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Full text of "Errors of speech and of spelling"

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•'••n 



ERROES OF SPEECH 

▲iro or 

SPELLING. 



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ERRORS OF 




SPELLING. 



j/r BY THB BBT. 

EyCOBHAM BREWER, LL.D. 

*'<hiMt io Science** ra»,000«»;; 

"Jffi^fory of France** f brought down to the present year J; 

"Dictionary of Phrase and FaJble " (3rd editi&nj; 

"Lee FfUnomhue de Tout les Jours" f dedicated by auth&rity toNapoUon III., 

and sanctioned by Mgwr. SibouVt Abp, qf Paris); 

oBCtf afO» 



VOLUME I. 



Eontron t 
WILLIAM TEGG AND CO., 

PANOBAS LANE, OHEAPBIDB. 
Ift77. 



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LSXDSt 

pBOrXBD BT M00OB<)17ODAIJi AXD 0<K» 

BABTNflHAT.T. Sx&XBE: 



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PEEFAOE. 



Object zv Yzeit. 

The olject of this DicticMiary is not to collect togetJier all tlie 
words employed in the language, nor to fiimish an exhanstiye 
list of the sereral meanings of each word, but simply to call 
attention to errors of speech and spelling made, not by the 
nnedncated, bnt by those who wish to speak and spell correctly. 

In pnrsuance of these objects, the plan adopted is-» 

1. To omit all words which are so obvious as to present no 
difficulty of meaning, spelling, or pronunciation.* 

2. To supply the correct spelling and pronunciation of every 
word likely to be looked for in such a manual as this. 

3. To point out those errors in spelling, pronunciation, or 
nse, to be espedaUy guarded against. 

4. To give so much c^ the meaning of each word as may 
suffice to identL^ it and explain its general use^ 

5. To set side by side homonyms, paronyms, and ^ynQnyms, 
that they may be readily compared and correctly applied. 

6. The plural of eveiy word (except those which add -# or -es) 
is given, the feminine of every masculine, the past tense and 
past participle of every verb, the degrees of comparison, the 
changes of -y into -ieSf the doubling of consonants, and every 
other variation which a word in its different phases undergoes. 

In carrying out the scheme some repetition has been made, 
with a view of saving the searcher that tedious and most un- 
satisDactoiy task of turning to a word which he does not want, 
after he has been at the pains of finding the one which he 
requires. Aa a dictionary is read piece-meal and not consecu- 
tively, the only fault of these repetitions is that it somewhat 
enlarges the bulk of the book. 

* The Mdiar lettot of the book an not lo foU aa ibe latter. The 
"Hg»«*i intentioii wai to limit the die of the book to about 800 page*. 



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iv PREFACE. 

7. Attention is called to all outrages of spelling and com- 
bination; bnt, that the corrections saggested may in no wise 
interfere with the received spelling or pronunciation, they are 
invariably added as xi«1je& In^ a BmfiU«l tfge. Thus equerry is 
pointed out as indefensible in spelling, rhyme (meaning the 
clink of words in poetry), iridelible, isingUus (from the German 
" hausenblase," a sturgeoft'ft \;iLs4Aex)tiafpp8thume for " aposteme," 
inftuible (both positive and negative), pedometer for " podo- 
meter," defence aadoffisnce for ** defense** and ^'ofltense," letter 
and lettuce, marry and marriage, manacles fat **Tnanieles,'' mar- 
malade for ** marmelade * ospray for *• osfray" (the bone-breaker), 
passenger and messenger, with scores of others. Some of t&ese 
errors may probably get-corrected alter attention has been called 
to them, others may afifbrd amusement or gratify literary curiosity. 

8. AU hybrids are noticed, all abnormal derivations, all per- 
versions, all blunders of philology, aXL inconsistencies: fbr 
example— pro-eeed with -ceed, and pre-cede with -cede; primo- 
geniture taid prtma-genitor for "primi-" (Latiii "primi-genitus,'* 
&c.); the introduction otii ifi the middle of 'some Greek com- 
pounds and its omission in others, as phiZharmonic, apheUon, 
diarrhaa, philhellenisi, enhydrous, Stc, on the one side, and 
pan[h]oply, exlhloduSy panmorama, an[h}i)maly, perilh}od, (fee, 
on the oUier. In some instances the his omittcnl even at the 
beginning of a word, as udometer, although we have fifty other 
compounds of hvdar with tfre '*^h** affixed, apse fbr ^hapse," 
erpetology for" herpetolo^,** endeeagon for ** hendecagon,** and 
that much abused word eurSka, which ought to be *4ieurfika.** 

Amongst the many instances of perversion, take the fbOowifig 
fi:om the French : connoisseur, dishevel, frontispiece, lutestring, 
encore, epergne, furnish (fbr ** gamir"), and fumitwre (flrtr ** meu- 
bles**). Some of these perversions are teo well estabHi&ed to 
be disturbed, but it cannot fail to amuse the curious to pry into 
these oddities. 

Our hybrids are above 30(y words in common twe: witness 
octopus (Latin and Greek), grand-son (EngUsh.!FVench and 
English), grand-father (French and English), bi-monthtg (Latin 
and BngliiAi), dem^-»€m^-qwme¥ (fnmc\k\ Im^im, mi4 Spaaish). 
In regard to "grandfather"^ and '^great-grandfbther" we have 



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PREFACE, y 

BO eoLxsomt, m evcellent wovchi existed fbi liioM relationships 
betoe ^e coiiqiidsli ^'UpmoDtS^F*^ iB vegf otjeetionable, and 
"octopus'* if « ^Itmdor. 

Etymology Is the tracing of a word back to its original sooree, 
and thofldag tiie etihnn1<igiaal nhaiiigas it has gone thvoogh in 
its trsvfljb thfliice to its sqfctliMpent in the ianguage xmA» «on- 
sidevatiim. 

Dernration is dnipfyahowing firom what «oiuwe a peqpile eame - 
by a €ertaiii word, regardless of aof more remote origin. 

Take Itwo very simple iilnstratiDns. A man ofifers me some 
dierrifis, and X ask faioDi whem ihey eom« fiom, Im replies from 
his own garden. That would he ^deisfation* if ai^lied to 
JaagBAge; bprt if he went into the ttale id>oiit Laeufias and the 
Mithridatic war, showing that the Eoman general transplanted 
Aem irom OeraMW to his own garden at Borne; ihtA, the 
RwiMHH iaoported the tree into Spain, i«4keie the w(»d was 
ynn^fyftttil mto Bertha; tiiat 13ie iken«h <d)tainedthe tree from 
their neighbonrs, and, hating the letter r, dbanged the word to 
cmtr; that we borrowed jit from the Erenoh, and called the 
wQcd fiherriM: Ihis would be etym/siogy, in^e or less valuable 
as eaeli stage <Kf the process aopild be proved to be an Mstorioai 
iMt; trot toK avaiyda^ lUb the sm^Le answer, '*<lh^ came from 
my erwn garden,^ would be fvito sufficient, and Hhe teamed 
diaqfiBitfflP about LiMidhis aiad his wars would be tedfone and 
enit of place. 

So, agfldn, a labourer named Hetty settles in our vffiage, and 
I ask a neighbour where the man came from. He replies fr^m 
8iBg^0ton, the other side af the Dewns. ^at is all I require. 
But aaother isiioms me that the origfeaalftmily oame from the 
terra ineogEota called Arya, somewhere near the aaofent garden 
(tf Eden, and l&at ^le word may be distinctly 4araeed in all the 
Aryan family of languages. Thus we liave tho Oothic hath, 
^e High German had, ttie old FrankLedi oAod, the Gdtie cath 
in. Oathmer, the Scandinafiaa Hoedhr (aec<Mding to Oi^kmn). 
We have the Catti, a wariike tribe of Teutonie cndgin, Cato and 
CatuOiM in Latin, Gtidwalha in Welsh, €halM in French, from 



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PREFACE. 



the Aryan word ead» meaning ** war." This, again, may be very 
well in ita place: '* Forta$se cnpressiuil scis simalare : qTiid hoc, 
si fractis enatat ezpes nayibas lero dato qui pingitor?" This 
learned parade is too lengthy and too erudite for the purpose in 
hand, and the simple answer, **the man comes from Singleton/' 
is all-sufficient. 

In this manual no attempt has been made to trace cherries to 
Pontus, or the name of the ploughman to the hypothetical 
Aryan word meaning **waT;'' but to give a fair idea of the 
heterogeneous character of out language, and to diow the mean- 
ing of words, their derivation is given. When the French is 
a modified Latin word, or the Latin a modified Ghreek word, 
the earlier form is added also ; but no unravelling of etymology 
proper has been attempted, except indeed when the change of a 
word (as Hr from anax, a king) tells a tale startling to the eye, 
but obvious the moment it is painted out. 

It may, however, be mentioned, that not one single derivation 
has been taken on trust, everyone has been verified by personal 
reference to some well-established dictionary of the language 
Inferred to, be it French, Spanish, Danish, Anglo-Saxon, Latin, 
Greek, or what not The necessily of this precaution is fSar 
more important than many would suppose; for not only have 
printers' errors, manuscript "slips," and authors' blunders been 
handed down from dictionary to dicdonaxy in a most incredible 
manner, but scores of words have been coined for the nonce, 
scores of others have been tortured in spelling and meaning, or 
dressed up so as to make Jacob look like Esau, while not a few 
have been deemed foreigners which belong to our own Anglo- 
Saxon medley of words. 

Opening the first Eng^h dictionary of established reputation 
at hand, a dictionary eiq[iecially luraised by one of our most 
reputed Reviews **for its accurate and very excellent deriva- 
Uons," we meet in one page taken at random the following 
specimens: Gale (Danish galm, a blast), whereas the Danish 
verb is kule (to blow), and no such word as " gabn" exists in the 
language. Gall (to fret) is said to be the French gaUer, but the 
French verb is galer (to scratch). Gallon is given (French 
gaUm), which means " galoon,'* and should be gallon with double 



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PBEFACM. 



i as in English. Galley, we are told by the same aathori 
is Latin galeida, a word most certainly not Latin at f 
Omme is said to be Anglo^axon gaman (sport), which ought 
be gamen, 8aol (Italian gaiola)^ a word contained in no Itali 
dictionary, the nearest to it is gdio (gay). Garret (French garit 
not to be found, but galetat may be intended. These all occ 
in one page. Turning over the leaves, and taking the words 
hap-hazard, we light on the following : Gloom (Gennan ghmm 
but no such word exists in any of my four German dictionari 
and if it did, the obvious deziyation is our own gUm, Spi^ 
(Italian tpigo, a spigot) ; now, it is very true there is an Itali 
word sfigot but it means " lavander " or *'nard," and the wc 
for spigot is zipolo. Lease (French laUsement)) no such wc 
to be found, the nearest to it is laisae (a leash). Loch (Wei 
Umehy a lake) ; but the Welsh llweh means " dust," and the wo 
corresponding to '* loch " is Uoc (a dam). Quire (Erench quaiei 
no such word exists, but eahier means a quire. 

It would be mere predantry to go further. I pledge my wo 
that these extracts are copied Hterally and exactly, and th 
similar examples may be taken from any page of the book. 
course, I cannot mention the author's name, as the work stan 
in good repute, and its publishers are in the fore rank of th( 
profession. When, however, it is stated that every word in tl 
Dictionary has been personally verified, and that neither t 
spelling nor meaning of one single word has been tampered wi 
to make it fit the occasion, it is a great advantage, which m 
be most confidently relied on. 

A goodly number of the '* derivations " differ from tho 
usually given, but thereia fancy or guess-work has had i 
part The word "conferva" is usually referred to the Lat 
confervere (to boil up), but the connection between water-plan 
and ebullition is not obvious. Pliny tells us these plants " we 
esteemed cures for broken bones,** and " conferveo" means to " ki 
together broken bones," a good and sufficient reason for t] 
teehnical tenn. " Fsean " (a hymn to Apollo, and applied to t] 
god himself) we are told, in Dr. Smith's Cla$sicaX DicUonary, 
from Pean, the physician of the Olympian gods ; but surely 
could be no great honour to the Sun-god to be called by t 




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viii PiasP'Aek. 



name of hia <>im vastbl. HenAstei^iiifi 6«iggest0 poMtS (to rnnke 
{<li8etk8M] ^6ease) ; but pixid, "to d&rt," fl^efliB to be the natuiuL 
paf6iit.W(^ of tiM ^'fttAiXi&t/' AgA^, th« ustl&l ddrivadoti 
of "itottfiainy" h mm (wax); bttt l>ioddinid Siofiltis i»yg, that 
*' the people of the Balearic IOba nsed to betit the bodiea of the 
dead with dhibn to tettdeir th^n flejdble, hi ot^er that they might 
be deposited in eaf^^n petB ealAed mumma.** '*Motgtte (a 
dead^htdttfte) is genetally astoeiatod with the Lttthi nu)¥$ (deatli); 
but Botiillet tens Mi the wo)*d tteatui i^^ laud WM fiMt 
applied to prison vMtibuleft, wheM new osrirnhMls w&ee pla6«i 
to be feK^Mt^Eiked, that the prison offidala mi^t familiarise 
themselves with the fkces and figa^es of the new Ininates. 
" Sk^4aric* (a sptee) ha& nothing in eommon wUh the wond 
8%. Bi is a oonlaradjon of ** Yolsd," by whieh the Westminster 
boys mean * snobs,** eioA a »* sky-htfk " is a Itrfk or bont with the 
*8ci-mm or Me$, b **towtt and gown tow.** •* Lumber 5" one 
dicttonaary gives ieemmer, wMeh it t^nns '<an oid Dutoh word 
meaning hl/itSlinEmcef* anoth^ gtves the Anglo-Baxon le^ma 
with the meaning ^ ttton^** but the only meaning of UStM is 
**a ray of light" Lady Muiiray tolls us that the leal erigin ef 
the word Is htrnbatd <a pawnbifokei^s fiihop, originally ealled & 
" lumb^-room") : ** They put all the liltle pblto they hoA in tlie 
lumhtr, which is pawning it.** 

Sometimes ^e aftaiogy bretween a parent wetd and Its od*- 
spriog seems vo te)^ remote that the general reader cannot 
traee it: the miscdng link has Always been supplied in this 
Dictionary, and in some cases thisha» brought out infoimatkMi 
of a very int«ires&ig charact^. Archbishop Trench has pointed 
out that the word po#e immovably flated) expresses the idea also 
of the utmost speed. To this example many others equally 
curious are here added: thus, "onibn" is the same woi^d as 
uni(m, and, strange to lay, both iire e(|tially conneeted witAi 
prtcim$ pearU, *• Complexion'* is th* Latin campU^Bum (to em- 
brace), and "eoutttenance" is fitom the Ladn ^erb timUmeo (to 
contain); but it is by no means obtious at first sight how 
** embrace** and '^isontidn*' came to ^gnify the "'ecdour and 
expression of the fbee ** i$et oomp9exi»n cond distemper). The 
lames of flowers 'aflbrd a wide h^d for this eurious lore. 



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PREFAHS* 



Sl^ELtlKO BePOBK. 

The diffioolty «n4 atoMrdity of ovx Q>eUijQg liaje long been ft 
very general complaint, and those who inlereat themselves in 
education will bear witness that spelHng is tho greatest of all 
stumbling-blocks in e^minations, even Lord Byron confesses 
*• he could never master English orthography." Many devices 
hata been snggefltad to vomedy or seli«ve the 4iffleiilty, but 
DO lyatam hikhertp pvqleetad baa fowid faYowr with the general 
public. 

InantpeiliiigrefoarmflthraetbiiigsarAeaseiitial] (1) Nothing 
nniat be ^ka« to lender our imstiny literature anyquatad and 
uoreadahla. (9) Nothing must ha doaa to rtod^ elTmology 
more obacura and intrioata. (8) Nothing muat ba done which 
would sendeir the task of laarniBg to read more laborioofl and 
perplexing. 

Keeping these three thiagaift fiaw» nroob, vety iii«eh« mi^^t 
be done to make our spelling mora uoifcMrm ami simple; and 
with Tory littla alteration the peorploxity of prooonociog words 
might be greatly f eliered. 

The first reform in apelliiig should be to aboHsh aU printers' 
Uunders which hate become perpetuated, all wanton caprices, 
and all naedleas exertions to ganaral mlea. 

L Take those words derived from the Latin oado (to go). 
Why should pro-eted be apelt one way and prt-eede another ? 
Ko reason can be given but caprice. The tw^ve examples 
belonging to this class of words should be made to confiMm to 
one unifbrm pattern: thus aeteedy antsesedf 4dneeedt gmceed, 
mtereeed, preeeed, proceed, reeeed, retroceed, seeeed, euceeed, and 
eeed. The termination -eeed is preferable to -eede, because 
tbe word would remidn unchanged throughout all its parts, 
whereas a Anal e would hava to be out off witJi senna affixes and 
retained witli others. 

"Sopenode* is not ttomeedo to go« bnt tedeo to dt, and to "rapersede** 
fa to Stt above another, to sit In a Ughor phuse (i^idbe xlv. S-l<9. 

n. We have 130 words ending in e mute whioh take the 
suffix -ment, but five of the group drop the *' e." Xt is rathe 



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PREFACE, 



curious that four of the anomalous words are examples of 
e, i, 0, u before -dg, as 

Acknowledg-ment • • • « before -dg, 
Abridg-ment •••••< before -dg. 
Lodg-ment • • • • • o before -dg, 
Jndg-ment % before -dg. 

The only other exception is argw, which makes argu-ment, 

m. The next class of words needing reform is much larger. 
There are two general rules which^ if strictly obserred, would 
do much to simplify our spelling. 

(a) Monosyllables ending in one consonant, preceded by one 
-vowel, double the last letter when a suffix beginning with a 
vowel is added: as "thin," thinn-et, thinn-eaU thinn-edf thinn-ing. 

(b) Dissyllables accented on the last syllable, under the same 
conditions, are treated in the same way: as " defer'," defen^-ed, 
deferf-mg, defer/ ei, &c. 

The negatiyes of these two rules are : — 

(c) Monosyllables, and also dissyllables-aceented-on-the-last- 
syllable, do not double the final consonant (1) if more than one 
vowel precedes it; and (2) if no vowel at all precedes it: as 
*' clear" (more than one vowel before the final consonant), 
hence clear-ex ^ cl«ar-est, c2«ar.ing, c2«ar-ed, Ac; " bright " (the 
final letter is not preceded by a vowel at all), hence &ri^^-er, 
hright-ef^t, &e. 

(d) No dissyllable (even if it ends in one consonant preceded 
by one vowel) doubles the last letter on receiving an affix, unless 
the accent of the word is on its final syllable : thus " dif'fer " 
(although it terminates in one consonant, and that final con- 
sonant is preceded by only one vowel) remains unchanged 
throughout, because it is not accented on the latt sylUible: 
•♦ differ," dt/'/er-ing, differ-ed, differ-er, dy/w-ence, &c 

If these rules could be relied on they would be useftil enough* 
but the exceptions are so numerous that the rule is no rule at 
alL The first palpable observation is that the rule will not 
apply even to the most flavoured examples : thus '* defer'," it is 
true, makes de/m^-ing, deferr^-ed, &c., but it has only one r in 
defer-ence and de/er-en'tial. If it is objected that the accent 
of "derer-enoe" is thrown back to the first syllable and of 



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PREFACE. id 

"deferen'tial" is thrown forward, the reply is this, fifty other 
examples can be produced to show that accent has no part or 
lot in the matter. 

We haye nine dissyllables ending in p not accented on the 
last syllable. Six of these preserve one p thronghoat, and three 
of them doable the p when a snfi^ beginning with a yowel is 
added: — 

ThiiB ** goi^i^" makei goe»ipp-mf gotHpp^ gotHpp^ag, go$ripp-7. 
"Ud'nap" makes hidnapp-et, hidnapp-edf hidnapp-iag, 
"wox'ship** makes vjorahipp-et, worsMpp-ed, worshipping. 

Compare with the above the following examples :— 
" mmp,- JUKp^s fiUip-ing. 
**Crallop/' gallop^ goUop-ing, gaUop-ade, &a 
••Scallop," scdUop-tdt seaUop-ing, 
••"Wallop," wcUlop-eA, toaUap-ing, vxiUop^t, 
••pejvel'op," IdeyoOap-ed, idelvOop-iag, [de}oelop-er. 

What reason can be given why the first three of these words 
shonld donble the p and the last six should notf It is mere 
wantonness, and the superfluous p of the first three words ought 
to be suppressed. 

^ The case with words ending in Z is still worse. There are 
between ninety and one hundred words of two syllables accented 
on the first syllable and having one consonant for the last letter 
preceded by only one vowel. Of these words about one-half 
conform to the rule, and tlie rest are a rule unto themselves. 
For example : — 

"E'qual" makes eguaU-ed, eqwdlrhig, and, to make matters worse, 
eq[ucUf-ity, although the accent is brought to the last syllable of the simple 
word, esTMoMse, egitoMsed, e(rual-iiing, e^uoMser, Ac 

''Mar'shal" makes maarthall-edt nwnhaU-ing, fnarshaU-eit, 
" SIg'nal " makes signoU-ed and 4igna{2-ing, but HgncUriae, &o. 

Above twenty other words in -al do not double the I, as: 

BnUal, MTfuO, eryxtdl, fguddl, ftmU, formal, frvgdl, heal, loyal, moral, 
rtgal, social, special, venal, a&d vocaL To these add ot^pilal, federal, 
getieral, Wbtral, mineral, national, and rational. 

I Of those ending in -el some fifty double the I, and seven or 
eight do not: thus — 

" An'gel'* makes ang«2'-ic, a7ig«r4cal, &o. 

"Chi'sel" makes chisel-ed, chisel-ing, chisel-et. 

" Impan'nel " makes impamMlr^, impannel-ing, but net panel, 

" fian'sel " makes AanMM, hansel-iag. 




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PREFACE. xiU 

IV. TkoBidzi aiiiiple tetcam would be to reserre the plural -ea 
to those words only with whi«h it makes a separate syllable ; as 
ckureh-^a, b^-es, iHM^es, •«# ^es ; aothing ean be more absurd 
than thisv-ejB, loAT-es* halT-es, bee?u«B (aU of <me pliable.) 

% All non&s in -tf, except thief^ thie9e$^ make the plural by 
•ddb^r • / as bsUef^ Wief-Bt chief 4^ tleJ-^jUf-^, grUJ-B, reefs. 
Why sheold thief form an exteption t ** Thief is the Anglo. 
Saxon thedf or thSf the plural of which was theSfoM or thifaa 
(thie&); and as there was no v in the language, the substitution 
of for / is most reprehensible. 

'^t hate Iha word le^ tlie fleth ot Meb illdti lor food* and the word 
ftacMUviiffOMiiite.; bnit]MFreBelliaZMiHribi»HA» 

§ ^ -if and -ij; -of and -oKf, -ujf and -ttl/, with those in -rf, 
the plural without one exception is formed by adding -$: as — 

Bam/iff-n, eaUiff-n, ecMM (% cliff-% eoif-n, mastiff-n, plaintiff-*, 
Sheriff-B, tkidt-*, tariff*, waif-B, fohiff*' 
Hoof-B, proqf-B, reproof -b, roqf-B, vfoof-B, teoff-B, 
(h^ff-B, huff*, wwff-B, pvff-B, rvff% muff-B, etuff-B, guff-*, 
Jhrnrf-B, tearf-B, yoharf-B, mr/-B, twtf-B, 

§ Except "thief^** thieves, therefore, aU the nouns in / men- 
tioBed abofe are noraaal, but those in -irf, -off, and -\f (except 
gulf) are liH abnormal. Strange enough, all these nouns are 
native words, not one of which mokes such tk plural, or indeed 
OMld do so. Inhere are tsa in all :-^ 

"Cair,** tatoM/ ^h^* htUMi; "ett," oNw; "weH," tOm; *<*hilf/' 

thdeeif woll, wolves. 
''Leaf/' leovef ; "sheaf," «7iea«M; "IobS," loame$; "tltatt''(fkStiok), staves, 

hat not staff (tk body of menX nor yet distaff. 

The original plilral of these words was -[f|as, as stqfas, 
hiSfas, ie^ and thei» is no excuse for the present perversions. 

§ In regard te •/« the ease is worse, and even more absurd. 
We hare Six nouns with this ending, four native and two 
borrowed from oUier languages. The natiye words are knife, 
U^, wife^ and ttHfe; the borrowed ones are fife and safe (a 
tloaet^ 

The BtAlte itordi hav^ for thehr plurals kaioes^ Uves, wives, 
(and strife^ ; the aliens have fifes and safes. The original 
^hural of knives was cnifas {knifs)^ but wif and Uf were alike 



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PUBFACE. 



in both numbers. The word " stxife " is a corraption of strtth, 
plural strithat (striths); there is^ therefore* no excuse whatever 
for the change of / into v, in any w<ml ending in -/«• 

v. Gome we now to the plurals of nouns ending in •«. They 
somewhat exceed one hundred, and may be displayed under 
three groups: (1) Musical terms and terms deseriptive of the 
size of a book. All these are Itidian words, and make their 
plurals by adding -« : as 

Alt(h% bassos, 8ol<h», flaut(Hi, pimuhg, iHoUmeello-a ; eomto% rondo-B, 
&c., with folio-B, quarUy*, octavos, duodeeiiiuh*, and so on. 

As this group is consistent and without exception, no objection 
can be brought against it. The other two groups are about 
equal, thirty-five of one make the plural in •«, and thirty-one of 
the other in -es. 

All nouns ending in -2o, so, -vo, and -o after a vowel, make 
the plural by adding •s, with one exception, viz., buffalo-eB. 
Thus we have — 

Armadillo-B, halo-B, and jpeecadUlo-n in 4o; provieos and virtuoMhB in 
-so; brawhB, relievo-B, and mIvo-b in -vo; imbrogUo-Bf nuncio-B, oglio-B or 
olio-Bt pistachio-B, porifolio-B, punctilio-B, ratio-B, $eraglio-B, studio-B, en»- 
hryo-B, cuckoos, &c., in -o preceded by a voweL To these add six in >fo, 
not musical terms or sixes of books, vii., centos, grottos, juntos, VMtnen- 
to-B, pimentos, and itiletto-B, with all snch proper names as the Catos, 
The list complete would contain about seventy words. 

The third group consists of thirty wcurds which make the 
plural in -es, and there cannot be a doubt that the e of these 
plurals should be expunged. It serves no good end, and is in 
every case an interpolation. 

Let us take them in terminational order: (1) ^ho and -co, 
as echo, calico, fresco, magnifico, portico, and stucco (all having 
their plural in -es). Echo is Greek, in which language it has 
no plural; in Latin it is the fourth declension, echo ecMls, and, 
of course, could have no such plural as echoes ; in French the 
plural is ichos. What right, therefore, has {his word to the 
suffix -es f " Fresco,** " magnifieo," ** portico,** and " stucco ** are 
Italian, like the musical terms and the sizes of books, and 
there is no reason but caprice why they should deviate from 
those words. **€alico'* is probably a ooimption of "Calicut," 
and ought also to be deprived of the e. 



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PREPACK xr 

(2) In -do, as hra/vado, innuendo, rotwido, tornado, and 
torpedo. Of these "rotundo" is Italian, often written rotunda 
in English; and, to show our spirit of contradiction, the 
foreign words bravata and tomada we make "bravado" and 
"tornado-; innuendo and torpedo are concocted from the Latin 
verbs immo and torpeo, so that none of these five words has the 
least pretence to a plural in -es, 

3. The words in -go are cargo, flamingo, indigo, mango, sago, 
and virago. Of these, "cargo," "flamingo," and "indigo," 
are Indian. " Mango " is the Indian-Talmudic word mangos; 
"sago," the Malay word tagu, in French $agou; and "virago" 
is Latin, the plural being viraginea. So that none of these six 
words has a plnral resembling its modem English form. 

4. In -no the only examples are no-et (persons voting "no"), 
aZWno-es, domino-es, and volcano-ea. Of these " albino " is spelt 
both ways in the plural, albinos and albinoes; "domino" and 
" volcano " are Italian ; and as for the plural of " no," if this is 
the only word which stands out we must write no\ as we write 
1% m*8, and so on. 

5. Irf -ro there are four words: liero, negro, tyro, and zero. 
- Hero,'* like " echo," is common to Greek, Latin, and French, 
in all which languages the singular is hero8. Probably we 
borrowed the word from the French, wher6 the t is silent, but 
there is not a tittle of authority for heroes. As for " negro " and 
"zero," they are Italian; and "tyro," the Latin word, has 
tyrones for its plural. 

We have now gone through every word ending in -o, except 
six, and can find no reason why the plural of all should not be 
s. By this uniformity an enormous difficulty of spelling would 
be removed, nothing would be lost, and every word would be 
consistent with its original form. 

The six remaining words are those ending in -to. Of the 
twdve words with this termihation, six go one way and six 
another. We have already noticed the words cento-s, grotto-s, 
juntos, mementos, pimentos, and stilettos; the remaining six 
are manifesto-es, mosquito-es, motto-es, mulatto-es, potato-es, and 
Umato-es. Three of these are Spanish, " mosquito," " mulatto," 
and "tomato"; two are Italian, "motto" and "manifesto"; 



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xvi PREFACE. 

and the aiztlEi i« a oonruption of tbe Am^riean-Indiao word 
batatas. In erevy o«s6 the BufSx «e« is an abomiaittion. In 
every case, therefore, it is a violation of correet spelling, an 
anomaly in SngUah orthography, wheve -«9 should he limited to 
words ending in •#, 4ht ^h (soft), and -x (with the single word 
topax-ei in -s) ; it introdoces great concision and difficnltj ; has 
not one single excuse ; and ought to he abolished. To use the 
w(»rds of Lord lyttaon, it may he £urly said **sueh a system of 
spiling was never conoooted but by the Father of Fals^ood," 
and we may ask with him, *' How can a system oi education 
flourish that begins with [suoh] monstrous folsehoods "? 

iNDivmuAL Lbttebs. 

A £aw words may here he added respecting individual 
letters: 

(1) e. This Latin and French letter is one of the greatest 
pests of our language. It does duty for c, Sf and k, and often 
drives us to vile expedients to determine its pronunciation. 
Thus we have the word " traffic," but cannot write traffieed and 
traffi4sing, because c before -e and -i ;s «, and therefore «we are 
obliged to interpose a ii;. Why in the world did we drop the h 
instead of the c in the word traffick f If we had dropped the e 
all would have gone smoothly, "traffik," traffiked, trufflking, 
hut printers have set up their backs against the letter k, and 
hence the spelling of the language is tortured to preserve a 
fanciM uniformity of type. 

A similar intrusion of c fbr » is £ir more serious. We have 
only six words ending in -ense, but above 220 in -enee* Here 
the c is an intruder and ought to be turned out The six 
words are eon-dense, dU^pense^ es-penss, im-mense^ pre-pense, and 
recom-pense. It will be seen that the » in all these words is 
radical, and cannot be touched; but what of -eneef Take a 
few examples at random, *' acquiescence," why not acquiesense 
(Latin acquiescens)? "adolescence," why not adoleseense (Latin 
adolescens)? "cadence" (Latin eadens), "coalescence" (Latin 
eoaUscem), "deoence" (Latin decens), "efflorescence" (Latin 
ejfflorescens)^ "innocence" (Latin Umoesnt), "licence" (Latin 
lieens), " precedence " (Latin precedem), and so on* In other 



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TBEFACS. xvii 

«a8dft the *^4 repreMiits ^b^ Latin 4ia as ma^n^fieeme (Latan 
mugnifteeiitia), fMmiJletMe (Latin iniifiMfiebtnX ^^i bat it 
would be no outrage to B^eU theBe werda magrdfiBente and 
mumficmse^ for « is aa near to **t*' as o i8» if Hot nearer. 

Another intmsm of « is ks being made to do dnty Ibr ii; in 
GvMk wcoda If the Greek h ware iMreiax^red it would tell the 
agre at a f^oe the nationidi^ ^ t)ie woq^d* irherem the p giytf 
no eartain eua. Thu«i kaniiokf krUtrion, kritU$ wenld libel 
the «(»dB " Greek" in origin; but tardiac^ critefion, and «rtl<c 
may be Latin, Ecencb, car parrertad Gteek. Nothing ean be 
worse than ^e douUa sound of this lettar* whidi u soma- 
timea k «, and iometimeB «• k* 

(8) A ainular aoeuaotion lies against the letter g whieh some- 
tames is soft and sometbnea hai*d, and henoa we axe driven into 
all sorts of diifts to make it epeek an aartiDolate langaage. For 
example: fatipu-ingj phLguHng^ Ua^gUfing, We am obBgad to 
preserve the useless letter u in order to keep the g from contact 
with the i when it would lose its hard sound and s J. We 
might spell fiitigae, plague, and league without the aheuid -ue, 
bvt g bcCbra « and i n generally aofib, and therefdie •ed and 4ng 
laight alter fts sonnd. Hem, however, we aire ineonaistont in 
inaonaistenoy, &r wa find no dtftodty in he^te and piM, ftft^Mif , 
fasr, and g€L 

Zban again, why has g thraat itself into aoeh wonis as UgM^ 
}nigHtnighiyngH^r<mgk,ioxMgh,mi Wiimt It does not exist 
in tiie original ibrms and is a gross soleeiBm. N&it, brikt,nhi, 
would be fair better and mcdre normal, and as for the other two, 
rouh and twh woold do as w^ as rmgh and te«^ i^ough it 
must be confessed that «*raf" and '^tnf" would eacpreta the 
sound attaohed to these words bettar Ihan eiihar of the otiier 
eonbination of letbara. 

(3) The final •« added to wnsds to the sake of lengthening 
the preceding vowel is aortainfy ima of the chunsiest eontriv- 
aaees which oould be devised, and qaite as often fails of its 
dvty as neti tiius Uv€t gii>e, feitive ; -eome, have^ iave g gtnuine, 
iterUe, toadaeme, vine-ymrd, examme, deiUne, respite, disei^Ume, 
and hundreds mora are a standing protast against this use of 
the letter I6r suoh a pnrposeu How mu(^ better would it be 




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xviii PREFACE. 



to reintroduoe the accents of our older forms, and write Uf for 
life, Uv for lire (1 syl.); mil for mile and mil or mill for mUl ; 
BtiL for stile and «ttZ or stiU for stOL 

IT As our alplial»et now stands, we are wholly unable to 
express certain sounds. Thus no combination of letters can 
give the correct pronunciation of such simple words as these : 
9pirit, fiMfit, jMoZm, pUM^ ptuh, ptU, foot, only, bosom, whose, 
puU, fuU, rule, qualm, pudding, pulpit, bush, prorogue, rogue^ 
fugue, rugged, water, calf, ealve, half, halve, tugar, loaves^ 
sheath, wreath, beneath, show, woman, and hundreds more. Let 
any one tiy to express by letters the sound we give to fuU and 
put, and show the difference between fuU and hull, put and hut, 
and it will be presently seen how difficult the task is. Or let 
anyone try to express the sounds attached to woman and water, 
spirit and merit, pulpit and bush, .and the necessity of some 
more definite vowels wiU be readily acknowledged. 

Phonetio Spellino. 

Many schemes have been projected of late years to simplify 
onr spelling by making sounds the ruling principle; but there 
are many grave objections to all these systems. First and fore- 
most any material alteration, such as these systems contem- 
phite, would render our existing literature antiquated* and 
unreadable, except as a dead language, an evil which no literary 
man would sanction. Next it would fossilise our present 
system, as if it were already perfect, and perpetuate errors 
which are not now immutable. Those who have lived for half 
a century, have seen numerous reforms in the spelling and 
pronunciation of words, and there is no reason to believe that 
we have yet arrived at the period of verbal petrifeustion. 

A third great objection is, that it not unfrequently obscures 
the derivation, but the great tendency should be the other way. 
The Qnly fixed principle in language is the parent stock of 
words, and the only plan to make words living symbols of ideas 
is to show from what ** stock" they spring, and how the present 
meaning has arisen from the parent or cognate word : thus hare 
and hair are pronounced exactly alike, but one is the Anglo. 
Saxon har, and the other harai so with reed and read (redd 



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PREFACE. 



and r46d[af»]>, mare and mayor (mearh and Spanish mayor), 
with hundreds more. If any reform were made in snoh words 
88 these, it should not be to make them more alike, alike to the 
eye as well as to the ear, but to make them speak a more 
definite and articulate language by bringing them back more 
doedy to the primitLye words, and not to perpetuate the notion 
that they are identical in derivaticm as they now are in sound. 
Before any word is fossilised by phonetic spelling, we should 
feel quite sure that no existing or future scholar either will or 
can iminroTe upon the form proposed ; for my own part I believe 
that many of our words are at present in a transition state, and 
that the tendency of the age is to reduce them more and more 
to their etymological standard^ and to pronounce them more 
and more according to the letter^ which compose thenu 

Old English, 

Some reason may be expected for the rather unusual substi- 
tution of ** Old English " in this dictionary for what is more 
generally termed ** Anglo-Saxon/ The main reason is to force 
upon the attention the great fact too often overlooked, that 
our language is English, substantially English, and tbat even 
numerically considered it is still English. .In the dictionary 
referred to, " so highly commended by certain reviewers for its 
etymology," not a twentieth part of the words belonging to us 
have been acknowledged, but they have been fathered on the 
Greek, German, Dutch, Persian, and often on tongues still more 
remote. The use of the term Saxon or Anglo-Saxon helps to 
&vour the notion, by no means uncommon, that we have no 
words of our own, but that every word has been imported, and 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, are often most cruelly tortured 
to account for a word well known to our forefathers before 
Harold fell at Hastings. 

Again, the language of England before the introduction of 
the Norman element was not English and Saxon, as the word 
Anglo-Saxon implies, nor yet English Saxonised. One element, 
no doubt, was Saxon, but other elements were Keltic, Latin, 
Danish, and Gallic. 

By Old English is meant the English language as it existed 




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PEEPIX3BS AND PRENOUNa 



PreftKes and prenoiiofl may h& 'sdded ^to wards beginmng 
either with a 'vowel or with a conBOiuinL — - - 



COBBIGENDA. 



Page 24. 



For " No word in the language has," read 
Two words (expanse and manse) have." 



amsmct cnuacter wmcb wcyiML :ln Anglo-Saxon, hot 
droiq[>ed oat of use. How very desiiable it would be 
dntfacten for<fc(8bft) and tfc (hard), as In (Ae and thin. 
the character r has been introduced for the hard lettei 

Irregidaiities. (L) In ihe first Greek de6 
Towel is changed to o. In the first Latin de 
Tiiwel is changed to i. 

(1) 



•itm 


•««».•«• 


etii»4«C7 


oephald 


M -<• 


cephaiorpod 


hOra 


^. ■«• 




idfia 

phond 

phusa 


El 


phwicSbgir 
ph7Bo«rade 


psnchd 


» -Al 


'ip8yoho4og7 


rhizd 


» -^ 


rHiao-ped 



■pfaaka ^ •as sphero-aietar 

■eiend „ -ds seleno-graph 

Skia „ HM sdo-maney 

ataphuld „ -ds staphyhvisphy 

technd ,, -ds techno^logy 

tracheia ,, -as tracheo-tomy 
(Bsoeptton: ''theka^gen. fheki», theka-phore.) 



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PEEFI32ES AND PRENOUNS. 



PnfiKes and firBOonnB msy he >ttMed .to words rbeginmng 
either with a '^owel or with a coiiBonaiit. 

When a prenonn is added to a \frord beginning with a vowel, 
the general role is to take the genitive case of the word 
prefixed without its termination; but When, added to a word 
'begmning wifii a coTOonaTU the vowol of the termination is left 
to form a vinculum: Thus, from the Greek "dSmos" (the 
people) gen. dimou, we get dem-ngogue and demo-cracy ; from 
the Latin "lumen" (Hght) ^en. lumlms^ we get Zumin-ary and 
iwittni-feroufl. 

In Ghreek words, most unfortunately, we convert ^'ii" into y, 
and '*k" iiito -c, after the l^atin and »Prench method : For 
example, "martux*' (a martyr) gen. marturos, gives ?war(yr-dom 
and mortyro-logy ; ** anthrax!*' (a cotd) ^en. anthrakos, gives 
antkrae-erpeton and ant^roco-sauruB. 

(" Gh ** i» a dktlBCt obaraeter.in Gnek (mritteiL thau ^ ; « th "4* also « 
distinct character which exited in Anfilo-Sazon, but unhappily has been 
dropped oat of use. IBEow yery desirable it would be to have two distinct 
idiuacters for'^ (sbft) and fh (hard), tu in the and tMn. In this Dictionary 
the character r has been introduced for the hard letter. 

Irregtilftrilies. (i;) In the firttt Greek dedension the final 
vowel is changed to o. In the first Latin declension the final 
V4iwel is changed to t. 



(1) 



„ ^ ceplialorpod 

„ -BM horo'tscope 

,, <ta8 ideo^lo«7 

,, *6a phenology 

M -ds physo-grade 

„ -ste -i psychology 

,, -^s ^rhlAHwd 

^, •«s spherormeter 
seleno-giaph 



hOra 
id&a 
phond 
phusa 
psuchfi 
rhi2d 
q>haba 
aeiend 

tkia „ -as scio-maney 

staphuU „ -es staphyloifaphy 
technfi „ -ds teclmo*l<^ 
tracheia „ -as tvacheo-tomy 
(Bsoeplien: ''iheka"gen. fhekis, theka^[>lM>re.) 



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xxii 



PREFIXES AND PREN0UN3. 



U The older form of the gen. case of the first Latin declensioi] 
was -at : as " musa" (a song) gen. musai; the '* ai" is generallj 
written <s, but in prenonns it is written t. 
(2) Latin mamma gen. -m (for -at) 

palm* ,, -»(for-ai) pahni-feroni 
penna „ -sb (for -ail peaml-form 
petra „ -» (for -oil petri-fy 
pinna „ -» (for -oil pinni-ped 
rota „ -8B(for-ai) roti-fer 

Beta „ -flB (for -ai) seti-ferons 

spina ,, -8B (for -ai) spini-feroxis 
(Exception : "aqna'* gen. aqwB^ aque-duct.) 

(ii.) The ou of the second Greek declensidn is somethnes 
changed tot: as **archo8" gen. archou gires orc^t-pelago, 
■arc/it-tect, but not generally, hence from " deinos " gen. deinou 
we get (2etno-theriam ; "autos" gen. auUm gives auto-ct&t; 
aristos gen. aristou gives amto-cracy, <feo. 

IF The "i" of the second Latin declension is in some few 
examples converted into o: — 

(8) pianos, (a^.) plan! plano-concave 

primus „ piimi primo-geniture 
&c. &c. 

AH snch words are barbarisms: We have the Latin jTlanl-loqnng, 
j}{atU-pedia, ptoni-pes, plani-tudo, and even in English p^ni-sphere. 

Again, frimo-genitns is debased Latin; Cicero uses primi-ffenla, Yarro 
primi-genias, Lucretias primjrgenns, then we have prim<rpara> priani- 
pilaris, primi-pilus, &c. 

IF The -iU of the fourth Latin declension is a contraction of 
-uis : as "fluctus" (a wave) gen. fltietuU contracted to Jluctils, 
The vincnlnm vowel of this declension seems to have pnzzled 
our word-minters, and hence from manus (a hand) we have 
mana, manit and manu : as maria-cle (a disgraceful word, Latin 
manica), mam-fest, manu-facture ; but the general vowel for 
this declension is -i — 

(4) fractns gtn. fracttis ttotfrwiuis) fnicti-fy 

manus „ manOa (formamiu) mani-fait 
risos „ risQs Itatrimit) risi-ble 

IF Latin words with Greek endings generally take o for the 
yinculum— 

(6) lae gmk laetto lacto-meter Mier galacto-meter 

mnscns „ mnsd mnsco-lc^y ,, mosco-logy 

nox „ noctis nocto-graph ,, nucto-graph 

oleum „ olei oleo-saccharum „ elsBO-saccharom 

pes „ pedis pedo-meter „ podo-meter 

pomum „ poml porno-logy 

sonus „ soul fono-meter „ phono-meter 

spectrum „ spectri spectro-scope 

(Exception: "polari-«cope.** This would be better "polaro-scope.") 

IT The usual vinculum vowel before "-pie" is u — 
(6) centum centn-ple I quinti- quintn-ple 

octo octu-ple I sextus sextu-ple 

[uadra- quadru-ple | septem septu-ple 

Jon: "mani-ple." This is a Latin inconsistency :nian«-p{e(tinn^ 
; and moni^nt^* * luu^dfuL) 



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PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS, 



IT Most words of modem manufacture not derived from 
classic sources, or if joined together by a hyphen, take the 
▼owel o for the vinculum — 



(7) mlnno-gen, Fr. olun alum 
Anglo-Saxon 
Anstro-Pnusian 
Franoo-Prossian 



Gothico-Latlnam 
Latino-Anglican 
meso-Gothic 
politico-religiona 



H The following are abnormal or contracted forms^ 

(8) anti- /or ante- ^ anti-cipate 

ba- for hX- ba-lance 

ehromo- /or chromftto- chromo-trope 

ori- for oreo- or oro- ori-ganum 

pentap for pent«- penta-meter 

rubi- for mbri- rubi-cond 

■nlpho- for sulphn- snlpho-vlnic 

peendo- for pseudeo- psendo-prophet 

taxo- for taxeo- taxo-nomy 

teni- for teiroii- tend-ble 

IT Three prefixed words are very uncertain in the vinculum — 

centum, oenti, centn : oen^um-viri, centi-pede, o«ntu-ple 

contra^ contro : oon^ro-distinction, contro-^&csj 

manos, mana, mani, mann : tnano-de, mani-ple, manvrWsAyt 



Fbbfixes and Pbenouns. 
(By ptrmisHon from Dr, Brewv'9 ** Prefixes wnd Svffixea.") 



ab- 

abs- 

ac- 

acro- 

aetino- 

ad 

»tho- 

aer^, aeri- 

aero- 

af- 

after- 

ag- 

agalmato- 

agaj' 



Eng. d, from, away •• 
Eng. 4, intensive . . ,.» 

Eng. o/ intensive 

Eng. 0/ of, off 

Eng. -en, npon the, on .. 

Eng. flw- 

Lat. a, from (before -m and -v) . . 

Lat aid], np to, np 

Gk. a, without, n^ative 

Fr. a, to, for an end 

Lat. ahf removal from, contrary to 

Lai abs, from (before -e and -t)., 

Lat. oc for ad, to (before -e) . . 

Gk. aJoroa, upwards 

Gk. akUn gen. aktinos, a ray .. 

Lai od, to 

Gk. aithdn, luminosity . . 
Lat. aer gen. oiHs, air .. •• 
Gk. air gen. (Uros, air . . .. 
Lat of- for ad (before -/) 

Eng. crfter 

Lat. ag for ad (before -g) 

Gk. agaXma gen. -matoa, delight 

Gk. agdpif brotherly love 

Gk. oyai^of, good 

Eng. eel, aU, altogether . . 

Lat. flU for od^ to (before -Z) . . 

Arab, ol, the 



Examples. 
a-go, a-rise 
a-wake, a-bide 
a-shamed, a-frald 
a-board, a-float 
a-way, a-sleep 
a-llke, a-mong 
a-vert, a-manuensls 
a-scend, i.e. as-scend 
a-cephuous, a-conite 
a-vail, a-dieu 
ab-dicate, ab-normal 
abs-tract, abs-cond 
ac-cede, ac-cept 
acro-genus, acro-Iith 
actino-crinites (-hri.niU8) 
ad-apt, ad-ore (2 syl.) 
setho-gen 
aer-ate, aeri-fy 
aero-lite, aero-nant 
af-flrm, af-fiz 
afternoon, after-math 
ag-grandlse, ag-gravate 
agalmato-lite 
agape-mone (5 syL) 
watho-phyllum 
u-mighty, al-ready 
al-lege, al-lude 
al-kali, al-cohol 



K 



xxiv 



PRtntm mB PRENOUNS. 



Aletho- 

aldzi 

aU- 

aU-, aUo^ 

alon- y 

ftluno-) 

tan- 

am-, ambi- 

ambly^ 

ammo- 

amph* 

amphi- 



aph- 

apo- 

aqua-) 

aqae-f 

ar- 

ar- 

arch- ) 

arcM-; 

aristo- 



at< 
atmo- 
atra- 
auto- 

U- 
baclc 

be- 

be 



be- 

be- 
be- 



EaLAJIPLBS. 

QIl. aUihoB.iruB aletho-pttt'b 

^k. «k±o, 1 Ward off .. ale!ii-|«ttuttio 

Eng. al, oej, all, altogether . . all-wiM, aU-calali 

Ok. aUoif another, diifferent •• all-^ozjr, allo-pathj 

Ft. 0hM,, 9hsm k. •• aluno-geo, alBn-tte 

JaI. am for a& (before -^w) •• am-mnfiHlloii 

Lat omM, about, around . . am'«nlatte, aoM^citat 

Ok. dmbliM, obtosa, l)luiit .. ambiy-pterouB, amhlr-gieiil^ 

Ok. amm^is, sand an]Lmo-ccbt;eB,'aknmo-ajte8 

Ok. amiffniy both, tm both aidei, 

all round anqAi-ld, amphi-iheatre 

Lat. dm, for ad (before •#) . . an-nez, an-mhilate 

Lat. ari-te, before an-oestor 

«^ •"" ttt, free froJia .. Mi-hjFdiious, ana-ohronism 

b ... aaa-cathartio 

r .. .. •• ^ana^logiie 

Lpinto .. k. (ana-^tomose 

tt, apart.. .. an-wrohy, ana-ihema 

Mlro«, amati .. andro-senous, andro-id 

ful, troublesome ang-nau 

. -&rvm, KngUsh Aoglo-SiKzOfe 

dj.), English .. ABglic-[i]sm 

eof, opposite .. ant-arctic, anti-septic 

) ante-cedent, ante-diUivlaii 

ywer .. antho-zoa, aniho-Bte 

gen. a ntt r q Jtos, f anthrac-erpeton, anthraco- 

( saurus 

kitlah .. «• «ntifropo-phagi 

B anti-dpate, anti-quary / 

9d to, M^eito df wit-agonist, <«Bli-)Mktii7 
Qxed to men of 

"family") ap'Dayid, ap* Jones 

Lat. ap for ad (before -2O • • ai>-peal. ttp^lf 

Ok. apo, away from (bef dite -h) . . aph-[h]eliOn 

Ok. apo, away froin • . apo-stasy, apo-ti!yt)ha 

Lat. o^«a gen. aqucB, water . . aqna-fortis, aque-dnct 

Lai ar tot ad (before -r) .. ar-rive, a^-nOige 

Ok. o^, air ar-tery 

Teutonic arg, crafty . . . . arch-neM 

Ok. «niu>$ gen. arOum, chief •• arch-angel, arohi-tect 

Ok. aristot, the best . . .. srlsto-cracy 

Lat. CM for od (before •«) .. tts-sault, as-stttne 

Lat (uo, gum asa-fcstida 

Lat. at for ad (befbte -0* . •• at-tend, at-tract 

Gtk. atmds, Yaipoxu .. atmo-meter, atmosphere 

Lat. ater, atra, cOHim, black . . atra-bfliary 

Ok. autds, one's oimself. . .. aut(M;rat, auto-matoh 

Lat. bi-, two, twofdld .. .. ba-lance 

Eng. hoc, behind, to the rear .. Itack-wardi, back-galtamon 

Eng. be- converts h'ouns to vetlM be-frlend, be-Hight 

Eng. be- oohverts intrans. to 

trans, verbs be-Bpe«(k,'be-fhink 

Eng. be- part of adv. and prep. be-cause, 1)e-fore 

Eng. be-, privative .. .. be-head, be-reave 

Eng. be-, intensive .. .. be-daub, be-smear 



Digitized by Google 



PREFIXES 4NB' PHENOUNS, 



XXV 



U-, biB- 

bi- 

bin 

bio- 

boar 
bock- 



EXAXPLBS. 

Lat bgng, good bene-f actor, bene-flU 

Lat. bi»i two-f old» douMe, in pair* bl-ped, bii-aeztil^ 

Lat W«, cliMcing two, onpe ijx two bi-em^iftl 

Lai. M« (before -^l .. .. bi^-oculftr, bin-oxide 

Gk. Wa«,lite bio-logy, bio-graphy 

Sng. iticce^ a gendw-wo^d (femj bitcb-fox, bitob-ott^r 

Eng. Mr, a gender-word (male) boar-pig 

Bng. buCf a g^Hier-w<Nrd (xmM buck-rabbit 



cainil- La^ taxo gen. cmeniu, 4esb, meat 



cary- ) 

caryo- S 

cat-,cata- 

eath 



oent- 
oenti- 
centn- 
centom- 
ceplial- 
cephalo- 



:1 



Qanii,-val, cami-voroiu 
oary-opsis^ oaryo-j^Uia 



Ok. fcdri2<9fn, a nut 

at faltOi down, against, accord- . . , 

jngto qat-aiact, cata-lepsy 

Ok. faWo. (before -^) .. .. cath-[h]edral, catli-(h]olic 

Gk. fc^uSs, empty ^ ceno-tapli 

,• eent-ennial, oenti-pede 



La*. oen^M«n, a hundred •• •• 

Lat emtiMis » bnndred •• •• eenttupMcate, centom-vlri 

Ok. iep^dW^ a bead .. .. eephal-aspis, eephalo-poda 

^^1^^ \ ot cMt* gen.. 6tKnjr(M, the hand cheir-acanthua, cheiro-ptera 

Ok. <lMifr gen. iilk/e^if09^ the hand chir-agra, chiro-mancy 

Ok. cWdrtfa, green oMor-tae, ehloro-phyU 

Ok. cfcrdmoi colour .. .. riurom-ate, chroma-trope 

Ok. cfcrxfma gen. iSh,r&mdXo9, ( ohromato-meter, chromo- 

colour .. I Uthograph 

6k. ^i«^M«, time chronorlogyi^ <?hrono-meter 

Ok. <*rfi«tf», gold chiys-anthemum, chrysolite 

?r. «i«9, 4y» cinque-pprta, cipque-f oil 

Lat. circttm, all round .. .. circmn-scribe, ciroum-^ect 

Lat. ei«, on this aide . . cisr Alpine, cis-Padt^ne 

Lat <jt*m, together with (befor* 

-Ok "^. -4, ■<>»-*) - co-adjutor, co-equal 

{Ikfon any Utter vyith a hyph«n> corpurtner, co-sine) 
^oimd to Teidonic words co-work&t, &c.) 

Eng. eoc (a gender-wojrd for m^ J pea-cock, turkey-cock 

birds and insects) .. .. ( cock-sparrow, cook-chafer 
Lat cum (before -fUMoor, -nosco, 

.^tomm) cog-noxaen, cog-nate 

Lat ct*m (before -0 .. .. col-lect, col-league 

Ok. ]UfM4}«» a sheath .. .. coleo-pteian, coleo-rhixa 

Lat cu>m ^f ore -b, -^ ^) • • corn-bine, oom-mlt, corn-ply 
Lat eum (before -c, -a, -/, -«, -j. 

Ok. kogcftS or koifchoa, a sheU 



chii^ 
cUse- 

ehrom- 

ehrom^ 

chromb- 

(f or cfcro- 

mato-) 

chrono- 

diry*. I 

chryso-f 

circum' 
cis- 
oo- 



OMk 

cog- 
col- 
coleo- 
conjr 
con- 

oonch- ) 
conchl-f 
eoncho-) 

ooni- 



coBtra- 
CQnti»- 
oor- 



con-cede* C(W-dm>e, coi^-f er 
conch-ite, oonohi-fer 

concho-logy> cho-spiral 
eoQl-fer«. CQni-f ocm 



Ok. lwi]FcA<9l«, a sheU 

Lat c6nft» gen. omi, a cone 
Lat contra^ against Daw], the 

contiary cpnt-vol, eontra-dkt 

Lat «m*ra» against .. .. contro-vert r^to^.^ 
Lat 4a»m (before -r) .. .. c^r-rode, cor-rupt 



,y Google 



xxvi 



PREFIXES AND PREN0UN8. 



oosm- ) 
cosmo-i" 

COUD- 

coanter- 
cruci- 
crypto- 
cyan- ) 
cyano-f 
cyclo- 
daia 
days 
de 
de- 
de- 
de- 
de- 
de- 
dec-, deca- 
dein- ) 
deino- j 
dem- ) 
demo-f 
demi- 
denti- 
deut- 

' deutero- 
di-, dls- 
di- 
dl- 
di- 
dia- 
dlf- 
dis- 



doe- 

dog- 

dog- 
dog- 
dog- 
dulc- 1 
dulci-f 
dn-, duo- 
duum- 
dyna- 
dynam- 
dynamo- 
dys- 
e- 

e- 

ee- 

ec- 

eoo- 

ef- 

el- 

electri- 

electro- 



EXAMPLSS. 

Gk. kotmds, the world .. •• eosm-orama, eosmo-gnphy 

Lat. cwm, in conjunction with. . conn-tenance, coon-sel 

Lat. contra, in the opposite way counter-act, counter-march 

Lat. erux gen. crucis, a cross . . cruci-fy, cmci-f orm 

Gk. kruptda, concealed, secret . . crypto-logy, crypto-gram 

Gk. kudnds, deep-blue •• .. cyan-uiic, cyano-^n 

Qk. kuldds, A (dicle •• .. cydo-psedia, cydo-pteris 

Eng. doeg-eSf of the day .» .. dais-y 

Fr. doAs, a raised platform . ; days-man 

Fr. de (prefixed to men of " family" De-saix, De-lolme 

Lat. de, motion down from, .. de-cline, de-part 

Lat. de, intensive.. .. .. de-clare, de-solate 

Lat. de, reversive de-stroy, de-magnetise 

Lat. de, privative . . •• •• de-capitate, de-odoriae 

For dueA;, as in d'raX;e .. •• de-coy 

Gk. d^%a, ten deo-andria, deca-gon 

Gk. dHnda, dreadful [from its 

size] . . dein-omis, ddno-therinm 

Gk. d^m^, the people •• .. dem-agogue, demo-cracy 

Fr. d^mi, half demi-god, demi-lune 

Lat. dens gen. dentis, a tooth . . denti-f rice, denti-cle 

Gk. deut^rds, a double quota . . deut-oxide of copper; that is, 

two equivalents of o:^ygen to one of the base (copper) 

Gk. deut^Hfa, a second, another deutero-nomy, dentero-^amy 

Gk. and Lat. di-, du-, asunder. . di-vide, dis-solve 

Gk. di«, two di-cephalous, di-petaloos 

Gk. dia, through . . . . . . di-rect, di-electrics 

In Chem,, double equiv. of base . di-sulphate of silver 

Gk. dia, through dia-gram, dia-meter 

Lat. die, asunder dif-f use, dif-fer 

Lat and Gk. dia, asunder, the 

reverse dis-belleve, dis-agree 

{Added also to Teutonic words cm disown, dislike, disbar) 
Eng. dd, a gender-word (the fe- 
male of certain animals) . . doe-rabbit 
A gender-word (the male of cer- 
tain animals) dog-fox, dog-otter 

Pertaining to the dog . . .. dog-star, dog-fly 

Depreciative, deceptive . . •• dog-sleep, dog-Latin 

Eng. d4o(fi,ol], dodge, dodging .. dog-watch (hoard ship) 

Lat. du2ci«, sweet dulc-amara, dulci-fjr 

Lat. duo, two du-plicate, duo-dedmal 

Lat. diM), two .. .. .. duum-viri 

Gk. dundmis, power .. .. dyna-meter 

} Gk. dunamia gen. dummeda, | dy^am-ics, dynamo-meter 

Gk. dtw, evil, diseased .. .. dys-pepsia^ dys-phagia 
Lat. e, out of (before the liqwida, 

and -c, -d, -g, -j.-v) .. .. e-mit, e-vlnce, e-leot 

Gk. eik, up, out of e-lectuary 

Gk. eJb eo-lectic. ec-lipse 

Lat. ex (only one example) •• ec-centrlo 

Gk. oiJcos, house eoo-nomy 

Lat. ef for ex (before -/) .. ef-fect, ef-faoe 

Gk. M f or efc, out el-Upsis (a leaving omQ 

Lat. electrwn gen. electri, amber electri-ty 

Gk. electron, amber .. .. electro scope, electio<typ« 



d by Google 



PREFIXES AND PREN0UN8, 



xxvii 



BXAMFLKS. 

Eng. em- (oonverte nouns and 
adJectiTes to verbs) .. .. em-bed, em-bitter 
{Uied dUo vfith Romance words : em-bftlm, em- power) 
Bomance enr (converts nouns 
•nd adjectives to verbs) . . en-ram, en-camp 
(U$ed<Uao with Latin wordi: en-atde, en-quire, en-ihrone) 
Ok. en, in en-eanstic, 



end-,endo- Ok. enddn. ivithin 
enter- Fr. entre, between 
ento- Ok. entdi, within .. 
entomo- Ok. ent&in&n, insect 
entre- Fr. sn^s, between 



ep-, epi- 
eph- 
eqni- 
«7si- 



ethno- 

etio- 

etTmo- 

eu- 

enry- 

ex- 

tx-, exo- 

extra- 

female- 

fet- 

flor-, flori- 

for- 

for- 

fore- 

fore- 

fore- 

forth- 

fratri- 

Iro- 

frncti- 

fragi' 

gain- 

gastro- 

genea- 

gen-.gent- 

genn- 
geo- 
ger- 

S^ I 

giypto- 

god- 

gos-l 

grrad- 

grandi- 
gntta-) 
gutti-/ 



end-osmose, endo-gens 
enter-tain, enter-prise 
ento-sotfn 

entomo-log7> entomo-lite 
entre-pot, entre-sol 



Ok. eos, recent eo-cene 

Ok. epi, over and above, npon. . ep-onym, epi-gram 

Ok. ^^ rxpoHf Ac. (before -h) .. eph-[h]emera 

Lai (F^utts, equal.. •• •• eqni-poise, eqni-noK 

Ok. erOsis, a drawing •• •• erysi-pelas 

Ok. sis, (m es-paUer 

Lat. ex, from, out of •« .. es-cape 

Bomance eii .. •• •• es-planada 

Lat esse, to be .. •• •• esse-nce 

Ok. ethnds, nation .. .. ethno-logj, eihno-graphf 

Ok. aitio, cause etio-lo^ 

Ok. ityvUfs. the real word •• etymo^ogj 

Ok. eu, weU, good .. .. eu-charist, eu-logr 

Ok. eurus, broad eury-notos, eury-ptems 

Lai ex, out of, beyond .. .. ex-ceed, ex-dte 

(Used aUo with Bomance words ex-dse, ex-change, dtc) 

Ok. exCo] for eh, out of, recent .. ex-arch, exo-gens 

Lat eakra, out of, more than .. extra-mundane, -ordinary 

Fr. /emelle (a gender- word) .. female-servant 

Eng. /i^e, the feet f et-lock, f ett-er 



Lat fios gen. floris, a flower 
Eng. for-f negative, aside 
Eng. for^, before > . • • 
Eng. for»-, beforehand .. 
Eng. /ore-, front, before.. 
Eng. fore-t leading, chief 



flor-id, flori-cultnrt 
for-bid, for-bear 
for-ward 

fore-know, fore-tell 
fore-head, fore-father 
fore-horse, foreman 
forth-coming 
Lat /rotor gen. yro^ris, a brother ftatri-dde 
Ejtg. fro, 6oJXi fro-ward ^j>er-v0rsey 



Eng. fortht presently 



fructi-ty, fructi-f erous 

frugi-ferous, fTugi-vorous 

gain-say 

gastro-nomy, gastro-pod 

genea-logy 

gen-«irou8, gent-«el 
genu-flectfon 



Lat frudus, fruit 

Lat /rtias gen. yVtCiK't fruit 

Eng. (jpean, the opposite . . 

Ok. gastSrgem. gastiros, the belly 

Ok. ginidf breed, descent 

Lat gcM gen. gentis, family, 

high-birth 

Lat 0enw, the knee •• 

Ok. gi, the earth geo-graphy, geo-metry 

Oerm. ^eier, a hawk .. •• ger-folcon 

Ok. ffluJhts, sweet glyc-erine, glycy-[r]rhi2a 

Gk, glvptos, caxv^ .. .. glypto-don 

Eng. god, by christian rites .. god-father, god-child 

Eng. ^(xies, god's gos-pel, gos-sip 

Fr. grand, once removed . . grand-father, grand-son 

{Oreat-grand, twice, grtai-greai-grand, thrice removed) 

JjeA. grrandis, iS^^ .. .. grandi-loquent 

Lat. gvUa gen. giuJtta, a drop , . gutta-percha, gutti-ferous 



d by Google 



PREFIXES AND PREN0VN8. 



lith-,Utho- 
load- 
log- 



long- 



■4]. 

iTunin- ) 

lumlnl-) 

luna-.lnni 

Mac- 



logo- Gk logos, a word . 



macr- ) 
macro-r 
mael- 
magneto- 
magn- 



ak. Ue^M, itone .. 
Eng. Icedian], to guide 
Gk. logos, ratio 



malac- 

malaco-. 

male- 

male- 

malle- 

mamma- 

ni HTnm i- 

ITfATnirmH . 

man- 
man- 
man- 
mana- 
mani- 
mani- 
mano- 
manu- 
mar- 
mardon- 

mari- ) 

mario-j 

marin- 

marit- 

marmal- 

marqa- 

manri- 

marti- 

Martin- 

martyr- 

martyro- 

Mary- 

mas- 

mast- 

materi- 

matem- 

matri- 

medi- 



Lat longuM gen. longl, long •• 

Lat Ita gen. lucia, light •* 

Lat lumen gen. lumtnis, light.. 

Lat. luna, moon 

Scotch mac (prefixed to the 
names of men of family) .. 

Gk. macros, large 

Norwegian m(U, evU 

Gk. magnis gen. -4ft68, magnesia 

lial magwu gen. magni, great 

maid-| Bng. magth (gender word) 
' Fr. tnal, eviLy, not 
Lat. maliu f em. nuUa, nsngh^ 

G)l, maUOeds, tott 

Lat. male, amiss .. •• •• 
Fr. fmt2« (gender word) •• 
liat. maUeua, a hammer •• 
LaL mamma, the breast . . 
Lat. mamma gen. -as, the breast 
Lat. mammalxi, adj. of mamma 
Fr. main, the hand 

Eng. mann, man 

Eng. mann, man (a gender word) 
Lat. manns, the hand .. 
liat maniM, the hand .• 
Eng. manigr, many 
Gk. manos, rarity . . 
Lat. mantM, the hand • • 
Eng. mare, a horse 
Med. Lat. marcio gen. manUnUt, 
a marquis • • • • . . 

Maria or Mary • 



•*o^fir«Jo 



Lat. mariniu {ma/re, the sea) • • 
Lat. marlttu, a husband •• 

Port marmelo, quince . . •• 
Eng. mearc, border land.. ^ 
Lat. max gen. mnris, man .. 
Lat. Mare gen. MoArtis .. •• 
Martin, a man's name . . 
Gk. martur gen. martiMfs, a 

martyr 

Mary, the "virgin Mary" 
Lat mas, the male kind 
Gk. mastos, the breast .. 
Lat mater gen. ma^ris, a mother 
Lat matemus, adj. of mater .. 
Lat mater gen. matris, a mother 
Lat mgcUus, the middle. . 
Gk. m/(7a, great 

Gk. mei^a gen. megdlou, great . . 



Examples. 
lith-omis, litbo-graph 
load-stone, load-star 
log-^irithm 
logo-graph, logo-nuud^ 

long-evaU locgi-penimte 

lud-fer, lud-d 

lumin-ary, lumini-ferons 

luna-cy, luni-form 

MacGr^or, MacDonald 

macr-oura, macro-therium 

mael-strom 
magneto-meter, -electrlcitj 

magn-animous, magni-ficent 

maid-seryant, mer-maid 
mal-treat, mal-content 
mai-aria, mala-pert 

malac-ostrology, malaco-Iite 

male-diction, male-volent 

male-servanl^ heirs-male 

malle-able 

mamma-logy 

mammi-fer, mammi-form 

manunali-ferous 

man-oenvre, man-ore 

man-slaughter, man-fol 

man-servant, Scotch-man 

mana-cle 

mani-feet, mani-ple 

mani-fold 

mano-meter, mano-scope 

manu-factuTQ, mann-acript 

mar-shal 

marchion-ess 

mari-gold, mario-latry 

marin-er, marin-orama 

mi^t-al 

marmal-ade 

marqu-is 

marri-age 

marti-al 

Martin-mas 

martyr-dom, martyro-logy 

Mary-bud 

mas-cuUne 

mast-itis, mast-odon 

materi-al 

matem-al, matem-ity 

matri-cide, matoi-mony 

medi-eval, medi-terranean 

mega-ceros, mega-theriom 

megal-ichthys, megalo-saurui 



Digitizf 



ed by Google 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS, 



xxxi 



meio- 
melan- 
melano- 
mell- 
meUi- 
mel- 
melo- 
memcH-- 
merc- 
merjeo- 
mes- 
meso- 
met- 
meta- 
metalli- 
metaU- ) 
metallo- 1 
meteor- 
meteoro- 
meth- 
meth- 
metro- 
mezzo- 
micro- 
milit- ) 

mmti-r 

mm- \ 

mille-f 

mio- 

mis- 

mia- 

mis- 

mis-, miao- 

mod- ) 

modi-f 

mole- 

moU- 

mon- ) 

mono-f 

mon- 

mort- 

morti- 

HobM 

mult- ) 

mnlti-f 

mnni- 

mnni- 

iniir-, mns- 

mur- ) 

muri- j 

muBoo- 

mut- 

my. 

myce- 

myco- 

myel- 

myl- 

myo- # 

myos-j 

myrl- 

oMi-, naus- 



EXAMFLBS. 

Gk. iiwttfn, leas meio-cene 

Ok. mdas gen. meULnos, black . . melan-choly, melano-chrolte 

LaL fnd gen. fMlIis, honey .. mell-ite, melli-flnons 

Qk. mdoSt Bong md-rose, melo-diame 

LaL m^mor, mindM .. .. memor-able, memor-y 

Lat. iMTX g. merda, merchandise merc-er, merc-ery 

Qk. TMTukdf I ruminate . . . . meryoo-therinm 

Ok. me869, in the midst, middle mta-embryanthemiim 

Ok. mS^t middle • • • . meso-carp, meso-thoraz 

Ok. m^to, after .. •• - •• met-empsychosli 

€tk. mita, after meta-physies, -morphosls 

Lat. metaihtm, gen. 4i, metal . . metalli-xorm, meti^-ferons 

Ok. metoOon, metal .. .. metall-nrgy, metallo-graphy 

j- Ok. miteMft, a meteor •• meteor-ite, meteoro-logy 

Ok. mita (before -h), with •• meth-[h]od 

Gk, methu, -wine meth-ylene, meth-yl 

Ok. metron, a measnre .. •• metro-nome, metro-polls 

Ital. m«8zo, jnlddle .• •• mezzo-tinto, mezzo-soprano 

Ok. miArof, small micro-seope, micro-oosm 

Lat. miles gen. miffMiv, a soldier milit-ary/ militi-a 

Lat. milUf a thousand •• .. mill-ennium, mille-pede 

Ok. m«ion, less mio-cene 

Eng. mis-t wrong, out of place . . mis-belief, mis-lay 

Fr. mes-f evil mis-chance, mis-chief 

Lat. mHnu]8f amiss, evil .. mis-calcniate, mis-fortone 

Ok. miseo, I hate .. .. ■ .. mis-anthrope, miso-gyny 

Lat. modus gen. nuxli, measure . . modrule, modi-fjr 

Lat. moles, a mass . . . . mole-cule, mole-st 

Lat. molHua-ciUtu (fnoUis, soft) moU-usc 

Ok. m&nOs, only, one .. •• mon-arch, mono-syllable 

Bug. tndna, the moon .. .. Mon-day 

Fr. mort, dead mort-main, mort-gage 

Lat mors gen. mortis, death . . morti-f y 

Lat. Mosa, the Meuse (river) . . mosa-sanms 

Lat mvUus gen. muUi, many . . mult-angular, mnltl-f orm 

Lat muniM, a gif t .. .. muni-flcent, munl-dpal 

Lat munio, I fortify . . . . muni-ment 

Lat mus gen. muris, a mouse . . mur-idse, mus-cle 

Lat mwrus gen. mvH, a wall .. mur-al, muri-form 

Lat museuf, moss .. •• musco-logy ^Ay&rid> 

Lat. muto, I change .. .. mut-able 

Ok. fiiTM), I close my-ops 

Ok. mu^» fungus .. .. myce-[ci]lium 

Ok. mukos, fungus . . • . myco-logy 

GHe. muelos, spinal marrow .. myel-itis 

Ok. mt(Zo8, a mill myl-odon 

Gk. mua gen. muos, a muscle . . myo-l<^, myos-itis 

Gk. mwrios, numberless.. .. myri-ad, myrl-aoanthus 

Ok. naiM, a ship nau-machia, naus-ea 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS. 



navl- 
oecro 
nectar- ) 
nectari- j 
neigh- 
neo- 
nether- 
neur- ) 
neuro-i* 
night- 
nitro- 
nocU^ ) 
nocto-> 
nootor) 
nomen- ) 
nomin- ) 
nomo- 
nou- ) 
nona-f 
non- 
north 

BOflO> 

no- 

nolsho- 

not-, noto- 



numismiito* 

nut- 

O' 

0- 

OV 

oc- 

ochlo- 

oct-, octa- 

oct-, octo- 

octu- 

od-, odo- 

odontK ) 

odonto- f 

cen-, oeno- 

of-, oflf- 

ole- 

oUg- 

oligo- 

ombroh 

omnl- 

on 

oneiro- 

oner- 

onomat- 

onomato- 

op- 

oper- \ 

opera-) 

ophi- ) 

ophio-) 

ophthalm- 

<7phthalino- 

opt-, opti. 

opto* 



Examples. 

Lat fwkviit a ship navi-g«te (le. [valdpariX 

Gk. nehroa, a dead body. • • • necro-mancy, necro-logy 

IM. nectar g^n. nectdrU •• nectar-ine, nectari-Haroiui 

Bng. iMcfA, near neigh-bonr 

Gk. n«o«, new neo-logr, neo-i^jte 

Eng. nMW, lower, down .. netber-li^ NetheF-lfOicls 

Gk. tiMmm, norve .. •• neni^algia, neciFO-logr 

Eng. niM nightrsluide, nig!it-mare 

Qik. wUron, nitra •• •« •• xdtop-gen, nitro-meter 

Lat WM gm* nocUa ^ .. noctt-vagant, nocio-grKph, 
noctorary 

Lat ftomeii gen. nomlnit •• nomen-datare, Bomin-*! 

Gk. nomos, law •• •• •• nomo-graphy 

Lat nona^ vin^ nm4Ujh>ii. nQ««;«esimAl 

Lat. no», not non-8eiMw» non-oonformisi 

Eng. noim noffthoward, north-vum 

Gk.iu)M>«, disease.. •• .a noao-graphy, noso-logy 

Engino, notany oort^ng, no-body 

Gk. not/io<, bastasd .. •• notho-saoms 

Gk. notof, south. not-omis, noto-therlnm 

} Gk. numima g. -matos, coin. . | nuD^mat-ics, nmnismsto- 

Eng. Anu<, a nnt nut-meg, nnt-shell 

Iri8h(prefUedtonienof "family') O'ConneU, O'Donovan 

Lat 0- for ob, away : .• o-mit 

Lat o2>, against ob-ject, ob-stnict 

Lat oo tor ob (before -o) •• ec-cur, oo-cupy 

Gk. oiUo«, the mob •• •• ochlo-cracy 

Gk. oA:<a, eight oct-andria, octa-gon 

Lat octo, eight oct-ennial, octo>sy]lat>l0 

Lat ocio, eight ootu-ple 

Gk. hddds, a way, i^ road.* •« od-yle» odo-meter 

Gk. odcma son. odanta^ .. .» odontalgia odQiEKto-logy 

Gk. oinos, wine o»n<anthic, 09no*tliera 

Lat c(f Uivob (before/).. •• of-fend, of-fer 

Eng. off away from, ^m •• of-fal, off-set 

Lat o2«i»m, oil ole-flant, ole>ic 

Ok. QlAg&Bftk tew .. .,• •• olig-archy, oUgOrchwe 

Gk. C9n<bro«, a shower •• •• omb^o-meter 

Lat onmM, all omni-scient omni-potent 

Eng. «iK upon, forth •• •• on-slaaght, on- wards 

Glc OTieiron, a dream . . . . oneiro-mancy 

Lat. ont» gen. oniris, a bi^en . . oner-ary, oner-ous 

j- Gk. onffma g. ondm&ids, a name onomat-ology, (momato-poeia 

Lat. op- for ob (before. -2>) •• op-pose^ op-press 

Lat opiM, plu. opihra .. .. (^r-eulnm, opera-meter 

Gk. ophis, opM&t a serpent •• opbi-^Ieide, ophio-maney 

Gk. &pt4leo8, pertaini])g to sight opt-ics, opti-graph 

Qk.<^toi»flVl8ee .. .. opto-meter 



d by Google 



PREFIXES ANB PHENOUNS, 



zxidii 



oTgaior I 

orguxo-i 

orii 

ovi-, OID- 

or-, orl-^ 

ornith- ¥ 

ornitho- j 

oro- 



EXAMPLX8. 

Ok. <Mtr^lM9H, all <«p»i .. .. orgiai4c, drgimo^togy 

IaX. 08 % '<ni8, the inbttth^ a gat> ori4oe 

Gk. tfrd«, ()H»a, a Moantata .. oii-gmm, wro^ogy 

"Pr. Of, gold. . . . . . • • Or-Tttora, ori-flattfute 

Gk.oni<«g«n.dml«uJ»,*b!id.. oraith-idmite, ofcniflkio4ogy 

Gk. Of o«, a ittonntain .. .. -Wc^logy, < 



orthtH -Gft. 0rtA<w,idelit 



oa< 

OB- 



osteo- 
ottiac- 



Ot-, OtOi 



0V-, ovl- 
OTer- 

OTO- 

ovn- 

0X-, oxy- 

oto- 

osono- 

pa&hy' 

pachfo- 

Itaci- 

pal-,pal8B- 

palin- 
piOtttfc- 



_. , Oro-|fttijplQr 

, -^— *• ortho'gwphy, anbh(Hi<Mty 

Lat M- for 06 (one example) .. os-tensible 

Lat.o«, aklA .. .. i. K»-«uk, os-wilalte 

IigtM^*».'«rt«,a.bone .. o«»»eoiu», oeri^fy 

Gk. o«««(m, a bone .. osteo-logy, 08teo-g»phy 

Gk^.^r«^,apottberd.anbyB. ^^^^ ^,^^,^ 

Gothic o»«ro, eastern .. .. ostro-Goth 

Gk. 0U8 gen, ms, the «Ur . . bt-itis, oto-wsope 

Gk. ourdnoj, the heaven* .. Ottr8flo«-grti)liy 



out- Bng. ««, W ,, .. .. oat.aide,oufr«a«Jt 



palin-) 
piOttt-l 
palm- ) 
bslmi-r 



Lat otnim gen. (wi .. .. ov-ary, ovl-feroUs 

Bnir. 6fer, too much, above . . ovtfr-dd, oVer-come 

Gl^Am Latinised (o[i>]<w), an egg ovo-logy, ovo-vivipa^ns 

Lat oin*r», an egg ovn-lite, ovn-le 

Gk. €onu, sharp ox-lde, oxy-gfin 

Gk. d»6, to noeU [offensivBly] ^ oio^kerite, oiono*meter 

Gt;iwehi», «Wck. jpa^y^ef m, jiaohy-pteris 

Gk. pachus gen. -«o«, thick . . pachyo-pterous 

Gk. oatoto*. ancient .. .. pal-ichthys, paliB^ontology 

Gk. potoioi, ancient .. .. 1)ali»p-«aurtia, palaeo-logy 

Gk. X^tiHM, agatn s^ .. .. paii-logy 
Gk. polisH again .. •« 



patlmi- . 
palmac- 
palmatl- 
pan- 
pan- ) 
pano-f 
pani- 
pan!- 
panta- 
panto- 
par-, para- 
paraUelo- 

pwrl 
parri^ 



palin-drome, palimrpsest 
palm-er, palmi-feroos 



Lat. paima, a palm-tree.. 

(as if from pcUm&cus^palma palm) palmac-ite, palmac-eons 

Lat. paimag. p^JmAHBitk^vaha) pofanati-fld, palmati-^partite 

Gk. pcu^ pan everything . . . . pan-orama, pan^theism 

Gk. P^M-gen. P&ndt, the god Pan pan-ic, pano-phobia 

Jja,%.pMusg.pani,AqvmotjKm pani-cle 

Lat. pani«, brdad pani-f action, "panl-vorous 

Ok. pas, pin. panta all things . . pantMnMphic 

Gk. pas gen. pantos, everything panto-graph, paiito^logy 

Gk. para, from, by itself, neat . par-allax, para-graph 
Gk.iKwalMW«, parallel .. 
Bat. par gen. pavis, equal .^, 
Fr. fK»rfer, to speak .. 
iFot patri, Lat. pater, "father 
P]j*J j. Lat. iK*r» gen. {partis, part 

^Fr. power, to pas*.. "^.^ 
Lat. paterwiM, adj . of pater, lathtfr 
Gk. pathds. Bettering 



. iMitem- 
patho^ 
patr- ' 
patri- 

^' 
pecto- 

peetin- ^ 

pecUni- 



picrallelo-gittm, -piped 
. pui«8iyUable, .pan-ty 
parl-ey. parl-our 
liiarri-Hde 

part-y,. parti-dpate 

HMs-over, pass-port 
^em^al, patem-ity 



^ , „ paltb»-logy,.patho-geny 

Lat po««- gen. P^ttits, father ) putr-onymic, patrl-mony 

Gk. pater gen. pafros „ J" P»w^ny»«*«. J"*"*^ "" 

Vxltiti ^, a thick coaiae doth jMa-jaeket 

Gk. pakds, cordled, crystallised pecto-lite 

Lat. peotm gea. p&eKnis, a comb pectin-al, pectini-form 



dbyGooyk 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS. 



pector- 

pectoii- . 

]^-,pedo- 

ped-, pedi- 

pedo- 

pel- 

Pelopo- 

pen- 

penni- j 

pennv- 

peni- \ 

pentfr-T 

pente- 

per- 

per- 

per- 

peri- 

petr- ) 

petri-f 

petro- 

petti- 

pnanta- 

pluuita^ma- 
,, -mato 



phosphor- 
phot- ) 
photo- j 
pnren' ) 
phreno- 1 
phyllo- 
phys- 
physio- 

physo- 
phyt- 
phyto- 
Pi«- 
pin- 
pinn- > 
pinni-) 
pinnati- 
pisci- 
placo- 
plani- 
plano- 
pUty- ' 
platys- 

pldo- 

plen- ) 

pleni- s 

i)leo- 

Pteaio. 



EXAMPLBS. 

Lat peetiM g. pecUfri$, the chert pectoral, pectoil-loqay- 

Ok. pais gen. paidoif a child .. ped-asogae, pedo-baptisin 

Lat. pes gen. pidi$, a foot . . ped-al, pedi-ment 

ForpodO'fGk.pouBg. pddds, afoot pedo-metOT, pedo-mancy 

Lat. pel-, for per (one example) pel-lndd 

Gk. Pdops gen. PeUpda, Pelops Pelopo-nesiu * 

Lat. pene, nearly, almost . • pen-msula, pen-nmbra 

Lat. perma gen. pennoi, a wing . . penn-ule, penni-f orm 

£ng. penig, a penny .. .. penny-worth, penny- wise 

GlLpento, flye • pent-andria, pentargon 

6k. penU^konta], Mtj •• •• pente-cost 

Lat per, through per-ambolate, per-Jure 

Lat. jper, intendve . . . . per-suade, i>er-secute 

gn (fkem.) a maximnm quantity per-oxide, per-sulphate 

k. peri, round, near .. .. peri-gee, peri-ceci 

Lat. petra gen. petrce, a stone . . petr-oleum, petri-fy 

6k. petrds, a stone, a rock .. petro^rraphy, petro-logy 

Fr. petit, little petti-coat, petti-f(^;ger 

6k. phanta[8ma], a phantom . . phanta-scope 

Gk. phantasma, A phtmtam .. phantasma-goria 

6k. phantasma g. -mdUia . . phantasmato-graphy 

6k. pharmdkdnt medicine .. pharmaoo-poeia, -logy 

Gk. pMIds, fond of .. •• phil-anthropy, philo-Iogy 

6k. pJi&ni gen. phAnts, sound ... phon-ics, phono-logy 

(as if from ph&nitikos, fpMtii) . . phonet-ic 

6k. p/Ute gen. pA^t^, light •• phos-phorus, photo-graphy 

1 6k. phosph&rds, phosphorus .. phosph-ate, phosphor-ite 

6k. ph68 gen. pMtffa, light . . phot-opsy, photo-sphere 

6k. phrin gen. phrinos, mind . . phren-sy, phreno-logy 

6k. pAtillon, a leaf .. .. phyllo-gen, phyUo-pod 

&k. phusis, phuaeda .. phys-ics, physio-logy 

6k. phuea gen. phtuii, a puff . . physo-grade 

6k. pMrfon, a plant .. .. phyt-elephas, phyto-logy 

Eng. piflra pig-sty, pig-tall 

Lat. piTMis, a pine-tree . . . . pin-y, pin-ite 

Lat pinna gen. -cb, a wing .. pinn-ate, pinni-ped 

Lat pinnohis gen. 4i, winged . . pinnati-ped, pinnati-fld 

Lat. pi8ci8^ a fish pisci-f orm, pisci-culture 

6k. plax gen. pldkdSy scaly . . placo-derm, placo-ganoid 

Lat planus gen. pZani .. .. plani-sphere, plani-metry 

lAt, pUmtu gun. plami .. .. plano-concare, plano-convex 

6k. platus, broad platy-crinite, pla<78H)mn8 

6k.pleton, more pleio-cene 

Lat plenus gen. pleni, full .. plen-aiy, pleni-potentiaiy 

Gk. p{^ot», too much .. •. pleon-asm 

Gk. vlMos, nwr plesio-sannuv, -morphoiis 



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PREFIXES AND PREN0UN8. 



pleoro- 
pUo- 
phi- 
phir- ' 

Fhitoiii- 
pnemoat- 
pDennuKto- 

pnenmo- 

pooo- 

pod^podo- 

poluw * 

polui- 
polem- 
polemo- 



poly- 
pom- ) 
pomi-f 
pome- 

} 



prot- 

proUvf 
I«oUio-S 

(for y 
proUh) ) 
pBalm- ) 
pBalmo-j 
pwnd- ) 
paeudo-j 

psycho- 

psjchro- 

pter- 

ptero- 

pterygo. 
pnlmo- ^ 
polmon- 
palnooi- 
dqIs- 
polTflr- 



Gk. ptemm, aide, fib •• •• 

Gk. pleion, fvn .. .. 

LaL phu, mote •• •• •• 

Lat pJm gen. jplurif, more •• 

Lat. P{«to gen. Plutomis 
) 6k. pneuma gen. fmeunulto^ 
f air, spiiit, breath .* 
Ok. jmeunum, longs 
ItaL |>oeo, somewhat, rather . . 
Ok. ixnw gen. pdddt, afoot •• 

JjaL polarU, -polu 

Gk.pfflimds,wvt », M •• 

Ok. i)dfoM, many 

Lai. potnum gen. j>oiiii» apple .. 

Fr. pomiiM, apple .^« 

Lat pomum gen. pomi, apple ., 

Lat. pofu gen. pont^ s bridge., 



Lat. porro. forwards 
Pr. pour, for, by 



pont- 
ponti- 
por- 

per- »■»• j/vM", «*/*, M^ .. 
port- Lat. porta, a gate. , 
port- Fr. porte; Lat. poriOf to carry, 
port- ^ig.pore; Lat por(i(«, a harbour 
post- Lat post, subsequent to, lifter 09 

Iffe- Lat prcB, before 

preter- Lat prceter, more than, aside .. 
I»im- Lat primus, first . . 
primo- Lat primuaf first .. 
prime- ItaL primo, fern, prima, (Irst 
pro- Lat pro, quasi, assistant 
pro- Lat pro, in front, forth . 
pro- Ok. pro, preTions, bjofore 
pfod^ Lat pro, before one, conspicuous 



pros- Ok. prtfs, before 



Ok. prOMis, chief, flxtt 



pleur-itis, plemo-carput 

plio-saurus, pUo-cene 
plu-perfeot 

plnr-al, pbui-partite 

Plutoni-aa 

pneumat-les, pneumato-logy 
pneumo-gastilc, -thorax 
poco-piano, poc<Hmrant6 
pod-agrft, podo-phyllnm 

polar>lse^ polari-scope 

polem-arch, polemo-soope 

poly-anthns, poly-gon 

pom-ade, pomi-ferons 

pome-graaate^ pome-citron 
pomo-logy 

pont-age, x>onti-fez 

por-tend 
por-tndt 

portHSulUs, port-er 
port-able, port-mantean 
port-rere, Port-land 
post-pone, post-obit 
pre-cede, pre-judge 
preter-natural, preter-mit 
prim-eval, prim-rose 
primo-geniture 
primo-buffo, prlnuHlonna 
pro-consul, pro-noun 
pro-boscis, pro-ducte 
pro-legomena, pro-chronism 
prod-igal, proid-igious 
pros-ody, pros-opopseia 
prot-omis, proto-^jpe 



Ok. prtftdlt, chief .. •• .. protho-notaxy 



Ok. psdimot, psalm 

Ok. pseudSs gen. psstMUbs, false. 

Ok. pMic/i^, the sold' 
Ok. pntcAros, cold .. 

Ok. pt^^^ a wing 

Ok. pUhrva gen. pterHgoi, a wing 



psalm-ist, psalmo-graphy 

pseud-onym, pseudo-prophet 

psycho-logy, psycho-mancy 
psychro-meter 

pter-ichtfays, ptero-dactyl 
pteryg-otus, pterygo-id 



Lat pulmo gen. pttlmdtiis, longs pulmo-grade, polmon-ary, 



Lat pulsus, the poise .. 
Lat puMs gen. puMHs, dost . 
Lat pro, beforehand, forth 



polmoni-fer 
ptus-ate 
polyer-ise, polver-oos 

por-pose, por-soe 



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PREFIXES AKD PRENOUNS, 



pax- 

ptur- 

pttri- 

puri- 

pycn- ) 

pycno-j 

pyr-,pyro- 

pyretr " 

qua)dri- ) 
quadra- r 



qtuUi- Lftt. gualis, anch as, like 



qnanti 
quartr 
quatern- 
qoatre* 
quin- 
qtiinq- 
qnlnque- 
qaint- 
quiata- 
qnint- 
radi- j. 
ladio^f 
radic- 



ni-r 



Fr..jNmr, oi|,^if, away .. r^ 
Lat. parum, somewhat .. 
Lat. pwnu gen. puri, pure 
Lat. pus gen. :imri«, pus. . 

Gtk.pvkM8,ihi€k 

Ok. ptirgai. ]n«»v<, ilre .. •, 

Ok. jMfr#<^ Ati^ heat .. ., 

Lat. ^iMMira^ a square .. 

Lat. s«Mu{nc«.gen. guodH,, four.. 



rami- 
rare^ 
raU- 

ration- 
re- 

te- 
rect-i 
recti-) 
. ^eg- 

'^■%} 

varet 



rere- 

retro- 

rhin- | 

rhtne-j 

rhiz- \ 

rhizo-f 

rhod- I 

thodo-i 

risi- 

rivi 

rota-, rotl- 

rub-, ruM- 

rubel- 

rubigin 

nis-, rnr- 

s- for ex- 



sal-, saU 



Xat quarUus gen. quaiUi, much 
Xat^ qwiHu$f fourth 
Lat. gttatemi, by four •• 

Vr.quatre, faar 

Lat. guingue, flice.. «. 

XlmL quinque, tre •• •• -j 

Lat. (fuintiM, fifth 

Fr.gutnt-; Lat.c«ntum,a hundred 

Lat. radius, gen. nuUi, a ray . . 

LAt. nsAioB gen. iradUds, a-root . . 

Lat. ramw«f gen. rotni, « bianeh . 

Lat. rarwf. 'rare 

Lat. ratus gen. vati, firm 
Lat. f*a^ gen. mtumis, reason 
Lat. r0-, again. badL 

(ildded to Tevtonic i(M>rds: as 
Lat. r««, matter, affairs . . 

IsL rectus goju. feeU .. »« 

Lat. rex gen.re^, « king • • 

Seven .examples 

:. Ar^r[af}.], ^ raise oneMlf, 

^n the air] 

Fr. arrive, behind 

Lat. f^iro-ZbadAtwacds .* 



6k. r^tno«» the nose 

Ok. rhietk gen. rtUzSs, a root •• 

Q^.rhdd6n,Mtoae 

Lat.'fi«tM«»hnigfa 
Lat. rimnsr « bank, a riyer 
Lat. rota gen. rdtce, a wheel . . 
Lat. ruber, ted .. 
Lat. ru5«UtM, r^dbh .. 
Lat. rubigo gen. ruHginiSt rust 
Lat. rus gen. ri«ri», toe oonntry 
8-ample, s-earce, s-corch; for 

extrcL, s-tray 
Lat. «ac«rgen. <aori,'saiored .. 
Lat. sal gen. salis, salt .. •• 
Lat. salaus gen. satsi 



EXAMPLBS. 

jwnr-chase, povfloin 
pur-blind 
pttrl'^fy 
ptiri-4orm 

pyoB^odoQl, pysno^stgrle 

pyr-ope, iiyTo^tecla^ 

pyret-jfl9> pyretD-logy 

qoadr'angle 

quadxi-dentat^ quadca-ped 

^piali-ty 

quanti-fy 

•aoart^er 

quatern-ary, qnatem*!^ 

qoatre-foil 

quin^eoemviii,qnln-4eoagon 

qninq-angular, 

qninqne^artite 

quint-essence, quintn-ple 

qnint-al (a cwt.) 

Mdi^ato, xadio^Ute 

Yadie-ate, radio-ftl 

xam-ous, rami-ty 

tare^fy 

rati^fy 

ration^ 

le^verse, rMaaimite 

Te-open, re^lmild) 

M^pulmo 

Beot>ax«le, recti-fjr 

i»g-«l 

red-«em, red-olent 

rere-Monse 
rere-dos [or rear-d0s] 
fetBo-giade, retroH9pect 

rhin-encephalic, ihlno-oeroa 
ifais-anth, rhlzo-pod 

rhod-anthe, rhodo-dendron 

itsi-Ue 
ziy-al« liv-er 
rota-lite, roti-fer 
rub-eola, rubi-ound 
Irubel-Ute 
rubigin-ons 
'xwiijric, vai^ 



aani-floe, sacri-Iege 
«al-a{y, sali-f erous 
salsi-fy 



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P&EFIZE8 AlTD PRENOXTNSs 



ZXXTli 



suiteil- 
sancta- 
Mnd- (ffir 
8&m) 
sangtii- 
aangoini- 



■aly- Lat. miImu, saf« 

Eng. «am, half; Lat. semi 

Lat. sandus gen. sancti, sacred 
j-Bag^. MM, half 

itiat AmpMu gen. «angcv{9iif, 
blood 
'. MWM, Mrtthottt . . 
Lai. M|H>gea. M|»dnif .. 
Lat. MjNM* gen. sap^ris, flaronr. 

Gk. aarx gen. amrikoa, Jfodi 

Lat. «a^, encmgk .i ». 

Lat. M»t«(r, full 

Eng. Seater] a deity so called • . 
Gk. aauroSj tkhzaxd 

Lat. saxum, gem, aaxi, a cook, 

a stone 

6k. sehiiamc^. achismatos, schifltt 

} Gk. 0chdeto9t olaf t, «loven 4 < 

Ok. «Ha gen. akids, shadow .. 

Gk. «fcMro«, hard . . 

@k. sJkeer^^, haFdness . . 
Lat. M-f ««or«uiM A out of, f roqi, off 
Lat. aed- for «e- (one example) . . 
Gk. seiamoa, earthquake . . 

Gk. aeUnSt the moon 

Eng. aetf, one's proper petsbn . . 
Gk. aema, sign, signal .. .. 
Gk. ameioa, a sign, a symptom. . 
Lat senti, half 

JDng. a^fen, §&wa 



lapon- 

sapor- ) 

sapori- f 

sarc- ) 

sarcD-f 

uti-.iatis- 

satnr- 

Sator- 

saiir> I 

sauro-) 

saad- 

scMsmat- 

tcfai£o-(for 

adiitto-) 

sdo- 

sdeCr]. 

Bclero- . 

sderot- 



sed- 
■elsmo- 
selen- ) 
seleno-f 
self- 
sema- 
semeio- 
semi 
sen- (for 
«eoen) 
sens- 
Mnsn-f 
sept- 
septt- 
septem- 
Beptea- 
sepi- 
septi- 
septu- 
sesqui- 
■et-, seti- 
aex- 
sext- 
sextn- 
sharp- 
tW 
she- 
shod- 
sidere- 
rider- | 
iidero- j 



Lat aeptem, septi- s^en 
Lat sepfem, seren 

Lat aepium gen. aepH, tt fold .. 

Lat aepfem, septt^aeven (1 exam.) 
Lat. aeaqui, one-aad-arhalf 
Lat. acta gen. aeka, a bristle . . 

Lat. aex, six 

Lat. aextus gen. aextif six 

Lat. seztutf, six 

Bug. scearp, sharp 

Bag. aeo (a gender word, finale) 

Eng. scftir, a county 

Past part of ahed, to throw off. . 

Lat. sulus gen. aicUfriaf a star .. 

Ok. «id^(!fs, iron 

d 



EXAMPLXa 

salut-anr 
silv-able 
sam-blind 

•ancti-fy, sanciurary 
sand-blind 

sangui-ferous, sanguinl-om 
satis-culotte 

sapon-aoechis, lapon-ide 
sapor-ous, sapori-flo 

sarp-asm, sarc^logiy 
sati-ate, saUs-fy 
satur-ate 
Satur-day 

saur-ichthus, sauro-pus 

sajd-cavons, saxi-frage 
Bchismat-ie 

•chiro-pod 

scio-man<7 

scle[r]-retinite, sclero-derm 

sderot-ic 

se-eede, se-olude 

sed-ition 

seismo-graph, selsmo-sc(^ 

8eleh<4te, selend-grgphy 

seM-taaght, self-wiU 

sema-phore 

semeio-logy 

seim-colon, semi-aeid 

•en-naght, seii-iiit 

seof^ible^ sensu-al 

sept-ennial, septi-laterai 

Septem-ber, septen-^rte 

sept-ate, septi-form 

S€!ptu-ple 

sesqui-bromide, -pedalian 

set-ose, seti-ferons 

sex-ennial 

sext-illion, sexi-ile 

sextu-ple 

shaip-set, sharp^en 

she-wolf/ she bear 

she-riff 

ahodd-y 

sidere-al 

sider-ite, sidero-scope 



d by Google 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS. 



sign- 
signi- 



sUici-f 
simpli- 
slmplici- 
sin-, aine- 
80- (sub) 
Boci- ) 
socio- f 
sol- 
soU- 
8oUd- 
somn- > 
somni- f 
soni- 
sono- 
sonor- ) 
sonori- f 
soph- 
sopori< 
speci- 
spectro- 
spher- ) 
sphero- J 
spin- \ 
splni-f 
spirit- \ 
spiritu- f 
spiro- 
splanohn- 
splanohno- 
spor- 
sporid- ) 
sporo- ) 
staphyl- 
staphylo- 
star- 
stear-) 
steat-f 
steneo- 
(f or steno-) 
stentor- 
stentoro- 
step 
stereo- 
stetho- 
stom- ) 
stoma- ) 
strati- 
strato- 
straw- 
stulti- 

sub- 

sub- 

subter- 

suc- 



Lat ngrvam gen. si^fni, a sign •• 

Lat silex gen. txUds, flint •• 
)Lat. simplex gen. 8impVUi$t 



j simple 

Lat. nn«, without 

Through the French .. •• 

Lat. sodvs g. sodA, a companion 

Lat. M>I, the sun 

Lat. solus gen. soli, alone • . 
Lat. solidus, whole, solid •• 
Lat. sommum gen. somni, sleep. . 

Lat. sonus gen. mni, a sound .. 
Lat. sonus, a sound . . • • 
Lat. «(mor gen. sonOriB, noise .. 

Gk. «opAaf, wise 

Lat. sopor gen. sopdris, sleep . . 
Lat. species, appearance, species 
Lat. spedtmm, a spee^m 



Gk. sphaira g. gphairds, a sphere 

Lat. spina gen. spitM^ a thorn. . 

Lat. 9pir{tiM, spirit 

Lat spiro, I breathe •• 

\ Gk. spla/nchnon, the -viscera . . 

Gk. «poro«, a spore 

Gk. sp(yro8 g. sporidos, a spore.. 

I Gk. staphUM, a buhch of griq>es 
Span, estri, the right-hand side. . 
Gk. sUcur gen. steatos, suet •• 
Gk. steiuM, thin, small 

Gk. stentdr gen. stenUtrdt, a 

, Stentor 

Eng. steop, orphan, bereft 
Gk. «t«reo«, solid .. .. 
Gk. stethos, the breast, the chest 

Gk. aiomo, the moutii .. 

Lat. stratum gen. strati, a layer 

Ok. stratos, an army 

Eng. streaw, straggling . . 

Lat. stuUus gen. stuUi, foolish, 
a fool . . .•;.•• 

Lat. sub, under, Inferior 

(Added to Teutonic words as ; 

(in (7/j.em.) the article named 
inferior to the base . . 

Lat. subter, underneath, under- 
hand 

Lat. sue- for «u2> (before -c) 



EXAMPLXS. 

sign-al, signi-fy 
silio-ate, sUid-calcareoua 

simpli-fy, simplici-ty 
sin-cere, sine-cure 
so-joum 

aod-al, socio-logy 

Bol-ar, sol-stlce 
soli-loquy, soli-ped 
solid-ungnlous 

somn-ambulist, somni-f erous 

Boni-ferous 
8ono-i;ieter 

Bonor-ous, sonorl-flc 

soph-ist, soph-ism 
sopori-fic 
speci-al, speci-fy 
spectro^scope, spectro-Iogy 

spher-ics, sphero-meter • 

spin-ose, spini-ferous 

spirit-less, spiritn-al 

spiro-meter 

splanchn-ic, splanchno-lc^Qr 

spor-ale 

sporid-ium, sporoH»rp 

stapfayl-oma, staphylo-raphy 

star-board 

8tear-ine, staat-ite 

steneo-saurus, steno-graphy 

stentor-lan, stentoro-phonic 
step-son, step-mother 
stereo-type, stereo-scope 
stetho-scope, stetho-meter 

stom-ate, stoma-pod 

strati-fy, strati-form 

strato-cracy 

straw-berry 

stultl-fy 

sub-side, sub-oditor 

sub-writer, sub-worker) 

sub-oarburet 

subter-fuge 
suc-ceed, suc-cumb 



d by Google 



PREFIXES AND PREN0UN8. 



lOf- 

'^. 

falpho>) 

sum- 

snmpta- 

nip- 



Bur- 
rar- (for 
wr-) 



Lat mm- for mb (before -m) 
Lat. aumptus, expense . . 
Lat. «Mp- for gub (before -p) 
sapw-JLat. auper, over, above, extra , 
Fr.Mir- (Lat mper)^ over 

Lat circum, around, about 

Lat awr- for nub (before -r) 
Lat. 9wr- for auper, over, beyond 
Lat MU- f or«u&(before-«, -b^ -p, -t) 
[Only one example qf each, the 

other two are Bus-ceptible and 8n[8]-8pect 

EDg, sword, A sward .. .. sword-play, sword-stick 

Gk. aukoe, A fig syco-more, syoo-phant 

Ok. <u^ for «wn, with .. .. syl-logism 

6k. »um- for #u» (before -6, -m, -p) sym-metry, sym-pathy 



syco- 

syl 

sym- 

•yn- 

sy- 

tauto- 

taxi 

tax- 

taxo- 

teehn- i 

techno- f 

tel-, tele- 

teleo- 

tempor- 

tenad- 

tenebr- 



tergi- 

terr- ) 

terri-; 

tetrl- (for 

temrir) 

tasti- 

tctr- \ 

tetrapj 

thauma- 

thaumat- 

theo- \ 

theca.; 

the-,theo- 

thenn- ) 

thermo- j 

Uioroiagh« 

thuri 

Thors- 

to- 

Tom- 

tom- 

tox- ) 

toxico-f 



Lat »uf- for «tt& (before -/) 
Lat eug- for eub (one example) 

Lat n»t, oneself 

Lat aulphw gen. eulphHris, 
sulphur lulph-urety ndpho-Tlnio 



Examples. 
8uf-fer, suf-flx 
sug-gest 
sui-^de 



sum-mon 
iumptuoary 
sup-pose, sup-port 
super^abound, super-cargo 
sur-base, snr-mount 

snr-ronnd 

sur-render, sur-r(^te 
sur-pUoe, sur-face 
sus-pect, sus-tain 



Gk. eun, with 

Gk. »un (before -«, -t) 

Gk. to auto, the same 

Gk. taane, arrangement 

Lat taxue gen. taxi, a yew-tree 



syn-onym, syn-opsis 
sy-stole, sy-zygy 
tauto-logy, tauto-phony 
taxi-dermy 
tax-ite 



Gk. taxie g. taxede, classification taxo-nomy 

Gk. <ec^fi^, art techn-ic, techno-logy 

tel-erpeton, tele-scope 



teleo-saurus, teleo-logy 
tempor-al, tempor-ise 
tenad-ous 
tenebr-ous 



Gk. <e2e, far distant 
Ok.tilid8, perfect, the end 
Lat tempus gen. tempdris, time 
Lat tenax gen. tendcis, adhesive 
Jja,t.tenebrcB, darkness . . 

Lat. ter (in Chem.), three atoms of the substance named, gene- 
rally refers to the negative constituent ter-acetate [of lead] 
('* Ter-acetate of lead = 3 atoms of acetic add to 1 oxide of lead 
" Tris-acetate of lead = 1 atom of acetic add to 8 oxide of lead) 
Lat tergum gen. tergi, the back tergi-versation, tei^-ferous 
Lat terra gen. terrce, earth .. texr-aqueous, terri-genous 



j-lAt terror gen. terrorit, terror 

lAt testis, a witness 

Ok. tetra, toju 

) Gk. thauma gen. thaumdtos, 
f a marvel 

Gk. tA«lE^, a sheath 

Gk. iAeos, god 

Gk. thermos, heat 

Eng. thwvh, through 

Lat. thus g. tkuris, frankincense 

Eng. Thor g. Thores, a Scand. god 

Eng. adverbial prefix 

A gender word (male) . . 

Ug, awkward 

Gk. toxXkdn, poison 



terrl-1^, terri-Ue 
testi-1^, testi-mony 
tetr-arch, tetrargon 

thauma-trope, thaumat-urgus 

theo-odont, theca-phore 

the-ist, theo-logy 

therm-al, thermo-meter 

thorough-fare, thorough-bred 
thuri-fer, thuri-Ue 
Thurs-day 
to-day, to-morrow 
Tom-cat, tom-tit 
tom-toe, tom-fool 

tox-odon, toxico-logy 



d by Google 



PREFIXES AITD PRENOUKS, 



tracheU- 

trach- ) 
tracheo- ) 



tra- 
traf- 
trag- 
traa- 
trans- 
tres- 

tri- 



trlgono- 

tri-, tdph- 

tris 

turn- 

tur- 

Udo- (Jor 

ultra- 

umbr- 

tm- 

un-, uni- 

under- 

und-ul- 

ungu- ) 

ungui-T 

uni- 

up- 

nsque- 

U8U- 

ut-, utt- 
uxorir 



Examples. 

Ok. fnkhiUis, tile neck or threat traohell-pod 
("Tracbeli-poda" ought to (• traehelo-poda) 

Gk. traeheia, the wind-pipe .. trach-itis« tracheo-tom7 

Enf. tretUty a beat, & tread . . trade-wind 

Lat trc^ §<x tram, across 

Lat. tmf' for imnt (before -/) . . 

6k. UragoM, a goat 

Lat. tran- for irmns (before -«) .. 
Lat. fraiu, acroes, elsewhere .. 
Komance (Lat trans) . . 



tn^montane, tnnluee 

traf-fte 

trag^edy (for trMg^odg) 

tran-eoribe, tran-sept 

trans-fer, traaa-plaBi 

tres-pass 



Gk. treiSf three (in Chem.\ it denotes three atoms. It gsene* 

rally refers to the positive eonsUtntent ^trls-acetate 
("Tris-acetate of lead" =1 atom of acetic add to S oxide of lead 
'' Teisaoetate of lead* = 8 atoms of aoetio add to 1 oxide «f lead> 



Gk. trig&ndn, a triang^ . 
Gk. treia, three . . 
Gk. treiSy thrice . . 
Eng. eyrn[an], to turn 
Eng. tuVf round . . 
Eng. twion, doubtful 
Gk. tupos, type . . 

I Gk. hudor, water 

Lat. ultra, beyond 

Lat. umbra, a shadow 

Eng. un-, not, back 

Lat. unus gen. unlus, one 

Eng. under, beneath, inferior . 

Lat und-ula, wnda, -a wave . 

Lat. unguis, a nail, a hoof 



trigono-metry, -carpon 

tri-phyllons, triph-Jthong 

trifl-agion, trUhsiegiftaa 

tum-stilo, toHKoai 

tur-nip 

twi^ht 

typ-ic, typo^ftaphy 

udo-jneter (for hydo-meter) 

ultra-nsontaae, uKra-radical 
umbr-age, umbr-ella 
un-tme, un-wind 
un-animous, uni-com 
under-ground, -secretary 
nndul-ate 

nngu-al, ungnlrform 

nni-form, «ni-sen 
up-lands, up-set 



Lat. unvs gen. tmlu$, one 

Eng. up, high, over . . _, , _-. 

(Prefixed to nouns, vnin, adjectives, and aaverb$,J 

Irish VMSW, water usque-bangh 

Lat 1MV<> QM usu-fmot, usu-al 

Eng. iU, out ut-most, uti-er 

Lat uxor gen. uuoris, spouse 



d by Google 



SUFFIXES AN 



fBy permission- firom Dr. 



The part in brackets [] is eithe 
part of the termination. It is disp 
caoae the general reader will mc 
for by haring it written out in ft 
sQffix with " a new shade of mea 
female like -«ss (in "lion-ess"), as 
% femcUehat & femcUeagent ; and 
and sometimes even to a language 

-a Romance .. Koaa, 

-a Jj$L .. Houn, 

-[a]ble Lat. habilis; 

Eng. ato2 .. Adj.,e 

(Ths "a," in ¥}ord$ fnym the 
st^SSac is joined is c^ the jvrst cor 
Verbs of other conj* take **-ible" ii 



-[a]c 
-C»]ce 



-[a}ceae 
-(ajceous 

-[a]che 

-{a]cioiis 

-[aci}oii8 

-Ca]c-ity 
-ta]c-le 
-Cac>le 
-lajc-j 

-[a]cy 



Lat. -[a]c-tt« ; 
^k. -Ca]*H>» 



^ , . >Adjeo1 

Ok. -{aj^s f sessi 
Lat. -[a]a, gen ) 

-cis, -[a]c-itt«, >Ifoun, 

'tia, -da, -cius ) duc< 

Lat. -[a\ot<B .. Koun, 

Lat. -{alceutf .. Adj.,: 

nou: 

Lat. -aoens; Ital. 

'Cbccio . . Heon 

Lat. ia\x g. -cis Adj., 1 

noui 

Lat. -iaJti^os-tu, Adj., f 

-\aei1o8-us .. . noui 
Lat. '[a]oitas . . Abstra 
Lat. '[a}c-nl-um Noun, 
Lat. -iac]l-ufn,, Houn,] 
Lat. -fajt-ta, 

•ialoAa .. Abstra 
Gk.-Ca]Ma;Lat. 

-tiOf -da . . Koun, 



C*-ey^* denotes rank, offiee, jwisc 
pitejr* apostasy, lainttrel-sy.) 



• "Abttmci nouns" are^ those 
vUaJrity (torn " y\Ul" white-ness 
[boldj, eonstameu from ^' constant ' 




aOOgle 



' 



xlii 


SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS. 


-ftd 


"T 






an idea .. 


mon-ad 


•ade 


Pr. -adt; Lat. 






-aius .. .. Hoiu, concocted, made 


lemoB-ade, paUa-ad^ 


-ade 


Fr. -ade; Lai. Yerb, to use, to employ 


cannon-ade 


^a]d» 


Gk. -{ai\de8 .. Hoim,alamil7,agroap 


8epKa]d» 


-age 


Lat. agere, to do Hoim, a trade, a thing 






done 


broker-age, marri-ag» 


-age 


Ft» -age,, .. Koim, coUectiye, sea- 






son of 


assemblage, vint-age 



(Added also to Teutonic nouns: cu *' titt-age,*' **eott-age" ** bond-age." J 



-age 
-[»ig]n 

-[«i]n 

-[ai]n 

-[all 

-[all 

-al 

-[a]l-ity 

-[a]n 

-an 

-ana 

-[a]nce 

(Also 
-[a]n-cy 

-[alnd 
-[alne 
-[a]nt 

-taint 
-ar 

-[a]r 

-ard 

-art 

-[airy 

-[ajry 

-[a]ry 
-[alsm 
-ass 
-astar 
-aster 
-[a]te 
-[alte 



Pr. -age 

Lat. thro* the 

Fr. [oflfjne .. 
Lat. ^a]nrU8, \ 

-{a}nr4s .. > 
Lat. thro' the 

Fr. [ag]ne .. 
Lat. -[aK-w .. 
Lat. -[a]l-u8 .. 
Lat. -all-tbs, ttm 
Lat -[dll-itas . . 
Lat. -{ayn-us .. 
Lat. -anyus .. 
Lat. -ana 



Lat. -[a]n« gen. 
-7iM5, -[a]ntia 
joined to Tevionie toorde: as 



Noun, condition, duty 

Koun, characterised . . 
Koun, office, rank (good 
or bad) 

Koun, duuracterised . . 
Adj. from a noun 
Adjectival noun 

Noun 

Abstract noun, state. . 
Adj., belonging to . . 
Adjectival noun 
Koun Cplu.), things per- 
taiiungto 

> Verbal noun, act of, 

) state of . . 



vassal-age, hom-aga 

camp-[aig]n 

capt-[ailn, vm-[ai]n 

mount-.[ai]n 

vit [all, musio-[a]l 

gener-[all, crimin-[a]l 

met-al 

vit-[all-ity 

veter-[a]n, public-[a]n 

Bom-an, equestri-an 

Johnsoni-ana 



vigiHa]nce 
'forhear-ance,** ** hinder-once.** J 



Lat. -Ca]na, ) 
-[aWia i 
Lat. -layndrtts.. 
Lat. -[a]nus .. 
Lat. -[ayns gen. 

Lat. -ia}Mt Ac 
Norse -orcr; Lat 

-{ajr-ius 
Lat. -[alr-is .. 
Eng. fiard •• 
£!ng. hard .. 
Lat. -[a]ri-us .. 
Lat -la^ri-^fMn'* 

Lat -[a]ri-u» .. 
6k. -id^m-os .. 
Fr. -asse 
Pr. 'Ckstre 



Abstract noun, state ) 

of .. .. ; 

Koun, to be done 
A4j., belonging to . . 

Participial notm, agent 
Participial noun, state 

Koun, agent . . 
Adj., pertaining to .. 
Koun, one of a class . . 
Koun, one of a class . . 
Koun, one of a craft . . 
Koun, a d6pQt, adap- ) 
ted or set apart for ) 
Adj., relating to 
Koun, state . . 
Koun, made of 
Koun, in depreciation 



Ok. -astSr, a star Koun, star-struck 



Koun, office 
Yerbalnoun .. 
Koun(in CA«m) denotes 
a salt formed by the 
combination of an 
acid in -ic with a base 
-[alte Lat-[a]<-us .. A4)>, inclined to, fa- 
voured by . . 
-fa)te IjaX. -ialt-tu .. Verb, to energise 
-r&jte I Lat. -[a]t'Or, -us Koun, agent . . 
'Wt-iii 1 1^^ -la]t-ic-us Acy. or Adjectival noon 



Lat. -ia\t-us 
Lat. -la]t-tu 
Lat-at-iM 



pU- 



mendic-[aln-C7, 

[aln-cy 
multiplic-[alnd 
hum-[alne 

inform-[a]nt 
verd-La]nt 



begg-ar. regi8tr-[a]r 
vulg-[alr 

drunk-ard, dnll-ard 
bragg-art, sweet-heart 
lapid-[alry, statu-[a]ry 
libr-[a]ry, gTan-[aln^, 
saBctu-[a]i7, sal-[alry 
liter-[alry, second-fajry 
enthusi-falsm, pleon- 
cuir-ass, (cuir, leather} 
poet-aster 
dis-aster 

magi8tr-[alte, advoc- 
postul-[alte 

nitr-ate of soda, 1.0., 

nitric acid combined 

with soda [the base} 

fQrtun-[a]t^ passion- 

[a]te 
anim-[alte, flQctu-[a]t6 
cur-[alte. deleg-[alte 
lun-[a]t4c, aqu-[alt4Q 



d by Google 



SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS, 



zliii 



-ber 


Sanskrit foar-a. 


Venn, time or month 






time .. 


of the year .. 


Octo-ber, Deoem-ber 


-ble 


Horn. -pU 


Koim, mnltiplicative 


dou-ble, tre-ble 


-ble 


lAt. habilis .. 


Adj., fit for, fuU of .. 


hum-ble. fee-ble 


-We 


Lat. 4m2-un» .. 


Noon, instrument .. 


sta-ble, mandi-ble 


-bond 


Lat -bundr^ua . . 




vaga-bond 


-bnle 


Lat -fnO^m .. 


Koim,d6pdt .. 


vesti-bule frohe-d4p6t) 


-[br]am 


Lat. -[br]um .. 
Lat. -bund^ .. 


Nemi, instrument .. 


candela-[br]um 


4>imd 


Gerundial noun 


mori-bund 


-c 


Lat. -e-ua 


A^lMtiv^noiik' 


frantli]-c, rust(i>c 


-c 


Lat.-<MM 


orit[i]-c, mania-c 


-{c> 


Lat. •[e}a, -{e}ia 


Koun, denoting a genus 


angeli-[c]a, lactu-[c]a 


-ce 


Lat-«i-a,-«i-o 


Abstract noun.. 


justi-ce, mali-ce 


-cede) 
-oeedf 


Lat eedo, to go 


Verb, to go .. 


pre-cede, pro-ceed 


•eelli 


ItaLwje«i;Lat 








-cuUtu 


Hoon, dim. .. 


vermi-celli 


•cello 


lUL -cello .. 




violon-cello 


-rc]h 


Eng 




Scot-[c]h, Dut-[c]h 


-«hre 


Ft. -ere: Lai 


Koun, dSpdt, instru- 






cr-um 


ment 


sepul-chre 


-«hre 


Gk. cAroa 


Koun, colour of . . .. 


o-<;hre (egg-colowr) 


-cle 


Lat. -cul-ue .. 


Koun, dim 


canti-cle, mus-de 


de 


Lat -cui-t»7» .. 


Koun,dim. instrument 


tenta-cle, yentri-cle 


-cule 


Lat -cul-um .. 


Koun, dim. 


corpus-cule 


•calnm 


Lat -culum . . 


Noun, dim 


animal-culum 


4c]und 


Lat -[e]«nd-iw 


Adj., endowed with .. 


jo-[c]und 


-Cc]y 


Pr. -[ejie,- Lat 


Abstract noun.. 


excellen-rc]y, oon- 




-ti-a .. 




stan-[c]y 


-ey 


Lat -tiro, -ci-a: 


Koun, office, state, 






Ok.-M-a .. 


jurisdiction.. 


magistra-cy, cnra-cj 



•den 
-dom 



(For difference of -cy cmd -sy, see page xll.) 
Eng. -de, -[e]<2«. Past tense of weak 

-ioyie., .. yerbs 

Eng. den for In names of places, a 

dMU .. .. valley 
Eng. -cidm .. Koun, rule, province 



hear-d, fle^l 



Tenter-den 
king-dom, wis-dom 



(This guffix is aUo used toith Romance toords : as" duke-dom" martyr-dom." J 



Noun, agent, instrum. corri-[d]or fa nmnerj 
Noun, agent .. .. mata-[d]ore 
Noun, is^trument . . battle-[d]oor 

Verb produc-e, divid-e 

f Very often it is added fnerely to lengthentfu preceding vowel: as cloth, clothe.) 



-[d]or I Span, -{dlor 
-[dlore Span. -id}or 
-{dloor Fr. -[Qoir 
-e|Lat -o .. 



-[e]» 

-{ea]n 

-[eld 



Gk. -ie}ai . . Noun, a sub-genus 

Lat -[ayn-eus . . Adj. or Adjectival noun 

Eng. -de, -[«]<^> I^&st tense of weak 

-[o]d0.. .. verbs 

Eng. -<2, -[e]d. Past part of weak 

-[o]d .. .. verbs 



am7gdal-[e]8e 
Mediterran-[ea]n 

leam-ed, lov-ed 

leam-ed, lov-ed 



(Also added to nouns: as "hom-ed" **wing-ed," '*foot-ed."J 



•ed Eng. .. .. Added to all verbs not 

from native words 
•M Fr. ^, "^ .. Noun, olyect of some 

action 

(Chiefly used in legal phraseology, the corresponding active noun, or that 
which is ike stOjeet df the action being -or : as •' nwrtgag-or," '* legat-or."j 

.'. In some few words this suffix is added to nouns of an active charao- 
ter: as "devot-ee," "grand-ee," '* repart-ee," "absent-ee." 



syllabl-ed (Gk.) 
expand-ed (Lat.) 

legat-ee, mortgag-ee 



,y Google 



xliv 



SUFFi^ES AN3 TERMINATIONS, 



-[ee]l 


Lat.-[e]W» .. 


Ai|j.» belonging to .. 
Koon, instrument . . 


genMe^ll 


n 


Bng. -i, -[e]l .. 


8hov-[e]a, hov-[e]l 
mod-Ce]l 


Lat. thro' the Fr. 


Noun, instrumeni .. 


-[ejl 


Lat. -[e]f-a, -ua 


IToua, dim 


Ub-[e]l, qnanr-[eTl 
tumbv-el, p»rQ-el 


-el 


Fr. -eau or -die 


Noun, dim. .. 



(The final -el of many other words is only a part of the termination : 
thus in "gospel" it is spel, in "hydr(Mnel" it is -tmI, in "rebel" it is 
bell^m, in " excel " it is oell-B, in " dispel ** it is pellr^, in '♦refel " faUrO, &c 



-{em 
-en 



-[e]n 
-[eig]n 

-[fljgln 
-[eo]n 
-[eo]n 

-[e]nce 

-[e]noy 

-[e]nd 

-[e]ndous 

H;e]Bsi8 

-[e]nt 

-«r 
-er 

-[e]r 
-[e]r 

-lee]r 
-erel 
-ern 

-[e]m 

-[e]ry 
-[e]ry 



Vonn, one of a el%ss . . 
Pluoal of certain nouns 
GeadeavneuB, female 
Adj., made of . . 
Verb, to make 
P. p. of strong verbs 

Frr-[i]w, -[elnne Noun 

Lai -{aln-tM .. Ac^ectival aowi 

Lat. -Ca]i»-iM .. Adjective 
Fr. -ied]n, 'iio}n Noun, instrument .. 
Fr. -[o]n ,. Noun, instrument .. 

Lat. '[e}nUa; 

Noun, result, exhibit 



I^at. -[e]n-w . , Noim, one of a el%ss . . ali-[eln 
£ng. -on, -en ,, Pluoal of certain nouns ox-en 
Eng. -en .. GendeavneuB, female rix-en fa she-fcxj 

£ng. -en . * Adj., made of . . . . wood-en, gold-en 

£ng. -en .. Yero, to make ~ .. black-en, thick-en 

Eng. -en . . P. p. of strong verbs writt-en, shak-en 

" '■' ' - ■" gard-[eln, warr-[e]ii 

sover-[eig]n (super- 

an[usy 
for-[eig]n (Lat. /oris) 
haberg-[eo]B, gall-£eo]n 
trunch-Leo]n, escutch- 

pati-[e]noe, pre8-[e]nce 

dec-[e]ncy, exceHe]ncy 
rever-[e]Dd, divid-[e]iid 
trem-Le]ndous, stup- 
amanu-[e]n«i8 

8tnd-i;«]ntk acdd-[e]nt 
near-er, narrow-er 
learn-er, robb-er 
ma8t-[e]r, defend-[elr 
labonr-{elr, devin-[elr 
mountain-Lee]r, engin. 
coek-^erel, dott-erel 
south-em, north-em 

Nous, place .. .. cav-[e)rB, tftv-{e]m 

rook-[e]ry, smlth-felry- 

cook-[e)ry, 8oen-[e]ry 
) church-es, flsh-ea,. 
/ gas-es, box-«8 
)reach-e8, wash-ea, 
> pass-es, flx-es 
church-es', tsh-es*^ 
fox-es' 

(The sign C) arose from a hlunder of old grammariana, who M<|>posed the 
possessive case to consist of "his,** and we still have vn the Prayer Book 
"for Christ his sake" ie. Christ's sake, or rather Chriites sake.) 

Eng Poss. of proper names 

in -ses, -xes 
-[e]sce l^i^t. '[e]fo-o .. Verb, inceptive (-«c in- 
ceptive) 
-[elscenee Lat. '[e]seent-ia Nova, hieeptive, inolp- 

ient state .. 
•leJMracy Lat. -[elsoMtMa Noun, inc^tive, ad- 
vanced state . . J adoHeJBcency 



1^. -[e]«<j« 
Lat -ieyni-ia; 

Fr. -Ce]nc« . . 
Lat. -lelnd-us,, 
Lat. -ie]ndus , , 
Lat -[e]n«w . . 
Lat. -[ejne gen. 

-entis.. 
Eng. -or, -ra , , 
Eng. -ere ., 
Lat-[t]r, -[e]r.. 
Fr. -[eu]r 
tat. -ia}r-ius .. 
Fr. -erelle, -erel. 
Eng. -em .. 
Lat -{eym^us, 

-l«lr»-it* 
Lat. -[ejri-a, 

-ia]r%-a 
Lat. -[eyira, \ 
[a]ri-a 



Noun, result, exhibit 
Adj., to be, to be done 
Adj., fit to produoe . • 
Noun, instrument . . 

Fartieipial noun 
Compaxative degree . . 
Noun, agent . . . . 
Noun, agent .. 
Noun, agent .. 
Noun, occupation, trade 
Noun, agent, dim. . . 
Adj . , in the direction of 



Noun. d6pOt, workshop 
If oim. an art, result of 

art 

Eng. -03, later -e« Plu. of nouns in ch 

(soft), sh, s,x 
8 sing. pros. Ind. of v. 

in ch (soft), sh, s, 
Possessive 

nouns 



Eng. -eth, later 
-es .. 

Eng. -es. 



-.} 



Ive plu. of ) 
sin-es.. f 



}Mose8^8ake, Xerxes* 
anuy 

efferv-(elsce, oo&l-[e]sce 
) coBvaHe]8«ence, 

) piUtr-[6)K>BBC« 



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8VFFJXEa A!^B TimumATIONA 



xlv 



-{ejacent 



Lai -iejKens \ Adj., inceptive, finished 
gen. -eiUis } state . 



FrT -[»>, -[oil«, \ Adjectival noun» denot- 
' ** j ing a people : Adj. 

1 Nmm, denoting a fe- 



-iat}8 . 
Fr. -6896 ; Lat., 
Gk. -[t]89-a j male .. .. coont-ess. liou-ess 
(TkU 8uS^ is resMcUd to femaUs of the AtMium /amilf and tome few 
quadrupeds.) 



}conval-[e]8cent, 
putr-[e3scent 
}Chin-ese, Malt-ese, 
Japaii-«06 



-esque Fr. -esque .. Adj., like, of the ehar- 

acter of 
-eons Lat. -etu .. Adj. from cKmcre^eilonns 
-et Lat. -e^-iM, -et-a Noua, one of a class., 
-eft Fr. -ei, -ette .. IToun, a small recept- 
acle or instrument . 
(Added to other nouns besides those £rom the Frtneh 
"vidc-et," *'thick-et."J 

-[ejtalLat. -leit^as ., Past participle .. | obsol-ete, eff-ete 

The words with this ending are all compotinds : thus '* com-plete " 
and "re-plete" (Lat. v. pleo), "con-crete** (Lat. v. cresco), "de-lete" (Lat. 
V. too), "ef-fete"(Lai/a9<-w), "ob-soiete" (Lat. v. soleo\ and "se-crete" 
(Lat. V. eemo). 



I pictar-etqae, Arab- 

) esque 

caIcar-eoi«i (see -ious) 
proph-et, dig-et 

hndg-et, buff-et, lanc-et 



-ey 



Fr. -^ 



Koun 



all-ey, chimn-ey, journ- 
ey, vall-ey, voU-ey 
medl-ey (Fr. mesl^ 



pun-ey (Fr. pouHej 
abb-ey (Fr. oMniye) 
psral-ey (Fr. persU) 



-ey Fr. -^ .. •• Konn •• .. 
-ey Fr. -[i]e.. .. Noun .. 
-ey Fr. -aye .. Noun .. 

•ey Fr. -ii .. .. Noun .. 

("Barley" is ba/r-ley, Welsh bara llyslian}, bread-plants.) 
•«y I Fr. -«r . . . . Verb and Verbal noun i parl-ey (fr. parkr) 

•eyJEng. -i{r •• Noun I hon-ej (hunig) 

-^JEng. ^ .. Adj., after ay- .. |clay-ey, sky-ey 

In "jockey" and "monkey'* the -ey is dimvnutive. See k>, 641 and 675. 
" Purvey" is Fr. pourwir; "Obey," Fr. obier; "Survey" and "Convey," 
Lat vehio}. 

-fast I Eng. -/cest «. Noun, effectually^ en- 1 

I tirely | steftd-lsst^ shame-faced 

' Shamefaeed " is a corruption of shamefcest or sham^fastj 



r 

-flc 
-fold 

•form 



-ful 
-fy 



-head 



-hood 
-ia 



Lat. -fae-tus ». 
Eng. feaM 

Lat. forwnioa. 



A4j', made 

Adj., repeated, multi- 
plied 

Heun, (in CTiem.) the 
ter-oxide of a hydro- 
carbon. So called 
from its resemblance 
Ui formic add 
_ . •fuU or 'fvl Ad j . , having much . . 
Lat. facw, Jkis Verb, to make, to be- 
come 

Gk. geno, to pro- 
duce .. 
Eng. -hdd 



Noun (in Chem.y a gas 
Noun. persoB, state^ 
condition . . * . 
Eng. -hdd .. Noun. „ ,, 
Lat. -ia.. .. No«n» things belong- 

iQg to 
Lst 4a; Ok. -ia Noun, (in Bot.) an or- 
der or genus; (in 
ZooI.),«classwQrder 



beati-flc, calori-fic 
two-fold, foitr-fold 



Chloro-form the ter- 
ojdde of formyle 
(=iform'MJ 

hate-ful, hope-f ul 

versi-fy, testi-fy 

oxy-gen, nitro-gen 

God-head 
boy-hoe^ girl-hood 

regal-la, insign-ia 

monogyn-ia, 
mamiBAl-ia, reptil-ia 



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xlvi 



SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS, 



-lad Gk. -tod-of . . Houn, patronymic . . Il-lad, Dnnc-iad 
.[ijble I Lat. hamis . . Adj., able, fit to . . | tang-[I]ble, 8ens-[l]ble 
(8am€ as -aJbU^ bw* added to Lai. Vfords not of the lat conjj 
-ri]c I Lat. -Mc-iw . . Adj., belonging to . . I dv-ic, pacif-ic 
-[i]o I Gk. -ih-ot, -ik-a Koun, a science . . | mus-ic, log-ic 
(B^ccept in the 6 words (arithmetic, logic, magic, music, rhetoric, derived 
from the FrenehJ this termination is always phuralj 

-ri]c Ok. -ik^os; Lat. Adj., of the nature of, , . ^ ,^ , 

-ic-tw.. .. Hke angel-ic, basalt-ic 

-D]c Gk.-t&-M .. A^., (in Paffc.) in an ^^^ , ^ , 
excited state .. titan-ic, chron-ic 

(If not excited, the termination is -oid or -ode : as titonoid or titanode.) 



-Cijc 



Gk.-iJfc-ot 



Aij., 0^ Chem.) de- 
nies an acid con- 
taining a maximum 
of oxygen 



nitr-ic, carbon-lc 



(If it contains less than the maximum the term, is -ous : as nitrous, «fec. J 



-ical 
-ically 

-[i]ce 

-[ilde 
-[i]cian 

-ics 

-diet 
-id 
-id 
-id 



-ids 



-idal 
•ide 



•ide 



-ides 

idion 

-ie 

-ier 

-iir 

-iflf 
-[i]l 

-[i]le 

-im 
-In 



lAt. -ical-is .. Adj., pertaining to .. 
Lat. -ica{-i« with 

ly .. .. Adverb 

Lat. -iHlc-ia, 

-H]tia.m •• Abstract noun. . •• 

Lat-CiJcuZum.. Houn, dim. .. .. 

Lat -dan with Houn, one skilled in a 



sdence 

Koun, denoting a 
science 

Yerbal noun . . 

Noun, outcome, result 

Koun, patronymic . . 

Noun (in Science), with 
for vinculum, and 
the two combined 
into a triphthong . . 

Noun, patronymic, a 
family 

Adj., of the nature of 

Noun, (in C%em.)a non- 
acid combination of 
oxygen 
Gk. eid-os, like Noun, (in Chem.) the 
more negative of two 
elements combined 

Noun, patronymic . . 

Noun, one's own 

Noun, dim 

}Noun, characterises 
an agent .. 
Fr. -if: Lai. -ivus Noun, one employed 

officially .. 
Bng. -ge^fa . . Noun, a reeve, a steward 
Lat. -tflM*, \ Adj., ftom a substan- 
.{eZlis, -{a^Hsf five stem .... 
Lat. -[i]M« .. Adj., from a substan- 
tive stem .. 
Heb. -im. plural Noun, pZural .. 
Chaldee -in, plu. Noun, pZwal.. 
Lat. -[i]n-iM .. Noun 



Gk. -ik-os 

Lat. cUct-um .. 
Lat. -id-tw 
G)L.-id£s 
Gk. eidros, Uke 



QlL.'idSs 

Lat. -idaX-is .. 
Gk. eidros, like 



QlL-idie 
Gk. idion 
Scotch -ie 
Fr. 'ier; Lat. 
-erius, -arius. 



astronom-ical, spher- 

iron-ically, mus-ically 

avar-ice, mal-ice 
part-[i]cle, art-[ilcle 
polit-ic-ian, arithmet- 
ic-ian 

mathemat-lcs, stat-ics 
inter-dict, ver-dici 
ac-id, luc-id 
^ne-id, carot-id 



spher-o-id = ^e^.roid 
alkal-o-id = dl'.ka.loid 

can-idsB, formic-ldse 
pyram-idal 



chlor-ide, iod-ide 

ox-ide of iron 
chlor-ide of sodium 
Atlant-ides, Oaryat-ides 
enchir-idion 
bird-ie, dogg-ie 

halberd-ier, brigad-ier 

plaint-iff 
sher-iff, bail-UT 

civ-(l]l 

gent-Kle, ho8t-[i]le 
cherub-im, seraph-im 
cherub-in, seraph-in 
ru-[i]n, ba8-[ijn 



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SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS 



xlvii 



-ioe 



-ine 



Lat4fMM 



Bom. 4na 
Lai -in-iM 



Ui^VMM 



amid-ln 
czar-inft 



fel-ine 



Koun, 011 Chem.) a 

simple substance . . 

Kooiifdenotes a woman 

Koim, belonging to a 

group 
Koun, belonging to, of 

the nature of 
Komif denotes a woman 
Koun; (in C%em.) an) 
element . . ) 
Komif son of, descend- 
ant of 
Eng. -un(7 •• Participial noun 

Eng. -ig^ide . . (}enma 

EiDg.-ende,-inde Pres. part 
Lat.-[t]o,g.-oni«, 

Fr. [-]on . . Vonn, act of, one of. . 
Lat. -[i]o,g.-ioni« Verbal noun .. 
Lat. -ii}or . . Adj., comi>aratiTe deg. 
(The loflix -or is added to the first case of the positive which ends in -i 
thna in tupenu (high) it Is added to the gen., but in brevis to the dat.) 



-ine BauL -ine 
-ineJGk. in-is, an) 
I offspring ) 
•inglEng. -ing 



•lag 



•ing 
■ri]on 

■fflon 
-fflor 



mar-ine, sal-lne 
hero-ine, landgrar-ine 

chlor-ine, lod-ine 

Athel-ing 

thepreach-ing [of John] 
the fear of open-ing. . 
loT-ing, hear-ing 

compan-[f]on 
admis8-[i]on, reIig-[{]on 
super-[i]or, infer-[i]or 



•Ions 

•fflon* 
•Iqoe 



•ish 



•ish 
-isk 

-fflnn 



-ister 
-it 
-It 
-ite 
•ite 



•ite 

•ifte 

-ite 

-li]tis 



Lat. -iua 



Lat-[i]iM 



Fr. from 

•iquus 
Lat -it-ium. 



Lat 



A^'., (in Boe.) pertain 
ing to a class, order, 
or group 

A4j>> from an abstract 
noun 



£ng.-ise 
Eng. -iM 



Lat -eso •• 

Gk. Aah^ .. 

Gk. -[i>www;) 
Lat-[i]«m-iMj 

Gk. A8t-4a: Lat 

■ist-a,, 
Gk. -itt-es 



A4j.) belonging to .. 

.. Voun, act of, habit of 
.. Verb, to undertake to 

do, to make 
.. Adj., external resem- 
blance, hence folk . . 
M Adj., added to a noun 
^like" 

added to an ad^. dim. 
•• Ttrb, inchoative 

.. Koon, dim 

Koon, a system, a) 
doctrine, a phase, > 
a structure .. ) 



Koun, agent . . 

Koun, agent .. 
Lat eo sup. U-um Verb, engaged in doing 
Lat -[i]t-i««, -urn Noun, „ „ 
lM,'ii]t-'U8,-wn Terb, 



Lat -it^us 

Lat-[i]<-iM ., 

Lat -iiyi^ .. 

Gk. [QilVos, a 

stone .. 

Gk. Mimi .. 

Lat-{{]ta« .. 



Koun, (in dhem.j a salt 
formed (rom an acid 
ending in -<m« 

Adjectival noun, one of 
a race or nation 

Ytrbal noun, auiject of 
an action . . 

Koun, a mineral, a) 
fossil .. .. f 

Koun, (in ilfed.) inflam- 
mation 

Abstract noun.. 



«) 



monogyn-lous 

grac-ious (see -t 

ant-ique, un-ique 

ezerc-ise, parad-ise 

apolog-ise, sermon-ise 

Engl-ish, Ir-ish 

bo7-ish, girl-ish 
whit-ish, black-ish 
admon-ish, fin-ish 
aster-isk 

Calvin-^m, vulgar- 
[i]sm, organ-Cijsm 

art-ist, antagon-ist 

chor-ister 

ed-it 

mer-it, pulp-it 

un-ite, inv-ite 
sulph-ite [of potash], 
i.e., sulphurous 
acid with the base 
potash 

Canaan-ite, Infln-ite 

appet-ite, contr-ite 
ammon-ite 

card-itis 

curios-[i]ty, duplic-[i]ty 



,y Google 



xlvUi 



SVFFIIEa AND 7ERMINATI0NS. 



\ 



-ium 


Lat. -turn; Gk. ) 
-ton .. f 


KMm, (in C%«m.) 
metal.. 


n 


potass-hun 


-ium 


Lat.-i«M»;Ok.) 

-ton .. ; 


Noim,(in£oe.)a8pe-) 
cies .. .. I 


delphin-ftraa 


-ive 


Lat-iv-iM .. 


Adj..ableorinclinedto 


cohes-ive, express-iir< 


-ive 


Lat. -t»-iM .. 


Yvbalnwa .. 


,. 


capt-ivo, iMkt*iv» 


-ix 


Lat -is.. .. 


Koun, denoting 
woman 


a 


testatr-ix^ executr-ix 


-ize 


Gk.-ia^ 


Verb, to make, to pro- 








duce .. 


,, 


scandal-iae 


-kin 


Germ.-«?i«n'^.. 


HbvB, dim. .. 


,, 


lamb-kin, nap-kin 


■kind 


£ng. -c^ or -cin 


Noun, race 


, 


man-kind 


-1 


Lat. [a, e, i, o, ) 
u] with -Mm > 


Koim, instrxunent 


j 


can[a]l, tmshCe]!, pec 
c[ill idfoll 


-to 


Eng. -Z, -ol, -ut 


Noun, instrument 


hand-le, sett-Ie, gird-l> 


-le 


Eng. -t, -eJ, -oJ 


Adj., dim. 


,, 


britt-le, spark-le 


-le 


Lat. -l-wn 


Noun, instrumeBft 


,, 


ezamp-lOk temp-le 


-le 


Lat-[e]i-u«,-[t]^ 










tM, -[M]i-1i« . . 


Noon, instrument 


,, 


ang-le, cand-le 


-le 


Lat. -[c]w«-«3 .. 


Noun, dioL . . 


,. 


circ-le, obsta[c]-le 


-le 


Fr. -eZi« 


Verb, dim. 


, , 


crack-le, dabb-le 


-ledge 


Eng. -lach, -lac 


Noun, gift 




know-ledgo 


-lent 


Lat. -lent-us .. 


Adj., full of .. 


,, 


corpu-lent 


-less 


Eng. -2ea« 


Ad3.,privaUve,roidof 


spirit-less 


-let 


Boinance-{ef,-«t 


Noun, dim. . . 




brace-let, corse-let 



(Used with pure Miiglish ivords : as ham-let, ring-let, stream-let) 



-Ung 

-Ung 
-lith,-Ute 

•look 

-lock 
-lock 
-lock 
-long 

-lyse 



-lyte 



-ma 

-me 

-me 

-meal 

-ment 



Eng. -ling 

Eng. -ling 
Gk. -lit/w)f, 

stone.. 
Eng. 'lae, 

pledge 
Eng. -ioof 
Eng. -loc 



Noun, the state or con- 
dition 
Noun,offspringof,dim. 

Noun, a ston*, a fossil 



Noon, a pledge 
Noun, a tuft of hair . . 
Noun, the lock of adoor 

Eng.-2«a«,aherb Noun, a herb or plant 

Eng. 'linge . . Advtrb and Acyective 

Eng. -lie . . Adj., like 

Eng. -lice . . . Adv„ in the manner of 

Gk. iu-o, to loose Verb, to resolve a com- 
pound into its ele- 
ments bj the agency 
of electricity 

Gk.Iw-o,tolooee Noun, a substance 
decomposable 

Eng. -m . . Ist pers. sing, of verbs 

Eng. -m-a .. Noun 

Gk. -mra . . Noun, done, made . . 

Lat -m-iM, Ac Adj., established 

Lat. -m-a . . Noun 

Gk. -ma . . Noun, made, done . . 

Lat -ma . . Noun 

Lat. me-n . . Noun 

Eng. -nuelrwii. . Adv., part by part . . 

Lat -ment-um Noun, instnuneni . . 



world-ling, hire-ling 
duck-ling, lord-ling 

mel-Ute, acro-litb 

wed-lock 
fet-lnck, elf-lock 
fire-lock, pad-lock 
hem-lock, house-leek 
head-long, live-long 
god-ly, man-ly 
vain-ly, nob-ly 



electro-lirsa 

electro-lyte 
a-m (only exampUJ 
bloo-m, beso-m 
epigra-m, emble-m 
firm 

for-m, pal-m 
panora-ms, dog-ma 
fla-me, fa-me 
cri-me, Tolu-me 
piecemeal 
experi-meat, iiiHa- 



(Aho added to TeutonU vxyrds: as fnlfil-ment, acknowledgment.) 



-ment 

-mn 
*ttionger 



Fr. -meiU . . Noun, subject of an 
action 

Lat. -[u]mn-^it Noun 

Eng. monflfer(a) Noun, a dealer, a 7 
dealer) i tradesman .. / 



move-ment, jadg-ment 
column, snta-mn 
iron-moDger> fish-mon- 
ger, dieese-monger 



D i y i l i zedbyGoOQie 



SUFFIXES AJW TERMINATIONS. 



xUn 



-mOD7 
-most 
-moa 
Hunt 



Lat -moni-wn, Noun, state, conditfon 
Adj. (Mtperladiive deg.) 
Xoim, an iastnuBent 
V«im, a sailor.. 
Vinm, olltcoBl€^ result 
Abstraot iMUn . . 
Noun, to be done . . 
Koua, something to) 
be done . . ) 
£ng. -tie9, -nUf Abstract noun.. 
(Also added to Romanca wordt^ especially with 



Lat. -mu8 
6k. navUs .. 
Lat •«•«, -^i-a 
Lat. -i»««H» », 
Lat. -nd-ui .. 
Lat. -iMlum .. 



testi-inony. pfttrl-monj 
f(Mre-mest, mnd-most 
iath-mus, oala-nuis 
aero-naut 

abund[a]-nce,indu]g[e}- 
inla-Bcy, dece-ncy 
leg[e3-nd, garl[a]-nd 
memora-ndum, cqrri- 

ge-ndum 
good-ness, wUte-ness 
ful" as a vinculum, g.e , 



ii»BciQ[id]-neM» bouutiCfull-aiess, &e., sar^ee-ness, factious-ness.) 



•nt 



-oc 
-{oc)Ity 

-od 

•ode 

'Ode 

•podes 

HBOIOU 



-oid 



Lat -n[«] gen. 

Lat. -n[«] gen. 

-nt-ia., 
Welsh -og •» 
Lat -^-^Uos .. 
Eng, -«cc-a 



Participial a^jMUve . . 



Participial noun 
IFown, Ml of .. 
AlMrtraetomm... 

Noun,, dim 

CaChodesCaway) Koun, a sange, a way 
Ok.Ao<2o«(away) Koun, a range, a wi^ 
Gk.^€iM .. Koun, afu ode .. 
6k. povM gen. 

podot.. .. Kami, feet 

Ok. aikos (a) Ai^, (in Bet.) m-) 

house) } rangement of sta- V 

J mens and pifltfls ) 

6k. ekio« (like) Noun, (in MmI.) disease 

in an unezclted state 



abund[a^nt^ prud[e]-nk 

serv[a]-nt, ag[e]-nt 

ihav-oc 

fer[oo]-i*y. precoc-ity 

bnll-oek, hm-ock 

peri-od, «yn-od 

ei4s-ode (jtee p. 815) 

ep-ode 

anti-podSs, a-pod6s 

mon-ceoiou8 



tetanoid w^cde 



(Disecue in an eaecUed state terminaita in-ic: as tetanic.) 



•old 



•oidal 



■mm 

-on 



Ok. eidM (like) 



Koun, like (with o Tin- 
«iilwm) . • 
Lat. -^alAs with 

6k. €ido8 . . Adj., like in natare . . 
Romance -on> ) Koun, act, instru- 1 
-one . . > ment, state . . j 

Bomance -{iym Abstraot noun . . 
Gk. -on.. .. Koun, (in Chem.) a 
met&lloid . . 
•one Romance -one.. Koun, large, augmen 

tative 
-oon Romance -on A Koun, large, augmen* 1 
-o»e .. ) tatire- .. J 

•or Lat -or.. .. Koun, denoting maso. i 
gender » J 
{Vsei espeeiathy in legcU phraseology to denote the active agent in opposi' 
iion to-aethe objeiMve agevU. Also after tors: as doct-or, spons-or.) 

-or I Lat -or., .. Adj.(comparatiyeddg.) | superi^or, inferi-or 
(The svffix ia added to Gie first case of the positive which ends in -i) 



sphei>old, cyel-oid 

cy«loid>-al 
glutt-OB, aipt-oa 
opin-ti]on, domin-[i]o& 

bor-on, sUlo-oh 

tromb-one 
ball-oon, bass-oon 

anth-or, administrat-or 



-or ItaL -or . . K«m, a man . . 

-[o)ry Lat. -io}rir^m., Konn, ad^pOt.. 

-(olnr Lat •{O'Jri-tM, &c Adj., pertaining to, 

provinee of . . 

-fxe "LiA. -os-^u .. Aaj., fullof .. 

-{08]ity lAt.-iosyUas .. Abstract noun.. 

-ot 1 Fr. -otf -otte . . Koun, dim 

-ot Lat -^i-a^ "Ol-es Koun, oharacteriset a 
I person 



sign-or 
dormit'[D]ry 

orat*{o}cy, sanat-[o]iy 
rerb-ose, joc-ose 
pomp-[os^ty {iee -ocity) 
ball-ot, cbari-ot 

patiei-ott idi-ot 



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SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS, 



-our 


Lat^r thro' the 






Fr. -eur .. Abstraotnoan.. 


val-our, hon-our 


•oos 


Lat-o«-u# .. Acy.,(inG!h«ni.)anacid 
with less oxygen 


* 








than -ie denotes .. 


nitr-ons, solphnr-oiu 
fam-oos, delid-oos 


-ons 


Lat •<»-«• .. Ach'.,faUof .. .. 


-OUi 


Lat.[o,«,i,o]aj A^.,fuUof .. .. 


aud[aci]-ons,fer[oci]ous 



• (U»ed aiso in many modem formation$: as jc^-oos, wondr-ons, Ac) 



-over 
-pie 



-re 



.red 
•red 



-rel 
-erel 



•lie 



Eng. oftT .. Adv., besides .. 
Lat.i>2i-co,tofold Ad|j., folded 
Eng. -r-« " " 



^: 



Gen. suffix preserved 
in the pronouns . . 
Romance -r-«; 
Lat. -r-tM , 
Lat -iay-ia . 

Lat -(a, e]r-is. . , 

Fr. -re; Lat) Koiuif Instmment^ 

-fMtm.. ) place set apart 
Fr. 'iaig1-T9; 

Lat. -r-us .. A4j 

Eng. rid (coun- 
sel) , . Proper name . . 
Eng. hrath (ac- 
tive) .. .. Noon, active, operative 
Fr. -[e]r with) A^j*; dim., depreci-) 
-tl, dim. f ative . . . . f 
A4Jm dim., depreci-) 
ative .. .. ) 
Koon, dominion, ju- 
risdiction . . 
Noun, collective 
Noun, d^pdt . . 
The ordinary plural of 
nouns . . 
(Nouns ending in -c7i (soft), -th, -», -x, add -es, 
glass-es, fox-es. To these add one word in -s, topas-es.) 
-B Modem Eng. .. A4]*ectivalnoun(plural | 

number) . . . . I good-s, sweet-s 
•8 Eng. .. .. The 3 sing. pros. Ind. 

of verbs . . . . | love-s, hear-s 
(Verbs ending in -th (soft), -ah, -s, -x, -z, add -es : as reach-es, wish-es, 
guess-es, box-es, whiu-es. Till the 11th century it was -th.) 

-'s I Eng. -€» . . Possessive case of nounsl man-'s, men-'s 

-[s]* i Eng. -e$ (sing.) Possessive plu. after -a \ boys', girls' 
(This sign (') arose out of a blunder. Our old grammarians supposed 
the possessive -t was a contraction of his, and wrote it accordingly '«). 
The plu. (') is a double blunder, as -e« is not a plu. gen. term. 



Fr.-erwith-«Z,) 
dim. .. / 
Eng. -r<o 

Bomance -ri$ . 
Lat -ri^ 
Eng. .. 



more-over 
tri-ple iZ-fold) 



he-r, thei-r, ou-r, you-r 

clea-r, tende-r 
famili-[a]r, regul-[a]r 
ae-r, cinde-r 

theat-re, scept-re 

meag-re, pu-re 

Mild-red, Etheld-red 

hat-red, kind-red 
mong-rel, dogg-rel 

oock-erel, hogg-erel 

bishop-ric 
fai-ry, poult-ry 
vest-ry, armo-ry 

boy-8, tree-s 
as church-es, dish-es. 



-saur or 

-saurus 

-scape 

-ship 

-ship 

-ship 

-Wion 



)Gk. 8av/ro8 
f (a lizard) 

Eng. 'Scipe 

Eng. . . 

Eng. -Mips . 

Eng. -teipe , 

Eng. -$eip« 

Lat. -ialio gen. 
■ionris 



A prehistoric reptile 

) of the lizard race . . 

,. Noun, view .. 

. Adjectival noott 

. Noun, tenure, pos-) 
session, office ) 

. Noun, f oxm, state, con- 
dition 

. Noun, skill, art 

I Noun, act, state i 



See pp. 1050-1058 
land-scape 

EngU-[8]h, Iri-[s]h folk 
lord-ship, guardian- 
ship 

hard-ship, friend-thip 
horseman-ship, wo»- 

man-ship 
oonfu-[8]lon, ascen- 

[sjion 



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SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS. 



-eon 
-C8]or 



Ok.-«i9.. .. HouHprooeBSyitsrefiilt analy-ds, flynthe-sis 
Gk.-<nMW .. Noun, system, act .. method-[i]sin, spa-sm 

6enn.-Mm .. Adj.,fiiUof,eontaiiiiiig ^ 

Eng. «ufi-u •• Aaded to propex names 
Lat -{s^or .. Noon, agent .. 
(-or XB especially used in legal phraseology to denote the axiive party in 
opposition to se the object of an action. It is also nsed after -t or -s.) 



51ad-som^ Ughi-sonle 
ohn-son, Dick-son 
spon-[8]oT, sncces-[8]or 



-[sojry 

-St 

-ffter 



Lat.-(«o]ri-iw.. 
Lat. -{soJri-«m 
Pr. -[«]«»-«, -rf».. 
Ok. -st-is 
Eng. -ster 



A4j., faU of, able to. 
Konn, a d6piOt 
Abstract noon. • 
Koun, agent . . 
Noun, trade, skill 



illa-[so]r7,persaa-[so]r7 
sen-[so]r7, ln8en-[so]ry 
progr-[e]88, distr-[e]88 
antagon-[i]st, art{i)rt 
malt-ster, spin-ster 
it is added to any gen- 



f-ster does not denote one of the female sex; ^ , 

<Ier, and means trade, pursuit, or the skill which results ther^om : thus 
*'maU4Aer* is one v^se trade or pwrsmt is malting, "spinster** is one 
lehose pursuit is spinmngj 



-[8t]ic 
-[st]ical 

-[8tr]ess 

[s}iire 

-«y 



Gk. '[st}ik-os . . A4i., actlTe qoaUty , 
Lat. -al with 

Gk. -IstJUc-os A^., active quality . 

Vi. '[str]e88-e .• Noun, a female 

Lat. 'isiur-a . . Abstract noun . . 

Lat -ea, -ti-a . . Noon, an art, office . 



soi^-CstJio, sarca-[st]ic 

soplii-[st]^c-al 
Bong-[8tr]-e88, mi[8tr]-e8s 
mea-[s]iu:e, plea-[s>iTe 
minstrel-sy, embas-sy 



(■cy is added to Abstract nouns denoting rank, office, as oHstoera-cyJ 



-sy 
-{8]y 

■Wy 

-sy 
-t 



s'-eye 
Gks-sia 
Bomance -[«]ic 
Romance • • 
Eng. -ed, -d, -i 



Added to certain plants 
Noun, a group, a genus 
Abstract noun . . 

A4j. 

Past part. 



dai-sy 
eaphra-[s]y 
courte-[8]y, here-[8]y 
tip-sy, trick-sy 
clef-t, spel-t, dream-t 



(In Ang.Sax., verbs ending in c, h, p, s, t, x, took -t instead of'd in the 
past and past part. In modem Eng. the -4 is limited to verbs ending in 
f.l.ld,m,p.) 

Partic^ialgiioun 



-t 
-t 

-t 
-t 

-t 
-t 
-t 

-te 

-teen 

-teenth 



Eng. -ed, -d, -i 
Eng. -* .. 

Somance -t, -te 
Lat. -t-a, -s gen. 

't-is .. 
Lat. -t-um 
Lat -t-us 
Gk.'t-ie 

Gk.'ti-e 
Eng. 'tyne 
Eng. 'that, 
'theoth-e 



Partioipial nom •• 

Noun .• .• •• 
Participial noun 

A^ 

Noun, agent •• •• 

Noun, affent . . 
Numeral, ten added .. 



gif-t, shoo-t 

lef-t (the l^ or weak 

hand) 
habi-t, profl-t 

aun-t, ar-t, moun-t 
deb-t, rescrip-t 
hones-t, modes-t 
prophe-t, com-et (one 
who wears long hair J 
hypocri-te, athle-te 
four-teen, siz-teen 



Ordinal adj., ten added four-teenth, six-teenth 
f-th converts nouns to adjectives: as "wide** wid-fh, ''hale" heai-ih 
"Icmg" Ung-th, ** deep " dep-th, ** broad '* bread-thj 



Lat -itir-um .. 
Somance 
Eng. -itjer-e .. 
Eng. -[t}or . . 
Lat '[teyrirum 
Lat -iteyri-um 

Eng. 'fh 

Eng. 't-a, 4h-€ . 
Lat -iti^ 



Noun, instrument .. 

Noun, instrument . . 

Noun, agent . . 

Yerbalnoun .. 

Noun, condition, state 

Noun, d6p(yt, place) 
set apart .. ) 

CouTerts adj. to ab- 
stract nouns 

Ordinalacy 

Noun of multitude . . 



coul-[t]er, canis-[t]er 
bols-(t]er, ca8[t> 
wri[t]-er, flgh[t]-„ 
laugh-[t]er, slaugh-[t]er 
mys-[teky, ma8-[te]r5' 
baptis-Cte>y, monas- 
[te]ry 

tru-th, dep-th 
six-th, seven-th 
mili[U]-a 



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lii 



SUFFIXES AND TSRMTNATTONS, 



-[tl]c 

-[tijcia 

-[li]on 
-{tt]cm 

-[tolry 
-[to]i7 
-[tr]e88 

-[tr]Ix 
-tude 
-[tjure 
-[t]iife 
-ty 
-[u]ce 



-ale 

-[u]iid 

-lire 

-ure 
•uret 

-ve 
-ive 



AIQ., setiv« 4ha1I^ .. 

Voan, aoft of, state . . 

K««]|, a thing made .. 
IToun, agent . . 

iromi, instrament .. 
Noub, d§pdt, place for 
A4^, active quality . . 
Koun, female agent .. 

Voan, female agent . . 
AbetrMtaoon.. 
Abstract noon . . . . 



Lai -al with 

Ok. -h-oB .. 

Lat. -{tilo gen. 

Lat -IMlo gen. 

Lat. -(e]or 
Lat. -[<}r-iiMii, 

-[flrt-a 
Lat -rto]ri-uni . 
Lat. -Po]ri-i« . . 
Pr. -[tr]e«»-« .. 

Lat. -{ti^ 

Lal-iucU 

Lat. -(<]wr-a 

Lat -[QnTK* 

Eng. -% . . Multiple of tm 

Lat. '[uyta^ ) Voon, outoome, pro- 

-[u]cM-o f duet 

Lat -diMH) .. Verb, to lead .. 
Lat. '[cluj'iw, -a Koiu, dim. .. 
Lat. -[tt>»d-*i#. . Gcrundial noun 
Lat. -ura .. Noun, relating to the ) 
arts .. .. ; 

Fr.ceuvr8(wo]ik) Voun, manipulated .. 
' Noun, (in Chem.) de- 



Lat wr*o 
barn).. 

Lat. -v-vs 
Lat • 



(to 



notes a combination 
witii an inflammable 
or electro -positive 
body .. 

Noun 

Noun* inclination 



(-«, often changed into "f ": m M^e, hailiff, Jto.) 



here[tiK er)[tt>e 

here[ti>oal, crf[tii>oal 

moCtil-on, no[t£H>n 

po[ti]-on« lo[ti]-on 
audi[t]-or, fac[t]-or 

Bcep/t]*^, mi-tt]re 
lava-[to]ry,dorml-[to]ry 
inflamma-[to]r7,pu]^a- 
instrucCtrj'ess, en- 

efaantr-ess 
execa[tr>ix, te8te[tr].ix 
forti-tude, gratl-twle 
na-[t]ure, adven-{t]ore 
pic-[t]are, i4>er-[^are 
six-ty, seven-ty 

lett-[a]ce, prod-[a]ce 
intro-duce, re-duce 
post-ule, spher-ole 
Joc-[u]nd, rubic-[u]nd 
agricult-nre, hortf- 

ealt^ore 
man-are, manofacit-ure 



sulph'Oret, oarfo-arefc 
octa-ye, oli-v6 
mot-ive, pens-ive 



Of 



1 



od 



tending to 
inthecurection) 



Adv., in the direction ) 

of .. .. ; 

Noun, formed . . 
Adv., in the direction ) 

of .. .. S 
Li names of places, a ] 

farm land belong- V 

ingto.. .. ) 
Noun, a workman or ) 

Wright .. f 

Noun, dim 

AAj., of the nature). 

of, like .. f 

Noun, denoting a ) 

science .. ) 
Abstraetaouna 
Noun, an agent 
Noan, the substance) 

from which any- > 

thing is made ) 



north-ward,soath-ward 
home-wards, heaven- 
wards 

side-ways or aide-wise 

perri-wlg 

length-wis^ breadth* 
wise 



"Words-worth, 
worth 



Isle- 



ship-wrlgbt, wheel- 
wright 
Nell-y, Joton-y 

snow-y, frost-y 

a8tronom>y, homeo- 

path-y 
charity, modest-y 
law-[yjer, I.e. lagtt-ere 
benzo-yle s IxmrnHl, 

meth-yl 



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EKROBS OF SPEECH 

iiTD aw 

SPELLING. 



i,/a*e/ 


ik, about: 


i^faiher; 




e.me«l,. 


i,heirav; 


«,Gk.loiig0: 


i.i^; 


x.«i; 


0, Gk. longo; 


J,i««. 


6, no; 


6, on: 


dW) ffTOWj 


*\ the ttronger of 


%uiiU; 


il,w; 


«w, now ; 


two accents. 



A- (Old Eng. adverbial prefix) denoting "away," "without,** 

"on,"&c. 
A- (prefixed to verbs) intensifieB, as " awake," ** arouse." 
A- (Greek prefix) negative ; an before vowels. 
A (Article) is An with the n omitted, before words beginning 
with a consonant or aspirated h. Exceptions : It stands 
before one, as "many a one,'* before Eh- and w^yti, as a 
eulogy, a u-nit, and not before words beginning with ht 
unless the accent is on the finrt sylLaUe, as a his'tory, an 
histo'rian. 
Ab- The Latin preposition, used as a prefix, drops the "b" 
before m and v; and adds " s" before c and t. 
" AB*' (preflxt) means diminution, 
BemovM, or complete ezdusion ; 
'TJB "A" before both m and v. 
And " ABS " before both c and t. 
Abattoir, <ib.at.tw(y/, a public slaughter-house (French). 

French ahattre, to luiock down fa hattrej. 
Abbassides, AVM^-sides. A family of caliphs, (Double h and s.) 
Abbcu, Mahomet's uncle; -sides, -ides (patronymic) descendants of. 
Abb4, abJbay, French clerical title given for scholarship. 
Abbot, feminine abbess. Head of an abbey or nunnery. 
Abbreviate, db.hree^'Vi.ate not a.hree^-vl.ate. (Double 6.) 
Abbareviation, ah.hree'-vi.a''-8htm. A shortened form. 

Latin ah brevidref to shorten. 
Abet, abett-ed, abett-ing, abett-or (Bule i.) 
Abhor, db.h(y/ not a.hcy/ ; abhorr'-er, abhorr'-ence, abhorr'-ent, 
abhorr-ently, abhorred (2 syL), abhorr-ing (Bule i.) 

A 



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2 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Abide, ^ast tense abode, past participle abided. 
Ablative, dbWi.tiv not ab,lay\tlv, a case in grammar, 
-able (Latin suffix -&i{i«, preceded by a). Added to adjectives. 
The " a " is merely a copula. In words derived from the first con* 
jngation the copulatire rowel is a, otherwise it is i. 

Abnormal, db.nor^.mal, out of rule, irregular. 

Latin a& norma, not according to the square [used by builders]. 
Abracadabra, aV-r&h-h&h.dab^-r&h not a}/-d,-kd..dalf-rdli. 
Abridgment (verbs in -dge drop " e" before -ment). Rule xix. 
Abrotonmn, a-hrdt^.d.nurrty often misspelt ahrotanum. 

Greek ahrdtHnOn, the immortal plant, so called from its great anti- 
septic qualities (a brotoa, not mortal). 

Abstract, ai/Mract (noun), abMracf (verb). Rule L 

Abuse, a.huce^ (noun), a.baze (verb). Rule li. 

Abuf , abutt-ed, abutt-ing, hut abutment (Rule i) 

Ac- (prefix). Latin preposition ad before " c." 

-ac (suffix), Greek -ak-ot, Latin -ac-iu, "possessed of," "of." 

Acacia, a.kash^l.ah not a.kay'^hery nor a,kaze^Jer. 

Latin acdda, a thorn. (The thorny plant.) 
Academics, ak^h-dem" .Ikt. Disciples of Plato. 

Because he taught in the Academy, or grounds of Academus. 
Academy, a.kad\i.my not ak'-d^dtm-y, (The " e " is long in Gk.) 

Greek cu^dSmaaf Latin ac&dSimia,. 
AcalephsB, akf -HXee^ -f(k. The " medusse," as sea-netUes, <fec. 

Greek akaU"]^, a netUe. 
Acams, plu. acari (Latin), dW.d.rflai ak'A.riy mites, <!^c. 
Acarides, a-kar^ry.deeZf or acar^idss. The acari family, 

Greek akari and -ides (patronymic) the acari famUy. 
Acatalectic, a.kaf-il.lek"-tik not a.kaf-a.lep"-tlk. 
Accede (not one of the three which end in -ceed.) Rule xxvii. 

Latin <ic [ad] cedo, to go. (N.B.—" exceed," " proceed," " succeed ">. 
Accelerate, ak.8eV.e.rate, To hasten. (Double c, one {.) 

Latin ac [ad] celerdre to hasten to [the end]. 
Accent, ak'^ent (noun), ak.8enf (verb). Rule L 
Accessible, not accessahle (Lat. ac [ad] ced^e, see -able). 
Accessory, ak'^is^d.ry not ak.8e8\8d,ry (Rule Iv.) 

Law Lat. ac [ad] cesaorwu, one who goes to or joins another [in crime]. 
Accidence, elements of grammar; Accidents, mischances. 
Accipitres, akMp'Xtreez. Such birds as hawks, vultures, 
eagles, &c. 

Latin aeeTpCter, plural aeetpVtrcs, hawks. 



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AND OF SPELLma. 



Aodiinate, ak.kli\maU not ah\kl%.miit, 

Aodi'matise, not acclimatize; acdimatisa'tion (B. xxxi.) 

Latin ae [«d] cUma [habitaaied] Vo a dimate. 
Acclivity, ak.kUv\i.ty not aMiv\i,ty. A dope. 

Latin ac [ad] dititas, a bending upiiirardB. 
Aocooi'modate, aooom''moda''tion (double c and m). 

Latin ac [ad] eomtMdare, to lend help to one. 
Aooomplioe, ak,kofnf.plis not a,kom\pU8. A confederate. 

Latin €u; [ad] eompjibo, to fold up with one [in mischief]. 
Aooomidisli, ak.kom^plish not a.kom^pUsh, To finish. 

Latin etc [ad] eompleo, to complete entirely. 
Accord, ak.kord' not a.kord\ To agree with one, to award. 

Latin ac [ad] eorda, [hearts] to hearts. 
Accordingly, ak.kord\ing.ly not a.kor'.ding.li. 

Accordion, ak.kordf .i.on not a.k(y/.de.<m. An instrument Irhicli 

plays in accord with others. 
Accost, ak.kosf not a.kosf. To address another. 

Latin ac [ad] eosta, to draw near to one's side [to speak]. 
Account, ak.kounlf not a.kounf. A biQ; to verify. 

I<atin ac [ad] eompato. A mercantile term, meaning " thtf particulars 
of a bill set forth/' and hence "to state particulars." " C'ompt" 
is a contraction of eomputo (comp't). 

Accountant, accountable (1st co^j., comjmfdr^, B. xiiv., xxv.) 
Accoutrements, ak.koo\tre.menU. Military equipments. (Fr.) 
Accredit, ak.kredWt not a.kred'.it. To give trust to one. 

Latin ac [ad] credo, to give credit to one. 
-see (suffix of nouns) Latin c or t, preceded by " a." 

Thus menace (Lai. mina<^). pref(u» (Lat. prssfo^io). 

It means " of the nature of, "pertaining to." 



) (In botany) denotes an ** order:" as amaianth-acea, 
-•ceous, -acious (suffix, of ac|jectives), " of the nature of," " ap- 
pearance of," as saponace(m« (Lat. sapo, 8apon[i8']t soap)< 
Acephala, a.sef'.dMh. In Geology, molluscs without a head. 

Greek a kephdlS, without a head [as oysters]. 
Ache, ake, pain. Hake, a hook, a fish. 

"Ache," Greek acho$, pain. ''Hake,'' Old Eng., hcteca, a hook. 
The jaw of the hake is like a hook. 

Achores, a.kd\reez not ak.d.reez. Pustules on the head. 

Qieek acMr, an ulcer on the head with an inflamed base, 
Achne, often misspelt acne, ak^jne, A pimple on the face. 

Greek achnit Burfaoe foam. • 
-•city added to Abstract Nouns: as audacity. See • 



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EISRORS OF SPEECH 



Aoknowledgment, ah.hniiJf.ledgMent not ^k.hndw\ledgjmenU 

All TMrU ending in -dge drop the *' e " before -mevd (Bule zviii. ) 
-acle (Latin -\a\culu'aC^t "diminutiye;" as tabemocZ^, a littld 
wooden house. 

Acme, dk.wXy (Greek). The highest point, the crisis of a 
disease. It means " the edge," hence tlie Greek proverb, 
ixl (vpov dKfirjs (on the razor's edg^, that ss, *'«t the 
critical moment." 

Acne, 9ee Adrne. backney, a horse kept for hire. 

Aconite, ahf.d.nite. The herb Wolfsbane. 

Greek akonlt&n, the plftnt without dost, metning, it will grow on 
rocks where there ii not ertn dust tor a soil It is called ** Wolfs- 
bane" because meat steeped in its juice was used bj our fore- 
fathers as a lore to poison wolves. 

Acorns, a\ko.ru8. " Sweet flag," <fec. 

Greek a Jedrio, to stop diarrhoea, for its artringent properttes. OalMl 
" flag/' because its flowers resemble a flag curled by wind. 

Acotyledon, a\ kdt-y.lee^-ddn^ pin., aootyle'dcMia, or aootyle'dSna. 
Plants without husks or seed-lobes for their seed. 

Greek a kotuUddn, without husks (like ferns, mosses, lichens, &c.) 
Acoustics, a.kdw'Mika not axoo'Miks. Science of sounds. 

Greek akoud, to hear. 
Acquit, acquitt-al, acqultt-ance, aequitt-ed, acquitt-ing (E. i.) 

Aerogenous (j^lants), a.Tcrodg' .^.nHs not ak\ro.jee".ne.UB. 

Greek akro ginos, growth upwards. Plants, like tree-ferns, which 
{TOW tall, without increasing much in bulk. Plants whidb grow 
in bulk, not height, are called amphigen$. 

Acroleine, ak.kro'M.ln, Acrid ftijnes from distilled oils. 

Latin avre olei, acrid-product of olL 
Acrolith, akf.kro.Uth. A statue partly in stone or marble. 

Greek aJcrd-lithm, stone extremities (as head, arms, legs, &c.) 
Act, a deed. Hacked, hakty mutilated. 

Latin acta, things done. *' Hack," Old Eng., hacci<m\ to cut 
Actflsa, ak.tee'ah. The snake root genus of plants. 

Greek a ktad, preventive of death [from the bite of snakes]. Called 
'*herb Christopher," because St. Christopher was involrod to ward 
off evil spirits, which often assumed the form of snakes (Qen. ill.) 

Actinia, plu, actini», ak.tin\i.ah, akMnXe. Sea-anemones, &c. 
Greek aftti«, a ray, beci&use their numerous tentacles extend Uike rays 
from the circumference of the mouth. 

Actinocrinites, ayMn-o.kri/'-mteSj not ak^-P(n,okf-7i-mte8, A 
subgenus of extinct " actinia." 
Ctveek aktia Xr^non, say-lily <radiated lily-shaped^tnimals). 
Actor, fern, actresa; not acter as it is a Latin word (B. mvii.) 
^*cy (stfffix; Greelf -C«J**<» (nouns) "tank," " office :" as papacy. 



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AND OF /SPBLLINOi. 



-•cy (Boffix) Latin -[alna, -tia (Bouns) ''-stftW " coiiditioii : " 
eehbaetf. 

Ad- (Latin prepositicm) to, for. As a p:efix it intensifies, or 
denotes ** approach/' "juncture," " addition." It changes 
its consonant in sympathy with the liquids, and with c 
and f , p and /, g and t, 

'* AB ** (preflxt) means angmentatton, 
JnnctiiTe, or approximation; 
But whwa, pceoeding e, / g, 
A liquid, or a p, s, t, 
These letters it prefnrs to d. 

Ad infinitum (Latin) ad vn.fti^.tum. Without end, for ever. 

Ad inwiBeam (Latin) ad nau\8<&.am. To disgust, to nausea. 

Ad Talofom (Latin) ad va.lo/rem. A tax in proportion to the 
market value of the things. taxed. 

Observe the terminations of these last three wgrds. 
Adage, aH^adje, a proverb. Adagio, a.day\j^.o not a.dadg\^,o, 

" Adage,** Latin addgium. ** Adagio," ItaL, slow time (in Mum). 
Adamantean^ ad'-d-man.tee''-an not ad'd.man''-t^-dn, 

Latin adamantcnu, hard or strong as adamant. 
Adamio, Ad'.^.ik not A.dam\ik, as " The Adamic Covenant." 
Adansonia, A'-dan^^-n^iilK The hoabab or Monkey-bread. tree. 

8» called by Linnseiu in comp. to Michel Adanson, a French botanist. 
Adapia, ad\ii.pis. An extinct animal resembling a hedgehog. 

This was the animal which Cuvier worked ont from a stray bone or 
two by his knowledge of comparative anatomy. 

Add, to join. Had, pa^ tense of " have." Aid, help. 

** Add,** Latin addo. " Had," Old Eng. luffde, p. of hdbhan, to hav«. 
** Aid," ode, French aidw, to assist ; Latin adJutOre. 

Addendum, plu. addenda (Latin). Things to be added. 
Addicted, ad.dicf.ed not a.dicf.ed. Given up to the habit. 

Latin ad-didw, given in bondage to [a creditor or habit]. 
Addi t i o n, a4.dish\<m not a.di8h\on ; addit'ional (double d). 
Addrcn, ad.drest^ not a.dres8\ To speak to, to give the due title. 

French adrtsser (one d), but in Bnglish the. d is doubled. 
-ade (Lat. o^im), termination of Nov/ns : " state of," as blocko^. 
-«de, as a t^cmination of Verbst: " act of," as cannonade. 
-«d» (Greek patronymic -idSs or -iad4^\ "descent from," "of 

the family of " ; generally -id<B as csxiid^^ 
Adephagans, a.def\d.ganz, A tribe of v<»*acious insects. 

Greek adiphdgo; vwMikavu. 
Adeiyt, a.depf not adf.ept. One skilled in someldung. 

Latin adepttu, ene who has discovered [the philoeophter's stone]. 




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ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Adiantmn, adf4.an*-ium, *' Maiden-hair" and other ferns. 

Greek advanUm^ dry. So called because rain does not wet Ik 
Adieu, o.de'u, Gk)od b^e. Ado, a.doo, ftiss. 

" Adieu/' French d Dieu, [T commend yon] to God. 

"Ado," Old £ng. verb odo'fk The noon mea^ a foss, as if there 
was much to do. 

Adipic (acid), ad'.i.pik not a,dip^ik. Fat procured by acid. 

Latin adeps, adipii, fat. 
Adipocere, ad\i.po.8eer. A substance, called ** grare wax." 

Latin adiposa c&ra, fatty wax (found in cemeteries). 
Adipose, adf.i.poce not ad\i.poze. Full of fat, fatty. 

Latin adipogus, containing fat 
Adjournment, ad-jumf .ment not a-jum\ment. Postponement. 

French aJourMmentj deferred to another day (jour, a day). 
Adjure, ad.jure^ not ajure\ To bind by oath. 

Latin ad-jiiro, to make one swear to [what he says]. 
Adjust, ad,ju8f not ajusf; adjustment, ad.jusf.ment, 

Latin ad-justw [righted^ to what is correct. 
Adjutant, ad\jU.tant. (This word is incorrect in quantity.) 

Latin ad-jutani, one who aids. 
Adjutor, female adjutrix, ad.jil\tor, ad.jU'.trix (R. xlvi.) 
Administrator, female admin'istratriz (Latin) B. xlvi. 
Admit^, admitt'-ance, admitt'-able also admiss'-ible, admitf -ed, 

admitt'-er, admitt'-ing (Rule i) Admittable (R. xxiii.) 
Adonis, A.d5\nis, The plant called " Pheasant's eye." 

The flower of the " com Adonis " is poetically supposed to hAve been 
reddened by the blood of the boy Adonis dropping on it 

Ad'ulator (Latin), not ad'ulater (Rale mvii) 

Advertised, ad\vh'.tlzd (in a newspaper). 
ad.v^.tizd (by private letter). 
Advertisement, ad-ver^.UZ'm£ntf not ad'-v^rAlz^^-ment, 
Advertiser, odf-virM-zihr ; not advertisor {U. iLxxi.) 
Latin ad verto, to turn [public attention] to something. 
(Advertiser is not a Latin word, but an English coinage, and henee 
the suffix is er, not or (£ule xxxvii.) 

Advice (notm), advise (verb), Latin ad vUo, to go to see (R. li.) 
Advisable, ad,vV.zd.Vl (Not of the Ist Lat. codj., R. xxiii.) 
Adynamic, a^dy-ndm^-ikt not dynamic or strong. 
Adytum, ad^y.tum, not a.dy'.tum (Gk. adUton, Holy of Holies). 
.Sidile, i\ dile. A Rom. magistrate who had charge of the public 
buildings. (Lat adea, sing. " a house," plu. " a temple ">. 
'^•flrean (Sea) JB^/^tf'.an (Sea). The Archipelago. 



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I 



AND OF SPELLING. 



iEgicerea, e^-fl.8er''ry-&h. Order of plants, genus JSgiceras. 

Greek axifos 1oSra$, goat's honi. iEgioen, ijit^.^.rah. 
.Sgilops, i'-jtt.dps, A sore in the comer of the e^e. 

Greek aigos opt, a goat's efe. Goats being subject to the disease. 
JBriftlfi, E.nee\Xdt not E\n».id. Virgil's epic about ^ne^as. 

•id (a patroiiTmic) meaning " pertaining to/* "concerning." 
£olian, E.O\llAn, It ought to be E.oVA.em (o short). 
JEofic, e.dV.iky not e.CUk, Belonging to ^51'ia (Greece). 
iEmgo, es^\go. (Lat.) The green " rust " of bronze ornaments. 
iEihal or Ethal, eth'.al. (A word coined by Ohevreul.) 

It consists of the first syllables of Eth [er] and ^{{oohol]. 
.Ssihetics, ece.rhef.tks. The philosophy of good taste. 

Greek aisthitikos [beanty as it is] appreciated by the senses. (The « 
of the second syllable is long in Greek.) 

JEthogen, ith,6.jin. An intensely luminous compound. 
Greek aW^&^ gifnO. I produce luminosity. 

.SUnua, e,Thu\z&h. A genus of plants including "Fools' parsley." 
Greek aUhouaa, burning hot The leaves being very acrid. 

.Stites, more correctly Aetites, a'-t^,tV-teez, Hollow stones. 
Greek agios, an eagle. Supposed to form part of eagles' nests. 

Aer- (prefix). All words with this prefix (except a.e'.ri.al) have 
the accent on the first letter. For example : — 
a'erate (3 tylL) a'erog"raphy a'eronaut'ics 

a'era''tea a'erolite (4 sylL) a'eropho"bia 

ft'era''tion a'croFogy a'erophytes (4 syU.) 

a^erifica'^on a'eroman"cy a'eros''copy 

a'erify a'erom'eter a'erostafics 

a'ero-dynam'ics a'eronaut a'erosta"tion 

Affidr, of -fair not a,fair^y business; plu., transactions in generaL 

French affairt; Latin <^[ad]/a<^e to do [something]. 
Affect, af-fecf not a.fecf ; affec^'ted; affec^tion (double/). 

Latin af [ad] ftctus, to act on [one]. 
Affettu€80, af'fe1f'too.cf-8o. (Ital. term in Music) With feeling. 
AfBanoed, af.fi\anst not a.fi\anst. Betrothed. 

Latin af [ad] fido, to trust to one'»good faith. 
Affidavit, af-fLdaP-vit. f Davy is a vulgarism.) 

Old law Latin affidal/n, to give an oath of fidelity. 
Affiliated, af,JiV-%-a-ted not a-fiV-i-a-ted (double/, one Q. 

Latin af [ad] Jilivu, [to assign] a child to one. 
Afflim, af.Jirm^ not a.firm'; affirma'tion (double/). 

Latin af [ad] JirmOr; to make [something] firm to [another]. 
Affix' (verb), affix (runm). A postfix (Rule 1.) 

Latin af [ad] fiaoo, to fix to [something]. 



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8 ERRORS OF 8PEECB 

AfBatQB, af-flaiy'-im not aJUnf'-tm, IntpintioD. 

Latin of [sd] Mi'^» bnatlMd Into one [bj cUvte« inspirfttion]. 
Afflicted, af.fiiW.ted not a,JUkr.ted; afflio'tioA (double/). 

Latin of [ad] JUifo, to daaih «g«inst one. 
Afford, af.ford^ not a^orct. To be able to bear the ezpente. 

French a,f!orer; Latin of [acQ forwn, aoooidinf to nuclEet-psioe. 
Affidght, af.fiighf not a.frighf. To startle with fJaar, 

Old Eng. afyrh^ ehanged to d/Vy^f (the ii inteipdated). 
Affictmt, af.frunt not ajrunf; albra&ted (double/). 

Frendi affronim'; Lat <|f [ad] /ronUm [to ininlt one] to his face. 
A fortiori (Lat.), a for.ih€.o\rl. For a stUl greater reason. 
Afraid, a.fraid' not af.fraid. Filled with fear. 

Old Eng. oxford' ehanged to a/road? ("afeard' " is the older). 
Afireah, a.fresh' not of, fresh'. Again, anew, recently. 

Old Eng. a/er$e ohanged to i^^Vetc (e equals oh}. 
Aft (Old Eng. aft), behind. Haft (Old Eng. ^/«), a handle. 
Ag- (prefix) is the Lat prep, ad befiore ** g." 
Agagite (The) Ag'.a.gite, Haman is so called (Esth. iii. 1). 
Agalmatolite, a'-gal.mdf-6-lite. A clay for statuary. 

Greek agalmdtoa UthoB, stone for Images. 
Again, a.gevf not a.g&ne, (Old Eng. agen.) 
Agama, plu, agamas, ag\d.m&h, &c. A species of lizard. The 

adjective is ag^amoid, as " agamoid lizards." 
Agama, plu. agamao, ag'.d.mee, Flowerless plants. The adjec- 
tive is ag'amouB, same as cryptogamic, q.v. All the 
species, &c., are Uie agamldsa or " ag'ama " family. 

Greek a gfdKnos, without sexual organs. 
Ag'ami, plu. ag'&nUs. The gold-breasted Trumpeter. 
AgapanthuB, ag'-a.pan''-Thii8, The African blue hly. 

Greek agapito$ anthds, the lovelj flower. 
Agape, ag\a.pee, a love-feast. Agape, a.gape, wonder-struck. 

" Agape," Greek agapi, brotherly love. 

"Agape," Old Eng. agedp, open-mouthed with amaaemeni. 

Agapemone, ag'-a.pem''-d-ne. Love's abode. 

Greek <igdpS mdrUt Love's mansion. 
Agaric, ag\dr.ik. A genus of fungi. 

Greek agdrHeon, fungus ; from Agdria, a xtver of Sarmafelab 
Agathophylhim, ag'-d-rhdJH" -lum. Clove nutmeg of Madagaseac 

Greek agdthon phuUon, the good leaf. 
Agathotes, a.gath'.d.Uez. One of the gentian fcu&ily. 

Greek agatMtes, goodness (from its medkal virtnes). 
Agave, a.ga'.vt not ag.&v\ The Ameiiean aloe. 

Greek agatU, splendid [planti 



AND ar SPELLING. 9 

I (French sofflx), "state of:" as pupik^tf. 
-age (Lat. ag^e) '^ the act of : " aa tiU<i^. 
-age {Celt, falnets), added to eollective iioaiis: aa herbop^. 
Agen'dmn, plu, agen'da (Lat.) Mem. of *'1iiizigs to he done." 
Ageiatmn, a-jeef .T&.tUm not a.jt.ra^tum (Bot.) A flower. 

Greek tbgirdton, exempt from old age. Properlj, "EverlMtings." 
Agglomerate, ag.glom'-e-rate not a,glomf-^-rate (doable g, one m). 

I«aL ag [ad] gl&meran, to wind into a ball (glomus^ a olew of thread). 
Agg^Uitisate, ag.gW-ti-nnU not a-^{tt''-£if-nate. To glu^together. 

Lat dg [ad] gluUndre^ to glue together (^Juten^ glutinis, glue). 
Aggrandift^ ag\grSn.dize not a.gran\dize. To ezalt. 
AggnuiaJUiement, ag-graai'-diz-ment not dg'-gran.dize"-7n€nt. 

Latin ay [ad] (T'andeseo, to make larger and larger (Kule xxxl.) 
A gg r oflfl iTe, ag,gres&'-iv ; aggression, aggressor (double ^ and s). 

liatin oiT [ad] ffnstio, a going against. (" Aggressor,** Bule xzxvii. ) 
Aggrieve, ag.greev' not a,greev\ To do wrong to a person. 

A hybrid word. Lat. ag [ad], French grever, to burden with taxes. 
Agilift, a^iJ^.tdh, Squirrels, dormice, aud similar " Bodents." 

Latin agilia, nimble creatures. 
Agio, (idg'.to not a\j4.o. The market difference between banlc- 
• notes and current coin. Ago, a.gd\ Gone by. 

'* Agio," ItaL €tgglo, difTerenoe. '*Ago," Oikl Eng. oflwtn, gone by. 
Agitator (Latin), af-tta'-tor not jogita^. (Rule xx:xvii.) 
Agnail see AngnaiL 

Agnate, ag'.nate. Belated on the father's side; Cognate, on 
the mother's. 

Ltftln ag [ad] naim^ bom to [the same surname]. 
Agomphiana, a,gom'-ft^mz, Bodents without grinders. 

Greek cirgomphXo$t without a grinder. 
Agora, ag'.d.rdh. The Greek " forum.'' 

Greek a^^M^, to assemble ; the place of assembly ; the market-place. 
Agree, agree-ing, agree-ment, agree-able, agree-ably, (fee. 

(Observe the double « is retained throughout.) 
Agrimony, ag'.rijRM.y* A genus of field plants. 

Greek agro8 mOnS, the field my abode. 
Aide-de-camp, plu. aides-de-camp (French). A military officer. 

A'Me.cong, pla. aid\de,cong, sometimes aidit,de.cong. 
AigniUe, a.gweel (French). For boring holes in blasting. 
Ail,tosaffsr. Ale, malt Hquor. Hail, frozen raiq. ?ale, healthy. 

'^AJl,* OWEng. egl [an]^ to be in grief. _^* AZe," (tf d^Eng^ eaUi, ale^ 



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10 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Ailing, ailing. Buffering. Hailing, haildng, hail falling. 

Ain't, " am not," *' is not," should be written '* t n't" (a contractiozx 
of am not, oi not, " as " being the old form of it), Ar'n* ti 
is a contraction of are not. (CoUoquiaL) 

Air (we breathe) ; Airs, plu., tricks of conceit Are, ar, plu. o£' 
" am." Hair (of the head). Hare (game). Heir, air (o£' 
property). Here, in this place. 

"Air,** Latin aer, the atmosphere. 

'* Are,** None, plnral of the Old Saxon verb ie bed, fh4 list, he byth. 

•* Hair," Old Eng., koer, hair " Hare," Old Eng. hara, a hare. 

'* Heir/' Latin h4xres, an heir. ** Here*' Old Eng. Mr, here, now. 

Airless, without air. Hairless, without hair. Heirless, airless, 
without an heir. 

Airy, adj. of air. Hairy, a^j. of hair. Aerie or eyrie, an eagle's 

nest. 
Aisle, lie (of a church) meaning *' the wing ;" isle, an island. 

French aUle, now aile; Latin aia, a wing. " Isle " (Lat.) irui&la, 
Ajuga, a'ju.gay not a.joo\gah. The plant called " Bugle." 

Lat. a JUga, arerse to Juno ; supposed to faroor miscarriage. 
Alaria, a.lair' -rS-ah, A genus of sea-weeds, as " badderlocks, &o. 

Latin ala, a wing. " Badder-locks " means " locks of Balder.** 
Albeit, awLhefM, Although, notwithstanding (Rule Iviii.) 
Albino, plu. albinos, al.hee\no, al.bee^,noze (Bule xlii.) 

Al Borak, aV Bojrahf, The animal that carried Mahomet from 
the earth to the seventh heaven. 
Arabic al bordka, the shining on«. 
Albucnm, aLbu^-kum not aV.bu,hum, The white daffodil. 
Albugo, al,W-go, A white speck on the comSa of the eye. 
Albumen, al.bu-mSn not aV.bu.men, White of q%%. 
Alcahest, aV.ka.hesf (Arabic). The universal solvent. 
Alcaid, alJtaidf ; or alcayde, al.hay'M. (Spanish.) 

Arabic al kadi, the governor [of a Spanish fortress]. 
Alcalde, alkaV-de, A Spanish magistrate. 

Arabic oZ kaldiy the Judge, or justice of the peace. (It is a mistake 
to suppose the Aleayde and Alcalde are merely different speUingi 
of the same officer.) 

Aloedo (Latin), alaeefM. The kingfisher genus of birds. 
Alchemilla, aV-kKmiV-ldh. The plant called " Ladies' mantle." 

The " Alchemists' plant," being greatly priced by them. 
Alchemy, aVM.me, not alchymy ; alchemist, alfM.miit 

Arabic al kUnia, the secret art It is a mistake to suppose the word 
mixt Arabic and Greek,— as al, the ; ehuma, something poured out. { 



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AND OF SPELLING, 11 

Aloohol, aVMML The spirit of fermented liqaon. 

Arabic ai hehol, the rolatile substance. 
AlnoihottwS aVMMMze not dLhd'MMze ; Al'c5hdliza''tion. 
AloofFAd, aUkd^ad, Contrariety of light in planets. (Astrology). 
Alooran, iee Alkoran. The Mohammedan Scriptures. 
AlooraneB, (iff''k6jray''neez. The high slender turrets of mosques. 
Jmcycmite, aVj^.^,niU not aljU'.ojnite, A sponge-like fossil very 

common in chalk formations. {See hel(m.) 
Alc7oii''iiim, plu. alcyonia. Halcyon stones. Supposed at one 
time to haye been used by kingfishers for their nests. 
Greek aXkHAn, a kingfisher. AJMdni^ daughter of JQ61us changed 
into a kingfisher. (With or without an initial /i.) 
Aldebaran, atdeh'-a-ran. The " Bull's eye " in Tatjeus. 

Arabic aX cUMrcm, the foUower [of the Pleiades]. 
Alder (tree), ol^der, not aV.der, nor awV.der (Bule Iviii.) 

Old English dUry an alder-tree ; Latin alnus. 
AlderiiefeBt,aZ'-d^.ltf«/''-&t. Best or oldest loved (2 Hen.VI.il.) 
Alderman, oV,d^,man, A civil dignitary (Bule Iviii.) 
Alembek, a.lem'-h^, A vessel used by alchemists. 

Arabic ol anXtiq^ the cup ; Greek ambix, a cup. 
AlethopiezJB, a.lee.Thop^-tS-ri8. Fossil ferns (coal formations). 

Greek aUth4>-pUHs, the true fern. 
Aletris, aV,i,tris not a.lee'.trU, A garden shrub. 

Greek cUiMi, a miller ; the plant being covered with " meal." 
Alexicaoon, a-lex'.ik''-d-kSn. A medicine. 

Greek alexd kdkon, I drive out the evil thing. 
Aleziphftrmic, a-lexf-tfa/i^-rnXk. Antidote of poison. 

Greek alexA pharmdkon, 1 avert poison. 
Alezipyretom, a-lex'-i,pir"ry-tum, A fever mixture. 

Greek alexd piMltds, I drive off fever. 
Alg», aV.jee (Latin). Sea-weeds. 
AigniLrfl, alg'.wS.zeeV, A Spanish constable. 

Arabic al wasU. thQ man in authority. 
Alien, generally pronounced d\lt^, A foreigner (Rule Ivii.) 
Alienate, al\i.S,nate; alienation, al^'i'S.nay"'8htm. 

Latin dlUno, to make aitother's ; dlUmu, one of another country. 
Alike. " Two " and " both ** should not be used together with 
"alike:'* as "The two are both alike;" say "The two 
are alike ; " or " They are both alike ; " or " The two are 
exactly alike." 
Alike (adj.), meaning Hmilar, always stands after its noun, as 
" The darkness and the light are both alike to Thee."* 
(Pa. cxxxix. 12.) 



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12 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Alike (ady.)» means in a similar way, eqtiallyi, ag ** Wiie-t^lic 

they shall both be alike good." (Eee. xi. 6.) 
Alima, adi'.mdh, A medicine to assuage " arairiBg iov: iQ€>d^*' 

Greek a limoty antidote for hunger. 
Aliment, aVXment, Food. (Oba, only one L) 

Latin dttmentum, rerb Alo, to nonMsh. 
Alimony, aVX,miin,y, For a wife's separate maintenance. 

Latin alimonia, alimony. {Oh$. The o is long in Latin.) 
Allsmacead, aV -lis.may'* -sS-e. " Water-plantains," &c. 

Greek alisma, the water-plantain. 

The suffix -da or -cea means " of the same soft.** (Gk. -hia, -kea. > 
Alkahest, aV.kd.hest. The Uniyersal Solyent. 
Alkali, plM, alkalis, aV.kd.li, al\kd.lize. Soda, potash, &c. 

Arabic al kali, the kali plant. 
Alkaloid, aV, haloid, A substance analogous to an alkali. 

The Greek -eido* (-id), like our -ish, is sometimes a dinixiatire. 
Alkaloids are substances slightly alkaline. 

Alkoran, aV.ko.ran not al,ko\ran. The Arab " Scriptores." 

Arabic al Koran, the Koran. It is Incorrect to say '* The Alkoran. " 
"The Koran means tht Reading$. We call our "Bible " Tlie 
Writings (Scriptures). 
All, awl, every one. Hall, hawl (of a honse), a mansion. 

" ^ 11, ** Old Eng. edll, or eel * ' Hall/' Old Eng. heaU, a hall or mansion. 
All. The perfect compounds of this word drop one I : as : — 
almighty already altogether 

almost although always 

See Kule Iviii. 

But when it is otily agglutinated to another word, it 
preserves its double I : as all-wise, all-fours, all-saints. 

All of them. In this and similar phrases "of" does 
not mean out of, but has an adverbial force, like the 
Latin ex in ex parte (partly), e dttobtis (two by two, twro- 
ly), &c. So aU of them means "them wholly," "alto- 
gether." Both of them " them both-ly," or " both-toge- 
ther," th£ whole of it " it entirely," " in its entirety," &c. 
Allantoic (acid), aLlan\t5.ik not aV-lan.td"-ik (see below). 
AUantois, al.lan'-t6-iss. A membrane like a sausage in form. 

Greek aUantd-eikos, sMuage-Ukei. 
Allay, al.lay', to mitigate. Alleyi oZ'^^^, a passage. Ally, aliv, 
an associate. 
" Allay," Old Eng. aleeg [an], to lay dovm*. {Vench alleger. 
" Alley," French alUe, a passage. " Ally," Lfitin al [adj ligo, to tie 
to one. 
Allege not aUedge ; allege-able (Yerbs ending in -ge and -ee 
preserve the " e *' befoi*e -able). Bulea xx. and xxiii. 
Latin al [ad] leg^re, to read an indictment against a person. | 



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AND OF SPELLING, 13 

Anegiance, alJU^ -j%.anee, Obedie)i6e due to an overlord. 

French aUSgetmee. Medieval Latin aUegfanKa {ad-k(fem^ 
Allegio, al.lay'-ffro (ItaL tetrm in Mmic). Bright, sprightly. 
Alleviate, aLleef-vi-ate not a.tee.uX.nte, To lessen a trouble. 

Latin al [ad] levidre, to lighten [a burden] to the bearer. 
Aney, plural aUe^s, not allies (Rnle xIy.) {See Allay.) 

French aUSef a passa^^ (retb aZler, to go). 
AUiance, aLU^-ance not aM.ance. Union by treaty or marriage 

Latin <a [ad] H90, to tie together [by tt«aty, *e.] 
Alliteration, aV.lit'S,ray^sh.tm not a'Mt'e.ray^-ah'on, (One t.) 

Latin al [ad] Vit»ra [words er ffiaes made] to a letter. 
Allltitn, aVMMM (Latin). Oariic and simi]»;r plants. 
Allochroite, al,lok'-rii4te. Iron garnet whicb is iridescent. 

Greek cMot chrda, [e^biting] different colours. 
Allocatiir, aV-lo.kay''-tur. Cost allowed in a law suit. 

Latin al [ad] locdtv/r, placed to one's credit. 
Allodium, aLW-dH-vrnf A ft'ee tenure, not held of an overlord. 

Norse odeZ, a patrin),onial estate ; Medieval Liitin aUddCum. 
ABopathy, alXo^-d-rhS. Treatment of disease by -antidotes. 

HoMsoPATHT.— Treatment of disease by what manses it. **Like 
oaring like," as ctiring a bum by hot fomentations. 

AOopathlst, dLlop\<l.rhin, One -who practises allopathy. 
Greek aXlos patho», [medicine] different to the disease. 
Homeopathy homoios pathos, [medicine] like the disease. 

Allopliane, aV.W.fain, A mineral whieh changes colour before 
the Uowpipe. 
Greek aUos phain-f&maij, 1 appear of different [colours]. 
AlloT, aUott'-er, aUott'-ed, allott'-ing, allot'-ment. (Hule 1.) 

Medieval Latin al [ad] lotto, to place to your lot. 
Allow, al.low; allowance, aLlow\ance; allowable. 

French cUUnur; Latin al [ad] locdre, to place to your share. 
Allude, al.lood\ To hint at, reference to. 

Latin al [ad] Vudo, to play towards one [with nods and other signs]. 
AUaflion. Verbs ending in -(2, -de, -8, se, change these termina- 
tioDS to -«wm, instead of -Hon. (Kiile xxxiii.) This word 
should be employed only for vague and indirect refer- 
ences : thus, " Henry V. won the battle of Agi'ncourt " is a 
positive statement, and a person ought not to say " the 
battle alluded to was fought in 1415," but the battle 
referred to. 

Allure, allwef; altttreme^t, al.twe^,mem, To ^tice, <feo,. 
Latin al [ad], Fxenoh Uwrrar, to* deco|r. 



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14 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Allnyimn, plu, alluvia, ahlufMAim, al.lu'.vi,ah, 

Latin al [ad] hi&re, to wash to [the bank or shore]. 
Ally, plu. allies, aLU, alJlizef^ allied (3 syl.). alli-ance, ally-in^. 
Alley, aV,ley, a passage. Allay, dLlajf, to set at rest, 9^^ 
Allay. 
Almanac, ol\ma.ndk. A calendar of the year. (Eule Iviii.) 

Arabic al manach,, the computation ; or, Anglo Saxon alin&naght. 
Almighty, awLmightf.y. All-powerful. (Bule IvilL) 
Almond, ah\mwn' not aUmon'. The nut of the almond-tree. 

Greek dmugddU (damigd^); French anumdt; Spanish almendra. 
Almoner, ah^mo.n^ not al\m6.n^. One who dispenses alms. 

French otimonier; Med. Lat. almonariua; Old £ng. almes-man. 
Almost, oV.most not awVmoit (Bule Iviii.) 
Ahns, arms not alms. Charity. Both singular and plural. 

" Who, seeing Peter and John, asked an alms " {Acts iii. 3). 

" Thine alms are come up for a memorial" (Acts x. 4). 

Anglo Saxon a27ne«; Old English (E2m««5e; TSoxmhuaXmoignes; Latin 
eileeniotyna ; GtreelL ^4mdg&ni (eleimdn, pitiful). 

Aloe, plu. aloes, at.d, aV.dze, a plant. Halloo, plu, halloos, to 
shout, shouts. Hallow, hal'.ld, to hold sacred. Hido, 
hay'.lOy a "glory." 

"Aloe," Greek alo6, the aloe. "Halloo," Low Ger. Iiallo, outcrj. 

"Hallow," Old Eng. hdlig [an], to hold sacred. "Halo," Greek 
hcUes, a halo. 

Aloetic, al'-S.ee^-ttk not aV-pM-ik. Containing aloes. 

Greek aloStikds. The postfix -ic means " pertaining to." To express 
acids, it means continuing the most oxygen possible. 

Aloezylon, aV-q.eex'-U-Sn not aV-o.ex^-U-<m, Wood of aloes. 

Greek alo4 xulon, aloe wood. 
Alopecurus, a.ld'-p^.ku'-rus. Fox-taU grass, <fec. 

Greek oMpSkdB ottro, fox's tail 
Alopecy, a.ld^-pe-sy. A disease of the hair. 

Greek oMpifMa, fox's evil (o long, e short). 
Aloysia, a.loy' -zS-ah, The Verbena order of plants. 

Greek a^otisia, unwashed ; because rain does not wet the leares. 
Alpaca, dLpak'-ah, Cloth made of pace hair. The paco of 
South America is a kind of camel with long wooUy hair. 
Alphitidon, aZ.filf4-don. A fracture with the bone smashed. 

Greek (UpMUm, bran (the bone ground like bran). 
Already, ol.red\y. At this time, in time past (Bule Iviii.) 
Alsine, al,8i\n^ (Latin). Chickweed, mouse-ear, <fec. 
Alsinia, aLti\niL&h. The *' alsine " or chickweed group of plants. 
•Also, oV^sS. Likewise, in like manner (Rule Iviii) 



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AND OF SPELLING, 15 

AlBodem, alMZ-dS-e, The yiolet sab-order of plants. 

Greek al96di$, woodUmA plants. 
AlstoTiiftj oLstSn'-S-ahr, The Dogbane tribe of plants; So named 
from Charles Alston, a Scotch botanist (1683-1760.) 

Alstcmite, dVMdndte, A white or greyish mineral, found in the 

mines of Alston Moor, in Cumberland. 
Altar (of a church). Alter, to change (Bule Iviii.) Halter. 

"Altar,*' Celtic alt; OM Eng., alter; Lktln altOre; Ac. 

" Halter," Old Eng. hcel/ter, a halter or headstalL 

Alteration, olf-teTjray"-8h'un not cU'-ter.rayshtm (Bule iTiii). 

AlteratiYe, oV.fra.tiv not al\terMMv, A medicine to change 
gradnally the habits of the body (Rule Iviii.) 

French olterer, oiierotion, atteraiif, 
AUercaticm, aV -UrJiayf -ahun not ol'-ter.kay'''Shun, 

Latin alteredrf to talk one against another. 
Alternate, aV,U^,ndte (verb) ; aLtei^Mate (acUective). Rule L 
Alternative, aLter^-na-tiv. Choice of two things. 

Latin dUcr, [if not one] the other^ 
Although, aUAhow not aU,rh5w. Notwithstanding (R. lyiii.) 

AHitode, aV.tUtade not oVM,tvde* Height. 

Latin aUUadOt from aitua, high. 
Alto, plu: altof, aVtOj aVMze. Counter-tenor (Rule zlii.) 

Alto-relievo, plu, alto-relievds, aV.tSret.tif.vd (reVX.W.voze) 
not aV.to re.leev\o, <fec. Term in sculpture (Rule xlii.) 

Alto-primo, plu, alto-primoB, al\tS pree\mo (pree\moze), 

Alto-secun'do, plu. alto-Beonn'doB (Rule zlii.) 

Altogether, aUf-tS.geth'-er. Wholly, entirely (Rule Imi.) 

Aludel, a.lu''dSU A vessel used in sublimation. 

Latin a hUumy [a pot 9t vessel] without Imte. 
Almnina, al.loo\mK,nah, Earth containing alum. 
Ahunine, a.loo',m%n, (Same as alumina.) 
Aluminium, aV .oo.mi'nP X,vm, Metal obtained &om aluminia. 
The gold-coloured is a mixture of aluminium and copper. 

Latin alumenj saltstone. (The u is long.) 
Alnminons, a.loo'.mtnus. In Gf^oZo^^, means clayey. 
Ahnninum, a.loo\mi.nwm. The metallic base of clay. 

Ahndte, a,loo\nite not dl\ooMite. Alum-stone. 

Vttukch aliun, alnm ; Greek lUhoa, a stone. 
Alunogene, aM)o\nS.jene. An efflorescence on damp walls. 

French aiun, alum ; Greek geviAt to produce. 



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16 SRitOMS OF SPEECH 

Alveary, aV'V^.4rjl fiot ttl-ne^-a-rp. The hollow of the «ar. 
(The " a " in ary is long in the Latin word.) 
Latin olMdrUtfis a bee-hiTO. (Bolw Iv. and IfU.) 
Alveoiar, aV.vf^.dMtr not aLoet^,6.ian Oontoining sockets. 

AlveDlnfl, jplu. alveoli (Latin), ut.v^.Sdut, al\f>i,9^U. 

Not al.vee'jo,UUy nor olJdeJfd%m* (Both t and o short.) 
The hole or soclrot of a tooth. 
No lueh word as olveoiauiad bj Dr. Mant^ Wwnden qf Geology, 
Alveolite, aV.vi^SMte, One of the coral groups. 
Always, oVAoaya, At all times, for ever (Bole Iviii) 
Alysram, aUW-sitm, Madwort, <fec [To prev^t madness.] 

Greek a himon, prtrenttvt of madheat [ttom the bite ot mail doga]. 
Am- (prefix), Latin preposition ad bef(»e the letter m. 
Am, was, been. These are parts of t&ree distinct verbs. 

Am is Norse ; BeiaihttiA EagliiAi htd; aad Wob to the «id Xnglish 
ioes [cm] ** to dwell." Bed ia Indicative Mood, and be iB still aaed 
so in rural diatricts and in poetry. 

Amadou, am\Adoo not Am\&.d^. German tinder. 

French amadou, from thp LalfA <tm [ad] manms tUUte (a'nuiMa'X 
Amimita, am'-d.ni"-tah. A^ngus common in Aminus. 
Amannensis, plural amaaiianseB, a.mati^u.tfn'''«<f , -en^seee, 

Latin a manu -ensU : a manu, a sftcrataiy ; -^nHt (Mffiz) taffioe of. 
Amaranth, am^-a-ranih, or amaranthni, am'^a^raml'-rhui* 

Greek amoAnmthos, the unfading flower (a m>araino, I die notX 
AmaranliiaoesB, am'-a-r&n,Thay"-8e-e, The "order" of the 

above ; -ace(B, added to plants, denotes an " order." 
Amaryllis, plural amaryllises, am'-a.riV-lis, Ac, A flower so 

called from the shepherdess of clas»c pastorals. 
Amaryllidacet», a'mf-ii.riV^U.S)euy'''tS'e. The *< order" of the 

above; -ace<8, added to plants, denotes an ''order." 
Amateur (French), am\a.tur^. One who cultivates an art or 

science for his own pleasure, and not as a profession. 
Amaurosis, a,maw.ro\8i8. Called by Milton ** the drop serene." 

Greek amavrot, blindness [without anj visible defect in the eye]. 
Amazon, Am\a.z(m. A race of female warriors. Amazo^nian. 
(This word is wrong in quantity, the second "a" is long). 

Greek amdzon, without a breast. The right pap being cut off. 
Ambas'sador, feminine amhas'sadress, not ernbas^sador, <fec. 

Fr. amhassadeur ,' Med. Lat. ambascia; Celt. amUuht, a servant. 
Ambas'sador ExtzM>''rdiBary, plu. Amlaas'eMhiri Brtrao'^rdiiiaiy. 
Ambas'sador Fle'nipoten*'tiary, plural Ambao^fiadors, ^. 
Ambergris, am'.hSr.griss not nm\b9r.yreate. Grey amber. 

French ambr« flrri« (grey). TodfstiaguishitfromthenoirftD<l>»im«. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 17 

AmblyptaTiis, amMip'.t^.rus, A genns of fossil fishes. 

Greek omUtit pteron, [fish irith] obtuse or laige fins. 
Ambredne, am'.hrS.%n. The active principle of amber. 
Ambreic (acid), amf.brSXk not am.hre'ih, (See above.) 
Ambrosia, amJbrd'jsSMh not am,I)ro\z7ie,ah. Food of the gods. 

Greek a brotos, not mortal rimmortal food]. 
Ambulacra, amf-huXay^'krah. Holes in the crust of sea- 
urchins through which their " walkers " protrude. 

liatin ambvl&ora, walking places. 
Ambulatores, am" .bu.ld.t8.rez. An order of birds; their feet 
have three toes before and one behind (Bule Iv.) 

Latin ambulaUireSy walkers. (The o is long in the Latin word.) 
Ambnacade, plu. ambiucades ; am\bu8.kadef, am'Jms.kddz', 
Ambusca'do, plu, ambusca^does (Spanish). Bule xlii. 

Spanish wiboscaa', to retire into the thickest part of a forest. 
Amenable, a.meei'-na-b'l not a^men'-a-b'l. Accountable. 

Italian ammainaref to strike sail ; French cvmener. 
Amend, d.mend\ to correct. Amends, satisfEiction. 

French amtnder, to amend ; Latin a menda, without fault 
Amende honorable (Fr.), a-mend' on"-6.rah'-b'l. An apology. 
Amenity, a.mee^-nl-tiy not a.men'-K-iy. Softness of cUmate. 

Latin omamitoj, agreeableness of climate or manners. 
AmentaceiB, a-men.tay'-si-e. An order of plants with catkins. 

Lat. amentumy a catkin or thong ; -cicecB (.suffix) an " order" of plants. 
Ametabolia, a.met'-a,bol"4-dh. Insects which change not. 

Greek a metaMle, without change or metamorphosis. 
Amethyst, am\S.rhi8t. A precious stone of a violet colour. 

Greek a methHatdM, preventive of drunkenness. 
Amianth or amianthus, amf4.an"-Thu8. A sort of asbestos. 

Greek amiantoi^ that which does not contract defilement. 
Amianthoid, am'-l.avf'-rTwid, Like amianth. (Bule xUx.) 

Greek amicmio-eidoSt like amianthus. 
Amide, arnf.ld. A chemical substance not unlike starch. 

Greek am [ulon\ -ieUs (patronymic) of the starch family. 
AmiHiTi or amidine, amM.din. The soluble part of starch. 

The insoluble part is called amyline, q.v, 
AmmocflBtee, am'-mo.8ee''-teez, a genus of sand-fishes. 

Greek ammos koiU, sand-bed [fish J. 
Ammodytes, am'-mo.dg''-teez. Sand-eels, &c, 

Greek ammos duUs, sandnliyers. 
Ammonia, am.wi5'-n^"-a/i. Spirits of hartshorn. (Double m.) 
Ammoniacal, aTnf-mo.ni"-u-kdl not a'-mo.nV^d'kaX. (Double m.) 



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18 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Anunoniacnm, am' -moMi*' S-kum not a' -mojni" -a-Mum, Gam of 

the Persian plant called [dorema] ammoniaxfwm. 
Ammonite, am\mS.nite, A fSamily of fossils resembling a ram's 

horn. Ammon-Ue, like [the horns of Jupiter] Ammon. 
Ammonitidn, am'-moMlt'-K-de. The Ammonite family of fossils. 

-idcB (Greek patronymic -idSs), of the family or race. 
Ammophila, am,mof-t-lah. Sand wasps. 

Greek atnmot phiUd, 1 love the saod. 
Ammunition, am'-mu.nisW-on, Military stores. 

Latin am [ad] iMAnUio munitions for [war]. 
Amoeba, a.mee'.hdh. The lowest type of animal life. 

Greek wmoihi, the changeable [animaQ. 
Amomnm, a.md'.mam. The ginger species of plants. 

Greek om^itm, ginger. 
Among, ajmung*, not a^inong. Old English amang, 
Amorpfaons (rocks), a.mor'.fus. Having no definite shape. 

Greek ct-morphos, without [definite] fDrm. 
Amorphozoa, a.mor^-f6.zo*-ah. Zoophytes, like sponges, <feo. 

Greek Ormorphos z6a, living anlmalB without [definite] torm. 
Amour propre (French), a.moor' propr. Self-respect. 
Ampelic (acid), am'.pe.lik. Produced from coal tar. 
Ampelin, amf.pHln* A liquid resembling creosote. 
Ampelite, awf.pS.Ute. Alum-slate. 

Greek ampilis. the vine. "Ampelite" is so called because it was 
used by the ancients for destroying the vine-insects. 

Amphi- (Greek prefix). "All round," "on both sides,*' "doubt." 

Amphibia, am.Jib'-i-Sh, Animals that live in water or on land. 

Greek amphi bioa, having life both [on land and in water]. 
Amphibichnites, am'-Ji.bik"'nite8. Animals which have left 
their footprints in certain geological rocks. 

Greek amphibia ichiios, footprints of amphibia. 
Amphibolite, amJiy-S-lite. Parts of amphibia fossilised. 

Greek amphiMoa lUhoa, amphibia [become] stone. 
Amphibole, amJib'-d-lS. Hornblende. 

Greek amphibdlda, something doubtful [whether hornblende or 
augite. It being difficult to distinguish tiiem]. 

Amphibology, am'-fiMV-d-j^. Words which bear two inter- 
pretations, like the responses of the ancient oracles. 
Greek amphibdlda logoa^ doubtful words. 
Amphibrya, am.fil/-H-ah, Plants which grow in bulk, not height. 
Greek amphi bru6, to swell all round. Those which grow upwards, 
and not in bulk, are aordgeru. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 19 

Axnphigens, am'.fl-gens. Plants which grow in bulk, not height. 

Greek amphi gino»t growth all round (like lichens). See AcrogenoUB. 
Amphitheatre, am*-fl,rheef-a-t^, A circular theatre. (The 
" a*' is long in the Greek word.) Eule Ivii. 

Greek amgphi thedtron, a theatre all round. 
Amphora, am\f6.rah. A wine vessel with two handles. 

Greek amphi pJUfrein, [handles] on both sides to carry it by. 
Ample, awf.p'lj am'ple.ness, am'ply. (Latin amplust large.) 
Amplify, awf.pU.fy, am'plify-ing, but amplifies (3 syl.), am^li- 
fied (3 syl.), am'pHfi-er, am^lifi-ca''tion. (Bole xi) 

Xatin amplificaref to make ample. 
Ampulla, am.jpuV.ldh (Latin). A bottle large in the middle. 
Amulet, am'.u.let. A charm worn about the person. (One m.) 

Latin amtUitum, a charm ; a molior, to drive away [evil]. 
Amose, a.muzef, amuse'-ment, amused' (2 syl.), amu'ses, amu'ser, 
amus'-ing, amus'-ingly, amus'-ive, amus'-ively. (E. xix.) 

French amuser ; Latin a Musis, [to turn] from the IVCuses or study. 
Amygdales, a-mig.daV-^-e. A family of plants including the 

peach, apricot, plum, and almond. 
Amygrdalic (acid), a.mig'.daMk, Denved from amygdaline. 

Amygdaline, a.mig'dd,Vin. A crystalline principle contained in 
bitter almonds. 

Amygdaloid, a.mig\dd.loid. Volcanic rocks with almond-like 
cells or cavities filled with foreign substances. 
Greek amtigdalos eidos, almond-like. 

Amyl, am\U, or amyline, am\UM. Insoluble part of starch. 
The ^luble part is called amidine, q.v. 
Greek dm&lon, starch. 

Amyridacete, am' l-t^day^-se'e. Plants of the myrrh kind. 
The genus amfyris (Latin m/yrrha, myrrh), is type of the order. 

An- (prefix) Latin preposition ad before to; Greek an (privitive) 
before a vowel. 

-an (suffix), Latin an-%Ls " belonging to : " as Boman. 

An (Article), before vowels and silent h ; also before h aspirated, 
when the accent of the word is not on the first syllable, 
as " a his'torj," but an histor'ian. On the other hand, 
the n is dropped before one, and also before eu and u 
pure, as many a one, a u-nit, a European. 

Anacathartic, an'-a-kd^rhat^-Uk not an'-S.-k&.rhar'K^-tik. 

Greek ana kathctrsis, purging upwards [through mouth and nose]. 

AnachariB, anuik\d. ris. A troublesome river- weed. 



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20 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Anaoliioiiism, ajnaV.rh.nizm, A chronological error. 

Greek cma dvronos, out of time. 
AnsBmia, a.nee\m%.dh not a.nem\tdh. Deficiency of blood. 

Greek cm a4ma, irithout blood. 
AnsBinic, a,nee\mik not a,nem\ik. Blood-falling. 
AnsBsl&esia, an.ece,Thee\z%.ah. Defect of the sense of feeling^. 

Greek cm aisthSsiaj without the sense of feeling. 
Anagallis, <m'-a,gaVM8, The pimpernel group of plants. 

Greek anagOoA, to laugh heartily. Supposed cure of " spleen. " 
Anagrammatlc, an' -d-gramjinaf -tlk (doable m). 

Greek cma gramma, transposition of letters. 
Analogue, an'.dMg. Something analogous. 

Greek anaHogoSf of similar proportion. 
Analogy, a.naV.o.gy, anal'og-ous, anal'og-ously. anaVogist, anal'- 
ogism.anal'ogise, antd'ogising; analogical, an'-adaf-i-kaj, 
analog'ically, analog'icalness. Kule xi.) 

Latin cmaUogia, analogs; Greek ana Idgds, similarity of words. 
Analysis, plural analyses, a,nal'.y.st<i, ajnaV.y.seez. 

Greek oma4usU, a breaking up. The opposite process is syn'thSsis. 
Greek mnihSaia {aim tithimi), a putting together again. 

Analysable, analysation not analyzable, analyzation. 

The 8 is part of the word analysis (lusd not IvaO). 
Anamorphosis, an'-a.mor''-fd-8t8. (Wrong in quantity, Rule Ivii.^ 
In Natural History y development. 

In Botany, when one part of a flower assumes the appear- 
ance of a higher principle. 
In Perspective, elongating the figure. 
Greek ana m,orph68i$, upward shaping. 
Ananas, d.nahfmdz (Brazilian word). The pine-apple species. 
Ananchytes, aruan'Mdeez not an.anM.teez. Fairy loaves, ifec. 

Greek ana/tUSt ch/AtS fgaiaj, steep mounds. 
Anandrous, an,an\drus. In Botany, without stamen. 

Greek cm amd/ros, without a male or stamen. 
Anastomose, annas' ,i6jnJ6ze. To interlace vessels. <fec. 

Greek aiuk stdma, [to insert one vessel] up the mouth [of another]. 
Anastomosis, an-a8'-t6.mo"-8is. In Botany, union of vessels. 
Anathema, plural anathemas, a/natK .^.mdh, ajnath' .ejmars. 

Greek cmo^iMma, a thing set apart ; hence a ban of the church, 
which sets a person "apart " from church fellowship. 

Anathematize not anathematise, a.nath',^.md.tize, 
Greek ana-tMmdtiz6, to make accursed. (Bule xxzii.) 

AnatidsB, an,afJLde, Web-footed birds, as swans, geese, ducks. 
Latin andtis -idee, the du'ck family (-idee, a patronymic) 



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AND OF SPELLING. 21 

Anatomy, a.nalf.S.myj anat'omist ; anat'omifle, not anafomize, 
anat'omised (4 syl.), anat'omiser, anat'omis-ing, anat'o- 
mis-ation ; anatomical, anatomdcally. 
Latin oiUGMme, anoMmXeut ; Greek ama UhnS, a onttliig up. 
AnatroiMtl, a,naf.ro.pal. In Botany, an inverted ovnle. 
Greek ana-tr^, to invert [the ovmle], as in apple blouomi. 
-ance (suffix, Latin -ans). Attached to verbal nouns. 

There are nearly 300 words with this termination, and not one 
ending in the more correct form -anm. 

Ancestor, fern, ancestress, an'.8&,tSr, dtc. A predecessor. 

French ancestres, andtres: Latin ante eesaor, a predecessor. 
Anchor, an.kor (of a ship). Anker (Dutch), ten gallons. 

Old Ti;«cH«ii ancor; Latin anehdra; Greek agk&lda, hooked. 
Anchovy, anfxho.vy not an,cho\vy. (In Port, anchdvy,) 
Ancient, ain'^shent not an',$hent nor wm^^hent, of old. 
The Ancients, plu. People of the olden times. 

French ancUn, old ; Italian ansiano'; Latin arUiquui. 
Andle, an.ii\le (Latin). The sacred shield of Mars. 
Ancillary, an'.silM,ry not anMV,ld,ry, A handmaid (Bule Iv.) 

Latin andlla, a maidservant. 
Andpital, anMp\i.tal. In Botany, two-edged. 

Latin aruxps, andlpUia, two-edged {am caput, head both sides). 
-ancy (suflSx, Latin -arw, -antis). Added to abstract nouns. 
Ancyloceras, an'-sLloa^-S-rahs, Fossils curved like a horn. 

Greek agkulos, curved [like a hoin]. (Greek " g '* before h = n.) 
And (a copulative). Hand (of the human body). 

** And,*' Old English and. " Hand," Old English hand. 
And so forth, et caetera. (Old English and swd forlh.) 
Andante, an.dan\te (Italian). In Music, moderately slow. 
AnHirr>ntt^ an'-dS-rSnz not handf.i.on8, Fire-dogs. 

Old Ens^ish bra$uiri8en, iron to hold a brand or log. 
Androgynous, an.drcj\i.nus not an.drS.jee\ntu8, (Botany.) 

Greek anir gv/nS, man-woman. (Male and female flowers united.) 
Android, plu. androides, an^droid, an.droi\deez. An automaton. 

Gre^ andro-eidos, [an automaton] like a man. 
Andromeda, An.drom\S.dah. Wild Eosemary, <fec. 

As Andromeda pined on a rock surrounded bv sea monsters, so the 
plant droops its head in swampy places amidst reptiles. 

Anellides, an.eV.U.des, or anellids, an'.Sl.Uds. Earth-worms. 
(All these words should be spelt with one n and double I, Latin 
oimUiu, a little ring.— Horoce's Satirtt, II. 7-9.) 



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22 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Anelytrons, an,eV.y.tru8 not an.^.ly\tru8, 

Greek an HAMfn, [insects] without wing sheaths. 
Anemone, a.nem\S.nS not a.nen\o.m^. The wind-flower. 

Plu. anemones not anemonies (Lat. anemonet Bule Ivii.) 
Greek anSmdt, wind. These flowers love a free open space. 
Aneroid, an\e,roid. The air barometer, which has no mer- 
curial or other liquid column. (The " e " long in Greek.) 
Greek a rUrda eidos, without [a column] resembling a liquid [column j. 
Anethum, a.nee'.rhum. The dill genus of plants. 

Greek aiUthon, dill : and thnn, to run upwards, bj rapid growth. 
Aneurism, an\eu.rizm. Morbid dilitation of an artery. 

Greek aneur&nd, to stretch or dilate. 
Angel, ain'.jel, a heavenly being. Angle, an'.g'l, a comer. 
Angel'-ic, angel'-ical, anger-ically (Kule iii. -el). (This 
is a strong example of the perversity of English spelling. 
Although the accent is on the -eVf the "1" is not doubled, 
while in travel, trai/ellinfft <fec., it is doubled, although 
the accent is on the first syllable.) 
"Angel," Greek aggelos, a messenger. (In Greek g before g= ** n. " 
"Angle," Old English angel, genitive angles, a fish hook. 

Angelica, an.geV -l-kah not an'-ge.lee''.kah, A plant. 

So called from the " angelic " virtues of its seeds and root. 
Anger, ang\er, angered (2 syl.), angering (Rule ii.) 

Old English ange, vexation ; Latin angor, sorrow. 
Angina, an.jV.nah (Latin). A disease affecting respiration. 
Angle, a comer. Angel, a heavenly being. (See Angel.) 
Anglican, an'.gU.kan. Belonging to England. 
Anglice, an'.gltse (adverb). In English. 
Anglicism, an'.glttizm. An English idiom. 
Anglicise, Anglicised (3 syl.), Anglicis-ing. (Note s not z.) 
Anglo- (prefix) English : as ^npZo-Saxon, Anglo-^ovm&n., &c. 
Old English Angel-: as anget-cyning, the English Eg. : angd-thedd, 
the EngUsh nation. Angle or EngU, the Angles or English. 

Angnail, not agnail nor hangnail. 

Old English ang-ncegl, a nail-trouble. Similarlj ang-bre</st, a chest- 
trouble vasthma), ang-mo'd, a mind-trouble (vexation). 

Angry with you, not " angry at you." Angri-ly. 
Anhydrite not anhydrate, anJiy'-drite ; anhydrous. 

The "h" is needless. The Greek is anvdria, and AvvSpos. Greek 
an hvdor, without water. It would be impossible, in Greek, to 
express by letters such a word as AnJiydrite. (Rule Ixx.) 

^^^ine^ an\i.hn. An oily liquid used in " mauve " dyes. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 



23 



AnimAlcnle, plural animalcnles, an'-tmdr^-kulef an'-tmaV'-kulz ; 
or, a]i1inal''culiim, plural an'imarcula. 
Lttin aMlmai^tt{«m (-culum, a dixnlnutiye). 
Animalifle, an'imalisa'^tion (with 9 not z. Bole zxxi) 
Anker, ten gallons. Anchor (of a ship). (See Anchor.) 
AnUe, an.Vl. Part of the leg. (Old English.) 
Annals (no singular). History arranged hy years (double «). 

Lttiii anftdUs, from onniM, a year. 
A nn a t es, an'.nates, First-firuits on presentation to a living. 

Latin aniMM, [the value of one] year's income. 
A nnelid a, see Anelida (with one n). 
Annex, an'.nex (noun), an.nex' (verb). Rule 1. 

Latin an [ad] nexus, tied to [another thing]. 
A nnihila te, an.ni'.MZ.af«, annihilated, annibilat-ing, annihilat-or, 
annihilation. (Double n.) In Latin the -ni- is short. 
Latin an [ad] nXMVum, [to reduce] to nothing. 
Anniversary, plu. anniverearies, an'-ni.ver^-ia-riz. The return 
of the time-of-the-year at which an event happened. 
Latin annus versus, [the time of the] year returned. 
Announce, an-nounce' not a.nounce' ; announce'ment. 

French annoneer: Latin an [ad] nuncto, to tell to [others]. 
Annoy, annoyance. €171,7101/, an,noy'.ance (Bule xziv.) 

Italian annotate : Latin an [ad] noceo, to incommode. 
AnnuaL Yearly. In compounds, -ennial; as hi-ermial, tri- 
ennial, per-ennial, &c. (Double n.) Latin annus. 
Annuitant. One who receives an annuity. The i in these 
words is a blunder taken from the French, just as well 
write annuilly. 
Annuity, an,nu\l,ty not a.nu\i.1y, A yearly payment 

French armvMd; Latin annudtim, yearly, annuaZia. 
Annul', annuir-er, annulled' (2 syl.), annull'-ing. (Eule 1.) 
French annuller : Latin an [ad] nullvm, [to bring] to nothing. 
Annular not annular; annulated; annulose, an'.nu.^z^; annu- 
losa, an.nu.lo'.sa. Earth-worms, &c., composed of rings. 
Latin annHJus, a ring ; anntUarius, ringed, full of rings. 
Annunciate, an.nun',sM,ate not a.nun\8M.ate ; annunciator. 

Latin am. [ad] nunddre, to carry tidings to one. 
Anode, an\ode. The positive pole of a voltaic battery. (The 
opposite pole is called the Cathode.) Rule Ixx. 
Oreek anorddos, the way up ; katorodos, the way down fhodosj. 
Anodon, plu. anodons or anodonta, an\8.ddn, &c. The river 
mussel. 
Greek an ddontoU without teeth. 



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24 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Anodyne, an\oAine. A medicine to relieve pain. 

Greek an ddH/ni, destroyer of pain. 
Anoint, an.oinf not a.nointf. {Note only one n.) 
Norman-French enoindre; Latin inungo, to anoint. 
Anomaly, plural anomalies, a.nom'M.ly, a.nom'.a.JXz, In the 
Greek word the o is long, to compensate for the lost h. 
Greek aiUhnalos, irregular (Mmdlde, like). Bole Ixz. 
Anomopteris, an'.5.mop"-tS-ri8. Fossil ferns. 

Greek andmot pt&ris, anomaloas fern. 
Anonymons, a.non^y.rmu. The name suppressed. 
Latin anonyrmu ; Greek an ih%&ma, "without a name. 
Anoplotherinm, plu, anoplotheria, an'-op^lo.rJiee'-ri-um, an'-op^ 
lo.rheef-ri-dh. An extinct quadruped without horns, 
tusks, claws, or other weapons of defence. (Rule Ixx.) 
Greek andpldt, unarmed (an Mploa^ but S^orrXoSf without h), 
k -anse. No word in the language has this termination. 

Anserine, an^se.rine. Of the goose tribe. (Lat. anser, a goose.) 

-ant (Latin participle suflBx). *' A" is merely the vowel copula 
of words belonging to the first conjugation. 

Ant- (Greek prefix), contraction of anti, " Opposite to." 

Ant, ant, an insect. Annt, a relation. Haunt, plaee of resort. 
" Ant," corruption of Old English amete (amCt), an emmet. 
. " Aunt/' corruption of Latin amita (anCtJ, an aunt. 
'' Haunt," French hanter, to frequent a.house or place. 

Antacid, ani-a^-ld not an' -tta^ -id. Acid counteracter. 

Antacrid, ant-aW-rld not an'-tLak'-rld, Acrid counteracter. 

Antarctic, ant.ark'.tKk not an.tar'Mc, Opposite the arctic. 

Greek aaUi a/rkto», opposite the Northern Bear. 
Ante- (Latin prefix), " before," as antedate. 
Antecede, an'.t^xeed (not one of the 3 in-ceed), Eule xxvii. 
Antecedent, antecedence, not antecedant, antecedance, 

Latin ante ced^re, to go before. (Not of the Ist conjugation.) 
Antediluvian, an' -te-dtlu" M.an, Existing before the Deluge. 

Latin amie diJitvium, before the Deluge. 
Antelope, an\tS.lope, A corruption of antholope. 

Greek anthos op», beautiful eye. 
Antemeridian, an'-te.7n£-rid!' -l-an. Before noon. 

Latin anUm/irididmu. 
Antenna, plural antennsB (Latin). The feelers of insects. 

Anten'nla, plu. anten'ulsd (Latin) diminutive. 

The singular, antenna, is very rarely used. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 25 

Antepenult, an'-tS-pS-nuLf not an'-te.pee^-nulu 

Latin antH pfnK ultiimu, before the almost last (syL) 
Fene tMimus, the last-but-one ; ante penuUinvus, the last-hat-two. 
Anthelion, plu, Anthelia, ant,hee\li.ah, A bright spot opposite 
the sun. The ''h" is needless. (Rule Ixx.) 
Gre^ anUlioBy di^Xtos {anti Mlioa, opposite the sonX 
An^elix, anth\e.lix. The part of the ear opposite the ** helix." 
The th of this word belongs to the first syl. (Rule Ixx.) 
Anthem, an'.rhem. A corruption of the Old English antefen 
(anVfen, anfem), same as antiphon, Greek antvpMnos, 
sounds or voices from opposite choirs. Anthym (anti- 
' hunmos) might be " a hymn sung by two opposite choirs," 
but anthem can only be Greek anthemUj avdefds, q.v. 
AnthftmJH, anWhS.mU. Chamomile and its group of plants. 

Greek anthimis, verb anthid, I blossom [abundantly]. 
AntherozoideB, an'-Th&r-^.zoi'^-deez. Life-giving corpuscules of 
algse, ferns, mosses, and lichens (li\keru). 
Greek atiUher 9o6-€ido9, life-like anthers. 
AntheaiB, cun.rheif.8u not an\The.9i8. In Botany, 
Greek anthisis, the bursting or opening of a flower. 
Anthodimn, an.Thd\(U.um. The flower-head of comp. plants. 

Greek anthddis, full of florets (aaithoa duo, I put on flowers). 
Antholites, an' .Tho.liteso Fossil impressions of flowers. 

Greek anthos lithoSy fossil or stone flower. 
Anthophore, an'.jho.fore. The column which supports the petals. 

Greek antho^horos, the flower supporter. 
Anthophylite, an.ThofXLite. Species of hornblende. 

Greek anthophuUon, a clove (which it resembles in colour). 
Anthozoa, an'-Tho.zo"-ah. Sea-anemonSs, &c. 

Greek anihos z6a, flower animals. 
Anthracite, an^rhraMte. Cannel-coal (Greek anthrax, coal). 
Anthracosaums, plural anthracosauri, an'-Thrdk-o.8aw"-rus. 
AnthraoOflaur, plural anthracosaurs. An extinct saurian. 
Greek arUhraa sauros, lizard of the coal-measures. 
Anthraootherimn, an'-rhrdk-^.Thee'-ri-um, An extinct beast. 

Greek cmihraa thirion, a wild beast of the coal-measures. 
Anthraikerpeton, an'-rhray.ker^.pS-ton, An extinct reptile. 

Greek anthrax erpeton, a reptile of the coal-measures. 
Anthropophagi (plural), an' -rhro.pof" -a-ju Cannibals, 

Gseek anOvrdpot phagein, to eat men. 
Anti- (Greek prefix), " opposed to," "the opposite of:" as antidote. 

See Ante-. 
Antichrist, an'-ti.krist. A false Christ, a foe to Christ. 
Greek amti CJvri$to8, antagonist of Ghriit. 



26 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Anticipate, an,tiss/.tpate. To forestall. Antidpat-ing, anti- 
cipation, anticipator, anticipa'tory. 
Latin anticipdre {ante cap^ej, to take beforelumd. This word and 
antiqiLancm. antiquity, Ac, are the only instances of anti- signi- 
fying b^ore in time, (ante- J, instead of antagonistic (anti-). 

Anticlinal, an'-HMV-nal, (Geology,) Applied to strata. 

Greek amii Jblinetn, [strata] dipping in opposite directions. 
Antioolic not anUcholic. (Latin colic [us]). 
Antipathy, plu. antipathies, an,tip'M.Thy, an.ti'p'.a.Tjiiz, 

Greek anti patMs, a feeling repugnant to [something! 
Antiphonal, an.tif\S,nal, Besponsiye or alternate singing. 
(This word ought to he an.t%.fd'-ndL An,tif^-8-nal nueans 
"mutual slaughter" — &yTi-<l>6yos.) 
Greek am,ti ph&nos, &PTi-<pu)vos, responsive singing. 
Antiphrasis, anM/'-rd-sia. Irony. 

Greek anti phrdiia, [meaning] opposite to the words expressed. 
Antlpode, plu. antipodes, an'-tl-pode ; an,tip'-5-deez. 

Greek anti podoi, [people whose feet are] opposite to our feet 
Antiquary, an\ttqua.ry. A person fond of antiquities. Not 
antiqtiarian which is an adjective. 
Antiquate, awM^quate, an'tiquated, an'tiquating. 
Antique (Fr.), an.itfcft'; antiquely, an.tggfc'.Zy; antiqueness. 
Antiquity (former ages), plu. antiquities, anMyf.wlMz. 

ReHca of olden times. 
Latin antiquoHus, hrom ante before ; anticus, one before ns. 
Antiseptic, an'-tLsep^-tlh not an'-ti.8kep'''tic. " Antiseptic " 
means a preventive of putridity, but " antiskeptic " would 
mean one who is not sceptical or a disbeliever. 
Greek amti s^ptikos, opposed to putridity ((njir«). 
Antithesis, plural antitheses, anMth\^,m, an,tith\^.8eez, . 

Greek anti thifeis, words set in contrast. 
Anvil, an\vil. A smith's iron block. (Old Eng. anfilt an anvil.) 
Anxiety, plu, anxieties, anx.i'.SMz, Distress of mind. 
Anxious, ang'kf.shus; anxiousness, anxiously. 
Latin armeto^, anxius, from atUDt, I have vexed. 
Any, en\ny not an\ny. Old English enig or (Bnig, 
Aorta, a.or^.tah. The great or trunk artery. (Greek aorti.) 
Ap- (prefix), Latin preposition ad before p. 
Apartment, a.part'.ment (with one p), A room set " apart.** 

The corresponding French word has double *'p" ajppaHemnU; 
ap [ad] pa/rti, parted oflf for you. 

Apathy, ap\a.Thy; apathetic, ap\d,Thet"Xk. Without sympathy. 
Greek a pdthds, without passion or emotion of mind. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 27 

Apatite, aj^,a,tiUy a phosphate of lime. Appetite (for food). 
"Apatite,*' Greek apatiy deceit ; so called because it appears in every 

Tarie^ of colour and form, so that it is often mistaken. 
"Appetite," LatUi op [ad] petitua fappito, to seek for [food]). 

Ape, male dog-ai>e, female hitch-ape. (Old Eng. apa, an ape.) 
Apennine, Ap\Sn,nine, A range of mountains in Italy. 

Latin ApenrOwuM. (Single p, double n. ) 
Aperient, a.pee'.H.ent, (The *' e ** of this word is short in Latin.) 

Latin apirUfu, opening. (A laxative medicine. X 
Aperture, ap'.er.ture. An opening. (Only one p.) 

Latin dpertwra, (dpirio, to open). 
Apex, plu, apexes or apices ; a.pex, plu. a\pex,e8 or ap'X^eez, 

Latin opece, plural dpUes, the summit of anything. 
Aphelion, plural apheUa ; afJiee\Uj)n, af.hee\U.ah, The posi- 
tion of a planet when it is furthest from the sun. Peri- 
helion is its position wh^n nearest to the sun. 

Greek apo hilica, away from the sun. Peri, near. (In Greek it 
would be apSlion, similar to driyXtc&ri/s not &<p7}\i(tfTrfs.) 
AphiB, plural aphides, a'.yw, afXdeez, The plant-louse. (Lat.) 
AphoriBin, af\S.rizm, A maxim expressed with antithesis. 

Greek aphdrismds, distinction (aphorizd, to separate). 
Ai^ary, plu. apiaries, ap'.t&.riz, A place for bees (Bule Iv.) 

Latin dpidriwn {dpis, a bee). 
Apiocrinite, ap'-X.ok"-ri'nite, A fossil sea-lily or " eu'crinite.** 

Greek apion krinon, pear [shaped] lily [soCphyte]. 
Apo- (prefix) Greek preposition, equivalent to the Latin "ah," q.v. 
Apocalypse, a-pokf Mips, The Book of the Eevelation. 

Greek apokalupHi^ from apo kcUuptd, to un-cover or rereaL 
Apocrypha, a.pok.ri.fdh. The uncanonical Scriptures. 

Greek apo krUpha, things hidden from [the general]. 
Apocryphal, a.pokf,ri.fdl. Belonging to the Apocrypha, false. 
Apode, ap',ode. Fish without ventral fins, like sword-fish, eels, <fec. 

Greek a podoi, without feet (or ventral flns). 
ApodoDB, ap\S.d($n8, A generic name for " apodes " (ap^odes). 
Apogee, ap\6.jee. That point in a planet's orbit fhrthest from 
our earth. (The point nearest to our earth is the perigee). 

Greek apo g4, away from the earth (peri g4, near the earth). 
Apdllyon, ApoV.yon, The destroyer {Rev. ix. 11). 

Greek apolliijQn, destroying (Angel of the bottomless pit). 
Apology, plu. apologies, a.poV.6jiz, excuses ; apoFogist 
Apologetdc, apologet'ical, apologet'ically, apologet'ics. 
Apologize, apologized, <fec. (Greek apo-logizomai. R. xxxii.) 

Greek apdldgla, an excuse ;• Latin apologiticut, apologetic. 



28 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Apophthegm not apothegm, ap'-6.rhem. A sententioas raying. 

Greek apo phthegma, [a sajing made] bj a word. 
Apoplexy, ap\8.plex.y. Suspension of the action of the brain. 

Greek apopUxia (apo plSktos, one atruck hj a fit). 
Apostasy not apostacy, a.'pos'da.sy. Falling off from the faith. 

Greek apoatdaia (apo stasia, a standing away from the faith.) 

Apostatize not apostatise, ajpos\td-tize. To become apostate. 

Greek apo atdtizd, to place oneself away from [the faith]. 
A posteriori (ILat.) a pot.ter'ry.d" .ri. Causes inferred from effects. 
(The opposite is a priori, effects predicated from known 
causes. Natural Philosophy, being based on data, is an 
example of the former ; Mathematics of the latter.) 
Apostolic, a,po8.t8r.ik not a.pos't'l.tk, adjective of apostle. 

Greek apostolikoa (apoatffloa, apo stelo, to send off on a message). 
Apostrophe, plu, apostrophes (Greek), a.pos'.tro.fS, a.pos'.trd.fiz. 

Apos'trophise, apos'trophised (4 syl.), apos'trophising. 

Greek apostrophe. (" Apostrophise " is not a Greek word. £. xzxiii) 
Apothecary, plu. apothecaries, a.poth'.i.ka.riz. A druggist. 

Greek apoiMki, a place for stores. ** Apothecary " a drug-storer. 
Apotheosis, generally called ap'-o-Thee^b^'-sis, but more correctly 
ap' -o.rh^-o*' .si* (dirodioxris). Deification. 

Greek apo thedsis, [placed with the gods] by deification. 
Appal, appalled (2 syl.), appall-ing, appall-ingly. (Kule 1.) 
{This word would he better with double "I" — ^appaU.) 

Latin ap [ad] pall [eol to turn very pale. 
Appanage, ap'.pa.ndje. Lands assigned to younger sons. 

Med. Lat. ap [ad] paiidgivm, for maintenance (panis, bread). 

In French one " p," apanage. 

Apparatus, ap'-pd.ra^'-tiia not ap' -pa.rat" -us nor a-par'rat-u$, 

Latin ad [ad] parous, [instruments] prepared for [experiments]. 
Apparel, apparelled (3 syL), apparell-ing. (Bule iii. -el.) 

French appaxtil : Latin a/p [ad] jporo, to dress thoroughly. 
Apparent, ap.pair'.ent not a.pair'.ent. Evident. 

Latin ap [ad] parens, parentiis], visible to [men]. 
Appeal, ap.peaV not a.peaV. To refer to a higher court. 

Latin ap [ad] pellare, to drive or refer to [another court]. 
Appearance. (The spelling of this word is quite indefensible.) 
It ought to be appearence, as " apparent." 

Latin ap {ad]i>aren«; Itfed. Latin appa/rentia: French apparenoe. 
LppeoBe, ap.peez^ not i^.peez\ To pacify. (Double^.) 

Latin ap [ad]pa<^{co; French one "p," apai8er(pax, peace). 
Appellant, ap.peV.lanl. One who removes his suit to a higher 
court. 

Latin ap [ad] pelh. Medieval Latin appsUcms (a noun). 



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AND OF SPELLING. 29 

Appendage, ap.penf.dSge not a. penf.d&ge. Something added. 

Medieval Latin ap [0] penditiay hung on to [something else). 
Ajipendant, apx>endance. (These words ought to be appendent, 
appendencBj as dependent, dependence, independent, inde- 
pendence, pendent, impendent,) 
Latin op [ad] pendens, hanging on to [something]. 
Appen'diz, plural appen'dixes or appen^'dieea (4 syl.) A snp- 
plement. 
Latin app&ndM, plnral <xppe7id%ce» (4 syL) 

Appetite, ap^2'^-^^^^* Natural desire for food. (5?6« Apatite.; 

Latin ap [ad] pettba {ap-peto, to seek for [food]). 
Applaud, ap.plawd' not aplawdf. To praise by clapping hands. 

Applause, ap.plawz* not dplawz'. To clap the hands. 

Latin op [ad] plaudo, to dap the hands [in approval]. 
Applicable, ap\pU.ka.b'l not a.plik' M.Vle, Suitable. 

Latin op [ad] pUcoMlis, fit to be folded to [something]. 
Apply, applies (2 syl.), applied (2 syl.), applier, appli-able, appli- 
ance, appli-cable, appli-cability, hut apply-ing. 

Latin ap [ad] plico, to fold to (or) against something. 

To "apply a blister," is to fold it to the skin. To "apply to your 
books/' is to fold your attention or thoughts on them. 

Appoggiatnra, ap-pof -jd.tu" -r&h not a-podg'-y-too^-rah, A 
grace-note in Music, (ItaJian.) 
Italian appoggiare, to lean on something. A grace-note "leans on " 
the note preceding it. 

Appoint, ap.poinf not d.poinf ; appointment (double p). 
French appointer, to give a salary to a person. 
(It is incorrect to say a person is " appointed " on a committee or 
board, if no "pay'* is attached to the office.) 

Apportioned, ap.por',8kund not a,poi^.8htmd. Assigned. 

Latin ap [ad] portio, [to give] to one his portion. 
Apposite, ap\po.zite. To the point. In Orammar, an amplifi. 
cation without a connecting word: as " Victoria, daughter 
[of the duke of Kent]. 
Latin ap [ad] poiAtua, placed (or) put to [the other]. 
Appreciate, ap,pree^,8h^,ate not &,pree',8hS,ate, 

Fr. apprecitflr, Lat. ap [ad] premium, [to value] aooording to its price. 
Apprehend, ap.pre.hend', apprehend-er, apprehend-ing (from the 
root), apprehens-ible, apprehens-ion, apprehens-ive (from 
the supine). 
Latin ap [ad] prehendr^re, apprdieru-^m, to seixe on. 
Apprentice, ap,pren\fU not a.pren\tiz. One bound to a trade. 
French apprenti, a learner {apprendre, to learn) ; Latin apprehendo 
or apprendo, to learn. 



30 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Apprise, ap.prizef. To inform, to give one notice of [something] . 

French ixppris, participle of apprendre, to learn. 
Approach, ap.proacK not a.proacK ; approachable. 

French approcher {produ, near), to draw near. 
Approbation, ap'-pro.bay"-8hun. Approval. (Double p.) 

Latin ap [ad] prohdtio, proof or satisfaction given to [the judgment]. 
Appropriate, ap,pro\pH.ate not a.pro\pH.ate ; appropriator. 

French approprier. Latin ap [ad] propriu$, [to take] to one's self. 
Approve, approov' not a.proov\ To admit the propriety of. 

Latin ap [ad] prdho, to prove to (or) satisfy [the judgment]. 
Approximate, ap,pro3f .tmate not a,prox\tmate, 

Latin ap [ad] proxitnare, to draw next to some one. 
Appni, ap\pwe\ (In horsemanship) reciprocity between horse 
and rider. If the mouth of the horse answers readily to 
the bit, the horse has a good appui. If the rider manages 
his reins skilfuUy^ he has a good appui, 
French appv/i, a supt)ort or fulcrum ; the two ends of the lever are 
the reins and bit, the power is applied by the hand of the rider, 
the fulcrum is the comer of the horse's mouth. ''Appui" is a 
nice adjustment of power in the rider, and a sensitive response in 
the mouth of the horse. 

Appurtenance, ap.pur^^te.nance not a.pwr^ ,t^.nance. (The spell- 
ing of this word is quite indefensible.) 
Latin ap [ad] ptfrtinens, pertaining to ; French appartenance. 
A priori (Latin), apri.d\ri. Premising the effects of a cause. 
In Mathematics t we argue a priori : thus, knowing the 
value of 2 and 4, we conclude that 2x4=8, 4 — 2 = 2. 
In Natural Philosophy we proceed the other way (a poste- 
riori) : thus, we find all unsupported bodies ftdl to the 
earth, and from this fact we assume there is a power in 
the earth to cause it. The power we call " gravitation." 
Apron, a\pron not a\pun. " An apron " corruption of a nape- 

ron (French), a large cloth (nappej a table-cloth). 
Apse CI syL) of a church. The bay or curved part behind the 

altar. This word ought to be hapse (Greek &\f/is.) 
Apsis, plu, apddes, ap^siSy ap'.8\,deez. Two points in the orbit 
of planets, one nearest the sun, and the other furthest 
off. C This word ought to be hapsis, hapsides.) 
Greek hapsis^ a hoop, arch, bow (d^^s). 
Aptera, ap\tS.rah. Wingless insects, as spiders, fleas, <fec. 
(For the singular we use the word ap'teran.) 
Oreek a ptira, without wings. 
Aquatic, a.qu^tWh. Pertaining to water, living in water. 
(In Latiny the second " a " of this word is long.) 
Latin aqudticut, aquatic (aqua, water). 



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AND OF SPELLING. 31 

Aqiiariiun, plural aquaria or aqnarinms. Cases for the exhi- 
bition of marine animals and plants. (This word should 
he aqua- vivarium, as the Latin word " aquarium " means 
a "plcicefor watering catHe,^*) 

Aqueduct, not aquaduc nor aquaduct, a\qu^.duct, 

Latin aqwB^uduSf a dact or conduit for water. (Aquae, ^en. case.) 
Aqueous, a',que.us. Watery. (Latin ? aqueus?) (Note, aque not 
aqua,) {The spelling of this word is indefensible.) 

Aquilegia, a'-qvi.lee''-gi-ah. The Columbine plants. 

(This word is most improper to express "An eagle-like 
plant.** It exists in Latin, and means " vessels to collect 
water ** (aqua-lego). Aqui, a cont. of the old form aqtiai.) 
Xjatin aquHa, an eagle ; from a fanciful resemblance of the flower to 
eagle's claws. *' Columbine " is from Columba^ a dove ; from a 
similar resemblance to the claws of a pigeon. Probably it is a 
coimption of aquila-chele<i— chile, a Urd's claw (the eagle's-daw). 

Aquiliiie, aV.qul.line. Hooked like an eagle's beak. 

Ijatin dquiUnHs, like an eagle [dguila, an eagle). 
At- (prefix) is the Latin preposition ad before r. 

-«r, (termination) of adjectives is the Latin -r[w] preceded by 
** a," as vulgar, ** pertaining to " the vulgus (mob). 

-«r, termination of native nouns, " agents " — beggar. 

Arabesque, Ar'.a.hesli. Moorish ornamentation. 
'Uque (French postfix for like), Arab-like. 

Arabic, Ar'r&Mk not A.rdb'.dk. The Arabian language, from 
Arabia, Arabian : as gum-arabic. 

Arable, ar*ra.Vl. Fit for tillage, cultivated by the plough. 
(This word in Latin has the second " a " long.) 
Latin Brabilis (verb or^e, to plough). It is the long d of the 1st conj. 
Arachnoid, a.rakfnoid. A membrane of the brain fine and 
delicate as a cobweb. In Botany , soft downy fibres. 
Greek aracrni-eidos, Uke a cobweb. 
Araneides, a.rain'.tdeez. The spider family. 

The genus is called arachnida, d.rak\ntdah, 
Latin cvrdnea-idSs, the spider family. 
Arbitrary, ar'.bt.trar''ry not ar^.bLter"ry. Dogmatic. 

Latin arhitrarius (dra Hto, to go to the altar to give judgment. In 
swearlnir, the Romans touched the horns of the altar, hence the 
phrase usque ad euros, to assert on oath). 

Arbitrarily, ar^.bttrar^ry.lp not aT^.bi.ter"ry.ly, Dogmatically. 

Arbitrator, feminine arbitratrlx. An umpire (Law Latin), 

Arboretum, plu. arboreta, at'-bo.ree^-tumy ar'-bo.ree''.tah. A 
pleasure ground of rare shrubs and trees (Latin). 



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32 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Arbour (of a gardea) not harbour. Harbour (for ships) not arbour, 
''Arbour," Latin arbor, a tree (a seat under a tree). 
"Harbour," Old English here-berga, an army-statioB, hence a place 
for a fleet, and hence a place for ships in genwaL 

ArbntuB, a/i*,bu.tus not ar.bu'.tus (Latin). The strawberry-tree. 
Arc, part of a circle ; Arch (in architecture). 

Latin a/rcus, a bow. ''Arch"— this word is a blander, from the 
supposition that architect meuis a maker of arehea. and not a 
"directing builder" (Oreek OArehiteetdn, arcfU tektdn), where the 
preflLz ar^i- is from the verb arcM, to direct, and not from the 
Latin orotM, a bow. 
Arcanum, plu. arcana (Latin), ar.kay'.num, ar.kay'.nah. A 

secret [preparation], the secrets of a secret society. 
Arch- (prefix), Teutonic arg, " crafty," " waggish," as archness. 
Arch- (prefix), Greek arkos, " chiefi" as arc^ibishop. 

EuiiE i. — Abch- followed by a consonant is pronounced arch, 
EuiiE ii. — ^Abch- followed by a vowel is pronounced ark. 
Examples of Rule i. — 



cH-bish'op 


ABCH-duke 


ABCH-mai'shal 


-bish'opric 


•duke'dom 


-nes8 


(Archiepiscopal, B. 


ii.) -du'cal 


-pas'tor 


-buil'der 


.duch'y 


-philos'opher 


-butler 


-duch'ess 


-po'et 


-but^iress 


-feron 


-pon'tiff 


-cham'bOTlain 


.fiend 


-predate 


-chan'cellor 


-flam'en 


-prealjyter 


•conspir'ator 


.flatt'erer 


-priest 


-crit/ic 


-foe 


-pri'mate 


-dea'con 


-goVemor 


-proph'et 


-dea'conry 


-her'etio 


-stone 


-dea'conship 


-her'esy 


-tndt/ors 


(Archidiaconite.R 


.ii.) -byp'ocrit© 


-treafson 


-di'ocese 


-like 


-ty'rant 


-Dru'id 


-ly 


-wise 


Examples of Rule ii.— 






ABCH-aism ABCH-i.6pis'copate 


ABOH'-i.tect 


-se.ol'ogy 


•i.epis'copal 


-itecture 


-an'gel 


-il 


-itrave 


-angel'ic 


-iJochlan 


-Lvolt 


-e.go.SBu'rus 


.i.ma'gus 


-ives 


-e.type 


.4B.im'6de8 


-on 


-ical 


-ipel'ago 


-on.8hip 


•i4iac'onal 






Exoeptiona:— 






ARCH-apos'tate 


not ark.apo9^tat€ 


ABCH-apos'tle 


not ark 


.apotftle 



ABOH-er, ARCH-ery, ARCH-ed, abch-cs, ABOH-ing, <fec. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 



Archives, ark.ives not ar*.eheevz. Historical records, their depdt. 

Greek archeioTi^ a public building, residence of the chief magiatrates 
under whose charge the public records were placed. 

Arctic, arKdxk not ar'.tik. Pertaining to the North Pole. 

Greek arkto8, the [Great] Bear, the chief northern constellation. 
-ard (native suflBx), "species," "kind:" dotard, drunkard — one of 
the doting kind, one of the drunken kind. 

Ardent, ardent-ly, ardency. (Latin ardens, ardentis, burning.) 

Ardour, ar^.dor. Fervency. (Latin ardor, French ardeur.) 

Are, dr not air. The old Norse "we, you, they are" has 
superseded the older form of synd or sinden. 

Areca^ a.ree'.kdh. The betel-nut tree. (Malabar areek.) 
Arena, plural arenoe or arenas, a.ree'.nah, a.reef.nee, a.reef.nAz, 
Latin ovrina, sand ; that part of the amphitheatre where the gladia- 
tors fought, which was always well sanded. 

Ar^la, plural areolsB, a.reef.o.lihy (sing.), means the coloured 
circle round the nipple of the breast ; a.ree'.o.lee (plural) 
means the spaces in the wings of insects between the 
nervures (2 syl.) Aurelia, g.v., is quite another word. 

AreopagOB, ar'ree.op^-d-gits not aT'reef-o.pay^-gus. 

Greek Arespagds, Mars' Hill (a court of justice in Athens). 
Argentine, ar^.gen.tin (a mineral) ; ar'.gen.tine (adj.), like silver, 
belonging to the republic of La Plata. 
Latin argentwrn,, silver. (The metal is also called argentan.) 
Argil, ar^.gilt clay ; argUl-aceous, argiU-iferous, argill-ite, argiU- 
itic, argUl'Ous, &c. (with double I). (Kule iii. -il.) 

Argcmantic, a/i^-go.naut'^k not ar^-gS.nawk"-tXk. Pertaining to 
the argonauts. (Greek Argo navA, the ship " Argo.") 

Argae, ar^.gu; argues, ar^.guze; argued, ar'.gude; argner, 
ar'.gu.er; ar'gument not arguement, ar'gumenta^'iibn, 
ar'gumen"tative, ar'gumen"tatively. (The "e*' in ar- 
gue is & blunder.) (This is the only word, except four 
verbs in '*'dge," which drops the "«" before ^^ment") 
Bule xviii. 
French argru[er], argument, argumentation^, &c. ; Latin arguo. 

Arise, past tense arose, past part, arisen. 4iis-ing* 
A.rize\ a.rozf^, a.r^.'n, a.r'ne\ing. To rise up. 
Old English arU{cm\, past ards, past participle arisen. 

Ariatocraoy, plu. aristocracies, ar^ris.tokP-rd-sy, ar'ris.toJsf-ra-siz. 

It is noto custemary to spell all the words from the Greek kratia 

"craiy/* not cnsj: thus, aristocracy, autocracj/, demoeraey, with 

tftr/k|fDridmobooracir. The ending -oy denotes "rank," "alBce/'&c. 

Greek wristokraiia farisUm krateinj, rule of th^ best-bom. 



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84 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Arithmetic, a,rith',m^.t%k not a.reth'.m^.tlk. 

Arithmetical, a-rith! .met" -l-kal not arreth^mef-i-kaL 

Arithmetician, a-rithf-mS.Us'hJ'-an not a-reth''me.ti8h"-an. 
(In the Greek the " e" of all these words is long.) 

Greek arUhmos^ number ; arithnUtikds, one skilled in numbers. 
Armada, ar.may'.ddh not ar.mdh".dah. An armed fleet. (Sp.> 
Armadillo, plural armadilloB (Spanish). (Eule xlii.) 

Aimillary (sphere), ar^.mU.lary not ar.miV.ldry, . A machine 
fitted with movable circles representing the great and 
little geographical circles of our earth. 
Latin armilla, a bracelet or iron ring. 
Army, plural armies, ar'.my, at'.miz. (Rule xliv.) 
Aroma, a.ro.mah. The fragrant principle of plants. 
Aromatic, ar^rS.mat"4k. Containing aroma. 
Greek ardma, seasoning. Latin anyrndtlcus, aromatic. 
Arpeggio, plural arpeggios, ar.ped'.jo, ar.ped'.joze. (Rule xlii.) 
Chords played as in the harp, that is " open," not " close." 
Italian arpeggio (arpa^ a har^ ; arpeggiare^ to play the harp). 
Arragonite, ar'ra.go.nite not ar.rag\on.ite. A metal. 

(This word ought to he spelt with one r.) It is named 
from Aragon, in Spain. 
Arraign, ar.rain*, to indite. Arrange, to set in order. 

Old Fr. arraigmr; Lat. ad rationem stare, to stand to a law-suit. 
Arrange, ar.rainj, arranged (2 syl.), arrang-ing, arrang-er, 
arrangement (with the e), ar.rainj'. ment. (Note the 
double r.) (Only 5 words lose the " e " before "ment " .• 
acknowledg-ment, abridg-ment, lodg-ment, judg-ment, 
and argu-ment. All but the last end in -dge.) 
French cm-angeTt arrangement, Le., ar [ad] rang, according to rank. 
Arrant (thorough), as an " arrant knave." Errant, wandering, 
*' An arrant knave " is probably the Old English a nearo cndpa (an 
arrant knave), similarly rt^aro bregd (great fear), nearo grap 
(thorough grasp). 
"Errant," Latin errant, ^rrantis, wandering. 

Array, arrayed not arraid. To put in order of hattJe. 

Medieval Latin arraya, an array : a/rraiatio, an arraying. 
Arrest, ar.resif not a.res1f. To seize as a prisoner. 

Greek arista, [summoned to hear] the judgment of the court. 

Medieval Latin a/rresto, to arrest ; arreatum, an arrest. 

Arrive, dr.rivef not d.rive'; arrived (2 syl.), arriv'-ing, arriv'-aL 
Latin or [ad] Hvum, [come] to the river (the shore or boundary), 
rivers being the natural boundaries of nations. 

Arrogant, arrogance, arrogancy, arrogate (double r). 
Latin or [ad] rogdre, to claim to [oneself]. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 35 

-art (Old English termination), added to agents, as braggart. 
Art (of the verb " to be "), is the Old English ear-th or ear-t^ the 
first person "am " being eo-m (later form ea-m)y m is the 
first person pronoun, and th or t the second. 
Art, a work of skilL Hart, a male deer. Heart (of the body). 
"Art," Latin of»ortM. "Hart," Old Eng. heorot. "Heart," Old 
l^g. heorte. 

Art'igt, art'isan, art'ifice, artiTlcer, artific'ial, artificially. 

Artexnisia, af^-t^.miz"'i-ah. Mother-wort, wormwood, &c. 

Erom Art&mis, who presided over women in child-birth, 
hence also the name mother. wort. It is called worfn- 
wood because moths dislike it for its bitterness. 
Arf ery, plu. art'eries. A vessel to convey blood from the heart. 
(In Greek the " e " w long^ at in arterial.; 
Greek artiria(i.e., aer tireA, to hold air; from the old notion that 
arteries are air iuhea^ because in dead bodies they are empty). 

Artesian (well) Ar.tee\zl.an not Ar.teef.zhdn. Water obtained 
by boring the earth. 
So called from iiWoM (or iirt^titem) In France. 
Article, the called the "definite," an the "indefinite." "An" 
drops its n when the word following begins with a vowel 
or Z» mute. "The" is a pronoun adjective, "An" the 
numeral adjective an^ (one). See A (article). 
Artifice, ar^.ttfU (Latin artificium^ done by art). 
-Artillery, ar.tiVXS.ry, Ordnance. (French artillerie}. 
Artisan, ar^.ttzan. A skilled workman, a mechanic. 

Latin oHia, with the termination -on (an agent), "a man of skiU." 
Anun, air^.um. The wake-robin, cuckoo-pint, lords and ladies, &c. 
Greek (vriin, said to be an Egyptian word. Galled " Wake-robin," 
because it generates great spontaneoos heat 

-ary (Latin termination) -n[««], preceded by " a." It is added 
both to no^ms and acljectives. In nouns it means "a 
place " for something, as library; or ** one who pursues 
a craft," as statuary. As an adjective it means "per- 
taining to," as literary. 

As- (prefix), the Latin preposition ad before " s.** 

As ... as; 80 ... as. In affirmative sentences as follows as. In 
negative sentences as follows so. " It is as light as day; " 
" It is not so light a« it was." So in indirect negative 
sentences: " Few kings have been so feared as Napoleon," 
that is **not many kings," &c. "/So far as I know," that 
is, " I do not know to tiie contrary.'' 

AsafcBtida, as*d.fee"-tl-dah, A gum-resin of fetid smell. 
Latin dsafatida, a fetid gum {(wd/rum,, nard). 



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36 ERRORS OF SFEEOH 

Aflcaris, plural ascarides, as'.ka.ris, as.kar^yJleez. 

Greek cukdriSt an intestinal threkd'^orm. 
Ascend, ascended (3 syl.) : -ed after "d" or "t** forms a sepa 
rate syllable. 
Ascension not -tion : after " d," "de," or " t," -swn and not 

-Hon is added. 
Ascendency, ascendant ought to be ascendent (not the 1st 
Latin conjugation). 

I Ascendahle, one of the abnormal -words in -oMe. (Rule 

ji xxiil) It ought to be ascendible, like "descendible.*' 

' Latin as [ad} scendire {%.€., icandere), to climb np to [something]. 

Ascertain, as'ser.tawf. To make oneself sure by investigation. 

Latin as [ad] certiu, to assure oneself. 
ikscetic, a8.8ef.lk, a hermit ; acetic, a.8ee',tiky sour. 

Greek askitds {asked, to honour a diyinity). 
Ascii, as'«?-i. Those who have no shadow [at noon]. For the 
singular we use the word a^^cian. 
Greek a akia, without shadow (peoi^ in the torrid aoi^e). 
Ashamed, a.thafned^ not a8,8hained\ " To be ashamed," and 
"To be glad," are deponent verbs, that is, passive in form 
but active in sense. 
Old English «Mcsuniain,to.h% askamed ; gladian, to be glad. 
Ask, dsk not ^k(ax is a vulgaiism). . Old English asc^^ian'}, 
-asm (Greek termination -sm [os] preceded by 'f a." It is added 

to nouns), " system of^" "state of" — enthusiasm. 
Asparagus, as.par^ra.gu8 not ^ar^T0w.gr(U8 nor grass. 

Greek aspdrdgds, a plant with turios, i.s., nnexpanded ehoots. 
' Asperse, aspersed^ (^ syL), aspers^-ing, aspers'-er, aspers^ion. 

Latin aspergo, supine ofperMam, to sprinkle. 
Asphodel, as'.fS.del not as.fd'.del. The^ day-lily, or King'8-iq?ear. 

Greek asphddglds {spdddsi ashes), from its use in.funerals. 
Asphyxia, a8.fix\%.dh, A lull in the action bf the heart 

Greek a sphuxis, without pulse (from suffocation, Ac ) 
Aspire', aspired (2 syl.), aspir'-ing, aspir'-er, aspirant. 
As'pirate, as'pirated, as'pirat-ing, as'pira"tion. 
Latin as [ad] 52>irdre, to breathe towards or aim at [something]. 
-ass (French termination -asse added to nouns), means " made 

of," as cuirass, made of leather {cuir). 
Abb, possessive case 9aa% ass'Xz ;■ plural asses, 4xzs',ez. 
Assail, assailed (2 syl.), assail-ing/assail-er. (Ruleii) 

ftBMtl^'O.lilA nji »n.i1//i.h*l- nnt n.sniit.a h'L (RbIa x-riii^ 



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AND OF SPELLING; 



; asMii^Mn, One who attempts murder by surprise. 
Armenian hashishin, hemp-eaters (Lanb): fcowa. to lie in ambush 
in.onier to kill (Volnbt j. {Observe double s twice. ) 
Ate, cujcu'. sinuate. To kill by surprise. (Double « twice.) 
Aflnmlt^ assalf not a* sawltf. To attack violentiy. 

Latin <u [ad] aaUum, to leap on uiother. 
AgB»y, past tense assayed not assaid. It is no cemp. of ** say." 
French essa^er, to tiy ; Medieral Latin assaia, assay. 

Aflsemble, assembled, as^emf.b'ldy assem^l-ing, assemlbl-er^ 
assem'bl-y, assem'bl-age. (Double t throughout.) 

French assembler, to gather persons together ; Med. Latin assemr- 
hltUio, (as [adj simul blatio, to chat tc^etber). 

ilflWilt, as.8enf not a.senf. To admit as true. 

Latin as [ad] sentio, to thihk as yon think. 

Aflsertion, cLs^er'.shun not d.sei^.ahan. An affirmation. 

Latin as [ad] serium. Not the supine of ''sero," to sow, which is 
sdium, but of 8ar#, to knit or weave; whence serire colloqiiia 
(Livy), and serire sermdnes (Plautus). Conrersation is a *' web of 
-words/' or "knitting thoughts with words." 

AsaeaBor, as^es^^or not d.8es\8er* One who assesses. (B. xxxvii.) 
AflBeiaafale, one of the abQ<»rmal words in -able, (E. x]uii.) 
Lfttin as [ad] sessoTi a sitter [at a board for adjusting taxes]. 
Aj»et8, tis^seUf (plu.) Property available for payment of debts. 

Latin as [ad] satis, [to be taken till there is] enough to [pay all]. 
AflBeverate, as^sev^e.rate, assev'erat-ed, assev'erat-ing, assev'e- 
rat-or, assev^era^tion. To declare positively. 
Latin <m [ad] severdre, to speak according to the truth. 
ABuduous, asMd'.u.iis not d.sid\ju.u8. Industrious. 

Latin OA [ad] secUlo, to sit close to [work]: 
Assign asMne not d-sinef. To make over to another. 
Assignor, a8'.^,noT not as.sig'.nor nor a8.8ine\or. 
Assignee, at\tti.nee not as.siff'.nee nor asMnef.nee. 
Assignment, asMne* .ment not dMne' .menU (Double s.) 
Ijatin as [ad] signo, to mark out for another. 

Astrf*"^^*^*^! asjfiwf.i.laU not (i.8im\u.late. To make Uke. 

Asidm'ilat-ed, assim'ilat-ing, assim^ilat-or, assim'ila'^tion. 

Latin as [ad] svmildre, to likot to something else (^m- not -nvu-/ 
Assistant, assistance, as.8is',tant, as^isf.tance (Rule xxiv.) 

Latin as [ad] sisUns, standing by or near another. 
Assize, plu. assizes, asMze^, asMzef.ez. (Double s.) 

Law Latin oMisa (as [ad] sessioj, a sitting to [hear tr|^. 




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ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Associate, as.so'.sM.ate not a.8o*.8h^.ate. To join as oompanion. 
Asso'ciat-ed, asso'ciat-ing, asso'eiat-or, asso'cia^'tion, 
asso'^ci-able (because the 1st Latin conjugation). 
Latin as [ad] soeidre, to be a companiQii to one. 

Assnme, a8.9ume\ assumed' (2 syL), assum'-ing, assum'-er, 
assum'-able. (Kule xxiii.) 

Assnmpf-iye, assump'tion, assump'sit (from the snpine). 
Latin as [ad] sum&Ke, snpine oMumpfum. to arrogate to [oneself]. 
Assure, a8^1iure\ assured' (2 syl.), assur'-ing, assur'edly (4 syL), 
assur'-edness (4 syl.), assur'er, assur'ance. To make sure. 
French (hssur&r; liledieval Latin OMuro, asswraiMAa; Le., cw [ad] 
aecaro, to seeure to one* 

-aster (term, of nouns. French -a«tre). Deprecatory: poetaster, 
-aster (Greek ast^r). "Affected by the stars : " diso^t^. 
Asterisk, tis'.ter.^h not as'.terXk. A mark thus *. 

Greek ast^riskds, a little star (used to direct to a footnote). 
Asteroid, as\te,roid. One of the minor planets. 

Greek ast^ros-eidos, like a star. Herschel nses the gen. case to signify 
*' Ukeneiis of character ; " thus in Latin similis domini, " of a simi- 
lar disposition to the master." {See Astrolci.) 

Asteroida, as'.tS.roid^.dh, An order of polypes (3 syl.) 

Greek asUfros-eidos. So called because their expanded tentacles 
form a star-like or rayed arrangement. 

* Asthma, asth'.mah. A disease affecting the breathing. 

Greek asthma, a panting {ad, to blow or puff). 
Astroid, as'troid. A star with six points instead of five. 

Greek astrd-eidos, like a star in outward visible form ; so in Latin 
" OS, humerosque similis deo,'* in outward form like a god — ^in face 
and shoulders. {See Asteroid.) 

Asylum, plu. asylums or asyla, a.8f.lum, aaff.lah, (One a.) 
Greek asiUon, a |>lace not to be violated (a 8ula>6, not to pillage)L 

At- (prefix). The Latin preposition ad before " t." 

At (preposition). Being a preposition it requires after it a noun, 
expressed or understood. Hence, such a phrase as 
*' Where are you liviog at?" is incorrect; although it 
would not be incorrect to say " What home are you Uving 
at?" (i.e., at what hotise are you living?) Hat (for the 
head). 

"At all," "not at all," not "a-tall," "not a-tall.** 

-ate (Latin termination -t [m«] preceded by " a." 
It is added to nouns, adjectives, and verbs. 
To NoDNS signifjdng " office : " as advocate. 
To Adjectives sif^ifyiug " made of," " full of: ** passionafe. 
To Verbs signifying to " take up," " put into : " animate. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 



-ate (in Chemistry), denotes a salt formed by the union of an 

acid with a base : as nitrate. 
Ate, past tense of eat. Hate, dislike. Ait, an island. 

"Ate,** Old English et[an], past CB^t, past participle eten, to eat. 

" Hate," Old Eng. Mte, verb hettcm, past hette, past part, hetten. hate. 

" Ait,** corraption of the Norse eyot or ayot, a little ey or ay [island]. 

Athene'nm or Athensd'mn. Public club house, reading room, &c. 

Greek Athmaion, the temple of Athensa goddess of wisdom). 
Athletio, ath.leifXk not athMPXk, adjective of athlete (2 syl.) 

(In Greek the " e " of the second syllable is long.) 
Greek cMUiUs, a wrestler ; adjective athUfOcds. 
-atic (Latin termination -fic[M»] preceded by *<a") added to 

it^jectival nouns: as fanatic, " one'who belongs to z.Janum 

or temple ; " i.e., a priest, who raved like a madman when 

he gave responses in the temple. 
Atlas, plu, Atlantes, At', las , At.lan' .teeZy not- Atlan'tides (4 syl.) 

In architecture, " Atlantes " are figures of Atlas used as 

supporters or pillars. {See Atlantides.) 
Atlantean, At.lan\tean not At,lan.tee\any adj. of Atlas. 

Latin AtlarUSua, belonging to Atlas. {Atlantian is quite another 

word, being the adj. of " Atlantias," a female descendant of Atlas.) 

Atlantides, At.lan'.tl,deez, The Pleiades (Pli\a,deez) or seven 
** daughters of Atlas " formed into a constellation. 

Greek Atlas -id6s (-ides, a patronymic), offspring of Atlas. 
Atlantiades, Atlan\ttd.deez. Mercury, a descendant of Atlas. 

In Greek the masculine patronymics are -adds, -id6s, and -iadfis. 
Atmosphere, af.mos.fear. The fluid enveloping the earth. 



Greek atmos sphaira, a sphere of vapour. (The " air" is one part of 
the ** Atmosphere." The Atmosphere consists of air , vapotbr, gaaes, 
aaid iohatever else contributes to the mass.) 

Atmospheric, a1f-7nos.fer"'ik not atf-m88.fee"'rlk. 

French aifnosphMque, pertaining to the atmosphere. 
Atom, af.om, at'omic, afomed (2 syl.), at'omise, at'omised (3 
syl.), at'omis-ing, at'omis-er, at'omism. An indivisible 
particle. (One U) 

Atomical, a.tom'.i.kal, atom^ically, adj. and adv. of atom, 
Greek dtdmds, an atom (a temno, not cut, not able to be cut). 
Atone, a.tdne% atoned' (2 syl.), aton'-ing, aton'-er, atone-ment. 

A compound of at- one. 
Atonic, at^.S.niky atony, af.d.ny. Wanting tone. 
A ton'ic is a medicine to give tone. 
Greek a tdnds, without that which strains or " braces." 
Atrabiliary, a'-traMt'-X-a-ry not a'-trdMr-d-ry. Melancholic. 
Latin atra VClis, black bile : supposed at one time to produce melan- 
choly. (Greek meUin ch6U, black bile. ) 



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40 EttRORS OF SPEECH 

Atrocious, d.tro'.8hu8 not attro^skus. Very heinous. 

Latin atrox, atrdcis, black, heinous. 
Atrocity, d.tros'.uty ; atrociousness, a.tro.8hu8.ne88, 

(In Latin the*'o" of atrocity is UmgJ (Atrodltas.) 
Attach, at.tacK ; attachment, at.tachf.ment. (Double U) 

French attacher, to bind to another. Low Latin aitachidre. 
Attack, attacked, at.takf not a.takf. To assault. 

French attaqy.fr: Latin ai [aA] Greek tasso, to put an army in array; 
hence the Latin word tactid, those who array an army. 

Attain, at.tain. To touch on, not to complete. Thus a man 
attains his 50th year on his 50th birthday. 
Attainment, attainable (double t). Rule xxiii. 
Latin at [ad] tinSre [tenere], to touch on, to reach till 70a touch. 
Attainted, at.taint'.ed not d.taintf.ed. Condemned to lose one's 
civil rights, stained with the charge of treason. 
Latin at [ad] tinctiM (tingo, to dye ; Greek teggo=.tengo). 
Attempt, at.temptf not d.tempt. An effort, to try. 

Latin at [ad] tento, to try to [do something]. 
Attend, attention, at.tend', at.ten'.shun. (Double t.) To stretch 
the mind to follow a person's thoughts, hence to follow. 
Latin at [ad] tendo, to stretch out to something. 

Attendance, attendant. These should be attendence, attendent : 
as superintendent, superintendence. (Rules xxiv. and xxv.) 
Latin attendens, aiiendentis, verb attendire, to attend. 

Attenuate, at.ten' M.ate not d.ten' M.ate. To jnake thin. 

Atten'uated, atten'uat-ing, atten'ua"tion, atten'uat-or. 
Latin at [ad] tenvx), to make very thin. 
Attestation, at'-te8.tay"-8hun not d-te8.tay"-8hun. Attestator. 

Latin at [ad] testdri, to bear witness to [a document]. 
Attire, at.tire' not d.tire'. A dress, to dress or adorn. 
Attired' (2 syl.), attir'-ing, attir'-er. 
French aiour, a head-dress ; dame d'atour, lady of the bed-chamber. 
Attorney, at.tur^.ney, plu. attorneys not attornies. 

Law Latin attomdttLs, one who takes the turn or place of [his client]. 
Attorney-general, plu. attorney-generals, not attorneys-general. 
In this compound " general " is not an adjective, but a 
noun. The word does not mean general or common 
attornies, but head or crown attorneys. Similarly lieu- 
tenant-general8, brigadier-generals ^ major-generals, (fee. 
Attraction, attract. shun not d.tr<ic\8hun. 

Latin at [ad] tractio, a drawing towards something. 
Attractable, attractability. These ought to be attractihle, at- 
tractibility, as contractihle, contractibility (Rule xxiii.) 



I 



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AND OF SPELLING, 41 

Attribute, af.tri.bute (noun) ; attriy.ute (verb) (Rule 1.) 
Latin at [ad] tribuifre, to give or ascribe to someone. 
Attributable, contributa6Z€, diBtnbntahle (Rule xxiii.) 
Attrition, at.iri8h\on not a.tri8h\on. Wearing by friction. 

Latin at [ad] tritus, [one thing] robbed against another. 
Attune, attune' not a.tune' ; attuned (2 syl.) ; attun'-ing. 

Latin at [ad] tonui, to put in tune [with other instruments]. 
Auction, awk'.8hun not ok'.shun. A sale by bidding. 

Ijatin audio (augeo, to increase [the amount of each bid]). 
Aucuba, au'.ku.bah not a.kW.bah. A Japanese plant. 
Audacious, au.day'shus not ou.day\8hu8. Bold, impudent. 

French audUuneux, Latin audax, avddcis, bold. 
Audible, not audable ; so inaudible. (Not the 1st Lat. conj.) 

Latin avdlre, to hear ; audihUis, what may be heard. 
Audience. " A.B. had an audience of Her Marjesty," not " an 

audience vnth — ;" " the queen gave an audience to — " 
Augean, Au',je.an not Au.jee'.an ( short e). The king's name 
was Augeas not Augeas. A mythical king of EUs (Greece.) 
Augbt and naught ; ought and nought. 

Old English dht, anything ; ndht (ne dhtj, nothing. 
Also, 6ht, any tMng ; n6M (ne 6ht), nothing. 

Augment, aug\ment (noun) ; aug.menf (verb). Rule 1. 
August, au'.gmt (noun) ; ani.gusf (adjective). 
Augustins, not Augustines. Of the order of St. Augustin. 
Aunt not dnt^ a corruption of amt. Ant, ant not amt. 

Latin amitia] shortened to am't ; similarly " ant " is a corroption 
of emt; i.e., emit shortened to vm't. Incorrectly emirdt. 

Amelia, au.ree'.li.ah. It ought to be au.reV.tah. 

Latin aurum, gold, with the diminutive -el, and the termination 
•4a, the little gold creature. The Greek ckrasallis is the same : — 
chrusos, gold; chrusallia, the little gold creature (our "chrysalis"). 

Aureola, au'.r^.o.ldh not au.ree'.o.ldh nor au.r^.o'.lah. The 
circle of gold or *' glory " round portraits of saints. 
Latin aur^dlus, golden ; aurifdla, the golden nimbus faurumj. 
Auricula, au.rik^.u.lah. The plant called " bear's-ear." 

Latin auris^ and the diminutive -cula, a little ear ; so called because 
the leaves resemble in shape a bear's ear. 

Auspice, plu. auspices, aiw'.jpfe, aus'.pi.siz. Augury. 

Auspicious, aus.pUK.us. Lucky ; of good augury. 

Latin au^picium, divination from birds {aves apecto, I inspect birds). 
Austere, aus.teaj^j comp. auster'er, sup. auster'est. 

Austerity, plu. austerities, av^.ter'.H.t'iz. 

Latin austSrui, rough; austSritas; Greek aust&r68, ausUrHtii. 




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42 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Authentic and Genuine, au.rhew.ttk^ gen'MAn, 

** Authentic " book, one true in what it states. 
" Genuine " book, one written by the person to whom it 
is ascribed. 
kuXbor^ feminine authoress or anihor. (Latin author ^ B. xxxvii.) 
Aathorise, not authorize, (It is not a Greek word. Bule ttti.) 
Aatocracy not autocra^. (See Aristocracy.) 
Greek autd-hrdtSs, ruling hj onieself, absolute. 
Autocrat, feminine aatocratriz, au'.to.kratj au,toh.rd'trix, 

Greek autdhrdt&r, an absolute monarch. 
Anto-da-f§ not auto-de-fe, pronounce au'-to da-fay* (Port) 
Antom'aton, plu. antom'ata or autom'atons. 

Greek aviomaton (autos matt6, to work of oneself). 
Autumn, aw\tum ; autmn'naL (Latin autumnus.) 
Auxiliary, plu. auxiliaries, aux.iV XM.riz, not av^x.iV M.riz. 

Latin auxiliMm, help ; auxttUres, atueilidrius, sent from allies ; rerb 
auxHioTf to help, from atugio, perf. auxi, to increase. 

Avail, a.t?air, avail-able, avail-ableness, avail- ability, &c. (Rxxiii.) 

Latin a [ad] valere, to be strong against [an adversary]. 
Avalanche, av\a.lan8h\ A vast body of snow sliding down a 
mountain. 
French avalange; Latin a [ad] vtUlem landndre, to tear away 
towards the valley. 

Avarice, av\a.ri8; avaricious, av^ajrish'.us ; avariciousness. 

Latin avcuriVCa, avarice ; avdrtu, a covetous man. 
Avenge, a.venge' ; avenged' (2 syl.), aveng'-ing, aveng'-er. 

Old French avengier, to revenge ; Latin a [ad] vitidic&re. 
Aver, averred', averr-ing, ajver^^ a.verd\ a.ver'.ing, (Kule L) 
Averse, a.verse^ ; averse-ly, averse'-ness, aver'sion. 
Averf , avert'ed, avert'ing, avert'-er. 
Latin a verto, to turn away, supine averaum. 
Aviary, plu. aviaries, av'.td.riz. A place for fancy birds. 

Latin dvidrium, an aviary (dvis, a bird). 
Avocation, av'.o.kay".8hun. An occupation distinct from your 
regular trade or profession. It is incorrect to call your 
ordinary business your avocation^ it is your vocation. 
Thus building is the ** vocation" of a builder, gardening 
may be his " avocation." 
Latin Orvocation, a calling away [from business]. 
Avoid, a.void\ avoid-able, avoid-ance, avoid-er. 

Latin a vita/re, to shun from [seeing a person]. 
Avoirdupois, av',wor.du,poiz". The ordinary trade weights. 

Corruption of the Old French avers "goods in general," du " of," and 
poise " weight.'' A system of weights for goods " sold by weight. " 



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AND OF SPELLING, 43 

Awake, past awoke or {^awaked^ 2 syl.], past part, awoke or 
[^awaken] ; awak-ing, a,wake\ing. To rouse from sleep. 
Old Eng. awac[an], past awdc, past part, awacen^ to awake. 
Awaken, past part, awakened (3 syl.) (In a religions sense.) 

Old English awcscnlianl, past awcecnede, past part, awoeciied. 
Awe, aw-ing, aw-ful, aw-fally, aw-fulness; but awe-struck, awe- 
less. Old English igCj dread. (Rules xvii. and xix.) 
Awkward means left handed; hence ungraceful^ clumsy. 

French gaudie. Awk, the left hand. ''The awke or left hand'* 
(Holland's " Plutarch "). 

Awl, a shoemaker's tool for boring holes. All, every- one. 

Haul, a catch of fishes. Hall (of a house), a mansion. 

"Awl," Old Eng. ce'l or awel, an awl. "All," Old Eng. al or al. 
"HauI," French haUr, to haul. "Hall," Old Eng. hecUl, a hall. 

Axil, aaf.ilf the armpit. Axle, aa;.'{(of a wheel). 

AxQ, ax'ill-ar, ax'ill-ary. (Latin axilla, the armpit.) 

Axle, axle-tree. Axled, ax'.ild. (Latin axis, an axis.) 

Axis, plu. axes (Latin), ax'.iss, asf.eez (The plural of Axe is 

also axes, but pronounced ax'ez.) 
Ay or aye (meaning yes), plu. ayes, eye, eyes. No, plu. noes. 
Aye, o, meaning always. Old English awa, always ; Greek ai. 
Azalea not azalia, a.zay'.U.dh. A genus of shrubs. 

Greek azaUos, dry ; so called because it loves a dry soil. 
Azoic, ajso'.ik. Where no trace of life exists, as " azoic rocks." 

Greek a z6on, without a living creature. 

Babble, baV.b% to prate. Babel, Ba'.bel (Gen. xi. 9). 

Babbled, bab\b'ld; babbler, babbling. (Double b.) 

French boMlUr, to prattle. 
Baboon, bd.boon'. A large monkey. (One 6.) Enle Ixi. 

French haJbiiM, a lip, and -oon, augmentative (large-lipped). 
Baby, plu. babies, bay'.by, bay'.bez ; also babe, babes (1 syl.) 
A word common to the whole Aryan family of languages. 
Bacchanal, &a^^M.7iaZ; Bacchanalian. (Double c.) 

Greek Bakchos, the wine-god. Latin BaccMndlis, Bacchus. 
Bachelor, batch'. ^.lor; feminine spinster, maid. 
Backgammon, back-gam! .vion. (Double m.) 

Either Old English bac-gamen, the back game ; because the art is to 
bring all the pieces back into the adversary's table. 

Or Welsh bach cammaun, a little battle. 

Or Danish bdkke gammen, a tray game. 

Backward (adj.), dull. Backwards (adv.), in a back direction. 



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44 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bad, worse (comparative deg.), woiBt (superlative deg.) Worsen 
worst, are the degrees of the obsolete word wear (bad). 

Bade, bad (poit tense of "bid"). The final e is to compensate 
for the diphthong in bad. 
"Bad" is probably ui ecclesiastical word, taken from Bev. ix. 11 ; 
** Abaddon," from the verb dbad, to be lost. If so, bad means 
"lost eternally." 

Badinage, bad'.tnarje not bad'.tnazh nor bad'X.ndje. Banter. 
Bag, bagged (1 syl.), bagg-ing, bagg-age (Eule i.) 
Bagatelle, bag'.a.telt (French). A trifle, a game. 
Bagnio, plu, bagnios, ban'. yd, ban'.ydze (Rule xlii.) 
Bail, surety. Bale, a packet. (Both pronounced alike.) 

*'Bail," French bailler, to give or deliver. 

'•Bale," French balle, a pedlar's pack. 

Bailiff, a steward, an officer of justice. Bailey, a prison (R. vi.) 
*• Bailiflf," Law Latin balllvus, a bailiff. 
"Bailey," Law Latin ballium, the enclosure of a fortress. 

Bait, lure for fish, refreshment for a horse. Bate, to lessen. 

" Bait," Old English 6a«[an]. " Bate " (n- " abate," French etbat^re. 
Baize, coarse woollen cloth. Bays, plu. of bay (laurel). 

"Baize," Danish bayita ; called in French es-po/gnoUtt^. 
Balance not ballance. A pair of scales. (Only one " L") 

Latin Wlancea, two dishes or platters. French bdZance. 
Balcony, plu. balconies, baV.ko.niz. Window platforms. 

In the Italian the " o " ia Umg: baloohe fbal.W.neJ. 
Bald, bawld not bawl. Without hair. Baldness not hawl.ness. 
Bale, a packet. Bail, surety. (See Bail.) 
Balk, bav>k. Old English balca, a balk. 
Ball, retains double I in all its compounds : as ball-oon, baU-ot, 

ball-room, football, snowball, <fcc. (Rule x.) 
Ballad, BaUet, Ballot, haV.lad, baV.Uy, baV.lot. 

Ballad. A song containing a taJe. (French ballade.) 

Ballet. A theatrical dance. (French ballet.) 

Ballot, " A little ball " used in voting. (French ballotte.) 
Balloon, balloon'. Ball with -oon augmentative. (Rule Ixi.) 

Balluster, baV.lus.tSr. A short ornamental pUlar. 

(The guard of a staircase is corruptly called banister.) 
Balliistrade, baV.iis. trade'. A set of ballusters. 

French balvstre, balvstrade. 
Balm (the herb). Barm, ferment, leaven. 

" Balm," contraction of baltant (bal'm), Latin. 

" Batm," Old English beorma, leaven. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 46 

Bamboo, p^uraMiamlMHW (Malay), ham'.hoo', bam'hooz'. 
'Ban, banned (1 syL), bann4ng. Banns (of marrioge). Rule i. 

Latin hannum, a ban ; haniia fmatrimonialiaj, banns. 
-Banana (Spanish), ba.nah'.nah not bd.nay\nah. 
Bandit, plural bandits or banditti, ban.ditf, han^dit'.ty, 

Italian haitdiUOt plural haruLitUt outlaws. 
Bandxol, hand\rol. The little flag attached to a trumpet. 

French }>a'nderoU (2 syL), hande and -roU (dimlnutiye). 
Bandy, jj/wraZ bandies (2 syL), ban'died (2 syl.),'ban'di.er, hut 

ban^dy4ng, ban^dyJegs, <fec. (Hale xi.) 
Banian (days) han'.ycmf. Days when no meat is served. The 

Banians of Lidia abstain from animal food. 
Ban'ister. The guard of a staircase. Corruption of l^aUnster. 
Bankrupt, hanyf.mpt not hanW.rwp, One who has failed. 

Bankruptcy, not hanJcrupcy. State of being a bankrupt. 

Italian baneo-ruUo, broken-bench; because when a money-lender 
failed, his btnch was broken, and he was expelled from.his o^e. 

Banner, ban'.ner. A flag. (Double n.) 

Latin panntM; yf^lsh baniar ; Vr&nch bannih'e. 
Banns (of marriage), not bans nor bands, {See B9>n.) 
Ban'qnet, ban'quet-ed, ban'quet-er, ban'quet-ing. (Rule iii.) 

(-ed fopns a distinct syL after d or t.) French, banquet. 
Baptize' not baptise, bap'tism, bap'tist. Baptized' (2 syLJ, bap- 
tiz'-ing. 
Greek baptizA, baptiamai baptistos. 
Bar, barred (1 syl.), barr-ing, bjirr-ister, barr-ier, barr-icade, 

barr-ulet, barr-y. (Rule i.) French barrer, to bar. 
Barbarize, bafJ>a,rue. not barbarise. To make barbarous. 

Greek barb&riz6, to make barbarous. 
Barl)erTy. A corruption of berbery, (Genus berbSris.) 
Barefoot or barefooted. "Walking naked and bfurefoot.*' 

(Isa. XX. 2.) Old English bcer-fdt, bare-foot. 
parley. The plural barleys means diflerent specimens or sorts, 
the general crop: as, The barleys look, well (the general 
crop). Barleys were higher (the specimens offered for 
sale). ' W^h bara llysliau], bread plants. 
Barm, leaven. Balm, balsam. (See Balm.) 
Baron, a lord (one r). Barren, not fertile (double r). 

Baron, /(?mtmne. baroness. Baronry, barone^t, baroniaL 
ba\ron, buf,ron,esSy ba\ron.ry, ba\ron.et, but hd.ro\nK.al. 

'< Baron," Latin baro {%, dolt) ; Barones diomiwr . strvi 4m£itunv4ui 
fUique sfuUisaimi' mnt„ servi videlitet ftvMofwn " f Scholiast J. 
Firii a Mrvipg soldier,. tl^n a mUl(tary c)iief, th«n a lord. . 



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46 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

• Barouche, ha.roushf, A four-wheel coach with a falling top. 

Latin birdta, a cart with two pair of wheels (his rota), through the 
German bourutache. 

Barrack, plural barracks. The plural is more generally used. 
The singular is used in compound words as barrack- 
mastery barrack-life. 

Bar'rel, bar'relled (2 syl.)^ bar'relling. (Rule iii. -ei«) 

Spaniiih barrel. In Welsh and French baril, only one ** r.* 
Barren, not fruitful Baron, a lord. {See Baron.) 

Barricade, bar'.rthadef. Originally meant to block up a 
thoroughfare with barrels (French barriques) filled with 
stones or earth. (French barricader, to barricade.) 

Barrier, bdr&i.er. A bar to keep out intruders. 

French barrio, from barre, a bar; Welsh 64r, a bar. 
Barrister, bar'ris.ter. One called to the bar, a pleader. 

Bar and the Old Eng. termination -«fer, business, habit. 
Baryta, bar^ry.tahy incorrectly bd.ry'.tah. A heavy mineral. 

Greek bariltSs, heaviness; so called from its weight. (Su next.) 
Barytone, bdr^ry.tone. A deep tenor voice. 

Greek bar&s tdnda, heavy tone of voice. 
Base, vile. Bass (voice). Both pronounced alike. 

" Base, " Welsh bds, low, mean. " Bass," Italian basso. 

Bashaw, now called " Pasha," pdh'.shah. 

Basilisk, bas^.tlisk. The cockatrice. Basilic, adj. of basilica. 

Latin ba^iscus (Greek ba^ileus, a king). The " king serpent ;" so 

called from a crest on its head like a crown. 
"Basilica," a royal hall of justice ; such a hall used for a church. 

Basin, ba'sin not bason. (The French word has double s). 

Basis, plural bases (Latin), bay'.sis, bay\seez. {See Base.) 

Bass, plural basses; or basso, plural bassos: base, base^ez ; 
bas^sOf bas^soze, {See Base.) Rule xlii. 

Bass-relief, plural bass-reliefs ; or basso-relievo, plural basso- 
relievos: basere-leefy base re-lee/s' ; or bos' so rel.i.a\vo, 
bas'-so rel.%.a\voze. (Rule xlii.) 

Bassoon, bas.zoan*. A deep bass wind-instrument 

Bass and -oon (augmentative). Italian bassone; French basson. 
Bastille, bas.teeV. A State prison in Paris. (Not bastile.) 

French bastvr now bdtvr, to build. It means the buUding. 
Bastinado, plural bastinadoes, bas'-ttnah^-doze, (Rule xlii.) 
Bat, batt-ed, batt-ing. Bat (the winged mouse), batt-ish. B. i. 

" Bat,- Old English bat, a bat French battre^ to beat 

"Bat" (the aninua), Welsh bathor. a dormouse. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 47 

Bate, contraction of abate. Bait, refreshment. {Set Bait.) 

Batk, hdLth not hath (noun) ; bathe, bathe (verb). Bule li. 

Bathos, bath.S8, mock Bublime. Pathos, patKos, Words 
which exdte a feeling of grief. 
^ Bathos ** (Greek), depth ; the rererse oi tublifM. 
"Pathos'* (Greek), feeling of grief. 

Baton (French), battone. A small staff used by the leader of 

an orchestra, a marshal's staff of office, &c. 
Batrachians, ba. trak\tam. The frog order of reptUes, 

Greek batrdchas, a frog. 
Battalion (doable t and one Z), but in French batailloiu 

Latin hatuo, to fight ; Italian battaglidne 
Battery, plu, batteries, batf.te.riz. (French batterie,) 
Battle, baf,t% battled, &a«.«'Zd, -battling, battlement. 

Welsh hcUel. French bataille. Italian battaglia. Spanish hatalla. 
Bazaar, bdjsaT^^ a depot of fancy articles. Bizarre, fantastic. 

" Basaar/' Persian baxar, a market. " Bizarre " (French), fantastic. 
Be- (prefix) added to nouns, verbs, prepositi(His, and conjunc- 
tions. Added to nounSj it converts them into verbs, as 
be-friend. Added to verhs, it intensifies them, or adds 
the idea of about ^ at^ before^ for, in,' on, over, <fec. In 
prepositions and conjunctions it has the force of by or in. 
Be (verb). Bee (insect). " Be " forms parts of the verb " To 
Be." It is used in hypothetical propositions, as : " If I 
be*' that is, " If I should be." 
*' Be ** (verb). Old English hedn; present tense ic be6, thd b^st, he 

hp.h '. plurcU be6th faU personsj. 
"Bee " insect, bee, flvLtal beon (without accent). 

Beach, coast. Beech, a tree. (Both pronounced beecTu) 

** Beach," Old £ng. beec, a brook. ** Beeeh," Old £ng. 6^ce, a beech. 
Beadle, bee\dX A church officer. {See BedelL) 

Old English boedeZ, (»e who bids or cites {to a court of law]. 
Bead-roll not bead-rol. A list of those to be prayed for. (B. x.) 
Beadsman, feminine beadswoman ; plu. beadsmen, beads- 

women. One employed to pray for another's welfare. 
Old English bead or b4d, a prajer. 
Bean, pulse. Been, 5in, past participle of ** To be." 

Old English bean, pulse. ** Been," Old English ben of the verb btin. 
Bear (to carry), past bore [bare], past participle borne. 
Bear (to bring forth), past bore [bare], past part. bom. 
"Bear'* (to carry, to produce), O. Eng. birian], past b^, p.p. boren. 
Bear (a wild beast) ; he-bear,. she-bear. Bare, naked. 
** Bear " (the animalX Old Eng. bera. " Bare," Old Eng. bditiianX 




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48 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



BeMt, heeat^ beast-ly, beast-liness : hit bestial, best-ialifcy, 
bestially (without "a"). (The "a*' of beast is inserts tH 
to distinguish the word from * ' best.") 
Latin hestia, a beast ; hestialis^ bestial 
Beat, to strike. Beet, a root. (Both pronounced beet) 

Beat, past beat, past part, beaten or beat. (We say z 
*' He was dead beat,*' but beaten is the general past pairt. 
Old English h4(tt[an], past bedt, past part, bedten. 
" Beet ' (the root), German bwte; Latin beta; French bette. 

Beatify, be.af.tfy; beat'ify-ing ; but beatified (be,af.ujide)^ 
beat'ifl-ca"tion, beatif i-cal. (Eule xi.) 
Latin, beattufado, to make happy. 
Beau, bo, a fop. Bo! an exclamation to frighten children. 
Bow, plural bows, an instrument to propel arrows. 
(Bow to rhyme with grow.) 
Beau, plural beaux, bo, boze; feminine belle, plural 
belles, bell, bells (French). Gentlemen and ladies admired. 
Latin belltts, beautiful. Beau is a contraction of bellus (&eV). 
Beau ideal, plural beaux ideals, bo i.dee'.al, boze i.dee'.al 

(French.) A fancy model of beauty or excellency. 
Beau monde, bo mdnd (French). The fashionable world. 
Beauty, plural beauties, bu'.tiz ; beauti-ful, beauti-fully, beauti- 
fy, beauti-fying, beauti-fied (3 syl.), beauti-fi-er (Rule 
xi.) : beaute-ous, beaute-ously, beaute-ousness (with e). 
French beauts. (There is no sufficient reason for the cl^ge of ToweL) 
Beautiful, bu\tl.ful. In poetry the superlative beautifulest is 

sometimes used. 
Becafico, ought to be beccafico, bek'-kafee^-ko. The fig-pecker. 

Italian beccafico (becea/refico, to pick the fig or fig-tree). 
Becalm, be.earm' not be.calm ; becalmed, be.carmd. 

Fr. calme; Ital. and Sp. caima, quiet, with prefix be-, "to make.** 
Become, past became, past part, become, pres. part beoom-ing. 

Old EngUsh becumlan], past becom, past part, becumen. 
Bed, bedded, bedd-ing; but bedpost, bedstead, (fee. (Rule i) 

Old En^h bed or pcsd (noun) ; 6<d[ia»], to go to bed. 
Bed^iloihes, bed'Cloze (no sing.) Sheets, blankets, and quilt 
Bedell not beadle, bee\dell. A university or court mace-bearer. 

Always styled the Squvre bedeU. (Latin bedell-us. ) 
Bedim, be.dim\ bedimmed (3 syl.), bedimm-ing. (Rule i) 

Old Eng. din, dark, with prefix be-, which converts nouns to yerlM. 
Bedlam, hedfldm. Corruption of Bethlehem, the name of a 

religious ho^se converted into a lunatic asylum. 
Bedpiiin, JBed^win. An Arab tribe (dwellers in the desert). 
Arabic b^wi ^txqta ba^w or bfdw,^ a dei«rt). 



AND OF SPELLING, 49 

Bee, the inseot Old Eng. heo. Be (the verb). Old Eng. he6. 

{See Be.) 
Beech, a tree. Beach, a coast. (See Beach.) 

Beef^ the flesh of slain oxen; plural beeves, liviDg oxen. 
(Rule xxxviii.) 

Fronch bon^, pluxal havfs : Latin "bates, oxen. 
Beef-Bteak, beef-stake not beef-steek. 

** Steak " is Old Norse atek ; Danish steg, a broil, or slice to roast. 
Beef-eaters, beef'.eat.ers, Yeometo of the guard. 

Norman French bvffeiiers or boufUUrs, vraiters at the boufets. 
Been, bin, past part, of " To be." Bin (for corn, wine, reffise.) 

** Been," Old Eng. Mik ''Bin," Old Eng. bin or birm, a orib, hutoh, &c. 
Beer, malt liquor. Bier, beer, barrow for the dead. 

" Beer," Old English bear. " Bier," Old English bdr. 
Beestings, beestingz not beestUngs. First milk after oalving. 

Old Kngllsh byatingf which is the better spelling, and sing, number. 
Beet, a root Beat, to strike. (See Beat.) 
Beetle, bees' ^t% an insect; a mallet. Betal, bee'.tel, a shrub.. 

Old English betel or bitel, a beetle ; bytel or bytl, a mallet. 

"Betel," an East Indian plant, the leaf of which is much used. 

Beeves, heevz, black cattle ; plural of beef. (See Beef.) 
Be£all, befell, befallen ; not befal, befel, befalen. (Rule x.) 
Befif , befitt-ed, befltt-ing. To suit, to become. (Eule i.) 
Befool, Old Eng. prefix be- makes verbs of nouns. (Bule Ixli.) 
Beg, begged (1 syL), begg-ing, begg-or, beggared (2 syl.) beggar- 
uig» beggarly, beggarli-ness, beggary, beggar man (all with 
double g.) Rule i "I beg to inform you " means *' I 
beg leave to inform you." 
Beggar, a corruption of begiarer (Norse). This accounts 
for the termination " -ar." 
Begef, past begof [begat], past par*, begotten [begot], be- 
gett-er, begett-ing, begott-en. (Rule i.^ 
Old English bege6t[an% past begedi, past part, begoten. 
Begin', past began' [begun], past part, begun, beginn-ing, 
beginn-er. To commence, &c. (Eule i.) 
Old Eng. begirnnlanl past begem, past participle btgminm. 
Begird, past begirded, past part, begirded or begirt. 

Old English begyrd[<m\, past begyrde, past participle begyrded. 
Begonia, plufral begonias, be.go'.ia.dh. Elephant's ears (a plant.) 

8o called from M. Begun, Frenoh botanist 
Begnins, Beg'.winz, A sect of religious women of Germany. 
So called firom a linen cap (or beguin) which they wear. 



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50 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Behalf. A corruption of the Old English heMfe Cbenefit). 
Behold, past and past participle beheld. The more ancient 
participle beholden means " under an obligation." 
Old English heheaXdiaail, past \>€heold, past part hthealden. 
Behoof {noun\ behove {verh\ Old Eng. heMf[ian]. Rule li. 
Belay, pa^t And past part, belayed (2 syl.), not belaid, (B. xiv.) 
Old English heldw[an], past helehode, past part, beldtoed. Ldtoa, a 
betrajer, and prefix he- which converts nouns into verbs. It has 
no connection with the verb "lay.'* (Old English lecgan.) 

Beldam (French belle dame). A euphemism for " an old hag.** 

Similarly the French say bel age for great age. 
Belemnite, beV.em.nite not beV.em.ite. " Thunderbolt^" 

Greek MlSnwumt a dart. (These ** stones " are fossil molluscs.) 
Belie, be.li\ past be.lied', part. pres. bely'-ing. (See beUy.^ 

Old Eng. hOecglan], past belege, past participle beled. 
Belief (wown), believe (ver6); be.leef, be.leeve. (Rule li.) 

Believe, believ-abJe, belie v-er, belie v-ing, belicv-ingly. 
Belle, plural belles, feminine of Beau, plural beaux (French), 

bell, bells ; &o, boze. Pretty girls and their admirers. 
B6lles lettres (plu), bel lettr. Polite literature. (French.) 
Bellows (plural), may refer to a single pair, but always requires 
a plural construction : " The bellows a/re broken." 
Old English bylig, bellows (from bcdg, a bag). 
BeUy, plural bellies, beV.liz ; bellied, beV.Ud. (Rule xi.) 
Belly-ing, belly-ache, beUy-ful. (See Belie.) 
Old English belig (from hcelg, a bag) ; Welsh boly. 
Belong requires to after it : as " This belongs to me." 

Old English gdang, belonging to, propertj of. 
Belvedere, beV.v^.decT^. A lookout in a garden. 

Italian bel vedere, fine sight ; Latin belltLS videre 
Bend, past and past part, bent; bended (adj.), as **0n my 
bended knee." 
Old English bend[<m\, past bende, past participle bended. 
Beneath, be.neeth^ not be.neerh'. Old English beneothan. 
Benedick or Benedict. A man who vows not to marry. 
" Benedick '* (in Mu>ch Ado about Nothing) vows he will 
not marry, but afterwards marries Beatrice. " Benedict'' 
is a play on the proper name. It means " Blessed," or 
" Made happy," and is applied to an old bachelor who 
has become a bridegroom. 
Benefactor, feminine benefactress, ben.€.fdk\tor, ben.e.fdkf.treM, 
-or is more common than -«r after t and s. UnhappUy 
no uniform rule is observed. 
Latin bene f ado, to do wdl : ben^ficvvm, a benefit or good deed, &o. 



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AXD OF SPELLING, 



Benefit, past and past part benefited not benefitted ; benefiting 
not benefitting, (Latin beneficio.) Rule iii. 

Benign, benignly, be.nine% be.nme^ly ; but benignant, benig- 
nantly, benignity, be.nig* .nant, be.nig\ntty, &g. 
Lathi heniffniUf benignant (Jb^ntu old form of bdrms, good). 
Bennmb, be.num'. To make numb or insensible from cold. 

Old English benimiari], past bendm, past partidple hentmunf to stn- 
piiy, to benumb. (The b is interpolated.) 

Benzine, benjseen^, A fluid obtained from coal-tar. 

Better Benzole, ben.zole^ as the termination -ine denotes 
a gas. So called by Mitscherlich, who obtained it from 
benzoic add. It was Faraday who discovered it in whale 
cii and coal tar. 
Benzoin, ben.zoin\ resin of the Benzoin plant (Styrax Benzoin), 

In French Styrax Benjoin, and hence called ** Gnm Benjamin." 
Benzoine, ben,zo^.%n not ben.zcin\ Obtained firom bitter almonds. 
Bequest' (noun), bequeath (verb), be.kweethf, O. Eng. becwith[an]. 
Berberis, bei^.be.ris (Latin). The barberry genus of plants. 
Bereave, past and past part, bereft or bereaved (2 syl.) 

Old Eng. b€Ttdfiian\ past beredfode, past part, heredfod. 
Berg, a mountain, Bnrg or bnrgh, a fortified place : as 

" Heidelberg," the heather-hill (Germany) ; 

" Edinburg," the fortified town of Dunedin (Scotland). 

Old English berg, a hill. Bv/rh, genitive bwrge, a fort. 
Bemardine, Ber^.nar.dine not Ber.nar^.dine. Adj. of the next. 
Bemardins, Ber\nar,din8, So called from St. Ber'nard. 
Berry, phi. berries, ber^.riz, a fruit. Bury, to inter (only one " r "). 

Both Old Eng. : Berit (only one ** r "), a berry. JBwriCan], to biuy. 
Berth, a place to sleep in. Birth, the act of being bom. 

Both Old Eng. : Bdr, a bed-room : Beorth or berth, birth. 
Beryl, ber^.ril. A precious stone somewhat like an emerald. 

Oreek birvXUis. (In the Greek word the ''e " is long.) 
Beseech, past and past part, besought. (The " g " is interpolated.) 

Old Eng. huedian] ; past beg6ht ; past part, bes^t. 
Besef, past and past part, beset ; pres. part, besett-ing (R i.) 

Old English besdtan; past besette; past part, btseten or besetten. 
Beside, by the side of. Besides, in addition to, moreover. 
Besom, bee'.znm not b€e*.8um. A large broom. (0. Eng. besm.) 
Besof , besott-ed, besott-edly, besott-edness, besott-ing, besott- 

ingly. (Old English be-sot.) Kule i. 
Beepeak^f past bespoke; past participle bespoken [bespoke]. 

Old English bespr^an] : past besprcee; past participle besprocen. 



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52 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Besprinkle, patt besprinkled, past part, besprinkled or be- 
sprent. (The prefix be- added to verbs intensifies them.) 
Old English hMprenf/[an\, past lesprengde, past participle beaprenged ; 
also he9priflMi{<Mi]t past besftramc, past participle hetprvaicen. 
Best (superlative deg.) Crood, better, best (Obsolete positive 
het more.) At best; at the best : as **Life, at best, is but 
a shadow ; '* " Life, at the best, is but a shadow." " life 
at best" means — to say the best of it, " life at the best " 
means — in its best eonditioUy taking the most favourable 
example. The two ideas are not identical. 
Bestial, bestiality, bestially (Latin bestia). See Beast. 
Bestir", bestirred (2 syl.\ bestirr-ing. {Be- intensifies " stir.") 

Old Eng. be8tvi\ian\ past btatyrde, past participle be^yr^i. 
Bestrew, past bestrewed (2 syl.), past part, bestrewed or be- 
strewn. (The prefix be- added to verbs intensifies them.) 
Bestrow, past bestrewed (2 syl. ), past part, bestrewed or 

bestrewn. To scatter thoroughly, to strew weU. 
Old Inglish heslreow[ian\y past beatreowode, past part, bestreotood. 
Bestride, past bestrode or bestrid, past part, bestridden. 

Old, Eng. bestrcedlcm], past bestrode, past part, bettreaden. 
Bestud, past bestudd-ed, past part, bestndd-ed or bestud, be- 
studd-ing. To decorate with studs. (Rule i) 
Old Eng. sttuiu, a stud. 'Be- added to noons converts them into verba. 
Bet, past and past part, bet or betted. Bett-or, bett-ing. (R. 1) 
(*' Bettor t'' with -or, to distinguish it from the odQeetive.) 
Old Eng. bad{ian\ past badodfi, pAst participle badod. 
Betake, past betook, past part, betaken ; pres. part, betak'-ing. 

Old EngUsh betddanl past betdhte, past participle betdht. 
Bethink, past and past part, bethought. To call to mind by 
thinking. (The " g " is interpolated.) 
Old English bethenc[an], past betMhte, past participle beih4ht. 
Betray", betrayed' (2 syl.), betra/ing, betray al, betray'er. (R.xiii.) 
The prefix be- added to " traitor " converts it into a verb. 
Betroth, be.trSth not be.trdth. To pledge to maarry. 

Old Eng. Iriowth, troth, pledge. The prefix b^ makes v«r5< of nonxu. 
Better, more good. Bettor, one who bets. {See Best) 
Betunia (no such word). It should be Petunia, pe.tu'.nX.(Ui. 
Bevel, bevelled (2 syl.), bevell-ing, bevell-er. (Rule iii -el.) 

French biviau or binoM (nomi), a sloping edge. 
Beware^of. No past tense, participle, or gerund. Without an 
auxiUaiy it is used only in tie Imperative and Infinitive 
present {The auxiliaries used with it are shall and 
should, may and might, also the verbs must, needs, can, 
and could, but not do or did, hftve or had, am, be, or was.) 
Old Eng. vftir, caution. Prefix be- converts nonns to verbs. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 53 

Bey, a Turkish prince. Bay, a email galf, a laurel. 

'* Bej," Tuikiflh Ug " Baj/' French haU, Old French b4e, 

Bi- or BSfl- (prefix). Latin bis. Twofold, double. " Bis " drops 
the 8 before consonants. The two exceptions are biscuit 
and bissextile. Before " o " it is written bin as bin-oxide, 
bin-oxalate, <fec. (This prefix is often added to Greek 
wordsj instead of dis.) 

In Chemical nomenclature the Greek and Latin 
numeral prefixes have an arbitrary force : Thus in meta- 
loids, if the base is in excess the Greek prefixes are 
employed: di- (2), tris- (3), &c. ; but if the gas is in 
€xce>s the Latin prefixes are used : pro- (1), sesqui- (1^), 
bi- (2), ter- (3), <fec. Thus a " dinoxide of A" (tbe base), 
would mean 3 quotas of A to one of oxygen ; but " bin- 
oxide of A " would mean 2 quotas of oxygen to one of A 
(the base). 

Bias, bi\a8, A leaning or tendency in one particular way, 
(verb) bi'assed (2 syl.), bi'ass-ing. (French hiais, bias.) 
The doubling of the s in this verb is an outrage. (R. ii.; 

Bib, bibbed (1 syl.), bibb-er, bibb-ing (Rule i.), hut bib-a'cious, 
bib-ac'ity, bib'-ulous, bib'-io (the wine-fly). 
Latin btbo, to drink ; hihax, genitive hibdHs, given to drink ; hibiUuSf 
having the capacity to rap up like sponge. 

Kble, bi.ble. The Book (of Books]. (In Greek, the i is short.) 
BibMLcal, bib'.U.og'-ra.pher,bIb'-li-o.ma''.ni-a, bibMi,poie. 
*' Bible,** Greek biblds, a book. 
" Bibliographer," Greek biblidgrAphM or biblio-grapter, a writer of 

bookB. 
''Bibliomania,** Qreels. biblio-mandat book madness. 
** Bibliopole,'* Greek biblio-pdlis, a bookseller (p6leo, to sell). 

Bicarbonate, bi.kai^M.nate, A salt with two equivalents of 
carbonic acid to one of a base. 
Latin bi [bis] ea/rbo (-ate, in Chtim., means a salt formed by the union 
of an add with a base). The ' ' acid " two to one of the ' * base. " 
Biccaroon. No such word. iS^^ Bigaroon. A white-heart cherry. 
Biceps, huteps. Any muscle with two heads, as that between 
the shoulders and elbow. Bicipital, not bicepital, bicip'i- 
tous. (Note -cij not -ce.) 
Latin bi [bis] caput, genitive bidpttitt with douUe head. 
Bicephalous, bijief^d.lus. Having two heads. 

An ill-oomponnded word: Latin bi [bis], Greek k^h&U, a head. 
(It ought to be dicepkaloiLs : Greek di [dis] kephalA,) 

Bichromate, bi.kro'.mate. A salt with two equivalents of 
chromic acid to one of the base. 
Latin bi [bis], Greek dirdma {-aU, in Chem., means a salt formed 
by the nniun of an acid with a base). Bi- is used in Chemical 
nomenclature to denote that the gas prevails. JH- (Greek) to 
denote that the base prevails. 



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54 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bicuspid, hl.hus'.pid. HaTing two points or two fangs. 

Latin hi [bis] cuspis, two spear-poists (as a tooth with two fangs). 
Bid, fast bade (had), past part, bidden [bid]. {Bod is a yuI- 
garism.) Bidd-er, bidding, bidd-en (Rule i.) 
Old English hiddian\ past Ixzd, past participle htden, to bid. 
Bide, pa^t bode or bided, pa^t part, bided, hWded, To abide. 

Old English Ud{an\, past hdd, past participle hiden^ to abide. 
Biennial, hi.en\nlMl. Lasting two years, once in two years. 
It should never be used in the sense of " twice a year.** 
{See Bi-monthly.) Annual becomes -ennial in the com- 
pounds hi-ennial, tri-ennial, per-ennial, <fec. (Double n.) 
Latin biennis (bis annus, doable year), one year twice over. 
Bier, a barrow for the dead. Beer, malt liquor. {See Beer.) 
Biestings or beestings. The first milk of a cow after calving. 

Old English bysting, byst, or beost. 
BifiOn, bif\fin. An apple which is dried in an oven and flattened. 
Bifurcated, hufW-ha-ted, Forked, divided into two branches. 

Latin bi [bis] farca, [like thej two prongs of a fork. 
Big, bigg-er, bigg-est; big-ness, big-ly (Rule 1.) 

Corruption of '*btSg,** swollen. (Old Eng. verb 6rf(jf[an], to swelL) 
Bigamy, big'M.my ; big'amist. A man with two living wives. 
An ill-compounded word : Latin bi [bis], Greek admdSy double mar- 
riage. The word ought to be digamy. Greek di-gamos. 

Bigaroon, big\d.roon\ Corruption of Bigarreau. 

French bigarreatk, the mottl^ chenry (a *' White-heart ") ; Low Latin 
bigarellOf a corruption of bivareUa {bis varius, doubly mottled). 

Bight, a small bay. Bite (with the teeth). (Both bite.) 

" Bight,** Old Eng. biga, a bay. " Bite," Old Eng. bft[an], to bite. 
Bignonia, big.no\ntdh. The tnirapet flower, yellow jasmine, <fec. 
So called by Toumefbrt from the abb6 Bignon, a botanist. 
BignoniacesB, hig-nS'-nta'''8i^-s, The order of which Bignonias 

are types {-acea, in Botany , denotes an order). 
Bigot, big\ot, bigoted not higoUed, A religious zealot. (R. iii) 

Old Eng. big[an\ to worship. Suffix -oi, dim. or depreoiatory. 
Bijon, plu. bijoux (French), bee'ahoo\ bee'jihooz\ Trinkets. 
Bijoutry (French), be.zhoo\try not bejouti^. Jewellery. 
Bilbo, plu, bilboes. The singnlar means a ''rapier,"* so caUed 
from Bilbao^ in Spain. The plural means "fitters." 
Latin bi [bis] bda, double collar of iron. 
Bilious, biV,ytu, having the bile out of order. {NJS, — One 1} 
Biliary, biV.i,(i.ry not biVMjry. Relating to the bile* 
Biliary dtict, Urxd,ry duct not hiVXry due. 
^«ttn mUsw, fuU of bile QAtis, Ul»). 



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AND OF SPELLING, 65 

Billet, hiV.leU A log of wood; to quarter soldiers. Bill'et-ed, 

bill'et-iDg. (One t. Rule iii.) 

"BUlet of wood," French Ulloi. " Billet " (to qnarter Boldlers), 

French hxUetf a ticket (Latin byMokf a seal to authenticate the 

order) ; Low Latin bilitus, a billet. 

BiUet-donx, plu. billets-doux, bee'.ya.doo', bee\ya,dooze% not 

biUo.doo, hilly. dooze (French). A love-letter. 
KUion, hiV.ytm. A million million. 

LttUn M [bisl vtillion, a million twice over. 
Billy-goat, a male goat. Nanny-goat, a female goat. 
BOobate, }n.W-hate, (Botany.) A leaf with two lobes. This 
word is wrong. The o is short, and the Bi should be Di. 
Greek di U(bo$. " Bilobate " is part Latin part Greek. 
Bimana, bi.tna'-rUth not hivMfnia, It ought to be hY.mUn-ah. 
Animals with two hands like men. ('* Bima'nia " would 
mean mad on two subjects, double madness.) 
Iiatin bi [his] mdnus, having two hands. 
Bimoiitlily, bi.month'ly. Twice a month. In this sense the 
word is quite indefensible. It can only mean "Every 
two months;*' as Bisnnial, "every two years," Besides, 
bi (Latin) monthly (Anglo- Saxon) is a f^lse compound. 
It should be Twymonthly (twice montlily). 
Binade, bin\a.cle. Corruption of the French halnt^axile or 
'bitacle, a box containing the compass and lights. 
Bin'ode, a telescope with two tubes. 
"Binade," Latin habitdctUum, a small honse or abode. 
" BinodO)" Latin bin [bis] omUus, for both the eyes. (See Bi-.) 

Binary, bi\nd.ry not b%n\a,ry. Combination of two bodies (as 
double stars), two compounds, two figures, &o, 
Latin bindrvua (binus, Le., bi [bis] imiw, one twiceX 
Bind, pott and past participle bound, to fasten by bonds. 
Bonnden (adjective), obligatory : as " My bounden duty." 
bid English bindlomX past band, pa«t participle bunden. 
Binnacle or binade. {See Binade.) 

Binoxalate, bin.ox\d.late. Binozide, hin.oaf.ide. In Chemistry 
the Latin numerical prefixes jwo- (1), tesqui- (li), bi- (2), 
ter- (3), denote that the gas is the part referred to, and 
prevails. The Greek di- (2), tris- (3), &c., denote that 
the ba^e is the part referred to, and is 2, 3, <£;c., to one of 
the gas. {See Bi-.) 
Lathi bin [bisl Greek wOlis. 
Biography, btof.rd.fy. The written history of a person's Ufe. 

Greek bios grapho, I write the person's life. 
Biology, bi.oV.6.gy. The science which investigates the pheno- 
mena of life, whether animal or vegetable, 
Greek bios logos, a treatise or discourse about " life." 



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56 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Biped, W.ped. One who has two feet, like men and birds. 

Latin hi [bin] pedes, two feet. 
Bipennate or bipinnate, hi.pen' .nate or htpin' .note* 

Latin hi [bis] penna or pinnok, having two wings. 
Bird {common gender), dock-bird {male), hen-bird {female). 

Old Eng. hird, a bird ; hrid^ a jonng bird or a brood. 
Birr, her, a whirring noise. Burr, a prickly plant. 

" Birr," an on'omatope (4 lyL) " Burr," Old Eng. bwrt, the burdock. 
Birth, act of being bom. Berth, a sleeping-place. {See Berth. ) 
Bis- (prefix), Latin his, "two," "twofold," "double." The "a" is 
dropped before consonants (except in his-cuit and hissex- 
tile. Before " o " it becomes bin-, as bin-ocle, hin-oxide. 
In Chemical nomenclature it denotes that the gas is two- 
fold the quantity of the basd. Thus bi-carhonate of 
potash means : two equivalents of carbonic acid gas to 
one of potash. 
Biscuit, his'.kit (Fr. his-euit, twice cooked ; Lat. his coctlusj). 

This word and " bis-sextile " are the only two whi.*h 
retain the i of "bis" before a consonant 
Bisected, hi.8ek\ted. Cut into two equal parts. 

Latin hi [bis] secttu, cut into two parts (called hiseg'ments). 
Bishop. In the Saxon period called hisceop or hiscop, and his 
diocese Skhisceopdom or hiscopdom. Contraction of Greek 
episkiipos, Latin episcopus ('piscop'). 
Greek epi skdpda, an overseer (of the clergy) ; rerb daSpio, to look. 
Bismuth, hiz.muth not biss.muth (French). A metaL 

In German It is bitmiUh or vfiMfwUh. 
Bison, hi'^on (Greek bison). A wild ox with a hunch. 
Bissextile, his.sex'.tile. Leap-year. {See Biscuit.) 

Latin his aexHlis, the sixth [of the calends of March or February 24, 
counted] twice. Now, a day i29j is added to February. 

Bisulphate, bi.8uV-fate. A salt containing two equivalents of 
sulphuric acid to one of the base. 
Latin hi [bis] sulphur, sulphur twice. The suffix -ate denotes a salt 
where the acid is mo^t oxidised, and therefore ends in -<c: as 
iulpku'ric acid ; -iie denotes a salt where the acid is less oxidised, 
and therefore ends in -ous, as sulphite a salt formed of suiphHrous 
add with a base. 
Bit, a morseL Bitts (plural), two pieces of timber in the fore> 
part of a ship round which cables are fastened. 
Bit, bitt-ed, bitt-ing. To put the bit into a horse's mouth. 
Bitt, to put the cable round the bitts ; bitt-ed, bitt-ing. 
" Bit," Old Eng. hit[an], past hdt past part, hiien, to bite. 
*• Bitt," Old Eng. Mtol, a bridle [a cable is the ship's bridle]. 
{The second^'i*' U added to distinguish the two words,) 



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AND OF SPELLING, hi 

Bitch, feminine of dog. Also a gender- word as hitch-fox ^ dog- 
fox ; bitch-ape, dog-ape ; bitch-otter^ dog-otter, <fcc. 
Old English bicee or hycge, a l^tch. 
Bite (with the teeth). Bight, a bay. (See Bight.) 

Bite, past bit, past part, bitten [bit] ; bit-ing, bit-er. B. xix. 
Bitter, bif,ter, acrid. Biter, bi\ter, one who bites. 

" Bitter," Old Eng. biter, bitter. " Biter," Old Eng. bitt, a morsel. 
BittB (for cables). Bits (for horses). See Bit, 
Bitumen, bi.tu\men not bit'.u.men. Mineral pitch or tar. 
Bita'minifle, bitn'minisaHion (« not "z.") Rule xxxi. 
Latin bitumen; (Greek pitta, pitch or tar.) 
BiYonac (French), biv\oo,ak. To encamp in the open air. 

It ought to be pronounced biv.wak, " ou ** in French being equal to 
10; thns **25ouaye" (1 syL), Zwarve, " Edonard," Ed.ioard. 

Biweekly, bi.weekly. Twice a week. This word is quite inde- 
fensible. It means " Every two weeks " (once a forr- 
sight). The compound is also abnormal. Bi (Latin) 
weekly (Ang.-Sax.) It should be Twyweekly, twice a week. 
Bizftrre not bisszarre (French), bLzar^. Fantastic. 

Bazaar is a mart or d^pdt of fancy articles. {See Bazaar. ) 
Blab, blabbed (1 syl.), blabb-ing, blabb-er (to tell tales). (R. i.) 

None bUMtU^ to gabUe ; Qerman plappem, to blab. 
Bladder (double <{). The old form has but one *' d," bladre." 
Blain, a sore. The old form was blagen. 
BLame, blam-able (not blame-able), blam-ably (B. xiz. zx.), 
blame-ful, blame-less, <feo., blame- worthy. (Rule xvii.) 
{Only words ending in " -ce *' and " ge " retain the " e " 
before the postfix " -able.") 
Blancmange, blam-monf, A white jelly-like confection. 

An English perversion of the French blaTusmanger. 
Blare, blair (like a cow). Blear, bW-ar, sore : as " blear-eyes." 
" Blare,** Low German fttorren, to cry. ** Blear," Danish bZesre, a sore. 
Blaspheme^ blasphe'ming, blasphemed' (2 syl.), blasphe'mer ; 
but blas'pbgmouB, blas'pbSmonsly, blas'pbgmy. (The 
»*e"longin Greek.) 
Greek bla&pMfMd (blapsis phSmi), to speak hurtftd words. '' Blas- 
phemy, '*^Greek blas^mia; '* blasphemous," Greek blctsphAmds. 

-Me (postfix) Lat. -&ii[w], added to nouns : " able to," "full of,"<fec. 
Bleach, bleech. To whiten. (The ''ea" is the diphthong <*.) 

Old English bUkian] or bldciian], to bleach. 
Bleak, bleek. Cold. (The '« ea " is the diphthong d.) 

Old Eng. bUic or bide, pale, bleak. So Lat. paWldus, pale, t|leak. 
Blear, bleer, sore. Blare, bla/re, to bellow. (See Blare.) 



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58 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bleat, hUet (like a sheep). (The ** ea** is the diphthong 4b) 

Old Bug. &tet, aUefttiiig: reib btetoi^ to Meat. 
Bleed, poMt and past partieipU Ued; blooded, by yenesection. 

Old BngliBh bUd[aml to bleed, or to dnw blood. 
nend, past blended, peut participle blended or blent. 

Old EngUah bUmdianX pMt hlandf p«st puiidple bUmden. 
-blende, a word added to several metals: as " hom-blende,** <£rc 

German bUndat, to dazzle. The metals so named are histrons. 
Bless, to make happy. Bliss, happiness. Old Eng. blis, joy. 
Bless, past blessed (1 syL) or blest, past participle blest. 

Blessed (adj., "happy," "extolled"), bices' -ed (2 syL) ' 

(Blessed be the dead which die in the Lord. — ^Rev. xiv. 

Blessed be the God of Abraham.) Similarly, blessedly, 

bless'.ed.Uf ; blessedness, blestf^edjiiess. 

Old English blestiianX past bUssode, past participle bUssod, to bless. 

Blight, blite. A disease of plants by which they are withered. 

Old English bkedh, nist, mildew. 
Bliss (Old English (Itf, joy). Bless (Old English blesslianl to 
make joyful). 

Blithe, not bUrh, cheerfoL Old English bUthe, joyfcd. 

Blithely, blithefnl, blithesome, blithesomeness^blLthesomely. 
(Only ** whole,** " due,'' and " true" drop the"e" before -ly.) 

Bloat, blote; bloated, bloater. A herring slightly dried. 

Blond (adj.) ; blonde (noon), a woman of fair complexion and 

light hair. A dark woman is a bninette. (French.) 
Blossom (double «). The old form had but one " s," bldsm. 

Blood, bind; bloody; bloodi-er, blud\l.er; bloodi-est, blud''i.estt 
bloodi-ly, blud\i.ly ; bloodi-ness, blvd'.i.ness. 
Old Eng. bUid, blood ; bUidig, bloody; bl6dgian (verb). 
Bloom, not blame. Old Eng. bldsm, softened into bUm (B. Ixi) 

Old Eng. bldamliian], past bldamods, past part. bUSsmod, to bloom. 
Blot, blott-ed, blott-ing, blott-er, blott-y (Eule i.) 

Old Eng. bldt, black [spot] ; verb blatianX past bUUode, p. p. blatod. 
Blouse, blooz not bl6uze. A short blue smock-frock worn by 
French artisans. German blau-los, loose blue. 

Blow, prnt blew, past participle blown. 

Old Enff. bldteicmX past bUow^ past part. bld%oen, to blow, or breathe ; 
but Uduiian], past bl&wode. past part. blAwod, to blow or blossom. 
*^L«iihe pealing organ blow," is correct, becavM the organ sounds 
only when the organ pipes " blow " or transmit the blast of the bel- 
lows. " 1st the Jlre blow,** would be nonsense, because the fire dots 
not bum by trantmUOng the blast of the bOlows. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 59 

Blue, a colottr. Old Eng. hleo. Blew (did blow), tee above, 
Blaeneas, bluebell, <fec. " A fit of the blues j** spleen (E. xvii.) 
Blu-ish, bln-ishly, bln-ishness (Eule six.) 

Blur, blurred (1 syL), blurr-ing. To blemish. (Rule i.) 

Boa (a serpent), bo'jih. Boar (a pig), bd^,ar. Bore (to make a 
hole), bore^ Boor (a rustic), booW, 

"Boa," Latin boa, from bos, a cow, which it was supposed to suck. 
" Boar,*' O. Eng. bdar. " Bore,** O. Eng. hdr, a bore ; Mrften], to bore. 
" Boor," Butch boer, a farmer ; Old English ge-bdr, a rustic 

Boar, 5d^.ar, a male pig ; /;ma2« BOW. {See'Boak,) 
Board, bord, a plank ; to famish with lodgings and meals. 
Bored, bord, i>erforated. Bawd, a procuress. 
''Board,'* Old Eng. Mrd, a plank ; also ''food and lodging.** 
"Bored." Old Eng. bdr[ia/n}, past bdrode, past part, bdrod, to bore. 
"Bawd," Erench boMde {baudir, to incite.) 

Board-of-Trade, plural Boards-of-Trade, &c. 

(Phrases compounded with aprep.pluralise only the Ist word.) 

Boarder, one who boards. Border, an edging. (Both alike.) 

Borderer, one who lives on a frontier or border-land. 

Boarding, pres, part, of board. Bordering, making a border. 
Boist, bosU; boasfer, boasfing, boasfful, boast'fully, &c. 

Welah best, a boast ; bostiad, a boasting ; bottiior, a boaster ; boftio, ▼. 
Boat, bote, a vessel urged by oars. Boot (for tbe foot). 

Boated, past tense of boat. Booted (wearing boots). 

Boating. Boatswain, a ship's officer in charge of the boats. 

Boatman, one whose trade is to manage a boat. 

Boatsman, an amateur manager of boats : as Lord Star is 
a good boatsman, not boatman. 

Old English bdt, a boat : b<tt-»wdn, a boatswahL 
Bob, bobbed (1 syl.), bobb-ing. To fish with a bob, &e. (B. i.) 

Bop. (ProvinciaL) To duck to avoid something. 
Bobbin. A spool on which cotton is wound. (Double b.) 

French bobine (only one h). Bobbin, in French, means " bobb 
Bode; boded, bo'.ded; bod-lng, bd'.ding. To portend. 

Bodied, bod\ed, is the past tense of body^ bodying, & 

"Bode,** Old English bod{ian\ past bodode, past part, boded 
Bodice, bod^.iss, a corset Bodies, bodf.iz, plu. of body. 

Old Eng. bodig eeae, a restraint or staj for the trunk. (Sm B( 

Bodleian (library), BodWejan. A library at Oxford. So • 
in honour of Sir T. Bodley, its founder. 



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60 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Body, plu, bodies, hod\iz; bodied, bod\ed; bod'i-ly, bod'i-less ; 
possessive singular body' b^ possessive plural bodies'; body- 
guard, body-Unen, body-politic (Rule x.) 
Old Eng. hodig, th^ trunk of a man, the whole body was called lie 
Bog, boggy (full of bojgs). Bogy, bd^gy, a hobgoblin. 

Bog, Gaelic ; Irish bogaeh. " Bogy," Welsh btog, with -y diminutiTe. 

BoisterooB, boice\te.riis ; boisterously, boisterousness, net 
boistrous, boisirously y boistrousness^ 
Welsh hwystus, savago, ferocious (bwyst, a savage, f erocityX 
Bold, intrepid. Bowled, bold, past tense of " to bowL" 

" Bold," Old Eng. WW or bdld. " Bowled," French haule, a bowL 
Bolder (more bold). Boulder, a large rounded stone. 
Bole (1 syl.), the trunk of a tree. Bo-^ bole, a basin. 

" Bole," Welsh hoi, the belly. " Bowl," Old Eng. holla, a basin. 
Bolero, plu, boleros, boMiir^jro, boMii^xze. A Spanish dtmce. 
Boletus, boXee'.tas (Latin). A species of fungus. 
Bolster, a long pillow. Bolsterer, one who bolsters-up another. 
Old English bolster, apiUow; i.e., bol, a sleeping-room, -sUr^ some- 
thing habitual or common to a bedroom. {See -ster.) 

Bomb, bom, an explosive shell. Boom (of a ship). 

" Bomb," Latin homhus, a blast. *' Boom," Dutch hoom, a spar. 
Bombardier (Fr.), bornf-barAeer^, The soldier who fires bombs. 

Bombasine, bom\bd,zeen, A cloth made of silk and cotton. 
It ought to be bombycine, bom\byMn. 

Latin hoTt^eXnua, made of silk QHmbyK, silk or fine cottcm yam : 
Greek bornbvx, the silk- worm). 

Bon mot (French), boh'n mo, A witticism. 
Bon ton (French), boKn to'gn. Good in the opinion of f&shion. 
Bon vivant (French), boh'n vee.vah'gn. One who loves to eat. 
Bonne bouche (French), bon bouch, A dainty or " tit bit." 
Bona fide (Latin), bo\nafi\de. In good faith, without deception. 
Bona fides, bo\nafi',deez. An equitable intention, 
-bond (postfix, Latin -bund[^us])t Added to gerundial nouns : 
as vagafeond, a wandering person or vagrant. 

Bond-man, fern, bond-woman, plu, bond-men, -women, a slave. 
Bonds-^man, fern, bonds-woman, a surety. 
Bone (1 syl.), bSned <1 syl.), bon-ing, bon-y. Bon (Fr.), good. 
" Bone," Old Eng. Mn, a bone. " Bon," Latin honius], good. 

Bonito, plu. bonitoes (Spanish), bo,7iee',toze, A species of 
tunny-fish. 



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AND OF SPELLTNG, 61 

Bon'net (for the head). Bonnette, hon'et (in fortification). 
Bon'neted, bon^neting (with only one t). Bule ii. 

Both French (conneoted with hen, the head or top, as Ben-NeyisX 
Bpnny, bon\ny (jolly) ; boni-ly. Bony, hd\ny, full of bones. 

*• Boany," Latin bonui, good, with -y diminut^re. 

" Bony," Old English Mntn, adjective of hdn, bone. 

Booby, plu. boobies; pos, sing, booby's, poa.j^lu, boobies', boo'.bez. 

Spanish b6bo, a dolt. 
Book, book not booke, (Old English b6c.) Bule Ix. 
Boom (of a ship). Bomb, bSniy an explosive shell. {See Bomb.) 

Batch boom, a spar. Bommon, to sound like an empty tub (R. Ixi.) 
Boon, a fitvour ; corruption of the Old £ng. b&riy a petition. 

Boob (companion) ; Latin bonus^ good (Rule Ixi.) 
Boor, a rustic. Bore, to perforate. Boar (pig). Boa, a serpent, q.v. 
Boot (for the foot). Boat, bote (for the water). {See Boot) 

French botte, a boot. " Boot," profit. Old Bag. bdt, profit (R. Ixi. /. ) 
Bootes, Bo.^,teez, a constellation. (Greek bodtisy a herdsman.) 
Booth, boothe not boorhf a shed. Both, bdih^ the two (B. Ixii. b). 

" Booth," OaeUc bdth ; Law Latin hotha, a tent 

" Both,** Old English bdrtwd, both two. 

Boo^, spoil. Beauty, bu\ty, what is handsome, Botty, priggish. 
" Booty,** French butin, spoil. *' Beauty, French beatiU, 
''Botty," Welsh bostiwr, a boaster ; verb bosUo, to brag. 

Bocmoic, bojrag'Xk, adjective of " borax." (French.) 
Borage, bd^jr&ge not bur. ridge* A herb. 

Corruption of Cmrage, Latin oor-ago, to act on the heart : so called 
from its cordial virtues : Ego Bordgo gaudia, temper ago : that is, 
" Burrage gives courage,** or " Borage, I ween, drives away spleen. " 

Bolder, bavti'^der^ an edging. Boarder, one who boards, q.v. 
Bore, to perforate. Boor, 5oo'r, a rustic. Boa, &d.a^, a serpent, g.v. 
Borecole, bor.kdle (a vegetable). W^sh bore eawh early cabbage. 
Bom (to life). Borne, &om, carried. Bourn, bo'um, a limit. 

" Bom '* and " Borne,*' Old English boren, verb b4ri<m], to bear. 

" Bourn," French borne, a limit or boundary. 

Borough, Burrow, Borrow, Barrow. 

Borough, bur'raht a town "represented," but not episcopal 

Burrow, &tt/ro, a rabbit's lodge. 

Borrow, bor^ro, to take on loan. 

Barrow, bar^ro, a hand-cart, a mouud over the dead. 

" Borough,*' Old English bwrvh or burug, a city. Also bwh. 

"Burrow," Old En^h buarigen, a sepulchre, or burvh, a dwelliog. 

"Borrow," Old English borh or bora, a loan. 

"Bairow," Old English berctos, a wheelbarrow : bwrga, a mound. 
Borrow, see above. (Double r.) 



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62 ERRORS Vt SPEECH 



Bos (in Zoology), the ox genus of animals. Boss, a knob. 

''Bos," Latin h^t, ox, boll, cow, &o. "Boss," French hosse, a honap. 
BoBom, hooz\om not buzzum. Old Eng. Msrru (Kule Ix. d.> 

Botany, hot.a.ny, (Greek hStanSf herbage.) This word shaixld. 
be limited to fodder and herbage. The science of p]&zit;» 
should be phytology, fi.tol\o.gy. (Greek pMton lo^os, 
plants tiie subject.) 

Both, both not horth. Booth, boothe. A tent-shop. (Ste Bootli^ > 
Both of them. " Both-of " has aH adverbial sense. It do^« 
not mean both out of them, btlt them both-ly or botli- 
together. (See AIL All of them.) 

Bottle, bof.ti (for wine, &c.) Bottel, a bundle (bottel of haj). 

" Bottle," French houteilU; Low Lathi bubiciUa or InUticula, a little 

butta or ' butt *' 
" Bottel," ^ench botth a little botte or btmdle. 

Bottom (double t). The older form was hotm. 

Boudoir (French), boo'.dwor. A lady's private room. 

Bough, bow (of a tree). Bov (of a boat), to bend the head. 

" Bough," Old English boh, genitive boges (2 syl.) 

"Bow/' to bend the head. Old English bilg[an] imperfect btih. 

Boulder, bold\er, a large rounded stone. Bolder (more bold). 
"Boulder,'* corruption of bowld^y alstone which has been] bowled. 

about. 
" Bolder," Old English bdidbra, more bold (bdld). 

Bounty, plu. bounties, boun.tiz ; bountiful, bounti-ftilly, 
bounti-fulness ; but bounte-ous, bounte-ously, bounte- 
ousness. {There is no mfficlent reason for this change of 
the vowel. See Beauty.) 
French bontS, Latin bdnitas, goodness (Mnut good). 

Bouquet, plural bouquets (French), boc/.kay^, boo.kaze^. 

Bourgeois, bour.thwoiz (siiig and plural). A citizen, a burgess. 
(Pronounced bour-zhwoi in French.) 

Boom, ho*um not bom, a limit, a country. Bom, brought forth. 

Borne, carried. (See Bom.) 
Bow, b^w (to rliyme with now) : (1) a salutation with the head, 

(2) the fore part of a boat or ship, (3) to bend. Bough 

(of a tree). See Bough. 
Bow, bow (to rhyme with grow): (1) the propeller of arrows, 

(2) a curve, (3) an instrument used with a violin, &c. 

"B5w " (to bend) : Old Eng. 6«flr[an], bedglan], or biglan]. 
" Bow " (for shooting arrows) is from the same verb. 

♦^* Compounds in which " bow ** rhymes with vow : — 

Bow-grace (sea term), bdwman (first oar), bdwpiece (of a 
ship), bowline (in ships), the Spanish bolina. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 63 

%• Compounds in which " b6w " rhymes with grow : — 

Bow-bearer, bow-bent, bow-dye (so called from Bow, near 
London), bow-hand, bow-instruments (as violins, &c.), 
bow-legged, bow-less, bow-man (an archer), bow-net, bow- 
saw, bow-shot, bow-sprit, bow-string, bow- window, &c. 

Bows, bSwz (of a ship). Bows, hdwz (of a saddle). Bouse, 
to drink. French buvevr, a drinker, hoire ; L. Lat. huo. 

Bowed, hiiwd (term in heraldry). Bowed, hdwd^ bent. 
Bode, to portend. Old English hod[ian]^ to tell. 

Bowing, how-ing, saluting. Bowing, how-ing, curving. 

{A$ " bow " arid " bow '' are from the same v^rb, the only 
excuse for the twofold pronimciation is that of making 
the sense more clear.) 

Bowel, plural howelB, bow.elj bow.elz ("b5w" to rhyme with 
vow), bowell-ed, boweU-ing. (Rule iii. -el.) 
French hotl, Latin boUUus, the gut. 
Bower, bower (in a garden), a boudoir. Old Eng. bii/r, a bower. 
Bower-anchor, bowser arukor not bdw.er an.kor. The 
second anchor, carried at the ship's bows. 

Bowie Knife, bdw'.ee nlfe not bou/^e nife. Used in North 
America. So called from " Jim Bowie,'' one of the most 
daring characters of the United States. 

Bowl, bowl, a basin. Bole, a clayey earth. 

" Bowl,'* French 6(mZ«, a bowL *' Bole," Greek bms, a clod. 

Bowler, bdwLer not bow.ler. One who bowls. 

Bowling-green, bowLing green not bSw.ling green. 

Bowled, bowld not bowld. Bold, intrepid. {See Bold.) 

Boy, plu. boys, feminine Girl, plu. girls. Buoy, a float. 

"Boy," Old English byrt, a son (verb tyrf ian], to raise). 
" Buoy," Frendi bou6«; Dutch boei, a float. 

Brace, a tie ; two head of game, &c. Braas, a mixt metal. 

Brace (verb), braced (1 syL), brac-ing, brac-er ; but brace-let. 

"Brace," French bras, the arms, hence embrctssert to hug. 
"Brass," Old English brcM, brass. 

Brachial, bray\kual. Pertaining to the afms. 

Latin brdehicUis (Jbrdchlvm, the arm) ; Greek brachidn, 
Biachiopod, plu. brachiopods or brachiopoda, brak'.td.pod, 
krdkf.t.5p''\8.day. Molluscs with feet like arms, 
Ozeek brachidn potts fpodosj, arms [for] feet. 
Brag, bragged (1 syl.), bragg-ing, bragg-ingly, bragg-er, braggart. 
Braggadocio, plu. braggadocios. (Kule xlii.) 
Old English brceglan^ to pretend to arrogate to oneself. 



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64 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Brahman or Brahmin, plu, Brahmans or Brahmins, never 
Brahmen, The termination -man is merely by accident 
like our word " man,*' as Roman, &c. It arises from, the 
addition of -n to a noun ending in -m^, as BraIinia[nX 
Boma[n]. Brahmanlc, Brahmin^'ical, Brah^manism. 
" Brahman," from Brahmd / '* Brahmin," from Brahm. 
Brahma or Brahm, chief of the Hindtl Tiinify. 

Braid, brdde, trimming. Brayed, past tense of bray, (See Bray.) 

** Braid," Old English hrtdt (verb hredicM], to weave). 
Brain, brM^e (of the head). Old English bragen^ the brain. 
Brake. A female fern, a skid, a carriage for training horses, Sso. 
Break, brdkey to fracture 

*' Brake " (a femX Danish bregne. Welsh brwg, bracken. 

*' Brake " (a skid), Latin bnukiwn, an arm, a lever. 

"Brake" (a carriage), Old Eng. brece^ a [carriage for] breaking-ln. 

*' Break " (to fracture), Old English hredian], to mptnre. 

Bramble, bram\b'L The older spelling is brambel or bremhel. 
Bran, bram.. The husk of ground com. Brann-y. (Rule i.) 

French bran : as bran de scU, sawdust. 
Bran-new. Quite new, with the sheen or brightness still there. 
Old Eng. hrene or bryne, shining ; verb fcymfan], brenn[an], to burn. 
The word occurs with a difference in " Brown " br^n, the colour of 
things burnt ; *' brim-stone," burning stone ; ** brand" (bran-dj -d 
being added to convert the participle into a noun ; "Bum-itdi," 
to make the surface glow. Not a corruption of Brand-n9w. 

Brandy, |)?MraZ brandies, bran\diz; brandied, bran\did, 

German brannt-wein, Dutch brand-wijn, burnt-wine. 
Brass, brda (a mixt metal). Brasses, monumental slabs of brass. 
Brassy, brassi-ness ; brazen, brazier (a worker in brass). 
Old Eng. hroB&y brass; braaen. braien : broBtUuk, to braM. 
Bravado, jpZu. bravadoes, bra.vah\dOy bra.vah\doze. Brag, (zlii.) 

Spanish bravdta, the brag ot a bully ; browodtfr, a buUj. 
Brave, braver or more brave {comp.), bravest or most brave (nip.), 
braved (1 syl.), brav-ing, brav-ery, brave-ly. (Fr. brave.) 

Bravo, plu. braves, brah'.voze. Assassins for hire. (Rule xlii.) 

Italian brdvo (noun and adj.)-; Spanish brdvo (adj.), ferocioiu. 
Bray, brays, brayed (Irsyl.), bray-ing, bray-er. (Fr. braire.) R xiii. 
Braze, to solder with brass. Braise, charcoal used in a brasier. 

Braize, a method of cooking over a slow fire. Brays, drd 
per. sing, of bray. Breeze, refuse coke, &g, 

" Braze," Old English broe^ian], to cover with brass. 

** Braise," French, prepared charcoal for cooking purposes. 

** Hi^Ika " 1^wo1n/>l1 hmjbutT in hair a nvAr hrftian 



-TT^ 



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AND OF SPELLING, 65 



BraEen, onght to be hasen^ adj. of hroit, not " soldered." 

Old English brctsen, made of brass {brcss). 

Brazier, one who brazes or works in brass. Bnurier, a pan 
to hold " braise " or charcoal in ignition. 
Breach, breech, a gap. Breedi, the thick end of a gun, &c. 

" Breadi," Old Bng. 6riee (c=ch), a fracture ; French breche. 

'* Bneth ** (the famder part or bottom), Old Eng. brSCf breeches. 
Bread, brid, food. Bred, past and past part, of breed. 

" Bread," Old Eng. bread or bread, bread, food generally. 

" Bred, Old Eng. breed of the verb brSdianl to nourish. 
Breadth. " Length/' " depth," " breadth ; " " height" not keighth. 

Old Eng. brdd, broad, wHh -ih. This suffix added to adjectives 
converts them into abstract nouns, as strong, gtrength; &c. 

Break, brake not breekt to rupture. Brake, a female f^rn. 

Breskk, past broke Ihrsike^y past part, broken [broke]. 
Breakfast, brek'.fdst. The morning meal (break [the] fast). 
Breaking, brdkedng not breek.ing. (See Break.) 
Bream, a fish of the carp family. Brim, brim, a rim, a brink. 

** Bream,'* French br6me [hraana]. " Brim," Old Eng* brymme. 
Breast, brest (of the body). Old Eng, bredst, the breast. 
Breath, breth (noun) ; breathe, breethe (verb). Rule li. 

Breath (6r^«fe), breath'-less, breath'-leasly,breath'-lessness. 
Breathe (breethe), breathed (1 syl.), breath' -ing, breathes 

(1 syl.), br©ath'-er, breath'-ing-time. 
Old Eng. br^ith, breath, an odour, exhalation. 
Breccia, brech\^Mh, A rocky mass of atigular fragments. A 
mass of rou/nded fragments is a Conglomerate. 

It ought to be bricia (Italian), a fragment. The Italian word breccia 
means a ' ' breach. " 

Breech, plural breeches, breech, britch'.ez. In the singular it 
means the hinder part, as the *' breech " of a gun. In 
the plural it means trousers terminating at the knees. 
The verb (breech) means to flog ; and also to change the 
petticoat-suit of young boys for jacket and trousers. 
Breach, breech, a gap, an opening. (See Breach.) 
Breed, brede, to hatch, to generate. Bread, br^d, food, q.v. 
Breed, past bred, past participle bred. 
Old English br4d[an], past brdd, past part, brid&n, to nourish. 
Breeze, refuse coke. A gentle nvind. A gad-fly. 

"Breeze" (refuse coke), French brisi, broken ; Latin bri$a. 
'* Breeze" (a gentle wind), French brise, a breeze. 
" Breeze" (a gad-fly), also spelt Brise, Old Eng. Ttyriose, a gad-fly. 
Breesnmmer. It ought to be Bretsmner, a beam over a shop 
window, &G,, to euj^port the weight above it. 
German bret, % plank or beam, and swrnw (Welsh) supporter. 

' E 



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66 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Brethren, plural of brother, chiefly used in Scripture language 
For all general purposes the plural of brother is brotiiers. 
" Brethren " is altogether a blunder. The Old English was bnith^, 
plural brdthra or brdthru, later form brdthre. 

Breve (1 syl.)> a note in Music, Brief, brefe (of a barrister). 

" Breve/' not Ital but French hrtve (in Music). Ital. is neta imtiera. 
''Brief/' Latin IreviSf short. A short summary of a cause. 

Brevet, brev\et [rank]. An honorary degree in the army, being 
one grade higher than that which takes the pay. 
French brevet, brevet rank, a commission. 
Brevier, hrev,veer^. A small type, like that used in this line. 

Latin breviSf smalL Said to have been the type of hreviaries. 
Bridal, bn.ddlj adjective of bride. Bridle, brl.d% for a horse. 
BriddU or Brydal was the marriage feast, the "bride ale." The 

adjective of bride in Old English is bridlic or hrycUic. 
"Bridle," Old Eng. bridel or brydel (verb bridiicm], to curb)t 

Bride, masculine bridegroom, a corruption of hridegume. 

Old Eng. hrid or bryd; brid or bryd guma 

N. B.—Owmr (prefix) denotes excellence. Qumrmann, the famous man. 

Gum^^ynn, man-kind ; dumo, man " i>ar excellence." 

Bridesmaid, attendant on the bride. Best man, attend- 
ant on the bridegroom. (Brid^maid is incorrect. It 
does not mean the bridal maid^ as " bridecake" means 
the bridal cake, but the maid of the bride. 
Bridecake, not bridescake. It means the bridal cake not 
the cake of the bride. 
Bridge (over a river). Brig, a ship with two masts. 

" Bridge," Old Eng. bricg. " Brig," a contraction of brigantine. 
Bridle, bri'.d'l (for a horse). Bridal, bri'.dal, a^j. of bride, q.v. 
Bridled, lyr%\d%d; bridling, bri\d'ling; bridler, brt\d'ler. 
Brief, brefe, the summary of a cause. Breve (in Music), q,v. 
Brier or briar (a plant). Briery (Old Eng. brcer, a brier). 
Brigade Major, plu/ral brigade majors, brtgdde% &o. 

Brigade General, plural brigade generals, bri.gdde\ <fec. 
Bright, brite, shining, dear. (0. Eng. beorht corrupted to breoht,) 
Brighf en (verb), bright'ened (2 syl.), bright'ening. 
Bright-ly, bright-ness, bright-eyed, bright-shining, <fec. 
Brilliant, bril\yant, (French brillant, verb briller, to shine.) 
Brim, a rim. Bream, a fish of the carp fSEunily. (See Bream.) 
Brimm-er, brimmed (1 syl.), brimm-ing. (Bule i.) 
Brim-less, brim-ful (full to the brim). 
(" FuU," " fill," and "all," drop one I in the compounds.) 
Brimatone, sulphur. (Old Eng. bryne-stone, the burning stone.) 



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AND OF SPELLING, 67 

Brinded, tabby, streaked. Brindled (diminutive of the same). 

ItmUan brinabo, speckled, ip«tted. 
Brine, brin-ish, brin-ishness, briD-j (t long). Rule xvii. 

Old Bag. bryne, talt liquor, (fryite, burning, hM no accent.) 
Bring, past bronght, past part, brought. To carry to the place 
where we are^ to cany elsewhere is " to take." 
Bring-er and bring-ing, not hrin-ger and hrin-ging like 
finger and fingering, where the n stands for g (Jigger), 
O. Eng. hrinf^an], past Inihte or brang, past part, g^-broht or hrungen. 
Brigtle, bzistleB, bristled, bristl-ing, bristl-y, bristli-nefls, 
ftm'u^'i, hrit^j>'lz, 6m'.«*W, Jms'.Ung, hrU'.ly, brU'.li.net8. 
Old Eng. hyrst, a bristle. By metathesis bryst and dim. le. 
BEETAIN, Britr.'n; Briton, Brif.Sn; British (one t). 

Britan^'nia, Britan'nic. (Latin Britannia, Britanniciu.) 
Briftany. (Double t. The y is diminutive.) 
"Britain," Old Eng. Brittan, Brytten, Bryten, Brtoten, ftc. 
" British," Old Eng. Brittise, Brytti$e. 
" Briton," Old Eng. Brit or Britte, plu. Brittoi (i or y). 

Brittle, brit\t'l; brittler or more brittle, brittlest, &r most 
brittle; not britteler, britteUst. Easily broken. 

Old Eng. brytlic, verb bryt[(m], to break. 
Britzska, brits'.kdh or br^.kah. Bussian brit$hka. An open 

carriage which can be closed at pleasure. 
Broach, to tap. Brooch, an ornament for the neck or breast. 

"Broach," Fr. broche, a spigot. "Brooch," Sp. broche, a clasp. 
Broad, brawd, wide. Brod, a sharp-pointed instrument Brood. 

" Broad," Old Eng. brdd or brdd, broad. 

" Brod," same as prod, an awl, a goad ; Danish broad, a goad. 

" Brood," Old Eng. brdd, a brood ; brddig, brooding. 
Broadwise, not broadways. In the direction of the broad part. 

Old Eng. suffix -wis, in the direetion of ; toisa, a director. 
Broccoli, plural broccolis, brok\ ko.U, brok\k5.Viz not broccolow, 

French brocoli (one c), a spring cauliflower. (Not Italian.) 
Brogue, brog (g hard), a twang in speech, as the '* Irish brogue." 

OaeUc brog, a shoe made of rough hide. 
Bromelia, bro.me\li.dh. A genus of plants. So named from 
Olans Bromel, a Swedish naturalist. The pine apple, &c. 
Brameliacea, bro-me'-li.a''-se-e. The order containing the above. 

In Botany -acece denotes an order. 
Brome (1 syl.), or Bromine, brdmin, A non -metallic element. 

Brom-al, a fluid obtained from brome by alchohol. 

Brom-ide, a non-acid combination of brorne and oxygen. 

Bzom-ic, an acid combination of brome and oxygen. 

Brom-ate, a salt from the union of bromic ticid and a base 

Qreek br&moi, foetoar. (So called from ita fetid smell.) 



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68 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bronchia, jplural Bronchi®, hrMMMh, hr8n'M.ee. The rami* 
fications of the tubes called bronchi, terminating in the 
vesicles of the lungs. Bron'chial, bron^ktal (a(^.) 

Bronchns, plural bronchi, hrSn'.kus, bron'M. Bronchus, 
either of the two branches of the windpipe (bronchus 
dexter or bronchus sinis'ter), the two are the bronchi. 
Greek hrOgohda, the windpipe. (Note "g " before g or ch=" n.") 

Bronchitis, brSTuki'tis. Inflammation of the bron'chns. 

In Medical phraseology the suffix -Uis denoted " inflammation ; " as 
carditis, inflammation o( the heart ; perltonffis, inflammation of 
the peritoneum ; pneumonitis, inflammation of the lungs. 

Bronze (1 syl.), bronzed (1 syl.), bronz-ing, bronzes (2 syl.), 
bronz-ite, bronz-y. (Italian bronzo, bronze.) Rule xix. 

Brooch, an ornament. Broach, to tap. {See Broach.) 

Brood, a progeny; (verb) to sit to hatch. Broad, brawd, ^ide {q.v.) 

Old English brdd, a brood ; br6dig, brooding. Brdd, broad. 
Brook, a stream. Broke, broken past tense of break, brake. 

** Brook," Old Eng. br6c, a rivulet. "Broke," brcedian], brcee, brocen. 
Broom, a brush. Brougham, broom (q.v.) Brome {q,v.) 

** Broom," Old English hr6m, the broom shrub. 
Broth, brauth not broth. (Old Eng. br6th, broth.) 
Brothel, brotK.el. Corruption of the Fr. bordel. Ital. bordello. 

Brother, plu. brothers. In Scripture language, plu. brethren {q.v.) 
Brother, feminine sister, plural siaters. 

Brother-in-law, plural brothers-in-law, by marriage. 

Step-brother, plural step-brothers, sons of different fami- 
lies made brothers by the second marriage of their sur- 
viving parents. 
Old Eng. step[an\, to bereave. Brothers bereaved of one parent. 
Foster-brother, plural foster-brothers, nursed together. 
Old Eng. fdster, to feed. Pood-brothers, fed by the same parent. 
Old Eng. brdthor, plural brdthra or brdthru, later form brc/ihre. 

Brougham, broom not broo'.am. A hght four-wheeled carriage. 

So named from Lord Brougham, whose name, says Lord 

Byron, "is "pronounced Broom from Trent to Tay." 

Similarly Vaughan is Vawn, and Maughan is Mom. 

Brow, brow to rhyme with "now," not brow to rhyme with " grow." 

Old English broew, the eye-brow. 
Brown, brown to rhyme with "gown," not with grown. 

Old Eng. bnin, the colour of burnt things, hrunen or bturnM^ burnt 



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AND OF SPELLING, 6» 

Smcine or Bmcina, hru'^sin or hru^iLnah. An extract eome- 
what like strychnia {strik\ni.dh). Named after Dr. 
Bruce, mineralogist and trayeller. New York. 
Bruin, brU'M^ a bear. Brewing, hrew.ing, making beer. 

Brain is so named from Sir Bruin, the bear, in the German beast- 
epic of Reynard <fte Fox. (The brun or hrovm animal.) 
*' Brewing," Old Eng. bredti^anl, past brtdw, past participle brotoen. 

Bruise, brusej a contusion. BrewB, 3rd person sing, of "Brew." 
"Brnlsc," Old Eng. bry^ari], to bruise, past brysde, past part, brysed. 
Bruited, bru'.ted, noised, rumoured. " It got bruited abroad." 
A verb made Irom the French bruit, a noise, report. 
" To bruit," in French, is Ripandre un bruit au lain. 
Brunette (French), broo.nef^ A woman of dark hair and com- 
plexion. A fair woman is a blonde (French). 
Bnu'que (French), brush, abrupt, blunt in manners. 
Brute (1 Bjl.), a dumb animal. Bruit (French), a rumour. 
Brut-al', brut'-ally, bruf-ality, brut'-alise, brut'-alisino:, 
bruf -ali8a"tion, brut'-iah, brut'-ishness, brut'-ishly. brui'- 
ism, briit'-ify, brut'4fying, brut'-ifies (3 syl.), brut'-ified 
(3 syl.) Rule xvii. 
Latin bnUa [animdlia] brute animals. 
Bmtnin fnlmen (L^tin), bru.tum ful.men. A harmless threat. 
Bryony, bri\o,ny. The wild vine, the lady's seal, <fec. 

Greek hrudf to sprout out ; no plant makes longer shoots. 
Bubble, bubbles, babbled, bubbl-ing, bubbl-y. 

bub\b% buy. biz, bub'.b'ld, bub' Ming, bubWly, 
]>utch bobbelf a bubble. 
Bucaneer not buccaneer buk.a*neer, A sea-robber. 

French bo^icanier from houcaner, to smoke flesh; boucan, a smoking- 
place. Boucaneers originally hunted wild beasts for skins, and * 
smoked the flesh for food. {Boucan, a Caribbean word.) 

Buck, lye in which clothes are soaked to bleach ; hence Buck, 
a fop, whose clothes are " buck,'* or well bleached and 
got up, and Buck-basket, a basket for dirty linen. 
German bevdien, to steep clothes in lye. 

Buck, feminine doe. Fallow deer. (Old Eng. buc, a stag.) 
Buck (a gender- word) : as buck rabbit, doe rabbit ; buck 
hare, doe hare ; buck goat ; roebuck. 
Suck-bean, corruption of bog-bean. The marsh or bog vetch. 
Buck-wheat, corruption of b^lche-whe&t. Beech-wheat 

German buditodzen, beech-mast or buck-wheat. 
Sucketful, plural bucketfols not buckeUful, Bucketful is a 
noun, and means the quantity which fills a bucket. Two 
bucketfuls is twice that quantity, but two ." buckets-full " 
means two buckets filled full, — quite a disti^QCt idea. 



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ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Buckle, buckled, buckling, hulf^Ji% huk^k'ldy buk'.Ung, 

French Ixyucle, a bopkle or ring. 
Buckler. A shield made of osiers and covered with ox -hide. 

Low Latin buc<yiilarium (tmeHlus, a bullock), px-hide shield. 
Bucolic, hu.koV.ik. Pastoral, a pastoral poem. (One I.) 

Latii^ buciHiictu ; Greek hovk6ld», a herdsman ; boukdlikdt. 
Bud, budd-ed, budd-ing, budd-er. E. i. (French bouton, a bud.) 

Buddlea, lmdd'.l€.a not bvdd.lee'.a, A genns of shrubs. Named 
in l^onour of Adam Buddie, an English botanist. 

BufijBklo, plural buffalo^ (Spanish bufalo). Eule xlii. 
Buffet, huf\fet, a blow. Buffet, hu.fe1f or W.jay^ a sideboard- 
Italian })uff<i;to, a fillip, a blow. French &ujfe<, a cupboard. 
Buffoon, luf.foon'y a fool. (French bouffon, a jester.) 
Bug, bugg-y, bugginess. (Welsh bwcai, a maggot, &c.) Rule L 
Buggy. A gig for commercial travellers. (French ftour^^ow.) 

Buhl, bale. Brass, <fec., for inlaying in wood fdmiture. So 
called from Sig. Boule, cabinet-maker to Louis XIV. 

Build, Mid, past and past part, built, bUt, or [builded]. 

Old English byld^an], past bylde, past participle bylded, to buUd. 

Bul, bulL Four words (bulb, bulge, bulk, and ebullition) have 
thew short, as in "dulL" All the rest have the u long 
to rhyme with " wool." (Rules Ixv. and bcvi.) 

Bulb, bUlb, bulbous. A root solid, like the tulip ; scaly, like the 
lUy ; coated, like the onion; or jointed, like the adoxa. 
Latin huUms, bulhdsw ; Greek hdlbds, a bulb. 
Bull (rhyming with wool), not bail (rhyming with dull}, feminine 
cow ; bull-calf, feminine cow-calf or heifer. 
Welsh bwla, a bull. *' Cow," Old English ed, ai-ualf, a oow-calf. 
Bullock, an ox fed for slaughter. Steer, a young bullock. 

Old English bulluca, a bullock. Steor, a steer. 
Bullace not bullis, bulV.ace (" bull" rhyming with wool), A plum. 

"Welsh Eirinen bulas (Dr. Withering). 
Bulletin, lmlV.e,teen ("bull" rhyming with wool). An official 
report 
French bulletin (t syl.) This word and the Pope's "bull" owe th^ 
nauies to the bulla or seal which authenticates them. 

Bully, buV.ly ("bull" rhyming with wool), bullies (2 syL), bul- 
lied (2 syl.), bully-ing, bulli-rag. (Rules xi. and xiiL) 

Bulrush, bulV.rush (" bul" rhyming with wool, not with dull), 
Bul or bull prefixed to many words means ** large ": as 
bull-frog, bull-trout, bul-rush, <fcc. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 71 

Bulwark, huV.werk {** bul " rhyming with wool). A fortification. 
Dutch bolwerek, a fortified walL The ''boulevarda" of Paris, &c., 
is the same word. (Boulevard [2 syL], hovl.vcur.) 

Buinhailiff. Corrnption of hande-hailiff, i.e., a <* honnd bailiff; " 
a bailiff "bound" by sureties to the sheriff, who is 
responsible for his baUiff 's acts. (Old Eng. hunde, bound.) 

Bnsdle, bundled, bundling, bim\d'l, hun\d'id, bun'.dling. 

Old English byndel, hindian], to bind, and -el diminutive, ''A little 
bound thing ; " bindele, a binding or bond. 

Bungle, bungled, bungler, bujigling, bun|[llngly, bun\g% 

bun\g'ld, hun\g'lert bun,gling, &c. 
Buoy, a float. Boy, a male chHd. Buoyed (1 syL), buoy-ing, 
buoy-ant, buoy-antly, buoy-antness, buoy.ancy. 
French 5oue^, a buoy or float 
Burden or burthen. (Old English byrden or hyrthen.) 
' Bureau, plu, bureaux (French), bu.rOf bu,roze). 
Burglar not burgler. The -lar is the French larron (Latin latro) 
a thief, and hurg means a dwelling. The Old Eng. word 
was burgbrice^ a house-breaker. 
Low Latin hurgUkiia, burglaiy QywrgagvuM UUro, house robber). 
BnrgesB, plural burgesses, bur^.getSy bw/.gess.es. A man who 
has a town vote. The -ess is not the feminine termina- 
tion, but a contraction of -ensiSt " one employed on or for.'' 
Low Latin hwrg-tnsia, one employed in a town or borough. 
Burlesque (French), bur.leshff burlesqued (9 syL), burlesquer, 

burlesqu-ing. (Italian burlesco, bwrlare, to ridicule.) 
Bum, past B,n^ past participle burnt or [burned]. 

Old Eng. bym{(im\ past ham, past part, hwmen, to bum. 
Burnish. To polish till the surface glows like fire, -ish added 
to nouns means '*like," as hoyish; hwnmh means [to 
make] like fire*. {See Bran-new.) 
Burr. For monosyllables ending in a double consonant, see 

Eule vii. 
Burrow, bur.ro^ a hole in the ground, to make a hole in the 
ground. Borough, buf.rdh not bur'jro, It is merely a 
corrupt way of pronouncing burh. 
** Burrow," Old Eng. beorg{an1 to shelter, borgh or lH>rga(n). 
Burst, past and pa>st part, burst, not biistj busted, nor bursted. 

Old Eng. berst[an], past bcsrstf past part horsten, to burst. 
Bury, to inter. Bury, a borough. Berry, a finiit. 

Bury, buries (2 syl.), buried (2 syl.), buri-fcl, bury-ing. 
"Bury " (to inter), Old Eng. hyrg[an], to bury. 
"Bury '* (a borough). Old Eng. bwh or hurhg, a town. 
" Berry " (a fruit), Old Eng. herie or &mg, a berry. 



72 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bush, booth not huth. This and Posh are the only two words 
in -uth with the " u " like oo. All the others have " u '* 
short. They are **hlu8h, hrush, crush, flush, gush, hush, 
lush, plush, rush, thrush, and tush." 

" Bush " is French houchon, a tavern buf^h, a wisp. 

•' Push " is French pousser, to push. (The " u " r^rMents Fr. <m. ) 

Business, biz\nez. Vocation, employment. {See Busy.) 

Bus, a contraction of Omnibus (g.v.) Buss, a kiss. 
"Buss," Spanish bux; Latin basium, a kisa. 

Busy, busies, busied, biz'.y, biz^.iZy biz'Ad, husy-ing, busier 
(coTwp.), busi-est {super,), busi-ness, biz'.nez, busi-ly, busy- 
body, &c. (Rules xi. and xiii.) 
Old Eng. bysglian], to occupy ; by$gung, boiiiiesB. 

But (conj.) But [end], the big end. Butt, a tun ; to toss. 

" But " (conj.). Old Eng. b^tan or bdta^ except, but, without. 

"But [end J," French bout, the end. 

" Butt " (a lai^e tub), Old Eng. butt or byt, a tun. 

" Butt *' (to toss or thrust), Welsh pwtian, to poke or butt. 

Butcher, boofxher (" but-" to rhyme with foot, not with " ut "). 
This is the only instance of but so sounded. Of the nine 
other words one has " u " long as in " unit," — viz., buty'ric ; 
and eight have " u'* short, — ^viz., but and butt, butler, but- 
ment, butter, buttery, button, and buttress. 

** Butcher," French boucher. The " u " in btuh, push, and butcher 
owes its abnormal sound to iti representing the French ou. 

Butt, a mark ; to toss. But [end]. But (conj.) See But. 

Butts, plural, A place where archers meet to shoot at butts. 

Butter, biit.ter. (Old Eng. butere or butyre, butter.) 

Latin biUyrum ; Greek bouiuron {Otn. xvlii. 8), botu ivros, cow curd. 

Buttery, plural butteries, bu1f.te.ry, but'.te.riz. In the Univer- 
sities the college buttery supplies all sorts of food to the 
students, from a penny roll to a banquet. 

Butyric [acid], bu.ty'.rik not butf,y.rik. Obtained from butter. 

Butyrine, bu.ty'.rin not butf.y.rine. An oily substance 
obtained from butter. (Latin bUtyrum, butter.) 

Buy, to purchase. By (prep.) B'ye, as Good b'ye. 

Buy, past and past part, bought Buy-er, buy-ing, buys. 
" Buy/' Old Eng. byci^an], past b6hte, past part, geboht. 

Buzz. One of the monosyllables ending in a double consonant 
(Rule vii.) The others are: Add. odd; burr, err; ebb, 
egg; buzz, fuzz; fizz, frizz; butt, bUt, mitt. 



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AND OF SPELLma. 73 

By (preposition). Spelt anciently he, hi, hig, and by (be-causej. 
When both agent and instrument are expressed, by 
follows the agent, and with the instrument : as " The 
bird was killed by a man with a gun." If only the in- 
strument is expressed, by follows passive and neuter 
verbs: as "London was destroyed by fire, in 1066." 
" Socrates died by poison." " Burnt with fire." " Killed 
with poison." " Slay him with the sword." 

By (gerundial) : as " It may be had by applying at the 
office." This is good En^sh. The Gerund with thft 
preposition by or with being used, both in English and 
Latin, to express the nurnner, cause, or means. " It may 
be had (how ?) by paying sixpence.*' " It may be had 
(how ?) merely by asking for it." 

By (past, near). " The train has gone by" By-gones. 

By and by, not by and bye (adverbial). Soon, presently. 
Near, in point of time, that is, soon. "By and by*' 
means soon and nearly [now], almost immediately. 

By or Bye, a borough, house, place, way; {adj.) local, private. 
TOWN : By-word, town talk. 

By-laws, town or local laws, not statute or national 
laws. (Latin leges privdia.) 
PRIVATE : By-lane, by-path, by-play, by-road, by-way. 
SECRET, underhand, sly : By-stroke. 
OUT OF RULE : By-ball or Bye-ball. {See below Bye.) 

By the by, by the way {en passant, French ; in transitu, or 
ob-iter, Latin). (Old Eng. by or bye, a way, a pLice.) 

B'ye as Good b'ye, Good by, "God be wi' ye" {d-dieu, Ft.) 

Bye, plural byes (in Cricket). " A bye " is a bnll which 
passes the batsman and eludes the g^asp of the wicket- 
keeper behind him. 

Cabal, ka.hdV, a junto. Cable, ka'.b'l, a rope. 

Cabal, caballed' (2 syL), cabaU'-er, caball'-ing. (Kule i.) 

"Cabal," French cabaU, a olub. It is merely by atcange coincidence 
that the initial letters of the British Cabinet in 1671 formed the 
word * ' oajuIn " " Cable, " French cdbU, a rope. 

Cabbage, caV.hidge, a vegetable. Cab'bage, to pilfer. (Double h.) 
Italian cappucde, a cabbage lettuce ; Latin caput, a head. 
"Cabbage" (to pilfer). Butch hahassen, to pilfer. 

Gabiii, 'kai/.in, a hut. (Welsh caib and ea>bam>, a booth.) 
Cable, ka'.b'l, a rope. Cabal, ka.haV, a junto. {See Cabal.) 



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ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Cabriolet, hdb\r'io.lay, A one horse ooach, with a hood. 

Gab, a contraction of the same word. It means, a little 

coach, that scampers along like a kid or mountain.goat 
French cabriole, a caper, a scamper (eabri, a kid). 
Cacao, ka,ka'.Oj the chocolate tree. Cocoa, ko.ko, made from 
cacao nuts. Coca is another word, being a Peruvian tree 
of narcotic virtues. 
"Cocoa" is a contraction of chocolate fchoco*), and both "cacao" and 
"chocolate" are eormptions of the Mexican word cacawUh or 
quachuath, as the tree is called. 

Cacoethes, kaV -o.ee" -rheez, A bad habit hard to resist. Gene- 
rally applied to scribblers, whose love of writing is termed 
cacoethes scrihendi (Greek kakos ithos, bad habit). 
Caddis, a grub. Caddy, plu. caddies, kad'.diz, a box for tea. 

" Caddis," Latin c&d%L», Greek kddds, a case or chest. The " caddis" 

or " case-worm " is enclosed in a case or sheath. 
"Caddy" is the Chinese word eatty^ a small packet of tea. 
Gadmean, kad.mee\an not kad\me.an, Ilelating to Cadmus. 
Cadmium, kad'.mtum. A metaL 
Latin CadmStu, adj. of Cadmus, a mythical king of Thehes. 
" Cadmium," Latin cadmia, brass ore, so called from Cadmus. 

Caducous, ka.du\8e,vs. Mercury's wand. Caducous, ka.du\ku8, 
in Botany, shedding as the calyx of a poppy is shed. 
" Caduceus" (I^atin), from the Greek kSrvkios, adj. of kirux, a herald. 
"Caducous," Latin cadiUnis, from cado, to falL 

Caffeine, kaf'.fe.Xn. The bitter stimulating principle of coffee. 
Theine, tee\in, is the similar principle in tea. 

French caf4, cofFee. The plant is called "CoffSa Arahica.** 
Cage (1 syl.), caged (1 syl.), cag-ing, kay\jing. To coop, a coop. 

French cage, a coop, Latin cdvia, a cave, or coop. 
Caique, kay.eek' (French). A small Spanish war-ship. 
Caitiff, plu. caitifib. A knave, a wretch. (Bule xxxix.) 

French cheti/, Latin captivus, a captive. 
Cajole, ka.jole\ cajoled (2 syl.), cajol'-er, cajor-ing, c«g6r-ery. 

French cajoUr, to flatter. 
Calamanco, plu. calamancoes, kaV .S,.man'\koze. (Bule zlii.) 

Spanish calamaco, a woollen cloth checkered in the warp. 
Calamine, kaV.a.min. A mineral, chiefly carbonate of zinc. 
Chamomile, karnf .o.mile, a plant. Calomel, mercury. 

" Calamine," Latin edUttMU, a reed ; whan smelted it adherw to the 

furnace in the form of reeds. 
"Chamomile," Greek chamai melon, apple lying on the ground, so 

called from a resemblance in the smell (French camomille). 
" Calomel," Greek kdlds milas, beautiful black. It is prepared by 



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AND OF SPELLING. 75 

Galcareonfl, kalkair^r^.tis. (Would have been better with t.) 

Latin ecUearius, adj. of ocUx, lime. 
Oalcedony, better Chalcedony, kal.see\don.y. A precious stone. 

From Chaleedon, in ^na Minor, whete the first was found. 
Calceolaria, kals^-d.laii^'H.ahy not kal-se.lav/' -Vah. 

Slipper-wort. (Latin dim. of calceSlus, a little shoe.) 
Calcine, kaVjine. To reduce to powder by heat. (Fr. caUnner.} 

Cal'cined (2 syL), cal'cin-ing, calcm'-able (i long). 
Calculate, kaV.ku.late. To reason by figures. Cal'culat-ed, 
cal^culat-ing, cal'culat-or, cal'cula"tion, cal'culable, cal'cu- 
lably ; in-calculable and in-calculably (negatives). 
Latin ealculdre, from calc&libs, a pel)ble, used by Boman boys to 
assist in adding and subtracting. 
Cal'^cnlna, plu. cal'cnli, stone on the bladder. Cal'^onlons, stony. 

Calciilus (Latin), a stone ; cale&Wrus (Latin), stony. 
Caldron, kauV.droTtj a large kettle. Chaldron, choV.dron, 
''Caldron," Latin calddrium, a caldron. 
" Chaldron," French chaldron = 36 English bushels. 

Cal'endar (of the year). Cal^ender, a machine for calendering. 
"Calendar,'* Latin caUnddrium^ an aceount-book. 
"Calender,** French calandre, verb ecUandrer, to mangle; Latin 
cylindruMf a roller ; Greek kulindrds (kuUncUi, to roll). 

Calender, cal'endering, not caUndring, calendered, kaV.en.derd. 
Calendrer. One who calenders cloth. The poet Cowper uses 

the word Calender for " Calendrer." (See John Gilpin.) 
Calendula, kaJLen^ Au.lah. Marygolds, <fec. 

Latin ccUendcB, the first of the month; so called because these 
plants flower almost every month in the year. 
Calf, plu. calves, karfy karves ; bull-calf, fem. cow-calf. 

Old £ng. ual/y pin. cealfru. Our plural ought to be calfs. (B. zzxviii. ) 

Caliber, kaVJLher not ka.lee^ber. The diameter of a gun-barrel. 

Fr. and Sp. calibre, dimension of a ball, bore of fire-arms (Arab caltb, 

a mould, or fron^ the Lat. equil0rdrey to weigh out in equal parts). 

Calico, plu, calicoes, kaV.tkOy kaV.tkoze. Cotton cloth. (B. zlii.) 
French eoHcoty from Calicut (E. Ind.), whence it was first imported. 

Calisthenics, kaV-iss.rhenf'-iks, Exercises to- develop the body. 
Greek kdWs sthin^s, beauty ^d strength [combined]. 

Calix,2){ii. calizes, kay'.lix.ez, a cup. Calyx, part of a flower. 
Latin e&UZf Qreek huliXy a cup. (A different word to calyx.) 
Latin c&ljpf^ Greek haluz, the empalement of a flower. 

Calk or Canlk, kauk. To drive oakum into the seams of a ship. 
Cank, a sulphate of bar/ta. Cork (of a bottle). 
"CaUc," Latin eaXcOy to tread, to press {calx, the heel of the foot). 
"Cauk,** a miner's term, derivation unknown. 
"Cork," Latin corUx, the bark of a tree. Na/rc sine cortioe, to swim^ 
without corks (Hor. Sat. L iv. 120); German k^k, cork. 



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76 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Call, to shout. Oftul (of a wig), a membrane. (Old £ng. cawL^ 

Call, kawU called (1 sjL), oaU-icg, caliper. 

Catcall, recall, callboy, &c. It retains the double "1" always. 

Latin cdlo, Greek UM, to calL 
Calliope, kal\li.8.pS not kal.li'.o.p^, as it is generally called. 

Greek KaUf^, H^ miiae of epic poetiy {kallds, beauty). 

Calloufi, kaV.lui^ insensible. Callus, bone gluten. 

Latin calldgv^, calloiu. Callus, a glutinous substance growing about 
the fracture of bones, serving to solder them. 

Calm, karm; calmer, more calm; calmest, most calm. (Et.calme.) 
Calomel, kaV.o.mel, prepared mercury. Chamomile, kam'.omile 

(a flower). Calamine, kal\a.mln, a fossil (q.v.) 
Caloric, ka.lo\rik not ka.Wr^.rik nor kaV.o.rik. The principle 

of heat. (Latin calory cdloris, heat ; cdleo, to be hot.) 
Caltrop, koV.trop* Ought to be coltrap. A kind of thistle. 

Old Sng. coHrosppe, % whin, thistle, or caltrop. 
Calumet, kaV.u.met. A pipe smoked by American Indians when 

they make a treaty or terms of peace. 
Calumny, plu. calumnies, kaV.wnuniz, A slander. 

Calum'niate (4 syl.), calum'niated, calum'niat-ing, calum'- 
niat-or, calum'nia"tion, calum'niatory, calum'nious, ca- 
lum'niously. (Latin calumnla.) 
Cal'vary, the place of Christ's crucifixion. Cavalry, horse- 
soldiers. (Second "a" of "Calvary" is long in Latin, 
No such word in the Greek text of Luke xxiii, 33. j 
" Calvary," Latin ealvdria, a cemetery (edlva, a skull). 
"Cavalry," French cavaUrie; Latin oaballAU, a horse. 

Calve, karvCy to bring a calf into life. Carve, to serve meat. 
Calves, plu. of calf. {See Calf.) 

" Calve," Old Eng. cealf-ian, to bring a calf into the world (c=k). 
"Carve," ceor/-an, to cut, hew, or carve (c=:k). 

Calvinism not Galvanism, The religious tenets of John Calvin. 
Calvinist. One who entertains the religious views of Calvin . 
Calx, plu. calxes or calces, kaV,seez, Lime, chalk. 

Old Eng. cealc ox <sdlc ; Latin calx, pin. caUes, chalk. 
Cal'yx, plu. cal'yxes or cal'yces, kaV.y.8eez. Calix, a cup (q.v.) 
I^tin cdlyx, plu. cdJ^ees; Greek kaltu^ plu. kalUJc^s, the empalement 
of a flower. 
Cambric, kame'.hrik. Fine linen made of flax. 

Ttom Cambray, in Flanders, where it was first manufactured. 
Camelion, better Chamcdleon, ka.mee'.le.on. 

Latin duunoeUon ; Greek dvaiMAledn, the reptile lion. 
Camellia, generally called ka,mee\li.ahy better ka.meV.li.a. 

These beautiful plants are named after G. J. Kamd (Latinised into 
Camelltui^, a Moravian Jesuit, and botanist 




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AND OF 8PELLTN0. 77 

OamelopaTd, generally called kam'.elkS.pard or kam'-el.lep^-ard. 
Latin edmilopa/rdcUia, the giraffe. The word is compounded of 
cam^(hparddli$y the parded camel, the camel spotted like the pard 
or panther, and should be pronounced ka.meef.lo.^rd. 

Gameo, plu. cameos, ham\S.Oi kam\S.oze* Stones cut in relief^ 
Intaglio, in.tal.yo, A etone cat in hollow, like seals. 
Italian canuneo «id wtaglio. 

Camomile, bett^ Chamomile, kam\o,m%U, A plant. 

Calomel, ItaV.o.mel. A preparation of mercury. 

"Chamomile," Greek c^Ttiai mMds, an apple on the ground. So 

called from a resemblance in the smell. 
"Calomel," Greek kdlds mei&t, beautiful Made {bleached by heat). 

Campaign, kam.pain\ The time an army is in <* the field." 
Champagne, 8ham.pain\ Wine made of Chatapagne grapes. 
"Campaign," French ccmpagne^ a field or open country. 
Campaigner, kam.pain\er. One who has served in campaigns. 

Gampana, kam.pay\nah (Latin). The pasque-flower. 
Campanile not campcmel, kam'.pa.niU. A. bell-tower. * 

Latin campdnUe, a bell-tower. (The " i " is long. ) 
Campanula, kam,pan\u.lah. Hair-bell, blue-bell, Canterbury-bell. 

Latin campdweUOy the blue-bell, also the woodbipe {-pa- long). 
OMnpamiliiceas, kam-pan-u.lay" -se.ee. The " campanula " order. 

The suffix -[a}c0(B, (in Boian^) means an *' order" of plants. 
Campanularia, phi. caanpanulariss, kam.pan'.u.ladr^'ri.ahy &q. 
Corals -with bell-shap^ cells. 
Latin campdniUat a little bell. 
Camphine, better camphene, ka/m'.feen, cont. of cam'ph6§en. 
A mineral oil, identical with rectified oil of turpentine. 
Latin cwmiphdra, Greek ggnd, I produce camphor. (Its protoxide). 
Camphor, kam'.for. A gum from the camphor laurel. 

Latin cawijjWro. Dr. TTre gives " Kamphvfr, Arabic." 
Campion, kam'.pi.on. Both catch-fly and cuckoo-flower. 

" Corn-campion," the common eatch-jly; "white and red 
campions," lychnis or cuckoo-Jlower ; "rose campion," 
b<ichelor'$ button. 
Can, past tense could. This is never an auxiliary verb, but it 
stands in regimen with other verbs without to between 
them : as " I can write," " I could write." Here write is 
infinitive mood, being the latter of two verbs in regimen. 
(I ken, to write.) 
Old Eng. eminan, pres. tense can, past cAthe, past part. c&th. 
(The **r" it interpolated, and the "ItA*" cfianged to ^'d."J 

Canaille (French), ka.naK'e. The rabble. (Lat. canes, hounds.) 



ii 



I 

78 ERRORS OP SPEECH 



Oanal, Channel, Kennel, ka.naV, chan'.nel, ken\nel. 
"Canal" (French), an artiflciat river ; Latin candUs. 
** Channel " (a watercourse), Old French chenal, a gutter. 
*' Kennel," Italian eanile, a |dace for dogs. (Latin camis, a dog.) 

Cancel, han'$ely to obliterate. Cancelled, kan'seld; can^ceil-ing, 
cau'oell-ate; (In Botany) lattice-like. (Bule iii. -el.) 
Canceller, one who cancels. Chancellor, a dignitaiy, q.v. 
Latin ccmceUo, to make like a lattice (canoeUi, lattices). 
When a document is cancelled a pen crosses the writing into lattices. 

Cancer, kan^seVy " the crab " of the Zodiac. Canker, a worm. 
Latin cancer, the crab, sign of the summer solstice. 
" Canker/' Old Eng. cancer or cancre (c = k). 

Candelabrum, plu. candelabra, han\de.lay'\hrum, kan\de,lay''- 
brdh. (The " e '* of this word it Umg in Latin.) 

Latin candSlahrum ; candeld, a candle ; candeo, to glow Uke Are. 
Candid, frank. Candied, kan'.did (with sugar). See Candy. 

"Candid," Latin candUus, white, sincere. 

" Candied," Italian candU», candire, to candjr. 

Candidate, kan\dLdate. One who offers himself for a vacant post. 
Latin eandiddtua^ clothed in white ; because Roman candidates 



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AND OF SPELLING, 



CSan'non, ordnance. Gan'on, a church dignitary. It is difficult 
to recollect which of these two words has the double n. 
▲ "cannon'* Is a reed for holding gnnpowder; Oreek kanna; 
Latin and Italian §anna; French eemne (idl with double n). 

Can''ii0Q-ade, can^non-a^ded, can'^non-a'ding, can^'non-eer^. 
*' Canon ** is the Greek kan&n; Latin canon, a rod for measuring, a 
"rule/' hence a standard or model of excellence, and hence the 
books admitted as our Scriptures, and a church dignitary. 

Ganon^'-ical, canon'-ically, canon^'-icals ; can^'on-ist, can'on- 

ise, can'on-ry, can'on-isa^tion {not a Greek word, R. xxxi.) 

Cannot, kan'.not, familiarly contracted into can't, hamt not 

kant. It is in reality " ca^n't (ca = kah). 
Caimy, han'.nyy cautious, knowing. Cany, Tcain'.y, adj. of cane. 
"Canny," Old Eng. e6ne, from cunnan to know or ken. 
"Cany," Latin cann^iM, adj. of canna, a cane. 

Oanoe, plu. candes, ka.noo\ ka.no6z\ (Rule xlii.) This word, 

meaning a boat made of skins or bark, is said by Spanish 

historians to be of Indian origin : **Illa in terram suis lin- 

tribtu, qiLoa 'cdnoas' vacant ^ editxerunt" (Hist, of Amer.) 

Canon, a church dignitary. Gannoii, ordnance. {See Gannon.) 

Canopy, plu. canopies, kan'.S.pyy kan\o.piz, (Rule xiii.) 

Canopied, kan'.o.pidf can'opy-ing. To cover with a canopy. 

Low Lat. ^andpeum,- Greek k&n6peiffn, a pavilion to keep off gnats 
(jk&ndps, a gnat). The -nd- Is long both in the Gk. and Lat. words. 

Cant, hypocritical whining complaints. Can't, for " cannot," q.v, 

Latin can£o, to repeat the same thing often, to sing. 
Cantata (Italian), kan.tar'.tah not kan.tay\tah, A poem set to 

music (Latin cantdrey to sing). 
Canteen. A, soldier's tin vessel for holding drink. 

Italian, canHna, a wine-cellar. 
Canter, one who cants. Canter, a Canterbury gallop* The 

Canterbury gall(^ ref^s to the easy pace of pilgrims. 
CanthariB, plu. cantharides, kan'.tha.risy kan.thar'ri.deez. 

Latin eanthoHt, the Spanish fly ; Greek komthdros, a beetle. 
Caathns, the comer of the eye. Acanthus, a thorny plant. 

Greek kanthos, the comer of the eye ; Latin eanthtis, a wheel-tire. 

"Acanthus," Latin, ^m Greek xikamihos feikcmtha, a thorn). 

Canticle, plu. canticles, kan\ tt k% (fee. A religious song. 

"Solomon's Song" in the Bible is called "The Canticles." 

Italian eanHea; Latin cantos, a tune, and -cU, diminutive. 
Canto, plu, cantos (Italian), kan'.toze. Divisions of a poem. 
Canton, kan'.tony a territorial division. Cantle, a fragment. 

" Canton," French, from the Greek kcmthos, a comer. 

"CanUe," French ScfumtiUon, a sample, our " scantling. ** 



80 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Can'vas (one 5), plu, canvases, cloth. Gan^'vass, to solicit votes. 
Can'vasB, can'Tasses, canvassed (% syl.)) canVass-er, &c. 
" CanvM," French eanevcts; Latin canndbis ; Greek kawnMU, hemp 
" CanvMS," Old Fr. cannaboMeTf to aift thro' hemp, hence to sift votes. 

Cany, kay\ny^ adj. of oane. Oanny, knowing (q.v,) 
Caoatchouc, koo.tchook' not ka.ouf.chouk (Indian). India- 
rubber prepared for waterproof cloths. 
Cap, capped (1 syl.), capp-ing, capful plu. capfuls. (Rule i) 
Cap-a-pie, kap' ah pay'. From head to foot 

Spanish [de\cdbeza a pies. Not French. Fr. would be de pied en cap. 
Capable, kay\pd.b% ca'pableness, capability, 

French capable; Latin capax, capdHs (verb capio). 
Capacity, plu. capacities, ka.pas\%.tiz ; capacious, ka.pay^shust 
capa'ciously, capa'ciousness. (Latin capdcitas, capacity.) 
Caparison, ka.par'ry .zon. To decorate a horse. (This word is 
corruptly spelt " caparison'^ for '^ caparason.") 
Spanish caporoxon (with a and z) ; French caparofon. 
Capillary, plu. capillaries, ka.pil\la.riz^ the extremities of 
arteries, fine as hairs. Capillaiy, adj., fine as a hair. 
Latin cdpilldris, like a hair {capUlu?, a hair). 
Capital (of a column), chief city. Capitol, a temple in Rome. 
Oap'ital-ly, cap'ital-ist, cap'ital-ise, cap'italised (4 syl.), 
cap'italls-ing (« not «), cap'ital-isa"tion. (Rule xxxi.) 
" Capital" (chief city ; excelletit), French capital ; Latin capitdlit. 
"Capital" (of a column), ought to be capitell; Latin capiteUwn, 
The termination is the dimin. -elhis (-el), and not the adj. -oL. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 81 

Capeicnm, plu, oaxisioiiinfl, kdp^slkumj Ssc, The cayenne-pepper 
plant {This word ought to be capf»ciuii instead of 
" capsicum") 
Latin eapta^ a coffer, referring to the pod which contains the seed. 
Capstan (of a ship). Oapetone, a fossil sea-urchin. 

"Capstan," Fr. cabestan; Old Eng. ccehesiter; Lat. capistrum, a halter. 
** Capstone," so called from its resemblance to a cap. 

Capsnle, kap^sule (2 not 3 syl.) Tlie seed-vessel of a plant. 

Latin capsiUa (capa and -ula dim. ), a little chest (or pod). 
Captain, kap\ t'n, (French capitaine ; Latin caput, the head.) 
Captaincy, plu. captaincies, hap\tan.siz, Kank of captain. 
SnflLx -cy denotes "rank," "oflQce," "condition" (-cy, not -ay). 
Caption, kap^shun. The act of taking bj judicial process. 
OaptionSv kap\shtLs, disposed to find fault ; cap'tiousness. 
Latin captio^ eaptiosus (verb capiOf capto, to entrap). 
Captivate^ kap\ti,vate; ccip'tivated, cap'tivat-ing, cap'tivat-or, 
cap'tiva"tion. {-or, after t or », is more n^ual than -er.) 
Latin captlvare^ to make captive [by charms or otherwise]. 
Captivity, plu. captivities, kapMv' XMz, (Rule xliv.) 
Captor, he that capttires. Capture, kap\tshur, to take prisoner. 
Captured, kap'.tshurd ; capturing, kap'.tshur.ing. 

{-tor and -sor for agents, rarely -ter and -ser,) 

French eapturt, verb eapturet; Latin (XLptura, a capture. 

Capuccio, plu. capuccios (Ital.), ha.pute\sho, ka.pute\shoze. 

(The plural of this word is Anglicised.) 
Capuchin, hap'.u.8hin. A monk of the order of St. Francis. 
So called from the " capuchin " or hood worn by them. 
In French capucin, the monk : bat capu(^wn, the hood. 
In Italian capuccino, the monk ; and cappucdo, the hood. 

Cap'ut mor'tuum (Latin). What remains in a still, <fec., when 

all the volatile matters have been driven oflf. 
Car, a small one-horse vehicle. Char, to carbonise by fire. 

** Car," Latin earrum, a cart or car ; earriuf, a wagon or wain. 

"Char," French chatrit, cinders ; Latin eoflrho, C(Md. • 

Carafe (French), ca'/raf, A water decanter ; not craff nor craft. 
Carat, caret, carrot ; har^rat, kair'.et, kar^rot. 

Carat (French), 4 grains Troy. 34 caratd, standard purity. 

Caret (Latin), term in Gram. " wanting," ad " Vocative caret.** 

Carrot, a vegetable root. (French carotte.) 
Gar'avan' (nne r). It is not derived from " carry," but from the 
Armenian word karawan; verb karau, to journey. 

Persian. X»rvan, a merchant; French caravairu, a company of mer- 
chaatvtmveHittgacross deserts, Ac. 



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82 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Garavansary, kar^ra.van'^^a.ry, A station for caravans. 
Fenian hcvroan wurai, a laige place for travelling merchants. 
Carbine, ka'/.hine, a gun. Carbon, pure charcoal. 

CaTl>on, car'bonise, car'bonised (3 syL), carT)onisa"tion. 
Latin carbo, coal, charcoal. (Bole xxzL) 
Carbonado, plu. carbonadoes, har'-bo.nay^'-doze, (Rule xlii) 
Spanish ea/rbonada, a steak or chop broiled on carbon or charcoal 
Carbonate, kar^.bo.nate, A " salt " formed by the union of car- 
bonic acid and a base : as ** Carbonate of lime," Sse, 
Car^nated, car'bonating (carbon and suffix -ate, q.y.) 
Carbuncle, kar^.bunJs'l. A gem of a deep red colour ; a red ulcer. 

Latin carbo, and the diminutive -eulvm, a little [live] coal. 
Carburet, haf .hu.ret. Carbon in union with some other sub- 
stance, the compound not being an acid. 
{-uret, in Chemistry , denotes a " base.") 
Car^urett-ed, carHburett-ing, car'burett-er. (R. iii., t.) 
The " t " ought not to he doubled in these words. (R. iii.) 
Carcass, har.k&s, a dead body. Carcasse, a projectile. 

French eounaaae, a dead body, a sort of shell, &c 
Cardamine, Cardamom, Cardamnm. (N.B, — da not -di.) 
Cardamine. A plant called lady's smock, cuckoo-flower, &c, 
GardamcmL An Indian spice plant — ^the seeds are useful. 
Cardamnm. Garden cress, nasturtium. 
"Cardamine," dim. of Lat. oarddmum: 0^ kardAmdn, a cress. 
''Cardamom," Lat. carddmomum; Ok. karddmdmvm, an Ind. plant. 
"Cardamnm," Latin carddmum; Greek karddmdn, a garden creas. 
Greek kdra damad, to aflUct the head [with its acrimony]. 
]f spelt ^'-di-" it vnnild be the Greek "kardia,** the Jieart. 

Cardiac, kar'.di.ac. Adj. of the Greek kardia, the heart. 

Carditis, kar.dV.tis. (-itis denotes " inflammation.") 

Greek hardia Atis, inflammation of the heart. 
Cardinal, kar^.di.nal. An ecclesiastical prince ; principal. 

Iiatin ecurdindlis (ca/rdo, a hinge) ; the election of the pope ''hinges" 
on the cardinals. " Cardinal virtues," on which minor ones hinge. 

Care, cared (1 syL), car-ing ; care-ful, care-less, care-fulness. 

Old English eeor, care (verb afrton, past edrode, past part, cdrod). 
Careen, ka.reen\ To lay a ship on its beam-ends for repairs. 

French earhu (verb coroner) ; Latin oa/rina, a keeL 
Career, ka.reer^. A course of action. (French carriire, a career.) 
(This word ought to have a double " r.'*) 

Latin earrum, a car ; carrui, a wagon (from cwrro to run). 
Caress, ka.ress'. To hug, to " dear" one; an act of endearment. 

French caresur, to caress : Latin cortw, dear. 
5t, kaii^ret, wanting. Carat, Carrot (See Carat) 



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AXD OF SPELLING. • 83 

Cargo, plu. cargoes, kar^.goze. (Spanish cargo^ a ship's load.) 

Caricature, kar^riJea.turd'. This word has no connection with 
Character, It is the Italian earieaturat from caricare, to 
load ; and means to overcharge hlemishes and faults. 

Caricatured' (4 syl.), car^icatar^'-ing, carlcatut^'-ist 
Caries, plu, caries, hav/ri.eez, mortification of the hone during 
life. Carries, fea/.rcz, 3rd pers. sing, of the verh carry. 

Carious, hair'ri.us, acy. of caries. Oarioslty (abst noon). 

Latin €iMe$, sing, and plu., decaj of bone or wood. 
Carlovingiaxi, ka//'lo,vin'*-j\-an. Adj. of Karl (German)i 

Gar51iu (Latin). The dynastf of Charles (Martel). 
Canninatiye, kar.min\a.tiv, A medicine to cure flatulence. 

French oarminati/; Latin earmindre, to card or dean. 
Carmine, kar.mine'. A brilliant crimson colour. 

French catmin, from the Arabic htrmu (8 qri), an Insect which gives 
a brilliant scarlet dye. 

Carnal, kar^.nal, sensuaL Ghamel, tchai^.nel, animal refuse of 
a churchyard. (French chamiery a churchyard.) 
Car'nal, car'nage, camalMty ; cama^tion, flesh colour. 
"Carnal,'' Latin camdUa, carnal (ca/ro, camia, fleshX 
Camelian not cornelian, A carnation or flesh-coloured stone. 
Latin eamihUy and lieu a word used by miners for a sillcioas or cal- 
carious stone. ''A flesh [coloaced] silidons stone." 

Carnival not eameval, kaf'.ni.val. The Saturnalia preceding 
the abstinence of meat in the season of Lent. 
Latin eami vaU, farewell to meat. 
Oimivora (Latin), kar.nii/.5.rah not kaf^.ni.vo'\rah, flesh-eating 
animals. Gamivorous, flesh-eating. 
Latin eamMfnu (oouro, eamU, voro, to devour flesh). 
Carol, kaf^rol; car'oUed (2 syl.), car'oU-ing, car'oll-er. (R. iii -ol.) 
Gar^d-lif ic (in Architecture), a garlanded pillar. 
Welsh carol, a love-song ; Italian carola, a dance or caroL 
Carotid, ka,ro1f.id not kai^rd.tid [artery]. An artery of the 
neck (there are two) to convey blood to the head. 
Latin cArdtMa, the arteries of the nedc. from edrOticiu, producing 
sleep. The ancients supposed these arteries controlled sleep. 

Canniae, ka.rawz' not hasooze, caroused (2 syl.), carous'-er, 
carous'-ing, carous'-aL To revel, (fee. 
French cottoum, carrofvutl. A ''carrousd'* consisted of four quad- 
rilles of mounted knights, two quadrilles against two, in a touruay. 

Car'penter, car^pentry ruit car'pentery. A worker in wood. 

Latin earpeuMflriut, % coach-builder (corpentwm, a chariot). 
Car'pet, car'pet-ed, car'pet-ing (with one f. Bule iii.) 



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84 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Carriage, kar^ridge. A coach. {See Cajrry.) 

Gamer, ibarVt.€r, one who carries. Career', a course (q.v.) 

Carrion, kar^ri.on. Corrupting flesh. (Ought to have only 

one "r.") (Latin carOy flesh.) 
Carronade, Jcar'ro.nade, A short cannon; so called from the 

Carron Foundry (Scotland), where they were first made. 
Carrot, Carat, Caret, karWot, karrat^ kair^.eU (See Carat.) 

Car'rot-y, red like a carrot ( N.B, — Double r, one t. R. iii.) 
Car'ry, carries, kar^riz ; carried, kar'rid ; car'ry-ing, car'rier, 

carriage, kar'ridge, (Rule xliv.) 
Welsh cario, to carry ; eariwr, a carrier ; Latin ca/rrus, a cart. 
Carte blanche (French), kart blamsh. A piece of paper to be 

filled up at discretion, the giver being responsible. 
Carte de vlsite, plu. cartes de viaite (Fr.), karf deve.zeef, &c. 
Cartload, plu. cartloads not earUload, as *' two cartloads." 
Carthaginian not Carthagenian, Ac^. of " Carthage." 

Latin Carthago, CartJiofflnis, Carihaqiniensis (adj). Oar "e" in 

"Carthage" is merely to soften the "g." 

CartUage, kar'.tUage, gristle. Cartilag'inoug (adj.) (g= j.) 
French cartilage, cartUagiiMvai ; Lat. ca/rtUdgo, cartUdglndsus. 
Cartouch, kar.toosh', A cartridge-box. (French cartouche,) 

Cartridge. The charge of a gun in an envelope of paper ; the 
charge of a cannon is put into a serge envelope. When 
the charge contains ball, as well as powder, it is called 
3all-<»trtridge ; when it contains oiiy powder, and no 
balls, it is called Blank-ceurtridge. 
Cartridge-box. A small leather case to hold cartridges. 
Cartridge-paper. The paper used for cartridges. 
"Cartridge," a corraption of cartouche; Italian cartoedo. 
Carve, to cut meat at meals. Calve, harve, to bring forth a calf. 

Carves, third person singular of carve. Calves, karvet, the 
plural of calf. (Rule xxxviii.) 

Old Eng. ceof[an\, to carve or cut ; cealfiicenX to bring forth a calf ; 
eealf, a calf ; plural (xdkfru, calves. We have lost these distinctions. 



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AND OF SPELLFNa 85 

Garyophyllia, ka^-ri-S.JlV'-tt'tih. A section of ^owetj corala. 

Lfttia caryopkifUmm, the dore gUly-flowvr, with the raffix -ia, de- 
noting an " order" or leolion ; Greek hmnwphttU^* 

Caryopek, ha'/ry,op'^aU. Technical name of a corn-grain. 

Greek JbdHUfn 4ptUt * i^^t in appeanmce. 
GaMYE, better Caaaava, kasjiah'.vah. Starch of the cassava-plant. 

Spanish caxdbe; French eaaavi. 
Oaacarilla, kas\ka.rtV\lah, A tonic bark. (Span, ccueara, bark.) 
Oiae, cased (1 Byl.)> caa'ing. To put into a case* (Fr. caisse.) 
Caaeine, kay'jsSXny the curd of milk. Caaeoos, kay'jsi^.ui', cheesy. 

Latin eMfui, oheete ; Ftonch 9a$«in4» 
Oaaliier, hash\eer (caRh-derk) ; ka^heer^ (to dismiss in disgrace). 

French cai$»ier, cash-keeper (eaisM, a till). 

" Caaliier " (to dismiss), Frenoh ea$$er, to break ott. (tat. eamu.) 

Gasiao, pht. caainoea, kaaee'^noze, A dancing saloon. (B.xlii.) 

Italian eatino or ea$ina, a small house (edta, a house). 
Gaak, a tub. Oadque (French), koik^ a helmet. 

" Cask," Spanish eoseo, a wine-tub. Caaket, dim. of *' cask." 
Gaaaaya, kas^ah'.vah. Starch of the cassava plant. 
Caasock, kas'jok. A clergyman's robe worn under the gown. 

French dasctque, the " par-dessus " of a clerg^rman'S official dress. 
Gaat, past and past part, cast, to throw. Gaate, tribe. 

Old £ng. cedH, strive, verb eedi[an\, to fight [or throw darts]. 

"Caste," Portuguese casta, hereditary class olstinction. 

Oaatellan, kas^teLlan, Warden of a castle. 

Low Lat. east4llantu, Spanish cattellan, warden of a castle. 
Caatellate, kas^teLlate, cas'tellated, cas'tellat-ing. 

Low Lat. eatteUdiio, the building of forts (eoiteUum, a fort). 
Caster, a cruet, plu, casters, a set of cruets in a stand. 
Gaator. A beaver ; a small wheel for flimitare. 
** Casters ** (a set of cruets), Latin casUHa, a place for the stowage of 

small articles. " Casters" hold in a frame small condiments. 
" Castor " (a beaverX Latin castor , the beaver. 

Castigate, ka8\t%.gate, cas'tigated, cas'tigat-ing, cas^tigat-or. 

caa^tiga'^tion. (Latin castlgdre, to chastise). 
Castle, kar$M not kSsM; castled, kar/j'ld; castling, kai^Ming. 

(The older spelling of this word is preferable,) 
Old Eng. easUUt Latin casteltum, a castle. 
Castor, a beaver, a little wheel for furniture. Gaster (see Caster). 

CastQr-<iil, a corruption of Castus-oil. It is not an animal oil, 
extracted from the castor or beaver, but oil expressed 
from the Palma Christi, and used in religious rites. 
Latin castus, a religiqus rite ; Castas oleum, oil for sacred rites. 



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86 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Gasaalty, plu, oasoalties, kax'u.cd'tiz. An accident. 

French easwUiU, casualty ; Latin ecuut, accident. 
Cat, Tom-cat (male), Tabby, plu. Tabbies (female). 

Latin cattu, a cat (from catua, wUy, sly, conning). 
Gata- (prefix), Greek kata^ "down," "against," "accordiDgto," <fec. 
Cataclysm not cataclasmy kafMMizm. Cataplasm, a poultice. 

Lat.ca<ac{y«miis,^ deluge; Ok. kataIUusrM)s(kata1Uwso,towMBhdowii). 
Catacomb, kaf.S.kome. A cave for the bnrial of the dead. 

French catacombe, from the Greek kata kwnhoe, a cave nndergroond. 
Catalepsy, kaf.d.lep^. A trance, a fainting-fit 

Greek kataUpsia (from kata lomMno, to hold down, to seim on). 
Catalogue, katf.a,log; oatalogTued, kaif.a.logd; cataloguing, 
kaf.a.log.ing; cataloguer, kaf.a.log.er, 
Lat. ecUdldgua; Ok.katdldgo8 (kata U((fo«,[arranged] accordingto words). 
Cataplasm, kaf.a.plazm. A plaster, a poultice. (See Cataclysm.) 
Latin eatApUuma; Greek kaidpUuma fkata-pUutOt to plaster over). 
Cataract, kaf,a.ract not kaf.a.rak. A waterfall; a disease of 
the eye. 
Latin eatdraeta, from the Greek kata qraasOf to dash down. 
Catarrh, ka.tar^. A cold affecting the secretions of the eyes, &c, 
Catarrh'-al, adj. of catarrh. (Latin catarrhvsy rheum.) 
Greek kcUarrdds (from kata rhed, to ilow down). The " r" is repeated 
to compensate for the lost aspirate in /ii<a. In "catarrh," either 
the."h" or one "r" should have been omitted. 
Catastrophe, plu. catastrophes, ka.ta8\tro.fe, ka.tas^tro.Jiz, 

Latin eatastrSpihi ; Greek kaiastrHphi (katd striphA, to overturn). 
Catcall not eatcaL Only "fill, ftiU, still, thrall" (postfixt) drop 

an "1." (Rule viii.) 
Catch, past and past part, caught not catched^ catch^ing, not 
ketchy ketchHng. 
Low Lat. catzdrw, a hunter ; catzH/ro, tp go hunting (take in hunting). 
"Caught," a contraction of catzurdttu fcatzurat, cau't). 

Catchp(dl, katchjpole, a parish constable. (Poll, the head.) 
Catchup, Ketchup, or Catsup. Extract of mushrooms. 

East Indian keijahy soy sauce. 
Catechism, kaf.e.kizm; catechist, katf.e.kist; catechizer, 

ka1f.e,kize.er; catechize, kat\eMze; caf'echized (3 syl.), 

caf'echiz-ing (Bule xxxii.), catechetical, kat.e.ke^ .i.kal ; 

catecheticaUy, kaUe.ketfA.kaLly, (In the Greek wordt 

the^^e" of all these words U long ri not e.) 
Greek katSthismos, katichitUSf kaUchizd (from kaia iehed^ to din into 

one, to teach the elements of religion orally). 

Catechumen, kat.e. ku'.men. One being prepared for confirmation. 
Latin eailchuminus ; Greek katSchovm^not, one learning the cate- 
chism or rudiments of rriigion. The plural is catechuilLenfl. 




AND OF SPELLING, 87 

■ 

Category, plu, oategorieB, kaf.e.gor,ry, kat^e.gfk-.riz; more 
correctly ka.tee\go.ry, but rarely so pronounced. 
Categorical, haif,e,g&r^'ri.hal, adj. of category. 

{In Latin and Greek the " e " of all these words U long, ) 
Latin eatigdria, oeUegMcus; Greek katSgihria, katSg&rihos (from kata 
dgOretid, to speak in public against a person, to prove). 

Gater, kay'.ter. To provide food. (Norm.-French aeater, to buy.) 
Caterer, fern, cateress, kay\te,rery kay'.tS.ress, One who 
caters. Chaucer uses the word achator for caterer. 
Cathartic not catfiarctic, ka^rha'/.tik. A purgative medicine. 

Lat. catharticiu; Gk. hatharttkos (katahairidy to carry downwards). 
Cathedral, ka.rhee\drdl. A church containing a bishop's seat. 
(This word shows the perversity of the English language. 
We outrage quantity to throw the accent back from the 
penultimate, and say *' cPs'Mcate " for castigate^ " blas'- 
phemy"for blasphemy, *'bal'j6ny" for balcony, "meta- 
mor'phSsis*' for metamorphosis, "apothe'5sis" for apothe- 
osis, and hundreds more; but here, where accent and 
quantity favour our favourite system, we actually change 
short e (e) into long e (97), and say * ' cathedral " instead 
of cath\S.dral, or at any rate cath.ed\ral,) 
Latin cdthedra, Greek kcUMdra (Kadidpa) kata Mdra, a seat 
Cathode, kath.ode. Where electricity makes its way out. 
Anode, is where it makes its way in. 

Greek kata hddos, the way down or out. Ana Tiddos, the way up or in. 
Catholic, kath'.S.Uk, universal. Catholics, or "Boman Catho- 
lics," are those who adhere to the Chureh of Eome. 
Catholicism, ka.thoV.i.sizm. The creed of Catholics. 
Catholicity, kath\o,W\i,ty. Universality. 
Lat. cathdVkut: Gk. kathdWcds (kata hfflikos, according to the whole). 
Catholicon, ka^rhoVXkon. A panace'a, or universal medicine. 
Latin cathdlicum iremidiumi, Greek katTiiflikon [idma], a universal 
remedy. 

Cato, plu, CatoB not Catoes, ka'.toze. (Bule xlii) 

Proper names in add -s (not -es) to form the pluraL 
Catoptrics, ka. top\ triks. The science of reflexion and refraction. 

Greek katdptrikos fkaidptron, a mirror). 
Cancaaian, kaw, k&s', tan not kaw. kay'. si, an, (Gk. kaukaslos, ) 

In Latin the word is spelt both Cauca^iSan and Causasian. 
Candal, pertaining to the tail. Caudle, kaw.d% a sort of food. 

" Caudal," Lat. cavda, a taiL " Caudle," Lat. ccUidus, warm [food]. 
Caul, a membrane. Call, ^217^, to speak with a loud voice. 

" Caul," Old Sng. ea'ul or eawl, a basket. "Call," Lat. ccUo, to call. 



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88 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cauliflower) koV.i.flow.er (" flow-" to rhyme with now), 

Latin catUisJlMftUf flowering eole-wort 
Gani^, caused (1 syl.), caus^-ing, oaus'-er, oaus'-ative. 
Cause-less, cause-lessly, cause-lessness. 
Gauaation, haw.za'.shun, Gansality, kawjsaV.tty. R. xxxii. 
Latin caiuct, eausdlis, causdtio. The reason or cause of an effect. 
Causeway, a corruptipn of the French chausie. A raised way. 
Caustic, kaw8\tik, nitrate of silver. Causticity. kaws.tissW.ty, 

Latin causttcus; Greek katutikos ^kaiisis, burning heat). 
Cauterize, kaw'M.rize, cau'terized (3 syl.), cau'teriz-ing, cau'- 
terization, cauteriz-er, hut cauterism. (Rule xxxii.) 
(In the Greek and Latin words the middle " e " ia long.) 
Lat. caiUmxo; Gk. kautSriOzy, kautir-inn (firom Jboio, to bum). 
Caution, kaw'.shun; cau'tioned (% syl.) To warn, a warning. 
Cautionary, kaw\8hun.a,ry ; cau^tional, cautious, kaw\- 

8hu8 ; courteous, kor/te.us, polite, q.v. 
Latin oauMo, caviUmdlit, eauttu (from caveo^ to beware^ 
Cavalcade, kai/ .ahkade, A procession of horsemen. 

Latin cdbcUlus, a horse. 
Cavalier, kav.d.Uer^, a knight. Oav'iller, one who cavils. 
Cavaliers (plu.) Royalists or partisans of Charles I. 
Cavalierly, kav.a.leef.ly. Haughtily, arrogantly. 
''Cavalier," French, a horseman ; Lat. 0(ibaUariu» feaJbaXlM^, ahorse). 
"Caviller/' Latin cavilhr (deponent verb), to cavil. 

Cavalry, kav\al.ry. Horse-soldiers. (French cavalerie.) 

Latin eaJbdlMu, a horse ; cdbdUdritu, a horseman. 
Pave, caved (1 syl.), cav-ing, kay'.ving ; cav-ity, kav'.ttyi. 

Latin cdvia, a cave ; cdvttcu, a cavity {camre, to hollow). 
Cavern, kav^em, cav'erned (2 syL), cav'emous. (Lat. cavema.) 
Cavil, kav'Al, cav'illed (2 syl.), cav'illing. (Rule iiL, -il.) 

Caviller, kav\il.ler, one who cavils. Cavalier (q.v.) 

Lat. caviUor, to cavil; cavillator, a caviller; cavilldiion, a cavilling. 
Cavity, plu, cavities, kav\i.tiz. A hollow. (Latin cavUas.) 
Cayenne, kay.enn\ Red pepper, from Cayenne (South America). 
-ce (suffix) Latm -ce[a], -d[a], -tifa], added to ahstraot nouns. 
OeaMr sece; ceased (1 syl.), ceas'-ing, cease'-less, cease^lessly. 

Cessation, ses^za' .shun, A pause or leaving off. 

Latin cessdtio; French cesser, Latin cessdre, to leave off. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 80 



GediUa, teeMV.lah, A mark under e (9) to indicate that it is 
to be pronounced like 8 (hard). 
Spanish eediUo. It ooonn only in qk, qo, and go. 
Ceil, Seal, SeeL 

CSelL To cover-in the eeUing of a room with plaster. 
Seal, A sea-calf; a stamp ; to fasten with sealing-wax. 
Seel. To close the eyes of hawks, to hoodwink. 
"CeU," Latin calum, heaven ; French del ; Ital. and Span. eido. 
"Seal," French scelle fsceauj; Latin sigillum, contracted to sigl. 
"Seel," French cilkr (cil, an eye-laib : Latin cittwnj. 
Ceiled, seeld, past and p.p. of ceil. Sealed (1 syL), with wax. 
Ceiling (of a room), ceilinged (2 syl.) Sealing (with wax ). 
Celandine, ieV.an,dine, Swallow-wort A blunder for cheUdine. 
Latin chelid&nia; Greek cheliddniiin (from chelld&n, a swallow). 
So called because swallows cure their young ones of blindness with 
this herb, according to an ancient fancy. (Plin. 25, 50. > 

Celebrate, seV.S.brate; cel'ebrat-ed, cerebrat-ing, cerebra"tion. 
Cerebrator {-oTj the Latin termination for an agent). 
• Cel'ebrant. An officiating priest at a religious rite. 
Celebrity, plu. celebrities, se.leV sLtiz. One known to fame. 
Latin uUbrare^ ctUbrdtor, celebrant^ celebritas, &c. 
Celerity, ie.ler'ry.te. Swiftness, (-ty added to abstract nouns.) 

Latin ceUritas, swiftness (verb cgUfr&rt, to hasten). 
Celery, 8eV.i.ry not 8aV.e.ry, a vegetable. Sal'ary, wages. 

"Celery," French cSleri; German selleri: Greek $glln&n, parsley. 

▲ species of parsley fapium gravidlenej. 

* ' Salary, " Lat. salarium, money for salt, i. «. , condiments ; (pin-money). 

Celestial, se.les^ti'al not se-les^tchal. Heavenly. 

Celestials, plu. The heavenly deities of heathen mytholog)'. 
Celestially, 8e.le8\tVal.ly, adv. In a heavenly manner. 
Celestialise, 8e.le8\t'Cal.ize. Celestialised (4 syL) K. xxxi. 
Latin cadutitf celestial, from cadum, heaven. 
Celestlne, 8eV.e8Mne not ««.2e8^tme, a mineral. Cel'estin (a monk). 
"Celestine," Latin caleatis, so called from its sky-blue colour. 
*'Celestins," an order of monks named from Pope Cel'estin V. 

Celibacy, seVXha.syj an unmarried state. Celibate, seV.tbate. 
Latin casleba, a bachelor; celibdttta, single life (from the Greek 
koUip», i.e., koiU Uip6, I avoid the bridal-couch). 

Cell (of honeycomb), a small room. Sell (for money). 
Cellnlar, 8el\l%,lar. CeUulated, formed with cells. 
Cellule, seVMU. A little celL 
CeUulose, 8el\lu,loze, The cell-matter of plants. 

'* Cell," Old Eng. celUu, cells ; Latin cella (Greek TcoilA, a hollow). 

"Sell," Old Eng. 8ylVian\ past seaUU, past part, seokl, to sell. 



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90 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cellar, a room for stores undergroiincL Seller, one who sells. 

Old Eng. oeUa«, oella ; Latin eMOiriwm, a cellar (oeOa, a cell), 
-oelli, -cello (Ital. diminutiYes), •cui[iM] Latin diminutiYe. 

Gelt, Kelt. ''Celt,'* a bronze cutting instrument found in 
tumulL The people, called CeUs^ should be called 
** Kelts,** for distinction sake. Similarly Keltic, adj. of 
kelt; and Celtic, ac^. of celt 

*' Celt," Latin ceUi», a chisel (yerb eado, to carve or emboss). 
''Kelt,** Greek KeUai or Gdldtai; Latin Gdldta; Old Eng. CeU. 

Cement, 8e.menf not 8em\ent (noun), but verb and noun alike. 
French cement : Latin eamewtum {efBmenta, mortar). 

Cem'etery, plu. cem'eteries (for burials). Symmetry, harmony. 
Cemetery not cemetry. Symmetry not iymetery (double m). 

(In Greek and Latin the " e " of " cemetery " is long,) 
Latin eoemltirium ,- Greek koimitSriom (verb koimdo, to sleep). 
*' Symmetry/' Greek eummetrtaf tun metronf [measured] with [one 
and the same] measure. 

Cenotaph, $en\S.taf. A monument without the dead body. 

French e^notaphe; Latin dfndtaphium; Giceek kindtapMon (kUnSs 
tapMsJ, an emp^ tomb. {N.B.—ceno- not cena-.) 

Censer, Censor, Censure, sen^ser^ sen^sor, ien\8her. 
Censer. A vase for incense. 
Censor. A Boman officer to enforce decorum. 
Censo'rious, censo'riously, censo'riousness, censorship. 
Censure, censured (3 sjl.), cen'sur-ing, cen'sur-er, cen'sur. 
able, cen'sur-ably, cen'sur-ableness. Xo blame, Sec. 

"Censer," French eneeneoir; Latin incensum, incense. 
''Censor/' Latin censor^ ceniorius (verb censire, to think and jndgeX 
"Censure/* Latin cenrQra, the office of censor ; and hence the judg- 
ment or blame of censors (verb cevieSre). 

Census, Censers, Censors, Censures, sen'^tu, sen'^serz, 8en'.8orz, 
sen^shers. 
Census (Latin). Kegistering the number of the inhabitants. 
(The other three words are thepluraU of words given above.) 

Cent, Scent, Sent, all pronounced alike, sent (See Centum.) 

Cent, hundred : as 5 per cent, written thus 6 7« 

Scent, perfume. Sent, past and past part, of send. 

" Cent,*' Latin centum, a hundred ; French eeni. 

" Scent," Fr. sentewr, scent. (Lat. sentire, to observe by the senses). 

" Sent,*' Old Eng. eendiaM]^ past sende, past part sended, to send. 

Centaur. A fabulous being half man and half horse, 

Latin eeniawnu; Greek kentawrot. The centaurs were Greek buoa- 
neers. or horsemen who hunted wild bulls. Greek kenUd tauroe, 
to prick or spear bulls. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 91 

Centaury, sen'.tau.ryj not eentory, a herb. Cen'tury, 100 years. 
" Centaury/' Latin oenUiuria, the centanry, named from the centaur 
(Chiron), who cured with it a wound hi his foot from one of the 
arrows of fiercillds. 
Centum. (1.) written cent, before vowels. 

Centenarian, semf.te.naif^'ri.an. One who is 100 years old. 
Centenary, plu, ceiitenaries, ten'.tS.nerriz, The return of 

a period after the lapse of 100 years. 
Centennial, 8en.ten\ni,al. Once a century. 

" Annual*' suffixt becomes -ennial, as hiennialy txiennial,&c. 
Centesimal, 8en.te8\i.malf adj. Centes'imally, adv. 
Latin eentencbrius, centeaimtus (centum, a hundred). 
Centum. (2.) -i- after " cent-" (next letter -c, -/, -g, -m, or -pe.) 
Centlceps, senWLseps, Having 100 heads. {Cwpitay heads.) 
Centifolia, -fo'MMh, Having 100 leaves. {Folia, leaves.) 
Centigrade. Having 100 degrees between the freezing and 

boiling point of water. {Gradtu, a degree.) 
Centigram. The 100th part of a gram. (French measure.) 
Centime, 8aKn,teem. The 100th part of a franc. (Fr. coin.) 
Centimetre. The 100th part of a metre. (Ft. measure.) 
Centipede, plu. centipedes, ien\ti.peeds. Insects with 100 
feet. (Latin pes, pidis, plu. pSdes, feet.) 

Centum. (3.) -«- after " cent-" (next letter -m, -p, or -r.) 

Centumviri, 8en.tum\vtri. Government lodged in the 

hands of 100 men. (Latin centum viri, 100 men.) 
Centumvirate, iei(^Mm\vi.rate. The office of the above. 
Centuple, 8en' .t\t.p*l. A hundred fold. {Plico, to fold.) 
Centuplicate, 8en.tu\pli.kate, To make centuple. 
Centurion, 8en.tu\ri.on, Captain of 100 men. 
Century, plu. centuries, 8en\tu.riz. Period of 100 years. 
Latin ceniumvivri, centupUXj cenJbuplicdtus, centwion, ceniUria, 
From centum -urn must be effaced 
Whene'er before a yowel placed. 
Cent-i appears with c, f, g. 
Or when precedin«f m or pe; 
Cent-u is reckoned better far 
When joined to m, or p, or r. 
As a **memoria technvxi " the woru ' ii>nis " (ns) toiU denote when e is 
used, and the word " Umpire" (mpk) when u is tised. All other 
words belong to the second category.) 

Cento, plu. centos. A patchwork poem, each line being from a 
different author, and used in a perverted sense. 
Spanish eenton; Latin cento, a patch or poem of patches. Greek 
kentr&n, a patch, a cento. 



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S2 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Centre, sm'.ter, the middle; centred, sen'.terd, placed in the 
middle ; centring, tending to the centre. 

Cen'tric, cen'trical, cen'trically. 

Cen'tral, cen'trally, central'ity, cen'traUsm. 

Cen'tralise,cen'tralised (3 syl.),centralis'-ing,cen'trali8a"tion. 

French centre; Greek "k^nirdn, a point ; Latin ctntrutn. 
(It will he seen theU the word center m quite indefensible.) 

Gentrifogal, ten.trif'.u.gal, A force directed from the centre to 
the circumference, a tendency to fly from the centre. 

Latin eentrumfugi^t to fly from the centre. 
Centripetal, sen.trip\^tal. Tending towards the centre. 

Latin centrum p€to, to seek the centre. 
Gentnple, centurion, century, &c., see above, Centum, 
Cephalic, se.faV.ik, Pertaining to th»» head. 

Lat eii)halUn»m, oephalicua, adj.; Gk. lUphaHkos fhifphdli, the head). 
Gephalopod, plu, cephalopods or cephalopida, sef^a.lcpods, 
8ef-€tMyp"-%-dah, MoUuscs, like cuttie-fiiih. 

Greek kepMU pddoi, feet [placed round] the head. 
r.ATiTiA-na .<?/»'- fti/?/?- A Aonsti^llAtion containinfir thirtv-flva fitftrs. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 



Cerebrum, plu. cerebra, te'/re.hrumj set're.hrah. The brain. 
Cerebelloin, plu. cerebella, ser^re.beV'-lum, set're.hel-Uih. 
The hinder part of the brain, where the animal spirits 
are suppoeed to be generated. 
Latin cerd>rum, the brain proper ; cerebellum, the little brain, the 
animal not the intellectual part. 

Ceremony, jplu. ceremonies, ser^re.mun.y, ser^re.mun.iz. 

Ceremonial, 8er^re,md*\ni.al; cer^emo^'nially, cer'emo"- 
nious, cer'emo"niou8ly, cer'emo"mousness. Outward 
forms of courtesy. 
Latin cirimSnia; French eSriHnonie, airimonial, Ac. 
Cereons, waxen (Latin cereus). Serious, grave (Latin agrftt*). 
Ceres, See\reez, goddess of com. Series, 8e',ri.eez, sequence. 

''Series/' Latin, $^rie*, a connected succession. 
Certificate, «€r.<i/'.i.A:at«, certificated, certif'icat-ing, certif'ica"- 
tion. A written testimony ; to testify in writing. 
French ceriificai; Low Latin cmiiJUaiwrwm, (8u CvctlUyJ 
Certify, se/Mfy ; cer'tifies (3 syl.), cer'tifled (8 syL), cer'tifi-er, 
cer'tify-mg. To attest in writing; to assure. "R. xUy. 
French certifier; Latin certi6r^m fad^e, to make certain. 
Cessation, 8e8.8a\8hunj a pause. Cassation (French), appeaL 

Latin eessdtio, cessation (from cesso, to leave off). 
Cession, 8e8'.8hun, a yielding. Session, an assize, Ac. 

** Cession," Latin cesttio, a giving up (verb cesao, to leave off). 
" Session," Latin »e»9io, an assise (verb aedeo^ to idt). 

Cesspool, 8e8\pool not cispool, Receptacle for liquid filth. 

Old Eng. setse-pdly a pool settle (verb aet^icm], to settieX 
Cetaoea or cetaceans, 8ing. cetacean, 8e.tay' ,8^ja,h, se.tay'^e.anzy 
sing. 8e.tay' -sS.an. Whales and other marine mammals. 
Geta'ceous, adjective. 

Latin ceie; Greek lUU or JUtoa; adj. cetOceus, kittioe (8 syl). 
Cetiosanrus, 8e'-t\-o.8aw'\ru8. The fossil whale-saurian. 

Qreek kSteio-eauron, the whale-like lizard. 
Cetotolites, 8e.tot\o.lite8. Fossil ear-bones of whales. 

Greek k4to*-6ta lithos, whales'-ear stones. 
Ch- represents three distinct sounds, and three distinct charac- 
ters. The sounds are 8k, teh, and k» The characters 
are c (before a, «, i and eo)y chy and the Ghreek x* 
(N.B.—ln thi8 dictionary **ch" %$ 8otmded "-tch*' wile88 

otherwise expressed.) 
All words (except two) beginning with ** ch-" = &, are of 
Greek origin. The exceptions are chem'istry (Arabic), 
and chia'ro-oscu'ro (Italian). 



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04 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

'* Ch " in Mn4fU»h word* sounded <u ** tcb," wUeas otherwise expressed. 

All Dative words, and two-thirds pf those borrowed from 
the French beginning with *• ch-" have the sound of tch. 
There are eighteen words beginioing with ** ch-" = sh, all 
of which are from the ^rench, to which language indeed 
most of our irregularities are due. The eighteen words 
are chadf chag'riny chaise^ cham'oiSy cham'pagne, cham- 
paignt champignon, chandelier^, chapeau', chap'eron^ 
charadef, char^latan, chas'seur, chafeau, chemise', cheva- 
lier^, chica'nery, and chiffonier', 
-ch (Old Eng. suflfix of adjectives), " pertaining tso " : rich, Scotch. 
Chafe, chafe, to rub. Chaff, chdif not chaf, husks of grain. 
<3iafe, chafed (1 syl.), chaf'-ing, chaf'-er, chaf'-ery. 
Chafing, chay'-fing, rubbing. Chaffing, chdj-jing, quizzing. 
** Chafe," French Schatiffer, to warm, to chafe. 
" Chaff," Old Eng. ceaf, chaflf ("c"= ch). 

Chafer, chay'.fer, a beetle. Chaffer, chaf./er, to haggle. 
"Chafer," Old Eng. ceafor, a chafer, a beetle ("c"=cfe). 
*' Chaffer," Ger. schacherei, chaffering (verb smdchem, to bargahi). 

Chaff, chaffed (1 syl.), chaffing, to quiz. Chafe. (See above.) 

Chaffer, chctf\fer (noun) ; chaf.fer (verb). Kule 1. 
Chagrin (Fr.) 8hdg\rin (n.), sha.grin' (v.). Shagreen, sha.green', 
Chag'riiL, vexation : chagrin', to vex. (Kule L) Shagreen^ 

a -sort of leather prepared from the shagree whale. 
Chagrin^ chagrined, sha.grind', chagrin'-ing (only one n). 
{pne of the few exceptions to a very general rule. Mule %,) 
Chair, cheer, share, shear, sheer. 

*' Chair" (a seat), French chaire, a pulpit; Lat. cathedra, 
*' Cheer" (to console), French chh-e, cheer, welcome. 
"Share " (a portion), Old Eng. sctr, a part cut off. 
"Shear" (to cut), Old Eng. »cirla»]. to cutoff, to divide. 
"Sheer" (entire, pure). Old Eng. scir, pure, clear, &c . 

Chaise, shdze, a one-horse carriage with two wheels. Chase, hunt. 

" Chaise," French chaise. " Chase," French chasser, to hunt 
Chalcedony, kaljsee\dd.ny not kal.8ed'.o.ny. A precious stone. 
(The " e " and the " o " are both long in the Greek word.) 

Greek chatkSdM: Latin chalcedOnius. So named from "Chalcedon,** 
«*Or0ek city of Bitliinia, where the first was found. 
Chaldee, kalde^ not chaLdee'; Chaldean, kal.dee'.an. 

Chaldaic, kal.day\ik; Chaldaism, kalday'.izm. 

Latin Chaldtei, ChAldeans ; Ohdldaieus; Gk. Chaldaia, Chaldaios. 
€Sha,\6xon,ehauV.dr on not ehSV.dr on. Thirty-six bushels [of coke]. 

Caldron, kawV.drdn not k&V.dr6n, A large boiler. 

** Chaldron.*' French chaldron, an old dry measure of 1308*616 litraa. 

" Caldron,'' French ehaudron; Latin caldOrium, a large kettle. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 



'* Ch ** iii BhiglUti words g&unded at ** tch," imleM oth€noiie expressed. 

Chalice, eh&VJU$t a cup. Ghalioed, chaV.Utf fall of caps. 
( This word ought not to ?iaf>e an**h*' after the '* c.*') 
Old Sng. edlic, a goblet; French caUee; Latin caUm; Greek kulix. 
Chalk, chawk. Calk, hawk, to fill the seams of a ship. Cork. 
Chalky, ehavfk^.y, adj. of chalk. Corky, like cork. 

'* Chalk," Old Eng. oeofc or edle, lime : Latin eafo ; Greek ehalix. 
*' (Mk," Latin caloo, to tread down (from calx, the heel). 
'*Corl^'' Spanish corcho; Latin cortex^ bark. 

Caialleiige (2 sjL), challenged (2 syl.), challenger, challenging. 
Cliall6i:^^bl6, chaV,lenj,&,VU (Only verbs in -ee and -ge 

retain the " e " before -able,) 
Low Latin eoZonofiitm, a challenge ; Greek hdUOt to inmmon. 
Chalybeate, ka.lib\i.at. Ferruginous water. 

French thcUybi; Latin chdlybHus, adj. of tMlybs, iteel; Greek 
MdMlM, steel, from " CMlups," one of the nations of the Ohdlyb^s, 
in Pontns, famous for working in iron and steeL 

Chamber, chdm\ber, cham'bered (2 syL), cham'ber-ing. 

French ehambre; Latin cdmgra: Greek kdmdra, a Taolted room. 
Chameleon, ka.mee'. U.on. A lizard, able to change its hue. 

Latin ehamaUon; Greek chamai le&n, the reptile lion. 
Cham<»s, 8ham\wor (noun), sham'.my (adj.): as " chamois-leather." 

Freneh chamois, Spanish gamtuta, a species of antelope or goat 
Chamomile, kam',if.mile, a plant. Gal^omel, prepared mercury. 

Calamine, kaV.a,min. Carbonate of zinc. 

'* Chamomile," Latin ehamotmeion/ Greek kamaimiUfn, the ground 

apple, so called ab odore mali Maria/ni. (PUn. 22, 21.) 
(Our word is qnite misspelt, and as usual we have taken the error 
from the French, camomille for chamemel) 

Champaign, sTiam'.pain*, a wine. Campaign, kam.pain' (q.v.) 
Champion, cTuun'.ptofij a defender. Campion, kam',pi.on (q.v.) 

''Champion,'* French champUmf Low Latin oampio f champ pionj, 
"Campion/' both the Silene (catch fly) and the Lychnis. 

Chance (1 syL ), chanced (1 syL), chano'-ing. To happen. 

French chance; Latin cadvns, cadeniia, things that dccur. 
Cbancel, ehan'.sel (of a church). Clemcel, to obliterate. 

ChanoelTor, chiin' .seLloTy a dignitary. Canceller, one who 
cancels. Chancery, chdn'ae.ry, a court of equity. 

Latin easiceUi, a chancel ; canceWvrius, cancdla/ria (from eanceUi, 
lattices, which divided the dergy and lawyers from the laity). 

Chandelier, ihSn.dS.leer^. A hanging candelabrum. 

Chandler, chUnd^ler not ehdrut.ler, A dealer in candles. 

ftcneh dumdefier, chandelier and chandler ; Latin eandila, a candle. 



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96 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

" Ch " in English toords sounded <u '* tch," unless otherwise expressed. 

Change, change; changed (1 syL), chang'-ing, chang'-er. 

Change'-ahle (verbs in -ee and -ge retain the "e" before 
-able), change^ableness, change'-ablj, change', ful.change'- 
fully, change-less, change-ling. To alter, an alteration. 
French dianger; Latin cambtdre^ to change, cavnhiumy change. 
Channel, c/kln^n€^; channeled, chavf.n^ld; chan'nel-ing. (R.iii.) 
Canar, an artificial river. Een'nel (for dogs), a gutter. 
"Channel" and "canal," Latin eandlis; French canal. 
"Kennel" (a gutter), Fr. chenal. (Adog's house) chenil fchient adog). 

Chanter, fern, chantress, chan'.ter, chart'. tress. One who chants. 

Chanticleer, chan'.ttcleer, A corruption of canticfvlar. 

Chantry, chart'. try (should be chantery). A chantry-chapel. 

"Chanter," Old Unjf. cantere; Fr. chanter, v.; Lat. eantare, cantdtor, 
"Chanticleer," Latin canticuldHus, a little singer, the cock. 
"Chantry," Fr. chantererie ; Low Lat. cantaria {chantery to sing). 

Chaos, kay\58. The materials of the world before " creation." 

Chaotic, kay.ot'.ik. Adj. of chaos. (Greek and Latin.) 

Chap (the cheek), not chop. Chap (to crack from cold), not chop. 
chap, chapped, chapt; chapp'-ing, chapp'-y. (B. i) 
" Chap " and " chop '* are the same words, hut "chop '' is 
now used to signify a cut, a>8 a "mutton ehopt" or 
to cut, as to " chop wood." 
" Chap " (the cheek). Old £ng. ceaplas, the jaws ; eeafel, the snout. 
" Chap " (as chapped hands), Low Latin colpo, to cut ; French coup. 

Chapel, chdp\ely chap'el-ry. Chapel was originally the canopy 
placed over the altar when mass was performed. 
Low Lat. capellus, a cap or hood, capeOdria, a chapelry ; Fr. ekapette. 
Chapel Boyal, plu. chapels royal. (" Royal," adj. no plu.) 
Chaperon shap\S.rdrte (noun), chaperone, shap\S.rdru (verb). 
Chaperone, chap'eroned (3 syl.), chap'eron-ing. 
French chaperon, a hood worn hy an attendant, henoe aa attendant 
on young ladies, a guide or protector. 

Chapiter, chap\\,ter, the capital o f a column . Chapiter (of a book). 
"Chapiter," Latin capUeUum or cnpitHlwm, f caput, ahead, and -eUum 

or -ulum, dim. : French chapiteau, a chapiter. 
"Chapter," Old £ng. eapitol: Latin cdpUiUum; Frendi ehaipitre. 

niin.nlA.in. ^.hTm'.lan. A clerorvman to a nrivate familv. shin. <fec. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 97 

"<% " iii Mnifiidi wardt founded as "toh," wnleu athenoUe eaDpressed. 

Char, to bum to carbon. Ohar, chair, to work by the daj at 
house-work (applied to women). Gharr, a lake fish. 

Char (to burn). Oharred, chord, (Role i.) 

Charring, burning. Charing (one r), doing ehar-work. 

** CkAx" (to bom), a emtraction of th« Frendi (harbowMr (ehatcoaZ). 
" Char," Old £ng. c6rre, a turn of business (verb c&rran). 
f**Chdring** i» one of the few exceptions to a very general rule. K. i ) 
'^Gharr*' (the fish), Gaelio cecur, one of the salmon family. 

Character, kai^.rak.Ur. Caricature, kat'rtk&.tfwre (q.v.) 

Charactered, ka/r^rdk,terd ; ohar'aotering, char'aeterless. 
Char'acterize, char'acterized (4 syl.), char'acteriz-ing. 
Characteriatic, Jior^rah.ter.ls'^tih ; cbar'acteris'^tical, char'- 
acteiis"tically, ehar'acterism. Rule xxxn. 

Oreek chmraeMr, characUrizo (firom charasto, to impress coin); Latin 
dutrcuter, GharacUritvMU, the distinguishing of oharaeters. 

Charade (French) tha,rard\ A riddle. {8te Enigma.) 

Charge (1 eyL), charged (1 syL), rfiarg'-ing, charg'-er. 

Charge-able (Verbs in -ee and -ge retain the "e" before 

-able), charge'-ably, charge'-ableness, charge-less. 
French chKurger^ to load, Ac ; Low Latfai careo, to load (our ea/rgo). 
Chaig6 d'afEures, plu. charge d*a£GebireB (French), shar'.zja 
daf.fair. One entrusted with diplomatic business. 

Chariot (French) chaf'ry.ot. A coach with only a front seat 

Charioteer, char^rp.S.teer^. The driver of a chariot. 
Charity, plu. charities, char'itable, char'itably, char'itableness. 
French charit6; Latin chdrttcu, not edritcu (Greek charUg$, favours). 
Charlatan (French), shat^.ld.tan, a quack. Charlatanism. 
Charr, a fish of the salmon family. Char, to bum. (See Char.) 
Chart, cJuirtt a map. Cart, a two- wheeled vehicle for stores. 

Charter, a royal grant in writing. Carter, one who has 

charge of a team. 
<* Chart," Lat charta; Or. eharUs, papers. ''Cart," Old Eng. ormt. 
Chaaable, chd8^.a. Vl, that may be chased. Chas'uble (q.v.) 

Chase, ehdse, chased (1 syl.), chas^-ing, chas'-er, chas'-able. 

(Only verbs in -ee and -ge retain the " e" before -able.) 

French ekasser, to chase ; Low Lat. chousea or cfuuea (verb chaceo). 
Chasm, k&zm, a gulf. (Greek chasma, a yawning ; Lat. chatma.) 
Chaste, chast, chaste'-ly, cbaste^ness, hut chSs'^ty. 

French chaste, chasteU: Latin eastus, eastitae. 



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-98 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

** Ch *' in English words sounded as " toh,** iimJLess otherwise expressed. 



Chasten, chase 'n not chasteM; chastened, chdse'.^nd. 
Chastening, ehdse'.'n.ing ; chastener, chdse'Mer, 
Chastise, chas.tize' ; chastised' (2 syl.),chastis'ing,chastis'-er» 

chasUs'-able. (Not in -ce or -ge. Rule xx.) 
Chastisement, chcU^Mz.ment, Correction, punishment. 
Old Ft. ehastier, now chdtier; L«tin castigdre, to correct, punish. 
Chastity, ehaa'.ttty. Purity of body and mind. {See Chaste.) 

Chasnble, 8haz\u.Vl, a priest's robe. Chasable, chd$e'.a.Vl (q.v.) 
"Chasuble," French : Low Lat. GosubUJla, dim. of easiUa, a surplice. 
It is worn over the alb when the priest performs mass. 

Chat, chatt'-ed, chatt'-ing, chatt'-er, chatt'-y. (Rule i.) 

Chatter, chatt'ered (2 syl.), chatt'ering, chatt'erer. To prattle. 
French Jeuer, corrupted first to chdsser then to efuUter. 
Chatean, plu. chateaux (Fr.), 8hdf.o, 8hatf.oze, A country seat. 
Chattels, cAat'.t'fo. Goods in general. (Low Lat. cata22a, chattels.) 



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AND OF SPELLTJ^, / V J}. ?9: 

_^ :iu, ' .\ \ ,^ 

Chef d'oenvre, j7lu. cheft d'oeutrre, »hay cTurv, (In art) the 
best productloii of an artist in his particular line. 

Gheir- (Greek), hire or ki\r... The hand. Except in Zoologi- 
cal nomenclature, spelt chir- {q.v.) 
Gheuacanthns, M.ra.kan" .thus, A fish armed with spines. 
CSheirolepiB, ki.roV,^.pis. A fossil fish. (Gk. l^iSy a scale.) 
Cheircfpienk, ki.rop'.te,rah. Bats. (Greek j7f^on, a iring.) 
Gheirams, ki.ru'. rus, A trilobite. (Greek eheir oura, hand- 
tail ; i.e,, having a tail with five finger-like spines.) 

Gheln, keei'.lee. A daw (of a crustacean). (Gk. chSlS, a talon.) 
nh4> )o ni>^ ki.W.ni.ah. The tortoise family. Chelo'nian (n. or 

tLdj.) (Gk. chel&nSf a tortoise.) 
Chemise (French), the.meez\ An undergarment of women. 

Ghemiaette, shim\e.zef, A sort of female waistcoat. 
Chemistry, chemist (e not 2^), kem'.ls.tryy kem\ut. Chem^ic, 

chemical, chem'ically. 
The same root as al^^nvu, without the article ol. Arabic MmAa, 

the occult art. Even if taken from the Greek, the first yowel 

would be € not y {che6, to melt ; not chvA). 

Cheque or check. An order for money. {See Check.) 
Oherish, cher^rish ; cher'ished (2 syL ) Fr. chirir ; eher, dear. 
Cherry, cher^ry (ought to have only one r). A fruit. 

OldEng. evrst; Fr. e^riit; Lat. e^rdsus; Gk. kifrdsds (from Cerasus, 
on the Pontine coast, whence Lncullus imported the cherry). 

Cher'nb, plu. cher'ubs (Heb. plu. cher'ublm, Chaldaic cherubin). 
{The Bible word " cherubimt " [Gen. Hi. 24] is indefensible.) 

Chervil, cher^.vil, a herb. (Old Eng. cerftlle ; Lat. charephyllum.) 

Greek ehairo, to rejoice, and phttllon, a leaf, an exhilarating plant. 
Gheet'nnt not Ches'nut. (Latin cattan^a nux. Virg. Fee. ii. 62.) 

Old Eng. dsten-hnut^ a chestnut. (From CcLstdnga^ in Thessalj.) 
Chevaux de ftise (French), she-vo' di -freeze'. A military fence. 

Chevaux defrise, the horse [bar] used at the siege of Frise. 
Chevalier (French), shev'.S.leer. A cavalier. 
Chew, ehoo, chewed (1 syl.), chewing. To masticate. 

Old Bng. eedvian], past eedw, past part, eowen, to chew. 
(Siiaro-oscuro (Ital.), ke.ah'ro os.ku'.ro. Light and shade. 
OMbonk or Ghiboogue (Turk.), cM.booke\ A Turkish pipe. 
GUcane, thi.kain' ; chicanery, 8M.kain\i^.ry, Trickery. 

Fiendi cMeane, ehieanerie, pettifogging trickery. 



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100 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

" Ch " in EngHah words sounded as " tch/' wUess otkenoise expressed. 

Chick or chicken, plu. chicks or chickens. (Chicken is not plural.) 

Old Eng. dcen, plu. dcenu, *' Chick" is a contractioo of ctc[en]. 
Chide, past chode, past part, chidden [chid]. To reprove. 
Chid'-er, chid'-ing, chid'-ingly. 
Old Eng. cidianit pact odd, past part, ciden, to chide. 
Chief, plu, chie& (Rule xxxix). Chieftain (French chef). 
Chiffonier, shif'.fo.neer^t not cheffxmeer, A piece of furniture. 

French ehiffonnier, a rag-picker (from (^iffon, a rag). 
Chilblain, chiV.blain. A blain or sore from chill or cold. 

Old Eng. cele-blegen or hlcegan, a chill blister or sore. 

Child, plu. children, child, chlV.dren. Childe, a young nobleman. 

** Child/' Old Eng. did, pla. cUdra, later form cildre (n Interpolated). 

Childhood, the child period. (O. Eng. -hdd, state, condition.) 

Childish, like a child. (0. Eng. -isc [added to nouns] means 

** like," but added to adjectives is diminutive, as " blackish." 

Chiliad (Greek) kiVXady 1,000. Kilo-, used in French weights 

to express a multiple ; nulle- (Latin 1,000) to express a 

fraction. Thus kilo-gramme = 1,000 grammes ; mille- 

jgrammey y^^^ part of a gramme. 

Chill, chiUed (1 syL), chiU'-ing, chill'-er (comp.), chill'-est (sup.), 

chillingly, chill'ness, <£iiry, chill'i-ness. (Rule viii.) 
Chilli [vinegar] ; chillies (plu.), chiV.liZy pods of Guinea pepper. 
Chime, chimed (1 syl.), chim'-ing. To make beU-music. 

Daaish kime, to chime ; kiinen, chiming. 
Chimera, plu. chimeras, ki.mee\rah, kl.mee\rdz. A monster. 
Chimerical, kl.mer^ry.kal (imaginary) ; chimerlcally. 
Lat. ^imaera: Gk. chimaira, a lion» dragon, and goat imited. 
Chimney, plu, chimneys, not chimnies. Chimney-piece. 

(The word " chirr^ley '' is a common error with children.) 
TrenchchemirUe; Latin cdmlntts; Gk. kdmlnds, a chimney. 
Chimpanzee, chim\pan.zee\ AMcan name for the orang. 
Chin (of the face). Chine, the back-bone, a "joint *' cut from it. 

*' Chin," Old Eng. ct». " Chine," French ichirie, the spine. 
Chinese. Sing, a Chinese or a Chinaman, plu. Chinese (indefi- 
nite), Chinamen (definite), as 1, 2, 3, &c., Chinaraen. 
Chintz, plu. chintzes. Cotton prints with more than two colours. 

Hindtlstan<ee, chint; Persian ehinz, spotted cotton cloth. 
Chip, chipped (1 syL), chipp'-ing, chipp'-er. (Rule i.) 

German kippen, as Mppen tmd wippen, kipper und wipper, applied 
to money-cUpping and money-dippers. 



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AND OF SPELLTNG. lOl 

"€h " tn EngHah vfordt mmnded as *' tch,** unletg oiTierwitte eaepressed. 

GhiT- (Greek chetTy the hand), ki\r,„ (prefix), hand. {See Oheir-.) 

Ohirograpky, ki.rog'.rd.fy. Art of writing. 

Ohirograpli, kV,rS.graph. An official written document. 

Chirographic, hi\ro.graf'\ik, acU* Ohirog'rapher. 
Greek (heir grapho, to write with the hftnd, hand-writing. 

Chiromancy, ki\ro.Tium^y, Diyining by looking at the hand. 

Chiromancer, hi'.ro.man^er. One skilled in the above. 

Greek cfteir marUeia, hand-divination, &c. 

Chiropodist, ki,rop\oM8t, A com and wart doctor. 

Greek eheir pedes, hand and feet (-isi, an agent). 
Chis'el, chis'eled (2 sjL), chis'el-ing, chis'el-er. (Rule iii. -el.) 

French eiseler, to chisel {ciseau, scfsaors) ; Lat. eoMvm (ccBdo, to cnt). 
(Rivalry, shir/Ml.ry ; chiTBlric, ghWM.rik ; chiy^alrous. 

French chevalerie (8 syLX ''om eheval, a horse ; Lat. eabalhis. 
Chlorine, klo'.rin. In Chemistry -ine denotes a gas. 

Chloride, klo'.rid. In Chemistry -ide denotes a base. If 
" lime " is the base, the compound is chloride of lime. 

Chlorate, klo\rdte. In Chemistry -ate denotes a salt, the 
acid of which ends in -ic. The salt of chloric add with 
a base. 

Greek ehldros, pale green. Chlorine is a greenish yellow gas. 
CSdoroform, klo\ro.form. A compound of chlorine, carbon, and 
hydrSgen. -form in Chemistry denotes the " ter-oxide of 
a hydrocarbon," which resemmes *• formic acid." 
Chlorophyll, kW.ro.fiL The green colouring matter of plants. 

Greek chJUros phuUon, the green of leaves. 
Chocolate, chok\o.iet. (French choeolat, Spanish chocolate.) 
Choice, choic'-er (eomp.), choic'^ert (tv^,) Worthy to be chosen. 

Old Eng. ced^anX to choose ; eedeung, a choice. 
Choir, quire. A band of singers ; the place where they sing. 

Old Sng. ehdr; Latin ehdrus; Greek ch&rds. 
Choke, choked (1 syl.), chok'-ing, chok^er. To block up. 

Welsh oegio, to choke, (from ceg, a monthX 
Choler, koV.er^ anger. Collar (for the neck). 

Chc^ric, koV.e-rik. Irritable, passionate. 

Greek and Latin eftdJ^ro. (Greek choU rheo, flow of bile.) 

"Ck>ll«r/' Old Eng. eeolr, a collar ; Li^in eoUum, the neck. 

Cholera, koV.e.rah. A flow of bile, bile-flux. (See above.) 
Choose, pa^t chose, past part, (dioeen, chooz, chdze, chozen; 
choos'-ing, choos'-er. Choice, choic'-er, choic'-est. 
Old Eng. ced^on], past ceds, past part, edren. 



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102 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

"Ch.*'in English vorda sounded cu ** tch," unlets othertoise expressed. 

Chop, to cut, to exchange. Chap, the jaw-part of the cheek, &c. 
Chop, chopped (1 syl.), chopp'-ing, chopp'-er. (Rule L) 
** Chop" (to cut, &c.), Low Lat. eolpo, to cut ; French eouper, to cut. 
" Chop " ([to exchange), Old Eng. cedp, a barg^n ; verb cedpian]. 
*' Chap *' (the jaw), Old Eng. ceaplas, the jaws. 
*' Chap " (to crack with cold), Low Latin eolpo, to cut. 

Choral, ko^raly a4j. of choir (quire). CSoral, hy/ral (q.v.) 
Chord, kord (in Music). Cord, kord^ rope. Oawed, p. of caw. 

"Chord," Greek chords, the string of a lute, &c.; Latin ehorda. 
*• Cord," French corde, string : Greek chordi; Latin ehorda. 
** Cawed," kord, past tense of "caw," an imitation-word ; Old Eng. 
cor, a crow ; Latin corvius] ; Greek eorox. 

Chorus, ko'.nu, Cho'ral, adj. (Latin chdrus, Greek chSrSs.) 

Chough, chuff, a jackdaw, a crow. Cuflf, kuf, a blow. " Chough " 
was originally pronounced chow, like " though " tho'. 

Old Eng. ceo=eh'ow; Fr. ehoueas; Lat. corvus ("caw." the cry). 
" Cuff," French coup, to blow ; Latin cdldphvs (Greek kdlaptd). 

Chrism, kHzm, consecrated oil. Chrisom, kris'.om, a child that 
dies within a month of its birth. 

'* Chrism,*' Greek and Latin ehrisma, ointment (Gk. chri6, to anoint). 
"Chrisom," so called from the "chrism cloth," anointed with 
" chrism," or consecrated oil, and placed oyer the child. 

Christ, krist ; Christ-less, knstfless. Short in the compounds : 
Christmas, krisf.mas. From Dec. 25 to Jan. 6. (Rule viii.) 
Christen, ^rfc'.'n not ki^'.ten; christened, kris'.'nd. 
Christening, kris'-'nAng ; christener, kris'^n-er. 
Christendom, kH8"n,dom. All Christian countries. 
Christian, krie'.ttan; ChiistiaDity, krW-ttan'^-tty. 
Christianize, kri8\ttan.ize ; christianized, kri8\ttan.ized. 
Christianizing, Christianism, kri8'.ttan.izm. (R. xxxii.) 
Greek ChrUtos, christidnds, ehriatianizA, ehristianismos. 
Latin Christua, ehristidnua, diristtanismus, ehriatidnitas. 

Chromate, kro'.mate. In Chemistry -ate denotes a salt, from 
the union of a most highly oxidized acid with a ba8f\ 
Thus chromic acid and potash is the chromate of potash. 

Chromite, krd'.nUte, In Chemistry 4te denotes a salt, from 
the union of a less oxidized acid with a base. Thus 
chromite of iron is an oxide of chromium (inferior to 
chromic acid) in union with iron. 

Chromium, kro'jm^.um, a metal; also called chrome (1 syl.) 

Greek chr^nui, colour. The metal "chr5mium" is so eaUed because 
it is a powerful colouring substance. 




AND OF SPELLING, 103 

" Ch ** in BfiQlvh vaorda totmded <u ** tch," vmltss otherwige expressed. 

Chromatios (plu,), krojtnalfdks, science of colours. 

Ghromatic Scale {Mvaie\ so called from the intermediate 

notes being printed in colours. 
Ghromatrope, kro\ma,trdpe. An apparatus for showing a 

stream of colours. (Greek tr&padt to turn round.) 
Greek ehr6ma, colotur. All sciences in -'^ are plural except logic, 
music, and physic (French wordsX Gk. ehr&lnatikos ; Lat. ehro- 
tn&ticus, chromatic music 
Chronic, kr}Sn\ik or chronlcaL Continuing a long time. 

Chronicle, kr^W.V'L History arranged in order of time. 
Chronicled, krSn\tk'ld; chronid-ing, krSn'.iMing, 
Chronicl-er, krSn'.tkler. One who chronicles, an historian. 
Greek chrdnikds; Latin efurifnicus (Greek ehrdnds, time). 
Chronology, plu. chronologies, krS.nSl\8.jiz, Science of dates. 
Chronoroger or chronorogist. One who arranges dates. 
Chronological, kron\S.lodg'\tkal, chronolog'ically. 
Greek ehr&ndldgia, ehr&ndldgds (from ehrdnds, time). 
Chronometer, krS.n5m\^.ter. A watch or time instrument. 
Chnmom'etry. The art of making chronometers. 
Greek ehr&nds meiron, time metre. 
Chrysalis, plu, chrysalises Tiot chrysales, kr^'.a.lls, kri8\a,li8.ez, 
Chrysalid, plu. cluTsallds, are better and more modem 

forms ; " chrysalid " is also used as an adjective. 
Greek ehrusaUis, gen. ehrusalHdios], with double I (chrusos, gold) ; 
Latin chrysdlis, gen. ehrysdlid[is], one I. (See Aurella.) 

Chrysanthemum, kri.8dn\rM.imim not chrysanthenuvif plu. 
chrysanthemums not chrysanthema. A genus of flowers. 
Greek ehrusantMnUfn fehrusds anthSmOn, gold flower); Latin chry- 
santhemum, the yellow crow-foot, ox-eye, moon-daisy, &c. 

Chrjrsolite, kri8\5.lite. The topaz of the ancients, now im- 
properly applied to a green crystaL 
Latin chrysdHthtu; Greek chrusos llthds, the gold stone. 
Chrysoprase, kri8^,d.prdz not chrysophrase, A green stone. 

Latin chrysdprdsus ; Greek ehruadprdsds fchrusd prdson, gold leek). 
"Quod sit eolorls porraeei; i.e. yiridis, aureis intervenientibus 
guttis Isid.'* (See also Plin. S7, 20.) 

Chuckle, chuk^'l; chuckled, chuk\*ld; chuckl-ing, chuk'.Ung. 

Corruption of the Latin cdchinno; Greek kagchaaa, to laugh. 
Church. Old Eng. circe = chirxhe ; Scotch kirk ; Greek 

kur[io8'\ the Lord, with the suffix -cA, " belonging to." 
Churl, a surly fellow. Curl, kurly a ringlet 

"Churl,*' Old Eng. eeorl=ch'orl, a freeman of the lowest rank. 

*• Curl,'* Old Eng. eireul, a circle ; Welsh <wr, with dim., a little circle. 



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104 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

" Ch " in English words sounded as *' tch," unless otherwise expressed. 

Gh-am, to make butter. (Old Eng. eerene, a chum, verb cem[anj. 
Chyle, kile, A milky fluid jseparated from food by digesUon. 

Greek chulos: Latin ehybus (Greek chSo, to pour ont). 
Chyme, lame. Digested food before it is converted into chyle. 

Greek dhumos; Latin chymus (Greek chu; same as eihUo, to pour out). 
Cicada, p2tA. cicadsB (LB.i.)tSi.ltay'.daht8'i.'kay'.dee, Tree-hoppers. 
Cicatrix, plu. cicatrices (Lat.), sih' .ddrix, 8ik\a.tH,8ez, A scar. 
CicatriBe,si^'.a.f rtze; cicatrised (3 syl.),cic'ati'i8-ing.(K.xxxi. ) 
In Latin the " a " of these words is long : cicatrix^ &c. 
Cicerone (Ital.), 8i»\e,rd*\ne or che\ch^.ro'\ne, A guide. 
The " orator " or Cicero who shows over a show-place. 
Ciceronian, 8i8,e,ro'nl.an. A manner of writing or speak- 
ing in imitation of the style of the great Eoman orator. 
Cider, sV.der, Wine made from apples. (Old Eng. cider.) 

Latin sioira; Greek sik^ra, any fermented drink except grape wine. 
Ci-devant, see d.vah'n (French). An ex-[official], former. 
Cigar, 8i.gdr^ (Spanish eigarro, French cigare). 

Cigarette, sKgMjr^tf (French). Tobacco in a paper envelope. 
Cilia, 8iV.l.dh, hair-like organs. SUlier, more siUy. 

Latin dClium, pin. dfUa, the eye-lash (from cUleo, to twinkle). 
"Silly," Old Eng. saslig, German selig^ innocent. Idiots are termed 
*' innocents ;" and Jesus Christ is called "tiie luurmless silly 
babe." " Silly sheep," i.e., innotemt. 

Cinchona, sin.W.nah. Peruvian bark. So called from the 

Countess del Cinchon, wife of the Viceroy of Peru. 
Cincture, sinVdcher, A girdle. (Latin cinctura ; eingo, to gird.) 
Cinder, «in'.d«r. Burnt coaL (Old Eng. sind^r; Lat. cin^e«, ashes.) 

Cindery, tin'.de.rify not cindry. Full of cinders. 
Cineraria, 8in\e,rair^'ri.a. Eag-wort; some are " ash " coloured. 
Cinerary, sin'.e.ra.ry. Applied to sepulchral urns. It 
ought to be cin'ery. (Lat. cinSreus), Cinerdrius means 
a tiring-man, or maker of wash-balls. 
Cinnamon, 8in\nd.mon. The inner bark of a kind of laurel. 

Greek kinndmon; Latin cinnamum or cinnamOmum. 
Cinque- (French), sink. Used as a prefix to denote 5. 

Cinque-cento. Degraded or 16th century style of art. 
Cinque-foil, sink-foil. Five-leafed (French -feuiUe^ a leaf). 
Cinque-ports. Hastings, Komney, Hythe, Dover, Sandwich. 
Cipher, sV.fer^ the figure 0; to do sums. Gi'phering, doing sunij?. 
Arab, sifr, sero ; Low Lat. ciphra; French chiffre; Italian ci/ra. 



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AND OF SPELLINO. 105 

Ciroean, 8ir,i€e^Mn not Sir^,ti,an. Adj. of Ciic^ (Lat. Cireaug), 
Circle, ser^.kl; circled, ser^.h^ld; cinding, ser^.k'ling ; circlet. 

Latin oirdUus {Hrttu, around) ; Oreek hirkai ; Franch ctrde. 
Oiicoit (French) $€r^,kit. The route of a judge. 

OircuitouB, ser.ku^i.tus, round-about, drcnitons-ly. 
Circular, ser^.ku.laty a^j. of circle. Circular-ly (Lat. circuldris.) 
Circulate, ser'.ku.late ; cir^culat-ed, cir'culat-ing, cir^cula^'tion, 
ci]<culator not circulater, {-ed sounded after d or t). 

Latin eirciUare, circulator ; French citGuXer, circuUdion, 
Circnm- (Latin preposition), *' around." Used as a prefix. 
Circnmamhient, 8er.-kum.am"-hi'ent ; circmnambiency. 

Latin drcum ambio, to encompass or go all round, 
drcnm-ambiilate, -am'.bu.late : -aml)iilated, -aml)nlat-ing, 
-am'bulat-or (Rule xxxvii.), -am'bula^'tion. 

Latin Hrcwn ambuldre, to walk all round. 
Circnm-cise, circum-cised (3 syL), -ci'ser, cir'onin-cifi''ioA. 

Latin eircum ccedo (eauwnj, to cut all ronnd. 
Ciioninference, 8er.cum\fS,rence. The line that bounds a circle. 

Latin drcum fero, to cany all round. 
CiT'cmnflex, dr'cumflexed (3 syL) A mark (^) oyer a letter. 

Latin cvrcwm fiecto fflexumj, to bend round. 
Circnm'-flnent, drcnm'-flnence, circum'-fluoug, flowing round. 

Latin drewnjluena, circumjlu'us, flowing all round. 
Ciroiimfiifle, ier-cuirLfuze^ -tuBGd\ -falsing, -fa'sion. 

Latin drcum /undo, rapine .^Mum» to pour all round. 
Circumjacent, t€r'-€um.ja''^ent. Lying round on all sides. 

Latin dreum jaeens, lying aU round. 
Circmn-locn'tion, circumlocutory, ser^-cum.lok'-u-tS-ry. 

Latin cvrcwm lodltio, a round-about manner of speaking. 
dicum-nay^igate, -nav'igat-ed, -nav'igat-iug, -nav'i.ga".tion, 
-nav'igat-or (R. xxxvii.), circumnaTigable, -nav'.i.ga.bl. 

Latin drcwm navigOre, to sail all round {navis, a ship). 
Circum-scribe, HM^ribed^ HScriV-ing, HScriV-er, Hscrip'tion. 

Latin drctim scribo, to write or draw a line all round [a place, 
beyond which combatants must not pass], hence to limit. 
Ciroiim-«pect. Cautious. (Lat. eircum apecto, to look rouud.) 
Cizcum-epection, -tpea'-skun. Caution. (See Rule xxxiii.) 

Latin drcum tpitio, supine ^^ectum, to look round, 
dicnm-stance, -«tanced» stamt ; -stantial, -stan^shal. 

droum-stan^tialB (plu,)^ incidents ; droTimHstan'tially. 

dicnm-stantiate, <« ton'.«/i«.at«,-8tan'tiat-ed, -stan'tiat-ing. 

Latin drcwmxtantia, drcum stana, standing all round. 

*' Circumstances " are the details of time, number, names, incidents, 
InfliMiBWis, qualities, &o., &c, which contiibute to an ettect. 



lOR ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Circum-Yallation, -val.W ,8hun. A military trench all round. 

Latin drcum valldre, to nuike a vaUvm (treDch) all round. 
Gircmn-Tent, -yention, •ven'.shun. (See Rule xxxiii.) 

Latin ei/rcumventio, cirewm venio, fupine «entum, to come all Toond, 
and hence to impede, to out-trick. 

Circum-volve, -volved, -volvd; -volv'-ing, drciim-volu'tion. 

Latin drcwm, voho, to roU all round, c^ownyvoHUut. 
Circus, plu. circuses not circi. A circular place for equestrians. 

Latin circus, plu. circi; Greek kirkoa, plu. hirkoi. 
Cirrus, plu. cirri Curled filaments [for locomotion]. " CiiTus 
clouds " curly clouds. Scirrhus, skir^.rus, a tumour. 

Cirrous, adj. of cirrus. Scirrhous, skir^.ruSj tumourous. 

" Cirrus," Latin cirrus, a lock of hair ; Greek kerctSf a crumpled horn. 

" Scirrhus," Latin sdrrhibs, a hard swelling ; Greek skirrhos. 

(*' Cirrhi,'* so often written in sdentijic books to denote ** cwrl-clouds " 
is a mistcJce. The Greek * * kvrrhos " means yellow or Jlesh-coloured.) 

Cis- (Latin preposidon), prefix to adjectives, " on this side." 
Cis-Alpine, this side the Alps ; Le., the south or Boman side. 
Cis-Padane, this side the "Padus" or Po; i.e., the Rom. side. 
Cistern, sis^tem. A box for water. (Latin cistema,) 
Citadel, si f. a. del. A fortress in or near a city. 

French citadelle ; Italian cittadella fcUta -della, a little cityX 
Cite, site, sight ; all pronounced alike. 

Cite, cit'-ed, cit'-ing, cit'-er, cit-able, cita'tion. (Rule xix.) 
Sight, sight-ed, sight-ing. To come in view of. 
" Cite," Latin citdre, to quote, to call, to summon. 
" Site " (a building plot), Latin situs, a situation. 
" Sight," Old £ng. gesiht, vision {g of "sight" is interpolated). 



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AND OF SPELLING. 107 

Civil, siv'.il, civ'il-er {eonvp.\ ciy^il-est («*p.); dvil-ly; 

dviliBe, nv'MAze; dy'ilised (8 syl.), civilis-ini, dvil- 
iser, sif/.il.ize.er; dialisatiGn, Hv^Aluza'^ahun (B. xxzi.) ; 
civility, stviV.i.ty ; dvilian, stviV.yan, 

LaUn eivUis, courteous like a dtixen ; cUviUtas, dyility. 

Freneh eivil, eiviliaateur (driliser), civiliaation, eivilUer, civiliU. 

ChMsk, dacked, hlakd. To chatter. (French claqtier, to clack.) 
Claim, daimed (1 syl.)* daim-ant, daam-able (let Latin codJ.) 
Meant originally to demand with noisy clamour. 
Old Eng. 1Uemm{anU to make a noiie ; Latin elamdre, to ezeUim. 
dair-voyant (Ft.), one who sees without eyes. Glair-voyanoe. 
Clam, dammed (1 syl.), damm-ing, damm-y, dammi-neas. 

Old Eog. elam, sticky mud, dec ; rerb elctmiian], to smear. (B. i:) 
Clamonr, kldm'.er, outcry. Glamour, glam'.er, a charm which 
acts on vision. Claymore, a Highland broad-sword. 
*' Clamour, " (one m), Old £ng. hleinm[an], to make a noise ; French 

elamewr; Latin elanwr (rerb eUimdre, to clamour). 
'* Glamour," Scotch, same as glimmer. 
" Claymore," GaeL elaid mor, great-sword. 

Clamp, damped (1 syL), damp-ing. (The p not doubled. R. ii.) 

Old Eng. elam, a bandage. To " clamp " is to fasten with clamps. 
Clan, dann'-ish, dann^-iahly, dann'-idmeas. (B. i) 

dan-flhip, dans-man not clanman. One of the same clan. 

Gaelic i;{ann, diildren ; Latin eli«iw, a dient, a tenant, && 
Clandestine, klan.de8\t%nt dandestine-ly. In an underhand way. 

Latin clandestiwuSf secret, private, 8m. {elam, secretly). 
dang, danged (1 syl.), clangor, hlang'ger not klang'.er. 

"Clangor" not el(mgour, it \& not through the French, but direct 
from the Latin clangor, rerb clango, to cry like a trumpet, ^. 

Clap, dapped (1 syl.), dapp'-ing, dapp'-er. (Bule i.) 

Old Eng. daj^an], to clap, to strike the hands together. 
Claret (French), klar'ret. A red wine, the colour of the wine. 

Latin vinum elarHum, darified wine. 
Clarify, klaj^H.fy ; dar'ifies (3 syl.), dar'ified (3 syl.). clarify- 
ing, clar'iflca"tion. To make free from impurities. 

French cUirifieri Latin elSrifido {darus fado, to make clearX 
Clarion, a trumpet. Clarinet, klar^ri.net, not clarionet, 

(** Clarionet " means a small clarion, which it is not.) 

** Clarion,** Ital. clarino ; Low Lat clarigaHus, a herald. 

** Clarinet, ** gutnish eloHnete; French clarinette. 

Class, dassed (1 syL), dass-ing, to arrange in a class. 

Classic or classical (adj.), dasslcal-ly, classlcal-ness. 

Classics, the best authors. (Latin cUlssKcus^ highest of the 
six divisions of Roman citizens made by Servius ; hence 
classici auctores, the highest class of authors.) 



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108 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cla«s'ify, clafis'meB (3 sjl.), classified (3 syl.), classlfi-er, 

class'ify-ing, claaB'ifica^'tioii (Lat. classis-jicio [facio]). 
Latin clasaU, one of the six divisions of Roman citizens. 
Clat'ter, clattered, Uaf.terd; clafter-«r, clat^tetuing, clafter- 
ingly. (The r not doubled. Rule ii.) 
Old Eng. eUUning, a clatter, a drum ; Welsh clewtian, to clatter. 
Clay, plu. clays, clay-ey (not clay-y), clay-ish. 

{There are three words which take the postfix -ey instead 
of -y, — viz., clayey^ sky-ey, €und whey-ey.) 
Old Eng. cldg, (day ; Danish hloeg, loam, clay. 
Claymore, a Highlander's broad -sword; Glamour, glam'.er ; 
Clamonx, clam'.er. (See Glamour.) 
*' Claymore," Gaelic claid-mor, great sword ; Welsh dedd-^mo. 
-cle (suffix), diminutive, as parti-cle, a little piece ; also written 
-culey as ammal-cule, a little animal ; -ule, as glob-ule, a 
little globe or ball ; -el, as satch-el, a little sack ; -cle or 
-kle, as sic-kle [sik'.k'l], a little scythe. (Latin -cul[usj). 
Clean, kleen; cleaned (1 syl.), clean'-er, one who cleans ; dean'- 
ness ; clean-ly, m a clean manner ; clean-er, clean-est, 
clean-ly (adj.), klen'-ly ; cleanli-ness, kl^\U.ness, 
Old Eng. cldn, verb ddnlan], cUhUioe and eUnlice, cleanly. 
Cleanse, klenz ; cleansed, kWnzd; deani-ing, klen'.zing ; 
cdeans-er, kUn\zer. To purify, to make clean. (R. xix.) 
Old Eng. cldnsliiamX past cUtnsede, past part oldnsed. 
Clear, clear-er (camp.), dei^-est («ujp.), cleared (1 syl.), clearer (n). 

Welsh doer; French, dair; Latin darus; verb ddro, to clear. 
Cleat not elate, A piece of iron for the heels of shoes and boots. 

Old English deot or dUt, a dout ; Welsh dwt, a patch. 
Cleave (to stick), past cleaved (1 syL) [clAve], past part cleaved, 
cleav-lng. " Clave " occurs in the Bible (Acts xvii. 34). 
Old English difian], past ddf, past part, difen, to adhere. 
Cleave (to split), past cleaved (1 syl.), or cleft (obsolete forms 
" clave " and " clove "), past part, cleaved or cleft (obs. 
"cloven"). "Clave" (split) occurs often in the Bible 
(See Gen. xxii. 3). "Cloven" is used as an adj.: as 
** cloven foot," ** cloven tongues." 
Cleaver, one who cleaves, a butcher's chopper. Clev'er (q.v.) 
Cleav-age, klee'.vage not cleaver-a^e. The act of splitting, 

cleavable structure. Cleav'-able. (Rule xix.) 
Old English ditf[an], past dedf, past part, do/en, to split 
(The two verbs were originally quite distinct in all their paHt, and 
it is to be regretted that the distinctions are not preserved. J 
Clef, plu. cleffe (of Music). . Cliff, a precipice. Cleft, a crack. 

(MonosyUables ending in ''f* preceded by one vowel,double 
the f. The exceptions are " if" " of," and " clef." R. v.; 
♦• Clef," French ; Latin davit, a key. " Cliff," Old Eoglish dif. 




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ANDi OF SPELUXG. 100 

Cleft A crack. (Old Eng. cfeo/o, verb cJ6/[aw], to cleave.) 

dem'atis, plu. clem'atiseB not klS.mdyWis. " Traveller's Joy,'' 
«* Virgin's Bower," " Old Man's Beard," " White Vine." 
(The ** e" is long in the Latin and Greek words.) 

Latin elinUUit; Greek klSmdtis (ft'om klima, a vine twig). 
"Traveller's Joy," because it decks the hedges in attttunn. 
"Vii^n's Bower," because it climbs and overhangs, bower-like. 
" Old Man's Beard," because it looks like grey hair. 
** White Vine," because it is a " vine " and bears a whitish flower. 

demeney, plu, clemencies^ kWmf .erkjiiz. Gentleness, mercy, 

.cy, snffixto abstract nouns. (Lat. dementia, elemens, mild.) 

Clench, clinch. " Clench " (to grasp), as *' he clencherl my 
hand " ; (to settle), as to " clench an argument." Clencher, 
a settler, a finishing stroke, as "that was a clencber." 
" Clinch," to turn a nail, to rivet. We use both words. 
Dutch Uinken, to rivet ; Danish kUnke, to clinch. 

Clerestory, kler'rU.t^.ry, Corruption of the French elirist^re, 
and generally called clear-storey. 

Clergy (no plu.). A noun of multitude. (French clergi.) 

Cler'gy-man, pZu. clergy-men. One of the clergy. (B. xi.) 

Clerical, kl^ri.kal Pertaining to the clergy. 

<Nd Eng. eUrie or d&re, a priest ; Latin cliru§, cUHcub ; Greek hUrds, 
a lot or heritage. The " church " is Ood's heriiage (1 Peter v. 3^ 
and the priestly tribe was *' God's lot." 

Cleik, klurk, a clergyman ; klark, a church servant, &c. 

Old Eng. c2ere, a priest ; Latin oUrus ; Greek klirds. 
Clever, *Zet;'.«r,clev'er-er(co7np.),clev'er-e8t(«Mjper.) <90« Cleaver. 

Old Eng. gUdvOt talented, changed to gU.wd, corrupted to elwer. 
Clew. A hint. (Old Eng. cleowen, cliewe, cllwe or cl&we.) 

Latin globus, a ball of thread, by which strangers were guided 
tiurough labyrinths. IncorrecUy spelt elue. 

C]iS, clef, cleft, clift. 

Cli£ A hill by the sea. 

Clef (of Mtisic\ q.v. Cleft or CHft, a fissure, a crack. 
In the Bible " cliff," " clift," and " cleft," a fissure, are 
used indifferently. " I will put thee into a clift of a 
rock " (Exod. xxxiii 33) ; " To dwell in the cliffs of 
the valleys " (Job xxx. 6) ; « Thou art in the clefts of 
the rock " (Cant. ii. 14). 
*•* The distinction should be preserved thus : 
Cliff, cliffs {of the sea) ; cUf, clefs {of Music). 
Clift, clifts (fissure) ; cleft {cut), as " cleft wood.** 
" Cliff," Old Eng. elif, a rock, a cHff of the sea. " Clef," Pr., q.v. 
" Oift " or " Cleft " (a fissure), Old £ngi oUofa, a deft, rlyftK splits- 



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110 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Climate, hli\mat; climatic, klumdt'.ik (adj.) (t short in Lat.) 
French elimat; Latin elima, eVlTndtia; Greek klima, a heavenlj 
Eone. Ancient geographers diyided the globe into 60 parts called 
" climates," 30 north and 80 south of the Equator. 

Cli'max, plu, cli'mazes ; Climac'teric, a crisis ; Glimac'terical. 

Latin climax, cllmactericiM ; Greek kllmaXf a ladder. 
Climb, past climbed [clomb], past part, climbed, climb-ing, 
climb-er, klime, klimed (1 syl.), klime'-ing, klime\er (klome). 



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AND OF SPELLING. Ill 

ClofheB-brush, cloze-brush; clothes-basket, cloze-bas.keL 
Clothe, past and p,p. clothed (1 syl.) or clad, cloth-ing. 
Clothier, klothe'-yer, A dealer in clothes, an outfitter. 
Old Eng. eUUh, doih ; ddth, a garment : cldth[ian], to clothe. 
Cloud, clond'y, doud'i-er (comp.), doudl-est («ifper.),clond'i-Iy, 
cloudl-ness. The yapours of the air amassed (Bnle xi.) 
Welsh chider, a heap or pile ; Old Eng. eZtid, a heap, a hill. 
CloTe. A spice, a division of a root of garlic, &c. In BoUy a bulb. 
"CloTe *' (a spice). French elou, a nail ; Latin davtu. 
"CJlove" (of garlic). Old Eng. clufe (from clUflan]), to cleave. 

Cloven. Divided, as " cloven foot," " cloven tongues of fire." 

Old Eng. elyfer-fdtef cloven-footed, «Zo/en, p.p. of clU/an, to cleave. 
Cloy, cloyed (1 syl.), cloy-ing, cloy-less. To fill to loathing (E.xiii .) 

Danish klOge, to retch, to feel sick. 
Clnb, clubbed (1 syl.), clnbb-ing, clubb-ist. (Rule i.) 
" Clnb" ja cudgel), Welsh dob a knob, dopa a clnb stick. 
" CLah" (a societj). Germ. getXLbde^ a body of men united hj a sacred 
vow. 
Clue. Shakespeare uses this word {AlVs Well, dtc, i. 2), but 

clew is better. (See Clew.) 
Clum'sy, clum'si-er (comp.\ clum'si-est {super.), clum'si-ness, 
clum^'si-ly. Awkward, not natty. (Rule xi) 
Old Eng. elom, a bond ; elom-sy, as if one's hands were tied. 
Clyster. An injection for medical purposes. 

Latin tH/yster; Greek hlusUr, a syringe (klvao, to wash). 
Go-. The Latin prefix con, with the n dropped. It stan Is 
before a vowel or h, as coalesce, cohabit. Before " o " it 
is separated by a hyphen, as co-operate. With a hyphen 
it is wsed before any letter: as co-mates, co-partner. In 
Mathematics it means the complement, as co-sine, co-tan- 
gent, &o. {See Oon-.) 
Go. Contraction of Company : as " Smith and Co." 
Coach, hoch, A close carriage with front and back seats. 

French ctxhe; Latin corrOcCa], a calash. 
Coadjutor, /em. ooa^trix, ko\ad.ju'\tor, &c., a helper. 

Latin eo [con] a^^Uor (Jtwo, to help), a fellow-helper. 
Coagulate, ko.ag'^u.late (to dot), ooag'ulat-ed, coag'ulat-ing, 
coag'ulat-or, coag'ulat-ive (Rule xix.), co-ag'ula"tion, 
ooag'ulant, ooag^ulum, coag'ulable, coag^ulabil'lty. 
- Latin eo-dguldre, to curd ; codgillatio, codgHldius, codgiUum. 
Coal, hole, A black mineral used for fiieL 

Collier, h6l\yer, A ship for conveying coals, a coal labourer. 
CoUier-y, phi. collieries, kSV.ye.riz, A coal-pit, coal- works. 
Old Eng. dfl or c6U. The a of *' coal " is to compensate for the accent. 



112 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Coalesce, ko'M.less' (to assimilate), ooaleBced, ko\a.le8f; coales- 
cing, ko\a.le8^'M,ng ; coalescent, ko\aXe8'\8ent ; oo'ales'- 
cexLce; coalition, ho'.a,U8h\on; coelition-ist. 
Lftt. CO [con] alesco, to grow closer and closer together (aXo, to cherish). 
Coarse, korse not co^orse (gross). Corse (a corpse). Course {q.v») 
Coars-er (comp.), coars-est (super.), eoarse-ly, coarse-ness. 

Old Eng. gorat (rooghX as Ib gooM-h9Try, coc-lettnee ; ur«inion, or 

eur«inion, a coarse onion (corrupted to Latin allium ursinum). 
" Corse," a poetical form of Corpse. ** Ckmrse" (a process, a chase). 
French cowrae; Latin our«iM, a course. 

Coast, koit, land lying next the sea. Coastwise not coastways. 

French coste now c6te ; Low Lat. cosUfra, Lat. posta, a rib or side. 
Coat, kote, coat-ed, coat-ing; coatee, koAeCy a half-coat. 

French cotte; Germ. kutU; Ital. eotta. (Our word is ill-spelt.) 
Coat-pf-arms, plu. coats-of-arms, not court-of-arms, 
Coat-of-mail, plu. coats-of-mail, not coat-of-male. 
Coax, koxe; coaxed, kdxd; ooax-ing, coaxing- ly, coax-er. 

Welsh eoor, to coax ; cocrUf to fondle : French cocasaet funny. 
Cobble, kob'.b'l (to botch); cobbled, kohWld; cobbler, kob'.ler; 
cobbling, koh'.ling; cobbling Jy (double 6, root cob, R.i.) 

Welsh cdb, a thump ; cdhiOy to thump ; eoblyn, a thumper. 
Cobra da Capello, plu. Cbbias or Cobra da Capellos. Hooded snake. 

Portuguese, " the hooded snake ; " eaptllo, a hood. 
Cob'web; cobwebbed, koV.webd; coVwebb-ing, eob'webby. 

(The double " b " would he contrary to Mule Hi., but the 
word was originally joined with a hyphen. ) 

Cob or e^p, a spider ; as Old Eng. atter-cop the poison-spider ; Dutch 
spvnne-kop; Chaldee kopi, a cobweb. 

Coca, ko'-kah (a narcotic). Coeoa, ko.^kd (a nut), or substance 
prepared from the Cacao (ka.kay\o) plant. 

**Coca," the dried leaf of the Erythroafylon Coca, of Peru. 
"Ck>coa/' the fruit of the Theobrdma Cacao (West Indies). 

Cochineal, k6ch\i.neel not kok\i.neel. Crimson dye-stuff. 

Spanish cochinilla, the wood louse ; French cochenille, cochineaL 
Cochlea, kok\U.ah (paxt of the ear) ; Cochlear, k5k\le.ar (In Bot.) 
Cochleary, kSk\lS.&,ry. Spiral, like a shelL 
Cochlea.te, k5k\lS.ate ; eocbleskt-ed^ kdk\li.ate\ed. (R. xix.) 
Latin cockUa; Greek kochVCaSt a snail's sheU. 

Cock, fern, hen; cock'erel, /«?». pnllet Barn-door fowls. 
Cock and hen are also gender- words : as 
Cock -bird, fern, hen -bird; cock-sparrow, hen-sparrow< 
cock • pheasant, hen - pheasant ; moor - cook, moor - hen ; 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



AND OF 8PELLIN0. 113 

peacock, x)ea-hen ; turkey-cock, fern, turkey ; cock-lobster, 
hen-lobster. Woodcock is both mas, and fern. 
Old Eng. coe or eoee. And hen or henn : French coq, poule. 
{"Pullet," like "6«5/," "mtUton,*' ''veal,** <ke., shows that the Nor- 
man lords retained their names for the "meats," tphUe the Saxon 
991/8 retained their'sfor the living animaU which tluy tended.) 

Cockade (2 syl.) A liyery worn on the hat (French cocarde,) 
Cockatrice, hSh\S.tri8 (French cocatrix). 
Cockchafer, h^Tff .chafe,er. The May-bug. (Old Eng. ceafor,) 
Cockle, TiokWL The corn-rose. (Old Eng. coccel, the darnel.) 
Cookie, kSkr.k'L Shell-fish. (Latin cochlea, Greek hochm.) 
Cookie, kSh^.k'l; cockled, kSk'.eld; cockling. To pucker. 

French re-eoquMler, to curl up, dog's-ear, or cockle. 
Coekzoach, kbW.rotch, A black beetle. (Old Eng. hreoce.) 
CockBOomh (a plant). Coxcomb, a fop. Both koaf.kovne. 

The licensed jesters were called coxcombs^ because they 
wore a ** cock's comb " in their caps. Spelling incorrect. 
Coddle, kod'.d% To parboil, to pamper ; one pampered. 

Ck)ddled, kod\d'ld; coddling, kod^ding ; coddler, kod^.d^ler. 
Codling. A young cod. 
OW EngUah -ZifH7, *' offspring of," "young of.** 
Codlin. An apple fit for coddling or cooking {-in not -ing). 
Latin eofiiHis], fit for roasting or baking. Old Eng. cod-asppel, the 
cooking apple. " Cod " (the fish), is a corruption of Oad[us]. Lat. 
the codfish : ** hadd[ock] " is another form of the same word. 

Code (of laws), codex, ko'.dex (Latin). An ancient manuscript. 
Codicil, kSd\%.cil, a supplement to a will (Lat. codicilliu, a 

little book) ; codidllary, k6d\i.ciV\la.ry (adj. of codicil). 
Codityyko'.dlfy; co6i^eajko.di.fize; codiAed, ko\dl,fide ; 

co'difl-er; codlfy-ing; codifl-cation, ko'.di.Ji.ka'\shun ; 

eodist, ko .ditty one who reduces laws to a " code." E. xi. 
Latin cddex, a volume (from caudex, the stock of a treeX books 

being at one time made of boards (from eotdo, to fell). 

Coehom, ko'hom. A military projectile. {See Cohom.) 
Coequal, ko.e'.qualy coequal-ly; coequaHty, ko\e,quoV\Lty, 

Latin CO [con] aqudlis, lall] alike equaL 
Coerce, ko.erse' ; coerced, ko.ersf ; coerc-ing, ko.efMng; 
coerc-er, ko.er^ser ; coerc-ion, ko.er^.8hun; coerc-ive, 
ko.ef^Mv; coercive-ly; coerc-ible, ko,e7^,8l.b% Kxix. 
Latin eoere^o, eo [con] arc^o, to drive or press together. The word 
"compel '* foom-pelloj means the same thing. 

CooMontinl, ko'.e8.8en''^hal, same in essence; coessential-ly ; 
ooenentiality, ko'.es-sen'-sJii.aV'-i-ty, coessential state. 
Latin 00 [con] essentidlit, partaking of tho same essence. 
H 



114 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Coetemsl, W.e.ter^nal, coetemal'-ly; coetemity, W.e.ter'\ni.ty, 

Latin eo [con] ceterMU, eo [con] ceUnmitoi, equally eternal, &c. 
Coeyal, ko.ei'.valf coeval-ly. (Latin colconjavum, equal ages.) 
Goexecntor, fem. eoexecntiiz, ko\ex.ek'\u.tory ho\ex,eh"u.trix. 

Latin CO [con] exedUor, &c., joint executor with [another]. 
Coexist, ko.ex.isf ; coexist'-ed, eoexisf-ing, coexist'-ent, eo- 
exist^-ence not coexUt-anty coexUt-ance. 
Latin co [con] exiUSre, to exist at the same time (followed by with.) 
Coextend, ho\ex.tend*' (to extend equally) ; coextend'-ed, coex- 
tend'-ing, coextent, ko\ex.tentf ; coextension, ko'.ex.- 
ten'\8liun (Kule xxxiii.), coextensive, ko\ex,ten" Mv ; 
ooextensive-ly, coextensive-ness. 
Latin co [con] extendo, snpine -teTUum, co-extenslvtUy co-extensio. 
Coflfee, kofje. The berry of the Cqff'ea araVica, from CaJfa 
or Eaffa, a province of Abyssinia. 
French eaf6: Spanish cafe; Italian caffe; Danish kaffc 
Coffer, kof,fer (a chest), coffer-ing; coffered, kof.ferd. 
Coffin, koffln; coffin-ing, coffined, kof.finnd. 

{The double "/" is French^ our chief source of error.) 
Old Eng. cofa, a box ; Low Lat. cofira or cofra ; ItaL cofano; Latin 
edphinus; Qreek kdphinds, a basket. 
Cog- (prefix). The Latin con- before the derivations of nascor, 

nosco, and nomen : as connate, cognition, copnomen. 
Gog (of a wheel), to tricic ; cogged (1 syl.), cogging. Cog, a boat 
** Cog " (of a wheel), Welsh eocos^ cogs of a wheel. 
" Cog " (to trick), Welsh coegio, to trick ; coeg, a trickster. 
''Cog," Low Latin, eoggo, a sort of small boat. 
Cogent, fco'.jtfnt,cogent-ly; cogen-cy. Urgent, urgently, urgency. 

Latin cogens, cogentis, co [con] ago, to urge together. 
Cogitate, kqj\i,tate (to think), cog^itat-ed, cog'itat-ing, cogitat- 
ive (Rule xix.), cogitative-ly, cog'ita"tion, cogitable. 
Latin cdgitdre, supine -tdtitm (to think) ; cogitatio, cogitdbilis. 
Cognac, kdn\y&k, not cogniac. The best Freoch brandy. 

So called from Cognac^ in Chareote. (French cognac.) 
Cognate, related on the mother's side ; Agnate, on the father's. 
Cogna'tion, relationship on the mother's side. 
Agnia'tion, relationship on the father's side. 

An uncle on the father's side is an agnate, because he 
bears the same surname ; an uncle on the mother's side 
is a cognate only, he is related by birth, but does not 
bear the same surname, or belong to the same " gens." 
Cognisable, kS/.ntzd.b'l (K. xxiii.); cognisant, kog'MJsant; 
cognisance, kSg\ntzance ; cognisee, k6g\nijsee. 
Latin cog [con] noscire, to know for the first time. 
"To recognise,'* is to know not for the first time, to recaU. 
(Theu vjordi ought not to be »pcU with a *' »." SulexxxL) 




AND OF SPELLING. 115 

<k)gnoBCente, plu, cognoscenti, kog\n68,sen,te, kog',n68-sen*\t%. 
One learned in art. (Italian, from the Latin cognoscere.) 
Cognomen, plu. cognomens, kSg.no^.men not kog\nS.men, 

Latin eog [oon] namen, a name with [your personal name]. 
Cohabit, ko,?iah\it To live together not in a married state. 
Cohab'it-ed,cohab'it-ing; cohabitation, ho.hah\%.ta'' .shun, 
(" «d,*' after **d'* or **t " makes a separate syUahle.) 
Latin eo [con] hdhito, to dwell t<^ther; co-haMt&tio. 
Coheir, fern, coheiress, ko.aiVj ko.air'.ess. Cohere, ko.hear" (q.v.) 
"Coheir" (joint heir), Latin co [con] hares, heir with [others]. 
{Only Jive words have the initial "h" mute: they are heir, hoar, 
honest, honour, a-nd humour.) 

Cohere, ko.heet' (to sticlt together), cohered' (2 syl.), coher'-ing ; 
coher'-ence; coher'ency; coher'ent.coher'ent.ly. (R.xix.) 
Cohesion, ko.he\zhun; cohesive, ko.he\siv, cohe'sive-ly, cohe'- 
siTO-ness; cohe'sible; cohesibility, ko.he'M.hiV'.i.ty. 
Latin co [con] hcer^e, sup. cohcesum, to stidk together ; co-hoerervtla. 
Cohom, ko.hom. This is the French speUing, and is better than 
coehom, A mortar invented by Baron de Cohom (Coe- 
hoom) of Holland, caUed the Dutch Vauban (1641-1704). 
Cohort, ko'-hort not ko\ort, A body of soldiers. (Lat. cohors.) 
Coif; koyf (Ft. coiffe). Coiffore, koyf.fure (Fr.), a headdress. 
Coil, koyl ; coiled, koyld. To gather a rope together in rings. 
French cueillvr, to coil ; Latin eoUigere, to collect. 
• Coin, koyn ; coined, koynd; coin-er, coin-ing, coin-age. 

French coin, a wedge ; Latin ewnHus, a die for stamping money. 
Coincide, kd\%n.side" (to agree), coincid"-ed, coincid"-ing ; 
coincidence, kodn^sLdense not koArLsi". dense ; coin, 
cident, ko.in\sl.dent ; coincident-ly (simultaneously). 
Latin eo [oon] incldSre, to fadge in together (ood^e, to fall). 
Coke. Coal deprived of its volatile matters by heat. 

Old English eoJk, refuse, the core of an apple, fto. 
Col- (Latin prefix). Con before " 1 " is so written. {See (km-) 
Colander, kuV.an.der, A strainer. (Latin cdlanSj straining.) 
** Cdldtoi[ium\" not " colander[iumy* is the Latin word, 
Colchicnm, kdV.chl.kum, ]!liIeadow-sa£Gron, Naked lady. 

From Colchis, on the Euxine sea, where it flonrishes. 
" Naked Lady," because the flowers are without leaves. 
Cold, cold er (comp.), cold-est {superl); cold-ish, rather cold. 

Old £ng. edld or ceald, cold, {-ish added to adj. is diminutive.) 
Coleopter, |){u. coleoptera, kdV.i.op^'.ter, k6VJ.op'*,te.rah, also 
Coleopteran, koV.e.op'\te,rany beetles,<fec. Coleop'terous (adj .) 
Gk. k6U6s ptiHn, sheath-wing. Insects with sheaths to their wings. 



116 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Oorio not Gholic, a bowel attack. Choleric, koV,€,rik, passionate. 

Latin cdlieu8, the colic (from Greek k6Wn, the intestine). 
<* Choleric," Latin chdliricus (from Greek cMU, bile). 

OoliBetim, k6l.%^ee\um. The largest amphitheatre in Rome. 
The same spelling is kept in " Hue de Colis^e" Paris. 
ColoBsenm is the more usual spelling in English. 
The Bom. " Ck>lisenm " was so called from the " Ck>los8us " or gigantic 
statue of Nero which stood near it, as well as from its great siie. 

Collapse, kSLlaps'^notkodaps'; collapsed, kSllapsf; ooUaps'-ing. 

Latin eol [con] Idbor^ lapsus, to sink, or tumble all together. 
Collar (for the neck). Choler, kSV.er, anger. 

"C!ol1ar," Old Eng. ceolr, from ceole, the throat ; Lat. eollum, the neck. 
''Choler," Latin chdUfra; Greek cMU, bile, anger. 

Collate, kSLlate' not ko.late'; collat-ed, collat-ing. (Kule xix.) 
Collation, kdUa^shun not "Co-lation'* (a very common 
error); collat'-or (R. xxxvii.); CoUat'-able (an error in 
spelling); the Latin colldtdre means « to make wide." 
Collat-ible is the proper derivative of conferre, collatum, 
Latin con-ferro, supine eol-ldtum, to bring together, to compare. 
Collateral, kdl.laf .e.ral not ko.laf.e.ral; coUat'eral-ly. 

Latin col [con] faterdlis, indirect (col Idttu, HUirit, the side), running 
on the side, proceeding from one side. 

Colleague, k6V.leeg (noun), hol.leeg' (verb); ooUeagued, kol.. 
leegd'; coUeagu-ing, fco?.i«e/.tn^. To league together. 
French colUgtte; Latin colliga (from eon lego, to gather together). 
Collect, kW.lect (noun), kollecf (verb), collect'-ed, collecf-ing, 
Collecf-ive, collect'ive-ly, coUect'iveness ; coUect-ible, 
Collection, koLlec^shUn not ko.lec'jihon (Rule xxxiii.) 
Lat. eol [conj UgSre, -Uctum, to gather together ; collectio, collectlvm. 
College not colledge; collegian, kSllee'Ji'an; collegiate, kdl- 
lee\ji'ate, A society, a superior school institution. 
Latin coUigium (from col [con] lego, to gather together). 
Colley or collie, a cur. Cooley or colie, a porter (East Indies). 
Collier, kSlyer ; coUier-y, kSl.ye.ry, {See CoaL) 
Collision, k5l.lizh\un not ko.lizh'.un, A striking together. 

Latin coUiaio (from collido, col [con] loeda, to hurt mutually by 
"strildng together"; so eliaio (t UedoJ, to strike out). 

Collocate, koV.l5.kate; coHocat-ed, collocat-ing; colloeation, 
koVJlo. hay". shun, A setting side by side. (Rule xxxiii.) 
Latin collocdtio from ool [con] locdre, to place together. 
Collodion, hollodton not ko.lo^di.on nor ko.lo\di.um. A solu- 
tion of gun-cotton in ether, used in photography, Ac. 
Greek holla eidos, elue-like. It was first used in surgery, because in 
drying it left a gluey film over wounds. (An ill-formed word.) 



AND Of SPELLING. 117 

Colloquial, h6l.l5^.quiM not lcoM\qul,al; collo'quial-ly; 
Collo''qiiial-ism, form of expression in common use. 
Colloqny, plu, colloquies, kdV.lS.kw%, k5l.lS.kwXz, 
CoUoquist, kSV.l5.kiDi8t, A speaker in a dialogue. 
Lat. col [con] loquor, to speak together ; French coUoqw, conference. 
OoUude, to conspire in a fraud ; collusion, kol.la\zhun (R. xxxiii.) 
Collusive, kol.lu\8lv, collu'sive-ly, collu's>ive-ness ; 
Collusory, kol,lu'.zo,ry. Of the nature of a fraud. 
Latin col [cofa] lUdOj supine lOsum ; collilsio, to phiT' into each other's 
hands, with the view of deceiving a third party. 
Colocynth, kbl\bMnth (only one I), The bitter-apple. 

Latin c6l6cynthU; Greek hdWcufdhU, bitteV-gourd. 
Colon, ko.ldn. The largest intestine. A stop made thus (0^ 

Latin eoUm; Greek kdUfn, a limb or member of anything. 
Colonel, ker^.nel; colonel-cy, ker'.neLsy (-cy denotes "rank"); 
oolonel-ship, ker'.nel.ship {-ship denotes "tenure of 
office.") In " Hudibras " we have " colonelling " (4 syl.) 
(Our pronunciation is a vulgar contraction, " Co*n-el.") 
French eoUmel (from coUmne. a column), a commatider of a column 
or regiment of soldiers : till the reign of Francis I. called copi- 
taine-coUmd. Low Latin colorteUus. 
Colonnade, k6V.hn.nade» A covered walk with columns. 

French eoUmiiadt (from colofMUf a column). Latin eolumn&tu». 
C6Loiaj,plu.colomeatkol\S.niz; coronist; coronise, col'onis-ed, 
coronis-ing, coronis-er (R. xix.), coronisa^tion (R. xxxi.) 
Colonial, ko,ld.ni,al (not colloquial), belonging to a colony. 
Latin eoUinia, a colony. (In Latin the -Hi- is long ) 
Colopbon, plu, cdlophons, kdV.o.fon, The printer's impress at 
the end of a book. (Greek kolophdn, a finishing-stroke.; 
Cdldphon, a city of Ionia, the inhabitants of which were 
such good horsemen that they could turn the issue of a 
battle ; hence the phrase colophdnem adders {Ko\o<pCljva 
iinri64yai), to put a finishing stroke to a matter. 
Ooloeseum, kdLSs^ee^'.um or Coliseum. The great Roman 
amphitheatre was called ** Colisseum," but as the word is 
from " Colossus." Colosseum is the better spelling. 
Coloflsal, ko.l6s'aal (not colossiat) ; colossean, ko.lSs.seel'.an. 
Lat. cdlossius ; Greek kdlossdg, kdlostfiids. The " Colossos of Rhodes " 
was a gigantic statue of Apollo, near the harbour. 
Colour, kuV.er; coloured, kuV.erd; corour-able, col'our-ably. 

French couUur; Latin cdlor. (Our word is neither Fr. nor Lat.) 
Colporteur, k6l\pnr,teur^ , a book hawker. Col'portage (French.) 

Latin coUum p&rtdre, to carry round the neck. 
Cdt, fern, fllly, both called foal, fdle. A young horse or ass. 
Old Eng. coU ; Lat filia, a daughter ; Old Eng. fola, a f oaL 



118 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

C!olaber, 'k^SVM.her (Latin). A genus of serpents. 

Columbine, MlMm.hme, A plant, so called from the Latin 

columhaf a dove. The jlower yesembles a dove's claw. 
Ck>lumella, kol\u.meV\la, The column in the capsule of mosses ; 

the axis of fruits. (Latin columella, a little column.) 
Golumellia, k6l\u,meV\lijih. A genus of Peruvian shrubs. 
Column, k5V,umf a pillar. Columnt^r, Izo.luwf .nar (adj.) 

Latin columna. Tbe adjective (xlumiuir is ill-chosen, as the Latin 
word columnarium means a " tax on columns." The adjective of 
*' columna " is colwnvndtus (columnata). 
Colure, plu. oolures, kS.leurs^ Two great circles cutting at 
right angles the four cardinal points of an artificial globe. 
Greek kdUnirSs {hSlos ov/ra, a mutilated tail), these circles are ** cur- 
tailed " or cut by the artificial horizon. 
Colza, koVjsah, A variety of cabbage which aflfords an oiL 

French colza; Old English cawl, cole-wort ; Flemish kolzaad. 
Com- (prefix), for con- before 6, m, and p^ Also in the English 
words comfit and comfort, in Lat. " con-ficio," " con-fortps]." 
Coma, ko'.muhj lethargy. Comber, ko\mer^ one who combs. 
Comatose, ko\ma,toze, lethargic ; comatous, ko'.m^.tUs. 
" Coma," Lat. cOma, lethargy ; Gk. k&ma (koimdo, to put to sleep). 
''Ck>mber," Old Eng. camb, a comb ; Germ, kammer; Lat. cdmo. 

Comate, ko\mate, A companion. This word should be commate. 

"Comate" (from the Latin contdtus), should mean "hairy." If 

from CO and mate, it ought to be joined with a hyphen. {Su Go-.) 

Comb (6 mute), combed, kdmd ; comb-ing, kom£\ing ; comb-er. 
Old Eng. earnh, a comb ; Latin ^imo, to dress the hair {cfima, hair). 

Combat, kom\hat; oomlmt-ed, com'bat-ing, oom^bat-ant, 
combat-ive, kom\bdt,iv ; com'batiye-ness. (Rule iii) 
French comhattre; Latin com batUo, to fight together. 

Combine^ combined'' (2 syl.), combin'-ing, combin-er (R. xix.), 

combin-able; combination, kom\hi.na'\8hun. To unite, Arc. 

Lat. combin&re, to combine (from com diniM, two and two together). 

Combustion, kom.bu8\tchun, a burning ; combus'tible, not -able ; 
combus'tibil"ity, combus'tible-ness, combus'tive (R.xxii.) 
Latin combxbstio/ combHr&re, sup. comhiisttvm, to consume with fire. 

Come, past came, past part, come, kum, kdme ; com'-ing, 
o6m'-er (Rule xix.) To arrive at liie place where we 
are; hence A. says to B. "I am coming to pay you a visit." 
" I am going to pay you a visit," would mean I intend, 
I am about to.,. 

To come about, to happen : " How did that come about?" 
„ come at, to get-to, or obtain : " I cannot come-at it.'* 
„ ceme o£^ to arise from : ** What came-of it?" 
„ come-off, to escape : " We came-off with flying colours.** 



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AND OF SPELLING. 110 

To come on, to proceed : " The train came-on quicldy." 
„ come out, to publish : " The book came-out last month." 
„ come over, to get the better of:. '* You cannot come- 
over me." 
„ come round, to recover : " The man will come-round." 
„ come up to, to amount to : "It comes-up-to 300." 
„ come upon, to attack : " He came-upon me unawares." 
Old Eng. cttin[an], past com^ past part tumen; cuma, a coiner. 
Comedy, plu. comedies, k^m\e.diz ; Oomedian, ko.mee'M.an. 
(In Latin and Greek the first two vowels are long; 
" chmedus '' \_shoTt] means " one who eats with you") 

Latin cdmcedia, cOmcedus; Oreek kdmddia, kdmMoSf ie., k&mg 6di, 
a Tillage song, an ode sung at a village [fair]. 

Comely, kum\ly. Nice-looking (applied to peasant girls, <fec.) ; 
comeli-ly, kum\ltly ; comeU-ness, kwmf.U.ness (R. xvii.) 
From comt. So in Lat. comrvtniens, suitable, &c., is from venio, to come. 
Comestible, kom.es8\ttb'l (adj.), edible. Ck)meBtible8 (plu.) 

French comegtible; Latin camessor, to revel ; Oreek k&mazo, to revel. 
The proper meaning of " comestibles" (eatables) is ext/ra foods, foods 
in addition to those which form the " meals." 

Comet, kom^-etj a ''hairy star"; cometarium, j>2t£. cometaria, 
kom\e.taii^'r^.um, a machine to show how comets move. 
Oometary, h6m\S.td.ry (adj.); Gom'mentary, a comment, 
Cometography, kSm\e.tog^\ra.fyy treatise on comets. 

Latin edmSta (from cdma, hair) ; Greek h&mitis (kdmS, hair). 
Host comets have some sort of " hairy" light about them ; sometimes 
it forms a " tail," sometimes a " beard," sometimes a "nebula," &c. 

Oomfit, Cknnfort; Ck)mfiture, Ck)mforture; Dis- (negative). 

Gomfit, a seed coated with sugar. C!omfort, consolation. 

Comfiture, kom'.ftteur, preserved fruit (French confiture). 

Gomforture, kSmyor.tchur, what gives comfort. 

Pis-comfit, to rout. Bis-comfort, inquietude. 

Dis-comfiture, defeat. Dis-comforture, want of comfort. 

Gom'fort (to console), com'forted, com'forting, com'forture ; 
comforter, fern, comfortress or comforter ; com'fort-able, ' 
com'fort-ably, com'fortable-ness ; com'fort-less, com'fort- 
less-ly, comfortless-ness, absence of comfort. 

"Comflt," French eor^i; Latin eonfectus (our "confection"). 
"DlsHComflt," "dis-comfiture," French d^oo7(/lre, d4conJitv/re ; Latin 

dis configoy to unfasten. Both French and English are ill-formed. 
**Dis-comfort," French d^confort; Latin dis con (fortis, strong). 
**Ck)mfort," French conforter; Latin " confortdri," to be strong. 
(There is no reason why *'con" should be changed to "com" be/ore fit 

and fort, and it violates all analogy. At all events, "comftt'* 

^umld be confit, a " confection." J 



120 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

— ^ 

C!omic, kom'.ik, drolL C!om'ical, com'ical-ly, comlcal-ness ; 
coxnicality, k5m\tkaV\ttyy drollery. 
Latin e0mXcu8 (the o long) ; Qreek kdmikds. (See Comedy.) 
Coming, kum\ing, approaching. {See Come.) 
Oomma, plu. commas, kom\mdz. A stop made thus (,). Go'ma, q.v. 

Latin comma; Greek komma, a part cut off fkoptd, to lop). 
Command, kom.mdnd' ; command'-able, command'-ant, com- 

maod'-atory, command'-er, command'- m en t. To order. 
Comman'der-in-chief, plu. comman'ders-in-chief. 

French eommande, commandant, commander, comm^mdement ; Latia 
con-m^nddre; to give orders with [others]. 
Commemorate, kom,mem' -o.rate, (Double m followed by one m.) 
Commem'orat-ed, commem'orat-ing, commem'ora"tion. 
Commem'orative, kom.mem\o.raMv; commem'orable. 
Latin com [con] tn^tmSfrfirc, comm^m^&hllia, commgm^&tio, com* 
m^mdrdre, to call to mind with [some special act]. 
Commence, kom.mense' , to begin ; commenced, kom.menst" ; 
commenc'-ing (Rule xix.), commence'-ment (Rule xviii.) 
C" Comince " would have been better j but as um<U we have 
followed the French, and copied their error.) 
French eom/mencer, commencement. Corruption of the ItaL eomin- 
eiare; Lat. cum initio, with the beginning. 

Commend', commend'ed, eommend'-able, commend'-ably, com- 

mend'able-ness ; commendation, kom\men,day'^.8hun, 
Commend'er, one who praises. Commendator, kSm,men\' 

da.tor, one who holds a living in trust (in commendam). 
Commendatory, kom.men\dd.t6.ry, laudatory. Commen'da- 

tary, one who holds a living in trust (in commendam). 

(" Commendatary " is often spelt commendatory, but the 

distinction should be observed.) 
French commender to recommend; Latin com [con] menddre, to 

entrust one with [a commissioii], (ma.nddre, to give to one's charge). 

Commensurate, kSm.m£n\8u.rate not k8m.men'shu.rate ; com- 

men'Burate-ly, commen'sorate-ness ; commen'surable, 

commen'surably, commen'surabil'lty, comm©n'8ura"tion. 

French comiiMnsurable, commenaurahiliti ; Latin com [con] metwtc- 

rare, to measure a thing proportionate with [something else]. 

Comment, kom'.ment (noun), kom.mentf (verb). Rule L 

Commenf-ed (R.xxxvi.); commenf-ing (followed by on). 

Comment, kom'ment ; oom'ment-ary. A book of comments. 

Commentate, kom\men.tate, to m^ke comments; com'. 

mentat-ed, com'mentat-ing (R. xix.) ; com'mentator (not 

-ter), R. xxxvii.; corn'mentato/'ial, com'menta'tor-sbip. 

French comment ; Lat. eomm^ntdri, to write comments, eommerUdtut. 

oommeTttdrium, corrvmentdtor (from comminiscor commmtus, to call 

to mind many things together, meni«cor, ie., memini, to remember. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 121 

GommeTce, kom'merset trade ; commercial, homjmeT^ .shal (adj.), 
commer'cial-ly. (French commercey commercial,) 
Latin com [con] vMreor, to trade with [others], oommercMtm. 
Commingle, k&mjndn'.g^l; commingled (3 syl.), commingling. 
Old £ng. mencg{(m\ or fMng{xan\, to mingle, with the Lat prefix com-. 
It would have been better with the English prefix ge- ("gemingle '*). 

Oomminiite, k<^\mi.nute. To reduce to small pieces, to pnl- 
yerize. Gom'minut-ed (Rule xxxtI.), com'minut-ing 
(Kulexix.); comminution, hom'.ml.nu",8hun, 
Fr. coftvminviion ; Lat. com, [con] mlnuo, to break into minute parts. 

Oommiserate, A;^m.m^z^^.rat«, to pity; commiB^erat-edfR xxxyi.); 

oommiB^erat-ing (R. xix.); commis'erat-or (R. xxxvii.); 

commiseration, k6m\miz.S.rdy" .shim^ pity. (Double m.) 

Gommiseratiye, k8m.miz\i^.raMv ; commis''erative-ly. 

Oommiserable, kom,miz\^,rd.b% deserving of pity. 

French eommUSration ; Latin r4>mmls^dri, to condole with, com- 
mMfrdtio (mi$ireo, to pity ; miser, wretched, an object of pity). 

OominiaBary, pUi, commissaries, kom'.mls^a.riz. A person em- 
ployed to provide an army with personal requisites. 

Oorn'missary-general, plu. com'missary-generals, chief of 
the commissaries ; com'missary-ship, office of commissarv . 

Commissariat, kikn\mi8.8dr^ri.at. Commissary department. 
French eommissaire, eommiMa>^a£; Low Lat. commi55ariu« ; Latin 
com [con] missiM, sent with [the army], verb mitto, to send. 

Commission, k5m,mi8h' ^hun ; commissioned (3 syL), oonmils^ 
sion-ing ; cominis'sion-er, one authorized. 
Fr. eommisH<m; Latin eommissiOj (com mitto, to send with [orders]). 
Commit^, to give in charge ; commitf-ed, commitf-ing, com- 
mitt-al, committ-able (R. i., R. xxiii.); Commit'-ment. 

Committer, one who commits. Committor, the Lord Chan- 
cellor when he commits a lunatic to a trustee. 
Committee, phi. committees, kom.mif. ty, kom.mif.tiz. 
French comm^ttre, comiti; Latin com [con] mitto, to send together. 
CQnmiix% commixed, kom.mixt ; commixture, kom.mia/.tchur ; 
oommix'-ible not -able. (Not of the Ist Ijat. conjugation.) 
Latin com [con] miacire^ supine commixtum, to mix together. 
Commodious, kom.mo\di'tt8 not kdm.m^Ju8; commo'dious-ly, 
commo'dious-ness (Lat. commddus, convenient, suitable), 
oommodity* plu. commodities, kom.mod\i.tiz, wares. 
Latin commddXtat; French commodxti, a convenience. • 

Gonmiodore, kom'.rnb. dor. Commander of a detachment of ships. 
Italian comamdatore, a commandant ; Spanish comendador. 



1-22 ERRORS OF SPEECTT 

Gom'mon, com'moner (comp.), cGm^monest (super.), common-ly, 
com'mon-ness ; com^mon-able, held in common ; com'- 
mon-age, right of pasturing on a common; com'mon- 
alty, the common people ; CSom'mon-er, one under the 
rank of a nobleman ; Commons, provisions. 
House of Commons, plu. Houses of Commons. 
Common-council, plu. Common-councils. 
Common-councilman, plu. oommon-councilmen {not -sel). 
- Commonweal, k6m.mon-weeL The public good. 
Commonwealfh, plu. oommonwealfhs, kSm'.m(m.weUh8. 
French commitm; Latin commiinii, common {munit, tied to duty). 
Commotion, kom.md^ahun not k6.mo' .shun. Disturbance. 

Latin commdtio (com [con] moveo, to more together). 
Commune, kSm'.Tnune (noun), k9m.mune' (verb). Rule L 

Communed' (2 syl.); commun^'ing; commnnion, k^.mu\- 
ni.on; commu'nity; oommu'nicant (of the Lord's Supper). 
Com'munist, com'munal; com'munism, com'munistic. 

French commune, commwfuU, communion, eommvnisme, eommnnitU; 
Latin communio, communion ; communitcu. 

Communicate, A;om.mu'.ni. hate; commu'nicat-ed,commu'nicat-ing 
(R. xix.)> commu'nicat-or (R. xxxvii.) ; commu'nicat-ive, 
commu'nicative-ly, commu'nicative-ness ; commu'nica- 
tory; communicable, k6m.mu\ntka.b% commu'uicably, 
commu'nicable-ness, freedom in imparting; communi- 
cation, kom.mu\n%.kay" .shun ; commu'nicabiT'ity. 
French communication, communicatif, communicaMliU; Latin com- 
municdre, communicdtio (communis, common). 

Community, plu. communities, kdm.mu\ni.ttz. Body politic. 

French communauU; Latin commttnXtoi, the community. 
Commute, kom.mute (to exchange); commut'-ed, coramut'-ing, 
commut'-er, commut'-able, commut'-ative (Rule xix.) 

Commutation, kSm'.mu.tay'\8.hun; Commu^'tabil'lty. 

French commutation, commutatif; Latin eommutdn, to commute; 
commutdtio (com [con] muto, to change with [another]^. 

Compact, k5m\pact (noun); kom.pacf (adj.) Rule L Com- 
pact'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), compact'ed-ly, compact'-ly. 

Comi)action, kdm.pakf.8hun; oomi)act'-ible (not -dble). 

French compade: Latin eompactui, compact; compactum, a core* 
nant , compnctio, compaction ; compactilis, compatible (firom com 
fcon] pango, tup. pactum, to diire clone together). 

Companion, l(om.pan\yun ; compan'ion.able (not a Lat. word), 
compan'ionably, companion-less, companion -ship. 
(-ship Old Eng. postfix, meaning tenure, state, being.) 
Jrench eompagryion; (cum pennon, under the same flag). 



AND OF SPELLING. 123 

Company, plu. companies, kom.pa.ntz. A party, a firm, <fec. 
(** A firm " is contracted into " Co.," as " Smith and Co." 
French eompogmie (not cum panvt [eating] bread together, as is 
nsoally giyen, but cwm pennon^ under the same flag). 

Compare, kom,pai'/; compared' (2 syl.), compar'-ing, com- 
p§j<-er (R. xijf.) CSomparable, kom\pd,rd.b'l, worthy to 
be compared, followed by to (Lam. iv. 2) ; kom.pair^.a.b'l, 
able to be compared with each other, as " The two things 
are not comparable," cannot be compared together. 

Comparatiye, kom'-par^raMv. In a more or less degree. 

Comparison, kdm.pat'ri.sun not comparason. 

Latin cmnpardre (com [con] paro, to make or set things together.) 
(The "i" of comparison is indefensible; it is the conjugational 
letter, and transfers the word from compardre "to compare," to 
comparire " to be extant." We are alone in this outrage, wMch is 
a great stumbling block to young spellers. Latin comparatio, 
Itidian eompcurazUme, Spanish comparadont French compaa-aUon.) 

Compartment. A special department or part of a machine. . 

French comparUm^nt, bnt appartem^nt I (Latin com. pars, partis ) 
Com'paes, plu, com'passes; com'passed (2 syl.), com'pass-ing. 

French eompaa, yerb eompasser, to measure ; Latin com. [con] poAsus, 
a stride or pace in common. 

Compassion, kompasW.un; comjMkssion-ate, compassionated, 
compassionat-ing (Rule xix.), compassion ate-ly (Rule 
xvii.), compassion -able. (French compassion.) 
Latin otympasaio (from com [con] pdtior, to suffer with [another]). 
Compatible. kompaifd.Vl not -able (not of the Ist Lat. coi\j.) 
Compatibly, compafibif'ity, compat'ible-ness. 

French compatible, compatibility; Lat. com [con] pHSrs, to seek the 
same thing, not compdtior, to suffer the same thing. 

Compatriot, ftiJm.2?at'.r?.of. A fellow patriot. (Ital. co77ipa«no«o.) 
Compeer', an equal. Compare, kom.pai'/, to judge by comparison. 

"Compeer/' French compare: Latin compar, a compeer or equal. 
CompeF (to force); compelled' (2 syl.); compell'-ing, compeU'-er, 
compell'-able (Rule i.) 
Latin compeitl&re (com [con] pdlo, to drlre together). 
("CompelUxble" is quite incorrect, a« it vjould be derived from com- 
pellare, to add/ress or accost som^ one. It ought to be ''-ible;" and 
^' compel " would be better with double *' V) 

Compen'dium, plu, compen^diums or compendia (Latin). 
Compensate, k6m\pen^ate ; com'pensat-ed, com'pensat-ing ; 

compensator, komfpen^sador (not -ter, Rule xxxvii.) ; 

compensation, kom'.pen.sajf'.shuni amends (Rule xix.) ; 

compensative, kdmpen'.8Cht%v ; compen'sative-ly. 

Latin eon^pensdre, to make amends, compensdtio; French compenser, 
to compensate, compensation, compensatoire. 



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1^4 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Qam'peiA^'kSm.peef ; compet'-ed,compet'-ing; compet'-er(R.xix.| 
Gompetitor, fern, competitress, competitrix, or competitor, 
kom.pef.i.toTf kdm.pef.i.tress ; compef itory ; competi- 
tive, kf)m.pef.i.tlv ; compef itive ly, by competiiioii ; 
eompetition, k5m.pe.ti8h\un, rivalry in merit. 
Latin competitor, compitere (com [con] pifto, to seek with [another]). 
Comp'etence or com'petency, plu. com'petencies, 'tense-ez, 
CSom'petent (not competant\ able ; competent-ly (adv.) 
Latin (see al^ore) competenter (adv.), eompetens, gen. -tentis. 
Compile, ktm.pile' (to pile or get together), compiled (2 syl.), 
compfl'-ing. compfl'-er (R. xix.); compile'-ment (R. xviii. IT ) 
Compilation, kom'.pi.lay'\8hun, A bo<ik compiled. &c. 
French compiler, compilation; Latin compilo. compildtio (from 
com [con] pilo, to pile together. Our word "pillage.") 
Complacent, kom.play\8ent. Complaisant. kdm\pla.zanf. 
Compla'cent, affable ; com'plaisanf (French), courteous. 
Con»pla'cent-ly, affably; complaisanf-ly, courteously. 
Compla'cence, affability; com'plaisance' (French), courtesy. 
Com'placency, kom.play\8en,8y (same as compla'cence). 
Latin compldcens -centis (com [con] placirej, to please altogether. 
(All the French words [com'plaisanf Ac] are wrong. If from 
compldceo the -a of the last syl. should be -« ; if from compldodre 
[compldcant, to pay court to one] the -a of the last syl. should be e). 
Complain', complained' (2 syl.), complain'-ing. To find fault. 
Complaint. Dissatisfaction expressed in words. 
Complaiu'ant, a plaintiff. Complain'er, one who complains. 
French complainte, eomplaignant ; Latin com, [con] plangirt, rapine 
plandum, to bemoan with [someone about a grieyance]. 
Complaisant, kdm\pla,zant\ (See Complacent.) 
Complement, kdm.plee^ment ; compliment, komf.pltment, 

Comple'ment. That which completes or supplies a deficiency. 
Com'pliment. An expression of praise or civility. 
Complemenf-al or complemenf-ary. Adj. of comple'^ment. 
Compliment -al or compliment'-ary. Adj. of com'pUment. 
Com^plemenf-ing. Supplying what completes. 
Com'pliment-ing. Paying a compliment. 
"Complement," I atin complem^ntum (com-plire to complete). 
** Ck)mpliment," French compliment (from Latin complgre). In Italian 
oomplimento and Spanish complimiento, both meanings. French 
oompUment, complimefti; German complement, compliment. 
Complete, kdm.pleet; complet'-ed, complet'-ing, complet'-er (one 
who completes), complet'-er TcoTwpO.complet-est (superl.), 
complet'-ory (R. xix.) (Suffix -oryt l.at. -on[t«] added 
to adj.), complete-ly, complete- men t, complete-ness (Rule 
xvii.) Completion, kom.plee\8hun, finish. (Rule xxxiii.) 
French completer, oompUtement; Latin oompleo, complitum. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 125 

Complex, kom\pUx (noun), kdm.plex' (verb). Rule 1. 

Gomplexed, ko7n.plexf; complex'-ing, complexity, oom- 
plexedness, kom.plex\ed.ne88 ; complication, kom^pli.- 
kay'\8hun, a mixture of several things. 
French eomplexe ; Lai. eomplexus (com [con] plecto, to twine together). 
Complexion, k6m,plek\8hun. The hue of the face. 

French complexion. An old medical term, from the notion that the 
skin "embraced" or contained a hue corresponding to the humour 
or element of the body : If the element of the body is fire, the 
hnmoor is hiU, and the hue yelloto; if air, the humour is blood, 
and the hue red; if earth, the humour is hkuk-bile or "melan- 
choly,** and the hue livid grey; if loater, the humour is phlegm, 
and the hue of the skin dead white. What contains the "key/* 

Complicate, kom\pVi.kate (to involve); com'plicat-ed (Kxxxvi.); 
com'plicat-ing (Rule xix.); com'plicat-er (Rule xxxvii) 
Complication, kom\pU.kdy'\8hun, Intricacy. 
Oomplicacy, kom\pli.ka,8y not kom.pUk\a.8y, 
Complicative, kSm'.pli.ka.tiv not kom.plikf.a.tiv, 
Latin complicdre (com [con] plXco), to fold together, to tangle. 
Complicity, kom.pli8\i.ty. Participation [in guilt]. 

French oomplieiU (complice, an accomplice): Latin complicdre. 
Compliment, kSm\pltment. Complement, k5m.plee\ment (q.v.) 
" Present my complimenU " (salutations), not complement. 
Gomplimenter not -tor, (It is not a Latin word.) 
Complof, complott'-ed, complott'-ing, complotf -er. (Rule i.) 
Comply', complied' (2 syl.), complies (2 syl.), compli'-er, compli'- 
ance, compliant, compli'-antLy, compli'-able, compli'-ably, 
coropU'-ahleness, but coraply'-ing. (Rule xi.) 

Latin complicdre {com [con] plico, to fold with [you], to agree). 
It is not from compleo, nor yet from ompUiceo, generally given. 

Compo'nent not compo'nant. Constituent. (Latin compdnens,) 
Comport, kom.porf, to suit; comported, &c.; comport'-able. 

Ft. eomporier; Lat. comportdrCt to carry together (com [con] portoj. 
Compose, kdm.pdz^; composed' (2 syl.), compos'-ing, compos'-ible. 

Composedly, k5m.po'jsed.ly, calmly; compo'sednesB (4 syl.) 

ComiKWure, kdm.pS'ahur, Tranquility. (Rule xix.) 

Composition, kom\pS.zi8h'\oru A putting together. 

Compositor, k9m>.po/.i.tor. One who sets up type in printing. 

ComiKMser, kdm.po'jser. One who composes. 

Composite, kom\pSz.zite, Not simple, mixt. 

Composits, kom\p8z\i.tee. An order of plants. 

French componr, composite, composition; Latin compfnirt, eompo- 
titio, eompdtUor (cum [con] pono, to put together). 



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126 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Componnd, kom'.pound (noon), kom.pound' (verb). Bule L 
Compoimd'-ed (-ed forms a separate syl. after d or t). 
Compoiind'-able (Rule^xxiii) ; compound'-er. 
Latin componderdre (covn, [con] pondSro), to weigh out [different 
things for a mixture]. (Not from compoinSrOf to put togeUier.) 

Comprehend^ oomprehen''8iMe, comprehen'siblj. 

Comprelieiision, kdm\pre.hen'\8hun. (Rule xxxiii.) 
Comprehen'sive, comprehens'ive-ly, comprehen^'sive-Dess. 
Latin oompr^7ieru2^re, sup. -hensum {com [con] prihendo, to grasp). 
Compress, kSm^press (noun), kom.press' (verb). Kule L 

Compress', compressed' (2 syl.), compress'-ing. To press close ; 

compress'ive, compress'-ible (not -a6Z«),compress'ibil"ity. 

Compression, k8m.pre8h\un ; compressnre, k5m.pre8h\fir. 

Compress-or (not -er). That which serves to compress. (R. xxxvii.) 

Latin conqn-essio, compressor, eomprimo, sup. compresaum (fiwai [con] 

pr^mo, to press or squeeze togetiier). 

Comprise, kom.pnz€f (« between two vowels = z), to include; 
comprised' (2 syl.), compris'-ing, compris'-aL (Rule xix.) 
French oompris, past part, of comprendre; Lat. comprOumaum, sup. 
of comprehendo (cum [con] prehvndo, to seize hold of). 

Compromise, kdm\pro.mize not kom.prom\iz, coni'promised 
(3 syL), com'prorais-ing, com'promis-er. (Rule xix.) 
French compromia; Latin compromissum (cum [con] pro miito, to 
send forth with [a bond] ; i.e., to give bond to abide by arbitration). 

Compt, countt an account (nearly obsolete) ; comptroller, kdn.- 
trole'.er, an officer to control or verify accounts. 
Frraieh compte, an account ; Latin eomp&to [comp'tl, to compute. 
Compulsion, k8m.puV.8hun (force); compolsiye, kom.puV.siv; 
compUl'sive-ly, compul'sive-ness. (Rule xvii.) 
Compulsory, kdm.puV.sS.ry (adj.), compul'sori-ly (adv.) 
Latin compello, sup. comptUsum (cum [con] pello, to drive together). 
Compunction, k6m.pun¥.8hun, A pricking of conscience. 

Compunctions, k&m.py/nk^8ku8. Having quarms of conscience. 
Latin compumctio, cum [con] ptmgo, to prick with [remorse]. 
Compute' (2 syl.), comput'-ed, comput'-ing, comput'-er, comput'- 
able (Rule xix) ; computation, kom\pu.tay'\8hun. 
French comput, wmputation; Latin compuUbre, to compute. 
Comrade, kdm'rad. Companion. (French camerade.) 

From cam^gta, a chamber, one who occupies the same chamber. Our 
word has quite lost sight of the true meaning. 
Con-; also co-, oog-, col-, com-, and oor-. (Latin prefix.) 
Co-, before a, e, t, o, and h. Also before any letter with a 
hyphen, as "co-mate," "co-partner," "co-trustee." In 
Mathematics = complement, as " co-sine,' " co-secaut " 



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AND OF SPELLING, 127 

Gog., before nascor, nosco, nomen, with their derivatives. 
Col-, before I, as " col-lect." 

Com-, before h, m, j), and u. Also with fit and fort. 
Con-, before c, s; d, I, t; q, v,f (except "fit" and "fort "). 
Cor-, before r, as " cor-rect." 

Coil : As pro and con, "for" and "against" [a proposal]. In 
this sense, it is a contraction of contra (Latin) against. 

Con (to learn by repetition), conned, kSnd; conn'-iag (Bule i.) 

Old English cownlan] or eunnian], to know ; con, can. 
Concatenate, kSn,kaf.^.nate ; concat'enat-ed^ concat'enat-ing. 
Concatenation, kSn.kaf,e,nay'\8hun. To link together. 

(In Latin the " e ** of all these words is long. ) 
Latin eoncdtinclr€f to chain together {cat&na, a chain). Bule xix. 
Concave, kSn'.kdve. Hollowed out. " Bulged out " is con'vex. 
The inside of a Q is " concave," ihe outside is " convex." 

Con'cave; concaved, kSn'.kaved; concay-ing, kdn.kdve\in(f 
(R.xix.) Concavity, kSn. kdv\l.ty. The reverse is Convexity. 
(When put in opposition the accent is thrown on the final 
syllable, as glasses for short sight are concave', for far 
sight they are convex'. ) 
Latin eon-cdvus, altogether hollow ; eoncdvitcis fcdvtu, a cave). 
Conceal, k&njteeV ; concealed' (2 syl.), conceal'-er, conceal'-able. 

Latin wnrcStobn, to hide altogether (cieU>» to hide). 
Concede, k(5n.seed\ One of the seven verbs in -cede. The three 
in 'Ceed are "exceed," "proceed," and "succeed." (E. xxvii.) 

Conceded, kSn^see^.ed; conceding, konMedHng (Rule xix.) 
Concession, kSn.se8*,shun, Something conceded. 
French conoeder ; Latin eon-cSdo, to go with [you], to yield to yon. 
Conceit, kdruseef, vanity. Conceited, k5n.seet\ed, vain. (Rule 
xxxvi.) Conceifed-ly, conceit'ed-ness. (Italian concetto.) 
Latin eoncipfo, sup. conceptum, a conceived [opinion of oneself]. 
Conceive, kdn^seev' (to suppose, to comprehend, <fec.) ; conceived' 
(2 syl.), conceiv'-ing, conceiv'-er, conceiv'-able (Rule xxiii.), 
oonceiv-ably, conceiv'-ableness (Rule xix* ) 

Conception, kdn,sep\shun. Notion, impregnation. 

C" -ceives " take e first, " -Ueves *' take i first. Rule xxviii. ) 
Latin concipire, conceptio, (con caput, to take with [yon]). 
Concentrate, kiin\sen,trdte (to bring together); con'centrat-ed, 
con'centrat-ing (R. xix.); concentration, -tray'^jthun. 

Concentrative, kdn.sen'.tra,tiv; ooncen'trative-ness. 
Italian coneentrare, to concentrate ; concentrazione, concentration. 



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l?ft ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Goncen'tre, to bring to a point. Gonsen^ter, one who oonsentB. 
Concentre, k8n.8en\ter; concentred, k6n.8en\terd ; 
concentring, kon.8en\tring not kdn.8en\ter.ing ; 
concen'tric,concen'trical ; concentricity, kdn'.8en.tri8\%.ty. 
French e(mcentrer; Latin coneentHcus {eon i^rum, common centreX 
Conception, kon.8ep'^hun. Notion, impregnation. 

Conceptive, k5n.8ep\tiv, {See Conceive.) 
Concern' (noun), affair; (verb) to take interest in something. 
Concerned, kdn.8emd\ Moved with interest or sympathy. 
Concernedly, kon.8er^.ned.ly. Sympathetically. 
French coneemer;, Latin coiicem^re, to separate {eon Mmo, to sepa- 
rate and put together [what belongs to each]). 

Concert, kon'sert (nouD), kon.serf (verb). Rule L 

Gon'cert, a: musical entertainment. Concert^, to scheme. 
Concerto, plu, concertos, not concertoe8. (Rule xlii.) 
Concertina, plu. concertinas, kdn^^er,tee'\nah, <&o. 
Concert-ed, k6n.8erif.ed; concert-ing, kon.8erf.ing, 
French concert; Ital. concerto; Lat con certdre, to strive together. 
Concession, k6n.8e8K-6n, a grant; concession-ist, a grantor. 
Goncession-ary, kdn.8e8h\dn.a.ry ; concessory, kon.8e8'.8S.ry, 

C" C<mce88ion-ery " would be more correct.) 
Latin concesaio and concessum, a concession (con ddirt, to give way). 
Conchifera, kdn.kif .e.rah. The mussel, oyster, and other bivalves. 
A single specimen is a Conchifer, kon\ki,fer, 
Conchoidal, kon.koy\dal. Having a concave and convex 
surface, like a bivalve shell. (Gk. kogchS eidosy cockle-Hke.) 
Conchology, kdn.koV.6.gy. The natural history of shells, 
^nchologist, kon.koV.d.gi8t. One skilled in conchology. 
Greek kogcM Idgda, shell lore ; Latin concha, a sheU. 
CcnciUate, kdn.8iV .tate^ to propitiate; concillat-ed (R. xxxvi.); 
concil'iat-ing (R. xix). Conciliatory, kdn.8iV.l.d.td.ry, 
Conciliator, fern. concHiatrix, k6n.8lV .Ld.tor, -trix. 
Conciliation, k6n.8iV .i.d" .shun. Reconcilement. 
Latin conciliator, conciliatrix, conciliatio, coTiciUdre, to reconcile fetm 
cdlo, to call together, hence to unite or bring together). 

Concise, kon.8ue* (brief), concise'-ly, concise'-ness, brevity. 
Latin conclstu (concido, to cut small ; con coedo, to cut entirely). 
Conclude, kdn.klude\ conclud'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), concltid-ing, 
concliid-er (R. xix.). To determine, to end, <fec. 
Conclnsioti, kdn.klil'. shunt the end (R. xxxiii.); Condnsive, 

kdn.klu.8iv; conclusive-ly, conclusive-ness (Rule xvii) 
Latin eonclHaiOf verb contltido, supine eondOtum. to condude {tnm 
con Uaxuio, to shut-up altogether, hence to flnisn). 



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AND OF SPEILING. * 129 

Concoct', conooct'-er (not -tor); concoction, kon,hok\6hun, 

Latin eoncodio, eon-odcmo, to oook together, to conooct. 
Concomitant, conc(Hnltance, oonoomltant-ly, concomltancj. 

Latin conciMltanat -tantia {con edmUdre, to go often together^ 
Concord, kSn\kord (noun), kSn,kord' (verb). Eule 1. 

Concord'iEUice (not kon'.kor.dance). An index of words. 
Goaoord'ant, concord'antJy, concord'ancy. 
Concor'dat. A convention between a king and the pope. 
Latm Concordia ; eoneorddre, to agree (con eorda, hearts together). 
French eoneordance, concordant., ooncordaif oonoorder, to agree. 

Gon'oonrse, not con'cource. (Fr. concourSj a throng ; Ital. concorso.) 

Latin conctvrstis {con ctmro, sup. cursum, to run together). 

(This is one of the pvazles of spelling : course, source. BuLX. — Bvery 
toord beginning with " c" is follovjed fry "$,'* and every word 
beginning vyith "s" is followed by "c": coarse, corse, course, 
** con-cov/rse," " dis-courae," " inier-course" Ac.: source, "r«- 
tovn-ce" sauce, dec The ojUy other words in "-ce" of a similar 
sound are force, with its compounds "en-force" "per-force" "re- 
enforce" and divorce.^ 

Concrete, kon\kreet (noun), k(m.kreef (verb). Rule 1. 

Concret'-ed (R. xxxvi.), concret-ing, concret-ive (R, xix.) 
Concretion, kon.kree' ^hun. A concreted mass, union of parts. 
Con'crete (noun), a cement; adj. having a real existence, 
not abstract. White is abstract, white 'paper concrete. 

French ooncret, concretion; Latin concritvm, eoncritiOt a concretion 
(from con cresco, supine- creium, to grow together). 

ConCn|]i|ie, kon' .kuMne, A woman who aot^ as a wife. 

Gonciibina^e, k(^.ku\Hn,age; ooncnbinajL, kc^,ku\bXn.al 

Latin concubintu, a concubine {con c&bdre, to lie together). 

Concupiscence, kcn.ku^pis^ense, lust ; concn'piscent, lustful. 
(The -8C- is the Latin frequentative or intensifying prefix.) 
Latin concupisoeniia {con cupiscenSf ^entis, greatly desiring). 

Concur, kdn.kur^, to agree; concurred' (2 syl.), concurr'-ing, 
concurr'-ence, concurr'-ent, concurr'-ently. (Rule i.) 

Latin concurrens, -entis (con currire^ to run together). 
Goncnaeion, kon-husK.en; conclusive, kon.kus'Mv, 

Latin eonoussio, a striking together {con qudtio, to shake together). 

Condemn, kon.dem'; condemned, kon.demd'; condemning, kSn.- 
dem'.ing (not k6n' .demming) ; condemnor, kon.dem\er; 
condemnation, k5n\dem\nay'\shun ; eondemnable, kon.- 
dem'.na.h'l (not kon.dem\a.Vl)^ censurable; condemna- 
tory, kon.dem\na.to.ry, worthy condemnation. 
Latin oondemnatiOf eondemndre (con dctmnOt to otU|t,i]i a law-iuit). 



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inO ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Gonden8e^ condensed^ (3 syl.), condens'-ing, condens'-er (Rule 
xix.), condena'-ity, condens^-able, condensation, k^n'.- 
den.8ay''^hun. To shorten, to make more dose. 

Latin condensation eondensdre, to condense (eon denso, to make thick). 

f There are nearly seven hvaidred toords ending in *'nce" and only 
nine in "-nee*': viz., dense and condense; dispense, expense, pre- 
pense, and recompense ; immense, sense, amd tense. The larger 
part of the seven hv/ndred have as much claim to "a** as these nine J 

Condescend, k6n\de.8end\ to stoop (morally); oondescend'-ence; 
condescension, kon' .dejsen' shun (Rule xxxvii.) 
Latin con descendSre (de scando, to climb down, dis-moont). 
Condign, kon.d%nef, deserved ; condign^-ly, condign'-ness. 

French condignef appropriate ; Latin con dignus, wholly deserved. 
Condiment, kdn' .d\.ment. (French ; Latin condimentum, sauce.) 
Condition, kdn.disK.on; condition-al, condition-ally, condition- 
ary, condition -ing ; conditionality, k5n.di8h\on.aV\i.ty ; 
conditioned, kon.di8h'-ond; condition-ate. 
French condition; Latin conditio, conditionoMs (&dj.) 
Condole, kdn.dole'; condoled (2 syL); condol'-ing, condor-erf 
condor-en ce (Rule xix) ; condole'-ment (Rule xviii.) 
Latin condoUirdia, con dolere, to grieve with [those who grieve]. 
Condor, kon\dor. The vulture of S. America. (Span, cofuior.) 
Conduce, kiin.diLse'; conduced' (2 syl.), conduc'-ing, conduc'-ible 
(not -able), conduc'-ibly ; conducive, kon.du'Mv; con- 
dti'cive-ly, condu'eive-ness (Rule xix.) Tending to. 
Latin conducibilis, eon dUdfre, to lead with [you], to conduce. 
Conduct, kon\duct (noun), behaviour; kon.ducf (verb), to guide; 
conduct'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), conduct'-ing, conducf-ive. 
Condncfor, fern, conducfress; conduction, kon.duk^.8hun. 
Conductibility, kdn.duk\ttbiV\tty. Capacity of transmitting. 
Frendi conduction; Latin conductio, con dUc^re, to lead with [you]. 
Conduit (French), kon\dwit not kun^-dit, a duct. 

Latin eon duoo, supine ductum, to convey [by pipes, &c.] 
Cone, kone. A shape like a sugar-loaf; the fruit of a fir tree. 
Conic, kdn'Xk; conical, Adn'.{.M2 (adj.), cone-shaped. 
Conies. The geometry of conical figures. (All the sciences 
in -ic, except "logic" "mtusic" and "rhetoric" are plural.) 
(The "o" of "conic" in Latin and Greek is long.) 
French cone; Latin conus; Greek k6n6s, a cone. 
Conifer, plu. conifers, kd\nl.ferz; Coniferffii ko.nlf.e.ree, the 
cone bearing plants. (Latin coniis firo, to bear cones.) 
Coniferous, koMif-crus, cone-bearing; oo'niform. 
Glenoid, ko\noid (Greek k&nds eidos, cone-Hke). 

Conoidal, kdjwid\al; conoidic, kdmoy^dXk; conoi'dical. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 131 

Confabulate, A;<Jn./a6'.t*.Zate,to chat; confab'ulat-ed (R. xxxvi.)* 
confab'nlat-ing, oonfab''ulat-or (not -er, Rule xxxvii.) 
Confabnlatory, k6n.faV\u,la,Vry (Rule xix.). Gossip. 
Confabulation, kSn.fab'.u.lay^'^hun. Gossip. 
French confdbuUr, confahvXaiion ; Latin con fdbulaft, to tell stories 
or gossipy tales together, hence to chat, &c 

Confection, kdn.fek'jthun; confec'tion-er, confeo'tionery (not 
-aryy Sweetmeats, the maker or seller of pastry, <fec. 
Jfrench confection; Latin confectio, conficio, supine -fectum, to make 
with [sugar, &c.] 

Confederate, k8n,fed\e.rate^ to league together; confed'erat-ed, 
confed'erat-ing (R. xix.), oonfed'erat-or (not -€r, R. xxxvii.) 
Confederation, kiki.fed\€.ray''^kun, A league* 
Confederacy, plu. confederacies, kon.fedf .e,r&.8iz (R. xliv.) 

(In Latin, the first " e " of all these words is long,) 
Latin con fcederatio, a confederation (con fadus, a leagueX 
Confer', conferred (2 syl.), conferr'-ing, conferr'-er (Rule i.) 
Confer-ence, kon'.fer.ence (not ^ance, and only one r). 
C This abnormal word is borrowed from the French.) 
French confirer, eonfdrence; Lttlin confiro, conf€rens, to confer. 
Conferva, plu. confervsB, kon.fet^.vah, kon.fet'^vee, fresh- water 
plants. ConfervaceouB, kon' .fer.vay*\shus (adv.) Con- 
fervoid, kon.fer'.void, articulated like the confervae. 
Confervite, plu. confervites, kon.fei^vites, fossil confervaB. 
Latin conferva, from conferveo, to join together like broken bones. 
Pliny tells ns the confarvce were so called because of their efficacy 
in knitting together broken bones. (Pliny, 27, 45. > 
Confess', confessed' (3 syl.), confessed-ly, kon.fesf.sed.ly^ 

Confess-or (not^er, R. xxxvii.) A priest who hears confessions. 
Confession, kdn.fesh\on ; confess'ion-al, confess'ion-ary. 

French oov^essor, to confess ; confession, confessional ; IaUxi conftssio, 
confe$s6rviu, confiteor, -fesaus (confateor, to confess). 
Confide, kdn.fide' (to rely on); confided, kSn.fi\ded (R. xxxvi.); 
conf id'-ing, conf id'-ingly, conf id'-er. (Rule xix.) 
Confidant,/em.confidante (Fr.), A;on'./{.dan£'. Abosom friend. 
Confident, kon.'fl.dent (positive) ; con'f ident-ly, con'fidence. 
Confidential, kon\fl.den'\shal; confidential-ly. 
(In Latin, the " i " of all these words is long.) 
Lat. confidentia. confidence; confidens, -entis, confident : eon-fldgre, 
to trust one wholly ; French confideneCf confident, confidant, &c. 
Confine, kiki\fine (noun), a limit; k^.fine' (v.), to imprison (R. 1.) 
Confined, kon.find\ oohfin'-ing, confin'-er (Rule xix.), con- 

fin'-able (Rule xxiii*), confine'-ment (Rule xviii. f ). 
Confinity, &5n./?n'.l.ty, nearness. (In Lat. the " i " w Umg.) 
French confiner, to confine ; Latin conflnium, confznitas, confinalis 
(adj. ), con /ii»ir<, to finish with [some limiting boundary]. 



132 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

CoTLtrm\ confirm'-able, (not 'ible)t coDfirm'-Stive, confirm'- 
Stively ; confirm'^r, one who corroborates ; confirmat-or, 
k^.fir' .md.tor ; confirm'atory (the "a" is long in Latin); 
conflrmation, k6n\Jir.may'\&hun, corroboration. 
Lfttin con firmdre, to makje strong with [additional assurance], eon- 
jMrmdtio, cor^firmdtor; French conjirmatif, conjmaatien, conjirmer. 
Confiscate, kon'.Jis.hate not kon.Jis'.kate, to alienate ; con^fiscat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), con'fiscat-ing (R.3dx.),con'fi8cat-or (R. xxxvii.) 
GonfiscaUoQy kon' Jis.kay'^Bhun, A forfeiting to the exchequer. 
Confiscable, kon.fi8' .ka.b'l ; confiscatory, k5n.Ji8\ka45.ry, 
Latin cor^ftscdtio: eon fisoare, to confiscate ffi/mi8, the exeheq.uer). 
Conflagration, kon*jia.gTay'* ^hwn (not kon\fii.gay*' ^h%m). 

Lat. c<ynfl&grdtio, conjkiffrare, to barm vhoUy ; GMreeli pMifgo, to bum. 
Conflict, kdn'.flict (noun) ; kon.Jlicf (verb), to contend (Rule 1.) ; 
conflict'-ed (R. xxxvi.); conflict'^ing, conflictiYe, kon.- 
jlW.tiv ; conflictive-Jy ; conflic:(ijOn, kbnfilk'.8hun, 
Latin eonfiiotio, eonfiietuif conjiigdre, filgen, to dash together. 
Confluence, kdn'.flU.ence. The meeting of two or more streams. 
Con'fluent, flowing together. ConfluiL, a crowd, a flood. 
Latin eortjluentia, confiilena (conjltio, 9up. jSt^cum, to flow together). 
donfonn', conformed' (2 syl.), conform'-able, conform'-ably. 
Confirmation, k^.fir.may'^shun. The act of confirming. 
Conformation, kon\for,may^\8hun. The act of conforming. 
Confbym'ity, conform'ist; non-conformity, non-conformist. 
f" Conform" "conformable," are followed by " to" as "Be 
not conformed to this toorid " [Jkom. xii. 2j. *• Conform- 
ity" may have either "to" or "with," as " Jn conformity 
vnth your wish" " In conformity to your order") 
*' CSonformare se ad [to] voluntatem..," or "mentem meam ipsft 

cogitatione [with] . . conf or mabam. " (Cicero. ) 
Lat. covformdtio, conformitas, conformdre, to form like [something]. 
<kmfound' (to confuse), confound'-ed (R, xxxvi.), conibund'-er. 
Confuse^ confused' (2 syl.), confus'-ing, <fec. {See Confase.) 
Latin confuTUiUhre, supine /untm, to pour together. 
Confront, konfrunt^ (not kon front), to bring face to face; con- 
front'- ed (Rule xxxvi.), confronf -ing ; con£ront-er. 
French oon/rorUer, to confront ; L|it. confrons, front with [front]. 
Confuse', confused', confiis'-ing ; conftised-ly, kon.fa\zed.ly ; 
confused-ness, kon.fu\zed.ne8S (with -ly and -ness)} con- 
fusion, k8n.fii\zhon, disorder; confos-er, kon.fit.zer. 
Lati« 4!on fuTuUfre, supine fusuffi, to pour together. {See Confound.) 
Conftite', confut'-ed (R. x?xvi.), confut'-ing, confuf -er, confut'- 
able (not -ible), confut'-ant (R. xix). To prove wrong. 
Confutatioi^ k(hi\fu.tay'''Shun. Disproving, a denial proved. 
Li^tin eorkfutdiia, conM^e, ^ logue ^tgainsi [another]. 



AND OF SPELLING, r>3 



Congg (French), kdne'jkja'. Leave of abseiMJe, dischArge, farewell. 
Congg d'6Hre, kdne'.zja d^^leet'. The sovereign's request 

to a dean and chapter to elect a bishop. 
1?.P.O. (pour prendre congi). To take leave. (Written on 

cards on leaving home.) 

Congeal, kSn.jeeV (to freeze); congetOed' (3 syL), congeal'-able. 
OonjgelatictH, kdji\j^.lay''.8hun (not congealation), 

(The "a" of ''congeal" t&c, U a, great error,) 
Latin amgilatuyi eonggldbiUs, con gglo, to freeze thoroughly; French 
con^eler (—oonge-ler, 2 syL), eong4lable, eongilation. 

CciBgen&r^ kdnjee\n^r, Ofthe same origin or kind. Oongener'ic. 

Latin am giner, of the same Btook. (The -g«^ in Latin is short.) 
Congenial, kon.jee".ntal (socikl) ; conge'nial-ly, cong:6'nial"ity. 

Latin con ginidlia, genial with [others], cofi giniMlUu. 
Congestion, k8n.je8\tchun; congestive, kSn.jes'Mv ! con^est-ible. 

Lat eongegti4>) eon g^rire, sup. -gestum, to bring together, to amass. 
Congplomerate, k8n.gloln''.^,rate (one m), to amass; conglom'- 
erat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), eonglom'erat-ing (Rule xix), 
oongl(Hneration, hon\glom.e,ray'\8hun, a collection. 
Latin con^lOmer^ere^ to wind into a ball (grUfmiM, a ball). 
Congratulate, khti.grS,if .u.late ; congrit'ulated (Rule xxxvi.) 
congrat'ulat-ing, congrat'ulat-or (not -ter. Rule xxxvii.) ' 
Congratulatory, kSn.grdf.itM.t*ry. Expressing joy (R.xix.) 
Congratulation, ki$n.grc[fM.lay'\8hu7l, Expression of joy. 
Lat eongrdtiUdtio.congrdt'iU^ttor, eongrdiiUdre, to tejolcd with [you]. 
Congregate, k»n\gr^.gate (to assemble in a crowd) ; con'gregat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), con'gregat-ing, con'gregat-er (Rule xix.) 
Congregation, kUn/'.gri^ay'^ahvn j coogregation-al, con- 

gregationftl-ly, congregational-isni, congregational-ist. 
Latin eongrggdiio, con gr^gdre, to herd together (grex grSgis, a herd). 
Congress) fcon'.^rea«, a senate ; congressional, kbn,gre8\8hun.aL 
Latin omgrMWM a meeting; eoi^rrgdim', sup. -gresmm. to meet to^ 
gether {oof, grddior, to go with [others] ; grddus, a step). 

Congruity, kdn,gru\tty (fitness); congruous, kdn\gru.U8y &o. 

Lat a)nr~iM, «J«^7^^ jOck together like cranes (grus, a crane). 

"Birds of a feather [which] flock together," diactly m^ts the idea! 
Conia, ko.ni\ah. Hemlock and other plants of the same genus. 
Conelne, ko.nee'M. The poisonous alkaloid of hemlock. 

Grwk k&ntiOn, hemlock. (" Coneine," ko.nei.in, is not weU formed. ) 
Conic, k»n\lk; eon'ical, like a cone; conies, Aon'.i^te. {See Cone.) 
Conifer, A5.nl./er; ooniferous, ho.nlf,S,ru»; oonif^r». See Cone. 



134 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Conjecture, kSn,j^.tchur (a Burmise, to snniiise) ; coi^ec'tured 
(8 eyl.), conjec'tiir-ing, conjec'tur-er ; conjec'tur-al, con- 
jec'tural-ly (Rule xix.)> coiyec'tur-able (Bule xxiii). 
Latin conjeetHra, a guess, conjectHrdlU ; ctmjicere, to surmise {con 
jddSo to cast [two and two] t<^ether [to form a guess]). 
Conjugal, kon\ju.gdL Pertaining to marriage. 
Latin conjugalit (from wnjwe, a husl»and or wif eX 
Conjugate, k5n\ju.gate ; con'jugat-ed (R. xxxvi), con'jugat-ing. 
Conjugation, Wnf .ju,gay'\8hun; con'jugat-or (R. xix, xxxvii.) 
Lat. eonjagatio, conJUgdtor, conjUgdre {eonjugo, to foke together). 
Conjunction, kon.junk\8hun (union); conjunctiye, kon.junk.tiv ; 
coDJunc'tive-ly, conjune'tive-ness (R.xvil); conjunctnie, 
kon^unW.tchur, a crisis, a critical x>eriod. 
Latin conjunetio, con^ngo, supine •^nctvm, to join together. 
Conjure, kun'jer, to play tricks ; k8n.jure\ to implore. 

Con'jure, kun'.jer; con'jured (2 syl.), con'jur-ing (R. xix.), 

con'jur-er; conjuration, kun' .ju.ray'\sliun. 
Conjure, kdn.jure' (to implore); conjured' (2 syl.), conjur'- 
ing; conjur'-er, one who conjures'; conjuration, k5n\ju.- 
ray'\8hun, invocation to a prisoner to answer on his oath. 
Both these are the same word. A con'jurer is one who acts 
with a confederate bound by oath to secrecy. A conjwr'er 
is one who calls on another to answer on his oath. 
Latin con jwro, to swear together. 
Connect', connect'-ed (R. xxxvi.) ; connective, k5n\nek\tiv. 
Connection, a junction of substances ; connexion, a relative. 
(" Connexion " is not required, **connection '* anstoers both meaninga.^ 
Latin con necto, supine nexunif to bind together. 

Connive', connived' (2 syl.), conniv'-ing, connlv'-er (R. xix.), 
conniv-ance (R. xxiv.) (Ought to be connivence,) 
French connivence, conniver, to connive ; Latin connlvens. oonnivSre 
(con niveo, to wink with [the eyes], to pretend not to see). 

Connoisseur (bad French), kon'.ni8.8eur^. A jud^-e of the fine arts. 
French connaisaeur; Latin cognosco, to know thoroughly. 
CIt in swrprising that tht host of bad French words which disgrace our 
language should be suffered to remain.) 
Connubial, kbnmu'MM. Pertaining to wedlock. 

Latin connwbidlM, eon nubo, to marry together. 
Conquer, kon'.kwer not kon'.ker; conquered, kSn\kwerd; 

conquering, kdn^lcwer.ing ; conqueror, kSn\-kwer.or ; 
conquer-able, k6n\kwer,dJ)'l ; conquest, kon'.kwest. 
French conquerir, to conquer ; Old French eonqueste, now eon^u^^ 
Latin conquir^re (qucero, to seek, to acquire, to conquer). 

Consanguinity, kon\8an,gwin'\\.ty. Relationship by blood. 
Consanguineous, kSn.mn.gwin'\eM», Related by blood. 
Latin coneanguinftas, eonscniguXnSuM {eon sanguis, same Uood). 



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AND OF SFELLING. 135 

GonBcience, kSn'ahVence; conscience-less; conscious, kbn.8hS''S^; 
conscions-ly, conscious-ness (Latin conscius^ conscious) ; 
oonscientiouB, kon'^he,en'*^hu8tCOii%(Aeiri\ioxi^y, conscien- 
tious-ness (French ccmsdencieuXf conscientious); con- 
Bcionable, k(5n\8}mn.a.'b% conscionably, conscionable-ness. 
*'For conscience sake*' (not /or comHence' sake, nor for 
conscience's sake). " Conscience " has no possessive case. 
Only nouns personified, and those which denote animal 
life have possessive cases. 
(Note the "-»c-** which are the initial letters of " science*') 

Latin con sdentia, knowledge with [another]. Man being supposed to 
be a dual being, conscience is the priyacj of the "inner man" to 
the acts, &c., of the "outer man"; French conscience. 

Conscription, kon.skrip\8hun. Enrolment for military service. 

French eonscriptio; Latin conecripHo (which is incorrect), con ecriJbo, 
supine seriptum, to write with [other names]. 

Consecrate, kSn'^if.krate, con'secrat-ed, con'secrat-ing (B. xix.), 
con'secrat-or (not -er, R. xxxvii); consecration, kdn'.s?..- 
kray^'jshun^ dedication to sacred uses. 
Latin oottMerdiio, conseer&re (etm Mcro, to hallow with [saered rites]). 

Consecutive, kon^sek'.uMv. following in systematic order; con- 
secutive-ly, consecutive-ness (Rule xvii.) 
French eoneeeuiify consecutive; Latin oonsequ^Cj to foUow in order. 
Consent, k^.senfy to agree to, an agreement Consenf-er. 

Consentaneous, kSn'.s^.tay'^.n^.tis, consistent with; con- 
sentaneous-ly, consentaneous-ness (suitableness). 

Consentaneity, kSn.sen\ta.nee''.i.ty, Mutual agreement 

Consentient, kSn-sen\s?ie*ent; consentingly, kdn^sen^tingdy. 

Latin consensus, consensio, consentaneus, consentiens, -entis, verb 
eonsentiOy sup. -sensvm (con sentio, to think with [another]). 

Consequence, kUn' .sS.kwence ; consequent, kSn^se.kwent ; con- 
sequent-ly (therefore); consequential, k6n\se.qiLen" .shal 
(important) ; consequential-ly (conceitedly). 
French consequence; Latin con»e<meiiUia {con siquor, to follow upon). 

Conserve, kSn^serv (noun), a jam ; kon.serv' (verb), to preserve. 
Conserve, k5n.8erv'; conserved' (2 syl.), conserv'-ing, con- 
serv'-er, conserv'-able (R. xx.), conserv'-ant, conserv'-ancy 
(R. xix.); conservation, k5n^.ser,vay''^hon ; conserva- 
. tive, kdn.ser^,va.tlv ; conser'vative-ly, conser'vative-ness ; 
conservatism, kon^ser^ .va.tizm ; ^conservator, kon^ser^.va.- 
tor (R. xxxvii.); conservatory, kdn,8er^\va.t9.ry ; con- 
servatoire, kiSn.set' .va.twor (Fr.), a public school of music. 
French conserver, to keep ; conserve, fruit, &c., preserved in sugar. 
Latin eonservdtoTf conservans, con servdre, to preserve with [sugar, &c.] 



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136 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Consider, kSn.8id\er (to think about); considered, khn.sid\erd; 
consid'er-ing, consid'ering-ly ; cozudderable, kSn^ld^er.- 
aVl; consid'erable-ness, consid'er-ably. 
Considerate, kon,8Xd\e.rate; coDBiderate-ly.considerate-ness. 



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AND OF SPELLING, Yl 

CoDBOrt, fc^'^or* (noun) J fcan.»ore' (verb). Con'cert, concert'. 
OoDBort, "k^rCjiart, Husband or wife of a crowned head. 
Gonsort, kon^ort'. To associate together (followed by " with"). 
Concert, kdn'^ert, A musical entertainment. 
Cionsert, k5n^erf (to league) ; oonserf -ed, consert'-ing. 

"Con'sort," Lst.eofwors, -«OT^i«, a partner (con sors.same lot with [youl). 

"GonaorV,*' a Terb coined from the Latin eonsortio, partnership. 

"Concert," Fr. c&naert; Ital. concerto; Lat. coneertdre, to concert. 

"Ck>ncert'/' Lat. con certdre, to strive together, hence to plot. 

GonspicnoQd, kSn^ik'kU.tu (obvious) ; conspicuous-ly, con- 
spicuous-ness ; conspiciiity, k6n.8p>LkU\i.ty, visibility. 
Latin eoHspicwus, conspioftt {con gpeciOt to see with [clearness]). 
CoDBpire, kdn.8pire^; oonspired' (2 syL), conspir'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Conspiracy) plu. oons^raoies, kdn.spi'/ra^siz. Plot for evil. 
CcRiBpirfttor, kdn^p'(/i<ra.tor (R. xxxtii.) One of a conspiracy. 
French eontpirer; Let conapirdHOt eon ipi/rire, to breathe together. 
OoDBtable, Mft'.se^.&%at>eaee-officer. Constablery, constabulary . 
Constabulary, Mn.8tay.il.lS.ry (a^.) l*ertaining to, <fec. 
Constablery, hun' Md.b'Ury (noun). The whole body, &c. 
Constablewick, kun\8td.b'l-w^, A constable's district. 
Lord High Constable, plu. Lords High Constable. 
High Constable, pltt. High ConstaUes. Of a county. 
Petty Constable, pUi. Petty Constables. Of a parish. 
French constable; Latin cdmea staMM, superintendent of the impe- 
lial stables, then "Master of the Horse," then " Commander-in- 
chief of the army " (Obsplete). 

Constant, kSn'Mant (frequent) ; oon'stancy, persistency. 

Latin contiantia (con stdre^ to stand together, to be con-sistent). 
CoBStellaticm, k5n\8tel.lay^'^hun (double I), a group of stars. 

French constellation; Latin constelUUio {con atellay stars together). 
Oonstemation, kon\8ter.nay^'.8hun. Amazement with terror. 

French conttemation; Latin eonatemdtio (con ^emo, to cast down). 
Constipate, kifn'Mtpdte, constipat-ed (R. x^vi.) ; constipat-ing. 

Constipation, kdn\8ti.pay'\8kuny costiveness (Rule xix.) 

Fr. eon»Hpaiion; Lat. conatlp&tio (oun stipSre, to cram together). 
Constituent, konMitf,u.ent (a^j.), essential, elemental. 

Constituent (noun). One who is an elector. 

Constituency, k8n.8tl1f.u.en.cy. An entire body of electors. 

Lat. constUuo, part constituens, to constitute. A "constituent" is 
obe who by his vote ' ' c<^stitutes" or elects a member of parliament. 

Constitute, kSn'MiMte (to establish) ; constitfit-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
constitut-ing ; constitut-er, one who constitutes (R. xix.) 
Constitution, k6n\8t>lM'\8kun (frame of body, of a govern- 
ment, <fec.); constitution-al, constitution al-ly; constitu- 



ir,8 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

tional-ist, a lover of a constitutional government; consti- 
tntion-ist, one who advocates such a government. 

C^Gonstitution-al" should he " eoruHtution-eV The 
French have preserved the right vowel^ " constituHonnel," ) 
Fr. oorutittUion; Lat. eonatXtUtio (con statiUfre, to set np together). 
Constrain, k^Mrain' (to compel) ; constrain'-able (R. xxiii.) 
OonBtrained', conBtrainedly, kSn^train' ^ddy (Rule xxxvi.) 
Gonstramt, k5n.8trainf. Restraining influence in action. 
French eontraindret corUrainte; Latin anutringifre, to bind fast 
GonBtrict, konMricf (to bind) ; constricf-or (not -«r, R. xxxvii.) 
Boa Oonstrictor, plu. Boa Ck>n0trictora, Bore Kon,8trik\tor 

The serpent which with its coils binds its victim fast. 
Lat. eonatringo, supine eonstrietum, to bind fast. 
C!onstract, kon.8tntcf (to make), construct'-or (not -er, R. xxxvii.) 
Construction, kSnMrukf^hufiy oonstruction-al ; oonstniotiYe, 
k5nMruh\tlv, oonstructive-ly, constructive-ness (R. xvii.) 
French eonstruetion ; Latin eonstrudiOy constructor » construire, to 
heap together ; Greek 8tr66, 8tdr€6, to spread, &c. 

Construe, k(in\stru; construed, kon'strude, (not k5rutru\ kSn.- 
strudef) ; con'strii-ing, con'stru-er (R. xix.) To translate. 
Fr. comtrmre, to construe ; Lat. corutru^re, to build, to heap together. 
Consubstantiation, kSn*'Sub.stan'-she.a"-shun, the Lutheran no- 
tion that the body and blood of Christ are in union with 
the eucharistic bread and wine. 
Transubstantiation, the Roman Catholic notion that the 
eucharistic bread and wine are veritably changed into 
the body and blood of Jesus Christ. 
Latin con substantia, [in union] with the substance (i.e., Christ); 
trans stibstantick, transferred into the very substance of Christ. 

Gon'sul, plu. Con'suls, Roman magistrates. Consols", British 
3 per cents. Consular, kon' .sU.lar (adj.); consulate, 
kSn\8u.latey the term of a consul's office; consul-ship, 
the tenure of the office of consul. Consul general, plu. 
consul generals (not consuls general). 

Latin consul, consiuo, to consult (con nUo, te., si vdlo^ to examine 
and see if each one is willing, or approves of a decree). 

Consalt,k8n.8ult'; consult'-er; consultation, A;^'.suZ.ta2/''.s^n. 
'• Consulter" ought to he " consultoTt*' Latii\ consiUtor. 
Fr. consulter, consultation; Lat consuUdtio, consultdre, to consult. 
Consume, k6n.8ume'; consumed' (3 syl.), constim'-ing, consum'-er 
( K. xix.), consum'-able (R. xxiii.) To devour, to bum. 
Consumption, k5n.sump\shun ; consumptive, k5n.8ump\t%v, 
consumpdve-ly,con8umptive-ness (consumptive tendency). 
Fr. eonsuvner, to consume ; Lat. eonsumptio, consumir«f to consume. 



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AND OF SPELLIXG. 1.09 

GonBnmmate, kduMnn'.mate (a^j.) ; kon*,»um.mate (verb). 

Gonsmn'mate, complete ; consmn'mate-ly (Kule xvii.) 

Oan'^siiiiiinate, con'^smnmSt-ed, con'sammat-ing (Bole zix.) 

Gonsimmiaticm, kon',8um.may".87nm. Completion, (-mm'.) 

** Gonsmn'mate," Latin coruwntnaU, ttDj (summa, the sum total)^ 

"Con'sommate," Latin connmmdre, to snm together [all the fignres]. 

Gonsnmptiaii, Jl^.«t«mp'.«/iim ; oonsnmptiye. (See Oonsxaae,) 
Contagion, kSn.tay'jvn. Communication of disease by contact. 
Contagions, k6n,tay'.ju8y contagious-ly, contagious-ness. 
Fr. oontogion/ Lat. eomtdgio {eon tago=tango, to touch t<^ether). 
Contain' (to hold), contained' (2 syl.), contain'-able (Rule xxiii). 
(The spelling of all these words is indefensible.) 
FrendieotU«t»ir, to contain; 'LBX.wnMnire(etmtineo, tohold together). 
Contaminate, k6n.tam'.i.nate (tode^e), contam'inat-ed (R.xxxvi), 
contam'inat<ing, contam'inat-er (ought to be -or)y R. xix. 
Contamination, kdn.tam\i.nay*^^htm. Pollution, taint 
Fr. oontami'Mrf eontaminatum ; Latin corUdmfndtio, eontdmindtor, 
eofUdmincbre {con tamino, to defile with [association]. 

Contemn, Condemn, k6n.tMy kSn.d^' ('* n " not sounded). 
Contemn, to despise ; Condemn, to blame, to pronounce guilty. 
Contemned, kon.t^md\ despised ; Condemned, kdn.dSmd\ 
Contemn-ing, h6n.t^\ing ; Gondemn-ing, k5n.d^\ing. 
Contemn-er, i(;^t67ii'.6r, despiser; Condemn-er, ib^.d^'er. 
Latin eonUmn^e, to contemn (eon temno, to despise altogether) ; but 
eondemndre (con damno, to doom with penalty). 

Contemplate, h^' .tem.plate (not kSn.tewf.plate)^ to meditate 
upon; con'templat-ed, con'templat-ing (R. xix.), con'- 
templat-or (R. xxxvii.); contemplation, kon'.tem.play'',- 
shun, meditation ; contemplative, kdn.tim\pla.tiv ; oon- 
tem'plative-ly, contem'platiye-ness (Rule xyii.) 
Latin contempldre, to contemplate, eontempldtio, contemplativus, con- 
templator. The Boman augurs having taken their stand on the 
Capit'oline Hill, marked out a space called the templum. Watching 
on this space to see what would happen was caUed "contemplation." 

ContemporaneouB, kdn'.t^.pS.ray'^.n^.iis (not eotemporaneoiLs) 
(adj.), of the same period; contemporaneous-ly, contem- 
poraneous-ness ; Contemporary, plu. oontemporaries, 
kon.tem\po.rd.ry, }s&n.thn\po.rd.riz (not cotemporary). 
(** Co-'' precedes a, e, i, o, and h. " Con-" precedes c, d, t ; 

f. v» q ; g» J ; ^ o,nd s.) 

Contemporary of or with 9 If an article precedes, of must fol- 
low ; if not, with. " He was a contemporary of mine." 
" He was contemporary with me." In the former ex- 
ample ** contemporary" is a notm, in the latter an adj. 
Latin eoTUemp&rdneiia (eon iemptw, the same time). 



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140 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

C!onteinpt, kon.temf (scorn) ; contemptnoiisness, -temf.tu.us.ness. 
Gontempt'-ible (worthless); contempt^uous {tu.us) scornful. 
Oontempf-ibly (worthlessly); contempfucmR-ly, scoraftilly. 
"I gave him a contemptuous look" (not contemptible), 
"He treated them contemptuously" (not contemptibly). 
" He is a contemptible fellow," worthless. 
Latin wnUmptus^ disdain (eem Uimner*, sup. temptum, to scorn whoUj). 
CSontend' (to dispute); contention, h6n.t^\9hun^ strife. 

Oontentions, k6n.ten\8hu8 ; contentions-ly, contentions-ness. 
Latin conterUia, contentUfstUf contenoUfre to strain with [force]. 
Content, satisfaction; (Dis-content» dissatisfaction). 

Gontent'-ed, oontenf-ment. The negatives are " discon- 

tent'-ed," " discontent'-ment." 
Gontent'ed-ly, discontent'ed-ly ; content'-ing. 
Mal-content, plu, mal-conteiits, persons not satisfied. 
Non-cont^it, plu. non-contentfi, lords who negative a " bill." 

Those who approve of it are called " Contents." 
Contents (no sing.) of a cask, book, (fee; t.«., what it contains. 
Ft. content, contentement (8 syl.); Latin eontenius. eonUnirt, supine 

conientum (con Unio, to hold together, to contain). 
(*• Contentus '^ belongs to two verbs — contendo to stretch, and contlneo.) 
Contest, kdn'.test (noun) ; kdn.test' (verb). Enle 1. 

Contest, kdndesf (to dispute), contest'-ed, contesf-ing, 
eontest'ing-ly ; contesf-able (not -ible), contest^able-^ness, 
contestation, k5n\te8.tay'\8htm, strife, joint-attestation. 
French contester, to contest, contestation, contestable; Lat contestdtio, 
con testdri, to call witnesses to prove a case {testis, a witness). 

Context, kon\text. The part bearing on a " text" or quotation. 

French contexte; Latin eontextus, eon texo, to weave together. 
Contignity, kM.ttgW.tty. Proximity, contact. Cowper uses 
the word for " uninterrupted extent," " continuation": 
Oh I for a lodge in some vast wUdemess, 
Some boundless contiguity of shade. . . 
OmitiguoTis, kdn.tig\uM8 ; contiguous-ly, contiguous-ness. 
VT.corUigvM4; Lat. ooniigiiAile, adjoining (con tangO, to touch together). 
Continent, kon'.ti.nent; oomtinent>ly, continence, kon'.ti.nence; 

contineney, applied to man as " chastity " to women. 
Con'tinent. A large extent of land not severed by sea. 

Continental, kSn\ti.nen'\tal. t*ertaining to the Continent 

Fr. continence, continent, continental. Latin continentia, chastity ; 

eontinens -nentis, mainland ; contlndre, to contain or restrain oneself 

{con tenere, to hold together, like different lands on a " continent.") 

Contingent, k&n.Un'.jent (dependent), contin'gent-ly. 

Contingence, kbn.tin'.jence ; contingency, kon.tin\jen.8y. 
Fr. eoTUingetU, coniingenM ; Lat. eontingms (eon tanggre, to touch). 




AND OF SPELLING. 141 

Oonthmal, k6n,tin\u.al. (See next article,) 
ContinTie, kdnMn\u (to last); contm'aed (3 ajl.), contia^aTing. 
Gpntin'Ti-er, one who continues; coatin''iia'tor, one who con- 
tinues a book or poem begun by another ; c(wtin'u*f^ble ; 
CQiitiii''u-al, oontin'ual-ly, contm'uance, continuation, 
kdn.tin\u.d'\8hun; coniiDnoTiB,kdn.tinf .u.vs ; continuous- 
ly, continuity, k6n\ti.nu".i.ty, uninterrupted succession. 
Fr. eowtvuwiT, continuiU; Lfitin conUmmns, continuatio, coniinuus 
OfmtlnuitaSy continitdre, to continue. (Fr. continuel is incorrect.) 

Contort' (to twist), contortioii, kon.tor'.shun, a twist. 

I^tin corUortio or contoraio, con torqueo, to twist wholly. 
Oontour, k^'.toor' (not kon.toor^). The outline of the face. 

French contour, outline, turn ; Latin con tomOy to turn. 
CSontra- (Latin prefix), against, in opposition to. 

Pot C!ontra. A commercial term, used in ledgers, <fec., on 

the "credit" side : (is " Dr." (left side), " Per Contra, Cr." 

Gon'traband, illicit [traffic] ; contrabandist, kdn' -tra.hand'' -ist. 

CSoBtrabandista, kon'-tra-ban-dis'-tdh, plu. -t^. Smuggler. 

Ital. contrdbbando, to smuggle : Lat. contra hanwus, against the edict. 

Oontract, kdn'.tract (noun) ; k6n,tracf (verb;. Rule 1. 

Qon'tract, a bargain; contract^ to make a bargain, to shorten. 
GoDitracf, contract'-€d (xxxvi.), contract-or (not er\ xxxvii. 
Oontract' (to shorten), (^tracf-ed, contracted -ly, con. 

tracted-ness ; contraction, k6n.trac' .shun^ abridgment. 
Ccmtaractile, kon.trac\M. Able to contract itself. 
Oontract-ible (not -able). Capable of being contracted. 
Contractility, kSn-tractiV'-i-ty. Having a contractile force. 
Contractibility, kon-trac-ttbW-tty. Having a contraotibie 
property. The opposite property is dilatability. 
("Air" is contractible, but not contractile, and we speak 
of its " contractibility." Animal muscle has a *' contrac- 
tile " force, and we speak of its *' contractility," 
French eontraeter, to contract, eontv<tcHkf contractilitS, contraction. 
Lat. contractio, contradv^ (con traMre^ sup. tractum, to draw together.). 
Gontaratdict, k6n'-tra,dicif' (to gainsay) ; contradicf-ed (R. xxxvi.) 
C)ontradict'-er (not -or. Not a Latin word. Rule xxxvii.) 
Contradiction, kon\tra.dic'',shun. A flat denial. 
ContradictioiiB, kSn,^tra.dic/'shus ; contradictious-ness. 
Contradictory, kon\tra.dic''.to.ry ; contradictori-ly (adv.) 
French contradiction, contradictpire, contradictory; Latin contra- 
dictio, contra dicire, to say the opposite. 
Contralto, plu. co^traltos, kbn.traV .toze (Italian). Rule xUi. 

" Contralto" is a low female- voice; Soprano {so.prah\no\ 
a high iemale-voice. 



142 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Contrariety, plu. contrarieties, kSn',tra,rV\S.tiz, Antagonism. 

French oontrarieU; Latin eontrdrietcu, disagreement, opposition. 
Contrary, plu, contraries, kon^Ura.ry, -riz (not kon.trair^ry, <fec.) 
Oontrari-Iy, kdn'.trd.ri.ly; con'trari-ness, con'trari-wise(xi.) 
ContrarioQB, kSn.traii<ri.vs ; contrarious-ly, -ness. 
Contrariety, k6n'.tra.ri'\e.ty^ plu. -ties, -tiz. Antagonism. 
French contraire; Latin contrarie (adv.), contrdrius, v. contrdrio. 
** Contra'ry*' is more correct, but is not in use. Shakespeare uses both : 
**Had falsely thrust upon conira'ry feet.'*—K. J., iv., 2.) 

Contrast,- kdn'.trast (noun); kon.tra8tf (verb). Rule 1. 

Con'trast. The opposite. (Followed by to : " A contrast to...**} 
Contrast^. To show the difference of things by comparison . 

(Followed by with: "Contrast God's goodness with.,.'') 
Ft. contraster (v.), oontraste (n. ); Lat. contra stare, to set in opposition. 
Contravene, kSrutra.veen^ (to thwart); contravened' (3 syl.), con- 
traven'-ing, contraven'-er (R. xix.), one who tiiwarts. 
Contravention, kon'-tra.ven'\8hun. A thwarting, <fec. 
Fr. contravention, v. contrevenir; Lat. contra venio, to come against. 
Contretemps (Fr.), Tcol^n' .trd.tah'rC. Something inopportune. 

Latin contra tempus^ fcoming at] the wrong time. 

Contribute, kon.trW.ute ; contribnt-ed (R. xxxvi.), contribtit-ing, 

contribut-or (not -er, H. xxxvii.), contribut-able (R. xxiii.), 

contribut-ive, -tfrW .uMvJ oouixiibTiiion, k5n\tri.bu".shun. 

Contributaty,-t7ife'.M.ta.ry. Payingtribute to the same crown. 

Contributory, -trW.ti.t8ry. Contributing to the same object. 

Fr. contribution; Lat. contribHtdrius, contribiUio, contribuior, cot^ 

tnbHugre (con triiyao, to give with [others]). 

Contrite, kan\tnte (penitent); oontrite-ly, k8n.tnte\ly (adv.) 
Contritibo, JtSh.trish'.un (not -sioriy R. xxxiii). Sorrow for sin. 
Fr. contrit, contrition: Lat. c(mtrUus {con Ufrire, sup. tritum, to rub 
together. "A conUite heart " is one broken or bruised with mbs. ) 

Contrive, hon.tnve*; contrived' (2 syl.), contriv'-ing, contriv'-er, 
contriv'-able, contriv'-ance (R. xix.) To devise, to plan. 
Corruption of the French ooni/rouwr, to find out, to invent. 
Control, kon.trdle' (to keep under restraint) ; controlled' (2 gyl.) 
Controll'-ing, controll'-er (R. i.); but control'-ment (K ii. ^.) 
Comptroller, kon.trole\er. One whose duty it is to examine 
tax-gatherers' accounts ; an officer of the royal household. 
Comptrbller of the Pipe. An exchequer officer connected 
with the "pipe," or great roll. Both these words are 
now spelt controller, {tjow La.t.c<mtrar6tlildtor.) "Comp- 
troller" is computtu roluldtoTt keeper of accounts. 
Fr. eoiUr6le, i.ft., oohird rdle; Lat. contra rdtOius, a counter register. 
All contracts were at one time enrolled in a public register. 



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AND OF SPELLTXG, 143 

Controvert, h^^trhjvert^ to dispute; controvert-ed (R. xxxvi.) 
ControTerf-er, one who disputes a statement; ocmtrovert'- 
ist, oontrovert'-ible, controvert'ibly. 
(The second t in thete words is an error. The root verb 
is not "vert&re,** to tumy but "versdri," to dispute.) 
CkmtrovezBy, ^{u. oontroveisies, A^'.tr5.t;er.«iz,di8putatioD. 
Gontrovendal, kSn.tro,ver^.shal; controverBial-ly (adv.) 
Oontroveraial-ist A professional writer of controversies. 
Fr. eontroverse (n.), eontroverser (v.), eontrovers-ahle ; Latin contro- 
verna, eantrover«dri (not corUr<yvertire, to torn against). 
Contmnacy, kSn\tu.mdjty (not k6n.tu\ma.8y), obstinate resistance 
of authority; oontumacioaB, kSn\tu.may'^.shus; oontn- 
madous-ly, oontumacioufl-nesB. 
Fr. eontwnaee, eontnmacy ; Lat. contiimdcia (eon tum^re, to iwell 
afrainat one. Cont/Omax, gen. eontHmdcis.) 
Ckmtiimely, plu. contumelies, kon'.tu.m^.ly, kifn'.tu.m^.VU (not 
k6n.til/m^.ly\ insolence, affronting language. 
Go^tumeliouB, kSn\tu.mee".ltus; oontumelious-ly. 
Gontnmelioua-nesB. (Same root as " contumacy.") 
Latin eonHknilia, eontlimilifyus, abnsiTe {con tvmire, tee above). 
Gontase' (to bruise), contused (2 syl.), contus'-ing, contu£'-er, 
contusion, kin.tu\shun (Rule xxziii.), a bruise. 
Fr. eonbuaUm; Lat. eonbOMo (eon Umdo, sup. tOautn, to pound). 
Ckmiudram, plu. connndnims. A punning riddle. 

Old £ng. eunnan to know, dredm fun, " fun-knowledge." Like Vrtdm- 
enxft joy-craft, i.0., music, &c 
(VniTalescence, kW .va.les'* jsense. Renewal of health after illness. 
Oonvalescent, k^6n.vaXes" jseni. Restored to health. 

(**'Sc-** denotes that the action of the word Ij *' progressive.'') 
Fr. convaleseenee, convalescent ; Lat. con vdlesco (vdleo to be well, 
valeseo to grow stronger and stronger). 

Ganvene, ki^.veen' (to assemble) ; convened' (2 syL), conven'-ing, 
conven-er (Rule xix.), conVen-able better conven-ible. 

(The wrong conjugation, as usual, is a borrowed French error.) 

French eonvenir, eonvenable: Latin eon venire, to come together. 
Ckmvenience, kon.vee'.ntense. Something commodious. 

Gonve'niency; conve'nient, conve'nient-ly. 

Lat. eonvUniena, eonv&tientia {eon verOre, to fadge together). 
Goovent, kSn\venty home for nuns [or monks] ; conven'tual, 
(monastic) ; conventional, -shun.al, customary. 

A ** eonventional phrase or numner" i.e., in vogtie, usuoL 

A ** conventual prior" <fcc., the prior of a convent. 
Conventicle, ki5n.ven\ti.k'l. A dissenter's chapel (a word of 
contempt), it means a " little " convent or assembly. 

ConventicLer,^^.v^.t{.A;2^. A dissenter (word of contempt). 

French eonventieuU: Latin eon/ventic&lum{-c%U, -de, &c., dim.) 



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AND OF SPELLING, 145 

GoiiTiBoe' (3 Byl.), ccHwin'oes (8 gyl., R. liii.), convinced' (2 syl,), 
canvinc'-er, cooYinc'-iii^, convin'cing.ly, convinoible. 
Latin etmrnxiciret to conTinea ; same root-yerb as Gonnid (q.if.J 
Hence, Jno. viii. 46 : " Wliich of you convinces [convicts] me of sin?" 

Convivial, kon,vlv\%.dl (jovial); convivial-ly, convivial-ist. 
Gonviviallfcy, kon.v%v\i.aV\tty. Festivity, social indulgenoe. 
French c»nvivi(Mt4; Latin convUfidlU, convive, to live together. 
Convc^^ convoked' (2 syl.), convok'-ing, convok'-er (Rnle xix.) 
Convocation, kSn^ .vo.katf'\skun. A clerical council. 
French eonvccation; Lathi convdcMtio, con vdcdre, to caB toge^er. 
Convolntion, k6»\vo.lu'\8lmn, A fold or eoil. 

Latin convdlutus {conmlvo, to i<^ together). 
Convolvolns, kon,vdl\ vu,lus. The garden bindweed (-vu- not -vo). 
Latin and French convolviilua {-Minis dim.), the little twisting plant. 
Gonvcdvnlacee, kon,-v^¥ .vtir-lay'\8e.ee. The (»rder inclnding the 

above. The suffix -ace<z denotes an order of plants. 
Convoy, kdn\vo}^ (nooo), kon.voy' (verb). Bule 1. 

Con'voy, an attendant for defence. Convoy', to attend, <fec. 
Convoy', convoyed' (2 syl.), convoy'-ing. (Kule xiii.) 
French eonvoi; Low Latin conveio; Latin conviho, to convey. 
Convulse' (2 syl.), to shake emotionally; convulsed' (2 syl.) 
Convuls'-ing (E. xix.); convulsive, km.viiVMv; convul- 

sive-ly, convtQsive-ness (R. xvii.) (Fr. convulsion, &e.) 
Lat. eoTivulsio, from con vello, sup. vulsum, to pluck or tear to pieces. 
Coo (like a pigeon), cooes, kooz ; cooed, kood; coo'-ing (R. xliii.) 

An imitative word. 
Cook (to dress food), cooked (1 syl.), cookery, kookf.&.ry. 

Old English e6e or cf&e, verb cuea^an] ; Latin cdquo, nooA odqutis. 
Cool, coor-er (comp.J, cool'-est (super.) ; cooled (1 syl.), oocl'- 
ing ; cool'-er (a vessel for cooling liquids); coor-ly, cool'- 
ness, cool'-ish {-ish added to adj. is dim.; added to nouns 
it means " like," as hoy-ish, like a boy), 
Oid EngUeAi e6l, cool ; verb cd2[tan], cdl-nes, coolness. 
Goolie, koci'^Sy, a porter (East Indies). Coof-ly, dully. 
Goom, koom; Coomb, koom; Comb, kome, 

Coom. Refuse such as collects in carriage-wheels, <fec. 
Coomb. Four bushels (dry measure) ; a valley. 
Comb (for the hair), verb to dress the hair. 
" Coom,** German kahm, mould. 

"Cbomb," O. Eng., a liquid meastire ; a valley ; Gk. kvm^, » hollow. 
« Oemb '^ (for the hair), Old English mmO). 

CSoop (a pen for fowls, to pen fowls), cooped, koopt, 

Latin cApsk, a bait, a coop ; Old English cqfa, a box, a ehanber. 



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146 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cooper, ho(yp\er, one who makes tubs. Cooperage, koof^.er,age, 
the workshop of a cooper, charge made for cooper's work. 
Latin eupo, a butt or tub {-age something done, -ago to do). 

Co-operate, ko.op'.^.rdte (to work in unison), co-op'erat-ed (R. 
xxxvi.), co-op'erat-ing (R. xix.), co-op'erat-or (not -er 
R. xxxvii.), co-operatiye, kd.dp\S.ra.tlv (adj.) ; co-openi^ 
tion, ko^6p-^.ray''-8hun; co-op'erant (a^j.) 

French cooperant, concnrring, cooperation, eoopertr (verb); Latin 
coHp&ratio, codpSrdtor (co[con]oi>^rari to work with {others]). 

Co-ordinate, kd.or^M.nate (adj). Of equal order, rank, or degree. 

Co-or'dlnate-ly, co-or'dinate-nesB. Equality of rank, &c 

Co-ordinate, plu. co-or'diiiateB. lines, (tc, ranged in order. 

Co-ordination, kd.(y/.dtnay''^hun. Just arrangement. 

French coordination, coordonner! (verb); Latin co-ordindtio.eo-ordit' 
ndtlvus, coordindtus (oo[con]m-dinare, to arrange together). 

Coot, a water-fowl ; Cote, a pen for doves or sheep ; Coat (g.v.) 

" CJoot," Welsh cwtmr, a coot (cixiia, the boh-tail [hird]). 
"Cote," Old Eng. c6te, a cot ; Welsh ctot, a cot, sty, Ac. 
"Goat" ^a garment), French cotU; Italian cotta; German huiU. 

Copaiba, kd.pay\hah. A balsam. (See Capivi.) 

Copa], kd'.pal (not ko.paV). A varnish. (Mex. copalli, resins.) 

Co-part'ner (a joint partner) ; co-part'nery, or co-part^nership. 

Cope, a hood ; Cope, to vie with others ; Coop, a pen for fowls. 

" Cope " (for the head). Old Eng. cop, a cap or hood ; Welsh eobf a coat. 

" Cope" (to vie), Danish kappes, to vie with others. 

"Coop" (for fowls), Latin cupa, a butt or coop. 

Coping, ko'.ping. The uppermost tier of a wall (cope, a hood). 
Copious, ku\pi.u8 (plentiful), co'piouB-ly, co'pious-neBB. 

Latin cdpiSsua, c&pia, plenty («o[con]op{«, very rich). 
Copper. A metal, made of copper, to case with copper, a coin. 
Cop'per-ish. Having a slight taste or smell of copper. 
Coppery, h'6p\pe.ry. Containing copper, resembling copper. 
Latin cuprum, ie., oe» Cyprium, Cyprus brass ; German kuj^fer. 
Copperas, kdp'.pir.rSs. Green vitrioL (It ought to be eopperot), 

Fr. couperose; ItaL copparosa; Lat. cupri ros, liquor of coppw. 
Coppice, k5p\pis, A wood consisting of brushwood. 

Low Lat. copicia; Gk. kdptd, to cut, so called because the trees are eat 
to the ground every few years, to make underwood as cover for game. 

Copse, kSps, Same as Coppice. (See above,) 

Copula, plu. copulas, kdp\ii,lah, <fec The verb which unites or 
couples tiie predicate with the subject : viz., i« or w not. 
Copulate, kSp'.u.late (to pair sexually); oop'nlat-od, 
cop'ulat-ing (R. xix.); copulation, kdp'.tulay" ,9kun. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 147 

OopnlatiYe, kiip\u,laMVy connective, as ** copulative con^ 
junctions." Gopulatory, kdp^M.ld.to.ry. 
French copulation^ copulative; Latin c6pma, e^>ii^tio, edpHdailvuii 
V. cUpaiare^ to nnite, to couple. 

Copy, plu, copies, kop'py, k^p'piz* A transcript, a pattern^ 

Oop'y, copies, kop'piz ; copi-ed. kop'pld; copi-er, k8p\ter; 

oop'y-ing, cop'y-ist, cop'yright, cop'ybook, cop'yhold. 
Ft. eopie, a transcript ; Low Lat. c6pia, a transcript, v. cdpidre. 
Coquet, koMf (verb), to " play " love-making. Goqnette (noun). 
Coquet', coqnetf-ed (R. xxxvi.), coquetf-ing (R. ii., 6.) 
Coquette, ko.ket' ; coquett'-ish, coquetfish-ly (jauntily). 
FreiMdi coqueter (v.), oo<tuette, coquetteHe (eoq^ [to imitate] a cockX 
Cor- (Latin prefix), con before r. 

Coracle, kor'ra.kX a Welsh boat; Curricle, ku'/.ri.k% a carriage^ 
" Coracle," Welsh cwrwgl (cvorwg, a frame or carcase). 
"Curricle," Latin cwrricA/ws, a little carriage {-de or -cuVuBy dim.) 

Coral, kor^ral (a zoophyte, the shells conglomerated). 

Corall-aceous, k&/ral.lay'\8hus{B.diy)) corall-ine, kWfalXn, 
Corall-iferous, kbfralXlfXrus, Containing coral. 
Goralliform, kSr'rali.form, resembling coral ; cor'all-ite. 
Goralloid, kdr'ralloid; coralloid-al, kor^ral.loid\aL 
Greek koraUion eidos, coral-like. 

C'Coral ' ought to have double " i," or its compounds only one *'l" R.iii.) 
Fr. eorail, coraline, o^rallotde; Lat. c&rallium, odrcUlumf or curalivm; 
Gk. kdraUion or kourdlion, coraL 

Coranach, kor'ra.ndk. Lamentation for the dead. 

Gaelic comh rdnaieh, crying together. 
Corbeil, kor^.bel (used in sieges). Corbel, kor'.bel (used in archi- 
tecture). The base of a Corinthian pillar, the projecting 
knob (often cnrved) on which an arch rests* 

CorT)el, corT)elIed (2 syL), corHbelling. 

Fr. corbeille, a small basket, a corbel ; Lat. corhiUa, a little basket. 
Cord (string) ; Chord (of music); Cawed, past tense of caw. 

Cord, to fasten with cord ; cord'age, cord collectively. 

French eorde; Latin chorda; Greek (hordi {-age sidffix collective). 
Cordelier, kor^.de.leer^, A grey Mar who is girded with a rope. 

French cordelier {corde, a rope), one who wears a rope. 
Coxdial (n.), k5/.di'al. A cheering draught; (adj.) hearty. 

Cor'dial-ly, cor'dial-ness, cordiality, kdr^,dLdl'\i.ty. 

French cordial, cordiality (Latin cor, gen. cordis, the heart). 
Cordovan, kor'.do.van (not kor.dd\vdn), Spanish leather. So 
called from Co/dova (not Cordo'va),whei6 it was first made. 
Corduroy, kord'roy. A thick ribbed cotton for trousers. 



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148 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Oordwainer, kord\way-ner. A worker in leather, not cord maker. 

French cordouannier, now cordonniert a coi^aption of eardovanier, a 
worker in Goi'dQvain leatker. 

Core, Oorps, Caw, kdr. Core. (Lat, cor the heart, Gk. hear.) 
Core (of an apple), y. to take out the core ; cored, cor'-iag^. 
Cofps, kor, a body of soldiers. (Fr. corpSf Latin corpus.) 
Caw. The cry of a (jrow, an imitation word. 

Coreopsis, kdr'r^.Sp''.8i8. The tick-seeded sunflower. 

Greek hOrifi (f^8is, a bug in appearance [referring to thjs seed]. 

Coriander, koi^ri.a'nf' .der. A plant famed for its seed. 

Old English corion; Latip cdriandrum ; Greek kdriannon or kdr€6n 
(]cdri8, a bug). The bruised seed smells like that insect. 

Cork, Calk or Caulk, Cauk. All pronounced kork. 

Cork (of a bottle), v. Qorked (1 syl.), cork'-y, tasting of the 

cork ; cork'i-ness, havipg the buoyancy of a cork. 
Calk. To close the seams of a ship with oakum. 
Cauk. A sulphate of bary'ta. (A miner's word.) 

"CJork," German kork ; Latin cortex, the bark of a tree. 

" Calk," Latin calco, to tread or press (caZo;, the heel of tiie foot). 

Cormorant, k6r\m8.rant. A glutton, the sea-raven. 

French cormoran; Latin oorvus marfnus, the sea-raven. 
Com. Grain; an excrescence on the feet; to salt meat 

Com (grain), has no plural, except when the general crop or 
different varieties are referred to, as " Corns are better,*' 

Old EngUsh com; German kom; Dai^h horn; Latin granum. 
Com, plu. corns (on the feet) ; oom-y ; oor^neons, homy. 

Old English com; Welsh com; French come; Latin eomu, hom. 

Com (to salt meat), corned (1 syL), com'-ing. 

German komen, to com or salt meat. 
Cornea, kof.ne.dh. The membrane in front of the eye. 

French comie; Latin com^iM, homy (comu, hom). 
Cornelian, kor.nee\lLan. A chalcedony. (See CameUaii.) 
Coroeti kq/.nety a cavalry ensign; a horn. Cor'net-cy (-cy 
denotes " rank "). Cor'net-a-piston, a musical instrument. 

French comette.a, cavaliy officer ; comet, a horn ; comet d piston. 

The officer so called carries the " comette " or endgn ot his oompany. 

Cornice, kdr'.nXs (not comish, as it is vety often pronounced). 
The border round the ceiling of a room. 
Italian com,ice ; Greek kdr&nie, the end or finish of anytUn^ 
Comu-am'monis (not 'ammd'nis), the ammdnite (q.v.) 
Cornucopia, kof-nu.cd^-piMK Emblem of abundance. 

Latin comu cdpia, hom of plenty. Tt was the hom of AnMltb^A 
(nurse-goat of Jupiter) which Achfildtls gave tj HanHUte, 



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AND OF SPELLim. 149 

CoTollA,ko,rdV.ldh,h\oBsom; ooroUaceouB, kSr'.rSl.'ta^'.8hu8{a.i\j. 
of corolla) ; cordllet, kor^tolMty one leaf of a blossom. 
Ltititi cSroWi, » little cA)wii (dimln. of cdtMa, s trown). 

Cbrollasy, kor^Tdlld,ry (not ko.rdVM.ry nor koryoLlair'ry\ 

An inference which rises out of an inference : Suppose it 
is proved that matter was created^ then it follows as a 
" coroUary " that there was a creator anterior to the 
existence of matter, and that matter is not eternal, <fec. 
Latin cdTollSHuiA, a oonsectary (from cdrolla, a garland which was 
given invariably to an actor who had performed his part well). 

GoraHilla, kor^rS.nU\lah (not coronella). A plant so called be- 
cause the flowers crown the branches in a corymb. 

French coroniUe (Latin cdrona^ with a diminutive ending). 
Gorma, ko.rd\nah, a halo ; the upper surface of molnr teeth; the 
margin of a radiated compound flower ; a drip, &c, 

Goronal, kor^rS.naly belonging to a crown ; coronet, ko/ro.net, 
the crown worn by a hobleman ; a downy tuft on seed. 

Goronation, kor^ro.nay*'*8hun. The ceremony of crowning. 

CSoroneted, kdr^ro,neLedj entitled to weat a coronet; coro- 
nated, kor^ro.ndy.ted, crowned; coronary, kor'ro.nd^ry. 

French eoroncU ("coronation*' is one of the yery few words in -tion 
which is not French) ; Latin cdrOna, cdrondiiOt cdronditu. 

Gdroner, kor^ro.ner. So called because he has chiefly to do with 

" Pleas of the Crown." (Low Latin cordndtor, a coroner.) 
Corporal, Corporeal, koi^.po,ral, kor.pd\r^Ml (adjectives). 
dorporal. Pertaining to the body, bodily, of the body. 
CorporeaL Having a material body. 
"Corporal punishment," bodily punishment; not corporeal 

punishment (punishment having a material body). 
"Corporeal substance,'* "This corporeal frame,'* that is a 

substance or fraitie having a material body. 
" Corporal pain," pain of the body ; " Corporal injury." 
" Corporeal rights," rights over material substances. 
" Corporal " is opposed to Mental; " Corporeal " to 

Spiritual or Immaterial, 
Gmf'poral-ly^ bodily. Corpo'real-ly, in a material form. 
" He was present corporally i** bodily, in his proper pe^on. 
" the ghost ih Hamlet is shown on the stage eorporeal-ly,*' 

tiiat is, not as a spirit, but having a material form. 
Gorporallty, bodily state. GorporeUlty, materiality. 
Kaieigh spenks of the " corporality of light," it should be 

^corporeality," meaning that light is material, according 

to Newton's theory; but it would be quite cOiTect to speaV 



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150 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

of the " corporality " of the ghost, meaning his embodied 

stiite, or having his own veritable body. 
Cor'poral. The lowest officer in a company of foot soldiers. 
Gorporale, k<y/.po.rdl€. The cloth which covers the euchar- 

istic elements. Hence a Corporal Oath (or Gorporale 

Oath)y one taken while touching the eucharistic doth. 
(The spelling of " Corporal" for an officer is incorrect. It 

ought to be caporal. French cnporal; Italian caporale; 

Spanish caporal, a chief; Latin caput, a head (head of 

the men under him). 
"Corporal,'* Pr. corporal, corporaliU; Lat. eorpifrdlis, corpitralUas. , 
Corporate, kof'.po.rate, united in a corporation ; corporate-ly. 
Corporation, kor^.po,ray'\shun. A body politic. 
French corj^ration ; Latip corpdrdtio, eorpHrdtus (corpus, a body). 
Corporeal, kor-po\re.dl. Material, opposed to spiritual. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 151 

Gctf'Tespmid, to hold intercoxirse by letters ; oonespond'-ing, 
writing letters, similar; correiqwnd'-ent, one who cor- 
responds, something which " pairs " with something else. 
Gofrrespond^-ence. Intercourse by letters, similarity. 
Oonespond'ent-ly. In a corresponding manner. 
Oonespond'ing-ly, by letter; OoTresponsive,&o/.r««.|>Ofl^^«Ct;. 

Trench correspondcmu (incorrect), eorregpondant 'incorrect), v. oor- 
nspondre; Lat. cor [oon] reapondSre, to answer with or to [another]. 

Comidor, kor^,ri.dor (French). A gallery communicating with 

different apartments of a house. (Latin currOt to run.) 
Oonigendum, plu. corrigenda, ho7^,ri.jen'\dum, plu. tw/jri.- 

jen",ddh. To be corrected (Latin). Kule xlvi. 
Gonigible, kor^ .rijl.h% capable of correction. Incorrigible, 
hopelessly bad, regardless of reproof. 
French corrigihU: Latin corrigtbttis {corrigUrt, to correct). 
Oonoborate, kor.rdb',o.rate (not ko.rSy,e.rate), to confirm. 
OorroVorat-ed, corroVorftt-ing (R. xix.), corrob'orat-or. 
Gorroborat-Ive, kor.r5h\o.raMv ; corroborant, kor,r5b\o.rant. 
Corroboration, kor.rdb\o.ray'\shun (not ko.r5b\e.ray" jihun). 
(In Lat, "-ro-" is long; korjo'.bS.rate would be better,) 

French corrclborer, eorroborantj corroboration ; Latin oorrOhMbre (ear 
[con] rob^fro, to strengthen with oak, r6bur, oak>. 

Gonode, kor.rod^ (not ko.rode\ to eat away by degrees, as by 

rust. <fec.; corrod'-ed, corrod'-ing. corrod'-ent (not -ant) ; 

corrod'-ible (not -able), corrod'-er (R.xix), corrodlbiT'ity. 
Goirosion, kor.rS'jihun (not ko.ro'. shun), A fretting. 
Corrosive, kor.rd'jUv; corro'eive-ly, corro^'sive-nesB. 
Corrosibility, kor.ro\8i.biV\i.ty (not ko.ro* M.bil'\i.ty), 
Fr. cmroder, corrosif, corrosion; Lat. cor [con] rddire, to eat away. 
Corrugate, kor^.ru.gate, to wrinkle ; cor'mgat-ed (R. xxxvi.) 
Gor'rQgat-ing (R. xix.), cor^gat-or (R. xxxvii.) 
Cormgation, kor^.ru.gay'*,8hunf a wrinkling; cor^mgant 

(not corrugent, as many dictionaries i|<lve). 
French corrugaiion: JLat. corrugdtio, corrugana -antis, corrugSre (cor 

[con] rugo, to make into wrinkles with [frowning], ruga, a wrinkle). 

Oomipt, kor.rupf (not ko.rupf), to spoil ; corrupt'-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
oorrupt'-ing, coirupt'-er (more corrupt), corrupf-est 
(most corrupt), corrupf-or, one who coirupts (R. xxxvii.), 
fern. corrup'tresB ; corrupt'-ly, corrupt'-ness, corrupt'- 
iUe (not -able), corruptibly, corrupt'ible-ness, corrupf- 
ibil"ity (not /to.rwp'.ti.fciri./^/), corruption, kor.rup'.shun. 
Ft. eonuptibiliti. corruptible, corrupt um; Lat. corruptio, corruptor' 
fern, corruptrix, corrump^re, sup. -ruptum (cor [conjntmpo, to break). 



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152 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Gonair, kor^ait', a pirate. Coarse, Tior^^sir. Goniser, Mr-aer. 

"Corsair," Fr. corsaire (fr. Ttal corga, a race). The woid was flrat 
applied to ships of ch«se during war, then to the e^>tains who 
had "letters of mark," and ultimately to sea-rovers and pirates. 
"Ctoarser," comp. of COarse, q.v. " Courser," a swift horse. 
Corse, Goaise, Goune, Corpa, Cores, Caw«, Ganae. 

Corse, kor8€. Poetical for " corpBe." (Latin corpus, a kody.) 
Coarse, ko'rse. Bough, not refined. (Old Eng. g&raty Bough.) 
Coarse, koo'rse. A race. (Latin cursusy a race.) 
Corps, korzy plu. of corps, kar (French). Bodies- of s^^diers. 
Cores, korz, plu. of core. Hearts of apples, (fee. (Latin cor.) 
Caws, korZy 3rd per. sing, of caw. Applied to the cry of crows. 
Cause, korz. The reason or motive. (Latin catua, a cause.) 
Corset, Cosset, Corslet, kor^set, kos'^et, kors\let. 

Corset (Fr). A bodice for women (corps, a body, and -«t, dim.) 

Cosset. A pet (Old Eng. eos, a kiss, a little thing for kisses). 

Corslet. A little cuirass (Fr. corselet, corps, a body, -let, dim). 

COTsned, kor^^ned. A piece of consecrated bread used for an ordenl. 

Old English cormcede cars sncsd curse morsel The person under trial 

said, " May this morsel prove a curse if I am gi^ty, and tnm to 

wholesome nourishment if I am innocent" 

Cortege, kor^.taje\ A train of attendants. (French cort^e.) 

Latin corptu Ugire, to eover the body, a body-gaaid. 
Cortes, kof^.t^z (Spanish). The parliament of Spain or Portvgal. 

Spanish corie, a resident of a town, the representatives of towns. 
Coruscate, kdr'.its.kate, to glisten ; cor'nscat-^ (Bule xxxvi.), 
oor'oscat-ing (B. xix.); coruscation, k6r\tu.kay''^hun. 
French ooruseaiion; Latin oSruscaUo^ cdncsoare, to glisten, to flash. 
Corvet or Corvette, kor.vet'. A sloop of war. (French corvette.) 

Latin eorbUa, a hoy ; corhltdre, to freight a ship. 
CorylacesB, k5r\ri.lay''.se.e. An order of plants, including the 
oak, beech, chestnut, nnd liazel. 
Latin coryltu; Greek kdrHWs, a hazel (-oceo; denotes an "Order'^. 
CoTjrmh, ko.rimb, a bunch or cluster; corymbiated, k5.rin^'.bi.. 
af.ted (not corymbated), having berries or blossoms in 
clusters; corymbiferous, kfi.rim.bif\^ru8, bearing clns- 
ters; corymbose, ko.rim'.bose (ttd^.) 
Latin cdrymh^er, a berry-bearer, like ivy, cdr^mbua, a dusta^. 
Oreek korumbos, a clnater of fruit or ftcM^ers (ibdrus, a head> 
Co-seoant, ko'-se^'.kant. The secant of the complemental arc. 
CoHsine. The sine of the coMiplemental are. 
Latin aiksana, gen. sifcantis, cutting Sinus, a curve or b«y. 
Cosey. Should be cosy, adv. coai-ly, kd\zy, ko'.zi.ly. 

{The adv. " cosily " cannot be formed fi-om **eo8ey.'* H xiii.) 



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AND OF SPELLING, l/iS 

Goametio, hik,me1f .ie. A prei)aration for beaudfyiug the face by 
removing freckles, &c. Also an adj. 
Qk. UfanUtikds, a beautifyer ; kdsmid, to adorn ; Fr. cosmetique. 
CoBsnogonj, Cosmography, Cosmology, Ctoology, Geography. 
OoBmogmiy, kS8jm6^.o.ny, An "a priori" theory of the 
world's origin. (Gk. kBsmos gdnS, the world's generation. ) 
Gen. L is the Bible theory of the world's origin. 
Cfeology, jee^M.6.jy. An " a posteriori " view of the wdrM's 
origin. It explains from known facts, how the rocks, 
&G,t of the earth have been produced. 
Greek g6 grapM, a description of the earth, in detail 
Cosmography, ko8.m6g'.ra.fy. A description of the struc- 
ture, figure, and order, of the world, the relation of its 
parts, and how to represent them on paper. 
Greek kdsmds graphS, description of the earth, as a whole. 
Cosmology, k^8.m6V.o,jy, A treatise on the elements of the 
earth, the laws of nature, and the modifications of ma- 
terial things. (Greek kdsmds Wgds, treatise of the world.) 
Geography, jedg\ra.fy. A description of the surface of 

the earth, its countries, inhabitants, and productions. 
Greek g6 grapM, description of the earth in detail. 
FhysicEil Gepgraphy treats of climates, elevations, configu- 

ratioDS, influence of coast, tides, winds, &q, 
Cosmeg^ony (v.«.), cosmog^nist. A writer of cosmogony. 
CosiiM>''graphy {v,8.\ cosmog'rapher, a writer of cosmography ; 
cosmographical, kd^.mograf'A.kal; coflmographioal-ly. 
Cosmology {see above) cosmologist, a writer of cosmology ; 
cosmologioal, kSs.mo.lSf.i.kdl; cosmologfcal-ly. 
Cosmopolite, kos.mop^o.lite, A citizen of the world. 
Cosmopolitan, kSs^mo.jpSV'.i.tan (adj.) 
Cos'moporitan-ism. A system which regards man (regard- 
less of nationality) as a citizen of the world. 
Qreekkdsmds pdliUs, citizen of the world {-iam^ doctrine, system). 
Gosmorama, j^lu, cosmoramas, kds\mo.rdh'\7ndh, plu. -mds, A 
representation of the world in large panoramic pictures. 
Cosmoramic, kd8\mo,ram'\ik. Pertaining to the above. 
Greek kdsmds hordma, a view of the world. 

The world considered as a whole. The woifd means 
the "beanty of arrangement," and was first applied to 
creation by Pythagoras. Gos'mioal, cos'mical-ly. 
Gveek kdsmds, the world ; kdsm^o, to arrange. 

t kds\sak. One of the Cossacks; a Bussian tribe. 
(Towof, a pet lamb, brought up by hand. Corset, a bodice {q.v.) 
(Hd Boi^Mi OM and -e£ dim. A litUe thing to h4 kissed. 



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ir,4 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cost, past cost, past part, cost. Coast, kdste (of the sea). 

Costly, kSsf.ly ; costli-ness (R. xi. ), expensiveness. 

Ital. costo (n.), expense ; costare (v.); Lat. consto, to co<t. (We say, 
" What did it stand you in?" [cost]; con sto, to stand.) 

Costermonger, kbs^-ter.mun'-ger. Corruption of costard-monger, 
a seller of " costards ; " that is, apples. 
Old English costard, a species of apple ; monger, a dealer. 
Costive, kos'Mv^ contraction of "con'stipative'*; coB'tiTe-ly, 
cos'tlve-ness, having the bowels con'stipated. 
Latin constlpo, to cram close together {con stipo, to stuff together). 
Costmne, kSs.titme' (French). National si yle of dress. 
Cosy, feo'.sy, snug and comfortable. Cosi-ly, k^MAy, snugly. 

Scotch cosU. Old English cos, a kiss (not cosey). 
Cot, Cote, Coat, Coot, koty kote, kMe, koot. 

Cot, a cottage ; an infant's bed, <&c. Cott-ar, a cottager (K. i.) 
Cote. A pen for sheep, doves, &c., called sheepcote, &c. 
Coat. A raiment for men or boys. (Fr. cotte, Ital. cotta.) 
Ccot. A small black water fowl. (Welsh cwtiar, a coot) 
Old English c6t or c6ts, a cottage, a bed, a pen. 
Co-tangent. The tangent of the complement of an arc. {See Co-.) 
Cotemporary, cotemporaneous. {See Contemporary.) 
Cotillon, koMV.ydn. The "petticoat" dance, so called because 
ladies hnd to hold up their gown and show their petticoat. 
French cotillon, a petticoat ; a dance. 
Cottage, kdf.tage a peasant's house. Coftag-er, coftier, kSlf,- 
ti.er, a squatter, an independent peasant (Obsolete). 
Low Latin coUagium, a cottage ; cottarius, a cottager. 
Cotton, kof.% thread made from the cotton plant, a f ibric made 
of cotton ; cotton-y, containing cfotton, feeling like cotton. 
Cottons, cotton threads, cotton fabrics. Cotton (verb), to 
cling to a person fondly, as cotton clings to one's clothes. 
French coton, verb cotonner; Arabic al goton, the cotton-plant. 
Cotyledon, k6f-l.lee^^-don. The seminal leaf of plants which 
first appears above ground, and forms part of the embryo. 
Dicotyledons, di'-. Plants with two seminal leaves. 
Monocotyledons, mSn^-o-. Plants with one cotyledon. 
Acotyledons, a'-. Plants without a seminal leaf. 
Lat. cotyledon, the hollow of the huckle-bone ; Gk. IcdtHUd/On, a socket. 
Coach, khwch (n.), a sofa ; (v.) to hi«le, to fix a spear in its rest; 
oonched (1 syl.), couch'-ing, couch-er, couch-ant; kowch'- 
ant or koo'^shong (in Her.) lying down with head raised. 
Fr. cowhe, a bed ; eoucher (v.), coii,chant; Lat ool [con] locdre, to lay. 



AND OF SPELLING, 155 

Cough, h!6f{n. and v.); coughed, Wft; cough-ing, kof.ing. 

There are twenty-five words ending in -ough, with eight 
distinct sounds,— viz., o&, off, uf, up; ow, 5Wy oo, er. 
Only two (" cough " and " trough ") have the sound of off. 
These are both native words, coh* and troh, guttural 
(Not one of the twenty-Jive words have any right to the 
diphthong ^^ou^ and if the original vowels had been pre- 
served much of the present absurdity of pronunciation 
would have. been avoided.) (Rule xliv.) 
Old English eohh\ contraction of cohettan (=A»/*lan), to cough. 

Gould, kood (to rhyme with "good"), past tense of Can, "to be 
able," "to know how," never an auxiliary, but it stanHs 
in regimen with other words without to between them : 
as "I could write." Here write is infinitive mood, being 
the latter of two verbs in regimen. 
Our word " could" is a blunder. The Old Eng. cunnlan] 
" to know how to do a thing," makes can in the present 
tense, and c&the in the past; but the verb ciithlian'\ "to 
make known," has cathode for the past tensCy contracted 
to cu*d our " could " (Z interpolated). 

Council, Counsel, Councillor, Counsellor. 

Coun'ciL Anassemblymet for consultation. (Lat.conc¥2wm.) 
Coun'seL Advice, a pleader. (Latin consilium.) 
Coun''cill-or. A member of a council. (Rule iii. -ix.) 
Gounsell-or. One who gives advice, a barrister. (R. iii. -il.) 
Goun'selled (2 syl.), advised ; coun'sell-ing, advising. 
Council-hoard, plu. council -beards. 
(E^cumenlcal council, plu. (E'cumenlcal councils. 

The distinction may be remembered thus : Council is 
concilio, con calo, to call [the board] together ; but counsel 
is consiilo, to consult. You consult a " counsellor," you 
call together " councillors.** 

Count, a foreign title, fern, countless. We retain the feminine, 

but have substituted our native word "earl" for count. 

Countless, plu. count'esses, poss. countess's, plu. countesse8\ 

Count-y, plu^ counties, coun\t%z. We have retained this 

word, and also our native word " shire," [a count's] share. 

Italian conte; French compte; Latin c&mes, gen. odmUis, a companion 
of the chief or leader ; comitatus, a county or share of the cUmes. 

Count, to reckon; counter, one who counts, base money to 
assist in reckoning, a shop table where accounts are paid; 
(adv.) the wrong way, contrary to ; a prefix. 

ItaUan eonta/re; French compter; Latin comput&re, to compute, con- 
tracted to eomp't, and corrupted into count. 



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156 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Counteract, kavm'-terMcf, To frastrate, to act contrary to. 

L«tin coKtra ago, supine actum, to act in opposition to. 
Gotinterbalanoe, hovm'-Ur.hdV-ance. (Only one I in baltoce.) 

Latin contra bUan^ [balance] against balance. 
Counterfeit, kown'-ter.feet (noun), hown'-ter.fit (verb); 

oounterfeit-er, kown'-ter.fiter; counterfeit-ed(R.xxxvi.) 

Latin contra fieirt, supine feetum [facio] to make against Daw], to 
forge, to imitate without authority or right. 

Counterfoil, kown'-ter.foiL . Part of a check kept by the drawer. 

Latin contra fdlium, the corresponding leaf. 
Couatennand, kown^'ter.mdnd\ To withdraw a command. 

Latin contra mando, to command the opposite [of a commai^]. 
Countennarch, kovm^-ter.march\ To march back again. 

Low Latin contra marchio, to march in the opposite direction. 
Countermine, kown^-ter.mine; coun'termined'^ (3 syl.), 

coun'termin'^-ing, conn'termin"-er. To dig a gallery 
underground in search of an enemy's mine. 

Low Latin contra mlnero, to make a mine in the contrary direction. 

Counterpane, kown'-ter-pain, A bed quilt 

A corruption of the Latin culclta puncta, a quilt worked in a pattern. 
]p^ench couftepointe, a counterpane. 

Counterpoise, kottnf-ter.poyz, to counterbalance ; coun'terpoiaed 
(3 syl.), coun'terpois-ing (Rule xix.) 

Latin contra penso, to weigh against [a given wteight] ; French 4onire 
poise,— i.e., poids, [weightsj agaiuht weights. (See Avoirdupoise.) 

Countersign, kown^-ter.sine, lo pign a document in attestation 
of a signature; countersignature, kown'-ter.8ig'\nd.tchur; 
countersignatories, kovmf-terMg'^-n&t^.riz. 
Latin corUra tignO, to sign against [another signature]. 

Countess, plu. coun'tesses, koum'.tesst kown'tess.tz, poes. sing, 
countess's, kown'.tessAz ; poss. plu. countesses', kown\- 
tess.ez. The wife of an earl or of a foreign count. 
Italian contessa; French comtesse; Low Latin comitissa. 

Country, plu. countries (R. xi.), kun\try, kun\trlz (Fr. contrie) ; 
coun'tryman, fern, coun'trywom'an, plu. coun'trymen, 
countrywomen, -wlm\en; poss. sing, -man^s, -woman's, 
po88, plu. -men's, -women's, -wim'.enz. 
(Obs. The y is not changed to i in theee words. Bule xL) 

Countrify, kun.tri.fy (R. xi.), to give the air and mien of a 
rustic ; countrified, kun\tri.fide, having the air and tdien 
of a rustic. (Latin con terray land contiguous [to a town].) 
County, plu. counties (R. xi.), kown'.ty, kovm\tiz» 

Norman French oovmU, French eomU: Latin oomiUt^, a county. 




AND OF SPELLING. l')? 

Conp (Fr.), koa, a stroke. Coup6 (Fr.), koo.pay\ part of a coach. 
Coup d*6tat, koo' .da-ta'/ , A sudden raid on political foes. 
Gonp-de-grace, koo'd\grds. The victor's last blow. 
Ooup-demaln, koo'd\mdh'n. A sudden attack on a fort. 
Goup-d*oeilf koo\dy'*e. A comprehensive view of a scene. 
Ckmp-de-aoleil, koo*d\9d-lay"e. A sun-slroke. 
Goup6 (Fr.), koo.pay\ The first division of a stage coftch, a 
private railway carriage furnished with only one bench. 
Frenob eouper, to cut. A part cut off for travellers. 
Couple, kiipH, a pair, to link together; coupled, kupWd; 
coupling, kup'.ling, (Fr. couple; Lat. cdpUla, a couple.) 
Coupon, koo\p<me. The part of a bond presented for a dividend. 
Fr. eouper, to cut off ; because thej are cut off am the claim falls due. 
Courage, kUt'rcLge, bravery ; courageous, ko.ray'.jUs ; 

coura'geouB-ly, coura'geQUfi-nesa, boldness of heart 
Frenoh courage, oowagewe; Latin cor ago, to move the heart. 
Courant, Currant, Cunent, koo'.rdh'n, kw/rant, kur^rent. 
Au courant, o koo\rdh'n. Posted up to the time being. 
Fr. ^treaucoiM«a7i<<i6...to bepostedupin... (Lat. etMTO, to run.) 
Cur'rant, a fruit. (Lat. uva Corinthidca or Corvnthice.) 
Current, kur^.rent, running. (Lat. currens, gen. eurrentis.) 
Courier, koo'.rter, A special messenger sent with a dispatch. 
(This word ought to he spelt with double " r." As it now 
stands its base would be CGBur, the heart ; or cura, care.) 
French wwrrier; Latin eorriert; JM\u ourrOf to run. 
Ceurse, Corse, Coarse, Corps, Cause, Caws^ 

Course, korse. A career, to hunt. (Lat. cursus ; Fr. cours.) 

coursed (1 syl.), cours'^-ing, oours'-er, oours'-es (»syl.) 
Corse, koTse. Poetical form of corpse. (Lat. corpus, a body.) 
Coarse, koWse, Gross, not fine. (Old Eng. gorst, rough.) 
Corps (plu.), koTZ. Companies of soldiers. (French corps.) 
Cause, kawz. The reason, a plea. (Lat causa, a cause.) 
Cavs, kawz, third person sing, of caw, to cry like a crow. 
Court, The royal palace, those attached to it, a place for trying 
criminals, <fec. To woo, to strive to please, Stc, 
Court (a palace), courtier, kor^,tVer, one of the court 
Courf-ly (adj.), fit for a court; courtli-ness (Rule xi.) 
Courteous, kor.t^us (not kort.tchus nor kur^.tchus), affable ; 

cour'teous-ly, courteous-ness, kor^.t^ut.ne8s. 
Couri>>plafiter, kort plas' .ter {not play' Mer). Black sticking 
plaster, once used by court ladies for beauty-spots. 



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158 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Oourtesan, koY.te.zan (not kur^,te.zan, nor korf.e.zan). A 
woman of immodest character. (French courtiaane.) 
(This word meant originally a "female courtier," and 
tells a sad tale of the past history of courts.) 

Oonrt ( of justice), Court of Equity, plu. Courts of Eqtiity ; 
court-martial, plu. court-martials, sessions of the same 
court; courts-martial, different courts (mar^,shal), 

Oonrt. A paved way. (French courts curt, a short [cut]*) 

Court-yard. A yard before a house. (Latin cohors, gen. co- 
hortiSj a yard with outhouses for poultry, cattle, pigs, <tc.) 

Court (to woo), court' -ed (R. xxxvi.), courf-ing, court'-er. 

"Court" (a palace or hall of justice), Fr. cow; Ital. corte; Lat curia 

(from cura, care), where the "public cares " are attended to. 
"Court" (to woo), Fr. /aire la C9ur, to make a [love] suit, courtiaer. 

Courtesy, plu, courtesies, kof,tSsyy plu. kor'.teMz (kur^,te^ is 

nearly obsolete), civility. 
Courtesy, plU. courtesies, ker1f.syy kertf.siz. Woman's act 

of reverence. A man's is a bow (rhyme with now). 
Courtesy, kerf.sy (verb) ; courtesies, kerf.siz ; courtesied, 

kert\sid; Courtesy-ing, kertf,sy.ing. To make a woman's 

act of reverence by bending the knee. 

{•sy postfix, denotes an act. A " courtesy" is an act of 

reverence, similar to that which is used at court.) 

Cousin, Cousin-german, Cozen. All pronounced kOz'n, 

Cousin. The children of my aunt or unde are my first 
cousins; the children of my great aunt or uncle are my 
second cousins; the children of my aunt or uncle by a 
second marriage are my step cousins. 
'*Stop" is the Old English steop, an orphan, one parent being lost 
Cousin-german, plu. cousins-german. First cousins. 
Latin ^ermaniw, of the same stock (germen, a branch). 
Cozen, to cheat. (Italian cotzerie, cheating. Halliwell.) 
"Cousin" French, a male cousin; cou«{n«, a female cousin. We 
want a similar distinction ; Latin coruomnniis, a cousin. 

Covenant, kuv'.e.nant, A stipulation on stated terms. 

CoYcnant-er, kuv\e.nant.er. One who joins in a covenant. 

French covenant, a contract ; Latin conventwny an agreement (con 
venio, to come together [to makd terms]). 

CoTer, kuv\er, to overspread; cov'eriBd (2 syl.), cov'er-ing. 

Coverture, kuv'.er.tchur. Shelter, the state of a married 

woman who is under the " covet *' of her husband. 
French couvrir, to cov^r . eouveii,ure, not in the English sense, but 
meaning a cover for a book, &c. " Coverture " in ^encb is ahri. 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



AND OF SPELLING. 159 

Covert, hai/.eTt, secret. Covet, huv*.et, to desire eagerly. 

Oov'^jrt, cov'ert-ly, cov'ert-ness. (French eouvert.) 
Covet, hitv.et (see above); coVet-ed (R. xxxvi.), cov'et-ing, 
cov'eting-ly ; cov'et-er, one who desires wrongfuDy; 
covetous, kiii/.et.us (not kUv^e.tchus), greedy to obtain ; 
oovetons-ly, kiiv'.et.us.ly ; covetons-ness, kuv'.et.iis.neas; 
covet-able, kuv\et.a.h% worthy to be wished for. 
(Dean Alford says covetous and covetousness are " com- 
monly mangled by our clergy" into "covetious" and 
" covetiousness." — Queen's English, p. 76. j 
Latin c&pldus, greedy (from cUpio, to desire). 
Covey, kUv'.y, A brood of partridges, <fcc. (Fr. couviej a brood.) 
Cow, plu. cows or kine. Cow thymes with now (not coo). 

(Of the sixty-eight words ending in " ow," ten monosylla- 
bles and two dissyllables have the " ou " sound, like '* cow," 
and fifty-six the " o" sound like " grow." See Rule Hx. ) 
Old English cii, plu. cy (=ky). Kine is a collective plural, hy-ein, 
corrupted into hne. The plural suffix -en is seen in ox-en. 
Cow (to dispirit), cowed (1 syl.), cow-ing. (Danish kue, to subdue.) 
Coward, k^w'.ard; cow'ard-ly, cow'ardli-ness (Rule xi.), 

cowardice, kow\ar.dis, want of souragew {ow as in now.) 
French ccmard, counrdise, a corruption of culvard or culvert (culver. 
Old English culfre, a pigeon). In heraldry, coward means an 
animal with its tail between its leg«*. Latin cuium vert^re. 
Coxcomb, kox'.kajne, a fop ; coxcombry, kox'.kome.ry (not cox- 
combery) ; coxcomical, kox.kom'.i.kal, foppish. 
The ancient licensed jesters were called coxcombs, because they wort 
a cock's comh in their caps. 
Coy, shy, demure : coy'-ly, coy'-ness, coy'-ish^Rnle xiii.), coy'isli- 
ly. coy'ish-ness {-ish added to adj. is diminutive). . 
Fr. toi; Lat guHtus (from qtuies, rest ; 6k. kid, to lie down to sleep). 
Cozen, to cheat. Cousin, a relative, (See Cousin.) 
Crab, a cru-tacean, a wild apple, a machine ; crabb'ed (3 syl.), 
unamiable; crabb'-ed-ly, crabb'-ed-ness (Rule i.) 
"The crustacean," Old Eng. ordbha; Lat. cardb[%t8] ; Gk. kardbdt. 
" A morose person," Lat craJyro, a hornet or waspish person. 

Crack. Excellent, to boast, to split, to make a sharp noise. 
" In a crack *' (instantly), French crao; Latin crepitv, di^tmium. 
Cracked (1 syl.), crack'-er, a small firework. 
"Crack " (excellent), T at. orepdre. to boast : Fr. cra^juer, to boast 
"Crack" (to split). Old Eng. crwclianl ; Germ, krach (n.); Fr. croc. 

Crackle, krak\'l (dim. of "crack"); crackled, krakWd; crack- 
ling, krak'.ling^ part., also the skin of roast pork. 

Cracknel, krak'.nel, a brittle cake. A corruption of the Freuch 
eroquignole (kro.kin.yol), from croquet, crisp. 
(" Take with thee ten loaves, and cracknels..."! Kgs, xiv. 3.) 



,y Google 



IGO ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Cradle, krai/.d'l, an infant's bed, to put into a cradle ; ozadled, 
kray\d'ld; cradling, kray\dling. (" Cradel" is <Mer.) 
Old English cradel; Greek kr&dao, to swing. 

Graft, a trade, guile, a small ship. Giafty, kraf^ty ; craf' ti-ly 
(Bule xL), craf 'tl-neflB, skill in device, cuoning. 

Old English ora0. This word, like "canniBg," had originally no 
reference to underhand de«ling, bat referaed to skill in workman- 
ship, knowledge of one's trade, contrivance, &c. 

Crag, oragg'-ed (3 syl.), rugged ; cragg'-ed-neas (3 syl.). Rule i.; 
craggf-y, of a rugged character; cragg'i-nesa, a craggy 
state; cragg'i-er (more craggy); craggi-est (moat craggy.) 
WeMi erwig, a crag ; Greek hraehlia], a crag or rock. 
Gram, crammed (1 syL), cramm'-ing, cramm^-er (Bule i.) 

Old Eng. crammlian], to stuff ; past orammodey past part, orammod. 
Cramp, a contraction of a muscle ; v. cramped, krampt, 

Crampoons^ cramp-irons for raising stones ; crampoxis (in 

Bot.)y the roots which serve as supports to ivy, <fec. 
Old Eng. hramvfia, a cramp ; Fr. crampon, a crampon or crampoon. 
Cranberry, plu. cranberries, krdn'.ber.riz (not cramherry). 

German kranbe&re, the crane-berry, so called because the fmit-stalka, 
before the blossom expands, resemble the head and neck of a crane. 
Crane (1 syl.), a bird, a lifting machine. 

Old English crdn ; Welsh garan, the long-legged bird (from gar, the 
shahks, our "gaiter"). Heron or hem, is a variety of the same 
word. Greek gir&nHs; Latin grus. 

Cranium, plu. crania, kray'.ni.uni, plu. kray'.ntah, the skull; 
cranial, kray\ni.al, pertaining to the skull. 
Craniology, kray\ni.oV' .o,gy y now called phrenology, 
Craniologist, kray'.rd.olf' .o.gist, now c^led phrenologist, 
Lat. ordrwum, the skull ; Gk. krdnion (''a" short in Lat., long in Gk.) 
Crank (a machine), a conceit or twist of the mind ; craslcy, 
crank'i-ness (R. xi.), liable to be upset, crotchetinebs. 
Crankle, kran\k'l; crankled, krcunfJc'ld; oiank'Mng (dim.) 
"Cranky" (weak), German kranklieh (Jerank, sick). 
'* Crank ^ (a machine), French oran, a cog, crank, or notch. 

Cranny, a chink; crannied, krdn.ntd (adj.), ftiil of chinks. 

French omn, a notch ; Latin crena, a notch or split. 
Crantara, kran.tdhf.rd/h. The fiery cross which formed the 
rallying symbol of the Scotch highlanders. 

Gaelic crean tarigh, cross of shame ; because disobedience to the suip- 
mons incurred certain infamy. 

Crape. A fabric. (French cripe, from cr^er; to curl or wrinkle. ) 

Cratch, a rack, a manger. Scratch, a slight skin-wound. 

" Cratch, "Ital.craftcia, a rack or crib: Tr.creiehe: Lat.ora/«s,a hurdle. 
"Scratch," Gtorman, hratte, ▼. hratzen, to scratch. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 161 

Grater, kray'.ter. The month of a volcano. 

Latin erdUr; Greek kraiSr, a cup or bowL 
GratLXLch or Crunch, to crush with the teeth (not scrunch); 
cratuiched(lsyl.),oraimch'-ing; crunched, cmncV-ing. 
Oravat, kra.vdtf (not krav'.at). A necktie. 

French cravate, said to be from the Orcibats or Croats, whose linen 
and muslin neck bands were introduced into France in 1636. We 
have, however, the Danish kravet a collax, and kravet, a little collar. 

Qraye, to lon^? for; craved (1 syL), crav'-ing, crav'-er (Rule xix.) 

Old English eraf[ian] to implore ; Wekh cr^u, to crave. 
Crayen, kray'-ven. A coward. 

In former times, says Blackstone. controversies were decided by an 
appeal to battle. If one of the combatants cried out Craven (i.e., 
1 crave mercy) he was deemed a coward, and held in infamy for 
not defending his claim to the utmost. 

Craw. The crop or first stomach of a bird. 

Norse kraas, the crop or craw ; Oerm. kragen, the neck (our "scrag"). 
Crawfish. A corruption of icrevisse (French), a crustacean. 

Latin eardbus; Greek kdrdbos, a crab or lobster. 
Crayon, kray\on, a chalk for drawing. Crayons, chalks for 
drawing, drawings done in chalk. Crayoned (2 syL) 
French crayon (from eraie, chalk ; Latin onto). 
Craze (1 syL), to distract ; crazed (1 syl.), craz'-ing,craz'-y (Rule 
xix.), cr^zi-ly; crdzi-ness (R. xi). Fr. ecraser, to crush. 
Creak, kreek, to make a grating noise. Creek, a small bay. 
Creak, creaked (1 syl.), creak'-ing. 
"Welsh crech, a screech, ereg, hoarse ; French cri^^uer, to creak. 
"Creek," Old English crecca, a bay or creek ; French cHque. 

Cream, kreem (n.) (v. to skim); creamed (1 syl.), cream^-ing, 
cream'-y (adj.), cream'i-ness (R.xi.), cream -faced, pale. 
Old English r«am; French crime; Latin crimor, cream. 
Crease, krece, a mark made by a fold, to mark by a fold, <tc. ; 
creased (1 syl.), creas'-ing, R. xix. (Welsh creithen, a scar.) 
Creasote, kre\a.sote. A liquid obtained from coal-tar. 

Greek kreas sdzd, I preserve meat (being an antiseptic). 
Create, kre.ate\ to make out of nothing ; creat'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
creat'-ing (R. xix.) ; creat'-or (R. xxxvii.) ; creative, kre.- 
d\t\v ; credtive-ly, creAtive-ness ; creation, kre.d'.shun. 
Creature, kree'.tchur. Every created animal or thing. 
Latin credtio, oredtor, crtdtwra^ a creature ; creare, to create. 
Credence, kree'dence (not -dance)^ belief; credential, kre.den^- 
shal; credentials, -shalz, letters of testimony. Creed. 
Credendum, plu. credenda, kre.den\ddh. Articles of faith. 
Credence-table. A small table to hold the bread and wine 
before consecration. (Ital. credenzay a shelf or buffet.) 



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162 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Credible, krH\i,Vl (not -dble)^ worthy of belief (Lat. credi- 
hllis); cred'ible-ness, credibly, credibility, krH'.xMV'.uty. 
GreduloiiB, hred'.u.lut; cred'ulous-ly, cred'uloas-nees. 
Latin eredHltu. (The " e " is long in Latin.) 
Grednlity, kre.du'.li.ty. Prone to belieye. (Lat. cridHUtas,) 
Fr. ertfdence, eridibUiU, crddvXiU; Lat. crSdms, €ridire, to belieye. 
Credit, kr^d^.U, trust, to trust ; cred'it-ed (R. xxxvi.), cred'it-ing, 
creditor, creditable, credltable-ness, creditably. 
Credible, worthy of belief; creditable, praiseworthy. 
Credibly, trustworthily ; creditably, praiseworthily. 
Credlbleness, probability ; credltableness, estimation. 
Pr. credit, v. eriditer; Lat. cridity be trusts, creditor, credo, to trust. 
Credulous, kred'.u.lus. (See Credence.) 

Creed. Articles of religious faith. (Lat. crHo, I belieye ; Fr. crSdoJ) 
Creek, kreek (not krik)f a small bay. Creak, a harsh noise. 

*• Creek," Old Eng. orecea; Fr. orique. *• Creak,** Welsh creg, hoarse. 
Creep, past and p,p. crept, creep'-ing, oreep'-ing-ly, creep'-er. 
Old English credp[an\, past credp, past part, cropen, to creep. 
Latin repo, to creep ; Greek h&rp6, to crawL 

Cremation, kre.may'^hun^ a burning of the dead. (Lat. cr&ndtio.^ 

Cremona, kre.md'.nah. Violins made by the Amati family and 

by Straduarius of Cremona (Milan). See Cromoma. 
Creole, kre\ole. A Spanish American born of European parents. 

French Creole, a West Indian ; Spanish criollo (cria, a brood). 

The word means a *' little nurseling " (criar, to nurse). 

Crepitate, krep\i.tate, to crack; crepitat-ed (R. xxxvi.), crepitat- 
ing, crepitation, kr^\i.tay''Jhun, a crackling noise. 
French crepitation; Latin cri^ltdre, to crackle {cripo, to rattleX 
Crepuscule, krejpiis' .kule, twilight; crepus^cular (adj.) 

French crepuscuU, crepusculavre ; Latin crifpuscHhum, twilight (from 
cripira [lux], doubtful light ; -culum diminutive). 

Crescendo, plu. crescendos, kre.8hen\do, plu. kre.shen'.doze (Ital.) 
A mark (<:; in music, to denote that the force is to increase. 
The contrary word is diminuendo and the mark (:>•). 
Crescent, kres'jientf shaped like the "honied" moon; poetical 
for Turkey, a crescent being the national symbol; growing. 
Latin ereseens, gen. crescentis, increasing. 
Cress, plu. cresses or cress. A spring vegetable. 

Old English ceree or cressa; French cresion; German hre$9i. 
Cresset, kr^^s^t, A beacon -light, so called because it was 
originally surmounted by a little cross. 
French eroisette (dim. of croix, a cross). It warn bj carrying about % 
" flexy cross " armies were at one time assembled in these islands. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 163 

Crest An armorial device, a bird's comb, the cone of a helmet 

French cregU now triU; Latin orittay a crest. 
Cretaceous, kreMy'xe'iUy chalky. (L&tan creta^ chalk;) 
Crevice, Crevis, Crevasse, hrSo^isi, kr^vece^ hr^.vass'. 

Crevice, a chink. Crevis, a crayfish. Crevasse, a huge 

rent in a glacier, &c- 
"Crerioe" and "crevaaae" French erewiase, a crannj, a chink. 
"Crevia," Fr. Serevisse, a crayfish ; Lat. edrdbus; Gk. kdrdbds. 

Crew, JeroOf a ship's company ; pcut tense of crow. {See Crow.) 
Crewel, fine worsted yam. Cmel, inhuman (both krew'.el,) 

(Shakespeare speaks of "cruel garters,'* — K. Lear, it. -i,) 

"Crewel,'* corruption of eletoei; clew, a ball of thread ; Old English 
eliwe, a hank or ball of worsted. " Cruel/' Latin orudHis, crueL 

Crib, a stall for cattle, a bed for infants, to pilfer; cribbed (1 syl.), 
cribV-ing, cribV-er (R. i.); cribV-age, a game at cards. 
Old English crib, a stall 6t crib ; Welsh eribddaU, pillage, extortion. 
Cribble, ftn5'.6'I, a corn-sieve ; cribbled, kribWld; cribbling. 
(The double b [as if from '* crib "] is a blunder.) 
Fr.ori5{«, a riddle; v.cribler; Lat. cribrare, to sift ; cn&e22um, a sieve. 
Crick, stiffness in the neck. Creek, a cove. Creak, a harsh noise. 

"Crick," Welsh crig, a crick ; Old English hrcec, rheumatic pain. 
♦* Creek," Old English crecca. " Creak," Welsh ereg, hoarse. 

Orick'et, an insect, a game. Crick^et-er, one who plays cricket. 

*' Cricket" (the insect), Welsh cHciad; Fr. criqtiet: Lat. a-crid-ium. 
"Cricket" (the g»me). Old English eric, a club, and -et diminutive. 

Crier, *^'.er, one who weeps; cries (1 syl.), cried (1 syl.), cry'-ing. 

Cryer. The town-cryer or ])ellman. (See Cry.) 
Crime, sin ("i" long in the simple, but short in all its compounds). 
Criminal, krim'.i.nal; crim'inal-ly, crim'inal"it3r ; 

criminous, kf%m\i.nus; crim'^inous-ly. 
Criminate, kHmf.i.nate; crira'inat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), crim'- 

inat-ing (Rule xix.), crim'inat-or (not -er, Rule xxxvii.) 
Criminatory, krim*.i,na,t'ry. Involving crime. 

(In Latin the " cri-*' is long in every instance.) 
Latin orimen, eriminSlis, orlmindtio, orlmXtiMw, eri.'mindsua, &o. 
Crim. Con. Contraction of *• Criminal Conversation," meaning 

adultery. Crim. Con. actions cannot now be brought. 
Crimp, to frizzle; a decoy; to decoy [sailors and fleece them]. 

"Crimp" (to frizzle). Old English gecrympi, curled; Welsh orimfio. 
"Crimp" (a decoy), the same word, meaning "to pinch or squeeze." 
To "crimp" ^ collar is to pinch it into little furrows. 

Crimson, krim'js'n, a colour; crim^soned (2 syL), crim'son-ing. 
Italian cremenno (from keruies, the cochineal insect). 



1^4 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cringe, Mnj, to fawn with servility; cringed (1 syL), cring'-ing, 
cring' er (Rule xix.), cringes, krinj'.ez, 
OM English cri^n{^an\ or crindian], to cringe, to f awiL 
Crinkle, krin\k'l, to run in bends. Cringle, krin\g'ly a loop. 

Danish krinkel-krog, a place with tortnons ways. 
Crinoline, krln'.o.lin (not fcrln'o.Knc, nor krin\o.leen). 

French erinoKne (from crin, hair : Latin erlnU linum, hair linen). 
(An ill-formed word, which ought to mean "reddish hnen/* from 
cilnon, a reddi^ lily. ' ' Crlnis " cannot make crino. ) 

Cripple, krip'.p'l, one who is lame, to maim ; crip'pled (2 syl.) ; 
crippJing, krip\pling (0. E. cr«p«Z, a creeper, v. cre6p[an]). 

Crisis, plu. crises, kri'Ms^ kri^seez, A decisive or turning-point. 

Latin crisis ; Greek kHsis (from krino, to judge). Hypocrfttds said 

that all diseases had their tidal diays, when physicians could 

'' judge " what turn they would take. (First syllable short in Lat.) 

Crisp, brittle, to curl ; crisped, krispt ; crisp'-ing, crisp^-ness. 

Old English crisp ; Latin orUpits, frizzled. 
Cnterion, plu. criteria, kri.tee^ri.on, kri.tee'^ri.ah. A standard 
by which judgment may be formed. 
Greek kriUritin, means of judging (from kritis^ a judge. Short t.) 
Critic, kritf.ik; critical, kritf.i.kal; critically, critical -ness, 
criticise, krlf.lMze ; criticised [H syl.),cri t'icls-ing ( K.xix.), 
crit'ici8-»r; criticism, kr\t\iMzm; critique, kri.teek'; 
criticisable, krlf.i size'^a.h'l, open to ciiticism. 
Fr. critique; Lat. critlcus; Gk. krlttkds (from krind, to judge). 
Croak, kroke (like a frog). Crook, a shepherds staff. 

Croaked (1 syl.), croak'.ing; croak'.er, one who grumbles. 
Old Eng. cracet[an], to croak; Lat. crocio; Gk. krdzd, to croak. 
Crochet, Crocket, Croquet, krif.sha, krok\et, krd\ky. 

Crochet, krd\8ha ; crocheted, krd\8hed ; crochet ing, 
kr<y.8ha.ingy fancy-work done with a hooked needle. 
Also (a term used in fortification.) 
Crocket, krdkf.et (a term used in architecture.) 
Croquet, kro.ky, a game ; v. croqueted, kro'.kade, «tc. 

"Crochet," French crochet (oroe, a hook, and the dim. -et). 
**Cr. cket," French crochet (in Arch.), a crocket. 
"Croquet," French baton arrm6 d'wn croc (Du Cange). 

Crook, an earthen pitcher. Crock-ery, kr5kf.e.ry, earthenware. 

Old Eng. croc, a pitcher ; Welsh crochan, a pot : croehenu, pottery. 
Crocket, krbW.et (in Arch.) French crochet. {See Crochet.) 

Crocodile, krdk^.o.dile (not krf>k\o.dill)ftk reptile of the lizard 
kind. Crocodilea, krhk\o.d\V\e.ah, the crocodile order. 
Crocodllean, krW.o.dU.e.an (adj. of cfocodile). 

Latin crdcddilus, crdeddllea ; Greek hr(ik6deHds, a lizard. 

(" Crocodilea " not "' croeodiXia" which means thistles.— Plin. 27, 41.> 




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AND OF SPELLING. 1G5 

CrooTiB, plu. crocnseB, kro^.hUs, kro^kHs.^z; croceoiis, krd'^e.us, 

Lat. crdeus, plu. erdci, the saffron flower ; Gk. ibrdikds, the crocus. 
Cromlech, krfim',Wc, A huge stone supported by uprights. 

Welsh cromlech {erom llech^ an incumbent flag-stone). 
Cromoma, Tcro.moT^ .nah (not cromcma). An organ stop. 

Cremona, kre.mo'.nah, a violin. (See Cremona.) 

French cromotne; Italian cromomo ; German krump-hom. 
Crone, an old woman. (Irish crion, withered ; criona, old.) 
Crook, a shepherd's staflf. Croak, kroke (like frogs). Crock (g.v.) 
Crook, to bend into a curre ; crooked, krookt ; crook^-ing. 
Crooked, krook\ed (adj.), not straight; crooked-ly, krook\ 
ed.ly ; crooked-ness, krook\ed.ne88. 

"Crook," Welsh oroca, tortuous, croeau, to make crooked. 

"Croak,** Old Eng. cracet[an] ; Latin crdcio, crocito; Greek kr6z6. 

" Crock,'* Old Eng. croc, a pitcher ; Welsh crochan, crochenu, pottery. 

Crop, the produce of a field ; the craw of a bird ; to lop or reap. 
Crop, crept or cropped (1 syl.), cropp'-ing, cropp' er (R. i.), 
a pigeon with large craw ; crop'fal (Rule viii.) ; to crop- 
out, to shew itself on the surface ; to crop up, to reappear. 
Old Englih crop or eropp, a crop, a craw, a top, whence to lop or 
reap ; Welsh cropa; Low Latin oroppa, a crop of corn. 

Croquet, krc^.ka^ a game. Crochet, kro'^ha, work done with a 
hooked needle. Crocket, krdk^.et (in Arch,) 
"Croquet." eroque, croguebois, croquet: *'Bdton amU d'un oroc, ou 

qui est recourbS" (Du Cange, viii., p. 115). 
"Crochet*' and "Crocket," French crochet, dim. of cro<J, a hook. 
Crosier, kro\zher. A bishop's staff surmounted with a cro<$s. 

Low Latin crocia, erociariui, one who carries a crosier. 
Cross. A gibbet, ill-tempered, to pass over, to cancel. 

Cross, plu. crosses, kros^sez. A gibbet made thus (f, X +). 
Cross, ill-tempered; crossly, cross'-ness, cross grained. 
Cross (v.), crost or crossed (1 syl.), cross'-ing, cross'-es. 
Crossette, kr8i.8ef (in Arch.); cross'let, a little cross. 
Crosswise (not crossways), adv., transversely. 
Welsh croes, a crucifix, transverse ; Latin crux, gen. cr&cis. 
"Cross** (ill-tempered), contraction of the Fr. courroucd, angered. 
Crotch, a hook or fork. Cmtch, a staff for the lame. 

Crotch, crotched (1 syl.), hooked; crotch'-et, a note in 
MuHc, a whim ; crotch'et-y, full of whims ; crotch'et-ed. 
French crochet, a little hook, dim. of croc, a hook ; oroehe, a note in 
miudc : erocheter, to make " crochets'* for porters. 
Cr6ton-Oil. Oil expressed from the Croton Tiglium. 
Crouch, crouched (1 syl.), orouch^ing. Crutch. (See Crotch.) 
Welsh orweau, to bow, crycydu, to squat Old Eng. oruc, a crook. 



1«6 EBBOBS OF SPEECTT 



Group. iDflammation of the larjnx, <fec.; the buttocks of a horse. 

French vroup (the disease), eroujM (the buttocks). 
Croupier, kroo*.pl.i^ or kroo'.pLa, the assistant of a gamiDg 
table. Crupper, krup^per, a strap of a saddle. 
"Croapier'' fits at ^e "croup " or bottom of the table. 
Crow, a bird, an iron lever, to ery like a cock, to triumph ; crow, 
past crew [crowed, 1 syl.], pant part, crowed [crown] . 
Old English crdw, a crow ; Greek kordrU, a crow. 
" Crow^r.** Gk. kiJT&iU, a plough beam : Welsh croes-har, a cross-bar. 
" Crow" (vwbX Old English crdioLoifJ, past creovt, p.p. crAwen. 
Latin crddo^ Greek krdzd, to crow. 
Crowd, kroud (to rhyme with loud), a throng ; a fiddle. 
Crowd (verb), crowd'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), crowd'-ing. 
Old English crydJian], past craW, p.p. ge-erdden; credd, a crowd. 
"Crowd" (a fiddle), Welsh crtoth, a crouth or violin. 
Crown (to rhyme with town), crowned (1 syl.), crown'-ing. 

French cauronne; XAtin cdr5na; Greek h6r6n6, a garland. 
Crucial, kru'M.dl (not cru^sheMl), severe, crosswise. 

Lord Bacon says that two different diseases may run 
parallel for a time, but must ultimately cross each other. 
The point where tbey cross will tell their true nature. 
Hence " crucial*' means that which tests. 
Crucible, hru' .sth'l. A vessel for melting metals, <fec. 

Low Latin crw^lvm, the little tormentor (from crilcU), to torment), 
because the metals were "tortured " bj fire to yield up their secrets. 
Crucifix, kru\si.fix. (Latin crucifixtu, fixed to the cross.) 
Crucify, hril'j!i.fy, to fix to a cross ; crucifies, kru\si.fize ; cru- 
cified, kru*.A.fide; cru'cifi-er, hut cru'cify-ing. (R xL) 
Cru'cifix ; crudfizion, kril.s%.jikf .shun, hung on a cross. 
Latin crddfflgo. supine eHM^amtfi (eruci figer/t, to fix to a cross) : 
French crucifix, crucifixion, crueller, to crucify. 
Crude, krood, not complete ; crude'-ly, crude'-ness ; 

crudity, plu. crudities, kru'M.tiz, immaturity (Rule xi.) 
French crudiM; Latin crUdus, crikdittas: Greek kruddSs, that is, 
kruds cidds, resembling cold, hence uncooked, raw, &c. 
Cruel, hru'.el, inhuman. Crewel, fine worsted {see Crewel). 
Cru'el-ly; cru'el-ty, |)Zm. cruelties, kru\el.tiz, inhumanity. 
French vruel; Latin crudelis, cruel ; crOdilitM, cruelty. 
Cruet, kru\et. A glass " castor." (Fr. cruche. a glass vessel, -et dim.) 
(There is no word in French for " cruet-stand," or a " set of castors.") 
Cruise, Cruse, Crews, all pronounced kruze. 

Cruise, to rove about the sea; cruised, kruzd; cruis-ing, 
kru\zing; cruis-er, hru'.zer, a cruising^ ship. (Rule xix.) 
Cruse, a small cup. (French cruche, a jug.) 
OrewB, plural of crew, a ship's company. 
French troiMr, to cruise or cross ; German Jbrenemg, hrwMen. 



AND OF SFETJJNG, 107 

C^miiib, hrUm, a morsel. (The "6" is an error.) Crombed, 

kr&md; cmmb-ing, krwmf.ing, breaking into crumbs; 

Cnmuny, knim\my. {If "crumb " is accepted, this adj. ought 

to be crumb-y. Either " crumb" or " crummy " w wrong.) 

Cnunble, krum\b% to break into crumbs ; crumbled, 

kriimWld; crumbling, krumf .hling ; crum'bler. 
Old English cntm«, a fragment. (N.B. crumh means "crooked."') 
German hrwme, a crumb ; krwmen, to crumble. 
Cmmple, kriim\p% to ruffle ; crumpled, krUm'.p'ld; crumpling, 
krum\pling ; crumx»ler, krumf.pler, one who crumples. 
Old English crump, wrinkled ; eruTnb, crooked, awry. 
Cnmch. To crush between the teeth. (See Oraunch.) 
Crupper. A strap which passes under the tail of a horse. 
Croupier, kroo\pi.er. An assistant at a gaming table. 
Both from French croupe, the rump, a crupper, &c. 
Crusade, plu. crusades, krU-sddey kru-sddz, " Holy" wars. 
Crusade (v.), crusad-ed (R. xxxvi.); crusSd-ing (R. xix); 
crusad-er ; cfusado (a Portuguese coin, with a cross). 
Cruse, krUze, a small bottle. Cruise, to rove about the sea. 
Crews, |>Zu. of crew. (Fr. cruche, a jug; creuset, a crucible.) 
Crush, to squeeze ; crushed (1 syl.), crush'-lng, crush'-er. 

Italian croscio, to crush ; Latin crucio, to torment. 
Crust, the external coat ; crusf-ed (R. xxxvi.), crust' -ing ; 

crust-y, hard, morose; crusfi-ly, crust'i-ness (Rule xi) 
Latin crusta, crust ; verb crust/cLre, to cover with a crust. 
*' Crusty," morose, is archaic cms, wrathful; c^oss, corrupted into 
cwrst, a contraction of the French courr<yucd, angry 

Crustacean, plu. crustaceans, kru8.tay\sS.anz, one of the "crab" 
fEunily. Crustacea, kru8,tay'.se.ah, the crustacean class. 
Crustaceous, kr&s.tay\se.u8 (adj.); crustaceology, krus.- 
tay'-se.oV'-o-gy, a description of crustaceans. 
French crustcuA; Latin crusta [animals inclosed in] a sheU. 
('* Crustaceology ** isa vUe hybrid. " Ostricol'ogy " vxmld be a Greek 
compound, but "crustaceology" is half Latin and haXf Cfreek.) 
If osi^acian had been adopted instead of "crustacean," it would 
have been far better. 
Crutch, a staff for the Jame. Crotch, a hook, a fork ; crutched- 
friars, krutcht fri'.ars (not crotched-friars) jfriais badged 
with a cross. (Latin cruXf crucidtus). 
"Crutch," Ital. crocda, a crutch. " Crotch," Fr. crochet, a hook. 
Cry, cries, krize; cried, kride; cry'-ing; cri'-er, one who weeps. 
Cry, plu. cries (1 syl.), street cries; cry-er, the bellman. 
Welsh cH, a cry, a clamour ; French crier, to cry. 
Crypt, kript, the underground compartment of a church; 
cryptic or cryptical, krip'.ttcdl, secret, hidden. 
Latin crypta, a vault ; Greek kruptS {kruptd, to hide). 
Crypto- (Greek prefix). Secret, concealed. 



168 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cryptogamia, krip'-to.gSm''-tdh (in Bot.) Plants, like mush- 
rooms, mosses, Szc, in which the stamens and pistils are 
not manifest. Cryptogamic, krip'-to.gdm^'-ik (adj.) 
Greek kruptos gamos, concealed mirriage. 
Cryptography, kr%p.t6g\ra.fy. The art of writing in cypher. 
Cryptographer, krip.tdg\ra,fer. One who writes in cypher. 
Cryptographic or cryptographical, krip\to,grdf\i.kdl. 
Greek kruptos graphs, tecret writing. 
Cr3rptology, krip.t6V.o.gy, secret language ; cryptorogist. 

Greek kruptos logoSy secret language. 
Crystal, krU'.tal (not chrystal nor cristal) n. and adj. 

Latin crystcUlum ; Greek krustallos; French crisUd (wrong). 
Crystalline, kris'.tul.Un, clear as crystal. Milton more cor- 
rectly calls the word kris.tdV .lin. {See " Paradise Lost.") 
Latin erystalUnus ; Greek krustallinos, like crystal 
Crystallize, kris* .tullize (R. xxxii.); cr \ s'tallized (3 syl.); 
crys'talliz-ing, crys'ralliz-er (R. xix.); cr\ stalliz'-able, crys- 
tallization, kris'-taUli-zay^-shun, congelation into crystals. 
Greek krustallizo^ to shine like crystal 

Crystallography, kris'.tdllog^'.rd.fy science of crystallization; 
crystallographer, kri8\tdl.log'\ra,fer,one skilled in the above ; 
crystallographic, kris'.tul.lo.grdf .Ik ; crystallographical. 
Greek krustallos graphi, a writing about crystals. 
Crystalloid, krW.tdl.loid. (Gk. krustallos eidos, like crystal.) 
Cub, M6, a young fox, bear. <fec.; to bring forth a cub ; 

cubbed (1 syl.), cubb-ing (Rule i.). Cube, kube, q.y. 
Cube, kubey a solid body with six equal sides. A number multi- 
plied twice into itself, as 8 x 8 x 3 = 27, whence 37 is 
the " cube " of 3, and 3 is the " cube-root" of 27. 
Cubed, kubed (1 syl.); cub-ing, kabe'.ing (Rule xix.) 
Cubic, ku'.bik (adj.); cubical, ku'.bl.kul ; cu'bical-ly; 
cubiform, ku\bi.form; cuboid, ku'.boid, or cuboid'-al, 
an imperfect cube. (Greek kubos eidos, like a cube.) 
Cubiture, ku'M.tchur, The cubic contents of a body. 
Latin cf&bus, a solid square, a die ; Greek hOJbds. 
Cubit, ku\bit, 20 inches, the length of a man's arm from the 
elbow to the end of the middle finger. Cubital, kii'MXdl 
(adj.); cubited, ku'Mt.ed. 
A gallows 50 cubits high {Esther vii. 9). 
A gallows of 50 cubits high (Esther v. 14). 
In the former of these sentences "which is" must be sup- 
plied: "Behold a gallows which is 60 cubits high,** The 
latter is not good English. 
Latin cUMtum, a cubit ; Greek kHMtdn (cubo, to recline at table rest- 
ing on the elbow, cttbitua, the elbowj. 




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AND OF SPELLING. 169 

Cuckoo, plu. cuckoos, kook'.koy kook'.koze (Rule xlii.) 
French ooncov,; Latin gQcAIusi Greek kokkux, a cuckoo. 

Cuckold, kuk'.kold. A husband whose wife is faithless to him. 
Cuckoldy, kuk'.kohdy (adj.); cuckoldom, ku¥ .kotdum^ th^ 
state of beiog a cuckold ; cuckoldry, kuk\kol.dry. 

This word is not derived from cuckoo (Latin dtdtiws), but from cur- 
ruca, the bird which batches the cuckoo's egg The French word 
is cocu not (xyucou, a cuckoo. The Old English suffix -ol [-old] 
means "of the nature of," "like," "full of"; so that "cuckold" 
is ewrruc'-old, like a bird which hatches an egg not its own. 

Cucumber, ku\kiim.ber (not koo'-kum.her, nor kow' .kum.her\ 

French coMoontftrc/ Latin ciicftrner. (Varro.) 
Cuddle, kud'.dl, to fondle ; cud'dled {1 syl.), cud'dling, cud'dler. 

Welsh cueddol, fondl7 loving ; cuedd, fondness. * 
Cud'dy. A ship's cabin. (Welsh cauedig^ an inclosure.) 

Cudgel, kitd^jel, a knobbed stick, to beat ; cud'gelled (8 sjl.) ; 
cud'geU-ing, cud'gell-er. (Rule iii., -el.) 
Welsh cwg, a knob ; ctogyn, a knuckle ; with -d dim. 
CufiE^ a wri-itband, to box ; cuffed, kuft ; cuff'-ing, cnff'-er. 
(For monosyllables in /, Z, «, see Rule v.) 

Welsh cwf, something put over another thing, hence cwjl, a hood. 
"Cuflf " (to strike); Greek koptd, to strike ; kopi, a striking. 

Cui bono, ki ho\no (Lat.) What's the good of it ? Who will be 
the better for it ? Literally, " For what good ?" 

Cuirass, kwejras* (not ku.ra8^). A metal breastplate. 

French cuirasse (from (niir, leather, of which breastplates were origi- 
nally made) ; Latin corifum, a skin or hide. 

Cuisme, kwe,zeen\ The cooking department. (French.) 

Cul de sac, plu. cnls de sac (not cul de sacs), ku'd sak (French). 

A blind alley. " The bottom of a bag." 
-cnle, -de, -kle (dim. Lat. suffix -cul[u8]), ad(]ed to nouns. 

Culinary, ku*M.nd.ry (not kuV.i.nerry nor ku\ni.ler'ry). Per- 
taining to the cooking department 

Latin ciilina, a kitchen ; c&lindrius, culinary. 
Cull, to pluck ; culled (1 syl.), cull'-ing, cull'-er (Rule v.) 

Fr. cueUlir, to pluck ; Lat. colligo {con fcol] ligo, to gather together). 

Cullender better colander, kuV.an.der. A strainer. 

Latin colana, straining; cdlum, a strainer. "Cullender" is quite 
indefensible, it is wrong in three places. 

Cullis (bad French, for coulis). Strained gravy. (See above.) 
Culm, kiilm. Stalk of corn, anthracite shale. 

"Culm" (stalk of com), Lat. culnma, straw; Gk kdldmds, a reed. 
"Calm " (shale) ; Welsh cwlm; Old English c6l, coaL 



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170 ERBOnS OF SPEECH 

Culminate, hiiV.mX.nate, To reach the highest point. 
Cul'minat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), cul'minat-ing (Rule xix.) 
Culmination, hvV.munay" ^hun. The highest point. 
French culmiiiaiion, culminer: Latin eulmen, the vertex. 

Culpable, kul'.pa.b'l, blamable ; cul^pably, cul^pable-neas; 
cidpability, kitV.pa.bWA.ty^ blame- worthiness. 
Latin culpShUis (from culpa, fault, blame); French culpaMlitS. 
Culprit, kitl.prit. One guilty of a crime. 
Latin cfdpa re&tus, one accused of a dime. 
Cultivate, kuV.ttvdte, to till ; cul'tivat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), cul'ti- 
vat-ing (R. xix.), cul'tivat-or (Dot -«r, R. xxxvii.) ; culti- 
vable, kuV.ti.va.h'le (Fi. cuUiveVt cultivable); cultiva- 
tion, kuV'tl.vay**'8hun^ tillage, refinement. 

French euUiver; Italian colHvare, eoltivazione, coUivoitore : Latin 
cultus, tillage. "Cultivation" is one of the few words in -tion 
which is not French. 

Culver, a pigeon. (Old English culfre; Latin c^umba, a dove.) 
Culverin, kijil\vS.rin, A long slender gun. (Fr. couleuvine.) 

From couleuvre, a snake; Latin cdlUber; Italian colubrina. The 
resemblance of this word to *' culver" is merely accidental. 

Culvert, kuV.vert, An arched passage under a road, <fcc. 

French convert, formerly culvert, v. couvrvr, to cover. 
Cum'ljer, to overload; cumbered, kum'.berd; cuml)er-ing, cnm'- 
ber-er; cumbersome, kum\ber.8um (some, Old Eng. suf- 
fix meaning ''full of"); cum^rsome-nesB, cumbrous, 
kum\bru8 ; cnm'l}rous-ly, cum^brous-nesB. 
French encomJ>re, v. encombrer ; Latin eSmiUare, to heap up. 
Cumbrian, kum\bri.an (adj.), applied in Geol. to a system of 
slaty rocks developed in *' Cumbria," that is Cumberland. 

Cumberland, properly Combra4dnd or Comha-land, the land of val- 
leys ; c(mU>a, valleys or coombs (Celtic). Welsh ctom. 

CumuluB, kum'.u.lus (not ku'.mu.lus), applied to clouds when 
they look like mountains. (Latin cumulus, a pile.) 

Cumulo-stratuB, kum'M.lo strd'.tus (not ku'.mu,lo straK,^ 
tme*), the cumulus cloud flattened. 

Cirro-cumulus, s'i/ro kum\u.lu8, small cumulous clouds. 

If cAmiUtts is from the Greek kHma, a wave, the length of the u was 
changed when the word was adopted in the Latin language. 

•cund (a Latin termination denoting " fulness : '' as fa-cund, full 
of speech ("fari," to speak); fe-cund, full of fruit ("feo," 
a foetus); jocund, full of joy ("Jove," "juvo," to delight); 
vere-ctmdf bashful ("v§r§or," to fear); rubi-eund, full of 
redness ("ruber," red). 




AND OF SPELLTXG. 171 

Cnnaal, hu'.nSMy wedge-formed; coneate, Itu'.ThS.ate (adj.) 

Cuneated, ku\n^.d.ted, tapering like a wedge ; cimeifonii, 
ku'.neXform, applied tP certain letters made like wedges. 
They are found in old Babylonian and Persian inscrip- 
tions. (Latin cuneuSf a wedge ; French cunHform.) 

Cnn'mng, artful ; can'nmg-ly, cnn^'ning-ness. Originally these 
words denoted " skiU derived from knowledge." 
Old Eng. cwMn{an\ to know how and be able to do. (Ken and can.} 

Cup, hup, a drinking vessel, part of a flower, to scarify ; cfapped, 
hupt; cupp'-ing, cupp'-er (R. i.); cupboard, kuhWrd; 
capful, plu, cupfuls (not cupsful). Two "cups full" 
would mean two cups filled full; but two "cupfuls"' 
would mean a cupful repeated twice. 
Old English cuppa ; Latm cfwpa or cv/ppa, a cup or tub. 

Cupidity, hu-p'idf.i.ty^ greed. (Lat. cupldita8 ; Fr. eupidiU.) 

Cupola, plu. cupolas, ku'.pd.lah, ku\poMhz (not ku.po'.lah nor 
cupulo), Italian cupolay from cupoj deep. 

Cupreus, ku'.pr^.us (uot cuprius), coppery ; cuprite, ku'.pr^tj red 
oxide of copper ; cupriferous, A;M.jpr?/'.e.nw,yielding copper. 
Latin cupreva, from cu/prum, copper. 
Cur, kuTt a degenerate dog ; cnrr'f-ish (Rule i.), like a cur {-ish 
added to nouns means " like," but added to adj. it is dim.) 
Welsh eor, a dwarf ; Irish gyr, a dog ; Dutch korre, a honsedog. 
Curable, ku\ra.Vl; curability, ku\raMV'.i.ty, {See Cure.) 

Curapoa, ku'.ra.8o\ a liqueur. Curassoe or Curassow, kusas^so^ 
a South American bird, like a turkey. 
Cora^oa is made from Curapoa oranges. The Cv/rofoa Islands are 
near Venezuela. French curapao. 

Curate, ku'.rate. A clergyman's licensed clerical assistant. 

Curacy, plu. curacies, ku\raMz. The parish, <S^c., of a curate. 

Curatoir, ku.ray\tor. One Who has the charge of something. 

Latin eurdtor, evrdtio (from etZro, care). 
Curb, kwrb; curbed (1 syl.), curb'-dng, curb-fitone. 

Frencl^ eourbi, a curb ; comber, to bend ; Latin curvus, crooked. 
Curd, kurd; cnrd'-ed (R. xxxvi.), curd'-ing, curd'-y. 

Curdle, ku'Z-d'l; curdled, &M/.<fW; curdling, kurd'.ling. 

Welsh crwd, a round lump; archaic crud and crudle. The old 
form is the more correct. (Latin cruduSf crude. ) 

Cure, kure; cured (1 syl.), cur-ing, kure'.ing; cur-er, kure'.er ; 
cur-able, ku'.ra.Vl; curable-ness ; curability, ku\ra.- 
Mr'.t.ty, possibility of being cured ; curative, ku'.ra.Viv. 
French cure, cwratif, cwrer (v.) ; Latin ciZra, cWrSMii$. 



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172 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cfnrfew, hat'.fu. A bell rung in former times at 8 o'clock p.m., 
to announce that it was bed-time. 

French couvre-feu [time to] corer-flre. Where wood is burnt the 
ashes at bed-time are thrown over the logs ; and next morning the 
whole is easily rekindled by drawing the blower down. In some 
places a sort of meat-cover is put over the logs. 

Carious, ku\ri.us, inquisitive, remarkable ; cu'rious-ly, ca'rions- 
ness; cariosity, plu. curiosities, ku.ri.os\LtU, a rarity, 
&c. ; curioso, plu. curiosos, ku.H.d'.so, hu.ri.d' .80X6^ one 
fond of collecting curiosities. (Rule xlii.) 
(In the sing. num. " curiosity'* ineans also "inquisitiveness.^' ) 
Latin curiostis, curidsttas; Italian cvHoso (from cura, care). 

Curl, curled, kurld ; curl'-ing, making curls, a game ; ourr-er, 
plu. curr-ers, a plnyer at the game called "curling," 
curling-ly; curl'-y; cur'li-ness (Rule xi.) 

Welsh cwr, a circle, with -I dim. ; Latin drcMus, 8 little circle ; 
Welsh cvrr; Old Eng. circul; Lat. circHlus; Gk. hirkds, a circle. 

Curlew, kw/Xu. A sort of snipe. (French courlieu.) 

Curmudgeon, kur.mudf.jun. A churlish fellow, a miser. 

Old English ceorV-m^digan, churl-minded or tempered. 

Currant, kur^.rant, a fruit. Current, kw/.rentf a stream. 

"Currant," a corruption of Corinth, the "Corinthian grape. 
" Current," Latin cwrrens, gen. currentis, running [water, &c.J 

Currency, kuj^renjn/t current coin ; current, kur'rentt v.s. 

Curricle, kur^ri.kH, An open carriage, with two wheels. 

Curriculum, kur rik' .U.lum. A course of study. 

Latin curriculvm, a race course {curro, to run, and dim. -cvhim), 

Curry, kw/ry, to dress leather; curried, kur'rtd; curries, 
kur'riJi ; cur'ri-er, one who dresses leather (R. xi.), hut 
courier, koo'.ri.er, an express messenger. (Fr. courrier.\ 

Curry, to clean a horse ; to curry favour, a corruption of 
curry fauvel, to clean the bay-horse ; currycomb. 
("Curry" ought to he spelt corj. "Currier'* ought to 
have only one r (corier), and "courier** ought to have 
double r (courrier). Latin " curro,*' to run. ) 
French corroger, to curry; corrogeur; Latin cdrium, a hide. 

Curry, a condiment, a food prepared with curry; curried, 
kur'rid ; curry-ing, kw/ry.ing ; curry-powder. 
The mixture invented by James Curry. 
Curse, hurse; cursed (1 syl.) or curst, curs'-ing. (Rule xix.) 
The adjective is curst or cursed, kur^-sed; cnr'sed-ly 
(3 syl.), cur'sed-ness (3 syl.) 
Old English cwrs (noun], cw^ian], to curse ; cwdod, cursed. 



AND OF SPELLING, 173 

Cursive, hur^.slv, fluent ; cursive-ly, cursive-neaB. (Kule xvii.) 
Cnrsory, kw/.sS.ry (adj.), superficial; cursori-ly (adv.) K.xi.; 

cnrsori-ness ; corsitor, kw/.sl.tor, a chancery officer. 
French cursive; Latin cwrsoriiis (from carso, to run about). 
Cuzst, angry, a corruption of curs, cross, whence " crusty.** 

" Curst" cows [angry cows] Tiave curt horns [short horns]. 
French courroricer, to anger; courrcrux, angrj, cross {c*rotu;e cn-oss, 
and c^urce cwrs corrupted into cv/rst). 

Curt, hurt, short, ahrupt ; curf -ly, corf -ness. (Latin curtus.) 

Curt* A contraction of current, meaning the " present [month]." 
The month past is ultimo, the month to come is proximo, 
" Ultimo '* and " proximo " are nouns. We say the bth 
ultimo or proximo ; but " current " is an adj. and must 
have the word "month" expressed : as the current month. 

Currente calamo (Lat.) kur.ren'.te kaV.a.mo. Off hand (applied 
to composition). Literally " with a running pen." 

Curtail, kur.taiV, to cut sfiort ; curtailed' (2 syl.), curtaU'-ing, 
curtail'-^r (French court tailer, to cut short). 

Curtain, kur^.Vn; curtained, kur^,fnd; curtain-ing, kur'fndng. 
French courtine; Latin cortina, a curtain. 

Curtsy, plu. curtsies, kurt\sy, kurt\siz ; curtsied, kurt^sed ; 
ciurt'sy-ing, curfsi-er, one who makes a curtsy. Al r> 
spelt, but less correctly, curtsey, plu. curtseys, curtseyed 
(2 syl.), curtsey-ing, curtsey-er. {See Courtesy.) 
French courtoisie, courtesy, the manners of the court. 

Curve, a bend, to bend; curved, kurvd; curv'-ing (Rule xix.); 
curvature, kuf .va.tchur ; curvated, kur'.va.ted. 
Latin curvdre, to curve ; curvaiura, cwrvdtus, bent. 

Curvet, kw/.vct ; cur'vet-ed (Rule xxxvi.) ; cur'vet-ing. 

French courhette: Latin cvjrvare, to bend. In a " curvet," the horse 
bends his body together and springs out. 

Cushion, koosh'n (not kusKn), a pad to sit on ; cushioned (2 syl.), 
cushion-ing; cushion-et, a little cushion. 
French coussin, a cushion ; caussiTiet; German kissen, a cushion. 
Custard, kus\frd. A food, a slap on the hand with a stick. 

" Custard " (the food), derivation uncertain, cua ia & cow and may 

ace unt for the first syllable. 
" Custard " (a slap) is a corruption of custid, Latin custis, a club. 

Custody, kus'.t^.dy, protection, keeping ; custodian^ kus.t6\dl.ani 
one who has the custody of something; custos, kus'.tos, 
as custos rotuldrum, keeper of the rolls. 
Latin custddia, custody ; custos, a custodian. 
Custom, kits^ tom ; custom-er, one who frequents a shop ; cus- 
tomary, kus'.tom.a.ry, usual; cus'tomari-ly (adv.) 
Italian costume, costumare, customary ; Spanish costumbre. 



174 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cut, pcLit cut, past part. cut. Cut, a wound, to wound, a priDt, 
a make-up in dress, to diyide a pack of cards ; cutt'-er, 
one who cuts, a boat, a vessel with one mast; cutt'-ing, 
dividing, sarcastic ; cutting-ly (Rule i.) 

DerivAtioB nncertahi. Perhaps a corruption of curt, Latin curtut, 
short ; cwrto, to shorten. There is the Welsh word ciotan, to shorten. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 176 

Cyclamen, sW.ld.m^ (not si.klay'.men). The plant " sow-bread." 
(This word ought to be '• cyclamine/' sWM.min,) 

Latin cydaminus; Greek huklamliMS (from haklos, a circle, the root 
being globularX The chief food of the wild boars of Italy. 

Gyde, «i'.fc'l, an ever-recurring period ; cyclical, sik'.ltkal (adj.) 

French cycle ; Latin cydus; Greek kuMoSy a circle [of phenomena]. 
Cydoid, si'.kloid, a geometrical curve; cycloidal, 8i,kloy\dal; 
cydoidean, plu. cycloideand, si.kloy^de.anz, the fourth 
order of fishes (Agassiz), including salmon, herrings, &c.* 
Greek kukld-eidSs, like a circle. Imagine a nail in the circumference 
of a wheel. Let the wheel revolve and more on in a stra^ht line. 
The nail would describe in the air that double motion, and the 
figure thus described would be a cycloid. 

Cyclone, plu. cyclones, si'.kloney 8i.klonz. A rotatory storm. 

Latin cydus; Greek kuMos^ a circle, and -6ne augmentative. 
Cydopean, 8i.klr/.p^.an (not 8l.klo.pee\an). Huge, the work of 
the fabled Cyclops. 

Latin cyclopes^ cyddpSus; Greek kukldps, huTddpeios. 
Cycloptedia, plu. cyclopaedias, 8%' .klo.pee" .di.dh, plu. -dz, or 
en-cydopaBdia, a dictionary of general information. 

Greek hukUis paideUi, a circle of instruction. 
Cydopteiis, 8lM6p' .tS.r%8, A genns of fern-like plants. 

Greek huklds pteria, circle [shaped] fern ; the leaflets are round. 
Cygnet, sigl'.nSt (not cignet). A young swan. 

Latin eygnua at cycmas, a swan : Greek kvknds (and -et dim.) 
Cylinder, siV.in.der, a drum-shaped article ; cylindrical, stlW.- 
driJcal, shaped like a cylinder ; cylin'drical-ly. 

Latin cylind/nis, a roller, &c. ; Greek hiUiudd, to rolL 

Cymbal, 8im\bdl, a musical instrument. Symbol, a sign or type. 

" Cymbal," Lat. cymbdlum; Gk. humbdlon (from kumbos, hollow). 
"Symbol," Lat. aymbdla: Gk. sumbdWn, a mark or token. 

Cynic, plu. cynics, sin^ik, sln'Xks, a misanthrope; cynical, 
»iii'.i.ikai, snarling; cynlcal-ly, cynlcal-ness ; cynicism, 
s'in' .i.8izm, churlishness, the manners, &c., of a cynic. 

These words are formed from the ancient sect called "Cynics,** who 
snarled at every article of luxury [kunlk68t dog-like). 

Cynosure, 8i'.n5.8hure. The pole-star, an object of attraction. 

Latin cyndmra; Greek kundsoura (from hmHa owra, the dog's tail), 
meaning the star in the tail of Ursa Minor. 

Cypress, sWpress, a tree. Cypris, Cyprus {see below) ; cyprine, 
8\p\rin, adj. of cypress. (Properly the adj. of Cypris.) 
Latin cypdriaaus; Greek h&pdriaada, hiipdriaainda (adj.) 
Cypris, sip'.riSf one of the cyprididaa, 8%.prid'.i.dee, a genus of 
minute bivalves of great beauty (Greek Kupris, Venus). 



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176 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cyprus, 8i\prus. An island in the Levant', sacred to KwprU, 
Cyprian, 8ip\rl.iin. A woman of immodest habits. 
Cypriot, sip.T^M, An inhabitant of Cyprus. 
Cyst, a bag containing morbid matter. Cist, a stone box for 
books or other valuables ; a stone coliin. 
Cystic, sis'.tik, adj. of cyst; cysticle, 8\s\ti.k% a little cyst; 
cystidisB, 8isMd\i.e, little bladder-like aTiimals; cystidia, 
sisMd'.i.ah (in Bot.) sacs containing spores (1 syl.) 
" Cyst," Greek kustis, a bladder. ** Cist," Latin cista, a chest. 
Cytherean, sUh\e.ree'\an, pertaining to Venus or love. So 
called from the island Cythera, sacred to Venus. 
Latin CytMrHus (adj.), CytMria, Venus. 
Czar, zaVy the emperor of Russia; Czarina, za,ree\nah, the 
empress of Russia. Czarowitch, zar^ro.vitz, the eldest sou 
of tbe Czar; Czarevna, zd.rev\nah,^iQ of the Czarowitch. 
Czar is the Polish form of the Russian kaiser (Csasar or emperor). 

Da capo, da kah\po (in Music), from the beginning. 

Italian da capo, [repeat] from the beginning [to the end]. 
Dab, a flnt fish, a slap,' a small lump ; to slap, to wet, <fec. ; 

dabbed (1 syl.), dabb'-ing, dabb'-er. (Rule i.) 
Dabble, dab\bl, to play with water, to do in a small way ; 
dabbled, dab'.b'ld; dabbling, dab'.bling; dabbler. 
" Dab," Fr. dauber, to beat with the fist ; " Dabble " dim. of daJb, 
Dace, a fresh-water fish; Dais, da'.is^ a raised floor, 
" Dace," Dutch daas. *' Dais," French daU, a canopy. 
Dactyl, dah'.tUt thrre syllables, the first being long and the other 
two short; dactylic, dak'MlXk (adj.) 
Latin dactyliis, dactylicus ; Greek, dakiUlds, a finger (which consists 
of one long juint and two short ones ; doiktiUikoB), 
Dad or daddy. A word for father used by the infant children of 

the pensantry. (Welsh tady father.) 
Dado, phi. dadoes, da'. do, da'. doze. (Italian.) A panel round the 

base of a room, just above the skirting board. (R. xlii.) 
Dsddalian, better dsedalean, de.ddle.an. Cunningly contrived, 
like the works of Daedalus. 
Latin dcRddUUbs ; Greek dail&Uds, skilfully made. 
Daffodil, ddf.d.dll. The Lent lily, a pseudo-narcissus. 

Latin aspkdd^its; Greek asphddSlds, the daffodU. 
Dagger. A short sword, a mark in printing (f). 

Low Latin daggerius, a dagger ; Italian daga; French dague^ a dirk. 
Daggle or draggle, dag'.g'l or drag'.g'l, to trail in the wet; 
daggle-tailed or draggle-tailed, having the skirt of the 
gown bedabbled with wet and dirt. 
Old English ddg, to dangle or hang in a slovenly manner. 



TELLING. 177 

A process of taking likeneBses 
T M. Daguerre. (1841.) 
ronounced day\U.ahf but ddh\- 
genus of plants. 
the Swediih botanist. 
yaily and gaily axe exceptions to 
ciii.) See Day. 

)mething " toothsome " ; dain'ti- 
)r (comp.), dam'ti-est (super.) 
9m daid, a tooth); Latiti den^, or 
ast7 (from dainty a deer). 
/lir^riZy the place where milk, 
de and kept in store ; dairymui, 

(with y), (When man, maid, 
; ishy ing, ism, are added, the 
i. Eule xi.) Chaucer uses the 
who has charge e€ a dairy ; Sir 
•the deyor fiurm.servant"; and 
milk." 

is, the farm woman's room, 
iqueting baU which has a canopy, 
aniests, generally raided. Bays 
ys, plu. of dey (of Algiers). 
daltj in the midst of grandeur : da^pia 
l(»i4 oicto "), chicff table in a monastery. 
Iz ; dMied, dd\t^d, covered with 
f da/y'9-eye, (Bts^ xi.) 
y or day's-eye. 

nan, one who lives in a dale. 
>; 49iigehie», a solitude. Low Latin 
; Norse daJ. 

daVdlz; dallied, daV.Ud; dally- 
laUies; dalli-ance. (Eule xi.) 



>ed ; a mole to confine water ; to 
laikuned (1 syl.), damm-ing (R. i.) 
;. (Latin damndre, to condemn.) 
me ; Latin domina, mistress.) 

least), Tt. dame ; ItaL dama, a lady, 
pond or dike. 
iaoMnen, to dam. 

njure; daonaged (3 syL), dam'ag- 
, ddm\ajez (-« added to -ce or -ge 
I. xxxiv.); dam'age-able (words 
in the " e " before the suflBx -able). 
ch doitimage; Latin damnum, loss. 
M 




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178 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Damask, dam^ask, cloth with flowers wrought in it; verb 
damasked, ddm\a8kt; damask-ing. 
Damaskeen, dam\a8,heen\ to inlay steel with gold or silyer ; 

dam'askeened' (3 syl.), dam'askeen^-ing. 
Damaskins, ddm'.&sMnz. Damascus blades. 
Damson, a corruption of *' damascene " (dam',a^een'), A 

plum. (All &om DamascuSy in Syria.) 
Fr. damcuqutneTf to damaskeen ; damoMer, to damask, dama$ (n.) 
Dame (1 syL), fern, of baronet or knight, now called "lady." 
The word is still used in the compound dame's-school, 
a school for poor children kept by an elderly woman. 
French dame (Madame) ; Latin ddmina (from ddmus, the house). 
Damn, to condemn. Dam, the mother of a young quadruped. 
Damned, ddmd; damn-ing, dam'-ning (not damping like 

the pres. part, of daniy q.v., stopping the flow of water.) 
Damnable, ddm'.na.b'l (not ddm\d.yi) ; damnably. 
Damnation, dammay'^hun ; damnatory, dam'jna.Vry. 
Lathi dam/n&re, to condemn, damnatio, damndtorius. 
French damnable, danvnattiony damner (yerb.) 

Damnify, ddm\ni.fyy to ii^jure. Indemnify, to insure against 
injury, to repair an injury. 
Damnifies, dam\ni.jize ; Indemnifies. 
Damnified, ddm\ni.Jide ; Indemnified. 
Damnification, dam' 'ni-fi-cay' -shun; Indemnification. 
Latin dafnmXifKoSire (damnum fado, to cause loss.) 

Damp, moist, to make moist; damped, dampt; damp'-ing; 
damp^'-er, a contrivance to abate a draught or sound, one 
who damps; damp'-er (more damp), damp'-^st (most 
damp), damp'-ness; damp'-ish, rather damp {-ish added 
to a^. is dim.) ; dampish-ly, dampish-ness. 
Dampen, to make damp ; dampened, damp\end ; dampen- 
ing, damp'-ning ; dampen-er, damp'.ner. 
German damp/y damp ; damp/en, to damp : dampfer, &c 

Damsel, ddm\z^y a girl (Low Lat. damUellay Old Fr. damoiselle 
(ma-demoiselle), dim. of dame and m^damCy originally 
dammsel was applied to the sons of noblemen and Mugs. 
" Pages " were so styled (from Latin diiminus). 

Damson, ddm\z'ny a plum. Corruption of " damascene " {dam\ 
ds-seen). From Damascus y in Syria. 

Dance, danced (1 syl.), danc'-ing, danse'-ing; danc-er, danse'.er 
(Kule xix.) (French, dansevy to dance). 

Dandelion, dan'-d^.U-Sn, a flower. (Fr. dent de liony lion's tooth). 
Its leaves are supposed to resemble the teeth of lions. 



AND OF SPELLING. 179 

Dandle, dan'd% to fondle; dandled, dan\dld; dandlings 
dan'.dling; dandier, dan'.dleVt one who fondles. 
Italian dondola^ a child's doll, d&ridolare, to toss and swing about. 
Bandriff or Dandruff. Scurf on the head. 

Old Eng. td'Mde dtnf, one diseased with dirtj or troublesome tetter. 
Dandy, i^iu. dandies, dan\diz, a fop ; dandy-ish, dandy-ism. 

French dandy, dandin, a ninny ; doMdimerf to " trapse " about. 
Dane or Dansker, a native of Denmark. Deign, to youchsafe. 

Danish, day^nish (adjective and noun). Btile xix. 
Danegeld, dane-geld (not danegelt), Danish tribute. 

Old English dane-gdd (" geld " is trihuU, but " gelt " is gm). 
Danger, dain'.jer, peril ; danger-ous, dain\j^r.us ; dan'gerons- 

ly, dan'gerous-ness. (French danger^ dangereux.) 
Dangle, d&n\g% to hang so as to swing about; dangled, dan\- 

g'ld; dangling, ddn\gUng ; dangler, dan'.gler. 
Dank, dank'-ish, rather dank (-ish added to adj. is dim., added 
to nouns it means " like ") ; dank'ish-ness. 
Same word as damp^ with " k " diminutiye. 
Dannhian, da.na\l){Mny adjective of Danube^ 

Daphne, daf\ne. The spurge laureL Daphne the daughter of 

Peneus (Pe.nee'.tts) was changed into a laurel. 
Dapper. Natty in dress and manners, smart. (Dutch.) 

Dapple, dap'.p'l, spotted, to spot; dappled, dap\p'ld; dappling, 

dap\pling (double jp). (German apfel-grau.) 
Dare. To venture ; to defy or challenge. 

Dare (to venture, to have courage), past durst. 
Dare (to defy), past dared (1 syL), past part, dared. 
He dare not is strictly correct, but he dares not is more 
usuaL Sir Walter Scott (Waverley) says: "A bard to 
sing of deeds he dare not imitate." In Old Eng. the verb 
was [I] dear^ [thou] dearest^ [he] dear, " You dare not so 
have tempted him, should be You durst not so.,, 
** Dare " (to h*ve ccmrage). Old English dear, past dorsU. 
" Dared " (provoked, defied) is more modern. 

Dark (noun) ; darken, dark'n, to make dark; dark'ened (a syl.), 

darken-ing, dark^.ning ; dark^-ness, dark^-Iy ; dark^-ish, 

rather dark {-ish added to a^. is dim.) dark-ling {-ling, 

Old Eng. means " offspring of," or is simply a diminutive). 

Old English dea/rc, v. deardian], past dearcode, past part, dearcod. 

Darling, noun and adjective, dear-one, dearly beloved. 

Old English deorlimg, little dear-one {-hng, dim. or " offspring of.") 
Dam, to mend; darned, (1 syl.), dam'-ing, dam'-er. 

Welsh dam, a patch ; v. domio, to patch ; damiad, a piecing. 



180 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dart, noun and verb ; dart'-ed (R. xxxyI), darf -ing, dart'-er. 

French dard, r. darder; Low Latin dar(ku, a dart. 
Dash, Tumn and verb; dashed (1 sjl.), dash'-ing, dash'-er, 
dash'-board, a defence in carriages against splashes. 
Danish daek, a sliq) ; ▼. datike, to alap or dadt 
Dastard, d(u\tard, a coward ; dastard-ly, dastard-oess. 

Old English ard<utrigaj%, to terrifj. 
Date, a frnit, the time of an event, to give the date ; dat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), dat-ing (Rule zix), date-less (Rule xvii.) 
French, date, r. daier; Danish datere, to date. 
Datum, plu. data, day\tah (Latin). Things admitted as facts. 
Daub, a coarse painting, to smear ; daubed (1 sjL), dauV-ing, 

daub'-^r ; daub'-y, adj. (Welsh dwbio, to daub, dwb.) 
Daughter, daw^ter, a female offspring of human parents; a 
male offspring is the Son of his parents. 
Danghter-hi-law, plu. danghters-in^w. 
Step-daughter, plu. step-daughters. (Old English st^pgn, 

to bereave : a daughter " bereaved of one parent.") 
Old Eng. ddhUr/ German tochter; Danish datter; Greek, fhugdtir. 
Dannt (rhyme with atmt)j to dismay; dauxit'-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
daunt'-ing, daunt'-less, daunt'less-ly, daunt'less-ness. 
French domfit0r, to tame (animals) ; Latin ddmJIitare (from dOmdre). 
Dauphin, fern, dauphiness, daw\fin, daw\fin.es8, Dauphin 
the eldest son of the king of France (1349-1880); 
" dauphiness," the wife of the dauphin. 
So called from J^auphinS, an old province of France, given to the 
crown by Humbert XL, on condition that the eldest son of the 
king assumed the word ''danphin*' as a title. 
Davy-lamp, day'.vy lamp. A miner's safety-lamp. 

Invented by Sir Humphrey Davy, and called by his name. 
Dawdle, daw'.d'l, a loiterer, to fritter away time; dawdled, 

daw\d'ld; dawdling, dawd'.ling ; dawdler, dawd.ler. 
Dawn, day-break, to begin to grow Ught; dawned (1 syl.), 
dawn'-in^. (Old £ng. dagung, dawn ; dag[;ian], te dawn.) 
Day, plu. days (R. xlv.); daily (not daytyy as it ought to be, 
R. xiii.). adj. and adv.; day by day, every day (here by 
means after ^ succeeding -to); to day, this day (Old Eng. 
to-dagy this day ; to-afen, this evening) ; daybreak, day- 
spring, dawn ; to win the day, to gain the victory. 
Dey. The title of the governor of Algiers, before its con- 
quest by the French. 
.Old English dceg, day ; dag-Uma, day-time : dag-candel, the snn. 
" D&y,'* Tuiidsh ddi, a titie sin^lar to senior, faihir, ice 
Daysman. An umpire, medialor. (Job ix. 33.) 

A corruption of docs-man, a man who siU on the dau to Judge. 
Day-work^ work by the day. Day Vwoik* the woik of a day. 




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AND OF SPELLING. 181 

Daze (1 syl.), to stapefy; dazed (1 syL), daz'-ing (Bule xix.) 
Old Bnglish dy*, seen in dysig, foolish : d^ys^^ianX to be « f ooL 
Dazzle, daz'js*l, to overpower with light; dazzled, daz'ji'ld; 
dazzling, da/ .ling; dazzling-ly, dazzle-ment. 
Old English dyslgiua, dizziness ; dysi^ianX to make dizzy. 
De- (Latin prefix), motion down or back, hence " the reverse." 
** DE " ^iifeflxt) denotes privation, 
Dimination, and negation. 
Motion from os downward states, 
Reverses and extenuates. 

Deacoii, fern, deaconess, dee' .kon-ess ; deaoon-ehip, office of... 

Latin dAacOnus: Greek ddakdruHa (from diaJedrUfo, to serve.) 
Dead, did, lifeless ; dead'*>nesB, dead'-ly, deadli-ness (B. xi.) ; 
deaden, d^'m, to numb, to abate force ; deadened, dH'.rCd ; 

deaden-ing, ded\ning ; deaden-er, death {q.v.) 
Old English dedd, deddiianX past deddode, p.p. deddod. 
Deaf, dif (B. vi.), without " hearing ; " deaT-ly, deaf -ness ; 
deafen, dSfn, to make deaf; deafened, defnd; deafen-ing, 
dSf.ning. (Old Eng. deaf (adj.), deafe (noun).) 
Deal, deeU a large part, fir or pine wood ; to distribute cards, 
to traffic ; poit and p.p. dealt, delt ; deal'-ing, deal'-er. 
To deal with A. B., to treat with A. B. 
To deal by A. B., to treat A^ B. well <yr ill. 
To deal to A. B., to give the next card to A. B. 
A great deal better; i.e., better by a great deal. 
Deal now means a large i>ortion, bat ddl formerly meant a portion 

or lot (v. d<hViaiii\ to distribute) ; past d^lde, past part. d/iklMi. 
** Deal" (wood), German dieU, & x/lxak. or board. 

Dean, deen. Title, The Very Reverend; Address, Mr, Dean. 

Dean'-ery, the office, revenue, house, or jurisdiction of a 

dean ; mial-dean, plu. roial-deanB. Dene, a down, q.v. 

Dean and chapter, the bishop's council, including the d ean. 

French doy^ ; Latin decdnus, leader of a file of soldiers ten deep ; 

the head of the bishop's council, which originally consisted ot ten 

canons and prebendaries (from Greek dika^ ten.) 

Dear, beloved, expensive. Deer, a stag. (Both deer.) 
Dear, dear-ness ; dear'-ly, fondly, high in price. 
He paid dearly for Ms folly (not he paid dear.,.) 
Dear me I a corruption of dio mio (Ital.) 
Old English dadty beloved, expensive ; also '* a deer." 
Dearth, derth^ scarcity. 

French dear, as '* length*' from long, &c. So in German theuer, 
dear ; Vhtwre zett, dearth (dear time). 
Death, dith; death'-leas, death'-like, <&o. (See Dead.) 
Old English doth or deiUh. 



182 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Debar, disbar; -barred, -hard; -barr'-ing (Biile L> 

Debar', to deprive, to forbid. (The Fr. debarrer is nn-bar. j 
Di8l)ar'. To take from a barrister his right to plead. 
Debase' (3 sjl.), to degrade; debased' (2 syl.), debas'-ing (K xix.), 

debas-er (one who debases), debase'-ment 
Debate' (3 syl.). to argue ; debaf-ed (Bule xxxvi.), debaf -ing, 
debaling-ly, debat^-er (Rule xix.), one who debates. 
French d^bat, y. ddnUtre {battn, to beat) ; Spanish debate. 
Debanch, de.bortch\ intemperance, to corrupt, to vitiate; 
debauched' (2 syl.). debanch'-ing; debanch'-er, one who 
debauches; debauchery, de.ftortc^'.^.ry; debauch''-ment; 
debauchee, deh\o.8M\ a man of intemperate habits. 
Debenture, deMn'.tchur, an acknowledgment of debt bearing 
interest to the holder; debentured, de.hen'.tchurd^ per- 
taining to goods on which debentures have been drawn. 
French debenture (from the Latin deheo, to owe [money]). 
Debilitate, deMV.i.tate, to weaken ; debil'itat-ed (Rule xxxvi.); 
debilltat-ing (R. xix.); debilitation, de hiVd.tay'^shun, 
state of weakness ; debility, de.hlV.i.ty, weakness of health. 
French d^biliter. dAhilitation ; Latin dtMlXtdre (to weaken), dehUita»t 
debilia, weak (de habUis hot hcUnle, or of sound constitution.) 

Debit, deb'.it {n. and v.), an entry (or) to enter a customer's 
name on the debtors' aide of a ledger ; deblt-ed, deb'it-ing. 
Latin (Ubere, supine d^bUum, to owe. (In Latin di- is long.) 
Debonair, dW.o.nair^\ gentle and courteous ; debonair'ly. 

French dibonnavre; that is, de hon air, of good air or mien. 
Debouch, de-boosh^ to march out of a defile ; debouched' (2 syL) ; 
debouch'-ing, de.boosh'.ing (not de.bootch'.ing); debbuch- 
chure, deb\oo^hure\ the mouth of a river. 
French (2^&otu:7i^,T.d^5<mc7i6r,d^&<>t^m«ni(cI«boii<;^,fromthemouth.) 
Debris, dd.bree'. Rubbish, fragments of rocks, &q. 

French d£bri9, plural noun (from de brU, out of the wre<^). 
Debt, dSt, something due ; debt-or (not -er), dSf.-Sr (6 mute). 

Latin d^tvm, debitor (from dgftdi), to owe). 
Debut, da.boo\ First appearance as a public character. 
Debutant, fem. debutante, deb\oo,tah'n, deb\oo.tant. 
French dibxii, debutant, dSbuUmte, r. dSbvier [de hut, from the goalX 
Deca-, d^ka (Greek prefix meaning ten). 

Deca-chord. A musical instrument with ten strings. 
Deca-gon. A plane figure with ten angles (gdnia, an angle.) 
Deca-gyn'ia. Plants with ten pistils (Gk. gunS, females). 
Deoa-hed'ron. A solid figure with ten sides {hedra, a base), 
Deca-litre, -lee'tr. A measure often "litres" (quarts). 



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AND OF SPELLING, 183 

Beca-logne, -log. The commandments (logvsy [God's] word). 
Beca-metre, -me^tr, A measure of ten " metres " (yards). 
Deo-an'dria. Plants with ten stamens (Gk. andres, males). 
Deca-pod, plural decapods or decapoda, de.kap\d.ddh. 

Crustaceans with ten legs (Gk. podes^ feet). 
Deca-stich, deV.aMlk. A poem with ten lines (Gk. stikos). 
Deca-style, dek\a.8iile, A porch with ten pillars (Gk. stulos). 
Decade, dek\ade, a batch of ten. Decayed, de.kade\ rotten. 
Decad-al, dSkf,d,dal (not dg.kay\ddl), a^j. of «* decade." 
Latin d^caa, gen. dgeddis^ a decade (Greek di!ka, ten). 
Decadence, de.kay\den8e ; decadency, de.kay\den.syy state of 
decay {-cy denotes "state"); decadent, de.kay\dent 
Ft. dicadence; Lat. decadens, gen. -dentU {de cacU^e, to fall off). 
Decalcomanie, da^kaV.ko.mah'.nee. The art of transferring the 
surface of coloured prints, &c., for decorative purposes. 
French d^ccUquer^ to reverse the tracing of a drawing or engraving. 
Decamp'', to remove &ora a camp, to depart hastily ; decamped' 
(2syl.); decamp'-ing; decamp'-ment, departure... 
Fr. d^camper, decampment {de camper, to break up an encampment). 
Decant, de.kdnf, to draw off wine, <fec. ,(not to decanter); 
decanf-ed (R. xxxvi.), decanf-ing ; ^ecant'-er, a bottle, 
one who decants. Descant, des.kanf, to prate about. 
"Decant," French decanter: de eantine, [to draw] from a canteen. 
"Descant," Latin decantare^ to prate about. 

Decapitate, de.cdp\ttdte, to behead ; decapltat-ed (R. xxxvi.) ; 
decapltat-ing (R. xix.) ; decapitation, de\cdp.l.tay*\8hun. 
Lat. decdpltdre (from de caput, gen. capitis, [to take] off the be id). 
Decarbonise, de^ .kar^' M.nize, to deprive of carbon (R. xxxi.); 
decar'bonised (4 syl.) ; decar'bonls-ing (R. xix.) ; decar'- 
bonis-er, decarboidsation, de'.ka'/ -ho,ni.zay*' ^hun, 
Latin de ccurho, [to deprive] of carbon. 
Decay', to rot ; decayed' (2 syl.), decay'-ing, decay'-er (R. xiii.) 

Latin de eado, to fall away from. (An ill-formed word.) 
Decease, dcses^, death, to die. Disease, diz,eez\ sickness; 
decease', deceased' (2 syl.), deceas -ing (Rule xix.) 
Latin decessue, departure ; de eedo, sup. cessum^ to go away from. 
Deceive, de.seei/, to impose on one; deceived, de.seevd' ; 
deceiv'-ing, deceiv'-er (R. xix.), deceiy'-able (R. xxiii.), 
deceiy'ably, deceiv'able-ness. 
Deceit, de.8eef; deceif-fol (R. viii.), deceif fol-Iy, deceit'- 
folness; deception, de,8^p\8hun ; deceptive, de.8ip\tiv; 
decep'tive-ly, decep'tive-ness, decep'tible (not -able); 
deceptibility, de. 8ip\ tt MV. t ty, 
French deceptif, deception : Latin deceptio, dictpi^re, supine deceptum, 
to entrap (from de eapio, to take in;. 



,y Google 



184 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

December, de.$em\ber. The tenth month, begmning with March. 

Lat december (from decern, ten ; and -ber. " Bar" (Pers.), p«iod). 
Decemvir, plu, 4ecemYir8 pr decemyiri, de^em\vir, decern'.- 
vi.ri. Ten magistrates, " decemvir," one of the ten. 
Latin decemvir, pin decemxiri {decern viri, ten men). 
Decency, plu. decencies, de\8en.8y, de'.sen.siz, (See Decent.) 
Decennary, de.8en\na.ry (double n), a period of ten years; 
decennial, de.8en\nLdl, once in ten years ; decen'nial-ly. 
Latin dicennium, the space of ten yean ; dieenndlis. 
("Annual" become* ennlal in the eompownds, l^-ennial, tri-ennial, 
dec-ennial, per>ennial, &c Latin decennisj 
Decent, dt^sent^ decorous. Descent, dS.senif, lineage, Sic. 
de'cent, de'cently ; de'cency, plu. de'cencies, def.Ben.8iz ; 
de'centness. (Fr. decent, decence ; Lat decern, becoming). 
*' Descent " is the Latin descendo, to descend {de ecando, to climb down). 
Deceptum, de.8ep'jikun; deceptive, <i«.sq)'.tiv. CiS^^ Deceive.) 
Decern, de,zem% to judge. Discern, diadem', to distinguish. 

Latin deeemo, to decree ; but diseemo, to distingoiah. 
Decide, de.8ide\ to determine ; decided, de.8i\ded. (Rule xxxvi.); 
decfded-ly, decld'-ing, decid'-er. (Rule xix). 
Decision, de.8iz\8hun, d<-termination ; decisive, de^\8lv ; 
declsive-ly, decifdve-ness. (Note the c in these words). 
(Observe. — Verbs in -de and -d add " sion" not ** Hon".) 
French ddcider, dMsif, ddeisUm ; Latin didd^re : sup. dtclmm., to 
decide (from de casdo, to cut away [what is irreleyant]). 
Deoiduoiis, de,8id\u.vs [plants not evergreen], which shed their 
leaves [in autumn], deoid'uous-ness. 
Latin dicUiuuB, subject to decay (from de cddo, to fall off). 
Decimal, des'Xrml, numbered by tens; dec'imally (adv.) 
Decimate, des^tmate, to pck out every tenth; deo'imat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.; dec'imat^ng (R. xix.) ; dec^ima-tor (R. xxxvii.); 
decimation, dS8*-l.may"8hun, selection of every tenth. 
French dieimatum, r. dAcimer; Latin dedmArt, dMmu», the tenth. 
Decipher, desWfer, to unravel obscure writings ; deci'phered 
(2 syl.); deci'pher-ing, deci'pher-er, ded'pher-able, 
that which may be deciphered. 
Fr. dichiffrer, to decipher : Low Lat de ciphra ; Ital. deciferare. 
Decision, de^iz'jihun ; decisive, de^\8iv. {See Decide.) 
Deck (of a ship), to adorn; decked (1 syl.), deck'-ing; deck'er, 
a ship having decks, one who adorns. 
Old ling, decan, to cover : Germ. d4eke, a covering, v. deekm, decker. 
Declaim', to inveigh; declaimed' (2 syL), dedaim'-ing, 
d^daim'-er; declamation, dek'.la.may^^-Mhun; declam- 
atory, de.klam^d.td.ry, bombastic. 
French dddamation, diclamatoire ; Latin deddmdtio, dedamdtor, 
dedamdtOrius, decldmare (from de clamo, to speak aloud). 



AND OF SPELLING, 1«5 

Declare, dexlair^, to assert; dec^red" (2 syl.), deelar'-ing; 
declar'-er (R. xix.). deelar'-able (R. xx.), dedaredly, 
de.elai'/ .ed.ly ; declaration, dek' .la.ray" Jthun ; declara- 
tive, dexlar'ry.tlv ; declar'ative-ly ; declaiator, de,- 
clarWa.tor; declar'ator-y, declar'atori-ly (Rule xi.) 
French ddelaratif, declaration, declaratoire, verb declarer. 
Lat. declardtor, decUirdtio, decldrdre (de clardre, to make quite clear). 
Deolensioii, de.klen\8hun. A grammatical form of nouns, a 

falling off. (An ill-formed word.) See Decline. 
Decline^ consumption, to lean, to refuse, <fec. ; declined' (9 syl.), 
dedln'-ing (R. xix.), decUn'-able (1st Lat. conj.) 
Dedination, dSk'-Vi.nay**'8hwn, Deviation. 
Bedenaioii, de.kl^'jthun (of a noun). A falling off. (v.8. ) 
Declinator, d^k'-ltnay^'-tor. An astronomical instrument. 
Decliner, de. kline\er. One who declines a noun, &c. 
French dSclin, ddclindble, dicUnaison ; v. dAclinw, to decline. 
Latin deelinatio, a deviation, a declension ; v. decUndre. 
(The mpine of " deditw" is dedinatum, and U U ^ite impossible to 
obtain declension ther^omj 

Declivity, plu. declivities, de.cl%v\i.ty, de.clW.i.Viz (not declev- 
i1y)f an inclination downwards. An inclination upwards 
is an acclivity, ak.kUv\i.ty. 
Declivitous, de.kllv^i.ttiSj ad^. (not decUvatous). 
French didiviU; Latin declvoiJtas {ds eUvw, a downward slope). 
Decoction, de.kSkf .shun. The liquor containiug the virtues of 
something which has been boiled in it. 
Latin deedquo, supine decoctum, to boU down. 
Deoompose, de'kdm.poze. Disoompose, die^.kSm.poz^, 
Decompose. To analyse, to reduce to elements. 
Discompoee. To disturb, to ruffle, to agitate. 
De'compo6e^ de'composed' (3 syl.), de'composing. (R. xix.) 
de^'compos'-er, de'compos'-able (R. xxiii.), decom'posite. 
Decomposition. de'-kdm.pojsi8h"-on. Analysis, decay, &c. 
French decomposable, v. decomposer, decomposition; Latin de com 
[con] pdnire, to do the reverse of patting together. 
Decompound, de.kom^potmd (noun), de^kdm.pownd' (verb.) A de- 
compound leaf or flower (Bof.), is a compound-compound 
leaf or flower; that is, each part of each leaf is compound. 
De'compound,' to make a compound of different compounds; 
de'o(nnpound'-ed (R.xxxvi .),de'compound'-able. (R.xxiii . ) 
De is for dis (Greek), twice. It is a wretched hybrid, and ought to 
be bieompotmd. (Latin bi [bis] compdno.) 

Decorate, dShf.o,raie, to adorn; dec'oratf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dec'orat-ing (R. xix.), dec'orat-or, one who decorates; 
decoration, dek\o.ray*'ahun ; decorative, dek'.o,ra^tlv. 
French ddearaHon, ▼. dAoor&r; Latin diScMrart (from de&tM, beauty). 



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lf<6 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Decozons, de.kSr^nu (not cUfk\o.ru8)y befitting, seemly ; deoor^- 
oua-ly, decor^ons-ness ; deoonim, de,kdr^rum. 
Fr. cUeorum, propriety ; Lat. deedrOm, dee6nu (from deeus, beauty). 
Decoy', to allure; a lure, a place for catching wild-fowls; 
decoyed' (2 syl.), decoy'-inK (Rule xiii), decoy'-er; 
decoy'-duck, a duck employed to lure wild ducks into a 
net or place for catching them. 
A cormption of duck-coy, a duck lure ; German koder, a lure. 
Decrease, de'krese (noun), de.krese' (verb). Bule L 

De'crease. diminution ; decrease', to diminish ; decreased' (2 syl.)« 
decreas'-ing (R. xix.), decreas'ing-ly, decres'cent. 
Lat. deereseo, to grow less and less (de eresco,to increase ; -to- inceptiye). 

Decree', an edict, to determine by edict; decreed', deoree'-ing; 
decreer, de.kreef.er, one who decrees ; decre'tal (one e\ 
a decree, a book of decrees (also adj,); decre'tive, 
de.kree\t\Vt having the force of a decree; decretory, 
de.kree\to,ry, judicial, decided by a decree. 

French dScret, ddcretcUe, rerb dScreter; Latin decretcUU, deeritdrius, 
decretum (from decemo, supine decritum, to decree). 

Decrepit, de.kr^\U (not decrepHd), Infirm from age. 

Decrepitude, de.kr^\l,tude. Infirmity from age. 

Pr. dicripil, d4cr4pitude; Lat. deeripiUu (from decr^po, to crackle 
like burning salt ; de er^po, to crack, bcnce " to break down "). 

Decrepitate, de.kr^\K.tate, to crackle like burning salt; 
decrep'itat-ed (Rule xxxtI.), decrep'itat-ing (Rule xix.) ; 
decrepitation, de,kr^\i,tay*\8hun, a crackling. 

French dSerSpUation, t. dScripUer; Latin d^ripltdre (frequentative 
of cripo, to rattle or crack). 

Decrescent, de.kr^^sent (adj.) Becoming smaller and smaller. 

(-«o- is inceptiye. Latin deorescerLs.) See Decrease. 

Decre'tal, decre'tlYe, decre'tory. (See Decree.) 

Decry', decries' (2 syl.), decried' (2 syl.); decri'-al, a clamorous 
censure ; decri'-er (R. xi.), one who decries ; decrjr'-ing 
(with a y, R. xi) French dScriety to cry down. 

Dedicate, dSd\i.kate, to devote ; ded'icat-ed (R. xxxvi.), ded'i- 
cat-ing (R. xix.), ded'icat-or, ded'icatory; dedication, 
dedf .%Jtay'\8hun, the act of devoting or consecrating, a 
complimentary address prefixed to a book, <fec. 
Latin dSdAcatiOy v. didic&re, to devote (from de dicda-e, to vow to). 

Deduce, de-dune^, to infer; deduced' (2 syl.), deduc'-ing 
(R. xix.), d^uc'-ible (not -able. Not of the 1st Latin con- 
jugation); dedn'cible-ness, deduce'-ment (R. xvii., xviii.) 
Latin dedUc^re, (to draw down ftom) henoe, " to infer." 




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AND OF SPELLING, 187 

Dedncf, to subtract, to take from; dednct'-ed (K. xxxvi^), 
dedncf -ing ; dedaottve, de.duk\Viv ; dednctive-ly ; 
dednction, de.duk\8hun, subtraction, inference. 
French didMdion; Latin dMnctU), dedUei^, sap. deductwn (y.s.) 

Deed, an action (Qld Eng. ddd, a deed; d4dla, a doer). 
Indeed, in fact ; Xn very deed, in very fact, in reality. 

Deem, to be of ojanion ; deemed (1 syl.), deem'-ing. 

Deem'ster. A Judge in the Isle of Man and in Jersey. 

Old English d^ma, a Judge ; t. dSmlan], to deem or judge ; past 
d^mde ( 2 syl.) ; past part, dimed, deemed, (ster both genders.) 

Deep, far to the bottom, cunning; (noun) the sea; deep'-er 
(comp.), deep'-est (»wp.;, deep'-ly, deep^-ness. 
Deep'- en, deepen, to make deeper; deep'-ened (2 syl); 

deep'en-ing, deep'-ning ( 2 syl). 
Old English dedp, deep, profound, ; de<Spne$, doppttan, to dnk. 
Deer, sing, and plu.^ the stag, <frc. Dear, beloved, expensive. 

"Deer," Old English de&r; "Dear," Old English de&r-e, v. dedr[an]. 
f**Deer,** "afeeep," and "siovne" are both Hngtbkvr and plural. J 

Deface' (2 sylO, to disfigure ; defaced' (2 syl.), defac'-ing (Rule 
xix.), defadng-ly ; def ac'-er, one who defaces ; deface'- 
ment (Rule xviii. ^.), iigury to the surface. 
De face, to destroy the face or surface. (Latin fades, the face.) 
Defalcation, def .fal.'kay'\8hun (not ^'./oi.A;ay'''.«/iwn), fraudulent 
deficiency; deff^cator, de\Jal.hay*\tor, 
French ddfaleation; Latin defalcaiio (de fdlx, a pruning knife). 
Defame' (2 syl.), to slander; defamed' (2 syL), defam'-lng, 
defam'ing-ly; defam'-er (Rule xix.), one who defames. 
Defamation, def -d.may'' -shim, slander; defamatory, de.- 
fdm\a,i6jry^ slanderously. 

(T^ pTit syl. of these words in Fr. and Lot. is dif-.) 
French diffamatien, diffamaioire^ verb diffamer; Latin diffdmdtiOt 
diffdmdre (d^[de]/ama, to deprive one of his fame). 

Defaulter, de.foV.ter, A peculator. 

Old Frepdi defavUe, now difawt, defect ; Low Latin d^altum. 
Defeasible, de.fee'M.h% alienable. Indefeasible, inalienable. 

Low Latin d^fHsibUis (Latin d^ficio^ to undo ; de fado). 
Defeat, de.feef, to frustrate, to vanquish, a frustration, an 
overthrow; defeaf-ed (Rule ixxvi), defeat'-ing. 
(The -ea- of these words is indefensible,) 
French difaite {def aire, to undo; Latin defadm, undoneX 
Defecf, a fault; defection, de.f^'.shtm, a revolt; defective, 
de.fSVMv, imperfect; defec'tive-ly (R. xi.), defeo'tive- 
ness, defecf -ible ; defectibility, de,fSk\tiMV\i.ty, 
Latin drfeetus, dtfecHo^ d^eethnu (defado, to undoX 



188 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Defence', (2 syL) a protection, a vindication; defence'-less, 
defence'less-neBS ; defences, de,fen'^z. (Bule xxxiv.) 
(This is one of the worst anomalies of the language. The 
" c " ought to have been an 8, and has been preserved in 
the compounds. See Defensive. ) See also Condense, note. 
French d^ferue ; Latin d^ensiLs, d^ehdo, supine d^enaum, and also 
df/enso (from de/endo, to drive away). 

Defend', to protect, to vindicate; defend'-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
defend'-ing, defend'-er, defend' -able (Kule zxiii.), 
defend'-ant (Rule xxv.), the person who defends or 
replies to a charge in a law -suit. The person who 
makes the charge is called the plaintiff. 
French d^endre, d^fendahte, defendewr ; Latin dttfrndgfe, 
(As usual the wrong conjunction defendabie i« Prmeh.J 

Defensive, defSn\siv, the side or posture of defence; defen'- 
sive-ly ; defensible, de.fen^suVl, what may be defended: 
defensibility, de.f^'M.bUf'.i.tyi (See Defend ) 

Freneh defensive : Latin defen4jo^ supiAe d^eruum, to defefid. 
Defer', to postpone, to submit; deferred, de.ferd' ; defer'ring; 
deferr'-er, one who postpones, one who submits in opinion. 

Deference, def.e.rense, respect to another ; deferential, 
def.i.ren'*.8hdl, respectful ; deferen'tial-ly. 
{In Latin these two verbs are not identical : To "postpone " 
is diflferre, to " submit" is deferre. We have borrowed our 
words from the French d6f(§rer, to "postpone'* and to 
" submit" and to the same source we owe the abnormal 
spelling of the last four words.) 

French difirer (both verbsX d4f4rence, difSrenl, deferentiaL 

Latin d^&ro, to defer ; part, d^^rens, gen. d^igrentis; diffSro^ to 
submit ; part diffirens, gen. diff^ltntis. 

Defiance, d^fWansCi menace. {See Defy.) 

Deficient, de.jisK.enty not perfect ; deficient-ly (adverb). 

Deficiency, plu. defidenei^ de.fisW.en.siz (Rule zliv.), 

state of imperfection, {-cy denotes state^ &c.) 
Deficit, d:^.fi.sU. DeficienQy in a money balance. 
-French difident, deficit; Latin d^flcima^ genitive d^fieienUSt veib 
d^ficio {<k faeio, to reverse of " making complete "X 

Defile (noun), de'.file, a narrow pass; (verb) de.fihf (Rule 1.), 

to pollute, to march with a narrow front or in single file. 

Defile^ defiled' (3 syl.), defil'-ing (both meanings), 

def il'-er ( U. xix.), one who pollutes ; defile'-ment, pollution. 

**DefHe" (to pollute), Old Eng. g^Vianl 

** Defile" (to march in single file), Fr. d4filer ; Lat JUum, a thread. 

Define' (2 syL), to explain, to circumscribe; defined (3 syl.), 
defin'-ing (R. xix.), defin'-er, definT-able (R. xxiii.), 
def in'-ably ; defimtion,dejf M.ntsA".ufi,meaning explained. 




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AND OF SPELLING. 189 

Definite, dSf.i.nU (not d^fXmite), predse, exact; defl- 
nite-ly ; def' inite-neoi (Bole xvii.)> exactnesg. 

Definitive, dejln'.i.tlv, positive; definltive-ly ; definl- 
tive-nesB, preciseness, exactitude. 

French d4fiinvr, d4finUif, definition: Latin d^nlte, definitely ; dffi- 
nUAo, d^nmvuB, dejbiire, to defliM(from>lni8, a limit). 

Deflect", to tnm aside; deflecf-ed (Eule xxxri), defleof-faig. 
Defleetion, better deflexion, de.fi^ .ahwa. Aberration* 
DMerxed, de.fUxf (Bot) Bent down in a continuous curve. 
French deflexion ; Latin d^fUxus, defiecto, supine defl-exum, (de flwiOt 
to bend downwards, to bend away firom). 

Defining to distort ; deformed' (2 syl.)* defonn'-lng, defonn'-er ; 
deformation, de\foT.may^* Jihun, disfigurement. 
Kal-fbrmation. Abnormal formation, misfc^med. 
D^rmity, plu. deformitieB, de,f9>f^.w!i,Viz, DistortioB. 

French diformabion, verb deformer. Latitn diform&UOy d^ormitas; 
deformdre, to d|fiflgnre (de formOj the leverse of beauty or form). 

Defraud^, to cheat; de&and'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), defirand'-ing ; 
defrand'-er, one who defirauds. 
liatin dlfravddxe (de firauda, to cbest tkorcmghly ; firoue, ftramd). 
Defray', to bear the expenses; defrayed' {fi syl.), defray'ing 
(R. xiii.), de&ay'-er ; defray'-ment, payment. 
Fr. d4frayer {defraiSf (to oancel] a charge) ; Low Lat. fredwn, charge. 
DefoBCt, de.funkfj dead. (Lat. difunetust discharged [from life].) 

Defy, to dare, to challenge; defies, de,fize ; defied' (2 syl.), 
def i'-er (not defy-er)y defi'-^ance, defl'-ant, hut deify'-ing. 
French d4fii d4ficmee, defiant ; v. c^/ler, to defy or challenge. 

Degeneiaite, de.gen\€,rate^ to grow worse; degen'erated (Rule 
xxxvi.), degen'erat-ing; degeneration, de.gen\e.ray'\' 
shun; degeneracy, de.gevf .e.ra.sy {-cy denotes a "state"); 
degen'erate-ly ; degen'erate-ness, degenerate condition. 

French dSg^n^raiimi, v. digin&rer; Latin digifnSrdre (from dgginer, 
nnUke his ancestors ; de gens, to fall away from one's race). 

Degrade', to disgrace; degrad'-ed (Rule xxxvi), degrad'-ing, 
degradation, d£g' jra.day'\8hunt dishonour, loss of rank ; 
degrad'-er, one who degrades another ; degra'ding-ly. 
Fr. digradatum, d^grader. Lat. de gradtUf [to reduce] from grade. 
Degree'. A measure applied to circles, rank, relationship, &c. 
By degrees. little by little, gradually. (French degri,) 

DeilJF» di^'i.fy, to exalt to the gods; deiflei, d^Xfite; deified, 
de'.tjide} deifi-er, de'Xfi^er, one who deifies; deifica- 
tion, deW.fukay" ^hvm,, exaltation to divine honours. 
Deism, de^dzmy belief in a creator but not in revelation; 



190 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

deist, de*A»U one whose creed is d^sm; deistical, 

deAsf.tkdl; deistical-ly, de.Uf.tkaUy. 
Deity, plu. deities, de.i.tU. (Bule xi.) 

(Del- U pronounced di-, except in this set of word* and in 

the word " deign,** where it has the sound of " a. ") 
French diificabion, t. dHJUr, diianu, dii$te, dHU; Latin dittos, 
D^gn, dain\ to vouchsafe. Dane, a native of Denmark. 

Deign, deigned (1 syl.)i deign'-ing. Dis'dain, to contemn. 

("Deign" and "disdain" shmdd he spelt in one way; 

both are from the Lat. dignus, Fr, daigner.) 
French daigner , to deign ; d^-dotijmer, to ditwUin. Latin dignus, 
Deino-, d%.no- (Greek prefix meaning terrible from hugeness of 

size, marvellously great in bulk). 
Deinomis, (2i.ffio/.nt«. A huge fossil bird. (Gk. omit, a bird .) 
Deino-eaarus or deino-saurian, plu. deino-sauriauB, di'no.- 

saAv*\rus d%' .no.saw*\ri.an, d%\no.8aw'\ri.anz, A huge 

fossil lizard. (Greek sauros, a lizard.) 
Deino-therium, plu. deino-theria, di' .nojrheef'.n.wnL, plu. 

dl' .no.rhee'\rl,ah, A huge fossil animal with a trunk. 
Greek deinoa thSrion, a terriUj-hnge beast. 

{These words are sometimes spelt di- instead of del-.) 
Deject^ to dishearten ; dejecf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dejec'ted-ly, 

dejec'ted-ness, dejecf-ing; dejection, de.jekf.shun. 
Fr. dejection: Lat. d^id^e, sup. dejectvm (de jacio, to throw downX 
Delay', to defer ; delayed' (2 syl.) not delaid. (It is not a com- 
pound of lay, R. xiv., but the supine of differo, Lat.) 

delay'-ing, delay'-er (R xiii:), one who delays. 
French dSlai; Latin di0ro, supine dildtv/m, to defer. 
" Defer " is from the root and " delay " from the sup. of the same verb. 

Delectable, de.l^.ta.b*l. (See Delight.) 

Delegate, deV.S.gate^ a representative, to send a representative ; 
deregat-ed (R xxxvi.), delegat-ing (R. xix.), intrusting 
a commission to another ; delegation, d^'-e.gay".shun. 
French d6Ugation, v. d6Uguer; Lat. delegatio, v. dSlegdre {de Ugdrt, 
to send away as ambassador or legate). 

Delendum, phu delenda, de.len\dah (Lat), to be erased. In 

printers' proofs written del or d. 
Deleterious, dM\S.tee".H.\is, hurtful; delete'rious-ly, delete'- 

rious-ness. (The de-, in Greek, is long.) 
Greek diUtMos, diUtir, a destroyer ; dSUdmai, to destroy. 
Delf. Coarse earthenware, originally made at Delft (HoIlandX 
Deliberate, de,lW.^.rate, slow to determine, to weigh in the 

mind the pros and cons; deliberate-ly, deliberate-nees ; 

delib'erat-ed (R. xxxvi.), delib'erat-ing (R. xix.), deliV- 



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AND OF SPELLING, 191 

erairor; deliberation, <2d.l^&^«.ra^'^«Aun ; deliberat-ive, 
de.Vib\e.ra,t%v ; delib'erative-ly, with deliberation. 
IVench cUIiiMnUion, dSliMratif, t. dilxMrer; Latin d£Ltb&r(Uu>, 
diliberatUnu, diliber&tor, t. diKberOire. 

Belioacy, plu. delicacies, del\i.ka^y, dSV .i.ka.8tz, A dainty, 
weakness, tenderness, consideration for others. 
Delicate, dSl\i.het; dericate-ly, dellcate-nees. 
French dSluxU; Latin diliedtua, delicate, fine, dainty. 
Belidous, deMsKMs^ delightful to the taste; delicions-ly, 

delicious-ness. (Fr. dUicieuz ; Lat. dellcia, delights.) 
Delight', pleasure, to please; delight'-ed (K. xxxvi.), deUght'- 
ing, delighf-ful (R. viii.), delight'fnl-ly, deUght'ful- 
ness ; deUght'-some, fall of delight {-some^ Old English 
suffix, "full of "); delighfsome-neas, agreeableness. 
Delectable, de.UW.ta.Vl; delec'table-ness ; delectability, 
de.lek\t€LMV\%.ty ; delectation, de.Uk\tay"^hun. 

French dihddble, d^Udatum, v. ddleeter. Latin delectdbilis, dike- 
tdtio, Y. delecto, to delight ; lacto, to allnre, to charm. 

Delineate, de.Vin\S.ate, to draw, to design ; delin'eat-ed (Bule 
xxxvi.), delin'eat-ing (R. xix.), delin'eat-or (R. xxxvii.); 
delineation, de.lln' .La'^shun, a drawing in lines or words. 
French diliiUation; Latin deLlneatio, delinedior (de linear a lineX 
Delinqxient, de*Pin\qttent. One who commits a fault. 

Delinquency, plu. delinquencies, de.liin\quen.8iz. Misdeeds. 
French ddlinquarU (wrong conj.); Latin delinqvens, gen. -^uentu, to 
fail in one'a dnty (de linquire, to leave behind). 

DeliriouB, de.li'/ri.u8y wandering in mind from illness; deliri- 
ouB-ly, deliriouB-nefls ; delirium, de.lir^ri.urny temporary 
aberration of mind ; delirium tremens, de.li?ri.um tree\- 
merUy insanity accompanied with a trembling of the 
limbs, generally brought on by drunkenness. 
Lat. delirium, dotage {de lira, [to get] out of the furrow in ploughing). 

Delittante (no such word). See Dilettante. 

Deliver, de.liv\ery to set free, to save, to hand over, to disburden, 
to utter; delivered, d«.Kv'.tfrd; deliv'er-ing, deliv'er-er, 
deUv'er-able, deliv'er-ance, deliv'ery. 
To deliver up, to surrender. To deliver over, to transfer. 

French diliverance, v. deliverer, d^liverew; Latin de libirdre, to 
liberate from [bondage] {liber, free). 

Den (R. v.), a valley. (Old Eng. ddlj a dale; Welsh twll, a pit.) 

Delphian, del\ftan. Ddphine, dSL\f\n, 

Delphian. Pertaining to the oracle of Delphi, in Greece. 

Delphine. A French edition of the Latin classics for the 
use of the " Grand Dauphin " (son of Louis XIY .) 



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192 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

DelphinidflB, dM.fln'.i.dee. The dolphin gemu. 
Selphinitun, d^.fin' XAim. The larkspur Bpedes of plants. 

Called delphinium^ from a fancied resemblance of the nn- 

opened flowers to an heraldic dolphin. 

Cfalled larkspur from a fancied resemblance of the homed 

nectary to a lark's spnr. 

" Delphlsn," Greek Delphmion, adj. ef DOphM (oracle of DelphlX 
** Delphine," Greek dd^vn or dOphit, a dolphin ; Old £^. dtlfln. 
** Delphin-idffi," -idee, a Greek patronymic, denotes a family or group. 
" Delphin-ium,** -ium, a Latin termination, denotes a speeies. 

Delta, d^\tdh, a triangular tract of land at the mouth of certain 
rivers, as the Nile, so called from the Greek A {d or delta). 
Deltic, deV.tik, a^j. ; deltoid, dM'.toid, somewhat resem- 
bling a delta. (Greek delta eidosj delta like.) 
Delude' (2 syl.), to deceive ; delud'-ed (3 syl., R. xxxvi.) ; 
delud'-ing (R. xix.); delud'-er, one who delndet; 
delud'-able (R. xxiii.), easily deceived, gulliUe. 
Delusion, lUnsion, de,lu^jshun, il.lu\zkun. 
Delusion is deception from want of knowledge. 
Dlusion is deception from morHd imagioation. 
Delusion (R. xxxiii.); deluBive, de.WJch?; dehi'iive-ly, 

delusiye-neaB; delu'sory, de.luze\8jry, 
Latin deHuUfre, to cheat (de ludo, to play on [one's cndnllty]). 
Debre (1 syl.), to dig; delved (1 syl.), cMv'-iiig (Rule xix); 
del'f'-er, one who delves. 
Old English delfian], to dig ; past deaff^ past part, ddv&n. 

Demagnetise, de.mag\neMze, to undo magnetic influence; 
demagnetised, de.mag'.ne.tizd ; demagnetis-ing, de.. 
mag\nS.tize.ing (R.xix) ; demagnetis-er, de.mag'.ne.tize.er, 

" Magnetise ** is to affect with magnetism, or to make magnetic; 
de- reverses ; and "de-magnetise Is to undo the former processes. 

Demagogue, dem\a.gSg. Demigod, d^m\i.g5d. 

Demagogue. A factious mob orator. 

Demigod. A man who has rank with the gods. 

*' Demagogne," French dimagomie: Greek d&m-dgdgdty a popular 

leader (dimds, the people) ; Latio demdgdgus. 
"Demigod," French tJUmi, haH, aad our native word "God.** The 

word healf or half is the native word for demi, as hecHf-clypiendy 

a semi-vowel, hmlf-tryndd, a hemisphere. 

Demand', a request, to claim or seek with authority ; demand'-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), demand'-ing, demand'-er, demand'-able 
(not -ihU); demand'ftut, the plaintiff in a law-sn^i^. 
French «IemaiMfo, ▼. dsfmrnder; LafOn dMiandan (mandb, to aider). 
Demftrcation, def .ma^.ha'tf\9hun, A Una of separation. 

French dimmrwUen;- Old English mearCt » suu^ a boundary. 



AXr> OF SPELLING. 103 

Tkm&aoL*^ to behave, to debase; dem^aned^^ syl.), demean'- 
ing; demeaiK)lt^, de.meanf .OTy behavionr. 

* * Ddm ean ** (to deport oneself). * ' De-port " is ti^^tin de pprto, to cany ; 

and *' demean" is French de men&r, to lead or carry. 
"Demean" (to debase oneself) is Old English ge-nuhie, common. 

Ddmi-, d^'-i' (French prefix), half. Demy, de-mf [paper], q.v, 
Qreek himi-, Latin- s^nii- (from Ore6k ^mi<iw, Latin aemia, half). 
Betni-gbd. A deified man. 

This hybrid word is partly French and[ partly Anglo-Saxon. 
Demi-lune. A term in i^or^ (French t^^miZune, half moon.) 
Demi-semiqtiaYer, dim\i 8^\i-qua\ver. Half a semi- 
quaver, t^e shortest mnsical note. 
This is French demi; Latin simi; Spanish quiebro^ a trill I ! 
Demi-volt (Fr.) One of the seven movements ill maiiige. 

Demise, de.mize^ death, t6 bequeath; demised' (2 syL), demis'- 
ing^ (Rule xix.), dem&'-able (Kule xxiii.) 

Latin dUnMtete, supine dSmiasnm^ to send down £to the grave], hence 
"death"; to send down [to heirs], hence " to bequeath." 

Democracy, vlu. democracies, de.molcf.rd.syy de,mok\ra.8Xz, a 
republic; democratize, de.mSk'.ra.tizey to make demo- 
cratic ; democratized' (4 syl.), democratlz'-ing (R. xix.) 

Democrat,' dhn'.o.ltrdt^ a favourer of democracy; demo- 
cratic, (Zem'.o.Araf'.iA;, or democratical, dem\o,krdf\i,kal 
(adj.) ; democratical-ly, in a democratic manner. 

Greek dSmdkratia{d6md8 kraUo^ to govern by the people), dimokra- 
tizOf dimokratikda. 

(ThA Uud syllable is -ej, **tiaU, office, ruU**; Tiot -sy. Similarly 
"aristocracy,'* ** autocracy ,** and the hybrid **mobocracy."J 

Demobilise, de.mo'.bil.ize. To "mobilise" troops is to render 
them liable tp be moyed out of their quarters to serve 
against an enemy. To "demobilise" them is to send 
t£eni home, as not required for active service. 
Demobilise, demo'bilised (4 syL), demo'bilig-ing (R. xix.); 
demobilisation, de.mo\bU.i.zay'\8hnn, 
(These words came into popular use in the Franco-Prussian 
war, hut have not yet found their way into dictionaries.) 

Demolish, de.mdl.i8h, to pfill down; demol'ished (2 syl.), 
demorish-ing, demorish-er; demolition, de\m6l.isK\(yii. 

French dSmolition, v. d&HioHn Latin demSlSlio, v. dgmdliH (molior 
is to heap up, de moUor is the reverse of "heaping up"). 

Demon, d^.mon, a fiend ; demonism, de'.mon.izm, belief in the 
active agency of demons ; demohology, de'.mo.noV'o.gy, 
a systematic treatise on demons (Gk. loghs^ discqurse, <fec.), 
demonolatry, de\mo.noV\atry, the worship of demons (Gk. 
latreia, worship), demoniac, de'.mo\ni.dk, one possessed ; 
demoniacal, e{«^mo.n^^a.^(^^(adj:); demoni'acal-ly; demo- 

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194 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

nize, d^\m6.mze^ to miBke one like a demon ; de'monized 
(3 syL), de'moniz-ing (Rule xix.), de'moniz^r. 
French cl^mon, dAmoniajque^ dSmonographey dimonologit; Latin 
dceimcn, dcemdnidcus; Greek daimdn, daimdniakds, daimOnizOmau 
Demonstrate, de,mon'Mrate (not dem/ofiH8tr4ite\ to prove; 
demon'strated (Rule xxxvi). demon'strat-or (not -«r, Rule 
xxxvii)j demonstrat-ive, de.mon\8tra.tlv ; demon'stra- 
tive-ly, demon'strative-ness; demonstrable, de^mcm'- 
8tra.h'l; demon'strable-ness, demon'strably (1st Latin 
conj.) Rule xix. demonstration, dem',on.8tray'^8him, 
French dimonstratif, dSnumstration ; Latin dimonstratio, d^num- 
stratlvtUf dgmonstrdtar, dimonatrcure {monstro, " to point out "). 
Demoralise, de.mofral,iz€y to injure the morals, to disorganize ; 
demor'allsed (4 f^yl.), demor'alis-ing (R. xix.), &mor'« 
alis-er ; demoralisation, de.mo'/rcLl.i.zay'* ^hun. 
French difnoroLiaation, y. dAmoralizw ; Latin de more«. 
Dempster. A judge in the Channel Isles, and in the Isle of Man. 
Old English dima, a judge : ddmlan], to judge ; i-tter is not a 
feminine suffix, but is used In both genders). 
Demulcent, de.muV^ent, Soothing. (Lat. demulcensy gen. -centU.) 
Demur', to hesitate from doubt; demurred^ (2 syl.), demurr'-ing, 
demurr'-er (R. i.), in Law, an issue raised on some legal 
question in a suit, one who demurs; demurr'-able ; 
demurr'-age, a fixed charge for the detention of trucks, 
&c., belonging to another railway company ; an allowance 
made to t^^e owners of a ship by the freighters for deten- 
tion in port beyond time. 
French demeure, t. demefur&r; Latin dSmorSHimdra, delay). 
Demure, de.meur', coy ; demure'-ly, demnre'-ness. 

French des mcews (avoir dea moBura, to have proper morals). 
Demy, plu. demies, de.mi\ de,mize\ Dem'L Demise' (2 syl.) 
Demy^, a size (in paper) between " royal " and " crown", 
a " scholarship " in Magdalen College, Oxford ; demyship, 
dejmy'jship, the possession of a demy scholarship (-shipf 
Old Eng. affix, " tenure of," " state", "jurisdiction,'' &c.) 
Demi, dim\i (Ft. prefix), half; Lat. 8emi ; Gk. hind. 
Demise, de.mize\ death. 
" Demy " [paper], that is, demfrtoyal 20 in. by 15, Instead of 24 by 19. 
"Demy " [Oxford], is a demior inferior fellowship. 

Den- (Old Eng, postfix) a valley, a wooded place : as Tenter-d«n. 

Den, a cage for wild beasts, &c. (Old Eng. den or denu, a den.) 

Denationalise, d«.7ia«/i'.07i.al.ize. To deprive of nationality. The 
Poles are denationalised, being incorporated into Russia, 
<fec.; denationalised, de.na8h\on.aLized; denat'ionalis-ing. 

Dene (1 syl.), a valley. Dean, a church dignitary. 
' ' Dene," Old Bnfi^b dent. ' ' Dwa," Latin decOnui. 




AXD OF SPELLING. 105 

BeniAl, de.nV.dL {See Deny.) 

Denizen, d^\i.z^ A nataralised eitizen. 

Denizen is one made a citizen ex donatidne regis (by 
royal gift or charter). A denizen was a trader within 
the walls of a town ; a forein was a trader without the 
walls (Lat. /om, abroad). 
Low LaUn denizen'us; Old French donaison (Latin dontmi, a gift). 

Denominate, de.nSm'.i.natey to designate; denom'inat-ed (K. 
xxxvi.), denom'inat-ing (R. xix.); denom'inat-6r, one 
who denominates ; denom'inat-or, in fractions, the figure 
below the line, as 4 (here "2" is the denominator because 
it " designates" into how many parts tbe unit is divided. 
Denomination, de.nSm'.i.nay^', shunt name, a society (chiefly 
applied to religious sects); denominational, de.nom'.i.- 
nay'\shun.dli sectarian ; denomina'tional-ly ; denomi- 
native, de.nom\i.naMv, 
French dinominateury a denominator, dinominatif, denomination ; 
Latin dindmindtio, deniynvindtvoua, dSndmindtor, that which gives 
the name [to a fraction], denomindre (from nomen, a name). 

Denote' (2 syL), to indicate ; denof-ed (R. xxxvL), denot'-ing 
(R. xix.), denot-able; denotation, de\no.tay'\8hun ; 
denotative, do.nd\taMVf having the power to denote. 
Fr. denotation, y. dinoter; Lat den^tdtio, dendtdre (n/fta, a mark). 
Denouement (French), da'.nou.mah'n (not da.nou'.e.mong), the 

winding up or final catastrophe of a drama, <fec. 
Denounce, de.nounse'^ to inform against ; denounced' (2 syl.), 
denonnc'-ing (R. xix.), denounc'-er, denounce-ment. 
(Five words drop the final e before -ment, viz., acknowledg- 
ment, abridg-ment, argu-ment, lodg-ment, judg-ment.) 
Denimciation, de,nun\se.a".shun, a public denouncement ; 
denunciator (not -ter), one who denounces ; denuncia- 
tory, de.nun\8he.a.t'ryy containing a denouncement. 
French d4noncer, ddnonciation; Latin denunddiiOt denilncidre, to 
denounce (de ntmeio, to inform against). 
Dense, dence, thick. Dens, denz, plu. of den; dense'-ly, 
closely ; dense'-ness, den'sity. (Rule xix.) 
French dense, densitS: Latin densw, densitcu, y. densdre. 
Dent, a notch. Dint, force, power. 

" There is a dent in the [teapot]," pot dint, 
" He did it by dint of [kindness], by the power or force of. . . 
Dent (verb), denf-ed (R. xxxvi.), denf-ing. The more 
usualformsof this verb are indent', indent'ed, indent'-ing; 
indentation, in\den.tay^'-shun (has no simple form). 
Denf-al, pertaining to the teeth; denf-ist; den'tistry, 
the art and profession of a dentist; dentition, dSn.tish' .un, 
the " cutting" of teeth. 



106 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dentate, dSn\tate (in Bot.), toothed [applied to leaves]; 

dentated, d^'M\ted, (R, xxxtI.) ; denit'ate-ly. 
Dentelle, dahn\tell. Lace, lace-work. 

Denticle, den*.ti.k% a small projecting point like a tooth ; 

denticnlate, dSn.tW.u-late (in BoU), finely toothed; 

dentic'ulate-ly ; denticnlation, d^.tik\u.lay''^htm. 
Dentifrice, denf.tufris. Tooth-powder. 
Latin denies fricOf tp rob the teeth. 
Dentine, den\tine (not d^.teen)' The tissue which 

forma the body of a tooths {-ine 1a%. '• substance/') 
Dentils, d^'.tilz (in Arch,) Little square projections in 

the bed-mouldings of cornices, (fee. 
French dent, a tooth ; dental^ denteile, dentieule, dentifrioey dentiste, 

dentition; Lat, den«,.gen. cLmt^ia, dentieiilus, dent^^frldvant dcntltio. 

Denude' (2 syl), to strip ; denud'-ed (R. xxxvi.), denud'-ing (Rule 
xix.),denud'-er, denudation, de.nu^ddy'^shufti divestment. 
French denudation, v. dinuder; Latin dSnud&tio, v. dirvuddre, to 
make entirely naked (from nv4%u, naked). 

Denunciation, de.nun\8e,a'' shtm. {See Denounce.) 

DeujT^, to refuse, to contradict; denie?* de.nlze'; denied, de.nide'; 

deni'-er, deni'-able, denT-al, but deny'-ing (Rule xi.) 
French dinier, to deny : dini, a denial ; Latin d^n^dr€, to refuse. 
Deodand, de\o.dand. A fine on the master, when one of his 

chattels has caused the death of a human creature. 

Latin deo dcmdus, given to God. M th9 penon thns killed died 
without absolution, the money was givetk for "masses for the 
dead." Abolished in 1846. 

Deodorise, de.o*.dojrizef to disinfect, to neutralise bad odours ; 
deo'dorised (4 syl.), deo'do]Ss-ing'(R. xix.) ; deo'doriis-er, 
a disinfectant ; deodorisation, de.d\do.n.zay*\8hun. 
L(ttiQ de ddeo, i.e. 6leo, to stink {de reverses). 

Deoxidate, de.ox\i.date, to deprive of oxygen; deoxldat-ed 
(Rule, xxxvi.), deoxldat-ing (Rule xix.), deozidation, 
de.ox\i.day'\8kun, deprivation of oxygen. 

Deoxidise, dl.ox\i.dize, to deprive of oxygen ; deox'idised 
(4 syl.), deox'idis-ing, deoxldis-er, that which deoxidises. 

Deoxigen9.te, de.ox.ij\e.nate, to deprive of oxygen ; deox- 
ig'enat-^d^ dcoxig^enat-ing, deoxig'enat-er, that which 
deprives of oxygep ; deoxigenation, de.ox.ij\e.nay'\8hun. 
(It is liLsual to spell these words with -xi-, hut as 
"oxygen^' is spelt with a *'y," the change should never 
have been made.) 

French de -oxydable, -oxydation, -oxyder, to deoxidise, -oxygenation, 
Y. -oxygdner; Greek oxiu gen6, to generate sour, or add [compounds]. 




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AXD OF SPELLTNC, 197 

Beparf , to leave ; depart'-ed (B. zxi^yi.), depart'ing, departure, 
de,par\tch(wrj a going away, death. 
Deparfmeat, a specific branch of a bnsiness; depart- 
mental, de.'part.men'.tdl, limited to a department. 

French deport, t. dApartiVf ddpaH&merU, dSpartemeniiU / 
Latin de paHire or -wi, to separate from [others]. 

Depend^ to rely on; dep«id'-ed (Bole xxxvi.), depend'-ing, 
depend'-ent (not dependant), dependent-ly, depend'-ence 
(not dependance); depend'ency, plu. dependencies, 
de,p^\den'jiz; depend'able (B. xxiii). Independence, in'- 
depend'ency, in^depend'ent, in^depend'ently (in-, neg.) 
Dependent on [another]; Independent 0/ [all others]. 
Pendent /rom [the ceiling], i.e., hanging down from. 

French dependance, dependant (wrong conj.) ; Lat. dependena, gen. 
dependentU, ▼. dependSre (de pendeo, to hang on or from). 

Depicf, to paint, to describe ; depict'ed (Bule xxxvi, ), depicting ; 

depicf er, one who depicts. (Latin depictus, painted.) 
Depilatory, de.ptV.a.to.ry, an ointment or lotion for removing 
hair [from the face and arms]. 
French dipUatoire; Latin d^ldre, to remove the hair (pUus, hair). 
Depletion, dcplee^shun, exhaustion ; depletive, de.plee\tiv. 

Latin depHre fpleo, to fill, de reverses). 
Deplore' (2 syl.), to lament; deplored' (3 syL), deplor'-ing 
(B.xix.),deploring-ly(adv.); deplor'-er, one who deplores; 
deplor'-able, deplor'ably, de-plor'ablenesB ; deplora- 
biUty, de.plof.aMV'.i.ty, deplorable state. 
French diplorcible, v. diplorer ; Latin depWrdre {pldro, to wail). 
Depolarise, depo^lar.ize, to deprive of polflrity; depolarised 
(4 syl.), depolaris-ing (E. xix.); depolarisation, de.pd\. 
lar.i.zay'\8kun. To polarise light is to split each undu- 
lation into two, each spUt undulation is " polarised light" 
Polarity, po.lar^H.ty, the " state of being polarised." 
French polarisation, polarizer, polariU; Latin polari», polar. 
Depopulate, de.pop\u.late, to lay waste, to deprive of inhabit- 
ants ; depop'ulat^d (R xxxvi ), depop'ul&t-ing (B. xix.), 
depop'ulat-or (B. xxxvil); depop'ulation, -lay". shun. 
French dSpopulaiion ; Latin depdpHldtio, depdpHldtor, depdpiUdre 
(jpdp&lus, people), to deprive of people, de privative. 

Deporf, to behave; deporf-«ed (B. xxxvi.), deporf-ing ; d^port'- 
ment, behaviour. The verb deport [to behave] must be 
followed by a reciprocal pronoun, as oneself, himself, my- 
self, herself, themselves, yourself, yourselves, &c. 

French dSporter, to banish; Latin deportdre, to carry away (porta. 
to bear or carry). We talk of a man's bearing [way of conducting 
himself], hi« carriage [figure and bearing], &c. 



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108 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Depose, de.poz^, to degrade from office (s between two vowels 
= z); deposed' (2 syl.), depos'-ing (Rule xii); depos'-er. 

Deposit, de.p9z\it, something intrasted to another, a pawn, 
to give something as a pledge, to lay by money in the 
bank; deposlt-ed (B. xxxvi.), deposlt-ing, depos'it-or 
(R. xxxvii.); depository, de.poi'.i.to.ryy place for deposits. 

(This word ought to 6e depositary ; Ft. dipoaitaire; Lat. depdMtoriiMj 
Deposition, de^pojsish'.un. Statement made on oath. 

French dipoaer, diposition; Latin depdsitio, depdgitor, depdsUtu^ 
dtponirty supine depdsUum {de pono, to lay [something] down). 

Depdt, plu. depdts, dd.po'y da.pdze' (Fr.), not day'po, nor 
d^p'.po, a place where stores of a specific sort are kept. 

Deprave' (2 syl,), to corrupt ; depraved' (2 syl.), deprav'-ing 

(R. xix.), deprav'-er ; depravity, plu. depravities, de.- 

prdv'.i.tiz, moral turpitude; depravedness, de.prdvd'.nest. 

Depravation, de.pray.vay^^kun. State of moral turpitude. 

Deprivation, d^.pryjvay'^kun. Divestment. 

French d^pratfoiion, v. depnxoer; Latin deprdvdtio, depravdre (from 

prdvtUf crooked ; de-pravo, to dis-tort). 
" Deprivation," is Latin d^inivatio (from privdre, to take away). 

Deprecate, dSp'.re.kate, to blame, to curse ; dep'recat-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), dep'recat-ing (Rule xix.), dep'recating-ly, dep'- 
recat-or (not -er, R. xxxvii.) ; deprecatory, dep\re.ka,try ; 
deprecative, dep'.re.kadiVf dep'recative-ly. 

Deprecation, dep\rejiay*',8hun, A cursing, a blaming. 

Depreciation, de.prte'^td.8hun. Detraction of value. 

French d6prication, diprScaii/: Latin de precdri, to pray against. 

Depreciate, dM.pree' sLatCy to lessen in value; depre'ciat-ed 
(K. xxxvi), depre'ciat-ing (R. xix.), depreciat-or (not -«r, 
R. xxxvii.) ; depreciation, dS.pree\8i.a'\8huny detraction 
of value; depreciative, d^.|9r««'.«l.a.tti;; depre'ciative-ly; 
depreciatory, de.pree''^\.a.tory. 
Fr. dipriciation, v. diprMer; Latin depricidrt (pr^ium, the priced 

Depredate, d^',rS.datey to plunder; dep'redat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dep'redat-ing (Rule xix.). dep'redat-or (Rule xxxvii.); 
depredatory, dep'\re.da\t'ry (adj.), plundering ; 
depredation, d^p\reJ4iy'\8huny spoliation. 

French d^6dation; Latin de- pradStiOt prasd&tor, ^cedatdriru 
(from pr<eda, prey, booty). 

Depress', to lower in spirit or in valne ; depressed' (2 syl.), de- 
press'-ing, depress'ing^ly, deprees'-or (not -er, R. xxxvii.), 
depression, dcpresK.uUy lowness, dejection, concavity. 

French dipression; Latin depreasiOy depresior, r. depHmo, supine 
depre88um (de prtmo, to press down). 




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AND OF SPELLING. 199 

Deprive', to take away, to lose ; deprived', depi^v'-ing (E.xxxvi.), 
depriv'-er, depriv'-able, deprivation, d^.pri\vay'' ^hun. 
Latin de- privOrtf to take away from ; privatio. 

Depth. Observe these four words, Length, breadth, depth, 
and height (not heighthy as it is often pronounced). 
Deep; -th^ Old Eng. postfix, converts adj. to abstract nouns. 

Depurate, de/pu\rate, to firee from impurities; depu'rat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), depu'rat-ing (R. xix.) ; depuration, de.pvf. 
ray^,8hun; depurative, depu',ra.tKv. 
(The accent of these words is often thrown <m the first 
syllable, hut the way given is the more correct.) 
French d^purer, dipwration ; Latin depOrdtio (pwrus, pure, clean> 

Depute' (2 syl.), to appoint; depHf-ed (R. xxxvi.), depuf-ing 
(R. xix), depuf-er; deputy, plu. deputies, dip'.u.tiz, 
persons deputed ; deputation, dep',u.tay'\8hun. 

French diputation, v. dApvAer ; Latin depiUdrt, to lop off (pHtOf to 
prune). A " deputy ** is one cut offttom others for a given object. 

Derange, de.rainf (not de.ranj)^ to disorder; deranged' (2 syl.), 
derang'-ing (R. xix.), derang'-er, derange'ment (only 
five words drop the e final before -ment. Rule xviii. %). 
French derangement, v. ddranger (rangier to put in rank, de reverses). 
Deroetis, d^.8^.ti8. A fossil eel-like fish in the chalk formation. 
Greek DerJeitis, a Syrian goddess, like a mermaid, similar to Doffon. 
Derelict, der^ry.Ukt, abandoned, goods forsaken by the owner; 
dereliction [of duty], der^ry.Uk'^.shun (not derelection), 
neglect [of duty] involving guilt. 
Latin dir^ietio, deriflictut (de relinquor, reiiduB, to leave). 
Deride' (2 syl), to laugh at ; dei^d'-ed (R. xxxvi), derid'-ing 
(R. xix.), derid'-er, one who derides. 
Derision, de.rizj'.un, ridicule; derisive, de.ri'.stv ; deri'- 
sive-ly, derisive-ness (Rule xxxiii.) 

French dirider, dirisUm; Latin dSridSre supine dSriaum^ to laugh 
at ; derxsio. 

Derive' (2 syl.), to acquire, receive, draw from a source ; de- 
rived' (2 syl.), deriv'-ing (R. xix.), deriv'-er, deriv'able. 

Derivation, denary .vay" .shiln, tracing to the root, descent. 

Derivative, de.rW.a.t^, a word formed from another, not 
fundamental; derivative-ly. Rule(xvii.) 

French dArinatif, dirivatUm, v. d&river; Latin dfrivdiio, dirivaHvus, 
d&rlvdre {de rivo [to draw] from the river or source). 

Dernier ressort, der/.ne.a res^sor (French). The last expedient 
or resource. (Not dernier resort, which is one word 
French and one English, and ought not to be tolerated. 
£ither say dernier ressor or the last resowce.) 



200 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Derogate, der'ro.gate, to disparage ; der^ogat-ed (Bale xxxvi.), 
dero'gat-ing; derogation, der'ro.gay'^shfm- 
Derogator, de.rSg\a.tor, a dfitractox; dorog'atoiy, derog^- 

i^tori-ly (Rule xi.), dero^atpri-ness (Rule xi). 
French derogation, ddrogatoire, v. dSrog«r ; Latin derdgdtiOy derdgdtor, 
dSrogdtivua, derdgatorius, derdgatd/re (frequentative S deriigare. 
{f Bogftre** is bring in a bill or propose a law ; " de-rogiar^ " is the 
reverse, i.e., to repeal a la^f^.) 
Der'ric^ A temporary crane for removing goods ftom a vesseL 

So called from Derrick, the Tyburn hangman (17th centuryX 
Derviah or derviaB, der'.vU. A Mohammedan " monk" of great 

auste/ily. (Persian, derwesch, poor,) 
JDefloaut, des.kanfi to comment, to ta^ to oneself; deecant'-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), descant'-ing, descant'-er. 
{The Jirst syllable should be dis. The word is " dis-cant.") 
Spanish discantar, to descant ; Latin dia cantdre, to sing apart. 
Beac^nd, defend' (not des.send\ The word is compounded of 
de and scando, to climb 4own) ; d^ce^d-ed, defend', ed 
(R. xxxvi.), descend-ing, de.send\ing. 
Pescendant. One proceeding from an ancestor. (This 
word should be "descendent;" but, as usual, we owe 
our error to the French.) Descendent (in Astr.), is the 
opposite of ascendant. (Here again is a marvellous 
confusion. It should be ** The star is in the ascendent 
or descendent; " but if the French error is preferred, then 
take the French words ascendant and descendant, and 
not one right and one wrong.) 
Descend'-ible (not -able) ; d^cei^bility, de.8end\%.blV\i.ty, 
Deacenaioii, desen'shun, a falling, hence a quarrel or 
falling out (verbs in -d and -de, add -sion instead of 
-tion, R. xxxiii.); descensional, dcsen'shtm.al (adj.) 
Descent, dcsenf (not dis. sent), s|ope, pro^e^s down; but 
Dissent, dissenff a disagreement, to differ. 
French descendant, verb desce^n^e, descente ; Latin detcendens, gen. 

descendentia, deacensio, descendire (de scando, to climb down). 
"Dissent" is Latin dissentio, i.e., dis sentio, to think differently. 
Describe, dcskribe" (not des.kribe). (The word is compounded 
of de and scribo, to write down, not des-cribo,) 
Described, dcskribd'; describ-ing, de.skribe.ing (Rule xix.); 
desorib-er, de.8kribe'.er, one who describes; describablo, 
de.skr%be\a.ble (Rule xxiii.) The negative is indeacrib* 
al)le, that which cannot be described. 
Description, deskri,p^.shun (not dis,skrlp\skun) ; descrip- 
tive, de.skrlp'.tiv (not dis.skr^\tiv) ; desoriptive-ly ; 
descoiptiYe-neBB, deskr^\tfiv.negs, 
French descriptif, description; Latin describgre, desoriptio (de teribo 
to write down, to limit or deftuAJ. ' 



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AND OF SPELLIXG. 201 

Deacsy, to espy. Decry, to ory dawn. 

Descry, des.hry' (not de.8kry\ nor yet Ms.lnY); descries, 

des.krize' (not dis.krize), R. xi.; descried, des.knde' (not 

dis.knde) ; .cie9ori<-er (not descryer, B. ^.). de8.cn.er. 

(The first syl. (Kfight to be cUs- as it is ustnilly pronounced. ) 

" Descry " is a conmption of the ^ormim diseriirtrj Latin diseemOf 

supine discrituniy to discern. 
" Decry " is the French di crier, to cry down. 

Desecrate, d^'.e.krdte, to profane what is sacred, the opposite 
of consecrate ; des'eorat^d (E. xxxvi), des^eerat-ing (E. 
xix.); des'ecrat^er, one who desecrates ; desecration, 
d^'.eJtray^.shun, profanation. (One of the few words 
in 'Hon which is not Frencli.) 

(This word mast not he confounded with execrate, 'Ho 
detest^'* " to curse") 

Latin disecrdre, disecr&tus (jMor&re, is to hallow, dt reverse^}. 
Desert, diz'.ert; desert, de.zerf; dessert, deM.zerf. 

iDesett, dSz'.ert (noun); dez.erf (verb). Eule L 

Desert, dh'.ert, a wilderness, a solitude; dS.zerf, to aban- 
don; deserf-ed (Eule xxxvi.), desert'-ing, desert'-er 
(should be desertor); desertion, dKzer^^hun, 

§Desert, de.zertf. That which deserves reward or punishment. 

§Dessert (with double «). The course of fruit at dinner. 

** Desert" (a wilderness, to abandon); French cUtert, verb deserter, 
diserteur, cUsertion ; Latin desertum, a des'ert ; desertor, desertio, 
desertare (frequentative of siro, to knit together, and de- which 
reverses, hence to unbind, forsake, abandon). 

"Desert" (merit;, Latin deservlTe, supine deservitvm, contracted to 
deser^tum, something deserved. 

*< Dessert" (of fruit), French desserty what is brought on after the 
table is cleared (desservir, to clear the table). 

Deserve, dejserve\ to merit; deserved, de.zervd'; deserv-ing, 
dejser^.ving (Rule xix.); deserv*^, de.zer\ver ("s" be- 
tween two vowels =! z). 
Deservcidly, de.zervd'Jly, mpre often de^er'.ved.ly. 
Deser'ylng-ly (only in ^ good sense). 
Latin deservio, to merit for service {servio, to do a service). 
DeshabiUe, properly pronounced days'-a.hee'-ya, but generally 

called dis'.a.heel, undress. (French.) 
Desiccate, desWk.kaU, to dry op; des'iocat-^d (Bule xxxvi.) 
deslccat-ing (Eule xix.); desiccant, desWk.kunt, a 
medicine to dry a running sore ; desiccation, des\ik.kay'\- 
shmPi the act of making dry, or state of being dry. 
DeslocatiYe, de.siW,ka,tlv (adj.). Drying or tending to dry. 
(''Desiccation** is one of the few words in -tion not French.) 
Latin dmcc&tio, dmce&re (tieeo, to dry ; ncew, 4ry). 



202 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Desiderate, dcsld'-esaUf to want ; desid'erat-ed (Rule xxxvi.) ; 

desid'era^ting ; desideratiYe, de.sid\ejra.tiv, (These 

words are not much used.) 
Desideratum, plu, desiderata, de.sldf.e.ray".tum, plu. de.- 

8id\e,ray'\tdK Something needed to supply a deficiency. 
Desideration, de^ld' .e.ray^\8fnm. Something required to 

supply a deficiency. 
Latin diHdirdtio, dSslcUfrativui, ditnd&rdtus, desider&re, to crave for. 
Besign, de.zm^, a scheme, a plan, to intend, to plan, &c.; 

designed, de.zined'; design-ing, deaine\ing ; design-er, 

de.zlne\er; deeigned-ly, de.zine\ed.ly, intentiohally ; 

design-able, de.zine'.a.b'l ; design-less, de,z%ne\le88 ; 

designless-ly ; design-ment, de,zine^.ment. 

(In all the examples given above the " g " is silent^ but is 

pronounced hard in the following derivatives, jand " s " is 

no longer = z,) 
Designate, des'sig.nate, to point out, to name ; des^ig^at-ed 

(Rule xxxvi.) ; dee'ignat-ing, deslgnat-or. (R. xxxvii.) 

Designation, des'sig.nay'^shun. A name, <fec. (Rule Ix.) 

French designer, designation; Latin designdtio, designator, design[o], 
to mark out {signum, a sign or distinguishing mark). 

Desire, de.zlre\ to wish for ("s" between two vowels = z); 
desired' (2 syl.), desir'-ing (R. xix.), deslr'-er, desir-able, 
desirably, deslrable-ness. 
Desirous, de.zir^.us^ wishful; desir'ons-ly. 

Fr. disir, dSsirable, v. d4sirer, d4sireux. Lat. dSsld^re, which furnishes 
the verb dislderdre, to crave for ; dSsid^rium, desire, cra\dng for. 

Desist, deMsVy to leave off (Rule Ix.) ; desisf-ed (Rule xxxvi.) ; 

desist'-ing; desistance, de,zis\tance, a ceasing to act. 

(The first "s" in "desist" is pronounced between s and 

z ; but in "resist" it is decidedly ^z.) 
French ddsister; Latin desist^re, desistens (sisto, to continue). 
Desk, a sloping table. (Old Eng. disc, a table, a board, a dish.) 

Desolate, d^\o.late, lonesome, in a ruinous state, to lay waste ; 
des'olat-ed (R. xxxvi.), des'oiat-ing (R. xix.); des'olat-er, 
one who lays waste ; des'olat-ly ; desolatory, desi'.o.la.t'ry. 
Desolation, d&'.o.lay'\shunf a state of ruin and gloom. 

French dSsolatewr, desolation, verb dSsoler; Latin dSsdldHo, dead- 
Idttu, disdldre (from sSlus, alone). 

Despair' (not dispair), hopelessness, to be without hope; 

despaired' (2 syL),despair'-ing,de8pair'ing-ly,de8pair-er. 
Desperate, d^'.pe.rate, reckless, without hope ; desperate-ly, 

des'perate-ness (Rule xvii) 
Desperation, des'.pe.ray'^shun. Recklessness, hopelessness. 



AND OF SPELLING. 203 

Desperado, p2u. deBperadoes (Bule xliL), dei'.pi.ray'\doze 
(not de8'.pe.rdh.doze), a bravo. (Spanish.) 

Latin detpirdiio, despirAtuSt detpirdre {de ape$, without hope). 
Deepatoh' (not dispatch). Haste, a special. message, to send on 
special business. Despatches (plu.), written documents 
sent to or from a public servant on business of state, 
(B. liii.), despatched (2 syl.), despatch'-ing. 

Spaqish deapachar verb, deapcu^ noun ; Latin de wpdtior, to travel 
from [one person or place to another]. 
Despicable, de8\p\.kd,l>l (not des.pW.&.Vl). See below. 
Despise' (3 syl.), not dispize, to contemn; despised' (3 syl.), 
despis'-ing, despis'-er; despis-able, contemptible; des- 
picable, de8\pi.ka,Vl (not des.pik\a.Vl\ worthless, vile; 
despis'ing-ly, with disdain; des'picably, contemptibly; 
despicable-ness, des^.pi.ka.ii'l.ness (not de8.plik\a.h%ne88). 

Latin despMMlitt deaptdo [de spido^ to look down on one). 
Despite, dSs.plte^. An act of malice, notwithstanding. 
{It is never used as a verhy the verb w " to spite.") 

Latin despi4sio, supine despeetum {de specie, to look down on one). 
Despoil' (2 syl.), to plunder; despoiled' (2 syl.), despoil'-ing ; 
despoU'-er, one who despoils. 

Despoliation, dS,spd' .li.a'* .shun (not despoiliation). 
(Ihis noun is very little used, spoliation is used instead.) 

Latin despdliArt, to pillage ; spoliare, spolidtio, &c 
Despond', to fail in hope ; despond'-ed (R. xxxvi.), despond'- 
ing, despond'ing-ly; despond'-er, one who desponds; 
despond'-ent (not -ant), low spirited; despond'ent-ly, 
despond'-ence, despondency, des.pon'.dSn.cy, 

Latin deapoTidena, gen. despondeniis, deapondere (gpondeo is ''to an- 
swer [one's expectation]," de reverses, hence de-spondeo is to dis- 
appoint one's hope, "to lose hope.^ 

Despot, dis'.pSt, a tyrant, an autocrat; despotic, d^.pSt'.lk, 
absolute; despofical, despofio-ly, despot'ical-ly; des- 
potism, dis\po,tizm, autocracy. 

French dettpote, deapotique, despotism; Greek dfypdtis, difsp&tikds, 
▼erb dSspozd, to obtain mastery. 

Dessert, diz.zerf; desert, de.zert'; desert, dez'.ert. 
Dessert, d^z.zert\ A course of fruit after dinner. 
Desert, de.zerf. What is deserved (good or ill). 
Desert, dez\ert, A solitude, a wilderness. 
Desert, de.zertf. To abandon (g.v.) 
" Dessert," French dessert, the course served after the table Is cleared : 

desservvr, to clear the table. 
"Desert" (what is deserved), Latin disenrio, sup. diservltum, to do 

one a service, hence ** to deserve [payment] 
"Desert" (a wildeme«s), French desert; Latin desertum. 
"Desert" (to abandon), the same. (Sero is to join, as de reverses 
de-sero is to disjoin, and hence " to forsake.") 



204 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Destine, d^\t\n (not des.tme), to design or purpose ; destined' 
(2 Bjl.) ; destining, des'tln-ing (Bule xix.) 
DestinAtian, dSs'di.nay" ^him» The ultimate goal 
Destiny, phi. destinies, d^'M.ny, d^Wl.niz. Fate, doom. 
Yxeufilx dutin<Uion, dutinit, r. deitiner: Latin destln&tio, detttndre. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 205 

Deteotf, to discover j detect'-ed (Rtde xxxvi.), deteof-ing, 
detecf-er (should be d6teot-or)5 deteetiT^, de.t^'.tlv; 
detection, de.t^^hun; deteet-ible^ 

Latin detector, ditectio, dStUggrt stipiiiB cktectwin {Ugo ia ** to cover," 
de reveiaas, hence de Ugo^ is " to uncover''). 

Deter', to hinder by fear, &c.; deterred' (2 syL), deterr'-ing 
(Rule i.), deterr-er, deterr'-ent (adj.). deter'-ment (one r, 
because -ment does not begin with a vowel). 

Latin dHerrire (de terreo, to frighten from [doing a thing]). 
(" Deter" ought to he apelt with doixble '* r.'* UU mot fiwnthe •verb 
detSrOt to brvise, Inttfrom detexxeo, to frighten). 

Detergent, d€.tS/.gent (n. and adj.)* ^at which cleang, cleansing ; 
detemve, de,ter^ Jiiio, having the power to cleanse ; deter- 
sioxi (not detertwn), de.tk^^hun, the act of cleansing. 
French ddiergent, v. diterger, ditersif; Latin detergfm>Sf gen. deter- 
gentia, diterg^re, Bup. -iersum (de tergo to scour out [a stain]). 

Deteriorate, de.ter'ri.o.rate (not debtee'. riji^rate), to degenerate ; 

deteriorated, de.t^rij}.rate.ed (Rule xxxvi,) ; deter'io- 

rat-ing (Rule xix.) ; deterioration, de.tefre^o.ray" .shun. 

French deterioration, v. d4tiriorer ; Latin detirius (adv.> worse. 

Not a derivative of **de terreo,** but of di tSro, to wear away. 

Determine, de.t^.m%n, to decide ; det^mined (9 syl.), deter'- 
ndn-ing (Rule xix.), deter'min-er, deter'min-able. 

Determinate, de.tSr'.mA/h^ate (verb and a^j.), to limit, limited ; 
deter'minated (Rule xxxvi.), deter'minat^dng (Rule xix.), 
deter'miaat-or (Rule xxxvii.); determinatiye, de.t^'.- 
min.a.t'Sv; deter^minative-ly^ specifictdly. 

DeterminAtion, de.ter^ .mf.nay" .shun. A fixed resolution. 

French ditermirMtif, diternvination, v. dStemvifniT ; Latin deter- 
minatio, dStermindr» {termimu, a boundary). 

DetersiYej de.tSi^^^, &c. {See Detergent.) 

Betesf , to hate ; detesf -ed (R. xxxvi), detesf *ing, detesf -er, 
deteat'-able (not -ible, 1st Lat. conj.), detestably, detest'- 
able-nesB; detestation, de\te8.tay.''shun, abhorrence. 
French ditestc^le, detestation, v. ditester : Latin detestdbflis, detestd- 
tio, detestdri {de testoTi to bear witness against one). 

Dethrone' (2 syl.), to drive from a tbrone ; dethroned' (3 syl.), 
dethron'-ing (Rule xix.), dethron'-er,^ dethrone'-ment. 
Latin de ihronus, [to remove] from a throne. 
Detonate, de\to.nate, to explode; de'tonatf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
de'tonat-ing (Rule xix.) ; detonation, de\to,nay" .s^iun, 
(Very often pronounced det-; but the "e" is long,) 
French detonolian, v. detoner; Latin di-tdndre, to thunder mightily. 
Detour (Fr.), da,toor'. A roundabout or circuitous way* 



206 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Detract, de.trdkf (not de.trS^), to depreciate ; detracf-ed (Rule 
xxxYi.), detracf-ing, detract'-or (not -er, Bule xxxvii.), 
detract^ing-ly ; detracf-ive, de.trak\Uv, depredatiTe ; 
detraction, de.trak'^fmn, depreciation. 

French r. ditraderj cUUraeUon ; Latin detractor, detraetio, de-trahSre, 
supine de-tr<ictum, to draw off. hence, to lessen. There is a Low 
Latin verb de tracto, meaning '^to tear limb from limb with horses." 

Detriment, (i^t.rlment, injury; detrimental, d^f.ri.men".UiL 

French ditriment : Latin dStrimmtum (detiro, snp. trltum, to bmise.) 
DetritiiB (should be detri^ttu, but generally called d^,tH.ttL8), 
debris ; detrition, de.trish'.un, the act of wearing away. 
( We perversely disregard Latin quantities^ Bule Ivii.) 
French ditrition, detritus; Latin d«- t^fro, snp. trltvm, to wear down. 
Detrude^ (2 syL), to thrust down ; detrud^-ed (R. xxxvi.), de- 
trud'-^g; detnmon,de.tru'.zhun {-sion not -ti(m,R' xxxiii.) 
("De-tmde" is to ihrtut down; "intrude," to thrust oneself in.) 
Latin de trudire, snpine trusun^ to thrust down or awaj. 

Detruncate, de.trun'.katej to lop off the limbs ; detrun'cat-ed 

(Rule xxxvi.), detrun''cat-ing (Rule xix.) ; detruncation, 

de.trun* .kay^ .shwif mutilation. 

('* Detruncation" is one of the few words in "-tion *' not Fr. ) 
Latin detmncatio, detnmcdre, sup. detruncdtum, to lop off. 
Deuce, duse^ two of cards or dice, the devil; deuced, du'.sed, 

devilish, very ; deaced-ly, du\sed.ly, devilishly, very. 

"Deuce" (two), French deux ; Latin duo, two. 
" Deuce" (the devil), " quosdam dssmones quos 'dusios' OalU nnn- 
ciipant" (St. Aug. xv. 23) ; Danish dunu, the deuce. 

Deutero-, du\tS,ro- (Greek prefix.meaning "second"). 

Deutero-gamy, du\te.rog'\a.my. A second marriage on the 

death of the first husband or wife. (Gk. gamos, marriage.) 

Deutero-nomy,dw'.««.r5?i".o.my, Thesecondgivingof thelaw 

by Moses, the 5th book of the Bible. (Gk.namo«,the law.) 

Deut - (contraction of deutero-, see above). In Chem., it indicates 

two equivalelits of oxygen to one of the metal named : as 

Deutozide, du,t6x'Ade [of copper, <fec.], two equivalents of 

oxygen to one of copper {deuto oxide). 

Devastate, de'.vds.tate, to lay waste ; de'vastat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 

de'vastat-ing, de'vastat-or (not -er, Rule xxxvii.); 

devastation, de'vas.tay'\shun, a state of ruin, havoc. 

( The first syl.is often pronounced d^v-,butthe"e*'is long. ) 

French divastation, v. ddvaster ; Latin divastdtio, divast&tor, dBvaa- 
tdre {de vasto, to lay thoroughly waste). 

Develop, de.vf^'.op, to disclose. Envel'op, to inclose. 

( The noun envelope [for letters] has a final " e ;*' " develop " 
has no noun. Bear m mind the two verbs.) 




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AND OF SPELLIXrj. 207 

J)eyeloped^de.v^\opt; devel'op-ing, deverop-ment (B.iii. b). 

¥t. dSvOoppement, r. diveloppor; Itol. vUuppo, a bundle or Intri- 

caey; d$ rerenes, hence de-Telop is to undo a bundle or intricacy. 

DoYiate, de'.vi.ate, to vary, to turn from the right way; 

de^viat-ed (R. xxxvi,), de'viat-ing (R xix.) de'yiat-er; 

deviation, de'.vi.a^'.slmn, a difference ; devious, del'.vi.us ; 

de'vions-ly, de'vions-ness. 
French dMation, t. divier; Latin dBvinu {de via, out of the way). 
Device' (2 syL) A contrivance, a motto, a symbol. {See Devise.) 

Devfl, dev\H, Satan; dev^U-ish, maliciously wicked, very; 
dev'ilish-ly^ maHciously, exceedingly; deVilish-ness ; 
devil-iam, d^'Mdzm^ devilish condact ; dev'il-ment, 
dev'il-ry, mischief and malice fit for a devil. 
Dev'il, to grill with cayenne pepper; dev'iled (2 syl.), 
deVil-ing, (Old Eng. de(ml, dedfol or de6Jly dedjlic,) 

Devimis, dti'.vi.tu. {See Deviate.) 

Devise, de.vizei^, to scheme ; device, de.vice*, a scheme (R li.); 
devised' (2 syl.), devi8'-ing,devis'-er, devis'-able (R.xxiii.); 
devisee, d^.vi.zee% the person to whom " real estate " is 
devised ; devisor, dem.zor^, the person who bequeaths or 
leaves by will. Divisor, di.vi\zSr, the figure by which a 
sum is divided. 
Fr. devise, a motta ItaL diifisa, a coat of arms ; divisa/re, to devise. 

Devoid' (2 syL), empty, destitute. (Lat. de viduus^ wholly void.) 

Devolve' (2 syL), to become the duty of, to pass over from one 
to another; devolved' (2 syL), devolv'-ing (Rule xix), 
devolv'-ment ; devolution, de'.voM^'^hun. 
{^'^ Devolve'* is followed hy oni " The duty devolves on me") 

French devolution, the falling of property to relations in default of 
proper heirs. Latin devolvo, to roll down ; devdlutvs, devolved. 

Devonian, de.vo\ni.an. The Old Red Sandstone formation ; so 
called firom Devonshire, where it is largely developed. 
Devonite, dev^.o.nUe. A mineral found at Barnstaple in 
Devonshire ("-ite" in Geo. means a "stone" or "fossil"). 

Old English D^^ene, a Devonshire man; Defenorsdr, Devonshire. 
Latin Dumnonii, British Dyvnonii, the glen people. 

Devote' (2 syl.), to consecrate ; dev6f-ed (R. xxxvi.), devof -ing 
(R.xix.); devotion, de.vo'.«/iMn; d6Vo'tion-ist,devo'tion-al, 
devo'tional-ly ; devo'titmal-ist, a devotee ; devo'ted (3 
syL), strongly attached ; devo'ted-ly, devo'ted-ness. 

Devotee, d^'.o,tee'. One abandoned to religious exercises. 

Devout,' pious ; devoaf -ly, devoaf -ness. 

French dSvot, dSvotion. Latin dgvdtio, dSvdtus, dhOtSrt when^e^ 
" devote ;" divUvire, supine devdtvm, whence devout. 



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2ns ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Bevour', to eat up ; devonred' (2 syl.), devoHr'-ing; ddyonr^ing- 
ly, deyour'-er. Sevoin, dvovn (French), respects* 
("I pay my devoirs to you*' is a jocose civility.) 
French divarer : Latin devordre {vitro ; vdreue, TonuttonsX 

Dew, a deposition of the nioistnr^ of the air. Duej owing (q. v.) ; 
dewed (1 sjl.), dew'-ing, deV-y (acy.), dew-less, dew- 
drop, dew^i-ness (with t, B. xi). Germ, thau; Dan. dug. 

Dexter (in Her.) The right side of a shield or coat of artns (to a 
person standing behind it, not to one in front of it). 

Dexterity, dex.tei^ri.ty , expertness; dexterous, descf.te.rus (not 
dead'.trM) ; dex'terons-ly, dex'terous-nesB. 
It motnt ''right-handed" (La3n dezUr, the right hMid): "left- 
handed is awkward {awke, the left handX ainitUr (Latin), and 
gavxhe = gosh (French), the left hand. 

Dextrine, dex\ttfn. British gum made from starch. 

Latin dexter, the right hand C'-ine," in Chem denotes *'a simple 
substance"). Dextrine is so called, because it turns tile plaii^ in 
polarised light to the right hand. 

Dey, the native title of the governor of Algiers. Day-time]. 

" Dey," Turkish cMi, seignior ; " Day," Old English cteg. 
Di- (contraction of the Greek prefix di8<-, "asunder"; and some- 
times of dia-, "through"). The ordinary meaning of di- 
in composition is "two," "twice," "double," especially 
when it forms a distinct syllable : as 
Di-an'drlan. Having two siamens. 
Di-ceph'alous. Having two heads. 
Di-dac'tylons. Having two fingers or toes. 
Di-gyn'^ian. Having two styles or pistils. 
Di-hed'ral. Having two- sUtfaces. 
Di-lac^erate. To tear in tWo. 
Di-pet'alous. Having. two petals. 
Di-sper'mons. Having two seeds. 

Di-theist, A believer in two gods, one good and one efiL 
1 In a few cases it b^ars the force of ttis-, " asnnd«f " : as 
Di^ess^ To walk asundefr or wide of the path. 
Di-var'icate. To stretch the legs asunder. 
Di-^ert'. To turn the mind asunder or aside. 
^ The origmal idea of "asunder" or separation, gives the 
meaning above {two), and also the iMyative force of the 
prefix, one example of which is 
Di-vest'. To unclothe. 
^ In a few examples di- represents the (^eek preposition dia, 
" through," " throaghout," " thorough": as 



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AND OF SPETJJNG, 209 

Si-tboustiGa. That 'part of aconetios which treats of sound 

pasting through different mediums. 
ni-elec'tiicB. Substian<ces which allow electricity to pass 

■through then% aii4 net oTer their surface. 
Bi-cqHxics. That part of optrcs which treats of the refiroc- 

tion of light in passing through glass, 
Bi-TOCt. Bight throughout. 
IT In Chemistry DH- denotes a double equivalent of the base, and 
Bi- a double equivalent of the gas : as " Di-sulphate of 
silver," = two equivalents of the base (silver) to one of 
BUlphu'ric acid; but "Bi-sulphate of silver" would be 
two equivalents of sulphuric acid to one of the base 
(silver). See Dis-. 
i[ WB", The force of dis- is almost alwayB privative. Before 

" f^" dis- becomes dif-. 
Dia- (Qre&k preposition, meaning through). In composition it 

means " tiirough," " throughout," " thorough." 
Diabetes, di\a-bee''teez, A disease la which saccbarine urine 
flows too freely. 
"LfMn diahStes; Greek dia baind, to go through one. 
Biaholio, di'.a.bdV\lk ; cliftboliciJ, di\a.boV\i.kal, devilish; 
4iaborical-ly ; diabolism, di',ab'\o.lizm. 

French diaholique; Latin dicibdlicus; Greek diabi^ikds (diaholds, 
Uie devil, from dia baHA, to fling-out at you, i.e., to slander). 

Diachylon, di.dk\i.l8n (not diachilum). An adhesive piaster 
made of oil and the oxide of lead. 
JTrcoich diachylon; Greek dia ehOUu, ^Yixongh i.e. bgr means of a 
juice. It was originally made of the juices of herbs. 
Diaconal, di.dk'.o.nal^ pertaining to the office of deacon; 
diaconate, diMk\o.nate, the office of deacon (g. v.) 
French diaconal^ dtaaniat; Latin diacdnus, a deacon. 
piadem. di\a.dem, a royal orown ; di'ademed (3 ^yl.) 

French diadime; Latin diadima: Greek did, to bind. 
JHflBvesiB, plu, diffireses, di.e'.r^.«ia, dix\r^.seez. Separation of 
two contiguous vowels. The mack ( •• ) is placed over the 
latter vqwel : as atrial (not (Sriul). 
Latin dim-Ms; Greek diavrilsiB (di-oire^, to divide.) 
DiagBBBls, pHu. <lkignoBe8, dl.cbg.no'. sis, di.ag.nS'.seez. The art 
of distiaaguisidng one dieease from another. Maay use 
the word for " symptom," which is an error; thus " What 
are the * diagnoses' of the case?" is nonsense. A medical 
man may say " ^y diagnosis informs me the disease is 
not so and so;" and also that ** The diagnostic symptoms 
of the case are those of [measles]." 
Diagnostic, dtag.niis\tiky distioguishiiig [applied to symp- 



,y Google 



210 • ERRORS OF SPEECH 

toms of diseases] ; diagnostios, dijogjiosf Mkt, the science 
of disease-symptoms. 
BiagnoBticate, di.ag.nds'.H.kaU, to detemuDe a disease by 
its symptoms ; diagnoe'ticat-ed (R. xxxvi.). diagnos'ti- 
cat-ing. The verb diagnose, di\ag.no8e, dt'agnoBed {S 
syl.), di'agnoB-ing, is sometimes used. 
Greek diagndnSf diacrimlnatlng ; t. dia-ifignd^, to distivgnish. 
Diagonal, di.dg'.o.nal, a straight line drawn throngh a figure 
with not less than four sides. The line must run from 
any angle to the opposite one. Diag'onal-Iy. 
(The "o" w omega in Greek and long in Latin,) 
French diagonal; Latin diogdnux; Greek dia gdnia^ an angle. 
Diagram, dl\a,gram, A plan or figure shown by lines. 

Diagraph, di\a.graf^ an instrument used in perspective 

drawing; diagraphio, di.a.grafik. 
French diagrarwrne; Latin diagramma; Greek dia gramnuif that 
which is marked oat by lines, t. dia-graphd. 
Dial, di/aU An instrument for measuring time. 

Dialing, di\aLing. The art of constructing dials. 
Latin dicUis, pertaining to day (dies, a day). 
Dialect, di\a.Ukty provincial spepch; dialectic, dl^a.Uk'.Ukt 
provincial, subtle. Dialectics, di.a.lek't%k8, the science 
of arguing on ideal subjects where word-fencing is more 
important than physical facts. Dialectician, di.a.l^\. 
tish'\ant a skilled arguer ; dialec'tical ; dialec'tical-ly. 
French diaXecte, diahctirien,diaZectique: Latin didlectica, didlecUcuSf 
dialectot; Greek diorWetikS, diorUfkUkas, diorWeUis (dia Ugd). 

Dialogrue, di\a.log ; plu. dialognes, di\a,log8, generally applied 
to the conversations of a drama. 

(The Ft, termination -ue is useless and out of character.) 
Fr. dialogue; Lat. diaXCgus; Gk. diorUfgos, discourse between [persons]. 
Diameter, diMm'.e.tifrf a straight line running through the centre 
of a circle, and bounded each end by the circumference ; 
diametrical, dt^,a.m6f\ri.kdl; diamet'rical-ly. 
Latin diamiter, diamftro [opposlta], directly [opposite] ; Greek dia- 
mHirda (a measure tlirough [a circle]). 
Diamond, di\a.miind (not di^-mUn), 

French diamant; Latin ddanuu; Greek a-damas, unconquerable. 
The diamond cannot be cut or overcome by other muterials. 

Diana, Di,an\dh (not Dua'jnah), A Eoman goddess. 
Diandria, di.an'.dri.a (in Botany), Having two stamens. 

The " stamens" belong to male plants (Greek anir^ a male). 

The " pistil,'" or seed-bearing organ, belongs to female plants. 

Diandrian (adj,) Pertaining to plants with two stamens. 
French diandrie: Greek di [dis] andxw, two men. 

(The Greek amir means man as opposed to iMfoiMn.) 




AND OF SPELLING. 211 

Diapason, di\a,pay'\z^ (in Mu$ic\ an octave^ the whole com- 
pass of a musical instrument ; an instrument for tuning 
organ pipes. (In Philosophy) the universe, which Py- 
thagoras conceived to he a complete musical octave 
beginning from Deity and ending with man. The eight 
notes are Deity, the planets, and man; man touches 
earth and Deity, and as the planets intervene, they in- 
fluence hig lot. (Greek dia pdta, through aU. things.) 

Diaper, d^\a,p^f a figured linen doth ; diapered, di\a.perd. 

French diapr4, diaper work ; ijlinge] d^Tpres, in Flanders). 
Diaphanous, di,df.a.nu8. Translucent hut not transparent. 

Greek dia phavnA, [light] shows through. 
Diaphragm, dl\a.fram. The midriff. 

French diaphragme: Greek diaphragma, a partition Wall (dia 
phrassd, to enclose throughout). 

Diarrhosa, di\ar.ree'\ahy a violent flux ; diarrhoatio, di\ar.ree^\- 
tikt purgative. Dinret'ic, a medicine to increase the' 
discharge of urine. 
Latin diarrhoea; Greek dia/r-^oia (from dia rMo\ the "r" Ib doubled 
to compensate for the aspirate which cannot be expressed in 
Greek, didppoui (not didfij^OLa). 

Diary, plu. diaries, d^.a,ry^ dWa.fiZi A joumaL 
Latin diOflriwm., a register of daily events (dies, a day). 

Diastase, d%\as.td8e (not d%,<i8.tdze'), A substance which con- 
verts starch into dextrine and grape sugar* 

French diastase (Greek dAa TUsUmi, I stand apart, or separate, as 
yeast from new beer). 

Diastole, dlas'.to.le (not di\a.stoley The lengthening of a 
syllable naturally short, the dilatation of the heart, &c. 
French diastole; Latin diastdte; Greek diastdU, dilatation (atdld, to 
take in sail, hence to contract. In this example dia reverses, and 
dia-steUo is to open or dilate the heart after contraction). 

Diathermal, di'.a,Ther^\mal, transmitting radiant heat, as glass 

transmits light ; diathennanous, di'.a.rhe'/'.ma.nus, adj. 

Greek dia thenmi, [allowing the passage of] heat through. 

Diatom, plu. diatoms, di\a.tSm, di\a.t6mz (not di.df.om, dLat'.- 

omzy it has nothing to do with the word "atom"). A 

sub-order of algse ; a diatom is a single specimen. 

DiatomacesB, di'-at-<i.may"'»e-e, l?he order which contains 

the above sub-order. 
Greek dia Uim6s, a cutting through (not di-aUfmos, a double atom). 
These algss are called cti'atoms, because they increase by division. 

Diatonic, di.a.ton\ik (in Music). By tones. 

The diatonic scale is the ordinary musical scale, the chro- 
matic scale proceeds by half- tones. The " diatonic 
scale" does not, strictly speaking, proceed by tones 



212 ERRORS OF SPEECff 

ihroughont, for the intervtds between E and F, B and C 
are only half of those between -C and D, V and G:, A and 
B, hut they are all called tones in ordinary speech. 

Greek didUhtXkds {dia UfiUfs, [proceecQng] by tones). 
Diatribe, di^aAribe^ a tedious disputation, an acrimonious 
harangue; diatxlbiBt, di.a.tri\hi»tf one who... 
(In Gk. and Lat. the second "i" i» ihort, French error.) 

French diatribe ; Latin diatrtbe ; Greek dia MbS, a wearing awaj [of 
time or patienee], (dia Mib&i to wear thoveiq^ldy away. 

Dibble, dUb'.b'ly an instrument need 1^ gardeners for making 

holes in the earth; dibl>led (3 syLX 4ib1)liiig, diVbler. 
Welsh Up, a point ; Datch Up; German tipftk 
Dice, plu, of die (di), a small cube used in play ; dicing, dice- 

in^ playing at dice. 
French d^,. corruption of "ta';** Latin iOiki^ a die or toUd cube. 
Diootyledbn, ^\cl^t'yAieef\4Xn, pln.diootyl^doiuiortlicetylgddna. 

Plants with two seed lobes for their embryob '* esLdgens." 
DicptyledoQous, d%\cht-y.lee^-do-mi» (adj.) 
Qk. di [dis] hOtuUd^, two sockets, or kbes {see AtCft/fMMt), 
Dictate, dik\tate (noun), dlkdate^ (yerb). Bule 1. 

Dictate, SU^,tate. A bidding, teUing anotlier what to write. 
Dictated To order impenouflly, to tell another what to write ; 

diotaf-^d (Rule xxxvi), dictat'-iag (Rule xiz.) 
Dictaticm, d/lk.tay'ahtm. The act of dictating. 
Dictat'-or, fem. dicta'trix; dietStar^diip, the office of 

dictator {-ship, 0. E. postfix, "tenure of oflSce or state") ; 

dictatorial, dW .ta.tii^'ri.alj imperious; dictator'iaMy. 
Diction, dlkfshun. Vf&j of expressing oneself. 
Dictionary, plu, dactionaiies, ^Xl^^hunJSr.ri, plu. d^'^hun.- 

er.¥U» A lexicon. 
Diotnm, pUu diota, da^.tum, Oik'.tiih. A ^lesitiTe or dog- 
matic assertion. 
Ipse dixit, tp'.M diae'.U. Dogmatio asserUon. ^Used in all 

persons as a noon (Latin). 
French dietat(frial, diction, dUtwrnj Latfei diat&tort dietdtrix, dicta- 

Urius, dicUo, gen. dietiSniSy diatidndrifum, v. dictdre, supine dic- 

tdtum (frequentative of dico, to 8ay), dictum. 

Did, past tense of Do. Old Eng. present tense ic dd, ^ast ic 
dyde, past part, geddn. Modem Eng. I doyi did, done. 
As an auxiliary it is chiefly used in asking questions, in 
which case it stands before the noun or pronoun, as did 
[you] speak? In common speech it is used to add em- 
phasis or force, as **I do very much wish it," "I did 
indeed love him." In poetry it is used without any special 
purpose beyond helping out the metre or rhyme. 



AND OF 8PEUJXG. 213 

Didactic, di.d&lt'.t\k, designed to^ach; didactical^ dLddhf.- 
ti.kdl; didac'tical-ly, in a aiilactic manner. 
Tr. didactique; 6k. didaktikds, fit for teaching {didaskd, to teach). 
DidactylouB, duddk^.ttlUs, having two toes; didactyl, di.dak\tU, 
an animal with two toes. 
Greek di [dig] daMUlds, two fingers or toes. 
Didelphys, dLdeV.flSt a generic name for such animals as have 
two wombs, like the opossum family ; dldelphidsa, di.diV.- 
ftde^ same as didelphys; didelphoid, di.deV.foid, ani- 
mals with an abdominal pouch less perfect than that of 
the true opossum. (Gk. eidos, resemhling the didelphys.) 
Greek di [dis] dglphui^ double womb. 
Bie, a stamp, to expire ; dye, tincture, to titiottire (both dl). 
Die (to expire), dies, dize ; died (1 svL), dy'-ing ; di-er, one 
likely to die soon (Rule xix.) ; aead, d^d, lifeless, q.v. ; 
deatih, dSth, q.v. Die af diseaae (mytfrom nor with). ' 
9&e; j4tt. dice (1 syL) A cube with six faces marked with 
spots from one to six* 

The die is cast. l?he last diance is ventored. 
Die (a stamp), pbt. dies, dize (1 syl.) 
Dye, tincture, {verh} to tincture; dyes^ dize; dyed (1 syl.), 
dy'-ing (Rtie xix»), dy'-ef , one who dies. 
(It is a pity that the original vowels have been changed 
in the verb " die" thereby causing confusion between word^ 
wholly different; the amonmlous spelling of die, dead, 
death; and the necessity of breaking Rule xix. in dyeing 
%a distimguish it from dying.) 
'' Die " (to expire), Old Bng. <i«(d[<«i»], past deddtdt, past part, deddod: 

deddy defunct ; dedth, death. 
''Die" (a cube with six faces), French d^ = da7; Latin talus, a die, 
strictly, with four faces (ml/. Our spelling of this word is foolish 
and Ind^nsikle, 
"Dye" (tincture). Old Eng. dedg, v. dedgiiimX past dadgode, past 
part, dedgod. 
Dielectric, di'x.Wc^'.tHk. Dialectic, di'.a.W^\t%k, 

Dielectzlc is a body that admits the force of electricity to 

act through it. (Greek di [dia] with the word electric). 
Dialectic is the adj. of dialect, provincial. 
Dielectrics, dV.e.l^\triks. The plural of dielectric. 
Dialectics, di'.a.U^J^\tlks, The art of word-fencing, or ar- 
guing with words rather than with solid proofs ; it has 
no scope in experimental philosophy, but its true pro- 
vince is in a priori or speculative reasoning. 
"Dielectric.** Electric adj. from the Greek ilScMfn, amber, the root 

of our word "electricity," q.v.; di [Greek dia] through. 
"Dialeetios** is from the verb dialSgo, which gives our word dialogue, 
and means to oonverse. In inatonic philosophy it means the 
highest kind of speculative reasoning : Aristotle uses the word to 
si^ify that reasoning which leads to probability but falls short 
at proqf. 



214 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Diet, d%',et. Food, to feed by regimen. A German parliament. 

Diet (verb), di'et-ed (Ru^e xxxvi.); di'et-ing, di'et-er; 

dietiary, di\S.terry, rules of diet, allowance of food; 

dietetic or dietetical, dLe.ti^tf .\k, di.e.titfdJt&l (a4j.)» 

pertaining to diet ; dietSflcal-ly (adv.) 

Dietetics, rules of diet, that branch of medical science 

which treats of diet. (All sciences ^om the Greek -ika 

[except five] terminate in English in -ics. The five ex- 

ceptions are "logic," "magic," "music," "physic/* and 

" rhetoric," which come to us through the French. R. Ixi.) 

"Dief* (food), French dittt, dUtStique; Latin diasta, diaiarUM, 

diatetica, dioitetictu ; Oreek diaita {diaitadmai, to live). 
"Diet" (a parliament), French dibie (from Latin dAu indUia [repre- 
sentatives which meet on] appointed days). 
Dif- the prefix dis- before the letter " f." 
Differ, dif'f^, to disagree. Defer, depfer^, to postpone. 

Differ, differed (2 syl.). dif fer-ing, dif fer-enctf, differ- 
ent, different-ly; differential, dif\f^-f^''^hSl (adj. 
and noun), a <][uantity too small to be represented by 
figures, but which nevertheless constitutes a difierence ; 
adj. measuring mii^ute difierences; differential-ly. 
(The French f(yrm " differentier' i$ better. We write 
correctly diflTer-ence and differ- en t.) 
Observe the difierence in the verb "Defer'," which 
makes deferred' (2 syL), deferr'-ing (Rule i.) See Defer. 
Differ >om or with t 

One person differs " with " another in opinion, but 
One thing differs " irom ** another in quality, ^c. 
Different to or from f 

Both forms are used : " This rose is very different * firom 
that;" or, "very different [unlike] 'to* that." 
Difference of or between f 

Differences "of" the same articles, as "differences of 
opinion," "differences of sovereignty," (fee.; but differ- 
ences "between'' different articles, as, "There is no 
difference between Jew and Gentile," {Romans x. 12.) 
Differentiate, dXf\fer,^n"^hS.ate, to find the difference or 
the 'differential"; dif feren'tiat-ed (R. xxxvi), differ- 
en'tiat-ing (R. xix.); differentiation, dif'-fer,en'-she.a'*' 
shun, determination of difference or " differential." 
French diffSrencet different, diffireniiel. diffireiUierf to differentiate ; 
Latin d^irens, Renitive diffgreatis, diffirentia, verb differre, supine 
diUtivm (our "dela/"). 
Difficult, dif\f\.kult, not easy to be done; difficnlt-ly (adv.); 
difficult, plu, diffioultieB, dlf.ftkULtU (Rule xliv.) 
French difficulU; Latin difficuUas, diffkulter (adverb). difffcilU (dif 
/dcilis, not easy). 




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AND OF SPELLING, 215 

Diffidence, ^f.ftdente (Bnle xxvi.), want of confidence; 
diffident, distrnstful of oneself; diffident-ly. 
Latin d^ffidenHa, difideM, gexL -mtumfi^dABl fUm», not tnuting). 
Biffinitiye, dl/./ln^t.tfv (double/), or definitive {see Define). 

In Latin there are the two forms dejimUltnu^ &e., firom '* deftvio,^* 
and diffifltiUlinUy &c., from ** difflnio.** 
DifEtaction, dlf,fra1^,shun (not di.frah' jihun), the turning aside 
of the rays of light; diffrac'ted (3 syl.) 
Fr. diffiraction; Lat. dif[Cii&\frango, nip. fiwivm, to break asunder. 
Diffuse (noun), difjuce', (verb) dif.fuze^, (Rule 11.) 

Difiose, dif.}uce\ not compact ; difiuse-ness, dif.fuce'jnest. 
Diffuse, dif.fuz^y to spread, to circulate, to send in all 
directions; diffused, difjuzd'; diffus-ing (Rule xix.), 
diffus-er, diffiis-ible (not -able) ; diffusibility, dif.fu'.zl,- 
Wf\i.ty^ capability of being diffused ; diffusion, dlf.fu'.- 
zhun, a spreading ; diffosedly, dlf.fa'jted.ly, in a diffuse 
manner; diffnsedness, dif.fu\zed.net8 ; diffusive, dif,- 
fu'Mv; diffa'sive-ly, diffu'sive-ness. 
French diffus, diffusible, diffusion; Latin diff^Ostu, diffOaio, diffusor, 
diffundire, supine dij^iaum, to spread far and wide. 

Dig, past dug [or digged, 1 Byl.]y past part, dug; digg'-ing (R. i.), 
digg'-er, one who uses the spade. 
Danish dige, to make a ditch or dike. 
Digest (noun), di\j^t, (verb) dijisf, (Rule L) 

Di'gest, a compilation of civil laws methodically arranged. 
Digest^, to dissolve food in the stomach, to think well on 
a subject and arrange it in the mind ; digesf-ed (R. xxxvi), 
digesf-ing, digesf-er; digestion, di.jis\tchun ; digest- 
ible (not -able) ; digestibility, di.j^M.bU'\i.ty ; diges'- 
tive, di.j^Mv, 
French digeste, digesteur, digesHf, digestion; Latin digesta, Justin- 
ian's code of laws, digesOOf digiriref supine digestum. 

Dight, to adorn (only used in poetry). Old English diht[an]. 
"Digii, €RfM, any single figure, a twelfth part of the diameter of 
the sun or moon ; digital, d^\i.tdL 
French digital; Latin dXgUus, the finger ; digiidUs. 
Digitalis, dlj'd.tay'Wls. The fox-glove. 

*' Digitalis," Latin, the finger-flower (from digitus, a finger). 
" Fox-glove," Old EngUah foxes-glofii. 
Dignify, dlg'.ni.fyy to exalt in honour or rank ; dignifies, 
dig\ni.fize; dignified, digf'.m./ide (R.xi.); dig'nify-ing. 
Dignity, plu, dignities, rank, loftiness of mien. (R. xliv.) 
Dignitary, j^lu. dignitaries, dig'.nut^rriZf a clergyman who 
holds some clerical "dignity,** such as prelate, dean, 
archdeacon, prebendary, canon, ifcc. 
French dignitaire, a dignitary, digniU; Low Latin dignitoHw: 
Latin dignusfaxio, to make worthy, to dignify. 



216 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bigxeis, digress^ to deviate; digressed' (2 syi.), digvess'-mg, 
digress'-er; digresslnt, di,greth\tm; digjMSstoiiHil, di.- 
greah'.vn.al ; digzeas^ve, iti.^r^^^lr ; digxessiTe-ly. 
Vtmch digresiif, diffireatUm: I«tii» cKurefSfo, digreMor, inpine 
(M^eMNin (di [dbj grodvor^ to walk uidA ; flraflhM» a stepX 

Digynis, di.gln*.i.dh (-gin hard as in " begin "), plants with two 
pistils or stales; digjnian, dugln\i.an (.g hard), having 
two pistils. Fhmts with pistils are oaUed ''female," 
I^Dts with 9tam£tm are called ** mala" 
Greek di fwiU, doable female (w piitil). rUnte with two •taukenf 
wre diaildria : te.> di avdrea, doable males (or stameiui). 
Bike (1 syL), a mouiud^ a ditch; a large mineral vein. 

OilEngliflhdie. 
Bilaeerate, MMif ^.raU, to tear; dHac'er&t-ed (Bnle xxxvi.), 
djbte'er&thing (B. xix.); dilaoeiatiaa, dA,la8\e,ra/y'\ihun. 
French dOae^ratioi^ verb dUaOrw; Latin dUdeifrAHo, dUdegrdre, 
BQapidate, M.lSf.idate (not deUmidate), to fall to min; 
dilapldat-ed (Bale xxxvi.), dilapldat-lng (Bnle xix.); 
dfiap'idSt-or (not -er, Rnle xxxvii.), one who lays waste ; 
dilapidation, di.lap' .x.day" ^hvfn, decay, injtiry. Charge 
for " dilapidations " charge to cover necessarv repscirs. 
French dilapidation, v. diZapider ; Lathi dilApMMxo; v. dtldpMdre 
{lapldo is to stone, or heap tip stotMS; dilapido it toi remove 
stones, "di**^iR thta example has the force of d* (it reveraei). 

Bilate, ^.Zate' (not delate), to enlarge ; dilaf-ed (Bule xxxvi.), 
dBat'-ing (Bule xix.); dilat'-er, one who dilates; 
ditat'-or (applied to certain muscles of the nose) ; dilat- 
able, di.kUe*M,.b'l (1st Latin conjugation); dilatability, 
dd.la.W.aMV'd.ty ; dilatation, di\la,tay" -shHn. 
French dxUitaJMUty, dHatahU, dilatation, verb dUater; Latki dUdtio, 
diUUdre(^u8, broad; Qx%9kpldtw). 

Dilatory, dU'.a.td.ryy full of dek»y; dil'atori-ly (Bule xi.), 
dU^atori-nesBb 
French dUatioir^; Latin dOdtOriut {dif-f^ro, to defer, np. diUtvm, 
Dilemma, di.lemf.mah (not delemma), A perplexity. 

On the horns of a dfleaxma. Between two perplexities. 
French dilemme; Latin dUemtna, an argument that leads to two 
<HHK)site conclusions : as * 'a Boeotian said, all Boeotians are liars." 
If aU Boeotians are liars, the Boeetian told a lie when ho said all 
Boeotians are liars. Qitery, Are they liars or not? 

Dilettante, plu. dilettanti (Italian), diVM.tanf.te, an amateur of 
the £ne arts but not a proficient, a dabbler in literature 
or the arts; dilettantelsm, dU\et.tan\te.izmf affectation 
of art-loving^ without any real knowledge of the subject. 

Diligence, diV.i.jence (H. xxvi), industry; dil'igent, dU'igent-ly. 
TniMhdiU§eiU: Latin datgene, gen. diUgenH», dUigenUa, v. diltgo, 
to love dearly. Diligence is working witii good wuL 




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AND OF SPELLING. 217 

DilL Theseedofanaromatacidaiit. ((X Eng. <iiZ«, diU or auise.) 
''Dill'' to tiM MtfUhmm Qravefolent ; '*A]iiM" is tbs AmUo animn. 
" Anethum/' Greek an^</ion {and thein, to grow rapJUUy). 

Dilute^ (^ 89"!.), to pe^oee the alreiigth of a lii)nid bj adding 
something rfse ; dfKkf -ed (R. xxxvi.), dUuf-ing' (R. xix.) ; 
cQliif -er, ^act wMc& dilutes^ one who dlhites ; dilttMt, 
di^hLent (not cM^.u.ent), thst irhidi dilviies ; dilaents, 
water drinks to dilute tbe animt^ fiuids ; diki'tioxL 
French dUuer, dUulion; IMih dihUfre, mip. dimum, dSl«M». 

Diluvial, di.lit.vl,(ilt {yertftiniDg to the Deluge; diltnrialiflt, 
diM'.vfiMJistj (me who flBcribeB to Noah's flood such geo- 
logioat phenomena as th» boukber-day, oasiferovs gravels, 
and so on ; dilnvinmi didu'.viMm, earth, sand, <bc., de- 
posited hj the action of running water. 

, Bfhivian, di.W.vKMny pertaining to the Deh^; ante- 
dilutiaa, prbr to " KoabV flood." 
French dnlwoien (an errorX dUvmon; LMa iBMivium, ▼. dMMdre, 

Dim, obscure, to obscure ; dimm'-«r {€om/pC), dimm'-efft {4svper.y; 
dimm'-ish* rather dim {-ish added to adj. is diminutive, 
added to nouns it means "like"); dhnmed (1 syl.), 
dimm'-ing (Rule i.) ; dim-ly, dim-nefls. 
Old £ng. dim; dimlie, (^immiHh ; dimme, dhnlj ; dimnei. 

Dimension^ di.m^'.shun. The measure or extent of a suxfkce. 
French ditMnnan; Latin dlnunrio {jd^mUior, to measnreX 

Bimiaishr dJi-mlnfMh, to make smaller; dimin^'isiied {% syl.), 
dimin'ish'ing, dimin'i8h-«r, dimin'idiii^-ly» 

Biminuendo, phi. dimintiendos (R. xlii.), ^.m1n.u.en* .doze 

(in ITtmc), softer and softer. (Italian.) 
Biminntion, Mm\i.nu'*.9kwn, decrease; diminiitive, di.- 

mfn'.u.nv; dimin'niivd-ty, dim^'ntlTe^iiesB. 
Fieneh dimimcet^, dim^ivtMon; Latin dkmfMHio, dlm^uUmim, verb 

diminito {-ith added to verbe means " to makft''X 

Dimiasory, dlm\^.8^.ry (not (letters] demUory or demnsKyry). 

French dimisioi/re (Jtetirw diinisaoTiaXMty, Latin cKffkWMrilM (verb di 
(die] mUtOt sopinft dimisaum, to send awsf ). 

Dimity, plu. dimities, dlm'.uty, dim'.i.t'lZy a cloth originally 
woven with two threads. Similarly samite, a ooi-niption 
of xamite, cloth woven with six threads. 
Greek di [dis] mitos, two thread* ; he» mih9, tix thread*. 
Dimorphism, di.mcy/ .flzm^ the property of assuming two distinct 
crystalline forms ; dimorphous, di.mor'./tM; dimorfic 
Fiencdi dimoTTglui Greek di [dis] morphia two-fold form. 
Dimple, d{mVl(iumn and vert); dimpled, dim'.p'iit; dimpling, 
dW.fUng; dim'ply. 



218 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Din, a oonftiBed oontmnons noise, to pester with repeated noise 
or demands ; dinned (1 syl.), dinn-ing (Bole i.), dinn-er. 
{See below Dine.) 
Old Engllih d/yn[iam\t to din ; dyn», a din ; dimmQt a dinning, a 
tinkling. Latin Urnnlo, to prattle, to tinkle. 

Dine (1 syl.), dined (1 syl.), dm-ing (Rule xiz.), dinner (this 
is a blunder in spelling, the word ought to be diner^ as 
in French), dinner-less, &o. 
Old English diyna/n to dine ; French dif^r, rerb and noiin. 
Ding, to knock; dinged (1 ^1.), ding'-ing (not din-ging). 
Ding-dong. The sound of bells. (An imitative word). 
Old Eng. denet/ian], past deancg, past part, donegen, to knock or ding. 
Dingle, d^n\g% a glen ; dingle-dangle, hanging slovenly. 

" Dingle,** a glen amidst hills. Old Eng. dynig, hilly (with dim.) 
** Dingle," to hang loosely. Danish dinglt^ to dapgle or bob about. 

Dingy, d\n\je, soiled; din'^gi-ness, din^gi-Jy (Rule xL) 
Dinomis. {See Deinomis.) 
Dinotherium. {See Deinotherinm.) 

Dint, effort, force. By dint of (industry), by the power of... 
Dent. An indentation. 

" Dint," Old Eng. dynt, a stroke or blow. 

''Dent,** Lat <i«n«, gen. dtfnXit. To dent, ^'den^t^m more iTtddire.** 

Diocese, di^osis (not diocess), the circuit over which a bishop 
has jurisdiction ; diocesan, di.88\e.tSn {not di,o.8ee!'^an)y 
a bishop, one who holds a diocese, ad^j, belonging to a 
diocese, as diocesan inspector, 

French diocese, diocdsain; Latin diocOsdniu, diaOsis; Greek dioi- 

h&sis, administration, v. dioiki^6, to administer. 
(Misled, as usual, by the Frevuh, our words are iU-speU and Uir^^ro- 

nownced. They should be dicecese, dioece'san.) 

Dioecia, dte'siMh, a class of plants, like the willow, having male 
flowers on one plant and female on another; dioecian 
or dioecious (a^j.), di.^M.an, due'M.us. 
French dicecis; Greek di [disl oikos, two booses. 
Dionosa, d%.o.nee'.a?i. Venue's fly-trap. 

Yenns was called DionoBa, and the flower is called after her from its 
grace and elegance. 

Dioptrics, di,op\trih8, that part of optics which shows how light 
is refracted in passing through glass, air, water, &c 
(Rule Ixi.), dioptric (adj.) 
French dioptrique, nonn and adj. ; Greek dUfptrdn, something trans- 
parent (di [diaj optdmai, to see through). 

Diorama, dV.o,rdh''mdh, Panorama, pdn'.o,rdh.mdh. 

A " diorama " is a series of pictures " seen through " an 
aperture. A panorama is one large picture stretched on 
a cylinder, the axis of which is the point of view. 




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AXD OF SPELLIXG. 219 ' 

{Both these words, borrowed from the French, are mU- 
spelt. They should he Dihorama and Panhorama.) 

" Panorama,*' Greek pan hor&ma, a view of all [at a glance]. 

" Diorama," Greek di [dia] horama, a view through [an aperture]. 

Dioscorea) di\6s.kSr^'re.dh. The yam, <feo. 

So named from Dioscdrldte, the Greek iMtanist. 
Diotis, di.o\tis. A shrub, the sea-cotton weed. 
Dip, a plunge in water, the incline of a stratum, a candle made 
by dipping a wick in tallow, to plunge into water, to 
inoHne downwards, &g.; dippisd (1 syl.) or dipt, dipp^ing 
(Bule i.), dipp'-er. 
Old English dippian], part dippede, past part, dipped. 
Diphtheria, d!if,rheef.ri.Sh (not dip.theria)f a throat disease; 
diphtheritic, dif\rhe.r=tf\ik, adj. 
, Greek d^:»?i<^^ira, leather. The diseaso is characterised by the forma- 
tion of a leathiery membrane in the throat. 

Diphthong, dif '.thong (not dip.th^mg), two vowels pronounced 
together with a different sound to either of them sepa- 
rately, as sauce, where -au- has a sound different to either 
•* a " or " u." If two vowels are pronounced together, 
without producing a new sound, it is an improper diph- 
thong, as tfa in beat, where " a " serves only to lengthen 
the "e," and ie in believe, where the sound of e only 
remains; diphthongal, d%f.ThSn\gal ; diphthongal-ly. 
French dipMJiongue; Latin diphtfumgus ; Greek diphthoggos (di 
[dis] plUhdggds, double sound : phtMggHmay to utter a sound). 

Diploe, dip'M.^, The network of bone-tissue between the 
tables of the skull ; the cellular substance of leaves. 

French diploe; Latin dipldts, a doublet; Greek dipWts, two-fold. 
Diploma, plu. diplomas, dl.plo.mah, Ac. (not deplo'ma), A cer- 
tified writing conferring a privilege. 

Diplomatic, dl.pld.mdf.ik; diplomafical, diplomat^ical-ly. 

DiploxQacy, dLplSm\a.sy, the art and practice of state- 
craft; diplomatist, d)Lpl&n\a.tist, one employed in.... 

DiploxnatioB, dl,plSm',a,tiks. Th.e art of deciphering ancient 

documents, and determining their age and authenticity. 
French diplomtUique, diplome, diplomatie; Latin dipldma; Greek 
dipUma. Every sort of ancient charter, donation, bull, &c., was 
cailjBd a diploma, being inscribed by the Somans on tvoo tables of 
copper folded together; in early English history, a diploma is often 
dJled "a pahr of letters" (dipldds, douUe, duplicate). 

Dipper, dipping, dipped. (See Dip.) 

Diprotodon, plu. diprotodons, dkprif.tSMn. A gigantic fossil 

animal allied to the kangaroo, with more than one pair 

of incisor teeth. 
Greek di [dis] prdtoe-Mous, duplex incisors or "first teeth." 



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AND OF SPELLTXG. 221 

DlBftoknowledge, d^\&h.nSV\ledge (not dW Mh JknSw" .ledge), to 
disown ; disacknoiviedged (4 syl.), d$Baeknowi«dg-iiig. 
■UnAOknowledged (4 syl.), not owned, not answered. 
Old English cnaioineg, kiKmdadge, nmitli the lAtin dif, oc &^. Un- 
ia the bdf t«r pr eflx for this word. 
Diaadfunta^, d^\ad,v&n'\ta9e, the xev^^e of advantage, to 
injure in interest; disadvantagefoiiB, dl8\ad:imn.tay^' .jus ; 
dis^advanta^'geoas-ly, diB'advanta'geom-iieBB. 
French avantage^ with dis. Latin od i>i^nio, te Dome to. " Jidvan- 
tage" meant originailf "the ^rtfon of goods iwhioh camt to a 
child from the will of his father, or from the law's award. *' 
Bis'affBef, to alienate affection; dis'affecl'-ing ; 

Ihi'affect'-iBg, haying no power te move the paasions. 
SiBaffeof-ed, estranged in auction ; 
^I'^tiffiBCt'-ed, of simple unartiHcial manners. 
IHs'alBBo'tedfdy, in an ill-di^osed oaaniierT; 
Vn'^affBC^ted-ly, without srtifiee in apeech and manners. 
Di^afiPdCted-ness, foeing ilUa^cted and disoontented ; 
Ua'^afiiBc'ted-dieBS, heing without affectation. 
IKflaffection) dli' .aj»f€W' jihuUy want of goodwilL 
French d^M^fctioM; Latin di« aSW\fw,in»s, HI acted on. 
Disagree, dis'.a.gree', to differ ; dis'agreed', dis^agree'-ing, dis'- 
lagrae'-^Bent, dis'agree'-ahle (not dUagreable as many 
miitte the word), dia'agree^ahly, disa'gree'ahle-ness. 
Un'agree'ahle, nii'agree'ably, imagree''able^nes8, indicate 
les8 aversion, Bis-tt^freeable meauB posLtively distasteful; 
wt^agreeable not positively pleasing. 
French cUsagr^tMs ; LaMm dU a [ad] araUu, not pleasing to us. 
fVhe JWnefc ipMing of *' disagreeable^' mmt be ccvr^fuUy avoided. J 

Disallow, di8'.aLl5w {-low to rhyme with now\ dishallowed' 
(8 syl.), dis'allow •dug, dia'allow'-able.; dis'allow'-ance, 
refusal to aUow or permit. 
Die and Fr. aUouer; Lai. die al [ad] loeSfre, to refose to place to [your chare]. 
Disannez, di8'.an.nex' (not die^Minex'), to separate; dis^umezed' 
(8 syl.), separated; 
Trnannezed, not joined toge^er; 
Dis'annez'-ing; severing what n annexed. 
Latin die em [ad] nexue, the reverse of tying to (neeto, to tye). . 
BkuaamL, di8\an.nul\ to abolish or annul ; dis'annnlled' (8 syl.), 
dis'anniill'-ing (Rule i.), dis'annnl'-mexrt (one I, because 
.jment does not begin with a vowel), 
nn'annulled' (3 syl.) Not repealed. 

(Dieamml ought to be abolUhed, the prefix '* £&" is quite 
useless, <md "annul" is the better word,) 
French cmnuUer; Latin die an [ad] nnUmm, (to hring] to nothing. 



222 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Disappear, dWMip.peer^ (not dis^cupeer^), to vanish, to cease to 
appear; dia'appeared' (8 syL), dia'appear'-lng, difTap- 
pear'-ance (ought to be dUappear-ence, B. xziv.) 
Dia and French apparmee; Latin di$ ap [ad] paring part, parens, 
to diioontinne to appear to [tight]. 

Biaappoint, dW.ap.poinf (not dUI'.a.poinf), to fail expectadon; 
dia'appoinf-ed (Enid xxxtI.), ballsed in expectation; 
Un'appoinf-ed, not elected or appointed. 
Bis'appoinf -ing, dia'appoinfment. 
Disappointed of a thing not obtained. 
Disappointed in a thing obtained. 

French ddsappointer, dimppoimtemetU (4 sjL); Lattii dis ap [ad] 
pondits. not to add to the main sum. *' Appoint" is the "odd 
monej " of a bill, or the balance of an account. To dis-appoint U 
to cat off the odd monej er to fail in paying tiie balance. 
Disapprove, dit* .ap.proov (not dis\a.prdve') ; dia^approved' 
(8 syl.), dis'approv'-ing: (Rule xix.), dis'approy'iiig'-ly, 
dis'ap^rDv'-al ; disapprobation, dit\&p,pro.hay"^hufu 
French ditapprowm; dd»approbation ; Latin dis ap [ad] probdre, to 
fail to prove to [one], or to satisfy one's judgment. 
Disann^ to divest of weapons of offence; disarmed' (2 syL), 
divested of arms ; 
TTnanhed, not having any weapon of offence. 
Disann'-ing; disarmament, di8'.ar'\ma.inent, 
French disarmer, disarmement; Latin dis arma, deprived of arma. 
Disarrange, du\ar. range' (not dU\a.rSnge'), to put out of order ; 
dia'arranged' (3 syL), put out of order ; 
TTn^arranged' (8 syl.), not yet put into order. 
Disarrangement, dis'.ar.rdr^.ment, (Only five words drop 

the final e before -ment, Kule xviii.) 
French dSranger, derangement; Latin dis or [ad] rego, to diMort 
what is regulated, {-n- is not fundamental ) 

Disarray, di^.ar.rayy to t)ut out of order, to divest of raiment ; 
dis'arrayed' (3 syl.), dia'array^-ing, dia'array'-er (R. xiii.) 
TJn'arrayed' (3 syl.) Not dressed, not put in array. 
Low Latin dis arraya, to put out of military array. 
Disassociate or dissociate, di8',a8.8o\8tate, di8.8o'M.atet to dis- 
unite; dis'a^so'oiat-ed or disso'ciat-ed (Eule xxxvl), 
separated from companions ; 
Un'aflso'ciat-ed, not joined to a society. 
Dis'asso'ciat-ing or disso'ciat-ing (Bule xix.) 
Fr. disassocier; Lat. dis as [ad] soddre, to cease being a compankm ct on*. 
Disaster, dXsM'.ter^ a mischance, an accident ; disastrona, dt«.. 
a8'.trotu (not di8.a8\te,ru8)j calamitous; dina'troiia-ly, 
disas'trons-ness. 
French disostre; AQd. JAi. dis aetrosw, not fortunate (asfmat, a 
star) ; Greek dOs astron, ill starred (dUs- always denotes evil or U» 
subversion of good>. 



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AND OF SPELLING.' 223 

Disavow, di8\a,vow% to disclaim ; dis'avowed' (3 syl.), dis'avow'- 
ing, dis'ayow^-al) dis'avow'-er, diB'ayow^-ment {-vdw to 
rhyme with now), Un'avowed' (3 syL), not owned. 
French disavower; Latiii dia a [ad] vifveo, to refote to vow to [one]. 

I)i8band^ to dismiss from military service ; disband'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), disband'-ing, disband'-ment. 

French d£b<mder.dibandemeni (8 syL); Latin di$ hemdvan, [to send] 
away from the banner. 

Diabar'i debar^, unbar' ; -barred, -bard ; -barr'-ing, <fec. (R. i.) 

Dis-bar, to deprive a harriater of his right to plead ; 

Be-bar, to forbid; 

UnbaT) to draw back a bar, as to " unbar the door." 

The "bar" to Which barristers are called is the rail which divides 
the counsel from the "laity." 

ITn- is a native prefix, denoting privationj opposUioh^ or deterioration. 
Disbelieve, dis' .he.levef (R. xxviii.), not to believe a statement ; 
disbelieved (3 syl.), dis'believ'-ing (R. xix.), not believing 
a statement; un'belieV-ing, not believing in Revelation. 
Disbeliev'-er, one who distrust!^ a statement ; 
Unbeliev'-er, one who does not believe in Revelation. 
Disbelief, dis^be.leef, distrust in a statement ; 
Unbelief, sce^tici&m, having no faith in Revelation. 
Unbeliev'-able (not disbelievable)^ unworthy to be believed. 

Old Eng. un-getedfa, un- or dis- belief ; two very pretty words might 
be restored. Viz., ungeledfmm, onbelieving, and ungeUtUfsumnes. 

Disbowel or disembowel, dis»bdw\eU dis'xmbow'.el {bow to 
rhyme with now), to take out the entrails ; dis- or disem- 
-bowelled (-bow^eld), -bowelling (R. iii el), -bdweller. 
JHs and Frendi boel/ Latin hoteUtu, a gut 

Disbud'', to deprive of buds ; disbndd^-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dis- 

budd'-ing (Rule i.) Unbudd'-ed^ not budded. 
JHa- and the Fr^ich houton, a bud. 
Disburden, disburthen, unburden, unburthen, dis- or un- 

.hwr^.den, -bw/.theny to remove a load ; 
Disburdened or disburthened, dis- -bur^,dend, -but^ .thend, 

relieved of a load ; 
TJnbur'dened or unburthenlBd, without a load. 
Disbur'den-ing, disburtheii-ing, imbur'den-ing or unbur'- 

fhen-ing, removing a load. 

Dig' or ttn- with Old Eng. hyrden, ot byrChen (byrd, heavy, byr{an^ 
or b^rian], to bear). Our words should have been spelt byrden or 
berden to preserve the derivation more correctly. 



224 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bisbime. dis.hv/rc^y to lay out money; disbtunsed^ (2 nyl.), dis- 
biin'4aig (Bale zix.), disbvTBe'-ment (Rule xyiii.), the act 
of paying oat money; lAisbiiVBe'-aientB, money paid out; 
disbors'-er, one who pays out money. 

Brenoh d&hovrse, cUbovrsemenU (fi 87LX ▼« d^bovrser {Jx»umt a pnxBt, 

. the [money] exchange). 

Disc, diskf the face of the sun or moon, the face of a shield or 
any round flat body. Vhik 0n Botany), a ring or scale 
between the bases of the stamens and orary. 
Biscous, dis\ku8 (aclj.). broad, flat; discifomi, d£^M.form 
(not dW.ki.form), in the form of a flat round body; 
discoid, dis'.koid [pith], in Botany thttt which is divided 
into eavities by discs. 

Fronoh disgue; Latin diacui, disoifcrmAUi/ QntikdUkd*, a quoit, 
a round flat stone or piece of metaL 

Discard, ditJkard\ to reject; discard'-Ml (Eule xxitI), dis- 
card'-ing; discard'-er, one who discards. 
Spanish ducartar, to discard, or reject cards; dtacarU, the cards 
rejected or tiirown oiTt of one's hand. 

Discern, diz.zem\ to see, to discriminate ; discerned, dizjsemd'; 

discenf-ing, 'disoem'isLg-ly ; discium-er, diz.zem\er ; 

4iso6ni'-meiit, discera'-ible (not nodid), disoemlble- 

ness; discemlbly, diz^em\i.hiy. 
Discernment and discretion ars both &om tiie same root. 

verb (Latin discerno)^ but now 

Discernment means insight, and discretion, prudence. 

French discttmemtrd (3 cyl 1 verb dMcemer; Latin discem&re, snpin« 
discretum (dU cemo, to sift and separate, hence to distinguish). 

Discharge' (2 syl.), to dismiss ; discharged' (2 syl.), discharg'- 
ing (Etile xix.); discharg'-er, one who disaharges. 
Discharged' (said of flrearms), shot ofl*; 
Uncharged' (said of firearms), not *• loaded." 
French dgcharger, to nnload (charger, to load); Low Latin tarcSre, 
to fraight a ship. To ** discharge " means to unload. 

Disciple, di8.8i',p'l (not de.8i'.p'l), a pupil, a follower ; 'disoi'ple- 

ship {-ship. Old English, •* ofl^-e," " state of being.«"). 
Disciplinarian, di«'.sl.pit.nair"n;an, one strict to enforce 

discipline; disciplinaiy, dis^^ai.pli,nerry. 
Discipline, dis\sl.pUn, subjection to rules and masters, to - 

train to obedience; dis'ciplioed (3 syl.), dis'cipljto-ing 

(Rule xix.) ; dis'ciplin-er, one who trains. 
Disciplinable, dis.si.pU.na,Vl; disoipU'nal)le-aess. 

French diseipU, disd^UnahU^ disciplinaire, di«eip{tn«, v. diaeigpliner; 
Latin diaciplina, dMciplivMbilU, disdlpiilu$, a scholar (^pUlo [in 
composition cipulo] is to pour liquor from one vessel into another, 
and a dis-a^U is one into whom instruction is poured). 




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AND GF SPELLTNG, 525 

Dj^daim, disMarti^ , to difiilvow ; diiKilaiibed' (3 syl.), disclaim^ 
ing; disdaim^-er, dliiscliEtim'-ant. Uiiclaiinied, not claimed. 
Bb^laim^, to spout, to recite ; declaimed (2 syl.), <fec. 
" Disclaiita," Latin dw clamare, to refuse to call for [one]. 
"Declaim," French d^elamer; Latin diclamdW, to make set speeches. 

J^isibioB^, to rereal; tiiidos^, to open what is closed j dlB- or 

on- dosed' (2 syl.), doe'-ing (I^. xix.), diisdos-er, one 

who reveals or tells some secret ; diisdo^iire, ^is.cW.zhter. 

iHs and Old l^ng. clusa; Latin clavMrum, a prison, "io did^lose is 

"to dl&cUar^e froth confinement" or secrecy. 

BlscdlBnr, du.MV.eYy to stain ; diBcolbuted, dii.Tiiit .erd\ iiljWed 
in its colour; nncoloured, uiiMt-evd^ not colbured; 
d&odotation, d'i^,k\U.er.af\9hun. 

(*' Discolour " wovXd he better withoAt the " u," which it 
dropped in " discoloration.") 
Vranch diodloration, dicoUrtr; Latin diScdbor, dedifhrdiio, r. dieffUh 
r&n {cdloro, to colour). 

Discomfit, di8.kum.fU, to defeat. Discomfort {see helow), 
Discom'fit-ed (Bule xxxvi.), discom'flt-ilig^ routing ; 
discomfiture; dU.kum\ft,tchtiTt defeat in battle. 

French ddconfitwre; LAtin cot^^ehu, finished {ednfMOy ooffipletelj 
done), diS' in a bad sense. 

Discomfort, di8.kum\fortj absence of comfort, to make utoeasy ; 
discbm'fort-ed (Rule xxxvi.), didcom'f6]^-ing; dlscma- 
fbrture, dis.kum^fSr.tch'aTf want of comfort. 

Biscom^forted, made uneasy; 

Uncom'fbrted, not. consoled. 

ttncomfortable, un.kum\for,ta.b% not easy ; unoomfortable- 
ness; imcom'fortably, uneasily. 

French d^confi»% r. d^eonforter; Lfctin die eomfbrtOH, the re!7erse of 
being strong or cumforted (fortis, strong). 

BisDoanmode. (5«« Ineommoode.) 

Discompose, dis' .kom.poze\ to unsettle ; I)e'comp6se', to reduce 
a conipound body to its elements' or ingredient; 
dis'composed' (3 syl.), dis^'cottipds'-ikiigr, dis'coitipds'-er; 
discomposure, dt8\kSm.po*'^hur, agitation. 
Un^composed' (8 syl.) Chiefly applied to literary Work. 
French dicomposer, to discompose and decompose ; Latin de com- 
ponSre, to de'compoae, diB compoTi^re, to discompose. 

Disconcert, dis* .kon.8ert\ to disturb, to put out of countenance; 
^'concerf-ed (Bule xxxvi.), dis'^conoerf -ing. 
Trti'cbncCrfed, not concerted. 

French diconcerier; Latin con-certdre is "to strive together/ ^ence 
"tb be in harmony," dis-concertdre i^ " to strive cohfeary T«^ys/ 
'to be out of harmtony," "to be disturbed," &c. 
P 



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226 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Biscoimeot, dis'.k^^MSkf, to separate ; dis'coimeof -ed (4 eyl.), 
separated ; nn'coimecf -ed, haying no connection ; dig"- 
oonnected-ly, unconiiected-ly, dificonnecf -ing, discon- 
nect-er; disconnection, dis'.kbn.nlW ^hun ; disoonnec- 
tive, du\k6n.nek\tlv ; disconnectiYe-ly. 
JHs- and French eon'MsAon, connectif; Latin dis oonneetOf to unbind 
what is bound together {necto, to bind). 

Disconsolate, dls.kHn' relate, sorrowful; discon'^solate-ly, dis- 
con'solate-ness; disconsolation, di8.kSn\80.lay*'^kun. 
The rest of these words are compounded with in- or un-, 
Inoonsolable, in\k8n.80*\la.h'l ; inoonsolable-ness, inoon- 

solably, in\k5n^o'\laMy, 
TTn'consoled' (3 syl.), not consoled, nnconsdr-ing (B. lix.) 
French ineonaolable, inoonaoU: Latin di»- oonsdIdttM, &c. 
Discontent, di8*.k6n.tent\ want of content ; dis''oontent'-ed, dis'- 
contenfed-ly, dis^contenfad-ness, dis'contenf-menl 
Mal'contenf , one politically discontented or inclined for 
sedition ; malcontent'-ed, malcontent'ed-ly, malcontent'- 
ed-ness, malcontenf-ment. 
Non-content, plu, non-contents. Lords who negative a 
" bill." Those who approve of it are called '• Contents." 
French verb mScontenter, micantenUmeni, mdcontent; Latin maU 
cordmtua, &c., dis contentuSf &c. 

Disoontinae, dis'xSn.tWM, to cease; disoontin-ned (4 syl.), 
disoontin'n-ing (Rule xix.), discontin-u-ance ; discon- 
tinuation, dia^kSn.tinf.u.a'^^hun; discontinuity, du'.. 
kdn.ttnW.i.ty ; discontinuous, di8\kon.tin'\u.U8. 
French discontinue discontintMtion, verb discantinvar, diseonbimitiU, 
discontinuance; Latin dis coniinuars^ &o. 

Dis^cord, want of harmony; discor^dance, disoor^dant; 

discor'dancy, plu, discordancies, disM/ dammit (Bule 
xliv.); discor^dant-ly. 
French discord, discordance^ discordant; Latin diteorckmt, genittva 
discordantiSf discordia (dis corda, hearts asunder). 

Discount, (noun) dis'.kount, (verb) dis.kounf (Bule L) 
Dis'count, abatement for ready money. 
Discount^ to mnke an abatement for ready money; dis- 

count'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), discounf-ing, disoounf-er. 
TTncounfed, not counted. 

French d^compte, verb dicompter=6tk.}i6n.itij ; Latin dis oompatOri, 
not to be redconed [in tbe account]. 

Difloonntenance, di8,koun\tS.nance, to discourage; diBConn'- 

tenanced (4 syl.), discoun'tenanc-ing (Rule zix.) ; 

discoun'tenanc-er, one who discountenances. 

French faveur, the countenance ; d4faveur, the exact equivalent of 

di^ eounUnanee. French conicnanee (2 ^L); Latin eotUU%m», 



AND OF SPELLING, 227 

containing, «(m^n«ntta. The word "countenance" means the 
"contents**: hence the "outline" or "contour," and bj still fur- 
ther licence " the superficial aspect." (Owr word it HI formed. ) 

Difloonrage, dU.kur^ragey to dissuade, to dishearten ; discour'- 
aged {3 syl.), dicicotir'ag-ing (Rule xix.). disoour'agiiig-ly, 
jUscoTir'ag-er, disoour'age-ment (Rule xviii.) 

Virench dieowragement, verb dicotwager; Latin dit oor ago, to act on 
the heart the wrong way. 

Piaoonne, dis.ko'rse^y conversation, to converse; discoursed' 
(2 syL), disoours'-ing (Rule xix.), discours'-er ; discour- 
sive, dis.ko'rMv. Discur'siye means " desultory." 

French diswurs ; Latin discursus (discurro, supine dixcursum, to run 
over. A discourse is a " running over" [some subject]. A disctu- 
non is a shaking about [of some subject]. 

Disoonrteoiis or Uncourteoos, -kor.te'us (not -kw/.tchus), impo- 
lite ; discour'teous-ness or uncourteous-ness, discour'te- 
ous-ly or nncoup'teous-ly, rudely ; discourtesy, plu. dis- 
courtesies, di8.kor^.te.8iz (never un-) (not dU,kur^,te.ty) 
(Rule xliv.), want of courtesy. 

French disayurtoUt discourtoiHe, (See Court.) 
Discover, di8.kuv\er (not dU.kov'^er), Uncov'er. 

Discover, to find out what was unknown ; 

Uncover, to remove a covering from some object. 

Dis-, or un- covered, •kuv'.erd, -cov'er-ing, -cov'er-er, 
discover-able ; discovery, dia.kuv'J.ry. 

French d4couvrir, to discover and uncover, d^eouvrew. Low Latin 
cofgra; Latin cdphlnus, a coffer. To cover is " put into a coffer," 

Discredit, dis.kredWt^ disgrace, not to credit or believe; dis- 

credlt-ed (Rule xxxvi.), discred'it-ing, discredit-able, 

(Rule xxiii.), discreditably. 
Incred'-ible, not credible; incredible-ness, incredibly; 

hicredibility, in,kred\i.hiV\i.ty, state of disbelief. 
Incred'ulous, not believing; incred'ulous-ness, incred'u- 

lous-ly ; incredulity, in'.kre.du*\VLty. 

French discredit, v. discrMiter, xncrMHnliti, inerMule, incrMuliU; 
Latin dis credere, incredibilia, incredibUitaa, iitcridituat discredited, 
incridiUitiU, incridulua. 

Discreet, prudent. Discrete, disjoined. Both dis.kreef, 

Discreet'-ly, discreet'-ness ; discretion, dis.kr^sK.un (not 
di8,kreei'^hwi) ; discretion-ary, di8.kreah"\unM,ry. 

French discret, discr^ion, discrdtiownaire ; Latin diacrittu, diacritic, 
V. dis-cemOf supine discritum, to discern [right from wrong]. 

Discrepancy, plu, discrepancies, dis.kr^p'.an^siz. (Rule xliv.) 
Disagreement in a statement. 
Latin discripa/iUia {dia cripd/rd to creak or jar aadlj) 



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228 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Biserete' (2 syl.), disjoined i diflcrptive, dU^knt^dlo ; dlacre'- 

tlve-ly . ( See I^iscroet. ) 
French discrete discreet a^d discretire ; Latin ditcraiua^ severed. 
DiscretiQi^ d^s./ere6/)^un; discreticm^ai^* (5«e Sliscieet;.) 
Discriminate, dM.hr\m\inMU, to mark the difR^Fenee of objects; 

djflcrim'iiult-e4 (B^ xxxvi.X discrim'^nat-ing (RlzIx.). 

discrim'inating-ly, discrim'iiiatHHr (not -er, R. xxxvii); 

disoriminatoryt S/ft.kn^' M/iJt^.ry ; dis^dnttna^ye, iis,- 

krimf.in.aMv ; di^orkmnation, dM.l&iim^M.ja!*.ihim. 

('* Discrimination" one of the words in. -tion, ji^ Fr.) 
Latin diserimen, genitiTe dMcrSmCfUa, diacriminaiio, diaorimfndtHt, 

verb discrimindn: G^eek di« Jonma, jadgment between [things]. 

Discrown', to depose a sovereign or depriTe him of his crown; 
discrowned' (2 s;!.), diflCBn>wn''*izig. 
ITn'erowned' (2 eyl.), not crowned. 

To "crown" is to Inrest a person with a crown as a STmbdl of 
royaUy. To " discrown " is to remove from him that sjmoL 

Discursiye, dit.kur^.8iVy desultory; discnr'siTe-ly, discur'sive- 
ness; discnitBoryy dis.kur'.so^ry, argnmental. 
French dismra^f; L«tin. diapurrQ^ ST»pinf) ditcwntm {dif mmv, to 
run hither And thither). 

Discos, dis'.hut, a quoit. Discons, dis^kiUy broad, flat. 

Discuss, dis.kOs*. To talk argumentatively on a subject. 
"I>iscuB>'' Latin; Oree^ diikds, a round flat plate of metal, &B. 
** Discous/' see Disc. ' ' Discuss, " see neeet ariide. 

DiflonsB, dis.ku8% to ventilate a subject. {See DiBOii&) 
Discussed' (2 syl.), discuss'-ing, discuss'-er. 
Discussion, <2i«.^i2M(/i'.tin, a debate; discqssiYet di8^kii8'.Hv; 
discutient, di8.kii\8hi.ent, haying the power to disperse 
morbid matter. 
French discussif, discussion, verb discuter; Latin diseussio, diseutsor, 
verb discutio, supine discussum (dis quatiOt to shake tho^ughlyX 

Disdain' (2 syl.), contempt, to scorn; disdained' (2 syl.), dis- 
dain'-ing, di«dain^iiigl7« disdain^'er, dkdain<-f^ (Bole 
viii.), disdain'ful^ly, disdain'fiil-ness. (See Deigm) 
French dSdaigner, didOibi; .Italian disdegno. disdegnart; Lttia 
dis digndre, to deem unworthy {digntis, worthy). 

Disease, dis.eze^ illness. Disseize^ di6.see»\ to oust. 

Disease is more applioat^le to man ; distemper to bmtes. 
Disease' (2 syl.), ^jJu. diB6a8'es^(3 syl., Euleliii) 
Diseased' (2 syl.) Afflicted with disease. 
Uneasy, un.ee'. zy, not easy, uncomfortable ; imeaBi-ly» 

nneasi-ness (Rule xi.) 
tOW English edth, easy; unedth, uneanr; unedthnes, nneastness: 

unithelie, uneasily. French malaise. Latin dU or mats <4i6^w}- 



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Al^^D OF SPELLING, 



XMsffmlnurk or debaik, ^".tm^MWy de.hark\ to land from a 
», Bfaip ; dis^n- or de- batked, -barkt, -bark-ing; disem- 
barkfttion or debai^iction, dis,tm- or de- bar.kay'^shun ; 
diimm- or de- barkment, dit»em- or de- bark'.ment. 

** BATk ** (iV^nch tfatqw, L&w Latin harea, a UUte ship). £m or en 
ooznnsrts nouns into verbi, hence emi>ark, to ship or put on board 
(French eminirquer). JHs reverses, hence dis-embark, to unship. 

French .d^barque, dibarquement, y. dAbarquer, formed on another 
principle. "Low Latin de barca, [to take] ont Of tt ship. 

Bisembarxass, dU.em.bar'ras, to free from perplexity; diBem- 
bar'rassed (4 syL), disembar^rass-ing, disembar^rass-Aent. 

Unembarrassed, un'.em*bar^rastf not troubled with per- 
plexities or pecuniary difficulties. 

French dibarraa^ ▼. dibmncMteri Ixyw Latin harm, a barrier. Bm 
or «n converts nouns into verbs, lienoe embarrass, to hamper with 
barriers. Lis reverses, hence dia embarraes, to remove the barriers. . 

BisembeUiflih, di8*em.b^V.i»hi to strip off decnration^; ; disem- 
bell'ished (4 syL), disembell'icdi-ing, disembeirifih-er. 

" Bell," a beauty (Latin bellus, pretty). Em or en converts nouns into 
verbs, and ish added to verbs metms " to make,*' hence efnb4llish, 
to make benutiful. Die reverses, hence dia-embeUish, to sbrip off 
that wliich makes beaatifuL ^ 

^iMmbody, diY .ewi.65d".y, to froe from the body ; disembodies, 
di3\em.bSd'\iz ; diswttbodied, dis' .em.bod" M (Rule xi.), 
disembodi-meiit (Rule xi.), but disembod'y-ing (with y). 

Old English hodAg, the body. Em or en converts nouns to verbs, 
hence embody, '*to give a body, or put on a body. " Dis reverses, 
hence dit-embod^f to put off a body, to talce the body away. 

Bisembogne, dis^emJtog^'t to pour out through the mnuth [as a 
river, into the sea] ; disembogues, dis'.em.bdgs'^; disem- 
bognied, dis'.emMgd''; disembogu^ing, du\em.bdg"ing 
(R. xix.) ; diaembogue-ment, di8\emJ>dg'\ment (R. xviii.) 

" Bogne " (Freneli b(mdu, Spanish boea\ the mouth Em or en con- 
verts nouns into verb«, hence em-bogue, to put into the mouth 
(Freiidi emboiicher, Spanish embiLchar). Dis reverses, hence dis- 
embogue, to put out of the mouth, to disgorge (Gorman-French 
nUiemboucker, Spanish deeembuchar). 

Disembowel, dis^^mMwM {-bSw- to rhyme with now\ to take 
out the entrails ; disembSw'elled (4 ^yl.), disembow'ell-iiig 
(IL iii. el) ; disembow'ell-er, disembow'el-nient (one I). 
These words are also used without tiie prefix dis- : as 

Bmbowel, em.bSvf'.el, to take out the entrails; embdw'elled 

(3 syt.), embaWell»il^ (ft. iii. fii.), emb5well-et, em- 

bSw'el-meiit (one I}, 

"Bowel" (French boeit ; Latin hoteUut, tlie gut). Em or en convert! 

nouns into verbs, hence em-bowel, to gut, i.e., take out the en 

traiJB.' In this example dij iff pleonastic. 



230 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Diflenchant, dis.en.ehant (not dU,en.ehdnt\ to free from enchant- 
ment; cUsenchant'-ed (R. xxxvi.), disendiauf-iiig, dis- 
enchant^-er (should be -or), disenchanf -ment. 
French d^sendianter, dSsenehanUment ; Latin dU inoanUtn, -iitcamta- 
mentufHt -^neaiUdtwr (eanto, to ting often the same tone). 

BiBenoamher, dU.en,kum'.hi^^ to remoye an eneumbrance ; dia- 
enciiml)eTed (4 syl.), di8enciiml)er-er. dlBenciiml)er-ing; 
diflenciun'hrsnce (not dlsencumheraneey 

Disencumbered, having an encumbrance taken off; 

Unencnmbered, un\en.kum\berd, without encumbranee. 

JHs and French eneombre, t. eneombrer; Latin in cumbire, to lie or 

lean upon: cUfreverBes. 

Disengage, dL8\en.gage\ to free from work or entanglement; 

disengaged' (3 syl.); disengag-ing, dis'^en'gdge'-ing ; 

disengag-er, dis.en.gdge',er ; disengage-ment, disen- 

gagedness, di8\en.gdge\ed.ne88, state of being at leisure. 

Dis'engaged' (3 syL), set free from an engagement; 

Un'engaged' (3 S7l.)> without any engagement. 

Disengaging, setting free something entangled; 

Unengaging, not adapted to engnge the heai*t of anyone. 

French digagi, digagement, verb dSgager; Low Latin vadium, a 
pawn ; German %9age, a pair of scides ; tDHgen, to weigh ; mon^ 
weighed out for service, hence wages : goods for which money is 
weighed out, hence a pawn. En converts nouns into verbs, hence 
engage, to pawn : ther*«fore, "not to be free or unoccupied.** Die 
reverses, henoe die-engaged, taken out of pawn, free, at leisure. 

Disennoble, dis' .en.no.h% to deprive of nobility; dis'ennon[>led 
(4 syl.), dis'enno'hling. Un'enno'hled, not ennobled. 
"Noble/ a nobleman. En converts nouns into verbs, henoe ei^ 
noble, to make noble. Die reverses, hence die-ennoble, to depriva 
one of that which gives nobility. 

Disenroll, dis'.en.roll, to <= rase from a roll ; dis'enroUed' (3 syL), 

dis'enroll'-ing, disenroll'ment, g^nerallv disenrolment. 

Un'enroUed' (3 syL), not enrolled. UnroU, to open 

something rolled ; nnroUed' (3 syl.), nnrolKing (R. viii.) 

" Roll, ** a list of names. En converts nouns into verbs, hence enroll, 

to put a nanne on a roll. Die reverses, h^nce die-enroU, to taka 

a na'ne off a rolL (" BoU,** Latin rdiula, a reel.) 

Disentail, di8\en.tail\ to free land from entail; dis'entailed' 
(3 syl.), dis^entail'-ing, dis'entail'-ment, dis'entail'er. 
French entaiUer, to cut off, h^nce to limit ; Law Latin fmdmn taUi- 
dtum, a fee curtailed or limited (to a particular heir]. Die rtrtnee^ 
hence die-entail, to abolish the limitation of entAilment 

Disentangle, di8\en.tdn'.g*l. to un«*avel ; dis'entSn'gled (4 syL), 
dis'entan'gling, dis'^entan'gler, disentan'^e-meni» 
Unentangled, un'.erUdn*'^'ld, not entangled; 



i 



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AND OF SPELLTNG. 231 

Biaentangled, d%8'.en,tan".g*Id, with the taDgle removed. 
" Tangle, " a jumble. En converts nouns into verbs, hence entangle, 
to Qiake a jumble. JDia reverses, hbnce dia-entangUt to get rid 
of the jumble. 

Biaenthral, di8'.en.thrawl', to free from thraldom (Bale Yiii); 

dis'enthralled' (3 syl.), dis'enthrall'-ing (Rule L), 

dis'enthral'-ment (only one I), 

Unenfhralled, un\en,thrawld\ not in thraldom ; 

BiBenthialled (3 syl.), set free from thraldom. 

Thral, Old English, " a slave." En converts nouns into verbs, hence 
tnthral^ to make one a slave. Dis reverses, hence dit-wihraXf to 
set free one who has been made a slave. 

Biflenfhrone, dis'.en.throru"' or dethrone, de^thronel'f to depose 
a sovereign ; dis'enthroned'' (3 syl.) or dethroned' (2 syl.), 
dis'enthron^'-ing or dethr5n'-ing (Rule xix.), dis'en- 
throne^'-ment or dethrone'-ment. 

"Throne," the seat of royalty. En converts nouns into verbs, hence 
enthrone, to place on the seat of sovereignty. DU reverses, hence 
dis-enthrons, to remove from the seat of royalty. 

"Dethrone" is formed on another principle: d» throne, 
Lto remove] from the throte. 

Disentitle, di8'.en.ti\t% to deprive of title or claim ; disentifled, 
dW .en.ti' ,t'ld ; dis^enti'tling. 
Untitled, without title ; Disentitled, deprived of title. 

"Title" (Old English titul), a denotation of rank. En converts 
nouns into verbs, henre entitle, to confer a title. Die reverses, 
hence dia-tntitle, to remove the name denoting rank. 

Diflentomh, di8\en.toomf (b mute), to remove from a tomb; 
disentombed, du'.en.toomd'; disentomb-ing, dW ,en.toom\- 
ing ; disentomb-ment, dit\en.tooin\ment, 
TTntombed (2 syl.), without a tomb, not committed to a grave ; 
Disentombed (3 syl.), taken out of one's grave. 
"Tomb" French tomheau, Greek tumhos), a grave. En convots 
nouns into verbs, hence entomb, to put into a grave. Die reverses, 
hence di»-entomb, to take out of a grave. 

Disestablish, dis'.esUciy.luh, to break up; dis'estublished (4 
syl.). dis'establish-ing, dis'establish-ment. 
ITnestablished (4 syL), not established ; 
Disestablished, deprived of thttt which gave establishment 
" Sta* le," a thing flzt (Latin eto, to stand or fix). En converts nouns 
into verbe, and -im added to verbs means "to make," hence «• 
[en] stablUh. to make firm. Die reverses, hence dis-establiah, to 
unfix what was firm. 

Di8'eBteem% to di^^regard ; dis'esteemed' (3 syl.), dis'esteem'-ing; 
disestimation, d's.is' M.may*' jthun, 
Latin die cutim&re; French misestimer (Latin mcUe cestimare}. 



232 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Diflfayonr, dUJay^v^Vf disapprobation, to diBapprovfi; diB- 
&VoTiied (3 syl.), dii^a'your-lng, cUftfa'^our-er. 
Other negative compounds are made with un- : as — 
^nfa'YOur;«ble, nnfa'votirable^ness, unfa^vonrably. 
Uofa'voured, un.fay',verd^ not favoured; 
Bisfa^'youred, spited, djiscountena;Qce.d. 

Frtnch d4favewr, cUfavordble; Latin dis fdvor, remoTal of goodwilU 
Bisfigiire, dis.flg'.er (not di8,f\g' .geur)y to deface; disQ^nied 
(3 syl.), disfig'nr-ing (Rule xiz.), disflg'nr-er, diamine- 
inent (only five words drop the " e " final before -mefii, 
Bulexviii.); disfiguration, di3.fig*.u.ray'\8hun, 
Unfignred, not figure!, plain ; disfigured, defaced. 
Fr^nc^ d^^gurer/ Latin dis figUrdre, to mar the form ; figHrSUo, Ac 
Biflforest, dis.fofrest or disafforest, dis\af.for^re8ty to take from 
a forest its royal privileges; dis- or disaf* for^ested 
(Rule xxxvi.), dis- or disaf- fo]<est-ing. 
OM Pren9h forest, French forit. Af converts the nonn into a rerb, 
faenee afforest, to convert fnto a fbrest with certain privileges. IH$ 
reverses, hence dis-afforest, to remove thb privileges of the forest. 
Di^orest is to reduce a forest from being a forest. 
Disf^ranchise. dis.frdn'.chize, to take away the franchise; dis- 
itfSn'chised (3 syl.), di9£ran'ohifl-i7ig (Rule xix.)« dwCrin'- 
chise-ment, di8.frun'.8hiz.mSnt (Bule xyiii.) 
Ui^^iliobisedi not franchised ; . 
Pi^liranchised, deprived of its franchise. 
Dis and French franchise; Low Latin frcmchetia, a franchise ; dis 
franchisdtus, dia/ranchised. 

I^figoi^' (a syl.), to ueld up; disgorged' (8 syL); d]8gq«g-i«g, 
4i9.gorge\ing (Rule xix.); disgQrge'HOieiit. 
Ungorged' (2 syl.)f not sated or gorged ; 
BisgCffged' (2 syl.), vomited out or ejected from the stomach. 
French ddgorgementt yerb ddgorger, to 4i^)iftrge from the throat 
(g^ge, the throat : Latin gurg[iUia} the windpipe). 

Disgrace' (2 syl.), dishonour, to be out o^ favour; disgraced' 
(2 syl.); disgrac-ing, dis.grase' ing (Rule xix.); di»- 
l^race'-ful (!^ule viii), 4isgrao6<Ciil-ly, di^g?ace'£al-nMi. 

TTngraced' (2 syl.), not embellished; 

Disgraced, reduced to shame. 

Ungraceful, without ^ace ; dis^^tac^foJ, shamefuL 

Ungraoeful-ly, in^Ji^tgantly ; disgrac^ful-^y, shameftdly. 

irngraoeful-^6SS,inelegance ; disgraceful-nesSfShamefolness. 

Ungracious, un.gray\8hu8, surly ; i],ng):aciouSTl7* 
(Un- deno/tes simply the absence, dis- des^fes aetuuA pri- 
vation of something before possessed.) 

French disgrace, verb difigracier, ^isgracieux, nngracions ; T^ ttn dis 
gtaiia, favour, grace, honour. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 2a^ 

TWtg!fMM», iis.gizify a false appeftranee, to have a false appear- 
Bjifie; Jiiegniaed, dis.gized; disffuised-ly, dis.gized\ly 
ot discs' jedJiy ; dia^nia-iiig, dis^ize^-ing (Bole xix.); 
'disgoise-ment, dJs^ize'jn^t (Eule viii.) 

Old Frt^oh d^tgiw^, ^c. ; French (i^uer, d^gyiaemaU. 

(Old ^^Bdi tnsa, manner, guise ; welsh gvni, mode, gtoisg^ dren.) 

BiflgoBt', aversion, to excUe aversion ; idlcigiut'-ed (Rule xxxvi), 

dicisafljf-iiig, diBg^B^vag-lj, 4|Elfinuf-li4 (Rule igiii.), 

disgost'ful-ly, disgusf f ul-ne^. 
Italifm disiputtio'e, disgwio; Latin dia gustdre (gtutuSf ta^). 
Dish, plu. dishes, dUh.Sz (Kale liii.), n&un and v«r&; dished 

(1 syL), dish'-ing. To dish up [dinner], to pi^t fopd on 

the dishes rea«dy ^^T [dinner]. 
Old English disc, a plate or dish ; Jiatin dUcus; Greek diakot. 
Dishabille. {See Deshabille.) 
Di^Jieart^n, di8.hart\en, to dispirit; disheart'ened (3 syL); 

dishearten-ing, dis.harf.ning. 
Dis and Old English heorUf the heart 
Dishevel, di.8heo\el, more correctly dechev'ej, to let the hair 

loose; dishev'elled, more correctly dechev'eled (3 syl.), 

d^eveU-ing, more correctly dechevel-ing. 

Clhe spelling of *' dishevel'' w disgraceful.) 

French cheveu, the hair : chevehMre, t|ie hair dressed ; de chevel, to 
"derange the dress of the hair" (Latin capilliM); but dishevel 
mnst be either deshevel or dia-hevelf both nonsense. 

SSishoiieBl;, dis.Sn\cst, not honest; d|s|ione9t-ly, disM,e9t.ly ; 
dishonesty, dis. Surest. ty, 

(Only three simple words begin with h-rmte : (1) heir = 
airy (2) honest = on^est and honour = on^er^ (3) honr = 
our (Rule xlviii.); all taken from the French.) 

Old French honneste, French honnSte, d^sfwnnSte ; Latin fUfneshu, 
Mumegtiu. (We nave avoided the French double n, but have 
followed the French in dropping the h.) 

IKsbononr, diz.Sn'.er^ disgrace, to disgrace; dishonoured, diz.- 
Sn\erd; dv^onomr^igt diiz.6n\er.ing ; dlshonour-er, di^.- 
Sn'.er.er; GUshonourable, di?■on^«r.a.57; dishonourable- 
Ji&BB, du.on\er.a,b'l.ne88 ; dishonpi^rably, dlz.dn\erM.bly. 
TFuboDDiuedi u^.on\erd, nqt l^oqom-«d, disregarded; 
Diihonoiured, positively disgraeed or discredited. 
French dSshormetir I ! but dishonorable (one n), verb dishonorer; 
Liitin hdnor, d^hSnest^s, verb d^i,dnest4ref to discre<1it. 

, di8\in,hline'% not willing; dis'lnclined" (3 syl.), 
dkinclm'^-lng (Rule xix.); aisinclin4.tion, di8\in.kU.- 
M,y".8fmnj dislike, unwillingness. 

Utin dt» iwlindre, dU indindtio {dtno, Greek Mind, to bend). 



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234 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Biaiiioorporate, di8\in.kor^'.posate^ to deprive of corporate 
rights ; dis'incor''porat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dis''iiicor''poiat- 
iiig (Kulexix.) ; diaincorporation, dis'.in,kor,po.ray'^a?mn. 

ITn'inoor"porated, not corporated; 

I)is'iiico]<'porated, deprived of corporate rights. 

French dMneorporer, ddsincorporation; Latin dit inoorpwrdtio, -inr 
eorpordre (corpus^ a body [corporate]). 

Dialnfect", to deodorise, to purify ; dis'infecf'-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
dis'^infecf-ing ; dis'lnfecf-er, a person or substance 
that disinfects ; dis'infecf'-ant, a substance which disin- 
fects; disinfection, dU\in.fek"ahw%, 

TTn^infect^'ed, not contaminated ; 

Bis'infecf ed, cured of its contamination. 

TTninfectious, un'.in.fek*'ahu8, not communicating [disease]; 

Disinfections, dia'drufek'^shusy neutralising infection. 

French dSsinfecter, disinfection; Latin dis infectua, -ivfector (iiv/ltfio). 

Disingenaons, dis'.in.j&i^.u.us {not dW. in. jee'^ni.us), not firank; 
dis'ingen^'uons-ly, dis'ingen^'nons-ness ; disingennity, 

di8\in.je.nu".i.ty, want of candour. 

Latin dis itigifnultas, -dnginuus, yerb ingenor, to beef good extrac- 
tion or well-bom. Dis reverses. *• Disingenuous " is " ill-bred.'* 

Disinherit, dis'.in.liP'/'rUy to deprive of hereditary rights ; dis'- 
inher'it-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dis'inherlt-ing, dis'inher'it-er 
(ought to be -or); disinherison, di8\in.her^^ri.8dn, the act 
of disinheriting; dis'inher.'itanoe. 
(The French and Latin privitive in this example is ex.) 

, French exhSrSdcUiorif disinherison; verb exhSrider; Latin ctJkmf- 
dcb-e, to disinherit ; exhcereddtor, exhoBriddtio, disinheriiton. 

Disintegrate, dis.in'.tSgrdte, to pulverise ; disin'tegr&t-ed (Rule 
^xxvi), disin'tegrat-ing (Rule xix.); disintegration, 
disdn'.te.gray'^shun ; disintegrable, di8.in'.te,gra.Vl ; 
disin'tegrabie-ness. 
Latin dis intSgr&ret •integrdUo (inUSgerf entire and whole). 
Dis'inter", to exhume; dis'interred" (3 syL), dis'lnterr^-ing 
(Rule i.), di8'interr"-er, dis^'interr'^-ment. 
Uninterred, not buried; Disinterred, exhumed. 

" Diriinter" should have double "r" (Latin terr[a]). 
"Ter.** for terra^ the earth. In or en converts nouns into verb*, 
hence inter^, to put into the earth JHs reverses, hence dis iiUm*^ 
to take out of the earth. 
Italian inierraret to bury ; French diterrer, to exhume. 

Disinterested, di8\in.ter.e8tf\ed, without selfish motive; disln- 
teres'ted-ly, dis'interest'ed-ness. 
Un'interest'ed, not concerned [in the matter]. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 235 

Un^interesf'-ing, doll, unable to excite the mind. 
Un^interesfiBg-ly, in a dull lifeless manner. 
French disinUreasi, disinterested and tminterested ; Latin imiertst, 

it concerns [me] ; dU interest, it does not concern [me] ; hence 

"unselfish/' and also " unexciting." 

Disjoin,", to sever ; disjoined' (2 svL), disjoin^'ing. 

Bii^oined" (2 syL), severed. Unjoined^ not united. 
French d^joindre and di^'oindre; Latin di^ngo, supine ditijunctvm. 
Disjoiaf, to put out of joint; disjoint-ing, disjoint'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), disjoint'ed-ly, disjoint'ed-ness. 
DiBJointed, put out of joint. Unjointed, not jointed 
Picrjuncft'; disjunction, dU.junlt^^hun, disunion, severance ; 
disjuncikive, dis.junhWLv; disjunc'tive-ly. 
" Disjoin " and " digoint " are from the same root-verb, 
A "joint** U a contrivance to join together two parti. 
French dif^ointt di^onctif, disjenctiariy dUJ<metive (in Grammar). 
Latin di^wnctuSf di^unctio, d'^junctivtu. 

Bisk (in Bot.) In a daisy the disk is the yellow eye, and the 
white petals are called the '* rays." 
Disc. The face of the sun or moon. 
Both French disgue; Latin diacus; Greek disJcoa, a round plate. 
BisUke" (2 syL), aversion, to feel aversion to : disliked' (2 syL), 
dislik'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Unlike', not like, dissimilar; unlike'-ly, not probable; 
nnlikeli-ness, improbability; unlike'- ness, want of re- 
semblance; unlike'li-hood {-hood Old Eng. suf., "state"). 
JHs- or un- and Old English gdic, like ; liced, likened. 
Bislocate, dis^lo.kdte, to put out of joint; dislocat-ed (Bule 
xxxvi.), dislocat-iHg ; dislocation, dis'Xo.hay'' .shun. 
Dislocated, put out of joint; 
TTnlocated, not having a fixt place assigned. 
Unlocated Land {American)^ land not yet appropriated. 
Fr. dUlocationt v. disloqutr; Lat. dU loedre, to put out of place. 
Bislodge' (2 syl.), to remove from its place ; dislodged' (2 syl.), 
dislodgp-ing (K. xix.), dislodg'-er; dislodg'-ment (one of 
the five words which drop the e before -ment, R. xviii., f ). 
Fr. d4loger, dilogement; Lat. dia loedre, to displace (locus, a place). 
Disloyal, di8.l(yy\al, or unloy'al, not loyaL 

Disloy'al denotes an active demonstration of disloyalty ; 
TTnloy'al denotes simply the fact of not being loyal. 
Disloy'al-ly; dialoyal-ty, dis.loy'.al.ty. 
French dAloyal (loi, a law) ; Latin Ugalia (lex, a law). 
Loyal means " obedient to law ;" dUloyai, disobedient to law. 



236 ERROm OF SPEECH 

Dismantle, di8.m(in^.t% to strip [a house, <fec., of its iiimitnre] ; 
dismantled, di&jman\t'ld ; dismantling, dd9,mawt',Vimg. 
IMsman'^tled, deprived of mantle or furniture ; 
Umnan'tled, without a mantle. 

French dtmcknUiUT (miUtary term) : Latin dU mantele, a mantle. 
Dismast^, to break down or carry away the masts of a ship; 
dismast' -ed (Rule xxxvi.), dismasf -ing. 
Old Fr. dinuMter; Fr. dimdUr; Hal. masto.- Germ. mast. 
Dismay, dtz.may', terror, to he in terror; dismi^yeA' (% syl.), 
dismay'-ing (R. xiii.) Un^ctismayed (S syl.) , not dismayed. 
Spanish deamayar, to be in /dismay ; deaniayo, dismay. 
Dismem'ber, to mutilate ; diamem'hered (a syL ), dismemlMiving, 
dismeml>e!r-ment, mutilation, severance of limbs. 
French dimemitrer, ddmembremeiU ; Latin dis membrum, a Umb. 
DisuHSs', to send away ; dismissed' (2 syl.), disnusi'-ing, dis- 
miss'-al; dismission, dU.mish^un; diemvifaYetdis.migs'.lv ; 
dim'issory, granting leave to depart. 
Latin iAm/mio, diwiisoriva, T. dianitUrey supine dimUmm (di{dls] 
mitto, to send awaj). 

Dismount^, to alight from a horse, to take Brticles from their 
"mountings"; dismonnt'-ed (R. xxxvi.), dismounf-ing. 
Unmoun'ted, not mounted; dismounted, deprived of... 
French dAmonter; Latin du mons, gen. montis, from the mountain. 
Disobey, dis'.Q.hay\ to act in opposition to orders given; dis- 
obeyed' (3 syl.), disobey-ing (Rule xiii.); 
Unobeyed, not having done what is ordered. 
Disobedience, di8\oJ)e£^\d%,ence (not -tmce). Non-observ- 
ance of a command. 
Disobedient, dU\oJiee^'M.ent ; difTobe'dient-ly. 
French diaohiitsance and d^soh^isaant (wrong conj.), disobiir; Latin 
dis dbSdiens, gen. dbidientis, dbedUntm, v. dbedlre. 

Disoblige, dW .oMige\ to offend by incivility ; dis'obliged' (3 syl.), 
dis'obllg'-ing (R. xix.), dis'obli'ging-ly. 
Disobli'ged, Blighted by inciviliiy; Unobli'ged, not obliged. 
Disobli'ging, discourteous ; Unobliging, not obliging. 
French diaobliger; Latin dis ohligdre (pb IXgo, to tie or bind to oneX 
Disorder, dlz.er^.dery want of order, to put out of order ; dis- 
or'dered (3 syl.), disor'der-ing, disor'der-ly, disor'derli- 
ness, untidiness. Unor'dered, not asked for or ordered. 
French dSsordre: Latin dis ordo, order, v. »rdlnare. 
Disorganise, di3,or^,gdn,iz6t to derange what is organised ; 
disor'ganised (4 syl.), disor'ganis-ing (Rule xix.) ; disor- 
ganisation, dis^or' .ganJ,.zay" .shun; dis'organis-er(E.xxxi.) 
Umor'gaoised (4 syL), not methodised; 



AND OF SPELLING. 237 

IMeor'gaiiMed (4 syl.), thrown omt of methodicid arratigement. 

Qr^ganised (8 syl.), having organic strtlctttTd ; 

Inor'ganised (4 syl.), not having organic Btmctnre. 
Ptench (Usorganiser, diaorganisaticm, disotijanimUftii* ; Latin or- 
gOmbVh; Greek argdntm^ an oargan adagsted to some work or fwie- 
tion. hence "organised" also means methodised^ and "diaorgan- 
iBed " thrown out of methodical arrangement. 

Disown, diz.own\ to ignore ; disowned' (2 syl.), di&owb''-ing^ 
Unowned' (2 syl.), having rfo recognized ownef ; 
Disowned' (2 syl.), disclaimed. 
Unowed, un owdy not owed, not due. 
Old English dgan, to own ; wndgron, to dis«fW]i< 
Bispaauge. dis.pa^roffey to de|»reciste; displur^aged (9 syl.), 
dispar'&^iBg (Bule xix.), dispar'aging^l^ dispttr'ag-er, 
dispar'age-ment (Rule xviii.) 
Latin dispardre (dis par, uBeomal); Frenoh parage, lineage; [dia] 
pfji/rage, of unequal lineage. To "disparage*^ meant originallv "to 
consider another of meaner rank," heiic«( ''of metm«CYAn»/* ant 
hence 'to depreciate." 

IKsparity, plu. dispaaitieSy di8.paf^ri.tU (not diepa/raty)^ 

Latin dispdrUUae, adj. diBpOrilis (pa/t, gen. pdris, eqiial> 
Dispassionate, dU.p&sh^HnM&t without emotion^ impturdal; 
di^)a88ionate-4y. 

TTnpassionnate, not of a passionate temper. 

Latin di» pasHo, withfoxEt^paB8io& 
Dispatch'. (See Despaitehv) 
Dispel^ to disperse; dispelled' (2 syL), dispBlT^ing. 

(It would he better if the double 1 had been preteroeeL) 

Latin dispells (Ms peUo, to drive away). 

(2 syl.) not dispence, to administer, to do without; 
dispensed', dispens'-ing (Rule xix.), dispens'^r. 
(" Dispense " is one of the^aix words ending in -ense, be- 
tween two and three hundred end in -ence, Rule xzri.) 

Undispeiised, un'Aia^penstft not dispensed. 

Dispense to, administer to ; 

Dil^nse with, to part with or do without. 

Dispensable, diB.p^^sa.b'l; that may be dispensed with ; 

In'dispen'sable, that cannot be dispensed with; 

Indispensably, absolutely, positively. 

Dispen'sury, phi. dispensaries, dis.p^'MM^ (Bule zliv.), 
a place where medicine is dispensed ; 

Di*pe«sat(»y, di».pm''.8a.t8.ryy a dictionary of medioal pre- 
scriptions, &G. ; adj. having thepower to grant dispensation. 

Dispensation, di8.pSn^ay",9htmt exemption, a system of 



238 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

rules (as the Mosaic dispensation), God's mode of dealing 
with his creatures ; 
Dispensatiye, di8,pSn^a,ttv ; dispen'sative-ly. 
Fr. dispenser, dispensavre, di^ptnsaUon; Lat. dispensdre, dispeiu&Uo. 
Bispermous, dis.p^.miis (in Botany), having two seeds. 

Greek dissds sperma, twofold seed. 
Disperse' (2 syl.), to scatter; dispersed' (2 syl.), dispers'-ing 
(Rule xix.), dispers'er, 4ispers'ahle (Rule xxiii.); 
dispersion, dis.per'^hun; dispersive, dis.per'Mv. 
Undispersed, un\dis,persf, not dispersed. 
French disperser, dispersion; Litin dispergihre, supine disperaum, 
dispersio, disperses {spargo, to scatter). 

Dispirit, dis spi'/ rit, to di>.hearten ; dispir'it-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
dispir'it-ing, dispir'ited-ly. Un'dispir'ited, not... 
Dispirited, disheartened. Unspirited, tame, without spirit. 
Latin dis splritus (splro, to breathe). 
Displace' (2 syL). to remove from its place ; displaced' (2 syL), 
displac'-ing (Rule xix.), displace' -ment (Rule xviii., IF), 
displace'- able (-ce and -fje retain the e final before the 
postfix -able. Rule xx.) Un'displaced', not displaced. 
French d4placer, d4placemeat ; Latin pldtea (Greek pldtus, wide). 
Displant', to remove a plant; displant'-^d (Rule xxxvi.), 
displanf -ing ; displantation, dis\plan.tay'\shun, 
Displant'ed, removed from where it was planted ; 
Unplanf ed, not planted, of spontaneous growth. 
French dSplariter, dSplanUUion; Latin displantdre, dis planWio. 
Display', show, to exhibit; displayed' (2 syl.), display'-ing 
(Rule xiii.), display'-er. Un'displayed', not displayed. 
French diployer; Latin dis plicdre, to unfold. 
Displease, dis.pleez\ to offend ; displeased' (2 syl.), displeas'-ing 
(Rule xix.), displeas'-^er. 
Displeasure, dis.plezhf.ur ; displeas'ure-able. 
Unpleasant, un.plez\ant, not pleasant; tmpleas'ant-ly, 

unpleas'ant-ness. 
Displeas'-ing. offensive ; Unpleas'-ing, not pleasing. 
French d6plais<mt, diplaisir ; Latin displicentia, displidrt (dis 
plaoSo, to displease). 

Dispose, dis.poze', to arrange, to feel willing ; disposed', arranged, 
inclined; dispos-ing' (Rule xix.), top6s'-er, dispos'-al, 
dispos'-able (Rule xxiii.), dispd'sable-ness. 

Undisposed, not disposed. 

Disposition, dis\p8.zi8h'\un. Arrangement, temper. 

Indisposed, in.dis.pozd, unwell, not inclined ; indisposition ; 
indispos'-able, not saleable. 



AND OF SPELLING, 239 

UndispoBedneBB, un'-di8.pd",zH,neUy tmwiUmgiieBS. 
Disposed ot Parted with, sold. {Ste Depose.) 
ITndiBposed ot Not parted with, not sold. 
French disposer, disposition: Latin dispMtio, dispotttus, dispOnir$ 
(dis ponOf to set aside, to distribute). 

DiBpossesB, dis'.pdtJsSs' (not di9\poai8*\ to deprive of; dis- 
possessed, dts^posjsesf (not di8\pdjse8f) ; disjKxseBS-ing, 
dis^posjsis'Ang (not diil',po.z^\ing) ; dlBpoBseBsion, dii\- 
po8,zS8h".un (not dis'.pdjsesh^'.un) ; dis'poBseBB'-or. 
Dis^poBseBsed' (3 syl.)* turned out of possession; 
tTn'poBBessed' (8 ey].), not having in possession. 
Fr. d^possession ; Latin dis possessio, possessor, possideo, snp. posses- 
9um, {poe Ipotis} sedeo, the right of settling down. Dis reverses). 

BispraiBe, dis.prdze^ censure, to censure; dispraised" (3 syL), 
dispraiB'-ing (Bule xix.), disprais'ing-ly, disprais'-er. 
Dispraised, dt8,prdzd\ censured ; 
Unpraised, un.prazd', not praised. 

JHs and Oerm&n preisen, to praise ; preiser; French pris&r, to vahie : 
Latin pritium, price or value. To praise is " to vidue." 

Disproof (noun), confutation ; disprove' (verb), to confute (B. li.) 

Disprove, dis.proov" (not di8.prove\ to confute ; disproved, 
dis.proovd*; disprov-lng, dis.proov'.ing (not dis^prd'^ving. 
Rule xix.); disprov-able, di8,proo\vd,bl; 

Indisprovable, not to be disproved. 

Disprov-al, dis.proo'-val, refutation ; 

Disapproval, di8\ap,proti'\val, displeasure. 

Disapprobation, di8\ap.pro,bay"^hun, displeasnre. 

Unproved, un.proovd' (not un-provd), not proved ; 

Disproved, dis.proovd^ (not dU-provd)^ confuted; 

Disapproved, dW .ap.proovd\ not pleased with. 
JHs and Old Fngiish prof\ian], to prove ; past pro/ode, iMtst part 
profod; Latin prdh&re (prdbus, honest, upright). 

Disproportion, dis\pro.pof^' ^hun. want of proportion ; dispro- 
por'tion-able, dispropor'tionable-ness, dispropor'tion- 
ably, dispropor'tion-id, disproportional-ly, dispropor"- 
tion-ate, dispropor'tionate-ly, dispropor'tionate-ness. 
French disproportion, disproportionel / Latin dit prSportio, proper- 
Hondius {poirtio, a portion). 

Dispnte' (2 syL), a contention, to contend; dispilf-ed (Bule 
xxxvi.), disput'-ing (Rule xix.), disput'ing-ly, dispuf-er; 
disputable, dis^pu.ta.b'l {hot di8.pute.,a.b'l)i dis'putable- 
ness, dis'pntably, dis'pntant. 

Disputation, di8'.pu.tay''^hun. Controversy. 

Disputatious, dis'.pu.tay" ^hus. Contentious. 



24a ERRORS OF SPEECH 

DispntatiTe, dvf' .'pu.ta.tXv ; dia'patative-Iy. 

Undispa'ted, not disputed ; muiispiitdd^y. 

Indisputable (notun-), vn,€tu^'.pu.ta.hU, ccHaln; 

bidis'piitable-iiew, indis'putably, certainly. 

French disputable, disputant (** Disputation" is not a French wor^; 
Latin dispHtdbUis, dispiUiatio, dispHtdtor, y. dispiUare (pttttf; t<r 
pnme or dreu vinet. to thidk ; di» pAto, to think diffei«nt&. "To 
think" is to prone or dress the -thoughts). 

Disqualify, <2t«.ftw^r.t./)/, to render uiifit; diaqvalifiea, dUikwSt.- 
ufize ; disqualifled, dis.kwoV.i.fide ; digqualifi-ef, di*.- 
ku)bVA.fi,er (R. xi.) ; disqualification, dit,kwU.H.fi,hail'\- 
thun, but disquali'fy-ing (Rule xi.) 
Disqualified. Haviog something which destroys ^ness; 
Unqualified. Not haying what is required. 
Dii and Frendi quatiJUation, y. qaalifitr (XaSOU ^paOttmt^ flMo, to 
make of the quality or nature required): 

Disquiet, di8.1twV.et (not dis.kwoi\et)j uneasiness, to disturb; 
disqui'et-ed (Rule xxxvi.), disqui'eit^ihg, disqui^ei-er, 
disqui'eMy, di8qixi''et-n^ ; disquietude, dU.qui\e,tude, 
iTnquiet, un,kwi\eU restless ; unquiet-ly, unquiet-'DMiL 
Inquietude, in,hwi\e.tude. Anxiety. 

flench inquieUtde; Latin inquiitudo, inquietus, r, inquiHdre, Onr 
word is formed from (Latin) dia quiek, tne reverse ol re&t. 

Disquisition, dis^.kwLzUh" ,uh, discussion; disq'uisition-al. 
. French diBqaitUxon; lAiin disqulsitw, y. disquiro (dxa qucero). 
Disregard, dis' .re.gard\ slight, to neglect; diBte^i*-6d (^ule 
xxxvi.), disregard'-ifig, di8i«gard^g%, disif^gai^W, 
disregard'«>ful (Rule yiii.), disregard'fal-ly. 
Un'regard'ed, neglected ; Dis'regarded, slighted. 
Dia and French regarder; Low Latin regardiuvi, "|^d" = 
(one under a tftiardian, one guarded or looked af C^i). 1x> ^' re( 
is to look after one as a guardian, dw-regotti is to negleot ao i 
Disrelish, dis.reV.uh^ a dislike of the taste, to didike the ttote ; 
disrerished (3 syl.), disr^^ij^-ing. 
Dis^reFished (3 syL), aversion to die taste ; 
Un'rerished (3 syl.), hnying no fondness for the ttiste: 
Greek dis Tre] UicK[o\ leicTw, to lick ; re leicho, to lick again :di$ ft 
Mcko, to lick over and over again. It is a badly compounded word. 

Dine9pect, dis\re.spet1f, want of respect, to show want of respect; 

disrespecf-ed (K. xxxvi.), disrespecf-ing, difflrespeof-M 

(R. viii.), disrespect ffil-ly, disrespect'ful-ness. 

Dis'respeet'ed, dishonoured. Un'respect'ed, not respected. 

Irrespective, ir.re.8pek'\tlVt without regard to ; iT'iespeof- 

ive-ly, independently of other considerations. 
JHs and French respect, yerh respecter ; Latin respido, lapine rmpee- 
twin (re speeio, to look tuusk upon;. IHi reverses. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 241 

Diflrobe' (^ syl.), to undrees ; disrobed^ diirob'-ing (Bnle xix.), 
disrob-er. Uniobe', unrob'-ing (same meaning). 

DiBrobed" (2 syl.), divested of robing; 
Unrobed (2 syl.), without robes, or dress. 
Dia and French robe, a state dresa; Low Latin roba^ a robe. 

IHantpt', to burst asunder; dismpt^-ed (Rule xxxvi), diirupt'- 
ing; diflraptioxi, dassv^^shun, firactnre. 
Latin diarwrnpo, supine dAwmpimm {dis rwmpo, to break asunder). 

Bissatisfy, di8.8at\l8.fy, to leave discontent; disBatigfieg, dis.- 
8df,is.fize (RiUe xi.) 
Dissatisfied, di8.8df,i8,fide^ discontented; 
Unsatisfied, un'.8df.ts.fidey not contented. 
IKssat^is^ing, leaving discontent behind ; 
Unsat'isfy-ing, not contenting. 

IKssatiaifiictory, disjafXs.fdk^'.tS.ry, giving dissati^ction ; 
UB^satisfiaetory, not giving satisfaction. 
Bissatisfac'tori-ly, in a way to cause dissatisfaction ; 
Unsatisfactori-ly, in a way not to satisfy. 
Bissatisfac'tori-neBS, a state of being dissatisfied; 
Unsatisfiactori-ness, failure to produce satisfaction. 
Bissatiirfiaction, di8.8at.^,fak'\shunj discontent. 
XTnsatisfiable, un.8d1f,l8,fl'\d.hley not satisfiable. 
Latin dis tdti^adiOt sdti^ddre {sdtisfdciOy to do enoughX 

Bissect, di8.8ecf (not de.8ect')r to anatomise; dissect^-ed (Rule 
xxxvi), dissect'-ing, dissect'-or (not -er), dissect'-ible 
(ought to be -able) ; dissection, di8.8ek\shun. 
Fr. dusection; Lat. dissectio, dissdcdre (dis sieo, to cut to pieces). 

Disseize, di8.8eez', to dispossess. Disease, diz.eze\ malady. 

Bisseized, di8.8eezd'; disseiz'-ing (Rule xix.), dispossessing 
wrongfully; diaseiz^'in, the act of disseizing; 

Bisseiz'-or, one who takes possession unlawfully ; 

Bisseizee, di8.8ee.zee\ the person disseized. 

(These words are also spelt with "-s" instead o/"-z," but 
as seize is always spelt with " z," there is no reason why 
its compounds ^should adopt a different spelling.) 

Low Lathi dMseiaifna, disseizon ; disseisiOf to disseize ; disseisitor. 

Bissemble, dis-z^mWl, to conceal by equivocation ; dissembled^ 
disjsemWld; dissem'bling (Rule xix.); dissem'bler, one 
who conceals by equivocation. 
Q 



242 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dissimulation, dUMmf M,lay" ^hun^ the act of dissembliDg. 
JH8 and French $embler. The French corresponding words are dUr 

Hmuler, disaimulatum ; Latin disAmUlare, disHmiildtio (jrimiUo, 

to feign ; di« in a bad sense, rimUis, like). 
{It wovM have been better if voe had adopted the vjord "dissimnlate " 

instead of the had French form *' disaemble.") 

Disseminate, di8.8^m\i.na.tej to scatter as seed, to diffiise; 
dissem'^inat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dissem'inat-ing (Rule zix.), 
dissem'inat-or (Rale xxxvii.); dissemination, dUaem'.i.' 
nay'\shun; dissem'inative, di8.8em\i.naMv. 

French diasSminer, dissSmination ; Latin diseemindtio, diseimfndtor, 
disaSminare {aimen, seed). 

Dissent, di8.8ent^, disagreement, to disagree. Descent, d^^ent', 
generation, a going down. 

Dissent' (mmnjy dissent'-er. 

Dissenf (verb), dissenf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dissenf-ing. 
Dissentient, di8.8^' jhl.ent ; dissension, di8.8^'^hun (not 
'Hon, Rule xxxlii., -t). Assent^, g.v., agreement. 

trench dissension; Latin dissentient, gen. -erUis, dissensio, verb 
dissentvre, supine dissensum (dis sentio, to thick differently). 

Dissertation, dis'^er.tay^'.8hun (not des' .er.tay'\shun\ a disqui- 
sition ; disserta'tion-al, dissertator, di8\8er.ta.tor, 

French dissertation, dissertateur ; Latin dissertdtio, verb dissertdre 
frequentative of dis^ro, supine dissertum (dis sero, to scatter seed). 

Diceever, di8.8ev'.er^ same as "sever"; dissev'ered (3 syl.), 
dissev'er-ing, dissev'er-^r, dissev'er-ance; disseveration, 
dis. 8et/.e.ray'^. shun, (Not French). 
Dissevered, dis.8ev\erd, separated, severed ; 
TJnsevered, un.8^v\erd, not separated or severed. 
Dis intensive and Fr. sevrer, to wean, to estrange. Lat. sipdrd/re. 
Dissident, dis' M.dent (not di8.8i.dant), one who dissents, (adj.) 
dissenting; dis'sidents, dis'sidence, dis'sident-ly. 

French dissidence, dvtsident; Latin dissidentia^ dissidens, genitive 
dissidentis, verb dissldSre {dis sideo, to sit apart). 

Dissimilar, disMm' .i.lar, unlike ; dissim'ilar-Iy; dissimilarity, 

di8\8im.i.lur^' ri.ty ; dis'similltude. 
French dissimilaire^ dissimilitude; Latin dissimilettuio (dis stmllis). 
Dissimulation, dis. sim\u.lay". shun, (See Dissemble.) 
Dissipate, dis'-stpatej to disperse, to squander; dis'sipat-ed 

(Rule xxxvi.), dispersed, squandered, adj. dissolute; 

dis'sipat-ing (Rule xix.) ; dissipation, dis'. si.pay*' .shun. 

French dissiper, dissipation; Latin dissipdtio, disaiCpdre (dis sipo, to 
scatter abroad ; Greek slphOn, a siphon). 

Dissociate, dis.8o'.8i.ate, to disunite ; disso'ciat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
disso'ciat-ing (R. xix.); dissociation, dis .so' M.a" .shun. 



AND OF SPELLING. 243 

Dissociable, dU.sS'.shd.b*!^ ill-assorted; 

Unsociable, u7t^o'.«M.&7, not sociable. 

Unsodably, un.8d'.8hd.blyt with reserve, unfriendly. 

Bissociability, di8^d\8haMV\i.ty, unfitness for society ; 

Unsociability, sullenness, living an unsociable Hfe. 

Unsocial, urusd^^hdl; unsociableness, want of sociability. 

French insociaibilitS, insodable; Latin diatddabttU, dMsdciaXio, dis- 
tdcidre (dis sdcio, sdciua, ft companion). 

Dissolute, dU\8o.lute, dissipated; dis^solute-ly, dis'solute-ness ; 
dissolution, di8\8o.W .8hun, 
Dissoluble, dW .8o.lu.VL {See Dissolve.) 
French dissolu, dissolution; Latin dissdlHttu, dissdlHtio^r. dissolute, 
supine dissdlutum. {See next article.) 

Dissolve, d%8.z5lv\ to melt; dissoiy-ing (Eule xix.) 

Dissolved, di8.zSlvd', melted. Un'solved, not solved. 

Dissoiyer, that which melts something. 

Dissolvent, dis.z(iV,ventf that which has the property of 

melting something; 
Insolvent, a debtor unable to pay his debts, not solvent; 

insol'vency, the state of being insolvent. 
Dissolvable, di8Jidl\va.b'l (Rule xxiii.), or 
Dissoluble, di8\8o.lu.b% capable of being melted; 
Insolvable, in.8dV .va.b*l (Eule xxiii.), or 
Insoluble, in.8oVM.b% incapable of being melted ; 
Unsolvable, un.86V.va.b% incapable of being solved ; 
Unsoluble, same as insoluble. 

Dissolubility, dis* ^ol.u.biV\i.ty ^ having a solvable nature ; 
In'dissolubillty, having a nature which resists solution. 
Dissorvable-ness, negative Insoruble-ness. 

French dissolvJble, dissolvant (wronsr conj.) insolubiliU, insoluble, 
insolvable; Latin dissoMre (dis solve, to loose thoroughly; Greeic 
sun hio, to loose altogether). 

(The wrong conj. -able has been borrowed cts visual from the French, 
Zmt TuM been avoided in dissolvent.) 

Dissonance, di8\8o.nan8ej discord ; dis'sonant, discordant. 

Fr. dissonance, dissonant; Lat. dissdnans, gen. -sonantis (dis sdndre). 

Dissuade, neg. of persuade, di8.8wade\ •per.swade*; dissuad'-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), dissuad'-ing (Rule xix.), dissuad'-er; 
dissuasion, di8.8way\8hun, neg. of persua^sion (R. xxxiii.) i 
dissuas-ive, di8.8wa\slv ; dissua'sive-ly. 

French dissuader, dissuoMon; Latin dissudisio, dissudsor, v. dis^ 
sudMre (dts. «uddeo, Greek Ionic hadio, to delight). 



244 EliRORS OF SPEECH 

Dissyllable, dis siV M,Vly a word of two eyllableH (double Z); 
dissyllabic,' dis'.siVMh'Wh (adj.); dissyllabificatlon, 
dis' -sil.laV -i-fi.kay" -shun^ making into two syllables. 
(Lat. words containing a "y" are borrowed from the Gk.) 
Fr. dissylldbe, diasyUabique; Lai dissyllabwn; Ok. diasdB tuUdbi. 

Distaff, plu, distafb (not distaves). k staff used in hand- 
spinning. (An exception to Rule xxxviii.) 
Old Eng. disUitfithisUX [stef], a thiatle nsembling a bunch of towX 

Distance, di8\tanse, remoteness, to leave behind in a race ; 
dis'tanced (2 syl.), dis^tanc-ing (Rule xix.); disi'tant, 
remote; dis'tant-ly, remotely. 

French distance, distant; Latin distantia, distaw, gen. didcmiii 
((}i[d|Bl«to, to stand apart). 

Distaste' (2 syl.), dislike (followed by for : as " Many have a 
great distaste for cheese," not of), 
Distaste'^^fnl (Rule viii.), distaat^ul-ly, distaatoful-nefs. 

Distem'per, disease, to disorder; a jareparation of colour with 
water (not oil) for walls, <|^c., to use this preparation. 
Distempered, dis.t^m'.perd ; distem'per-ing. 

'* Distemper" is used most frequently for disease in d(^, and other 
dumb animals. {Su Disease.) 

It was once thought that the body contains four "humours," that 
the just balancing of these fluids constitute health, and that dis- 
ease is a disturbance of the balance (Latin dis temperdre). The 
adjustment of the fluids gave rise to the expressions good and ill 
"temper." "Good temper" being the effect of a good or just 
mi^^ture of the fluids, and "bad temper" the eflFect of a bad or 
unjust mixture. If bile prevailed the temper was "fiery," if air 
prevailed the temper was "sanguige," if eo^th it was "mehui- 
choly." if water it was "phlegmatic." 

The oouNTBNANCB Is the facial index " contftining " (Latin oonte- 
nens) the outward manifestation of the "temper" or mixture of 
the four fluids : it is yellow if " bile " [fire] prevails red if " blood " 
[air] prevails, grey if "melancholy" [earthi prevails, and dead 
white if " phlegm " [water] prevails. (See Complexion.) 

"Distemper ' (p*int), Italian distemper[amento], v. distemperare, to 
dissolve, tempera or tempra, water colour; Latin Umper^re, to 
mix, di» temperdret to dissolve. 

Distend^ to stretch; distend'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), distend'-ing, 
distention or distension, dis.ten^shun ; disten'sible. 

French distendre, distension: Latin distend^re, supine distentum or 
disteiisum, distentio, distenttu or distensus {tendOy to stretch). 

Distich, dis'.tik (not dis.titch'), two lines of poetry making 
complete sense. (C/» = " k " shows it to be &om the Gk.) 
Latin disticfwn; Greek d^stKcMs, two lines, an elegi'ac couplet. 

Distil', to let fall in drops ; distiUed' (2 syL), distill'-lng (R. i.) ; 
distill'-er, one who distils; distill'-able (not -ihU. 1st 
Latin conj.); distillation, di8\til.lay'\8hun ; distUl'-ery, 




AXD OF SPELLTNO. 245 

the place where distilling is onrried on; distillatory, 

disMV .la,to.ry (a4j.)< pertaining to distillation. 

(" Distil" would he better with double "L") 
Franch digtUUr, disUUabU, ditUllation, distiUatoire, dittiUerie; Latin 

distUkUiOf dUlill[dre]f stiUa, a drop ; Greek staza, to drop. 
Bistincf , separate, hence clear, &cr, dJstincf-ly, distincf-tiess ; 

distinction, disMnk' .shun ; didtinct-ive, disMnk' ,tlv ; 

diBtiBciiVB-ly, distinotive-iiesB. Verb distingnciish, q.v, 
tndistinct, not distinct. Distinct followed by ^om. 
French distinct, distinction, disiinctif; Latin distindus, distinctio, 
BkHnguish, dis.tlng gwUh, to note difference by certain marks 

(followed by between) ; distinguished, dis.tlng' gwishd ; 

distin^guish-ing, distin'goishing-ly, distin'guish-able 

(R. xxiii.), difltiii'gaishaUe-neflS, distin'gaishably, dis- 

tin'guish-ment, diertin^guish-er. {See Distinct) 
UndiBtin'guished, un- or in- -distin^goishable. 
French distinguer; Latin distingiUfre, supine distinctum, to notify 

by a mark (Greek stigma, a mark, v. atizo, to prick or mark). 
Distort^ io pervert; distort'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), distorf-ing, dis- 

torf-^; distortion (not -sion)^ dis.tor'^hun (Rule xxxiii.) 
Undistorted. Not distorted. 
FiMH^ distorsion (wrong) ; Latin distortio, r. distorqutn^ iupine 

distortum, not distorsum (dis torqueo, to twist away). 

Bistracf , to harass ; distract'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), distrac'ted-Iy, 
distracted-ness, dis'tract'-ing, distract'-er.distract'ing-Iy ; 
distrtetion, dis.trak'^hun; distractive, dis,trdk\tiv, 
Undistracted, un' .dis.tr&kf^ted. Not distracted. 

(" Distraught ** is sometirkes need in poetry as past part.) 
Lai diatractio, ditlrdho, stop, distraelum {di» trdha, to draw two ways). 
Distrain' (2 syl.), to seize chattels for debt; dislaredned (2 syl.), 
distrainMng; distraint' (noun); distrain'-or ; dis- 
tndn'-able, subject to distraint. (Rule xxiii.) 
Distress', same as distrainf, the act of seizing for debt. 
Latin distring^rc, to strain hard {stringo, to grasp). 
Dittteai', affliction, destitution (see Distrain); distress'-ing 
(part, and adj.); distressed, dis.tri8t\ afflicted; dis- 
toess'ofnl (Rule viii.), distressful-Iy. 
French ditrt$se; Welsh trais, rapine ; treisiant, oppression. 
Distribute, dis.trW.ute, to dole out; distrib'ut-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
disttlVat-ing (Rule lix.), distrib'iSt-er (ought to be 
-or): diiitn\miion,dis'.trtbit\8hun; distrib'iit-ablo (Rule 
xxiii.); distribut-ive, dis.tri1/.u.tiv ; distrib'tttiye-ly. 
UndJBtributed, unMM.tfib'M.USd^ not distiibuted. 
Indiirtribntive, in.di8.trW.u.t\v, not to be distributed. 
French distriJlmer, dUtribuiewr, dMribu*Um, distrOmtif: Latin di»- 
trtbOUo, distributor, distribugre {dis trOmo, to give in parka;. 



246 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Distrust', want of confidpnce, to doubt or suspect; distrnsf-ed, 

distrnst'-ing, distrnst^ing-ly, distrust'-ful (Bule Yiii.), 

distrust'ful-ly, distrust'fnl-ness. 
Distrust'-ed, suspected ; Untrust^-ed, not trusted. 
Untrust'y, not trusty ; untrus'ti-ness, unfaithfulness in tlie 

dischar^'e of a tru'^t; untrustworthy. 
Old English u'nitre6wtaBit unfaithful : unire&wt^ioun\ to decelTe. 
Disturb', to discompose; disturbed' (2 syL), distnrV-ing, 

disturV-er, disturb'-ance. 
Perturb', to disquiet (a stronger tprm than disturb); 

perturbed^ perturb'-ing ; perturbation, j)«r'.tur.6ay".- 

$hun, agitation from disquietude. 
Perturbations of the planets, deviations from their usual 

course from some external influence. 

Undisturbed (8 syl.), not disturbed ; undisturb'-ed-ly (6 syl.) 

French perturbation ; Latfai disturbdtio, a disordering ; perturhdtio, 
great trouble or disturbance ; disturbdre, to throw into disorder: 
perturbdre, to trouble, to turn topey turvy UwrbOf to disturb). 

Disunite, dis-u.nite', to disjoin ; disunif-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
disunit'-ing ; disunit'-er, one who severs what was united. 
Disunion, di8.u'.ni.ony want of union ; disunity, di8M\ni.ty, 
Disuni'ted, separated after having been united; 
TJnuni'ted, not united. 

French disunion, ddninir; Latin dis «nSre {wnua, oneX 
Disuse, (noun) disMce', (verb) dis.uze^ (Rule li, c). 

Disuse (n(mn\ neglect of use; disnsage, dis.v^^age; 

disuse (verb), disused, dis.Uzd'; disus-ing (Rule xix.) 
Unused, un.u8tf unaccustomed ; unused, uriMzd, not used ; 
Disused, dis.uzd, the use discontinued. 
Unusefnl, un.use^^ful; unu'sual, unusual-Iy. 
Latin di8 usus, r. utor, supine wnu, to use ; Greek ei6tM$, usual. 
Ditch, plu. ditch'-es (R. I'ii.), a trench ; ditch'-er, one who makes 
a ditch ; ditch'-ing, making a ditch. 
Old English die, a dike or ditch, v. duiian], dieung, ditching. 
Dithyramb, d\rK.i.rum, a song in honour of Bacchus ; dithy. 
rambic, dXrh' d.rum** Mk (a^j.) 
Latin diihyraitibus, dithyrambiGW ; Greek dHhuramhoi, 
Dittany, d\i'.ta.ny, a corruption of dic'tavmy^ garden ginger; the 
leaves smell like lemon-thyme. Also called dittaiider. 
Lat didwrnnuB; Gk. didamnon or didamon (firom ]HtM, in Crete). 
Ditto, also written da, but always pronounced dif.to^ same as 
above, same as aforesaid. (Italian detto, said, spoken.) 
( Used in bills cmd books of account to save repetition.) 




AND OF SPELLING. 247 

Ditty, flu. ditties, dif.tiz (Rule xliv.), a short poem intended 
to be sung. The word is almost limited to '* loye-songs." 

Welsh ditio, to utter ; ditiad, an utterance. 

<* Composition" is from the Latin et»np&no, "to set in order," and 
the Anglo-Saxon diht-an is " to set in order," whence dihtig. 

Diuresis, (2i.u.re'.«ts, excessive flow of urine ; disB'resis, q.v., the 
mark ( ") over the latter of two distinct vowels. 
Diuretic, di.u.ref.lk, provocative of the flow of urine. 
Fr. diuritique; Lat. diureticus; (Gk. dia our^o, whence "nrlne**). 
Diurnal, di.ur^.nal, daily, pertaining to a day ; diur^nal-ly. 

French dium^ journal ; Latin diwmua (diu^ dies, a day). 
Divan, di.vdn', a cofiee and smoking room fitted up with sofas. 
French divan, a sofa-bedstead . Persian ditoan, the imperial coandl 
or chamber where the council is held. 

Dive (1 syl.), to plunge under water; dived (1 syl.), div^-ing 
(Rule xix.); div-er, one who dives; diving-bell. 
Old EMglish dvfiicm], past dyfde, past part, dyfed, part pres. dyfing. 

Diverge' (2 syl.), to spread from the central point, to recede from 
each other (the opposite of Con verge') ; diverged' (2 syl.), 
diverg'-ing (R. xix.), diverg'-ence (not -ance), diverg'-ent ; 
diver'gency, plu. divergencies, di.ver^ .jen.8iz (R. Ixiv.) ; 
diver gent-ly or diver'ging-ly, in a diverging manner. 

French diverger, divergence, divergent; Latin divergium, the parting 
of a river into two streams ; Latin vergens, gen. vergemUt (diveivo, 
to bend different ways). 

Divers, di'.verz, plu. of diver (see Dive); (adj.) sundry. 

Diverse, duversef, not alike, not identicaL 
" History supplies divers examples" (sundry), not diverse, 
" Squares and diamonds are diverse forms," difierent. 
"There are divers nations on the earth, but each one 
diverse from the others." 

Divers-ly, di\verz.ly, in many dififerent ways; 

Diverse'-ly, not in the same way. 

Diversity, plu. diversities, di.ver^.si.tiz^ difflerences. 

Diversify, di.vefM.fy, to vary; diversifies, dLvei^Mfize; 
diven^ed, di.ver^.8i.fide ; diver'sify-ing (Rule xL), 
diver'sifi-er; diversification, di.ve7^.si.ji.kay"8hun. 

French divers, plu. diverses [personnes, &c]. ("Diversification** is 
not French), diver sifitr, diversity ; Latin diverse, in different parts, 
diversitas, diverUre, sup. diversum {di verto, to turn different ways.) 

Divert, di.verf, to turn aside, to amuse ; diverf -ed (R. xxxvi.), 
diverf-ing, diver'ting-Iy, diverf-er; diversion, (Zl.i;^'.. 
shun (Rule xxxiii.), amusement. 
Divertisement, dtver^.tlz.mmt, (not d^.vair.tlz.mong). 
Fr. diverti/r, diversianf divertissement; Lat diverUfre (see aboveX 



248 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

DiT^st, d\.ves1f^ to strip, to dispossess ; divest'- ed (lUile xxzvi.), 

divest'-ing ; diyestitare, di.vis'.ti.tchur, the aet of nur- 

rendering one's chattels (the opposite of Invertitiire) ; 

dlTestore, drives' AchUr, the act of stripping or depriving. 

Old French dSvestir; French d&oitir; ItaHan divestire. to ondreas; 

Latin di [dia] vettio, to deprive of clothing {vutii, raiment). 

Biyide, dtvide% to part; di'^d'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), diyid'-ing 

(Rule xix.), divi'<ing-ly ; divid'-er, one who divides; 

dividers, dtvi'.derz, compasses ; divid'-able (Rule xxiii.) 

Divisible, di.v%z\i.b% what can be divided ; divis'ible-ness, 

divis'ibly; divisibiUty, €U.vtz\iMV\i.ty ; 
Division, di.vizh'.un; division-al, divisioiial-ly. 
Divis-or, dtvi\zorf the number which divides another ; 
Dividend, div'.i.d^ndy the number to be divided by the 
divisor, the share to each creditor of a bankrupt's effects, 
the interest paid on public " stock." 
French divisible, v. diviser, dividende, division, diviseur; Latin 
dUfidendus, dlvlsio, divisor, dividiro, sup. divisum(di and Itmscan 
idudre, to sever into two parts). 
Divine, dtvinei', a man set apart for the sacred ministry; (adj.), 
sacred ; (verb), to guess, to predict. 
(The French spell the verb with " de-,** hut fall back to 
" di-" in the noun " divination.") 
Divine (adj.), divin'-er (comp.), divm'-est (super.); 
divinely (adv.), divine'-ness ; divinity, di.vln\i.ty, 
theology ; divinity, plu. divinities, di.vin'.i.tXz, deity. 
("Divine" and "supine" are the only adj. in **.ine" 
which can be compared with the sujffixes -er and -est.) 
Divine (verb), divined' (2 syL), divin'-ing, divin'ing-ly, 

divin'-er; divination, div\i. nay'' .shun, prediction. 
French di'vin, diviniU, deviner, to predict ; devineur, fern, devineresse, 
diviruUion 1 1 prediction; Latin dlvinitas, divinus, divine, (from 
divus, Greek aids, god), divi-ndtio, dlvlntu, a diviner ; dlvindre, to 
predict (predictions being supposed to come, de divo, from deitjy. 
Divisible, di.viz\i.bn; divis'ibly (see Divide). 
Divorce, di.vorc^ (not devorce), dissolution of mnrriage, to 
annul a marriage ; divorced' (2 syl.), divoic'-ing (R. xix.), 
divoroe'-ment, divorce'-able {-ce and -ge retain the e 
before -^ble. Rule xviii.), divoroe'-lees. 
DivoTo'-er, one who divorces ; div(»oee', the person divorced. 
IMvoroe Court, plu. divorce courts; Ckiurt of Divorce, plu. 

courts of divorce (Rule liii.) 
French divorce; Latin divortium, v. divorUfre (diverto, to turn away). 
Divulge, di.viilj', to make public, to disclose ; divulged' (2 syl.), 
divulg'-ing (R. xix.), divulg'-er, divulg'-ence (ought to 
be divnlge-ance. It is the 1st Latin conj.) 
French divutgxur, divulgation is a word we might adopt; Latin* 
diwuiQaJUQ, dipulgdre {vulgtu, the common people). 




AND OF SPELLING. 249 

DiyaUdon, dl.vuV ^hUn, laceration ; divnl^sive, di.vuL.8iv. 

(** Divulrion" one of the few words in -sion not French.) 
La^ divuMa, diveUo mipine divulsum, (di veUo, to pluck asunder). 
Diz'zy, giddy; diz'zi-ly (Rule xi.), diz'zi-ness. 

Old Englisli dysiif, dysignes dizziness, dysiglice dizzily. 
Djeirid, je/.rid, a Turkish javelin. (Arabic.) 
Do, deo, to perform an act; past did; past part, done, diin; do-ing; 
pres. tense I do, thou dost, dust [or doest, doo-est], he 
does, duz, plu. do, doo, aU persons; past tense I did, 
thou didst, aU other persons did. * 
Doer, doo-er, one who performs or achieves [something]. 
As an auxiliary, the verb do is chiefly used in asking 
questions, in which case it standi before its noun, as do 
you wish to ride this morning f 
§ As a representative verb *'Do" acts the part of a pronoun, 
and stands for any antecedent question asked with the 
auxiliary, as " does dssar come forth to-day ? " •* YeSy he 
does" [understand com^ forth to-day]. 
§ Occasionnlly it is used for the sake of emphasis, as I do very 

mitch wish to go, 
§ In poetry it is used with the present and past tenses merely 
to help the metre or the rhyme. 
Doings, doo'.ingz, behaviour. Pretty doings, very censur- 
able conduct 
Done, dun, achieved, finished. Done with [it], finished 

with it, want it no longer. 
Done up, quite exhausted. 

To do for [him], to manage, (threateningly) try to ruin. 
To do away, to erase. 
To do with [it], to employ or use [it]. 
To do up, to pack up, to tie together. 
How do you do? How are you in health, how do you 
thrive? A corruption of How do you duf Lduglan], 
to thrive]. (Equal to the Latin valeo!) The full question 
is, How is it that you do thrive [in health] f 
Old English io cld, tlitl diet, he d^th, plu. ddth ; past ic djde thtl 

dydesi, he dyde, plu. dydvn; yti&i part, ged&n; Infinitive d6n. 
Dugian], to thriv e, makes past ddhte, later form dowed, Scotch dow. 
Do., pronounce ditto, of which it is a contraction. Used 
in bills and account books to save repetition. It means 
the *' same as the foregoing." {See Ditto.) 
Do (to rhyme with no), the note C in Music, 
Docile, do*. site rr dds\ile, tractable ; docility, dd.8lt,i.ty. 
French dociU, docUiU; Lathi dOdClis, ddcUitai, 



,y Google 



250 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Book, a place for ships, a place where persons under trial stand 
in a law-court, a plant, to curtail; docked, dokt^ cur- 
tailed ; dook'ing. Dook'-age (2 syl.), charge for the use 
of a dock. 
Old English doee€ (for ships); French dock; German dodce. 
"Dock^* (a plant), Latin daucus; Greek dttHJOs. This word ought 

to be spelt dauc or dauk (not dock). 
"Dock" (to curtail.!, Welsh tociaw, to clip; tod, something dipt; 
German dodben. 
Docket, dok'M, a ticket, a lahel ; dock'et-ed, dock'et-ing. To 
" docket" goo.d8 is to mark the contents on a label or set 
them down in a book, to summarise. 
Welsh tocvn, a ticket ; tocyniad, a ticketing; tocynu, to ticket 
Doctor, d^k\tdr (not docter. Rule xxxvii.), fern, doctor-ess or 
doc^tress ; doc'torate, possessing the degree of doctor ; 
doctor-ship {-ship Old Eng. sufl&x "tenure" of office or 
degree); doc'tor, to give medicine in illness, to adulter- 
ate, to falsify; doc'tored (2 syL), doc^tor ing. 
Doctor of Divinity, jpltt. doctors of divinity (Rulelui) 
Latin doctor^ doctus, one instructed (doceo, supine doctum). 
Doctrine, ddk^.trin, a tenet, what is taught ; doctrin-al, ddk',- 
tH.nul (not ddk.tri^nal), pertaining to doctrine, contain- 
ing doctrine; doctrinal-ly. 
French doctrine, doctrinal; Latin doetrina, theory, learning. 
Dociiinent,(fd/c'/ni.m^, a record; doc'umenf'-al; documentary, 
ddk'ku.men'\ta.ry, certified in wriiing. 
French document; Latin ddc&inen, ddcHmentum {doeeo, see above). 
Dodder, a parasitic weed. (German dotter^ 
Dodge (1 syl.), a quibble, an artifice, to track, to evade, to quibble; 
dodged' (1 syl.), dodg'-ing, dodg'-er, one who dodges. 
Old Eng. de6g-ol, sly, de6g[dian\ to act slyly, de6g[lian\ to hide. 
Doe, do (to rhyme with ?io), the female of a buck, also a gender- 
word, as doe rabbit, {maU) buck rabbit, doe hare, {male) 
buck hare. (Old English dd. See Buck.) 
Dofif (Rule v.), to take off; doffed (1 syl.), doff'-ing. 

A contraction of do-ojf ; similarly *• don "= do-on, " dup^s do-vp. 
Dog, either male or female; bitch, only a female dog; 
dogg'-ish, churlish, like a dog (-ish added to nouns 
means " like," added to adj. it is diminutive), doggish-ly, 
doggish-ness; dogged, dog'.ged, sullenly, self-willed. 
Dog, to track; dogged (1 syl.), dogg'-ing (Rule i.) 
Dog-cart, a one-horse cart with a box behind for dogs. 
Dog-fly, a fly very troublesome to dogs. 
Dog-louse, a louse which infests dogs. 
Dog-star, the Latin canicula (dim. of cants, a dog). 
Dog teeth, the eye-teeth of man, resembling dogs' teeth. 




AXD OF SPELLING. 2:>1 

Dog-weary, tired as a dog after a chase. 
Bog's-bane, a plant supposed to be fatal to dogs. 
Bog's tail, a grass, the spikes of which resemble a dog's tail 
Dog's ear, the comer of a leaf bent down, like the ear of a 

spaniel, &c.; dog^s eared, dogz e'ard, 
IT Dog-, meaning " worthless," " barbarons," " pretended." 
Doggerel, do^,ge.rel, pretended poetry in rhyme. 
Dog-Latin, barbarous or pretended Latin. 
Dog-sleep, pretended sleep. 
Dog-cabbage, dog-violet, dog-wheat. 
§ Dog-hole, a yilu hole only fit for a dog. 

Dog-trick, a vile trick, only fit to serve a dog. 
IF Dog-grass, grass eaten by dogs to excite yomiting. 

Dog-rose, a rose supposed to be a cure for the bite of mad 

dogs {Pliny viii. 63, xxv. 6). 
Dog-brier, same as dog-rose. 
1 Dog-cheap, a perversion of the Old English gSd-cedp, 

(French bon marchS), good bargain. 
Dc^-watch, corruption* of dodge-watch, the two short 

watches which dodge the routine of the watches on board 

ship ; that is, prevent the recurrence of the same watch 

at the same time. 
§ Gone to the dogs, gone to the bad. The Romans called 

the worst throw at dice canis (dog), hence the word came 

to signify " ill-luck," " ruin," <fec. 
Danish dogge, French dogue (a bnll-dog); Spanish dogo, » terrier; 

French doguiUt a puppy or whelp. 

Doge, dqje, captain -general and chief magistrate of the ancient 
republics of Gen'oa and Venice. 
Italian doge; Latin dux, gen. dUcis, leader (dtm>, to lead). 
Dogma, plu. dogmas, dog'.mdh, dog'.mdhz, a tenet, an arbitrary 
dictum on some matter of faith or philosophy. 
Dog'matic (noun), a dogmatio philosopher. 
Dogmatics (Rule Ixi.), dog.fndf.ik8, dogmatical theology. 
Dogmatic or dogmatical (aHj.), dog.maf.i.kdl, dictatorial ; 

dogmatlcal-ly, dogmaf ical-ness. 
Dogmatize, dog'.ma.tize (not dogwntUe^ R. xxxii.), to assert 
dogmatically ; dog'matized'' (3 syL), dogmatlz'-ing (R. xix.), 
dogmatiz'ing-ly, dogmatlz'-er ; dog'mAtist, one who 
speaks upon matters of faith or philosophy dogmatically; 
dogmatism, dog'.ma.tlzm. 
Greek ddgma, ddgmoMzo, dOgmaHhds, ddgmatistSs ; Latin dogma^ 
dogmdtizo, dogmdttcusy dogmdtisUa; French dogmatiser^ whence, 
as Qsoal, oar error of spelling with t. 



252 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Doily, doi'.ly^ a small napkin used at dessert 

Dutch dvHKU, a tow«l : in Norfolk a house-doth is oilled a dvn'el* 
and the cloth dwi' el.ing. 

Doings, doo\ingz, conduct, behaviour. {See Do.) 
Doit (1 syl.), the eighth of a penny. (French d'huiU) 
Doloe, doU^.tchS (in Mtuic)j sweetly and softly. {Italian*) 
Doloe far niente (Italian), dole\tche fcu^ ne,en\tey agreeable 

idleness [sweet doing-nothing]. 
Dole (1 syl.), a shflre, to distribute in shares, to give grudgingly ; 
doled (1 syl.), dol'-ing (Kule xix.), dol'-er. 
Old English d<kl or ddl, a share, a portion. 
Doleful, dole'.ful rRule viii.), dismal; dole'ful-ly, dole'fnl-ness ; 
dolesome, aole\8Unty dismal, querulous {-some O. £. sufSx, 
" fVill of"), cble^some^ness {-ness denotes abstract nouns). 
French douUiwr, dcmUrtnuXy deuiU; Latin ddleo, to grieve. 
Dolerite, doV.e.rite (not dolorite), a variety of greenstone. 

Greek dSUrds, deceitful, flo called from the difficulty of distin- 
guishing between felspar and augite (its compounds). 

Doll, a child's plaything. Contraction of idol. 

Latin iddVwn, an image ; Greek eidClon {eidda, form or figiu«). 

DoUar, ddV.lar, an American coin ^ 48. 2d. (marked thus $, 
meaning tciltum). The line drawn through the "S" 
denotes that a contraction has been made. For a similar 
reason lb (a pound weight iibrum), has a line through it. 
German ihakr = tdh ler ; Danish daZer. (So called from thai, a 
valley ; the counts of Sohlick extracted from Joachim's UuU or 
valley, the silver which they coined into ounce pieces. This 
money became standard, and was called valley-money or thdlen.) 

Dollman, dolmen. 

Dolman, plu. dolmans, do-f.manzy a long Turkish robe, the 

suu)mer jacket of the native Algerian troops. 
Dolmen, plu. dolmens, doV.m^z, a cromlech. 
"Dolman," Hungarian dolmang; Turkish dolaman. 
" Dolmen," Celtic dot men, table stone. It consists of a stone super- 
posed on two stone standards ; French dolmen. 

Dolomite, ddV.o.mite (not doUmite\ a magnesian limestone. So 

called from M. Dolomieu, the French geob^gist 
Dolorous, ddV.o.rit8 (not do.lo.rus), doleful ; dororoua-ly, doFor- 
ous-ness; dolour, do'.lor (not ddler). 
French douUmreux; Latin ddlor, v. dOUti, sup^ dSlUwn, to grieve. 
Dolphin, fern, dolphinet, ddV.fin, d6V.fl.n^ty a sea mammaL 
Delphine, dSl.fln (adj.), applici to certain French classics 
edited for the Dauphin or eldest son of Louis XIV. 
(Our word is a jumble of had French and Latin.) 
French dauphin; Latin deZpMa or delpMiMu; Greek d^pMR. 




OF SPELLING. 253 

h^ stupid {-Uh added to nouns means 

. it is dim.) ; dolf ish-ly. 

doldrwM, immened in stupidity. 

X meaning " possession, " "right," 

3m, the dominion of a king ; freedom, 

f a free man ; wisdom^ the possession 

3 person. 

ine, dimean', estate in lands. " Do- 

lot dominion, empire, in which sense 

iplojed. 

-ench demaiM: Latin domAniwn, lordship 

ster). 

mai90n\ a bouse, and was applied to the 

nds, kept by the lord for bis own nse. 

i horns). Doom (rhymes with room), 

I5med (rhymes with foamed, 1 8yl.), 

Boomed (1 syL), fated, destined, 
ta, a solarium or roof terrace, wbeve persona 
i, a gallery on the boose-top. 

3 day of judgment. 

Igment day. 

%y book. Two volumes contaming a 

s and chattels of all the British do- 

ch William the Conqueror reigned 

e Record Office, London. 

iber jndicialis"), to which appeal was made 

> settle disputed claims of property. Stow 

ri domiU'dei'" book," the book kept in the 

theater cathedral, but "dome-books" were 

time of the Conquest. 

lousft-servant, (adj.) pertaining to a 
I ; domestically, do.rnka^ti.kal.ly. 
'Lkate, to tame, to habituate to home- 
1 (Rule xxxvi), domes'ticat-ing (Rule 
I, do-mh.ti.kiy'\8hun. 

lestiguer ("domestication'' is not French) ; 
ua, a house and home). 

law), the place where a person has 
y days. 

lV\i.a.ry, A "domiciliary visit" is 
ity in search of some person or thing. 
d, located as resident. 
iomieilier; Latin domieUiwn. 
iling, as the "dominant spirit,** the 
the "dominant power"; (in Music) 
I the fifth from the key note : thus, in 
Dminant is G. 




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254 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Predom^inant, prevailing or most observable, as the " pre- 
dominant colour," the colour which is most observable ; 
the *' predominant passion," the master passion. 

Dominate, d6m\i.nate, to ,rule. Predominate, to prevail 
or be most observable; dom'inat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dom'inat-ing; domination, d8m\i.nay*'^hun. 

Domineer, df)m\i.neer, to tyrannise over; dom'ineered' 
(3 syl.), dom'ineer'-ing. 

Dominical letter, or "Sunday letter," the letter used in 
the '* Prayer Book Calendar," &c., to denote Sunday 
([dies] Dominit Lord's day). 
French dominant, domination, r. dominefy dominical; Latin dOmK- 
nans, gen. ddminantis, ddmindtio, ddmindri, ddmlnicdlis. 

Domino, plu. dominos, dom'd.noze (Rule xlii.), a dress used at 
masquerades. (French domino ^ plu. dominos.) 
Dominos (not dominoes), a game. {Freuohjeu de dominos,) 
D5n, a Spanish title of rank. In Portugal dom. 

Don, fem. donna. A ** don,** a man of rank ; in univernty 
patois the heads of colleges, fellows, and noblemen, are 
called ♦♦dons." 
" Don," Latin domlinus] ; "donna,** Latin domina. 
Don, to put on. Done, dun, past part, of do, finished ; don (to 
rhyme with on), donned (1 syl.), donn'-ing (Rule i.) 
Ck)niraction of do-on; similarly "doff" is do-off; "dup" do-up, Ac. 
Donation, dd.nay'\shun, a gift ; donative, don\aMv, a vested 
donation; a benefice given to a clergyman without the 
form of presentation, institution, or induction. 
Donor, fem. donatrix, dd\nor, ddn\a.trix, the person who 
gives ; donee, dd,nee\ the person to whom a gift is made. 
. French donation, donatif; Latin ddndtio, dOndtlvumf ddndtor, dona- 
trix, dondre, to give {ddnum, a gift). 

Done, dUn, finished, agreed. (See Do.) 

Donjon, dSn\j6n, the keep or strong tower of an ancient castle, 
below which were the prison vaults. Dungeon, diin\jon, 
a dark underground prison. 
French donjon; Latin dominium, contracted to dom'jum, the apart- 
ment of the domimis or master. Ducange gives the Celtic dUn, a 
fortified place, whence dun-ion. Old French dognon, donjon. 

Donkey, plu. donkeys (Rule xlv.), donf.ky, don'.klz, corruption 
of dunkey {-ey diminutive), the little dun [animal]. 
Similarly JocJfc-ey, little Jack; mank-eyt <fec. 

Donna, don'.nah, fem. of don {q.v.) Donor, do'nor, one who 
makes a gift (See Donation.) Prima donna, prt.mah 
don'.nah, the best lady performer in any specific public 
line, as the " prima donna" of the opera. 




AXD OF SPELLING. 



Boom (1 syl., rhymes with room)y judgment Pome (1 syl., 
rhymes with home), a cu'pSla. 
Doom, to judge, to destine ; doomed (1 syl.), doom'-ing. 
Doomsday, doomz\day, the last or judgment-day. 
Old English d6m, trial, judgment ; d4mdcBg, judgment-day. 
Door, do'r (not dor) (rhymes with Jloor, core, gore, not with 
poor ==j>oo'T, nor with for). See below. 
Old English ddr, a door, a gate : German thur; Greek thvra. 
-dor (Spanish suffix = Latin -tor), an agent. 
Dor or dorr, dSr (rhymes with or, nor), an insect. 

Old English dora, a drone-bee, a dor-beetle. {See Door.) 
Doree, or John Dory, doi^.y, a fish. 

Either tbe French jaune dorie (yellow gilt), from its golden lustre, or 
the Gascon jan dorie (the golden cock), or seck-chiacen. According 
to one tradition it was the fish with the stater caught by St. Peter ; 
by another tradition that fish was a haddock. 

Dormant, ddf,mant, latent, suspended : a " dormant peerage " 
is one in abeyance; dormancy, dUr^.manxy, 
Dormer-window, ddf.mer win'.dow, an attic window placed 

in the roof, and lighting a bed-room. 
Dormitory, plu. dormitories, dor^.mi.td.riz (Rule xliv.), a 
cuhicle, the sleeping compartment. 
("Dormant** should he dormient or dormitant.) 
Latin dormiens, gen. dormientis and dormitans, gen. dormUantis, 
dormltarium, y. dormio, frequentative dormito, to sleep. 

Dormouse, plu. dormice, dof .mouse, dS/.mice. 

French dormeuse, the sluggard [animal]. It resembles a mouse, 
whence the corruption, and is torpid in winter. 

Dorsal, dSt'.sal, pertaining to the back, as the dorsal fin of a 
fish ; dor^erous, dor.sif\e.rus {Botany), applied to ferns 
which bear fructification on the hacks of the fronds. 
French dorsal; Latin dorsudUs, dorsum, the back. 
Dose, doze, does, does, doss. 

Dose, doce, plu. doses (3 syl., Rule xxxiv.), a quota of medi- 
cine, to give in doses, to give to satiety . dosed (rhymes 
with boast, coast), drenched, physicked ; dos-ing, doce\ing 
(Rule xix.), dos-er, doce'-er. 
Doze (rhymes with those, rose), to slumber; dozed (1 syl.); 

doz-ing, doze^-ing (Rule xix.); doz-er, doze'-er. 
Does, doze, plu. of doe, the female of tbe fallow deer. 
Does, duz, the third per. sing, of Do, q.v. 
Doss, d6s, a hassock stuffed with straw [to kneel on]. 
*'Dose,"Fr. dose; 6k. dOsis, a thing given; Lat. ddsis, a dose. 
"Doze," Dan. dose; Old Eng. dvjces, dull ; Welsh dwys, heavy, dull. 
"Does," OM Eng dd, a doe " Does," a post-Norm, form of doth. 
" Doss," Archaic dossel, a bundle of straw ; dosser, a straw basket. 



2:.0 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Dost, diiatt second per. smg. of do. A corrupt form of ditt. 

Dust, dry and finely pulverised earthj matters. 
D6t, a point [as a ** fall stop," the mark above the letter i, A^c], 

to make a dot; dotf-ed (Bole xxxvi), dott^-ing (Rule L) 

Bdt (in familiar langaage), a dowry, a dotation. 

** Dot " (a point), nme m tot, a little thing : I>an. tot, a small bunch. 
** Dot " (a dowryX Latin do«, gen. 4otliis\y a dowiy. 

Dotage, do'tage, second childishness. {See Dote.) 

Dotation, do.tay'\8hun, money funded for some charity. 

French dotation; Latin dOtdtio, an endowment 

Dote (1 syl.), to love fondly (followed by on or upon), to show 
the childishness of old age ; dot'-ed (R. xxxvi.), dof -ing, 
dof-er; d5f-age, the childishness of old age; dot^-aid, 
one in second childishness {-ard. Old Eng. suffix, '* one 
of the species or kind," dotard, ^ one of the doting kind"). 

French radoter, to dote or talk childishly ; radotoffe. radotow, one in 
bis dotage. WeLsh dotian and dotio, to piuzle, to confnee. 

Doth, duth, third per. sing, of do, now does, dUs, except in 
poetry. Old form io d6y thfi dSst, he dit\ ftlu, ddth all 
persons. (The substitution of -« for -th is post-Norman.) 

Double, duh\h% twofold, to fold, to increase twofold ; doubled, 
duhWld; doubling, dub\ling ; doubly, dub'.lg; doabler, 
duh'.Ur; doub'le-neas. 
French double, douhUw; Latin duphrni {dw> plioo, to fold In two). 

Doublet, duh'.Ut, a man's garment of former times. 

(Thii is one of our perverted French words. In French, 
a ** doublet^' is pourx>ont, and the word doublet means 
" a false stone,** Rule Ixii.) 
French doublure G'^toffe dont une autre est doabU). 

Doublon, dub bloon', a French form of the Spanish word doklon, 
a " double pistole." 

(It would be more consistent to keep the Spanish form 
for Spanish words, and not to disguise them by French 
spelling.) 

Doubt, dout, uncertainty of mind, to be uncertain in mind; 
doubted, doutf.ed (Rule xxxvi); doubt-ing, douf.ing; 
doubt'ing-ly : doubt-er, doutf.er; doubt-ful, douf.ful 
(Rule viii.); doubt'ful-ly, doubt^ful-ness ; doubt-lfiiflB, 
dout'.less ; doubt'less-ly. 
** I doubt not but [that] you are right," is the Latin form 
non dubito guin...but "I have no doubt you are right'* is 
also ijood English. The two ideas are not identical : the 
former phrase means *' I have no doubt [notwithstanding 



d by Google 



AND OF SPELLING^ Ihl 

you are right." The latter simply expresses the opinion 
of the speaker without regard to opposing statements. 

A Latinised French word. French e^ou^ ; Latin dfi&ifo. We have 
borrowed the diphthong ftrom the French, and inserted tiie Latin 
h, which is ignored in sound. 

poaceor, a bribe for " place." 

{We use this word in a sense almost tmkiiawn in France. 
In French dojxceux means ^* sweetness" and gratification 
is vsed Jot ** gratuity.*^ Few Frenchmen, unacquainted 
with English^ would understand su^h a sentente as: 
Faites cela, et il y aura quelque douceur pour votis.) 

.Douche, bath, doosh bdth, a shower bath. 

French doiuihe ; Latin ducHrey to conduct or direct. (The shower is 
" directed" to any part of the body, to relieve local suffering.) 

Dough, dow (to rhyme with groWy low), bread, &c., before it is 
cooked ; dough'-y, sticky, " stodgy." 

Old English ddg or ddh. We have strangely combined both forms, 
without preserving the sound of either. ' ' 

Douse (1 syl. to rhyme with house, numse). In sailors' lan- 
guage, to ** extinguish instantly *" [a light], to "lower 
suddenly " [a sail] ; doused (1 syL, to rhyme with soused 
= sowst); dous-ing, dowse'.ing (Rule xix.) 
Greek dud (n. dtuis), to sink, to set [as the sun, &c.] 
Dove, diiv, a pigeon ; dove-cot, duv.cSt, a pigeon house. 

Dove-tail, duv.tale (in Joinery), to unite by a "notch" 
shaped like a "dove's tail"; dove-tailed^ duv taild; 
dove tail-ing (French en queue d'aronde). 
Old £nglish duua = duva; German tavibe. 
Dowager, ddw.a.ger (dow to rhyme with now, not with gr&w), 
the widow of a person of rank ; if the mother of the 
present peer, she is termed the duchess dowager of..., 
the countess dowager of...; but if not the mother, she 
is termed ^^ Louisa** duchess of..., or countess of...; 
both are referred to in common speech as the dowager 
duchess, the dowager countess, &e. 
Queen-dowager, widow of a king, but not a reigning queen. 

French dovMrih-e (douairjdre) "veuve qui jouit du douaire,' i.e., a 
jointure or dowry. "Douair/* is a corruption of the Low Latin 
dotarium (dou'aHum)'. Latin dos, gen. dotis, a dowry. 

Dowdy, dow.dy (dow- to rhyme with now), slovenly in dress; 
dow'di-er (comp.), dow'di-est (super,), dow'di-ly, dow'di- 
ness; doW'dy-ish (-hh added to adji is dim., added to 
nouns it means " Kke "), dowdy-ness. 
Scotoh datodU, a dirty sloven {daw ftnd the dim., a little sluggard). 

Dower, dow\er (dow- to rhyme with now, not with grow), pro- 
perty settled on a widow for life, the fortune brought by 



258 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

a wife; dowry, dSw.ry (same as dower); dowered, dSw'.erd, 
haying a dowry ; dow^er-lesB. 
Dowager, d6w\a,ger. (See above, Dowager.) 
French douairet oormption of Low Latin dotaHwn (don'aritun). 
Dowlas, d8w\lafi (daw- to rhyme with now), a coarse linen doth, 
used for towels, Stc, 
So called from Dovrlaia, In France, where it is mannfactnred. 
Down, fine soft feathers, any fine baiiy substance light enough 
to float in the air; {adv.) tending towards the ground, 
on the ground, towards the mouth of a river, into the 
country [from London]. Persons in the provinces go 
up to London ; downward (adj.), tending to a lower 
position, as dovmward motion; downwards {adv.) 
•'Downward,*' used as an adverb U grammaMccdly incorrect. It 
thovld be either adownward or downwards, "a-" being an ad- 
verbial prdix, and "-a " an adverbiaX postfix. In the words [nowj 
"adaya," [sleep] "anights," we have the double adverhiaUy so thai 
one of the signs may he omitted without affecting the adverbial 
form; accordingly we have in Old English dses^es " daily ,** 
nightes *' nightly/^ and Shakespeare uses anight /or "anights.'' 

Downfall fnot downfal), downhiU (not dovmhil) (Rule viii); 
downfallen, d5wn.faJ.Vn. 

Down-train, the train from the provinces to London, or 
from some minor station to the chief terminus. Up- 
train, the train from London to the provinces, or from 
the chief terminus to some inferior station. 

•*Down" (feathers\ German daune; Danish duun. 

••Down" {adv. and prep.) Old English adiin, down, adiinweard, 
downwards. It is the prefix a- which converts dUn into an ad- 
verb, and this significant letter has been unwisely dropped. 

Downs, ddtonz (to rhyme with towns, clowns), large open hUly 
sheep pastures contiguous to the sea. 
The Downs, a well-known road for shipping in the finglLsh 

Channel, near Deal in Kent. 
(Hd Eng. diin, a bill ; French dunes. It would have saved obscurity 
if we had made the following distinctions : — 

Daun (feathers called down), or " dnve," French duvet. 
Adown (adverb), and down, preposition. 
Dunes (the hilly sheep-walks and sand-hills). 

Dozolo£nr« plu. doxologies, dox.bV.b.giz (Rule xliv.) 

French doaaologie ; Greek ddxdldgia (doxa logos, glory words). 
Dosse, dose, does, does, doss. 

Doze (1 syL), a nap, to take a nap : dozed (1 syl.), doz'-ing 

(Rule xix.), doz-er; doz'-y, do'zi-ness (Rule xi) 
Dose, ddce (1 syl.), a quota of medicine, to give medicine, to 
give anything so largely as to produce disgust; doses, 
dd\cg8 (R. xxxiv.); dosed (1 syL), dos-ing, doee'.ing (Rule 
zxxvi.) ; dos-er, ddcf-er. {SeeJkme.) 




AND OF SPELLING. 259 

Does, doztf pin. of doe, the female of the fallow deer. 

Does, diiZj third per. sing. pres. of Do (q.v.) 

Dobs, d68, a straw hassock to kneel on. 
"Doze," Dan. dose: Old Eng. d\D(Ks, duU ; Welsh dioys, heavy. dnH. 

"Dose/ French doae; Greek ddsis, a thing given ; Latin ddais, a dose. 

"Does'* (female deer), Old Eng. dd, a doe. ** Does," dHa (see Do). 
"Doss," Ai€haie closset, a bundle of straw, doaser, a straw bAsket. 
Dozen, duz^'riy twelve [articles]. 

A baker's dozen, thirteen, i,e„ twelve and a " vantage loaf."* 

French douzaine; Crerman dutzend, contraction of the Latin d»9 
decern {dtu> 'cem), dtto + decern, two + ten. 
Drab, a slattern, a brownish colour, a brownish cloth; drab, 
drabV-ish (Rule i.), {-ish added to nouns means " like," 
added to adj. it is diminutive); drabb'ish-ly. 

Old English drdbhe, a slattern, dr^;s, lees of ^ine. 
Drachm, dram, the eighth part of an apothecary's ounce. A 
fluid drachm is a tea-spoonful. Contraction, dr. or drm. 

Dram, the sixteenth part of an ounce avoirdupoise (dr.) 
(The distinction in spelling should be preserved, although 
the apothecaries' weight is sometimes written dram.) 

,** Drachm," French drachme; Latin drachma, the eighth (or rather 
seventh) of an ounce, 84 = 1 &> of 12 oxs. ; Hebrew drachmon. 

"Dram " is the Italian dramma. 
Draft, draught (both drdft, to rhyme with craft, laughed). 

Draft, a cheque for money, a bill of exchange, a plan 
drawn in outline, a copy, an abstract; to transfer men 
from one company to another. 

Draught, a stream of air, a portion of liquor drawn off, 
liquor drunk at one potation, a catch of fish, force neces- 
sary to draw, traction. 

Draughts (no sing.), a game played with little flat round 
" men " of two colours. 

Draughtsman, drdfts-mdn, one of the little flat round 
pieces used for " men" in the game of draughts; 

Draftsman, one who makes a draft or draws a plan. 

(These are the distinctions usually observed, hut there is 
no rigid rule, and the two words differ only in spelling.) 

Old English dra^an\. to draw ; past dArdg or dr(ih, past part, dragen. 
The word draught is an absurd amalgamation of drdg and dn^h, 
disguised by the diphthong au. The final t, is a "weak" affix 
added to a "strong" verb. 
Drag, to pull along, to trail ; a cart, a harrow, a skid, an 
obstacle; dragged (1 syl.), dragg'-ing (Rule i.) 

Old English drag[an], past drdg or dr^, past part, dra^gen. 
Draggle, drag\g% to trail through the mire ; draggled, drag'.- 
g'ld; draggling, drag'.gling; draggle-tail, a slutttrn 
who suffers her gown to trail through the mire ; draggle- 



260 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

tailed, one dressed in a gown which has been trailed 
through the mire ; also daggle-^tail and daggle*talled. 
"Draggle" is dim. of drag, and "daggle" of ddg, to dangle, bat the 
idea is not identical. Draggle-tail is one who drags the skirt of 
her gown through the mire ; but daggle-tail is one who has her 
gown in jags or "dags " from being trailed throngh the xnire. 
Draginnaii, plu, dragomans (not dragomen ; it is not a com- 
pound of " man "), an Eastern interpreter .or guide. 
French and Danish dragoman; Italian drag<ymanno: Chaldee tur- 
gaman (turgmn), whence "targum" an exposition of the Old Test. 
Dragon, dragoon, a fabulous monster. 

French dragon ; Latin drdco, gen. draconlia] ; Greek drak&n (from 
derJc6), to look at one [with fiery eyes]. In Welsh dragon is a com- 
mander, and pen-dragon a chief commander. Many encounters 
" with dragons " in ancient story were fights with Welsh dragons. 
Dragoon, drd.goon\ a horse soldier, to perseoute with violence; 
dragooned' (2 sjL), diagoon'-ing. 
Dragonnade, a persecution under the " tender mercies " of 
dragoons. *' The dragonnades " were a series of religious 
persecutions by Louis XIV., " to root out heresy.** 
{The double n in " dragonnade " is at variance with R iii.) 
French dragon, dragonnade. Originally a company of soldiers who 
fought on foot or horse, with arquebuses called dragons, because 
the head of a dragon was wrought on the muzzle. (The suffix -ade 
means "the act of," "to act with." Latin ago, actum, whence 
**cannon-ade," to act with cannon, " dragon[n]ade/' &c. 

Drain (1 syL), a sink or sewer, to draw off liquids, to empty, to 
leave dry ; drained (1 syl.), drain'-ing, drain'-er, drain'- 
age, arrangement for draining off water ; drain'-able. 
Old English drehnigean, to drain. 
Drake, fem. duck. In common speech, ducks and drakes are all 
called ** ducks," and as food both are termed " ducks." 
" Duck" means the fowl that ducks or dives, the dipping-fowL 
" Drake" is a contraction of duck-rica (d'ric*). So in German ente is 
duck, and ente^rich a drake. 
Dram, the sixteenth part of an ounce Avoirdupoise. Drachm, 
dram, the eighth part of an apothecary's ounce. 
"Dram,** Italian dramma. '* Drachm/' French drachme; Latin 
draiehma: H^rew drac^Mnon, 

Drama, dray'.mdLh (is more usual than drdh-mdh, and accords 
better with the derivatives), a theatrical piece for 
representation ; dramatic or dramatical, dray. mat. Ik^ 
dray.maf.i.kal; dramatlcal-ly ; dramatise, dram\a.tize, 
to adapt to the stage (Rule xxxi.) ; dram'atised (3 syL), 
dram'atis-ing (Rule xix.); dramatist, dram' .a.tlst. 
Dramatis Persons, dram'.a.tl8 perjid\ne (not per^^o.ne), 

characters introduced in a drama or play. 
French drame, dramatique, dramatiaer; Latin drama, drdmatkui; 
Greek drama, dr&matikde {draa, to do or act). 

Drank. {See Drink.) 



AND OF SPELtmO. 261 

Drape (1 syl.), to cover with fblds; drsped syL), drap'-ing; 
drap'-er, one who deals in cloth ; drapery, dra\pe.ry. 

French drap, cloth, drciper, a draper, draperie; Low Latin drapariut; 

Spanish ropa, cloth ; roperia, old clothes ; ropagey drapery. 
Drastic, dras'.tik, violently purgative ; drastics, drdsWiks, power- 
ful purgative medicines. 

French draxtiqM; Greek drasUrioBf Vigorous {dra6, to accomplish). 
Draught, drdft (to rhyme with craft, laughed). Draft. 

Draught, a stream of air, a portion of liquor drawn off, 
liquor drunk at one potation, a catch of fish, traction. 

Draughts (no sing.), a game played with draughtsmen. 

Draft, a cheque for money, a bill of exchange, a plan in 
outline, a copy, an ahstnract; to transfer men from one 
company to another; draft'-ed, draft'-ing. 

Draftsman, one who draws drafts or plans ; 

Draughtsman, drafU-man, one of the " men " or pieces 

used in the game of draughts. 
" Draught is the amalgamated forms of dr6g and drdh ^th t inter- 
polated. OH EngUsh drag[an], to draw; past dnig or d^h, 
past part, drosgen. " Draft ' is a phonetic spelling of " draugnt. " 
Draw, past drew, past part, drawn, to pull, to raise [water from 
a wellj, to suck, to delineate, to take out [money from a 
bank], to write out [a cheque]; draw'-ing, pulling, rais- 
ing [water], &c.; (noun), a picture "drawn" with pen- 
cils, &c. A drawing room^ the chief reception room to 
which ladies " withdraw." 

Prawer, drato*r\ a tray which " draws " out of a frame. 

Chest of drawers, a set of drawers including the frame. 

Drawers (no sing,), draw'rz, linen or cotton trousers " drawn 
on " the legs, and worn as an under garment. 

Drawer, one who " draws '* with a pencil, one who " draws '• 
a bill of exchange, <fec. Drawee, draw\ee, the person on 
whom a bin of exchange is " drawn." 

To draw back, to retreat, to move for the sake of avoiding. 

To draw in, to contract, to pull in. 

To draw neat, to approach. 

To draw off, to decant, to draw away, to retreat. 

To draw on, to put on [gloves, stockings, <fec.], to bring on, 
to write a cheque or bill of exchange on a person named. 

To draw out, to extract, to prolong, to array soldiers. 

To draw together, to collect 

To draw up, to raise, to array, to compose. 

Drawn [battle or game], one in which neither side wins. 
Old English drogfan]. to draw or drag ; past drdg or driSh, past part. 
drcegm; Latin traho. "Diag" and '^Draw" artf different foram 
of the same verb. 



262 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bray, a brewer's cart ; dray'man, drayliorBe. 

Old Eng. d/nxge, a drag (t. dnegfan]); Lat. In-ahea, a draj, (r. trdho). 

Dread, drSd, terror, to fear greatly; dread'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dread'-ing, dread'-er, dread'-ful (R. viii.), dread'fol-ly, 
dread'fal-neaB, dread-less, dreadless-ly, dreadleBB-neas. 
Old English dr<hdf t. drdd!ian\ past drid, past part drdden. 

Dream, dreme (1 syL), noun and verb; dreamt, drSmt (not 
dreampt), or dreamed (1 syl.), dream'-ing, dreiam'ing-ly, 
dream'-er, dream'-y, dream'i-ly (R. xi.), dream'i-ness, 
dream'-less, dreamless-ly, dreamless-nesSfdream'-land. 

German traum, t. traumen (traumerei would give us a new and use- 
ful word, "dreamery," the "stuff dreams are made of**). The 
Anglo-Saxon dredm means " Joy," dredmUoB "joyless." 

Drear, drere (1 syl.), gloomy ; dreary, dree'.ry^ dismal ; dreari-ly, 
dree'.ri.ly (Rule viii.); dieajcineaSf dree\ri.ne88. "Drear" 
means properly that gloom and dismal feeling which 
comes over us at the sight of blood. 
Old Englkh dre6r, blood, gore, dredrig, bloody, goiy; dre&rigneSf 
dreiudness ; dre6rilice, drearily, &G. 

Dredge (1 syl.), to sprinkle {flour on meat], to deepen a river; 
dredged (1 syl.). dredg'-lng (Rule xix.), dredg'-er, a box 
for dredging [flour on meat]. Drudge, a menial. 
** Dredge " (to sprinkle flour) Old Entrlish dreg\an] or drtflf an], to dry. 

The flour sops up the moisture Greek trugo, to dry. 
"Dredge" (to deepen a river), Old English draige, a draff, v. dra^an], 
to drag ; Fr. draguer, draguagt. (The second -d is interpolated.) 

Drega (no sing.), sediment, refuse ; dregg'-y (Rule i.), muddy; 
dreggi'-neas, dreg^ijuss ; dregg'-ish, foul with lees. 
Old English dragen, drawn ^the part drawn off) ; Danish drog, rub- 
bish ; Greek trvx, gen. tr&goSf lees of wine. 

Drench, to wet thoroughly; drenched (1 syL), drench'-ing, 
drench^'ing-ly, drench'-er. 
Old English drendicm], to drench, past dnncte, past part, gedrenced. 

DreflB, plu. dress'-es (Rule xxxiv.), raiment, to put on clothes, to 
trim ; past, dressed (1 syl.), past part, drest or dressed 
(1 sy1.)> dress'-ing, dress'-er, one who dresses another, a 
bench on which food is "drest" for meals; dress'-y, 
showy in dress ; dress'i-ly (R. xi.), dressl-ness; dressings, 
architectural onaamentation in relief, manures. 
This is an example of a French word which has acquired with us 
quite a strange meaning. To clothe oneself in French is a'habiUer, 
aud drester means to trim trees, dress f >od, iron linen, garnish a 
table, &0., but not to "put on clothes {nee Rule Ixiii.) ; Latin 
dirigo, supine direetmm, to set in order, to make straight (rego). 
We have the familiar e:q)re88ions " I must go and make myself 
straight," ** I must put myself in order*' (Le. dresger) 

Dribble, dribWl, to oose in drops; dribbled, drtV.b'ld; dribbler, 
drib'Mer; dribldet, drib'Ut, a small quantity. 




AND OF SPELLING. 263 

To pay in diibblets, to pay piece-meal in small sums. 
French dxippU, drip, with dim. Old English drtjpCan], to drip, to 
distil in drops. Panish draabe, a drop. 
Dried, dride (1 syl.); drier, driver. {See Dry.) 
Drift, [snow, sand, &c.] driven in heaps by the wind, covert 
meaning?, to drive in heax>s, to float down running water ; 
drift'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), driff-ing. 
Old English drifian], to drive ; past drdf, past part drifen. 
Drill (Rule v.), an instrument for boring holes, an iustrnment 
for sowiug seed, military exercises ; to pierce with a drill, 
to sow with a drill, to drill soldiers, <fec. ; drilled (1 syl.), 
drill-ing, drill'-er; drill-sergeant, drill aar'.jenU 
Old English ihirl[ian], to perforate ; past thirlode, past part, thirlodt 
t^irl, a hole ; Q«>rman driUen, to bore holes, to train soldiers. 
Drink, pa8t drank, past part, drunk (but drank is often used), 
drunken (ac^.), drink'-er, drink'-able, drink'able-ness ; 
Draught, drafts a diink, is firom another word. (See Draught) 
To drink to, to salute someone in drinking, to wish well to 

someone by drinking to them. 
Old English driit/cian], past drune, past part drwiem. 
Drip, to fall in drops, that which falls in drops; dripi>ed (1 
syl.)) dripp''-ing (Rule i.), falling in drops, the fat which 
** drips " Irom meat in roasting ; dripping-pan, tbe pan 
which receives the drip of meat in ronsting. 
Old English <2rip[an], past dripede, past part, driped. 
Drive, past drove [older form drave], past part, driven* 

A drive (1 syl.), carriflge exercise; to drive [horsee], to 

guide horses, to ur^e on ; driv-er, one who drives [horses]. 

Drove (1 syl.), a herd of cattle or flock of sheep on their 

way to market, <fec.; drov'-er, one who conducts a drove. 

Driv-ing (Rule xix), guiding horses, urging on, tunnelling 

from the shaft into the mine. 
To drive a bargain, to make hard terms. 
To drive a trade, to carry on a trade with energy. 
Old English drif[an], past drdf, past part dH/en. 
Drivel, driv'.eU to slaver, to talk listlessly and sillily ; driv'elled 
(2 syl.), driv'eU-ing (Rule iii. -el.); driv'ell-er, a dotard, 
one who drivels. 
This is from the verb drip with -el dim. 
Drizzle, dnz\z% flne rnin, to rain in fine drops; drizzled, 
drU\z'ld; drizzling, driz'ling; drizzly, driz'.ly. 
German rieseln, to driule, rieKlregent a driuling rain. 
DroU, drole (not drdU R. v). a wag, funny ; drollery, droU^.i,ry 
(not drdV.e.ry) ; drollish, drule-ish, somewhat droll (-ish 
added to adj. is dim., added to nouns it means "like," 
added to verbs it m^■ans to " make"). 
French drCU; German drollig, droU. 



2CA ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dromedary, drum.e.dd.ry, the Arabian camel (with one huncli) ; 
the Bactrian carnal has two hunches. 

French domadaire (French. -treo-, English and Latin -m«-); Latin 
drCmedarius ; Greek drorruu [kanUloa], the running cameL 

Drone, fem, hee (both 1 syl.), the male of the honey-bee, an 
idler, to emit a hummi,ng noise; droned (1 syl.), dron^-ing, 
dron'-ish (-ish added to nouns ^^e^n^ ''|ike," added to 
adj. it is dim.), dron'ish-ly, dron^'iah-ness. 
Old English drdn or drdn, b drone. 
Droop, tp hang down, to flag, to languish; drooped (1 syl.), 
droop' -ing, droop'ing-ly. 
Old English dropletan], to droi». 
Drop, a liquid globule, the platform of a gaUows, to fall in drops, 
to lower, to let fall ; dropped (1 syl,), dropp'-ing (R. i.) ; 
droppings (noun), the excrements of birds, &c. ; drop'-let, 
a little drop ; drops, liquid medicine, mother's milk. 
Old English dropa, a drop, t. dropdan or drop{ian]. 
Dropsy, drSp^sy^ a disease ; dropsi-cal, drSp'-sLkal (Rule xi.) ; 
dropsied, drdp\sH, diseased with dropsy. 
A contraction of hydropsy, but the loss of the first syl- 
lable has spoilt the significance of the word. 
French hydropsie; Latin hydrops; Greek hiuir6p8 Qvud&r 6p8, 
water nianifestation). 

Drosky, plu. droskies, drtis'Jkyy drSs.kiz (Rule xliy.) 

BoBsian drozhH, a four-wheeled open carriage. 
DroiBS (R. v.), refuse ; dross'-y, drossl-ness (R. xi.) (Old Eng. dros.) 
Drought. Neither the spelling nor the pronunciation of this 
word is settled. Tbe most common pronunciation is 
drdwt (to rhyme wit^i out), but many call it draut (to 
rhyme with thought, taught). 
Drooghf-y, drought^ i-ness (Rule xi.) 
Anpther spelling of the word is — 
Drouth, drouth'y, drouthl-ness. 

Sometimes we hear the words — 
Dryth, dryth'y, dryth'i-ness {y long). 

Old EngUsh drugcUh or dnigoih (changed to druo'fh, drou*th). 
"Drought" is a doable metathSsis of "dmgoth** (first into 
drougth and then into dnmght). 
In regiurd to the pronunciation : every other word in the language 
sp^t in a similar way is pronounced -ort, and uniformity is de- 
BurabLe. We have bought, [drought], fought, nought, ought, sought, 
thought, and wrought^ 
''Dryth": -th added to adj. converts them into abstract nouns, as 
leng-th, hread-th, dep-th, dry-th. 

Drove (1 syl.), a herd of catUe or flock of sheep on their road 
to market ; past tense of drive ; drov'-er, one who drives 
cattle to market. {See Drive.) 



AXB OF SPELLING. 265 

Drown, drown (to rhyme with down, noun), to kill by submersion 
in water; drowned (1 syl.), drown'-ing. 
Korman d/nikM, to drown ; German {erif/ranHtn. 

Drowsy, sleepy; drow'si-er (more sleepy), drow^st-est (most 
sleepy), drow'ai-ness (Rule xi.), drow'ai-ly, droVsi-ish 
{•Uh added to adj. is dim., added to nouns it means 
" like "); drowsing, drowse', ing, (Dutch drosen, to doze.) 

Drub, to beat ; drubbed (1 syl.), drubb'-ing (Rule i.), drubb'-er. 
Old English triindlan], to beat ; Greek trU>o, to thresh. 

Drudge (1 syl.), a menial, to toil ; drudged (1 syl.), drudg'-ing 
(It. xix.), drudg'ingi.ly ; drudgery, druf.e.ry, ignoble toil. 

Old English dre6g[an], to toil ; past dreag or dredh, past part, drogen. 
(The d is interpolated for phonetic use.) 

Drug, a substance used for medicine, an article slow of sale, to 
dose, to put poison into food or drink ; drugged (1 syl.), 
drugg^-ing (Rule i.) ; drugg^-ist, one who deals in drugs. 

French drogue, drogviste (droguerie, druggery, is a word we miglit 
adopt) ; Old English drig, diy. *' Drags " were once " dry herbs. " 

Drugget, a coarse woollen cloth. (This word ought to have 
only one g, it is not ^ "litde drug," as the spelling indi- 
cates, but the French droguet.) 

Druid!, fem. druidess, dru'.id, dril\ld.e88, a Keltic priest; 
druid-ism, the rites and faith of the l)ruids ; druidic or 
dmidical, dru.ld'.ik, druM\i.h&L 

Welsh dervoydd {derw, an oak ; derwen, oaken ; udd, & chief ; Keltic 
loydd, a priest ; Anglo Saxon toita, a prophet or wise man). 

Drum, a musical instrumeiit, the tympanuija of th6 ear, a package 
[of figs in a wooden cylindrical box], a crowded reception, 
to beat a drum, A-c. ; drummed (1 syl.), drumm'-ing (Rule 
i.), drumni'-er, druiil''-ma'jor, kettle-drum. 
German trom[met], a drum ; Norse drum, a booming sound. 
Drunk, intoxicated ; drunken!, given to intoxication ; drunk'en- 
nesft; drunk' -ard, one of the drunken kind {-ard Old 
Eng. suffix, " one of a species," " of the kind." {See Drink. ) 
Old English drinc[an], past dranc, past part, druncen. 
Drupe (1 syl.), a pulpy stone-fruit ; drupel, drit'.pel, a pulpy 
fruit with seeds like the raspberry and blackberry; 
dlhipaceou^ dra.pay'.shus, prodticing drupes, Kke drupes. 
French drupe; Latin drUpce; Greek dtuppa, overripe Olives. 
Dry, dri-^r (comp.), dri-est {super.) (Rule xi.), dries, drize (1 syl.), 
dried (1 syl.). 
Dry'-er, one who dries ; dri-er, more dry ; iy'-ing. 
Dry-ly or dri-ly, dry-ness or dri-ness. 

("Dry," "shy," and "sly," are uncertain in their spelling, hut it 
wouid he wdl to reduce them to the general rule (Knle li. } 



2fi6 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Dryad, dry'Md, a wood-nymph. 

French dryade; Latin dryddes; Greek druddfy (dnUf an oak.) 
D1lal,<2u^a^,a pla. consisting of only two. Dael^afightbetweentwo. 
Du'al-ist, one who helidyes in dualism ; 
Du'el-ist, one who fights a duel. 

Dnal-ism, dU'MLizm, the system which presupposes the 
nature of man to he twofold, the system which presap- 
poses that there are two reigning principles in nature. 
Dualistic, du\dl.i8'\tlk, adj. of dualism, as the dualittic 
system of Anaxag'dras and Plato, who taught that there 
are two principles in nature, one active and the otiier 
passive ; duality, du.dl\i.ty, the state of being two, &e. 
French duel; Latin dudlU (dua for duo, two); Oreek dwu^ duality. 
Dub, to confer knighthood, to give [one] a title; dubbed' (1 syl), 
dubb'-ing (B. i.) (Old Eng. dubb[aii], to dub, to strike.) 
Dubious, dU\bi.ti8, doubtful ; duni)ious-ness, du'bious-ly ; 
dubiety, duM'.eUy, doubt; dubitable, du\bi,ta.b'l ;. 
dubitably, du'.bttdMy. 
Latin dubiitcu, dubiosus, dUMtdbUUf dubius (dUbimn, donbtX 
Ducal, du\kdl, adj. of duke. (French ducal. See Duke.) 
Ducat, diik'.dt (not du'kdt), a coin once common in Italy. 

The first appeared in Venice, and bore this inscription ** SU Ubi, 
Christe, datus, quern tu regiSf iste duoatus." ["May this dnehf 
[dacat-us] which thou rulest, O Christ, be devoted to thee.*^ ThA 
word " ducatus" gave name to the coin. 
Duchess (not dutchess), duch'-esSy fem. of duke; duchess*! 
{poss. sing.), duchesses (plu.), duchesses' (poss. plu,) 
French due, fem. duchesee (Latin dux, gen. dUcia, a leaderX 
Duck, the female of drake ; duck'-ling, a young duck or diake. 
{-ling, Old Eng. suffix, " offspring of," or simply diminu- 
tive). When sex is not an object of the speaker both are 
termed ducks, when killed for table both are called duclu. 
To duck, to dip, to pop down for the sake of avoiding 

something; ducked (1 syl.), duck'-ing. 
Ducking-stool, a stool once employed for the punishment 
of scolding and brawling women, also called cucking-stool 
{chuck, to throw), the stool " chucked " into the water. 
Duck-legged, duk,Ugd, having short waddling legs. 
To make ducks and drakes, to throw stones &c, on the 

surface of water so tbat tbey reb<mnd repeatedly. 
To make ducks and drakes of your money, to spend it as 

idly as if you threw it into water for amusement. 
German duckm, to duck, to dip the head. A "duck** it the fowl 
that " ducks" or dips its head [in water]. ** Drake** it aoootrae- 
tion of duch^dke or rica {d'rake or d'rie). the duck master. So in 
German ente, a duck ; ente-rich, a drake. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 2«7 ' 

Duct, a tube for conyeying [water] ; aque-duot (not aquaduck\ 
a duct for water. (Latin aqu<B ductus ^ a duct for water. ) 

Latin diwAuBf % duct (t. dUco^ supine dudvm, to lead or conreyX 
Ductile, duk'.tU (not drW.tile^ easy to draw out into lengths, 
like wire ; ductility, duk,tU\i.ty. 

French dudUe, ductiliU; Latin ductXlis. 
Dudgeon, dud'.jdn^ a sword or dagger, inward displeasure. 

To take [a thing] in dudgeon, to look on it as an offence. 

*' Dudgeon " (% dagger), German degen, a sword, a rapier. 

'* Dudgeon " (displeasure), Welsh dygen, grudge, malice. 

Due, duty, owed. Dew, moisture of the air condensed. Do, doo, q.v. 
Du'-ly (du-ly, tru-ly, and whol-ly drop the final e before 

the suffix -ly, Eule xviii.) 
Dues, duze, custom-house taxes, <fec. Dews, plu. of dew. 
French dH, past pari of devoir; Latm dSbSre, perf. debili. 
Duel, du'.el, a fight between two. Dual, du\al, a numb, in Gram. 
' Du'el-ist, one who fights a duel ; 

Du'al-ist, one who believes there are two principles in 
nature, one who believes man to possess a twofold nature. 
Du'eU-er, du'^ell-lng. (Rule iii., -el.) 
French dv^; Latin dv>ellum (dvlo] [h]ellum. 
Duenna, du.en\nahy an elderly woman whose duty in Spain is 

to look after some young lady under her charge (Span.) 
Duet, du\ef, a song for two voices. Duetto, plu, duettos (Ital.) 
Dug, the udder of a cow, &o.^; the past tense of dig (q.v.) 
Duke (1 syL), fern, duch^ess; duke-dom {-dom = "dominion"); 
duch'-y; ducal, du'.kal; du'cal-ly. 
French diui, fem. ditcAesse/ Latin dvM, gen. ditci«, a leader. 
Dulcamara, duV -ka.mair" rdh (not dul.kum\a.rah), the plant 
called " bitter-sweet," or " woody nightshade." 
Latin dvlds amaxus, sweet bitter. The stalks and root taste at first 
bitter, but after being chewed a little time they taste sweet. 
Dulcet, duV^et, sweet [applied to sound]. 

Dulcify (-ct- not -si-)\ dulcifies, dUVM.fize; dulcified, 

dilV.8i.fide ; dul'cify-ing. 
Dulcimer, dut.8i.mer, an ancient musical instrument. 
French dulc\fier: Latin ditid^^raw, dulcia. (The two words ''duldlo- 
quent" and ''dulcity " might te introduced.) 
Dulia, du.li\ah (not du\ll.ah, as it is generally called), th« 
reverence paid to saints. 
Latrla, la,tn'ah, adoration paid to God. 

Latin d&lia; Oreek dotUeia or douUiS, the reverence paid by a slave 

{douhs) to his master. 
Latin latria; Oreek IcUreia, the service of a free workman (latrit, a 

hired servant). 



268 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Doll, stupid, obscure; dull-er {comp.), dull-est {vuper,) : dull'-ard 
i-ard. Old Eng. suffix meaning "species," "kind"), one 
of the dull kind ; dtdl-neflB, dul-ly (Rule v., &). . 

Bull, to m&ke duU; dulled (1 syl.), dull-ing. 
Old English dol, foolish, dottice, dnlly; Welsh dial, stupid. 
Duly, du'-ly, fiUy {see Due). Dully, dul-ly, stupidly {see Dull). 
Dumb, diim {b silent), mute, wanting the power of speech; 

Dumb-animals, all quadrupeds are so termed in contra- 
distinction to man, who is a *' speaking animaL" 

Dumb-ly, ditm'.ly; dumV-ness, durrCrUss. 

Dumb-ehow, signs and gestures without words. 

Dumb-waiter, a piece of furniture. 

Dnmfoun'der (without &), to strike dumb with amazement; 
dumfoun'dered (3 syl.), dumfoun'der-ing. 

Dummy, plu. dummies, dumf.miz, one who is dumb, an 
empty bottle. In tbree -handed whist, the hand expo^etl 
is called " dummy" and in French mart. 
{Either the "b" should he struck out of "dumb," or it 
should be retained throughout. It is rather renairkable 
that " dumbness " has no"h" in the Anglo Sa^on dumnys.) 

Old EngUsh dumb, dumnys, dumbness ; Gennan dumm. 

Dumps, a fit of the suUens ; dump-ish, rather stupid and salleD ; 
dum'pish-ly, dum'pish^ttess. 
ITorse dump, dnll ; Oerman dumm, stupid, sottilh ; d^impf, dvlL 
Dumpy, dUm'.py, squat, short. 

Humpty-dumpty, any person or thing small and thick-set 

Dumpling, dum\pling, dough leavened with ydast and 

boiled. Heavy or Suffolk dumplings have no yeast. 

There are several varieties. 

KoTse dump, low, sqnat. (?) thumb, the short squat finger, ealkd 

" dumpy. '^ Anglo Saxon ^dma / German* douum^en. 

Dun, a brown colour, one who importunes a creditor for pay- 
ment, to din, to uni>ortune for payment ; dunn-ish (Rale 
i.), rather brown {-ish added to adj. is dim., added to 
nouns it means " like ">. 
Dun (v.), donned (1 syl.), dunn'-ing (Rule i.) 
Dune (1 syL), a Sflind hill near the sea-coast. 

Old English dun, a black-brown colour ; dninung, a noUe ; d^ianX 
to make a noise ; ddn, % hill. 

Dunce (1 syL), a doiii, one backward in book-lea^ingf. 

Dtttuiers, disciples of Duiis Scotus, the schoolman, who dimoorcd 
against "the new learning" which was fatal to the quidditifliof 
Dunsery. The new school caHed those who oppos^ them ^n»tr$, 
corrupted to dunces; German duns, a dunce. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 



Dunderhead, dun'Mr.IM, muddle-headed ; dnnderiiead'-ed. 
None tungt tvmi, heayy, slow, Imnpiah, which ei;iten into composi- 
tion with handy head, heart, speeai, tuaring, &c., &c 

Done (1 sjh), a sand-hill near the sea-coast. (Old Eng. diin.) 
Dung (mmn and verb), dnnged (1 syL), dimg'-ing, dnng^-y, 

dunghill (double I, Bule viii.) (Old Eng. dung,) 
Dungeon, dun\jun, a dark dism^ prison, underground ; donjon, 

the strong keep of an ancient castle. 

The prison of the ancient castles was undei; the donjon (q.v.) 
Dunned (1 syl.), dunning, (fee. (SeelifxaL) 

Duodecimal, du'.o.dS8".i.mdl (a^j.), computing by twelves ; 
dnodeeimals, orosa m«ltipUcation, each, lower denomina- 
tion being the twelfth of the one next higher, just as a 
penny is the twelfth of a shilling; duodecunal-ly. 
Ihiodacinio, plu, duodecimos (not duodecimoes, Bule xlii.), 
du\o.de8'*.i.moze, the size of a book in which each sheet 
is folded into twelve leaves. 

French duodecimal; Itidian duodecimo; Latin dUddicXmut (duo -H 
cieeem, two -h ten). 

Duodenum, du^o.dee^'.num (not du.od^,e.nuni, an intestine about 
twelve fingers long, in the human body; duodenal, 
du\o.dee'\nal (a^j.; ; duodenitig, du'.o,de.ni'\ti8, inflam- 
mation of the duodenum (-itis, Gk. suf., inflammation). 

Dup, [the door] to open, past dupt or dapped (1 syl.), dupping. 

'*Then up he rose . . . dupped the chamber door, 
[And] let in the mold. . .—Ham. iv. v. 
"Dup " is Ang. Sax. do-ypp, "do-open," or do-^p, lift up [the latch]. 
Dupe (1 syL), one deceived, to cheat ;. duped (1 syL), dup'-ing 
(Rule xix.), dup'«-er, dQp'-ery. 
French dupe, v. duper; Latin duplex, wily ("Cnrsus duplids per 
mare tJlyasei," Hor. Od., 1. 6, 7, " of the wily or duping Ulyases"). 

Duplicate, du'.pltkate, a copy, a pawnbroker's ticket, to fold or 
double; du'plicat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), du'plicat-ing (Rule 
xix.); duplication, du\pli.kay'\8hun;,dxiplii:Atuie, du'.- 
plH,ka.tchur;, duplicity, du.plW.i.ty, 
French duplicata, duplication, duplicate ; Latin di^Kcdtio, dupli' 
care, supine duplicdtum, duplldta^. 

Durable, du\ra.b% lasting; du'rable-ness, du'rably, durability. 

Fr. dwraJ}le, dwabilitS; Lat. durabilis, dH/rdMlitas (dwrus, liard). 
Dura-mater, du'.ra may\ter (not mdt.er), the outer membrane 
of the brajn. The inner membrane is the pia-mater. 
Latin durchmater. Called ''hard " (dura J, because it is more tough 
than the other two membranes of the brain. Called mater or 
" mother " from the supposition that all the other membranes of 
the body were *' bom " out of it, or were >impl7 elongations of it. 

Daramen, du.ray\men, heart-wood. (Latin duramen.) 



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270 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Durance, du'.rSnsey imprisonment. Endu'ranoe, tolerance. 
Duration, dujray' .shun, continuance. (Not French.) 
Duress, du.ress, constraint, restraint of liberty. 
Latin dur&re, to accustom to hardship; Old French dwrtan: Latin 
duritia, dUrdtio (durus, hard). 

Durst, past tense of dare, to be bold to do. {See Dare.) 
Duflk, dim light, partially dark; dusk'-lsh, rather duslj^ (-ish 
added to adi. means rather, added to nouns like)) 
dusk'Ssh-ly, dusk'-y, dusk'i-ly (Rule xi.), dusk^i-ness. 
Old EngUsh dvj<t8cian\ to extingoish; past dadscede, p.p. dvoctactd. 
Dost {noun and verb). Dost, dust, second per. sing, of Do {q.v.) 
Dust'-ed (R. xxxvi.), dust-ing, dust'-er, dust'-y, dustl-ness. 
To bite the dust, to fall dead in battle. 
To kick up a dust, to make a disturbance. 
To throw dust in one's eyes, to bamboozle. The allusion 
is to the Mahometan practice of casting dust into the air 
for the sake of "confounding" the enemies of the faith. 
"When the English king pursued the Iman who hnd 
stolen his daughter for Allah, Allah threw dust in his 
eyes to check his pursuit." A Oori Legend. 
**Dust," Old Eng. dual, duatig, dusty. "Dost," Old Eng. dM. 
Dutch {adj.), pertaining to Holland or the Netherlands, the 
language of the Hollanders. 
The Butch, the people of Holland or the Netherlands. 
A Dutchman, plu. Dutchmen. ** Dutchmen " is the definite 
plu., as two, three, &c., Dutchmen, but " The Dutch" the 
indefinite plu. (R. xlvi. 5f ). Dutch-dooks, German clocks. 
German Deutsche. " Dutch docks," corruption of Deutsch dock. 
Duty, plu. duties, du'.tlz; du'ti-ful (Rule xi.), du'tiful-ly, 
du'tiful-ness (R. viii.); du'ti-able, subject to excise duty. 
Duteous, dxif.te.us ; du'teous-ly, du'teous-ness. 

("Duty" and "beauty" have this change of vowel, for 
which thete is no sufficient reason.) 
French dH, past part, of devoir: Latin debeo. 
Duumvir, plu. duumvirs or duumviri, du.um\verz or du.um'.' 
vtri. In ancient Rome, the supreme magistracy vested 
in two men; duumvirate, du.um\vtrate, the form of 
government or office of a duumvir ; duum'viral. 
Latin duumffir, plu. duumviri, duvmvirtUis, duumvirdtus. 
Dwarf, plu. dwarfb (not dwarves. Rule xxxix.), dwarf-ish {-ish 
added to nouns means " like," added to adj. it is dim.), 
dwarf ish-ly, dwarf ish-ness ; dwarf -in^, keeping small ; 
dwarfed (not dwarft-ed), hindered from growing. 
Old English dweorh or dweorg, a dwarf. 



AND OF SPELLING. 271 

Dwell (Bule v.), past dwelt, past part, dwelt, to live, to abide ; 
dwell'-ing, living, abiding, a house, a residence; dwell'-er. 
To dwell on [a subject], to continue talking on it. 
None dvaiU^ to dwell, to tairy ; dvceler, a dweller, a loiterer. The 
Anglo Saxon dweliian] means '*to deceive" (dwol an error). 

Dwindle, dwin.cCl, to diminish ; dwin'dled (2 syl.), dwin'dling. 

Old Eng. dwinianlf to pine away, to dwindle ; past dtodn, p.p. dioinen. 
Dwt., pronounced penny -weight. It is D (penny, dendrium), 
and irt (contraction of weight). Similarly Cwt., hundred- 
weight is C (hundred, centum), and wt for " weight." 
Dye, to tincture. Die, to lose life. (Both di.) 

Dyes, dyed, dye-ing (violation of R. xix.), dy'-er (from Dye). 
Dies, died, dy-ing (Rule xix.), di-er (from Die). 
Dyes, tinctures, third per. sing, of Dye. 
Dies, plu, of die, a stamp, third per. sing, of Die. 
Dice, plu, of die, a cube for playing " dice.'* 
"Dye," Old Eng. dedg, ▼. dedffiian]. past dedgode, past part, dedgod. 
*' Die," Old Eng. dedd[ian], past deddode, past part, deddod. 
"Die" (a cube), Fr. d6, plu. d6». 

Dyke (1 syl.), a geological term. Dike, a trench, a mound. 

A " dyke " is the material which fills up a fissure in a rock. 
Old English die, a dyke ; French dyke (in mines). 
Dynamics, dLnam'.lks, that science which treats of force acting 
on moving bodies. (All sciences terminating in the Greek 
'ika, except five, are plural, Rule Ixi.) Dynamic or 
dynamical (adj.), dynamlcal-ly. 
Dynom'eter or dynamometer, dVna.mSm",e.ter, a (mechan- 
ical) instrument to measure the relative strength-in- 
draught of man and other animals ; 
])ynameter, an (optical) instrument for determining the 

magnifying power of telescopes ; dynameficaL 
Dsrnamite, dV.na.mitey an explosive agent, consisting of 

porous silica saturated in nitro-glycerinei 
Fr. dynamiquef dynamomitre; Lat. dynamis: Gk. dunamis, power. 
Dynasty, plu. dynasties, dln\as.tiz, a race of monarchs from 
one common head ; dynastic, di.nds^tik (adj.) 
French dynastie, dynastique; Latin dynastia; Greek dunastHa. 
Dy»- (Greek dus-, a prefix always denoting evil, opposed to eu-, 

which always denotes what is good). 
Dysentery, dis^en-terry, severe diarrhoea; dysenter'ic 

Fr. dyssenterie, duBsentirique (double s, a blunder); Lat. dysenUria, 
dyaerUericua ; (Gk. dus entSra, bad [state of] the bowels). 

Dyspepsia or dyspepsy, dl8.p^\8l.ah, dis.p^p'.8y, indigestion; 
dyspep'^tic, one who sufiers from dyspepsia. 
French dygpepsie ; Greek dus p«p$%», bad digestion ivepto, to cook). 



272 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dysphagia, dU.fdg\i,ah, a difficiilty of swallow^. 

Greek dua pha^n^ difficulty in swallowing. 
Dyspnoea, de8p.nee\ah, a difficulty of breathing. 

French dyspnSe; Latin dyspnoea, asthma; Greek dus pnoia, diffi- 
culty of breathing. 

DyBmia, dt8u\ri,aht difficulty, of passing urine ; dy^uiio. 

Fr. dynurie: Lat. dyaiiria, dysuricus; Gk. dau ouria difficulty of urine. 

£-, Ef-, Ex-, in composition, means out of. 

£- or Ex- means out qf, hence 
' * Privation "or " pre-eminence **; 
•Tis KX- before a vowel, c. 
The aspirates, p, g, s, t; 
'Tis EF- before an/; but ■- 
With liguidSy c, d, g, j, v. 

-ea, -oa» -ia (in Bot.), denote a genus or division. 

Every word (except eager and eagle) beginning with eo- is Anglo-Saxon. 
Each, etch, every individual of a number treated separately. 
Each other: as "Be to each other kind and true," that is. 
Each [one] be to [every] other one kind and trae. ** iBach " 
is nominative case, and "other" objective, governed by 
to. " It is our duty to assist each other," that is, It is 
our duty each [one] to assist [every] other [one]. (In 
Latin, alter alterum adjuvdre.) 
Eager, e\gur, desirous ; eager-ly, eager-ness. 

Welsh egyr; French aigre/ sharp, sour ; Latin acer,, sharp, brisk. 
Eagle, e\g% a bird of prey; eaglet, e'.gUt, a young eagle. 

French, aigle: Latin dq!uXta i^qu/Uua, a dun colour). 
Ear, e*er, ere, hear, year, earing, ear-ring,^ hkeaiwg. 

Ear, eV, organ of hearing, appreciation of musical sounds, 
spike of com, to form into seed com; eared, :eVd; 
earing, ^r^-ing, forming into ears ol corn, time of plough- 
ing (as opposed to harvest). 

" There shall be neither earing nor harvest" {Gen. xlv. 6). 
Ear-ring, a ring for the ear. Hearing, perception of sound. 
E'er, e'er, a contraction of ever. 
Ere, air, before in time, sooner than ; erst, at first. 
Hear, heW, to perceive by the ear. 
Year, j/e'r, a period of twelve months. 



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AND Of SPELLING, 273 

Earl, fern, oountefls, urli c&un'.tesa. 

Earrdom, the title and rank of earl (-d&m, rank, estate, &o.) 
Old BnglM eorl The title was flist used by the Jutes of Kent. 
T^e Nonnan-French couv^ is no English title, although we retain 
the words county and countess. French counts, comtesse. 

Early, w/dy; earli-er (c6mp.;» earli-est (super.), sbon, before 
the tifae; earti-iiefid, w/M.nes (Rule xi) 
Old £ng. <6r, before^ in time ; ardtic (adj.), early; a/r^ice (adv.) 
Earn, wm, to win by service. 'Orn, a vase. 

Earned, umd; eam-ing, w/.ning; eam-ings (noun) ur'- 

ningzy wages, money earned. 
Old En^^ish cem{ian\ or eam{ian], to earn; aemim^ or ea/nvung, 
earnings, wages. " ITm," Ldtin vma, a pitcher. 

Earndst, ur'.nestf a pliedge, a deposit to confirm a bargain, 
hansel, ardent, serious, eager; eamest-ly, ur'.nest.ly ; 
eamest-ness, w/ .nest.nest ; in earnest. 
(" Earnest " [mon^y]^ ouyht to be ernes or emest.) 

"'Earnest" fnownj, Welsh ernes, a pledge. 

'"Earnest" fadjj. Old Eng. earnest, eomeste fadvj; Germ. amst. 

Earth, y/rth (noun and verb); earthed (1 syl.)', earth'-ing; 
earth-ly, urtfi'.ly; ^arthli-n^sfl (Rule xi.), earth-y, 
wrtfi'-p; «BU7th'i-ne8S (Rule xi.), earth'-en, made of 
earth ; earthen^^are, urih\m,warej crockery. 
Which is correct : 

" Day and night are produced by the eaaiJi's revolving on 
its atis," or 

" Day and night are produced by the eaartb revolving on 
its axis"? 

ticiple, 
img of 
J have 
kve the 
je," or 
verbal 
•matic, 
ts-aasis 
i.) 

Earwig, ^r.wig, an insect (Old Eng. edr wigga, ear [shaped] in- 
sect. The bind wings being in shape like tiie human ear.) 
Ear'wigg-ing (Rule i.), whiflpering slander to gain favour. 
Ease, eze, 6oittfort, freedom from pain; easy, e.zy ; easi-ly, 
easi-ndsS (R. xi.); easi^, ezd; eas'-ing, e.zi7ig (R. xix.); 
eas^'-meni (only five i^ords drop -« before -ment, R. xviii.) 
Easy, l.zy ; (com p.) east-er, e\zi.er; (super.) eaSi-est. 
Old English edih and edthlic, easy, (comp.) edthere, (super.) edthost, 
(adv.) edthe and edtfielice; French aise. 

Easel, ^i'2, a frame with a shoulder, used by artists. 

Old EngUiA esel, a shouIOeif ; less likely eaol, Gtirman esel, an ass. 
s 



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274 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

East, g8t; east-em; easterly, e8f,er.ly, 

Easter-ling, a native of the East. 

Easf-ing, the distance a ship makes good in an eastward 
direction. The eastward (ooun), the east direction. 

Eastward (a^.), eastwards (adv.) 

(The use of eastward as an adverb is ol^ectionable. It is 
the final -s which is the adverbial badge.) 

Old Eng. east (noun and adj ), eagterirwind, the east wind, eastern and 
eastinne, in the east, eastan, from the east, east^meard, eastward. 

Easter, es'.t^ (noun and adj.), the season coiDmemoratiye of 
** The Resurrection " of Christ ; easter-tide, easter-week. 

Old English Easter, easter-dag, easterday: easter-Udy easter-tide; 
easter-vmce, easter week ; easter-m&ndth, April 

{April toas the time of the armual Scandinavian lestival i» honovr 
qf the moon caUed "Easter," ^Ostar," " Easire" <kcj 

Easy, easier, easiest {See Ease.) 

Eat, past ate (not eat, nor ete), past part, eaten; eat, Ste 
(1 syl.); eat'-ing, eat'-er, eat'-ahle. 
Eaf.able, fit to eat. Eatables, things to eat or for food. 
Edible, e'.di b% possible to be enten. 

("Eatable" means suitable for food; "Edible," possible 
to be eaten, but not ordinarily used as food,) 
To eat one's words, to retract them. The idea is from 

Proverbs xxvi. IL 
Old English etan, to eat ; pres. tense Ic ete, past dt, past part eten. 
"Edible," Latin €dUis (ido, to eat). 

Eaves (no sing.), evz, the part of the roof which overhangs the 
walls. Eavesdropp-er, a sneak who listens surrepti- 
tiously to what is said in private ; eavesdropp'-ing. 
Old English tfese, eaves ; v. ^eslian}, to make eaves ; ^es drppa. 
Ebb (noun and verb), (14 monosyllables not ending in /, 2, or », 
double the final letter: viz., add, odd; burr, err; bitt, 
butt ; ebb, egg ; buzz and lohizz) ; ebbed ( I syl. ), ebb-ing. 
The reflux of the tide. The contrary of flow or flood, as 
ebb-tide, flood-tide, ebb nnd flow. 
Old English ebha or ebhe, v. ebh[%an\. past ebhode, past part, ^hod. 
Ebony, Sb'^d.ny, a tree, the wood of the tree. 

Ebonise, ib\o.nize, to make black like ebony; eb'onised 
(a syl.), eb'oms-ing (Rule xix.), eb'on (ac{j.) 
(The " " of these words is a blunder. It should be " e.") 
French ibSne, v. Otiner, SbSni^, the tree ; Latin €hiwua, the tee«; 
ibinum, the wood : Greek ibi-nSs, ib&nin6s (adj.) 

Ebiiety. (See Inebriety.) 

Ebullition, e' .biil.lisK\un, the operation or state of boiling. 
French itmaHion; Latin ebidUtio, v. ebtdUo, to boiL 



AND OF SPELLING 



Bo- (the Greek suffix «fc, before ** c," and in one example ecxef¥- 

trie, it represents the Latin ex,) 
ficarte, a.kdy.tay (French), a game at cards. 
Ecoe Homo, gl^ae ho\mo (not gkr,he)y a picture of Christ crowned 
with thorns, when Pilate said to the people, **Ecce 
Homo ** (Behold the man). 
Eccentiic, ik.8en.tnky strange in manner, deviating from what 
is customary; eccentrical, cfc.«^'.tn.fcal; eccentrical-ly ; 
eccentricity, ik\8en.tris'\i.ty, 

(This is the only Latin word in which "ex" is changed 
to ec, but there are above thirty examples of "ex" before 
c. It would therefore be better to abolish this solecism, 
altho' sanctioned by the authority of the Lat. " eccentricus") 
French excmtrigue, excevcbndU ; Latin ex eentrnm (out of the centre). 
Eodesiastes, ekMe\siM\tezey one of the books of the Old 
Testament, also called The Preacher y from the intro- 
ductory sentence, " The words of the Preacher," i. 1. 
Ecclesiasticns, gk.kle'M.ds'^ti.kuSy a book of the Apocrypha. 
Ecclesiastic, Sk.kl^.si.as"Mk, a person in "holy orders"; 
ecclesiastical, ik.kle\HM8'\ti.kal (adj.); ecclesiastical-ly. 
Trench ecclSsiastiqxLe ; Latin eccl^siastes, a prfeacher. eccUaiasticus : 
Greek ekklisiastis, HkklisiastikdsiincklSsia, the chmrch). 
Echinus, e kl'.nus (not echH.nus), the sea-urchin, &c., a mollusc 
Echinate, SW.i.nate, set with bristles. Echinite, ^'.imite, 
a fossil of the chalk formation, (-ate — "ftiU of;" -ite 
(in Geo.) means "f 'ssil," " stone," Greek Uthos). 
Echinordea, ek\^.nof'.de.ah^ the family of radia'ta which 

contains sea-urchins, <&c. 
Echinoderm, 'plu. echinoderms or eobinodermata, eM.ru>.' 
derm, e.kWno der" .nm.tdh, a class of radiata resembling 
star-fish and sen-urchins. 
Latin echinus, a sea-nrchin ; Greek HcklMB. 
Echo, yitt. echoes, ^'.o, eW.oze ("o" slightly aspirated), Kule 
xlii. To echo, ectoes^ ec'hoed (2 syl.), ec'ho-ing (Rule 
xix.); echometer, ek.dm' .e.ter, an instrument tor measur- 
ing the distances and intervals of echoes ; echom'etry. 
French 4cho: Latin &fto; Greek Sch6 (ScM, a sound). 
Edalrcissement, a.klair'.sese.mah'n (Fr.) not eclairisment, the 

clearing up of a plot or any other romantic adventure. 
Edat, a'.kWi' (French), applause, renown^ 
Edeotic, Sk.Wc\tlk, one who adopts the best parts of different 
tiystems; eclecti<j or edectical, ^Mk'.ti.kdl (ac^j.); 
eclec'tical-ly ; eclecticism, Sk.Uk' .iLstzm. 
Frenc>i iclectique, 4cU<Axsme : Latin ecteoto, things selected ; Greek 
meUiit {(Ik ligo, to piok out). 



276 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

EcKpse, S. kUps' (n. and t;.); edi^iBdd' {H »y\.), ecHpi'.iDg (R xix.) 

Eqliptic, ^.kllp'Mk, the apparent aiitiaal path of the sun 

through the heayens. So oaUed because the moon to be 

eolipsed must be near this hypothetioal path. 

French ^qZipw, ▼. ScUpsar, Mip^que; Lfttia «eUpH§, aelipMcus/ 

Greek ikUipHi (ek leipo, to leave oatX 

Edogue, plM. edogiies, Sk'.l6gy ik'^Wgz, a pastoral poem. 

(The French termination of this word is foolish, seHng 
we have discarded this very un-English ending in a host 
of other words, and " log " is all-sufficient.) 
French 4dogue; Latin eddga; Greek ikUfij^ (ek kgo, to pick out). 
Eoonomy, plu, eoonomies, e.kdn'.o^miz^ careful expenditure of 
money. Folitioal eoonomy, the way of ruling a people 
so as to increase tiiieir wealth. Vegetable or Animal 
Economy, the usual operations of nature in the growth, 
preservation, and propagation of vegetables or animals. 
Economloa, the science of household management. 
Eooaom'ic or eoonomioal, e\ko,n8m^\i.kal ; economical-ly. 
EconomiBe, e.kdn\o,mize, to manage household matters 
with frugality; eoon'omised (4 syl.), econ'omis-li^ (Rule 
xix.), eoon'omls-er (Rule xxxi.), economist, e.kdn.o.mist. 
French MonamiqvSj iconomiste, v. iconomiser, iconomie; Latin 
cecdndmia, oecdndnilcus ; Greek oikonomed, to manage a household ; 
(nk&/iomia, management of a house ; oikOn6m^[k6s, ta oikdn&miUca, 
ecoBoAiies ; oikOnOmAa, economist. (There is no such Greek word 
as oikonomiao.) "£conomy'* is that frugal And careful expendi- 
ture of money which is shown in a well-muiaged household. 
Ecstasy, plu, ecstasies (not ex- and not -cy, -cies). Dt is the 
Greek ek and stasis (a landing out [of oneself]). So 
apostasy is the Greek etpo stasis (a standing off from 
[the faith]). Ecstasy, a trance, rapture, a fit 
{It is not the Latin " ex-," but the Greek " ek-," which is 
always written ec-. The last syL is not -kis [-cm], but -sis.) 
'Ec8tAtic,ik.stdlf.ik; eoBtB,Uoal^ik.stdlfdMl; 6ostarical-ly, 
rapturously, in an ecstatic manner. 
The French forms of these words should be cireMly avoid- 
ed ; they ore extasiS, extatique, part Latin and part Greek. 
Latin eestdsis; Greek ifkdasts, Ostaims. 
Ecumenic or ecomenioal [Council], e.ku.mi^\Kkf e.ku»m^^.i.kSlf 
a general [council of the Boman Cathohos}. 
Fr. c6emiUtnq%e ; Gk. oikoumgnikde (aikoum^M, the haUtoUe worldX 
Eczema, Sk^zi.mah, a skin eruption, without fev^. 

Greek i(k zima, a boiling out (z^. to seethe). 
. '>ed, the suffix of the past tense and pa^t part, of verbs of the 
weak coi:\}. Old EngUsh -od , -ed, Latin -e«[Mm] or 
'dt[um]. In adj. it denotes the " subject of some action," 
as renown-ed the subject of " renown." 




AND OF SFELLTNO, 277 

§ Wheo added to a word ending in .d or -t it Ibrms a distinct 

gyL, as ai^-ed (2 syl.), paund'-ed (2 Byl), Jif-ed (3 eyl.) 
§ When iollowed hy -ly or -n««t, it generally forqis a distinct 
gyL, as confused (2 eyL), cmfmtdUf {conju-sed^ly, 4 syl.), 
ftk«<«4 (1 syl.)> ble89.ed.im8 (3 syl.) 
Edadons, ^.day'.s^iKs, Toracions ; edft'domhly, eda'doiif-neM; 
edacity, «.da^^^<y, Toracity. 
LAtin tfd<fcif«>, edoas, g«iL «ddoi« (glnfttoncNi^. 
EddMi, ^,i8hj aftermath, the grass which serres fbr pasture 
after the main crop has been removed. 
Old English ediM, the aftermftth, -ise coDTerts yerbt and adjeotivaB 
into noons. ^ is a eorraptioii of e^an], to eat, benoe €drue or 
et^Uc, food or [grass] fit for pasturage. 

Iddy, piu. eddies, id'^z^ a whirl of wind or water, to form a 
whirl, <fec.; ed'die0> (third person singular, present tense); 
eddied, ^,diSd; ed'dy^ing. 
Old EngUsh ePw or ythu, a wave or lleod («(A<m or ^ihkm, Uf flow). 

Edentate, plu. edeatata, e.d^*,tAte, e.dSn.tay\tahy animals like 
the sloth, armadillo, and anteater, which hare no incisive 
teeth; eden'^t&t-ed (Rule xxxvL), without ftfont teeth. 

French identi; Latin edenUUio, extraetioB of teeth, eden^iM, 
e{«e1d«n<««, without teeth. 

Edge (1 syl.), noun and verb. Hedge (1 syL), noun and verb. 

Edg'-ing (H. xix.), making edges, edge- trimming, outside row; 

Hedg'-ing (Bule xis.)> xn<Udng or trij^imiag a hedge« 

Edged (1 tyl.), having an edge, sha^; 

Hedged (1 eyL), inolosed with a hedge. 

Edge-lesB, without an edge. Hedge-lesa, without a hedge. 

To edge in, to insini^ate something into, to get in; ' 

TehiQ$lge to, to guirround with a hedga^ 

Edgewise (2 syL), not edgtways. 

Old English witHam^ dirgc^len, gmma^r. 
To«4g9 m» * aocr^ption of e^g-on, 

Old English e^iem], to inoita, to mge op. 

Old ^Ush eog, an edge; «c^, edged, sharpened ; Welsh hogi, to 
sharpen ; hogiad, a sharpening : hogal, a whetstone. 

(TU d is iKterpciaUd in both oo^a^J 
Bdlb|0, tf,d\,b% capable of being made food ; ijatabl^ fit or 
suitable fpr food, l^dibJ^s, e\di.VlZy thiijgs whiph may 
serve for food ; Eatables, foods. 
"Bdibto,** Latin «Agr€, to eat ; €diUs or AfONs, edmwm, food. 
"Ei^H" 014 *»ftl^ f*t«¥»i to e^t, na4 ^U. 
Edict, a decree, a proclamation. (Latin #dictiiia, e^i^ 



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278 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bdiiy, iid'.i.fy, to iiwtract; edifies, ^.i.fize; edified, ^,i,fide; 

ed'ifi-ep(R.xi.); edification, ^d'.»j/i.*ay''^/iim; ed'ify-iiig. 

Edifice, plu. edifices (Bole xxxiv.), ?d^.i.fl8,ed^,i,fUM, baildiikgs. 

Applied to Inrge public buildings. 

French idifieaiUm, idijice, y. idifier: Lattn cedlfiMio, adIfjUAwm, 
flpdVlcclr* (izdn faciOt to make a buil'iing). 

Edile, Si'.dile, an officer of ancient Home ; edile-ehixs office of 
edile. (-Mp, Old English suffix = "office of.") 

Latin cedlliB. This officer had charge of the streets and pablie 
buildings, snpery^ited the SHwers, weights and measures, plajs and 
professions; r^nlated the price of food, &c. (cedes, sing., temple). 

Edit, id'.it, to revise a book for republication ; edlt-ed (Bule 
xxxvi.), edlt-ing. 

Ed'itor, (not -er)^ fern, ed'itress or editor; one who revises 
a book for republication, one who controls the literary 
pnrt of a periodical or serial ; editor-ship, office of editor. 
{-ship. Old English suffix meaning '* office of.") 

Edition, eMsh'jon, a reprint of a book. An edition consists 
of no deHnite number of copies. In novels about 500^ 
in school books about 2,000, in popular reprints about 
10,000, in newspnpers about 20,000, while in books oi 
doubtful sale 100 copies, would be fair average numbers. 
In large reprints it is usual tn state tbe number of copies 
an edition covei-s, as " 31st edition, 167th thousand." 

French Sditewr, idition; Latin idUio, idltor, y. ido, supine idUum, 
to publish. (Note— <^(f», to eat, has e short.) 

Educate, ed'.u.kaU, to teach ; ed'noat-ed (R. xxxti.), ed'ncat-ing 
(Rule xix.), ed'nca^por (not er, Bule i^xxvii.); education, 
ed\u.kay'\8hun ; e^'uca'tion-al ; ed'uca"tional-ly. 

French Mucation ; Latin idOcdtio, ediU&tcr, tdiicdu, supine ed&eA' 
turn, to teach {ed&cdre, to pilot forth). 

It is curious to trace the ideas represented by words used 

to signify education. For example : 
To edify (Lat ades faeio\ to ** make a temple" of the body. 
To instruct (Lat. in struo), to *' cram" or '* pile ap" in the mind. 
To educate (Latin e-dUcdre. diicdtor\ to ** pilot forth *• the 

mind, or guide It safely through the dangers which beset it 
To train (Lat. traho), to ** draw " or " drag *• out the powers. 
To teach (Anglo-Saxon tdcan\ technical education, **to 

show** or teach hy " showing" how things are to be done. 
To learn (An g. -Sax. Utran, Idr), to obtain " lore ** or wisdom. 
To inform (Latin informo), to ** form in " the mind. 
Tuition (Lat tneor), to put the mind in a state oi ** defence.** 
School (Greek) '* spare time.'^ 




AND OF SPELLING, 279 

Educe, tf.drwe', to extract, to bring to light ; educed' (3 syl.), 
edUo'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Latin edQjoihre (not the same verb as "educate,** edikdre) {e-dOeo, to 
lead forth, to draw out). 

-ee (Fr. suffix), denodng the object of some action : as legatee, 
the olgect of a legacy ; payee, one to whom money is paid. 
Eel, heel, hekl, ell, helL 

Eel, Sle (1 syl.), a fl^h. (Old English dl, an eel.) 
Heel, hele (1 syL), part of the foot. (Old English h€l) 
Heal, hele (1 syL), to cure. (Old English hdllan],) 
Ell = I, a measure of length. (Old English eln,) 
Hell, the place of future torment (Old English hell.) 
Every word (except eager, eagle, and hearse) beginning with ea-^ ee>, 
hea-^ and hee- is Anglo-Saxon. 

E'en, gfie (1 syL), contraction of the adv. even. 

-eer (Fr. suffix -ier, -ieur, termination of nouns), denotes one 
employed for or on a work, as engineer, 

E*er, ere, air, are, ear, hear, here, hair, hare, heir, year. 
E'er, air, contraction of ever, (Old English efre or dfer,) 
Ere, air, before in time. (Old English dr, before.) 
Air, air, atmosphere. (Latin aery the atmosphere.) 
Are, dr (to rhyme with far). (Norse plu. of Ang-Sax. bed.) 
Ear, gV, organ of hearing. (Old English eare and ear,) 
Hear, her, to apprehend with the " ear." (Old Eng. hyr[an\,) 
Here, h^r, in this pla<^e. (Old English hSr.) 
Hair (1 syL, to rhyme with air), of the head. (Old Eng. Ttdr.) 
Hare, hair, an animal. (Old H)ngli.sh hara,) 
Heir, air, the next male successor. (Latin hares.) 
Year, y^r, a period of twelve months. (Old English gear.) 

-ef (Latin prefix for ex-) before the letter -/. 

Every word beginning with <f- (except ^endi) is from the Latin. 

Efface, ef.fase' (not e.fase'), to strike out, to rub out; effaced' 
(2 s)L), effac'4ng (E. xix.). effac'-er, efface'-able {-ce and 
-ge retain the final -e betbre -able), effaoe'-ment (only 
five wnrds drop thd finul -e before -ment). 
French ^acer, effagahle; Latin ex fades, [rubbed] from the surface. 

Effect (noun and verb), ef.fect' (not e.fecf), the result, the out- 
come of a cause, influence, to accompHsh. 
Affect, to assume, to move the affections ; 
Effects, chattels ; in effect, really, in reality. 
Effected, ef.fSW.ted, accomplished; 
Affected, af.fSh^.ted, moved in the heart, artifidaL 



280 ERWRS OF SPEEGH 

Effect'-ing, accomplishing ; 4ffecf *^tg, p^tUetic. 
Effect'-er, better efifeot-or; effect'-ifale (not -ahU). 
Bffeddve, ef,f&tfMv; effectiTe4y, effectiv^^et^ 
EfTQCtnal, ef.fSk\m.al; effec'tnal-ly. 
Effectuate, e/./^^tu.a£«, to acQomplish, to bring ^ pass ; 

effec'tuat-ed (Bule xxxv.), eflfec'tuat-ii^p: fRiile xix.) 
Efficacioii9, ^f\fi,kay"^hu8, prodiici4g tiie effect expected; 

effica'cioiiB-ly, effica'cious-ness. 
Efl^cacy, piu. efficacies, Sf-Jl.ka.8y, Sf.fi.ka.Biz (R. xliv.) 
Efficient, ^.fish.ent; efficient-ly, effldent-ness. 
|)fficience, ^.fish'-ense ; efficiency, Sf.fl8h\en.8y. 
French ^et, tffi,cajcey effectuer, efficaciU, efficient; Latin effeetio, 

tMctor, effeehim, efficdcUtu, efficax, gen. ^edds, t. ^ficio (ef [ex] 

^LciOt to make out of). 

Effeminate, Sf.fem'.i.nate (a^j- and yerb), womanish, feeble, to 
make worn anish ; effem'i^atTed (E. xxxvi.), e£^m'inat-ing 
(R. xix.), effem'inat-pr, effeai^^i^t(B-ly, effQm'inate-ness ; 
effeminacy, plu, effemin^ies, ef.jem\i.na.8iz. 
French effemini, v. effeminer; Latin effeminate (adv.), effeminattUf 
effeminaUo (fSniina, a woman). 

Effendi (Master), a Turkic title wJbioh follows a proper name, 

jaboQt equal to our Esq., as VAli EffQodi." 
Effervesce, Sf.f^.v^, to firotb up; effei^^l^^d' (3 syl.), 

effervesp'^ing (R. xix.) ; effervescwqe, ^'./(fr.v^'^ense; 

l^ffervesce^t, if.fer.ves'^^^t; ef'fervesc'-ibie. 
French effervescence, efferveseenf: Latin effervescens, gen. effervetcmtU, 

effervescentia, efferoesco (incept, ot effetoeo^ io fi^ow hot). 

Effete, Sfjeelf, worn out, sterile. (Lat. effUus ; fatm, offepring.) 
Efficacious, ef.fi.kay.8htt8 ; efficacy, <fec. {See Effect) 
Effigy, ji\u. effigies, ^.fi.je, ^f.fi,ji%z, one*s representation. 
To bum (or hang) in effipr, to bum (or hang) the image. 
French effigie; Latin effigia, v. effigidre (Jingo, to fashicm). 
^orescent, Sf.jU).rS9''^ent, flowering; efOoreBoenoe, Sf.fio.- 

rSs'^^ense. (-«c- denotes inceptive action.) 
Effluvia, plu. (the sing, effluvium is not much used), effls^'.vi.ah, 
exhalation, the disa^eeable smells which rise from ill- 
drainage and putrefying matters. 
Effluent, ef,fiu.ejn,t ; effiuence, ef^flu.ence, 

French eMuence, i^uent, effluve,- Latin ^jBHAvium, ^ffluenUa (<f [ex] 
>lu«n«; lowing out from>. 

Effort, ef.fort, endeavour, exertion ; ef faEt4eeB. 

French <foft; Latin ^ [ex] /orMa. the itropg [thing] ppt foi:th. ' 
EfErontery, ef\frSn.tiSrry (not «.jTo»'.t«.ffy), impud^^noe. 

Freiicb ^ffrinJUrie; Latin <f [ex] /ronte, ottt<ooiintf»nanoi]^. 




AND OF SPELLING, 281 

Effnlganoe, «f,S^Vience, lastro, splendour; effolgency, plu. 
-des, ^fJ&^JSfLsiz; offulgjont, ^f.fiOf.jHt; <efful'gent-ly. 
I^tin eSvlg/^, g^. effiuigmtit {fif [ej] fvlgfio, to sbii^ out). 
Effusion, ef.fu\zhun, a spiUing [of blood]; effosBive, ef.fu\zlv; 
©f&i'sive-Jly; effiwiB, ef.fuze*; effqsed (2 syl.), effus-ing. 
FrenQh ^imon; Lfttin ^Sv^> fi^ndQ, sup. •f^Omim, tp jpour oat 
Eft Of 0£e^, 4^'.^«, » newt or smaU lizard. 

Old English efeU. In Su^i eo, ^, ciOlo^ ffAt by the n^fMMQt^. 
Eftsoons (only u^ed in poetry), spon, soon ftfl^r. 

Old English tj%-i&na, soon after. 
Egg, one of the 14 monosyliables (not ending in /, I, or «) 
with the final consonant doubled (Rule vii.) 
To egg (followed by (m\ to incite; egged, egd; egg'-ing. 
"Egg" (notmX Old English cbq: ages htoite, the white of an egg. 
"Egg" (yerl^, Old English eggiian], to incite. 

JSg^JABtiBe, €^Mn.tine^ the sweet briar. 

iFr. 6gUmH&r, the tzee : 6gUmUn€t the lElower ; Lat. vosa egUmteria. 
Egotist, i^ff'.ctistt one who talks about himself; egoist, ^g'.o.ist, 
one wbo believes nothing to be certain exc^ tiiat he 
himself exists. 
Jjgotism, i^.o.tizmt the habit of self-praise ; egoisin, ^.o.- 

izm, the feith of an egoist. 
Egotistic or egotistical, ^g'.o.tig'Mk, gg'.o.tis^'.ti.kal, self- 
conceited; egoti8'tical4y; eg^otise, eg^otisedfCg^o^-ing. 
Frpnoh igmtme, ig^Me; Latin ego, I {-Ut Greek sii£Bz *'one who," 
■ism Greek 8u|5jc * • sy^jtem. " 
Egregious, e;^€^,j^JU8y supereminent (in a bad seQse). 
Egre'gious-ly, e^gre^'gious-ness. 
Latin egrggius (e grige [lectus], picked out of the flock). 
Egress, e'.gress, act or right of departing. Ingr^ the act or 
right of entering ; egression, e.gr&h'\un; ingression. 
Latin egressus^ egresaio, t. egr^dior (e [ex] gradior^ to walk out). 
Egzet, ef.grSU a small white heron. (French aigrette,) 

8o called from the "aigrette " or plume in the head. 
Egyptian ejip'^shun, adj. of Egypt, Egyptiai;i language; 

E^ptdogy, ^.fy).tdV'.o.jVy study of the arcbseology . of 

Egypt; Egyptologist, e.jlp.t5V\o.gW. 
French egyptievine ; Latin ^gyptivs, .^gyptvs; Greek Aignptdt. 
Ell = a ? interrogative of doubt Is it not so ? 
Ah = r / exclamation of pain, surprise, <fec. 
Hey y What is it you say ? 
Ha, Mhl take care. Ha! lia! laughter. 
Heigh-ho, ha'^.ho o^ Ivk^ho t expresses weariness. 
He! or he! he! expresses scorn. 



282 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Eider [down], V.der (not t,der\ down of the eider duck. 

Oemuui tider; French eider , idredon, eido^down. 
Eight, ate, a number. Ait, ate, a river-island. Ate (1 9yl.\ 
past tenu of eaU Hate, to dislike. 
Eighteen, ate'.Uen; eighteenth, ate'.t^mt^; eighteen-mo, 
plu. eighteen-moB (R. xiii.), ate.teen'.moze. -ono is the last 
87L of deci-mo (ten) added to the English teen (ten). 
Either, r.thgr. Ether, trhi^ (a Tolatile liquid). 
Either, ^.th^, one of two, correlative of or. 
Neither, nUtliSr, not either, correlatiYe of nor. 
Each, Itch, both one and the other of two articles. 
§ It is wrong to use either when the choice lies between 

more than two things. 
S Either you or I am wrong; Either you or I are wrong (f). 
Either you or I are wrong is the better grammar, that is, 
either you or 1 [tr^ j are wrong \_one of u«J ; but custom 
has sanctioned the rule, that the verb U to agree with the 
noun or pronoun nearest it : " Either you [are wrong] or 
I am wrong." Similarly, "Either you {...J or he U 
wrong ; " '• Either he [ ... ] or you are wrong." In French, 
the Btime construction is observed with or^ &c., as with and, 
*< Either/' Old Eng. ofrther, ''Neither," Old Eng. naihor or ndOher. 
Ejaculate, e.jiW.u.late, to oiU out; ejac'nlat-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
ejao'iQat-iug, ejac'nlat-or; ejacalation,«^aA^u.2a|^'.«Mm, 
vociferation ; ejaculatory, e,juk"u.la.Vry» 
French ijciculer, Harulation, ijartUatoire, ijacuUUtmr. 
Latin ^ddUatio, ^ddildre 'ejddUo. to hurl out). 

Eject", to cast out ; eject'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), eject'-ing, eject'-or 
(Rule xxxvii.) ; ejection, ^.j^A''.«/iun; eject-ment (in Law), 
a writ to recover possession of land. 
Latin ejedio, ^edor, <fCcio, supine Rectum (e jaeio, to throw out). 

Eke (1 syl.), to add ; {noun), a piece adde i to a hive to hoist it 
and increase its capacity, (adverb) likewise; ekes, Bkz; 
eked (1 syl.), ek-ing (Rule xix.), t.hing. 
Old English ede, likewise ; edca, an addition : edcran], to eke. 

-el, -eel, (Latin ellW], belonging to, capable of: cru-el, belonging 
to the cru[d€], raw or fierce ; hot el, belonging to the hdte 
or host; genteel, belonging to the gentry [gens]. 

-el (Latin ell[us] diminutive), lih-el, a little book {Uber, a book). 

Elaborate, e.lub\o.rate (adj. and verb), highly finished, compli. 

caied. to bestow much labour on ; elab'orat-ed (R. xxxvi), 

elab'orat-ing (R. xix.) elaVorat-or, elab^'orate-ness (B. 

xvii.), elab'orate-ly; elaboration, elub'.o.ray'^^hun, 

Fr. ilaborer, ilaboratUm: Lat. eUUXMLtio, eldhOrdtor, eldbOrdrs (labor). 




AND OF SPELLING. 283 

Ellin &r Elame, e.lay'Xn (3 sjL, not eJUm^ nor e.lay',ine\ the 

liquid principle of oils and fSsits. Also written Olein and 

Oleinei, ot.eJin, The fatty princip'e is Stearine» gitM.ffn, 

*'Elftin," Greek tlaion^ oUve-ofl (elaia, the oMf-tttf^ 

"Okin," Latin dUum, oil with the tenniiuttion -int, which denotes a 

simple substance, as chlcrine. 
"Btearine," Greek $ti&r, taet, hard fat 
Bapie, e.lap8, to interrene, to pass away; elapsed, elapif; 
elaps'-ing (Role xix.) 
Latin elapHo, eldbor, inpine dapsum (« [ez] labor, to slip away). 
Elastic, e.Uis^.nk, resilient; ^lastical, e.la8\ti.kal ; elastical-Jy; 
elasticity, eMis\tU"8Uty^ resiliency. 
Vtench iUutiqiu, 4UutieiU; Greek elaund, to draw oat 
e.lat^, to pnflf np; elafed (Rale xxxvi.), elafed-ly, 
elaf-ing (Rule xix.); elation (not elasion), e.lay'akun 
(not a French word), joy and pride of snccess. 
Latin Odtio (</* [ez] fero, snf. e [ez] Idium, to carry ont [of oneself}). 
Elbow, iV.hoj the joint of the arm between the shoulder and 
wrist, a turn like the arm bent, to push or jostle ; 
Elbowed, ^VAode; ellx)w-ing; el1x)w-zoom, ample room. 
At yonr elbow, close at hand. 
Out at elbows, shabby, reduced in circumstances. 
Old Bng. Ainbogat the elbow {eln hoga, bow of the arm ; Lat «{iia). 
Elder, in^,d&r, a tree, a ruler of the Presbyterian church, a senior. 
Eld, old. Eld, an old person (noun); old, aged (a^/*) 
El'der, prior in years ; Older, more aged. 
Eldest, first bom ; Oldest, most aged. 
Elder and eldest have no relation to number of years, the 
eldest bom may or mny not have lived more years than 
the youngest. Thus "my youngest son is now twenty, 
his eldest brother, or my eldest son, died in infancy." 
Similarly : " his elder brother died in infancy," the num- 
ber of days or years that the child lived is beside the 
question. Elder and eldest refer to priority of years; 
older and oldest to duration. 
" Elder" [tree], corruption of EIUxt. Old Eng. eUam, the elder-tree. 
"Elder" (senior). Old Englisl) eald, old; eaUUr (an elderX yldra 
(comp. ). yldeste (super. > 

El Dtrado, el do,rdh\do or el do.ray\do, a eonntry of &bu1ou8 
wealth. The country which Orella'na, lieutenant of 
Pizarro pretended to have discovered in South America. 
Sptniih el dorado, the golden [oonntiy]. 
Bsesqipan^. iV^e.Hum\pain, the plant hSlSn'ium. So called, 
says Pliny 21, 83, because it is feigned to have sprung 
from Helen's tears. The French call it ceil de eheveU, 
Latin imiUa (for hilimtwm) campAna, Helen's beU-flower. 



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284 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Elect, e.Wtify to choose. Tlie elect, those who are chosen. 
mect'-ed (Kule xxxvi), elecf -ing, eleot'-or, fern, elect'ress, 

one who has a right of electing, one elected to rale in a 

German electorate ; elec't(»r-al. 
Election, e.Wc^shun; eleiBtioneer, e.l^\8hun-eer^, to use 

exertion to promote the lelection of an M.P., &c. 
Meo'tioiieer'-ing; elec^'tioBeer'-er, one who eleetioneers. 
X^eptive, e.lSk\%\v; elec'tive-ly ; electorate, e.Wtf .to.rate. 
Elite, a.leelf, tbe flower of society. {See Eligible;) 
French Election, ilecti/. ilfictoral, 4lectorat, ^Itcteur^ 4lectre89, iliU. 
Lfttin eUctiOf elector, eligo {e-lego, to pick out). 

Eleotricity, plu. el^ctricitiefl, e\lek.trW.i.Uz; elpc'tric or elec'- 
tricid {aclj.), elec'trical-'ly ; electrician, e\lek.t7i8h"\an, 
one skilled in th^ science of electricity; 

EydcAxity, e.Wi\tri.fy ; elB(Stp£i&Sf e.lek^.trlLfize; electrified, 
e.lek'.trtjide; elec'trifjr-ing (Rule xi.); eXectrifiable, 
e.lek'.tri,fi''\a.b*l; electrification, e.U¥ .tti.fi.kay'' ^hun ; 

iPectrige, $.Uk\trize; elec'trised (3 syl.), elec'triS-ing 
(R. xix.), elec'tris-er ; electrisation, e4l^\tn,zay'\8hun ; 
electrlB-able (these are French forms, Rule xxxl) 

Eleptrine, e.Uk.trin, pertaining to amber. 
Latin eUctrum, aonber ; -ine [-^.nwi), pertaining to. 

I^ectrpde, e.Uk'.trode, the direction of the electric stream. 
Greek iWctr^ and hddoa, the road or way [of t)ie electric stream]. 

Electrolysis, e\lek,troV\i.8XSy decomposition effected by elec- 
tricity, (Greek iUk^r^n and lusiSy dissolution.) 

Electrolyte* eMW.troAUe^ a sul^sta^^ce which can be decom- 
posed by electricity ; elec'trolyf ic 

Greek iUktrdn and luomai^ to ^ loosened or decompos^d. 

Electrophorus, e.Wc\triif\S,ru8 (not e.UW .tro.fo'^rut), an 
instrument for collecting or condensing electricity. 

Greek Hiktrdn and phdrgo, to convey or carry [electricity]. 

if^ctrofiQope, e.l'^'.trd.skopet an instrumeot for taking the 
existence, clwir^cter, and force of electricity; eleictio- 
Bcopic or electroscopical, eMk\tro.8k6p'\i.k&l (*<ij.) 

Gx«ek iU(hMi% and OciOpi&t to surtM^, to «zamlQ9 [fllectrioity]. , 

Eleptrotype, eJ^ Jrh.tipe, a deposited metallic impression 
obtained by eiectro-gahran'ism. 

Gre^ iWettijn tiJ^a, a type or image [obtained by eleotrlel^). 

EIectnun« better ejectr^, e-Wt'.trdnj a natural alloy. 

Electro-, -dien^stry, -rbiolpgy, -47n9ki^'ic8, -mag'netiflm, 
-metallurgy, rpl&'ti^gf 




AND OF SPELLING. 285 

Eleetrometer, e\l^.triM.e,t^, an instrament for measuring 
the tension or qu&ntity of electric fluid ; electnnnef ricaL 
Oreek iUthMn and tuitrdn^ a mttt^ or measure [of electrioityX 
French ilectrique, ileciriciU, 4lectri8<ible^ ilectrisation, iUctriser^ 
^Uctromitre, ilectrovhore^ iledroicope; Latin electrum; Greek iUc- 
tt&n, amber. ThAMs (b.o. 600) noticed tbe electrical ptopc^ of 
rubbed amber in attoactinfir small subetaaces. 

Electuary, plu. ^ectoaries, e.llikf,tu.a.riZf an opiate donfection. 

Latin eUetwjuriwm; Greek «& l&ieho, to Uck ap. 
EleemoBynary, eV.e.e.m88'\i.nerry (seven syllables, not six). 

Latin eUimosyndrims, eltfJiiRwynaria, an ahnouerr G^k iUUvnMmi, 
pity {Heed, to have pftty). 

Elegiotoe, U\e.ffance; eFegant, el^egant-ly ; eXeganoits (no 

sing.), ^\e.gan.8U, enibellishments. 
Fr. ildgance, Sldgemt ; Lat. eUgatu, eUfgantia {&'lego, to pick out). 
Elegy, phi. elegies, Sl'.e.giZy a fdneral or iiiournM song; ^egiac, 
SLe.jW&k (not el.l\ji.ak) ; eFegist, one who writes elegies. 
Elegise, ^\e.jize (Rule xxxii.), el'egised, eres^ing. 
Fr. 4Ugie, 4Ugiaque; Lat. ilggia, iUS^lOcuB (Gk. ^ggeia, iUg^ids). 
Element, eV .e.ment,ikn nncompotmded or simple body; ^'eitiental, 
pertaining to first principles ; elemen'tary, mdimentary. 
The elements (of Aristotle), fire, air, earth, a!fid water; (of 

alchemists) salt, sulphur, and mercury. 
Out of one's element, out of one's sphere. 
Freiftch ^I4meatt 4l4mmUUm Latin idAnentum, ^mentdriiu. 
Elemi, H\S.my (not e.Ue^my), a resinous substance brought from 
£thiopia; elemine, iv.e.mlnf the crystallised resin of 
elSmi sometimes used in lacquer. 
Freadi 4Umi: Italian, Spanish, &o., elmni. 
Elejdis&t^ (moZe) bull elephant, (fern.) oow elephant. 

Elephantine, iV.e,fdn"t'(n, rery large, pertaining to ele- 
phants; eleplumtoid, eV.eJdif.toid or eleplumtoidai, 
SV.e.fdn.toid\dlf having the form of an elephant. 
Elephantiasis, H\e,fdn.t%' ,a,^, a disease affectiiig the legs 

and feet which swell and look rough like an elephant'& 
French Sl^phant, ^l^pJiantiasis, elephantin; Latin eUphantidctis, 
eUphajUidHSf eUphantua; Greek ^^Aoa. 

Elevate, SV.e.vatey to raise up ; el'evat^ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
erevat-ing (Bule xix.), d^evat^>t, erevatory ; elevation, 
il\e.vay'\shunt height, exaltation. 
Fr«ich iUwr. ^UvcUion^ 4lSvaieur, ^Uvatoire; Latin eUMttiOf eUkwre 
(0 Ufvo, to raise from [a lower state]). 

Eleven, e.l^'.en (a irtimeral); eleventh, e.Wv'.eMh (an oirdinal), 
eleventh-ly {ado.) 
Old En^ish endUof, eleven ; en^Uyfla or erscU^fta, the eleventh. 



286 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Elf^ plu. elves (not elfsy. Nouns in 4/ make the plural by 

changing -/ into -«?««, as "elf" elves ^ "self* selves, 

•♦shelf" shelves^ "tsalf" calves, "half" halves, "wolf" 

wolves (Rule xxxviii ) 

Elfin, 'il\f\n; el'fish l-ish added to nouns mpans "like," 

added to adj. it is dim.); el'fiih-ly, erfish-nesB, elf-lock. 

Old English e2/, plu. elf as, tifen: French eHf and elfe, pla. effes. 

Elgin marbles, eLgin {-gin a& in " begin "), Greek sculptures in 

the Hiiti^b Museum collected bj Lord Elgin. 
Elicit, €.Vis*.it, to draw out; elicit-ed (Rule xxxvi.), elidt-ing; 
elicitation, e,lis\i,tay'\shun (not French). 
Latin elieUatio. elMo, rapine eUdUum (< [ex] lacio, to lure ont). 
Elide, eMde\ to •' strike out" a vowel or syllable; elid'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), elid'-ing (Rule zix,); elision, edizK.un. 
Fr. 4lider, ilision; Lat. «2Z«io, elidetw, tlldA, snp. dlsvkm (e [ex] Uado). 
EUgiUe, ^r.t\/t.&7, suitable, qualified ; eligibly; eligible-ness, 
tV\i.j\.b'l.nes8 ; eligibility, SVA.jiMV'd.ty, suitableness. 
French Eligible: Latin iligo (e [ex] Ugo, to pick out). 
Eliminate, e.limf.i.nate, to cHst out, to get rid of ; elim'inat-ed 
(liiile xxxvi.), elim^inat-ing (Rule xix.), elimination, 
e.lim' .i.nay" .shuTiy rejection, a getting rid of. 
French ilimination iliminer- Latin elimtn&tio, ellmindre (e [ex] 
limen, [to turn] out of doors). 

Elision, e.lizh'.un, {See Elide.) 

Elite, a.lee \ the " pick " of society, the best knen of the army. 

French 6liU; Latin dectus (e [ex] Itgo, to pick outX 
Elixir, e.Vx\ir, a compound tincture ; elix'ate, to extract by 
boilinj? ; elix'at-ed (Rule xxxvi.), elix'at-ing (Rule xix.); 
elixation, e'.lix.u^'^hun, decoction into tin<!tnre. 
Fr. &ixir (" elixation ** is not Fr.); Latin tUadr, elixdre, to seethe. 
Elizabethan, e.liz\a.beeth'\an, the style in vogue in the reign 

of Queen Elizabeth. (Chiefly applied to architecture,) 
Hk, a moose-deer. (Old Knglish elch,) 
£11, L, hell, eel, heel, heaL 

Ell, a measure of length ; L, one of the four liquids. 
Hell, the place of future torment. (Old English ?iell) 
Eel, iU (1 svl.), a fish. (Old English dl) 
Heel, part of the foot. (Old English hSL) 
Heal, hele (1 syl.), to cure. (Old English hd1[an'],) 
EUipee, plu. ellipses. el.Vlps' ,eLlip\8ez (not e.lips', an oval figure. 
Ellipsis, plu, ellipses, elMp'MSy <fec. (not e.lip'.sis, &e. ) 
Ellip'tic or ellip'tical, pertaining to an ellipse ; 
Ecliptic, ekMp',tik^ the apparent annual path of the sun. 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



AND OF SPELLING. 287 



Ellip'tical-ly (not t.l^\ti.kally). 

Ellipsoid, ellip'^oid, a solid fl^re formed by the reTolntion 

of an ellipse about its axis. (Gk. elleipsis eidos, ellipse-like.) 
EUipeoidiAl, eV.lips oi^'ddl, a^j. of ellipsoid. 
EUipsograph, el.lip'.8(hgraf, an instrument for describing 

a semi-ellipse. (Gk. elleipsis grapho, to describe.) 
French ellipse, ellips&itU, eUiptique, eVipticiU; Lattn ellipsU; Greek. 

iUeipsis, a defect (W leipOt to leave trahind). 

Elm (1 sjl., not ^rm), a tree. (Old English eZm; Latin ulmus.) 
EkxmtioiH W.o.hvf'.8hun, oratory; elocu'tion-ist, a teacher of 
elocution; elocutionary, eV,o.ku"^hun.a.ry ; 
Eloquent, iV.o.qu€nt; el'oquent-ly; eroquence, oratory. 
Freoch ilocution, Eloquence, Eloquent; Latin eldcutio, eldquium, 
eldqiteniia, elOquena, gea. ddquentis, v. dCqiwr, to spea^ otit. 
Elongate, e.lrm'.gate^ to extend ; elon'gat-ed (Rule Xxxvi.), 
^on'gat-ing; elongation, e' .ldn,gay'\shun. 
Ft. iUmgcUion (term in Agtron ), the angle at the earth made by a line 
drawn to the sun and some other pUnet ; Lat. elongare {lorigus). 

Elope, if.lo^e\ to r«in away with a man with the view of mwrrying 

him, without the consent of parents or guardians; 

eloped' (2 syL), elop'-ing (R. xix.) ; elopement. i.lope*mHt, 

Gernoan entlat^fen, to run away ; entlaufung, elopement. 

El'oquent, eroquent-ly; eroquence. (5«e Elocution.) 

Else (1 syl.), besides, otherwise, other person or thing; elsewhere. 

Old English dies, else ; elles-hvxer, elsewhere. 
Elucidate, e.lttM.daU, to make clear, to explain ; elu^cidat-ed, 
elu'cidat-ing, elu'cidat-or, elu'cidatory ; elucidation, 
e,lu\6i.day'\ihun ; elucidative, e.W.si.dayMv. 
French ihucidert iVuddaiion; Latin dttciddtio, elucidcbre (lux, light). 
Elude, e.ude', to evade, to escape; elud'-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
elud'-ing (Rule xix.), elud'-er, elud'-ible; 
Delude', to deceive, delud'-ed, delud'-ing, delud'<i«r. 
Elusion, e.lu'.shurit evasion. Delu'sion, deception. 
Elufflve, e.lu,'.8iVt evasive ; elu'sive-ly. Delu'sive, deceptive. 
Elusory, eM'j5.ryy unreal ; elu'sori-ness, unreality. 
Delusory, de,lir.sfi.ry^ tending to deceive ; delu'sori-ness. 
French 4lvder; Latin elttsio, eiudire, snp. «Zi2«tim<(fido, to p^ay). 
Elyan, eV.van (in mines}, a dyke of porphyritic rock (»>ossiDg or 

interfering with the metal. 
Elves, elvz, plu. of elf. {See Elf. ) 
Elystan, edlz',i.an (not e.lizh'.dn nor e.Uzh'.e.an). 

Elysium, e.Hz'.i.um (not e.lizh'.e.um), the abode of bliss. 

(The "y" shows the word to be of Greek origin,) 
Lat Elysiwn, elysius (adj. ) ; Gk. Slusion [lud, to loose [from the body]). 



288 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Em- (Latin in-, French and Greek en-), a prefix before -&, -p, or 
-m, and meaning in, into, on. 
Em- (Old Eng. prefix), meads " to mtake," " to collect into". 
(Mnch collision arises from the slipshod use of efri- and 
im-, but they are widely different in meaning. "£m-" 
(our native prefix) means to make, to collect into ; bat 
" Im-" is either the preposition in softened before b^p, and 
m, or else a negative joined to an adjective.) 

'em, a contraction of them, 

(Look tinder im- for words not inserted wider em-,) 

Emacerate oir macerate, e.mag'ie.rate (q,v.) 

EmLaciate, e.md8h\S.ate, to become thin, to lose flesh; 6miu$iftted, 
e.masK.e.d.ted (Rule xxxvi); emaciat-ing (Rule xix.); 
emaciaticm, e.masKXd'^shun, leanness. 
French 6mad6, imaciation; Latin emaci^e (e nuxeer, to make lean). 

Emanaite, em\a.nate (not eminate), to isdue from ; em'aASl-ted 
(Rule xxxvi.), eni'anat-ing; emanation, em\a.nay"^hun. 
fr. imaner, Emanation; Lat. emdndtio (0 m&n&re, to flow ont). 

Emancipate, e.mdn\8i.pate, to set at liberty; eman'cipat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.) ; eman'cipat-ing (R. xix.), eman'cipat-or ; 
emancipation, e.mdn' .si.pay^' .shiin ; emancipa'tiomst. 
Emancipist, e.mdn^si.pist, an Australian convict' who has 
regained his liberty and become a fifee man. 

French ivnoinciper, Emancipation; Latin eAidndpatio, emancipdre. 
Mandpi'UM is manu-aapio, taken in the hand aa a rigfatfal potaea- 
sion ; e-mancipium, is "delivered out of" the hand. In Some, a 
father freed his son thus : He first sold him to a stranger, where- 
npon he lost &Q. rights ov^r him, and the stranger had him as a 
"slave-chatteL" The stranger then mannmited hiih its he would 
any ordinary slave. Hence to emancipaie is "to give np posses- 
ion," but manumit is to "set free" (mant* mitUlre). 

Emasculate, e.mm' .ku.late, to unman ; emas'culat-ed, emas^cu- 
lat-ing, emas'culat-or; ema8Culation,«.7wa«'.A:w.iay".«/iwn. 
French im^jscaler, Emasculation; Latin emasdUator, emasc&ldre 
(e ffuu, [to remove] from the male kind). 

Embalm, eiruharmf, to fill a dead body with sj>ice8, &c.; 
embalmed, em,harmed* ; embalmifig, em.bwtm^.ing ; 
embalmer, em.harm\er; embalm'-ment. 
Fr. embommer, embawnefur, cTnibaumement ; Latin im [ht] balsdmum, 
[to put] balsams or balms in [a body]. 

Embank', to inclose or protect with a bank; embanked' (2 syl.), 

embank'-ing, embank'-ment. 
Old Ttn g Hah homc, a bank, and prefix em-, "to make** [a bank]. 
Embargo; plu. embargoes (Rule xlii.), em,bar^.goze, an order to 

prohibit a ship's leaving port or trading for a stated time, 




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AXD OF SPELLING . 

, ,- 



to put this restraint on a ship; ^nthar'goed <3 sjd.)' 
embar'go-iiig. {See Quarantine.) 
(Followed by on; "There is an embargo on..." "to put 
an eml^argo on..." iFrenob meitr.e emba/rgo xur. . .) 
i^igtadfiti mbargot y. embnurgq/r; Fsonob o»^EM»r0K>. 
EnbArk", to go or pot i>n board ^ip; ^aibarked' (2 syl.). 
eanbuik^'ing ; lerohaykation, em'.harJuiy''.aJmn. 
(There is no veoionwlvy the "k" should he changed to a 
in "eiHbarkation." ) 
French fifnbarquer, eTnibarquwuitU (" embarkation " is not French). 
Enilwmi^s, em.har'ra8 (double r and double s), ,to perplex; 
emhar'rasaed (3 syl.), emhar'rasB.-meiit. 
.French embarreu, ^m&arros^er QKntm, ft hai^. 
Embassy, plu. embusies, em'.hus^siz, the cbarge of an ambas- 
sador, an amoassador and his suite, an express message 
sent officially to a foreign nation ; em'bassage (3 syl.) 
(It is very inconsistent to spell "ambassador" with "a" 
and " embassy " with " e." See Amend, Bmendation.) 
Fr. ambasscuU, ambassador: Med. I^at. amba^sda; J^eltlc amhacf-,* 
minister ; in Italian both are spelt with a, but in Spanish with e. 
Embattle, emMt'.Vl, to put in battle array ; embattled, em.^ 
baf.t'ld; embattling, em,but'.tling; 
Embaftle-ment, an indented parapet; embaVtlement-ed 

or embat'tled, furnished with battlements. 
Fr. smibatailkr; Welsh hatel with sm-, "to oolleot into" Oaattleacray]. 
Shnbay', to enclose in a bay; embayed'' (2 syL), embay^'ing. 

Old English byge, a bay ; French bate, with em-, " to make." 
Embed', to lay in a bed of sand, earth, &c. ; embedd'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), embedd'-ing (Rule i.), embed'-ment. 
Old English bed or bced, with em-, " to collect into" [a bed]. 
ffjir^hft^ifth, em.hell' .ishj to beautify; embell'i^ed (3 syl.;, 
embell'ish-ing, embell'ish-ment, embell'ish-er. 
French em&eUir, em&e^/isseur, ernhellismnemb ; X4atin hellw^ "pretty," 
with em-, "to make" [pretty]. 
Ember days, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday of Ember weeks. 
Ember Weeks, corruption of German quateniher, a contrac 
tion of quafuor tem'pora (quaV- tempor^), four times [a 
year], Quadragesima Sunday, Whit Sunday, Holyrood 
Day in September, and St. Lucia's Day in December. 
Embers (no sing.), em'. her z^ ciuders or ashes still hot. 

Old English dmyriSy hot ashes. 
Embezzle, em.bcz\g% to pilfer; oimbezzled. enubez\z*ld; 
embezz'ling; embcz'zle-ment, embezzler. 
Norman emheasiler or besekrf to filch. 
Embitter,. em.6?t'.fer, to make bitter or sad; embittered, em.- 
bU\terd; embitter^ing. (Not iwWW^, seeEm-.) 
Old English UUr^ Utter, with em-, "to make" [bUterJ. 
T 



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290 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

1 • 

Emblazon, emMa^.zon (not em.hl(iz\on\ to make heraldic 
designs, to deck in gorgeous colours, to laud, to reveal ; 
embla'zoned (3 syl.), embla'zon-mg, embla'zon-er, 
embla^zon-ment, embl»'zon-ry. 
French hlaionner, hlaaon (German hlasen, to prodaiin br herald, who 
announced the coat armonr of each knight, hence cimed Uasonry). 

Emblem, &n\bUm, a type; emblematic or emblematical, 
im\bli.mdf\lk, ^m\hVi.mat'\i.kal ; emblematlcal-ly. 
Emblemise, em'.ble.mize, to represent emblematicallj ; 

em'blemised (3 syL), emni>lemi8-ing (Rule xiz.) 
French emblime, embUmatumt: Latin emblema; Greek emblima. 
(There it no such Qreek word aa emblemizo, Bole xxxiL) 

Embody, em.bddf.y^ to incorporate; embod'y-ing; embodied, 
ein.bdd\id (Rule xi.); embodl-men^ 
Old English bodig, a " body/' with em- " to collect into " [a body]. 
Embolden, emMwV .den, to make bold ; emboldened, em.bowV- 
dend; emboFden-ing, emboFden-er. 
Old English bdld, with e»»- "to make" [bold]. 
Embonpoint ( French), an.bo'n,pwoin\ in good plight. 
Emborder, em,bo7^.der, to adorn with a border (not emboarder); 
embor'dered (3 syl.), embor'der-ing. 
(''Border" should be bordure. It is not an agent.) 
Old English bord, a border; French bordure, with ent-, "to make." 
EmboBom, em.booz'.um (not em.bilz\um nor em.boze\um\ to sur- 
round with trees ; embos'omed (3 syl.), embos'om-ing. 
More correctly imbos'om, imbos'omed, imboa'oming. 
Old English bdsm, the bosom, with im- for in, [to hold] in the boflom. 
To " embosom" means to " collect into the bosom." or " to make a 
besom." A church is imbo»omed in trees, but children emhoaom. 
flowers ; i.e., collect them into their bosom. 

EmboBs', to omampnt with stamped patterns in relief; embossed' 

(2 syl.), emboss'-ing, emlK)S8'er, emboss'-ment. (Not im-.) 
French boase, a "knob" or "protuberance," with em-, "to make." 
Embouchure, em\boo.shure' (in French an\boo\shur'). (As the 

word is quite naturalised, it is mere affectation as well as 

wrong to call it arm- or anf-boo-shoor^.) The mouth of 

a river, the opening of a chimney, &c 
Embow (not inibow) (" bow" to rhyme with grow)y to make into 

a bow ; embowed' (2 syl.), embow' -ing. 
Old English bedh, anything made into a ring, henoe a "bow," with 

em-, " to make " [a bow or bay]. 
Embowel, errub^w'M (" bow" to rhyme with now), to take out the 

bowels ; embow'eled (3 syl.), embow'el-ing, embow'el-er, 

embow'el-ment, evisceration. 
An ill-formed word, from Latin t [to take] "out " and the French 

boel, a bowel Dtbotod (de privatiTe) would be better, for embowel 

can only mean " to put bowiils in," and not to " take them o%U." 




AND OF SPELLING. m 



Embower, emJ>M,er ("bow" to rhyme with now), to shelter 
with a bower; embow'ered (3 syl.), embow'er-iiig. 
Old English &t2r, "a bower/' with em-, "to make" [a bower]. 
Embrace" (2 syl.), to hug, to clasp in the arms; embraced' 
(2 syL), embrac'-ing (R. xii.), embrac'-er, embrace'-ment 
French mnbrasser, enCbraMemeid (Jbras, the arm, Latin IrdAihium). 
Embracery, em.brae€\e.ry, an attempt to bias a trial by bribery. 
LawLat. emtyraceator ; Law Fr. embrasour, one guilty of snhoraation. 
Embraanre, em.hr ay'.zhur, an opening in a wall designed for 
men to shoot through at persons outside. 
French tmlbraswre, v. embraaeTy to fire from. 
Embrocation, ein\bro.kay''.8hun, a fomentation, a lotion. 

Fr. em^ocaMon; Gk. em brScho, to foment (brgcho, to wet the surface). 
Embroider, em.broy\der, to ornament with needlework; em- 
broidered, em.hroy\derd ; embroy'der-ing,embroy'der-er, 
embroi'dery, ornamental needlework. 
French hroder, hroderU; Welsh brodio, to embroider; brodiog, em- 
broidered ; brodiad, embroidery. Em- "to make " [broderie]. 
Embroil (2 syl.), to involve in a quarrel; embroiled' (2 syl.),. 
embroil'-ing, embroil'-er, embroil'-ment, disturbance. 
Fr. embromUer, embrouUlement (JbrouilUr, to throw into confusion). 
Embrown', to make brown ; embrowned', embrown'-ing. 

Old English br&n, •' brown," with cm- " to make" [brown]. 
Embme, em.hruf (not imbrue), to stain with blood ; embru'-ing 

(Hule xix.); embrued, em.hrude\ (See Em-.) 
• Greek 6rd[to«], "gore," with em- " to make " [gory]. 

Embryo, plu. embryos, em'.hri.oze (Rule xlii,), the rudiments of 
organic bodies, a crude form, {adj.) rudimentary; em- 
bryonic, em\hri.6n'\iky relating to embryos ; embryology, 
em'.hriM".o.gy, the science which treats of embryos; 
embriologist, em' .hri.hV\o.gisU one skilled in embiiology, 
Greek embrHon Idgds, a discourse about embryos. 
Embryotomy, em\bri.ot'\o.my,& Cflesarian operation. 
Greek embr&on tdmS, a cutting out of an embryo or foetus. 
Em'bryo-sac, the cellular bag which contains an embryo. 
(This "y" shows that these words are from the Greek, but 
embryon would be more correct than " embryo," which is 
a phonetic spelling of the French word.) 
French, Spanish, Latin embryon; Italian embryone; Greek embriiifn. 
Emendation, e' .m^n.day'\8hun, correction of faults; emendator, 
e.m^n.da'.tor; emen'datory. 
Amend', to correct faults : amend'-ed ( R. xxxvi.), amend'-ing, 

amend'- ment, amend'-able, amen'datory. 
This double form of pre&z is to be regretted, the '*e"form is Latin, 
the "a" form French. A menda means "without fault" or 
" faultless ; " e menda means " purged of faults. " 
Latin emenddre, to purge of faults ; French amender, amendemeiU, 
ammdcMe. The Latin prefix is to be preferred. 



m tjinoas of speech 

'thnenlAf }Sm\e.ruld (n<n I^m'.^.r^T), ti preciotis'dtMie (greeB); 
Emerald Isle, Ireland, noted for its Terdore. 
C^k. smaragdds; Lat. nnaragdtu; Ital. ameratdo ; ^pm. esmardldo. 
Itmecge, e.merge\ to rise up to the surfaoe, to issue from ; 
Inuneige' or immeise' (2 syl.)> to plunge under water. 
Smeifgje', ^p^erged' (3 syL), eme];g'-ijDg (Bole xiz.X 

ennrag^ent, ^mer'gent-ly; emerg'-ence. 
Emer'genoy, plu. emeirgencieB, emer^.gensli (Bale xliv.), a 
special case unexpectedly "mergiBg out of ^' the usual 
routine, a pressing necessity (not immergtncy). 
Emeridon, e-irttf/^Aim, a rising out of water, A^; . 
InmevBion, a plunging into or under water. 
(••Emerge" Is followed by >Vo«tt. *' Immerge," "immflne,''bj4ft.) 
Fiasoh Emergent; JMin tmevgena, gen. "gentis, ArMryo, supine emer- 
8um (e nurgo, [to liael out from a plunge under water). 
Emeritus, e.me/rydvs (not «m.«.ri'.ttw), one pensioned off after 
long services. Grenerally applied to college professors. 
Xatin emiribwmt a pennon for ««rFice ; tmiritu$, (adj.) 
Emerods {'plu.), em^eshdz (ought to be hiHnorToidA), bloody piles. 
Gk haimorrtidM ^Utimorroid, bloody flux, ftatma rft^, to flow bloodX 
(In compound words ending with rhio, the " h" is dropped Thw 
Liddell and Scott very properly give the word aX^ppoux^ and not 
thoTicious form aXiiafiliOijgi., hamarrhodi.) 
Emersion, e,m^shun, {See Emerge.) 

Emery, em\e.ry, a hard mineral substance used fbr ^p<^hing 
metal wares. Emery paper, Emery elotb. 
French rftnm ; Latin smvris ; Gfeek smuris or »miri». 
The rocks of Emery, oap. of Nazos (Cydades), abound in this mineral 

Emetic, e.wHt'.lk, a provocative of vomiting ; emefically. 

French imitique: Latin vmiftious; Greek imio, to vomit. 
Emeute (French), a.mute\ a'riot, an uprising. (Latin emotut.) 
Emigrate, em'.i.grate (same as migrate), to leave one's native 
place to settle in another; emlgrSt^ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
em'igrat-ing (Rule xix) ; em'^igrant, one who emigrates; 
emigpration, em' .i.gray" ,8hun ; emlgn*&ter. 
French imigrer, Emigration, Smigrant; Latin emigrans, gen. emi- 
grantiM, emigrAtio, etnigrdre (e mijTro, to migrate fMm.) 

^Kninent, enCd.nent^ famous. Im'minent, threatening. 

Em'inence, celebrity. Im^^minence, an impending danger. 
Eminenoy, plu. eminenoies, em\i.n<6nxiz (Rule xliv.) 
Em'inent-ly, conspicuously. Im'minent-ly, menacingly. 
Your Eminence, the title of address given to cardinals. 
French Eminent, iminenoe; Latin em.imen$, gen.vmfn«nt<«, «mCiMiilMi 

(0 mineo, to hang out comapiouously). 
French imminent, <inmin«n«e; Latin imminenM, gML iimianinH$, 
iviiminentia {in mineo, to hang over menacingly). 



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SND OF SPELLING. HS^ 

Emir, I'.meef, a Turkish title* The descQQd&nta qI MMiome^ 

ate called eixiirB. C^abic cwiir, a commander.) 
Emissary, plu. emiflsaries, etn\H.$a,r^ (Ek lii?.)* ^ oecr^fe agent. 

Emiarioii, «.fii{#Xir.tm. (Slee EbiH.> 
Emit, «.fit{^, to discharge, to throw out. 1^'met, an ant. 

£mitf-ed (Kule zxxvi.)* evitt'-iog: (Hole i.); emission, 
e.mUK.un ; effi'lssary {q.v) 

French ifnettre, ^missiortt imissaire; Latin emiMdnnf. emiMio, 
emitto, supine emisavu (e mittOi to send forth). 

Emmet; em'.m^t, an ant. Emit, e.mU\ to discharge. 

Old English temete or wnutU, atmeUrhyUt an ant-hiU. 
Eiooltiate, t.m6V .li,ate, to soften; emoHiat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
emolliat-ing (Rule xix.>; emoUieat, ^m8l\U*ent; emol- 
UtiLen, H.mdlUsh'Mmf tiK» a^t of softening. 
PBcndi tfm«<2<mt; L«tini emolUmai, gsiu «iioUie7»(<«, Mi«2Iilio» emol^ 
Ure (moUio, to make soft, with « intensive). 
Emolument, e^moV.u.meutt (only oa« l\, profits stipend ; emolu- 
ment-al, e.m9V.u.min\tiil, 
French Emolument; Latin emdliUnentntn, profit arising from, g^iKt 
{emdl&re, to grind thoroughljr ; mdto, a mill). 

Emotion, e.mo^shun, excitement; emoilon-al, sensational. 

Fr. imotion; Lat. emdtio, 4m6o€0, sup. emotum {m^hxo, to move). 
Empale, em,pale' (not em-pail), to put to death by driving a 
stake through the body; empaled' (2 syl.), empaT-mg 
(Rule xix.), empal'-er, empale'-ment (Rule xviii. b). 
French empaler empalement ; Latin palum, a stake. Being French, 
•m^ is better than tho Latin prefix imr, (See Em-. ) 
Empannel. Should be impannel (q.v.) It means [to put] in 
the foU or parehmeat. (See Ihx^,} 
L«U» pmums, diotb of any sort : Greek pinost wit^ im*, "in." 
Emperor, fern, eiaprem, em\pi.ror, em'.press (not emperess). 
' Fren<db emperemr, impSvaiMoR; Latin impAiUar^ ii»pMt^rii», «. im- 
pgrare^ to cummaiul {im [in] paro, to provide for [getting ^ thing 
done], hence " to give orders, " to command.*' 

Emphasis, plu. emphases, eni'.fu.8Ut em\fd.8ee8, stress of Toiee 
on a word or syllable ; 
Emphasise,. em\fd.8ize ; em'phasised (3 syl.), em'phaj^b^ing 

(Rule xix.), em'phasls-er (Rule xxxiii) 
Emphatic, €m./a£'.{ft ; emphatical, em./at'.i. Ml; emphat'- 

icial-ly. (The -pk- points to a Greek source.) 
<7reek empMsia, emphdWcds; Lathi emphdHs, emphdHevts. 
There is no Oreek verb oovvespionding to empKoHse (BnJe xx^) 

Empire' (2 ayl.)> eHL^peiror, fewt, empvess, but imperial . impe- 
iiftl4y; iiape'rioiia, inpe'Tioafl-ly, Impe'iioiuhBeas. 
JjKbhtimpgriMn, ianpirdtor^ Hm^ iimpfrqiirUt ; Fireoah <m£<r^ §mpe^ 
rewr, impiratrio^ vnp&nmL 



294 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Empiiic, em\tli.rik (onght to be em.pi'.rik), a qnack; emidiical, 

em.pir^ri.kal, tentatiYe, unscientific; empir^ical-ly ; 

empiricism, em.pi'/ri.mm. 

French empirique, empiriamt; Latin empfries, emjHHeiw; Greek 

empeirlkSs, empeiria, experience<em [en] i^ro^, to try on [someone]). 

Emplead, em,'pleed\ to indict, to charge with a crime. 

Ft. plaid, Lat. pUuXtwny a "plea,** with em-, **to make" [a plea]. 
Employ', to kei p at work, to use ; employed' (2 syl.), employ'- 
ing (Rule xiii), employ'-ment ; employ'-er, one who 
employs another; employee, em.ploy'.ee, or employ6 
(French), an.ploH,yd, one employed by another. 
French employer, emploi ; Latin im [in] plico, to fold in. 
This word onght to be spelt with im-, bat we have taken It with ita 
faulty speUuig from the French. 

Emporium, plu. emxmria, or emp<»ium8, a plaee of trade. 

Lat emporiwn, an entrepOt (Gk. emp&ria, traffic, empSrds, a merchantX 
Empower, em,pow\er ("-pow-" to rhyme with now), to authorise; 
empow'ered (3 syl.), empow'er-ing. 
French pouvair, "power,** with em-, "to gire to one** [power]. 
Empress /em. o/ emperor, em'.press, em'.pesor; em'pire (2 syl.), 
but imperial, im.pe\ri.al ; impe'riaMy; imperious, 
im.pe'.ri.us; impe'rious-ly, impe'rious-ness. 
French empire, empereur, imp^ratriee, imperial. 
Empty, plu. empties, em\ty, em'.tlz, void, to exhaust of con- 
tents ; emptied, em'. ted ; emp'ti-ness (R. xi.), emp'ty-ing. 
Old English cemti or emtig, y. cemt[ian] or cemti^an}. 
Empyema, em'.pi.e^jmah, a collection of purulent matter in the 
cavity of the chest. 
Fr. empyime; Lat. empj^ma; Gk. empu6ma (<ni [en] pnon, posX 
Empyrean, em.pi-reef .an (not em.pir^ri.an), the highest heaven, 
supposed by Ptolemy to be pure elemental fire. 
Empyreal, em.pir're.al (ought to be em\pi.ree\dl), 
Lat. empyneus; Gk. empilri6a[owrdn6a\,i.e.em[en\pur,mtAeottTe. 
Empyreuma, em'.pi.roo'.mah, the smell which rises from or- 
ganic substances burnt in close vessels ; empyreumatio, 
em'.pi.ru.Tnaf'.lk ; empyreumat'icaL 
Yt.empyreume, empyrewnatiqiu; Gk. empilreud»t08etonflre(pifr,flreX 
Emu or emeu, ^jnu, the ostrich of Australia. 

Emulate, em'u.late, to vie with; em'ulat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
em'ulat-ing (Rule xix.), em'ulat-or; emulation, em'.u.- 
lay"jihun; emulative, em\u.la.tiv; emulative-ly. 
Emulous, em'.u.lus ; em'ulous-ly. em'ulous-ness. 
French imulation; Latin cemHUUio, ctnv&ldtor, CBmOXua, t. cokOMH, 



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AND OF SPELLING, 205 



which supply hlood to the kidneys, where the ancients 
thought it was milked or strained. 
Fr. iriMUgmty inwXaion, imuM^j Lat. emuZgSre (mulgeo, to milk). 
En- (a French form of the Anglo-Saxon em-), signifying " to 
make," "to collect;" it stands before any letter except 
6, p, and m. {See Em-.) 
En- (a Greek and French form corresponding to the Latin in-), 
sometimes it is intensive, and sometimes means in or 
into. It should never be attached to Latin words, 
except they come through the French. 
-en (aflBxed to nouns). Latin -en[i«], 'an\us\, " one of," " one 

belonging to ": citiz-en. 
-en (affixed to verbs), denotes causation, " to make :" as /att-«n, 

sweet-en^ length-en, short-en, 
-en (affixed to adj.), means "made of": gold-en, lead-en. It is 
also the affix of the past part, of "strong" verbs, as 
" rise," risen ; ** break,** broken. 
Enable, en,a'.Vl, to make able; enabled, en,a',b'ld; enaHjHng. 

Latin hdUlis, " able," with «•- "to make" [able]. 
Enact, en,acf (not e,nac1f) to decree, to pass into law ; enact'-ed 
(R. xxxvi.) ; enact'-ing, enact'-or (R. xxxvii.); enao- 
tive, en.oc'.tit; ; enacf-ment, a measure made into law. 
Lat. acta, ** legal acts or decrees," with en- " to make " [an act or law. ] 
Enamel, en.dm'M, a hard glossy surface resembling crystal, to 
coat with enamel; enam'elled (8 syl.), enam'ell-ed 
(Rule i.), emam'ell-er. 
French imaU, a composition made of calcined glass, &c., with en-. 
Enamour, ^,am\er, to charm ; enam'onred (3 syl.), enam'onr-ing. 

French amour, " love," with «»-, ** to make " or create [love]. 
Enarthrosis, Sn',ar,Thrd*\si8, the insertion of one bone into 
another, so as to make a ball and-socket joint. 
Fr. &narthro8e ; Gk. arthrGn, ** a socket-Joint," with en- " to make." 
Encage (2 syL), to coop in a cage; encaged' (2 syl.) encag'-ing 
(R. xix.) Better incage, to shut up in a cage. (Fr. cage.) 
Encamp^ to pitch tents, to dwell in tents; encamped, en.camp1f; 
encamp'-ing, encamp'-ment. 
Latin cawijww, "a tent," "a camp," with en-, "to make" [a camp]. 
Encase' (3 syl.), to put into a case, to enclose ; encased' (2 syl.), 
encas-ing. * Incase-ment, a putting into a case or cases. 
French encaisser {en caisse). Not incase, as it is a French word. 
Encaustic, en.kaxis* ,t\k, a method of painting with wax burnt 
in with hot iron {adj,), as encaustic tiles. 
French encaustique; Latin eTicatutXcus, encausUce; Greek egkau8tik4 
(eg [en] kaid, to burn into). 



296 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



EncAYe' (2 syl.), to hidte in a cave; ert(Jtttrfe!d' (S syl.), eflCav'-ing 
(Riile xix.), encaVe'-ment. (Better ikboDe, bein^ Latin.) 
Lfttiii e<ivird, A ekve, ^td^ tlie Latitf pitefii'fn- dbl tlie :^iich ^. 
-ence df -ehc;^ (Ltttiti -eMfici) added to ati^ti'&ct verbal nbtttts: as 

e'liceU-eme, excelZ-elicy. 
-enoe forms the termination of between 20k) and' 300' words, but 
there are not above half.a-dozeil end-ing in -eilse : as dm- 
densct immense, dhpense, etrpense, prepiewfe, and recom- 
p^ense (Rtde xxvi.) 
Enceinte (French) ah*n.8ainf {-rit nasal, but not an^^angt). 
Encephalon, en.8^f,adon, the brain, the contents of the cranimn. 
Encephala {plu.)y eh,8ef',a.lah, limpets and other molluscs 

with a distinct head ; encephalous, en.sSf.a.lu8 (adj.) 
EnoephaHOy enf^.faV'Xk (not en.8ef\aMk)t belonging to 

the brain. 
Encephalgia, en'.8S.fal''JiMhy chronic pain of ike head. 
Encei^iaHtis, enf-8^f-a.Uf\tis^ inflammation 6f the^ brain 

{-itiSf Greek termination, denotes inflammation). 
Encephaloid, ena^'ad&id, res^nbling the materit^ of the 

brain. (Greek eglcepkulSs eidSSf brain-like.) 
Freudl emSpkcOff; Gredk e^hi^^ldsitg [en] Upk9U, in tktf oraninm). 
Et]((ih&in% to bind with chdins ; encha/hied' (2 syll), dnchaln'-ing, 
ekichain^-menit. (Not in-, being French. ) 
French enChainer (dftattie, Latin catena, V. cdtindte, to chain). 
Enchant^, to charm, to fascinate, to bewitch ; eiichanf -ed 
R. xxxvi.); ettchanf-ing- en«bfitoring-Iy, dtelightfully ; 
enduEBt^-er, fern, eaehant'reB»; enebaiit'-meni. 
(Not in-, being from the French. ) 
French enchanter, enchanteur,. fern, enchanteresee, encfumtment; 
Latin incantdre, incantdtor^ incantamentum. 

Enchase' (2 syL)," to set in a frame, to adorn with embossed 
work; enchased^ (2 syl.), eilchas'-ing. (Noc in-, being Fr.) 
French Ofichdaser {chassis, a frame ; Latin capsa, aboi, V. eapio). 
Enchiridion or enchiridium, plu. enchiridia, en\ki.rid'\i.Sn (or 
-ttTW), en\ki.rW\i.ah, a manual. 
French enchiridion; Greek enchlridUm : Latin cnchtTidium (en cheir 
fwBat: can be held] fa the hand). 
EnchOTiikl, eruJtd'.riMl, applied to the ordinary writing of lie 
ancient Egyptians. The ssered writing was is hiero- 
glyphiOB, M-e.ro,gV^'Jilu, 
Greek e0ch&Hds, domestic icMros, a distrioft, a place). 
Encrrde, ense/.k% to snrronnd;. e&oiroled, eti.9er^ Jt'ld ; en- 
oiic^g, en^er^Mmg, 
Old Eng. circol or d/rcul ; Fr. eerefe. With tn- to make [a c&nfle]. 



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AND OF SPELLING. TffT 

EnditSo; mJc&fJffc, a word joined to another so dodriy ae^ tcf 
86&Q. a pai^ thereof: as ** prithee," where Idie pronoun 
thee is thrown ov/ tine verb pray; '^wUly mlly," where 
the premoan ye is joined to the ver4)s totZl and mll^will 
not. Other eaaTOples are im% 8ha'n% vroWt, mue'n't. 
French enclitique; Latin encHtleva; Greek egMtt1S:ds (e(f[vh] hlin6, 
to' lean) on another). 
Enelose, m^Moae';, enoloiedT (3 syL), eDcloB<-ing (Bule xiz.)^ 
Enclosmey enMld'.zhiir, envelopmeiit, as- th)e " enclosure " 
of letters in envelopes saves much trouble ;, that which is 
enclosed, as your letter with its *' enclosure " came to 
hand this morning; that which encloses, as an envelope 
is the " enclosure " of a letter. 
F^nch elo8. (Lathi claudOy to shut np ; Old English elwai, dose). 
Encomiiim, plu, enoomittms (veiy rarely encomia), enM'.miMmz 
(en.kd.mLah), high praise; eB!eo^niiaet ; encomiastic, 
e>nM'miMs'\ttk ; encomias'tioal, encomias^tical-ly. 
Latin enei^iaJs^, «n«dmuuticit5. eHcdmiwn^ pin. encomta; Greek 
egkdmion, pin. egkdmia, egkdmXds {kdrnda, a revel) in honour of 
[Bacchus^ en MmAa, a hymn to the tlotor in a [Bacchic] rerel, 
hence a eulogy or panegyric. 
Enoom'pass, en,kum\pas (not incom'pass)^ to surround ; encom- 
passed, en.kum\past ; encompass-ing, en,kum\pd8,ing. 
French en compasser, to compass-in [on aU sides]. 
Encore, ong.kore* (not en.kore'% a call for a repetition, to demand 
a» repetition ; encored, oft^.Jbord^* enoov'-ing (Rule xix.) 
l^£is is one of the I^ench words quite perverted in our language. 
What we call " encore," is hU in French, and e7u:ore in French 
vH^Mi&yet, still (adv. a continuation), as il n*est pas encore venu, 
he is not yet come ; f attends encore, I am stiH waiting ; je ne 
Vcettends pas efncwe^ I do not expect him yeti 
Encounter, en,kotm\ter, a ehance meeting, a combat, to meet 
unexpectedly, to meet in a hostile manner ; encountered, 
en.koun\terd ; enconn'ter-ing. 
French encontre (en contre, in contrary [directions], in oppositionX 
^courage, enMfrage^ to embolden; enoonr'aged (3 syl.); 
enconr'ag-ing (R. xix.), enconr'age-ment (only five words 
drop the -e before inent, viz. acknowledg-ment, abridg-ment^ 
lodg-menty jvdg-menty and wrgu^menty Rule xviii., IT). 
French eneowrager, eneowragement. ()3ee COnnuge.) 
Ikcrinite, en^kriiMtCf the stone-lily, and other similar fossils ; 
encrinific, en'.kii.mtfWk^ (a<l^») or mi'o!ri(iiit''aL 
(^rlnoidean, phi, crinoideanB, tsinoideay kri.noV.d^.an, 
hrunoV M.aaiz, kti.noi\deMh, fossils having a lily-shaped* 
diso supported on a jointed stem ; they are — 
Encrinites, en'kri.nites, when the stem is cylindrical ; and 
FentacriniteB, pen'-ta^kH.mtes, when it is pentag'onalv 
Qttels. *t«rMWi, pIUw hHM^, "a ffly," with -ite f«f litkw a stone, and 
the prefix &^ *' t^ mikt into " [» Bly s«ob0]. -wd ii' ^idoe, like. 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Encroach'' (3 syl.), to intrade npon another's rights (followed 
by on or upon); encroached' (2 syl.), ^uxoach'-ing, 
encroach'ing-ly, encroach'-er, encroach''-ment. 
French acerocher, to hook on [something] [eroCt a hookX The French 
prefix is preferable, and -eroocfc is a Teiy vidoiu form of ** crook." 
Low Latin eMTOchamenium. 

Encmst (should be incmst, Latin inenutare, French incnuter). 
Encmnher, en.kiim'.ber, to burden, to clog; encnmliered (3 syL), 
encumlier-ing, encnm'hering-ly, encnm'ber-er. 
Encnmhrance, en.kurnf.hmnse (not encumber-cmce), 
Encnmbrancer, en.kum'.bran.8er. 
French enoombrer; Latin incumbire, to lie upon. 
Encyclical, en^W.li.kal, sent round, as the Pope's encyclical 
letter, the letter " sent round " to all his bishops. 

French encyclique; Latin encyelitu (The -y- shows it to be Greek). 
Greek egkuklids, circular {eg [en] kukladf to move in a circle). 

Encyclopedia, encyclopaddia, cyclopaddia, cyclopedia, eiuy'- 
klo.pee'^-di-ah, sy'-klo.pee'^-di'dhy an alphabetical sum- 
mary of every branch of knowledge; ency'dope'dian 
(adj.) or ency'clope'dical; encyclope'dist, one who com- 
piles an encyclopedia, one who aids in such a compila- 
tion; encyclopedism, en.8i'.klo.peei".dizm. 

The better form is without the prefix en-; the word is then Greek 
kuklds paideia, a round of instruction. *' Encyclopaedia " means 
*'eDcycUcaI instructioo," or instruction sent round like a circolar 
^eg [en] kuklioa, revolving, going in succession, periodical). The 
idea is " a book or number of books containing the whole range or 
round of knowledge," and not an " encyclical dictionary of in^mo- 
tion." It is not sent round like a circular at aU. 

Encysf (not incyst. It is Greek not Latin), to enclose in a 
cyst; encyst'-ed (Rule xxxyi.)i encysf-ing, enclosed in 
a cyst, consisting of cysts. 
Insist, insist'-ed, insisf-ing, to urge with authority. 

'* Encyst," Greek en bustis, a bag or pouch (the -y- shows it is GreekX 
" Insist." Latin in sisto, to make a set stand on [what you say]. 

-end (an Anglo-Saxon termination of masculine nouns), denotes 
" an agent." Surviving examples very rare. 

-end. Old English ende, Latin end[u8], termination of active 
participles, as rever-endf Latin rever-endua, to be revered. 

End, the finish, to finish ; end'-ed (R. xxxvi.). end^-ing ; end'-lesB, 
without end ; endless-ly, endless-ness ; end'wise (not 
endwaySf German weisCf Old English toiSf direction). 
The be-all and end-all, the only state of being and its 

entire termination. 
Old English ende, v. end[ian], past endede, past part ended, eitdUat, 
endless ; endUaslice, endlessly ; endlecunes, endlessness ; endfndit, 
endmost ; endung, an ending ; endwiee, endwise. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 203 

Eodanuige, en.dSm'.ag€, to injure; endam'aged (3 sjl.), en- 
dom^ag-ing (Rule xix.), endam'age-ment (Role zviii., IF). 

Old EngUsh dCTR ; Latin damnum, "hiurt," with ei»-. ''to make or 
eonfer** [injury]; Ytenoh endowunciQt. 

BndAnger, enMain\jir, to expose to danger; endan'gered 
(3 sjL), endan'ger-ing, endan'ger-ment. 
French danger^ with en-, "to make or put into" [danger]. 
Endear, en.dere!', to make dear ; endeared" (2 syl.)* endefur^-ing, 
endear^ing-ly ; endeared-neas, eH.dea'/,ed,nes8 (R. xxxvi. ) ; 
endear'-ment {-ment, the *' cause of," 'Hbe state of "), that 
which produces fondness, the state of being dear. 
Old EngliBh dedr, "dear, helored," with m-, "to make" [dear]. 
Endeavour, enAh/^or^ an e^ort, to use effort, to attempt; 
endeavoured, en.dev'.ord ; endeav^our-ing. 
Ft. dewoir, "duty,** with en-, "to niake ;** i.e., faire devoir, to attempt. 
Endemic, en,dim\\k [disease], a local [disease]. 

French enddmiqne ; Greek endimdt, in the place, at home, t. en- 
demio, to live in a place. In Oreek the -de- is long. 

Endermic, [medicine] to be applied to the skin. 

Greek en derma [to be used] on the tkia. 

Endive, en\div, a vegetable. (Fr. endive, Lat. intyhus or intitbum, 

Endane" (2 syl.), to write on the back of a document; endorsed 
(2 syL), endora'-lng (Rule xix.), endors'-er, the person 
who writes bis name on the back of a bill, and makes 
himself liable for its payment ; endorsee, the person to 
whom the bill is assigned or delivered ; endorse^-ment. 

French endos, endosser, endoeeement, endosseur {doe, Lat dastum or 
dortum, the back, [to write] on the back). 



en\do.jenZt plants like palms, grasses, and rushes, 
whose growth takes place from within, and not by ex- 
ternal conce'ntric layers ; endogenous, en.d^\e.nu8 (acy.) 
Greek endon gend, to produce within. 
Endogenite, en.dof .e.nite, a fossil palm, rush, <fec. 
Greek endon gend, with -ite; that is, UtJhos, a stone or fossH. 
Endophloeum, en^dSlfleg^.umy the inner bark. 
Greek enddn phloids, the inside harlc 

Endophyllous, en.d6f' XlMs, evolved within a leaf or sheath. 
Greek mdOn, phuUdn, within the leaf. (Should he en. dd.fiV. lua. > 
Endopleura, en\do.plu'\rah, the inner covering of seed. 
Greek enddn pleura, the inner side [of the seed sheath]. 
Endorhizal, enf-do.ri".zdl, applied to those rootlets which 
burst through the coverings of the seed before they elon- 
gate downwards. (Better without A, being a comp. word.) 
Greek enddn rMxa, root within [the seed]. (See Emerods, note.) 



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300 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

]&ildoBiii(M0, efi*,d^.mo8et the transmission of- gase^tfco., to 

t&e interior of porous substances. 
Iboamosei e»'JSs.mose\ the transmissioii: of ga&esv Acl, to the 

exterior of porous substances. 
Gk. Sndihi 6sM&$, iutpultion iniMwdff; ex dsmor^ imptLkion ootMavdl. 
Endosperm, en',d^.8perm, albu'men of seectet^ 
Greek efudJSn fperma, wttlkui tb» 8p«nnr or embry^-mci. 
Endosporous, en\d9.spo'\nis, applied to those fungltwiticll 

have their spores (1 syL); contained in a case. 
Greek enddn spdra, sporet [contained] in [& cam]. 
Endbstome, en'.doMom, the passage through the inner 
integument of an ovule (j^ syL) {ttSma^ a mouth). 
-endoiM (Latin termination' -endut^f "calculated to produce": aa 
trem-endous, "calculated ta produce trembling or tremour." 
Endiyv, etudow' (-d5w to rhyme with now), to settle a permanent 
fund on [an inBtitmioB]^ to furnish; endowed' (2 syL), 
endew'-ing; endow' -ment, a fund settled on [an institu- 
tion], talents ; endoV-ei!, one who endows. (See Endue.) 
Norm, tndou^; Ft. doner; Lat. dos, "a dowry, ''with en- "tomake." 
Endue, en.du\ to invest ; endued' (3. syl.), endu'-ing,. R. xix. 
(Gk. form). Indue, indued', indu'-ing, R. xix. (Lat. form.) 
Greek endvA) ; Latin induo, to put on [clothes]. 
Endure' (12 syl.), to bear, to suffer ; endured' (2 syl.), end3T'-i»g, 
endiir'ing-ly, endur'-er, endur'-able (Ist Latin coig.), 
endur'able-ness, endnr'a/bly, endlur'ance'; but 
Indurate, in'.du,ratey to harden; In'durat-ed, in'dnri,t-ing; 

induration, tn'.du.ray^\shun. 
Fr. endurer: Lat. indurcUio, indurSre to grow hardened (dwrus, hard . 
Eneid, better iBneid, e.nee'.ld (not ^.n^.id), Virgil's epic poem 
about iEneas {E. nee'. as). 
-id (a patronymic), "pertaining to,** "concerning* [JBneasJ. 
Enema, e.nee^mah (not en\^.7nak), a clyster, an instrument used 
for medical injections. 
This woitl, being the Greek en MSwi, " to send fnto,** ought to be 
enAtfMO, according to our English custom of forming such words. 
Enemy, plu, enemies, en^.mlZy a foe ; en'mity, j?Zi^ enmities. 
Inimical, in.im\i.kdl, hostile ; inim'ieal^Iy. 
French ettnetx/f Onrreng) ; Latin infmlceuA, inimidUia, inXnOce. Our 
word enemy is bad, and the French word worse. As emy means " a 
friend" (Latin amicus), "en emy" shouMmean "to make a friend,** 
ttie Latin in- (negative) amicus (not a friend) is consistent. 
Energy, plu. tJH&tfpM^ en'.er.giz (Rule xliv.), vigorous effort; 
enfiiirgetio^ en\er.j^1f'Ak ; energetical, en\er^e1f\i.kal. 
Energise, en'.er.gize, to infuse vigour into; eK'ergised, 

en'er|^te4iig (Rule xix.) 
l^r. emergie, dnergique; Lat dttertfitt; Git. ^gon, work. (See B. xxzi) 




AND OF SPELLiyC. flOt 

'ShMvvttfte, ^jer.vaU (not e^nxr^^vaie^^ to enfeeble ; eii'«iTa,t-ed 
(Rule zxim.), en^enrat^iag (iBule 3px0, ^•nervation, 
in'.erA3a,y*'jh'mk; en'ervator (Rule ixxvii,) 
VreDoh 6nervtr, Enervation; Latin enervaiio, enervdtor, tuervdre 
Cenennu, to deprive of nerve). 

Enfeeble, en.fee\b% to weaken; enfeebled, en,fee\h*ld; en- 

feelbling, enfeeble-ment, en.feeWl.ment. 
French affaiblir, affaiblissement ; faible, older fonn/oiRte, **^fe«(ble," 

with en- " to miJce *' (feeble]. 
-Enfeoff, en,fef (by lawyers), en.feer (by othera), to invest ^th 

a fee or fief; enifeo£Eed'(2 8yl.),enfeQif fi^, enfeoff'-ment, 

the deed wbicb conveys a fee or fief. 
French ^^f/ Low L»tin /eodwm, a fee or teot[,feoffamentum, a feofT- 

ment, feoffdtor, a feoflFer, feoffdtus, a feoffee. Our word is feodum, 

** a fee or feoff," with en- " to convey " |a fee]. . 

Enfilade, en'.ftlSde^ to rake with sbot or -ebell lengthwise ; 
enfilad^-ed (Rule xxxvi.), enfilad'-ii^ (Rule xix. ) 
irraneh «%/Mad«, v. «?v^ter; Latin Jilwa^ "a thread or line," with 
en- " to make" [a line with shot and shell]. 

Enforce' (2 syl.), to constrain; enforced' (2 syl.), enforc'-ing 
(Rule xix.), enforc'-er, enforce'-ment, ei]ibrce'->able. 
French /orcer, force, with en- " to make or impart" E'oroe]. 
^Enfranchise, en,frcm\chiz, to invest with civil and political 
rights, to liberate ; enfran'ohised (3 syl.), enftan'cl^-ing 
(Rule xix.), enfran'chis-eT, enfran'ehlse-ment (R. xviii.) 
French affranchir, affranchissemerU ; Low Latin franchesia, fran- 
chisdtus {fra/neu» " free," with et*- " to make " [free]). 

Engage, en.gdje\ to occupy; engaged' (2 «yl.), occupied, 
bespoke in a dance, promised in marriage ; engag-ing, 
en.gdje.ing (Rule xix.); engft'ging-ly, engage'-ment 
(Rule xviii.); engaged-ness, cn.gdje' .ed.ness (Rule xxxvi.) 
French engager, efttgagement ; Old English weed, "a i^edge," with 
en- '*to make" (a pledge] ; Latin vdd4m6niwm. 

Engarrison, en.gar^rUson (a corruption ofengamison), to put into 
garrison, to furnish with garrison ; engar'risoned (4 syl.), 
engar'rison-ing (double r). 
French and German gamison, a "garrison," with en-, "to make," 
• * to supply with " [a garrison] ; Low Lat. gamisio ; Dutch wawrison ; 
Anglo-Saxon w<kr, an enclosure, v. wdrnwn, to ward or guard. 

Engender, en.j(6n\der, to form, to produce: as Mete&rs are en- 
gendered in the atmosphere ; angry words engender strife. 
Engendered, en.jen'.derd; engen'der-ing, engen'der-er. 
Fr. engendrer; Lat, gen^e, supine, ginitum, to beget : Gk. g^no, 
eg [en] gigndmai or eg [exilginomai, to be produced in [something]. 

Engine, en^jln, a machine composed of several parts ; engineer, 
en^.gLneer^y a maker of engines, one whose vocation is the 
eonstmction of roods, forts, docks. &c. Military en- 
gineer, one employed on military works ; Civil engineer. 



502 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

one employed on works not of a military character; en'- 

gineer'ing, the business of an engineer. 
Engine-man, en'-jlrtJirum^ one who works an engine ; 
Jinny, contraction of engine^ with -y, diminutive, a little 

engine ; as a spinning jinny. 
French inginiewr, ginie, engin; liatin inginium, a contrivance. 
Engird', past engird'-ed, past part, engirt [or engirded], to gird. 
Old Eng. gvrdian], past, gyrdde^ p. p. gyrded, with en- for enib-, about. 
English, In\glish, pertaining to England {Ingland), the language. 
The English, the people of England. 
An Englishman, p2u. Englishmen. "Englishmen" is the 

definite plu., as 2, 3, 4, &c., Englishmen, but The English 

is the indefinite plu. (Rule xlvi, IT). 
An English-woman, plu. English-women. 
Anglecise, an\gle.size, to make English, to convert to the 

form and character of English words, &c.; ang^edaed, 

an'.gle.sizd; an'glecis-ing (Rule xix.) ; 

Aaglicism, an'.gle.cizmy an English idiom. 

AngUce, an\gU.se (adv.), in English. 

Anglican, an'.gli.kan (acy.), English : as the Anglican Church. 

Old English Engliac, Englisc-man, Ertgla-land, Angol, one who lived in 
Anglen. It is a pity that the initial A- has been substituted for 
E- in these latter words, as it dograatises on a doubtful question. 

Engorge' (2 syl.), to swallow greedily; engorged' (2 syL), en- 
gorg'-ing (Rule xix.), engorge'-ment (Rule xviii.) 
French gorger, to gorge; Latin gurges, a glutton, gurgHlio, the 
windpipe. En gorge means [to put] into the gorge or throat 

Engraft', better engrafE^ to insert a part of one tree into another; 
engraft'-ed, better engraffed' (2 syl.), engraft'-ing, better 
engrafif-ing, engraft'-ment, better engraff-ment, en- 
graft-er better engraff-er. 
French en gr^er, greffeuVy greffe (Greek graphd, to scratch). Applied 
originally to budding. "Greffe," being French, the prefix en- is 
better than the Latin prefix in-. 

Engrain' (2 syl.), to dye deeply, to dye in grain; engrained' 
(2 syl.), engrain'-ing, engrain'-er. 
French en grhieler, to grain leather, grener, to grain : Latin granum, 
the coccus or scarlet dye, hence tiie phrase : A knave in grain, a 
knave though dressed in scarlet. 

Engrave, past, engraved, past. part, engraved or engraven ; 

Engrave' (2 syl.), to cut characters or drawings on metal, 
stone, or wood ; engraved' (2 syl.), engrav'-ing (R. xix.), 
engrav'en, engrav'.er. An engraving, a design engraved. 

Ghalcography, kal.k8g'.ra.fy, engraving on copper. 

Greek ehalkoi graphd, to write on brass or copper. 




AND OF SPELLING. 



Glyptography, glip'.tSg.ra.fy, eDgraving on precious stones. 
Qreek gluptd$ grapM, to wtite on a precious stone. 

lithography, K.T/i(J/.ra./y, engraving on stone. (Gk. lithds.) 

Xylography, xy,l6g\ra,fy^ engraving on wood. (Gk. xul&n.) 

Zincography, zin.kog\ra.fy, engraving on zinc. 

Aquatinta, a'-kwa.tln'-taht engraving to resemble Indian 
ink drawiDga. (Aquafortis is used instead of gravers.) 

Mezzotihto, plu, tnezzotintoes, med'-zo.tW.toze, middle or 
half-tint engravings. (Italian mezzo Unto.) 

Old English graflan'] ; Greek grajphein; French graver, graveur. 
£ngro68, en.grd8e^ (not en.grSs'), to monopolise, to copy docu- 
ments in lawyers' writing; eiigrossed, en.gfo8t; en- 
groBs'-ing, engross'-er, engrose'-^nent. 

French grosse, grOBsiry grossoyer {engrosser has quite another mean- 
ing). Our word is gross ** large " with en- '* to make" [a copy in 
lai^e writing], ** to make or occupy " [a large or undue share.] 

Eng^ulT (being French, en- is better than in-t which is Latin) 
to swallow up ; engulfed', engulf'-ing, engulf -ment. 
French engouffrer, to swallow up ; Latin gurges, a whirlpool. Our 
word Is a total mistake. To " engouf has nothing to do with 
gvlf, a bay (Greek kdlpds, a bosom), but is a French perversion of 
the Latin gurges, a whirlpool, from giila, a gullet. Greek guild* 
or gatUos, a long-necked wallet. 

Enhance' (2 syl.), to increase [the value or price] ; enhanced' 
(2 syl.),enhano'-ing, enhanc'-er, enhance'-meht (R.xviii.) 
Norman enhau/ncer (hauncer, to raise ; French, hausser. Similarly, 
hansiire is the old form of Jiaussih'e, a hawser.) 

Enharmonic, en'.har.mSn^'ik (in Mtisic), applied to notes which 
change their names only : thus CJ = Dl?", GJf = Al^. 
On keyed instruments, these notes are identical, but 
tbeoreticaUy Cft : D|? : : fM : fM- {See Diatonic) 
Qreek enharmdnikds [rnddds], the enharmonic mode, which proceeded 
by quarter tones. The three " modes " of Grecian music proceeded 
(1) by whole tones, (2) by half tones, and (3) by quartet tones. 
Enhydrous, en.hy\dru8y containing water ; 
Anhydrous, an.hy\drus, without water. 
Greek enndros, with water (ivvdpos not ivifdpoi); amudros, without 
water (dvvdpos not dvifdpos) ; hv4or, water has an aspirate, but it 
is lost in the compound, and could not be expressed. 
Enigma, e.n\g' .mah, a riddle ; enigmatio, e.nrg.mdt'\tk ; enig- 
matical, e.nig.mdt'\i.kal; enigmatlcal-ly, enig'matist. 
Enig^matise, e.nig\ma.tizey to reduce to an enigmatical form; 

enig'matlsed (4 syl.), enig'matls-er, enig'matis-ing. 
Enig'ma, a riddle in which the pu2zle lies in remote or 

obscure resemblances. 
Conun'drnm, a riddle in which the puzzle lies in a pun. 



«04 IJIBOBS OF SFEECff 

Obiurade, a word disseoted, so that eaoh sellable forms a 
word. If of two syllables, ibe ^Jtst syllAble is oaUed my 
first, tbe neiit my seeondy and the entire word my whole. 

Xiog'ogriiph, ^a word wbicb, deprived of di^Terent letters, 
makes oUier words : a,B glass, lass, ass, yas, sal, gals, &c. 

He^bns, a puzzle expressed in hieroglyphics. 

mddle, a .general term, including any puzzling question 
of a trivial nature, the solution of which is to be guessed. 

Puzzle, a sensible object, the intrioaoy of which is to be 
.discovered, or the parts of whijoh are to be (pieced together. 

"Bnigma/' French in^gms, infligmbtique ; liaUn aivign^; Gtnfik 

ainigma, ainigmatistSs, &c. (ainds, a fable). 
** Conundrum/' Old English cunnan dredm, dever-fun. 
'* Charade," so named from the inventor. 
*' Logoffrlph," Greek Idgds gHphds, a word puwle. 
*' Bebus. These were political squibs by tbe basoehiens of Paris, d4 

r^nu qua gertmtur (on the current events of the day). 
** Riddle," Old English raedels, from rcedan, to interpret. 
"Puxzle," Welsh i?o»iad, a questioning, v. posiavf. 

Enjoin' (2 syl.), to command, to bid; enjoined^ (2 syl.), en- 
join'-ing, enjoin^-er, enjoin'-ment, but injunction. 
French enjoindre, injonctian; Latin injungo, to command, ivjunetio. 
(It would be better to retain the aame prefix throughout, and write 
injoin for enjoin. French is our great souzse of error.) 

Eadaf, to take pleasure in ; ^oyed' (2 Ryl.),>eiijoy'-!«ig (B. xiii.), 
enjoy'ing-ly, enjoy'-ment, onjoy'able (Eule ixiii.) 
:Fr. jauir: Lat. gwudeo (Ennins Ufos gau), with en-, " %o make*' Ijoy]. 
Enkindle, en.kln'.d'l, to set on fire; enMndled, en.kW.d'ld; 
enkin^dling. 
Welsh cywne, " Ignition," with en-, "to make" [an ignition]. 
Enlarge' (2 syl.), to increase in size; enlarged' (2 syl.), en- 
larg'-ing (Rule xix.), eidarge'-ment (Rule xviii.) 
Latin torgtM, "large," with m-, "to make" Parge]. 
Enlighten, en.lite\en, to tbrow light on ; enlighfened (3 syl.), 
enlight'en-ing, enlight'en-er, enlight'en-anent 
Old English lihtung, " lighting," with en-, "to make" [a lighting]. 
(The -g- is interpolated, and the term en- stands for -un' [ung]. 
'KiHst'. to enroll; enlisf-ed (R. xxxvi.), enyst'-^ing, ^nlist'-^ment, 
voluntary enrollment. 
Old Eng. list : Fr. li»tt, "a roll," with en-, " to make up" (a Ust]. 
Enliven, en.W.v^n, to cheer ; enli'vened (3 syl.), enli'ven-ing. 
Old English lif, "life," with «n-, ''to make, to give" [lifel. The 
term -in is for -un' [-ung] added to verbal nouns. 
Enmity, }>{iA. enmities, en'mi.tiz (Rule xi.), hostility; 'enemy, 
:plu. fCfieiaies, en\e.mis (IBule xi.), a foe ; 
Inimical, in.lm\i.kal, hostile ; inim'ioal4y. 

/ T* »a Aa L^ mt^nm^tjul. tihM:f thjt Tjltin. «MM>^« in. h/Ut fkot 



d by Google 



AND OF SPELLING. 305 

been preserved throughout. The French have a similar 
inconsistency, though not in the same derivatives.) 

French inimitie, ennfnis (1 !} ; Latin iivfw^ti^i, inHmicnis (in afMcfu, 
not a friend). 

Ennoble, en.no. hX to make noble; ennoble^cL* en.nd.b'ld; 
enno'bling, enno'ble-me^t. 
French ennoMir or anohlir, anoblissempit ; Latin rUfbUis, "noble," 
with enr, ** to make" [noble]. 

Ennui, ah'n'.wel' (not ang'-we nor ong\we\ weariness. 

French en/Mii; Italian noiaret to weary. 
Enormous, e.nor^.mils, very great; enor'mous-ly. 

Enormity, jplu. enormities, e.nor^.tni.tlz, an atrocious crime. 

French 6normit4, inorrn^: La^ enorvftXtas, enopnis (e[fx]nonna, 
out of rule.) 
Enongh, suflScient in quantity. Enow, sufficient in number. 
Sugar enough, cups enow; tea enough, spoons enow. 
n?hl8 distinction, very general 40 years ago, is now almost obsolete.) 
The adverb and adj. differed in the Anglo-Saxon period, genog {tA'v.), 
genoh (adj.) " Enough " very absurdly combines both fornui. 
En passaait, ah'npahsi'^ah'n (Ft.) in passing, oursorily. 
Enquire^ (2 syL), to ask ; enquired' (d syl.), enqnir'-ing (R. xix.), 
enqulr'-er, enquiry, plu. enquiries, en.kwi'.riz ; better 
Inquire (2 syl.), inquired' (2 8yl.),inquir'-lng, inqui'ring-ly, 

inquiiy, plu. inquiries, in.qui\riz (Kule xliv.) 
Inquisition, in.gulzia/i'.un; inquisitive, in.gMu'.i.«r ; in- 
quis'itive-ly, inquisitive-ness, inquisitor, inquisltory. 
{It is far better to spell all these words with the Latin 
prefix in-, although we have in French the word enqu6rir. 
Lat. inqugr^e, supine inquisltum, to inquire ; inquisltio, inquUUor. 
Enrage' (2 syl.), to exasperate ; enraged' (2 syl.), enrag'-ing. 
Ft. enrager; Lat. rdhidre, rdbies, with en-, "to make** [in a rage]. 
Enxapf , thrown into an ecstasy. 

Enrapture, en.rup'.tchiir, to delight greatly ; enrap'tured, 

enrap'tur-ing (Rule xix.) 
Enravii^ en.ruv\ish, to throw into an ecstasy; enrav'isbed 
(3 syl.), enraVish-ing, enrav'iBh-iQent (generally ui>ed 
without the prefix en- ). 
Latia rapUia. raptura, rdpio, supine raptum, to ravish. 
"Ravish" is from the French ravir, ravissant, ravissement. 
Enrich', to make rich ; eniiohed', enrioh'-ing, enrich'-er, 
enrich'-ment, accession of wealth. 
French mrichir, enrichisMment {richeese, riches). 
Enzobe' (2 syl.), to array, to invest ; enrobed', enrob'-ing (R. xix.) 

French en robe, to put in robes ; Low Latin roba. 
Enroll (not enrol, Bule x.), to put on a roll or list; enrolled' 
(2 syl.), entoll'-ing, enroU'-ment. 
French enr6ler,r6le: Latin rdtUla, with en-, "to make" up [a roll], 
u 



30r» ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Ensangoine, en.8unf.gwm, to make bloody; ensan'gained (3 syL), 
ensSn'guin-ing (Rule xix.) 
Latin $anguinm8, '* bloody," with en- "to make" [bloody]. 
Ensconce, enjtkdnse (no word in the language ends in -mue, 
and only six words in -ense. Rule xxvi.), to hide, or 
cover behind a sconce or screen ; ensconced, en^konst ; 
ensconc'-ing (Rule xix.) 
German tehanu, "a fortification," with en-, " to make" [a soonoe]. 
-ense, the termination of only six words in the language, four 
of which are compounils of "pense": condense and im- 
mense ; dispense, expense, prepense, and recompense. 
There are nearly 300 words ending in -tnce, most of 
which would have been better in -ense. 
Enshrine' (2 syl.), to put into a shrine; enshrined' (3 8y1.)» 
enshrln'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Old English serin, with en- " to make " (the subject of a shrine]. 
Enshroud' (2 syl.), to put into a shroud; enshroud'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), enshroud'-ing. 
Old English scnid, "a shroud," with en-, "to make" [a shroud]. 
Ensign, en'^ine, the flng of a regiment, an infantry officer who 
carries the ensign ; ensigncy, en'.8ine.sy (-cy, "office"). 
French ensdgne ; T atin signum [militdre], '* an ensign," with «n- "to 
make or carry " [the ensign J. 
-ensis (Latin ensis, an office), as aman'uensis, a nuinu, one at 

hand; -ensis, one who holds the office of an "a raanu." 
Enslave' (2 syl.), to make a slave; enslaved' (2 syl.) enslav'-ing 
(Rule xix.). enslav'-er. enslave'-ment (Rule xviii.) 
German sdace: Low Latin scUtmu, with en-, "to make" [a slave.] 
Ensnare' (2 syl.). ensnared' (2 hyl.), ensnar'-ing (Rule xix.) 

O, E snedrt " a snare," with en-, " to make " [one the prey of a snare], 
^ut being Latin, the prefix en- is preferable to in-. 

Ensue, en.su', lo follow; ensued' (2 -yl.), ensu'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Fr. en«uitrre ; lAt. insiiiai, to follow a« a consequence (in siquor). 
Meaning "to arise out of," it U followed by from (French de). 
Meaning " to come next," it is followed by on. 
Ensure, Insure, Assure, en.8hure', in.shure*, as.shure'. 

En-, in-, or assured' (2 syl.), en-, in-, as-suring, -shure'-ing, 
Ensurance, insurance, assurance, ^hure\ance. 
En-, in-, as-surer, -shtire'-er. 

Of tliese three forms insure is by fur the worst. 
"Ensure," Fr. «lr (Lat. seeUrus), "sure," with en-, "to make" [sure]. 
"Assure," French assurrr ; Ix>w latin assurancia, v. eusurdre 

yos [ad] serHrdre, to secure to one). 
Strictly speaking the policy "holder" ensure*, the policy "giver" 
ass ares; the former "inak^s his property sure" by taking out a 
policy, the latter " secures to him" certain sums of money on fixed 
terms. Similarly from the standpoint of a policy holder the office 
is an "ensurance," i.e. an office which makes him secure agidu.st 




AND OF SPELLING. 807 



loss, but from the utandpoint of the adAiary it is an " assurance, ** 
i.e. an office which " secures to its clients" certain sums of monef 
in proi ortion to annual payments. 
''Insure" is bad Latin, bad French, and bad English. 

-ent, -ant (Latin participial endings), an agent: as student, 
informant, -ant denotes a word of the 1st Latin conj., 
-ent a word of some other coiy., but the tule is very 
loosely followed, especially when we have gone to the 
French for our Latin. {See Rule xxVi) 
Entablature, en.tuh'.la.tchur (not entdbleture. It is not tablet, 
a little table, but Latin tabula, contracted to tab'la), the 
whole top part of a pillar, including the architrave, 
frieze, and cornice. 
Latin tdhiJUdtum, a scaffold, stage, or storey ; eri-, "to make," hence 
entablature, that which makes a stage, storey, or complete part. 
Entail' (2 syl.), lands, (Src., fixe' I on certain descendants, to fix 
lands, (&c., on certain des'-endants [as the eldest son}; 
entailed' (2 svl.). entair-ing, entail'-ment, followed by 
on or upon, but in French by d. 
French taUler; Low Latin talliatum [fetuhim], a fee-tail, taUium, 
,*' a fee-tail," with en-, "to make" [a fee-tail]. 
Entangle, en.tan'.gX to ravel; entangled, en,tdn'.g^ld; en- 
tan'gUng, entan'gler, entan'gle-ment. 
Norse tang, txngle, sea-wmck, called tang in Germ., en-, " to make " 
[a tabgle like sea-wrack]. 
Enter, en\ter, to come in. Inter, in,ter^, to bury. 

En'ter, en'tered (2 syl.) . en'ter-ing, en'trance (2 syl.), en'try. 
Inter', interred' (2 syl.), interr'-ing, inter'-ment. 
'*£Dter,"isused both transitively and intransitively: Thus we say 
He entered the house, or entered into the hottse; l>ut when used 
to signify •* engage in," to be " an ingredient of," it is alwayr 
followed by into : as I entered into pa/rtnership with .... ; leofi 
enters into the composition of petoUr ; and when it means to 
* • begin ." it is followed by on: as I enter on my tenth year . . , 
French entrer, entree ; Latin intrdre, intrans. 
" luter" would be better with double -r ; Lat. in-(erra (in the earth). 

Enteritis, en.'te.riM8. inflammation of the intestines. 

Gk. entgra, the bowels ; itis, denoting "inflammation" [of the bowels). 
Enterprise, ^n' ter.prize, nn adventure, an undertaking ; en'ter- 
prlB-ing (adj.), adventurojis. bold ; en'terpri8ing>-l7. 
French entrevrise : I atii« inter pr/Oiendo supine prShensum, to take 
in hand with others {erdre U reciprocal in composition). 
En'tertain', to treat with hospitality, to amijse; en'tertained' 
(3 syl.), en'tertain'-ing, en'tertain'ing-ly, en'tertain'er ; 
en'tertain'-ment, a fe st, an amusement. 
French entretenir entretien, maintenance, to hold things together. 
(Our use of this wo>d is widely apart from that in France. No 
Frenchman would consider " entretenir " = (^m><er ChofpitalU^. or 
divertir. The French id<»a of "keep" conveyed by this word i» 
not complimentary, except when applied to thhigs.) 



30* ERRORS OF SPEECTT 

Enthral, en.thrawV, to make cnptive ; enthrallecT (2 f^L), en- 
thrall'-ing (Rule iv), entlurall'-er, enthral'-jnent^ 
Old Fnglish thrall, "a servant," with en^, "to ioak«" [a thrall]. 
' * Inthral " la nonsense. The double I should be restored. 
Enthrone, to inve^^t with sovereignty, to install; enthroned'' 
(2 syl.), enthron'-ing, enthrone'-ment ; enthronization 
(K. xxxii.), en\thrd.ni.zay'^&hun, installation of a bishop. 
Lat thr&nus; Greek tkrihids {thrdnas, a bench, v. thraC. to «itdown}» 
Enthronuo, to seat on a throne. Our word is from tne Greeks 
EnthusiaBm, en.Thu\8Lazmt zeal, fanaticism ; 

Enthusiast, en.rhu^si.dstf one ardently devoted to some 
object: enthusiastic, en.Thvf MMs" .t\h ; enthusiastical, 
en.rhu' M.a8'\ti.kul ; enthusias'tical-ly. 
Latin mthusiaamu», tfnXhv^iasta ; Greek enthotmaamday enthau- 
sidsUa, enthousiastikds ; French enthovMasme, enthousiaste, enthottr 
giagme (en theoa -asmoa, the state of being in a god, i.e. inspired.) 
Enthymeme, en^Thtmerrif a syllogism with one of the prem'isses 
suppressed : As, [dependent creatures should be humble] 
We are dependent creatures, and therefore should be 
humble. The major prop, in brackets being suppressed. 
French enthymeme; liat. enthymema; Greek enthumSfna (en thumoa 
[one premissj in the mind [ouly]. 
Entice' (2 syl.), to allure; enticed' (2 syl.) ; entic-ing, en.tice'.ing ; 
enti'cing-ly ; entic-er, en.Hce\er; entice'-me^t (R. xviii.) 
This is a French word which has received with us quite ft new 
meaning. In French it means to incite, not to " allure or seduce. " 
The word is attiatr, to stir a fire, or rather to " touch the burning 
logs to make them burn better (tiaon, a burning 1 >g). Danish 
atizar, to stir a fire ; tizon, smouldering wood ; tizonero, a poker. 
Italian tizzone, a firebrand. Our idea seems to be derived from the 
custom of enticing birds, 6c., by lighted brands, i.e. [to attract] to 
the firebrand, at [toj or en [into] tiaon, [the burning brand]. 
Entire' (2 syl.), complete, unadulterated; entire'-ly, entire'-ness; 
entire'-ty, integrity, entire state. 
French entier; intiger, entire (yn tago or tango, not touched). 
Entitle, en.tV.t'l, to qualify, to give a title or a right to [someone] ; 
entitled, en.ti'.t'ld; entitling, en.tl'.tling. 
Old English titul, " a tiae,**' with en-, "to make or give" [a title) ; 
French intituler; (Latin tiHUila, a title). 
Entity, plu. entities, en\ii,tiz (R. xliv.), existence, a real beinj?. 
Non-entity, plu. nonentities, what has no real being,.a per. 

son of no influence (a no-one). 
French entiti: Latin ana, gen. antia, an entity or real betaif. 
^to- (Greek prefix), within. 

Entozoon, plu, entozoa, enf-to.zd"-Sn, en*.toj8S"-ah (not 
en'.to.zoon*'), an animal which lives within the body of 
other animals, especially in the intestines; entozoio, 
en''tb.zo'^-iky a4j. (not ^n' .to.zoik). 
Greek erUda tdon, an animal within [the body of other aaimals]. 



AXD OF SPELLTKG, 



Thntmnnlnpy^ en\to.mhV\o,gy, treats of the history nnd habitf) of 
insects; mtomologiirt, «n'-to.m^^^o.Ji«t; eifttomological, 
en'AO'im.loj''-i'kal ; e(iL't(»QEolog'ioal*ly. 
Ghreek ertt^^num Uig^, % dtseeitrse about insects ; French mUTMlogie. 
Sntomoid, en^ ,to.moidj like an insect. (Gk. entSmon eido».) 
Entonu^te, tn.tlirtC jo.litt, a fossil insect. 
Greek wtOrrUfn lUhos, an insect [of] stone, i.e. f ossilified. 
BntomorphagOQB, en'.to.mor^'.fa.gHs, insect-eating. 
Greek entdmon phdgot to devoar Insects. 

EntomoBtracan, pUi, entomostracanB« en\to,md8'\tra,kan, 
one of the entomostraca, pert»iining to the... ; en'.to.mds".- 
tra.kanz ; entomostraca, en\to.m6/\tra.kahj a sub -class 
of cruBtaceaas. 
It will be observed that th«>8e wnrds beginning with ado- are not 
connected with the Greek prefix ento-. within, but with entimon, 
an insect, which is en-temnein, to cut into [parts], as '* insect" is 
in aedum (Latin), cut into [parts]. 

Entozoon,efi'-to.«()"-5n; eatoxoekf en' -to-zo'^-ah, (See above, Eato-.) 
Entrails (plu.\ en'.trulz, the intestines. (Sing, rarely used.) 
French entrailles; Low Latin enteralia; Greek erUAu. intestines. 

Entram'mel, to obstruct, to entangle ; entram'melled (3 syL), 
entram'mell-ing (Rule iii., -el), entrammell-er. 
(These words should not have double I.) 
Fr. tramailt a drag-net. with eii-, ' ' to make " [the captive of a drag net]. 
Entrance, en^trance (noun), €n.trunee' (verb). 
Eji^'tranod) place of entry, adiAisfisoii. 
Entrance' better entranse', to ravish with delight; en- 
tranced' better entransed' ('I syl.), entranc'-ing better 
^ntraaos'-'ing, entrance'-ment better ^ntranse'-ment. 
** Entrance," French «n<rer/. Latin imtrans, intrdre, to enter. 
"EntraDse." If this is from the French trnnae, the meaning has 
been quite v<enrerted. Trannc means " a pxnic," not an ecstacy ; 
but probablv it is the Latin transeo, transitus, another form of 
*' trannport, wliich is transporto. (Trans-Uus, past or gone over ; 
trans-porttLs. carrie<i over ) The allusion is t » the n(»tion that 
the spirit in a "txMiao"i» carried or passes out of the body. 
(See 2 Cor xii, 2-4.) 

Entrap', to catch in a tmp ; entrapped^ (2 syl.), entrapping 
(Rule lii.), entrapp'**er. 

OM English treppeor treuppe, " a snare," with en^, "to make" [the 
aq>tive of a snare j. 

ikitreat, m.ireet', to solicit ; entreaif-ed (8 syl., Eule xxxvi.), 
entteat'-ing, entreatlng^ly, entreat'-er. 
Entreat'y, plu, entreaties, en.iree\fiz (Rule xliv.) 
French en traiter; Latin in tracto, to struggle for something. 



310 ERRORS OF SPEECIT 

Entree, ah'n'.tray' (French), the riffht of entry, a " subsidiary " 
dish of meat handed round to the gu< sts. 
Entremets, ah'n'tr.may (Fren(;h), dainty si'le-dishes. 
In French an entrie is a relish served at the beffinning of dinner to 
" whet the appetite : " and an entremets a reliah served after the 
main joints have been removed (entre mets, a diab between [dinner 
and dessert]). Our use of there words is very si p-sbod 
Entrex)ot (French) ah^n'tr^o, a warehouse, a storehouse. 

This is entre dep6i^ a half-way d6p6t, lieu oii Von met en dipdt de* 
marchandisea que Von veut porter plus loin 

Entresol, ak'n'tr'-sole (French), a room hetween the ground- 
floor and the premier Staae [prgni'.e.a a-taij']. 
Sol. the groun<1-plot or floor: entre sol, between the ground-floor and 
the first floor or best apartment. 

Entrench' (not intrench), to make a trench round [something]; 
entrenched' ('^ syl.), entrench'-ing, entrench -ment 
Intren' chant, not to be cut <t woumled. 
This la<;t word shows that intrench fhouM mean "not cnt,** and 
therefore never should have b''en used for th>' word entrendi which 
is tranch4e (French) ** a ti ench," with en-, " lo make*' la trench]. 
Entropium, en.tr6p' .iMtn, a turning iu wards of the eyehishes. 

Greek en trdpi, a turning inwards. 
Entrust, to confide to another ; entrusf -ed, entrust'-ing. 
Old English treoth, "a pledge," with en-, " to make" [a pledge]. 
To " entru-^t," is to confide something to another "as a pledge." 
Entry, 2?^m. entries, en'.triz (Rule xliv.), a place by which persons 
enter, the right of entrance, registration in a book, taking 
possession of real property, a vm it of possession. 
Single Entry, a system of book-keeping in which the items 

are posted only once, generally under the buyer's name. 
Double Entry, a system of book-l<eeping in which every 
item is posted twice, once on the h\\ side and once on 
the Cr. side, under reverse conditions. 
French entr4e (by double entry, enpartie cUmble; by single entry, en 
:« artie simple). (See l^nter and Entrance ) 
Entwine, en,twine\ to wreathe ; entwined' (2 syl.), entr^n'-ing 
(Uule xix.), entwln*-er, entwine^ment (better with in-.) 
Old Eng. twin[an\ to twine ; intwine, tii twine together. 
Enumerate, e.nu'.me.rate, U) reckon up one by one ; enu'me- 
rat-ed(R.xxxvi.),enu'merat-ing,enn'merat-or(R.xxxvii.); 
enumeration, e.nu\7ne.ray"ahun; enumerative, -tlv, 
French inumSrer^ inumiration, inumiratif; Latin en-AmMLtio, 
enii)nirdtor, endmirdre, supine enHmgrdtum, to reckon up. 
Enonciate, e.nnn'.8i.ate, to m&ke known ; enun'ciat-ed(R. xxxvi.), 
enun'ciat4ng ; enunciation, e.nun'.8i,a'\8hun ; enun- 
ciat^ive, e.nun^shcutlv ; enun'ciator, enun'ciatory. 
Latin enwicidtio, a proposition ; enunciativus, enimciator, ent«ncMlr« 
{enuneio, to announce aloul, to discloseO 



AND OF SPELLTNO. 811 

Enure, ^Mre' (better than inure), to habituate; enured' (2 syl.), 
enur'-ing (Hule xix.) 
Norm. Fr. urt, ''practice,'* with «?!•, "to make or effect" [by practioe]. 
Envelope {noun), en'.veJope. Envelop {verb), en.veV.dp (R. U.) 
EnveKop, enveroped (3 syl.). enverop-ing, enverop-ment, 
to cover with a wrapper, to cover entirety. (One I, one p.) 
Envelope, a wrapper for letter!^, <fec. 

French envdopper (with double p\ enveloppe, enveloppement; Italian 
viluppo, a baodle or |«cket ; inviluppare, to wrap up. 

Enven'om, to impregnate with venom; enven'omed (3 syl.), 

enven'om-ing. 
Fr. envenimer (11): L&t. ve^iinum, with en-, "to infuse" [poison]. 
Enviable, en\viM.h'l; envious, en'.vi.ua. (See Envy.) 
Environ, fn.vV.ron, to encompass. Environs, en'.vi.r6nz, suburbs; 

envi'roned (3 ^yl.), envi'ron-ing, envi'ron-ment. 
French environner, envirops (plu.). virtr, to tarn round. 
En'voy, pin, envoys, en'.voiz (Ilule xlv.), a state messenger; 

ea'voy-ship, the ottice of envoy {-ship, Old Eng. office). 
En'vy, vexntion at another's good, to feel vexed at another's 

good, to grudge ; envies, en\vU (3rd pers. sing.) ; envied, 

en'.vld; en'vi-er, en'vi-able, en'viable-ness, ea'viably; 

envious, en\vl.us ; en'vious-ly, en'vious-ness, envy-ing. 

French envie, envier, envieur; Latin invldin, invfdidsuf, v. invldio 
(Ut see into one). ' Envy" means a looking too closely into another. 
Enxvrap, en.rap\ to cover (aod tie np with sti-ing or cord); 
enwrapped, en.rapf; enwrapp-ing, en.rap'.ing (Rule i.) 
Old Englifth rdp, "a cord," with en,-, ** to fasten " [with a cord]. The 
force of en- is to convert the nouu into a verb. 
Eocene [p riod], e\o,seen (in GeoL), \he earli«'St of the four ter- 
tiary periods, which consist of tlie following divisions: 
Plistocene, pli.8to.ieen nearest the earth's surface. 
Greek pUistds kainOs, the most reeeiit 
Pliocene, pU'.ojteen, more recent than the group below. 
Greek pUUin kainds, more reccbt than the " miocene." 
Miocene, mi\o.neen, less r»ceni than the two groups above. 
Greek meidn iMiino«, less recent than the "pliocene." 
Eocene, t.o.8een, the dawn of modern [ti i es]. 
Greek ids kainos, recent dawn ; i.e., the dawn of modern times. 
Eolian, ^.n.li.un l ought to be e.dV.i.an), pertaining to .SIolus 
{E'.d.lus), god ot the winds ; JEolic, e.oV.ik (not e.d\lik), 
pertniniiig to iEolia (K.hV.i.ah), in Greece. 
Eolipile, eM\l.plle, un hydraulic instrument. 

Latin ^o't pVa, the bAll of MCAva. Its object Is to exhibit the con- 
vertibility of water into steam. 

-eon (Fr. termination of nouns), an instrument: as truncheon. 



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312 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



E^on (in Platonic philosophy), an attribute. The Platonists 
taught that Deity is an assemblage of ean^ (attributes); 
the Gnostics taught that eon3 are corporeal ** out-comes" 
of deity, fellow- workers in creation. (Greek aidn.) 
Ifp-; for epi- (Greek prefix before a vowel), on, upon, during. 
Epaet, t\pakty the excess of the sdar over the lunar year. The 
annual excess is netirly eleven days. 
Greek ifpoMds, ftdventitions {epi <m6, to brhig upon or add). 
Bpaulet, ep'.iiwMt, a badge worn on the shoulder; ep'aulett-ed 
(Ride iii., -t), furnished with epaulets. 
French ipaulette [6paule, Latin scdpiUa, the sbonlders). 
iip^gne, e.pem\ an ornn mental dish for the centre of a dinner 
table, generally elevated and iumished with branches. 
TfaU is an example of a French word used by ns in a lense Quite 
foreign to its French meaning. What we call an " epergne,^ the 
French call a surtout; what w« call a "surtout" they call a par- 
dessus. The word should be spelt epargne. 
French Epargne, parsimony, a treasury. Our epergne is a Uttie 
*' treasury" of sweetmeats, fruits, and flowers. Cause d'^pargne, a 
savings bank wheie very small deposits ore taken. (Germ, sparen,) 
Uph' (Greek prefix epi-), before an aspirate. 
Ephemera (plu.), effim\e.rah, a fever, insect, &c., lasting only 
a single day; ephemeral, effim'.e.nd, evanescent. 
iOphemeris, plu. ephemerides, effim'.e.riSy ef.e.mer^'ryMes, 
an alman.ic of the daily positions of a heavenly body : as 
the ephemeris of the sun, &(i, ; ephemerist, effim\e,rist, 
one who studies the daily motions of the planets by 
means of an ephemeris. (.p/ie- long in the Greek.) 
Greek €phinUfria, iphimeris, plu. Sphimeridis: Latin ephimirit, 
epheraeran, plu. iphemera; French iphim^e, AphAmiridee. 
Epliesian, Eff^.zhi,anf pertaining to Ephesus {Ef'fe.8U8\ 
Ephod, ^JUd, a garment worn by the Jewish priesthood. 
Epi- (Greek preRx). on, upon, during, consequent on. 
Ep- before a vowel : as epact (ep agd). 
Eph- before nn aspiiate : as ephemera (eph Tiimera). 
Epi- before a consonant : as epiderm (epi derma). 
Epio [poem], n narrative in h»rofc verse : as Homer's Ilidd and 
Odyssey (G reek), Virgil's -<Encid(Iiatin), Tasso's JiertMaf^m 
Delivered and Dante's Divina Comedia (ItaVan), Camoen's 
Lusiad (Portuguese), and Milton's Paradise Lost, 
Latin epletu/ Greek eptkffn: French ip>q%u (Greek epds, a wordX 
Eploarp, ep'.i.karpt the outer skin of fiuiis ; 

Sarcocarp, sar^.ko.karp, the fleshy or edible part of fruits; 
En'docarp, the stone or kernel of fmits. 



Greek epi karpog. upon the fruit ; tarkd karpot, fleshy fruit ; mdo 
harpoe, inside the fruit. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 818 

Epicene, ep'.ijaeen (in Gram.), common to both sexes^ 

Irfttin epiccnau, of both genders ; Greek epi koinSa, la oomino^ 

Epioote, ep\i.kutej a man addicted to the pleftstires of the 
table; epictireto, ep\i.ku.tee'\an (not ep'.i.W.reaiii), a*lj. 

Epicniism, ep\uku'\Htm, the habits of an ejrionre ; 

EpicnreaBiSiii, q/A,km.ree'\an.izmt thd tenets of Epic&ms. 

E^ioorize (K xxxii.), ep\i.ku,rize, to live like ai} epicure ; 
ep'icnrized (4= syl.), eplcutlz-ing (Rule xix.) 

littin Bpicwrui; Greek Spik&etros, A GrdPk philosopher who taught 
that " happiness is the end anl aim of lifle," but " happiness " has 
been perverted into the pleasures of the table. 

Epicycle, ep.i.sV.k% a little circle whose centre is on the circum- 
ference of a greater circle. 
Epicycloid, ep'A.8W.loid, a curve described hf the movement 
of the (Jircumference of one circle on the circumf^tence of 
another; epicydoid-al, ep'.i.8i.kloid"-cU {Bid,].) 

Greek ipi kuklds, upon [another] dide; "^idycloid" it ^eyele 
eidoa, resembling an epicycle. 

Epidemic. Endemic. GontagiooB. 

Epidemic, ep'.i.dem^'.ik, a temporary disease attncking many 
persons at the same time (Gk. epi dSmos, upon the people); 
epidemical, ep\i.dini".i.kul; epidemically. 
Epidemology.tfp'-t-de.wi^r'-o-jy, a medical treatise on the sub- 
ject of epidemics ; epidemological, «p'.i.de»i'-o.Zo;"-i-*al. 

% Epidexbic disease, a disease of a temporary character not 
limited to one locality. 

Endemic disease, a temporary disease limited to a locality. 

Contagious disease, a disease communicated by conta'jt. 

An epidemic is diffused by disease spores (1 nyl.) in the air. 

Greek ipidSmdn, popular, general, diffused throughout the nation. 
An endemic is due to bad drainage, or other local conditions. 

Greek endimos, at home, local, limited to one spot 
A contagion is oimmunicated, like the plague, by contact. 

Latin contdgio {eon tcugo, Le. tango, to touch toge.her). 
Epidermic Endermic, ep* d.def\mlk, en\def\mlk» 

Epidermic {adj.\ pei-taining to the outer skin or cuticle. 
Endermic {adj.), something put on the skin to be absorbed 

by it. (Greek en derma, [put] on the skin.} 
Epidermal, ep'.i.def'.mal, same as epidermic. 
Epideiln or epidermis, ep'.i.derm or ep'.t.i*er".tnfo',the scarf, 
the cuticle {ku\ti.kl) or outer skin of the body. 

Gk. epi derma, [the skin] upon the i&in ; Fr. (pidemiq^e, ipidervM, 



314 ERRORS OF SPEECJl 

Epigastric, pertaining to the upper part of the abdo'inen. 

Epigastrium, ep^i.ffas'^tri.um, popularly called ** the pit of 

the stomach." (No connection with the word gas.) 
Gk. tpi gasUr, upon or above the pftimoh ; Fr. 4pigastr$, ^pigasMque. 
Epigee, ep^uje^ same as Perigee (g.v.) 
Epigenesis, ep\i.jSn*',eM» Evolution, i^.voM'^thun, 

Evolutioii is that theory of generation wliii*h considers the 
g^rm to pre-exist in the parent, or " Whose seed is in 
itself" {Gen, i. 11, 12), and this germ being ** evolved ** 
becomes an ofTspiing. 
Epigenesis, the theory which considers that the germ does 
not pre-exist, that "the seed is n^t in the parent stock," 
but is pioduceil. Thus, in a flower, according to this 
theory, the ** embryo " does not pre-exist in the parent 
flower, but is pern-rated as well as evolved by tne fecun. 
dating organs of the plants. 
Gk. epi giMHs, [the germ] bom after [the parent stock had existence]. 
Epiglottis, ep\i.glot'\ti8^ the valve wliich covers the orifice of 
the windpipe when fo<»d or drink is swallowed ; epiglottic. 
{The "-0-" is long in the Greek glOttis.) 
Greek epi gldttis, on (the root of] the tongue ; French ipiglotte. 
Epigone, e.plg'.S.ne (in Bof.), the cellular layer wliich, in mosses, 
covers the young seed-case. Epigoni, e.plg,f).nU the seven 
sons of sev<-n Grecian chiefs, who conducted, without 
success, the first mythical war against Thebes. 

" Epigone,'* Greek epi gdni, upon the seed [case]. 
"Epigoni," Greek ^-gdnoi, offrpring. 

I^ig^ram, ep'.i.grum, a single idea in verse so contrived as to 
Burpiise the reader with a witticism or ingenious turn of 
thought; epigrammatic, ep\i.grum.mut" ic (double wi), 
of the ntiture of nw epigram : epigrammatical (double m), 
ep\i.gru7n.mut''.ukul ; epigrammat ical-ly. 
Epigrammatist, ep\Lgrum*\maMst, a writer of epigrams. 

Gk. epigramma{epi grapho, fan insclption] written upon [something]). 
*' In-scription " (Latin in aeriho) and " epi-gram " (Greek epi grapho) 
both mean 'written-on" [something]. 

Epigraph, ep'.i.grdf, an inscription on a building, a citation 
holding a chapter, a motto on the litle-pnge of a book. 
Greek epi graphA, written upon [the building, chapter, &c.] 

Epilepsy, ep'.i.lep.sy, the "falling-sickness": epileptic, ep\i.lfy'',- 
tiky aff« cted with epilepsy; epilep tical {-le- long in Gk.) 
Greek epilSpHay epiliptikds {fpi lanibdnd, to siexe on [one]). 

Epilogue, ep'A.Ugy an address in prose or verse made to- the 
. audience at the cIoac of a drama. 



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AND OF SPELLING, 815 

Prologue, pro\l8gt an address in prose or verse preceding a 
poem or drama. 

The vile endinsr of these words shows we h%ye taken them from the 
French. The -u« is quite un-English and worse than useless. 

Tr^-nch epilogtie And prologue ; QTeek epUCgds ajad prdldgds ; Latin 
^ildgus and prdldgiu. 

Epiphany, €.plf.d.ny, a church festival held on the 6th Janu- 
ary, to commemorate the visit of the " wise men from the 
East" to the child Jesus. 

Greek epiphdnia, the manifestation [of Christ to the Gentiles] ; epi 
phaind, to show oneself, to present oneself to others. 

ISpiphyte, ep\i,f%te, a pnrasitic plant; epiphytic, ep.ufiifJik 
(adj.) A parasitic animal is an eplzoon, ep'A,zo".on. 

Greek epi phutffn, [a plant growing] on a plant. 
Epifloopacy, e.pi'^'M.pu.sy, church government by bishops, th© 
order of bishops in a countrv ; episcopal, e.pis'.ko.pal, 
pertaining to bishops ; epis'copal-ly; episcopalian, tf.jp{«'.- 
ko.pay'\li,anj a member of the episcopal church of 
Englind; episcopaUanism, e.pls\ko.pay'\li.an.izm, the 
system of church government by bishops ; episcopate, 
e.pis\ko.patef the oflBce, order, or rank of bi^^hop. 

Gk. ipiskdpds. "Episkofos," Gk. epi ttkdpfo; "Inspector," Lat. in 
spicio; aud "Overseer," Eng. over see, are ahnnt equal in meaning. 

Episode, ep'.tsode, a digressive narrative interwoven into the 
main narrative of an epic poem, &c. ; episodic, ep' .LsM^Wk, 
of the nature of an episode; episodical, ep\i.85d".i.kdl; 
eplsodical-ly. (Has no connection with ode.) 
Greek epeisddidn, an adventitious part of a narrative ponra {epi 
eis-ddds^. The entrances or the chorus in the anci'-nt Greek dramas 
were ca*led eisodoi (th** roads in), the ep-eisode is the f art hetween 
these eisodoi, hence called epi-eis6doi, or intervening matter. 

Epistle, e.pW% a letter; epistolary, cpls'.idlciry (adj.); 
epistolographer, e.pis\ to.log" .ra.fer ; epistolog raphy. 
Greek epistoli ; Latin epistdlu, epistdldris ; French ipistolographe. 
Epitaph, ep'.i.tdf, a monumental inscription ; epitaph'-ist. 

Gk. epitapMdn ; Lat. epit&phium {epi taphds, [written] on a tomb). 
Epithalamium, ep\i.Tha.lam'' .i.um, a bridal song. 

Greek epithdldmium {epi thdldmidn, [a song] on the bridal subject). 
Epithet, ep'.i.rhety an elucidative word ; epithet'-ic. 

Greek epitMtds {epi titMmi, [a word] added to [another]). 
Epitome, e.pltf.o.mey an abridgment, a summary. 

Epitomise, e.pif.o.mize; epitomised (4 syl.), epit'omls-ing 

(Hulexix.). epifomls-er, epit'omist. 
Greek ipitdmS (epi timnd, to cut into, to gash) ; Latin epitdrM. 
EpizoOQ, ep'. i.zo'\on {not ep.i.zoon*),&pa.rnsiiio animal; epizootic, 
ep'd.zo.ot*\%k, A parasitic plant is an epiphyte, ep'.i.fite. 



916 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Entozoon, en\to.t()^ .on, an animal wliich livee inside another. 
Greek epi xddn, [an animal living] upon lanother] a&imaL 
(Every word beginning with tupi- iaj'rom ike Greek.) 

Epoch. Era. Age ; t'.pbk, «'.mfe, age (1 syl.) 

An epoch is not continuous, but is simply that point of time 
marked by some important event, &om which future 
years are counted. 

An era is continuous. It starts from some epoch, and con- 
tinues till a new epoch introduces a new era. 

An age is a period of time distinguished by some charac- 
teristic, but not iishwiBd in by any epoch or striking eveiit : 

Thus the birth of CkriH was the epoch from which the 
Christiiin era began. 

The present period is the " age of coal." We have had the 
golden age^ silver age, iron age^ and age of bronze. 

Creole epdchi (ep[ex)i]ecM, to hoM back, to stop, to pause, because the 
preceding era '*stoi s" at the new epoch, from which a new era 
begins) ; Latin epOcha; f rench ipoque. 

Bpode, ep'.Cdey the third and last pnrt of an ode; epodio, ep.ocTXk. 

Greek ep6d^ {epi add, i.e. aeidd, to sing an addition song). 

£ponym, ep\oMm, a race or tribe name from some founder. 

Anonjrm, an'-o.ntm, one without a name. 

Pseudonym, $u'-do.nlm, a false or assumed name. 

Synonym, sin'.o.nXm, a word of the same meatanj^ a«5 another. 

(We have followed the Latin forms in these vjords, hut it would be hard 
fo say why Ontinia was pr^erred to the more regular dnOmaJ 

"Eponym" is no Latin word, but Is formed on the Latin type. 
Greek ep [epi] &MXma for (fttdna, fr<>m [a man's] nante. 

''Anonyiu." Lat andnymus; Ck. an[nb%n]&niima, without a name. 

"PseUiionym," L^t. pseuddnymus ; Gk pseudes dnibma, <als6 UHme. 

" Synonym," Greek sun dnUma [another name] with yuur own i 



EpsUon, ep.8i' I6n (not ep\8\.lhn), the Greek short e (e). 

Greek psU6s, naked, bare ; v. ps'Udd, to rub quite bare. 

Epiom Salt (not Epsom salts), sulphate of magnesia, origmally 

obtained by evaponition from certain springs in Epscmi 

(Surrey). The manufac-iured tirtide is calle<l Epsomite. 

(•ite, in chemistry, denote* a salt formed from an add with a aalifi- 

able ba>e. Epsomite has magnesia for its base.) 

Equable, ^\wu.b'l, even, uniform ; eq'uahle-ness, eq'uably 
{adv.) ; equability, ek.waMrx.ty. 

Equal {noun nnd verb), e\kwill ; e'qnalled (2 syl., Rule iii., 
-aL), e'qQall'ingt e'qaal-ly {adv.), equal-ness. 

Eqnal-iae, e.kwUlize (Rule xxxi); e'qual-ised (8 tfl.)^ 
e'qualiB-ing; equAliiation, e\ktoMl.lJiay"' .shun. 



AND OF SPELUNG. 317 

Equality, plu, equalities, e.kw}iV.l.Uz (Rule xHv.) 

("Equalled" and **equHlling" ought to have only <me **V) 
Latin cequalis, aqudlitas, ctqudbtlis, oquaMHtcu, r. oegtubre, 
Equaoimityi ei'.kwa.nim'^i.ty, steadiness of temper. 
Latin cequdnlmitcu {aqutu anfmus, evenness of mind). 
£quatiou, e.kwa\8hun, an algebraic process for discovering an 
unknown quantity. Take this very simj^e example : Xf 
10 lbs. of sugar cost 5«., what in that per pound t 
Let X represent a pound of sugar. Then by the terms given lOx = 5s. , 
or 60d. That is the equation, and x the unknown quantity whose 
value is to be discovered Divide both sides by 10, and we get 
10 -V- 10» = 60d. -s- 10, or as = Gdi^Ara. 

Equate, e.kwdte\ to reduce to an equation ; equat'ed (Rule 

XXX vi), equat'-iug (Rule xix.) 
French iquation; Latin cequMio (aqwu, equal). 
Equator, e.kwa^.tor, the great circle which hvpotheticaHy divides 
the globe intx) two hemispheres, one N. and the other S. ; 
equatorial, ef .kwduHr^'riMl ; equato'rial-ly. 
French iquatew, iquatoHcd; Latin asqudtor (cequus, equal). 
Equerry, an officer in a prince's household, who has ehaarge of 
the horses. (Double r a blonder.) 

(This is a disgraceful word, being in the first place a perversion of the 
French Scurie, a stable ; and next a blunder for eewyer, the gentle- 
man master of the royal stables.) Latin egutu, a horse. 

Equestrian, e.kwi^\tri.an, a horseman. 

' Lat. equestrii, pertaining to a horae ; Fr. iqututre. Owe word is ill- 
chosen, because eguestria (Lat ) means the benches in the theatre 
appropriated to the knights, and equeiiricm should be its adj. 

£qui-, e\hwi- (Latin aquu), equal. 

(Every word, except equip and its derivatives, beginning with equl-, it 
from the Latin, or ha» been formed of Latin elements. J 

Equiangular, e\ktDi.dn'\gu.lart having equal angles. 

L»tin ceqtti-anguldris (oequ-us angOlus) ; French iquiangle. 
Equidistant, ef.kwi.dis'^.tanty at equal distances. 

Latin (xqui-distans (ex ce^tto distans) ; French Equidistant. 
Equilateral, e'.kwi.ldf\e.ralt having equal sides. 

Lat. aqui'ldtSrdlis (aquus Idtits, gen. Idt^ris); French iqullatiral. 
Equilibrium, e'.kwi.lW.ri.um, equ^ balance. 

Latin cequi-librium (jnequua Ubra, a balance) ; French iquilihre. 
Equimultiple, e\kwi.muV\ti.p% an equal multiple, a number 
multiplied by the same multiplier as another. 

This word exists neither in Latin nor French. It is compounded of 
agvi- and -multiple (French). Latin multlplXco, to multiply. 

Equine, ^/c^t^tn«, pertaining to the horse. Equida, €kf,wi.dee, 
tlie horse tribe. (Latin ^qulmis ; ^uus, a horse.) 



318 ERUORS OF SPEECH 

Equinox, e'.kwt.noXy the time when a solar day has the sun 
twelve 1 1 ours above the horizon, and twelve Lours below 
(M arch 2 1st and Septem I -er 2Hrd). 
Equinoctial, e' kwi.ndk''^hal, occurring at the time of the 
equinox»-s. pertaining to the equinoxe-^ ; equinoc'tial-ly. 
Latin cequi-noctium, cequi^noctidlU ; French iquiuoxe, ^quinoxiai. 
Equip, e.kwip', to fit out with all that is r^^quire*! ; equipped' (2 
syl.), equipp'-ing (Rule iv. " Qu" = kw, is tr. ated as a 
consonant); equip'-ment ; equipage, ik\wi.page, 

Fr. 6quip€r, dq^iipage, iquipement (tsquif, a boat or Rkiff). It origin- 
ally meant a ship furnished « ith its oouiplement of boats. Roquefort. 

Equipoise, e\kwt.potze\ equilibrium, equality of weight. 

This wi >rd exists neither in Latin nor French. It is compounded of 
cequi- and pondiLs. Frenrh poids (weights). " Avoirdupoise " 
shows the same word, poise for poids. 

EquiiK>nderant, e'.kwi.ponf' de.rant, being of the same weight; 
equiponderanee, e\kwi.piZn'\de. ranee, equi|j(iiuo. 

French dquifondSrant, iqnipondArance ; Latin csqui pondSris, ▼. 
pondirarey to weigh [equally]. 

Equisetacesd, ek'. wise. toy'* -se-e. the horse-tnil and other plants 
of tiiH some order ; equisetum, ek^ .%ol.8ec'\tnm, a single 
specimen of the order ; plu. equise'ta or equise'tums. 
Equisetite, ek* .wl,fiee" ,tltt, a fossil equisetum. 

Latin equhtitum and equlsetis e^U sita, horse's bristle). In Bot., 
-acea denotes an order of plants. In Qeol., -ite denotes a fossil. 

Equitable, ik\wi.td.b'l, just, fair ; eq'uitable-uess, eq'uitably. 
Equity, ^/c'.irl.t?/, justice even if not in conformity with the 
rigid h'tier of law ; Court of equity, plu. Courts of equity, 
conris in which justice is administered accor<lin«.' to pre- 
viou"- ju'lgnienis, With discretionary power in the judge. 
Latin aquitas (cequus, equal ; French Equitable, iquiti. 
Equivalent, e.kwiv\aJent, equal in vnlup, compensation ; 
equiv'alent-ly, equiv'alence, equiv'alency, plu. -lencies. 
Lat. aquivdlentia, aqvivdlens, gen. cequlvdlerUis ; Fr. Equivalent. 
Equivocal, e.kwW.o.kCd, doubtful, Wiing two meanings; 
equiv'odd-neto, equiv'ocal-ly. 
Equivocate, e.kwW.h.kate, to quibble; equiv'ocat-ed (K. 
xxxvi.).equiv'ocat-ing(R xix.).equiv'ocat-or(R.xxxvii.); 
equivocatory, e.kwW.fi.kaXi-y ; equivoque, ik\wtvoke, 
a quibble : equivocation, eMwW .o.kay'^shun. 
Latin (pquivdru^, <tquiv6cAtio, aquiv6c&tor [aqut vdeo, to call two 
things equally [by one name]): French Equivoque. 

-er (term 'nation of verbal nouns) means an agent, a doer: as 
ruler; (adde<l to nouns) and meaning an agent, it is some- 
times -iter: as m<Ut-8ter; (add'^d to names of places) it 



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AND OF SPELLING. 319 

means an inhabitant of that pl'ce : as London-er; (after 
t- and «-) the termination of verbal nouns from the Latin 
is generally -or: as act-or^ spons-or, 
-er, the comparative affix (Ang.-Sax. cer, before, superior) : as 
great-er, {The superlative affix is -est.) 

This comparative is used with almost all monosyllables 
capable of compnrison: as ftiil, full-er. 

With most dissyllabic Adjectives accented on the final syl. : 
as genteel', genteel' tr. 

With a 'jectives of two syllables in which the last syllable 
is elided: as aide, ahUer, 

With many ac(jectiVes of two syllables ending in -y. 
^ If an adjective comes under Bule i., the final consonant is 
doubled : as red, redd-er. 

If it comes under Rule xi., the -y is changed to -t; as 
happy, haj>pi-er. 

If it comes under Rule xix., the final -e is dropped : as 
polite, polit-er. 
Era, epoch, age ; e\rah, e*.pok, age (1 syl.) 

Era, a succession of years dating from some iniportant eTent. 

Epoch, an important event from which an era begins. 

Age, a period of timechatacterised by some leading feature. 

The birth of Christ was an epoch, from, which the Christian 
era bejiins. 

The ir(m age is a period Of history characterised by inces- 
sant wars. 

Latin aera, epdcha; French /re, ipoque, age (Latin ceiaa). 
Eradicate, e.rdd\i.kate^ to root out ; erad icat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
erad'icat-ing, erad'icat-or (Rule xxxvii.); eradicahle, 
e,rud'.'.k.\b'l; erad'icable-nees, erad'icably; eradication, 
e.rad' i.kay"^hiin; eradicative, e.rudd.ka.tiv, 

Latin erddicnre, supine erddicdtum {e radix, [pulled up] from the 
roots); freuch iradicaMon. 

Erase, e.race', to scratch out : erased' (2 syl.). eras'-ing (R. xixi) ; 
eras'-er; erasure, e.raij\zhur; erasable, esay'^a,Vl (Rule 
xxiii.); erase'-ment, effacement. 
Latin erddire, supine erdsus; French raser, to shave. 
Ere, air; e*er, air; ear, eV; air; are, r; heir, air; here, 
he'r; hear, heW; hair; hare (1 syl.) 
Ere, tttr, belore in time, sooner. (Old English dr.) 
. E'er, contraction of ever. (Old English afer.) 
Ear, fr, organ of hearing. (Old English edr.) 



3?») ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Air, atmosphere. (Latin aer.) 
Are = r (Norse plural of the Anglo-Saxon he6). 
Heir, airy the next male successor. (Latin hares,) 
Here, he'r, in this place. (Old English hir.) 
Pear, he'r, to apprehend with the " ear." (Old Eng. h^an].) 
Hair of the head. (Old English }u6r.) 
Jhnce (1 syl.), a quadruped so called. (Oi4 English /^ro.) 
Erect, e.rekt\ upright, to raise, to build, to set up ; erect'-ed 
(E. xxiyi-X erect'-ing, erect'-ness, ereot'-ly, erec^-able 
(R. xxiii.); erectile, e.rekiWl, that which may be erected^ 
Er^cf -er, one who erects ; erec^'-or, a viuscle which erects^ 
EpecticMi, e,r^'^hun» an upraising, a building, &c. 
French Erection, ^recteur (muscle) ; Latin trectio, frtctor, Mrecttu, r. 
erig^re, supine erectum (e rego, to guide fprth). 

-erel (diminutive) : as cock, cockerel^ a little chanticleer. 
Eremite, er^re.mUej a hermit. (The -re- is long in Greek.) 

Gk. erSmiUa (erimia, a desert). *' Hermit" is a perversion o^ eremite, 
Erin, er'rin, Ireland. (Keltjic Eri or lar and innis. Western island.) 
E4^, e.rV^ah, a flower. 

Qfetk ereiko, to break. Supposed to break the stone in the bidder 
Ermine, e/.m^n, one of the weasel kind, a fur j e^mlned (Ji syL) 

French hermine, i.e. d'Arminie, the animal from Armenia. 
Erode, e.rode\ to gnaw away ; erod'-ed, erod'-ing ; ero^'-ent. 

Eropiye, e,rd''.8lv ; erosion, e,rv',zhun, 

French irosion; Latin erddens^ gen. erddentis, v. er^iiUte, erdsio 
(e r6do, to gnaw oflf or out). 
Erotic, e.r6t\lky pertaining to. love : as erotic poetry, love songs. 

French irotiqae; Greek erdtlkds (poetry of irds, love, o long). 
Brpetology better herpetology, her'.pe.tdr.ogy, that part of 
natural science which treats of reptiles; erpetiologist 
better herpetologist, her\pe.toV\o.gist. 

(The erroneous spelling, as usual, is from the French.) 
French erpitvlogie; Greek JierpiiOn, a reptile {herp6, to creep), with 
logos, a dibcourse on [r^tilesj; -ist, Greek -iei^s, one who. 

3Brr, to wander, to be in error. (One of the 14= monosyllables 
[not in /, I, or «] which double the final letter : as add, 
odd; burr, err; bitt,butt; ebb, egg; bttzz &nd whizz, Hvii.) 

for, erred (1 syl.), err'-ing, err'ing-ly, err'-er, one who errs ; 

Error, er\ror, a mistake; erroneous, er.ru\ni.u8; erro'- 
neous4y, erro'neous*ne8B ; err'or-iist. 

Errand, er^^mid, a message ; errand-boy, a boy n^eaewiger. 

Errant, ^jrant, wandering; errantry, jfir'.ron.ir^. 



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^ND OF SPELLING, 821 

Ermtio, i^.r&fXk, having no fixed orbit; •rratioal, irsSf.- 

ukal (not e.rdfA,kdl) ; enatlcal-ly. 
Ensf io, plu. errafics or erratic Uooks (in Geol.\ boulders. 
Brmtnm, plu* errata, Sr.ray\tQh, a printer's error. 
Ft. «rrfr, errand, erratde, trramtry, erratum, uid trrata ; Lat. emnw, 

gen. errantis, errantiaf errdtum, and err&ta, errS/re, to wander. 

Erse (1 syl.) same as (Gaelic {gay\lik\ native Irish and Highland 

Scotch. {Ersey a contraction of ErinUh^ Irish.) 
Erst, first (super, of ere, Ang.-Sax. <*r, tirra (comp.), drest (sup.) 
Erudite, ^ru.dite, learned ; er'udite-ly; emditicni, •d^«V^urz. 
French drudit, Erudition; Latin erUdltio, er&d/lre, sup. erudi^um 
(e [ex] rvdia doctus, [to convert] from ignorance to leaniing). 

Emginous, e.ru^jtnus, resembling the rust of brass or copper. 

French irugineux; Lathi cerUgo, rust of brass, cerOgl'nOafua, 
Eraption, e.rup\8hun, an outburst of a volcano, fiood, (fee, a 
breakings out of spots or pustules on the skin ; erup'tive. 
Lrmption, a bursting in: as the sudden invasion of a 

country ; irruptive, ir.rup'.tlv ; irruptive-ly. 
French iruption, iruptif, irruption, irruptive; Latin eruptio, r. 
erumpo, supine eruptum (e rumpo, to burst out from) ; irruptio, 
irrumpo, supine irruptum (ir [in] rumpo, to burst in). 

-ery, -ary (Latin -eria, -aria, termination of nouns), denotes a 

place for: as buttery, a place for butter; library. 
Eryngo, e.rin^.go (not erynga), the sea-holly and similar plants. 
Qk. &niggidn (firuggoB, the beard of goats), referring to the thistly head. 
ErysipelaB, ^.i.sip*'.^.ld8, a fiery redness of the skin ; erysipe- 
latous, ei^ .\^l.peV\dAil8, adj. (-y- shows it is Greek.) 
Oreek irHfiig pilas, drawing near. '* Parce que cette maladie s'fitend 
oardinairement de proohe en proche."— £uui2{e(. Latin erysfp^fku, 
St. Anthony's fire ; French 6r6siphle (wrong), 4rMpSlateux. 

Erythema, ^W.Tht'.inah, a superficial redness of the skin ; 
erythematous, er^X.TM\ma.tu8, adjective of the above. 
Erythrine, ^W.Thrine, a mineral of a red colour. 
Ikythrite, er^.t-rhrite, a flesh-coloured variety of felspar. 
(The -y- shotot iluxt these vxyrde have a Greek origin.) 
Greek inUhSma, a blush {gruthrds, red). 

-es, the plural termination of nouns ending in -«, -ah, -ch (soft), 
and -a;; a.a *' g&B," gases ; " gUBS," glasses ; ** hsh," fishes ; 
"church," churches ; " fox," foxes* When oh = k only s 
is added : as " monarch," monarchs (not monarches). 
IT In the 3rd per. sing., pres. tense, indie, mood, the same rule 
holds : as to " bias," he biases ; to " guess," he guesses : 
to "clash," clashes; to "enrich," enriches; to "box," boxes, 
-at was the plural masc. of one of the two "strong" Ang.-Sax. de- 
clensions. It was changed to -es after the Conquest, in conformity 
with the French plural, and ultimately supplanted other forms. 

X 



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322 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Eb-, the prefix en- or ex- before -p, -$, and sometimes -c, -t 
Escalade, Sg'.kd.ladc^'t an attack on a town, (fee, by scaling- 
ladders, to scale by ladders ; es^oalad^'-ed, es^calad'^-ing. 
French eBcalade; Latin seola, with w- [en], to attack with ladders. 

Bscape, &,kape^, avoidance, to evade; escaped^ (2 sy].), 

escap'-ing (Bole six.), escap'^-er. 
liscape'-ment, a contrivance in clocks and watches by which 

tlte circulating motion of the wheels is converted into 

a vibratory one ; 
Escapade, es^ka.pard' (not es'.ka.paid'), the "fling" of a 

horse, a freak involving impropriety and mischief. 

French escapade, ichapper, ichappement ; Latin e [ex] privative or 
negative, and capio to take, to fail to taJce. 

Escarp, ^.karp' (in Fort), the steep slope, to form a slope; 
escarped' (2 syl.), escarp'-ing, escarp'-ment, ground cut 
away nearly perpendicularly to prevent an enemy from 
climbing up it into the fort above. 
The noun is generally called the scarp, and is opposed to 
counterscarp. The scarp of a rampart slopes down to 
the ditch or fosse, and the counterscarp is the exterior 
slope of the ditch. Thus in \, the long line is the 
" st-arp," the short one the " counterscarp," and the space 
between the " ditch." 
Fr. tBcarper, escarpemerU; Ital. sea/rpa, a slope ; (Lat. aealpo, to cut). 
> (Lat -esc[o]t added to verbs) is inceptive : as effervesce, 
(Lntin -escentia), -sc- is inceptive, and -escence added 
to nouns indicates an inceptive state : as convalescence, 
a state of health gradually iniproving more and more. 
Escheat, es.cMte^ real property which lapses to the overlord 
through failure of heirs or by forfeiture, to i evert to the 
overlord or to the crown ; escheat'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
escheat'-ing, escheat'-or (Rule xxxvii.), escheat'or-ship 
(-ship. Old £ng. *' office of"), escheat'-able ; escheaV-age. 
French 4choir; Low Latin eschceta, eacator, etcatria, escheatorship. 
Eschew, ^.tchu\ to avoid ; eschewed' (2 syl.), eschew'-ing. 

German »cheuen, to shun, with e, ''from"; Norman eachever, to avoid. 

Escort, (noun) es'.koft, (verb) &^\kor1f (Rule L), an attendant, a 

cortege ; to conduct someone as an attendant, to attend 

on a person as a guard of honour; escorf-ed. escort'-ing. 

French eacorU, eseorUr; Latin twrieat a traveller's bag or cloak. 

Escritoire. es\krl.twor, a writing-case or desk. 

French 4eritoire (Seritwres; Latin BcriptQra), icripturdriui, t. serfbo, 
fiM!iilent,£i'.M.2eh£, fit for food. {Ft, esculerU ; L&Lesciilenduif.) 



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AND OF SPELLING. 323 

Eaoatdieon, &.fcnt^^^n, the shield of coat-armour, the orna- 
mental shield of a key-hole ; eaoatcheoned, ^.kuf^Mnd. 
Fr. Scusson, ieiutonrU: Lat. $e(U%mf a shield ; Ok. ak&tos, a hid«. 
-eae (French -w, -om, -aU; Latin -«wm), means "belonging to," 

" a native of" : as Chinese, 
Esophagus, ejfdfM.gus, the gullet ; esophagotomy, e^Sf-S.gof'- 
o-my, the operation of cutting the gullet. 
F^noh (Bsophage. This wretched compomid is made np of the futore 
tense of phiro [oisd, I shall rarry], and phdgds, a glutton. The 
meaning is " I convey food" [to the stomach], but phOgd, "I eat," 
has no noun like phdgds, meaning "food." 
" Esophagotomy " is cuophagos iemnd, to cut the esophagus. 

Esoteric, ^\o,t^'rik, private. Exoteric, ex'.o.t^'rikt public; 
esoterical, ^'.o.tev^'ri.kdl ; esoter'ical-ly. 

EsoterioB, ii$\o,t^'rik8y mysterious or hidden doctrines ; 

Exoterics, ecc^ .o.t^'Hks, those parts of mysteries which may 
be ttiught to the general public. 

Prepch ^8ot4rique; Oreek esdterikds (esdUfr&s, inner). 

PythagdraH stood behind a curtain when he lectured. Those disciples 
who wer admitted within the veil were termed esoteric, and the 
rest exoteric. Aristotle called those who were admitted to his 
abstruse morning lectures his esoteric disciples, and those who 
came to his popular evening discourses his exoteric auditors. 

Espalier, f^.paLyer, a fruit tree trained to stakes. 

Fr. espalier ; Lat paltu, *' a stake/' with es- [en-], trained to a stake. 
EBpecial, Sg.pish'Ml, chief, particular; especial-ly. 

French special; lAtin spiddlia. (The initial e- is to soften the s.) 
Espionage, e8,pe'.o,naij ; espied, espies, &c. {See £spy.) 
Esplanade, es'.'pld.ndde^ (in Fort,), an open space outside the 
gliicis, a promennde between the sea and the houses 
fHcing it, or between the ramparts and the town. 
Fr. esplanade; Lat planum, with «»-[en-], "to make" [a level plane], 
e, es.pdwz^ {'povse, to rhyme with cows), to beiroth, to 
adopt an opinion or cause ; espoused' (2 syl.), espoua'-ing 
(Rub xix.), espous'-er, espous'-al; 
Espousals (no sing.), ^8.pdw\zdlz, marriage, betrothal. 
French ^pousailles, ipouser : Latin sponsSXia {sponsa, a bride). 
Esprit de oorps, es\pre de-kut', the spirit of clanship. 

This is £ng.-l^. ; the French phrase is esprii de parti, party spirit 
Espy, es.py*, to disct^m ; espies, ^,pize' ; espied, Ss.pide* ; 
espi'-er (Rule xi.), espf-al, hut espy^-ing. 
Espionage, ^.p^e\oMdje or ^.pS'.omarje, a prying into the 

acts and words of others, the employment of a spy. 
Fr. Spier, espiomiage; Ital. spiare, to spy ; Lat. spieio, to yiew. 
-eaqne (French terminatiDU of adj.; Latin -iscus), "like," "alter 
the manner of" : as picturesque, picture-like. 



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324 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

SMivimaii, pht. EaqiiimaiiT, or EBkaiao, plu, Eflkeiiios, E^'MmS, 
Es^ki.mDze, Datives of the northern Beabourd. 

Esquire, £».Awi/, a young gentleman attendant (^ a knight, to 
cariy his shield, &c.{e8cu, Latin scutum, a shield); now 
appended to the addre>s of the untitled younger sons of 
the nobility, to untitled officers of the royal court and 
household, to counsellors of law [not Serjeants]^ to un- 
titled justices of the peace, sheriffs, gentlemen holding a 
commission in the army or navy below captain, graduates 
of the universities not in holy orders, <&& By courtesy, 
appended to the address of lawyers, sui^geons, professors, 
merchants, bankers, gentlemen living on their 'means, 
and to almost everyone aboTe the lower middle dasa. 

-688, the female of a mala animal : as lion-ess, 

1. All the twenty-two nouns which add -ess to the male without 

change or contraction are Preneh, and -ess == -esse (Fr.) 

2. Ten of the words which contract the masculine noun by 

omitting the last vowel before adding -ess are French, 
and -esft represents -ice. The exceptions are ** chantr-ess " 
for chanteusef with enchantress[e'\, negres8[e}, ogressle'}, 

S. Three are Anglo-Saxon : huntress, mistress, and songstress. 

4:. Six have a common basis, to which -er or -or is added for 
the male, and -ess for the female : adulter-er, adulter-ess ; 
cater-er, eater-ess j emper-or, empr-ess ; govem-or, 
govem-ess; murder- er,smirder-es8; sorcer-er, sorcer-ess, 

5. The following are irregular: duke, duchess; lad, lass; 
marquis, marchioness ; master, mistress and miss, 
French -esse, -ice, and -euM; Italian -esna; Spanish -eaa and -isa; 
Anglo-Saxon -isu; Latin -is and -isM, &c ; Greek -mo. 

Essay, (noun) ^s'sy, (verb) ^8,say' (Rule 1.); Away'. 

"BB^BAj^plu. es'says (Rule xlv.), a short prose composition 

on some practical or moral subject ; es'say-ist. 
Essay' (verb), to try ; essayed' (2 syl.), esaay'-er, essay'-ing. 
Assay', to prove metals ; assayed', assay'-er, assay'-ing. 
French essayer, n. esmi (both meanings); Latin txigp, to try, to 
prove ; (ex ago, to drive out [what U dross, &c.]) 
Essence, es^sence (Rule lix.), a volatile oil, the concentrated 
virtues of a pi ant, drug, Ac, the real being divesteii 
of rtll logical accidents ; essential, ^s.8in\sMl, necessary ; 
essen'tial-ly ; essentiality, es.8^\shl.dV\l.ty, 
French essmce : Latin eMeniia^ essentialis. Essence is the opposite 
of absence; the one is es [in] ens "being in," and the other abf- 
ens " being without." Ens is the present part of esse, to be. 

Establish, &t.tah\llsK to settle, to found permanently ; estab'- 
lished, estab'lish-ing, establiah-ment. 
French itctblir, itaJblissemefnt ; Latin sUkbilio, siai/aUvkmtiym, 




AND OF SPELLTNC. 325 

Estate, is.tate^, teHL property, condition, caste. 

French Halt; Latin sto^tM. 
Esteem, respect, to respect; estoemed' (2 syl.), esteem'-ing. 

Estimftbte, ^'M.ma.Vl; es'tiinable-ness, eertimably. 

Estimate, e8*M.mate ; es'timat-ed (R. xxxvi.), es'timat-ing 
(R. xix.), es'timat-or (R. xxxvii.) ; estimat-iv©, S8\t%.7nd.Uv. 

Estimation, esWianay*' ^htm, regard, esteem. 

French estimer, estime, estimable, estimation, estimateur .- Latin 
vesiiimdtid, eeslkmtUor, va^m&re (Gre«k ^ts timd, to hold in honour). 

Esthetics (no sing), ese.TMf.lhs, tbe perception of good taste in 
nature or art. (The 8ec<'nd syllable in Greek is long.) 
Gre^ aisthSWcds [beauty m it is] appreciated hy the eenses. 
BErtxange, ^.trdngt, to alienate; estranged' {'Z syl.), estrang'-ing, 
estrange'-ment (Rule xviii.), withdrawal of affection. 
(Followed by from,) {Strange with ee- [en], "to make".) 
Estrapade, ^'.tra.pard' (French), the violent yerking of the hind 

legs when a horse tries to get rid of ita rider. 
Estreat" (3 syl.), a duplicate of the fines, <fec., in the rolls of 
court, to make... ; ertroat'-ed (Rule xxxvi,), ©streaf-ing. 
Latin extroctum, an extract : extrahe, sophie ^ztracttan, to draw ont 
Estuary, &'.tw,a:ry, the mouth of a tidal river, a frith. 

French tstuaire; Latin testudrium ((Bstudre, to boil or rage), 
-et (Latin -et[u8] added to nouns), " one who," " a place where 

or with " : as prophet, banquet. 
-et (French -ette\ diminutive, as locket, packet, pocket 
£( eatera, et 8&f,e.rah (written thus d^c^ or etc.), and so on. 
Put at the end ef a list of arttcke to denote that all simi- 
lar ones are to be included. (l.Atin, *' and the resu") 
Etck, to engrave by the action of an acid; etched (1 syl.), 
etdh'-ing. etch'-er, etching, pUi, etchings, designs etched. 
German aetnen, to etch, eorrode, or fret, 
-ete (Lat eilu8], added to adj.), "subjectof an action:" complete, 
Etaxnal, e.<^.naZ, everlasting ; eter'iial4y; eternity, i.tei^.ntty. 
Eternise, e,ter^.nize (R. xxxi. ); eter'nised (3 syl .) , eter'nis-ing. 
French Stemel (wrong), Stemiser, 6t^nellement, Stemite ; odemttas, ▼. 
mtema^y asiemum (aswam smA the affix -turtuts, as in diu-tumiu). 

Etesian, e.te^,z\.dny [winds], tlie Mediterranean monsoons. 

Artesian, ar.teif .zi,an, [well], one made by boring till a 

perpetual spring of water has been reached. 
Fr.^*^st«w (wrong); Lst.etgsias; Ok.^siai{^^eidsangmd8,yea.rlyyrind). 
'' Arttsian," so called fr<m Arieaium, i.e., Artois, in France. 

Ether, l\rh^, a light volatile liquid obtained by distillation of 
alcohol with an acid, a fluid which pervades the atmos- 



.%€ ERRORS OF SPEECIT 

phere, and is supposed to be connected with light and 
heat ; ethereal, e.The'.r^Ml, celestial, extremely rarefied ; 
ethe'real-ly; ethereality, i.rM.rSMV\l,ty, 
Etherealise, S.The\r^.d.lize ; ethe'realised (5 syl.), ethe'- 

realis-ing (Rule xix.), etheriform, e'.rh)irXform. 
Ft. 4ther, ithiri: Lat. ueOur, cethireus and athirius; Gk. aWUr, 
aitherioa. It will be seen that etherial would be the better spelling. 

Ethics (no sing.), eth\ik8 (Rule bd.), moral philosophy. 
Ethical, eth'.i.kalt pertaining to morals ; ethlcal-ly. 
Fr. ithique, ithiques; Lat. etMca, ethicu$; Gk. ithikds (OMs). 
Ethiopian, e\rhl.d".pi.any a native of Ethio'pia; Ethiopic, 
e\Thi.Sp'\ikt pertHining to Ethio'pia. An E'thiop. 
French Ethiopien; Latin Mtfndpia, MthUpleua, ^thiops; Greek 
AithUipla, Aithidps {aithos Cps, burnt face). 

Ethnical, Hh\nl.kal, relating to the different races of man; 

eWnical-ly, Qth'nic; ethnidsm, ^th'.nixizm, heathenism. 

Anthropology, Ethnology, Ethnography, Archieology. 

IT Anthropology, dn'.rhro.phV'.b.gy^ the general term which 

embraces the other three, treats of man in his social 

condition. (Greek anthrdp^ logds, treatise on man.) 

1. Ethnology, ^th,ndV.o.gy, that part of Anthropology which 

treats of the origin and dispersion of the diiferent races 
of man, their characteristics, physical features, &c. 
Greek ethnda tdgda, treatise on nations. 

2. Ethnography, Hh.nog\ra.fy^ that part of Anthropology 

wliich treats of the works, the geographical position, the 
cities, literature, and laws, of tie different races of man. 
Greek e</md« grtxpho, to describe [physicallj] the nations. 
8. ArchsBology, ar^M.or.S.gy, treats of the antiquities of a 
people. (Greek archaios ISgos, treatise on antiquities.) 
Bthnog'raphy; ethnographic, gth\no.graf'\ik: ethnograph- 
ical, StK.no.grdf .i.kul ; ethnographer, ^th.nf>g\ra.f^. 
Ethnol'ogy; ethnological, ith'.no.lSj'.i.kdl; ethnorogist 
French ethnique, ethnographi([ue, ethnographic, ethnographe, ethno- 
logie; Latin ethnicus ; Greek ithndSt a race or tribe. 

Ethology, ethnology, etiology. 

Ethology, Sth.aV.S.gy, the science of ethics, shows the bear- 
ing of external circumstances on the character. 
Greek ithSs Ufgds, treatise on manners and habits. 
Ethnology, ith.n5V.5^y, lre>its of the human race in ita 

social condition, or as a fnmily of nations. 
Greek ithnds Idgdt, treatise on nations. 
Etiology, eMM'.S.gy, treats on the causes of disease. 
Greek aiHa Ufgds^ treatise on oaoses. 



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AND OF SFELLTNG. 327 

Ethorogy; ethological, Sth\6.l6j"X.kal, a(^j. of ethology. 
Ethnorogy; eXtaio\o^GBl,Sth\n6.Wf'.\.kdl; efhnorogist. 
Etiology; etiological, t di.o.ldj'\l,kdl, adj. of etiology. 
Etiolate, eWLd.ldtet to blanch by exclusion of light ; e'tiolat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), e'tiolat-ing ; e'tiolation, e\ti.8,lay'\shun, 
French 4tioler, itiolemerU; Greek aithd, to light up, to glisten. 
Etiquette, ^tf.i.Mf (Fr.), the conventiooal forms of polite society. 
The word means s ticket containing directions to be observed bjr 
those who attend court. 
Etymology, plu. etymologies (Rule xliv.), ^f.umSV'.o,jiz, the 
derivation of words ; etymologist, St\i,mtiV\o,jUt ; 
etymological, Sf,Lmo.l^".Lkal; etymolog'ical-ly. 
Etymologise, ^1f A.'m6V\o.jize (Rule xxxi.), to search out 
etymologies; etymol'ogiaed (5 syl.), etymorogls-ing 
(Rule xix.); etymon, ef.i.mdnt the root from which a 
word is derived. (The -y- points to a Greek origin.) 
French ^tymologie, itymologique, StymologUte^ itymologistr ; Latin 
etymdldgia, etymdldgicm, etymdlOgus, etymdn: Greek itHmdldgia, 
itHmCn {€tilmo8, the real word). 
Eu- (Gk. prefix), good, well, ea«y. It is opposed to dys [dus]. 

Every word beginning with eu- Is derived from the Greek. 
Eucharist, u'ka rint, the communion ; eucharistic, u^ka.ris^'.tlk. 
French euchwristie, eucharistiqiie ; Latin eucharistia eucharisticua ; 
Greek eucharistia, an act of gratitude ; (chaHs, gratitude, favour). 
Eudiometer, il\du5m'\S.t^r, an instrument for analysing atmos- 
pheric air; eudiom^etry, the u>age of the eudiometer; 
eudiometric, u\di.<i.met'' .rik ; eudiomet^oal. 
French eudioiniiriqw : Greek eu Aids mitring the metre of good air. 
Eulogy, plu, eulogies (Rule xliv.), u\lo giz^ an encomium; 
eulogist, u'Uo.jUt, the praiser of another; eulogistic, 
u\lo.jU'\tlk; eulogistical,M'.io.jV'.«./caZ; etdogistical-ly. 
Eulogise, U'.lo.jize (Rule xxxi.). to laud ; eulogised {^ syl.), 

eulogls-ing (Rule xix.), eulogls-er, one who eulogises. 
Eulogium, plu. eulogitmis, u.lr/.ji.umz, same as eulogy. 
Latin euldgia and euldglum ; Greek euUfgeo, to eulogise ; euldgia, 
euldgOs {eu lego, to speak well of one). 
Eunuch, u'.nuk, a man who has charge of the women's apart- 
ments in tlie East; eunuchism, u'.nuk.izm. 
•M eunuch," not an eunuch. A pre<*eies u- or eu- pure, 
that is, making a disiinct syl. without the aid of a con- 
sonant. In un-deTy up-peVy use-fuly the u- is not pure. 
Euonymus, plu. euonymuses, u.dnf.i.miiSy the spindle-tree. 

Gret- k eu &ndma [the p^ant with] the good namn. The tree being 
poisonous, this euphemism was given to it to avert the evil omen 
of calling it dtfod^i/ ; >»o the "Furies" were termed euminid^^ (the 
good tempered goddesses), to propitiate them by flattery ; similarly 
a grave-yard was called a "sleeping-place" (cemetery). 



328 ERRORS OF SPEEVff 

Eupbemism, U\fe.mXzm, a word or phrase less objeetionable used 
to soften down one more o^^ssive; as & hep or employs 
(for *'a servant"); euphemistic, u\fe.m^'\t%k. 
" Euphemize " (a good Greek word) might be introduced. 
Franch euphdmigme; Latin euph&mismus ; Greek eupMmia, euphS- 
mos (eu ptUmed, to speak well of one). 

Euphony, u\f6.ny^ an agreeable sound of words; eui^onic, 
il,fSn\ik; euphonical, M./^'.«.&aZ ; euphonlcal-ly. 
Euphonious, tZ./o'.n{.t)^, sounding agreeably ; eupho'nious-ly. 
EuphoniBe, U'.fS'nize (Rule xxxi.); eu'phonised (8 syl.), 

eu'phonlB-ing (Rule xix.), eu'phonls-er. 
Fr. euphoniCt euphomqw; Lat. eupfUinia; Ok. €u phdaU, good sound. 
EuphorlHA, ii,for^M.ahy the spurge. 

So named from Eupfiorbos, physidan to Juba^ king of Libya. 
Euphrasy, u'.frd.8^ (in Bot.\ the plant " eye-bright." 
Greek euphralno, to give Joy. 
Galled "eye-bright" because it once had the repute of repairing vision. 

Euphuism. u\fu.izm. Euphemism, il.fS'mUm, 

Euphuism, high-flown diction, affected conceits in language; 

euphuist, u'.fu.ist; euphuis'tic, euphuis'tical. 
Euphemism, a softening down of unpleasant expressions; 

euphemist, u'.fe.mist ; euphemis'tic, euphemis^ticaL 
The word comes from John Lilly's book, entitled EuphuSs (graceful 
[phrases and periods]. Greek eu phui, well-formed [periods]). 

Eoieka, a.ree'.kdh (not u'.re.kah, as Dryden writes the word in 
the line : " Cries Eureka I the mighty secret 's found." 
A discovery made alter long and laborious research. 
(The word should be heureka, Greek edpifKa, not eOfjriica.) 
The tale is that Hi'ero asked ArchimSdds to te«t a golden crown, 
whicb the monarch believed to have been alloyed with some baser 
metal. The philosopher one day stepping into his bath observed 
that his body removed its own bulk of water. Now for the solu- 
tion : As all alloys are lighter than gold, a golden crown alloyed 
will be larger than one unalloyed of the same weight. When this 
idea flashed across the philosopher's mind he is naid to have ex- 
claimed heureka I (I have hit on it). 

Enroclydon, u.rok'.liMn^ a tempestuous wind in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea (Acts xxvii. 14), now called the Levan'ter. 
Greek eurdkluddn {eurds kUvMn, east or south-east wave-[maker]). 
The word " seems to mean a storm from the east " (Diddell and SeoU). 

European, il.r6.pee\an, a native of Europe, pertaining to Europe. 

French europien; Latin Eurdpmis; Greek Eurdpda (eurds for eurtw 

dpnSf wide-spread vision, so called because it b^iolds many naiions. 

Eury- (the Lat. spelling of the Gk, euru-), broad, wide, ample. 

Eurynotus, il'.ri.no'\tus, certain pxtinct fishep in the coal 

formations, noted for their high bream-like back. 
Greek eurw ndtds, the big-back [fish]. 




AND OF SPELLING. 



Eurypterite, u.rip'.t^.nt^, a fossil crustacean, noted for its 
broad swimmers ; eurypteridfiB, u\rlp.ter'*ry.de, the genus. 
Greek e/wrm ptiSr^y wide wing, i.e., the *' creatuTe with wide o«r-like 
feet" (-ite in Oeology' means s fossil ; Greek lithas, a stone). 
Eustacliian, u.8tay\ktdn [tube], a tube which forms a communi- 
cation between the back of the mouth and the ear. 
So named from Barthohymew Eustachiv^, who discovered it in 1574. 
Euterpe, u.ter'.pe, the muse of music and inventor of the flute. 
GaUiope, kdV.li.8.pS (not kdl.li\o.pe, the epic muse). 
Greek hoUUdpi {kcUlot ops, [the Muse with the] beautiful voice). 
Clio, 1di*o, Muse of history. (Gk. kleid [/cZe^«, rumour, news] .) 
SratOf er^rd.to (not e.ray\td\ muse of love and the lyre. 
Greek irAtd, from ir&tds, beloved ; irHs, love. 
Euterpe, u.te'/.pe, the Muse of music. 
Greek euUrpi, delightful muse. 
Melpomene, mel.pdm\S.nS^ the Muse of tragedy. 
Greek in^pdmifnS [mousd], the dinging [muse], from ni^lpd, to sing. 
Polyhymnia, pdV.iMm'\nl.ahy the Muse of sacred poetry. 
Greek pOlH-umnla {pdltu humnoa, [muse of] many hymns). 
Terpsichore, terp.8ik'kS.rS, the Muse of dancing. 
Greek terpsi ehdrS, delighting In the dance (terp^, to delight). 
Thalia, thu.li'.ah (not thdWi.ah), the Muse of comedy. 
Greek thaleia [mousa], the blooming muse. 
Urania, u.rdnW.ah (not u.rdy\ni.ah\ muse of astronomy. 
The Latin form of the Greek o-wr&nia, the heavenly [muse]. 
Evacuate, B.vdk'ku.ate, to empty, to quit, to eject ; evac^uat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), evac'nat-ing (R. xix.), evac'iiat-or (R. xxxvii.) 
Evacuation, e.vdk'ku.d^'.shiin, a voiding, an emptying. 
Evacuative, e.vdk'ku.aMv ; evac'uant^ a purgative. 
French ^vcuyuant, ivacuatify ivacueTf ivcLcuation; Latin evAcuatio, 
evdctbdre (e vdctu), to empty out). 
Evade, g.rade', to elude ; evadT-ed, evad'-ing, evad'-er. 

Evasion, e.vay\zhitn, a subterfuge, a slipping aside; 

evasive, l,vay'.z\v ; eva'sive-ly, eva'sive-ness. 
French ivasif ("evasion" is not French); Latin evadSre^ supine 
evdsum,, evdsio (e vddo, to escape from). 
Evaluation, ^.vul\u.d'\shun, a complete valuation. 

Fr. ^^hXuation; Lat. evdleo, vdloty value (e- means "thorough"). 
Evanescent, e' .vdM^s'^sent, fleeting; evanes'cent-ly ; evanes- 
cence, e\vd.ni8*\$en8e (only six words end in -etise, R.xxvi.) 
French 4vanescent; Latin evaneseens, gen. evanescentis, v. ewmesco 
(all verbs in -sco are inceptive (e vanesco, to vanish wholly;. 
Evangelize, e.vdn' .ge.lize (not evangelise, Rule xxxii.), to con- 
vert to Christiarjity; evan'^gelized (4 syJ.), evan'gellz-ing 
(Rule xix.), evan'geliz-er ; evangelization, e.vun'.j^li.- 
zay''.8hun; evan'gelist; evangelism, e.vdn\je.lism. 



,y Google 



330 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Evangelical, t.vSn.j^".tkal, orthodox; evangel'loal-ly 

evangelic, t.vdn,jiV\lk^ of gospel tenonr. 
French 6vangdiqw, ivangile, Svcmgeliste, Svangeliser; Latin ««an- 
gilicHs, evangMsta, evangidium, evangel'm, evangHzza; Greek 
euaggilia^ eiuxggilikds, «uagg€li&n^ tuaggeiisUn, euaggf'lds, euaggi- 
Ifzo (eu agggUa, good tidingsX From the announcement to Uie 
shepherds, *' I bring yon good tidings ** (ciayycXl^fiai if /up). 
Evaporate, i.vap'.d.rate (not e,vd\p6.rate\ to pass off in vaptour; 
evap''orat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), evap'orat-ing (Rule xix); 
evaporation, l,vap\6.ray*' .shitn ; evaporative, e.vap'.6,' 
ra.tiv; evap^'orable; evaporometer, e.rap'.;i.r5m".^.tlr, an 
instrument to measure the amount of evaporation made. 
French 4vapordble. 4vaporer, Svaporatixm; Latin evdporaHo, §vdp<h 
rare {e odpdro, to send out vapours : vdpor, vapour). 
Evasion, e.vay\zhun; evasive, e,vd\zlv, (56« Evade.) 
Eve (1 syL); even, I'.v'n; evening, eve'.nlng, from midday to 
sunset, in popular language the gloomin<2^ which precedes 
night. The first half of the day is called morning. Eve 
(1 syL), eveniDg, a vigil, the evening preceding a church 
festivfid: as Christmas eve (the evening of December 
24tb), Midsummer eve (the evening before Miilsummer 
day). This U because the church begins the day firom 
sunset of the preceding day; even-tide, evening time. 
Old English </m or a^en, otfen-Ud, even-tide. 
Evection, Lv^'^shun (in Astron.), the libration of the moon. 

Latin evectio, a carrying out [of its orbit] from solar attraction. 
Even, e'.v*n (noun, adj., and adv.) Even (noun), evening. 

Even (arfj.), level, not odd ; even-ly, ^.v'ndy; e'ven-ness. 
(Tlie degrees are : nearly even^ more nearly even, very 
nearly even, quite even. " More even" and " most even " 
are the degree's of not even.) 
Old English cefen, ^enor^n; (adj.) ^enlic, smooth, equal; ^fanes, 
evenly, plainly ; ^enness (n.), evenness. The adv. is ^enlice. 
Evening, eve'.ning (2 syl.), not e'.vin.ing (3 syl.) 

Evening song, <&c. In this and all similar phrases, evening 
is not nn adjective, but a noun in regimen. It is in fact 
the "possessive case," but as we have abolished the 
possessive affix, except in nouns denoting animal life 
and nouns personified, the '« is omitted. 
Event, i.vSnf, an incident, a result ; event'-fnl (Rule viii.) 
Eventual, S.vSnf.u.alt consequential; event'ual-ly; 
Eventuality, e.v^\u.dV\i.ty, contingency. In Pkren, it 

denotes a quick perception of events and their results. 
Eventuate, S,vSnf .u.ate, to happen as a result or conse- 
quence ; evenfnat-ed (R. xxxvi.), event'uat-ing (R. xix.) 
French Sveutuel; Latin eventus, evfnlre, supine everUum (« vinio, to 
come out [aa a consequence]). 



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AND OF SPELLING. 331 

Ever, ft;'.er, always, at any time; For ever, always, eternally; 

For ever and ever, duration without beginning or end. 

Ever aAd anon, occasionally, from time to time, frequently. 

Ever so, or Never so (?). Which is correct : Be he ever so 
i£7i>e, or Be he never so wise f Both are correct. The 
former states the sentence aflBrmatively, and the latter 
negatively. " He refuses to hear the voice of the charmer, 
charm he never so wisely,** means "though he charms as 
no charmer ever did before," or "as never a charmer 
charmed before." "... charm he ever so wisely" means 
" though he charms as wisely as [the best] charmer ever 
charmed." The latter form is now the more usual, and 
is certainly more in accordance with English idiom. 

Old English 4f^ or dfre^ ever, alwayi. 
Ever- (a prefix), without intermission, never ending, perpetually. 

Evergreen, ^\Sr green, perpetually green, not deciduous. 

Everlasting, endless; everlasting-ly, everlastins^-ness. 

Evermore, Sv^er-more (3 syl.), always. 

Evert, e-verf, to turn aside, to overthrow ; everf-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
evert'-ing; eversion, e.vS/^hun; eversive, S.ver^j>iu, 
Latin everUre, supine eversum, evergio (e verto, to turn away fromX 
Every, ft;'.^.ry, all taken one by one, each one of several. 
Everyday, common, usual. Everywhere, in every place. 
A compound of the Ang.-Sax. afer and ale, ever- each, all one by one. 
Evesdropper, evz'.drop.per (is the better spelling, but eavesdrop- 
per is the more general), a sneak, a surreptitious listener. 
Old English ^ese, eaves ; tfes dropa (not afese). 
Evict, e.vikf, to dispossess by legnl proceedings ; evicf-ed (Rule 
^ xxxvi.), evict'-ing; eviction, e.v\k\shun. 
Fr. Eviction ; Lat. evictio, evietiu (e vinco, sup. vicium, to expel from). 
Evidence, Sv'.iAense, testimony, proof ; evident, ev\i.den,t ; 
ev'ident-ly; evidential, ^i;'.i.dcn".8/iaZ ; evldential-ly. 
To evidence, ev\i.dense, to show by proof; evidenced 

(3 syl.), ev'idenc-ing (Rule xix.) 
French ividtnce, ividmt; Latin evldetUia {vidto, to see). 
Evil, e'.vil (noun and a<^lj.), wickedness, calamity, wicked, calami- 
tous; e'viWy, e'vil-ness; evil-doer, a wicked person. 
Evil-eye, a malicious look, a look which has an evil influence. 
It was supposed at one time that certain persons possessed 
the power of darting noxious rays into the object glared at. 
Evil-minded, wrongly disposed, malicious. 
The Evil-One, the devil, Satan. 
Old English (fel or yfel, yfele, evilly ; yfelrus, evilness ; v. yfellianl. 



832 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Evinoe, ejvince\ to make evident ; evinced' (2 gyl.), evinc'-ing 
(Rule xix.), evinc'-ible, evinc'-ibly ; evincive, e.vln'.»lr. 
Latin tvincgre, to prove, to evince (e vinco, to vanquish wholly). 
The Wfird means to show what is right by the argumeKbwm ad 
dbsurdum, that is, by provini; the contrary to be wrong. 
Evi8ceiate,e .vis'^e.rate, to disembowel; evis'oerat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
evis^'cerat-ing; evisceration, t.vW .8ejray'\9hiin» 
Pr. 6vi9c4rert Hfiaciratwm; Lat. evi$cilrdtor. ei4scero (viscgrd, bowels). 
Evoke, e.voke\ to call ft^th ; evoked' (2 sjL), evok'-ing (R. xix.) 
Evocation, e\vo.kay*'jthun, the act of calling forth. 
French Evocation, Svoqaer; Latin evdcdtio, evdcdtor, evocdre (e voco). 
Evolve, S.v Slve't to imro]! ; evolved' (3 syl.). evolv'-ing, evolv'-er. 
Evolution, ev\o.lu^^hun, (in Algebra) th«' extraction of roots. 
Tbe_rever8e process is Involution. Thus — 
■ ^27y that is, find the cube root of 27 (viz., 3) is an 
example of .Evolution; but 3*, that is, raise 3 to the cube 
or third power (viE., 27) is an example of Involution. 
Evolutionary, ^.vo.lu''^hun*a,ry, pertaining to evolution. 
French ivolv4,ion; Latin evolverty supine evolutMvn, ewlutio (e volvo, 
to roll out or unfold ; in volvo, to roll on Litself J). In ihe example 
given, three is rolled three Umes on itself. 

Evulsion, S,vilV.8hun, the act of pulling or plucking out. 

French ifmUion; Latin evulsio <e vello, supine vulsum, to pull out). 
Ewe, Yew, You (pronounced alike). Yew, a tree. You, a pron. 
Ewe, pronounced u (not yow to rh>Tne with grow), a ft^male sheep. 
Bam or Tup, the sire ; female ewe ; offspring ^ lamb ; if a 

male it is a tup-lamb, fem. a ewe-iiunb. 
After being weaned, lambs are called hoggets [or lioggs] ; 

the male is a tup-hogget, the /cm. a ewe-hogget. 
After removal of the first fleece both are shearlings. 
After removal of the second fleece the male is a two-ahear- 

tup (if castrated a wether), the fem. is a ewe. 
Old English eovm, plu. eowa, a ewe ; eow, you ; iw, the yew-tree. 
Ewer, M'.«r, a toilet jag, a cream-pot Your, u\er (pron.) 

Ewery, it.ry, one of the royal household who serves water 

in ewers after dinner, and has charge of th« table-linen. 

Old Eng. htter or hwer, a ewer or jug. " Your," tower; Germ. ener. 

Ex- (Lat. and Gk. v^etix), out of, out, proceeding from, off of, 

beyond. Occasionally it is intensive. Added to the 

names of office it means that the office was once held by 

the person named, but is no longer so : as ex-mayor. 

Ex- is written ef- before an " f," and e- before the liquids 

and the consonants c, d, ^, j, and v. 
The Greek prefix is written ec- before c, and in one example 
{eccentric) the Latin prefix is so written also. 




AND OF SPELLING. 



Exacts ex.a€f, precise, to extort ; exaef-ly, ezact^-ness ; 
exact'-ed, exacf-ing; exaction, ex,dk\8}mn; exact'-or. 
Bxactitnde, ex.uJ^.ti.tudey precision. 

French exact, exaction, exactitude, exaeteur; Latin txacHo, exactor, r. 
exigo, snpine exactvan {ex ago^ to drive on [to the end]). 

Exaggerate, ex.afje.rate, to overstate the truth ; exag'gerat-ed 
(Rule XXX vi.), exag'gerat-ing (Rule xix.), exag^gerat-or, 
exag'geratory; exag'gerative, ex.afje.ra.tiv; exaggera- 
tion, ex.afje.ray'*.8huny overstatement. 
French exagSrer (wrong), exagimtien, exagSratif: Latin exagg&rdtio, 
exnyg^dtor, exaggSrdre (agger, a pile or heapX ^he French word 
is nonsense, being a compound of ager, a field. 

Exalt, ex.oW, to elevate; exalt'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), exal^'ted-ness, 

exalt^-ing, exalf-er; exaltation, ex\ol,tmf"^a}wn. 
Examine, ex.dm\^n, to somtintse, to test by trial; examined, 
exMmWnd; exam'in-ing, examln-er, exam'inant 
Examination, ex.cim'd.nay^ ^hxm ; exam'en, the tongue or 

needle of the beam of a balance, examination. 
Fr. examination, examiner; Lat. examen, exdmfndtio, exdmindre. 
Example, ex.dm\p'l, a pattern. (Fr. exemple ; Lat. exemplum.) 
(It is a pity that this word is cut off by false spelling from 
its congeners.) See Exemplar. 
Exasperate, ex.ds'.pe.rate, to irritate ; exas'perat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
exas'perat-ing ; exasperation, exMs'.pe.ray" .shun, 
Fr. exa,8p&rer, exasperation: Lat. exasperatio, excuperdre (asper, rough). 
Ex cathedra, ex kath\^.drah, with dogmatic authority. 

Latin ex cathidra; Greek ex katMdra, from the [papal] chair. 
Excavate, ex\kd,vate, to dig out; ex'cavat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
ex'cavat-ing, ex'cavat-or (Rule xxxvii.), one who exca- 
vates ; excavation, ex\ka.vay'\8kun, a digging out. 
flench excaver, excavation ; Latin excdvdtio, exca/vdre (cAvea, a cave). 
Exceed, to go too far, to excel ; exoeed'-ed (Rule xxxvi.) ; 
exceed'-ing, going too fur, excelling, (ac^j.) very large, 
{adv.) extremely ; exceed'ing-ly. 
Excessive, ex.8(6s\siv; exces'sive-ly, exces'sive-ness ; ex- 
ces'sive-ly, extremely; excess', superabundance. 
{Exceed, proceed, and succeed, end in -ceed, but all other 
compounds ot cedo end in -cede. Rule xxvii.) 
Latin excedo, supine exeesgium (ex cedo, to go forth [too far^ French 
excbs, excesMi/; Latin excesaus. 

Excel, ex.8eV, to surpass; excelled' (3 syl.), excell'-ing (R. iv.) 
Excellent, ex'.cel.lent ; ex'cellent-ly, expedience. 
Excellency, pH. excellencies (Rule xliv.), ea^.8H.Wn.8iz. A 

title of address given to viceroys, ambassadors, <fec. 
French exceller, excellence, excellent; Latin exceUene, gen. excellBntis, 
excellentia, v. exceUSre {ex ceUo, to break or go beyond). 



884 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

{''Excel" ought to have doMhle -<, m it comes from the Latin ceUo, 
*' to go beyond "; and not from celo, " to hide."} 

Ezoelsior (Lat) Longfellow's poem has given to this word the 
Bjeauing of ** my aim is always higher still." 

Exoentric {ex.tenf,trik) is the better spelling, but eocentrio the 
more general (See Eccentric) 

Except. ex.t^t\ unless, without, exclusive of, to pass over, to 
leave (lut; except'-ed (R. xxxvL), excepf-ing ; exoepf-or; 

Exception, ex^ip\8hunj not according to rule, an objection ; 

E!Ecep'tion-able (Rule xxiii.), liable to objection; 

Unexcep'tion-able, free from objection; 

Excep'tiCn-al, forming an exception. 

Bxcept, Unless. I will not let thee go except thou blet$ 
met or "unless^ thou bless me. Both these are Rram- 
maticiil. ** I will not let thee go, Except this- proviso, 
viz. thnt thou bless me." Here except is the imperative 
mood of the verb. " Unless'* is preferable. 

French except er, exception, exceptionnel ; Latin exceptio, v. exdpiere, 
supine exceptum (ex cdpio, to take out). 

Excerpted, ex,8erp*,ted, expurgated, selected ; excerpf-or. 

Excerptions, ea;.8^rp'.«Auf», [literary] selections ; excerpta. 

Latin txcerpo, to pick out (earpo, to coll), excerptio, excerpta. 
Excess^ superfluity ; excessive, ex^sis'Mv. (See Exceed.) 

Exchange, ex.tchange', to bnrter, to ^ve one thing for another ; 

exchanged' (2 syL), exchang'-ing (R. xix.), exchang'-er. 
Exchange -able (-ce and -ge retain the -e final before -ahUf 

Rule XX.); exchangeability, exdchang^.a.hlV\i.ty, 
Bill of Exchange, a written promise on stamped paper to 

pay a stated sum of money within a stated time. 

'Change, the Royal Rxchange for money brokers. 

French ichange, eehangeable ; Latin camHre; Low Latin axmiridrt, 
to exchange ; cambium, a change ; cambltas. 

Exohequerj ex.tchW,er, a treasury, (colloquially) funds in 
hand. Oonrt of Exchequer, hns jurisdiction in aU cases 
affecting the public revenue; Exdieqner Chamber. 

French ichiquier, oour de Viehiquier," It was denominated Seaeed- 
rium, from Mcacrum (a chess-board), and was so called from a 
checkered cloth laid on tha table of the court."— if odoae. 

, ex-size' (Rule lix.), a tax on articles of home production. 
(adj,) pertaininsr to such a tax ; excisable (Rule xxiii), 
ex.8ize'.a,b'l; excised, ex.s\zd'; excls'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Excision, exMzh'.un^ amputation, a cutting off. 
French eaxise^ excision; Latin exelMo, excldire, to cut off (ex et»do). 




AND OF SPELLING. 335 

Sxcite, ex.8%te^, to stimulate ; excit'-ed (Knle xxxvi.), exolt^-ing, 
excif ing-ly, exclt^-er, tooit'-able, excit'able-ness, ex- 
cit'ably; excitability, excite' .aMV\\.ty ; excif-ant; 
excitation, fx'.si'Aay^^.shun; excite'-ment. 

French excitdbUUd, excitable, excitant^ txeitaiion, exeitatif, exetter: 
Lai excUdtio, excitana, gen. excUaniis, excUare (ex cieo, to stir np). 

Exdaim' (3 syl.), exclaimed' (3 syl.), exdaim'-ing^ excUum'-er. 

Exclamation (not exclaimation), ex'Mla.may'' jihufL 

Exdamatiye, ex.kldm\aMv ; exclam'atory. 

^nch exclamation: Latin exildrndtio^ exddmdre {damo, to call). 
Exclude, ex.klude', to shut out; exdud'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
exclud'-ing (Rule xix.), exdud'-er; 

Exdusion, exMu'jsMn; exdn'sion-ary, excln^sion-igt; 

Excluedve, ^x.klu'Mv ; exclu'siye-ly, exdu'siye-neas. 

French exclvMon; Latin excluHo, exdado (ex daudo, to shut out). 

Excogitate, exMf.ttate, to think deeply on a Buhject, to think 
till tlie soluti -n is discovered; excog'itat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
excog^itat-ing (R. xix.); excogitation, ex.kdf.i.tay^'^hun 
(one of the few words in -Hon which is not French), 
tiatin excdgltdtio, exeOgitdre {ex edgito, to think out). 

Bxocnnmunicate, ex\k6m,mu'\nl.kdte, to exclude froni church 
"communion"; excommu'nicat-ed ( R. xxxvi.), excommn'- 
nicat-ing ; excommunication, ex\k(5m.mu\ni.kay'' .shun, 

Excommuhication, Interdict, Anathema. 
Individuals are "excommunicated," or excluded from 
church privileges ; 

The clergy is " interdicted," or forbidden to administer 
to persons under excommunication, and persons excom- 
municated are interdicted or forbidden to receive the 
sacraments. A nation is laid under nn "interdict," or 
deprived of church privileges, but not "excommunicated." 
"Anathema," the curse accompanying excommunication. 

Lesser excommunication,prohibition to receive the eucharis*;. 

Greater excommunication, exclusion from all the rites, 
ceremonies, and services of the church. 

Ft. excomihunieation, excommunier ; Lat. ezeommuntcdtio, ewcom- 
m&nicdre (communion conununion ; com mwiitu, a mntual benefit). 

Excoriate, ex.ku'.rl.ate, to abrade the skin; exco'riat-ed, 
exco'riat ing; excoriation, ex.kd\ri.a'^.8hun, abrasion. 
Fr. excorier, excoriation; Lat. excdridre (ex coriutn, [loss] of the skin). 

Exoortication, ex.kot'.ti.kay^'.sTiun, denudation of the bark; 

excorticated, ex.kor^.tukaded, stripped of its bark. 

Fr«nch exeorticaiion; (Latin ex cortex, [depiived] of its bark). 



d by Google 



836 ERRORS OF SPEECE 

Excrement, eaf .hri.mHt, animal soil ; excrement'al, Yo^ed as 
excrement; ezorementitioTU, es^ ,krSjninJliBh'\iiit of tbe 
nature of excrement. 
Excrete, ex.kreef^ to discharge from the body ; excref -ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), excref-ing; excretSoii, ex,kre€^^hun ; 
excretive, ex.kreei'.tlv ; excretory, ex.kree'.tH.ry, 
Vt. aterinuTU, txerim&nHtiel, excrition, exer€M/n ; Lst. excrinmiium, 
excritio, v. excemire, supine exeritum, to purge from [the body]. 

Excrescenoe, ex.kr&'^ense (not ex.kree'. sense), a tumour. 

Excrescency, plu. excrescendes, ex.krSs' ^(iru^ (Rule xliv.) 
Excrescent, ex.krSs* ^&fit (not ex.kree'^^t). 
Lat. excreseeTis, gen. excreacentis, ex cresco, to grow out [of the body]. 
Excrete, exxreet'; excretion, exxree\shun. (See Excrement. ) 
Excruciate, eg.kru'M.ate, to torment; excru'ciat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
excru'ciat-ing (R. xix.) ; excmciable, ex.kru'jita,Vl, 
Excruciation, ex.kr5,\si.d^\shun. (Not a French word.) 
Latin excr&cidbilis, excrHcidre, sup. excr&ddtum (crux, a cross). 
Exculpate, ex,kuV,pate, to exonerate ; excul'pat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
excul'pat-ing (R. xix.); exculpatory, ex.kul.pd.tS.ry ; 
exculpation, ex'.kul.pay''^hun. (Not a French word.) 
Latin exeulpdre {ex culpa [to free] from blame); French diseulper. 
Excursion, ex.kd/ .shun, a pleasure trip ; excor'sion-ist. 
Excursive, exJzvyMv ; excur'sive-ly, excnr'sive-ness. 
Fr. excursion; Lat. excv/rsio, excursdre (curaua, a running [aboat]). 
Excuse, (noun) €X.kitce\ (verb) ex.kuze' (Rule li.), an apology, 
to pardon, to dispense with ; excuse'-less. exJtuce'.less. 
Excused, ex.knzdf; excds'-ing (Rule xix.), excus'-er, 

excus-able, ex.kmef.a:b'l; exou'sable-ness, excusably. 
Excuse my writing more, or Excuse my not writing more (?) 
Both these are correct, but the former is more agreeable 
to our English idiom. Excuse [dispense with] my writ- 
ing more, so excuse [dispense with] my attendance; but 
excuse [pardon] my not writing more, excuse [pardon] my 
absence. The rule is excuse [dispense with] the perform- 
ance ; excuse [pardon] the non-performance. 
French excusable, exc%iser, excuse; Latin excdsdre, excusdbUis (ex 
causa, [free] from motive). 
Execrate, ex'.e.krate, to detest, to curse ; ex'ecrat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
ex'ecrat-ing (R. xix.) ; execrable, eaf.e.krd.h% detestable ; 
ex'ecrably; execration, ex' .e.kray" .shun ; ex'ecratory. 
French exicrahle, exScration; Latin execrdbUis, exeerdtio, execrdri 
(ex 8(UT0y the reverse of " consecrate"; sour, sacred). 

Execute, ex\e.kute, to perform, to put to death ; ex'eciit-ed (R. 
xxxvi), ex'ecut-ing (R. xix.) ; executory, ex'tku.i6.ry. 




A'siy OF sPEUrmf. m 

Ezeoalive, exJP^.u,tS9, the gOT«mmg body ; ea;eGr«U^e4y. 
Ezecntor, fern, exeoatriz, ett.in^Mdor, sxjns'.uJrix, one 
appointed to oArtj out the " Will" of a deoeaaed person. 
Bxecutor-ship, ea.^lf.u.ior^Bhip. ('■ahip, " offioe.") 
Bzeeation^, eaf.eM'^shHii.er, an official kangman. 
Exeontion, eaf.e.kt/\8htm, capital ptmiehment, performance, 
jnrendi txicuter, execution, ex4cuiteibr (exeoator and acecationer), 
exicutrice, exScutif, ex^cuMre; Latfn txifoOtio, esMifeator^ ▼. ex^pior, 
•upine exeeiUum, (ex iiquor, to toUXow outX 
Exegesis, esf.e.jeef*si8j a critical explanation [of a Scripture text J ; 
ezefi^tical, e9f,e,j^t"A.haU expository ; exeget'ical-ly. 
Franch ett^giaet exdgHique; Greek extgiiU {exigttM, a guide). 
Exemplar, ex.em\plar, something to be copied, a model ; 

Exemplary, eafJim.pVl.ry (not ex.emf.pl&jry), worthy of imi. 

tation ; ex^emplf^4y (Bule xi.), ex'em^ari-ness. 
Exemplify, ex,^\pU.fy, to show by example; exemplifies 
(Rule xi.), ex^^'.pll.flze ; exemplified) fi«.^^l)2t./u2« ; 
exem^'plifi-^r (Bnle xi,), exem'plfiE^-ing (Bule xi.), ex- 
emplification, €a.^m\pli.Jl,kay'\9hun (not a French word). 
Sxempli gratift (contracted to «.p., or ex.gr. \, ex.4m'.pl% 

gra'jshe.at for instance, take for example. 
Entmple, ex.am\p'l (tbe one exception) is Ul-spelt 
Frendi exemplairt, ewmfle; Latin exemplvm, exemplar, exempUbn. 
" Exemplify," exemplum facto [gee -fy], to give an example. 
Exempt', to except, not included ; exompt^-ed, ezempt'-ing. 
Exemption, ex.^p'jihun, immunity. (Followed hj from.) 
French exempt, exempter, exemption; Latin exemptio, ▼. eaplhn^ 
supine exemptum (ex emo, to buy out). 
Exequies (no sing.), ex.^^.kwiz, funeral rites. [See Obsequies. ^ 

Latin exifquioe (no sing.); French ob^q^es. 
Exercise, ex\er^ize (Bule lix.), bodily exertion to promote 
health, a written lesson, sornething to be practised; 
(verb) to exert, to discipline ; ex'ercised (3 syl.), ex'er- 
<S8-ing (Bule xix.), ex'erdB-er, ex'erds-able ; exerdta- 
tion, ex' .er.8i.tay'\8lmny practice. (Not a French word.) 
French exerdce (with -ce), exercer; I«atin exercitaHo, exercitio and 
exereitium, exerdre {ex arceo, to drive forth). 
Exergue (French), ex.erg' (in Numismatics), the loWer limb of a 
coin or medal, separated by a line from the face, and 
used for the date, and other sub^iary matter. 
Greek ex erg(fn, out of the work proper. {U would de far better with' 
9ui the mnch -ue, wfaiob is quite un-Eoi^h, and mi3lea48.) 

Brorf , to use effort ; exert'-ed (R xxxvi.), ezert'-ing, exert'-er. 

EzeriJon (not exersion), ex.^'skwn, efftiit. (Not a Fr. wonl ) 

Latin emrtSre (frequentative of exgro, ex eero), to thrust out or put 

forth. This word has no oonnexioii with eaper«is<, although in 

' VruMh the two are confounded. 

T 



8)8 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Ezfbliate, ex.fd'.U.ate, to scale off; ezfoliat-ed (Bnle zzxtL), 
^oliat-ing (Bole xix.); ezfoliation, ex,fa^M.a"^Jwn, 
Ft. €^olUr, eafoUation (Lat emfdlium, [to throw] off Imtm orscalMX 
Ezbale, ex.haW (not ex.altf\ to reek, to send forth vapour ; 
exlialed' (2 bjL), exhal'-ing (Rule xix.), ezhal'-ant 
Exhalation, evf JhaXay" Jihun (not e^ Mday^' .shun), 
French exkalaHon, eahdUr, exhdUnU ; Latin exhaUuu, gen. exhdUuUit, 
egduUatio, taduM/rt (Mmw, breath, vapoar). 
Bzhanst, exJuiutIf (not ex.au8V)y to expend; ezhanst^'-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), exhanaf -ing, exhansf-er, exhausT-leflB. 
B^iaiistion, ex.hatW.tchun; exhanstiye, ex,hatu'.tiv, 
Frendi exhaiutUm; Latin exhauitio, exhaurio, sapine eaAaiu(«m (em 
hawrio, to draw from, to draw out liquids). 
BzhiMt, ex.hWM (not ex,W.U\ to show, to display ; exhiblt-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), exhiblt-ing; exhibitive, €x,Mb\it.iv. 
Exhibiter,«B./*l6'.tt.lr(better-or,R.xxxvii.),onewhoexhibit8; 
Exhibitioner, eafM.bUh'\Sn.€r, a scholar's pension. • 
Exhibition, eaf M.hUh" ,un, a public show, a pension for 

scholars; exhibitory, exMb\i.td.ry. 
French fxhiber, exhibition, exhibitoire; Latin exhWttio, ccMftOor, 
exhXbire, supine exMbltum (ex haJbeo, to have out). 
Exhilarate, ex.hU\e,rate {not ex.H', crate), to cheer; exhil'a- 
rat-ed, exhil'arat-ing (Rule xix.), exhil'arating-ly. 
Exhilaration, exMV .e,ray" ,shun (not a French word); 

exhil'arat-or (Rule xxxvii.), exhil'arant. 
Latin exMUfrdtiOt exhUifrdtor, exMldrdre (Mldro, to make merry). 
Exhort, ex.horf (not ex.orf), to incite to good works ; exhort'-ed, 
exhorf-ing, exhorf-er; exhortative, ex.hor\td.ilv, 
^ixhortation, eafJuyrday^^shun; exhortatory, ex.h<ti^.ta,t6.ry' 
French exhortation, exhortaiif, exhortoire, exhorter; Latin exhortoHc, 
es^ortdri {hortor, Greek 6rto, part of the verb omUmi, to stir up). 
Exhume, ex.hume' (not ex.ume'), to disinter ; exhumed (3 syl.), 
exhum'-ing (Rule xix.) ; exhumation, exf,hu.may".shun. 
French exhumer, eahumaiicn; Latin ex hUmArt, to disinter QvOmiu). 
Exigency, j>2u. exigencies, esfA,jln.i\z, a necessity ; exigence, 
ex'Xjence; exigent, ex^Xjent; exigible, ex\tj{,b'L 
Lat. exigens, gen. exigentix, exigifre; Fr. exigeant, exigence, exigible. 
Exile, ex'.Ue, one banished, place of banishment, to banish; 
exiled, ex'.Ud; ezU'-ing (Rule xix.), exile'-ment. 
Fr. exikr, exU; Lat exUiwn, exiUdre, exul (ex tolum, from the soil). 
Exisf , to live, to be ; exisf -ed, exisf-ing, exist'-ence, exiBf -enl 
Fr. exiiter, exitteuUiwnmg), exietenee; Lat. exirtent, gen. -entit, existSrt. 
Exit, plu. exeunt ** Exit," a stage direction for the speaker to 
leave the stage. Exeont, ear'.^.tlEnt, more than one to leave. 
Exennt omnei, eafXtua om'Mfz, all the actors to leava 



Digitized by ^OOQIC 



ASD OF SPELLING. $89 

£xo- (a Greek prefix), ont of, on the outside, ont from. 

Exodus, eaf,8.d&8, a departure from a place. (Should be 

exhodus according to our English system.) 
Qreek ex hddda, the way out ; hi Qreek i^oSos. 

Ex officio (Lat.), ex of.fisK.Lo (not o,fisW,i,o\ by virtue of 
office. As the Lord Mayor of London is '* ex officio " 
member of the privy council. 

Exogens, eaf.oJ^St plants (like timber trees) which grow in 
bulk by concentric layers, each year being marked by a 
layer outside the previous ones. 
Endogens, en'.do.jhis, plants (like reeds) which increase in 

bulk by pith formed within the plant. 
Exogenous, ex.Sj'. emits; exog'enite, a fossil plant of the 
exogenous structure. {Me (in Geol.)t a fossil, Gk. lithoi.) 
Ok. exo- gifnd, to produce from the outside ; endo- gind, .... inside. 

Exonerate, ex 5n\e,ratet to exculpate ; exon'erat-ed (R. xxxvl), 
exon'erat-ing (B. xix.) ; exoneration, ex,8n'.e.ray".8hun. 
Lat exdnerare (dhmt, a burden) " Exoneration " not French. 
Exorbitant, ex,oj^M,tant, enormous, unreasonable; exorTri- 
tant-ly, exorl>itance (4 syl.), exor'bitancy. 
French exorbitant; Latin exorUtanSj gen. exorbitantis, exorbitare (tm 
orbitOf out of the way). 

ExGrcise, esf^oraize (not ex.<y/Mze.) Ex'erdse) to practise. 

Ex'orcise, to expel evil spirits ; ex'ordsed (3 syl.), ex'orols-ing. 

Ex^orolB-er, an exorcist ; ez'ercls-er, one who exercises. 

Exorcism, ex'.orMzm^ the act of exorcising ; ex'orcist. 

French exorciser, exorciate, exordame: Greek exorklao^ exorkiatit 
{orkda, an oath). 

Eznrdium, plu, exordiums (not exordia), ex.or^.d%.umy the intro- 
duction of [a speech]; exordial, ea;.o/.(2i.a 2, introductory. 
Latin exordium (prdior, to begin, from (trior, to adse); Fr. earordt. 

Exosmose, eaf.oz.mose, the transmission of a fluid to the outside 

of a membrane or other porous substance; exosmotie, 

exr,d8.m6r.ik (adj.) 

Endosmose, en'Ms.rndse, the transmission of a fluid to the 

interior surface of a membrane or other porous substance. 

Or. exo- 6am68t Impulsion outwards ; endo- dsmds, impulsion inwards. 

Exostome, eaf.os.tom (in Botany), the passage through the outer 
integument of the ovule (3 syl.) 

Greek ex6 atdma, out of the foramen or month. 
Exostosis, ex.os'.t8^l8 (not ex.5s.td'.8U), a tumour of the bone. 

Greek ex Md- (and the afflzX a growth oat of the bone. 



M FinROns OF SPEECH 

Exoteric eaf.o.t^'jfiK public ; exoterical, 0afJ6.t^jry.kdl,r 
•zoteridzm, «a;^^.t^^ry^{^m. Opposed to Eaoterio, 
h\o.t^\HK (The o in these words is long in the Gk.) 
Pjthagoras stood iMhipd • curtain when be lectared ; those admitted 
"within the veil*' were called his taoterie disciples, those outside 
his txoterit. 
Aristotle f^pUed the word €90teric to the disciples who attended his 
abstruse morning lectures, and exoteric to those who attended onlj- 
his popular evening ones. 
Greek exmrik68, {fxdt^rdi, outer) ; eadUHMs (esdUfrda, innerX 
Sixotio, exM'.lk, foreign, applied to hothouse plants. 

Indigenous, in.dif.eMua, natiye, applied to natiYe plants. 

(The -o- in "exotic'* is long in the Greek,) 
French exotique; Grwk exdtikda; Latin evdtietu, from a foreign land. 
Expand', to spread ; expand'-ed (Hole xxxvL), e3q»and'-iiig. 
Expanse, ex.pance\ extent ; expansion, ex.pan'^hun ; 
expamdve, ex-pdn'Mv ; expan'siye-ly» expan'siye-ness ; 
expansible, ^a;.j)a7i'.8<.&'l; expan'sible-ness, expan'sibly ; 
■' expansibility, ex.'pan\siMV\i.ty. 

Fr. expansibiliU, expansion, expansif; Lat. expandfre^ supine ex- 
pansion,, expanaio, expanswm. the firmament (etc pando^ to open out). 
Ex parte (Lat.), ex parade, one-sided: as an ex parte $tatement. 
Jixpatiate, ex,pa8h\l.ate, to enlarge on ; expatiated (R. xxxvi), 
expatlat-ing (Bule xix.), expatiat-or; expatifitory, 
ex.pa8h''.i.d.t6.ry ; expatiation, ex.pdsh'd.d'^shun. 
Latin expdtiOH, to wander forth ; expdtidtor (paasm, a footstepX 
Expatriate, ex.p&1^.ri,ate (not ex.pd\tri,ate\ to banish; ex- 
pafriat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), expat'riat-ing (Rule xix.;; 
expatriation, ex.pat' ,ri.a*' .shun, banishment. 
Fr. expairier, expalHalioniJjBX. expdtrid, [driven] from one's country). 
jBxpect'. to look out for, to hope; expecf-ed (Rule xxxvi), ex- 
pect'-ing, expect'ing-ly ; expeot'-er, one who expects ; 
expect'*«nt, one who expects a berth; expectation, 
^ ex'.pe1t^,tay'\8hun; expecf-anoe ; expectancy, plu. 

expectanciea (Rule xliv.), ex,piWMn^l», 
ISxpeot, Suspect. Expect is often misused fbr suspect (to 
■) be of opinion): bs I expect [suspect] he is wrong. 1 ex- 
pect [suspect] he was disappointed, ... was guilty. 
Fr. expectaUon; Lat. expeoMi.tio, expect&re {ex apecto, to look out for). 
ISxpectorate, ex.pik'.td.rate, to spit out; expec'torat-ed (Rule 
, xxxvi.), expec'tor&t-ing (Rule xix.),expec'torat-or; expec- 
toration, «c.^g/c'.to.roy".a7it*n; expectoratiye, ex.p^/('.t5.- 
^ ra.tiv ; expec'torant, a medicine to promote expectoration . 

French expectorant, expedorer, expectoration; Latin expeetorOn 
{pecttu, the chestX 
Expedient, ex.pt. dtent, proper, necessary, a shift ; ezpe'dienoo. 
Expediency, plu. ezpediendes, ex.pt. di.enMM. 



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AND OF SPm^lNG. WW 

^»dU4, to hMten; ez'pedit-ed (R. xxxvi-X 
(R. xix«), ex'pedite-4y; ezpeditioii, ex'.pi.- 
peditioiia, ex'.pejXUh.w ; expeditiouB-ly. 
, eacpidier, expedition; Latin expSdttio, y. exp^irt, 
m {pe$, gan. pidiB, a foot, ** to put the l<iot forth) **. 

; expelled' (3 syL), ezpell'-ing, expell'-er. 
&l'.Bhun; ezpnlsiye, ex.pUJ^Mv. 
Ud he better with double I, Latin pelI[o|). 
I, txpuUff, r. eKpuismr,' lAtia ccqiuMo, expello, 
%, to drive oat or awaf. 

loney ; expend'-ed (R. xxxviX expend'-ing . 

s,p&ii'.d^tehiir, disbursement of money. 

.) not esspenee, cost. (One of the six words 

one of the four compoaodt of "peme (Rule 

peDse" is not a eompound of "pence," 

atraction of pennies, (Oerman phennig,) 

Sn'aXv ; ezpen'siTe-ly, expen'sive-neag. 

nswBHf y. txpwdirt {pmda, to weigh out [moaej]). 

.ence. practical knowledge, to know practi- 

Bnoed (4 syL), expe'iienc-ing. {See Expert ) 

.pS/ryjnunU trial, to try, to essay ; experi* 

>eriment-ing. 

ix,p^ry,m^.tUU one who tries experiments ; 

iX,pSr^ry.men'*Jtal ; experimen'tal-ly ; 

»a, €x,pSt^Ty*m&ii.tay"jihwa, experimental 

e, ex^i^ryjm^n'M.Viv ; experimentatlYe-ly. 

crnds (Latin), ex,p^r^ry.inendum kru^^is, a 
ment, a severe or decisive test 

that two diseases or Miencee nay nm parallel tor 

ultimately eroM.) 

J experienoed a change is nonsense, as to 
is to learn by trial or |>ereonal knowledge. 
i, txpMmente, tapirimieiUer, experimmtaX : Latia 
^rivMKbum, a^irlH, mperiHs ( fgrUm, tkilf ol). 

one skilled in deciphering... ; ex.pert' (a4i.), 

rf -ly, expert^-neaa. 

atitt txpeHuB (y.s.) 

» atone fbr; ex'^t-ed(R.xxxyi),ex'piat-ing 

\A^Joak^t9f,pli.d",»hun; expiatiTe, tfas'.|»ia.tiv 

MJfl^ that may be atoned for; 

^JUA^ry^ haying power to make atonement 

M,i&rt one who makes atonement 

it. tapiSMUt, eoBpidtfo, txpi&n (|>w>, to puige^. 




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mr ERRORS OF SPEECH 

« 

Expiie' (2 syl.), to die; expired' (3 syl), explf.iiig (Rule xix.) ; 
Expiration, eaf.p%.ray"j(hun, exhalation, conclaaion; 
Expirable, ex.pi\ra.b'l ; expi'ry, the end; exprratozy. 
Fr. ea(2>irer, expiration: Lat. explrdtio, expirdre ($piro, to breathe). 
Explain', to expound ; explained', explain'«ing, explain'-er; 
explain'-able (1st Lat. conj.), capable of being explained. 
Explanatory (not explainatory), ex.planMM.ry, 
Explanation (not explaination), ex\pla.nay"jBhun (not Fr.) 
Latin expl&nSbiliiy exptdndtio, expldnare (ptdnug, plain). 
Expletive, ex'.plS.Vlv (not ex.pleeWlv), a supernumerary word 
(oaths and exclamations are expletives) ; ex'pletory, 't*ry^ 
Fr. expUtif; Lat. expUtivtu, taepUo^ supine tsepHH/H.'Oi (pU4>, to fill). 
Explicate, ex'. pit. kate, to explain; ex'^cat-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
ex'plicat-ing; explicable, ex\ptt,kd.b'l (not ex,plik',d.b% 
Explication, ex'.pli.kay"jBhun; explicative, eaf.pU.ka.tiv. 
Ex'plicat-or;explicatory,ex'.j)ZJf./fa.t'ry(not<!a;.pK*'.a.torVy), 
Explicit, ex.plUWty distinct, phiin; expliclt-ly.expliclt-nesB. 
Fr. expliquer, explication, expticatif, explicateur, explicite; Lat. expU- 
cdhtlis, explicdiio. explidUoTf explicit, explicdre (eapltco, to unfold). 

Explode, ^x.plodfi', to burst forth with sudden violence ; explod'-ed 
(R. xxxvi.),expl6d'-ing,expl6d'-er; expl6d'-ible(not -able). 

Explosion, e:r.plc>'.s7iun; explosive, ex.pl&^.^ii;; explo'sive-ly, 

explo'sive-ness, liability to explode. 

Fr. exploeion; Lat. ewpWHo, expl6dUfi% sap. efspUnim(p2atMfo, todap). 

Exploit' (2 syl.)» an heroic deed, an achievement (Fr. Lat expUtio), 

Explore' (2 syl.), to examine ; explored' (3 syl.), explor'-ing, 

explor'-er; exploration, ex' ,pld.ray"^.8hun ; explorator, 

ex.plor^ra.tor (not ex.plo.ray\tor) ; explor'atory. 

F^nch exploration, explorer; Latin expl&rdtio, e»pl6rdtor, explordm. 

"Es^loAoTii ex,pW ^hun ; explosive, ex.p^'.«it;. (/Se^ Explode.) 

Exponent, ex.pS'.n^nt, an interpreter, the index of a number : 
thus in a^, 2^ the 3, 5 are the exponents of a and S. 
Latin eapSnene, gen. eSfpOnenHa (empOnire, to put or spread ontX 

Export, (noun) ex',portf (verb) ex,porf, goods sent to a foreign 
market, to send goods to a foreipm market ; export'-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), exporf-ing, exporf-er, export'-ablo (let 
Latin conjugation), exportation, ex'.por.tay"^hun, 
French exporUr, exportation; Latin exportdtia, exportdre (exported 

Expose, ex,p5ze', to exhibit; exposed' (2 syl.), ezpoB'-ing; 
expos'-er, one who exposes or discloses. 

Exposore, ex.pd^Jth&r ; expositar, ex,p9z\i.torf expoe'itory. 

l^zpoBitiim, tfof.p^jtisA'^.im, an interpretation, a public display. 




AND OF SPELLING. «« 

BxpoBitiTe, ex.jpliz'X.^; exposednesB, ex,f^.ziSd.nen. 
Ezpo86, ex.pS'jsa (French), a laying bare of secret acts. 
Ezponnd' (2 syl.), to interpret ; exponnd'-ed, exponnd'-er. 
French eaeposer, exposition; Latin MpdaUio, expositor, expdngre. 
Expostulate, ex.pHs' tu.latey to rem onstrate. (Followed by with) ; 
expos'tnlat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), expocr'tiilat-iiig (Role xix.) 
ExpoBtnlation, ex,po8\lu.lay".8httn ; expoB'tnlat-or (Biile 

xxxvii.); expoBtulatory, ex.pS8'\tu.la.t'ry, 
Latin expostOMtiOt expoatHldtor, expotHUdre {poat&lo, to beteechX 
Expound'; exposure, ex.pu'jshur, (See Expose.) 
Express', a special railway train, a special messenger, to utter, 
to delineate in words or otherwise, to squeeze out; 
expressed' (dsyl.), ezpress'-ing, express'-ly, express'«ness. 
Expression, ex.pr&'^hun, a mode of speech, the phaze of 
the countenance, the soul of music, the representation of 
a quantity, a {squeezing out; expressive, ex.preaa'iv ; ex- 
presslve-ly, express'ive-ness, express'-ible, expresslbly. 
Fr. expria, expresaiont expres$if: Lat expre8»io,€XpHmo, sup. expreasum 
(ex primo, to press out, to draw out, hence to ponrttaj). 

Expulsion, ex,puV.8hun; expuMye, ex.puL'^iv, (See ExpeL) 
Expunge' (2 syL), to efface ; expunged' (2 syL), expung'-er. 

Latin expungire (ex pungo, to prick out). 
Expurgate, ex\pwgate (not ex,pur^ .gate\ to purify; ex'poxu 
gat-ed (U. xxxvi.), ex'purgat-ing, ex'purgat.or (R. xxxvii) 
Expurgation, ex^,pur,gay"^hun; ex'purgatory* 
Index expurgatorius, in\dex ex.pw/.gadof'ri.iU, the list 

of books condemned by the Romnn Catholic Church. 
JjaA-expurgatiOfexpurgator, expurgatSrius, expwrg&re{purgo, to pniseX 
Exquisite, ex\hw%.zlt (not ex' .kwtzite), excellent, a dandy; 
ex'quisite-ly, ex'quisite-ness. 
Lat. exquUltus, exqulrire, sup. exgulaltum (ex qucero, to search out). 
Exsiccate, ex^sW.kate, to dry ; exsic'cat-ed (R. xxxvi.), exsic'cat- 
ing (R. xix.), exsic'cant, exsiccation, ex'Mk.kay'Uhun. 
Latin eassiccare (e» sieeo, to dry out). (See Desiccate.) 
Extant, ex^.tant, in existence. 

Latin extam, gen. extantis, standing out (ex stare). 
Extacy (no such word. See Extasy). 

Extempore, ex.tifmf.pS.re (not ex,t^\pore), offhand, without 
preparation ; extemporaneous, ex.t^'.po.ray'\n^M8 ; 
extempora'neous-ly, extempora^neous-ness, eztem'por- 
arily (Rule Ixvi., -eous and -ious), 
Eitemporise (B. xxxi.), ex.tem'.po.rize, to improvise ; extern'- 
poriaed (4 syL), extem'poriS-ing (R. xix.), eztem'pons-er. 



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9U BJtROHS OF SPEECH 

Bztomporality« 0m.tSm',p0,raV\i.ty (Latin extemporalitcu) 

might be introduced, the art of improvising. 
XAt eastempdr^lnaus, -pdraritu, ex tempdrS (without time [to prepare]). 

Extwd', to prolong; extend'-ed, extend'-ing, ext€|iid'-er, 
extend'-ible ; extend, size ; ex'tant, in existence. 

BMtesaAoa,ex.^'^him; exteneive, «».t^^«Cv; exten'sive- 
ly, exten'^Ye-neas; extensible, ex.ten'MM (not *dble); 
exten'sor [muscle], opposed to the flex'or [muscle]. 

FieBidi aetention, eaetmuibUf eafietuHMliUy extensmr; Jj&Ua eattendSre, 
snpine wtensunit extensio, extenHtnu (ex tendo, to stretch out). 

Extenuate, ex.t^'.uMte, to lessen ; exten'uat^ed (Rule xxxvi), 
exten'uat-ing, exten'u&ting-ly, extdn'uat-or (R. xxxvii.) 

Ikteniu^iML^exAi^'M,d''^himi extenuatory, eay,t^\u,S.t'ry. 
Vx, egeUwMiion; Lat extinmtio, ^aOiMuUor, exienuare (tinuiai thin). 

Bxtoiioar, €X*t^jri.0T, outer, the outside. Inte'rior, inner, the 
inside; exte'riOT4y. Exte^rioss (piti.), outward parts. 
tAt exUHor (extra, on the outside); iwUrior (intrck, within). 

Exterminate, ex.ter^.mi.nate, to eradicate ; exter'minat-ed (R. 
xxxvi.), exter'minat-ing, exter'minat-or (R. xxxvii.) 

Exterminatioiif ex,ter^,mi.nay'\8hun ; exterminatlYe, 
ex.ter'.mi.na.ttv; exterminatory, exAer^.mi,na,t*ry, 

F^rench «SBterminer, extermination; Latin exiermXn^io, exUmUndtor, 
extettninOre (ex terminw, [to drive] out of the border). 

Exter'nal, outward ; exter'nals {plu.), the outward parts and 
forms; exter'nal'ly; ex'tem, an out-patient Internal. 
Latin extemna, v. extemOre; French extwne. 
ExtU' (better extill), to distil; extilled' (2 syl.), extflT-ing (Rule 
IV.), extill'-er; extinction, ex\tU.lay''jhun (Rule viii) 
Latin extiOdtio, extiUiOn] (ex ttUlo, to f4U out in drops). 
Extinct', extinction, ex.tink'^hun, (See extinguish.) 

Extingiiish, ex.tin'.gwXsk, to put out; extiu'guished (3 ejh), 
extin'guish-ing, extiin'guish-er, extin'guish-able. 

Extinct', no longer in existence; extiiicti<»Q, es,tUik'jkun, 
Fr. extinetUm; Lai extUietio, extinguo, B«qM&e «itiMkm (sMm^d). 

Extirpate, ex!' Mr. pate (not ex.ttT^.pate), to toot out; ex'tirpat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi), ex'tirpat-ing, ex'tirpat-or (Rule xxxvii.); 
extixpatory, ex'.tir.pd.rry ; extir'pable. 

Extirpation, eaf.tir,pay"^hun {-tir-, not -ter-). 
Fr. extirpation; Lai extitp&Ufr, exlirpdtiQ, txtirpdirt(9tirpa, aiootX 

KitQi% to laud ; •xtcUed' (d syLX extoll'-iii|: (EU iv.), vMT-er, 
{**E9t0l"wouidh€fatb4UerwithiouMi4L Lat MrtoU[o].) 



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AND OF SPELLING, «6 



ExtoMr, to WTBBt ft-om; eztorT-ed (Bole xxxTi,)* eztorf-iiig, 
eztorT-er; wctortkm, ««.toK^^fi; ezte'tlon-«r, •ztor'- 
tion-ist, exter'tion-Ary; eztondve, edr.tor'.^iv. 
{** Extortion*^ ought to be spelt extorsion.) 
Stanch extonUm; LaUii mtor^[Ueo, tup. ti^ortum (for^ttM^ to t«ii^ 
Eztta, eaf.trdh^ in addition ; extras, eafJfrahZf additional charges. 
Extra- (Ijat. pref.), beyond, in excess, additional. (With a hyphen ) 
Extra-judicial, -ju^dish'Ml, in excess of court business. 
Extra-gmpdane, -miln^dane, not of this world. 
Extra-mural, •mu'.ral, outside the city walls. 
Bxtra-paroohial» -pa.ro'MM^ not of the parish. 
Extra-professional, -pro.fSsh^onMf not professionaL 
Extra-tropical, -trdp'.Lkdl, beyond the tropics. 
Extract, (noun) ex\tract, (verb) ex.tracl^, (Kule L) 
Ex'tvaet (noun), a tincture, a selection. 
Extract' (v^), to draw ont« to select; eatracf-«d (Rul« 

xxxtL), extraof •4ii8r, extract'^r (Rule xxxvii.) 
Bxtractton, «;r4r^ik'.<Aiin; extraof-lble; extrao'tive, «ti9. 
Fv. «artraoMoi», tutnetif; Lat. eaOiraeiium («e trah», to dnw out). 
Exttaneoos, exJtra^ jne,u8, foreign ; extra'neoiu^ly. 

Latin earffaneu«(acira, withoat, beyond). 
Extraordinary, eaf.tra,oi^\di.n^ry (not ex.tror^.dl.nSrry), un- 
usual ; ex'^traor'dinari-ly (Rule xi.), extracMrdinaries iplu.) 
es^irA,ot^\M.n^fiz, extran, Uungs very unusual. 
French extraordinaire, eztraordinairee ; Latin eedra ordUUMua. 
£xtravagant,£:i;.t7'^'i;^.a.^ane,wa8teM, prodigal; extrat^agaat-ly; 
extravagance, exdrdv' .a.gunce ; extravagancy, plu. 
extravagancies (Rule xliv.)* ex^trav' M.g<uiA\x, 
Extravaganza, ex.trdt/,a^g<Mi'\tdk, a musical or dramatie 

piece in which extravagant licence has been taken. 
Fr. eoetravagant, -ganc$»' Lat extra wig&rii to wander beyond [bounds]. 
Extravasate, ex,truv\a^atey to get out of the proper vessels 
[as blood] ; extnaVaaat-ed (Rule xxxri.), extraVaaat-ii^ 
(Rule xix.) ; extravasation. ex.trdv\a,8ay'^.8hun' {-tion, 
"a state of being" [out of the proper vessels]). 
Fr. extramuer, extravasion; Lat. extra vdaa^ oat of the [properlvesBeli. 
Extreme, ex.treem\ furthest (extremest, ex,treem\ett, in poetry 
only) ; extremes (plu.), es.treemz^, the two extreme ends ; 
extremeMy ; extremity, phi, extremities, ex.tr^\i,t\z. 
Fsench exMme, actrimit^,' Latin eaetnm^m, extrimXtaa, txArimut. 
Extricate, e$f,trlkate, to firee from difficulties ; ex'toicat-ed (H. 
xxxvi.), ex'trio&t4iig (R. xix,); eocMoable, ix\tri.kd.b*l 



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S4€ KliRORS OF SPEECU 

Extrication, esf .tiKMay'* ahiln^ liberation from difficulties. 
Latin extrfedbUis, extriedHo, extrMbre {Mccb, hairs, &«., wrapped 
ronnd the feet of birds to iM«Tent them from wandering. To 'ex- 
tricate/' to get the feet out of these triece or impediments). 

Bxtrinsic,«x.(rfyt'^AE,iDdependent;extrinBicaIl7,ea;.trlfi'^{.^:^fy. 

French extrin$iqu4; Latin extrinsgcut, acting from another source. 
Eztrode' (2 syL), to thmst out; extrud'-ed (R. xxxvi.), extrud'- 
ing (R. xix.); extrusion, ex.tru'^hun, (Not a Fr. word.) 
Latin exMldiret supine extrUtum {ex trudo, to thrust outX 
Exnberant, ex.u'.b^,rantt boisterous, luxuriant; exnlierant-ly. 
Exuberance, ex.u\b^.rance ; exani>erancy, ^Zu. -cies, -tHz, 
French exuberance, exubirant; Latin exubiran$, geia. txQJbiraMtU, 
exuMrdre (ubtr, a dug or udder). 

Exude' (2 sjL), to issue through the pores (1 syl.); exud'-ed 
(R. XXX vi.), exud'-ing (R. xix.), exudation, eaf^M.day''a1iun, 
A corruption of extude, Latin ex aUdo, to sweat out. 
Exult', to rejoice exceedingly ; exnlf-ed (R. xxxvi), exnlfing-ly ; 
exultation, ex'.ul.tay"^hun ; exnlf-ant, exulf-er. 
Lai exuUaiUia, exultdtiOt exuUdre (ex ealto, to leap about). 
ExuTlfB, ex.n'.vte (in GeoL), all fossil animal matter, the cast- 
off skins, <fec., of animals. (Latin exuvuB, things left off.) 
Eye, plu. eyes, i, ize (1 syL), organ of sight, to watch; eyed, 
ide (1 syL); eye-ing, %.ing, ("Eye-ing" and "dye-ing" 
are exceptions to Rule xix.) 
Old £ng. dge or edge; edg-appel, the apple of the eye ; edg-t&th, to. 
Eyie, iV, a circuit, as Jmtices in Eyre, itiuerant judges. 

Latin ire, to go. 
Eyiie, ^.ry, the nest of birds of prey. (Welsh eryr, an eagle.) 

Fable, /a'.&7 (noun and yerb); fskhled^fa'.Vld; fjal)ling, f alder. 
Fabulist, fub'.ii.VUt; fabnlons, fab\u.lu8 ; fSaVulous-ly, 
faVnlous-ness; fabnlise (not -ize, K xxxL),/afi^.u.2i2e; 
faVulised (3 syl.), £aVuliB-ing (R. xix.) 
French /a62e, fabulisU; LtAin/SbUla. fabiUdrU, fdbiOari. 
Fabric, fab'.fih, texture, &c.; fabrication, fub\ri.kay'' ^hvn ; 
Fabricate, fab\ri.kate, to manufacture, to falsify ; fiab'ii- 

cat-ed, £aVricat-ing (R. xix.), fiaVricat-or (R. xxxrii.) 
French fabriqtur, fabrication/ Latin fabrie&Ho, fabrieittor, fabrit- 
cSre ifdber, a forger or smith). 
Facade, faaard' (French), the front of a building. 
Face (1 syL), the visage, a surface. Fhase, faze, the disc of the 
moon, &c., the shape of a wave, &c. Face, to stand 
opposite, to encounter; &oed (1 syL); fu(>-iDg, faeel'-ing ; 
fadal, fd'jiUilf pertaining to tiie iSMse, as facial angl4. 



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A XD or SPELrjxc. n^r * 

Facet, fat'. el (not fay'.tet), one of the little flat surfaces of 
a cut diamond. (Fr. /aeett^, /ace ; Lat./ac<e«, a face.) 
FboetioiiB, fa,9tahii8, jocose ; fiaoe'tioii»-ly, fiaoe'tioii»-neM. 
FaoetisB, faat^shX.^, witticisms, merrj conceits. 
Vx.facMe^facititusemewt: I^At. /UeetitB, fdcitditu, fdegUia. merry. 
Facilitate, /a^{2'.{.tat«, to make easy; fadlltat-ed (B. xxxvi.), 
facilltat-ing (R. xix); facility, dexterity; facilities 
(plu,) faMl\i,tUf means of reducing difiQculties. 
French faeUiU, facUUer; LaUn/ocRltof {fdctlU, easj). 
Fao-simile, fak sim'Xle (Fr.), an exact copy. {LsLt. factum simUis,) 
Faction, faWahun, a cabal'; fac'tion-ist, an nnscrupolous oppo- 
nent; fiactioiiB, /aX^'.s/ttM ; factious-ly, fac'tions-ness. 
French /ocfion; Latin /a«<ia,/adidni« matinons, [faciOt to do). 
Factor, fak\tor, an agent; fiao'tor-sliip {^hip, office of). 

Factory, fS,W,to.ry ; factorage, fahf ,ib,rage, a factor's dues. 
French /ac<«iir,/aciora0«; Latin /actor {faxiOt to make or do). 
Factotum, fuh.to\tum^ an employ^ who does all sorts of w^rk. 

Fr./oototum; Lat. /ae[<o3 totum, to do everything. 
FacnlflB, fdy.a.U, bright spots in the sun. Macule, m^^.u.2e, 

dark spots in the sun. (Latin fdcUla, a little torch.) 
Faculty, plu, faculties, fdkf.ul tiz^ capacity, skill, science. 
The flEtculty, medical practitioners collectively considered. 
FnmchfaculU; "La^inficuttaiifaeultorfdeUii, easy). 
There are four "faculties" or sciences, viz., arts, theologv, law, and 
medicine, but the word faculty is now restricted to the last. 

Faddle, /ad^(f {, to trifle; fiddle-faddle, purposeless nonsense. 
Fade (1 syl.), to droop, to lose colour; fad'-ed, fad'-ing (B. xix.' 

French fade, insipid : Latin wdo, to go ; Greek bcuUfs, a walk. 
Fag, a drudge, to drudge. A fish-fag, a female fish-hawker. 
The fSEbg-end, the selvage, the worst end. 
Fagged (1 syl.), fagg'-ing (Rule i.), fagg'-er. 
▲ "fag," Gk. phOgds, a great eater. " Fag-end," ADg.-Saz. foffiianX 
to change the coiour. 
Fagot, fdff'.St, a bundle of sticks, cakes made of pork scraps. 

"▲ bundle," Welsh ffagod, Fr. faifot. *' A cake," Gk phdgo, to eat. 
Fahrenheit, Fa'/renhite, the inventor of the thei-mometer 
which marks 32" as the freezing point of water, and 212* 
as its boiling point (difference 180*). Reaumur's their- 
mometer, used in Germany and Russia, divides the 
distance between these extremes into 80 parts. The 
centigrade thermometer divides it into 100 deg. 
Fail (1 syl.), to become bankrupt, to miss; failed (1 syL), 
fail'-mg ; fSailure, faiV.ySr, insolvency, defeat. 
Welsh ffMVu, to fail or miss ; ffael, a failing. Germ, fehlm, to faiL 



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348 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Fain, fane, feign (aU pronounced /afM, 1 syl.) 

Fkdn, desirous. (Old £ng. /c8^n[tan], to desire; Ft, fain.) 

Fane, a temple. (Latin fSnum, a temfde.) 

Feign, to pretend. {Ft. feindre, Lht. fing^e, to feign.) 

Faint, feint (both faint, 1 syl.) Faint, languid, to swoon ; 
falnt'-ed (R. xxxvi.), feinf-ing, fainf-ish (-wfc added to 
ac(j. is dim., added to nouns means " like"), fainf-ly. 

Feint, a pretence. (Fr. feinte, Latin jingle, to feign.) 

French /ain^anl, sluggish {Jdirt fUant, to do nothing). 
Fair, a free market, delicate.. Fare, cost of a journey, provisions- 
Fear, /er, terror. Fair; fair'ing, a present ffom the fair ; 
fair^-ish, rather fair (-ish added to adj. is dim., added to 
nouns it means " like "); fairish-ly, fairly. 

" Pair" (a free market), French /b4re; Latin /iFria, a holiday. 

"Fair" (just, beautiful). Old RngUsh fongr, ftaz ; fasger, beauty. 

" Fare,** Old Eng. fcer, a journey, hence cost of a journey, provision. 

" Fear," Old Eng. fdtian], to fear from being startled (fdr, sudden). 

Faiiy, plu. fairies, fait^fU, Spenser's word is Faery [Queen]. 

German /<m;; French y^«, a fky, fkfrie: Persian piiri. 
Faith, fath, belief, trust; faith'-fol (Rule viii.), faith'fal-ly, 
mith'ful-ness; faithless, fUthless-ly, faithless-ness. 
The faith, Christianity. 
Ital. /«de./ed6le, faithful; Fr./oi' Lat>ld«,/l<2iIi«(j^o,totmBt)L 
Fakir, fa.keer', a Mabommetan monk. (Arab, a pOor man.) 
TaJicbiotit fawV^hun {not faUshun not f2wV.8hi.Sn), 

Vreaxiifauchon, a curved sword ; Latin falx, a reap-hook. 
Falcon, faw\kSn (not fdV.kon nor fawV.kon), a female hawk ; 
falconer, faw\kSn.er; falconry, faw'.kSn.ry. 
Fr. faibcon, a falcon ; lAt.falx, gen fdlcU, a reap-hook. 80 called 
from its curved beak. The male is called a t(M«e< or ktreel (Fr. 
tierceUt, a tierce, or third smaller). 
Faldstool, fald\8tool, the bishop's chair within the altar rails. 
Old Eog. /aid stdl, a folding stool; Fr. faiUeuil, l9.,famde8teuU,' 
how lAt. fcUdistorium ; Germ. feUUtuhL 

Fall, fawl ; past fell, past part, fallen, /ai^rn ; fall^-ing, fall'-er. 
(" Fall " retains double 1 in all its compounds : as hefdll, 
dovrnfall, windfall, falling -in, falling -sickness , Arc.) (R. x.) 
Old English fedU{ual past/eoZ, past part ge-fedlUn, to falL 
Fallacy, plu, faMaxiea^faV.la.8lz, an error; fallacl-ous, fdl.lay\- 
shus (Rule xi.) ; falla'cious-ly, falla'clous-ness. 
hatinf<dWiui,fallddlUitw if (UlcuK, deceit 
FaUible (not -abU), liable to faU; falUbility, f&V.U,W'd,ty, 

IML faUert, to deceive ; Ok. tgibaUo, to make to fall ; Fr. /osUiUs. 
iPaUopian [tube], fal.ld\pi,an (not fdl.V^^Lan), so called from 
Gabriel Fallopiua, of Mod6na (1523-1562). 




AND OF SPELLfNU. .T4ft 

FaUovr, leddiHh bay colour, imcultiyated, ploughed bnt not sown. 
*' FaUow [dosr]," Old Bug. faah, yellowish brown (faalwian, to ripen). 
*' FaUow land," is land left to "ripen." 
False, folce, not true ; ialse'-liood, a lie ; false'-ly, faLse'-ness ; 
IWsify, /2r^«./y; faMtes, fSV^tfize; falsified, /W'.fl.- 
. fide ; fal'sifi-er (Rule xi.), fSal'sify-ing. {See -fy.) 
Falsification, /$r^{./i.ca2^''^Aun, misrepresentation. 
Old English /a2«e; Latin /atsiM, v. faUOt supine /a28«m, to deceive. 
Falsetto, plu. fajsettos (B. 'i^.\f9l»e1f,toze (Ital.), a false voice. 
:^alter, fhVder, to hesitate; fal'tered (3 syl.), fal'ter-ing, (fee. 
Spanish /altor, to be at fault (/oZta), hence iinfalta, without fUL 
Fame (1 syl.), renown; famed (1 syL), renowned; fSame'-lesB. 
Flunons, fd'.muB ; fa'mons-ly, fa'moiis-neflB. 
Latin y&ina,/dmdn(s; French >bfn«, /ameiov. 
Fluiiiliar,/a.m{Z'.i/0r, intimate, an attendant demon; £amil'lar-ly; 
familiarity, plu, fiuniliaiities (R. xliv.), /a.mir.i.ar''n.«;E. 
Familiarise (Rule xxxi. ), fa,mU\l.ar,ize, to aeonstom ; 
Familiarised, famW X,ar,izd ; fjuiul%ris''ing (Rule xix.) 
Family, plu, families (Rule T\iy. )Jiim:x.Ujam\Ulz, 
French famille, familier, familiariU, familxariser ; Latin fdnMia, 
f&mili&riatfAmiU&ritaa \f&miilu», a household servant). 
Famine, /am^)(n; funish, /am'.ts/i, to starve; lam'ished (2 syl.), 
fiam'ish-ing {-ish, ** to make " [hungry]). Rule IxviL 
French /afnin«,>bm, hunger; Latin /dfmM, dearth, hunger. 
Fan, {noun and verb), £anned (1 syL), fann'-ing (R. i.), &nn'-er. 
Old Eng. /atm, a fan : Oerm. loanne; Lat. vanrnu, a winnowing fan. 
Fanatic, fa.ndf.lk (not fdn\aMk\ a visionary; fanatical, 
fa.ndt\i.kal; fanat'ical-ly; fanaticism, /a.naf. wfewi. 
French fanatiqu*, fimatiame; Latin fan&Ucua (/<fn«m, a tomple. 
Fanatics were persons who haunted temples and pretended to 
utter predictions). 

Fan6y, plu. fancies, /aw'.«l2r, a whim, a liking, to like, to imagine; 
fancied, fdn^sid; f^n^ci-fol (Rule viii.), fi»n'cifal-ly, 
fan'dfnl-ness, fitn'oy-ing (Rule xi.) {See Fantastic.) 
{The spelUng of '* fancy '* for phansy U disgraceful) 
Ok. phawtdsia {phaino, to appear); Lat. phantOaia; Fr. femtiuU. 
Fandango, plu. fimdangoes, fan.dan' .gaze, a Spanish dance. 
Fane, a temple ; liun, desirous ; feign, fane, to pretend. 

" Fane," Latin fanum. «' Fain," Old English fa<m[ian\ to desire. 
"Feign," Frendi ^Wndre. 

Fanfare (not/on/lre),jfan'./ar< (Fr.), a flourish of trumpets {Arab.) 
Fang, improperly applied to the root of teeth, a pointed tooth. 
Old Eng. fomg-Mh, a tusk : (/dn, to seize, the tooth which seiMs hold>. 
Fantasia, fSn.tay' .zl.ah (not f an'. ta.Mee^'jih), a musical composi- 
tion unrestricted by roles (ItaL) 



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830 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Auitastic, fan.ta8\tik, fanciful; fiuitas'tical, faiita8'tical4y, 
faiitas''ticil-nes8 ; fietntasy, pZu. fantasies, fdn'.ta^U. 
Better with ph-, Gk. phantdsea: Lat. phantdsia. (See Fancy.) 
Par, (comp.) far^ther, (super.) fieir'thest, the most distant. 

Forth, {comp.) fnr'ther, (super.) ftir'thest, most in advance. 
Fore, (comp.) former, (super.) foremost or first, ordinaL 
(A has walked farther than B, has r«ad further, and stands JUrst or 

/omiM>«e in his class.) . , ,, ^ . ,^ „ , ^^ 

(Of the planets, Neptune ]a farthest from the Son : one of the poles 
of our Earth is advanced to the Sun further than the other ; the 
planet Jupiter is the first or foremost in size.) 
•* Far," Old EngUsh feor or fyr, (comp.) fyrre, (super.) fyrrest. 
** Forth." Old English foHh oxfurih, (comp.) forihar furdor, fkirdur, 

furdra, {6ViX>.)forthme8t. 
"Fore," Old Eng. fdr, (comp.) forvndr, more to the fore, (sap. }/orm««t. 

¥BXce (1 syl.), a dramatic burlesque ; far'cical, far'cical-ly. 

Ft. farce ; Lat fardo, to stuff. (A drama crammed, i.e. , exaggerated.) 
&re (Old Eng. postfix), "way," "wanderer," "getting on." 
Field-fare, a bird* (Feola-fer, the migratory flock.) 
Korough-fare, thur^rUh-fare, a through way. 
War-fare, war-going. 
Way-farer, a way-wanderer. 
Welfare, well-going, well [or ill] getting-on (Rule x.) 
Fare (1 syl.), passage-money, provision, to get on (see Fair) ; 
fared, /air'd; far-ing, /are'-injr, getting on ; htU 
Fairing, faif^.ingi a present from the fair. 
Farewell {not farewel), May it go well [with you]. 
("Weli** retains double linaUUs compounds, except welfare, lo^^ 

retains its more a^icient spelling with one I. J 
Old English /ar(an], to go ; fare, a journey, hence cost, provisloiL 
FarfHaceous, fdr'ri.nay".8hu8, made of flour, yielding flour. 

Fr. faHnaci: Lat. fdrindriua (better than " farinaceous "X fdrlna. 
Fann, farmed (1 syl.), farm'-ing, farm'-er. 

Old Eng. feormiian], to procure food (feorm, f ood),/«arm[<on], to farm. 
Rarago, plu. farragoes, far.ray\gdze (Lat.), a medley, mesceline. 

A farrago is meal [/or] mixed with offal, for pigs, &o. 
Rmier, fdr^ri.er, one who shoes horses ; far'riery, the trade. 
Misspelt, the first syl. is /errum, iron, and not far, bread com. 
Latin ferrdHus [faJberl a worker In iron, a blacksmith. 
I^rrow, fdr'roy a litter of pigs, to bring forth a litter of pigs; 
far'rowed (2 syl.), far'rowing. 
Old English foerh, a litter of pigs. 
Bar'ther, more remote. Fur'ther, more in advance. (See "Fit. ) 
Far'thest, most remote. Fur'thest, most in advance. 
Foremost (not formost), most to the fore. 



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AND OF SPELLING. «61 

Parthing, fofrth'dng, the fourth-part of a penay. 

Old Engliah/MHiUintT) on* of tbe earliest English coins. 
EMoiiiAte, fiis'jiiMate, to charm; DM^dnat-ed (Bule xxxtI.). 
&8'cmat-iiig (Bale six.), fiui'oinat-er (better -or), 
Faadnatioii, fa8'jii.nay"^hun. eDcbantment. 
Fr. faadnaJbUm: Lat foMHiUUio^ foBetnOre (fatei'Mim, witchtiyX 
Faeciiie, fcu'aeen {not fataeenT^f a fagot need in sieges. 

French /owifw; Lfttin faaeii, a bundle (fcueio, to bind with a truss). 
Fashion, faeh^Sn, the mode, to mould, to form ; fashioned, 
faith' JML; fashion^ing, /& V.5ii in^ ; fiaahlon-er. 
EB8hionabl6,/as^'.^ii.a.5'Z; fitoh^'ionable-neflB, Cash'ionably. 
Fashionable! (fla.)^f<Uh'.6n,a,h'lZy persons of fashion. 
French /<uM<ma5I«,/afon; Latin /ocio, to make or fashion, 
jfast, firm, onbroken, hence swift (without interval) secure; 
fi'om swift we get dissipated (to live fSe^t), to hold fkst 
(secure), and hence parsimony, abstinence. 
Fi^ten, fah'.s*n, to bolt, to fix ; fastened, fah'Mnd ; fasten- 
ing* fah'jt*nlngy fixing, bolting, that which ftistens. 
(-en added to nouns « *' to make." Fa^sten, to make fast) 
•fBJBX (as an affix), *' firm." Stead-fast, standing firm. 
Old English /(wt, firm ; fcui or fast, swift ; fiMen, a fast 
Fastidious, fusJid^tus (not fdsMdge^Ms), squeamish ; fsstid'- 
iouB-ly; fiBstid'ious-nesB. 
Lat fastidiOsw {fastidium, disdain, fastuSf pride) ; Fr. fasiidUvx. 
Fat, {comp.) fatf -er, (super.) fatT-est (R. i), fatf -y, fatf i-ness 
(R. xi.), fSatt'-ish {-ish added to adj. is dim., added to nouns 
it means *'like"); fiaf^y, faf-ling, faf-ness. 
Fatten, fSVn, to make fat (-en added to verbs means 

"to make"); fattened, /at'.n'd ; f^tfen<«ing, fatt'en-er. 
Old Eng. fegtt, fat ; v. fatt[ianl -ptaifiBttede, past pftrt fatttd. 
Fata Morgana, fd\ta Mor.gaf^,nah, a mirage occasionally seen 
in the Straits of Messi'na, (fee. 

Italian fata (fairy) Morgana, sister of Arthur and pupil of Merlin. 
She lived at the bottom of the sea. 

Tltal^fd'.tal, deadly, inevitable; fSa'tal-ly; fa'tal-ist; fatalism, 
fd\tal izm, the notion that everything is fixed by fate ; 
fatality, /o.tar.i.ty; fatalistic, fa\tal.is'\tik (q.v.) 
Fate (1 syl.), doom, lot; fated, /a^t«l{, doomed, allotted. 
Fr. fatal, faJtatitme, fataliste ; Lat f&tOUs, fattUiter, fatum, fate. 
Ftkther, fem, mother, both parent ; fai^.ther, mutW-er^ pair^rent. 
Fatiier-in-law, plu, fathers-in-law. The husband's father 
is the wife's father-in-law, and the wife's father is tbe 
husband's father-in-law. 



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»5% F.nnons or spescit 



step-father, plu, ttep-fi^lien, Uie second fatb«r of a child 

who has lost her first father ; ftm, Stepja o Kb r . 
Chrand&ther, fen. gnuKtnwther^ the parents of parente 

are grandparents to the third generation. 
Great-graodfiatliery ^o,, the parents of gran^^pareBls are 

great-grandparents to the fourth generatien. 
God£Ebther« fem. Godmother sponsgrs at hapUsm. 
Bon, dan^ter [both child], offspring of father and mother. 
Sire, fem. dam, father and mother of a quadruped. 
Old Bnglith feeder, mOder (oomaioii to the whole Aryan family of 
languages), fcederlic, fatherly : steop-fader, tieop-mdder {steopian], 
to bereave, the father, &c., of a child bereaved). "Grandfather" 
is Fxeneh vremd {jftrye, greai grandfather. (Ang^O-Bwon gnat.) 
Fathom, a measure of six feet, to sound the sea* to penetrate ; 
fothom, fdth\um; foth'omed (3 syl), foth'om-ingj? 
foth'om-er, £ath'om-able, fath'om-less. 
Old English /cBtfun, a cubit ; v. /cp«im[ta»], to fathom ; f<BOMmim. 
Fatigue, fcLteeg', weariness, to weary; fatigued, fa.Uegd^; 
fatigu-ing (Rule idx,),fa,teef.ing; fafiga'tiou, -^hun, 
French /otiiriM; Latin /dttyo, to weary (/tffim, oYermuch). 
Faubourg, fd\boo'rg, a suburb.. (Old French /oraftowr^O 

Low Latin foria hv/rgium, the borongh beyond [the town]. 
Fault, folt, oflfence ; faulty, fdV.ty ; faul'ti-ness, faul'ti-ly. 

French /au{^, now/aute ; Latin folio , to slip ; fa>UMa9» falsehood. 
Faun, a woodland deity. Fawn, a young deer, to cringe. 

Fauna, faw'.nahf the collective animals (|lora^ jlio'.rdh, the 

collective plants) of any given region. 
" Fauna " (Latin), the goddess of procreation. " Flora,'* of flowers. 
Favour, fd'AJor, a kindness, to befriend; fit'voured (3 syl.), 
fo'vour-er, fa'vour-ing, fa'vouring-ly, fa'vour-er, fa'- 
vour-able, fa'vourable-ness, fii'vourahly; fovourite, 
fa\vor.U; fa'vourit-ism, fa'vour-less. 
French faveur, favorable, favorite, favoHtisme ; Latin fdvor, fAvOrA- 
hili8,fdveo, to befriend. (Our apology for the -u- in these words 
is that it marks their Frepch origin, but the French do not inter- 
polate u after o, and it would be far better to follow the Latin.) 
Fawn, a young deer, to cringe. Faun, a woodland deity. 
Fawn, fowned (1 syl.), fawn'-ing, fown'ing-ly, fawn'-er. 
Fr. foon =fdhn, a fawn ; Old Eng. fcegniian], to cringe or flatter. 
Fealty, f^.dlty (not feeVdy), loyalty. 

French /rfoJ, trusty : Latin ^Mgli*, faithful. 
Fear, /S'r, terror, to feel terror; feared (1 syl.), fear'-ing, 
fear'-ful (Rule viii.), fear'luloly, fear^fnl^neas, fear'-less, 
fearless-ness, fearleas-Jy; foar-nought, /«y Jiort. 
Old EngUsh fMan\ to startle ; pkr^ tenor ttom sudden i 



AND OF SPt:LLTN(}, tit 

Feasible, /e^.af.&'{, praoticftblef ; feas^ibly; fielisibil'ity. 

Kr«noh fikuabU (wrong-) , L^Uii/ck^re, fAdUiB^ easy to do. 
Feast, feett, a banqiMt, to eat GramptuotiGdy : feasf -ed (R. xxx?i.) 

ViMnch ftsU nairfite: Latin fetiiuiA, a hoSL&t^y a banqaei 
Fea4 feet, an exploit Feet, plu. of Ibot Fete, fate (French.) 

" Feat," VteuchfnU ; Latin fadwm, a d«c«. " Feefc," OM Bng./d*, 
plu. /4L ' ' F6t€r/' ie. , /ate» a f eatiral (Latin /ea^um). 

Featlier, feth'.er (noun and ve^h); feoth'ered, feathering. 

Old Eng. /«sMe9' otftiher, fethertd otfyUUted, f«athoi*ed. 
Feature, fee\tchur, the five members of the face, a characteristic. 

Norman faiiure; Latin factUra, tlie make-up of a thing {faeio). 
Febifle, jl^b'.ril {not ft. hrile nor flh\nle\ relating to fever. 
Febrifage, fSb'.ri.fvje, a medicine to mitigate fever. 
Ft. fibriU; Lat febrUU, feMf&ga (febrU/ugo, to pnt to flight fever). 
Fetamary, feh'.ruM.ry (not fib\u.a.rp). Latin februarius^ 

The month, among the Romans, of the Instral^a (/e&rfto, to deanse). 
Feoiila,/^/c'.u.{a7i, starch; fec'ulent, fectulency. {8eeT&cai»J) 

Freneh/^cute; Latin /cedlta, diminutive oifceti, vedimeot 
Fecfomi^f^h^und, fruitfal ; fecwadtkteyfih'.un.da^te : feo'undat-ed 
(itule xxKvi), feo'undat-ing (Rule xix.), feo^iindat-or. 
Feoondationf fPk^,un.d€ty''^h!un; fecundity, fe,kun\dX.ty. 
French /t'comZer, f^oondaUon, fioondtU; Latin feeundUas, feeundmti 
F«Aecai fid'.eral, leagued tOL^etber. The fSed'erals, states 
leagui d together : fed'eraUiani, lied'eral-ist ; federal-ise, 
fH'.e,ridM€; fed'eralised (4 svl.), fed'etalis^ing (R. xix.), 
federativev /<?d'.«.ra.tiw. Confederate, con fed'.i.raie. 
Federation, fed',e.ray**^h%in and Oonfederation, a leagnOi 
Fr. fidiral, fidSralisie, fSdtfroHon^ /Sd^cMf: Lat. fcBdm, a league. 
Fee, a payment, to p&j; feed, fee'-ing. Land h<^ld under an 
overlord; fee-simple, iarrd not entailed; fee-tail, lands 
ent -iled ; fee^farm, a farm held on payment of rent. 
Old Bng. feoh stipend, good*. " Fee = feoff," Span, ft, ItaL /edl^ 
(Lat. fides Lland) in trust), not a woid of Teutonic origin 

Feeble, fee'.b% weak ; fee'ble-ness, fee'bly. 

French /aible ; Spanish /eb/e; Italian )Sei;o2e. 
Feed, past fed, past part, fed; feed'-ing, feed'-er. {See Fee.) 

Old English /M<:m], ptaXfidde, past part. /(^d«(i, y. ti.f6divg. 
Fetirpott felt, jjflwt part, felt; fe^'-ing, perceiving by touch, 
sense of touch ; feel'ing-ly, tenderly; feel'-er. 

Old English /e^an], past/elde, past part, feled; felung. 
Feet, plu, of foot. Feat, an exploit. Ftte, fate, a festival. 

" Feet," Old Eng. fit, plu. fit. " Feat," Fr. fait " Fftte, Er fif. 
z 



864 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Feign, fane, to pretend. Fain, desiroas. Fane, a temple. 
Feign, feigned (IsyL); feigned-ly, /ay'.n^.l2/ ; feign'-ing. 
Feint, /atnt, a pretence. Faint, inclined to swoon. 
" Feign." Yt.feindrt, feint: Lat. fingire, mpinejlnetum, to counterfeit. 
" Fain/' Old Eng. fagnitan], to desire : fcegnwng, a desiring, a wish. 
"Fane,** Lat. /anum, a temple f from /art, to speak, qnod pontlflceg 
a saorando fanum "fantur, quod vocabant ^dri templa {Varr.) 
Felicitate, fe.lU\%,tate, to congratulate ; felicltat-ed (R. xxxvi), 
felicltat-ing (K xix.); felicitation, fe,lU\i.tay'\8hun, 
Felicity, fe.WX.ty, happiness ; feUdtouB, je.lli\utm, lucky, 

happy; felicltons-ly, felicltouB-ness. 
Fr.MiGiterJ4licUation,f4liciU; L».t.feKcita8,Micitdre(/&ix,h»ppj). 
Fell, the skin ; [fell of hair]t a hilly moor, cruel, to bring to the 
ground, did fall. Fell-monger, dealer in hides ; felt 
To fell, felled (1 syl.), fell'-ing, fell'-er, one who fells wood. 
('* Fell" retains double I in its compounds, R. viii., as hefell.) 
Old Eng./elf, skin, fur ; felt [for hats] : Germ./eU ; Lat. pelliial a hide. 
Oerm. /«b, a rock, hill, cliff. Old Eng. fell, cruel ; fyU, death. 
(Verb) Old Eng. felSian], to cut down ; paaifealde, past part, feled. 
Fellow, fH\lo, a person. Felloe, f^'.lo (of a wheel). Fell'er, . 
one who fells trees. Felo de se, feV.o de se, self murder. 
" Fellow," Old Eng. felaw. " FeUoe," Old Eng. felge. (See Fell ) 
Felly, plu. te\U.ea,feV.liZy one of the parts of the rim of a wheel. 

This is a better spelling than felloe, (Old Eng. felge.) 
Felon, fSV.dn, one who has committed felony ; 

Felony, plu. felonies, feV.o.niz, a capital offence ; felonious, 

fi.lo'M.'&s ; felo'nious-ly. 
Felo de se, f^\o de se, suicide, a self murderer. 
Low Lat. feUmia, felo de se, fdonj on oneself [by suicide] : Fr. filon. 
Feldspar (in Geol.\ a volcanic product the basis of many rocks. 

German feldapath, field spar. Eirwin says fel spar, rock spar. 
Felt, the hide and its fur, used for hats. Past tense of feet 

Old English/eU, a hide, fur ; feU a hide with its fur. 
Felucca, fe.luk\kah (Italian feluca), a small sailing vessel. 
Female, f^.mail, the feminine sex. Male, the masculine sex. 
Feipinine, fSm'.Lnin (not/ew'.i.mn^), pertaining to thefemale 
sex. Masculine, mds'.ku.Un, pertaining to the male sex. 
Female screw, the nut or indented spiraL Male screw, 

the part with the thread in relief. 
Femme-sole, fSm-sdle, an unmarried woman. 
Fr. femeUe, femme, a wonum, /t^mintn ; Lat. fiminintis, femeUa or 
fSmina, a woman (a feminum partibus, quibus [f emina] distingnitur 
a viro. —laidore of Seville (Onginum s. Etymolog., lib. xx). 



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AND OF SPELLING. 86J> 

Pen, land wholly or partially covered with water ; fenn''^ (R. i) 

Old English ftnn, a mftrah or fe& ; fennig, fmiDj, mnddji 
Fence (1 syl.), a hedge, to enclose with a hedge, to fight with 
foils ; fenced (1 syl.), fenoMng (Rule xix«), feno'-er. 
Lfttin dtftnt^y a defence ; t. defendo, supine defe/Mum. 
Fen'nel, a pot-herb. (OldEng./enoZ; Lat./(S7i{cu2um,/osnum,hay.) 
Feod« fend, fee, feoff, fief, feodal, feudal. 

(At present the uncertain spelling and meaning of these 
WOTds is most perplexing. The French fief is not wanted 
and might be discarded. Feud should be restricted to 
the quarrels of clans and tribes* It is a very corrupt 
spelling of the Old English fagth or fahth, a deadly feud.) 
The words retained and their meanings would then be — 
Fee, property held for service; fee-simple, fee-tail, baae- 
fee, conditional fee, fee-expectant, fee-farm {Law terms). 
Old English /(^^ or feoh, property, goods, any medium of exchange. 
Feod, ftide, the right of a ten&nt to a fee ; feodality, fealty ; 
feodary, fu\da.ry, an officer of the court of wards (abol- 
ished)] feoda.tory, fu.da48.ry, the tenant of a fee. 
Feoff, fSf (same as fee, but not a law term), whence 
feoff-or, fef-orf one who gives possession of a fee; 
feoff-ee, fef.ee, one who is put in possession of a fee ; 
feoff-ment, fef.m^nt^ a deed conveying a fee. 
Fend, a deadly quarrel between clans or families; feud- 
bote, fude.bote, money paid for engaging in a "feud" 
quarrel; fend'^-ist, a writer on family feuds. 
Feudal [system]. Unhappily the spelling is too firmly 
established to be disturbed, otherwise feodal would be 
better, and then feudal would be the aclj. of feud. 
Low Latin feodwn, feoffamerUum, feoffator, feoffatus ; French fiodal. 
Ferment, (noun) fef,menty (verb) fer.ment* (Rule 1.), ferment'-ed 
(Rule XXX vi.), ferment'-ing, ferment'-able. 
Fermentation, feii^.m^.tay".shun; fermentabiUty, /er'.- 

m^n'.ta.blV\i.ty ; fermentatiye, fer.m^'.taMv. 
French fermenttTy fermentation, fermentable, fermentatif; Latin 
fevmentatiOf fennentum, fermantdre, to leaven. 

Fern, a family of cryptogamic plants ; fem'-y. (Old Eng./cam). 
Ferodons (Rule Ixvi.), fe.rd* ,8hu>s^ savage ; fero'cious-ly ; 

Ferocity, fe.rl6s\\.tg^ inhuman cruelty, savageness. 
Fer'rel (better ferrule, f^.rule, q.v.) , 
Ferret, f^.rSty an animal of the weazel kind, a narrow woollen 
tape, t^ drive out of a hole, to teaze; fer'ret-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), fer'ret-ing, fer'ret-er. 
French /iw«*,>^r«<«r/ German /rett; Old English /reton, to gnaw. 
"Ferret" (tapeX German >Iore<, [band], a coarse sillc ribbon. 



866 FURORS OF SPEECH 

JPenn^^inpiiB, f^.rQ,'.g\,mis (not f€.ru\gi,nu»), containing the 
pzoperties or colour of iron[ru>t] ; fermginated, fUr.rv^^ 
gi.na.tedf irnpre^Hted with iron {not fe.ru\gi,na.ted). 
lAtin /enrage, iron rnst (fsrum mlblgo, mat of iron). 
Ferry, plu* ferries, fii^*r\x, a boat for eon \ eying passengers 
across a river, to con¥ey passengers across a river in m 
boat; ferries, /<^rU ; ferried, /er'rld ; fer'ry-ing. 
Old Enf./^nan, tocaaj; past/^rodc, put part. /jred; lAi.JIfro. 
Fertile, f^M {not f^ , tile), more fertile (comp,), fer'til-est, or 
most fertile f»t/2>er.;; fcr'tile-ly; fertility, /cr.tir.l.ty. 
Fertilise (not f£rtilize. Rule xxxi.), f^Jtlize; fer'tilised 
(3 syL), fer'tills-ing (Rule xix.); fer'tilis-er, a rich 
manure, &c, ; fertilisatioii, fg/.tU.i.zd'\8htin. 
French fertiU, fertUiM, /ertiU»er ; Latin ferUlU, fertUUoB. 
FenUa, fe/.ru.lah, a small pallet of wood (T leather for striking 
children on the hand by -way of chnstisement. 
Jjatf n ffriHa, /grio, to strike. <Fenil» tristes, seeptra psBdagogomm 
cesaent.— Martial, 10, 62, 10.) 

Ferrule, fer'rule, a small mt^tal hoop for walking canes, Ssc. 

Spanish Urola; French virole. 
Fer'vent, ardent; (comp.) fer'vent-er, (suppr.) fer^vent-est ; 
fer'vent-ly, fer'vent-ness ; fervency, j^.ven.8y. 
Fervour, /e/.vor; fer'vid, fer'vid-ly, fer'vid-ness. 
Latin /<Brt>m», gen. fervtniis: ferveOt to be hot ; fervldus, ferwt, 
Fesse (1 syl.)> a band crossing an heral*lic shield horizontally. 
And equal to one-third of its entire field. It is one of the 
nine honourable ordinaiies. (Latin /a«cia, a l*an(l.) 
Festival, fe9*tl.val, a holiday, a time of rejoicing; festal, f&stal; 
Wtal-ly; festive, fea'.tiv; fes'tive-ly; festivity, plu. 
festivities, fen.tiv'.i.tlz, amusement 
L&iin festlvltiaaffesUvuSffestlvare; French fesie, now /He. . 
Festoon, /&.too»' (noun an«l verb): festooned' (2 8j].),fe8toon'-ing. 

Ital. ftiione (festa, a festival): ii'r. fuUm (Lai featum, a holiday). 
Fetch, the apparition of a living person, to go hnd get ; fetched^ 
To fetch a compass, to mnke a circuit in oriler to reach a point. 
Old EngUsh /ecc[a»], to fetch. Fetich (q.r. ), a kind of demon. 
Fete, fate, a holiday. Fate, destiny. Feat, feet, an achieve- 
ment. Feet, plu. of foot. 
** F6te," French fie for feste ; Latin festum, a festival. 
" Fate," Lit. fatum. ' ' Feat," Fr. faii; Lat. factum, something done. 
*' Feet," Old English f6t, plu. fst. 

Fetich, fe'.tish, a West African idol ; fetich-ism or feticism, 
ftdixUm, the worship of a fetich. 



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AND OF SPELLING. 857 

Fetid, /e'.«<2, iU-smellin^ ; fe'tidrly, fa'tidniefls, fe'tor. 

French /;t<<2«; Latin fuebidw, fvbor^ y. faitto, to smell offeosivel/. 
Fetlock, fet'Mik, the tuft of hair behind the pastem of a horse. 

Old English /<re looe, m lock of hair [on the] feei 
Fetter, a chain for the feet. Man^ade, a shackle for the hands. 

Old English fetor or foeter. French manades ; Latin mdtoca. 
Fend, the quarrel of a clart or tribe. (See Feed.) 

Old Eng. fediianl puifedde, to be at enmity* fi^f*- otfdhtk, a fend. 
Feadal [systHoa]. by whieh lands were held for military s<^rvice ; 
fetuial-isxii, fit.dul.lem, th<^ feudal constitution ; feudal'- 
ifit or feud'-ist, one versed in feudal laws; feudality, 
fu.ddV.i.ty, state of being feudal; feudary, fvf.da.ry 
(adj.), holding Ian* Is for service; liBiidatary, /u'.<2a^ta<ry, 
one who holds lands for service, 
Fr. fmdiste, feudataU, fMUU, fSodaliU; Bran, feudal, feuddlidad, 
feudatarCo, fevdista, feudOf a feoff ; Ital. feudatario, fevdo. 

Feu-de-joie (French), few'd' zjwah'\ a joy-volley. 

Feuilleton, fuT.t<m\g'\ that part of [French] journals devoted 

to literary articles, as critiques, tales, and so on. (Fr.) 
Fever, fg'.u^r ; fe^er-i^ having a .«liglit fever ; fe'verish-ly, 

fe'veridi-ness (R. Ixvii.) (Old Eng./e/ef ; Lat/eftris.) 
FeTexfew, fe\ver,fu, a corruption^ of Old En-jlish feferjuge, to 
drive off fever, the pyref thrum [Parthe'niumi* 
Latin /eftrVitffa. Pyreikrwm {i3n*^ ptirms, i&ret). 
Fsfw, (comp.) few'er, (mper.) feV-est; feV-nesB. 
Old English /ecfoo, (8aper.)/sdtoos<a, /edwnex, fewness. 
Fiat, fi\at (Latin "let it be done"), an order to do something. 
Fib, a falsehood, to tell a falsehood ; fibbed (1 syl.), fibb'-ing 
(Rule i ), fibV-er. (Irish Jiabbare, to tell flim-flam tales.) 
Fibre, plu, fibres, fx'Jber, fi'.berz, the solid part of animal flesh, 
a hair-like root, <^c.; fibrous, /i'.fertw; fibrine, /i'ftrtn, 
thflt which foims fibre; fi'brin oub 
Prenchjlftre, Jiftrtiw, Jt6rett«; Latin ^6ra ^/6er, an eztremityX 
"EWmSA, fW .u.lah (in Lat. ft'billa\ the small bone of ihe leg; 
fib'ular, fidj. of fibula; fib'ulated. {lAt. Jibuldre, tn button.) 
FicUe, /I Jb'7, inconstant; fickle-neas. (Old English ^oL) 
Rco, plu. fieoei (Rule ^MiX jV .k5, ji' Mze, a snup of the finger. 

Italian /Ico a fig, &c J don't ea/re a fig otJUo. 
Fictile, /l&'.tU, pertaining to potteiy; fictor. (Latin fictUU.) 
Fictkm, fik'^akun ; fic'tion-ist, a writer of flctioD. 

Fictitioog, fik.tUh\ii* . fictitions-ly, fiotitions-nen. 
French fUUon ; Latin ^io, fictitiua. (See Bale Ixvi.) 
Fiddle, fld\d% a violin, to play the violin ; fiddled, fld'A'U; 
fiddaiig,/{(r.Zinp; fiddler, /l<r.Mr; fiddle-stick, a bow 



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ar^ ERRORS OF SPEECH 

for playing a fiddle, a sword, a term of contempt signi- 
fjring that what is said is unworthy ai notice. 
Fiddle-faddle, trifling matter, much ado about nothing. 
German ^edeZ, y.fiede}n,fiedUr: "LaAin fides, a fiddle. 
Fidelity, fiMV.i.iy, faithfulness. (Fr. jid6lU ; Lat. fldmtas.) 
Fidget, flf.St, a restless per-on, wony, to annoy with petty 
annoyances; fid^'get-ed (R. xxxvi.), fid'get-ing; fidgety, 
flf.et.y, restless ; fidgets, a fidgety fit or conduct. 
German ^/ociben, to fidget ; jlekf acker, fickfaekerei. 
Fiduciary, plu. fiduciaries (Kule xMy.), fi.du'MM.fiz, a feoflTee in 
trust ; fiduciary (adj, ;, bound on conditions of trust 
JjAtin Jldtcciarhts, Y.fidueidre, to make conditions of trust. 
Fie ! Jiy an exclamation to deter children i'rom doing something 

disagreeable or naughty. 
Fief, feef, land held on condition of military service. 
This French word is not wanted, (See Feoff.) 
Field, feeld, originally meant a " clearing," and was spelt feld^ 
that is, a place where the trees have been " felled." 
Old English /eW, t. fel^.anl to fell ; past/«aWe, past part./eteA 
Fieldfare (2 syl.), a corruption of fealfare, a kind of thrush. 

Old English fe<Ua-fer, the migratory flock {far[an], past fdr, past 
part, faren, to travel : and ^ala, manyX These birds flock to 
Britain in October, and leave in February. 
Fiend, feend (not feen\, the devil; fiend'-igh (-ish added to 
nouns means '* like," adHed to acU. it is dim.) ; fiend'ish-ly, 
fiend'ish-ness, fiend'-like. 
Old English /ednd, fedndlic, fiend-Uke {fe&n, to hate). 
Kerce, fierce, (comp.) fierc'-er, (super.) fiero'-est, fieroe'-ly; 
flerce-ncfis, ferocity; fierce^ixunded. 
Fier fierce (se dit d' un lion h^rissfi;; Latin fgrus, savage. 
Fiery, fi"ejryy passionate, like fire. (&ee Fire.) 
Fife, plu. fifes (1 syl., Rule xl.), f if-er, fif -ing, fifed (1 syL) 

French ^r«; German pfeife, pfetyfer, v. pfeifenL 
Fifteen, f If. teen' ^ a numeral; M\^eiixi\ flf,tecnth\ an ordinal; 
Fifth, ordinal of five; fifthMy, in the fifth place; 
Fifty, /i/.fy, five times ten ; fifti-eth, fif.ti.gth, its ordinal. 
Old Eng. f^f, 6; fifta, 6th; Aften, 16; fifU4>iKa, 16th; f^ig, 60; 
fiftigthoet, 60th. 
Fig, a fruit, a snap of tbe fingers : as I don*t care a fig, 

01(1 English /Ec; Latin /Icus, a fig. Fieo (Ital.), a flg, a snap of the 
fingers, ft. Faire lafigue A qvbdqyCwn^ to make a butt of one. 
Fight, past fought, past part, fQiagh\ fite.fawt ; [foughten, 
adj. : as the foughten field, used in poetry], fig^t-ing, 
fite'-ing ; fighter, fite'.er. 
Old English /eob<[an1, past/eoA^, past part. foUen. 
(The -%' is interpolated, and ia woree than tueleu./ 




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AND OF SPELLIXff. 369 

Fig'ment, an idle dream. (tAt, ftgmentum ; fingOt to imagine.) 
Fig^ore, f\g^Mr (not fl.geur^), shape, form, to shape, to 
mflke figures; figured, flg'urd (yiot fl.geurd') ; figur-ing, 
fig'.Ur.ing ; figuratlTe, fig'gu.rdMv ; fig'uiatlYe-ly, 
fig'uratiye-ness, fig'ur-ist. 
Figurante, fig'gu.ranU a female ballet-dancer. 
Fr. figurante, fl^ratif, fl^gure, figuriste; Lat. figrHra^ figOr&timu, 
figHrdre (Jingo, to moald, to fasnlon). 

Filament, ytr.a.m€ne, a thread; fil'amen'tary; filature, /{{'.a., 
tc/ittr, spinning [silk from the cocoons], 
"French filameni; LatiafilamentaifiXum, thread). 
Filbert, fW.bert, the hazel nut. Corruption of filberd. 

Old English fiU herd (ail-'beard), so called because the nut esnotljr 
fills the cup made by the " beards " of the calyx. 

Filch, to pilfer ; filched (1 syl.), filch'-ing, filch'-er. 
Probably a corrupt contraction of pillage (pilge, filch). 

File (1 syl.)« a tool for rasping, a line of soldiers, a wire on 
which bills are strung, to use a file, to put a [bUl] on a 
file, to march in file ; filed (1 syl.), fil'-ing (Rule xix.), 
fil'-er; rank and file, the privates of the army. 

French fil and AU: Latin fllum. a thread. 

Old English feol or fyl, a file or raap ; Norse^ t. fiU, to file or raap. 

Filial, /fr.{.a2, becoming in a son or daughter; fil'ial-ly. 

Lat. fiUaiii (filhu, a son ; filia, a dangh^ : Gk. phiU6, to loreX 
Filibuster, fiv .i.bii8\ter (not Jill ..), a piratical adventurer. 

Spanish Jllibtufer; French flibtutier. 
Filigree, fU'Xgreef thread-like work with gold or silver wire. 
French fiUgrane; Spanish filigrana (the grain [made] with wire). 
Fill, to make fall; filled (1 syl.), fill'-lng, fill'-er. 

To fill full, to fill completely ; To fulfil, to accomplish. 
Six words (all, thrall, full, fill, still, and mass) drop one 
of their double letters in those compounds which do not 
come under R. iv., thus fuljil, fufjil-ment. but the double 
I is resumed in fulfill-ed, JulJUUing, fuljill-ery R. viii. 
Old English fyl}\an\ pnatfyllde, past part. fyUed. 
Fill^'et, an astragal; meat boned, rolled, and tied with a string; 
a band for the head, to bind with a fillet ; fill'et-ed (not 
JUlett-ed), fill'et-ing (not Jillett-ing), Rule iii. 

f Every effort Should be made to redtwe the irregtUarities ofRvle Hi. J 
French ^2et,JU and dim. et, a little thread (Latin >i<um, a thread). 

Fillibeg, /ZZ'.i.5lj^ {not philibeg), the pouch of the Scotch kilt, 
the kilt is also called a fillibeg. 
QueVLcfilfeadh-beg, a U<tle itl^it or fold. 
Fillibuster (should be filibuster, q.v,) 



8M ERRORS OF SPEECB 

yaXi'ip^ a jerk with finger a«id thumb, to giy^ Mich « jerk. 
Philip, a man's nume. Fill'iped, fiLVipt (not fillipp.ed) ; 
AUlp-iag (not fiWipp'ing), Same as Jlip, flap, &q, 

<Clo«Blp, kidnap, and worship are ih€ only nrb9 ending in "p** vthieh 

aJysurcUy riolate R. iii., and they ought at once to he reduced to ordtr.) 

"Flip." a dim. variety of flap. We have a large number of Hiw 

vowel chaaget as pit pat, ehU ehai, JUnt flan, mkk mtt^ flip 

Jlop, wiggle waggle, and mMny mote. 
«<Flap^' is flOlied to L^tin OKkpa, German Uappe, Welidi UoHo, dap, 

elap, &c. 

miy, (wkM.) colt, {hathi foal, fole. the young of a horse. 

Latin HHa, a daughter ; Old English ooU and fola. 
Film, a thin skin, to cover with a film ; filmed (1 syl.), filmf-ing ; 

film-y, /ir.wiy ; fil'mi-ness, R. xi. (Old English ^fo».) 
Filter, fU\tSr, a strainer, to strain. Philter, fll'A^, a love- 
poiion; fil'tered, fil'ter-ing; fil'ter-er, one who filters. 
Filtration, fU.tray'^hun, the process of flUnring ; fll'ttage. 
French ^Wrer, filtre, filtration, filtrage ; Low Latin fittrwn. 
Filth, dirt; filthy, /W'.r/^.y ; fll'thiJy, fil'thi-new (Rule xi.) 

Old Bngli h filth or fylth, filth, impuritj. 
Fin (of a fish), finned (1 syl.), haying fins ; finn'-y (B. i.), flnMeaB, 
Old English fin oxfinn, finiht, fiuny. Finnas, the people of FinlaDd. 
FfeMd,/i'.»<Ji, last; fi'naMy; finality, /i.mIZ'.i.ty. 

Finial, fW.iM, an ornamental top to pinntiolei, &e. 
Finale, ^.nd*'.lfl (not/iiw/.l*, nor flMtlV Xy), the elose. 
Finis, fi\nisy the end ; in fine (1 sjrL), io conclusion, once 

for all. (French enfin.) 
WiDltHBL^JlnfAih, the end, to end ; fin^ished (8 syl.), fin'iah^ng; 

fin'ish-er, {-ish in vtrbs means '* to make") 
Finite, f'l'jiuU, termiunhle ; finiteVnesi, finiteMeas. 
Infinite, tn^/{ oit. without end ; definite, 4^M.n{t, precise. 
Indefinite, inMf\\.nU, not definite. 

liatin finis, fin%iimu». finite, flnitua, flni/te, findlis; ItaliUi flnaU 
(8 8>1.); French ^9mU. 

Finance, ftnance' (not fi'.nunee), revenue; finaa^eea, ready 
cash ; financier, fi.nan\M*r. 
Vt. finances, financier; Lew Lat fin&r€, to fix a flue. ^'FinMM* 
meant originallj^ dut)^, tax (of the nature of a fineX 

Finch, a singing bird; hjillfinch, goldfinch. (Old Eng.^nc.) 
Find, (past) found, (past part ) fbuQd; fUidMqg, find'-er. 
Finding of the court, sentence of the court. 
To find fault, to censure. How do yon find yonrselfP In 
what state do you find your h^'alth ? (In Latin we have : 
me male habere sentio, I find or peroeive myself ill.) 
Old £nglish^nd[an], yast/<m4, paat part. /^(nden. 



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AND OF SPELLING. «61 

Fine (1 By].)» a forfeit, delicate, beautiful, flashy, to impose a forfeit ; 

Fine {adj), tfaf^BV {comp), fin'-est {super.); fin'.er, one 

who refines metal ; finery, /i'.nf.ry, Ah shy clothes ; 

ftnary, a forge at iron mills ; fine'-ly, flne'-nau. 

Hnesse {Ft.\ fi.ne88\ petty artifices; finess'-ing (Rule xix.), 

practising petty artirtees. 
Fine (v.). fined (1 syl.), f in'-ing, fin'-able. (See Final.) 
Low Lat. finis, a fine ; fi/n&re, to refine Fr. fin, ddicate : originallj 
tke auiount of pure gold or ftilver foiind by assi^ ; iines»€. 
Finger, fiif.ger {not ffng'.er), noun and verb; fln^gered (2 syl.); 
fin'ger-ing, toueriing with the fingers, the right tise of 
the fingers in playing on musical instruments. At my 
fingers ends (not finger's nor fingw^ end), familiarly 
known ; fiji'^r.board, fin'ger-poflt. 
Old Eng. fiMger, feng, a grasp, v. fifn, past feng, p, p. /angen» to eelw. 
Finial, fin'.i.al, a decoration. {See FinaL) 
TinicdXt ftn.l,hal ; fin'ical-ly, fin'ical-ness. 

•ioal (Latin termination), "pertaining to" [what is fine or elegant]. 
Finis, funis (liat), the end, the conclusion. {See Final.) 
Finish, fin'. UK the end ; fi'nish, rather fine {fine with the dinp. 

.t«/i). Finnish, pertdning to the Finns. {See FinaL) 
Finn, a native of Finland. Fin (of a fish). See Fin. 
Fiord, /g'.or', a bay, frith, or inlet (Norw., Swed., Dan.) 
Fir, name of a tree ; its timber is deal. Fur, a soft short hair. 

« Fir,** Old English fwrh^urudu, fir-wood. " Fur," Welsh ffwryt. 
Flre<l syl.), fired (I syL). fir'-iag, shooting, fuel; tery^fi'.e.ry. 
Old EnrfU«h/(r or/yr, fyren, fiery : fyrpanne^ a fire-pan ; /yr-seofi, a 
fire-ehovel ; fyr-tange, fire-tongs ; fyr-iholle, an oven. 

Firkin, ^r'./cin, a quarter-barrel or ninegajons [of beer], a tub 
of butter containing tittv-six pouudSt 
Kilderkin, two firkins or eighteen gallons [of beer]. 
Barrel, four firkins, or thirty-six gallons [of beer]. 
"Firkin," German fasa and Hn dim., a little bftrrel ; or, Patch vier 
with dim. a little four or quarter barrel. "Kilderkin/' Dutch, 
a little baby [barrel or tub]. 
Firm, substantial, strong, a mercantile company; adj. (comp.) 
flrm'-er, (super.) firm'-est; firm'-ly, flrm^ness. 
lAi. firmus, steady : firmOmm, an establishment (Gk. herma, a prop). 
Firmament, jl/.md.T/i^nt, tlie sky; flrmamen'tal. 

Latin /rmametUum, the prop of the fixed stars (Greek herma, a prop). 

Firman, fv/.mun, a royal license or passpoit. (Turk, firmaun.) 

Flnt, foremost ; first' Jy, a modem innovntion for first (adv.) 

At first, or at the first (?). If adverbially nsed, meaning 

'* immediately," most decidedly, at first is to be u^^ed. It 

is the Anglo-Saxon adverb €etf6re (before), istfrwnen at 



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Sfi't ERRORS OF SPEECH 

first. At first Bight, here first-sight is one word like 
first-fruits, first-rate, first-hom^ and "at" is the adverbial 
prefix as in €Rtf6re. 
Old English /yr, far ; fyrrt, farther ; fifneai orfyrst, farthest or llrat 
Our word is a contraction of the Old English >lrme«t (fir'ttj, foremost. 
Firth, a corruption of frith, q.v. (Lfkt, fritum, a frith.) 
Fiscftl, fis'kal, pertaining to revenue. 

Latin ^Iseus; a money-bi^^, the moneT" pnt in the bag ; ftscaJU. 
Fish, plu. (collective) fish, plu. (partitive) fishes, fisW.ez ; fishes 
(poss. sing.), fisK.lz ; fishes*, fi$h\ez. (Rule xxxiv.) 
Fish (verb)y fish'es {third per, «. pres, Ind,, Rule xxxiv.); 

fished (1 syl.), fish'-ing, fish'-er. 
Fish'-y, flshl-ness (R. xi.), fish'ery, plu, fisheries, ^A^^.r<z. 
Fish'er-man, one whose occupation is to catch fish. 
Fish-woman [fishwife], a woman who sells &sh by ret^ail. 
Fish-mon'ger, a fish-dealer. (Old English monger, dealer.) 
Fish^'-tail, to shape like the tail of a fish. 
Fish's tail, the tail of a fish. 

Old Eng. Jlse, jiIvl. JUcas, fUcere, a fisher ; fise-nettyfise-htis, v.JUdiian]. 
"Fish" (a card counter), a blunder for the Fren<ih word fiche (a five 
sou piece). The two points allowed for the mb are called in 
French la fiche de consolation (see Bule bdy.) 

Fissure, fizh'M a crack or cleft. Fisher, fish\er, one who fishes. 
"Fissure,** French ; Lntin ./iMtZra (findo, supine ^9um, to cleave). 
"Fisher,** Old English yi»cer« (jM^ianX to fish). 
Fit, a paroxysm, a canto, suitable, to adapt, to qualify ; (cLdj.) 
fit, (comp.) fitf-er, (super.) fltf-est, fltf-ing, fitring-ly 
(Rule i.); (v.) fitf-ed, fitf-ing; fit'-ly (adv,L fit'-ness; 
fit'-ful (Rule viii), capricious; fifful-ly, flffoI-nesB; 
by fits and starts, intermittently. 

Fit" (of illness), Fr falte, the point or summit; paroxism, means 
... ... . . ^^j .. ^, ... 



much the same thing, being from the Ok. oxus, pointed ; 
to make pointed, to sharpen ; par-oxusmda. 
"Fit" (a canto), Old Eng. fitt^ a song; fitt(an], to slnjr. 
"Fit" (suitable). Ft. fait, comelv, well made, as «n homtM bimJU, 
U est Men fit dans sa taUle, cest le ptre toutfii. (Lat. factum,) 
Five, a numeral; fifth, an ordinal; fifteen, fifteenth; fifty, 
fiftieth (Rule xi.); five-fold, one and four times more. 
Old Eng. fif, five ; fifta, fifth ; fiflm, fifteen ; fffteotha, fifteenth ; 
fifti or fifiiQf fl'*y • fiiftiqthat, fiftieth : fif-ftald, fivefold ; Ac. 
Fix, to fasten; fix'-ing, fixed (1 syl.); fixed-ly, ^'.«d.Iy; 
fixed-ness,/aj'.«f2.7itfM; fixity, /x'.t.ty; fixture,^'.tc/wlr; 
fixation, /ar.o'.s/iim ; fix'-able. 
FxancYi fixer, flxiti, fixation: Latin^lflfO, supine ./Zxum, to fix. 
Fizz, one of the few monosyllables (not in /, Z, or s) ending with 
a double consonant: as add^ odd; burr, err; hitt^ butt; 
ebb, egg ; buzz, fuzz ; fizz, frizz and whizz (Rule vii.) ; 
fizz'-ing, fizzed (1 syl.) An imitative word. 



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AND OF SPELLIXG. 363 * 

PlabTyy, flaccid jTcomp.; flab'bi-er, (super.) flabnbi-est (Rule 
Ixviii.) ; flab'bi-ly (Rule xi.), flab'bi-nesB. 
Welsh llibin, flacdd, Umber ; llib, a flaccid state. 
Raccid, jialff^ld, limp ; flac'cid-ly, flac'cid-ness, flaooidlty. 

Fr. fiaccidiU ; Lat. fiaccidus, ficuxus, flap-eared ; fiacoeo, to wither.^ 
Fllig, an ensign, a water plant, a pavin<2: stone, to droop; 
flagged (1 syl.), flagg'-ing (Rule l), flagg'ing-ly, flagg'-er, 
flagg'-y, flagg^i-ness (Rule xi,); flag'stone, flag'ship. 
To im