarian mark on the fore- 
head of an image. 

Prakoshte valayarh chaiva mani-bandha-kalapakam I 

(M, L, 16, etc.) 

KALKA A paste used as plaster or cement, also called ' yoga ' 

(mixture). 

(Brihat-Samhita, LVII, 3, 6, 7, 8, J.R.A.S., 
N. S., Vol. vi, pp. 321, 322.) 

KALPA-DRUMA 1 The ornamental tree, employed as a carv- 
KALPA-VRIKSHA J ing (see SR!-VRIKSHA). 

Compare Akshaya-vata at Prayag (Allahabad), Siddha-vata at Ujjain. 
and Bodhi-tree at Gaya. 

(i) Manasdra (Chap. XLVII, 1-77) : 

The name of the chapter is Kalpa-vriksha, which literally means a 
tree yielding all wishes, or, in other words, an all-productive tree. 
This tree is used as an ornament of the throne of gods and kings 
(lines 1-2). Such a tree is made above the throne and the arch 
as well as at the middle of the length of the throne (lines 4-5). It is 
also constructed inside the Mukta-prapanga or an open courtyard, 
the mandapa or a pavilion, and the royal palace (lines 68-69). Be- 
yond the front of the ornamental tree, there should be represented 
a yard where the votaries of gods and kings are seated in the pose 
of praising and worshipping them (lines 70-75). 

The minute description and measurement of all the various 
parts of the tree are given. The tree is coiled round with a 
serpent the outspread hood of which reaches the top (lines 11-12). 
The measurement of the hood and tail of the serpent is described 
at great length (lines 13-20). The number of branches as also the 
measurement of them varies according to the various thrones 
for the decoration of which the tree is constructed (lines 21-43). 

112 



THE ORNAftEKTAL TREE 

FOR THKONE.S OF GODSAHD KINGS 

HOT TO 5CKLL 




KALPADRUMA 



712 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KALPA-VRIKSHA 

. The tree is beautifully decorated with creepers, leaves and flowers 
of various colours and forms (lines 114-155, 62-66). Bees are repre- 
sented on the branches (line 56). Jewels and garlands of pearls 
are inserted in suitable places (line 57). The figures of monkeys, 
deities and semi-divine beings (Sidhas, Vidyadharas, etc.) are beauti- 
fully carved in the intervals between the branches (lines 58-61). 

Many other particulars regarding the ornamental tree are 
expressly left to the choice and discretion of the artists : 

Evarh tu kalpa-vrikshah syat s"esham yuktya prayojayet I 
Tasya madhye cha range tu muktikena prapanvitam I 
Tan-madhye sasanadinarh toranarh kalpa-vrikshakam I 

(M., xxxiv, 167, 218-219.) 

A carving on the car : 

Kalpa-vriksha-yuta-chakravartibhir manditarh kuru sarvavedi- 
bhih I 

(M., XLIII, 169-170.) 
The materials of which the tree is constructed : 

Sirhhasanam makara-torana-kalpa-vriksham I 
Mukta-praparigam api daru-s"ileshtakadyaih | 
Ratnair aneka-bahu-loha-viseshakais cha (kuryat) I 

(M., XLVII, 30-33.) 
Paschat sirhhasanadhya's cha kalpa-vriksham cha toranam | 

(M., XLIX, 185.) 

Padma-pitharh maha-pitham tri-murtinarh cha yojayet | 
Praoa cha toranarh vapi kalpa-vriksham cha sarhyutam I 

(M., ii, 86-87.) 

Apare tu niryuharh kuryan makara-toranam | 
Tad-urdhve kalpa-vriksham syat sa-ha( ? ga)jendra-sva( ? sva) 
raih saha I (M., LV, 79-80.) 

(2) ' (He) covered with fine gold the enclosure, the gate-towers, halls 
and buildings surrounding the shrine of pu e gold . . . covered with 
splendid gold the altar on which offerings abound . . . covered with 
pure gold and adorned with numerous strings of large round pearls 
the sacred car temple . . . was pleased to build a long temple street 
of mansions covered with jewels and called it after his royal prosperous 
name, and made numberless splendid insignia, beginning with dishes 

"3 



KALYANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

cut off fine gold, together with a kalpa (tree) of pure gold.' (Inscrip. at 
Tirumalavadi, no. 79, lines 14-23, H.S.I. I., Vol. HI, p. 185.) 

Doshonmosha-vrisha-praghosha-divishat-santosha-posha-kshamah 

sarhya-tatula-tirtha-bhuta-parishat-satkara-kalpa-drumah I 
Nana-mangala-divya-vastu-nivritas taurya-trikollasito hridyah ko'pi 
sa vasarah samabhaval-loka-pramodojjvalah II 

(Inscrip. from Nepal, no. 23, Inscrip. of 

Queen Lalita-tripura-sundari, v. 4, 

Ind. Ant., "Vol. ix, p. 194.) 

KALYANA A class of the five-storeyed buildings (same as GRIHA- 

KANTA) . 

(M., xxin, 30-32 ; see under PRASADA.) 

KALYANA-MANDAPA A wedding pavilion. 

(See details under MANDAPA.) 

KAVATA The leaf or panel of a door, a door. 

(1) Vdstu-vidyd (ed. Ganapati Sastri) xiv, i : 

Kavata-dvitayam kuryan matri-putry-abhidham budhah 1 1 

(2) Kautilfya-Artha-fdstra, Chap, xxiv, p. 53 : 

Tri-pancha-bhagikau dvau kavata-yogau I 

(3) Kdmikdgama, LV : 

Deva-dvija-narendranam kavata-yugalam matam I 
Anyayor ekam uddishtam maha-dvare chatur-yugam II (51) 
Aneka-sririkhalopetam bahu-kundala-bhushitam I 
Kavata-yugmam kartavyam kokilargala-sariiyutam II ( 2) 
Bhitti-madhyad bahis tasya(h) stambha-yoga-kavataMyuk I 
Kavata-yug 1 :m va-ekam ghatanodghatam samam II (166) 

See also verses, 38, 49, 53. 

Jalakas cha kavataS cha bahye bahye prakalpayet II (Ibid., XLI, 8). 

(4) Rdmdyana,vi, 31, 27, etc. : 

Purim maha-yantra-kavata-mukhyam I 

(5) Mdnasdra : 

Yon(g)yarh kavata-yugmarh cha sreshtham madhyarh cha harmyakel 

(M., xix, 152.) 

Dakshine cha kavate tu dvaram kuryat tu mukhyake I 
Devanam cha manushyanam maha-dvaram kavatake I 

(M., xxxvai, 9, u.) 
114 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KAMYA 

As compared with ' prakara ' : 

Dakshinasya kavataih tu visaladhikam ayatuh I 
Eka-dvi-tryangulam vapi kavataih syat dvi-hastakam I 
Kuryat kavata-dirgheshu kshepanarh vistrito'dhikam I 
Prakare cha maha-dvaram kshudra-dvaram kavatake I 

(M., xxxix, 101, 102, 108, 115; see also 124-137.) 

(6) 'He, the emperor of the south, caused to be made of stone for Vijaya- 
narayana temple, latticed window, secure door-frame (dridha-kavatam) 
door-lintel, kitchen, ramparts, pavilion, and a pond named the Vasudeva 
tirtha.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part i, Belur Taluq, no. 72, Transl., p. 61 ; 
Roman text, p. 142, line 7.) 

KA$A ) 

KA&PU \ mat > a cushion, a golden seat. 

(R.-V. x, ioo, 10 : Taitt. Aran., vi, 9, i : A.-V. vi, 138, 5.) 
KAKASHTA A synonym of paryanka or bedstead, a couch of 

eight-fold crow design. 

(M., ni, 11-12; see under PARYANKA.) 

KACHA A house with a southern and northern hall. 

(Brihat-Samhitd, LIII, 40.) 

KANTA A type of pavilions. 

(M., xxxiv, 513-516; see under MANDAPA ) 

KANTARA A large forest, a difficult road, a class of six-storeyed 

buildings. 

(M., xxiv, 13-14 ; see under PRASADA.) 

KAMA-KOSHTA A comfortable compartment, usually a bed- 
room, a temple of one of the thirty-two attendant deities. 
Jayante bhaskaram sthapya(m) ise pasupatam tatha I 
Athava kama-koshthaih syad alayam kalpayet sudhih I 
Dvatrimsan murtir evam va kuryat tu parivarakam I 

(M., xxxn, 58-60.) 

KAMAKSHI-DHARMA- MANDAPA A type of pavilions. 

(Madras Museum Plates of Srigiri-bhu-pala, vv. 21-22 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 311, 316 ; see under MANDAPA. 

KAMYA A class of buildings, a chamber in the shrine used as bed- 
room of deities. 

Pancha-prakara-harmyanam adhuna vakshyate kramat I 
Kamyadi-bheda-harmyanam tan-manena vinyaset I (M., xxxi, 2-3.) 
Nitya-naimittikakhyadi-kamyair api cha sarvabhih I (M., XLVIII, 27.) 



KARAPAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

KARAPAKA- -Persons appointed to look after the construction of 
a temple. 

Karapakas tu sunuh pitamahakhyasya satya-dcvakhyah I 
GoshthyS prasadaparaya nirupito janmana sa vanik II 
' The Karapaka selected by the goshthi (assembly) to see this work 
through was Satyadeva, the son of Pitamaha, who was a merchant by 
birth.' Dr. Bhandarkar also refers to Prof. Kielhorn (Ind. Ant., Vol. 
xix, p. 62, no. 53), ' persons appointed to look after the construction of 
the temple.' 

(Vasantagadh Inscrip. of Varmalata, v. 9, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. ix, pp. 192, 189, notes 4 and 3.) 

Cf. GOMANASA KARAVAKASA I 

'The gift of Gomana the Karavaka ' (=karapaka). 

(Four early Inscrip. no. B, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. xii, p. 301.) 

KARMUKA A kind of village. It is situated on the banks of 
a river or sea (nadi-tire'bdhi-tire va karmukam cha vinyaset). Its 
plan is like a bow (tad-dyayor vithi-bahye tu karmukakaravat 
prithak). See further details under GRAMA. 

(M., ix, 3, 459, 463, 452-472.) 

KARYA-SATRA Working lines, the plumb-lines drawn for the 
purpose of the sculptural measurement. 

(M., LXVII, 93 ; see under PRALAMBA.) 

KALA-KOTA A kind of poison, the cobra represented on the neck 
of the image of Siva. 

Grivasya vama-parsve tu kala-kuta-samanvitam I (A/., LI, 80.) 

KALA-MUKHA A kind of phallus. 

(M., LII, 2, LXVIII, 2 ; see under LINGA.) 

KALIftGA-(KANTA) A class of the twelve-storeyed buildings 
once prevailing in the country along the Coromandal coast. 
Madhya-kantam iti proktam tasya kuta-dvi-bhagike I 
Anu-sala shad-amsam syat tasyangam purvavad bhavet I 
Evam kalinga-kantam syan nanakaranga-samyuktam I 

(M., xxxi, 14-16.) 

116 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KIRTANA 

KIRlTA A diadem, a crown, a tiara. 

Devanam bhu-patlnarh cha mauli-lakshanam uchyate | 
Jata-mauli-kiritarh cha karandam cha Sirastrakam | 

(M., XLIX, 12-13.) 
Kirita-makutam chaiva narayanams"a-yogyakam I (Ibid., 18.) 

KIMBARA(-RI) A crocodile, a shark, used both as an architec- 
tural and sculptural object. 

Chitra-toranam . . . graha-kimbara-samyuktam I 

(M., XLVI, 52-53.) 

Syama-varnam mukham sarvam kimbari-makarananam I 

(M., xvni, 311.) 
In connexion with the galas or buildings : 

Sarve(a) -sala-nasika-toranadyaih I 

Patrais chitraih kimbari-vaktra-yuktam I (M., xxxv, 401-402.) 

In connexion with the single-storeyed buildings : 

Nasikagrantam sarvam kimbarl-samalankritam I (M., xix, 36.) 

KISHKU A measure, a cubit of 24 or 42 angulas. 

Kishku(h) smrito dvi-ratnis tu dvi chatvarims'ad angulah I 

(Brahmdnda-Purdna, Part I, and Anushanga-pada, 

Chap, vii, v. 99.) 

But according to the Suprabheddgama (xxx, 25 ; see under ANGULA), 
it is a cubit of 24 angulas, which in the above Purana (v. 99) is called 
' aratni.' 

KIRTANA (also KIRTTANA) A temple, a shrine. 

(1) S()ambhor yo dva-das(s")api vyarachayad achirat kirttanani 
' who erected (soon) twelve temples of Sambhu.' ' Mr. Telang at the 
suggestion of Pandit Bhagvan Lai'. 

(New Silara copper plate grant, line 7, Ind. Ant. } 
Vol. ix, pp. 34, 36, and note 13.) 

(2) Kartapi yasya khalu vismayam apa Silpi tan-nama-kirttanam 

akaryyata rajna I 

' This is the abode of Svayambhu Siva, and no artificially made 
(dwelling) ; Sri (if she could be) seen (would be) such as this. 
Verily even the architect who built it felt astonishment, saying 
" (the utmost) perseverance would fail to accomplish such a work 
again; aho ! how has it been achieved by me?" (and), by reason 
of it the king was caused to praise his name.' Dr. Fleet. 

(Skt. and Old Canarese Inscrip. no. cxxvn, line 
14 f.; Ind. Ant., Vol. xn, pp. 159, 163, c. I.) 



KIRTI-VAKTRA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(3) Dr. Hultzsch referring to the passage quoted above says : 

' The word, Kirtana, has been understood in its usual and etymo- 
logical sense by Dr Fleet and the first translator (B.A.S.J., Vol. vni, 
p. 292 f., Mr. Prinsep) ; that sense is not at all appropriate here 
and the word must be taken to signify a temple.'' He then refers to 
the Silara grant mentione 1 above and quotes the following : 

(a) Kirtanani cha karayet I 

' Cause temples to be constructed.' (Agni-Purana, Bib. Ind., 
Vol. i, p. III.) 

(b) Kurvan klrtanani lekhayan Sasanani . . . prithivim vicha- 
chara ' he travelled the earth, . . . constructing temples, causing 
grants to be written, etc. (Bana's Kadambari).' 

(c) Purta-kirtanodharanena tu ' by the restoration of dilapidated 
works of public utility (such as tanks, wells, etc.) and temple.' 

(Ind. Ant., Vol. xn, pp. 228-229.) 

(4) ' In addition to the authorities quoted by Bhandarkar in 
support of this meaning of KTrttana (in no. 2 above), I have since 
found that it is used in the same sense in the five inscriptions of Deva- 
labdhi, the grandson of the Chandella king YaSovarman and the son 
of Krishnapa and Asarva, in the temple of Brahma at Dudahi (Arch. 
Surv. of Ind., Vol. x, Plate xxxn).' Dr. Fleet. 

(Ind. Ant., Vol. xn, p. 289, c.2.) 

(5) Achikarat kirttanam ' built temples.' (Gwalior Inscrip. v. 15 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xv, pp. 203, 202, note 8.) 

(6) Kirttanam idarh sarwarh karitam (a. line 9 f.). 
Kirttanam idarh sarwarh api (b. line 8 f.). 
Sarvva-kirttanam idam (c. line 5). 

Saktaih kirttanam idam (d. line 3). 
Kirttanam idam (). 

In all these places, ' Kirttana ' means a temple. (Chandella Inscrip. 
no. A, Dudahi stone Inscrip. of Devalabdhi, a grandson of YoSovarman, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xvui, p. 237.) 

(7) Cf. Sa dakshinarkkasya . . . chakara kirttim bahu-klrttinathah 
' he famous for many (good) deeds made the temple of Dakshinarka'. 

(Gaya Inscrip. of Vikrama-samvat 1429, lines 4-5, 8 ; 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xx, pp. 314-315.) 

KIRTI-VAKTRA The monumental face, used as an architectural 
member. 

In connexion with the ' mukha-bhadra ' or front tabernacle, porch 
or hall : 

Tad-urdhve kirti-vaktram tu nirgamakriti(r) bhavet I 

(M., xvni, 293.) 

118 



JiliiUl 




PLAN OF RAMPART*. 

KUMAHI-PURA. 



SECTION 




ELEVATION 



-J 



PIVOTED. 



PLAN 

KUNJARAKSHA. 





X 




^ 


o 


G 











o 


o 




o 








o 


o 




o 








o 







^6 


. 






o 







o 




NOB. 




o 


c 




o 


\ 




X 





REAR .VIEW. 



FIXING KNOB 



KAVATA. 




FRONT VIEW. 



KAVATA,, 



JU 



HNIDU ARCHITECTURE KUKSHI 

KIRTI-STAMBHA A memorial or monumental pillar. 

(Ahmadabad Arch., Burgess, Arch. Surv., New. Imp. 
Series, Vol. xxxm, p. 94; see under STAMBHA.) 

KILA A stake, pin, nail, wedge, post. 
Etat tu pratimarh bhavet I 
Kila-tara-samady-ardharh dvi-gunam va galaka bhavet I 

(M., xii, 122-123.) 
In connexion with joinery : 

Mulagre kilakarh yuktam ardha-pranam iti smritam I 

(M., xvn, 99.) 

In connexion with a mirror or the looking-glass : 

Darpanasya tri-bhagaikam mule kilayatam tatha I 

(M., L, 120 ; see also M., xxxix, 121-123.) 

KILA-BHAJANA The pin-hold. 
In connexion with the door : 

Kila-bhajanam ity-uktam kilanarh tu pravakshyate I 

(M., xxxix, 119; see also 120-131.) 
KILA-SULAKA The pin-point. 

In connexion with the door : 

Kuryat tat kavatanarh yuktya tat kila-Sulakam I (M., xxxix, 128.) 

KUKSHI The belly, a cavity, the middle part, the interior, the 
hub of the wheel. 

(M., XLVIII, i a.) 

In connexion with the foundations : 

Gramadinarh nagaradinam pura-pattana-kharvate I 
Koshtha-koladl-sarvesharh garbha-sthanam ihochyate I 
Sthira-vastu-kukshi-des"e tu chara-vastu tathapi cha I 
Grama-dvarasya yoge va garbha-Svabhram prakalpayet I 

(M., xn, 168-171.) 

In connexion with the pent roof (lupa) : 

Tat-sutrad adho dde kukshirh jnatva purordhvake I (M., xviu, 236.) 

In connexion with the front porch or tabernacle (mukha-bhadra) : 
Panchama-dvi (-ya)rhs'a-taram syad ardham va kukshi-vistritam I 
Kukshy-antararh sadma-sarhyuktam vatayanam athapi va I 

(Ibid., 286-287.) 

In connexion with the single-storyed buildings : 

Nasl-tararh tri-bhagaikam kukshshi-taram iti-smritam I 

(M., xix, 37.) 

"9 



KUKSHI-BANDHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

In connexion with the chariot (ratha) : 

Vistararh cha tridha kritva madhye kukshy:im)-arhakena tu I 
Pancha-daSam cha vipularh nalarh kuksh(as)ya veSanam I 

(Af., XLIII, 12, 14.) 

In connexion with the arch : 

Ratnakaranganair yuktaih kukshir avrita-lambitam I 
Toranasyopari dese tu bhujanga-pada dvayor api I 

(M., XLVI, 59.) 
Mukharh vakshaS cha kukshiS cha kati dirghe dva-daSamSakam I 

(M. LVII, 55.) 
Kukshi-tarashta-matram syat . . . I (M., LX, 14.) 

KUKSHI-BANDHA A class of bases, it has four types differing 
from one another in height and the addition or omission of some 
mouldings. 

(M., xrv, 319-359; see under ADHISHTHANA.) 

KUGHA-BANDHANA An ornament for the (female) breast. 
Kucha-bandhana-samyuktarh bahu-mala-vibhushini 

(Af., LIV, 12.) 

KUNJARA A type of building which is shaped like the elephant's 
back, 1 6 cubits long and broad at the bottom and has a roof with 
three dormer-windows. 

(1) Bnhat-Samhitd (LVI, 25, J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 319). 

(2) Matsya-Pwana (Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 36, 41, 49, 53 ; see under PRASADA). 

(3) Bhamshya-Purana (Chap, cxxx, v. 32 ; see under PRASADA). 

KUNJARAKSHA (cf. VATAYANA) A window resembling the 

elephant's eye in design. 

Naga-bandharii tatha valli gavaksharh kunjarakshakam I 
. . . esham vatayanarii rupam I (Af., xxxm, 581, 582, 585.) 
Gavakshakaram yuktya cha pattikordhve samantatah I 
Kunjaraksham alaksham va patra-pushpady-alahkritam I 

(A/., XLIV, 22, 23.) 

KUTI (see GANDHA-KUTI) A hall, a cottage, cornice, entabla- 
ture. 

Kosamba-kutf ' The hall at Kausambi.' Dr. Hultzsch(Bharaut 
Inscrip. no. 39 ; Ind. Ant., Vol. xxi, p. 230). 

120 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE KUTTIMA 

KUTIKA A village under one headman. 

Eko gramaniko yatra sa-bhritya-paricharakah I 
Kutikarh tad vijanlyad eka bhogah sa eva tu II 

(Kdmikdgama, xx, 4.) 

KUTUMBA-BHUMI The ground for houses, a site where a house 
is built. 

Kutumbha-bhumi-manarh tu vata-kshetra-vivarjitam i 

(Ibid., xxi, 3.) 

KUTTIMA A floor, a base, a wall, a pavement, an entablature, 
a cottage, a small house, the ground prepared for the site of a 
building, a paved ground. 

It is also used as a synonym of Prastara or entablature. ( M., xvi, 2-4 ; 
see under PRASTARA.) 

(1) Same as adhishthana or the base of a column : 
Adhishthana-vidhlm vakshye gastri sarhkshipyate' dhuna i 
Trayodasangulam arabhya sha^-shad-angula-vardhanat I 

Chatur hastavasanarh syat kuttima-dvadagonnatam i (M., xiv, 1-3.) 

Janmadi-vajanantam syat kuttimodayam Iritam I- (Ibid., 9.) 

Vimana-saleshu cha mandapeshu i 

Nidhana-sadmeshv-api gopureshv-api i 

Eteshv-adho-deSa-talopapithe i 

Tasyoparishthat krita-ku^timani {(Ibid., 397-400.) 

Referring to the entablature : 

Shad-vidham kut^imottungam prastarodayam Iritam i (M., xvi, 4.) 

In connexion with the four-storeyed buildings : 

Tad-urdhve pada(rh)-bandhvarharh gopanochcharh tad-ardhakam i 
Tad-urdhve kuttimarh charhsam sardha-pakshanghri-tungakam i 

(M., XXH, 36-37.) 
In connexion with the gopura or gate-house : 

Dvi-bhagarh chopaplthochcham tasmad ekaih^a(m) kuttimam i 

(M., xxxm, 249.) 

(2) As a synonym of the wall (bhitti) : 

. . . dvari kundarh cha kuttiman n 

Bhitter akheyeyam akhyatam . . . n (Kdmikdgama, LV, 199-200.) 
As a member (lit. limb) of the base : 

Masurakam adishthanarh vastvadhararh dharatalam i 

Talarh kuttimady-angam adhi^thanasya klrtitam n (Ibid., 202.) 

121 



KUTTIMA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(3) Prasada-s"ata-sambadharh mani-pravara-kuttimam I 
Karayamasa vidhivad dhema-ratna-vibhushitam 1 1 

(Mahdbharata, xiv, 25, 22.) 
. . . prasadaih sukritochhrayaih 1 1 
Suvarna-jala-sarhvritair mani-kuttima-bhushanaih II 

(Ibid., i, 185, 19-20.) 

(4) Kuttimo'str! nibaddha-bhus chanclra-sala sirogriham I 
Commentary : Pashanadi-nibadhha-bhuh sa kuttima ity-ckam I 

(Amarakosha, H, 5~8.\ 

(5) Griharh kanchana-kuttimam I (Ramayana, vi, 37, 27, etc.) 

(6) Tan . . . pathi . . . mamlatur na mani-kuttimochitau I 

(Raghuvarhfa, ed. Stenzler, n, 9.) 

(7) Padangushthalulita-kusume kuttime I 

(Malavikagnimitra, ed. Tullberg, n, 27.) 

(8) Vcdikeyam tu samanya kuttimanam prakiritita I 

(Vastu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, ix, 19.) 

(9) Mani-kuttima 'jewel-paved floor.' (Kadaba plates of Prabhuta- 
varsha, line 29 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, pp. 341, 342.) 

(10) Vapl-kupa-tadaga-kuttima-matha-prasada-satralayan I 

Sauvarna-dhvaja-toranapana-pure-grama-prapa-marhdapan 1 1 
. . . . vyadhapayad ayarh Chaulukya-chuda-manih I 
Here ' kuttima' is evidently a detached building. 

(Sridhara's Devapattana Prasasti, v. 10; 
Ep. Ind., Vol. n, p. 440.) 

(n) Mani-kuttima 'jewel-paved floor.' 'And it must have been an 
uncommonly magnificent building, for nearly the sixth part of whole 
inscription (of 103 lines) is devoted to its description, and its erection is the 
only deed of the king, which the author has thought worth mentioning. 
The temple spoken of here must, therefore, necessarily be that splendid 
Siva temple which, according to the Baroda-grant was built by Krishna 
on the hill of Etapura, the modern Elura.' (Kadaba plates of Prabhuta- 
varsha, line 34, Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, p. 337 and note 2 ; Ind. Ant., Vol. xn, 
p. 159 and p. 228 f.) 

(12) Srikrishna-kshiti-pala-datta-manibhir vidvat-kavmam griha nana- 
ratna-vichitra-kuttima-bhuvo ratnakaratvarh gatah ' Through the precious 
stones presented by the glorious king Krishna, the houses of the learned 
and the poets have pavements (? floor) sparkling with jewels of different 
kinds, and have (thus) become jewel-mines.' (Two inscrip. of Krishnaraya 
no. A, Mangalagiri pillar, Inscrip. v. 7, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 118, 128.) 

122 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KUDYA 

(13) Mani-kuttima-vithlshu mukta-saikata-setubhih I 
Danambuni nirurhdhana yatra kridanti balikah II 

' There the girls play on roads paved with precious stones, stopping by 
embankments of pearl and the water poured out at donations.' 

(Vijayanagara Inscrip. of Harihara, II, v. 27, H. S. /., 
Vol. i, no. 152, pp. 158, 160.) 

(14) Lokaika-chudamanina mani-kuttima-sankrarhta-prati-bimba- 
vyajcna svayam avatlryya ... I 

' The sun . . . under pretence of seeing his reflection in the jewelled 
floor.' 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. xn, Gubbi Taluq, no. 61 ; Roman 
text, p. 49, line 32 ; Transl., p. 29, line 20.) 

KUDYA A wall, plastering. 

Bhittih strl kudyam I 

'Bhittih kudye prabhede cha' iti Haimah I 
'Kudyam bhittau vilepane ' iti MedinI I (Amarakosha, 2, 2, 4.) 

(1) Prasada-harmya-valabhi-linga-pratimasu kudya-kupeshu l 

' In the temple, mansion, roof, phallus, image (idol), wall, and tank 
(the cement should be used). 

(Brihat-Samhita, LVII, 4, J.R.A.S., 
N.S., Vol. vi, p. 322.) 

(2) Silaya cha mridapy-athava taruna rachayed atha kudyam atlva- 

dridham I 

Tad-ihottara-vistaratah sadrisarh bahalam kathitam talipadi-yutam I 
Svotsedha-dararhs'aika-hina-mastakam eva tat I 
Kudyam kuryad bahir-bhagarh svantar-bhagarh bhavet samam II 

(Vastu-vidya, ed. Ganapati-Sastri, xv, 1-2.) 

(3) Para-kudyam udakenopaghnato ' cause to collect water and thereby 
injure the wall of a neighbouring house.' 

(Kautiliya-Artha-iastra, Chap. LXV, p. 167.) 

(4) Panchalindarh shat-kudyam bahir andharikavritam 1 1 
Ldnge ^ilante cha krodhe bhitti(h) pancha^a-varjitah I 
Kirhchin nyunam alindam va ^esham kudyeshu yojayet || 

(Kamikagama, L, 83, 87.) 

Jalakarh phalakam sailam aishtam kudyam cheshyate I 
Jalakair bahubhir yuktarh jalakarh kudyam ishyate II 
Nishpadam va sa-padam va kudyam Sailam atheshtakam I 
Athava mrinmayam vapi kudyam ishtam dvijottamah 1 1 

123 



KUDYA-STAMBHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Kudye stambha-lata karya vastvadharasya chopari I 
Vedikordhvadhare kuta-koshtadlnarh tridha. tridha smritah II 

(Kamikagama, LV, 94, 97, 98.) 

Jalaka cha kavatas" cha bahye bahye prakalpayet I 
Sarvatah kudya-sarhyuktam mukhya-dhamatra kirtitam II 
Anta-vivrita-padarh cha bahye kudyarh prakirtitam II 
Bahir abhyantare mukhya-geham vidhiyate II (Ibid., XLI, 8, 9, 14.) 
(5) In connexion with the number of walls (sala) in the buildings of the 
kings of various ranks : 

Ekadikaih tri-salantarh pattadharadibhis tribhih I 
Praharakastragrahabhyam kudyam etad (? ekam) dvayantakam 1 1 

(A/., XL, 42-43.) 

Geha-tridhaika-parito bahi(h) kudya-taram i (M. LIII. 59). 
Kudya(ama)ty-adhika-hinam ched vistare chodaye'pi va i 
Dvi-jati-sarva-varnanarii sarva-na^akaram bhavet i 

(M. LXIX. 57, 58.) 

KUDYA-STAMBHA The column of the wall, thus the pilaster or 
a square pillar projecting from the wall. 

Sila-stambham s"ila-kudyam naravase na karayet 11 

(Kamikagama, xxxv. 161.) 
In connexion with the foundations : 

Kudya-stambhe griha-stambhe harmya-garbham vinikshipet i 

(M. xii. 132.) 
Referring to the pillar : 

Tri-chatush-pancha-shan-matrarh kudya-stambha-vigalakam I 
Tad-dvi-gunitam vapi tri-gunarh va chatur-gunam 
Etat(s) kampa(-bha)-vialamsyad athava tunga-manatah i 

(M. xv. 14-16.) 

Set Ghalukyan Architecture, Arch. Surv. New Imp. series, vol. xxi, 
plates xvi, XL vi, fig. 3 ; plate LXXVIII, figs. 1,2; Buddhist Gave Temples, 
ibid, vol. rv, plate xvin, no. 3 ; plate XXH, no. 2 ; plate xxrx. no. 2. 

KUNDA A pool or well in or about a temple. 

Sarvatah kunda-samyuktarh griha-dvara-samanvitam i 

(Kamikagama, xxxv. 64.) 

'At Kapadvanj ... is a large spuare kunda or reservoir in the 
market place. This occupies an area about a hundred feet square with 
a platform below the first descent, from which a series of short stairs, 
parallel to the sides, lead down from one narrow landing to another, 

124 




KUNTALA 



Pagi Jit 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KUMARI-PURA 

and reaching a broader one about 33 feet from the first. Between each 
pair of descending steps in each of five tiers is a niche some hundred 
and thirty-six in all originally occupied by images ... In the 
centre is a deep well about nine and a half feet square.' 

(Ahmadabad Arch., Burgess, Arch. Surv. New. Imp. 
series, vol. xxxni, p. 94, plates LXXX, LXXXI.) 

KUNDIKA A water pot on the hand of an image. 

Kundika chaksha-mala cha vame vame kare kramat I (M. LI. 31.) 
Kundika vama-haste cha dharayet tu sarasvatl I (M. LIV. 22.) 

KUNTALA A head gear, a lock of hair. 

Devanarh bhupatlnam cha mauli-lakshanam uchyate I 
Jata-mauli-kirltam cha karandarh cha Sirastrakam I 
Kuntalarh kesa-bandham cha dhammillalaka-chudakam I 
Mukutarh cheti khyatam . . . I (M. XLIX 12-15). 
Dukula-vasanopetaih mukutam kunu talam tva | (M., LIV, 78.) 
Kechit tu kuntala-nibharh tungam makutam kuntalam tu va I 

(Ibid., 119.) 

KUBJAKA (see NAGARA) Hump backed, crooked, a town of the 
similar plan (cf. KANYA-KUBJA) , according to the Kdmikdgama, 
it is a suburb or a place on the confines of any city or large village. 
Gramadinarh samlpam yat sthanam kubjam iti smritam II 

(Kamikdgama, xx, 15.) 

Sarvesharh nagaradinarh bhedarh lakshauam uchyate I 

Kubjakarh pattanarh chaiva ... I 

. . . durgam ashta-vidharh bhavet I (M., x, 37, 40, 42.) 

KUMARI-PURA A gymnasium or school for higher studies, a 

stadium, arena or sports ground. 

Sotsedha-randhra-prakaram sarvatah khatakavritam I 
Ruchaka(h)-pratika-dvararh kumari-puram eva cha II 
Dvi-hastah srotasa sreshtharh kumari-puram anchatam I 
Hasta-sato-dasa-Sreshtho navahasto'shta eva cha II 

(Brahmdnda-Purdna, Part i, 2nd Anusamga-pada 
Chap, vn, vv. 103, 104.) 

Prakara-madhye kritva vapim pushkarinlrh dvaram chatus-^alam 
adhyardhantaranikarh kumari-purarh munda-harmyam dvi-talam mun- 
daka-dvaram bhumi-dravya-vasena va tribhagadhikayamah bhanda- 
vahini(h)-kulyah karayet I (Kautillya-Artha-Sastra, xxiv, 54, see Translation 
under Chuli-harmya.) 

125 



KUMUDA AJV ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

KUMUDA The water-lily. ' A semi-circle projecting from a 
vertical diameter. It is chiefly employed in cornices and bases. It 
corresponds with the astragal (a small circular moulding ornamented 
with a bead or reel), or with torus ' (a large convex moulding used 
principally in the bases of columns). (Ram-Raz, Arch. Hind., p. 23.) 
In bases it may be triangular or hexagonal. 

(M. t xiv, 83.) 

In connexion with the foundations : 

Janmantam vathava prantam kumudantarh va galantakam I 
Pattikantam kshipech chapi vinyaset prathameshtakam I 

(M., xn, 202-203.) 

A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 12, etc.; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA). 

A moulding of the throne : 
Tach-chhesharh dvi-bhage tu kumudam vrittakritis tatha | 

(M.. XLV, 136.) 
A headgear 

Etesham mahishblbhyam(-shyoh) cha dhammilla(m) kumuda- 
kritam I (M, XLIX, 28.) 

KUMUDA-BANDHA A class of bases, it has four types differing 
from one another in height and in the addition or omission of some 
mouldings. 

(M., xiv, 65-108, see under ADHISHTHANA.) 

KUMBHA (see KALASA) A pitcher, the capital, a moulding, the 
cupola, a plinth. (M., xiv, 33, etc., see the lists of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA). A kind of building (see under GHATA). 

A part of a column (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 58, see under STAMBHA). 
A pinnacle : 

Prasadam apy-amala-kanchana-kumbha- arhpata-sambhavaniyam- 
akarod anukarmma silpaih I (Ghebrolu Inscrip. of Jaya, postscript, 
lines 9-1 1, Ep. Ind., Vol. v, pp. 150, 151.) 

Ghanarii prasadarh nava-hema-kumbha-kalitam ramyam maha- 
mamtapam ' a solid temple adorned with nine golden pinnacles 
and a beautiful large hall.' (Mangalagiri Pillar Inscrip., v. 51, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. vi, pp. 125, 115.) 

126 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KULA 

Protturhge'py-aparajitesa-bhavane sauvarnna-kumbha-dhvajaropl 
rupyaja-mekhala-vitaranas tasyaiva devasva yah ... I 

' He placed a golden cupola (kumbha) and a flagstaff (dhvaja) on 
the temple of (the god) Aparajitesa, to whom at the same time 
he gave a silver girdle.' Pro. Kielhorn. 

(T he Chahamanas of Naddula, no. C, Sundha Hill 

Inscrip. of Chachigadeva, v. 51, Ep. Ind., 

Vol. ix, pp. 78, 74.) 

Prasadam urdhva-s(s)ikhara-sthira-hema-kumbham ' (Into) the 
temple (which by the stately display of) firm golden capital, upon 
lofty spires.' (Bhubaneswar Inscrip., v. 15, Ep. Ind., Vol. xiu, pp. 152, 154.) 

KUMBHAKA The base of a column. 

Ayam kumbhaka-danam .... ' This pillar-base (where the ins- 
cription is written) is the gift of . . . 
The same inscription is repeated on many other bases of pillars. 

(Catalogue of the Arch. Museum at Mathura, 
sections 21,22, 25, 30, 32, pp. 176, 177, 178.) 

KUMBHA-PANJARA (cf. PANJARA) A niche in the wall. It con- 
sists of a vase, a pilaster and a little pavilion (panjara) at the top. 
KUMBHA-PADA (cf. STAMBHA) Literally the pillar at the foot of 
a pitcher, an upper pillar of the two-storeyed buildings (M ., xx, 63), 
of the bedstead (M., XLIV, 59). 

KUMBHA-BANDHA A class of bases, it has five types differing 
from one another in height and in the addition or omission of some 

mouldings. 

(M., xiv, 195-239 ; see under ADHISHTHANA.) 

KUMBHAL ANKARA Ornaments of the column, mouldings of the 

pedestal, base, and entablature. 

(M., xv, 201-232 ; see under UPAPITHA, 
ADHISHTHANA and PRASTARA.) 

KUMBHA -STAMBHA (see STAMBHA and compare KUMBHA- 
PADA) A small pillar, generally employed at the upper part of 

a structure. 

(M., xv, 72-200 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

KULA (see ACHARYA-KULA) A residence, a residential private 
school, a dwelling house of a small individual family (R.-V., x, 179, 
2 ; A.-V., i, 14, 3 ; Sat. Brdhmana, i, i, 2, 4 ; n, i, 4, 4 ; 4, i, 14 ; xi, 5, 
3, ii ; 8, i, 3 , Brihat-Upamshad, i, 5, 32 ; Chhdnd. Upa., m, 15, 6), 
a sanctuary, a temple. 

127 




KULA-DHARANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

KULA-DHARANA A type of pavilion. 

(M., xxxiv, 262 ; see under MANDAPA.) 
KULAMBHA-DVARA A front door, the threshold. 

(M., xxxiv, 365.) 

KULIKANpHRI(KA) (see STAMBHA) An ornament of the en- 
tablature, the main pillar, calyx, see NATAKA. 

Vallika patra-valli cha chitrangam kulikanghrikam I 

Etat paryaya-vakyani . . . I (M., xvi, 54-55.) 

KULI(I)RA A crab, a part of the joinery shaped like a crab. 

(M., xvn, 153.) 
KUHARA A window, the interior windows. 

Tatra shad-asiir merur dvadasa-bhaumo vichitra-kuharas cha I 
Commentary : Kuhara abhyantara-gavakshah I 

(Brihat-Sarhhita, LVI, 20, J.R.A.S., 
N. S., Vol. vi, p. 318.) 

Merur dvadasa-bhaumo vividha-kuharaS cha I 

(Bhavishya-Purdna, Chap, cxxx, v, 27.) 

KUTA The peak or summit, head, top of a building. 

(1) The top of a building : karna-kuta, sala-kuta. (M., xix, 55, 57; 
xv, 134 ; LX, 45 ; LXX, ao.) 

(2) Ekaika-bhagam syat tu kuta-saladikarh nayet I 
Adho bhaga-dvayenatha kutam ekena va bhavet I 
Kuta-Sala (v. 92), mula-kuta, vana-kuta (95). 

(Kamikagama, L, 88, 90, 92, 95.) 

(3) Pinnacle : Mata-kuta-prakara-khanda-sphutita-iirnoddharakam 
' for the repairs of whatever might become broken'or torn or worn 
out belonging to the enclosure, with beautiful pinnacles'. (Inscrip. 
at Ablur, no. E, lines 59, 76, Ep. Ind., Vol. v, pp. 249, 257, 258.) 

Sivagamokta-vage parvvata-pramanada degulamam tri-kuta vage 
' in accordance with Siva traditions, founded a temple with three 
pinnacles, as vast as a mountain'. (Ibid., no. E, line 74, Ep. Ind., Vol. v, 
pp. 250, 258.) 

(4) Tara-ganeshunnata-kuta-koti-tatarppitasujvala-dipikasu I 

' Like clusters of stars the bright lamps be placed on its pinnacles.' 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. xii, Gubbi Taluq, no. 61 ; 

Roman text, p. 49, lines 28 ; 

TransL, p. 29, line 17.) 

128 




PART OF A THRONE 
KOKILA 



PLAN. 
KUMBHA-PANJARA. 




HINDU ARCHITECTURE KG PA 

(5) Sambhos charu-subhair akari bhavanarh pashana-kutair idam I 

' He built this temple of Sambhu with beautiful and brilliant most 
excellent stones.' 'Dr. Biihler. This translation of kuta does not seem 
to suit the context. 

(Two Skt. Inscrip. in the British Museum, no. I, 
line 12, Ind. Ant., Vol. xm, p. 251.) 

(6) Aneka-ratna-khachita ruchira-mani-kalasa-kalita-kuta-koti-ghati- 
tam apy-uttunga-chaltyalayam : (having erected) a lofty chait- 
yalaya, with ' kalasas ' or towers surmoun-ed by rounded pinnacles 
set with all manner of jewels.' (For ' kalasa ,' Mr. Rice has put in 
' gopura,' perhaps a slip.) 

(Ep. Carnal. Vol. vi, Mudgere Taluq, no. 22 ; Roman text, 
p. 148, line 12 ; Transl., p. 63, para. 2.) 

(7) Sri-vlra-somanatha-devara tri-kuta-devalaya ' the three pin 
nacled temple of the god Vlra-Somanatha'. (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, 
Channagiri Taluq, no. 32 ; Roman text, p. 322, line 18 ; Transl., p. 183.) 

KOCHAKRA (see KRIP A) Water-wheels for wells (R.-V., x, 102, 
11, cf. Zimone, All. Lib., 157). 

KOTA-KOSHTHA A compartment on the top of a building, 
an attic room. 

(Kamikagama, LV, 123-130 ; see under KARNA-KUJA.) 

KOTA-SALA A small room on the top of a building. 

Kuta-sala sabharh kritva bhoga-bhogyarh viseshatah II 
Kuta-sala-yutarh vapi kuta-salantam eva cha I 
Prakarena samayuktarh gopurena vidhiyate II 

(Suprabludagama, xxxi, 113, 120.) 

KOTAGARA (see KUTA-SALA) A small room at the top of a 
building. Window-chambers (W. Griger : Mahdvamsa, p. 297). 
Ramayana (i, 5, 15, etc.) : 

Kutagarai i cha sarhpurnam indrasyevamaravatlm II 
Commentary : Kutakhyair agaraih strinam krida-grihair iti yavt 
kutah salagararh griham anye I 

KOPA A well with its mechanism of water-wheels, etc. (R.-V., x, 
102, ii ; vn, 36, 3; ix, 97, 4), masonry sides (Parsu, R.-V.,i, 105, 8; 
x, 33, 2) and metal fittings or ribbed resembling sickles (see 
KUCHAKRA). 

(i) Dcwal Prasasti of Lalla the Chhinda (v. 20, Ep. Ind. Vol. I, 
PP- 79. 83). 

129 



KRISHNA-MANDALA AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(2) Sridhara's Devapattana Prasasti (v. 10, Ep. Ind., Vol., u, p. 440). 

(3) A well with flights of steps : 

Sita-svadu-visuddha-bhuri-salilarh sopana-malojjvalam I 
. . . kuparh chainam akarayad I 

(Gangdhar stone Inscrip. of Visvavarman, lines 38, 
39, C. I. I., Vol. in, F. G. I., no. 17, p. 76.) 

(4) Anarhda-putrcna Samgamitrena kue (kupa) katite mata- 
pitae puyae save-satana hida-suhae ' This well was excavated 
by Sarhgamitra, the son of Ananda, in honour of his father (and, 
mother (and) for the well-being and happiness of all beings. 

(Paja Inscrip. of the year in, New Kharoshthi Inscrip. 

from the Lalv re Museum, no. n, line 2, 

Ind. Ant., XXXVH, p. 65.) 

(5) Khane kupe Dashaverana he dug well of Dashaveras. 

(Inscrip. of Ara, lines 4-5, Ind. Ant., Vol. XLII, p. 133.) 

KRISHNA-MANDALA The iris of the eye of an image. 

(M., LXV, 66, LXVI, 65, LXX, 69.) 

KEYORA The armlet worn on the upper arm of an image. 

(M., L, 14, LIV, 13, etc.) 

KERALA-(KANTA) A class of the twelve-storeyed building., once 
prevailing in the ancient country of Kerala. 

Tad eva bhuta-bhagena kshudra-sala-visalakam I 
Kara cha tat-tri-bhagena cha yuktya samalankritam I 
Sesharh prag-ukta-vat kuryad eva(rh) kerala-kantakam I 

(M., xxx, 28-30 ; see under VARATA, ibid. 17-27.) 

KE$A-KOTAKA The tip of the hair, the top knot of an image. 

(M., L, 301 ; see USHNISHA.) 

KE&A-BANDHA A head-gear for the images of goddesses and 
queens. 

(M., XLIX, 14, 88 ; LIV, 88 ; see details under BHUSHANA.) 

KE&ARA A lion's or horse's mane, the filament of a lotus, a mould- 
ing, a type of building. 

A class of the single -storeyed buildings (M., xix, 173-175 ; see 
under PRASADA). 

A class of the three-storeyed buildings (M., xxi, 31-39 ; see under 
PRASADA). 

130 




KONA LOSHTA. 





QEMERAL OUTLIME. OF 




KEYURA. 



Page 130 





Page 131 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE KONA 

KAILAS(S)A A type of building which is 28 cubits wide, lias 
eight storeys, and turrets. 

(1) Brihat-Samhild (LVI, 21 ; J.R.A.S., N. S., vi, p. 319; see under 
PRASADA) . 

(2) A class of the three-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxi, 52 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(3) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CGLXIX vv., 32, 47, 53 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(4) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v, 28 ; see under PRASADA). 

(5) A building with four salas (compartments, halls) and four kutas 
(towers or domes) : 

Chatuh-sala-chatush-kuta-yuktah kailasa eva hi II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 42.) 

A class of buildings, circular in plan and names as follows : 

(i) Balaya, (2) Dundubhi, (3) Padma, (4) Maha-padma, (5) 
VarddhanI, (6) Ushnisha, (7) Sankha, (8) Kalasa and (9) Sva- 
vrlk-sha. 

(6) Garu.da-Pu.rdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21, 23, 24-29; see under 
PRASADA) . 

(7) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. n, 17, 18 ; see under PRASADA). 

KOKILA A moulding of the throne. 

(M., XLV, 125, see under SIMHASANA.) 

KOKILARGALA A latch, bolt or bar attached to the throne. 
Ancka-srinkha'opetarh bahu-kundala-bhushitam I 
Kavata-yugmam kartavyarh kokilargala-sarhyutam I 

(Kdmikagama, LV, 52.) 
KOCHCHHA A cane-bottomed chair. 

(Mahdvagga, v, 10, 2.) 

KOTA A fort, a hut, a shed. 

Atyuchair bhitti-bhagair divi divasa-pati-syandanarh va vigrihnan 
yenakari kotah I ' By whom the fort (in this place) was built, 
which perhaps may arrest the chariot of the sun in the sky by its 
high walls.' 

(An Abu Inscrip. of the reign of Bhimadeva, II, v. 9, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, pp. 221, 222.) 

KONA A class of buildings. 

(Kdmikagama, XLV, 55-58 ; see under MALIKA.) 



KONA PARAVATA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

KONA-PARAVATA (see KAPOTA-PALIKA) A dove-cot or dove- 
ridge. 

(Vdstu-vidyd, xvi, 27, 36 ; see under KAPOTA-PALIKA.) 

KONA-LOSHTA A moulding, the pendulent-like ornament at the 

corner of a pent-roof. 

(See details under LOSIITA.) 

KOLAKA (see ANGULA) A measurement of two angulas, a fort, 
a village, a building material. 

A kind of village ( M., ix, 486 ; see under GRAMA) . 

A kind effort (M., x, 41 ; see under DURGA and NAGARA). 

Some fruit or material employed in the foundation-pit. 

(M., XH, 98.) 

KOLHI-VESMIKA A hall-mansion. 

Srl-krishnagiri-maharaja-maha-vlhare upasama-kolhivesmikah sachl- 
varlkah sameta akshainitih dramma-sataikena karapitah ' have had 
hall-mansions (suitable) for meditation built at this great monastery of the 
famous mount of Krishna and have given as a perpetual endowment 
one hundred drammas.' 

Srimat-krishna-giri-maha-vihare bhadra-srl-vishnu-bhikshunaih tatra- 
stharya-(sarhghasya) drammanam satamekarh (datva) pasamana-sadisarh 
chlvarikadi-labha-samanvitarh kolhivesmikarh kshityam nyavivisat 
' gave one hundred drammas to the monks of the worshipful community 
dwelling at the great monastery of the famous mount of Krishna, and 
caused to be built in the ground a hall-mansion suitable for meditation.' 
Dr. Hult/sch. 

The translations quoted above are. it should be noticed, too free. The 
term ' kolhi ' also does not sound like a Sanskrit word ; but there 
arc words like 'kalhana'; there is a phonetic resemblance between 
' kolhi ' and ' kulya ' which means something belonging to the family 
and hence ' main ' or ' chief.' 

(Three Inscrip. from Kanheri, no. 15, line 4 f. ; no. 43A, 
line 2 f., Ind. Ant., Vol. xm, pp. 134, 135, 136.) 

KO&A -A coffer with a pillow (A.-V., xiv, i, 6) ' rent along with a 
bride to her husband's house ' which may be used as a couch or bed 
(cf. Germanic marriage coffers). 

KO&A-MANDAPA A store-room, a treasury. 

(M., xxxn, 68 ; see under MANDAPA.) 
132 



g 

2 

8 



van nYlYn777 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE KOSIITHAGARA 

KOSHTHA A store-room, a granary, a chamber, a wall ; the 

mezzanine room. 

(A/., xxxv, 210, etc.) 

Eka-nasikaya yuktarii panjaraih samudahritam I 
Kuteshu nasika-yuktam koshtam etat prakirtitam 1 1 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 80.) 
KOSHTHAKA A part of the pillar, a granary, a surrounding 

wall. 

Ko hthakastv-iha chatvaras chatush-koneshu chaiva hi I 

(Suprabhedagama, xxi, 50.) 
Koshthakam tad-dvi-parsve tu janma-padakriti(s) tatha I 

(A/., xv, 85.) 

Astarh tavat pratoli tad-upavirachitam koshthaka-dvarh-dvam getat 
prauchchair alana-yugmam vijaya-(vara)-kareh(-karinah) s"atru-laksh- 
myas cha sadma near the gate-way were constructed two granaries.' 

(Hansi Stone Inscrip. of Prithviraja, V. S. 1224, 
v. 6, Ind. Ant., Vol. XLI, pp. 19, 17.) 

KOSHTHAKARA A type of Nepalese chaityas, erected on a low 
flat mound one-tenth of its diameter in height. 

(See Woodcut 156, Fergusson, History of Indian 
and Eastern Architecture, Vol. i, p. 280.) 

KOSHTHA-SALA A kind of closed hall. 

(A/., xxvi, 37 ; see under SALA.) 

KOSHTHA-STAMBHA A kind of pillar, a pilaster. 

(A/., xv, 84-87 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

KOSHTHAGARA A store-house, a class of Buddhist chaityas in 
Nepal where there is a four-faced linga of Siva with a correspond- 
ing emblem. 

Sravastiyanam maha-matranarh sasanam manavasili-katat I 
Srimati varhsa-grame evaite dve koshthagare (duve kotagalani), 

trigarbhe ... I (Translated into Sanskrit by Dr. Buh'er.) 
' The order of the great officials of Sravasti (issued) from their camp 
at Manavasitikata.' 

' These two store-houses with three partitions (which are situated 
even in famous Vamsagrama), require the storage of loads (bharaka) of 
black Pancium.' 

(Sohgaura copper plate Inscrip. 1-2, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxv, pp. 265, 
262 ; see B. A. Society Proceedings of 1894, P- 84 f.) 

133 






KAUTUKODAYA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Narayana-devara kottaravan akalpam age yakshes"ana bhandaram 
enalu madisidan udararh ballala-deva dharani-natham I 

' Erected a kottara (koshthagara) giving it the name of Yakshesa- 
bhandara (=store-house).' 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Belur Taluq, no. 20 ; Text, p. 119, 

line 3 f. ; Transl., p. 52 ; see Fergusson, Ind. and 

East. Arch., H, 279, Woodcut, 156.) 

KAUTUKODAYA (cf. UTSAVA and see UTSEDHA) A kind of 
height, lit. (?) the height of an image made as a plaything (experi- 
ment) rather than for worship. 

Utsave(-savasys) chardha-manena kautukodyam Iritam I 

(M., LXI, 22 ; see context under UTSAVA.) 

Nabhyantarh medhra-slmantarh nava -manarh chotsavodayam I 
Tad-ardharh kautukotsedharh kanyasadi trayarh trayam I 

(M., LXIV, 27-28 ; see context under UTSAVA.) 

KAU&ALYA A pavilion with fifty-six pillars. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v, 8; 
see under MANDAPA.) 

KAUSlKA A type of pavilion. 

(M., xxxiv, 249 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

KRIDA-KETANA A pleasure-house. 

Tirthottumga-sarasvati-krita-parishvarhgasya sarasvatam I 
Ka-ketanam etad atra vidadhe vararhnidhe rodhasi II 
' (The poet Nanaka erected here) this Sarasvata pleasure-house on 
the banks of the sea that has been embraced by the high tirtha 
(sacred banks) of the Sarasvati.' 

(Sanskrit Grants and Inscrip. Prasasti no. iv, 33, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, pp. 103, 106.) 

KSHANIKA-BERA An idol for temporary use, as is carved 
generally with mud by the worshipper himself. 

(M. LXVIII, 26, etc.) 

KSHANIKALAYA A temple where temporary idols are wor- 
shipped. 

(M., LXI, 127.) 

KSHUDRA-GOPANA (see GOP ANA) The small beam, a mould- 
ing of the entablature, the plinth, the base, and the capital, etc. 

(Kamikagama, LIV, 2 ; see under PRASTARA.) 

134 



HWDU ARCHITECTURE KSHEPANA 

KSHUDRA-NASA(-I) The small nose, a moulding resembling the 
nose, a vestibule (prati, pratimukha) side pillar, lower pillars. 

It terminates by the beam in entablatures ; all the kshudra-nasas 
correspond to lower pillars ; and that corresponding to the karnapada 
(side pillar) is half of the forepart of the column (or entablature). 
(M., xv:, 92-95 ; XLVI, 24, etc.) 

Tilaka-kshudra-nasi-yukta-toranaiS cha samanvitam (vimanam) I 

(Kdmikdgama, L, 93.) 
See Amarakosha (u, ii, 15) under GOPANA. 

KSHUDRA-SALA A small hall, room or house. 

Khsudra-sala-pradese tu sarvalankara-samyutam I 

(M., xxvi, 71, etc ; see SALA.) 

KSHUDRABJA A small lotus, a moulding of the pedestal, a small 
cyma. 

(M., XIH, 61, etc.; see the lists of mouldings 
under UPAPITHA.) 

KSHEPANA Lit. projection. A drip-moulding ; the door-frame, 
a moulding above the plinth in pedestal, generally placed between 
a dado and cyma, a fillet and cyma, or a petal and fillet. Etymologi- 
cally it would indicate a moulding like a spout to throw off water, 
and in this office it would resemble the corona (kapota), i.e. the 
square projection having a broad vertical face and the soffit or under- 
portion recessed so as to form a drip which prevents water from 
running down the building. In bases it would resemble a cornice 
(cf. M., xiv, 370) which is used as the term for any crowning projec- 
tion. In this sense it is also found in the western architecture (cf. 
Fletcher, Hist, of Arch., figs. 191, 192, 197, 198). In Indian 
architecture it also implies a door-frame (M., xxxix, 105-110). 

A moulding of the pedestal (M., xin, 45, etc. ; see the lists of mould- 
ings under UPAPITHA). 

A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 120, etc. ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA) . 

In connexion with the door : 

Madhye tu kshepanarh vame suddha-dvaravasanakam I 

(A/., xxxix, 105.) 

In connexion with the bedstead : 
Ekarii vatha dvayarh vapi kshepanam bahudhanvitam I 

(M., XLIV, 20.) 

135 



KSHEMA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

A moulding of the pitha or pedestal of the phallus : 

Utsedhe shodasTirhse tu prathamochcharh dvi-bhfigikam I 
Padmochcharii tu tri-bhagam syat tat-urdhve kshepanamsakam I 

(M., ur, 30, 31.) 

KSHEMA A class of buildings. 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 32-34 ; see under MALIKA.) 

KSHONl A kind of pent-roof, stated to be employed in residential 

buildings. 

(I/., xvm, 177-178.) 

KH 

KHATTAKA(-TTA) A bedstead, a seat, a pedestal or throne. 
Murttlnam iha prishthatah kari-vadhu-prishtha-pratishtha-jusham 

tau-murttir vame asma-khattaka-gatah karhta-sameta dasa I 
' Behind the statues placed on the backs of female elephants, . . . 
(he) caused to be made here ten images of those persons mentioned 
above) together with their wives on khattaka of spotless stones.' 

' The word, khattaka, judging from the context, seems to have 
the meaning of pedestal or throne.' Dr. Luders. 

(Mount Abu Inscrip. no. I, v. 64, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. vni, pp. 212, 218, 200.) 

KHATVA A long couch, a bedstead. 
KHADGA A type of octangular building. 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLvn, vv. 21, 23, 
31-32 ; see under PRASADA.) 

KHANDA-HARMYA A sectional tower, a tower with open veran- 
dahs or balconies. 

Adho-bhaga-dvayenatha kutam ekena va bhavet I 

Talam ekarh bhaved grasam (?) khanda-harmyarh tri-bhumike II 

Andharandhari-harokta-khanda-harmya-viscshitam (vimanam) 1 1 

(Kdmikdgama, L, 80, 91.) 

KHANDOTTARA A kind of entablature (prastara). 
Pada-vistara-vistararh samodaya-samanvitam I 
Khandottaram iti jneyam padenotesedham samyutam n 

(Ibid., LIV, 5.) 

136 




KSHEPANA 
AS PROJECTION. 




KSHEPANA AS 
DRIP MOULD.' 



KSHEPANA. 










KSHUDRA-N/ftSA. 





IN ELEVATION:;-- - 



The ire ra* Men 
struck a little away . 
from '.he^iine of super- 




. PROFILE OF CLASSIC TORUS. 



Page ISfi 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KHARVATA 

KHAR V ATA A village, a fort, a fortified city. 

(1) A village (M., ix, 456), a fortified town (M., x., 36). 
In connexion with the foundations : 

Gramadlnarh nagariidinam pura-pattana-kharvate I 
Koshtha-koladi-sarvesharh garbha-sthanam ihochyate I 

(M., xii, 168-169.) 

A kind of pavilion used as the dining hall of the ki'ng : 
Nripanaria bhojanartharh syat kharvatakhyarh tu mandapam I 

(M., xxxiv, 455 ; see also 456-472, 567.) 

(2) A fortress to defend a group of two hundred villages : 
Dvi-sata-gramya kharvatikam I 

(Kautillya-Artha-fastra, Chap, xn, p. 46.) 

(3) Kshullaka-prakara-veshtitam kharvatam I 

(Rayapasenl-sutra-vyakhydne, ibid., p. 206.) 

(4) Karvatani kunnagarani | 

(Praina-vyakarana-sutra-vydkhyane, ibid., p. 306.) 

(5) Dhanuh-satarh parinaho grama-kshetrantaram bhavet I 
Dve sate kharvatasya syan nagarasya chatuh-satam I 

(Tajiiavalka, n, 167.) 

(6) Vanijam api bhogyarii tu tad-vad e a (like nagara) samlritam I 
Yat sthanarh brahmananam tu kharvatam puravasinam I 
Nagaryavartanam yat kharvatam tad udahritam | 

(Kamikagama, xx, 7, 9.) 

(7) lya-khavadamhi ' (By means of his vase Vagra Mardga's son 
Kamagulya, who has fixed his residence) in this place Khavata . . . 
Mr. Pargiter. 

So far the editor is right. But in his lon^ note on this expression he has 
rather too elaborately dwelt on a number of conjectures without however 
having been able to arrive at any conclusion whatever. This Prakrit 
expression can easily be rendered into Sanskrit by atra khanate (in this city 
or town). 

(The Inscrip. on the Wardak vase, line i, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. xi, pp. 210, 211, 212, last para.) 

(8) ' An ornament to the Kuntala-des"a was the Vanavase twelve thousand 
Kingdom, the chief capital (pradhana-rajadhani) was Chandragupt. 
with another name of Gomanta-parvata, in the twelve kharvata country 
(attached to which), in Nagarakhanda of Yada-nada Kantapuri, other- 
wise named Vira-Marapapuri, belonging to Kamattampuri, situated on 
the bank of the Varada-river, the king, in order that his government might 

137 



KHALORAKA(-RIKA) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

continue as long as sun and moon, as an offering to Krishna (with all the usual 
rights), gave, free of all imposts.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. vm, Part i, Sorab Taluq, 
no - 375> Transl., pp. 66, last para.) 

(9) Grama-nagara-kheda-karvvada-madarhba-dronarnukha-pattananigali- 
nidam ancka-mata-kuta-prasada-devayatananigalidam oppuva-agrahara- 
pattanamgalimdam atisayav-appa ... I 

' At Teridal a merchant town situated in the centre and the first in 
importance among the twelve (towns) in the glorious Kundi three thousand, 
adorned with villages, towns, hamlets, villages sorrounded by hills, groups 
of villages, sea-girt towns, and chief cities, with elegant mansions, palaces 
and temples, and with shining agrahara-towns in the country of Kuntala.' 

(Old Kanarese Inscrip. at Terdal, line 58, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

(10) ' With myriads of people, practices of virtue, agreeable occupations, 
stream of the (nine) sentiments, pleasure-gardens, separated lovers, splendid 
tanks, full lotus-beds, gilded boats for spring festivals, ghatika-sthanas 
(religious centres), the supports of dharmma and mines of enjoyment, 
moats which were as if the sea being overcome had returned here on account 
of the collection of gems, groups of the lotus faces of beautiful women fair 
as the moon (grama-nagara-kheda-kharvvana-madamba-dronamukha-pura- 
pattana-rajadhani), on whatever side one looked, in these nine forms did 
the Kuntala-desa shine.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. vm, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 197 ; 
Transl., p. 124, para, i, last seven lines ; Roman text, p. 214, line 27, f.) 

KHALURAKA(-RIKA) Waffenubungen bestimter Platz (Pet. 
Diet.}, a parade, a place for military exercise (M. Williams, Diet.), 
a parlour, a reception-hall or a drawing-room round a house ; an 
enclosure-building round a house, village, city or fort. 

(Kamikagama, LV, 20 ; see below.) 

(i) Etad dronam cha bhupanam ayudhabhyasa-mandapam I 
Sarvarh dasamSakam dirgham netra-tri-bhaga-mandapam I 
Tat-pure'lindam ekarhSarh navamSena yutankanam I 
Tat-parsVe puratas chaiva te yugmamSe khalurikah I 
Dronakhya-mandapam chaivam esha yuddhartha-yogyakam I 

(M., xxxiv, 434-439-) 

AshtashtamSa-vistaram ayamam tatra kalpayet I 
Tan-madhye dvi-dvi-bhagena kalpayet vivritankanam I 
Tad-bahi chavrittams'ena kuryach chaika khaliirika u 

(Ibid., 440-442-) 
138 




ILL AIL ROUND 



GLMERAL OUTLINE. OF KH&ftVAT* TOWN 



RIVER SIDE 



WA.TCM TOWER 




rtF.ULRXL OUTLINE- OF KHE-TK TOWN 
THE.RE. SHOULD 6 MOKE.S\DtNCE OF KINGS OR OPPE.R 
CK5TE PE.OPLE. 1W TWb VlL,L^at 



Par/c J3S 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE KHETAKA 

See also lines 433-453, and then compare : 

Nripanarh bhojanartharh syat kharvatakhyarh tu mandapam I 

(M., xxxiv, 455.) 

Then ' khalurika ' is stated (lines 446, 450) to be built round a dining- 
hall and hence not for any military purpose ; it appears like a parlour. 
Compare also : 

Tan-madhye pancha-bhagena sapta-bhagarikanam tatha I 
Tad-bahye paritarhsena kuryad antar alindakam | 
Kalurikapi tad-bahye tri-tri-bhagena mandapam I 

(Ibid., 284-286.) 
Evarh vasanta-yogyarh syat devanarh kshatriyadinam I 

(Ibid., 296.) 

Tad-vibhaga-dvi-bhagena vistararh mandapam bhavet | 
Dvi-tri-bhagankanarh purve eka bhagarh khalurakam I 

(Ibid., 351-352.) 

(2) Evarhbhutasya vasasya samantat syat khalurika I 

Vasa-vyasarh chatur-bhagarh kritva chaikadi-bhagatah I) 
Vriddhyarh vasasya bahye tu shodasavadhi-bhagakan I 
Vyapohya paritah kuryat pratharnavaranaditah II 
Kalurikarii(s) tu chaikadi-sapta-bhagavasanakah | 
Mukhe cha parsvayoh prishthe pattayah syur yatheshtatah n 
Oja-yugma-pramanena nyuna vapy-adhika tu va I 
Sabhadra va vibhadra va khaluri syad yatheshtatah || 
Etasam antaralarh tu samam va vishamarh tu va I 
Kaluri-dhama-madhyam tu tad-vad eva vidhiyate II 

(Kdmikagama, xxxv, 103-107 ; see also 108-116.) 
Etam hkalurikarh kuryat prasadadishu buddiman II 
Devanarh manujanarh cha viseshad raja-dhamani II 
Gopuram cha khaluri cha mula-vastu nirikshitam II 

(Ibid., \o-ja, 1 1 8, 128.) 

Samavrita khalurika tany-evoktani panditah | 
Nagara-grama-durganam seshany-uktani ve^manam 1 1 

(Ibid., LV, 20.) 

KHETAKA A village (M., ix, 456), a fortified town (M., x, 36, 39). 
(i) Tatas tan-nirmayamasuh khetani cha purani cha u 

Gramams chaiva yathabhagam tathaiva nagarani cha II 
Khetanarh cha puranarh cha gramanarh chaiva sarvasah I 
Tri-vidhanarh cha durganarh parvatodaka-dhanvinam I) 

139 



KHETAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Nagarad ardha-vlshkambah khetarh pararh tad-urddvatah I 
Nagarad yojanarh khetarh khetad gramo'rdha-yojanam II 

(Brahmanda-Purana, Part i, and Anusharhga-pada, 
Chap, vn, vv. 93, 94, 105, in.) 

(2) Parhsu-prakara-nibaddha-khetam I 

(Rdyapaseni--sutra-vyakhyane , p. 206.) 

(3) Khetani dhull-prakaropetani | 

(PraSna-vyakarana-sutra-vyakhyane, p. 306.) 
(See Kautlllya-Artha-idslra, Chap, XXH, p. 46, footnote.) 

(4) Vane jana-pade chaiva kevale Sudra-sevitah I 
Kantakah khetako gramah kramat tri-vidham Iritah I 

(Kamikagama, xx, 10.) 

(5) Nagarani khetan jana-padams tatha I 

(Mahabharata, in, 13, 220, etc.) 

(6) Pura-gramakara-kheta-vata-$ibira-vraja-ghosha . . . 

(Bhagavata-PurSna, 5, 30.) 

(7) One of the 750 villages ' which are designated by (their chief 
town) Sri-Harsapura.' Rashtrakuta Grant of Krishna II, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, 
PP- 55. 57. line 33, p. 53, footnote 3.) 

(8) ' The modern kheda (khaira) .'(Ind. Ant., Vol. x, p. 378 ; Vol. xiv 

p. 198.) 

(9) Lata-desantarvvartti khetaka-mandalantarggatah Kevancha- 

nama gramah I (Cambay Plates of Govinda IV, line 52, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. vii, pp. 40, 45.) 

(10) Sri-khetakahare-uppalaheta-pathake mahilabali-nama-gramah I 

' The village, named Mohibabali, in the Uppalahetapathaka in the 
famous Khetaka ( ? city) ahara.' (Ind. Ant., Vol. vn, p. 72, Plate n, 
lines 5-6.) 

(11) Khetakaharam vishaye bandarijidri pathakantarggata-as"ila- 
pallika gramah I 

' Khetaka is of course the modern Kheda or Kaira itself (lat. 22 

44' N. :' long. 72 45' E.).' 

(Alina Copper Plate Inscrip. of Siladitya vn, lines 

66-67, C. /. /., Vol. HI, F. G. I., no. 39, 

pp. 179, 189, 173, and notes 2, 3.) 

(12) Grama-nagara-kheda-karvvada - madamba - dronamukha - patta 
nanigalimdam aneka-mata-kuta-prasada-devayatanam galidam 
oppuva-agrahara-pattanamgalirhdam atisayavappa I 

' At Teridala, a merchant-town situated in the centre and the 
first in importance among the twelve (towns) in the glorious, Kundi. 

140 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GANYA-MANA 

Three thousand, adorned with villages, towns, hamlets, villages, surround- 
ed by hills, groups of villages, sea-grit towns, and chief cities, with 
elegant mansions, palaces, and with shining temples, and agrahara- 
towns in the country of Kuntala.' 

(Old Kanarese Inscrip. at Terdal, line 
58, Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

(13) ' With myriads of people, practices of virtue, agreeable occu- 
pations, streams of the nine sentiments, pleasure-gardens, separated 
lovers, splendid tanks, full lotus beds, gilded boats for spring festivals, 
ghatika-sthanas (religious centres), the supports of dharmma and 
mines of enjoyment, moats which were as if the sea being over- 
come had returned here on account of the collection of gems, 
groups of the lotus faces of beautiful women fair as the moon (grama- 
nagara - khcda - kharvvana - madamba - dronamukha-pura-pattana-raja 
dhanim) on whatever side one looked, in these nine forms did the 
Kuntala-desa shine.' (It should be noticed that the passage within 
brackets is a'most identical with the corresponding passage in quotation 
no. 12 above.) 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. n, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 197, 

Transl., p. 134 ; para, i, last seven lines ; 

Roman text, p. 214, line 27 f.) 



GAGANA A kind of pent-roof. 

(M., xvni, 174-180 ; see under LUPA.) 

GAJA (cf. HASTI-PRISHTHA) A moulding, a type of building 
(see under KUNJARA), a kind of oval buildings. 

(1) Agni-Putdna (Chap, civ, vv. 19-20; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 29-30; see under PRASADA). 

(3) See the plan and sections of a Gaja-prlshthakriti building. 
(Ind. Ant., Vol. xn, between pages 104-5.) 

GANYA-MANA The comparative height of the component mem- 
bers of an architectural structure. In the sculptural measurement, 
the similar height is generally called ' ta.la-ma.na. ' 

Implying the comparative height of the component members of the 
buildings of one to twelve storeys : 

Janmadi-stupi-paryantarh ganya-manam ihochyate I 
Harmye chashta-tale tunge sashta-bhagadhikam tatha I 

141 




KHETAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Sardha-dvyamsam adh'-shthanam tad-dvayarii pada-turigakam I 
Tad-ardharh prastarotscdharii sesham ashta-taloktavat I 
Evarh nava-talotsedhaih saivalarikara-samyutam I 

(M., xxvn, 35-39.) 

Evarh vistara-ganyarh syat tunga-ganyam ihochyate I 
Janmadi-stupi-paryantam uktavat samgrahath viduh I 

(M., xxix, 36-37 ; see also 38-49 under 
EKA-DASA-TALA.) 

See the details o'" the other storeys under EKA-TALA, DVI-TALA, TRI- 
TALA, GHATUS-TALA, PA^CHA-TALA, SHAT-TALA, SAPTA-TALA, ASHTA 
TALA, DASA-TALA, EKA-DASA-TALA and DVA-DASA-TALA. 

The similar comparative measurement referring to the sixteen storeys 
of the gopuras (gate-houses) : 

Tunge cha trayo-vimsad bhagam evarh vibhajite I 
Eka-dasopapitharh cha chatur-bhaga(rh) masurakam | 
Vasu-bhaganghri-tungam syat shad-bhagarh tu vibhajite | 
Tri-bhagam chopapitham tu ^iva-bhaga(rh) masurakam | 
Dvi-bhagam pada-tungarh syat tad-Qrdhve prastarad(h)ikam I 
Sikhamsarh chordhva-mane tu talanam adhunochyate | 
Adhishthana-samarh mancha(rh) tat-samarh gala-tungakam I 
Galochcha-dvi-gunam proktam sikharasyodayam nyaset I 
Sikharordhva(m) sikhottungam stupi(pi)-traya-sam(m)eva cha I 
Evam eka-talam proktam dvi-taladi-tala(m) eva cha I 
Kshudra-madhyam cha mukhyanam gopure tu viseshatah I 
Prastaradi ( ? upanadi)-sikhantarh syat ganya-manarh pravakshyate I 

(A/., xxxui, 133-144.) 

Piirvavat prastarady-antam chordhve stupikantakam I 
Ganya-manam cha sarvesham bhaga-mana(rh)-vasochyate I 

(Ibid., 215-216.) 
Bhaga-mana-vasad ganya-manam yat prochyate budhaih | 

(Ibid., 247.) 

The similar comparative measurement referring to the componet parts of 
throne : 

Sarvesham manam ity-uktarh ganya-manam ihochyate I 
Asanasyodayardharh va tri-bhagaikonam eva va I 
Upapithodayam hy-eva(m) chokta-tuhge'dhikam tu va I 
Sesham masurakam vapi samadhishthana-tuhgakam I 
Utsedha-ravi-bhage tu janma-tuhgam sivarhsakam I 
Tad-urdhve chardha-kampam syat pada-bhagena yojayet I 

(M., XLV, 85, 96-100.) 
142 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GANDHA-KUTI(-I) 

GANITA A site plan of 369 square plots. 

(M. VH, 25-26 ; see PADA-VINYASA.) 

The similar measurement referring to the component mouldings of the 
Pitha (yoni or the pedestal of the phallus) : 

Pitha-tungam iti proktarh ganya-manam ihochyate I 
Utsedhe shodasarhse tu prathamochcham dvi-bhagikam I 
Padmochcharh tu tri-bhagarh syat tad-urdhve kshepanamsakam I 
Kandharam cha tri-bhagarh syat tad-urclhve kampam arhsakam I 
Urdhva-padmam tr(i)yarhsarh syad vajanarh cha tri-bhagikam I 
Ekarhsam ghrita-vari syad bhadra-pitham iti smritam I 

(M., LIH, 29-34.) 

The similar measurement referring to the component mouldings of the 
upa-pltha or pedestal of the column : 

Etat tu nirgamam proktarh ganya-manam ihochyate I 
Utsedhe tu chatur-virhsat panchamsopanam Iritam I 
Ekena kampam ity-uktam grivochcham dva-dasarhsakam I 
Kampam ekam tu vedamsarh vajanarh kampam amsakam I 
Vesi-bhadram iti proktam athava dva-dasarhsakam I 

(M., xm, 35-39.) 
GANDA-BHERANDA-(STAMBHA) A kind of pillar. 

(See under STAMBHA.) 

GADA A type of octangular buildings. 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 20-21 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21, 23, 31-32 ; see under PRASADA.) 

GANDHA-KUTI(-I) The Buddhist temple, any chamber used by 
Budhha. Originally Buddha's abode in the Jetavana monastery 
at Sravasti, later, all chapels and temples wherein the Buddha 
images were installed. 

(i) Punyoddesa-vasach chakara ruchiraih sauddhodaneh sraddhaya 
srimad-gandha-kutlm imam iva kutirii mokshasya saukhyasya cha I 
' has constructed this gandha-kuti of Buddha, graceful and like a hall 
of emancipation and bliss for the spiritual benefit of ' 

' Gandha-kuti ' is lit -rally a ' chamber of perfume,' an epithet applied to 
Buddha temples. The large temple at Buddha Gaya is called, in the 
inscriptions, ' M;iha-gandha-kutl-prasada ' (Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, pp. 142-143) 
and the room in which Buddha lived in Jetavana at Sravasti was also known 

143 



GANDHA-MADANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

by this name (Cunningham's Bharhut Stupa, Plate xxxvm, and page 133, 
no. 22). 

(An Inscrip. at Gaya, v. 9, Ind. Ant., 
Vol. x, pp. 343, 343, note 8.) 

(2) Kritavantau cha n vinam ashta-maha-sthana-saila-gandha-kutim 
'they constructed this new gandha-kuti (made) of stone; (coming from) 
eight holy places.' 

Gandhakuti ' perfumed chamber, any private chamber dovoted to 
Buddha's use. ' Childers (s. v.). 

The gandha-kuti at Jetavana near Sravasti is represented on a Bharhut 
bas-relief. 

See also Cunningham's Bharhut Stupa (Plate LVJI). 

See Sarnath inscription of Mahip >lala (line 2, Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, p. 140 
note 7). 

(3) ' Garhdha-kuti ' the hall of perfumes,' i.e., ' the Buddhist temple.' 
(Bharaut Inscrip. no. 40, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxi, p. 230, note 34 refers to Arch. 
Sun. of W. India, Vol. v, p. 77 and to Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, p. 140, already 
quoted above.) 

(4) 'On the other side of his (Buddha's) body, towards the west, he caused 
to be built a beautiful gandha-kuti, pleasing to the eye.'-(Ajanta Inscrip. 
no. 4, line 27, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. iv, pp. 130, 132.) 

GANDHA-MADANA A class of pavilions. 

(M., xxxiv, 154 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

GANDHARVA A class of demi-gods inhabiting Indra's heaven, 
and serving as celestial musicians. See the description of their 
images. 

(M., Lvni, 8, 16-19.) 

GABHARA (GARBHAGARA)-An underground shrine, the sanc- 
tuary of a temple, the room where the deity is placed, a private room, 
the female apartments, a lying-in chamber. 

'Through the door at the east end of the hall, we descent by some 
nine steps into ihe gabhara or shrine, which is also square, measuring 
13 feet 9 inches each way.' (The temple of Amarnath, Ind. Ant., Vol. ii^ 
p. 318, c. i, last para.) 

GARUDA The king of birds, the sun-eagle ; ' winged beings, 
resembling the griffin, mythical creatures (suparna), foes of nagas ' 
(Grundel : Buddhist Kunst in India, p. 47) ; a type of building 

144 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GARBHA 

which is shaped like the sun-eagle (garuda), has wings and tail, and 
seven storeys, twenty cupolas (anda) and 24 cubits wide. 
Nandl tadakritir jneyah pakshadi-rahitah punah II 
Garudakritis cha garudah I 
Commentary quotes clearer description from Kasyapa : 

Garudo garudakarah paksha-puchchha-vibhushitah I 

Cf. Karanarh shat-chatushkams cha vistirnau sapta-bhumikau I 

Dasabhir dvigunair andair bhushitau karayet tu tau II 

(1) Brihat-Samhitd (LVI, 24. J.RAS., N. S , Vol. vr, p. 319). 

(2) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, w. 41-43, 51 ; see under PRASADA). 

(3) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 31 ; see under PRASADA). 
A type of oval building : 

(4) Garuda-Purana (Chap. XLVII, w. 29-30 ; see under PRASADA). 
In connexion with the temples of the attendant deities : 

(5) Yan-mula-harmye vrishabhadi-vishnur-adi 

Mandapadi-garudadi cha gopuradin I 

Tan-mula-harmya-paritah sthita pasyate'smin (?) 

Kuryat tu sarva-parivaram idam prasastam I (M., xxxn, 168-171.) 

The description of the image of Garuda (M., LXI, 1-148). 
Compare also M., xix, 224. 

GARUDA-SK(-T)AMBHA (see under STAMBHA) Pillars gene- 
rally bearing the statues of the garuda-bird and belonging to the 
Vaishnavas. 

' Had the temple built, and setting up this saSana erected a garuda- 

stambha in front.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. xii, Pavugada Taluq, no. 78 ; Transl. 

p. 130.) 

GARUTMAN (see GARUDA) A type of oval buildings. 

(Agni-Purana, Chap, civ, w. 19-20 ; 
see under PRASADA.) 

GARBHA The womb, the foundation, the adytum, the chamber in 
a temple where the deity is placed, halls of various shapes and sizes 
used for various purposes. Compare NALIKA-GARBHA (rectangular 
halls), SIBIKA-GARBHA (square halls), and HARMYA-GARHBA (top 
rooms, etc.). 

(i) Vistarardham bhaved garbho bhitty-anyah samantatah I 
Garbha-padena vistirnam dvararh dvi-gunam uchchhritam 1 1 

H5 



GARBHA-GE(-RI)HA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

' The adytum measures half the extent (of the whole) and has its separate 
walls all around. Its door is one-fourth of the adytum in breadth and twice 
as high.' 

(Brihat-Sarhhita, LXI, 12, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 318.) 

(2) Raja prasada-garbharh gatva I 

(Hilopadesa, ed. Botlingk, p. 157, etc.) 

(3) The foundations of the village (M., IK, 7). 
The adytum : 

Garbhe nanda-vibhage tu ekaikarh lihga-tuhgakam I 
Garbha-tara-samarh sreshtharh tri-vidham linga-tungakam I 

(M., LH, 16, 21.) 

(4) Sravastiyanarh maha-matranarh sasanarh manavasiti-katat I 
Srimati vamsagrama evaite dve koshthagare tri-garbhe ... I 

' The order of the great officials of Sravasti (issued from their camp at) 
Manavasitikata ; these two store-houses with three partitions (which are 
situated) even in famous Vamsagrama require the storage of black loads 
of panicum.' 

(Sohgaura Copper Plate, lines 1-2, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxv, p. 265.) 

GARBHA-GE(-RI)HA The central hall, the adytum, the sanctu- 
ary in the middle of which is placed the statue of the deity ; this 
is sometimes called mula-sthana (see GARBHAGARA). 

(1) Harmya-tare tu bhutamsam tr(i)yarhsam garbha-gehakam I 

(M., xrx, 114 ; see also 119.) 

Garbha-geha, madhya-koshtha, and nali-geha are used in the same 
sense (central hall, cf. M., xxxm, 301, 305, 309, 313 and 318). 
Dvi-tale tara-saptarhsam vedamsam garbha-gehakam I 

(M., xxxin, 164 ; see also 161.) 
Garbha-gehe tu manarii syat linga-tungam prakalpayet I 

(M., LH, 22 ; see also LIII, 4.) 

(2) ' And the balance he will apply to building the garbha-griha and 
enclosure of the goddess's temple.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vin, Part I, Sagar 
Taluq, no. 135 ; Roman text, p. 225 ; Transl., p. 119, last para., last line.) 

(3) ' His wife (with various praises) Kallard-Siyamma had the shrine 
(garbba-grihada) of the god Sidda-Mallikarjuna renewed.' (Ep. Carnal. t 
Vol. xii, Gubbi Taluq, no. 29 ; Roman text, p. 41 ; Transl., p. 23, line 8.) 

(4) Garbha-griha-sthita-mantapa-sikhara ' the ruined tower over the 
shrine (of the god Arkanatha). '(Ep. Carnal., Vol. in, Ma|avaJJi Taluq, 
no. 64 ; Roman text, p. 127, line 3 ; Transl., p. 63.) 

146 




\ 



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15^15X50 
SilE BH1CKS 



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GARBHA 



Page US 



HWDU ARCHITECTURE GARBHA-MANjCSHA-(-IKA) 

(5) ' Garbha-griha sanctum of a temple.' 

(6) Vincent Smith's Gloss, (loc. cit.) to Cunningham's Arch. Surv. 
Reports. 

GARBHA-NYASA Laying the foundation, the foundations. 
Mdnasdra (Chap, xn, 1-128, named Garbha-nyasa) : 

The foundation is classed under three heads for buildings (lines 
4-169) for villages, etc. (lines 172-186) and for tanks, etc. (lines 
188-216). 

The last-named foundation, which is meant for a tank, well or pool 
is said to be as high as the joint palm of man (naranjali, line 1 88). 

The foundation of buildings is first divided into two classes, as it belongs 
to temples (lines 4-149) and to human dwellings (lines 155-169). Of 
temples, those of Vishnu (lines 4-137) and Brahman (lines 139-149) are 
illustrated and the others are said to be like these (cf. line 132). 

Of the human dwellings, there are four classes according to the four 
castes Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaifya and Sudra. 

The depth of the foundation-pit is stated to be equal to the basement : 
Garbhavatasya nimnarh syad adhishthana(m)-samonnatam I 
Ishtakair api pashanais chatur-asrarh samarh bhavet I 

(M., XH, 6-7.) 

The details of laying the foundations are given (M., xvn, 6-9) : 

The best ground selected for foundations is excavated to the depth 
of a man's height with uplifted arms. The bottom of the pit thus 
excavated should be rocky or water, and the pit is filled with sands 
and water which are closely pressed and hardened by means of wooden 
hammers shaped like the elephant's foot. Upon such foundations, 
the strength whereof varies according to the weight of the construc- 
tion above, various structures are constructed. 

From this it would appear that the best soils for receiving foundations 
are rock, gravel, or closely-pressed sandy earth. 

GARBHA-BHAJANA The foundation-pit, the excavation. 

(Ibid, 103.) 

GARBHA-MANjt)SHA(-IKA) The basket-shaped roof upon the 
foundation-pit, the vault. 

(Ibid, 47.) 
147 



GARBHA-VINYASA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

GARBHA-VINYASA (see GARBHA-NYASA) The arrangement of 
the foundation, the foundations. 

(M., XII, 2.) 

Garbha-nyasa-vidhirh vakshye gramadlnam cha sadmanam I 
Sa-garbham sarva-sampattyair vigarbharh naSanarh bhavet II 

(Kdmikdgama, xxxi, 2-104.) 

GARBHA-SOTRA The line in the interior or middle, the inner or 
central line of a foundation. 

Garbha-sutrasya karnais" cha dvi-dvi-s"ankurh nikhanayet I 

(M., vi, 105.) 

GARBHAVATA -The foundation-pit, the excavation. 

(M., xii, 5 ; see under GARBHA-NYASA.) 

GALA (see KANTHA) The neck, a moulding called dado, the 
frieze of the entablature. 

See the lists of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA., UPAPITHA and PRAS- 

TARA. 

See Kdmikdgama (LIV, 47) under PRASTARA. 

GALA-KDTA (see KUTA) A side-tower, a dome at the neck-part 
of a building. 

GALAftGA Literally neck portion, the middle member, the frieze 
of the entablature which lies between the architrave and the 
cornice. 

(See Kdmikdgama, LIV, 47, under PRASTARA.) 

GAVAKSHA (see V ATA Y ANA) Windows resembling the cow's 
eye, a latticed window. 

Sardha-gavakshakopeto nirgavaksho'thava bhavet I 

(Garuda-Purdna, Chap. XLVH, v. 36.) 
Cf. M., XVIH, 290 ; xx, 81 ; xxxm, 582, etc. 

' The chief adornment of the temple at Gangai-konda-puram is the 
repetition everywhere on the cells and cornices of the fanlike window 
ornament resembling a spread peacock's tail.' (Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, p. 1 18, c. i, 
para. 3, last sentence.) 

See Pallava Architecture (Arch. Surv., New. Imp. Series, Vol. xxxiy, 
Plate cxxn). 

See the pierced window in BhoganandisVara shrine (Mysore Arch. Repoit, 
1913-14, Plate v, fig. 2, p. 14). 

148 







GARUOA STAM11H. 




WITH SHUTTER WITH STONE LATTICE 

GAVAKSHA 



BHERUNOA.' 




C.ANDA BFIERUNPi, 




PLAN 

GURU-DVARA. 



Time U* 




GABHARA 



Pajt 149 



: 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GUHA-RAJA 

GAVAKSHAKARA Resembling the cow's eye, a moulding or 
structure shaped like a cow's eye. 

In connexion with the bedsteads : 

Vrittakritlshta-padanarh yuktya varnena lepayet I 
Gavakshakara-yuktya cha pattikordhve samantatah I 
Kunjaraksham alaksharh va patra-pushpady-alankritam I 

(M., XLIV, 21-23.) 

GATRA Literally the body, the columns of a pavilion. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 102-103 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

GANAVA A kind of phallus. 

(Kamikdgama, L, 35, 37 ; set under LINGA.) 

IRI-DURGA (see DURGA) A fort, a hill-fort. 

Cf. ' In the reign of Chikka-Deva-Raya-vodeya-raiya the servant of 
the lord of this village, Bilugeli Kempar-ajayya's son Dasarajayya began to 
build the stone fort of Nijagal, which has received another name of Sura- 

Igiri-durgga.' 
' In 1698 to 1700 the bastions of the fort and the town-gate on the east 
were completed. In 1701 to 1702 the town-gate on the south was made. 
In Parthiva (1705) the elephant-gate on the east, this hall and the chavadi 
with the tiger-face gate, and the VighnesVara temple at the town-gate on 
the south ' (were built) . (/>. Carnal., Vol. rx, Nelamangala Taluq, no. 65 ; 
Roman text, p. 54 ; Transl., p. 45.) 

GURU-DVARA A Sikh monastery, the Sikh temple where the 
Grantha Saheb is woi shipped. Literally, same as the Jain 
Tirthankara or path-maker. 

See Vincent Smith's Gloss, (loc. cit.) to Cunningham's Arch. Surv. Reports. 

GUVA-VRIKSHA A type of round buildings. 

(Garua'a-Purana, Chap. XLVII, w. 21, 23, 28-29 ; 

see under PRASADA.) 

GUHA-RAJA A type of building which is 16 cubits wide and has 
a roof with three dormer-windows. 

(1) Brihat-Sarhhita (LVI, 25, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 319 ; see under 
PRASADA.) 

(2) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 32 ; see under PRASADA). 

'49 



GRIHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

GRIHA The house, a building, a room, a hall, a family home. 

(R.-V., x, 91-92.) 

Griharii gehodavasitam ves"ma sadma niketanam 1 1 
NiSanta-vastya-sadanam bhavanagara-mandiram I 
Grihah pumsi cha bhumny-eva nikayya-nilayalayah II 

(Amarakosha, 11, ii, 4, 5.) 

Cf. Sudipika-griham 'a house of beautiful lamps'. (Three Inscrip. from 
Travancore, no. B, line 3, Ep. 2nd., Vol. iv, p. 203.) 
See M., ix, 7, 8 ; xxxvi, 2 ; xxxvii, i ; XL, 78, etc. 

GRIHA-KANTA A class of the five-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxin, 30-32 ; see under PRASADA.) 

GRIHA-GARBHA (see GARBHA-NYASA) The foundation of a 
house. 

Griha-garbham iti proktarh grama-garbham ihochyate I 
Griha-garbham antar-mukharh syad grama-garbham bahir- 
mukham I 

(M., xn, 167, 216.) 

GRIHA-CHULLI A building with an eastern and western hall, 
' a house with two rooms contiguous to each other, but one facing 
west and the other east.' 

(Bfihat-Samhitd, LIII, 40.) 

GRIHA-PINDI (see PINDIKA) The basement of a building. 

. . . griha-pindir athochyate II 

Madhye chasavritam vasavasa-pindikandhariketi cha I 

Sarhjfieyam griha-pindeh sayat ... II 

(Kamikagama, LV, 200-201.) 

GRIHA-PRAVEA The opening of or the first entry into the 
house, the house-warming ceremony. 

Mdnasdra (Chap, xxxvm, 1-89, named Griha-pravesa) . 
The ceremonies in connexion with the opening of and first entry into 
a house are described in detail (lines 1-90). The consideration of auspi- 
cious day and moment, and the worship and sacrifice in this connexion 
are also described in detail (lines 5-74). The masters of the ceremonies are 
stated to be the sthapati (architect) and the sthapaka (lines 14, 15, 16, 17, 
58, 73, 74. 83, 85). They lead the procession in circumambulating the 
village and the compound before the ceremonial entry into a new house 
(lines 73-90). The guardian-angel of the house (Griha-Lakshmi) is prayed 

150 



HIND U ARCHITECTURE GRIHA-VINYAS A 

to after completing the worship and sacrifice to confer happiness, comfort, 
plenty of wealth, children, health and long life to the master and other 
members of the family (lines 67-72). 

The chapter closes with the description of an elaborate scheme of feeding 
the Brahmans and the artists, and of liberal gifts to them for the sake of 
prosperity and success of the family (lines 84-90). (See also M., ix, 8.) 

GRIHA-MAJSJGALA An auspicious ceremony in connexion with 
a newly-built house. 

Sarva-mangala-ghoshais cha svasti-vachana-purvakam I 
Paschat(d) griha-marigalam kuryat nana-vastrais cha Sobhitam I 

(M., xxxvii, 55-56.) 

GRIHA(-MANA-STHANA)-VINYASA The dismensions and 
situation of houses, the location of various rooms in dwelling houses 
and temples and palaces. 

(i) Mdnasdra (Chap, xxxvi, 1-96, named Griha-mana-sthana vinyasa) : 

The dimensions of houses in general (lines 6-13) : the breadth 

of a house is said to be of five kinds, from two or three dandas 

(4 or 6 yards) to ten or eleven dandas (20 or 22 yards). The 

length may be equal to, ij, i-J, I J, or twice of, the breadth. 

The situation : houses are built in villages, towns, settlements, 
suburbs, groves, hermitages, near a hill, and on the banks of a 
sea or river (lines 1-5) : 

Dvi-jatlnam cha sarvesharh varnanarh vasa-yogyakam | 
Grihanarh mana-vinyasam sthanarh cha vakshyate'dhuna I 
Grame cha nagare vapi pattane khetake'pi va | 
Vane va chasrame vapi nadyadri(e)s" cha pars' vake I 
Tesharh tu vesmanah sthanam kalpayech chhilpavit-tamah | 
In the chapter on pavilions (mandapas) various sorts of houses 
are stated to be located in different parts of the five courts into which 
the whole compound is divided. In that chapter houses for various 
purpose; of a family are located in different squares in which a 
single court is divided, and which have been described in the chapter 
called Pada-vinyasa. 

The Brahma-sthana or the central square is stated to be unfit 
fora residential building (line 15). The temple of the family god 
is generally built in this part. Round this are constructed all other 
houses (lines 16-85), such as the house for the master of the family, 
for his wife, for the children, for servants, for cows, horses, fowls, 
etc., for kitchen and dining-hall, etc., for guests, for the library or 



GRIHA-VINYASA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

study, for the daily sacrifices of the upper castes, for amusements and 
music, for the dancing girls, and for all other domestic purposes. 
But the distribution of these several detached buildings is left to the 
choice of the master of the house (line 85). 

(2) Kautillya-Artha-sastra (Chap, xxvi, p. 53) : 

Adi-talasya pancha-bhagah Sala vapi, slma-griharh cha daa- 
bhagikau dvau prati-manchau, antara mani-harmyam cha sam- 
uchchhrayad ardha-talarh, sthunavabandha cha ardhavastukam 
uttamagaram tri-bhagantararh va ishtakavabandha-parsvarh, vamatah 
pradakshina-sopanam gudha-bhittisopanam, itaratah dvi-hastarh 
torana-Sirah, tri-pancha-bhagikau dvau kavata-yogau, dvau dvau 
parighau, aratnir indra-kilah, pancha-hasta-mani-dvararh, chatvaro 
hasti-parighah, nivesardharh has i-nakhah mukha-samas-sankrimo' 
samharyo va bhumi-mayo va I 

' Of the first floor, five parts (are to be taken) for the formation 
of a hall, a well, and a boundary house ; two-tenths of it for the 
formation of two platforms opposite to each other ; and upper storey 
twice as high as its width, carvings of images, an uppermost storey 
half or three-fourths as broad as the first floor ; side-walls built of 
bricks ; on the left side, a staircase circumambulating from left to 
right ; on the right a secret staircase hidden in the wall, a top-support 
of ornamental arches projecting as far as 2 cubits, two door-panels 
(each) occupying three-fourths of the space, two and two cross-bar 
(to fasten the door) ; an iron bolt (indrakila) as long as an aratni 
(24 angulas) ; a boundary-gate. 5 cubits in width, four beams to 
shut the door against elephants ; and turrets (hasti-nakha, outside 
the rampart) raised up to the height of the face of a man, remov- 
able or irremovable, or made of earth in places devoid of water.' 

(3) The plan of a house having a quadrangular courtyard in the centre 
and comprising sixteen rooms (Vdstu-tattva, Lahore, 1853, p. i f.): 

In the north-east corner is stated to be (i) the family chapel (deva- 
griha) ; in the east (2) the room for all things (sarva-vastu-griha), (3) 
the bathroom (snana-griha), and (4) the room for churning milk (dadhi- 
manthana) ; in the south-east corner (5) the kitchen ; in the south (6) 
the bri(vri)tasagriha (?), (7) the saina-griha, (? sayana= bedroom), 
and (8) the lavatory (purisha-griha) ; in the south-west corner (9) the 
library (5astra-griha) ; in the west (10) the study (vidyabhyasa-griha) , (11) 
the dining-hall (bhojana-griha), and (12) the weeping (reception-)-room 
(rodana-griha) ; in the north-west corner (13) the granary (dhanya-griha) ; 
in the north (14) the bedroom or drawing-room (sambhoga-griha, or 

152 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GRIHA-VINYASA 

the house for enjoying oneself in), (15) the store-room (dravya-griha) , 
and (16) the room for invalids or medicine (aushadha-griha). 

In this plan the houses face the north where the residential rooms are 
located. Here north is the best direction, and the west, the east and the 
south come in order of inferiority. This plan is suitable for western and 
northern India where the northern and western winda are salubrious. 

(4) Vdstu-pravandha (n, 25, 26, compiled by Rajakisora Varmma) : 

Stha(Sna)nagaram dis"i prachyam agneyyam pachanalayam I 
Yamyayam sayanagaram nairrityarh sastra-mandiram n 
Pratichyam bhojanagararh vayavyarh pas"u-mandiram | 
Bhanda-kosarh chottarsyam ais"inyam deva-mandiram II 

This is a smaller house with eight rooms. Here the bedroom is located 
in the south, indicating the southern aspect of the house, suitable for 
southern and eastern provinces. 

(5) $ilpa-$astra-sara-samgraha (ix, 24-28) : 

Isanyarh devata-geharh purvasyam snana-mandiram I 
Agneyyam paka-sadanam dravyagararh tathottare || 
Agneya-purvayor madhye dadhi-manthana-mandiram | 
Agni-pretesayor madhye ajya-geham pras"asyate 1 1 
Yamya-nairrityayo(r) madhye purlsha-tyaga-mandiram | 
Nairrityam-bu(?)payor madhye -'idyabhasasya-mandiram 1 1 
Paschimanilayor madhye rodanartharh griharh smritam I 
Vayavottarayo(r) madhye rati-geharh prasasyatell 
Uttaresanayor madhye aushadhartham tu karayet I 
Nairrityarh sutika-geharh nripanarh bhutim ichchhatam 1 1 

(6) Matsya-Purana (Chap. GCLVI, vv. 33-36) : 

I&ine devatagararh tatha santi-griharh bhavet II 
Mahanasam tathagneye tat-par^ve chottare jalam \ 
Grihasyopaskararh sarvarh nairritye sthapayed budhah || 
Ba(n)dha-sthanam bahih kuryat snana-mandapam eva cha I 
Dhana-dhanyam cha vayavye karmma-^alarh tato bahih n 
Evam vastu-vi^eshah syad griha-bharttuh subhavahah II 
In plans (5) and (6) it should be noticed, the bandha-sthana (lit. place 
to bind in ? slaughter-house, vadha-sthana), the bathroom and the 
office (karmma-sala) are directed to be built outside the (residential 
building proper). Both these are nine-roomed houses facing the north-east. 
In this house, rooms are all built in the corner, the four main directions 
being left entirely vacant. This is stated to bring peace, prosperity and 
health to householders. 

153 



GRIHA-VINYASA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(7) Agni-Purdna (Chap, cvi, vv. 18-20) : 

Purvayarh srl-griharh proketam agneyyarh vai mahanasam I 
Sayanam dakshinasyarh tu nairrityarh ayudhasrayam n 
Bhqjanarh paschimayarh tu vayavyarh dhanya-sarhgrahah I 
Uttare dravya-sarhsthanarh aiSanyarh devata-griham II 
Chatuh-salarh tri-alam va dvi-Salarh chaika-salakam I 
Chatauh-sala-grihanaih tu Salalindaka-bhedatah n 
This plan is specially meant for houses in towns, etc. (cf, w. 1-12). It 
recommends the four typical arrangement of houses, namely, rooms being 
built covering the four sides with the courtyard in the middle ; rooms being 
on three sides and the fourth side in continuation of the courtyard being 
left free for light and air ; rooms being built on two sides only ; and rooms 
being built on one side only, apparently without any courtyard. This 
is an eight-roomed plan. 

(8) Griha-vdstu-pradipa (Lucknow, 1901) quotes from some authority 
without mentioning his name the following : 

Atha nripanam shodaSa-griha-rachanopayah | 
Snana-paka-5ayanatra-bhujesva(?)-dhanya-bharhdara-daivata-grihani 

cha purvata(h) syuh I 
Tan-madhyas tu mathana-ajya-purlsha-vidyabhyasakhya-rodana- 

rataushadha-sarva-dhama 1 1 

(9) Kamikdgama (xxxv, 177-191) : 

AiSanyarh pachana-sthanarh brahmananarh vidhiyate I 
(And of the Kshatriyas to the south-east, of the Vaisyas to the south- 
west, and of the Sudras to the north-west, vv. 177-178). 

Purvasyarh bhojana-sthanam agneyyarh tu mahanasam I 
Yamyayam sayana-sthanarh nairrityam ayudhalayah || (179) 
Maitra-sthanarh tu tatra tatra varunyam udakalayah | 
Goshthagararh cha vayavyam uttarasyarh dhanalayah || (180) 
Nitya-naimittikartharh syad aiSanyarh yaga-mandapam I 
Kanji-lavanayoh patrarh prag-udag-di^i vinyaset II (181) 
Antarikshe' pi va chullyulukhali savita api I 

Anna-praanam aryarh^e chendragnyarh cha savitrake II (182) 
Vivasvad-arhSe Sravanam vivado maitra-desake I 
Kshaudram indrajaye vidyad vayau some cha va bhavet II (183) 
VitathopanayoS chaiva pitri-dauvarika pade I 
Sugrive pushpa-dante cha prasuti-griham ishyate II (184) 
Apavatse tu kosah syat kundam ape vidhiyate II (1840) 
Ankanam tu mahendrarhs'e peshani cha mahldharell (185) 
Arishtagaram ishtarh syat tatropaskara-bhumikam 1 1 (186) 
Vahanam dvara-yame syat snana-^ala cha varune I 

154 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GRIHA-VINYASA 

Asure dhanya-vasah syad ayudhad (?) indra-rajake II (187) 
Mitravasas tatha mitre roge volukhalarh matam I 
Bhudare kosa-geharh syan nagamse ghritam aushadhamil (188) 
Jayante chapavatse cha parjanye cha sive kramat I 
Visha-pratyaushadham chaiva kupe deva-griharh bhavet |l (189) 
Riksha-bhallata-someshu bhaved asthana-mandapam II (191) 
This is a plan with the southern aspect. It comprises thirty rooms 
and the arrangement is much like in the Mdnasdra. 

Compare the Mdnasdra (XL, 71-111, antah-sala, or houses in the inner 
court ; 1 12-153, bahih-sala, or buildings forming the part of the palace in 
the outer court, see under RAJA-HARMYA.) 

The internal arrangement of rooms in small dwelling houses is essentially 
like those described above. In the large edifices, palaces and mansions the 
buildings of various storeys are artistically arranged. There are stated to 
be one to seven enclosures in palaces of kings of nine orders. These 
enclosures are surrounded by walls, each of which is furnished with a large 
gateway known as the gopuram. In the innermost court (antarmandala, 
with the gateway called the dvarasobha) are erected the residential palaces 
of the king, queens and princesses, and would be analogous to the Muslim 
harem. In the second circle (antanihara, with the gateway called dvara- 
sala) are built the edifices for the crown prince and other princes, royal 
priests, ministers and such other people. In the middle court (madhyama 
hara, with the gateway dvara-prasada) are built mansions for council 
hall r office rooms, and quarters for the resident members of the council, 
high civil and military officers, resident clerks and others. Within this 
enclosure in some properly secured lanes are built secret residences for the 
king. In the fourth enclosure (prakara, with gateway dvara-harmya) 
are quartered the foregin offices, for negotiating war, peace and such other 
matters. In the fifth court (mahamaryada, with the gateway called the 
great gate-house) are erected military quarters, barracks, and offices of 
smaller importance. The sixth and the seventh enclosures, which are not 
included in the smaller palaces, are reserved for the defence forces, guards, 
royal stables, houses for domestic animals, zoological gardens, etc. which 
are sometimes accommodated in the fifth court also. Prisons, cemeteries, 
cremation grounds and temples of certain fearful deities are quartered 
beyond the palace compounds. Temples are built within each court. 
The pleasure-gardens, orchards, tanks, etc. are suitably built within all 
the enclosures. In each of the enclosures mansions of one to twelve storeys 
are artistically arranged in rows varying from one to ten, while the gate- 
houses are furnished with one to seventeen storeys. 

155 



GRIHA-MUKHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The exact situation of particular private and public buildings is specified. 
Thus it is stated that the main royal chapel should be built in the central 
plot known as the Brahmapitha, and the public audience hall in the quarter 
of Yama, Soma, Vayu, or Nairrita in accordance with the situation of the 
palace in a particular province or city, and so forth. 

For fuller details vide the writer's article A Peep into the Early Hindu 
Architecture, The Modern Review, September, 1934, pp. 282-287. 
GRIHA-MUKHA A door, a facade, the exterior, front or face of 
a building. 

Danarh ghara-mukha | 

(Karle Cave Inscrip. nos. 4, 6, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. vii, pp. 52-53.) 

' A facade implies also the architrave and sculpture round the door 
with the arc over it.' Dr. Burgess. (Karle Inscrip. no. 4, Arch. Surv., 
New Imp. Series, Vol. rv, p. 90, note 4.) 

GRIHA-RAJA (see GUHA-RAJA) A type of building. 

(1) Bhavishya-Purana (Chap, cxxx, v. 32 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 16-17 ; see under PRASADA). 

(3) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVH, vv. 21-22, 26-27 ; see under PRASADA). 
GRIHA-STAMBHA The main column of the house, the pillar 
regulating the whole composition. 

Kudya-stambhe griha-stambhe harmya-garbharh vinikshipet | 

(A/., MI, 132.) 
See more details under STAMBHA. 

GEHA(-KA) A hall or room, a house, a habitation. 

Gopurarh tri-talarh nyasarh lakshanam vakshyate'dhuna I 
Dvi-bhagam bhitti-vistararh paritah Sesharh tu gehakam | 

(A/., xxxni, 489, 492.) 

GOKARNA A measure, the distance between the tips of the fully 

stretched thumb and the ring-finger. 

(1) Talah smrito madhyamaya gokarnas" chapy-anamaya | 

(Brahmanda-Purana, Part i, and anushanga-pada, 

Chap, vn, v. 97.) 

(2) Angushthanamika-yuktam gokarnam iti samjnikam | 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, 22.) 

GOKHLA The niche, a recess in a wall. 

' In the east wall of the mandapa on each side, is a gokhla or niche 
for images, and in that on the south side is a defaced GaneSa.' 

' In the vestibule to the shrine are also small recesses one on each hand.' 

(The Temple at Amarnath, Ind. Ant., Vol. m, 
p. 318, c. I, para. 2, middle.) 

156 







GHATIKA-STHANA. 




GCJ!. 



GOJI. 



W 



GOP AN A OR OVOLO 




GRAHA-KUNOALA. 



Page lie 




HINDU ARCHITECTURE GOPURA 

GOJI The septum of the nose, the bridge-like part between the two 
nostrils connecting the tip of the nose with the surface of the upper 

lip of an image. 

(M., LXV, 105, etc., see the lists of limb 
under TALA-MANA. 
GOTRA A cowstall (Roth. St. Petersburg Dictionary}. 

GOPANA (GOPANAKA) A moulding, the entablature, the beam. 

A moulding of the pedestal generally placed between a cyma and cavetto 
or a cyma and fillet (M., xin, 95, 100, etc. ; see the list of mouldings 
under UPAPITHA). 

A moulding of the base (M., xrv, 32, etc. ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISTHANA). 

A synonym of the entablature (M., xvr, 19, see under PRASTARA). 
A beam-like member of the single-storey ed buildings (M. xrx, 46). 
A similar member of the buildings of two to twelve storeys. 

(See M., xx, 25, etc.) 
A moulding of the entablature : 

Dandikordhve valayam gopanam syat tad-urdhvatah I 

(Kamikdgama, LIV, 34.) 
Cf. Gopanasi tu valabhi-chhadane vakra-daruni | 

(Amarakosha 11, ii, 15.) 

GOPURA Probably originated from Vedic Gomati-pur and epic 
Go-grihar, the fortified extensive cowstalls, and connected with the 
divine bull, thus a gate-house, doors in general, the colossal buildings 
over or near the gate giving entrance to a city, temple, monastery, 

etc. 

Pura-dvaram tu gopuram I 

Dvara-matre tu gopuram I 

(Ibid, ii, 16 : m, iii, 182.) 

(1) P asadat pada-hinam tu gopurasyochchhrayo bhavet I 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLII, v. 22.) 

(2) Prakara-samam mukham avasthapya tri-bhaga-godha-mukhaih 
gopuram karayet *'A turret above the gate and starting from the top 
of the parapet shall be constructed, its front resembling an alligator up 
to three-fourths of its height.' (Kautiliya-Artha-sastra, Chap, xxiv, p. 53.) 

(3) Sala-gopurayos tufigas tv-adhikas chapi mulatah I 
Gopurasyapy-alankaram galalankaravan nayet II 
Sabhakara-siro-yuktarh salakara-sirah-kriyam I 
Mandapakara-samyuktam chuli-harmya-vibhushitam 11 

157 



GOPURA AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Agrato'iindakopetam attalarh salakantare I 
Gopurasya tu vistara-tri-bhagad eka-bhagikam II 
Chalur-bhagaika-bhagas tu pancha-bhagaika-bhagikah I 
Nirgamo gopuranarh tu prakarad bahyato hhavet n 
Gopurarh cha khaluri cha mula-vastu-nirlkshitam I 
Antare raja-devlnarh grihany-antar-mukhani cha II 

(Kdmikagama, xxxv, 124-128.) 

In the above instance, it should be noticed, the gopura or gate- 
house does not belong to a temple ; it is the part of a residential 
house. 

(4) Rdmaydna : vi, 75, 6, etc. : Gopuratta-pra^olishu charyasu I 

(5) Mahdbhdrata : 

m, 173, 3 : Puram gopurattalakopetam I 

m, 207, 7 : Mithilarh gopurattalakavatim I 

These two examples will show that gopura denotes gate-houses of 
palaces and cities, and that they need not necessarily belong to temple 
alone. 

(6) Mdnasdra : 

The gate-house of a town (M , x, 48). 

In connexion with the height of storeys (bhumi-lamba) : 

Devatalayanarh nripanarh sala-gopure (e)vam uttungam I 

(M., xi, 113.) 

In connexion with the base (M., xiv, 415). 
In connexion with the column : 

Prasade mandape vapi prakare gopure tatha I 

(M., xv, 433.) 

In connexion with the windows (M., xxxm, 594 ) 
In connexion with images of Yakshas Vidyadharas, etc. : 

Janv-usrita-hastau gopurodhrita-hastakau I 

Evarh vidyadharah proktah sarvabharana-bhushitah I 

(M., Lvm, 16-17.) 
Chapter xxxm (named Gopura) 1-601 : 

The gate-houses are built for temples and residential buildings 
alike (line i). Hence it will be inaccurate to suppose that gopuras 
are constructed only for temples. In the Mdnasdra, rules are laid 
down for gopuras belonging to residential buildings of various 
descriptions (cf. lines 2-601). 

They are built in front of each of the five courts into which 
the whole compound of a house is divided. The gopura belong- 
ing to the first (antar-mandala) is technically called the dvara- 
sobha or the beauty of the gate (line 8) ; that belonging to the 

158 



THL GATLHOU5E.5 



ALL THESE O *TE BOUSES ARE g 



IN 



SHOULD SLWnYS BE. U&5 m MUMB 
bUINOT, 



04 8 12 16 20 



TYPE 



FOR THE. 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GOPURA 

second court is known as dvara-sala or gate-house (line 9). 
The gate-house of the third court is called dvaraprasada (line 
9), and of the fourth court dvara-harmya (line 9). The gate- 
house of the fifth court or at the furthest boundary (maha- 
maryada) is known as maha-gopura or the great gate-house 
(line 10). 

The gopuras are furnished with as many as sixteen storeys 
(lines 97, 103). They are divided into ten classes (line 564) with 
regard to the number of architectural members designated as 
s"ikharas or cupolas, domes (stupika), side-tower or dome (gala-kuta) 
and vestibules (kshudra-nasi) (lines 536-564). A gopura is thus 
technically called Sribhoga when its sikha (spire) is like sala (hall), 
it has a circular surrounding dome and is furnished with a 
side-tower, four small vestibules and eight large vestibules (lines 
553-564). The remaining nine classes are called respectively 
Srivisala, Vishnu-kanta, Indra-kanta, Brahma-kanta, Skanda- 
kanta, Sikhara, Stupika and Saumya-kanta (lines 556-564) . 

The fifteen kinds of gate-houses referred to above may have 
one to sixteen or seventeen storeys. But the details of five storeys 
only are given, others being left to the discretion of the architects 
and stated to be built in the same way as those five storeys illus- 
trated so minutely. 

The measurement, both absolute and comparative, of length, 
breadth, and height of each storey belonging to each of the fifteen 
kinds of gate-houses is described at great length. The ornaments 
and mouldings of each storey are also given in detail. The central 
or main hall as well as all other rooms, together with different 
parts such as pillars, entablatures, walls, roofs, floors, and 
windows, etc., are described in great detail (cf. lines 2-601). 

(7) Gate-tower (Hampe Inscrip. of Krishnaraya. ! ne 33, north 
face, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, p. 336). 

(8) Tower (Ranganath Inscrip. of Sundarapandya, v. 7, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. in, pp. 12, 15). 

(9) Durggarh cha Tamranagarlm abhito vyadhatta prakaram 
urhnatam udamchita-gopurarh sah ' he surrounded Tarhranagari with 
a wall surmounted by towers.' Hultzsch (Chebralu Inscrip. of Jaya, 
v. 27, Ep. Ind., Vol. v, pp. 147, 149.) 

(10) Gate-tower : 

Vapra-gopura-mayair nava-harmaih ' by erecting new build- 
ings adorned with a wall and a gate-tower.' (Mangalagiri Pillar 
Inscrip., v. 29, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 121, 131.) 

159 



GOPURA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(11) Vapra-gopura-yutair-nava-harmyaih (verse 26 . 
Gopura-prakarotsava-mamtapair upachitarh (verse 27). 
Sikhara-marhtapa-gopuralu (line 116). 

(Kondavidu Inscrip. of Krishnaraya, vv. 26, 27, line 
116, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 236, 237, 321, 322.) 

(12) Vipulotturhga-gopurarh deva-marhdiram ' the temple of god 
(adorned) with lofty towers.' (Krishnapuram Plates of Sadasivaraya, 
v. 56, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 336, 341.) 

(13) ' In it (Taulava) country, on the south bank of the Ambu river 
shining like the Sri-pundra (central sectarian mark on the forehead 
of Vaishnavas) is Kshemapura, like Purandara (Indra's city), with 
glittering gopuras (temple-towers).' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vm, Part i, Sagar 
Taluq, no. 55 ; Transl., p. too.) 

(14) ' Built (in the year specified) the tower of the temple (gopura) 
of the god SivamisVaram udaiyar.' (Ep. Carnal. Vol. ix, Bangalore 
Taluq, no. 1393 ; Transl., p. 26 ; Roman Text, p. 32.) 

(15) ' Brought to the door of the gopura of the mantapa facing 
mukha-mantapa of the god Varadaraja, and having the wood-work done 
by the hand of the carpenter Bevoja's son Chaja-oja, and having the 
door set up and the iron work done by the hand of the blacksmith, 
Anjala Divingoja.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, Malur Taluq, no. 3 ; Roman Text, 
p. 1 86 ; Transl., p. 154.) 

(16) Gate-pyramid, gate-way tower. (Colonel B. R. Branfill. Ind. Ant., 
Vol. ix, p. 117, c. i, p. 119, c. i.) 

(17) Nutana-vagi gopuravarh kattisi gopura-pratishthe suvarna- 
kalasa-pratishthe saha madisl ' erected a new gopura with golden 
finials in the Chamundesvari hill.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. m, Mysore Taluq, 
no. 20 ; Roman Text, p. 6 ; Transl., p. 3.) 

(18) Viras Srl-chika-deva-raya-nripati reme pure samvasan I 
Srirange ramamya-gopuravati kshoni-vadhu-bhushane n 

The heroic king Chikka-Deva Raya, residing in the beautiful 
city Srlranga having (i. e. which is furnished with) splendid gate- 
ways (? gate-house) an ornament to the lady Earth . . . 
It should be noticed that from this instance it s clear beyond doubt 
that gopuras or gate-houses were constructed not only in connexion 
with temples but also as parts (of residential houses and) of the 

city-gates. 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. ni, Malavalli Taluq, no. 61 ; 
Roman Text, p. 126, line n f. ; Transl., p. 62.) 

(19) ' With his approva causing a gopura of seven storeys to 
be newly erected on the eastern side of the holy presence dedicated the 
gopura together with its golden kalas"as, for the services of the god, to 

1 60 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GOSHTHA 

continue as long as sun and moon.' (Ep. Carnal. Vol. in, Nanjangud 
Taluq, no. i ; Transl., p. 95 ; Roman Text, p. 183.) 

(20) Meros srihgam utandhakari-bhavanarh praleya-prithvi-dhritah 

kutarii kim muravairi-nirmmita-maha-dvaravati-gopuram I 
Kim va kim maya-silpa-sara-sahitarh pandudbhavanarh sabha- 
dvararh gunda-chamupa-nirmita-mahashatkarh samujrim- 
bhate II 
Sapta-dvipa-samudra-gotra-dhara-loka-chhanda-rishyasvasarh 

khyataneka-jagan-nidhana-mahanlyas'esha-vastu-sriyam | 
Sararh gopura-nishtha-sapta-bhuvana-vyajena shatko mahan 

ekibhutam ivavabhati satatarh sri-gunda-dandadhipah n 
Rebuilt with seven storeys the gopura, over the doorway (and 
its praise).' 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part i, Belur Taluq, 
no. 3 ; Roman Text, in, p. 103, line 10 f ; 
Transl., p. 45.) 

(21) 'In front of the temple of Harihara-natha, he made a wide 
and beautifu gateway (gopura) of five storeys, ado'ned with golden 
kalasas.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. xi, Davanagere Taluq, no. 36 ; Transl., p. 47, 
Roman Text, p. 77-78 ; see Introduction, p. 32, para. 2, line 3 f.) 

(22) See Views of the second main entrance-gopura, Kailasa- 
natha temple.' (Pallava Architecture, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, 
Vol. xxxiv. Plate v.) 

GOPURAKARA(-KRITI) Buildings of the gate-house shape. 
Kechid vai malikakara kechid vai gopurakri jh n 
Matnnam alayarh kuryad gopurakaram eva tu II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 123, 129.) 

GO -MATH A Literally a monastery for cows, a cowstall. 

Yo dharmma-puriijarh hi vicharya v(b)uddhya so'karayad goma- 

(th)a-namdheyam II 

V(b)atihadiih-pure ramye go-mat(th)ah karitah subhah | 
Asrayah sarvva-jantunarii kailas(s)adrir ivaparah II 
' Caused to be made the place known by the name of Gomatha (?).' 
' This auspicious gomatha (?) was caused to be made in the beautiful 
town of Batihadim. (It is) a shelter to all being like another K.ailas"a.' 
(R. B. Hira Lai, B.A.) 

But fom the context the meaning of go-matha (lit. house for cows) 
seems certain : it is pasu-s'ala or sheds for animals. 

(Batihagarh Stone Inscrip., w. 8, 9, Ep. 2nd., 

Vol. XH, pp. 46-47.) 
GOSHTHA A cowstall. 

161 



GOSHTHA-PANJARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

GOSHTHA-PANJARA (see PANJARA) The niche or recess in the 
wall which ^generally contains a statue, and sometimes serves as 
a decoration. 

GOSHTHI-(KA) A committee, trustees, the managing committee 
of a building, a club-house. 

Members of Panch or committee entrusted with the management of 
religious endowments. Prof. Bilhler. (Ep. Ind., Vol. i, p. 190, note 50 ; 
' trustee,' Dr. Hultzch, Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, p. 338, last line of the text.) 
Cf. Goshthika-bhutena idarh stambham ghatitam I 

(Deogadh Pillar Inscrip. of Bhojadeve of Kanauj, no. A, 
line 9, Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, p. 310, 829, note 5.) 
The managing committee of a building : 

Garishtha-guna-goshthyadah samudadidharad-dhlra-dhlru-darani 
atisurhdararh prathama-tlrthankrin-marhdiram 1 1 

(Bijapur Iriscrip. of Dhavala of Hastikundi, 
v. 34, Ep. Ind., Vol. x, p. 22.) 
GEYA A class of buildings. 

(Kamikagama, XLV, 580-59, see under MALIKA.) 

GRAMA (cf. NAGARA) A village, slightly different from towns and 

cities in size mostly. 

(i) ' The primitive sense of this word, which occurs frequently 
from the Rig-Veda*- onwards, appears to have been village. The Vedic 
Indians must have dwelt in villages, which were scattered over the country, 
some close together, 2 some far apart and were connected by roads. 3 
The village is regularly contrasted with the forest (aranya), and its ani- 
mals and plants with those that lived or grew wild in the woods. 4 The 
villages contained cattle, horses, and other domestic animals, as well 
as men. 5 Grain was also stored in them. 6 In the evening the cattle 
regularly returned thither from the forest. 7 The villages were probably 

1 i, 44, 10 ; 114, i , ii, 12, 7 (perhaps to be taken as in 10) ; x, 146, i, 
149, 4, etc., A-V. , iv, 36, 7, 8, v. 17, 4, vi, 40, 2, etc. , Vajasaneyi-Sarhhita, 
m, 45, xx, 17, etc. 

2 Satapatha-Brahmcna, xui, 2, 4, 2 , Aitar eya Brdhmana, HI, 44. 

3 Chhdndogya-Upanishad, vin, 6, 2 . 

4 Animals: R-V., x, 90, 8, A-V., n, 34, 4, HI, 10, 6, 31, 3, Taittrlya- 
Samhitd, vn, 2, 2, i , Kathaka-Samhita, vn, 7 , xni, i , Vajasaneyi-Sarhhita, ix, 32 , 
PanchavimSa-Brahmana, xvi, I, 9, Saiapatha-Brahmana, in, 8, 4, 16, etc. Plants: 
Tittiriya-Sathhita, v. 2, 5, 5 , vn, 3, 4, i, etc. 

5 A-V., iv, 22, 2, VIH, 7, n, etc. 

6 Bfihaddranyaka-Upanishad, vi, 3, 13 (Kanva, 22, Madhyamdina). 

7 R-V., x, 149, 4, Maitrdyanl-Samhitd, iv. i, i. 

162 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE GRAMA 

open, though perhaps a fort (pur) might on occasion be built inside. 1 
Prcsumaby they consisted of detached houses with enclosures, but no 
details are to be found in Vedic literature. Large villages (mahagra- 
mah) were known.' 2 

(Professors Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, 
Vol. i. pp. 244-245.) 

(2) Kdmikdgama (xx, 4, the definition) : 

Vipralr alhanyair varnair va bhogyo grama udahritah II 
The situation of the village-gods and temples (ibid., xxvi. 1-41). 
The general arrangement (ibid., xxvm, 1-21). 
Further details of the same (ibid. : ix, 1-9 and xxx. 1-22). 
Cf. Jaty-otkarsha-vasenaiva si.hanaih yuktya prakalpayet | 

Utkrishtanarh samlpe syan nikrishtanam tu duratah 11 

(Ibid., xxx, 9.) 

(3) Brahmdnda-Purana (Part i, 2nd anushamga-pada, Chap, vn, 
vv. 105, 111; see also v 94) : 

Khetanarh cha puranarh cha gramanarii chaiva sarvasah I 
Tri-vidhanarh cha durganarh parvatodaka-dhanvinam II 
Nagarad yojanam khetam khetad gramo'rddha-yojanam I 
Dvi-krosah parama-slma kshetra-sima chatur-dhanuh II 

(4) Kautillya-Artha-sdstra (Chap, xxii, p. 45, 46) : 

Sudra-karshaka-prayarh kula-satavararh pancha-sata-kulapararh 

gramarh krosa-dvi-krosa-simanam anyonya-raksham nivesayet I 

Nadl-saila-vana-ghnshti-dari-setubandha-salmali-saml-kshlra-vri- 

kshan anteshu slmnam sthapayet I 

Ashta-sata-gramya madhye sthaniyam chatus-sata-gramya drona- 
mukharh dvi-sata-gramya kharvatikarh dasa-grami-samgrahena 
sarhgrahanam sthapayet I 

' Villages consisting each of not less than a hundred families and 
of not more than 500 families of agricultural people of Sudra caste, 
with boundaries extending as far as a kros"a (2,250 yards.) or two. 
and capable of protecting each other shall be formed. Boundaries 
shall be denoted by a river, a mountain, forests, bulbous plants, 
caves, artificial buildings (? setubandha= bridge) or by trees such 
as salmall sami and milky trees.' 

' There shall be set up a sthanlya (fortress of that name) in the 
centre of eight hundred villages, a drona-mukha ii the centre of 

1 As novv-a-days^^ee Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 144, citing Hugel, Kash- 
mir, 2, 45. 

2 Jaiminiya-Upanishad-Brdhmana, in, 13, 4. 

163 




GRAMA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

four hundred villages, and a samgrahana in the midst of a collec- 
tion of ten villages.' 

(5) Yajnavalka-Sarhhita (n, 167, etc.) : 

Dhanuh-satarh parinaho grama-kshetrantararh bhavet I 
Dve Sate kharvatasya <,yan nagarasya chatuh-satam II 

(6) Manu-Samhitd (vni, 237, etc.) : 

Dhanuh-satarh pariharo gramasya syat samantatah I 
Samyapatas trayo vapi tri-guno nagarasya tu 1 1 

(7) Mahabhdrata (xxii, 69, 35) : 

Ghoshan nyaseta margeshu graman utthapayed api I 
PraveSayech cha tan sarvan sakha-nagareshv-api 1 1 

Ibid, 2, 5, 81 : 

Kechid nagara-gupty-artham grama nagaravat kritah I 

(8) Mdnasdra, Chap, ix (named Grama), 1-538 : 

According to shape the villages are divided into eight classes, namelyi 
Dandaka, Sarvatobhadra, Nandyavarta, Padmaka, Svastika, Prastara 
Karmuka, and Chatur-mukha (lines 2-4). (For the plans represented 
by these eight names, see Ram Raz, Ess. Arch, of Hind., Plates XLIII to 
XLVI, and the writer's illustrations.) The measurement, the ground 
plans, the offerings to the presiding deity, the internal arrangement, 
the laying out of the houses, and the ceremonial opening of new 
buildings are described in order (lines 5-8) : 

Prathamam grama-manam cha dvitiyam padam vinyaset I 
Tritlyarh tad-balirh datva chaturtharh grama(m) vinyaset I 
Paiichamam griha-vinyasam tatra garbharh vinikshipet I 
Shatkam griha-pravesam cha tan-manam adhunochyate I 
The general plan (lines 95-503) : 

Each village is surrounded by a wall made of brick or stone, strong and 
high enough to prevent leaping over (lines 143, etc.). Beyond this wall there 
is a ditch broad and deep enough to cause a great obstruction in the event 
of an attack on the village (lines 143, etc.). There are generally four main 
gates at the middle of the four sides and as many at the four corners (lines 
109-1 10, 144, etc.). Inside the wall there is a large street around the village. 
This street is generally used for circumambulation on some special occasion, 
daily round of the police, open-air drive and similar matters of public 
concern. Two other large streets are those which run from one gate to 
another in the middle of the wall on each side. They intersect each other 
at the centre of the village, where a temple or a hall is generally built for 
the meeting of the villagers. The village is thus divided into four main 
blocks, each of which is again sub-divided into many blocks by streets which 
are always straight from one end to the other of a main block. The 

164 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GRAMA 

ground-floor of the houses on the main streets are used as shops. The 
surrounding street has footpaths and houses only on one side. These 
houses are mainly public buildings, such as schools, colleges, libraries, 
guest-houses, etc. All other streets generally have residential buildings 
on both sides. The houses high or low are always uniform in make (line 
500, see also line 501). Congestion is carefully avoided. The drains or 
jala-dvara (lit. water-passage) are made towards the slope of the village. 
Tanks and ponds are dug in all the inhabited parts and located in such 
quarters as can be conveniently reached by a large number of inhabitants. 
The temples of public worship as well as the public commons, gardens 
and parks are similarly located. The people of the same caste or profession 
are generally housed in the same quarter. 

(9) The following conclusions drawn by Mr. E. B. Havell will correctly 
elucidate some of the points referred to above (Ancient and Medieval 
Architecture of India, pp. 9, 13, 12) : 

' The experience of many generations had proved that they (plans of vil- 
lages) were the best for purposes of defence, and gave the most healthy, 
pleasant and practical layout for an Indian village or town. The easterly 
axis of the plan ensured that the principal streets were purified by the rays 
of the sun sweeping through them from morning till evening : while the inter- 
section of main streets by shorter ones running north and south provided a 
perfect circulation of air and the utmost benefit of the cool breezes.' 

' The Manasara recognizes forty different classes of villages and towns 
according to the extent of the lands owned by them : commencing with a 
village-unit which was 500 dandas, or 4,000 feet square, so that the extent 
of the largest cities would be 20,000 dandas or about 30 English miles 
square. Of this area about one-third was devoted to building space, and 
the rest to the agricultural lands owned by the community. ... In the 
description of Ayodhya given in the Rdmqyana (see under NAGARA), the 
proportion between its breadth and length is as one is to four. Pataliputra 
was about 9 miles in length and ij miles in breadth. Hindu Gaur was 
also a long rectangle, one of the long sides generally faced a lake or river, 
an arrangement which provided bathing facilities for all the inhabitants 
and obviated the necessity of building defensive works all round.' 

' The Manasara gives the maximum width of the main village-streets as 
5 dandas ( a danda, rod or pole =8 feet). The others varied in width from 
i to 5 dandas. The size of a single cottage was reckoned as being 24 feet 
by 1 6 feet to 40 feet by 32 feet. They were generally grouped together by 
fours, so as to form an inner square or quadrangle. The magic of the square 
depends on the fact that it afforded the best protection for the cattle of the 
joint household when they were driven in from pastures every evening.' 



GRAMA-GARBHA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(10) ' Of stone-built walls, such as ancient Indian fortified village or 
town possessed, there is an extant example older than the sixth century 
B. c. in the hill-fortress of Giribraja, near the modern Rajgir, said to have 
been planned by a master-builder called Maha-govinda.' (Rhys Davids, 
Buddklst India, p. 37.) 

( 1 1 ) Grama-nagara-kheda-karwada-madamba-drona-mukha-pattanarh 
galimdam aneka-mata-kuta-prasada-devayatanani galidampppuva-agrahara 
pattanamgalimdam atisayav-appa. . . . | 

' (At Teridala, a merchant-town situated in the centre and the first 
in importance among the twelve (towns) in the glorious Kundi Three 
Thousand, adorned, with) villages, towns, hamlets, sea-girt towns, and 
chief cities, with elegant mansions, palaces and temples, and with shining 
agrahara-towns in the country of Kuntala. . . . ' 

(Old Kanarese Inscrip. at Terdal, line 58, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

(12) ' With myriads of people, practices of virtue, agreeable occupations, 
streams of the (nine) sentiments, pleasure-gardens, separated lovers, splendid 
tanks, full lotus beds, gilded boats for spring festivals, ghatika-sthanas 
(religious centres), the supports of dharmma and mines of enjoyment, 
moats which were as if the sea being overcome had returned here on account 
of the collection of gems, groups of the lotus faces of beautiful women fair 
as the moon (Grama-nagara-kheda-kharwana-madamba-drona-mukha- 
pura-pattana-rajadhani) on whatever side one looked, in these nine forms 
did the Kuntala-des"a shine.' (It should be noticed, that the passage within 
brackets is almost identical with the corresponding passage in quotation 
no. ii above.) 

(Ep. Carnat., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 197, 

Transl., p. 124, para, i, last seven lines ; 

Roman Text, p. 214, line 27 f.) 

GRAMA-GARBHA (see under GARBHA-NYASA) The foundation 
of a village. 

GRAMA- MARGA The village-road (see details under GRAMA). 
Vims'ad-dhanur grama-margah sima-margo daSaiva tu I 

(Brahmand^-Purdna, Part i, 2nd anushamga- 
pada, Chap, vn, v. 112.) 
See further details under GRAMA and NAOARA. 

GRAMA-LAKSHANA The description of the village. 

(A/., ix ; see under GRAMA.) 

GRAMA- VINYASA (see GRAMA) The arrangement of laying-out 
of the village. 

1 66 



i 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GHATA 

GRAHA A crocodile, a shark, an architectural and sculptural 
ornament. 

A kind of mukha-bhadra or front porch, hall, or tabernacle. 

(M., xvin, 302, etc.) 
An ornament of the arch : 

Graha-kinnara-samyuktam I 
Graha-kinnara-bhushitam I 

Graha-puchchhadi-sarvesharh svarna-ratnena bandhayet I 
Grahantarh sarva-ratnais cha puritarii sreni-sarhyutam | 

(M., XLVI, 53, 56, 57, 60.) 

GRAHA-KUNDALA The crocodile-shaped ear-ring for an image. 
Cf. Graha-kundala-bhushanam I (M,, LIV, 8.) 

Anyatha sarva-s"aktinam graha-kundala-bhushimm I (M., LIV, 168.) 
GRlVA (see KANTHA) The neck, the dado ; as a member of the 
pillar it comprises vedika (altar), griva (dado proper), and bhushana 
(ornament). (M., xv, 105-107) 

GRIVA-BHOSHANA The ornament of the neck, a part of the 
pillar. It comprises uttara (fillet), vajana (fillet), gala (dado), and 
vajana (fillet). (M., xv, 111-113.) 

GRAIVEYAKA A necklace for an image. 

Sapta-suvarnna-nishka-kalitam graiveyakam kantimat ' charming neck- 
lace made of seven nishkas of gold.' (Four Inscrip. at Srikurmam, no. D, 
line 6, Ep. Ind., Vol. v, p. 37.) 

GH 

GRATA A pot, jar, pitcher, same as kumbha of the column (see 
STAMBHA), the torus (see Gwilt, Encycl. fig. 870), a type of building, 
a carving on the door. 

Cf. Stambharh vibhajya navadha vahanam bhago ghato'sya bhago'nyah I 

(Brihat-Samhitd, LIU, 29.) 

Dr. Kern's rendering by ' base ' seems rather doubtful. (J.R .A.S., N.S., 

Vol. vi, p. 285.) 

( i ) A type of building which is shaped like a water jar (kalaSa) and is 
8 cubits wide. (Brihat-Samhita, LVI, 26, J.R.A.S., N.S., Vol. vi, p. 319, see 

under PRASADA.) 
A jar-shaped carving (on the doorframe) : 

Sesham mangalya-vihagaih s'ri-vriksha-svastika-ghataih I 
Mithunaih patra-vallibhih pramathais chopaSobhayet II 

(Ibid., LVI, 15.) 
167 



GHATTA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

A type of building : 

(2) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 37, 49, 53 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(3) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 33 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(4) Mdnasdra (XLII, 15-18) : 

Shat-sapta-htangularh vapi sila-stambham visalakam I 
Vrittarh va chatur-a-rarh va ashtasrarh shodasaSrakam I 
Pada-turige'shta-bhage tu trirhs'enordhvam alankritam I 
Bodhlkarii mushti-bandharh cha phalaka-tatika-ghatam I 

(See further context under SILA-STAMBHA.) 

GHATTA (see SOPANA) A flight of steps. 

Sri-vat a-raja-ghatto'yarh nunarh tenatra karitah I 
Brahmandam ujjvalarh kirttim arohayitum atmanah II 
' He indeed caused this flight of steps to be built here, of the 
illustrious Vatsa-raja, in order to make his bright fame ascend up into 
the universe.' 

(Chandella Inscrip. no. B, Deogadh Rock 

Inscrip. of Kirtivarman, v. 7, Ind. 

Ant., Vol. xvni, pp. 238, 239.) 

Cf. Ghat (i) A flight of steps leading to water, (2) a 
mountain pass, (3) a ferry.' 

[Vincent Smith's Gloss, (loc. cit.} to Cunningham's 

Arch. Surv. Reports.] 

GHATIK.ALAYA The building where the water-clock is placed. 

(Cintra Prasasti of the reign of Sarangadeva t 
v. 40, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, pp. 284, 276.) 

GHAT1KA-STHANA The place or building where a clock is 
placed, a religious centre, an institution, a hermitage, a temple. 

(1) Uttankoktya sama-vede vyadhattam ghatikas"ramam 'in accord- 
ance with Uttanka's saying in the Sdma-veda, the ghatikd (hermitage) 
was established.' (It should be noted that this inscription is on the 
door of the Ammanavaragudi in the enclosure of the same Janardana- 

ivami temple.) 

(Ep. Carnat., Vol. v, Part i, Chamunaraya- 

patna Taluq, no. 178, Roman Text, 

p. 462, Transl., p. 202.) 

(2) ' Possessor of thirty-two velama, eighteen cities, sixty-four 
yoga-pithas, and sixty-four ghatikd-sthdnas(?).' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. vr, Shikar- 
pur Taluq, no. 94 ; Transl., p. 61, line 6 f., Roman Test, p. 114, line 4 f.) 

(3) ' He set out for the city of the Pallava Kings, together with 
his guru ViraSarmma, desiring to be proficient in pravachana, entered 

1 68 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE GHAT (-TA) 

into all religious centres (ghatika-sthana) and (so) became a quick (or 
ready) debater (or deputant).' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Ghamunaraya- 
patna Taluq, no. 176, Transl., p. 113, para, last, but one.) 

(4) ' With myriads o." people, practices of virtue, agreeable occu- 
pations, streams of the (nine) sentiments, pleasure-gardens, separated 
lovers, splendid tanks, full lotus beds, gilded boats for spring festivals, 
ghatika-sthdnas(?), the supports of dharmma and mines of enjoyment 
. . . did the Kuntala-desa shine.' (Ibid., no. 197, Transl., p. 127, first 
para, last seven lines ; Roman Text, p. 214, line 30.) 

(5) Mr. Rice is not certain about the accurate meaning of the 
term. He refers to quotations nos. i, 2, 3, 4, and seems to think that 
it means some kind of institution. He says that Mr. Pathak has trans- 
lated it as ' eligious centre ' (Ind. Ant., xiv 34^. Dr. Kielhorn has 
published an article on the subject (Gottingen Nachrichten for 1900, 
Heft 3) with special reference to the use of the word in this inscription 
(quotation no. 3 above) and gives quotations in support of his 
view that it means something like brahma-puri.' It is to be noted 
that Mr. Rice's reference to Ind. Ant. is not accurate, see below. 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Introduct., p. 8, note 2.) 

(6) Dva-trimsat tu velavuramum ashtadasa-pattanamum basa shati- 
yoga-pithamum aruvattanalku-ghatika-sthanarnum (the people of 
the) ' thirty-two seaside towns, the 18 towns, 62 seats of contemplation, 
and 64 religious centres ' (together with . . . held a convocation there). 

(Old Kanarese Inscrip. at Terdal, line 60 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25. 

GHANA Solid, a kind of measurement, thickness. 

Eka-hasta-samarh dirgharh tad-ekangula-vistritam I 
Ghanam ardhangularh proktarh hasta-nischitya yojayet I 

(M., u, 64-65 ; see also xxxin, 311-313, 593-595. 
LX, 17-18 ; LXII, 17, under AGHANA.) 

GHANA-MAN A (see AGH ANA-MAN A) The measurement by the 
exterior of a structure. 

(M., xxxni, 291-330, and 331-335 , see under AGHANA-MANA.) 
Cf. Yogadi-ghana-manam cha kritva bahye navarhsakam I 

(M., xxxrx, 64.) 

GHAT (-TA) (cf. TIRTHA) A landing, a flight of steps leading 
to water, a mountain pass, a ferry. 

(See Vincent Smith's Gloss, to Cunningham's 
Arch. Surv. Reports, loc. cit.) 

169 



GHATANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

GHATANA A bolt. 

Yogyam kavata-yugmarh sre^htham madhyarh cha harmyake | 
Antar vapi bahir vapi ghatanarh kila-samyutam I 

(M., xix, 152-153.) 

GHRITA-VARI (ef. P!THA) The water-pot, a part of the Pitha 
or the pedestal of the Phallus. 

Pithasyordhvc viSale tu chatush-pancha-shad-amsake I 
Ekams'ena cha sesharh tu ghrita-vari-vis'alakam I 

(A/., mi, 24-52.) 

CH 

CHAKRA -The disc of Vishnu, a type of buildings. 

(See Mdnasara LXV, 145 ; LIV, 147 ; XXXH, 125, etc.) 
A class of octangular buildings : 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 20-21 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21, 23, 31-32 ; see under PRASADA). 
In connexion with the foundations : 

Madhye chakrarh tu bhaumena bhajanantarh vinikshipet I 

(M., xn, 137 ; see also 158.) 
GHAKRA-KANTA A class of the eleven-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxxix, 11-15 5 see under PRASADA.) 
GHANDITA A type of storeyed building, a site-plan. 

A class of the nine-storeyed buildings (M., xxvn, 11-12 ; see under 
PRASADA) . 

A site-plan in which the whole area is divided into 64 equal 
squares (M., vn, 9, see, for details, 77-110, cf. also vm 39 ; ix, 166, 
in connexion with the village; xv 390, etc.). 

GHATUR-A&RA (see CHATUSHKONA) A type of building which 
is quadrangular in plan, has one storey and five cupolas. 

(1) Brihat-Samhita (LVI. 28, and Kdsyapa, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 
320, note i). 

(2) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 28, 53; see under PRASADA). 

(3) Bhaoishya-Purana (Chap, cxxx, v. 25; see under PRASADA). 

GHATUR-MUKHA (see under GRAMA and SALA) Literally four- 
faced, a class of villages, a type of building, a kind of hall. 

A class of the four-storeyed buildings (M., xxn 12-23 > see under 
PR As ADA' . 

170 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE CHATUH-SALA 

A class of villages (M., ix, 3, cf. the description n detail, 490-507; see 
also xix, 212). 

A class of salas (hall, mansion, pavilion, etc. M., xxxv, 3-4 ; 
see under SALA). 

Cf. Sarvatobhadra - chatur - mukha - ratna - traya - rupa - tri - bhuvana 
tiiaka-Jina-chaityalayavanu ' the Tribhuvana-tilaka-Jina-chaityalaya 
(temple, which is) auspicious on every side (sarvatobhadra), has four 
faces (chaturmukha), and is the embodiment of the three jewels.' 

The icmple has four doors each of which opens on three identical 
stone images of the Tirtharhkaras Ara, Malli and Munisuvrata.' 

(Karkala Inscrip. of Bhairava II, line 17, 

Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 132, 135, notes n, 

12, and p. 134, note 3.) 

CHATUR- VARGA A set of four mouldings of the door, consisting 
of vedika (platform), pada (pillar), slrah (spire) and sikha (finial). 

(M., xxxix, 154-156, see also xxxin, 591.) 

CHATUR- VARGA-KANTAKA A set of four architectural mem- 
bers. 

(M., xxxin, 531.) 

CHATUSH-KONA Literally four-cornered, a type of quadran- 
gular buildings (see under CHATUR-ASRA) . 

(1) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 25 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Brihat-Samhitd (Chap. LVI, 18, 28 ; see under PRASADA). 

CHATUH-&ALA A house with four salas (rooms or halls), an 
open or closed quadrangle surrounded by buildings on all four sides, 
an enclosed courtyard, a mansion with four rows of buildings. 

(M., xxxv, 35.) 

Evarii chatur-griham proktarh Salayaih kalpayen na va II 
Chatus'-sala-prades'e tu tad-adho-bhumir uchyate II 
Madhya-mandapa-samyuktaih chatur-griham udahritam n 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 5-7, 70, 93.) 
Chatuh-sala-gra(gri) ham sreshtham tri-salarh madhyamam 

bhavet I 
Dvi-salam adhamam proktam hinam syad eka-salakam n 

(Ibid., xxv, 13, 14.) 

Salaika danda khandabha dvi-sala tad-dvayena tu I 
Tat-trayena tri-Sala syat chatuh-sala chatushtayl n 
Saptabhih sapta-Sala syad evam anyam tj klrcitah(-m) n 

(Ibid., xxxv, 34, 35.) 



CHATUH-SlLA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Shad-bhagena maha-ala chatuh-Sala tri-bhagikam I 
Madhya-sala (ir) yugamsena bhadra-sala cha madhyame | 
Anusala cha madhye cha chaika-bhagena bhadrakam i 

(Af., xxvi, 17-19.) 
Chatuh-sa'am (Amarakdsha, n, ii, 6). 

CHATUH-SlLA Literally four pieces of stone, a pedestal. 

Benasyaika(-ka)-sila proktam liriganarh tach-chatuh-sila I 

(M., LII, 177.) 

CHATUH-STALA The fourth storey, its general description 
(M., xii, 89 106), the eight classes (ibid., 1-88). 

(See under PRASADA.) 

CHANDRA-KANTA A site-plan in which the whole area is 
divided into 1,024 equal squares (M., vn, 50 ; see under PADAVINYASA), 
a class of ten-storeyed buildings (M., xxvin, 6-8 ; see under PRASADA), 
one of the five Indian orders (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 65, 66 ; see 
under STAMBHA) . 

CHANDRA-SALA (-LIKA) A room at the top of a house, a kind 
of windows, sky-lights, dormer-windows. 

(1) Tri-chandra-Sala bhaved valabhl the roof must have three 
dormer-windows. (Brihat-Samhita, LVI, 25, 27, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, 
PP- 319. 320.) 

(2) ParsvayoS chandra-sale'sya uchchhrayo bhumika-dvayam I 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIX, v. 38 ; 
see also w. 40, 41, 42, 46.) 

(3) Chandra-salanvita karyya bheri-Sikhara-saihyata 1 1 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, v. 44.) 

(4) Tri-chandra-sala bhaved valabhi u 

Babu-ruchira-chandra-salah shad-vimSad-bhaga-bhumi^ cha i 

(Bhavishya-Purana, Chap, cxxx, w. 32, 34.) 

(5) Hasti-prishtha-yuktam chandra-SalabhiS cha samanvitam (vim- 

annm) II 

(KamikSgama, L, 92.) 

(6) Kuttimo'stri nihaddha bhuS chandra-^ala Sirogriham I 
Commentary : chandradi-dvayam grihoparitana-grihasya uparam adi- 
attal ityadi prasiddasya I 

(Amarakdsha, n, 5, 8.) 

CHAK.ANA \ .ynonym of the pillar (M., xv, 4), a foot 
(K,Lvm, 3, etc.). 

(See under STAMBHA.) 
172 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE CHITRA 

GHARA-VASTU A movable structure, a temporary building. 

Gramadlnarh nagaradinam pura-pattana-khaivate I 
Koshtha-koladi-sarvesharh garbha-sthanam ihochyate I 
Sthira-vastu-kukshi-des'e tu chara-vastu tathapi cha I 

(Af., XH, 168-170.) 

CHARUKA (see RUCHAKA) A type of building. 

Nispatarh charukam vidyat sarvatraiva viseshatah I 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 91 ; see also 88-90, 
under NANDYAVARTA.) 

CHALA-DANDA The movable lamp-post. 

Chatur-asrarh va tad ashtagrarh vrittarh va chala-dandakam I 
Sthira-danda-viSale tu manangula-vasan nayet I 

(M., L, 84-85.) 
GHALA-SOPANA The movable staircase, a ladder. 

(A/., xxx, 130 ; see under SOPANA.) 

CHARA A platform. 

Vrishabhasya lakshanarh samyag vakshyate'dhuna I 
Vimane mandape vapi charopari parinyaset I 

(M., LXII, i, 3.) 

CJHARU-BANDHA A type of base of the pillar. 

Tato janga'.a-b'.mmis ched adhishthanarh prakalpayet I 
Tach chatur-vidham akhyatam iha sastre visesha^ah n 
Padma-bandharh charu-bandharh pada-bandham pratikramam II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 16-17.) 

CHARY A A road which is 8 cubits broad. 
Ashta-hasta-pramana-margah I 

(See Kautillya-Artha-sdstra, under PATHA.) 

GHITRA An image, a painting, a marble, glass, high or full relief. 
A painting (M., xxxv, 402, etc.). 
A kind of marble or glass (Af., LVI, 15, etc.). 
A kind of octangular building (Agni-Purdna, Chap, civ vv. 20-2 1 ; 

see under PRASADA). 

A full relief or image whose whole body is fully shown : 
Sarvangarh drisyamanarh yat chitram evam prakathyate I 

(A/., L, 1-9.) 
See Suprabhedagama (xxxiv, 3) under ABHASA. 

173 



CHlTRA-KALPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

CHITRA-KALPA A head-gear, an ornament foi an image. 
Patra-kalpam chitra-kalpam ratna-ka'parh cha misritam I 
Esharh chatur-vidhaih proktarh kuryad abharanarh budhah I 

(M., L, 3-4.) 

CH1TRA-KARNA A kind of pillar. 

(M., xv, 30 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

CHITRA-TORANA (see TORANA) A type of arches, an ornamental 
arch employed in gods' temples and kings' palaces as well as in 
their thrones, decorated with the images cf demi-gcds, demons, 
lions, leogfaphs, and geese. 

Tad eva (like the Makara-torana) parsvayor madhyarh puritarh 

cha dvayor (makarayor) api I 

Nakra-tunda-prag-grahais cha tayor asya-vinirgataih II 
Vidyadharais cha bhutaischa sirhhe(-hairi)va vyala-harhsakair api I 
Bale srag-dandakair anyair mani-bandhair vichitritam 11 
Chitra-toranam etat syad devanarh bhu-bhritaih varam I 
Ihasu pratimadyasu padah sarvahga-sobhitah II 
Chatur-asrashta-vrittabha kumbha-mandya samyutah I 
Pottika-sahita va syur viyukta va prakirtitah II 
Utsandhad avalambam tu kuryan makara-prishthakani II 

(Kamikagama, LV, 66-70.) 

CHITRA-PATTA A moulding of the pillar, an ornamented band. 

(M., xv, 34 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA and UPAP!THA.) 

CHITRA-SKAMBHA A column with all characteristics of the 
padma-kanta (see below) except the asana (seat). 

(M., xv, 39 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

CHITRAGARA A picture gallery. 

(Rhys David's Buddhist Sutta, p. 68.) 

CHITRABHASA (see ABHASA) A kind of marble, glass, an image. 

(M. y LVI, 15 ; see under ABHASA.) 

Silodhavanarh vi(bi)mbanarh chitrabhasasya va punah I 
Jaladhivasanarh proktarh vrishendrasya prakirtitam II 

(Linga-Purana, Partu, Uttara-bhaga, Chap. XLVIII, v. 43.) 

An image painted on a pata (a piece of cloth, a tablet, a plate) or 
wall (Suprabheddgama, xxxiv. 4; see under ABHASA). 

174 





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HIJWU ARCHITECTURE CHOLI HARMYA 

CHITRARDHA A half relief or an image half of whose body is 
shown. 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxiv, 4, see under ABHASA.) 

CHULLI A building lacking a southern hall, an apartment of three 
divisions, one looking north, another east, and the third west. 
Yamya-hinam chulli tri-salakam vitta-nasa-karam etat | 

(Bnhat-Samhita, LIII, 38, J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 282.) 

CHOLIKA (CHULI) A tower, a head ornament, the capital, 
the top. 

(i^ Antar vapra(h) bahir bhittis cheshtarh dirgham cha chulika I 

(M., ix, 362.) 
In connexion with the joinery : 

Etat suvritta-padanarii tri-karnarh vakshyate'dhuna I 
Tad eva cha tri-karnam syat tri-chulikam eva cha I 

(M., xvn, 104-105.) 

In connexion with the gopura or gate-house. (M, xxxm, 313.) 
In connexion with the mandapa (pavilion) : 

Tad (prastara)-urdhve mandapanam cha chuiika-karna- 
harmyakam I 

(M., xxxiv,j..) 
An ornament for the head : 

Lamba-haram api chulikadibhih I (M., L, 301. 

(2) Stambhasya parikshepash shad-ayama dvi-guno nikhatah chuli" 
kayas chatur-bhagah ' in fixing a pillar 6 parts are to form its 
height on the floor, twice as much (12 parts) to be entered into the 
ground, and one-fourth for its capital.' (Kautiliya-Artha-sastra, Chap, xxiv 

P- 53-) 

(3) Trichuli vaisya-sudranam pancha sapta mahibhritam I 
Brahmananam tathaiva syur ekadasa tu vedikah II 
Pashandasraminarii yugma-samkhya chuli vidhiyate II 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 160, 161.) 
The synonyms of chulika : 

St(h)upika cha ghatah kilo sulakah st(h)upir ity-api I 
Sikha st(h)upir iti khyata chulika cha dvijottamah II 

(Ibid., LV, 207.) 

CHULI-HARMYA (cf. CHULLI) A tower, a room at the top of 
a house, an attic room, the garret. 

(i) Prastarordhve visesho'sti chuli-harmyadi-manditam I 

(A', xxxiv, 499.) 

175 



CHAITYA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(2) Ekaneka-talantarh syat chuli-harmyadi-manditam I 

(M., xxxv, 37, etc.) 

(3) Chuli-harmya-yutam chorddhve chagra-dvara-samanvitam II 
Sorddhva-vastavya-sarhyuktarh chuliharmya-yutam tu va II 
Sa bhumir mandapagara-chuli-harmya-vibhushita II 
Athava mandaporddhve tu chuli-harmya-vibhushitam I 
Taladhisthana-padebhyah kimchid-una-pramanakam 1 1 

(Kdmikdgama, xxxv, 63, 65, 71, 114.) 

(4) Prakara-madhye kritva vapirh pushkarimrh dvararh chatus-salam 
adhyardhantaranikam kumarl-puram munda-harmyarh dvi-talam mundaka- 
dvararh bhumi-dravya-vasena va tri-bhagadhikayamah bhanda-vahinih 
kulyah karayet I 

In the centre of the parapets, there shall be constructed a deep lotus 
pool ; a rectangular building of four compartments, one within the other, 
an abode of the goddess Kumari (?) having its external area i \ times as 
broad as that of its innermost room ; a circular building with an archway ; 
and in accordance with available space and materials, there shall also be 
constructed canals (?) to hold weapons and three times as long as broad.' 

Pandit Shama Sastri's translation, as given above, does not seem to have 
resulted from a happy construction of the text. ' Kumaripura,' munda- 
harmya ' and ' dvi-tala ' (two-storeyed) ' mundaka-dvara ' bear apparently 
some technical meanings which are not well expressed in the translation. 

' Munda-harmya ' might be identical with ' chuli-harmya ' inasmuch as 
' munda ' and ' chuli ' are almost synonyms, both meaning top or summit 
(see KUMARI-PURA). 

(Kautiliya-Artha-Sastra, Chap, xxrv, p. 54.) 

GHAITYA (GHAITYALAYA) Primarily a heap or tumulus, 
implies also a place of sacrifice or religious worship, an altar, 
derived from ' chita ', a heap, an assemblage, etc. ; a monumental 
tomb, a sanctuary, a monastery, a shrine, a temple, the church-like 
Buddhist assembly halls. ' All structures of the nature of sanctuaries 
are chaityas, so that sacred trees, statues, religious inscriptions and 
sacred places come also under this general name.' 
(i) Tasminn Iruga-dandesa-pure charu-silamayam I 
Sri-Kurhthu-Jinanathasya chaityalayam achikarat 1 1 

In this city the general Iruga caused to be built of fine stones a temple 
(chaityalaya) of the blessed Kunthu, the Lord of Jinas.' 

(Vijayanagara Inscrip. of Harihara, 11, v. 28, 
H. S.I.I., Vol. i, no. 152, pp. 158, 1 60.) 
I 7 6 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE CHAITYA 

(2) Parsvanathasya Arhatah Silamayarh chaityalayam achikarat I 

' Caused a temple (chaityalaya) of stone to be built to the Arhat Par- 
svanatha.' 

Cf. Bhavya-paritosha-hetum silamayarh setum akhiladharmmasya I 
Chaityagaram achikarad adharanl-dyumani-hima-kara-sthai- 
ryyam II 

(Vijayanagara Inscrip. of Devaraja II, v. 20, 
H.S.I.I., no. 153, pp. 162, 164, 166.) 

(3) Sri-yogasvaminah. . . . esha Malukaya-chaitya ' this is the 
Malukaya temple of the god Yoga Svamin. ' (Sanskrit and old Kanarese 
Inscrip. no. 170, Asni Inscrip. of Mahipala, line 7 f. ; Ind. Ant., Vol. xvi ; 
p. 175, note 12.) 

(4) Abode chatiyarh The chaitya on (Mount) Arbuda.' 

Miga-sakadakam chetaya The chaitya which gladdens the an- 
telopes.' (Bharaut Inscrip. nos. 5, n, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxi, pp. 227, 228.) 

(5) Kayastha Palhadeva (or Palhaja) . . . built a tank and a 
temple (chaitya) of Sambhu (Siva), and also laid out a garden.' (Narawar 
Stone Inscrip. of Ganapati of Nalapura, vv. 22-25, ^- Ant., Vol. xxn, p. 81.) 

(6) Vesali is beautiful and beautiful are the Udena, Gotamaka, Sat. 
tambaka, Bahuputta, Sarandada, and Ghapala chetiyas.' (Digha-Nikaya, 
n, p. 102, Udana,vi, i.) 

In speaking of these shrines we are not to think of the venerated 
tree.; only, apart from some structure of art and architecture, an enclosed 
terrace at the foot, and, in some instances, a temple near by, the trees them- 
selves standing as natural landmarks of the sacred sites.' (Barua, J. I.R.I., 
p. 126.) 

(7) Boppanapara-namahkas chaityalayam achikarat ' he, having 
another name Boppana, had the Jaina temple made.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. n, 
no. 66 ; Roman Text, p. 60 ; Transl., p. 149.) 

(8) ' They caused to be erected the lofty chaityalaya called Trijagan- 
mahgalam, and set up (the god) Manikya-deva ; also caused to be rapaired 
the Paramesvara-chaityalaya which the blessed ones (Jains) had formerly 
erected in Hullanahalli and granted lands to privide for the offerings at 
the two chaityalayas.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. in, Nanjangud Taluq, no. 64 ; 
Transl., pp. 101, 102 ; Roman Text, p. 193.) 

(9) Caused to be set up afresh the image of the Tirtha(n)-kara Chandra- 
prabha, the god Vijaya and the goddess Jvalini, in the chaityalaya at 
Kelasur, which he had caused to be repaired and painted anew.' Ep. 
Carnat., Vol. iv, Gundlupet Taluq, no. 18 ; Transl., p. 38.) 

( i o) Aneka-ratna-khachita-mchira-mani-kalasVkalita-kuta-koti-ghatitam 
apy-uttunga-chaityalayamarh ' having erected ... a lofty chaityalaya, 

177 



CHAITYA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

with kalasas or towers surmounted by rounded pinnacles set with all manner 
of jewels.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vi, Mudgere Taluq, no. 22 ; Roman Text, 
p. 148, line 12 ; Transl., p. 63, para. 2.) 

( 1 1 ) ' Chaityas or assembly halls These in Buddhist art correspond in 
every respect with the churches of the Christian religion. Their plans, the 
position of the altar or relic-casket, the aisles and other peculiarities are the 
same in both, and their uses are identical in so far as the ritual forms of the 
one religion resemble those of the other.' (Fergusson, Hist, of Ind. and East. 
Arch., pp. 50-51.) 

For architectural details of the existing (Buddhist) chaitya-halls see Fer- 
gusson : 

Plans of Chaity Hall at Sanchi (p. 105, fig. 41). 

Lomas Rishi Cave (p. 109, figs. 43, 44). 

Plan and Elevation of Chaitya Cave at Bhaja (pp no-ni, figs. 

45-47-) 
Plan of Cave at Nasik (p. 115, fig. 49). 

Plan, section, elevation and views of Cave at Karle (pp. 117- 
118, 120, figs. 54, 53, 55, 56). 

Cross Section and View of Caves at Ajunta (pp. 123-125, figs. 
57. 5 8 > 59 and 60). 

Cave at Ellora (p. 128, fig. 63). 

Plan of Cave at Dhumnar (p. 131, fig. 65). 

(12) See Buddhist cave-temples (Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, 
Vol. iv, the chaitya-cave at Kondane, photo, facing the title page). 

(13) 'The word, chaitya, is derived from the root, chin, chayane, 
to collect, and the commentary on Amara, called the Gurubala- 
prabodhika, says that it denotes a building, because it is the result 
of the collection, or putting together of stones (chiyate pashanadina 
chaityam). But it will be seen that in some of the above quotations 
the word is used in close connexion with yupa, the sacrificial post. 
The ceremony performed at the end of the great sacrifices is called 
chayana, i e., the collection of the sacred ashes and other relics and 
the grouping them into the form of a tortoise, or of the bird Garutmat 
as in the sacrifice called Garuda-chayana, chita being the scared things 
thus collected, it appears that the building constructed to preserve 
them for the purpose of worship was called chaitiya or chaitya.' 

' This place of worship, from its connexion with Vedic rites, is 
probably of older date than the devayatanas.' 

' It is, therefore, clear that the Ramdyana alludes to the Brahma- 
nical and not to the Bauddha Chaitya. The commentators are 
not consistent in saying that chaitya means a Brahmanical building 

178 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE CHAITYA-GRIHA 

when it is mentioned in connexion with Rama and his country, a 
Buddhist building when mentioned in connexion with the enemy's 
country, forgetting that Valmiki has peopled Lanka with Vedic 
students and sacrificers without ever mentioning the Buddhists.' 

'No. 7 (Rdmayana, v. 12, 17) mentions chaitya trees so called 
probably because instead of constructing a building it was also the 
custom to plant trees with revetment round their stems where the 
chayana ceremony was performed. In course of time, however, all 
revetted trees began to be called chaitya trees ; and to such trees, which 
are generally found in all villages Kalidasa evidently alludes when 
describing the Dasarna country in his Meghaduta. Mallinatha quotes 
Visva (chaityam ayatane Buddhavandye choddesapadape).' 

' The ceremony performed after the burning of dead bodie< is 
samchayana, in which, after collecting the bones, a portion of the ashes 
is grouped into a human form and bas"ali or food offered to it. I take 
the smaSana-chaitya alluded to in no. 9, to be a monumental building 
erected on such spot in memory of departed kin^s and other grea. 
personages.' 

' It may, therefore, be presumed that in accordance with custom 
a cha tya was built in memory of Buddha, and that his disciples 
began to worship and multiply it by taking his funeral relics to 
different parts of the country while the sacrificial chaityas of the Brah- 
mans became scarce owing to the opposition made by the Bauddhas 
to animal sacrifices, and the Brahmans themselves having prohibted the 
agvamedha for the Kaliyuga.' 

' It will be seen that the Rdmayana mention; temple i and idolatry ; 
but these seem to be of old date in India, though not so very prevalent 
as at present. Stenzler's Gautama Sutra (9, 66) prescribes the going 
round of Devayatana ; griha-devatas or household gods are mentioned 

(in 5 '3)-' 

(Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, pp. 21-22.) 

(14) ' Properly speaking it is not temple (chaitya-griha) but the dagaba 
inside it that is called a chaitya. In a secondary sense it is used by Jainas 
and Buddhists, however, to denote a temple containing a chaitya, and 
is also applied in Buddhist books to a sacred tree as well as to a stupa.' 

' Hence it is closely connected in meaning with stupa. Ghaityas were 
known before Buddha's time (see J. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. vn, p. 1001, cf 
Alwis' Buddhism, pp. 22, 23).' Dr. Burgess. (Ibid., pp. 20, 21, notes i, 2.) 

CHAITYA-GRIHA (see STUPA-GRIHA) A dome-like construction in 

tope, supported by pillars. 

(W. Geiger : Mahavarhia, p. 295.) 

179 



CHERIKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

CHERTKA (cf. PANDI-CHERI) A village, a town, a fortified capital 
city on the hill top and on the banks of a river or sea, flourishing 
and well inhabited by people of Brahman and other castes and 
containing royal residence and king's palace. 
A suburb town inhabited by the weavers : 

Gramadinam samlpam yat sthanaih kubjam iti smritam II 
Tad eva cherika prokta nagari tantuvaya-bhuh 1 1 

(Kamikdgma, xx, 15, 16.) 

According to the Mdnasdra, it is a prosperous capital city connected 
with rivers and hills, and well fortified : 

Nadyadi-kananopetam bahu-tlra-janalayam I 
Raja-mandira-sarhyuktarh skandhavara-samanvitam I 
Pars' ve chanya-dvi-jatnlam grihantas cherikoditah I 

(M., x, 85-88.) 

CHAUCHALA(-VADI) A building with four sloping roofs. 

' In the tiger-face chavadi (i.e. chauvadi) he set up images of his family 
gods (named).' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part i, Channarayapatna Taluq, no. 160 
Transl., p. 196 ; Roman Text, p. 451.) 

In East Bengal also the term is used in the same sense, but there is 
generally denotes straw-built houses. 

GHH 

CHHAT(-T)RA(-I) (see SATTRA) Free quarters in connexion with 
temples, finial or spire of a building. 

(Fergusson, Hist, of Indian Architecture, Vol. i, p. 279.) 

(1) See Inscriptions from Northern Gujarat (no. xvii, line 6, and no. xrx. 
line 6, Ep. Ind. Vol, n pp. 30, 31). 

(2) ' And as a work of dharma, (I) wish to erect a chhatra in the 
presence of the god Vinayaka . . . and erecting a chhatra for daily 
feeding of six Brahmans in the presence of the god Vinayaka.' (Ep. 
Camat., Vol. x, Mulbagal Taluq, no. 259 ; Transl., p. 132.) 

(3) ' And (he) presented the land to AmaresVara-tirtha-Srlpada, for 
a chhatra (perhaps by slip Mr. Rice puts in chatra, because in the 
text, the reading is chhatra) in connexion with this matha, providing 
for i yati, 4 Brahman pilgrims, and 2 cooks altogether 7 persons, from 
the proceeds of cultivating the land.' 

From this passage it is clear beyond doubt that ' chhatra ' and ' sattra ' 
point to the same object, namely, a building or buildings constructed in 

1 80 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE CHHELA (PHELA) 

connexion with a temple, matha, or chaityalaya to provide lodgings and 
food gratis to deserving persons. 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. vi, Koppa Taluq, no. 27 ; 
Transl., p. 80, Roman Text, p. 274, para. 

2, line 5 f.) 

CHHANDA (see VIMANA-CHHANDA) A building, a door, a phallus. 
The temple (prasada) named vimana belonging to the chhanda class. 

(Brihat-Sarhhitd, LVI, 17, 22.) 
A class of buildings (Kdmikagama, XLV, 20). 

Karne Sala sabha madhye chhandarh syach chhandam eva tat || 

(Ibid., L, 13 and 7.) 

A type of kuta-koshtha or top-room (ibid., LV, 129, 123-127). 
A class of buildings or top-rooms (M., xi, 104-107 ; xix, 1-5 ; xxx, 
175-177 ; xxxiv, 549-552 ; see under ABHASA.) 
A class of doors (M., xxxix, 28-35 ; see under ABHASA). 
A type of the phallus (M., LII, 49 ; see under ABHASA). 

CHHANDA-PRAKARA The court or the enclosure of the chhanda- 

class of buildings. 

(M, xxxi, 24.) 

CHHANNA-VIRA A sculptural ornament. It passes over shoulders 
and hips, crossing and fastening in the middle of the breasts and the 
back of an image. 

(See Rao, Elements of Hindu Iconography, I, xxxi, 
M. F. A. Bulletin no. 152, p. 90, and 
Coomaraswamy F. A. 0. S. 48, 3, p.255.) 
Ordhva-kaye cha haradi parsvayor bala-lambanam | 
Madhye dama cha lambam syach chhanna-vlram iti smritam II 

(M., ^35-36.) 

CHHELA (PHELA) (see GARBHA-MANJUSHA) The vault of the 

foundation-pit. 

Hemakarena tamrena chhelam va karayed budhah II 
Chhelotsedham tri-padarh syad apidhanasya samuchchhrayah II 
Ghhela panchangula prokta grihanam nadhika bhavet n 
Phela is perhaps the same as ' chhela ' 

Shad-angula(m) pramanam tu chatur-vim^angulantakam I 
Bhajanasya samantat tu savakasa-samanvitam n 
Tathasmana chestakaya phelakaram tu garttakam n 

(Kdmikagama, xxxi, named Garbha-nyasa- 
vidhi, 6, 7, 12, 74, 75.) 

181 



JAGATA (-TI) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



JAGATA(-TI) (cf. JATI) A moulding of the base, or of the 
pedestal of an idol or phallus, a class of buildings, platform over ? 
well. 

(1) Pi^hika-lakshanam vakshye yathavad anupurvas"ah II 
Plthochchhrayarh yathavach cha bhagan shoda'a karayet I 
Bhumavekah pravishtah syach chaturbhir jagati mata II 

(Matsya-Purarfa, Chap. CCLXII, vv. 1-2, see also 4-5.) 

(2) Sikharena samarh karyam agre jagati (ti)-vistaram I 
Dvi-gunenapi karttavyam yatha-Sobhanurupatah II 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLII, v. 5.) 
Jagatl-vistararddhena tri-bhagena kvachid bhavet || 

(Ibid., Chap, civ, v. 6.) 

(3) Pravrita jagati karyya phala-pushpa-jalanvita n 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, v. 47.% 

(4) Pada-bandha-vimane tu geha-garbhopari nyaset | 
Pratibandha-vimane tu vriter upari vinyaset II 
Vriter upari vipranarh kumudopari bhubhritam I 
Jagaty-upari vaiSyanam Sudranarh padukopari u 

(Kamikdgama, xxx, 91, 92.) 

(5) A moulding of the base (adhishthana) : 

Jagati tu shad-amSa syad dvi-bhagardha-dali kramat 1 1 
Shad-bhaga agati prokta kumudarh paficha-bhagikam II 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 19, 24.) 

(6) A class of buildings (Ep. /</., Vol. i, pp. 165, 277 ; Ind. Ant.. 
Vol. xrv, p. 161, note 22). 

JAftGAMA-(BERA) The movable idol. 

Sthavaram jangamam chaiva dvi-vidharh beram uchyate I 
Jangamarh chotsavam bhavet sarvarh sthavaram ishyate I 

(M., LI, 17-18.) 
Evam tu chotsavadinam sthavaram jangamadinah(-nam) I 

(M., LXIV, 93.) 

The leg of an image, the pillar in a building, a column, 
(i) A synonym of the pillar (M., xv, 4; see under STAMBHA). 
A pillar in an upper storey (M., xxvi, 55 ; see under STAMBHA). 
A part of the leg from the ankle to the knee : 

Janu-taram Sararhsarh syaj jangha-taram yugaihs'akam | 

(M., LVII, 33, etc.) 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE JANMA-NIRGAMA 

(2) Jahghochchhrayam tu karttavyarh chatur-bhagena chaya'am | 
Janghayam(-yah) dvi-gunochchhrayaih manjaryyah kalpayed 

budhah II 

(Agni-Purdna, Chap, v, 423.) 

(3) rjrddhva-kshetra-sama-jangharddha-dvi-gunarh bhavet II 
Tad-dvidha cha bhaved dhitir jangha tad vistararddhaga II 
Tad-vistara-sama jangha sikharam dvi-gunam bhavet II 

(Garuda-Purdna, Chap. XLVII, vv. 
3, 12, 17 ; see also v. 13.) 

JANGHA-PATHA (see RAJA-PATH A) The footpath, a road, a 
street, a lane. 

Jangha-pathas chatush-padas tri-padas cha grihantaram I 
Dhriti-margas turddhva-shashtharh kramasah padikah smritah n 
(Brahmanda-Purana, Part I, 2nd anushamga-pada, Chap. 
VH, v, 115; see also w. 1 13, 1 14 under RAJA-PATHA.) 

JAJNA-KANTA A class of the five-storeyed buildings. 

(M., XXIH, 41 ; see under PRASADA.) 

JANAKA(JANA-KANTA) A class of the eight-storeyed and of 
the twelve-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxvi, 39 ; see under PRASADA.) 

A class of the twelve-storeyed buildings once prevailing in the ancient 
country of Janaka (Mithila) : 

Tad eva maha-sala tu dvi-bhagarh madhya-bhadrakam | 
Jana-kantam iti proktam sYeshtho ravi-talanvitam I 

(M., xxx, 35-36 ; see also 33-34, under MAGADHA-KANTA.) 
JANA-CHAPAKRITI A type of bow-shaped arch. 

Vrittarh vatha tri-yugmam va chardha-chandrakritis tatha I 
Jana-chapakritir vapi yatheshtakara-toranam I 

(M., XLVI, 31-32.) 

JAN MAN (cf. UPANA) The base, the plinth, the basement. 
The basement (A/., xi, 125, 126 ; xn, 202, etc.) 

The plinth of the pedestal (M., xin, 5, etc., see the lists of mouldings 
under UPAPITHA). 

The plinth of the base (M., xiv, 16, etc., see the lists of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA.) 

JANMA-NIRGAMA (-NISHKRAMANA) The projection or ex- 
tension of the base or basement. 

(M., xin, 138 ; vi, 106, etc.) 

183 



JAYADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

JAY ADA (see UTSEDHA) A height which is \\ of the breadth. 

(M., xxxv, 22, 26, and Kamikagama, 
L, 24 f., see under ADBHUTA.) 

JAYANTA-PURA A town, a village, an establishment for pious 
and learned Brahmans. 

(Kamauli Plates of the Kings of Kanauj, no. U, 
line 28, Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, pp. 128, 129.) 

JAYANTI(-I) A column, a post, a moulding, a flag, a banner. 

(1) A synonym of the balance-post (tula-danda) : 

Tula-dandarh jayanti cha phalaka paryaya-vachakah | 

(M, xvi, 48.) 

(2) A part of the column : 

Mudrikach cha tuladhikya jayanti tu tulopari II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 108 ; see also 105-109, under STAMBHA) 

(3) A moulding of the column : 

Tula-vistara-tarochcha jayanti syat tulopari 1 1 
Jayanti vams'aka jneya tulavad anumargakam II 

(Kamikagama, LJV, 13, 16.) 

JAYANTIKA(-KA) A post, a moulding, a flag, a banner, the 
parapet staff. 

In connexion with the entablature (prastara) : 

Etat prachchhadanat sthane dandam chopari sayayet I 
Etad dvara-vas"ad dirgharh tasyopari jayantikam I 
Daru-dandam s"ila vapi ishfakena jayantikam I 
Athava daru jayantis cha sila chet saha-dandakam I 
Vina dendam tatha kuryat pashanam phalaka nyaset I 
Etat sarvalaye kuryad deva-harmye viseshatah I 

(M., xvi, 124-129.) 
Adhara-patta-samyuktam sa-tulam tu jayantikam I 

(Ibid., xvi, 149; see M., xxxni, 372-374.) 

JAYA-BHADRA A pavilion with twenty-two columns. 

(Suprabhcd&gama, xxxi, 102, too ; see under MANDAPA.) 

JAYA-STAMBHA A pillar of victory (see under STAMBHA). 
JAYALA A type of pavilion. 

(M., xxxiv, 294 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

JAYAVAHA A pavilion with fifty pillars. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 9 ; 
see under MAN^APA.) 

184 




JALA DVARA, 



L 



J 



JAVA STAMBHA 



r IHAPt Of WATER RETAINING WALL 
\ <S PCNTA QONAU OR LIKE THE 
v PALM Of HUMAN H*ND. 



JA-* GARBMA 



TOP SURFACE OF 
PEDESTAL JAGATI. 




JAGATI AS TOP 
MOULDING 



PART OF A PEDESTAL. 
JAGATL 



Page JS4 



HINDU 'ARCHITECTURE JALA-STHALA 

JALA-GARBHA (see GARBHA) The water-foundations, the founda- 
tion of a tank, etc. 

(M., xii, 184-189 ; see under GARBHANYASA.) 

JALA-DURGA (see under DURGA) A water-fort. 

(1) Kautiliya-Arlha-sastra (Chap, xxiv, para, i, p. 51 ; see under 
DURGA). 

(2) See Sukraniti under DURGA. 

JALA-DVARA The water-door, a gutter, a drain. 

Jala-dvararii punas tesharh pravakshyami nivesanam II 
In the three following lines the positions of the water-door are described. 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 167.) 
A gutter : 

Kuryat tu bhitti-mule tu jala-dvaram yatheshta-dik I 

(M., xxxi, 99 ; see also ix, 310-312, under DVARA.) 
Jala-dvararh yathasara(-salarii) nimna-des'e prakalpayet I 

(M., xxxvni, 8 ; see also 40.) 

JALA-DHARA The gutter-like part of the pedestal (pitha) of the 
phallus. 

Nala-tara-tri-bhagaikarh jala-dhara-vialakam I 

(M., Lin, 23, etc.) 

JALA-PURITA-MANDAPA A detached building where water is 
preserved for bathing, washing, etc. 

Parjanye majjanarthaya jala-purita-mandapam I 

(M., xxxu, 56, etc.) 
JALA-STHALA A reservior of water. 

In connexion with the three-storeyed buildings : 
ParitaS chaika-bhagena kuta-Saladi-bhushitam I 
Tasyantas chavritarhsena chordhva-dee jala-sthalam I 

(M, xxi, 58-59.) 
In connexion with the four-storeyed buildings : 

Ekena karna-harmyadi tasyantar jala-(tat)-sthalam I 

(M., XXH, 78, etc.) 
In connexion with the nine-storeyed buildings : 

Sreshtham nava-talam proktam visva-kantam udiritam I 
Tad-urdhve dvyamsa-manena vakshye chordhve jala-sthalam I 

(M., xxvn, 33, 34, etc.) 
In connexion with the prakara buildings : 

Shad-angulavasanam syat kramat (? bhramat) sarve jala-sthale I 

(M., xxxi, 95.) 



JALANTA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

JALANTA Foundations reaching the underground water in con- 
nexion with buildings. 

(1) Khanayed bhu-talam sVeshtham purushanjali-matrakam I 
Jalantam va Silantam va purayed valukair jalaih 1 1 

(M., xvm, 6-7.) 

(2) Sarhgraha-tiromani, by Sarayu Prasada (xx, 23) quotes from Man- 
el ayva : 

Jalantam prastarantarh va purushantam athapi va I 
Kshetrarh samfodhya chodhritya Salya-sadanam arabhet I 

(3) Vastu-yaga-tattva by Raghunandana quotes from the Linga(-Pu- 
rdna) without any reference : 

Agratah s"odhayitva tu bhumirh yasya puroditam I 
Dvi-hastarh chatur-hastarh va Jalantam vapi Sodhya cha II 

JALA-SUTRA(-SGTRADA) A channel, a hydraulic engineer. 

(1) ' The engineers of the Belala Kings did not confine their attention 
to building alone, but irrigation works were also taken in hand. Tradition 
has it that the waters of the Yagachi which flows through a valley distant 
10 miles and divided by a range of hills from the Halabid valley, were 
brought by a channel to supply the capital with water and fill the neighbour- 
ing tanks ; a deep cutting on the Hasan-Bailur road at the i6th mile, works 
the spot where the channel crossed the saddle of the hills.' (Ind. Ant. Vol. i, 
p. 44, c. 2, para. 2 middle.) 

(2) ' Where as we constructed a new dam in the Kaveri and led a channel 
therefrom, and the Brahmans of Harahu made with us the following agree- 
ment in order that the channel might be brought within the limits of their 
village Harahu.'- Ep. Carnat., Vol. in, Seringapatam Taluq, no. 139 ; Transl. 
p. 33, line 3 , Roman Text, p. 77, line 5.) 

(3) Jalandarava madisi devahge ' erecting a jalandara (?) for the 
god ' (? temple). (Ep. Carnat., Vol. in, Malavalli Taluq, no. 64; Roman 
Text, p. 147, line 3 ; Transl., p. 63.) 

(4) ' Vira-prataya Bukka-Raya in his court gave an order to the 
emperor (or master) of ten sciences (daSa-vidya-chakra-varti) , the 
hydrauUc engineer (jala-sutra-dd) Singaya-bhatta, that they must 
bring the Henne river to Penugonde and that Singaya-bhatta con- 
ducting a channel to the Siruvera tank gave to the channel the name 
Pratapa-Bukka-Raya mandala channel and had this Sasana written.' 

' An interesting case is recorded in this inscription : when the 
prince Bukka Raya was Governor of Penugonda in A. D. 1388, he 
ordered the hydraulic engineer to bring the Henne river (the modern 

186 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE JATI-SALA 

Pennar) to the city. Accordingly a channel was made from Kal. 
ludi to the Siravera tank, 10 miles to the north. How the water 
was carried beyond that does not appear. An amusing accounr 
is given of the accomplishments of the engineer who was mastet 
of ten science ' 

Jala-sutra-svara-Sastre rasa-vaidye satya-bhashayam I 
Rudraya-singari-bhavatah sadri"ah ko va mahi-tale Surah u 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, Goribidpur Taluq, no. 6 ; Roman 
Text, p. 259 f. ; Transl., p. 212 ; Preface, p. 2. 

(5) : Saying to them ; ' you must make this channel " they sent for 
the last Voja's son Peda-Bayiraboja, and gave them the contract. 
And they dug a channel from before Peda Nandisiyuru and carrying 
it on below led it so as to fill the tank.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. x, Bagepalli 
Taluq, no. 10 ; Roman Text, p. 285 ; Transl., p. 232.) 

JATI A class of buildings, a door, a type of top-room, a phallus, a 
kind of measure. 

Kesaryadi-prasada-jati ' the Kesari and other c'asses of buildings.' 

(Prasada-Mandana-Vastu-sastfa of Sutra-dhara- 
Mandana, vi, MS. Egg. 3147, 2253, fol. 26 b.) 

A class of building : 

Karna-madhye'natre kuta-koshthe panjara-sarhyutam | 
Shad-vargaka-samayuktam jatir esham hy-anarpitam II 

(Kamikdgama, XLV, 19 ; see also 7 and cf. L, 9, n.) 

A class of kuta-koshtha or top rooms (Kamikdgama, LV, 123-128 ; 
see under KARNA-KUTA) . 

A class of buildings (M., xi, 104-107 ; xix, 1-5 ; xxx, 175-177 ; xxxiv, 
549-552 ; LV, 51 ; see under ABHASA). 

Cf. Kechid bhadra-viseshena jatir uktarh puratanaih I 

(M., xxxiv, 553.) 

A class of doors (M., xxxix, 28-35 ; see under ABHASA). 

A type of the phallus (M., LII, 49 ; see under ABHASA). 

JATI-PRAKARA The enclosure- (buildings) of the Jati class. 

(M., xxxi, 35 ; see under PRAKARA.) 

JATI-SALA (see JATI) The sala (hall, mansion) of the Jati class. 
Evarh tu jati-sala cha kuryad-dharmya-vaSat sudhih I 

(A/., xxxi, 20, etc.) 




JATI-HARMYA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

JATI-HARMYA The buildings of the Jati class. 

Vaksh'harh jati-harmyanam ayadi-lakshanarh kramat I 

(A/., xxx, 169, etc.) 

JALA-(KA, KA) (cf. VATAYANA) A latticed window, an ornament, 
(i) Mdnasdra : 

In connexion with the single-storeyed buildings : 

Yat tan namantaralam chordhve nasika Jala -pan] aram vapi | 

(M., xix, 215.) 
In connexion with the seven-storeyed buildings : 

Nana-prastara-sarhyuktarh jalakabhir alankritam | 

M., xxv, 37.) 
In connexion with the nine-storeyed buildings : 

Toranady-anga-nTdais" cha jalakadi-vibhushitam I 

(M., xxvii, 44.) 
In connexion with the gopuras (gate-houses) : 

Naranam jalakarh sarvam devanam api yogyakam I 

(M., xxxm, 572.) 
In connexion with the mandapas (pavilions) : 

Tad eva cheshta-dig-vasam kuryad evarh tu jalakam I 

(M., xxxiv, 205.) 
In connexion with the door : 

Jayante va mrige vapi chopadvaram tu jalakam I 

(M., xxxvm, 19.) 

In connexion with the doors of the kitchen (latticed windows 
are provided for the easy passage of smoke) : 

Tad-urdhva-gamanarthaya kshudra-jalaka-samyuktam I 

(M., xxxvm, 36.) 
Devanam harmyake sarvam madhya-dvararh tu jalakam i 

(M., xxxix, 138.) 
Jalakadhika-hinarh syad sYi-hlnam artha-nas"anam I 

(At., LXIX, 35.) 

I An ornament for the feet : 

Ratnahguliyakau hastau padam jala-saratnakam | 

(M., LI, 39.) 

Chamundi jvala(? jala)-mauli cha bhairavi pibarala- 
kam(-ka) i 

(M., LIV, 136.) 

(2) Manu-Sarhhitd (via, 132, etc.) : 

Jalantara gate-bhanau yat sukshmam driSyate rajah I 

(3) R&mayana (Cock) : 

V, 2, 49 : (Purlrh) s"ata-kumbha-nibhair jalair gandharva-nagaro- 
pamam I 

1 88 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE JALA- (K A, KA) 



V. 2, 53 

V. 4, 6 

V. 8, i 

mam I 

V. 9, 22 

V. 54, 22 

HI, 55, 10 



Maharha-jambhu-nada-jala-toranam (Lankam) I 

Vajra-jala-vibhushitaih griha-meghaih I 

Mahad vimanam . . . pratapta-jambu-nada-jala-kritri- 

(Salarn). . . hema-jala-virajitam I 
Kanchana-jalani. . . (bhavanani) I 
Hema-jalavritaS chasams tatra prasada-pahktayah I 



(4) Mahdbhdrata : 

I. 185, 19-20 : Prasadaih sukritochchhrayaih I 

Suvarna-jala-samvritair mani-kuttima-bhushanaihl 
I. 134, 14: Mukta-jala-parikshiptam vaiduiya-mani-s'obhitam | 

Sata-kumbha-mayam divyarh prekshagaram upagatam I 
I. 128, 40: Gavakshakais tathajalaihl 
II. 34. 2J : (Avasatham) . . . suvarna-jala-samvitan I 

(5) Silpa-sdstra-sdra-samgraha iix. 23) : 

Eka-bhagas chatus stambhaS chatur-dvarah sa-jalakah I 
Chhadya-ghamta-yuto mada-Sobhitah ^ridharamatah I 

(6, ( Kdmikdgama (LV, 94, 158-163) : 

Jalakarh palakam sailam aishtarh kudyarh cha ishyate I 
Jalakair bahubhir yuktam jalakam kudyam ishyata || (94) 
The seven kinds of the latticed windows : 
Riju-jalakam adyam syat gavaksham kufijarakshakam I 
Go-mutram ganika-patra'm) nandyavartam cha saptadha II (158) 
Riju-kampa-yutam yat tu riju-jalakam uchyate I 
Karna-gatya yada srotram gavaksham iti kirtitam II (159) 
Tad eva chatur-as'rottharh kufijaraksham iti smritam I 
Vidig vaktra-gatam drishtirh go-mutram iti kirtitam II (160) 
Mulam apy-agra-gulika-mridu-bhitty-antararchitam I 
Nana-chchhidra-samayuktarh ganika-jalakam bhavet II (161) 
Patrair vichitram randhrarh patra-jalakam ishyate I 
Patra-sutra-gatarh randhram pradakshinya-kramena tu II (162) 
Nandyavartam iti proktam vedy-urdhve Jalakarh nayet I 
Svayambhuvadi lihge tu yathakamam prayojayet II (163) 
The situation of latticed windows : 
Jalakam cha kavatam cha bahye bahye prakalpayet I 
Sarwatah kudya-sariiyuktam mukhya-dhamatra-klrtitam 1 1 
Ghatur-dig-bhadra-samyuktam dvara jalaka-Sobhitam II 

(M., XLI, 8, 26.) 

The ornaments and component parts of such windows : 
Jalaka-stambha-kudyanga-nasika-torananvitam I 
Prastara-kshudra-sopanarh sopanadi-samanvitam 1 1 

(M., XLII, 25.) 

189 



JALA-GAVAKSHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(7) Suprabheddgama (xxxi, 52, etc.) : 

Vedika-jalakopeta (parvatakritih, a building). 

(6) ' He, the emperor of the south, caused to be made of stone for 
Vijaya-Narayana (temple) latticed window (jalaka-jalakam), secure door- 
frame (kavatam), door-lintel, kitchen, ramparts, pavilion, and a pond 
named the Vasu-deva-tirtha. ' 

' The pierced stone-windows, which form one of the most beautiful 
features of the Belur temple, may be of a later date, about 1200 (refers 
to the inscription quoted above) and due to Ballala II.' 

In connexion with the same windows, Mr. Rice quotes Mr. Fergusson : 
' The richness and variety of pattern displayed in the windows of the 
porch are astonishing. They are twenty-eight in number, and all arc 
different . . . The pierced slabs themselves, however, are hardly so 
remarkable as the richly-carved base on which they rest, and the deep 
cornice which overshadows and protects them.' 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part i, Belur Taluq 
no. 72 ; Transl., p. 61 ; Roman Text, 
p. 61, line 7 ; Introduction, pp. xxxvi, 

XXXVIII, XXXIX.) 

(7) See bars on the perforated windows. (Chalukyan Architecture, Arch. 
Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, Plate xxxvn, fig. 2.) 

(8) See samples of the perforated windows. (Ibid., Vol. xxm, Plate 
LXXIV, ibid., Vol. xxix, Plate XLH.) 

(9) See 264 kinds of geometrical and very artistic patterns of 
screens. (Jala Kaumudi, by Pandit Kundanlal, pp. 188, second paging.) 

JALA-GAVAKSHA The latticed window. 

(1) Jala-gavakshaka-yuktah 'furnished with latticed windows.' 

(Brihat-Sarhhita, LVI, 22, J.R.A.S., 
N. S., Vol. xi, p. 319.) 

(2) Jala-gavakshair yuktah (Bhavishya-Purdna, Chap, cxxx, v. 29.) 

(3) Mundana jalandravam madisidaru ' had the latticed win- 
dows made for the Tirthankaras, which their father had had 
made.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. n, no. 78; Roman Text, p. 62; Transl., p. 151.) 

JALI A trellis window or screen. 

Sri-uttaresVara-deva-mandape jali karapita ' a trellis was caused 
to be made in the temple of '. . . (Ahmadabad Inscrip. of Visaladeva, 
A.D. 1251, lines 7-8, Ep. Ind., Vol. v, pp. 103, 102.) 

JINA(-KA) (see TIRTHANKARA.) The temple of the Jains, the Jain 

deity. 

(A/., xix, 252 ; xxxn, 165 ; xun, 145, etc.) 

IQO 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE JVARA-DEVALAYA 

The description of the Jain deities (Mdnasdra, Chap. LV, 71-95): 

They are either stationary or movable (71). 
The general features : 

Dvi-bhujarh cha dvi-netrairh cha munda-tararh cha sirshakam I 

(72) 

Sphatika-Sveta-raktarh cha pita-Syama-hibharh tatha I (86) 
They are made in the erect, sitting or recumbent posture (line 
73-76) and in the lotus-seat pose (padmasana). 

The attendant deities are Narada, Yakshas, Vidyadharas, Nagen- 
dra, Dik-palas and Siddhas (lines 82-88). They are stated to be 
five classes (line 89). 

The 24 Tirthas (i.e. Tirthankaras or apostles) are mea ured accord- 
ing to the dasa-tala system (line 91). 
Their general features (lines 91-92) : 

Nirabharana-sarvangarh nirvastranga-manoharam I 
Savya-vaksha(h)-sthale hema-varnarh srivatsa-lafichhanam I 

JYA (see LUPA) A kind of pent-roof. 

(M., xvm, 177 ; see under LupA.) 

JYOTIH (see LUPA) A kind of pent-roof. 

(M., xvm, 174 ; see under LUPA.) 
JYOTISH-KANTA A class of six-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxrv, 20 ; see under PRASADA.) 

JVARA-DEVALAYA The temple of the god of fever, a hospital 
or dispensary for curing patients of fever which represents all 
diseases. 

Agnim (agnau) pusha-pade vapi jvara-devalayarh bhavet I 

(M., xi, 390.) 

' This (no. 43 and the next following seven, 44-50, Velur, ins- 
criptions record grants to Jvara Khandesvarasvamin of Velur, i.e. to the 
Vellore temple, which is now-a-days called Jala-kanthesvara (North 
Arcot Manual, p. 189). The name of the temple is spelt Jvara-kan- 
desVara in five inscriptions, Jvara-kanthesvara in two others, and Jvara- 
kandhesvara in one of them. The Sanskrit original of these various 
forms seems to have been Jvara-khandesVara. Jvara-khanda, "the des- 
troyer of fever" would be synonym of Jvara-hara, which is applied to Siva 
in the name o'^ one of the Kanchipuram temples. (Sewell's Lists of Anti- 
quities, Vol I, p. 1 80). ' -(H.S.I. /., Vol. i, Velur Inscrip. nos. 43-50, 
p. 69, para. 2, notes 3, 4.) 



DOLA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

P 

DOLA (for DOLA) A hammock, a swing, a litter. 

(A/., L, 47, 152-171 ; see under PARYANKA.) 

T 

TAKSHAKA (see STHAPATI) A wood-cutter, a carpenter. 

(See details under STHAPATI.) 
TADAGA A tank, a pool. 

(1) Mlna-manduka-makara-kurmmas' cha jala-jantavah I 
Karya dhatu-mayas chaite karttri-vittanusaratah II 
Matsyau svarnamayau kuryat mandu vapi hemajau I 
Rajatau makarau kurmma-mithunam tamra-ritikam II 
Etair jala-charaih sarddharh tadagam api dirghikam I 
Sagararh cha samutsrijya prarthayan nagam archchayet II 

The execution of the images of fish, shark, frog and tortoise for a 
tank with metals like gold, silver, copper, etc., is worth notice. 

(Malianirvana-tantra, xm, 167, 168, 169.) 

(2) See Dewal PraSasti of Lalla the Ghhinda (v. 20, Ep. Ind., Vol. i 

P- 79. 83-) 

(3) See Khajuraho Inscrip. no. iv (v. 38, Ep. Ind. Vol. i, p 144). 

(4) See Sridhara's Devapattana Prasasti (v. 10 Ep. Ind., Vol. 11, p. 440). 

(5) Anarhta-prani-suprlti-karibhir bhuribhih I 
Tadagais sagarabhogair yo vibhushita-bhu-talah II 

(Two pillar Inscrip. at Amaravati, no. A, Inscrip. 
of Keta II, v. 41, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi,-p. 152.) 

(6) Wayside tank : 

Aparh s"ala-malah pathi pathi tadagah I 

(Two Bhuvanesvara Inscrip. no. A, of Svap- 
nesvara, v. 30, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 202.) 

(7) Khsetresasya tatha suralaya-vararh sphitarh tadagam tatha bandham 

Kaudika-samjnakam bahu-jalarh dlrgharh tatha khanitam I 

(Kanker Inscrip. of Bhanudeva, v. 7, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, p. 127.) 

(8) Pratinidhim udadhinam sarhchayan toyasrishter akrita jagad-kesar- 

yyakhya yas tatakam I 

'And who constructed a tank (which he called) by (his) name Jagati- 
kesarin, which equalled the oceans, and which accumulated the downpour 
of water.' (Ekamranath Inscrip. of Ganapati, v. 9, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxi, 
pp. 200, 20 1.) 

192 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA 

TANDULA-MANDAPA The store-room, a granary, a detached 
building where stores are kept. 

(M., xxxii, 64 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

TADBHADRA A site plan in which the whole area is divided into 
196 equal squares. 

(M., vn, 18 ; see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

TANTRA Used in the same sense as &ASTRA or the science of 
architecture (M., xi, I, 14, 102, 145 ; M., xn, 67). 

Cf. SlLPA-TANTRA (M., XII, 67). 

TAPASH-KANTA A class of the eight-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxvi, 41-42 ; see under PR AS AD A.) 

TARAfrGA Waves, an ornament or moulding employed in capitals 

terminating by undulating lines. 

Bodhikochcha-tarahgaih syat sarvalankara-samyutam I 
Tad eva tunga-mane tu dva-daame vibhajite I 
Adho-bhage tri-bhagena tarangakriti(m) vinyaset I 

(M. xv, 155-157, see also 164.) 
A similar ornament of the entablature : 

Devanam bhu-patlnaih cha chordhve madhye tarangakam I 

(M., XVI, 202.) 

Taranga-vetra-samyuktarh kufijarakshair alankritam I 
Padanam cha tarangarh va choktavat samalankritam I 

(M., L, 267-268.) 

TALA (see BHUMI) The storey, the palm, the sole, a moulding of 
the column. 

(i) Mdnasdra : 

Buildings of one to twelve storeys are prescribed for people (and 
animals) of different ranks : 

Ekadi-dvi-bhumyantam kalpa-gramasya harmyake bhavati I 
Ekadi-tri-bhumyantam prabhakarasya chalayam proktam I 
Ekadi-chatul-talantam pattabhak-chalayam iti kathitam I 
Tri-talady-ashta-talantarh narendrasya chalayam proktam I 
Tri-taladi-nava-talantam maharajasya bhavanam uditam I 
Pancha-talady-arka-talantarh chakravarti-harmyam syat I 
Ekadi-tri-talantam yuva-rajasya chalayam proktam I 
Samanta-pramukhanarh chaikadi-tri-tala-paryantam syat I 
Kshudra-bhupasya(-panam) sarvesham ekadi-tri-tala-bhumi- 
paryantam I 

193 



TALPA(KA) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Sthapati-sthapakanarh tu gabhastikadikarh(-kanam) tu yuthakanaih 

chat 

Dvi-jati-(-sm)aranam tv-eka-dvi-tri-tala-paryantam I 
Ugraiva-jivinam chaiva alaika-dvi-tri-tala-paryantam I 
Gajasvadi-Salanam talam ekam kartavyam prokam I 
Devanam api sarvesham hary-aikady-anta-bhupatinam chaiva I 
Anyat sarva-jatmam nava-talam kuryat tad-alayarh proktam I 
Mandapam nava-talam kuryad bhavanam anya-rangam vadhi- 

mandapakaram I 
Etat tu bhumi-lambam puranaih sarvais tantravit-proktam I 

(M., xi, 127-141, I44-H5-) 
The sole : 

Nalakantam tri-matram syat tala-taram yugangulam I 

(M., LVII, 34 ; see also LXVI, 13, etc.) 
The palm : 

Tala-dirgharh shad-angulyam eshariiam madhyamahgulam I 

(M., LIX, 49, etc.) 

(2) Eka-bhumam dvi-bhumam va kshudranam bhavanam nrinam I 
Sudranam tri-talam kuryad vaisyanam tu chatus-talam |l 
Kshatriyadeh pancha-bhumir dvijanam raga-bhumikam 1 1 
Saptadhyam mandalikanam bhu-bhujam nava-bhumikam II 
Ekadasa-tala-geham vidadhyach chakra-varttinam 1 1 
Udayarkarka-bhagena hina urdhordhva-bhumikah 1 1 

(Silpa-sastra-sdra-sarhgraha, vra, 29-31.) 

(3) Aruroha . . . prasadam hima-pandurarii bahu-tala-samutsedham I 

(Ram&yana, vi, 26, 5, etc.) 

(4) A moulding of the column. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 108, 105-107 ; see under STAMBHA. 

TALPA(KA) ' A couch, bed, sofa, an upper storey, a room on the 
top of a house, a turret, a tower ' made of heavy and strong udum- 
bara wood (Taitt. Bra., i, 2, 6, 5), 'with four feet and four frame 
pieces (ushyala) fashioned (moulded and carved) by tvashtar (car- 
penter) and embroidered and inlaid.' Nuptial bedstead (R.-V., vn, 
55, 8 ; A.-V., iv, 5, 3 ; v, 7, 12 for king and his wife ; xiv, 2, 31, 41 
bridal : Taitt. Sam., vi, 2, 6, 4 : Taitt. Bra., n, 2, 5, 3 ; Punch. Bra., 
xxui, 4, 2 ; xxv, i, 10) Compare TALPYA (legitimate son born in 
nuptial bed, Guru-lalpa (bed for preceptor) . Base of the neck of a 
dome on the top of an edifice (M., xvm, 170). 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA-MANA 

Argalam dakshine bhage vama-bhage tu talpakam n 
Yugme mahati talpe cha dakshinasthe kavatake II 

(Kamikagama, LV, 49, 42 ; see also 39, 48.) 
TAT(-D)A&KA An ornament for the ear of an image. 

(1) Karne vibhushanarh kuryan makarankita-kundalam I 
Athava svarna-tatankau. . . I 

(M., L, 43-44 ; see also 294, etc.) 

(2) See Deopara Inscrip. of Vijayasena (v. n, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, 
pp. 308, 313). 

(3) Tadanka-darpano nama dvitiyo'nkah 'the second act named 
the reflecting ear-ring. ' (Dhara Prasasti of Arjunavarraan, line 82, Ep. 
Ind., Vol. VIH, pp. 116, 100.) 

TATIKA A moulding of the column, tenia. 

(M., xv, 60, 142 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

KumbhadhaS chordhva-dee tu vata-patradi-Sobhitam I 
Nimnarh tatikadini yuktya prag-uktaban nayet I 

(M., xv, 189-190.) 
Pada-tunge'shta-bhage tu . . . I 
Bodhikam mushti-bandhani cha phalaka-tatika-ghatam I 

(M., XLVH, 17-18.) 
Agre cha phalakantam cha tatlkadyair vibhushitam | 

(Af., L, 78.) 

TALA-MANA A sculptural measurement. In this system the 
length of the face (including the top of the head) is stated to be the unit 
(Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLVIII, v. 19). But it seems more logical to 
have the span or the distance between the tips of the fully stretched 
thumb and middle-finger, which is technically called tala (see below), 
as the unit. It admits of many varieties : the ten-tala measures are 
mentioned in the Mdnasdra. But the Bimbamdna has reference to 
twelve kinds (see below) . Each of these ten or twelve kinds is again 
subdivided into three types, namely, the uttama or the largest, the 
madhyama or the intermediate, and the adhama or the smallest. 
Thus an image is of daSa-tala 1 measure when its whole length is equal 
to ten times the face (including the top of the head) . In the largest 

1 The idea of da$a-tala may have been originated from the following : 

( 3Jo g;o i, R. X.) 
195 



TALA-MANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

type of the daa-tala system, however, the whole length is divided into 
124 equal parts which are proportionately distributed over the 
different parts of the body ; in the intermediate type, the whole 
length is divided into 120 equal parts, and in the smallest type into 
116 equal parts. In the nava-tala system, the whole length would 
be nine times the face, in the ashta-tala, eight times, and so forth. 
The details of the following tala measures are given in the Mdnasdra : 
The largest type of the two-tala system in which the goose, the riding 

animal of Brahma, is measured (AT, LX, 6-35) : 

Parts 

(i) Height of head . . . . . . 4 

(2-3) height of neck . . . . . . 8 

(4) height (length) of heart (chest) . . . . 1 1 

(5) (below this) height of thigh .. .. if 

(6) height of knee . . . . . . i 

(7) length of leg .. .. ..if 

(8) height of foot . . . . . . I 

(9) breadth of face . . . . . . 3 

(10) at the back of the head .. .. 2 

(n) length of face .. .. .. ..4 

(12) neck at the root [it tapers from bottom to top and 

is furnished with two faces (beaks)] . . i 

(13) length of belly (kukshi) .. .. ..8 

(14) place of the stomach (udara-sthana) . . 8 

(15) from the belly to the root of the tail . . 16 

(16) breadth of wing .. .. .. 5 

(17) length of wing .. .. .. 8 

(1 8) height of wing .. .. 2 

(19) height of wing at the edge (agra) . . . . i 

(20) thickness of wing . . . . . . i 

(21) length of arm (bahu) .. .. .. 8 

(22) elbow . . . . . . . . i 

(23) width at the forepart of the head . . . . 6 

(24) width at the root of the perfectly round thigh .. 2$ 

(25) breadth at the forepart .. .. i 

(26) breadth of knee . . . . . . 

(27) breadth of leg . . . . i 

(28) breadth of sole (palm) . . . . . . 2 

(29) breadth of middle-finger at the forepart . . 4 

(30) each of two fingers on either side . . . . a 

(31) length of face . . . . . . 3 

196 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA-MANA 

Parts 

(32) breadth of face . . . . . . i 

(33) length of eye and its breadth should be propor- 
tionate . . . . . . 

(34) distance between the eye-line and ear-line . . 2 yavas 

(35) the crest above the head . . . . I or 2 parts 

(36) its width ending by the back of head . . 6 

(37) its breadth . . . . . . 4 

and the rest is left to the discretion of the artist : 

Sesharh yuktya prayojayet (35). 

In the seven-tala system the whole height is divided into 84 equal 
parts which are distributed as follows : 

Parts 

(1) Crown of the head (murdhni) .. .. 2 

(2) face . . . . . . 10 

(3) neck .. .. 3 

(4) (from neck to) heart .. .. 10 

(5) (from heart to) navel . . . . . . i o 

(6) (from navel to) sex-organ . . . . 5 

(7) suraga (? hole) is of same parts as the back (pitharhs'a) 

(8) thigh (uru) . . . . . . 3 

(9) knee (janu) .. .-3 

(10) leg (pada) .. 3 

(11) length of arm .. .. ..20 

(12) elbow . . .. . . i 

(13) forearm (prakoshtha) .. .. .. 16 

(14) palm (including fingers) . . . . . . 8 

(15) foot . . .. . . ii 

(16) breadth of the face .. .. .. 7 

(17) width of the neck .. .. .. 5 

(18) width at the arm-joint .. .. .. 5 

(19) width of the chest between armpits .. 14 

(20) width by heart .. .. ..12 

(21) width by mid-belly .. .. .. 16 

(22) width by loins (kati) . . . . . . 12 

(23) width of the thigh .. .. ..8 

(24) width of the knee .. .. .. 5 

(25) width of the leg (jarigha) . . . . 4 

(26) width at the ankle . . . . . . 3 

(27) width of the sole .. .. ..4 

197 



TALA-MANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Parts 

(28) width of the forepart of arm . . . . 4 

(29) width of the forearm . . . . . . 4^ 

(30) the wrist . . . . . . i 

(31) width of the palm .. .. .. 3^ 

and length of the plam . . . . . . 4 

(32) length of finger . . . . . . i 

In the eight-tala system the whole length is divided into 96 equal parts 
which are distributed as follows : 

Parts 

(1) Head from the crown (ushnisha) to the end of the 

hair on the forehead . . . . . . 3 

(2) thence the face (up to the chin) . . . . ioj 

(3) thence the neck ... . . 3 

(4) thence to heart . . . . . . loj 

(5) thence to navel .. .. .. loj 

(6) thence the mid-belly (up to sex organ) . . ioj 

(7) the thigh (below sex organ up to knee) . . 21 

(8) knee .. .-3 

(9) le g ..21 

(10) foot (height) .. .. .. ..3 

(11) length of foot .. .. ..14 

(12) breadth of face .. .. .. 9 

( 1 3) width of neck . . . . . . 6 

(14) shoulder (up to arm-joint) . . --41(3 and i ) 

(15) width at the root of arm .. .. .. 6 

( 1 6) length of arm .. .. .. ..21 

(17) elbow .. ij 

(18) (from elbow) forearm (half of face) .. 5i 

(19) palm (including fingers) (equal to face) . . io 
the rest should be as before. 

In the largest type of the nine-tala system the whole length is divided 
into 112 equal parts (M., LK, 14-64) : 

Parts 

(1) Crown (head proper) .. .. .. 4 

face (comprising) .. .. X2 

(2) (thence) forehead (up to the eye-line) . . 4 

(3) thence to tip of nose . . . . . . 4 

(4) thence to chin . . . . . . 4 

(5) neck . . . . 4 

(6) thence to heart .. .. ..12 

1 08 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA-MANA 

Parts 

(7) thence to navel .. .. ..12 

(8) thence to sex organ .. .. ..12 

(9) thigh (twice the face) . . . . 24 

(10) knee (= neck) .. .. .. 4 

(11) leg (=thigh).. .. .. ..24 

(12) foot (= knee) .. .. .. ..4 

(13) palm (from thumb to forefinger) .. 16 

(14) arm . . . . . . 24 

(15) elbow . . . . .. ..2 

(16) forearm . . .. . . 12 

( 1 7) palm (up to the tip of middle-finger) . . 12 

(18) breadth of face .. .. n 

(19) width of neck .. .. ..8 

(20) width round the arm-joint . . . . 8 

(21) width of knee .. .. ..8 

(22) shoulder . . . . . . 5 

(23) chest between the armpits . . 20 

(24) width (breadth) at the mid-belly .. .. 15 

(25) width at buttocks .. .. 17 

(26) width of the loins .. .. ..19 

(27) width at the root of the thigh .. ,. 10^ 

(28) width at the root of the leg . . 7i 

(29) width at the middle of the leg . . 6 

(30) breadth at the middle of the leg . . . . 4 

(31) knee-tube .. .. .. ..if 

(32) ankle .. .. .. ..if 

(33) heel breadth . . . . . . 4i 

(34) breadth of prapada (forepart of the foot) . . 17 (?) 

(35) breadth of the palm ( ? sole) . . . . 5 

(36) length of the largest toe .. .. .. 4 

(37) breadth of the largest toe .. .. 2 
(breadth of nails is half of their length) 

(38) length of fore-toe (=thumb) . . .. 4 

(39) breadth of fore-toe .. .. .. i (? 2) 

(40) middle toe (breadth 7 yavas) .. .. 3 

(41) fourth toe (breadth 6 yavas) .. .. a 

(42) little toe (breadth 5 yavas) . . . . 2 
(breadth of nails is half the breadth of the fingers) 

(43) width at the middle of the arm . . . . 7 

(44) width at the elbow . . . . . . 7 

199 



TALA-MANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



Parts 

(45) width at the forearm . . . . . . 4 

(46) width at the wrist . . . . . . 3 

(47) breadth at the root of the palm . . . . 6 

(48) breadth at the forepart of the palm . . 4 

(49) length of the palm . . . . 6 
and the remainder is the middle-fingers (?) 

(50) forefinger .. .. .. 5i 

(51) ring-finger .. _ ... .. 5^ 

(52) little finger .. .. .. 3j 

(53) breadth of thumb .. .. .. r 

(54) breadth of forefinger . . . . . . 6 yava 

(55) breadth of middle-finger . . . . 7 

(56) breadth of ring-finger .. .. .. 6 

(57) breadth of little finger . . . . . . 4 

Fingers are made tapering from the root towards the 

tip. The forepart of the nails is or J more than their 
length and their breadth at the tip is one, two, or 
three yavas. The thumb is divided into two parts 
(parvan) and the other fingers into three parts (parvan). 
The line of wisdom and such other lines are drawn on 
the palm. The eyebrow should extend from the eye-line 
to the hair (near the ear). 

(58) Length of eye .. .. ..2 

(59) breadth of eye . . . . . . i 

(60) length of ear .. .. .. ..4 

(61) drum of ear .. .. . . ^ 

(62) breadth of ear . . . . 2 

the rest should be as in the (uttama) daSa-tala system : 

Navatalottamarh proktarh sesham cha das"a-talavat I (64). 

In the intermediate type of the nine-tala system the whole length i 3 
divided into 108 equal parts : 

Parts 

1 i) Head .. .. .. "J 

(2) neck . . . . . . 3 

(3) knee .. .. .. 3 

(4) foot . . . . 3 

(5) face .. ..12 

(6) chest .. .. ..12 

(7) belly .. .. .. ..12 

200 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA-MANA 

Parts 

(8) loins .. .. .. ..12 

(9) thigh .. .. .. ..24 

(10) leg .. .. .. ..24 

(n) arm .. .. . . . . 24 

(12) (from arm) forearm (including middle-finger) .. 18 

(13) largest toe (up to heel) =face .. .. 12 

(14) foot .. .. .. ..15 

the rest should be discreetly made. 

In the smallest type of the ten-tala system the whole height is divided into 
1 16 equal parts (M., LIX, 67-100) : 

Paris 

(1) Head (from crown to hair-line in the forehead) . . 4 
face (comprising) .. .. ..12 

(2) thence to the eye-line (i.e., forehead) . . 4^ 

(3) thence to the tip of the nose . . . . 4 

(4) thence to the chin . . . . . . 3$ 

(5) neck-joint .. .. .. .. i\ 

(6) neck . . . . . . 4 

(7) thence to heart .. .. ..12 

(8) thence to navel . . . . ..12 

(9) thence to sex organ .. .. ..12 

(10) thigh (from below sex organ) .. ..25 

(n) knee .. . . .. . . 4 

(12) leg .. .. .. ..25 

(13) foot .. .. .. 4 

(14) length of foot from heel to largest toe .. i6 

(15) length of arm below the line of windpipe (glottis) 25 

(16) length of elbow .. .. .. 2 

(17) length of forearm .. .. ..19 

(18) length of palm (up to the tip of middle-finger) . . 12^ 

(19) breadth of face .. .. .. i\\ 

(20) width of neck . . . . . . 8J 

(21) width of arm .. .. .. 8J 

(22) width of knee . . . . . . 8 

(23) width of arm by root, elbow, wrist .. 6, 6, i$ 

(24) length of shoulder . . . . . . 2oJ 

(25) width of the mid-belly . . . . 15 J 

(26) width of the buttocks .. .. i8J 

(27) breadth of the loins .. .. . , . 19 

(28) width at the root of thigh .. .. 12$ 

2OI 



TALA-MANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Parts 

(29) width of the knee-(cap) . . . . . . 6J 

(30) breadth or width of knee-tube . . . . 4 

(31) breadth of ankle .. .. .. 5 

(32) prapada (tip of the toes) 6 

(33) length of largest toe . . . . . . 4 

(34) length of fore-toe . . . . . . 4 

(35) length of other toes (half a part less) 3 J 
and their breadth or width is the same (? half of their 

length) 

(36) breadth of elbow .. .. 6 

(37) breadth of forearm .. 5 

(38) breadth of wrist . . . . 4 

(39) breadth of palm . . . . 5 

(40) length of palm . . 7 

(41) length of middle-finger . . 5i 

(42) length of forefinger . . 5 

(43) length of ring-finger . . . . 5 

(44) length of little finger . . 4i 

(45) length of thumb . . 4 

(46) length of ear .... 4i 

(47) height of ear-drum . . . . 4| 
the rest not specified here should be as in case of the 

largest type of ten-tala system. 

In the intermediate type of the ten-tala system the whole height of 
the image (of a famale deity) is divided into 120 equal parts (M., LXVI, 

2-78) : 

Parts 

(1) Head (from crown to hair-line on the forehead) 4 

(2) forehead (up to eye-line) . . 5 

(3) nose (up to the tip) . . . . 4 

(4) thence to chin . . . . 3i 

(5) neck-joint . . . . i 

(6) neck . . . . . . 4 

(7) from windpipe (glottis) to heart 13 

(8) thence to the limit of navel .. .. 13 

(9) thence to sex organ .. .. 13 

(10) thigh below sex organ .. .. ..26 

(n) knee . . .. 4 

(12) leg .. .. .. ..26 

(13) foot . . . . --4 

202 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA-MANA 

Parts 

(14) length of foot (from heel to the tip of largest toe) 16 

(15) length of arm below the line of windpipe (glottis) 26 

(16) elbow .. .. .. ..2 

(17) forearm .. .. .. ..20 

(18) palm (up to the tip of middle-finger) . . 13 

(19) middle-finger . . . . . . . . 6 

and palm proper the remainder . . . . 7 

(20) thumb . . . . . . . . 4 

(21) forefinger .. .. .. 5i 

(22) ring-finger .. 5j 

(23) little finger . . . . . . . . 4 

(24) breadth of face up to ear .. .. i 2 

(25) breadth of face (below this) from ear to ear 11 

(26) breadth of neck (at root, middle, and top) . . 7 

(27) breadth of chest (between armpits) .. 15 

(28) width of each breast . . . . 9i 

(29) height of breast . . . . . . 4^ 

(30) distance between breasts (nipples) . . . . i 

(31) width of the nipple .. ..2 

(32) breadth (below the breasts) by the heart . . 13 

(33) width of mid-belly . . . . 1 1 

(34) breadth (below this) by the navel .. .. 13 

(35) breadth (of lower belly) below navel .. 15 

(36) width of buttocks . . . . . . 20 

(37) width of loins . . . . . . 24 

(38) width at the root of each thigh . . . . 13 

(39) width by the mid-thigh . . . . 12 

(40) width at the fore-part of the thigh . . 9 

(41) width of knee . . . . 7 

(42) width at the root of leg . . 6 

(43) width at the mid-leg .. 5 

(44) breadth of knee-tube . . . . . . 4 

(45) breadth of ankle . . 4$ 

(46) width of sole . . . . . . 4 

(47) breadth of sole at the fore-part . . . . 5 

(48) breadth of heel . . . . 4 

(49) length of largest toe . . . . 4 

(50) length of fore-toe . . . . . . 4 

(51) length of middle-toe .. .. .. 3$ 

(52) length of fourth toe . . 3 

203 



TALA-MANA 



AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



(53) length of little toe . . . . . . 

(54) width (breadth) of largest toe . . 

(55) width (breadth) of fore-toe .. .. 

(56) width (breadth) of middle toe . . . . 

(57) width (breadth) of fourth toe . . . . 

(58) width (breadth) of little toe .. .. 

(59) width at the root of arm . . . . 
and width of knee . . . . . . 

(60) width at mid-arm . . . . . . 

(6 1) width at fore-part of arm .. .. 

(62) width at elbow .. .. .. 

(63) width at root of forearm .. .. .. 

(64) width at middle of forearm . . . . 

(65) width at fore-part of forearm . . . . 

(66) width at wrist . . . . . . 

(67) width (breadth) of the palm (from thumb to 
little finger) . . . . . . 

(68) width (at the root) of the fore finger . . 

(69) width (at the root) of ring-finger (same) . . 

(70) width (at the root) little finger . . . . 

(71) width (at the root) of middle-finger .. 
Eyebrows are placed between forehead and eyes. 

(72) Breadth of eye . . . . . . 

(73) length of eye .. .. 

(74) breadth of nose up to end of the tip . . 

(75) width of nose at the middle . . . . 

(76) width of nose at the root . . . . 

(77) distance between the eyes .. .. 

(78) distance between the eyebrows . . . . 

(79) length of eyebrow . . . . . . 

(80) breadth of eyebrow . . . . . . 

The interior of the eye is divided into three (equal) 

parts (as before), of which the black sphere is one part ; 
the rest of the detail is stated to be found in the list 
of the largest type of the ten-tala systems. 

(8 1) Breadth and height of nostril (each) .. 

(82) width of face (up to the corner) . . . . 

(83) width of upper lip . . . . 

(84) width of lower lip . . . . . . 

(85) length of lip .. .. .. .. 

204 



Parts 
2 

2 

i(=:8 

yavas) 
7 
6 
5 
3 
10 



4 
3 

5 

6 yavas 
6 ,, 



3 
2 



4. 

5 yavas 

6 
a 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA-MANA 

Parts 

(86) ear = mid -eyebrow . . . . . . (?) 

(87) height of ear . . . . . . 4 

(88) length of the drum of ear . . . . 4 

(89) depth (of the drum of ear) . . . . 

(90) width of sex organ . . . . . . 4 

(91) length of sex organ .. .. .. 7 

(92) upper breadth of sex organ (= length) . . 7 

The rest should be as in the case of the largest type of the 
ten-tala system. 

In the largest type of the ten-tala system the whole height of a male 
person (god) is divided into 124 equal parts (M., LXV, 2-179) : 

Parts 

(1) Head (from crown to hair-line on the forehead) 4 

(2) face (from hair-line on the forehead to chin) .. 13 

(3) neck . . . . . . . . 4^ 

(4) neck to heart (chest) .. .. 

(5) heart to navel .. .. 

(6) naval to sex organ . . . . . . 13 j 

(7) thigh from below sex organ . . . . 37 

(8) knee .. .. .. ..4 

(9) leg .. .. .. 27 

(10) foot . . . . . . 4 

The length of face is divided into three parts, head 

to eye-line, eye-line to lip-line, lip-line to windpipe-line. 

(11) Length of arm from (below the line of) windpipe 27 

(12) elbow . . . . . . 2 

(13) forearm (extending to wrist-joint) .. .. 21 

(14) length of palm (up to the tip of middle-finger) 13^ 
comprising (a) palm proper . . . . j 

(b) middle-finger .. .. 6 

(15) length of foot .. .. --17 

(16) largest toe (from heel) . . . . . . 4^ 

its breadth . . . . . . . . aj 

its nail . . . . . . . . i ^ 

breadth of nail . . . . . . f 

The nail is made circular and its fore-edge is fleshy and 
one part in extent. 

(17) Fore-toe .. .. .. .. 4 less 

i yava 
its breadth . . . . . . i and 

i yava 
205 



TALA-MANA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



(18) middle toe 
its breadth 

(19) fourth toe 

its breadth 

(20) little toe 
its breadth 

Their nails are half of their respective breadths. 
The middle line from ankle to the tip of sole 



V22) from this line to the root of heel 
breadth of heel 

(23) from side to heel 

(24) root of heel 

(25) width of mid-sole (below ankle) 

(26) breadth of sole (at the fore-part) 

(27) its thickness 

(28) height of the mid-foot 
The toes have two parts (parvan). 

(29) Breadth of ankle 

(30) breadth of the tube (above) 

(31) breadth at the middle of leg 

(32) width at the root of leg 

(33) width of knee 

(34) width of mid-thigh 

(35) width at the root of thigh . . 

(36) width of loins 

(37) width of buttocks (above) 
^8) width of mid-belly 

(39) width at the heart 

(40) width by the chest 

(41) distance between the armpits 

(42) breadth above this 

(43) breadth between the arms 

(44) breadth of neck 

(45) breadth of face in its fore-part 



Parts 

Sf 

I* 

3 P lus 
i yava 
i minus 
i yava 

2* 

plus 
i yava 

8 and 

6 yavas 

4 

5 and 
i yava 

Si 

6 

6 and 

6 yavas 

6 

3 

44 

54 
44 

6J 
8 

9 

12 

134 

20 

18* (0 
i8| 

16 



21 
22 

241 

9 
It 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



TALA-MANA 



(46) breadth of head by the hair-line on the forehead 
From the hair-line on the forehead to the eye-line 

there are two (equal) parts, one of which is the forehead, 
and the remainder is the eye-part. Between the forehead 
and the eyes, the places for eyebrows are left. 

(47) Length of eyebrow 

(48) breadth of eyebrow 

The breadth at the middle is half of this and the brows 
taper from root to the other end. 

(49) ^Distance between two brows 

(50) length of eye 

(51) breadth of eye 

(52) distance between two eyes 

The interior of the eye is divided into three parts of 
which the black sphere is one part and the remainder 
is the white sphere. The shiny sphere within the black 
sphere is one part. The sight (retina) proper is situated 
within the shiny sphere. The upper and lower coverings 
(lids) of the interior of the eye are each two parts. The 
eyes are shaped like the fish and the brows like a bow. 

(53) Length of ear 

(54) drum of ear 

(55) fore-part of ear (= mid-brow) 

(56) ear-hole, its length 

and breadth 

(57) distance between the drums 

(58) depth (befitting the ear) . . 

(59) breadth of ear 

The rest is left to the choice of the skilful. 

(60) Distance from eye to ear 

(61) width of nose 

(62) tip of nose 

(63) breadth of nostril 

(64) length of nostril 

(65) hole of nostril 

(66) its breadth 

(67) height of nose-tip (pushkara or four-faced part) 

(68) breadth of nose-tip 

(69) breadth of the middle of nose 

207 



Parts 
10 



and 
6 yavas 

3 

i 



4* 
i* 

2 
I 
2 

I 



6 yavas 

\ 

5 yavas 



i 
2 



TALA-MANA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



(70) breadth at the root of nose 

(71) height of nose 

(72) height of nose (from bottom to tip) 

(73) tip (from below bottom) 

(74) drip 

(75) breadth 

(76) circumference (above this) 

(77) breadth of upper lip below this 

(78) lower lip 

(79) width of upper lip 

(80) length of crescent-shaped lower lip . . 

(81) three-faced part (trivaktra), length and breadth . . 

(82) circumference (above) 

Teeth numbering 32 are in both lower and upper jaws 

(83) Chin below the lower lip 

(84) length of jaw . . 

'85^ from this (jaw) to ear-joint 

(86) height of drip between the jaws 

(87) breadth of semi-circular jaw 

(88) goji (nose bottom) from jaw 

(89) mid-neck (from jaw to its root) 

(90) its projection . . 

(91) the eye on the forehead (third eye) J or f part of 
other eyes. There should be 98 eye-lashes ; the hairs 
on the neck and face should be discreetly made. 

(92) Width at mid-arm 

(93) width of elbow 

(94) width at mid-forearm 

(95) width of wrist 

(96) breadth at the root of palm 

(97) breadth of mid-palm 

(98) breadth of fore-palm 

(99) back of palm up to wrist 

thence the length of the fingers should be propor- 
tionate as stated before. 

(100) Length of ring-finger and of middle-finger 

808 



Parts 
I* 

2 

4 yavas 
i ,, 

3 ., 



i 

4 

Si 

2 each 
2 

i 

H 

10 

I 

If 

1 and 

2 yavas 
2 

i 



Parts 
8 and 
2 yavas 

7 

5 and 

i yava 

9* 

7 

6| 

5 and 

I yava 

6| 



4! each 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



TALA-MANA 



(101) length of forefinger . . . . . . 

(102) length of thumb .. .. .. 

(103) length of little finger . . . . . . 

(104) width at the root of thumb .. .. 

(105) width at the root of forefinger . . . . 

(106) width at the root of ring-finger . . . . 

(107) width at the root of middle finger .. .. 
The width of (tapering) fingers at their tips is f or 

one-fourth less than at the root. The width of the nails 

is of the breadth of the respective finger tips, and the 
length of the nails is greater than their width, and the 
fore-parts of the nails measure two yavas. The four fingers 

(beginning with the fore-finger) are each divided into 
three parts and the thumb into two parts. 

(108) The portion between the roots of forefinger and 
thumb . . . . . . -- 

(109) its thickness .. .. .. .. 

(no) thence to wrist .. .. .. 

(m) thickness of the portion below the thumb . . 

(112) its width .. .. .. .. 

(113) breadth of heel .. .. ... 

(114) its thickness .. .. .. .. 

(115) its fore-part .. .. .. .. 

(116) interior of palm .. .. .. 

(117) its width .. .. .. .. 

The palm is lined with the five marks like of lotus, 

trident, couch, disc., etc. And the rest regarding the 
hand should be discreetly made by the wise artist. 
Measurement by the back-side : 

(i 1 8) width at the back of head .. .. 

(119) thence to the end of ear .. .. .. 

(120) thence to the end of nose . . . . 

(121) shoulder (above the line of windpipe) from the 

neck-joint . . . . . . 

(122) from neck-joint to hump .. .. .. 

(123) thence to the line of buttocks . . 

(124) thence to anus .. .. .. 

(125) breadth to the left of it .. .. .. 

(126) width of the back of loins .. .. 

209 



Parts 
5 
4 
4 



i 

i 
|- 



3 
2 

4! 
2 
3 
4 
3 

1 and 

2 yavas 
2 

4 yavas 



4 

5 

27 



21 
17 



TALA-MANA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



Parts 

(127) width of the back or middle-body (madhya-kaya) 

above this . . . . . . * 7 

(128) distance between the breadth above this . . 21 

(129) distance between the arm-pits .. . . 27 

(130) drip of the back- bone .. .. .. i 

(131) breadth of the loins-joint connected with the 

back-bone . . . . . . . . 2 

Thence should be measured the belly : 

(132) Width (breadth) of ribs-plank .. ..12 

(133) distance between ribs-planks .. ..4 

(134) height from ribs-plank to shoulder .. 5i 

(135) the portion between the breast and back-bone 

(brihati) . . . . . . 7 

(136) its length (up to armpits) .. . . (?) 

(137) brihati up to breast limit .. .. i6| 

(138) breadth of loins line .. .. . . 13 

(139) projection of the root of thigh .. 5 

(140) width of perfectly round or spherical balls .. 9 

(141) width at the back of perfectly round breast . . 2 

(142) drip or depth of windpipe . . . . i yava 

(143) drip or depth of heart .. .. .. i 

(144) distance between the limit of breasts . . 13 

(145) distance between windpipe and armpit .. 13^ 

(146) depth of navel .. .. .. 2 yavas 

The navel-pit is made circular. 

(147) Length of lower belly from navel to loins .. 6 

(148) lower belly from navel to where cloth is attached 

to body . . . . . . . . 4 

(149) height from loins to the root of sex organ . . 7$ 

(150) breadth of sex organ at the back . . . . 4 

(151) thence (? loins) the length of sex organ . . 12 

(152) length of testicle .. .. . . a 

(153) breadth of testicle .. .. .. 2j 

(154) breadth of sex organ .. .. .. i 

The rest is left to the discretion of the artists. 

Sesharh yuktito nyaset (A/., LXV, 179.) 

This largest type of the ten-tala measure is used in measuring the 
images of Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, and such other gods (M., LI, 29 ; 
XLV, 184-185) and of the statues of the devotees of the Sayujya class 
(M., LIX, 12). 

210 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA-MANA 

These rules are for the general guidance, there is no restriction in 
altering them for aesthetic reasons by not more than one part : 
Tad evadhika-hinarh va sobhartharh chaika-matrakam I 
Ukta-manangakaih sarvaih tatra dosho no vidyate I 
Tad-urdhve'dhika-hinam chet sarva-dosha-samudbhavam I 
Tasmat pariharech chhilpi pratimanam tu sarvada I 

(M., LXV, 180-183.) 

(2) See Amsumadbheda of Kasyapa (MS. Egg. 3148, 3012 ; fol. 251, 
different kinds of the tala measures) . 

(3) Talah smrito madhyamaya gokarnas chapy-anamaya I 

The distance between the tips of the fully stretched thumb and the 
middle-finger is called Tala. 

(Brahmdnda-Purana, Part i, and Anushanga-pada, Chap, vn, v. 97.) 

(4) Tala is the distance between the tips of the fully-stretched thumb 
and the middle-finger. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, 22, see under ANGULA.) 

(5) Bimbamdna (British Museum, MS. no. 558-592) : 

Illustration in minute detail of the largest type of the ten-tala 

measure (vv. 71-72). 

Description of the plumb-lines and the horizontal measurement 
of the idol (w. 73-91). 

The measurement of the idol when it is made in the sitting 
posture, such as Yogasana (vv. 92-122) and the recumbent posture 
(w. 123-138). 

In an appendix are given the rules regarding the objects to be 
measured in twelve-tala measures : 

One (eka) tala is used for measuring the vandhuka, probably 
misread for kabandha, a headless trunk, also a class of rakshasa or 
demon whose ' head and thighs were forced into the body by Indra and 
reduced to long arms and a huge mouth in the belly.' (See nos. 5,6.) 

Two (dvi) tala is used for measuring the birds. 

Three (tri) tala ,, ,, kinnaras (mythical 

beings with human body and horse's head). 

Four (chaturthaka) tala is used in measuring bhutas (goblins). 

Five (pancha) tala GaneSa (a mythi- 

cal deity with human body and elephant's head). 

Six (shat) tala is used for measuring the tiger. 

Seven (sapta) tala yakshas (demi-gods). 

Eight (ashta) tala ,, ,, man (male and female). 

Nine (nava) tala danavas (demons). 

Ten (das"a) tala superhuman beings and 

Buddha. 

211 



TALA-MANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Eleven (ekadaSa) tala is used for measuring gods. 
Twelve (dvadasa) tala is used for measuring rakshasas (fiends). 
Cf. Brahmadi-lokesVara-deva-devarh surasura-danava-rakshasarh 
cha yaksham cha naga-garudarh cha na-kinnararh bhutam cha 
kumbhanda-nara-svaruparh vyaghrarh chatush-pada-vihanga- 
madi-sarvaih tu dirghayata-vandhukadi-tala-pramanarh bhuva- 
natrayoktam I 

This is followed by the details of the twelve tala measures quoted 
above. 

The next appendix gives the dhyanas (features) of the eight 
deities (ashta-natha). 

(6) Suprabheddgama (xxxrv, 30-34). 

Isvaradi-chatur-murttirh das"a-talena karayet II 
Saktinam anya-devanarh nava-talaih prakittitam I 
Divyam arsha-manushyanam ashta-talena karayet II 
Rakshasam asuranam cha sapta-talena ihochyate I 
Shat-talenaiva gandharvan pancha-talena vighnakam II 
Vamanat (-narh) pancha-talais tu chatus-talais tu bhutakan I 
Tritalarh kinnaranam tu matsyanam tu dvi-talakam II 
Eka-talas tu kusmandat (?) piSacha virhsad-angulah I 
Sthula-sukshma-prabhedarhs tu tala-bhedam ihochyate II 
Measures of the ten tala of three types each (Suprabheddgama xxx, 
31-40) : 

Pratimayas tad-utsedham tala-dandena bhajayet II (31) 
Chatur-virhs'ach chhatarh chaiva uttamarh dasa-talakam I 
VimSach chhatam cha madhyarh tu kanyasarh shoda^adhikam II 

(32)- 
Dva-daSadhikam evarh yan nava-talottamarh bhavet I 

Ashtau ^atarh chatuh Satarh madhyamarh kanyasarh tatha II (33) 
Satarh shan-navati chaiva navaty-uttara-kara-dvayam I 
Ashta-talam idarh proktam tri-vidharh purvah-paddhatih I (34) 
Ety-evarh bhaga-hinam syad eka-talam tarn eva hi I 

Measurement of the face : 

Trayo-dasardharh mukharh jyeshtham trayo-dasarh tu madhya- 

mam 1 1 (35) 

Tad-dva-daSardham adhamam uttamat(-m)dasa-talake I 
Nava-talottame chaiva mukharh vai dva-daSangulam n (36) 
Ardhardhangula-hmena madhyamadhamam uchyate I 

The statues measured in these tala measures (cf. above xxxrv, 30- 

34) : 

Tri-vidha daa-talena tri-murttinarh tu kirttitall (37) 
Tri-vidharh nava-talena devanam yoshitam api I 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TALA-MANA 

Ashta-talena martyanarh sapta-talena rakshasam II (38) 
Shat-talena tu gandharvan pancha-talo ganadhipah I 
Vamanasya tathaiva syach chatus-talas tu bhutakah II (39) 
Tri-talarh kinnaranarh tu matsyanam tu dvi-talakam I 
Anujanam tathaikam syat piSachanam tu vimSatih II (40) 

(7) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLVIII, v. 19) : 

Svakiyanguli-manena mukharh syad dva-daSarigulam I 

(8) Brihat-Sarhhitd (LVIII, 4) : 

Svair angula-pramanair dva-daSa-vistlrnarn ayatam cha mukhaml 
Naganajita tu chatur-das"a-dairghyena dravidarh kathitam II 
According to one's own angula (finger-breadth) the face of his 
own statue is twelve angulas long and broad. But according 
to (the architect) Nagnajit it should be fourteen angulas in the 
Dravida style. 
The commentary quotes Nagnjit in full : 

Vistirnarh dvadasa-mukham dairghyena cha chatur-das"a I 
Angulani tatha karyarh tan-manaih dravidam smritam II 
The face shall be 12 angulas broad and 14 angulas long ; such 
a measure is known as Dravida (i.e. this is the Dravida style 
of measurement). 

(Brihat-Samhita, LVIII, 4 ; J. R. A. S., N. S., 
Vol. vi, p. 323, note 3.) 

(9) See The Elements of Hindu Iconographgy by T. A. Gopinatha 
Rao, Vol. i, Appendix B. 

(10) See Some Hindu Silpa Sdstras in their relation to South 
Indian Sculpture by Mr. W. S. Hadaway ( Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, 
April- June, 1914, vol. n, no. I). 

(u) See Iconometry by T. A. Gopinath Rao (Archaeological Survey of 
India, Memoir, no. 3, 1920) and compare : ' In Appendix B, the author 
(Gopinatha Rao) gives a detailed description of the uttama-daSatala 
measure to be used in the making of images, and shows that the 
formal, apparently mechanical, rules for construction followed by Indian 
artists work out in practice as the adequate expression of aesthetic 
principle. The same subject has been treated on broader lines . . ., 
by Mr. W. S Hadaway (see above), who is himself a worker in metal, 
with practical knowledge of the application of the rules. (The war, 
unfortunately, has prevented the author from continuing his valuable 
study, as he had hoped to do). ' 

' The Hindu image-maker or sculptor, ' Mr. Hadaway observes, 
' does not work from life, as is the usual practice among Europeans, 
but he has, in place of the living model, a most elaborate and 
beautiful system of proportions, which he uses constantly, combining 

213 



TITHI AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

these with those observations and study of natural detail. It is, in 
fact, a series of anatomical rules and formulae, of infinitely more 
practical use than any European system which I know of, for the 
Indian one treats of the actual proportion and of the surface form, 
rather than the more scientific attachments of muscles and the 
articulation of bones. ' 

' There is in the Hindu system nothing complicated or difficult 
to understand or remember, but like every other canon of artistic 
proportion, these methods are no more capable of producing works 
of art in unskilled hands than are any other aids or methods . . . 
These Sastras are the common property of Hindu artisans, whether 
of northern or southern India. ' Mr. V. A. Smith. 

(Architecture and Sculpture in Mysore, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xuv, pp. 90-91.) 

TITHI One of the six varga-formulas (see details under SHAD- 
VARGA) for ascertaining the right dimensions for an architectural 
object. 

TILAKA A mark made on the forehead and between the eyebrows 
either as an ornament or as a sectarian distinction of an image. 

(M., vn, 160, LI, 41.) 
Cf. Tilaka-kshudra-nasi-yuktarh toranais cha amanvitam I 

(Kdmikagama, L, 93.) 
TILAMAKA A channel, a watercourse, a pipe. 

(i) Viditam astu bhavatam . . . yushmadiya-gramanam upakaraya 

yo'sau tilamaka anito'bhut pratisamskarabhavad vinashtam ud- 

vikshya . . . yushmad-gramanam evopakaraya pratisarhskritah I 

' Be it known to you that, seeing the watercourse, which the 

illustrious lord and great king AmSuvarman led to your villages 

for your benefit, destroyed through want of repairs (we being 

addressed by the feudal chief Chandravarman, have presented it 

to him ; that he, with our permission) has repaired it for the 

benefit of your villages.' 

' The word, tilamaka, is not found in any dictionary. But 
it seems certain, from the context, that it must be some kind 
of watercourse. Probably it denotes a channel which leads the 
water from the hillside over the fields which rise in terraces one 
above the other.' Pandit Bhagvanlal Inderjit and Dr. Buhler. 

(Inscriptions from Nepal, no. 9, Jishnugupta's Inscrip., 
line 6 f., Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, p. 172, note 30.) 

214 




tilNDU ARCHITECTURE TUftGA 

(2) Devena yathayarh tilamako bhabatam anyesh(en)arh chopaka- 

ray I 

(Inscription from Nepal, no. 10, line 14, p. 173.) 

(3) Tilamakas" cha saptadha vibhajya paribhoktavyah I 

' The watercourse is to be used by dividing it into seven parts.' 

(Ibid., no. 14, line 10, p. 177.) 

TIRTHA (see TIRTHANKARA) A stairs of a landing place, a shrine, 
a holy place, a Jain teacher. 

TlRTHAfrKARA -A path-maker, the foundation of a religious or 
philosophical school, a Jain arhat or saint. 

The twenty-four Jain saints or apostles (M., LV, 90.) 

Cf. Fergusson, Hist, of Ind. and East. Arch. (p. 748) : 
Name Distinction sign 

1. Adinatha .. .. Bull. 

2. Adjitanatha .. .. .. Elephant. 

3. Sambhunatha . . . . Horse. 

4. Abhayanandanatha . . . . Monkey. 

5. Sumatinatha .. .. Chakwa (red goose). 

6. Supadmanatha . . . . Lotus. 

7. Suparsvanatha . . . . Swastika. 

8. Chandraprabha . . . . Cresent moon. 

9. Pushpadanta . . . . Crocodile. 

10 Sitalanatha .. .. .. Tree or flower. 

n. Sn-Arhs'anatha .. .. Rhinoceros. 

12. Va<;upadya .. .. .. Buffalo. 

13. V'malanatha . . . . Boar. 

14. Anantanatha . . . . Porcupine. 

15. Dharmmanatha . . . . Thunderbolt. 

16. Santanatha . . . . . . Antelope. 

17. Kunthanatha .. .. Goat. 

18. Aranatha . . . . . . Fish. 

19. Mallinatha .. .. .. Pinnacle. 

20. Munisuvrata . . . . . . Tortoise. 

21. Naminatha .. .. .. Lotus with stalk. 

22. Neminatha . . . . . . Shell. 

23. ParSvanatha . . . . Snake. 

24. Vardhamana or Mahavira . . Lion. 
For reference to their images see JiNA(ka). 

TUftGA (see UTSEDHA) Height, plinth, vault, arched roof. 

(M., xix, lao.) 
215 



TULA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA Of 

TULA (see under STAMBHA) A balance, a moulding of the column, 
a month, a beam. 

(1) Stambha-samam bahulyam bhara-tulanam upary-upary- 

asam I 
Bhavati tulopatulanam unam padena padena II 

(Bnhal-Sarhhitd, LIU 30 : see Kern's Transl., 
J. B. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 285.) 
A moulding of the entablature : 

(2) Maha-bhara-tula karya balikordhve viseshatah I 
Tula-vistara-tarochcha jayanti syat tulopari II 
Tula-balikayor madhye dvi-dandam athava punah II 

(Kamikagama, LIV, 13, 16.) 

(3) A member of a column (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 108, 105-107, see 
under STAMBHA). 

(4) The name of a month ( M. vi, 32), the beam of a balance (M., XH, 
163), a balance (M., L, 48, 172-195.) 

TULA-DANDA The horizontal rod of a balance, the beam, its 

synonyms. 

Tuladandam jayanti cha phalaka-paryaya-vachakah I 

(M., xvi, 48, etc.) 
TULA-BHARA An article of furniture used as a hanging balance. 

Bhupanam cha tula-bhara-tula-lakshanarh uchyate I (M., L., 48.) 
In connexion with the pavilion: 

Evam tu nripa-harmye tu tula-bhararh tu yogyakam I 

(M., xxxiv, 287.) 

TAILA-MAftJUSHIKA An oil-pot, used as an article of furniture. 

(M., L, 144 : see under BHUSHANA.) 

TORANA An arch, a canopy, a gate-way of a temple or stupa, 
a peg, a mechanical arrangement of blocks of any hard material 
disposed in the line of some curve and supporting one another by 
their mutual pressure. It is employed both as an architectural 
member, as well as an ornament to buildings, thrones, pedestals for 
an image, boundary walls, and over gate-ways, cars and chariots. 
In modern architectural treatises arches are considered in three 

aspects, namely, (i) form, (ii) the mode in which their parts are 

constructed, and (iii) the thrust they exert. 

In respect of their form arches are either straight, triangular, 

semi-circular or circular. The Mdnasdra adds another form 

called bow-shape which is apparently a little wider than the 

2l6 



HIMDU ARCHITECTURE TORANA 

semi-circle. ' The investigation of the equilibrium of arches ' 
as truly said by Mr. Gwilt (Encycl., article 1353), ' by the 
laws of statics does not appear to have at all entered into the 
thoughts of the ancient architects. Experience, imitation and 
a sort of mechanical intuition seem to have been their guides. 
They appear to have preferred positive solidity to nice balance 
and the examples they have left are rather the result of art 
than of science. Vitruvius, who speaks of all the ingredients 
necessary to form a perfect architect (see under STHAPATI), does not 
allude to the assistance which may be afforded in the construction 
of edifices by a knowledge of the resolution of forces nor the aid that 
may be derived from the study of such a science as descriptive geo- 
metry, though of the latter it seems scarcely possible the ancients 
could have been ignorant, seeing how much it must have been 
(practically, at least) employed in the construction of such vast 
buildings as the Coliseum, and other similarly curved structures, 
as respects their plan.' 

(2) ' Whoever invented the true or radiating arch, the Romans 
were the first who applied it as a regular and essential architectural 
feature, and who at the same time introduced its complements, the 
radiating dome, into architectural construction at what peiiod it is not 
now known.' (Fergusson : Hist, of Ind. and East. Architecture, p. 212.) 
But we have got clear references to it in the Rdmayana (see below) which 
must be placed before sixth or seventh century B c. 

(3) Mdnasdra, Chap. XLVI (named Torana) 1-77 : 

The torana is an ornament (bhushana) for all kinds of thrones 
(line i), as well as for temples and royal palaces (line 30). These arches 
admit of various forms. They may be circular, semi-circular, triangular 
(? hexagonal, tri-yugma), bow-shaped, or of any other desirable 
forms (lines 31-32, 33-36). The directions for making these arches as 
well as the measurements of their different parts are given in detail 
(lines 3-29, 45-76). With regard to ornaments and decorations, arches 
are divided into four kinds, technically called, Patra-torana (leaf-arch), 
Pushpa-torana (flower-arch), Ratna-torana (jewelled arch), and Chitra- 
torana (ornamental-arch) (lines 37-38). 

All these arches are both structurally and ornamentally decorated with 
the carvings of gods, sages, demi-gods, goblins, crocodiles, sharks, fishes, 
leographs, serpents, lions, flowers, leaves, creepers, etc., and are beautifully 
set with jewels : 

Sarvesham torana-madhye chordhve tumburu-naradam I 

Tad-pradese dvi-parsve tu makaradi-vibhushitam I 

217 



TORANA AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Toranasyagra-mule tu graha-patrais" cha bhushitam I 
Toranadyarh tu patradi-bhuta-vyala-samanvitam I 
Padanam cha dvi-parsVe tu vyala-torana-dharinam I 

(M., XLVI, 45-49.) 

Ratnakarariganair yuktaih kukshi(r) avrita-lambitam I 
Toranasyopari-dese tu bhujariga-pada-dvayor api I 
Grahantaih sarva-ratnais" cha puritaih sreni-samyutam I 

(ibid, 5&-6o.) 

But these arches may as well be quite plain, that is, without any such 
carvings (chitra-hina) (ibid, 68, 70.) 

In connexion with a detached pavilion (mandapa) : 

Chatur-dikshu chatur-dvararh chatus-torana-samyutam I 

(M., LXX, 21 : see also xxxiv, 217.) 
In connexion with the pedestal of an image : 

Padma-pltham maha-pltharii tri-murtinam cha yojayet I 
Prapa cha toranarii vapi kalpa-vriksharh cha sarhyutam I 

(M., LI, 86-87.) 
In connexion with the coronation-hall : 

PaSchat simhadyais cha kalpa-vriksham cha toranam I 

. , , (M., XLIX, 185.) 

In connexion with the car or chariot : 

Sikhi-sikhandaka-chamara-toranam I (M., XLUI, 156.) 
In connexion with the two-storeyed buildings : 

Toranair nfda-bhadradi(-dyaih) mule^chordhve cha bhushitam I 

(M., xx, 64.) 
In connexion with buildings in general (vimana) : 

Sala cha nasika-bhadre kuta-nldais tu toranaih ! 

(M., xviii, 201, etc.) 
In connexion with the dome and the pillar : 

Athava toranam kritva stambhasyopari vajanam I 
Tad-udhve toranasyante makara-patra-samyutam I 
Tad-urdhve toranantam syad eka-dandam tu tach-chhiram I 
Makari-vaktra-samyuktam. . . 

(M., xiv, 130, 133-135.) 
(4) Tilaka-kshudra-nasi-yukta-toranais cha samanvitam 1 1 

(Kamikagama, L, 93, etc.) 
See ibid., LV, 59-63, 56-70, and compare : 

Toranam tri-vidharh patra-toranam makaranvitam I 
Chitra-toranam ity-esham mandanarh chadhunochyate 1 1 
Deva-dvija-narendranam toranam makarakhyakam I 
Toranam chitra-sajnam tu vaisyanam pravidhiyate I 
Padma(patra)khya-toranam sudre sarvam sarvatra va matam 1 1 

(Ibid, LV, 64, 93.) 

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HINDU ARCHITECTURE TORANA 

(5) ... Toranam vakshyate'dhuna I 

Prishthe tu parsvayos' chaiva kartavyas toranas tatha II 
Dvarasyotsedha-manam yat toransyochchhrayarh bhavet I 
Tad-ardham vistararh proktam uchchhraye shad-vibhajite II 
Makararh tu dv(i)yarhs'ena sesham padam iti smritam I 
Mula-padasya ckardhena tasya pada-pramanakam 1 1 
Makararhs'arii tad-urdhve tu madhye vrittarh sa-nimnakam I 
Vritter urdhve uharh kritva ckatur-ayatam eva tu II 
Pramanam toranasyoktam prastaraih cha tatah srinu 1 1 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 68-72.) 

(6) Mahabharata (Cock) : 

XIV, 25, 23 : Stambhan kanaka-chitrams cha toranani 
vritanti cha I 

XIV, 85, 29 : Toranani Sata-kumbha-mayani I 

XV, 5, 1 6 : Puram. . . . dridha-prakara-toranam I 
XII, 44, 8 : Hema-torana-bhushitam griham I 

VIII, 33, 19 : Bahu-prakara-toranam I 

V, 191, 21 : Sthuna-bhavanam. . . . uchcha-prakara-toranam 
See also V, 143, 23 ; m, 284, 2 ; in, 160, 39 ; in, 15, 5 ; n ; 9, i ; n, 3, 
26, i, 185, 17 ;i, 109,8, etc. 

(7) Rdmayana (Cock) : 

II j 91, 32 : Harmya-prasada-samyukta-toranani I 

I, 5, 10 : Kapata-torana-vatim. . . . purim I 

II, 15, 32 : Rama-vesma. . . . mani-vidruma-toranam I 

III, 45, ii : Hema-kakshya purl ramya vaidurya-maya-torana I 
V, 3, 33 : Nagarim lankam satta-prakara-toranam I 

V, 4, 24 : Griham. . . . maha-hataka-toranam I 
SeealsoIV, 33, 17 ; v, 2, 18, 51 ; v. 6,4 ; v, 18, 8 ; v, 27, 31 ; v, 37, 
39 ; v, 41, 21 ; v, 42, 27 ; v, 39, 42 ; v, 44, 6 ; v, 42, 6 ; v, 46, 
20, 41 ; v, 47, 7, 38 ; v, 53, 39 ; v, 55, 32 ; vi, 25, 24, 30 ; vi, 
26, 12 ; vi, 41, 31, 56 ; vi, 42, 15 ; vi, 75, 21 ; vn, 3, 27 ; vn, 5, 
25; vii, 13, 5; vn, 14, 24, 27, 28, 29; vii, 15, 36; vn. 38. 17. 

(8) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIV, v. 15) : 

Chaturbhis toranair yukto mandapa(h) syach chatur-mukhah 1 1 
The pavilion should have four faces and be furnished with four 
arched gateways (arches). 

Aishtaka dar(a)vas chaiva aila va syuh sa-torana 1 1 

(Ibid., Chap. CCLXIX, v. 46.) 

(9) Vdyu-Purdna (Part I, Chap, xxxix, vv. 36, 51, 60) : 

Harmya-prasada-kalilah praihs'u-prakara-toranah 1 1 
Asltya-amara-pury-abha maker-prakara-toranah II 
Pandure charu-sikhare maha-prakara-torane II 

219 



TORANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA of 

(10) Kautillya-Artha-Sastra (Chap, xxiv, p. 53) : 

Dvi-hastam torana-Sirah ' a top-support of ornamental arches 
projecting as far as two cubits. ' 

(11) Sarva-deva-maya-charu-toranam svarga-khandam iva vedhasa 
svayam c the beautiful porch which contains all the gods like a 
portion of heaven made by the Creator himself. ' 

' In his account of the ruins of the temple, Mr. Dean speaks of a 
doorway relieved by an architrave of most elaborate sculpture, 
divilded into twelve compartnents, in each of which a group 
from the Hindu Pantheon occupies a place. ' 

(Harsha Stone Inscrip., v. 44, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, 
pp. 121, 126, 124, 128 ; cf. note 72.) 

(12) A sort of triumphal arch, supported by two pillars : 
Atma-bahu-yuga-sauhrid-arhchita-stambha-saurabha-subham su- 

toranam (Cintra PraSasti of the reign of Saranga-deva, v. 46, Ep., Ind., 
Vol. i, pp. 284, 276.) 

(13) See Sridhara's Devapattana prasasti (verse to, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, 
p. 440), and compare : 

Sughatita-vrisha-Sata-torana-dvaram ' an excellent porch at 
which a bull is skilfully carved. '(Ibid., v. 12, p. 121.) 

(14) Ornamental arch (for the temple) : Prasada-toranam I 

(Jaina Inscrip. from Mathura, no. i, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. H, p. 198.) 

(15) A semi-circular arch with sculpture. 

(Specimens of sculptures from Mathura, Plate 
m, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, p. 320-321.) 

(16) Makara-torana ' arch with a shark.' 

(Ranganatha Inscrip. of Sundarapandya, v. 9, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 12, 15.) 

(17) Arch (Cochin plates of Bhaskara Ravivarman, line 10, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. Ill, p- 68, 69). 

(18) Vyadhatta sri-somesaspada-mukutavat toranam karhchanasya I 

' Erected a golden torana like a diadem for the abode of the 

holy Somesa. ' 

(The Chahamanas of Naddula, no. c, 

Sundha Hill Inscrip. of Chachigadeva 
v. 34, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 77, 72.) 

(19) ' In front of the basadi of nokkijabbe, the family goddess of her 
husband Vira-Santara, she had a makara-torana made. ' (Ep. Carnal., 
Vol. via, Part I, Nagar Taluq, no. 47 , Transl., p. 151, para. 2.) 

220 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE TORANA 

(20) ' We grant to you in addition throne, crown palanquin, white 
umbrella, chamaras on both sides, makara-torana (a kind of arched 
canopy), fan, day-light torch, yellow and red flags and such insignia, 
with cymbals, . . .' (Ibid., no. 67, Transl., p. 157, line 14 f.) 

(21) ' Who ( Sri-Raj endra-Sola-Devar, A. D. 1034) having sent 
(many ships in the midst of the bellowing sea) and having captured 
Sangirama-visaiyot-tungapannam, the king of Kidaram, along with his 
victorious fine elephants which had (well formed) frontal globes and 
resembled the impetuous sea took the large heap of treasure which 
he had rightfully amassed, the Vichchadira-toranam at the war-gate 
of the enemy's extensive city, the wicket-door set with jewels of great 
splendour, and the door set with large jewels.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. ix, 
Channapatna Taluq, nos. 82, 83 ; Roman Text, p. 185, line 5 from the bottom 
upwards ; Transl., 149.) 

(22) ' White chamaras, the crown banner, makara-torana, herds of 
camels.' (Ibid. no. 85; Transl., p. 150.) 

(23) ' Built a beautiful stone temple with the torana-gate and the surround- 
ings walls. Having provided the temple^with a flower-garden, kitchen, 
pond, suitable environs, musical instrument (two named) and ornaments 
(some named) . . . ' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, Kolar Taluq, no. 132 ; Roman 
text, p. 54 ; Transl., p. 49.) 

(24) Svarna-dvararh sthapitarh toranena sarddham Srimal-Lokanathasya 
gehe I 

' Placed a golden door and torana in the temple of glorious Lokanatha.' 
The inscription is ' on the lintel of the door of the temple of AvalokiteS- 
vara in Bungmati. The door is made of gilt brass plates, and adorned by 
relieves. The arch or torana above the door, which is likewise made of brass, 
encloses three images of Lokesvara.' 

(Inscrip. from Nepal, no. 21, Inscrip. of Srinivasa, 
line 6 f., Ind., Ant., Vol. rx, p. 192, note 62.) 

(25) Suganam raje . . . Dhanabhutina karitam toranarh silakammarhta 
cha uparimo (=Sunganam rajye . . . Dhanabhutina karitam toranarh 
Silakarmantas" chotpannah) I 

' During the reign of the Sungas (first or second century B. c.) this gate- 
way was erected, and the masonry finished by Vachhi-puta (Vatsi-putra) 
Dhanabhiiti.' 

(Sunga Inscrip. of the Bharhut Stupa, line 3 f., Ind. Ant., 
Vol. xrv, pp. 138, 139 ; no. i, Vol. xxi, p. 227.) 

(26) ' Pulling down the temple which had fallen to ruin, had it securely 
rebuilt with a gopura, a makara-torana for the god Durgisvara, and god 
Vrishabha.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. ni, Tirumakiidlu-Narasipur Taluq, no. 103 : 
Transl., p. 88 ; Roman Text, p. 170.) 

221 



TAULI AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(27) ' The sculptor Kalidasi, champion over the proud, a thunderbolt 
to the rock (vajra-giri), titled sculptor, made the makara-torana (or 
carved headpiece for the lintel).' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, part I, Supplement, 
Belur Taluq, no. 239 ; Transl., p. 275 j Roman Text, p. 592.) 

(28) ' Those Brahmans, pleased with Basi-Setti, gave to his wife and 
children a large palanquin and a canopy (torana) to descend to his 
children.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vi, Chikmagalur Taluq, no. 44 ; Transl., p. 39 ; 
Roman Text, p. 104.) 

(29) ' The Vira-bhikshavati-udana-svami honoured the Svami of the 
Galipuje throne with the follwing : a palanquin with silver mountings, 
a pearl necklace, a golden umbrella, the double chamaras, a makara (torana) 
canopy ... for the feet, a Mukkanna drum, a Basava drum, a Nandi flag, 
etc.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vi, Chikmagalur Taluq, no. 109 ; Transl., p. 51, para 
2 ; Roman Text, p. 124, line 8 f.) 

(30) ' Toran(a) A structure formed of one or more horizontal beams 
resting on columns : a gateway or other detached entrance.' (Rea, 
Chalukyan Architecture, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, p. 40.) 

(31) See Cunningham, Arch. Surv. Reports (Vol. xxi, Plate XL, Torana 
of great temple, Nand-Chand). 

(32) 'Torana (i) Gate-way of a temple or Stupa, (2) a peg used in 
marriage ceremonies.' (Vincent Smith, Gloss, to Cunningham's Arch. Surv. 
Reports.) 

TAULI The top of a building, a roof, the ceiling. 
Mukhottarayate nyasya tiryak taulim prakalpayet I 
Padam vayate taulim kuryad yuktya vichakshanah I 
Tad-urdhve jayantikam kuryat tat-tat-prachchhadananvitam I 

(M., xxxm, 372-374.) 
See PRACHCHHADANA and compare PRATAULI. 

TRI-KARNA A kind of joinery, of three-earn pattern. 

(M., xvn, 106 ; see under SANDHI-KARMAN.) 
TRI-TALA The second floor, the third storey. 

The description of the third storey. (M., xxi, 56-72 ; the eight classes, 
2 ~55 5 see under PRASADA.) 
TRI-PATTA A three-fold band, a moulding. 

A moulding of the vase. (M., xrv, 74, 143, 248, etc.; compare the lists of 
mouldings under ADHISHTHANA.) 

TRI-BHAftGA (see BHANGA) A pose in which the image is bent 
in three places. In this pose a figure has its head and hips displaced 
about one arhSa (part) to the right or left of the centie line. 

(See details under BHANGA.) 

222 




TRIPATTA 




TARAMGA. 




o 



c 



T.ATIKA. 



TRIKARNA JOINERY 



TRIKAP.NA 



Pane 223 



I 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE DANDA(-MANA) 

TRI-BHITT-(IKA) A three-fold wall, a structure having such a 

wall. 

(M., xxxiv, 74.) 

TRI-BHtJMI (see TRI-TALA) The third storey, a three-storeyed 
building. 

In connexion with an image : 

Evam tu Vishnu-murtih syach chhakti-yuktam tu parsVayoh I 
Tri-bhumirdakshine vame sthavare jangame'piva I 

(M., LI, 62-63.) 
TRI-MURTI The triad, the images of Brahma, Vishnu and 

Siva. 

(M., LI, 2-95.) 

TRI-YUTA A site plan in which the whole area is divided into 

289 equal squares. 

(M., vii, 23 ; see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

TRI-VARGAKA A set of three architectural members or mould- 
ings. 

Pinopapitharh harmyam cheva mandapam cha tri-vargakam I 

(M., xxxiv, 68.) 

Nanda-pankty-ama(-5e) vibhajet chatus-tale tu tri-vargakam I 

(M., XXXHI, 505.) 
In connexion with the foundations : 

Manjushochchrayam chatur-bhagam tat-tad ekasanam bhavet I 
Tad-dvayam changhri-tungarh syad ekams'am prastaranvitam I 
Tri-varga-mandapakaram adbhih svantam pravishtake I 

(M., xn, 34-36.) 

TRI-VISHTAPA A class of buildings, octangular in plan and called 
(i) Vajra, (2) Chakra, (3) Svastika, (4) Vajra-svastika, (5) Chitra, 
(6) Svastika-khadga, (7) Gada, (8) Srikantha, and (9) Vijaya. 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, w. 12, 20-21 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVH, w. 21, 22, 23, 31-32 ; see under PRASADA.) 
TVASHTRI An architect (see details under STHAPATII. 



D 



DANDA(-MANA) A measure, a type of building, a flag-staff, a 
pillar, a parapet (M., xvi, 194-196). 

(i) A measure of four cubits (see under A^OULA) : 

Chatur-hastarh dhanur dandarh dandashtam rajjum eva cha I 

(M., n, 53.) 
223 




DANDAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Compare hasta-danda (M., n, 68), mana-danda (ibid., 76). 
A stick (M., n, 223), a measure (M., ix, 10, etc.) ; in connexion with 
joinery (M., xvn, 200). 

(2) A house with a northern and eastern hall (see DANDA-KANTA) . 

(Bfihat-Samhita, LIII, 39.) 

(3) Chatur-hasto dhanur dando nalika-jugam eva cha > 

(Brahmanda-Purana, Part I, and Anushariga- 
pada, Chap, vn, v. 100.) 

(4) A class of buildings. (Kamikagama, XLV, 64 ; see under MALIKA.) 

(5) AchaleSa-damdam uchchaih sauvarnnarii Samara-bhupalah Karaya- 

masa I 

' The protector of the earth, Samara, caused a golden flagstaff to be erect- 
ed here (in the temple at Abu) for the lord of the mountain.' 

(Mount Abu Inscrip. of Samarasimha 
v. 54, Ind. Ant., Vol. xvi, pp. 350, 355. 

(6) Danda ' an unspecified measure, also called Stambha.' Bamani 
Inscrip. of the Silahara Vijayaditya, lines 20, 21, 23, Ep. Ind., Vol. 111, pp. 212, 
2I3-) 

DANDAKA A pillar, a village, a pavilion, a hall, a moulding. 

(1) A part of a column. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, 586, etc.; see under STAMBHA.) 

(2) Manasdra : 

A class of villages (M., ix, 2, etc.; see under GRAMA). 
A part (? shaft) of the column (A/., xv, 44, 149 ; L, 85). 
A small pillar (M., xvm, 172). 
type of pavilion with two faces : 
Dvi-vaktram dandakarii proktam tri-vaktram svastikarh tatha I 

(M., xxxrv, 552 ; see further context under MANDAPA.) 
A class of halls or storeyed mansions built in a single row (M., xxxv, 
3, description ibid, 65-66, 82-95, under ALA.) 

DANDA-KANTA A class of halls, a type of storeyed mansions. 

(M. t xxxv, 104; see DANPAKA.) 
DANDIKA The fifth moulding from the top of the entablature. 

(KSmikdgama, uv, 2 ; see under PRASTARA.) 
DANDITA Smaller buildings, pavilions near the door. 
Cf. Dvara-manam tathaivaih syat dandita-dvaram ardhatah I 

(Ibid., xxxv, 45, etc.) 
224 




HINDU ARCHITECTURE DA$A TALA 

DANTA-KILA A kind of tooth-like joinery. 

(M., XVH, 177 ; see SANDHI-KARMAN.) 
DANTA-NALA A tooth-like drain or canal. 

In connexion with the general description of the single-storeyed build- 
ings : 

Madhyame chottame harmye danta-nalam pramanakam I 

( A xix T fifl ^ 

DAM(A) (see DHAMAN) A house. 

(R.-V., i, i, 8 ; ii, i, a ; Vj. Sam. vm 24, etc.) 

DARI-GRIHA (see KANDARA-GRIHA) The cave-house generally 
hewn out of rocks, underground rooms. 

See Kalidasa's Kumarasambhava (i, 10, 14 ; quoted also by Professor Liider) 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxiv, p. 199.) 

DARPANA A looking-glass, a mirror, an ornament. 
In connexion with the single-storeyed buildings : 

Palike lambanam tatra sYenya darpana(m) proktavat I (M., xix, 42. 
In connexion with the car or chariot : 

Rathanam chordva-des"asya alankaram pravakshyate I 
Vividha-kinkini-nirmala-darpanam. . . . \-( M , XLHI, 148, 157.) 
An article of furniture (M., L, 46), its description (ibid., 111-131). 
DARBHA A type of pavilion, used as stables foi elephants. 

(M., xxxiv, 253 ; see under MAISTDAPA.) 
DALA-A petal, a leaf, a moulding of leaf-pattern. 

A moulding of the pedestal (M. } xin, 75, 82, etc.; see the lists of mould- 
mgs under UPAP!THA). 

A moulding of the throne (M., XLV, 160, etc.). 

DASA-KANTA-A collective name of the ten classes of twelve- 
storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxx, 7.) 

DASA-TALA The tenth storey, the ten-storeyed buildings. 
Etad das"a-talam proktam rajju-sutram adhas-talam I 

(KSmikagama, xxxv, 85 ) 

storey (M 

225 



DASA-TALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

DA&A-TALA A sculptural measure (see under TALA-MANA). 

See Amhmadbheda of Kasyapa (MS. Egg. 3148, 3012, fol. 266, the largest 
type of the daa-tala measure ; and fol. 274, the smallest type of the same.) 

DASA-BHUMI (see DASA-TALA) The tenth storey, the ninth floor- 

DAGABA A Singalese word applied to a stupa, derived from Sanskrit 
' dhatu,' a relic, element, and garbha, a womb, receptacle, or shrine. 
See further details under DHATUGARBHA, cf. Vinaya Texts, 4, 308. 
They were pre-Buddhistic in origin, see White Yajurveda, Chap. xxxv. 

DIPA-DANDA A lamp-post, a lamp-bearing pillar. 

Compare Dipa-stambha, and Dipa-skambha under STAMBHA and see 
the plates referred to. 

The stationary lamp-post is generally built in front of the house 
(M., L. 64) ; the movable lamp-stand is square, octagonal or circular 
(ibid., 84) ; they are made of iron, wood, or stone (ibid., 71-89) ; their 
description in detail (ibid., 57-83, 84, 96). 

DIPA-DANA A lamp-pillar. In the south (of India) it is usually 
a high monolith, with an iron lamp-bracket on the top. In the north- 
west of the Presidency of Madras such pillars are sometimes constructed 
in courses, with lamp-brackets in the joints. These pillars are erected 
outside the front entrance. 

(Chalukyan Architecture, p. 38, Arch. Surv., New 
Imp. Series, Vol. xxi ; see Plate cix, fig. i.) 

DIPA-MALA(-SKAMBHA, DIPA-STAMBHA, DIPTI-STAM. 
BHA) (see STAMBHA) A lamp-bearing pillar, generally belonging 
to the Jain monuments. 

A small lamp-pillar, standing inside the temple (Chalukyan Architec- 
ture, p. 38, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xxi ; see Plate cix, fig. i). 

DUNDUBHI A type of round buildings. 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, w. 17-18 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLvn, w. 21, 23, 28, 29, see under PRASADA). 

DURGA Lit. ' difficult to go ' into, hence a fortified place, a fort, 
a fortified city. 

(i) Manasara: 

As fortified cities, the forts are called sibira, vahini-mukha, 
sthaniya, dronaka, sambidhha, kolaka, nigama and skandh- 
avara. 

(M., x, 40-42.) 
236 



DHARA KUMBHA. 




P 






IMPA STAMBHA 



7 



BAMBOO PEGS. 



DANTA K!LA. 





DHVAJA STAMBHA 




TOOTH-SHAPED. 



DENTICULATED. 
DANTA NALA. 



Pitae 226 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE DURGA 

For purely military purposes, they are classified as giri-durga (hill- 
fort), vana-druga (forest-fort), salila-durga (water-fort), panka-durga 
(clay-fort), ratha-durga (chariot-fort), deva-durga (divine-fort), and 
misra-durga (mixed fort) (M., x, 90-91). Their description in detail 
is given (ibid., 90-103). 
Their common features : 

Sarvesham api durganam vaprais" cha parikhair vritam I 
PraveSa-nirgama-sthane dvarair api samanvitam I 
Ishtakadi-kritam vaprarh hasta-dvadasakochchhrayam I 
Tad-ardharh bhitti-mule tu samcharaih saha vistritam I 

(M., x. 106-109.) 

(2) Kautiliya-Arlha-sastra (Chap, xxiv, para i, p. 51): 

Chatur-disarh jana-padante samparayikam daiva-kritam durgam 
karayat antar-dvlpam sthalam va nimnavaruddham audakam 
prastaram guharii va parvatam nirudaka-stambam-irinam va 
dhanvanam kha-janodakarh stamba-gahanam va vana- 
durgam I 
Tesham nadi-parvata-durgam jan-padaraksha-sthanam dhan- 

vana-vana-durgam atavi-sthanam apadya prasaro va I 
Then follows the very interesting description of the plan and 
other architectural details, the military defences, and intern a 
arrangement for the comfort and convenience of the inhabitants. 

The contents of Chapters xxrv, xxv, and xxn, when taken to- 
gether, will give a good idea of the ancient fortified cities : 

They can be circular, square or rectangular. They are sur- 
rounded with moats (parikha), enclosure walls and ramparts 
(prakara and vapra), and are furnished with various entrances, 
exits and gateways (pratoli). Circumambulating flights of 
steps (pradakshina-sopana) and secret staircases in the walls (gudha 
bhitti-sopana) are constructed. Towers are built on the enclo- 
sure walls and warlike weapons are placed therein. In the interior 
are constructed tanks, ponds, canals, etc. Various kinds of roads 
are constructed, and buildings for the people of different castes 
and professions are erected in a suitable manner. 

(3) Sukraniti (Chap. iv. sect, vi, vv. 2-16, 23-28, ed. Jivananda Vidya 
sagara, p. 447 f.) 

' Fortresses are made inaccessible through ditches, thorns, 
rocks and deserts. The Parikha fort is that which is surrounded on 
all sides by great ditches (parikha); and the Parigha fort is known 
to be that which is protected by walls of bricks, stones and mud. 

227 



DURGA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The Vana or forest-fort is one which is encircled by huge thorns and 
clusters of trees. The Dhanva-durga is known to be that round about 
which there is no water. The Jala-durga or water-fort is that which 
is surrounded by great sheets of water. The Giri-durga or hill-fort 
is described as that one which is on the high level and is supplied 
with plenty of water. The Sainya-durga or troop-fort is that one 
which is defended by heroes well up in vyuhas or military defence 
and hence impregnable. The Sahaya-durga or help- fort is known to 
be that which belongs to valorous and friendly kinsfolk. ' 

(4) Lankapuri niralamba deva-durga-bhayavaha I 

Nadeyam parvatarh vanyam kritrimarh cha chatur-vidham II 
Sailagre rachita-durga sa pur deva-puropama I 

(Ramdyana, Laiikakanda, Sarga 3, vv. 20, 22.) 

(5) Khetanarh cha puranarh cha gramanam chaiva sarvasah I 
Tri-vidhanam cha durganam parvatodaka-dhanvinam II 

(Brahmanda-Purana, Part i, 2nd Anushanga- 
pada, Chap, vn, v. 105 ; see also v. 102.) 

(6) Dhanur-durga-mahi-durgam ab-durgarh varksharh eva va I 
Nri-durgam giri-durgarh va samaSritya vaset puram II 

(Manu-Samhita, vn, 70, etc.) 

(7) Shad-vidharh durgam asthaya purany-atha niveSayet I 
Sarva-sarhpat-pradhanarh yad bahulyarh chapi sambhavet II 
Dhanva-durgarh mahi-durgam giri-durgarh tathaiva cha I 
Manushya-Hurgarh mrid-durgarh vana-durgam cha tani sha^ll 

Then follows the description of details of these fortified places. 

(Mahabharata, xn, 86, 4-5, etc.\ 

(8) Yo'yarh samastam api mandalam au Satror achchhidya kirtti- 
giri*durgam idam vyadhatta ' having quickly wrested from the enemy 
this whole district (mandala) made this fort of Kirtigiri.' (Chandella 
Inscrip. no. B, Deogattha rock Inscrip. of Kirtivarman, v. 6, Ind. Ant., Vol. 
xvra, pp. 238, 239.) 

(9) Lakshml-nrisirhha-paripalita-purva-tishte durge su-bhima-parighe 

MalavaHi-namni I 
Vedantagaih Srutiparaih smriti-dharma-vidyaih purne sma 

karayati deva-nripas-saro'gryam II 

' In the fort named Malavalli, protected on the east by (the 
temple of) Lakshmi-Nrisirhha, having a deep moat, filled with 
men learned in the Vedanta (i.e., philosophy), Sruti (Vedas), 
Smriti and Dharma-Sastra that Deva-nripati made a maginificent 
pond. ' 

228 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE DEVA-DURGA 

Evidently this ' durga ' or fort is not a military post or station ; 
its inmates are people learned not in the military science but in 
philosophy and religion. At the same time it is protected by 
' deep moat.' It is, therefore, just like the villages or towns 
described in the Mdnasdra. 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. in, Malavalli Taluq 
no. 6 1 ; Roman Text, last verse > 
p. 126 ; Transl., p. 62.) 
(10) See the fort-temple. 

(Chalukyan Architecture, Arch. Surv., New Imp . 
Series, Vol. xxi, Plate cxiv, figs, i, 2.) 

DURYA Door-posts, belonging to doors, dwellings. 

(R.-V., i, 9, 18 ; 2, 12 ; vii, i, n ; i, 91, 19 ; x, 40, 
12 ; Taitt. Sam., i, 6, 3, i ; Vdj. Sam., i, u.) 

DURLABHA-GRAMA A village situated close to a large village 
(maha-grama) and inhabited by the free-holders (agraharopajivin) . 

(Af., x, 79-80 ; see under GRAMA.) 
DEVA-KANTA A class of the eight-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxvi, 46-47 ; see under PRASADA.) 

DEVA-KULA(-IKA) A chapel, a shrine, a temple, a statue shrine, 
a statue gallery. 

(1) ' Kandasenan (Skandasena) . . . caused (this) temple (deva-kula) 
to be made.' (Vallam Inscip. of Mahendrapotaraja, no. 72, A. B ; H. S. I. I., 
Vol. H, p. 341.) 

(2) See inscriptions from Northern Gujarat (no. xxr, line 4, Ep. 
Ind., Vol. u, p. 31.) 

(3) See the inscription of the Samvat 168 in Sarada character at 
Peshwar Museum. 

(4) Compare statue gallery of Ikshvaku Kings described in the Pra- 
tima Nataka of Bhasa, and Kushan Kings Vamatakeshma and Kanishka 
and the Saka Satrap Ghastana excavated in a mound near Mathura and 
preserved in the Mathura Museum. 

DEVA-GARBHA Foundations of temples (see under GARBHA- 

NYASA). 

DEVATA-MANDAPA A class of pavilions. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 96, 98 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

DEVA-DURGA (see DURGA) A god's fort, a divine or natural 
fort. 

229 



DEVA-NIKETA-MANDALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

' Having sacked deva-durga. which formerly the Chola King (or the 
Chola named Narendra) had made certain could not be taken, he by his 
valour captured Uchchahgi, together with all the empire of the Pandya 
King.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Parti ; Belur Taluq, no. 119 ; Transl., p. 78 ; 
Roman Text, pp. 182-183.) 

DEVA-NIKETA-MANDALA A group of temples. 

Achikarad deva-niketa-mandalam . . . stambha-varo-chchhraya-pra- 
bhase ' caused to be made a group of temples . . . which is 
beautiful with the erection of (this) best of columns. ' (Bihar Stone 
Pillar Inscrip. of Skandagupta, lines 5-6, C.I.I., Vol. ill, F. G. I. no. 12, 
PP- 49. 50 

DEVA-BHCSHANA-MANDAPA A detached pavilion where the 
idols are dressed, a dressing room in a temple. 

(M., xxxii, 71; see under MANDAPA.) 

DEVAYATANA (see AYATANA) A temple. 

Kritva prabhutarh salilam araman vinivesya cha I 
Devayatanarii kuryad yaSo-dharmabhivriddhaye II 
' Having made great water reservoirs and laid out gardens, let one 
build a temple to heighten one's reputation and merit.' 

(Brihat-Samhitd, LVI, i : J. R. A. S., N. S 

Vol. vi, p. 316.) 
Ramayana (Cock): 



I- 5> '3 

I- 77> '3 

II. 6, 4 

II. 6, ii 

II. 3, 18 

II. 25, 4 

VII. 101, 15 



(Purim) . . . devayatanais chaiva vimanair api- 

Sobhitam I 
Devayatanani I 
Srlmaty-ayatane vishnoh I 
Sitabhra-sikharabheshu devayataneshu I 
Devayatana-chaityesbu (also n, 71, 72). 
Deveshv-ayataneshu cha I 
(Ubhe purottame) . . . sobhite Sobhaniyais" cha 



devayatana-vistaraih I 
Devayatana-chaityeshu I (Mahabhdrata, H, 80, 30, etc.) 

Cf. Grama-nagara-kheda-karvvada-madamba-drona-mukha-pattanam 
galimdam aneka-mata-kuta-prasada-devayatanarhgalidarh-oppuva- 

agrahara-pattanamgalimdam ati^ayav-appa ... I 

[At Teridala, a merchant-town situated in the centre and the 
first in importance among the twelve (towns) in the glorious Kundi 
Three-Thousand, adorned with] ' villages towns, hamlets, villages 
surrounded by hills, groups of villages, sea-girt towns, and chief cities 

230 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE DEVALAYA 

with elegant mansions, palaces and temples, and with shining agrahara 
towns in the country of Kuntala . . . ' 

(Old Kanarese Inscrip. at Terdal, line 58 ; 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

DEVALAYA A god's residence or dwelling, in the sense of temple 
it is of very common occurrence and needs no illustrative quotations. 
But the passages quoted below are the most descriptive of all the 
essential features of a Hindu temple and will fully explain the denota- 
tion of the term. 

The general plan : 

(i) ' Sometimes a portico is made round the garbha-griha (shrine 
and antarala (corridor) together. The whole being closed on all 
sides but the front, in which are the doors for entrance, approached 
by the front portico, which is generally a peristyle, and it serves as 
the innermost court for pradakashina (circumambulation).' 

' Temples on a large scale have three or four successive porti- 
coes (mandapa) attached to them in the front, which are called 
ardha-mandapa, maha-mandapa, sthapana-mandapa, vritya 
mandapa, etc. ' 

' A water spout is made over the base on the back wall of 
the garbha-griha on the left side of the idol. On the surface of 
the spout a cavity is made for discharging water. The spout 
may be made to spring from the head of a lion, etc. and the 
whole so devised as to project like a plantain flower.' 

(Ram Raz, Ess. Arch, of Hind., pp. 49, 50, 51.) 

(2) ' Krishnaraja-udayar, having created Chamaraja-nagara, 
created the Chamarajesvara temple (devalaya), together with its 
precincts (prakara), gopura (gateway) adorned with golden kalasas 
and tower (vimana), set up the great (maha) linga under the 
name of Chamarajesvara, and in the shrine (garbha-griha) to his left 
set up the goddess named Kempa-Nanjamaba, and in the shrine to 
his right the goddess Chamundesvari, and at the main entrance 
(mahadvara) on the east set up a gopura, on the colonnade 
(kaisaleyalli), to the south the ancient images (puratana-vigraha) , 
on the colonnade to the west a row of lifigas forming the thousand 
(sahasra) lingas and on the colonnade to the north twenty-five 
pleasing statues (lilamurti, cf. dhyana-murti) and on the south- 
west side building a separate temple (mandapa), set up the god 
Narayana together with Lakshmi.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Chamaraj- 
nagar Taluq, no. 86 ; Transl., p. 1 1, line 4 f. ; Roman Text, p. 18, line 8 f.) 

231 



DEVALAYA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(3 ' In Lakkugundi, which was his birth-place, Amritadanda- 
dhls"a built a temple (devalaya) , made a large tank, established 
a satra, formed an agrahara, and set up a water-shed. ' (Ep. 
Carnal., Vol. vi, Kadur Taluq, no. 36 ; Roman Text, p. 22, line 1 1 f. ; 
Transl., p. 8.) 

(4) Devalayaih prathayata nija-kirttim uchchaih ' who spread 
his fame aloft by (building) temple. ' (Sharqi Arch, of Jaunpur, Shahet- 
Mahet Inscrip., v. 14, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xi, pp. 72, 73.) 

The general plan : 

(5) ' The temple itself consists of the usual three parts : an 
open mandapa on a base, .... with a double row of pillars on 
the three exposed sides, and roofed by a large ribbed dome 
standing on the twelve inner pillars ; on each of the three outer 
sides it has a large projecting porch. Beyond this is the principal 
mandapa ... in the inner corner of this mandapa are two rooms. 
. . . Three doors with richly carved thresholds lead from the 
hall into the shrine. ' (Ahmedabad Arch., Burgess, Arch. Surv., New 
Imp. Series, Vol. xxxni, p. 29.) 

(6) ' It (the MallesVara temple at Hulikat) faces north and consists 
of a garbha-griha. an open sukha-nasi a nava-ranga and a porch.' 

' The Chennekesava temple, which faces east, consists of a 
garbha-griha, a sukha-nasi and a nava-ranga, and may have had a 
porch once. ' 

' The newly restored Sarada temple, situated to the north of 
the Vindya-s"ankara, is a fine structure in the Dravidian style 
consisting of a garbha-griha, sukha-nasi, a nava-ranga, and a 
prakara or enclosure. It faces east and has three entrances 
on the north, south, and east, the east entrance, which is the 
main entrance, having two open mandapas at the sides inside.' 

(Mysore Arch. Reports, 1915-16, p. 4, para. 10 ; 
p. 5, para. 12 ; p. 15, para. 19 ; see Plate m } 
figs, i, 2.) 

(7) ' There is, however, no doubt that it (the Hindu temple at 
Danui) was in the form of a cross with the usual ardha-mandapa, 
mandapa, maha-mandapa, antarala, and griha-garbha (garbha-griha).' 

(Cunningham, Arch. Suro. Reports, Vol. vn, 
p. 40 : see also ibid., plate, xix, showing in 
detail the mouldings of the Narayana-pura 
temple, ibid., Vol. xiv, Plate vn, Ionic temple 
of sun, ibid., Vol. xv, Plate vu, island temple, 
ibid., Vol. xiu, Plates xi, xn, xni, xiv, xv, 
xvi, groups of temples.) 

232 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE DRAVIDA 

DE&YA A site plan of one hundred and forty-four squares. 

(M. vii, 13, 14 ; see PADA-VINYASA.) 

DEHARI(-LI) A temple, the threshold of a door, a raised terrace. 

(See inscriptions from Northern Gujarat nos. xxn, line 3 ; xxxm, line 2 
xxiv, line i ; xxv, line 2 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. n, p. 32.) 

DEHI A defensive wall, trench or rampart. 

(R.-V., vi, 47, 2 ; vn, 6, 5, Schroder Pre-historic : 
Antiquities, 344 ; Zimner, All. Lib., 143, 
as in the names Videha or even Delhi.) 

DEHA-LABDHA&GULA (see under ANGULA) A measure equal 
to one of the equal parts into which the whole height of the statue 
of a god (or of the master and sometimes of the sculptor too) is divided 
according to the tala measures. This is employed in measuring 
the sculptural objects like the image of a god or man. 

(Suprabheddgama, xxx, 5, 6, 9 ; see under ANGULA.) 

DEHARA A porch, a terrace. 

(1) 'In a discourse on dharmma in an assembly held in the porch 
or terrace (dehara), the chaplain . . . set up a god in the name 
of their father. ' (Ep- Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Arsikere Taluq, no. 123 : 
Transl., p. 167, para. 2, line 4.) 

(2) ' From Vira-Hoysala he obtained (the appointment) of ins- 
pector of the servants of the porch or terrace (dehara).' (Ibid., no. 127, 
Transl., p. 170, para. 2, line 16.) 

DAIVIKA-(LlNGA) A type of phallus, a phallus of divine origin. 
Devais cha sthapitarh lingam daivikarii lingam uchyate I 

(M., LII, 230. See Kamikdgama 
L, 35. 37, under LINGA.) 
DOLA A swing, a hammock. 

' The great minister caused to be erected a dipti-stambha for the 
Krittika festival of lights and a swing (dola) for the swinging rade 
festival (dolarohotsavakke) of the god Chenna-Kesava of Belur. ' 
(Ep. Carnat., Vol. v, Part I, Belur Taluq, no. 14 ; Transl., p. 47 ; Roman Text, 
p. 107. See Mdnasara, under BHUSHANA.) 

DRAVIDA A style of achitecture, a type of building once prevailing 
in the ancient Dravida country (see details under NAGARA), India 
south of the Krishna corresponding to Tamil India. 

(S. K. Aiyangar, J. I. S, 0. A. of June, 1934, p. 23.) 

233 



DRUPADA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

A class of the twelve-storeyed builirigs : 

Ravi-bhumi-visale tu chashta-virhsariisakam bhavet I 
Maha-s"ala dasams"am syat Sesham purvavad acharet I 
Panchalarh dravidarh chaiva ravi-bhumy-alpha harmyake I 

(M., xxx, 8-10.) 

DRUPADA The civic and sacrificial posts, symbolical of royal 
and divine power to which offenders and sacrificial victims were 
tied. 

(R.-V., i, 24, 13 ; iv, 32, 23 ; vn, 86, 5 ; A.-V' 
63. 3 5 "5> 2 5 XIX > 47> 9 : Vdj. Sam., xx, 20. 

DRONAKA (see under DURGA and NAGARA) A fortified city 
situated on the bank of a sea, a sea-side town. 

Samudratatini-yuktarh tatinya dakshinottare I 
Vanighih saha nanabhih janair yuktam janaspadam I 
Nagarasya prati-tate grahakaiS cha samavritam I 
Kraya-vikraya-sarhyuktaih dronantaram udahritam I 

(M., x, 75-78.) 
A class of pavilion. (M., xxxiv, 423 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

DRONA-MUKHA A fort, a fortified town, a fortress. 

A fortress to defend a group of 400 villages : 

(1) ChatuS-sata-gramya drona-mukham I 

(Kautillya-Artha-Sastra, Chap, xxn, p. 46.) 

(2) Nagarani kara-varjitani nigama-vanijarh sthanani janapada 

desah pura-varani nagaraika-desa-bhutani drona-mukhani 
jala-sthalapathopetani I 

(PraSna-Vyakarana-sutra-vyakhyane, 
p. 306, ibid., p. 46, footnote.) 

(3) Grama-nagara-kheda-karvvada-madarhba-drona-mukha-pat- 
tana-galirhdam aneka-mata-kuta-prasada- devayatanarhgal-imdam- 
oppuva-agrahara-pattanarhgalirhdamatisayav-appa. . . . 

[At Tridala, a merchant town situated in the centre and the first 
in importance among the twelve (towns), in the glorious Kundi 
Three-Thousand adorned with] ' villages, towns, hamlets, villages 
surrounded by hills, groups of villages, sea-girt towns and chief cities, 
with elegant mansions, palaces and temples, and with shining 
agrahara towns in the country of Kuntala. ' (Old Kanarese Inscrip. 
at Terdal, line 58, Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

234 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE DVARA 

(4) ' With myriads of people, practices of virtue, agreeable 
occupations, streams of the (nine) sentiments, pleasure gardens, 
separated lovers, splendid tanks, full lotus-beds, gilded boats for 
spring festivals, ghatika-sthanas (religious centres), the supports of 
dharmma and mines of enjoyment, moats which were as if the sea 
being overcome had returned here on account of the collection of 
gems, groups of the lotus faces of beautiful women fair as the moon 
(grama-nagara-kheda-kharwana-madamba-drona- mukha-pura- patta- 
na-raja-dhani), on whatever side one looked, in these nine forms did 
the Kuntala-des > shine.' 

(It should be noticed that the passage within brackets is almost 
identical with the corresponding passage in quotation no. 3 above). 

(Ep. Carnat., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 

197 ; Transl., p. 124, para, i, last seven 

lines ; Roman Text, p. 214, line 27 f.) 

DVA-DA$A-TALA The twelve-storeyed buildings, the twelfth 
storey. 

(1) See Mdnasdra (Chap, xxx, 1-191, ten classes, ibid., 5-7, 8-36, see 
under PRASADA ; the general description of the twelfth storey, ibid., 37-88, 
89-191). 

(2) Tad-adhastat talarh chaikadaSa-dva-dasa-bhumikam I 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 86.) 

(3) Adva-dasa-talad evarii bhumau bhumau prakalpayat I 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 33.) 

DVARA A door, a gate, an entrance. Compare GURUDVARA. 
(i) Mdnasdra (Chap, xxxvm, 2-54 ; xxxix, 1-163) : 

The situation of gates in the village or town (called Nandya- 
varta) : 

Gramasya parito bahye rakshartharh vapra-samyutam I 
Tad-bahih parito yukatarh paritoya-pravedakaih I 
Chatur-dikshu chatush-kone maha-dvaram prakalpayet I 
Vrittarh va chatur-asrarh va vastu-sva(-a)-kriti-vaprayuk I 
Purva-dvararh athaisane chagni-dvaram tu dakshine I 
Pitur dvararh tu tat-pratyag vayau dvaram tathottaram I 
Purva-paschima-tad-dvarau (-rayoh) riju-sutrarh tu yojayet I 
Dakshinottarayor dvarau tatra sesharh (-dese) viseshatah I 
Dakshinottaratah sutrarh vinyasech chhilpavit-tamah I 
Tasya sutrat tu tat-purve hastarh tad-dvara-madhyame I 
Evam dakshinato dvaram tad-dhi taro(-rarh) tathoktavat I 
Uttare dvaram tat sutrat pratyag-hastavasanakam I 

235 



>VARA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Chatur-dikshu chatur-dvararh yuktam va neshyate budhaih I 
Purve pas"chimake vapi dvaram etad(-kam) dvayor api I 
Paritas chatur-aSragrad dvaram kuryat tu sarvada I 
Etat sarvarh maha-dvaram upa-dvaram ichochyate I 

The smaller doors : 

Nage vapi mrige vatha aditis"-chodito'pi va I 
Parjanye vantarikshe va pushe va vitathe'thava I 
Gandharve bhringaraje va sugrive vasure'thava I 
Yathesht(am)evam upa-dvaram kuryat tal-lakshanoktavat I 

The water-doors (drains) : 

Mukhyake vatha bhallate mrige va chodite'pi va I 
Jayante va mahendre va satyake va bhrise'thava I 
Evam evarh jala-dvaram kuryat tatra vichakshana I 

(M., ix, 290-313.) 
The gates of villages : 

Svastikagram chatur-dikshu dvaram tesharh prakalpayet I 
Evam chashta-maha-dvaram dikshu dikshu dvayam tatah 
Mrige chaivantarikshe va bhringaraja-bhrise tatha I 
Seshe vapi cha roge va chaditau chodite'pi va I 
Evam etad upa-dvaram kuryat tatra vichakshanah I 
Maha-dvaram tu sarvesham langalakara-sannibham I 
Kapata-dvaya-samyuktam dvaranam tat prithak prithak I 

(Ibid., 355-361.) 

Chatur-dikshu chatur-dvaram upa-dvaram antaralake I 
Devanam chakravartinarh madhye dvaram prakalpayet I 
Maha-dvaram iti proktam upa-dvaram tu choktavat I 
Bhu-suradi-naranarh cha madhye dvaram na (cha) yojayet I 
Madhya-sutram tu vame tu harmya-dvaram prakalpayet I 

(M., xxxi, 77-81.) 
Referring to the two-storeyed buildings : 

Tat-pure madhyame dvaram gavaksham vatha kalpayet I 
Dakshine madhyame dvaram syad agre madhya-mandapam I 
Chatur-dvara-samayuktam purve sopana-sarhyutam I 

(M., xx, 81-83.) 

Two entire chapters are devoted to the description of doors of the 
residential buildings and temples, in one of which (Chap, xxxix, 1-163^ 
the measurement and the component parts and mouldings are given ; 
mainly the situation of the doors is described in the other (Chap. 
xxxvra, 2-54). 

236 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE DVARA 

It is stated (Chap, xxxix) that the height of the door should be 
twice its width (line 14). But various alternative measures are also 
given, (lines 17-18). The height may vary from if cubits to 7 cubits 
(line 7). The height of the smaller doors vary from i cubit to 3 cubits 
(lines 9-10). The height of the windows which are sometimes made in 
place of smaller doors vary from half a cubit to 2 cubits. This measure- 
ment is prescribed for doors in the Jati class of buildings (line 28). Such 
other measurements are given to doors of buildings of the Ghhanda, 
Vikalpa, and Abhasa classes (line 29 f.). The pillars, joints, planks, 
shutters, panels, frames, and other parts of doors are described at great 
length (lines 50, 111-163). Doors are generally of two flaps ; but one- 
flapped door are also mentioned (line 98). 

Doors are profusely decorated with the carvings of leaves and 
creepers (line 116). The images of Ganesa, Sarasvati and other deities 
are also carved on both sides of a door (cf. the concluding portions of 
Chaps, xix, xxx). 

The chapter closes with a lengthy description of the six or rather the 
four main parts of doors. The door-panel (kavata), door-joint (dvara- 
sandhi), door-plank (phalaka), bolt (kilabhajana), etc. are minutely 
described ^line 137 f.). 

It is stated (Chap, xxxvm) that four main doors should be constructed 
on the four sides of all kinds of buildings of gods and men (lines 2-4) 
and the smaller doors are stated to be constructed at convenient places 
(line 4). Many other still smaller doors are constructed at the intervening 
spaces (lines 19, etc). The gutters are made conveniently and sloped 
downwards (lines 5-7). Drains or jala-dvara (water-gate) are made 
beneath the halls (line 8). The main doors are always furnished with a 
flight of stairs (line 12). 

In some residential buildings the entrance door is made, not in the 
middle of the frontage, but on either side of the middle (line 17), 
although the general rule is to make the door in the middle of the 
(front wall, lines 6, etc.). But in temples and in case of kitchens in 
particular, the doors are generally made at the middle of the wall (line 
35, see also Chap, xxxix, 140). For the easy upward passage (urdhva- 
gamana) of the kitchen smoke, they are furnished with the lattice (Jala, 
line 37). 

(2) Varaha-mihira (Bnhat-Samhitd, LHI, 26-27, 70-82 ; LVI, 10) has 
condensed the contents of the two chapters, dealing with the measure- 
ment of door (dvara-mana) and situation of the door (dvara-sthana) 
of the Mdnasara. But he does not give any absolute measurement. As 

237 



DVARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

regards the situation of door, the principle seems to be two-fold in all the 
architectural treatises. ' The door is made on either said of the middle 
of the wall, mostly in private residential buildings for ladies in parti- 
cular.' But according to Ram Raz (p. 46) ' if the front of the house 
be ten paces in length, the entrance should be between five on the right 
and four on the left.' 

After this, Dr. Kern quotes Utpala to show the different prin- 
ciples : 

Tatha cha karyani yatha bhananam grihabhyantaram anganam 

visatam tany-eva vasa-grihani dakskinato dakshinasyam disi bha- 

vanti I Etad uktam bhavati pran-mukhasya grihasyangana-(sya- 

gara)-dvaram uttararabhimukharii karyam dakshinabhimukhasya 

pran mukham palchimabhimukhasya dakshinabhimukham uttarabhi- 

mukhasya paschimabhimukham iti I 
' How a house can be said to face the east, without having its 

door facing the same quarter, is beyond our comprehension.' Kern. 

Compare no. 4 below. 

(J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 291, note i.) 

Varaha-mihira himself, however, states (Bfihat-Sarhhitd, LVI, 10) 
the most general principle of the position of the door, which Dr. 
Kern does not seem to have taken any notice of (compare his trans- 
lation of the following verse, J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 318) : 
Chatuh-shashti-padarh karyam devayatanam sada I 
Dvaram cha madhyamam tatra samadikstham prasasyate II 

: The (area of the) temple is always divided into 64 squares (see 
PADA-VINYASA) . Therein (i.e. in the temple) the door is made at the 
middle (of the front wall) and it is highly commendable, when the 
door is placed at the same line (lit. same direction) with the idol.' 

Dr. Kern interprets the second line as ' the middle door in one of 
the four cardinal points.' The rules in the Mdnasara as also the 
existing temples support the interpretation, namely, ' the door is 
made at the middle ' (of the front wall). 

(3) Vdstu-sdra (by one Mandana, Ahmedabad, 1878) lays down (i, 6) 
that the house may have the front side (with entrance) at any direction 
according to the choice of the occupants, and states distinctly that the 
face of the house may be made at four directions (kuryach chatur-disaih 
mukham). 

(4) Gdrga-Sarhhita (MS. R. 15, 96, Trinity College, Cambridge) has 
apparently three chapters on the subject of door : dimensions of door 
(dvara-pramana, fol. 57^, 686, same as dvara-mana of the Mdnasara) ; 

238 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE DVARA 

situation of door (dvara-nirdesa, Chap, m, fol. 573, corresponds more or 
less with dvara-sthana or position of door, of the Mdnasdrd) ; and height 
of the door-pillar (dvara-stambhochchhraya-vidhi, fol. 606) ; there is no 
such separate chapter in the Mdnasdra, although door pillars are occa- 
sionally described. 

As regards dvara-dosha (penalties of defective doors), Varahamihira 
seems to have condensed (Brihat-Sarhhita, LIII, 72-80) the contents of 
Garga (fol. 68*). 

(5) Vastu-Sdstra (of Rajavallabha Mandana, v. 28, ed. Narayana 
Bharati and Yasovanta Bharati, Anahillapura, S. V. 947) : 

Dvararh matsya-matanusari dasakarh yogyam vidheyam bu- 
dhaih ' following the rules of the Matsya-Purdna the learned (archi- 
tects) recommend ten suitable doors (for a building)'. 

(6) Vdstu-pravandha (n, 8, compiled by Rajakisora Varmma) : 

Dvarasyopari ya(d)-dvararh dvarasyanya (?) cha sammukham I 
Vyayadam tu yada tach cha na karttavyam subhepsubhih 1 1 
' Those, who want prosperity, should not make one door above 
or in front of another because it is expensive.' 

(7) Silpa-Sdstra-sdra-samgraha. vn, 24 : 

Chatur-dvararh chatur-dikshu chaturam (?) cha gavakshakam I 
Nripanarh bhavane sreshtham anyatra parivarjayet I) 
' It is highly commendable for the buildings of the kings to make 

four doors at four directions and four windows. This rule need not 

be observed in other cases. ' 

(8) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 17) has the same verse as (2^ 
except that it reads ' samadik sampraSasyate ' in place of ' samadikstharh 
prasasyate ' of the Brihat-Samhitd. 

(9) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLV, w. 7-9) : 
Vasa-geharh sarvesham praviSed dakshinena tu I 
Dvarani tu pravakshyami pra^astaniha yani tu 1 1 
Purvenendrarh jayantarh cha dvararh sarvatra Sasyate I 
Yamyam cha vitatham chaiva dakshinena vidur budhah 1 1 
Paschime pushpadantarh cha varunam cha praSasyate I 
Uttarena tu bhallatam saumyam tu Subhadam bhavet 1 1 

For all kinds of residential buildings the southern face of the house is 
expressly recommended here, while doors are directed to be constructed 
at all the eight cardinal points. 

Cf. Dasa-dvarani chaitani kramenoktani sarvada I 

(Ibid., Chap. CGLXX, v. 28.) 
239 



DVARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(10) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, v. 24) : 

Dikshu dvarani karyani na vidikshu kadachana I 
' The doors should be constructed at the cardinal points and never 
at the intermediate corners '. 

(11) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVI, v. 31) : 

Dvararh dirgharddha-vistaram dvarany-ashtausmritani cha I 
' The breadth of the door should be half of its height (length) 
and there should be eight doors (in each house).' 

(12) Vdstu-vidyd (ed. Ganapati Sastri, iv, 1-2, 19-22 ; v. 21 ; xin, 
24-32 , xiv, 1-3) : 

Atha dve pranmukhe dvare kuryad dve dakskinamukhe I 
Dvare pratyanmukhe dve cha dve cha kuryad udanmukhe II (i) 
Mahendre pranmukham dvararh pras"astarh s"ishta-jatishu I 
Apararh tu tatha dvararh jayante praha nis"chayat 1 1 (2) 
Antar-dvarani choktani bahir-dvaram athochyate II (19) 
Yatronnatarh tato dvararh yatra nimnarh tato griham I 
Grihe chapy-ashtame ra^au tatra dvararh na karayet I (20) 
Grihakshate cha mahendre brahmananarii prakirtitam I 
Mahidhare cha some cha pha(bha)llatargalayos tatha II (21) 
Sayaniyam tu kartavyarh praSastarh purvatah sikha I 
Nava-dvarakritarh kuryad antarikshe mahanasam II (22) 
Dvaram yatra cha vihitarh tad-dig-adhi^adhiparh bhaved dhama I 
Eka-talaih va dvi-talam dvi-tale dvi-mukham cha nirmukham 
va syat II (21) 

Position of the door : 

Dvaram cha dikshu kartavyarh sarvesham api vesmanam I 
Madhyastha-dvara-madhyam syad vastu-mandira-sutrayoh 1 1 (24) 
Upadvarani yujyantani pradakshinyat sva-yonitah I 
Dvara-padasya vistararh tulyam uttara-taratah II (25) 
Sva-sva-yonya grihadinam kartavya dvara-yonayah I (26) 
Agneyyam mandiram dvarani dakshinabhimukham smritam I 
Pratyanmukham tu nairrityam vayavyam tad udanmukham II (31) 
lie tat pranmukham kuryat tani syuh padukopari I (32) 

Then follows the measurement of the mouldings of the door (26-30). 

The door-panels are described next : 

Kavata-dvitayarh kuryan matri-putry-abhidharh budhah I 
Dvara-tare chatush-pancha-shat-saptashta vibhajite II (i) 
Ekama(m) sutra-pattih syat samara va bahalam bhavet I 
Ardham va pada-hlnam va bahalam parikirtitam II (2) 
Dvarayama-saniayama karya yugmy cha pahktayah I 
A^vyadi-veSma-paryantah panktayah parikirtitah II (3) 

240 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE DVARA 

(13) Matha-pratisthd, by Raghunandana quotes from the Devl-Purdna 
without further reference : 

Plaksharh dvararh bhavet purve yamye chaudumbararh bhavet I 
Paschad asvattha-ghatitam naiyagrodharh tathottare I 

(14) Kautillya-Artha fdstra (Chap, xxiv, pp. 52, 53, 54) : 
Agrahye dee pradhavitikarh niskhura-dvararh cha I 
Prakaram ubhayato mandalaka-madhyardha-dandam kritva 

pratoli-shat-tulantararh dvararh niveSayet I 
Pancha-hasta-mani-dvaram I 
Prakara-madhye kritva vapirh pushkarimrh dvararh chatus'-s'a- 

lam adhyardhantaranikarh kumarl-purarh munda-harmyarh dvi- 

talarh mundaka-dvararh bhumi-dravya-vasena va tri-bhagadhi- 

kayamah bhanda-vahim-kulyah karayet I 
Sa-dvadasa-dvaro yuktodaka-bhumich-chhanna-pathah I 
Sainapatyani dvarani bahih parikhayah I 

(Ibid., Chap, xxv, p. 54 f.) 

Kishku-matra-mani-dvaram antarikayarh khanda-phullartham 

asarhpatarh karayet I 
Pratiloma-dvara-vatayana-badhayarh cha anyatra raja-marga- 

rathyabhyah I 

(Ibid., Chap. LXV, pp. 166, 167.) 

(15) Ramayana, (Lankakanda, Sarga 3, i, n, 13, 16) : 
Dridha-vaddha-kapatani maha-parigha-vanti cha I 
Chatvari vipulany-asya dvarani sumahanti cha II (ii) 
Dvareshu samskrita bhlmah kalaya-samayah sitah I 
Sataso rachita viraih sataghnyo rakshasa ganaih II (13) 
Dvareshu tasarii chatvarah sakramah paramayatah II 
Yantrair upeta bahubhir mahadbhir griha-panktibhih II (16) 

(16) Kamikagama (xxxv, 6-13) : 

Bhallate pushpadante cha mahendre cha graha(griha)kshate I 
Chatur-dvararh prakartavyarh sarvesham api vastunam 1 1 (6) 
Then are given the details concerning the position of doors in various 
quarters (7-9). Next follows their measurement (10-13). 
Cf. Devanarh manujanam cha viseshad raja-dhamani I 

Pushpadante cha bhallate mahendre cha graha(griha)kshate II 
Upa-madhye'thava dvarani upa-dvararh tu va nayet 1 1 

(Ibid., v. 118, u8a.) 

Pratyanmukharh tu Sayanarh doshadam dakshinamukham I 
Dvare padetu neshta(rh) syat nodak-pratyak chh(s")iro bhavet II 
Bhojanam nanuvam^arh syach chhayanarh cha tathaiva cha I 
AnuvarhSa-griha-dvararh naiva karyarh ^ubharthibhih 1 1 

(Ibid., v. 146, 157.) 

241 



DVARA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Bhallate dvaram ishtarh syad brahmananam viseshatah It 
Madhya-sutrasya vame va dvaram vidhivad acharet 1 1 

(Ibid., v. 165, 168.) 
Jala-dvaram punas tesharh pravakshyami niveSanam I 

(Ibid., v. 167-176.) 

Devanam ubhayarh grahyarh madhya-dvaram tu vai tale 1 1 
Gopurarh cha khaluri cha mula-vastu-nirikshitam li 
Antare raja-devinam grihany-antar-mukhani cha II 

(Ibid., xxxv, 54, 128.) 

Dandika-vara-sarhyuktarh shan-netra-sama-vamsakam I 
Varhsopari gatah salas chattaro'shtanananvitah II 

(Ibid., XLII, 19.) 

(17) Suprabhedagama (xxxi, 7, 131-133) : 

Bahya-bhittau chatur-dvaram athava dvaram ekatah 1 1 (7) 
Referring to the temples of the attendant deities built in the five 
courts (prakara) : 

Prakara-samyutam kritva bahye vabhyantare'pi va I 
Purve tu paschime dvaram paschime purvato mukham II (131) 
Dakshine chottara-dvaram uttare dakshinonmukham I 
Vahnlsana-sthitam yat tat paschime dvaram ishyate 1 1 (132) 
Nilanila-sthitarh chaiva purva-dvararh prasasyate I 
Vrishasya mandapam tatra chatur-dvara-samayutam II (133) 

(18) Mahabhdrata (v, 91, 3 ; i, 185, 119-122) : 

Tasya (duryodhana-grihasya) kakshya vyatikramya tisro dvah- 
sthair avaritah 1 1 

Prasadaih sukritochhrayaih 1 1 

Suvarnajala-sarhvritair mani-kuttima-bhushanaih 1 1 
Sukharohana-sopanair mahasana-parichchhadaih 1 1 
Asambadha-Sata-dvaraih Sayanasana-sobhitaih 1 1 

(19) See Ep. Ind. (Vol. i, Dabhoi Inscrip, v. in, p. 31). 

(20) Vijaya-vikshepat bharukachchha-pradvaravasakatat -' from the 
camp of victory fixed before the gates of Bharukachchha.' (Umeta grant 
of Dadda n, line i, Ind. Ant., Vol. vu, pp. 63, 64.) 

(21) Svarna-dvaram sthapitam toranena sarddharh ^rimal-lokanathasya 
gehe c placed a golden door and a torana in the temple of glorious 
Lokanatha.' 

' The inscription is on the lintel of the door of the temple of Avaloki- 
tesvara in Bungmati. The door is made of gilt brass plates, and adorned 
by relieves. The arch or torana above the door, which is likewise made of 
brass, encloses three images of Lokesvara.' (Inscriptions from Nepal, 
no. 21, Inscrip. of Srinivasa, line 6 f., Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, p. 192, note 62.) 

242 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE DVARA-$OBHA 

(22) Atirtha-dvara-paksha-sobharttharh madisidam ' had the side- 
doors of that tirtha made for beauty.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. n, no. 115; 
Roman Text, p. 87 ; Transl., p. 171.) 

(23) See Chalukyan Architecture. (Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. 
xxi, Plates v, flgs. 1,2; LIV ; LXXIV ; xcv ; cxm, figs, i, 2.) 

(24) See Buddhist Cave Temples. (Ibid., Vol. iv, Plates xxiv ; xxiv, 
no. i ; xxxn, nos. r, 2 ; xxxv ; XLIII, no. 2.) 

(25) See Cunningham's Arch. Surv. Reports. (Vol. xix. Plates xrx.) 

DVARAKA A gate-house. 

Prasade mandape sarve gopure dvarake tatha I 

Sarva-harmyake kuryat tan-mukka-bhadram I (M., xvm, 326-328.) 

DVARA-GOPURA (same as MAHA-GOPURA) The gate-house of 
the fifth or last court. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 125 ; see under PRAKARA.) 
DVARA-KOSHTHA(-KA) Agate-chamber. 

The index of the Divyavadana quoted by way of comparison with 
Svakiyavasanika-dvaroshtha, dvaroshtha-nishkasapravesaka, and nish- 
k asa-pravesa-dvaroshthaka. 

(Siyodoni Inscrip., lines 14, 32, 33, 
Ep. Ind. t Vol i, pp. 165, 175, 177.) 

DVARA-PRASADA The gate-house of the third court. 
See Mdnasdra (xxxin, 9, under GOPURA). 
See also Suprabhedagama (xxxi, 124, under PRAKARA). 

DVARA-SAKHA (see SAKHA) The door-lintel, the door-frame, 
jamb or post. 

' He, the emperor of the South, caused to be made of stone for 
Vijaya-narayana (temple), latticed window, secure door-frame, door- 
lintel (dvdra-sakhali) , kitchen, ramparts, pavilion and a pond named 
Vasudeva-tirtha.' 

(Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part i, Belure Taluq, no. 72 ; 
Transl.} p. 61 ; Roman Text, p. 142, line 7.) 

DVARA-&ALA (see GOPURA) A gate-house. 
The gate-house of the second court. 

(M., xxxni, 8, and Suprabhedagama, 
xxxi, 124 ; see under PRAKARA.) 
DVARA-SOBHA (see GOPURA) A gate-house. 
The gate-house of the first court. 

(M., xxxm, 8, and Suprabhedagama, 
xxxi, 123 ; see under PRAKARA.) 

243 



DVARA-HARMYA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

DVARA-HARMYA (see GOPURA) A gate-house. 

The gate-house of the fourth court. 

(M., xxxni, 9, and Suprabheddgama, 
xxxi, 125 ; see under PRAKARA.) 
DVI-TALA The two-storeyed buildings. 

Mdnasdra describes the two-storeyed buildings in a separate chapter 
(xx, 1-115); the eight classes (ibid., 2-45; see under PRASADA); the 
general description of the second floor (ibid., 46-115). 

Cf. Purato'sya shodas'anam varaihgakanarh dvi-bhumika-grihani ali- 
dvayena ramyany-achlkaraj jaya-sainyesah ' in front of the temple 
he (Jaya) erected two rows of double-storeyed house for sixteen female 
attendants.' (Chebrolu Inscrip. of Jaya, v. 46, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 40, 39.) 

DVI-TALA A sculptural measure (see details under TALA-MANA.) 

DVI-PAKSHA (cf. EKA-PAKSHA) Two sides, a street (or wall) 
having footpaths on both sides. 

Dakshinottara-rathyam tat tat samkhya yatheshtaka I 

Evaih vithir dvi-paksharh(-sha) syan madhya-rathyena(-ka)-paksha- 

kam I 

Tasya mulagrayo(r) deSa kshatra( ? kskudro)-manarh prakarayet I 
Bahya-vithir dvi-paksham(-sha) syat tad-bahis" chavritam budhaih I 

(M, ix, 350-353.) 

Rathya sarva dvi-paksham(-sha) syat tiryan-margam yathech- 
chhaya I 

(Ibid., 465. See also M., ix, 396 ; xxxvi, 
86-87 5 under EKA-PAKSHA.) 

DVI-VAJRAKA A column with sixteen rectangular sides. 

Cf. Vajro'shtasrir dvi-vajrako dvi-gunah I 

(BrihatSarhhita, LHI, 28 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

DVYA^RA-VRITTA A two-angled circle, an oval building. 

(M,, xix, 171 ; xi, 3, etc. ; see under PRASADA.) 

DH 

DHANADA (see UTSEDHA) A type of pavilion, a kind of height, 
an image. 

A height which is if of the breadth of an object (See M., xxxv, 
22-26 and cf. Kamikagama, L, 24-28, under ADBHUTA). 

The image of the god of wealth (M., xxxii, 140). 

A class of pavilions (M., xxxiu, 398 ; see under MANDAPA). 

244 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE DHARMALAYA 

DHANUR-GRAHA A measure, a cubit (hasta) of 27 angulas. 

(M., n, 52, and Suprabheddgama, 
xxx, 26 ; see under ANGOLA.) 

DHANUR-MUSHTI A measure, a cubit (hasta) of 26 angulas. 

(M., n, 51, and Suprabheddgama, 
xxx, 26 ; see under ANGULA.) 

DHANUS A measure of four cubits. 

(M, n, 53 ; see under ANGULA.) 

DHANVA-DURGA A fort (see details under DURGA). 

DHAMMILLA The braided and ornamented hair of a woman tied 
round the head and intermixed with flowers, pearls, etc. 
A headgear (M., XLIX, 14, etc.). 

DHARMA-GANJA A library in the University of Nalanda, com- 
prising three buildings known as Ratnodadhi, Ratnasdgara, and Ratna- 

ranjaka. 

(Tibetan account of the Univeristy of Nalanda.) 

DHARMA-DHATU-MANDALA The relic shrine of Nepalese 
temples, situated at the fourth storey of five-storeyed pagoda-like 
structures, the basal floor being occupied by Sakya-muni, second by 
Amitabha, the third being a small chaitya, and the fifth or apex 
being called vajra-dhatu-mandala. 

(See Deva Bhavani temple, Bhatgaon, Fergusson : 

History of Ind. and East. Arch., 1910, 

Vol. i, p. 281.) 

DHARMA-RAJIKA A monument, a tope. 

Tau darmma-rajikam sangarh dharmma-chakraih punar navam I 

' They repaired the dharma-rajika (i.e. stupa) and the dharma- 
chakra with all its parts.' (Sarnath Inscrip. of Mahipala, line a, Ind. Ant., 
Vol. xiv, p. 140, note 6.) 
DHARMA-SALA A rest-house. 

(Vincent Smith, Gloss., loc. cit., to 
Cunningham's Arch. Surv. Reports.) 

DHARMA-STAMBHA A kind of pillar. 

(M., XLVII, 14 ; see under STAMBHA.) 
DHARMALAYA A rest-house. 

Tatraiva sa(t)tra-s"ala va agneye panlya-mandapam I 
Anya-dharmalayarh sarvarh yatheshtarh dis"ato bhavet I 

(M, ix, 139-140.) 

245 



DHATU AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

DHATU (cf. TRIDHATUSARANA) Storey. (R--V., iv, 200.) 

DHATU-GARBHA Buddhist dagoba, same as chaitya and as 
stupa, the relic receptacle or inner shrine, and is ' strictly applicable 
only to the dome of the stupa, sometimes called the anda or egg.' 
These monuments were ' not merely relics in the literal sense, but 
memorials in an extended acceptation, and were classified as corporeal 
remains ; objects belonging to the teacher, as his staff, bowl, robe 
holy spots, etc., and any memorial, text of a sacred book, cenotaph 
of a teacher, etc.' 

DHANYA-STAMBHA A kind of pillar. 

(M. t XLVII, 14 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

DHAMAN A dwelling house. 

(R.-V., i, 144, i ; ii, 3, 2 ; ra, 55, 10 ; vra, 
6 1, 4 ; x, 13, i ; A.-V., iv, 25, 7 ; vn, 
68, i ; xii, 52 ; Vaj. Sam., iv, 34 ; Taitt. 

Sam., ii, 7, 2.) 

DHARANA A type of building, a pillar, a roof, a tree. 
A class of the seven-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxv, 26 ; see under PRASADA.) 

A synonym of pillar (M., xv, 6) and of roof (M., xvi, 52). 
A kind of tree of which pillars are constructed (M., xv, 348-350). 
DHARA-KUMBHA A moulding of the base. 

(M., xiv, 46 ; see the lists of mouldings, 
under ADHISHTHANA.) 

DHARA-NILA A blue stream of water, the line of sacred water 
descending from the phallus. 

In connexion with the phallus : 

Garbha-geha-sthale dhara-nila-madhye samarh bhavet I 

(M., 01,173.) 

DHARA-LINGA A kind of phallus with fluting at the top portion. 

(M., m, 135 ; un, 48 ; see details under LINGA.) 

DHVAJA-STAMBHA (see STAMBHA) Flagstaff's, free-pillars erect- 
ed generally by the worshippers of Siva, a pillar or pilaster decorated 
with banner or flag (dhvaja) at the top. 

N 

NAKULA The cage of the mungoose (M., L, 245 ; see under 
BHUSHANA) . 

246 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA(-Rl) 

NAKHA The nail, its measurement, etc., when belonging to an 
image. 

(M., LIX, LXV, etc., 21.) 

NAKSHATRA- MALA The garland of stars, an ornament. 

(M., L, 297 ; see under BIIUSHANA.) 

NAGARA(-RI) (cf. GRAMA) Probably from Naga, lit. immovable 
or rock, implying permanence and strength with reference to stone- 
walls, etc. The purs were mere fort while pura as in Tripura and 
Mahapura was something much bigger (Tail. Sam., vi, 2, 3, 4 ; 
Kdth. Sam., xxiv, 10 ; Sat. Bra. vi, 3, 3, 35 ; Ait. Bra., n, n ; Matt. 
Sam., m, 8, i). Thus pur might have been the prototype of pura, the 
developed city, and nagara the full-fledged capital city. 

(1) Definition : 

Janaih parivritam dravya-kraya-vikrayakadibhih I 
Aneka-jati-sarhyuktarh karmakaraih samanvitam 1 1 
Sarva-devata-saihyuktam nagararii chabhidhlyate II 

(Kamikagama, xx, 5-6.) 

(2) Dhanu-satam pariharo gramasya syat samantatah I 
Samyapatas trayo vapi tri-guno nagarasya tu II 

(Manu-Samhita, vni, 237.) 

(3) Dhanuh-Satam pariharo grama-kshetrantaram bhavet I 
Dve sate kharvatasya syan nagarasya chatuh satam 1 1 

(Tdjnavalka, n, 167.) 

(4) Nagaradi-vastum cha vakshye rajyadi-vriddhaye I 
Yojanarhyojanarddham va tad-artham sthanam a^rayet II 
Abhyarchya vastu-nagaram prakaradyani tu karayet I 
Isadi-trims"at-padake pQrva-dvararh cha suryake II 
Gandharvabhyarh dakshine syad varunye pa^chime tatha I 
Saumya-dvaram saumya-pade karya hatyas tu vistarah 1 1 

(Agni-Purdna, Chap, cvi, v. 1-3.) 

Then follows the location of the people of different castes and 
professions in various quarters (ibid., v. 6-17). 

(5) Chhinna-karna-vikarnarii cha vyajanakriti-samsthitam II 
Vrittam vajram cha dirgharii cha nagararii na prasasyate 1 1 

(Brahmdnda-Purdna, Part I 2nd Anushnaga-pada, 
Chap, vn, vv. 107, 1 08 ; see also vv. 94, no, in.) 

247 



NAGARA(-RI) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(6) Kautiliya-Artha-Sastra (Chap, xxii, p. 46, footnote) : 
Nagararh raja-dhanl I 

(Rayapasenisulravyakhyane, p. 206.) 

Nagrani kara-varjitani nigama-vanijam sthanani I 

(PraSna-vySkarana-futra-vyakhyane, p. 306.) 

(7) Manasara (Chap, x, named Nagara) : 

The dimension of the smallest town unit is 100x200X4 
cubits; the largest town-unit is 7200X14400X4 cubits (lines 
3~33)- A town may be laid out from east to west or north to 
south according to the position it occupies (line 102). There 
should be one to twelve large streets in a town (lines no-in). 
It should be built near a sea, river or mountain (lines 73, 51), and 
should have facilities for trade and commerce (lines 48, 74) with 
the foreigners (line 63). It should have defensive walls, ditches 
and forts (line 47) like a village. There should be gate-houses 
(gopura, line 46), gates, drains, parks, commons, shops, exchanges, 
temples, guest houses, colleges (line 48 f.) etc., on a bigger scale 
than in a village. 

Towns are divided into eight classess, namely, Raja-dhani, 
Nagara, Pura, Nagari, Kheta, Kharvata, Kubjaka, and Pattana 
(lines 36-38). 

The general description of towns given above is applicable 
more or less to all of these classes. 

For purposes of defence, the capital towns commanding 
strategic points are well fortified and divided into the following 
classes : Sibira, Vahini-mukha, Sthaniya, Dronaka, Sarhvidda, 
Kolaka, Nigama, and Skandhavara (lines 38-41, 65-86). The forts 
for purely military purposes are called giri-durga, vana-durga, 
salila-durga, panka-durga, ratha-durga, deva-durga and misra- 
durga (lines 86-87, ^ nes 88-90 90-107 ; see under DURGA). 

(8) ' On the banks of the Sarayu is a large country called Kosala 
gay and happy and abounding with cattle, corn and wealth. In that 
country was a famous city called Ayodhya, built formerly by Manu, 
the lord of men. A great city twelve yojanas (108 miles) in length and 
nine yojanas (81 miles) in breadth, the houses of which stood in triple 
and long extended rows. It was rich and perpetually adorned with 
new improvements, the streets and lanes were admirably disposed, 
and the principal streets well watered. It was filled with merchants 
of various descriptions, and adorned with abundance of jewels ; 
difficult of access, filled with spacious houses, beautified with gardens, 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA(-Rl) 

and groves of mango trees, surrounded by a deep and impassable 
moat, and completely furnished with arms; was ornamented with 
stately gates and porticoes and constantly guarded by archers. As 
Maghavan protects Amaravatl, so did the magnanimous Dasaratha , 
the enlarger of his dominions, protects Ayodhya, fortified by gates, 
firmly barred, adorned with ureas disposed in regular order, and 
abounding with a variety of musical instruments and war-like wea 
pons ; and with artifices of every kind. Prosperous, of unequalled 
splendour it was constantly crowded with charioteers and messengers, 
furnished with s"ataghnis (lit. an instrument capable of destroying a 
hundred at once, that is, a cannon) and parighas (a kind of club), 
adorned with banners and high-arched porticoes, constantly filled with 
dancing girls and musicians, crowded with elephants, horses and chariots, 
with merchants and ambassadors from various countries, frequented 
by the chariots of the gods, and adorned with the greatest magnificence. 
It was decorated with various kinds of jewels, filled with wealth, and 
amply supplied with provisions, beautified with temples and sacred 
chariots (large cars), adorned with gardens and bathing tanks and 
spacious buildings and full of inhabitants. It abounded with learned 
sages, in honour equal to the immortals ; it was embellished with 
magnificent palaces, the domes of which resemble the tops of mountains, 
and surrounded with the chariots of the gods like the Amaravatl of 
Indra, it resembled a mine of jewels or the residence of Lakshmi 
(the goddess of prosperity) ; the walls were variegated with divers 
sorts of gems like the division of a chess-board, and it was filled with 
healthful and happy inhabitants ; the houses formed one continued 
row, of equal height, resounding with the delightful music of the tabor, 
the flute and the harp.' 

' The city, echoing with the twang of the bow, and sacred sound of 
the Veda was constantly filled with convivial assemblies and societies 
of happy men. It abounded with food of the most excellent kinds ; 
the inhabitants were constantly fed with the sail rice ; it was perfumed 
with incense, chaplets of flowers, and articles for sacrifice, by their 
odour cheering the heart.' 

' It was guarded by heroes in strength equal to the quarter-masters 
and versed in all Sastras ; by warriors, who protect it, as the nagas guard 
Bhogavati. As the Great Indra protects his capital, so was this city, 
resembling that of the gods, protected by King DaSaratha, the chief of 
the Ikshvakus. This city was inhabited by the twiceborn who main- 
tained the constant sacrificial fire, (men) deeply read in the Veda 
and its six Angas, endowed with excellent qualities, profusely generous, 

249 



NAGARA(-RI) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

full of truth, zeal, and compassion, equal to the great sages, and having 
their minds and appetites in complete subjection.' (Ramayana, i, 5, 

5-I7-) 

' Lanka, filled with mad elephants, ever rejoiccth. She is great, 
thronging with cars and inhabited by Rakshasas. Her doors are 
firmly established and furnished with massy bolts. And she hath 
four wide and giant gates. (At those gates) are powerful and large 
arms, stones and engines, whereby a hostile host approaching is opposed. 
At the entrance are arrayed and set in order by bands of heroic Rak- 
shasas, hundreds of sharp iron s"atagnis (firearms, guns). She hath 
a mighty impassable golden wall, having its side emblazoned in the 
centre with costly stones, coral, lapises and pearls. Round about is 
a moat, exceedingly dreadful, with cool water, eminently grand, 
fathomless, containing ferocious aquatic animals, and inhabited 
by fishes. At the gates are four broad bridges, furnished with machines 
and many rows of grand structures. On the approach of the hostile 
forces, their attack is repulsed by these machines, and they are thrown 
into the ditch. One amongst these bridges is immovable, strong 
;md fast established ; adorned with golden pillars and daises . . . 
And dreadful and resembling a celestial citadel, Lanka cannot be 
ascended by means of any support. She hath fortresses composed 
of streams (cf. JALA-DURGA) , those of hills, and artificial ones of four 
kinds. And way there is none even for barks, and all sides destitude 
of division. And that citadel is built on the mountain's brow ; and 
resembling the metropolis of the immortals, the exceedingly invin- 
cible Lanka is filled with horses and elephants. And a moat and 
s"ataghnis and various engines adorn the city of Lanka, belonging 
to the wicked Ravana . . . his abode consists of woods, hills, moat, 
gateways, walls, and dwellings.' (Ibid., vi, Lankakanda, 3rd Sarga.) 

(9) The Mahdbhdrata has ' short but comprehensive account of the city 
ofDvaraka (i, in, 15), Indra-prastha (i, 207, 30 f.), the floating city 
(in, 173, 3), Mithila (in, 207, 7), Ravana' s Lanka (in, 283, 3 and 284 
4, 30), the sky-town (vm, 33, 19), and the ideal town (xv, 5, 16). In the 
Ramayana we find nearly the same descriptions as those in this later part 
of the Epic (Mbh.}.' 

(10) ' We may examine the general plan of a Hindu city ... it 
had high, perhaps concentric, walls about it, in which were watch- 
towers. Massive gates, strong doors 1 protected chiefly by a wide bridge 
moat, the latter filled with crocodiles and armed with palings, guarded 

1 xv, 1 6, 3 : the king left Hastinapur by a high gate. 

250 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA(-Rl) 

the walls. The store-house was built near the rampart. The city 
was laid out in several squares. 1 The streets were lighted with 
torches. 2 The traders and the king's court made this town their resi- 
dence. The farmers lived in the country, each district guarded if 
not by a tower modelled on the great city, at least by a fort of some 
kind. Out of such fort grew the town. Round the town as round 
the village, was the ommon land to some distance ' (later converted 
into public gardens, as we see in the Mudrdrdkshasa} . 

' In the city special palaces existed for the king, the princes, the chief 
priests, ministers and military officers. Besides these and humble 
dwellings (the larger houses being divided into various courts), there 
were various assembly halls, dancing-halls, liquor-saloons, gambling 
halls, courts of justice, and the booths of small traders with goldsmiths, 
shops, and the work -places of other artisans. The arsenal appears to 
have been not far from the king's apartments. Pleasure parks abounded. 
The royal palace appears always to have had its dancing-hall attached. 
The city-gates ranged in number from four to eleven, and were guarded 
by squads of men and single wardens. 3 Door-keepers guarded the 
courts of the palace as well as the city gates.' 4 (Hopkins, J.A.O.S., 13, 
pp. 175, 176.) 

(n) 'It will probably be a revelation to modern architects to know 
how scientifically the problems of town-planning are treated in these 
ancient India's architectural treatises. Beneath a geat deal of mysticism 
which may be scoffed at as pure superstition, there is a foundation of 
sound common sense and scientific knowledge which should appeal to the 
mind of the European expert.' 

' The most advanced science of Europe has not yet improved upon 
the principles of the planning of the garden cities of India based 
upon the Indian village-plan as a unit.' 

1 The Mbh. recommends six squares, but I find only four mentioned in the 

Rdmayana, H, 48, 19. 

Mbh., xv, 5, 16 : Puram Sapta-padam sarvato-disam (town of seven walls, 
but Hopkins does not think that there were walls) 

2 Rdmayana, vi, 112, 42 : Sikta-rathyantarapana. 

Mbh., i, 221, 36 : Indraprastha is described as sammrishtasikta-pantha. 

3 KathakaUpanishad, v, i , speaks of a town with eleven gates as a possibility 

(the body is like a town with eleven gates.) Nine gates are given to a town 
by Varaha, p. 52, 5 : Nava dvaraih . . . ekastambharh chatushpatham. 
Lanka has four bridged gates (eight in all and eight walls) (R., vi, 93, 7). 
Four gates are implied in the 6th act of Mrichchhakatika where the men 
are told to go to the four quarters to the gates. 

4 These courts have mosaic pavements of gold. (R., vi, 37, 27, 58, Mbh., I, 

185, 20 ; n, 33 and 34.) 

25 1 



NAGARA(-RI) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

' The Indo-Aryan villages took the layout of the garden-plot a s 
the basis of its organization. But more probably the village scheme 
was originally the plan of the military camp of the Aryan tribes when 
they first established themselves in the valley of the Indus.' (Havel 
A Study of Indian Civilization, pp. 7-8, 18.) 

(12) The principles of Indian town-planning have some striking 
similarity to those of early European cities. It would be interesting to 
compare the Mdnasdra with Vitruvius : 

' In setting out the walls of a city the choices of a healthy situation 
is of the first importance. It should be on high ground neither 
subject to fogs nor rains ; its aspects should be neither violently hot 
nor intensely cold, but temperate in both respects . . . 

' A city on the sea-side, exposed to the south or west, will be 

insalubrious.' (Vitruvius, Book I, Chap. IV.) 

' When we are satisfied with the spot fixed on for the site of the city, 
as well as in respect of the goodness of the air as of the abundant supply of 
provisions for the support of the population, the communications by good 
roads and river or sea navigation for the transport of merchandise, we should 
take into consideration the method of constructing the walls and towers of 
the city. These foundations should be carried down to a solid bottom 
(cf. Mdnasdra under GARBHA-NYASA) if such can be found, and should 
be built thereon of such thickness as may be necessary for the proper support 
of that part of the wall which stands above the natural level of the ground. 
They should be of the soundest workmanship and materials, and of greater 
thickness than the walls above. From the exterior face of the wall, towers 
must be projected, from which an approaching enemy may be annoyed by 
weapons, from the ambrasures of those towers, right and left. An easy 
approach to the walls must be provided against ; indeed they should be sur- 
rounded by uneven ground, and the roads leading to the gates be winding 
and turn to the left from the gates. By this arrangement the right side of 
the attacking troops, which are not covered by their shields, will be open 
to the weapons of the besieged.' 

' The plan of the city should not be square, nor formed with acute angles, 
but polygonal, so that the motions of the enemy may be open to observa- 
tion. . . . ' 

' The thickness of the walls should be sufficient for two armed men to pass 
each other with ease. The walls ought to be tied, from front to rear, with 
many pieces of charred olive wood ; by which means the two faces, thus 
connected, will endure for ages.' 

' The distance between each tower should not exceed an arrow's 
flight. . . . The walls will be intercepted by the lower parts of the towers 

252 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA(-Rl) 

where they occur, leaving an interval equal to the width of the tower ; which 
space the tower will consequently occupy. The towers should be made 
either round or polygonal. A square (tower) is a bad form, on 
account of its being easily fractured at the quoins by the battering 
ram ; whereas the circular tower has this advantage, that when battered, 
the pieces of masonry whereof it is composed being cuneiform, they cannot 
be driven in towards their centre without displacing the whole mass. 
Nothing tends more to the security of walls and towers than backing them 
with walls or terraces ; it counteracts the effects of rams as well as of under- 
mining.' 

' In the construction of ramparts, very wide and deep trenches are to be 
first excavated ; the bottom of which must be still further dug out for receiving 
the foundation of the wall. This must be of sufficient thickness to resist 
the pressure of the earth against it. Then, according to the space requisite 
for drawing up the cohorts in military order on the ramparts, another wall 
is to be built within the former, towards the city. The outer and inner 
walls are then to be connected by cross walls, disposed on the plan after the 
manner of the teeth of a comb or a saw, so as to divide the pressure 
of the filling in earth into many and less forces, and thus prevent the walls 
from being thrust out.' The materials are stated to be ' what are found 
in the spot : such as square stones, flint, rubble stones, burnt or unburnt 
bricks.' (Vitruvius, Book I, Chap, v.) 

' The lanes and streets (of which no details are given) of the city being set 
out, the choice of sites for the convenience and use of the state remains to be 
decided on; for sacred edifices, for the forum, and for other public buildings. 
If the place adjoin the sea, the forum should be seated close to the harbour ; 
if inland it should be in the centre of the town. The temples of the gods, 
protectors of the city, as those of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, should be on 
some eminence which commands a view of the greater part of the city. The 
temple of Mercury should be either in the forum or, as also the temple of 
Isis and Scrapis in the great public square ; those of Apollo and Father 
Bacchus near the theatre. If there be neither amphitheatre nor gymnasium, 
the temple of Hercules should be near the circus. The temple of 
Mars should be out of the city, in the neighbouring country ; that 
of Venus near to the gate. According to the revelations of the 
Hetrurian Haruspices, the temples of Venus, Vulcan and Mars 
should be so placed that those of the first be not in the way of con- 
taminating the matrons and youth with the influence of lust ; that 
those of the Vulcan be away from the city, which would consequently 
freed from the danger of fire; the divinity presiding over that element 
bring drawn away by the rites and sacrifices performing in his temple. 

253 



NAGARA(-Rl) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The temple of Mars should be also out of the city, that no armed 
frays may disturb the peace of the citizens, and that this divinity 
may, moreover, be ready to preserve them from their enemies and 
the perils of war. The temple of Ceres should be in a solitary spot 
out of the city, to which the public are not necessarily led but for the 
purpose of sacrificing to her. This spot is to be reverenced with 
religious awe and solemnity of demeanour by those whose affairs lead 
them to visit it. Appropriate situations must also be chosen for the 
temple and places of sacrifice to the other divinities.' (Vifrtwius, Book I, 
Chap, vii.) 

(13) Vijitya visvarh vijayabhidhanam visVottaram yo nagarim 

vyadhatta I 

Ya hema-kutam nija-sala-bahu-lata-chhaleneva parishvajanti II 
Yat-prakara-Sikhavali-parilasat - kinjalka - punjachitarh yach 

chhaka-pura-jala-nachitarh sad-danti-bhringanvitam I 
Sphayad yat-parikha-jala-prati-phalad yat-pranta-prithvl-dhara- 
chchhaya-nalam idam purabjam naisarh lakshmya sahalam- 

bate II 

' Having conquered all the world, he (Bukka-Raja) built a 
splendid city called the City of Victory (Vijayanagarl) . Its four 
walls were like arms stretching out to embrace Hema-kuta. The 
points of the battlemants like its filaments, the suburbs like its 
blossom, the elephants like bees, the hills reflected in the water 
of the moat like stems, the whole city resembled the lotus on 
which Lakshmi is ever seated.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol., v, Part i, 
Channarayapatna Taluq, no. 256 ; Roman Text, p. 521, lines 1-6 ; Transl., 
p. 732, para. 2, line 4.) 

( 1 4) Grama - nagara - kheda- karvvada - madamba - drona - mukha - pat 

tanam galirhdam aneka-mata-kuta-prasada-devayatanamga- 
lidam oppuva-agrahara-patta-narhgaliihdam atisayav-apya. 
[At Tridala, a merchant-town situated in the centre and the 
first in importance among the twelve (towns) in the glorious 
Kundi Three-Thousand, adorned with] ' villages, towns, ham- 
lets, villages surrounded by hills, groups of villages, sea-girt 
towns, and chief cities, with elegant mansions, palaces and 
temples, and with shining agrahara towns in the country of 
Kuntala.' (Old Kanarese Inscrip. at Terdal, line 58, Ind. Ant., Vol. 
xiv, pp 19, 25.) 

(15) ' With myriads of people, practices of virtue, agreeable occu- 
pations, streams of the (nine) sentiments, pleasure gardens, separated 
lovers, splendid tanks, full lotus beds, gilded boats for spring festivals, 

254 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NANDI-MANDAPA 

ghatika-sthanas (religious centres), the supports of dharmma and mines 
of enjoyment, moats which were as if the sea being overcome had 
returned here on account of the collection of gems, groups of the 
lotus faces of beautiful women fair as the moon (grama-nagara-khcda 
kharvvana-madamba-drona-mukha-pura-pattana-raja-dhani) on what- 
ever side one looked, in these nine forms did the Kuntala-desa 
shine.' 

( It should be noticed that the passages within brackets is almost 
indentical with the corresponding passage in quotation no. 14 above. 
Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 197 ; Transl., p. 124, 
para, i, last seven lines ; Roman Text, p. 214, line 27 f.) 

(16) 'Visiting' the gramas, nagaras, khedas, kharvvadas, madambas, 
pattanas, drona-mukhas and samvahanas, the cities of the elephants at 
the cardinal points.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 118; 
Transl., p. 86, last para., line 14.) 

(17) 'Thus entitled in many ways to honour, residents of Ayyavole 
Challunki and many other chief gramas, nagaras, khedas, kharvvadas 
maaambas, drona-mukhas, puras, and pattanas, of Lala Gaula, Bangala 
Kasmira, and other countries at the points of the compass.' (Ibid, no. 119, 
Transl., p. 90, para. 6.) 

NANDANA (cf. NANDA-VRITTA) A storeyed building, a pavilion. 

A type of building which has six storeys and sixteen cupolas (anda), 
and is 32 cubits wide : 

(1) Brihal-Samhild (LVI, 22, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 319; see 
under PRASADA). 

(2) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, v. 29, 33, 48, 53 ; see under 
PRASADA) . 

(3) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 29; see under PRASADA). 
A type of quadrangular building : 

(4) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, v. 242-5 ; see under PRASADA). 

(5) A pavilion with thirty pillars (Malsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXXIII, 
v. 12 ; see under MANDAPA, and compare Suprabheddgama, under 
NANDA-VRITTA) . 

NANDA-VRITTA An open pavilion, gracefully built with sixteen 
columns. 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 101 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

NANDI-MANDAPA (see under MANDAPA) A pavilion. 
See Pallava Architecture. 

(Arch. Surv., New Imp. Serirs, Vol. xxxiv 
plate LXIX, fig. 4.) 

255 



NANDYAVARTA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP 

NANDYAVARTA A type of building where rooms are surrounded 
with terraces, a village, a window, a pavilion, a phallus, a ground- 
plan, an entablature (see under PRASTARA), a joinery (see under 
SANDHI-KARMAN) . 

(1) Mdnasdra : 

A class of the six-storeyed buildings (M., xxrv,24; 5^ under 
PRASADA) . 

A class of villages (M., ix, 2 ; see under GAMA). 

A kind of joinery (M., XVH, 54. ; see under SANDHI-KARMAN). 

A type of window (M ., xxxiii, 583 ; see under VATAYANA) . 

A type of four-faced pavilion (M., xxxiv, 555 ; see under MAN- 
PAPA) . 

In connexion with the phallus (M., LII, 177 ; see under LINGA). 

In connexion with the site-plan (M., vin, 35 ; see under 
PADA-VINYASA) . 

(2) Nandyavartam alindaih Sala-kudyat pradakshinantargataih I 
Dvaram paschimam asmin vihaya Sesharii karyani 1 1 

' Nandyavarta is the name of a building with terraces that from 
the wall of the room extends to the extremity in a direction from east 
to south (alias from left to right). It must have doors on every side, 
except the west. ' (Brihat-Samhita, Lin, 32, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol., vi, p. 285.) 

(3) Sarvatobhadram ashtasyam vedasyarh vardha-manakam II 
Dakshine chottare chaiva shan-netrarh svastikarii matam I 
ParsVayoh puratas" chaiva chatur-netra-samayutam II 
Nandyavartam smritam purve dakshine paschime tatha I 
Uttare saumya-saladi Salanam asyam Iritam 1 1 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 88, 89, 90.) 
An entablature (ibid., LIV. 7). 

Ibid., XLI (named Nandyavarta-vidhi : 1-37) : 

The three sizes (1-6), and the four classes, namely, jati, chhanda, 

vikalpa and abhasa (7-9) : 

Nandyavartam chatush-pattam mulenatra vihinakam I 
Dvaram chatushtayarh vapi yatheshtha- disi va bhavet 1 1 (7) 
Jalakas" cha kavataS cha bahye bahye prakalpayet I 
Sarvatah kudya-samyuktam mukhya-dhamatra klrtitam 1 1 (8) 
Antar-vivrita-padarh cha bahye kudyam prakirtitam I 
Chatur-dikshu vinishkrantam ardha-kutarh prayojayet 1 1 
Dandika-vara-samyuktam jati-rupam idam matam II (9) 
The other details of this and the remaining three classes and the 

sub-classes are also given (10-36) : 

Evarh shodas"adha proktam nandyavartarh dvijottamah II (37) 

256 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE NABHASVAN 

(4) A class of buildings : 

. . . Nandyavartam iti s"rinu I 

Chatush-kutas" chatuh-s'alas' chatvarah parsva-nasikah 1 1 
Mukha-nasi tatha yuktam dva-dasarh chanu-nasikah 1 1 
Chatuh-sopana-sariiyuktam bhumau bhumau vis"eshatah 1 1 
Nandyavartam idam vatsa. . . . 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 48, 49, 50.) 

A pavilion with 36 columns (ibid., xxxi, 103 ; see under MANDAPA). 
NANDIKA A type of quadrangular building. 

(Agni-Purdna, Chap, civ, w. 14-15 ; see 

under PRASADA.) 
NANDI-VARDHANA A type of building. 

(i) A kind of building which is shaped like the sun-eagle but is devoid 
of the wings and tail, has seven storeys and twenty cupolas, and is 24 
cubits wide : 

Garudakritis cha garuda nanditi cha shat-chatushka-vistirnah I 
Karyas cha sapta-bhaumo vibhushito'ndais cha vimsatya 1 1 
Commentary quotes the clearer description from KdSyapa : 
Garudo garudakarah paksha-puchchha-vibhushitah I 
Nandi tad-akritir jneyah pakshadi-rahitah punah 1 1 
Karanam shat-chatushkams cha vistirnau sapta-bhumikau I 
Dasabhir dvi-gunair andair bhushitau karayet tu tau 1 1 

(Brihat-Samhita, LVII, 24 ; J.R.A.S., N. S., 

Vol. vi, p. 319.) 

(2) Matsja-Purdna (Chap. CGLXIX, vv. 33, 48, 53 ; see under PRASADA). 

(3) Bhavishya-Pardna (Chap, cxxx, vv. 28, 31 ; see under PRASADA). 

A kind of quadrangular building : 

(4) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 14-15 ; see under PRASADA). 

(5) Guruda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 24-35 '> see under PRASADA). 

NAPUMSAKA (cf. STRILINGA and PUMLINGA) A neuter type of 
building (see under PRASADA). 

Cf. Pancha-varga-yutam misram arpitanarpitangakam I 
Pashandanam idam sastam napumsaka-samanvitam II 

(Kamikagama, xu, n.) 

For the meaning of pancha-varga, see ibid., xxxv, 21, under SHAD- 
VARGA. 

NABHASVAN A class of chariots. 

(M., XLIII, 112; see under RATHA.) 

257 



NAYANONMILANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

NAYANONMILANA Chiselling the eye of an image ; sculpturally 
it would imply the finishing touch with regard to making an image. 

For details, see M., LXX (named Nayanomlana] 1-114. 
NARA-GARBHA The foundation of residental buildings. 

(See details under GARBHA-NYASA.) 

NALlNAKA A class of buildings distinguished by open quad- 
rangles and surrounded by buildings, and furnished with platforms 

and stairs. 

Chatuh-Sala-samayukto vedi-sopana-samyutah I 
Nalinakas tu samprokta(-tah) ... II 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 46.) 

NAVA-TALA The nine -storey ed buildings (M., xxvn, 2-47) ; the 
description of the ninth storey (ibid., 35~47) 5 seven classes ( 2 ~33) 
(see under PRASADA) . 

NAVA-TALA A sculptural measurement in accordance with which 
the whole length of an image is nine times the height of the face 
which is generally twelve angulas (nine inches) ; this length is divided 
into 9X12 = 1 08 equal parts which are proportionally distributed 
over the different limbs. (See under TALAMANA.) 

Cf. Nava-tala-pramanas tu deva-danava-kinnarah I 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLVIH, v. 16.) 

Evarii narishu sarvasu devanam pratimasu cha I 
Nava-talam proktaih lakshanam papa-nasanam II 

(Ibid., v. 75.) 

The details of this system of measure employed both for male 
and female statues are given. (Ibid., vv. 26-74.) 
NAVA-BHUMI (same as NAVA-TALA) Nine-storeyed buildings, 
the ninth storey (see NAVA-TALA) . 

NAVA-RANGA (see SAPTA-RANGA) A detached pavilion (with 
1 08 columns). 

(1) Salindam nava-rangarh syad ashtottara-satanghrikam I 

(M., xxxtv, 107.) 

(2) Koneri ' erected a nava-ranga of 10 ankanas, with secure 
foundation and walls, for the god Tirumala of the central street of 
Malalavadi.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. iv, Hunsur Taluq, no. I ; Transl., p. 83 ; 
Roman Text, p. 134.) 

258 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGA 

(3) Santigramada nava-rahgada kalla-bagilann kattisi huli-mukha- 
van (Deva Maharaya) ' caused the stone gateway of Sautigrama 
to be constructed and ornamented with the tiger-face. (This work 
was carried out by Singanahe-baruva of the village).' (Ep. Carnal., 
Vol. v, Part I, Hassan Taluq, no. 17 ; Roman Text, p. 75 ; Transl., .p. 34.) 

(4) Srl-gopala-svamiyavara nava-ranga-patta-s'ale-prakaravanu 
kattisi for the god Gopala ' he erected a nava-ranga-patta-sale (a 
nava-ranga and a pattasala, see below) and an enclosure wall (and 
promoted a work of merit).' 

Nava-ranga-prakara-patta-sale-samasta-dharmma ' this nava-ranga, 
enclosure wall, patta-sala and all the work of merit were carried 
out. . . .' (ibid, Channarayapatna Taluq no. 185 ; Roman Text, p. 467 
lines 8, 17 ; Transl., p 205.) 

(5) Compare Sapta-ranga (at Comilla in Bengal) which is a pagoda- 
shaped detached building of seven storeys built on the right side 
of the ranga-mandapa, another detached building, facing the front 
side of the main shrine or temple of the god Jagannatha. All these 
buildings and the tank behind the shrine are within the enclosing 
wall (prakara). 

(6) ' It (Mallesvara temple at Hulikat) faces north and consists of 
a garbha-griha, an open sukha-nasi, a nava-ranga, and a porch. 
The garbha-griha, sukha-nasi and porch are all of the same dimensions 
being about 4^ feet square, while the nava-ranga measures 16 feet by 
14 feet. ' (Mysore Arch. Report, 1915-16, p. 4, para. 10 ; \see also p. 5, para. 
12, Plate ra, fig. 2.) 

' The nava-ranga is an open hall with two rows of four pillars at 
the side, all the pillars except two being carved with large female 
figures in relief in the front. ' (Ibid., p. 15, para. 19.) 

NAVA-RATNA Nine gems, ruby (padma-raga), diamond (vajra), 
coral (vidruma), sapphire (nila), topaz (pushpa-raga), emerald 
(marakata), pearl (mukta), lapis lazuli (sphatika), and gomedaka. 

(M., xvni, 390394-) 

NAGA Supernatural beings, ' snake-demons, sometimes represent- 
ed in human form with a snake's hood in the nake, sometimes as 
mixed forms, half man, half snake. Their sworn enemies are 
Garuda. ' 

(W. Gieger : Mahavarhsa, p. 294 ; Griinwedel : 
Buddhist Kunst, p. 42, fol.) 

259 



NAGA-KALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

NAGA-KALA A stone on which the image of a serpent is carved. 

(See Chalukyan Architecture Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, 
p. 39, Plates xcrx, fig. 2 ; xc, figs. 2, 3.) 

NAGA-BANDHA A kind of window resembling the hood of 
a cobra. 

(M., XXXIH, 582 ; see under VATAYANA.) 

NAGARA One of the three styles of architecture ; it is quadrangular 
in shape, the other two (Vesara and Dravida) being respectively 
round and octagonal. 

(t) Mdnasdra : 

The characteristic feature of the three styles : 

Muladi-stupi-paryantarh vedaSrarh chayatasYakam I 
Dvyas"rarh vrittakritarh vatha grivadi-sikharakritih I 
Stupi-karna-sarhyuktarh dvayarh va chaikam eva va I 
Chatur-asrakritirh yas tu Nagararh tat prakirtitam I 
Mulagrarh vrittam akararh tad yat ayatam eva va I 
Grlvadi-stupi-paryantarh yuktatho (-dhas) tad yugasrakam I 
Vrittasyagre dvyas"rakam tad Vesara-namakarh bhavet I 
Mulagrat stupi-paryantam ashtas"ram va shad-asrakam I 
Tad-agrarh chayatarh vapi grlvasyadho yugasrakam 
Purvavach chordhva-desarh syad Dravidarh tat prakirtitam I 
SamaSraika-s'ikha-yuktarh chayame tach-chhikha-trayam I 
DryaSra-vrittopari-stupi vrittarh va chatur-a^rakam I 
Padmadi-kudmalantarh syad uktavad vakriti(rh) nyaset I 

(M., xviii, 90-102.) 

Compare Vishnu-dharmottara (a supplement to the Vishnu- Parana) , 
Part III, Chap. XLI, where paintings are divided into four classes Satya, 
Vainika, Nagara and Mis"ra. (Cf. S. Kramrisch : A Treatise on Indian 
Painting and Image-making, 1928, pp. 8, 51 ; A. K. Coomaraswamy's 
article, Rupam, January, 1929.) 

The Nagara style is distinguished by its quadrangular shape, 

the Vesara by its round shape and the Dravida by its octagonal 

or hexagonal shape : 

See Suprabheddgama below and compare : 

(Referring to the pedestal of the pallus) : 

Nagararh chatur-asram ashtas"rarh Dravidarh tatha I 
Vrittarh cha Vesararh proktam etat pithakritis tatha I 

(M., mi, 53-54.) 
2 60 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA 

These distinguishing features are noticed generally at the upper 
part of a building : 

Griva-mastaka-s'ikha-pradesake I 
Nagaradi-samalankritoktavat I (M., xxi, 71-72.) 
Nagara-Dravida-Vesaradin(-dinarh) Sikhanvitam (harm yam) I 

(M, xxvi, 75.) 
Referring to chariots (ratha) : 

Vedasrarh Nagaram proktarh vasvasram Dravidarh bhavet I 
Suvrittam Vesararh proktarh ra(A)ndhrarh syat tu shad- 

asrakam I (M., XLIII, 123-124.) 

An important addition is noticed in this passage; this style is 
designated as Randra, which is perhaps a corruption of Andhra. 

In an ephigraphical record Kaliriga also is mentioned as 
a distinct style of architecture (see below). 

If the identification of Vesara with Telugu or Tri-kallnga is 
accepted (see below), and if the reading Andhra for Randhra 
is also accepted, the Kalinga and the Andhra would be two 
branches of Vesara. And as the Dravida style is stated to be of the 
hexagonal or octagonal shape (see above) it would appear that the 
Dravida proper is octagonal and the Andhra, which is placed 
between the Dravida and the Vesara, is hexagonal (see further 
discussion below). 

The same three styles are distinguished in sculpture also: 

(Lingam) Nagararh Dravidam chaiva Vesrarh cha tridha 
matam I 

(M., LHI, 76, also 100.) 

Kuryat tu nagare linge pitham Nagararh eva cha I 
Dravide Dravidam proktarh vesare Vesararh tatha I 

(Ibid., 46-47, etc.) 
) Silparatna of Srikumara (xvi, 51-53) : 

Muladi-sikhararh yugaSra-rachitam geha smritarh nagararh I 
Muladi-Sikhara-kriyarh shaduragasrodbheditam dravidam I 
Mulad va galato'thava parilasat-vrittatmakam vesaram I 
Teshvekarh prithagallakshma suridadadhyadatmanah sam- 

matam II (51) 

Janmadi-stupiparyantarh yugasrarh nagararh bhavet I 
Vasvasram Sirshakam karnam (kantham) dravidarh bhavanam 

viduh II (52) 

Vritta-karna (kantha)-5iropetam vesararh harmamlritam I 
Kuta-koshthadi-hlnanam harmyanarh kathim tvidam II (53) 

261 



NAGARA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

This treatise locates Nagara region from the Himalayas to the 
Vindhyas, Dravida region from the Vindhyas to the Krishna, and 
Vesara region from the Krishna to the Cape Comorin (see verses 
40-50). 

But it expressly says (v. 44) that buildings of all these styles 
may be found in all countries according to some authorities. This 
is quite natural and would further indicate the migration of styles 
from the land of their origin. 

The unwarranted assumption of Messrs. F. H. Gravely and T. N. Rama- 
chandran, in the Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum (New Series 
General Section, Vol. Ill, Part i, 1934), that all Silpa-sastras including 
the Manasdra originated and restricted their jurisdiction in the South, is respon- 
sible for a series of further assumptions raised like a house of cards. Under 
the plea of ' Three Main Styles of temple Architecture ' the authors of this article 
of 26 pages deliberately ignored both the references to other objects of these 
styles as also the examination of North Indian buildings of Nagara style except 
a passing mention of a single structure at Bareilly District and excluded the places 
north of the Vindhya range which are known by the name of Nagara. The 
alternative designations of Vesara style by Andhra and Kalinga have equally 
been ignored. Thus the learned authors had to delimit the Indian Continent 
by the Vindhya range of limited eastern boundary as the northern limit, and 
of this truncated India, Dravida being the south and Nagara and Vesara the 
two northern flanks. There was no necessity for any discussion to explain the 
mixture of Pallava and Chalukyan types. The migration of styles also is very 
common and natural in architecture. 

The contention that the styles, Nagara, Vesara, Dravida, all belong to the 
south has been disproved by Dr. S. K. Aiyangar (Journal of the Indian Society 
of Oriental Art, Vol. n, no. i, June 1934, pp. 23-27) : 'the primary division 
is Nagara, India north of the Vindhyas, Vesara, India between the Vindhyas 
and the Krishna, corresponding to Dakhan of secular history, and Dravida or 
India south of the Krishna corresponding to Tamil India, ' . . . ' But in 
regard to Vesara from Ves"ya, Mr. Jayaswal ( J. I. S. 0. A., Vol. i, no. i, 
p. 57) has little authority to rest on '. . . . ' our derivation may fail or may 
prove satisfactory, but that is something entirely different from what the artist 
or the craftsman understood by the terms '....' That they (Nagara, Vesara, 
Dravida) had no territorial significance would be to argue too much, in the 
face of the explicit statement by the text writers." 

(3) Kdmikdgama (LXV, 6-7, 12-18) : 

Pratyekarh tri-vidharh proktam sarhchitarh chapy-asarhchitam I 
Upasarhchitam ity-evarh Nagararh Dravidarh tatha 1 1 (6) 
VeSararh cha tatha. jatis chhando vaikalpam eva cha II (7) 
Savistara-vaSach chhanna-hasta-purnayatanvitam I 

262 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA 

Yugmayugma-vibhagcna Nagaram syat sarmkritam II (12) 
Antara-prastaropetam uha-pratyuha-samyutam I 
Nivra-sandhara-samstambha-vrate paridridhaih s"ubhaihll (13) 
Dravidarh vakshyate' thatah vistara-dvayorghakam (?) I 
Raktachchhanna-pratikshepat yugmayugma-vis'eshatah II (14) 
Hitva tatra samrbhutam bhadralahkara-samyutam I 
Aneka-dvara-sarhyuktam shad-vargam Dravidarh smritam I 
Labdha-vyasayatam yat tu natiriktarh na hlnakam I 
Bahu-varga-yutam vapi dandika-vara-s'obhitam II (16) 
Maha-vararh vimanordhve nirvuhanana-samyutam (?) I 
Sakshetropeta-madhyarhghri-yuktarh tad Vesaram matam II (17) 
Yatmarh ganikanam cha jivinarh krura-karmanah I 
Pras"astarh Vesararh tesharh anyesham itare ^ubhe II (18) 
The details of the three styles are described more briefly but 
explicitly in the following Agama : 

(4) Suprabheddgama (xxxi, 37-39): 

Dvara-bhedam idarh proktam jati-bhedam tatah srinu II (37) 
Nagaram Dravidarh chaiva Vesararh cha tridha matam I 
Kanthad arabhya vrittam yad Vesaram iti smritam II (38) 
Grivam arabhya chashtarhs'am vimanam Dravidakhyakam I 
Sarvam vai chaturasrarh yat prasadam Nagaram tu-idam 1 1 (39) 
According to this Agama, the buildings of the Nagara style are 
quadrangular from the base to the top ; those of the Dravida style 
are octagonal from the neck to the top ; and those of the Vesara style 
are round from the neck to the top. Apparently the lower part of the 
buildings of the two latter styles is quadrangular. 

(5) Svair angula-pramanair dva-das"a-vistlrnam ayatarh cha mukham : 
Nagnajita tu chatur-dasa dairghyena Dravida (m) kathitam II 

According to one's own angula (finger) the face (of his own 
statue) is twelve angulas long and broad. But according to (the 
architect) Nagnajit it should be fourteen angulas in the Dravida 
style. 

The commentary quotes Nagnajit in full : 

Vistirnam dva-dasa-mukharh dairghyena cha chatur-dasa I 
Angulani tatha karyam tan-manam Dravidam smritam II 

The face should be twelve angulas broad and fourteen angulas long : 
such a measure is known as Dravida (i. e., this is the Dravida style of 
measurement). (Brihat-Samhita, LVIII, 4, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 323, 
note 3.) 

(6) ' Like the face of the lady Earth shone the Vanavase-nad on which 
Niigara-khanda at all times was conspicuous like the tilaka, a sign of good 

263 



NAGARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

fortune (then follows a description of its groves, gardens, tanks, etc.). In 
the Nagara-khanda shone the splendid Bandhavanagara.' 

' In Nagara-khanda, like the mouths of Kara, were five agraharas, from 
which proceeded the sounds of all Brahmans reading and teaching the read- 
ing of all the Vedas, Puranas, moral precepts, Sastras, logic, agamas, poems, 
dramas, stories, smriti, and rules for sacrifices.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikar- 
pur Taluq, no. 225 ; Transl., p. 132, paras. 6, 7 ; Roman Text, p. 229, line 24 to 
p. 235, line 2.) 

(7) ' In the world beautiful is the Kuntala-land, in which is the charming 
Vanavasa country ; in it is the Nagara-khanda, in which was the agreeable 
Bandhavapura. (The list of its trees and other attractions.) In that royal 
city (rajadhani) was formerly a king of that country famed for his liberality 
Sovi-deva.' (Ibid., no. 235 ; Transl., p. 135, para. 2 ; Roman Text, p. 238, 
line 20, f.) 

(8) Nagari-khanda and Nagari-khanda (ibid., no. 236 ; Transl., p. 137, 
paras. 3, 4), Nagara-khanda seventy (no. 240 ; Transl., p. 138), Nagara- 
khandanada (no. 241 ; Transl., p. 138), Nagara-khanda (no. 243 ; Roman 
Text, p. 248, line 8), Nagara-khanda seventy (no. 267 ; Transl., p. 143, last 
para., line 7), Nagari-khanda seventy (no. 277 ; Transl., p. 145, largest para., 
lines). 

(9) Nagara-bhuktau valavi-vaishayika-s'aiva . . . padralik (? ksh) 
antash-pati Varunika-grama ' Of the village of Varunika, which lies . . . 
in the Nagara bhukti (and) belonging to the Valavi-vishaya.' (Deo Bara- 
nark Inscrip. of Jivitagupta n, lines 6-7 : C. /. /., Vol., m, F. G. I. no. 46, 
pp. 216, 218.) 

(10) 'When that king (king Harihara's son Deva-Raya) of men was ruling 
the kingdom in peace and wisdom, shining in beauty beyond all countries 
was the entire Karnnata province ; and in that Karnnata country famous 
was the Gutti-nad, which contained eighteen Kampanas in which the most 
famous nad was " Nagara-khanda " to which Kuppatur was an ornament, 
owing to the settlement of the Bhavyas (or Jains), and its Chaityalayas, 
beautiful with lotus ponds, pleasure gardens and fields of gandha-sali rice. 
(Further description of its attractions).' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vm, Part I, Sorab 
Taluq, no. 261 ; Roman Text, p. 82 ; Transl., p. 41.) 

(i i) ' In the island of Jambu trees ( Jambu-dvipa), in the Bharata-kshetra, 
near the holy mountain (Sridhara), protected by the wise Chandragupta, 
an abode of the good usages of eminent Kshatriyas, filled with a popula- 
tion worthy of gifts (dakshina-patra), a place of unbroken wealth, was the 
district (vishaya) named Naga-khanda of good fortune, possessed of all com- 
forts, and from being ever free from destruction (laya) of the wise, called 
Nilaya (an asylum). There, adorned with gardens of various fruit trees 

264 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA 

(named), shines the village named Kuppatur, protected by GopcSa. There 
like the forehead-ornament to the wife, in the territory of king Harihara, 
was a Jlna Chaityalaya which had received a sasana from the Kadambas.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. vm, Part I, Sorab Taluq, no. 263 ; Roman Text, p. 86 ; 
Transl., p. 43.) 

The identity of Nagara-khanda with Naga-khanda is undoubted owing 
to the fact that the one and same village Kuppatur is contained in both. 

(12) 'The headman of Pithamane village, the first in the Kuppatur 
Twenty-six of the Nagara-khanda Malu-nad, belonging to the Chandragutti- 
venthe, of the Banavasi Twelve Thousand in the South country . . . 
(Ibid., no. 265 ; Roman Text, p. Sy.Transl., p. 43). 

(13) In Jambudvipa, in the Karnnataka-vishaya, adorned with all 
manner of trees (named) is Nagara-khanda.' (Ibid., no. 329 ; Transl., 

p. 58, para. 2, line 4.) 

(14) The expression Nagara-khanda Seventy' occurs in several of the 
Sorab Taluq Inscriptions, e.g., nos. 326, 327, 328, 336, 337, etc. 

To the ocean-girdled earth like a beautiful breast formed for enjoyment 
was Nagara-khanda in the Banavasi-mandala.' (Ibid., no. 345 ; Transl. 
p. 60.) 

(15) 'In the ocean-girdled Jambu-diva (dvipa) is the Mandara mountain 
to the south of which is the Bharata-kshetra, in which is ... wherein is 
the beautiful Nagara-khanda. Among the chief villages of that nad is the 
agrahara named Kuppatura.' 

' Grants were also made (as specified) by the oil-mongers, the betel-sellers 
and the gandas(?) of Nagara-khanda for the perpetual lamp.' (Ibid., no. 
276 ; Transl., p. 47.) 

(16) 'In the pleasant Nagara-khanda is the agrahara which is jewel 
mirror to the earth, the beautiful Kuppatur, with its splendid temples, its 
golden towers, its lofty mansions, its streets of shops, its interior surrounded 
with a moat, its . . ., and the houses of dancing girls, how beautiful to 
the eyes was Kuppatur. It surpassed Alakapura, AmaravatI and Bhoga- 
vati. Within that village, vying with Kailasa, stood the temple of Koti- 
natha, built by Visvakarmma and carved with complete devotion, planned in 
perfect accordance with the many rules of architecture, and freely decorated 
with drdvida, bhumija and ndgara.' ' These and bhadropeta appear to be 
technical terms of the Silpa-fdstra or science of architecture.' Mr. Rice. 

(They are evidently the three styles of architecture called the Dravida, 
Vesira and Nagara in the Mdnasdra and elsewhere Ep. Carnal., Vol. 
vra, Part I ; Sorab Taluq, no. 275 ; Roman Text, p. 92, line 9 from bottom 
upwards ; transl., p. 46, note i.) 

(17) The earliest Vijayanagar inscription (Sb. 263, noted above) contains 
the interesting statement that the district (vishaya) named Naga-khanda 

265 



NAGARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

generally Nagara-khanda, corresponding more or less with the Shikarpur 
Taluq was (formerly) protected by the wise Chandragupta, an abode of 
the usages of eminent Kshatriyas.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol., vm, Part I ; Introduc- 
tion, p. ii, para. 5.) 

(18) The Sorab Taluq Inscriptions (no. 261 f.) have reference to Nagara- 
khanda and its pompous buildings (temples), picturesque gardens and other 
natural and artificial beauties. From these it may be inferred that the 
buildings of Nagara-khanda possessed, as stated in the Mdnasdra, a distinct 
style of architecture like those of the Dravida and Vesara countries. 

(19) Compare Fah Hian's Kingdom of the Dakshina (Ind. Ant., Vol., 
VH, pp. 1-7, note 2) : 

' Going two hundred yojanas south from this, there is a country 
called Ta-thsin (Dakshina). Here is a Sangharama of the former 
Buddha, Kas"yapa. It is constructed out of a great mountain of rock 
hewn to the proper shape. This building has altogether five storeys. 
The lowest is shaped into the form of an elephant, and has five hundred 
stone cells in it. The second is in the form of a lion and has four 
hundred chambers. The third is shaped like a horse, and has three 
hundred chambers. The fifth storey is in the shape of a dove, and 
has one hundred chambers in it. At the very top of all is a spring of 
water, which flowing in a stream before the rooms, encircles each tier 
and so, running in a circuitous course, at last arrives at the very lowest 
storey of all, where, flowing past the chambers as before, it finally issues 
through the door of the building. Throughout the consecutive tiers, 
in various parts of the building, windows have been pierced through the 
solid rock for the admission of light, so that every chamber is quite illu- 
minated, and there is no darkness (throughout the whole). At the 
four corners of this edifice they have hewn out the rock into steps, 
as a means for ascending. Men of the present time point out a small 
ladder which reaches up to the highest point (of the rock) by which men 
of old ascended it, one foot at a time (?). They derive the name which 
they give to this building, viz. Po-loya, from an Indian word (paravata) 
signifying " pigeon." There are always Arhtas abiding here. This 
land is hilly and barren, without inhabitants. At a considerable 
distance from the hill there are villages, but all of them are inhabited 
by heretics. They know nothing of the law of Buddha or Sramanas, of 
Brahmans, or of any of the different schools of learning. The men of 
that country continually see persons come flying to the temple. On 
a certain occasion there were some Buddhist pilgrims from different 
countries who came here with a desire to pay religious worship at this 
temple. Then the men of the villages above alluded to ask them saying 

266 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA 

Why do you not fly to it We behold the religious men who 
occupy those chamber constantly on the wing." " Because our wings 
are not yet perfectly formed." The country of Ta-thsin is precipitous, 
and the road dangerous and difficult to find. Those who wish to go 
there ought to give a present to the king of the country, either money 
or goods. The king then deputes certain men to accompany them as 
guides, and so they pass the travellers from one place to another, each 
party pointing out their own roads and intricate bye-paths. Fah Hian 
finding himself in the end unable to proceed to that country, reports 
in the above passages merely what he heard.' (Beat's Travels of Fah Hian 
and Sung-Yan, pp. 139, 141.) 

(20) ' The territory (Dravida) which also includes the northern half 
of Ceylon, extends northwards up to an irregular line drawn from a 
point on the Arabian sea about i ,000 miles below Goa along the Western 
Ghats as far as Kolhapur, thence north-east through Hyderabad, and 
farther eastwards to the Bay of Bengal.' (Encyclopaedia, Brit. ed. n, 

P- 550-) 

(21) Vesara is otherwise called Andhra or Telugu. ' The old Telugu 

country covers about 8,000 square miles, and is bounded on the east 
by the Bay of Bengal, on the north by the river Godavari, on the south 
by the Krishna.' (Dr. Barnett, Catalogue of the Telugu Books, Preface.) 
The boundaries of the Telugu or Vesara country are given in detail 
in the Linguistic Survey of India : ' The Telugu country is bounded 
towards the east of the Bay of Bengal from about Barwa in the Ganjam 
District in the north to Madras in the south. From Barwa the frontier 
line goes westwards through Ganjam to the Eastern Ghats, and then 
southwards, crosses the Sobari on the border of the Sunkum and the 
Bijai Talukas in the Baster state, and thence runs along the range of the 
Bela Dila to the Indravati. It follows that river to its confluence with 
the Godavari, and then runs through Chanda, cutting off the southern 
part of the district, and further eastwards, including the southern border 
of the district Wun. It then turns southwards to the Godavari at its 
confluence with the Manjira, and thence further south, towards Bidar 
where Telugu meets with Kanarese.' (Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. iv> 

P- 577-) 
See also the following : 

Trikdndasesha (Bibl., 258, Gal., 2, 8, 44). 
Hemachandra-abhidhdna-chintdmani (12, 53). 
Haldyudha (2, 295). 

Naishadha-kdrikd (Bibl., Cal., 10, 8). 
Brihaddranyaka-upanishad (8, 15). 
Sisupalabadha (Bibl. 141, Gal. 12, 19). 

267 



NAGARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(22) Nagara seems to be a very popular geographical name (see 
J. A. S. B., 1896, Vol. LXV, Part i, pp. 116-117) : 

It is clear from the references that Nagara was formerly the capital 
of Birbhum in Bengal ; that Nagara is the name of a famous port in 
Tanjore ; that it is the name of an extensive division in Mysore ; that 
a town named Nagara and an ancient place called Nagarakota are 
situated on the Bias in the district of Kangra, in the Punjab ; that 
we find Nagaravasti in Darbhanga, the town Nagaraparken in Sindh 
and Nagarakhas in the district of Basti ; that there is a number of 
ancient villages in the Deccan called Nagaram ; and that Nagara is 
the name of two rivers in North Bengal, the name of a village in the 
district of Dacca ; and that of some nine or ten places, called Nagara 
in Rajputana proper, three being towns, that a fortified village in the 
Santal Parganah is called Nagara. The ancient Madhyamika, 
which was once besieged by Menander, is now called Nagari near 
Chitor (Smith's History, p. 187). Hieun Tsiang also mentions 
Nagara (modern Jellalabad) which was a province of ancient Kapisa 
(Kadphisa), the people whereof were the followers of Buddha (see 
his Travels, Index). 

The Nagaras are mentioned in the list of countries and peoples' 
given in the Yogdvas'istha-Rdmdyana (Utpatti-prakarana, xxxv, 33) 
as a people. The same list refers to the Dravidas (ibid., 40) also as 
a people living south of the mount Chitra-kuta, below the river 
Godavari. In this list the Andhras, Kalingas, and Chaulikas are clear- 
ly distinguished from the Dravidas (ibid., 26-27). 

Nagara is the name of a script also mostly prevailing in Northern 
India. There lives a powerful tribe called Nagara, in the moun- 
taneous tract of Kabul in Afghanistan. Nagara is the designation of 
a sect of Brahmins also who, it is held, came over from some part of 
Northern India and settled down in Gujrat at a place known as Na- 
garanandapura. From these Nagara Brahmans, it is said, came the 
use of the Nagari alphabet. A portion (part VI) of the Skanda- 
Purdna bears the name Nagara-khanda. From this instance, it 
would appear that the expression Nagara is at least as old as the 
Nagara-khanda incorporated into the Skanda-Purdna which was 
according to a general concensus, composed in honour of or, r.t 
least, named after Skandagupta (A.D. 455-480), the seventh Emperor 
of the early Gupta dynasty. 

Why the Nagara-khanda, the 6th part of the Skanda-Purdna, is so 
called is not explained explicitly in the Parana itself. But from the 
contents of Chapters cxrv, CLxnr, cxcix, cc, CGI and coin of this (6th) 
part, it seems to have been named after the Nagara Brahmins. 

268 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA 

The etymological origin of the term nagara is, however, explained in 
Chapter cxiv of the Nagara-khanda. It is stated (vv. 76, 77, 78, 
93) to have arisen from an incantation of snake-posioning (cf. verses 
i-i 13, nagara, no poison). Compare the following : 

Garam visham iti proktam na tatrasti cha sampratam II 
Na garam na gararh chaitach chhrutva ye pannagadhamah I 
Tatra sthasyanti te vadhya bhavishyanti yatba-sukham I \ 
Adya prabhriti tat sthanarh (Chamatkara-purarh) nagarakhyam 

dhara-tale I 

Bhavishyati su-vikhyatarh tava kirtti-vivarddhanam 1 1 
Evam tan nagaram jatam asmat kalad anantaram 1 1 

(Skanda-Purana, Part vi, Nagara-khanda, 
Chap, cxrv, w., 76, 77, 78, 93.) 

From all the literary and epigraphical instances given above 
it appears certain that the expressions Nagara, Vesara, and Dravida 
are primarily geopraphical. But the precise boundaries of Nagara, 
like those of Dravida and Vesara, are not traceable. The epigraphical 
quotations, however, would tend to localize Nagara somewhere 
within the territory of modern Mysore. But the Nagara script, the 
Nagara-khanda of the Skanda-Purdna, and the Nagara-Brahmins, 
representing some way or other the Northern India from the Himalaya 
to the Vindhya and from Gujrat to Magadha, would jointly give 
a wider boundary to Nagara. Besides the author of the Mdnasdra 
shows his acquaintance with buildings of the whole of India in the 
passage where he divides the best types of buildings by the following 
designations, namely, Padchala, Dravida, Madhya-kanta (meaning 
apparently MadhyadeSa), Kalinga, Varata (Virata), Kerala, Vam- 
saka, Magadha, Janaka, and Sphurjaka (M., xxx, 5-7.) 

If the country of Nagara, like those of Dravida and Vesara be 
included in Southern India, in other words, if Northern India be 
excluded from the scope of the styles of buildings mentioned in records 
quoted above, the passage, mentioning the ten different types of 
buildings of the ten countries covering the whole of India, will have to 
be treated as what is called a spurious record, a term under which the 
conflicting ideas are reconciled by many a scholar. Let whatever be 
the boundaries of Nagara, it is clear beyond doubt that the three 
styles of architecture have arisen from three geographical names, 
Nagara, Vesara, and Dravida. And there we have a parallel instance 
of similar divisions in the early Grecian architecture : 

The three ancient orders the Doric, Ionic, Corinthian on 
which were based the three styles of Grecian architecture have 
been traced by Vitruvius, an authority on architecture of the 
first century. 

269 



NAGARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

' In this country (Smyrna) allotting different spots for different pur- 
poses, they began to erect temples, the first of which was dedicated 
to Apollo Panionios, and resembled that which they had seen in 
Achaia, and they gave it the name of Doric, because they had first 
seen that species in the cities of Deoria.' (Book iv, Chap, i.) 

Gwilt comments on it thus : ' The origin of the Doric order is 
a question not easily disposed of. Many provinces of Greece bore 
the name of Doria; but the name is often the least satisfactory mode 
of accounting for the birth of the thing which bears it.' (Encycl., 
Art. 142.) 

' The Ionic order, at first chiefly confined to the states of Asia 
Minor, appears to have been coeval with the Doric order.' (Gwilt., 
Encycl. Art. 153). 'That species, of which the lonians (inhabitants, 
of Ion) were the inventors, has received the appellation of lonic.'- 
(Vitruvius, Book iv, Chap, i.) 

The third species, Corinthian, is so called because Callimachus, 
who for his great ingenuity and taste was called by the Athenians 
Catatechnos, happening at this time to pass by the tomb, observed 
the basket and the delicacy of the foliage which surrounded it. Pleased 
with the form and novelty of combination, he constructed, from 
the hint thus afforded, columns of this species in the country about 
Corinth.' (Ibid., Chap, i.) 

' When Solomon ascended the throne, anxious to fulfil the wish of 
his father had long entertained of erecting a fixed temple for the 
reception of the ark, he was not only obliged to send to Tyre for work- 
men, but for an architect also. Upon this temple a dissertation has 
been written by a Spaniard of the name of Villalpanda, wherein he, 
with consummate simplicity, urges that the orders, instead of being 
invention of the Greeks, were the invention of God Himself, and that Calli- 
machus most shamefully put for the pretentions to the formation of 
the Corinthian capital which, he says, had been used centuries before 
in the temple at Jerusalem.' (Ibid., Art. 52.) 

' The other two orders, Tuscan and Composite, which are of 
a later date than the time of Vitruvius, are of Italian or Roman origin. 
The Composite, as its title denotes, is the combination of other orders 
and has thus no independent importance. The Tuscan order has 
also reference to the country of Tuscany, formerly called Eutruria, 
a country of Italy.' (Gwilt, Encycl., Art. 1 78.) 

The origin of the Indian architecture is attributed to a mytholo- 
gical person Vis"vakarman, literally the Creator of the Universe. 
But the styles of architecture are stated to have been invented by 
one Bammoja. 

270 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NAGARA 

' An interesting record from Holal is the label cut on the capital 
of a finely carved pillar in the Amrites'vara temple. It is called in 
the inscription a Sukara-pillar. Speaking of the sculptor who made 
it, the record says that he, Bammoja, the pupil of Padoja of Soge, 
was a VisVakarma, i.e. the architect of the gods in this Kali age, the 
master of the sixty-four arts and sciences, the clever builder of the 
sixty-four varieties of mansions and the architect who had invented 
(discovered) the four types of buildings, viz. Nagara, Kalinga, 
Dravida and Vesara. An earlier sculptor of about A. D. ninth 
century of whom we hear from an inscription on a pedestal at 
Kogali, was a grandson of Sivananni. It is stated that he made the 
image of the sun (divasa-kara) of which the stone in question was 
evidently the pedestal.' (Government of Madras G. O. no. 1260, i5th 
August, 1915, p. 90, see also Progress Report of the Assistant Archaeological 
Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle, 1914-15, p. 90.) 

It has been pointed out already that Kalinga is mentioned in 
the Mdnasdra (xxx. 5-7) as the name of a type of building, but 
therein it is never stated as a style like the Nagara, Vesara and 
Dravida, the Kalinga type of buildings being apparently included 
in one of these three styles. In the same treatise there is another 
passage, pointed out above, where Randhra or Andhra is mentioned 
as a type of chariots. It has also been stated above that these 
Kalinga and Andhra might be two branches of the Vesara, being 
geographically placed on the two sides of it, the three together 
forming Tri-Kalinga or three Kalihgas. In one of the epigraphical 
quotations (no. 15) Bhumija is mentioned alongside Dravida and 
Nagara, and this Bhumija (lit. originated in the land or the style 
of the land, where the document was written) is apparently same 
as Vesara. 

Some of the numerous literary and epigraphical quotations given 
above must be placed in dates later than the time of Bammoja, men- 
tioned in the present document. But neither his name nor his style 
(Kalinga) is associated with the three styles, Nagara, Vesara, Dra- 
vida, in any of the instances quoted above. It is not unlikely that 
Bammoja ' discovered ' the three styles, which had been perhaps 
existing long before him, and adding his own invention (Kalinga) 
claimed the originality for all the four. Such instances of unscru- 
pulously adding to the works of one's predecessors and claiming the 
originality are not rare in the literary or the archaeological records. 

It does not seem probable that any one person could have invented 
all the styles of architecture at one time and issued them as a royal 
command ; they are more likely to have arisen out of the local 

271 



NATAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

circumstances at different periods, before they were recorded, 
presumably first in the architectural treatises and then in the 
epigraphical records. 

The object of this article is not, however, to identify the country 
of Nagara, nor to find out the inventor or inventors of the styles, 
although on them depend many interesting points of the ancient 
Indian architecture. Here it is clear that the expressions Nagara, 
Vesara and Dravida are geographical, and that they imply three 
styles of architecture in its broadest sense. 

But on the last point, too, modern authorities hold different views. 
In discussing the styles of Indian architecture, Mr. Havell is of opi- 
nion (Study of the Indian Civilization, Preface) that they are Siva 
and Vishnu and not Northern and Southern, or the Indo-Aryan and 
the Dravidian, as Fergusson and Burgess suppose to be (cf. History 
of Ind. and East. Arch., 1910). The Silpd-sdstra and the Agamas 
seem to disagree to HavelPs theory nor do they wholly support the 
views of Fergusson and Burgess. The division proposed by Havell, 
being not geographical, may be systematically applied to religious 
architecture, while that adopted by Fergusson and Burgess being of 
a geographical nature, is more in agreement with the system of the 
Silpa-fastras than Havell's division. 

The fact that the Hindu art-consciousness is largely dominated 
by a spiritual motive being strictly adhered to, it would follow that 
Havell's division into Siva and Vishnu, or others, into Hindu, Buddhist 
and Jain, would be more logical than that into Northern, Eastern 
and Southern, or Nagara, Vesara and Dravida. But even admit- 
ting this, we must not forget that the Hindus knew the point where 
exactly to draw the line between religion, on the one hand, and 
social and political life, on the other. It is needless to observe that 
within the three geographical styles the sectarian subdivisions are 
quite feasible. 

NATAKA A moulding, a theatre, a calyx, a crowning, moulding 
or ornament of a pillar ; it is generally used together with petals ; 
the part of the capital which supports the abacus (phalaka) is some- 
times so called ; a cardinal number. 

Padanam api sarvesharh patra-jatyair alankritam I 
Antare natakair yuktarh padmanam tu dalair yutam I 

(M., xiv, 149-150.) 
In connexion with the entablature : Natakanta-mrinalika I 

(M., xvi, 53.) 

272 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NATYA-GRIHA 

Narair va natakange tu kuryad devalayadinam I 
Harmyantaralayah sarve nrinarh nataka-samyutam I 
Etat tu prastarasyordhve natakasyordhvarhs"avat I 

(A/., xvi, 112, 114, 117.) 

Athava tapasvinlnam cha kathe va natakahakam (mandapam) I 

(Af., xxxiv, 426.) 
In connexion with pavilions (mandapa) : 

Natka-vistararh pancha-pancha-bhagena yojayet I 

(Ibid., 503.) 
In connexion with the arch (torana) : 

Makara-kimbari-vaktrarh natakadi-bhujarigavat I 
Kesari-mandanarh bhavati chitra-torana-natakaih I 

(M., XLVI, 66-67.) 
The cardinal number ten : 

Shat-saptashtaka-dandam va nanda-nataka-rudrakam I 

(Af., ix, 430.) 

Its synonym are anta, mrinalika vallika, patra, valli, chitranga and 
kulikanghrika. (Af. xvi, 53-55.) 
NATIKA A moulding. 

In connexion with the arch (torana) : 

Natika phalaka mushti-bandhanam patra-vallikam I 

(Af., XLVI, 65.) 
In connexion with the pillar : 

Kumbhayamarh tathotkantam urdhve karna-samam bhavet I 
Tat-samam natikakhyam syad unnatam tad viseshtah I 

(Af., xv, 54-55.) 

NATYA-GRIHA(-MANDAPA, -VEMA, -ALA) The play- 
house, theatre, music hall, dancing pavilion, used for enacting a 
drama (abhinaya), holding a music performance (sariglta) or dancing 
show (nritta). It is built in connexion with a temple, a palace, and 
independently for the use of general public in towns, countryside 
and mountain valley. It is built in various shapes circular (vritta) 
semi-circular (vikrishta), quadrangular (chaturasra), and triangular 
(tryasra). Abhinava-gupta, the commentator of Bharata-Ndtya-sdstra 
refers to some eighteen varieties with reference to shape and size. 

It consists of two main parts : the auditorium (preksha-griha) and the stage 
(ranga-mandapa) . The former faces the latter and is one storey (bhumi) 
lower in situation. The auditorium supplies the seating arrangement which 
varies in accordance with the shape of the theatre ; nd in consideration 
of its being attached to a temple, or palace, or built independently for the 
use of the general public. In an open variety of the theatre built in the 

273 



NATYA-GRIHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

courtyard of a temple ' all kinds of seats are assigned for ordinary, special, 
and occasional uses to Chakravartin and other classes of kings, as well for the 
gods, to be seated together with their consorts, as also for the accommoda- 
tion of ordinary people.' (Mdnasdra, XLVH, 26-29). In a closed variety of 
the palace theatre the seating arrangement is more specifically shown. 
The first row corresponding to stall and facing the stage is occupied in the 
centre by the court ladies (varangana) having the learned courtiers on their 
right and the bards on their left. Immediately behind the court ladies is the 
royal seat, on the left of which seats are reserved for the harem (antahpura) 
and on the right is the seat for the chief queen and others. The stage pro- 
per consists of ranga-slrsha (stage-front), rariga-pitha (the place immediate- 
ly behind for acting), and nepathya-griha (green-room). It is shaped like 
a mountain cave and have two floors. The upper floor or the platform 
(vedika) is made of wood, and the surrounding walls, of bricks. 

Like many other things the Indian tradition has ascribed a divine, that 
is, an indigenous origin to Sanskrit drama rather than a Grecian influence. 
The Ndtyaveda is stated to have been created by Brahma for the benefit of 
all castes including the Sudras who had no access to the Vedas. It is signi- 
ficant that dramas were intended at origin to provide facilities for the enjoy- 
ment of all classes of people, thus indicating popularity and interest to the 
subject of the general public, men, women and children, who could hardly be 
expected even if they were all literate, to read the texts in Sanskrit in order 
to enjoy the dramas. Thus the drama is stated to have been compiled of the 
element of recitation from the Rig- Veda, the element of chanting or songs 
from the Sdma-Veda, the element of mimic art from the Tqjur-Veda, and the 
element of sentiment from the Athar-Veda. Siva and Parvatl are stated 
to have contributed the Tandava and Lasya dances, and Vishnu ' the four 
dramatic styles essential to the effect of any play.' Visvakarman, the divine 
architect, is stated to have built the first playhouse in which the sage Bharata 
carried into practice the dramatic art thus created. 1 

This traditional account has been gathered from the Bharata-Ndtya-sdstra 
which treatise the Western scholars have placed in the third century of the 
Christian era. There is also a class of works, called Natasutra, referred to 
in Panini's grammar (4, 3, no), dealing with directions to actors (nata). 
But the dialogues and other elements have been discovered in the early 
Vedas. z These dialogues are romantic in nature and dramatic in essence. 
Thus the conversations between Yama and YamI, or Pururavas and tfrvasi 
would charm a modern audience in a most up-to-date theatre. Professor 
Keith has further recognized that 'the Vedic ritual contained within 
1 Keith : Sanskrit Drama, p. 1 2. 

For instance Rig-Veda, v. 10, 51-53, 86, 95, 108 ; vm, 100 ; i, 179, 28- 
rv, 1 8. 

274 




A SUGGESTION FOR THE INTERIOR 

10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 
SCALE OF MI. in i i i i i i i | | FEET. 



\ ---" 




PLAN-SEMI CIRCULAR TYPE. 




PLAN-TRIANQULAR TYPE 
SCALE 16 FT. --ONE INCH. 



NA . YA GRIM. 



PLAN-QUADRANGULAR TYPE 
SCALE 8 FT. -ONE INCH 



I'age 274 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NATYA-GRIHA 

itself the germs of drama ' and in the ceremonies ' there was undoubtedly 
present the element of dramatic representation.' l 

In the Rdmqyana mention is made of the dramatic artists (nata), pro- 
fessional dancer (nartaka), and plays in mixed languages ( Vyamisraka) . 
In the Harivamsa which is a continuation of the Mahdbhdrata mention is 
made of players who made a drama out of the Rdmayana legend. The 
evidence of dramas being actually played in a theatre is found in the 
Mahdbhdshya ' which mentions representations of Kama-vadha (slaying of 
Karhsa) and the Balibandha (binding of Bali). 2 

The Prekshagara or auditorium is mentioned in the Mdlavikdgnimitra 
(Act I). Sanglta-sala or music hall is referred to in the Sdkuntala (Act V). 

The Bhavaprakdsana (x, 5-18) refers to three types of theatres and thirty 
different kinds of dramas which were actually played by a dramatic company 
under the direction of Divakara : 

Chaturasra-tryasra-vritta-bhedat so'pi tridha bhavet I 
The Sangita-chuddmant, a text in manuscript, describes the drop scene 
and other curtain : ' the first curtain is the front drop which is removed as 
soon as the show begins. Behind the mist-like curtain, the danseuse performs 
the dance called lasyu (nude) ' (Triveni, p. 722). Sceneries are described 
in great detail in the Bharata-Ndtya-sdstra : 

Kaksha-vibhage jneyani grihani nagarani cha I 

Udyanarama sarid-asrama atavi tatha 1 1 

Prithivl sagaraS chaiva trailokyarh sacharacharam I 

Varshani sapta-dvipas cha parvata vividhas tatha II 

Aloka chaiva lokas cha rasatalamathapi cha I 

Daityanam alayas chaiva griham bhuvanarh cha 1 1 

Nagare cha vane chapi varshe vai parvate tatha I 

Yatra vartha pravarteta tatra kaksharh prayojayet II 

Bahyarh va madhyamam vapi tathaivabhyantararh punah I 

Durarh va sannikishtam va de^am tu parikalpayet I 

(Ndtya-sdstra, ed. Joan Grosset, Paris, 1898.) 

The same text describes with minute particulars and dimensions the 
auditorium of three types : 

Idarh prekshagriharh drishtva dhlmata Visvakarmana I 

Tri-vidhah sannivesascha sastratah parikalpitah I 

Viprakrishtas-chaturasras cha trya^ras chaiva tu mandapah I 

Prekshagrihanarh sarvesharh tri-prakaro vidhih smritah II 

(Natya-fastra, Gaekwad's Series, 
xxxvi, Chap, n, 7, 8, 25.) 

1 Keith : Sanskrit Drama, p. 23. 

2 Mahabhashya on Panini 3, i, 26; see Macdonell, History of Sanskrit 
Literature, p. 347. 

275 



NATYA-GRIHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The pillars, doors, walls, green-rooms, etc. are fully described : 
Stambharii dvararh cha bhittith cha nepathyagriham eva cha I 
Evam utthapayet tajjno vidhi-drishtena karmana 1 1 

(Ndtya-ias'ra, Gaekwad's Series, 
xxxvi, Chap, n, 65-66.) 

The stage proper with its different members are also described : 
Ranga-pitham tatah karyarh vidhi-drishtena karmana I 

(Jbid., n, 71.) 

Rariga-Sirsham tu kartavyam shad-daru-samanvitam I 
Karyarh dvara-dv;iyarh chatra nepathyasya grihasya cha I 

(Ibid., u, 71, 72 ; see also 78.) 

Evam kashtha-vidhim kritva bhitti-karnena prayojayet I 
Nirvyuha-kuharopetam nana-gratitha-vedikam | 
Karyah saila-guhakaro dvi-bhumir natya-mandapah I 

(Ibid., H, 70, 84.) 

Compare DARIGRIHA (Kumdra-sambhava, I, 10, 14) and SILA-VESMAN 
(Megha-duta, i, 25). 

The Silpa-ratna of Srikumara also describes two or three types of play- 
houses (Chap, xxxix, 60-68). 

The playhouses belonging to temples, palaces and ordinary dwelling 
houses are described in the Mdnasdra (XLVII, 2-12, 16, 20, 24-29, see 
quotations under MADHYARANGA). 

The epigraphical evidences are also not wanting. Thus from its a range- 
ments and inscriptions the cave in Ramgarh hill in Sarguja ' appears to 
have been evidently intended for dramatic performances.' * The queen's 
cave and that of Ganesa in Udayagiri ' are further examples : they represent 
the doings of these ladies and gentlemen (actresses and actors) in a highly 
realistic way.' 2 ' By Naga, the Vira-Ballala-pattam-svami, were built the 
dancing hall and terrace of Parsva-deva, and in front of the Basadi of 
Kamatha Parsva Deva stone pillars and a dancing hall were made.' 3 

All these documents, comprising general literature, technical works on 
music, architectural texts, and epigraphical records, may supply a fairly 
complete picture of the playhouse of the Hindu period. It needs no elucida- 
tion that the Hindu mind is essentially musical. Music was required for the 
Hindus to celebrate one's birth, wedding and : similar other happy occasions. 

1 Dr. Block : ^eitsckrift der Deutsclien Morgenlandischen, Bd., LVIII, S. 455. 

2 Luders : Indian Caves as Pleasure Resorts, Indian Antiquary, xxxiv, pp. 
199-200. But Jacobi is still under the old prejudice when referring to the cave 
theatre of Ramgarh hill he says that ' it is arranged after the Greek pattern.' 
The cave threatres are, however, referred to in the Kumdra-sambhava (i, 10, 14) 
and Megha-duta (i, 25) of Kalidasa. 

'Rice : Ep. Carnat., Vol. n, no. 130; Translation, p. 178. See also the Hampe 
Inscription of Krishnaraya, lines 24, 32, North Face. 

276 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NATYA-GRIHA 

It was also required to mourn one's death and similar sad incidents 
including even calamities as like earthquakes and epidemics. Religious 
ceremonies had to be accompanied by music. These musics include both 
vocal and instrumental songs, dancing, and enacting of plays varying 
from a single act or scene to a performance which continued for days and 
nights. Thus the elements of drama are available in the earliest Vedas. The 
excavations at Mahenjo-Daro, Harappa and other sites may supply 
evidence of regular theatre even for the Pre-Vedic period. In order to 
carry out into practice the musical habit of the Hindus, which was so con- 
vincingly in existence for milleniums, no doubt suitable accommodation 
had to be found out by indigenous efforts and evolution. It would 
be the limit of prejudice to imagine that although the Hindus knew all 
about a dramatic performance and although the art of building was under- 
stood and successfully practised at least between 3000 and 4000 B. c. when 
Mahenjo-Daro edifices might have been erected, yet they did not think of 
constructing a playhouse even after the model of the then existing natural 
caves until the Grecian invaders supplied the pattern between 300 and 350 
B. c. Those who are not thus prejudiced will find it easy to infer from the 
evidences quoted above and to come to the conclusion that there were in 
Hindu India rustic theatres for folk dance or popular performance, as well 
as regularly constructed playhouses of various shapes and sizes. They were 
built with scientific knowledge of acoustics, light, ventilation, safety and 
security. They were erected in villages, small country towns, centres of 
pilgrimages, and in big capital cities. They were attached to commodious 
dwelling houses, king's palaces, and god's temples. In all these constructions 
provisions were distinctly made for the stage proper and the auditorium. 
The former comprised the platform with a thick drop scene in front 
and the theatre proper with various realistic sceneries and curtains 
behind which even semi-nude dance could be performed, the indecency 
being prevented by the mistiness caused by the device of thin curtains and 
light. The green-rooms and other rooms were made for dressing and rest- 
ing of the actors and actresses , and even for an interview with them by some 
fascinated audience. The auditorium with the orchestra in front provided 
seats for all classes and ranks of audience, which were artistically arranged 
in tiers and galleries. It was adorned with beautiful doors, windows, bal- 
conies, and walls and ceilings with carvings and paintings on them. There 
were also open air auditorium with surrounding walls and terraces which 
latter served as galleries. But the stage appears never to have been uncover- 
ed either on the sides or at the top. 1 

1 For further details, see the writer's article, ' The Playhouse of the Hindu 
Period ' (Modern Review, April, 1935, pp. 370-378, Krishnaswami Aiyangar's 
Commemoration Volume, pp. 363-380). 

277 



NATYA-MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

NATYA-MANDAPA The stage proper consisting of ranga-slrsha 
(stage-front), ranga-pltha (place for acting), and nepathya-griha 
(green-room). In shape it should be like a mountain cave and have 
two floors : 

Karyah Sailaguhakaro dvi-bhumir natya-mandapa I 

(Bharata-Natya-taslra n, 84, also 91.) 

The upper floor or the platform (Vedika, ibid, n 80) should be made of 
wood : 

Evarh kashtha-vidhirh kritva bhitti-karma prajojayet I (Ibid., n, 82.) 
The surrounding walls should be made of bricks (Slishteshtaka) . 

NATTA (NATYA)-SALA A detached building used as a music 
hall." ' 

Nafta-Sala cha karttavya dvara-des'a-samas'raya I 

And the music hall should be built attached to the gateway (of the 
temple). 

(Garuda-Purdna, Chap. XLVII, v. 45.) 

A mandapa or hall for religious music, built in front of the main temple : 
Durgga-devalayasyabharanam iva purah sthapayamasa gurvvirh sYiman 
Srinatha-viryyah sthagita-das"a-dian natya-Salarh chhalena I 

(Dirghasi Inscrip. of Vanapati, lines 14-15, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, p. 316.) 

NABHI-VlTHI A road proceeding from the central part of a 
village or town. 

Brahma-bhaga-vriddhya vlthir nabhi-vithiti kathyate I 

(Kamikdgama, xxv, i.) 
NARANA A temple of Vishnu. 

(Note on a Tamil Inscription in Siam, Hultsch, 
J. R A. S., 1913, pp. 337-339-) 

NARAGHA A road running towards the east. 

Pran-mukha vlthayah sarva narachakhye(a i)ti smritah I 

(Kamikdgama, xxv, 3.) 

NALA A canal or gutter, channel, lotus stalk (M., xix, 144, 148* 
153, etc.), a tubular vessel of the body (M., L, 198, 201, 205, etc.), 
middle, central (M., xxxni, 360, XLIH, 14). 

In connexion with the phallus. (M., LII, 294-296, etc.) 

278 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NASA 

NALA-GEHA A canal-house, channel, middle chamber, central 
hall. 

. . . Bhitti-gcham ihochyate I 

Tri-chatush-pancha-shad-bhagarh saptarhSarh kudya-vistaram I 

Seshaih tu nala-geharh tu. . . . I 

(M., xxxiu, 359, 360.) 

NALANDA The famous Buddhist institution at Bihar, comprising 
several vihara, sangarama, dharmaganja, and chaitya buildings ; 
there were colleges, halls, libraries, observatories, priests' chambers, 
' richly adorned towers and the fairy-like turrets ' and ' brilliant 
and magnificent memorial ' buildings. ' The whole establishment 
is surrounded by a brick-wall. One gate opens into the great 
college, from which are separated eight other halls, standing in the 
middle. (Accounts of Hiuen Tsiang, I-tsing, Tibetan writers, 
Excavations, Archaeological Survey, and Sankalia) ; see under 

VlS VA VID YALAYA . 

NALIKA (see NALA) A canal, the lower leg. 

Ekamsam tad-dhatam bhitti-taram sesham cha nalika I 

(M, xxxm, 438.) 
The lower leg. (M., XLV, 42, etc.) 

NALIKA-GARBHA A rectangular hall of the length twice the 
breadth. 

Nalika gabbho ti bitt harato dvigunita-gunayamo digha-gabbho I 

(Buddhaghosha, Chullavagga, vi, 33.) 

The interpretation of Oldenberg and Rhys Davids as ' palanquin-shaped' 
given under the translation of the term is not supported by the commenta- 
tor Buddhaghosha as quoted above. 

NALIKA-GRIHA (see NALA-GEHA) A canal house. 

(M., xix, 98, etc.) 
NALI (see NALIKA) A canal, a gutter. 

Geha-tare tu saptamsarh nali-taram yugamsakam I 

(M., xix, 115; set also 116.) 

NASA A nose, a nose-shaped object, the upper piece of a door, 
a vestibule. 

Vijneya nasika nasa nasa dvarordhva-daru cha I 

(Amarakosha, n, ii, 13.) 
In connexion with the base : 

Grahadi-chitra-sarvesham kshudra-nasadi-bhushitam I 

(M., xiv, 236, etc.) 

279 



NASIKA-(SI) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

NASIKA(-SI) (see NASA) A nose-shaped architectural object, 
a vestibule, an open court or porch before a house, a hall next to 
the entrance to a house, a bracket. 

In connexion with the pillar (M.. xvi 76, 77, go, 120, etc). 

Some component part of a building (M., xvn 207 ; xrx, 174, etc.). 
Chatur-dikshu chatur-nasi (M., L, 284). 

Suprabhedagama, xxxi (referring to a class of buildings) : 

Chatush-kutas' chatuh-Salas" chatvarah parsVa-nasikah I (48) 

Mukha-nasi tatha yuktam dva-das"aih chanu-nasikah I (49) 

Chatur-nasi-samayuktam anu-nasi-das"ashtakam 1 1 (51) 

Kuta-Sala-samayukta punah panjara-nasika II (52) 

ParsVayor nasika-yuktam tan-madhye tanu(tvanu)-nasika U (79) 

Eka-nasikaya yuktam panjaram samudahritam I 

Kuteshu nasika-yuktarh koshtham etat prakirtitam II (80) 

Kdmikdgama, LV (eight kinds of Nasika) : 

Nasika tv-ashtadha jneya tasyadau simha-samjnitam I 
Sardha-panjaram anyat syat tritlyam matam II (132) 

Shaped like the nose (M., xxxra, 541). 

Its height ends by the fore-part of the dome (M. : xxxm, 549). 

See also M., xxxm, 550-561. 

Shaped like gala, Sikha, circular, galakuta (M., xxxm, 552-553). 
Niryuha-panjararh pakhat panchamam lamba-nasikam I 
Simha-^rotram tu shashtarh syat khanda-niryuhakam tatha I 
Jhasa-panjaram anyat syat tasam lakshanam uchyate II (133) 

They are also called panjaras : 

Sarvesham panjaranam tu manam evam udahritamll (149) 

The details of these nasikas or panjaras (ibid., 134-146). 
Slishta-prasada-nivrariga-vipularh sama-nirgamam I 
Shat-varga-sahitam Sakti-dhvajayor mukha-pattikam I (134) 
Vedika-jalaka-stambha-rajitam simha-panjaram I 
Tri-dandadi-chatur-danda-paryantam vipulanvitam II (135) 
Yatharhayama-samyuktam suchi-pada-dvayam dvijah I 
Sarvesham panjaranam tu madhyame samprayojayet II (136) 
Dhamni prasadam a^lishtam sanivram chardha-nirgatam I 
Adhisthanadi-panchanga-sakti-dhvaja-samanvitam II (137) 
Mukha-pa{tikayopetam vedika-jalakanvitam II 
Karna-pada-yutam sardha-pafijaram tu vidhiyate II (138) 
Pragvad vipula-samyuktam pada-nirgamanvitam I 
Tri-bhagam nirgatam vapi vrita-sphatika-sannibham II (139) 
Pafijarasyadimam s"esha(m) pragvad atra samiritam II (140) 
Svanurupa-Sikhasv-agram Slishta-nlvranga-karnakam I 

280 




: j w r : 

NA51KA. 

<r 4 i i U- 

fc J HARA. BH * DRA HARA. L 4. 



I S 



NASIKA VESTIBULE IN PLAN. NASIKA 




NATAKA. 




NAGA-KALA. 




SHEET IRO^ 

LINING. >- g 



DOCUMENT _ 




PLAN. 




LONG SECTION. 



NIDHANA. 



Pnit 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NIDHANA 



Kapotadyanga-sarhyuktam etan niryuha-panjaram II (141) 
Samslishta-mvra-karnanghri-krita-naga-talarh sirah I 
Niryuha-rahitarh yuktam sarvangarh lamba-nasikam II (142) 
Tad eva sirhha-s'rotrabha-s'ikharh yad-vad nivrakam I 
Sarhsritarh karna-padena sirhha-s'rotrarh tad uchyate II (143) 
Vistare panchamarhs'e tu dvyarhSarh nirgamananvitam I 
NIvradhastat kapotadyair arhsair mandita-rupakam II 
Namna tu khanda-niryuha(m) jnatva samyak prayojayet II (144) 
Danda-dandanta-nishkrantam nivradhastad upary-adhah I 
Angair yuktam kapotadyaih kandharam torananvitam II (145) 
Jhasa-panjaram etat syad ashtamam namatah dvijah II (146) 

NAHA-LlftGA A kind of phallus. 

Acharya-hastena va lingam Sishya -(sya)s tu naha-linga-vat I 

(M, LII, 335 ; see details under LINGA.) 
NIGAMA A town, the quarters inhabited by traders, a market. 

(Af., x, 42 ; see details under NAGARA.) 

Cf. Nagara-nigama-jana-padanam ' towns, marts and rural parts 
(e. g. Grama-nagara-nigama, Harshacharita, p. 220, i, i.)' (Junagadh 
Inscrip. of Rudradaman, lines 10-11, Ep. Ind., Vol. vin, pp. 43, 37, and 
note 5.) 

Nigama-sabhaya-nibadha registered at the town's hall. (Senart, Nasik 
Cave Inscrip. no. 12, line 4, Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 82, 83.) 

NIGAMA-SABHA (see NIGABIA) A guild-hall, the traders, 
assembly. 

Cf. Eta cha sarva-sravita-nigama-sabhaya nibaddha cha phalaka- 
vare charitra iti ' and all this has been proclaimed in the guild-hall 
and has been written on boards according to custom. ' 

' Nigama-sabhaya, ' in the guild-hall, ' may also be translated in 
the assembly of the traders. ' Dr. Burgess. (Kshatrapa Inscrip. no. 9, 
line 4, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. iv, pp. 102, 103, note 3 on page 103.) 

NIDRA A moulding. 

Vajanarh chaika-bhagena nidrcka vajanam tribhih II 
Vajanam chaika-bhagena tatha nidra tri-bhagatah 1 1 

(Kamikagama, LV, 10, n.)- 

NIDHANA A store-room, a treasury. 

Vimana-s"aleshu cha mandapeshu nidhana-sadmeshv-api gopuresh. 
vapi I 

(M., xiv, 397-400.) 



NIB(-V)IDA AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

NIB(-V)IDA An ornament covering the lower part of the pent- 
roof, a moulding. 

Agram vikasltabharh syan mularh cha nibidanvitam I 

(A/., xviu, 245, etc.) 

NIMNA(-KA) The cavity, depth, ^depressed part, drip, projection, 
edge of an architectural or sculptural object, a moulding. 

A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 247, etc. ; see the lists of mould- 
ings under ADHISHTHANA). 

A moulding of the column (M., xv, 52). 

A moulding of the pitha or pedestal of the phallus (M., LIII, 27). 
Chatur-dikshu sabhadram va chaika-dvy-arhs'ena nimnakam I 

(M., L, 285.) 
The depressed part of the chin : 

Hanvantarh tad-dvayor madhye nimna-tungam Sivayatarn I 

(M., XLV, 103.) 
NIRGAMA The projection. 

(1) Mdnasara : 

The projections of the mouldings of the base (M., xiv, 385-412 ; see 
under ADHISHTHANA). 

The projections of the mouldings of the pedestal (M., xm, 128-146; see 
under UPAPITHA.) 

The projection of the (whole) pedestal (ibid.. 20-35). 

Cf. Nirgamodgamane vapi putra-naSam avapnuyat I (M., LXIX, 19.) 

(2) Nirgamam tu punas tasya yavad vai lesha-pa^tika I 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CGLXII, v. 4.) 
Chatur-diksku tatha jneyarh nirgamam tu tatoh budhaih I 

(Ibid., Chap. CCLXIX, v. 2.) 

(3) Ashtamams'ena garbhasya rathakanam tu nirgamah I 

(Agni-Purdna, Chap. XLH, v. 13 ; see also v. 14.) 

(4) Nirgamas tu Sukanghres" cha uchchhraya-s'ikhararddhagah 1 1 
Chatur-dikshu tatha jneyo nirgamas tu tatha budhaih II (9) 
Bhagam ekam grihltva tu nirgamam kalpayet punah 1 1 ( 10) 
Nirgamas tu samakhyatah Sesham purvavad eva tu II (14) 
Sukahghrih purvavaj jneya nirgamochchhrayakam bhavet II (17) 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, vv. 4, 9, 10, 14,17.) 

(5) Salanam tu chatur-dikshu chaika-bhagaditah kramat I 
Pada-bhaga-vivriddhya cha ashta-bhagavasanakam 1 1 (101) 
Vinirgamasya chayamo tad-vriddhya tasya vistarahll (102) 
Nirgamo gopuranam tu prakarad bahyato bhavet II (127) 

(Kdmikagama, xxxv, 101, 102, 127.) 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NIRVASA-MANDAPA 

Madhyagara-vinishkranta-nirgamena samanvitah 1 1 
Nirgamas tu dvi-bhagena vistara-dv(a)yama-manatah 1 1 

(Kamikagama, XLV, 24, 26.) 
Adhyardha-dvi-tri-dando va nirgamas' chodgamo bhavet 1 1 

(Ibid., LIV, 21.) 

(6) Sarvesham eva padanam tat-padam nirgam bhavet 1 1 
Of all columns the projection is one-fourth of the height. 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 65.) 

NIRGALA A part of a swing, a moulding. 

Ayase nirgalam kuryad yojayet rajjum eva va 1 1 
Vastrordhve chaika-hastantam dolaya phalakantakam I 
Tad-urdhve vajanantam syan nirgalayamam iritam \ 
Nirgalagre dvayagram syat phalaka-valayanvitam I 

(M., L, 168-171.) 

NIRETANA The forepart of the branch of an ornamental tree 
(kalpa-vriksha) . 

Cf. Bhramarair abhirayuktam sarva-Sakha-niretane I 

(M., xLvm, 58.) 

NIRYUHA A kind of a turret-like ornament on columns or gates 
a pinnacle, a turret ; a chaplet, a crest, a head ornament, the crest 
of a helmet ; a peg or bracket projecting from a wall to hang or 
place anything upon (cf. NAGA -NIRYUHA) ; wood placed in a wall 
for doves to build their nest upon : a door, a gate. 

(1) Niryuhadyair alankritya (M., XLIX, 186, etc.}. 

(2) Rdmayana : 

V. 9, 20 : Vimanair hema-niryuhaih | 
V. 9, 58 : Charu-torana-niryuha (lahka) I 

(3) Mahdbhdrata : 

I. 43, 44 : Dvara-torana-niryuhair yuktarh nagaram I 
I. 7, 96 : Aneka-vidha-prasada-harmya-valabhl-niryuha-Satasam- 
kulah (naga-lokah) I 

(4) HarivamSa (Pet. Diet.), 5021 (5015, 5018, 5023) : 

Nagaryah paSchimam dvaram uttaram naga-dvaram purvam nagara- 
niryuharh dakshinam nagara-dvaram I 

NIRVASA-MANDAPA A pavilion for banishment, a private room. 
Tat-pure'lindam ekamSam athava nirvasa-mandapam I 

(M., xxxiv, 326, etc.) 
283 



NIRVYOHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

NIRVYOHA A cross circle, a small tower. 

Cf. Maha-varam vimanordhve nirvyuhanana-samyutam I 

(Kdmikagama, XLV, 17.) 

NIVATA-BHADRAKA A class of chariots. 

(M., XLIII, 113 ; see under RATHA.) 

NIVE&ANA A resting place, a stall for cattle, a colonial settle- 
ment. 

(R.-V., 19, 9 ; vii, 19, 5.) 

NISHADAJA(-DHA) A class of pavilions, a type of building. 

(A/., xxxiv, 152 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

A class of buildings without the kuta-sala (top-hall) but with eight 
other halls and eight aviaries : 

Prasado nishadhas tatra kuta-Sala-vihinakah I 
Ashta-Sala-samayuktaS chashta-panjara-samyutah 1 1 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 45.) 

NISHADYA A bedstead, a couch, a hall, a shop, a market place. 

(Sisupala-vadha, xvni, 15, etc.) 
NISHIDHI (see NISADDHI) A monument. 
NISHKALA A site plan. 

Yugmam nishkalam proktam ayugmarii sakalam tatha I 

(M., vii, 73 ; see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

NISHKASA A verandah, a portico, a balcony, a projection. 
Prag-grivah pancha-bhagena nishkasas tasya chochyate I 
Karayet sushiram tadvat prakarasya tri-bhagatah 1 1 
Prag-grivah pancha-bhagena nishkasena viSeshatah I 
Kuryad va pancha-bhagena-prag-grivarh karna-mulatah 1 1 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 24-25.) 

NISADDHI(NISIDI) (see NISHIDHI) A house for rest, a tomb, 
a monument. 

(i) Kami settiyara Nisidi ' The Nisidi of Rami setti.' 
' Nisidi is given by Sanderson as a bill of acquaintance ; Dr. Bhau Daji 
(Journ. Bom. Br. R. As. Soc., Vol., ix, p. 315, Inscription, no. 4) translates it 
by house of rest, on the analogy of an inscription in the Udayagiri cave in 
Orissa ; this is probably its meaning as used here.' Dr. Fleet. Sanskrit and 
old Kanarese Inscrip. no. LVI, Ind. Ant., Vol. vra, p. 246, note 48.) 

(Ep. Carnat., Vol. n, Inscriptions on Chandragiri, Vindhyagiri and in the 
town.) 

284 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE NISADDHI (NISlDI) 

(2) ' Erected a stone hall for gifts in Jinanathapura and set up a tomb 
(nisidhiyam) in memory of the Maha-mandalacharyya Devakirtti Pandita 
Deva. (No. 40 ; Roman Text, p. 10, line 3 from the bottom upwards ; 
Transl., p. 122, line 19 f.) 

(3) ' By Madhavachandra Deva was the tomb (Nishadyakakarayeta) 
raised to his memory.' (No. 41 ; Roman Text, p. 12, line 15 ; Transl., 
p. 123, line 5.) 

(4) ' The excellent minister Naga-deva erected in memory of the famous 
Yogi Nayakirtti ... a tomb (nishidhyalayam) to endure as along as sun, 
moon and stars continue.' (No. 42 ; Roman Text, p. 16 line 10, Transl., 
p. 124 line 4.) 

(5) ' Raised a tomb (nisidhigeham) to her memory.' (No. 44 ; Roman, 
Text, p. 20, line 23 ; Transl.. p. 125, line 20.) 

(6) ' A group of tombs (nisidhika), a collection of ponds and lakes, who 
(but him) made these in memory of Nayakirtti Deva Saiddhantika.' 
(No. 90 ; Roman Text, p. 73, line 23 ; Transl., p. 159, line i.) 

(7) ' He, from devotion to his guru, set up his tomb (nishayam). 
(No. 105; Roman Text, p. 80, line 27 ; Transl., p. 165, line 30.) 

(8) ' Mankabbe Ganti had erected a tomb (nisidhiggehadyam) 
for her guru. ' (No. 139; Roman Text, p. no, line 6 from bottom 
upwards; Transl., p. 185, line 9.) 

(9) ' Had a tomb (nisidhigeham) for him. ' (No. 144 ; Roman Text, 
p. 114, line 22 ; Transl., p. 8, line 9 from bottom upwards.) 

(10) ' His son Taila-gauda made a grant for the god Siddesvara 
and setup this monument (nisaddhi).' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Honnali 
Taluq, no. 79; Transl., p. 174.) 

(11) ' A third feature, even more characteristic of the style, is 
found in the tombs of the priests, a large number of which is in the 
neighbourhood of Moodbidri. Three of these are illustrated in the 
woodcut (no. 154, Fergusson). They vary much in size and magni- 
ficence, some being from three to five or seven storeys in height, 
but they are not, like the storeys of Dravidian temples, ornamented 
with simulated cells and finishing with domical roofs. The division 
of each storey is a sloping roof, like those of the pagodas at Katmandhu, 

and in China or Tibbet. ' 

(Fergusson, Ind. and East. Arch., p. 275.) 

In Bengal, especially in Comilla and Noakhali Districts, these tombs 
or monuments, which are even now built, have generally the cone- 
shape. At the bottom there is in most cases a square cell or chamber. 
They are sometimes constructed in groups and supplied with chambers 
at the top, cf. Chatkhil Noakhali. 

285 



NIHARA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

NIHARA (see PRAKARA) A court of the compound, a courtyard. 

Dvitiyam anta-nihara cha madhyama-hara tritlyakam 1 1 

(A/., xxxi, n.) 

NlDA A nest, a lair, a covered place. 
In connexion with buildings : 

Nidasya chadho grivo-vatayanam karayet I (M., xvm, 329.) 
Toranair nlda-bhadradi-mule chordhve cha bhushitam I 

(M., xx, 64.) 

NlPYA(? RA) The lower portion, the end, the border as of a cloth 

(Mayamata, xxxm, 62, 63, 64. 

NRITTA(-TYA)-MANDAPA (see MANDAPA) A detached build- 
ing used as a music hall, a pavilion. 

Nripanam abhishekartharh mandapam nritta-mandapam I 

(M., xxxiv, 38, etc.) 

A pavilion generally in front of a temple, where religious music 
is preformed (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 96, 98 ; see under MANDAPA). 

NETRA The eye, a side portico or porthole, gable-window 
(M., xxxiv, 396), a wing (M., xzxv, 101), face (M., xxxv, 257-260). 
Same as LALATA (M., xxxv 257-260). 

NETRA-K.OTA (see KARNA-KUTA) A front apartment, a side- 
hall, a corner-tower. 

Pradhanavasa-netrastha-netra-kuta-dvayam nyayet 1 1 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 75.) 

NETRA-BHADRA (see MUKHA-BHADRA) A side tabernacle, side 

porch, portico. 

Parito'lind(r)a-bhagena varanam mukha-bhadrakam I 
Athava netra-bhadraih syat I (M., xxxiv, 251-252.) 
Karnaika-kara-bhadram syat salagre netra-bhadrakam I 

(M., xxxv, 246, etc.) 

NETRA-BHITTI A side-wall. 

Dakshine netra-bhittau va grabhadhanam praklrtitam I 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 46, etc.) 
NETRA-SALA A side-hall. 

Tad-adho bhu-praves"e tu tad dvarasyavasanakam I 
Shannam vai netra-s"alanam antarale cha va sthalam 1 1 

(tbid., 8 1.) 
Tach-chhalaya dvi-par^ve tu netra-sala sa-bhadrakam > 

(M., xxvi, 40, etc.) 

a86 









HINDU ARCHITECTURE PAKSHA-SALA 

NEPHATHYA-GRIHA The green-room in a theatre (see details 
under NATYAGRIHA). 

NEMI (see PRAKARA and PRADAKSHINA) The circumference, 
a surrounding verandah or balcony. 

(1) Nemih padena-vistirna prasadasya samantatah I 

(Agni-Purdna, Chap, civ, v. 7.) 

(2) Nemih padena vistirna prasadasya samantatah I 
Garbham tu dvi-gunam karyyarh nemya manarh bhaved iha 1 1 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, vv. 19-20.) 



PAKSHA-(KA) A side, a flank, a footpath. 

In connexion with staircases (M., xxx, 100, etc.). 
In connexion with streets : 

Evam vithir dvi-paksham syan madhya-rathyaika-pakshaka I 

(M., xi, 350.) 
In connexion with walls : 

Anyat salam tu sarvesham chaika-pakshalayakshma-kramat I 
Anyat salam tu sarvesham alayartham dvi-pakshakam I 

(M., xxxvi, 86-87.) 

Compare chatus-paksham iva chhadih (square roof), and 
Ya dvipaksha chatush-paksha shat-paksha ya nirmayate I 
Ashta-paksham dasa-pakshaim salam manasya patnim agnir garte 
iva^aye I 

(Atharva-Veda, ix, 3.) 
See further illustration under EKA-PAKSHA and DVI-PAKSHA. 

PAKSHAGHNA A type of building. 

Yamya hinam chulli tri-salakarh vitta-nasa-karam etat I 
Pakshaghanam aparaya varjitam suta-dhvamsa-vaira-karam I 
' A building lacking a southern hall is called chulli ; it causes loss 
of prosperity, one in which there is no western hall (the so-) called 
Pakshaghna, occasions the loss of children and (the) enmity.' (Brihat- 
Samhitd, LOI, 38, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 286.) 

PAKSHA-SALA A side-hall. 

Madhya-koshthasya Sale tu bhadra-sala viseshatah I 
Paksha-s"alanvitam vatha urdhva-salanvitarh tu va I 

(Af., xxxra, 518-519.) 
287 



PAftKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

PAftKA A moulding of the pillar. 

Sikharasyordhve pattochcham uttarochcham samam bhavet I 
Tad-urdhve vajanam pankam nimnam kumbham sadandakam I 

(M., xv, 126-127.) 
In connexion with joinery : 

Eka-rupa(rh) cha pankam cha vidhih syad eka-rupakam I 

(M., xvn, 153.) 

PACHANALAYA A kitchen, the refectory of a temple. 

Devanam pachana-mandapam ' built a beautiful stone temple with 
the torana-gate and the surrounding walls, having provided the temple 
with a flower garden, kitchen, pond and suitable environs.' (Ep. Carnal., 
Vol. x, Kolar Taluq, no. 132 ; Roman Text, p. 54 ; Transl., p. 49.) 

PANCHA-TALA The fifth storey, the five-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxm, 1-55.) 

A description of the fifth storey (M., xxxi, 48-51). 
The eight classes (ibid., 1-48 ; see under PRASADA). 

PANCHA-PRAKARA-HARMYA The various attached and 
detached buildings constructed in the five courts into which the whole 
compound is divided (see PRAKARA). 

(M., xxxi, 2.) 

PA&CHA-BHUMI (see PANCHA-TALA) The fifth storey, the five 
storeyed buildings. 

PANCHA-SALA The enclosure wall of the fifth court. 

(M., xxxi, 28, 29.) 
Cf. Tatah panchama-sala cha maha-maryadim iritam I 

(M., xxxi, 13, etc.) 

PANCHAYATANA A phallus with five heads. 

(Chalukyan Architecture, Arch. Surv., New 
Imp. Series, Vol., xxi, p. 39.) 

PANJARA A cage, an aviary, a nest, an architectural object, 

windows. 

The cages for domestic birds and animals, such as pigeon, tiger, 
etc., are counted among the articles of furniture (M., L, 50-55), their 
architectural description (ibid., 213-288). (Kamikagama, LV, 134-146 ; see 
under NASIKA.) 

PANJARA-&ALA A small top-room, a small window, a class of 
storeyed buildings, a type of bedstead, a moulding, a nest-like 
architectural object. 

288 




PANJARA SALA. 



PATRA 




PATRA 




PAT Rfr -TOK.A h< A_ 




PLAN 
CAGE FOR PARROT. 



-TL 



r^? 



PANJARA 



PANJARA AS FALSE WINDOW. 



2SS 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE PATTI 



(1) Manasdra : 

A small room above the dome (stupi) : 

Etat panjara-salam cha padmam ekarh sikha-trayam I 

(M., xv, 131.) 

A class of the seven-storeyed buildings (A/., xxv, 27 ; see under 
PRASADA) . 

A synonym of the bedstead (M., in, n). 
A member of the pillar (M., xv, 89, 98, 99-103, etc.) 
In connexion with buildings of one to twelve storeys : 
Sala-kuta-dvayor-madhye chaika-hara sa-panjaram I 

(A/., xix, 57 ; see also 178, etc.) 

(2) Kdmikdgama, xxxv ; 75 : 

Panjara-dvitayarh karyarh karna-kuta-samodayam 1 1 

Ibid, L, 92 : 

Kuta-Salanvitam yat tu panjarais cha samanvitam (vimanam) II 

Ibid., LV, 196-198 (the synonyms of the panjara) : 

Pramana-bhavanam karma-prasadasyashtakarh tatha I 
Sabheti kuta-nama syach chhaya valabhi(r) eva cha 1 1 
Brahma-dvararh tato madhye mandaparh koshthake matam 1 1 
Riju-vaktrarh dvijavasam kridarh syat sirhha-vaktrakam I 
Panjarabhidhanarh syat II (See further details under NASIKA.) 

(3) Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 80 : 

Eka-nasikaya yuktarh panjararh samudahritam I 
Kuteshu nasika-yuktarh koshtham etat prakirtitam 1 1 

(See also v. 79, under NASIKA.) 

(4) ' Between the " karna-kuta " and " sala '' are found some kinds 
of little windows called panjara. ' (Dravidian Arch., by Jouveau-Dubreuil, 
ed. S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar, p. 5.) 

(5) ' His son Kangala-deva having wandered abroad (as a 
mendicant) and brought alms, had a kuta-panjara made for the 
god Hanumanta, and that fame might come to all, had a lipi-sasana 
made and set up it. ' (Ep. Carnal., Vol., vn, Channegiri Taluq, no. 17, 
Transl., p. 180 ; Roman Text, p. 317.) 

(6) See Chalukyan Architecture (Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. 
xxi, Plates xxvi, xcvm). 

(7) See Mysore Arch. Report (1915-16, p. 22, Plate x, fig. 2). 

(8) See Cunningham : Arch. Surv. (Vol. i, Plate v, p. 6). 
PATTA ") A band, a fillet, a moulding of the base, etc., an 
PATTIKA - ornament for the body, a crown, a diadem, 

a turban, an upper garment, a cloth, a plate, 
289 



PATTl AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

a slab, a seat, a junction, a town, an edict, a lintel (M., xix, 149), 
a staircase (M., xxx, 140-143), a spoke (M., XLIII, u). 

(1) 'It is often confounded with the moulding called "vajana" 
especially in pedestals and bases as it appears to be of the same form 
to be used in the same situation, and to have the same height and 
projection with the latter, but when employed in architraves and 
friezes its height and projection increases considerably. ' (Ram Raz, 
Ess. Arch. Hind., p. 25.) 

(2) In connexion with the plough : phala-patta, tri-patta, madhya- 
patta (M., v, 52, 61, 73). 

In connexion with the foundations : 

Pattikantarh kshipech chapi vinyaset prathameshtakam I 

(M., XH, 203.) 

A crowning moulding of the pedestal (M., xni, 5, 49, 82, etc.; 
see the lists of mouldings under UPAPITHA). 

A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 13, 26, 48, etc.; see the lists 
of mouldings under ADSHISHTHANA) . 

A moulding of the pillar (M., xv, 121, 35, etc.). 

In connexion with the staircase (M., xxx, 140). 

In connexion with the door (M., xxxix, 73, etc.). 

In connexion with the bedstead (M., XLIV, 18, 19, etc.). 

An ornament for the body : 

Kati-sutrarh tu samyuktam kati-prante sa-pattika I 

(A/., L, 27 ; see also 28, etc.) 
Athava ratna-pattam syat svarna-tatarika-karnayoh I 

(M., LIV, 47.) 

Compare ' Patta-dhara, ' and ' Patta-bhaj, ' meaning kings, with 
special crowns. (M., LI, 3, 4.) 

(3) Bhagais tribhis tatha kantah khantha-pattas tu bhagatah I 
Bhaga (? go) bhyasam urdhva-pattaS cha sesha-bhagena pattika 1 1 
Nirgamas tu punas tasya yavad vai sesha-pattika 1 1 

' The neck (of the pedestal of an idol or phallus) is made of 
three parts and the band of the neck of one part. The abhyasa 
(?) is one part, the upper band is also one part, and the remaining 
part is pattika (fillet or band). Its projection should extend as 
far as the last pattika. ' (Matsyet-Purana, Chap. CCLXII, w. 3, 4.) 

(4) Vedikam prastara-samarh shad-amsikritya bhagasah I 
Ekamsam prati-pattam syad amSabhyam antari bhavet 1 1 
Crdhva-vajanam ekams'am amSam tat-pattika bhavet I 
Ordhva-pattarh tad-ekamsam antari kusumair yuta 1 1 

(Vdstu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, ix, 23, 24.) 
290 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE PATTA-BANDHA 

(5) Polakesir apy-avadid anujan pratibaddha-pattam avantu I 
' Pulakesi too declared to his brethren (in the presence of his vassals) 
that they were to support the encircling diadem of his sons and grand- 
sons. ' (Grant of Kusumayudha IV, line 18, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxn, pp. 282, 
284.) 

PATTANA(-NA) (see PATTANA) A town, a commercial city acces- 
sible by water-ways. 

(1) Kautillya-Artha-Saslra (Chap, xxii, p. 46, footnote) : 

Pattanam sakatair gamyarh ghatikair naubhir eva cha I 
Naubhir eva tu yad gamyarh pattanam tat prachakshate II 
Drona-mukharh jala-nirgama-praves'arh pattanam ity-arthah I 

(Rayapaserii-sutra-vyakhydnc, p. 206.) 

(2) Karya-vikraya-sarhyuktam abdhi-tira-samasritam I 

Des"antara-gata-janair nana-jatibhir anvitam 1 1 
Pattanam tat samakhyatarh vaisyair adhyushitam II 

(Kamikdgama, xx, 8, 9.) 

PATTA-BANDHA The coronation, a crown, a class of bases com- 
prising four types which differ from one another in height and 
in the addition or omission of some mouldings. 

See the lists of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA (M., xiv, 297-304). 

A part of the crown (M., L, in). 

Nija-patta-bandha-samaye ' at the time of his coronation. ' 
(Six Eastern Chalukya Grants, Bervada Plates of Ghalukya-Bhima I, line 
20, Ep. Ind., Vol. v, pp. 129, 130.) 

Godavarl-tata-samipasthe Kapitthakagrame patta-v(b)andha- 
mahotsave tula-purusham aruhya. 

' The term Pattabandha, which literally means " binding of the 
fillet " has been generally supposed to signify " coronation cere- 
mony." But, it does not suit here. ' Mr. D. R. Bhandarkar. 
(Cambay Plates of Govinda IV, line 46, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, pp. 40, 27, note 2.) 

Sri-patta-bandhotsavaya Kurundakam agatena maya I 

(The grants of Indraraya m, no. n, line 47, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 36, 40, 25, note 2 
refers to Vol. vn, p. 27, note a.) 
Coronation and crown : 

. . . dva-dasa-varshe tu janmanah pattam I 
Yo'dhad udaya-girindro ravim iva lokanuragaya II 
' Put on to please the world the fillet (crown) in the twelfth 
year of (his) birth. ' 

291 



PATTA-SALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Niravadya-dhavalah Kataka-raja-patta-Sobhita-lalatah ' (his son 
was) Niravadyadhavala, whose forehead was decorated with the 
fillet (crown) of Katakaraja.' Dr. Hultzsch. (Maliyapundi grant of 
Ammaraja II, lines 40, 45, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 53, 55, 56.) 

PATTA-SALA A religious establishment. 

See Mandhata Plates of Jayasiriiha of Dhara (line n, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. in, pp. 49, 47). 

Cf. ' (To provide) for the eight kinds of ceremonies of the god 
Mallinatha of the patta-sale(la) which they had made within 
precincts of that Santinatha basadi.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v. Part i, 
Belur Taluq, no. 129; Transl., p. 86 ; Roman Text, p. 193.) 

PANDI-&ALA A kind of hall, a two-storeyed mansion consisting 
of a single row of building which look like a broken staff at the 
forehead part above the second storey. 

(M., xxxv, 97 ; see details under SALA.) 

PATTANA (see PATTANA) A village, a town, a commercial city 
on the bank of a river or sea, a new settlement. 

(i) A village inhabited mostly by traders (Vaisyas). 

(At., ix, 456-457.) 
A town (M., x, 40). 
A seaside commercial city : 

Abdhi-tira-pradese tu nana-jati-grihair vritam I 
Vanig-jatibhir akirnam kraya-vikraya-puritam I 
Ratnair dvipantarair nityaih kshaumaih karpuradibhih I 
Etat pattanam akhyatam vaprayata-samanvitam I 

(M., x, 63-66.) 
(it) A seaside commercial city inhabited mostly by tradesmen. 

(Kamikagama, xx, 8, 9 ; see under PATTANA.) 

(3) Kaufilya-Artha-Sdstra (Chap, xxn, p. 46, footnote) : 
Pattanam sakatair gamyarh ghatikair naubhir eva cha I 
Naubhir eva tu yad gamyam pattanam tat prachakshate II 

(Rayapasenisutra-vydkhyane, p. 206.) 

(4) Pattanani jala-sthala-pathayor anyatara-yuktani I 

(Prafna-vydkarana-sutra-vyakhyane, p. 306.) 

(5) Tad-bhuktau pattanam ramyarh Samipatiti namakam I 

(The Chahanas of Marwar, no. iv, Sevadi stone inscrip. 
of Katukaraja, v. 6, Ep. Ind., Vol. xi, p. 31.) 

(6) ' Piriya-Rajaiya-Deva, son of , caused this town (pattana) 
to be rebuilt and gave it the name of Piriyaraja pattana (patana in 

292 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PATRA-PATTA 

the text) after himself. . . . Whoever calls it Singapattana is guilty 
of killing his father and mother.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Hunsur Taluq. 
no. 15 ; Transl., p. 84 ; Roman Text, p. 135-136.) 

(7) Dva-trirhsa(t) tu velavuramum ashtadasa-pattanamum basashti 
yoga-pithamum ' (the people of) the thirty-two seaside towns, the 18 
towns, 62 seats of contemplation. . . . (held a convocation there).' (Old 
Kanarese Inscrip. at Terdal, line 60, Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

(8) Grama-nagara-kheda-karvvada-madamba-dronamukha-pattanam- 
galimdam aneka-mata-kuta-prasada-devayatanarhgali-dam oppuvaagra- 
hara-pattanamgalirhdam atisayav-appa. ... I 

' [At Teridala, a merchant town situated in the centre and the 
first in importance' among the twelve (towns) in the glorious Kundi 
Three Thousand, adorned with] villages, towns, hamlets, villages 
surrounded by hills, groups of villages, sea-girt towns, and chief 
cities, with elegant mansions, palaces and temples, and with shining 
agrahara-towns in the country of Kuntala. . . . ' (Old Kanarese 
Inscrip. at Terdal, line 58, Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

(9) ' With myriads of people, practices of virtues, agreeable occu- 
pations, streams of the (nine) sentiments, pleasure gardens, separated 
lovers, splendid tanks, full lotus beds, gilded boats for spring festivals, 
ghatika-sthanas (religious centres), the supports of dharmma and 
mines of enjoyments, moats which were as if the sea being overcome 
had returned here |on account of the collection of gems, groups of 
the lotus faces of beautiful women fair as the moon (grama-nagara- 
kheda-kharvvana-madamba-drona-mukha-pura-pattana-raya-dhani), on 
whatever side one looked in these nine forms did the Kuntala des"a 
shine. ' 

(It should be noticed that the passage within brackets is almost 
indentical with the corresponding passages in quotation no. 8 above). 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 197; Transl., p. 124, para, i, 
last seven lines, Roman Text., p. 124, line 27 f.) 

PATRA A leaf, a leaf-like ornament, a moulding. 
An ornament of the pillar (M. : xv, 36, etc.). 
A member of the sala or hall (M., xxxv, 402). 

Cf. Vatsararambha-lekhartharh patram A leaf for writing the 
almanac on. -(M., L, 49.) 

In connexion with the balance (tula) (M., L, 190-191, 197, 199). 
See more details under BHUSHANA. 

PATRA-PATTA A leaf-shaped diadem, a moulding. 
A turban or crown (M., XLIX, 16). 
A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 345). 

293 



PATRA-KALPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

PATRA-KALPA A set of ornaments for the use of kings and gods. 

(M., L, 3, 6 ; see under BHUSHANA.) 
PATRA-TORANA An arch (see details under TORANA.) 

Bala-chandra-nibhaih patraiS chitritam patra-toranam II 

(Kamikagama, LV, 64.) 

PATRA-BANDHA A type of entablature (see details under 
PRASTARA) . 

Pada-vistara-samyuktam patra-bandham iti smritam I 

(Ibid., LIV, 6.) 

PATRA-VALLI-(KA) A moulding of the entablature (Af.,xvi,54), 
of the arch (M., XLVI, 65). 

See more details under PRASTARA. 
PATHA A road, a street, a way, a path. 

(i) Kautiliya-Artha-Sastra (measures of various paths): 

Antareshu dvi-hasta-vishkambharh parsVe chatur-gunayamam anu- 

prakaram ashta-hastayatarh deva-patham karayet I 
Dandantara dvi-dandantara va charyah (ashta-hasta-pramana- 

margah-Rayapaseni-sutra-vyakhyane, p. 13) karayet I 
Bahir jauu-bhaginirh tri-Sula-prakara-kutavapata-kantaka-prati- 
saradi-prishtha-tala-patra-gringataka-Sva-darhshtrarga-lopaskan- 
dana-padukambarisodapanakaih chhanna-patharh karayet I 

(Chap, xxrv, p. 52-53.) 
Trayah prachina raja-margas traya undlchina iti vastu-vibha- 

gah I 

Sa-dva-daa-dvaro yuktodaka-bhumich-chhanna-pathah I 
Chatur-dandanatra rathya raja-marga-drona-mukha-sthainya- 

rashtra-vivlta-pathah I 

Sayoniya-vyuha-^maSana-grama-pathas chashta-dandah I 
Chatur-dandas setu-vana-pathah I 
Dvidando hasti-kshetra-pathah I 
Pancharatnayo ratha-pathaS chatvarah paSu-pathah I 
Dvau kshudra-pa^u-manushya-pathah I 

(Chap, xxv, 54-55.) 

PADA A part, the foot, a plot of the site plan (see PADA- 
VINYASA). 

(i) Vastu-yaga-tattva by Raghunandana quotes from the Linga- 
Purdna without further reference : 

Ghatuh-shashti-padam vastu sarva-deva-griham prati I 
Ekafltis-padam vastu manusharh pratisiddhidam II 

2 94 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PADA-VINYASA 

(2) Brihat-Samhitd (LIU, 42) : 

Ekaslti-vibhage dasa dasa purvottarayata rekhah I 

Varahamihira apparently dees not give different rules for temples 
and residential buildings. 

(3) The'' foot; the site plan (M., LVII, 47, etc. ; vu, 1-267; see 
under PADA-VINYASA). 

PADA-VINYASA The plan, the site plan. 

' The plan is the respresentation of the horizontal section of a building, 
showing its distribution, the form and extent of its various parts 
This is the geometrical plan where the parts are represented in their 
natural properties. The modern architects consider other plans too : 
in the perspective plan objects are represented on a definite surface so as 
toTorm a certain "position to affect the eye in the same manner as the 
objects ^themselves would ; while in the raised plan the elevation of a 
building is shown.'-- (Gwilt : Encycl. of Arch., Glossary, p. 1240.) 
(\\ Mdnasdra (Chap, vn, named PADA-VINYASA) 1-267 : 

The geometrical plans concerning the site, rather than a building, 
are described in this chapter (lines 1-267). There is no mention of 
the perspective or the raised plan. What is given there is all about 
the site or the plot or the piece of ground selected to receive the 
building. Thirty-two kinds of square plans are described (lines 2-40). 
They are designated by technical names. The first one is a site of one 
plot, which may be square, rectangular, round, oval or sixteen-sided, 
it is called Sakala. The second is of 4 plots, named PaiSacha or Pechaka ; 
thef third,* Pitha, is of 9 plots ; the fourth, Mahdpitha, is of 16 plots ; the 
fifth, Upapitha, is of 25 plots ; the sixth, Ugra-pitha, is of 36 plots ; the 
seventh, Sthandila, is of 49 plots ; the eighth, Chandita, is of 64 plots ; 
the ninth, Parama-iayika, is of 81 plots ; the tenth, Asana, is of 100 
plots ; the eleven th,]_Sthdni)/a, is 121 plots ; the twelfth, Desj/a, is of 144 
plots ; ahe thirteenth, Ubhaya-chandita, is of 169 plots ; the fourteenth, 
Bhadra, is of 196 plots ; the fifteenth, Mahdsana, is of 225 plots ; 
the sixteenth, Padma-garbha, is of 256 plots ; the seventeenth, Triyuta, 
is of 289 plots ; the eighteenth, Karndshtaka, is of 324 plots ; the nine- 
teenth, Ganita, is of 369 plots ; the twentieth, Surya-vitdlaka, is of 400 
plots ; the twenty-first, Susarhhita, is of 441 plots ; the twenty-second, 
Supratikdnta, is of 484 plots ; the twenty-third, ViSdlaka, is of 529 plots ; 
the twenty-fourth, Vipra-garbha, is of 526 plots ; the twenty-fifth, Viveia, 
is of 625 plots ; the twenty-sixth, Vipula-bhoga, is of 676 plots ; the twenty- 
seventh, -Viprakdnta, is of 729 plots ; the twenty-eighth, Vitdldksha, is of 
784 plots ; the twenty-ninth, Vipra-bhakti, is of 841 plots ; the thirtieth, 
VtiveJa-sara, is of 900 plots ; the thirty-first, Isvarakdnta, is of 961 

295 



PAD MA- (K A) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

plots ; and the thirty-second, Chandrakanta, is of 1,024 plots (M. VH, 
2-50, see also 51 271). 

(2) Nagara-grama-durgadya(-der) griha-prasada-vriddhaye I 
Ekas"iti-padair-vastu(m) pujayet siddhaye dhruvam II 

(Agni-Purana, Chap, cv, v. i.) 

(3) See Cunningham, Arch. Surv. Reports, Vol. n, Plate xcvii (site 
plans of Saiva temples), p. 419; Plate xcvm (site plans of Vaishnava 
temples), p. 421 ; Vol. xx, Plate xx (site plan of a Jaina temple) . 
Vol. xxi, Plate XLII (site plan of Slab temples of Kundalpur) ; Vol. 
xxm, Plate xvni (site plan of Jaina temple of Naulakha, mark 
the Svastika figures) ; Vol. xn, Plate v (plan of a temple) ; Vol. xvn 
Plate xxi (peculiar plan of a temple). 

(4) See elements of Hindu Iconography, by T. A. Gopinatha Rao 
(Appendix A, pp. 1-45, diagrams facing pp. i, n). 

PADMA-(KA) A lotus, an eye, a moulding, a cyma recta, a cyma 
reversa or reversed cyma also called ogee or talon (see Gwilt, 
EntycL, figs. 869, 869), a site plan, a pavilion, a type of village, 
a class of buildings. 

(i) ' The moulding, called Padma (abja, ambuja or saroruha, etc.), 
literary lotus, is supposed to resemble a petal of that flower. It is 
a sort of compound figure, partly convex and partly concave ; and its 
section is composed of two opposite curves, meeting at the bisecting 
point of a line drawn between the points of recess and projection, 
and very much resembling the "cyma recta" and "cyma reversa'' 
of the Western architects. This moulding is distinguished into greater 
and less, and forms the principal ornaments of Indian architecture. 
It is generally employed, in detached pairs, in bases and cornices, 
one facing the other in opposite directions, and is formed upright 
or the reverse according to its situation, either as a crowning member 
of the former or the supporting ornament of the latter. The concave 
part of it, when placed with its bottom reversed, is often so designed 
as to project forward or rise up, after having touched as it were, 
the fillet below, with a small perpendicular curvature, resembling in 
shape the petal of the lotus, with its pointed head somewhat inclined 
towards the top. In some specimens, this moulding is placed at the 
base of columns, and looks very much like an apophyge or ogee of 
the Ionic and Corinthian orders being formed either with a curved 
line having more or less convexity at the top, or with an upright 
tangent to the concave part below. It is sometimes made exactly in 
the form of an ovolo of the Western architects. ' (Ram Raz, Ess. 
Arch, Hind., p. 32-24.) 

296 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PADMA-PlTHA 

Mdnasura : 

A site plan (M., vm, 36 f., see PADA-VINYASA) . 
A kind of village (M., rx, 2 ; see under GRAMA). 

A moulding of the pedestal and the base (M., xm, 41, 61, 64, 68, etc. ; 
xiv, 68, etc. ; see the tests of mouldings under UPAPITHA and ADHISHTHANA). 
A type of pavilion : 

Evam tu padmakarh proktarh devanarh pachanalayam I 
Padmakhyarh pushpa-mandapam. ... I 

(M., xxxiv, 173, 180 ; see MANDAPA.) 
A moulding of pitha or the pedestal of the phallus (M., LII, 31). 

(3) Stambham v.'bhajya navadha vahanam bhago ghato'sya bhago' - 

nyah I 

Padmam tathottaroshtham kuryad bhagena bhagena 1 1 
Here, Kern's rendering of ' padma ' by ' capital ' seems untenable. 

(Brihat-Samhita, Lin, 29, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, 
p. 285 ; see details under STAMBHA.) 

A type of building which is planned like a lotus, has only one storey 
and one spire, and is (?) 8 cubits wide (sayanash^au) : 

(4) Brihat-Samhita (LVI, 23, see under PRASADA). 

(5) Matsya-Purana (Chap CCLXIX, vv. 30, 39, 49, 53 ; see under PRASADA; 

(6) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 30 ; see under PRASADA). 
A class of round buildings : 

(71 Agni-Purana (Chap, civ, w. 17-18 ; see under PRASADA). 

(8) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21, 23, 28-29 ; see under PRASADA.) 

PADMA-KANTA A special type of pillar (M., xv, 38). It is based 
on a seat (asana), plinth or lotus (cyma). Its cornice or edge of 
the capital is decorated with opening buds. Its base is decorated 
with a bridge-like moulding (palika). The ornamental fillets are 
constructed and two angulas (i inches) on all sides are adorned 
with foliage, jewels, flowers, etc. (ibid., 30-37). 

A class of the six-storeyed buildings (M., xxiv, 3-12 ; see under PRASADA). 
PADMA-KE$(-S)ARA A type of base, a kind of throne. 

A class of bases (M., xiv, 81-94 ; see under ADHISHTHANA). 

A type of throne (M., XLV, 11-12 ; see under SIMHASANA). 

PADMA-GARBHA - A site plan in which the whole area is divided 
into 256 squares. 

(M., VII, 21.) 

PADMA-PlTHA A lotus-shaped pedestal for an image. 

(M., LI, 86.) 

297 



PADMA-BHADRA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

PADMA-BHADRA A type of throne. 

(M., XLV, 12 ; see under SII&HASANA.) 

PADMA-BANDHA A class of bases comprising four types which 
differ from one another in height and in the addition or omission of 
some mouldings. 

(M., xiv, 170-194 ; see the lists of mouldings 

under ADHISTHANA.) 

A base (cf. Suprabheddgama, xxx, 18-22) : 

Utsedham sapta-virhSat tu dvi-bhaga pattika bhavet 1 1 
EkaihSam dalam evoktam upanarii chaika-bhagikam I 
Jagati tu shad-ams'a syad dvi-bhagardha-dali-kramat 1 1 
Ardha-bhagarh bhavet skandham bhagam urdhva-dalam tatha I 
Tri-bhagam kumudam vidyad adho'bjam bhagam eva tu 1 1 
Pattika chaika-bhaga tu griva chaiva dvi-bhagika I 
Tad-urdham eka-bhagarh tu padma-bandharh tata upari 1 1 
Dvi-bhaga pattika ya tu cka-bhagena yojanam I 
Tad votes' chaika-bhagarh tu padma-bandham iti smritam 1 1 

PADMASANA A lotus seat, a lotus-like posture in which an 
image is carved, a throne, a type of base, a kind of pedestal. 

A lotus-shaped pedestal and base of a column (M., xv, 67 ; XLVII, 19). 
A type of throne (M., XLV, 12 ; see under SIMHASANA). 
A lotus-shaped pedestal for an image (M., LW, 36, etc.). 

PARATA (corrupted into PARATA) The parapet, the coping of 
a wall. 

Cf. Badaviya Durggavanu mudana parafavanu Chamaraja 
' Chamaraja constructed the fort and the eastern parapet of that 
same Badavi.' -(Sanskrit and Old Kanarese Inscrip., no. LXXXVII, lines 13, 
14, Ind. Ant., Vol. x, p. 63, notes 51, 53.) 

PARAMA-$ADHI(-YI)KA A site plan in which the whole area is 
divided into 81 equal squares (see PADA-VINYASA). 

(M., vn, 10, 72, no : almost same in 
Bfihat-Sarhhitd, mi, 42 f.) 

In connexion with the plan of a village (M., ix, 174) and of a wall 
(M., XL. 72). 

PARARTHA-LIftGA A phallus for the public worship. 

(M., LII, 243 ; see details under LINOA.I 

PARIKHA A ditch, a moat, a trench round a fort or town. 

898 




I 

i 

Q 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PARIKHA 

(1) Manasara : 

In connexion with a village and a fortified city : 
VapramSa-bhitti-rakshartham paritah parikhanvitam I 

(M., ix, 354.) 
Sarvesham api durganaih vapraiS cha parikhair vritam I 

(M., x, 1 06.) 
Bahye prakara-samyuktarh paritah parikhanvitam I 

(M, ix, 450.) 
Paritah parikha bahye vapra-yuktam tu karayet I 

(M., x, 108.) 
Paritah parikha bahye kuryad grameshu sarvasah I 

(M, ix, 62, etc.) 

(2) Kautiliya-Artha-fdstra (Chap, xxiv, pp. 51, 56, paras. 2, 3) : 

Tasya parikhas tisro dandantara karayet chatur-daSa dva-daa 
daSeti dandamivistirnah vistarad avagadhah padunam ardharia va 
tri-bhaga-mula mule chaturarah pashanopahitah pashaneshtaka- 
baddha-parsva va toyantikoragas tu toyapurna va sa- 
parivahah padma-grahatih I 

Chatur-dandavakrishtam parikhayah shad-dandochchhritam ava- 

ruddharh tad-dviguna-vishkambham khatad vaprarh karayet I 
Ibid., Chap, xxv, para, i : 

Dvarani bahih parikhayah I 

(3) Durga-gambhira-parikham durgam anyair dur-asadam I 
SarvataS cha maha-bhimah ita-toyaayah ^ubhah 1 1 
Agadha graha-sampurnah parikha mina-sevitah 1 1 

(Ramqyaria, i, 5, 13, 15.) 

Yantrais tair avakiryante parikhasu samantatah 1 1 
Parikha^ cha SataghnyaS cha yantrani vividhani cha 1 1 

(Ibid., vi, 3, 17, 23.) 
Parikhabhih sapadmabhih sotpalabhir alamkritam 1 1 

(Ibid., vi, 5, 2, 14.) 

(4) Parighe for Parikhe (Satyamangalam plates of Devaraya u, v. 22, 
Ep., Ind., Vol. iii, pp. 38, 40). 

(5) Durllamgha - dushkara - vibheda-viSala - sala-durggadha - dustara- 

brihat-parikha-parita I 

' (The city of Kanchi) whose large rampart was insurmountable 
and hard to be breached (and) which was surrounded by a great 
moat, unfathomable and hard to be crossed.' (Gadval Plates of Vikra- 
maditya i, v. 6, line 21, Ep. Ind., Vol. x, pp. 103, 105.) 

299 



PARIKHA-DURGA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



(6) Kanakojjvala-sala-ras'mi-jalaih parikhambu-pratibirhbitair alaih ya 
vasudheva vibhati badabarchchir vrita-ratnakara-mekhala-parita 1 1 

' Through the mass of the rays (which issue from) its golden walls, 
and which are reflected in the water of its moat, this (city, Vijaya- 
nagara) closely resembles the earth, that is surrounded by the girdle 
of the ocean, which is encircled by the lustre of the submarine fire.' 
(Vijayanagara Inscrip. of Devaraja II, lines 7-8, H.S.I. I., Vol. i, no. 153, 
pp. 162, 164.) 

(7) Durge subhima-parighe Malavalli namni ' in the fort named 
Malavalli, having a deep moat.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. in, Malavalli Taluq, 
no. 61, Roman Text, last verse, p. 126 ; Transl., p. 62.) 

PARIKHA-DURGA A ditch-fort, a fort. , 
For details see Sukraniti, etc., under DURGA. 

PARIGHA(-GHA) Cross-bars to fasten the door, a beam ; metal 
bolts. 

(Chhand. Upanishad, n, 24, 6, 10, 15.) 

(1) Dvau dvau parighau (Kautiliya-Artha-Sdstra, Chap, xxxiv, p. 53). 
Chatvaro hasti-parigha four beams to shut the door against 

elephants.' (Ibid., Chap, xxiv, p. 53.) 

(2) Dridha-vaddha-kapatarh maha-parighavanti cha I 

(Ramayana, vi, 3, n.) 

PARINAHA Otherwise called Marga, Praves"a, Parinaha, Naha, 
Vriti, Avriti and Nata, the width, breadth, circumference, extent. 

Griva-madhya-parinahas' chatur-virhs'atikangulah I 
Nabhi-madhya-parinaho dvi-chatvarims'ad-arigulah I 
The width by the middle of the neck is 24 angulas. 
The width by the middle of the navel is 42 angulas. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLVIH, w. 43, 58 ; see also w. 41, 
47. 5> 5i> 53 54. 55. 5 6 > 57. 59. 6 3> 66 . etc -) 

See Mdnasdra (LX, 68, etc.) ; Kirdtdrjunlya (xii, 20, etc.) ; Mrich- 
ckhakatika (in, 9, etc.) ; Mahdvira-charita (vn, 24, etc.) ; Mdlati- 
mddhava (in, 15 : Stana-parindha, etc.) ; Ratndvalt (n, 13, etc.) ; 
Sisupdla-vadha (i 19, etc.). 

PARIMANA The measurement of width or circumference. 

(M., LV, 3-9 ; see under MANA.) 

PARIRATHYA A road suitable for chariots (A.-V., vn, 8, 22 ; xii, 



300 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE RARIVARA(-RALAYA) 

PARIVARA(-RALAYA) The family ; the attendant deities ; the 
subordinate temples, attached or detached, of a large religious 
establishment, where the attendant deities are enshrined. 

(1) Mdnasdra, Chap, xxxn (named Parivara) : 

The temples of these deities are stated to be built round the Pra- 
kara (the fourth enclosure ) : 
Sarvesham api devanarh prakaranta-pravishtake I 
Paritah parivaranam lakshanarh vakshyate' dhuna I (1-2) 
At the eight cardinal points of the innermost or the first cour 
the temples of the group of eight deities are built (lines 3-5). The 
groups of sixteen and thirty-two deities are housed in the second and 
the third court respectively (lines 6-7). Between the third and the 
fifth court is stated to be the Viniyoga (offering) -pavilion (line 8). 
The description of the location of temples for each of the deities of 
these three groups is given (lines 10-119). The temples of the 
attendant deities of Vishnu are specified (lines 121-156). The 
temples and the attendant deities of Ganesa and Kshetrapala and 
also those of Buddha, Jina and all such petty (kshudra) gods are 
passed over and stated to be built in accordance with the rules of 
Sdstras (lines 157-166). 

It should be noticed that the description of temples intended for 
so many deities does not contain any measurement, etc. It is solely 
occupied with the position of these temples or deities in the com- 
pound. But a considerable portion of the chapter is devoted to the 
description of the mandapas (pavilions) for such purpose as bath, 
bed, assembly, horses, musicians, dancing girls, and cows, etc. 
(lines 67-101). 

(2) Etc parivara vastoh pujanlya prayatnatah I 

(Mahdnirvana-Tantra, xin, 45.) 

(3) ParsVatas chapi kartavyam parivaradikalayam I 

At the side (too) should be built temples for the attendant and 
other deities. 

(Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXX, v. 30.) 

( 4) Parivaralaye tunga-harmye anyasmin prakalpayet 1 1 

(Kdmikdgama, L, 69. 

Parivaralayanarh tu kulavat karma chacharet I 
Salanam tu chatushkoneshv-ishta-dese pragrihyatam 1 1 
Malika-yukta-salarh chet kona-stambhe dvitiyake I 
Prathamavarane vapi dvitiyavarane nyaset 1 1 

(Ibid., xxxi, 95, 96.) 
301 



PARI-VENA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(5) Pancha-prakaram evam syat parivaralayarh srinu 1 1 
Prasadasya chaturtham va tad-ardham vardham eva va I 
Matrlnam (of female deities) alayarh kuryad gopurakaram eva 

tu II 

Hasti-prishtharh tapa (tarn) proktam prasadam tu vis"eshatah I 
Madhyam tu pachanakaram chatuh-salaika-s'alakam 1 1 
Prakara-sarhyutam kritva bahye vabhyantare" pi va II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 128-31.) 

Then follows the description of their faces and doors (ibid., vv. 131- 
133, see under DVARA). 

(6) ' (He) gave to the (image of) PiUaiyar Ganapati in the surrounding 
hall (parivaralaya) of the temple of the Lord Sri RajarajesVara one 
brass spittoon (padikkam) which he had caused to be made of octagonal 
shape in the Ceylon fashion (Iraparisu) (and) which weighed palaia.' 
(Inscrip. of Rajaraja, no. 36, H.S.I.I., Vol. u, p. 149 f.) 

(7) ' This image was probably in the central shrine and was known 
as Alaiyattu Pillaiyar perhaps to distinguish him from the Parivara- 
laiyattu-Pillaiyar set up apparently in the enclosing verandah of the 
temple.' (V. S. 1. 1., Vol. n, no. 85, p. 407, last para.) 

' The gold presented until the twenty-ninth year (of the king's reign) 
by the Lord Sri Rajarajadeva to (the image of) Pillaiyar Ganapatiyar in 
the parivaralaya of the temple of the Lord Sri Rajarajesvaramudaiyar 
. . . ' parivaralayah, i.e. the temple (alaya) of the attendant deities 
(parivara) which was probably in the enclosing hall.' (Ibid., no. 86 
para, i, p. 410, note I.) 

' One bell-dish . . . was presented ... to (the shrine of) Pillaiyar 
Ganapatiyar in , parivaralaya of the temple of the Lord Sri Raja- 
rajesvaramudaiyar . . . ' (Ibid., no. 88, p. 412.) 

(8) Parivara-devata-vistaramarh linga-pratishtheyam madisidam I 

' He also set up a linga, with the associated gods, in Bandanika.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 242; Transl., p. 139, para. 6, last 
two lines ; Roman Text, p. 248, lines 1-2.) 

PARI-VENA Monk's cell, the private dwelling o,f a Bhikhu within 
the monastery. 

(W. Greiger : Mahavamia, p. 294.) 

PARNA-MANJUSHA A basket made of leaves, an article of furni- 
ture. 

(A/., L, 47, 132-146 ; see details under BHUSHANA.) 
302 



PARNA MANJUSHA. 





PADMA PITHA. 




r 




PADMA. 




HINDU ARCHITECTURE PAD A 

PARYANKA A couch, a bedstead. 

Mdnasdra, Chap. XLIV (named Sayana) : 

Bedsteads are meant for the use of deities, the twice-born and all 
other people : 

Devanarh cha dvi-jatlnam varnanarh sayanarthakam I (i) 
They are of two kinds the small (bala-paryanka) and the large 
(paryanka) (lines 26, 28). The former is intended to be used by 
children and the latter by the grown-up, the one being distinguished from 
the other by its size alone. 

The measurement and various parts of the two kinds of bedsteads are 
described separately (lines 3-79). 

The materials of which bedsteads and seats (asana) are generally 
constructed are various kinds of timber (line 74). 

PARVATA A class of buildings. 

Kuta-sala-samayukta punah panjara-nasika I 
Vedika-jalakopeta parvatakritir uchyate 1 1 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 52.) 
See details under PRASADA. 

PAXLANKA A bedstead. 

(Ckullavagga, vi, 141 ; Mahdvagga, v, 10, 3.) 

PA V ANA A type of chariot. 

(M., XLIII, 113; see under RATHA.) 

PASTYA(A) A dwelling house, a stall for horses (asvapastya), 
a home with its adjuncts and surroundings, a family settlement 
(harmya-pastya), a noble man's abode with stables, etc., a group 
of houses, a river having groups of houses on its banks. (R.-V., i, 25, 
10, 40, 7, 164, 30 ; iv, i, ii ; vi, 49, 9 ; vn, 97, 5 ; vni, 7, 291, 27, 
5 ; ix, 65, 23 ; x, 46, 6, 96, 10, n ; ix, 86, 41 ; A.-V., vi, 77, i ; 
xix, 55, i.) 

PAN CH ALA A class of the twelve- storeyed buildings once pre- 
vailing in the ancient country of Pa.ncha.la (the Gangetic Doab). 
For details, see M., xxx, 8-10, under TALA and DRAVIPA. 

PAD A (see STAMBHA) The foot, the lowest part, a quarter, the 
fourth part, the architrave, a pillar, a column, 
(i) M., xv (named Stambha), 1-448 : 

Its synonyms are jangha, charana, stali, stambha, ahghrika, sthanu 
sthuna, pada, kampa, arani, bharaka, and dharana (ibid., 4-6). 

303 



PADA-JALA AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(2) Atha vakshyami samkshepat pada-manarh yatha-vidhi I 
Uttaropanayor madhya-gatam etat prakirtitam II 

(Vastu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, ix, i.) 

(3) The architrave of the entablature (Kdmikdgama, xxxv, 27 ; LIV. 
47 ; TW under PRASTARA). 

(4) The comparative measures of pada (pillar), adhishthana (base) 
and prastara (entablature) : 

Padayamam adhishthanam dvi-gunam sarva-sammatam I 
Padardham prastaram proktam karnam prastaravat samam 1 1 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 28.) 
The five kinds of pillars and their characteristic features. 

(See Suprabheddgama, under STAMBHA.) 

PADA-JALA An ornament for the foot. 

(A/., L, 33 ; LI, 59 ; LIV, 17, etc.; see BHUSHANA.) 

PADA-BANDHA A class of bases. 

(M,, xiv, 10-32 ; see the lists of 
mouldings under ADHISHTHANA.) 

A base in connexion with the bedstead : 

Pada-bandham adhishtahnam sarva-jatyarhakam bhavet I 

(M., XLIV, 44.) 
Cj. Suprabheddgama (xxxi, 23-26) : 

Adhishthanasya chotsedham chatur-viihsati-bhajitam I 
Dvi-baga pattika prokta hy-upanam chaika-bhagikam 1 1 
Shad-bhaga jagati prokta kumudam pancha-bhagikam I 
Ekamsa pattika prokta griva chaiva tryamsaka 1 1 
Ekamsa pattika viddhi (h) tr(i)yam^a chordhva-pattika I 
Maha-pattika tr(i)yam^a ekam vajanam uchyate 1 1 
Pada-bandham iti khyatarh sarva-karyeshu pujitam 1 1 

PADA-BANDHAKA A type of throne. 

(A/., XLV, 15; see under SIMHASANA.) 

PADA-VEDl The storeyed base of a Buddhist stupa (Mahd- 
varhsa, 35, 2), the balustrade, the railing. 

(W. Greiger : Mahdvamsa, p. 297.) 

PADAl^GA Literally the lowest member, hence, the architrave or 
the bottom portion of the entablature. 

(See Kamikagama, LIV, 47, under PRASTARA. ) 

PADUKA The plinth, the pedestal, the base, a moulding. 

The plinth or the base (M.. xiv, 162 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA). 

304 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PASHYA 

The pedestal (or base) of a column : 

Tan-mule chasanam kuryat padukam va sahambujam I 
Ekarhs'arii padukam kuryat pancha-bhagaih tu samgraham I 

(M., xv, 31, 177.) 

A moulding at the bottom of the pedestal (M., xui, 43 ; see the lists of 
mouldings under UPAPIJHA). 

PARAVATA-NlDA A nest for the pigeon, an article of furniture. 

(M., L, 52, description of its architectural details, 224-227.) 

PARIYATRA A class of pavilions. 

(M., xxxiv, 154 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

PARS VA-PULI An ornament, a part of the crown. 

(M., XLDC, 94.) 

PAR&VA-PURITA Same as karna-pura or patra ear-ring. 

(M., XLIX, 96, 106, 115, 117-119, 141 ; cf. L, 14-26,302.) 

PALIKA(-I) A boundary, a margin, an edge, an ornament, a 
bridge-like moulding of the column. 

Atha vakshye viSeshena kumbhalankaram uchyate I 
Tan-mule palikotsedhe vibhajet tu shad-ams'akam I 

(M., xv, 201-202; see also 220, 44, 
33, 70, etc.; cf. xxxvn, 4.0.) 
In connexion with the lips : 

Tr(i)yams"ardhadharayam chardha(m)-chandravad-akriti I 
Tri-vaktram chottara pali cha( ? sa) ntarais" chaiva samyutam I 

(M., XLV, 95-96 ; see also 89.) 

PALIKA-STAMBHA A kind of pillar. 

(A/., xv, 39-73; see under STAMBHA.\ 

PASUPATA A kind of phallus. 

(M., 111, 2 ; LXVIII, 2 ; see under LINGA.) 

PASHANA-KORMA A stone tortoise, a component part of a 
phallus. 

(M., LII, 178.) 

PASHANA-VEDI The stone terrace on which the sacred trees 
usually stand, cf. MahdvamSa, 36, 52. 

PASHYA Stone-bulwarks. 

(R.-V. i, 56, 6.) 

305 




PINDA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

PINDA The testicle, its sculptural details. 

(M., -LXV, 1 66.) 

PINDIKA (see P!THA) The pedestal of an image, a seat, the yoni 
part or the pedestal of the phallus. 

(1) Dvara-manashta-bhagona pratima syat sapindika I 
Dvau-bhagau pratima tatra tritlyariis'a(s') cha pindika 1 1 

' The idol along with the seat (i.e., pedestal) ought to have a height 
equal to that of the door, diminished by one-eighth, of which two-thirds 
are appropriated to the image, and one-third to the seat.' (Brihat-Samhitd, 
i.vi, 16 ; also LVIII, 3, 54 ; J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, pp. 318, 323, 329.) 

(2) Linga-puja-pramanena kartavya pithika budhaih I 
Pindikardhena bhagah syat tan-manena tu bhittayah 1 1 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIX, v. 8.) 

(3) Pratimayah pramanena karttavya pindika Subha I 
Garbhas tu pindikardhena garbha-manas tu bhittayah 1 1 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLII, v. 10.) 

Arddha-bhagena garbhah syat pindika pada-vistarat I 
Panch-bhaglkrite kshetre'ntar-bhage tu pindika 1 1 
Garbho bhagena vistirno bhaga-dvayena pindika 1 1 
Pindika kona-vistirna m idhyamanta hy-udahrita II 
Atah pararh pravakshyami pratimanarh tu pindikarh I 
Dairghyena pratima tulya tad-arddhena tu vistrita 1 1 

(Ibid., Chap, civ, vv. i, 5, 24.) 

Then follows a lengthy description (see ibid., Chap. LV, v. i, f. also 
Chap, cv, v. 30 ; Chap. LX, v. i). 

(4) Manashtamena bhagena pratima syat sapindika 1 1 
Dvau bhagau pratima tatra tritlyo bhagah pindika 1 1 
Tri-bhagaih pindika karya dvau bhagau pratima bhavet 1 1 

(Bhavishya-Purana, Chap, cxxx, 
w. 22, 32 : Chap, cxxxi, v. 6.) 

The yoni part or the pedestal of the phallus : 

(5) Lirigam cha pindikam chaiva prasadam gopuram tatha I 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, 28.) 

(6) Kuryad ekam pindikam tarn tu par^ve I (M., LII, 152.) 

PII^DI ^A base for an image, the yoni part or pedestal of the phallus. 

(Inscrip. from Northern Gujarat, no. vn, line 8, Ep. 
Ind., Vol. n, p. 27, see details under PiTHA.) 

306 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PlTHA(-THIKA) 

PlTHA(-THIKA) Pitha is possibly corrupted from pi-sad to sit 
upon, hence means a stool, seat, chair, throne, pedestal, altar. A 
wooden seat (Vdj. Sam., xxx, 21 : Taitt. Bra., in, 4, 17, i), low 
rectangular, plain or carved and sometimes with painted designs. 
The pedestal of an idol, the yoni part of the phallus, a pavement, 
chairs of various kinds (Mahdvagga, v, 10, 2 ; see BHADRAPITHA, 
ETAKA-PADAKA PITHA). Fire-altars of the Vedic and Brahmanic 
periods built on river banks, mistaken by Alexander for memorials, 
which Chandra Gupta Maurya utilized for sacrificial purposes. A 
site-plan of nine square plots. (M. vii, 4). 

The well-known fifty-one Pitha-sthanas are the sacred spots where 
the limbs of ParvatI, consort of Siva, fell after she had been cut to 
pieces by the discuss of Vishnu. 

As the linga or phallus symbolically represents Siva, so the pitha 
does his consort Parvati. The pitha forms the yoni or the lower 
part of the phallus. 

Mdnasdra (Chap. LDI, named PITHA) : 

The pitha must match the phallus of which it forms the lower 
part (line 49). It should, therefore, be of as many kinds as there 
are phalli. But the mouldings of the pitha are described under four 
classes, technically called Bhadra-pitha, Sribhadra, SrlviSala, and 
Upapitha (lines 34. 36, 39, 41). The principal parts of the pitha are 
the nala (canal), thejaladhara (gutter), the ghrita-vari (water-pot), 
the nimna (drip), and the pattika (plate) (lines 22-27). The com- 
ponent mouldings are prathama or janman (base), padma (cymal, 
kshepana (projection), kandhara (neck, dado), kampa (fillet), 
urdhvapadma (upper cyma), vajana (fillet), ghrita-vari (water-pot), 
or vritta-kumbha (circular pot) (lines 30-33^. 

With regard to shape, the pithas, like the phalli and all other 
architectural and sculptural structures, are divided into three types, 
the Nagara, Dravida, and Vesara (lines 46-47). The Nagara pithas 
are said to be square, the Dravida pithas octagonal, and the 
Vesara pithas circular or round (lines 53-54). 

A site plan in which the whole area is divided into nine equal 
squares. (M., vii 4; see PADA-VINYASA.) 

A pavement on the side of a road : 

Pechakarh vatha pitham va rathya yuktarh tu vinyaset I 

(M., ix, 423.) 

37 



PITHA(-THIKA) AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

In connexion with the palm of the hand : 

Patra-tulyam yugangulyam pithe tuhga(ih) dvayangularh I 

(M., L, 197.) 
The pedestal of an image : 

Uttamam lohajaih bimbam pithabhasaih tu chottamam I 

(M., LI, 19 ; see also LVI, 16 ; LXII, 13, etc.) 

The pedestal of the phallus (M., LII, 245, 246, 247.) 

(2) Etat samanyam uddishtarh prasadasya hi lakshanam I 
Linga-manam ato vakshye pitho linga-samo bhavet II 
Dvaravat pltha-madhye tu s"esham sushirakaih bhavet 1 1 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, vv. n, 16.) 

The pedestal or the yoni part of the linga : 

(3) Linga-vishkambha-manena bhaved dvi-tri-chatur-gunah I 
Tatha pancha-guno vapi pitha-vistara ishyate It 

(Kdmikdgama, L, 45 ; see also vv, 44, 47, 48, 50.) 
The altar : 

Brahma(-me) va madhyame bhage pltham parikalpayet II 

(Ibid., xxvin, 18.) 

Panch-daSa-karantam tu kuryad avrita-mandapam II 
Mandapena vina vapi tena manena pithika I 
Vibhadra va sabhadra va kartavya malika budliaih 1 1 

(Ibid., xxxv, 99, 100.) 

Here ' pi$hika ' would indicate the projecting part of the base- 
ment, resembling the Buddhist railing round a tree, etc. 

(4) Yaval lihgasya vishkambham tri-gunarii pitha-vistaram II 
Pujams"arh dvi-gunam pltham tri-gunam va viSeshatah II 
Pijhasya tri-gunam garbham ta(t)-tri-bhagaika-bhittikam I 

(Suprabhtdagama, xxxi, 9, n, 12.) 

(5) Bhaga-dvayena pratima tri-bhagikritya tat punah | 

Pithika bhagatah karya natinicha na chochchhrita II (25) 
Pithika lakshanam vakshye yathavad anupurva^ah I 
Pithochchrayarh yathavach cha bhagan shodasa karayet II (i) 
Bhumavekah pravishtah syach chaturbhir jagati mata I 
Vritto bhagas tathaikah syad vritah patala-bhagatah II (2) 
Bhagais tribhis tatha kanthah kantha-pat^as tu bhagatah I 
Bhagabhyasam urdhva-pattafi cha Sesha-bhagena pat^ika 1 1 (3) 
Pravishtam bhagam ekaikam jagatirii yavad eva tu I 
Nirgamam tu punas tasya yavad vai Sesha-pattika 1 1 (4) 
Vari-nirgamanarthaih tu tatra karyah pranalakah I 
Pithikanam tu sarvasam etat samanya-lakshanam II (6) 

308 




ADHARA PATTA. 



SECTION. 
FOR SMALL SPACE IN TEMPLES ETC. 



CEILING PLAN 





SECTION 



CEILING PLAN. 

MAHA TAULI 



MAMA eODMiik* 




SECTION 



h 



CEILINQ PLAN 



PRACHChr;,",DANA. 




PHALAKA 




POTRA. 




PHANA. 



Pane SOS 




BHADRA PITHA. 



J 

^ , -i C 




PLAN. 




SRIVISALA. 

P~THA AS PART OF LINGAM 





.p=n 



JM 




PRATOLI 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PlTHA(-THIKA) 

Purna-chandra vajra cha padma vardha-sas"! tatha I 
Tri-kona dasaml tasarh sarhsthanam va nibodhatah II (7) 
Devasya yajanartharh tu plthika dasa kirtitah II (19) 
Linga-puja-pramanena kartavya plthika budhaih II (8) 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLVHI, v. 25 ; Chap. CLXU, 
vv. 1-4, 6-7, 19 ; Chap. CCLXIX, v. 8.) 

Vibhajya navadha garbham madhye syal linga-plthika I 

(Ibid., Chap. CCLXIX, v. 15.) 

(6) Pancha-hastasya dcvasya eka-hasta tu plthika I 
When the idol is 5 cubits high, its pedestal is one cubit. 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLII, v. 22.) 

(7) ' One pedestal (pitha) on which the god and the goddess stood, 
(measuring) one muram and two viral in length, sixteen viral in 
breadth, and six viral in height. ' (Inscrip. of Rajaraja, no. 30, para. 7, 
H.S.I.I., Vol ii, p. 137.) 

(8) ' One pedestal (surmounted by) a lotus (padma-pltha) on which 
this (image of Panchadeha Siva) stood (measuring) three viral and four 
torai in height, and fifteen viral and four torai square.' (Inscrip. of Raja- 
raja, no. 30, on a pillar of the south enclosure, para. 4, H.S.I. I., Vol. n, 
p. 138.) 

(9) ' The hero Madavan of Anda . . . got this pldam (pedestal) made.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, Kolar Taluq, no. 109 b ; Transl., p. 40.) 

' He had a temple and a bali-pltha built for the god Chandra-sekhara, 
the processional form of the god Sankaresvara of Kergodi.' (Ibid., Vol. VH 
Tiptur Taluq, no. 72 ; Transl., p. 57.) 

(10) ' Whose daughter, Vinapati, having at this very place bestowed the 
entire gift of a Hiranya-garbha, and having made a pedestal (pitha) for the 
god with rubies.' (Sanskrit and Old Kanarese inscrip., no. xciv, line 7, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. x, p. 103.) 

(n) ' He made petition at the feet of Vidyaranya-Sripada, representing 
that in Srihgapura, in (connexion with) the dharmma-pltha (religious 
throne, simhasane dharmamaye, in the original) established by Sankara- 
charyya(-charya, in the original), there must be a matha and agrahara.' 

Of this dharma-pitha (simhasana) , Mr. Rice further says : ' The Sringeri 
dharma-pltha or religious throne was established as is well known (refers to 
the inscription quoted above) by Sankaracharya, the great Saiva reformer 
of the eighth century. It is situated on the left bank of the Tunga river, 
in a fertile tract near the Western Ghats. The celebrated scholar Madhava 
or Vidyaranya (forest of learning), author of the Veda-bhdshya, who was 
instrumental in founding the Vijayanagar Empire in 1336, was the head of 

309 



PRITHIVI-DHARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

the establishment at that time.' (Then is added that his brother was Sayana, 
the well-known commentator of the Rig-Veda. The architectural charac- 
teristics are, however, not given.) (Ep. Carnat., Vol. vi, Sringeri Jagir, no. 1 1; 
Transl., p. 95, last para.; Roman Text, p. 195, lines i, 12 f ; Introduct., p. 23, 
para. 5.) 

(12) ' Possessor of thirty-two velama, eighteen cities, sixty-four yoga- 
plthas, and sixty-four ghatika-sthanas.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. vn, Shikarpur 
Taluq, no. 94; Transl., p. 61, line yf; Roman Text, p. 114, line 4 f.) 

(13) Dva-trirhsat tu velavuramum ashtadasa-pattanamum basashti- 

yoga-pithamum aruvattanalku-ghatika-sthanamum I 
' (The poeple of) the thirty-two seaside towns, the 18 towns, 62 seats of 
contemplation, and 66 religious centres . . . (held a convocation.)' 
(Old Kanarese inscrip. at Terdal, line 60, Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

(14) ' Having thirty-two velama, eighteen cities, sixty-four yoga-pithas, 
and asramas at the four points of the compass.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. VH, 
Shikarpur Taluq, no. 1 18 ; Transl., p. 86, last para., line 6.) 

(15) ' Made a grant ... of the Mallasamudra village . . . belonging 
to the Sadali throne (pithika). ' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. x, Sidla-ghatta Taluq, 
no. 94; Transl., p. 194, last para.) 

(16) Pithi a pedestal (Ranganath inscrip. of Sundara-pandya, v. 19, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 13, 16). 

(17) Purana-pithe pitharhtararh sa chaturarh vidhivad vidhaya I 

(Chebrolu Inscrip. of Jaya, postscrip., lines 7-8, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. v, pp. 115-151.) 

(18) Pithika a platform of stone (see Specimens of Jain Sculptures from 
Mathura, Plate in, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, p. 320). 

PRITHIVI-DHARA A type of oval building. 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 19-20, see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 29-30 ; see under PRASADA). 

PUNDARlKA A class of the seven-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxv, 3-23 ; see under PRASADA.) 

PUR A fortification, a small fortified place, a township (see 
NAGARA). 

PURA A big fortified city as in Tripura and Mahapura described 
in the Yajur-Veda and Brahmdnda-Purdna (see references under NAGARA) 
but apparently less pretentious than the capital cities (nagara), a 
castle, a fortress, a village, a fortified town, a city, a wall, a rampart, 
a house, an abode, a residence, the female apartments, a store-house, 
an upper storey. 

310 



HINDU ARCHIECTURE PURATO-BHADRA 

A village (M., ix, 215, etc.), a town (M., x 39, etc.). 
Gramadinam nagaradinam pura-pattana-kharvate I 
Koshtha-koladi-sarveshaih garbha-sthanam ihochyate I 

(A/., xii, 168-169.) 

Khetanarh cha puranam cha gramanarh chaiva sarvas"ah I 
Trividhanam cha durganarh parvatodaka-dhanvinam II 
Param ardhardham ayamarh prag-udak-plavanaih puram 1 1 
Chatur-asra-yutarh divyarh prasastam taih puram kritam 1 1 

(Brahmanda-Purdna, Part i, and anushamgapdda, 
Chap, vii, vv. 105, 107, 1 08 ; see also v. 93.) 

Pura-madhyam samasYitya kuryad ayatanarh raveh I 

(Bhavishya-Purana, Chap, cxxx, v. 40.) 

(4) Karkkotadhma-raksharh svapuram idam atho nirmarae Javrishakhyam 
' then built this town of his named Javrisha, the protection of which was 
entrusted to Karkota.' (Buddhist Stone inscrip. from Sravasti, lines 4-5, Ind- 
Ant., Vol. xvn, pp. 62, 63.) 

(5) Jagapala puram jatarh krite dese punar nnave in the newly re-creat- 
ed site, the town of Jagapala grew up (i.e., was built). (Rajim inscrp. of 
Rajapal, line 12, Ind. Ant., Vol. xvii, p. 140.) 

(6) ' With myriads of people, practices of virtue, agreeable occupa- 
tions, streams of the (nine) sentiments, pleasure gardens, separated 
lovers, splendid tanks, full lotus beds, gilded boats for spring festivals, 
ghatika-sthanas (religious centres), the supports of dharmma and 
mines of enjoyment, moats which were as if the sea being overcome 
had returned here on account of the collection of beautiful women 
fair as the moon (grama-nagara-kheda-kharvvana-madamba-drona- 
mukha pura-pattana rajadhani) on whatever side one looked in these 
nine forms did the Kuntala-desa shine. ' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikar- 
pur Taluq, no. 197; Transl., p. 124, para. I, last seven lines; Roman Text, 
p. 214, line 27 f.) 

(7) ' The three puras belonging to the great royal city (? rajadhani) 
Balligave.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vii., Shikarpur Taluq, no. 99; Transl., p. 66- 
last two lines.) 

PURATO-BHADRA (see MUKHA-BHADRA) The front tabernacle, 
a porch, a portico, a vestibule. 

Deva-Sri-sasibhushanasya (i.e., of Siva) kritva devalayam karitam- 

yugmam mamdapa-sobhitarh cha purato-bhadrarh pratolya saha I 

' I have not b en able to find purato-bhadra in the Kos"as to which 

I have access, but sarvato-bhadra is described as a kind of house (?) 

with four doors facing the four quarters (here refers to Ram 

3" 



PURI(-l) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Raz's Essay on Architecture of the Hindus, 1 834, p. 43 ; here a village 
called sarvato-bhadra is described not a house of the same name). 
From this I infer that a purato-bhadra was a building with only one 
door in front. ' Mr. Hira Lai. 

But there does not seem to be much doubt that purato-bhadra and 
mukha-bhadra are identical and that they are an essential part of 
the ancient Hindu buildings, resembling more or less the front 
tabernacle. (Kanker inscrip. of Bhanudeva, v. 7, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 127, 
125, and note 4.) 

PURI(-I) A temple, an adytum, a building, a town. 

(The second Praiasti of Baijnath, v. 25, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. i, pp. 117, 114; see also no. 32.) 

PURUSHAjsjJALI The palm of a man. It refers to the depth of 
foundations upon which buildings of one to twelve storeys are 
stated to be erected. 

Khanayed bhutalarh sreshtharh purushanjali-matrakam I 
Jalantam va Silantarh va . . . I (M., xvin, 6-7.) 
The depth is stated here to reach water or stone under ground. 
Hence the expression seems to imply a depth measured by the 
height of a man with uplifted arms. 

The following passage seems to be a parallel instance : 

Chihnam api chardha-purushe manduka-panduro'tha mrit- 
pitah I 

Puta-bhedakas" cha tasmin pashano bhavati toyam adhah 1 1 
Commentary : purusha-sabdenordhnva-bahuh purusho jneyah ; sa cha 
virhsat-adhikarh angula-satam bhavati by the word ' purusha ' is 
to be understood the man with uplifted arms, that is, 120 ahgulas 
(or 5 cubits). (Brihat-Samhita, LIV, 7, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 301' 
note i.) 

PUSHKARA A blue lotus, a part, a portion, the forepart of 
the nose (M., LXV, 84), water, a cage, a type of building, a class 
of buildings (Kdmikdgatna, XLV, 61, 63 ; see under MALIKA). 

PUSHKARINI (see TADAGA and VAP!) A tank, a lotus-pool. 

Datia-putrena thai Norena pukarani karavita savrasapana puyae 
' By the son of Dati, the Thera Nora, a tank was caused to be 
made for the worship of all snakes. ' (New Kharoshti inscrip. from 
Swat, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxv, p. 141, and Vol. xxxvn, p. 66.) 

PUSHKALA A class of storeyed buildings, a tree, a type of pent- 
roof. 

312 




HINDU ARCHITECTURE PUSHPA-VATIKA 

A class of the two-storeyed buildings (M.. xx, 94, 42-43 ; see under 
PRASADA). 

A tree (M., xv, 354, etc.). 

A kind of pent-roof (M., xvm, 188). 

PUSHPAKA A flower, the car of Kubera, a bracelet, a type of 
pavilion, a class of buildings. 

pavilion with sixty-four pillars (Matsya-Pu.ra.na, Chap. CCLXX, v. 7 ; 
under MANDAPA). 

A class of buildings, rectangular in plan and named (i) Ba(va) labhi 
(2) Griharaja, (3) Salagriha or Salamandira, (4) Visfila, (5) Sama, 
(6) Brahma-mandira or Brahma-bhuvana, (7) Prabhava, (8) Sivika, and 
(9) Vesma : 

(1) Agni-Pu'dna (Chap, civ, vv. 11, 16-17 '> see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 2-22, 26-27 ; see under PRASADA). 

PUSHPA-PATTA A flower plate, a turban, a head-gear, a tiara, 
a diadem. 

(M., LXIX, 1 6 ; see details under BHUSHANA.) 

PUSHPA-PUSHKALA A class of bases. 

(M., xiv, 97-112 ; see the lists of 
mouldings under ADHISHTHANA.) 

PUSHPA-BANDHA A type of window of flower-band design. 

(M., XXXHI, 584 ; see under VATAYANA.) 

PUSHPA-BANDHANA-MANDAPA A detached building where 
flowers are garlanded for the worship of the deity. 

Pushpa-danta-pade chaiva pushpa-bandhana-mandapam I 

(M., xxxii, 42.) 
PUSHPA-BODHAKA A type of capital. 

(M., xv, 155-168 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

PUSHPA-BHADRA A pavilion with sixty-two pillars 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 7 ; see MANDAPA.) 

PUSHPA-RATHA A chariot. 

(Abulala-perumal inscrip. of Champa, 
lines 3-4, Ep. Ind., Vol. m, p. 71.) 

PUSHPA-VATIKA (see VATIKA) A garden, a bower, an arbour. 
Uttare saralais talaih subha syat pushpa-vatika I 

(Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXX, v. 29.) 

3 J 3 



PUMLlftGA AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

PUIvlLlftGA (see Samchita) A class of buildings with the six 
main component parts (see under SHAD-VARGA) and with terraces, 
a masculine type of building, a division of the architectural and 
sculptural objects as distinguished from the faminine (striliriga) 
and "neuter (napumsaka) types. 

Alinda-sahitaih shad-varga-sahitam cha yad arpitam I 
Sarhchitam proktarh pumlihgarh tad ghani-kritam 1 1 
Devanam asuranarh cha siddha-vidyadhareshv-api I 
Raksha-gandharva-yakshanarh prasastanam cha janminam 

(bhogyam) II 

(Kamikagama, XLV, 8, 9.) 

See the Mdnasdra and the Agamas under PRASADA, and compare STRI- 
LINGA and NAPUMSAKA. 

PURANA-KAMBA A vase, a moulding. 

' The panel or flat part of the back wall of each recess between the 
projecting tower-like compartments, is ornamented by a vase or some 
very florid object called purana-kambam.' 

(Gangai-Kondo Puram Temple, Ind. Ant., 
Vol. ix, p. 118, c. 2, para 4.) 
PORTA A well, a pond, a step-well. 

(1) Purtam vaprkupa-tadakadikam (the word) purta implies the step- 
well, \vell, and pond, etc. 

(2) Vapl-kupa-tadakadi-devatayatanani cha I 
Anna-pradanaramah purtam ity-abhidhiyate 1 1 

The step- well, well, pond, and the temple (and) the pleasure-house 
(aim-house, hotel) where food is given (gratis) these are called the 
' purta.' 

(3) Vapi-kupa-tadakadi-purtam ayatanani cha I 

Svarga-sthitirh sada kuryat tada tat purta-sajnitam I 
The step well, well, pond and temples are purta. It always ensures 
the residence in heaven (for the doer), it is for this reason designated 

as purta. 

(Quotations from the Commentary, KaSyapa, 

on the Brihat-Samhitd, LVI, 2 ; J. R. A. S, 

N. S., Vol. vi, pp. 316-37, note i.) 

(4) Vapi-kupa-tadagadi-devatayatanani cha I 
Anna-pradanaramah purtam aryah prachakshate 1 1 

(Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, p. 318, note 3.) 
PRISHTHA-SDTRA The plumb-line drawn by the back-bone. 

(M., LXVII, 80 ; see under PRALAMBA.) 



HINDU-ARCHITECTURE PRACHCHHADANA 

PECHAKA An owl, the tip or root of an elephant's tail, a couch, a 
bed, a shelter on a street, a site plan of four squares. 

(M. vii, 3.) 
In connexion with streets in a village : 

Pechakam vatha pithaih va rathya yuktarh tu vinyaset I 

(M., ix, 423, etc. 
PAI&ACHA (see PADA-VINYASA) A site plan of four squares. 

(M. vii, 3.) 

POTA(-I)KA (POTTIKA) A part of a column, the site of a 
house. 

Tat-samotsedham potikalarikriti-kriya I (Kamikagama, uv, u.) 
Potikantavalambarh va tulantaritam antaram I (Ibid., 23.) 
Pottika (ibid., LV, 69 ; see under MAKARA-TORANA) . 

A part of the bottom of a column. (Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 60; see under 
STAMBHA.) 

POTRA A moulding, an architectural object resembling the snout 
of a hog or a ploughshare. 
In connexion with joinery : 

Karkatanghrivat kritva potra-nasanghrim vesayet I 

(M., XVH, 143.) 

PAUSHTIKA (see UTSEDHA) A height which is i\ of the 
breadth, a class of buildings. 

See Mdnasdra (xxxv, 22-26) and compare Kamikagama (L, 24, 28) , 
under ADBHUTA. 

A class of the two-storeyed buildings (M., xx, 93, 19-25 ; see under 
PRASADA). 

PRAKOSHTHA(KA) The forearm, a hall, a room near the gate, 

of a palace, a court, a quadrangle, a part of the door-frame. 

Ekarhsam madhya-bhadram tu madhye yuktya prakoshthakam I 

(M., xxvi, 1 08.) 
The forearm : 

Prakoshtharh shodasamsarh syat talam ashtamsam ayatam I 

(M., LVH, 26, etc.) 

PRACHCHHADANA A covering, a canopy, the roof, an entab- 
lature. 

A synonym of the entablature (M., xvi, 18 ; see under PRASTARA). 
In connexion with the three-storeyed buildings : 

Prachchhadanopari stambham karna-harmyadi-manditam I 

(M., xxi, 9.) 

315 



PRANALA(KA; AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA Of 

The roof : 

Prastarasyopari-deSe karna-harmyadi-manditam I 

Yuktya prachchhadanam kuryat sudheshtakadi-gulodakaih I 

(M., xxxi, 69, 72.) 

Padarh vayate taulirh kuryad yuktya. vichakshanah I 
T-.id-urdhve jayantikarii kuryat tat-tat-prachchhadananvitam I 

(A/., xxxm, 373-374-) 
Prachchhadanankanam kuryan na prachchhadanam eva cha I 

(M., xxxv, 295.) 
Prachchhadanam yatha-harmye dvararh kuryat tathaisake I 

(A/., xxxviii, 7.) 

Prastarochcham iti proktam prachchhadanam ihochyate I 
Prasadadini(-nam) sarvesharh prachchhadanadi-lakshanam I 
Etat prachchhadanam gehe proktarh mama munisVaraih I 
Anyat-vastuni-(nam) sarvesham prachchhadanam ihochyate I 

(A/., xvi, 120-121, 143-144 ; the proposed 
description, ibid., 121-142, 145-168, 170-204.) 

The materials of which they arc constructed : 

Kevalam cheshtaka-harmye daru-prachchhadananvitam I 
Sila-harmyc sila-taulim kuryat tat tad viseshatah I 

From this passage especially, it apears that the term ' prachchhadana ' 
indicates the roof of a building. (Ibid., 133-134.) 

PRANALA(KA) The drip or channel-like part of the pedestal of 
the linga (phallus), a gutter, a canal, a patter, a bracket. 

(1) Vari-nirgamanartham tu tatra karyah pranalakah I 

Therein (in the pedestal) should be made the pranala (gutter) as an out- 
let for water. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CGLXII, v. 6.) 
Ardhangula-bhruvo-raji pranala-sadrisi sama I 

(Ibid., Chap. CCLVIII, v. 37.) 

(2) A square or round platter or bracket to which a spout is attached for 
ornamental purposes : 

Aisanyam pranalam syat purvasyam va prakirtita 1 1 

(Kdmikagama, LV, 82.) 
See Mdnasdra, LII, 298, etc. 

PRANALA(-LIKA,-LI) A canal, a spout, a conduit, a water- 
course, a drain. 

(i) Pituh punyabhivriddhaye karita sat-pranaliyam ... I 
' This conduit has been built ... for the increase of his father's spiritual 
merit.' (Inscrip. from Nepal, no. 8, Vibhuvarman's inscrip., line 2 f., Ind. Ant. y 
Vol. ix, p. 171, c. 2.) 

316 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRATIMA 

(2) Kugrame pranalikayas cha khanda-sphutita-samadhanartham 
' for repairing the spout of the water-course in Kugrama.' (Ibid., no. n 
line 15, p. 174.) 

PRATIKA(-I) A moulding of crescent shape, the frieze ; for its 
synonyms, see M., xvr, 42-44. It is shaped like a petal in two 
parts (M., xvi, 45). 

(1) A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 39, 138. 148, etc.; see the lists of 
mouldings under ADHISHTHANA}. 

A moulding of the column (M., xv, 217 ; xxxm, 225, etc.). 

(2) Pratim nivesayet tasya tri-tri-bhagaika-bhagatah II 
Anyayos" chardha-chandrabha pratl karya dvijottamah 1 1 

(fCamikdgama, LIV, 44, 46.) 

PRATI-KRAMA A class of bases comprising four types which 
differ from one another in height and in the addition or omission of 
some mouldings. 

(M., xiv, 44-64 ; see under ADHISHTHANA.) 

Vedikeyarh tu samanya kuttimanam prakirtita I 
Pratikramasya chotsedhe chatur-virhs'ati vibhajite II 

(Vastu-vidyS, ed. Ganapati Sastri, ix, 19.) 
Pratikramam viseshena kartavyam pada-bandhavat 1 1 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 26 ; ste the details under PADA-BANDHA.) 

PRATI-BANDHA A moulding of the base. 

(M., xiv, 324 ; see the lists of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA.) 

PRATI-BHADRA One of the three classes of the pedestals, the 
other two being Mancha-bhadra and Vedi-bhadra : it has four types 
differing from one another in height and in the addition or omission 
of some mouldings. 

(M., xm, 5389 ; see the lists of mouldings under UPAP!THA.) 

PRATIMA A moulding, an architectural object. 
In connexion with foundations : 

Brahma-garbham iti proktam pratimam tat sva-rupakam I 
Evam tu pratimam proktam etad garbhopari nyaset I 

(M., xn, 149, 166.) 

A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 61, 137, 279 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA). 

3 1 ? 



PR ATI MA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

PRATIMA An image, an idol, a bust, a statue. 

(1) Mdnasdra, Chap. LXIV (named Pratima) : 

Description of the images of the sixteen attendant deities of the 
Vishnu temple (lines 1-92). 
Cf. Pratimam lohajam choktarh tatha ratnaih tu vinyaset I 

(M., LXX, 100.) 

Pratimadhikara (M.. LXVII, colophon). 

(2) An image or idol (Brihat-Samhild, LVI, 16, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. iv, 

p. 318). 

(3) Eka-hasta dvi-hasta va tri-hasta va pramanatah I 
Tatha sarva tri-hasta cha savituh pratima subha II 

(Bhavishya-Purdna, Chap, cxxxii, v. i.) 
(4.) Athatah sampravakshyami sakalanarh tu lakshanam 1 1 
Sarvavayava-drisyatvat pratima tv-iti chochyate II 
IsVaradi-chatur-murttih pathyate sakalarh tv-iti 1 1 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxiv, I 2.) 

(5) Angushtha-parvad arabhya vitastir-yavad eva tu I 
Griheshu pratima karya nadhika sasyate budhaih 1 1 
Ashodasa tu prasade karttavya nadhika tatah I 
Madhyottama-kanishtha tu karya vittanusaratah II 
Dvarochchhrayasya yan-manam ashtadha tat tu karayet I 
Bhagam ekarh tatas tyaktva pari^ishtam tu yad bhavet II 
Bhaga-dvayena pratima tri-bhaglkritya tat punah I 
Pithika bhagatah karya nati nicha nachochchhrita 1 1 

(Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLVIII, vv. 22-25.) 

(6) Vinirmmita rajate Chamkirajena Supar^va-pratima uttama ' the 
excellent image of Suparsva made by Chamkiraja adorns there.' (Honwad 
inscrip. of Somesvara I, line 32, Ind. Ant., Vol. xix, p. 273.) 

(7) -An image (pratima) may be very lofty and yet have no beauty, 
or it may be lofty and of real beauty, but have no dignity ; but height, true 
beauty and exceeding dignity being all united in him, how highly is he worthy 
of worship in the world, GommatesVara, the very form of Jina himself. 
Should Maya address himself to drawing a likeness, the chief of Naka- 
loka (Indra) to look on it or the Lord of Serpents (Adis"esha) to priase it, 
it is unequal ; this being so, who else are able to draw the likeness, to look 
fully upon or praise the unequalled form of the southern Kukkutesa with 
its wondrous beauty.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. n, Vindhyagiri inscrip., no. 85 ; 
Transl., p. 154, line 13 f. ; Roman Text, p. 67 f.) 

(8) ' In the presence of these gods, setting up the stone images (Sila-pratima) 
of the crowned queen Lakshmivilasa, the lawful queen Krishnavilasa, and 

318 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRATI-VAKTRA 

the lawful queen Ramavilasa, together with my own.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, 
Chamarajnagar Taluq, no. 86 ; Transl., p. n, para. 3 ; Roman Text, p. 18, 
para, i, last three lines.) 

(9) Vichitiye Jina-dasiya pratima Bhagavata pitamahasa pratima pratish- 
thapita I (Mathura Inscrip. no. 16, line 2 ; Bitha Inscrip. no. C, lines 1-3 ; 
Cunningham, Arch. Surv. Reports, Vol. in, pp. 34, 48.) 

(10) ' In the highly celebrated Somanatha-pura he made a great temple 
setting up therein according to all the directions of the Agama the various 
incarnations of Vishnu, and shone with the fame he had acquired, Soma- 
chamupati, the Gayi-govala. Under the profound name of Prasanna- 
chenna he set KeSava on the right-hand side, and the source of world's 
pleasure, his form Gopala, the lord who fills the mind with joy, Janardha , 
these three forms, united among themselves, were the chief in the Vishnu 
temple in that pura. A cause of all manner of festivity were all the various 
forms around the enclosure, as they were all exhibited in different ways : 
the Matsya and others, all the ten incarnations, Kes"ava and others, Sari- 
karshana and others, twelve in name, Narayana and others to the number 
of thirty-four, including eighteen, Krishna and others ; Ganapa, Bhairava, 
Bhaskara, Vishvaksena, Durggi, and such gods numbering seventy-three 
adorned the Vishnu temple in the middle of pura. And in the south- 
east of the pura Soma-dandadhipa set up Bijjalesvara, PerggadesVara, 
Revalesvara, and Bayiralesvara, with Somanatha Siva-linga in the 
middle, . . . And he set up Bhava named Nrisirhhesvara, Yoga-Narayana 
and Lakshml-Nrisimha in the middle of the Kaverl at Somanathapura. 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. xi, Davanagere Taluq, no. 36 ; Transl., p. 46, para. 3, 
line 7 f. ; Roman Text, pp. 76, 77). 

PRATIMA-MANDAPA A detached building used as a temple, a 

pavilion. 

(M., xxxiv, 55.) 
PRATI-MUKHA A moulding of the base. 

(M., xiv, 1 02 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA.) 

PRATI-PATTA (see PATTA) A moulding, a band, a plate, a slab, 

a tablet. 

(Vastu-vidya, ix, 23-24 ; see under PATTA.) 

PRATI-ROPA A moulding of the entablature. 

(M., xvi, 45 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under PRASTARA.) 
PRATI-VAKTRA A moulding of the base. 

(M., xiv, 118 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA.) 

3*9 



PRATI-VAJANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

PRATI-VAJANA A concave moulding resembling the cavetto. 

See Fletcher (Hist. Arch., p. 101). 

It is ' the same thing in the pedestal to answer to the vajana : its 
form, though generally rectangular, is sometimes, when placed in cornices, 
found to be externally a little more inclined to one side than to the other, 
and in this situation it resembles the cavetto.' (Ram Raz, Ess. Arch' 
Hind., p. 25.) 

Alingantararii chordhve prativajanam uchyate I (M. XLV, in.) 

A moulding of the pedestal (M., xin, 58, 93, in. etc. ; see the lists of 
mouldings under UPAPITHA.) 

A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 39, etc. ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA.) 

PRATlSRAYA Help, a shelter house for travellers, a dwelling 
house, a residence, a sacrificial hall, an assembly. 

1 i ) Satra-prapa-pra(ti)sVaya-vrishotsargga - vapi-kupa - tadarama-devala- 
yadi-karanopakaranartham iha ' for the purpose of (supplying) requisite 
materials for preparing alms-house (feeding establishment), a place for 
distributing water gratis to travellers, a shelter-house for travellers, a 
vrishotsargga (see below, Ind. Ant., Vol. xn, p. 142), reservoirs, wells, tanks, 
orchards, temples, etc.' (Cambay Plates of Govinda IV, line 58, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. vn, pp. 41, 46, note 8.) 

(2) Chatu-6alavasadha-prati$raya-pradena arama-tadaga-udapana - 
karena ' has given the shelter of quadrangular rest-houses, has made 
wells, tanks, and gardens.' (Nasik Cave inscrip. no. 10, line 2, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. vni, pp. 78, 79.) 

1 But pratiSraya, as I have stated in a note (Nasik inscr ption, the Inter- 
national Congress of the Orientalists held in London in 1874) is what is 
in these days called an anna-sattra, i.e. a house where travellers put up 
and are fed without charge.' Dr. Bhankarkar, and compares : 

(3) Hemddri (p. 152) : PratiSrayah pravasinarh asiayah, i.e., a shelter 
house for travellers. 

(4) Vahni-Purdna (p. 763, quoted also by Dr. Hoernle) : 

Pratisrayarh suvistirnam sad-annam sujalanvitam I 
Dina-natha-janarthaya karayitva griharh Subham I 
Nivedayet pathisthebhyah Subha-dvararh manoharam II 

' Having caused to be constructed for poor and helpless persons a prati- 
Sraya (in the shape of) a good house, very commodious (wide), having food 
and plentiful water, provided with a good door, and charming, he should 
dedicate it to travellers.' (Ind. Ant., Vol. xn, p. 142, c. 1-2.) 

320 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRATOLl 

PRATISHTHA An establishment, a fixed abode. 

(A.-V., vi, 32, 3, Sankh. Aran., XH, 14.) 
PRATI (see PRATI) A moulding. 

PRATOLl A gate-way, sometimes provided with a flight of steps, 
a small turret, the main road of a town. 

1 i ) Rathya pratoli visikha syach chayo vapram astriyam I 

(Amarakosha, n, ii, 3.) 

(2) Trirhsad-dandamtararh cha dvayor attalakayor-madhye saharmya- 

dvi-talarh dvy-ardhayamam pratollrh karayet I 
Attalaka-pratoli-madhye tri-dhanushkadhishthanam sapidhana- 

chchhidra-phalaka-sarhhatam indra-kos"am karayet I 
Prakaram ubhayato mandalakam adhyardha-dandarh kritva pratoli- 
shat-tulantararh dvaram nivesayet I 

(Kautillya-Artha-sastra, Chap. xxiV 5 
paras. 8, 9, 15, pp. 52, 53.) 

(3) Mahdbhdrata (Cock) : 

XIV, 25, 21 : Tarn cha sala-chayam srlmat sampratoli sugha- 

ttitam I 
XII, 69, 55 : Parikhas chaiva kauravya pratolir nishkutani cha I 

(4) Rdmayana (Cock) : 

II, 80, 1 8 : Pratolivara-Sobhitah . . . (niveSah) | 

V, 3, 17 : (Lankam) . . . pandurabhih pratolibhir uchchabhir 

abhisamvritam I 

VI, 75, 6 : Gopuratta-pratolishu charyasu vividhasu cha I 

(5) See ' The Sanskrit Pratoli and its new Indian derivatives.' (J.R.A.S., 
Vol. xix, July, 1906.) 

(6) Kritva . . . abihramarh muni-vasatirh . . . .svargga-sopanarupam 

kaubera-chchhanda-bimbam sphatika-marhdala-bhasa-gaurarh 
pratolim I 

' Having made a gateway, charming (and) . . . the abode of Saints, 
(and) having the form of a staircase leading to heaven (and) resembling a 
(pearl-) necklace of the kind called Kauberachchanda (and) white with the 
adiance of pieces of crystalline gems.' 

' That the word (pratoli) has the meaning in the present inscription of a 
gateway with a flight of steps seems to be shown by the comparison of the 
pratoli with a svarga-sopana or flight of steps, or ladder, leading to heaven, 
and by its being described as white with the radiance of pieces of crystalline 
gems (in the stones of which it was constructed).' (Bilsad stone pillar inscrip. 
of Kumaragupta, line 10, C. 1. 1., Vol. in, F. G. I., no. 10, pp. 44, 45, 43, 
and note I.) 

321 



PRATYAttGA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(7) Hammira vira kva sa tava mahima nirdisarhti dhvajagrair-divya- 

kara-pratoli-hridayami-bhuvo nirmita Kilhanena I 
Astarh tavat pratoll tad-upavirachitarh koshthaka-dvarh-dvam- etat 
prochchair-alana-yugmarh Vijaya[vara]kareh Satrulakshmas cha 

sadma I 

(Hansi stone inscrip. of Prithviraja, V. S. 1224, 

vv. 5, 6, Ind. Ant., Vol. XLI, pp. 19, 17.) 

(8) Asyam uttunga-ringa-sphuta-aI-kirana- (svetabhasa-sanatharh- 

ramyarama) pratoli-vividha-jana-pada-stri-vilasabhiramam I 
' In this (city of Benares there was) a place, renowned on earth (bathed 
in the white light) of the bright rays of the moon (as they fell on its) lofty 
turrets ; charming with the gracefulness of the wives of the various inha- 
bitants of the (beautiful and extensive, lit. whose extent was charming) 
streets.' (Benares inscrip. of Pantha, v. 2, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 60, 61.) 

(9) Deva-sri-s"asi-bhushanasya kritina devalayarh karitarh yugmarh 

mamdapa-sobhitam cha purato-bhadrarh pratolya saha I 
' Caused to be built two temples of the god whose ornament is the moon 
(viz. Mahadeva), together with halls, a purato-bhadra with a gateway.' 
(Kanker inscrip. of Bhanudeva, v. 7, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 127, 128, 125, 
note 3.) 

PRATYA&GA A minor limb, a moulding of the entablature. 

(Kdmikagama, LTV, 2 ; see under PRASTARA.) 

PRATYOHA (see UHA) Lit. an obstacle, hence any architec- 
tural moulding or member separating two others, a supporting 
member, a moulding, an architectural object. 

PRATHAMASANA The throne for the preliminary coronation. 
Cf. Prathamabhisheka-yogyarh syat prathamasanam eva cha I 

(M., XLV, 2-3.) 

PRADAKSHINA A surrounding terrace or verandah, a circum- 
ambulating path round a temple, a circular road round a village 
or town. 

(1) Sikharardhasya chardhena vidheya tu pradakshina I 
Garbha-sutra-dvayarh chagre vistaro mandalasya tu 1 1 

(Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXIX, v. 4.) 

(2) Pradakshinarh bahih kuryat prasadadishu va na va I 

(Agni-Purana, Chap, civ, v. 9.) 

(3) Sikhararddhasya charddhena vidheyas tu pradakshinah I 

(Garuda-Purdna, Chap. XLVII, v. 8.) 

322 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRAPA 

See Matsya-Purdna above : this line is identical, except that it is used in 
the plural number here. 

(4) ' The procession-path round the cell called Pradakshina as that 
round apse, remained for some centuries as a common but not a universal 
feature. The verandah disappeared. Round a windowless cell it was 
useless, and the pillared porches contained in themselves, all the elements 
of shelter or of the shadow that were required.' (Fergusson : Hist, of Ind. 
and East. Arch., p. 221.) 

(5) ' In the pradakshina or passage behind images, are other two gratings 
over shafts from the lower hall.' (Ahmadabad Arch. Burgess : Arch. Surv., 
New Imp. Series, Vol. xxxni, p. 87.) 

PRADAKSHINA-SOPANA A surrounding flight of steps. 

(Kautillya-Arlha-sdstra ; see under SOPANA.) 

PRAPATHA A broad path, long journey by a broad road, high 
roads for travellers, rest-houses thereupon (R.-V., x, 17, 4, 6 ; 63, 
1 6 ; Kath. Sam., xxxvn, 14; Ait. Bra.) VH, 15). A prince is landed 
for his prapathas (R.-V., vra, i, 30). 

PRAPA (PRAPAfrGA) A shed on the roadside for accommodat- 
ing travellers with water, a place where water is distributed, a 
cistern, a tank, a building. 

(1) Kulluka (M. W. Diet.} : Panlya-dana-griha a house where water is 
given (gratis). 

(2) Amarakosha (n, 5, 7) : Avesanarh silpi-sala prapa pamya-salika I 

(3) A synonym of harmya (edifice) (M., n, 7). 
In connexion with the staircase : 

Prapange pramukhe bhadre sopanarh purva-parsvayoh I 

(M., xxx, 105.) 
In connexion with mandapas (pavilions) : 

Bhakti-manarh tatha bhitti-vistaram chapy-alindakam I 
Prapahga-mandapakaram pancha-bhedam kramochyate I 

(M., xxxiv, 3-4 ; see also 15.) 

Madhye prachchhadanam kuryat prapangam vadhikalpayet I 
Tasya madhye cha range tu mauktikena prapanvitam I 
Mandapagre prapangam syat ... I 

(Ibid., 201, 218, 222; see also 224-225.) 
Prapa is shed as an alternative for pavilion. 
Prapanga is shed with open yards. (M., xxxiv, 567-568.) 
Mandapasya bahir-dee praparh paritas tu karayet I (Ibid., 290.) 

323 



PRAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

In connexion with madhya-rahga (central quadrangle or courtyard) : 
Devanam cha nripanarh cha sthanakasana-yogyakam I 
Mukta-prapanga-manarh cha lakshanarh vakshyate'dhuna I 
Yad-ukta-madhya-rahge tu chatus-trirhsad vibhajite I 
Ekaikam-bhaga-hlnarh syat prapa-vistaram ishyate I 

. . . prapa-tungam sivamam syat I 

(M., XLVII, 1-4, 9.) 

In connexion with the pedestals of the images of the Triad : 
Prapa cha toranam \api kalpa-vriksham cha sarhyutam I 

(M., LI, 87.) 

(4) Prag-varhsayor anya-vamsais" cha nalikera-daladibhih I 
Achchhaditah(-ta) prapa nama prastararh chatra mandapah II 

(Kamikagama, L, 88.) 

(5) Prapayas cha mandapam ' hall for the supply of water.' 

(Inscrip. of the Chandella Viravarman, v. 19, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. i, pp. 328, 330.) 

(6) Vapi-kupa-tadaga-kuttima-matha-prasada-satralayan I 
Sauvarna-dhvaja-toranapana-pura-grama-prapa-mamdapan I 
Vyadhapayad ayarh Chaulukya-chudamanih I 

Here ' Prapa ' (shed) does not, evidently, mean a tank, which idea is 
expressed by the words vapi, kupa, and tadaga. (Sridhara's Devapattana 
Prasasti, V. 10, Ep. Ind., Vol. u, p. 440.) 

(7) See Rahganath inscrip. of Sundarapandya (v. 15, Ep. Ind., Vol. in, 

pp. 13. l6 -) 

(8) Satra-prapa-prasraya-vrishotsargga-vapi-kupa-tadarama-devala-yadi- 

karanopakaranartharh cha I 

Prapa (?) a place of distributing water gratis (D. R. Bhandarkar). 
(Cambay Plates of Govinda IV, line 58, Ep. Ind., Vol. vii, pp. 41, 46.) 

(9) Nadinam ubhato tiraih sabha prapa-karena ' erected on both banks 
shelters for meeting and such for gratuitous distributing of water.' (Nasik 
Cave inscrip. no. 10, line a f., Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 78, 79.) 

( I o) Aneka-devatayatana-sabha-praparamavasatha-vihara-karayita 
' who caused to be built many temples of the gods, halls, drinking-foun- 
tains, gardens, rest-houses, and (Buddhist) monasteries.' (Palitana Plates of 
Simhaditya, line 12, Ep. Ind., Vol. xi, pp. 18, 19, note 3.) 

(n) Dakshina-diSabhage karapita vapi tatha prapeyam cha 'in the 
southern part there has been made an irrigation well also a watering-trough. ' 

Tatha prapa-kshetram dvitlyam tatha grame uttara-disayam ' in the 
northern part of the village there is given a second field, for the watering 
trough.' (Grant of Bhimadeva n, Vikrama Samvat 1266, lines 26, 27, 31, 32, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xvm, pp. 113, 1 15.) 

324 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRALAMBA 

(12) 'Apana cannot have here (Asoka pillar-edict, vn, Mines, 2-3) its 
usual meaning " tavern, liquor-shop." As professor Kern (Der Buddhism, 
Vol. n, p. 385) assumes, it must denote a watering station. Probably the 
huts on the roads are meant, where water is distributed to travellers and 
their beasts gratis or against payment. The usual Sanskrit name is prapa.' 
Dr. Biihler. (Ep. Ind., Vol. H, p. 274, i.) 

PRABH AVA A type of rectangular building. 

(Agni-Purana, Chap, civ, vv. 16-17 ; see under PRASADA.) 

PRABHAtfJANA A type of chariot. 

(M., XLIII, 112; see under RATHA.) 
PRABHA A canopy, a city. 

Sailam s"obhita-ata-kumbha-vilasat kumbham maha-mandapam pra- 

karam paramalika-vilasitam muktamayim cha prapa(-bha)m I 
' A great maha-mandapa of stone, resplendent with pitchers (? domes) 
of shining gold, a surrounding wall, adorned with excellent buildings, and 
a canopy of pearls.' Dr. Hultzsch. (Fourteen inscrip. at Tirukkovalur, 
no. K, Inscrip. of Rajendradeva, lines 1-2, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, pp. 145-46.) 

PRAMANA The measurement of breadth. 

(M., LV, 3-6 ; see under MANA.) 
Pramanam dirgham ity-uktaih manonmana-pramanatah II 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxiv, 36.) 

PRALAMBA The plumb-lines or the lines drawn through an 
image in order to find out the perpendicular and the horizontal 
measurement of the different parts of the body. 

(1) See Bimbamdna (w. 73-91, 92-122, 123-138) under TALAMANA. 

(2) Mdnasdra (Chap. LXVTI, named PRALAMBA) : 

The instrument by means of which the plumb-lines are drawn is 
called pralamba-phalaka. This is a square plank of four, three, 
two or one ahgula in thickness with the sides equal to three-fourths or 
half of the length of the image (line 6). Another plank of the same 
size is made and used as the stool on which the image is placed. The 
other plank (pralamba-phalaka) is fixed to the crown of the head of the 
image. The planks are kept level to each other. Some holes are made 
in the upper plank of the pralamba-phalaka wherefrom are suspended 
some strings at the other end of which are attached small balls 
made of iron or stone (lines 7-16). The number of holes and the strings 
suspended through the planks, by which the plumb-lines are deter- 
mined, varies from five to eleven, according to the different postures 
and poses of the image. The five principal plumb-lines consist of one 

325 



PRALAMBA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

drawn from the centre of the upper plank corresponding to the crown 
of the head, and four on the four sides of the body (line 19). Two 
other lines drawn adjoining the right and left sides of the face make 
the number seven (line 20). Another two lines drawn on the right 
and left sides of the back of the head make the number nine (line 
22) ; and two lines drawn from the two armpits make the total of 
lines eleven (line 28). 

The line drawn from the crown of the head (sikha-mani) passes by the 
middle of the front, root and patta (band) of the diadem (mauli), middle of 
the forehead, eyebrows, nose, chin, neck, chest (hridaya), navel, sex organ, 
root of the thighs, halfway between the knees, nalakas (ankles), heels, soles 
(feet) and two largest toes (lines 32-40). The perpendicular and horizon- 
tal distances between the different parts of the body are described in detail 
(lines 41-78, 99-139). The variations of these measurements are consi- 
dered with regard to postures (lines 1-96), namely, erect (sthanaka), sitting 
(asana) and recumbent (Sayana), and poses (lines 98-140), called abhahga, 
sama-bhanga, ati-bhanga and tri-bhahga (see under BHANGA). 

These plumb-lines are stated to be drawn only for the purpose of measur- 
ing : 

Evaih tu karya-sutrarh syat lambayet Silpavittamah I (91) 
The principles and mechanism of plumb-lines followed by the European 
architects are almost similar. The following quotations from Vitruvius 
and Gwilt would throw more light on the point : 

(3) ' Agatharcus . . . was the first who contrived scenery, upon which he 
left a treatise. This led Democritus and Anaxagarus, who wrote thereon, 
to explain how the points of sight and distance ought to guide the k'nes, 
as in nature, to a centre, so that by means of pictorial deception, the real 
appearances of buildings appear on the scene, which, painted on a flat 
vertical surface, seem, nevertheless, to advance and recede.' (Vitruvius 
Book vii, Introduction.) 

' This (levelling) is performed either with the dioptra, the level (libra 
acquaria) or the chorobates. The latter instrument is, however, the beste 
inasmuch as the dioptra and level are often found to be incorrect. The 
chorobates is a rod about 20 feet in length, having two legs at its extre- 
mities of equal length and dimensions, and fastened to the ends of the rod 
at right angles with it ; between the rod the legs are cross-pieces fastened 
with tenons, whereon vertical lines are correctly marked, through which 
corresponding plumb-lines hang down from the rod. When the rod is set, 
these will coincide with the lines marked, and show that the instrument 
stands level.' (6f</.,Book vni, Chap, vi.) 

(4) ' Plumb-rule, plumb-line, or plummet is an instrument used by 
masons, carpenters (sculptors), etc., to draw perpendiculars or verticals, for 

326 




PRALAMBA 



Pagi 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRALINAKA 

ascertaining whether their work be upright, horizontal and so on. The 
instrument is little more than a piece of lead or plummet at the end of a 
string, sometimes descending along a wooden or metal ruler raised perpendi- 
cularly on another, and then it is called a level.' (Gwilt, Encycl., p. 1241.) 

' The term, level, is used substantively to denote an instrument which 
shows the direction of a straight line parallel to the plane of the horizon. 
The plane of the sensible horizon is indicated in two ways : by the direction 
of the plummet or the plumb-line, to which it is perpendicular ; and by the 
surface of a fluid at rest. Accordingly, levels are formed either by means 
of the plumb-line, or by the agency of a fluid applied in some particular 
manner.' 

' They all depend, however, upon the same principle, namely, the action 
of terrestrial gravity. The carpenter's level consists of a long rule, straight 
on its lower edge, about 10 or 12 feet in length, with an upright fixed 
to its upper edge, perpendicular to and in the middle of the length, having 
its sides in the same plane with those of the rule, and a straight line drawn on 
one of its sides perpendicular to the straight edge of the rule. This standing 
piece is generally mortised into the other, and finally braced on each side 
to secure it from accident, and has its upper end kerfed in three places, 
viz. through the perpendicular line, and on each side. The straight edge cf 
the transverse piece has a hole, or notch, cut out on the other side equal on 
each side of the perpendicular line. A plummet is suspended by a string 
from the middle kerf, at the top of the standing piece, to vibrate freely in the 
hole or notch when hanging at full length. When the straight edge of the 
level is applied to two distant points, with its two sides placed vertically, 
if the plummet hangs freely, and the string coincides with the straight line 
on the standing piece, the two points are level. If not, suppose one of the 
points to be at the given height, the other must be lowered or raised, as the 
case may require, till the string is brought to a coincidence with the per- 
pendicular line. By two points is meant two surfaces of contact, as two 
blocks of wood, or the upper edges of two distant beams.' 

' The mason's level is formed of three pieces of wood, joined in the form 
of an isosceles triangle, having a plummet suspended from the vertex over 
a mark in the centre of the base.' (Gwilt, Encycl., p. 1217.) 

PRALAMBA-PHALAKA (see under PRALAMBA) The square plank 
through which the plumb-lines are drawn. 

PRALINAKA A class of buildings, a column with 32 rectangular 
sides, i.e., 32 -sided shaft : 

Dva-trimsat tu madhye Pralinakah (Brihat-Samhitd, Lin, 28). 

Pralinakam atah srinu ... II 

327 



PRASTARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Sirshakam chatur-asrarh tu parsvayoh koshtha-samyutah I 

Panjaram nasika-yuktam sopanarh parsVayos tatah 1 1 

Pralinaka iti prokta (-ah) . . . [(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 46, 47, 48.) 

PRASTARA The entablature. It comprises the parts of an 
order above a column. The assemblage is divided into three parts 
in the European architecture, namely the architrave which rests 
immediately on the column, the frieze next over the architrave being 
the middle member, and the cornice which is the uppermost part. 
These three parts are again variously subdivided. For its synonyms, 
see Af., xvi, 18-20, 42-44. It is also used as a synonym for plinth 
(M., xxxm, 220-227). 

( i ) The entablature is stated to be half of the column : 

Prastaram pada-di(-ai)rghyasya chardha-manena karayet I 
Nyunam vapi chadhikam vapi prastaraih karayed budhah 1 1 
Prastarokta-pramanam tu sarvaih kanthe vidhiyate II 

(Kdmikagama, xxxv, 27, 28, 29.) 

Ibid. Chap. LTV (named Prastara-vidhi) : 

Three essential parts of the prastara (entablature) : 

Hinadhikam tu changanam prastarasya dvijottamah I 
Padanganam tatha kuryad galange cha masurake II (47) 

The pada (foot, pedestal, base), gala (neck, middle part), and masuraka 
(lintel) would, apparently, correspond to the architrave, frieze, and 
cornice. 

The mouldings of the prastara (entablature) : 

Uttaram vajanam chaiva mushti-bandham mrinalikam II (i) 
Dandika valaya-kshudra-gopanachchhadanam cha II 
Alihgantarita chaiva pratyangam vajanam kramat II (2) 

Their comparative measurement : 

Tryam&ikamsam-panchaika-dvi-tri-bhagaika-bhagaih I 
Tri-bhagenaika-bhagena upary-upari yojatet II (3) 

Three kinds of the prastara : 

Etani prastarahgani tri-vidham chottaram bhavet I 
Khandottaram patra-bandham rupottaram iha dvijah II (4) 

Their description (vv. 5-6 ; see under those terms). 

Further classification under SVASTIKA, VARDHAMANA, NANDYAVARTA and 
SARVATOBHADRA (vv. 7-8). 

The other details of the prastara (vv. 9-46). 

Ibid., LV, 204 (synonyms) : 

Prastaram chaiva gopanam kapotam mancham eva cha I 
Nivram ity-evam akhyatam prastarasya dvijottamah I 

328 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASTARA 

Prastara (entablature) compared with base, pillar, tower (karna), 
finial or dome (sekhara) : 

Padayamam adhishthanam dvi-gunaih sarva-sammatam I 
Padardharh prastaraih proktam karnam prastaravat samam 1 1 
Prastara-dvi-gunayamam Sekharam hi tarn uchyate 1 1 
Prastarad urdhva-bhage tu karna-kuta-samayutam II 

(Kamikagama., xxxi, 28-30.) 

(2) Vedikam prastara-samarh shad-arhsikritya bhagasah I 

(Vastu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, ix, 23.) 
Sva-sva-yonya grihadinarh kartavya dvara-yonayah I 
Prastarottarayor madhyam panchadha vibhajed budhahll 

(Ibid., xin, 26 ; set also 28.) 

(3) ... prastaram cha tat ah srinu I 
Prastarotsedha-manam tu pancha-bhaga-vibhajitam II 
Tri-bhagam uttarotsedham padonottara-vajanam I 
Eka-bhagarh tad-urdhve tu kartavya padma-pattika 1 1 
Gaja-sYenlrh mriga-srenlm prastaranteshu yojayet I 
Evam prastaram akhyatam talam prati viseshatah 1 1 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 72, 73, 74 ; 
see also vv. 68-71, under TORANA.) 

(4) Mdnasdra (Chap, xvi, named PRASTARA) : 

The height of the entablature as compared with that of the base 
is of six kinds (line 4) . The former may be equal to the latter, or less 
by J, or greater by J, \, f , or twice (lines 2-3) ; or in cubit measure- 
ment, these six kinds of height of the entablature begin with 7 cubits 
and end in 4^ cubits, the decrement being by | cubit (lines 5-6). 
These six kinds of entablatures are respectively employed in the 
houses of the gods, the Brahmans, the king or Kshattriyas, the crown 
princes, the Vaisyas, and the Sudras (lines 8-9). 

The height of the entablature as compared with that of the column may 
be half, three-fourths, equal, or greater by J, |, and f (lines 10-12). These 
six heights of entablature should discreetly be employed (line 13). Another 
set of six heights is also prescribed : the height of the pillar being divided into 
8 parts, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, may be given to that of the entablature. 

These entablatures are divided into eight or rather nine classes, the details 
of which are given below : 

I. 31 parts (ibid., lines 22-29) : 

(1) Uttara (fillet) .. .. 3$ 

(2) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(3) valabhi(-bhi) (roof, capital) . . . . 4 

329 



PRASTARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(4) vajana (fillet) .. .. .. ij 

(5) uttara (fillet) .. .. 3 

(6) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(7) kshudra-padma (small cyma) . . . . i 

(8) maha-padma (large cyma) . . . . 3 

(9) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(10) kapota (corona) .. .. .. 7 

(u) alinga (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(12) antarita (fillet) .. .. .. 

(13) prastara (ovolo) .. .. .. 2 

(14) vajana (fillet) .. .. .. ij 

The projection of these mouldings are in most cases equal to them, 
but in some cases they may be f , |, or J of them. 

II. 31 parts (ibid., lines 59-71) : 

(1) Uttara (fillet) .. .. .. 3 

(2) kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(3) valabhi (roof, capital) . . . . . . i 

(4) abja (cyma) . . . . . . 9 

(5) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . 

(6) mushti-bandha (band) . . . . . . 2| (? 2) 

(7) vajana (fillet) . . . . . J 

(8) mrinalika (stalk) . . . . . . 2 

(9) kandhara (dado) 

(10) kshepana (projection) 

(11) padma (cyma) 

(12) vajana (fillet) 

(13) adhara (base) 

(14) patta (band) 

(15) vajana (fillet) 

(16) mushti-bandha (band) .. .. .. 

(17) vajana (fillet) 

(18) mahavajana (large fillet) .. .. .. 2 

(19) abja (cyma) . . i 

III. 36 parts (ibid., lines 72-77) : 

(1) Base, etc., should be as before ; 

(2) alinga (fillet) .. .. .. 2 

(3) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(4) antarita (fillet) . . . . . . 3 

(5) kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(6) prati (-vajana) (cavetto) . . . . . . 2 

(7) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

33 



THE. E.MTAbL*TURtS 



MOTL-- 

). THt TOTAL OF THE NUM6E.S OF PARTS 
FOR EACH TYPE. VAK1E.S ? 



WHAT IS GIVEN IMTHEiTLXT 



AMD TWRD 1 lAAGtS AMD LEXXSK/' VHS 
DO HOT SUIT OTHE.RS 




F! 



z 





HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASTARA 

IV. 30 parts (ibid., lines 78-88) : 

(1) Uttara (fillet) .. .. 3 

(2) kampa (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(3) valabhT (roof, capital) . . . . . . 2 

(4) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(5) kapota (corona) . . . . . . 5 

(6) alinga (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(7) antarita (fillet) . . . . . . 2 

(8) nimna (drip) . . . . J 

(9) prati-vajana (cavetto) .. .. .. i 

(10) kandhara (dado) .. .. ..2 

(n) vajana (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(12) griha (?griva, dado) .. .. ..2 

(13) vajana (fillet) .. .. .. I 

(14) kapota (corona) .. . ..4 

(15) alinga (fillet) .. .. | 

(16) antarita (fillet) .. .. .. i 

(17) nimna (drip) .. .. .. 

(18) prastara.(ovolo) .. .. I 

V. 30 parts (ibid., lines 89-99) : 

(1) Mula (base) as before ; 

(2) gopana (beam) as before ; 

(3) vajana (fillet) . . . . 2 

(4) kulikanghri (main pillar) (this part is furnished 

with nataka) . . . . 5 

(5) nataka (theatre, quadrangular part) as before ; 

(6) kapota (corona) as before ; 

(7) kshudra-nasl (small nose or vestibule) as before ; 
the rest as before. 

This entablature is decorated all over with crocodiles and bees (makara 
and bharamara, 94-95). 

VI. 26 parts (ibid., lines 100-109) : 

(1) Uttara (fillet) . . . . 3 

(2) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(3) padma (cyma) . . . . . . i 

(4) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(5) mushti-bandha (band) . . . . . . 2 

(6) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(7) mrinalika (stalk) . . . . . . 3 

(8) vajana (fillet) . . . . . . i 

(9) pattika (band) . . . . 4 

33 1 



PRASTARA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(10) vajana (fillet ^ 

(u) kampa (fillet) i 

(12) padma (cyma) 

(13) vajana (fillet) \ 

(14) kapota (corona) 4 

(15) alihga (fillet) \ 

(16) vajana (fillet) . \ 

(17) antarita (fillet) i 

(18) prati-vajana (cavetto) .. i 
VII. 26 parts (ibid., lines 110-116) : 

(1) Nataka (theatre, quadrangular part) as before ; 

(2) upper columns as before ; 

(3) lower columns as before. 

Above these, all the members are same as before except that their 
projections are half or one-fourth of them, or their projections may be 
one, two, or three dandas. 

The images of Bhutas (imps), Ganas (attendant demi-gods of Ganesa), 
Yakskas (attendant demi-gods of Kubera), Vidyadharas (semi-divine 
beings), or of men are carved in the nataka (crowning or capital) parts 
of temples. In the corresponding parts of the palaces, the images of 
Yakshas and Vidyadharas are carved ; in all other residential buildings, 
the human figures are made in the nataka (crowning) parts. All the 
mushti-bandhas (fishbands) are made straight with the columns. The 
rest should be as before. 
VIII. 26 parts (ibid., lines 117 f.) : 

(i) Kapota'_ (corona) 8 more ; (a) nataka (theatre, quadrangular 
part) 8 more ; the rest should be as before. 
IX. 34 parts (ibid., lines 117-119) : 

Nataka (theatre, quadrangular part) 8 parts more, and the rest 
should be as before. 

With these may be compared the details of the early European entab- 
lature : 

The height of the entablatures of the different orders : 

(1) In the Tuscan order, J of 7== if diameters. 

(2) In the Doric order, J of 8=2 diameters. 

(3) In the Ionic order, J of 9=2 J diameters. 

(4) In the Corinthian order, J of 10=2 \ diameters. 

(5) In the Composite order, \ of 1 1 =2| diameters. 

According to Vitruvius both to the Corinthian and the Composite orders 
ten parts are given. 

Entablature is fourth part of the column. ' In general terms, its sub- 
divisions of architrave, frieze, and cornice are obtained by dividing its height 
into ten equal parts, whereof three are given to architrave, three to frieze, 

33 2 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



PRASTARA 



and four to cornice ; except in the Roman Doric order in which the whole 
height of the entablature is divided into eight parts of which two are given 
to the architrave, three to the frieze, and three to the cornice.' 

' From these general proportions variations have been made by different 
masters, but not so great as to call for particular observation.' (Gwilt, 
Encycl. Arch., Art. 2542, 2543, 2549.) 

Entablature Height in parts ^^ ^ 

parts of a module 

27i 



Height in parts 
of a module 



I. Tuscan (Gwilt, 



Cornice, 1 6 < 
parts 



Cymtinum 
and parts 



Bed mould- 
ing 



Encycl., Art. 2555) : 
f (i) Quarter round 



Frieze, 1 4 parts 

fFillet 

Architrave, j 
12 parts 1 Fascia 



S (2) Asragal 
I (3) Fillet 

(4) Conge" or cavetto 

(5) Corona 

(6) Drip 

(7) Sinking from 

corona or hollow 

(8) Fillet 

(9) Ogee 
(10) Frieze 

(u) Fillet or listel 
j (fa) Conge or small 
i cavetto 

i 

^(13) Fascia 



4 
i 



5 

i 



4 
14 

2 

2 
8 



22^ 



9i 



9* 



The height of the drip under the corona is taken on that member, and that 
of the hollow in the height of the fillet. 

II. Doric (Gwilt, Encycl., Art. 2564, 2562) : 

Entablature 



Cornice, 
1 8 parts 



(1) Fillet of corona 

(2) Cavetto 

(3) Fillet 

(4) Cyma reversa 

(5) Corona 
j (6) Drip 

(7) Fillet 

(8) Gutta under the corona 

(9) Dentil 
(10) Fillet 

(n) Cyma reversa 
I (12) Capital of triglyph 

333 



Height in parts 
of a module 



I* 

4 



parts of a module 

34 
26 

28J 



25 



15 
13 



2 
2 



PRASTARA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



Entablature 


Height in parts 


Projection from the 
axis of column in 




of a module 


parts of a module 


Frieze, f (13) Triglyph 


18 


IOJ 


18 parts I (14) Metope 


18 


10 


f(i5) Listel 


2 


i 


Architrave, J (16) Capital of guttae 


* 


II 


i o parts 1 (17) Guttae 


J 


II 


(.(18) Fascia 


10 


10 


Mutular Doric : 








(i) Fillet of the corona 


I 


34 




(2) Cyma 


3 


3i 




(3) Fillet 


i 


3i 




(4) Cyma reversa . . 


i 


3<>f 




(5) Corona 


Si 


30 


Cornice, 18 


(6) Cyma reversa. . 


i 


29l 


parts 


(7) Mutule 


3 


28 




(8) Drip 


\ 


28 




(9) Guttae of the mutule 


i 


26 




(10) Echinus or quater round . . 


2 


13* 




(i i) Fillet 


1 


"I 




.() Capital of triglyph 


2 


ii 


Frieze, 1 8 ((13) Triglyph 


18 


IOJ 


parts 1(14) Metope 


18 


10 


f(i5) Listel 


2 


12 


1 (16) Capital of the guttae 


i 


"1 


Architrave, 1 (17) Guttae 


4 


"I 


12 parts 1 (18) First fascia 


6 


I0| 


^(19) Second fascia 


4 


10 


Grecian Doric (Parthenon) (ibid., Art. 2579) 


I 






' (i) Fillet 


o -60 


22 -10 




(2) Echinus 


3-12 


2O -40 




(3) Fillet, with sunk cyma 






Cornices, 


reversa 


2 '20 




15-12 


(4) Corona 


4-88 


18-98 


parts 


(5) Fillet 


I -10 


18-80 




(6) Capitals of mutules 


I -10 






(7) Mutules 


0-32 


18-66 




(8) Bead and capital of triglyph 


2 -00 


ii -46 


Frieze, 1 4 -88 f (9) Frieze (in metope) 


I5-I2 




parts I (10) Triglyph 


14-88 


ii -40 



334 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



PRASTARA 



Entablature 



Height in parts 
of a module 



Architrave, 
i y -10 
parts 



Cornice, 34 
parts 



f (i i) Fillet 
1 (12) Cap of guttae 
(13) Guttae 
4) Architrave below guttae . . 

III. Ionic (Gwilt, Encyd., Art. 2573, 2581) : 

(1) Fillet of cyma 

(2) Cyma recta 

(3) Fillet 

(4) Cyma reversa 

(5) Corona 

(6) Fillet of the drip 

(7) Ovolo 

(8) Astragal 

(9) Fillet 

( i o)Dentel fillet .. 
(n)Dentels 

(12) Fillet 

(13) Cyma reversa 
Frieze, 27 parts (14) Frieze 

(15) Listel 

( 1 6) Cyma reversa 

(17) First fascia 

(18) Second fascia 

(19) Third fascia 

(20) Capital on the side 

(21) Capital on the coussinet or 

cushion 



Architrave, 
22^ parts 



Grecian Ionic (in the temple on the Ilyssus) 



Cornice, 
supposed 
height, 
18-33 
parts 



(1) Fillet 

(2) Cyma recta 

(3) Fillet 

(4) Echinus 

(5) Corona 

(6) Drip 

(7) Cyma reversa 

(8) Fillet 

(9) Echinus 



1-50 

I -OO 

O-20 

I4-40 



16 



Projection from the 
axis of column in 
parts of a module 

I2-50 
12 -40 

II -20 



4 


46 


5 




i 


41 


2 


40* 


6 


38* 


i 


29i 


4 


28J 


i 


25 


I 


24! 


\\ 


21 


6 


24 


i 


20 


4 


I9l 


27 


15 


li 


20 


3 


'9* 


7* 


'7 


6 


16 


4l 


15 


19 


20 



2 -040 

6 -240 
4-680 
2-700 
0-720 
i -260 



17* 



restored restored 



30-440 
33 '9 6 

20 -520 
1 8 -360 



335 



PRASTARA 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 



Entablature 



Projection from the 
Height m parts a j s of column in 

of a module par ts of a module 



Frieze, (10) Frieze 

29-901 

parts 

f(n) Fillet 

Architrave, j ( I2 ) Ec h m us 

33 >66 I(i 3 ) Bead 
parts 

(^(14) Fascia 

IV. Corinthian (Gwilt, Encycl., Art. 2583) : 

(1) Fillet of cornice 

(2) Cyma recta 

(3) Fillet 

(4) Cyma reversa . . 

(5) Corona 

(6) Cyma reversa. . 

(7) Modillion 

Cornice, 38 ^ ( 8 j FiUet ( rem ainder of modil- 

P arts lion band) .. 

(9) Ovolo 

(10) Bead 

(11) Fillet 

(12) Dentils 

(13) Fillet 

(14) Hollow or cong6 



Frieze, i 
mod., 
parts 



(15) Frieze 



(16) Fillet 

(17) Cyma reversa 
(i8)Bead 

(19) First fascia 

(20) Cyma reversa 

(21) Second fascia . . 

(22) Bead 

(23) Third fascia . . 

Composite (Gwilt., Encycl, 2591) 

f (i) Fillet of cornice 
Cornice, 36^ (2) Cyma recta . . 
parts i_ (3) Fillet 

336 



Architrave, 
27 parts 



V. 



29-901 



I -920 
2-520 

I -20O 
27 -60O 

I 

5 



5 

6~ 



i 

4 

i 

7 

2 

6 

i 

5 

it 

5 

i 



17 -400 



3 '520 
20 -100 
17-880 
17 -160 

53 
53 
48 

45* 
46 






28^ 


4 


28 


i 


25 


6 


24 


i 


20 


3 


!9f 



'5 
20 



17 



'5 



46 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



PRAKARA 



Entablature 



Height in parts 
oi a module 



Projection from the 
axis of column in 
parts of a module 



Cornice, 36^ 
parts 



Frieze, 27 
parts 



Architrave, 
27 parts 



(4) Cyma reversa . . . . 2 

(5) Bead i 43! 

(6) Corona . . . . 5 43 

(7) Cyma under corona . . i \ 41 

(8) Fillet . . . . i 33 

(9) Cyma reversa. . .. 4 33^ 
( i o) Fillet of the dentils .. 28 

(11) Dentils .. .. 7! 29 

(12) Fillet . . . . i 23 

(13) Ovolo . . . . 5 22 

(14) Bead . . . . i 17 

(15) Fillet . . . . i 16^ 

(16) Conge .. .. f 15 

(17) Upright face .. .. 17^ 15 

(18) Apophyge . . . . 7 22 

(19) Fillet . . . . i 22 

(20) Cavetto . . . . 2 2oJ 

(21) Ovolo . . . . 3 20 

(22) Bead .. .. i 17! 

(23) First fascia .. .. 10 17 

(24) Cyma reversa .. 2 i6f 
[_ (25) Second fascia . . . . 8 15 

From the details given above it would be clear that both the Indian and 

European entablatures have much similarity in their composition and 
relative proportion. In the words of Ram Raz, ' the massiveness of the 

Indian entablature offers a striking contrast to the lightness of the 
Grecian ; but the richness of the former may be said to be unrivalled.' 
(Ess. Arch, of Hind., p. 40, also see Plate xix, figs. 1-4.) 

PRASTIRYA Same as PRASTARA or entablature. 

(A/., xvi, 184, 186.) 

PRAVESA The front door, the gate, the entrance. 
Pravesa-nirgama-sthane dvarair api samanvitam I 

(M., x, 107; see also xxxm, 536.) 

PRAKARA A wall, an enclosure, a fence, a rampart, a surrounding 
wall elevated on a mound of earth. In the Sdnkhydyana Srauta- 
sutra (xvi, 18, 14, quoted below) it denotes a walled mound support- 
ing a raised platform (prasada) for spectators. But in the Mdnasdra 

337 



PRAKARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

it is used in a slightly different sense and implies the fourth of the 
five courts into which the compound of a house is divided, 
(i) Mdnasdra (Chap, xxxi, named Prakara, 1-134) : 
The uses of the prakaras : 

They are built for bala (strength), parivara (attendant deity), 
sobha (beauty), and rakshana (defence) : 

Balartham parivarartham Sobhartharh rakshanarthakam I 
Pancha-prakara-harmyanam adhuna vakshyate kramat I 

The whole compound of a house or temple is divided into five courts. 
The first one is called the antar-mandala or the innermost court (line n). 
The second is known as antar-nihara and the third as madhyama-hara 
(line 12). The fourth court is technically named prakara (line 12). The 
fifth and last one is known as the maha-maryada or the extreme boundary 
where the large gate-houses (gopuras) are constructed (line 14). As the 
name of the chapter (Prakara-lakshana, description of Prakara) indicates, 
the greater part of it describes only the fourth court (lines 15-102). 
Prakaras are also divided into the Jati, Chhanda, Vikalpa (Abhasa) and 
Kamya classes (lines 3-5). Under each class a number of buildings (salas) 
are exhaustively described (lines 6-86). 

A further classification (Sarhkirna, etc.) is made with regard to materials 
of which these prakara-buildings are made (line 103). The materials are 
same as in other cases, namely stone, brick and wood (line 102). The 
gopura or gate-house of the first court (antar-mandala) is technically 
called dvara-sobha or beauty of die gate ; and those of the second, third 
fourth and fifth courts are called respectively dvara-sala, dvara-prasada> 
dvara-harmya, and maha-gopura (ibid., xxxm, 9). 
(2) Suprabheddoama (Chap, xxxi, 115-128) : 
Five courts or enclosure buildings : 

Prakaranam paritam kuryat prasadasya pramanatah I 
Bhumau vinyasya vistaram prasadasya su-nischitam 1 1 
Prasadasya tu vistaram tasya dandam ihochyate I 
Dandat tena kritarh yatra tv-antarmala-samaiva hi 1 1 
Eka-dandantar-bhara tu madhya-bhara dvi-dandatah I 
Chatur-danda-pramanena kritva maryyadi-bhittikam 1 1 
Maha-maryyadi-bhittih syat sapta-danda-pramanatah I 
Prishthe chaivagrato' py-ardham dvi-gunarh tri-gunam tu va II 
Chatur-gunarh mukhayamam prakaranam viseshatah I 
Kapotantam samutsedham hasta-vistara-bhittikam 1 1 
Kuta-Sala-yutam vapi kuta-salantam eva cha I 
Prakarena samayuktarh gopurasya vidhiyate II 

338 



H1XDV ARCHITECTURE PRAKARA 

Mandale dvarake vatha dvara-salarh tu bharake I 
Prasadam madhya-bharayam maryyadau harmyam eva cha 1 1 
Gopuram tu maha-madhye evarh pancha-vidhi smritam I 
Chatur-dikshu cha samyojyah prakaranam prithak prithak 1 1 
Kechid vai malikakara kechid vai gopurakritih I 

Cf. The measurement of the five gate-houses (gopuras) of the five prakaras: 
Vistaram dvara-sobhaya dvi-tri-pancha-kararh bhavet II 
Shat-saptashta-nava-karair dvara-sala prakirttita I 
Eka-daia-trayo-dasa-hastam (dvara)-prasada-vistritam II 
Chatur-dasa-pancha-da^a-dvara-harmyam iti smritam I 
Eka-virha trayo-virhsa dvara-gopuram uchyate II 

Their height as compared with length and breadth : 

Vistara-dvi-gunayamam ayama-dvi-gunochchhrayam I 
Bhaumordhvottara-simantam dvarasyochchhraya-lakshanam 1 1 
Tad-ardharh vistaram proktam(m) alankaram vimanavat I 
Prakara-bhittim asritya kuryad avrita-mandapam II 
Tad-bahye'bhyantare vapi malika-manddaparh hi va I 
Pancha-prakaram evarh syat privaralayam srinu 1 1 

Then follows the description of the temples of the attendant deities (v. 
129 f.). These buildings are built in the five prakaras (see under PARIVA- 
RALAYA). 

(3) Sdnkfydyana-Srauta-sutra (xvi, 18, 13, 14, Bibliotheca Indica, Vol. I, 
p. 210) : 

Samsthite madhyame'hany-ahavanlyam abhito dikshu prasadan 

viminvanti II (13) 
Tan uparishtat sarhvyadhaih prakaraih parighnanti II (14) 

(4) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, v. 24) : 

Prag-grivah pancha-bhagcna nishkas(s)as tasya chochyate I 
Karayet sushiram tadvat prakarasya tri-bhagatah II 

(5) Agni-Purdna (Chap. XLH, 812) : 

Tatha prakara-vinyase yajed dva-trimsad antagan l| 
Prasadasya chaturthamsaih prakarasyochchhrayo bhavet II 

Ibid., Chap, cvi, 1-2 : 

Nagaradika-vastum cha vakshye rajyadi-vriddhaye I 
Yojana-yojanarddham va tad-artham sthanam a^rayet II 
Abhyarchya vastu-nagaram prakaradyarh tu karayet II 

In this instance ' prakara ' indicates the whole city wall. 

(6) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVI, 19) : 

Prakaraih tad-bahir dadyat pancha-hasta-pramanatah | 

339 



PRAKARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(7) Brahmdnda-Purdna (Part I, and Anusharhga-pada, Chap, vn, 103) : 

Sotscdha-rarhdra-prakararh sarvatah khatakavritam I 

(8) Kautillya-Arlha-fdstra (Chap, xxtv, pp. 52, 53, 54) : 
Vaprasyopari prakararh vishkambha-dvi-gunotsedham aishtakam- 

dva-dasa-hastad urdhvam ojam yugmam va achatur-vimSati 

hastad iti karayet I 
Antareshu dvi-hasta-vishkambharh parsvc chafur-gunayamam 

anuprakaram ashta-hastayatarh deva-patham karayet I 
Prakaram ubhayato mandalakam adhyardha-dandarh kritva prato- 

lishat-lulantararh dvararh nivesayet I 
Prakara-samam mukham avasthapya tri-bhaga-godha mukharh 

gopuraih karayet I 
Prakara-madhyc kritva vapirh puslikarimm . . . 

(9) Rdmayana (Cock) : 

VI. 3,14 : Sauvarnas cha maharhs tasyah prakaro dushpradhar- 

shanah I 
Mani-vidruma-vaidurya-mukta-virachitantarah 1 1 

VII. 5, 29 : Dridha-prakara-parikharh . . . lankam I 
V. 55, 32 : Lanka atta-prakara-torana I 
V. 3, 6 : (purlm) . . . sata-kumbhena mahata prakarenabhisarh- 

vritarh I 

IV. 31, 27 : V, 2. 16: Kanchancnavritarh prakarena mahapurim I 
III. 48, ii : (Lanka-nama purl subha) . . . prakarena-parikshipta 

pandurena I 

See also v, 3, 7, 33 ; v, 4, 2 ; v, 37, 39 ; v, 55, 32 ; vi, 3, 29 ; vi, 3, 32 ; 
vi, 24, 34 ; vi, 25, 24 ; vi, 25, 30 ; vi, 26, 12 ; vi, 38, 10, n ; vi, 31, 56, 98 ; 
vi, 42, 15, 21, 22, 45, 46 ; vi, 51, 8, 10 ; vi, 60, 15 ; vi, 65, 53 ; vi, 66, i ; 
vi, 67, 169 ; vn, 3, 27 ; vii, 5, 25 ; vn, 38, 37. 

(10) Mahdbhdrata : 

I. 207, 30 : Prakarena cha sampannam . . . (pura-sreshtham) I 
II. 80, 30 : Prakarattalakeshu I 
III. 1 60, 38 f. : (VaiSravanavasam) . . . prakarena parikshiptam I 

Sauvarnena samantatah sarva-ratna-dyutimata I 
III. 200, 90 ; 206, 7 : (Mithilarh) . . . harmya-prakara-Sobhanarh I 

See also in, 284, 2 ; iv, n, i ; v, 143, 23 ; vm, 33, 19 ; xn, 86, 6 ; xv, 5, 
1 6 ; xvi, 6, 24. 

(n) 'This inscription (Ranganatha inscrip. of Sundarapandya) was 
discovered on the east wall of the second prakara of the temple.' 

340 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRAKARA 

' Inscription on the north wall of the fourth prakara of the Ranganatha 
temple at Srirarigam.' 

' Inscription on the west wall of the second prakara of the JambukesVara 
temple.' 

' Inscription on the south wall of the second prakara of the Ranganatha 
temple.' 

' Inscription on the south-west corner of the third prakara of the same 
temple.' (Ranganatha inscrip. of Sundarapandya, Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 7, 9, 10.) 

(12) ' This inscription (JambukesVara inscrip. of Valaka-Kamaya) 
is engraved on the north wall of the second prakara of the Saiva temple of 
JambukesVara on the island of the Srirarigam near Trichinopoly.' (Ep. Ind., 
Vol. m, p. 72.) 

(13) ' This Grantha inscrip. is engraved on the north wall of the first 
prakara of the AdipurisVara temple at Tiruvattiyur near Madras.' (Ep. 
Ind., Vol. v, p. 106.) 

(14) ' Ranganatha inscrip. of Ravivarman of Kerala ' is on the north wall 
of the second prakara of the temple of Ranganatha (Vishnu) on the island 
of Srirarigam.' (Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, p. 148.) 

(15) Silaprakara an enclosure of stone for the temples of Kunti Madhava 
and BhimesVara. (Pithapuram Pillar inscrip. line n, second Draksharama 
Pillar inscrip., lines 13-14, Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, pp. 329, 330.) 

(16) Durggarh cha Tamra-nagarim abhito vyadhatta Prakaram um- 
natain udarhchita-gopurarh sah ' he surrounded the Tamra nagari 
with a wall surmounted by towers.' (Chebrolu inscrip. of Jaya, v. 27, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. v, pp. 147, 149.) 

(17) Mata-kuta-prakara-khanda-sphutita-jirnnoddharakam ' for the 
reparis of whatever might become broken or torn or worn out belonging to 
the enclosure ' (the more usual expression here would be ' Prasada ')_ 
Dr. Fleet, Ep. Ind., Vol. v, p. 249, note 6. (Inscrip. at Ablur, no. E, lines 
59. 75> Ep. Ind., Vol. v, pp. 249, 257, 250, 258.) 

(18) Kirhjalpitena bahuna grava-prakara-valaya-bahyam iha I 

(Gadag inscrip. of Vira-Ballala II, 
v. 47, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 97.) 

(19) Prakaram atyunnatarh a very high wall. 

(Mangalagiri Pillar inscrip. v. 47, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 124, 125.) 

(20) Prakaraih patitais samyak parikhah paripuryya yah I 
Pradhvasarh ripu-durgganarh prag-bhava-samam vyadhat I 

(Two pillar inscrip. at Amaravati, no. A, inscrip. of 
Keta II, v. 19, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 150.) 

341 



PRAKARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(21) Iha vijayina prakara-srir mmahopala-nirmmita jala-dharagatir 

aty-aty-unna niroddhum ivoddhata I 

(Two BhuvanesVara inscrip. no. A, of SvapneS- 
vara, v. 24, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 202.) 

(22) Gopura-prakarotsava-mamtapair upachitam I 

(Kondavidu inscrip. of Krishnaraya, v. 27, 
line 1 18, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 237, 231, 232.) 

(23) Mahamandapam prakaram para-malikavilasitam muktamaylrh cha 

prapa(bha)m I 

(Fourteen inscrip. at Tirukkovalur, no. K, 
lines 1-2, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, 145-46.) 

(24) Prakarah Kanakachale virachitah built extensive ramparts on the 
Kanakachala (the name of the fort of Jalar, Mr. Ojha). Prof. Kielhorn. 
(The Chahamanas of Naddula, no. C, Sundha Hill inscrip. of Chachigadeva, 
v. 38, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 77, 73.) 

(25) Paritah pranavakara-pra(pra)kara-valayarhchitam ' encircled by 
a wall of the shape of the pranava.' (Krishnapuram plates of Sadasivaraya, 
v, 55, Ep.Ind., Vol. re, pp. 336, 341.) 

(26) ' There are several similar inscriptions in the outer wall of the (Velur) 
temple, viz., two on the pedestal of the two dvara-palakas in front of the 
gopura, one on the left outer wall of the inner prakara . . .' (H. S.I.I., 
Vol. i, p. 127.) 

(27) ' This inscription (no. 85, H.S.I.I., Vol. ra) is engraved on the 
right of the entrance into the east wall of the prakara of the Vamana- 
purlsVara temple at Tirumanikuli in the Guddalore Taluka of the South 
Arcot District.' (H.S.I.I., Vol. in, p. 209.) 

(28) 'This inscription (H.S.I.I., Vol. in, no. 88) is engraved on the 
left of the entrance to the north wall of the fourth prakara of the Ranga- 
natha temple on the island of Sriranga near Trichinopoly.' (H.S.I.I., 
Vol. ra, p. 217.) 

(29) ' For this Prasanna-Virupaksha, a temple, enclosing wall (prakara) , 
gopura, finial covered with gold, and a Manmatha tank were cons- 
tructed.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, Mulbagal Taluq, no. 2 ; Roman Text, p. 82 ; 
Transl, p. 71.) 

(30) Kanchipura-prakarantarita-pratapam akarod yah Pallavanam 
patim ' he caused leader of the Pallavas ... to hide his prowess behind 
the ramparts of (the city) of Kafichipura.' (Sanskrit and Old Kanarese 
inscrip., no. LV, line 14, Ind. Ant., Vol. vm, pp. 242, 245, c. i, line 23 f.) 

(31) ' There are three enclosures (prakaras) in the Tiruvellarai Temple, 
the first two being studded with inscriptions.' (Notes in the TiruveUarai 
inscrip, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxiv, p. 264, para. 5, lines 1-2.) 

34 2 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASADA 

(32) ' The stone prakara or compound wall (of the AmritesVara temple at 
Amritapura in the Tarikere Taluq, described and illustrated in the Mysore 
Archaeological Reports for 1911-12, pp. 24-26, and frontispiece) is now in 
ruins. It had on the top all round thick stone discs, about 6 feet in 
diameter, with rectangular bases, both in one piece, the outer faces being 
sculptured with fine figures of flowers, animals, gods, etc., in relief . . . The 
prakara must have once presented the appearance of a veritable art-gallery, 
seeing that the artistically carved figures are of various kinds and designs.' 
(V. A. Smith, Architecture and Sculpture in Mysore, Ind. Ant., Vol. XLIV, 
p. 93, para. 6.) 

PRAGATA A type of pavilion. 

(M., xxxiv, 410 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

PRAG-VAM&A An auxiliary shed to a sacrificial room. 
PRAftGANA (see ANGANA) The court, the courtyard. 

(1) Katha-sarit-sagara (Pet. Diet.) : 

59, 26 : Nripasthana-pranganam I 

15, 89 : Sa prangana-dvara-kavatanta-vilambini I 

(2) HitopadeSa (2, 3, etc.) : Tasya prangane gardhabho baddhas tishthati 

kukkuras" chopavishtah I 

(3) Rajatarangini (i, 247, etc.) : Pranganad bahih I 

(4) See the first PraSasti of Baijnath, v, 34, Ep. Ind., Vol. I, pp. 107, in. 

(5) Cf. Kalapriya(name of the god and temple of Mahakala at Ujjain), 
pranganam tirnna I (Cambay Plates of Govinda IV, v. 19, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, 
PP- 38, 29.) 

RADE&A (see ANGULA) The distance between the tips of the 
fully-stretched thumb and forefinger. 

(1) Daatva(? a)ngula-parvani pradeSa iti sarhjnitah II 
Angushthasya pradesinya vyasa-(h) pradeSa uchyate I 

(Brahmdnda-Purdna, Part I, and Anu- 
shangapada, Chap, vn, vv. 96, 97.) 

(2) Angushtha-tarjam-yuktarh pradesam iti kirtitam I 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, ai.) 

PRASADA A temple, a palace, an edifice, buildings in general, 
a platform, a Buddhist assembly or confessional hall. 

Harmyadi dhaninam vasah prasado deva-bhu-bhujam I 

(Amarakosha, n, a, 9.) 
(i) Mdnasdra : 
Temple : 

Prasada-mandapam chaiva sabha-s"ala-prapa-(ih) tatha I 
(A)rangam iti chaitani harmyam uktarh(-tani) puratanaih I 

(M., in, 7-8.) 

343 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Prasada-mandapam tatha varunadi-dese I 
Sange cha gopura-pade tv-apareshu sarve I 
(There should not be any defect). 

(M., LXIX, 70, 71.) 
The palace of a king : 

Nripa-prasada-samyukta (bhumih) sama chaitya-samipaga I 

(M., iv, 23.) 

Palaces are elaborately described ( M., XLI, 1-51 ; see under RAJAHARMYA.) 
Buildings in general (called Vimana in the Mdnasara and Prasada in 
the works quoted below) : 

The general description (M., xvm, 1-418) : 
They are used as residences of gods and men : 

Taitilanam dvijatmam varnanam vasa-yogyakam I (2) 
Their sizes (see details below) from one to twelve storeys : 

Eka-bhumi-vimanadi-ravi-bhumy-avasanakam I (3) 
Their plans (lines 12-91) ; see under VIMANA-LAKSHANA. 
The three styles and their characteristic features (92-105) are given 
under NAGARA, DRAVIDA and VESARA. 

The description of the towers and domes (106-137 ; see under STUPI). 
The building materials are stone, brick, timber and iron (138). 

I. Three classes of buildings Suddha or pure, made of one material 
(lines 139, 140) ; Misia or mixed, made of two materials (lines 139, 140) 
and Samkirna or amalgamated, made of three materials, namely stone, 
brick and timber (lines 139, 141) : one material alone is especially recom- 
mended (line 142). 

Description of the Stupi-kila which comprises all the parts above the 
Stupi or dome is given in detail (lines 145-417). 
Chap, xrx (named Eka-bhumi) : 
The classifications : 

II. Referring to measurement, in accordance with the various cubits 
Jati (lines 2, 3), Chhanda (lines 2, 4), Vikalpa (lines 2, 4), and Abhasa 
(lines 2, 5). 

III. Sthanaka referring to height (line 7), Asana referring to breadth 
(line 8), and Sayana referring to width or length (line 9). 

IV. The same are otherwise called Samchita (line 10), Asamchita 
(line 10) and Apasamchita (line n) respectively. These classes of build_ 
ings also refer to the postures of the idols, namely erect, sitting and 
recumbent respectively. But the details of these postures are reserved for 
a subsequent chapter. 

V. Masculine buildings are equiangular (line 14) and have male deities 
in them (line 16), feminine buildings are rectangular (line 18) and house 

344 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASADA 

female deities (line 16) ; but in the feminine class of buildings the male 
deities also can be installed (line 17). 

The details of the component parts of the ground floor are common for 
various types which are described below (lines 18-164). 

VI. The eight kinds of the single-storeyed buildings with their charac- 
teristic features (Chap, xix, 1-264) : 

(i) Vaijayantika is furnished with round spire (Sirsha), pinnacle 
(sirah) and neck (griva) (line 166) ; (2) Bhoga has similar wings 
(line 167); (:) Srivisala has the bhadra or front porch in it (line 
1 68) ; (4) Svasti-bandha has the octangular finial (line 169) : (5) 
Srikara has a quadrangular steeple (line 170) ; (6) Hasti-prishtha has 
an oval steeple (line 171) ; (7) Skandatara has a hexagonal spire 
and neck (line 172) ; and (8) Kesara has the front porch, the side- 
towers at the corners of the roof, and its nose, head and neck are 
round or quadrangular (lines 173-175). For further details, see 
EKA-BHUMI. 

VII. The eight kinds of the two-storeyed buildings (Chap, xx, i-i 14) : 
(The generl features are similar in all the eight kinds, the distinction lying 

in the different proportions given to the component parts from above the 
ground floor to the top.) 

(9) Srikara (lines 94, 2-9); (10) Vijaya (lines 94, 10-15); (n) 
Siddha (lines 94, 16-18) ; (12) Parshnika or Paushtika (lines 94, 
J9-25) ; (13) Antika (lines 94, 26-27) ; (14) Adbhuta (lines 94, 28-33) ; 
(15) Svastika (lines 95, 35-41) ; and (16) Pushkala (lines 94, 42-43). 
The projection, general features, and carvings on the doors when these 
buildings are used as temples are described (lines 44-93, 96-116). 
For further details, see DVI-TALA. 

VIII. The eight kinds of the three-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxi, 

1-74) : 
(The general features and the characteristic marks are similar to those 

of the two-storeyed buildings.) 

(17) Srikanta (lines 2-11) ; (18) Asana (lines 12-21); (19) Sukhalaya 
(lines 22-30) ; (20) Kesara (lines 31-32) ; (21) Kamalanga (lines 
33-38) ; (22) Brahma-kanta (lines 39-40) ; (23) Meru-kanta (lines 
41-49) ; and (24) KailaSa (lines 50-52). For further details, see 
TRI-TALA. 

The general features, characteristic marks and concluding details of the 
following kinds are similar, except the number of storeys, to those of the two- 
and three-storeyed buildings. 

IX. The eight kinds of the four-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxn, 1-106) : 
(25) Vishnu-kanta (lines 3-12) ; (26) Chatur-mukha (lines 13-24) ; 

345 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(27) Sada-Siva (lines 25-33) ; (28) Rudra-kanta (lines 34-43; ; (29) 
Isvara-kanta (lines 44-46) ; (30) Mancha-kanta (lines 47-57) ; (31) 
Vedi-kanta (lines 58-59) ; and (32) Indra-kanta (lines 60-88). For 
further details, see CHATUS-TALA. 

X. The eight kinds of the five-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxui 1-50) : 
(33) Airavata (lines 3-12) ; (34) Bhuta-kanta (lines 13-15) ; (35) 

VisVa-kanta (lines 16-18) ; (36) Murti-kanta (lines 19-24) ; (37) Yama- 
kanta (lines 25-29) ; (38) Griha-kanta (lines 30-32) ; (39) Yajiia-kanta 
(lines 33-40) ; and (40) Brahma-kanta (lines 41-42). For further details, 

See PAftCHA-TALA. 

XI. The thirteen kinds of the six-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxrv, 
1-48.) : 

(41) Padma-kanta (lines 3-12) ; (42) Kantara (lines 13-14) : (43) 
Sundara (line 15) ; (44) Upa-kanta (line 16) ; (45) Kamala (lines 
17-18) ; (46) Ratna-kanta (line 19) ; (47) Vipulanka (line 20) ; (48) 
Jyoti(sh)-kanta (line 50) ; (49) Saroruha (line 50) ; (50) Vipulakritika 
(line 52) ; (51) Svasti-kanta (line 53) ; (52) Nandyavarta (line 54) ; 
and (53) Ikshu-kanta (line 55). For further details, see SHAT TALA. 

XII. The eight kinds of the seven-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxv, 1-40) : 
(54) Pundarika (lines 3-23) ; (55) Sri-kanta (line 24) ; (56) Sri-bhoga 

(line 25) ; (57) Dharana (line 26) ; (58) Panjara (line 27) ; (59) 
Asramagara (line 28) ; (60) Harmya-kanta (line 29) ; and (61) 
Hima-kanta (line 30). For further details, see SAPTA-TALA. 

XIII. The eight kinds of the eight-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxvi, 
1-76.) : 

(62) Bhu-kanta (lines 3-21) ; (63) Bhupa-kanta (lines 22-28) ; (64) 
Svarga-kanta (lines 29-34) > (^5) Maha-kanta (lines 35-39) ; (66) 
Jana-kanta (line 40) ; (67) Tapa(s)-kanta (lines 41-42) ; (68) Satya- 
kanta (lines 43-45) ; and (69) Deva-kanta (lines 46-47) . For further 
details, see ASHTA-TALA. 

XIV. The seven kinds of the nine-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxvn, 
1-48.) : 

(70) Saura-kanta (lines 5-9) ; (71) Raurava (line 10) ; (72) Chandita 
(lines 11-12); (73) Bhushana (lines 13-14); (74) Vivrita (lines 
20-22) ; (75) Suprati-kanta (lines 23-26) ; and (76) VisVa-kanta 
(lines 27-33). For further details, see NAVA-TALA. 

XV. The six kinds of the ten-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxvm, 1-40.) : 
(77) Bhu-kanta (lines 6-8) ; (78) Chandra-kanta (lines 6-8); (79) 

Bhavana-kanta (lines 9-13) ; (80) Antariksha-kanta (lines 14-15) ; (81) 
Megha-kanta (lines 16-17) an< ^ (^ 2 ) Abja-kanta (line 18). For 
further details, see DAA-TALA. 

34 6 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASADA 

XVI. The six kinds of the eleven-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxix, 1-50.) : 
(83) Sambhu-kanta (lines 3-7) ; (84) Isa-kanta (lines 8-9) ; (85) 

Chakra-kanta (lines 10-14) ! (86) Yama-kanta (lines 15-17) ; (87) 
Vajra-kanta (lines 18-24) ; and (88) Akra-kanta (lines 24-33). For 
further details, see EKADASA-TALA. 

XVII. The ten kinds of twelve-storeyed buildings (Chap, xxx, 1-194.) : 
(89) Panchala (lines 8-10) ; (90) Dravida (lines 8-10) ; (91) Madhya- 

kanta (lines 11-14) > (9 2 ) Kaliriga-kanta (lines 14-16) ; (93) Varata 
(? Virata) (lines 17-27) ; (94) Kerala (lines 28-30) ; (95) Varhsa-kanta 
(lines 31-32) ; (96) Magadha-kanta (lines 33-34) ; (97) Jana-kanta 
(lines 35-36) ; and (98) Sphurjaka (lines 7, 37-84, description of the 
twelfth storey). 

These ten kinds are named, it should be noticed, after the historic places 
well marked in the ancient geography of India, which cover the whole length 
and breadth of the Indian Continent. Of these, the Panchala and the 
Dravida are stated to be of the smallest type (line 10), next in size and 
importance are respectively the Madhya-kanta, the Kalinga-kanta, the 
Varata ( ? Viraja), the Kerala, and the Varhs'a-kanta. The largest and the 
most important are the Magadha (connected with the capital of King 
Asoka and of the early Gupta Emperors) and the Jana-kanta, and also 
perhaps the Sphurjaka, which, however, is not specified in detail (n). 

The architectural details of these buildings will be found under these 
ten terms. The description of the twelfth storey is given under DVADAS"A- 
TALA. 

(2) Agni-Purdna, Chap. XLII, vv. 1-9 (general plan), 10-25 (plan with 
reference to the idol), Chap, civ, w. i-n, 22-34 (further general plan), 
1 1 -2 1 (names, classes, shapes and description of forty-five kinds of 
temples) : 

Prasadarh sampravakshyami sarva-sadharanarh sYinu 1 1 
Sarva-sadharanarh chaitat prasadasya cha lakshanarh I 
Manena pratimaya va prasadarh apararh sYinu 1 1 

(Chap. XLII, vv. 1,9.) 
Vakshye prasada-samanya-lakshanarh te Sikhidhvaja | 

(Chap, civ, v. i.) 

Five divisions depending on five shapes or plans, and each including nine 
kinds of temples (Chap., crv, w. 11-13) : 

I. Vairaja quadrangular or square includes : 

(i) Meru, (2) Mandara, (3) Vimana, (4) Bhadra, (5) Sarvato-bhadra , 
(6) Charuka (Ruchaka, in the Kdmikdgama, xxxv, 87, 91), (7) Nandika, 
(8) Nandi-vardhana, and (9) Srlvatsa. (Chap, civ, vv. 14, 15.) 

347 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

II. Pushpaka rectangular includes : 

(io)Ba(Va)labhI, (n) Griha-raja, (12) Sala-griha or Sala-mandira, 
(13) Visala, (14) Sama, (15) Brahma-mandira, (16) Bhavana or Bhu- 
vana, (17) Prabhava, and (18) Sivika-vesma. -(Chap, civ, vv. 16, 17.) 

III. KailaSa round includes : 

(19) Ba(Va)Iaya, (20) Dundubhi, (21) Padma, (22) Maha-padmaka, 
(23) Varddhani, (24) Ushnishi, (25) Sankha, (26) Kalasa, and (27) 
Sva-vriksha. (Chap, civ, vv. 17, 18.) 

IV. Manika oval (vrittayata) includes : 

(28) Gaja, (29) Vrishabha, (30) Harhsa, (31) Garutman, (32) 
Riksha-nayaka, (33) Bhushana, (34) Bhu-dhara, (35) Srijaya, and (36) 
Prithivi-dhara. (Chap, civ, vv. 19, 20.) 
V. Tri-vishtapa octangular includes : 

(37)Vajra, (38) Chakra, (39) Svastika, (40) Vajra-svastika, (41) 
Chitra, (42) Svastika-khadga, (43) Gada, (44) Srikantha, and (45) 
Vijaya. -(Chap, civ, vv, 20, 21.) 

(3) Garuda-Purana (Chap. XLVH) has exactly the same general plan (w. 
1-20, 32-47), five shapes, five classes (vv. 21-23), and 45 kinds of buildings' 
(w. 24-32); but the wording is not identical. The fourth class is called 
Malika (v. 21) in the general description but the other reading, Manika, 
(v. 30) is given later on : 

I. Vairaja square (vv. 21-22) includes the same nine kinds, but 
(7) Nandika is called Nandana, and (6) Gharuka is correctly read as 
Ruchaka (vv. 24-25). 

II. Pushpaka rectangular (vv. 21-22) includes nine kinds, of which 
(10) Valabhi is correctly spelt, (13) Visala is read as Vimana, which is ap- 
parently a mistake in the Garuda-Purana because (3) Vimana is a kind of 
building included in the square (I) Vairaja class. But the reading of the 
Pushpaka class (II) seems better in the Garuda-Purana, which may be quot- 
ed here : 

(10) Valabhi, (11) Griha-raja, (12) Sala-griha, (13) Mandira, 
(14) Visala (text has Vimana), (15) Brahma-mandira, (16) Bhavana, 
(17) Uttambha, and (18) Sibi(-vi)ka-vesma. (Chap. XLVII, vv. 26-27.) 

III. Kailasa round (w. 21, 23) includes nine kinds which also seem 
to have better reading : 

(i 9 )Valaya, (20) Dundubhi, (21) Padma, (22) Maha-padma, 
(23) Mukuli (in place of Vardhani), (24) Ushnishi, (25) Sankha, 
(26) KalaSa, and (27) Guva-vriksha. (Chap. XLVII, vv. 28-29.) 

IV. Manika oval (v. 30) includes the same nine kinds of which, 
however, (31), (32), and (33) are read as Garuda, Simha, and Bhumukha 
respectively (vv. 29, 30). 

348 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRAsADA 

V. Tri-vishtapa octangular (vv. 21, 23) includes nine kinds which 
seem to be better read here : 

(37) Vajra, (38) Chakra, (39) Mushtika (preceded by Babhru, v. 31). 
(40) Vakra, (41) Svastika, (42) Khadga, (43) Gada, (44) Sri-vriksha, 
and (45) Vijaya. (Chap. XLVII, vv. 31-32.) 
(4) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 1-7, 8-14, 15-20, 21-27) : 
(a) The general plan : 

Evarh vastu-balirh kritva bhajet shodasa-bhagikam I 
Tasya madhye chaturbhis tu bhagair garbharh tu karayet 1 1 ( i ) 
Bhaga-dva-dasaka-sardharh tatas tu parikalpay^t I 
Chatur-dikshu tatha jneyam nirgamam tu tato budhaih II (2) 
Chatur-bhagena bhittinam uchchhrayah syat pramanatah I 
Dvi-gunah sikharochchhrayo bhitty-uchchhraya-pramana- 

tah II (3) 

Sikharardhasya chardhena vidheya tu pradakshina I 
Garbha-sutra-dvayarh chagre vistaro mandalasya tu II (4) 
Ayatah syat tribhir bhagair bhadra-yuktah susobhanah I 
PaHcha-bhagena sambhajya garbha-manam vichakshanah I \ (5) 
Bhagam ekam grihitva tu prag-grlvarh kalpayed budhah I 
Garbha-sutra-sama-bhagad agrato mukha-mandapah 1 1 (6) 
Etat samanyam uddishtam prasadasya cha lakshnam I (7) 
This description of the general plan is followed by that of some 
special plans (see w. 8-14, 15-20). 

Samanyam apararh tad-vat prasadam srinuta dvijah I 
Tri-bhagarh karayet kshetrarh yatra tishthanti devatah II (21) 
Rathankas tena manena bahya-bhaga-vinirgatah I 
Nemi padena vistlrna prasadasya samantatah II (22) 
Garbharh tu dvi-gunam kuryat tasya manam bhaved iha I 
Sa eva bhitter utsedho dvi-gunah sikharo matah 1 1 (23) 
Prag-grivah pancha-bhagena nishkasas tasya chochyate | 
Karayet sushirarh tad-vat prakarasya tri-bhagatah 1 1 (24) 
Prag-grivarh pancha-bhagena nishkashena viseshatah I 
Kuryad va pancha-bhagena prag-grlvarh karna-mulatah 1 1 (25) 
Sthapayet kanakam tatra garbhante dvara-mulatah I 
Evam tu tri-vidham kuryaj jyeshtha-madhya-kamyasam II (26) 
Linga-mananubhedena rupa-bhedena va punah I 
Etc samasatah prokta namatah srinutadhuna II (27) 
(b) The names (vv. 28-30), description of architectural details (vv. 
31-46), measures (vv. 47-51), and division (w. 53-54), of twenty kinds 
of buildings (temples) : 

(i) Meru has 100 cupolas (Sringha), 16 storeys (bhumika), many 
variegated spires (sikharas), and is 50 cubits broad (vv. 28, 31, 53). 

349 



PRASADA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(2) Mandara has 12 storeys, many spires and faces, and is 4.3 cubits 
broad (vv. 28, 37, 47, 53). 

(3) Kailasa has nine storeys, many spires and faces, and is 40 
rubits broad (vv. 32, 47, 53). 

(4) Vimana-chchhanda has eight storeys, many spires and faces, and 
is 34 cubits broad (vv. 25, 32, 33, 47, 53). 

(5) Nandi-vardhana has seven storeys, and is 32 cubits broad 
(w. 29, 33, 48, 53). 

(6) Nandana has seven storeys, and is furnished with horns 
(vishana) and is 30 cubits broad (vv. 29, 33, 48, 53). 

(7) Sarvato-bhadra has five storeys, 16 corners with various 
shapes, furnished with art-gallcrics (chitra-sala), and is 30 cubits 
broad (vv. 29, 34, 35, 48, 53). 

(8) Vallabhi-chchhandaka has five storeys, many spires and faces, 
and is 16 cubits broad (vv. 35, 50, 53). 

(9) Vrisha should resemble the height and length of the bull, should 
be round and without corners ; it should have five cupolas and 
two storeys, and it should be 4 cubits at the central hall (vv. 30, 

36, 44, 45, 53). 

(10) Sirhha resembles the lion and is 16 cubits broad, is adorned with 
prominent top-rooms, and should be at the front neck six storeys high 
(vv. 29, 36, 40, 49, 53). 

(n) Gaj a resembles the elephant and is 16 cubits broad, and has 
many top-rooms (vv. 36, 41, 49, 53). 

(12) Kumbha resembles the water-jar, has nine storeys, five cupolas 
and a cavity (anguli-puta-sarhsthana), and is 16 cubits broad (vv. 

37, 49. 53). 

(13) Samudraka has 16 sides around, two top-rooms (? gable win- 
dows) at the two sides, and two storeys (vv. 38, 53). 

(14) Padma has three storeys, 16 corners, a variegated auspicious 
spire and is 20 cubits broad (vv. 30, 39, 49, 53). 

(15) Garuda has the bird-shape around, seven storeys and three 
top-rooms, is 8 cubits broad, and there should be 86 storeys or 
compartments (bhumika) (v. 42) all around the outside (w. 41, 43, 
51). There is a similar Garuda-building with ten storeys and a second 
Padmaka building with two storeys more (i. e., twelve storeys, v. 43). 

(16) Harhsa (goose) -shaped is 10 cubits broad (vv. 30, 51). 

(17) Vartula (ball or round) -shaped is 20 cubits broad (vv. 29, 49, 
53)- 

35 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRAsADA 

No special description is given of the remaining kinds : 

(18) Chatur-asra (four-cornered, vv. 28, 53). 

(19) Ashtasra (eight-cornered, vv. 29, 53). 

(20) Shodasasra (sixteen-cornered, vv. 29, 53). 

The three divisions of these buildings according to three sizes : 
Tatha mervadayah sapta jyestha-linge Subhavahah I 
$rivrikshaka(-valabhi-a)dayas chashtau madhyamasya pra-kirtitah II 

(53) 

Tatha harhsa(Simha)dayah pancha kanyase subhada matah II (54) 
Similar kinds of prasadas (temples) are described almost in the same 
manner in both the Bhavishya-Purdna and the Brihat-Samhitd. 

(5) Bhavishya-Purdna, Chap, cxxx, names (vv 23-26), description of the 
architectural details and measures (vv. 27-35), an d the twenty kinds of 
buildings (almost same as in the Brihat-Samhitd, see below) : 

(i) Meru is 39 cubits high and 32 cubits broad, has twelve storeys, 
various windows (kuhara) and four gateways (v. 27). (2) Mandara 
is 30 cubits broad and has ten storeys (v. 28). (3) Kailasa is 28 
cubits broad, has spires and finials, and eight storeys (v. 28) . 
The description of the following is clearer in the Brihat-Samhitd, quoted 
below. The names are given here : 

(4) Vimana with latticed windows (v. 29) ; (5) Nandana (v. 29) , 
(6) Samudga (v. 30), but Samudra (v. 24) as in the Brihat-Samhitd 
(LVI, 28-53) ; (7) Padma (v. 30) ; (8) Garuda (v. 31) ; (9) Nandi- 
vardhana (v. 29, but Nandi, v. 31) ; (10) Kunjara (v. 32) ; (n) Griha- 
rdja (v. 32) : Brihat-Samhitd (LVI, 25) reads Guha-raja ; (12) Vrisha 
(v. 33) : ( J 3) Harhsa (v. 33) ; (14) Ghata (v. 33) ; (15) Sarvato-bhadra 
(v. 34) ; (16) Sirhha (v. 35) ; (17) Vritta (as in the Brihat-Samhitd, LVI 
29, 49) but here (v. 33) it is read Vrisha like (12), which is apparently 
a mistake (see v. 30) . 
No special description is given of the remaining kinds : 

(18) Chatush-kona (four-cornered, v. 25) : Matsya-Purdna (Chap. 
CCLXIX, vv. 28, 53) reads Chatur-asra, and Brihat-Samhitd (LVI, 28) 
has Chatur-asra ; (19) Ashtasra (octangular, v. 25) ; (20) Shodasasra 
(sixteen-cornered, v. 25). 
(6) Brihat-Samhitd (LVI, 1-19) : 

The religious merits acquired by building temples (vv. 1-2). 
The suitable sites are stated to be gardens, woods, banks of rivers, seas or 
tanks (vv. 3-8); ground (v. 9); general plan (v. 10); situation of doors (v. 
10); comparative measures of the length, breadth, and height (v. n); of the 

351 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

adytum (garbha, v. 12), of the doors and their different parts (vv. 12-14) ; 
carvings on doors (v. 15); comparative measures of the idol, pedestal, and 
door (v. 1 6) ; the heights of storeys (vv. 29-30). 

This is followed by the classification (vv. 17-19) and the description of 
the architectural details (w. 20-28) of the same twenty kinds of temples 
(prasada) as are given in the Matsya-Purdna and the Bhavishya-Purdna. 
The names of these buildings are given below : their details which are 
almost same as in the Purdnas, will be found described under these terms ; 
(i) Meru (v. 20); (2) Mandara (v. 21); (3) Kailasa (v. 21); 
(4) Vimana-(chchhanda) (w. 17, 22) ; (5) Nandana (v. 22) ; (6) 
Samudga (v. 23) ; (7) Padma (v. 23) ; (8) Garuda (v. 24) ; (9) Nandi- 
vardhana (v. 24) ; (10) Kunjara (v. 25) ; (u) Guha-raja (v. 25) ; 
(12) Vrisha (v. 26) ; (13) Hamsa (v. 26) ; (14) Ghata (v. 26) ; (15) 
Sarvato-bhadra (v. 27) ; (16) Simha (v. 28) ; (17) Vritta (w. 18, 28); 
(18) Chatush-kona (vv. 18, 28) ; (19) Ashtasra (vv. 18, 28) ; (20) 
ShodaSasra (vv. 18, 28). 
(7) Kdmikdgama : 

No distinction is made between PRASADA and VIMANA (cf. also the 
Mdnasdra, L, 40, etc.) : 

Jatyadi-bhedakair yuktam vimanam sampadam(-s)-padam I 

(LV, 131, this chapter is named Prasada-bhushana.) 

Buildings in general (LV, 1-210) ; 

Their component parts : 

Prasada-bhushana(rh) vakshye sruyatam dvijasattamah I 
Syat pada-prastararh-griva-varge mule tu vedika II (i) 

Shapes and kinds of Prasada (buildings in general ) : 
Yanarii va sayanarh vapi gopurakritir eva va I 
Pithakritir va mervadi-parvatakritir eva va II (194) 
Nandyakritir va dhama vidheyam chesta-de^ake I 
Mandape gopure vapre parivaralayadishu 1 1 
Evam evarii vidheyam syat tatha bhuvi visishyate II (195) 

The synonyms : 

Vimanam bhavanam harmyam saudham dhama niketanam I 

Prasadah sadanam sadma geham avasatham griham 1 1 (208) 

Alayarh nilayam vaso'py-alayo vastu-vastukam I 

Kshetram ayatanam vesma mandiram dhishnakarii padam 1 1 ( 1 29) 

Layam kshayam agaram cha tathodavasitarh punah I 

St liana m ity-evam uktani paryaya-vachanani hi II (210) 

The four classes : 
Jati (v. 128), Chhanda (129), Vikalpa (130), and Abhasa (130). 

352 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASADA 

The Chapter LV refers to the description of a single building and its 
component parts. 

So also does the Chapter XLV (see under MALIKA) ; it is named Malika- 
(lakshana), but it does not mean anything but Prasada : Prasada- vyasa- 
dirghochcha prokta prasada-malika 1 1 (4) 
Further classifications (Chapter XLV) : 

I. Samchita, Apasamchita, and Upasamchita (v. 6). 
II. Nagara (vv. 6, 12, 13), Dravida (vv. 6, 14, 15), and Vesara 
(w. 7, 16-18). 

III. Jati (vv. 7, 19), Chhanda (vv. 7, 20,) and Vikalpa (vv. 7, 20). 

IV. Suddha (w. 7, 21), Misra (vv. 7, 22), and Sarhklrna (vv. 7, 22) 
V. Pumlinga or masculine also called Samchita (vv. 8, 9), Stri- 

linga or feminine (vv. 9, 10), and Napumsaka or neuter (v. n). 

This class (V) does not refer (like the Mdnasdra] to the sexes of the 
deities installed in temples. Here they appear like residential build- 
ings. Their characteristic features are determined by some architectural 
details (see under these terms PuMLi5JGA, etc.). 

The distinguishing marks of the other four classes (I to IV) are 
similar to those of the Mdnasdra noticed above (see the details under 
those terms, Samchita, Nagara, etc.). 
VI. The technical names of Prasada : 

(i) Sindhuka (Chap. XLV, vv. 23-28) ; (2) Sarhpurna (w. 
2 9-3 ) ; (3) Meru-kuta (v. 31) ; (4) Kshema (vv. 32-34) ; (5) 
Siva (vv. 35-38) ; (6) Harmya (vv. 39-40) ; (7) Saumya (v. 40) ; 
(8) Vis"ala (v. 41) ; (9) Sarva-kalyana (w. 42-49) ; (10) Vijaya 
(v. 50) ; (u) Bhadra (v. 51) ; (12) Ranga-mukha (v. 52) ; (13) 
Alpa (w. 53-54) ; (14) Kona (vv. 55-58) ; (15) Geya (vv. 
580-59) ; (16) Sara (v. 60) ; (17) Pushkara (vv. 61-63) ; (18) 
Adbhuta (v. 6ia) ; (19) Sarhkirna (v. 62) ; (20) Danda (v. 64). 
See details under MALIKA and these terms. 

In Chapter xxxv, Salas, in almost the same sense as of Prasada, are 
divided into five classes, namely, Sarvato-bhadra (vv. 87-88), Vardhamana 
(w. 87, 88), Svastika (vv. 87, 89), Nandyavarta (vv. 87, 90), and Charuka 
(vv. 87, 91). 

Their characteristic features will be found under these terms. 
(8) Suprabheddgama, Chap, xxxi (named Prasada = temple) : 

The nine kinds of width (vv. 1-3) ; the comparative measurements 

of the temple and adytum (vv. 4-6), of the inner and outer walls 

(vv. 6-8), of the linga or phallus and the pujha or pedestal (w. 9-15). 

The description of the four types of bases, namely, Padma-bandha, 

Charu-bandha, Pada-bandha, and Pratikrama (vv. 16-20). 

353 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The description of the ground floor consisting in the comparative 
measurement of the base, column, entablature, finial, dome, corner-tower, 
dove-cot, and spire (vv. 28-31). 

All the twelve storeys are stated to be built in the same way : 
Adva-daSa-talad evarh bhumau bhumau prakalpayet I 
Evam uktam ihotsedharh dvara-bhedam tatah srinu II (33) 
The doors are then described (vv. 34-37). 

Three styles of temples, namely, Nagara, Dravida and Vesara, are 
mentioned (v. 38). 

Their essential features (vv. 38-39, see under those terms). 
Ten types of temples : 

(i) Kailasa, (2) Mandara, (3) Meru, (4) Himavat, (5) Nishadha 
(also called Nila-parvata, and Mahendra), (6) Nalinaka, (7) Pralinaka, 
(8) Nandyavarta, (9) Srivarta (also Sripada), and (10) Parvata. 

(See vv. 40-45.) 
The comparative measurements of the storeys : 

Evarh tale tale karyam nunam ekaika-bhagikam II (53) 
The five kinds of columns Srikara, Chandra-kanta, Saumukhya (also 
Sumukha), Priya-darsana, and Subharhkari(-ra) (v. 65) ; their shapes four- 
sided, eight-sided, sixteen-sided, cylindrical, and of the combination of the 
first two (v. 67). They may be with or without a kumbha or pitcher (v. 
54). The general features of the component parts (vv. 55-64) and the 
special features of the five orders are described (w. 66-67). 
The description of the arches is given (w. 68-71). 
Some ornaments, like nasika (vestibule), vedika (platform), sikhara 
(spire), stupi (dome), etc., are also described (w. 72-93). 
Here closes the description of the temples : 

Prasada-lakshanarh proktam mandapanam vidhirh sYinu II (94) 
This leads to the description of the detached buildings such as the pavilions, 
quarters for the attendant deities, gate-houses, and the enclosure, tanks, 
guest-houses, etc., which form parts of the temple in its wider sense. 

The mandapas or pavilions are first divided into four classes, namely, 
Deva(god)-mandapa, snapana(bath)-mandapa, Vrisha (the bull, Nandin)- 
mandapa, and Nritta (music) -mandapa (vv. 96-97, 98-99). 

They are further classified under the names Nanda-Vritta, Sriya- 
vritta, Virasana, Jaya-bhadra, Nandyavarta, Mani-bhadra, and Visala 
(vv. 100-104). 

These pavilions are distinguished by the number of columns they are 
furnished with : 

Stambhanam tu satair yuktarh visalam iti sarhjiiitam I 
Prasad-vat samakhyatarh prastarantarh pramanatah II (104) 

354 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRAsADA 

The columns of the prasadas and those of the mandapas are stated 
to be differently measured : 

Prasada-stambha-manasya etat stambharh visishyate II (105) 

These latter columns have also other characteristic features (vv. 106-1 13). 

The description of the pavilions closes with that of the flights of steps : 
Sopanarh cha yathayuktya hasti-hastarh tathaiva cha I 
Evam samasatah proktarh mandapam vidhi-purvakam II (114). 

The prakaras or enclosures are then described (vv. 115-128). They are 
strikingly similar to those described in the Mdnasdra. 

This Agama like the Mdnasdra divides the whole compound into five 
enclosed quadrangular courts. In both the treatises, each of the courts 
is stated to be furnished with a separate gate-house. Moreover these 
gate-houses are given the same technical names in both the works, viz. 
Dvara-s"obha (in the first court), Dvara-s"ala (in the second), Dvara-prasada 
(in the third), Dvara-harmya (in the fourth), and the Dvara-gopura (in the 
fifth or the extreme boundary, maha-maryada ; cf. Mdnasdra under GOPURA.) 

The Parivaralayas (temples of attendant deities) , which are made in 
some of these five courts, are described (129 f.), and are also similar in both 
the treatises. 

In the remaining portion of the chapter some objects like the faades of 
the temples, etc., are described. 

From the abstracts given above, it will be clear that this chapter 
of the Suprabheddgama deals with all the essential parts of a temple, 
which in the Mdnasdra, including the residential buildings, occupy a space 
of twenty-eight chapters (xm to xxxix, XLVI). The description of this 
Agama, though brief, is very explicit and to the point. The language 
also of the Suprabheddgama is much better than most of the architectural 
treatises I have consulted. 

The attention of readers is invited to the lists of the buildings described 
in the eight works under observation. 

The list in the Mdnasdra contains under twelve classes (or storeys) 98 types 
of buildings ; the Agni-Purdna has under five classes 45 types, the Garuda- 
Purdna also has under the same five classes 45 types ; the Mastya-Purdna 
has under three classes 20 types ; the Bhavishya-Purdna has left out the 
broader divisions and contains 20 types ; the Brihat-Samhitd in the very same 
way contains 20 types ; the Kdmikdgama has under three divisions (of 
various kinds) 20 types ; and the Suprabheddgama has left out all the minor 
divisions but has preserved the most important divisions, namely, the three 
styles (Nagara, Vesara, and Dravida) which comprise ten types of buildings. 

The various broader divisions, such as the Suddha, Sarhchita, Sthanaka, 
Jati, Purhlinga, etc., we have seen in the Mdnasdra, are repeated in the 

355 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

same terms and same sense in the Agamas. The most important division, 
namely, the styles Nagara, Vesara and Dravida is also preserved intact 
in the latter works. These are purely architectural divisions, consequently 
they are not taken into consideration in the non-architectural treatises 
like the Purdnas and the Brihat-Samhitd. Even the broadest division into 
storeys under which the Mdnasara describes the buildings in twelve or 
thirteen chapters has lost its prominence in the latter works. 

Thus the Mdnasara has the largest number of the types, namely. 98. 

The Agni-Purdna and the Garuda-Purdna have 45 types each. 

The Matsya-Purdna, the Bhavishya-Purdna, the Brihat-Samhitd, and the 
Kdmikdgama have 20 types each. 

The Suprabheddgama has the smallest number of types, namely, 10. 

The technical names of the types of buildings are common in many cases. 
In some instances the architectural details are identical. The lists of the 
Agni-Purdna and the Garuda-Purdna on the one hand, and the Matsya- 
Purdna, the Bhavishya-Purdna and the Brihat-Samhitd on the other, are 
strikingly similar. Of the works containing the lists of 20 types, the 
Brihat-Samhitd has the most improved description. But in respect of 
brevity, explicitness and precision, the Suprabheddgama, which contains 
the smallest number of types, surpasses all others. 

The common names of the types, the identity of their details and the 
similarity in their description do not seem to be accidental. The grades 
of the linguistic style and the explicitness and precision of the description 
are not perhaps unconnected. And the variation in the number of types 
described in these works does not also seem to be meaningless. 

The mutual relation and the historical connexion of these eight works 
have been discussed in great detail in the chapter on the date of the 
Mdnasara in the writer's Silpa-sastra and the Hindu Architecture in India and 
Abroad. 

The object of this article is, however, to show by illustrations the 
denotation of the term ' Prasada.' And before drawing any conclusion, we 
shall examine briefly a few more literary quotations from works which are 
not architectural and where the term occurs quite incidentally, as well as 
from the archaeological records and the Buddhist canonical texts, where 
too the term is used casually. 

(9) Sdnkhydyana-Srauta-sutra, xvi, 18, 13 (Pet. Diet.}: 

Sarhsthite madhyamc' hany-ahavaniyam abhito dikshu prasadan 
viminvanti I 

(10) Adbhuta-Brdhmana, in Indische Studien, i, 40 (ibid.} : 
Harmya-prasada-sarhkula I 

35 6 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE 



PRASADA 



(11) ' Prakara in the Sdnkhydyana-Srauta-sutra (xvi, 18, 14) denotes 
a walled mound supporting a raised platform (prasada) for spectators.' 
(Professors Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, n, 44.) 

Cf. the text : Tan uparishtat samvyadhaih prakaraih parighnanti I 
' Prasada in the sense of palace does not occur until the late Adbhuta- 

Brdhmana' (see above, no. 10). (Indische Studien, i, 40, Vedic Index, 

n, 51.) 

(12) Rdmdyana (Cock) : 

II. 7, i : Prasadam chandra-samkas'am aruroha 1 1 

Ayodhyam manthara tasmat prasadad anvavaikshata I 
II. 7, 12 : KailaSa-sikharakarat prasadad avarohata I 
II. 3, 27 : Prasadastho daSarathah ... I 

(Here ' Prasada ' must mean a palace.) 
II. 3, 31 : Sa tarn kailaSa-sYingabham prasadarh . . . ragu- 

nandanah . . . aruroha . . I 
Prasada-sringeshu I 

Aruroha . . prasadam hima-panduram I 
Bahu-tala-samutsedham I 
Ruddham tu nagaririi ^rutva . . . prasadam . . . 

arohata I 

Tatah prasada-harmyani vimana-sikharani cha I 
Abhiruhya janah srlman udasino vyalokayata II 
Aruhya tasmat prasadad dinah pa^yanti raghavam I 
Aruhya giri-sarhkasarh prasadam ... I 
Tato hema-pratishthane varastarana-sarhvrite I 
Prasada-sikhare ramye chitra-malyopaSobhite II 
Prah-mukham vidhivan mantraih styapayitva varasane I 
II. 17, 17 : Megha-samghopamaih ubhaih ... I 

Prasada-Sringair vividhaih kaila^a-sikharopamaih I 
^V. 33, 15 : Vanarenda-griharh . . . sukla-prasada-sikharaih kailasa- 

Sikharopamaih I 

VI 41, 88 : Prasada-Sikharam ^aila-^ringam ivonnatam I 
VI. 41, 90 : Prasada-sikhareshu I 

II. 51, 21 : Harmya-prasada-sampannam . . . raja-dhanlm I 
II. 100, 42 : Prasadair vividhakarair vritam . . . ayodhyam I 
V. 2, 49 : Prasada-mala-vitatarh . . . maha-purim I 
VI. 39, 21 : PrasadaiS cha . . . lanka parama-bhushita I 
VI. 39, 27 : Prasada-malabhir alankritam . . . purim I 
III. 55, 7 : Griham deva-grihopamam . . . harmya-prasada-saih- 
badham I 

357 



II. 


16, 


42 


VI. 


26, 


5 


VI. 


42, 


2 


II. 


33, 


3 


II. 


33, 


4 


V. 


43, 


4 


IV. 


26, 


41 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

III. 55, 10 : Hema-jala-vritas' chasarhs tatra prasada-panktayah I 
V. 6, 44 : Prasada-sarhghata-yutarh . . . maha-griham I 

V. 9, 2 : Bhavanam rakshasendrasya bahu-prasada-sarhkulam I 

IV. 33, 8 : Vindhya-meru-prakhyaih prasadair naika-bhumibhih I 
II. 65, 3 : Rajanam stuvatarh tesharh . . . prasadaghoga-vistlrnas 

tu Sabdo hy-avartatal 

(Cf. also II, 27, 9 ; 57, 18 ; 57, 20.) 

I. 80, 19 : Prasada-mala-sarhyuktah. . . . niveSah I 

II. 88, 5 : Prasadagra-vimaneshu valabhlsu cha sarvada I 

Haima rajata-bhaumeshu varastarnaalishu II 

II. 88, 7 : Prasada-vara-varyeshu s"itavatsu sugandhishu I 

Ushitva meru-kalpeshu krita-kanchana-bhittishu II 
II. 91, 32 : Harmya-prasada-sarhyukta-toranani I 
IV. 33, 5 : Mahatim guharh . . . .harmya-prasada-sambadham I 
IV. 42, 44 : Bhavanam . . . prasadangana-sambadham I 
VI. 41, 86 : Prasadarh aila-saihkaam I 

(Cf. also v, 6, 16; 57, 7.) 
VI- 75, 7 : Prasadah parvatakarah I (cf. also vi, 75, 6.) 

VI. 75, 12: Mukta-mani-vichitrams cha prasadarii cha . . . agnir 

dahati tatra vai I 
V. 5, 3 ' Harmya-prasada-sambadham I 

I- 5> 5 : Prasadair anta-vikritaih parvatair iva ^obhitam I 
(13) Mahabharnta (Cock) : 

V. 91, 3 : Tasya (Duryodhana-grihasya) kaksharh vyatikramya 

tisro dvah-sthair avaritah I 
Tato abhra-ghana-sarhkas'am griha-kutam ivochchhri- 

tam II 

Sriyaivalambantarh prasadam aruroha mahaSayah I 
I- 3> J 33 : Naga-lokam. . . . aneka vidha-prasada-harmya- 

valabhi-niryuha-lata-sarhkulam I 
I. 109, 9 : Nagaram. . . . prasada-Sata-sarhbadham, I 

II. 10, 3 : Sabha. . . . divya hemamayair uchchaih prasadair 

upa^obhita I 

V. 88, 20 : Etad (DuhSasanasya griharh)dhi ruchirakaraih pra- 
sadair upaobhitam I 
V. 89, ii : Griharh (Dhritarashtrasya) . . . . prasadair upaSobh'- 

tam I 

XII. 44, 6 : Duryodhana-griharh prasadair upaSobhitam I 
XII. 44, 8 : Prasada-mala-sarhyuktarh (Duh^asanasya griham) I 

35 8 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASADA 

I. 185, 19, 20, 22 : Sarvatah sarhvritah (samajavatah) Subhraih 

prasadaih sukritochchhrayaih I 
Suvarna-jala-saihvritair mani-kuttima-bhushanaih I 
Sukharohana-sopanair mahasana-parichchhadaih 1 1 
Asarhbadha-s'ata-dvaraih Sayanasana-Sobhitaih I 
Bahu-dhatu-pinaddhangair himavach chhikarair 

iva II 
V. 90, 14 : Ye . . . prasadagreshv-abodhyantaranka-vajina- 

Sayinah (Pandavah) I 

XV. 1 6, i : Prasada-harmyeshu vasudhayarh cha. ... I 

Narinam cha naranarh cha nihsvanah sumahan 

abhut I 
XIV. 25, 22 : Seyarh bhumau pariSranta Sete prasada-Sayini I 

Prasada-sala-sarhbadham mani-pravara-kuttimam I 
Karayamasa vidhivad-dhema-ratna-vibhushitam I 

(14) Afanu-Samhitd (vn, 147, etc.) : 

Giri-prishtharh samaruhya prasadam va raho gatah I 
Aranye nih^alake va mantrayed avibhavitah || 

(15) Panchatantra (Bombay, i, p. 38, etc.) : 

Rajakanyam. . . . sapta-bhumika-prasada-pranta-gatam I 

(16) HitopadeSa (Bohtlingk, p. 157, i, 30, etc.) : 

Raja . . . prasada-garbham gatva I 

Prasada-prishthe-sukhopavishtanam raja-putranam I 

(17) Megha-duta (ed. Stenzler, 64, etc.) : Abhrarh-lihagraih prasadaih I 

(18) Raghu-vamfa (14, 29, etc.) : Prasadam abhram-liham aruroha I 

(19) Mfkhchha-katika (ed. Stenzler, Cock) : 

p. 79 : Arama-prasada-vedikayam I 

p. 84 : Vidyut-kanchana-dipikeva rachita prasada-samcharini I 

p. 21, 132, 162, 164 : Prasada-balagram I 

(20) Rdjatarangini (Pet. Diet., 4, 102, etc.): Prasadanganam I 

(21) Ekas tayor amum akarayad indu-mauleh prasadam adri-tanaya 
bhavanarh tathanya ' the one of them built this temple of the god who 
wears the moon on his head, and the other that of the Daughter of the 
Mountain.' (Dewal PraSasti of Lalla the Chhinda, v. 27, Ep, Ind., VOL. i, 
pp. 80, 84.) 

(22) Ishtapurtta-prachura-sukritarambha-nityadritena prasado'yarh 

. . . nirmapyate ' he caused this edifice to be erected ... in 
it there is here the god Narayana.' (Mau-chandella inscrip. of Madana- 
varman, v. 46, Ep. Ind., Vol i, pp. 202, 206.) 

(23) Prasadena tavamunaiva haritam adhva niruddho mudhabhano'- 
dyapi krito'sti dakshinadi^ah konantavasi munih I (Deopara inscrip. of 
Vijaya Sena, v. 27, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, pp. 310, 314.) 

359 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(24) Akarayat svayrh Sambhu-prasadali-dvayam nijah ' She too made 
her people construct that hall of study (and) lay out that long line of 
gardens in two ranges (adjoining Sambhu's temple). (Bhera-ghat inscrip. 
of Alhanadevi, v. 38, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, pp. 13, 16.) 

(25) Aneka-prasadaih parivritamati pramsukalasarh girisaprasadam vya- 
rachayat I- -(Chitorgadh inscrip. of Mokala of Mewad, Part n, v. 2, Ep. 
Ind., Vol. ii, p. 421.) 

(26) Vapi-kupa-tadaga-kuttima-matha-prasada-satralayan I 

(Sridhara's Devapattana Prasasti, v, 10, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. n, p. 440.) 

(27) Maha-saila-prasada great stone temple. (Pattadakal inscrip. of 
Kirtivarman II, lines 7, n, 14, Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 4, 5.) 

(28) Ghanarh prasadam nava-hema-kumbha-kalitarh ramyarh maha- 

maihtapam I 

' (He presented) a solid temple (prasada) adorned with nine golden 
pinnacles (kumbha) and a beautiful large hall (to the temple of Hari, 
the lord of Mangalas"aila). (Mangalagiri Pillar inscrip., v. 51, Ep. Ind., Vol. 
vi, pp. 125, 115.) 

(29) Prasado rachitas sudha-chchhavi-hasat-kailasa-s'ailesVarasya, (v. 22), 
prasadam ISasya (v. 32), prasada-kirttih (v. 34). (Two Bhuvanesvara 
inscrip. no. A of Svapnesvara, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 202.) 

(30) Prasadam navabhiS cha hema-kalas'air aty-unnatam gopura- 
prakarotsava-mamtapair upachitarh sYl-rama-bhadraya cha ' an ex- 
ceedingly high temple furnished with nine gilt domes, a gate tower, a 
wall and festive hall, to the holy Ramabhadra.' '(Kondavidu inscrip. of 
Krishnaraya, v. 27, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 237, 231.) 

(3 1 ) Khanda-sphutita-prasada-punah-samskaranartham pratipaditah 
' he granted for defraying the expenses of the repairs of the temple broken 
in parts.' (Plates of Dantivarman of Gujarat, line 67, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, 
pp. 293, 286.) 

(32) Tena bhratri-yugena ya prati-pura-gramadhva-Saila-sthalarh vapi- 

kupa-nipanaka sarah prasada-satradika I 

Dharmma-sthana-pararhpara nava-tara chakre'tha jirnnoddhrita-tat- 
samkhyapi na budhyate yadi pararii tad-vedini medini I 

(Mount Abu inscrip. no. i, v. 66, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, p. 213.) 

(33) Tirthe deva-hrade tena kritarh prasada-panchakam I 
Svlyam tatra dvayam jatarh yatra Samkara-keSavau II 

(Sihawa stone inscrip. of Karnaraja, 
v. 9, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, p. 186.) 

360 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASADA 

(34) Sri-ncmisvarasya nirakrita-jagad-vishadah prasadah samuddadhre 
' Erected the temple of Ncmisvara which (temple) has removed the 
sorrows of the world.' (The Chahamanas of Manvar, no. xxv, Nadlai stone 
inscrip. of Ranaviradeva, line 15 f., Ep., Ind., Vol. xi, p. 64.) 

(35) Esha bhagavato varaha murtter jagat-parayanasya narayanasya 

Sila-prasadah sva-vishayc'sminn Airikine karitah | 

' This stone temple of the divine (god) Narayana, who has the form 
of a boar (and) who is entirely devoted to (the welfare of) the universe, 
has been caused to be made in this in his own vishaya of Airikina.' 
(Eran stone Boar Inscrip. of Toramana, line 7, C. I. I., Vol. in, F. G. I., 
no. 36, pp. i Go, 1 6 1.) 

(36) Nana-dhatu vichitre gopahvaya-namni bhu-dhare ramye kari- 

tavan saila-mayam bhanoh prasada-vara-mukhyam I 
' Has caused to be made, on the delightful mountain which is feckled 

with various metals and has the appellation of Gopa, a stone temple, the 

chief among the best of temples of the Sun.' 

Tavad giri-murdhni tishthati Sila-prasada-mukhyo ramye ' so long 

(this) chief of (stone) -temples shall stand upon the delightful summit of 

the hill.' (Gwalior stone inscrip. of Mihirakula, lines 6, 8, 9 ; C. I. /., Vol. HI, 

F. G. I., no. 37, pp. 162, 163, 164.) 

(37) Tenochchair bodhimande s"as"i-kara-dhavalah sarwato mandapena I 
Kantah prasada esha smara-bala-jayinah karito loka-s"astuh II 

' By him this beautiful mansion of the Teacher of mankind, who over- 
came the power of (the god) Smara, dazzling white as the rays of the moon 
with an open pavilion on all sides, has been caused to be made at the 
exalted Bodhimanda.' 

Bodhimanda is also called Vajrasana, the throne under the Bodhi-tree 
at Bodh-Gaya, on which Buddha sat when attaining Bodhi or perfect wis- 
dom. The word ' Kanta ' here might have a technical architectural 
meaning. In the Mdnasdra, the names of the buildings of various storeys 
generally end with ' kanta,' e. g., meru-kanta, hima-kanta, etc. ; so also 
the names of the columns, e.g., Brahma-kanta, Vishnu-kanta, etc. 
(Bodh-Gaya inscrip. of Mahanaman, lines 10, n, C. 7. /., Vol. m, F. G. I., 
no. 71, pp. 276, 278, 275, and Sanskrit and Old Kanarese inscrip. no. 166, 
Bodh-Gaya inscrip. of Mahanaman, line 10 f., of A. D. 588, 589, Ind. Ant., Vol. 
xv, pp. 358, 359, 357, c. i, para, a.) 

(38) Adbhutah sirhha-paniya-nagare yena karitah I 
Kirtti-stambha ivabhati prasadah parwatl-pateh n 

' In the town of Sirhhapaniya he caused to be built a wonderful temple 
of the Lord of Parvati, which shines like a column of fame. (Sasbahu 
incrip. of Mahipala, v. 1 1, Ind. Ant., Vol. xv, pp. 37, 42.) 

361 



PRASADA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(39) Sa prasadam achlkarad divishadarh kedara-devasya cha I 

' He caused to be built a temple of the inhabitants of heaven and of the 
god Kedara.' --(Gaya inscrip. of Yakshapala, v. 12, Ind. Ant., Vol. xvi, pp. 
65, 66.) 

(40) Vejarhto pasadc (prasada) ' Vaijayanta, the palace (of Indra).'- 
(Bharaut inscrip. no. 79, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxi, p. 233.) 

(41) Nayaka-sYi-hari-raja-devo Ha(ha)takes"varasya prasadam kritam 
' The temple of Hatakesvara (Siva) was founded by Nayaka (leader) 
the illustrious Hariraja.' --(Nagpur Museum stone inscrip. of Brahmadeva of 
Rayapura, lines 9-12, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxn, p. 83.) 

(42) Maha-lakshmi-deviya prasadavam geyada VisVakarmma-nirmmita- 
subhasitan ' built the temple of the goddess Mahalakshml, as if a crea- 
tion of Visvakarmma.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Hasan Taluq, no. 149, 
Roman Text, p. 86.) 

The above-mentioned inscription (dated conjecturally A. D. 1113) 
ends with the following passage apparently quoted from a book for sculptors 
and architects (griha-vastu) : 

' Vimana-sarwato-bhadra-vrishabha-nalinika-uttunga-viraja-garuda- 
varddhamana-Sankha-vritta-pushpaka-griha-raja-svasti.' 

(Ibid., Text, p. ' 9, last 3 lines.) 

(43) Prasada-malabhir alamkritarh dharam vidaryyaiva samutthitam I 

Vimana-mala-sadriam yattra griham purnnendu-karamalam 1 1 
' Here cleaning as under the earth, there rise up houses which are 
decorated with succession of storeys ; which are like rows of aerial chariots 
(and) which are as pure (white) as the rays of the full moon.' (Man- 
dasor stone inscrip. of Kumaragupta, line 7, C. I. I., Vol. in, F. G. I., no. 
18, pp. 81, 85.) 

(44) Svargartharh kritavan pratapa-nripatih sadyoshito-retayoh prasa- 

dam vasu-patra-padma-sadris'am sYirigashtakaih Sobhitam I 
The inscription is ' on a slab in the wall near the southern door of a 

temple of Vishnu close to the royal palace in Katmandu. This temple 

is apparently the building mentioned in the inscription (quoted above). 

It is an octagon, and has three storeys.' 
The plan of the temple is like a lotus of eight leaves (Vasu-patra-padma- 

sadriSa). (Inscrip. from Nepal, no. 18, inscrip. of Pratapamalla, v. 10, Ind. 

Ant., Vol. ix, pp. 1 88, 187, 189, c. 2, para 2.) 

(45) Dig-bhagantara-sannive&ta-chatur dvarah sukharohanah pakhad 

ramya-suvarna-ketana-tala-nyasta-tri-Sulo'ntarah 1 1 
Sauvamojjvala-kumbha-patra-patala-prodbhasitas'a-mukhah prasado. 
diSatad abhipsita-sadavasa-prasakto mudah II 

(Inscrip. from Nepal, no. 23, Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, p. 194.) 
362 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE PRASADA 

(46) Grama-nagara-kheda-kharvada - madamba-dronamukha-pattanam- 

galimdam aneka-mata-kuta-prasada-devayatanarhgali-dam oppuva- 
agrahara-pattanamgalirhdam atisayavappa ... I 

' At Teridala, a merchant town situated in the centre and the first 
in importance among the twelve (towns) in the glorious Kundi Three 
Thousand, adorned with villages, towns, hamlets, villages surrounded 
by hills, groups of villages, sea-girt towns and chief cities, with elegant 
mansions, palaces and temples, and with shining agrahara towns in the 
country of Kuntala.' (Old Canarese inscrip. at Terdal, line 58, Ind. Ant., 
Vol. xiv, pp. 19, 25.) 

(47) ' Prasadam Kes"avasya sphuta-ruchi-kalas'enanchayat kanchanena 

1309' 
' Prasadam Kesavasya sthira-kalasa-yutarh karayamasa divyam 

1659 ' ' 
' Prasadam KeSavasya sthira-kalaSa-yutarh Najnayaryo vyatanit 

1697 ' I 

Mr. Rice has translated ' prasada ' in all these three instances by ' tower', 
although the term means primarily temple here. (Ep. Camat., Vol. v. 
Part I; Belur Taluq, nos. 63, 64, 65 ; Roman Text, pp. 135, 136; Transl., 

P- 59-) 

(48) ' Causing a tower (prasada), decorated with carvings and figures 

(chitra-vichitra-patra-nutamam prasadamam), to be erected of stone, 
and a golden kalas"a to be made for the pinnacle of the temple (devala- 
yagrake), he in many ways increased his fame in the world.' (Ep. 
Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, no. 243 ; Transl., p. 139, para. 6 ; Roman 
Text, p. 247, last four lines.) 

(49) KaSyam visVesVara-dvari hima-diSi kharopamam I 
PadmesVarasya devasya prasadam akarot sudhih I 

' On the north side of the entrance to the VisVesVara temple at KaSi 
built a solid and lofty temple of the god PadmesVara (Vishnu) ' on A. D. 
I5th May, 1296. (Sharqi Arch, of Jaunpur, inscrip. no. xxvi, v. 3, Arch. Surv., 
New Imp. Series, VoL i, p. 51.) 

(50) Vapi-kupa-tadaga-kuttima-matha-prasada-satralayan | 
Sauvarna-dhvaja-toranapana-pura-grama-prapa-mandapan I 
Vyadhapayad ayam chaulukya-chudamanih I 

(Sridhara's Devapattana PraSasti, v. 10, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. n, p. 440-441.) 

(51) In the Buddhist literature buildings are divided into five classes 
(pancha-lenani) vihara (monastery), ardha-yoga (stated by the com- 
mentator Buddhaghosa to imply ' suvarna-vanga-griha,' a type of two- 
rooted buildings, partly religious and partly residential), prasada (wholly 

3 6 3 



PRASADA-TALA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

residential storeyed buildings), harmya (larger type of storeyed buildings) t 
and guha (underground buildings).- -(Vinaya Texts, Mahdvagga i, 30, 4, 
p. 73-74 : Ckullavagga, vi, i, 2, p. 158.) 

The commentator Buddhaghosa does not explain ' prasada ' quoted 
above from the Vinaya Texts ; he simply says ' prasado iti digha-pasado.' 
According to Rhys Davids ' prasada ' is ' a long-storeyed mansion, or the 
whole of an upper storey, or the storeyed buildings ' (cf. his transl. of Mahu- 
vagga, p. 173 ; Chullavagga, p. 151, note 2). Sir M. William seems to 
explain (in his dictionary) this ' prasada ' by ' the monks' hall for 
assembly and confession.' 

Cf. satta-bhumika-prasada ' buildings of seven storeys in height.' 

(Jdtaka, i, pp. 227, 346 ; v, pp. 52, 426 ; vi, p. 577.) 

From the illustrations given above, it is clear that the term ' prasada ' 
.mplies both religious and residential buildings. It denotes the gorgeous 
temples as well as small pavilions (mandapa) where a deity or the emble- 
matical phallus of Siva is installed. It includes magnificent palaces and 
smaller residences. It implies a succession of storeys, and a tower, ' a 
lofty seat or platform for spectators, a building erected on high founda- 
tions and approached by means of steps, a building consecrated to a 
deity or inhabited by a prince, a temple, a palace, and the assembly 
room and confessional hall of the Buddhist priesthood.' 

PRASADA-TALA Floor, roof. 

(Buddhist Sutlas, by Rhys Davids, p. 262.) 

PRASADA-MALIKA A class of buildings. 

(Kamikagama, XLV, 4; see under MALIKA.) 

PRIYA-DARSANA One of the five Indian orders. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 65, 67 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

PREKSHAGARA An amphitheatre. 

Sata-kumbhamayam divyam prekshagaram upagatam I 

(Mbh. Adiparvan, see under RANGA and compare 
Bharata Ndtya-sastra, n, 7, 13, 25). 

PREKSHA-GRIHA (-MANDAPA) Auditorium in a theatre, the 
front room or pavilion facing a shrine wherefrom the deity is seen. 

(Ibid., ii, 7, 13.) 

In theatre proper it should be semi-circular, quadrangular and tri- 
angular : 

Preksha-grihanaih sarvesham tri-prakaro vidhih smritah I 
VikrishtaS-chaturasYas-cha tryara-chaiva prayukribhih It 

(Ibid., n, 25.) 

364 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE PHELA 

In large theatres, attached to temples it should be semi-circular, in 
middle-sized ones attached to palaces it should be quadrangular, and in 
ordinary small theatres for the general public it should be triangular. 
(Bharata Natya-fdstra, u, 26.) 

Ilia preksha-griham drishtva dhlmata visvakarmana I 
Trividhah sannives"ascha Sastratah parikalpitah II 
Vikrishtas'-chaturasras'-chaiva tu mandapah I- (Ibid., n, 7-8.) 
PREKSHA-NIVESANA The auditorium of a playhouse (Bha- 
rata Ndlya-sdstra). See details under NATYAGRIHA. 
PROSHTHA A high and broad bench with moulded and turned 
legs (R.-V., vii, 55, 8 ; A.-V., iv, 5, 3 ; Taitt. Bra., n, 7, 17, i), long 
timber seats fixed against walls, combinations of a settee and a 
coffer. 

PLAKSHA-DVARA A back-door, a side-door, a private entrance. 
(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIV, v. 15 ; see under UDUMBARA.) 

PH 
PHANA A hood in connexion with the joinery. 

(M., xvn, 134; see SANDHI-KARMAN.) 
PHALAKA A plank, a moulding, an architectural member, the 

abacus, a leaning board. 

(Mahdvagga, v, 10, 2.) 

(1) A plank : cf. pralamba-phalaka (M., xn, 125). 

A member of the column (M., xv, 50, 51, 83, 185, etc.). 
In connexion with the arch (torana) : 

Natika phalaka mushti-bandhanam patra-vallikam I 

(M., XLVI, 65.) 

(2) See also M., L, 66, 74 ; LXV, 161, 162 ; LXVII, 16, etc. 
Padashtamsa-shad-amsaika-phalakais chhadayet paritah II 
Kaya-padantaram chhadyam phalakaih sara-darujaih II 

(Kamikagama, LIV, 24, 30.) 

(3) A part of a column (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 58 ; see under STAMBHA). 

PHALAKASANA A synonym of the bedstead. 

(M., in, ii ; see under PARYANKA.) 

PHALA-PATTA Front plate, a plough-share-like moulding. 

(A/., XLIX 93.) 

PIIELA (cf. CHHELA) The vault of the foundation pit. 

(Kamikagama, xxxi, 74-75 ; see under CHHELA.) 
365 



BANDHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

B 

BANDHA Joining or folding together, a band, the foundation. 

Dvav-aratnim tri-padiih va pade bandharh karayet ' Foundation 
shall be 2 aratnis by 3 padas.' (Kautiliya-Artha-fdstra, Chap. LXV, p. 166.) 

BA(VA)LANAKA A raised platform or seat along the wall of the 
council hall of a temple. 

Tejah-pala iti kshitimdu-sachivah Sarhkhojjvalabhih sila-srenibhih 

sphurad-irhdu-ruchirarh nemi-prabhor mamdiram I 
Uchchair mamdapam agrato jina-(vara)-vasa-dviparh chasatam 

tat-parsVeshu balanakarh cha purato nishpadayamasivan I 
It ' apparently is identical with Marathi balarh which according to the 
Dictionary of Molesworth and Candy means a raised seat along the walls 
of the gabhara or Sabha-mandapa of a temple.' Dr. Ltiders. (Mount 
Abu inscrip. no. i, v. 61, Ep. Ind., Vol. viu, pp. 212, 200.) 

BALI(-I)KA(-A) A moulding of the entablature, the edge of a roof. 
Maha-bhara-tula-karya balikordhve viSeshatah 1 1 
Tula-balikayor madhye dvi-dandam athava punah 1 1 
Harhsa-bhuta-balir vatha nidra va danda-manatah I 
Tri-padodaya-yukta va vidheya vajanopari 1 1 

(Kdmikdgama, LIV, 13, 16, 20.) 

BALI-PITH A- (KA) The seat of sacrifice, an altar for offerings. 

(1) Brishabhasyopari-bhage tu kalpayed bali-pithakam I 
Gopurasya bahir vapi sthapayed antar vapi bali-pithakam I 
Antar mandala-deSe tu purvavat bali-pithakam I 

(M., xxxii, 99, 100, 133.) 

(2) Srimat-saundara-pancha-ratra-vidhiyim nirmanamam madisi I 
Srimantam bali-pithamarii pramudadirh viprarggalam madisi II 

' Caused a bali-pitha to be erected according to the rule of the (Silpa- 
sdslra) Pancharatra.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part i, Belur Taluq, no. 8 ; 
Roman Text, p. 105 ; Transl., p. 46.) 

(3) ' There he enlarged the Kalideva-mantapa, and re-established the 
bali-pitha.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Arsikere Taluq, no. 22 ; Transl., 
p. 119, largest para., last line.) 

(4) ' There are also fragments (of inscriptions) belonging to the time 
of Rajaraja I, and Rajendra-Chola I, on a mandapa to the west of the 
bali-pitha.' (Notes on Tiruvellarai inscrip., Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxiv, p. 264, 
para. 5, line 10 f.) 

366 



Q 

& 






n 



n 

BAH t. LA 




BALIKA. 




BAHULA. 




BAHULA. 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BASADI 

(5) ' Haridasa-Rauta, ... set up in front of the god Prasanna- 
Madhava of Belur, a festival (utsava) mantapa, a pillar for lights (dipa- 
maleya-kambha), and an altar for offerings (balli-pitha, i.e., bali-pltha).' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Nagamangala Taluq, no. 42 ; Transl., p. 124; Roman 
Text, p. 213.) 

BASADI (see VASATI) A Jain temple, a shrine, a monastery, 
modern Basti or slum quarters. 

(1) Kadalalaya-basadi Jaina temple of the Jaina goddess Kadala- 
laya. (Anmakonda inscrip. of Prola, v. 9, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 262, 257 .) 

(2) ' And on the top of the rock to the south of the Badra tank of that 
mountain, Ganeyana Mara had the Parsva-Jina vasati erected. This 
Jogavattige basadi, may it endure as long as sun and moon, protected by 
the paiicha-maha-sabda (five words for Jain obeisance), and by unnum- 
bered others.' 

' Basadi ' in the sense of Jaina temple is of frequent use in the volumes of 
Ep. Carnal. Its Sanskrit form is, of course, ' vasati ' an instance of which 
should be noticed in the passage quoted above. (Ep. Carnal., Vol. xii, 
Pavugada Taluq, no. 52 ; Transl., p. 125, line 2 ; Roman Text, p. 206 f.) 

(3) ' Being actuated by veneration, gave to the basadi of the Bhalarar 
. . . five mattars (of land).' 

' Basadi (means) a Jain temple ; the word is a Tadbhava corruption 
of the Sanskrit " vasati," abode, dwelling, a Jain monastery ; the modern 
form is " Basti ".' Dr. Fleet. (Sanskrit and Old Kanarese inscrip., Ind. Ant., 
Vol. iv, p. 1 8 1, c. i, line 10, and footnote.) 

(4) Purigereyalu madisid-Anesejjeya-basadige . . . 

' In the lands of Gudigere, which . . . were under the control of the Jain 
temple called Ane sejjeya. . . . built at Purigere.' (Gudigere Jain inscrip., 
line 21, Ind. Ant., Vol. xvm, pp. 39, 37.) 

See Ep. Carnal., Vol. n, inscriptions (i) on Chandra-giri, nos. 1-74, (ii) 
on Vindhya-giri, nos. 75-123; and (iii) in the town, nos. 124-144. 

(5) ' Caused basadis and mana-stambhas to be erected in numerous 
places.' (No. 38, Roman Text, p. 7, line 17 ; Transl., p. 121, line 5.) 

(6) ' The basadi of his guru Sri-rupa-narayana of Kollapura.'- -(No. 
39 ; Roman Text, p. 7-8 ; Transl., p. 122, line 18.) 

(7) ' The basadis of Ganga-vadi, however, many there were, he 
restored.' (No. 45 ; Roman Text, p. 21 ; Transl., p. 126, line 12.) 

(8) ' This Lakshmi, wife of Ganga sena-pati, the abode of all good 
qualities, had this new Jina temple (vasati) made.' (No. 63 ; Roman Text, 
p. 59; Transl., p. 149.) 

(9) ' The Dandanayaka Ganga had this basadi made for his mother 
Porhavue.' (No. 64 ; Roman Text, p. 59 ; Transl., p. 149.) 

367 



BASADI AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(10) 'The bastis (basadinal) of Gaiiga-vadi, however many there were, 
he had renewed.' -(No. 90 ; Roman Text, p. 72, line 10 from bottom up- 
wards ; Transl., p. 158, para. 5.) 

(11) 'He had these images of Bharata and Bahubali Kevali, the basa- 
dis, and the side-doors of that tlrtha made for beauty ; . . . having 
erected eighty virgin (? new) basadis, and repaired two hundred (that 
were in ruins), he obtained glory, the general Bharata.' (No. 115 ; Roman 
Text, p. 87 ; Transl., p. 171.) 

(12) 'He built a small basti on the lower hill ; repaired three bastis 
at the north gate, (and) the Mangayi basti, repaired the Hagalaya 
(a village to the south of Sravana Belgola)-basti, and made gifts for supply- 
ing food in one.' (No. 134; Roman Text, p. 100 ; Transl., p. 179.) 

(13) ' And in Kcllangere he (also) made five large bastis and five beau- 
tiful ponds.' 

' The money obtained from this place will be used for repairing the 
Archari's and other dwelling and the basadis, for the worship and deco- 
ration of the god, and for gifts, of food to the people visiting the basadi 
and to the assembly of Rishis.' (No. 1370 ; Roman Text, p. 104, lines 6, 9 ; 
Transl., p. 182, paras. 5, n.) 

(14) ' Keep whatever you have obtained from the paddy lands and dry 
fields, together with the waste land, the firewood, leaves, decay of the 
basadi house and so forth, belonging to the endowments of Gommata dcva, 
Kamatha ParSva deva, Sri-vallabha deva of Bhandaraiya's basadi, and 
principal basadis.' (No. 137^.; Transl., p. 183.) 

(15) ' And for the basadi which he had made ... a small tank east 
of the basadi . . . ' (No. 144 ; Transl., p. 187, line 9 from bottom upwards.) 

(16) 'He made a grant of lands for the basadis of the Tri-kuta-basadi 
which he had caused to be erected in Arakottara in the Enne-nad.'- 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Chamarajnagara Taluq., no. 83 ; Transl., p. 10.) 

(17) 'He caused a basadi to be erected in Muguli in Sige-nad, and 
setting up therein the god Parsva, presented the basadi and land for the god 
to their guru.' 

In this instance, it should be noted, the meaning of ' basadi ' as a Jaina 
temple is unquestionable. (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Hasan Taluk, 
no. 129 ; Transl., p. 36.) 

(18) ' Hoysala-Gavunda, son of ... in memory of his mother's death, 
erected a basadi, and in the presence of all the residents and farmers of 
the town, divided certain land (specified) equally to the basadi and the 
temple (basadigarh devalyakkam bhumi samana-vagi basadige . . . ), 
washing the feet of Ahobala-Pamdita.' 

368 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BASADI 

The distinction made here between the basadi and the temple (dcvalaya) 
should be noted. (Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Kadur Taluq, no 69 ; Transl., p. 13, 
para. 5 ; Roman Text, p. 45, last para., line 4 f.) 

(19) 'Thus celebrated, Barmma-Deva, the Bhujabala-Gariga Permmadi- 
Dcva, made the basadi, which Dadiga and Madhava had formerly 
established on the hill of Mandali, and for which the kings of his Gahga 
line had continued to provide the offerings, and which they had after- 
wards caused to be built of wood, the chief of all the basadis hitherto 
existing or in future to be established in the Edadore-seventy of the Mandali- 
Thousand, giving it the name of Pattada-basadi (the Crown-basadi), and 
endowed it with certain lands (specified). ' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. va, Shimoga 
Taluq, no. 4; Transl., p. 8, para. 4.) 

(20) ' The great minister, . . . , enlarged a tank, formed paddy fields 
erected a temple, and established places for distribution of water and 
food. And the basadi he built shone with big tank of Tattckere surround- 
ing it.' 

' And for those two basadis of Nellavatti and Tattikcre, on the death of 
Jinadasa as a reward of perggade Nokkayya's boldness and liberality, 
Ganga-Pcrmmadi-Deva granted the royal insignia of two horns, a canopy, 
chamaras, and big drums.' 

' And Ganga-permmadi-deva granted for the basadi the shop-tax and 
customs of Tattikere.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shimoga Taluq, no. 10 ; Tr ans 
p. 11, last two paras., p. 12, paras. 2, 3.) 

(21) 'For the mathadhipati of Bandanike was erected a mantapa in 
front of the Santi-Jina basadi.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, 
no. 228 ; Transl., p. 133 ; Roman Text, p. 232.) 

(22) See both ' basti ' and ' basadi' (in Ep. Carnal., Vol. m, Seringa - 
patam Taluq, nos. 144, 146, etc.; Transl., p. 34 and also in other 
volumes of Ep. Carnal, referred to above) and the sketches of bastis 
between pp. 50, 51 (Introduction, Ep. Carnat., Vol. n), and pp. 150, 151 
(Translation), and compare the following from Fergusson : 

' The principal group of the bastis of the Jains at present known at 
least above the ghats, is that of Sravana Belgola. There are there 
wo hills the Indragiri, on a shoulder of the other, called Chandragiri, 
stand the bastis, fifteen in number. As might be expected from the 
situation, they are all of the Dravidian style of architecture, and are conse- 
quently built in gradually receding storeys, each of which is ornamented 
with small simulated cells. ... No instance occurs among them 
of the curvilinear sikra (sikhara) or spire, which is universal with the 
northern Jains, except in the instance of Ellora.' 

369 



BA(VA)SUNDHARA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA Of 

1 The following wood-cut (photo no. 149) conveys, however, an idea 
of the general external appearance, which is more ornamental than that 
of northern Jain temples. The outer wall of those in the north is almost 
always quite plain. The southern ones are as generally ornamented 
with pilasters and crowned with a row of ornamental cells. Inside is a 
court probably square and surrounded by cloisters, at the back of which 
rises the vimana over the cell, which contains the principal image of the 
Tirthankar. It always is surmounted by a small dome, as is universally 
the case with every vimana in Dravidian architecture, instead of with the 
mysterious amalaka ornament of northern sikras (sikharas).' 

' It may be a vain speculation, but it seems impossible to look at this 
wood-cut (no. 149), and not to be struck with its resemblance to the temples 
of southern Babylonia. The same division into storeys with their cells ; 
the backward position of the temple itself; the panelled or pilastered 
basement, all these points of resemblance, it seems difficult to regard as 
purely accidental.' (Fergusson : Ind. and East. Arch., pp. 269-270.) 

BA(VA)SUNDHARA The earth, a type of pent-roof. 

(M., xviii, 177; see under LUPA.) 

BAHALA (see BAHULYA) An extension, a projection, a sugar- 
cane-like moulding. 

(1) Dvara-tare chatush-pancha-shat-saptashta-vibhajite II 
Ekam^a(m) siitra-pattih syat samam va bahalam bhavet I 
Ardharii va pada-hinarh va bahalam parikirtitam 1 1 (2 ) 

Silaya cha mrida py-athava taruna rachayed atha kudyam ativa- 
dridham I 

Tad ihottara-vistaratah sadris"am bahalam kathitam talipadi-yutam I 
(Vastu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, xiv, i, 2 ; xv, i.) 

(2) In connexion with a pillar : 

Ashtamsam yoga-vistaram tad-ardham bahalam bhavet I 

(M., xxxix, 59.) 

(3) Stambha-vyasa-samo(-mam) va tad-ardham bahalam ( ? bahu 

lam) bhavet 1 1 

Kavata-bahulam proktam dandardharh va ghanam bhavet II 

(Kamikagama, LV, 35, 38.) 

It is clear from v. 38 that ghana or thickness is not to be confused with 
bahala or bahula. 

BAHIR-AftGA The outer court, the external side of a building. 
Athava bahir-ange tu cheshta-dig-vishnor alayam I 
Anyesham sarva-linganam nagarat bahir-angatah I 

(M, ix, 257, 402.) 
370 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BAHULYA 

BAHIR-JANMA.N The outer plinth (see M., LXIX, 16, 17, under 
ANTARJANMAN) . 

BAHIR-BHITTI The outer wall, an outside partition. 

Antar-vapram bahir-bhittih sreshtham dirgam cha chulika(-am) I 

(M., ix, 361, etc.) 
Cf. ANTARBHITTI. (See M., XL, 51, 52.) 

BAHIR-MUKHA With face towards the outside, projecting out- 
ward. 

In connexion with foundations : 

Griha-garbham antar-mukharh syad gi ama-garbhaih bahir-mukham 

(M., xn, 216.) 

BAHU-MANDAPA (cj. MUKHA-MANDAPA) A kind of group 
pavilion. 

Devalayeshu sarveshu sammukhe bahu-mandapam I 

(M., xxxiv, 33 
The pavilion in front of a temple is generally called Mukha-mandapa. 

BAHU-LlftGA A kind of phallus, phalli in group. 

(M., LII, 75, 77, 72, etc. ; see under LINGA.) 

BAHULA An architectural member of the balance, the extended 
part of the scales outside the holes through which the scales are 
joined with the beam by strings. 

Tad(jihvagra)-ardham bahulam kuryat tan-mule chhidra-samyutam I 

(M., L, 184.) 

BALA-PARYA&KA (see PARYANKA) A small bedstead, a couch. 

BAHYA-&ALA Outer rooms, external portion of mansions (see 
under ANTAH-SALA). 

BAHYA-SALA Outer walls, external wall (see under ANTAH- 
SALA). 

BAHULYA (perhaps for BAHALYA, see BAHALA) Abundance 
superfluity, extension, hence projection. 

(i) Stambha-samam bahulyam bahulya is equal to the column. 

(Brihat-Samhitd, LIII, 30.) 

Vistara-pada-pratimam bahulyam Sakhayoh smritam the projection 
of the two door-frames is equal to nearly one-fourth of the breadth 
(of the door). 

(Ibid., LVI, 13.) 

371 



B1MBA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Kern translates ' bahulya ' by thickness, which does not suit at least 
to the first instance (see J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, pp. 285, 318.) 

(2) Vistara-pada-pratimam bahulyarh sakhayoh smritam I 

( Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 20, same as 

no. 2 above.) 

(3) Vistararddhena bahulyam sarvesham eya kirtitam I 

(Agni-Purana, Chap, civ, v. 29.) 

BIMBA An idol, an image. 

(M., LI, 22 ; LXVIII, i, etc.) 

Nirmmitam samti-nathasya bimbakam ' image of Santi-natha was 
ma de.' (Honwad inscrip. of Somesvara i, line 30, Ind. Ant., Vol. xix, p. 273.) 
BI(VI)RA-GALA (also B!RAGAL or BIRAKAL, see VIRA-S"ASANA)- 
Monuments set up in memory of a hero at first, and this honour 
is next extended to any one who dies after having done some good 
work ; lastly, it implies a simple memorial monument, resembling 
perhaps the pagoda-shaped mathas, constructed by the relatives 
and admirers of the departed ; a monumental stone erected in 
memory of a warrior. 

(1) ' But her son Pilleya-Nayaka, (after her death) performing the further 
cer monies, set up this biragal in the presence of the god HonnesVara, and 
made a grant of land (specified) for the offerings to the god Honnesvara 
and for carrying on the worship of the biragal washing the feet of Janneya- 
guru. That Janneyaguru and his successors will carry on the worship 
of that biragal we most firmly believe.' (Ep, Carnal., Vol. vn, Shimoga 
Taluq, no. 62, last four lines; Roman Text, p. 42 ; Transl., nos. 61-62, p. 24, 
line 4 f.) 

(2) ' His younger brother Channappa put up this bira-kallu for him.' 

' Her junior uncle Chenna put up this biragal.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, 
Shikarpur Taluq, nos. i, 2; Transl., p. 39.) 

(3) ' A grant of land (specified) was made for maintaining the worship 
and ceremonies of this biragal.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Honnati Taluq, 
no. 117 ; Transl., p. 178.) 

(4) ' And killing many who opposed him, he did his duty to his lord 
and gained the world of gods. His brother-in-law with his son and daughter, 
set up this vira-asana for him.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, Shikarpur Taluq, 
no. 144; Transl., p. 107; Roman Text, p. 191.) 

BUDDHA ' A being who by his own force has attained to posses- 
sion of the highest knowledge. He is neither man nor god. He is 
able to perform certain wonders in accord with the laws of nature. 
In an endless series of existences the Buddha prepares himself for his 

372 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BODHIKA-(A) 

state of Buddhahood. During the whole of this time he is called 
a Budhisattva till in his last existence as a man he attains to knowl- 
edge (bodhi).' 

(Mahavamfa, W. Geiger, pp. 292-293.) 

BUDDHA-PADA The sacred footprint of Buddha, found in many 
places in Northern India, Indo-China, Siam and other places : 
analogous to the Ratna-pada of Samantakuta of Ceylon ; but the 
Buddhapada of Sukhodaya in Siam is more elaborate and artistic ; 
on the centre of the footprints are engraved two wheels (chzkra), 
each containing six circles wherein are marked 108 signs. These 
signs are stated to represent the past, present, and future universe. 

(See Plate LXVIII, p. 242, Le Siam Ancien, i, by 

M. Fournereau, quoted by P. N. Bose in 

his Indian Colony of Siam, pp. 64-65.) 

The footprint of Buddha, otherwise called Sripada and Ratna-pada. 
It is seen in many places in Northern India, Ceylon, Indo-China, and 
Indian Archipelago. The one in Siam at Sukhodaya is described in 
detail in a Pali inscription of A. D. 1427 (vide Plate LXVIII, Fournereau, i, 
p. 242). It was carved after the pattern of the Sripada at Samanta- 
kuta in Ceylon, and bears the same measurement, but more artistic in 
look and workmanship. On these footprints are marked two discs (chakra) 
each containing six circles within which are marked 108 signs. Below 
the footprints are represented 80 monks standing in a procession with 
folded hands and inclined heads in the pose of worshipping. 

BUDDHI-SAMKIRNA A pavilion with fifty pillars. 

(Matey a-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 9 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

BRIHATI The part of the body between the breast and backbone. 
In connexion with the das"a-tala measure : 

Brihati saptamsakam kaksha-tararh samayatam I 
Brihati stana-simantam sardha-dvir-ashta matrakam I 

(M., LXV, 162- 163. 
BERA An idol or image. 

(M., LI, 17, 25 ; LXVII, 3, etc.) 

' Created the temple of Chamarajesvara together with new images 
(vera) .'--(Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Chamarajnagar Taluq, no. 86; Roman Text, 
p. 18, line 9 f.; Transl., p. n.) 

BODHIKA(-A) (also VODHIKA, see MANDI) The capital of the 
column (M., xv, 40, 44, etc.), the crowning member of the capital ; 

373 



BODHI-GRIIIA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

this is placed upon the abacus (phalaka) and under the table of 
cornices. It may be identified with the carbel which in European 
architecture is a block of stone projecting from a wall and supporting 
the beams of a roof or any weight. 

(See Dravidian Arch. Jouveau Dubreuil, ed. Aiyangar, p. 26.) 

(See Suprabheddgama xxxi, 107, 57 under STAMBHA.) 

Cj. Bodhikam mushti-bandham cha phalaka tatika ghatam I 

(M., XLVII, 1 8, etc.) 

See the photographic views of the Corinthian capitals from Jamalgiri 
(Fergusson : Hist, of Ind. and East. Arch., p. 173, figs. 94, 95). 

See Buddhist Cave Temples (fig. no. 21, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, 
Vol. rv, p. 62 ; Vol. XLI, figs, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). 

BODHI-GRIHA -A temple for the Bodhi-tree. 

(W. Geiger, Mahavamfa, p. 296.) 

BODHI-MANDA A raised terrace near a temple, the miraculous 
throne under the Bodhi-tree at Gaya also called Vajrasana or dia- 
mond throne. 

Tenochchair Bodhi-mande sasi-kara-dhavalah sarwato mandapena 

kantah prasada esha smare-bala-jayinah karito loka-sastuh I 
' By him this beautiful mansion of the Teacher of mankind, who over- 
came the power of (the god) Smara, dazzling white as the rays of the moon, 
with an open pavilion on all sides has been caused to be made at the exalted 
Bodhi-manda.' 

' Bodhi-manda is the name of the miraculous throne under the Bodhi- 
tree at Bodh-Gaya, also called the vajrasana or diamond throne, on which 
Buddha and his predecessors sat, when attaining bodhi or perfect wisdom. 
And Professor Childers, in his Pali Dictionary, added that he inferred that 
the term was also applied to the raised terrace built under the Bodhi-tree 
within the precincts of any Buddhist temple, in imitation, presumably, 
of Buddha's throne. This, rather than the throne itself, seems to be its 
meaning in the present inscription.' (Sanskrit and Old Kanarese inscrip. 
no. 1 66, Bodh Gaya inscrip. of Mahanaman, line 10 f., Ind. Ant., Vol. xv, 
PP- 358, 359. 357. c. i, 2.) 

BETTA One of the two classes of the southern Jain architecture, 
the other is known as Basadi or Vasati. Bettas are courtyards usually 
on a hill or rising ground, open to the sky and containing images of 
Gomata or GomatesVara. 

374 



HIMDV ARCHITECTURE BRAHMA-PADA 

BAUDDHA Belonging to the Buddhists or Buddha, the Buddhist 

images. 

Mdnasdra (Chap. LVI, named Buddha, 1-18) : 

Like all other images, the Buddhist images also are made of wood, 
stone or iron (line 14). Their pedestals are made of the three kinds 
of abhasa (marble or glass), of earth and of gravel, etc. (lines 15-16). 
They are also both stationary and movable (line 14). They are made 
in the erect or sitting posture and placed on the throne (lines 3-4), and 
are furnished with the peepul tree and the wonder-tree (Kalpavriksha). 
They have two arms, two legs, and two eyes (that is, one face) (line 10). 
They are measured in the large type of the das"a-tala system (line 17). 
They are pure white in colour (line 5). Their garment is yellow 
(line 12), face large (line 5), ears long (line 6), eyes smiling at the 
corner (line 6), chest gracefully broad, arms long (line 10), belly large 
and round, and the body fleshy (line 8). They are furnished with 
shining top-knots (ushnishojj-vala-maulika) (line 10). 

BRAHMA-KANTA A class of pillars, a type of storeyed buildings 
a class of gate-houses. 

The square columns with four minor pillars : 

Chatur-as"rarh brahma-kantam syat I (M., xv, 20.) 
Vedopapada-sarhyuktarh brahma-kantam iritam I -(Ibid., 244.) 
A class of the three-storeyed buildings. (M., xxi, 39-40 ; see under 
PRASADA.) 

A class of the five-storeyed buildings. (M., xxm, 41-42 ; see under 
PRASADA.) 
A class of gate-houses. (M., xxxm, 558 ; see under GOPURA.) 

BRAHMA-GARBHA The foundations of temples (of Brahma). 

(M., xn, 142-152; see under GARBHA-NYASA.) 

BRAHMA-DVARA The door in the middle or central part of an 
object. 

Brahma-dvara-patakadyair angair yuktam vimanakam I 

(Kamikagama, L, 93.) 
Brahma-dvaram iti proktarh vimananam sanatanam I 

(Ibid., LV, 155.) 
Brahma-dvaram tato madye mandapam koshthake matam \ 

(Ibid., LV, 197.) 
BRAHMA-PADA The central part, the plot at the centre of a 

design. 

(M., XL, 73 ; LII, 165, etc. ; see under PADA-VINY.&SA.) 

375 



BRAHMA-BHITTI AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

BRAHMA-BHITTI The middle wall. 

Athava brahma-bhittau va garbhadhanam vidhiyate I 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 46.) 

BRAHMA-MANDALA The central part of a village or town. 

(M., ix. 128 ; see under GRAMA.) 

BRAHMA-MANDIRA A type of rectangular building. 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, w. 16-17 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21-22, 26-27 ; see under PRASADA.) 

BRAHMA-MASTAKA A kind of joinery. 

(M., xvn, 149 ; see under SANDHI-KARMAN.) 

BRAHMA- VAHANA The riding animal of Brahma, the goose. 

The measures and description of the goose (M.. LX, 4-46 ; see under 
VAHANA.) 

BRAHMA-STHANA The central part of a village or town, where 
a public hall is built for the assemblage of the inhabitants. 

(M., xii, 142 ; see under GRAMA.) 

(1) Brahma-sthane sabhadini kalpayed vidhina budhah II 
Brahma(-me) va madhyame bhage pitham parikalpayet 1 1 

(Kamikagama, xxvni, 15, 18.) 

(2) ' Senai . . . assigned (one) patti of land in the neighbourhood, to 
last as long as the moon and the sun, for his own merit (and) for the 
meritorious purpose of supplying to the Brahma-sthana in this village 
water during six months and firepans (agnishtha) during six months 
and of constructing a water-lever in front of the mandapa.' (Inscrip. of 
Aditya II, no. 14, lines 1-2, H. S. 1. 1., Vol. in, pp. 21-22.) 

(3) ' We the great assembly of Manimangalam . . . being assembled 
without a vacancy in the assembly, in the Brahma-sthana in our village.' - 
(Inscrip. of Rajadhiraja, no. 28, line 7, H.S.I.I., Vol. in, p. 57.) 

(4) ' We the great assembly of Manimangalam . . . being assembled, 
without a vacancy in the assembly, in the large mandapa (of) the Brahma- 
sthana of our village.' (Inscrip. of Virarajendra I, no. 30, line 36, H. S. 1. 1., 
Vol. HI, p. 70.) 

BRAHMANGANA The central courtyard. 

(See Kamikagama, under ANGANA.) 

BRAHMA MS A (see BRAHMA-STHANA) The central part of a 
village or town, where a public hall is generally built. 

37 6 



HWDU ARCHITECTURE BHAftGA 

BH 

BHAKTA A devotee, a faithful worshipper, a class of sages. 

Description of their images (M., Chap. LIX, i-ioo named Bhakta) : 

The devotees are divided into four classes, namely Salokya, Samipya, 
Sarupya, and Sayujya (lines 3-4). The Salokyas are those who 
specialize in devotion, knowledge and renunciation (vairagya) (line 5) . 
The Samipyas specialize in knowledge and renunciatian (line 6). The 
Sarupyas are distinguished as those who are devoted to the medita- 
tion of God (line 7). And the Sayujyas are those who have acquired 
the true knowledge (of God) and are aware of the final beatitude 
(paramartha) (line 8). 

The limbs of the Salokya class of great men are measured in the largest 
type of the nava-tala system (line 9) . The Samipyas are measured in the 
smallest type of the dala-tala system (line 10). The Sarupyas are 
measured in the intermediate type of the das"a-tala system (line n). 
And the Sayujyas are measured in the largest type of the daa-tala system 
(line 12). (For details of these measures, see TALA-MANA.) 

BHAfrGA A pose in which an image is carved. 

There are four bhangas or poses, namely, sama-bhanga, abhahga, ati- 
bhariga (M., LVII, 98), and tri-bhanga (ibid., 125). 

' In this (sama-bhanga) type the right and left of the figure are disposed 
symmetrically, the sutra or plumb-line passing through the naval, from the 
crown of the head to a point midway between the heels. In other words, 
the figure whether seated or standing, is poised firmly on both legs without 
inclining in any way to right or left. Images of Buddha, Surya (sun) and 
Vishnu are generally made to follow this scheme of rigid, vertical symmetry. 
The dispositions or attitudes of the limbs and organs on either side are 
made exactly similar, except that the mudra or symbolical posing of the 
fingers is different.' 

' In such a (abhanga) figure the plumb-line or the centre line, from 
the crown of the head to a point midway between the heels, passes slightly 
to the right of the naval. In other words, the upper hal f of the figure i 
made to incline slightly towards its right side, without inclining in any 
way towards either of the attendant deities. The Saktis or attendant deities 
are two male and two female, in tri-bhangas, placed on either side with 
their heads inclined inwards towards the principal figure. The figures on 
either side are exactly similar in poise, except that one is a reverse or reflex 
of the other. This is a necessary condition as otherwise one of the figures 

377 



BHADRA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

would lean away from the central figure, and spoil the balance and 
harmony of the whole group.' 

' A tri-bhanga figure had its head and hips displaced about one arhSa 
to the right or left of the centre line.' 

' This (ati-bhanga) is really an emphasized form of the tri-bhanga, the 
sweep of the tri-bhanga curve being considerably enhanced. The upper 
portion of the body above the hips, or the limbs below, are thrown to right 
or left, backwards or forwards, like a tree caught in a storm. This type is 
usually seen in such representations as Siva's dance of destruction, and 
fighting gods and demons, and is specially adapted to the portrayal of 
violent action, of the impetus of the Tandava dancing, etc.' (Translated 
by S. Ray, Modern Review, March, 1914, p. I f.) 

BHADRA (cf. SARVATO-BHADRA and MUKHA-BHADRA) A mould- 
ing, a type of portico, the general epithet of chariots, a type of 
building, site plan of one-hundred and ninety-six square plots (cf. 
PADAVINYASA; M. vii, 17-18.) 

(i) A moulding of the base (M., xrv, 345 ; see the lists of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA). 

A kind of portico : 

In connexion with buildings of one to twelve storeys : 

Ekam va dvi-tri-dandena nirgamam bhadram eva va I 

(M., xix, 56.) 
Cf. MADHYA-BHADRA (M., xrx, 177) : 

Toranair nida-bhadradi-mule chordhve cha bhushitam \ 

(M., xx, 64.) 
In connexion with pavilions (mandapas) : 

Chatur-dig-bhadra-vistaram eka-bhagena nirgamam I 

(M., xxxiv, 76.) 
In connexion with mansions (salas) : 

Salayah parito'lindarh prishthato bhadra-sarhyutam I 

(M., xxxv, 40.) 

Dvi-chatur-bhaga-vistaram parsvayor bhadra-sarhyutam I 
Prishthe cha dvyaika-bhagena bhadram kuryad vichakshanah I 

(Ibid., 322-323.) 
In connexion with chariots : 

Chatur-dikshu chatur-bhadrarh syat I 

Bhadra-madhye tu bhadram syat I 

Yuktya bhadram sarvesharh nasika-yuktam eva va I 

(M., XLHI, 107-109.) 
378 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BHADRA-PlTHA 

Bhadra is the general name for chariot (ratha) : 

Nivata-bhadra, Pavana-bhadra, Prabhanjana-bhadra, Nabhasvan- 
bhadra, etc. 

(M,xLiii, 111-115.) 

In connexion with dola (palanquin or hammock) : 

Purato prishthato madhye parva (darpa)nam bhadrasamyutam | 

(M., L, 165.) 
Chatur-dikshu sa-bhadram va chaika-dvyamsena nimnakam I 

(Ibid., 284.) 
(a) Ayatah syat tribhir bhagair bhadra-yukta-susobhanah I 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. GCLXIX, v. 5.) 

(3) Mandapasya chaturthamSad bhadrah karyyo vijanata 1 1 
Mandapas tasya karttavya bhadrais tribhir alankritah II 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, w. 35, 39.) 
A type of quadrangular building : 

(4) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 14-15 ; see under PRASADA). 

(5) Garuda-Purana (Chap. XLVII, vv. 24-25 ; see under PRASADA). 

(6) Vi-bhadra va sa-bhadra va kartavya malika budhaih 1 1 
Sa-bhadra va vi-bhadra va khahlri syad yatheshtatah II 

(Kamikagama., xxxv, 100, 106.) 

Salananam prakartavyam eka-dvyam^a-vinirmitam I 
Tad-tad-agre prakartavyam vare bhadrasya pachime II 

(JWrf.,XLv, 35.) 

Chatur-dig-bhadra-samyuktam dvara-jalaka-Sobhitam 1 1 

(Ibid., XLI, a6.) 
A class of buildings (Ibid., XLV, 41 ; see under MALIKA.) 

BHADRAKA The general name for chariots. 

(M., XLIH, 112-116 ; see under RATHA.) 

BHADRA-PATTA A moulding of the base. 

(M., xiv, 345 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA.) 

BHADRA-PlTHA A type of pedestal of the phallus or an image. 

(M., Lin, 34 ; see under PI-THA.) 
The pedestal of an image. -(M., nv, 129, 173.) 
A State chair. (Mahavagga, v. 10, 2.) 

379 



BHADRA-MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

BHADRA-MANDAPA-A type of pavilion. 

Cf. Ma^apam bhadram ity-uktarh bahya(dhan y a)- n iksh e pa-y Ogy a. 



. iqo ) 

Vo1 - <"' 



BHADRA-SALA-A type of hall, a front room, a drawing-room 
conneixon with the eight-storeyed buildings : 

etra-fclardha-fela cha bhadra-saladi-bhushitam I 

BHA DR ASA NA - A kind of throne> 



A kind of rectangular building 
(i) ***< 



- the pie) r 



. < 

line u f., W. .to., Vol. ^f pp . ^^ ' na!Wa ln!lcn P- 

(5) Subhrabrabham idam Bhavalya bhavanam karapitam bhutalc 



of Chachcha, v. , /,. ^ t> Vol . X 
BHAVANA-KANTA-A cla ss of the ,en,,oreyed building,. 
RH j . (M " **"" 9-3 J . under 

BHAGA-PASCHA-A pavilion wift thirty-two pillan, 

(Matsya-Purana, 



380 



xni, 43 . 

247, etc. ; j MANA.)' 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BHITTI 

BHARA (see BHARA and STAMBHA) -Beams, cross-beams. 

Probably same as hara or harika, a chain, an ornament (? bead, astragal, 
baguette, see Gwilt. EncycL, fig. 873) below the neck of the column. 

Stambha-samarh bahulyam bhara-tulanam upary-upary-asam I 
Bhavati tulopatulanam unaih padena padena II 

(Bfihat-Samhitd., LIII, 30.) 

Dr. Kern translates ' bhara ' by cross-beams (J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. 
vi, p. 285). 

BHARAKA A support, a synonym of the column. 

(A/., xv, 5; see under STAMBHA.) 
See Suprabheddgama (xxxi, 121) under BHARA. 

BHARA (see BHARA and HARA) A support, a beam. 

(1) In connexion with buildings of one to twelve storeys : 
Chatuh-Sala chatush-kutam chashta-bhara sa-panjaram I 

(M.,xx, 72, etc.) 

(2) Eka-dandantar-bhara tu madhya-bhara dvi-dandatah I 
Ghatur-danda-pramanena kritva maryyada-bhittikam II 
Mandale dvarake vatha dvara-salarh tu bharake II 
Prasadarh madhya-bharayarh maryyadau harmyam eva cha II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 117, 121 ; for full 
context sen vv. 115-122, under PRAKARA.) 

BHITTI A wall, a partition, a support. 

(1) Bhittih stri kudyam I 
Bhittih kudye prabhede cha I 

(Amarakosha, 2, 2, 4.) 

(2) Purato'lindam ekaihsarh bhittim kuryat samantatah I 

(M., xxxv, 118 ; compare also xv, 231 ; 
xxxvin, 6 ; XL, 57 ; LVI, 16 ; etc.) 

(3) Vistarardharh bhaved garbho bhittayo'nyah samantatah I 

' The adytum measures half the extent (of the whole) and has its 
separate walls all around.' (Brihat-Samhitd, LVI, 12 ; J.R.A.S., N. S., 
Vol. vi, p. 318 ; see also Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXIX, w. 8, 9, 12.) 

(4) Tri-hastantarh tu vistaro bhittlnam parikirtitah II 

Mula-bhitter idarh manam iirdhve padardha-hlnakam I 
Anyo'nyam adhika vapi nyuna va bhittayah samah 1 1 

(Kamikdgama, xxxv, 32, 33.) 
381 



BHITTI-GRIHA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Tri-bhagena bhaved garbham samantad bhittir ishyate 1 1 
Dvy-adhikena bahir-bhittih sesharh pragvat prakirtitam II 
Linge silanta(-te) cha krodhe bhitti(h) pancha-(rh)sa-varjitah I 
Kimchin nyunam alindam va Sesham kudyeshu yojayct II 

(Kamikagama, L, 82, 86, 87,) 
The synonyms of bhitti : 

. . . dvari kudyarh cha kuttimam 1 1 
Bhitter akhyeyam akhyatam ... II 

(Ibid., LV, 199-200.) 

(5) Navamsam garbha-geharh tu bhitti-manam tu shodasa 1 1 
Shodasarh bhitti-manam tu bhittim abhyantararh viduh | 
Tad-bahyaikam tu salilam tad-bahyaikam tu bhittikam II 
Bahya-bhittau chatur-dvaram athava dvaram ekatah I 
Anyat sarvarh samam proktam stupy-antam karayed budhah 1 1 
Yad uktarh bhitti-vistaram bahyabhyantarayoh samam I 
Bahyc vabhyantare vapi tri-vidham bhitti-manakam 1 1 
Pithasya tri-gunam garbham ta-(t)-tri-bhagaika-bhittikam II 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 4, 6, 7, 8, 1 2.) 

(6) Prasada-vara-varyeshu silavatsu sugandhishu I 
Ushitva meru-kalpeshu krita-kanchana-bhittishu 1 1 

(Ramayana, n, 88, 7, etc.) 

(7) Atyuchchair bhitti-bhagair divi divasa-pati-syandanarii va vigrih- 

nan yenakari kotah I 

' By whom the fort (in this place) was built, which perhaps may arrest 
the chariot of the sun in the sky by its (very) high walls.' (An Abu inscrip. 
of the reign of Bhimadeva II, v. 9, Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, pp. 221, 222.) 

(8) Suttalayada bhittiya madisi chawlsa-tfrttha-kararh madisidaru I 
'Sri Basavi Setti ... had the wall round the cloisters and the 

twenty-four Tirtha-karas made.'(/!>. Carnal., Vol. n, no. 78 ; Roman Text 
p. 62 ; Transl., p. 151.) 

(9) Koneri, son of ... erected a nava-ranga of 10 ankanas, with 
secure foundation and walls (vajra-bhitti-gode) for the god Tirumala of 
the central street of Malalavadi.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Hunsur Taluq, 
no. i ; Transl., p. 83; Roman Text, p. 134.) 

BHITTI-GRIHA A wall-house, a small closet inside the wal 
resembling a cupboard. 

(M., XL, 63, etc.) 
382 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BHtf-PARlKSHA 

BHITTI-SOPANA A kind of surrounding steps made through a 
wall. 

(See Kautiliya-Artha-sdstra under SOPANA.) 

BHINDA-SALA A kind of detached building with a balcony in 
front, pandi-sala with a verandah in front (see PANDI-SALA). 

(M., xxxv, 98 ; see under SALA.) 

BHO-KANTA A class of storeyed buildings. 

A class of eight-storeyed buildings. (M., xxvi, 3-20; see under PRASADA.) 
A class of the ten-storeyed buildings. (M., xxvm, 6-8 ; see under 
PRASADA.) 

BH0TA-KANTA A class of the five-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxni, 13-15 ; see under PRASADA.) 

BHO-DHARA A type of oval building. 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 19-20 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVH, vv. 29-30 ; see under PRASADA). 

BHOPA-KANTA A class of the eight-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxvi, 22-28 ; see under PRASADA.) 

BHO-PARlKSHA Testing the site and soil where a village, town 
or building is constructed. 

All the Vdstu-sdstras have elaborate descriptions on the subject. The 
principles and details are similar in the treatises examined below. 

(i) The soil of the plot, where a village, town, fort, palace, temple or 
house is to be built, is examined with regard to its shape, colour, odour, 
feature, taste and touch (M., in, 16-32). The elevation of the ground as 
well as the luxuriant growth of certain plants, trees and grasses on the 
ground are also examined (M., iv, 4-38). If a plot of land is found to be 
satisfactory on all or most of these examinations, it should be selected for 
a village, town, fort, or house, as the case may be. But even after this 
selection, it would be wise to test the ground by some other ways. 

A square hole of one cubit deep should be dug on the selected site and 
be filled up with water. After 24 hours the chief architect should mark 
the condition of the water in the hole. If all the water be dried up by this 
time, the earth is taken to be very bad. But if, on the other hand, there 
remains some water in the hole, the selected plot of land would be fit for 
any building (M., v. 20-30). 

Another final test is that a similar hole is dug on the plot and filled 
up with the earth taken out of it. If this earth be not quite enough to fill 

383 



BHO-PARIKSHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

up the hole, the ground is taken to be very bad, but if this earth overfills 
the hole, the soil is stated to be very good for any building.- (M, v. 34-37.) 
The general import of the last two tests that in the former case, the very 
dry land is avoided, while in the latter, very loose or sandy land is said to 
be unfit for the construction of a building. 

(2) Brihat-Samhita, Chap. LIII, vv. 96, 97 (ed. Kern, Bibliotheca hd. 
A. S. Bengal, New Series, nos. 51, 54, 59, 63, 68, 72 and 73). 

Sita-rakta-pita-krishna vipradmam prasasyate bhumih | 
Gandhas cha bhavati yasya ghrita-rudhirannadya-madyasamah I 
Kusa-yukta sara-bahula durvakasavrita kramena mahi I 
Anuvarnam vriddhi-kari madhura-kashayamla-katuka cha II 

See also w. 85-94 and then compare the last line of the verse 95 : 
Tat tasya bhavati subhadam yasya cha yasmin mano ramate I 

' In general the soil (ground) will be suitable to any one whose mind is 
pleased with it.' 

Compare also the eleven lines quoted f om : 

(3) Garga by the commentary of Brihat-Samhitd, which are again quoted 
by Dr. Kern. 

(4) ' The Visvak (i, 61, sqq.) contains the same rules, but in other 
words.' 

(5) Part of the corresponding passage from Kasyapa is quoted by Ram 
Raz (Arch, of Hind., p. 17.) 

(J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 295, note 2.) 
Vdstu-Ratandvall (a compilation, ed. Jivanatha Jyotishi, 1883, PP- 8, 10) : 

(6) On colour of ground, quotation from Vasishtha-sariihitd : 

Sveta-sasta dvijendranam rakta bhumir mahi-bhujam I 
ViSarh pita cha s"udranarii krishnanyesham vimisrita || 

(7) From the Vdstu-pradlpa : 

Sukla-mritsna cha ya bhumir brahmani sa prakirtita I 
Kshatriya rakta-mritsna cha harid-vai^ya prakirtita II 
Krishna bhumir bhavech chhudra chaturddha pariklrtita II 

(8) On taste, from Mrada : 

Madhuram katukam tiktam kashayam cha rashah kramat 1 1 

(9) On smell, from the Griha-kdrikd : 

Ghritasrig-anna-madyanarh gandhas cha kramaso bhavet 1 1 

(10) On declivity, from Bhrigu : 

Udag-adi plavam ishtam vipradinam pradakshincnaiva f 
Viprah sarwatra vased anuvarnam atheshtam anyesham iti I \ 

(it) Silpa-dlpaka (ed. Gangadhara, i, 22-23) : 

Sveta bramhana-bhumika cha ghritavad-gandha susvadinl I 
Ratka sonita-gandhini nripati-bhuh svade kashaye cha sa II 

384 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BHOMI-(KA) 

Svade'mla tila-taila-gandhir udita pita cha vaisya-mahi I 
Krishna matsya-sugandhini cha katuka sudreti bhu-lakshanam 1 1 
(12) Bhavishya-Purana (Chap, cxxx, vv. 42-44) : 

Ishta-gandha-rasopeta nimna bhumih prasasyate I 
Sarkara-tusha-kesasthi-kshararigara-vivarjita 1 1 
Megha-durhdubhi-nirghosha sarva-vija-prarohim I 
Sukla rakta tatha pita krishna kathita kshitih II 
Dvija-rajanya-vaisyanarh sudranam cha yatha-kramat I 
Then follows the examination proper of the soil (vv. 44-45). A pit is dug 
in the ground and filled up with the sand which is taken out exactly 
in the same way as in the Mdnasdra. The quality of the soil varies from 
best to worst as the sand is in excess, equal and less in filling up the pit. 

BHtJMA (see TALA) A storey, a floor. 

Eka-bhumaih dvi-bhumarh va kshudranam bhavanam nnnam I 

(Silpa-sdstra-sdra-samgraha, vm, 29.) 

BHOMI-(KA) (see TALA) Earth, ground, soil, a place, a region 
a spot, a site, a situation, a storey, the floor of a house. 

(1) In the Mdnasdra a chapter (xi) is named Bhumi-lamba which des- 
cribes the dimensions of different storeys : 

Bhumi-lamba-vidhirh vakshye sastre sarhkshepatah kramat I 
Uktam hi bhumi-lambam syad ekanta-bhumikam I 
Etad dva-dasa-bhumy-antarh janmadi-stupikantarh syat I 

(M., xi, i, 5, 125, etc.) 

(2) Kshatriyadeh pancha-bhumir dvijanam raga-bhumikam I 

(Silpa-saslra-sdra-sarhgraha, vin, 30.) 

(3) Vimano'strl deva-yane sapta-bhumau cha sadmani I 

(Nigantu ; see Ramdyarja under VIMANA.) 

(4) Sapta-bhaumashta-bhaumas cha sa dadarsa mahapurlm I 

(Rdmayana, v. 2, 50 ; see also vi, 33, 8.) 

(5) Ekaiva cha bhumika tasya syad eka tasya cha bhumika I 

(Brihat-Samhita, LVI, 23 ; see Kasyapa, quoted by 
Kern, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 320.) 

(6) Sata-sringas chatur-dvaro bhumika-shodasochchhritah I 

(Matsya-Purdna., Chap. CCLXIX, v. 31 ; 
see also w. 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, etc.) 

(7) Raja-kanyam . . . sapta-bhumika-prasada-pranta-gatam I 

(Pafichatan'ra, ed. Bombay, i, p. 38.) 

(8) A floor (Bheragha inscrip. of Alhanadevi, v. 27, Ep. Ind., Vol. n 
pp. 12, 1 6.) 

385 



BHCMI-LAMBA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

BHUMI-LAMBA The height of a storey ; according to the Kdmi- 
kagama (see below) and the Mdnasdra the term implies the dimen- 
sions of storeys. 

(1) The five series of breadth in the smallest type of one-storeyed build- 
ings are 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 cubits ; and the five series of length are 3, 5, 7, 9, 
and 1 1 cubits. In the intermediate type the five series of breadth are 5, 
7, 9, ii and 13 cubits and the five series of length 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 
cubits. In the largest type the five series of breadth are 6, 8, 10, 12 and 
14 cubits and the five series of length are 7, 9, n, 13 and 15 cubits. 

(M., xi, 6-12.) 
All the twelve storeys are in this way measured separately. 

(M., xi, 13-125.) 

These are stated to be the dimensions in the Jati class of buildings. 
Three-fourths, half and one-fourth of these dimensions are prescribed, 
for the Chhanda, Vikalpa and Abhasa classes respectively. 

(2) Chatur-amsadi-samsthanam bhumi-lambam iti smritam I 

(Kdmikagama, L, I.) 

Then follow the dimensions of the storeys from one to twelve and six- 
teen (ibid., w. 2-34). The five proportions of the height of storeys, as 
' bhumi-lamba ' means, are given under the same five technical names as 
in the Mdnasdra, viz., Santika, Pushta, Jayada, Adbhuta, and Sarva- 
kamika (vv. 24, 25-28). The Jati, Chhanda, Vikalpa and Abhasa classes 
of buildings are also distinguished (vv. 9-13). 

(3) Varahamihira describes the height, etc. of the buildings of the 
Brahmans, kings, ministers and others (Brihat-Samhitd, LIII, 4-26). But the 
general rule about the height of the storey (bhumika) is also given (Brihat- 
Samhita, LVI, 29-30) : 

Bhumikangula-manena mayasyashtottaram satam I 
Sardham hasta-trayarh chaiva kathitarh visvakarmana 1 1 
Prahuh sthapatayas chatra matam ekam vipaschitah I 
Kapota-pali-samyukta nyuna gachchhanti tulyatam II 
' A storey's altitude is of 108 digits according to Maya, but Visvakarman 
pronounces it to be of three cubits and a half (i.e. 84 digits). As to this, 
however, able architects have declared that (in reality) there is no discre- 
pancy of opinion, for, if you add the height of the crown-work (kapota- 
pali) the smaller number will equal (the greater).' Dr. Kern. 

BHO-MUKHA A type of oval building. 

(Garuda-Purdna, Chap. XLVII, vv. 29-30 ; 
see under PRASADA.) 

386 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE BHOSHANA 

BHUSHANA A class of storeyed buildings, a moulding, a type of 
pavilion, articles of furniture, ornaments. 

A type of oval building (Agni-Purdna., Chap, civ, vv. 19-20 ; see under 
PRASADA.) 

A class of the nine-storeyed buildings (M., xxvn, 13-14 ; see under 
PRASADA.) 

A moulding of the column (M., xv, 93, etc.) 
A type of pavilion : 

Devanarh cha maunartharh bhushanakhyam tu mandapam I 

(M, xxxiv, 349.) 
Mdnasdra (Chap. L, 1-309) named Bhushana : 

The ordinary ornaments for the body are called ' anga-bhushana' 
(lines 1-44, 288-309) and the articles of house-furniture ' bahir-bhu- 
shana, (44-288). 

Ornaments are here divided broadly into four classes, namely, 
Patra-kalpa, Chitra-kalpa, Ratna-kalpa and Misrita or Misra-kalpa 
(lines 3-4). All these are suited to the deities. The emperor or Chakra- 
vartin can put on all these except the Patra-kalpa. The kings called 
Adhiraja and Narenda can wear both Ratna-kalpa and Misrita. The 
Misra-kalpa is prescribed for all other kings. 

Patra-kalpa is so called because it is made of leaves and creepers. 
Chitra-kalpa is made of flowers, leaves, paintings, all precious stones 
and other decorations. The Ratna-kalpa is made of flowers and 
jewels. And the Misra-kalpa is made of leaves, jewels and the 
mixture of all others. These four kinds are specially made for the 
images of Gods and Kings only (line i). 

The ordinary ornaments of the body include among others Padanu- 
pura (anklet), Kirita (diadem), Mallika (a jasmine-like ornament), 
Kundala (ear-ring), Valaya (bracelet), Mekhala (belt), Kara (chain), 
Kankana (bracelet for the wrist), Siro-vibhushana (head-gear), Kinkini 
(little-bells) , Karna-bhushana (ear-rings, etc.), Keyura (armlet), 
Tatanka (large ear-ring), Karna (ear ornament), Chuda-mani (crest- 
jewel), Bala-patta (little tiara), Nakshatra-mala (necklace of 27 pearls). 
Ardha-hara (half chain of 64 strings) , Svarna-sutra (gold chain worn 
round the breast), Ratna-malika (garland of jewels), Chira (a pearl 
necklace of four strings), Svarna-kanchuka (gold armour), Hiranya- 
malika (gold chain), Lamba-hara (long suspended chain), etc. The 
ornaments like crown, etc. are described elsewhere. 

The articles of house furniture include among others Dlpa-danda 
(lamp-post), Vyajana (fan), Darpana (mirror), Manjusha. (basket, 
wardrobe, almirah,etc.), Dola (swing, hammock, palanquin, etc.), Tula 

387 



BHOGA AN EWCTCLOPAEDIA OF 

and Tula-bhara (balance), Panjara (cage), and Nida (nest), etc., for the 
domestic animals (except cows, horses, elephants, described elsewhere) 
and birds (lines 45-288). The articles of furniture like car, chariot, 
throne, bedstead, etc., are described elsewhere. 

BHOGA A class of the single-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xrx, 167; see under PRASADA.) 

BHOGA-MANDAPA (cf. MANDAPA) The refectory, an appur- 

enance of the temple. 

(M., XXXH, 55, etc. ; see under MANDAPA.) 

BHOJANA-MATHA A refectory, a dining-hall. 

' The meritorious gift of a refectory (bhojana-matha) for the community 
(Sangha) by the Yavana Chita (Chaitra) of the gates (or of the Gata 
country.) ' (Junnar inscrip. no. 8, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. iv, 
P- 94-) 
BHAUMA (see BHUMI) A storey, the floor of a house. 

Dvadasa-bhauma, daga-bhauma, shad-bhauma, sapta-bhauma I 

(Brihat-Samhita, LVI, 20, 21, 22, 24, 27.) 

BHRAMA The enclosing cloisters, a covered arcade, an enclosed 
place of religious retirement, a monastic establishment. 

' The temple itself, with its enclosing cloisters (bhrama) measures . . . 
The court is surrounded by cloisters (bharhti-bhrama) in which, besides 
three small temples on the north, south and west sides each in line with 
the centre of the principal mandapa, there are the orthodox number of 
fifty-two small shrines (cf. Prakara and Parivaralaya) each crowned by a 
sikhara or spire.' 

' The inner fagade of the cloister or bharhti (Skr. bhrama) is interrupted 
only by the three small temples mentioned above, by the large entrance 
porch on the east, and by smaller entrances on the north and south near 
the east end. The corridor (alinda) is about nine feet wide all round and is 
raised by four steps above the level of the court.' 

' The entrance porch on the east projects considerably and is flanked 
inside by stairs, in line with the bharhti (bhrama) on each side . . . ' 
(Ahmadabad Arch. Burgess, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xxxm, 
pp. 87, 88.) 

BHRAMANA (see PRADAKSHINA) A surrounding terrace, an en- 
closing verandah, a circular path. 

Sikharasya tu turyyena bhramanam parikalpayet. 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLII, v. 12, etc.) 

388 




OUT LINE PLAN RHADRA 

BHADRA 



1_ 




BHRAMA DANDA 




BHRAMA. 




PLAN 

BRAHMA MASTAK9 



Pant 3SS 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MAftGALA 

BHRAMA-DANDA A kind of post for a large fan. 

(M., L, 104 ; see under VYAJANA.) 

BHRAMALINDA A surrounding balcony 01 terrace. 

(M., xxxiv, 304, 497, etc. ; see under ALINDA.) 

M 

MAKARA-KUNDALA A crocodile-shaped ornament for the ear 
of an image. 

(M., LI, 53 ; see under BHUSHANA.) 

MAKARA-TORANA (see TORANA) An arch marked with makara 

(an animal-like shark or crocodile). 

Dvayor makarayor vakraih Saktarh madhyama-puritam | 
Nana-vidha-lata-yuktam etan makara-toranam 1 1 

(Kamikagama, LV, 65.) 

For the details of such an arch, see Annual Report of Arch. Survey of India 
(1903-04, p. 227 f.), Mdnasdra (Chaps. XLVI, XLVIII) and Suprabhedagama 
(xxix, 68-72) under TORANA. 

MAKARA-BHtJSHANA An ear-ornament. 

(M., L, 26 ; see under BHUSHANA.) 

MAKARAPATRA An ornament of an arch generally above the 
column. 

Tad-urdhve toranasyante makarapatra-sarhyutam I 

(M., xv, 133.) 

MAKARALA An architectural member of a hall. 

(M., xxxv, 373 ; see under ALA.) 

MAKARl-VAKTRA The face of a female shark, employed as an 
ornament for an arch above a column. 

(M, xv, 136.) 
MAKUTA A head-gear, a diadem, a crown. 

(M., vn, 164'; xn, 120 ; XLDC, 15 ; LIV 23, etc.) 

MAN GALA A kind of throne, a village, a type of pavilion. 
A throne. (Af., XLV, 4; see under SI&HASANA.) 
A village (Kamikagama, xx, 3 ; see under AGRAHARA^ . 
A type of pavillion (M., xxxiv, 481-448 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

389 



MANGALA-VITHI AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

M AftGALA-VlTHI A broad road surrounding a village or town, 
also called Raja-vlthi and Ratha-vithi. 

(See Kamikagama, under RAJA-VITHI.) 

MAJJANALAYA A detached building for bath or washing. 

(M., XL, 103.) 



A bedstead, couch, bed, sofa, a chair, throne, a plat- 
form, a pulpit, a loft. 

A synonym of the bedstead (M., in, n), of the entablature (M., xvi, 
18.) 

Mancha-paryanka-palyankah katvya-samah I 

Palyanko mancha-paryanka-vrishl-paryastikasu cha I Iti Medini I 

(Amarakdsha, 2, 3, 138.) 

In connexion with buildings of one to twelve storeys : 
Adhishthana-samarh manchardhe'rdhena vapra-yuk I 

(Af.,xxi, 14, etc.) 

A component part of the bedstead (M., XLIV, 86). 
A platform : 

DaSa-bhagau dvau pratimanchau ' two-tenths of it for the forma- 
tion of two platforms, opposite to each other.' (Kaulillya-Ariha-sastra, 
Chap, xxrv, p. 53.) 

MAftCHA-KANTA A class of the four-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxii, 47-57 ; see under PRASADA.) 

MA^CHA-BANDHA A class of bases comprising four types which 
differ from one another in height and in the addition or omission of 
some mouldings. 

(M., xiv, 127-149 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA.) 

MAftCHA-BHADRA One of the three classes of pedestals, the 
other two being Vedi-bhadra and Prati-bhadra. It has four types 
differing from one another in height and in the addition or omission 

of some mouldings. 

(M., xiu, 93-127 ; see the lists of 
mouldings under UPAPITHA.) 

MAftCHALl -A synonym of the bedstead. 

(M., in, ii ; see under PARYANKA.) 

39 




MANJOSHA 



Page 390 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MATHA 

(12) ' Had a matha built (matha kattiSi) for Siva-Basappa-Svami of 
the Govi-matha.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. in, Mysore Taluq, no. 24 ; Transl., p. 3 ; 
Roman Text, p. 7.) 

(13) ' On my king (i.e., husband) going to Svarga, having caused to 
be erected a matha in Kalale and attached it to the great palace, Kurah- 
atti and Sambhupura are granted as an endowment for it, as an offering 
to Siva.' The peculiarities of this matha should be noted. (Ep. Carnat., 
Vol. in, Nanjangud Taluq, no. 81 ; Transl., p. 103 ; Roman Text, p. 196.) 

(14) ' Having erected a matha (Sattra or alms-house) for the distribution 
of food to those who come to the car-festival of the god. . . , caused his 
guru to take up his residence in the king's matha (a detached residential 
building which belongs to a house and is intended for receiving and 
accommodating the guests) to conduct the worship of Chandraiekhara 
(who might be installed in a matha or temple which, however, does not 
occur in the present inscription) and to minister to the Jangamas, and give 
shelter and food to mendicants and pilgrims, ... in order to meet all the 
expenses of the same made a grant of Haranahalli.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. iv, 
Hunsur Taluq, no. 104 ; Transl., p. 93 ; Roman Text, 15.) 

The different meanings of the term ' matha ' noted within brackets 
in the above passage should be noted. 

(15) 'He had the stone-fort built, together with the matha, mantapa, 
pond, well . . . ' 

1 In the evening-matha (sandhya-matha) he set up the image of the god 
and built the pond.' 

' He caused the stone-fort to be built, and set up the matha, mantapa, 
evening-matha (sandhya-matha), pond, well, Basava pillar, swing and 
images of gods.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. v, Part i, Channarayapatna Taluq, nos. 
158, 160, 165; Transl., pp. 195, 196,198; Roman Text, pp. 450, 451, 454.) 

(16) Sri-Sankaracharya-vinirmite lasat-simhasane dharmamaye mathe 

subhah . . . 

' He made petition at the feet of Vidyaranya Sri-pada, representing 
that in Sringapura, in (connexion with) the dharmapitha (or religious 
throne) established by Sankaracharyya, there must be a matha and 
agrahara.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. vi, Sringeri Jagir, no. II ; Roman Text, p. 195, 
line 12 f. ; Transl., p. 95, last para.) 

This matha is mentioned in no. 1 3 and is called Sri-matha in nos. 25, 
26 and 31. Of this matha, Mr. Rice gives a history and says that 'the 
head of the Sringeri matha is styled the jagad-guru or the guru of the world 
and is possessed of extensive authority and influence. He wears on cere- 
monial occasions a tiara like the Pope's, covered with pearls and precious 
stones . . . , and a handsome necklace of pearls, with an emerald centre 
piece.' (Introd., p. 24, para. 2.) But no architectural details are given. 

393 



MANIKA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(17) 'This temple is a Brahma-chari-matha. (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, 
Shikarpur Taluq, no. 242 ; Transl., p. 140, line 7 ; Roman Text, p. 248, 
lines 20-21.) 

(18) Vinitesvara-matha-samavesarh matham etat karitam Sri-Narayana- 
devakulasya ' built this matha of the deva-kula of Narayana, near the 
temple of Vinitesvara.' (MundesVari inscrip. of Udayasena, lines 5, 6 ; 
Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 219-290.) 

MANIKA A water-jar, a class of buildings. 

A class of buildings which are oval in plan and sub -divided under the 

following names : 

(i) Gaja, (2) Vrishabha, (3) Harhsa, (4) Garutman, (5) Riksha- 
nayaka, (6) Bhushana, (7) Bhu-dhara, (8) Srijaya, and (9) Prithivl- 
dhara : 

(1) Agni-Purana (Chap, civ, v. n, 19-20 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purana (Chap. XLVII, vv, 29-30 ; see under PRASADA). 

Cf. Rock inscriptions at Mulbe (no. iv, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxv, pp. 79, 80). 

MANI-GRAMA A trading corporation. (Note on Tamil Inscrip- 
tion in Siam, E. Hultzsch, J. R. A. S., 1913, pp. 337-33Q. 1 ) 

MANI-DVARA A kind of top door or window. 

Uparishtat trayarhSarh tu chatvarardhariisam dvi-parsVayoh I 
Tesharh madhye tu yad dvararh mani-dvaram ihochyate 1 1 

(Kamikagama, LV, 43.) 

MANI-BANDHA An ornament for the wrist, a string of pearls, the 
collet. 

Prakoshthe valayarh chaiva mani-bandha-kalapakam I 

(M., L, 16.) 
Mani-bandha-katakam va mauktika-chudam eva cha I 

(M., LIV, 14.) 
Prakoshtha-valayarh chaiva valayair mani-bandhakaih 

(Ibid., 99, etc.) 

MANI-BHADRA (see MANDAPA) A pavilion with 64 columns. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, 101, 103 ; see under MANDAPA.) 
MANI-BHITTI The residence of the great serpent (Sesha-naga). 
MANI-BHU-(MI) A floor inlaid with jewels. 

MANI- MANDAPA A jewelled pavilion, the residence of the great 
serpent (Sesha-naga). 

MANI-HARMYA An upper storey, a crystal palace, a jewelled 
mansion. (See Artha-tastra under GRIHA-VINYASA.) 

394 




MANIKA. 




MANI DVARA 



MAMI-DVARA. 



394 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANDAPA 

MANDAPA A detached building, a pavilion, an open hall, an 
arbour, a corridor (M., xxxiv, 406, 409, 414, etc.), a tower, a temple, 
the auditorium in a theatre (Bharata-Natya-sdstra, n, 7-8, 22 ; 
see details under NATYA-GRIHA(VESMA). 

Atha mandapo'stri janasrayah I (Amarakosha, 2, 2, 9.) 

' Mandapas are not furnished with walls ; the roofing is formed of large 
slabs of granite supported by monolithic pillars. ' (D. A. lyengar, p. 20.) 

' The resting place where the gods are every year (occasionally) carried. 
The most celebrated part of the temple of Madura is the Pudu mantapam 
which is only a vast corridor.' (Ibid., p. 38.) 

Difference between Mandapa and Sabha (M. xxxiv, 559-562) : 
the former having a pent-roof, and the latter pinnacled (i.e. spherical roof). 

(i) Mdnasdra (Chap, xxxiv, 1-578, named Mandapa) : 

Mandapa generally means a temple, bower, shed or hall. But the 
term has been used in three technical senses in this chapter. 

It implies in the first place a house in the village, etc., or built on the 
bank of a sea, river, tank or lake ; secondly, the detached buildings in a 
compound which is generally divided into five courts (see PRAKARA) . But in 
the most general sense, it implies various sorts of rooms in a temple or resi- 
dential buildings. The most part of this long chapter is devoted to a des- 
cription of these rooms. 

Mandapas are both temples and residential buildings : 

Taita(-ti)lanam dvi-jatlnam varnanam vasa-yogyakam I 

The general comparative measurement of the mandapas is discussed at 
the beginning. This is followed by the measurement and other descrip- 
tions of (ii) the bhitti (wall), (iii) balcony (alinda), (iv) prapa (alms-house), 
and (v) the form of the mandapas (lines 3-4). 

Seven mandapas are, as stated, built in front of the prasada or the main 
edifice (line 157). They are technically called Himaja, Nishadaja, Vijaya, 
Malyaja, Pariyatra, Gandhamadana and Hema-kuta (lines 163-156). 
Various parts of these, such as walls, roofs, floors, balconies, courtyards, 
doors, windows, "pillars, etc., are described in detail (lines 166-175). 
Besides these seven, various other mandapas are also described in accord- 
ance with their architectural details and the various purposes for which 
they are built. 

Meruja mandapa is for the library-room (line 161), Vijaya for wedding 
ceremonies (line 163), Padmaka for refectory or kitchen of gods (line 174), 
Sicha for ordinary kitchen (line 175), Padma for collecting flowers (line 
181), Bhadra for water reservoir, store-house, etc. (line 185), Siva for 
unhusking paddy corn (line 197), Veda for assembly-hall (line 209), 
Kula-dharana for keeping perfumes (line 262), Sukhanga for guest-house 
(sattra,) (1 ne 272), Darva for elephant's stable, and Kausika for horses' 

395 



MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

stable, Saukhyaka and others built on the bank of a sea, river, lake, etc., 
are for the pilgrimage of gods (line 281), Jayala and others for summer 
residence (line 294). Some mandapas are made for banishment (see below), 
some for bedrooms of queens and others. Dhanada (line 328), Bhushana 
(lines 349, 366), Kharvata (lines 455, 472), Drona (lines 423-434), Sri- 
rupa (line 480), Mangala (line 488), etc., are described under these terms. 

The plan, ornaments, etc., of mandapas are described in detail. A 
description of the forms of mandapas is given (lines 549-557). The mandapas 
(rooms) of temples and of the houses of the Brahman as should have the 
Jati shape ; the Chhanda shape is given to the mandapas of the Kshattri- 
yas, the Vikalpa shape to those of the VaiSyas, and the Abhasa shape to 
those of the Sudras. But according to some, these four classes are also 
based on the form of the Bhadra (portico). 

The mandapas of two faces are called dandaka, of three faces svastika, 
the latter one having also the plough shape ; the mandapas of four faces 
are known as chatur-mukha, of six faces maulika, and of five faces sarvato- 
bhadra (lines 554-556). 

A short description of the mandapas in a village or town is also given 
(lines 558-572). Their principal members are stated to be the lupa (pent- 
roof), prastara (entablature), prachchhadana (roof), sabha (council hall), 
and kuta (dome), etc. Mandapas are also built on the roadside and at 
other places. 

All the mandapas mentioned above are separately described as they 
belong to a temple or to the houses of the Brahman as, the Kshattriyas, the 
VaiSyas, and the Sudras respectively (cf. lines 571-578). 
Cf. the following : 

The detached buildings or attached halls for various purposes : 
Some bhallata-mukhye cha kalpayet kosa-mandapam I 
Pushpa-dante sukarau cha Sastra-mandapa-sarhyutam I 
Varune vasure vapi vastu-nikshepa-mandapam I 
Nage vapi mrige vapi deva-bhushana-mandapam I 
A(a)ditau choditau vapi sayanartharh cha mandapam I 
Asthana-mandapam chaiva chatur-dikshu vidikshu cha I 
Snapanartharh mandapam snana-mandapam eva cha I 
Griha-kshate yame vapi vahana-sthana-mandapam I 
Maryadi-bhittikasyantam mandapam pavanalayam 

(M., xxxii, 68-76.) 

Dakshine nairriti vapi bhojanartham tu mandapam I 
Vayavyena dhanangamse pushpa-mandapa-(m) yojayet I 
Tat-tad-bahya-pradese tu kaya-Suddhyartha-mandapam I 
Vayavye nairrite vapi sutika-mandapam bhavet I 

(M., XL, 98, 102, 104, 105.) 
396 



! 




HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANpAPA 

The height : 

Mandaparh nava-talam kuryad ... I 

(M., xi, 144.) 

ISanadi-chatush-karne matharh va mandapam tu va I 

(M., rx, 138.) 
Mandapadi cha bhupanam vesma kuryat tu purvavat I 

(Ibid., 445.) 
In connexion with columns : 

Prasade mandape vapi prakare gopure tatha | 

(M., xv, 433.) 

Cf. Ayuda-mandapa (M., xxxvi, 34), v(b)alalokana-mandapa (ibid., line 
48), vivaha-mandapa (line 49), vastrachchhadana-mandapa (line 50), 
vidyabhyasartha-mandapa (line 53), tailabhyarigartha-mandapa (line 54), 
asthana-mandapa (line 55), vilasartha-mandapa (line 56), dhanya-karshana- 
mandapa (line 69), pushpa-mandapa (line 71), mitya-yogya-mandapa (line 
74), nityarchana-mandapa (line 79), etc. 

Some mandapas are stated to be furnished with 100 or 1,000 columns : 
Sata-pada-yutam vatha sahsranghrika-mandapam I 

(M., xxxiv, 240.) 
(2) Bandha-sthanam bahih kuryat snana-mandapam eva cha I 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLVI, v. 35.) 
Prasadasyottare vapi purve va mandapo bhavet II 
Chaturbhis toranair yukto mandapa-(h) syach chatur-mukhah II 

(Ibid., Chap. CCLXIV, vv. 13, 15.) 

' The mandapa should be built to the north or east of the temple. 
It should have four faces (facades) and be furnished with four arched 
gateways (lit. arches).' 

Athatah sarhpravakshyami mandapanarh tu lakshanam I 
Mandapa-pravaran vakshye prasadasyanurupatah II (i) 
Vividha mandapah karya jyeshtha-madhya-kaniyasah I 
Namas tan pravakshyami srinudhvam rishi-sattamah II (2) 
Then follow the names of twenty-seven mandapas. They are divided 
according to the number of columns they are furnished with, the largest 
one having 64 pillars, the next 62, one following 60, and so on : 

(i) Pushpaka, (2) Pusha-bhadra, (3) Suvrata, (4) Amritanan- 
dana, (5) Kausalya, (6) Buddhi-samkirna, (7) Gajabhadra, (8) 
Jayabaha, (9) Srivatsa, (10) Vijaya, (11) Vastu-kirti, (12) Srutirhjaya, 
(13) Yajna-bhadra, (14) Visala, (15) Suslishta, (16) Satru-mardana, 
(17) Bhaga-pancha, (18) Nandana, (19) Manava, (20) Mana-bhadraka, 
(21) Sugiiva, (22) Harita, (23) Karni-kara, (24) Satardhika, (25) 
Sirhha, (26) Syama-bhadra, and (27) Subhadra. 

397 



MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The plans of mandapas are given next : 

Tri-konarh vrittam ardhendum ashta-konarii dvir-ashtakam I 
Chatush-konam tu kartavyam samsthanam mandapasya tu II 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CGLXX, 
vv. i, 2, 3-6, 7-15, 1 6.) 

(3) Bhitter dvaigunyato vapi karttavya mandapah kvachit I 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, v. 37.) 
Prasadasyagratah kuryan mandapam das"a-hastakam II 
Kuryad dva-dasa-hastam va stambhaih shodasabhir yutam I 
Dhvajashtakais chatur-hastarh madhyc vedim cha karayet 1 1 

(Ibid., Chap. XLVIH, vv. 4-5.) 

(4) Ahuya visva-karmmanam karayamasa sadaram I 

Mandapam cha suvistlrnarh vedikabhir manoramam II (2) 
Description of its carving hand paintings : 

Jalam kim nu sthalam tatra na vidus tattvato janah I 
Kvachit sirhhah kvachid-dhamsah sarasas cha maha-prabhah 1 1 (6) 
Kvachich chhikharhdinas tatra kritrima sumanoharah I 
Tatha nagah kritrimas cha hayas chaiva tatha mrigah II (7) 
Ke satyah ke asatyas cha sarhskrita visva-karmana I 
Taithaiva chaivarh vidhina dvara-pada-bhutah kritah II (8) 
Ratha rathi-yuta hy-asan kritrima hy-akritopamah I 
Sarvesham mohanarthaya tatha cha samsadah kritah I (13), etc. 
Evambhutah kritas Lena mandapo divya-rupavan II (20) 

(Skanda-Purdna, Mahesvara-khanda-prathama, 

Chap, xxiv, vv. 2, 6, 7, 8, 13, 20 ; for 

further description see vv. 36-67.) 

Rathasyesana-dig-bhage salarh kritva susobhanam I 
Tan-madhye mandapam kritva vedim atra sunirmalam II 

(Ibid., Vaishnava-khanda-dvitiya, Chap, xxv, v. 26.) 

(5) Eka-dvi-tri-talopetam chatush-pancha-talam tu va 1 1 

Mandaparia tu vidhatavyam salanam agra-desake II 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 96, g6<z.) 

(6) Mandapas implying the detatched buildings and forming part of a 
temple (Suprabhedagama, xxxv, 94-104). 

Measurement as compared with the temple : 

Prasada-lakshanarh proktam mandapanam vidhirh srinu II (94) 
Prasadardharh mukhayamam vistaram samam uchyate I 
Tri-padarh va mukhayamam sardharh mandapam uchyate II 

398 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANDAPA 

Classification : 

Devata-mandapam purvaih dvitiyam snapanarthakam I 
Vrishartham mandapam paschach chaturtham nritta-manda- 
pam II (96) 

Description of these four classes of mandapas : 

Devata-pratima-rupa(-am) sthapitarh deva-mandapam I 
Kalasa-sthapanam yatra proktarh snapana-mandapam II (97) 
Vrishabha-sthapitam yatra vrishabha-mandapam tatha I 
Nrittam yatra kritarh tat tu nritta-mandapam eva tu II (98) 
Gopure'tha vayavye'pi vayavye vikritam tatha I 
Evarh chatur-vidheshv-anya-niandapaih chagrato bahih II (99) 

Their names : 

Tesharh namani vakshyami srinu vatsa samahitah I 
Nanda-vrittam sriya-vrittam virasanam cha vrittakam II (100) 
Nandyavartam mani-bhadram visalarh cheti kirttitam I 

Their characteristic features : 

Nanda-vrittam chatush-padam shodasam sripratishthitam II 
Virhsati-stambha-samyuktarh virasanam iti smritam I 
Dvatrirhsad-gatra-samyuktam jaya-bhadram iti kathyate II 
Shat-trimsad-gatra-sarhyuktarh nandyavartam iti smritam I 
Chatuh-shashti-samayuktarh stambhanam mani-bhadrakam II 
Stambhanam tu satair yuktarh visalam iti samjnitam I 
Prasada-vat samakhyatam prastarantarii pramanatah II (104) 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxv, 94-104.) 

Then follows an account of these columns (ibid., vv. 105-108 ; see under 
STAMBHA). 

Kautiliya-Artha-Sdstra (Chap, xxn, p. 46, footnote) : 

(7) Ardha-gavyuta(-ti)-tritiyan ar-gramantara-rahitam mandapam I 

(Rdyapasenl-sulra-vydkhydne, p. 206.) 

(8) Mandapani dura-sthala-simantarani I 

(Prasna-yydkamna-sutra-vyakhydne, p. 306.) 

(9) See the first Prasasti of Baijnath (v. 29, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, p. 106), 
also the second Prasasti (v. 25, pp. 114, 117). 

(10) Somesvaraya tan-mandapam uttarena ' to the north of the hall 
of the temple of Somesvara.' (Chintra Prasasti of the reign of Sarangadeva, 
v. 40, Ep, Ind., Vol. i, pp. 284, 276.) 

(11) A hall for the supply of water (inscrip. of Chandella Viravarmanl 
v. 19, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, pp. 328, 330). 

399 



MANDAPA AN ENCTCLOPAEDlA Of 

(12) A chapel (Harsha stone inscrip., vv. 12, 44, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, 
pp. 121, 124, 126, 128). 

(13) Narayanasyayatanarh . . . saha mandapena the temple of Nara- 
yana together with the hall. (Khalari Stone inscrip. of Haribrahmadeva, 
v. 10, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, p. 231.) 

(14) SomesVara-mamdapa the temple of Somanath. (Sridhara's Deva- 
pattana Prasasti, v. 23, Ep, Ind., Vol. n, p. 442 ; see also v. 10, p. 440.) 

(15) Mantapa (the Kanarese form) a hall. (Satymangalam Plates of 
Devaraya II, v. 8, Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 37, 40.) 

(16) Sri-valladhipates sivasya sukhaclam bhadrahvayarh mandapam 
. . . akarod bhadrahvyam mandapam ... II 
Bhadrakhya-mandapam(mum) virachyya Sambhor nidravasana- 

vijayiti cha nama kritva | 

Chakre cha Nayaka-sivalayam asya parsve srl-jnana-murttir atisam- 
padi-valla-puryyam II 

(Bilvanathesvara inscrip. of Virachampa, 
vv. i, 2, 3, Ep. Ind., Vol. HI, pp. 70, 71.) 

(17) Dhama, Mamdira, Prasada and Bhavana are used indiscriminately 
for temple or mandapa. (Ganapesvaram inscrip. of Ganpati, vv. 23-25, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 86-87). 

(18) Abhyavahara-mandapa a dining hall. '(Ranganath inscrip. of 
Sundarapandya, v. 23, Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 13, 16.) 

(19) ' The immediate purpose of the Ranganatha inscription of Sundara- 
pandya is a description of his building operations at, and gifts to, the temple. 
He built a shrine of Narasirhha (w. 2 and 10) and another of Vishnu's 
attendant Vishvaksena (v. 8), both of which were covered with gold, and a 
gilt tower which contained an image of Narasirhha (v. 7). Further he covered 
the (original or central) shrine of the temple with gold an achievement of 
which he must have been specially proud, as he assumed, with reference 
to it, the surname Hema-chchhadana-raja, i.e., the king who has covered 
(the temple) with gold, and as he placed in the shrine a golden image of 
Vishnu, which he called after his own surname (v. 3) . He also covered the 
inner wall of the (central) shrine with gold (v. 22) and built, in front of it, 
a dining-hall, which he equipped with golden vessels (v. 23) ... 

... In the month of Chaitra he celebrated the procession-festival of 
the god (v. 20). For the festival of the gods sporting with Lakshmi, he built 
a golden ship (v. 21). The last verse (v. 30) of the inscription states that the 
king built three golden domes over the image of Hema-chchhadana-raja 
Hari, over that of Garuda (v. 16) and over the hall which contained the 
couch of Vishnu (v. 6).' 

400 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANDAPA 

' The following miscellaneous gifts (for articles of furniture) to Ranga- 
natha are enumerated in the inscription : A garland of emeralds (v. 4), 
a crown of jewels (v. 5), a golden image of Sesha (v. 6), a golden arch 
(v. 9), a pearl garland (v. n), a canopy of pearls (v. 12), different kinds of 
golden fruits (v. 13), a golden car (v. 14), a golden trough (v. 15), a 
golden image of Garuda (v. 16), a golden under-garment (v. 17), a golden 
aureola (v. 18), a golden pedestal (v. 19), ornaments of jewels (v. 24), a 
golden armour (v. 25), golden vessels (v. 28), and a golden throne 
(v. 29).' (Ranganatha inscrip. of Sundarapandya, Ep. Ind., Vol. in, p. n.) 

(20) Krishnalayarh mandapam an abode of Krishna, an open hall. 
(Three inscrip. from Travancore, no. B, line 4 ; Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, p. 203.) 

(21) Asthana-sila-mandapa (not translated by Hultzsch). (First Draksha- 
rama pillar inscrip., line 9, Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, pp. 329, 330.) 

(22) Ghana-mantapa-vapra-saudha-ramyalayam (v. 39) ' a temple 
(alaya) adorned with a solid hall, a wall and a plastered mansion ' (pp. 
123, 114). 

Sudha-liptam sila-mamtapam (v. 43) ' a plastered hall of stone, 
(pp. 123, 114). 

Vipulam ramyarh maha-mamtapam (v. 44) ' a fine large hall, 
(pp. 123, 114). 

Ramyam maha-mamtapam (v. 47) 'a beautiful large hall' (pp. 124, 

5)- 

Ghanam prasadarh nava-hema-kumbha-kalitam ramyarh maha-mamta- 
pam (v. 51) ' he presented a solid temple (prasada), adorned with nine 
golden pinnacles (kumbha), and a beautiful large hall, to the temple of 
Hari ' (pp. 125, 115).- -(Mangalagiri pillar inscrip., Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 114, 

II 5 , I24,_I25.) 

(23) Anandaika-niketanarh nayanayoh s(s)asvan manah-kairava- 

jyotsnaughah khalu visVakarmma-nipuna-vyapara-vaidaghdya- 
bhuh | 

Grishma-grasa-bhayatibhita-janata-sautlrya-durggalayo marggah 
kifttivijrimbhanasya jayina prottambhito mandapah II 

(Two Bhuvanesvara inscrip., no. i, of Svapnes- 
vara, v. 29, Ep. Ind,, Vol. vi, p. 202.) 

(24) ' This inscription (Bhimavaram inscrip. of Kulottunga i) is en- 
graved on a pillar in the mandapa in front of the Narayanasvamin temple 
at Bhimavaram in the Cocanada division of the Godavari District.' 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 219.) 

(25) Utsava-mamtapa a festive hall. (Kondavidu inscrip. of Krishna- 
raya, v. 27, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 237, 231.) 

(26) ' The village of Sivamangalam of the North Arcot District contains 
a Siva temple named Stambhesvara, which consists of a rock-cut shrine, 
two mandapas in front of it, and a stone enclosure. The two rock-cut 

401 



MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

pillars of the gate by which the shrine is entered bears the two subjoined 
inscriptions. Besides, there are several Chola inscriptions on the walls of 
the enclosure.' (Dr. Hultzsch. Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, p. 319.) 

(27) Madapo nava-gabha a nine-celled hall. 

Patho madapo a study. '(Kalre Cave inscrip. no. 20, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. VH, pp. 71, 72, 73.) 

(28) Srl-Kanchi-Jina-Vardhamana-nilayasyagre maha-mandapam sam- 

gitarttham achikarach cha silaya baddham samantat sthalam II 

' Caused to be built, in front of the temple of the Jina-Vardhamana 

at the prosperous Kanchi, a great hall for concerts and (caused to be) 

paved with stones the space all round.' (Two Jaina inscrip. of Irugappa, 

no. B, line 2, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, p. 116.) 

(29) ' Two buildings to be erected in the temple of Arulalanatha (are) 
a mandapa of one thousand pillars, a canopy of gems for (the image of) 
Mudivalanginan . . . (Arulala-Perumal inscrip. of Prataparudra, line 8, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vii, pp. 131, 132.) 

(30) Sri-nara-simha-varma-nripatih Sri-kovalure bhajan vasaiii visva- 

jagan-nivasa-vapushah Sri-vamanasyakarot I 

Sailam sumbhita-sata-kumbha-vilasat-kumbham maha-mandapam 

prakaram para-malika-vilasitam muktamayim cha prapa(-bha)m I 

' The glorious prince Nara-simha-varman, residing in Srikovalura made 

for the god Vamana, in whose body the whole world abides, a great 

mandapa of stone, resplendent with pitchers (kalasa or kumbha) of shining 

gold, a surrounding wall, adorned with excellent buildings, and a canopy of 

pearls.' (Fourteen inscrip. at Tirukkovalur, no. K, of Rajendradeva, lines 

1-2, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, pp. 145, 146.) 

(31) Dhara-giri-garbha-marakata-mamdape in an emerald pavilion 
on the Dharagiri hill. (Dhara Prasasti of Arjunavarman, line 12, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. vm, pp. 103, 100.) 

(32) Tejahpala iti kshitimdu-sachivah samjjvalabhih sila-srenibhih 

sphurad imdu-kumda-ruchiram Nemi-prabhor mamdiram I 
Uchchair mamdapam agrato Jina-(vara)-vasa-dvi-pamcha-satam 

tatparsVeshu balanakam cha purato nishpadayamasivan II 
' The minister Tejahpala, a moon on earth, erected the temple of the 
Lord Nemi, which shines by lines of stones as white as conch shells (and) 
is resplendent like the moon and jasmine flowers, a lofty hall (mandapa) 
in front (of it), fifty-two shrines for the best of the Jinas on the sides of it 
and a seat (balanaka) in the front.' (Mount Abu inscrip. no. i, v. 61, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 212, 218.) 

(33) . . . Kamakshl-dharma-mandape 1 1 

Pratyabdan dvija-bhukty-arttham bhagam ekam akalpayat II 

402 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANDAPA 

' Set apart one share for the yearly feeding of Brahmanas in the Ka- 
makshi-dharma-mandapa.' (Madras Museum plates of Srlgiribhupala, w. 
21, 22, Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 311, 316.) 

(34) ' Marangari . . . the prime minister of king Maranjadaiyan, 
made this stone temple and ascended heaven (i.e., died) without con- 
secrating it. Subsequently his brother Maran, Eyinan . . . who 
attained to the dignity of prime minister, made the mukha-mandapa 
(muga-maridapan) and consecrated (the shrine).' -(Two Anaimalai inscrip., 
no. ii, Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 320, 321.) 

(35) Of- Mandapika (lit., a small pavilion) : 
SrI-Naddula-maha-sthane Sri-Sarhderaka-gachchhe Sri-Mahavlra- 

devaya Sri-Naddula-talapada-sulka-mamdapikayam masanuma- 
sarh dhupa-ve(tai)lartham I 

' Granted to the Jaina temple of Mahavlradeva in the Sanderak 
gachchha, at the holy place (Mahasthana) of Naddula, a monthly (sum of 
five drammas), (to be paid) from the custom-house in the grounds (talapada- 
svatala) of Naddula.' 

For passages in which the term Mandapika occurs, compare, e. g., 
Ep. Ind., vol.i, pp, 114, 1-27 p. 173, 1-6, (Slyadoni-Satka-mandapika), 
p. 175, i, 19 ; p. 177, i, 29 and i, 30 , p. 179, i, 45 ; p. 262, i, 3 (pattana- 
mandapika) ; Ind. Ant., vol. xiv. p. 10, col. 2 (Sripathastha-mandapika) ; 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng., vols. LV, part i, p. 47 ; iv, p. 48, and v. ; Bhavnagar 
inscrip., p. 205, I, 7. Sulka-mandapika occurs, e. g., in Bhavnagar 
inscrip., p. 158 f., 11, 10, 15 and 18. 

' The meaning of mandapika is suggested by the Marathi mamdavl, a 
custum-house.' Prof. Kielhorn. (The Chahamanas of Naddula, no. A, Nadol 
plates of Alhanadeva, lines 22-23, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 66, 63, and note 8.) 

(36) . . . Vidadhe' sya mamdirc mamdapam 1 1 
Chakre'(a)kshaya-tritiyayam pratishtha mamdape dvijaih II 

(Chahamanas of Naddula, no. G., Sundha Hill inscrip. of 
Chachigadeva, vv. 56, 57, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, p. 79.) 

(37) Deva-Sri-Sasi-bhushanasya kritina devalayam karitam yugmarii 

mamdapa-sobhitam cha purato-bhadrarh pratolya saha I 
Kshetresasya tatha suralaya-vararh sphitam tadagam tatha bandharii 
Kaudika-samjnakam bahu-jalam dirgharh tatha khanitam l| 

(Ranker inscrip. of Bhanudeva, v. 7, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. DC, p. 127.) 

(38) Kamaniya-s"ila-stambha-kadambottambitamvaram 1 1 

Visamkata-vitamkali-virajad rarhga-mamtapam I 

403 



MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

' It is a large rangamandapa raised on a collection of beautiful stone 
pillars and adorned with rows of spouts.' (Krishnapuram plates of Sada- 
sivaraya, w. 55, 56, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 336, 341.) 

(39) Pahini mamdapa karamyah Akshasamalapaniyah dama karttavya 

pashana-itakayam ghatitah ... I 

' Pahini (the architect) constructed the mandapa, aksha-sama (?), 
and dama (?) with stones and bricks.' (The Chahamanas of Marwar, no. 
xni, Sanderava stone inscrip. of Kelhanadeva, line 2 f., Ep. Ind., Vol. xi, p. 48.) 

(40) ' This inscription (the Chahamanas of Marwar, no. xvn) . . . 
is incised on a pillar in the Sabha-mandapa of the temple of Mahavira.' 
(Ep. Ind., Vol. xi, p. 51.) 

(41) Abhinava-nishpanna-preksha-madhya-marhdape ... I 
Suvarnnamaya-kalasaropana-pratishtha krita I 

' The ceremony of placing a golden cupola on the newly made central 
hall, intended for dramatic performances was carried out.' -(The Chaha- 
manas of Marwar, no. xix, Jalar stone inscrip., lines 5, 6, Ep. Ind., Vol. xi, 

P- 55-) 

(42) Tenochchair bbodhi-mande sasi-kara-dhavalah sarwato manda- 

pena kantah prasada esha smara-bala-jayinah karito loka-sastuh II 
' By him this beautiful mansion of the Teacher of mankind, who over- 
came the power of (the god) Smara, dazzling white as the rays of the moon 
with an open pavilion on all sides, has been caused to be made at the exalt- 
ed Bodhi-manda' (also called Vajrasana, the miraculous throne under 
the Bodhi-tree at Bodh-Gaya, on which Buddha sat, when attaining Bodh- 
or perfect wisdom.) (Bodh-Gaya inscrip. of Mahanaman, lines 10-11 
C. I. I., Vol. in, F. G. I., no. 71, pp. 276, 278, 275 ; also Sanskrit arid Old' 
Canarese inscrip. no. 166, Bodh-Gaya inscrip. of Mahanaman, line 10 f., 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xv, pp. 358, 359.) 

(43) ' There are several other inscriptions in the outer parts of the (Velur) 
temple, viz., two on the pedestals of the two dvara-palakas in front of the 
gopura, one on the left outer wall of the inner prakara, and five on the 
floor of the alarhkaramandapa.' (H.S.I.I., Vol. i, p. 127, first para.) 

(44) ' We the great assembly of Manimangalam, . . . being assembled, 
without a vacancy in the assembly, in the large mandapa (of) the Brahma- 
sthana in our village . . . ' (Inscrip. of Virarajendra I, no. 30, line 36, 
H.S.I.I., Vol. m, p. 70.) 

(45) ' Brahmapriyan . . . caused to be made the stone work of a 
flight of steps, with tiger's head at the bottom, for the abhisheka-mandapa 
in the temple of Vanduvarapati Emberuman at Manimangalam . . . ' 
(Inscrip. of Rajaraja III, no. 39, H.S.I.I., Vol. m, p. 86.) 

(46) Sri-kusala-mandapadi-yukta-rajaka-mala karakhya-padma-karabhi- 

rama-nutana-omkaresvara-deva-sthanam I 

404 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANDAPA 

' A beautiful new Omkaresvara temple, a lotus ornament to the earth , 
which with its skilfully designed mantapas, etcetera, might be called a royal 
lotus.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. i, pp. 38, f., 61.) 

(47) ' This is the sacred marriage hall (Kalyana-manclapa) built (on 
the date specified) by Tirukkanam Ayya Mudeliyar's son Vedagiri Mudeliyar 
for the god Sri-Subharaya Subhamiyar of Alasur.' 

' This inscription is at Halasur, on the basement of the Kalyana-mandapa 
in the prakara of the Subrahmanya temple.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. ix, Banga- 
lore Taluq, no. 14 ; Roman Text, p. 8 ; Transl., p. 7.) 

(48) ' This is the outer mandapa ( ? Churru-mandapam) called Sri- 
Rajendra-Sola-devar after the name of (the king) Sri-Raj endra-Sola- 
devar, caused to be erected by Jakkiyappai, daughter of Tirbhuvanaiyam 
of Ittakirai, at the foot of Sulkal-malai, otherwise called Kanaka-parvvatam 
(the golden mountain) in the Kadambanakkai-nadu.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, 
Kolar Taluq, no. 115 ; Roman Text, p. 49 ; Transl., p. 44.) 

(49) ' Agrahara village, mantapas, mantapas for alms (bhiksha-man- 
tapa), and all other religious provisions ' . . . (Ibid., Vol. x, Mulbagal 
Taluq, no. 2; Roman Text, p. 82; Transl., p. 71.) 

(50) ' Caused to be built in the temple of Jayambu-nayakar the danc- 
ing hall (nirutta, i.e., nritta-mandapam) , the vestibule (nadai-maligai), 
the surrounding hall and the tower.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, Bowringpet 
Taluq, no. 380; Roman Text, p. 175 ; Transl., p. 146.) 

(51) Varadaraja-devara-mukha-mantapada-sannidhiyalu Rajagambhi- 

ran emba kottalavanu.' 

' In proximity to the mantapa facing the god Varadaraja having erected 
the bastion named Rajagambhlra.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, Malur Taluq, no. i ; 
Roman Text, p. 186 ; Transl., p. 155.) 

(52) ' That Singa-Raja had the two lines of fortification, round this 
city built, and holding the office of pattana-svami by order of the god 
Nayinar, so that all the people could see, for the god's tirumana had man- 
tapas made before and behind the temple (hindana-mundana-bhagada 
mantapa), had a pond constructed called after Gopa Raja the Gopa- 
samudra, had a palace built for Gopa Raja to the west of that pond, and 
to the right of the god, Singa-Raja's palace ; and that he might at sunrise 
and at evening twilight bathe at both times, and have a room for domestic 
sacrifice, from the threshold of which he might look to the spire of Varada 
Raja's temple . . . and at the eastern gopura which Kundapa- 
dannayaka had built in front of the mantapa facing the god (mukha- 
mantapa).' (Ibid., no. 4; Roman Text, p. 187; Transl., p. 156.) 

(53) ' Setti Devan built a beautiful stone temple with a mantapa in 
front of it.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. x, Ghintamani Taluq, no. 83; Transl., 
p. 258, para. 2.) 

45 



MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(54) ' That the king Praudha-Raya (on the date specified, A.D.) 1426 
being in the dana-mantapa, in the presence of the god Virupaksha on the 
bank of the Tungabhadra, for the purpose of making the great Kalpalata 
gift. . . .' (Ep. Carnal.,. Vol. xn, Tumkur Taluq, no. 11 ; Transl., p. 5, 
para. 2.) 

(55) ' Caused to be made the Honna-devi-mantapa.' 

This expression is like those, as Vishnu-mandapa, where mandapa is a 
detached shrine or temple. (Ibid., no. 26 ; Transl., p. 8.) 

(56) ' His wife (with various praises) Kallarasiyamma, had the shrine 
of the god Sidda-Mallikarjuna renewed, and having the whole (temple) 
strengthened, had the two domes built, and the plastering done, had a 
portico made to the front of the temple, erected a bhoga-mandapa. . . 
and building a tower and a hall for the god, made a grant of land to 
provide for the offerings (specified).' (Ibid., Gubbi Taluq, no. 29 ; Roman 
Text, p. 41, middle ; Transl., p. 23, line 6.) 

(57) ' Presented at the feet of the god Chandra-sekhara the processional 
form of the god SankaresVara, a dipamale pillar, and a patala-mantapa.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. xu ; Tiptur Taluq, no. 70 ; Transl., p. 57.) 

(58) ' At the time of the eclipse of the sun, in the presence of the god 
Virupaksha on the bank of the Tungabhadra, in the mukti-mantapa to 
the sacrificer Naganatha (descent, etc., stated), he granted the Timaduga 
village.' (Ep. Carnal., Pavugada Taluq, no. 4, Transl., p. 117 ; Roman 
Text, p. 193, f.) 

(59) ' In the antarala (interior) they erected a most beautiful ranga- 
mantapa, and a fine chandra-sale (upper storey) according to the direc- 
tions given by the king Timmendra.' (Ibid., Vol. xu, Pavugada Taluq, 
no. 46 ; Transl., p. 122, line 14 ; Roman Text, p. 203, v. 9.) 

(60) ' KailaSadres svatulyarh kalita-Suchi-gunarh srimati ri-uchindre 

Vanchl-bhu-pala-chuda-manir akrita puro-mandape chandra- 

mauleh II 

' Ramavarma, the crowning gem of the Vanchi sovereigns, constructed 
the front mandapa of the moon-crested (Siva) at Suchindram, equalling 
Kailasa in splendour, and full of the purest qualities.' (Inscrip. in the 
Pagodas of Tirukurungudi, in Tinnevelly and of Suchindram, in south Travan- 
core, Ind. Ant., Vol. n, p. 361 ; c. 2, v. 2, p. 362 ; c. i, para. 2.) 

(61) 'In the centre, fronting the single doorway, is a shrine or mandapa 
covering a slab, on which is carved in relief a sitting figure with the right 
foot on an elephant, the left on a bullock.' (Ind. Ant., Vol. vn, p. 19, 
c. I, last four lines.) 

(62) Rambha-patra-phala-prasuna-lalite sat-toranachchhadane nana- 

varna-pataka-ketana-lasat-prante maha-mandape I 

406 






I 




< 

CU 

I 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANDAPA 

Kundanarii navakam vidhayya vidhivad-viprair vidhana-kshamaih 
karmascharya-kararh samapayad idam Sri-Ranganatho guruh II 
(Inscrip. from Nepal, no. 23, inscrip. of Queen Lalitatripura 
Sundari, v. 3, Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, p. 194.) 

(63) ' On the east side of this great Stubi or Vimana stands the Veli- 
mandapam or " outer hall," a plain rectangular building 160 feet long 
by 83 feet wide, with a flat roof supported by four rows of plain stone 
pillars . . . 

' Between the Veli-mandapam or outer court and the great Vimana, 
there is a three-storeyed building joining them together, called Mele- 
mandapam, covering the transverse aisle between the north and south 
entrances by which the shrine is approached. This portico or transept 
is designed and completed in keeping with the grand scale and style of the 
Vimana.' (Gangai-Kondapuram Saiva temple, Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, p. 118, c. i.) 

(64) SrI-Brahma-Devara-mantapavanu ' presented the Brahma Deva 
mantapa.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. n, no. 121; Roman Text, p. 88 ; Transl., p. 172.) 

(65) ' Tupada-Vengatapa made a stone mantapa and a well for the god 
Prasanna-Vengataramana to the north-west of the precincts of the temple 
of the god Pas"chima-Ranganatha.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. in, Seringapatam Taluq, 
no. 9 ; Transl., p. 8 ; Roman Text, p. 17.) 

(66) ' Also land for the god Hanumanta newly set up in the mantapa 
in the middle of the village, to which the god Rama pays a visit at the 
Ramanavami (festival), i.e., the idol of Rama is brought there on that 
occasion.' (Ibid., no. 13 ; Transl., p. 9 ; Roman Text, p. 21.) 

It should be noticed that this mandapa does not belong, as an attached 
or detached building, to any temple. It is by itself a temple. Such 
mandapas or temples are named after the gods whose idols are consecrated 
in them, such as Vishnu-mandapa, Kali-mandapa, and so forth. 

(67) ' His awful wife Rangamma, . . . had erected a mantapa, with 
a large pond, and presented a palanquin set with jewels and all other 
kinds of gifts, a bank having grown up and being unsightly, he bought the 
ground and established there a matha, also endowing it so that 24 chief 
Vaidika Vaishnava Brahmans of the Ramanuja sect might be fed in the 
ranga-mantapa.' (Ep. Carnat., Vol. m, Seringapatam Taluq, no. 89 ; Transl., 
pp. 26-27 ; Roman Text, p. 57.) 

(68) r!-Timma-dandanayaka mahisi Sri-Ranga-nayakl-rachita I 
Sampat-kumara-mahisI puratah pratibhati ranga-mantapika II 

' Timma-dandanayaka's wife (Queen Consort) Ranga-nayak! erected 
a ranga-mantapa in front of (the temple of) the goddess of Sampat- 
kumara.' (Ibid., no. 97 ; Roman Text, p. 59 ; Transl., p. 28.) 

In this sense mandapa is most generally understood. This is what is 
called nat (i.e., nritya or ranga)-mandira, as stated above. 

407 



MANDAPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(69) ' Caused to be erected the ranga-mantapa of the god Kesava, 
. . . also the ranga-mantapa of the god Ranganatha to the south- 
east of that village and a sabha-mantapa for ... the village.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. HI, Tirumakudlu-Narasipur Taluq, no. 58 ; Transl., p. 78.) 

(70) ' The accountant Lingana, son of ... with devotion erected 
(a mantapa of) 12 ankanas near the big asVattha tree, in proximity to 
the Matsya-tirtha, on the bank of the Arkapushkarini.' (Ep. Carnal., 
Vol. iv, Yedatore Taluq, no. 3 ; Transl., p. 52 ; Roman Text, p. 84.) 

(71) ' The manager of his (Krishna-Deva-maharaya's) palace, . . 
made for the god Virabhadra . . . , a gandhagodi-mantapa, in front 
of the ranga-mantapa.' (Ep. Carnal., Nagamangala Taluq, no. 4; Transl., 
p. 1 14 ; Roman Text, p. 188.) 

(72) ' Haridasa-Rauta, son of ... set up in front of the god 
Prasanna-Madhava of Bellur a festival (utsava) mantapa, a pillar for lights 
(dipa-maleya-kambha) and an altar for offerings (bali-pitha). '(Ep. Carnal., 
Vol. iv, Nagamangala Taluq, no. 42 ; Transl., p. 124 ; Roman Text, p. 213.) 

(73) ' Caused a uyyale-mantapa to be erected for the spring festival of 
the god.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Belur Taluq, no. 12; Transl., p. 46 ; 
Roman Text, p. 106.) 

(74) ' Newly built the Kalyana-mandapa (Kattisi samarpisida Kalyana- 
mantapa ahkana) as an offering at the lotus-feet of the god Chenna- 
Kes"ava.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Parti, Belur Taluq, no. 21 ; Transl., p. 52 ; 
Roman Text, p. 119.) 

(75) The grant was made ' that a pond and mantapa may be con- 
structed in front of the temple upper storey for the spring water-festival 
(vasanta-kaladalli abage-seve nadeve-bagge) for the god.' (Ibid., no. 29 ; 
Transl., p. 54; Roman Text, p. 122, line 15 f.) 

(76) ' He constructed a pond for a raft and a Vasanta-mantapa ; and 
in order to provide for ten days' raft festival in Phalguna, for the oblation 
and feeding of Brahmans during the festival ... he made a grant.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Belur Taluq, no. 78 ; Transl., p. 64-65 ; Roman 
Text, p. 150.) 

(77) ' Built a brick enclosure for the temple, erected a kalasa to it, 
and a wooden ranga-mantapa, in front, had the whole plastered,' . . . 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Arsikere Taluq, no. 8 ; Transl., p. 115, line 6 
f. ; Roman Text, p. 263, line 9.) 

(78) ' Seated on the diamond throne in the mantapa in front of the 
BasavesVara temple in the square in the middle of the street of the sun 
and moon in the Kanthiraya-pete of Banavara situated to the south o 
Srisaila.' (Ibid., no. 94; Transl., p. 150, line 2 f.) 

(79) ' (On the date specified), all the Brahmanas of the immemorial 
agrahara Brahma-samudra, agreeing among themselves, and going to 
the prabhu-mantapa (pabu-mantapadalli) and seating themselves, Damoja, 

408 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANDAPA 

son of the carpenter Madiyoja, having worshipped their feet and pre- 
sented 5 pa, they granted to him a rent-free estate (specified). ' (Ep. 
Carnal., Vol. vi, Kadur Taluq, no. 57 ; Transl., p. 12 ; Roman Text, p. 



(80) ' Caused a bhoga-mantapa to be erected in front of the temple 
of the god Janarddana.' 

It should be noticed, that the bhoga-mantapas are generally built on 
the side, and not in front, of the temple. (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vi, Kadur 
Taluq, no. 91 ; Transl., p. 16 ; Roman Text, p. 52.) 

(81) ' Caused the Nandi-mantapa to be erected.' (Ibid., Chikmagalur 
Taluq, no. 76 ; Transl., p. 44 ; Roman Text, p. in, line 7.) 

(82) ' Outside, it (the temple of Sambhava-natha) is very plain and 
unpretentious, whilst inside it consists of three apartments a mandapa 
or porch, the Sabha-mandapa, or assembly hall, and the nij(a) mandira 
or shrine. The floors are laid with coloured marbles and the roof support- 
ed on pillars.' 

' The mandapa or hall is roofed by an octagonal dome supported, as 
usual, on twelve pillars.' . . . (Ahmadabad Architecture, Burgess, Arch. 
Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xxxm, pp. 87, 90.) 

(83) See Mukha-mandapa, of SomesVara temple at Kolar. (Mysore 
Arch. Reports, 1913-14, Plate vn, fig. 3, p. 20.) 

(84) ' Its (Kandariya Mahadeo temple's) general plan is similar to 
that of most of the larger mediaeval temples of Northern India (see its 
plan, Plate xcvn). It has the usual ardha-mandapa or portico, the manda- 
pa or nave, the maha-mandapa or transept, the antarala or ante-chamber, 
and the garbhagriha or sanctum, each of which has its separate pinnacled 
roof rising in regular gradation from the low pyramid of the entrance to the 
lofty spire of the sanctum.' (Cunningham, Arch. Surv. Reports, Vol. n, p. 419, 
no. 3.) 

' There are eighteen carved pillars, each of 9' 9* high, supporting the 
dome of the outer hall or the ardha-mandapa, which affords an area o f 
16' 3* inside for loungers and devotees to rest it.' (Ibid., Vol. xxm, p. 135.) 

(85) ' Mandapa any open or enclosed building in connexion with 
a temple. If used for any purpose, the distinctive name is prefixed.' 
Rea. (Chalukyan Architecture, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, p. 39.) 

(86) Madhya-mandapa second hall of a temple. 
Maha-mandapa central hall of a temple, the nave. 

Mandapa the porch of a temple. (Vincent Smith, Gloss, to Cun- 
ningham's Arch. Surv. Reports.} 

It should be noticed that the architectural treatises, general literature, 
and epigraphical records corroborate one another as regards the various 
types of this class of buildings. 

409 



MANDAPIKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

MANDAPIK.A (see MANDAPA) A small pavilion, a custom house. 

(1) SrI-Naddula-maha-sthane sri-Sarhderaka-gachchhe sri-Maha-virade- 

vaya grl-Naddula-talapada-s'ulka-mamdapikayam masanumasariu 
dhupa-tailartham I 

(Granted to the Jaina temple of) ' Mahaviradeva in the Sanderaka 
gachchha, at the holy place (Mahasthana) of Naddula, a monthly (sum of 
five drammas) (to be paid) from the custom house in the grounds (talapada- 
svatala) of Naddula.' 

' For passages in which the term mandapika occurs, compare Ep. Ind. f 
Vol. i, p. 114, line 27 ; p. 173, line 6 (Siyadoni-satka-mandapika) ; p. 175, 
lins 19 ; p. 177, lines 29 and 30 ; p. 179, line 45 ; p. 262, line 3 (pattana- 
mandapika) ; Ind. Ant., Vol. xrv, p. 10, col. 2 (Sri-pathastha-mandapika) ; 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng., Vols. LV, Part i, p. 47 ; iv, p. 48, and v., Bhavnagar 
inscrip., p. 205, line 7. Sulka-mandapika occurs, e.g., in Bhavnagar in- 
scrip., p. 158 f., lines 10, 15 and 18. The meaning of mandapika is sug- 
gested by the Marathi mamdavi, a custom house.' Prof. Kielhorn. 
(The Chahamanas of Naddula, no. A, Nadol plates of Alhanadeva, lines 22-231 
Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, pp. 66, 63, and note 8.) 

(2) Cf. Mandapika-dayat Sreshthi-nara-sirhha-go-vrisha-dhlradi-tyaih I 

(Shergadh stone inscrip., lines 1-2, Ind. Ant., Vol. XL, p. 176.) 

(3) Mandapika evidently means some public or official building of 
the town. (Ind. Ant., Vol. xrv, p. 10, second col., line 5 ; and Journ. Beng. 
As. Soc., Vol. xxx, p. 332, last line ; Siyadoni inscrip., lines 6, 19, 29, 30, 45, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. i, p. 166, 173 f.) 

(4) Sri-Timma-dandanayaka mahisi Sri-Ranga-nayaki rachita I 
Sampat-kumara-mahisi-puratah pratibhati ranga-mantapika II 

' Timma-dandanayaka's wife (Queen Consort) Ranga-nayaki erected a 
ranga-mantapa in front of (the temple of) the goddess of Sampat-kumara.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. m, Seringapatam Taluq, no. 97 ; Roman Text, p. 59 ; 
Transl., p. 28.) 

MANDI (see BODHIKA) The crowning part of the capital of a 
column, a market-place, a market. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, 57, 107 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

MATTA-VARANA An elephant in rut, a kind of entablature. 

(M., xvi, 19, also L, 279 ; see under PRASTARA.) 

MADIRA-GRIHA (SALA) A drinking house, a tavern, an ale- 
house. 

Siva-vais'ravanasvi-s'rimadira-griharh cha pura-madhye karayet I 

(Kautillya-Artha-iastra, Chap, xxv, p. 55-56.) 
410 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MADHOCHCHHISHTA 

MADDALA (see VALABHI) A synonym of valabhi or a sloping 
roof. 

(M., xvi, 51 ; see under (BA)VALABHI.) 

MADHUCHCHHISHTA Wax, the casting of an image in wax. 
Manasara (Chap. LXVIII, 1-56, named Madhuchchhishta) : 

The chapter opens with an enumeration of phalli and ascetics as 
well as architects whose images are to be cast in wax (lines 2-19). 
The architects, called sthapati and sthapaka, make the can for pre- 
paring the wax therein, but the actual preparation is not explicitly 
described. All kinds of images, temporary or permanent, stationary or 
movable, have to be cast in wax. The process seems to be this (lines 
20-44) : some part of the image is covered with a thin copper-leaf, 
and the wax is laid on two or three angulas deep. Mulika(?) is 
spread above the part covered with wax. The idol is heated after 
it has been besmeared with wax. If the master likes, the process of 
smearing may be done with melted iron too. The half of the image, 
not covered with earth, is washed in water. This process is repeated 
several times. If any of the minor limbs be lost through this process, 
the image should be furnished with it again after having been heated. 
But if the head or the middle of the body be damaged, the whole 
image should be changed. If the master does not like the image, 
it should be recast. 

The whole process has to be performed through many ritualistic 
ceremonies in different stages. 

In other texts the process of casting an image in wax is much more clear- 
ly described : 

' If images have to be cast in metal, the wax must first be melted 
and poured (out of the mould) and all defects removed with cloth.' 
(Karandgama, n, 41.) 

' If the images be required to be made of earth, rods (of metal or wood) 
must be (inserted in them) ; if of metal it must first be prepared well in 
wax.' (Suprabheddgama, xxxrv, 21.) 

' If an image is to be made of metal, it must be first made of wax, and then 
coated with earth ; gold and other metals are purified and cast into (the 
mould) and a complete image is thus obtained by capable workmen.' 
(Vishnu-samhitd, Patala xrv.) 

' In regard to bronze images ' says Mr. Rao ' it is believed by some 
that India could not have known the Cire perdue method of making metal 
images earlier than about the tenth century A.D. and that India must 
have, therefore, borrowed it from Europe. That the art of casting metals 

411 



MADHYA-KANTA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

in wax moulds is much earlier in India can be shewn in more ways than 
one.' In support of his assertion, Mr. Rao gives the three above-mentioned 
quotations.- (Elements of Hindu Iconography.) 

MADHYA-KANTA A class of the twelve-storeyed buildings once 
prevailing in the central country (see details under PRASADA) . 
Madhyamalaya-vistare-trayas-trimad-vibhajite I 
Tri-bhagam kuta-vistararh madhya-bhadraika-bhagikam I 
Maha-lala navamsarh syat esham purvavad acharet I 
Madhya-kantam iti proktam I 

(M., xxx, 1 1-14.) 

MADHYA-KOSHTHA The middle compartment, the central hall. 

(M., xxxm, 305, etc.) 
MADHYA-NASI (see NAS!) The middle vestibule. 

(M., xv, 119, 124, etc.) 
MADHYA-BHADRA (see BHADRA) The middle tabernacle, the 

central porch or hall. 

(M., xv, no ; xix, 177 ; xxxm, 380, etc.) 

MADHYA-BHUVAftGA A moulding of the door. 

(A/., xxxix, 72.) 

MADHYA-RAftGA (see MUKHTA-PRAPANGA) The central theatre, 
the enclosed courtyard, the quadrangle surrounded by buildings 
on four sides and open at the top. 

Manasdra (Chap. XLVII, 1-36 named Madhya-ranga,) refers in this con- 
nection to the open quadrangle, stone column and grain-column (mukta- 
prapanga, Sila-stambha and dhanya-stambha). The Madhya-ranga is 
provided with dwarf pillars, entablatures, platforms, daises, pedestals, 
tabernacles, vestibules, pent-roofs, top-rooms, etc. The upper portion is 
adorned with figures of leographs and crocodiles. 

The meaning of the term is clear from the contents of this chapter and also 
from the quotations given below : 

Madhya-rangam tad-uddi$ya chordhve'lankara(m) vakshyate I 
Evam tu chordhvalankaram madhya-range tu vinyaset I 

(M., xvi, 155, 169 ; see also lines 156-168.) 
In connexion with mandapas or pavilions. 

(M., xxxrv, 128,210,234,324,456,610.) 

Grihe va madhya-range va pars' ve va chaiSa-konake (ankurarpanam 
kuryat) I 

(M., xxxvii, 13.) 

The central part of the coronation hall. (Af.,xnx, 183.) 

4 I2 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANDIRA 

MADHYA-&ALA (cf. SALA) The middle hall, a special interior 
chamber, a kind of council hall. 

Kshudra-salashtadha proktam koshtha-sala-chatushtayam I 
Madhya-sala-tri-bhagena bhadra-sala cha madhyame I 

(M., xxvi, 12-13; see a l so M. t xx, 56, etc.) 

MANDARA A type of building which is 30 cubits wide, has ten 
storeys and turrets. 

(1) Trimsad-dhastayamo dasa-bhaumo mandarah Sikhara-yuktah I 

(Compare this with Kasyapa quoted by the commentary and given 
below) : 

Mandarah sikharair yuktah shad-asrir dasa-bhumikah I 
Trimsad-dhastarhs cha vistlrnah prasado'yam dvitiyakah II 

(Brihat-samhitd, LVI, 21, J. R. A. S.> 
N. S., Vol. vi, p. 319.) 

(2) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 28; see under PRASADA). 

(3) Matsya-Purana (Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 28, 32, 47, 53; see under PRASADA). 

(4) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, w. 14, 15 ; see under PRASADA). 

(5) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21-22, 24-25 ; see under PRASADA). 

(6) A building with four salas (compartments) and eight kutas (towers 
or domes) : 

Mand(h)ara-nama ity-uktas chatuh-salashta-kutakam II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 43.) 

MANDIRA A type of building, a hall, a room, a temple, a shrine. 

(1) A type of rectangular building (Garuda-Purdna, Chap. XLVII, 
vv. 21-22, 26-27 : sec under PRASADA). 

(2) Three kinds of mandira (Vdstu-vidyd, ed. Ganapati Sastri, vn, 15-18) : 

(3) Shodasa-mandira-chakra (Vdstu-tattva, 1853, p. if., see under GRIHA- 

VINYASA). 

(4) Paritah pranavakara-prakara-valayamchitam I 
Kamanlya-sala-stambha-kadambottambitarhvaram 1 1 
Visamkata-vitam kali-virajad-ramga-mamtapam I 
Vidhaya vipulottumga-gopurarh deva-mamdiram II 
Visalam ratha-vithirh cha syamdanam marhdaropamam I 
Tatra pratishthitarya-sri-Taraka-brahma-rupine II 

' Built a temple (at Krishnapura) which was encircled by a wall of the 
shape of the pranava and a broad and lofty tower. It has a large ranga- 
mandapa raised on a collection of beautiful stone pillars and adorned with 
rows of spouts. He built a car like the Mandara mountain and also broad 

413 



MASi-(sl)Ti AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA of 

roads round the temple and for the propitiation of the god Vishnu, set up 
there (i.e. in the temple).' 

(Krishnapuram plates of Sadasivardya, vv. 55, 56. 
57, Ep. Ind., Vol. rx, pp. 336, 341.) 

(5) Tenedarh karitam tungam dhurjjater mandira-griham I 

' He caused to be made this lofty dwelling of Dhurjjati (Siva).' -(Inscrip, 
at the Ganesa temple, Mamallapuram, v. 10, H. S. I. /., Vol. i, no. 18, pp. 4, 5, 
ibid. no. 18, inscrip. at the Dharmaraja mandapa, Mamallapuram, v. 10, p. 6.) 

(6) ' Kosa-varddhana-girer anupurwam so'yam unmishita-dhih suga- 

tasya I 
Vyastam arani-karaika-garimnyo mandirarh sma vidadhati yathar- 

tham II 

' To the east of mount Kosa-vardhana, this man of open intellect 
established in a manner suitable to the purpose a temple of that Sugata 
(Buddha), the dignity of whom alone sufficed to defeat hosts of Maras.' 
(Buddhist Sanskrit inscript., from Kota, v. 17 ; Ind. Ant., Vol. xiv, pp. 46, 48.) 

(7) . . . Tenedarh marhdirarh Kama-vidvishah I 
Karitam muktaye bhaktya kirttayecha kritatmanam II 

(Inscrip. of the Kings of Chedi, no. A, Tewar stone inscrip. 
of Gaya Karnadeva, line 17, Ind. Ant., Vol. XVHI, p. an.) 

(8) Jainarh mandiram indira-kula-griharh sad-bhaktito' chikarat I 

' Out of pure faith, he made this Jaina temple a home for Lakshmi.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. u, no. 65 ; Roman Text, p. 60; Transl., p. 149.) 

MASI(-SI)TI A mosque, a Muhammadan place of worship. 

' Rangai-Nayakayya, in order to endow the stone masiti (mosque) 
(kalla-masltiya-deva-sthanakke), which Babu Setti had erected in the 
inner street of Sindaghatta, made a grant for it of the village of Sivapura 
and Habiba's house.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Krishnarajapet Taluq, no. 72 ; 
Transl., p. in, Roman Text, p. 183.) 

MASORAKA A lintel, i.e., thin piece of timber or stone that 
covers an opening and supports a weight above it. It implies the 
cornice of the entablature. It is sometimes used in the sense of 
adhishthana or base. 

(i) Adhishthana-vidhirh vakshye sastre sarhkshipyate'dhuna I 
Harmya-tunga-vasat proktam tasya masurakonnatam I 

(M., xiv, i, 8.) 

Tasman masurena sahaiva sarvam kritam vimaneshu cha bhu- 
shanani I 

(Ibid., 409-410.) 
414 




VUPA STAMBHA. 



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MASURAKA 



MASURAKA. 




MUKULA. 




SECTION. /--. 



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ii 


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1 
j 


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UPPER FLOOR PLAN. 



MASITI. 



Page ilt 



ARCHITECTURE MAHA-NAsl 

Evaih chatuh-shashti-masurakani sastrokta-manena vibhajitani I 

(Ibid., 393-394-) 

Ahatya(m) ashtadha harmyaih ganya-manam ihochyate I 
Utsedhe chashta-bhage tu ekamsena masurakam I 
Dvi-bhagam changhri-tungam. ... I 

(M., xix, 20-22 ; see also XLVII, 5 ; xxxiv, 266, etc.) 
(2) Tad-varddhitopapitham va tad-varddhita-masurakam I 
Padayama-samottunga-masuraka-yutam tu va I 

(Kdmikagama,xxxv, 115.) 
Masura implies the cornice of the entablature. 

(Ibid., LIV, 47 ; see under PRASTARA.) 

Masura, a synonym, as stated, but apparently a component part, of 
adhishthana or base : 

Masurakam adhishthanarh vastvadhararh dharatalam I 
Talaih kuttimady-angam adhishthanasya kirtitam II 

(Ibid., LV, 202.) 
MAHA-KANTA A class of eight-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxvi, 35-39 ; see under PRASADA.) 

MAHA-GOPURA The gate-house of the fifth court or at the 
extreme boundary of a compound. 

(M., xxxm, 10 ; see under GOPURA and PRAKARA.^ 

MAHA-GRAMA A large village. 

(M., x, 79 ; see details under GRAMA.) 

MAHA-TAULI A synonym of prachchhadana or roof, the top- 
floor. 

(M., xvi, 57.) 

MAHA-DVARA The great door, the chief or outer gate of a village, 
town or house. 

(A/., ix, 290, 315 ; see under DVARA.) 
Maha-dvaram tu sarvesham langalakara-sannibham I 
Kapata-dvaya-samyuktarh dvaranam tat prithak prithak I 

(M., ix, 360-361 ; see also xxxi, 79.) 

MAHA-NASl (see NASI) A large vestibule. 

(Nasika-sikharanvitam) tad-ardham stupikottunge tan-maha nasika- 
Sraye I 

(M., xv, 91.) 
Dvi-lalate maha-nasi ekadasa-sikhanvitam I 

(M., xxxm, 202, etc.) 



MAHA-PADMA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

MAHA-PADMA A type of round building. 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 17-18; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Pxrdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21, 23, 28-29; see under PRASADA). 

MAHA-PATTA A moulding of the base, a laige fillet. 

(M., xiv, 301 ; see the lists of mouldings 
under ADHISHTANA.) 

MAHA-PlTHA The pedestal, a site plan, the lower part of the 
phallus : 

A site plan in which the whole area is divided into sixteen equal 
squares. (M., vu, 5, 61 ; see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

Cf. Maha-pltha-padc rathya dikshu dikshu trayam tathii I 

(M., ix, 429, etc.) 
The pedestal of an image : 

Padma-pitharh maha-pl{ham tri-murtinarh cha yojayet I 

(M., LI, 86, etc.) 

MAHA-MANDAPA (see under MANDAPA) The great hall of 
entrance to the main shrine of temples. 

(Chalukyan Architecture, Arch. Surv., New 
Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, p. 39.) 

See under MANDAPA : 

Mangalagiri pillar inscrip. (vv. 44, 47, 51, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 114, 
115, 123, 124, 125). 

Two Jain inscrip. of Irugappa. (no. B, line 2, ibid., Vol. vn, p. 116). 

Inscrip. from Nepal (no. 23, inscrip. of Queen Lalita-Tripu; a Sundari, 
v. 3, Ind. Ant. Vol. rx, p. 94). 

' This building (maha-mandapa) stands in the east central portion of 
the large court. ... it originally stood detached from the central 
vimana.' 

' The plan is a rectangle with the greater length from north to south. 
The four sides are open in the centre, and on each fagade, a portion of the 
wall is returned along the several elevations from the four corners. The 
east front has the entrance divided into three bays by two square piers, 
with a responding pilaster on the return wall at each side.' 

' The west side or back is similarly divided, but the piers are octagonal 
for a portion of their length.' 

' The north and south entrances are simple openings, with pilasters on 
the sides, undivided by piers.' 

416 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANI-BHADRA 

' Two yalis on the back responding pilasters are abutted against and 
partly covered by the east wall of the modern ardha-mandapam. The 
forated window in the east wall of the ardha-mandapam opens in to the 
maha-mandapam.' (Pallava Architecture, Arch. Surv., New. Imp. Series, 
Vol. xxxiv, p. 36, paras, i, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 10 ; see also Plate L.) 

' The maha-mandapa was roofed also by overlapping courses of stones : 
the square corners were gradually rounded off by successive small por- 
tions, till it formed an octagon, over which the circular roof proper rested.' 
(Cunningham, Arch. Surv. Reports, Vol. vm, p. 171, para. 2.) 

MAHA-MARYADA The fifth enclosure (prakara) at the extreme 
boundary of a compound, the gate-house thereof is called maha- 
gopura or dvara-gopura. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 118, 125; see under PRAKARA.) 

MAHA-VAJANA A large fillet, a moulding of the entablature. 

(M., xvi, 69 ; see the lists of mouldings under PRASTARA.) 

MAHA-VRITA A kind of phallus. 

(M., LII, 2 ; see under LINGA.) 

MAHA-VRITTA A kind of joinery. 

(M., xvn, 102 ; see under SANDHI-KARMAN.) 

MAHA-SALA A large hall. 

Cf. of the sixteen parts width of a building the maha-sala is seven parts 
broad. (M., xxvi, 10, etc.). 

MAHASANA A site plan in which the whole area is divided 
into 225 equal squares. 

( M., vii, 18-20 ; see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

MAHAMBUJA A large cyma, a moulding of the pedestal. 

(A/., xni, 91 ; see the lists of mouldings under UPAPITHA.) 

MAGADHA(-KANTA) A class of twelve-storeyed buildings once 

prevailing in the country of Magadha. 

Tad evam anu-sala madhye bhadra-salaika-bhagikam I 
Evarii magadha-kantam syat karna-kuta-sabhadrakam I 

(M., xxx, 33-34; see also 31-32 under VAMSA-KANTA.) 

MANI-BHADRA (see MANI-BHADRA) A pavilion with sixty-four 

columns. 

i 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 103 ; set under MANDAPA.) 

417 



MATRAftGULA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

MATRAftGULA (see under ANGULA) A measure equal to the 
middle digit of the middle finger in the right hand of the architect 
or priest, employed in measuring the sacrificial objects like the kusa- 
grass or seat, the spout of a ladle, and the ladle, etc. 

(Suprabheddgama, xxx, 4-5, 7-8 ; see under ANGULA.) 

MANA A house well measured (A.-V., ix, 3 ; HI, 12). The measure- 
ment of height or length. 

(i) The linear measurement is divided into six kinds Mana (Ayama, 
Ayata, Dirgha), Pramana, Parimana (Vistara, Tara, Striti Vistriti, Vis- 
trita, Vyasa, Visarita, Vipula, Tata, Vishkambha, Visala), Lamba-mana 
(Sutra, Unmita), Unmana (Bahala, Ghana, Miti, Uchchhraya, Tunga, 
Unnata, Udaya, Utsedha, Uchcha, Nishkrama, Nishkriti, Nirgama, 
Nirgati, Udgama), and Upamana (Nivra, Vivara, Antara). 

The measurement from the foot to the top of the head is called Mana 
which is in fact nothing but height. Pramana is the measurement of 
breadth (vistrita). Parimana is the measurement of width or circum- 
ference (paritah). Lamba-mana is the measurement along the plumb 
lines or the lines drawn perpendicularly through different parts of the 
body, Mana, or the measurement of height being determined by the sur- 
face of the body. Unmana is the measurement of thickness (nimna) or 
diameter. And Upamana is the measurement of interspace (antara), 
such as the distance between the two feet of an image ; this measurement is 
apparently taken from one plumb line to another : 

Manam chapi pramanam cha parimanam lamba-manakam I 
Unmanam upamanam cha manam padmam samiritam I 
Padangushthi-sasimantaih siro'ntarh manam chapi prakathyate I 
Pramanam vistritam proktarh paritah parimanakam I 
Tat-sutral lamba-manarh syan nimnam unmanam uchyate I 
Avantaropamanam syad bimbodayadi-sarvasah I 
Manam evam tu shad-bhedam manenangani manayet I 

(M., LV, 3-9.) 

The primary measurement (adi-mana) is but the comparative measure- 
ment and is divided into the following nine kinds : 

The height of an image is determined by comparing it widi (i) the 
breadth (tara) of the main temple (harmya), (ii) the height of the sanc- 
tuary or central hall (garbha-griha), (iii) the length of the door (dvara- 
mana), (iv) the measurement of the basement (adhishthana), (v) cubit, 
(vi) tala (a span), (vii) angula (finger's breadth), (viii) the height of 

418 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MANA 

the worshipper, and (ix) the height of the riding animal (vahana) of the 
principal idol : 

Adimana-vidhirh samyak(-g) lakshanam cha ihochyate I 
Harmya-tara-vasan manam garbha-geha-vasodayam I 
Dvara-mana-vasat tungam adhishthana-vasodayam I 
Hasta-mana-vasan manam tala-mana-vasodayam I 
Angulenapi chottungam yajamana-vosodayam I 
Mula-bera-vasan manam uttamadi traya rh trayam I 

(M., LV, 10-15.) 

Each of these nine measures is again divided into nine kinds : 
Tasmad ekarh tu pratyekarii nava-manam ihochyate I 

(Ibid., 22.) 

Under (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), the proportions naturally vary on various 
occasions ; no specific rules are, therefore, prescribed. 

The details of (v) cubit or hasta and (vii) angula will be found under 
the term ' Angula ' and the details of (vi) tala are given under ' TALA- 
MANA.' 

Of the division under (viii) the details of the height of an image as 
compared with the height of the worshipper are given here. The height 
of the image may be equal to the full height of the worshipper, may extend 
up to his hair-limit (on the forehead), or, as sometimes stated, to the eye- 
line, nose-tip, chin, arm-limit (to the shoulder), breast, heart, navel, and 
sex organ : 

Kanyasad uttamantam syad yajamanodayam param I 
Kesantam nasikagrantarh hanvantam bahu-simakam I 
Stanantam hridayantam cha navyantam medhra-slmakam I 
Navadha kanyasantam syat sthavaram jangamodayam I 

(Idid., 30-33-) 

And of the division under (ix) the height of the riding animal (vahana) 
as compared with the height of the principal idol (mula-bera) admits of 
similar nine kinds as under (viii) (see details under UTSAVA and KAUTUKA). 
Hasta (v) and angula (vii) are the real units, employed equally in measur- 
ing both architectural and sculptural objects. 

The rest are exclusively sculptural and comparative measures. The 
similar measures have also been prescribed for architectural objects. The 
architectural ' Ganya-mana ' or the comparative heights of the component 
members of a structure corresponds to the sculptural ' Tala-mana ' or the 
comparative heights of the component limbs of a statue (see details under 
GANYA-MANA and TALA-MANA). 

Five proportions of the height, as compared with the breadth of an 
architectural object, are given under five technical terms, namely, Santika, 

419 



MANA-BHADRA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP' 

Paushtika, Jayada, Sarva-kamika or Dhanada, and Adbhuta (see details 
under UTSEDHA). 

The ' Ghana-mana ' or the measurement by the exterior and the 
' Aghana-mana ' or the measurement by the interior are exclusively archi- 
tectural (see details under these terms). 

Like the sculptural terms Mana, Pramana, Parimana, Lamba-mana, 
Unmana and Upamana, there are architectural terms also to express 
length, breadth and width, e.g. dirgha (for dairghya), tara, vistara, visala, 
vistriti, vistrita, vishkambha, etc. Mana as stated above is the tech- 
nical name for sculptural height ; but to express the same idea the general 
terms for height, such as unnati, unnata, utsedha, etc., are also used. 
Mana is also used in its general sense of measurement, area, etc. Pramana 
and Parimana are also used in their general senses of length, breadth, 
width, etc. (Further details will be found under these terms.) 

(2) Atah-pararh pravakshyami manonmanam viseshatah I 

' After this I shall speak about the Mana and Unmana measurements 
in particular.' 

This is followed by an account of various measures. (Note the different 
tala measurements employed in statues.) 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLVHI, v. 16.) 

(3) Manarh tad-vistaram proktam unmanam naham eva cha I 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxiv, 35.) 

(4) Parimanonmana-manam dharyarh raja-vimudritam I 
Guna-sadhana-samdaksha bhavamtu nikhila janah II 

Prof. Benoy Kumar Sarkar's translation of ' Parimana ' by ' standard 
of measurement for lands,' ' Unmana ' by ' unit of measurement for 
liquids,' and ' Mana ' by ' unit of measurement for grains ' is untenable. 

(Sukranitisara, ed. Oppert, i, 310.) 
MANA-BHADRA A pavilion with twenty-six pillars. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 12 ; see under MAN^APA.) 

MANA-MANDIRA (see MANDIRA) The observatory. 

Cf. The observatories at Benares, Delhi, Ujjain, Mathura, and Jaipur. 

(See Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxv, p. 234.) 

MANA V A Relating to Manu or human being, a pavilion with 
twenty-eight pillars. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 12 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

MANANGULA (see under ANGULA) The standard measure (equal 
to f inch), the unit of length. 

420 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MALIKA(-KA) 

The smallest measure is the atom or paramanu, i.e., the particle of dust 
visible in the sunshine through a lattice (Brihat-samhitd, LVIII, i). 
8 atoms= I car-dust. 
8 car-dusts= i hair's end. 
8 hair's ends= i nit. 
8 nits= i louse. 
8 lice= i barley corn. 
8 barley corns= i manangula. 

This standard angula measure is stated to be used in measuring the archi- 
tectural objects like the villages, lands, and buildings, etc. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, 2-3, 6-7 ; see under ANQULA.) 

MANUSHA Relating to the human being, a kind of phallus. 

(Kamikagama, L, 35, 38 ; see under LI&GA.) 

MARGA A road, a street, a way, a path, a lane, a passage, a canal, 
a course. 

Ghandalanarh pravesaya nirgamaya malasya cha I 
Jalasya nirgamartharh tu kshudra-margah pras"arhsitah 1 1 

(Kamikagama, xxxvin, 8.) 

MALIKA(-KA) A class of buildings, a type of pavilion. 

(1) Kudyasyanta-prades'e tu yuktya chavrita-malikam I 
Malikopari vapra(rh) syad adhishthanarh samodayam I 

(M., xxxi, 60, 64.) 
A type of pavilion (mandapa) : 

Evam tu malikakaram ^esharh prag-uktavan nayet I 

(M., xxxiv, 315 ; see for description 297-314.) 
Mandape chordhva-kutarh syan malikakriti(rh) vinyaset I 

(M.jXxxrv, 291.) 

(2) Kechid vai malikakara kechid vai gopurakritih 1 1 

(Suprabhedagama, xxx, 123 : see for full 
context 115-122, under PRAKARA.) 

Tad-bahye'bhyantare vapi malika-mandaparh hi va II 

(Ibid., xxxi, 128.) 

(3) Ta (Sala) eva malikah prokta malavat kriyate yatah 1 1 

Pancha-das'a-karantarh tu kuryad avrita-mandapam 1 1 
Mandapena vina vapi tena manena plthika I 
Vibhadra va sabhadra va karatavya malika budhaih 1 1 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 6, 99, 100.) 
4 2I 



MALIKA(-KA) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Kdmikdgama (Chap. XLI, named Malika-lakshana) : 
Classification : 

Chaturdha malika Sala sabha-mundaja-saudhaje II (r) 
Definitions (vv. 2-5) : 

Salayam api Salanga nishkrantanana-Sobhita I 
Sa s"ala malika jfieya sastre' smin Kamikagame II 
Sabhavad vihita bahye prasadavad alankrita I 
Uha-pratyuha-sarhyukta ya sabha sa cha malika 1 1 
Yatheshta-disi samyukta bhoga-bhumi-samanvita I 
Prasada-vyasa-dirghochcha prokta prasada-malika 1 1 
Mandapasyokta-vistarayama-tunga-vibhushinl I 
Sarvatra mundakaratvat kathita munda-malika 1 1 
Further classifications (vv. 6-7) : 

(i) Samchita, Asamchita, and Upa(also Apa)samchita. 
(ii) Nagara, Dravida, and Vesara. 
(iii) Jati, Chhanda, and Vikalpa. 
(iv) Suddha, MiSra, and Samkirna. 
(v) Vija, Mula, and Ankura (this class is not specified). 
(Excepting the last one, all the other classes occur in the Mdnasdra also ; 
see under Vimana-lakshana.) 

The details of these classes are given (vv. 8-22). 

Still further classifications are given under the following names : 

Sindhuka (w. 23-28), Sarhpurna (vv. 29-30), Meru-kuta (v. 31), 
Kshema (vv. 32-34), Siva (w. 35-38), Harmya (vv. 39-40), 
Saumya (v. 40), ViSala (v. 41), Sarva-kalyana (vv. 42-49) 
Vijaya (v. 50), Bhadra (v. 51), Rangamukha (v. 52), Alpa 
(w. 53-54). Kona (vv- 55-5 8 ) Geya (w. 58-59), Sara (v. 60), 
Pushkara (vv. 61-63), Adbhuta (v. 6ia), Samkirna (v. 62), and 
Danda (v. 64). 
Aneka-bhumi-yukta tu malakara tu malika II 

(Ibid., L, 89.) 

Malika-yukta-sa(? sa)lam chet kona-stambhe dvitiyake I 
Prathamavarane vapi dvitiyavarane nyaset II 

(Ibid., xxxi, 96.) 

(4) Sailam s"u(m)bhita-ata-kumbha-vilasat-kumbham maha-mandapam 
prakaram paramalika-vilasita(m) mukta-maylm cha prapa 
(-bha)m. 

' Made for the god Vamana a great mandapa of stone, resplendent with 
pitchers (domes) of shining gold, surrounding wall, adorned with ex- 
cellent buildings, and a canopy of pearls.' (Fourteen incrip. at Tiruk- 
kovalur, no. K, of Rajendradeva, lines i-a, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, pp. 145, 146.) 

422 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MUKHA 

MALIKA-MANDAPA A pavilion of the Malika class of build- 
ings. 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxr, 128 ; see under MALIKA.) 

MALYAJA A class of buildings, a type of pavilion. 

(M. y xxxiv, 153 ; see under MANDAPA.) 
MALYAHUTA A class of buildings, a type of pavilion. 

(M., xxxiv, 316; see under MANDAPA.) 

MI&RA A building made of any two materials out of wood, brick, 
stone, iron, etc. 

Eka-dravyam tu suddarh syad dvi-dravyarh misra-harmyakam I 

(M., xvin, 138, etc.) 
Dravya-dvaya-yutarh misraih sarhklrnarh bahubhir yutam I 

(Kdmikdgama, XLV, 22.) 

MI&RITA A kind of ornament prescribed for idols and kings. 

(M., L, 1-3 ; see under BHUSHANA.) 

MUKULA A bud-like crowning ornament of a pillar. 

(M., xv, 32 ; see lists of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA, UPAPJTHA and PRASTARA.) 

MUKULI A type of round building. 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLII, w. 21, 23, 28 
29 ; see under PRASADA.) 

MUKTA-PRAPANGA (see MADHYA-RANGA) The open court- 
yard connected with a tank (' mukta ' meaning open, and ' pra- 
panga ' the body part or bank of a tank). It is built inside the 
court. 

(M., XLVII, 2 f.) 

It is stated to be made of wood, stone, brick, etc., and also of jewels and 
iron especially : 

Mukta-prapangam api daru-sileshtakadyaih I 
Ratnair aneka-bahu-loha-viseshakaih I 

(M., XLVII, 31-32 ; see also XLVIII, 68.) 

MUKHA The face, frontispiece, the front side of a building, the 
facade. 

Svakiyanguli-manena mukham syad dva-dasangulam I 
Mukha-manena karttavya sarvayava-kalpana II 

' The face (of one's statue in length) should be 12 angulas (=9 inches), 
being measured with one's own finger. The whole body should be made 
symmetrical to the face.' (Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLVUI, v. 19.) 



MUKHA-BHADRA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The front side of a building (see Kamikdgama and Brihat-samhitd 
under DVARA). 

MUKHA-BHADRA (see BHADRA) A portico, a porch, the front 
tabernacle, the middle niche, the front room corresponding to 
modern drawing-room or reception hall, staircase room. 

Sarvesharh mukha-bhadrarh syal lakshanarii vakshyate'dhuna I 

(M., xviu, 275 ; see also 276 f.) 
Sarvesham mukha-bhadranam parsve sopana-samyutam I 

(A/., xxx, 93.) 
Parito'linda-bhagena varanam (=door) mukha-bhadrakam I 

(M., xxxiv, 251.) 

' The temple (at Amarnath) itself faces the west but the mandapa or 
antarala the hall of the shrine has also doors to the north and south. 
Each of the three doors has a porch (mukha-bhadra), approached by four 
or five steps, and supported by four nearly square pillars, two of them 
attached to the wall.' (The temple of Amarnath, Ind. Ant., Vol. m, p. 317, 
c. i, last para.) 

Deva-Sri-s'ai-bhushanasya kritina devalayarh karitam yugmam 

mamdapa-sobbitam cha purato-bhadram pratolya saha I 
Kshetresasya tatha suralaya-vararh sphitam tadagarh tatha band- 
ham Kaudika-samjnakam bahu-jalam dirgham tatha khanitam I 

(Ranker inscrip. of Bhanudeva, v. 7, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, p. 127.) 

MUKHA-MANDAPA The pavilion in front of a temple. 

(M., xix, 198-199, etc.; see under MANDAPA.) 
Garbha-sutra-sama-bhagad agrato mukha-mandapam 1 1 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIX, v. 6 ; see also 
v. ii ; also Garuda-Ptrana, Chap. XLVII, v. 10.) 
Prasada-garbha-manam va kurwlta-mukha-mandapam II 
Sikharasya chaturthena agrato mukha-mandapam II 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLII, vv. 7, 12.) 

' Made the mukha-mandapa (muga-mandaman) and consecrated (the 
shrine).' (Two Anaimalai inscrip. no. II, Ep. Ind., Vol. vm, pp. 320-321). 

MUKHA-VARANA The entrance door. 

(M., xxxv, 395 ; see DVARA.) 

MUKHYA-HARMYA The main building, the chief temple. 

(M., xra, 14.) 
424 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MUSHTI-BANDHA 

MUNDA-MALIKA A class of buildings, the top room. 

(Kdmikagama, XLI, 5 ; see under MALIKA.) 
MUNDA-HARMYA The top room. 

(See Kautillya-Arllia-sastra under CHULIHARMYA. ) 
MUNDAKA-DVARA A kind of upper door. 

(See Kautillya-Artha-sdstra under DVARA.) 

MUDRIKA A small seal, a stamped coin, an impression, a mould- 
ing of the column. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 108, 105-177, 
109 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

MUDDHA-VEDI The so-called Buddhist tee, railings in relief are 
frequently added to it, balustrade, railing. 

(Mahavamsa, 35, 2, ed. W. Geiger, p. 297.) 

MUNI An ascetic. An account of the images of the seven 
patriarchs is given in detail in the Manasara. Agastya is measured 
according to the seven tala, Kasyapa and Bhrigu according to the 
eight tala, and Vashishtha, Bhargava, Visvamitra and Bharadvaja 
according to the nine tala. (Details of these measures will be found 
under TALA-MANA.) 

(M., LVII, 2-6.) 
The characteristic features of the patriarchs are also described. 

(Ibid., 7-17.) 

MUSHTI-BANDHA A moulding of the entablature and of the 
column, a kind of roof, the topmost part of a building, a part of 
the rampart and of the arch. 

The third moulding from the top (downwards) of the entablature (Kdmi- 
kagama, LIV, i, see under PRASTARA). 

A member of the column (M., xv, 185, see under STAMBHA). 
A kind of roof (M., xvi, 51 ; see under VALABHI). 
A (crowning) part of a building (M., xvin, 202). 
A part of the rampart : 

VajrakritiS cha vaprangam chhatrakaram athapi va I 
Uttararh vajanarh chaiva mushti-bandharh tridhanvitam I 

(M., xxxi, 66-67.) 
A part of an arch (M., XLVI, 65 ; see under TORANA.) 

425 



MURTI AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

MORTI An image, a statue, an idol. 

(1) An image, a statue (A/., LI, 26, etc.). 

(2) Amgulais cha tatha murti chatur-a&ti-sammitaih I 

(Bhavishya-Purana, Chap, cxxxn, v. 7.) 

(3) De&nurupa-bhushana-veshalankara-murtibhih karya I 

(Brihat-samhitd, LVHI, 29.) 

(4) Silakharena janita satya-sandhyasya bhautiki I 
Murtih kirtimayi chasya krita tenaiva sasvati II 

'By the stone-chisel a material body of Satyasandha was executed, 
and by the same an eternal body of his fame was produced.' 

' The two inscriptions (nos. 33, 34, H. S. I. I., Vol. i.) record that a 
king Gunabhara . . . constructed a temple of Siva on the top of the 
mountain and placed in it a lihga and a statue of himself.' (Trisirapalli 
Cave inscrip., no. 33, v. 4, H. S. 1. 1., Vol. i, pp. 29, 30.) 

(5) Uttara-bhagada Kaisaleyalli pancha-vimsati-llla-murtigalarh pra- 

tishtheyam I 

' Set up on the colonnade to the north twenty-five pleasing (lila a 
particular attitude, like dhyana-murti) statues.' [Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, 
Chamarajnagar Taluq, no. 86 ; Roman Text, p. 18, lines 15, 10 (bera), 13 
(vigraba) ; Transl., p. 11.] 

In this inscription, the expressions bera, vigraha, and murti occur ; they 
are to be distinguished : bera or bimba is an idol of a god, vigraha (or image) 
expresses almost the same idea, mini implies the statue of both gods and 
men, and so also does pratimd. 

MORTI-KANTA A type of storeyed building. 

A class of five-storeyed buildings (M., XXIH, 19-24 ; see under PRASADA.) 
MOLA-DANDA The regulating column of a building, the founda- 
tion pillar. 

The main column (M., xv, 236; see also L, 104, etc., under STAMBHA). 
MDLA-BERA The chief deity in a shrine, the principal idol of a 

temple. 

(M., LV, 34; LXI, 21 j LIV, 3, etc.) 

MULA-STAMBHA The foundation pillar, the regulating column 
of a building. 

(M., xv, 234, etc. ; see under STAMBHA.) 

MULA-STHANA The foundation, the base, a temple in the centre 
of a village or town. 

' One perpetual lamp was given to Mahadeva, the lord of the Sri- 

Mula-sthana at Tirukkalukkunram.' (Inscrip. at Tirukkalukkunram, 

line 34, H. S. I. /., Vol. HI, p. 148.) 

426 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MERU 

MDLA-HARMYA The chief of the buildings forming a group, 
the principal shrine, the main temple. 

(M., xin, 19; xxxix, 135, etc.) 

MRIGA-VANA Deer-forest, a place of sport or recreation of kings. 

Tavan-matram eka-dvararh khata-guptarh svadu-phala-gulmaguchcham 
akantaki-drumam uttana-toyasayarh danta-mrigachatush-padam bhagna- 
nakha-damshtra-vyala-margayuka-hasti-hastini-kalabha-mriga-vanam viha- 
rartham rajnah karayet I 

Sarva-tithi-mrigam pratyante chanyan mriga-vanam bhumivasena va 

nivesayet I 

(Kautiliya-Artha-saslra, Chap, xxm, p. 49.) 

MRINALAKA A lotus stalk or fibre, a moulding of the entablature, 
base, or pedestal, etc., shaped like the lotus stalk or fibre. 

A moulding of the lintel (M., xix, 145, etc.). 

The fourth moulding from the top (downwards) of an entablature. 

(Kamikdgama, LIV, i ; see under PRASTARA.) 

A moulding of the entablature (M., xvi, 63 ; see the list of mouldings 
under PRASTARA.) 

MEGHA-KANTA A type of storeyed building. 

A class of ten-storeyed buildings (M., xxvin, 16-17; see under 
PRASADA.) 

MERU A class of buildings mostly storeyed. 

(1) A type of buildings which are hexagonal (in plan), have twelve 
storeys, variegated windows and four entrances, and are 32 cubits wide. 

(Brihat-samhitd, LVI, 20 ; see J. R. A. S. 
N. S., Vol. vi, p. 318.) 

Pancha-chatvarimsan-meru-lakshanadhyayah the chapter on the des- 
cription of forty-five kinds of Meru buildings ; they are described by the 
following authorities : 

(2) Prdsdda-mandana-Vdstu-s'dstra of Sutradhara Mandana (Chap, vi, 
Ms. Egg. 3146, 2253, fol. 26 b). 

(3) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXDC, w. 28, 31, 53, see under PRASADA). 

(4) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 27 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(5) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 14-15 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(6) Garud.a-Pu.rdna also describes the same kind of Meru temple as the 
Agni-Purdna : 

Sata-sringa-samayukto meruh prasada-uttamah I 
Mandapas tasya karttavya bhadrais tribhir alankritah II 

(Chap. XLVII, v. 24, cf. also v. 39 ; see under PRASADA.) 
427 



MERU AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(7) A building with eight Salas (compartments) and eight kutas (towers 
or domes) : 

Merur nama iti khyatas tv-ashta-salashta-kutakam(-h) II 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 43.) 

(8) ' Meru denotes a particular kind of temple (hexagonal with twelve 
stories, variegated windows, and four entrances, Brihat-samhitd, LVI, 
20.)' (jabbalpur copperplate of Yasahkarnadeva, v. 13, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, 
pp. 4, 6, note 42.) 

(9) See Bheraghat inscrip. of the Queen Alhana Devi (v. 9, Ep* 
Ind., Vol. n, pp. n, 15). 

( 10) Kanaka-si-(s"i)glapita-gagana-khelat-khecharl-chakra-khedah I 
Kim aparam iha kas(s)yam yasya dughdhabdhi-vichl-valaya- 

bahalakirtteh kirttanarh karnna-meruh II 

' Of him whose fame is like the circle of waves of the milky ocean, need 
we say more than that here at Kas"! there is a temple (erected by him), 
Karna-meru (so lofty), that the wind of the flags which wave from its 
golden spires lessens the fatigue of the damsels of heaven, when playing in 
the sky.' (Khairha plates of Yasahkarnadeva, v. 13, Ep. Ind., Vol. m, pp. 211, 
212, 216.) 

(n) ' Meru is primarily the name of the fabulous golden mountain 
(hemadri), the centre of Jambu dvipa on which the gods dwell (suralaya), 
and it is figuratively applied in geographical names to any hill covered 
with splendid temples and palaces.' 

' Another figurative meaning of Meru, derived from the notion that 
mount Meru is the home of the gods, a large temple with six towers, twelve 
stories and wonderful vaults (Brihat-samhitd, LVI, 20).' 

' According to Prabandha-chintd-mani (p. 134, see also p. 175 f.) 
King Karna of Gujarat constructed a building of this kind, called Karna- 
meruh Prasadah, in Anhilvad.' 

' Similarly the Prabhdvaka-charitra (xn, 402) mentions a Siva temple 
called Siddha-meru.' 

' As regards the name Ajaya-meru, its meaning is no doubt (as the 
Prithvi-rdja-vijqya, v. 100, suggests), the Meru made by Ajaya-raja.' 

' Thus we have in Rajputana Jesala-meru (this form is still used by 
Pandits and Yatis, and occurs regularly in the colophons of the palm-leaf 
manuscripts in the inscriptions and the Jaina books), ' the Meru made by 
Jesala,' which primarily denotes the hill-fort, rising with its temples and 
palace abov the town of Jesalmer or Jesalmir in Marvad, Komalmer, 
properly Kumbhala-meru, ' the meru built by Kumbhala or Kumbha- 
karna,' which is the well-known hill-fort in Mevad. (In the Rajputana 
Gazetteer, Vol. in, p. 52, the fort is called Komalgarh, while Col. Tod 

428 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE MAULI 

gives Komalmer) . The name Kumbhala-mcru occurs in the Jaina Patta- 
valis (see the description of the Kharatara, no. 56, Sripuj-Jina-samudra, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xi, p. 249), and Balmer or Barmer, properly Bahada-meru, 
the Meru made by Bahada, a hill-fort in Mallani (Rdjputana Gazetteer, 
Vol. ii, p. 271). The form Bahada-meru is used by the Jainas (see the 
description of the Kharatara, no. 58, Sripuj-Jina-samudra, Ind. Ant., Vol. 
xi, p. 249). In Kathiavad, there is Jhanjmer, (Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. 
vin, p. 459) properly Jhanjha-meru, the Meru made by Jhaiijha, and in 
the Central Provinces there is another Ajmir-garh, properly Ajaya-meru- 
gadha, the fort, i.e., the Meru made by Ajaya.' -(Origin of the town 
of Ajmer and of its name, Dr. Biihler, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxvi, p. 164, last para., 
notes 11-15.) 

(12) ' There are other temples in honour of the holy mount Girnar 
. . . in the south wing being Sameta Sikhara and the other Su-meru 
or a personified mount Meru.' (Ahmadabad Jaina temples, Arch. Surv., New 
Imp. Series, Vol. xxxm, p. 85.) 

(13) ' Mandiram had the surname Jaya-meru-Sri-Karana-mangalam 
(lines 1 1 and 15 f.), which seems to be derived from Jaya-meru, one of the 
surnames of the Bana king Vikramaditya.' (Inscrip. of Rajaraja I, no. 50, 
H.S.I.I., Vol. HI, p. 103, para. 2.) 

MERU-KANTA A type of storeyed building. 

(1) A class of three-storeyed buildings (M., xxi, 41-49, see under 
PRASADA) . 

(2) A type of building (Kamikdgama, LXV, 31 ; see under MALIKA). 

MERUJA A type of building, a class of pavilions. 

(M., xxxiv, 160 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

MESHA-YUDDHA A kind of joinery. 

(M., XVH, 93, 112-113; see under SANDHI-KARMAN.) 

MAULI A head-gear, a crown. 

Mdnasdra (Chap. XLIX, 1-232, named Mauli-lakshana) : 

Various crowns and head-dresses are described : Jata, Mauli, 
Kirita, Karanda, Sirastraka, Kundala(Kuntala), KeSa-bandha, 
Dhammilla, Alaka, Chuda, Makuta, and Patta (lines 13-15). 
Of these, the Pattas are sub-divided into three kinds, namely, Patra- 
patta, Ratna-patta, and Pushpa-patta (line 16). Kuntala, Kesa-bandha, 
Dhammila, Alaka and Chuda are apparently various fancy modes of hair- 
dressing. Jata (clotted hair) and Makuta (lit. diadem) are stated to 
suit Brahma and Siva (Rudra) ; Kirita and Makuta are prescribed for 
Vishnu in his different forms, such as, Narayana and others (lines 
17-18). 

429 



MAULIKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Other petty gods wear Karanda and Makuta (line 19). The love god- 
dess Rati (Manonmani) wears Jata, Mauli, Mandala or Kundala. Sarasvati 
and Savitri put on Kes"a-bandha and Kundala. All the female deities 
may wear Karanda or Makuta. The kings Chakra-vartin (Sarva-bhauma) 
and Adhiraja wear Kirita, Narendra puts on Karanda, Parshnika uses 
Sirastraka, or the Chakra-vartin and other kings may, as stated, wear 
Karanda or Makuta. Patra-patta is stated to be suitable for the king 
Patta-dhara, Ratna-patta for Parshnika, Pushpa-patta for Patta-bhaj, 
and Pushpa-malya (flower wreath) for Astra-graha (lines 20-28). 

Kundala (Kudmala) and Makuta are prescribed for the queen of Chakra- 
vartin, Kcsa-bandha for the queens of Adhiraja and Narendra, Dhammilla 
and Kumuda for the queens of Parshnika, Patta-dhara, MandaleSa and 
Patta-bhaj, and Alaka and Chuda for the queens of Astra-graha (lines 

29-33)- 

The height, etc., of a crown is determined in comparison with the width 
of the face of the wearer. Different proportions are suggested in different 
cases (lines 34-63). 

Next is described in detail the number of gold pieces and precious jewels 
in the crowns of the kings of various ranks and of their consorts (lines 
64-88, 89-92). 
Forms of these crowns are then described : 

Jata, Makuta, Kesa-bandha and Dhavala (? Dhammilla) are stated 
to be shaped like tri-purusha (lit. three ancestors or the length of 
three men) Kirlta like venu-karna (bamboo-ear), Karanda like the 
beak of a peacock, Sirastra like budbuda (water bubble), and 
Dhammilla like vallika (creeper) (lines 93-95). 

Then follows the description of the plan and the various parts of these 
crowns, as well as of their measurement (lines 96-168). 

MAULIKA A type of pavilion, a class of halls, a type of build- 
ing. 

A type of pavilion with six faces (M., xxxiv, 554; see under MANDAPA.) 
A class of halls (M., xxxv, 3, 10 ; see under SALA.) 

MAULI-BANDHA A head-gear. 

(M., XLIX, 109 ; see under BHUSHANA.) 

MAULI-MUNDA The top part of a branch of the ornamental 
tree (kalpavriksha) . 

Sakha-mulasya parve tu mauli-mundam cha yojayet I 

(M., XLVIII, 66.) 
430 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE RAKTA-PATTA 



YAKSHA A class of demi-gods, the attendants of Kubera or the 
god of wealth, who guard his treasures ; they are also the chowry- 
bearers of other gods. They are stated to be measured according 
to the nine tala ; they assume a purely human appearance, possess 
two arms and two eyes, dark blue and yellow complexion, and 

benevolent disposition. 

(M., LVIII, 2-5 ; see TALA-MANA.) 

YAJNA-KANTA A type of five-storeyed building. 

(M., XXIH, 34-41 ; see under PRASADA.) 

YAJNA-BHADRA A type of building, a pavilion with four 

pillars. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. n ; see under MANDAPA.) 

YANTRAKA An architectural member of the bedstead, a band, 
a machinery or wheel at the legs to move a couch easily. 
Padagre chantaralarh syat kuryat tiryak cha yantrakam I 

(M., XLIV, 13.) 

YAMA-SORYA A type of building, a house with a western and 
northern hall. 

(Brihat-samhita, LIII, 39.) 

YAMA-KANTA A type of storeyed building. 

A class of five-storeyed and eleven-storeyed buildings. 

(M., XXIH, 25-29, xxrx, 16-18 ; see under PRASADA.) 

YAGA-MANDAPA A sacrificial pavilion. 

(M., xxxiv, 37 ; xxxn, 65, etc.) 
YAGA-SALA A sacrificial hall. 

(M., xxxii, 55, etc.) 

YANA A conveyance, a car, one of the four kinds of Vastu con- 
sisting of Adika, Syandana, Sibika, and Ratha. 

(M., in, 3, 9-10.) 

YOPA-STAMBHA The sacrificial pillar (see under STAMBHA). 

R 

RAKTA-KAMPA A moulding of the base, a fillet. 

(M., xiv, 287 ; see the list of mouldings under ADHISIITHANA.) 

RAKTA-PATTA (cf. RATNA-PATTA) A moulding of the base, a 

band. 

(M ., xiv, 289 ; see the list of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA.) 

431 



RAKTA-BANt)HA AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

RAKTA-BANDHA A class of bases. 

(M., xiv, 281-296 ; see the list of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA ; see also xv, 223.) 
RAKTA-VAPRA A moulding of the base, the cavetto. 

(M., xiv, 284 ; see the list of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA.) 

RANGA A pavilion, a theatre, an amphitheatre, a stage, an arena, 
an assembly-hall, a court, a courtyard. 

(1) A pavilion within another pavilion is called Ranga : 

Mandape mandapam yat tu rangam ity-abhidhlyate II 

(Kamikdgama, L, 94.) 

(2) Courtyard : 

Tasya madhye cha range tu mauktikena prapanvitam I 

(M., xxxiv, 218.) 

Mukha-sala visala cha chatur-bhagarh tathayatam I 
Purato'lindam ekarhsam bhittim kuryat samantatah I 
Mulagre dvi-dvi-bhagena vasa-rangarh cha karayet I 

(M., xxxv, 117-119 ; see also xxm, 50 ; xxxvm, 44, etc.) 

(3) Uttare rangam ity-uktarh tad-grihinya griharh bhavet II 

Eka-sala prasasta syat strinarh rangopajivinam 1 1 
Pradhana-sala yatraiva ranga-sthanarh vidhlyate II 
Ranga-bhitti-samayuktarh dhama-sopana-sarhyutam 1 1 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 47, 60, 62, 64.) 

RAftGA-PlTHA The stage proper. 

(Bharata's Ndlya-sastra, 11, 66, 771, 102.) 
See details under NATYA-GRIHA. 

RAftGA-BHtJMI The stage, the playhouse (see details under 
NATYA-GRIHA). 

RAftGA-MANDAPA A pavilion, an assembly-hall, a council 
chamber, the stage proper (Bharata's Ndtya-sdstra, n, 68, 96), the 
whole playhouse including auditorium also (ibid., n, 91). Music 
hall as defined in the Bhavaprakasana (x, 518), implying singing, 
playing upon musical instruments, dancing and acting jointly or 
separately. See details under NATYA-GRIHA (VESMA). 

Cf. Nat (nritta) mandira implying the detached mandapa or hall in 
front of a temple, where the visitors assemble and indulge in religious 
music. 

(i) An assembly-hall (Hampe inscrip. of Krishnaraya, lines 24, 32, north 
face) . 

432 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE RATNA-KANTA 

' In the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen (Bd. LVIII, s. 455) 
Dr. Bloch makes some remarks respecting a cave in Ramgarh hill in 
Sarguja, which from its arrangement and inscriptions appears to have 
been evidently intended for dramatic performances.' 

' The so-called queen's cave and that of Ganes"a cave in Udayagiri are 
further undoubted examples, to the reliefs of which Jacobi has directed my 
attention : they represent the doings of these ladies and gentlemen (actresses 
and actors) in a highly realistic way. The cave-theatre discovered by 
Bloch has, however, a special interest : it is arranged after the Greek 
pattern.' 

Prof. Luders refers to Kalidasa (i) dari-griha (Kumdra-sambhava, i, 
10, 14) ; (2) Sila-vesman (Megha-duta, i, 25). 

(Indian Caves as Pleasure-resorts, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxiv, p. 199, para. 3 ; p. 200, 
para, i.) 

(2) Irangada happaligeyuman imaha-sopana pantiyumarh rachisidam 
Sri-Gommata-devara suttalu rarigama-happaligeym bigiyisidan ' had this 
rahgada happalige (? painted hall or hall of assembly) and the flight of 
grand stairs laid out ; had the rangama happalige set up around Srl- 
Gommata Deva.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. n, no. 115 ; Roman Text, p. 87 ; Transl., 
p. 171.) 

(3) Karite vira-Ballala-pattana-svaminamuna I 
Nagena ParsVa-devagre nritya-rangasma-kuttime I 

' By Naga, the Vlra-Ballala, pattana-svami, were built the dancing hall 
and terrace of Parsva Deva.' 

Nritya-rangamumarh madisida ' and in front of the basadi of Kama- 
tha Parsva Deva stone pillars and a dancing hall ' were made. 
(Ep. Carnat., Vol. n, no. 130; Roman Text, p. 99, lines 1-4; Transl., p. 178, 
para, i.) 

RANGA-MUKHA A class of buildings, the forepart of a theatre or 
stage. 

(Kamikagama, XLV, 52 ; see under MALIKA.) 

RANGA-SINSHA The forepart of the stage, the platform made of 
wood (Bharata's Ndtya-sdstra n, 71). See details under NATYA-GRIHA 

(-VESMA) . 

RATNA-KALPA A kind of ornament prescribed for idols and 
kings. 

(M., L, 3 ; see under BHUSHANA.) 
RATNA-KANTA A class of six-storeyed buildings. 

(Af., xxiv, 19 ; see under PRASADA.) 
433 



RATNA-GRIHA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

RATNA-GRIHA The jewel-house, the adytum of a Buddhist 
temple, a stupa or tope. 

Ratna-grihecha dipako jvalatu I mama chapararddhat panchaiva 
bhikshavo bhumjatarh ratna-grihe cha dipaka iti II 

' From the interest of the dinaras given by him . . . let a lamp 
burn in the jewel-house . . . and with the other half ... let 
the same number of five Bhikshus be fed and a lamp burn in the jewel- 
house.' 

' It seems to denote the stupa itself, as the abode of the three ratnas or 
jewels or precious stones, viz. (i) Buddha, (2) Dharma, the law or truth, 
and (3) Sarhgha, the community or congregation.' 

This rendering of the term by the whole ' stupa ' seems unsuitable to 
the contest : a lamp was provided to light up the ratna-griha which must 
imply a room or a particular part thereof, and not the whole ' stupa.' 
(Sanchi stone inscrip. of Ghandragupta II, lines 9-10, C. I. I,, Vol. m, F. G. I., 
no. 5, pp. 32, 33-34, note 5 on p. 33.) 

RATNA-PATTA A moulding, a jewelled band, a jewelled turban. 

A moulding of the pedestal (M., xm, 84 ; see the list of mouldings, 
under UpAPixHA.) 
A head-gear (M., XLIX, 16; see under BHUSHANA). 

RATNA-PAD A Otherwise called Sripada, the footprint of Buddha, 
on Adam's Peak in Ceylon. For details see BUDDHA-PAD A. 

RATNA-PUSHPA A diamond flower, an ornament. 

(Deopara inscrip. of Vijayasena, v. n, Ep. Ind., 

Vol. r, pp 308, 313.) 
RATNA-BANDHA (see RAKTA-BANDHA) A class of bases. 

(M., xiv, 281-296 ; see the list of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA.) 
RATNA-MANDAPA A kind of pavilion. 

(M., xxxii, 48 ; see MANDAPA.) 

RATNA-RANJAKA One of the three library buildings in the 
University of Nalanda (see under DHARMAGANJA) . 

RA.TNA-SAGARA One of the three library buildings in the 
University of Nalanda (see under DHARMAGANJA). 

RATNI (cf. ARATNI) A measure of 21 angulas or about 16 inches. 
R;a1nir angula-parvarh sarhkhyaya tv-eka-virhs'atih I 

(Brahmanda-Pufdna, Part I, and anushamgapada- 

Chap, vn, v. 98,) 

434 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE RATHA 

A measure equal to the cubit with closed or clenched fist (Suprabhed- 
dgama, xxx, 24). 

RATNODADHI One of the three library buildings in the Uni- 
versity of Nalanda. It was nine-storey high and stocked the sacred 
scriptures, Prajna-pdramita-sutra, and the Tantric works such as 
Samajaguhya, etc. (See under DHARMAGANJA) . 

RATHA A chariot, a carriage, a car, a vehicle, a tank, a war 
chariot, the body, a limb, a shrine. 

(1) Mdnasdra (Chap. XLIII, 1-107, named Ratha) : 

Rathas are constructed for ceremonial and ordinary drives of 
idols, Brahmans and kings ; as well as for fighting, mock-fighting 
and other purposes (lines i, 131-133). 

Wheels and other parts of Rathas, their shapes, measurement, and orna- 
ments and mouldings are described (lines 2-3 f.). Other architectural 
details are also given (lines 3-11). 

With regard to shape, Rathas are divided into seven classes, namely, 
Nabhasvan-bhadraka, Prabhanjana-bhadraka, Nivata-bhadraka, Pavana- 
bhadraka, Prishada-bhadraka, Indraka-bhadraka, and Anila-bhadraka 
(lines 112-115). The first of these is square, the second hexagonal; the 
third should have two bhadras or porticoes (? storeys) and the fourth 
three porticoes, the fifth and the sixth should have ten porticoes, and the 
last one should have twelve porticoes (lines 117-120). But according to 
some, the seven shapes proper are respectively semi-circular, circular, 
elliptical, rectangular, octagonal, hexagonal, and oval (lines 121-123). 

Rathas are further divided into four types, namely, Nagara, Dravida 
Andhra, and Vesara. The square Rathas are called Nagara, the octagonal 
ones Dravida, the hexagonal ones Andhra, and the round ones Vesara 
(lines 124-125). 

In accordance with various purposes, Rathas are furnished with differ- 
ent kinds of wheels and other parts. Thus a war chariot or tank has three 
wheels, the chariot for mock-fighting has four wheels, one for ordinary 
festival is furnished with five wheels, one for special festival may have six, 
seven, eight, nine or ten wheels (lines 131-37). 

The number of vedis or platforms, storeys, etc., of these Rathas as well 
as the Rathas of' the Bauddhas and of the Jinakas are described (lines 
138-171,3-111). 

(2) Svarnaih sughatitam sadhu-ratha-trayam alarhkritam I 
Dukula-ratna-maladyair bahu-mulyair dridham mahat II 

(Skanda-Purana, Vaishnava-khanda-dvitlya, 
Chap, xxv, v. 8.) 

435 



RATHAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

, (,) On the east elevation of the temple . . .eight small shrines 
(known as Ratha) stand in a row from north to south on each side c 
eastern entrance, six on the left.' 

The Ratha, on the extreme left, stands completely detached. 
is a square shrine, with carved panels on the back of the chamber 

A small platform is in front, with yali piers (block uncarved), each 
having its capital complete.' 

. The basemen, is a square granite plinth, and square free stone eourse 



ters are brackets which carry the 

. As these shrines are very similar to the monoliths at Mamallapura^ 
known by the name of Rathas, the term is here used advised y 
(PaTavalrchitecture,^.^,, New Imp. Series, Vol. xxxxv, p. , para, 3 , 
4, 5 , 6 : note 96 ; set Plate xxv.) 

RATHAKA A type of building, a shrine, a temple. 
Ashtamarhsena garbhasya rathakanam tu nirgamah I 
Paridher-guna-bhagena rathakams tatra kalpayet 
Tat-tritiyena va kuryad rathakanam tu nirgamah I 
Vama-trayarh sthapaniyam rathaka-tritaye sada II 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLH, w. 13-14-) 

Nernih padona-vistirna prasadasya samantatah I 
Paridhes trayarhsako madhye rathakams tatra karayet 

(Ibid., Chap, civ, v. 7.) 

RATHA-KUMBHA-A pitcher-like part of the column. 

(M., xv, 68 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

RATHA-VlTHI-The broad road fit for driving chariot and other 

vehicles, the highway, the main street. 

(See Kamikagama, under RAJA-VITHI.) 

RAHASYAVASA-MANDAPA-A pavilion where kings reside in 

secret, a bed-room, a private chamber. 

(M., XL, 147 ; see under MAI^PAPA.) 

RATA-GRIHA The royal palace. 

(See details under RAJA-HARMYA.) 

RAJA-DHANI (see under NAGARA)-The king's residence, the 
capital city where the king usually resides, the seat of Government, 
the metropolis. 

436 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE RAJA-HARMYA 

Definition : 

Vidya-sthanam tu tadvat syat bahu-sena-saraanvitam I 
Raja-veSma-samayukta raja-dhaniti kathyate II 

(Kamikagama, xx, 14.) 

Cf. ' With myriads of people, practices of virtue, agreeable occupations, 
streams of the (nine) sentiments, pleasure-gardens, separated lovers, 
splendid tanks, full lotus beds, gilded boats for spring-festivals, ghatika- 
sthanas (religious centres), the supports of dharmma and mines of enjoy- 
ment, moats which were as if the sea being overcome had returned here 
on account of the collection of gems, groups of the lotus-faces of beautiful 
women fair as the moon (grama-nagara-kheda-kharwana-madamba- 
drona-mukha-pura-pattana-raja-dhanl), on whatever side one looked, in 
these nine forms did the Kuntala-des"a shine.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. vn, 
Shikarpur Taluq, no. 197 ; Transl., p. 124, para, i, last seven lines ; Roman 
Text, p. 214, line 27 f.) 

RAJA-PATHA The broad street, the big road, the highway. 
Dhanumshi daga-vistlrnah sriman raja-pathah kritah I 
Nri-vaji-ratha-naganam asarhbadhas tu samcharah 1 1 
Dhanumshi chapi chatvari s'akha-rathyas' cha tair mita I 
Trika rathyoparathyah syur dvikas" chapy-uparathyakah II 
Jahgha-pathas chatush-padas tri-padam cha grihantaram I 
Dhriti-margas turddhva-shashtham krama^ah padikah smritah II 

(Brahmanda-Purana, Part i, and annushamga-pada, 
Chap, vn, vv. 113, 114, 115.) 

RAJA-VITHI The public road, the broad street, a road which runs 
round a village or town, also called Mangala-vithi and Rathavithi. 

Raja-vlthlti vikhyata gramader bahir-avrita I 

Saiva mangala-vithiti ratha-vlthiti kathita II 

(Kamikagama, xxi, 2.) 
RAJA-HARMYA The palace of a king. 

Manasara (Chap. XL, 1-160, named Raja-griha) : 

Palaces are divided into nine classes with regard to their size and 

as they belong to the nine classes of kings, namely, Sarvabhupa (or 

Sarva-bhauma, otherwise called Chakra-vartin) (lines 32, 1-9), 

Maha-raja (lines 10-15), Narendra (lines 16-19), Parshnika (lines 

19-22), Patta-dhara (lines 23-25), Mandalega (lines 26-28), Patta-bhaj 

(lines 29-31), Praharaka (lines 32-36), and Astragraha (line 37). 

Each palace admits of three sizes, namely, the largest, the intermediate 

and the smallest, both as regards the measurement of dimensions (lines 

437 



RAJA-HARMYA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

4 I0 15 36) and the number of walls, storeys, rooms, ditches, gardens, 
etc (lines 38-69). Thus three kinds of breadth are given to each palace. 
The length and height are determined in comparison with the breadth. 
The former (length) may vary from being equal to the breadth to being 
ai times of it. Height is determined mostly by the number of storeys, 
rules for which have been discussed in another place (set under TALA 
and BHUMI-LAMBA). The number of storeys a palace should possess, has 
also been discussed in the same place. The enclosure, surroundmg moat, 
etc of each palace are briefly described in the present chapter, 
main object of the chapter is to give an account of inner and outer I 
ings belonging to royal palaces (lines 71-1", 112-153). 

The Brahma-pitha or royal chapel is installed in the Bramasthana or 
central part (lines 156-159)- The main P alace is built i n the best of the 
remaining parts called Indra, Varuna, Yama, Pushpadanta, etc. Round 
the palace proper are arranged all other houses, such as the houses for the 
queen and the princesses, for private council hall, drawing-room, dressing- 
room, bathroom, dining hall, kitchen, bed-chambers, quarters for attend- 
ants, places for tanks and inner gardens, etc. (cf. Shodasa-mandira-chakra . 

Beyond the royal harem, the charm and luxuries of which are so wel 
known, are placed the official quarters, including residences of the crown 
prince, family priest, ministers, and others. 

The royal council and other offices are suitably accommodated : e.g., 
the palace of peace and war office are directed to be built at the fourth 
compound in the southern side of the palace (line 148) . Pleasure gardens, 
flower gardens, groves, tanks, etc., are gracefully laid out. Compare 

following : 

Yamye cha soma-dig vapi vayavye vatha nairnte I 
Asthana-mandaparh kuryat pushkarinyarh cha vayave I 
Nagasya vamake yamye kuryad arama-des"akam I 
Pushpodyanam tatah kuryat mukhya-bhallatake'pi cha I 
Nrittagararh tatah kuryan nana-nrittanganani cha I 

(M., XL, 117-121.) 

Tritiye vithis tasyarhse rahasyavasa-mandapam I ^ 

Ise va vitathe chaiva ranga-mandapam eva cha I 

(ibid., I5*J 

Stables, cow-sheds, etc., where domestic animals are kept, are generally 
built near the main gate : 

Dvauvarika-pade chaiva mayuralayam eva cha I 
Dvarasya dakshine parsVe vyagrakalayam eva cha I 

(Ibid., i44-'45-) 

438 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE RUCHIRA 

ParsVake mesha-Sala cha satyake vanaralayam I 
Somad Is"ana-paryantaiii vaji-Salam prakalpayet I 
Yamyadi-pavakantaih syad gaja-Salam prakalpayet I 
Tasmat tu nairrityantam kukkutalayam eva cha I 
Vayu-konadi-mukyantarh mriganarii harinalayam I 

(Ibid., 128-132.) 

The elevated platforms to see the mock-fight from are also placed near 
the door (lines 148-150). The iron-pike (Sula-kampa) for capital punish- 
ment is placed in a prominent place near the gate (line 135). But the jail 
(karagara) is built in a rather out-of-the-way place, such as the iBhrisa, or 
the Antariksha part. 

All these are given by way of illustrations, the most part of the arrange- 
ment being left, as stated here, to the discretion of the artists, and the choice 
of the king (line 155). 

RAjAftGA The royal court, persons forming the king's suite or 
council, anything related to the king, the royal palace. 

In a chapter (XLI), named Rajanga, of the Mdnasdra are described the 
nine classes of kings, their courts, kingdoms, royalties and some special 
characteristics. 

' Had a palace (Rajanga) built for Goparaja to the west of that pond.' 
(Ep. Carnat., Vol. x, Malur Taluq, no. 4 ; Roman Text, p. 187 ; Transl., p. 156.) 

RUCHAKA A type of building, a class of columns. 

(1) Prak-paSchimavalindav-anta-gatau tad-avadhi-sthitau s*eshau I 
Ruchake dvararh na s"ubhadam uttarato'nyani Sastani II 

' The (building called) Ruchaka has a western and eastern terrace run- 
ning to the end, and between their extremities two others. A northern 
door in it brings evil, doors on any other side are auspicious.' (Brihat- 
samhitd, LHI, 35, J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 286.) 

Sama-chaturas'ro ruchakah a column with four rectangular sides is 
(called) ruchaka (ibid., v. 28). 

A kind of quadrangular building : 

(2) Agni-Purdna (Chap, crv, w. 14-15 has ' Charuka,' see under 
PRASADA). 

(3) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 24-25; see under PRASADA). 

RUCHIRA A kind of pedestal or platform at the bottom of a 
column, a portico. 

Garbha-mana-pramanena prasadarh sVinuta dvijah I 
Vibhajya navadha garbhaih madhye syal lihga-pithika II 
Padashtakam tu ruchirarh parsVatah parikalpayet I 
Manena tena vistaro bhittinarh tu vidhiyate 1 1 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 15-16.) 

439 



RUDRA-KANTA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

RUDRA-KANTA A type of building, a class of columns. 

The sixteen-sided or circular pillars (Af., xv, 21 ; see under STAMBHA). 
A class of four-storeyed buildings (M., xxn, 34-43 ; see under PRASADA). 

RUDRA-BANDHA A kind of band, an ornament. 

(M., LI, 69 ; see under BHUSHANA.) 

RUPOTTARA A type of entablature (see PRASTARA). 

Cf. Athochcharh pada-vistararh rupottaram ihoditam I 

(Kamikdgama, LIV, 6, etc.) 

RAURAVA A type of storeyed building. 

A class of nine-storeyed buildings (Af., xxvn, 10 ; see under PRASADA). 



LAKSHMI-SK(-ST)AMBHA (see STAMBHA) A type of column : 
the main pillar of a house, which is believed to be the abode of the 
guardian angel of the house. 

LAMBANA A pendant, a moulding of the front portico, same as 
alambana or plinth (M., xrx, 28). 

(M., xvm, 285 ; see MUKHA-BHADRA.) 
Sikharalambanantam cha vedi-tara-samanvitam I 

(M., xrx, 27.) 
Lambanordhve dalarh badhya .... I 

(Ibid., 39.) 
Utsedhe cha tri-bhagaikam tasyadho chagra-lambanam I 

(Ibid., 170.) 
Tr(i)yarharh chagra-vistararh lambanarh pancha-bhagikam I 

(Ibid., 172.) 
See also M., xx, 25, etc. 

A pendant (Af., L, 15, etc.). 

LAMBA-PATRA An ornament shaped like a leaf. 

(M., LI, 73 ; see BHUSHANA.) 

LAMBA-MANA The measurement along the plumb lines. 

(Af., LV, 3-6 ; see under MANA.) 

LAMBA-HARA A kind of long necklace, a pendant. 

(Af., L, 301 ; see BHUSHANA.) 

LALATA(-MANDAPA) Same as munda-harmya, and chuli- 
harmya, a tower, a top-room. 

(Af., xxxiv, 400, 406, 409, 414, 429, 454, 505, 568.) 
Same as VAKTRA and NETRA (Af., xxxv, 257-260). 

44 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE LlNGA 

LAftGALA The plough. 

For its architectural details see Mdnasdra (Chap, v, 55-77). 

LANGALAKARA Anything shaped like the plough, a pavilion with 
three faces, a type of hall. 

(M.,xxxrv, 553 ; see under MANDAPA ; 
xxxv, 67 ;see under SALA.) 

LAftGALA-BHITTI A kind of round cornei wall, shaped like 
the plough. 

Karne langala-bhittih syad bhramaravrita-bahyake I 

(M., xxxiv, 333.) 
Prapagraika-dvi-bhagarh va karne larigala-bhittikam I 

(Ibid., 225.) 

LlNGA A distinguishing mark, a badge, a symbol, an emblem? 

the genital organ, the image of a god, an idol, the emblematical 

phallus of Siva. 

(i) Mdnasdra (Chap. LIT, 1-376, named Lihga) : 

Various classifications of phalli have been given (line 2 f.). They 
are classified firstly into six heads : (i) Saiva, Pasupata, Kala-mukha, 
Mahavrata, Varna and Bhairava ; secondly, into four : (2) Sama-karna, 
Vardhamana, Sivanka and Svastika ; thirdly, into four with regard to 
height : (3) Jati, Chhanda, Vikalpa and Abhasa ; fourthly, into three 
types with regard to breadth or width : (4) Nagara, Dravida and Vesara 
(line 99) ; fifthly, into five : (5) Svayambhu or Udbhuta, Daivika, 
Manusha, Ganava and Arsha ; sixthly, into two : (6) Athmartha (for 
one's personal worship) , and Parartha (for others, for public worship) ; 
again into two : (7) Eka (single) linga, and Bahu-linga (phalli in 
group) ; then into many kinds : such as (8) Vajra, Svarna, etc., with 
regard to materials of which they are made ; and lastly into two : 
(9) Kshanika (for temporary worship) as contrasted with the (10) 
Sthira or permanent linga. All these kinds of phalli are described 
at great length. Various alternative measures are prescribed for each 
of them (lines 13-376). In some cases as many as 36 alternative 
heights have been suggested. But in most cases their number is 9. 
The 9 alternative heights of a phallus are determined in some cases 
by a comparison to different parts of the body of the worshipper 
(yajamana). The height of the phallus may reach the worshipper's 
sex-organ, navel, heart, breast, arm-joint, chin, nose, eye, or be equal 
to his full height. Another comparative measurement is given with 
regard to the Garbha-griha or adytum. Various absolute measures 
are also given in some cases. The set of the nine alternatives 

441 



LlftGA AM ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

prescribed for height may begin with one cubit and end with four 
cubits and a half, the increment being by half a cubit. The breadth 
or width of the phallus is in like manner discussed at great length. 

(2) Athatah sarhpravakshyami linga-lakshanam uttamam I 
Susnigdharh cha suvarnarh cha lingam kuryad vichakshanafr II 
Prasadasya pramanena linga-manarh vidhiyate I 
Linga-manena va vidyat prasadam Subha-lakshanam II 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIII, v, 1-2.) 
Etat samanyam uddishtam prasadasyeha lakshanam I 
Tathanyarh tu pravakshyami prasadam linga-manatah II 

(Ibid., Chap., CCLXIX, v. 7.) 

Evarh ratna-mayam kuryat sphatikam parthivam tatha I 
Subharh daru-mayam chapi yad va manasi rochate II 

(Ibid., Chap. CCLXHI, v. 25.) 

(3) In the Brihat-samhitd (LVIII, 53-55) where Varahamihira seems to 
have condensed the details from the Matsya-Purana, are given especially 
the architectural characteristics : 

Lingasya vritta-paridhirh dairghyenasutrya tat tridha vibhajet I 
Mule tach chaturasYarh madhye tv-ashta^ri vrittam atah 1 1 
Chatura^ram avani-khate madhyarh karyarh tu pindika^v-abhre I 
DriSyochchhrayena sama samantatah pindika sVabhrat II 
' (For the construction of an emblem of Siva) set out in the length the 
(measure of the) circumference of the round part and divide the whole 
phallus into three portions, of which the part at the bottom must be quad- 
rangular, that in the midst octangular, and the rest round. (The same 
shapes are prescribed in the Mdnasard). Sink the quadrangular portion 
into a pit in the earth and put the middle member into the cavity of the 
pedestal. The pedestal is visible upwards to its cavity, in all directions 
over an extent equal to its height.' (Brihat-sarhhitd, LVIII, 53, 54, 
J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 329, notes i, 2.) 

(4) Sarvesham eva linganam lakshanam Srinu sampratam II 
Madhya-sutrarh samasadya brahma-rudrantika budhah I 
ShodaSangula-lirigasya shad-bhagair bhajito yatha 1 1 

Tad vaiyamana-sutrabhyarh manam antaram uchyate I 
Yavashtam uttare karyyarh Seshanam yava-hanitah II 
Adho-bhagam tridha kritva tv-ardham ekam parityajet I 
Ashtadha tad-dvayarh kritva urddha-bhaga-trayarh tyajet 1 1 
Urddhvarh cha panchamad bhagad bhramya-rekham pralambayet I 
Bhagam ekam parityajya sarhgamam karayet tayoh II 
Etarh sadharanarh proktarh linganam lakshanam maya II 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. Lm, vv. 8-13.) 
442 



NOTE: Her* each unit ia one-eighth 
ol the height of Sikhara. 




PENT : ROOF. 



aAOANA. VIHAYA3. ANANTA. ANTARIKMA 

PROPORTIONS OF LUPA. 
LUPA. 





LAKSHMI STAMBHA 







VEDIKA. 




1 



i - 




SECTION. ELEVATION. 

VEDI, 



Page 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE LU(-TJ)PA 

(5) Svayambhuvaih vana-lingarh daivikarh charshakam tu iti I 
Bha-(Ga)navam manusham lihgam shat prakaram praklrtitam II 

(Kamikagama, L, 35.) 

Details of these Lingas (see ibid., 36-43) are the same as given in the 
Mdnasara. 

The pitha (pedestal) of the Linga (phallus) is described. (Ibid., 44-52.) 
Twelve Jyotir-lingas : 

(1) Somanatha (at Verawal, Junagadh State, Guzrat). 

(2) TrimbakesVara (at source of the Godavari, Nasik). 

(3) MummalesVara (at Onkar, Mandhata, district Nimar, G. P.). 

(4) Mahakalesvara (at Ujjain). 

(5) Kedarnatha (at Kedar, Garhwal District). 

(6) VisVanath (at Benares) . 

(7) Vaidyanatha (in Santal Pargana, district Birbhum, Bihar) , 

or 
Vaijnatha (at Parli, Hyderabad State, Deccan). 

(8) Ramesvara (at Ramnad District, Madras). 

(9) Mallikarjuna (at Sri^aila, Garnool District, Madras). 

(10) Naganatha (near Dwaraka, Guzrat, or at Oundh, Hyderabad, 
Deccan). 

(n) Ghrishnesvara (Purna-jyotish, near Ellora Caves, Hyderabad, 
Deccan). 

(12) Bhlma-s'ankara (30 miles from Poona). 
N.B. These do not include three other famous lingas, namely : 

(A) PaSupatinatha (at Katmundu, Nepal). 

(B) Amarnatha (in Kasmir). 

(C) Kailasanatha (on the Manas-sarovara, in the Himalayas). 

LlftGA(-MUDRA)-STAMBHA A pillar marked with the linga 
or emblem of Siva (see under STAMBHA). 

LU(-O)PA A sloping and projecting member of the entablature, 
etc., representing a continued pen t- roof ; it is made below the cupola, 
and its ends are placed as it were suspended from the architrave 
and reaching the stalk of the lotus below. Slope or breadth (M., 

xxx, 135.) 

(See Ram Raz, Ess. Arch, of Hind., p. 52.) 

(1) Atha samkshipya vakshyamo lupanam lakshanam vayam I 
Uttarasyanurupena tasaih taram udiritam I 

(Vdstu-vidya, ed. Ganapati Sastri, x, i, f.) 

(2) Luparoha-kriya-yuktam anyat purvokta-vartmana I 
Athava-sarva-Salayaih luparohanam eva va 1 1 

(Kamikagama, xxxv, 69.) 

443 



LOGA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(3) In connexion with the entablature : 

Lupakararh tu tat kuryad dalasyakritir eva va I 

(M., xvi, 139 ; see also 20, 195.) 

An account is given in great detail (M., xvra, 168-278, xxx ; 132, etc.). 

The lupas (inner roof or the ceiling) prescribed for temples are techni- 
cally called ambara, vyaya, jyotis, gagana, vihayas, ananta, antariksha, 
and pushkala ; and those for residential buildings are called mahl, jya, 
kaSyapi, kshoni, urvi, gotra, vasum-dhara, and vasudha. 

(M., xvra, 177-184.) 

LOGA Probably same as thuna (posts, pillar), clod, pole, memorial 
pillar erected after the earth is piled up from about the grave (see 
further details under THUNA and &ANKU). 

LOSHTA (see KALAS"A) A lump of earth, a clod, an architectural 

object resembling partly the finial. 

The Vdstu-vidfyd (ed. Sastri) has a chapter (xvi) named Mrit-loshta- 
lakshana (description of the lump of earth). In it loshta is directed to be 
built on the stupi (top, dome, vv. 27, 37). At the top of a building the 
kalasa (water-jar, finial) is generally built. It is variously named in this 
last chapter of the work : loshtani (vv. 28-30, 32), nivra-loshtani (v. 34), 
krura-loshtani (v. 35), kona-loshtani, puta-loshtani, urdhva-loshtani 
(v. 36), and svarnadi-loshta (v. 39). 

LOHA (see under ABHASA) Iron used both as an architectural and 
sculptural material. 

One of the metals of which idols are made : 

(1) Mrinmayarh yadi kuryach chech chhulam tatra prakalpayet I 
Lohajam tv-aviseshena madhuchchhishtena nirmitam 1 1 

(Suprabheddgama, xxxrv, ai.) 

(2) Evam dvi-tryangularii vapi lohajaih pratimodayam I 

(M., xn, 1 19.) 

Lohajair mrit-sudha chaiva ... I 
Uttamam lohajaih bimbarh pithabhasam tu chottamam I 

(M., LI, 6, 19.) 
See further illustrations under ABHASA. 



VAKTRA The face, a moulding. 

, A moulding of the column (M., xv, 212-219). 
The face (M., LVH, 20, etc.). 
See the lists of mouldings under ADHISHTHANA and UPAP!THA. 

444 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VAJRA-BANDHA 

VAKRA Bent, winding, curved, curled, a type of octagonal build- 
ing. 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVII, vv. 21, 23, 31-32 ; see under PRASADA.) 

VAJRA Adamantine, forked, zigzag, a diamond, the thunderbolt 
of Indra, a type of column, a paste, plaster or cement, a type of 
building. 

A column with eight rectangular sides (Brihut-samhitd, Lin, 28). 

A paste, plaster or cement : Kalkah krito dvitiyo'yam vajrakhyah I 

(Brihat-samhitd, LVII, 6, J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 322.) 

A type of octangular building : 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, w. 20-21, see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap, xxxvn, vv. 21, 23,31-32; see under 
PRASADA). 

VAJRA-KANTA A type of storeyed building. 

A class of eleven-storeyed buildings (M., xxxrv, 19-25 ; see under 
PRASADA). 

VAJRA-KU'MBHA A moulding of the base and the pedestal, 
generally placed between a cyma and petal, it is so called, as it 
resembles an elongated pitcher. 

A moulding of the base (M., xiv, 253 ; see the list of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA). 

A moulding of the pedestal (M., xm, 74 ; see the list of mouldings under 

UPAPITHA). 

VAJRATARA A paste, plaster, cement. 
Vajrataro nama kalko'nyah I 

(Brihat-samhita, LVH, 7, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 322.) 

VAJRADHATU-MANDALA The top floor of five-storeyed 
Nepalese temples. 

(For details see DHARMADHATU-MANDALA. ) 

VAJRA-PATTA A moulding, a diamond band, a fillet. 

A moulding of the base (M., xrv, 258 ; see the list of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA) . 

VAJRA-PADA A diamond pillar, a type of small pillar. 
A pillar of the bedstead (M., XLIV, 61). 

VAJRA-BANDHA A diamond band, a type of base. 

A class of bases (M., xiv, 259-271 ; see the list of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA). 

445 



VAJRA-LEPA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

VAJRA-LEPA A paste, plaster, cement. 
Kalko'yam vajra-lepakshah I 

(Brihat-samhita, LVII, 3 ; see J.R.A.S., N. S., vi, p. 321.) 

VAJRA-LIftGA (see LINGA) A kind of phallus. 

(M., LI, 330 ; see under LINOA.) 

VAJRA-SAMGHATA A paste, plaster, cement. 
Maya-kathito yogo'yarii vijfieyo vajra-samghatah I 

(Brihat-samhitS, LVII, 8 ; see J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 322.) 

VAJRA-SVASTIKA A type of building. 

A kind of octangular building (Agni-Purdna, Chap, civ, vv. 20-21 ; see 
under PRASADA). 

VAJRASANA (see BODHI-MANDA) A diamond throne, the mira- 
culous throne under the Bodhi-tree at Gaya, on which Buddha and 
his predecessors sat when attaining perfect wisdom. 

(1) ' Bodhimanda is the name of the miraculous throne under the Bodhi- 
tree at Bodh Gaya, also called the Vajrasana or diamond-throne, on 
which Buddha and his predeccessors sat, when attaining bodhi or perfect 
wisdom.' (Ind. Ant., Vol. xv, p. 257, c. 1-2.) 

(2) Tenaitad atra kritam atma-manovad uchchair vajrasanasya bhava- 

nam bhuvanottamasya I 

' He erected here for the diamond throne, the best thing in the 
world, this habitation, lofty like his own mind.' (Ghosrawa Buddhist 
inscrip., lines 14-15, Ind. Ant., Vol. xvn, pp. 310, 311, 308, note 5.) 

VADH0-NATAKA A theatre for females, a gallery, a balcony. 
Vadhu-nataka-sarhghais cha samyuktarh sarvatah purim I 

Commentary : vadhunam nataka-sala I 

(Ramdyana, i, 5, 12.) 

VANA-DURGA (cf. NAGARA) A forest-fort. 

.(See details under DUROA.) 

VAPRA A rampart, a wall, a moulding of the base (plinth) } 
cavetto, an architectural member at the upper part of a building, 
(parapet), a summit, a bank, a mound, a ditch, the foundation of 
a building, the gate of a town. 

(i) Chatur-dandavakrishtam parikhayah shad-dandochchhritam avarud- 

dham tad-dvi-guna-vishkambham khatad vaprarh karayet I 
Vaprasyopari prakaram .... I 

(Kautillya-Artha-iastra, Chap, xxiv, pp. 51, 52.) 
446 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VAPRA-BANDHA 

(2) The surrounding wall of a village : 

Gramasya parito bahye rakshartham vapra-sarhyutam I 

Bahye vaprarh suvrittakam ... I 

(M., vm, ii, 37.) 

Evam grama (rh)-prasaraih cha bahir vapra-sarhyutam I 
Paritah parikha bahye vapra-yuktam tu karayet I 

(M., ix, 61, 107 ; see also 147.) 
In connexion with towers : 

Etat pattanam akhyatam vaprayata-samanvitam I 
Sarvesham api durganarh vapraii cha parikhair vritam I 

(M., x, 66, 106.) 

A moulding of the base (M., xrv, 20, 24, etc.; see the list of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA) . 

In connexion with buildings of one to twelve storeys (parapet) : 
Adhishthana-samarh mancharh manchordhve'rdhena vaprayuk I 

(M., xxi, 14, etc.) 
Malikopari vaprarh syad adhishthanam samodayam I 

(M., xxxi, 64.) 

(3) Wall (Dabhoi inscrip. v. in, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, p. 31). 

(4) Rampart (Badnagar Prasasti of the reign of Kumarapala, v. 23 
Ep. Ind., Vol. i, pp. 300, 303). 

(5) Yasyotturhga-turarhga-tarhdava-bhavah prarhsutkarah sainikah svah- 

simasu marud-ganabhaya-maha-vapra-prakaro'bhavat I 

(Sridhara's Devapattana Prasasti, v. 13, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. ii, p. 441.) 

(6) Ramesvaraya ghana-marhtapa-vapra-saudha-ramyalayarh samatanot 

samata rasajnah I 

' He erected a temple (alaya), adorned with a solid hall (mantapa), 
a wall and a plastered mansion (saudha) to Ramesvara.' (Mangalagiri 
pillar inscrip., v. 39 ; see also w. 29, 38, 48, Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 123, lai, 
122, 124, 112, 113,114,115.) 

(7) Vapra-gopura-yutair nava-harmyaih I 

(Kondavidu inscrip. of Krishnaraya, v. 26, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vi, pp. 237, 231.) 

(8) He, the emperor of the south, caused to be made of stone for 
Vijaya-Narayana (temple), latticed window, secure door-frame (kavata), 
door-lintel, kitchen, ramparts (udagra-vapra), pavilion, and a pond named 
the Vasudeva-tlrtha.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Belur Taluq, no. 72 ; 
Transl., p. 61 ; Roman Text, p. 142, line 8.) 

VAPRA-BANDHA A type of base. 

A class of bases (M., xrv, 250, 259 ; see the list of mouldings under 
ADHISHTHANA). 

447 



VAHYA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

VAHYA Lit. that which can be carried, a couch used by women 
(R.-V., vii, 55, 8, A.-V., 5, 3 women sitting on it, A.-V., 20, 3 weary 
bride mounting it, A.-V. xiv, 2, 30), canopied reclining arm-chair 
with poles or handles for carriers, bearing all forms, a bed on which 
the bride mounts and lies with her groom in the marriage ritual 
(A.-V., xiv, 2, 20). 

VI(VAI)RATA A type of storeyed building, a class of twelve- 
storeyed buildings once prevailing in the country of Virata (Jai- 
pur). 

Chatur-adhika-tri-dasa-bhagaih harmya-visalake I 
Ashtamsena maha-sala parsve sala Sivarhsakam I 
Dvyamsam panjara-sala tad-ardham chantaralakam I 
Anusala tri-bhagarh syad ekarhsam antaralakam I 
Dvi(dvya)marh panjara-sala cha parsve bha(ha)rah sivarh-sakam I 
Kuta-nava(-nam cha) dvi-bhagarh syat sarvam yuktyam sa- 

bhadrakam 

Maha-sala yugarhsena madhyam atra (bhadram) prakarayet I 
Tale tale vimane tu sala-panjara-shodasam I 
Kshudra-sala dvi-hara cha tan-madhye chashtakam bhavet I 
Ghatur-dikshu maha-sala chatush-kutam tale tale I 
Evarh vairata-kantaih syach chhesharh bhagaih tu puravat I 

(M., xxx, 17-27.) 

VARDHAKI ^An architect, the designer, the painter. 

(See details under STHAPATI.) 
VARDHANI(I) A type of building. 

A class of round buildings (Agni-Purdna, Chap, civ, vv. 17-18 ; see under 
PRASADA) . 

VARDHAMANA A class of buildings, a type of storeyed mansion, 
a kind of phallus, a joinery, an entablature. 

(i) A class of salas or mansions (M., xxxv, 4 ; see also 303, under SALA). 
A kind of phallus (M., LII, 4 ; see under LINGA). 
A kind of joinery (M., xvn, 84, see under SANDHI-KARMAN). 
An entablature (see under PRASTARA). 

(a) Dvaralindo'nta-gatah pradakshino' nyah s"ubhas tatas chanyah I 
Tad-vach cha vardhamane dvaram tu na dakshinam karyam 1 1 
" The Vardhamana has a terrace before the (chief) entrance, extending 
to the end ; then, when you proceed in a direction from left to right, another 
beautiful terrace and thereon again, another in the aforesaid direction. 
No southern door should be made in it.' (Brihat-samhita, LIU, 33, J.R.A.S., 
N. S., Vol. vi, pp. 285-286.) 

448 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VA(BA)LABHI(-I) 

(3) Vedasyarh vardhamanakam the Vardhamana house (sala) has 
four laces. (Kamikdgama, xxxv, 88.) 
An entablature (Kamikdgama, LIV, 7). 

VA(BA)LABHI(-I) The roof, the frame of a thatch, the topmost 
part of a house, a class of storeyed buildings, a type of entablature, 
a class of rectangular buildings, a top-room, a turret, a balcony, an 
awning, a tent, any temporary erection on the flat roof of a house. 

(1) Tri-chandra-sala bhaved valabhl I 

' The roof must have three dormer-windows.' 

Dr. Kern adds the following : 

' Comm. valabhl vatayana ; vatayana in general means " any place 
whither one goes to take an airing ;" sometimes " a window " is intended 
by it, other times the flat " roof" of an Indian house. In the latter accepta- 
tion it is here used by Utpala, and frequently elsewhere ; e.g. Kathd- 
sarit-sdgara (95, 18) : sva-grihottunga-vatayana-gatah ; (103, 162) : har- 
mya-vatayanarudhah, etc.' (Brihat-samhita, LVI, 25, LVH, 4, J.R.A.S., N. S., 
Vol. vi, pp. 319, 322, note.) 

(2) A class of five-storeyed buildings (Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXIX, w. 
35, 50, 53 ; see under PRASADA). 

A type of rectangular building : 

(3) Agni-Purdna (Chap, cciv, vv. 16-17 '> sce under PRASADA). 

(4) Garud.a-Pu.rana (Chap. XLVII, w. 21-22, 26-27 > see under PRASADA). 

(5) Prasadagravimaneshu valabhishu cha sarvada I 

(Ramayana, n, 88, 5, see further context under PRASADA.) 

(6) Naga-lokam . . . aneka-vidha-prasada-harmya-valabhl-niruhya- 

sata-samkulam I 

(Mahabharata, I, 3, 133.) 

(7) A synonym of the entablature (M., xvi, 19 ; see under PRASTARA). 
A moulding of the entablature (M., xvi, 79 ; see the list of mouldings 

under PRASTARA). 

In connexion with four-storeyed buildings : 

Nanadhishthana-padais cha valabhibhis cha bahu-bidhaih I 

(M., XXH, 94.) 

(8) Kailasa-turiga-sikahra-pratimani chanyany-abhanti dirggha-vala- 

bhini sa-vedikani I 
Gandharvva-sabda-mukharani nivishta chitra-karmmani lolakadali- 

vanasobhltani 1 1 

' And other long buildings on the roofs of the houses, with arbours in 
them, are beautiful, being like the lofty summits of (the mountain) 
Kailasn ; being vocal with songs (like those of the Gandharvas ; having 

449 



VALAYA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

pictured representations arranged (in them) ; (and) being adorned with 
groves of waving plantain trees.' (Mandasor stone inscrip. of Kumaragupta, 
lines 6-7, C. I. /., Vol. HI, F. G. I., no. 18, pp. 81, 85.) 

(9) ... punyfibhivriddhy-artharh vad(-l)abhirh kara(ya)yitva 
ananta-svami-padam pratishthapya ... I 

' Having caused (a temple having) a flat roof to be made, for the sake 
of increasing the religious merit of ... (and) having installed the 
feet of (the god) Anantasvamin.' . . . 

' Vadabhi (also called valabhi, see above) is explained as meaning 
the wooden frame of a roof; a flat roof, house-top, top-room, turret, 
top-floor, balcony ; any temporary erection on the top of a palace : an 
awning, a tent ; but it seems to refer to a building here, and to denote 
a flat-roofed temple.' (Gadhwa stone inscrip., line 2, C. /. /., Vol. in, 
F. G. I., no. 66, p. 268, note 9.) 

(10) ' Whose arms like jewelled pillars supporting the roof (valabhi) 
of the three worlds.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. v, Part I, Channarayapatna Taluq, 
no. 179, line 2 ; Roman Text, p. 462, Transl., p. 202.) 

VALAYA An ornament, a type of building, a moulding. 

(1) A bracelet (M., XLIX, 138; L, 33, etc. ; see BHUSHANA ; Deopara 
inscrip. of Vijayasen, v. n, Ep. Ind., Vol. i, pp. 303, 313.) 

A class of round buildings : 

(2) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 12-18, see under PRASADA.) 

(3) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21, 23, 28, 29 ; see under PRASADA). 

(4) The sixth moulding from the top of an entablature (Kdmikdgama, 
LIV, 9; see under PRASTARA). 

VALLI (cf. VAT AY ANA) A type of window. 

(M., xxxiii, 483 ; see under VATAYANA.) 

VASATI (see BASADI) A mart, a trading settlement, a quarter 
of a town (Mdrkandeya-Purdna, Chap. XLIX, 49-50), a residence, a 
shrine, a Jain monastery or temple containing the image of a 
Tirthankara. 

(Jaina Rock inscrip. at Vallimalai, no. A, 
v. 2, Ep. Ind., Vol. iv, p. 141, note 7, and 
refer to Mr. Kittel's Dictionary, p. 1383.) 

VASUDHA The earth, a kind of pent-roof. 

(M., xvm, 178 ; see under LUPA.) 
VASTRA-NIP(Y)A A jar-shaped ornament of the column. 

Kumbha-madhye rakta(ratna)-bandham vastra-nip(y)arii cha vinya- 
set I 

(M., xv, 223.) 

45 






HINDU ARCHITECTURE VAMSA 

VA(VA)-HA-(KA, LA) Bearing, carrying, supporting, a way, a 
road, a vehicle, a conveyance, a river, a channel. 

(1) ' Given the village with ... its hills and water-courses (vahala). 

(Plate of Deva Varmadeva, line 8 f., Ind., Ant., 
Vol. xvi, pp. 206, 207, note 33.), 

(2) ' Vahaka a water-channel in the Gwalior inscrip. of Sarhvat 
933 ; Hultzsch in J. D. Morg Ges., Vol. XL, p. 37 (vaha, a watercourse, 
Elliot, Suppl. Glossary, Vol. n, p. 225) ; Grierson, Bihar Pseaant Life 
ss. 954).' 

(3) V(b)allala-devakasya vahah I 

' Water-channel constructed by Ballaladeva.' 

(Lala-Pahad Rock inscrip. of Narasimhadcva, line 6 
Ind. Ant., Vol. xvm, pp. 212, 213, note 2.) 

VAHANA (see under STAMBHA) Conveying, carrying, supporting 
flowing, a boat, a raft, a conveyance, part of a column. 

Stambharh vibhajya navadha vahanam bhago ghato'sya bhago'nyah I 
(Brihat-samhita, LIII, 29, J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 285.) 

VAM&A ' A bamboo, a shaft, a flute, a reed-pipe, a cross-beam, a 
oint, the backbone, a term for the rafters and laths fastened to the 
beams of a house (as generally made of split bamboos), or laths run- 
ning across a roof.' 

(i) Bhojanarh nanuvamsarh syach chhayanam cha tathaiva cha I 
Anuvamsa-griha-dvaram naiva karyam subhartliibliih II 
Dvija-gehasya variisarh tu purvagram parikalpayet 1 1 
Yamyagrarh kshatriyanarii tu paschimagram visam bhavet I 
Sudranarh uttarasyarh syad esha vamsagrako vidhih n 

(Kamikdgama, xxxv, 147, 149, 150.) 

Prag-varhsayor anya-varhsais cha nalikera-daladibhih | 
Achchhaditah prapa nama prastaram chatra mandapah II 
Vamsadir asriasa-sahita sikhara-stupikanvitah I 
Nasika-mukha-pattanisa saleti parikirtita II (Ibid., L, 88, 90.) . 
JayantI vamsaka jneya tula-vad anumargakam 1 1 

(Ibid., LIV, 15.) 

Dandika-vara-samyuktam shan-netra-sama-varhsakam I 
Varhsopari gatah salas chatasro' shtanananvitah II 

(Ibid., XLII, 19.) 

(2) The backbone (M., vn, 264; see also LXV, 158; LXVII, 82). 
In connexion with the entablature : 

Yatha-balarh yatha-bhararh tatha varhsadi(rh) yojayet I 

(M., xvi, 198.) 

451 



VAMSA-KANTA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

In connexion with the pillar : 

Kutya-varhsa-prati(r)-vamsam tungarh yat tu samam bhavet I 
Tungasyadhika-hinam chcd dvi-pahktirii nityam avahet I 

(M., XVII, I2O-I2I.) 

In connexion with the pavilion (mandapa) : 

Adhishthanam vina kuryaj janmadi-prastarantakam 1 
Athava pada-vams'am cha samyuktam tat prapangakam I 

(M., xxxiv, 14-15.) 
VamSa-mulagrayoh sarve karkarikrita-netrakam I 

(Ibid., 399.) 
In connexion with the hall (Sala) : 

VamSa-mulagrayor vasarh varhsa-muUiika-vasakam I 

(M. xxxv, 128.) 
Harmya-tara-vasad dvar^m vamsadhishthana-paduko I 

(M., LXIV, 5.) 

VAM&A-KANTA A class of twelve-storeyed buildings once pre- 
vailing in Varhsa-(ka), the capital of Kausambi. 

Tad eva haram(-ra) tan-madhye chaika-bhagena saushtikam I 
Vamsa-kantam iti proktam sesham purvavad acharet II 

(M., xxx, 31-32, see also 28-30, under KERALA-KANTA.) 

VAJANA A square or rectangular moulding resembling a fillet, i.e. 
a small band which is placed between mouldings and as the upper- 
most member of a cornice. (For its synonyms, see M., xvi, 46-47.) 
Crdhva-vajanam ekariisam amSarh tat pattika bhavet I 

(Vdstu-vidyd, ed. Sastri, ix, 24.) 

The moulding at the top and bottom of the entablature (Kdmikdgama, 
LIV, i ; see under PRASTARA). 

A crowning moulding of a column (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 108 ; see 
under STAMBHA). 

A moulding of the pedestal (M., xm, 46, 51 ; see the list of mouldings 
under UpApiTHA). 

A crowning moulding of the base (M., xiv, 9 ; see the list of mouldings 
under ADHISHTHANA). 

A moulding of dola (swing, hammock). 

Vajane cha dvi-valayam syad ayasena balabalam I 

(M., L, 106.) 
VAJI-&ALA A horse stable. 

(M., XL, 362 ; see under SALA.) 

452 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VATAYANA 

VATA A road, a fence, an enclosure, courtyard. 
Cf. Vata-bhumi (Kamikagama, xxi, 3). 

Corrupted to Bada, ' enclosure of a town or village, fence, wall, hedge.' 
(I/id. Ant., Vol. iv, p. 211, footnote under KAMPANA.) 

VATAKA A hamlet. 

Tamara-cheru-gramo nama I 
Chikhali-vatakena samam ekikritya ... I 

' The village named Tamara-cheru combined with the Chikhali ham- 
let.' (The Madras Museum Plates of Vajrahasta III, lines 43-44, Ep. Ind. 
Vol. ix, pp. 94-95.) 

VATIKA A small house, a garden house, a pleasure pavilion, an 
orchard. 

Vame bhage dakshine va nripanam tredha karya vatika kridanar, 

tham I 

' At the left or right side a three-fold pavilion should be built for the 
sport of the kings.' (Silpa-sastra-fara-samgraha, ix, 29.) 

Uttare saralais talaih subha syat pushpa-vatlka I 

(Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXX, v. 29.) 
Bhaktya vidhapitarh chabhyam amralohita-mamdiram (ma)tri-ha 

(rmye)na (sarhyu)ktarh vapya vatikayapi hi I 

' Out of devotion he caused to be erected a temple of red colour and 

surrounded it with shrine of some mata ( ? three shrines), a step-well and 

an orchard.' (Dhanop inscrip. of Ghachcha, v. 6, Ind. Ant., Vol. XL, 

PP- !75. J 74-) 

VATA A type of building, a house with an eastern and southern 

hall. 

(Brihat-samhitd, LIII, 39 ; see under PRASADA.) 

VATA-KSHETRA (see VATAYANA) A place for airing, a roof. 

Kutumba-bhumi-manam tu vata-kshetra-vivarjitam I 

(Kamikagama, xxi, 3.) 

VANA-LIftGA A kid nof phallus. 

(Kamikagama, L, 35, 36 ; see under LINOA.) 

VATAYANA A window, a porch, a portico, 
(i) Description of windows (M., xxxin, 568-597) : 
Windows are constructed in all kinds of buildings (ibid., 569-572). 
The latticed windows are also prescribed : 

Naranarh jalakam sarvarh devanam api yogyakam I (572). 
The measures, etc., are left to the discretion of the architects (573). 
The general plan of windows is also given (574-581). 

453 



VAPI(-PI)-(KA) AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Their shapes are represented by the following designs : naga-bandha 
(snake's band), valll (creeper), gavaksha (cow's eye), kunjaraksha (ele- 
phant's or deer's eye), svastika (cross figure), sarvato-bhaclra (a figure 
with four faadcs), nandyavarta (a figure with openings on the sides), 

and pushpa-bandha (flower-band) (ibid., 582-584). 
Their architectural details are given (ibid., 585-600). 

(2) Udag-fisrayarh cha varunyarh vatayana-samanvitam I 

(Garuda-Purdna, Chap. XLVI, v. 16.) 

(3) PrakaSartham alpam urdhvarh vatayanarh karayet I 
Pratiloma-dvara-vatayana-badhayam cha anyatra raja-marga- 

rathyabhyah I 

(Kautiliya-Artha-iastra, Chap. LXV, p. 167.) 

VAPI(-PI)-(KA) A tank, a well, a reservoir of water. 

(1) A tank (Dewal Prasasti of Lalla the Chhinda, v. 20, Ep. Ind., Vol. 
i, pp. 79, 83). 

(2) ' A well with a flight of stairs, while kupa denotes an ordinary 
well.' (Mahesvara's Commentary on the Amarakosha, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, 
p. 46, note 2; p. 41, line 58.) 

(3) Dakshina-diabhage karapita vapi tatha prapeyarh cha I 

' In the southern part there has been made an irrigation well and also 
a watering-trough.' (Grant of Bhimadeva n, V. S. 1266, line 26-27, Ind. Ant, 
Vol. xvni, pp. 113, 115.) 

(4) Vapl-putakc bhumi-hala-vaha I 

' In the hollow ground below an irrigation well.' (Grant of Bhimadeva II, 
Simba-samvat 93, line 7, Ind. Ant., Vol. xvni, p. no.) 

(5) ' During the reign of Ganapati, the son of the prince Gopala, the 
thakkura Vamana built a public tank (vapika).' (Sarwaya stone inscrip. 
of Ganapati of Nalapura, vv. 23-28, Ind. Ant., Vol. XXH, p. 82.) 

(6) Dharmmarthe svayam eva vapi karapita I 

' For charitable purpose the step-well was caused to be constructed a 
his own cost.' (Manglan stone inscrip., line 6, Ind. Ant., Vol. XLI, p. 87.) 

VAMA A kind of phallus. 

(M., LH, 3 ; see under LINGA.) 

VARA A day of the week, a door, a gate, a formula of architectural 
measurement, a verandah. 

(M., xxxiv, 170, 394, 529, 538, see 
details under SHAD-VARGA.) 

V~ARA-(KA, NA) A covering, an enclosure, a door, a gate. 
Kdmikdgama, xxx : 

Alindasya samantat tu bhagenaikena varakam I 
ParsVayor ubhayoS chaiva chagra-lalanusaratah || (77) 

454 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VASA-RANGA 

Kamikdgama, xxxv : 

Etat sapta-talarh proktarh rajnam avasa-yogyakam 1 1 (84) 
Tad-adhastat samantat tu bhagcnaikena varakam 1 1 (85) 
Sala-bhiige tu alinde va prithu-vararhsake api I 
Vinyasas tv-ishta akhyato mandapa ukta-bhumike 1 1 (93) 
Vinirgamasya chayamo tad-vriddhya tasya vistarah I 
Dvi-gunanto vidheyah syad evam syan madhya-varanam | (102) 
Madhye-varana-yuktam va tad-vihinarh tu va dvijah I 
Evambhutasya vasasya samantat syat khalurika II (103) 

Ibid., XLV : 

Bahu-varga-yutarh vapi dandika-vara-sobhitam 1 1 (16) 
Parito varam ekamsam sala-vyaso dvi-bhagatah II ^23) 
Bahir-vara-samayuktam vyasa-parsva-dvayor api II (26) 
Samsllshta-vara-samyuktarh shatsu chardha-sabha-mukham 1 1 (28) 
Purvokta-sindukam (building) vara-vriksha-sthala-samanvitam 1 1 

(30 

Agre cha parsvayos chaiva kuryad ekamsa-varakam 1 1 (38) 
Tad-bahir varam ekamsam tad-bahye tu vrisha-sthalam I 
Tad-bahis cha chatur-dikshu dvyamsarhsam vara-nishkramah 1 1 (43) 

See also vv. 44, 45, 46, 55, 56, etc. 

Ibid,, XLII : 

Utkrishte tu ankanam dvyamsam margas tu parito'msatah I 
Antar-varam athaikena s"ala-vyaso dvi-bhagatah II (23) 

See M., ix, 300, 519 ; xxxin, 383 ; xxxiv, 119, 190, 200, 394, 408, 514 
5*1, 526, 529 ; xxxv, 100, 120, 123, 238, 243, 265 ; xxxix, 128, etc. 

VASA (-KUTI, SALA, SABHA) Residence, synonym of an 
assembly-hall (Amarakosha, ivi, 2, 3, 604), hall terrace. 

(M., xxxv, 43-46, 82-84, 127-128, 138, 142, 155-156 

221, 227, 241, 250, 282, 286, 288, 383., 

VASANIKA A dwelling for use in spring, a house for the spring 
festival. 

Tatha vanik-Mahallakena satka vasanika pradatta ' by the Mahallaka 
the satka (?) hamlet ( ? house) was given.' 

Pas"chimatah thakkura-kumdanakasya vasanika maryada ' to the west 
the boundary is the dwelling of the Brahman Kundana.' (Shergadh 
stone inscrip., lines 12, 13, 14; see also 9, 10, n, Ind. Ant., Vol. XL, p. 176.) 

VASA-RA&GA (see RANGA) The open or closed quadrangular 
enclosure, the courtyard of a residential building. 

Purato'lindam ekamsam bhittirh kuryat samantatah I 
Mulagre dvi-dvi-bhagena vasa-rangarh cha kalpayet I 

(M, xxxv, 118-119.) 

455 



VASTU AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

VASTU Architecture in the broadest sense implying the earth 
(dhara), building (harmya), conveyance (yana), and bedstead 
(paryanka) (M., in, 2-3). The building or harmya includes prasada, 
mandapa, sabha, sala, prapa, and (a)ranga. The conveyance or 
yana includes adika, syandana, sibika, and ratha. The bedstead or 
paryanka includes panjara, manchali, mancha, kakashta, phala- 
kasana and bala-paryanka (ibid., 7-12). The term denotes also 
villages, towns, forts, commercial cities, etc., a dwelling house, a 
group of houses (cf. PASTY A), a site (R. V., iv, 37, i, 2, A. V. n, 
12, i, etc.). Sculpture is the handmaid of architecture and is 
secondarily implied by the term Vastu. 

(2) Nagaradika-vastum cha vakshye rajyadi-vriddhaye I 

(Agni-Purana, Chap, cvi, v. i.) 

(3) Prasadarama-durga-devalaya-mathadi-vastu-mana - lakshana - nirupa- 

nam I 

(Garuda-Purana, Chap. XLVI, colophon.) 
Cf. Avasa-vasa-vesmadau pure grame vanik-pathe II 
Prasadarama-durgeshu devalaya-matheshu cha I 

(Ibid., Chap. XLVI, vv. 2-3.) 

(4) Samgraka-siromani by Sarayu Prasad (xx, i) quotes from one 
Vasishtha without further reference : 

Vastu-jnanam pravakshyami yad uktam brahmana pura I 
Grama-sadma-puradmam nirmanam vakshyate' dhuna 1 1 

(5) Griham kshetram aramas setu-bandhas tatakam adharo va vastuh 
Houses, fields, gardens, buildings of any kind (see SETU), lakes and tanks 
are each called Vastu. (Kautillya-Artha-iastra, Chap. LXV, p. 166.) 

(6) The heavenly architect Visvakarman, the mythical originator of 
Vastu, is stated to be the father of nine artisans goldsmith (svarna-kara), 
blacksmith (karma-kara), brazier or utensil-maker (karhsya-kara) , maker 
of shell ornaments (s"ankha-kara), carpenter (sutra-dhara) , potter (kumbha- 
kara), weaver (kuvindaka), painter (chitra-kara) , and florist, gardener 
or garland-maker (mala-kara). (Brahmavaivarta-Purana, Brahma-khanda, 
Chap, x, w. 19-21.) 

(7) On the different branches of architecture, Vitruvius agrees with the 
Manasara (i) : 

It might be pointed out that Vitruvius deals with similar objects, 
in the same manner as in the Manasara. He describes the subject 
in three chapters : 

' Of those things on which architecture depends.' 

45 6 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VASTU 

' Of the different branches of architecture.' 
' Of the choice of healthy situations.' 

On the first of these topics Vitruvius says that ' Architecture depends 
on fitness and arrangement ; it also depends on proportion, uniformity, 
consistency and economy.' 

' Fitness is the adjustment of size of the several parts to their several 
uses and requires due regard to the general proportions of the fabric ; it 
arises out of dimensions. Dimension regulates the general scale of the 
work, so that the parts may all tell and be effective.' 

' Proportion is that agreeable harmony between the several parts of a 
building, which is the result of a just and regular agreement of them with 
each other ; the height to the width, this to the length, and each of these 
to the whole. Uniformity is the parity of the parts to one another ; each 
corresponding to its opposite, as in the human figure. The arms, feet, 
hands, fingers are similar to and symmetrical with one another ; so 
should the respective parts of a building correspond.' 

' Arrangement is the disposition in their just and proper places of all 
the parts of the building and the pleasing effect of the same, keeping in 
view its appropriate character. It is divisible into three heads, which con- 
sidered together, constitute design : these by the Greeks, are named ideals : 
they are called ichnography, arthography, and scinography. The first 
is the representation on a plane of the site plan of the work, drawn 
by rule and compasses. The second is the elevation of the front, slightly 
shadowed, and shewing the forms of the intended building. The last 
exhibits the front and a receding side properly shadowed, the lines being 
drawn to their proper vanishing points.' (Book I, Chap, n.) 

' Architecture consists of three branches, namely, building, dialling 
and mechanics. Building is divided into two parts (in the Mdnasara 
buildings are divided into six classes as we have seen above). The first 
regulates the general plan of the walls of a city and its public buildings ; 
the other relates to private buildings. Public buildings are for three pur- 
poses : defence, religion and the security of the public ' (compare M. , 
xxxi, 1-2, under PRAKARA). (Ibid., Book I, Chap, in.) 

On the choice of healthy situation, that is, on the selection of site and 
the examination of soil, directions of Vitruvius are not so elaborate as 
i hose of the Mdnasara (see BHUPARIKSHA), and differ so far as two 
different climates would necessarily require. 

' The choice of a healthy situation is of the first importance : it should 
be on high ground, neither subject to fogs nor rains : its aspects should 
be neither violently hot nor intensely cold, but temperate in both respects. 
The neighbourhood of marshy place must be avoided.' (Ibid.. Book I, 
Chap, iv.) 

457 



VASTU-KARMAN AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

VASTU-KARMAN (cf. VASTU-VIDYA) The building-work ; the 
actual work of constructing temples, palaces, houses, villages, towns, 
forts, tanks, canals, roads, bridges, gates, drains, moats, sewers, 
thrones, couches, bedsteads, conveyances, ornaments and dresses, 
images of gods and sages. 

The building-work (vastu-karman) is distinguished from the science of 
building (vastu-vidya) : 

Vatthu-vijja ghara-vatthu-arama-vatthadinam guna-dosa-sallak- 
khana vijja I Vathu-kammanti akata-vatthumhi geha-patittha 
pana I 

(Digha-nikdya, i, pp. 9, 12.) 
Cf. Sukra-niti (rv, 3, 115, 116, 169). 
See the Preface to this Encyclopaedia. 

VASTU-KIRTI A type of pavilion, a pavilion with forty-four 
pillars. 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 10 ; see MANDAPA.) 

VASTU-VIDYA (see VASTU-KARMAN) The science dealing with 
the rules of construction of all kinds of architectural and sculptural 
objects, the science of architecture. 

According to Buddhaghosha's definition, Vastu-vidya is ' a science, 
the object of which is to ascertain whether a site selected for a building is 
lucky or not.' (Dialogues of Buddha, Part I, p. 18.) 

According to Sukrdchdrya, Vdstu-vidya or Silpa-Sastra is ' the science 
which deals with the rules for the construction of palaces, images, parks, 
houses, canals and other good works.' (Sukra-niti, iv, 3, 115, 116). 
See the Harsha stone inscrip. (v. 43, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, pp. 123, 128.) 

VAHANA Carrying, conveying, a vehicle, a conveyance, an animal 
for riding or draught. 

The riding animals of gods (M., LX, i), their images are described (M., 

LX, 2-46 ; LXI, 2-151 ; LXII, 2-73 ; LXIII, 2-46 ; see under HAMSA, 

GARUDA, VRISHABHA, and SIMHA. 

VAHINI-MUKHA A fort, fortified city. 

(M., x, 40 ; see under NAGARA and DUROA.) 

VIKATA Formidable, a hall, -a courtyard. 

(Harsha stone inscrip., vv. 12, 33, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, 
pp. 121, 126, notes 64, 123, 128.) 

VIKALPA A class of buildings, a kind of door, pent-roofs, a type 
of chamber, a kind of phallus. 

458 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VITASTI 

A class of buildings (M., xi, 104-107 ; xix, 1-5 ; xxx, 175-177 ; xxxrv, 
549-552 , see under ABHASA). 

A type of door (M., xxxix, 28-35 ; see under ABHASA). 

Rows of pent-roofs (M. xvm, 206-220). 

A kind of phallus (M., LII, 49 ; see under ABHASA). 

Karne sala sabha madhye chhandarh syach chhandam eva tat I 
Tat-tad-madhyarhsake koshthe yasya syat tad vikalpakam 1 1 

(Kamikagama, XLV, 20; see also XLV, 7 ; L, 13 ; 
A class of top-chambers (Ibid., LV, 130, 123-127). 
VIGRAHA An idol, an image, a figure, a form, a shape. 

(M., LIV, 180, etc.) 

Dakshina-bhagada-kisaleyalli puratana-vigrahagala pratishtheyam ' set 
up on the colonnade to the south the ancient images.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. 
iv, Chamarajnagar Taluq, no. 86; Roman Text, p. 18, line 13 ; Transl., 
p. n.) 

VIJAYA A class of storeyed buildings, a type of pavilion, a hall, 
a kind of throne. 

A class of two-storeyed buildings (M., xx, 93, 10-15 ; see under PRASADA). 

A class of pavilions (M., xxxrv, 153 ; see under MANDAPA). 

A pavilion with forty-six pillars (Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXX, v. 10; 
see under MANDAPA.) 

A type of throne (M., XLV, 6 ; see under SIMHASANA). 

A class of octagonal buildings : 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 20-21 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, w. 21, 23, 31-32 ; see under PRASADA) 
A type of building (Kamikagama, XLV, 50, see under MALIKA). 

VITAftKA (see KAPOTA-PALIKA) A dovecot, a moulding of that 
shape. 

' Vitanka is exactly the English " fillet " in its different acceptations : 
it denotes more generally also gable-edge, battlement.' Kern. (J.R.A.S.. 
N. S., Vol. vi, pp. 321, 320, note 2.) 

See further references under KAPOTA and KAPOTA-PALIKA. 

VITASTI (see under ANGULA) A measure, the span, the distance 
between the tips of the fully-stretched thumb and the little finger. 

(1) Kanishthaya vitastis tu dva-dasangula uchyate I 

(Brahmdnda-Purana, Part I, 2nd anushamga- 
pada, Chap, vn, v. 98.) 

(2) Three kinds of span (Suprabheddgama, xxx, 20-23 ; see under 
ANGULA). 

459 



VITANA-(KA) AJV ENCYCLOPAEDIA 01 

VITANA-(KA) A cushion, a canopy. 

A canopy of pearls (Ranganath inscrip. of Sundarapandya, v. 12, Ep. 
hid., Vol. in, pp. 12, 15). 

Cf. ' Torana-vitana a canopy (in the shape) of an arch.' (Cochin 
plates of Bhaskara Ravivarman, lines 10-11, Ep. Ind., Vol. in, pp. 68, 69.) 

VIDATHA A house, a holding, an asylum, a smaller or secular 
assembly, a rich or royal establishment like palaces, audience hall 
for women, Sabha being foi men's assembly. 

(R.-V., x, 85, 26, 27 , A.-V., vn, 38, 4, Maitra. Sam. 

iv, 7, 4, cf. R.-V., it, i, 4 , 27, 12, 17, in, 38, 5, 6, 

v, 63, 2, vn, 66, 10, vin, 39, i, x, 12, 7 , A.-V., 
i, 13, 4, xvn, i, 15.) 

VIDYADHARA A class of demi-gods, a kind of fairy. 

Their images are measured according to the ninc-tala (see details under 
TALA-MANA). (M., LVIII, 6, other details : 7-14.) 

VIDHANA An entablature. 

(M., xvi, 20, 43, 203 ; see under PRASTARA.) 

VINIYOGA-MANDAPA A refectory, a type of pavilion built in 
the third, fourth or fifth court of the compound of a temple, where 
refections or meals are prepared. 

(A/., xxxn, 8 ; see under MANDAPA.) 

VIPULAftKA A type of storeyed building, a class of six-storeyed 
buildings. 

(M., xxiv, 19 ; see under PRASADA.) 

VIPULAKRITIKA A type of storeyed building, a class of six- 
storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxiv, 52 ; see under PRASADA.) 
VIPULA-BHOGA A site plan of 676 square plots. 

(M., vn, 37-38; see PADA-VINYASA.) 

VIPRA-KANTA A site plan in which the whole area is divided 
into 729 equal squares. 

(A/., VIH, 39-40 ; see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

VIPRA-GARBHA A site plan in which the whole area is divided 
into 576 equal squares. 

(A/., vn, 33-34 ; see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

VIPRA-BHAKTI A site plan in which the whole area is divided 
into 841 equal squares. 

(M., vii, 43-44 ; see under PADA-VINYASA.) 
460 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VIMANA 

VIMANA Etymologically an object measured (from root ma) 
or prepared or made in various ways ; hence a well-measured convey- 
ance, a balloon, a heavenly car, a temple, building in general, the 
palace of an emperor, a tower surmounting the sanctuary (garbha- 
griha) which is made in the centre of the temple. 

' A car or chariot (of the gods) sometimes serving as seat or throne, 
sometimes self-moving and carrying its occupants through the skies ; other 
descriptions make the Vimana more like a house or palace and one kind 
is said to be seven storeys high ; that of Ravana was called Pushpaka- 
(vimana) ; any car or vehicle ; a horse ; a palace, the palace of an 
emperor or supreme monarch.' 

Cf. Rajato-vimanarh sapta-chakrarh ratham I (Pet. Diet.) 
(i) Mdnasdra (Chap, xvm, 1-422), named Vimana : 

Vimanas are buildings of one to twelve storeys and are used as 
residences of gods and men, i.e., the term implies both temples 
and residential buildings : 

Taitilanarh dvi-jatinarh varnanarh vasa-yogyakam I 
Eka-bhumi-vimanadi ravi-bhumy avasanakam I 

(Ibid., 2, 3 .) 

That the term ' vimana ' implies not temples alone but buildings in 
general, is clear from the expression ' vimana-vesman,' ' vimana-sadman,' 
' deva-vimana ' (god's buildings), etc., which are frequently mentioned 
(e.g., M., xii, 214). 

Further, the general features of all kinds of buildings are described in 
the chapter (xvm) which is named Vimana : 

The general comparative measures of different storeys are given 
(ibid., 12-91). 

The three styles, namely, Nagara, Dravida, and Vesara are described 
(lines 92-113). 

These styles are distinguished generally by the shapes of the stupis 
(domes), which are next described (lines 114-171). 

A special account of the lupas (pent-roofs) which are apparently very 
characteristic features of all buildings is given (lines 171-278). 

Mukha-bhadras (front porticoes or tabernacles) are also characteristic 
features of all buildings, large or small, and they are described in detail 

(279 f.) 

Spires (stupi-kilas) are also described (lines 144-171, 354-417)... 
Vimanasya tu sarvesham prajapatyena manayet I 

(M., u, 55 ; see also m, 5-6 ; xiv, 426, etc.) 
461 



VIMANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

Vimane tri-grihe vapi mandapadlni vastuke I 
Gramadiiiam cha sarvesharh manayen mana-sutrakam I 

(M., vi, 1 01-102.) 

Purusharh deva-vimanasya sthapayet purushcshtakam I 

(M., xii, 2 14.) 
A tower : 

Tad-urdhve cha vimanarh cha vcdika-vedikrintakam I 

(M., xxii, 57.) 

Mandape dve vimanam syad ekarh va dvi-talam tu va I 

(M., XXXIV, 221.) 

(2) Kechid vadanti devanam manushanarii vimanakc I 
Vistare sapta-shat-pancha-chatus-tryrhse'dhikarh tribhih 1 1 

(Mayama'a, Chap, xx, v. 8.) 

(3) Rdmayana, I, 5, 16 : 
Sarva-ratna-samakirnarh vimana-griha-sobhitam I 

Commentary : Vimana-griharh sapta bhumi-griham (a seven-storeyed 
building), and quotes the following from Nighantu : 

Vimano'stri deva-yane (god's conveyance) sapta-bhumau cha 

sadmani (seven-storeyed building). 
See also the following : 

II, 88, 5 : Prasadagra-vimaneshu valabhishu cha sarvada I 
(See further context under PRASADA). 

II, 2, 16 ; n, 15, 48 ; n, 33, 3 ; 11, 57, 18 ; u, 59, 12 ; n, 88, 5 ; 
in, 32, 4 ; iv, 50, 30 ; v, 2, 53 ; v, 4, 27 ; v, 6, i ; v, 10, 34 ; v, 
12, 14 ; v, 12, 25 ; v, 13, i ; v, 53, 19 ; v, 54, 23 ; vi, 24, 10 ; vi, 
39, 21 ; vi, 67, 82 ; vi, 75, 23 ; vi, 75, 40 ; VH, 101, 14. 

(4) Mahdbhdrata, i, 185, 23 : 

Nana-prakareshu vimaneshu I 

(5) Commentary quotes Medini (N. 121) : Vimanarh vyoma-yane 
sapta-bhumi-grihe'pi chet I 

See the following Kashas also : 

(6) Hema-chandra (Abhidhdna-chintdmani, 89, 190; 3, 417). 

(7) Haldjudh-a (i, 83, etc.). 

(8) Amarakosha (I, i, i, 4, 3, 36, Pet. Diet.). 
The essential parts : 

(9) Shad-varga-sahitarh yat tu garbha-griha-samanvitam I 
Andharandhari-harokta-khanda-harmya viseshitam 1 1 
Kuta-salanvitam yat tu panjarais cha samanvitam I 
Tilaka-kshudra-nasi-yukta-toranais cha samanvitam I 
Brahma-dvara-patakadyair angair yuktam vimanakam II 

(Kdmikagama, L, 91-93.) 

462 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VIMANA 

A type of quadrangular building : 

(10) Agni-Purdna, (Chap, civ, vv. 14-15; see under PRASADA). 

(u) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 24-25; see under PRASADA). 

(12) ' There is one other peculiarity common to both Jain and Hindu 
architecture in the north of India that requires notice. It is the form of 
the towers or spires called sikras or vimanas which invariably surmount 
the cell in which the images are placed.' Fergusson. (Hist, of Ind. and 
East. Architecture, p. 221.) 

(13) A car of the gods (Asoka's Rock Edicts, no. iv, Ep. Ind., Vol. n, pp. 

45 i > 467)- 

(14) A shrine and dome (Ranganatha inscrip. of Sundarapandya. 
vv. 3, 8, 10, 22, 30, Ep. Ind., Vol. in. pp. 11-17). 

(15) A shrine (Yenamadala inscrip. of Ganapamba, v. 17, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. in, pp. 99, 102). 

(16) ' Having perceived that the central shrine of the god of the 
Tiruvidaikali (temple) . . . which formerly consisted of layers of bricks, 
had become old and cracked, the lord of Miladu . . . pulled down 
the temple, rebuilt the central shrine and the mandapa of granite, placed 
on the shrine fine solid pitchers (dome) of gold, built a surrounding 
wall and a mandapa, in front, and gave a canopy of pearls.' (Fourteen 
inscrip. at Tirukkovalur, no. K, lines 5-7, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, pp. 145, 146, 147.) 

(17) Prasada-malabhir alamkritarh dhararh vidaryyaiva samutthitam I 
Vimana-mala-sadrisani yattra grihani purnnendu-karamalani II 

' Here, cleaving asunder the earth, there rise up houses which are 
decorated with successions of storeys, which are like rows of aerial chariots 
(and) which are as pure as the rays of the full moon.' (Mandasor stone 
inscrip. of Kumaragupta, line 7, C. I. I., Vol. in, F. G. I., no. 18, pp. 81, 85.) 

(18) ' . . . a copy of a stone inscription which existed before the 
sacred vimana (i.e. the central shrine) had been pulled down.' -(Inscrip, 
of Vanavidyadhara, no. 47, line i,H.S. 1. 1., Vol. m, p. 100.) 

(19) ' V'marasa-nayakkan caused to be built vimanas with all the 
necessary characteristics for the god and goddesses at Ponnuclukki.' 
(Ep. Carnal., Vol. xn, Tumkur Taluq, no. 19; Transl., p. 6, para. 2.) 

(20) ' The Vimana (of the temple of Paramesvara at Gudimallam) 
has the so-called gaja-prishthakriti shape (i.e., like the back of an elephant, 
see plate c-b, facing page 104, Ind. Ant., Vol. XL) ; but a close study of 
the plan and sections, given in the accompanying plate (referred to above) , 
warrant the conclusion that the architect had distinctly in view the shape 
of the liiiga (phallus of Siva) ; and hence the vimana might better be styled 
a lirigakriti -vimana.' 

' The gajaprishthakriti-vimana is found only in Saiva temples, e.g. 
the Dharmesvara temple at Manimangalam, the Saiva temples at Suman- 

463 



VIMANA-CHCHHANDAKA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP 

galam, Pennagaram, Bhara-dvajasrama near Arcot, Tiruppulivanam 
Konnur (near Madras), vada Tirumullaivayil, etc.' (Five Bana inscrip. 
at Gudimallam, Ind. Ant., Vol. XL, p. 104, line 6, note 2.) 

(21) Nirmisi prakara-svarna-kalasa-yukta-gopura-vimana-sahitam I 

' Created the Chamarajesvara temple together with its precincts, gopura 
adorned with golden kalaSas, and tower.' (Ep. Carnal., Vol. iv, Chama- 
rajnagar Taluq, no. 86 ; Roman Text, p. 18, lines 8-g f.; Transl., p. 1 1.) 

(22) ' Vimana The tower of a shrine." Rca. (Chalukyan Architecture, 
Arch. Surv., New. Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, p. 40.) 

VIMANA-CHCHHANDAKA A class of buildings. 

A type of building which is 21 cubits wide, has seven storeys and 
latticed windows : 

(1) Brihat-samhitd (Chap. LVI, 22, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi ; 
p. 319 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Matya-Purdna (Chap. CGLXIX, vv. 28, 32, 33, 47, 53 ; see under 
PRASADA). 

(3) Bhaviskya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 29 ; see under PRASADA). 
VIVAHA-MANDAPA (see MANDAPA) A pavilion erected for the 
wedding ceremonies. 

(Shanda-Purana, Mahesvara-khanda- 
prathama, Chap, xxiv, vv. 1-67.) 

VIVRITA A type of storeyed building, a class of the nine-storeyed 

buildings. 

(M., XXVH, 20-22 ; see under PRASADA.) 

VIVE&A A site plan of 625 square plots. 

(M., vii, 35-36 ; see PADA-VINYASA.) 
VIS A fixed abode. 

(R.-V., x, 91, 2.) 

VlSALA-(KA) Breadth, an architect, a type of building, a class 
of pavilions, a type of hall, a site plan of 529 square plots. 

Compare Mdnasdra (Chapter vn, 31-32 ; xv, 14; LXVIII, 13; see 
PADA-VINYASA.) 

A type of rectangular building : 

(1) Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 16-17; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21-22, 26-27; see under 
PRASADA). 

A pavilion with 100 columns (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 104 ; see under 
MANDAPA) . 

A class of buildings (Kdmikdgama, XLV, 41 ; see under MALIKA). 
A hall with thirty-eight pillars (Matsya-Purdna, Chap. CCLXX, v. u : 
see under MANDAPA). 

464 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VISHKAMBHA 

VlSALAKSHA A site plan of 784 square plots. 

(M., vn, 41-42, see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

VI$VA-KANTA A type of storeyed building. 

A class of five-storeyed buildings (M., xxxm, 16-18; see under PRA- 
SADA). 

A class of nine-storeyed buildings (M., xxvu, 27-33; see under PRASADA). 

VI&VA-VIDYALAYA A university, a place of learning of univer- 
sal subjects in Arts and Sciences, comprising various college build- 
ings, prayer halls, residences, etc. 

The famous universities were at Taxila, Valabhi, Vikramas'ila, Odan- 
tapuri, Jagaddala, Somapuri, Vikramapuri, and Nalanda. Compare 
big colleges at Bodh-Gaya, Sanchi, Barhut, Sravasti, KausambI, Sarnath, 
Mathura, Nasika, Amaravati, Nagarjunikunda, Jagayyapeta, Kanchipura, 
Kannipattana and Madura. For structural details, see NALANDA. 
Writer's articles on Universities during Hindu Period (University Studies, 
Allahabad, 1936, the Twentieth Century, July, 1935, the Science and Culture, 
December, 1935, Modern Review, August, 1935.) 

VI&VE&A-SARA A site plan in which the whole area is divided 

into 900 equal squares. 

(M., vn, 45-46, see under PADA-VINYASA.) 

VISHANA-(KA) The horn, the tusk, the wing of a building. 

Vishanaka-samayukto nandanah sa udahritah I 

' That (prasada) is called nandana which is furnished with a vishanaka 
(wing).' (Matsya-Purana, Chap. CGLXIX, v. 33.) 

VISHKAMBHA The diameter of a circle, the length or width of 
an object, a post, a pillar, the prop or beam, the bolt or bar of a 
door. 

(1) Harmya-padasya vishkambham samarh manjusha-vistritih I 

' The length of the vault is equal to the width at the foot of the man- 
sion.' (M., xii, 29.) 

(2) Dvarasyardhena vishkambhah ' half of the door gives the width '. 

(Brihat-sarhhitd, LHI, 24.) 
SashtamSo vishkambho dvarasya dvi-guna uchhrayah I 

(Ibid., v. 25 ; see J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 284, note 3.) 

(3) Tehsam ayama-vishkambhah sannivesarhtarani cha I 
Kritrimanarh cha durganarh vishkambhayamam eva cha I 
Yojanad arddha-vishkambham ashta-bhagadhikayatam 1 1 

(Brahmanda-Purana, Part i, and anusharaga- 
pada, Chap, vn, w. 94, 106.) 

465 



VISHNU-KANTA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(4) Chatur-dandavakrishtam parikhayah shad-dandochchhritam avar- 

uddharh tad-dvi-guna-vishkambharh khatad vaprarh karayet I 
Vaprasyopari prakararh vishkambha-dvi-gunotsedham I 
Antareshu dvi-hasta-vishkambham parsve chaturgunayamam 
anuprakararh ashta-hastayatarh deva-patharh karayet I 

(Kautiliya-Artha-sastra, Chap, xxiv, 
paras. 3, 5,10, pp. 51-52.) 

VISHNU-KANTA A class of storeyed buildings, a type of column, 
a type of gate-house, a kind of phallus, a jewel. 

A class of four-story ed buildings (M., xxii, 3-12 ; see under PRASADA). 

A jewel (M., XH, 90, etc.). 

An octagonal column with eight minor pillars (M., xv, 20, 245, see under 
STAMBHA). 

A gate-house with sixteen towers (M., xxxni, 557 ; see under GOPURA). 

A kind of phallus (M., LII, 154 ; see under LINGA). 

VISHNU-GARBHA (See under GARBHA-NYASA) A kind of founda- 
tion prescribed for the Vishnu temples. 

(M.,xn, 141.) 

VISTARA Breadth, length (see under MANA). 

VIHARA Originally monasteries for Buddhist monks and nuns ; 
later at the time of Nalanda University, the residential quarters for 
the professors (compare Sangarama), a dwelling, a habitation for 
gods and for monks, a temple, a convent (W. Geiger, Mahdvams'a, 
p. 297) ; a group of apartments for a community of monks, a 
Sangarama or monastery in Ceylon and Nepal used to designate ' not 
only a cell but also any monastic establishment (Fergusson, 
Ind. and East. Arch., 1910, i, p. 170). A Buddhist monastery, a 
convent, a temple. With the Buddhists and Jains was ' a hall where 
the monks met and walked about ; afterwards these halls came to 
be used as temples and sometimes became the centres of monastic 
establishments.' 

(1) Prag-GangesVara-sannidhau . . . chakre-darumayarh viharam 

amalam Sri-Lokanathaspadam | 

' Made a spotless vihara''of wood, an abode for the Lord of the World, 
in the vicinity of the GangesVara (temple).' (Arigom Sarada inscrip., v. 
a, Ep. Ind., Vol. ix, p. 302.) 

(2) Viharo nava-khanda-mandala-mahl-harah krito'yarh taya tarinya 

vasudharaya nanu vapur vibhranyalarhkritah I 

466 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VIHARA 

Yam drishtva pratichitra-s'ilpa-rachana-chaturyya-simas'rayarh girvanaih 
sudrisarh cha vismayam agad visvakarmapi sah n 

' This vihara, an ornament to the earth, the round of which consists 
of nine segments, was made by her, and decorated as it were by Vasudhara 
herself in the shape of Tarini, and even the Creator himself was taken with 
wonder when he saw it accomplished with the highest skill in the applying 
of wonderful arts and looking handsome (with the images of) gods.' 

(Sarnath inscrip. of Kumaradevi, v. 21, Ep. Ind., Vol. rx, pp. 325, 327.) 

(3) ' Throughout this work the term vihara is applied only to monas- 
teries, the abodes of monks or hermits. It was not, however, used in that 
restricted sense only, in former times, though it has been so by all modern 
writers. Hiouen Thsang, for instance, calls the great tower at Buddh- 
Gaya a vihara, and describes similar towers at Nalanda, 200 and 300 feet 
high, as viharas. The Mahawanso also applies the term indiscriminately 
to temples of a certain class, and to residences. My impression is that all 
buildings designed in storeys were called viharas (?), whether used for the 
abode of priests or to enshrine relics or images. The name was used to 
distinguish them from stupas or towers, which were relic shrines, or erected 
as memorials of places or events, and never were residences or simulated 
to be such, or contained images, till the last gasp of the style, as at Kholvi 
At present this is only a theory.' 

(This is a false impression ; it is not substantiated by literary or archaeo- 
logical evidences.) 

Like the chaityas, ' these (viharas or monasteries) resemble very closely 
corresponding institutions among Christians. In the earlier ages they 
accompanied, but were detached from the chaityas or churches. In later 
times they were furnished with chapels and altars in which the service 
could be performed independently of the chaitya halls, which may or may 
not be found in their proximity.' Fergusson. (Hist, of Ind. and East. Arch., 
pp. 130, note i, 51.) 

For the photographic views and architectural details of the existing 
viharas, see Fergusson : 

Diagram explanatory of the arrangement of a Buddhsit vihara of four 

storeys in height (p. 134, fig. 67, 66). 

Ajunta-Vihdras (p. 154-155, fig. 83, 84, 85). 
Plan of the great Vihara at Bagh (p. 160, fig. 87). 
Plan of Dehrwarra at Ellora (p. 163, fig. 88). 
Plan of Monastery at Jamalgiri (p. 171, fig. 92). 
Plan of Monastery at Takht-i-Bahi (p. 171, fig. 93). 
PU\n of Ionic Monastery at Sha Dehri (p. 176, fig. 96). 

467 



VIHRITA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

(4) See Buddhist Gave Temples (Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, Vol. iv, 
Plate xxvn). 
VIHRITA An architectural ornament, a moulding, a moulding of 

the upper part of a column. 

(M., xv, 78 ; see the list of mouldings under STAMBHA.) 

VINA A flute, a lute, a carving on the chariot. 

(A/., XLIII, 163, etc.) 

VITHI(-I) A road, a way, a street, a market place, a stall, a shop, 
a terrace. 

Madhya-rathyavrita vithi samam evarh vidhiyate I 
Mukhya vithi dvi-paksha syad griha-tararh tri-dandakam I 
Evam bahya-vithi syad antar-vithir ihochyate I 
Paksha-yukta tu vithi syat paksha hinarh tu margakam I 
Tri-chatush-pancha-dandarh va vfthinarh vistritir bhavet I 
Shat-saptashta-dandarh va nanda-panktisa-bhanurh va I 
Evarh tu svastika-vithi langalakaravad bhavet I 
Antar-vithi chaika-paksha bahya-vlthi dvi-pakshaka I 
Paritas tu maha-vithir vither esha dvi-pakshayuk I 
Vithinarh parsvayor dese vithikadyair alankritam I 

(M., ix, 101, 104, 191, 196, 199, 200, 338, 396, 477, 5 2 9 \' see 

also 99, 136, 184-187, 197, 201, 203, 206, 324, 339, 

345. 347. 352, 426, 43i 463 5I9-) 

Pada-dandarh samarabhya pada-pada-vivardhitam I 
Syad eka-das"a-dandantam vithi-manam ihagame II 
Marga-manarh tu tavat syan na dvararh vithikagrake I 

(Kamikagama, xxv, 4, 5.) 

VlTHIKA A gallery, a picture gallery, a road, a narrow street, 
a lane. 

(i) Salato yas tritiyarhSas tena karya tu vithika I 

(Kiranakhya-Tantra ; see Brihat-samhita below.) 

(a) Sala-tri-bhaga-tulya cha kartavya vithika bahih I 

(Visvaka ; see Brihat-samhita, below.) 

(3) Sala-tri-bhaga-tulya kartavya vithika bahir-bhavanat I 

1 Outside the dwelling one should make a gallery, being in width a 
third part of the hall.' (Brihat-samhita, mi, 20, J.R.A.S., N. S., Vol. vi, 
p. 283, note 2.) 

(4) Asmat tu chatu-rathyagrad avrita vithika tatah I 

Tat-paisacha-pade de^e vavrita vithika bhavet I 

468 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VlRA-^ASANA 

AntaS-chatush-padam madhye vlthikagram chatur-disi I 
Vithlnam parsvayor dee vithikadyair alarikritam I 

(M., ix, 337, 434, 478, 529 ; see also 323, 334-336.) 

VlRA-KANTHA (see VIRA-GALA) A warrior's neck, a part of the 

column, a monument. 

(Suprabhedagama, xxxi, 59 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

VlRA-KARNA A warrior's ear, a part of the column, a monument. 

(M., xv, 49, 81, 142.) 

VlRA-KANDA An upper part of the column. 

Tri-bhago maulikotsedhah vlra-kandad upary-adhah II 
Vlra-kandavadhi kshepya tad-urdhve nakra-pattika 1 1 

(Kamikdgama, LV, 62, in.) 

VlRA-GALA (see BIRA-GALA) A warrior's neck, a monument, a 
memorial. 

A monumental stone (Ind. Ant., Vol. ix, p. 96, c. 2, line 10). 

A stone erected in memory of a fallen warrior (Chalukyan Architecture, 
Arch. Surv., New. Imp. Series, Vol. xxi, p. 40). 

VlRA-PATTA The front plate, the diadem, of heroes forming part 
of a crown. 

(1) ' (These pearls) were strung on two strings (vadam) on both sides 
of the front plate (vlra-patta), literally the diadem of heroes, " this ornament 
forms part of a crown," Vol. n, p. 242, note i.)' (Inscrip. of Rajendra 
Chola, no. 8, para. 25, H. S. L /., Vol. n, p. 90.) 

(2) ' Given to the image of Ardha-narisvara) one front plate (vira- 
patta), weighing, inclusive of sixteen nerunji (a kind of thistle), flowers 
made of gold, four karanju and three manjadi, and worth three kasu.' 

' On (it) were strung one hundred and eleven pearls, viz., old pearls, 
round pearls, roundish pearls, polished pearls, small pearls, ambumudut 
crude pearls, Sappatti and sakkattu.' (Inscrip. of Rajraja, no. 39, para. 9, 
H.S.I.I., Vol. n, p. 1 66.) 

(3) ' One front plate (vira-patta), laid (round the head of the image 
of Kshetrapala and consisting of) seven manjadi of gold.' (Inscrip. of 
Rajendra Chola, no. 43, para. 5, H. S. 1. 1., Vol. n, p. 1 73.) 

(4) ' One diadem (vlra-patta), made for the lord of the Sri-Raja- 
rajeSvara temple . . . ' (Inscrip. of Rajraja, no. 59, para. 22, H. S. I. I. 
Vol. n, p. 242.) 

VlRA-SASANA (see BIRA-GALA and VIRA-GALA) A monument, 
a memorial. 

469 



VIRASANA AJf ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

VlRASANA A throne, a type of pavilion. 

A kind of coronation throne (M., XLV, 41 ; see under SIMHASANA). 
A pavilion with twenty columns (Suprabheddgama, xxxi, 102 ; see 
under MANDAPA). 

VRITA(-TTA) A circular object, a kind of mound column, a type 
of building, a class of pavilions. 

Dva-trims'ata tu madhye pralinako vritta iti vrittah I 

(Bfihat-samhitd, LIII, 28 ; see under STAMBHA.) 

A type of building which is circular in shape, has one storey and one 
cupola. According to Kern's interpretation it is dark in the interior 
(anjanarupa, Varaha-mihira ; sandhyakara, Kasyapa) : 

(1) Brihat-samhitd (Chap. LVI, 28, J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 320, 
note i, see under PRASADA.) 

(2) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, w. 29, 49, 53 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(3) Bhavishya-Purdna (Chap, cxxx, v. 30, see under PRASADA.) 
A type of pavilion (mandapa) : 

(4) Suprabheddgama (Chap, xxx, 100, 102 where it is called Jaya- 
bhadra ; see under JAYA-BHADRA) . 

(5) Cf. ' Within this and rising from a ledging of cut stone 4 feet 
high and 3 broad, stand the walls of the temple, a perfect circle about 
20 feet high and 2 thick, with a handsome cornice of brick encircling 
the top. The whole appears to have been coated with five pilaster 
small parts of which still adhere. I examined closely but could not 
discover the smallest appearance of its ever having had a roof.' Lieut. 
Fagan. (An Account of the Ruins of Topary, Ceylon Govt. Gazette, Aug., i . 
1820, Ind. Ant., Vol. xxxvm, p. no, c. i, para i, line 24.) 

VRIDDHA A finial, a spire, the top-part of a building. 

(M., xvii, 126 ; see under SIKHA.) 

VRISHA-(BHA) The bull, the riding animal of a god, a type of 
building. 

The riding animal of Siva, description of his image (M., LXU, 2-7) 
see under VAHANA.) 

A type of building which has one storey, one turret (sringa), is round 
everywhere and twelve cubits wide : 

(1) Brihat-samhitd (Chap. LVI, 26, J. R. A. S., N. S., Vol. vi, p. 
319 ; see under PRASADA). 

(2) Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 30, 36, 44, 45, 53 ; see under 
PRASADA). 

47 



HWDU ARCHITECTURE VEDI-(KA) 

(3) Bhamshya-Purana (Chap, cxxx, v. 33; see under PRASADA). 
A type of oval building : 

(1} Agni-Purdna (Chap, civ, vv. 19-20 ; see under PRASADA.) 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 29-30 ; see under PRASADA.) 

VRISHABHALAYA A detached building near the gate of a 

temple where the bull (nandin) is installed. 

Prakara-dvara-sarvesharh kalpayed vrishabhalayam I 
Vrishabhasyopari-bhage tu kalpayed bali-plthakam I 

(M., xxxii, 98-99.) 

VRISHA-MANDAPA A pavilion where the nandin or bull is in- 
stalled. 

Suprdbheddgama (xxxi, 96, 98 ; see under MANDAPA) and compare : 
Vrishasya mandapam tatra chatur-dvara-samayutam I 

(Ibid., xxxi, 133. 

VETRA The cane, a stick, an architectural ornament, a moulding. 
A moulding of the diadem (makuta) (M., XLIX, 99-100). 
A moulding of the bedstead (M., XLIV, 41.) 
An ornament of the throne (M., XLV, 162, 188 ; see also M., vn, 241.) 

VEDI-(KA) Originally a hall for reading the Vedas in, an altar, 
a stand, a basis, a pedestal, a bench, a kind of covered verandah or 
balcony in a courtyard, a moulding, ' bands or string-courses carved 
with rail-pattern.' The platform of a stage (Bharata's Ndlya-sdstra 
n, 102, see details under NATYA-GRIHA(VISMA), terrace, altar, rail, 
terrace with balustrade (Dipavarhfa H, p. 181-183, Oldenburg). 
Compare Pdshdnavedi and Sildvedi (Mahdvarhsa, 36, 52, 103), Muddha- 
vedi and Pdda-vedi (ibid., 35, 2.) (W. Geiger, Mahdvamfa, pp. 296-297.) 

(i) Salantam vedikordhve tu yuddhartharh kalpayet sudhih I 

(M., ix, 36).) 
A moulding of the column : 

Griva-turigarh tridha bhajyarh ekamse vedikonnatam I 

(M., xv, 105.) 

' The quadrangular spot in the courtyard of a temple or palace 
(Apte). That portion of a building which is covered by the walls (M., 
xrx, 25). 

Crdhve padodaye bandham bhagam ekamsa-vedikam I 

(M., xix, 99.) 

The portion above the neck-part of a building (M., xxu, 50, 54, 57, 
etc.). 

471 



VEDI-(KA) AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

The altar or dais (M., LXX, 29, 35, etc.). 

Kuryat sarvam vedikam bhadra-yuktam I 

(M., XK, 1 80.) 

(2) Tri-chuli vaisya-Sudranam pancha-sapta mahi-bhritam I 
Brahmananam tathaiva syur ekadaSa tu vedikah II 

It should be noticed that ' vedika ' and ' chuli ' refer to the same 
object. (Kdmikagama, xxxv, 60.) 
The basement : 

Prasada-bhushanam vakshye Sruyatam dvija-sattamah I 
Syat pada-prastaram griva varge mule tu vedika 1 1 

(Ibid, LV, i.) 

(3) Vedikeyam tu samanya kuttimanam prakirtita I 

Pratikramasya chotsedhe chatur-vims'ati bhajite II 
Vedika-prastara-samam shad-ams'ikritya bhagas"ah I 
Ekarhs'am prati-pa^tam syad am^abhyam antarlbhavet II 

( Vastu-vidya, ed. Sastri, ix, 19, 23.) 

(4) Kanchanair bahubhih stambhair vedikabhiS cha Sobhitah | 

(Rdmayana, vi, 3, 18, etc.) 

(5) (Nalinim) . . . maha-mani-sila-patta-baddha-paryanta-vedikam | 

(Mahabhdrata, n, 3, 32, etc.) 

(6) Athatah sampravakshyami pratishtha-vidhim uttamam | 

Kunda-mandapa-vedlnam pramanarh cha yatha-kramam 1 1 
Prasadasyottare vapi purve va mandapo bhavet I 
Hastan shoda^a kurvita da^a dva-dasa va punah 1 1 
Madhye-vedikaya yuktah parikshiptah samantatah I 
Pancha-saptapi chaturah karan kurvita vedikam 1 1 

(Matsya-Purana, Chap. CCLXIV, vv. i, 13, 14 ; 
see also Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 13, 18.) 

From the position and measures given here to the vedi or vedika, it 
appears to imply some platform other than the pedestal or throne of 
the idol. 

(7) Tad-urdhvarh tu bhaved vedi sakantha manasarakam || 
Urddhvarh cha vedika-manat kalasam parikalpayet II 

(Agni-Purana, Chap. XLII, vv. 17, 18.) 

(8) Mandaparh cha su-vistirnam vedikabhir manoramam 1 1 
Tan-madhye mandapam kritva vedirh tatra su-nirmalam 1 1 

(Skanda-Purana, Mahe^vara-khanda-prathama, 

Chap, xxiv, v. 2, Vaishnava-khanda- 

dvitiya, Chap, xxv, v. 26.) 

(9) See specimens of Jaina sculptures from Mathura (Plate ni, Ep. Ind., 
Vol. n, p. 319, last para.). 

472 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VEDI-(KA) 

(10) Hathi cha puvado hathinam cha uparima hethima cha veyika 
' the elephants and, before the elephants, the rail-mouldings above and 
below.' (Karle inscrip. nos. 3, 17, 18, Ep. Ind., Vol. vn, pp. 51, 63-64.) 

( 1 1 ) Chanyany abhanti dirggha-valabhirh sa-vedikam I 

' And other long buildings on the roofs of the houses, with arbours in 
them, are beautiful.' (Mandasor stone inscrip. of Kumaragupta, lines 6-7> 
C. 1. 1., Vol. in, F. G. I., no. 18, pp. 81, 85.) 

(12) Esha bhati kulachalaih parivrita praleya-sarhsarggibhir vvedi 

meru-sileva kanchana-mayi devasya visrama-bhuh I 
Subhraih pranta-vikasi-pankaja-dalair ity-akalayya svayarii rau- 

pyam padmam achikarat paSupateh pujartham aty-ujjvalam II 
' Thinking that this throne on which the deity rests, golden-like mouns 
meru, was surrounded by the imperishable (seven) primeval mountains 
covered by snow, (the king) himself caused an exceedingly resplendent 
silver lotus with brilliant wide opened petals to be made for the worship of 
Palupati.' 

' (The poet tries to prove that the lotus resembles the shrine of Pasu- 
pati. As the latter is of gold, so the centre also of the lotus is golden, and 
as the temple is surrounded by snowy mountains, so the petals of the lotus 
are made of silver).' (Inscrip. from Nepal, no. 15, of Yaya-deva, v. 25, Ind. 
Ant.y Vol. rx, pp. 179, 182). 

(13) ' Vedi (bedi) Hall for reading the Vedas in.' (Vincent-Smit^ 
Gloss, to General Cunningham's Arch. Surv. Reports.) 

(14) See Cunningham, Arch. Surv. Reports (Vol. xvu, Plate xxxi, Buddhist 
railings). 

(15) ' Veyika, which, as well as Vedika and vetika in other Buddhist 
inscriptions, stands for Sanskrit vedika, does not mean altar, dais, etc., 
but hands or string-courses carved with rail-pattern : compare Mahdvamsa, 
228,' Dr. Burgess. (Karle inscrip. no. 3, Arch. Surv., New Imp. Series, 
Vol. iv, p. 90, note 3 ; see also nos. 15, 16 : Kshatrapa inscrip. no. 3.) 

(16) ' These (rails, ? vedi) have recently been discovered to be one of 
the most important features of Buddhist architecture. Generally they are 
foui.d surrounding topes, but they are also represented as enclosing sacred 
tree?, temples and pillars, and other objects.' Fergusson. (Hist, of Ind. 
an I East. Arch., p. 50.) 

See the photographic views and architectural details of the following 
Rails in Fergusson : 

Buddh Gaya Rail (p. 86, figs. 25, 26). 
Rail at Bharhut (p. 88, fig. 27). 
Rail at Sanchi (p. 92-93, figs. 29, 30, 31). 
Rail in Gautamiputra Cave (p. 94, fig. 32). 

473 



VEDIKA-VATAPANA AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

VEDIKA-VATAPANA A balustrade. 

(S. B. E. } xx, p. 104, 4, 3 ; p. 162, 4, 4 ; 
W. Geiger, Mahdvariiia, p. 297.) 

VEDI-KANTA-(KA) A type of storeyed building, a class of 

four-storeyed buildings. 

(M., xxii, 58-59 ; see under PRASADA.) 

VEDI-BANDHA The pedestal, the base, the basement. 
Prasadau nirgatau karyau kapotau garbha-manatah | 
Drdhvam bhitty-uchchhrayat tasya manjarirh tu prakalpayet 1 1 
ManjaryaS chardha-bhagena Suka-nasarh prakalpayet I 
Ordhvarh tathardha-bhagena vedi-bandho bhaved iha II 

(Visvak 6, 767, J. R. A. S., N. S., 
Vol. vi, pp. 421, 320, note 2.) 

These lines are identical in the Matsya-Purdna (Chap. CCLXIX, vv. 
H-I3-) 

VEDI-BHADRA One of the three classes of pedestals, the other 
two being Prati-bhadra and Mancha-bhadra. It has four types 
differing from one another in the addition or omission of some 
mouldings and in height. 

(A/., XHI, 27-53 > see ^e list of mouldings under UPAP!THA.) 

VE&ANA An entrance, a gate, a gateway, a band, an architec- 
tural moulding. 

Eka-dvi-tri-dandarh va chantaralasya vesanarh syat I 
Harmya-vasad upa-vesanarh yuktam I 

(M., xrx, 191, 187.) 

A band in connexion with joinery (M., xvn, 139). 
Cf. Crdhva-kuta-vesanam I 

(M., xx, 72.) 
. . . bhitti-vistaram eva cha I 

Sesham tad-gar bha-geharh tu madhya-bhage tu vesanam I 

(M., xxxin, 333-334 ; see also 488.) 

In connexion with chariots : Kukshasya veSanam I 

(Af.jXLin, 14) 
In connexion with the phallus : 

Liriga-tunga-viSesham syad vesanarh tan nayet budhah | 

(M., ui, 313.) 
VE&MAN A ' house as the place where one is settled. ' 

(R.-V., x, 107, 10 ; 146, 3 ; A.-V., v, 17, 13 ; ix, 6, 30 ; Ait. Bra. vin, 24, 6.) 

474 



HINDU ARCHITECTURE VYAGHRA-NlDA 

VESARA A style of architecture, once prevailing in the ancient 
Vesara or Telugu country, ' India between the Vindhyas and the 
Krishna corresponding to Tamil India ' (S. K. Aiyangar, J.I.S.O.A., 

Vol. n, no. i, p. 23-27.) 

(See details under NAGARA.) 

VAIJAYANTIKA A type of building, a class of single-storeyed 

buildings. 

(M., xix, 166 ; see under PRASADA.) 

VAIRAJA A class of buildings, square in plan and named as 
follows : (i) Meru, (2) Mandara, (3) Vimana, (4) Bhadra, (5) 
Sarvato-bhadra, (6) Ruchaka, (7) Nandika, (8) Nandi-varddhana 
and (9) Srivatsa. 

(1) Agni-Purana (Chap, civ, w. n, 14-15; we under PRASADA). 

(2) Garuda-Purdna (Chap. XLVII, vv. 21-22, 24-25; see under PRASADA) 

VAI&YA-GARBHA (see GARBHA-NYASA) A kind of foundation 
prescribed for the buildings of the Vaisyas. 

(M., xn, 162; see under GARBHA-NYASA.) 

VYAJANA A fan, an account of its architectural details. 

(M., L, 46, 97-110 ; see BHUSHANA.) 

VYAYA One of the six Varga-formulas, an architectural measure, 
the name of a year. 

(See details under SHAD-VARGA.) 

1 i ) Srimach-chhali-sakabdake cha galite nagabhra-banerhdubhis chabde 
sad-vyaya-namni-chaitra-sita-shashthyam saumya-vare vrishe I 

' And in the excellent year named Yyaya . . . ' 

(Karkala inscrip. of Bhairava n, v. 6, line 7, 
Ep. Ind., Vol. vui, pp. 131, 134, 124.) 

Sali-vahana-saka-varsha (1508) neya vyaya-sarhvatsarada) I 
' In the Salivahana saka year which corresponded to the Vyaya sarh- 
vatsara . . . '(Ibid., line 9.) 

(2) ' When the year of glorious era called Salisaka, having the excel- 
lent name of Vyaya and to be expressed in words by the elephants, the 
sky, the arrows, and the moon, had expired . . . ' 

' The month Chaitra of the Vyaya samvatsara, which was the year 
of the Sri-Salivahana Saka 1508.' (Sasana of the Jaina Temple at Karkala, 
Ind. Ant., Vol. v, p. 43, c. i, lines, 23, 32.) 

VYAGHRA-NlDA The cage for a domesticated tiger, included in 

the articles of furniture. 

(M., L, 55, 251-269 ; see under BHUSHAIJA.) 

475 



VYALA-TORANA AX ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF 

VYALA-TORANA (see TORANA) An arch marked with the leo- 
graph. 

Tatah samabhyunnata-purvva-kayas tenadhirudhah sa naradhipena I 
Samutpatann uttama-sattva-vegah khe torana-vyala(ka)-vaddha 
bhase 1 1 

(Jatakamdla, Sarabha-jataka, xxv, 22; v. 19, ed. Kern, p. 165.) 



&AKTI Power, energy, capacity, strength,