Skip to main content

Full text of "Epea pteroenta, or, The diversions of Purley .."


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fiOm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionThe Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

■■ί !, 

m ■ 








Iiiiiii bri-iis i-lsi- liiliiivi). iil.siiaus lici 


OR, TiiE 



ρ υ R L Ε γ, 

PART I. '■• 

• ••• • » m s 







AT J• Johnson's» no. 72, st. Paul's church yard. 






Introduftion *— — .— — — — 

Chap. I. Of the Divifion or Diftributlon of Language ' — ij 

Ghap. II. Some Confidcration of Mr. Locke's Eflay — — 30 

Chap. in. Of the Parts of Speech — — -*— 44 

Chap. IV. Of the Noun — — — — jja 

Chap. V. Of the Article and Interjeftion — — — 58 

Advertifement — — — * — — y^ 

Chap. VI. Of the Word that ~ — — — «i 

Advertifement — — — — _ ^p 

Chap. VII. Of Conjunftions -— — — — 102 

-Chap. Vin. Etymology of the Engliih Conjunftions — — 150 

Chap. IX. Of Prepofitions — — — — 288 

Chap. X. Of Adverbs — — — — 458 


• .• 

• ^ • 

• * 
• ■ 

•• • 

• •• • • 
, •• • • 

• • • • 

• • • 

• • -• • • 

• « 

• • % • • • 
<■ •• • • 

• « ■ • 

• a 
*•• • • 

Τ' ■" ■; '7 YORK 

PU:.i. l.iDRARY 






ΛΛΝΕ of her grateful Sons, — ^who always coniiders a£ls 
of voluntary juftice towards himfelf as Favours *, — 
dedicates this humble offering. And particularly to her 
chief ornament for virtue and talents, the Reverend Doftor 
Beadon, Matter of Jefus College. 

* Notwithftanding the additional authority of Plato's defpicable faying— 
Cum omnibus folvam quod cum omnibus debeo ' — the aflertion of Machiavcl, 
that — Nijfuno confejfera mat haver obligo con uno chi non Voffenda * — ^and the 
repetition of it by Father Paul, that — Mai alcuno fi pretende obligato a chi 
I'habbi fatlo giuflitia ; ftimandolo tenuto per β flejfo di farla ' — are not true. 
They are not true either with reipeot to nations or to individuals : for the 
experience of much injuftice will caufe the forbearance of injury to appear 
like kindnefs. 

* Senec. de bencfic. lib. vi. 

* Difcor. lib. i. cap. xvi. 

^ Opinionc del Padre Fra Paolo, in qiial mbdo debba govcrnarfi la Republica 
Vcncla per haver pcrpctuo dominio. 





Ihtroduftion *— — — — «-, .^ 

Chap. L Of the Divifion or Diftribution of Language ' — 17 

Ghap. II. Some Confideration of Mr. Locke's Eflay — — 30 

Chap. III. Of the Parts of Speech — — — 44 

Ghap. IV. Of the Noun .^ — — — 52 

Chap. V. Of the Article and Interjeftion — — — 58 

Advertifemcnt — • — — — — y^ 

Ghap. VI. Of the Word that — — — — ii 

Advertifemcnt — — — — — 95 

Chap. VII. Of Conjunftions — — — — 102 

<^hap. VIII. Etymology of the Engliih Conjunftions — • — 150 

Chap. IX. Of Prepofitions — — — — 288 

Chap. X. Of Adverbs — — — — 458 




Non ut laudemur, fed ut profimus. 

Equidem fic propc ab adolefccntia animatus fui, ut inania famae con- 
tcmnam, veraque confefter bona• In qua cogitationc fiepius defixus, facilius 
ab animo mco potui impetrare, ut (quamvis fcirem fordefccre magis & magis 
ftudia Literarum, maximequc ea quae propric artem Grammaticcn Ipeftant) 
nihilominus paulilper, non quidem fcponerem, fed remiflius tamen traftarem 
ftudia graviora ; iterumquc in manus fumercm vetcrcs adolcfccntise labores, 
laboreque novo inter tot Curas divulgarcm. 

G. J. Vossius. 

Le grand objet dc Tart etymologique n'eft pas dc rendrc raifon de Torigine 
de tous les mots fans exception, & j'ofe dire que cc feroit un but aflez 
frivole. Cet art eft princippJcment recommandable en ce qu*il fournit έ la 
philofophie des materiaux & des obfervations pour clever Ic grand edifice de 
la theorie generale des Langues. 

M. Lc Prefident de Brosses. 



Page ,59, Note, Line 19, for ilk read elk. 

— 90, Note, — 18, 23, and 27, for Wharton read Warion. 

— 123, Note, 19, ihould be effaced. 

— — 145, Note, 16, for Prfpofithns read Propofttions• 

174, Note, 16, dele or Lofs. 

i8r, 9, for Wharton read Wart on. 

157, .«1..^ 4, for itf/ put BUT. 

200, — 6, for BUT read bot. 

^43» — — 3, for diftinolis read dlftin^io. 

a8i. Note, — 14, /5^ xtzafiier. 

321, ■ 4, for iV read its. 

322, Note, 4, for correfoneknt read correfpondenU 

— — — 1O9 for ώ;9τ^^ read /i?/?^• 

381, •.».» 6, for for put for. 

416, Note, — — 7, for A«j read he iu 

422, -— 13, for myddit read mtdliT. 

S3i> Note, — — • 10, for fourdes read fourdes. 







HE my fiery is at laft unravelled. I ihall no more 
wonder now that you engrofs his company at 
Purley ^-, whilft his other friends can fcarce get a fight of 
him. This, you fay, was Prefident Bradihaw's feat. That 
is the fecret of his attachment to the place. You hold him 
by the befl fecurity, his political prejudices and enthufiafm. 
But do not let his veneration for the memory of the antient 
poiTefTor pafs upon you for affeftion to the prefent. 
— -^-^-^ ■ — — — ■ — 

* The feat of William Tooke, Efq. near Croydon, Surrey. 

Β Η. Should 


Should you be altogether fo fevere upon my politics; 
when you rcfledl that, merely for attempting to prevent 
the eiFulion of brother's blood and the final difmember- 
meut of the empire, I ftand the fingle legal viftim during 
the conteft, and the fingle inftancc of profcription after it ? 
But I am well contented that my principles, which have 
made fo many of your way of thinking angry, fliould only 
make you laugh• Such however as they are, they need 
not now to be defended by me : for they have ftood the 
tell of ages; and they will keep their ground in the 
general commendation of the world, till men forget to 
love themfelves ; though, till then perhaps, they are not 
likely to be fecn (nor credited if feen) in the pradiice of 
many individuals. 

But are you really forced to go above a hundred years 
back to account for my attachment to Purley ? Without 
confidering the many ftrong public and private ties by 
which I am bound to its prefent poffeiTor, can you find 
nothing in the beautiful profpeot from thefe windows ? 
nothing in the entertainment every one receives in this 
houfc ? nothing in the delightful rides and walks we have 
taken round it ? nothing in the cheerful difpolition and 



eafy kindnefs of its owner, to make a rational mail partial 
to this habitation ? 


Sir, you are making him tranfgrefs our only ilanding 
rules. Politics and compliments are ftrangers here. We. 
always put them off when we put on our boots ; and leave 
them behind us in their proper atmofphere, the fmoke of 


Is it poflible ! Can either of you— Engliftimen and pa- 
triots ! — abftain for four and twenty hours together from 
politics ? You cannot be always on horfeback or at piquet. 
What^ in the name of wonder, your favourite topic ex- 
cluded, can be the fubjedt of your fo frequent converfations ? 


You have a ftrange notion of us. But I allure you we 
find more diflSlculty to finiih than to begin our converfations. 
As for our fubjedls, their variety cannot be remembered; 
but I will tell you on what we were difcouriing yefterday 
when you came in ; and I believe you are the fittcft perfon 
in the world to decide between us. He iniiils, contrary to 
my opinion, that all forts of wifdom and ufeful knowledge 
may be obtained by a plain man of fenfe without what is 

Β 2 commonly 



commonly called Learning. And when I took the eafieft 
inftance, as I thought, and the foundation of all other 
knowledge, (becaufe it is the beginning of education, and 
that in which children are firft employed) he declined the 
proof of his aflertion in this inftance, and maintained that 
I had chofen the moft difficult : for, he fays, that, though 
Grammar be ufually amongft the firft things taught^ it is 
always one of the laft underftood. 

I njuft confeis I differ from Mr» H. concerning the dif- 
ficulty of grammar : if indeed what you have reported be. 
really his opinion. But might he not poffibly give you that 
anfwer to efcape the difcufiion of a difagreeable, dry fub- 
je6t, remote from the courfe of his ftudies and the objeds, 
of his inquiry and purfuit ? By his general expreffion of — 
what is commonly called Learnings— ^^ηά his declared opinion 
of that, I can pretty well guefs what he thinks of gramma- 
tical learning in particular. I dare fwear (though he will nob 
perhaps pay me fo indifferent a Gompliment) he does not 
in his mind allow us even the poor confolation which we 
find in Athenaeus — bi μη iajpoi fja-av ; but concludes, without 

a fingle exception, }sL• των ΓρίχμμοίΙίκων fjLuJpojepQV *. 

* Ου γας καχ,ως τινι τ«ν (Ιαιρων nfAW tλΛχβn tOj ci /tAD ιοίΐροι na-otv sitv ai ημ των 

γραμμΑπω^ fAttpoltpoi. ' Deipnoioph. Lib. 1 5• 

A I muft 


rmuft however intreat him to recolle<Sl, (and at the fame 
time whofe authority it bears,) that• — ^/ Sapientiae &* litey 
rarum dhortium. faciunty Jolidam fapientiam 
pertingent. Sjfi verb alios etiam ά literarum linguarumque 
Pudio abfierrenty mn antiqua^ fapientia fed nova flultitia. 
Dooloret funt. . habendu -. 

Indeed I fpoke my real fentimentSi I think Grammar 
difi&cult, but I am very far from looking upon it as fooliib : 
indeed fo far,, that I confider it as abfolutely neceiTary in 
the fearch after philofophical truth ; . which if not the mod 
ufeful perhaps, is at leaft the moft pleafing employment of 
the human mind. And I think it no lefs necelTary in the 
moft important queftions concerning religion and civil fo- 
ciety. But lince you fay it is. eafy, tell me where it may- 
be learned. . 



If your look and the tone of your voice were lefs ferious^ , 
the extravagance of your compliment to grammar would I 
incline me to fufpedt that you were taking your revenge, , 
and bantering me in your turn by an ironical encomium. 
on my favourite ftudy. But, if I am to fuppofe you in? 
earneft, I anfwer, thai ourEngliih grammar may be fuf- • 

fidently . 


ficiently and eaiily learned from the excellent IntrodniSfion 
of Doctor Lowth : or from the firfl (as well as the befi) 
* £ngli(h grammar, given by Ben Johnfon. 



True, Sir. And that was my firft flight anfwer to our 
friend's inftance. But his inquiry is of a much larger 


corapafs than you at prefent feem to imagine. He aiks 
after the caufes or reafons of Grammar * : and for fatis- 
f aolion in them I know not where to fend him ; for I aflure 
you, he has a troublefome, inquiiitive> fcrupulous mind of 
his own that will not take mere words in current payment. 


••» • ^:. 

I fhould think that difficulty eaiily removed. Dr. Lowth 
in his preface has done it ready to your hands. " Thofe," 

* Duplex Gramniatica : alia civilis, alia philosophica. 
CiviLis, peritia ς/?, nonjcientia : conflat enim ex atiSloritate ufuque clarortan 
^"Philosophica verOj ratione confiat -^ ^ h^ec Jcientiam olet. 

Grammatica civilis hahet atatem^ in qua vigeiy £5? illam ample5Iuniur 
Grammatici^ dicunt enim Jub Cicercne iff Cajare adultam linguam^ &c. At 
philosophica non agnojcit ^etatem lingua y Jed rati^malitatem -y ampleiliiurque 
vocabula bena omniutn tempcrum, 

6 Campanella. 



he fays, " who would enter more deeply into this fubjedl, 
^ will find it fully and accurately handled with the greateft 
^ acutenefs of inveftigation, perfpicuity of explication, and 
* elegance of method, in a treatife intitled Hermes^ by 
^ James Harris^ Efq. the moft beautiful and perfeit ex- 
^ ample of Analyfis that has been exhibited fince the days 

« of Ariftotle;' 



The recommendation no doubt is full, and the authority 
great ; but I cannot fay that I have found the performance 
to correfpond : nor can I boaft of any acquifition from its 
perufal, except indeed of hard words and frivolous or un- 
intelligible diftinolions. And I have learned from a moft . '^ ^ ' ' -v 
excellent authority, that " Tout ce qui varie, tout ce qui 
^« fe charge de termes douteux &: envelopes, a toujours ^ 


^ .' . . ■ -/ ... 

ill, r^ ' 

" paru fufpedt ; &: non feulement frauduleux, mais encore 

*^ abfolument faux: parcequ'il marque un embarras que/y . '^iM,\ ''^■^* 

*^ la verite ne connoit point*." ...^ > 

.• * ♦ .* ■ 

> *■ 

And you, Sir .ί• 

* Bos$vET des variations des £glifcs Proteftantes. 

H. I 


I am really in the fame iltuation. 


Have you tried any other of our £ngliili authors on the 
fubjedt ? 


I believe all of them, for they are not numerous * ; but 

none with fatisfadtion. 

B. You 

* The authors who have written profciftdly on this fubjcct, in any language, 
are not numerous. Caramuel, in the beginning of his Grammatica Audax, 
fays, — " Solusy ut puto, Scotus, 6? ροβ eum Scalig£R & Campanella 

(^alios enim non vidt) Grammaticam Jpeculativam evulgarunt ; vias tamtn 
,οκηίάηο' diver Jas ingr^. Mult a mibi in Scaligero, is? plura in Campanella 
" diJpUcuerunt \ ^ pauciora in ScotOy qui vix alibi /ubtilius Jcripfit quam cum 
" de Grammaticis modis fignificandiy 

The reader of Caramuel (who, together with Campanella, may be found 
in the Bodleian Library) will not be difappointed in him j but moft egre- 
gioufly by him, if the fmalleft expedations of information are excited by 
the charafter which is here given of Scotus : whofe Oe Modis Significandiy 
ihould be intitled, not Grammatica Speculativa, but — an Exemplar of the 
fubtle art of faving appearances, and of difcourfing deeply and learnedly 
on a fubjeft with which we are totalFy unacquainted, ^id enim Juhtilius 
vel magis tenue, quam quod nihil /β. 

Wilkins, Part 3. Chap. i. of his Eflay towards a Real Charafter, fays, 
after Caramuel, — " The fitfi rf theje (i. e. phiiofophical, rational, univerfal 
^* Grammar) hath been treated of but by few \ which makes $ur learned 

" Vsrulam 



Vou muft then give up one ^t leaft of your poiitions. 
For if) as you make it out. Grammar is ib difficult that ζ 


5< Verulam put it among bis Dcfidcrata. / dp not kno^ offf more tbaf have 
«^ furpojefy written of ity but Septus in bis Grammatica Spcculativa, and 
** Caramuel in bis Grammatica Audax, and Campanella in bis Grammatica 
*^ Philofophica. (Js for Scioppius bis Grammar of tbis title, tbat doth 
*' wholly concern the Latin tongue.) Befides which fometbi^tg b^tk h^? occa^ 
*' fionally fpoken of it by Scaliger in bis book Dc Caufis Linguas Latinas ; and 
*' by Voβus in his Ariftarchus." So φτ Wilkins : who, for what reafon I 
know not, has omitted the Minerva of SanHius ; though wcU dcferving his 
notice; and the d^claiied fbundatioo of Scioppius. But he ytho fliould 
xxMifinc himfcU to theic authors, and fp thofc wl>o, ]vidi \y4kins, have 
fince that time written profelTcdly on thb fubjcft, would fall very Ihort of 
the affiftance he might have, and the leading hints and foundations of rea^ 
foning which he might obtain^ hf reading even all the authors vho have 
confined to particular languages. 

The great Bacon put this fubje£t amongft his Oefiderata, not, a$ Wilkins 
fays, becaufc '^ few had treated of it ;*' but becaufe nme had given a fatis- 
faolory account of it* At the fame ome Bacon, though evidently wide of 
the mark himfelf, yet conje£hired beft how tjiis knowledge mijght mo$ 
probably be attained ; and pointed out the moft proper materiak for re• 
fleftion to work upon. *' Ilia demum (fays he) ut arbitramur, foret nobi- 
^^ liffima Grammatics fp^ciesy β quis in Unguis plurimis, tarn eruditis quam 
^' vulgaribus eximii doSuSy de varus Ifn^jfornm proprietatibus traSeftit y in 
*' quibus quaque exccllaty in quibu^ deficiat ofipidens. Ita enim .&? lingUie 
^' mutuo commercio locupletari pqffinti 6f J&/ ex its qus in^ngulis Unguis 
*^ pUlcbra Junt {tanquam Venus ApeUis) orationis ipfius quadam formofiffima 
" imagOy &? exemplar quoddam injigne, ad fenfus animi ritl• exprimendos.*^ 
De augment* Sclent• Lib. 6. Cap. i. 

C knowledge 



knowledge of it <:annot be obtained by a man of fenfe 
from any authors in his own language^ you muft fend him 
to what is commonly called Learnings to the Greek and 
Latin authors, for the attainment of it. So true, in this 
fcience at leaft, if not in all others, is that faying of Roger 
Afcham ; that — " Even as a hawke fleeth not hie with» 
" one wing^ even fo a man reacheth not to excellency 
^* with one tongue.** 


On the contrary, I am rather confirmed by this inftance 
in my firft pofition. I acknowledge philofophical Grammar 
(to which only my fufpefted compliment was intended) to 
be a moft neceffary ftep towards wifdom and true know- 
ledge. From the innumerable and inveterate miftakes 
which have been made concerning it by the wifeft philor 
fophers and moft diligent inquirers of all ages, and from 
the thick darknefs in which they have hitherto left it, I 
imagine it to be one of the moft difhcult fpeculations. Yet, 
I fuppofe, a man of plain common fenie may obtain it, if 
he will dig for it ; but I cannot think that what is commonly 
called Learning, . is this mine in which it will be found. 
Truth, in my opinion, has been improperly imagined at 
the bottom of a well : it lies much nearer to the furface ; 
though buried indeed at prefent under mountains of 
9 learned 


learned rubbiih ; in which there is nothing to admire but 
the amazing ftrength of thofe vaft giants of literature who 
have been able thus to heap Pelion upon OiTa, This at 
prefent is only my opinion, which perhaps I have enter- 
tained too lightly. Since therefore the queftion has been 
ilarted, I am pleafed at this occafion of being confirmed or 
correoled by you ; whofe application, opportunities, exten- 
five reading, acknowledged abilities, and univerfal learning 
enable you to inform us of all that the antients have left 
or the moderns have written on the fubjeft. 


Oh ! Sir, your humble fervant ! compliments, I perceive, 
are baniihed from Purley. But I Ihall not be at all inticed 
by them to take upon my ihoulders a burthen which you 
feem defirous to Ihift off upon me. Befides, Sir, with all 
your caution, you have faid too much now to expert it 
from me. It is too late to recall what has pafied your 
lips : and if Mr. T. is of my fentiments you ihall not be 
permitted to explain yourfelf away. The fatisfa<5tion 
which he feeks after, you fay is to be bad ι and you tell us 
the mine where you think it is not to be found* Now I 
ihall not eafily be perfuaded that you are ib raih and take 
\ip your opinions fo lightly, as to advance or even to 
imagine this ; unlefs you had firft fearched that mine your- 

C α felf. 

1 1 ifiiiiobbCTioN. 

feif, and formed a cbrij^torfe at leaft concerhihg the ^iace 
Wh'ere you fuppofe this knowle%e is to be found, inilead 
thereifore of making rttfe dii^iiay to Mr. f . hiy reading, 
which ybti have alteady declarod itilTufficiiefat for thin i^tit- 
jJoife, is it riot much "more reatbhablie that you ihouM cbiii- 
municate to us the re'fuit of your refieotiori ? 

With all ni^ heart, if you chufe it ttiould be fo, and 
think you ihall have patience to hear me thiroligh. I own 
1 prefer inftruftion to corredion, and had rather have been 
informed without the hazard of expofing myfelf ; but if 
you niake the one a ciondi'tion of the 'othei•, I think it ftill 
"vvbrth my acceptance ; and SVill ϊιο'ί lofe this opportunity 
of your judgment for a little ftiame. l acknowledge then 
•tha^ th'e fubjea is hot intirely he^ to Υηγ thoughtls : ifoi•, 
tliough languages themfelves ftiay be ahd ufually ar6 ac- 
quired without any regard to 'tYieir prindples ; I very early 
ibuh'd ft, or thought ί found it, impoffible ίο ttiakfc many 
fteps in liie fearch after tyutb and the nature of human 
'iMderflanditigi ϋί good and evil, of right and wrong, without 
well confiderihg the nat\are of language, which appeared 
ϊό Hie \o "Be inlfep^rably cohhe<5t6d 'with them. I own 
thei'efore \ long iffnce formed to myfelf a kind of fy item, 
fcteined to me of fin)gular life iii the very fmall extent 
I • ^ ' of 


of my youhger ftudies to keep my mind from confufign 
and the impodtion of Words. After too long sin interval 
of idlenefs and pleafur^ it wEls ihy chance to have occafion 
to apply to fome of the udodeiti languages f and, not being 
acquainted with any othet more fiiti^fautory, I tried iny 
fyliem with thefe, and tried it with fuccefs. I afterwards 
found it equally ufeful to mfe with ibm^ of the dead lan- 
guages. Whilit I was thus amuiing myfelf the politicai 
ftruggle commenced ; for my ihare in which you fo far 
juilly banter me, as I do acknowledge that, both in the 
outfet and the progrefs of it, I was guilty of two moft 
egregious blunders ; by attributing a much greater portion 
of virtue to individuals and of underftanding to the gene- 
rality than any experience of mankind can juftify. After 
another interval therefore (not of idlenefs and pleafure) 
I was again called by the queitions of our friend Mr. T» 
(for yefterday is not the firft time by many that he 
has mentioned it) to the confideration of this fubjeA• I 
have hitherto declined attempting to give him the fatis- 
faaion he reqitfl'edt for, tho\igh the nolioti I hiid of 


language had iatisfied thy own mind and anfwered my a<tft 
jHirpofes, I could not venture to detail to him my crodfc 
cohc^tions iKritbout having ever made the leaft inquit^ 
into thfc opinions of others. Befides, I did not at aH fufpe^ 
that my notiofis> if juft, couM be pecufiar to «lyfdtf : UtiA 

I hoped 


I hoped to find fome author who might give him a clearer» 
fuller» and more methodical account than I could, free* 
from thofe errors and omiflions to which I muft be liable. 
Having therefore fome fmali intervals of leifure and a great 
deiire to give him the beft information ; I confefs I have 
employed fome part of that leifure in reading every thing 
I could eaiUy and readily procure that has been fuggefted 
by others. 

—I am afraid I have already fpoken with too much 
prefumptlon : But when I tell you that I differ from all 
thofe who with fuch infinite labour and erudition have 
gone before me on this fubjeot ; what apolog y 


Oh ! make none. When men think modefUy they may 
be allowed to fpeak freely. Come— Where will you 
begin ? — uilpba — Go on. 


Not with the organical part of language, I afliire you. 
For, though in many refpedts it has been and is to this 
moment grofsly miftaken, (and the miflakes might, with 
the help of fome of the firft principles of natural philo- 
fophy and anatomy, be eafily correded) yet it is an inquiry 
tnore of curioiity than immediate ufefulnefs. 

Έ^ You 



You will begin then either with things or ideas : for it 
is impoffible we ftiould ever thoroi^hly underftand the 
nature of the Jgnsy unlefs we firft properly c(xiiider and 
arrange the things fignified, Whofe iyi^em of phUofophy 
will you build upon ? 


What you iay is true» And yet I ihall not begin there• 
Hermes, you know> put out the eyes of Argus : and I 
fuipe<5t that he has likewife blinded philofophy : and if i 
had not imagined ib> I ihould never have caft away a 
thought upoa this fubjeot. If therefore Philofophy her- 
felf has been mifled by Language» how ihaU ihe teach ufr 
to dete<5t his tricks I 


Begin then as you pleafe« Only begin. 








'X'HE purpofe of Language is to communicate our 
thoughts — — 

You do not mention this, I hope, as fomething newj 
wherein you differ from others ? 

You are too hafty with me. No. But I mention it as 
that principle, which, being kept βngly in contemplation, 
has milled all thofe whd have reafoned on this fubjeifc. 

• . ■ • • ■ 

D B. Is 

1 Γ 


Is it not true then ? 


I think it is. And that on which die wh(4e matter 

And yet the confining themfelves to Uiis true principle, 
upon which the whole matter icfts, has milled them ! 

Indeed I think £o, 

This is carious ! 


Yet I hope to convince you of it. For thus they rea- 
foncd ' W ords are the Jgvts of tbw^. There muft 
therefore be as many forts of words, or parts tfjpeee^, as 
there are ibrts of things*. The earlieft inquirers into 
language proceeded then to fettle how many forts there 

* JMhi fmrum tf$ts i fr* 9«nm J^hMm fettn fUHfut fitgt Jirtiaur, 

J, C. ScAbiosA de Caufis L. L. 


I'-i . 


were of things; and from thence how many forts of 
words, or parts of fpeech. Whilft this method of fearcj^ 
Jln'^/y prevailed, the parts of fpeech were very few i» 
number : but iwo» At moft tJbregt or four. 

All things, faid they, muft have names *. But there 
are two Ibrts of things : 

1 . Res qua permanent, 

2. Res qua fluunt. 

There muft therefore be two forts of words or parts of 
fpeech: viz. 

I • NotcB rerum qua permanent. 
2. Nota rerum qua fluunt. 

Well; but furely there are words which are neither 
nota rerum permanentium^ nor yet nota rerum fluentium. 
What will you do with them ? — We cannot tell : we can 
find but thefe two forts in rerum natura : call therefore 
thofe other words, if you will, for the prefent, particles f, 


* From this moment Grammar quits the day-light; and plunges into an ; 
aixyls of utter dariaicfi. 

t A good convettient name Fof ail the words which we do not underftand : 

for as the denomination means nothing in particular, and contains no de- 

• • - I) 2 fcription.. 


or inferior parts of fpeech, till we can find out what they 
are. Or, as we fee they are conftantly interfperfed between 
liouns and verbs, and feem therefore in a manner to hold 
our fpcech together, fuppofe you call them conjunciions or 
conne&ives *. 

This feems to have been the utmoft progrefs that phi- 
lofophical Grammar had made till about the time of 
Ariftotle, when a fourth part of fpeech was added, — ^the 
definitive^ or article. 

fcription, it will equally fuit any Ihort word wc may pleafc to refer thither. 
There has latterly been much dilpute amongft Grammarians concerning the 
ufe of this word, f article^ in the divifion and diftribution of ipeech : parti- 
cularly by Girard, Dangeau, the authors of the Encyclopedic, &c. In 
which it is Angular that they ihould all be right in their arguments againft 
the ufc made of it by others ; and all wrong, in the ufe which each of them 
would make of it himfclf. Dr. S. Johnfon adopts N. B^ley's definition of 
a f article ^^^ A word unvaried by inflexion." And Locke dcfiDcs particles 
to be — " The words whereby the mind fignifies what connexion it gives 
<< to the feveral affirmations and negations, that it unites in one continued 
** reafoning or narration." 

♦ The Latin Grammarians amufe themfclves with debating whether 
^vySitriAH (hould be tranflated Convin£iio or Conjunilio. The Danes and the 
Dutch feem to have taken different fides of the queftion : for the Danifh 
language terms it Bindeord^ and the Dutch Kofpelwiord. 



Here concluded the fearch after the diflferent forts of 
words, or parts of fpeech, from the difference of things : 
for none other apparently rational, acknowledged, or ac- 
cepted difference has been fuggefted. 

According to this fyftem it was neceffary that all forts 
of words fliould belong to one of thefe four clafles. For 
words being thejlgns of things, their forts muft neceffarily 
follow the forts of the things ftgnified. And there being 
ao more than four differences of things, there could be 
but iour parts of fpeech• The difficulty and controverfy 
now was, to determine to which of thefe four claffes each 
word belonged. In the attempting of which, fucceeding 
Grammarians could neither fatisfy themfelves nor others : 
for they foon difcovered fome words fo ftubborn, that no 
fophiftry nor violence could by any means reduce them to 
any one of thefe clafles. However, by this attempt and 
difpute they became better acquainted with the diflBerences 
of words, though they could not account for them ; and 
they found the old fyftem deficient, though they knew 
not how ta fupply its defeds• They feem therefore to 
have reverfed the method of proceeding from things to 
iigns, purfued by the philofophers ; and. Hill allowing the 
principle, (^iz. that there muft be as many forts of words 
as of things^) thtgy travelled backwards, and fought for the 



things from the iigns : adopting the converfe of the prin- 
ciple ; namely, that there mud be as many differences af 
things as of tigns. Mifled therefore by the ufefol con- 
trivances of language, they fuppofed many imaginary dif- 
ferences of things : and thus added greatly to the number 
of parts of fpeech, and in conlequence to the errors of 

Add to this, that the greater and more laborious part of 
Grammarians (to whofe genius it is always more obviou* 
to remark a multitude of effeots than to trace out one 
caufe) confined themfelves merely to notice the differences 
obfervable in words, without any regard to the things 

From this time the number of parts of fpeech has been 
varioufly reckoned : you will find different Grammarians 
contending for more than thirty. But moft of thofe who 
admitted the feweft, acknowledged eight. This was long a 
favourite number ; and has been kept to by many who 
yet did not include the fame parts to make up that number. 
For thofe who rejeftcd the artrck, reckoned -eight : and 
thofe who did not allow the mtefjeBion ftai reckoned eight. 
But what fort of diiFerence in words Ihould intitle them to 
hold" a feparate rank by themfdves, has not to .this nioment 
been icttlcd. B. You 



You feem to forget, that it is fome time fince words 
have been no longer allowed to be the ligns of things. 
Modem Grammarians acknowledge them to be (as indeed 
Ariilotle called them^ avf^CoXu τίο^μαΐων) the ligns of ideas : 
at the fame time denying the other affertion of Ariftotle, 
that ideas are the likenejffes of things *• And this has made 
a great alteration in the manner of accounting for the dif- 
ferences of words. 


That has not much mended the matter. No doubt this 
alteration approached ίο far nearer to the truth ; but the 
nature of Language has not been much better underilood 
by it. For Grammarians have fince purfued juft the fame 
method with mind, as had before been done with things. 
The different operations of the mind, are to account now 
for what the different things were to account before : and 
when they are not found fufficienfly numerous for the 
purpofe ; it is only fuppofing an imaginary operation of 
two, and the diflSculties are for the time ihuffled over• 

* ' * AitisittT.4eIii(ieipi>etsit. 

• Ί So 


So that the very fame game has been played over again 
with ideas^ which was before Rlayed with things. No 
latisfaftion, no agreement has been obtained : But all ha§ 
been difpute, diverlity, and darknefs. Inrpmuch that inany 
of the moft learned and judicious Grammarians, diigufted 
with abfurdity and contradictions, have prudently contented 
themfelves with remarking the differences of words, and 
have left the caufes of language to ihift for themfelves. 


That the methods of accounting fer Language remain 
to this day various, uncertain and unfatisfadtory, cannot be 
denied• But you have faid nothing yet to clear up the 
paradox you fet out with ; nor a finale word to unfold to 
us by what means you fupgofe .HQrmes has blinded phi- 
lofophy. ; 

■■*•.'■• • 

I imagine thAt it is, in fome meafure» with the vehicle 
of our thoughts, as with the vehicles for our bodies. 
Neceffity produced both. The fir ft carriage for men >ya§ 
no doubt invented to tranfport the bodies of thofe who 
from infirmity, or otherwife, could not move themfelves : 
But Ihould any one, defifous of underftanding the purpofe 
and meaning of ail the parts of our modem elegant 



carriages, attempt to explain them upon this one principle 

alone, viz, — That they were necelTary for conveyance ; 

he would find himfelf wofuUy puzzled to account for the 
wheels, the feats, the fprings, the blinds, the glaffes, the 
lining, &c. Not to mention the mere ornamental parts of 
gilding, varnilh, &c. 

Abbreviations are the wheels of language, the wings of 
Mercury. And though we might be dragged along with- 
out them, it would be with much difficulty, very heavily 
and tedioufly. 

There is nothing more admirable nor more ufeful than 
the invention of figns : at the fame time there is nothing 
more productive of error when we negle(5t to obferve their 
complication. Into what blunders, and confequently into 
what difputes and difficulties, might not the excellent art 
of Short-hand writing (pradtifed almoft exclufively by the 
Engliih *) lead foreign philofophers ; who, not knowing 


* ** The art of Short-hand is, in its kind, an ingenious device, and of 
^ confiderable ulcfulncfs, applicable to any language, much wondered at by 
" travellers that have feen the experience of it in England : and yet, though 
" it be above threefcore years fincc it was firft invented, it is not to this 
*^ day (for ought I can learn) brought into common praftice in any other 
'^ nation•" Wilkins. Epifi. Dedicatory. E/fay tov;ards a Real CbaraSler. 

Ε *' .Short• 


that we had any other alphabet, ihould fuppofe each mark 
to be the lign of a lingle found. If they were very la- 
borious and very learned indeed, it is hkely they would 
write as many volumes on the fubjedt, ■ and with as much 
bitternefs againft each other, as Grammarians have done 
from the fame fort of miftake concerning Language : until 
perhaps it ihould be fuggefted to them, that there may be 
not only iigns of founds ; but again, for the fake of ab- 
breviation, ligns of thofe iigns, one under another in a 
continued progreflion. 

I think I begin to comprehend you. You mean to fay 
that the errors of Grammarians have arifen from fuppoling 

*' Short-hand, an art, as I have been told, known only in England/* 

Locke on Education* 

In the Courier de Γ Eur ope y No. 41, November 20, 1787, is the following 
article : 

" Le Sieur Coulon de Tbevenoty a eu I'honneur de preienter au roi fa 
*^ methode d' ecrire auffi vite que Γοη parle, approuvce par Γ Academic . 
** Royalc des fciences, et dont fa Majeftc a deigne accepter la dedicace. 
" On fait que les Anglois font depuis trcs-long temps en pofleflion d'une 
pareille methode adaptce a Icur langage, et qu' clle leur eft devenue 
cxtrememcnt commode et utile pour recueillir avec beaucoup de precifion 
les difcours publics : la methode du Sieur Coulon doit done ctrc trds- 
avantageux a la languc Fransoife." 



all words to be immediately either the ligns of things or the 
iigns of ideas : whereas in fa6t many words are merely 
abbreviations employed for difpatch, and are the ligns of 
other words. And that thefe are the artificial wings of 
Mercury, by means of which the Argus eyes of philofophy 
have been cheated. 


It is my meaning. 


Well. We can only judge of your opinion after wc 
have heard how you maintain it. Proceed, and ftrip him 
of his wings. They feem eafy enough to be taken oflF: 
for it ftrikes me now, after what you have faid, that they 
are indeed put on in a peculiar manner, and do not, like 
thofe of other winged deities, make a part of his body. 
You have only to loofe the ftrings from his feet, and take 
off his cap. Gome — Let us fee what fort of figure he 
will make without them. 


The firft aim of Language was to communicate our 
thoughts : the fecond, to do it with difpatch. (I mean in- 
tirely to difregard whatever additions or alterations have 

Ε 2 been 



been made for the fake of beauty, or ornament, eafe, 
gracefulnefs, or pleafure.) The difficulties and difputcs 
concerning Language have arifen almoft intirelyfromneglecil- 
ing the confideration of the latter purpofe of fpeech : which, 
though fubordinate to the former, is almoft as neceflary in 
the commerce of mankind, and has a much greater ftiare 
in accounting for the different forts of words *. Words 
have been called winged : and they well deferve that name, 
when their abbreviations are compared with the progrefs 
which fpeech could make without thefe inventions ; but 
compared with the rapidity of thought, they have not the 
fmalleft claim to that title. Philofophers have calculated 
the difference of velocity between found and light : But 
who will attempt to calculate the difference between fpeech 
and thought ! What wonder then that the invention of all 
ages ihould have been upon the ftretch to add fuch wings 

/ « 


* M. Le Prefident dc Broflcs, in his excellent trcatife De la formatim 
mecbanique des Languesy torn. α• fays—** On ne parle que pour ctre enteadu. 
** Le plus grand avantage d*une langue eft d'etre claire. Tous Ics procedes 
** de Grammaire ne devroicnt aller qu' a ce but." And again~" Le viH- 
" gaire & les philoibphes n'ont d'autre but en parlant que de s'cxpliqucr 
** clairement/• Art. i6o. Pour k vulgaire, he ihould have added— •& 
prompt ement. And indeed he is afterwards well aware of this : for Art. 173^ 
he fays, ** L'efprit humain veut alter vite dans fon operation j plus emprefsc 
** de s'exprimer promptementj que curieux dc s'exprimcr avec une juftciie 
" exafte & reflechie. S*il n'a pas Tinftrumcnt qu'il feudroit employer, il 
** fc fcrt dc cclui qu*il a tout pret." 


to their converiation as might enable it» if poilible, to keep 
pace in ibme meafure with their minds. — Hence chiefly 
the variety of words» 

jibbreviations are employed in language three ways : 

1. In terms. 

2. In forts of words. 

3. In conftr notion. 

Mr. Locke's Eflay is the beft guide to the firfl t and 
numberlefs are the authors who have given particular ex- 
planations of the Ιαβ» The/econd only I take for my pro• 
vince at prefent ; becaufe I believe it has hitherto efcapedL 
the proper notice of alL 







Τ CANNOT recolle<St one word of Mr. Locke's that cor- 
refponds at all with any thhig that you have faid. 
The third Book of his Effay is indeed exprefsly written— 
*' On the Nature, Ufe and Signification of Language,^ But 
there is nothing in it concerning abbreviations, 


I confider the whole of Mr. Locke's Effay as a philofo- 
phical account of theory? fort of abbreviations in Language. 


Whatever you may think of it, it is certain, not only 
from the title, but from his own declaration, that Mr. 
Locke did not intend or confider it as fuch : for he fays, — 
** When I firft began this difcourfe of the Underflanding, 

6 " and 


<< and a good while after ^ *I had not the leall thought that 
^^ any confederation of words was at all neceffary to it *.'' 

True• And it is very ftrange he iliould fo have imagined t. 


* Perhaps it was for mankind a lucky miftake (for it was a miftakc) 
which Mr. Locke made when he called his book. An Eflay on Human 
Underflanding. For fome part of the incftimable benefit of that book has, 
merely on account of its title, reached to many thoufands more than, I fear, 
it would have done, had he called it (what it is merely) A Grammatical*^ 
Eflay, or a Treatife on Words^ or on Language. The human mindy or the 
human underfiandingy appears to be a grand and noble theme ; and all men, 
even the moft infufficient, conceive that to be a proper objedt for their 
contemplation : whilfl inquiries into the nature οι Language (through which 
alone they can obtain any knowledge beyond the beafts) are fallen into fuch 
extreme difrepute and contempt, that even thofe who " neither have the 
" accent of chriilian, pagan, or man," nor can Ipeak fo many words to- 
gether with as much propriety as Balaam's afs did, do yet imagine words to 

be infinitely beneath the concern of their exalted underftanding. 


t " Ariftotelis profefto judicio Grammaticam non folum efle PbiloJopbU 
partem, (id quod nemo fanus negat) : fed ne ab ejus quidem cognitionc 
diflblvi poflc intclligercmus." J. C. Scaliger de Caufis. Prafat. 

" And laftly," fays Bacon, " let us confidcr the falfc appearances that 
are impofed upon us by words, which are framed and applied according 
to the conceit and capacities of the vulgar fort : and although we think 
we govern our words, and prefcribe it well — kquendum ut vulguSy fenti- 
endum ut Japientes ; — yet certain it is, that words, as a Tartar's bow, do 
" Ihoot back upon the underftanding of the wifeft, and mightily entangle 

" aad 





But what immediately follows ? — ^^ But when, having 
^^ paffed over the original and compofition of our * ideas, 
" I began to examine the extent and certainty of our 
** knowledge ; I found it had fo near a connexion with 
^^ words, that unlefs their force and manner of fignification 
^^ were firft well obferved, there could be very little faid 
^* clearly and pertinently concerning knowledge : which 
*^ being converfant about truth, had conilantly to do with 
" propofitions. And though it terminated in things, yet 
^^ it was for the moft part fo much by the intervention of 
^^ words, that they feemed fcarce feparable from our general 
^^ knowledge." 

And again,—" I am apt to imagine that, were the ;>;/- 
^^ perfeSiions of Language, as the inftrument of knowledge, 

*' and pervert the judgment. So as it is almoft neceflary in all οοησο- 
" verfies and difputations to imitate the wifdom of the mathematicians, in 
*' fetting down in the very beginning the definitions of our words and terms, 
*' that others yay know how we accept and underftand them, and whether 
*' they concur with us or no. For it comcth to pafs, for want of this, that 
" we are fure to end there where we ought to have begun, which is in 
^* qucftions and differeftces about words." 

Of the Advancement of Learning. 

* It may appear prefumptuous, but it is neceflary here to declare my 
opinion ; that Mr. Locke in his Eflay never did advance one ftep beyond 
the origin of Ideas and the compofition of Terms• 

^< more 

MR. LOCKE'S £SSAV: ' 3^ 

« more thoroughly weighed, a great many of the contro- 

« verfies that make fuch a noife in the world would of 

<« themfelves ceafe ; and the way to knowledge, and pdl*•* 

*< haps peace too, lie a great deal open6r than it does *.** 

So that, from theie and a great many other paffages 
throughout the Effay, you may perceive that the more he 
reflefted and feafched into the human underftandirig, thtf 
more he was convinced of the neceffity of an attention to 
Language; and of the infeparable connexion between 
words and knowledge. 

* " This defign (fays Wilkins) will likcwifc contribute much to thtf 
*^ clearing of fome of ouf modern differences in religion i" (and he migfac 
have added, in all other difputable fubjeots ; cfpecially in matters of Uvm 
and civil lovernment \) — " by unmaiking many wild errors, that Ihelter 
** themfelves under the difguife of affefted phrafes ; which, being phi- 
y^ lofophically unfolded, and rendered according to the genuine and natural 
importance of words, will appear to be inconfiftencies and contradiftions. 
And feveral of thofe pretended myfterious, profound notions, expreffed 
in great fwelling words, whereby fome men fet up for reputation, being 
this way examined, will appear to be either nonfenfe, or very flat and 
jejune. And though it ihould be of no other ufe but this, yet were 
it in thefe days well worth a man's pains and ftudy ; confidering the 
" common mifchief that is done, and the many impofturcs and cheats that 
" arc put upon men, under the difguife of affcftcd, infignificant phrafes.'* 

Epifi. Dedicat. 

B• Yes• 






Yes. And therefore he wrote the third Book of his Eflay, 
on — ^* the Nature, Ufe, and Signification of Language.^ 
But you fay, the whole of the Eflay concerns Language : 
whereas the two firft Books concern the Origin and Com-- 
pqfition of Ideas : and he exprefsly declares that it was not 
till afUr he had paffed over them, that he thought any 
confideration of words was at all neceffary. 


If he had been aware of this fooner, that is, he/ore he 
had treated of (what he calls) the origin and compofition of 
Ideas ; I think it would have made a great difference in his 
Eflay. And therefore I faid, Mr. Locke's Eflay is the beil 
Guide to the firft fort of Abbreviations. 


Perhaps you imagine that, if he had been aware that 
he was only writing concerning Language, he might have 
avoided treating of the origin of Ideas ; and fo have efcaped 
the quantity of abufe which has been unjuftly poured upon 
him for his opinion on that fubjedl. 


No. I think he would have fet out juft as he did, with 
the origin of Ideas ; the proper ftarting-poft of a Gram- 

I marian 


marian who is to treat of their figns• Nor is he fingular 
in referring them all to the Senfes ; and in beginning an 
account of Language in that manner -. 

B. What 

* Nihil in intclleftu quod non prius in fenfu, is, as well as its convcrle, 
an ancient and well known pofition. 

Sicut in fpeculo ea quae videntur non funt, fed eorum fpecies ; ita quie 
intelligimus, ea funt re ipsa extra nos, eorumquc fpecies in nobis. Eft 
cnim quafi rerum fpeculum intelleSlus nofier\ cut, tii/i per /en/um reprefmtentur 
reSy nihil Jcit ipje. J. C. Scalioer, dc caufis, L. L. Cap. Ixvi. 

" I fcnfi (fays Buonmattei) in un certo modo potrcbbon dirfi Miniftri, 
Nunzj, Famigliari, ο Segretarj dcUo 'ntelletto. Ε acciochc lo Efempio 
ce nc faccia piu capaci, — Imaginianci di vedcre alcun Principe, ilqual fc 

" ne ftia nella fua corte, nel fuo palazzo. Non vede egli con gli occhi 
propj, ne ode co' propj orecchi quel che per lo ftato ii faccia: ma col 
tenere in diverfi luoghi varj Miniftri che lo ragguagliono di cio che fegue, 
viene a fapere intender per cotal relazione ogni cofa, e bene fpeiTo molto 
piu minutamente e piu perfettamente degli ftefli miniftri : Perche quegli 
avendo fcmplicementc notizia di quel che avvenuto Iia nella lor citta ο 
provincia, rimangon di tutto Ί refto ignoranti, e di facile poflbn fin dellc 
cofe vedute ingannarfi. Dove il principe puo aver di tutto il feguito 
rognizione in un fubito, che fervendogli per riprova d' ogni particolar 

" riftrritogli, non lo lafcia cofi facilmente ingannare. Cofi, dico, e Γ In- 
telletto umano ; ilquale eilendo di tutte Γ altre potenze e Signorc e Prin- 
cipe, fe ne fta nella fua ordinaria refidenza ripofto, e non vede nc ode 
cofa che fi faccia di fuori : Ma avendo cinque miniftri che lo ragguaglian 
di quel che fuccede, uno nella region della vifta, un altro nella giurifdizion 
dell' udito, quello nella provincia del gufto, quefto ne' paefi dell' odorato, 
e qucft* altro nel diftretto del tatto, viene a fapere per mezzo del difcorfo 
ogni cofa in univcrfale, tanto piu de' fcnfi perfettamente, quanto i fenfi 

F 2 ^^ ciafcuno 






What difference then do you imagine it would have made 
in Mr. Locke's Effay, if he had fooner been aware of the 
infeparable connexion between words and knowledge ; or, 
in the language of Sir Hugh, in Shakefpeare, that ^^ the 
^^ lips is parcel of the mind ^ -^^ 


Much. And amongft many other things, I think he 
would not have talked of the εοτηροβίίοη of ideas \ but 

'^ ciafcuno intendendo nella fua piira potcnza, non poflbn per tuttc come lo 
" 'ntelletto difcorrere. Ε ficcome il Principe, fenza lafciarfi vedere ο fcn- 
** tire, fa noto altrui la fua volonta per mezza degli ftcili miniftri \ cofi an 
*^ cora Γ Incclletto fa intenderfi per via de medefimi Senfi." 

BuONMATTEu Tratt. 2. Cap. 2. 

* " Divers philofophers hold that the lips is parcel of the mind.'* 

Merry JVives of Windjory Ad i. Scene 4. 

Rowland Jones agrees with his countryman. Sir Hugh Evans. In his 
** Origin of Language and Nations," Preface, page 17, he fays (after 
others) — " I think that Language ought not to be confidered as mere arbi- 
" trary founds \ or any thing Icfs than a part, at leafiy of that living foul 
*' which God is faid to have breathed into man." This method of re- 
ferring words immediately to God as their framer, is a ihort cut to efcape 
inquiry and explanation. It faves the philofopher much trouble j but leaves 
mankind in great ignorance, and leads to great error.— TVlw dignus vindice 
nodus. — God having furniOied man with lenies and with organs of articu- 
lation i aa he has alfo with water, lime and fand ; it ihould ieem no more 
ncGcflary to form the words for man, than to temper the. mortar• 



would have feen that it was merely a contrivance of Lan- 
guage : and that the only compofition was in the terms ; and t 
confequently that it was as improper to fpeak of a complex i 
ideaj as it would be to call a conftellation a complex ftar : \ 
And that they are not ideas, but merely termsy which are 
general and ahflraS. I think too that he wOuld have ί^^η 
the advantage of " thoroughly weighing*" not only (as he 
fays) >^ the imperfeBions of Language ;" but its perfe&ions 
alio : For the perfedtions of Language, not properly under- 
flood, have been one of the chief caufes of the imper- 
fedtions of our philofophy. And indeed, from number- 
Icfs paffages throughout his Eflay, Mr. Locke feems to me 
to have fufpedted fomething of this fort : and efpecially 
from what he hints in his laft chapter ; where, fpeaking 
of the dootrine of ligns, he fays — ^* The coniideration then 

* of Ideas and Words, as the great inftruments of know*• 

* ledge, makes no deffHcable part of their contemplation 

* who would take a view of human knowledge in the 

* whole extent of it. And perhaps, if they were difiindily 
^ weighed and duly corliidered, they would afford Μ% another 
^ fort of Logick and Critick than what we have hitherto 
^ been acquainted with.** 

Do not yoxi think that what you now advance will 
bear a diifvite: and- that faeaie better argumest» than 


// / 1 ; » -1 V 



your bare affertion are necelTary to make us adopt your 
opinion ? 


Yes. To many perfons much more would be neceflary ; 
but not to you. I only defire you to read the ElTay over 
again with attention, and fee whether all that its immortal 
author has juftly concluded will not hold equally true and 
clear, if you fubftitute the compofition, &c. of terms 
wherever he has fuppofed a compofition, &c. of ideas. 
And if that iliall upon ftriot examination appear to you to 
be the cafe, you will need no other argument againft the 
compofition of Ideas : It being exadlly fimilar to that un- 
anfwcFable one which Mr. Locke himfelf declares to be 
fufficient againft their being innate. For the fuppofition 
is unneceffary : Every purpofe for which the compofition 
of Ideas was imagined being more eafily and naturally 
anfwered by the compofition of Terms : whilft at the fame 
time it does like wife clear up many difficulties in which the 
fuppofed compofition of Ideas neceflarily involves us. And, 
though this is the only argument I mean to ufe at prefent, 
{becaufe I would not willingly digrefs too far, and it is not 
the neceflary foundation for what I have undertaken) yet I 
will venture to fay, that it is an eafy matter, uix)n Mr. 
Locke's own principles and a phyfical confideration of the 



Senfes and the Mind, to prove the impoffibility of . the 
compoiition of Ideas. 


Well. Since you do not intend to build any thing upon 
it, we may fafely for the prefent fuppofe what you have 
advanced ; and take it for granted that the greateft part of 
Mr. Locke's Eflay, that is, all which relates to what he 
calls the compoiition, abftraotion, complexity, generaliza- 
tion, relation, &c. of Ideas, does indeed merely concern 
Language. But, pray, let me aik you ; If fo, what has 
Mr. Locke done in the Third Book of his Eflay ? In which 
he profeJfedJy treats of the nature, ufe, and iignification of 
Language f 


He has really done . little elfe but enlarge upon what he 
had faid before, when he thought he was treating only of 
Ideas ': that is, he has continued to treat of the compoiition 
of Terms. For though, in the paflage I have before 
quoted, he fays, that " unlefs the force and manner of 
" Iignification of words are firft well obferved, there can 
<< be very little faid clearly and pertinently concerning. 
" knowledge ;*'— and though this is the declared reafon of 
writing his Third Book concerning Language, as dlflinSl 



from Ideas; yet he continues to treat iingly^ as before^ 
concerning the Forced of words; and has not advanced 
one fy liable concerning their Manner of iignification. 

The only Divifion Mr. l-ocke has made of words, is, 
into^— Names of Ideas and Particles. This divifion is not 
made regularly and formally ; but is referved to his feventh 
Chapter• And even there it is done in a very cautious^ 
doubting, loofe, uncertain manner, very di£ferent from that 
incomparable author's ufual method of proceeding. For, 
though the general title of the feventb Chapter is, — Of 
Partic/es; — yet he feems to chufe to leave it uncertain 
whether he does or does not include Ferbs in that title, and 
particularly what he calls « tbe Maris of the Mind's 
" affirming or denying:^ And indeed he himfelf acknow- 
ledges, in a letter to Mr. Molyneux, that — " Some parts 
^ of that "Third Book concerning Words, though the 
^^ thoughts were eafy and clear enough, yet coft him more 
<^ pains to exprefs than all the reft of his Eflay. And that 
*^ therefore he ihould not much wonder if there were in 
^ fome parts of it obfcurity and doubtfulnefs.'^ Now 
whenever any man finds this diflELculty to exprefs himfelf. 

♦ The Force of a word depends upon the number of Ideas of which that 
word b the fign. '- --'^^ ' '-?-^ /^^ ^'gf " ^ ^' ^^ •' ' 



ill a language with which he is well acquainted, let him be 
perfuaded that his thoughts are not clear enough : for, as 
Swift (I think) has fomewhere obferved, <« When the 
" water is clear you will eaiily fee to the bottom." 

The whole of' this vague Chapter — Of Particles — 
(which Ihould have contained an account of every thing 
but Nouns) is comprized in two pages and a half : and all 
the reft of the Third Book concerns only, as before, the 
Force of the names of Ideas. 


How is this to be accounted for ? Do you fuppofe he 
was unacquainted with the opinion^ of Grammarians, or 
that he defpifed the fubjeiSt ? 


No. I am very fure of the contrary. For it is plain 
he did not defpife the fubjedt; fince he repeatedly and 
ftrongly recommends it to others : and at every ftep 
throughout his Eflay, I find the moft evident marks of the 
journey he had himfelf taken through all their works• 
But it appears that he was by no means fatisfied with what 
he found there concerning Particles: For he complains 
ttiat *^ this part of Grammar has been as much negledted, 

G "as 



« as fome others over-diligently cultivated.'' And fays^ 
" that " He who would ihew the right ufe of Particles, 
** and what fignificancy and force they have,'' (that is, 
according to his own divifion, the right ufe, fignificancy, 
and force of all words except the names of Ideas) " muft 
<* take a little more pains, enter into his own thoughts, 
^^ and obferve nicely the feveral poftures of his mind in 
^* difcourfing•" For thefe Particles^ he fays, — " are ail 
** marks of fome aBion or intimation of the Mind; and 
*^ therefore, to underftand them rightly, the feveral views, 
** poftures, ftands, turns, limitations and exceptions, and 
*^ feveral other thoughts of the Mind, for which we have 
** either none or very deficient names ^ are diligently to be 
« ftudied• Of thefe there are a great variety, much 
" exceeding the number of Particles•" For himfelf, he 
declines the taik, however neceflary and neglected by all 
others; and that for no better reafon than- — " I intend 
" not here a full explication of this fort of figns." And 
yet he was (as he profefled aiid thoiight) writing on the 
human Underfianding \ and therefore ihould not furely 
have left mankind ftiU in the fatne darknefs in which he 
found theni, concerning thefe hitherto unnamed ζώΔ (but 
by himfelf) undifcovered operations of the Mind. 



In iliort, this feventh Chapter is, to me, a full confeffion 
and proof, that he had not fettled his own opinion concern- 
ing the manner of fignification of Words : that it ftill re- 
mained (though he did not chufe to have it fo underftood) 
a Defideratum with him, as it did with our great Bacon 
before him : and therefore that he would not decide any 
thing about it ; but confined bimfeif to the profecution of 
his original inquiry concerning the firft fort of Abbrevia^ 
tionsj which is by far the moil important to knowledge, 
and which he fuppofed to belong to Ideas, 

But though he decUneid the fubje(5t, he evidently leaned * 
towards the opinion of Ariftotle, Scaliger, and MeflT. de Port 
Royal : and therelarey without having fufficiently examined 
their poiltion, he too loftily adopted their notion concern- 
ing the pretended Copula — " /f, and Is not J" He fuppofed 
with them, that affirming and denying were operations of 
the Mind ι and referred aU the other forts of Words to the 
fame fource. Though, if the different forts of Words had 
been (as he was willing to believe)^ tp be accounted for by 
the different operations of the Mind, it was almoft im- 
poilible they £hould have efcaped the penetrating eyes of 
Mr, Locke. 

■ ♦ 



CHAP. ill. 



"γου faid feme time ago, very truly, that the number of 
Parts of Speech was varioufly reckoned : an^ that it 
has not to this moment been fettled, what fort of difference 
in words ihould entitle them to hold a feparate rank by 

By what you have lince advanced, this matter feems to 
be ten times more unfettled than it v;ras before : for you 
have difcarded the diflFerences of TbingSy and the differences 
of Ideas^ and the different operations of the Mindj as guides 
to a dNifion of Language. Now I cannot for my life 
imagine any other principle that you have left to condudt 
us to the Parts of Speech. 

H. I 



I thought I had laid down in the beginning, the princi• 
pies upon which we were to proceed in our inquiry into 
the manner of fignification of words. 


Which do you mean ? 


The fame which Mr. Locke employs in his inquiry into 
the Force of words: viz, — The two great purpofes of 


And to what diftribution do they lead you ? 


I. To ΛvoΓds necejfary for the communication of our 
Thoughts. And 

2. To Abbreviations^ employed for the fake of difpatch. 


How many of each do you reckon ? And which are 

H. In 



'Ih'what particular language do you meaii:? For, if you 
do. not ςοηϋηβ your queftjion, you might as reafonaUy 
expe(St me (according to the fable) ^ to make a coat to fit 
" the moon in all her changes.** 

. r 


B. . 

Why ? Are they not the fame in all languages ? 


Thofe neceffaiy t& the cpmntiuHcatjoi^ of Q^r thoughts 

And are not the others alfo ? . : - 


No. Very different. 


I thought we were talking of Univerfal Grammar. 


I mean fo too. But I cannot anfw6r the whole of your 

queftion, unlefs you confine it to fome particular language 

X with 


with which I am acquainted. However, that need not 
difturb you : for you will find afterwards that the princi*• 
pies will apply univerfally. 


Well. For the prefent then confine yourfelf to the 
necejfary Parts : and exemplify in the Engliih. 


In Engliihy and in all Languages, there are only two 
ibrts of words which are neceffary for the communicatii»i 
of our thoughts. 


And they are ? 


1. Noun, and 

2. Verb. 


Thefe are the common names, and I fuppoie you tife 
them according to the common acceptation., 


I ihould not otherwife have chofen them, but becaufe 
they are commonly employed ; and it would not be eafy 



to difpoiTefs them of their prefcriptive title : befides, with- 
.out doing any mifchief, it faves time in our difcourfe. 
And I life them according to their common acceptation. 



But yoii have not all this while informed me how many 
Parts of Speech you mean to lay down• 


That fliall be as you pleafe. Either Iwoj or Twenty^ 
or more. In the ftrift fenfe of the term, no doubt both 
the neceflary words and the Abbreviations are all of them 
Parts of Speech ; becaufe they are all ufeful in Language, 
and each has a different manner of lignification. But I 
think it of great confequence both to knowledge and to 
Languages, to keep the words employed for the diiferent 
purpofes of fpeech, as diftindt as poflible. And therefore 
I am inclined to allow that rank only to the necejfary 
words * : and to include all the others (which are not 
necelTary to fpeech, but merely fubfiitutes of the firft fort) 
imder the title of Abbreviations. 

♦ " Res ncccffarias Philofophus primo loco ftatuit : acccflbrias autcm & 

" vicarias, mox." 

I. C• Scaliger dc Caufxs L• L cap. no. 

3 B• Merely 


Merely Subftitutes ! You do not meaa that you can dif- 
courfe as well without as with them ? 


Not as well. A fledge cannot be drawn along as 
imoothly, and eafily, and fwifdyy as a carriage with wheels; 
but it may be dragged. 


Do you mean then that, without ufing any other ibrt of 
word whatever, and merely by the means of the Noun 
and Verb alone, you can relate or communicate any thing 
that I can relate or communicate with the hdp of all the 
others ? 


Yes. It is the great proof of all I have advanced. 
And, upon trial, you will find that you may do the fame. 
But, after the long habit and familiar uie of JlbbreviationSy 
your firll attempts to do without them will feem very, 
aukward to you ; and you will ftumble as often as a horfe, 
long ufed to be ihod, that has newly caft his ihoes. 
Though indeed (even with thofe who have not the habit 
to ftruggle againft) without Abbreviations, Language can 

Η get 


get on but lamely : and therefore they have been intro- 
dwed, in different plenty, and more or lefs happily, in ali 
Languages. And upon thefe two points — Abbreviation of 
Terms J and Abbreviation in the manner of βgnification of 
words— depends the refpedive excellence of every Language•. 
All their other comparative advantages are trifling. 

• • 

I like your method of proof very well ; and will cer- 
tainly put it to the trial. Birt before I can do that pro- 
peiiy,; you muft explain your Abbreviations : that I may 
know what they itand for, and what words to put in their 


Would you have me then pals over the two nenffary 
Parts of Speech ; and proceed immediately to their Abbre- 
viations ?. 

If yott wiM. For I fuppofe you agree with the t»mmon 
opinion, concerning the words which you have diftin- 
guiihed as neceflary to the communication of our thoughts. 
Tlrcife yom call neceflary, I ilippofe you allow to be the 
figns of different forts of /Λλγ, or of different operations 
tff the mind. 

I H. Indeed 



Indeed I do not. The bufineie of the mindi as far as 
it concerns Language^ appears to me to be very limple. 
It extends no farther than *> feceive Impreflions, that is, 
to have Senfations or Feelings. What are called its opera- 
tions, are merely the .operaticMia of Language. A cbn- 
lideration of Ideasy or Qf the Mind^ or of things (relative 
to the Parts of Speech) will lead us no farther than to 
Nouns : i. e. the ligns of thofe impreffions, or names of 
ideas. The other Part of Speech, the Ferb, muft be ac- 
counted for from the necefliffy tweof it in communication. 
It is in fa6t the comtnunicatiori itfyf t and th«iefc«« well 
denominated Τιιμα, diShtm. For the Verb is qyoo loqui^ 
fHur * ; th« ifoun, de oyo. 


Let us proceed then reg;alarly ; and hear \i^at you hare 
to fay on each of y&artwo iiebeitary Part$ of Speech. 

* ** . Altenun 4ft qvod bqvimur j alterum <]e quo loquimur." 

Quin£bU. lib. i. cap, 4. 

Η 2 εΠΕΑ 





Q F the firft Part of Speech — ^the Noun, — ^it being the 

beft underftood, and therefore the moil fpoken of by 

others,. I ihall need at prefent to fay little more than that 

it is the Jimple or cotnpkxt the particular or general Jtgtt 

or name of one or more Ideas^ 

- , 

I ihall Qtuj remind you> that at this ftage of our in- 
quiry concerning Language» comes in moil properly the 
confideration of the Force of terms : which is the whole 
bufinefs of Mr. Locke*s £flay ; to which I refer you. And 
I imagine that Mr. Locke\ intention of confining himfelf 
to the coniideration of the Mind only, was the reafon that 
he went no farther than to the Force of Terms ; and did 
not meddle with their Manner of figni£k;ation> to which 
the Mind alone coukl never lead hioc^ 

B. Do 



Do you fay nothing of the Declenfion, Number, Cafe 
and Gender of Nouns ? 


At prefent nothing. There is no pains-worthy diffi- 
culty not difpute about them. 


Surely there is about the Gender. And Mr. Harris par- 
ticularly has thought it worth his while to treat at large of 
what others have (lightly Innted concerning it * : and has 
fupported his a long lift of poetical authori- 
ties. What think you of that part of his book ? 

1 ^ II ■ I I ■ ■ II ■ !■■ ■!■ | i ■!■ I ■ I «■ I II ■ II im^m^-^m ι ■■ > , ■ 

* << PTthagorici fixum in cynSlh agnofcunt^ &c• Agms^ Mas ; PatieMi, 

^* Foemina. (^propter Deus dicunt mafculine; Terra, fceminine; & 

** Iptis, mafculinc; &: Aqua, ibemininc: quoniam in his jiifio, in iftis 

" Ραβο rcluccbat." 


^^ In rebus inveniuntur duae propriccates generalcs^ fcilicet proprietas 
^* Agentis, & proprietas Parentis. Genus eft modu& fignificandi nominis 
** fomptus a proprictatc aftiva vel paffiva.. penus mafculihum; eft modus 
^• iigniiicandi rem fub proprictatc agcntiis : Genus femininum eft modus 
w fignificandl rem fub proprietate paticntis." 

Scotus^Gram». Spec•. Cap* xvu. 

H. That•, 



That, with the reft of it, he had much better have let 
it alone. And as'for his poetical authorities ; the Mu&s 
(as I have heard Mrs. Peachum fay of her own fex in cafes 
of murder) are bitter bad judges in matters of philofophy. 
Beiides that Reaibn is an arrant Defpot ; who, in his own 
dominions, admits of no auth(»ity but his own. And 
Mr. Harris is particularly unfortunate in the very outiet of 
that — " fubtle kind of reafoning (as he calls it) which 
■<* difcems even in things without fex, a diftant analogy to 
** that great natural diftindkion.** For his very firft in- 
ftances,---the sun and the moon, — deftroy the whole fub- 
lilty of this kind of reaibning *. ^ For Mr. Harris ought 
to have known, that in many Aiiatic Languages, and in 
all the northern Languages of this jwrt of the globe which 
we inhabit, and particularly in our Mother-language the 
Anglo-faxon (from which sun and moon are immediately 

*" I ■ ■ . I ■ ■ m < I 'I I II ,1 

* It can only have been Mr. Harris's authority, and the ill-founded praifcs 
laviibcd on his performance, that could miflead Dr. Pricftley, in his thirteenth 

Icfture, haftily and without examination, to fay ** Thus, for example, 

^^ die SUMT having a ftrongcr, and the moon a weaker influence over the 
'^ world, and there being but xwo cclcftial bodies fo remarkable ; All nations, 
*' I believe, diat uk genders, have afcribed to the Sun the gender of the 
" Malf, and to the Moon that of the Female.'' 

In the Gothic, Anglo-faxon, German, Dutch, Danifh and Swediih, suii 
U feminine : In modern RuiTian it is neuter. 



derived to us) sun is Fetmninei nnd moon is MafcuMne *• 
So feminine is the Spn» £« that fair hot wench in ilame•* 
« coloured taffata**] + that our northern Myti^ology makes 
het the iVife of • TuifoD. 



And if oar Englifli Poets^ Shakefpearei Milton, See. 
have, by a familiar Profopopeia, made them of different 
genders ; it is only becaufe, from their claflical reading, 
they adopted the Ibuthern not the northern mythology ; 
and followed the pattern of their Greek and Roman matters. 

^^m^^l^imtm^^mm m^mm^i^^mmm 

• " Apud Saxoncs, Luna, Mona. Mona autem Gcrmanis fupcrioribus 
" Moftj dias Man j a Mon^ alias Man veterrimo ipforum rcgc & Deo 
" patrio, qucm Tacitus mcminit, & in Luna cclebrabant. — Ex hoc Lunam 
" mafculino (ut i&^^i) dicunt gcncrc, Der Man: Donninamque ejus & 
<^ Amaiaam, e cujus afpe&u ^lias languet, alias refipiicic, Die Son ι quafi 
<« bunc Lunam» banc Sokm. Hinc & Idolum Lunae viri fingebant ipccic 5 
'< noni ut Verilegan cpinacuo fceniinae/' Spclman's Glofll Mona. 

" Dc gcncribus Nominum (quse per articulos, adjeftiv^ participia, & 
" pronomina indicantur) hie nihil tradimus. Obiter tamcn obfervet Leftor, 
" ut ut minuta res «ft, S4>lem {Sunna vel Sunne) in Angb-faxonica cfle 
" fimimm generis, . & Lunam {Mma) Cfle mafculini:' G. Hickes• 

" Quomodo item Λ/ eft virik^ Gcrmanicum Sunn^ faemininum. Dicunt 
«^ cnim Die Sunn, non Der Sunn. Undc & Solcm Tuifconis uxorem fiiiflc 
" ^bulantur/* G. J• Voffius. 

t 1 ft. part of Henry 4th. 



Figure apart, in our Language^ the names of things 
without fex are alfo without gender *. And this, not be- 
cauie our Reafoning or Underftanding differs from theirs 
who gave them gender ; (which muft be the cafe, if the 

* ** Sexus cnim non nifi in Aaimali, aut in iis quae Animafis naturam 
" imitantur, ut Arborcs. Scd ab ufu hoc faohim eft ; qui nunc mafculinum 

" fexum, nunc foemininum attribuiifet. Proprium autem generum cflc 

^ pad mutationem, fatls pacet ex genere incerto ; ut etiam Armentas dixeric 
'^ Ennius, quse nos Armenta.'* J. C. Scaliger de caufis» cap. bcxix. 

^^ Nominum quoque genera mutantur adeo» ut privatim libros fuper hac 
'* re vcteres confecerint. Altcrum argumentum eft ex iis quaj Duiia five 
** Incerta vocant. Sic enim di&um eft, Hie vel Hrr cUes. Tcrtium tefti- 
*^ monium eft in quibufdam : nam Plautus coUum mafculino dixit. Item 
** Jubar^ Palumbemt atque alia, diverfis quam nos generibus efle a prifcis 
** pronunciata." Id. cap. ciii. 

*^ ώηοΗΓ qui eft mafculin au fingulier, eft quelquefois feminin au pluriel ; 
^^ di folks amours. On dit au mafculin Un Comte^ Un Ducbi ; & au feminin 
" Uni Comte pairie, Une Ducbi pairie. On dit encore De bonnes gensj & 
" Des gens malbeureux. Par ou vous voyez que le fubftantif Gens eft 
" feminin, lorfqu' il eft precede d' un adjeftif i & qu'il eft mafculin, lorfqu' 
« il en eft fuivi." L' Abbe de Condillac, P. 2. chap. iv. 

The ingenious author of— Notes on the Grammatica Sinica of M. Four- 
mont — fays, " According to the Grammaire Raifonnee, les genres ont ete 
" inventes pour les terminaijons . But the MciT. du Port Royal have dif- 
" covered a different origin \ they tell us that — Arbor efl feminine ^ parceque 
" comme une bonne mere elle parte du fruit. — Miratur non iua. How could 
** Frenchmen forget that in their own la meilleure des langues poffibles, Fruit- 
" trees arc mafculine, and their fruits feminine ? Mr. Harris has adopted 
" this idea : he might as well have left it to its legitimate parents." P. 47. 





λΙ1η(1 or Reaibn was concerned in it *.) But becaufe with 
us the relation of words to each other is denoted by the 
place or by Prepofitions ; which denotation in their language 
ufually made a part of the words themfelves, and was ihewn 
by cafes or terminations• This contrivance of theirs, al- 
lowing them a more varied conilru<5tion, made the termi- 
nating genders of Adjectives ufeful, in order to avoid 
miilake and mif application. 

♦ *^ Sane in fexu feu gcncre phyfico omnes nationcs convenirc debebunt ; 
^ quoniam natura eft eadenij nee ad placitum fcriptOrum mutatur. At 
** Poetac & Piitorcs in coloribus non fempcr convcniunt. Vcntos Romani 
*^ non folum finxerunt effe viros, fed & Deos : at Hebrxi contra eos ut 
Nymphas pinxcnmt. Arboree Latini fpccic foeminea pinxcrunt -, virili 
Hifpani^ &c. Regiones urbefque Dcas cflc voluit Gcntilium Latinorum 
*• Theoiogia : at Gcrmani omnia hac ad ncutrum rejccerunt. Et quidem 
in Getierej feu fexus diftindione grammatical magna eft inter authores 
differentia ; non fblum in diveriis unguis^ fed etiam in eadem. In La- 
*' tina, nc ad alias, rccurram, aliter Oratores, & aiiter Poetas : aliter re- 
*' teres, & aliter juniores fentiunt, &c• Iberes in Aiia florere dicuntur, 
** & linguam habere elegantem, & tamen nuUam gcncrum varictatem 
« agnofcunt." Caramiicl, IxiL 









JJOWEVER conne<Sted with the Noufty and generally- 
treated of at the fame time, I fuppofe you forbear to 
mention the Articles at prefent, as not allowing them to 
be a feparate Part of Speech ; at leaft not a necelTay Part ; 


becaufe, as Wilkins tells us, *^ the Latin is without them *Λ 
Notwithftanding which, when you confider with him that 
<^ they are fo convenient for the greater diftindtnefs of 
^^ fpeech ; and that upon this account, the Hebrew, Greek, 
" Sclavonic, and moft other languages have them ;^ per- 
haps you will not think it improper to follow the example 
of many other Grammarians : who, though like you, they 
deny them to be any part of fpeech, have yet treated of 
them feparately from thofe parts which they enumerate. 
And this you may very confidently do, even though you 

* ElTay, Part 3. Chap. 3. 



ihould confider them, as the Abbe Girard calls them, 
merely the avanUcoureurs to announce the approach or 
entrance of a Noun *. 

* " J'abandonne Tart dc copier dcs mots dits & repetcs mille fois avant 
moi ; puifqu'ils n'cxpliqucnt pas les chofes cflenticUcs que j'ai deflcin dc 
faire entendre a mes ledeurs. Une etude attentive faite d'apres Tuiage 
m'inftruit bjen mieux. Elle m'apprend que TArticle eft un mot etabli 
pour annoncer & particularifer fimplemerit la chofe fans la nommer : c*eft 
a dire, qu'il eft une expreffion indefinie, quoique pofidve, dpnt la juftc 
valeur n'eft que de faire naitrc Tidee d'unc efpece fubfiftentc qu'on 
diftingue de la totalite des etres, pour etrc enfuite nommce. Cettc de- 
finition en expofe clairement la nature & le fervice propre, au quel oh 
le voit conftamment attache dans quelque circonftance que ce foit. EDc 
m'en dojine une idee nette & dctcrmincc : me Ic fait reconnoitre par 
tout : & m'empeche de le confondre avcc tout autre mot d'efpecc diffc- 
rente. Je fens parfaitement que lorfque je veux parler d'un objet, qui 
ft prefcnte a mes yeux ou a mon imagination, le genie dc ma languc nc 
m'en fournit pas toujours la denomination precife dans Ic premier inftant 
de Texecution de la parole : que le plus fouvcnt il m'offirc d'abord un 
autre mot, comme un commencement de fujet propose & de diftinolion 
des autres objets j enforte. que cc mot eft un vrai preparatoirc a la deno- 
mination, par lequel elle eft annoncce, avant que de ft prcfcnter (m^e 
mcme : Et voila \ Article tel que je Tai defini. Si cet Avani-coureur 
diminue la vivacitc du langage, il y met in rccompenfe une certaine po- 
liteife & une delicatefle qui naiflcnt de cette idee preparatoirc & indefinie 
d'un objet qu'on va nommer: car par ce moyen Tefprit etant rendu at- 
tentif avant que d'etre inftruit, il a le plaifir d'aller au devant de la deno- 
mination, dc la defirer, & de Tattendre Avant que de la pofleder. Plaifir 
qui a ici, comme ailleiirs, un mcrite flateur, propre a piquer le gout.-— 
Qu'on me pafle cette metaphore ; piiifqu'elle a de la jufteflTe, & fait con- 
noitre d'une maniere fenfible une chofc ires -met ^'fhyfique^ D^r. iv. 

I 2 IL Of 



Of all the accounts which have been given of the Article, 
I muft own I think that of the very ingenious Abbe Girard 
to be the moft fantallic and abfurd. The fate of this very 
oecefl^ry word has been moft fingularly hard and unfbr •« 
tunate. For though without it, or fome equivalent in- 
vention *, men could not communicate their thoughts at 
all ; yet (like many of the moll: ufeful things in• this world} 
£rom its imafife<Sted ilmplidty and want of brilHancy, it 
has been ungratefully neglected and degraded. It has been 
coniidered, after Scaliger, as « otiofum loquaci^ma gentii 
^^ Infirumentum ;" or, at heft, as a mere vaunt-courier to 
announce the coming of his mafter: whilft the brutifh 
inarticulate InterjeSHon^ which has nothing^ to do with 
ipeech, and is only the miferable refuge of the ipeechlefs, 
has been permitted, becaufe beautiful and gaudy, to ufurp 
a place amongft words, and to exclude the Article from its 
well-earned dignity. But though the Article is denied by 
many Grammarians to be a Part of Speech ; it is yet, as 
you fay, treated of by many, feparately from thofe parts 

* For fome equivalent invention^ fee the Perfian and other Eaftern 
languages ; which fupply the place of our Artick by a termination to thoie 
Nouns which they would indefinitely particularize. 

This circumftance of feft (if there were not other rtalbhs) fufficiendy 
explodes Girard's notion of Jvant-coureurs. 

9 which 


which they aJk>w• This inconfiftency * attd the caufe of 
it are pfe^ntly ridiculed by Buonmattei^ whofe under^ 
ftanding had' courage fuffident to reftore the Article ; and 
to launch out beyond quelle fatali colonne che gli anticbi 
avevan fegnate col — Non plus ultra. " Dodici*• fays hei 
** Tratt• 7r Cap• a2r α 5.) «^ affermiamo effer le Parti dell• 
^^ orazione nella noftra Mngua• Ne ci iiam curati che gU- 
^ altri quail tutti noa ne voglion conceder piu d' otto ;. 
^^ moifi^ come fi vede^ da una certa ibpraftiziofa oftinazione 
^^ (fia detto con pace e riverenza loro) che gli autori piu 
^^ antichi hanno flabilito tal numero : Quan che abbiano 
^ in tal modo proibito a noi il paflar qudle fatali colonne 
^ che gli antichi aveVan fegnate col — Nonplus ultra. Onde 
** perchέ^ i Latini dicevan tutti con una voce uniforme-r-* 
^ Partes Orationis funt octo ;— quei che intomo a cent anni 
«^ fono fcriffon le regcAe di quefta lingwai cominciavan con 
^ la medeiima cantilena• II che fe fia da commendare ο 
•^ da biafimare non diro : Bafla che a me par una cofa 
*^ ridicolofa, dire — Otto fon le parti deW orazioner^^ fubito 
^^ foggiugnere — Ma innanzi cbe to di quelle incominci a 
" ragiortarey fa mefliero che fopra gli Articoli alcuna cofa 
^^ ti dica. 

* What Scaliger fays of the Participle may very julUy be applied to this 
manner of treating the Article. " Si non eft Nofa^ imo vero fi nQnnxiUis 
'^ ne pars quidem orationis ulla> ab aliis feparata^ judicata eft \ quo coftfilio 
'* ci rci, qua? nufquam cxmt, fedem ftatuunt." Uh. 7. Caf. cxl. 

<^ Quefto 



^^ Quefto e il medeiimo che fe diceffimo— Tre fon le 
^^ parti del mondo : Ma prima ch' io ti ragioni di quelle, 
^^ fa meftiero che fopra TEiiropa alcuna cofa ti dica.** 


As far as refpeots the Article I think you are right. But 
why fuch bitternefs againft the Interjeolion ? Why do you 
not rather follow Buonmattei's example; and, inftead of 
excluding both, admit them both to be Parts of Speech ? * 


Becaufe the dominion of Speech is ereoted upon the 
downfall of Interjedlions. Without the artful contrivances 
of Language, mankind would have nothing but Inter- 
jeotions with which to communicate, orally, any of their 
feelings• The neighiqg of a hbrfe, the lowing of a cow, 

* " Interjeftionem non efle partem orationis, fic oftends, Quod.naturale 
eft, idem eft apud omnes : fed gcmitus et figna laetitiae idem funt apud omnes : 
funt igitur naturales. Si vero naturalcs non funt partes orationis. Nam 
Cie partes, fecundum Ariftotelem ex infiitutOy non naiura, debent conftare. 
Interjcftionem Grasci adverbiis adnumerant, fed falfo : nam neque Graecis 
uteris fcribantur, fed figna triftitias, aut Isetitia?, qualia in avibus, aut qua- 
drupedibus, quibus tamen nee vocem nee orationem concedimus. Valla 
interjeilioneni a partibus orationis rejicit. Itaque Interjeftionem a partibus 
orationis excludimus : tantum abeft, ut eam primam et precipuam cum 
Caifare Scaligero conftituamus." Sandii Minerva. Lib. i. Cap• 2. De 
partibus orationis. Page 17. Edit. Amft. 17 14. 

6 the 


the barking of a dog, the purring of a cat, fneezing, 
coughing, groaning, fhrieking, and every other involuntary 
convuliion with oral found, have almofl: as good a title to 
be called Parts of Speech, as Interjeolions have. Voluntary 
Intcijeftions are only employed when the fuddennefs or 
vehemence of fome afFeotion or paflion returns men to 
their natural ftate ; and makes them, for a moment forget 
the ufe of fjpeech * : or when, from fome circumftance, 


* The induftrious and exaft Cinonio, who does not appear ever to have 
had a fingle glimpfe of reafon, Ipeaks thus of one interjeftion :— 

" I varj afFetti cui ferve quefta interiezzione Ah et Ahi, fono piu di 
*' vcnti : ma v* abbiibgna d'un awertimento ; che ncU' efprimcrli ftrnprc 
" diverfificano il fuono, c vagliono quel tanta che, preflb i Latini,' Ah. 
" Proh. Oh. Vah. Hci. Pape, &c. Ma quefta c parte fpettante a clu 
" pronunzia, che fappia dar loro Taccento di quell' afFctto cui fcrvono ; 
•' c fono 

" d'efclamazione. 

" di dolerfi. 

" di fviUaveggiare. 

" di pregare. 

<* di gridare minaccianda 

" di minacciare• 

** di ibfpirare• 

" di fgarare. 

" di maravigliarii, 

" d' incitare. 

" di fdegno. 

" di defidcrare. 
<• ' « di re- 


the ihortnefs of time will pot permit them to exerdfe it. 
And in books they are only ufed for embelluhment, and 
to mark ftrongly the above lituations. But where Speech 
caii be employed» they are totaUy ufekfs ; and are always 
infufiicient for the purpofe of communicating our thoughts. 
And inde^ where will you look for the Interjedlion ? 
Will you find it amongft laws, or in books of civil initi- 
tutionsy in hiftoxy» or in any treatiie of uieful arts or 
fdences? No. You mull feek for it in rhetorick and 
poetry» in novels» plays and romances. 


If what you fay is true» I muft acknowledge that the 
Article has had. hard meafure to be difplaced for the Inter- 
jection. For by your declamation» and the ze^d you have 
ihewn in its defence» it is evident that you do not intend 
we ihould, with Scaliger, confider it merely as otiofum 

^' di rcprcndcre. 

di vendicarA. 

di raccomandazione. 
'' di commovimento per allegrezzt. 
" di lamentarfi. 

di beffarc. 
* et altri vaij." 
Annotaziom all' tratUtOi delle Farticclle^ di Cinonio. Capitolo xi. 

H. Mofi: 



Moft affuredly not : though I acknowledge that it has 
been ufed Otiose by many nations *. And I do not wonder 
that, keeping his eyes folely on the fuperfluous ufe (or 
rather abufe) of it, he ihould too haftily condude againft 
this very neceflary inftriunent itfelf. 

B. '< 

Say you fo ! very necejfary inftrument ! Since then you 
have, contrary to my expectation, allowed its necefiity, I 
ihould be glad to know how the Article comes to 
tieceflary to Speech : and, if neceflary, how can the Latin 
language be without it, as moft authors agree that it is f > 


* '^ n ieroit a fouhaitcr qu'on fiipprimat rArticle> routes les (bis que k$ 
noms font fuffilamment determines par la nature de la chofe ou par les 
circonftances ; le difcours en feroit plus vif. Mais la grande habitude 
* que nous nous en fommes fidte, ne le pcrmet pas : & ce n'eft que dans 
' des proverbes» phis andens que cette habitude» que nous nous &Ηοηί 
^ unc loi dc le fupprimer. On dit—Pauvrete rCeft pas vke : au Ucu dc 
< dire— -£.4 pauvrete tCefi pas un vice" Condillac. Gram. Part 2. 
Cbi^. 14. ^ 

Without any injury to the meaning of the paflage» the article might haye 
been omitted here by Condillac, twelve or thirteen times• 

«•/iwif^iTflu το ιτ»(ΛπΛ^, Πλ«τβ^ιχ« ΖητηΐΑ»τ» 3"• 

Κ - ^' Articulus 


And when you have given me fatisfailion on thofe points,, 
you will permit me to aik you. a few queftions farther- 


You may learn its neceffity, if you pleafe, from Mr. 
Locke. And that once proved, it follows of confequence 
that I muft deny its abfence from the Latin or from any 
other language *. 

B. Mr. 

'^ jirticulus nobis nullus & Graccis fuperfluus/* 

^' Saris conftat Graccorum Articuks non ncgkftos a nobis, fed conuir 

'* ufum fupcrfluum.•' 

J. C. ScALiCER dc C. L. L. Cap. Ixxii. — cxxxi. 

It is pleafant after this to have Scaliger's authority againil himfelf, and to 
hear him prove that the Latin not only has Articles ; but even the very 
identical Article Ό of the Greeks : for he fays (and, notwithftanding the 
etymolqgical diifent of Voffius, fays truly) that the Latin ^i is no other 
than the Greek >^ S. 

*^ Articulum, Fabio tefte, Latinus fermo non defidcrat: imo, me judice^, 

plane ignorat." 

G. J. Vossius. 

** Dilpleafed with the redundance of Particles in the Greek, the Romans 
extended their dilpleafure to the Article, which they totally baniflied.'* 
Notes on the Grammarica Sinica of Monf. Fourmont, p. 54. 

* " L* Article indicatif fe fupplce iur tout par la terminaifon, dans les 
" langucs a tcrminaifons, comme la langue Latine. C'eft ce qui avoit fait 

6 " croire 





Mr. Locke ! He has not fo much as even once mentioned 
the Article• 


Notwithftanding which he has fufficiently proved its 
neceflity ; and conduced us diretStiy to its ufe and purpofe. 
For in the eleventh Chapter of the fecond Book of his 
Effay, Se<5l. 9, he fays, — << The ufe of words being to 
^^ ftand as outward marks of our internal ideas, and thofe 
^^ ideas being taken from particular things ; if every par- 
^ ticular idea ihould have a diftindt name, names would 
*^ be endlefs.* So again, Book 3• Chap. 3. treating of 
General "Terms^ he fays,^ — ^^ AH things that exift being 
*^ particulars, it may perhaps be thought reafonable that 
^^ words, which ought to be conformed to things, ihould 
^ be fo too; I mean in their lignification. But yet we 
^* find the quite contrary• The far greateft part of words 

'^ croire mal-a-prppos que Ics Latins n'avoicnt itucun Article ; & qui avoit 

** fait conclurc plus mal-i-propos encore que rArricIe n'etoit pas une parrie 

^' dudifcours/• 

CouxT dc GzBELiN, Gram. Unherfelley p. 192. 

The Latin quis is cvidendy 7^ •< ; and thi Latin tcraiinations us. a^ um, \ 
DO other than the Greek article «o *»• «*'• ' ' 

Κα . « that 


** that make all languages, are General Terms» Which 
*' has not been the efFedt of negle(5t, or chance, but of 
** reafon and neceffity. For, firft, it is impoffible that 
" every particular thing ihould have a diftiniSl peculiar 
" name. For the iignification and ufe of words depend- 
** ing on that connection which the mind makes between 
. « its ideas and the founds it ufes as iigns of them ; it is 
<' neceflary, in the application of names to things, that 
<< the mind ihould have diftin<5t ideas of the things, and 
<< retain alfo the peculiar name that belongs to every 
** one, with its peculiar appropriation to that idea. We 
** may therefore eafily find a reaibn why men have never 
" attempted to give names to eadi iheep in their flock, or 
** crow that flies over their heads ; much lels to call eveiy 
<* leaf of plants or grain of fand that came in their way 
** by a pecuHar name.— Secondly, If it were pofiible, it 
** would be ufelefs : becaufe it would not ferve to the 
.** chief end of Language. Men would in vain heap up 
** names of particular things, that would not ferve them 
" to communicate their thoughts. Men learn names, and 
<* ufe them in talk with others, only that they may be 
" underftood; which is then only done, when by ufe or 
" confent, the found I make by the organs of fpeech 
<<s excites in another man's mind who hears it, the idea I 
<< apply to it in mine when I fpeak it* This cannot be 

** done 


^ done by names applied to particular things, whereof I 
" alone having the ideas in my mind, the names of them 
" could not be lignificant or intelligible to another who 
^^ was not acquainted with all thofe very particular things 
^ which had fallen under my notice•" — ^And again, Seft• 
II. — <^ General and Univerfal belong not to the real 
^^ exiftence of things; but are the inventions and creatures 
" of the Underftanding, made by it for its own ufe, and 
** concern only Jigns. Univerfality belongs not to things 
*^ themfelves which are all of them particular in their 
Jf exiftence. When therefore we quit Particulars, the 
^ Generals that reft are only creatures of our own making;. 
<* their general nature being nothing but the capacity they 
" are put into, of fignifying or reprefenting many Parti- 
^ culars•^ 

Now from this neceiKty of General "Termsy follows ira^ 
mediately the neceffity of the Article : whofe bufinefs it 
is to reduce their generality, and upon occaiion to enable 
us to employ general terms for Particulars. . 

SQ' that the Article alfo,,/« combination with a general 
terfHf is merely tl /ud/litute. But then it differs from thofe 
fubftitutes which we have ranked under the general head 
of Abbreviatioits : becaufe it is necejfary for the communi- 


cation of our thoughts, and fupplies the place of words 
which are not in the language. Whereas Abbreviations 
are not necejfary for communication ; and fupply the place 
of words which are in the language. 


As far then as regards the Article^ Mr. Harris feems at 
prefent to be the author moft likely to meet with your 
approbation : for he not only eftabliflies its neceffity, in 
order " to circumfcribe the latitude of genera and ipecies,*' 
and therefore treats of it feparately ; but has raifed it to a 
degree of importance much beyond all other modern 
Grammarians. And though he admits of only two Arti- 
cles, " properly and ftriolly ib called,^ viz. a and the ; 
yet has he affigned to thefe two little words full one fourth 
part in his diftribution of language : which, you know, is 
into — " Subilantives, Attributives, Definitives, and Con- 
" neolives." 

If Mr. Harris has not intirely fecured my concurrence 
with his Dodtrine of DefinitheSt I muft confefs he has at 
leaft taken efFe<Stual care to place it compleatly beyond the 
reach of confutation. He fays, 

I. « The 


I • ^^ The Articles have no meanings but when aflbciated 
^< to fome other word.'* 

2. " Nothing can be more nearly related than the Greek 

<^ article Ό to the Englifti article the.'' 

3. " But the article A defines in an imperfedt manner•" 

4• ^^ therefore the Greeks have no article correfpondent 
^* to our article A." 

5. However ^^ they fupply its place.'' 
—And Howy think you ? 

6. ^^ By a Negation^ — (obferve well their method of 

fupply) — ^ by a negation of their article Ό»;" 
(that is, as he well explains himfelf,)— " without 
** any thing prefixed, but only the article ^O 
*^ withdrawn." 

7. *^ Even in Englilh, we alfo exprefs the force of the 

^* article A, in plurals, by the fame negation of the 

" article the ^^ 


« t€ 

It is perhaps owing to the imperfeft manner in which the Article A 
" defines, that the Greeks have no article correfpondent to it, but fupply 
*• its place, by a negation of their Article Ό. — ^Ό ανθρωττος «ττέσιν, the man 
*' fell; uy^bivoq ciri(r£v, A man fcUi — ^without any thing prefixed, but only 
^ the Article withdrawn•" 

«^ Evca. 


Now here I acknowledge myfelf to be compleatly thrown 
out ; and, like the philofopher of old, merely for want of 
a firm refting-place on which to fix my machine : for it 
would have been as eafy for him to raife the earth with a 
fulcrum of ether, as for me to eftablifli any reafoning or 
argument on this fort of negation. For, " nothing being 
^.* prefixed^ I cannot imagine in what manner or in what 
refpedt a negation of Ό or of the, diflfers from a negation 
of Harris or of Pudding. For lack however of the light 
of comprehenfion, I muft do, as other Grammarians do in 
limilar fituations ; attempt to illuftrate by a parallel. 

I will fuppofe Mr. Harris (when one of the Lords of 
the Treafury) to have addreffed the Minifter in the fame 

ftyle of reafoning. ^ Salaries, Sir, produce no benefit, 

^^ unlefs aflbciated to fome receiver : my falary at prefent 
^* is but an imperfedt provifion for myfelf and family: 
^ but your falary as Minifter is much more compleat• 

** Even in Engliih^ where the Article A cannot be ufed, as in plurals^ 

'•* its force is expreffed by the fame negation. — Tbofe are thb me»y meaxis, 

^ Thofc are individuals of which we poifefs fome previous knowledge•— 

'* Tboje are metty the Article apart, means no more than they are fo many 

»* vague and uncertain individuals ; juft «as the phrafe^—- ^ matiy in the 

^' fuigular^ implies one of the fame number/* 

Book 2. Chap, i• 

" Oblige 


" Oblige me therefore by withdrawing my prefent r$:anty 
•< pittance ; and fupply its place tp me, by a negation of 
" your falary.'* — I think this requeft could not reaibnably 
have been denied : and what fatisfaotion Mr. Harris would 
have felt by finding his theory thus reduced to pra6tice» 
no perfon can better judge than myfelf ; becaufe I have 
experienced a condudt not much diiiimilar from the Rulers 
of the Irxner Temple : who having firft intked me to quit 
one profeflion, after many years of expe<5tation, have very 
handibmely fupplied its place to me by a negation of the 



ΤΓΗΕ three following chapters (except fome fmall altera- 
tions and additions) have already been given to the 
public in A Letter to Mr. Dunning in the year 1778 : 
which, though publiftied, was not written on the fpur of 
the occaiion• The fubftance of that Letter, and of all 
that I have farther to communicate on the fubjedt of Lan- 
guage, has been amongft the looie papers in my clofet 
now upwards of thirty years ; and would probably have 
remained there fome years longer, and have been finally 
coniigned with myfelf to oblivion, if I had not been made 
the miferable viftim of — Ttwo Frepofttions and a Con-- 

The officiating Priefts indeed * were themfelves of rank 
and eminence fufficient to dignify and grace my fall. But 

* Attorney General Thurkw — fince Chancellor and a Peer. 
Solicitor General Wedderburnt — fince Chancellor and a Peer• 
Earl Mansfield, Chief Juftice. 
Mr. BuUer— fincc a Judge. 
Wr. Wallace — ^fince Attorney General. 
Mr. Mansfield — fince Solicitor General. 
Mr. Bcarcroft— fince Chief Juftice of Chefter. 

6 that 


that the Conjundlion that, and the Prepofitions of and 
CONCERNING (words which have hitherto been held to 
have NO meaning) iliould be made the abjedt inftruments 
of my civil extinctions (for fuch was the intention^ and fuch 
has been the confequence of my profecution) ; appeared to 
me to make my exit from civil life as degrading as if I had 
been brained by a lady's fan. For mankind in general are 
riot fufficiently aware that words without meaning, or of 
equivocal meaning, are the everlafting engines of fraud 
and injuftice : and that the grimgribber of Wellminfter- 
Hall is a more fertile, and a much more formidable, fourcc 
of impoilure than the abracadabra of magicians. 

Upon a motion made by me in arrell of judgment in 
the court of King's-Bench in the year i777> the Chief 
Juilice adjourned the decifion : and inftead of arguments 
on the merits of my objedlion, (which however by a iide- 
wind were falfely reprefented by him as merely literal 
flaws *) deiired that Precedents might be brought by the 
Attorney General on a future day. None were however 
adduced, but by the Chief Juftice himfelf ; who indeed 

■ '■ ■— — I ■ ■ I III ρ ■ J I I ■ I. . ■ Ί 

* " Lord Mansfield^ 

*' If the Defendant has a legal advantage from a Ijteral flaw, God forbid 
^' that he ihould not haΛ''c the benefit of it." 

Proceedings in K. 6. The King againft Home. 

L 2 produced 


produced two. (Thereby depriving me of the opportutiity 
of combating the Precedents and their application, which 
I fliould have had if they had b6en produced by the At- 
torney General *. And on the ftrength of thefe two Pre- 
cedents alone, (forgetting his own defcription and diftinution 
of the crime to the jury) he decided againit me +. 

I fay, 


* «^ Lord Mansfield 

«• I fanqr the Attorney General ^Tisfurprized with the objeftion/* 

f The Attorney General, in his reply, faid to the Jury, " Let uslalitde 
^ fee what is the nature of the obfcrvarions he makes. In the firft place, 
" that I left it exceedingly ihort : and the objedlion to my having left it 
^ Ihort, was fimply this ; that I had ftated no more to you but this, that of 
•* irtiputing to the conduft of the King's troops the crime of mtirder. 
JVite; I fiated ity as impuud to the troops^ ordered as they were upon (be 

** PUBLIC service/' 

J^ord Mansfield to the Jury 

Read the paper. What is it ? Why it is this ^ that our beloved Ame- 
rican Fellow- fubjedls — in rebellion againfi the ft ate — not beloved fo as 
"to be abetted in their rebellion•" Again, — " What is the employment 
they (the troops) are ordered upon ? Why then what are tb^ wbo gave 
" /i^tf orders? Draw the conclufion/' Again, — " The unhappy refiftance 
" to the legislative authority of this kingdom by many of our Fcllow- 
" fubjefts in America r the legislature of this kingdom have avowed 
" that die Americans rebelled : Troops are employed ι(^^λ this grounds 
" The cafe is here between ζ juft Government and rebellious 7^^>β'^/' — 
Again, — " You will read this paper i you will judge whether it is not 
*' denying the Government and Legijlative authority of England.'' And again, 
— " If you are of opinion that they were all murdered (like the cafes of 

** undoubted 




I fay, on the ftrength of thefe two precedents alone. 
Ι^Όγ the grofs perveriion and mifapplication of the technical 
term de bene effe^ was merely pour eblouir^ to introduce -the 
proceedings on the trial, and to divert the attention fron;i 
the only .point in queftion — ^the fufficiency of the charge 
in theRecord.— And I cannot believe that any man breathing 
(except Lord Mansfield) either in the profeffion or out qf 
it, will think it an argument againft the validity of my ob- 
jedlion ; that it was brought forward only by myfelf, and bad 
^ot been alleged before by the learned Counfelfor the Printers. 
This however I can truly teU his lordihip; that the rnofl: 
learned of them all, \abfit invidia) Mr. Dunning, was not 

" undaubted murders y of Glcnco, and tweaty other maflacrcs that might be 
** named) why then you may form a difiFerent conclufion." 

'And again — " If fome foldiers. Without authority y had got in a drunken 
** fray, and murder had enfucd, and that this paper could relate to that, it 

would be quite a different thing from the charge in the information : 

BECAUSE it is charged — as a Jeditious Libel tending to difquiet the minds of 

the People:' See the Trial• 

Ά man muft be net only well praftifed, but even hackneyed in our Courts 
•of Juftice to difcover the above defcription of my crime in the Prepojitions, 
OF and CONCERNING. Be that as it may : It is evident that the Attorney 
General and the Chief Juftice did not expeft the Jury to be fo enlightened i 
-»«id therefore {'when I bad no longer a right to open my lips) they dcfcribed a 
crime to them in that plain language which I ftill contend I had a right 
to expeft in the Information ; because — *' A feditious Libel tending to dij- 
** quiet the minds of the people ^^ — has been determined to be mere paper and 
packthread^ and no part, of the Charge. 

I aware 



aware of the objedlion when I firft mentioned it to him ; 
that he would not believe the information could be fo de- 
fedlive in all its Counts, till I produced to him an Office 
Copy : when to his aftoniihment he found it fo, he felt no 
jealoufy that the objedtion had been miffed by himfelf ; but 
declared it to be infuperable and fatal : and bad me reft 
affured, that whatever might be Lord Mansfield's wiihes, 
and his courage on fuch occafions, he would not dare to 
overrule the objedlion. And when after the clofe of the 
firft day, I hinted to him my fufpicions of Lord Mansfield's 
intentions by the " God forbid f and by the perverted and 
mifapplied " Oe bene ejfe^ in order to mix the proceedings 
on the trial with the queftion of record'; he fmiled at it, 
as merely a method which his lordfliip took of letting the 
matter down gently, and breaking the abruptnefs of his fall• 

Strange as it may appear ! One of thofe Precedents was 
was merely imagined by the Chief Juftice, but never really 
exifted. And the other (through ignorance of the meaning 
of the Conjundlion that) had never been truly under- 
flood ; neither by the Counfel who originally took the ex- 
ception, nor jperhaps by the Judges who made the decifion^ 
nor by the Reporter of it, nor by the prefent Chief Juftice 
who quoted and mifapplied it• 



Mr. Dunning undertook to prove (and did adtually prove 
in the Houfe of Lords) the nori'-exifience of the main pre- 
cedent• And I undertook, in that Letter to Mr• Dunning, 
to ihew the real merits and foundation, and confequently 
Lord Mansfield's mifapplication of the other. And I under• 
rook this, becaufe it afforded a very ftriking inftance of 
the importance of the meaning of words ; not only (as has 
been too lightly fuppofed) to Metaphyficians and School- 
men, but to the rights and happinefs of mankind in their 
deareft concerns— the decifions of Courts of Juftice• 

In the Houfe of Lords thefe two Precedents (the foun- 
dation of the Judgment in the Court of King's Bench) 
were abandoned : and the defcription of my crime againft 
Government was adjudged to be fufiiciently fet forth by the 
Prepofitions of and concerning. 

Perhaps it may make my readers fmile ; but I mention 
it as a farther inftance of the importance of inquiry into 
the meaning of words ; — that in the decifion of the Judges 
in the Houfe of Lords, the Chief Juftice De Grey (who 
found OF and concerning fo comprehenfive, clear, and 
definite) began by declaring that — " the word Certainty 
" [which the Law requires in the defcription of Crimes] 
^^ is as indefinite [that is, as Uncertain] as any word that 

" could 


« could be ufedi** Now though certainty is fo unpertain, 
we muft fuppofe the word Libel to be very definite : and 
yet if I were called upon for an equivalent term» I believe 
I could not find in our language any word more popularly 
appofite than Calumny ; which is defined by Cicero, in his 
Offices, to be — ^* callida ^ malitiofa Juris interpretation 

if there was any Mijiake (which however I am very for 
from believing) in this decifion, &n<^ioned by the Judges 
and the Houfe of Lords ; I (hall be juftified in applying 
(with the fubftitution of the fingle word Grammatici for 
I/lorici) what Giannone, who was hioifelf an excellent 
lawyer, fays of his countrymeti of the fame pcofeffioa :— 
'* Tanta ignoranza avea loro bendati gli occhi, che fi pro- 
" giavano d'eflere folamente Legifti, e non Grammatid^ 
<< non accorgendofi, che perch6 non «rano Graimnatid, 
" eran percio cattivi legisti.* 

Ift* civil, di Napoli. Intro. 






Τ3 U Τ befides the Articles " properly and ftrioUy ib called,*• 
I think Mr. Harris and other Grammarians fay that 
there are fome words which, according to the different 
manner of ufing them, are fometimes articles and ibme- 
times Pronouns : and that it is difficult to determine to 
which dafs they ought to be referred *. 

H. They 

* " It muft be confeflcd indeed that aU thefe words do not always appear 
as Pronouns. When they ftand by themfelves and reprcfent fomc Noun, 
(as when we fay — this is virtue y or ί£*κΙ*)ί«?, Give me that) then arc 
they Pronouns. But when they are affociated to fomc Noun, (as when we 
fay— THIS habit is virtue, or ίι*κΙ*κ«?, that man defrauded me) tlien as 
they fupply not the place of a Noun, but only ferve to afcertain one, 
" they fall rather into the Ipecies of Definitives or Articles. That there is 
•*' indeed a near relation between Pronouns and Articles, the old grammar 
*' rians have all acknowledged 5 and fome words it has been doubtful to 
^' wjiich clafs to refer. The beft rule to diftinguilh them is this.— Tlir 

Μ <^ genuini• 



They do fo. And by fo doing, fufficiently inftruot us 
(if we will but ufe our common fenfe) what value we 
ought to put upon fuch clailes and fuch definitions. 


Can you give us any general rule by which to diftinguiih 
when they are of the one fort, and when of the other ? 


Let them give the rule who thus confound together the 
Manner of iignification of words, and the Abbreviations 
in their Conflru&ion : than which no two things in Lan- 
guage are more diftindt, or ought to be more carefully 
diilinguiihed. I do not allow that jiny words change their 
nature in this manner, fo as to belong fometimes to one 
Part of Speech, and fometimes to another, from the dif- 
ferent ways of ufing them. I never could perceive any 
fuch fluftuation in any word whatever : though I know it 
is a general charge brought erroneoufly againft words of 

** genuine Pronoun always ftands by itfclf, aflliming the power of a noun, 
" and fupplying its place. — The genuine Article never ftands by itfelf, but 
** appears at all times aflbciated to fomething elfe, requiring a noun for its 
'" fupport, as much as Attributives or Adjecbives/' 

H£RM£s^ Book I• Chap. V. 



almofl: every denomination ^'• But it appears to me to be 
all, Error : ariling from the falfe meafure which has been 
taken of almoft every fort of words. Whilft the words 
themfelves appear to me to continue faithfully and fteadily 
attached, each to the ftandard under which it was origi- 
nally inlifted. But I deiire to wave this matter for the- 
prefent ; becaufe I think it will be cleared up by what is 
to follow concerning the other forts of words : at leaft, if 
that ihould not convince you, I ihall be able more eaiily 
to fatisfy you on this head hereafter. 


I would not willingly put you out of your own way, 
and am contented to wait for the explanation of many 
things till you ihall arrive at the place which you may think 
proper for it. But really what you have now advanced 
feems to me fo very extraordinary and contrary to fadt, as 
well as to the uniform declaration of all Grammarians; 
that you muft excufe me, if, before we proceed any fartheri 
I mention to you one inftance. 

« l€ 

Certains mots font Adverhesy Pre^ofitionsy & Conjonitions en meme 
" temps : & rcpondcnt ainfi au meme temps a diverfcs parties d'oraifon 
^* felon que la grammaire les emploie diverfement." 

BuFFi£Rj Art• 150. 

And fo fay all other Grammarians. 

Μ 2 Mr. 


Mr. Harris and other Grammarians fay that the word 
THAT, is fometimes an Article and fometimes a Pronoun• 
However I do not defire an explanation of that [point] r 
becaufe I fee how you will eafily reconcile that [diflference],. 
by Tifubauditur or an abbreviation of Conftrucftion : and I 
agree with you there. But what will you do with the 
ConjunSiion that ? 

Is not this a very confiderable itfid manifeil flu(Stuation 
and diflFerence of iigniiication in the fame word ? Has the 
Conjun&ion that, any the fmalleft correfpondence or limi- 
larity of iignification with that, the Sticky or Pronoun-^ 


In my opinion the word that (call it as you pleafe^ 
either Article^ or Pronoun^ or ConjunBion) retains always 
one and the fame fignification. Unnoticed abbreviation in 
conftru(Stion and difference of poiition have caufed this 
appearance of fludtuation ; and mifled the Grammarians 
of all languages both antient and modern :. for in all they 
make the fame miftake. Pray, anfwer me a queftion. Is 
it not ftrange and improper that we fhould, without any 
reafon or neceflity, employ in Englifti the fame word for 
two different meanings and purpofes ? 

B. I 


I think it wrong : and I fee no reaibn for it, but many 
reafons againil it, 

Well ! Then is it not more ftrange that this fame im*• 
propriety, in this fame cafe ihould run through all lan- 
guages ? And that they ihould all ufe an -rfr//V/?,. without 
any reafon, unneceflarily,. and improperly, for this fame 
ConjunSiion ; with which it has, as you fay, no correlpoA•^ 
dence nor iimilarity of iigniiicati(Mi ? 


If they do fo it is itrange.. 

They certainly do ; as you will eaiily find by inquiry• 
Now does not the uniformity and univerfality^ of this fup- 
pofed miftake, and unneceflary Impropriety, in languages 
which have no connexion with each other, naturally lead 
us to fufpeot that this ufage of the Article may perhaps be 
neither miftaken nor improper ? But that the miftake naay 
lie only with us, who do not underftand it ? 


No doubt what you have faid, if true, would afl&rd : 
ground for fufpicion• 

H• If: 



If true ! Examine any languages you pleafe, and fee 
whether they alfo, as well as the Engliih, have not a 
fuppofed Conjundiion which they employ as we do that ; 
and which is alfo the fame word as their fuppofed Article^ 
or Pronoun. Does not this look as if there was fome 
reafon fpr employing the Article in this manner ? And as 
if there was fome connexion and fimilarity of iignification 
between it and this Conjun&ion ? 


The appearances, I own, are ftrongly in favour of your 
opinion. But how ftiall we find out what that connexion is ? 

Suppofe we examine fome inftances ; and, Hill keeping 
the fame fignification of the fentences, try whether we 
cannot, by a refolution of their conftruotion, difcover what 
we want. 

I wiih you to believe that I would not wilfully hurt a fly. 

I would not wilfully hurt a fly ; I wiih you to believe 

THAT [aflertion]. 




She knowing that Crooke had been indifted for forgery, 
did fo and fo• 


Crooke had been indidled for forgery; ihe, knowing 
that, [faft] did fo and fo *. 


You fay THAT the fame arm which, when contradted, 
can lift — ; when extended to its utmoft reach, will not be 
able to raife — . You mean that we Ihould never forget 
our lituation, and that we ihould be prudently contented 
to do good within our own fphere, where it can have an 
efFedl : and that we fliuuld not be mifled even by a vir- 
tuous benevolence and public fpirit, to wafte ourfelves in 
fruitlefs efforts beyond our power of influence. 


The fame arm which, when contrafted, can lift — ; when 
extended to its ι tmoft rea h, will not be able to raife — : 

^ . - ■ -- — ■ - ^— ^-^^.^^1— ^^^ 

* King V. Lawky. Strangc's Reports. Eafter T. 4 Geo, II. 

5 you 


you fay that. We iliould never forget our lituation; 
you mean that : and we ihould be contented to do good 
within our own fphere where it can have an effeot ; you 
mean that : and we ihould not be mifled even by a vir- 
tuous benevolence and public fpirit to wafte ourfelves in 
fruitlefs eflforts beyond our power of influence ; you mean 


They who have well confidered that kingdoms rife of 
fall, and that their inhabitants are happy or miferable, 
not fo much from any local or accidental advantages or 
difadvantages ; but accordingly as they are well or ill go- 
verned ; may belt determine how far a virtuous mind can 
be neutral in politics. 


Kingdoms rife or fall, not fo much from any local or 
accidental advantages or difadvantages, but accordingly as 
they are well or ill governed ; they who have well con- 
fidered THAT (maxim), may beft determine how far a vir- 
tuous mind can be neutral in politics. And the inhabitants 
of kingdoms are happy or miferable, not fo much from 
any local or accidental advantages or difadvantages, but 
accordingly as• they are well or ill governed; they who 

9 have 


have confidered that, may beft determine how far a vir- 
tuous mind can be neiUral in politic» "^, 


* " Lc defpotifmc ecrafe de fon fccptre de fcr le plus beau pays du 
*' monde : Jl fcmblc que les malhcurs dcs hommcs croiffcnt en proportion 
** dcs efforts que la naturi^ fait pour ies rcndre heurcux/' Savarv. 

*' Dans ce paradis terreftrc, au niilicu de tant de rkhefles, qui croiroit 
^' que le Siamois eft peut-etre le plus mifcrable des peuples ? I^ gouverne- 
*^ ment de Siam eft defpotique: le fouverain jouit feul du droit de la libcrtc 
" .naturelle a touis les hommes. Ses fujets font ies efclaves ; chacun d' cux 
*' lui doit fix mois de fervicc perfonnel chaque annc-, fans aucun falaire et 
** meme fans nourriture. H leur accorde les fix autres pour fe procurer de 
γ quoivivre." [Happy, happy England, if ever thy miferable inhabitants 
ihall, in refpeft of taxation, be elevated to the condition of die Siamois i 
when thy Taikmafters ihall be contented with half the produce of thy in- 
duftry !] " Sous un tel gouvemement ii n''y a point de loi qui protege les 
'' particuliers contre la violence, et qui leur aflure aucune propriete. Tout 
' depend des fantaifies d'un prince abruti par toutc forte d'cxccs, et furtout 
par ceux du pouvoir ; qui pafle ies jours enfcrme dans un ferrail, igno- 
rant tout ce qui fe fait hors de fon palais, et fur tout les malhcurs de fes 
peuples. Cepcndant ceux-ci font livrcs a la cupiditc des grands, qui 
" font les premiers efclaves, et approchent feuls a des jours marques, mais 
toujours en tremblant, de la perfonne du deipote, qu* ils adorent commc 
une divinitc — fujette a des caprices dangereux/' 

Voyages d*un Philofo^he [Monf. Poivre] Londres, .1769. 

The above heart-rending refleftions which Savary makes at the fight of 
Egypt, and Monf. Poivre at the condition of Siam, might fervc as other 
ixampJes for the Corijunglion in queftion : but I give them for the fake o^ 
f heir matter. And I think myfclf at leaft as well juftrfied (I do not expeft 

Ν ^ ^ to 




thieves rife by night that they may cut men*s throats. 

to be as well rewarded) as our late Poet Laureat i who, upon the following 
paflage of Milton's Comus, 

** ^Andfits as Jafe as in a SemUi houjt^* 
adds this flagitious note : 

" Not many years after this was written, Milton's Friends ihcwcd 
" that the fafety of a Senate houfe was not inviolable. But when the people 
'* turn LegiQators, what place is fiife againft the tumults of innovation, an4 
" the difobedience." 

I believe our late Laure4t meant not fo much to cavil at Milton's ex- 
preflion, as to feizc an impertinent opportunity of recommending himieif 
to the powers which be^ by a cowardly infult on the dead and peHecute4 
author's memory, and on the aged, defcncelcfs conftitivion of his country. 

A critic who fliould really be diipleafed at Milton's exprcQion, woul4 
rather ihew its impropriety by an event which had happened brforc it was 
ufed, than by an event which the poet could not at that time foficfee• SucH 
a critic adverting to the 5th of November, 1605, and to the 4th of January» 
1641, mig^ more truly fay y Not many years both before and after 
" this was written, Wi|A.RTON's FRisNps Ihewed that the fafety of a Senate, 
** houfe was not inviol^we•" 

With equal impertinence and malignity (pages 496, 53S.) has he raHcd 
pp the aflies di Queen Caridine and Queen Elizabeth \ whoie private cbar 
f^^ers ^d inoficnflve amulements were as little conncded with MUtpn'$ 
poems, as diis animadverfion on Wharton is widi the fubjcA I am opw 

Perhaps, after aH, the concluding lii^e of Milton's epitaph^ 
'* Rege fub augufio fs^ fit lai»,dare Catonem," 
is sirtfttlly made by Mr. >A^iurton the concluding line a|fo of his Not^s \ ii^ 
prder to account for his prefcnt virulence^ and to (((ften t^e rpfeMt{n^t of 
^ readers, at the c^qponcc of his patron. 

% R £ s O• 

Res ο luT ion. 

Thieves may cut men's throats, (for) that (purpofi) 
they rife by night. 

After the fame manner, I imagine, may all fentences be 
refolved (in all languages) where the ConjunBion that (or 
its equivalent) is emjdoyed : and by fuch refolution it will 
always be difcoveted to have merely the fame force and 
fignification, and to be in fail nothing elfe but the very 
fame word which in other places is called an Article or a 


For any thing that immediately occurs to me, this may 
perhaps be the cafe in Engliih, where that is the only 
Conjundion of the fame Hgnification which we employ in 
this manner. But your laft example makes me believe 
that this method of refolution will not take place in thofe 
languages which have different Conjun£tions for this fame 
purpofe. And if ib, I fufpeot that your whole reafoning 
on this fubje^l may be without foundation. For how can 
you refolve the original of your laft example ; where (un- 
fortunately for your notion) υτ is employed, and not the 
neuter Article quod ? 

" Ut jugulcnt homines furgunt dc node latrones!" 

Ν 2 I fuppofe 


I fuppofe you will not fay that υ τ is "the Latin neuter 
Article. For even Sanotius, who ftruggled fo hard to 
withdraw quod from amongft the Conjundtions, yet ilill 
left UT amongft them without moleftation *. 

H. You» 

* It is not at all extraordinary that υτ and quod ihould be indifferently 
ufcd for the fame conjundtivc purpofe : for as υτ (originally written υτι) 
15 nothing but oIi : So is quod (anciently written quodde) merely K«i ίτ7«. 

" ^odde tuas laudes culpas, nil proficis hilum." 


(See Note in Havercamp*s and Creech's Lucretius ; where quodde is mif- 
takenly derived from οΙτ»Λ.) ο^γ, in Ladn^ being founded (not as the Engliih 
but as the French pronounce qu, that is) as the Greek Κ ; Και (by a change 
of the charafter, not of the found) became the Latin ^e^ (ufed only en- 
clirically indeed in modern Latin). Hence Kosi βτ?ι became in Latin ^ 
Qtti — SluBddi — ^adde — ^od. Of which if Sanftius had been aware, he 
would not have attempted a diftinftion between υτ and quod : fmce the 
two words, though difFcrendy corrupted, arc in fubftance and origin the 

'fhe perpetual change of τ into D, and vice verfa^ is ίο very familiar to 
all who have ever paid the fmalleft attention to Langus^, that I ihould not 
think it worth wJiile to notice it in the prcfent inftance ; if all the etymolo- 
gical canonifts, whom I have Icen, had not been remarkably inattentive to 
the organical cau&s of thofe literal changes of which they treat. 

Skinner (who was a Phyfician) Γη his Prolegomena Etymologica, Ipeak- 
ing of the frequent tranfinutation of s into z, fays very truly ^ Sunt 
«* fane literae fono fer} esedcraJ* 





You are not to expeft from me that I ihould, in this 
place» account etymologically for the different words which 


But in what does that feri confift ? For s is not nearer in found to z, 
than ρ is. to b, or than τ is to d, or than f is to v> or than κ is to g> or 
than TH (Θ) in Thingy is to th (D) in Tbat^ or than sh is to the 
French j. 

(N. B. TH and sh are iimple confonants, and ihould be marked by^ 
fingle letters, j, as the Englifli pronounce it, is a double confonant 5 and 
ihould have two characters ..) 

For thefc fcven couple of fimple confonants, viz. 

With the 












SH^ J' 

Without the 

diflfer each from its partner, by no variation whatever of articulation 5 but 
fingly by a certain unnoticed and almoft imperceptible motion or compref- 
fion of or near the Larynx ; which caufes what Wilkins calk " βτηύ kind 
" of murmur e.'' This compreflion the Welch never ufc. So that when a 
W€lchman>. inftcad of 

^ I vow, by God, ©at Jenkin iz a Wizzard," 
pronounces it thus, 

"* I fow, py Cot, eat Shcnkin ifs a Wiflart ;' 



fome languages (for there are others befide the Latin) 
may fontietimes borrow and employ in this manner inftead 
of their own common Article• But if you (laould here- 
after exadl it, I ihall not refufe the undertaking : although 
it is not the eafieft part of Etymology: ίοτ Abbreviation 
and Corruption are always bujie^ with the words which are 
Mofi frequently in ufe. Letters, like foldiers^ being very 
apt to defert and drop off in a long march, and efpecially 
if their paflage happens to lie near the confines of an 
enemy's country ^K Yet I doubt not that, with this clue, 

he articulates in every other relpeft exaftly as we do ; but omits the com- 
preflion nine times in this fentence. And for failing in this one point only, 
changes fcven of our confonants: for we owe feven additional letters, 
(i. c. feven additional founds in our language) folely to the addition of this 
one compreffion to feven different articulations. 

* " Nous avons deja dit, que Talteration du derive augmentoit a mefure 

que le temps Teloignoit du primitif ; & nous avons ajoiitc — ioutes chofes 

d*ailleurs egaleSy — parceque la quantitc de cettc alteration depend aufli 

du cours que ce mot a dans le public. II s'ufe, pour ainfi dire, en 

" paffant dans un plus grand nombre dc bouches, fur tout dans la bouch^ 

" du pcuplc : & la rapiditc de cettc circulation equivaut ^ unc plus longoe 

" durcc. Les noms des Saints & les noms de bapteme k$ plus communs, 

" en foat.un exemplc. Les mots qui rcviennent le plus fouvent dans les 

** langues, teJs que les verbes Etrey fairCy vouloiry allery & tous ceux qui 

•' fervent a lier les autres mots dans Ic difcours, font fujets a de plus grandes 

" alterations. Ce font ceux qui ont le plus befoin d'etre fixes par la langue 

" ecritc." 

Enyclopedie {EtymoUgie) par M. De Brosses. 




you will yourudf be able, upon inquiry) to account as 
eafily (and in the fame manner) for the ufe of all the others» 
as I know you can for υτ ; which is merely the Greek 
neuter Artide βτ» ♦, adopted for this conjunctive purpofe 
by the Latins, and by them originally written υτι : the Ο 
being changed into u, from that propenfity which both 
the ancient Romans had i, and the modern Italians fiill 
have % iippn many occaiioRS^ to pronounce even their 

♦ •* Uti eft mutata on/* 

J. C. ScALioEit^ dt C. L. \s. Cap• 173. 

I So in the antirnt form of ielf-devodon. 

*« ΥΟΥΕΟ/* 

So in the laws of Numa, and in the twelve tables, and in all antient in-. 
ibriptions, G is perpetually found where th? modern Latin ufes U. And 
it 16 but reafonabte to fuppoft^ that the pronunqiation jpreceded the change 
of the orthography. 

X *' Quant i la voyefle υ pour ce qu*ils (les Italiews) )Γλί0)€ηΐ fort^ ai^fi 
«* que nous cognoiflbns par ces mots Ufficio^ ukrigato^ &c. j? penfe bicn 
qu'ils k relpeftent plus que les autres." 

Henri Estiene, de la ptceU. it la XmF^ 




own ο like i^ani;. ' Of which I need hot produce any 
i(?Lftances^'. i - : ■ . . 

. -The Refoiutioa therefore of. the - original . will be like 

^ » * i . 

that of .the .tranllation ; 

1 . ** Latrufhes juguknt hdmincsJ(Ai) en furgunt dc no^lc." 

. yJ^i 

*■''••' --r• .■ . i ' ■' 

• ♦ cc L^ ο a ftfetta amicizia coll* v, ufandoifi in moke voci fcambievol- 

" nicntc* 


Menage. Cambiamcnti delle lettcre. page i6. 

Μ « * » ■ ' 

•• f 

Menage quoted Quiriftifian, Fcftus, Velius Longus, Viftorinus, tj^^affio- 
dorus, Scrvius, Prifcian, Virgil, Jul. C. Scaliger. 

" La V par chc prevalefle nc'primi tempi e piu remoti, quando i Latini 
'' memori della Eolica origine, ο iniitan<kk|jli umbri c gli Etrufchi, literam, 
*' y pro ο efferebant : (i.) e proriimziavano F«»/^j, Frundes, Acberunte^ 
" Mumonesj ^ flriiili. (2.) Quindi Ovldio, avcndo iietto che una volta iL 
ItDme di Orione txz, Urioriy Toggiugnt-^erdUtt antiquum litera prima 
Jonum. (3.) Ne' tempi pofteriori fi ando all' altro eftremo ; e all' antica 
lettera fu foftituita quafi fempre la o, come vedefi in Novios Plautios^ 
♦* e in altre voci della tavola feconda. Prifciano nc da per ragione : quia 
multis Italia fopulis ν in uju non erat, Jed e contrario utebantur ο : (4.) 
dicendovi vcrbigrazia, Colpa^ Exjoles^ per Culpa^ Exules^ &c. (5.)" - 

Lanzi Saggio di Lingua Etrufca, Tom. i. Pag. 1 24. 

• (r.) Fcft. vid. Orcus. ' 


(3.) Faft. V. '• ■' -■' ' '- i- ■*' 

, (4.) Pag• 554i ■' • .^ ■•" -i •' - ' • 
(5.) CaiTiod. 2284. 

I B. You 



You have extricated yourfelf pretty well out of this 
fcrape with υτ. And perhaps have done prudently, to 
decline the fame fort of explanation in thofe other lan- 
guages which, as well as the Latin, have likewife a double 
Conjundtion for this purpofe, not quite fo ealily accounted 
for, becaufe not ready derived to your hands. But I have 
not yet done with the Engliih : for though your method 
of refolution will anfwer with moft fenterices, yet I doubt 
much whether it will with all. I think there is one ufage 
of the conjunotion that which it will not explain. 


Produce an inftance. 


The inftances are common enough. But I chufe to 
take one from your favourite fad Shepherd : in hopes that 
the difficulty it may caufe you, will abate fomething of 
your extreme partiality for that piece. Which, though 
it be 

^^ fuch wool 
^* As from mere Engliih flocks his Mufc could pull," 

you have always contended obftinately, with its author, is 

>*^ a Fleece 
<* To match or thofe of Sicily or Greece." 

Ο Example. 



" I wonder he can move ! that he's not fix'd I 
*^ If that his feelings be the fame with mine•'* 

So again in Shakefpeare *^ 

^^ Tv 

-'* If that the king 

^^ Have any way your good defcrts forgot, 
" He bids you name your griefi•"— — 

How will you bring out the Article that, when two 
ConjuniStions (for I muft ilill call that a Gonjun£tioni till 
all my fcruples are fatisfied) come in this manner together l• 

** ' . ■ ■ ' II' 

• ift Part of Henry IV. Aft IV. Scene £.. 



Τ Presume my readers to be acquainted yirith French, 
Latin, Italian and Greek : which are unfortunately the 
ufual boundaries of an Engliih fchoJar's acquiiitiop. On 
this fuppoiition, a friend of mine lamented that, in my 
Letter to Mr. Dunning, I had not confined myf^f to the 
common £ngluh chara^ler for the Anglo-faxon aiid Qothic 

In the prefent publication I Ihould undoubtedly ba!Vie 
conformed to his wiilxesi if I had not imagined that^ by 
infeiting the Anglo-faxon and Gothic charadters in this 
place, I might poffibly allure fome of my readers to fami- 
liarize therafelves with thofe charadlers, by an application 
of them to the few words of thofe languages which are 
here introduced: and thus lead the way to their better 
acquaintance with the parent language, which ought long 
ago to have made a part of the education of our youth• 
And I flatter myfelf that one of the confequences of my 
prefent inquiry will be, to facilitate and abridge the tedious 
and miftaken method of inftruotion which has too long 
continued in our feminaries : the time which is at prefent 
allotted to Latin and Greek, being amply fufficient for the 

Ο 2 acquire- 


acquirement alfo of French, Italian, Anglo-faxon, Dutch, 
German, Danifli and Swediih. Which will not feem at all 
extraordinary, when it is confidered that the five laft men- 
tioned (together with the Engliih) are little more than 
dijfferent dialedts of one and the fame language. And 
though this was by no means the leading motive, nor is 
the prefent objeol of my inquiiy ; yet I think it of con- 
liderable importance : although I do not hold the acquifi- 
tion of languages in fo very great eftimation as the Emperor 
Charles the Vth did. Who, as Brantome tells us, " difoit 
<< & repetoit fouvent, quand il tomboit fur la beaute des 
" langues, (felon Topinioh des Turcs) — qu' autant dc Ian- 
" gues que Thomme f9ait parler, autant de fois eft-il 
^* homme/* 


[ ΙΟΙ 3 












































































































j and )r 




































Τ WAS afraid of fome fuch inftances as theie^ when I 
wiihed to poftpone the whole coniideration Of this fub- 
jedt till after we had difcufled the other received Parts of 
Speech. Becaufe, in order to explain it^ I mmft foreftall 
fomething of what I had to fay concerning ConjunSiions. 
However, iince the queftion is ilarted, perhaps it may be 
as well to give it here• 

The truth of the matter is, that if is merely a Ferb\ 
It is merely the Imperative of the Gothic and Anglo-faxon 
verb ηΐ^Λκ, Gipan. And in thofe languages, as well as in 
the Engliih formerly, this fuppofed Conjun&ion was pro- 
nounced and written as the conimon Imperative, purely 

n):, Gip, Gif, Thus 

— " My 


** My largefle 

«* Hath lotted her to be your brother's tniftrelle 
** GIF ihec can be reclMm'd j cif not, his prey *." 

And accordingly our ooirupted if h^ always the iigni- 
fication of the £ngliih Imperative Give; and no other* 
So that the refolution of the conftru£tion in the inilances 
you have produced, will he as hefore in the others. 


** His feefings be the fame with mine> oiVi: that, I 
** wonder he can move, &c.* 

** The King may have forgotten your good def^ts, 
** WYE THAT in any way, he bids you name your griefs.** 

And here, as an additional proof, we may obierve, that 
whenever the Ζλ7/»Μ, upon which any concluiion depends, 
is a ientence^ the Article that, if not expre0ed, is always 
underftbod, and may be inierted after if. As in the in;- 
ftance I have produced above,, the Poet might have faid, 

** Gif that Ihe can be reclaimed," &c. 

For the reiblution is—" Sue can be reclaimed. Give 
<* tbat'y my largefle hath lotted her to be your brother*^ 

mmmmn^'^ ■ >i » p " « ii>i»ii w i ■ *\ ψ ψ 

* Sad Shepherd» Aft Π. Scene X4 

9 <* miftrefle. 


** miftreflje. She cannot be reclaimed, G/t;^ /fi»^/ ; nay largeiie 
" hath lotted her to be your brother's prey.** 

But the Article that is not underftood, and cannot be 
inferted after if, where the Datum is not a fentence, but 
Ibme Noun governed by the Verb if or give. As,— 


<^ How will the weather difpofe of you to-morrow ? if 
^^ fair, it will fend md abroad ; if foul, it will keep me 
<^ at home.'' 

Here we cannot fay — " if that fair it will fend me 
** abroad ; if that foul it will keep me at home.*— ^Be- 
caufe in this cafe the verb if governs the Noun ; and the 
refolved conftruftion is, 

•* GIVE fair weather, it will fend me abroad ; give foul 
«< weather, it will keep me at home.** 

But make the Datum a fentence. As — " if it is fair 
« weather, it will fend me abroad ; if it is foul weather, 
** it will keep me at home.** 

And then the article that is tinderilood, and may be 
inferted after if ; As-—** if that it is fair weather, it will 

2 ** fend 


<< feadme abroad ; if that it is foul weather, it will keep 
« me at home." . 

The refolution then being, 
« It is fair weather, give THAT ; it will fend me abroad ; 
« It is foul weather, give that ; it will keep me at home.*» 

And this you will find to hold univerfally, not only with 
IF ; biit with many other fuppofed Co»Juncti0ftSf fuch as, 
But tbatf Unkfs tbat, *Iieugb tbatt Lefl tbaty 8cc. (which 
are really Verbs') put in this manner before the Article that. 


One word more to dear up a difficulty which occurs to 
me concerning your account of if, and I have done. 

We have in £ngliih another word which (though now 
rather obfolete) ufed frequently to fupply the place of if. 
As — '*^ AN you had any eye behind you, you might fee more 
<< detraction at your heels^ than fcnrtunes before you *,^ 

In this and in. all iimilar Inilances, what is an ? For I can 
by no means agree with Uie account which Dr. S. Johnfon 

* - ■ ■ 1 1, — ■ 

♦ Twelfth Nig^, Aft Π. Sgciic 8. 

Ρ gives 


gives of it in his DitStionary : and I do not know, tbat any 
other peribn has ever attempted to explain it. 

How does he account for k ? 

■ I 

He fays,-— « an is ibmetimes in old authors a contradion 
of And if^ Of which he gives a very unlucky inftance 
from Shakefpeare *; where both an and if are ufed in 
the fame line. 

— — — " He cannot flatter. He Γ 
<' An honeft mind and plain : he muft ipeak Truth : 


An they will take it,f — ^So. i ε not ι He's plamJ' 

Where, if an was a contraction of and if ; an and if 
Ihould rather change places. 


I can no more agree with ΒΓι S. Johnfon than you do. 
A part of one word only, employed to ihew that another 
word is compounded with it, would indeed be a curious 
method of con-traShon, Though even this account of it 
would ferve my purpofe. But the truth will fer ve it better : 

* Lear, AA II. Scene 6. 



and therefore I thank you for your difficulty. It is a freih 
proof) and a very Arong one in my favour. An is alfo a 
Verb^ and may very well fupply the place of if ; it being 
nothing elfe but the Imperative of the Anglo-faxoii verb 
Knan» which likewife means to Givey or to Grant» 


It feems indeed to be fo. But, if ib, how can it ever 
be made to iignify as if ? For which aUb, as well as for 
And ify Johnfon fays an is a con-tradtion *. 


It never iignifies As if : nor is ever a contradtion of them. 


Johnibn however advances Addiibn^s authority for it. 
— — " My next pretty correfpondent, like Shakefpeare*s 

*< Lion in Py ramus and Thiibei roars an it were any 
" nightingale.** 


If Addifon had fo written, I ihould anfwer roundly, that 
he had written falfe Engliih. But he never did fo write. 

* This arbitrary mcdiod of cotttraSion is yery ulcful to an idle or igno- 
rant expofuor. It will fuit any thing. S. Johnfon alfo fay s 

" An't, a contradtion for yfoi /■/ i or rather yi» J if it •, as— An't pleafc 
<' you— that is, And if it pleqfe you." It is merely — an it pUafe you. 

Ρ a Ho 


He only quoted it ία mirth and ridicule^ as the author 
wrote it. And Johnfon» an Editor of Shakefpear^ ought 
to have known and obferved it. And then, inftead bf 
Addiibn^s or eveh Shakefpear^s authority, from whom the 
exprefiion is borrowed ; he ihould have quoted Bo^wh\ 
the Weaver : whofe Language correfponds with, the cha- 
rader Shakeipeare has given him, — 

*» Ihi βαΐϊβνο'β thiekfiuU of that harrenjarti vk. 

** A crew ^ Patebes, rude AfecboMiealSi 

*' That work for Bread upon Jtbenian Stalls •." 

** I will aggravate my voice ίο (fays Bottom) that I will 
" roar you as gently as any fucking Dove : I will roar you 
*< AN 'twere any nightingale -f .** 

If Johnfon is fatisfied with fuch auth<Mity as this, for 
the different iignification and propriety of Englilh wofds, 
he will find enough of it amongil the clowns in all our 
comedies ; and Mafier Bottom in particular in this very 
fentence will furnifli him with many new meanings. But, 
I believe, Johnfon will not find an ufed for As if^ either 
ferioufly or clowniihly, in any other part of Addifon or 
Shakeipeare; except in this fpeech of Bottom^ and in 

■ ! ■ ■» I ■> I I ■ I I 11 ■ . 1 I ■■■■ II ■ ^i— ^— 1— — i— — » 

* Midfummcr Night's Dream, AftlH Scene 2. 
t Midfummer Ni^t's Dream, Aft L Scene 2. 




another of Hoftefs fttfickly — *< He made a finer end, and 
** went away an it had been any Chriftom child *.** 

In £ngli(h then^ it feemsy thefe two words which have 
been called condition^ ConjuntStions (and whofe force and 
manner oi fignification, as well as of all the others, we 
are diredled by Mr. Locke to fearch after in " the feveral 
*< views, poilures, ilands, turns, limitations^ and excep- 
** tions, and feveral other thoughts of the mind, for which 
« we have either none or very deficient name/*) are, accord- 
ing to you, merely the original Imperatives of the verH 
to Give or to Grant• 

Now let me underitand you. I do not mean to divert 
you into an etymological explanation of each particular 
word of other languages, or even of the Engliih, and fo 
to change our converfation from a philofophical inquiry 
concerning the nature of Language in general, into the 
particular bufinefs of a polyglot Lexicon. But, as you; 
have faid that your principles will apply univerfally, I defire 
to know whether you mean that the conditional conjundiions- 
of all other languages are likewife to be found, fike if and 


* Henry V. Aft Π. Scene 3. 



He only quoted it in mirth and ridicule, as the author 
wrote it. And Johnfi>n» an Editor of Shakefpear^ ought 
to have known and obferved it. And then, inibead bf 
Addiibn^s or eveh Shakefpear^s authority, from whom the 
expreffion is borrowed ; he ihould have quoted BoPfom^ 
the Weaver : whofe Language correfponds with the cha- 
rader Shakeipeare has given him, — 

" 7l•* fialbw'Jf fbukJcuB of that harriK/orfy vb. 

** ji crew rf Patches y rude MecboMieaL•, 

«* That work for Bread upon j^benian Stalls V 

*< I will aggravate my voice ίο (fays Bottom) that I will 
" roar you as gently as any fucking Dove : I will roar you 
*« AN 'twere any nightingale -t.** 

If Johnfon is fatisfied with fuch authcmty as this, for 
the different iignification and propriety of Engliih words» 
he will find enough of it amongil the clowns in all our 
comedies ; and Mafier Bottom in particular in this very 
fentence will furnifli him with many new meanings• But, 
I believei Johnfon will not find an ufed for As if^ either 
ferioufly or clowniflily, in any other part of Addifon or 
Shakeipeare; except in this fpeech of Bottom^ and in 

* MidfummcT Night's Dream, Aft IIL Scene 2. 
\ Midfummer Ni^t's Dream, Aft I. Scene 2. 



smother of Hoftefs Sjfickfy — ** He made a finer end, and 
** weat away an it had been any Chriftom child *.** 


In Engliih theny it feems, thefe two words which have 
been called conditional Conjunctions (and whofe force and 
manner oi fignification, as well as of all the others, we 
are directed by Mr. Locke to fearch after in ** the feveral 
« views, poftures, itands, turns, limitations, and excep- 
<* tions, and feveral other thoughts of the mind, for which 
" we have either none or very deficient namef) are, accord- 
ing to you, merely the original Imperatives of the verbt 
to Give or to Grants 

Now let me underftand you. I do not mean to divert 
you into an etymological explanation of each particular 
word of other languages, or even of the Engliih, and f6 
to change our converfation from a philofophical inquiry 
concerning the nature of Language in general, into the 
particular bufinefs of a polyglot Lexicon. But, as youc 
have faid that your principles will apjdy universally, I defire 
to know whether you mean that the conditional conjunSlions^ 
of all other languages are likewife to be found, fike if and 


♦ Henry V. Aft Π. Scene 3. 



AN, in the original Imperatives of fome of their own or 
derived verbsy meaning to Give f 


No• If that Avas my opinion I know you are ready 
inftantly to confute it by the Conditionals of the Greek and 
Latin and Iriili, the Fxench, Italian, Spaniih, Portugueze 
and -many other Languages. But I mean, that thofe words 
which are 02λ\^ά conditional conjunoliens^ are to be accounted 
for in ALL languages in the fame manner as I have ac- 
counted for IF and an. Not indeed that they muft all 
mean precifelyas thefe two do, — Give and Grant ; but fome 
word equivalent : Such as, — Be it^ Suppofe^ AlloWy Permit^ 
Put J Suffer^ &c. Which meaning is to be fought for from 
the particular ■€tynK)logy of each refpeitive language, not 
from fome un-named and un-known " Turns, Stands, Pof- 
" tures, &c. iJf the mind.** In ihort, to put this matter 
out of doubt, I mean to difcard all fuppofed my iter y, not 
only about thefe Conditionals^ but about all thofe words alio 
Which Mr. Harris and others diftinguiih from Prepoiitions» 
and call Conjun£iions of Sentences. I deny them to he a 
feparate fort of words or Part of Speech by themfelves. 
For they have not a feparate .///^;/«^γ of fignification: al- 
though they are not devoid of fignification. And the .par- 
ticular fignification of each muft be fought for from amongft 



the other parts of Speech, by the help of the particular 
etymology of each refpeolive language. By fuch means 
alone can we clear away the obfcurity and errors in which 
Grammarians and Philofophers have been involved by the 
corruption of Ibme common words, and the ufeful Abbre- 
viations of Conftrudlion. And at the fame time we fliall 
get rid of that farrago of ufelefs diftinilions into Conjunc-^ 
the J AdjunSiive^ DisjundUve^ Subdisjunoiivey CopulativCy 
Negative copulative ^-^, Continuative^ , Subcontinuativf^ Poji- 
tJvey Suppq/itivey Ca/ua/y CoIIeSiivey EfeSihe^ Jpprobativey 
Difcretivey Ablativey Prefumptivey Abnegativey Completivey 
Augmentativey Alternativey Hypotbeticaly Extenfvey Peri^ 
odicaly Motivaly Conclufivey Explicativey ^rarifitivey Interro^ 
gativey Comparativey Diminutivey Preventivey Adequate 
Preventive^ Adverfativey Conditionaly Sufpenfivey Illative^ 
GondudHvey Declarativey &c• &:c. &c. which explain nor 
thing ; and (as moft other technical terms are abufed) ferve 
only to throw a veil over the ignorance of thofe who em- 
ploy them +.- 


^ " Noriy Noriy non minus disjungit, quam Nee, Nee. Quanquam ncu- 
** trum ego Disjunilivum, ^ρρύΐο, led eopulaiihuni. pouus negativum.'' ' 

Afiftarchus Anti-Bentieianus. Pars fccunda. Pag. 12.. 

t Technical terms arc not invariably abufed to cover the ignorance only 
of thofc who employ them. In matters of law, politicks, and Government, 
they arc more frequently abufed in attempting to impofe upon the ignorance 
of Qibers -, and to cover the injuftice and knavery of thofe who emiploy thenx 

B. You 



You mean, then, by what you have faid, flatly to con- 
tradift Mr. Harris's definition of a Conjun&ion ; which he 
fays, is — " a Part of Speech devoid of fignification itfelfy 
" but fo formed as to help fignification, by making two or 
'* more lignificant fentences to be one fignlficant fentence.* 


I have the lefs fcruple to do that, becaufe Mr. Hams 
makes no fcruple to contradict himfelf. For he afterwards 
acknowledges that fome of them—*' have a kind of ob- 
^ fcure fignification when taken alone; and appear in 
*« Grammar, like Zoophytes * in nature, a kind of middle 
** Beings of amphibious charafter ; which, by iharing the 
^* attributes of the higher and the lower, conduce to 
" the whole together."" 

Now I fuppofe it is impoflible to convey a Nothing in a 
more ingenious manner. How much fuperior is this to 

^-— ^* ■ ■■ 

* Thcfe Zoopiytes have made a wonder&il impreifion on Lord Monbodda 
I believe (for I furely have not counted them) that he has ufed the allufion 
at leaft twenty times in his progreis of language ; and ieems to be always 
hunting after extremes merely for tlie fake of introduQ ng them. But they 
have been fo often placed between two flools, that it is «no wonder they 
ihould at laft come to the ground, 

α the 

OF - CX)NJUNCrnONS• 1 1 3 

the oracular Saw of another learned author on Language 
(typified by Shakefpeare iii SJr Ti^az *) who, amongft 
much' other intelligence of equal importance, tells us with 
a- very iblennin face, and afcribes it to Plato, that — ^ Every 
*i naan that opines, mull opine fomething : the fubjeol of 
i* opinion therefore is not nothing.'' But the faireft way 
to Lord Monboddo is to give you the whole paflage• 

*^ It was not therefore without reafon that Plato faid 
•' that the fubjedt of opinion was neither the ro Iv, or the 
^^ thing itfelf, nor was it the το μη Sv, or nothing ; but 
^^ fomething betwixt thefe two• This may appear 2Χβτβ 
^* itght a little myfterious, and difficult to be underftood ; 
^ but, like other things of that kind in Platoy when 
*^ examined to the bottom^ it has a ^oery clear meaning, and 


♦ ** As the old Hermit of Prague^ that never iaw pen and ink, very 
<^r wittily faid to 2 niece of king Gorboddc» — Thai that is, is: So I Mng 
^ Mafier ParfM, omMufierFarftnt. Fwvsbatutiua, but that i And is; 

' Twelfdi Night, Aft I\ . %ctxA 3. * 


J^dim \}λγ% Sip Tbphas mwiMUizis in the fame manner. 
««* Sir Tophas. Doeft thou not know: what a poet is ? 
^••Epitoiv. No• ' ' 

^' SsrTbphaSi Why fbole, a poet much as one ihould fay— « poet.••* 

Endimion, Aft-L Scene 3. 

Q explains 


*« explains the nature of opinion very well * ; for, as he 

" fays, Every man that opines, muft opine fomething; 

" the fubjedt of opinion therefore is not nothing. At the 

« fame time it is not the thing itfelf, but fomething be- 

" twixt the two Ί•.** His Lordihip, you fee, has expbdned 


Lucindc. Qu'cft cc que c'cft que cc galimatias ? 
Frontin. Ce galimatias 1 Vous n'y comprcnez done ricn ? 
Lucindc. Non, en verite. 
Fronting Ma foi^ ni moi non plus :. je vais pourtant yous Texpliqucr β 

vous voulcz. 
Lucinde. Comment m' axpliquer ce que m nc comprends pas ? 
Frontin. Oh ! Dame> J'ai fait mes etudes, moi; 

L'amant de lui-meme. Roufleau, Scene ziii; 

t Origin and Progrefe of Language, VoJ. I. p. lOO. **• U poflcde 

I'antiquite, comme on le peut voir par les. belles remarques qu*U a ^tes^ 

Sans lui nous ne f^aurions pas que dans la ville d'Athenes les enfant 

pleuroient quand.on leur donnoit le fouet.— Nous devons cette decouverte 

a fa profonde erudition." 

But his lordihip 's philofoiphical writings, are full of information, oxpla•^ 

nations arid obfervations of equal importance. Vol. I. p. 1.36, he ihformi 

us, that — Porphyry, the greatefi pbilo/opber as well as hefi writer υ/ bis agc^ 

^' relates that crows and magpies and parrots were taught in his time not 

^ only to imitate human ipeech, but to attend to what was told them and 

^ to remember it ; and many of them, fa)^ he, have learned to inform 

^ againil thoie whom they faw doing^ any mifchief in the houle. And he 

•• himfelf tamed a partridge that he found fomewhere about Carthage to 

•• fcich a degree, that it not only played and fondled with him, but anfwered 

" him when he Ipoke to it in a voice different from that in which the 

^ partridges call one another 2 but was fo well bred, that it never made 

9 ^ this 



it very clearly ; and no doubt muft have fweated much to 
get thus to the bottom. 

But Mr, Harris has the advantage of a Simile over this 
gentleman : and though Similies appear with moil beauty 

^ - — ■ — — - -* — — — 

^' this noife but when it was ipoken to. And he maintains^ that all animals 
who have fcnfe and memory arc capable of rcafon : and this is not only 
his opinion^ but that of the Pythagoreans, ibe greatefl pbilojofkers in 
my opinion that ever exified, next to the matters of their maftcr, I mean 
*' the Egyptian priefts. And befides the Pythagoreans, Plato, Ariftotle, 
Empedoclcs, and Democritus, were of the fame opinion. One thing 
cannot be denied^ that their natures may be rery much improved by ulc 
and inftruclion, by which they may be made to do things that arc really 
wonderful and far exceeding their natural power of inftinft." — So far we 
are obliged to the greatefl of all philo/ophers that ever exifted. And thus 
far the judgment of the cxtraot can alone be called in queftion. Now for 
the farther confirmatio» of this dootrine by their illuftrious difciplc.— 
*' There is a man in England at prefent, who has praftifcd mor« upon them 
" and with greater fuccefs than any body living:'^ — (I fufpedt his lordihip 
means the owner of the learned Pig) — ^ and he fays, as I am informedy'-^ 
(Ay, Right, my lord. Be cautious how you take an aiTcrtion fo important 
as this, upon your own authority ! Well, He fays ? What ?) — " That, if 
" they lived long enough ^ and γύη& fufficient were taken upon them,"— 
(Well, what thenf) — " it is impofjible to fay 4o what lengths fome of them 
•' might be carried.'* 

Now if this, and fuch ftufF as this, be Philofophy ; and that too, of the 
greatefl: philofophers that ever exifted; I do moft humbly intreat your 
lordihip, if you ftill continue Obftinate to difcard Mr. Locke, that 1 may 
have my Tom Thumb again. For this philofophy gives to my mind as much 
difguft, though not fo much indignation, as your friend and adaiirer Lord 
Mansfield's law. 

Q 2 and 






and propriety in work,s of imagination» they are frequently 

found moil ufeful to the authors of philofophical treatifes : 

and have often helped them out at many a dead lift, by 

giving them an appearance of faying fomething, when 

.^ indeed they had nothing to fay : For Similies are in truth 

/the bladders upon which they float; and the Grammarian 

V finks at once if he attempts to fwim without them• 

As a proof of which, let us only examine the preient 
inftance; and, difmi fling the Zoophytes f fee what intelli- 
gence we can draw from Mr. Harris concerning the nature 
of Conjunctions. 

Firft be defines ^Word to be a <* found fignifcant ^ ."* 
Then he defines Conjunctions to be words (i. e• fiunds 
ftgnificanty " devoid offignification^ — Afterwards he allows 
that they have— <^ a kind of figmficatian^ 

But this kind of fignification is — ^^ obfcure^ (i. e. a 
fignification unknown) : fomething I fuppofe (as Chilling- 
worth couples them) like "di fecret Traditionj or % filent 
thunder : for it amounts to the fame thing as ix fgnification 
which does notjignify : an obfcure or unknown fignifix:ation 

* And (page 329) he defines a word to be " 4 voice articulate, figni-. 
•* ficant by compafl.'* 

2 l>«ng 


being no iignification at all. But, not contented with 
thefe inconfiftencies, which to a lefs learned man would 
feem fufficient of all confcience, Mr. Harris goes farther, 
and adds, that they are a — " kind of middle beings^ — (he 
muft mean between iignification and no fignification 
•^ paring the Attributes of both^ — (i. e. oi fignification and 
no fignification) and—" conduce to link tbem botb^ — (i. e. 
fignification and no fignification) " together.^ 

It wotSd have helped us a little, if Mr. Harris had here 
told us what that middle flate is, between fignification and 
no fignification * ! What are the attributes of no fignifica- 
tion ! And how fignification and no fignification can be 
linked together ! 

» ■■< 

■a^fc»<fc»^ I ■ I ■■ 

* ff common rtaibn alone was not fufficient to keep Mr. Harris and 
Lord Monboddo from thisf middle ftatc betwetn the το ov and the το ^n β,, 
and between iignification and no fignification ; they fliould at leaft have 
Hftened \p what they are better acquainted with. Authority. 

^' Oca ti rm ty»Htk)¥ τοι«υ7« frtv> art f» ας vf^xe γϋ^ιβ-φαι, n m )e«7t)yo^e7fti> 
•* Λ¥ΛγκΛ9ψ$ eevlwt- SWlfpoir υταρχ^τη j— rovW »i«» ίΓ»ι^ λψλ /ac^oit»" Ariftot* 


'* Inter affirmationem & negatioaem nullum medium cxiilit.'* J. C^ 
ScAL^G£Rj Lib. 5• C. cxiv» 


I • 



Now all this may, for aught I know, be *^ read and 
" admired as long as there is any tafte for βηβ writing in 
^^ Britain "^K^ But with fuch unlearned and vulgar philo- 


^ " The truly philofophical language of my worthy and learned friend 
" Mr• Harris, the author of Hermes, a work that will be read and admired 
* as long as there i^ any tafte for philofophy and fine writing in Britain.'* 

Ortg, and Prog, of Language^ Vol. \. p. 9. 

" But I can hardly have tlie fame indulgence for the philofopher, efpecially 

** one who pretended^ like Mr. Locke, to be fo attentive an obferver of 

** what paflcd in his own mind, and has written a whole book upon the 

" fubjeft. — If Mr. Locke would have taken the trouble to ftudy what "had 

" been difcovered in this matter by the antients, and had not refolved to 

** have the merit of inventing himfelf a whole fyftem of philofophy, he 

" would have known that every material objeot is compofed of matter and 

" form.'* 

Orig. and Prog, of Lang.. Vol. i. ^.38• 



Mr. Locke wrote at a time ^hcn the old philofophy, I mean the 

fcholaftic philofophy, was generally run down and defpifed, but no other 

come in its place. In that fituation, being naturally an acute man, and 

not a bad writer, it was no wonder that his EiTay met with great ajpplaufe» 

and was thought to contain wonderful difcoveries. And I muft allow 

" that I think it was difficult for any man, without the affiftance of books, 

" or of the converfadon of men more learned than himfelf, to go further 

in the philofophy of mind than he has done. But now that Mr. Harris 

has opened to us the treafures of Greek philofophy, to confider Mr. 

' "Locke ftiil as a ftandard book of philofophy, would be, to ufe an ancient 

comparifon, conrinuing to feed on acorns after corn was difcovered." 

u It 




ibpheps as Mr* Locke and his difciples» who feek not I'afle 
and elegance^ but truth and common ienie in philoibphical 
fubje(5ts) I believe it will never pafs as a <* perfeSl Example 
** of Analyfis ;** nor bear away the palm for " acutenefs of 
^^ invefii^ation and perfpicuity of explication^ For, fepa- 
rated from the Fine Writings (which however I can no 
where find in the book) thus is the ConjunBion explained 
by Mr. Harris. — A found fignificant devoid of iignification> 

Having at the fame time a kind of obfcure iignification ; 
And yet having neither Iignification nor no fignification ; 

But a middle fometbing between fignification and no 

Sharing the attributes both, of fignification and no figni- 
fication ; 

And linking fignification and no fignification together. 


«* It was the misfortune of us in the weftern parts of Europe, that after 
• we had learned Greek, and got fome taftc of the Greek philofophy> we 

immediately fct up as mafters ourfelvcs, and would needs be inventors in 
*' philofophy, inftead of hum.Me fcholars of the ancient mafters. In this 
•' way Defcartes philofophized in France, Mr. Hobbes and Mr. Locke in 
*«' Engjand, and many fince their time ©f left note. I would fain hope, if 
*^ the indolence and difllpation that prevail fo generally in this age would 
** allow nic to think fo well of it, that Mr. Harris wouki put a ftop to this 
^ method of philof'^»>hifing without the• aiTiftance of the ancients, and re-* 
** vive the genuine Greek philofophy among us." Id, f. 54^ 





if tjthQf §1 of %. irjofQ elegant Taile for Find ff^rtfingj, are 
aWe to rqe^ivft either pl^afi^re or inftru<5tion from fuch irufy 
pbiiQ/opbicfif hnguag» *> I ihall neither difpute with th^m 
jioF envy them : Bvit e^ only deplore th^ duUnefs of my 
own apppehenfioB, whe> notwithftancling the great authors 
quoted in Mr. Harris!^ tfeatife, ^nd the great authors who 
]r«commend it, qaqnot htilp qonfidering this " p^rfeft 
" example of ^n^yfis,*^ Jis-^— Λη improved compilation of 
almoit ^11 the errors which Grammarians have been accu-. 
mulating from the time of Ariftotle down to our prefcnt 
days, of technical and learned afFedtation +. 

^PW"^wwr»r— <••— ••■F^ii^i 

* '* Clarus ob obfcuram linguam magis inter iniMs 
** Quamde graveis inter Grajos, qui vera requirupt• 
^* Omnia enim ftolidi magis admirantur amantquc 
" Inverfis quse fub verbis latitantia cerniint : 
" Veraque conftituunt, quie belle tangcre poflunt 
" Aurcs, & lepido quae funt fiicata fonore/* 

LucRETiuSj IJi. X. 640• 

f I muft however do Mr. Harris and Dr. Lowth the jufticc to acknow- 
ledge, that the Hermes of the former has been received with univerfal 
approbation both at home and abroad 5 and has been quoted as undeniable 
authority on the fubjeft by the learned of all countries. For which how- 
ever I can eafily account ; not by fuppofmg that its doftrine gave any more 
iatisfadion to their minds who quoted it than to mincj but bccaufe, as 
Judges ihelter their knv/xry hy , precedents^ fo do fcholars their ignorance 
by authority : and when they cannot reaibnj it is fa&r and. lefs difgraceful 
to. repeat that nonfcnfe af, fecpnd.hajvilj wiii^h th^ey. would bfi aihamed to 
give originally, as thcif^owiit 

B. I 



I am afraid, my good friend, you ftill carry with you 
your old humour in politics, .though your fubje£t is now 
different. You fpeak too iharply for Philofophy. Come, 
Cpnfefs the truth. Are not you againft Authorityy becaufe 
Authority is againft you? And does not your fpleen to 
Mr. Harris arife principally from his having taken care to 
fortify his opinions in a manner in which, from your lin- 
gularity, you cannot ? 


I hope you know my difpoiltion better. And I ^m 
perfuaded that I owe your long and ileady . friendfhip to 
me, to the convidtion which an early experience in private 
life afforded you, that — Neminem libenter nominem, nifi 
ut laudem ; fed nee peccata reprehenderem, niii ut aliis 
prodeiTem. — Indeed you have borne your teftimony for me 
in very trying fltuations, where few beiides yourfelf would 
have ventured fo much honefty. At the fame time, Γ 
confefs, I Ihould difdain to handle any ufeful truth daintily, 
as if I feared left it ihould fting me; and to employ ^ 
philofophical inquiry as a vehicle for interefted or cowardly 


* . 

R I.proteft 


1 proteft to you, my notions of Language were formed 
before I could account etymologically for any one of the 
words in queilion, and before I was in the leaft acquainted 
with the opinions of others. I addrefled myielf to an in» 
quiry into their opinions with all the diffidence of confdous 
ignorance ; and, fo far from fpurning authority, was dif- 
pofed to admit of half an argument from a great name. 
So that it is not my faulty if I am forced to carry inilead 
of foDowing the lanthorn : but at all events it is better 
than walking in total darknefs• 

And yet, though I believe I differ from all the accounts^ 
which have hitherto been given of Language, I am not fo 
much without authority as you may imagine. Mr• Harris 
himfelf and all the Grammarians whom he has, and whom 
(though ufing their words) he has not quoted, are my 
authorities. Their own doubts, their difficulties, their 
diffatisfadlion, their contradidlions, their obfcurity on all 
thefe points are my authorities againft them * : for their 

♦ " Profcfto in Grammaticorum prope omnium commentis, qua? «yp«ix«i 
'' immcnflum cxtollunt, pcne «If» υγης : cum pagina: flngulae ikpe plures 
" contineane errorcs, quam Sicinius ille Dcntatus vulacra toto habuit 
" corporc," 

G. J. Vossii Aristarchus, Lib. iii. Cap. a* 

juxxiv. <« Capienda etiam funt figna ex incrcmenris et progreflibus phila- 
fophiarum ct fcienuarum• Quas enim in natuia fundau funt^ crefcunt 
9 ^ ^^ 



fyflem and their difficulties vaniih together. Indeed un:^ 
lefs, with Mr. Harris, I had been repeating what othei^, 
have written, it is impojGible I ihould quote any diretSt 
a.uthcH'ities for 2uy own manner of explanation. But let 
US hear WilkinSt whofe induftry defer ved to have been* 

et augentur : quse autcm in opinionc^ variantur ; non augentur. IcagiUe 

ii iftse doftrinse plane, inftar plantse^ a ftiipibus fuis rtvulfx non eflent^ 
^^ fed utero naturae adiuererent» atque ab eadem alerentur, id minimc 
" eventurum fuiflet, quod per annos bis mille jam fieri videmus : nempe^ ut 

fcientiae fuis hasreant veftigiis^ et in eodem fere ftatu maneant, neque 

augmcntum aliquod memorabile fumpferint.'• 

Lxxv. " Etiam aliud fignum capiendum eft (fi modo /ipti appellatio 
*^ huic competat; cum potius tefiimmium fit» atque adeo teilimoniorum 
^^ omnium validiifimum) hoc eft, propria confeflio auftoram, quos homines 
^^ nunc iequuntur. Nam et illi, qui tanta fiducia de rebus pronuncianty 
" tamcn per intervalla cum ad fe redeunt, ad querimonias de natura Jubti^ 
" litatey rerum objcuritate, humani ingenii infirmitate fe convertunt. Hoc 
<' vero ii fimpKcicer fieret, alios fortaile qui funt dmidiones ab lilteriori 
" inqurfitione deterrere, alios vero qui funt ingenio aiacriori et magis' 
" fidenti ^ad ulteriorem progreifum acuere ct incitarc poifit. Verum non . 
•^ fatis illis eft de fe confiteri, fed quicquid fibi ipfis aut magiftris fuis in- 
** cognitum aut intaftum fuerit, id extra terminos poflibilis ponunt^ et 
tanquam ex arte, cognitu aut £i£hi impoffibile pronunciant : ec-^aeqeam^- 
ex> «tCy -CQfflit4, aut .fedtu-i mp offib il c' pronttneiaFct t Summa fuperbia et . 
'^ invidia fuorum inventorum infirmitatem» in naturas ipfius caiumniam et 
** aliorum omnium defperationem vertentes. Hinc fchola Academia; nova?, 
'^ quae Acatalepfiam ex profeifo tenuity et homines ad lempiternas tenehras 
** damnavit.'* 


■ .' ' ' • « 

R 2 better 



better employed, and his perfeverance better rewarded with 
diicovery ; let us hear what he fays. 

— « According to the tme philofophy of fpeech, I can- 
<* not conceive this kind of words" (he fpeaks of Adverbs 
and Conjundlions) ^^ to be properly a diftinot part of 
^^ fpeech, as they are commonly called. But until they 
^* can be diftributed into their proper places, I have fo far 
** complied with the Grammars of inftituted languages, as 
** to place them here together.'' — And again, 

*^ For the accurate effedling- of this [i. e. a real charac^ 
" ter\ it would be neceffary that the theory itfelf [i• e. of 
*< language] upon which fuch a defign were to be founded, 
** ibould be exadtly fuited to the nature of things. But 
** upon fuppofal that this theory [viz. of language'] is de- 
*< fedlive, either as to the fulnefs or the order of it; this• 
" mull aeeds add much perpl6xity to any fuch attempt, 


" and render it imperfedl. And that this is the cafe with- 
*^' that common theory already received, need not much: 
** be doubted.••^ 

It appear» evidently, th'erefdre" that Wilkins (to whom? 
Mr. Locke wa^ much indebted) was well convinced that 
all• the accounts hitherto given of Language were erroneous. 



And in faft, the languages which are commonly ufed 
throughout the world, are ^ much more iimple and eafy, 
convenient and philofophical than Wilkins's fcheme for a 
real cbara&er ; or than any other icheme that has been at 
any other time imagined or propofed for the purpofe. 

Mr. Locke's diffatisfadtion with all the accounts which 
he had f6un> is too well knowin to need repetition. 

San<5tms reicued q^od particularly from the number of 
thefe myflferious Conjunctions, though he left υ'τ amongft 

And SeWiusi Scioppius, G. J. Voflius, Perizonius, and' 
others j have explained and diiplaced'many other fuppioied' 
Adverbs^and' Cdnjuhdtioris, 

Skinner (though* I kneW i< not previoufly) had aixounted 
for if^ before me, arid in the fartie manner; which, though 
ίο palpable, Lye confirms and compliments. £ven S. Jbhn* 
fon, though miftakenly, has attempted and; and would 
find no difficulty with TH£R£VbRE. 

Ifllh«rti theiie ii'not'fudi"a*tfiing'a«a Cfl;?/<^«<S?«)« in 

jm^^tsti^t^e^ WhiiCh Mttynilei^'by^a^iltilfQl -Herald, be 



traced home to its own family and origin; without having 
recourfe to contradiotion and myftery with Mr• Harris : or, 
with Mr. Locke, cleaving open the head of man, to give 
it fuch a birth as Minerva's from the brain of Jupiter. 

Call you this authority in your favour ? When the foil 
ilream and current fets the other way, and only fome little 
brook or rivulet runs with you ? You know very well that 
all the authorities which you have alleged, except Wilkins, 
are upon the whole againft you. -For 4iiough they have 
explained the meaning, and traced the derivation of many 
Adverbs and Conjunotions; yet (except Sanotius in the 
particular inftance of quod, — whofe conjundlive ufe in 
Lottin he too ftrenuoufly denies) they all acknowledge 
them Hill to be Adverbs or £i$njun£iions. It is true, they 
diftinguiih them by the title of reperta or ufurpata : But 
they at the fame time acknowledge : (indeed the very dif- 
tin£tion itfelf is an acknowledgment) that there are others 
which arer^^/, primigenia^ nativay pur a. 

True. Becaufe there are foine> of whofe origin they 
were totally ignorant. But has any Philofopher or Gram- 
marian ever .y«t told us what .a r^i?/, original^ native., pure 



Adverb or ConjuiKStion is ? Or which of thefe Conjun^ons 
of Sentences are fo > Whenever that is done, in any lan- 
guage, I may venture to promife you that I will ihew thofe 
likewife to be repertas and uficrpatas, as well as the reft. 
And till then I ihall take no more trouble about them. I 
ihall only add, that though Abbreviation and corruption are 
ahvays bufiefl with the words wbicb are mqfl frequently in 
ufe ; yet the words mofl frequently ufed are leafi Uable to be 
totally laid afide. And therefore they are often retained,— 
(I mean that branch of them which is moft frequently 
«fed)* — when moft of the other words— (and even the 
other branches of thefe retained words) — are, by various 
changes and accidents, quite loft to a Language. Hence 
the difficulty of accounting for them. And hence (be- 
caufe only one branch of each of thefe declinable words is 
retained in a language) ariies the notion of their being 
indeclinable ; and a feparate fort of words, or Part of Speech 
by therafelves. But that they are not indeclinable^ is fuf- 
ficiently evident by what I have already faid. For Dip, 
3(n, 8cc. certainly could not be called indeclinable^ when all 
the other branches of thofe Verbsy of which they are the 
regular Imperatives, were likewife in ufe. And that the 
words IF, AN, &c. (which ftill retain their original fignifi- 
cation, and are ufed in the very fame manner and for the 
f^me purpofe as formerly) (hould now be called indeclinable^ 








proceeds merely from the ignorance of thofe who co\il4 
not account for them; and, who therefore, with Mr, 
Harris, were driven to fty that they have neith^ meaning 
nor infleSiion : whilft notwithftanding they were ftilj forced 
to acknowledge (either diredly, or by giving thena difierent 
titles of conditional, adverfativey Sec.) that they have a 
*< kind of obfeure meaning *.'* 

How much more candid and ingenuous would it have 
been, to have owned fairly that they did not underftand 
the nature of thefe Conjundlions ; and, inftead of wrapping 
it up in myftery, to have exhorted and encouraged others 
to a farther fearch. 


You are not the firft perfon who has been mifled by a 
fanciful etymology. Take heed that your derivations be 
not of the fame ridiculous caft with theirs who deduced 

* ** Et quelle idee eft excitce dans Tcfprit en cntendant prononcer les 
'* particules et, aussi ? On voir bien que ces mots fignifient une elpqcc dc 
*' connexion; mais quelque peine qu'on fe donnat a decrire cettc connexion^ 
" on fe icrviroit d'autant d'autres mots, dont la iignification feroit auflt 
" difficile a expliquer: et voulant expliquer la fignification de-Ik particulc 
<* ET, je me fcrvirois plufieurs fois de cette meme particule." 

Lettres ^ une Princeflc d'Allemagne, by Eulcr, Letter ck 

I Con^ 


Con/iantinopk from Conflantine the mblei-^Breeches from 
bsar-ricbes, — Donna from DonOf~^Honour from Hon and 
ulurumf^-'Tca.a King Pepin from orjr^ *. 

H. If 

* ** Then this Conftant^ removed the empetyall fee unto his cytye of 

*' Confiantyne the nobU : and diere for die more partye kepte hb emperyall 

*< honoure; and other emperours in lyke vyie after hym. By reafon 

*' whereof the emperours were longe after called emperours of Qmfiantyne 

« mhU." 

Fabian's Chronicle, Chap. LXIX. 

** Hed. But why Breeches now ? 

** Pha. Breeches» quafi bear-riebes % when a gallant beats all his riches in 
*• his breeches." 

B. Johnfoiu Cynthia's Revek» Aft 4, Sec. 3. 

*^ Flacano i Ooni il ciel ; placan i'inicmo• 

«< £ pur non fon le Donn^ 

'* Men avare chc il ciclo, 

** Piu crude che I'inferno. 

^^ II Όοη^ credimi^ il Done 

*' Gran miniftro d' amore^ anzi tiranno• 

*^ Egli Cj che a fuo voler impetra e ipetra• 

*' Non fai ni cio ch* £lpino, 

<' n iaggio Elpmo dicea ? 

^ Che fin coli nella primiera etade, 

Quand' anco femplicetti 

Non fapean favellare 
«' Che d' un linguaggio fol la lingua e *! core, 
^< Allor le amanti Donne alcra canzona 
" Non s' udivan cantar cYi^-^Oona^ Dona, 

S ^< Quin(fi 





• • ■ 

If I have been mifled, it moft certainly is not by Ety- 
mology : of which I confefs myfelf to have been ihame- 
fully ignorant at the time when thefe my notions of lan- 
guage were firft formed• Though even that previous 
ignorance is now a circumitance which confirms me much 
in my opinion concerning thefe Conjunftions : For I knew 
not even the cbavaSler oi the language from which my 
particular proofs of the Englifl) conjundtions were to be 
drawn. And (notwithftanding Lord Monboddo's difcou- 
raging Sneer *,) it was general reafoning a priory that led 


«< » " ' ' . ■ ■ I ■ ■ ■ . -^ I I ■ ■ ■ I ■ ,■■■■■ . I ■ in 

*' Quindi Γ enne addoppiando 

" Perche non bafta un Ώοη^ — Donna fu detta•'* 

Guidobaldo dc* BonarcUi.. 

" On connoit le jeu de mots d' Oweriy aflez mauvais, mais qui rcnfcrmel• 
*^ un grand fens. 

*^ Divitias et opes, Hon. lingua hebrsea vocavit: 
" Gallica gens, Aurum-or; indcquc venit Honor." 

Mirabcau. Effai fur le Delpotifmc;. 

*^ 'Oe-wif — iwff—iTif— Diaper— -Napkin — Nipkin«— 
" Pipkin — Pippin-king— King Pepin." 

I forget my merry author of this etymology ; but it is altogether as plau^ 
fible as even Menage's derivation of chez from Apud. 

♦ " Now as I am not able from Theory merely, and δ priorij to form 
" the idea of a perfeft language, I have been obliged to feek for it in the 
" ftudy of the Greek. — What men of fuperior Genius may do. in fuchipecu- 
" Jations, I cannot tell s but I know well that ordinary men, without the 

'' ftudjr 


Die to the particular inilances ; not particular inilances to 
the general reafoning. This Etymology, againft whofe 
fafcination you would have me guard myfelf, did not occur 
to me till many years after my fyftem was fettled : and it 
occurred to me fuddenly, in this manner ;-7^" If my rea- 
*^ foning concerning .thefe conjuncStions is well founded, 

■ ' U ' ■ 

'* ftudy of fome model of the kind, would be as unable to conceive thfe 
" idea of a perfect language, as to form i high taftc in other 'afts, ftiohife 
" fculpturc and painting, without having fccn the bcft wbrfciof jtbflfc.|cifi3s 
** that are to be found. — ^It would be doing injuftice tojhc/e Juferior minds 
" who have in themjelves the fiandard of perfeStion in all the ArtSy to' jiicTgb 
*^ of them by imyfelf ; but I am confident that vry r^^tf ' of pet feftion in 
'^ language would have been ridiculoufly imperfedt, if I had known no other 
" language than the modern languages of Europe.*' 

Origin and Progrefs of Language. Vol. H. Page i8j. 

Read this, Mr. Burgejsy and then complain of illiberality to Lord Mon- 
boddo : who places himfelf anjatus in Cathedra^ and thus treats all other 
men in advance. Whoever, after his lordihip, fball dare to reaiSii on this 
iubjeft h priori, muft aflfume then, it feems,— to have in his own fuperior 
mind the ftandard of perfcftion in jill the Arts ! — Do you, Mr. Burgefs, 
acquicfce to this condition ? If it were poflible (which I am very far fronii 
believing) that the fame fentiments ihould pervade-toy^confiderable part of 
the very learned and reipcftablc body to which ypu belong ; I fliould bp 
forrowfully compelled to join in the cxclamationj— Ο ! aurita Arcadiai 
pecora! qui, Roma, hiijus cuculi vocem veluti lufciniolae melois, in aures 
admittere fuftlnietis ! And perhaps Mr; Burgefs himfelf may have reafon 
hereafter to regret, that (with all his real or pretended, admiration of Loiti 
Monboddo's writings) he negleded to avail himfelf pf the ooly ufeful Icff^ 
to be drawn from them : viz. To b.e at l^ait as well bred as Porphyry s 
partridge-, and to have forborne hie nbift, \irilS ife '^hfnifeif ^f^dlieA^ 

S 2 " there 


<< there nraft then he iu the original language from which 
« the Engliih (and fo of all other languages) is derived, 
<* literally 7»λ6 zna/ucb words bearing precifely fucb and 
<• /ucb lignifications." — ^I was the more pleafed with this 
fuggeftion, becaufe I was entirdy ignc^ant even of the 
Anglo-faxon and Gothic charaflers : and the experiment 
prefented to me a mean, either of difabufing myfelf from 
error (which I greatly feared;) or of obtaining a con- 
firmation fuffidently ftrong to encourage me to believe 
(what every man knowing any thing of human nature will 
always be very backward in believing of himielf) that I had 
really made a difcovery. For, if upon trial I ihould find 
in an unknown language precifely thofe very words both 
in found, and fignification, and application, whkh in my 
perfect ignorance I had foretold ; what muft I conclude, but 
either that ibme Daemon had maliciouily inipired me with 
the ipirit of true prophecy in order the more deeply to de- 
ceive me ; or that my reaibning on the nature of language 
was not fantaftical. The event was beyond my expeolar 
tion: for I inftantly found upon trial, aU my prediiStions 
verified. This has made me prefumptuous enough to 
aflert it univerfally. Beiides that I have fince traced theie 
fuppoied unmeaning, indeclinaUe conjun<Siions with the 
iame fuccefs in many other languages beiides the EngliHl•. 
And hecaufe I know that the generality of minds receive 



conviction more eaiily from a number of particular in- 
ilances» than from the furer but more abftra«£ted arguments 
of general proof; if a multiplicity of uncommon avoca- 
tions and engagements (arifing from a very peculiar iitu- 
ation) had not prevented me, I ihould long before this 
have found time enough from my other purfuits and from 
my enjoyments (amongft which idleneis is not the fmalleft) 
to have (liewn clearly and fatisfai^orily» the origin and pre- 
cife meaning of each of thefe pretended unmeaning, in- 
declinable Conjun(StionS| at leaft in all the dead and living 
languages Qf Europe. 


Men talk very iafdy of what they nu^ do^ and what 
they might have done. But, though prefent profefiions 
ufuaUy outweigh paft proofs with the people, they have 
never yet pafled current with philoibphers. If therefore 
you would bring me over to your opinion, and embolden 
me to quit the beaten path with you, you muft go much 
beyond the example of Henry Stephens, which was con- 
iidered by Mer. Cafaubon as the ne plus ultra on this fub- 
jedt *» and muft do what Wilkins required, before he 


^ ** Henriciis Stephanus (author immortalis operis^ quod Thefaurus 
* linguae Graecc iod^UYic) ka omncs orationis partici^ {quarum quanto 




would venture to differ from the Grammars of inftituted 
languages : that is, you muft diftribvite all our Engli/b Con- 
juniStions at leall into their proper places• And if it Hiould 
leem uhreafonable in me thus to impofe upon you a taik 
which — *^ no man, however learned or fagacious has yet 
" been able to perform * ;'' — you muft thank yourfelf for 
it, and thd peremptory roundnefs of your affertion• Be- 
iides, I do really think that after you have profeffed fo 
much of all the languages of Europe, I may fairly expedt 
you to perform a little in your own. 

'^ /;/ omni lingua difficilior, tanto utilior obfervatio) omnes idiotifmos excuflit, 
*' eruit, cxplicavit, fimilia cum fimilibus comparavit, ut cxemplum quidcm 
^^ in hoc genere aliU ad. imitandum reliquerit abfolutiflimum ; fed quod 
** pauci fint aflccuturi." Mer. Caf. dc lingua Saxonica. 

* *^ The Particles are, among all nations, applied with fo great latitude, 
that they are not eafily reducible under any regular fchcme of explication : 
this difficulty is not lefs, nor perhaps greater, in Engliih than ih other 
languages. I have laboured them with diligence, . I hope with fucceis ι 
fuch at Icaft as can be expefted in a taik, whiph no man, however learned 
or fagacious, has yet been able to perform." 

'Preface ώ S. Jbbnfdn's DioHoiiary. 




r t 

, : •• . H. if 






if it muft be fo^ thus then : I fay that 









- "* 








[^Άη -a^ 



\, (U J 




To Give. 


To Grant. 


To Difmifs. 


To Add. 


To Get. 


To Put. 


To Difmifs. 

Dapian Ί 

or i 

* To Allow. 

Dapijan j 



To Boot. 


To Be-out. 


L To Be-out. 


Dare congeriem 

Lest is the paft participle Lefet>of Lepn, To Difmifs. 

Since ^ 



> is the participle of Seen, To Sec, 

T;1.\t is the Article Qr Pronoun Dar.. 



Thefe, I apprehend, are the only Conjunotions in our 
language which can caufe any difficulty ; and it would be 
impertinent in me to explain fuch as~— Be so (a). Be it. 
Albeit (ύ). Albeit so (c); Set (d). Notwithstand- 

(ti) ^ ^ct forth' (quod 4he) and tell me how; 
Shew me thy fekcnes euery dele. 
.Madame^ that oan I do wele : 
B£ so my lyfe therto woli lafte/* 

Gowen Lib. i. Fol. 8. Pag. α• Col. i. 

^* For thefe craftes (as I finde) 
A man male do by waie of kinde : 
Bb so it be to gopd entent•'* 

Gower. Lib. 5. Fol. 134• Pag. 2. Col• i. 

•' For fuche men that ben vilayns 
The lawe in fuche a wife ordeineth> 
That what man to the lawe plcyneth. 
Be so the judge ftande upright. 
He ihall be ferued of his right." 

Gower. Lib. 7. Fol. 159. Pag. i. CoL i. 

'* The maft to brake, the fayJe to roofc. 
The ihip upon the wawes droofe. 
Till that thei fee the londcs cofte. 
Tho made a vowe the lefte and mofte 
Be so thci mighten come alonde." 

Gower. Lib. 8. Fol. 177. Pag, i. Col. a• 

(?) « Satume anon, to ftynten ftryfe and drcde 
Al be it that it be agayne his kynde 
Of all this ftrife. he can remedy fynde.^' 
Chauc en Knyghtes Tale• Fol. 8• Pag• 2. Col. i. 
9 *« The 



INC. Nevertheless. Save ίύαΐ {e). 

Saving that. 

*^ The quhilk Juno nowthir lang dayis nor jerbj 

Nor nanc diuync lacrifice may appeis ; 
Schc-reftis neuir, nbr may fchc leif at «is. 
Albeit the. power and (Charge of Jupiter 
Refiftis fche wat, and fatis war hir contrare.*' 

Douglas. 5 th Bookc. Pag. 154. 

" Freynd ferly not, na caufc is to compkyne. 
Albeit thy wit grete god may not attcyne." 

Douglas. Pro], to loth Bookc Pag. 309• 

(^) ^^ Another remedy is that a man cfchewe the companye of hem by 
whiche he douteth to be tempted : for Albeit so that the dcdc is wyth- 
ftonde, yet is there greate tcmptacyon." 

Chaucer. PcrfonsTale. Fol. 115. Pag. a. Col. a. 

*' Al be it so that of your pride and high prcfumpcipn and folye, ye haue 
*' miiborne you, yet for as mikell as I fe and beholdc your greate humilyte, 
*' it conftrayneth mc to do you grace and mercy.'* 

Tale of Chaucer. Fol. 83. Pag. i. CoL i• 

(^ " Bot fen I am compellid the to tranflait. 
And not onlie of my curage, God wate^ 
_ Durft I interprife fie outragious folie, 
Quhare I offend, the lefle reprcfe ferf I, 
And that je knaw at quhais inftance ί tuke 
For to tranflate this maift excellent biikc;, 
I mene Virgiliis^ volum maift excellent. 
Set this my werk full febill be of rent." 

Douglas. Preface. Page 4• 

Sic plefand wordes carpand, he has forth brocht. 
Sett his mynd troublit mony greuous thocht." 

Douglas. iftBoolqc. Pag. 19. 
Τ « Betwa 



Except that. Excepting that. Bati^ig that. If case (J). 

" Betwix gudc hope and drcdc in douce they ftude, 
Quhithcr thay war lewandj or tholit extreme dedc aT; 
Thay anfucrit not. Set thay oft plene and cal.'* 
Douglas, ift Booke. Pag. 19. 

•* And Set it be not louable nor ftniely thocht 
To punys ane womanj bift fchameiuU hir to fla^ 
Na. victory 9 but lak following alia^ 
jit netheles I aucht louit to be» 
Vengeauncc to take on hir deferuis to de.'* 

Douglas, od. Booke. Pag. 5&. 

^ Virgin is full of ftntencc ouer all quhare, 
. His hie knawlcgc he fchawis, that cuery ibrtc 
Of his claufis comprehend fie fentencc> 
Thare bene thereof,. Set thou think this but Ipopte,, 
Made grcte ragmentis of hie intcUigenGe.'* 

Douglas. Prol. to 6th Booke. Fag. 158;^ 

** To name the god>, that war ane manifeft lee,. 
Is but ane. god, makar of euery thing : 
Set thou, to Vulcane hauc fuL grete relembling." 

Douglas. ProL to 6di Booke. Pag. 161^ 

" Thare fuld ija.knicht rede but ane knichtly talc 
Quhat forcis him the buflart on the brere I. 
Set wcle him femes die falconc heroner•'* 

Douglas. Prol. to 9th Booke. Pag. 2711• 

^ iTuiDus,. bchald oa.cais reuoluit the day^. 
And of his fofr wyl fendis the perfay 
Sic auantagc and.oportunite, 

And Set thou wakl haif aikit it^ quod fche^. 

6 , There 


In case C?^)• Put case {b)» Set case (t). I pose (»^). 


There was ncuer anc of al the goddis ding, 
Quhilk durft have the promittit fie ane thing/' 

Douglas. 9th Booke« Pag. 273• 

^' Set our nature God has to him unyte. 
His godhede incomm)rxt remanis perfite." 

Douglas. Prol. to lOthBookc. Pag. 308• 

^ Angellis, fcheiphardis, and kingis thy godhede kend^ 
Set thou in crib betuix twa beiftis was laid/' 

Douglas. ProL to lofh Booke. Pag. 3 lo. 

*^ pranceS) fbrfoith, quod he, euer has thou bene 
Large and to mekil of fpeche, as weil is iene, 
Bot not with wourdis fuld the court be fyilyt. 
Set thou be grete tharin, and ful enill wyUit/' 

Douglas: iith Bopkc Pag. 376, 

^' I put the cats Set the EthoKanis 
Lift not to ctim in our help nor fupple ; 
2it than the bald Meflkpus wek wyUe/' 

Douglas. I ith Booke. Pag.^ 378• 

" With ftout cun^ agane him wend I will, 
Thocht he in proues pas the grete AchiH 
Or Set in cats fie armour he wcris as he, 
Wrocht be the handis of God Volcanus fle.'' 

Douglas, nth Boofce. Pag, 37$• 
♦* Bot Juno tho doun from the hicht, I wys. 
Of the mountane that Albane clcpyt is 
Now in our dayis (Set then this hillis down 
Had nouther name, honour, nor rcnowne) 
Scho did behald amyd the feildis plane." 

Douglas. i2thBookc• Pag. 41 τ . 
Τα <^ For 


Because. To wit. Foreseeing that (/.) Foreseen 


f • • 

" For Set we prcis us faft to ipcike out brafdj 
Nc voce, nor wourdis foUowis nocht is faid. 

Douglas. L!2th Bookc Pag. 446•. 

" And Set that empty be my branc and dull, 
I haue tranflatit ane volume wounderfiill." 

Douglas. 13th Booke. Pag. 483.. 

*' Fra tyme Γ thareto ftt my pen to wryte. 
It was compilyt in auchtcnc monethis fpace r 
Set I feil fyith fie twa monethis in fere . 
Wrate neuir ane wourd, nor micht the volume Here." 

Douglas. Pag. 484•. 

{e) ** Saufe onely that I crie and bidde, 
I am in trifteflc all amidde." 

Gower. Lib. 4. Fol. 8^.. Pag. 2. Col. i.. 

" Almofte ryght in the fame wife the phificiens anfwerd, 
Saue that they fayden a fewe wordes more." 

Tale of Chaucer. Fol. 74. Pag. i. CoL *λ^ 

" Tyl ihe gan aiken him howe Hcotor ferde 
That was the townes wal, and Grekes yerde.. 
Ful wel Tthanke it God, fayde Pandarua> 
Saue in his armc he hath a lytle wounde.*' 

Chaucer• ad Booke of Troylus. Fol. 164. Pag. i. Col. κ 

«* Bchynd thame for uptaking quhare it lay 
Mony bricht armoure rychcly dycht thay left, 
Sauf that Eurialus with him turfit away 
Tlie riall trapouris^ and mychty patrclUs gay.'* 

Douglas. 9th Booke• Pag. 288. 

" Bot 


that. Provided that. Being that* 8cc. Which are 
evident at firft fight• 

B. WeU 

■^1» • 


** Bot al this time I bid na marc, I wys, 

SAiF that this wcnfche, this vcngcabil pcffi or traik. 
Be bet doirn dede by my wound and fcharp ib:2dk.'' 

Douglas, iithbookc• P^• 393^ 

^ AH the sur a fokmn ftillheis holds ; 
SAVE that from yonder ivy-mantled bower 
The mopmg owl does to the moon complain/** 

, * Gray's Elegy• 

(/) " I do not like thefc paper-fquibs, good maifer, they may undo' 
your ftote — ^I mean of credit,, and fire your arienall s if case you do not 
in time make good thoie outer works, your pockets." 

B. Johnfon. Staple of News, ASi, τ. Sc• j^ 

1 I 


Chaucer alfo uies if cac£«. 

(^) " The dignite of king John, wold have diftroyed al England^ 
therfore mokel wucdomc and goodnes both, nedejth in a peribn, tbc 
malyce in dignite flyly to bridell, and with• a good byt pf arcft towithr 
** draw, IN case it wold praunce otherwife than it lhuld.V ' 

Chaucer• Teffament of boke. Fol. 317. P. 2. Col• r•. 

" Forfoith, m cms the auenture of battaT! 
Had bene doutfum : wald God it war aflale.'!^ 

It• ■ < ; 

Doug^las. 4th booke. Pag. i a i ; . 

{k) " Andi 




ι • 

Well. Whether you are right or wrong in your con• 
^edtures concerning Conjundtions, I acknowledge that this 


{b) *^ And PUT tot cais that I may not optcnc 

From X^acyne land thaim to expell all clene> 
^it at Icift thare may M flop or delay 
In fa grctc matcris for EBc^jerc or twey." 

Douglas. 7thBoQke« Page 217. 

.TUT CAiss^ though now out of fa(hionj was frequeittly uied by Chilling- 
iKTorth and other good authors. 

** ^ruT TWRB CASE Ac Pope, for a reward of your fcrvice done him in 
^* writing thb book, had given you the honour and means of a cardinal, 
^^ would you not have prc^flcd, that you have not merited fuch a reward.*' 

Chillingworth. Chap. 4. Pag. 211. §36. 

(1) *' He is worthy to lofe his priuylege, that mifufeth the might and 
** power that is giuen hym. And I sette case ye might cnioyne hem 
* that payne by right and lawe^ whiche I trowe ye may not do : I faye yc 
** might not put it to execution." 

Tale of Chaucer. Fol. 82. Pag. 2. Col. 2. 

^* Yet SETTB I CASE ye haue lycence for to venge you, I faye that there 
** hen full many thii^ges that ihall reftrayne you of vengeaunce takyng." 

Ibid Fol. 79. Pag. 2. Col. i. 

(*) " Auauntour 


is coming to the point : and is fairer than iliuffling thenr 
over unnoticed,, as the greater part of grammarians have 

(^k) " Auauntour and a Iyer, al is one 

As thus. I POSE a woman graunt me 

Her loue, and fayth that other wol ihe none 

And I am fworne to holden it fecre 

And after I tel it two or thre 

I: wys Γ am auauntour at the leeff 

And Iyer eke,, for Ibreke my beheeft." 

Chaucer, 3d boke of Troylus, FoL 174, Pag, i . Col• 2^ 

*« Sonc after this, ihe to him gan rowne 
, A*nd alked him if Troylus were there 

He fwore her nay, for he was out of towne 

And fayd, Nccc : i pose that he were there 

You durifrneucr haue the more feere."' 

Chaucer, 3^ booke of Troylus, FoL 175, Page a; Col.' i• 

4 . . 

(/) " It may be ordered that i t or i 1 i of our owne ihippes do fte die 
** fayde Frenche foldicrs wafted to the coaft of France; forse in c that our 
" fayd Ihippes cntrc no hauen there// 

. Queen Elizabeth to Sir λ¥. Cecil and Dn Wwton^^ 

I-odgc's Illuftradons,^. Vok L Pag. j^g.. 

* , 

(w) **:WhaD he made any ordinary judges, advocates or proftoures, hc- 
" caufed th/cm to, be openly named, requirynge the people andgyvyngc 
" them courage, if there were caufe-to accufe them, to prove the cryme 
" by open wytaeflc : foresene if they dyd not fuiEciendy prove it, and. 
" that it fcmed to be malicioufc detraftion, , the accufour. ihuldc. forthwith . 
" behchcaded/* 

Sir T. Elliott. Jmagc of Goverflaurtce, Chap. 17;. 


done ; ; 


dune; or than repeating after others, that they are not 
themfelves any parts of language, but only fuch accejfaries 
as fait is to meat, or water to bread ; or that they are the 
mere edging or fauce ρΐ language; or that they are like 
the bandies to cups, or plumes to helmets, or binding to 
hooks, or barnefs for horfes ; or that they are pegs and 
nails^ and nerves and joints^ and ligaments arid glue^ and 
pitcb and lime^ and mortar^ and. fo forth*• In which 


* " Pour quoy «ft-ce que Platon dit, que Toraifon eft tempcrec dc noms 
& dc verbes ? — Mais advifons que nous ne prenions autrcmcnt les paroles 
de Platon que comme il les a dittes : car il a dit que Toraifon eftoit tem- 
pcrec Oe ces deux parties, non Par ces deux parties; que nous nc 
*' fa(ions la faulte que feroit celuy qui calomnieroit un autre pour avoir dit, 
<iue un oignement Jeroit compofc dc cire & de galbanum, alleguant 
qu'il auroit obmis a dire le feu & Ic vafe, fans Icfquels on ne f^auroit 
mefler lefdites drogues : aufli femblablemcnt fi nous le reprenions pour 
autant qu'il auroit obmis a dire les conjonftions, les prepofitions, & 
autrcs telles parties. Car le parler & Toraifon n'eft compofc De ces 
parties la, mais Par icclles, & non fans clles. Car comme celuy qui 
prononccroit hattrty ou efire battu ; ou d'aillcurs Socrates & Pythagoras, 
** encore donneroit-il aucunement a entendre & a penier quelque choie : 
^* mais celuy qui profereroit Car ou De fimplement & fculement, on ne 
*^ pourroit imaginer qu'il entendift aucunc cliofe ny aucun corps, ains s'il 
*' n'y a quelques autres paroles qui foient proferces quant & quant, elles 
" rcifembleront a des fons & des bruits vains fans aucune fignification j 
" d'autant que ny a par elles ny avec d'autres femblables, elles ne pcuvent 
«' rien fignifier. Mais a fin que nous conjoignons ou meflions & aflem- 
blions tout en un, nous y adjouftons des prepofitions, conjonftions, & 

" articles. 







kind of pretty iimilies Philofophers and Grammarians feem 
to have vied with one another ; and have often endeavoured 



** articles, voulans cnfaire un coφs de tout. — Comment done pourra dfnc 
*^ quelqu'un, ces parties-la he fervent-elles de rien a roraifoti ? Quant i 
*• moy, je tiens qu*elles y fervent autanc commc le Sel ϊ la viande, .& Veau 
" k faire le Pain. Evenus fouloit dire que le Feu eftoit la meilleure Saulfe 
" du Monde ; aufli font ces Parties raflaifonnement dc noftre langage, ne 
<* plus ne moins que le feu & le Sel des breuvages & viandcs, dont nous 
** ne nous f^aurions paifcr ; exccpte que noftre parler n'cn a pas toujours 
^' neceifairement a faire : comme Ton peut dire du langage des Romains, 
" duquel aujolard'huy tout le monde prefque ufe; car il a ofte prefque 
toutes Ics prepofitions excepte bien peu ; & quant aux articles que Von 
appelle> il n*en re5oit pas un tout feul, ains ufe de noms fans ^ordure, 
par maniere de dire ; & ne s'en feult pas efmerveiller, attendu qu' 
" Homere, i peu de nonis prepofe des articles, comme fi c'etoient an/es 
*' a des vafes qui en euffent befoign, ou des fennacbes fur des morions. — 
" Or que les Dialefticiens aient plus befoign de conjonftions, que nuls 
*' autres hommes de lettres, pour la liaifon & tiffure de leurs prepofitions, 
^ ou les disjonftions d'icelles, ne plus ne moins que les cochers ont befoign 
** d' aUelages pour atteler de front leur cheraux; ou comme Ulyifcs 
*' avoit befoign a'ozier en la caverne de Cyclops pour lier fes moutoqs ; 
*' cela n'argue ni ne preuve pas que la conjonclion foit autrcment 
** partie d'orailon, mais bien un outil propre a conjoindre felon qu'elle 
" en porte nom, & a contenir & aflcmbler non pas toutes chofcs, 
*' ains feulement celles qui ne font pas fimplement dites: fi Ton ne 
vouloit dire que la Cborde ou courroye dont une balle feroit lice fuft 
partie de la balle ; ou la colle d'un papier ou d'un livre qui eft colic ; 
•' & les donnees & diftributions des deniers partie du gouvcrnement ι 
** comme Dcfnades difoit que les deniers que Ton diftribuoit m'anuellement 
'^ par tefte ^ chafque citoyen d'Athenes, pour veoir les jeux, eftoient la 
" colle du gouverncment dc Tcftat popukire. Et quelle eft la conjonftion 

U qui 


to «miaib «dftesr readers and covier their own ignoranoe, by 
very learnedly difputing the propriety trf the ifitnUie, in- 
ftead of explaining the nature of the Conjun(Stion. 

3}Aty pray^ have you any authority for the derivation of 
thcfe wofds ? Are not all former etymologiils againft you?' 


Except in IF> and btjt (in one of its meanings) I be- 
lieve they are all againft me. But I am perfuaded that all 
future etymoltigifts, and perhaps &>nae philoibphers^ will 
acknowledge their obfigation to me. For thefe trouble• 
fbme conjunctions^ which have hitherto caufed them ία 
much miftaken and unfatisfa(Story labour^, fliaU ikve them 

** qui fa^c de plufieurs propofitions unc, en Ics coufant & liant cnicrrible, 
** commc Ic marbrc fait Ic fer quand on le fond avec lui par le feu ; maia 
•* pour cck Ic marbre n*cft pas pourtant, ny nc Ifappclle Ion pas partic de 
** fer i combien que ces chofcs-la qui entrent en unc compofition & qui 
** font fondues avec Ics drogues que Ton meflc, ont accouftumc de feire 
" & de fouffrir nc {ςαγ quoi de commun, compole de tous Ics ingrcdicns. — 
" Quant aux prepofitions on Ics peult accomparcr aux fennacbes ou autres 
'• Omemens que Ion met au dcflus ks habillemens de Teftes, ou bien aux 
*• bafes & foubaffmenr que Ion met au deflbubs des Statues i pour ce 
•■ ^qu'clles nc font pas tant parties d'oraifon, comme alentour des parties/* 

Plutakch, Platonic ^efiions. — 9th. JmyeU 



many an error iaid many a weary ftep in future. They 
ftiall no more expofe themfelves by unnatural forced con- 
ceits to derive the Engliih and sdl other languages froEH 
the Greek, or the Hebrew ; or fome imaginary primaeval 
tongue. The Particles, of every language fiiall teach them 
whither %Q dire^ and where t<» Hop ti^eir inquiries : for Ί 
wherever the evident moaning and origin of the Particles V 
of any ^gu^ge can be tand» -ibere is tlie «certain fource J 
of th^ whole. 


. Without a monfient*s re£le6tian> every one n»Aft perceive 
that this a0e]?tion is too general and comprehenfive. Thd 
mixture which is found in ^U. cultivated languages; the 
perpecvial, aoceffifin, of new wordsi from aiffistS^^sition as well 
asi from in3|)vove!n)ent, and the introduction of new Arts 
and Habiits» efpeoaily in learned nations ; and from othw 
circumftaacoe; forbid the dcidiKStion of the wbelein λ Ian» 
gns^ci fxomi any one iingle foctrce^ : • .<m 

^ ■ . - It . . » >« 

V ■ * 


ΜρΛ certainly. And therefore when I % the wbokf I 
aft bee: to be «ndei^tood with thofe «xccntionsv And; 

that I may not feem to contradift myfelf when Wfe ihall 
hereafter come to treat of them, I beg you likewife to re- 

U 2 member, 

i J . »\t 


member, that I by no means include in my affertion, the 
Abbreviations of language : for they are always improve^ 
tnents fuperaddcd by language in its progrefs; and are 
often borrowed from fome other more cultivated languages•. 
Whereas the original Mother-tongue is always rude and 
tedious, without thofe advantages of Abbreviation. And 
were he once more in being, I ihoiild not at all doubt of 
being able to convince even Junius himfelf (who with 
many others could fo far miftake the courfe and progrefs 
of fpeech, as to derive an uncultivated from a cultivated 
language) that, inftead of referring the Anglo-faxon to 
his favourite Greek as its original, he muft feek out (and 
I fuppofe he would eafily find) a Parent for the latter. 

But, I beg pardon, this is rather digrefiing from my 
ipurpofe• I have nothing to do with the learning of mere 
curiofity * : nor am any farther concerned with Etymo- 
logy, than as it may ferve to get rid of the falfe philofophy 
received concerning language and the human underitand• 
ing. If you pleafe, therefore, I will return to the Con- 

* " II y a im |ioint, pafl? kqucl Ics rcchcrchcs nc font plus que pour la 
" curiofite. Ccs vcritcs iiigenieulcs ct inutiles reiiemblent a dcs etoilei 
*' qui, placccs trop loin de nous, nc nous donncnt point dc clartc." 

Voltaire, Sur la Socicte royale et fur ks Academics. 


ETTMOLOGY OF, &c. 151 

Tally allowed, as to need no farther dHconrTe about 

Skinner fays—•** rp (In «gro Line. Qif) ab as. Cip. SL 
** Hoc a verbo Cipan, dare, q. d. Dato,** 

Lye, in his edition of Junius, fays — ** Haud infcit^ 
*< Skinnerus, qui deduxit ab a. s Eiipan, iiare, q. d. Dato^ 

GiF is to be found not only^ as Skinner fays^ in Lin* 
Golnihire, but in all our old writers. G. Douglas almoil 
always ufee Gif: once or twice only he has ufed If\ once 
he ufes o£W£> and once giffis^ and fometimes in case 
and IN CMS for gif. 

'^ Gif luf be vertew^ than is it leilil thing; 
" Gif it be vice, it is jour undoing." 

Douglas. Prol. to 4/A boke. Pag. 9^. 


'^ Thocht fum wald iwefe» that I the text haue waryit^ 

'* Or that I haue this volume quite myfcaryitj 

" Or threpe planciie, I come neuer nere hand it, 

" Or that the werk is werft that euer I fand it> 

** Or jit CEWE Virgil ftude wele before, 

'* As now war tyme tofchift the werft ouer Ikore*'* 

Oouglas Prefa(ei Pag. ir. 

<' Be 







TF and an may be ufed mutually and indifferently to 
fupply each other's place. 

Befides having Skinner's authority for if, I fuppofe that 
the meaning and derivation of this principal fupporter of 
the Tripod of Truth ^•, are fo very clear, iimple and univer- 

* Sec Plutarch ΤΙιμ του ΕΙ του εν Δίλ^ o«c, 

£ν it Διαλ€κ7(χη ^n. ττ^ /tAsytrifi^ £χ« iupafAiv ο cvvxtrlix^ κτοοί συνίίΟΊΑ^^ 
ατί in το λοΓικύύΙοίΙον ϋ'χτιίΑοίΙίζωρ αζιω^Μ»•*— Το γ»ς tsxvixov κλι λογιχον^ ωϋ"της 
fipnlai, yvwoMc «xoAsOtacj rmv Si ττροσλιιψιν i o^toOno'tc τω λοΓω Siiwo'iy^ #β<ν tt K»t 
uiQ-^jpoy etfTHy, 8x αποΐρ^ψορο» r»7o Hvxi ro¥ mc «ληθίΐα; τριποίκ τον λοΓον, iy rn¥ 
ΤΗ Xiyovlo; vpof TO vpo9iyirjbi(koy αχολκθΐΜ^ d'cpfvoCj «]« 'srpoo'AaSwv tdv J?r«p^iv^ 
iwayn ro νυμ,νί^Λίτμ,α της «ιτο^βζίω^• Τον «ν Πυθίον β ^n /MSfctxn τι mStlai, huu 
xuxvtfv φ»νακ ΧΑ* χ»(βίρα^( ψο^ οκ^ τι ^αυμα^ορ ιη Δ»«λιχ7»χτ)( φίλια tsIo αο'παζισ9«« 
τ8 λογ» το jiifpof καί ayxwMy ύ μ»λί$•Λ km iffXefta V|Bor^»/xivaf ί^Λ τχς f ιλα- 

9 ^^iy 

Tally allowed, as to need no farther difconrTe about 

Skinner iays— ^« rp (in «gro Line. Oif) ab as. Cip. SL 
*< Hoc a verb© Cipan, dare, q. d. Dato,** 

Lye, in his edition bf Junius, fays — " Haud infcit^ 
^ Skinnerus, qui deduxit ab a. s Dipan, dare, q. d. Data»'* 

GiF is to be found not cmlyi as Skinner fays^ in Lin* 
Golnihire, but in all our old writers. G• Douglas almoil 
always ufes Gif: once or twice only he has ufed T/'; once 
he ufes o£W£> and once glffis^ and fometimes in case 
and IN CMS for gif• 



Gif luf be vertew^ than is it Icilil thing; 
Gif it be vice> it is jour undoing." 

Douglas. Prol. ίο ^b boke. Pag. 9^, 

*♦ Thocht fum wald iwere, that I the text haue waryit, 

'^ Or that I haue this volume quite myfcaryitj 

" Or threpe planclie, I come neuer nere hand it, 

" Or that the werk is werft that euer I fand it> 

** Or jit CEWE Virgil ftude wele before, 

^* As now war tyme to.fchift the werft ouer Ikore*'* 

O^uglas Preface i Pag. ir. 

<^ Be 


" Be not oucr ftudyous to fpy anc mote in tnyn κ, 
^* That in jour awin ane ferryc bot can not fe, 

" And do to me, as je wald be done to ; 

^^ Now hark fchirris, tharc is na mare ado : 

" Quha lift attend, oyfpis audience and draw ncrc/* 

Douglas Preface^ Pag. 12. 

Chaucer commonly ufes if ; but fometimes τευε» τερ 
and YF. 

" Lo here the letters felid of thys thyng 
** That I mote bcare in all the hafte I may ; 
" Yeue ye woU ought unto your fonne the kyng, 
" I am your feruaunt bothe nyght and day." 

Chaucer. Man of Lowes tale. FoL αα. Pag. i. Col. 2. 

^ And thcrfore he of full auifement 

*^ Nolde neuer write in non of his fermons 

*' Of fuche unkynde abhominacions 

*' Ne I ne wol non reherce, yef that I may/* 

Chaucer. Man of Lawes prologue. FoL 18. Pag. 2. Col. 1. 

" She was fo charytable and fo pytous ^ 

'* She wolde wcpe yf that (he fawe a mous 

" Caught in a trappe, if it were deed or bledde." 

Prol. to Canterbury tales. Prioreffe. 

And it is to be obferved that in Chaucer and in other 
old writers, the verb to give fuflfers the fame variations in 
the manner of writing and pronouncing it, whether ufed 

5 con" 


4:onjundthefy or otherwife : as does alfo the Noun derived 
from it. 

"And after on the daunce went 

" LargeiTe, that fet al her entent ^^ 

** For to ben honorable and free, 

*^ Of Alexanders kynne was Ihe, 

" Her moil joye was ywis 

*^ Whan that Ihe yafe, and fayd: Hauc thie. 

" Not Auarice the foule caytyfe 

^^ Was halfe to grype fo ententyfe 

*' As Largeflc is to veue and fpende, 

*' And god alway ynowe her fendc, 

" So that the more ihe yaue awaye 

" The more ywis ihe had alwaye : 

" Great loos hath Largeflc, and great prife, 

*^ For both wyfe folke and unwyfe 

'" Were wholy to her bandon brought 

^ So wel with yeftes hath ihe wrought.'* 

' Chaucer. Romaunt of the Ro/e. FoL 125, P. 2. C i. 

', * 

A wyfe is goddes yefte verely 

Al other maner yeftes hardely 

As londes, rentes, paiture, or commune 
*^ Or mouables, all ben yeftes of fortune 
** That paiTcn, as a ihadowe on a wall 
^* But dred nat, yf playnly fpekc I ihall 
** A wyfe wol laile and in thyn houfc endure 
-*' Wel lenger than the lyft parauenturc." 

Chaucer. Marchauntes tale. Fol. 28. Pag. 2. Col. 2. 

'^^ FoROiFF me, VirgiU, cif I thee offend." 

Douglas. Preface. Pag^ 11. 

X <' Gip 


" GiF us thy anfucir, quharon we fal depend.*' 

Douglas y ^d booke, Pag. 70• 

" And fuffir Tyrianis, and all Liby land 
" Be GIF in dowry to thy fon in hand." 

Douglas y ^b iookcy Pag. 103• 

" In the mene tyme, of the nycht wache the cure 
« We GIF Meffapus/' 

Douglas, gtb bookcy Pag. 280. 

In Henry the viith's will, dated 1509, you will alfo 
find YEVE ufed Avhere Ave now employ give : and in the- 
time of Queen Elizabeth it was written in the fame 

" Yeoven under our fignet." 

Lodge's niufirations. 7he ^een to Sir W. Cecil and 
Dr. tVottoriy Vol. i. Pag. J43. 

" Yeven under our feale of our order, the firfl: day of April 1566, the 
" eight year of our reign/' 

Lodge's Illufirations. Quene Elizabeth to the Erie: 
of Sberowfiuryy Vol. i. Pag. 362. 

Gin * is often ufed in our Northern counties and by 
the Scotch, as we ufe if or an : which they do with equal 

♦ Ray fays — '' Giriy Gif in the old Saxon is G//; from whence the word 
" If is made per aphaerefin literae G. Gif from the verb Gifany dare ; 
" and is as much as Dato."' 



propriety and as little cOrruption : for gin is no other than 
the participle Given^ Gien^ GPn. (As they alfo ufe Gie for 
Givey and Gien for Given^ when they are not ufed conjunc- 
tively.) And hoc dato is of equal conjundlive value in a 
fentence with Da hoc. 

" Then wi' his fpear he turn'd hir owre, 

*' Ο GIN hir face was wan ! 
" He turn'd her owre and owre again, 

" Ο GIN hir ikin was whyte." 

Percy's Reliques^ Vol. i. Edom o'Gordon. 

Even our Londoners often pronounce Give and Given in 
the fame manner : As 

*' Gi me your hand."' 
" I have Gin it him well." 

So Wycherly, Love in a Wood, KQt V• *^ If my 
^< daughter there ihould have done fo, I wou'd not have 
gfn her a groat." 


I do not know that an has been attempted by any one, 
except S. Johnfon : and, from the judicious diftindtion he 
has made between Junius and Skinner *, I am perfuaded 


* " Junius appears to have excelled in extent of learning, and Skinner 
*' in rcftitudc of underftanding. Junius was accurately (killed in all the 

X 2 • " northern 


" place in my way, being overtaken by a violent fliower. 

" It was a farm houfe, where I faw feveral children : and 

*^ / βαΙΙ never forget the fpeech which one of them, an 

" overgrown babe, made to his mother. He was ftanding 

" at her breaft ; and after he had done with one, I heard 

^* him fay to her, — Trientjen^ yan my foor. — i. e. Kate, 

" give me t'other. — / little thought at the time^ I ihould 

" have fo good an opportunity of making ufe of the ftory 

" as I have at prefent." 

This ftory of the babe, he fays, is certainly in my 
favour. I think it is decifively. 

But. the Critic proceeds — " But we ihould not fancy 
^* that words exift, or muft have exifted, becaufe, having 
" adopted a certain method of finding out origins, we can- 
^* not poflibly do without them. I have been looking out 
" with fome anxiety for the Anglo-Saxon verb Anan, imt 
** but can get very little information about it. I find, in- 
" deed, in King Alfred's Will the following article :— 
*• SEjiifr ic an Eat>pajit)e mmum etejia funa. — Firft I give to 
^' Edward my eldeft fon. — And from the expreflion ic 
" An, it ihould feem as if there really exifted fuch verb 
^^ in the Anglo-Saxon as Snan. But as this is the only 
" fign of life it has given, as one may fay, for thefe 

8 « thoufand 


^^ thoufand years, I am inclined to look upon that iign as 
^^ being rather equivocal, and fufpedt that the true reading 
" of the Will is, not ic an, but ic un, from unnan 
*^ cedere, concedere ; this laft verb being common in the 
" Anglo-Saxon, and nothing more eafy than to miftakr 
*^ an u for an a, in that language, as well as in Engliih 
^^ However, as I have not feen hitherto any manu 
*^ fcript, on whofe authority I can ground the juftnefs ot 
^^ my conjedture, I do not give it you as any thing certain ; 
" and if you periift in giving the preference to the old 
" reading, the ftory of the babe is certainly in your 
^^ favour ; for there is as little difference between Άη and 
" and yan, as between υη and Άη» With me it will re- 
" main a matter of doubt, whether there ever exifted fuch 
" a verb as Snan, the fame in fignification and yet dif• 
^^ ferent in origin, with Gipan. It is by no means pro• 
" bable, that a people, who had hardly a conveyance for 
^* pne idea in a thoufand, ihould have procured two fuch 
** noble conveyances for one lingle idea. This is a piece 
<^ of luxury, which even the moft civilized nation icldom 
•^ allow themfelves *J^ 

* Reprehenfor auJaciilus verborum — qui perpauca cadcmquc a vulgo 
protrita legcrat, habebatqiie nonnullas difciplinai gcammaticie inauditiun- 
ciilas, partini rudcs iiichoatalqiie, partim non probas ; cafqiic qiiafi piilvcrem. 
ob oculos, quiim adortus qiiemque fuerat, adlpcrgcbati— ncquc rationcm 
verbiim hoc, inquit^. neqiie audloritatcm habeu 



To this I anfwer, that Snan, Snnau, and Unnan, are 
all one and the fame word differently fpelled (as almoft all 
the Anglo-Saxon and old Englifli words are) becaiife diffe- 
rently pronounced. 

But " he has been looking for Snan, he fays, with 
" fome anxiety, and can ^et very little information about 
^^ it•" If he looks fo carelefsly when he is anxious, we 
may pretty well guefs with how much accuracy he looks 
upon other occaiions. I will relieve his anxiety• I know 
he has Lye's colle6lion of Anglo-Saxon words before him ; 
(for he quotes it in his 66th page) let him put on his 
fpedtacks and open the book : he will there find Snan, and 
Snnan, with references to places where they are ufed• 
And if, after that, he ihould itill continue anxious, I will 
furniili him with more, 

^^ Nothing, he fays, is more eafy than to miilake an u 
" for an a, in that language, as well as in the Engliih."— 
It is not fo eafy to miilake the Anglo-Saxon character U for 
S, or u for a ; as it is to miilake the written Engliih cha- 
radter u for a. 

It is not true that any people are now, or ever were in 

the condition he reprefents the Anglo-Saxons; viz. of 



having " hardly a conveyance for one idea in a thoufand f 
unlefs he means to include in his expreffion, of one idea^ 
each man's particular perception. No. Cheer up, Caf- 
fander : your lot is not peculiar to yourfelf : for the people 
who have the pooreft and fcantieft language, have yet 
always many more words than ideas. And I leave the 
reader to judge whether to have two words for one idea, 
be " a piece of luxury which even the moft civjUized na- 
" tion feldom allows itfelf.** 


Skinner fays — ^^ Unlefs niii, praeter, preterquam, q. d. 
" One-lefsj uno dempto feu excepto : vel potius ab Onlefan, 
" dimittere, liberare, q. d• Hoc dimiffbr 

It is extraordinary, after his judicious derivation of if, 
that Skinner ihould have been at a lofs about that of un- 
less ; efpecially as he had it in a manner before him : For 
Onlef, dimittej was furely more obvious and immediate 
than Onlef-eb, dimijfo. — As for, One-lefsj i. e. Uno dempto 
feu excepto^ it is too poor to deferve notice• 

■ ^ 

So low down as in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, this 
conjundtion was fometimes written Oneles and Onelejfe, And 
this way of fpelling it, which Ihould rather have direfted 

Υ Skinner 


Skinnner to its true etymology, might perhaps contribute 
|o miilead him to the childiih conjedlure of One lefsy Uno 
dempto, — But in other places, it i% written purely onles : 
and fometimes onlesse. 

Thus, in the Trial of Sir John Oldcaftle, An. 141 3» 
<* It was not poflible for them to make whole Chriites cote 
" without feme, onlesse certeyn great men were brought 
" out of the way.»* 

So Thomas Lupiet,, in the early part of Henry the Sth'S. 
reign ; 

** But alway, iifter, remembre thai charitie is n^t per- 
" fedt ONLES that it be burninge." 

Treattfe of Cparitiey pag. S. 

" This peticion cannot take effeft onles- ma» be made' 
« like an aungel." Ibid, pag, 66.. 

** Fayth cannot be perfe<5t, onles there be good workes.**^ 

A compendious Treattfe teachynge the Waye of 
diynge well, pag, 160. 

" The more fliamfuUy thaf men for the moft parte f<?are 
** to die, the gjreater profe there js^ that fuch extreme 

a ** poyntes 


« poyntes of feare againft all ihanio fhuld not in fo many 
« dayly appere, whan death approcheth, onl£s bi natur 
« fome juft feare were of the fame,** Ibid, pag, 166. 

In other places Lupfet fpells it on£les and onl£S9£« 

So, in " The Image of OoveiHatice•* by Sit T. Elliott, 
1541, " Men do feare to approdie unto their foverayne 
** Lorde, oneles they be called.** 

«* This noble empire is lyke to falie into extreme ruyne' 
<* and perpetuall infamye, onelesse your mofte excellent 
« wyiedomes wyll dilygentliy and' cohltatitly' ptiftjitii'e ydtir- 
<* felfes to the certayne remedy^*• 

So in — " A neceflary do<Strine and erudition for any 
<* chnften man, fet furthe by the Kyhges ittiafelSe of 
<* Englande." 1543• 

" Onles ye beleve, ye Ihall not underftande." 



No man ihaU be crowned, onleo he lawfbily fight.'* 

« Neyther is it" poffible for any marl, o'neLe'sse this 
« holy ^irite ihall firft illumine his hart." 

y 2 *' True 


<* True honour ihall be gyven to none, oneles he be 
« worthy." 

<* Who can have true penance, onles he beleve fted- 
« faftly that God is." 

^* Who fo ever doth forfake his lawful wyfe,^ oneles it 
*^ be for adultery, commytteth advdterye in fo doynge." 

" They be bound fo to do, onles they fe reafonable 
** caufe to the contrary." 

" Thefoule waxeth feble, onlesse the fame be cheriihed." 

^* In vayne, onlesse there were fome facultie." 

** It cannot begynne, onelesse by the grace of God.'* 

So in the ** Supplication to King Henry VIII." by Barnes, 

** I ihall come to the councell when foever I bee called, 
<* ONLES I be lawfully let," 

So in the " Declaration againft Joye" by Gardiner, Biihop 
of Winchefter. 

« No, 


^t No man commcth to me, onlesse my father draweth 
« hym.'' 

" Can any man further replye to this carpenter, onles 
<* a man wolde faye, that the carpenter was alfo after the 
<< thefe hymfelfe.'' 

** For ye fondely improve * a conclufion which myght 
^^ ftande and be true, with your fonde paradox of only 

«^ fayth 

* To improve (i. e. to cenfure, to impeach, to blame, to reprove) A 
word perpetually ufcd by the authors about Shakefpeare's time, and 
cipccially in religious controverfy. — " Whereas he hath fpoken it by his 
•* own mouth, that it is not good for man to be alone, they have ιλι- 
** proved that doftrine and taughte the contrarye.*' — The AStes of Englijb 
Votaries by Ihon Bale, Dedicated to Edward the 6tb. 1550• 

" A wonderful thyng, that this ihoulde be cryed lawful in their cathedrall 
" church with ryngyng, fyngynge, and fenfynge, and in their yelde halle 
^ condemned for felony and trcafon. Ther did they worihyp it in their 
" fcarlet gownes with cappc in hande, and here they improved it with fcornes 
•* and with mockes, grennyng upon her lyke termagauntes in a playe/' 

Aiies of Englifi Votaries. 

The word is taken by us from the French, who ufed it and ftill continue 
to ufe it in the fame meaning, — " EUes croicnt que le corps et le fang font 
*' vraiment diftribues a ccux qui mangent; et improuvent ccux qui en- 
*' fcigncnt le contrairc." Bojfuet des variat des Eglifes Prot. 

** lis font indignes de jamais comprt-ndic ccs fortes de beautcs, et font 
" condamnez au malhcur de Ics tmprcuver^ et d' cere improuvez aufli des 
" gens d* efprit." Lettres de Buffy Rabutin. Tom. 4. pag. 278. 

5 " La 


^^ fayth juftifieth, on lesse in teaching ye wyl ib htndei 

*^ the matter, as, Sec. 

^^ We cannot love god, owLEe he prepareth oar hart'e 
<^ and geve us that grace ; no more can we beleve god, 
" ONLESSE he giveth us the gift of belefe.*^ 

^^ In every kynde the female is commonly barreUf, 
^^ ONLESSE it conceyveth of the male ; fo is concupyfcence 
^^ barren and voyde of fynne, onlesse it conceyve of 
" man the agreymente of his free wyU•'* 

\\f\, '■ ■ ■ 1 1 11 I I I ■>' ■ ■■ n I ' ' V \ m- 

'^ La bourgcoifle de Geneve a droit de faire des reprefenutions dansf 
'^ toutes les occaGons ou elk croic les loix lesces» et od.eUe imfrauve^l^i con- 
" duitc de fcs magiftrats." Ruujeau. Vd. 2; pji^: 440• 

" Je ne pouvois en effet me dilfimuler qu' en improuvant les travaox 
^^ qu' on venoit de faire ; ceux qui les avoient ordoancs en ncjecteroient Ic 
" blame fur les.jdew-architeftes.'* 

Memoir es du Baron de Totf. Ύατη. i. pag* 123. 

** Arretons-nous fur les inculpations faites a Roland dans cette aftc 
" d' accufation, qui fcra la honte du fiecle ct du peuple qui a pu, ou Γ ap- 
« prouvcr, ou ne pas hautement Γ improuver.'' Obfervations par Amar. 

The expreffion in Hamlet (Aft i. See. 1.) — " Oi unimproved mettle 
^' hot and foil." — ought not to have given Shakcfpeare's commentators any 
trouble : for unimproved means unimpeached ; though Warburton thinks it 
means ^^ unrefined :'* Edwards, '' unproved ^*' and J ohnfon (with the appro- 
barion of Malone) " noLregulated. noy gmded by knowledge or experience:'' 
aad in his Diikionary he explains it to ht'*yn$i taught, not meliorated by in^ 
" firuSioi^'' 

^< We 


« We may not properly faye we apprehend jiaftificafion 
^ by fayth, onlesse we wolde call the promilTe of God, &c.* 

<^ Such other pevifshe wordes as men be encombred to 
•* heare^ onles they wolde m^e Goddes worde the matter 
^ of the Devylles ftrife.'' 

" Who can wake out of fynne, without god call him ; 
*^ and ONLESSE god hath given eares to heare this voyce of 
" god. How is. any man beyng lame with fynne, able ta- 
^* take up his couche and walke, onlesse god fayeth, 8cc^ 

So in the — " Anfweare to Fekenham touchinge the othe 
^ of the fupremacy,'*" by Home, Biftiop of Winchefter. 

" I coulde not choofe, oneles I woulde ihawe myfelfe 
" overmuch unkinde unto my native countrey, but take 
<* penne in hande and ih'ape him a ful and plaine anfweare^ 
^ without any curiofitie.'* 

^• The el&flion of the pope made by the clergie and 
^* people in• thofe daies^ was but a vaine thing, onles the 
^ emperour or his lieutenant had confirmed the fame." 

^* The pope would not confecrare the eledl bifhop^ 
^ ONLES he had firft licence therto of the emperour.** 

^* No 


*^ No prince, no not the emperour himfelfe ihotild be 
V prefent in the councell with the cleargie, onles it were 
" when the principall pointes of faith were treated of.** 

" He fweareth the Romaines that they (hall never after 
<^ be prefent at the eleotion of any pope, onles they be 
^* compelled thereunto by the emperour." 

<^ Who maketh no mencion of any prieft there prefent, 
*^ as you untruely report, onles ye will thinke he meant 
*^ the order, whan he named the faction of the Pharifees." 

^^ So that none ftiould be confecrate, onlesse he were 
^ commended and inveftured biihop of the kinge.'• 

" And further to commaunde the newe eledte pope to 
" forfake that dignitie unlawfully come by, onlesse they 
^^ woulde make a reafonable fatisfaolion. 

^^ That the pope mighte fende into his dominions no 
^^ legate, onlesse the kinge ihoulde fende for him/' 

^* What man, onlesse he be not well in his wittes, 
*< will fay that, &c." 

^< To 


<^ To exercife this kinde of jurifdidlion, neither kinges 
" nor civill magiftratcs may take iippon him, onlesse he 
" be lawfully called." 

^^ That from hencefoorth none flioulde be pone, 
" ONELESSE he were created by the confent of the em- 
" perour•" 

<< Ye cannot finde fo muche as the bare title of one of 
them, ONELESSE it be of a biflioppe.^ 

So in the — " Whetftone of Witte,*• by Robert Recorde^ 

" I fee moare menne to acknowledge the benefite of 
^< nomber, then I can efpie wiUyng to fludie to attaine the 
** benefites of it. Many praife it, but fewe dooe greatly 
" pradtife it ; onlesse it bee for the vulgare praotice con- 
^* cernyng Merchaundes trade•'' 

*^ Yet is it not accepted as a like flatte, onles it be re- 
** ferred to fom.e other fquare nomber." 

I believe that William Tyndall, our immortal-and match• 
lefs tranflator of the bible, was one of thes^firft who wrote 

Ζ this 



this word with an υ ; and, by the importance and merit 
of his works, gave courfe to this (irruption in the lan- 



<^ The fcripture was geven^ that we may applye the 
^ medicine of the fcripture, every man to his own fores> 
*^ UNLESSE then we entend to be idle difputers and braulers 
*^ about vaine wordes, ever gnawyng upon the bitter barke 
<^ without, and never attayning unto the fweete pith 
" within, &c.'' Prol. before the 5 B. of Mofes. 

^^ My thoughts have no veines, and yet unles they be 
« let blood, I ihall periih.^ 

Endimion. By John Lilly. Αδί i . See. i . 

* Shakeipeare, in Othello, Aft XL Set. ij. writes, 

" What's the matter, 

" That you Unlace your reputation thus 
^ " And ipend your rich opinion for the name 
" Of a night brawler ?" 

In a note on this paflage S. Johnfon fays— ^'^ Slacken or looieii. Put ia 
** danger of dropping ; or, perhaps, ftrip of its ornaments." And in his 
Diftionary, he fays, — " To make loofe ; to put in danger of being loft•— 
" Not in ufe." But he gives no reafon whatever for this interpretation. I 
belieye that Unlace in this paflage means — " You unless or onles your 
** reputation," from the fame verb Onlepn• 

^^ His 


Les, the Imperative of Lefan (which has the fame 
meaning as Onle^an) is likewife ufed fometimes ky old 
writers inftead of unless* 

** And thus I am conftrenit, als nere as I may, 
" To hald his verfc, and go nane uthir way i 
** Les fum hiftorie, fubtell wordc, or rymc, 
" Caufis mc mak dcgreflioun fum tymc/* 

G. Douglas• Preface^ 

« Gif he 

" Commyttis any treflbun, fuld he not de ; 

*^ Les than his prince of grete humanitc 

** Perdoun his fault for his long trcw fervice." 

G.D. Prol. to lOthBook.. 

" StcrfF the bchuffis, les than thou war unkynd 
" As for to leif thy brothir dcfolate." 

G. D. jEnead. loth book• 

In the fame manner it is nfed throughout Ben• Johnfon• 

** Less learned Trebatius Cenfure difagree."' 


" Firft hear me— Not ^ jyUable/'LESs you take/*' 

. / ^, Alchymifiy Aft III. Scene 5. 

*V There for ever to remain ' - •: . ' * 

" Less they could the knot unftrain.'* 

Mafque. ' 

" To tell you true, *tis too gobd fbr'yoif, 

^' Less you had grace to foUow it." ^ • . 

. Bartbol. Fair. : 

^" ^ - ^' «i But 



'' But will not bide there, lsss yourfclf do bring him.' 

Sad Sbepberd*. 
" You 

* It is this fame Imperative les^ placed at the end of nouns and coalcicing 
with them, which has given to our language fuch adjcftivcs as bopelejs^ refi^ 
lejsy deaiblejsy motionlefs^ &c. i. e. Difmifs hope, reft, deaths motion, &c. 

The two following lines of Chaucer in the Rcvc's Tale, in Wyllyam 
Thynne's edition. 

And when the horfe was loje^ he gan to gon 
" Towarde the fen, there wylde marcs rynne/' 

are thus printed in Mr. Tyrwhit's edition, 

" And whan the hors was laus^ he gan to gon 
" Toward the fen, ther wilde mares rennc.'* 

I am to fuppofe that Mr. Tyrwhit is juftified for, this readmg hy /ome 
manufcript ; and that it was not altered by himfelf merely for the iake of 
introducing " Laus, Ifland. and the Conjuetud. de BevtrUy^* into his 

•* Laus (fays Mr. Tyrwhit) adj. Sax. Looje. 40612. Laus^ Ifland. Solutus. 
*' This is the true original of that termination of adjcftivcs ib frequent in 
our language, in les or lejs. Confuetud. Beverley. MS. Harl. 560.— 
Hujus facrilegii emenda non crat dcterminata, fed diccbatur ab anglis 
" Botalaus. i. e. fine emenda. — So Chaucer ufes Boteles, and other words 
^* of the fame form ; as Deletes, OrinkeleSy Gilteks^ &c.** 

I think, however, there will be very litde doubt concerning this deriva- 
tion ; when it is obferved that we fay indifferently either fleep-^lefsy or 
without-fleepj &c. i. e. Difmifs fleep or Be-out fleep, &c. And had not 
thefe words les and without been thus convertible, Shakefpcare would have 
loft a pun. — " Thrice liave I fcnt him (fays Glendower) weather-beaten 
" home, and bootlefs back." " Home witbouS boots (replies Hotipur) 

^ and 




^' YOU tmift• no more aim at thofc cafie acceOc», ' ' 
* ■ \-' ^ LESS you can do't in ain" 

Beaumont and Fletcher. Beggars Bujh^ Aft Λ^. See* 2. 

iC< . 


S*" and in foul weather too! How fcapes he agues in die Devil's name?'* 
So, for thofc words where we have not by habit made the coalefcence> as 
the Daniih Folkelos and Halclos, &c• we fay in Engliih Without people. 
Without a tail, &c. But any one may, if he pleafes, add the termination 
lejs to^any noun: and though it ihculd be unufual, and heard for the firft 
time, it will be perfeftly underftood. Between Wimborn-minfter and 
Cranbourn in Dorfetihire, there is a wood called Harley : and the people 
in that country have a faying perfeftly intelligible to every Engliih ear.— 
" When^Harley is hare-lejsy Cranbourn Wifrt^r^-Zj/i and Wimborn^^r-Zg/jr^ 
'^^ the world will be at an end." And it is obfervable that in all the northern 
languages, the termination of this adjeftive in each language varies juft as 
die correlpondent verb, whofe Imperative it is, varies in that language. 

Termination. Infin. of the v'erb. 

— AAnsQAtf 

— Leofan 

— Loflen 

— Lofen 

— Lofer 

— L6fa 

I muft be permitted here to fay, that I fmcerely lament the principle on 
which Mr. Tyrwhit proceeded in his edition of Chaucer's tales. Had he 
given invariably the text of that manufcript which he judged to be the 
eldefty and thrown to die bottom the variorum readings with their authority; 
ttbc obligation of his readers (at leaft of fuch as myfelf ) would indeed have 
beea very great to him : and his indwftry, care, and fidelity would then have 
l>e#n much moire ufcful ΰο- inquirers, than any ilcill which he has ihewn in 
-etymology or the northern languages s were it even much greater than it 
gjppcars^ to me to have been« 

6 You 



A. S. 

— Leaf 


- Loos^ 


— Los 


- Los 

Swcdifh - 

^ L6s 


You will pleafe to obierve that all the languages which 
have a correfpondent conjundtion to Unlefsj as well as the 
manner in which its place is fupplied in the languages 
which have not a conjunftion correfpondent to it ; all 
ftrongly juftify my derivation. The Greek E/ ^t^iy. The 
Latin Νιβ. The Italian Se non. The Spaniih Sino. The 
French Si non. All mean Be it not. And in the fame 
manner do we fometimes fupply its place in Engliih either 
by But^ fFitbouty Be it noty But if^ &c. 


Without profenc tongues thou canft never rife. 
Nor be upholden. Be it not with lies.'* 

M. Drayton. Leg. of R.O. of Normandy. 

" That never was there garden of fuch pryfe, 
" ByT YF it were the very paradyfe." 

Frank£L£yn's Tate. 

*' That knighte he is a foul Paynim, 

** And large of limb and bone ; 
*' And But if heaven may be thy fpeede> 

" Thy life it is but gone." 

Sir Cauline. Percy's Relfques. 

Though it certainly is not worth the while, I am 
tempted here to obferve the grofs miftake Mr• Harris has 
made in the Force of this word ; which he calls an 
" Adequate Preventives^ 



His example is — " Troy will be taken, unless the 
*< Palladium be prcferved." — " That is (fays Mr. Harris) 
" This alone is fufiicient to prefer ve it." — According to 
the oracle, fo indeed it might be; but the word unless 
has no fuch force. 

Let us try another inftance. 

" England will be enflaved unless the Houfe of Com• 
*^ mons continues a part of the Legiflature." 

Now, I aik, is this alone fufiicient to preferve it ? We 
who live in thefe times, know but too well that this very 
houfe may be made the inftrument of a tyranny as odious 
and {perhaps) more lafting than that of the Stuarts. I am 
afraid Mr. Harris's adequate Preventive will not fave us. 
For, though it is moft cruel and unnatural ; yet we know 
by woful experience that the Kid may be feethed in the 
mother's milk, which providence appointed for its nouriih- 
ment ; and the liberties of this country be deftroyed by 
that very part of the Legiflature, which was moft efpecially 
appointed for their fecurity. 




Junius fays,—" Eak^ etiam. Goth. Ληκ. a. s. Gac. 
" ALauch. D.og. B.ook. Viderentur efle ex inverfo *«/ ; fed 
*^ redlius petas ex proxime fequenti ΑΠΚΛμ (Ifl. αυζα) 
" A. s. Gacan. Gcan. ican. Al. auchon. D.oge. B.oecken. 
*^ Gacan vero, vel auchon, funt ab uo^uv vel m^uv^ addere, 
*^ adjicere, augere.^ 

Skinner fays — " Eke. ab a. s. Gac. Deac. Belg. Oock. 
T'eut. Aucb. Fr. Tb. Oucb. D.oc. etiam.'* 

Skinaer then proceeds to the verb^ 

" To Eke^ ab a. s. Gacan. Geican. lecan. augere, adji* 
** cere. Fr. Jun. fuo more, defledtit. a Gr. m^uv. Mallem 
^ ab Gac, iterum, quod vide : quod enim augetur, fecun- 
<* dum partes fuas quaii iteratur &: de novo fit.*• 

In this place Skinner does not feem to enjoy his ufual 
fuperiority of judgment over Junius. And it is very 
ftrange that he ihould chufe here to derive the verb Gacan 
from the conjundtion Gac (that is, from its own Impera- 

♦ An inftancc has been already given where if is ufed as a prepofirion. 
in the following pafTage of Dryden, XJnleJs is alfo ufed as a prepofition ; 

** The commendadon of Adverfaries is the greateft triumph of a writer; 
'^ bccaufe it never comes Ufde/s extorted." 

A a tive); 


tive) ; rather than the conjundtion (that is, the Imperative) 
from the verb. His judgment was more awake when he 
derived if or gif from Dipan, and not Dipan from Πιρ; 
which yet, acxording to his prefent method, he flioiild 
have done• 

Perhaps it may be worth remarking, as an additional 
proof of the nature of this conjundlion ; that in each 
language, where this imperative is ufed conjun6lively> the 
ConjuniSlion varies juft as the verb does. 

In Daniili the Conjundlion is o^j and the verb 0£[er. 
In Swediih the Conjunction is och, and the verb oka. 
In Dutch the Conjunotion is ook, from the verb oecken. 
In German the Conjunction is auch, from the verb auchon. 
In Gothic the Conjunction is ΑΠΚ, and the verbAMKAN•. 
As in Engliih the Conjunction is Eke or Eak, from the 
verb Gacan. 


I put the conjunolions yet and still here together; 
becaufe (like. If and An) they may be ufed mutually for 
each other without any alteration in the meaning of the 
fentences : a circumftance which (though not fo obvioufly 
as in thefe inflances) happens likewife to fome other of 



the conjunotions ; and which is not unworthy of coniidera- 

According to my derivation of them both, this mutual 
interchange will not. feerh at all extraordinary : for yet 
(which is nothing but the Imperative ^et or jyr, of ^etan 
or jytran, obtinere) and still (which is only the Impera- 
tive Scell or Sreall, of Srellan or Sreallian *, ponere) may 
very well fupply each other's place, and be' indifferently 

ufed for the fame purpofe. 

••■'»■ ..." 

Algate and even algates, when ufed adverfatively by 
Chaucer, I fuppofe, though ίο fpelled, to mean ho other 
than AU'get. , . ' 

** For ALBEIT tarieng be noyfu!, algate it is not'tu be 
*< reproued in yeuynge of iugement, ne in vengeaunce 
« takyng." 

Ί^αίε of Cbaucery Foh τ ^ Pag. i. Col. i. 

* Though this verb is ho longer current in Englilli, except as a Con- 
jundtion, yet it keeps its ground in the collateral languages. 

In German and Dutch it is — Slellen 

In the SwdiQi — — Stalla • 

Aixd in the Dwih — ^ — , . §tiller. 

' \ 

A a 2 «A great 


'* A great waue of the fee comedi {omtyme with ib 

*< great a vyolence, that it drowneth the Ihyppe : and the 

« fame harme dothe fometyme the fmall dropes of water 

*« that entreth through a lytell creueys, in to the tymbre 

" and in to the botome Of the ftiyppe, jf men be fo neg- 

« ligente that they difcharge hem not by tymes. And 

« therfore all though there be a difference betwixt theie 

« two caufes of drowning» ALGATKt the ihyppe is 

'* drowned.** 

The verb to get is fometimes ipelled by Chaucer gefite^ 

But I will repeat to you the derivations which .others 
have given, and leave you to Chuie between lis. 

Mer. Cafaubon fays—'* ^τι, adhuc, Yet.* 

Junius fays — « Yet, adhuc. a. s. jyr. Cymreeis etwa» 
^ etto, iigniiicat, adhuc, etiam, iterum ; ex itj vel aeu9<f .** 


Skinner fays — <« yet, ab a. s. Dec, Heca, adhuc. 
«< Teut* 3|et5t, jam, mox." 

Again he fays — " still, aflidue, indefinenter, inceflan- 
•* ter. Nefcio an ab a. s. tall, addito tantom fibilo ; vel a 

** Doftro» 


** noftrO) 8c credo edain» a. s. As, ut, iicut, (licet ^ud 
** Somnerum non occurrat) & eodem Til, iifque. q. d« 
« ufque, eodem modo. 

This word else, formeriy written Alles^ Afys, jUyfey 
EUesj EUusy EffiSt Eus, E/s, and now E//e ; is, as I have faid, 
no other than Al^ or Alyf, the Imperative of Xlefan or 
ΤίΙγγΖΏ, dimittere.. 

Mr. Wkarton, in his Hiftory of Englifti Poetry, Vol. i, 
page τ 93 (without any authority, and in fpite of the con- 
text, which evidently demands E/fe, and will not admit of 
A^o) has explained alles in the following pa:0a^e by ^o^ 

" The Soudan ther he facte in halle ; 
** He fcnt his mtffaQtn fafte with aUe, 

*' To hire fader the Kyog. 
** And iayde, how ib hit ever bi falle, 
** That mayde he wolde clothe in palle 

** And ipouien hire with his ryng. 
** And AifLEs I iwere withouten £iyk 
^ I chull hire wionen in pleye battayle 

** With mony an heih lordyng.!* 

The meaning of which is evidently,-—" Give me your. 
A daughter, £l»£ I will take her by force^*^ 




It would have been nonfenfe to fay, — ^< Give me your 
^ daughter, also I will take her by force.^' 

'" To haften loue is thynge in veine, 
" Whan that fortune is there agcine. 
" To take where a man hath Icuc 
^' Good is : and £lles he mote Icue." 

XSower. lib. a. FoL 57. fag. i. col. i. 

' " Withouten noy fc or clatteryng of belles 
*^ Te dcum was ourfongc, and nothyng elles/* 

Chaucer. Sompners tale. Fol. 4^3. j>ag. i. coL i• 

^^ Efchame joung virgins, and fair damycellis, 
" Furth of wedlok for to difteyne jour kellis ; 
*^ Tr^ft not all talis that waiitoun "wowaris tellis, 
^ jou to dcfloure purpofyng, and not ellis." 

Douglas. Prol. to /^b bohe. Pag. 97. 


•*^ And, tycaufe the derthe of things be fuche as the 
foldyors be not able to lyue of theyr accuftomed wages, 
which is, by the day, fix pence the foteman, and nine 
pence th' horfman ; therfor we befeche your lordfliips 
to be meanes to the Queene's majeftie, that order may 
be taken, eyther for th' encreace of th^yr wages by the 
day, the foteman to eightpence, and th' horfman to 
twelve pence, or ells to allow that at the pay daife 
they may, by their capteins or other wife, haue fome re- 

warde to counteruaill the like fomme." 

• .. . ■ . . . , 

The Council in the North to the Privy Councii. /^tb of 

■Sept. 1557. Lodges lUuflrations, 

N. B, 


Ν. Β• *^ Wheat at this time was fold for four Marks 
^^ per Quarter. Within one month after the harveft the 
" price fell to five βillίngsΓ 

** And eury man for his partic 

" A kyngdome hath to iuftifie> 

*' That is to fein his ownc dome. 

" If he mifrule that kyngdome, 

" He lefcth him felfe, that is more, 

^ Than if he loftc ihip and ore, 

" And all the worldes good with alle. . 

" For what man that in fpeciall 

" Hath not him felfe, he hath not els, . 

" No more the perles than the ihfels',. . 

*^ All is χα him o£ o. value. '* 

Qower. Uh. 8* FM. 185. fag. 2: id. 2. 

*' Nede has no pere, 
•* Him behoueth feme himfelfc that has no fwayn, 
"Or ELS he is a fole, as clerkes fayn. 

Chaucer. Reucs tale. FoL 16. pag. 1. col. 2.. 

Junius fays — ^^ Ε/β^ aliter, alias, alioqxri• A. S. E//es. 
Al. Alles. D. EllersP 

Skinner fays — *< Elfe^ ab a. s. eilcf, alias, alioquin. 
^^ Minihew & Dr. Tho. Hickes putant efle contraotum a 
*^ Lat. aliasy veL Gr• Αλλ«^, nee line verifimilitudine." 

a; Sijohnfon 


S. Johftfon fays—" Elfe^ Pronoun, (Ellef, Saxon) Mber^ 
« one befides. It is applied both to perfons and things.* 

He fays again — ^" Elfe<, Adverb, i. Otherwife. a. Be- 
« iides ; except that mentioned.** 


Tho' though, thah * (or, as our country-folks more 
purely pronounce it, thaf, thauf and thof) is the Im- 
perative Dap or Dapj of the verb Dapian or Dapijan ; to 
allow, permit, grant, yield, ailent: And Dapij becomes 
Tbaby Though^ Tboug (and Tbocby as G. Douglas and other 
Scotch authors write it) by a traniition of the fame fort, 
and at leail as eafy, as that of Hawk from Papuc. And it 

I i 

♦ Sec a ballad written about the year 1 264, in the reign of Henry the 


^* Richard thah thou be ever trichard, 

" Trichtcn Ihalt thou never more." 

Percys Reliques^ Vol. ii. p. a. 

See alfo another ballad written in the year 1307^ on the death of £dward 
the firft. 

" Thah mi tonge were mad of ftel, 

" Ant min herte yzote of bras, 
" The godneis myht y never telle 
" That with kyng Edward was. '' 

5 Percy s RiUquesy Vol.ii. p. ifi. 



is remarkable^ that as there were originally twa ways of 
writing the verb, either with the guttural g (Dapijan) or 
without it (Dapian) : fo there ftill continues the fame dif- 
ference in writing and pronouncing the remaining impe- 
rative of this fame verb, with the guttural ο (TJbou^b)f or 
without it {Tbo*). In Engliih, the difference is only in the 
charaoters ; but the Scotch retain in their pronunciation^ the 
guttural termination. 

In the earlier Anglo-Saxon the verb is written jeSap^an. 
In a charter of William the conqueror it is written— ic 
nelle ^e^apian. And in a charter of Henry the firft it is 
alio written— ic nelle ^eSapian. But a charter of Henry 
the fecond has it — ic nelle ^eSaman. 

See the preface to Hickes's The/aurus, pag, 15, 16. 

So that we thus have a ibrt of proof, at what time the ρ 
was dropped from the pronunciation of ^:^ian ; (namely, 
about the reign of Henry the feCcmd) an,d in what manner 
THAFio became thaf, and thaf became thau or tho'. 

I reckon it not a fmall confirmation of this etymology, 
that our antient writers often ufed AU be. All he it. All 
had, AU βοΗΐά, All were. All give. How be it. Set. 
Suppofe. 8cc. inftead of Altbougb, 


Β b ««But 



'^ But AL. B£. that he was a philofophre 
*' Yet had he but lytcl golde in cofre." 

Chaucer. ProL to Canterb. fales^ 

^^ Te wote your felfc, flie may not weddc two 
" At on€s, though ye fyghtcn eucr mo 

But one of you, all be him Ibthe or fefe 

He mote go pypc in an yuc lefc•" 

Knygbtes tale.. Fol. 5. fiag. 2. coT. 2^ 

^ Albeit origmaDy the King's Bench be reftraixied by 
« this ΑΛ to hold plea of any real adtion^ yet by a mean 
^^ it may ; as when removed thither, Sec•'* L^rd Q)ke. 


" —I fki2lyeuen her fufficient aniwcrc 
'^ And all women after for her fake 
'^ That though they ben in any gylte kakc 
" With face bolde, they ihullen hem felue excufc 
^ ** And here hem doun, that wold hem accuie 

'' For lacke of aniwere> non of bent fitull dyen 
" All had he fey a thyng with both his eyen 
" Yet Ihuld we women ib vifige it hardely 
And wepe and fwere and chyde fubtelly 
That ye ihal ben as leude as gees/' 

Chaucer. Marcbauntes tale. Fol. 23• P^S' ^• ^^^• ^' 

But rede that boweth. down for euery blafte 

Ful lyghtly cefle wynde, it wol aryfe 
** But fo nyl• not aaokc> whan it is cafte 
'* It ncdeth me nought longe the forvyfe 
" Men ihal rciojrfcn of a^ great emprife 
** Atchcucd wcl, and ftant withoutcn dout 
** Al have men ben the lenger riiere about." 

2d boke of Troylus^ Fol. 170. fag. 2. col. v. 

X '' For. 




^^ For I wol fpckc, and tcl it the 
Al shulde I dye.'* 

Romaunt of the Ro/e. Fol. 152. Pag. 2• CoL i. 

^^ And I ύ^ loued him for I)is obeyfaiince 
And for the trouthc that I demed in his hcrt 
That if fo were, that any thyng him fmert 
Al w£R£ it neuer fo lyte^ and I it wyft 
Methought I felt deth at my hcrt twift.'* 

Squiers TaU. Fol. 27. Pag. 2. Cot. i, 

'* Allgyf England and Fraunce were thorow faught/* 


^* The Moor, Howbeit that I endure him not. 
Is of a coiifiBAt» loving, noble nature/* 

Otbelh. A£l 2. See. i. 

" No wonder was, svpposx in mynde that he 
Toke her fygure fo foone, and Lo now why 
The ydol of a thyng in cafe may be 
So depe enprynted in the (antaiy 
That it delude th the wyttes outwardly/* 

Complayni of Crefeyie. Fol. 204• Pag. i. Coi. 2. 

*^ In fere placis throw the ciete wth thys 
The murmour rais ay mare and mai^, I wys. 
And clearar wax the rumour, and the dyn. 
So that, svPFOis ♦ Anchiles my federis In 
With treis about ftude fecrcte by the way. 
So buihious grew the noyis and furious fray 
And rading of fhare armoure on the ftrcte, 
Affrayit I gKfnit of flepe, and fterte on fete/' 

Douglas. Soke 2. Pag. 49. 

QuANauAM fecreta parentis 

Anchifac domus, 

Β b 2 '' Eurill 


*' Eurill (as faid is) has this ioudl hint. 
About his fydis it brafin, or he ftynt ; 
Bet all for nocht, suppois the gold dyd glete.'* 

Douglas. Boke 9. Pag. 189. 

« That fche might haue the copies of the pretendit 
" writi^igis giuen in, quhilkis they haue diuerfe tymes 
« requirit of the Quene*s maieilie and hir counfel, suppois 
** thay haue not as Sit obtenit the famin.** 

Mary St^een of Scots, 

N. B. In the year 1788 I faw the fame ufe of Suppose 
for Though, in a letter written by a Scotch officer at 
Guernfey, to my moft lamented and dear friend the late 
Lieutenant General James Murray. The letter i» other 
reipe^s was in very good and common £nglifli« 

« I feel exceedingly for Lord W. M. suppose I have 
** not the honour of being peribnally acquainted with him." 

I believe that the ufe of this word Suppose for Though 


is Aill common in Scotland. 

The German ufes Docb ; the Dutch Doci and I>og ; the 
Daniih Dog and Endog ; and the Swediih Dock ; as we uie 
Though: all from the fame root. The Daniih employs 

Skiont and Εηάβίοηάί\ and the Swediih Anlkont, for Though: 



from the Daniih verb Skionner; and the Swediih verb 
Skionjay both of which meany to perceive, difcerriy imagine^ 
conceive^ fuf>pofe, underfiand. 

As the Latin β (if) means Be it : and Niji and Jine 
{unlefs and witbouf) mean Be not : Co Etfi {although') means 
And be it- ^. The other Latin Conjunctions which are ufed 
for Although, (as, ^am-vis. Licet, ^antttm vis, ^atn- 
libet) are fo uncorrupted as to need no explanation. 

Sikinner barely fays—** though, ab as Beah. Belg. 
** S)och. Belg. & Teut• I>och. etli> quamyis +.'' 

♦ It may not be quite necdlefs to obfcrve, that our conjunftions if and 
THOUGH may very frequently fupply each other's place, as — " though an 
«■ hoft of men rife up againil me, yet (hall not my heart be afraid ;" or, 
" IF an hoft of men, &c/' So—" though aU men ihould foriake you, 
" yet will not I5" or> " if all men ihould forfake you, &c." 

t Though this word b called a conjunftion of fcntences> it is conftantly 
ufed (efpecially by children and in low difcourfe) not only at the beginning, 
and between, but at the end of icntences. 

" P/v. Why do you maintain your poet's quarrel fo with velvet and good 
*' clothes ? We have feen him in indifferent good clothes e're now himfelf. 

** Buy. And may 2^in. But his clothes fhall never be the beft thing^ 
** about him, though. He will have fomewhat befidc, either of humane 
" letters or fcverc honcfty, Ihall fpeak him a man, though he went naked," 




It was this word, but, which Mr. Locke had chiefly in 
view, when he fpoke of Conjunftions as marking forae 
" Stands, Turns, Limitations, and Exceptions of the mind.'^ 
And it was the corrupt ufe of this One word (but) in 
modern Englilh, for Two words (bot and but) originally 
(in the Anglo-faxon) very different in iignification, though 
(by repeated abbreviation and corruption) approaching in 
found, which chiefly mifled him. 

^ But (fays Mr. Locke) is a Particle, none more familiar 
*^ in our language ; and he that fays it is a difcretive Con- 
" junction, and that it anfwers sed in Latin, or mais in 
** French *, thinks he has fufficiently explained it. But 
^^ it feems to me to intimate feveral Relations the mind 
** gives to the feveral propofitions or parts of them, which 
" it joins by this monofyllable• 

" Firit , But to fay no more : 

*^ Here it intimates a flop of the mind, in the courfe it 
" was going, before it came to the end of it. 

■--■-- - III ■■—...■ 

♦ It does not anfwer to Sed in Latin, or Mais in French i except only 
where it is ufcd for Bot. Nor will any (me word in my Language anfwer to 
our Engliih but : becaufe a fimilar corruption in the fame inftance has not 
happoicd in any other language. 

" Secondly, 


« Secondly, — • — I /aw but two Plants, 

«« Here it ihews, that the mind limits the fenfe to what 
*' is expreffed, with a negation of all other. 

" Thirdly» Tou pray ; but // is not that God would 

•* bring you to the true religion r 

** Fourthly ν——Φυτ tbaf be would eonjirm you in your 

« The firft of theie buts intimates a fuppoiition' in the 
•* mind of &mething otherwife than it ihould be : the 
" latter ihews that the mind makes a direct oppoiltion be- 
^ tween that; and what goes before it. 

Fifthlyy— -<4// animals bofue fenfSi but a dog is an arUmaK 

** Here it fignifies little more, but thitf: the latter pro- 
•* polition is joined to the former, as^ the Minor of a 
« Syllogifm, 

^ To thefe, I doubt not, might be added a great many 
^ other iignifications of this particle, if it were my bufmefsi 
^ to examine it in its full latitude^ and conlider. it in all the: 

** places^ 


^^ places it is to be found ; which if one iliould d^i 
^* doubt whether in all thofe manners it is made ufe of, it 
^ would deferve the title of discretive which Gramma- 
*^ rians give tp it^ 

^ But / intend not * here a full explication of this fort 

" of fS,^^• The inftances I have given in this one, may 

«< give occafion to reflecSt upon their ufe and force in Ian- 

" guage, and lead us into the contemplation oi fever al 

^^ adiions of our minds in difcourfing, which it has found a 

^^ way to intimate to others by tbefe Particles j fome whereof 

^^ conilantly, and others in certain conftruotions, have the 

^ fenfe of a whole fentence contained in them•" 

Now all thefe difficulties are very eaiily to be removed 
without any effort of the underftanding : and for that very 
reaibn I do not much wonder that Mr• Locke mifled the 
explanation : for he dug too deep for it. But that the 
Etymologifts (who only juft turn up the furface) fliould 

* <c 

EiTenciam finemque conjunftionum fatis aptc explicatum puto : nunc 
•* earum.originem matcriamquc videamus. Ncquc vcro StgiHnttm per- 
" -currere omncs in Animo efi.^* J. C. Scalioer. 

The conftant excufe of chem all^ whether Graminatiils, Qrammarians or 
Philofophers ; though they dare not hazard the ai&rtion, yet they would all 
have us underftand tliat they can do it ; but nm in animo eft. And it has 
never been done. 

2 Olifs 


tnifs it, does indeed aftonifti me. It feems to me impoffible, 
that any man who reads only the moft common of our old 
Englifli authors iliould fail to obferve it. 

Gawin Douglas, notwithftanding he frequently con- 
founds the two words, and ufes them often impro]xily, 
does yet (without being himfelf aware of the diRinition, 
and from the mere force of cuftomary fpeech) abound with 
fo many inftances, and fo contrafted, as to awaken, one 
ftiould think, the moft inattentive reader• 

** BoT thy werke ihall endure in laude and glorie. 
But ipot or fak condigne ctcrnc memoric." 

Preface, pag. j. 

^^ Tboch Wylliame Caxtoune had no compatioun 
Of Virgin in that buk he preyt in prois, 
Clcpand it Virgill in Eneados, 
Quhilk that he fayis of Frenfche he did tranflait. 
It has nathing ado therwith, God wate. 
Nor na.mare like than the Deuil and fanft Auftin. 
Haue he na thank tharfbre, bot lois his pyne ; 
So fchameftiUy the ftorie did peruerte, 
I reid his werk with harmes at my hert. 
That fie anc buk, but fentence or ingyne, 
Suld be intitulit eftir the poete diuine." 

Priface. pag. 5, 

** I fchrink not anys corxckkit for to be^ 
With ony wycht groundit on charite. 
And glaidlie wald I b^th inquire and lere> 
, And to ilk cunnand wicht la to myne ere i 

C c Έοτ 


^^ places it is to be found ; which if one iliould άφ^ 
" doubt whether in all thofe manners it is made ufe of, it 
^ would deferve the title of Discretive which Gramma- 
*^ rians give tp it^ 

^ But / intend not * here a full explication of this fort 
" of Jigf^s. The inftances I have given in this one, may 
<< give occaiion to reflecSt upon their ufe and force in Ian- 
" guage, and lead us into the contemplation of feveral 
" anions of our minds in difcourfing, which it has found a 
^^ way to intimate to others by tbefe Particles^ fome whereof 
" conllantly, and others in certain conftruolions, have the 
^ fenfe of a whole fentence contained in them•" 

Now all thefe difficulties are very eafily to be removed 
without any effort of the underftanding : and for that very 
reafon I do not much wonder that Mr. Locke mi£ed the 
explanation : for he dug too deep for it. But that the 
Etymologifts (who only juft turn up the furface) fliould 

* " EflTenriam fincmque conjunftionum fatis aptc explicatum puto : nunc 
•* earum originem matcriamque vidcamus. Ncquc vero SigiHatim per- 
*^ -currere omncs in Animo efi.^* J. C. Scalioer. 

The conftant excufe of chem ally whether Graoifnadils, Qramniarians or 
Philofophers ; though they dare not hazard the aiTertion, yet they would all 
Iiave us underftand tliat they can do it ; but non in animo eft. And it has 
never been done. 

2 mifs 


tnifs it, does indeed aftonifti me. It feems to me impoffible, 
that any man who reads only the moft common of our old 
Englifli authors iliould fail to obferve it. 

Gawin Douglas, notwithftanding he frequently con- 
founds the two words, and ufes them often improjxrly, 
does yet (without being himfclf aware of the dii>inctioii, 
and from the mere force of cuftomary fpeech) abound with 
fo many inftances, and fo contrafted, as to awaken, one 
ftiould think, the moft inattentive reader• 

** BoT thy werke ihall endure in laude and glorie. 
But ipot or fak condignc ctcrnc memoric." 

Frefau. jpag. j. 

^^ Thoch Wylliame Caxtoune had no compatioun 
Of Virgin in that buk he preyt in prois, 
Clcpand it Virgill in Eneados, 
Quhilk that he fayis of Frenfche he did tranflait. 
It has nathing ado therwith, God wate. 
Nor na.mare like than the Deuil and fanft Auftin. 
Haue he na thank tharforc, bot lois his pyne ; 
So fchamcfuUy the ftorie did peruerte, 
I reid his werk with harmes at my hert. 
That fie ane buk, but fentence or ingyne, 
Suld be intitulit eftir the poete diuine." 

Priface. pag. 5, 

** I fchrink not anys corxckkit for to bc^ 
With ony wycht groundit on charite. 
And glaidlie wald I b^th inquire and kre, 
, And to ilk cunnand wicht la to myne ere ; 

C c Bot 


BoT laith me war, but uthcr offences or crymc, 
Anc rural body fuld mtertrik my ryme." 

Preface, fag. ii, 

^' BoT gif this ilk ftatew ftandis here wrocht. 
War with jour handis into the ciete brocht. 
Than fchew he that the peopil of Afia 
But ony obftakill in fell battel fuld ga.*' 

Booke a. pag. 45. 

*' This chance is not but goddis willts went. 
Nor it is not leful thyng, quod fche, 
Fra hyne Creufa thou turs away wyth the. 
Nor die hie governoure of the hcuin aboue is 
Will fuffer it fo to be, ιοτ the bchuffis 
From hens to wend full fer into exile. 
And ouer the braid fey fayl fiirth mony a myle. 
Or thou cum to the land Hifperia, 
Quhare with foft courfis Tybris of Lydia 
Rynnis throw the riche feildis of pepill ftout ; 
Thare is gret fubftance ordanit the but dout. 

Booke a. pag. 64• 

*' Vpoun fie wife vncertanlie we went 

Thre dayes wilfum throw the myfty ftrcme. 
And als mony nychtes but fterneys leme. 
That quhidder was day or nycht vneth wift we• 
BoT at the laft on the fcrd day we fe 
On fer the land appere, and hillis ryfe 
The fmoky vapoure up calling on thare gyfe. 
Doun fallis falis, the aris fone we Ipan 
But mare abaid/* 


iooke 3. pag. 74. 

" Box 


" BoT gif the faics, but pleid. 
At my plefurc fufFer it me life to leid. 
At my frc wil my workis to modify• 

Booke /^. pag. iii. 

" 'BoT fen Apollo clcpit Gryneus 
Gretc Italic to feik commandis us. 
To Italie eik oraclis of Licia 
Admonift us but mare delay to ga 
Tharc is my luft now and delyte at hand." 

Bvoke ^. fag. iii. 

^' Thou wyth thyr harmes oucrchargit me alfo, 
Quhen I fell fyrft into this rage, quod fchc, 
BoT fo to do my teris conftrenyt the. 
Was it not lefull, allace, but cumpany. 
To me but crymc allane in chalmcr to ly ?" 

Booke 4. pag. 11^• 

^^ Ane great eddir flidand can Ifiirth thraw, 
Eneas of the fycht abafit fum deile, 
Bot fche at the laft with lang fard fare and wclc 
Crepis amang the vefchell and coupis all. 
The drink, and eik the ofFerandis grete and fmall, 
Snokis and likis, fyne ful the altaris left. 
And but mare harme in the graif cnterit eft." 

. Booke 5. pag. 130. 

*' Thare hartis on flocht, fmytin with ihame fum dele> 
Bot glaid and ioly in hope for to do welc, 
Rafis in thare brciftis defyre of hie renowne : 
Syne but delay at the firft trumpis foune 
From tharc marchis attanis furth thay Iprent.'* 

Booke 5. pag. 132. 

C c 2 Anc 


" Ane uthir mache to him was focht and fperit \ 
BoT thare was nanc of all the rout that ftcrit, 
Na durft prefume mete that man on the land. 
With mais or burdoun, to debate hand for hand, 
loly and glaid therof baith all and fum. 
Into barganc wenyng for to ouercum. 
Before Eneas feite ftude, but delay." 

Booke 5. pag. 140. 

" The tothir anfwerd, Nowthir for dredc nor boift. 
The liif of wourfchip nor honoure went away is 
BoT certanly the dafit blude now on dayis 
Waxis dolf and dull throw myne unweildy age. 
The cald body has mynyft my curage : 
BoT war I now as umquhile it has bene 
jing as Tone wantoun woiftare fo ftrang thay wenc, 
jc had I now fic joutheid, traiftis me. 

Βατ ony price I fuld all rcddy be : 

Na lufty bul me till induce fuld nede. 

For nouthir I fuld haue crauit wage nor mede. 

Quhen this was faid he has but marc abade 

Tua kempis burdouns brocht, and before thaym laid." 

Booke 5. fag. 140. 


And fyrft to hym ran Aceftes the kyng. 

And for compafTioun has uphynt in fcild 

His freynd Entellus unto him euin eild. 

BoT nowthir aftonift nor abafit hereon. 

Mare egirly the vailjeant campion 

Agane to bargane went als hate as fyrc : 

And ardently with furie and mekle boift 

<jan dares cache, and driue ouer al the coift : 

Now with the richt hand, now with the left hand he 

Doublis dyntis, and but abade lete fle 3 



The prince Eheas than feand this dout. 

No langar Tuffir wald fic wraith proccdc. 

Nor feirs EntcUus mude thus rage and fprcdc. 

BoT of the bargane maid end^ 3ut delay." 

Booke 5; pag. 143. 
^^ In nowmer war they but anc few menje. 

Box thay war quyk, and valjeant in mellc.'* 

Bocke 5. pag. 15J, 

^* Blyn not, blyn not, thou grete Troian Encc, 
Of thy bedis nor prayeris, quod fche : 
For BOT thou do, thir grete durris, BUT.dred^ . 
And griflie jcttis fall ncuer warp on bred." 

Booke 6. fag. 164• 

*^ On ficlike wife as thare thay did with me, 
Grete goddis mot the Grekis recompense 
Gif I may thig ane uengeance but ofFens. 
Box fay me this agane, freind, all togidder, 
Quhat auenture has brocht the leuand hidder ?'^ 

Booke 6. pag. 182. 

^* How grete apperance is in him, but dout, 
Tyll be of proues and ane vailjeant knycht : 
Box ane blak fop of myft als dirk as nycht 
Wyth drery fchaddow bylappis his hede/* 

Booke 6. pag. 197. 

** Nor myiknaw not the condiciouns of us • 
Latyne pepyll and folkis of Saturnus, 
Uncpnftrenyt, not be law bound thertyll. 
Box be our inclinacioun and fre wyll 
lufte and cquale, and bux oiFenfis ay. 
And rculit efiir the auld goddis way." 

Booke 7. pag. 212. 




' ** BOT fen that Virgil ftandis but compare." 

ProL to Booh 9. pag, 272• 

** Quhiddcr gif the goddis, or fum fprctis filly 
Mouis in our myndis this ardent thochtful firt. 
Or gif that cuery mannis fchrewit defyre 
Be as his god and genius in that place, 
I wat ncuer how it ftandis, bot this lang ipace 
". My mynd mouis to me, here as I ftand, 

iatcl or fum grete thyng to tak on hand : 
I knaw not to quhat purpois it is dreft, 
Bot be na way may I tak cis nor reft. 
Behaldis thou not fo furelie but affray 
Tone Rutulianis haldis thaym glaid and gay." 

Booke 9. fag. 281• 

*^ His feris Itikis about on euery fide. 

To fe quharfra the groundin dart did glide. 
BoT lo, as thay thus wounderit in efFray, 
This ilk Nifus, wourthin proude and gay. 
And baldare of his chance fa with him gone, 
Ane uthir takill aflayit he anone : 
And with ane found fmate Tagus but remede." 

Bookc 9. pag. 291. 

" Agane Eneas can Tarquitus drcs, 
^ And to recounter Enee inflamyt in tene, 

Keft hym felf in ; bot the tothir but fere 
Bure at hym mychtely wyth ane lang Ipcre." 

^Booke 10. pag. 337. 

*' Sic wourdis vane and unfemelie of found 
Furth waφis wyde this Liger fulichelie : 
BoT the Troiane baroun unabafitlie 
Na wourdis preifis to render him aganc ; 
BoT at his fa let fie ane dart or flane. 



And here it may be proper to obferve, that Gawin 
Douglafs's language (where bot is very frequently found) 
Jhough written about a century after, muft yet be efteemed 
more ancient than Chaucer's : even as at this day the pre- 
fent Engliih fpeech in Scotland is, in many refpedls, more 
ancient than that fpoken in England fo far back as the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth *. So Mer. Gafaubon (de vet. 
ling. Ang.) fays of his time — " Scotica lingua Anglica 
" hodierna purior.'' — Where by puriorj he means nearer 
to the Anglo-Saxon• 

So G. Hickes, in his Anglo-Saxon Grammar, (Chap. 3.) 
fays— *^ Scoti in multis SaxonizantesT 

But, to return to Mr. Locke, whom (as B. Johnfon fays 
of Shakefpeare) " I reverence on this lide of idolatry ;"* in 
the^o;^ inftances which he has given for^v^ different mean- 
ings of the word but, there are indeed only two different 
meanings + : nor could he, as he imagined he could, have 


* This will not ieem at all extraordinary, if you reafon directly contrary 
to Lord Monboddo on this fubjeft ; by doing which you will generally be 
right, as well in this as in almoft every thing elfe which he has advanced. 

j- ^* You muft anfwer, that flie was brought very near the fire, and as 
*' good as thrown in ; or elfe that fhe wa? provoked to it by a divine infpi- 
** ration. But, but that another divine inlpiration moved the beholders 

D d to 



* Than of ane grcter bargane in his «ntcut 
All fuddanly the fygure dyd emprent. 
And on ane litill mote afcendit in hye, 
Quhare fone forgadderit all the Troy ane army. 
And thyck about hym flokkand can but baid, 
Ββτ nowtliir fchcUd nor wappinnis doun thay laid. 

Booke m. fag. 430» 

'' Ha ! How, 

Sa grete ane ftorme or fpate of feUoun ire. 
Under thy breift thou roUis hait as fyre ? 
BoT wirk as I the byd, and do away 
That wraith' confauit BUT ony caus, I pray/* 

Booke 12. pag. 442. 

The Gloflarift of Douglas contents himfelf with explain- 
ing BOT by BUT• 

The Gloffarift to Urry^s Edition of Chaucer fays,— - 
^^ BoT for BUT is a form of fpeech frequently ufed in 
^^ Chaucer to denote the greater certainty of a thing.'^— 
This is a moft inexcufable aflertion : for I believe the place 
cited in the Gloflary is the only inftance (in this edition of 
Chaucer) where bot is ufed ; and there is not the fmalleft 
ihadow of reafon for forming even a conjeoture in favour 
of this 'unfatisfadtory affertion : unfatisfadlory, even if the 
fadl had been fo ; becaufe it contains no explanation : for 
why ihould bot denote greater certainty ? 



And here it may be proper to obferve, that Gawin 
Douglafs's language (where bot is very frequently found) 
Jhough written about a century after, muft yet be efteemed 
more ancient than Chaucer's : even as at this day the pre- 
fent Engliih fpeech in Scotland is, in many refpedls, more 
ancient than that fpoken in England fo far back as the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth *. So Mer. Gafaubon (de vet. 
ling. Ang.) fays of his time — ^^ Scotica lingua Anglica 
" hodierna purior." — Where by puriorj he means nearer 
to the Anglo-Saxon• 

So G. Hickes, in his Anglo-Saxon Grammar, (Chap. 3.) 
fays— *^ Scoti in multis Saxonizantesr 

But, to return to Mr. Locke, whom (as B. Johnfon fays 
of Shakefpeare) ^^ I reverence on this fide of idolatry ;*' in 
the^o;^ inftances which he has given ioxfive different mean- 
ings of the word but, there are indeed only two different 
meanings + : nor could he, as he imagined he could, have 


* This will not feem at all extraordinary, if you reafon directly contrary 
to Lord Monboddo on this fubjeft ; by doing which you will generally be 
right, as well in this as in almoft every thing elle which he has advanced. 

j- ^* You muft anfwer, that flie was brought very near the fire, and as 
*' good as thrown in ; or elfe that fiie wa? provoked to it by a divine infpi- 
** ration. But, but that another divine infpiration moved the beholders 

D d to 


added any other iignifications of this particle, but whsit are 
to be found in bot and but as I have explained them *. 

But, in the firfly tbird, fourth^ and fifth inftances, is 
corruptly put for bot, the imperative of Bocan : 

In the fecond inftance only it is put for Sure, or Buran» 
or Be-uran +. 


*' to believe that ihe did therein a noble aft, this aft of her's might have 
•* been calumniatedj &c." 

Donne's ΒιλΑλ^λΙο^, Part Π. DifiinSl. 5. SeS. 8• 

In the above paifage, which is exceedingly aukward, but is ufed in both 
it's meanings clofe to each other : and the impropriety of the comipaon 
appears therefore in it's moft ofFenfivc point of view• A careful author 
would avoid this, by placing theic two bcts at a diftance from each other 
in the fentence, or by changing one of them for fbme other equivalent 
word• Whereas had the corruption not taken place, he might without any 
Inelegance (in this refpeft) have kept the conftrudKon of the fcntcnce as it 
now ftands : for nothing would have offended us, had it run dius— *^ Bot* 
" butan that another divine inlpiration moved the beholders, &c." 

* S• Jobnibn, in his Diftionary, has numbered up eighteen different figoi- 
iications (as he imagines) of but : which however are all reducible to bot. 
and Be-utan. 

t " I faw BUT two plants.** 

Not or Ne is here left out and underftood^ which ufed formerly to be ini• 
fcrtcd, as it frequently is ftill. 



In the firfi inftance,— " Ίο fay no more^ is a mere 
parentheiis : and Mr. Locke has unwarily attributed to 


So Chaucer, 

" Tel forth your tale, iparcth for no man. 
And teche us yong men of your prafttkc. 
Gladly (quod (he) if it may you lykc. 
But that I pray to all thb companyj 
If that I fpcke after my fantafy. 
As taketh not a greic of that I fay. 
For myn eutent is not but to play." 

Wife of Bathes Prologue. 

** I nc ufurpc not to haue founden this werkc of my labour or of myne 
*' engyn, I nam but a leudc compylatour of the laboure of oldc aftro^ 
^* logiens, and haue it tranflated in myn englyfihe.'* 

Introduflion to Conclufyons of the Afirolabye, 

" Forfake I wol at home myn herytage 
And as I fayd, ben of your courte a page 
If that ye vouchefafe that in this place 
Ye graunte me to haue fuche a grace 
That I may haue nat but my meate and drinke 
And for my fuftynaunce yet wol I fwynke/* 

^ Yet were it better I were your wyfe 
Sithe ye ben as gentyl borne as I 
And haue a realme nat but fefte by•" 

Ariadne. Fol. 217. pag. i. col. i• and 2. 

We ihould now fay— ^my intent is bvt to flay.^^^Iam but λ compiler y &c. 

This omiifion of the negation before but, though now very common, is 
one of the moft blameable and corrupt abbreviations of conftruftion which 
is ufcd in our language ; and could never have obtamcd, but through the 

D d 2 utter 


BUT, the meaning contained in the parenthefis : for fup- 
pofe the inftance had been this, — " but to proceed.^ — Or 
this, — " BUT, Jo go fairly through this matter.^ — Or this, 
— " BUT, 7iot to βορ^'^ 


utter ignorance of the meaning of the word But. " There is not (fays 
'* Chillingworth) fo much ilrength required in the edifice as in the foun- 
" dation: and if but wife men have the ordering of the building, they 
*^ will make it much a furer thing, that the foundation fliall not fail the 
building, than that the building (hall not fall from the foundation. And 
though the building be to be of brick or ilone, and perhaps of wood j 
i' yet it may be poflibly they will have a rock for their foundation ; whofe 
*^ {lability is a much more indubitable thing, than the adherence of the 
*' ftrufture to it." 

It ihould be written—'^ If none but wife men.'* — But the error in the 
conilruclion of this fcntcnce, will not excufe the prefcnt minifter, if he 
neglefts the matter of it. The bleflings or execrations of all pofterity for 
ever upon the name of Pitt, {pledged as he is) will depend intircly upon 
his conduft in this particular. 

The reader of this edition is requefled to obferve^ that the above note is not 
injerted apres coiip; but was publiflnd in the firfl edition of this volume in 
1786 : when I was in pojfeffion of the following folemny public engagement from 
Mr, Pitty made to the IVefiminfier Delegates in 1782. 

" Sir, 

'* I am extrerriely forry that I was not at home, when you and the other 

gentlemen from the Wcftminftcr Committee did me the honor to call. 

May I beg the favor of you to exprefs that I am truly happy to jfind that 

the motion of Tuefday laft, has the approbation of fuch zealous friends 

to the public, and to affurc the Committee that my exertions ihall never 

ci be 



Does BUT in any of thefe inftances, intimate a flop of 
the mind in the courfe it was going ? The truth is, that 
BUT itfelf is the fartheft of any word in the language 
from " intimating a βορΓ On the contrary it always 

^* be wanting in fupport of a mcafure, which I agree with them in thinki-^g 
*' eflentially ncceflary to the independence of Parliament, and to the liberty 
^* of the people. 

" I have the honor to be, 

" with great refpeft and efteem, 

" Sir, your moil obedient and 
" moft humble Servant 

<« LIncoIn'e-Inn» .. ^. 

«May 10. '' W. PITT/' 

Although I bad long known the old detefiahle maxim of political advent urerSy 
{for Philip was no other — " To amufc boys with playthings and men with 
" oatlis" — yety I am not afiamed to confefsy /, at that time, placed the firmefl 
reliance on his engagement : and in confequence of my full faith and trufly 
gave to him and to his adminifiration^ moft efpecially when it tottered and 
Jeemed overthrown {at the time cf the Regency Bill in 1788) a fupport fo zealous 
and effectual, as to draw repeatedly from himfelf and his friends the warmeft 

This letter was produced by me upon my trial at the Old Bailey in the year 
1794 : when fidelity to the fentiments it contains y was ferioufty and unblufhingly 
imputed to me as High Treafon. The original of this letter Mr. Pitt^ upon his 
oathy to my aftonifiment acknowledged to be in his own handwriting j although 
tvery trace of. Delegation was totally effaced from his memory. 

' * intimates 


intimates fomething more *, fomething to follow ; (as in- 
deed it does in this very inftance of Mr. Lrocke's ; though 


♦ In the French, Italian, Spanifli, Portugucfc^ Dutch, and fcvcral other 
dead and living languages, the very word more is ufed for this conjunftion 


The French anciendy ufed mais, not only as they now do for the con- 
junftion mais j but alio as they now ufe plus or d'avantage.— 

Υ puis je Mais ? 
Je n'en puis Mais, 

are ftill in ufe among the vulgar people j in both which expreflions it means 
more. So Henry Eftiene ufcs it 5 

" Sent fi bien accouftumez k cefte fyncope, ou plutoft apocope, qu*ils 
'^ en font quelquesfois autant aux diflyllabes, qui n'en peuvent mats.'* 

H. E. de la precellence du langage Francois, p. 18• 

*' Mais vient dc magis (j*entens mais pour d*avantage.**) Id. p. 131. 

^* Hclas ! , il n'en pouvoit mais, le pauvre prince, ni mort, ny vivant.*' 


** Enfin apris cent tours aiant de la manierc 
Sur ce qui n'en peut mais decharge fa colere." 

Moliere. Ecole des Femmes. A. 4. See. 6. 

In the fame manner the Italians ; 

^^ lo t' ho atato, quanto ho potuto : si ch' io non ib, ch' io mi ti poila 
*' piu atare : £ pero qui non ha ma che uno compenfo. Comincia a 
*' piangcrcj c io piangcroc con tcco inficmc.'* 

Cento Novelle. Nov. 35. 

€t Fuc 


we know not what that fomething is, becaufe the fentence 
is not compleated.) And therefore whenever any one in 
difcourfe iiniihes his words with but, the queftion always 
follows— BUT what Ρ 

So that Shakefpeare fpeaks moft truly as well as poetir 
cally, when he gives an account of but, very different: 
j&om this of Mr. Locke.. 

^ Me/f. Madam, he's well.. 

« Cleo. WcU faid. 

*' Mejf. And friends with Caefar. 

** Cleo. Thou art an honeft man. . 

*' MeJf. Caefar and he are greater friends than ever, 

** Cleo. Make thee a fortune from me. . 

" MeJf. But — yet — Madam,— 

** Cleo. I do not like but — yet.— It does allay 
" The good precedent. Fie upon but, — ^yet.— - 
«i But — YET— is as a Jaylour, to bring forth . 
** Some monftrous malefaftor." 

Anthony and Cleopatra^ Aft Π. Sc. 5. 

** Fue un fignore, ch* avea uno giullare in fua corte, e qliefto giullarc 
" Γ adorava ficome un fuo Iddio. Un altro giullarc vedendo qucfto, fi 
*^ gliene difle male, e diiTe : Or cui chiaipi tu Iddio ? £1U non e ma chc 
^* uno.'/ CfHU Novelle. Nov. 18. 

In the fame manner alfo the Spaniih language employs mas both for But 
and More. 

*' Es la verdad la que Mas importa ilos principes, y la que menos fe 
«* halla en los palacios." Saa^edra. Corona GOtbica. . 

*^ Obra de iliiij novedad, y Mas cftudio." Id, . 

3 Where. 


Where you may obferve that yet (tho' ufed elegantly 
here, to mark more ftrongly the hefitation of the fpeakcr) 
is merely fiiperfluoiis to the fenfe ; as it is always when 
ufed after bot : for either bot or yet alone has the very 
fame efFe6t, and will always be found (efpecially bot) 
to alloy equally the Good or the Bad * precedent \ by 
fomething more + that follows. For Boran means— to 


* " sped. Item, She hath more hairs than wit, and more faults Uian 
'^ hairs ; but more wealth than faults. 

** Laun. Stop there. She was mine, and not mine, twice or thrice in 
" that article. Rehearfe that once more. 

*' Sped, Item, fhe hath more hair than wit. 

" Latin. What's next ? 

i • 

*^ Speed. And more fauUs than hairs. 

" Laun. That's monftrous ! Ο that that were out ! 

" Sped. But more wealth than faults. 

" Laun. Why that word makes the faults gracious." 

Here the word but allays the bad precedent; for which, without any 
ihifting of its own intrinfic fignification, it is as well qualified as to allay the 

t So Taflb, 

— '^ Am. Oh, che mi dici ? 

Silvia m'attende, ignuda, e fola ? Tir. Sola, 
' Se non quanto v'c Dafue, ch' c per noi. 
*/ Am. Ignuda ella m'afpetta ? Tir. Ignuda : ma— 
^^ Am. Oime, che ma ? Tu taci tu m' uccidi." 

Amintay Att• II. Sc. 3. 

7 Where 



BOOT '^'y i. e. to fupcradd +, to fupply, to fubftitute, to atone 
for, to compenfate with, to remedy with, to make amends 
with, to add fomething more in order to make up a de- 
ficiency in fomething elfe• 

So likewife in the ibird and fourth inftances (taken from 
Chilling worth) J. Mr. Locke has attributed to but a 


Where the difFcrcnce of the conftruftion in the Englilh and the Italian is 
worth obferving 5 and the reafon evident, why in the queftion confequent 
to the conjunftion, what is placed after the one, but before the other. 

jB^^/what? 7 f What more? 

i. e. 
Che ma? 

* S. Johnfon, and others, have miftaken the cxprcflion — To Boot-^ 

(which ftill remains in our language) for a fubftantive; which is indeed 

the Infinitive of the fame verb, of which the conjunition is the Imperative. 

■As the Dutch alfo ftill retain Boeten in their language, with the fame 


f ^ Perhaps it may be thought improper for me to addrefs you on this 
" fubjeft. But a moment, my Lords, and it will evidently appear, that 
** you arc equally blameable for an omiflion of duty here alfo/* 

This may be fuppofed an abbreviation of conftrufbion, for *^ but Indulge 
** me with a moment, my Lords, and it will, &c•" but there is no occafion 
for fuch a fuppofition. 

• ' 4l Knott had faid,— «' How can it be in us a fundamental error to fay, 
*' the Scripture alone is not judge of xM)mroverfies, seeing (notwithftand- 

Ec " ing 


meaning which can only be colledted from the words which 
Jfollow it. 

But Mr. Locke fays, — ^^ If it were his buiineis to 
^^ examine it (but) in its full latitude.'^ — And that he 
" intends not here a full explication of this fort of ligns.^— 
And yet he adds, that — " the inftances he has given in 
^^ this one (but) may lead us into the contemplation of 
<< feveral adiions of our minds in difcouriing, which it has 


ing this our belief) we ufe for interpreting of Scripture all the means 
which they prefcribe j as Prayer, conferring of Places, confulting the 
originals, &c/* 

To which Chillingworth replies, 

" You pray, but it is not that God would bring you to the true reli- 
*' gion, BUT that he would confirm you m your own. You confer places, 
*' BUT it is, that you may confirm or colour over with plaufible dilguiifcs 
** your erroneous dodrines -, not that you may judge of them and foriake 
^* them, if there be reafon for it• You confult the originals, but you re• 
*' gard them not when they make againft your dootrine or tranflatioo." 

In all thcfe places, but (i. e. bot, or, asr we now pronounce the verb, 
boot) only directs fomething to be added or fupplied, in order to make up 
fomc deficiency in Knott's expreffions of " Prayer^ conferring of places, 
" &c/* And fo far indeed as an omiffion of fomething is improper, but 
(by ordering it's iniertion) may be faid <* to intimate a fuppofition in the 
** mind of the ipeaker, of fomething otherwife than it ihould be." But 
that intimation is only, as you fee, by confequcncci and not by the in* 
triniic fignificatbno^ the wofd.iv«u 

<^ found 


<« found a way to intimate to others by thefe particles.*» 
And thefe, it muft be remembered, are ASiions, or as he 
before termed them thoughts of our minds, for which 
he has faid, we have " either none or very deficient natnes,^ 

Now if it had been fo, (which in truth it is not) it was 
furely for that reafon, rnoft efpecially the bufinefs of an 
Effay on human underflandingy to examine thefe Signs in 
their full latitude : and to give a full explication of them* 
Inftead of which, neither Here^ nor elfewberey has Mr. 
Locke given Any explication whatever. 

Though I have faid much, I ftiall alfo omit much which 
might be added in fupport of this double etymology of 
BUT : nor ihould I have dwelt fo long upon it, but in 
compliment to Mr. Locke ; whofe opinions in any matter 
are not ilightly to be rejedled, nor can they be modeftly 
controverted without very ilrong arguments. 

None of the etymologifts have been aware of this cor- 
rupt ufe of one word for two ^^ 


* Nor have etymologifts been any more aware of the meaning or true 
derivation^ of the words correfponding with but in other languages. Voflius 
derives the Latin conjundtion at from «Vaj i and ast from at, ** inferto s." 

Ε e α (But 


Minfliew, keeping only one half of our modern but in 
contemplation, has fought for its derivation in the Latin 
imperative Puta. 

(But how or why s happens to be infcrted, he does not fay.) Now to 
what purpofe is llich fort of etymology ? Suppofc it Avas derived from this 
doubtful word ΛΤΛξ ; what intelligence does this give us ? Why not as well 
flop at the Latin word at, as at the Greek word ατΛζ ? L• it not fuch fort 
of trifling etymology (for I will not give even that name to what is faid by 
Scaligcr and Nunnefius concerning sed) which has brought all etymological 
inquiry into difgrace ? 

Voffius is indeed a great authority ; but, when he has nothing to juftify 
an ufelefs conjefture but a fimilarity of found, we ought not to be afraid of 
oppofing an appearance of Reafon to him. 

It is contrary to the cuftomary progrefs of corruption in words to derive 
AST from AT. Words do not gain but lofe letters in their progrefs j nor 
has unaccountable accident any ihare in their corruption i there is always a 
good reafon to be given for every change they receive : and, by a good 
reafon, I do not mean thofe cabaliftical words Metathefis, Epenthefis, &C.. 
by which Etymologifts work fuch miracles ; but at Icaft a probable or 
anatomical reafon for thofe not arbitrary operations. 

Adfit^ Adfiy Afl^ At. — This conjefture is not a little ftrengthened both 
by the antic nt method of writing this conjundtion, and by the reafon which 
Scaligcr gives for it. — " At fuit ad 5 accejfmem cnim dicit." 

De C. L. L. cap. CLXxiir. 

I am not at all afraid of being ridiculed for the above derivation, by any 
one who will give himfclf the trouble to trace the words (correfponding 
with but) of any language to their fource : though they ihould not all be 
quite fo cbvious as the French MaiSy the Italian Ma^ the Spanilh Mas^ or. 
the Dutch Maar. 

6 Junius 


Junius confines his explanation to the other half; which 
he calls its " primariam fignificationem.'^ 

And Skinner willing to embrace them both, found no 
better method to reconcile two contradiBory meanings, than 
to fay hardily that the traniition from one ^^ to the other t 


Junius fays — " But, Chaucero τ. c. v. 194. bis poiitum 
^^ pro Jine. Primus locus eft in fummo columnae ;— but 
^^ temperaimce in tene^^ — Alter eft in columnae medio; 

— " His golden carte with fiery hemes bright 

" Four yoked ftedes, full difFerent of hew 

" But baite or tiring through the fphcres drew." 

" ubi, tamen perperam, primo bout pro but repofueram : 
" quod iterum delevi, cum (fub finem ejufdem poematis) 
^* incidiflem in hunc locum ; 

"But mete or drinke Ihe dreffed her to lie 
" In a darke corner of the hous alone." 

** Atque adeo exinde quoque obfervare coepi frequen- 
*^ tiflimam efle hanc particuloe acceptionem. In ^Eneide 

♦ Id eft, a direftion to leave out fomethitig. 
t Id eft, a direftion to fuperadd fomcthing• 

<^ quoque 


WITHOUT, in approved modern fpeech -^-, is now intirely 
confined to the Office of a Prepq/ition ; and but is generally 
though not always iifed as a ConjunBion. In the fame 
manner as Νίβ and Sine in Latin are diftributed; which 
do both like wife mean exadlly the fame, with no other 
difference than that, in the former the negation precedes^ 
and in the other it follows the verb. 

Skinner only fays, — ^^ Without, ab a. s. wiiSutan, 
" Extra."" 

S. Johnfon makes it a Prepofition, an Adverb, and a 
Conjundtion; and under the head of a Conjun(5tion, fays, 
u Without, Conjundt. Unlefs ; if not ; Except — Not in 
« ufe:' 

Its true derivation and meaning are the fame as thofe of 
BUT (from Buran.) ι . 

♦ It is however ufed as a ConjunStion by Lord Mansfield in Home*s Trial, 
page 56. 

*' It cannot be read, without the Attorney General confcrits to it." 

• r 

And yet, if this reverend Earl's authority may be fafely quoted for any 
thmg, it muft be for Words. It isib unfound in matter of law, that it is 
frcqucndy rcjcfted even by himfclf. , 



R is nothing but the Imperative pyjiSuran, from the 
Anglo-faxon and Gothic verb peojiiSan, VAiKOAm ;. whicb 
in the Anglo-faxon and £ngliih languages is yoked and- 
incorporated with the Verb Beon elTe. And this will ac- 
count to Mr. Tyrwhit for the remark which he has made, 
viz. thatt — " By and With are often fynoaymous *.** 

Γη modern Engliih we have retained only a fmall portion 
of it ; but our old Engliih authors had not loft the ufe of 
any part of this verb peopiSan, and frequently employed it,^ 
inftead of be, in every part of the conjugation; 

*• But I a draught hauc of that wcUc,. 
•*- Ih whiche my deth is and my lyfc ; 
•* My ioye is toumcd in to ftrife> 
*< That ibbrc Ihall I neuer worthe/' 

Gower. Lib. 5. Fol. 128. Pag. 2. CoL 2^ 

^ Wo worthe the fayre gemme vertulcfle 
" Wo worth that herbe alfo that doth no bote 
" Wo WORTH the beautc that is routhkfle 
^ Wo WORTH that wight trede cchc under fbte/'^ 

Chaucer. Troylus. Boke 2• PoL 165. Pag. i. CoL i. 

♦ " JVitbout and Within. Butran and Binnan : originally, I fiippofe, Bi 
*• utfan and Bi innan• By and With are often fynonymoust*^ Gloflary»^ 

F f «The:: 


" The brochc of Thebes was of fudie kynde 

" So ftjl of rubies and of iloncs of Indc 

" That eucry wight that fcttc on it an eye 

'^ He wcnde anone to worthe out of his myndc/* 

CmpiafHt of Mars. Fd. 343. Pag. 2. Crf. 1. 

^' In cais thay bark I compt it ncucr ioic mytc» 

^^ Quha caih not hald diare pece ar fre to flite^ 

*^ Chide quhill thare hedis rifFe, and hals worthe hace.** 

Douglas. ProL to Booke 3. Pag. 66. 

" Thay wouRTH afirayit of that foddane fycht*' 

Douglas. Booke 8. Pag. 244. 

^' Wo WORTH euer falfc cnuie." 

Gower. Lib. 8. Fol. 181• Pag. i. Col. 2. 

^^ Wo WORTH all flowe/* 

Gowir. Lii. 8. Fol. 188. Pag. 2. Col. u 


Sir Thopas wold out ryde 

He WORTH upon his ftede gray 
*^ And in his honde a launce gay 
" A long fwerde by his fyde." 

Chaucer. Ryme of Syr Thopas. Fol. 172, Pag. 4. Col. i. 

'' Ο mother myn, that cleaped were Argyuc 

^' Wo WORTH that day, that thou me bare onJyue/' 

Troylus. Boke 3. Fol. 186. Pag. 2. Col. 1. 

" Than in my mynd of mony thing is I mufit. 
And to the goddes of vildemes, as is ufit, 
Quiik Hamadriades hait, I wourfchip maid, 
^^ Beleiking this auiiioun worth happy, 
** And the orakil proiperite fuld fignify.** 

Douglas. Booki^. Pag. 63. 

€t Pallas 




^ Pallas aftonift of fo hie ane name 

^ As Dardanus» abafit worth for fchame.'' 

Doughs. Booke 8. Pagi 244^ 

^ His hak wojith dry of bludc/^ 

Douglas. Booh 8^ Pag. ^^Οφ 

** The large groxmd worth grifly unto fc." 

Douglas. Booke 11. Pag. 385, 

^ In leiliris and on leyis litill lanunes 

^ Full tdc and trig focht bletand to thare dammes^ 

•* Tydy ky lowis velis, by thaym rynnis, 

^ And Ihod and flckit worth thir beiilis ikinnis/' 

Douglas. Prol. to Booke. ία. Pag. 402^ 

•*• Quhat wenys thou, frcynd, thy craw be worthin quhite." 

Douglas. Prol. to Booke 3. Pag. 66•. 

^ And quhen thay bene aflemblit all in fere> 
** Than glaid fcho wourthis•" 

Douglas. Booke 13. Pag^j^^t. 

*' Euer as the batel worthis mare cruel, 
^ Be cffiifion of bhide and dyntis fel/' 

Douglas. Booke 7. Pag. 237. 

^* Wodlwroith he iw>Rthis for.dsfdcne and diipite." 

Douglas. Booke 1 a. Pag^ 423, φ 


M. Oa£iubon fiippofes and to be derived from the Greek 
fi7<4 poitea• 

F f a Skinnet 


Skinner fays — " Nefcio an a Lat. Adder e q. d. Add\ 
** interje<Sta per Epenthefin n, ut in Render a reddendo.** 

Lye fuppofes it to be derived from the Greek Irty adhuc» 
prseterea, etiam, quinetiam^ infuper. 

I have already given the derivation which, I believe, 
will alcme Hand examination. 

I ihall only remark here, how eaiily men take iipcoi 
truft, how willingly they are fatisiied with, and how con- 
fidently they repeat after others, falfe explanations of what 
they do not underiland. — Conjunctions, it feems, are to 
have their denomination and definition from the uie to 
which they are applied : per accidens^ ejfentiam. Prepofi- 
tions connciSt words ; but — ." the Conjunction connects or 
'* joins together fentences ; fo as out of two to make one 
<* fentence. Thus — " Tou and I and Peter, rode to 
«* London *,** is one fentence made up of three, Sec.** 

• •* Petrus et Paulus dijputant : id eft, Petrus difputat et Paulus difpiUat:* 

San6tii Minerva, Lib. i. cap. xviii. 

So again. Lib. 3. cap. xiv. •* Cicero (^ filius vaknt. Figura Syllcpfis 
- eft: ut, vgiet Gceroy tf valet fitius." Which Petizonius fufficicndy 
confutes, by thcic inftances — " Emi librum χ drachtnis & iv oboKs." 
** Sauhu & Paulus foot iidem." 

Well ! 


Well! So far matters feem to go on very fmoothly. 
It is, 

« Tou rode, I rode, Peter rode.** 

But let us now change the inftance, and try fome others, 
which are full as common, though not altogether fo con- 

Two AND two are four, 

A Β and Β c and c a form a Triangle. 

yobn AND Jane are a bandfome couple, . 

Does A Β form a triangle, β c form a triangle ? Sec— Is 
John a couple ? Is Jane a couple ? — ^Are two four ) 

If the definition of a ConjunAion is adhered to, I am 
afraid that and, in fuch initances, will dppear to be no 
more a Conjunction, (that is a conneober of fentences) 
than Though in the inftance I have given under that word : 
or than But, in Mr. Locke's fecond inftance : or than E^, 
when called by S. Johnfon a Pronoun ; or than Since, when 
ufed for Sithence or for Syne. In ihort, I am afraid that 
the Grammarians will fcarcely have an entire ConjunfdHon 
left : for I apprehend that there is not one of thofe words 


which they call Conjunctions, which is not fometimes ufed 
(and that very properly) without conneiSting fentences. 

# . ■ ■ 



Junius only fays — ** Lest, Ιβαβ, minimus, v. /itfU,^ 
Under Σεαβ, he fays — ^** Least, le/l, minimus. Goii• 
« tradtum eft ex ίλαχιςος, v. /iti/e, parvus.** And under 
/////?, to which he refers us, there is nothing to the 

Skinner fays — ^* Lest, ab a. s. La^, mitms, q. d. quo 
** minus hoc fiat^ 

S. Johnfon fays, — ** Lest, Conj. (from the Adje^ve 
Leafi) that not:* 

This laft deduction is a curious one indeed; and it 
would puzzle as fagacious a reaibner as S. Johnfon to 
fiipply the middle fteps to his concluiion from Leafi (which 
always however means Jome) to " That nof (which means 
none at all.) It fecms as if, when he wrote this, he had 
already in his mind a presentiment of ibme future occa- 
fion in which fuch reafoning would be convenient. As 
thus, — ^*< The Mother Country, the Seat of Government, 
** muft neceflarily enjoy the greateft ihare of dignity, 
•* power, rights, and privileges: an united or aflbdated 
** Kingdom muft have in fome degree a fmalier {hare ; and 

« their 


f< their Colonies the leafi ftisure ;''— That is, (aocording ΧΛ 
S. Johnfon *) None of any kind. 

It has been propofed by no fmall authority (Wallis fol- 
lowed by Lowth) to alter the fpelling of lest to Leafi ; 
and vice verfa. ^* Multi,'' fays Wallis, " pro Lefi fcribunt 
^^ Leafi (ut diftinguatur a Gonjunotione Lefi^ ne^ ut mm ;)■ 

* Johnfon's merit ought not to be denied to him ; but his Diftionary'is 
Ac moft impcrfeft and fkuhy, and the leaft valuable of any of his produc- 
tions i and that Ihare of merit which it poflcfics, makes it by fo miKrh th* 
more hurtful. I rejoice however, that though the leaft valuable, he found 
it the moft profitable : for I could never read his preface without ihedding 
a te^. And yet it muft be confeffed, that his Grammar and Hifiory and 
Diftionary of v^at be calls the Englifh language, arc in all relpcdbs (except 
the bulk of the latter) moft truly contemptible performances ; and a re- 
proach to the learning and induftry of a nation, which could receive them! 
with the flighteft approbation. 

Nearly one third of this Diftionary is as much the language of the HoU 
tcntots as of the Englilh ; and it would be no difficult matter fo to tranflate 
any one of the plaineft and moft popular numbers of the SpeSator into the 
language of that Diftionary, that no mere Engliihman, though well read 
in bis own language, would be able to comprehend one fentence of it. 

It appears to be a work of labour, and yet is in truth one of the moft 
idle performances ever ofiercd to the public: compiled by an author who 
poiTeiled not one fingle requifite for the undertaking, and (being a publica- 
tion of a fet of bookfellcrs) owing . its fuccefs to that very circumftance 
which ak)ne muft make it imppiUble ύχμ it ihoid4 deferve fuccefs. 


I " Verum 


Μ Verum omnino contra analogiam Grammaticae. Mallem* 
" fcgo Adjeotivum Ιεβ^ ConJun<Stionem Ιβαβ fcribere.** 

" The fuperlative Leafl^ fays Lowth, " ought 
<« to be written without the a ; as Dr» Wallis has long ago= 
** obferved The Conjun6Uon of the fame found might 
« be written with the a, for diilin(5tion.*' 

S. Johnfon judiciouily diflents from this propofaly. but 
for no other reafon» but becaufe he thinks << the profit is• 
** not worth the change»" 

Now though they all concur in the fame Etymology,. I 
will venture to affirm that Lest, for Lefed (as bleft ioD 
ble/ped, &c.) is nothing elfe but the participle paft of 
Lcfan, dimittere ; and, with the article That (either ex• 
preifed or underftood) means no more than boc άίιηϊβ) or 
quo dimtjfo *. 

* As LES the Impf rativc of Lcfan is ibmetitnes ufcd for unless, as has 
been already ihewn under the article Utilejs : fo is the fame imperative les 
ibmetimes uled initead of the participle lest. 

. ** I knew it was paft four houris of day, 
: ** And thocht I wald na langare ly in May ; 
** Les Pbcebus fxild me lofingere attaynt." 

G. Douglas, Prol. to the 1 2th book of Eneados. 

6 And, 


And, if this explanation and etymology of lest is 
right, (of which I have not the fmalleft doubt) k furoifheS 
one^ caution more to learned Critics, not to innovate raihly : 
Ι^β^ whilft they attempt to amend a language, as they 
imagine, in one trifling refpedt, they mar it in others of 
more importance; and by their corrupt alterations and 
amendments, confirm error; and make the truth more 
difEcult to be difcovered by thofe who come after• 

Mr. Locke fays, and it is agreed on all fides, that— 
** it is in the right ufe of thefe** {Farticles) <* that more 
^* particularly confifts the clearnefs and beauty of a good 
** ftyle :** and that, ^ thefe words, w^hich are not truly by 
^ themfehes the names of any ideas ^ are of conftant and in- 
^^ difpenfible ufe in language ; and do much contribute to 
^* men's well expreffing themfelves.** 

Now this, I am perfuaded, would ne.ver have been faid, 
had theie Particles been vinderitood ; fot it proceeds from 
nothing but the difficulty of giving any rule or direction 
concerning their ufe ; and that difficulty arifes from a mii^ 
taken fuppoiition that they are not ** by tbemfelves the names 
" of any ideas :** and in that cafe indeed I do not fee how 
any rational rules concerning their ufe could poffibly be 
given. But I flatter myfelf that henceforward» the true 

G g force 


force and nature of thefe words being clearly underftood, 
the proper ufe of them will be fo evident, that any rule 
concerning their ufe will be totally unneceflary : as it would 
be thought abfurd to inform any one that when he means 
to direft an addition^ he ihould not ufe a word which 
diredls to take away. 

I am induced to mention this in this place, from the 
very improper manner in Λvhich lest (more than any other 
conjtindlion) is often ufed by our beft authors : thofe who 
are moil converfant with the learned languages being moft 
likely to make the miftake. — ** Tou make ufe of fucb in- 
^ dire6i and crooked arts as tbefe to Μαβ my reputation^ and 
'* to pojfefs men^s minds with difaffeSion to my perfon ; lest 
•* peradventure, tbey might with Jome indifference hear reafon 
" from me^ Chillingworth*s Preface to the Author of 
Charity maintained, 8cc. 

Here lest is well ufed — " Tou make ufe of tbefe arts ;** 
—Why ? the reafon follows, — ^Lej*eb that i. e. Hoc dimi^ 
— " men migbt bear reafon from λ»^.*— Therefore,— 
•< you ufe tbefe arts^ 

Initances of the improper ufe of LkST may be found in 
almoil every author that ever wrote in our language %. 

% hecaufe 


becaufe none of them have been aware of the true mean- 
ing of the word ; and have been milled by fuppoiing it to 
be perfectly correipondent to ibme cx>njun£tions in other 
languages ; which it is not. 

Thus King Henry the Eighth, in Anecejfary Do^lrine, 8cc. 
βχί€ petition y fays, — " If we fuffer the fyrfle fuggefiion unto 
*' fynne to tarry any wbyle in our bartes^ it is great peryll 
*• LEST that confent and dede wyll folvuoe portly after!* 

Thus Afcbam, in his Scbolefnafiery fays, — ** If a yong 
<* jentleman will venture bimfelfe into the companie of ruffiansy 
** // is over great a jeopardie, lest tbeir facions, manersy 
** tbougbts, taulke, and dedes will veriefone be over like."* 

Any tolerable judge of Engliih will immediately perceive 
ibmething aukward and improper in thefe fentences ; though 
he cannot tell why. Yet the reafon will be very plain to 
him, when he knows the meaning of thefe unmeaning 
particles (as they have been called :) for he will then fee at 
once that lest has no bulinefs in the fentences; there 
being nothing dtmijfo, in confequence of which loraething 
elfe would follow : and that, if he would employ lest, 
the fentences muft be arranged otherwife. 

•G 5 ft As 


As,— « We mufi take heed that the firfi fuggefiion untofn^ 
** tarry not any while in our hearts, lest that, &c.'* 

<* A young gentleman pould be careful not to venture 
« himfelf, &c. Lest, Sec." 

<* II eft bon quelquefois (fays Leibnitz) d'avoir la com- 

* plaifance d'examiner certaines objeftions : car, outre 

* que cela peut fervir a tirer les gens de leur erreur, il 

* peut arriver que nous en fprofitions nous-m^mes. Car 
^ les paralogifmes fpecieux renferment fouvent quelque 

* ouverture utile, et donnent lieu a refoudre quelques dif- 

* ficultes coniiderables• C'eft pourquoi j'ai toujours ainae 

* des objedlions ingenieufes contre mes propres fentiments, 

* et je ne les ai jamais examinees fans fruit *." 

I ihall, in this inftance, be more complaifant than 
Leibnitz; and will defcend to examine objedtions which 
are neither fpe^ious nor ingenious : and the rather, becaufe 
(before their publication) the fubftance of the Criticifms on 
the Diver/ions of Purley was, with Angular induftry and a 
charadteriftical affedation, goifiped by the prefent precious 
Secretary at War, in Payne the boofcfeller^s ihop; the 

* EJfaU dc Thcodici^. Di/coun dc la conformiie de lafoi avec la rMjlon. 

I cannibal 


cannibal commencing with this modeft obfervation» that-~• 
<* I had found a mare's neft *.** 

I ihall examine them in this place, becaufe one fourth 
part of thefe criticifms (20 pages out of 79) is employed 
in objeoUons to the derivation of unless, else, and lest : 
which have all three one meaning (viz. of Separation) and 
are all, as I contend, portions of the fame verb Lefan. 
i. e. of On-lefan, S-lej-an, Lefan. 

My Norwich critics (for I ihall couple them) blame me, 

I. For the obfcurity of my Title-page. Page 2. t 

■• 2. For 

■■■ Ψ ■■■■ .-Μ 

* This malignant and falfc obfervarion was heard widi an appearance of 
iatbfaftion which prudence dilated to the hearer s and communicated with 
that diiguil which a liberal royalift always feels at Renegado illiberality. — 
" No, (faid my antipolitical communicating friend) " I will never defcend 
" with him beneath even a Japanefe : and I remember what Voltaire re- 
*• marks of that country; — ^Lc Japon etait partage en plufieurs feftes, 
quoique fous un roi Pontife. Mais toutes les fedtes fe reuniiTaient dans 
les mcmes principes dc Morales. Ceux qui croiaient la metempiycoic, 
et ceux qui n'y croiairent pas, s' abftenaient, et s' abftiennent encore 
^ aujourdliui, de manger la chair des animaux qui rendent Jervice i Γ homme.^* 

f Vix plane a me impetrare poflum, quin exemplum fequar Petri Fran* 
cifci Giamiullarii qm librum ilium de linguae Florentine origine fcrip- 
tum, a Jobanm Baptift^ Gettii^ viri fibi amicitia et iludiis conjvmAiflimd, 



a. For the matter of my Introduition. Page 3. 

3. For tliQ pisLCX of my Adverii/ement, Page 21» 


4. For a very ftrong propeniion towards iiiaccuraqf. 
Page 2. 

5. For having *< introduced one of the champions for 
*< intolerance," by quoting a Roman catholic biihop. P. 4« 

6. For the imperfe<Stion of my Anglo-faxon alphabet. 
Page 22. 

7. And finally, For my politics. Page 32. * 

cognomine, qucm in fcribcndo focium et confiliarium habuit, II Gello nun- 
cupari voluit. Perindc quidem ct mihi Thwaitesii nomine librum noftrum 
infcribendo, fi per modeftiam ejus licerct, nobis faciendum cflct. 

♦ Mr. Secretary and his fecretary will not be furprifed that their dilap- 
probation docs not move me ; when they confider that, as far as corrupt 
and unbridled power has been able to enforce the decree, I have, on account 
of thefc politics, been, for the laft thirty years, robbed of the fair ufc of 
life, interdiilus aqua et igni : and, by what I can prognofticate, I fuppofc I 
am ftill to lay down my life for them. I might have quitted them, as Mr. 
Secretary has done, and have received the reward of my treachery. But 
my politics will never be changed, nor be kept back on any occafion : and 
whilft I have my life, it will neither be embittered by any regret for the 
paft, nor fear for the fliture. 



All thefe I willingly abandon to their mercy and dif- 
cretion ; although they have not fliewn any fymptonas of 

But I ihould be forry if any of my readers were haftily 
mifled by them to believe, 

I ft. That " Grammar was one of the Firfi arts which 
•* probably engaged the attention of the curious•*' Pag. 4. 

For the contrary is not a matter of conjecture, but of 
hiftorical faot : and whoever pleafes may know at what 
precife period Grammar, as an art, had its commencement 
in every nation of Europe. 

Or adly. That •* The defire which arifes in the mindy 
** next to that of communicating thought, is certainly to 
** ufe fuch ligns as will convey the meaning clearly and 
** predfely.** Pag. 19. 

For a deure of communicating thought, and a defire of 
'cmtoeying our meaning dearly and precifely (though ex- 
prefied hy different words) are not two defires, but one 
defire : for as far as our meaning is not conveyed clearly 
and precifely, it is not conveyed at all ; y& far there is no 
commYiDication of thought. 




Or 3dly. That " This deiire of conveying our mean- 
^* ing clearly and precifely naturally leads to the ufe of 
" abbreviations : and that abbreviations feem to bear a 
^* much ftronger affinity to the deiire of perfpicuity than 
« to that of difpatch/' Pag. 20. 

For, to fatisfy himfelf that the deiire of clearnefs and 
perfpicuity does not lead to the ufe of abbreviations, (which 
are fubftitutes) any perfon needs only to confult the legal 
inftruments of any civilized nation in the world : for, in 
thefe inftruments, perfpicuity or dearnefs is the only ob- 
jedt. Now thefe legal inftruments have always been, and 
always muft be, remarkably more tedious and prolix than 
any other writings, in which the fame clearnefs and pre- 
ciiion are not equally important. For abbreviations open a 
door for doubt ; and, by the ufe of them, what we gain 
in time we lofe in precifion and certainty. In common 
difcourfe we fave time by ufing the ihort fubftitutes he 
and SHE and they and it ; and (with a little care on one 
lide and attention on the other) they anfwer our purpoie 
very well ; or, if a miftake happens, it is eafily fet right. 
But this fubftitution will not be rifqued in a legal inftru- 
ment ; and the drawer thinks himfelf compelled, for the 
fake of certainty to fay — he (the faid John A.) to him 
(the faid Thomas B.) for them (the faid William C. and 


; # ■ » i • » - . 

• t 

ENGtKH CONJUlirfe^Oli^S. ^$ξ 

Anrie D.) as oftteri as thofe perfons are mentioned ^• ' And 
for the fame reafon he is'comt>elled to enlploy matty Other 
prolixities of the fame kind. '' 

.e> r' ^ Γ • . - » • ■ "Γ 

Or 4thly. irhat " A defire of variety gave birth te 
" Pronouns in language, which otherwife would jiot iTave 
<* appeared in it/ Pag. 20, . . ; ;.; ' ,: .• • 

For Pronouns prevent variety• 

• -■ 

Or 5thly• That *« Articles and Pronouns are neither 
^^ Nouns nor Verbs.'' Page 26• 


For I hope hereafter to fatisfy the reader that they are 
nothing elfe, and can be nothing elfe. 

Or 6thly. That Johnfon coniidered Skinner as fo igno-* 
rant that his authority ought not to be regarded. Pag. 39 +•. 

* Abbreviations and fubftitutes undoubtedly cannot fafely be trailed in 
legal inftruments. But it is an unneceflary prolixity and great abfurdity ' 
which at prefcnt prevails, to retain the fubftitute in thcfc writings at the 
fame time with the principal, for which alone the fubftitute is ever infcrtcd 
and for which it is merely a proxy. He, she, they, it, who, which, &c• 
ihould have no place in thefe inftraments, but be altogether baniihcd from 
them. And I know a Solicitor of eminence who, at my fuggeftion, near 
twenty years ago, did baniih them. 

f " Skinner, indeed, tranflates Onlej-an, or rather Sleyan, to Di/mj/s. 
*' But Skinner is often ignorant, fays Dr. Johnfon." 

Η h For 



For Jofanfon ipeskn of him sts ope whom ** he ought 
^* BOt to ooentiop hut witii the reverendo 4ue to his iat 
Μ ftrudor and benefador,** and to whom he was chiefly 
indebted for his northern etymologies *. 

Or 7tiily'. That I have myfdf reprefented Junius as a 
*< very carekfs and ignorant" writer. Pag. 51+. 

For (under the article Aii) I have noticed « the judicious 
* ^iu£Uon whi^ Tphnfon has made between Junius and 
<< Skinner.** And when I had occaiion (under the article 
sut) to fay that he was carelefs and. ignorant concerning 
0x91 particular word» I mentioned it as << wonderful^ But 
thus thefe critics meanly attentat to miilead their readers : 
catching at the word ignorant (which when applied to a 
perfon in a {articular inftanqe, means only that he did not 

*" ** For the Teutonic etymolo^s I am commonly indebted to Junius 
** and Skinner, the only names which I have forbom to quote when I copied 
** their books : not that I might appropriate their labours or ufurp their 
** honours, but that I might ipare a perpetual repetition by one general 
<( acknowledgment. Thefe I ought not to mention but with the reverence 
** due to inftruftors and benefa£kors." Johnfon's Preface. 

"j- ** You have here, however, the authority of Junius, who puts down 
" tiheie verbs as being the origin j but, I have yours to lay, that he was 
*' fomctimcs very carelefs and ignorwit." Page 5 1 of the Criticifms. 


Jimw that particular thing) in order fraudulently to fafteti. 
an imputation of general ignorance, 


Or Sthly. That thofe who have fpeUed less with a 
iingle s, were not ** civilized people *.** i. e. (I fuppk^e) 
not capable of the accuilomed relations of peace and amky» 

Or 9thly. That « The blemilhes of Jehnfon's Di<5U- 
** onary are not of the kind, quas incuria fudity but the 
^ refult of too much nicety and exaitnefs." Pag. 46>^— ' 
But of this in another place : for it is of more coniequeaoe 
than any thing which relates to theiie Norwich Critics. 

Or» lothly. That it requires much praotice in the 
Anglo-Saxon or old £nglilh writers^ and much attention ta 
the circumftance, to obferve << the variom fpeliings of cme 
^' and the fame word ia the language f .** 

For not only are almoft all the words ipelled differently 
by different authors ; but ev^ by the fame snithor, in the 

♦ " The ordnography of this wordi I ptvsfume to fayi is tisi. And it 
" fhould icem as if civilised people had no o(hev way of fpeHing it.'* P. 40. 

f ** My tafte for the Anglo-iaxon has never induced me to attend to the 
•* various fellings of one and the fame word in the language." Page 5? 
of the Critidfitis. 

Η h 2 fame 


fame book, in the fame page, and frequently in the fame 

I « • * » 

Or, iithly. That I " deiire to pafs my feptiments 
^ upon others, as articles of faith•" Pag. 76 ^'. 

My critics commence with a folemn proteftation, that 
they " aim at nothing but a fair reprefentation of the 
« truth." Pag. v. 

• Yet twice in th6 7th page, and twice in the 8th page,, 
afid again in the 25 th page of uitCrificifms^ they pretend 
to quote my words; and falfely, to ferve their own pur- 
pofe, infert a word of their own. My wprds are — ^* Ab- 
^^ breviations employed for the fake of difpatch.'' They, 


five times repeatedly, aflert that my words are — ^^ words 
^^ necejfary for difpatch.^ 

Ill I J I 1 I 

* This groundlefs apprchenfion . is not unnatural in one of my critics. 
He ftartles at his own expreflion — an article of faith. 5ut fear not me, 
Caffander. I pay the fame regard to a* fickly confcience that I do to a 
fickly appetite : and I .have known diofe who, like Ibme honeft feftariesi 
have fainted at the fmell of. roaft beef. No,. I iliall never wifh to impofe 
articles of faith on others, though I am not feared at their impofition upon 
me« I am a willing conformist to all that is not fatal. I wouki fupely reje£t 
poifon, i. e. power in the priefthood, and defpotifm any where ; but other- 
wife I am not dainty : and can feed heartily upon any wholelbn)e food, both 
in the church and out of its although it might happen tol>e coarfc and not 
overpleafing to my palate• 



In their 8th page they twice affert that I " rank Articles j. 
^ Ρτ€ροβΙιοη3^ and Conjundiions^ under the title of Abbre^ 
" viations : and in their i ith page they affert, that I have 
** made " Abbreviations the principal object of the work**' 
I have publiftied, i• e.. of the firft edition of this volume•. 

I hope I have there fpoken with fufficient clearnefs to» 
make it impoffible for any attentive reader to fall into fuch* 
apt error; or to fuppofe that 1 have hitherto fpoken one: 
word about thofe Abbreviations which compofe my fecond» 
dafs. It is evident however that my Critics made no fuch• 
miftake, but falfified the matter wilfully : . for,, in their 
35th page, they contradidt their own previous ftatement, 
and acknowledge, the fadL — "• Conjundlions in your fyftem 
^ (fay• they) are not feparate parts of fpeech, but words 
*« belonging to the fpecies either of Nouns or. Verbs." 

. Γ hardly think it neceffary to inform the reader, that I 
have hitherto fix)ken little of the Noun^ nothing of the 
Ferb^ and nothing of the Abbreviations "i but have chiefly- 
employed myfclf to get rid of the falfe do6trine concerning• 
Conjunctions, Prepofitions and Adverbs. The method I 
have taken may perhaps be injudicious : indeed I have been 
told fo : I may perhaps have begun at the wrong end : but* 
r,did it not wantonly or carelefsly, but after the moftma- 

% ture 


: tiire reflexion, and with the view of leflening the diffil- 
. culties and fpaiing the labour of thofe who may chufe td 
: proceed with me in this enquiry. Perhaps when we coitie 
to the clofe of it, my readers wilT feel with me (they will 
hardly feel fo forcibly as I do) the juftnefs of the following 
reflexion of Mr. Necker — " Je reviens i mon trifte travail. 
<< On aura peine, je le crains, k fe former une idee de fon 
** etendue; czty en refultaty tout devient ^mple : etFundes 
'< premiers effets de la methode, c*eii: de cacher les diffi» 
<* cultes vaincues : aufli dans les plus grandes chofes comme 
« dans les plus petites, tous ceux qui jouifient de Γ ordre^ 
>** n*cn connoiflent pas le merite *." 

In their 1 3th page, they fay, that « It is evident k&ox 
« my words, that, in my opinion, Mr. Locke was no better 
^< than in a mift when he wrote his famous Eflay.** 

In theic 1 9th page, they reprefent me (who havfe denied 
any abllraot or complex ideas) as affirming— -*< that, in. 
<* my opinion, it is the term that gives birth to the ab- 
^ ftraa idea.» 

Becaufe I have, in the 25 5 A page of my firft edifiOOy 
«bferved that « it is contrary to the cuflomary progrefs <»f 

t Nouveaux EcdurciflemeiB fur le comte rendu. 

** comiptioB 


*< oorraption in words to gain letters;* and in the 13 ill 
p«ge» that ** Letters» like foldiers» are very apt to defert 
** and drop off in a long march :"— They twice, in their 
41ft page, reprefent me as denying the poffibility that any 
word Ihould ever gain a letter *, or be written by any. 
iuGoeeding author widi more letters than by his predeceflbr. . 

Becaufe I have, in the 2x8th page of' my firft editionj , 
|;iven- tiie corre^oading Terminations in the other northern < 
languages; which terminations I Tuppofe likewife, as wdl•' 
as LESS (which is- not a modem £ngli(li imperative) to 
have been originally the imperatives of their verbs; They, . 
in their 44th page, and again in their 46th page, charge? 
me with. ** contending^, that loos (fo written) ;is thepr^-r- 
fmt modern imperative in Dutch. 

In their 55th page, though I call Douglas (in the very•, 
place alluded to by them) " one of the moft common of 
** our old £ngli(h authors ;** they would make their readers -. 
believe that I produce him <* as an Anglo-Saxon writer J 

In the concIuAon of their Criticifms they fay — " Pro- 
*< feffor Schultens was the βrβ philologift who fufpeSled 

♦ Ι had given inftanccs in Unles^ Whiles^ Amiddes, JmongeSy which 
afterwards became Unlejs^ Wbilfty Amidfiy Amongit.* 

9 " Prepofitiojis> -. 


" Prepoiitions, Conjundlions, Particles in general to be no 

^ more than Nouns or t^erbSj and refufed therefore to 

^ make fcparate claffes of them, among thofe that com- 

^ prehend the Parts of Speech. But he confined himfelf 

^ in the application of this ^rutb to the learned Languages; 

^ You are the firft who applied it to thofe which are called 

^ modern.'' 

Thefe are the gentlemen who commence with a folemn 
proteftation, that they ^^ aim at nothing but a fair repre- 
" fentation of the truth.'' And yet, in the [above extraofc, 
there is not a lingle propoiition that does not convey more 
than one wilful falftiood• 

I will here infert the whole which Schultens has faid 
upon the fubjeot. 

« S Ε G Τ I Ο V. 

" Lxv. Partes orationis Hebraeis eaedem quae Graecis, 
^^ Latinis, omnibus populis. Ad tres clafles concinne fatis 
" omncs illoe partes revocari folent, Verbum, Nomen, 
** Particulam. Ab Arabibus diftinotionem banc haufere 
" primi grammatici Hebraeorum. In Gjarumia babes, 
*i Partes orationis tres funt, Nomen, et Verbum, et Par- 
^ ticula, quae venit in fignificationem• Apud Rabbinos 

" iimiliter 


** fimiiiter Noraen, A£tio, id eft Verbum, et Vox, five 

* Particula. Veteres Stoici qiiatuor clafles fecere. Alii 
< pluresy alii pauciores adhuc, folo nomine et verbo con> 

* tenti. Optima divifio Theodedtis» et Ariftotelis, apud 
' Dion. Halic. in ονόματα, fjifiuT», (τυν^τμνς. £am laudat unice 

Quintil. Nomina, Verba, et Convin<Stiones, retldens : ut 
homina exhibeant materiam, verba vim fermonis, in 
** convidtionibus autem compkxus eorum indicetur. Con- 
« fulendus de hifce G. J. Vofs, qui dubium cenfet utruiA 
^ Orientales hac in re imitati iint Greecos, an Grsoci potiuii 
<< fecuti iint exemplum Orientalium. Mihi Arabes ex Ari- 
« ftotele hauiiile, planiflume liquet.* 

The- above is a mere tran&ripc from Voffius, to whom 
Schultens very fairly refers us *. He then proceeds to 



* ^^ De numero partium orationis diu eft, quod αφυ$ grammadcsif 
^' controveriantur• Antiquiffima eorum eft opiniOi qm tres faciunt chflfes; 
£ftque haec Arabum quoquc iencenaa^ quibus hae clafles vocancw No- 
men^ Verbum et Particula• Hebraci quoqne (qui cum Arabes gram- 
^' macicam fcribere definerent^ artem earn P^ffuii» icribere cseperunt ; quod 
<^ ante annos contigit circicer quadringentos) Hebrxi, inquam^ h^c in it 
** fecuti funt mi^lftros fuos Arabes. Imo vero trium claflium numerum' 
" aliie etiam Orientis I'mguaB retinent. Dubium^ utrum ea in re Orientalek' 
" imitati fmt antiquos Graecorum : an hi potius fecuti fint Orientalmni 
" exemplum. Utut eft, etiam veteres Graecos tres tantum partes agnovifle» 
^^ non folum autor eft Dionyfius: fed etiam Quin£tilianus teftatur^ ubi 

I i *^ banc 


apply this do^rine in the Hebrew language alone. — — 
" Idem dixerim de niethodo grammaticam texendi fecun- 
". dum has orationis partes. Arabes et Judaei a verbo in- 
** cipere folent, quod tanquim radix fit, unde Nomina et 
" Fzruculx propagef7tur. 

^^ Verba nempe tanquam radices funt unde nomina pro-- 
<* pagantur^ variis formis, et terminationibus : itemque 
<,*^ J Particulae ; fub quibus Pronomina, Adverbia, Prgepofi- 
** tiones, Conjundliones, et Interjedtiones continentur. Et 
*< harum denfa ilia fylva a Nominibus ftvint fuccrevitf 
** quin ad claflem nominum maximam partem referenda.** . 

'* banc Ariftotelis ipfius, ac Thcodcftis fcntentiam fuiflc docct• Idemque 
** dc vcteribus GraecU tcftatur Rabbinus iftc qui, &c. 

*' Atqi!c ex Arabibus grammaticis candcm fcquitur Giarumta author 
*^. Muhamed Sanhagius. Poftca autcm antiquiflimi Stoicorum quatuor 
*' clailes fccenint. Imo nee defuere, qui alias aflcrendo divifiones ampliorem 
" /accrent- num^jum Paitium orationis. Quonim omnium autor nobis 
«* Dionyfius Halicarnaflenfis. Addam et infignem locum Quinftiliani, — 
'* Vctcrcj, quorum fucrunt Ariftoteles quoque, atque Theodcdtes, verba 
*• mode ct nomina et convinftiones tradiderunt. Videlicet, quod in verbis 
^^ vim iermonis, iii nominibus materiam^ in convinftionibus autem com" 
platum eorum efle judicaverunt. — Sed ut omnis hacc diiputado melius in- 
telligaturj non abs re erit, fi quas a Dionyfio, et Prifciano iciibuntUF 
accuratius expendamus. Duas funt principes partes, Nomen et Verbum : 
^ de quibus foUs iccirco Ariftoteles agit, libro Ιίψ fp/umwiAf." 

G. J. Voffius de arte gram» lib. 3. cap. i. 






^* xci. A nomine pergimus ad Paiticulas. Eas redte 
^* dividunt in feparatas et infeparabiles• Minus commoda 
^^ di(tin£tiOcL Altingii inter paiticulas declinabiles et inde* 
^^ clinabiles. Ad priores refert pronomina. Ad pofteriores 
^^ Adverbia, Prgepofitiones, conjundtiones, etinteijeotioiies: 
^^ Atqui et pronomina quaedam non declinantur, et oafra . 
** pars adverbiorum, ac praepoiitionum, patitur decUna^ 
** tionem^ quippe quae maximam partem funt Nomina^ vel 
" Subflantivay vel Adjeotiva• Hoc fi perfpexiflent primi 
^* grammatici^ multo felicius naturam^ vim, mutationem, 
" et conitruotionem particularum expedire valuiffent.'*. 

<* xcvi. Particulas reliquas, fub quibus adverbia> prae- 
^* pofitiones, conjunotiones, et interjediones comprenfa^ 
^* minus rite indeclinabiles vocari, quod re vera declinentur^ 
^* praferiHjt adverbia et praepofitiones j utpote veri nominis 
" fubfiantiva vel adjeBiva^ maximam partem. Reolius in 
" feparatas et infeparabiles dirirauntur. Separatarum clailes 
^* diftindlius fubnotabo : atque fub fingulis fpecimina quae^ 
*^ dam exhibebo. — Sic reliqua fimt originis vel fubflantiva 
" vel adjeBiva. Horum enucleatio ampliora exigit fpatia. 
<* Nonnulla infra tangentur. 

I i a ^ Apud 


^ Apud Latinos quoque Conjunotiones tnulta a Nomi- 
•* nidus oriunday ut Ferum. Vero, verum enimvero, que- 
** madmedum. quemquafit, Additum et Verbum in quam" 


^ Uhet* quolihf, quwis» Merum v^bum eft Licet, See. 
« De adverbiis et praepoiitionibus idem fubmonitum vetim." 

Thus it appears that Schultens» without reafoning at all 
ιφοη the fubje£t, took the old diviiion of language exafUy 
as he found it ; and» with his predeceflors on the Oriental 
feongiMS, confidered and ranked the Particles as a difttnd 
part of ipeech. But he condemns the fubdivifion of γα• 
tides into declinable and indeclinahlei and propoies to divide 
them vaXofeparate and infeparable. 

In my opinion neither of thefe diftributions is blameable 
jB the grammar of a particular language» whofe otije^ is 
only tot affift a learner of tiiat language : but the one fub* 
liivifion is }uft as mnpbilo/tpbical as die other. If the Par• 
tides are all merdy Nouns or Verbs, they are equally ib 
whether u&d feparately or not. The term infeparabk^ 
iaftead of not fepatatedy is likewife juftiiiable in Schultens, 
wiKo -confined himfelf to a dead language ; and who did 
Aot intend to coniider the nature of general φεβϋι : £or> 
in a dead language, authority is every thing ; and thofe 
words which cannot be found to have been ufed rex)arately 



by thofe't^ho bequeathed i^ are» to us (fpeaking ear wilting 
k) not OQily n^fepantU but infeparable, 


Bat Sdiultens no where aflierts that thefe panides are 
ALL nottos or-rcrbs; nor does he adduce a fingie ^gument 
on the fubje^k. He evidently fuppoieg that there might be 
particles which were neither nouns nor verbs : for, beiides 
the f^>arate junk whidi he allows them» his words are 
always carefully coupled when he fpeaks of thefe particles. 
He confines them to Nouns, /udfianiiv^ vel adje^iva (he 
never adds Ferlf0t which my critics have modeflly flipped 
in for him) ; but even then he always fcrupuloufly repeats 
^—•bona pars, multa, maxmam partem, ferine, prafertim. 
eriginis. oriunda, propagantur, referenda, fpecimina quadam, 
-^onnulla tangentur, Horum enucleatio ampliora exigit 
jt.jtia. — In whidi (fo far from being « the^iry? who fuf- 
petSted if*) he carefully and clofely adopts the qualifying 
expreffions of very many grammarians (eipecially Latin 
grammarians) who had ufed the fame long before him.. 
Many of thefe I have cited, who went much farther in the 
do&rine than he has done : for it furely was not my buiinefs 
to fink them ; but to avail myfelf of their partiai authority, , 
und to recommend my general do6lrine by their partial 
hints and fiiipiciont. 




But my critics, who fay that Schiiltens fufpe&ed^ in fiye 
lines farther impudently convert this fu/picibn into a Trutbf 
virhich they rejprefent him as having demonftrated or at 
leaft afferted : and with equal eflfrontery they tell us, he 
applied it to the dead languages ; and that I applied his 
Truth to thofe which are called modern* . 

It is however of little confequence to the reader from 
what quarter he may receive a difcovered truth ; • or (if it 
be a difcovery) whofe name it may hear ; nor do I feel the 
fmalleft anxiety on the fubjedt. But bear with my in• 
firmity, reader, if it be an infirmity. — ^The enemies of 
the efiabiybed civil liberties of my country have hiinted me 
through life, without a fingle perfonal charge againft me 
through the whole courfe of my life ; but barely becaufr 
I early defcried their confpiracy, and forefaw and foretold^ 
the coming ftorm, and have to the utmoft of my power 
legally refitted their corrupt, tyrannical and fatal innovations 
and ufurpations : They have deftroyed my fortunes : They 
have illegally barred and interdidted my ufefulnefs to my• 
felf, my family, my friends, and my country : They have 
tortured my body * : They have aimed at my life and 

honour : 

* The anticnt legal and mild impriibnment of this country (mild both in 
manner and duration, compared to what wc now fee) was always held to be 



honour; — Can you wonder that, Whilft one of thefe critics 
takes a cowardly advantage (where I could make no de- 
fence) to brand me as an acquitted Felon ; I am unwilling 
(where I can make a defence) that he ihould, in con- 
junction Λνΐιΐι his anonymous aflbciate, exhibit me as a 
convifted plagiary and impoftor ? But no more of thefe 
• cowardly affaflins. I confign them to the lading contempt 
thpy have well earned, and which no future Title will ever 
be able to obliterate from the name of Wmdbam. 

It may however be ufeful to examine the objedlions to 
my explanation of unless, else, and lest; which are 
to be found in pages 3,8, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 
46, 47, 48, 51, 52, 53, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, of 
the Criticifms on the Diverfions of Purley• 

Four inftances are produced, and only four, in which it 
is contended that my folution cannot be admitted• 

Torture and even cvvil death. What would our old, honeft, uncorrupccd 
lawyers and judges (to whom and to the law of the land the word close 
was HI abhorrence) what would they have faid to Jeven months of close 
cuftody, fuch as I have lately fuffcred, without a charge, without a legal 
authority (for their own monftrous law, which arbitrarily fulpended the 
Habeas Corpus, did not authorize close cuftody) and without even the moil 
flimfy pretence of any occafion for it ? 

% ^ \ have 


" I have already obierved** (fay the Critics, page 53.) 
** that it [Slefan] is not fufceptible of the ilgnification 
<< you have all along affixed to it as its primary one ; but 
*< let us fuppofe it to fignify Difmifsy and nothing beiides ; 
^ we ihall find many phrafes in which else will hardly 
** bear to be refolved into Hoc difmiffb * : witnefs the fol- 
** lowing, Nothing el/e. How elfe. What elfe. Where elfe^ 

To have a jMOof of the iblidity or futility of this objec* 
tion, we muft have compleat fentences. 

Example i. Nothing else. 
You (hall have a fooFs cap for your pains ; and Nothing 


You fliall have a fool's cap for your pains ; and Nothing 
BUT a foors cap. 

i. e. But for Be-out, 

You ihall have a fool's cap for your pains ; and Nothing 
EXCEPT a fooPs cap. 

' • I have faid that «lse is the Imperative of Sleran, and means Dimitte, 
but they g^ve what they pleafe as my words. 

Ο You 


Example 3. What else. 

You have ihewn impotence and malice enough ; What 
ELSE have you ihewn? 


You have ihewn impotence and malice enough ; What 
have you ihewn but impotence and malice ? Or, What but 
them have you ihewn ? 

You have ihewn impotence and malice enough ; except 
them (i. e. impotence and malice) JVhat have you ihewn ? 

You have ihewn impotence and malice enough ; dismiss 
them. What have you ihewn ? 

Example 4. Where else. 

Honour Ihould refide in the breaft of a king ; althougl^ 
it might not be found any Where else. 


llonaur ihould reiide in the breail of a king ; although» 
EXCEPT in the breait of a king, it might not be fpuncl 
any where* 

I Honour 



Honoiw Ihould refide in the breaft of a king ; although, 
DISMISS (i. e• Leave outy Take away^ &c.) the breaft of a 
king, it might not be found any where. 

Having thus, as I truft, fatisfaotorily refolved the only 
iixftances they have produced as irreconcileable with my 
etymology ; I will proceed to conlider their other objections• 


They fay — " The Latin^ the Italian, the French, make 
<< ufe here [that is, Where the Engliih ufe unless] of the 
<< word Except.'' Pag. 38• 

The Latin commonly employs Nifi. i. e• Neβty the 
negative preceding the verb : the Italian, fe non^ and the 
French, β ηέ. i. e. Sit nony Sit. ney the negative following 
the verb : Inftances have been already given of the fame 
conjunftive ufe of Be notj or Be it not in Engliftr. The 
Italians fometimes ufe In fuofiy Senza che ; and, if they 
pleafe, the participle Eccetto : the French alfo fometimes 
ufe Si non que. Si ce riefi que^ A moins que, A tnoins de ; 
atid, if they pleafe, the imperative Exceptez, or the parti- . 
cx^Q Excepte, And any word or words directing sepa- 
ration (and none other) in our own, or in any other 
language, will always be equivalent to unless. And,^ in- 

K k 2 ftead 


ilead of being an objedion, I think this circumftance 
ilrongly enforces my etymology. 


<* If there be fuch a verb [as Onlefan] in the Anglo- 
" faxon, it muft be the fame as Onlef on, a compound of 
" On and Lefan.'' Pag. 39. 

Why it fliould be doubted that there is any fuch verb 
as Onlefan in the Anglo-faxon, I cannot imagine ; but if 
any one, befide my critics, ihould entertain fuch a doubt^ 
it may eafily be removed by opening Lye's ^Anglo-faxoa 
didlionary ; where both Onlefan and Onlyfan will be found, 
with various references to the places where they are ufed• 
But that Onlefon ihould be preferred by the critics to 
Onlefan, is truly extraordinary; An being the common 
termination of the Anglo-faxon Infinitives. 


** Lej-an in the Anglo-faxon does not iignify to Di/mifs, 
" Lej-an in its primary fignification, means to unbind \ in 
" its fecondary, to redeem^ to unloadx to Jet at liberty. 
*< Solvere, redimere, liberare, fays the diolionary. In the 
" firft fenfe it anfwers to the Engliih, to Loo/en, u e. to 
" make loofe^ Pag. 39. 

3 "It 


" It is poilible that les iliould be the Imperative of 
*^ Lefan ; but less can have no preteniions to it^" Pag. 40.. 

" No fooner has the imperative of the Anglo• faxon verb 

" Leran fliewn itfelf ^with you in one form, than it ap- 

*^ pears in another. In the very next article to that we 

" are upon here, you fuppofe it to be, not les but leas.. 

^* But it will be iaid, how can Leaf be the imperative, of 

^ Lefan ? — Certain it is, that the verb Lefan is here all 

" of a fudden transformed into Leof an, in confequence of 

** which its alliance with the affix Leap becomes unqueftion— 

^^ able. But Leofan lignifies perdere^ and is the. fame verbv 

^ with the BngliQi to Σοβ."" Pag. 41^. 

If the reader will caft his eye over the following column^ , 
he will find that no transformation has been fuddenly made 
by me; and that the alteration of a letter in the fpellrng, 
of LES, less and leas,, will be no reafonable objeotipn to» 
the etymology. 

AAnSQAN. M. Goth. Imperat. AAnS* 





l^eofaa . 


Lecffan •• - 7 - Imperat. Lsey• 

Ler^n - - — Imperat• Ler, Lej^t Lejye. 



S-lcfan • - - Imperat. TLlty. 

Ά -liran 




On-lefan Imperat. Onlcf . 


Under all thefe Ihapes this word apl)ea^;^ :j \)•^^ Λη<?:1ο- 
faxon language : for Γ take them all to be one and rue ijmc 
verb/dijQferently pronounced, and therefore differently Ipelled. 
And from this Gtothie and Anglo-faxon verb, Τ imagine, pro- 
ceed not only the conjunotions, as they afe called, unless, 
BLSB, and LEST, and the privative temiination less, to-> 
gether with less the adjedive, as it is called, and the com- 
parative LESS, and the fuperlative least ; but alfo 

To Lo/e Σοβ. A Lo/s. 

To Loofe- — Loofe. 
To Un-loofe 
To LoQfen 




To Un-loofen 

To UJeH 

To Leafe - - -' A Leafe 

To Re-^eafe - - A Releafe^ A L^^T/i? and Releafe. 

To go a Leafing *• 

And however this word (for they are all one) may be 
now differently fpelled^ and differently ufed and applied in 
modern Engliih ; the reader will eafily perceive that sepa- 
ration is always invariably iignified in every life and ap- 
plication of it +• 


* Leafingy i. e. Loofing^ i. e. picking up that which is Looje (i. e. Loojedy 
feparate (i. t./eparated) or detached {dotichi) from the iheaf (^). 

j• Clavumquc affixus et hasrens 

Nufquam A-mittebat. jEneis. Lib. 5. 

He never Jent from his hand. He never farted with. He neVer mijjed 
his hold. He never let go his hold. He never lofi his hold» He iiever 
hojed his hold. He never let go. 

(a) Sheaf (A. S. fceap. Dutch Schoof) which we call a fabftantive> is no other than ^ 
the paft participle jxeap (or pceapob) from the verb ^fcaputn; which paft participle in 
modern Englifh we write Jbove (or Jhtmed), Shiaf means, that whjcji \&fi>Qiv*d together. 
N. B. The paft participle in the Anglo-faxon is ufually formed by adding ob (which we now 
write ed) to the prxterperfed ; bur the prxterperfeft itfelf is often ufed (both in Anglo- 
faxon and in £ngliih) for the pail participlej wichoiK the tenmaatii^n ob qr <^. Now the 
praeterperfed of jxupian is pceap. 

Shaft (Λ• $• fcc^Ft) which feems to us fo different a word from Sheafs is yet no other 
than the fame paft participle jxeapob^ fceapb, fceapi. ^baft means that which is,/&o<x/V• 

1 will 


I will give a few inftances, out of very many, to (hew 
Tiow varioufly our old tn-liih writers fpelled and ufed this 
fame word. 

'* Pardoun and life to thir tcris gif we, 
(Quod Priamus) and mercy gr;ntis fre. 
And firft of all the mannakiliii and hard bandis 
Chargeit he Lous of this ilk mannis handis• 

■ Bot than the tothir wicht, 
Full weil inftrukkit of Grckis art and flicht, 
LousiT and laitlye fred of all his bandis. 
Unto the fternis heuit up his handis•" 

Douglas. Booke 2. Pag. 43. 

^^ Bewalic thair feris losit on the flude." 

Booh I. Pag, 19. 

*' That we thy blud, thy kinrent, and ofspring 
Has LOSIT ourc fchippis." 

" Booke I. Pag, 20. 

^' The grete lois of Anchifes regreting fare. 
And altogidir gan to wepe and rare." 

Booke ζ. Pag. 148• 

** For neuir fyne with ene faw I her eft, 
Nor neuer abak, fra fchc was loist or reft, 
Blent I agane." 

Booke 2. Pag. 6j. 

*' His nauy loist reparellit I but fide. 
And his feris fred from the deith alhale." 

Booke 4. Pag. 112. 

*' Bewaland 


^^ Bewaland gretelye m his myndc penfifef 
For that his freynd was fal^ and LOisr his fife.** 

Scike J. Pag. 157V 

" Defift, Dranccs, be not abafit, I pray. 

For thou fall neuer lbis, fdiordie i the i^j 

Be my wappin nor this lycht /hand of mync 

Sic aay peuifiie and cmvt faule as ibine/' 

Booke II. -P^if. 377• 

^< But yet LEssE thou do worfe, take a wyie 
Bet is to wedde, than bienne in worfe wyfc/' 

Dream (f Cbmcer. Ρ(Λ: 259. P^. %. Col. 2. 

*^ And on his ^vay tl»n is 'he ibrdie y&re 
In hope to ben lessed of his care.'" 

Chaucer. Frarikekyns Tale. Pol. 54• Pag. i• Col. u 

^' Now let us ftynt of Troylui a Jtoundc 
That fareth lyke a man, that hurt is fore 
And is fom dele of akyng of his wocmde 
Ylessed wc11> but heled no dde more." 

Troytus. Soke i. Pol. 163. Pag. i. Col. i. 

^^ And gladly lbse his owne oight. 
To make an other lise his•*' 

Cower. Uh. 2. Pol. α8• Paf. 2. Col. a. 

^^ Lo wherof forcerie ferueth. 
Through forcerie his loue he chefe 
Through forcerie his life he lese." 

Lik 5. F0I. 137. P^. I. Col. u 

•* For \into loues wcrke on night 
Hym lacketh both will and might 
No wondre is in luftie place 
Cf loue though %e less grace." 

L•^. 7. Λ/. 143. Pag. t. Col. 1. 

L I *' It 


" It fit a mian bywcy of kynde 
To loue, but it is not kindc^ 
A man for loue his wit to lese/* 

Lit. 7. FoL 167. Pag. i. CeL %. 

*^ Wyrie maketh a man to lese wretchedly 
His myndc, and his lymmes euery cKonc/* 

Chaucer. Somfners Tale. Pol 44• Pag. i. Col. i^ 

". There may notWng, (6 God my ibule iaue, 
Lykyng to you^ that may difplefc me 
'Ne I defire nothyng for to hauc 
Nc drcd for ta lese-, fiiue onely ye." 

Clerke of Oxenfordes TaU. Fol. 48. Pag. ii Col. t. 

^^ Him neded none helpe^ if he ne had no money that 
^ he myght LESE•^ 

Boecius. Boke 2. Fol. ajj• Pag. i. Col. i. 

" AI ihulde I dye, I wol her herte feche 
I flial no more lese ν but my fpeche." 

Troylus. Boke ξ. Fol. 194. Pag. 2. CoL 0• 

*^ If it ib be that thou art myghtye ouer thy uelfe^ that 
^ ΐθ to iayne, by tranquyllyte of thy fonle, than hafte thou 
^ thynge in thy power, that thou noldeft neuer lesen.*^ 

Boecius. Boke 2. Fol. 227. Pag. 2. CoL 2. 

** The maifter lesetr his tyme to lere 
Whan the difciple wol. not here.'* 

Romaunt of the Rofe. JFol. 130. Page 1.. Col. 2^ 

" Ha^ how grete harme^ and Ikaith for eucrmarc 
That child has caucht^ throw, lesing of his moder/' 

Douglas. Booke j• Pag. 79. 




** Skinner, Minihew and Johnfon agree in deriving it 

** [else] from the Greek αΧλως or the Latin a/ias. There 

« is indeed as much reafon to ftippofe that the Greeks and 

** Latins borrowed the word from the Germans, as that 

" thefe borrowed it from them. — Al and el may be faid 

** to convey the fame, idea as the Greek αλλϊ»{ and the Latin 

*< alias ; and, if ib, why ftiould we have recourfe to the 

" verb TClefan to find their origin?* Pag. 52. 

This is truly curious : else from ΰύ^χως or alias •^ al- 
though there is as much reafon to fuppofe that the Greeks 
and Latins borrowed the word from the Germans^ as that 
thefe borrowed it from them. 

But AL and el conVey the fame idea as οίκκως and alias : 
—What is that idea ? This is a queftion which my critics 
never a(k themfelves; and yet it is the only rational object 
of etymology. Thefe gentlemen feem to think that trarif^ 
lation is explanation. Nor have they ever yet ventured to 
aik themfelves, what they mean ; when they fay that iny 
word comes from, is deriveddtovsi^ produced from, originates 
from, ov gives birth to, any other word. Their ignorance 
and idlenefs make them contented with this vague and 
xnifapplied metaphorical language : and if we ihould beg 

L 1 2 them 


them to confider that words have no hcchtnotive faculty, 
that they do not βοΊ» like rivers, nor vegetate like plants,. 
m>x fpiculaie like falts, nor 2xq generated like animals ; t^^y 
would iay, we quibbled with them ; and might perhaps, 
in ^eir fury be tempted to exert againft us " a vigour 
<< beyond the lan»^ And yet, imtill they can get rid of 
thefe* metaphors from their mindsy they will not themfelv^^^ 
he fit for etymology, nor furniih any etymology fit for 
reafonable men. 



, ^ A8 there is an equivalent in the French of the word 
^.f VNLESS, very much refembling it in turn, it is fome- 
^ what extraordinary that it fliouki never have occurred to 
•^ you, that poiHbly the one is a tranflation, or at leaft an 
*^ imitation of the other. This equivalent is A moins que• 
•* What word more likely to have given birtb to unless ; 
^ if we may fuppofe the latter to be a compound of oir 
*^ and LESS.** Pag• 39• 

*< You add in a note" — ^ It is the fame imperative les> 
^ placed at the end of nouns and coalefcing with them,. 
« which has given to our language fudi adjeotivies as^ 
** Hopelefs, RelHefs, Scc.*^•— ** Thefe words have been 
*< aS along, confidered as compounds of Miopey Refit &&- 

2 *^ and 


« Dimtffb. Is it not aftoniftiing that a man fliould plume 
«* himfelf on having fubltituted this ftrange and far-fetched 
« manner of fpeaking, for the eafy and naiural .exphaM," 
« tion which precedes i** Pag, 71. 

« Lest, in the fenfe of Tibat not, or the Ne emphati- 
« cum of the Latin, is generally written in the ancient 
" language thus, L^est. And as Laer is ufed alfo in the 
*< Anglo-faxon for the comparative of lyt^el, parvus, it is 
<t evident that "p laef anfwers to the modern the, or that 

<* LESS. "P hXTpCf to XHAT LEAST, fupi^e, OF ALL 

" THINGS." Pag. 72. 

I may anfwer them in the language of Shakefpeare^ 

— — " merely yc are death's fools ; ^' 
For him yc labour by your flight to ihun. 
And yet run toward him ftill.'* 

They contend that the conjundlibn unless, and the pri- 
vative termination less, come from the adjedtive less ; 
and the conjundlion lest, from the fuperlative least• 
Wen : And what is the adjedive less ? What is the com- 

arrive at lest from lezed : for (when the vowel between them is removed) 
ζ muft be followed by ο in pronunciadon, as s by τ. — Take the word 
Greafed for an inftance : if you r<:movc the vowel, you muft c ther pro- 
iiouncc it Creaz'd, or Grcas'L 



parative less? and what is the fuperlative least,? I fay^i. 
IFbat are they ? for that is the rational etymological quef- 
tion; and not, whence do ^^^ come. — It is wiih words 
as with men : Call this Squire, my Lord ; then he will be 
oomparative : Call him by the new-fangled title of Marquis, 
9r call -him- Duke ; then he wiU be fuperlative : And yet 
whofo6veC ihall truA him, or have to do with him, will 
find to th^ coil that it is th^ fame individual Squire 
Windham ftilL So neither is the fubitance or meaning* or 
real import or value of any word altered by its grammatical 
clafs and denomination» 

The adjeiStive Lefs and the comparative Lefs ♦ are the 
imperative of Lepan ;. and the fuperlative Leafi is the pail 

Thp idle objedlions of thefe critics have brought me to 
mention this etymology out of its due courfe : and I do 
not intend to purfue its conicquences in this^ place. But 
the reader will fee at once the force of this adjedlive as 
ufed by our anceilors,. when,, inftead of nineteen and eighteen^ 

* Parvum — Comparative Minus. Littk or Small — Comparative Lefs. 

The reader will not be furprifcd at the irregularity (as it is called) of the 
above comparifons, when he confiders the real meaning and import of 
Minus and Lefs. 

4 ^ey 




ttiey iaid, Χή lof ^φ^^^'^ζ — '^V^ ^®Γ t^entij. i, e. Tw^ity, 
Difinifs (or Take away) one. Twenty, Difmifs (or Γ^βΙι^ 
awity) two. We alfo fay, — *^ He demanded twenty : I 
gave him two Lefs.^ L e. I gave him twenty, Ώί^ηψ two• 
The fame method of refrlmhn takes place, When we fpeak 
of any other quantity beiides bare numbers : nor <:an «nf 
inilance of the ufe of Lefs or Leaft be found in 4iie iad* 
guage, where the iignification of Difmijfmgy fipafat^gt or 
TaJtfHg away, is not conveyed. 


** Lest for lesed, fay you, as blest for blessed.-— 
This is the whole of what you tender for our ideference 
to your opinion : and fmall as the coniideration is, it is 
made up of bad coin. Lesan and blessian cannoft, 
whatever you may think of the matter, be coupled to- 
gether, as belonging to one and the fame order of verbs ; 
th6 one has a iingle, the other a double conibnant before 
the termination of the infinitive mood : that forms a 
long, this a fliort fyllable in the participle palfive ; and 
Confequently, though the latter will bear the contraction^ 
it does not follow that the former will bear it likewife. 
And thus much for the bad coin with which you at- 
tempt to put us off.'' Pag. 68. 



The change of the terminating d to τ in the paft par- 
ticiples (or in any other words) does not depend either upon 
iingle or double confonants, or upon the length or ihort- 
nefs of the fyllables ; but iingly upon the found of the 
confonant which precedes it• There is an anatomical 
reafon and neceflity for it, which I have explained in pages 
130 and 402 of the firfl: edition of this volume. But, 
without the reafon, and without the explanation, the fafts 
are fo notorious and fo conftantly in repetition, that they 
had only to open their eyes or their ears to avoid fo pal- 
pable an abfurdity as this rule about double confonants and 
long fyllables, which they have, for the firft time, conjured 
up. What then ; Should I not fpeak common Englifli, if 
I iliould fay to xMr. Windham, 

** Thou haft Fac^t many things ; 
" Face not me.** 

*^ You have Fleec^t the people, and SplicU a rope for your 
" own neck.'' 

Here are no double confonants; and there are long 
fyllables. But, if they will not believe their eyes and their 
ears, let them try their own organs of fpeech ; and they 
will find, that without a vowel between s and d (or an 
interval equal to the time of a vowel) they cannot follow 

Mm the 


^ the found s with the audihle found d ; and that, if they 
will terminate with D, they muft change the preceding s to 
a z. All this would be equally true of th.tfoundy even if 
the fpelling had always continued With a d, and that no 
writer had ever conformed his orthography to the pronun- 
ciation *. But we have very numerous written authorities 
to dumbfound thefe critics +. I ihall give them but two ; 
believing they ^re two more than they wiih to fee• 

" None other wile negligent 

Than I you faie, haue I not bee. 
In good feidi fonne wel me quemeth. 
That thou thy felfe haft thus acfquite 
Toward thi?,, in whiche no wight 
Abide rfiaie, for m an hourc 
He b£ST all that he maie laboure 
The louge ycre." 

Gomer. de Comf. Amm. Fol. 68. Pag. i. CoL a^ 

^ 111 the towne of Stafforde was, (William of Cantorbury 
^' faith, Ihon Capgraue eonfirminge the fame) a luftye 
^ minion^ a trulle for the nonce> a pece for a prince, with 

♦ Daiial^an jaule pjiam ^am benbum iSasjr Itchoman onlyybe. Bed. 3. 8. 
Onlyj'be inftead of onlyjrcb j the e being removed from between the γ and 
bi this word muft be pronounced onlyj^e. — *^ D literam ratio pofcit, aures 
" magis audiunt s•" 

t Satb hoc potuit admonendi grada dixiflc, prseter agreftes quoidam ct 
indomitos certatore$> qui nifi au&oritadbus adhibids non comprimuntun 

^ whome 


" whome by report, the kinge at times was very familiare. 
". Betwixte this wanton damfel or primerofe pearleffe and 
*^ Becket the chancellor, wente ftore of prefentes, and of 
« loue tokens plenty, and a!fo the louers met at times, for 
^^ when he reforted thidre, at no place would he be hofted 
^^ and lodged, but wher as Ihe held refidence. In the 
^ dedde tyme of the night (the ftorye faithe) was it her 
^* generall cuftome, to come alone to his bedchambre with 
*^ a candle in her hand, to toy and trifle with him. Men 
*< are not ib foliih, but they can wel conqeiue, what 
^ chaftity was obferued in thoie prety, nice, and wanton 
*^ metinges. But they fay, he fore amended whan he was 
" once confecrated archbifhop of Cantorbury, and least * 
•^ well his accuftomed enbracinges after the rules of loue, 
^^ and became in life relygious, that afore in loue was 
^< lecherous.^ 

lobn Bale. A^es of Englifi Votaries. 
Dedicated to kyng Edwarde the fyofte. 1550. 


Since is a very corrupt abbreviation ; confounding to- 
gether different words and different combinations of words : 

^ He iKfiniJiJ. He fai away. He relmquijhed. 

Μ m 2 and 


and is therefore in modern Englifli improperly made (like 
but) to ferve purpofes which no one word in any other 
language can anfwer ; becaufe the fame accidental corrup- 
tionsy arifing from fimilarity of found, have not happened 
in the correfpondent words of any other language. 

Where we now employ since was formerly (according 
to its refpe<5tive lignification) ufed, 


1. Seo^iSan, SioiSSan, SeSSan, SiiSiSan, SiiSiSen, Sithen, 
Sithence, Sithens, Sithnes, Sithns : 


2. Syne, Sine, Sene, Sen, Syn, Sin : 


3. Seand, Seeing, Seeing that, Seeing as. Sens, Senfe, 


4. Si^^e, Si^, Sithe, Sith, Seen that, Seen as, Sens> 
Senfe, Sence. 

Accordingly since in modem Engliih, is ufed four 
ways. Two, as a prepolition; conneoting (or rather 

a affe&ing) 


affeSiing) words : and Two, as a Conjiindtion ; qffeeting 
fentences *. 

When ufed as a prepoiition, it has always the fignifica- 
tion either of the paft * participle Seen joined to tbencey 
(that isjfeen and thenceforward :) — or elfe it has the figni- 
fication of the paft Participle feen only. 

When ufed as a Conjun£lion, it has ibmetinaes the 
iignification of the prefent participle Seeing^ or Seeing that ; 
and fometimes the fignificatipn of the pail participle Seenf 
or Seen that. 

As a Prepofition, 

I. Since (for SiiSiSan, Sithence, or Seen and thence^ 
forward) as, 

^^ Such a fyfiem of Government^ as the prefenty has not 
*< been ventured on by any King since the expul/ion of 
•« James the Second."" 

♦ It is fikcwifc ufed adverbially : as when we fay— Jt is a year sikce : 
i. t. a year se£n. 

In Frenchr^-»»^ annee paffie. 

lo Italian— «Λ rnmo fa : u e• fatio^ 

2. Since 


2. Since (for Syne, Sene, or Seen) as, 

*< Did George the Third reign before or since that 
" example f^ 

As a Conjun<5tion, 

3. Since (for Seant), Seeing, Seeing as, or feeing 
that:) as, 

^^ If I βοηΐά labour for any other fatisfa^ion, but that 
'* of my own mind, it would be an EffeSl of pbrenzy in me, 
" not of hope ; since it is not Truth, but Opinion that can 
*< travel the world without a pajport^ 

4• Since (for SfSSe, Sitb, Seen as, or Seen that); as» 

" Since Death in the end takes from all, wbatfoever 
** Fortune or Force takes from any one ; it were a fooli/b 
« madnefs in the Jbipwreck of worldly things, where all 
*< fnks but the for row, to fave that *.** 

Junius fays, — ^^ Since that Timej exindi. Contraituna 
«« eft ex Angl. Sitb thence^ q. d. fero poft : ut Sitb illud 

* νΛ^ the French paft participle of Vair^ to Set^ is ufcd in Ac fame 
conjunftive manner in that language. 

" Dis nous pourquoi Dieu Ρ a permis^ 
Vm qu'il paroit dc fcs amis ?*' 

^^ originem 


- s 

<< originem traxerit ex Ulo Β&φΐΐί Sero ; Quod habet Arg. 
« Cod." 

Skinner fays, — " Since, a Teut» %int Belg. %inll. 
« Poft, Poftea, Poftquam. Dodt. Th. H. piirat deflexum 
** a noftro Sitbeiice. Non abfurdum etiam eflet declinare 
<< i Lat. ExbinCf ε Sc η abjeotisy & χ facillima mutatione 
<* in s * tranfeunte.** Again he fays, — " Sith ab a. s. 
« SiiSan, Sy««an. Belg, ^egll, ^int. Poft, Poft ilia, Poftea. 


, After the explanation I have given^ I fuppofe it tin• 
neceflary to* point out the particular errors of the abx^ve 

Sitbence and Sitb^ though now obiblete, continued i» 
good ufe down even to the time of the Stuarts» 

Hooker in his writings ufes Sitbjencey Sitbj Seeingy and 
Since. The two former he always properly diftinguiihes ; 
ufing Sitbence for the true import of the Anglo-Saxon 
SiSiSan, and Sttb for the true import of the Anglo-Saxon 
SiSiSe. Which is the more extraordinary, becaufe authors 
of the firft credit had very long before Hooker's time con^- 
founded them together ; and thereby led the way for the 

4. prefent 


prefent indifcriminate and corrupt ufe of since in all the 
four cafes mentioned• 

Seeing Hooker ufes fometimes, perhaps, (for k will ad- 
mit a doubt*-') improperly. And since (according to the 
corrupt cuftom which has now uriiverfally prevailed in the 
language) he ufes indifferently either for Sitbence^ Seen^ 
Seeingf or Sttb. 


There is fomething fo very iingular in the ufe of this 
Conjundlion, as it is called, that one fliould think it would 
alone, if attended to, have been fufficient to lead the 
Grammarians to a knowledge of moft of the other con- 
jundtions, as well as of itfelf. The ufe I mean is, that 
the conjundlion that generally makes a part of, and keeps 

* Such is the doubtful ufe of it by Shakefpear in the following paiTage : 
'^ Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, 
It feems to me moft ftrange that men (hould feari 
Seeing that death, a neceflary end. 
Will come when it will come." 
For it may either be refolved thus s — It feems ftrange that men, seeing 
that death will come when it will come, ihould fear : 

Or — Strange that men ihould fear; it being seen that death will come 
when it will come. 



company with moft of the other conjunolions.— j?/" tbatt 
An that, Unlefs tbaty Though that. But that. Without thatf 
Le/i thaty Since that. Save that•, Except that, 8cc. is the 
conftrudlion of moft of the fentences where any of thofe 
conjunctions are tifecl. 

Is it not an obvious queftion then» to aik, why this 
conjun(^ion alone ihould be fo peculiarly diftinguiihed from 
all the reft of the fame family? And why this alone 
ihould be able to connect itfelf with, and indeed be ufually 
neceftary to almoft all the others ? So neceftaryy that even 
when it is compounded with another conjun^iooy and 
drawn into it fo as to become one word, (as it is with fitb 
^xxajince) we are ftill forced to employ again this neceflary 
index, in order to precede, and fo point out the fentence 
which is to be affeaied by the other Conjunction ? 


De, in the Anglo-Saxon, meaning that, Ϊ can eaiily 
perceive that sith (which is no other than the Anglo^ 
Saxon SiStSe) includes that. But when since is (as you 
here confider it) a corruption for Seeing' as and Seen-asi 
liow does it then include that ? — In ihort what is as ? 
For I can gather no more from the Etymologifts concem- 

N η ing 


ing it, than that it is derived either from ίς or from als*; 
But ftill this explains nothing : for what άς is, or als» re>- 
mains likewiie a fecret. 


The truth is that as is alfo an article ; and (however 
and whenever ufed in Engliih) means the fame as //, or 
Tbat^ or Wbicb. In the German, where it ftill evidently 
retains its original iigniiication and uie^ (as so f alfo does)^ 
it is written — Es. 


♦ Junius fays, — " As, «/, ficui^ Graecis eft «c.*' Skinner, whom S. 
Johnibn follows, fays — " as a Teut. -^/j, ficuti clifo fcil. propter cupho- 
" niam intcrmcdio l." 

t The German so and the Engliih so (though Γη one language it i» 
called an Adverb or Conjunifion ; and in the other, an Article or Pronoun), 
are yet both of them derived from the Gothic article SA» Sjt• And have 
in both languages retained the original meaning, viz. //, or That. 

Mr. Tyrwhit indeed (not perceiving that Al-es and Al-fi are different 
compounds) in a• note on the Canterbury Tales, V. 7327. lays — ** Oiu? 
" AS is the fame with Ab. Teut. and Sax. It b only a further corruption 
'* of Alfo.'^ But the etymological opinions of Mr. Tyrwhit (who derives 
For tie Nones from Pro nunc) merit not the fmallcft attentioa. 

Dr. I.owth^ amongft /ome falfe Engliih which he has recomm*ded, and 
fnucb good Engliih which he has reprobated, fays — « So— A^i was ufcd by 

•« the 



and Jdgif^ &c. — For Als^ in our old £ngli(h is a contract 
tion of AU and es or as : and this Al (which in compariibns 
ufed to be very properly employed before the firft es or aSf 
but was not employed before the fecond) we now, in 
fnodem Engliih, fupprefs : As we have alfo done in num- 
berlefs other inftances ; where A/I (though not improper) 
is not necelTary• 


** She glides away under the foamy feas 
** As fwift AS Darts or fcathcr'd arrows fly." 

That is, 

" She glides away (with) that fwiftneis, (with) which feathcr'd 
•* arrows fly." 

^m m 

After which he proceeds to his examples of the proper and improper ufe 
of thefe conneftives : — without having the moft diftant notion of the meaU" 
ing of the words whofe employment he undertakes to fettle. The confe- 
quence was unavoidable : that, (having no reafonahk rule to go by, and no 
apparent fignification to direft him) he was compelled to truft to his owni 
fanciful taftc {as in the heft it is), and the uncertain authority of others : and 
has confcqucntly approved and condemned without truth or rcaibn. ** Pour- 
" quoi (fays Girard) aprcs tant de fieclcs & tant d'ouvrages, les gens dc 
•* Lettres ont-ils encore des idees fi informes & des cxprcffions fi confiifes 
•• fur cc qu'ils font profcflion d'etudier & de tr^ter ? Ou s'ils nc veulent 
•* pas prendre la peine d'approfondir la maticre, comment ofent-ils en 
^ doniier des lemons au public ? C'cft ce que je oe consols pas." 



When in old Englifti it is written, 



*' Glidis away under the fomy Scis 

** Als fwift as Ganzc or fedderit arrow flcis." 

Douglas. Booh ία. Paj^. 32J• 

Then it means, 

^^ With ALL THAT fwiftncis wUb which, &οΛ 

After what I have faid, yoi*» will fee plainly why fir 
many of the conjunctions may be ufed almoft indifferently 
(or with a very little turn of expreffion) for each other• 
And without my entering, into the particular minutiae in 
the ufe of each, you will eaiily account for the flight dif- 
ferences in the turn of expreilion) ariilng from diff^reat^ 
cuftomary abbreviations of conJruSiion. 

I will only give you one inftance, and leave it with you ^ 
for your entertainment : from which you will draw st . 
variety of arguments and concluiions* 

" And foft he fighed, lest men might him hear. 
And foft he figh'd, that men might not him hear• 
And foft he fighcd, else men might him hear. 
Unless he fighed foft>.men might him hear. 
Bur diat he fighed foft, men might him hear. 
Without he fighed foft, men might him hear. 
Save that he fighed loft, men might him hear. 
Except he fighed foft, .men might him hear. 


OuTC£PT he fighed {ok, men might him hear. 

Out-take he fighed foft, men mjght him hear• 7 

If that he figh'd not foft, men might him hear. 

And AN he figh'd not foft, men might him hear. 

Set that he figh'd not foft, men might him hear. 

Put case he figh'd not foft, men might him hear. 

B£ IT he figh'd not fof^j mtn might him hear. 


According to your account then^ Ijord Monboddo is 
extremely unfortunate in the particular care he has tal:en 
to make an exception from the general rule he lays down, 
of the Verbs being the Parent word of all language, and 
to caution the candid reader from imputing to him an 
opinion that the conjun^ions were intended by him to be 
included in his rule, or have any x:onnexion whatever 
with FerbsK 

n. In 

* <c 

This fo copious derivation from the verb in Greek, naturally leads 
■« one to fulpeft that it is the Parent word of the whole language : and 
^' indeed I believe that to be the faft : for I do not know that it can be 
^* certainly (hewn that there is any word that is undoubtedly a primitive, 
" which is not a verb ι I mean a verb in the ftrifter fcnfe and common 
" acceptation of the word. By this the candid reader will not underftand 
** that I mean to fay that prepofitions, conjunffions, and fuch like words, 
« which are radier the Pegs and Nails that fatten die feveral parts of the 
" language together than the language itfelf, are derived from verbs or are 
** derivatives of any kind." Vol. Π. Part 2. B. i. Ch. 15. 



In my opinion he is not lefs unfortunate in his rule than 
in his exception. They are both equally unfounded : and 
yet as well founded, as almoft every other pofition which, 
he has Md down in hiis two firft volumes• The whole of 
which 16 perfectly worthy of that profound' politician and' 
philofopher, who efteems that to be the moil: perfedl form, 
and as he calls it — ^* the Ιαβ ftage of civil fociety ^^ where 
government leaves nothing to the free-will of individuals;, 
but interferes with the domeftic private lives of the citizens. 

Court dc Gcbelin is as pofirive in the contrary opinion^ — " H'a-fellu ne- 
** ceflairement," (fays he) " que tous les. ^utres mots vinflcnt des noms. 
" Π n'eft aucun mot, de quelqu' eipecc que ce foit, & dans quelque langue 
** que cc ibit, qui ne defcendc d'un nom." — Hift. de la Parole, page ιβο; 

* " But the private lives of the iubjeils under thoft governments arc 
" left as much to the free will of each individual, and as little fubjefted to 
" rule, as in the American Governments above mentioned : and every man 
" in fuch a ftate may with . impunity educate his children in the wonl 
manner poiTible ; and may abuie his own perion and fortune as much as 
hepleafcsj provided he docs• no injury to his neighbours, nor attempts 
any thing againft the ftate. The lafl ftage of civil fociety, in which tho 
*' progreflion ends, is that moft perfcft form of polity which, to all the 
" advantages of the Governments laft mentioned, joins the care of die 
«* education of the youth, and of the private lives of the citizens ; neither 
^' of which is left to the will and pleafure of each individual ; but both arc 
•^• regulated by f^ujLic wisdom,"~Vo1. I. page 243• 




and the education of their children 1 Such would in truth 
be the Ιαβ ftage of civil fociety, in the fenfe of the lady 
in the comedy; whofe lover having offered — " to give 
<* her the lafi proof of love and marry her.*— She aptly 
replied) "^The lafi indeed ; for there's an end of loving " 


But what fay you to the bitter irony with which Mr. 
Harris treats the modems in the concluding note to his 
dodiine of Gonjunotions ? Where he fays,—" It is ibme- 
" what furpriiing'that the politeft and moit elegant of the 
« Attic writers, and Plato above all the reft, Ihould have 
** their works fUled with Particles of all kinds and with 
** Conjun^ions in particular ; while in tho modern polite 
" works, as well of ourfelves as of our neighbours, fcarce 
** fuch a word as a Particle or ConjunSiion is to be found. 
" Is it that where there is conne<Stion in the meaning, 
** there muft be words had to conne<ft ; but that where 
** the connection is little or none, fuch conneftives are of 
** little ufe? That houfes of cards without cement may 
** well anfwer their end ; but not thofe houfes where one 
** would chufe to dwell ? Is this the caufe ? Or have we 
" attained an elegance to the antients unknown ? 

« Venimm ad funtmam fortuna, Sec." 



life a great many words without meaning /—If fo, perhaps 
Mailer Slender s language would meet with this learned 
Gentleman's approbation. 

" I keep but three men and a boy yet, tUi my mother 
<« be dead ; hut what though yet I live a poor gentleman 
« bom.'' 

Now here is cement enough in proportion to the 
ing. It is plain, however, that Shakefpeare (a much 
better philofoj^ier by the bye than moft of thoie wh• 
have written philoibphical Treatifes) was of a different 
opinion in this matter from Mr. Harris. He thought the 
beft way to make his Zany talk unconnedtedly and non« 
fenfically was to give him a quantity of thefe elegant 
words without meaning which are fuch favourites with Mr. 
Harris and Lord Monboddo. 


This may be raillery perhaps, but I am fure it is neither 
reaf(Miing nor authority. This inftance does not afie^t Mr. 
Harris : for ^ cement is no more fit to make a firm build- 
ing than no cement at all. Blender's difcourfe might have 
been made equally as unconnected without any particles, 
as with fo many particles together. It is the proper mix- 


ture of particles and other words which Mr. Harris would 
recommend ; and he only cenfures the moderns for being 
too iparing of Particles. 


Reafonirtg I It difdains to be employed about fuch con- 
ceited nonfenfe, fuch affected airs of fuperiority and pre- 
tended elegance, Efpecially when the whole foundation is 
falfe : for there are not any ufeful connectives in the Greek, 
which are not to be found in modern languages. But for 
his opinion concerning their employment, you ihall have 
autborityy if you pleafe ; Mr. Harris's favourite authority : 
an Antient, a Greek, and one too writing profefledly on 
Plato's opinions, and in defence of Plato; and which if 
Mr. Harris had not forgotten, I am perfuaded, he would 
not have contradicted. 

Plutarch fays — " II n'y a ny Befte, ny inftrument, ny 
** armeure, ny autre chofe quelle qu'elle ibit au monde, 
** qui par ablation ou privation d'une liene propre partie, 
** foit plus belle, plus a<Stive, ne plu? doulce que paravant 
" clle n'eftoit ; Ιέ ou I'oraifon bien fouvent, en eftans les 
" conjonSlions toutes ofiees^ a une force 8c efficace plus 
" affe(Slueufe, plus adive, 8c plus efmouvante. C'eft pour- 
" quoy ceulx qui efcrivent des figures de Retorique louent 

Ο ο 2 ^^ %in 


" 8c prifent grandement celle qu'ils appellent deliee; la 
" ou ceulx qiii font trop religieux &: qui s' aiTubjettiiTent 
^^ trop aux regies de la grammaire, fans ozer ofter une 
" feule conjondlion de la commune fa9on de parler, en 
" font a bon droit blafmez &: repris ; com me faifans un 
*^ ftile enerve, fans aucune pointe d'afFedlion, 8c qui laiTe 
^^ 8c donne peine a ouir," Sec. ^^ 

I will give you another authority, which perhaps Mr. 
Harris may value more, becaufe I value it much lefs. 

^^ II n'y a rien encore qui donne plus de mouvement au 
*^ difcours que d'en oier les Uaifons. En ejffet, un difcours 
^^ que rien ne lie 8c n'embarafle, marche 8c coule de foy- 
^^ meme, 8c il s'en faut peu qu'il n'aille quelquefois plus 
^^ vite que la penfee meme de Torateur." Longinus then 
** gives three examples, from Xenophon, Homer, and De- 
^* mofthenes ; and concludes — " En egalant 8c applaniffant 
^* toutes chofes par le moyen de UaifonSy vous verrez que 
^^ d'un pathetique fort i^ violent vous tomberez dans une 
^* petite aflfeterie de langage qui n'aura ni pointe ni eguil- 
** Ion ; 8c que toute la force de votre difcours s'eteindra 
^* auffi-toft d'elle-mefme. Et comme il eft certain, que ii 

* Platonic Queftions. Amyot's Tranflation, 

« on 


^^ on lioit le corps d'un homme qui court, on lui feroit 
^^ perdre toute fa force ; de meme fi vous allez embarrafler 
^^ une pailion de ces Uaifons &: de ces particules inutileSj 
^^ elle les fouflfre avec peine ; vous lui otez la lijberte de fa 
^^ courfe, & cette impetuoiite qui la faifoit marcher avec 
^^ la mefme violence qu' un trait lance par une machine ^.^ 

Take one more authority, better than either of the fore- 
going on this fubjeot. 

^* Partes orationis fimiles nexu indigent, ut inter fe 
^^ uniantur ; 8c ifte vocatur Conjundlioy quae definitur vocula 
^^ indeclinabilis qua partes orationis colligit. Alii earn fub- 
" intelligi malint, alii exprefse & molefte repetunt : illud, 
" qui attentiores funt rebus ; hoc, qui rigorofius loquuntur. 
" Omittere fere omnes conjundiones Hifpanorum aut 
" vitium aut charadler eft. Plurimse deiiderantur in Lu- 
" cano, plurimae in Seneca, multee in aliis authoribus• 
" Multas omitto; &:, ii meum genium fequerer, fere 
" omnes. Qui rem intelligit & argumentum penetrat, 
*^ percipit iibi ipfis cohaerere fententias, nee egere parti-f 
*^ culis ut conneftantur : quod, ii interferantur voculae 


* Boileau's Tranflation. 

6 ** con- 


<* connexivae, fcopae diflblutae illae funt; nee additis 8e 
** multiplicatis conjunAionibus cohaerere ix)terunt. Hinc 
<* patet quid debuiffet refponderi Caligulse, Senecse calamum 
** vilipendenti. Suetonius: Lenius comptiufque Jcribendi 
*< genus adeo contempfiu ut Senecanty turn maxime plactntem<, 
** comntiffiones nteras componerey ^ Arenam sine calcf, 
« diceretr — " Caligulae hoc judicium eft, inquit LipHus 
** in j udicio de Seneca ; nempe illius qui cogitavit etiam 
** de Homeri carminibus abolendis, itemque Virgilii 8c Titi 
** Livii fcriptis ex omnibus bibliothecis amovendis. Refpon- 
*« deo igitiir meum Senecam non vulgo nee plebi /οήρββε^ 
** mc omni viro άοδίο^ fed illi qui attenu eum legeret, Et 
« addOf ubi Ledior mente Senecam fequitur^ fenfum adjequi : 
*< nee inter fententiasy fuo fe prementes ^ confolidantes 
** pgnderey conjunetionem major em requiri^ 

Caramuel, cxlii. 

And I hope thefe authorities (for I will offer no argu- 
ment to a writer of his caft) will fatisfy the " true tafle 
«* and judgment in writing^ of Lord Monboddo ; who with 
equal affedlation and vanity has followed Mr. Harris in this 
particular : and who, though incapable of writing a fen- 
tence of common Engliih (defuerunt enim illi ^ ufus pro 
duce &* ratio pro fua/ore) fincerely deplores the decreafe of 
* learning 


learning in England* ; whilft he really imagines that there 
is ibmething captivating in his own ilyle, and has grate- 
fully informed us to whofe affiftance we owe the obliga- 

* See Mr. BoiweU's Tour to the Hebrides» p. 473. 






X^ELL, Sir, what you have hitherto faid of the Con- 
junftions will deferve to be well confidered. But 
we have not yet entirely done with them : for, you know, 
the Prepofitions were originally, and for a long time, claiTed 
with the Conjunctions : and when firft feparated from 
them, were only diftinguiihed by the name of Prepqfitive 
Conjunotions **. 

H. Very 

* The philofophers of Hungary, Turkey and Georgia at leaft were in 
no danger of falling into this abfurdity : for Dr. Jault, in his preface to 
(what is very improperly, though commonly, called) Menage's Diftionary, 
tells us — " Par le frequent commerce que j'ai eu avec eux \les Hongrots'] 
pendant plufieurs annees, ayant tache de pcnetrer a fonds ce que ce 
pouvoit etre que cet idiome fi difFerent de tous les autres d' Europe, je 
*^ les ai convaincus qu'ils etoient Scythes d' origine, ou du moins que leur 
" languc ctoit une des branches de la Scythique 3 puifqu' a Γ egard de 

" I'inflexion 



Very true, Sir. And thefe Prepo/ttive conjundtionsy 
«nee feparated from the others, foon gave birth to another 
fubdivifion * ; . and Grammarians were not aihamed to have 
a clafs of Poflpq/itive Prtpofttives , — " Dantur etiam Pofi' 
<* pofitiones (fays Caramuel) ; quae Prapojttiones pofipofitiva. 
<< folent did, nuUi vocabulorum repugnantii : vocantur 
** enim Prapojitionesy quia fenfu faltem prseponuntur ; ic 
** Pofipafitivay quia vocaliter poftponi debent.* 

But as Mr. Harris ftill ranks them with ConneStivesy this, 
I think, will be the proper place for their inveftigation. 
And as the title of Prepo/itive or Prepofttion " (ntfy expreffts 
<* their place and not their charaBer ; their Definition^ he 
** foyh fioill di/lingui^ them from the former ConneSHves^ 
He therefore proceeds to give a compleai definition of 
them, viz. 


*^ V inflexion eUe avoit rapport a celle des Turcs, qu conftammenC paflbient 
pour Scythes, etant originairc du Turqueftin, et de k Tnmibxianes et 
q\i' outre cela les pas positions de ces deux laogucs, aufii bien qiie de la 
Georgienne, fe mettoient toujours afrts Uur regime, centre Γ ordre de la 
nature et la fignifkadon de leur noni•" 


* Buonmattei has ftill a farther fubdivifion ; and has madi;, a Icparatc part 
«f ipeech of jhe Sepiacafi. 

Ρ ρ ^ii A 

2 9 ο QF , P.REPOSlTIpNS. 

— <^ A Prepq/ition is a part of fpeecby devoid it/elf oj 
" fignification ; but fo formed as to unite two words that are 
" figntficant^ and that refufe to coalefee or unite of them- 
*^ felves^ — Now I am curious to know, whether you will 
agree with Mr. Harris in his definition of this part of 
Speech ; or whether you are determined to differ jfrom him 
on every point. 


Till he agrees with hirafelf, I think you ihould not dif- 
approve of my differing from him; becaufe for this at 
leaft I have his own reipedbable authority. Having defined 
a word to be a " Smnd fignificant '^ \\& now defines a 
Prepofition to be a word " devoid of fignification^ And a 
few pages after, he fays, ** Frepofitions commonly transfufe 
" Jometbing of tbeir own meaning into the word with wbicb 
** tbey are compounded.^ 

Now, if I agree with him that words are founds fgni- 
ficant ; how can I agree that there are forts of words de- 
void of ftgnifcation f And if I could fuppofe that Frepofi- 
tions are devoid of fignification\ how could I afterwards 
allow that they transfuie fomething of tbeir own meaning ^ 

ί Β. This 



This is the fame objedlion repeated, which you made 
before fo his definition of the firfi fort of Conneotives. 
But is it not ofherwife a compleat definition ? 


Mr. Harris no doubt intended it as fuch : for, in a note 
on this paflage, he endeavours to juftify his dodtrine by a 
citation from Apollonius * ; which he calls " rather a de- 
" fcriptive iketch than a complete definition•" But what 
he gives us in the place of it, as compleat^ is neither de- 
unition nor even defcription• It contains a Negation and 
an Accident ; and nothing more. It tells us what the Pre- 
pofition /r not\ and the purpofe for which he fuppofes it 
to be employed. It might ferve as well for a definition of 
the Έ^αβ India Company^ as of a Prepofition : for of that 
we may truly fay — " It is not itfelf any part of the 

* " Je n' cntcnds pas trop bicn Ic Grcc, dit le Gcant. 

*' Ni moi non plus, dit la Mite philofophique. 

" Pourquoi done, rcprit Ic Sirien, citcz-vous un 0€Γΐώι Anfl:ot<? iift 
** Grec ? 

«* C'eft, repliqua le Savant, qu'il faut bicn citcr cc qu'on nc comprend 
" point du tout, dans la langue qu'on cntend le moins/* • 

Voltaire. Micromeogas. 


Ρ ρ 2 ^^ Govern- 


" Government, but fo formed as to unite thofe who woidd 
" not have coalefced of themfelves *.** — Poor Scaliger (who* 
well knew what a definition ihould be) from his owa 
melancholy experience exclaimed — " Nihil dnfelicius gr^ni'^ 
** matico definitore t* Mr. Harris's logical ignorance moft 
happily deprived him of a ieafe of his misfortuaes. And 
ib little, good man, did he dream of the danger of his 
fituation ; that whilft all others were ad^iowledgpuig their 
fuccefslefs though indefatigable labours, and kmenting; 
their infuperable difficulties, he prefaces his dxStrine of 
Connediives with this lingularly confident introduotioa ;— «- 
<* What remains of our work is a matter of tefs difficulty^ 
^ it beiqg the fame here as in forsat hiftorical picture «r 

* Let (the reader ΊκίΙιο has any ierife of joSaoty ov who fccfk any aiudety 
•for the welfare of his country^ look .back and re-confider tdie Gocn^t vdc 
which one Coalitipn would have made of this company in the year 178J,. 
and the corrupt ufc Whidh another Coalirion has made of it fince. Letliim 
•fhen iccall to his mind the parallel' hiftory of the Company of St. <xcoi^, 
at the clofe of the flouriihing days c^ the Republic of Genoa ; and, ia %>ite 
of all outward appearances, he will -eafily be able cto foretell the ^eedy £ue 
of this pilfered and annihilated body^ Without any external iSioefc, the 
ibre caufe of its rapid dellrudtion is in its preient delpotic and coin^tcoa^ 
ititucdon r to the fbrmatioo-of which (and to no fuppofed deJinquenciy jior 
perfonal enmity) that much injured man, Mr. Huftin^, was made the 
vifiam ky ^ the corsupt pardes in the kingdom- 

f* when 


<* when the princip^ figures are once formed, it is ao mfy 
** labour to defign the reft *.** 

However contradi^ory and hxegular aH this may appear 
to you, Mr. Harris has advanced nothing more than what 
the moft aooroved Greek, and Latin Grammari^is^ have de- 

^< ■ ' ' rr^™^•^'!» ■ H I I f 

* Such is the language,, and fuoh arc the definitions of him who», in this 
very chapter of the prcpofitions>^ Jias modcftly given us the following note• 
— -^^ And here I cannot but obferye^ that he who pretends to difcuis the 
•< fentiments of any one of thefe plulofophers^ or even to cite and tranflate 
^* Jum (except in trite and obvious fentences) without accurate^ knowing 
'* the Greek tongue in general ; the nice differences of many words $^ppa- 
•^ rently fynonymous i the peculiar ftylc of the author whom he pref^me^ 
** to handle ; the new corned words, and new fignifications given to old 
^ words ufcd by fuioh author and his feft j die whole phik)fophy of fuch 
^ kGiy together with the coonedtions and dependencies of its ieveral parts, 
^' whether logical^ ethical or phyjical j— He, IJayy that without this pre- 
•« idous preparation, attempts wbatj'bavejaidy will Ihoot in the dark; 
'' will be liable to perpetual blunders; will explain and praife, and cenfure 
•* merely by chance ; and though he may poflibly to fools, appear as a wife 
••' man, ^will certsuidy among, the wtfe ever pafs for a fool. Such a man's 
^ intelleit comprehends antient jihilofophy, as his eye comprehends a 
^ diftant proipeft. He may fee, perii^s, enough to Jcnow mountains 
^< from plains, and feas from woods.•; but for an accurate difcemment of 
•* particulars and their character, ,this, without farther helps, it is imppffible 
*< to attain.'* 



livered down to him, and what modem Grammarians and 
Philofophers have adopted *. 

H. Yes. 

♦ " Praepofitio feu adnomen^ per Je non fiffirficaf^ nifi addatur nomi^ 
*' nibus." — ^CampancUa. 

*' Multas & varias hujus partis orationis definitioncs invenio. Et pnc 
*' csetcris arridet haec. — Prsepofitio eft vocula : modum quendam nominis 
" adfi^ificans.^^ Caramuel. 

" Ut omittam Particulas minorcs, cujufmodi funt Pnepofiiioncs, Ccn- 
*' junftioncs, Intcrjeftioncs, quae nullam babent cum nominibus affinitatem.** 

J. C. Scaligcr. de L. L. Cap- cxcii. 

Even Hoogeveen who clearly faw — ^^ Particulas in fua Infantia fuijfe vcl 
verba vel nomina, vel ex nominibus formata adverbia \* yet gives the fol- 
lowing account and Definition of them. 

Primam, ut reliquarum, ita Grsecae quoque linguas originem fuifle 
fimpliciifimam^ ipfa natura ac rado docent, primofque ονο/(Α«Οιτ«( nomina, 
quibus res \ et verba, quibus aftiones exprimerent, non vera Particulas in- 
fiituijcy probabile eft. Certe, cum ex nominibus et verbis integra conftet 
orado, quorum hasc aftiones et afFeftiones, ilia perfonas agentes et patientes 
indicant ; Jure qu^eritury an primava lingua babuerit particulas. Non udque 
neceffariam, rerti exprimendi, vim habere videntur, fed adjcititiam quan^ 
dam, et ientcntias per nomina et verba expreflfas variandi, fiabiliendiy in• 
firmandiy negandi, copulandiy disjungendi, imminuendi, affirmandi^ limitandiy 
mukifque modis afficiendi : Ipfa vero, quatenus particuU, per Je JoU Jpec- 
tat a J nibil fignificant. — 

Natura, inquam, ipfa docet, Particulis antiquiora ejfe nomina et verba, 
quia, obfcrvato rerum ordine, necefle eft, res et aftiones pri'js fuifle natas 




Yes. Yes. I know the errors are ancient enough, to 
have been long ago worn out and difcarded. But I do not 
thipk that any excufe for repeating them. For a much 
lefs degree of underftanding is neceffary to detedt the 
erroneous principles of others, than to guard againft thofe 
which may be ftarted for the firft time by our own 
imagination. In thefe matters it ihews lefs weaknefs of 
judgment, becaufe it is more eafy, to deceive ourfelves, 
than to be deceived by others* 


You will do well. Sir, to be particularly mindful of what 
you faid laft; and to place your ftrongeft guard there. 

ct cxprcflas, quam Particulas, quas has vel conjungunt, vel disjunguot : 
priora funt jungenda jungcntibus, firmanda firmantibus, limitaiida limitan- 
tibus^ ct fie dcinceps• Neque mea haec, ncquc novfi eft de particularum 
minus antique origine opinio: fuffiragantem habeo Plutarchum ad illam 
quaeftioncm, quae inter Platonicas poftrema eft. — " Cur Plato dixcrit ora- 
** tioncm ex nominibus ct verbis mifceri". Ubi ait—" Probabilc cffc, 
*^ homines ab initio orationem diftingucntium Particularum cguillc."— 

*^ Dicamus ergo, Particulam effe voculam, ex nomine yt\ytrho natam^ 
quae icntentise addita, aliquam ipfi paflionem afferty ct orationi adminiculo 
eft^ et officiofa miniflra. Miniftram voco, quia^ orationi rion inferta, fed 
per fc pofiu ct folitaria, nihil fignificat.** 



where it may be moft wanted : for you feem iufficiently 
determined not to be deceived by others. And with this 
caution, I (hall be glad to hear your account of the Prepo- 
Ittion. Perhaps I iliall fave time, at leail I ihall fooner 
fatisfy myfelf, by aiking you a few queiUons.— Pray how 
many Prepoiitions are there ? 

Taking the Philofophy of language as it now i);ands9 
your queftion is a very proper one. And yet you know, 
that Authors have never hitherto been agreed concerning 
their number. The ancient Greek Grammarians admitted 
only eighteen, (fix monofyllables and twelve diflyllables). 
The ancient Latin Grammarians above fifty *. Though 
the modems, Sanftius, Sdoppius, Perizonius, VoflS^us, an' 
others, have endeavoured to leflen the number with' 
fixing it +. 

Our countryman Wilkins thinks that thirty-fix are 
ficient J. 

, . ^« 


♦ Scotus determines them to be forty-nine• 

f Sandtius fays, — ^^ Ex numero Praepofirionum, quas Grammarici perti- 
^' naciter aflcrunt; aliquas fuftulimtis." 

% ** TJifcrc are thirty-fix Prepoiitions which may, with much lefe equi- 
^^ vocalnels than is found in inftituted languages , /Μβ€6 to exprefs thofe 
^* Tarious rcfpefts which arc to be fignified by this kind of Particle/' 

Part 3. Chap. 3• 



Girard fayis, that the French language has done the 
biiiinefs effedtually Mfith thhty-two : and that he could not, 
with the utmoll attention, difcover any more *. 

But the author» of the £ncyclopedie \PrepOj^iion] though 
they alfo» a$ well as Girard> admit oniy^wp/e Prepoiitions, 
have^ found in the fame language» forty-eight. 

And Buffier gives a lift of feventy-five ; and declares 
that there is a great number beiidesy which he has not 

The greater part of authors have not ventured even to 
talkr of any particular number : and of thofe who have, 
(except in the Greek) no two authors have agreed in the 


♦ " Q{ioiqiie Ics rapjiorts determinatifs qu*on pcut mettrc cntrc Ics chofcs 
^' foient varies & nombreux j le langage Fran5ois a trouvc Tart d'en fairc 
*' enoncer la multitude & la divcrfite'dcs nuances^ par un petit nombre dt 
•* mots : car Pexamen du detail fait avcc toute Γ attention dontjejuis capable^ 
** nc m'en oflFre que trente deux dc ccttc clpcce. — ^D m'a paru que Ics dic- 
** tionaires confondent quelquefois dcs Adverbes & mcme des Cenjonftions 
'' avec des Prepofidont.-^Je ne itie fins jamais permis de ne rien avancer 
*' fans avoir fait im examm profond 6f rigoreux ; me fcrvant toujours dc 
<« Tanalyfe & dcs regies de la plus exadtc Logiquc pour refoudrc mes doutes, 
& tacher de prendre la parti le plus vrai. Je ne diβmulerai fcurtant pas, 
que mes Jcrupules ont ete frequents : mais ma difcuffion a etc attentive, & 
mon travail opiniatre.'' Vrais Principes> Difc. xi. 




Q q fame 


fame language. Nor has any one author attributed the 
fame number to any two diflferent languages• 

Now this difcordance has by no means proceeded from 
:.ny careleflhefs or w^ant of diligence in Grammatifts or 
Ivcxicographers : but the truth is, that the fault lies with 
the• IMiilofophers : for though they have pretended to teach 
others, they have none of them known themfelves what 
the mture of a Prepofition is. And how is it poflible that 
(iranimarians fliould agree, what words ought or ought 
i ■ v>t 10 be referred to a clafs which was not itfelf afcertained. 
Yet h:id any of the definitions or accounts yet given of the 
Prepofition and of language been juft, two confequences 
would immediately have followed ; viz. That all men would 
havfe certainly known the precife number of Prepofitions ; 
and (unlefs Things, or the operations of the human mind^ 
were different in different ages and climates) their number 
in all languages muft have been always the fame. 

B. \ 

You mean then now at lall, I fuppofe, to fix the number 
of real Prepofitions in our own, and therefore in all other 

H. Very 





Very far from it. I mean on the contrary to account 
for their variety. And I will venture to lay it down as a 
rule, that, of different languages, the leaft corrupt will 
have the feweft Prepofitions : and, in the fame language, 
the beft etymologifts will ackpjpwledge the feweft• And (if 
you are not already aware of it) I hope the reafon of the 
rule Will appear in the fequel. 

There is not, for inftance, (as far as I am aware) a pre- 
poiition in any language, anfwering diredly to the French 
prepofition chez *. Yet does it by no means follow, that 
the modern French do therefore employ any operation of 
the mind, or put their minds into any pofture different 
from their anccftors or from other nations ; but only that 

* In the fame manner Temoin and Moyennant are prepofitions peculiar alfo 
to the French, but which require no explanation : becaufe the Subflantive 
Temoin, and the Participle Moyennant, are not confined to iheir prepofitive 
employment alone (or, as in the Latin it is termed, put ahJolutely)y but are 
ufed upon all other common occafions where thofc denominations are wanted ; 
and their fignification is therefore evident. Moiening was anticntly ufed in 
Englilh. — " At whofe inftigacion and iliring I (Robert Copland) have me 
" applied, Moiening the helpc of God, to reduce and tranfiatc it." (See 
Ames's Hiflory of Printing \ or fee Percy's Reliquesy Vol. II. p. 273,) Had 
the ufe of this word continued in our language, it would certainly have been 
ranked amongft the prepofitions i and we fliould confequt-ntly have been 
confidcred as exerting one operation of the mind more than we do at prefent, 

Q q 2 ^ there 


there happens not to be in any other language a fimilar 
corruption of fome word correfponding precifely with chez. 
Which is merely a corruption of the Italian fubsftantive 
CASA * : in the fame manner as Cbo/e is from Co/a ; or as 



♦ Though Ac bulk of the French: language is manifeftly a corrupt deri- 
vation from the Italian, yet, as Scaliger obfcnred of the Romans—** Aliqm 
" autem^ inter quos Varro, etiam maligna crucnint omma c LdtimSj Gne^ 
•* cifque fuas origines invidere :" So have the French, in all former times, 
ihcwn a narrow jealoufy and envy towards Italy, its authors, and language : 
to which however they originally owe every thing valuable which diey pof- 
fcfs. From this fpirit Henri Efliene, De la freceUcncf du langage FroMfoisp 
(a book of ill-founded vanity, blind prejudice and partiality) aflerts that 
the Italians have taken — ^^ la bande des mots qu'on appcUe indeclinahles ; 
" commc font jiJveries, Cortjoniiions, icautres par ticules** from the French: 
and amongil others he mentions, /c, β non^ cbe, ma^ and Senza. But I 
fliall hereafter have occafion to Ihew clearly the injufticc of Henry Eftiene 
to the Italian language, when I come to compare the re(pe6bive advantages 
and difadvantages of the modem languages of Europe^ and whence they 
flow• In the mean time it may not perhaps be improper to offer a general 
rule, by which (when applicable) all etymological dilputants ought to be 
determined, whether fuch determination be favourable or adverle to their 
national vanity and prejudice. Viz. That where different languages ufe the 
iame or a fimilar particle^ that language ought to be confidered as its legi« 
timate parent, in which the true meaning of the word can be found, and 
w*here its ufe is as common and ^miliar as that of any other verbs and fub- 

A mo. c modem author (and therefore leis excufable) Bergier, Elemens 

;rimiiifs des Ungues, having firft abfurdly imagined what is contradidlcd by 

all experience, viz•-— ^* A mefure que les langues le ibnt eloignees de leur 

*< Source primidve, les mots ont re^u dc nouveaux accroiflemeots : plus elles 

a " OHt 



ebitml, vbem^e, zbemtHf cbetif, tbetreuU, cber^ cbenuy cbietty 
toucher^ 8(c. are coirupted from CawtBoy cafni/cia^ cammf 
oauivbi tmviuoA}, cam, canutOf tane^ toccarty Sec. 





tmt ttc colwccs phis cites fc font ailong6es. On ire teur a doimi de ragti* 
tticnx^ dc U cftdtfice, <le 1' hafrnioiiie qo'aox depcns de Icur inicvete :*'-4. 
Proceede to this confeqiiencc^ — ^^ Les Remains ne nous ont pas commuoi• 
*^ que les termes fimples^ les liaifons du difcours : la plupart de ce^ termes 
«* font pks tomrts *cn Fran9ois qu'e η LAtin, & les Gatdols ^tti fervoicrit 
«^ avant que de connoitre ricaKe <m fes babitanta/'^-'And iBien tolhew moit 
ftronigly the Tpirit which animates him (a ipvnx unworthy of letters and 
hoftile to the inveftigation of truth) adds — ^" Sommes nous fiiffifament in- 
ftruits^ lorfque nous avons appris de nos Etymologiftes^ que tel mot 
Fran(oiis eft emprunte du Latin^ tel autre du GreCj cehii-ci de fElpagnol, 
<^ celui-la do Teuton ou de TAllemand ? Mais les Latins bu les Allemands 
'^ dc qui I'ont ils resu ? Ne fenible-/-il pas que nos ayeux ne fubfiftoient 
** que des cmpmnts, tandiique les autreis peuples eftoient riches de leur 
" propre fbnds ? Je ne puis Jouffkir qu^vn n$us envoie mendkr aUleurs, tan- 
*' difquc nous Tavons chez nous." 

Perhaps rfiere was fomething of thfe jealoufy in Menage, when (not being 
able to agfee with Sylvius^ that chez Ihoukl bt written Sus or Sur) ht 
aflcrts.that — " chez vient de apud d'oii les Italiens ont fait apo, & les 
<* Elpagnols cabe en prepofant coiAme nous un c." 

Mr. dc Broffes however, fupcrbr to all little prejudices, fays— t" On voit 
•* bicn que chez eft unc traduftion de Γ Italien ca^a, & que quand on dit 
" CHEZ vous, c'eft comme fi Ton difoit casa voi (maison de Vous.) Et 
<< encore ce dernier mot eft plutot dans notre langue une adverh qu'unc 
*' pariicuU s ainfi que beaucoup d'autres dont Torigine dcvient plus facile a 
<' reconnoitre. Mais quand ce foot dc pures PartkaleSf il eft mal aisc de 
<' retrouver la premiere caufc dc leur formaaon 1 qui fans doute a ibuvent 

« etc 


/ If the ingenious Abbe Girard had known what' chez 
yeally was, he would not have faid {vrais principeSjOifc. 1 1.) 
^^ CHEZ a pour fon partage particulier une idee d'habitation^ 
*^ foit comma patrie, foit comme limple demeure domefti- 
" que.'' But he would have faid chez is merely a cor- 
ruption of CASA, and has all the fame meaning in French, 
which CASA has in Italian * : and that is fomething more 
than patrie or demeure domefiique^^ viz. — Racey Family^ 
Nation^ SeSfy &c^ [*^ Ancien patron de la case," fays 
M. de BuiTy Rabutin in his Memoirs. Tom. 2. pag. 17 5. J 
Neither again would he have faid — " II s'agit ici de la per- 

^' cte arbitrairc & precipitee : comme je I'ai remarque en parlant de pctites 
*' expreflions ^njoniiives, qui nc fervent qu'a former la liaifon du cHfcours." 
Formation meckanique des langues, Tom. Π. Chap. 14. Art. 254. 

The French Law Term Cbeziy which has cauied to that people fo much 
litigation, and to their lawyers fo much controverfy (and which fome of 
their authors would have written Che/ne, becaufe they fuppofed the land to 
have been formerly meafured with a Chain ; and others would have written 
cboise parce-que I'ainc cboi/it) is derived in like manner from casa, and 
means no more than what we in EngUfli call the Home-flcad or Ιίοηκ-βαΙΙ^ 
whofe extent is, of courfe, variable ; but ought in reafon to go with the houie. 

If therefore the French Etymologifts thus ftumbled at CHEZi, it is no 
wonder they knew not what to make of chez, whofe corruption had pro-r 
ceeded one ftep farther. 

* S. Johnfon (who was converfant with no languages, but Engliih, Latin, 
and Greek) under the word at, fays hardily, but not truly, that—" chez 
^« means fomctimes application to, or dependance on.'* 

c <^ million 


•^ miilion que Tufage a accordee a quelques prepofitions 
<^ d'en regir d'autres en certaines occafions : c'eft, a dire, '. 
^^ de les fouffrir dans les complemens dont elles indiquent 
<^ le rapport; comme — Je viens de chez vousP He 
would have feen through this grammatical myftery of one 
prepofition's governing another ; and would have faid, that 
DE may be prefixed to the Subfiantive chez (id eft, casa) in 
the fame manner as to any other fubftantive. For, — " Je 
*< viens De chez vous^ is no other than — Je viens de casa 
a vous : or (omitting the Segnacafo *) de casa vous ; or, 
■de CA vous +, 


* That this omifTion of the Segnacafo is not a ftrained fuppofition of my 
own, we have the authority of Henri Eftiene {De la precelL du lang. Fran. 

p. 178•) 

*' Qui la maijonjon voiftn ardoir voit, 
" De la fienne douter fe doit. 

*' Et faut noter— ώ maijonjon voijin'—t&rc did. a la ίαςοη anciennc r au 
** lieu de dire — la maijon DEjon voiftn'* 

So the Diftion. della Crufca— " casa. Nome dopo di cui vien lafciato 
'^ talvolta dagli autori per proprieta di linguagio, VAr'ticolo e WJegnacaJo. 

^' Sen' andarono a caja i prefiatori.*' Boccac. 

f " Pourquoy fi fouvent de Diffylables font ils (les Italiens) dcs mona^ ' 
*^ Jyllables-, de casa, ca, &c." H. Estiene. Delaprecell.- 

Didon. dclla Crufca.— ^' Ca, accorciato da casa." 



But thus it is that when Grammar comes at lengdi (iot" 
its apidication is always late) to. be applied to a language ; 
Tome loog preceding comuption caufes^ a difficulty : igno» 
ranee of Uk^ corru|^D gives rife to fi>me ingenious fyftem 
to. account for thefe words: which are conlidered as original: 
and npt corrupted. Succeeding ingenuity and heaps of 
mifplaced learning increafe the difficulty^ and make the 
error more obftinat^ if not incurable» 

Do you acknowledge the prepoiition to be an indeclinable 



tlunk it has a mear 


So Menage•^— *^ Fermato Tufo di quefio troncamtnto di cApcr casa> 
•^^ familiare a noftri ^nuchl^^ara^JimiU αΙΓ wmojavioy il quale, eiifica la c a 
^^ Jua Japra la pietra. Vangcl di San mattco volgare. — Vinegia, tu^ quoH 
^ t^fi ^^ CA ^ v^^ ^ CA8A•" Silvano Rozzi. Many other inibiACCs 
art alfa givcnifroxQ^PMiCf J Bof cacio. Gioran ViUanu Franco SacKctCf» &c• 

H. Yes 

> - 



Yes moft certainly. And indeed, if prepofitions had 
no proper meaning of their own, why feveral unmeaning 
prepofitions * ; when one alone muft have anfwered the 
purpofe equally ? The cypher, which has no value of itfelf, 
and only ferves (if I may ufe the language of Gramma- 
rians) to connote and confignify^ and to change the value of 
the figures, is not feveral and various, but uniformly one 
and the fame. 


I guefled as much whilft you were talking of Con- 
junctions ; and fuppofed that you intended to account for 
them both in the fame manner +. 

H. You' 

* Speaking of Prepofitions, Cour de Gebelin fays. Gram. Univerf. page 
238. " Mais comment des mots pareils qui fcmblent he rien peindre, ne 
*' rien dire, dont lOrigine eft inconnuc, & qui ne tiennent en apparcnce a 
*' aucune families peuvent ils amener Tharmonie & la clarte dans les • 
*' tableaux de la parole & devenir fi neceffaires, que fans euxle langage 
" n'ofiriroit que des pcintures imparfaites ? Comment ces mots peuvent ils 
" produire de fi grands effcts-& repandre dans Ic difcours tant de chaleur, 
'' tant de fincfle ?" 

"t"* In a Letter to Mr. Dunning, publiflied in the year 1778, I aflcrted in - 
a. note (page 23) that — ** There is not> nor is it poflible there fliould be, . 
" a word in any language, which has not a compleat meaning and fignifi- 

R r " cation 


You were not miftaken, Sir. For though Voflius and 
others have concurred with the cenfure which Prifcian 
paffes on the Stoics for cluiEng Prepofitions and Conjunc- 
tions, Sec. together under one head; yet in truth they are 
both to be accounted for in the fame way. 

«^ cation even when taken by itlclf. AdjelliveSy Prepofitions , Adverbs, 6cc. 
^' have all compleat, feparate meanings, not difficult to be difcovcrcd." 

Having in that letter explained the un-meaning conjunilions, with which 
alone I had at that time any perjonal concern j and not forefeeing that the 
equally unmeaning Prepofitions were afterwards by a folemn deciflop {but 
without explanation^ to be determined more certain than certainty \ I was 
contented by that note to fet other perfons who might be more capable and 
more at leifure than myfelf, upon an enquiry into the fubjeft : being very 
indifferent from whofe hand the explanation might come to the public. I 
muft acknowledge myfelf a little difappointed, that in eight years time, no 
perfon whatever has purfued the inquiry ; although the fuccefs I had had with 
the Conjunftions might reafonably have encouraged, as it much facilitated, 
the fearch. But though all men (as far as I can learn) have admitted my 
particular proofs concerning the Conjunftions, none have been inclined (as 
I wiihed they might be) to puih the principle of my reafoning farther, and 
apply it to the other Particles. The ingenious author of EJfays Hifiorical and 
Moral, publifhed in 1785, fays, (page 125) — ** Poflibly Prepofitions ^txt, 
*^ at firft, Ihort interjedional words, fuch as our carters and ihepherds make 
*' ufe of to their catde, to denote the relations of place. Or perhaps a 
** more ikilful Linguift and antiquarian may be able to trace them from 
^' other words, as the Conjunctions have been traced by the author above 
*' mentioned/* — It is therefore manifeft, that the principle of my reafoning 
was either not fufficiently opened by me, or has not taken fufficicnt hold of 
the minds of others 5 and that it is neceflary ftill ferther to apply it to the 
other Particles. 




The Prepofidoiis as well as the Conjundlions are to be 
found amongil the other Parts of Speech. The fame fort 
of corruption, from the fame caufe, has diiguifed both : 
and ignorance of their true origin has betrayed Gramma* 
rians aijd Philofophers into the myfterious and contra- 
diftory language which they have held concerning them. 
And it is really entertaining, to obferve the various ihifts 
ufed by thofe who were too fliarp-witted and too ingenuous 


to repeat the unfatisfaotory accounts of thefe Prepoiitions, 
handed down by others ; and yet not ingenuous enough to 
acknowledge their own total ignorance on the fubjeft. 

The Grammarian fays, it is none of his bufinefs ; but 
that it belongs to the philofopher: and for that reafon 
only he omits giving an account of them. Whilfl: the 
Philofopher avails himfelf of his dignity ; and, when he 
meets with a ftubbom difficulty which he cannot unravel, 
{and only tben)^ difdains to be employed about JVords: 
although they are the neceflary channel through which his 
moll precious liquors muft flow. 

" Grammatico fatis eft, fays Sandtius, ii tres has partes 
<^ pofteriores (fcil. Adverbiaj PrapoJtioneSy Conjun£lion£Si 
<< vocet Partkulas indecUnabiles \ & functus erit officio 
^ perfedli grammatici. — Significationes enumerare, .magis 

R Γ 2 "- Philofophi 


<< Philofophi eft quam Grammatici: quia grammatici 
<* munus non efl:, tefte Varrone, vocum iignificationes in- 
« dagcre, fed earum iiTum. Propterea nos in arte haec 
<* praetermiffimus.*' 

Mr. Locke complains of the negleft of others in this 
particular ; denies it to be his bufinefs " to examine them 
<* in their full latitude :" and declares that he " intends 
<* not here, a full explication of them.** Like Scaliger— 
Non in ammo ββ, — And this ferves him as an apology for 
not examining them at all in any latitude ; and for giving 
tno explication of them whatever in any place. 

The Author of the Port Royal philofophical grammar, 
faves himfelf by an Almqft» " Ce font prefque les memes 
« rapports dans toutes les langues, qui font marquee par 
" les Prepoiitions.** And therefore he will content him- 
felf to mention fome of the principal French PrepofitionS) 
without obliging himfelf to fix their exadl number. -And 
as Sandlius had his reafon for turning the bufinefs over to 
a philofophical grammar, whilft he was treating of a par^ 
ticular language : fo this author, who was writing a general 
grammar, had his reafon for leaving it to thofe who wrote 
particular grammars. — " C*eft pourquoi je me contenterai 

« de 


*^ de rapporter ici les principaux de ceux qui font marques 

" par les prepoiitions de la Langue Fran9oife; fans 

*^ m'obliger a en faire un denombrement exadt, comme il 

" feroit neceffaire pour une Grammaire particuliere.^ 

M. L'Abbe de Condillac's method is moft conveniently 
cavalier, and perfedlly adapted to a writer of his defcrip- 
tion. — " Je me bornerai a vous en donner quelques 
" exemples : car vous jugez bien^ Monfeigneur, que je ne 
^^ me propofe pas d^analyfer les acceptions de toutes les pre- 
^^ pofitions." And again, concludes — " En voila ailez, 
^^ Monfeigneur * Γ 

Even the learned Prefident de BroiTes, in his excellent 
treatife De la formation mechanique des Langues, is com- 
pelled to evade the inquiry. <* L'accroiflement en tete 
*^ des mots y amene une quantite fort variee d'idecs ac- 
^^ ceflbires. C'efl: un eflfet commun des Prepoiitions ; qui 

* In the fame manner he (kips over all forts of difficulty with the Con- 

^' Mais, Monfeigneur, il eft inutile de faire I'enumcration dc toutes les 
" conjonftions.•' — « Je ne crois pas,• Monfcigneur, qu'il y ait rien de plus 
*' a remarquer fur les conjonftions." 

Partie Π. Chap. 23. 

^ pourroit 


** pourroit fournir la matiere d'un chapitre tres-philofo- 

<^ phique fur leurs caufes, leurs racines, leur force, leur 

*^ efFet, leurs fignifications, leur varietes• Je ne ferai que 

<^ toucher cette matiere en fort peu de mots dans un 

*^ exemple que je donnerai, & Jeulement pour mettre fur 

^< les voies^ 

Tom. XL Chap. ii. Art. 198. 

The laborious and judicious R. Johnfon^ includes in one 
page of his National Grammar all that he has to offer on 
the Aaoerb^ ConjunSlion^ and Prepoftion : and concludes 
with faying — " And here, if I would ihew the reader the 
<^ defedlivenefs of this Grammar (Lilly's) in the account 
^* it gives of the ufe of the Prepolitions, it would make a ^ 
** little volume. 

Sed nos immenfum Ipario confccimus aequor, 
Et j^un tcmpus £quum flimanria folvcre colla *." 

Our countryman Wilkins, who is fairer and more intel- 
ligent than any of them, does not deny that it falls pro- 

♦ And in his Noiies Nottingbamica he fays — " Praepofitionum Con- 
•' ftniftii 

** We are come now to the moil curious part of all grammar, and 
•' which, if it were truly ftated, would at once inftruft, and entertain the 
'^ reader with a furprizing delight/* 

And there he leaves it. 



perly within his province ; but faves himfelf by feleSling 
fuch as he conceives fufficient. Speaking of Particles, he 
fays, (Part 3. Chap. 2.) — ^^ The words of this kind are 
" exceeding numerous and equivocal in all languages, and 
^^ add much to the difficulty of learning them. It being 
" a very hard matter to eftablilh the juft number of fuch 
" as in all kinds are neceflary *, and to fix to them their 
^^ proper fignifications : which yet ought to he done in a 
^^ pbilof optical grammar. I fliall in this Έ,ΰζ^ /βίβδί out of 
^ inftituted languages, fuch of the feveral forts as I con- 
^* ceive fufficient for this purpofe." 

The learned Alexander Gil employs the denomination 
Confgni^cativa ; which is more comprehenfive than Par^ 
ticky but not more explanatory. 


^^ Vox confignificativa Articulos comprehendit, Adverbia 
" item, ConjunBi07tes^ Prapofitiones^ Interjeotiones. Et quia 
^^ in his invariabilibus nibil difficultatis eft, praeter ipfam 

* No wonder tliat Wilkins found it fo hard to fix the number which was 
neceflary, fince their number in every language depends merely upon how 
many of die moft common words (hall become obfolete or corrupted. This 
being mere matter of particular faft and of accident, can have no place in 
general or philofophical grammar. 

3 ^* vocum 

^^Λ.•ΛΛ . 


^^ vocum cognitionem, clafles enim eaedem funt, ut ufns 
" idem qui Latinoe, et aliis unguis, ad Lexicograpbos 
^ harum rerum ftudiofum ledlorem ablegabo.'' 

Logonomia Anglic a. Pag. 67, 68. 

Dodor Wallis, after Gil's example, fays—" Adverbia 
" eandem fortiuntur natnram apud nos quam apud Latinos, 
** aliafque gentes. Conjunftiones item eundem habent 
<* ufum quem apud Latinos, aliofque. Praepofitibnes 
" etiam eandem fortiuntur 'haturam, quam aliis Unguis• 
" Si quis tamen harum aliquot voces potius adverbia efle 
^^ dicat ; aut etiam ex adverbiis aliquot ad conjunotionum 
^^ claflem referre malit : non tanti eft ut hac de re quis 
^^ contendat ; cum, & apud Latinos, eadem non raro vox 
^^ nunc pro adverbio, nunc pro conjundtione cenfenda eft. 
^^ Neque aliquod grave detrimentum pateremur, ii tam ad• 
^• verbia quam conjunoliones &: interjeoliones, ad eandem 
^* claflem redigerentur. Εβ quidem nonnibil difcriminisy 
" fed leviufculum^ Cap. xiii. 

Greenwood raihly ventures a little farther than any other 
perfon ; and upon Mr. Locke's authority, acknowledging 
it to be his duty to do what other grammarians had 
negleded, fays — 

« I 


defired to be excufed from giving a fatisfaotory account 


But why not concur with M. M. de Port Royal, and the 
Prefident de Brofles ? They are free from the contradidlion 
and inconfiftency of Mr. Harris's account of the Prepoii- 
tions. For they acknowledge them to have a fignification. 
— " On a eu rccours, fay the fornier, dans toutes les 
" langues a une autre invention ; qui a ete aUnventer de 
^^ petits mots pour etre mis avant les noms ; ce qui les a 
^^ fait appeller Prepoiitions.'' 

And M. de Brofles, w^ith great ingenuoufnefs tells U5, 
(Traite de la formation mechanique des langues, Tom. 2. 
Chap• XI. Art. 198.) — " Chacune des Prepofitions a fon 
" fens propre, mais qu'on applique a beaucoup d'autres 
*^ fens par extenfion &: par approximation. Elles font des 
" formules abregees, dont I'ufage eft le plus frappant & le 
^^ plus commode dans toutes les langues pour circonftancicr 
" les idees: elle font d'elles-memes Racines primitives; 
^^ maisyV ffaipas trouve quHl fut pqiftble d'affigner la caufe 
" de leur origine : tellement que j'en crois la formation 
^ purement arbitraire. Je penfe de m^me des Particules, 
" des Articles, des Pronoms, des Relatifs, des Conjonftions ; 

« en 


" en νώ ttiot, de tous les monofyllabes ii frequens qu'on 
** empldfe pour lier les paroles d'un difcoiirs, en former 
" line phrafe conftruite, 8c liii donner un fens determine 
" pour ceux qui I'entendent. Car ce n'eft qu'en faveur de 
" ceux qui ecoutent qu'on introduit cet appareil de tant de 
*' conjon^ons. Un homme feul au monde ne parleroit 
•* qwe peu bu point, η n'auroit befoin d*aucune de ces 
<( lx)njon<%ions pour former fa phrafe mentale. Les feuls 
" teirnies principaux lui fuffiroient; parcequ'il en a dans 
«*, -refptit la perception circonftanci^e, & qu*il fςait aflez 
*• Tous qiid afpedt il les emploie. II n'en eft pas de iaci6me, 
** 10ifqu*il faut exprimer la phrafe au dehors• Un tas de 
" mots ifoles nc feront non plus une phrafe pour l*audi- 
« teurj qu*un tas de pierres toutes taillees ne ieroient une 
*• niaiibh, fi On ne les arrangeoit dans leur ordre» 8c ii on 
<* ne les lioit pas du fable 8c de la chaux. L'appret de 
** cette efpece eft tres-prcfle pour un homme qui veut fe 
*' faire entendre. • Cependant la nature^ les- images^ I'imi- 
** tation, I'onomatopee, tout lui manque id : car il n*eft pas 
" ^ueftion de peindre 8c de nommer aucun obJetreel\ mais 
" feulement de donner 4 entendre de petites combinaifons 
" mentales, abflraites^ ^ Vagues» Alors ITiomme aura.ufe 
" pour conjon<Stions des premiers forts brefs ^ vagues qui 
" lui venoient k la bouche. L'habitude en aura bientot 

S s 2 « fait 


<< fait connoitre la force 8c Temploi. Ces petits ug^es de 

« liaibn font reiles en grand nomhre cians chaque langu^ 

^ ou Voa pent ks coniiderer ccHnme fons radicaux ; ic Us 

<* y ont ea eflfet leurs derives.* 

And again (Art. 254.) '^ J'ai fait voir annl^ien il etoit 
<< difficile de trouver le premier germe radical dee ΡμΠί'^ 
5* cules conjon£tives du difcoors. Leur examen m*a £aic 
« pencher a croire qu'dles etoient poor 2a plupart «r^/- 
" tr aires ; & que le prcanpt & prodigieux beibia qa'on :ei» 
** a pour s^oncer, ayant force les jhommes de chaque 
^ pays ^ prendre le premier monofyllabe ou gefte vocat 
« indetermine qui lui venoit έ la bouche dans le belbin 
^ preffanty uufage rettere en avoit detenuine l*ha|]^de 
^ iigniiicatitre. II η*φίΙ guέre plus aife d'!affigner la pre• 
*< miere origine de PrepofiHons^ quoiqu'un peu plus com• 
** pofees que les dimples particules conjonoUves.** 

And again (Art. 274.) ** On auroit a parler auffi de 1» 
*^ caufe des diiferentes terminailbns dans les langues> de la 
** iigniiication des prepoiitions» de leur variete a cet egard t 
^ car les memes ont plufieurs fens tr^s-difierents. G*eik 
** une matiere extremement vafte & tr^s-phik>ibphi(j|,ue.'*^ 


H. Meffieiu?» 




Meffieuirs de Port-Royal and M. de Brolles deferve for 
ever to be mentioned with refpeft and gratitude ; but, upon 
this occaiion, I muft anfwer them in the words of Mer. 
Caiaubon {de lingua Hebraica)—-** Perfuadeant fortaile 
** iDis; qui de verbis fingulis, etiam ' vul^tiffimis, έ phi- 
" lofophis, priufquam imponerebturj itum in cohiilium 
" cedunt. Nos, qui de verborum origine longe aliter 
** opinamur, pIanέ pro fabula habemus.** 

Language, it is true, is an Art, and a glorious one* 
whofe influence extends over all the others, and in which 
finally all fcience whatever muft centre. But an art 
fpringing from neceffity, and originally invented by artleis 
men ; who did not fit down like philofophers to invent 
« de petit s mots pour etre mis avant les noms f nor yet did 
they take for this purpole ** des premiers Jons brefs & 
" vagues qui leur venoient a la boucbe * ; but they took 

• fuch 

* It will feem the more extraordinary that M. de Brofles ihould entertaia 
this opinion of the Partichs, when we remember what he triily fays of 
Proper names.-^^^ Tous les. mots fbrmant les noms propres ou' appdlacifs 
^ des perfonnes, ont en quelque langagc que ce foit, ainH que les mots for- 
^^ mancs les noms des. choies, une origine certaine,. une fignification deter- 
" minee, une etymologic veritable. lis n'ont pas, plus que les autres mots^ 
^ cte impofes fans caufe, ni fabriqucs au hafard, feulement pour pEoduirc 

" ua 

-3x8 OF 4>REP0SITI0NS. 

fuch and the fame (whether great or fmall, whether mono- 
fyllable or polyfyjlable, without diftin^ion) as they em- 
plo;yed upon otlier occafions to mention the fame real ob- 
je&s. For Prepojitions alib are the names of real objedlt. 
And thefe petit s mots y happen in this cafe to be fp, merely 
from their repeatecj . corruption, owing to their frequentt 
longHContinued, and perpetual ufe. 



You aflert then that what we call Prepofittons-i and 
diftinguiih as a feparate part of .ipeech, are not a fpedes 

• ■ 

of words eflehtially or in any manner different from the 

• . . . » . 

other parts : that they , are not " little words invented to 

< ■ ■ • • • 

^^ put before nouns ^ and to which all languages have bad re- 
^* courfe :^ but that they are in faft either Nouns or Verbs. 
And that (like theConjundions) Prepofitions are only words 
which have been diiguifed by corruption ; and that Ety- 
mology will give us in all languages, what Philofophy has 
attempted in vain. And yet I cannot but perceive that 
fuch words as Prepofitions, are abfolutely necelTary to dif- 

-~ ■*^ - ^ - - - - - - - - ^ ■ ■ ] - — 1 — * ' ' 

" uti bruit vague. Ccpendant commc la plupart dc ccs mots nc portent ί 
" Toreille dc ceux qui les cntendcnt aucune autre fignification que dc dc- 
figner les perfonnes nommees ; c'eft fur tout a leur cgard que Ic vulgairc 
eft portc a croire qu'ils font dcnucs dc fens & d'ctymologic.'* 

2 ' H. I 






I acknowledge them to be undoubtedly neceflaryk For, 
as the neceflity of the Article (or of fome equivalent in- 
vention) follows from the impoflibility of having in lap- 
guage a diftindt name or particular term for each particular 
individual idea * ; fo does the neceflity of the PrepqGtion 
(or of fome equivalent invention) follow from the impof- 
iibility of having in language a dillindt complex term for 
each different colleBion of ideas which we may havje qccaljon 
to put together in difcourfe. The addition or iubtraiStion 
of any one idea to or from a colledlion, makes> it α difierjBnt 
colledtion : and (if there were degrees of impoflibility) it 
is flill more impofliible to ufe in language a different and 
diftincil complex term for each different and diftindk aoik&ion 
of ideas ^ than it is to ufe a difl:in6t particular tef'mioi^, ^^jacji; 
particular and individual idea. To fupply, therefore, tjji,ei 
place of the complex terms which are wanting in a l9^gviagi(?t) 
is the Prepoiition employed. By whofe aid complex terms 
are prevented from being infinite or too numerous, and/are 
ufed only for thofe coUeftions of ideas which we have iQoil 
frequently occafion to mention in difcourfe. And tjii^ en^ii.' 
is obtained in the mofl: fimple manner in the world. Yf^ 
having occafion in communication to mention a ςοΙ^Λιρμ 

• Sec before, Chap. V. 



of ideasy for which there is no one iingle complex term in 
the language» we either take that complex term which in- 
cludes iht greateft number, though not Ally of the ideas 
we would communicate ; or elfe we take that complex term 
which includes jUI^ and the feweft ideas more than thofe 
we would communicate : and then by the help of the Pre• 
poiition^ we either make up the> deficiency in the one cafe, 
or Intrench the ftiperfluity in the other. 


For iofi^ancey 

ii'^yu A i^afe WITH a Party-waff,^ 

i- \t, -^i A Houfe WITHOUT a roof^ 

J • ^ « • . 

FirqpiofiHon dii 
itt^Eance, ' the < 
diitiiais to^tiike 

} . 

iNOw confidering it only in this, the ijioft iimple light, 
it' is' abfolutely neceflary, in either cafe, that the Prepofi-, 
tioti itfelf Ihoi^d have a meaning of its own : for how 
cbUid we otherwife make known by it our intention, 
Whether of adding to or retrenching from, fJie deficient or 
redundant complex term we have employed ? 

4 If 


If to one of our modern grammarians, I (hould fay— — 
<* A Houfe, Join ;" — He would aik me — ** Join what f"— 
But he would not contend that Join is an indeclinable 
word, and has no meaning of its own : becaufe he knows 
that it is the Imperative of the Verb, the other parts of 
which are ftill in ufe ; and its own meaning is clear to 
him, though the fentence is not compleated. If, inftead 
of Join, I Ihould fay to him,—" j1 Houfe with ;" — he 
would ftill aik the fame queftion, <* With what t* But if 
I (hould difcourfe with him concerning the word with, he 
would tell me that it was a Prepq/itiony an indeclinable word, 
and that it had no meaning of its own, but only a conno^ 
tation or conftgnification. And yet it would be evident by 
his queftion, that he felt it had a meaning of its own ; 
which is indeed the fame as join *. And the only dif- 


* With is alfo fomcrimcs the Imperative of pyjiiSan. To he. Mr. 
Tyrwhit, in his Gloflary {Art. but) has obfervcd truly, that — ** by and 
*' WITH arc often fynonimous."-^They arc always fo, when with is the 
** Imperative of pyjiBan : for by is the Imperative of Been. * To ie. 

He has alfo in his Gloflary {Art. with) faid tnily, that — " With 
mefcbance. With mijaventure. yfnujorwe. 5316. 7797. 6916. 4410. 
5890. 5922. arc to be confidered as parenthetical curfes•"— For the 
literal meaning of thofe phfafes, is (not God yeve^ but) — be mijchance^ be 
mijadventurey i^zJorroWy to him or them concerning whom thefe words' are 
fpoken. But Mr• Tyrwhit is miftaken, when he fuppofcs — " with evil 
f^ prefe. 5829. with horde grace. 7810. with /ory grace. 128 10." — to 

Τ t have 



ference between the two words with and join, is, that 
the other parts of the verb \^ιφ^Η9 pi^an, to Join (of which 
WITH is the imperative) have ceafed to be employed in the 
language •'*. So that my inilances ftand thus^ 

I . ji Hou/e 

have the fame meaning : for in thofe three inilances, with is the Imperative 
of νίΦΛΜ ; nor is any parenthetical curfe or wilh contained in either of 
thole inilances. 

As WITH means join, fo the corrclondent French Prepofition, avec, 
means — jind Have that^ or Have that alfo. And it was formerly written 
Avecque^ i. e. Avezque. So Boileau, Satire i• 


Quittons done pour jamais une ville importune : 
Ou rhonneur eft en guerre avecque la fortune.'* 

And again. Satire 5. 

" Mais qui m'aflurera, qu'en ce long* cercle d'ans, 

** Κ leurs fameux cpoux vos ayeulcs ndelles 

*^ Aux douceurs des galands furent toujours rebelles ? 

*' Et comment f?avez-vous, fi quelqu' audacieux 

" N'a point intcrrompu le cours de vos aycux ? 

'^ Et fi leur fang tout pur avecque leur nobleffe, 
*' Eft pafle jufqu* a vous dc Lucrecc en Lucrecc.'* 

* We ftill retain in Englilh ipeech, though not often ufed in books, the 
fubftantivcs With or Withe, Withers, and Wither-band. 

" Me thou ihalt ufe in what thou wilt, and doe that with a flender twift, 
" that none can doc with a tough With/' 

Eufbues and bis England. Pag. 136. 

" They 


1. A Houfe Join a Party-wall. 
a. A Houfe Be-out a roof. 

And indeed fo far has always been plainly perceived, 
that WITH and without are diredtly oppofite and contra-* 
diftory. Wilkins, without knowing what the words really 
were, has yet well exprefled their meaning, where he fays 
that WITH is a prepofition — ^^ relating to the notion of 
" f octal ov circumftance of fociety affirmed \ and that with- 
*^ OUT is a prepofition relating to the fame notion οι f octal ^ 
^^ or circumftance of fooiety denied^ 

■ I I . I ■ I I I ■ I ■ ■ .1 III I I ■ ■ ■ . II II ■ t 


" They had arms under the ftraw in the boat \ and had cut the Withes 
'^ that held the oars of the town-boats> to prevent any purfuit, if they 
*^ ihould be forced to fly." Ludlow^ s Memoirs. Pag. 435. 

And again, pag* 437. " One of the four watermen was the pcrfon who 
'* cut the Withes of all the town-boats, to prevent them from purfuing•" 

" This troublefom rowing, though an ingenious invention of the Chinefes, 
" hath raifed this proverb amongft them, that their boats are paper^ and 
** their watermen iron i becaufe they are made of very thin boards, like our 
«^ flit deal, which are not nailedj but fattened together with Withs, in the 
** Chinefe tongue called rotang ; by which means the boats, though often 
«^ beaten by the ftrong current againft the rocks, fplit not, but bend and 
*' give way." Hifiory of China. By lohn Ogilby. Vol. 2. pag. 609. 

'* The only forniture belonging to the houies, appears to be an oblong 
^* veffcl made of bark, by tying up the ends with a Withe.'* 

Captain Cook's dejcription of Botany Bay. 

Τ t 2 And 


And it would puzzle the wifeft philofopher to difcover 
oppofition and contradidtion in two words, where neither 
of them had any iignification• 


According then to your explanation, the Prepoiition 
WITHOUT, is the very fanae word, and has the very fame 
meaning as the Conjunolion without. Does not this in 
fome meafure contradidl what you before aflerted, con- 
cerning the faith fulnefs of words to the ftandard under 
which they were originally enlifted ? For there does not 
appear in this cafe to be any melting down of two words 
into one, by fuch a corruption as you before noticed in 
fome of the Conjun£lions. And yet here is one and the 
fame word ufed both as a Conjundtion and as a Prepoiition. 


There is nothing at all extraordinary, much lefs contra- 
didtory in this ; that one and the fame word fliould be ap- 
plied indifferently either to iingle words or to fentences : 
{for you muft obferve that the apparently different applica^ 
tion conftitutes the only difference between Conjundtions 
and Prepofltions) : For I may very well employ the fame 
word of diredtion, whether it be to add a word or to add 
^Jentence : And again, one and the fame word of diredlion 



of the ConjunBion without. And this, I take it, is the 
reafon why but has been retained as a Conjunolion, and 
WITHOUT has been retained as a Prepoiition. 

Not however that they have been able fo to banifli the 
old habit of our language, as that but ihould always be 
iifed as a ConjuncStion, and without always as a Prepo- 
iition. (I mean that but fliould always apparently be ap- 
plied to fentencesy and without always to words \ for that> 
it muft be remembered, is the only difference between 
Conjundtions and Prepoiitions) : for but is ftill ufed fre- 
quently as a Prepq/ttion : though Grammarians, forgetful 
or heedlefs of their own Definitions, are pleafed to call it 
always a Conjundtion ; 

As thus, " ji/I but orteJ^ 

And, though it is not mw an approved ufage, it is very 
frequent in common fpeech to hear without ufed as a 
conjundlion ; where, inftead of without, a correct modem 
fpeaker would ufe unless, or ibme other equivalent 
acknowledged conjundlion : and that for no other reafon, 
but becaufe it has pleafed our Grammarians to exclude 
without from the number ef conjunolions. 

B. And 



And is npt that reafon fufficient, when the beft writers 
have for a long time pail cx)n formed to this arrangement? 


Undoubtedly. Nor do I mean to cenfure thofe who 
follow cuftom for the propriety of a particular language • 
I do not even mean to condemn the cuftom : for in this 
inftance it is perfectly harmlefs. But I condemn the falf« 
philofophy which caufed it. I condemn thofe who wilfully 
ihut their eyes, and aflfedl not to perceive the indiflferent 
application of but, and, since, if, ejlse. Sec. both to words 
and to fentences ; and ftill endeavour by their definitions to 
uphold a diftindlion which they know does not exift even 
in the pradlice of any language, and which they ought to 
know cannot exift in theory. 

To the pedagogue indeed, who muft not trouble children 
about the corruption of words, the diftinotion of prepo- 
fitions and conjundtions may be ufeful enough (on account 
of the cafes which they govern when applied to words ; 
and which they cannot govern when applied to Sentences^ ; 
and for fome fuch reafon perhaps, both this and many 
other diftindions were at firft introduced. Nor would they 
have caufed any mifchief or confufion, if the pbilojopber 

2 had 


had not adopted thcfe diftindions ; taken them for real 
differences in nature^ or in the operations of the human 
/nind; and then attempted to account for what he did not 
underftand. And thus the Grammatifi has mifled the 
Grammarian, and both of them the Philofopher. 


*' Sans eyes, sans teeth, sans tafte, sans every thing." 

This prepoiition too, which was formerly ufed inftead 
of WITHOUT, you mean, I fuppofe, to account for in the 
fame manner : It can be ihewn, I fuppofe, to be the Im- 
perative of fome obfolete Saxon verb, having a iimilaf 


Sans, though fometimes ufed inftead of without, is 

not an Englifti but a French Prepoiition, and therefore to 

be derived from another fource. 

*' Et je conferverai, malgrc votre menace, 

" Une ame Sans courroux. Sans crainte, ct Sans audace." 


Nor is it a verh^ but tl fubflantive : and it means fimply 
Abfence. It is one proof, amongft many others, that Plu- 
larch's half-conjedture was not ill-founded. After all, he 
thinks it may be worth coniidering, whether the Prepo- 
iition s 


it thus ; Senza <// te, i. e. Assemza d$ U» The French 
(as we -have feen in Chez) omit the Segnacafoy and fay 
Sans toL And as from the ItaUan Aflenza they have their 
Abfence ; or, as they pronounce it, Abiance or Abfans ; < ib 
have they their prepofition Sans from Senza or Sanza. 
But I perfuade myfelf that you can have no doubt of the 
meaning of this prepofition Sans, when you find the iig- 
nification of its correfpondent words equally clear in other 

The Greek |>repofition x«pif, is the corrupted Imperative 
of Χωριξίΐν, to fevef) to disjoin» to feparate. 

The German prepofition Sonder, the imperative of 
Sondertiy which has the fame meaning as Χώριζαν. 

The Dutch prepofition Zondek^ the imperative of Zon- 
deren> with the fame meaning. 

The Latin prepofition Sine, i. e. Sit ne. Be not. 

If that there be no lawe in londe ? 

This ought a kynge weU underftonde^ 

As he -whiche is to lawe fwore. 

That if the lawe be forclore 

WithoutcQ caMCucion^ 

It sxud^eth a londe tume vp so downs/* » 

GwHr. JJh. 7• FqI. 159• Tai. i. CoU i• 

A The 

^ I 

From the 
Latin Forts %, 


The Spaniih Sifh from the Latin Sine* 

The Italian Fuori 

The Spaniih 4^^''<» (.^^Puerta from Porta) 
The French Hors * (by their old authors 
written Fors +) 

> • 

* Menage^ CamUamenH deUe Latin ^ page 8» exemplifies Hors ufed by 
the French ibr Vms. 

t " Toute la troupe itch low endormie^ 

Fors le galant qui trembkut pour fa vie/' 

OmUs de la Fontaine. Le Muktier. 

" Elle etoit jeune et bcUc qretture, 

Plaifoit beaucoup^ Fors un point qd gitoit 

Toute Γ afi^re^ et qui feul rebutoit 

Les. plus ardens ; c*eft qu*elle 6toit avare." 

Cmtes de la Feniaine. Le Galant Efcrca 

Brantome^ Oes Dames iUufires^ cites an accounc of the funeral of Queen 
Anne of Bretagne— '^ Ne fiirent ί Γ ofl9:ande Fors Monfieur d'Angoulelmc•^' 
And again— -^^ La reyne fut en colore de ce que tout ce grand convoy 
^* n' avoit pafse outre^ ainii qu'elle attendoit^ Fors Monfieur ion fils^ et 
*' le roy de Navarre." 

J The Greek θυρ» became the Doric Φβρ» and the tatin Foray whence 
FereSy Forts, whence the Italian Fuora, Fuore, Fuori, and the French Fors ; 
which, in the prepofitive and conjunilhe ufe of it, the French have latterly 
changed to ibrs : but they have not fo changed it when in compofition* 
They iay indeed Fatixkourg corruptly for For/bourg, as it was anciently 
written by Froiflkrt and others j ['^ La Bourg de Four n'eftoit .ancienncr 
" mcnt qu'un Fauxbourg qu'on appelloit en Savoyard Bourg de Feur, c*eft 

U u 2 a dire. 


Whence Hormis, i. e. (put oyt) by the addition of the 
participle of mettre» 


If there wert no• other relations declared by the prepo- 
iltionsy befides thofe of adding or taking away^ perhaps- 
this explanation might convince me ;. but there are affuredly 
Prepofitions employed for very different purpofes. And 
inftead of felefting fuch inftances as may happen to be 
fuited particularly to your own hypothefis,. I ihould have 
more fatisfa^tion if you would exempUfy in thofe which: 
Mr. Harris has employed to iQtiftrate his hyx)Otheiis.. 


^^ From thefe principles'^ (he fays, Boak Π. Chap. 3.)» 
^* it follows, that when we form a fentence, the fubftan- 
" tive without difficulty coincides with the verb, from the 

" idirc, BouTjg^ dc Dehors.*' Hiftoire de la viUe de Geneve par Jacob 
Spon i who gives us likcwife from their Archives the tranflation of it into 
Burgi Forts. For the fame reafon, I fuppofe a part of die town of Reading, . 
in Berkihire,. is called The Forbery,] but in their compounds the French 

retain For : " CorWcu, je luy paflerois mon epce au tmvers du corps, 

'^ a elle et au galant, fi elle avoit Forfait a fon hooneur/' 

George Dandin. AjSt i. Sec. 4., 

From the French we have many Englifli words preceded by Far with tlris 
Rieating j as, Forfeit ^ Foreclofe, &c, and we had anciently many more. 

9 ** natural 


* natural, eoincidence of fubilance and energy. — The Sun 
^ warmetb.^ — So likewife the energy with- the fubjedt on 
^ whieh it operates. — Warmetb the earth. — So likewife 
^ both fubftancc and energy with their proper attributes. 
^^ — The fplendid fun genially warmetb the fertile earth. --^ 
^ But fuppofe we were defirous to add other fubitantives;. 
^^ as for inllance, jiiry, or Beams ζ How would thefe coin- 
^ cide, or under what charadler could th^y be introduced ? 
** Not as Nominatives or Aecufatives, for both thofe places> 
^ are already filled; the Nominative,, by the fubftance 
" Sun ; the Accufative by the fubftance Earths Not* as 
^^ Attributes to thefe laft, or to any other thing :. for at- 
^ tributes by nature, they neither are nor can be made. 
" Here then we perceive the rife and ufe of pre^qfitions. 
<* By thefe we connedt thofe fubftantives to fentences^, 
<^ which at the time are unable to coalefce of themfelves. 
^^ Let us affume for inftance a pair of thefe connectives, 
** thro' and with, and mark their effedt upon the fub- 
^^ ftances here mentioned. The fplendid fun with his 
^ beams genially warmetb thro' the ain the fertile eurtb.^ — 
^* The fentence as before remains intire and. one;, the 
^ fubftantives required are both introduced ; and not a. 
^ word which was there before, . is detruded from, its 
^ proper place.'• 




The firft of this pair of his omneftives (with) you 
have already explained, and I am willing to admit the 
explanation. It is, — The fplendid fun join bis beams^^ 
inftead of one iingle complex term including Sun and 

But of what real ohjeS is through the name ? 


Of a very common one indeed *. For as the French 
peculiar prepoiition chez is no other than the Italian 
iubftantive casa or ca, fo is the £ngliih Prepoiition 
thorough f, Tbourougby Tborow^ Through^ or Tbro^y no 
other than the Gothic /ub/iantive ΑΛΠΚΛ, or the Teutonic 

* All Particles arc in truth, in all languages^ the iigns of the moft com- 
mon and familiar ideas, and thofe which we have moft frequently occafion 
to communicate : they had not otherwiie become Panicles. So very much 
miilaken was Mr. Locke, when he fuppofed them to be the iigns or marks 
of certain operations of the mind for which we had either none cr very Λ- 
ficieni names s that the Particles are always the words which were the moft 
common and familiar in the language from which they came. 

t S. Johnfon cdls '* Thorough, — the word Through extended into two 
"• fyllables/' — What could poffibjy be expefted from fuch an Etymologift 
as this ί He might, with as much verifimilltyde, fay that SAlUAAA ^><w 
the word Soul extended into three fyllables> or that Ελιη/Αοο^ννιι was the word 
jilms extended into fix. 




fubftandve Tiurub: and, like them, means Door» gate, 

So that Mr. Harris's inftance (tranllated into modem 
Engliih) itands thus, 

« Tbe fplendid fun — join bis beamS'-^geniaify warmetb 
" •—'PASSAGE tbe air — (or, the air being the pqlfage or 
medium) ** tbe fertile eartbJ* And in the fame manner 
may you traniiate the prepoiition Tbrougb in every inftance 
where Tbro'' is ufed in Engliih, or its equivalent prepofition 
is ufed in any other language^. 

After having ieen in what manner tibe fubftantive Houfe 
became a prepofition in the French, you will not wonder 
to fee Door become a prepoiition in the Engliih: and 
thou^ in the firft inftance it was more e^y for you to 
perceive the nature of the French prepoiition Cbez ; be- 
caufe, having no prepoiiticm eorrefponding to it in Englifli, 
there was fo much prejudice out of your way ; yet I am 
perfuaded you will not charge this to me as a fantaftical or 
far-fetched etymology»^ when I have placed before you^ at 

* So, I fuppoie, the Greek word Πορο^ has given the Latin and Italian 
prepofition Per^ tbe French Par^ and the Spaniih Por. 



-one view, the words employed to fignify uie fame idea la 
thofe languages to which our own has the neareft affinity* 

SubfiahtivA. JPrepo/ition. 

(uoor rThourough. Thorougli. 

• ^"Sliih ] T^j^^^ruke * 1 ^^^^δ^• + Thorow. 

t (Through. Thro.t 

rDojia. Dujiu f J. h ο h 
Anglo-Sax J Dujie. i^pe Siv !? Ίν^ 

♦ ^* Than Cometh ydclnclTc, that is the yatc of all harmes. This ydlc- 
^ nefle is the Tborruke of all wycked and vylayne thoughtes.^' 

Chaucer. PerJtmsTale. FoL iii• pag. i. coL 2. 

f " So in an anticnt roll in verfe, exhibiting theMcfccnt of the family 
*' of the lords of Clare in SuiFolk, pcfcrvcd in the Auftin Friary at Clanc^ 
*' and written in the year 1356. 

" So conioyned be 

" Ulftris armes and Gloceftris Thurgb and Thurgby 
** As ihewith our wyndowes in houfes thre/' 

WartoiCs Hift. of Engl. Poetry. Vol 1. pag. 302. 
** Relcued by thynfynyte grace and goodnefs of our'faid lord Iburgb the 
•^^ meane of the mediatrice of mercy." 

Tie DiHes and Sayinges (^ the Philojophers. 1477. 

4; The Greeks abbreviated in the fame manner as the Englifli : and as 

we ufe Thro for Thorough, {o they ufed Θρα Tor Θυ/χ». Thus we find 

Ovpii9p«j the 'Urethra, or Unne 'pailage, compounded of Ovpoy and Θυρ «, 

and by abbreviation Θρ». 

§ Ijip hipan heopa cyjiiccan majie Scajip haebben.healb hme mon Oft 
«oSpum huj•. anb Sarnaibbc ^nne ma uujia Sonne j-eo cyjuce. 

XElpjicbej• as• 







^ , iDeure. Deur ?_ _ 

Dutch ,^^. «_.. fDeur. Door, 

(Door. Dore 

German ί-'^'τ^ο,. jou 



Thur. Thor. 
Tura. Dura. 

TThuruh. Thurah. 
I Thur. Duruch, 

Duruc. Duruh. 

Durch. Durh. 

Though it is not from Afia or its confines^ that we are 
to feek, for the origin of this part of our language ; yet is 
it worth noticing here, that the Greek (to which the 
Gothic has in many particulars a coniiderable refembl^ice) 
employs the word θυ/ι» for Door, And both the Perfian 
(Which in many particulars refembles the Teutonic ♦) and 


* ** On n'cft pas ctonnc dc troiivcr du rapport cntrc VAnglois & Ic 
*' Pcrfan : car on f^ait que Ic fond dc la langue Angloifc eft Saxon j & 
" qu^il y a unc quantity d'excmplcs qui montre unc affinitc marquee cntrc 
•* rAUemand & Ic Pcrfan." 

Form, mcchan. dcs langucs. Tom. II. Art« i66^ 

X X - ' the 



the Chaldean, ufe thro for Door. You will obferve, that 

the Teutonic ufes the fame word Tburab both for the fub^ 

βαηϋνβ, (Door) and for what is called the Prepojition 

(Tborougb), The Dutch, which has a ftrong antipathy to 


our Tbj ufes the very word Door for both. The Anglo- 
faxon, from which our language immediately defcends, 
employs indiflferently for Door either Dure or Tbure. The 
modern German (diredtly contrary to the modem Engliih) 
ufes the initial Tb (Tbur) for our fubfiantive (Door) and 
the initial d {Durcb) for our prepoftion {Tborougb) : and 
it is remarkable, that this fame difference between the 
German and the £nglilh, prevails in almoft all cafes, where 
the two languages employ a word of the fame origin, 
having either of thofe initials. Thus Diftel und Dom— 
in German are — Tbifiles and Thorns in Engliih. So the 
Engliih Dear, Dollar, Deal, are in German Theur, Thaler» 

Minihew and Junius both concur that Door, &c. are de• 
rived from the Greek Thura : Skinner fays, perhaps they 
are all from the Greek Thiura: and then without any 
reafon (or rather as it appears to me againil all reafon) 
chufes rather ufelefly to derive the fubftantive Door from 
the Anglo-faxon prepofition Thor, Thruh, Thurh, But I 
am perfuaded, that Door and Thorough have one and the 




iamb Gothic origin ^ΛηΚΧ, mean one and the fame thing; 
and are in fa^t'one and the fame word. 


There is an infuperable objedlion, which» I fear, you 
have not confidered, to this method of accounting for the 
Prepofitions : for if they were really and merely, as you 
imagine, common Nouns and Verbs, and therefore, as you 
fay, the names of real objeSlSy how could any of them ba 
employed to. denote not only different (* ') but even con-« 
trary relations ? Yet this is univerfally maintained, not only 
by Mr• Harris, but by Meflrs• de Port Royal (+ *) by the 


(*") '* Certains mots font Adverhes^ Prepofitions y & ConjonSiims en. 
*• mcme temps. Et repondcnt ainfi en mcmc temps ^ divcrfes parties 
•* d'oraifon, felon que la Grammaire les employe diverfcment." 

BuFFiER^ Art. 150, 

(f *) " On n'a fuivi en aucune langue, fur le fujet des prepofitions, cc 
** que la raifon auroit defire : qui eft, qu'un rapport ne fiit marque que par 
?• une prepofition j & qu*une prepofition ne marquat qu'un feul rapport. 
*f Car il arrive au contraire dans toutcs les langues ce que nous avons vu 
*' dans ces exemples pris de la Fran?oife 5 qu'un meme rapport eft fignific 
•' par plufieurs prepofitions j & qu*une mcme prepofition marque divers 
•• rapports•" 

M. M. de Port Royal; 

XX 2 




prefident de Brofles, and by all thofe Writers whom you 
moft efteem ; and even by Wilkins (* ^) and Locke. 

Now if thefe words have a meaning as you contend, 
and are conftantly ufed according to their meaning, which 
you muft allow, (becaufe you appeal to the ufe which is 
made of them as proof of the meaning which you attribute 
to them) : how can they poflibly be the names of real 
and unchangeable objeBSy as common nouns and verbs are ? 
I am fure you muft fee the neceffity of reconciling thefii 
contradictory appearances. 


Moft furely. And I think you will as readily acknow- 
ledge the neceffity of firft eftabliihing the fadts, before you 


Call upon me to reconcile thena• Where is the Prepolition 
to be found which is at any time ufed in contrary or even 
in different meanings? 

(* ') " Some of thcfe prqpofitions are ab/oluiely determined cither to »m- 
tion or to refi^ or the Terminus of Motion. Others are relatively appli- 
•* cable to both. Concerning which this rule is to be oblerved : that thofe 
'* which belong to motion cannot fignify reft 1 but thofe which belong CO 
" reft may fignify motioa in the terminus.'' 

Wilkins• Part ΠΙ Chap. 3. 

a B. Very 




Very many inftances have been given ; but none ilronger 
than thofe produced by Mr. Harris of the Prepolition 
FROM ; which he ihews to be ufed to denote three very 
different relations, and the two laft in abfolute contradidlion 
to each other. 

" From, he fays, denotes the detached relation of Body ; 
^< as when we fay — Tbefe Figs came from Turkey. — So as 
^< to Motion and Refi^ only with this difference, that here 
^^ the prepolition varies its cbara^er with the Verb. Thus 
^^ if we fay — That lamp bangs from the deling — the pre- 
^< pofition FROM affumes a character of quiefcence. But 
" if we fay — That lamp is falling from the deling^ — the 
^* prepoiition in fuch cafe aflumes a character of Motion^ 

Now I ihould be glad you would ihew me what one 
Noun or Verb can be found of fo verfatile a charadter as 
this prepoiition : what name of any one real objedt or fign 
of one idea, or of one colledlion of ideas, can have been 
inltituted to convey thefe different and oppofittf meanings ? 


Truly, none that I know of. But I take the word 
f ROM {prepofition^ if you chufe to call it fo) — to have as 




clear, as precife^ and at all times as uniform and un- 
equivocal a meaning, as any word in the language. From 
means merely beginning, and nothing elfe• It is (imply 
the Anglo-faxon and Gothic Noun Fjium, Ι^ΚΠΜ, Be^ 
ginning^ Origin^ Source^ fount aitty author *• Now then, if 
you pleafe, we will apply this meaning to Mr• Harris's 
formidable inftances, and try whether we cannot make 
FROM fpeak clearly for itfelf, without the ailiftance of the 
interpreting Verbs; who are fuppofed by Mn Harris, to 
vary its chara6ler at will, and make the prepoiition appear 
as inconiiilent and contradictory as himfelf• 

Figs came from Turkey. 
Lamp falls from Gieling. 
Lamp bangs from Gieling. 

Came is a complex term for one fpecies of motion# 
Falls is a complex term for another fpecies of motion• 
Hangs is a complex term for a fpecies of attachment. 

Have we occafion to communicate or mention the com- 
>IENCEMENT or BEGINNING of thcfc motious and of this 


Ne jiaebb je f e iSe on pjiumman poj\hre. he pojihre paepman anb 
pipman/' That is, Annon legiftis, quod qui eos in frmcipio- creavit, 
cicavit cos marcm & foeminam. §t• Matt• xix• 4• 




attachment; and the place where thefe motions and this 
attachment commence or begin ? It is impoflible to have 
complex terms for each occaiion of this fort. What more 
natural then, or more iimple, than to add the iigns of 
thofe ideaS) viz. the word beginning (which will remain 
always the fame) and the name of the place (which will 
j)erpetually vary) ? 


<* Figs came — beginning Turkey. 
** Lamp falls — beginning Cieling. 
** Lamp hangs — beginning Cieling,^ 

That is 
Turkey the Place of beginning to come. 


JCiQlmg the Place of beginning to fall. 
Cieling the Place of .beginning to hang. 


You have here ihewn its meaning when it relates t9 
place•, but Wilkins tells us, that " from refers primarily 
to place and Jttuation ; and fecondarily to tinted So that 
you have yet given but half its meaning. 

— ** From mom till night th' eternal Larum rang."— 

There is no place referred to in this line. 

H. From 


From relates to every thing to which beginning re• 
lates % and to nothing elfe : and therefore is referable to 
Time as well as to motion : without which indeed there can 
be no Time. 

* Is it unreafonable to fuppofe that, if the meaning of this word from, 
and of its correfpondent prepofitions in other languages, had been clearly 
underftood ; the Greek and Latin Churches would never have differed con- 
cerning the Eternal Proce//ion of the Holy Ghoft from the Father, or 
FROM the Father and the Son. And that, if they had been determined to 
ieparate, they would ar leaft have chofen ibmc iafer caufe of fchifm ? 

Apelles. I have now, Campafpc, almoft made an end. 
Campaffe. You told me, Apelles, you would never en4^ 
Ap. Never end 'my love : for it ihall be Eternal, 
Cam. That is, neither to have Beginning nor ending." 

Campafpe by John Lilly. Act 4. Sec. 4^ 

'^^ Eternal fure, as without end 

TVitbout Beginning.*' 





Paradi/e Regained. Book 4. Line 391• 

•' To fay that Immenfity does not fignify boundlefs fpace, and that Eternity 
^^ does not fignify Duration or Time without Beginning and end; is, I 
*' think, affirming that words have no meaning." • 

Or. Sam. Clarke's fifth. Reply to Leibnitz' s fifth Paper. Seft. 104-106. 

Is it prcfumptuous to fay, that the explanation of this fingle prepoiition^ 
would have decided the controverfy more eiFcftually, thin all the authorities 
and all the folid arguments produced by the wife and honeft bilhop Proco- 
powicz ? And thus have withheld one handle at leaft of reproach, from 
thofe who aflcrt — " Que Ton pourroit juftemcnt definir la theolog^e — L'art 
" de compofcr des chimeres en combinant enfcmble des qualitcs impoflibles 
^ Ϊ, concilier•" — Syftcme dc la Nature, Tom. Π. p. 55^ ' ^ 

" The 


" The Larum rang BsciKNiiro Mornbg." 


i. e. Morning being the time of its beoinning to ring. 


Still I have difficulty to truft to this explanation. For 
Dr. S. Johnfon has numbered up twenty different meanings 
of this Prepofition from. He fays, it denotes, 

<* I. Privation, , 

*' 2. Reception, 

« 3. Defcent or Birtb^ 

*< 4. Tranfmiffion, 

<* 5. AbftraBion, 

<* 6. Succeffion, 

« 7, Ειηίβοη, 

<* 8. Progrefs from premijfts to inferences, 

** 9. Place or Perfon from whom a mejpage is krougbt*. 

" »o. Extra^hn, 

1. Reafon or Motive, 

2. Ground or 0?«i/e» 

3. Difiance, 

4. Separation or Receffion, 

5. Exemption or Deliverance* 

6. Abfence, 

7. Derivation, 

Yy « 18. 

— . .- —L^J 


« 1 8. Diftance from the ραβ» 
« 1 9. Contrary to, 
" 20. Removal^ 

To thefe he adds twenty^two other maimers of, ufing it. 
And he has accompanied each with inftaaces fufficiently 
numerous, as proofs *. 


And yet in all his inftances (which, I believe, are above 
f evenly) from continues to retain invariably one and the 



* Greenwood fays — '^ From fignifies Motion from a place 5 and then it 
is put in oppofition to το. 
'* 2. It is ufed to denote the Beginning of time. 
" 3. It denotes the Original of Things. 

" 4. It denotes the Order of a thing. (" And in thefe three laft fenfes 
it is put before Adverbs.'') 
5. It fignifies Off:' 

The caprice of language is worth remarking in the words Van (the 
Dutch From) and Rear^ both of which .we have retained in Englifli as Sub- 

flantivesy and therefore they are allowed with us to have a meaning. But 

* ... • 

being only employed as Prepofitions by the Dutch, Italian and French ; our 
philofophers cannot be perfuaded to allow them any tranfmarinc meaning.— 
Animam mutant qui trans mare currunt. And thus Van in Holland, Von in 
Germany, Avanti in Italy, and Avant and Derriere in France,- arc merely 
des petits mots inventes pour etre mis avant les noms^ or, in the van of 



fame fingle meaning. Confult them : and add to them as 
many more inftances as you pleafe ; and yet (if I have ex- 
plained myfelf as clearly as I ought, and as I think I have 
done) no farther affiftance of mine will be neceflary to 
enable you to extradt the fame meaning of the word from 
from all of them. And you will plainly perceive that the 
^^ chara^ers of quiefcence and of motion^'* attributed by Mr. 
Harris to the word from, belong indeed to the v^ords Hang 
and Fall^ ufed in the different fentences• And by the fame 
manner of transferring to the prepofition the meaning of 
fome other word in the fentence, have all Johnfon's and 
Greenwood's fuppofed different meanings arifen. 


You obferved, fome time fince, that the Prepoiitions 
WITH and without were diredlly oppoiite and contradic- 
tory to each other. Now the fame oppoiition is evident in 
fome other of the prepoiitions : And this circumftance, I 
ihould imagine, mull much facilitate and ihorten the fearch 
of the etymologift : For having once difcovered the mean- 
ing of one of the adverfe parties, the meaning of the 
other, I fuppofe, muft follow of courfe. Thus — Going 
TO a place ; — is dire<Slly the contrary of — Going from a 
place. — If then you are right in your explanation of from ; 
(and I will not deny that appearances are hitherto in your 

Υ y 2 favour); 


favour) ; iince from means Commencement or Beginnings 
TO miift mean End or Termination» And indeed I perceive 
that, if we produce Mr. Harris's inftances, and iay, 

" Tbejefigs came from Turkey το England, 
<* The lamp falls from the deling το the ground, 
** The lamp bangs from the deling το the floor ;" 

as the word from denotes the commencement of the motion 
and hanging ; fo does the word το denote their termina• 
Hon : and the places where they end or terminate, are 
relpedlively England, Ground, Floor, 


And fince we have as frequently occafion to mention the 
termination^ as we have to mention the commencement of 
motion or time ; no doubt it was as likely that the word 
denoting End ihould became a particle or prepoiition, as 
the word which iignified Beginning. But in the ufe of 
thefe two words το and from^ I obferve a remarkable 
diflference. From feems to have two oppoiites; which 
ought therefore to mean the fame thing : and, if meaning 
the fame, to be ufed indifferently at pleafure• We always 
ufe FROM (and From only) for the beginning either of time 
or motion : but for the termination^ we apply fometimes 
TO and fometimes till : το, indifferently either to place 

2 or 


or time) but till to time only and never to place. Thus, 
we may fay, 

** From mom το night tb' eternal larum rang.'* 
or. From mom till nighty &c. 

But we cannot fay, — From Turkey till England, 


The oppofition of Prepofitions, as far as it reaches, does 
undoubtedly aflift us much in the difcovery of the meaning 
of each oppoiite. And if, by the total or partial extinotion 
of an original language, there was no root left in the 
ground for an etymologift to dig up, the philofopher ought 
no doubt to be fatisfied with reafoning frbm the contrariety. 
But I fear much, that the inveterate prejudices which I 
have to encounter, and which for two thoufand years have 
univerfally paued for learning throughout the world, and 
for deep learning too, would not eafily give way to any 
arguments of mine ά priori, I am therefore compelled to 
relbrt to etymology, and to bring forward the original 
word as well as its meaning. That fame» etymology will 
very eaiUy account for the peculiarity you have noticed : 
and the difficulty iblved, lUce other enemies fubdued, will 
become an uiefui ally and additional ftrength to the con» 

• I 




The oppofition to the prepofition from, reiides fingly 
in the prepofition το. Which has not perhaps (for I am not 
clear that it has not) precifely the fignification of End or 
Termination^ but of fomething tantamount or equivalent. 
The prepofition το (in Dutch written toe and tot, a little 
nearer to the original) is the Gtothic fubftantive TAtli or 
TAnhTS, i. e. Αδί, EffeSi, Refult, Confummation, Which 
Gothic fubftantive is indeed itfelf no other than the paft 
participle τΛπίΛ. or TAtiidlS, of the verb tAhqAn * agere, 

• • « 

And what is doney is terminated^ ended^ fni/bed +• 

After this derivation, it will not appear in the leaft 
myfterious or Λvonderfυl that we ihoxild, in a peculiar 
manner, in Engliih, prefix this fame word το to the in- 

1 • 

finitive of our verbs. For the verbs, in Engliih, not being 

■ • 

dillinguiihed, as in other languages, by a peculiar termi• 

. .• 

nation, and it being fometimes impoflible to diftinguiih 
them by their placej when the old termination of the 

* • ■ ■ 

* In the Teutonic, this verb is written Tuan or Tuon. whence the modern 
German Thutiy and its prepofition (varying like \ύ verb) Tu. * ' ' 

In the Anglo-lkxon the verb is Teojan, and prepofition To. ^ 

... .ψ 

t *^ Dativus cuicunque orationi adjungi poteft, in qua acquifitio vel 
" ademtio, commodutri: aut incomniodum, aut finis,.' qu?m in fcholis 
'* Logici Finem cut dicunt, fignificatur/' 

Scioppii Gram. Philofoph. pag. xfih 



Angl#-Saxon verbs was dropped, this word το (i. e• jiSt) 
became neceffary to be prefixed, in order to diftinguifli 
them from nouns, and to inveft them with the ver6ai 
charadler : for there ii no difference between the noun, 
Love^ and the verb, to Love^ but what muft be com- 
prized in the prefix το• 

•^.The infinitive therefore, appears plainly to be what the 
Stoics called it, the very verb itfelf ; pure and uncom- 
pounded with the various accidents of Moodj of numberj 
of gender^ of perfottj and (in Engliih) of tenfe ; which 
accidents are, in fome languages, joined to the verb by 
variety of termination ; and in fome, by an additional word 
fignifying the added circumfiance. And if our Engli/b 
Grammarians "and Philofophers had trufted fomething lefs 
to their reading and a little more to their own refledtion, I 
cannot help thinking that the very awkwardnefs and im- 
perfedlion of our own language, in this particular of the 
infinitive^ would have been a great benefit to them in all 
their difficulties about the verb : and would have led them 
to underftand and explain that which the perfe(Slion of 
more artificial and improved languages contributed to con- 
ceal from others. For I reckon it a great advantage which an 
Englifi? philofopher has over thofe who are acquainted with 
fiich languages only which do this bufinefs by termination. 



For though I think I have good reafons to believe» that 
all thefe Temttnations may lik6wife be traced to thek re- 
fpeoiive origin ; and that, however artificial they may now 
appear to us, they were not originally the efieot of pre- 
meditated and deliberate art, but feparate words by length 
of lime corrupted and coalefcing with the words of which 
they are now confidered as the Terminations : Yet this was 
lefs likely to be fuipe£ted by otheis. And if it had been 
fuipe(5ted, they would have had much farther to travel to 
their journey*s end, and through a road much more em- 
barrafled ; as the corruption in thofe languages is of much 
longer {landing than in ours, and more complex. . 

And yet, by what fatality I know not, our Grammarians 
have not only flighted, but have even been afraid to toitch 
this friendly clue : for of all the points which they en- 
deavour to ihuffle over, there is none in which they do it 
jnore grofsly than in this of the Infinitive• 


Some are contented to call το, a mark of the infinitive 
mood *. But bowy or why^ it is fo, they are totally filent• 

* Lowth (page 66) fays — " The Prepofition το placed before the Verb 
*' makes the Infinitive Mood.'' Now this is manifeftly not fo: for το 
•placed before the Verb lovethy will not make the Infinitive Mood. He 
would have faid n^pre truly, that το placed before fome Nouns makes Verbs. 
But of this I ihall have occafion to fpcak hereafter, when I come to treat of 
the Verb. 



Others call it a Prepoftion, 

Others, a Particle, 

Skinner calls it an Equivocal Article *. 

• « 

And others f throw it into that common iink and repo- 
iitory of all heterogeneous unknown corruptions,— the 

And when they have thus given it a name^ they hope 
you will he fatisfied : at leaft they tniil: that they ihall not 
he arraigned for this conduct; becaufe thofe who ihould 
arraign them, will need the fame Ihift for themfelves. 

There is one miftake however, from which this Prefix 
TO ought to have refcued them : they iliould not have 
repeated the error, of infilling that the Infinitive was a 

■ ■ ■ I I ■ ^ ■ ^ ■■ I I 1 l l I I . I ■ ^ 

♦ " Melius infinitiva fua Anglo-faxones per term, an, quam nos hodic 
*^ Mquivoco illo ariiculc, το prsemiflb, fepe etiam omiilb, diftinxcrunt.** 

Canones Etymologicu 

t S. Johnfon fays — ^^ To, adverb [ro, Saxon; 7>, Dutch.]" And 
then, according to his ufual method, (a very convenient one for making a 
bulky bpok without trouble) proceeds to give inftances of its various iigni- 
fications, viz. ** i . A particle coming between two verbs, and noting the 

fecond as the objeft of the firft. 2. It notes the intentm. 3. After an 

adjedHvc it notes its QbjeSl. 4. Noting Futuritj.'* 

Ζ ζ fnere 



mere Noun * ; iince it was found neceflary in Engliih to 
add another word (viz.) το, merely to diftinguiih the In• 
Jinitive from the Noun^ after the Infmtive had loft that 
diftinguiihing Termination which it had formerly• 

I do not mean haftily and without farther confideration 
abfolutely to diflent from what you have faid, becaufe fome 

* *^ iThc words AEliones and Lelliones (Wilkms fays) arc but die plural 
* number of Jgeriy Legere.'* However it muft be acknowledged^ that 
Wilkins endeavours to fave himfelf by falling the Infinitive^ not a mere 
noun^ but a Pariiciple Subfiantive. — " That which is called the Infinitive 
" Mode ihould, according to the true analogy of Ipeech,, be ftyled a Parti^ 
** ciple Subfiantive. There hath been formerly much dilpute among Ibme 
" learned men, whither the notion called the Infinitive Mode ought to be 
^* reduced according to the philofophy of Ipeech, Some would have it ta 
^' be the prime and principal verb s as fi^ifying more dircdly the notioiv 
" of aftion : and then the other varieties of the verb, ihould be but the 
** inflexions of this. Others queftion whether the Infinitive Mode be a. 
«« verb or no, becaufe in the Greek it receives articles as a noun. Scaliger 
•' concludes it to be a verby but will not admit it to be a Mode. Vofliua 
** adds, that though it be not Modus in j4£Iu, yet it is Modus in Potentis. 
«* All which difficulties will be moft clearly ftated by aiTerting it to be a 
" Subfiantive Participle:' Real Charafter, Part nr. Chap. 6* 

Mr. Harris without any palliation, • fays, — '* Thefe Infinitives go farther. 
" They not only lay afide the charailer οΐ Attributives^ but they alfo alTumc 
" that of Subflantivesr Hermes, Book L Chap. 8^ 



part of it appears to me plauiible enough. And had you 
confined yourfelf only to the Segnacafo or Prepo/ition^ I 
ihould not Aiddenly have found much to offer in reply. 
But when inftead of the Segnacafo (as Buonmattei dafl^es 
it), or the Prepofition (as all others call it), or the mark of 
the Infinitive (as it is peculiarly ufed in Englifli), you dire<Sb 
me to coniider it as the neceiTary and diitipguiihing fign 
of the VERB) you do yourfelf throw difficulties In my way 
which it will be incumbent on you to remove. For it is 
impoffible not to obferve» that the Infinitive is not the only 
part of our Engliih verbs, which does not differ from the 
noun : and it refts upon you to explain why this neceflary 
fign of the Verb ihould be prefixed only to the Infinitive^ 
and not alfo to thofe other parts of the verb in Engliih 
which have no diftinguiihing Termination, 


The fa(St is undoubtedly as you have ilated it. There 
are certainly other parts of the Engliih verb, undiilinguiihed 
from the noun by termination ; but this is to me rather a 
circumftance of confirmation than an obje<Stion. For the 
truth is, that to them alfo {and to tbofe parts only which 
Jiave not a diitinguilhing termination) as well as to the In- 
finitive, is this diftinguiihing fign equally neceffary, and 
equally prefixed. Do (the auxiliary verb as it has been 

Ζ ζ 2 called) 

. / 


called *) is derived from the fame root, and is indeed the 
fame word as το. The difference between a τ and ^ d is 


li 1m 

♦ " The verb to do (fays Mr. Tyrwhit, Eflay, Note 37) is coniidered 
*' by Wallis and other later grammarians, as an auxiliary verb. It is ib ufcd, 
*^ though very rarely^ by Chaucer. It muft be confeffed that the exaft 
*^ power which do, as an auxiliary, now has in our language, is not eafy to 
*^ be defined, and ftill lefs to be accounted for from Analogy'' 

In Chaucer's time the diftinguiihing terminations of the verb ftill re- 
mained, although not conftantly employed ; and he availed himfelf of that 
fituation of the language, either to uie them or drop them, as beft fuited 
his purpofe, and fometimes he u(e3 both termination znafign. Thus, in the 
Wife of Bathes Tale, he drops the Infinitive termination i and ufcs το. 

*^ My liege lady: generally, quod he, 
*' Women defyren το have foveraynte 
*' As well over her huibondes as her love.'* 

And again a few lines after, he ufes the infinitive termination^ excluding to• 

" In al the court nas there wife ne mayde 
" Nc widow, that contraried that he faide, 
" But faid, he was worthy han his lyfc." 

So alfo, 

" I trowe that if Envye iwys 

" Knewe the beft man that is 

*' On thys fyde or bcyonde the lee 

«* Yet fomwhat lack£n him wold flie.'» 


Romaunt of the Roft. 

The fame may be ibewn by innumerable other inftances throughout 

B. Johnfon, in his Grammar, lays—" The Perjons plural keepe the 
" scraunation of the firft perfon lingular• In fonnet times^ till about the 

" reigne 


ib very fmall» tkat an Etymologift knows by the pradUce of 
languages» and an Anatomift by the reafon of that pra<Stice, 
that in the derivation of words it is fcarce worth regard- 
ing *. Arid for the fame reafon that το is put before the 
Infinitive, do ufed formerly to be put before fuch other 
parts of the verb which likewife were not diilingui(hed 
from the noun by termination. As we ftill iay — / do Ιουβ^ 
— inftead of — / love. And / doed or did love — ^inftead 
of / loved. But it is worth our while to obferve, that if a 
diftinguiihing termination is uied, then the diftinguiihing 
DO or DID mufi be omitted, the Termination fulfilling its 
office. And therefore we never find — " I did loved ;*• or 
^* He DOTH lovetb.^ But " I did love"^ ^^ He doth tove.^ 

It is not indeed an approved praotice at prefent, to ufe 
do before thofe parts of the Ferij they being .now by 
cuftom^fufficiently diftinguiihed by their Place : and there- 
fore the redundancy is now avoided, and do is confidered, 
in that cafe, as unneceflary and expletive. 


reigne of King Henry the Eighth, they were wont to be formed by 
adding en. But now (whatfocver is the caufe) it hath quite growne out 
" of ufe, and that other fo generally prevailed that I dare not prefxmie to 
«' fet this afoot againe." This is the reafon why Chaucer ufed both το 
and DO more rarely than we ufe them at prefent. 

♦ Sec the Note, page ^;^. 

■ « 

I llowever 



However it is ilill ufed» and is the common pratSttcCy and 
ihould be ufed, whenever the ^iiitinguiihing Placs is dif- 
turbed by Interrogation, or by the infertion of a negationi 
or of fome other words between the nominative cafe and 
the verb. As,— 


** He DOES not love the truth. 

<* Does he love the tnith ? 

" He DOES at the fame time hve the truth.* 

And if we chufe to avoid the ufe of this verbal Slgftf 
D0> we muft fupply its place by a diftinguiihing termina- 
tion to the verb. As, — 

He lovetlf not the truth. 

Lovetb he the truth ? 

He at the fame time lovetb the truth. 

Or where the verb has not a diftinguiihing termination 
'(as in phirals)— — 

They DO not love the truth. 

Do they love the truth ? 

They DO at the fame time love the truth. 

Here, if we wifli to avoid the verbal ^gn, we muft re- 
move the negativey or other intervening word or words 



from Betweett the nominative cafe and the verb i_ and ib 
reftore the diitinguiihirig PJace. As>— 

« They /ove not the truth.^ 

** Love they the truth > 

** At the fame time they /ove the truth *.'*' 

And thus we iee that, though we cannot, as Mr. Tyrwhit 
truly fays, account for the ufe of this verda/^gn from any 
Analogy to other languages, yet there is no caprice in thefe 
methods of employing το and do, fo differently from the 
practice of other languages : but that they arife from the 
peculiar method which the Engliih language has taken to 
arrive at the fame neceflary end, which other languages- 
attain by diftinguiihing Termination, 

I obierye, that Junius and Skinner and Johnibn, have 
not chofen to give the ilighteil hint concerning the deri•!^ 
vation of TOi Minihew diftinguiihes between the prepo- 
fition TO, and the Jgn of the Infinitive to; Of the firft 

* It is not However uncommon to fay—" They, at the fame time, lave 
** the truth.'* Where the intervening words (at fhe fame time) arc con- 
fidcred as merely parenthetical, and the mind of the Ipcaker ftill preferves 
the connexion of ^/βί^ between, the nominative cafe and the verb• 



he is iUent, and of the latter he fays — " το, as ίο make^ 
<< to walk, to doy a Graeco articulo το ; idem eft ut το vmw, 
« TO vifivaruv, το vpetTJeiv.^* But Dr. Gregory Sharpe is per- 
fuaded, that our language has taken it from the Hebrew. 
And Voffius derives the correfpondent Latin Prcpofition ad 
from the fame iburce. 


Yes. But our Gothic and Anglo-faxon anceftors were not 
altogether fo fond of the Hebrew, nor quite fo well ac- 
quainted with it, as Dr. Sharpe and Voffius were. And 
if Boerhaave could not confent, and Voltaire * thought it 
ridiculous, to feek a remedy in South America, for a difeafe 
which was prevalent in the North of Europe, how much 
more would they have reiifted the etymology of this pre- 
tended Jewifti Prepofition ! for my own part, I am per^ 
fuaded that the correfpondent Latin Prepofition ad has a 
more natural origin, and a meaning limilar to that of το. 

■ - ■ ■ . I I. ■ I ■ ■ I I 11 I - . . . Ill ■ I ■ I ■ ■■! 

* " La Quinquina, feul fpccifique centre les ficvncs intermittentes, place 
*' par la nature dans les montagnes du Pcrou, tandis qu'clle a mis la fievrc 
*^ dans Ic refte du monde.*' Volt air e^ Ηίβ. generaU. 

^* D meurit a Mocha dans le fable Arabiquc 
Cc caffc neccfiairc aux pays dcs frimats 5 
il met la ficvre en'nos climats, 
Et Ic remcde en Amcrique." 

Voltaire's Littn au rot de Pruffe. 



It is merely the paft participle of Agere ^. (Which pafl: 
participle is likewife a Latin Subjiantive.) 

faoOum - 
agitum-agtuml or 

- aoiD - 

- AD 

— or - 

- <br 

acTum - 

— acT — 

- AT. 

The moft fuperficial reader of Latin verfe knowsfj how 
cafily the Romans dropped their final um : for their poets 
would never have taken that licence, had it not been pre- 
vioufly juftified by common pronunciation. And a little 
confideration of the organs and pra<5tice of fpeech, will con- 
vince him how «afily Agd or A^, would become ad or at f , 


* My much valued and valuable friend Dr. Warner, the very ingenious 
author of Mbtronariston, or a new fleqfure ncommendedy in a differtatim 
upon Greek and Latin frojody ; has remarked that—" - C and G were by the 
^' Romans always pronounced hard, i. e. as the Greek Κ and Γ, before 
" ALL voAvels : which found of them it would have been well if we had 
^' retained ; for, had this been done, the inconvenience of many equivocal 
f ^ founds, and much appe^ance of irregularity in the language would have 
^* been avoided." — Perhaps it may feem fuperSuous to cite any thing from 
a book which muft aiTuredly be in every dafllcal hand % but it is neceiTary 
for me here to remind the re^r of this circumftance i left, inftead of 
-^gS^^^ and Aggitumy he Ihould pronounce thefc words Adjere and Adjitum^ 
and be difgufted with a derivation which might then feem forced and un- 

•f If the reader keeps in mind the note to page ^'>^y he will eafily per- 
ceive how a£lum became the irregular participle of agere^ inftead of agitum 

A a a Qt 


a» .indeed this prepofition was indifferently written by the 
antients. By the modems the prepofition was written ai> 
with the D only, in order to diftinguiih it from the other 
corrupt word called the ConjunfUiony at; which for the- 
fame reafon was written with the τ only, though that 
likewife had antiently been written, as the prepofition^ eitheir 
AD or AT *» 


You have not yet aorounted for the different employ.- 
ihent of till and το. 

I ■ ■ I ■■ ■ ■ ■ I . 

or agtum. For it depended enrirely on the employment or omUfion of the 
ctrnifreffion there noticed. And it is obfervable, that in all language» (for 
the naiufaf reaibn is the fame) if two of the letters (coupled in that note) 
come together, in one of which the compreffion ihould be employed ^and 
in the other omitted, the ip Aker for his own convenience will cither em»- 
ploy the compreflion in both, or omit it in both^ and that without any 
regard to the written charafter. Thus (amongft innumerable inftances) an 
Engliihman pronounces— ^Bz^n;^'— and a Frenchman — observer. So we 
learn froni Quinftillian (lib. i. cap. 7.) that the Romans pronounced 
ovtinuity though they wrote oBtinuiL — ^ Cum dico obtinuity iecundam b- 
Kteram ratio pofcit; aures magis audiunt p.'' — ^In the fame mannera Roman 
wouH pronounce the word either — aoOum^ or acrum^ that he might not in 
two letters coming clofe together, flaft fo inftantly from the employment to 
Ac amiffienof the compreifion. ^ 

* *' Ad & at, non tantiun ob fignificationem, fed & originem diyerfam> . 
*' diverfimodc fcribcrc/4//«j tft•" 

G* J• VofllUs, Etymol. Ling. Lat. 

H. That 



That TILL ihould be oppofed to from, only whea'.Vre 
are talking of Time and upon no other odcafion, is ew^ 
dently for this reafon (viz.) that till is a word oofti-»' 
pounded of το and While, i. e. Time. Arid you will ob- 
ierve. that the coalefcence of thefe two - words, , To-hpilei 
took place in the language long 'before the prefent wanton 
and fuperfluous ufe of the article the, ^vhich by the pre- 
vailing cuftom of modern fpeech is now interpofed. So 
that when we fay—" From morn till nighty* — it is no 
more than if we faid — ^** From morn το time ^ght *.*» 
When we fay—** From morn το nighty^ the word Time is 
omitted as unneceflary. So we might fay—** From Turkey 
<* TO /A^ PLACE called England'^ or ** το place England f 
But we leave out the mention of Place^ as fuperfluous» 
«id fay only — <* το England:* 

■^•^"•^ 11 ■ I ■ ^mm»mmmmmm^i^m^mm^mm^m^m^mt^tm^mmm^m^m^l»-a'^^''»m^>^m^mmmKm'^emmm^ 

♦ It is not unufual with the common people, and fome antient authors, 
to ufe fVbile alone as zprepojStion i that is, to leave out το, and fay — I will 
Tf^y WHILE Evening. Inftead of— till Evening; or, το while Evening. 
That is — I will fiay time iEveningy — inftead of— το time Evening. Thus 
— -" Sygeberte wyth hys two bretheme gave backe whyle they came to 
" the ryver of Sigoune.'* — He commaunded her to be bounden to a wyldc 
** horfe tayk by the here of her hedde and fo to be drawen wk yle ihc were 
^' dedc.'* 

Κ ^ Ζ % Β. Yqu 



Ton ^knowledge then that the oppoiition of pttpoG.- 
tions is ufefuU as f^ >& it reaches. But, befides their 
9pp0/iihn and abfolute contradidiion, I ihould imagine that 
the marked and diftinguiihed manner alfo^ in which dif- 
jferent prepofitions are ibmetimes ufed in the fame fentence^ 
muft very much tend to facilitate the diicovery of their 
diiliodt iignifications. 

" JFell I *tis ien fit I have got the London difeafi tbey 
^ call Love, I am fick οτ my Ιηφαηά^ and for my 
*« gallant 

♦ n 

Love makes her itck of, and fick for. Here of and 
FOR feem almoft jdaced in oppotition ; at lead their effects 
in the fentence are moft evidently difierent : for, by the 
help of thefe two Prepoiitions alone, and without the 
ailiilance of any other words, ihe exprefles the two con•» 
trary afie<5tions of Loathing and De/ire,. 

No. Small affiftance indeed, if any, can be derived, 
from fuch inftances as this. I rather think they tend to 

Wychcrlcy'* Ceuntry Wife. 




miflead than to direct an inquirer• Love was not here 
the only difeafe. This poor lady had a complication of 
diilempers ; ihe had two diforders ; a iicknefs of Loathing 
—and a ficknefs of Deiire• She was iick for Difgufl^. 
and iick for Love• 

Sick OF difgufi FOR ber bufl>and. 
Sick o¥ love FOR ber gal/ant. 
Sick FOR difgufi OF ber bufiand. 
Sick FOR love OF her gallants 

Her dUguft was the offspiiin& of her huiband^ pro^ 
teedtd from her huiband, was begotten upon her ^y her 
huiband. Her gallant was the caufe of her love. 

I think I have clearly exprefled the meaning of her 
declaration. And I have been purpofely tautologous, that 
by my indifferent applicaticm of the two words of and 
for — both to her diiguft and to her^ love, the fmalleil 
appearance of oppofition between thefe prepofitions might 
be done away.. Indeed^ the difference betweeu them (Jbus 
conftdered) appears to be £0 finall, that the author, if it had 
pleafed him, might have ufed ofj- where he has pntrok^ 
And that he might £0 have done> the following is a proof. 

" MariatiM 


• « Marian. Come, Amie, yoifll go mtl• usT 

" Amie, I am not well,"* 
: « Lionel, Sbe's fick of the yong fljefard that bekij 
^ ber*:* 

In the fame manner we may, with equal propriety, fay— - 
« PTe arefick of hunger ί^^^—οτ, -** We areftck for hunger P 
And in both cafes we Ihall have exprefled precifely the 
fame thiqg. 

'Tis certainly fo in practice. But is that practice jufti- 
fiat>le ? For the words ftill ieem to me to have a very dif- 
ferent import. Do you mean to fay that the words of 
and FOR are fynonymous ? 


Very far from it. I believe they differ as widely at 
CAUSE and conseqjjence. I imagine the word for 
(whether denominated PrepofitioHy ConjunSion^ or Adverb") 
to be a Noun, and to have always one and the fame iingle 
iigniucation, viz. cause, and nothing elfe. Though 
Greenwood attributes to it eighteen, and S. Johnfon /or/y• 

♦ Sad Shepherd, Aft 1. Sc. 6. 


fx different meanings ; for which Greenwood cites above 
fortyy and Johnfon above two hundred inftances. But, with 
a little attention to their inftances, you will eafily perceive, 
that they ufually attribute to the Prepq/ition the noeaning 
of fome other words in the fentence. 

Junius (changing ρ into f, and by metatheiis of the 
letter r) derives for from the Greek vfo. Skinner from 
the Latin Pro, But I believe it to be no other than the 
Gothic fubftantive |:ΛϊΚινΑ, cause. 

I imagine alio that of (in the Gothic and Anglo-faxon 
jjLJj and Xp) is a fragment of the Gothic and Anglo-faxon 
AI^AKA» pofteritas, &c. Spopa, proles, &c. *. That it is a 
noun fubftantive, and means always confequenccy offspring^, 
fuccejfory follower, &c., 


And Γ think it not unworthy of remark, that whilft the 
old patronymical termination of our northern anceilors 

* ^^ Of. Aj ab. abs. de a^ s. op. d• aff. b. af. Goth. Al^• Expriitwnt 
** Gr. otTOf praefertim cum απο ante vocabulum ab• 
•« cipicns, fiat αφ." Junius. 

Minihfw and Skinner derive of from the Latin ab, and diat from the 
Greek «πρ• 



was SON, the Sclavonic and Ruffian patronymic was of.' 


Thus whom the Engliih and Swedes named Pet erf on f the 
Ruffians called Peterbof, And as a polite foreign affe<Sta- 
tion afterwards induced fome of our anceftors to affiime 
Fils or Fitz (i. e. Fils or Filius) initead of son; fo the 
Ruffian affe<5tation in more modern times changed of to 
Vitcb (i. e. FitZy Fils^ or Filius) and Peterbof became 
Petrovitcb or Petrowitz, 

So M. de Brofles (Tom• 2• p^ ^95•) obferves of the 
Romans--^" Remarquons fur les noms propres des families 
*^ Romaines qu'il n*y en a pas un feul qui ne foit termine 
^* en ius ; deiinence fort femblable a 1* ^Ιος des Grecs, c*eft 
<« a dire filius ^.'^ 


Stop, Stop, Sir. Not Γο hafty, I beieech you. Let us 
leave the Swedes, and the Ruffians, and the Greeks, and 
the Romans, out of the queftion for the prefent ; and con- 

• ** Et quamvis nunc dierum habeant quidcm ad Anglonim imitationem, 
*' familiarum nomina j font tamen ea plerumque mere patronymica : funt 
'^ enim Price. Powel. Bowel. Bowen. Pugb. Parry. Penry. Prichard. 
^^ Probcrt. Proger. &e. nihil aliud quam Ap. Rhys. Ap. Howel. Ap, Owen. 
^"^ Ap. Hugh. Ap. Harry. Ap. Henry. Ap. Richard. Ap. Robert. Ap. 
^ Roger. &c. AP, hoc eft μ ab, filius•** Wall is. Preface• 

9 hift 



Pray» which of thofe qualities dictated that remark f 


Neither. But a quality which pafles for brutality and 
ill-nature : and which," in fpite of hatd blows and heavy 
burdens, would make me rather chuie in the fcale of 
betiigs to exift a maftiff or a mule, than a monkey or a 
li^dog. Buf why have you overlooked my dvility to Mr- 
Harris } Do you not perceive that by contending for only-» 
one meaning to the word for, I am forty-jfisre times tttctre: 
complaifant to him than j[ohnfi)n is ?; * 


He loves eiriery thing tfcit is Greek, atid no idiyUbt 
fore wiH owe you many thanks for thie Grteik fat« 
Danaos dona ferentes^—-'BvA. confirm it^ if yo'u pteatib ; atti^ 
(if you can) ftrengthen yout* doctbtful «tymology (whicfe- 
I think wants ftrengthening) by <e*craodng your ikigle 
meaning of for from all Gfeenwood*s and' JohnlbnV nu*^ 
merous inftances.. 


That would be a tedious taik ; snd, Itruft, unnfeceflaiy u 

and for that reafon only I have not purfued the method 

^ you 


" foldiers.''^ [i. e. Difabled Soldiers being the Caufe of its 
being built.} 

" 4. It is ufed likewife to denote Profit^ Advantagey 
Inter efl\ As — I write- yok your fatisfaBion.^ [i. e• Your 
fatisfadlion being the caufe of my writing.] 

** 5 . It is ufed to denote for what a thing is Proper^ or 
^* not ; As — // is a good remedy for the Fever Γ in which 
laft example to cure is to be underftood. [i• e. Curing 
the Fever being the Caufe that it is called a ^(>ou^ remedy.] 


" 6. This prepoiition is. ufed to denote Agreement or 
« Help\ As — The Soldier fights for the^Kingr [i. e• The 
King being the Caufe of his fighting.] 

I ■ 

" 7. It is ufed to denote the Convenience or Inconveni^ 
" ence of a thing ; As — He is big enough for his age Ρ 
[i. e. His age being the Caufe that he is big enough ; or 
that his fize anfwers our expeiilation.-} 

* \ 

*' 8. It is uled to denote Exchange or Truckings Recom•^ 
" pence y Retribution or Requital and Payment; As — /fe 
" rewarded him for ii/V ^ooi/ fervicesJ* [i. e. His good 
fervices being the C^/^ of reward.] 

« Hither 


« 12. It is likewife ufed to denote in the quality of; As 
α — jfg fuborned bim for a mtnefsr [i. e. For that he 
might be a witnefs ; or, for to be a witnefs. — ^That he 
might be a witnefs ; or, to be a witnefs being the Caufe 
of his fuborning him.] 


« It fignrfies likewife as much as Becaufe of, By reafon 
*< of; As — ΊΌ puni^ a man for his crimes^ £i. c. His 
crimes being the Caufe of puniihment.] 

*< It fignifies As, or To be \ As — He was fent for a 
** pledged [i. e. That he might be a pledge, or to be a 
pledge being the Caufe of his being fent.] 

** During; to denote the Future Time; As— β? was 
<* cbofen [to fome office] for life^ [i. e. To continue in 
that office for life ; or, for the continuance of his life-— 
The continuance of his life being the Cauje of the contt* \ 

nuance of his office.] 

*• Concerning^ About; As^-^As for me.^ [The fcnteioe 
liere is not compleat ; but it ihall be explained amongiib 
Johnfon'e inftances.] 


" NotWftbJanding : As, after ha^ng %oke of the ^ults• 
« of a man,, we add, for a// tbaty be is an bonefi manT' 
fi.. e. Though all that has been. Γaid^may he the Caufe of 
thinking otherwife,. yet he is. an honeil man.] 

S. Johnfon fays, " for, Prepofitioni. 

« Γ. Becaufe of-^Tbat wbicl• we for our unwortbme/s• 
« [i. e. our unworthinefs the Citufe^ ere afraid to crave^. 
" our prayer is, tbat God for tbe wortbinefs. of bis Som 

?«*£i.«i Uift worthinefe of his Son heing the Cat^fe], 


^^ a.. With refpeBJOj with regard to % As- 

" L6^ pmt ape velhrn^ and the refi ksgoed' 

" iQK.all his lordjhip knows ^ but they are wood.'* 

^i. e. As far as all that his lordihip knows is tiie Caufέ of: 
their being denominated good or bad, the reft are as good.} 

^^ %» In this ienfe it has often jiis before it ; As — JiS- 
"^ ψ OK Maramaldm tbe generaly tbey bi^ n» jufi cauje to'> 
♦* mifiike binti being an old cupiain. of great eaiperience, 
[i. e. As far as Maramaldus the general i?i)^h(t be SiCimfe 
of their difcx)ntent, they had no jufi csxxit to mHUkehim,}, 


4, Ibi 


, « 4. In the CbaraSef of ; As— 

** Sayy is it fitting in this "jery field, 
' " This fields where from my youth Pve heen a certify 
" / in this field fo^uld die for a deferten** 

[i. c• Being a Deferter, being the Caufe of my dying• J 
^ 5. TTitb refemblance of\ As — 

** Fervfard be flew, and pitching en his head, 
** He quiver'd with his feet^ and lay for diad.'^ 

fi. e. As if Death, or his being >dead, had been the Cauje 
of his laying ; or. He lay in that manner j in which death, 
or being dead is the Cau/e that peribns ίο lay.J 

" 6. Conjldered as ; in the place of\ As— 

« Read JI the Prefaces cf Dryden : 

* '* FOR tbcfe ear critics much ccnfde nr ; 

" TtiMgb nsere^- vrrit ct firfi for filingt 

" Ts rsie the v:Jk'T:i\f frice a JtiJJiitg" 

[i. e. Read, Sec. the Cau/e why you ihould read them, 
being, that our critics confide in them. Though to fill 
up and to raife the volume's price was the Cau/e that they 
were at firft written.l 


7. In 



« 7. In advantage of\ For the fake of\ As— 

*' Shall I think the world was made for ove^ 

<' And men are btm for kmgSt at beafis for men" 

[i. e. Shall I think that one man was the Cauje why the 
Avorld was made ; that kings are the Caufe why men were 
born ; as men are the Caufe why there are beafts.] 

" 8. Conducive to; Beneficial to \ K& — // // for the 
** general good of human fociety^ and confequently of parti- 
*' cular perfonsj to be true and jufi : and it is for men^s 
« healtb to be temperate^ . [i. e. The general good, &c. 
is the Caufe why it vstfit or a duty to be true and juft : and 
men*s health is the Caufe why it is fit or a duty to be 

" 9. With intention of going -to a certain placet, As — 
« We failed direSlly for Genoa^ [i. e. Genoa, or that we 
might go to Genoa, being the Caufe of our failing.] 


<* 10. In comparative refpeoi ; As — for Ttt^s with Indian 
" elephants hefirove^ [i. e. He contended for a fuperiority 
over the elephants ; Tuiks, or the claim of a iuperiority in 
ix)int of Tulks, being the Caufe of the ftriving or con- 

Geo "II. 


** II. In proportion to ; As— -<ίί be could fee clear ^ for 
" tbofe times, through fuperfiitioni Jo be would be blinded, 
** now and then, iy human policy,^ [i. e. The darknefs, 
or ignorance» or bigotry of thofe times being the Caufe, 
why even fuch fight» as he then had, may be called or 
reckoned clear.] 

" 12. fVith appropriation to; As — Shadow will ferve 
<* FOR fummer. Prick him: for w^ have a number of 
** Shadows to fill up the Mufier^book^ [i. e. Summer is the 
Caufe why Shadow will ferve, i. e. will do ; or will be 
proper to be taken. Prick him : the Caufe (why I will 
have him pricked, or fet down) is, that we have many 
Shadows to fill up the Mufter-book.] 

** . 1 3. After O, an expreffion of Deβre ; As — 

0/ FOR a Muje of fin y that would afcend 
The bright efi heaven of invention.''* 

[i. e. Ο ! I Willi for a Mufe of fire, 8cc. i. e. A Mufe of 
^re being the Caufe of my wiihing.] 

•* 14. In account of; In folution cf*. As — Thus much 
" for the beginning andprogrifs of the deluged [i. e. The 
** beginning and progrefe of the deluge is the Caufe of 



thus much) or of that which I have writteR.] N. B. An 
obfolete and aukward method of fignifying to the reader, 
that the fubjedt mentioned fliall not be the Caufe of writing 
any more. It is a fovourite phrafe with Mr. Harris, re- 
peated perpetually with a diigufting and pedantic afie^S^'^ 
tion, in imitation of the Greek philofophers ; but has cer- 
tainly pafled upon fome perfons, as <* elegance of method^ 
« as Beetuty^ Ύαββ^ and Fine Writing.** 

« 15. Inducing to as a motive ; h%-^Tbere is a natural^ 
« immutable^ and eternal reafon for that wbicb we call 
*< virtue ; and againfi tbat wbicb we call vice,** [Or, That 
which we call virtue, we call virtue for a natural, eternal, 
and immutable reafon, i. e. a natural» eternal, and immu- 
table reafon being the Caufe of our fo calling it.— Or, There 
is a natural, eternal, and immutable reafon the Ccutfe of 
that which we call virtue.] 

« 16. In expeBation of\ As — Hemufl be back again by 
" one and-iwenty^ to marry and propagate : tbe father can- 
« not flay any longer for tbe portion, nor t be motber for tf 
" newfet of babies to play witb^ [i. e. The Portion Jjeing 
the Caufe why the father cannot ftay any longer : a new 
fet of babies to play with being the Caufe why the mother 
cannot ftay longer.] 

. C c c 2 ** 17. 



"17. IJotiag Power οτ Ροβύί/ίί^ ; Κ^-^ίόκ a holy perjon 
*< to be bumble ; for one^ whom all men efieem a faint ^ to 
" fear left bimfelf become a devil^ is as bard as for a prince. 
" to fubmit bimfelf to be guided by Tutors,^ [i. e. To be 
humble is hard or difficult Becaufe, or, the Caufe being, he 
is a holy peribn : To fear left himfelf become a devil is 
difficult Becaufe, or, the Cau/e being, he is one >vhom all 
men eβeem a faint : To fubmit himfelf to be guided by 
Tutors is difficult Becaufe^ or, the Caufe being, he is a 
Prince, And all thefe things are equally difficult.] 

« 18. Noting Dependence ι As — Tbe colours of outward 
« objeSis, brought into a darkened room^ depend for tbeir 
*< vifibiUty upon tbe dimnefs of tbe light tbey are hebeld by^ 
[i. e. Depend upon the dimnefs of the light as the Caufe 
of their vifibility.] 

*♦ 19. In Prevention of for Fear of\ As 

" Com hang bad dowrty any way ye allow ^ 

" Should wither as needeth for burning in Mow λ' 

[i. e. Burning in Mow, the Caufe why it needeth to 



** Aidy FOR the time jball not Jem tedkuSy 
«« rU tell thee what befdlme on a day *.'* 


^i. e. Hie Cat^e of my telKng thee> is, that the time may 
not feem tedious.] 

** ao. In Remedy of \ As — Sometimes bot^ fimetimes cold 
** things are good $γ the tootb^ach,'* [i. e. Their curing 
the tooth-ach the Caufe of their being called gwid^ 

** 21. In Exchange for ; As — ^Ke made confiderahle 
« progrefs in tbefludy of the law^ before be quitted tbat 
« profejjion for this of Poetry ^ [i. e. The profeffion of 
Poetry, the Caufe of his quitting the profeffion of the law.} 

•' 2 2. In the Place of Infieadof; As— To make bint 
** copious is to alter bis cbaraSler ; and to tran/Iate bim 
<* Jim FOVi. line is impoffible^ [i. e. Line Caufe of line, 
or, £ach line of the original being the Cattfe of each line 
of the tranllation.] 

* So Chaucer, 

" This dronkcn myller hath ytolde us here 
Howe that begyled was a carpenterc 
Ferauenture in Ikorne, mr I am one." 

Reue'sprol. Fol. 15. pag. a. col• i•. 

•* For they feemcd philofophers, they wcrcn purfued to the dethe and 
*' flayne." Boeciu^^ Bokc r. Fol. 0.11. pag• i. col. i. 




" 23. In Supply of^ to ferve in the Place uf\ As— 
** Μοβ of our ingenious young men take up fotne crkd^up 
" Englifipoet for their model** [i. e. To be-their mod€i 
the Caufe of taking him,] 

*< 24. Through a certain Duration ; As 

** Since bir'd for life thyjervile muje mufi/mg^ 
** $ναφνβ conquefis and a gkriotts king." 

£i. e. The continuance of your life the Caufe of the con- 
tinuance of your hire.] 

<* 25. In Search of in §lueft of\ h.Z'—Some of the 
*' phihfophers have run fo far back for arguments of 
*< comfort againfl pain^ as to doubt whether there were 
*' any fuch thing.** [i. e. Arguments of comfort againft 
pain the Caufe of running fo far back.] 

*' a 6. According to ; As — Chymifls have not been able^ 
** FOR aught is vulgarly known^ byfre alone to feparate 
<* true fulphur from antimoty.** [i. e. Any thing which 
is vulgarly known, being the Caufe of ability, or of their 
being fuppofed to be able.] 

" 27. Noting a State of Fitnefs or Readinefs ; As— 

*' Nay if you bt an Undertaker^ lam YO^you»* [i. e. I 

I am 


am an Undertaker, an Adverfary, a Fighter, &c. for you ; 
or, I will undertake you ; i. e. You the Caufe of ipy being 
an Undertaker, &c.] 

"28. In Hope ofi for the Sake of, noting ύΐ^βηαΐ Caufe \ 
« As — Scholars are frugal of their words, and not willing to 
" let any go for ornament, if they will not feroe for ufe^ 
[i. e. Ornament the Caufe ; Ufe the Caufe.] 

** 29. Of Tendency to. Towards ; As — // were more for 
** bis honour to raife the Jiege, than to fpendfo many good 
** men in the winning of it by forced [i. e. His honour 
the Caufe why it were more expedient, fitting, proper, &c, 
to raife the liege.] 

« 30. In Favour of, on the Part of, on the Side of'. As 
« — '/f becomes me not to draw my pen in the defence of a 
•* bad caufe, when Ibavefo often drawn it for a good one J* 
[i. e. A good one being the Caufe of drawing it.] 

•* 31. Noting Accommodation, or Adaptation :■ As- 
« Perfia is commodioufly fituated for trade both by fea and 
<* landj* [i, e» Trade the Caufe of its being faid to be 
commodioufly iituated.] 




^^ 32• With Intention of\ As— 

*^ And by thatjujtiu haft removed the Cauft 

** Of thoje rude tempφsy which, for rapine fent, 

^ Too oft alas involved the innocent.** 

fi• c• Rapine the Caufe of their being fent.] 
^^ 3S• Becomings Belonging to \ As— 

** // were not for your quiet, nor your good, 
** Nor FOR iwjr manhood, honefty and wijdom, 
" To let you know my thoughts.** 

[i. e• Your quiet is a Caufe^ your good is a C^;^, my 
manhood, my honefty, my wifdom, each is a Caufe^ why 
it is not fit or proper to let you know my thoughts.] 

^^ 34• Uotwitbfianding \ As — Probability fuppo/es that a 
^^ thing mayy or may not be foy for any thing that yet is 
** certainly determined on either Jtde,^ [i. e. Any thing 
yet determined being the Caufe of concluding.] 

" 35• For all. Notwithfianding\ As — For all bis 
•* exaB ploty down was be cafi from all bis greatnefs? 
[i. e. His exatSt plot being, all of it, a Qaufe to expert 
otherwife ; yet he was caft down.] 

« 36. 


<^ 36• To the Ufeofy to be ufed in ; As— 

" The Oak for nothing ill ι 
'^ The Ofier good for twigs \ the Poplar for the Mill'* 

[i• e. Not any thing the Caufe why the oak ihould be 
pronounced bad ; Twigs the Caufe why the ofier fliould be 
called good ; the Mill the Caufe why the poplar ihould be 
efteemed ufeful.] 

^^37• In confequence of; As — for love they force 
*' through thickets of the wood. '^ \\. t. Loyc the Cau/e .'] 

" 38. In recompenfe of\ As — 

" Now Έοκβ many glorious aSlions done 
*' For peace at home, and for the publie wealth, 
** / mean to crown a bowl to Cafar's health : 
" Befides in gratitude YOKjuch high matters y 
" Know I have vow'd two hundred Gladiators.'* 

[i. e• I mean to crown a bowl to Caefar's health, the Caufe 
— fo many glorious adtions ; the Caufe — peace at home ; 
the Caufe — the public weal. Befides, I have in gratitude 
vowed two hundred gladiators, fuch high matters being 
the Caufe of my gratitude.] 

" 39. In proportion to ; As -^Ηέ is not very tall^ yet 
" FOR his years he's tall" [i, e.; His years the Caufe vihy 
he may be efteemed tall.] 

D d d « 40. 


« 40. By mians ^f ; by interpofition of; As — Moral 
<* coft/iderations can no way moue thefenfible appetite^ were 
« /'/ not FOR the will^ [i. e. Were not the will the Caufe^ 

" 4t. In regard of ; in prefervation of ; Aa-^I cannat 
" FOR fny life*^ [i• t. My life being the Caufe ; or. To 
fave my life being the Caufe why I ihould do it; i. e. though 
my life were at ftake.] 

" 4^. For Λ>.• As — I come to^ to fee you * £1. e. To 
fee you being the Caufe of my coming.] 

A large pofierity 

** Up to your happy palaces may mount ^ 

" Of blejfed Jaints for to increaje the count." 

[i. e. To increafe the number being the Caufe of their 

For. Conjun&ion * ; As— 

•' Heav'n 

* So the French correlpondcnt ConjunSlion car (by old French authors 
written ^bar) is no other than ^ud re, or, ^e (i. c. K»t) ea re. 

^^ Qu and c, (fays Laurenbcrgius) commimionem habuere apud andquos^ 
** ut Arquusy oquulusj pro arcus, oculus. Prifc. Viciflim anticus, eculus, 
pro antiquus, equulus, antiqui libri. Cum & j«w», cui & qui. Terentius 

" Andria 



*^ Heaven doth with us as we with torches deal, 
** Not light them for them/elves : for if our virtues 
*^ Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike 
" yis if we had them not.** 

[i. e. Themfelves not being the Caufe of lighting them. 
If our virtues did not go forth of lis, 'twere all alike as if 
we had them not : That is the Caufe why heaven doth deal 
with us, as we deal with torches.] 

*' Andria : ^i mibi expurgandus efi, pro cui : annotat Donatus. ^erquera 
*' febriSy Lucilius : ^ercera, Gellius lib. ao. Cotidie, non ^otidie, fcri- 
*' bunt Quintil. & Viftorinus. Stercilinium, pro ftcrquilinio, habent libri 
** veteres Catonis de R. R. & Terentius Phormione : Infece & Infeque. 
^^ Ennius, I-ivius, Cato: ut dilputat Gellius lib. i8. cap. 19• Hujufce, & 
«' hujufque, promifcue olim fcribebant. Hinc Fortuna bujufce diei, apud 
" Plinium, lib. 34. &, Fortuna hujufque diei, apud Ciceroncm, lib. 2. de 
*' Icgibus. Et Viftor de regionibus urbis : vicus. hujusqije. diei. fort. 
*' ΜΌ. Lex vctus iedificii: dies operis k. novemb. primeis dies peqvvn. 


Of which innumerable other inftances might alfo be given. And the 
Latins in cutting off the ε at the end of ^ue, only followed the example 
of the Greeks, who did the fame by Κα» (as Ihould have been mentioned 
before in the note to page 92). Thus in Sappho's ode to Venus, 

Hpf otI* S* fi¥ TO TffiTToy^aj κ οτ7* 

Διυρο καλο»|Μΐ• 

Κ' ότΐι ΧΕλι υ'η; • 

D d d 2 « 2. 5^ 


" 2• Becaufe\ on this account tbat\ As — / doubt not 
" but great troops would be ready to run ; yet for that the 
" worfi men are mofi ready to tnove^ I would wifo them 
" chofen by difcretion of wife men.^ [i. e. The worft 
men are the moft ready to move. That is the Caufe why 
I would wiih them (not the worft men, but the troops) 
chofen by difcretion of wife men* 

" 3. For as mucL• In regard that ; in confideration o}\ 
^< As — For as much as the thirfl is intolerable^ the patient 
" may be indulged the free ufe of Spaw water. ^ [i. e. As 
much as the thirft is intolerable, is the Caufe why the 
patient may be indulged*] 

" 4• For why. Becaufe ; For this reafon that ; As, 
" Solyman had three hundred field pieces^ that a Camel 
" might well carry one of them^ being taken from the car^ 
" riage : for why, Solyman purpofing to draw the emperor 
" unto battkj had brought no greater pieces of battery with 
^^ him.'' [i• e. the Caufcj that.} 

For, is not yet your own, however hard you have 
ftruggled for it : for, befides Greenwood and S. Johnfon, 
you have ftill three others to contend with. Wilkins 

S afligns 


affigns two meanings to for. , He fays, it denotes — " the 
<^ efficient or final caufe^ and adjuvancy or agreement witb^ 

Lowth aflerts that — ^^ for, in its primary fenfe^ is loco 
" alterius, in the ftead or place of another.^ And he 


therefore cenfures Swift for faying — " Accufed the minifiers 
" FOR betraying the Dutch Γ And Dryden for faying— 
** Tou accufe Ovid for luxuriancy of verfer Where, in- 
ftead of for, he fays of ihould be written. 

And Mr. Tyrwhit, in his Gloifary, fays — " For. Prep. 
" Sax. fometimes fignifies against." Of which he gives 
three inftances. 

*^ He diddc next his white lerc 
'* Of cloth of lake fin and clerc 

" A breche and eke a flierte 
" And next his ihert an hake ton 
*' And over that an habergeon 

" For percing of his herte•" 

Mr. Tyrwhit fays, — " Against, or to prevent piercing.*^ 

** Therfore for ftealyng of the rofc 
*' I rede her nat the yate unclofe.*' 

Mr. T. fays — ^^ ^gainfi fteaUng." 

*' Some fliall fow the facke 
" For iheding of the wheatc." 

Mi:. T. fays— ^ to prevent ihedding." 

H• AS 



As Wilkins has produced no infiances^ he has given me 
nothing to take hold of. And let any ingenuity try 
whether it can, with any colour of plauiibility, apply Dr• 
Lowth's meaning of loco alterius^ or any other ftngle 
meaning (except Caufe) to the inftances 1 have already 
explained• His corrections of Swift and of Dryden, are 
both mifplaced. For the meaning of thefe paflages, is,— 

Betraying the Dutch 7 /^ r ^i. r .• 

-^ * \ Cause of the accufatioa. 

Luxuriancy of verfe 3 

So alfo in Mr. Tyrwhit's inftances, though their con- 
ftrudtion is aukward and faulty, and now out of ufe, yet 
is the meaning of for equally conipicuous• The Caufe 
of putting on the Habergeon, of the advice not to open 
the gate, of fowing the fack — being refpeotively — that 
the heart might not be pierced, that the rofe might not 
be ftolen, that the wheat might not be ihed. 

I will trouble you with only one inftance of my own• 
How do you account for this fentence ? — " To tbe difgrace 
^ of common fenfe and common bonefiy^ after a long debate 
^^ concerning tbe RobillaSj a new writ was moved for^for 
^^ old Sarum : and every orator was tongue-tied. Altbougb 
9 . '' it 


^ it is as much the duty of the Houfe of Commons to examine 
^^ the claim of reprefentation^ as of the other houfe to examine 
^« the claim of peerage^ Is the repetition of for tauto- 
logous, or only aukward \ 

Only aukward• For here are two Caufes mentioned. 
The Caufe of the writ, and the Caufe of the motion. By 
a imall tranfpofition of the words you may remove the 
aukwardnefs and perceive the fignification of the phrafe. 
— " A motion was made for a new writ for old Sarum.^ 
[i% e• A new writ — Caufe of the motion• Old Sarum, or 
a vacancy at Old Sarum — Caufe of the writ•] And you 
will perceive that for may be repeated in a fentence as 
often as you mean to indicate a Caufe ι and never elfe. 
As, " A motion was made for an order for a writ for 
^^ the elediion of a burgefs for to ferve in parliament for 
^^ the borough of Old Sarum.^ . 

1. An order — Caufe of the motion• 


2. A writ — Caufe of the order. 

3. Eleotioji of a burgefs — Cauie of the writ. 

4. To ferve in Parliament — Caufe of the ele(Stion. 

5. Borough of Old Sarum— Caufe of the fervice in 



So in thefe lines of Butler, 

^ The Devil's mafter of that office 
' Where it muft pafs, iPt be a drum ; 
* He'll fign it with Cler. Pari. Bom. Cm. 
' To him apply yourfelves, and he 
' Will foon difpatch you for his fee.'* 

i• e. his fee the cause* 


But if the words for and of differ fo widely as you 
fay ; if the one means Caufe and the other means Confe-- 
quence ; by what etymological legerdemain will you be able 
to account for that indifferent ufe of them which you 
juftified in the inilances of 

Sicknefs of hunger; and Sicknefs for hunger." 
Sicknefs of love ; and Sicknefs for love/' 


Qualified as it is by you, it is fortunate for me that I 
ihall not need to refort to Etymology for the explanation. 
Between the refpedtive terms 

^^ Sicknefs —. Hunger^ 

^^ Sicknefs Love^ 

it is certainly indifFerent to the lignification which of the 
two prepofitions you may pleafe to iiifert between them, 



whether of or for. : this being the only diflferencey that 
if you infert of, it is put in appojition to Sicknefs ; and 
Sicknefs is announced the Confequence 7 if you infert for, 
it is put in appoiition to Hunger or to Lave ; and Hunger 
or Love is announced the Caufe *, 


I do not well underftand how you employ the term 
Appofition, Scaliger, under the head Appofitioy (Cap. 
CLXXVii. de caufis) fays — ^« Cauila propter quam duo 
" fubfiantiva non ponuntur line copula, h, philofophia 
« petenda eft. Si aliqua fubilantia ejufmodi eft, ut ex ea 
« &: alia, unum intelligi queat ; earum duarum fubftan- 
«. tiarum totidem not» (id eft mmina) in oratione line 
« conjunotione cohaerere poterunt.* 

* The Dutch are fuppoicd to ufe Van in two meanings; bccaxiie it 
ilipplics indifferently the places both of our of and from. Notwithftanding 
which Van has always one and the fame fingle meanings viz. Beginning. 
And its ufe both for of and from is to be explained by its different appo^ 
fition. When it fupplies the place of from. Van is put in appofition to 
the fame term to which from is put in appofition. But when it fupplies 
the place of of, it is not put in appofition to the lame term to which or is 
put in appofition^ but to its correlative. And between two correlative terms, 
it is totally indifferent to the meaning which of the two correlations is 

Eee H. What 


H. • 

What Scaligcr fays is very true. And this is the cafe 
vrith all thoie prepqfitions (as they are called) which are 
veally Juhfianthes, Each of thefe — ejuimodi eft> ut ex ea 
& alia (to which it is prefixed, fofifixed^ or by any manner 
attached) unum intelli^ queat.- 


If it T>e as you fay, it may not perhaps be fo impoiffibSe 
as liOrd Monboddo imagines, to make a Grammar even, for 
tike mofl barbacous languages : and the Savages may poA 
fibly have as compleat a fyntax as. ourfelves. Have yon 
ecmfidered what he fays upmi that fubjefly Vol. I. Book 3. 
of hi& Otigin and Progrefs of Language ^ ? 

H. I 


• *' The laft thing I propofcd ta confider was, the expreflion of the 
^ relation or ctwflexkn of things^ and of the words exprefling them : which 
^ makes what we call Syntax, and rs. the principal part of the grammadcal 
•^ art/' 

** Now let ever fo many worcfe be thrown together of the moft clear and 
^ determinate meanings yet if they are not fome way connefted, they will 
^ never make difcourfe, nor form fo much as a fingle propofition. This 
'* connexion of the parts of ipeech in languages of art is either by ieparate 
^ words, fuch as prepofitions and conjunftions, or by cafes, genders, and 
^ numbers, in nouns, &c. But in lefs pcrfcft languages the moft of 
*^ them arc denoted by feparatc wordsi • 

« Now 



I could fooner believe with Lord Monboddo, that there 


are men with tails like cats, as long as his lordfliip pleafes * ; 




, •^ Now as every kind of relation is a pure idea of intelleSty which never 
^' can be apprehended by Jenfiy and as fome of thofe relations, particularly 
*' fuch of them as are exprefled by cafes, are very abftraft and metaphy- 
^* fical, it is not to be expefted that favages fliould have any feparate and 
" diftin6b idea of thofe relations. They will therefore not exprels them 
*' by feparate words, or by the variation of the fame word, but will throw 
them into the lump with the things themfelves. This will make their 
fyntax wretchedly imperfeft• — There are only three barbarous languages, 
** fo ^ as I know, of which we have any particular account publifhed that 
*^ can be depended upon. The Huron, the Galibi, and the Caribbee j of 
*' which we have Diftionaries and Grammars alfo, fo far as it is poffible to 
'^ make a Grammar of them. With reipeft to iyntax, the Hurons appear 
*' to have none at all: for they have not frepofttions or conjunSlions. They 
" have no genders, numbers, or cafes, for their nouns ; nor n\oods for their 
*' verbs. In fliort they have not, fo far as I can difcover, any way of con- 
*' nefting together the words of their difcourfc. Thofe favages therefore^ 
^' though they have invented words, ufe them as our children do when they 
^* begin to fpeak, without connefting them together : from which we may 
" infer, that Syntax, which completes the work of language, comes laft in 
^^ the order of invention, and perhaps is the moft difficult part of language. 
^' It would feem however, that perfons may make themfelves underftood 
^* without iyntax. And there can be no doubt but that the pofttion of the 
^' word will commonly determine what other word in the fentence it is 
" connefted with." 

* As his Lordihip (Vol. L page 238) feems to wifii/or farther authori- 
ties for human tails, efpecially of any tolerable length, I can help him to a 
tau of a foot long, if that will be of any fervice. * *' * 

Ε e e a ^ ^^ Avant 


and conclude with him, from the authority of his famtped^ 
friendy that human ileih (even to thofe who are not 


•• Avant que d'avoir vu cctte ilc, j'avois fouvcnt oiiy dire qu^il y avoit- 
•* des hommcs a longues queues comme Ics betes ; mais je n'avois jamais 
*' pu le croire, &jc penfois la chofe fi cioignec de notre nature, que j'y 
•^ cus encore de la peine, lorfquc mes fens m'otcrent tout lieu d*en dbuter 
** par une avanture aflez bizarre. Lcs habitans de Formosa etant accou- 
*^ tumcz a nous voir, nous en ufions cnfemble avec aflez de confiance pour 
ne rien craindre de part ni d'autre ; ainfi quoy qu' etrangers nous nous 
croyons en feurcte, & marchions fouvent fans efcortc, lorfque Texperi- 
ence nous fit connoitre que c'ctoit trop nous hazardec. Un jour quel- 
ques uns de nos gens fe promenant enfemble, un de nos miniilrcs, qui 
etoit de la compagnie, s*en eloigna d'un jet de pierre pour quelques be- 
foins naturels ; les autres cependant marchoient toiyours fort attentifs i 
un recit qu'on kur faifoit j quand il fvit fini ils fe ibuvinrent que le mU 
niftre ne revenoit point, ils Tattendirent quelque temps 5 apres quoy laa 
d'attendre, ils allerent vers le lieu ou ils cnirent qu'il devoit etre : Ds Ic 
" trouverent mais fens vie, & le triftc etat ou il etoit fit bien connoitre qu'il 
« n'avoit pas langui long-temps. Pendant que les uns le gardoient, les 
" autres allerent de divers cotcz pour decouvrir le meurtrier ν ils n'allerent 
** pas loin fens trouver un homme, qui le voyanc fcrre par Jes notrcs^ 
•* ecumoit, hurloit, & faifoit comprendre qu'il feroit repentir le premier 
•* qui Tapprocheroit. Ses manieres defefperees firent d'abord quelqu' im- 
^ preffion ; mais en fin la frayeur ceda,. on prit ce mifcrable qui avoiia qu'il 
•• avoit tuc le miniftrc, mais on ne put i^avoir pourquoy. Comme le 
^ crime etoit atroce, & que Timpunite pouvoit avoir de facheufcs fuites^ 
^ on le condamna a etre brute. H fiit attache a un poteau ou il demeura^ 
^ quelqves keures av^it I'execution \ ce fiit alors que je vis ce que. juiques- 
«• li jc n'avois pa croire j fa queue etoit longue de plus d*un pied toutc 
^ couYcnc d'un |^ rouxj & fon femblable a cellc d'un boeuf. Quand il 

9 • €C vit 




fami/hed) is the fweeteft of all viands to the human tafte^ 
than admit that " every kind of relation is a pure idea 

« of 

^ vit que ks fpedtatcurs ctoient furpris dc voir en hii ce qu'^ a'a^roit 
*^ point, il leur dit que cc dcfaut, li e'en etoit un, vcnoit tlu climat, puifque 
^* tous ccux dc la partie mcridionale dc cette Be dbnt it etoit, en avoicnt 
<* commc Iwi." 

Voyages de Jean Strujrs, An. 1650•. Tom. L Chapi x.. 

The meek, modeft, fmcere, difintcrefted, and amiable Doftor Horiley, 
Lord biihop of Rochefter, could have fumiflied the other Lord wiui an 

authority for Tails nearer home, in his own metropolitan city : ^' Ex 

** hujus modi vocibus, fuerunt improbi nonnulli, quibus viik eft occulta 
^' voluntas regis cflc, ut Thomas e medio tollerctur j qui propterea velut 
" hoftis regis habitus, jam tum csepit fie vulgo negligi, contemni ac in 
•' odio eflcj^ ut cum veniflct aliquando Strodum, qui vicus fitus eft ad 
^' Medveiam flumen,. quod (lumen Roceftriam alluit, ejus loci accoke 
•* cupidi bonum patrcm ita delpcftum ignominia aliqua afficiendi, non du- 
bitarint amputare caudam equi quem ille equitaret; feipfos perpetuo 
probro obligantes : nam pofte^, nutu. dei, ita accidit, ut omnes ex eo 
hominum gericre, qui id facinus fcciflcnt, nati fint inftar brutorum ani- 
•* malium caudati." — ^As this change of fliape may afford a good additional 
fcafon why (uch fellows ihould have *' nothing to do with the laws, but 
'' to obey them," the biihop perhaps will advifc to fink what Polydorc 
kindly adds in conclufion,; — " Sed ea infamia^ nota jam pridem una cum 
^ gente ilia eorum hominum, qui peccarint, deleta eft." 

Polyd. Virg. Urb. Angl. Hifi. Fol. 2it., 

*' But who confiders right will find indeed, 
'Tis Holy Ιβαηά parts us,, not the Tweed. 
Nothing but CUrgy could us two fecludc ; 
No Scotch was cv^r like a Biihop's icud. 



" '—^ . •— ^ _ 


*< of intelleB^ which never can be apprehended by fenfe ; 
^* and that thofe particulariy which are expreffed by caf^t- 
<* are more abftraol and metaphyfical than the others.* 

But his lordihip and his fautors will do well to contend 
ftoutly and obftinately for their do<Strine of language, for 


AH Litanys in this have wanted feith. 
There's no — Ddivtr usfrtm a Bifiep's wraih. 
Never ihall Calvin pardonM be for fales ; 
Never, for Burnet's fake, the Lauderdales ;' 
For Becket's fake Kent always (hall have tales." 

The Loyal Scot. By A. MarviU. 

lohan Capgrave and Alexander of Eflcby fayth, that for caflTngc of 
fyihe tayles at thys Auguftyne, Dorfctt Shyre menne hadde taylcs ever 
*^ after. But Polydorus applieth it unto Kentiih men at Stroud by 
** Rochefter, for cuttingc of Thomas Becket^s horfes tail. Thus hadi 
England in all other land a perpetuall infamy of tayles by theyr wrytteri 
Icgcndes of lyes, yet can they not well tell, where to beftowe them 
truely." Pag. 37. 

And again, pag. 98.-^'' The fpirituall fodomites in the legendes of their 
" fanftified forccrers have difFamed the Engliih pofterity with tails, as I 
^' have ihewed afore. That an Englyfhmah now cannot travayle in an 
other land, by way of marchandyie or any other honcft occupyingc, but 
it is moft contumclioufly thrown in his tcthe, that al Engliihmen have 
tailes. That uncomly note and report have the nation gotten, without 
^ recover, by thefe laify and idle lubbers the Monkes and die Prieftes, 
" which could find no matters to advance their canonifed gains by, or dieir 
*' faintes as they call them, but manifeft lies and knaveries." 

Man Bale. Mies of EngUJh Votaries. 

a they 





they are menaced with a greater danger than tbey will at 
firft apprehend : for if they give up their dodtrine of 
language, they will not be able to make even a battle for 
their Metaphy fics : the very term Metaphyfic being nonfenfe ;. 
and all the fyftems of it, and controveriies concerning it^ 
that are or have been in the world, being founded on the 
grofleft ignorance of words and of the nature of ipeech•. 

As far as relates to Prepo/ttionszna ConjunSHons^ on which 
(he fays) Syntax depends, the principal and τηοβ difficult 
part (as he calls it) of the Grammatical art, and which 
({according to him) is the Ιαβ in order of invention^ and 
COmpleats the work of language : As far as relates to thefe- 
prepoiitions and conjunotions, I hope it is by this tim^ 
pretty evident that, inftead of invention^ the clajpes of themi 
fpring from corruption \ and that, in this refpeA, the 
Savage languages are upon an equal footing with the lan- 
guages (as they are called) of art^ except that the former 
are lefs corrupted : and that favages have not only ^.%fepa^ 
rate and difiinSi ideas of thofe relations as we have, but that 
they have this advantage over us (an advantage in point of 
intelligibility, though it is a difadvantage in point of brevity) 
that they alfo exprefs them feparately and diftindtly. For 
our Prepo/ttions and Conjun&ionsj like the language of the 
Savages, are merely — " fo maay words of the naoit clear 

« and 


** and determinate meaning thrown together,** or, (as he 
afterwards ftrangely exprefles it) — <* thrown into the lump 
« with the things themfelves *,** 


♦ What Lord Monboddo has delivered concerning Syntax, he has taken 
in his own clumfy way, from the following erroneous ardcle of M. dc 
Brofles. — 147. Fahrique des Syntaxes harbares."^^^ Dans ion origine, clle 
*^ «''a d'abord cu qu'un amas condis de figncs ipars appliques felon Ic 
*' befoin aux objets a mefure qu*on les dccouvroit. Peu a pcu la neceflitc 
" de faire connoitre les circonftances des idces jointes aux circonftances 
« des objets, & de les rendre dans Tordre ou Tefprit les place, a, par unc 
^ logique naturelle, commence dc fixer la veritable fignification des mota» 
'^ Icur liaifon, leur regime, leurs derivations. Par Tufage rciu & invetcrf, 
" les tournures habituelles font devenues les preceptcs de Tart bons ou 
'^ mauvais, c'eft a dire bien ou mal iaits felon le plus ou le moins de logique 
^ qui y a prefidc j & comme les peuples barbares n'cn ont gueres, aufli 
leurs langues font elles fouvent pauvres & mal conilruites : mm a mefure 
que le peuple k poBce, on voit mieux Tabus des ufages, & la fyntaxe 
" s'epure par dc mcilleures habitudes qui devienncnt de nouvcaux preceptes. 
" Jc n'en dis pas da vantage fur retabliflement des fyntaxes ; & meme fi j'y 
** rcviens dans la fuite, ce ne fera qu'en peu de mots. Cefi une maiiere 
" immenfe dans fcs details, qui demanderoit un livre enticr pour Ij fuivrc 
" dans toutes les operations mechaniques du concept, qui en general la 
" rendent neccifaire en confequence de la fabrique du fens interieur, mais 
" tres arbitraire dans fes pctits details, par le nombre infini de routes longues 
*' ou courtes, droites ou tortues, bonnes ou mauvaifes, que Γ0.1 peut 
prendre pour parvenir au meme but, Au fuφlus toutes ces routes bien 
ou mal faites fervent egalement dans I'ufage lorfqu'elles font unc fois 
" frayccs & connues." This matiere immenfe^ as M. de Brofles imagines 
itj is in truth a very fmall and fimplc bufmefs. The whole of cultivated 
languages, as well as of thofc we call barbarous, is merely "- un amas de 
^ ftgfus epars appliques Jdou le hejoin aux objets:'. 

B. Well, 






Well, Sir, after this tedious inveftigation of for, (one 
half of which I think might have been fpared) let us now, 
if you pleafe, paiife for a moment, and confider the ground 
which we have beaten. The Prepoiitions if, unless, 
BUT, WITHOUT, SINCE, you had before explained amongft 
the Conjunctions. To thefe you have now added the pre- 

OF and FOR. Though we have fpent much time, we have 
made but little progrefs, compared with what ftill remains 
to be done : at leaft if our language is as fertile in prepo-^ 
iitions as Buffier fuppofes the French to be. 


I rather think we have made great progrefs. And, if 
you have nothing to objciSt to my derivations and expla* 
nations, I muft confider the battle as already won.. For I 
am not here writing a didtionaty (which yet ought to be 
done^ and of a very different kind indeed from any thing 
ever yet attempted any where)^ but only laying a foundation 
for a new theory of language. However, though the re- 
maining prepoiitions are numerous, the greater part require 
but little, and many of them no explanation. 

F f f Br. 



By (in the Anglo-faxon written Bi, Be, Bij) is the Im- 
perative By^, of the Anglo-faxon verb Beon, to be. And our 
anceftors wrote it indiflferently either be or by. ** Daiiiville 
*< BE right ought to have the leading of the army, but, 
<* BYcaufe thei be cofen germans to the Admirall, thei be 
" miftrufted." 1568. See Lodge's I lluflrations. Vol. 2. 
pag. 9. This prepofition is frequently, but not always^ 
ufed with an abbreviation of conftrudlion. Subauditur» 
inflrumenu caufe^ agenty &c. Whence the meaning of 
the omitted word has often been improperly attributed to 
BY. With (when it is the imperative of pyjiiSan) is uied 
indiflferently for By * (when it is the imperative of Beon^ 

♦ In compound prcpofitions alfo, the Anglo-iaxon ufcs incfifFcrcnUy cither 
ftVorBei ^> 


wiiS-septan Be-aeptan 

wiS-popan Be-popan 

wiS-jeouban Bc-2eont>ai> 

wiS-innan Be-innan 

wiii-ncoiSai> Be-ncoiSan 

lyi^-upan Bc-upan 

wiiS-utan Bc-uraa 

wiiS-hinban Bc-hinban 

though the modern Engfiih has given the preference to Be : having retained 
cnly two of the above prepofiidons commencing with piiS, and dropped" 
only two commencing with Be^ 



and with the i^vae fubauditur and imputed meaning : As — 
<< Hewas βαίη by afword^ or, be was βαιη with afzvordP 
— " Kenwalcus zvas warreyd with the King of Britons Ρ 
Wallis, confounding together the imperative of wypSan 
with the imperative of νΐΦΑ**> ^^7^ — " With indicat 
<^ infirumentum^ ut Latinorum ablativus inftrumenti ; atquc 
^* etiam concomitantiainy ut Latinorum cum^ 

By was alfo formerly ufed (and not improperly nor with 
a diflferent meaning) where we now employ other prepo* 
iitions, fuch as For, /«, During^ Through. As ; — 

" Aboute the xviii yere of the reygne of Jue dyed 
^^ the holy byihop Aldelme. Of him it is written, that 
^^ when he was ftyred by his goftly enymy to the fynne 
<^ of the fleih, he to do the more torment to himfelfe 
^^ and of hys body, wolde holde within his bedde by hym 
" a fayre mayden by fo long a tyme as he myght fay over 
^^ the hole fauter.'' Fabian lxxvi. 

^ ^^ The which by a longe time dwelled in warre." xlv. 

** To whom the fader had by hys lyfe commytted 
« him." Lxxii. 

F f f a «He 


« He made Clement by his lyfe helper and fucce0bur.'* 


** Whom Pepyn by his lyfe hadde ordeyned ruler of 
« Guian." lxxxiii. 

** Sleynge the people without mercy by aU the wayes 
<* that they paflyd.** lxxviii. 

So alfo OF was formerly ufed, and with propriety, wher^ 
we now employ by with equal propriety. 

** Thefe qucncs were as two goddeiles 
Of arte magike ibrcereiles 
Thci couthc muchc, he couthe more : 
Thci ihape and caft aycnft hym fore. 
And wrought many a fubtile wile. 
But yet thei might hym not begyle» 
Such crafte thei had aboue kynde. 
But that arte couth thei not fynde. 
Of whiche Uliiles was deceived." 

Gowir. Lib. 5. Fol. 135. Pag. i. OL a. 

Between. Betwixt. 

Between (formerly written Twene, Atweney Bytwette) is 
a dual prepoiition, to which the Greek, Latin, Italian, 
French, 8cc. have no word correfpondent ; and is almoft 
peculiar to ourfelves^ as fome languages have a peculiar 



dual number. It is the Anglo-faxon Imperative Be^ and 
tpejen or twain. 

Betwixt (by Chaucer written Byiwyt *) is the impera- 
tive Be, and the Gothic tv«S> or Λί» .• and was written 
in the Anglo-faxon Berpeohs, Bctpeox, Betpux, Betpyx, 
and Beacpyxc. 

Before» Behind, Below, Beside, Besides. 

Thefe Prepofitions are merely the imperative be, com- 
pounded with the nouns fore, hind, low, side, which 
]?emaining ftill in conftant and common ufe in the language ; . 
as — ^The fore part, the bind part, a /ow place,, the Jde,- — 
require no explanation.. 


Beneath means the fame as^ Below. It is the impera- 
tive Be compounded with the noun^ Neath . Which word ^ 
Neath (for any other ufe but this of the prepqfition) having, 
flipped away from our language, would perhaps have given• 
fome trouble, had not the nouns j Nether and Netbermofi• 

♦ -*' Thy wife and thou mote hangc fcr atwynne, . 
^^ Eor that Bytwyt you ihall be no fynnc.** 

Miller's Tale. 



(corrupted from NeoiScmepr, NiiSemaept) ftill continued in 
common ufe *. The word Nether is indeed at prefent 
fallen into great contempt, and is rarely ufed but in ridi- 
cule and with fcom : and this may poilibly have arifea 
from its former application to the houfe of commons, 
anciently called (by Henry 8) ^* Ύhe nether houfe of 
^^ parliament \^ That the word ihould thus have fallen 
into dilgrace is nothing wonderful : for in truth this Kether 
end of our parliament has for a long time paft been a mere 
fham and mockery of reprefentation, but is now become 

* €€ 

yet higher than their tops 

The verdurous wall of paradife up fpning : 
Which to our general Sire gave proipeft large 
Into his NETHER empire neighb'ring round•" 

Par. Lofl. Book IV. Ver. 445, 


among thefe the feat of men. 

Earth with her nether ocean circumfus'd 

Their pleafant dwcUing place." 

P. L. Book λΤΙ. V• 624. 

*' In yonder nether world where Ihall I fcek 
His bright appearances, or foot-ftep trace ?" 

P. L. Book XI. V. 328. 

t " Which doitrine alfo the lordes bothe ipirituall and temporall, with 
" the nether houfe of our parliament, have bothfene, and lykc very wcl•** 
A necejfary doitrine and erudition for any cbrifien man. Set fur the by 
the Kynges maieflie of En^lande. 154J. 



an impudent and barefaced ufurpation of the rights of the 

Neath, Neoian, NeoiSe, , (in the Dutch Nedefiy in the 
Daniih Nedf in the German Niederey and in the Swediih 
Nedre and Neder) is undoubtedly as much a fubilantive, 
and has the fame meaning as the word nadir ; which 
Skinner (and after him S. Johnfon) fays, we have from 
the Arabians. This etymology (as the word is now ap- 
plied only to aftronomy) I do not difpute ; but the word 
is much more ancient in the northern languages, than the 
introdu<Stion of that fcience amongft them. And therefore 
it was that the whole ferpentine clafs was denominated: 
μΛ^Κ in the Gothic, and Nebjie in the Anglo-faxon» 

If we fay in the Engliih, — *< From tbe top to the 
«* bottom^"— the nouns are inftantly acknowledged ; and 
furely they are to the full as evident in the collateral Dutch> 
*« Van aoYEN tot bkneden.»— βενεοεν/λ^/, Sec* 


UwDER (in the Dutch Onder) which feems by the found 
to have very little connexion• with the word Beneath^ is yet 
In fa(5l almoft the fame, and may very well fupply its place :; 
for it is nothing but On neder, and is a Noun. 

< " Nor 


" Nor cn^ne, nor device polemic, 
Difcafc, nor Doftor epidemic, 
'Though ftor'd -mui delctory med'cines 
(Which whofocver took is dead fincc) 
£'er ient ib vaft a colony 
To both the vnder worlds, as He." 

Hu^bras. Can. 2. V.^io. 

Β Ε Υ Q Ν D. 

Beyond (in the Anglo-faxon wiiS5eont)an, Bi^eont)» 
BejeoniD) means be paffed. It is the imperative Be^ com- 
pounded with the paft participle jeonto, ^eoned» or joneti, 
of the verb uan, Hansan, or ConSany to go^ or to pafs* 
So that^ — <« Beyond ar^ placed means•*—** Me pqffed that 
** place,*— or, Be that place pqffid* 


Ward, in the Anglo-faxon wajib or weajib, is the im- 
perative of the verb waj»t)ian or weajibian, to look at ; or to 
direst the view. It is the fame word as the French garder * : 
and fo Chaucer ufcs it, where it is not called a prepoiition. 

• " Litcrarum ο ct w frequentiffima eft commutatio, &e." 

JFallis's Preface. 


Galli femper c utuntur pro Sax. p. id eft, pro w." 

Spelman Glofs. (Garantia), 

4 « Take 


" Take REWARDE of [i. e. Pay regard to, or Look again 
<* at] thyn owne valewe, that thou ne be to foule to thy 
« felfe." 

Parfons 'tale, Fol. loi. pag. 2. col. 2. 

^* And yet of Danger cometh no blame 

*^ In REWARD [i. e. in regard"] of my doughter fliame." 

Rom. of the Roje, Fol. 135. pag. a. col. i. 

*' This Ihuld a rl jtwife lord haue in his thoujt 

*' And nat be like tirauntc^^f I^mbardy 

" That han no rewarde [i. c• regard^ but at tyranny.*' 

Legende of good fVotnen. Fol. 206. pag. 2. col. 2. 

^^ Wherfore God him felf toke reward to the thynges, 
^^ and theron fuche punyihment let fal•'' 

Tefiatnent of Loue. Boke 2. Fol. 322. p. 2. c. i• 

Our common Englifli word To reward *, which ufually, 
by the help of other words in the fentence, conveys To 


♦ Skinner fays — " Reward q. d. Re Award (i. c. contra feu viciffim 
*' aflignare, ab a. s. peajib vcrfus, crga. v. award." And under Award, 
he fays — " Award, a part, initiali otiofa a, et a. s. peaj\b. verfus. erga. 
^' q. d. crga talem (i. c.) tali addicere, aflignare." 

S. Johnfon fays, " reward \^Re and A^ard] to give m return. Skinner." 
Which is the more extraordinary becaufc under the article Award, Johnfon 
fays, that it is ** derived by Skinner, fomewhat improbably ^ from pcajib. 
Sax. towards.'* 

G g g I fupppfc 



recompence^ To benefit in return for fome good adlion done ; 
yet fometimes means very far from benefit: as thus, — 
<* Reward them after their doings'* — where it may convey 
the fignification of punifliment ; for which its real import 
is equally well calculated : for it is no other than Regarder. 
i. e• To look again^ i. e. To remember, to reconfider ; the 
natural confequence of which will be either benefit or the 
contrary, according to the aiStion or condudl which we 

In a figurative or fecondary fenfe only, Garder means to 
protedij to keepj to watcby to ward^ or to guard. It is the 
fame in Latin : Tutusy guarded, looked after, fafe, is the 
paft participle of Tueor. Tuitus. Tutus. So Tutor^ he who 
looks after• So w^e fay either, — Guard him well, or. 
Look well after him. In different places in England, the 
fame agent is very properly called either a Looker^ "λ Warden^ 
a Warder y an Overjeer^ a Keeper^ a Guards or a Guardian. 

Accordingly this word ward may with equal propriety 
be joined to the name of any perfon, place, or thing, to or 
from which our view or fight may be direfted. 

X fuppofe AWARD to be ii gardefy i. e• a determination h qui c'efl i 
garder the thing in difpute ; i. e. to keep it— -not cuflodirCy as Spelman 
imagined j but to have or hold it in poiTeiTion : for garder in French is ufed 
both ways, as keep is in Englifh, and in both properly. 

<^ He 



^^^ He {aidcy he came from Barbaric 
«^ To Rmewardc:' 

Cowir. Lib. 2. Fol. J4. pag. i. col. 1. 

*^ This ienatour repayreth with viftorjre 
«^ To Rmcwarde:* - 

Cbaucir. Man of Lowes Tale. Fol. aj. p. a. c• i, 

Kynge Demophon whan he hj ihip 
To Troiewarde with felaufliip 
^^ Seyland goth upon his wcie.** 

Cower. Lib. 4. FoL 67. pag. i. col, t, 

'^ Agamemnon was th€n in waye 

*« To Droiwarde:' 

Cower. Lib. 5. Fol. 119. pag. I4 coL i, 

*^ — — He is ^n CO Scothndwarde.'* 

CboMcer. Man rf Lowes Tak. F(^• a2. p. i. c. f*. 

'* The morow came^ and forth rid this marchant 

'' To Flaundersm>ardi his prentes brought him auaunt 

^^ Til he came to Bruges.'* 

Sfypmans Tale. Fol. 70. pag. i. c(3. i^ 

f ^ Hb baner he diiplayed^ and forth rode 
•^ To Thebeswarde:' 

Knygbtes Tale^ Fol. i. pag. δ. col. j•• 

'^ And certayne he was a good felawc 

^ Ful many a draught of wine had he drawe 

^* From Burdeuxwardy while the chapmen flepe.** 

Prol. to Cans. Τάΐ0^ 

" That cche of you to Ihorte with others way 

*' In this viage, fhal tel tales tway 

*^ To Canterburywarde I meane it fo 

** Αχή Homwardes he IhaU tel tales other two.'* 

Prol. to Cant. Tales: 
Ggg 2 ^ . ^ ^'' and 



and forth goth he 

*' To Ihyppc, and as a traytour ftalc away 

*' Whyle that this Ariadne a flepe lay 

" And to his countrejwarde he fayleth blyuc." 

Ariadnt. FoL α 17. pig.l• col. u 

^^ Be this the fon went to^ and we fbrwrocht 

*^ Left dcfolatc, the wyndis calmit <fik : 

" We not bekend> quhat rycht coift mycht we fciK, 

*^ War warpit to Seywart by the outwart tyde/' 

Douglas. Booke 3. pag. 87» 

^^ The mone in dU ane wauerand carte of licht 
<^ Held rolling throw the heuynnb middilwarde." 

Douglas. Booke 10. pag. 31a• 

" The Landwart hyncs than, bajrth man and boy, 
'< For the foft feilbun ouerflowis fill of ioy•'* 

Douglas. Booke 13• pag. 47^^ 

" Lo Troylus, right at the ftretes cndc 
«' Came ryding with his tenthe fomme yfere 
" Al foftcly, and tbyderwarde gan bende 
" There as thy fate, as was his way to wcnde 
«* To Paleyswarder 

Chaucer. Troylus. Boke 2. Foh 169. p. 2. c. a« 

«• As Ihe wold haue gon the way forth right • 

*« Towardt the garden, there as ihe had highc 
^ And he was to the Gardenwarde alfo.'* 

Frankeleyns Tale. Fol. ^$. pag. 2. coL i• 

'^ And than he fongc it wcl and boldcly 

•' Fro worde to worde according to the note 

** Twife a day it paflcth through his throte 

" To Scolewarde^ and Homwarde when he went." 

Prior ejes Tale. FoL 71. pag. a. coL i. 
5 «To 


^^ To Mewardi bare he right great hate/' 

Romauni of the Rofe. Fol. 138• p• 1• c. 1• 

^' He hath fuche heuyneilej and fuch wrathe to uswarde, bycauie of our 
" oficnccb'• 

Talc of Chducer. Fol. 82. pag. i• col• i• 

*^ But one thing I wolde wcl ye wift 
*' That neuer for no worldes good 
*^ Myne hcrt unto birwardi ftoodj, 
^* But oncly right for pure loue*'* 

Gower. Lib. 5• FoL 97. pag. 2. col• a. 

'* But be he (quier, be he knight 
*' Whiche to my Laaftwarde puriuetll^ 
** The more he lefeth of that he fcweth,. 
" The more me thinketh that I wynne." 

Gowcr. lib•. 2, Fol• %%. pag• 2. coL 2.. 

** Wheras the Poo, out of a wel finall 

«« Taketh his firft Ipring and his^ four» 

«' That Eflwarde cucr mcrcfcth in his count 

" To E/melkward^ to Fcrare,. and to yenylc/^ 

Chaucer. CkrhofOxenf. Tale» Fol. 45.. p. i. c. 2• 

«* If we tnmed al our care to Qodward^ we ihuld not 

^ be deititute of uich things as- ncceflkiiU this preiente 

« lyfe nedeth.* 

Tbo^lMpfetk Ofdhfftgetoelh pag; 203.. 

'^ It is hard for a man. ia a welthy fbate to kepe hi& 

*^ mind in a due order to GodwardJ* 

uiid, pag. 205. 

« The 



« The which is with nothing more hurteil and hyn- 
"<< dered in his way to Gracewarde than with the brekinge 
*' of lone and charitie.** " • 

Lupfei, Exbortacion to yohge Hien, 

■I ., 

So we may bid the ifiearer look at or regard either the 
End or Beginning of any aSiion or motion or time. Hence 
the compound prepoiitipns towAJid and fRomward, and 
Adverbs of this termination without number: in all of 

. • . 

which) WARD is always the imperative of the verb, and 
always retains one lingle meaning; viz, Regitrd, Look at. 
See, Direst your view* 

Minihew, Junius, and Skinner, though they are very 
clear that ward and carder are, on all other occaiions, 
the fame word; (;Mid id in Warden and Guardian^ &c.) yet 
concur that ward the Affix or pofipofitive prepofition, is the 
L.^tir> ^<?;y«f : SJdnai^r,. with, fome degree however of 
^.d^bt,^ l^ying^*-^*^ a^,?.. autem Weajit^, ii ^ hat,' Fertere 
« defleoterem, quid fceleris eflet?" — Serely none. It 
would only b© an eirbr to be t^orre^ed. 

' ^he' French prepofitioh' f^in,' frohi• thb Italian P'er/o, 
from the Latin f^er/us (which ih thafe lariguages fupply 
the place of the Englifti ward, as Adverfus alfo does of 
2 To- 



To-ward) do all indeed derive from the Latin verb vertercy 
tp turn ; of which thofe prepofitions are the pail participle, 
and mean turned. And when it is coniidered that in 
order to dire& our view to any place named, we muft turn 
to it ; it will not feem extraordinary, that the fame purpofe 
ihould in diiFerent languages be indiflferently obtained by- 
words of fuch diflferent meanings, as to look at, or, 7β 
turn to. 


Athwart (i. e. AtBweort, or Atbweoried) wrefled^ twifted, 
curved, is the Paft participle of ©peopian, to wrefi, to 
Pwifi\ flexuofutn, finuofum, curvum reddere; from the 
Gothic verb TtiZVeKQAN. Whence alfo the Anglo-faxon 
©peojT. Dpeoj^h. the German Zwercb. Zwar, the Dutch 
Dwars. Sw'erven» the Danilh Tverer. Tvert. Tver, the 
Swedilh Tivert. and Swarfrva, and the Engliih Thwart, 
Swerve and Feer *. 

Among, amongst, tmell. 
Minlliew fays — ^^ ex Bclg. Gemengt^ i• e• mixttis.^ 

. ? ■ ■■'»» ** ■■'■ ■ ' " ' ! »■ 

I » ■' 1 ' 

* Junius derives Swerve from the Hebrew•. And all our Etymologifts 
Veer from the French Viret\ 



Skinner fays-—** ab a. s. Demans, hoc a verbo Demensan*.^ 

Junius fays — " Manifefte eft ex a. s. M^en^an, Menjian, 
** miicere.** 

Here all our Etyniologifts are right in the meaning of 
the word, and therefore concur in their etymology. Mr. 
Tyrwhitt alone feems to have no notion of the word. 
For he fays — ** IfufpeSi the Saxon Demang had orig^ally 
« a termination in an,^ But Mr. Tyrwhitt muft not be 
reckoned amongft Etymologifts. 



* In the Dutch AUngen, Mengin, Immengen. 
German Mengen. 
Daniih Manger. 
Swedifli Menga. 
f " The kynge with all his hole entent 
" Then at lafte hem axeth this, . 
« What kynge men tcUcn that hiis 
^* Emongb the foike touchinge his name, 
" Or it be price, or it be blame.*' 

Gower. Lib. 7. Fol. 165. pag. i. col. a• 
X *' And tho flie toke hir childe in honde 
^' And yafc it fouke j and euer amonge 
^* She wepte, and othcrwhileyj?»^^ 
" To rocke with her childe aflepe/• 

Gower. Lib. 2. Fol. 33. pag. a. coL i• 
§ " I ftonde as one amongest all 
" Whichc am oute of hir grace fall'' 

Cower. Lib. 8. Fol. 187. pag. a. col. i. 



AMONG, is thfr paft participle ne-maencjet), tle-mencjeb, 
(or, as the Dutch write it, Gemengdj Gemengt ; and the 
old Engliih authors, Meynt *,) of the Anglo-faxon verb 
CcmaencSaa, Demencsan, and the Gothic verb tAmAimqAm. 
Or rather, it is the praeterperfedt nemanS, Eemonj, De- 
mun;, or Amang, Among, Amung, (of the fame verb 
Maenjan, Men^an) ufed as a participle, without the parti- 
cipial termination ob, at), or eb : and it means purely and 
(ingly Mixed^ Mingled. It is ufual with the Anglo-faxons 
(and they feem to be fond of it) to prefix efpecially to 
their paft participles A, ^, Be, poji, De. 

Chaucer ufes this participle amonges in a manner 
which, I fuppofe, muft exclude all doubt upon the fubje<5t ; 
and where it cannot be called a prepofition. 


* " Warme milke ihe put alfo thcrto 
" With hony meynt, and in fuckc wife 
^^ She gan to make hir facrifice." 

Gower. Lib. 5. Fol. 105. pag. 2. col. r• 
•* That men in eucryche myght fc 
*' Bothe great anoye, and eke fwetneflc 
^' And ioye meynt with byttcrneflc 
^' Nowe were they eafy, nowe were tkey wood." 

Chaucer. Rom. of the Roje. Fol. 130. pag. x. col. i. 
*' For euer of loue the fickenefle 
•* L• MEYNT with Iwete and bittcnKflc/* 

Rom. of the RoJe. Fol• 130• pag. 2• col. 1. 

Η h h « Yf 


^^ Yf thou cailefl: thy feedes in the feldes, thou ftiuldeft 
<< haue in mynde that the yeres bene amonges, other- 
<^ whyle plentuous, and other why le bareyn•^ 

Seconde Boke of Boectus. Fol. 225• pag• a. col. 2• 

This manner of ufing the praeterperfe<5l as a participle^ 
without the participial termination ed or en^ is ftill very 
common in Engliih; and was much more ufual formerly*• 
In the fimilar verbs, To fink Ee-fcncan, To drink De- 
bjiencan, To ftink De-ftfencan, To hang benjan, To fpring 
K-fppmjan, To fwing Spenjan, To ring Rm^an, To ihrink 
A-f cjimcan, To fting Srmjan, and in very many others, the 
fame word is ftill ufed by us, both as praeterperfedt and 
participle ; Sunky Drunks Stunk^ Hung^ Sprung^ . Swungy 
Rungy Shrunk, Stung. All thefe were formerly written 
with an ο (as Among ftill continues to be) Sonk, I>ronk (or 
A-dronk) Stonkj Hong (or A-bong) Sprong (or T-fprong) 
Swongy Rongy Sbronky Stong. But the ο having been pro- 

* Do(ftor Lowth is of a different opinion• He fays — " This abuie has 
" been long growing upon us, and is continually making further incroach- 
" mcnts/' &c. But Doftor Lowth was not much acquainted with our 
old Engliih. authors, and ftill Icls with the Anglo-faxon. It is not an abufe, 
but coaeval with the language» and analogous to the other parts of it : but 
it muft needs have been highly dilgufting to Doftor Lowth, who was excel- 
lently converiant with thf learned languages, and took them for his model. 

Q nounced 


nounced as an u, the literal charadter has beeti changed 
by the moderns in conformity with the found. And 
though Among (by being ranked amongft prepofitions, and 
being unfufpedled of being a participle like the others) has 
efcaped the change, and continues ftill to be written with 
an o, it is always founded like an υ ; Amungy Amunkfl. 

In the Reve*s tale, Chaucer ufes the Prepofition ymell 
inftead of among, 

" Herdeft thou ever (like a fong cr now ? 
" Lo whilke a complin is ymkll hem alle." 

But this will give us no trouble, but sEBxd a freih con- 
firmation to our doiStrine: for the Danes ufe Mellem, 
Imellemj and Iblandt^ for this prepofition Among^ from 
their verbs Megler, Melerery (in the French Mefler or 
Meier) and Iblander^ to ιηίχ^ to blend \ and the Swedes 
Iblandy from their verb BJanda^ to blend. 


Ymell vaeziis y^medledy i. e. mixed^ tningkd. A medley 
is ftill our common word for a mixture^ Tmeddled^ 
ymelledy and ymell by the oniii&on of the participial ter• 
mination, than which nothing is more common in all our 
old Engliih writers. 

Η h h a «He 


^^ He drinkcth the bitter with the fwcte, 
'* He MEDLETH forowe with likynge 
** And liucth fo, as who faieth, diynge/' 

Gower. Lib. i. Fol. 17. pag• i. col. 2, 
*' Ο mighty lorde, toward my vice 
'^ Thy mercy medle with jufticc." 

Lib. I. Fol. 124. pag. 2. col• 2. 
^ But for all that a man maie finde 
^^ Nowe in this tyme of thilke rage 
^* Full great difeaie in mareiage^ 
** Whan venim medleth with the fugrc, 
*' And manage is made for lucre•*' 

Lib. 5. Fol. 99. pag. i• coL τ» 
*' Thus medleth ihe with ioye wo, 
" And with her forowe myrth alfo." 

Lib. 5. Fol. 116• pag. τ. coL i• 
** Whan wordes medlen with the fonge, 
^' It doth plefance well the more.*' 

Lib. 7. Fol. 150. pag. i. col. 2•. 
*^ A kinge whiche hath the charge on honde 
*^ The common people to goueme 
*' If that he wil, he maie well lerne• 
*^ L• none fo good to the plefance 
^^ Of God, as is good gouemance. 
*^ And euery gouemance is due 

To pitee, thus I maie argue. 

That pitee is the foundemente 

Of euery kyngcs rcpmente. 
*' If it be MEDLED with Juftice, 
*' Thei two remeucn all vice, 
" And ben of vertue moft vailable 
" To make a kinges roylme liable.** 

Lib• 7• Fol. 166* pag. 2• col. i. 

«' But 


^^ But he whichc hath hb luft aflifed 
" With M£DLiD loue and tyrannic." 

lib• 7. FoL 170. pag• 2. col. 1» 

" And MEDL£TH Ibrowe with his fonge/' 

Lib. 8. FoL 182• pag. 2. col. 2. 

^* We haunten no tauernes> ne hobelen abouten^ 
^^ Att markets and miracles we M£D£L£y us neuer.'* 

Pierce Plowmans Crede^ 

^ There is nothyng that fauoureth fo wel to a chylde, 
^* as the mylke of his nouryce, ne nothyng iis to him 
^^ more abhomynable than the mylke, whan it is medled 
^ with other meate.**^ 

Cbaucer. Perfons Tale. FoL loi. pag. a. coL i. 

*' His garment was cuery del* 

" Ypurtrayed and ywrought with floures 

" By djrucrs medblyng of coloures.*' 

s. Rom. of the Roje. Fol. 124. pag. x. col. 2. 

Ο God (quod ihe) fo worldly felynefle 
Whiche clerkcs callen falfc felicite 
YMEDLito is with many a byttemeHc 
Ful anguyihous.*' 

Troylus. Boke 3. Fol. 177. pag. i. coK i. 

" Some on her churches dwell 
'' Apparailled porely, proude of portc 
**• The feuen facramentes they done fell 
** In cattel catchyng is her comfort 
^^ Of echc matter they wollen m£ll/' 

Plowmans Tale. FoL 97. pag. 2. coL i. 

*^ Anung 


^^ Amang the Grckis mydlit than went wc/' 

Douglas. Bookc a. pag. 52. 

*' And rcky nycht within an litil thraw 

^^ Gan thikkin ouer al the cauerne and ouerblaw, 

^ And with the mirknes mydlit Iparkis of fire.'* 

Doughs. Booke %. pag. 250. 

'* Syne to thare werk in manere of gun powder, 
*' Thay MYDLIT and they mixt this fereful foudcr." 

Douglas. Book 8. p. 257. 

<^ And iledis thrawand on the ground that wekis^ . - ' 

^^ Mydlit with men^ quhilk j^ild the goift and fweltis•" 

Douglas. Booke 11, pag. 387. 

*^ With blyithnes mydlit hauand pancfiil drcde." 

Douglas. Booke 11. pag. 394•^ 

*' Quhil blude and brane in haboundance furth fchede 
*^ Mydlit with fand under hors fete was trede.'* 

Douglas. Booke 1 2. pag. 42 1 . 

" Above all utheris Dares in that ftedc 
" Thame to behald abafit wox grctumly 
" Tharwith to mell refufing alutcrlic." 

Douglas. Booke 5• pag. 141• 

<< Quhen Turnus all the chiftanis trublit law, 
^* And Eneas fare woundit hym withdraw ; 
" Than for this hafty hope als hate as fyre 
** To MELL in fccht he caucht ardent defyre." 

Douglas. Booke 12. pag. 420. 

A Ο A I Ν S τ. 

Against (in the Anglo-faxon Onyejen) is derived by 

Junius from jeon^. 

««' Dr. 


« Dr. Mer. Cafauborj « mirahiliter (fays Skinner) de- 
<« fledit a Gr. *«7«. 

Miniliew derives it from Kccjivavji. 


I can only fay that I believe it to be a paft participle, 
derived from the fame verb (whatever it be, for I know it 
not) from which comes the collateral Dutch verb Jegenettf 
to meet, rencontrer•, to oppofe, &c. And I am the more 
confirmed in this conjedture, becaufe in the room of this 
prepofition the Dutch employ jegens from jegenen : and 
the Danes Mod and Imodj from their verb Modev of the 
fame meaning : and the Swedes Emot from their verb 
Mota of the fame meaning. The Daniih and Swediih 
Verbs from the Gothic MJJTQAn ; whence alio our verb, 
to meet^ and the Dutch Moetettj Gemoeten. 

AMiDor Amidst. 

Thefe words (by Chaucer and others written Amiddes) 
fpeak for themfelves. They are merely the Anglo-faxon 
On-mibban. On-mit)bq•, in medio : and will the more 
eafily be affented to, becaufe the nouns Midj Middle^ (i. e• 
CDit)-bael) and M^^, "kre ftill commonly ufed in oar lan- 




Oft long, fecundum longitudinem, or On kngtb : " And 
<* thefe wordes faid, ihe ftreyght her On length (i. e. (he 
*< ftretched herfelf along) and refted awhile.** 

Chaucer. Ύεβ. of Loue, Fol. 325. pag. i. coL 2. 

The Italians fupply its place by Lungo : 

'* Cosi Lungo Parnate rive andai.** Petrarch, 

And the French by the obvious noun and article Le Long : 

" Joconde la defllis fcremet en chemin 

** Rcvant a fon malheur tout Le Long du voyage." 

La Fmtaitte, 

So far there is no difficulty. But there was another 
ufe of this word formerly ; now to be heard only from 
children or very illiterate perfons : 

<* King James had a faihion, that he would never ad- 
<' mit any to nearnefs about himfelf» but fuch an one as 
'< the queen ihould commend unto him, and make ibme 
<< iiiit on his behalf; that if the queen afterwards, being 
^< ill treated, ihould comjdain of this Dear one, he might 
*4 laake his anfwer — " It is long of yourfelf, for you 
'< were the party that commended him to me." 

Arcbbipop Abbots narrative. In Ruihworth*s 
Collections. Vol. I. p. 456. 
'' 5 The 



The Anglo-faxon ufed two words for thefe iwo purpofes, 
Jinblanj, Anblonj, Onblon^, for the firft; and Delanj for 
the fecond : and our moil antient Englifli writers obferved 
the fame diftiniSlion, ufing endlong for the one, and 
ALONG for the other. 

*' She flough them in a fodcine rage 

^' Endelonge the horde as thci ben fct/' 

Gower. Lib. 2. Fol. 31. pag, i, coL 2. 

*' Thys kynge the wether gan beholde, 

" And wift well, they moten holdc 

'* Her cours endlonoe the marche right." 

Lib. 3. Fol. 53, pag. i. col. i. 

'* That nigh his houfe he Ictte deuife 
" Endelonge upon an axell tree 
^^ To iette a tonne in fuche degree 
" That he it might tournc about." 

Lib. 3. Fol. 54• pag. i* col. i. 

*^ And euery thyng in his degree 

^* Endelonge upon a bourde he laide." 

Lib. 5. Fol. 100. pag, 2. col. i. 

" His prifoners eke fliulden go 

" Endlong Ε the chare on eyther honde." 

Lib/7. Fol 155• pag. I, col• i• 

^* Than fee thei ftonde on euery fide 
*' Endlonge the Ihippes borde." 

Lib. 8. Fol. 179. pag. i. col. 2. 

. " Loke what day tliat endelong Brytayne 
<* Yc rcmcuc all the rockes, ftone by ftone, 

I i i «' That 


" That they ne let Ihyppe ne bote to gone, 
" Than wol I ioue you beft of any man." 

Chaucer. Frankeleyns Tale. Fol. ^. pag. i. coC 2;. 

" This lady rometh by the clyffe to play 
" With her meyne, endlonge the ftronde."** 

Hypftpbile. Fol• 2141, pag. r• coL2«; 

*' I fette the point ouer endelonge on the label." 

Jfirolabie. Fol. 286. pag. 2. coL i» 

^* I fette the poyntc of r, endelokge on my labell.*' 

Jfirolabie. Fol. 286. pag. 2• coL 2;λ 

" We flyde in fluddes ^ndlano fcill cojrftes fare." 

Douglas. Booke j. pag. 71W 

** Syne eftir endlangis the fey coiftis bray 
" Up fonkis fct and dcfis did array." 

Booke 3. pag. yy;.- 

" £ndlang the coiftis fide our nauy radc." 

Booke 3. pag. 77^ 


** Bot than the women al, for drede and affray, 
** Fled here and there, endlang the coift away." 

Booke 5• pag. i^i; 

^ In fchawis fchcne ekdlang the wattir bra." 

Booke 7. pag. 236^ 

^^ Snolano the ftyll fludis calme and bene." 

Booke 8. pag. 243; 

** For now thare fchippis full thik reddy ftandis, 
'< Brayand sndlang the coiftis of thar landis." 

Booke 8• pag. 260 




"The bront and force of tharc army that tyde 
" Endlang the wallis fct on the left fydc." 

Douglas. Booke 9. pag. 293• 

" Endlang the bankis of flude Minionis.'* 

Booke 10. pag. 320. 

<* The bankis endlang al the fliidis dynnys." 

Booke II. pag• 372• 

*' Before him cachand ane gretc flicht or oift 
" Of foulis, that did hant endlang the coift." 

Booke 12. pag. 41 5« 
" For euer whan I thinke amonge, 
" Howe all is on my felfe alonge, 
« I faie, Ο foole of all fooles.*' 

Gower. Lib. 4. FoL 66, pag• 2. coL i. 

" I wote well ye haue long ferued, 

" And God wote what ye haue deferued, 

" But if it is alonge on me, 

*' Of that ye unauanced be 

" Or els if it be longe on you, 

" The foth ihall be preued nowe.*' 

Lib. 5. Fol. 96• pag. ϊ. col. 2. 

" And with hir feffe ihe toke fuch ftrife, 
" That ihe betwene the deth and life 
*' Swounende lay full ofte amonge : 
** And all was this on hym alonge, 
** Whichc was to louc unkinde fo.'' 

Lib. 5. Fol• 113. pag. i. col. 2. 

" But thus this maiden had wronge 
" Whiche was upon the kynge alonge, 
^' JBut ageync hym was none apele•" 

Lib• 7« Fol. 172• pag. 2. col. i• 

I i i 2 '^ Yc 




*' Ye wote your fclfc, as wel as any wi^t 
*^ Howe that your loue al fully graunted is 

To Troylus, the worthycft wyght 

One of the worlde, and therto trouth yplight 

That but it were on him alonge, ye nolde 

Him neuer falfen, whyle ye lyuen iholdc." 

Chaucer. Troy/us. Bocke 3. Fol. 176. pag. 2. col. 2. 

Once indeed (and only once, I believe) Gower has con- 
founded them, and has iifed along for both purpofes : 

** I tary forth the night alonge, 
" For it is nought on me alonge 
" To flepe, that I foon go." 

Lib. 4. Fol. 78. pag. 2. col. i. 

SnblanS or endlong is manifeftly On long, But what is 
Hielanj or along ? 

S. Johnfon fays it is — " a word now out of ule, but 
" truly Engliih." He has no difficulty with it : according 
to him, it is — « Eelans, a fault, Saxon." — But there is 
no fuch word in Saxon as Delanj, a fault. Nor is that, 
at any time, the meaning of this word long (or along, 
as I have always heard it pronounced). ΡΰΚίί or not 
Fault, always depends upon the other words in the fen- 
tence ; for inftance, 

" Thanks 


" Thanks to Pitt: it is along of him that we not 
^^ only keep our boroughs, but get peerages into the 
^^ bargain.** 

^^ Curfes on Pitt: it is along of him that the free 
^^ conftitution of this country is deftroyed.'* 

I fuppofe that Lord Lonfdale, Lord Elliot and the father 
of Lady Bath, would not mean to impute any fault to the 
minifter in the former of thefe fentences : though the 
people of England do certainly impute an inexpiable crime 
and treachery to him in the latter. 

But Johnfon took carelefsly what he thought he found, 
without troubling himfelf about the facSl or the meaning ; 
and he was milled by Skinner * : as he was alfo concerning 
the verb Ύο Long. I mention the verb Ύο Long^ becaufe 
it may poflibly aflift us in difcovering the meaning of the 

* Skinner fays — " Long ab a. s. Eelanj. caufa^ culpa^ ut dicimus. It 
" is LONG of him.'' Which were evidently intended by Skinner to be 
ur.derftood causd, culpa. 

So Lye fays — " Eelanj. Long of. Opera, caiifa, impiiljuy culpa cu- 
'« jufvis.— a^r Se yy ujie lype jclanj, ut Anglice dici folet, // is long of 
<« thee that we live'' Here is no Fault. 

» othei 


other word. — " To Long, fays Skinner, valde defiderare, 
« ut nos dicimus, to think the time long //// a man befs a 
« thing."* 

The word long is here lugged in by head and ihoulders, 
;to give fomething of an appearance of connexion, between 
the verb and the noun. But when we coniider, that we 
have, and can have, no way of exprefling the ads or 
operations of the mind, but by the fame words by which 
we exprefs ibme correfponding {or fuppofcd correlponding) 
aft at operation of the body : when (amongft a multitude 
of iimilar inftances) we confider that we exprefs a moderate 


defire for any thing, by faying that we incline (i. e• Bend 
ourfelves) to it ; will it fiirprize us, that we ihould exprefs 
.an eager defire, by faying that we long, i. e• Make long, 
lengthen, or ftretch out ourfelves after it, or For it ? efpe- 
cially when we obferve, that after the verb To incline we 
fay To or Towards it ; but after the verb To Long we muft 
ufe either the word For or uifier^ in order to convey our 



Lenjian in the Anglo-faxon is To Long, i. e. To make 
long. To lengthen, Tq Jireicb out, To produce, extender e, 
protendere, . 




Lanjap iSe apuhtr, Sbam, up to nobe." i. e. Longetb 
you, Lengtbenetb yoyJi^ Stretcbetb you up to God. 

V Lanj or Long is the praeterperfcit of Len^ian. The 
Anglo-faxon and old Englifli writers commonly ufe the 
praeterperfeol as a participle, efpecially with the addition 
of the prefixes ΛΓ or 3e.— - 

** Nota fecundo,** fays Hlckes, " has praepofitiones foepe 
** in vicem comniutari, prsefertim tie, Be, et S."— May we 
not then conclude that De-lanj or a-long is the paft par- 
ticiple of Len?an, ■. and το&2ΰα& Produced f 

H ο υ Ν Dy Around• 

Whofe place is fupplied in the Anglo-faxon by hpeil 
and Oh-hpeil. Irt th^ Daniih and Syredilh by Om-kring. 
lii Dutch by Om^rtng ; and in Latin by circum, a Gr. 
K(/)»0', of which cir cuius is the diminutive. 

AsiDEy ABOARD) ACROSS» ASTRIDE» require no explana* 






The French participle Durant ; from the Italian ; from 
the Latin. The whole verb Dure was fome time iifed 
commonly in our language. 

'* And al his lufte, and al his befy cure 

" Was for to louc her while his lyfe mai dure." 

Chaucer. Man of Lawes T. Fol. 19. pag. i. col. 2. 

** How ihuld a fyihe withoutcn water dure." 

Troylus. Boke 4. Fol. 186. pag. 2. col. i. 

— — " Elementes that bethe difcordable 

** Holden a bonde, perpetually duryn•, 

" That Phebus mote his rofy day forthbring 

" And that the monc hath lorihip ouer the nightcs." 

Troylus. Boke 3. Fol. 17 a. pag. i. col. i. 

'' Eucr their feme Ihall dure.*' 

Teflament of Loue. B. 2. Fol. 315. pag. i. col. i. 

" This afFcftion, with reafon knytte, dureth in eueryche trew herte." 

Ibid. Boke 3. Fol. 331. pag. i. col. i. 

*' Defyrc hath longc dured fome fpeking to haue." 

Ibid. Boke i. Fol. 306. pag. i. col. a. 


The French participle Pendant ; from the Italian ; from 
the Latin. 

The Latin participle Oppoftus. 




The French participle Moyennant; from the Italian 
Mediante ; from the Low Latin. 


The Imperative of the verb. This prepofitive mantier 
of ufing the imperative of the verb To fave, af&)rded 
Chaucer's Sompnour no bad equivoque againft his adverfary 
the Friar; 

** God/ave you all, save this curfcd Frcrc." 

Ο U Τ C Ε Ρ T.• 

The imperative of a mifcoined verb, whimfically com» 
pofed of Oui and ca^ere, inftead of Ex and capere* 

" nd play hun *gaine a knight, or a good fquire, or 
" gentleman of any other countie i* the kingdome— 
« ouTCEPT Kent : for there they landed all Gentlemen.** 

B, lobnfon. Tale of a Tub, KQs. i. See. 3. 


The imperative, and the paft participle, φeak for them- 
felves ; and were formerly in very common ufe. 

Κ k k « Probkmes 


*' Problemes and demaundes eke 

" His wifedomc was to finde and fckc : 

" Whereof he wolde in fondrie wife 

** Oppofen them that wercn wife. 

'* But none of them it might bearc 

<« Upon his worde to yeue anfwere 

<i OuTTAKSN one, whiche was a knight.'* 

Gower. Conf. Am. Fol. 25. pag. i. col. t• 

'* And alfo though a man at ones 
'* Of all the worlde within his wones 
*' The trcafour might haue euery dele : 
" Yet had he but one mans dele 
" Towarde hymfelfe, fo as I thynke, 
" Of clothynge, and of meate and drinkc. 
" For more (outtake vanitee) 
There hath no lorde in his degree." 

Cower. Fol. 84. pag. 4. col. t• 

♦« For in good fcith yet had I kuery 
** Than to coueitc in fuche aweye, 
*' To ben for euer till I deye 
" As poore as Job, and loueles, 
" OuTTAKEN one." 

Gower. Lib. 5. fol. 97. pag. i. col. 2• 

" There was a clerke one Lucius, 
" A courtier, a famous man, 
" Of euery witte fomwhat he can, 
" Outtake that hym lacketh rule, 
" His ownc eftate to guydc and rule." 

Gower. Lib. 5. fol. 122, pag. 2. coL 2. 

*' For as the fifshe, if it be drie, 
" Mote in dcfautc of water die : 

•' Right 


*^ Right fo without aicr on liue 

" No man, ne beaft, might thriue, 

" The whiche is made of flefshe and bone, 

^^ There is not, outtake of all none." 

Cower. Lib. 7. fol. 142. pag, i. col. 2. 

^' Whiche euery kynde made die, 
" That upon middel erthe ftoode, 
" Outtake Noe, and his bloode." 

Cower. Lib. 7. fol. 144/pag. i. col. i. 

" All other fterres, as men fynde, 
** Ben ihinende of her owne kynde : 
^« Outtake oncly the moone light, 
*' Whiche is not of him felfe bright." 

Cower. Lib. 7. fol. 145. pag. i. col. I» 

'^ Till that the great water rage 
** Of Noe, whiche was iaide the flood, 
" The worlde, whiche than in fy nne ftood, 
" Hath dreinte, outtake hues eight.'* 

Cower. Lib. 8. fol. 174. pag. i. col. 1. 

" And ye my mother, my foueraigne plefance 
" Ouer al thing, outtake Chrift on lofte.'* 

Chaucer. Man of Lawes T. Fol. 19. pag. 2. col. 2• 

** But yron was there none ne ftele 
** For all was golde, men myght fe 
" Outtake the fcthers and the tre.*' 

Romaunt of the Rofe. Fol. 124. pag. 2. col. i. 

^' Sir, fayden they, we ben at one 
** By euen accorde of eueryche one 
«« Outtake rychefle al onely.*' 

Rom. of the Rofe. Fol. 147. pag. 2. col. 2. 

Κ k k 2 «And 




^^ And from the perrel iaifj and out of dout 

€€ \^as al the navy, outtakb four fchippis loift." 

Douglas. Booke 5. pag. i5r# 
** And fchortly euery thyng that doith rcpare 
*^ In firth or feild, flude, foreft, erth or are, 
" Aftablit lyggis flyl to flcip and rcftis 

Be the fmall birdis fyttand on thare neftis^ 

Ah wele the wyld as the tame beftiall. 

And euery uthir thingis grete and fmall : 

OuTTAK the mery nychtyngale Philomenr, 
*^ That on Ae thorne fat fyngand fro the fplene/* 

Douglas. Prol. to Booke i J. pag. 450• 

«^ And alfo I refygne all my knyghtly dygnitie, mageily 
** and crowne, with all the lordeihyppes, powre and pryui- 
<^ leges to the forefayd kingely dygnitie and crown bc^ 
^^ longing, and al other lordlhippes and pofleffyons to me 
*^ in any maner of wyfe pertaynynge, what name and 
*^ condicion thei be of; outtake the landes and poflef- 
^^ lions for me and mine obyte purchafed and boughte.'* 

Fabiatfs Chronicle. Richard the Second• 

Nigh. Near. Next. 

Nigh, near is the Anglo-faxon adje<Slive Nih, Nch» 
Neah, Ncahj, Vicinus. And Next is the Anglo-faxon 
fuperlative Ncahjcyr, Nchjr. 

** Foribth this prouerbe it is no lyc 
** Men fay thus alway, the Nye Hyc 
" Makcth the fcrre loue to be lothe/' 

Qiauccr. Myllcrs Talc. Fol. 13. pag. i. col. κ. 

I -• - 

OF prepositions; 437 

'^ Lo an olde proucrbe alcged by manye wyfc : Whan bale is greatcft, 
*^ than is bote a Nye bore/• 

Τφ. of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 320. pag• 2• coL 2• 

Mr. Tyrwhit in his gloflary fays well — ^^ Hext Sax.. 
^^ bigbefl. Hegb. Hegbefl. Hegfi. Hext. In the fame 
^^ manner Next is formed from Negh.^ — But he does not 
well fay that — " Next generally means the nigbefi joUvuoing% 
^^ but fometimcs the nigbefi preceding^ For it means 
limply the nigbefty and never implies either following or 
preceding. As, " To fit next.*^ &c• 


From the Anglo-faxon On ftcbc. In ftrebe, i. e. In place.. 
In the Latin it is Fice and Loco. In the Italian Ift luogo^ 
In the Spaniih En lugar. And in French Jiu lieu. In the 
Dutch it is either Infiede or In plaats. In the German 
On fiatt* In the Daniih Iftaden, And in the Swediih (as 

we ufe either Home st£ad or Home stall) it is liUellet. 

Our oldeft Englifli writers more rarely ufed the French 
word Placey hut moft commonly the Gothic and Anglo- 
faxon word stAASj Ste^, Stctjc. The Inftances are ΐο abun- 
dantly numerous that it may feem unneceflary to give any. 

** But take this lore into thy wit, 

« That all thyng hath tyme and sTXDit 



" The churche fcrueth for the bcdc, 
" The chambre is of an otlier fpcchc.*' 

Cower. Lib. 5. fol. 124. pag, i. col. i. 

** GcfFray, thou wotteft wel this 
^* That cuery kyndcly thynge that is 
" Hath a kyndcly stede there he 
" May bcft in it conferued be." 

Chaucer. Fame. Boke 2. fol. 295. p. 2. c. 1. 

*' Furth of that stede I went." 

Douglas. Boke 2. pag. 59• 

•^ But je, unhappy men, fle fra this stede." 

Douglas. Boke 3. Pag. 89. 

The fubftantive stead is by no means obfolete, as 
S. Johnfon calls it ; nothing being more common and 
familiar than — " Τοηβαΐΐ go in their stead.'• It is like- 
wife not very uncommon in compofition ; as Homefieady 
Bedfleady Roadjead *> Girdleflead +, Noonfied %y Steadfaft, 

Steady, See. 


* We often meet with the word Roadfiead in Voyages, and I fuppofe it 
is ftill a common term with all feafaring men. — " On Thurfday Captain 
" Fauchey arrived at Plymouth. The purport of his difpatches, we con- 
«' ccive, can only be a reprefentation of the neceflity of evacuating L'Ifle 

Dicu 5 as it produces nothing, has no good Roadfiedy and is not tenable, 

if not protefted by a fleet." 

Morning Chronicle. Oilober 19, 1795• 

" Extraft of a letter from Plymouth. The Anfon man of war, of 44 

*' guns, rode out the ftorm like a duck, -without the leaft damage, in the 

^'d « Sound; 



* One eafy corruption of this word sted, in compofi- 
tion, has much puzzled all our etymologifts. Becanus 

Sound J which, though an open Roadfiead^ has moft excellent holding 


Morning CbronUle. January 27, 1796. 


In confequence of having received information on Wednefday night 
at eight o'clock, that three large ihips of war and a lugger had anchored 
'* in a fmall Roadflid upon the coaft, in the neighbourhood of this town.'* 

London Gazette Extraordinary. February 27, 1797. 

f " His nofc by mefure wrought ful right 
Criipc was his heere, and eke ful bryght 
His ihulders of large brede 
And fmalyflie in the Gyrdelfiede.'' 

Chaucer. Rom. of the Roje. Fol. 1 23. pag. 2. col. 2. 

" For hete her clothes down flie dede, 
" Aimoft to her Gerdylfiede 
*' Than lay Ihe uncovert/' 

See Warton's Hifi. of Engl. Poetry. Vol. 3. p. xxxv. 

Divide yourfelf into two halfs, juft by the Girdlt-fleadi fend one half 
with your lady, and keep t' other to yourfelf.'* 

B. Johnjon. Εαβ ward Hoe. Aft 3. 
J " Should all hell's black inhabitants confpire, 
*' And more unhear'd of mifchief to them hire, 
" Such as high heav'n were able to affright, 
" And on the Noonfied bring a double night.'* 

Drayton* s Mooncalf. 

" It was not long ere he pcrceiv'd the ikies 
" Settled to rain, and a black cloud arife, 
" Whofe foggy groflhefs fo oppos'd the light, 
" As it woidd turn the Noonfied into night." 

Drayton's Mooncalf. 

'* She 



thinks, that Step mother is, quafi Stiff mother^ from Stief^ 
durus ; and fo called becaufe ihe is commonly ^^ ^//^r^, 
^^ yin;^, immitis^ rigidaP Voflius on the contrary thinks 
ihe is fo called, quaii fulciens mater^ as a fliff and firong 
fupport of the family ; ^^ quia fulcit domum cum nova 
haereditate." Junius, obferving that there is not only 
Stepmother^ but alfo Stepchildy Stepfon^ Stepdaughter^ 
brother^ Jt/ler^ &c. to all of whom this imputation of 
feverity cannot furely belong, (neither can they be faid 
fulcire domum cum nova hareditate) fays Stepmother is fo 
called, qua^ orphanorum mater : ^^ nam f^epan Anglo- 
^^ faxonibus, et Stiufan Alamannis videntur olim ufurpata^ 
^^ pro orbare•^ S• Johnfon, neither contented with any 
of the foregoing reafoning, nor yet with the videntur olim 
ufurpataj determined alfo to try his hand (and a clumfy 
one God knows it is) at an etymology ; but inftead of it 
produced a Pun. • Stepmother ^ according to him, is — ^^ a 
^^ woman who has Jepped into the place of the true 
^^ mother.'• 

** She by her fpells could make the moon to ftay, 
" And from the Eaft ihe could keep back the day, 
•* Raife mifts and fogs that could ccliplc the light, 
*^ And with the Noonfied Ihe could mix the night/* 

JiraytorCs Moimcalf. 

" With all our fifter nymphs, that to the Noonfied look•" 

5 But 


But in the Daniih collateral language, the compounds 
remain uncorrupted ; and there they are, with a clear and 
unforced meaning applicable to all — Stedfaderj Stedmoder^ 
Stedbroder^ Stedsqfler^ Stedbam^ Stedfon^ Steddotter. i. e. 
Vice, Loco, in the place of. Instead of a father, a mother, 
a brother, &:c• 


^pelman. ^^ Abuttare, occurrere, vergere, fcopum 
*^ appetere, finem exerere, terminarc. A Gallico abutter^ 
^^ feu abouter; haec eadem ngnificant. — La Bout enim 
^^ finem^ terminum^ "^^ fcopum defignat : Inde Angl.• a But 
^^ pro meta ; &: about, pro circa rem vel fcopum verfare. 
*^ Vox feodalis, 8c agri menlbribus noftris frequentiffima, 
^^ qui praediorum fines (quos ipfi capita vocant, Marculfus 
" fronteSj Galli Bouts) abuttare dicunt in adverfam terram ; 
" cum fe illuc adigant aut protendant. Latera autem 
^* -nunquam aiunt abuttare * : fed terram proximam ad- 
•^ jacere. La couftume reformee de Normandie, cap. 556• 
— " Le Serjeant eft tenu faire ledlure des lettres, 8c obli- 
*^ gatipns, 8c declaration, par Bouts 8c coftes des dites 
*^ terres faifies.'* 

* I hardly venture to fay that I believe, tlie correft and exaft Spclman 
is here miftaken. 

L 1 1 Junius. 


Junius. " But, Scopus, g. But. Fortafle defumptum 
^^ eft nomen ab illis monticellis, qui in limitibus agrorum 
^^ ab Agrimenforibus conftituebantur, atque ab lis Bodones 
^^ five Botones nuncupabantur, & ad quos, artem fagittandi 
^^ exercentes, tela fua veluti ad fcopum dirigebaiit.'* 

Skhtfier. " About ab a. s. Abu'^'a, Ymburan, circum 
*^ illud, quantum ad x>riorem fyllabam a praep. Ab. hoc 
^^ a praep. Ymb, quod a praep. loquerali Lat. Am. Gr^ 
«^ Afi(pt ortum ducit, uti, fecundum pofteriorem fyllabam 
^^ ab A. s. Ure vel uran foris, foras, extrenmus, item extre.- 
^^ mitas, unde & defluxit Belg. Bujteny quod idem fonat j 
^^ quod enim aliud ambit, partes ejus exteriores, i. e. ex• 
^^ timam fuperficiem attingit &: obvolvit•'^ 

" Abutt, a Fr. Abouiir. Vergere, confinem efle, ubi 
" fcilicct ager unus in, vel verfus, alium protenditur, &: 
*^ ei conterminus eft : hoc a nom. £6?///,^ extremitas, ter- 
" minus: quod fatis manifefte a praep. Lat. Ab. & A. s.. 
^^ ure, Foras, Foris, ortum trahit, q. d. quod foras pro- 
^^ tuberat vel extuberat•'^ 

** But, a Fr. g. Bout, Extremitas, Finis, PuiKftum, 
** Abouiir, ad finem tendere, accedere, acuminari. But 
** etiam in re nautica Extremitatem alicujus rei lignat» 
" manifefte Franco Galli» originis.'* 



Menage. " Bute — Botto &: Botontinus fc trouvent en 
« cette iignification. Fauftus &: Valerius dans Ic receuil 
« des autheurs qui ont efcrit de limit ibus agrorum, page 
a 312. — " In limit ibus ubi rariores terminos conjituimusy 
^^ monticellos plantavimus de terra^ quos botontinos appel- 
<* lavimus.'* Le jurifconfulte Paulus livre V de ces fen- 
tences titre 22. — ^' Sj/i terminos effbdiunt vel exarant 
^^ arbor efve terminales evertunt^ vel qui convellunt bo* 

<^ DONES, &C.'' Cujas fur ce lieu : « bodones, fie 

" uno exemplar! fcriptum legimus, cujus nobis copiam 
^^ fecit Pithaeus nofter. Bodones five Botones vicem termi- 
^^ norum praeftant. Vox eft Menforum, vel eorum qui de 
^^ agrorum &: limitum conditionibus fcripferunt 

Spelman, Junius, Skinner and Menage, all refort to 
Franco-Gall, for their etymology. As for boto and its 
diminutive botontinus (which have been quotec^) they 
are evidently the tranflation of a Gothic vsrord common to 
all the northern nations : which word, as it ftill remains 
in the Anglo-faxon dialedt, was by our anceftors written 
Bot)a (whence our Engliih To bode and many other words) 

♦ So, Vitalis de Limit. " Hi non funt fcmper a ferro taxati, & circa 
" Botontinos confcrvantur." Innocent, de caf. litter. " Alius fontanas fub 
** fe habcns, fuper fe montem, in trivio tres Botofitinos.'^ AuSIor de Agrim. 
** Si fiiit Botontini terne ex fuperis prohibeo te facramentum dare." 

L 1 1 2 and 


and means the firft outward extremity or boundary of any 
thing. Hence Onbo^a, Onbu^a, ^^buta, about. 


After (Goth. ΛΙ^τΛΚ» a. s. iEptep. Dutch Agter^ 
Acbter, Daniih, Eftery Bag, Swediih Efter^ Atray Acbteri) 
is ufed as a noun adjedive in Anglo-faxon, in Engliih, and 
in moft of the northern languages. I fuppofe it to be no 
other than the comparative of the noun aft : (a. s. JEjx) 
for the retention of which latter noun in our language we 
are probably obliged to our feamen. 


Hindy Afty and Backy have all originally the fame 
meaning. In which aiTertion (although aft had not re- 
mained in our language) I ihould think myfdf well jufti- 
fied by the authority, or rather the found judgment, of 
Mr. de Brofles ; who fays well — " Quelquefois la ugnifi- 
** cation primitive nous eft derobee, faute de monuments 
<• qui rindiquent en la langue. Alors cependant on la 
*• retrouve parfois en la recherchant -dans les langues 
•* meres ou collateralles.* In the Daniih language they 
cxprefs the fame meaning by, For og Bagy which we ex- 
prcfs by Fore and Afty or. Before and Behind» And in 
the Anglo-f^on they ufe indifferently Behmdan, Besqrcan^ 
and Onbsec. ' 


•■ Λ 



Down, Adown. 

In the Anglo-faxon Dun, Kbun. Minihew and Junius 
derive it from Awtty fubeo. 

Skinner fays-—** Speciofe allndit Gr, Auvu.^ 

Lye fays, — ** Non male referas ad ^rm. Doun, pro- 
*< fundus." 

S. Johnfon, in point of etymology and the meaning of 
words» is always himfelf. 

** Adown, the adverb, he fays, is from A, and Down ; 
« and means — On the ground,'* 

** Adown, the prepolition, vaiNais— -Towards the ground,^ 

But though ADOWN comes from ji, and Duwn, 

*• DOWN, the prepolition, he fays, comes from Xbuna,, 
** Saxon: and means; ifi. Along a defcent; and sdly» 
** Towards the mouth of a River, ^ 


•* Down, this adverb, he fays, means— 0« uiQ ground^ 
But ** DOWN, the fubitantive, he iays, is from Duny Saxon,. 

« aHill; 


*^ a Hill ; but is ufed now as if derived from the adverb : 
" for it means, ift. A large openp/am or valley^ 

And as an inftance of its meaning a valley^ he immedi• 
ately prefents us with Salifiury Plain. 

" On the Downs as we fee, near Wilton the fair, 
*^ A haft'ned hare from greedy greyhound go." 

He then gives four inftances more to iliew that it means a 
n:alley\ in every one of which it means hills or rifing 
grounds. To compleat the abfurdity, he then fays, it 
means, " sdly. A hill, a rifing ground ; and that, Tbif 
fenfe is very rare^ Although it has this fenfe in every in- 
ftance he has given for a contrary fenfe : nor has he given, 
nor could he give, any inftance where this fubftantive has 
any other fenfe than that which he fays is fo rare. — But 
this is like all the reft from this quarter ; and I repeat it 
again, the book is a difgrace to the country. 

Freret, Falconer, Wachter and De Brofles, have all 
laborioufly and learnedly (but, I think, not happily) con- 
fidered the word Bun. 

From what Camden fays of the antient'nanies (Dan^ 
monii or Dunmonify and Dobuni) of the inhabitants of 



*^ a Hill ; but is ufed now as if derived from the adverb : 
" for it means, ift. A large openp/am or valley.^ 

And as an inftance of its meaning a valley^ he immedi• 
ately prefents us with Salifiury Plain. 

" On the Downs as we fee, near Wilton the fair, 
*^ A haft'ned hare from greedy greyhound go." 

He then gives four inftances more to iliew that it means a 
valley•^ in every one of which it means hills or rifing 
grounds. To compleat the abfurdity, he then fays, it 
means, " sdly. A hill, a rifing ground ; and that, ΊΜ$ 
fenfe is very rare^ Although it has this fenfe in every in- 
ftance he has given for a contrary fenfe : nor has he given, 
nor could he give, any inftance where this fubftantive has 
any other fenfe than that which he fays is fo rare. — But 
this is like all the reft from this quarter ; and I repeat it 
again, the book is a difgrace to the country. 

Freret, Falconer, Wachter and De Brofles, have all 
laborioufly and learnedly (but, I think, not happily) con- 
fidered the word Bun. 

From what Camden fays of the antientnanEies (Dan^ 
monii or Dunmonif^ and Dobunf) of the inhabitants of 



« in the ground ; for fo much fignifieth Dan in the Britiili 
<* language*." 

Selden, in his notes on the firft fong of Drayton's Poly* 
olbion, gives full aflent to Camden's etymology. He fays, 
— « Duffneint^ i. e. low valleys in Britifh, as judicious 
« Camden teaches me.** 

Milton» I doubt not on the fame authority, calls the 
river ^^ the \gu/pby dun.'* 

** Rivers arifc ; whether thou be the fon 

" Of utmoft Tweed, or Oofe, or gulphy Dun.'* 

* " Rcgionem ilkm infederunt antiquitus Britanni, qui Solino Ounmmii 
" dicli. Quod nomen ab habitatione fub montibus faftum videatur. In- 
" fcrius enim, et convallibus paflim per hanc rcgionem habitatur, quod 
*' Oanmunith Britannicc dicitur : quo etiam fenfu proxima provincia Duff-^ 
" neinty i. e• Dcprcflae valles a Britannis hodie vocatur." 

Pag. 133. Folio Edit. 1607• 

" DoHunos videamus, qui olim, ubi nunc Glocefterihire et Oxfordihire, 
" habitarunt. Horum nomen faftum a Duffen Britannica diftione credi- 
" mus ; quod maxima ex parte loca jacentia et depreffa fub coUibus in- 
•* fidebant." Pag. 249. 

" Dan vel Daven e montibus &c. fertur ad &c. Deinde Davenport, 
" vulgo De^r^^r/ accedit." Pag. 461. 

" Ό anus y vulgo Don et Dune^ ita, ut videtur, nominatus, quod prefliofi 
*' et inferior! in folum labitur alveo j id cnim Dan Britanni* fignificat." 
Pag. 56a. 

5 And 


And Biiliop Gibfon concurs with the fame ; tranflating, 
without any diflent, the marginal note, ^' Duff en Britan- 
<^ nice profundum fivedepreflum,"in thefe words, *^ Duffen^ 
^^ in Britiih, deep or low.** 

Ilow then, againft fuch authorities, ihall I, with what- 
ever reafon fortified, venture to declare, that I am far 
from thinking that the Anglo-faxons received either the 
name of thefe rivers, or their word dun, Sdun (which 
is evidently our word down, adown, differently fpelled) in 
any manner from the Britiih language. And as for Duffen 
(from which, with Camden, I think the words proceeded) 
we have it in our own language the Anglo-faxon, and with 
the fame meaning of funky depreffum^ deep or low. 

If, with Camden, we can fuppofe the Anglo-faxon Dun 
to have proceeded through the gradations of 

-^ - [Duveny Duvn^ Dun^ Don^ Down. 
Dufen -j ' ' ' ' 

iDaveny Davn^ Dan. 

I ihould think it more natural to derive both the name of 
the rivers '-«' and the prepofition from Dupent, the pall 


* I fuppofe the river Dove in StafFordihire to have its denomination from 
the fame word, and for the fame reafon. 

Μ m m t The 


participle of the Anglo-faxon verb Dupian, merger e^ to 
finky to plunge^ to divey to dip. And the ufual prefix to 
the Anglo-faxon participles, S, in 7ft)un, ftrongly favours 
the fuppofition. In moil of the paffages too in which the 
prepofition or adverb down is ufed in Engliih, the fenfe 
of this participle is clearly expreffed; and, without the 
teaft {training or twilling, the acknowledged participle may 
be put inftead of the fuppofed prepofition : although there 
may perhaps be fome paflages in which the prepofition 
t>OWN is ufed, where the meaning of the participle may 
not β plainly appear•^ 

Upon. Uf. Over• Bove. Above• 

Thefe prepofitions have all one common origin and• 
iignification, Upon• Upan. Upa• 

t The Anglo-iaxons ufe indiiFcrcndy for the paft participle of Dujnan 
cither Dujreb, or Dupcn or Dopcn. I fuppofc this fame verb to have been 
varioufly pronounced, 

Dopian ) CDopen. Doven. Duvn. Doun. down, don* 

Dupian > Hence <Dupen. Duven. Duvn. dun. duni• 
Dapian 3 ^Dapen. Daven. Davn* dan. 


or -< <ToDive; 



In the Anglo-faxon Upa. Upejia. Upemsjr. are the 
nouns, altusy alitor^ altifftmus. 

Upon, Upan, Upa. Altus (Fr. Th. Upb.) upon. up. 
Upepa, Opejie, Opep, Altior. — over or upper. 
Upemsep:. Altiffi.inus. upmosti uppermost, upperest, 


Be-upan or Bupan. bove.^ 

■ » . • ■ 

On-bupan. above. 

The life of thefe words in Engliih as adjeftives is very 
common ; as it is alfo in all the northern languages : for 
the fame words are ufed in all of them *. 

^^ Aboue hb hcdc alfo there hongeth 
" A fruite whichc to that peine longeth : 
^' And that fruite toucheth eucr in one 
" His OVER lippe." 

Gower. Lib. 5* FoL 85• pag• o• col. 2. 

* Germ. jiuf. Auber. 

Oben. Oiir. Ohtrfit. 
Dutch* Of. Opper. Qpperfie. 
Boven. Over. Overfie. 
Daniih. Oven. Over. Qverfie. 

Swediih. Uppe. Ofwer. bfwerfie. 
Up. bfre. rpperfl. 

Μ m m a ^^ Her 



** Her OVER lyp wypcd flic fo clenc 

'* That in her cup was no fcrthyngc fcne.'* 

Prol. to Cant. Tales. Prioreje. 

*' Ful thredbarc was his over courtpy." 

Prol. to Cant. Tales. Gierke of Oxenf- 

** That of his wurfliip reckcth he fo lytc 
*' Hys OVEREST iloppe is not worth a mytc•*' 

Prol. to Chan. TcmorCs Tak• 

^ By which degrees men myght climben from the 
^< n^iherefi letter to the upperest.'' 

Boectus, Boke i» Fol. 221. pag. i. col. i. 

<* Why fuffreth he fuche flyding chaunges> that myf- 
<< tunien fuche noble thynges as ben we men^ that ame a 
**^ fayre perfell of the erth, and hc^den the upperest de- 
** gree under God of benigne thinges." 

Γς^. of Loue, Fol. 312. pag. r. col. i. 

t• .» 

is not neceflary for my prefent parpofe» to trace the 
Particles any farther than to fome Noun or Verb of a de- 
terminate lignification ; and therefore I might here ftop at 
the Anglo-faxon noun UFan, jiltus. But; I believe that 
Upon, Upaj upONr up, means the fame as top οτ Heady, 
and is originally derived from the fame fource. Thus> 

** Low- 


^^ Lowlinefs is young ambition's ladder, 
^.Whereto the climber Upwards turns his face ; 
*^ But when he hath atuin'd the Topmcft round, 
^^ He then unto the ladder turns his back/' 

Where you may ufe indifferently either Upward^ Topwardy 
or Headward; or Topmqfi^ Upmofiy or Headmofi. 

Some etymologifts have chofen to derive the name of 
that part of our body from the Scythian ha> altus ; or the 
lilandic had^ altitudo ; or the Gothic hAnh^ altus ; or 
(with Junius) from the Greek u^r^r^^j or Theot. hoh; or 
the Anglo-faxon Heab. But our EngHih words Head and 
Heaven are evidently the paft participles Heaved ^nd Heaven 
of the verb to Heave : as the Anglo-faxon Heajrot), Heapt^^ 
caput, and Heopen, Heapen,'coelilm, are the paft participles 
of the verb Heapan j Heopan, to beave^ to lift up• Whence 
Upon alfo may ealily be derived, and with the fame figni- 
fication. And I believe that the names of all abftradl re- 
lation (as it is called) are taken either from the adjeftived 
common names of objefts, or from the participles of 
common verbs. The relations of place are more com- 
monly from the names of fome parts of our body; fuch 
as. Heady Toej Breafi^ Sidiy Backy fFomby Skirty &c. 

c Wilkins 



Wilkins feems to have felt fomething of this fort, when 
he made his ingenious attempt to explain the local prepo- 
litions by the help of a. man's figure in the following 
Diagram. But confining his attention to ideas (in which 
he was folio wed. by Mr. Locke) he overlooked the etymo- 
logy of words» which^ tuEe. ui&r '^tki, ^d in wHach the 
fecret lay. 

<< For th0 elesutsr -^plication <^ . theie Jaeal prepo^tioiif 
« (fays he^^i'ihiilP'i^l^ co'^thb fallowing {Hagram. fii 
« which ^- 'ilkeovMi'S^aiik 4ttt «&|)rcreiilted the prepofi- 
** tions deterimhed to fiobtiofl/' wherein the acuter part 
^< doth point out the tehdisncy of tihat motion. The 
** Squares zx^ intended to fignify reft or the term of mo- 
** tion. And by the roimd figures are repreiented iuch 
« relative prepofitions, as may indifferently refer either to 
** motion or reft." 


ΐ:> in^iw 

|*(if t I WirAauf 






Γη all probability the Abbe de I'Epee borrowed his me- 
thod of teaching the prepofitions to his deaf and dumb 
fcholars from this notion of Wilkins. 

« Tout ce que je puis regarder direftement en Face, eft 
•* Devant moi : tout ce que je ne peux voir fans retourner' 
« la t^te de Tautre cole, eft D^rr/Vr^ moi. 

** S*agiflbit-il defaire entendre qu'iine aftion etoit paflee ? 
** II jettoit au hafard, deux ou trois fois fa main du cote 
*< de Ibn epaule. £niin s*il defiroit annoncer une adtion 
« future, il faifoit avancer fa main droite dire£tement de- 
« vant lui.** 

Des fourds et muets, 2 Edit. pag. 54, 

You will not expeit me to wafte a word on the prepo- 
fitions toucbingy concerning, regarding^ refpeB'mg, relating 
to. Saving, except, excepting, according tOi granting, aUow^ 
ing, confidering, notwitbflanding, neighbouring, 8cc. nor yet 
on the compound prepofitions In-to, Un-to, Un^tiU, Out-of,^ 
Tbrough'out, From-offi 8cc. 


I certainly Ihould not, if you had explained all the 
iimple terms of which the latter are compounded. I ac-- 

6 knowledge 


knowledge that the meaning and etymology of fome of 
your prepofitions are fufficiently plain and fatisfaftory : 
and of the others I fliall not permit myfelf to entertain a 
decided opinion till after a more mature confideration. 
Pedetentim progredt, was our old favourite motto and 
caution, Avhen firft we began together in our early days to 
confider and converfe upon philofophical fubjedts; and, 
having no fanciful fyftem of my own to roiilead me, I am 
not yet prepared to relinquiili it. But there ftill remain 
five fimple prepofitions, of which you have not yet taken 
the fmalleft notice. How do you account for in, out, on, 
OFF, and AT. 


Oh ! As for thefe, I muft fairly anfwer you with Martin 
Lutbeti — " Je les defendrois aisement devant le Pape, mais 
" je ne f9ais comment les juftifier devant le diable." With 
the common run of Etymologifts, I ihould make no bad 
figure by repeating what others have faid concerning them ; 
but 1 defpair of fatisfying you with any thing they have 
advanced or I can offer, becaufe I cannot altogether fatisfy 
myfelf. The explanation and etymology of thefe words 
require a degree of knowledge in all the antient northern 
languages, and a ikill in the application of that knowledge, 
which I am very far from aiTuming : and, though I am 



almoft perfuaded by fome of my own conjcdures cou- 
cerning them **, I am not willing, by an apparently forced 
and far-fetched derivation^ to juftify your imputation of 
etymological legerdemain. Nor do I think any farther 
inquiry neceflary to juftify my, conclufion concerning the 
prepofitions ; having, in my opinion, fully intitled myfelf 
to the application of that axiom of M. de Brofles (Art. 215.) 
— " La preuve connue d'un grand nombre de mots d'unc 
" efpece, doit etablir un precepte generale fur les autres 
" mots de memo efpece, a Torigine defquels on ne pent 
^* plus remonter• On doit en bonne logique juger des 
*^ chofes que Ton ne peut connoitre, par celles de meme 
<^ efpece qui font bien connues ; en les ramenant a un 
^^ principe dont Tevidence fe fait appercevoir par tout oii 
^^ la vue peut s'etendre." ' 


* In tht Gothic and Anglo-faxon ϊΗΝΛ» ^^^y means UteruSy vifcera, 
ventCTy intiriar pars corporis. (Inna^ inne, is alfo in a fccondary fcnfe ufed 
for Cave, Cell^ Cavern.) And there are fome etymological reafons which 
make it not improbable that out derives from a word originally meaning 
Skin. I am inclined to believe that in and out come originally from two 
Nouns meaning thofc two parts of the body. 






ΠΡΗΕ firft general divifion of words (and th^t which has 
been and ftill is almoil uhiverfally held by Gramma- 
rians) is into Declinable and Indeclinable, All the Inde- 
elinables except the Adverb^ we have already confidered. 
And though Mr. Harris has taken away the Adverb from 
its old ilation amongft the other Indeclinables» and has» by 
a lingular whim of his own, made it a fecondary clafs of 
Attributives, or (as he calls them) Attributes of Attributes ; 
yet neither does he nor any other Grammarian feem to 
have any clear notion of its nature and character. 

B. Johnfon * and Wallis and all others, I think, feem 
to confound it with the Prepolitions, Conjunikions and In- 


■>• (t 

Prepofitions are a peculiar kind of AdverbSj and ought to be te- 
*^ tdtxed thither." B. Johnjon's Grammar. 

£ ^ Intcrjeftia 


terje6tions. And Servius (to whom learning has great ob- 
ligations) advances fomething which almoft juftifies you 
for calling this clafs, what you lately termed it, the com- 
mon fink and repofitory of all heterogeneous, unknown 
corruptions. For, he fays, — " Omnis pars orationis, quando 
^^ definit efle quod eft, migrat in Adverbium ^J^ 


I think I can tranflate Servius intelligibly — Every word, 
quando definit effe quod ββ^ when a Grammarian knows not 
what to make of it, migrat in Adverbium^ he calls an Adverb• 

Thefe Adverbs however (which are no more a feparate 
part of fpeech than the particles we have already con- 
fidered) ftiall give us but little trouble, and ihall wafte no 
time : for I need not repeat the reafoning which I have 
already ufed with the Conjunftioiis and Prepofitions. 


Interjeftio poffet ad Adverbium reduci j fed quia majoribus noftris 
placuit illam diilingucre ; non eft cur in re tarn tenui hasreamus." 


« Chez eft plutot dans notre languc un Adverbe^ qu'unc ParticuleJ* 

De Brojes^ 

♦ " Rcfte diftum eft ex omni adjeftivo fieri adverbium/* CampaneUa. 

Ν η η a All 

46 ο 


All Adverbs ending in ly (the moft prolific branch of 
the family) are fufficiently underftood : the termination 
(which alone caufes them to be denominated Adverbs) 
being only the word like corrupted; and the corrupticm 
fo much the more eafily and certainly difcovered, as the 
termination remains more pure and diftinguiihable in the 
other lifter languages, the German, the Dutch, the Daniih 
and the Swediih ; in which it is written licbj lyk^ ligy Uga. 
And the Encyclopaedia Britannica informs us, that — <^ In 
*^ Scotland the word Like is at this day frequently ufed 
*^ inftead of the EngUih termination Ly. As, for a goodly 
" figure, the common people fay, a goodlike figure•^ 


Is the paft participle Adrifedy Adrifdy Adrift^ of the 
Anglo-faxon verb Djwpan, Abjupan, to Drive. 

" And qiihat auenturc has the hiddir driffe ?*' 

Douglas. Booke 3• pag. 79. 

i. e. Drijffed or D riff en. 

Aghast, Agast. 
Mcj^ be the paft participle Agazed. 

" The French exclaim'd — The Devil was in arms. 
«* All the whole array ftood yfgazed on him." 

Firfl pari of Henry 6. A& i. See. i. 

I Agazed 


Agaxed may mean, made to gaze : a verb built on the 
verb lb gaze. 

In King Lear (A(5b 2. See. i.) Edmund fays of Edgar, 


Gasted by the noiie I made^ 

« FuU fuddcnly he fled," 

Gq/tedy i. e. made aghaft : which is again a verb built 
on the participle agbafi. This progreiliye building of verb 
upon verb is not an uncommon practice in language. 

In Beaumont and Fletcher's Wit at feveral Weapons, 
(A6t 2.) ^ Sir Gregory Fopp, a witlefs lord of land^ fays 
of his clown, 

" If the fellow be not out of his wits, then will I never 
^* have any more wit whilft I live ; either the light of the 
^^ lady has gastered him, or elfe he's dnmk." 

I do not bring this word as an authority, nor do I think 
it calls for any explanation. It is fpoken by a fool of a 
fool ; and may be fuppofed an ignorantly coined or fan- 
taftical cant word ; or corruptly ufed for Gafied. 

An objedlion may certainly be made to this derivation : 
becaufe the word aqast always, I believe, denotes a con- 



iiderable degree of terror ; which is not denoted by the 
verb to Gaze : for we may gaze with delight, with wonder 
or admiration, without the leaft degree of fear. If I could 
have found written (as I doubt not there was in fpeech) a 
Gothic verb formed upon the Gothic noun AriS, which 
means Fear and Trembling (the long- fought etymology of 
our Englifli word Ague -^*) ; I ihould have avoided this ob- 



Junius fays—" Ague, febris• G. Aigu eft acutus. Nihil nempe ufi- 
tatius eft, quam acutas dicere febres." 

But Skinner, a medical man, was aware of objeftions to this derivation, 
which Junius never dreamed of. He therefore fays — ^^ Fortaffe a Fr. 
** AigUy acutus. Quia ( faUem in paroxyjmo) acutus (quoJammodo) morbus 
" eft, et acufis doloribus exercet : licet a medicis, durationem magis quam 
" vehementiam hujus morbi relpicientibus, non inter acutas ^ fed cbronicas 
" febres numeretur." 

But Skinner's qualifying paroxyfmOy quodammodo, acutis doloribus^ by 
which (for want of any other etymology) he endeavours to give a colour 
to the derivation from AigUy acutus y will not anfwerhis purpofe : for it is not 
true (and I ipeak from a tedious experience) that there are any acute pains 
in any period of the ague. Befides, S. Johnfon has truly obferved, that 
— " The cold fit is, in popular language, more particularly called the 
" Ague j and the hoty the fever.*' And it is commonly faid — " He has 
" an Ague and fever." 

I believe our word Ague to be no other than the Gothic word ^TlSj 
fear, trembling, ihuddcring. 

I. Becaufc the Anglo-faxons and Engliih, in their adoption of the Gothic 
fubftantives, (moft of which terminate in s) always drop the terminating s• 

2. Becauicj 


jeotion, and with full afTurance have concluded that agast 
was the paft participle of AriSAN, i. e. AnS6d, AriS'A, 
AriST. i. e. made to iliudder, terrified to the degree of 
trembling. There is indeed the verb ArQAN, timere ; 
and the paft participle An^S, territus ; and it is not without 
an appearance of probability, that, as Whiles, Amonges, 8cc. 
have become with us Whilfi, Amongfl, &c. fo AridS might 
become Aoidst, Agist, Agast ; or AridS might become 
Agisd, Agist, Agast. And the laft feems to me the moft 
probable etymology. 


Go, Ago, Ygo, Gon, Agon, Gone, Agone, are all ufed 
indifcriminately by our old Engliih writers as the paft 
particple of the verb To Go^ 

G o. 

« But netheles the thynge is Do 

" This fek god was foone go 

" With his deceite, and held him clofc." 

Gower. Lib. 6. Fol. 138. pag. a. colt.. ».. 

2. Becaufe, though the Engliih word is written Ague, the commont 
people and the country people always pronoxince it Aghy, or Aouy. 

3. Becaufe the diftinguiihing mark of this complaint is, the- trembling or 
fi)udderingi and from that diftinguiihing circumftance it would naturally 
take its name. 

4. Becauie the French, from whom the term /iigu. is ibppofed to have 
b.ecn boctowed,. never called the complaint by that name:. 

«* The 

464 ^^ ADVERBS. 

<' The daie is go, the nightcs chaunce 
*^ Hath dcrked all the bright fonne." 

Gower. Lib. 8. FoL 179.• pag. i. col. a. 

" But foth is fayed, co fithen many yeres, 
*<^ That feld hath cyen, and wode hath eres." 

Chaucer. Ktrygbies Talc. Fol. 4. pag. i. col. a. 

«^ How ofte tymc may men rede and fene 
«^ The trefon, that to women hath Be Do : 
'^ To what fyne is fuche loue, I can not fene 
" Or where becometh it, whan it is go." 

Chaucer. Troylus. Boke 2. FoL 167. pag. i. col. ^* 


" Of louers nowe a man maie fee 
** Ful many, that unkinde bee 
" Whan that thei haue her wille Do^ 
^' Her loue is after Ibone ago.'* 

Gower. Lib. 5• Fol• iii. pag• 2. col. 2. 

" As god him bad, right fo he dede 
^^ And thus there lefte in thztflede 
*' With him thre hundred, and no mo, 
** The remenant was all ago.'* 

Gower. Lib. 7. Fol. 163. pag. 2. col. 2. 

'^ Thus hath Lycurgus his wille : 

** And toke his leue, and forth he went. 

** But lifte nowe well to what entent 

" Of rightwifneflc he did fo. 

•* For after that he was ago, 

" He ihope him ncuer to be founde." 

Gower. Lib. 7, Fd. 158• pag. 2• col. i. 

^' For 


*^ For euer the latter cnde of ioyc is wo, 
*' God wotte, worldcly ioye is foone ago.'* 

Chaucer. Nonnes friefi. Fol. 90. pag. i. col. i• 

** For if it crft was well, tho was it bet 

" A thoufande folde, this nedeth it not cnquerr, 

" Ago was eucry forowe and cuery fere.*' 

Troylus. Boke 3. Fol. 181. pag. 2. col. i• 


" That after whan the ftorme is al ago 
" Yet wol the water quappe a day or two.'* 

Lucrece. Fol. 215. pag. a. col. i. 

" Ful fykerly ye wene your othes laft 
*' No lenger than the wordes ben ago." 

La belle dame. Fol. 267. pag. 2. col• 2. 

" Trouth fomtyme was wont to take auayle 
" In cuery matere, but al that is ago." 

AJfemble of Ladyes. Fol. 277. pag. i. col. if• 

Yo o. 

'* A clerke there was of Oxenforde alfo 
" That unto Logike had longe Ygo." 

Prol. to Cant. Tales, 

« To horfe is al her lufty folke Ygo." 

Chaucer. Dido. Fol. 212. pag. 2. col. 2. 

G Ο N. 

" Thou woft thy felfe, whom that I loue pirdc 
•' As I beft can, con fythen longe whyle." 

Troylus. Boke i. Fol. 161. pig. i. col. i, 

Ο Ο Ο AoONi 




" And euermore, whan that hem fell to fpeke 
" Of any thinge of fuche a tyme agon." 

Troylus. Boke 3. FoL 180. pag. i. col. i. 


" Thou thy felfe, that haddeft habundaunce of rychefle 
« nat longe agon." 

Boecius, Boke 3. Fol. 232. pag. 2. col. 2.. 

*' Ful longe agon I might haue taken hede." 

Jnnelyda, Fol. 273. pag. i. col. i. 


« I was right nowe of talcs defolate, 

" Nere that a marchant, gone is many a yere, 

" Me taught a tale, which ye Ihullen here.'* 

Man of Lawes Tale. Fol. 19. pag. i. col. i. 

^^ But fothe is faid, gone fithen many a day, 
'* A trewe wight and a thefe thynketh not one.** 

Squiers Tale. Fol. 28. pag. i. col. 2. 

A G Ο Ν E. 

" Of fuche enfamples as I finde 
" Upon this point of tyme agone 
f' I thinke for to tellen one." 

Gower. Lib. 5. Fol. 87. pag. i. col. i• 

" But erly whan the fonne ihone 
" Men figh, that thei were agone 

'' And 




" And come unto the kynge, and tolde, 
*' There was no worde, but out, alas, 
" She was ago, the mother wepte, 
" The father as a wood man lepte." 

Gower. Lib. 5. Fol. 104. pag, 2. col. 1. 

Whan that the myfly vapoure was agon£ 
And clere and fayrc was the mornyng." 

Chaucer. Blacke knygh$. Fol• 287. pag. i. col. i, 

*^ For I loued one, fol longe fythc aoone 
'* With al myn herte, body and fol might.*' 

Blacke knygbi* Fol. 289. pag. i. col. 2. 

" Which is no more than has been done 
By knights for ladies, long agone." 

And many a ferpent of fell kind. 

With wings before and flings behind, 

Subdu'd as poets fay, long agone. 

Bold Sir George, Saint George did the dragon/' 


Tillotfon, in a Έαβ fermon on a thank/giving occafion, 
31ft January, 1689, fays, 

" Twenty years agone.'' 


Is the paft participle Sfunbjien or Arunt)jiet>, feparated 
(as the particles oifand^x€) of the verb Sont)jiian, Sunt>pian, 
Synt>jiian, Sj-unbjuan, &;c. Tofeparate. 

Ο ο CL "In 



«* In vcrtuc and holy almefededc 

" They liucn all, and ncucr asonder wendc 

" Tyll deth departcth hem." 

Chaucer. Squiers Tale. FoL 24. pag. 2. col. 1. 

" And tyl a wicked deth him take 
" Hym had leuer asondre (hake 
" And let al his lymmes asondre lyuc 
'^ Than leaue his richeflc in• his lyue.'* 

Rom. of the Roje. FoL 145. pag. 2. col. 2^ 

" Thefe ylkc two that be the in armes lafte 
" So lothe to hem asonder gon it were." 

Troylus. Boke 3. FoL 179. pag. 2. coL 2.. 

" This yerde wa& large^ and rayled al the aleyes 
*< And Ihadowed wel, with blofomy bowes grenc 
" And benched newc, and bonded aH the wayes 
'* In which. ihc walketh." 

Troylus. Boke 2. Fol. 16^7. pag. 2. col• i;. 

This word (in all its varieties) is to be found in all the 
northern languages;, and is originally; from A. S.. Sont). 
i. e. Sand.. 

Astra y. 

Is the paft participle Xfrjiaejeb of the Anglo-faxon verb 
S^paejan, fpargere, difpergere, To ^ S ir ay ^ to fcatter. 

<* This prcft.was.drunke, and goth astrayde." 

Gower. Lib. 4. Fol. 84. pag. 2. col. i. 

" And ouer this I figh alfo 
" The noble peopk of Ifrael 
^ Dijpers^ as Ihcpc upon an hille 

4^. 5* Without 


'^ Without a kcper unarsued : ^ 

^ And as they wenten about asti^aied 

** I herdc a voyce unto hem ieyne," 

Gower. Lib. 7. Fol. 156. pag. 2• col. r• 

*' Achab to the batayle went. 
" Where Benedad for all his Ihelde 
*^ Him flough, ίο that upon the felde 
'^ His people goth aboute astraie." 

Gower. Lib. 7• Fol. 156. pag. 2. col. 2. 

S. Johnfon iays — To Stray is from the Italian Straviare 
from the Latin extra viam. But STKAVAn, Srpeapian, 
Srpeopian> Srpepian, Srpe^ian, Sr/wejian : and Srjiap, Sfpeop, 
Srpeo, Srpea, Srpe, were ufed in our own mother tongues, the 
Gothic and Anglo-faxon ; long before the exiftence of the 
word Straviare J and the beginning of the corrupted dialecSl 
of the Latin called Italian, and even of the corrupted 
dialedt of the Greek called Latin. And as the words To 
Sunder and A/under proceed from Sonb, i. e. Sand : fo do 
the words To Stray^ To Straw^ To Strow^ To Strew^ To 
Straggle^ To S trolly and the well-named Strawberry (i. e. 
Straw^d-berry^ Stray-berry^ all proceed from Straw^ or as 
our peafantry ftill pronounce it Strab '-'••. And Afiray^ 
or Afirafd^ means Strawed^ fcattered and difperfed as the 
Straw is about the fields. 

♦ " Me lyft not of the chafFe ne of the Stree 
'< Make fo longe a tale, as of the corne." 

Cbaucer. Man of Lawes Tale. Fol. 22. pag. i. col. i.. 

*^ R^apin^, 



« Reaping where thou haft not fown, and gathering 
<* where thou haft xiox. flrawedP 

St* Matthew. Chap. xxv. Ver. 24. 

A τ w I s T. 

The paft participle Ce-rpifet>, Srpij-et), Srpifb, of the verb 
Tpi^an, Tpyj-an, De-cpy^ an, torquere, Tpij- ^n from Tpa, 
Tpae, Tpi, Tpy, Tpeo, two. 


The paft participle SppySet), ApjiySt) of the verb pjiyiSan, 
ppiiSan, to writhe. 

In the late Chief Juftice Mansfield's time, for many 
years I rarely liftened to his dodtrines in the Court of 
King's Bench, without having ftrong caufe to repeat the 
words of old Gower ; 

" Howe fo his mouthe be comely 
" His worde fitte euermorc awrie." 

Lib. I. Fol. 29. pag. 2. col. 2. 


In the Daniih Skiav^ is wry, crooked, oblique. Skiaver^ 
to twift, to wreft. Skiavt^ twifted, wrefted. 




" And with that worde all fodenly 

" She pafleth, as it .were askie, 

" All cleane out of the ladies fight." 

Gower. Lib. 4. Fol. ηι. pag. i. col. i. 

Askant. Askance. 

[Probably the Participles Afcbuined, ui/cbums]. In Dutch, 
Sebum, wry, oblique. Scbuinen, to cut awry. Scbuinsy 
Hoping, wry, not ftrait. 

A s w ο ο N. 

The paft participle ?Cpianb, Xj- uonb of the verb Suanian, 
Xfpunan, deficere animo. 

** Whan ihe this herd, aswoune down Ihe fallcth 

" For pitous ioy, and after \itr fwounyng 

" She both her yong children to her calleth/* 

Gierke of Oxenfordes Tale. Fol. 51. pag. i. col. i. 

** And with that word ihe fel aswouni anon, 
" And after, whan her fwounyng was gon 
*^ She rifeth up.'* 

Doilour of Pbifikes Tale. Fol. 6 ζ. pag. i. col. i. 


The paft participle Έφοηηε [Eftonned] of the French 
verb Efionner (now written Etonner) to aftonifli. 

" And with this worde ihe fell to grounde 
" AswouN£, and there ihe laie astounde.'^ 

Gower. Lib. 4• Fol. 83. pag. i. col. 2, 

7 Enouol 




In Dutch Genoeg from the verb Genoegen^ to content, to 
fatisfy. S. Johnfon cannot determine whether this word 
is a fubftantive, an adjeotive, or an adverb ; but he thinks 
it is all three. 

*^ It is not eafy, he fays, to determine whether this 
^^ word be an adjeotive or adverb ; perhaps, when it is 
^^ joined with a fubftantive, it is an adjeotive, of which 
*^ Enow is the Plural"^. In other iituations it feems an 
•^ adverb ; except that, after the verb To have or To be^ 
*^ either exprefled or underitood, it may be accounted a 
" fubftantive." 

According to him, it means,— ^^ In a fufficient meafure, 
" fo as may fatisfy, fo as may fuffice. 2. Something 
^^ fufficient in greatnefs or excellence. 3. Something equal 
^^ to a mans power or abilities. 4. In a fufficient degree. 
^^ 5 . It notes a flight augmentation of the poiitive degree. 
^^ 6. Sometimes it notes Diminution I 7. An exclamation 
" noting fulnefs or fatiety." 

-'^^*-^^ ' - - -- - 


* In his Grammar, he fays, — '* Adjeftives in the Engliih language are 
wholly indeclinable; having neither cafe, gender, nor number ι being 
*' added to Subftantives, in all relations, without any change." 




In the Anglo-faxon it is GenoS or Denoh : and appears 
to be the paft participle tienoset), multiplicatnm, manifold^ 
of the verb Eenojan^ multiplicare. 


The paft participle pse^eneb, paejen, paejn, loetus, of the 
verb pae^enian^ pae^nian, gaudere, laetari. 

'^ Of that men fpeken here and there, 
*' How that my lady beareth the price, 
^^ How ihe is fairc, how ihe is wife, 
*' How ihe is womanliche of cherc : 
" Of all this thing whan I maic here 
*^ What wonder is though I be faine•*** 

Gower. Lib. i. Fol• 23• pag. x. col. 1. 

^' For which they were as glad of his commyng 
*' As foule is faine, whan the fonne upryfeth.*' 

Chaucer. Sbypmans Tale. Fol. 69. pag. i. col. i. 

*^ Na uthir wyfc the pepyl Aufonianc 

*^ Of this glade time in hart wox wounder fane." 

Douglas. Bokc i j. pag. 472* 

Lief. Liever. Lievest> 

Leop, Leopjxe, Leopep:. 

" I had as lief not be, as live to be in awe 
Of fuch a thing as I myfclf." 

SbakeJpξare's lulius dejar. 

ρ ρ ρ No 



No modern author, I believe, would now venture any 
of thefe words in a ferious palTage : and they feem to be 
cautiouily ihunned and ridiculed in common converfation, 
as a vulgarity. But they are good Engliih words, and 
more frequently ufed by our old Engliili writers, than any 
other word of a correfponding fignification• 

Leop (for Leopet), or Lupab, or Lupob or Lup) is the paft 
participle of Lupan, To love ; and always means beloved^. 

^* And nctheles by dales olde, 

'' Whan that the bokes were leuer, 

'* Writyng was heloued euer 

" Of them, that wcren vertuous.'* 

Gower. Prol. Fol• i. pag• i, col. i^ 

'* It is a unwife vengeance 

" Whiche to none other man is lefe 

" And is unto him fclfc grefe." 

Lib. 2. Fol. 1 8. pag.. i. col. 2; 

" And ihe anfwerd, and bad hym go^ 
*' And faide, howe that a bed all warme 
^ Htr LiEFE lay naked in hir arme." 

Lib. 2. Kol.,41. pag. I. col. 2•. 

♦ *' The Fader Almychty of the heuin abu^ 
** In the mcne tyme, unto luno his luf, . 
" Thus ipak j and fayd,*' — • . 

Douglas. Booke 12. pag. 44 1 . 



■ * I • 


" Thre pointes whiche I fynde 
" Ben LEUEST unto mans kynde ; 
« The firft of hem it is delitc, 
" The two ben worihip and profited* 

Lib. 5. Fol. 84• pag. 2. col. z. 

*' For euery thyng is wel the leuer 

^' Whan that a man hath bought it derc•" 

Lib. 5. Fol. 109• pag. a. col. i• 

" Whan Rome was the worldcs chiefcj 
" The footh fayer tho was leefe, 
*^ Whiche wolde not the trouth Ipare, 
*' But with his worde, playne and bare, 
" To themperour his fothes tolde." 

Lib. 7. Fol. 154. pag. 2. col. a^ 

«« Of other mens paffion 

** Take pitec and compaffion 

" And let no thyng to the be leef 

** Whiche to an other man is grcfe." 

Lib. 8. Fol. 190. pag. 2. coL i• 

^' They lyued m ioye and in felycitc 

" For echc of hem had other lefe and dcre." 

Chaucer. Mtmkes Tak. FoL 85. pag. i. col. 2. 

*' In the fwete feafon that lefe is.*' 

Rm. of the Ro/e. Fol. 120. pag. 2. col. u 

^^ His LEEFE a rofen chapelet 

^' Had madcj and on his heed it fet.'" 

Rom. of the Rofe. Fol. 124. pag. i. coL u 

" And hym her lefe and derc hcrt cal." 

Trcylus. Bokc j. FoL 176. pag. 2. col. 2. 

Ρ ρ ρ 2 ^' Had 




" Had I hym neucr lefe ? By God I wenc 
** Ye had neucr thyng fo lefe (quod fhe)/' 

Trqylus. Boke 3. Fol. 177. pag. i• col. 2. 

*' Ye that to me (quod ihe) ful leuer were 
^* Than al the good the funne aboute gothe•" 

Troylus. Boke 3. Fol 178 ν pag. 2. col. i. 

** For as to me nys leuer none ne lother/' 

Leg. of good Women. Prol. Fol. 205. pag• 2. col. 2. 

*' Remembrandon the mortall anciant were 
" That for the Grekis to hir leif and dere, 
" At Troye lang tyme fche led before that day.'• 

Douglas. Booke i. pag. 13. 

Gif cuir ony thankc I deferuit toward the 

Or ocht of myne to the was leif, quod fche." 

Douglas. Booke- 4• pag. no.. 

•' Ο thou nymphe, wourfchip of fludis clere, 
*^ That to my faul is bald maift leif and dere." 

Douglas. Book 12. pag. 410. 

Adieu. Farewell. 

The former from the French a dieu^ from the Italian 
Addio: the latter the imperative of pajian, to go, or to 
fare. So it is equally faid in Englilh — How fares it ? or. 
How goes it ? — 

The Dutch and the Swedes alfo fay, Vaarwel^ Farwal: 
The Danes Levrveif and the Germans Lebet-wobl, 





Means — Hold^ Stop, (as when we fay — Hold your band)^ 
Keep the prefent iituation, Hold βιΙΙ. 

In German Still balten is To halt or flop ; and Halten is 
Yb Hold. In Dutch Still bouden^ to halt or ftop; and 
Houdefiy to hold• 

Menage fays well' — ^^ Far AltOy proprio di quel fermarii 
^^ che fanno le ordinanze militari : Dal Tedefco Halte^ che 
" vale, Ferma la ; dimora la ; imperativo del verbo Halten^ 
^f cioq arreftarii.'' 

The Italians affuredly took the military term from the 

Our Englifli word halt is the imperative of the Anglo- 
faxon verb Healban, to hold ; and Hold itfelf is from Heal- 
t)an, and was formerly written halt. 

** He leyth downe his one eare all plat 
** Unto the groimde, and halt it faft.** 

Gower. Lib. i. Fol• lo• pag. i. col. 2. 

" But fo well HALTE no man the plough, 
" That he ne balketh otherwhile." 

Lib. 2• Fol. 50, pag. i. col• i. 

^ " The 


*' The golde, whiche auaricc enclofeth, 

*' But all to litell hym fuppofcth, 

" He let it neuer out of his honde, 

*' But gette hym more, and halt it faft. 

" To fcie howe fuche a man hath good> 

" Who lb that reafone underftoode, 

" It is unpropcrliche fayde : 

" That good liath hym, and halt him taide." 

Lib. 4. FoL 83. p. 2. c. 2. Fol. 84. p• i. col. i. 

Euery man, thath halt him worth a leke. 
Upon his bare knees ought all hys lyfe 
" Thanken God, that him hath fent a wyfe.*' 

Chaucer. Marchauntes Tale. Fol. 29. pag. i, col. i. 

'^ For euery wight, whiche that to Rome went, 
*' Halte not ο pathe, ne alway ο manerc." 

Troylus. Bokc i. Fol. 163. pag. i. col. a. 

*^ Loue, that with an holfome alyaunce 

^' Halte people ioyned, as hym lyftc hem gyc.'* 

Troylus. Boke 3. Fol• 182• pag. i. coL i. 

L o. 

The imperative of Look. So the common people fay 
corruptly, — " Ld" you there now" — ^^ La^ you there•**— 

Where we now employ fometimes look and fometimes 
LO, with difcrimination ; our old Englifti writers ufed in- 
diflferently lo, loke, loketh, for this imperative. Chaucer, 
in the Pardoners Tale, fays 




^ Al the fouenyne aftes, dare I fay, 

« Of viftories in the Olde Tcftament 

^ Were don in abftynence and in prayere, 

'^ LoKETH the Byble, and. there ye mowc it Icre.'^ 

*' LoKETH * Attyla, the great conquerour 

'^ Dyed in his flepe> with ihame and diihonour.** 

^' Lore * eke howe to kynge Demetrius 
^^ The king of Parthes, as the boke fayth us, 
^^ Sent him a payre of dyce of golde in fcorne•'^ 

" Bebolde and β that in the firft table 

*' Of hye gods heftes honourable, 

*^ How that the fcconde hefte of him is this,. 

** Take not my name in ydelneflc amys. 

" Lo, he Rather f forbyddeth fuchc iwering 

" Than homicide, or any other curfed thing." 

Fol. 66. pag. 2. col. 2. Fol. 6η. pag. i. coL i. 

So B. Johnfon, {AJchymifiy A. 2. Sc. 3.) 

*' For LOOK, how oft I iterate the work, 
" So many times I add unto his virtue." 

Here, if it had pleafed him, he might have faid— lo 
how oft &c. 

♦ In both thefe places a modern writer would fay lo. 
f • Sooner y Earlier. — He forbids fuch fwearing> Before Ke forbids homicide. 
k. e. in a foregoing part of the table, 

6 And 


And again 

« Subtle. Why, RafcaU — 
" Face. Lo you here, Sir.'' 

Here, if it had pleafed him, he might have faid — look 
you here. 

The Dutch correlpondent adverb is Siet from Sien^ to 
look or fee. The German Siebe or Sibe from Seben^ to fee• 
The Daniih See from Seer^ to look or fee. The Swediih 
Si J or Si der^ from Se^ to look. 


Need-is y ufed parenthetically. It was antiently written 
Nedes and Nede is. Certain is was ufed in the fame man- 
ner, equivalently to certes. 


" And certaine is (quod ihe) that by gettyng of good, 
*^ be men m^ed good.^ 

" I haue graunted that nedes good folke moten ben 
^^ myghty." 

Boecius. Boke 4• Fol. 241• pag. i. col. i• 2• 

<^ The 


<< The qonfequence is falfc, nedes the antecedent mote 
** ben of the fame condicion." 

Ύββ, of Loue, Boke 2. Fol. 316. pag. i. col. 2. 

" None other thynge fignifyeth this neceflite but onelye 
^^ thus; That Ihal be, may nat togider be and not be. 
" Euenlyche alfo it is fothe, loue was, and is, and Ihal be, 
^^ nat of necelTyte; and nede is to haue be al that was, 
" and nedeful is to be, al that is." 

Τεβ, of Loue. Boke 3. Fol. 32S. pag. i. col. i. 


I pray thee. 

Τ ο w I T. 

Though it is the infinitive of pitan, does not mean To 
Knowt as Skinner and S. Johnfon have fuppofed ; but To 
Be knowftf Sciendum. For fo (for want of Gerunds^ as 
they are moft abfurdly called) our anceftors ufed the Adtive 
Infinitives, as well of other verbs as of piran*• Similar 


♦ " Falfc fame is not το drede, nc of wyfe peribns το accepte/* 

Tefl. of Loue. Boke i. Fol. 308• pag. 2. col. 2. 

Inftances of this ufe of the Aftive Infinitives in Englifli, are very nume- 
rous ; but the rcafon of it appears beft from old tranflations. 

Qjq q ^< Quod 


«dverbs are thoTe of the Latin and Frenchf f^idelicet^ 
fciticeU a fqavoir. And it is worth notingi that the old 
Latin authors nfed the abbreviated VidtRcet for Videre Ucet^ 
when not put (as we call it) adverbially *. 

^ Qood 11 nee Anaacagone fugam, ncc Socrttis ΤΓηΜίηιι» nee Zenoms 
torxnentanoviili ; at Canbs, at Senecasj at Soranos fcire potuiftL Quas 
nihil aliud in dadcm detraxit^ nifi quod noftris moribus inftituti, (hidiis im- 
proborum diffimilliini videbantur. Itaque nihil eft quod admirere^ fi in hoc 
vitas lak> drcumflandbus a^temw procellis^ quibus hoc maxime propofitum 
cfti f^mis diJplUere. Quorum quidem tametfi eft numerofus exercitus^ 
aPBRNENDus tamen eft/-' 

Boetbius de CenfoL Lib. i. Proia 3• 

Thus tranflated by Chaucer : 

•* If thou haft not knowcn the exilynge of Anaxagoras, nc the enpoy- 
foning of Socrates, ne the turmcntrs of Zcno j yet mighteft thou haue 
knowen the Senecas, the Canios, and the Soranos• The whiche men no- 
thing eb ne brought to the deth, but only for they were enfbrmed of my 
maners and fcmedc» moft mlykc to the ftudies of wicked folke• And fer 
riiy thou oughteft not to wondren, though that I in the bitter fee be driuen 
with tempeftes bk)wing aboute. In the which thys is my mofte purpofe,^ 
fliat is to iayne, to diφlefcn wicked men. Of whiche fhrewes al be the 
tooftc ncuer ib great, it k το okpis£.** 

FoL 222. pag. 1. col. 1. 

* ** P^m. Videlicet parcum ilium fuiflc fcnem, qui dixerit t 
«* Qiioniam illc iUi poUicetur^ qui eum cibum popofeerit." 

•' Ant. ViMLiciT fuiiTc ilium ncquam adolefcentem> qui iUico, 
^ Ubi illc pofcit, dcnegavit fe dare granum tritid." 

Plautus. Stiibus, Aft 4. See. ?. 

* Per- 




Par'efcbeanty Par-efcbeance, the participle of Efcheoir^ 
Bcbeohi Ecboify to fall. 



Per-cafuniy participle of cadere» Antiently written Par- 
caS) Parcaas. 


Antiently Peraunter^ Paraunter^ Inaunter^ Inaventure» 

Maybe. Mayhap. 

In Wefhnoreland they fay and write Mappen. i. e. MOy 


Hap ne bap — ^happen or not happen. 

<< Philautus determined hab nab to fend his lefters.** 

Eupbues, By Jobn UUy, Page 109. 

Perhaps. Uphap. 
By or through Haps, Upon a Hap, 

*' The HAPPBS ouer maraies hede 
** Ben honged with a tender thrcde." 

Cower. Lib. 6. Fol. 135. pag. 1. col. 2. 

Qqq a 

« In 


" In heuen to bene lofed with God hath none ende, but 
^^ endeleffe endureth : and thou canfte nothynge done 
^^ aryght, but thou defyre the rumoure therof be healed 
^^ and in euery wightes eare ; and that dureth but a pricke^ 
" in refpedte of the other. And fo thou fekeft rewarde 
<^ of folkes fmale wordes, and of vayne prayfynges.^ 
" Trewely therein thou lefeft the guerdon of vertue, and 
^^ lefeft the gretteft valoure of confcyence, and uphap thy 
" renome euerlaftyng.'' 

Chaucer. Τββ. ofLoue. Boke i• Fol. 311• p. i. c. i• 

Β £ L I κ £. 


This word is perpetually employed by Sir Philip Sydney, 
Hooker, Shakefpear, B. Johnfon, Sir W. Raleigh, Bacon,^ 
Milton, &c. But is now only ufed in low language,, in— 
ftead of perhaps. 

In the Daniih language Lykke, and in the Swediih Lyckoi. 
mean Luck, i. e. chance, hazard, Hap^ .fortune, adventure*. 

** Dionyjus. He thought felike, if Damon were out 
<* of the citie, I would not put him to death.** 

Damon and Pytbias, By R. Edwards». 

« Brutus 


•<* Brutus and CaiSus 

♦* Are rid like madmen through the gates of Rome.'* 

** Anth, Belike they had fome notice of the people 
** How I had mov*d them.**^ 

lulius Cafar* A6t 3. See. 2. 

" How's that ? Tour's, if his own ! Is he not my fon, 
** except he be his own fon ? Belike this is fome new 
** kind of fubfcription the gallants ufe." 

Every Man in bis Humour* ΑΛ 3.. See. 7. 

" Than ihe, remembering belike the continual and 
<' incelSant and confident fpeeches and' courfes that I had 
<* held on my lord's fide,, became utterly alienated from 
« me." 

Sir F. Bacon* s Apology.. 

" Will he, ib wife, let loofc at once his irej 
" Belike through impotence, or unaware. 
To give, his enemies. their wiih ?" 

Paradt/eLoft. Book 1. V. 156. 

A F ο ο τ.. 

* ■ 

Many a frcflic knight, and many a blisful route 
On hor/e^nd on fote, in al the felde aboutfe."" 

Chaucer. Annelida. Fol. 270. pag. 2. col. i; 

** Sum 




** Sum grathis thame on futb to go in fcild, 
" Sum hie montit on borsbak under fcheild." 

Douglas. Booke 7. pag. 230. 

Of the fame kiad are the adverbs Foot to foot, f^is ά 
^ts. Petto a petto. Dirimpetto, The Hand and Foot, being 
the principal organs of aafton and motion afford a variety 
of alluiions and adverbial expreflions in all languages; 
moft of which are too evident to require explanation : as 
when, of our bleffed fenators, we lay, with equal truth 
and ibrrow,-— They affume the office of legiflation il/otis 


pediduSf and proceed in it with dirty bands, 


So FOOT hot; which Mr. Warten has ftrangel^ mii^ 
taken in page 1 92 of his firft volume of tbiti Hiftory of 
£ngluh Poetry. 

" The table adoune rihte he fmote, 
" In to the floore foots hot." 

Miiled by the word fooif Mr. Warton thinks that foote 

HOT means, « Stamped,** So that he fuppofes the Soudan 

here to have fallen upon the table both with hands and 

feet : i. e. firft he /mote it with his fill ; and then he 

Jlamped upoa it^ and trampled it under foot. 



But FOOT HOT means mmediately, infiantaneou/lyy with- 
out giving time for the foot to cool : fo oiu: court of Pie 
Poudrcy pied poudre ; in which matters are determined 
before one can wipe the duft offone^ feet. So £ vefligio^, 

*^ There was none eie chat mi^ kepe 
*' His heade^ whichc Mercurie of imote> 
** And forth with all anone fotb hote 
** He ftale the cowc, whiche Argus kcpte.*' 

Giwer. Lib. 4« Fol. 8i. pag. a. coL i. 

^ And Cuftaonce han they taken anon FO-raMoi••'* 

{^aucrr. Man of Lowes Tale. FoU 20. pag. a. QoL i^ 

" Whan that he hcrde iangl^ng 
" He ran anon as he were wode 
" To Bialacoil there that he ftode, 
" Which had leuer in this caas 
" Haue ben at Reynes or Amyas^ 
^* For FOTE HOTE in his felonyc 
" To him thus (aid Jeloufye."^ 

Jiiwii. if the Rofe. Fol. 13U. pag. i. cot 2. 

^ And firft Aicaneus, 
** As he on hors playit with his feris ioyos, 
^ Als fwyft and feirily fpurris his ftede fute hote, 
•* And but delay focht to the trublit flote ♦." 

Douglas. Booke 5. p^. 150• 

* Primus et Afcanius, curius ut loetus cqucftrcs 

Ducebatj fie acer eq\io turbata petivit 

Caftra. Virgil. 

« Ifatt 


**' I fall declare kll, and reduce pute hate (') 
^* From the beginning of the firft debate.'* 

Douglas» Bookc 7. pag• ao^. 


The felf ftound amyd the preis fute hote (*) 
Lucagus enteris into his chariote." 

Douglas. Booke 10. pag. 338. 

^* Wyth fie wourdis fcho anfueris him fute hate." (*) 

Douglas. Booke 12• pag. 433• 

^^ All with ane voice and hale aflent at accordc, 
^' Defiris the as for tharc prince and lord j 
" And ioyus ar that into feild fute hate (♦) 
*^ Under thy wappinis Turnus lyis doun bet." 

Douglas. Booke 13. pag. 46S• 


^^ Now band ta hand the dynt lichtis with ane fwak, 
^^ Now bendis he up his burdoun with ane mynt, 
" On syde he bradis for to efchew the dynt." 

Douglas. Booke 5 pag• 142. 

(') EX'pedi-am et priinae revocabo exordia pugnae. Vifg'» 

Notice Ex-ped-ire. 

(*) Interea. Virg• 

Q) Talibus occurrit diftis• Vtrg. 

(*) There is no word in the original of Maphasus, to explain or juftify 
the fute hate of Douglas in tliis paflage : He barely fays, 

— — "Turnumque fub armis Exultant cecidifle tuis•" But the acer 
fethi/y Expediam^ and occurrit diifis^ of Virgil, are fufficient. 

6 I fupi)ofe 


I fuppofe it needlefs to notice fuch adverbs as Aback, 
Abreaft, Afront, Ahead, At hand, Beforehand, Behind- 
hand, &c. 


" That caften fire and flam aboute 

" Both at mouth and at nafe 

" So that thci fctten all on blase." 

Gower. Lib. 5. Fol• 102• pag. 2. col. a. 


This great ihyp on anker rode : 
The lorde cometh forth, and when he figh 
" That other ligge on borde fo nighe." 

Gower. Lib. 2. Fol. 33. pag. 2. col. 2. 

" What helpeth a man haue mete, 

** Where drinke lackethe on the borde." 

Gower. Lib. 4. Fol. 72. pag. 2. col. i. 

*' And howe he lofte hys fterefman 

" Whiche that the fterne, or he toke kepe, 

" Smote over the borde as he flepe." 

Chaucer. Fame. Boke i. Fol. 194. pag. i. col. 2. 

*^ We war from thens afFrayit, durft nocht abide, 
** Bot fled anon^ and within burd has brocht 
" That faithful Greik." 

Douglas. Booke 3. pag. 90. 

^ Th€ burgeonit trcis on burd they bring for aris." 

Douglas. Booke 4. pag. 1 13. 

R r Γ " The 


'^ The ftabill aire has calmyt wcle the fe, 

** And fouth pipand windis fare on hie 

^ Challancis to pas on bord, and tak the depe." 

Douglas. Booke 5. pag. 155^ 


" The rofe fpred to fpannilhhyngc, 

*^ To fcne it was a goodly thynge, 

*^ But it ne was fo fprede on bredb 

'^ That men within myght knowe the fede." 

Chaucer. Rom. of the Rofe. Fol 137• pag. i, col• 2. 

*^ Als.fer as his crop hie on brede 

*^ Strekis in the are, as fer his route dois iprcde/* 

Douglas. Booke 4. pag» 115. 

I ^^ his baner quhite as floure 
** In fing of batcl did on brede difplay.'* 

Douglas. Booke 8• Pag• 140^ 

A D A Υ S• 

" But this I fee on daies nowe." 

Cower. Lib. 4. fol. 7a. pag. 2• col. i• 

" Thus here I many a man compleine, 
** That nowe on daies t[iou ihalte finde 
" At ncdc, few frendes kindc.'* 

Cower. Lib. 5. fol. no. pag. η c6l• r^ 

" But certanly the dalit bludc now on dayiS 

*' Waxis dolf and dull throw myne unweildy age•'* 

Douglas. Booke 5* pag. 140• 

5 Anights. 



^^ He mot one of two thynges chcfc, 

^* Where he woU haue hir fuche on night, 

*' Or els upon dates light, 

" For he ftiall not haue both two." 

Gower. Lib. i. fol• 17. pag• 2. col. 2. 


" For though no man wold it alowe, 
" To llepe leuer than to wowe 
*' Is his maner, and thus on nichtes 
" When he feeth the lufly knightes 
" Reuelen, where thefe women are 
*^ Awey he fculketh as an hare." 

Gower. Lib. 4. fol. 78. pag. i. ςοΐ. i. 

" For though tliat wlues ben ful holy thinges 
^' They muft take in patience a nyzht 
*' Suche maner neceiraryes> as ben plefinges 
** To folke that han wedded hem with ringes, 
" And lay a litell her holynefle afyde." 

Chancer. Man of Lawes T. Fol. 22. pag. i. col. i. 

*^ Madame, the fentence of this Latyn is. 

Woman is mannes ioyc and his blis, 

For when I fele on nyght your foft fydc, 
** Al be it that I may not on you ryde, 
" For that our perche is made fo narowe, alas, 
*' I am full of ioye and folas." 

Nonnes priefl. Fol. 89. pag. 2. col. 2. 


" Turnus leges the Troianis in grete yre, 

*' And al thare fchyppis and nauy fet in fyre." 

Douglas. Booke 9. pag. 274• 

R r Γ 2 Alive. 



On live. i. e. In Life *• 

" For as the fisflie, if it be drie, 
" Mote in defaute of water die : 
" Right fo without aier, on liue 
" No man ne beaft might diriue.** 

Gower. Lib, 7. fol. 142. pag. [. col• 2• 

^' For prouder woman is there none on lyue." 

Chaucer. Troylus. Boke 2. fol. 143. p. 2• c. 2. 

" The vcrray ymage of my Aflyanax jing : 

" Sic ene had he, and fic fare handis tua, 

" For al the warld fic mouth and face perfay : 

" And gif he war on life quhil now in fere, 

" He had bene euin cild with the, and hedy perc." 

Douglas. Booke 3. pag. 84. 


On Loft J On Luft^ On Lyft^ i. e. In the Luft or Lyft ; 
or, (the fuperfluous article omitted, as was the antient 
cuftom in our language, the Anglo-faxon) In Lyfty In Luft^ 
In Loft. 

The goldc treflfed Phebus hygh on lofte." 

Chaucer. Trcylus. Boke 5. Fol. 196. pag. 2. col. i. 


* In the firil book of the Teftament of Love, Fol. 305. pag. i. col. i• 
Chaucer furniihes another adverb of the fame kind, to thofe who are ad- 
mirers of xhXspart cfjpeecb. — ** Wo is hym that is Aloue'' 

« But, 


" Bot, lo anone (ane woundcr thing to tell) 

" Ane huge bleis of flambys brade doun fel, 

'* Furth of the cluddys at the left hand ftraucht^ 

** In manere of an lychtning or fyre flaucht : /bu 

" And did alycht richt in the famyn fiede^ 

" Apoun the croun of fare Lauinias hede ; 

" And fra thine hie up in the lyft agane 

" It glade away, and tharein did remane." 

Douglas. Booke 13. pag. 475^ 

'^ With that the dow 

'^ Heich IN /i?^^ LIFT full glaide he gan behald, 
" And with her wingis forand mony fald.'* 

Douglas. Booke 5. pag• 144;. 

In the Anglo-faxon Lypr is the jiir or the Clouds\^ Ια 
St. Luke — " in lypre cummenbe — coming in the clouds.'^ 
In the Daniih, Luft is Air^ and " At fpronge i luften^^-^ 
to blow up into the air, or Aloft. In the Swediih alfo 
Luft is Air. So in the Dutch, De hef hehhen^ to fail before- 
the wind ; loeven^ to ply to windward ; hef^ the weather 
gage; &c. From the fame root are our other words^ 
Loft^ Lofty^ To Luff^ Lee^ Leeward^ To Liftj Sec•. 


•' The battellis war adionit now of new, 

" Not in manere of landwart folkis bargane, 

" But with fcharp fcherand wappinnis made melle."" 

Douglas. Booke 7. pag. C25; 



494 <>F ADVERBS. 

*^ Was it honcft: ane godly diuine wycht 
*' With ony mortall ftraik to wound in ficht ? 
*^ Or jit ganand the fwerd loift and adcw 
§0^' To rendir Turniis to his brand of new, 

*^ And ftrengdi incrcfcis to thamc that vincuft be ?" 

Douglas. Booke 12• pag. 441. 

A R ο w. 

^' And in the port enterit, lo, we fee 
^' Flokkis and herdis of oxin and of fee. 

Fat and tydy, rakand uuer all quhare. 

And trippis cik of gait iui ony kepare, 
*' Li the rank gers pafturing on raw." 

Douglas. Booke 3• pag• 75. 

^' The pepil by him vincuft mycht thou knaw, 
^ Before him paliand per ordour all on raw." 

D$uglas. Booke 8. |>ag• 170. 


** Whan that pyte, which longc on slepe doth tary, 
" Hath fet the fyne of al my heuyneflc." 

Chaucer. La belle dame. FoL 260, pag. i. col. r. 

" Apoun the earth the uthir beiftis al, 
" Thare befy thochtis ceifling grete and fmal, 
• *' Ful found ON slepe did caucht thare reft be kind." 

Douglas. Booke 9. pag. 28^• 

^^ In thefe provynces the fayth of Chryfte was aU 
^^ quenchyd and in-»lepe.'^ Fabian. 





A time. Wbil-^Sy i. e. Time, that or which. Wbilfi 
is a corruption ; it ihould be written as formerly, Whiles* 

<* She died, my lord, but whiles her ilander liy'd.** 

Much Ado about Nothing* 

Aught or Ought. 

The Anglo-faxon Hpi^ : a wbit^ or ο whit, N. B. was 
formerly written for the Article, A ; or for the numeral 
one. So Naught or Nought : Na whit, or No whit» 


•* Againc the knight 'the olde wife gan arife 

«^ And faid; Sir knight, here forth lyeth no way." 

Chauser. Wife of Bathes Tale. Fol. 38. pag. 2. col. 2» 

Alas (quod he) alas, that euer I beheyght 
Of pured gold a thoufande poiinde of weight 
Unto this phylofopher, howe ihall I do ? 
*' I fe no more, but that I am fordo * : 
Myn herytage mote I nedes fell. 
And ben a beggar, here may I no lenger dwell.'" 

Frankeleyns Tale. Fol. 55. pag. 2. col. 2, 






* FoR-DO, i. e. Forth-done, i. e. Done to go forth, or caufed to go 
yoRTH, i. e. Out of doors. In modern language, turned out of doors. 

•• Lokc 


" Loke out of londc-thou be not fore t> 
** And if iuche caufe thou haue, that the 
" Behoucth to gone out of countre, 
'^ Leaue hole thyn hert in hoftage/* 

Rom. cf the Rcfe. Fol. 132. pag. 2. col. 2. 

From the Latin ForeSy Foris^ the French had Fors (their 
modern Hors). And of the French Fors^ our anceftors 
(by their favourite pronunciation of Tb) made pop's, forth : 
as from the French 4f^^ or Ajfezy they made asseth, 
i. e• enough^ fufficient. 

*^ Rychefle rychc ne maketh nought 

Hym that on» trcafour fette his thought : 

For rychefle ftonte xnjuffyjaunccy 

And nothyng in Iiaboundaunce : 

¥ or Jujff)ifaHnce al onely 
** Maketh menne to lyue rychely. 
" For he that hath mytches tweyne 
*^ Nc value in hys demeyne, 
" Lyucth more at eale, and more is riche, 
*' Than dothe he that is chiche 

And in his barnc hath, foth to fayne. 

An hundred mauis of whetc grayne. 

Though he be chapman or marchaunt. 

And haue of gokle many bcfaunt : 

For in the gettyng he hath fuche wo. 

And in the kepyng drede alfo, 

And fttte eucrmore his befignefle 
** For to encrefc, and nat to leflr. 







t Fore, i. e. Fors or forth. 




*' For to augment and multiplye^ 

" And though on heapes that lye him by, 

*' Yet neuer ihal make rycheffe 

" AssETH untof hys gredyneflc *.'* 

Ram. of the Rofe. Fol. 146. pag. 2. col. 2. 

The Adverbs Outfortb^ Inforth^ Witboutfortby Witbinfortb^ 
(which were formerly common in the language) have ap- 
peared very ftrange to the modems ; but with this expla- 
nation of FORTH, I fuppofe, they will not any longer feem 
either unnatural or extraordinary. 

" Within the hertes of folke fliall be the biting con- 
<^ fcience, and witboutfortb ihal be the worlde all brenning.'* 

chancer . Perfons Tale. Fol. 102. pag. i. col. 2w 

*' Whan he was come unto his ncces place, 
" Where is my lady, to her folke (quod he) 
" And they him tolde, and Inforth in gan pace, 
" And founde two other ladyes fit and ihe." 

Troylus. Boke a. Fol. 163. pag. 2. col. i. 

♦ I have been compelled to make the above long extraft, that my 
reader's judgment may have fair play j and that he may not be mifled by 
the interpretation given of asseth in the gloflary of Urry's edition of 
Chaucer ; where we are told, that asseth means — " JJfent^ to Anfiver % 
" from the Anglo-faxon Aj-eSian, effirmarey When the reader recollefts 
xhtjuffyfaunce which is fpoken of in the firft part of the extraft i he will 
have litde difficulty, I imagine, to perceive clearly what asseth here 

means : for the meaning of the whole paflage is -Juffijance alone makes 

riches; ynixch Juffijance the mifer's grecdinefs will never permit him to 

S s s «An 


" And than al the derkeneffe of his miiknowing ihall 
^^ feme more evidently to the fight of his underftandyng, 
^^ than the fonne ne feemeth to the fight Without fortbe.^^ 

Bocchis. Boke 3. fol. 238. pag• 2. col. 2. 

" Philofophers, that hyghten Stoiciens, wende that 
" y mages and fenfibilities war emprinted into foules fro 
" bodies Without forth ^^ 

Boecius. Boke 5• fol. 250. pag. 2. col• 2. 

" There the vaylance of men is demed in riches Out- 
^^ forth^ wenen men to haue no proper good in them felfe, 
^* but feche it in ftraunge thinges.'' 

Τεβ. of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 316. pag. 2. col. 2• 

" The goodneffe (quod (he) of a perfon maye not ben 
^^ knowe Outforth^ but by renome of the knowers." 

Τββ. of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 319. pag• i. col. 2. 

*^ But he that Outforth loketh after the wayes of this 
" knot, connyng with which he ihuld knowe the w^ay 
" Inforthy flepeth for the tyme ; wherfore he that wol this 
*^ way know, muft leave the lokyng after falfe wayes 
" Outforth^ and open the eyen of his confcyence and un• 
^^ clofe his herte." 

Ύββ. of Lone. Boke 2. fol. 322. pag. i. col. 2.. 

^^ Euery 


" Etiery herbe iheweth his vertiie Outfortbe from 
« wythin.** 

Ίββ. of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 323. pag. i. col. i. 

" Loue peace Jf'ithoute forth, loue peace JVitbinforthy 
** kepe peace with all men." 

" There is nothinge hid from god. Thou ilialte be 
** found gilty in the judgmentes of god, though thou be 
" hid to mens judgementes : for he beholdeth the hert» 
« that is Witbinfortbr 

Tbo. Lupfet. Gatbered Counfaih, 

G A D S O. 

Cazzo, a common Italian oath (or rather obfcenity, in 
lieu of 'an oath) firft introduced about the time of James 
the firft, and made familiar in our language afterwards by 
our affedted travelled gentlemen in the time of Charles the 
fecond• See all our comedies about that period. 

Ben Johnfon ridiculed the afFeftation of this oath at its 
commencement, but could not ftop its progrefs• 

" Thefe be our nimble-fpirited Catso's, that ha* their 
^^ evafions at pleafure, will run over a bog like your wild 
** Irifli ; no fooner ftarted but they'll leap from one thing 

S s s 2 "to 

500 OR ADVERfiS- 

** to another, like a fquirrel. Heigh ! dance and do tricks 
" in their difcourfe, from fire to water, from water to air» 
** from air to earth : as if their tongues did but e*en lick 
" the four elements over and away.'' 

Every man out of his humour. Adt 2. See. i• 

Much. More. Most. 

Thefe adverbs have exceedingly gravelled all our etymo• 
logifts, and they touch them as tenderly as poflible. 


Junius and Skinner, (whom Johnfon copies) for much^ 
irrationally refer us to the Spanifli Mucba. 


Under the article more, (that he may feem to fay 
fomethmg on the fubjedt) Junius gives us this fo little per- 
tinent or edifying piece of information ;: — " Anglicum 
" interim more eft inter ilia, quae faxonicum a in ο con- 
^^ vertunt ; ficuti videmus ufu adveniffe in ban^ bone, os, 
<^ oflis. Haly whole, integer, fanus. Hanu home, domus, 
*^ habitatio. pran, ftone, lapis. Sec."" 

Skinner fays — " More, Mo. ab A. S. CDa, CDajoa, CIDaejie, 
*^ CDajie, &c. Quid fl omnia a Lat. Major .^^ 

4 S. Johnfon, 


S. Johnfon finds more to be Adjedive, Adverb, and 
Subftantive. The adjeolive, he fays, is — " The compa- 
** jative of Some or Greats The adverb is — " Tht particle 
<* that forms the comparative degree." — *^ Perhaps fome 
" of the examples which are adduced under the adverb, 
•^ ihould be placed under the fubftantive•'^ — It is doubtful 
" whether the word, in fome cafes, be noun or adverb.'*^ 


Junius fays, untruly, — " Most, Expofitivo nempe 
^* msejie, fuit comparativus maeppe, et fuperlativus maejiej-r ; 
<^ et contraote msejr.'* 

Skinner — " Teut. MeiJ^ felicitcr alludit Gr. [^αςον^ plu- 
^* rimum, maximum, contr• a μ^γ^ςον.^ 

S• Johnfon again finds in most, an adjedlive, an adverb, 
and a fubftantive. Of the adverb he fays, it is — " The 
" particle noting the fuperlati-ve degree.'' Of the fub- 
ftantive he fays — ^ This is a kind of fubftantive, being 
" according to its fignification, βnguJar or plural^ And. 
he gives inftances, as he conceives, of its plurality and: 

fingularity. 1 have wafted more than a page in repeating^ 

what amounts to nothing. 



Though there appears to be, there is in reality no irre- 
gularity in MUCH, MORE, MOST : nor indeed is there any 
fuch thing as capricious irregularity in any part of language. 

In the Anglo-faxon the verb COapan, metere^ makes re- 
gularly the prseterperfedt CDop, or CDope, (as the praeter- 
perfed of Slajan is Slob) and the paft participle Mowen or 
CDeopen, by the addition of the participial termination 
cn^ to the prxterperfecSt• Omit the participial termi- 
nation en (which omiflion \vas, and ftill is, a common 
pradtice through the whole language, with the Anglo- 
faxon writers, the old Engliih writers, and the modems) 
and there will remain CDope or Mow ; w^hich gives us the 
Anglo-faxon CDope and our modern Engliih word Mow : 
which words mean^;;//>^ — that which is Mowed οτ Mown. 
And as the Hay, Sec. which was mown^ was put together 
in a heap ; hence, figuratively^ CDope was ufed in Anglo- 
faxon to denote any heap : although in modern Englifli we 
now confine the application of it to country produce, fuch 
as Hay-mow^ Barley-mow^ &:c. ''- This participle or fub- 


♦ Gawin Douglas ufcs the word Mowe, for a heap of wood, or a funeral 

*^ Under the oppln iky, to this purpois, 

" Pas on, and of treis thou mak an bing 

" To be ane fyre, &c. 
6 " Tharforc 



ilantive (call it which you pleafe : for, however claffed, it 
is ftill the fame word, and has the fame iignification) Mow 
or Heapy was pronounced (and therefore written) with 
fome variety, CDa, CDee, CDo, CDope, Mow; which, being 
regularly compared, give 

COa - - - Ma-er (i. e. majie) - - Μαββ (i• e. maep:) 

CDae - - - Ma^-er (i. e. moepe) - - Mce-efi (i. e. maep:) 

CDopc - - Mow-er (i. e. mojie) - - Mowefi (i. e. mojr) 

Mo Mo-er (i. e. more) - - Mo-efi (i. e. most) 

I have here printed in the Anglo-faxon charadler, thofe 
words which have come down to us fo written in the 
Anglo-faxon writings : and in Italics, the fame words in 
found ; but fo written, as to ihew the written regularity of 
the comparifon : and in capitals, the words which are.ufed 
in what we call Engliih ; though indeed it is only a con- 
tinuation of the Anglo-faxon, with a little variation of the 
written chara<5ler• 

Tharfore fcho has hir command done ilk dclc• 
But quhen the grcte bing was upbeildit wcle 
Of aik treis, and fyrren fchidis dry 
Wythin the fecrete cloys under the iky, 
Aboue the Mo we the forcfaid bed was maid." 

Bookc 4. page 117. 



. Mo (mope, acervus^ heap) which was conftantly ufed 
by all our old Engliih authors, has with the moderns, 
given place to much : which has not (as Junius, Wormius,. 
and Skinner imagined of Mickle) been borrowed from 
μίγαλος; but is merely the diminutive of mo, pafling 
through the gradual changes of Mokely Mykel^ Mocbil^ Mucbel 
{ftill retained in Scotland) Mocbe^ much. 

" Yes certes (quod flie) Who is a frayler thynge th«i 
** the fieihly body of a man, ouer whiche haue often tyme 
" flyes, and yet lafle thynge than a flye, mokel myght 
^' in greuaunce and anoyenge.^ 

TeJ. of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 319. pag. i. col. i. 

" Opinion is while a thinge is in non certayne, and 
^^ hydde frome mens very knowlegyng, and by no parfyte 
" reafon fully declared, as thus : yf the fonne be fo 
" MOKEL as men wenen, or els yf it be more than the 
" erth/' 

Τεβ. of Loue. Boke 3. fol. 325. pag. 2. col. 2. 

" A lytel mifgoyng in the gynning caufeth mtkel 
^^ errour in the end." 

TeJ. of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 315. pag. 2. col. i. 

^^ Ο badde and ftrayte bene thilke (richeffe) that at their 
^^ departinge maketh men teneful and fory, and in the 

" gatheryng 


^^ gatheryng of hem make men nedy. Moche folke at 
^^ ones mowen not togider moche therof haue.'* 

Ί'ββ. of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 316. pag. 2• col. i. 

" Good chylde (quod ihe) what ecbetb fuche renome to 
" the confcience of a wyfe man, that loketh and meafureth 

^* hys goodnefle not by fleuelefle wordes of the people, but 


** by fothfaftneffe of confcience : by god, nothynge. And 
^^ yf it be fayre a mans name be ecbed by moche folkes 
" prayfing, and fouler thyng that mo folke not pray fen.'' 

Tefl, of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 319. pag. 2. col. i, 

*< AUb ryght as thou were enfample of moche fold£ 
«< errour, righte fo thou muft be enfample of manyfolde 
" correitioun.** 

*Ϊ€β. of Loue, Boke 1. fol. 310. pag. i. col, 2« 


In our old authors written varioufly, Na-tke-^Ies^ N^r 
tbe-les^ NocbUtbe-les^ Not-tbe-leSj Never-tbe-lgter : its pp- 
polite alfo was ufed, Wel-tbe4ater. 

" Truely I fay for me, fy the I came thys Mar^arit to 
" ferue, durft I neuer me difcouer of no maner^difeafe, 
" and WEL THE later hath myn herte hardyed fuch 
^* thynges to done, for the great bounties and worthy re- 

T t t « freih• 


« freihmentes that ihe of her grace goodly without anyc 
** defert on my halue ofte hath me rekened.** 

Ύββ. of Loue. Boke 3. fol. 332. pag• 2. col. i• 

" Habyte maketh no monke, ne wearynge of gylte 
^ fpmres maketh no knyghte: neuerthelater in con- 


^ forte of thyne herte, yet wol I otherwyfe anfwere.** 

Ίββ. of Loue. Boke 2. fol. 322. pag. 2. col. 2; 


. ' 

In Engliih we have Rath^ Rather^ Rathejl ; which are 
iimply the Anglo-faxon Ra^S, Ra'i^oji, RaiSoj^. celer, velox. 

Some have derived this Engliih word rather from the 
Greek ; as Mer. Gafaubon from όρθρος^ " quod fane (fays 
" Skinner) longius diftat quam mane a vefpere z** and 
others, with a little more plaufibility, from PaJio^. 

The Italians have received this fame word from our 
northern ahceftors, and pronounce it Ratto^ with the fame 
meaning : which Menage derives either from Raptus or 
from Rapidusy « Rapdus, Rapdo^ RaddOf Ratio,** 

Skinner notices the expreilions Raii fruit, and Raii 
wine, from the Anglo-faxon Ra'S ; of which, after Menage, 
he fays — « Nefcip an contra(Si^ a Lat. rapidusJ* 

.1 Minihew 


Minihew derives Rather from the Lat• Ratus. Ray ha5' 
a provetb— " The Rath fower never borrows of the late/ 

S• Johnfon cites Spenfer (except himfelf, the worft pof- 
fible authority for Engliih words) 

^f Thus is my harvcft haftcn'd all to Rathe:* 

And Atoy— 

« » . ■ • 

^ Rath ripe and purple grapes tfiere be." 

** Rath ripe arc fome, and fome of later kind." 

" Bring the Rathe primrofe that forfaken dies." 


And he adds moil ignorantly — <* To bave Rather, This, 
« thmki a barbarous expreflion, of late intrujton into• our 
'•'''iangtRige; for which it is better to fay — will ratber!^^ 

ft # « . * 

• Β 

Dr. Newton, in a note on Lycidas, fays of the* word' 
iZjM^^^-Tliigword is ufed by Spenfer, B. 3. Canfl'lji* 
St. 28. — 

" Too Rathe cut off by practice criminal." 

■ ■ 

^* And Shepherd's Calendar, 

" The Rather lambs been ftarved with cold." 

T, Warton, in his note on the fame paflage of Mikon, 
fays,— .« The particular combination of, Rathe primrofe, 

f 1 1 a is 


<f is perhaps from a pailoral called a Palinode by E. B. 
" probably Edmond Bolton^ in England's Helicx>n, Edit. 


1 6 14. fignat. B• 4. 

" And made the Rathe and timely primrofe grow." 

^* In the Weft of England, there is an early fpedes of 
" apple called the RaiJbe-npc. We have — " Rathe and 
" late** — in a paftoral, in DaviforCs poenis, Edit. 4• London, 
*^ 1 62 1, p. 177. In Baftard's epigrams, printed 1598, 
" I find — " The Rq/hed primrofe and the violet.*• Lib. i . 
^ Epigr. 34. p. 12. i2mo. Perhaps Rq/bed is a provin- 
^^ cial corruption from Rathe•* 

By the quotations of Johnfon, Newton and Warton», 
from Spenfer, May, Bolton, Davifon and Bafiard, a reader 
would imagine that the word Rathe was very little autho- 


rized in the language ; and that it was neceflary to hunt 
diligently in obfcure holes and comers for an authority. 

" And netbeles there is no man 

«* In all this worlde fo wife, that caa 

" Of loue temper the meafure : 

" But as it feUcth in auenture. 

" For witte nc ftrength maie not heipe 

" And whiche els wolde him yelpe, 

" L• RATHEST throwcn under foote.*' . 

Gower. Lib. i. Fol. 7. pag. 2. col. 2^ 

) ^ 





•^ Some fcyne he did well enough, 

•* And fome feyne, he did amis» 

*' Diuers opinions there is. 

** And commonliche in cuery ncde 

^^ The werft Ipeche is rathest herde." 

Lib. 3. Fol. 59. pag, i. col. r. 

That euery loue of pure kynde 

Is fyrft forth drawe, well I fynde:. 
" But nethelcs yet ouer this 
*^ Deferte dothe fo, that it is 
** The RATHER had in many place." 

Lib. 4, Fol. 72. pag. i. col. x; 

*« Who diat is bolde>, 

^ And dar travaile, and undertake 
" The caufe of loue, he ftiall be take 
** The RATHER unto loucs grace•*" 

Lib. 4. Fol. 75. pag. i. col. 2. 

" But fortune is of fuche a fleyght,. 
" That whan a man is moft on height, 
^ She maketh hym rathest for to fidlc.*' 

Lib. 6. Fol. 135. pag. 2.. coL 2; 

*« Why ryfe ye fo rathe ? Ey, Benedicite, 
« What eyleth you ?" 

Chaucer. My Hers Tale. FoL 15^. pag^i. col. i. 

" Ο dere cofyn, Dan Johan, flic fiyde, 
" What eykth you fo rathe to a ryfe ?'' 

Shy pmans Tale. Fol. 69, pag. i.col. 2. 

'^ For hym my lyfe lyeth al in dout 
" But yf he come the rather otit.'^ "^ 

Rom. of the-Rofe. Fol. 14?. pag, 2; col. i; 


• / 



'^ They wolde cftfoncs do you fcaAe 
«^ If that they myght, late or rathb.** 

Rom. of theKofe. Fol. 152. pag. i• col. i. 

« And haue my trouth, but if thou finde*it fb, 
'* I be thy bote, or it be ful longe, 
" To pcces do me drawe> and fythen hongc. 
'* Ye fo fayft thou (quod Troylus) alas: 
" But God wot it is naught the rather fo." 

Troylus. Boke i. FoL 16 1. pag« 2• col i« 

^ '^ Loke up I fay, and tel me what ihe is 

^' Anon, that Ϊ may gon about thy nedc, 
** Knowe iche her aught, for my loue tel me this 
** Than wold I hope rather for to ^ede.'* 

Tt&flus. Boke i. Fol. ϊ6ι. pag. 2. col. 2• 

** And -with his lalte teeres gan he bathe 

" The ruby in his fignet, and it itxx^ 

^' Upon the wexe delyuerjyche and rathe.'* 

Troylus. Boke 2. Fol. 169. pag. i. col. i. 

' '- ■ €§ B^t now to purpofe of my rather ipeche." 

jyoylus. Boke 3. Fol. 179• pjigi 2. col. 2. 

** Thefe folke defiren nowe delyueraunce ' 

' ^^ Of Antcnor thatbrought hem to mifchaunce. 
** For he was after traytour to the toun , 
*•* Of Troy uasi they quittc him, out to rathe." 
;^ . ;, _. Troylus^ Boke 4. Fol. i8j. pag. 2. coi. i» 

*' But he was flay ης ^as^ the more harmc is^ 
. *• Unhappcly at Thebes^ alto rathe." 

TroyAiii» Boke 5. Fol. 195. pag. a. col. i. 

U Yf 


** Yf I (quod flie) haue underftonden and knowen ut- 
« terly the caufes and the, habite of thy malady, thou 
•* languyiheft and art defeated for defyre and talent of thy - 
** RATHER fortune. She that ylke fortune onelye that is 
** chaunged as thou fayneft to thewarde» hath perverted 
'* the clerenefle and the eftate of thy corage.** 

Boecius» Boke 2. Fol. 225. pag. i. col. 2. 

*« Whylorti there was a man that had aflayed with 


^^ ftryiiynge word^s an other man, the which not for 
^^ ufage of very vertue, but for proude vayne glorye, had 
" taken upon him falfely the name of a phylofophre. 
^< This RATHER man that I fpake of, thought he wold 
^< aflay, wheder he thilke were a phylofophre or no.^ 

Boecius. Boke 2. Fol. 230• pag. 2. col. 2. 

*^ Diuyne grace is fo great that it ne may not ben ful 
^ prayfed, and this is only the maner, that is to fay, hope 

< and prayers. For which it femeth that men wol fpeke 

< with God, and by refon of fupplycacion bene conioyned 

* to thylke clerenefle, that nys nat approched ho rather 

■ • • 

< or that men feken it and impetren it." 

Boecius» Boke 5. Fdl. 249. pag. 2. col. i. 


praunt mcrcj good frende (quod he) 
** I th^nke the> that thou woldeft fo 

« But 


'*^ But it may neuer the rather be do, 
^ No man may my forowe glade." . 

Dreame of Chaucer. Fol. 156. pag• i. coU 1, 

*^ The RATHER fpedci Αέ loner may we go, 
" Great cofte alway there is in taryenge 
'^^ And longe to fewe it is a wery thynge." 

jiffmUe tf Ladyes. FoL 275. pag• 2• col. %. 

^ Thilke ilerres that ben deped fterres of the northe» 
%^ aryfen rather than the degree of her longytude, and 
<^ all the fterres of the Ibuthet aryfen after the degree of 
« her lon^tude.** 

jijrolabye. Fol. 280• pag• 2. col• i• 

« But lefyngcs with her flatteryfe 

" With fraude couered under a pytous face 

" Accept be nowe rathest unto grace." 

Blacke Knygbi. Fol. 289• pag• a, col. 2» 

*^ That ihal not nowe be tolde for me 
** For it no nede is redily 
** Folke can fyngc it bet than I 
" For al mote out late or rathe." 

F^ime. Boke 3. Fol. ^ol. pag. t. col. a. 

** Who was ycfQwned ? by Cod nat the ftrongeft, but 
^^ he that RATHEst come and lengeft abode and Continued 
^^ in the ioumey and fpared nat to trauayle.^ 

T^. ofLoue. Fol. 307. pag. i» coL 4* 

" Euery 


" Euery glytteryng thing is not golde, and under colour 
^< of fayre Ipeche many vices may be hyd and confeled. 
^< Therfore I rede no wight to truft on you to rathe, 
^^ mens chere and her fpeche right guyleful is ful ofte.'* 

Ύββ. of Loue. Boke 2. Fol. 314. pag. 2. col. 2. 

<< Veryly it is proued that rychefle, dygnyte, and power, 
« been not trewe waye to the knotte, but as rathe by 
^^ fuche thyngQS the knotte to be unbound•*• 

<^ T han (quod ihe) wol I proue that ihrewes as 

** RATHE ihal ben in the knotte as the good.** 

Τββ. of Loue. Boke 2. Fol. 319• pag. i. coL i.. 

/' Ah, good nyghtyngalc (quod I then) 
*' A lytcl hafte thou ben to longe hen, 
*^ For here hath ben the leude cuckowc 
" And fongen fonges rather than haft thou." 

Cuckowe and Nygbtyngale. Fol. 351. pag. i. col. 2. 


" His fcris has this pray reflauit raith, 

" And to thare meat addreflis it for to graith." 

Douglas. Booke i. pag. 19, 

" Quhen Paris forth of Phryge, the Troyane hird 
** Socht to the cicte Laches in Sparta, 
" And thare the douchter of Leda ftal awa, 
^ The fare Helene, and to Troy turfit raith.'* 

Douglas. Booke 7. pag, 219• 

:. * " y u u « And 

514 " OF ADVERBS• 

** And fche hir lang round nek bane bowand "R aith, 
"To gif thaym fouck^' can tliaym culze baytb." 

Dvuglas. Booke 8. pag. 266^ 

• ■ _ • 

" The princis tho, quhilk fuH this peace making, 
** Turnis towart the bricht fonnys upriiyng, 
" « With the ialt mclder ia chare handis καγγη/' 

» ... 

Douglas, Bookc i2. pag. 413. 


The Imperative of the Gothic and AQglo>iaxoa vert 
|:iAN9 p^ny To hate. 


^tck-like : from epic, cpicu» cpicob, vivus, (as we ftill 
oppofe the flifick to the Dead). Dpic is the paft participle 
of Dpiccian, vivificare. Quickly means^ in a life-like or 
livefy manner ; in the manner of a creature that has life. 

The Italians have the adj€<5tive Scarfo ; 

" Quelle parole aflai paflano il core 
*' Al trifto padre, e non fapea che fare 
«^ Di racquiftar la fua figlia c Tonore, 
'• Pcrchc tutti i rimedj erano scarsi." 

Β MQrgante. Cant. lo. St. 128• 

a • 



Which Menage improbably derives from Bxparcus. The 
fame word in Spaniih is written Efcqffb» Both the Italian 
and the Spaniih words are probably of northern origin. 
In Dutch Skaars is, rare, unfrequent. It is ftill commonly 
ufed as an adjeotive in modern £nglilh ; but anciently was 
more common. 

'^ Haft thou be so arse or large of giftc 
" Unto thy loue, whom thou ferueft ? 
** And faith the trouth, if thou haft bee 
*^ Unto thy loue or scarsb or free." 

Cower. lib. 5. FoL 109• pag. i. coL i. 

^^ What man that scarsb is of his good, 
** And wol not gyue, he fhall nought take.*' 

Gcwer. Fol. 109. pag. a» col. i^ 

i^ That mbn holde ycHi not to scarce^ ne to iparyng/' 

TiiU $f Chaucer. Fol. 80. pag. 2. col. r• 

^ Xioke that no iif»an for scarce the holde> 
" For that may greuc thc.manyfoldc." 

Rom. of the Rojc. Fol. 131• pag. i. col. U 

S £ L• fi Ό M«. 

'^ I me rcioy ccd of my ]ybcrtc 

** That siLDEN tyme is founde in manage." 

Ckrke of Oxenf. talf. Fpl. 46. pag• i• coL U 

tJ u u a The 


. The Dutch have alfo the adjedlive Zelden, Selten : The 
Germans Se/ieu : The Danes Seldfom : The Swedes Settfynt : 
rare, unufual, uncommon. 


According to S. Johnfon this word has the following 
iignifications — Sitf, firong<t rugged^ deepy full^ mereyfimple^ 
plain, grofs. He fays, " it is ufed to intend. or augment 
<* the fignification of a word : as. Stark mad, mad in the 
" higheft degree. It is now little ufed but in low 
^^ language." 

t ' 

In the Anglo-faxon Strajtc, Sreajic, German Starckj Dutch 
Sterkj Daniih Starky Swediih Stark^ as in the Engliih, all 
mean Strong. It is a good Engliih word ; common in all 
our old writers^ ilill retaining its place amongft the modems^ 
and never had an interval of difufe. 

- • 

^' And ihc that helmed was in starke itoures 
*' And wan by force townes ftronge and toures." 

Chauc&. Minkis Tate. Fol 85• pag. 2. coL t• 

But unto you I dare not lye. 
But mygl^t I fclen pr elpyc 
That, ye perceyued it notbyng, 
Ye jhulde h'aue a starke leafyng/' 

Rm. of the fio/i. Fol. 154• pag• 2. coL 2^ 




«« This cgle, of which I haue you toldc, 
" Me flycng at a fwappc he hcnte, 
" And with his fours agayne up wentc 
*' Me caryeng in hys ciawcs starke 
" As lyghtiy as I had ben a larke." 

Fame. Boke i. Fol. 294. pag. 2. col. 2^ 

^^ The folio wand wynd blew 3terk in our tail." 

Douglas. Booke 3. pag. 71. 

^' So that, my fon, now art thou fouir and sterk^ 
** That the not neJis to haue ony fere." 

Douglas. Booke 8. pag. 265. 

*' Turnus ane litil, thocht he was stark and ftout, 
^^ Begouth frawart the bargane to withdraw." 

Douglas. Booke 9. pag. 306. 

^^ Sa thou me faif^ thy piilance is fa stark^ 

'^ The Troianis glorie, nor thare viftoryc 

** Sail na thing change nor dymyncw tharby.*' * 

Douglas. Booke 10. pag. :336[, 

'' And at ane hie balk teyt up fche has 

'* With ane loupe knot ane stark corde or lace, 

" Quharewth Wr felf fche Ipilt with Ihamefol dede." 

Douglas. Booke 12• pag. 432. 

** As fall lock'd up in fleep, as guiltlefe labour, 
" When it lies starkly in the traveller's bones.'* 

Sbakejpeare. Meajure for Meajure. A. 4. Sc. 2• 

" I. 'Boor, Come, Englilh beer, hoftefs. Englilhbeer, 
« by th' belly. 

» "2. Boor, 


" a. Boor* Stark beer, boy : ftout and firong beer• 
« So. Sit down, lads, and diink me upfey-dutch. Frolick 
*< and fear not.*• 

Beaumont and Fletcher» Beggars Bti/b, A. 3. Sc. i. 

V Ε R T. 

Means True, 

" And it is dere and open that thilke fentence of Plato, 
« is VERY and fothe.* 

Chancer* Boectus, Boke4. Fol. 241. pag. 2• ooL 2• 

It is merely the French adjedbive f^rai, from the Italian, 
from the Latin. When this w<uxl was firft adopted fix>m 


the French, (and long after) it was written by them, and 
by us, v£RAT ; which they have finoe oormpced to Fraif 
and the Engliih to very. 

*' For if a kyngc fliall upon gcflc 
•* Without VBRAY caufe dredej 
*' He xnaic be lichc to that I rcdc•** 

Gofver. lib. 7« Fol. 162. pag. 2• coL 2. 

^ Conftantyne theniample and myrrour 
^^ To princes al, in hunUile tiuanKnoeilb 
^* To holy churchc veray fuftaynour/' 

Pr^hiue to Cmt. TsUs. 

• «* But 

OF AD\nSRBS• 519 

^^ But as Chrifte was, whan he was On lyue, 
" So is he there verament" — {yraiment) 

Plowmans Tale. Fol. 99. pag. 2. col. i• 

*' Ο thou, my chyld, do lerne, I the pray, 
" Vertcw and veray labour to aflky." 

Douglas. Booke 12. pag. 425. 

^^ Difce, puer, virtutem ex me Verumque laborem : 
*^ Foitunam ex aliis - ." Virgih 

Once. At once. Twice. Thrice. 

Antiently written anes, anis, anys, ones, onys, twies, 
TWYis, TWYisE, THRiEs, THRYis, &C• are merely the 
Genitives of Sne, 2fn, τνΛΐ, Tpa, Tpej^ TP13, Dpi, Djiy, 
&c. i. e. Oney Two, Three (The fubftantive Timey Turtiy 
8cc. omitted.) 

* The word Aliis in this pai&ge, ihould ia a modem vcrfion be tranflated 
Lord Grenville^ Mr. Roje^ Mr. Oundas^ Mr. fTyndbam, Mr. Pitty Lord 
Uverpooly &c. Who only affert modeftly (what our pilfering ftewards and 
bailiffs will ihortly tell us), that they hold their emoluments of office by as 
good a title, as any man in England holds his private eftate and fair-earned 
property ι and immediately after prove to us, that they hold by a much 
better title»— Their proof is> for the prefent only a triple or quadruple 
(they may take half or two thirds of our income next year) additional 
affeflment upon our innocent property ; whilft their guilty emoluments of 
office (how earned we know) remain untouched. 



The Italian and French have no correfpondent adverb : 
they fay line foisj deux fois^ una volta^ due volte 8cc; The 
Dutch have Eens for the fame purpofe ; but often forego 
the advantage. 

*' For ONES that he hath ben blithe 
" He ihal ben after forie thries." 

Gower. Lib. 5• Fol. 117• pag• i. col. i. 

*' For as the wylde wode rage 

*' Of wyndes maketh the fea fauagc, 

*' And that was caulme bringeth to wawc, 

** So for defaut and grace of lawe 

" The people is ftcrcd all AT ONES." 

Gawer. Lib. 7. Fol. 166• pag. i. col. i• 

*' Ye wote yovr felfc, (he may not wedde two 
" At ones•'* 

Knygbtes Tale. Fol. 5. pag• 2. col. a. 

" Sythen Chrift went nieuer but onys 
•' To weddyng." 

JVyfe of Bathe. ProL Fol. 34. pag. i. col. i. 

«' And firft I ihrcw myfelf, both blode and bones, 
" If thou bcgyle me ofter than ones." 

Nomes Priefl. Fol. 91. pag. i. col. i. 

" Sen Pallas mycht on Grekis tak fie wraik, 
'• To birn thare fchyppis, and all for an is faik 
« Droun in the fcye." 

Douglas. Boke i. pag. 14. 

•' My faddir cryis. How ! feris, help away, 

** Streik ^is attanis with al the force je may." 

Douglas. Booke 3. pag. 8. 

# €C The 


'* The fcblit breith ful fall can bctc and blaw, 
" Ne gat he lafare anys his aynd to draw." 

Pouglas. Booke 9. pag• 307• 

" Thries flie turned hir aboute 

^' And THRIES eke flie gan downe loutc 

Gower. Lib. 5. FoL 105• pag. i. col. i. 

^' She made a cercle about hym thries, 
*' And efte with fire of fulphur twies." 

Gower. Lib. 5. Fol. 105• pag. a. col. a. 

*' That hath been twyse hotte and twysb colde.*' 

Chaucer^ Cokes Prol. FoL 17• pag. 2. col. 2. 

" For as Senec fayth: He that ouercometh his hert, 
" ouercometh twise.'* 

"Tale of Chaucer, FoL 82. pag. 2. coL 2. 

*' In gold to graif thy fall twyis etlit he, 

*^ And twyise for reuth failjeis the faderis handis.*' 

Douglas. Booke 6. pag. 163• 

" He fychit profoundlye owthir twyis or thryis." 

Douglas. Booke lo. pag. 349. 

A τ W O. A τ Η R Ε E. 

On cpa. On iSjiy. In two. In three. The Dutch have 
Intween ; the Danes Itu. 

X X X « And 


5 α a OF ADVERBS. 

•* And Jaibn fworc, and iaid dier, 
" That alio wis God hyra helpe, 
«' That if Medea did hym helpe, 
** That he his purpofe might wynne, 
" Thei lliidde neuer part atwynne." 

Gower. Lib. 5. Fol. loa. pag. 2. col. i. 

■jl' ^ That death us fliulde dcparte atwo."' 

Gower. Lib. 4. Fol. 84. pag. i. col. r. 

^ And eke an axe to fmyte the corde atwo/' 

MyUers Tale. Fol. 14• pag. i. coL x. 

^ Ne howe the fyre was couched fyrft with S/re^ 
" And than with drye iUckes clouen athre." 

Knyghtes Tale. Fol. 11. pag. t^ coL i* 

Alone. Only* 

JBl-ane. One-like^ In the Dutch, Een is One : JlUeen^ 
ALONE : and All-een^lyky only.. 

" So came ihe to him priuely,. 

'* And that was, whcr he made hiis mone^ 

" Within a gardeine all him onje." 

Gower. Lib. r. Fol. 25^. pag. a. cof. lu. 

** The ibrowe, doughter> which I make>. 

" Is not ALL ONELV for my fake,. 

**• But for the borhc, and for you all.'** 

Gower. Lib. i. Fol.. 25. pag. 2- col. iu. 

" All other kches he forfoke,. 
** And put him out of auenturc 
^ Alonly to God's cure/* 

Gower. Lib. %, FoL 45. pag. 2. col. 2.. 

« And 


" And thus full oftc a daic for nought 
" (S^ufe ONLicHE of myn owne thought) 
*' I am fo with my fcluen wroth." 

Gower. Lib. 3• Fol. 47. pag. 2. col. i• 

" Thre yomcn of his chambre there , . 

" All only for to feme hym were." 

Gower. Lib. 6. Fol. 137. pag. i. col. 2I- 

For ALL ONELYCHE of gcntill louc 
My courte ftont all courtes aboue." 

Gower. Lib. 8. Fol. 187. pag. i. col. 2. 

" Thou woft well that I am Venus, 
*' Whiche all onely my luftes feche.*' 

Gower. Lib. 8. Fol. 187. pag. 2. col. i. 


Junius is right. Anon means In one (fubauditur /«- 
flant^ moment^ minute.) 

«* For I woU ben certaync a vedded man, 
** And that anon in all the haft I can." 

Marcbauntes Tale. Fol. 29. pag. i. coL 2. 

" Than Dame Prudence, without delay or tarieng, fent 
^^ ANONE her meflanger.'' 

Tale of Chaucer. Fol. 82. pag. i. col. 2• 

All our old authors ufe anon, for immediately^ inflantly. 

X X X 2 Mr. 


Mr. Tyrwhit, Vol. 4. Note to Verfe 381, fays — " From 
" Pro nuncy I fuppofe, came For the nunc ; and fo, For 
" ibe .Nonce. Juft as from ^ nunc came anon.** — I 
agree with Mr. Tyrwhit, that the one is juft as likely as 
the other.** 

In the Anglo-faxon, Άη means One, and On means In : 
which word On we have in Engliih corrupted to jin, before 
a vowel ; and to a, before a confonant ; and in writing 
and fpcaking have conncfted it with the fubfequent word : 
and from this double corruption has fprung a numerous 
race of Adverbs ; which (only becaufe there has not been 
a iimilar corruption) have no corrcfpondent adverbs in 
other languages.. 

Thus from On t>ds^, On nihtr, On lenje, On bjijebe, On 
baec, On lanbe, On lipe, On mit)t)an, On juhre, On tpa. 
On pes ; we have uiday, Anight, uilongy Abroad, Aback, 
Aland, AJive, Atnid, Aright, Atwo, Away : and from On "Rn, 


Gower and Chaucer write frequently In one : and 
Douglas, without any corruption, purely on ane. 


Thus fayand, fcho the bing afccndis on ane." 

Douglas. Booke 4. pag.. 124. 



In a Trice. 

Skinner, not fo happily as ufual, fays — ^** In a I'ricey 
" fort, a Dan» at reyfe, furgere, fe erigere, attoUere, q. d. 
** tantillo temporis fpatio quanto quis fe attollere poteft." 

S. Johnfon — ^^ believes this word comes from Trait Ft. 
^^ corrupted by pronunciation. A ihort time> an inftant, 
" 2ifiroker 

The etymology of this word is of fmall confequence ; 
but, I fuppofe, we have it from the French Trots: and 
(in a manner limilar to anon) it means — In the time in 
which one can count Three — Oney Twoy Three and away. — 
Gower writes it Treis. 

" All fodenly^ as who faith Treis, 
" Where that he ftodc in his paleis, 
" He toke him from the mens fight, 
€c \yas none of them fo ware, that might 
*' Set cie where he become.'* 

Gower. Lib. i• Fol. 24. pag• 2• col, i. 

The greater part of the other Adverbs have always been 
well underftood : fuch as, Gratis, Alias, Amen, Alamode,, 
Indeed, In fadt, Methinks, Forfooth, Infooth, &c.. 

B. But 


Β. • 

But I fuppofe there are fome adverbs which are merely 
cant words ; belonging only to the vulgar ; and which have 
therefore no certain origin nor precife meaning ; fuch as 
SPICK and span, 8ic. 


Spick, span, 
I will not aflert that there may not be fuch ; but 1 know 
of none of that defcription. It is true S. Johnfon fays of 
Spick and Span^ that " he ihould not have expeoled to 
** find this word authorized by a polite writer.** « Span 
*« new^ he fays, " is ufed by Chaucer *, and is fuppofed 

♦ Chaucer ufcs it, in the third book of Troylus. Fol. i8i. pag• 2. 
col. I. 

This is a worde for al, that Troylus 

Was ncuer fill to fpeke of this matere. 

And for to prayfcn unto Pandarus 

The bounte of his right lady dere. 

And Pandarus to thanke and makcn chere. 

This tale was aye span newe to bcgynne, 

Tyl that the nyght departed hem atwynne.*' 

But I fee no reafon why Chaucer ihould be blamed for its ufc j any more 
than Shakelpear for ufing Fire-new, on a much more folemn occafion. 

Maugre thy ftrength, youth, place and eminence, 
Defpight thy viftor fword, and Fire-new fortune. 
Thy valour and thy heart, — thou art a traitor." 

King Lear. A6t 5. Sec. 3. 

^« to 



^ to come from rpannan, to ftretch, Sax. cxpandere, Lat. 
" whence /pan. Span new is therefore originally ufed of 
^* Cloth, new extended or dreffed at the clothier's: and 
" fpi^^ ^nafpan new, is, newly extended on the fpikes or 
** tenters. It is, however, a low word.** In /pick Τίηά/ραη: 
however, there is nothing ftretched upon fpikes and tenters, 
but the etymologift^s ignorance. In Dutch they fay Spick^ 
fpelder-nieuw. And Jpyker means a warehoufe or magazine- 
Spil or Spel means a fpindle, fcbiet-fpoely the weaver^ 
fliuttle; and^c^^A/i^r the ihuttle- thrower. In Dutch, there-- 
fore, Spikfpelder-nieuw means, new from the warehoufe 
and the loom^ 

In German they fay — Span-neu and FunckeU neu. Spange 
means any thing ihining ;. as Funckel means to glitter or 


In Danifti Funckelnye., 

In Swedilh Spitt fpangande ny.. 

In Englifti we fay Spick and Span-new, Fire-new, Brand- 
new, The two laft Brand and Fire fpeak for thcmfelves. 
SpicA and Span-new m,Qzns fining new from the warehoufe,. 

B. Aye,. 


Α γ Ε, YEA, YES. 

You have omitted the moil important of all the Ad- 
verbs — AYE and NO. Perhaps becaufe you think Green- 
wood has fufficiently fettled thefe points — " Ay^ he fays, 
^^ feems to be a contradtion of the Latin word Aio^ as IJay 
<^ is of ^iego. For our Nay^ Nay; Ay^ ^; is a plain imitation 
^^ of Terence's Negat quis f Ν ego. Ait f AioP Though 
I think he might have found a better citation for his pur- 
pofe — " An nata eft fponfa prsegnans ? vel At^ vel negaP 


I have avoided aye and no, becaufe they are two of 
the moft mercenary and mifchievous words in the language, 
the degraded inftruments of the meaneft and dirtieft traffic 
in the land. I cannot think they were borrowed from the 
Romans even in their moft degenerate ftate* Indeed the 
Italian, Spaniili and French ^•'* affirmative adverb, -SV, is 

* The French have another (and their principal) affirmative adverb. 
Old : which, Menage fays, fome derive from the Greek ιιίοσι, but which he 
believes to be derived from the Latin Hoc efiy inftead of which was pro- 
nounced IIocc, then Oe, then OuCy then Of, and finally Ouy. But (though 
rc|eftcd by Menage) Out is manifeftly the pad participle of Ouir^ to hears 
and is well calculated for the purpofe of aflcnt : for when the proverb fays 
— " filence gives con/enty" — it is always underftood of die filence, not of a 
.dcaf orabfent perfon, but of one who has both heard.flnd noticed the requeft. 



derived from the Latifi, and means Be it (as it does when 
it is called an hypothetical conjunction). But our Aye^ or 
Tea^ is the Imperative of a verb of northern extradtion ; 
and means — Have ity pqffefs ity enjoy it. And yes, is Ay-es^ 
Have, poffefs, enjoy that. More immediately perhaps, 
they are the French Angular and plural Imperative Aye and 
Ayez ; as our corrupted O-^yes of the Cryer, is no other 
than the French Imperative Oyezy Hear, Liften ^'. 

Daniih, Ejer^ to poffefs, have, enjoy• Eja^ Aye or yea• 
Eje^ poffeffion• Ejer^ polTeflbur• 

Swediih, Ega^ to poffefs, ja^ aye, yea. Egarey poffeflbr• 

German, Ja^ aye, yea• Eigener^ poffeffor, owner• 
Eigefty own. 

Dutch, Eigenetiy to poffefs, jay aye, yea. Eigenfcbapy 
Eigendonty poffeffion, property. EigenaaVy owner, pro- 
^ prietor. 

♦ " And after on the dauncc went 
'* Largefle, that fet al her cntent 
" For to ben honorable and free, 
" Of Alexander's kynne was flie, 
« Her moft ioye was ywis, 
** Whan that Ihe yafe, and fayd : Haue this•" 

Rom. of tU Rofe. Fol. 125• pag. i• col. i. 

Which might, with equal propriety, have been tranflatcd, 
" When ihc gave, and faid yes, 

Υ y y Anglo- 


530 t>F ADVERBS. 

Anglo-fax. Sjen, own. S^enioe, proprietor, ffjennyn^e, 

Ν Ο T, Ν o. 

As little do I thinks with Greenwcxxl, that not, or its 
abbreviate no, was borrowed from the Latin ; or, with 
Minihew, from the Hebrew ; or, with Junius, from the 
Greek• The inhabitants of the North, could not wait for 
a word expreflive of diflent, till the eftabliihment of thofe 
nations and languages ; and it is itfelf a furly fort of word 
lefs likely to give way and to be changed fhan any other 
ufed in fpeech• Befides, their derivations do not lead to 
any meaning, the only objeol which can juffify any etymo- 
logical inquiry• But we need not be any farther inqui- 
litive, nor, I think, doubtful concerning the origin and 
and iignification of not and no, fince we find that in the 
Danilh 'Nodig^ and in the Swediih Nodigy and in the Dutch ^ 
Noodey Nodcy and Noy mean, averfsy unwilling *. 


♦ M. L*Eveque, in his Eflai fur les rapports dc la languc des Slaves, 
avcc celle dcs anciens habitans du Latium, (prefixed to his Hiftory of Ruflia) 
has given us a curious etymology of three Latin adverbs j which I cannot 
forbear tranfcribing in this place, as an additional confirmation of my opinion 
of the Particles.: — " Lc changement de Γ ο en a doit \ peine ctre regardc 
" commc une alteration. Eu. cfFet ccs deux lettres ont en Slavon tant d' 
a " affinitc. 


And I hope I may now be permitted to have done with 
Etymology : for though, hke'^ a microfcope, it is fometimes 




afEnite, que les Ruffes prononcent en a le tiers au moins dcs fyllabes 
qu'ils ccrivent par un o." 

Let^mot qui fignifioit auparavant (before Terra was ufed) la furfacc de 
la terre. Ce mot en Slavon eft pole ; qui par I'affinitc de Γο avec Γα, 
a pu fe changer en pale. Ce qui me fait prefumcr que ce mot fc trou- 
voit auffi en Latin, c'eft qu'il refte un verbe qui paroit forme de ce fub^ 
" ftantif; c'eft le verbe palo ou palare, errerdans le campagne : palans, 
qui errc de cote & d'autre, qui court les champs. L'Adverbe palam 
" tire fon origine du meme mot. II fignifie manifeficmenty a decouvert. 
*^ Or, qu'eft ce qui fe fait a decouvert poundes hommes qui habitent des 
" tentes ou des cabannes ? C'eft ce qui fc fait en plein champs. Ce mot 
" palam femble meme dans fa formation avoir plus de rapport ^ la langue 
*^ Slavonne qu* a la Latine. Ϊ1 femble qu'on dife palam pour polami^jt 
*^ les cbampSi h travers les champs. Ce qui me confirme dans cettee idee, 
" c'eft que je nc me rappellc pas qu'il γ ait en Latin d'autre Adverbc qui 
*^ ait une formation femblable, fi ce n'eft fon oppole, clam, qui veut dire 
Jecrettementy en cachette \ & qui me paroit auffi Slavon. Clam fc dit 
pour KOLAMi, & par une contradUon tres conforme au genie de la langue 
Slavonne, klami, au milieu des Pieux ; c'eft a dire dans dcs cabanncg 
** qui. etoient formees de Fieux revctus (5*ccorces, de pcaux, ou de 
** branchages." * 

'* J'oubliois I'Adverbe coram, qui veut dire Devanfy en pr^fence. — ^• D 
*^ differe de palam (dit Ambroife Calepin) en cc qu'il fc rappprte feule- 
*' mcnt i quelques perfonnes, & palam fe rapporte a toutes : il entraine 
*' d'ailleurs' avec lui Tidee de proximite." — ^Π a done pu marquer autrefois 
** que Taftion fe paffoit en prefence de quelqu'un dans un lieu circonfcrit 
*^ ou ferme. Ainfi on aura dit coram pour korami, ou, Mejdcu Korami', 

parccque la cloture dcs habitations ctoit fouvent faitc d'ecorcc, Kcra." 

. Ύ γ γ 2 I am 




ufeful to difcover the minuter parts of language which 
would other wife efcape our fight ; yet is it not neceffary to 
have it always in our hands, nor proper to apply it to 
every object. 



If your do(5trine of the Indechnables (which I think we 
have now pretty well exhaufted) is true, and if every word 
in all languages has a feparate meaning of its own, why 
have you left the conjundtion that undecyphered ? Why 
content yourfelf with merely faying it is an Article^ whilft 
you have left the Articles themfelves unclaiTed and un• 
explained ? 

I am the better pleafed with Mr. L'Evcque's etymology, becaufc he had 
nojyflem to defend, and therefore cannot be charged with riiat partiality and 
prejudice, of which, after what I luve advanced, I may be reafonably fuf- 
pefted. Nor is it the worfe, becaufe M. L'Eveque appears not to have 
known the ftrength of his own caufc : for clam was antiently written in 
\Λύΐ\€αΙΐ3η: (though Feftus, who tells us this, abfurdly derives ίώ»ι from 
clavibusy " quod his, quaj celare volumus, claudimus'*) and cala was an 
old Ladn word for wood, or logs, or ftakes. So Lucilius (quoted by Ser- 
vixis) " Scinde puer. Calami ut caleas/* His derivation is alfo ftill farther 
analogically fortified by the Daniih correfpondent adverbs •< for in that Ian-, 
guage Gcbeim^ gebeimty I HemmeligbeJ, (from Hiem home) and / enrum 
(i. c. in a room) fupply the place of Clam, and Fardagen (or, in the fecc 
of day) fuppUes the place of Palam. 

ς Η• I 

OF ADVERBS. 533 "^v 

I would fain recover my credit with Mr. Biirgefs, at leaflr 
upon the fcore of liberality. For the freedom (if he plcafes, 
harihnefs) of my ilridtures on my " predecejfors on the 
*^ fubjedt of language.'' I may perhaps obtain his pardon,, 
when he has learned from Montefquien that — " Rien ne 
^^ recule plus le progres des connoifances^ qu'un mauvais 
" ouvrage d'un auteur celebre : parcequ avant d" iriftruire^ 
** // faut detromper : or from Voltaire, that — La faveur 
" prodiguee aux mauvais ouvrages, eft aufli contraire aux 


** progres de Tefprit, que le dechainement contre les bons•** 
But Mr. Burgefs .himfelf has undertaken to explain the 
Pronouns : and if I did not leave the field open to him 
(after his undertaking) he might perhaps accuie me of 
iUiberality towards my followers alfo. I hope the title will 
not offend him ; but I will venture to fay that, if he does 
any thing with the pronouns, he muft be contented to* 
follow the etymological path which Γ have traced out for 
him. Now the Articles y as they are called, trench fo^ 
clofely on the Pronouns j that they ought to be treated of ' 
together : and I rather chufe to leave one conj uniSt ion un- 
explained, and my account of the Articles imperfecSt, than 
foreftall in the fmalleft degree any part of Mr. Burgefs's< 
future difcovery. There is room enough for both of us. 
The garden of fdence is overrun with weeds ; and whilft- 



every coxcomb in literature . is anxious to be the importer 
of fome new exotic, the more humble, though (at this 
period of human knowledge efpecially) more ufeful buiinefs 
of farculation (to borrow an exotic from Dr• Johnfon) is 
miferably negledted. 


If you mean to publifh the fubftance of our conver- 
fation; you will probably incur more cenfure for \ih&/ubje& 
of your inquiry» than for your manner of purfuing it. 
It will 'be faid to be υτη^ ην βχιβις» 


I know for what building I am laying the foundation : 
and am myfelf well fatisfied of its importance. For thofe 
who ihall think other\vife, my defence is ready made : 

Sciquefta materia non έ degna, 

Per eflcr piu Icggicri, 

D'un huom che voglia parer faggio c grave, 

Scufatclo con qucfto ; che s'ingegna 

Con quefti van penfieri 

Fare il fuo trifto tempo piu fuave : 

Perche altrove non have * 

Dove voltare il vifo ; 

Cbe gli iftato inter ci/q 

Moflrar con altre imprefe altra virtue.