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Full text of "Examples of Gothic architecture : selected from various ancient edifices in England : consisting of plans, elevations, sections, and parts at large calculated to exemplify the various styles, practical construction, &c., : accompanied by historical and descriptive accounts"

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EXAMPLES 



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ANCIENT EDIFICES IN EN 



PLANS, ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, AND PAHTS A 



CALCULATED T 



THE VARIOUS STYLES, PEACTICAL CONSTRUCT 



HI8I0EICAI. AHD DE8CEIPTITE ACCOUNTS, 



By a. PUGIN and A. W. PUGIN, Arc 

THE I.1TEKAEY PART BY E. J. WILLSON, ABCHITECT, 



VOL. IL 



LONDON: 
HENRt G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GAI 
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PREFACE. 



Since the present publication was commenced by my Father, a long 
period has elapsed, and I feel it incumbent on me to apologise to the 
Subscribers for the delay, although it has not been caused by any 
neglect or inattention on my part. 

The death of my Father, and other severe domestic afflictions, 
necessarily retarded the publication. The illness of my friend Mr. 
WiLLsoN, and the pressure of business consequent on the loss of his 
time, caused a long protraction of the Literary part of the Work ; 
which I was anxious to have completed by him, in order to make this 
Volume perfectly correspond with the former one, which, I trust, has 
been accomplished; and I have no fear, that the *' Second Series'' 
of ** Examples of Gothic Architecture" will be found in any respect 
inferior to the first 

Besides the proper number of Plates, a Frontispiece,* of original 
composition, has been added, in order to form a suitable title to the 
Volume. 

A. WELBY PUGIN. 

St. Mary's Grange, Salisbury. 
July 1836. 

* This composition represents an Artist of the fifteenth century, seated in his study^ 
amidst his books and drawings, making an architectural design. The furniture of the 
room is altogether agreeable to the fashions of the supposed period ; and the inscriptions, 
and other ornaments of the border, are also designed in a corresponding style. 



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REMARKS 



<llot!)tc ^rcfiitetture anti ifflonem Imitations. 



On the completion of the " Second Series of Examples of Gothic 
Architecture," the last work undertaken by the late Mr. Pugik, it 
will not be impertinent to take a brief review of his various publica- 
tions on Ancient Architecture. The want of an authentic and 
accurate collection of the details of the Gothic style, had long been 
acknowledged by professional men before Mr. Pugin undertook to 
supply it. A great number of beautiful engravings had been pub- 
lished, and much ingenuity and learning applied to the historical and 
scientific illustration of the Architecture of the Middle Ages ; but the 
generality of these works, however valuable to the scholar and the 
gentleman, were of little service to those who were engaged in actual 
practice. The builder felt only a very slight interest in abstruse 
disquisitions upon the origin of the pointed arch, the distinctions 
between Saxon and Norman architecture, or the rival pretensions of 
Germany, France, and England, to the invention of what is commonly 
described as the Gothic style ; but he looked, with anxiety, for a work 
of moderate price, in which he could find the various parts of this 
beautiful description of architecture, laid down fi-om actual measure- 
ment, with scales of their proper dimensions. The " Specimens of 
Gothic Architecture" originated with the writer of this article ; and 
the plan of that work was communicated to Mr. PuQiN,in the autumn 
of 1818, when he came to Lincoln, for the purpose of making draw- 
ings from the Minster, and other ancient edifices, in this city and the 
2 b 



VI REMARKS ON GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, 

neighbourhood.* Several drawings were then made for the intended 
publication ; and a volume, to be entitled, ** Specimens of Gothic 
Architecture/' was immediately undertaken. -f- A short essay, on the 
decline of the Gothic style, in this country, and the successive attempts 
which led to its revival in modern times, was prefixed to the descrip-p 
tion of subjects represented in the engravings ; and a •* Glossary of 
Technical Terms, descriptive of Gothic Architecture/' selected from 
various ancient authorities, and hitherto unexplained, was annexed to 
the volume ; together with some prefatory observations on that sub- 
ject. The favourable reception of the " Specimens" led to the under- 
taking of a second volume, under the same title, and of corresponding 
character, which was completed at the close of the year 1822. J In 
1825, and the two following years, Mr. Pugin was engaged in the 
publication of a series of engraved " Specimens of the Architectural 
Antiquities of Normandy." This work displays, amidst other curious 
subjects, some rich pieces of domestic architecture, of a style widely 
difiering in details from any contemporary examples to be seen in 
this country. It was an arduous effort to bring home to the English 
student, some of the many varieties of the Gothic architecture of the 



• Some of these were engraved for the Fifth, or Chronological, volume of Britten's Architec- 
tural Antiquities, which was then in ^ course of publication. 

t About two years before that time, Mr. Pugin had produced, in conjunction with Mr. F. Mac- 
kenzie, a volume containing sixtj-one Plates, entitled, " Specimens of Gothic Architecture," chiefly 
selected from the ancient buildings at Oxford. This was a respectable publication, and approached 
nearly to the idea of the work under consideration ; but the subjects being drawn in perspective, 
were not well adapted to imitation ; and many of them were of a description merely curious. 

X All the unsold copies of the first volume of the Specimens, together with the G-lossary, and 
some prints, &c. of the second volume, were destroyed by a fire, which consumed the house of the 
late Mr. J. Taylor, in High Holbom, on the night of 28d November, 1822. A second edition, with 
some additions and corrections, was immediately published ; and another impression of the whole 
work has since been made. The Glossary was published, with an express reservation of the right of 
the author to enlarge and publish it separately, if he chose to do so. Many articles in the original 
manuscript of the Glossary were abridged, in order to suit the prescribed limits of the volimie to 
which it was annexed. In a more complete edition, these will be given at length, with much 
additional information on this very curious subject. 



AND MODERN IMITATIONS. VII 

Continent ; and only wanted a more ample and critical description of 
the several subjects, deduced from actual examination, to render it a 
most valuable addition to the architectural library.* The decided 
success of his first work determined Mr. Pugin to proceed with his 
architectural labours, in the production of another volume, under the 
congenial title of, " Examples of Gothic Architecture ;" of which the 
first part appeared in January 1828. The plan of the '' Examples 
was similar to that of the " Specimens ;" but the subjects were gene- 
rally of a more elaborate character than those selected for the former 
work, and the distribution was made according to the places from 
which the examples were severally taken, rather than the elementary 
classes into which they might be divided. An introductory essay, 
and descriptive accounts, were, of course, considered necessary accom- 
paniments to the engraved Plates. In 1830, Mr. Pugin published 
" A Series of Views, illustrative of the Examples of Gothic Architec- 
ture,'* consisting of twenty-three Plates, drawn on stone, by his pupil 
Mr. Joseph Nash, fi'om original sketches, taken under his own direc- 
tion, and illustrated with descriptive accounts, by Mr. W. H. Leeds. 
The object of this publication was to meet the wishes of some of the 
subscribers to the " Examples/' who were desirous of having perspec- 
tive views of the several edifices, which were only represented in that 
work by geometrical elevations and sections, or partially, and in detail. 
The introduction of such views into the " Examples" would have 
materially altered the character of that work, which was purely scien- 
tific, and never aimed at the exhibition of pictorial effect. With 
indefatigable industry, Mr. Pugin was, at the same time, publishing 
another series of lithographic Plates, of " Gothic Ornaments ;" of 

♦ "The Historical and Descriptive Accounts," attached to this work, were edited by John 
Britton, Esq. F.S.A., who was a joint proprietor in it, as well as in the ** Specimens of Gbthic 
Architecture." Mr. Pugin was also joined with Mr. Britton, in the " Illustrations of the Public 
Buildings of London," the publication of which begaa in the spring of the year 1823, and was com- 
pleted at the beginning of 1828. Most of the subjects in that work were drawn by Mr. Pugin's 
pupils, under his own direction. 



Vlll REMARKS OX GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, 

which the first part appeared in 1828, and the fifth in 1831, contain- 
ing, altogether, 100 Plates. The *' Ornaments," displayed in this 
work, comprised a vast number of detached pieces of carving, of 
various dates and descriptions, selected from ancient ecclesiastical 
and domestic edifices ; many of them most curiously designed, and 
well adapted to the use of modern artists. The arrangement of sub- 
jects would have been more judicious, had they been distributed with 
a stricter adherence to regular classification, for want of which it is 
often difficult to make a direct reference to any particular ornament. 
A set of thirty-one lithographic Plates of " Ornamental Timber 
Gables" was also published by Mr. Pugin, in 1831, illustrated with 
short descriptions of the several subjects.* These Gables exhibit some 
very interesting specimens of the domestic architecture of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries ; a period when wealthy citizens and burgesses 
commonly displayed their prosperity, in erecting houses elaborately 
constructed of oak timber, enriched with carved work, and filled up in 
the interstices of the carpentry with white plaster. The greater part 
of these specimens was taken from Coventry, a city well known to the 
English antiquary, for the many curious fabrics of timber-frame 
which it contains. A few subjects were found at Abbeville, in France, 
which exhibit a mixture of Italian ornaments, engrafted on Gothic 
outlines. These Plates, which were excellently drawn by Mr. B. 
Ferrey, under the directioii of Mr. Pugin, will preserve the forms of 
many pieces of old domestic architecture, of a rich and picturesque 
character, long after the originals have yielded to the effects of time, 
or the ruthless progress of repairs. 

Of the " Second Series of Examples of Gothic Architecture,*' Mr. 
Pugin only lived to see two parts published ; but it was his last wish 
that the work should be completed by his son. Various circumstances 

• Nine of these Plates of " Gables" had been published amongst the " Ornaments ;" and the 
whole work, taking the Ornaments and G-ables together, consists of 121 Plates, according to an 
advertisement, inserted in No. V. 



* 



f*' 



7^ J5* ■ ^ > 






'1 



AND MODERir IMITATIONS. IX f 

have occurred to retard the accomplishment of this design, of which 
it is unnecessary to publish a lengthened detail ; but it may be con-> 
fidently affirmed, that neither pains nor expense have been spared to 
make the " Second Series of Examples of Gothic Architecture** fully 
equal to the former one, and worthy to conclude the professional 
works of the late Augustus Pugin.* 

The subjects displayed in the present volume have been chiefly 
selected from castellated and domestic edifices, of the later periods of 
the Gothic style ; and this selection has been made expressly with a 
view to practical utility. It would have been a more easy task to fill 
the work with examples of greater splendour, taken from the cathe- 
drals, and other grand churches ; but subjects of that description are 
very rarely wanted for imitation. On the other hand, the remains of 
the castles and mansions of the Middle Ages afford a vast variety of rich 
and curious details, of the greatest value to an architect : but which, 
from their being situated in retired and remote places, or concealed in 
obscure recesses, can seldom be examined with proper attention. 

Many beautiful examples, of this description, will be found in the 
present work, in door-cases, windows, fire-places, chimneys, &c. Of 
these details, perhaps, none deserve so much consideration and study 
as windows. Here it is that the architect finds the chief difficulty. 
The other features of Gothic architecture may be generally adapted 
to present convenience ; but, to make the windows of a modern house 
correspond to the style of the fourteenth or fifteenth century, with- 
out rendering the apartments uncomfortable, is too often attended by 
difficulties almost insurmountable. Abundant proofs of the truth of 
this observation may be found in both ancient and modern buildings. 
Of the former, scarcely any old castle, abbey, or country-house remains, 
of which the original windows have not been mutilated and disfigured, 

* Mr. Puaiir died at his house, in Great BuBsell Street^ on the 19th of December, 1832 ; aged 
about 68 years. He appointed Mr. James Moboait, civil engineer, a very old friend, and Mr. 
Thomas Labiokb Walkxb, his pupil, executors to his will, and trustees for the completion of his 
unfinished publications. 






■* 



X REMARKS ON GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, 

under the pretence of improvement. And of modern Gothic houses, 
how very few are even tolerably correct in the style of their windows I 
Too often is the visitor of these mansions disgusted with the sight of 
window-frames of the most wretched style, even where the other parts 
of the edifice betray no very incongruous forms. And yet, on the per- 
fection of the windows, perhaps more than of almost any component 
part, does the beauty of Gothic architecture depend. But it would 
be unjust to the modem architect to attribute all the failures in this 
respect, to his want of taste, or skill ; for he has difficulties to over- 
come which did not at all affect his predecessors. In ancient castles, 
the external windows were generally very small, and narrow ; many of 
them consisting of a single light, as we see in the examples of Herst- 
monceaux Castle, Guy's Tower in Warwick Castle, and the Towers of 
Raglan Castle. The narrowness of the windows gave a characteristic 
appearance of strength and solidity to these fabrics, but the apart- 
ments were but very indifferently lighted ; and where security was 
thought consistent with larger apertures, every light was strongly 
guarded with iron grates, and divided by muUions of massy stone.* 
The abbeys, colleges, and mansions, were all likewise constructed with 
especial regard to strength, and the prevention of hostile assaulti^. 
For this purpose, the windows were usually placed at a considerable 
height from the floor ; and little or no attention was paid to any pros- 
pects of the surrounding country from the vdndows : those of the 
principal apartments generally opening towards inclosed courts. The 
tranquillity resulting firom a more settled state of the laws under 

* Some of the finest Bpecimens of such massy windows may be seen in the ruins of Wiessil 
Castle, near Howden, in Yorkshire, built by Sir Gliomas Percy, who was created Earl of Worcester, 
by Bichard II., and being taken prisoner in a battle, at Shrewsbuiy« in 1403, was beheaded soon 
afterwards. Only the walls of the south side of this noble pile, with two great towers, are now 
standing. Three sides of the quadrangular court were pulled down, in 1650, by order of the Long 
Parliament ; and the other apartments, in which was some most curious carved work of oak, were 
destroyed by fire, in 1796. See the Northumberland Household Book ; Grose's Antiquities, vol. vi., 
&c. The thickness of each mullion, in these windows, is very nearly equal to one of the lights ; and 
yet the outlines are elegaut, notwithstanding this display of strength. 



AITD MODERN IMITATIONS. XI 

Elizabeth and James I. was not followed by a hasty removal of these 
precautions. Country mansions were still protected by moats and 
drawbridges, the yards and gardens were surrounded by stout walls ; 
and the windows, although very la^e, and numerous evea to excess,* 
were still constructed after the old fashion, with muUions, and iron 
bars. The glazing of these ancient windows was composed of very- 
small panes, whether the glass were coloured or plain ; and the small 
pieces being put together, with seams of lead, the glazing was easily 
fitted into the various lights into which the window was divided, let 
their sizes or forms be what they would. If it was required for a 
window to open, and that was by no means so frequent in former ages 
as in the present, an iron casement, suspended on hooks, and occupy- 
ing one light, was thought quite sufficient. This style of windows 
continued in use, with a few exceptions, down to the reign of King 
Charles II., when windows, divided by mullions of stone, into narrow 
lights, were superseded by oblong frames of oak, adapted to the Italian 
and French styles of architecture, which then were in fashion. 4- 
few years later, the improved state of the manufacture of glass brought 
larger panes into common use; and the introduction of sliding sashes 
of wood, suspended by lines and weights completed the revolution in 
the forms of domestic windows. After this period, the windows of 
many old castles and houses were cut into lai^e square openings, for 
the receptioQ of wooden sashes ; and these alterations were regarded 
as the triumphs of an improved taste.-f- The earliest efforts, at a 

* The Btate BpartmentM of Hsrdwick Hall, in DerbTBhire, a noble specimen of the Mzabethan 
manoions, now belonging to the l>uke of DevoosMre, are profiiaely lighted by windowB of thia sort, 
which are Buffered to retain their original glasing. Indeed, the whole building baa been preaerred 
hj its noble ownen, without any oonnideTabld injniy or alteration. 

t One dde of Herstmonceaux Caetle was disfigured 1^ the insertion of sash windows, at the 
latter end of the serenteentb century. The author of a " Tour through Qreat Britain," third edition, 
1742, in his description of Burleigh House, near Stamford, praises the exquuite tatte and ynuiu 
for arcititteture of John, Esfl of Exeter, who died in 1700; and particularly meations, that he had 
"tnmddtheotdGothic windows into those spacious saaheB which are now seenthera,"ToLiii. p. 87. 
These and other injuries, done to this stately edifice, have been repaired, in a style more suitable to 
the original design. 



Xll REMARKS ON GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, 

revival of the Gothic style, seldom extended to an imitation of the 
ancient windows. Gothic sashes were, indeed, manufactured in 
hideous varieties of form ; but generally terminating at the top, in a 
sharp pointed arch, the most improper of all forms for domestic apart- 
ments. In many instances, no attempt at all was made to adapt the 
windows to the architecture ; but rows of plain oblong sashes were 
formed, amidst the incongruous accompaniments of buttresses, battle- 
ments, and pinnacles, as though the architect despaired of reconciling 
these untractable features to the general style of his design. In such 
cases, all harmony of effect is, of course, destroyed. It would be 
invidious to point at particular examples of such anomalies of style ; 
and, unfortunately, they are too numerous to require it. 

More recent works have been attended with better success ; and 
some mansions of the modern Gothic school exhibit great ability in 
the execution of the windows, particularly in those instances where 
casements of brass, or copper, are fitted into stone muUions. The 
more general practice, however, has been, either to set the glazing in 
frames of wood, painted of the colour of stone, or to place sashes, or 
casements of wood, on the inside of the stone mullions. Neither of 
these methods is altogether satisfactory ; a frame, entirely constructe d 
of wood, being, in general, too slender to appear like stone; and an 
air of clumsiness is always perceptible in the other mode of construc- 
tion, which contrasts, veiy unfavourably, with the simple style of the 
ancient glazing. Cast-iron has also been applied to the formation of 
Gothic windows, but not very successfully, at least where the mullions 
and tracery have been executed altogether in that material. For it is 
not enough to copy the lines of the tracery ; they must also be em- 
bodied in a proportionate substance of material, before the proper 
effect can be produced, otherwise we shall see mere skeletons ; and 
such is commonly the appearance of these works of cast-iron. The 
application of inside shutters to Gothic windows is frequently attended 
with not less difficulty than the management of the glazing. This 
is the case particularly in oriels, or bay-windows ; which very seldom 




AND MODERN IMITATIONS. Xlll 

had any shutters in the old examples ; sufficient security being given 
against the attempts of thieves to break into a house by the iron bars 
inserted in every light. The great number of chimneys required in 
modern houses creates another obstacle to the perfection of domestic 
architecture. In ancient mansions, only a few of the principal apart- 
ments were furnished with separate fire-places ; and the oldest 
examples shew the chimney-shafts standing singly, like slender tur- 
rets. Afterwards, they were placed two or three in a row ; and in a 
few instances, were ranged together, in a double row ;* but still, the 
number of chimneys was comparatively small. Some architects, of 
modem castles and mansions, have endeavoured to lessen the apparent 
number of the chimneys, by carrying up several flues together, in 
form of a turret ; but the great quantity of smoke thus collected into 
one focus, is apt to blacken and disfigure the turrets, producing a 
most unpleasant efiect. This effect of smoke should always be con- 
sidered in attempts to conceal the tunnel of a chimney, which often 
betrays itself in the structure, although its appearance may have been 
very neatly concealed in the drawings from which the house was built. 
A porch, with openings on both sides, of sufficient breadth to 
receive a carriage, is a new feature in Gothic architecture, which has 
been applied to the chief entrance of several large country-houses, 
with very good effect. The convenience of such an appendage is suf- 
ficiently obvious to make it deserving of attention ; and although no 
example of such a porch can be found in any ancient castle or man- 
sion, there are porches attached to some of our great churches, very 
nearly of the same description ;-f* and the towers raised over many 

* An extraordinary group of chimneys, consisting of ten tunnels, all finely wrought in brick- 
work, remains at East Barsham Hall, Norfolk. See the first series of " Examples," pp. 56, 57, plate 65. 

t The grand porch, called the G-alilee, attached to the great transept of Lincoln Minster, has 
openings on each side, as well as in front. The north porch of Hereford Cathedral is another ex- 
ample. There is another such porch, of smaller dimensions, attached to the north side of Gfrantham 
Church, in Lincolnshire. An entrance of this description, requires to be built with a considerable 
degree of size and solidity, otherwise the appearance is sure is to be bad. 

2 c 



XIV REMARKS ON GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, 

ancient entrances may be copied, with some modifications, for the 
same purpose, without any considerable violation of style. 

The extensive application of the Gothic style to the construction 
of country-seats, which has taken place within the last few years, has 
produced a great improvement in the general appearance of many 
districts. A far greater latitude of design is allowable in buildings 
of this description than in Grecian or Roman architecture ; and 
towers, turrets, pinnacles, embattled parapets, and carved gables, 
when properly employed, and executed in due proportion, are capable 
of producing the most pleasing effects in rural scenery. Examples 
suitable to the glebe-house, the farm, or cottage, may all be found in 
the Gothic style ; and some villages have been made highly interest- 
ing* by a judicious introduction of houses of picturesque appearance. 
In all works of this style, it is necessary to consider the proper cha- 
racter of an edifice, and to beware of attempting the imitation of a 
structure of unattainable dimensions, or of a character inconsistent 
with the situation and purpose of the intended building. For want 
of such precautions, we are often disgusted with the extravagant pre- 
tensions of pigmy castles, over-grown cottages, or abbeys with scarcely 
any resemblance to the solemnity and repose of the ancient religious 
house. 

A revival of the taste for old fashioned gardens, sheltered by walls 
and embellished by fountains, and terraces, with flights of steps and 
balustrades, has lately taken place, with very happy effects. It is now 
generally acknowledged, that the indiscriminate destruction of archi- 
tectural gardens^ which took place about a century ago, was injudi- 
cious, and carried far beyond the limits of good taste. These 
appendages to a mansion had certainly become extravagant ; and 
nothing could be more unnatural, than formal squares, and geome- 
trical lines of trees trimmed into uniformity, especially when a large 
tract of land was thus arranged. But, to a moderate extent, and as 
an immediate accompaniment to a house, the old style was at once 



y:}'pM 



-■•.*.ft 



AND MODERN IMITATIONS. XV 

convenient, and consistent with sound principles of taste. Very few 
remnants of the old architectural gardens were spared in the improve- 
ments of the last century ; but complete representations of a great * 
number may be found in the views of Hollar, Burghers, Kyp, Samuel, 
and Nathaniel Buck, and other engravers of that time ; from which 
it is evident, how much a due proportion of such accompaniments 
may contribute to the beauty, as well as the comfort, of a country 
residence. It is true, that most of these architectural gardens were 
of a date subsequent to the extinction of the Gothic style ; but we 
know, that the more ancient castles and mansions were embellished 
with such enclosed gardens, several of which are described by Leland, 
and other old writers ; and gateways, fountains, balustrades, and other 
architectural features, may be constructed in a style corresponding 
to the mansion. Hitherto, Gothic architecture has made very little 
progress in towns and cities. Even in the construction of modern 
churches, a perverted application of the Grecian style has been pre- 
ferred : although it is manifest, that the classic temple cannot be 
made sufficient for the purposes of a Christian church, without the 
most incongruous additions. The two universities exhibit some of 
the most considerable modern works of the Gothic style ; especially 
Cambridge, where several of the new collegiate buildings are on a 
grand scale. 

The provisions of the building act, which aimed principally at 
the prevention of fires, impose great restrictions on the street archi- 
tecture of the metropolis; for picturesque projections, and ornaments 
of carved timber, such as formerly embellished the citizens' houses, 
are no longer allowable. Still, a great deal of the present baldness, 
and monotony of our streets might be relieved, without any inter- 
ference with public convenience and good order ; and it may be rea- 
sonably expected, that some improvements of taste, in this respect, . 
will become general before long. A single street or square, con- 
structed in the style of the fifteenth or sixteenth century, would 



■• w ■ . 
J?" 



'• .' ^. 



XVI REMARKS ON GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, 

not fail of admiration, if its buildings were arranged in a judicious 
and convenient manner. 

The selection of subjects, for this volume, as well as the former 
one, has been made with a preference for such as are of a pure style, 
and free from any admixture of Italian or Roman ornaments ; 
although several of them display the very latest varieties of the 
pointed, or Gothic, style. The last epoch of that style may be dated 
in the early part of the sixteenth century, immediately before the 
partial introduction of Italian architecture, which was made by John 
of Padua, and other foreign artists, under the patronage of King 
Henry VIII. The mixed style which then came into fashion con- 
tinued with few exceptions, to prevail until the middle of the fol- 
lowing century. Its mouldings, and other ornaments, soon deviated 
very widely from the style of the fifteenth century, becoming more 
extensively mingled with Italian details ; but without any attention 
to the severe and simple proportions of the classic style. The pointed 
arch was not entirely disused, but the semicircle was more generally 
adopted. The windows were deprived of the rich mouldings and 
tracery which had heretofore given them unrivalled beauty ; but 
they were not reduced to the moderate breadth prescribed by the 
rules of Roman architecture. On the contrary, the halls, galleries, 
and other chief rooms of great houses, were lighted by vast windows 
of square, or oblong forms, divided into many compartments, by per- 
pendicular and transverse muUions of stone. In this respect, the 
domestic architecture of England differed from that of France, Ger- 
many, and other countries, where the windows were usually of mode- 
rate breadth, being divided only by a single upright shaft in the 
centre, crossed by a transom. This fashion of windows appears to 
have extensively prevailed, upon the Continent, during the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. In the earlier examples, we frequently find 
windows of this form embellished with pinnacles and canopies, richly 
carved, on the outside, as in the Palais de Justice at Rouen, and 






-J 



AND MODERN IMITATIONS. 



XVll 



Other edifices, of the same date.* Many houses, erected under the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James I., of magnificent dimensions, and 
of most imposing appearance, still remain entire, and are worthy of 
our admiration, for the grandeur of their plans, or the beauty of 
their general composition. Nevertheless, it may be fairly questioned, 
whether the adoption of the mixed style, which prevails in these man- 
sions, be not a symptom of depraved taste. The preservation of such 
edifices as Audley End,*!- Longleat,J Hatfield,|| Burleigh,§ Hard- 
wick,^ Bolsover,** Wollaton,-f-f- and many others that might be 
mentioned, is highly desirable, both as specimens of the style of 









* See the *' Architectural Antiquities of Normandj." The illuminated copies of Eroissart's 
Chronicles, done in the fifteenth century, shew, that this style of windows was formerly very com- 
mon in Erench buildings of eveiy description. Many examples still remaiii in that country ; as in 
the Castle of Josselin, built by Queen Anne of Bretagne, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
&c. Italian architecture was introduced into France in the reign of Francis I., the contemporary of 
Henry Vni. 

t In Essex, built by Thomas, Earl of Suffolk, and now the seat of Lord Braybrook. See vol. ii. 
of Britton's ^* Architectural Antiquities,'' in which this mansion is represented in its original, as well 
as its present state. It was begun in 1603, and finished in 1616, by Bernard Jansen, a Fleming. 

X In Wiltshire, the seat of the Marquess of Bath, completed in 1579. See the volume referred 
to above. The architect's name was John Thorpe. 

II In Hertfordshire, belonging to the Marquess of Salisbury, and built by his ancestor Bobert 
Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, Lord High Treasiurer, under King James I., about the year 1609. The 
western wing was lately ruined by fire. The walls of this house are of brick. 

§ In Northamptonshire, erected by the celebrated minister William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, Lord 
High Treasurer, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, about the year 1585. It is now the seat of his 
descendant, the Marquess of Exeter, and is one of the most magnificent houses in the kingdom. 

% Built by Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, in the reign of Elizabeth. See the description 
of Derbyshire, in Lysons' " Magna Britannia," vol. v. 

♦♦ Situated in Derbyshire, and belonging to the Duke of Portland. The architect was Hunt- 
ingdon Smithson. The state apartments have long been reduced to naked walls ; but one lofty 
square pile remains in a habitable state, with some noble stables and offices. See Lysons ; and the 
account of Bolsover Castle, published by the Eev. Dr. Pegge. 

tt Wollaton Hall, near Nottingham, perhaps the most beautiful specimen of the Elizabethan 
mansion, was begun by Sir Francis Willoughby, in 1580, and appears to have been finished in 1588, 
according to the dates inscribed over the chief entrance. Mr. Bobert Smithson, the architect, lies 
buried in Wollaton Church ; where his monument remains on the south side of the chancel. He 
died in 1614 ; and was father to the architect of Bolsover. See Britton's " Architectural An- 
tiquities," vol. ii. 



XVlll REMARKS ON GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, 

art, of certain periods, as well as on account of interesting circum- 
stances, associated with their history ; although they may not be 
thought worthy, in all respects, to serve as models for imitation, 
without a severe correction of the style of their ornaments. 

The* classic orders, even when taken with all the laxity of Roman 
practice, appear totally irreconcilable with the Gothic style ; and the 
discordancy resulting from their being brought together, is painfully 
apparent in all the edifices of this incongruous style ; although their 
antiquity may cause many defects to be overlooked, which would be 
severely censured in a work of recent execution. These objections 
to the Elizabethan style of domestic architecture, are meant to apply 
solely to the details. The proportions and distribution of parts, in 
many fabrics of that description, are undoubtedly excellent ; and 
some of them possess the merits, not very easily combined, of being 
both grand and convenient.* But these excellencies, and whatever 
else is valuable about such an edifice, may be adopted, without copy- 
ing the barbarous caricatures of the Five Orders, with which its walls 
are overlaid. The outlines of the Elizabethan mansions are decidedly 
Gothic; and such, it is contended, ought their details also to be made, 
whenever any of them is taken as a subject for imitation. An abund- 
ance of beautiful and appropriate ornaments, for every purpose, may 
be found in the mansions of the preceding age, infinitely preferable to 
disjointed members of Roman architecture, of which the characteristic 
beauties are utterly destroyed by misapplication. 

These observations may be useful to the young architect, who will 

* These houses were generally of more lofty, reg^ular, and compact forms^ than those of earlier 
times. A great improvement was introduced in the construction of staircases, which hitherto had 
been confined to the narrow circle of a turret, or consisted of straight flights of steps, placed be- 
tween two walls. In the reign of Elizabeth and James I., some grand open staircases were con- 
structed of oak, guarded at the sides with balustrades, carved in rich scrolls and foliage. The newels 
were tall and large, and frequently bore the crests of the owner's family, and his alliances, sculp- 
tured in oak. The staircase in Hatfield House, is of this description. That of Crewe Hall, in 
Cheshire, engraved in the second volume of Britten's " Architectural Antiquities," is another fair 
example, and several more might be mentioned. 



■/f^ 



;V- r*-' 






AND MODERN IMITATIONS. XIX 

find, in the buildings of the middle ages, an infinite variety of style, 
which cannot be thoroughly understood, and duly appreciated with- 
out a long and diligent course of study. The architecture of each 
successive period, particularly those of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and 
fifteenth centuries, whilst the pointed, or Gothic, style was prevalent, 
will be found possessed of its peculiar mouldings, and minor details, 
which require attention, no less than the more prominent features, 
if a perfect work is to be produced. A servile adhesion to ancient 
models, exclusive of all invention, cannot reasonably be required. 
Modern edifices must be adapted to modern habits of life, and the 
wants and wishes of the present generation. At the same time, it 
must be remembered, that ignorance, or neglect of the rules and pre- 
cedents of architecture, whether the Grecian, Roman, or Gothic style 
be adopted, will inevitably produce extravagance and bad taste. The 
architectural student of the present day enjoys great advantages over 
his predecessors, in having exact delineations of the finest details, the 
anatomy, as it were, of Gothic Architecture, displayed before him ; and, 
for the production of a large share of these aids, he is indebted to the 
industry and talents of the late Augustus Pugin. 

EDWARD JA«. WILLSON. 
Newport, Lincoln, 1836. 



1 

f 



EXAMPLES 



0ottiir. MvtWtttnvt. 



ST OF SUBJECTS AND PLATES CONTAINED IN THE SECOND VOLDHE. 



Pifiatlifivm 1 to 73, mark (A« NuMurieat Jrrtaiffaiunt i^ the Plata, /or bindiiig, ^r. 

?itle-Pf^;e — Composition. 

NORFOLK— Chapel at Houghton in the Dale. 
I. Eleration of the West Front. 
II. Ditto, Details of Window and I^onacles, 

III. Ditto, Details of Canopies. 

IV. Ditto, Details of Niches. 

V. Ditto, Details of Parapets, &c. 

OXFORD— Mebton College Chapel. 

I. Wooden Ceiling under the Tower. 
II. Ditto, Parts at laige. 

SUSSEX — Heest-Monceaux Castle. 

I. Elevation, Plan, kc 
II. PUdb of the Entrance Towers, 
in. South Front of ditto. 

IV. Section of ditto, with Details 

V, Details of a Loop-hole and Window. 
VI. DetaUs of Battlements, &c. 



lRWICKSHIRE- Warwick Castle. 

I. Guy's Tower, Elevation, Section, and Plana. 
Kenilworth Castle. 

I. Octagonal Lobby, Plans and Details. 

II. Ditto, Elevation and Detaila. 

III. Great Hall, Section, Plan, &c. 

IV. Ditto, Interior Elevation and Section of a Window. 
V. Ditto, Tracery and Parts at large of ditto. 

VI. Ditto, Elevation, Section, and Plan of a Fire-place. 
VII. Ditto, Bay Window, Interior Elevation and Plan. 

NMOUTHSHIRE— Ragland Castle. 

I. Groimd Plan and Elevation of Uie Front Towers. 
II. Great Hall, Elevatione, &c. 

III. Window of State Bed-chamber. 

IV. Ditto, Details of Parts. 

V. Window of State Apartment. 
VI. Ditto, Details of Parts. 
VII. Window over the Entrance within the Court. 

0UCESTER8HIRE— Thornbury Castle. 
I. South Front, Elevation and Plan. 
11. Bay Windows of ditto. 
in. Ditto. Details of Parts. 
IV. Ditto, ditto. 

V. Oriel Window and Door of the Gallery. 
VI. S^re-place, with Section and Details. 
Vll. Machecoulis of the Octagonal Tower. 
VIII. Offices on the North ride, with Ground Plans. 
IX. Elevation of the Entrance Gateway. 
X. Ditto, Details of Parts. 
XI. Oriel Window of the North Front. 
XII. Ditto, DetaUs of Parts. 
XIII. Fire-place, with Details. 



XIV. Door in the State Apartments. 
XV. Brick Chimneys, Elevation and Plans. 

SOMERSETSHIRE— The Deanery House at WeUs. 
I. Elevation of the North Front. 
II. Bay Window, EUevation and Section. 

III. Ditto, Groined Roof, vith Details. 

IV. Ditto, Details of Parts. 

V. Elevation of the South Front. Turret, and Details. 
VI. Oriel Window in the North Front. 
VII. Ditto, FUns and Details. 
VIII. Window of the Wjthdrawing-room, with Details. 



- Hall of the Episcopal Palace, at WeUs. 

I. Elevation of the North side, ditto of the West end, and Plan, 
II. External and Internal Elevations, and Section of one Bay. 

III. Elevation, Section, and Details of a Turret. 

IV. Plans and Details of the same. 

V. Window of the Gallery, with Details. 
VI. Chimney-piece in the Entrance. 

- "Water Conduit in the Gardens of the Palace at Wells. 

I. Elevation and Section. 
II. Plans and Details. 

- The Abbot's Kitchen at Glastonbury. 

I. Plans, &c. 
II. Elevation of the West side. 

III. Sections. 

IV. Details of Mouldings, &c. 

- The George Inn at Glastonbury. 

I. Front Elevation. 
II. Ditto, Dettuls of Parts. 
III. Bracket for the Sign, with Details. 



SOMERSETSHIRE— The Tribunal House at Glaetonbury. 

68. I. Elevation of the Front, with Plans and Details. 

The Abbot's Barn at Glastonbury. 

69. I. Elevation of the South side, and Oroamental Quatrefoils. 

70. II. Flan and Details. 

71. III. Section and Elevation of West end. 

72. IV. Detwis of a Gable, && 

73. V, Window and Loop-hole, &c. 



at 



PLATE, No. 3—6. 
CHAPEL AT HOUGHTON-LE-DALE, COUNTY NORFOLK. 

Erected abotU the year 1360. 

The faistoiy of this curious little &bric seems to be quite lost, no record of its 
foundation, nor an3i;liing relating to its endowment or ecclesiastical institution, 
haTing" been discovered. The names of the founder and of the patron saint 
are equally unknown. It stands in the parish of Houghton in the Hole, or 
Houghton-Ie-Dale, and is generally supposed to hara been intended as a station 
for pilgrims journeying to the celebrated priory of Our Lady at Walsingham, 
which stood about a mile beyond tins chapel towards the sea-coast.* The time 
of its erection may be safely referred to the middle of the fourteenth century, 
from the ornaments of the west front, which displays a rich example of the 
architecture of that period upon a small scale.f The inside of the building is 

• The parish church of Houghton wm appropriated to the Benedictine priory of Horsham 
St. Faith, in this county, from vhich drcumstance it appears unlikely that the chapel should belong 
to Walmngham priory. 

t A correspondence of style may be traced in some of these ornamental details with those on 
the western gate-house of St. Edmund's Bury Abbey, in Suffolk, vhich was rebuilt after the 
year 1827, when a riotous party of the townsmen plundered the abbey, and destroyed some of the 
buildings. See Britten's " Architectural Antiquities," vol. iii. p. 81. 



2 CHAPEL AT HOUGHTON-LE-DALE, NORFOLK. 

altogether rude, and void of ornament. In the south wall appear traces of a 
couple of arched windows, each two lig'hts in hreadth ; but both have been 
blocked up, as is the case with the wwt window. The buildings has been 
desecrated for many years ; and was inhabited as a cottage some time back, and 
afterwards used as a bam. 

Plate I. Elevation of the West Front. 

An elevation of the entire front is here shewn, together ivith horizontal and 
vertical sections of that part, and a ground-plan of the Chapel. The composi- 
tion is regular, and the ornamental details are bold and elegant. Fortunately 
they have been so far preserved as to shew what the design was when perfect, 
as it is here represented. There are three niches in the west front, and two 
at the north and south ends of the gable, besides two very small ones on 
each side of the door, all of which are now vacant, but were certainly intended 
to contain statues, which probably have been demoUshed by some fanatical 
zealots. 

Plate II. Details of the West Window and Pinnacle. 

The west window exhibits a beautiful example of curvilinear tracery,* the 
ramifications of its mullions being adjusted very gTacefiilly. These are shewTi 
at large in No. 1, where the centres of the leading curves are indicated by stars. 
No. S. gives a section of the mouldings on the jambs. No. 3. The pinnacle 
which terminated the point of the gable, has been broken off; but the deficient 
part is here drawn in faint outlines. There is no appearance of a bell having 
ever been placed here, though most chapels, however small, which were not 
joined to some larger church, were fiirmshed with one. 

Plate III. Details of Canopies. 

The lower ends of the western gable are terminated by two niches, facing 
towards the north and south, each of which has a beautifiil canopy, ornamented 

• The term ia suggested by a writer in the " British Critic," (No. IV. p. 376, published in 
July 1826.) The grandest examples of this style are seen in the western windows of York and 
Durham cathedrals, and the eastern window of that of Carlisle. A style of tracery, composed of 
nearly similar forms, which is common in the continental churches of the fifteenth century, has been 
lately denominated by some French antiquaries Flamboyant, from an imaginary resemblance in its 
lines to flames of fire. See " Arclueologia," vol. sxv. ; and " Memoires de la Soci^t^ des Anti- 
quaires de la Nonnandie," ann£e 1824, p. 649. 



CHAPEL AT HODOHTON-LE-DALE, NORFOLK. 3 

with rich crockets. No. 1. shews the face of one of these canopies, with a hori- 
soDtal sectjon of the niche. 

No. 2. shews a portion of the great gable, with a profile of a canopy over one 
niche. 

In the lower comer of the Plate is a plan of the canopira, which forms a 
square, set diagonaUy, and terminates, above the battlements, in a flat line ; but 
perhaps these canopies were originally surmounted by two pinnacles, or sculp- 
tured figures. 

Plate IV. Detaii^ of Niches. 

No. 1. One of the two larger niches in the frest front is here shewn, with 
sections, &c. at large. 

No. 2. shews one of the small niches placed on each side of the chapel door, 
with its plan and section. 

The heads of a king and a bishop, in the upper part of the Plate, belong to 
the niche on the right hand of the principal window, corresponding to that shewn 
in this Plate, No. 1. 



Plate V. Details of Parapets, &c. 

No. 1. represents the ornamental tracery of the parapet at the north-west 
quoin, and the mouldings connected with it. The south-west quoin is finished in 
a corresponding style. 

Nob. 2. and 3. are sections of the water-tobles, or copings on the angular 
buttresses. 

No. 4. is a section of the coping mouldings of the gable. 

No. 5. gives a section of the ^ of the west window, with the string-course 
beneath it. 

No. 6. shews the mouldings of the door-case. 

No. 7. This section gives the profile of the embattled mouldings and tracery 
over the north and south niches, shewn at large in Plate III., to which it must 
be referred. 



4 MEBTON COLLEGE CHAPEL^ OXFOBB* 



PLATE 7, 8. 
MERTON COLLEGE CHAPEL, OXFORD. 

The curious piece of timber-frammg, which forms the subject of the two following 
Plates^ is situated within the tower of Merton College Chapel^ immediately under 
the bell-chamber. It was evidently a part of the original architecture of the 
tower^ which appears to have been erected in the fifteenth century. This orna- 
mental and appropriate ceiling was shut out f5pom public view by one of those 
improvements which have disfigured most of our ancient churches, when a floor, 
with a flat ceiling, was placed below the spandrils, for the accommodation of the 
ringers, whose labours had been made the subject of scientific study.* 

Plate I. No. 1. gives a vertical section of the whole fi^ame, shewing the 
arched spandrils, and the inclined sides of the circular lantern in the centre. 
This lantern was designed to be occasionally uncovered, so as to admit the 
passage of a bell whenever it was necessary for any of the peal to be removed. 
Circular openings for the same purpose may be observed in vaults of stone under 
the towers of some churches.f 

No. 2. shews the plan drawn to a reduced scale. 

Plate II. No. 1. displays one quarter of the roof, upon a large scale, as 
viewed from the floor below it. 

No. 2. gives a horizontal representation of the interior of the lantern. 

The principal mouldings are shewn in the other figures on this Plate, their 
respective places being pointed out by letters of reference to the plans and 
sections. 



* This barbarous alteration was probably made when the five old bells were recast into a peal 
of eight. See page 2 of the First Volume of " Examples." 

t The vaulted ceiling in the tower of Louth church, in LincohiBhire, which is beautifully ribbed 
and groined with stone, has a circular aperture in the centre. A ringer^ 9 ehamher, with a flat 
ceiling, which had been built under the arched roof in modem times, was lately removed, and the 
interior of this beautiful structure restored to view* 



HERST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, SUSSEX. 5 



I 



PLATE 9—14. 
HERST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, SUSSEX. 

'' Such as Monceaux, now weedy ruin, boasts, 
Beproach and glory of the Begnian coasts ; 
Bavage, not Time, has stript thy stately halls, 
Unroofed thy graceful towers, and bared thy walls !"• 

The destruction of such a magnificent pile of building is, indeed, a national 
loss. Had an accidental fire, or a siege in the civil wars, reduced it to the mere 
shell we have now before us, our regret would have been softened by reflections 
on the inevitable fete, which, sooner or later, attends all human grandeur. But 
what can be said of the sordid possessor of such a treasure who could deli- 
berately puU it to pieces ? It is true he had a legal right to do as he pleased : 
and so had that other reverend person who chopped down Shakspeare^s mul- 
berry-tree at Stratford-upon-Avon. The right of property was unquestionable 
in both cases ; but it would have been happy for the memory of these gentlemen 
had they considered that the possession of any thing which the public admire 
and value is, in some sort, equivalent to a public trust, and its destruction is 
sure to be followed by the censure of posterity. 

Herst-Monceaux Castle was built by Sir Roger Fienes, Knight, by virtue of 
a royal license, dated in the nineteenth year of Henry VI. a.d. 1440, empowering 
him to kemellate and fortify his manor-house at Herst-Monceaux, and to enclose 
six hundred acres of land for the enlargement of the park.f The family of 
Fienes was descended fi*om a very illustrious stock. John, lord de Fienes,J in 
the Bolonois, was related by blood to William, duke of Normandy, whom he 

* '' Metrical Bemarks on Modem Castles and Cottages." London, 1813. Pp. 4A, 

t See Dugdale*s " Baronage," torn. ii. p. 244, where reference is made to Cart, ab An. 1. 
usque ad 20. H. 6. m. 21, Grose refers this grant to the first year of Henry VI. (vol. v. p. 164, 
Svo'. edition) ; and Gough has copied the error in his additions to Camden's " Britannia," vol. i. 
p. 297, 2d edition, 1806. See also Bp. Lyttleton's essay on Brick-Buildings, printed in '' ArchsB- 
ologia," vol. i. 

This date is erroneously referred to the year 1448, in vol. i. of Woolnoth's "Ancient Castles," 
published in 1825. The patent rolls of 1 Henry Y* (a.d. 1413), have an ^itry, " De elargacione 
parci de Horstemonceauz in Com. Sussex." 

X We find the name spelt with many variations, as Fiennes, Fienes, De Fenis, or Fenys, 
Fynes, &c. 

2 c 



6 HERST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, SUSSEX. 

accompanied in the invasion of England, a.d. 1066. After the conquest he was 
appointed constable of Dover Castle, which, at that time, was considered one of 
the most important fortresses in the kingdom. The manor of Herst-Monceaux 
was acquired by Sir John Fiennes, in the reign of Edward II., through his 
marriage with Maud, the daughter and heiress of Sir John de Monceaux, whose 
only son had died without issue. Sir Roger Fienes, and his younger brother. 
Sir James, both distinguished themselves by their bravery in the French wars 
under Henry V. and VI. Sir Roger succeeded his father in the sixth year of 
Henry IV. ; and had livery of his lands granted to him, although he was not 
then of full age. In the first year of Henry VI., a.d. 1422, he, being then a 
knight, was made sheriflf of Surrey and Sussex, as his father had been. After- 
wards he was treasurer of the household to King Henry VI. ; whilst his brother. 
Sir James, became lord high treasurer of England, and was summoned to parlia- 
ment as Baron Say and Sele. Sir Richard Fienes, the son of Sir Roger, 
married Joan, the only daughter of Thomas, eldest son and heir of Thomas, 
lord Dacre, and was created Baron Dacre an. 36 Hen. VI. 1457. Thomas, 
the third Lord Dacre, of this family, suffered death in the year 1641, on a 
charge of murder, and consequently forfeited his title ; which, however, was 
' restored in the reign of Queen Elizabeth to Gregory, his son, the last Lord 
Dacre of this family.* Margaret Fienes, sole heiress to her brother Gregory, was 
married to Sampson Lennard, Esq., to whom King James I. granted a patent, 
enabling him to take his place and rank as the eldest son of a baron. Sir 
Henry Lennard, knight, inherited the title on the death of his mother, the 
Lady Dacre, in 1611. Thomas, the fourth Lord Dacre of the Lennard family, 
was created Earl of Sussex by King Charles II. This nobleman married Ann 
Palmer, alias Fitz-Roy, a natural daughter of that Ucentious prince, who 
appointed him one of the lords of the bed-chamber. By his extravagant 
habits the earl impaired his fortune so much that he was forced to sell many 
parts of his estate, and particularly this noble castle, which was purchased, in 
1701, by George Nay lor, Esq., who married Grace Pelham, a sister of the first 

* The untimely fate of this young nobleman seems to have been, in a great measure, undeserved. 
He had gone out in the night, accompanied by some friends and servants, to take a deer in the park 
at Laughton, the seat of his neighbour, Sir Nicholas Pelham ; a daring sort of frolic, which was 
common enough at that time, and, indeed, at much later periods ; when unluckily, some of his party 
encountering the keepers, one of Sir Nicholas Felham's men was slain. The Lord Dacre was not 
present at the fray, but was nevertheless judged guilty, as an accessory to the murder, and suffered 
death at Tyburn as a common felon. 



HEKST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, Sl^SSEX. 7 

Duke of Newcastle of that family ; Mr. Naylor, having' bo children, bequeathed 
it, together with his name, to his nephew, Francis Hare Naj^lor, Esq., eldest 
son of his sister, the wife of Dr. Francis Hare, bishop of Chichester. He also 
dying without issue, left this estate to his brother, the Rev. Robert Hare, 
prebendary of Winchester, and by him the castle was completely gutted, and 
reduced to a ruin in the year 1777. About the beginning of the present century 
Herst-Monceaux was sold by Francis Hare Naylor, Esq., to Thomas Read 
Kemp^ Esq., M.P. for Lewes. 

The Honourable Horace Walpole, afterwards Earl of Orford, visited Herst- 
Monceaux Castle in 1752, in company with his fiiend, John Chute, Esq., and 
has left us the following lively sketch of its appearance at that time in one of 
his letters : — 

^^ It is seated at the end of a large vale, five miles in a direct line to the sea, 
with wings of blue hills covered with wood, one of which falls down to the 
house in a sweep of one hundred acres. The building, for the convenience of 
water to the moat, sees nothing at all ; indeed, it is entirely imagined on a plan 
of defence, with drawbridges actually in being, round towers, watch-towers 
mounted on them, and battlements pierced for the passage of arrows from long 
bows. It was built in the time of Henry VI., and is as perfect as the first day. 
It does not seem to have been ever quite finished, or, at least, that age was not 
arrived at the luxury of whitewash j for almost all the walls, except in the 
principal chambers, are in their native hrickhood. It is a square building, each 
side about two hundred feet in length ; a porch, and a cloister, very like Eton 
College ] and the whole is much in the same taste, — the kitchen extremely so, 
with three vast funnels to the chimneys going up on the inside. There are two 
or three little courts for offices, but no magnificence of apartments. It is 
scarcely ftunished with a few necessary beds and chairs : one side has been 
sashed, and a drawing-room and dining-room and two or three rooms wains- 
coted, by the Earl of Sussex, who married a natural daughter of Charles II. 
Their arms, with delightftil earrings by Gibbons, particularly two pheasants, 
hang ovet* the chimneys. Over the great drawing-room chimney is the coat 
armour of the first Lennard, lord Dacre, with all his alliances. Mr. Chute was 
transported, and called Cousin, with ten thousand quarterings. The chapel 
is small and mean : the Virgin, and seven long lean saints, ill done, remain 
in the windows. There have been four more, but these Q^em to have been 
removed for light ; and we actually found St. Catherine, and another gentle- 
woman with a church in her hand, exiled into the buttery. There remain two 



8 HERST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, SUSSEX. 

odd cavities, with very small wooden screens on each side the altar, which seem 
to have been confessionals. The outside is a mixture of stone and gray brick, 
that has a very venerable appearance. The drawbridges are romantic to a 
degree ; and there is a dungeon that gives one a delightful idea of living in the 
days of soccage, and under such goodly tenures. They shewed us a dismal 
chamber, which they called Drummer's Hall, and suppose that Mr. Addison's 
comedy is descended from it. In the windows of the gallery over the cloisters, 
which leads all round to the apartments, is the device of the Fienneses, — a wolf 
holding a baton, with a scroll, Le roy le veut^* — an unlucky motto, as I shall tell 
you presently, to the last peer of that line. The estate is two thousand a-year, 
and so compact as to have but seventeen houses upon it. We walked up a 
brave old avenue to the church, with ships sailing on our left hand the whole 

way.'^t 

The fifth volume of " Grose's Antiquities" contains a ftiU account of Herst- 

Monceaux Castle, illustrated with four views taken before it was dismantled. 

An extract from the description wall serve to complete our idea of the building. 

— '' This castle encloses three courts, a large one " and two small ones ; the 

entrance is on the south front, through the great gatehouse, which leads into a 

spacious court cloistered round. On the north side is the hall, which is very 

large, and much resembling those of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge 

that have not been modernised, the fire-place being in the middle of the room, 

and the butteries at the lower end. At the upper or eastern end of this hall 

lie three handsome rooms, one of them forty feet long ; these lying one with 

another constitute the best apartment in the castle : beyond them is the chapel, 

some parlours for common use, with rooms for the upper servants, composing 

the east front. The grand stairs, which lie beyond the hall, occupy an area of 

forty feet square. The kitchen, which is beyond the staircase to the west, is 

large, and, as well as the hall and chapel, goes up in height to the upper story 

of the house. The offices belonging to it are very ample, and the oven in the 

bakehouse is fourteen feet in diameter. The left side of the south front beyond 

the great gatehouse is occupied by a long waste room, like a gallery in old 

times, and seems as if intended for a stable in case the castle was besieged and it 

was found necessary to bring the horses or other cattle into a place of security. 

Underneath the eastern comer tower in the same front is an octagonal room, 

♦ " The king wills it ;" a motto sufficiently characteristic of the days of chivalry, 
t See " Lord Orford's Works," in 4to, 1798, vol. v. p. 264. 






HERST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, SUSSEX. 9 

which was formerly the prison ; in the midst is a stone post with a large chain, 
and in one of the comers of the room is a door into a privy. Above stairs is a 
suite of rooms similar to those of the best apartment over which it stands. The 
chambers on this floor are sufficient to lodge a garrison, and one is bewildered in 
the different galleries that lead to them, in every one of the windows of which 
is painted on glass the alant, or wolf-dog, the ancient supporters of the family of 
Fynes; many private winding staircases, curiously constructed in brickwork, 
without any timber, communicate with these galleries. The towers on each side 
of the gtite-house on the south front are eighty-four feet high. The south and 
north fronts of the castle are 200^ feet long, and the east and west fronts 
measure 214^ feet. 

" By an old survey of this estate taken in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
remaining in the evidence-room here, there is an account of the state of the 
castle at that time ; it is there said that the moat which encompasses it on the 
south, west, and north sides, and is now dry, was formerly fiill of water, but 
drained for health's sake not long before that time, as was the pool on the east 
side, which washed the walls of the house. This castle is entirely built with 
brick ; and as it is one of the oldest edifices of that material in the kingdom 
{since its disuse after the Romans left the island), so is it one of the completest, 
there being not the least flaw or crack in any part of it.* The walls are of 
great thickness ; the windows and door-cases, water-tables, and copings, are of 
stone. 

'^ The castle of Herst-Monceaux stands in a pleasant part, well diversified 
by hiU and vale, finely wooded with old trees, and well watered by clear pools ; 
and from it there is a fine view over the adjacent rich level of Pevensey (in the 
midst of which, on a little rise, is the town and ancient ruined castle of 
Pevensey). The sea appears in front, southward of the hills towards Hastings 
to the east ; and the South Downs rise mountainlike at some distance to the 
west. The castle is seated near the southern edge of the park, and rather in 
the lowest of it j the soil is, however, very dry . 't 

Plate I. The plan given in this Plate shews all that now remains of the 

• The timber of the roof is said to have been found much decayed in 1777, when Mr. Samuel 
Wyatt, the architect, surveyed it. This is very likely to be true, for the castle seems to have been 
neglected for many years previous to its being dismantled. 

t See " The Antiquities of England and "Wales," by Francis Grose, Esq., F.A.S., vol. v. 
p. 158. 



10 HERST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, SUSSEX. 

castle, comprising' the outward walls and towers with the southern gatehouse ; 
the internal walls having been totally demolished, and the ground dug over for 
a garden. From the descriptions already referred to, we find that the great 
quadrangle was subdivided into three courts, of which the largest occupied the 
south-east quarter, and was surrounded by cloisters. The third Plate in 
^^ Grose^s Antiquities" gives a view within this court looking towards the south.- 
We there see the inner face of the g^eat entrance which opened into the south- 
west corner of the cloisters, opposite to the principal door of the hall, from 
which another passage led directly to the postern gate of the castle on the north 
side. The cloisters were formed by open arches, of low curvature, quite plain, 
and only divided by slender buttresses. Above the cloisters were ranges of 
chambers, lighted with windows resembling those in front of the gate-house. 
On the left hand of the principal entrance was a smaller court, enclosing a well ; 
and here stood the kitchen, bakehouse, buttery, and other offices communi- 
eating with the hall, which extended along the north side of the cloistered 
court. Mr. Grose has given an interior view of this apartment in his 2d Plate, 
from which the roof appears to have borne some resemblance to that of the 
hall of Croydon Palace.* It was supported by arched beams, resting on 
corbels, sculptured with the wolf-dog, the badge appertaining to the arms of 
Fienes. The sides were wainscoted below the windows, and across the west 
end was a screen, with a loft over it for the musicians. Behind the screen 
appear arched doors leading to the offices ; and the usual ornaments of stags' 
horns are set up in various parts. The chapel stood on the north side of the 
castle, beyond the hall, from which it appears to have been separated by a 
narrow court, but every vestige of it has been destroyed. The principal rooms 
on the east side of the castle had been ornamented in a more modern style than 
the original architecture, and several of the ancient windows were enlarged and 
ftimished with sashes. The great staircase, too, was undoubtedly erected after 
the marriage of the Lady Dacre into the family of Lennard. 

The elevation of the south front has been given entire to shew the general 
proportions and arrangements of parts, in which an uncommon regularity is 
observable. The four corners of the great quadrangle are guarded by octagonal 
towers, equal in height to those of the gate-house, exclusive of the two watch- 
towers. The east, north, and west sides have each a similar tower in the 

• See " Examples of Gothic Architecture," vol. i. 1830. The hall of Heret-Monceaux Castle 
was probably not less than eighty feet in length ; but none of its foundations can be traced. 



HERST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, SUSSEX. 11 

centre ; and the spaces between these principal towers are divided by smaller 
ones, of 8emi-octagt>nal form, which rise no higher than the main walls. The 
chimney--8haft8 were very numerous, and are seen rising* like slender turrets 
above the battlements, in the views taken before the building was dismantled.* 

The tower marked C on the plan seems to have opened into a large room 
adjoining to the upper end of the hall, sernng as a bay-window to it. See the 
half-plan A, above which was a little chamber, shewn in the section and half- 
plan B. This room in the original plan was the great chamber— bil apartment 
secondary to the hall, and having, like it, a bay-window, and a dais for the high 
table.f 

Plate II. Plans of the Southern or Great Gateway. 

The vestibule on the ground-floor was very neatly vaulted, with groined 
arches, and had a fire-place on the right hand, a very unusual accommodation 
in such an apartment. J 

The two chambers on the first and second floors were lighted by handsome 
windows in front, and communicated with smaller rooms and closets in the 
turrets and side-walls, as is shewn in the plans. Above the principal battle- 
ments are two circular turrets, with doors opening upon the roof of the gate- 
house, and small windows overlooking the principal battlements. These turrets 
were highly ornamental in the general view of the castle, and served for 
sentinels watching in times of alarm. 

Plate III. South Elevation of the Great Gateway. 

This is indeed a noble composition, and deserves the attentive study of an 
architect. The details are sufficiently ornamental to give an air of richness, 
%vithout impairing the character of boldness and strength proper to a castle. 
A comparison may be fairly instituted between this gate-house and that of 
Oxborough Hall, in Norfolk, which was erected only a few years after Herst- 

• These are very distinctly shewn in a south-west prospect of the Castle, published by Samuel 
and Nathaniel Buck, in 1737, which gives a satisfactory idea of the building in its perfect state. A 
south-east view is engraved in Grrose's work, shewiug the chimneys, and a small square tower, with a 
vane upon it, which probably belonged to the chapel. See vol. v. Plate I. of Herst-Monceaux Castle. 

t See "Specimens of Gothic Architecture," vol. ii. 4to. 1823. A plan of the whole palace at 
Hampton Court is engraved in Lysons' ** Environs of London." 

J An interior view of this vestibule is given by Q-rose, in which we see that the ribs of the roof, 
which has fallen in, crossed each other diagonally in the centre ; a particular which has been over- 
looked in our Plate. 



12 HEBST-MONCEAUX CASTLE, SUSSEX. 

Monceaux Castle.* We find b g^at similarity of style, as well as materials. 
Oxboroug-h has a little advant^e in height, whilst Herst-Monceaux considerably 
exceeds it in breadth, and has altogether a much more warlike appearance. 
The characters of the hall and the castle are finely contrasted in these examples 
of old English architecture. 

The approach to the castle was made by an arched bridge, with a draw- 
bridge suspended in front of the gates. The lofty arch in the centre covers a 
row of holes pierced through the floor of the upper chamber. These were 
designed for the annoyance of assailants; and the embattled parapets were 
pierced with similar openings between the corbels for the like purpose. Between 
the windows of the upper chamber appears the banner of the founder, wrought 
in bold sculpture ; it is supported by the great wolf-hound, the family badge, 
which was also painted in many of the windows. 

Plate IV. Section of the Great Gateway, &c. 

This section, tt^ether with the plans and elevation shewn in the two pre- 
ceding Plates, will give complete information as to the proportions and size of 
the building ; and the principal mouldings on the arches of the doorways, fire- 
places, &c. will be found described at large, with the centres of their respective 
curves. The narrow perpendicular opening in the thickness of the front wall 
appears as if intended for the reception of a portcullis ; but that piece of defence 
was omitted, the drawbridge being probably thought equivalent.! 

Plate V. Nos. 1 and 8. In the upper half of this plate are shewn the 
interior and exterior forms of one of the loop-holes in the front towers of the 
gateway. Each of the three floors is furnished with such apertures in form of a 
cross, but the lower ones alone have the addition of a round hole below the 
cross. These seem to have been intended for the use of the old-fashioned 
matchlock guns, which required to be laid nearly level when fired, being sup- 
ported by a sort of fork. The cross-loops above were better adapted to the use 
of bows. No. 3. gives the sections of mouldings and other details in the window 
immediately over the entrance, which is finished with great neatness. 

• See " Examples of Gothic Architecture," vol. i. p. 45, with the accompanying plates 

f The upright grooveH on each aide of the lower window were made to receive the levera bv 

which it was drawn up. These levers are ahewu, with the chains attached to them, in Buck's view 

before referred to. 



guy's tower, WARWICK CASTLE. 



13 



Plate VI. The machicolated parapets are here given at large, to shew 
their mode of construction, which is effected with great boldness and ingenuity. 
The small arches are of brick, but suspended on corbels of stone laid in three 
courses, gradually projecting* from the faces of the main walls. The figures 
1, 2, and 8, display every part exactly, having been measured with the greatest 
. care, and at no little personal hazard to the artist, from the shattered state into 
which these parts are fallen. The head of one of the two upper windows is 
also shewn here, together with sections of its jamb and mullion. 



PLATE 16. 

GUTS TOWER, WARWICK CASTLE. 

The original foundation of Warwick Castle was laid before the Norman con- 
quest, but the time has not been precisely ascertained. William I. enlarged 
and strengthened its fortifications ; and from that period it was regarded as one 
of the most important castles in the realm. The noble family of Beauchamp, 
earl of Warwick, made some magnificent additions to the buildings during the 
reigns of Edward III. and Bichard II., which, having been fortunately preserved 
nearly entire, are now esteemed amongst the finest pieces of ancient castellated 
architecture. 

Sir Fulke Greville, ^^ Servant to Queen Elizabeth, counsellor to King James, 
and friend to Sir Philip Sydney,'' received a grant of Warwick Castle from the 
crown in 1604, at which time it was in a neglected and ruinous state, the 
strongest parts of the buildings being used for the county gaoL This nobleman, 
who was created Lord Brooke, expended 20,0002. in repairing and embellishing 
the castle, and ^^ made it a place not only of great strength, but extraordinary 
delight,'' — ^^ so that now it is the most princely seat that is within these midland 
parts of the realm," to use the words of Sir William Dugdale.* fiobert Lord 
Brooke took a very active part in the civil wars ; and this castle, which was 
kept by a garrison for the Parliament, stood a siege of sixteen days in the year 
1642, but was relieved by Lord Brooke, who afterwards lost his life in the 
assault of Litchfield. It escaped being demolished when most of the ancient 



2 



• " Antiquities of Warwickshire." London, 1666. Fol. 

D 



14 gut's tower, WARWICK CASTLE. 

castles were slighted by order of the Long; Parliament, and was repaired by 
Kobert Earl Brooke, in the reign of Charles II. Since that time much expense 
has been bestowed in the improving of the habitable parts of the castle, and 
making the approaches to it more convenient, particularly by the late earl. 
These alterations could not be effected without some sacrifice of ancient 
grandeur, which is too frequently found incompatible with modem notions of 
comfort ; but the noble owners of Warwick Castle have displayed a laudable 
solicitude in accommodating their designs to the style of the ancient buildings 
as nearly as convenience would allow. 

Plate I. Gut's Toweb, Warwick Castle. 

The stately tower which forms the example under consideration, was 
erected by Thomas Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, a powerful and high-spirited 
warrior, who had been appointed by parliament governor or guardian to King 
Richard II. in his minority. That misguided prince, growing impatient of 
subjection as he advanced to the ^;e of manhood, soon dismissed his ancient 
counsellors ; and, amongst others, the Earl of Warwick, who, retiring firom the 
court, employed his leisure in building and works of piety. He erected the 
collegiate church of our Lady in Warwick, and added Guy's Tower to the 
castle, which he finished about the year 1393, at the coat of 395Z. 5«. 2d. The 
name of Guy was attached to this tower in honour of the legendary hero, Guy 
Earl of Warwick, who vanquished Colbrand, a gigantic Dane, in single combat, 
in the presence of King Athelstan, at Winchester, a.d. 926.* It forms the 
north-east bulwark of the castle, the outward parts of the base rising from the 
moat, which is now dry, and partly filled up. The grand character of this 
tower may be inferred from the dimensions stated in the Plate, although it 
necessarily fails to give any adequate idea of the appearance of such a lofty 
edifice. The external form is a regular polygon of twelve sides, the walls 
ascending in perpendicular lines fi-om the bold projections of the plinth to the 
corbels that support the battlemente. 

No. 1. gives the north elevation on the outside of the castle, the battlemepte 
of the east and north walls of the castle-yard being shewn on the sides of the 
tower. The three tall windows give light to the principal chambers, and the 
small loops to the closets adjoining them. The plaia square windows open 

• This story waa represented in a suit of tapestry, which was thought worthy of being men- 
tioned in some of the royal grants of Warwick Castle. — DDaDAJ.E, ut supra. 



KENILWOBTH CASTLE, WARWIGKSHIBE. 16 

into the uppermost room, whilst the dungeon in the basement receives all the 
little light allotted to it from the narrow loops within the castle-yard. 

No. 2. The interior is divided into five stories, as is shewn in the section, 
all ribbed and groined with stone arches. Four of the chambers are iumished 
with chimneys and other conveniences, to fit them for habitation ; but that at 
the top was probably designed for the use of the defenders in time of a siege. 

No. 3. The plans of the different stories are here shewn on a reduced scale, 
their places being marked with letters referring to the section. At A and B are 
given the plans of the battlements, and the roof, which rises to a point, and is 
covered with lead, over the ponderous vaulting of the upper chamber. Two 
spiral staircases are carried up within the thickness of the walls; and it is 
remarkable that only one of them communicates with the chambers ; the other, 
ascending to the roof from an external flight of steps built upon the rampart on 
the north side of the castle. 

C, the upper room, is a hexagon, having six windows on its sides. D, the 
fourth chamber, is of an oblong plan, with two closets, or sleeping cells, on the 
east and west sides of the larger room. E is of a similar plan to the chamber 
above, and so is the next room under it, of which a separate plan was thought 
imnecessary. The room on the lowest floor, F, is also an oblong parallelogram, 
with two cells on the sides, and difiers from those over it only in the form of 
its arched roof. 



PLATE 16—22. 

KENILWORTH CASTLE, WARWICKSHIRE. 

Less fortunate than its fair neighbour at Warwick, Kenilworth Castle has 
long since been dismantled, and its shattered halls and towers are gradually 
falling to the ground. It has been a spacious and magnificent pile, com- 
posed of buildings raised at different periods during five centuries, and conse- 
quently, exhibiting almost every variety of architecture that successively came 
into fashion, from the ponderous Norman to that fantastical mixture of the 
Gothic and Italian, which is now commonly termed the Elizabethan style. 
The history of Kenilworth Castle has deen deduced with great accuracy, by 
Sir William Dugdale, in his " Antiquities of Warwickshire ;"* and the value of 

* Folio, 1656. The author only brought down his account to the year 1640, without taking 
notice of the demolition of the castle in the civil war. 



16 KENILWORTH CASTLE, WARWICKSHIRE. 

his description is much enhanced hy the engravings of Hoflar, particularly 
as these views were taken hefore the castle was reduced to ruins, under the 
iron hands of the repubUcans. 

The founder, Geoffrey de Clinton, is said to have sprung* from an obscure 
family ; but, being a man of great ability, he was raised by King Henr}^ the 
First to the high offices of lord chamberlain and treasurer, and afterwards to 
that of chief justice of England. He acquired large possessions, and fixed 
his principal residence at Kenilworth, where he founded a priory of regular 
canons of the order of St. Augustine ; and built the castle, to which he annexed 
an extensive park or chase. Early in the reign of Henry II., Kenilworth was 
held by the king, as we find that the sheriff accounted for the profits of the 
park in 1164. It was fortified, and filled with provisions and a garrison, on 
behalf of the same monarch, in 1172; when Henry, his eldest son, whom he 
had associated with him in the kingdom, raised a rebellion, which involved 
the whole nation in tumult. Geoffrey de Clinton, son to the founder, recovered 
possession of this castle, but retained it only for a short time, as appears 
from several records cited by Dugdale, shewing that Kenilworth Castle was 
held by the crown till the year 1263, when Henry III. granted it to Simon de 
Montfort, earl of Leicester, and Eleanor his wife, the king^s sister, for the term 
of their lives. This nobleman, a few years afterwards, took the lead amongst 
the barons who rose in opposition to the king, and distinguished himself by 
his vigour and address in the war that ensued. He was slain in the battle 
of Evesham, August 4th, 1266, together with his son, Henry de Montfort, and 
many other noblemen. 

Kenilworth Castle was besieged during six months by the king^s forces, 
at the close of the year 1266 j and, after the garrison had been distressed by 
famine, was at last surrendered by Hen. de Hastings, the governor, who had 
been appointed by Simon de Montfort the younger, son to the Earl of Leicester. 
After this siege, the castle was granted by the king to his second son, Edmund 
Crouchback, titular king of Sicily, and earl of Lancaster, Leicester and Derby. 
A.D. 1332, this castle reverted to the croVn, by the attainder of Thomas, 
earl of Lancaster, who was taken prisoner at Boroughbridge, in Yorkshire, 
and beheaded a few months afterwards at Pontefract. That unfortunate prince, 
Edward II., was brought hither as a prisoner, from Monmouth Castle, in 1326 ; 
and here he submitted to the sentence of deposition, which was tendered to 
him by a deputation from his opponents, headed by the bishops of Lincoln and 
Hereford, January 20th, 1327. King Edward HI. restored this castle, with 



KENILWORTH CASTLE^ WARWICKSHIRE. 17 

all the other forfeited estates of the late Earl of Lancaster^ to Henry, his brother 
and heir, who was succeeded by his son Henry, who became the first duke 
ever created in England, a.d. 1353. Duke Henry dying* without male issue, 
his estates were divided between his two daughters; and Kenilworth Castle 
fell to the share of Blanch, the younger, who became the first wife of Prince 
John of Gaunt, who was created duke of Lancaster. King Henry IV. inherited 
Eenilworth from his father, and from that time it remained annexed to the 
duchy of Lancaster, until the first year of Henry VI., a.d. 1485, when it was 
transferred, by act of parliament, to the possessions of the duchy of Cornwall. 
It continued in the crown until the year 1662, when Queen Elizabeth, by 
her letters patent, bestowed it on her favourite, Robert Lord Dudley, after- 
wards created baron of Denbigh and earl of Leicester. This nobleman dying 
in 1688, bequeathed Kenilworth to his brother Ambrose, earl of Warwick, who, 
however, survived only one year, and left no issue. Sir Robert Dudley, knight, 
son of the Earl of Leicester by the Lady Douglas Sheffield, succeeded, by 
provision of his father's will, to the possession of Kenilworth ; but he, failing 
to prove the legitimacy of his birth, and becoming involved in one of those 
irregular proceedings which disgraced the reign of James the First, was declared 
to have forfeited his castle and lands, which were seized by royal authority, 
and an inquisition was taken of their value, which amounted to 38,6642. 16«. 
Henry, prince of Wales, ^^ affecting it as the most noble and magnificent 
thing in the midland parts of this realm,'' to use the words of Sir William 
Dugdale, in 1611 offered to pay 14,600/. to Sir Robert Dudley, for the release 
of all claim to this castle and its appendages, which the unfortunate owner 
agreed to.* No more than 3000/. had been paid previous to the death of Prince 
Henry, in 1612; nevertheless, his brother Charles claimed the premises, as 
his heir J and procured an act of parliament, in 1621, enabling the Lady Alice, 
wife of Sir Robert Dudley, to alienate her right to a jointure out of these 
estates for the sum of 4000/. Soon after his accession to the crown, a.d. 1626, 
Charles I. granted the castle, park and chase at Kenilworth, to Robert Carey, 
earl of Monmouth, Henry, his eldest son, and Thomas Carey, Esq., for the 
term of their several lives ; but in 1649, the castle and manor of Kenilworth 
were seized by parliament, as part of the possessions of the crown, and granted 



• Dugdale, page 168. Sir Eobert Dudley settled in Italy, where he enjoyed the favour of the 
Orand Duke of Tuscany, as well as that of the Emperor Ferdinand the Second, who ennobled him 
with the title of a duke. 



18 KENILWORTH CASTLE, WARWICK8HIBE. 

to certain officers of the army j and by their hands this stately edifice was 
quickly stripped and plundered, for the sake of the lead and other saleable 
materials, the roofless walls being* left to crumble into ruins. At the restora- 
tion of Charles II. the Earl of MonmoutVs family recovered possession of 
Kenil worth; and, on the expiration of the former lease, the reversion was 
granted to Laurence Lord Hyde, created baron of Kenilworth and earl of 
Rochester, from whose family this estate has descended by marriage to the Earl 
of Clarendon. 

Kenilworth Castle was called into fresh notice a few years back, by one of 
the many fascinating* compositions of the author of ^^ Waverley f the principal 
scenes being laid here at the time of the splendid entertainment given by 
the Earl of Leicester to Queen Elizabeth, in 1576.* Its destruction will be 
lamented by every admirer of ancient architecture; for enough remains to 
shew, that it was scarcely inferior to any baronial residence in the king^dom. 

The principal buildings of Kenilworth Castle were placed round the inner 
court, which was of an oblong, but irregular plan. The north-east quarter 
was occupied by a massive quadrangular keep or donjon, called Ctesar^s 
Tower y which was probably erected by the founder at the beginning of the 
twelfth century. The outward side of this tower was pulled down in the time 
of Cromwell, in order to prevent its being made again defensible. The rest 
of its massive walls are likely to stand longer than any other parts of the 
rmns. The south-east angle was formed by Leicester's Buildings— b, lofty 
irregular pile, in which were some chambers of grand dimensions, decorated 
in the mixed style which prevailed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The 
central range of the east front was called King Henry the Eighth! s Lodgings. 
This consisted of two stories of rooms, much inferior in height to Leicester's 
Buildings. The Privy Chamber ^ the Presence Chambery and the White Hallj 
formed the southern range of apartments, extending from Leicester's Buildings 
to the Lancaster Buildings^ which ranged along the west side of the court. 
Three large kitchens, with other offices on the north side, connected the Lan- 
caster Buildings with Caesar's Tower^ and completed the circuit. All these 
buildings were enclosed by an outward court, comprising seven acres, sur- 
rounded with massive walls, embattled and strengthened with buttresses and 
towers. A particular description of these buildings cannot be required here, 
and therefore our account will be confined to those parts from which the 
subjects of the following Plates have been taken. 

* The romance of " Kenilworth" was first published in the spring of 1821. 



KENJLWOBTH CASTLE^ WARWICKSHIBE. 19 

Plate I. This Plate and the next represent a portion of the ruins on the 
south side of the inner court. The ground-floor is of an octagonal plan^ and 
forms a porch or lobby^ communicating with a spiral staircase on one side. 
The roof is vaulted with groins and ribs very neatly moulded^ as is shewn in 
the section^ and more particularly in the annexed details. 

Plate II. The elevation of the front towards the court is here shewn 
entire^ together with enlarged details of the mouldings to the windows and 
door. In the preceding Plate will be found a part of the plan of the upper 
story^ and also of its interior elevation. The windows of the upper room are 
remarkably beautiful^ and^ undoubtedly, the apartment to which they belonged 
was of corresponding style j it seems to have formed a communication between 
the Presence Chamber and the Privy Chamber^ and to have joined to a staircase 
which projected from the external front of those buildings^ which have almost 
entirely perished. 

Plate III. Longitudinal Section and Plan of the Hall, &c. 

The section given in this Plate passes through the whole length of the 
western range of buildings, and the plan shews the outward side of the hall, 
with the projection of the two wings or towers. The hall measures 89 feet by 
45, and the side walls are a little more than 32 feet high. The roof was divided 
into six bays, by arched trusses of timber. It seems to have been framed with 
a low pitch ; but not the least fragment remains, to shew what was its style of 
construction or ornament. The principal door of the hall was covered by a 
vaulted porch, which occupied the north-west angle of the court, and was 
approached by a broad flight of steps, now totally broken and ruined. The 
upper end of the hall was constructed on a plan of unusual contrivance. The 
space of one bay seems to have been covered by a ceiling considerably beneath 
the other parts of the roof. In the north angle is an oriel of a polygonal form, 
in which is a small flre-place, and a door communicating with the adjoining 
apartments. Opposite this oriel is another recess, occupjring half the breadth 
of a tower at the south-west angle of the castle. A door within this recess 
opened into a gallery beyond the end of the hall, by which a communication 
was made with the state apartments on the south side of the castle. At the 
north end of the hall were three doors, leading towards the kitchens, buttery 
and other offices. Another door in the comer of the hall, within the jamb of 
one of the great windows, opened into a narrow passage and a staircase in the 
north-west tower, in which were three stories of rooms, all strongly vaulted 



20 



KENILWORTH CASTLE, WARWICKSHIRE, 



with ribbed arches. In the basement of the hall was a spacious cellar, with an 
arched roof supported by eight columns, placed in two rows. An entrance 
from the court was made by a vaulted opening under the porch of the hallj and 
from this entrance was a passage to a sally-port under the south-west corner of 
the hall, secured by a small portcullis. This door must have been intended for a 
secret passage in a time of siege. 

Plate IV. An interior elevation, with a perpendicular section, and half 
the plan, is here shewn of one of the windows in the hall. There are four of 
these windows on the west side, or outward front, and three on the opposite 
side, facing the inner court. The outsides of these windows are quite plain 
and devoid of ornaments, but the internal recesses are made as deep as the 
thickness of the walls would admit ; and the jambs are moulded and adorned 
in correspondence with the mullions. The beauty of these windows is almost 
without parallel, particularly in regard to their lofty proportion ; the windows 
of ancient halls being generally placed at a great height from the floor, ex- 
cepting the oriel or bay-window, as may be remarked in the halls of Eltham 
Palace, Hampton Court, Crosby Place, &c. j whilst at Kenilworth, the internal 
openings came down to the floor, with only small benches or seats under the 
windows. 

Plate V. These details refer to the window represented in the preceding 
Plate, and seem to require no particular explanation. 

Plate VI. The bay-window, or oriel, shewn in this Plate, stands in the 
south-west angle of the inner court of the castle. The plan has been taken at 
two heights, — one half of it on the left hand, at the point marked A in the 
elevation ; the other half lower down, at the point marked B. Two of the 
windows have each two lights in breadth, and very closely correspond in style 
to those represented in Plate II. The two other windows consist of single 
lights. All these windows, as well as those shewn in the preceding plates, were 
originally grated with iron bars, which have been removed.* The small arch 
on the right hand of the elevation belongs to the fire-place, which is shewn in 
the plan. 

♦ There were seven cross-bars in each of the lower lights, and seven in each upper light, of the 
large windows in the hall, and probably two upright bars in eveiy light. The windows of many 
ancient castles were filled with such gratings, and were abo defended by shutters of stout oak, hung 
with large iron bands, and fastened by bolts. 



BAGLAN CASTLE, MONMOUTHSHIRE. 21 

Plate VII. The hall of Kenil worth Castle was wanned by two fire-places 
set opposite to each other, in the side walls. One of these is here represented, 
and the other corresponds exactly with it. The ornaments of these fire-places 
are bold and of good design, suitable to the windows, but rather inferior to 
them in elegance. 

No armorial bearings are found amongst the ornaments of these magnificent 
buildings ; and their age can only be judged by analogy of style. This would 
refer the date of their erection to the middle of the fifteenth century, about fifty 
years afl;er the death of John of Gaunt, to whom the ^^ Lancaster Buildings'' 
have been generally attributed.* 



PLATE 23—29. 



RAGLAN CASTLE, MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Raglan Castle may fairly be classed amongst the ancient fortresses of Wales, 
since Monmouthshire was only made parcel of England by Henry VIII., at the 
time he dissolved the authority of the Lords-Marchers of Wales, dividing the 
principality into twelve counties, a.d. 1635. The early history of Raglan is 
involved in some uncertainty, and Sir William Dugdale, in his great work on 
the Baronage, has given two statements respecting it, which seem irreconcileable. 
According to one of these accounts. Sir John Morley, Knight, resided in Raglan 
Castle, during the reign of Richard II. ; and Maud, his daughter and heiress, 
brought it by marriage, together with other large estates, into the family of 
Herbert, The other, which seems a more authentic account, states that there 
was a castle at Raglan as early as the reign of Henry II., which was held by 
Richard de Clare, sumamed StronghoWy the powerful Earl of Pembroke, by 
whom it was conveyed to Walter Bloet, whose descendant, Elizabeth, daughter 
and heiress of Sir John Bloet, married Sir James Berkely, Knight, who died in 
1405. His son. Sir James, created Lord Berkely by King Henry V. in 1420, 
succeeded to the possession of Raglan Castle and manor, which he conveyed to 
Sir William ap Thomas, the father of William, the first Earl of Pembroke of the 

* ''Dugdale,'* page 165. The door-case of the hall is of an older style thaa the rest of the 

buildiog, and may be a remnant of the works begun by John of Gkiunt. Its details are very 
different from those of the windows. 

2 E 



23 RAGLAN CASTLE, MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

name of Herbert. Sir William Herbert distinguished himself by his activity and 
great talents, and was a zealous partisan of the House of York. 

When Edward IV. obtained the crown, A.D. 1461, the offices of Chief 
Justice and Chamberlain of South Wales, with several other places of trust, were 
conferred upon him ; he was created a Baron very soon afterwards, and acquired 
many castles and great estates by successive grants from Edward IV. in reward 
of his services. He was also made a Knight of the Garter, and was at length 
advanced to the title of Earl of Pembroke, in 1468, on the attainder of Jasper 
Tudor, the half brother to Henry VI. By one of those reverses of fortune 
which frequently occurred in that distracted time, the Earl of Pembroke was 
defeated in a battle fought on Danes Moor, near Banbury, in July 1469, and 
was beheaded three or four days afterwards, together with his brother Sir 
Richard Herbert of Coldbrook, and several other gentiemen. The earldom of 
Pembroke was inherited by his son William, a boy nine years of age, who 
entered into the service of Edward IV. very early in life. The custody of the 
young Earl of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII., was committed to this 
Earl William, who detained Henry for some time in Raglan Castle, from whence 
he was released by his unde, Jasper Tudor, and conveyed into Brittany, in 1471. 
Having resigned the earldom of Pembroke, at the desire of Edward IV., who 
wished to confer it on his own son, the Prince of Wales, he was created Earl of 
Huntingdon, in 1479. He married Mary, the daughter of Richard Widville, 
earl of Rivers, and sister to Elizabeth, the consort of King Edward IV. ; and at 
his death, in 1491, left an only daughter, named Elizabeth, who married Sir 
Charles Somerset, a natural son of Henry Beaufort, duke of Somerset.* 
Sir Charles Somerset was a man of great abiUties, vrith the advantage of 
a fine personal appearance ; and being nearly related to Henry VII., he was 
much employed and honoured during the reign of that Prince, through whose 
interest he married the heiress of the Earl of Huntingdon, and became, in 
her right. Baron Herbert of Raglan, Chepstow, and Gower, a.d. 1606. He 
continued in great honour during the remainder of his life under Henrj' VIII., 
who created him Earl of Worcester, and died in 1526. Henry Somerset, fifth 
'Earl of Worcester, lived here in a magnificent style during the reign of Charles I. 
A contemporary account of his housekeeping at Raglan Castle has been pre- 
served, in which the following particulars occur. The castle gates were shut 

• This dnke was taken prisoner at the battle of Hexham, in which the forces of Heniy Vl. were 
defeated, a.d. 1468, and was immediately afterwards beheaded, togetber with sereral other lords 
and gentlemen. 



RAGIAN CASTLE^ MONMOUTHSHIRE. 23 

every day at eleven o'clock in the forenoon^ when dinner was served with all 
the formalities of the old baronial style. Two tables were set in the dining- 
room^ at the first of which the marquis dined with his sons and family^ and such 
of the nobility as happened to be visiting him^ attended by Sir Ralph Blackstone^ 
the steward of the household^ the comptroller^ with his staff^ the sewer^ &c.^ 
and many gentlemen's sons who waited on his lordship ; some of them men of 
estates^ worth from 200/. to 600/. a-year, who were bred up in the castle. The 
second table was occupied by knights and gentlemen. In the hall were 
three tables^ all marshalled in strict accordance with the rank of the guests. 
The steward presided at the first table^ where sat others of the chief officers of 
the household^ and gentlemen under the degree of a knight. The second table 
was occupied by the sewer^ with the gentlemen waiters and pages^ to the number 
of twenty-four. At the third table the clerk of the kitchen dined, together with 
the yeomen of the household, &c. There was a private table for the gentlemen 
of the chapel ; and two tables in the housekeeper's room for the ladies' women. 
Every department of this great establishment was regulated by its proper officers, 
with menial servants to the number of a hundred and fifty.* The history of 
this nobleman is extremely interesting. He was advanced to the dignity of a 
marquis in 1642, and the dissensions between the king and parliament breaking 
out into actual war immediately afterwards, the marquis raised fifteen hundred 
foot-soldiers, and five hundred horse, on behalf of the royal cause, and fortified 
Raglan Castle, in which he maintained a garrison of eight hundred men, besides 
his own household. JNothing could exceed his chivalrous loyalty to his prince, 
to whose service he unreservedly devoted his life and fortune. King Charles 
was entertained several times in Raglan Castle, during the four years in which 
it was g^arrisoned for his service ; and, after the fatal battle of Naseby, in June 
1646, he retreated hither, and frequently lodged here during the next three 
months. In the following year the castle was invested by the parliamentary 
forces, and was at length surrendered on articles of capitulation to Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, on the 19th of August, 1646. The venerable marquis, who was then 
eighty-four years of age, was conducted to London, and committed to the cus- 
tody of the usher of the black rod. His estates, which amounted to fiill 20,000/. 
per annum, were confiscated } the castle was dismantled, and his family quite 
ruined ; but his mind remained unshaken, and he preserved his habitual cheer- 
fulness to the last. He died in December 1646, and was buried in St. George's 

* See the Northumberland Household Book, published bj Bishop Percy. The same account 
has been several times reprinted. 



RAGLAN CASTLE, MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

apel at Windsor, near the tomb of his ancestor, Charles, the first Earl of 
orcester of that line. Edward, second Marquis of Worcester, was created 
irl of Glamorgan, before the death of his father, and is chiefly known by that 
le in the history of those unhappy times. He devoted himself to the service 
Charles I., who intrusted him with a secret commission of most ample and 
traordinary powers, for maintaining the king's cause in Ireland. He became 
solved in the jealousies and feuds which distracted the kingdom, and Charles 
IS forced to disavow some of his proceedings, not without suspicion of his 
icerity. The Marquis of Worcester retired into France after the total defeat 

the royal cause, but contrived to ingratiate himself so far with Cromwell, 
it he was received into the Protector's court at Whitehall, where he 
jsisted on a pension of S0002. per annum. Notwithstanding this equivocal 
iduct, he recovered his paternal estates at the restoration of Charles II., but 
ed in a retired manner, employing his leisure in literary and philosophical 
;culations. From this nobleman Baglan Castle has descended to the present 
'ner, his Grace the Duke of Beaufort. 

The situation of Rt^lan Castle is very pleasant, being raised on an easy 
inence ; but it poraesses none of that boldness and natural strength which 
i so conspicuous in many of the Welsh castles. None of the towers and other 
ildings which compose this stately pile appear to be of earlier date than the 
;eenth century. Leland, who visited it in the time of Henry VIII., says, — 
tforgan tolde me that one of the laste Lorde Herbertes buildid al the beste 
;ge8 of the castle of Sagehnde."* Thomas Churchyard, who has largely 
jcantod on Raglan Castle, in his poem on " The Worthines of Wales," pub- 
ledin 1587, tells us that "the Earl of Pembroke, created Earl by King 
[ward IV., built the castle of Raglan sumptuously at first." He also says of 
■ Charles Somerset, first Earl of Worcester, — 

" Of him doth come Earl Worcester, living now, 
Who builded np the house of Baghiu throwe." 

om the testimony of these writers, and the style of the buildings, we may 
ibably infer that WiUiam Herbert, the second Earl of Worcester, who was 
ated Earl of Huntingdon by Edward IV., raised a great part of the castle, 
ich was finished by his son-in-law, Sir Charles Somerset, earl of Worcester, 
the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. A few ornaments and smaller parts 
jear to have been added afterwards ; some of them as late as the reign of 
arles I. 

• Itinerarj', vol. vi. foL 30. 



RAGLAN CASTLE, MONMOUTHSHIRE. 25 



Plate I, No. 1. Ground Plan. 

The walls enclose two courts, of very irregnilar forms, which will be best 
explained by the engraved plan. The entrance, A, at the south end of the 
larger court, is guarded externally by two towers. Another tower, B, of similar 
plan, but of greater breadth, forms a bulwark to the south-eastern comer of the 
castle. This, which was formerly described as the Closet Tower j contains three 
rooms, all arched over ; in one of which was the library. The chambers in the 
towers of the gateway have vaulted roofs ; and the passage is also arched, and 
was fortified by two portcullises. The eastern side of the outer court, which 
was partly beaten down m the siege, consisted of a range of offices appertaining 
to the kitchen, I, which was placed in a hexagonal tower, at the north-east 
angle of the castle.* The tiu'ret, N, in the middle of the east wall, contained 
the great oven. Within the kitchen were two large chimneys; there was a 
chamber over it, and beneath it a vaulted room called the Wet Larder. Some 
other culinary offices, at the further end of the court, connected the kitchen 
with the hall, D, which stands in the centre of the castle. At the upper end of 
the hall was a large room called the Parhur^ which was formerly lined with 
carved wainscot, and lighted by '^ a fair compass window'' on the south side, 
and two other large windows at the ends of the room ; all of which are now 
destroyed. Above this parlour was a dining-room of the same dimensions, viz. 
49 feet by 21 feet. The chapel was of a narrow form, about 40 feet long, and 
adjoined to the western side of the hall. Over it, and some other rooms, was a 
gallery 126 feet long. The Fountain Court, K, had its name from the figure of 
a white horse set on a pedestal of black marble, in which was a fountain con- 
tinually flowing. This court was surrounded by some very fine rooms, and had 
an entrance through the tower marked on the plan. The largest and 
strongest tower stands separate from the other buildings, but was connected, by 
a draw-bridge, with the south side of the castle. This tower was five stories in 
height, and had an embattled parapet on the summit, which has been totally 
destroyed. Various lines of bastions and entrenchments, formed in the time of 
the siege, may be traced in the grounds near the castle, as well as marks of the 
terraces, fish-ponds, bowling-green, orchard, and other pleasurable appendages 
of its former state. There were also two large parks, called the Home Parky 

* The hexagon appears to have been a favourite figure "with the builders of Baglan Castle, as we 
find it in the plans of all the principal towers. 



26 RAGLAN CASTLE, MONMOVTHSHIBE. 

ind the Eed Deer Park ; both of which are now divided and thrown into 
illage. 

Plate I. No. S. An elevation of the principal entrance in the south front 
8 here given, together with the tower nearly adjoining', at the south-east corner 
)f the castle. The machicolated parapets of these towers are equally hold and 
ilegant, and form excellent subjects of imitation. The windows are hmited to 
I very narrow breadth, for the sake of security, bat are neatly finished. The 
nasonry ia excellent, as is the case throughout the whole of this magnificent 
■uin. 

Plate II. No. 1. This elevation is taken from the outer court of Raglan 
[!)a3tle, of which it fomiB the north side. The hall measures very nearly 64 feet 
by S8 feet within, and was 42 feet high. The walls of this stately room are 
itaoding, but the roof is totally fallen. It is said to have been curiously framed 
>f Irish oak, with a large cupola in the centre.* It was stripped when the 
:as11e was ruined, immediately after the siege ; but the timbers are said to have 
•emained twenty years afterwards. The plan of the front wall, placed under 
the elevation, will shew the projections of the porch, the great chimney, and the 
jay-window. 

No. 2. Shews the entire plan of the hall on a smaller scale. 

No. 8. Gives the interior elevation of the eastern side of the hall, with 
parts of the adjoining rooms. The parlour, at the south end of the hall, 
lias already been noticed. At the lower end of the haU, under the music-loft, 
iFere doors on the ground-floor, leading to the butteries and pantries, and, by a 
long passage, to the kitohen. Over these offices was another dining-room, and 
there were chambers in a third story. The windows of all these apartments 
ire very plain, but large and well proportioned. Their style is such as pre- 
pailed in the early part of the reign of Henry VIII. 

Plate III. Window of the State Bed-Roou, Raglan Castle. 

This, and several other windows in the ruins of the chief apartments, display 
i, very rich style, such as was used in the reign of Henry VII., and in the early 
part of that of Henry VIII. 

* The cupola, or louvre, was at first intended for curying oS the fiimee of the fire, which, in 
indent timea, was generally placed in the middle of the hall ; hut many halla had chinmeTS in the 
nde walls, and a cupola also, which was then glazed, as this jonbably was at Bo^an Castle. 



RAGLAN CASTLE^ MONMOUTHSHIRE. 27 

No. 1. Gives an external elevation. 

No. 2. A vertical section ; and^ 

No. 8. An internal elevation of the window^ with the arch of its soffit. 
The mouldings of the lower and upper string-courses^ A and B^ are shewn on 
an enlarged scale. 

Plate IV. Details of a Window in the State Bed-Room^ Raglan Castle. 

The details of the principal mouldings and carvings which decorate the 
ahove window^ are here represented separately^ and will be found worthy of 
particular examination^ but do not require any further description. 

Plate V. Window in one of the Apartments of the Fountain Court, 

Raglan Castle. 

The window here represented is remarkable for the elegance and delicacy of 
its ornaments. It is of very small size, consisting of a single light, which has 
been secured by an iron grating. External and internal elevations are here 
shewn, together with a section taken in the centre, and a plan of one jamb. 

Plate VI. The tracery, and details of mouldings, &c., of the window repre- 
sented in the last Plate, are here given on an enlarged scale. Half of the 
tracery is taken externally, and half internally, and the two parts are distin- 
guished by the shadowing of one half of the elevation. The style of this 
window shews it to be of the same period as that represented in Plates III. 
and IV. 

Plate VII. Window over the Entrance, Raglan Castle. 

This window is the central one of a range at the south end of the outer 
court, over the entrance. The same elaborate and rich style is here displayed 
as in the windows of the Fountain Court, shewn in the preceding Plates. The 
tracery is pierced in a very delicate manner, and the mouldings are set out with 
great elegance. An external elevation is given, with a vertical section, and 
enlarged sections of the mouldings of the jambs, sill, &c. 



PLATE 30—44. 

THORNBURY CASTLE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

The ruina of Thombury Castle are well known to the admirers of ancient archi- 
tecture for the elaborate and beautiful style of the windows, chimneys, and other 
ornaments, and have often formed the subject of picturesque views : but the details 
have never before been displayed in a manner calculated for practical imitation. 
The parts now remaining were built in the reign of Henry VIII., by Edward, 
Duke of Bucking-ham, Earl of Hereford, Stafford, and Northampton, whose 
untimely fate prevented the completion of a magnificent desigTi, in which he 
had been engaged about ten years. The manor of Thombury came into the 
possession of this nobleman's family by the marriage of his ancestor Ralph, Earl 
of Stafford, with Margaret, daughter and heiress to Hugh de Audley, Earl of 
Gloucester. This earl, who was a distinguished man in the warlike reign of 
Edward III., died a.d. 1372. The Duke of Buckingham was one of the most 
wealthy and powerful persons of his time ; held the important office of Ixtrd 
High Constable of England, and was a Knight of the Garter. He is said to have 
owed his fell to the resentment of Cardinal Wolsey, whom he had wilfully 
affronted. This is not unlikely, as we know that the unbounded favour of that 
haughty prelate was regarded with great indignation by the old nobility, who 
despised Wolsey for his obscure parentage ; and he, on the other hand, 'ff'as well 
aware of the jealousy which Henry VIII. entertained towards the peers through 
apprehension of their opposing his sovereign will, which could never brook the 
least control. The Duke of Buckingham was arrested at Thombury Castle, 
and conducted to London, where he was tried by twenty peers, Thomas 
Howard, Duke of Norfolk, being constituted Lord High Steward of England 
on that occasion, who declared him guilty of high treason, chiefly on the evidence 
of Charles Kneret, a gentleman who had been formerly a steward to the duke ; 
and who, being dismissed from his office for misconduct, sought revenge by be- 
traying his master. The duke pleaded in his own defence with great ability j and, 
proudly conscious of his innocence of treason, refiised to beg his life. Of course, 
the remorseless Henry consigned him to execution, and his head was struck off 
on Tower Hill, May 17, 1521.* Henry Stafford, only son of the duke, was 

* The patticulATB are related at length in Hall's and Hollingshed's ChjonicleB, irom which 
Shakspere copied in his play of Henry Vlll. Sr. Fidd^, in hia Life of Cardinal Wolsey, has 



THORNBUBT CASTLE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. SO 

restored in blood immediately after his father's execution, but not to his honours 
and possessions, for only a small provision was granted him out of the vast 
estates involved in the forfeiture. Ten years later the king granted Stafford 
Castle and some other of the forfeited estates to him. He was ag^ain restored 
in blood, on the accession of Edward VI., and, after sitting in several parliaments 
during that and the following reigns, as Lord Stafford, deceased in 1565. 

Thombury Castle and manor afterwards came into the possession of the 
Dukes of Norfolk, and since then of Henry Howard, Esq. Leland, who saw 
Thombury Castle about twenty years after the duke's death, has left us this 
description of it. " There was of aunciente tyme a Maner Place, but of no great 
Estimacion, hard by the north side of the Paroche Cburche. Edward^ late 
Duke of Bukhjngeham, Ijkynge the Soyle aboute, and the Site of the Howse, 
pullyd downe a greate Parte of the olde Howse, and sette up mt^iniiieently in 
good squared Stone the Southe Syde of it, and accomplishyd the West Parte also 
withe a right comely Gate-Howse to the first Soyle ; and so it stondithe yet with 
a Rofe forced for a tyme. 

'' The Foundation of a very spacious Base Courte was there begon, and 
certeyne Gates and Towres in it Castelle lyke. It is of a iiii. or v. Yards highe, 
and BO remaj-nithe a Token of a noble Peace of Worke purposed. 

" There was a Galery of TjTubre in the Bake Syde of the House joj-ning to 
the Northe Syde of the Paroche Cburche. 

*' Edward Duke of Bukkyngham made a fayre Parke hard by the Castle, and 
tooke much faire Grownd in it very fi-utefull of Come, now fayr Launds, for 
Coursynge. The Inhabytaunts cursyd the Duke for thes Lands so inclosyd. 

" There cummithe an Armelet of Secerne ebbynge and flowyng into this 
Parke. Duke Edward had thowght to have trenched there, and to have browght 
it up to the Castle."* 

A very particular description of Thombury Castle, as returned by a jury in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, is extant, and was printed from a manuscript in 
the possession of Thomas Astle, Esq., at the end of Vol. II. of " Leland's CoUec- 

Tiudicated his character from the heavieet port of the charge. The Duke was an imprudeut and 
credulous person, and it ia evident that he had entertained hopes of ed eventual succession to the 
crown, although he had. not committed any act of treason. The form of the proceedings on the 
Duke's trial was prLated in the Gentleman's Magazine for March 1834, p. 266, from a paper in the 
Lansdowne MSS. The names of the peers, who sat on the trial, are there given more correctly 
than in the Chronicles of Hall and Holingshed. 
* Leland's Itinerary, vol. vii. folio 75.* 



30 THORNBURY CASTLE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE, 

tanea/^* From this survey it appears that the Duke's buildings were abandoned 
to ruin immediately after his attainder, and at the time of the survey the whole 
castle was hastening to ruin. Since that period all the older parts of the castle, 
comprising" a great number of rooms mentioned in the survey, have been totally 
demolished ; and much injury has been done to the windows and other orna- 
mental parts of the building, within the last century. 

In order to give a complete idea of these remains, it seems best to begin the 
description by a reference to the ground plan delineated in Plate VIII., in which 
the names of some of the apartments require correction. The Base Court, or 
western quadrangle, is thus described in the survey already referred to. ^^ At 
the first Entry towards the said Castle is a fair Bace Court, containing by 
estimation Two Acres and an Half, compassed about with Building of Stone for 
Servants' Lodging to the Height of 14 or 16 Foot, left unfinished without Timber 
or Covering, set forth with Windows of Freestone, some having Barrs of Iron in 
them and some none.'' A bird's-eye view of Thornbury Castle, published by 
Samuel and Nathaniel Buck in 1732, shews this court in a more perfect state 
than it is at present. It was to have had large arched gates on the north and 
south sides, with a postern door to each, and various turrets projected from the 
front walls of the buildings. Of the inner court the following particulars are 
furnished by the sm*vey, which describes it as " a Court Quadrant, paved with 
Stone, containing, by Estimation, half an acre." On the left hand of the gate- 
way was the porter's lodge, containing three rooms, with a dungeon underneath 
the same for a place of imprisonment. Adjoining to these was a fair room called 
^^The Duke's Wardropp;" within the same was a fair room, or ^^ Lodging 
Chamber," with a cellar or vault underneath it. This seems to have been in the 
octagonal tower I, which never was built up to half its proper height. Over these 
rooms were four chambers with chimneys in them. On the right hand of the 
gates were two fair rooms called the ^^ Duchess' Wardropp j" and over the same 

* There ia a gross error in the date of this survey, which is said to have been made on the 6th, 7th, 
Sth, and 9th dajs of March, in the 5th year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1582. But 
as the Queen's reign commenced November 17th, A.n. 1558, if this survey was made ia her 5th year, 
it must have been in 1562, according to the old style ; and if the year 1582 be rightly stated 
according to the old style, the survey was made in the 25th year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 
This error has been implicitly copied in Gbugh's additions to Camden, " Britton's Architectural 
Antiquities," vol. iv. 156, &o. Mr. Qough states that " Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn were mag- 
nificently entertained here ten days," 1539 (Camden, i. 400), for which he refers to Eudder, p. 753. 
This statement is repeated in " Eudge's History of Gloucestershire," vol. ii. 8vo. 1803, 343. The 
unfortunate Anne Boleyn was beheaded 19th May, 1536 ! 



THORNBURY CASTLE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 31 

two fair chambers, called the ^^ Steward's Chambers," On the north side of the 
court was a fair ^^ Wet Larder/' a " Dry Larder/' a ^^ Privy Bake-House/' and 
a ^^ Boyling'-House/' with an ^^ Entry" leading* to the great kitchen. Over these 
offices were five chambers for ^' ordinary lodgingis/' and a long* room in the roof, 
called the " Cock-Loft." The great kitchen, which stood beyond the east end 
of this range of buildings, had two fair large chimneys and one lesser chimney. 
There was also a ^^ Privy Kitchen," with a lodging chamber over it for the 
cooks. Behind these offices were some old decayed buildings, formerly used as 
a '^ Bake-House," and an '' Almery,"* with lodgings over the same. From the 
kitchen was a passage to the hall, next to which were the scullery, called but- 
tery, cellars, and other offices ; over all which were four chambers, called the 
'^ Earl of Stafford's Lodgings/' with a room adjoining, called the '' Clerk's Trea- 
sury." Many of these apartments are said to be decayed. 

From the lower end of the great hall was an entry leading to the chapel, 
which seems to have projected beyond the other buildings towards the east. 
The lower end of the chapel is described as ^^ a fair room for people to stand in 
at service-time." Over this part were two rooms or partitions, with a chimney 
in each of them, where the Duke and Duchess used to sit and hear Divine 
service in the chapel. Within the chapel itself, which is said to be ^^ fair built," 
were 22 ^^ settles," or stalls, of wainscot, ^^for Priests, Clerks, and Queristers." 
The ^^ Great Hall" was ^' fair and large," with a ^^ hearth to make fire on in the 
midst thereof." The porch of the great hall stood opposite to the western gate 
of the quadrangle J not, however, as it appears, in the centre, but nearer to 
the north end. Adjoining to the upper or southern end of the great hall, 
was another room, called the '^ Old Hall," with a chimney in the same. The 
southern range of the court is called the ^^ New Building /' and, together with 
the tower at the west end of it, is said to be ^^builded fair with free-stone, 
covered with lead."t In the lower story, at the east end, was '^ One Great 
Chamber," A. '' The sealing and timber- work thereof decayed ; being propped 
up with certain pieces of other timber." Next to this room was one other fair 
chamber, B ; and within the same, '' One other fair Lodging Chamber, with a 
chimney therein, called the Duchess' Lodging [B], with One Little Room or 
Closet between the two last-recited Chambers." The octagonal room on the 

• The Almery was an office in which alms w^re distributed to the poor. It is erroneously 
called the Armery in the printed copy. 

t A word is here omitted in the printed copy ; for' which, probably, we ought to read 
•'embattled.'* 



82 THORNBURY CASTLE^ GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

ground-floor of the tower D^ is called the ^^ Duchess' Clossett/' The next 
chamber in this tower was the ^^ Duke's Bed-Chamber." Another chamber, 
in the third story, has no particular use assigned to it in the survey ; but, in 
the upper story, it is said, is a chamber ^^ where the evidents do lye/'* From 
the upper end of the great hall was a staircase ascending towards the ^^ Great 
Chamber ;" and, at the top of the stairs, two ^^ Lodging Rooms,'' and a '^ fair 
Room paved with brick." The '^ Great Chamber" is described as '' very fair." 
This was over the room marked, in the ground-plan, with the letter A. Within 
it was another " fair chamber," called the '' Dining Chamber :" this was over 
the room marked B. The next room above that, marked also B, was the 
" Privy Chamber ;" and within it was '' One other Chamber, or Closet," called 
the ^' Duke's Jewell Chamber." This was a small room projecting from the 
front, over two closets in the lower story. The court on the south side of 
these buildings is called, in the survey, the " Privy Garden ;" and its contents 
are estimated at the third part of an acre. This little private garden was sur- 
rounded on three sides by a '' fair Cloyster or Walk, paved with brick-paving j" 
over which was a gallery, communicating at the two ends with the Duke's and 
Duchess's lodgings j and by another gallery, with a ^^ fair chamber" at the south 
end thereof, having a chimney, and a window looking into the parish church, 
where the Duke is said to have sometimes gone, ^^ to hear Service in the same 
Church."t Near to this gallery, eastward of the privy garden, stood the 
'^ Earl of Bedford's Lodgings/' which contained thirteen rooms : six on the 
lower floor, and seven above."J The whole quantity of the several courts and 
gardens, included within the walls, was estimated at 12 acres ; beyond which, 
towards the east, was an orchard, inclosed with pales, containing 4 acres.§ 

* The uppermost clmmber in a tower waa commonly chosen as a phice of scurity for title-deeds, 
charters, and other valuable documents. 

t Leland says, " The Paroche Churche is in the Northe End of the Towne, a fiiyre Pece of 
Worke. "Whereof the hole savinge the Chaunsell hathe be buildyd in hominum memorial* Itin. 
vol. vii. foL 74.*' It is a very fine church, with a noble tower at the west end. 

X It seems diflScult to account for these apartments being called " The Earl of Bedford^s 
Lodgings." Jasper Tudor, the luicle of Henry VII., by whom he was created Duke of Bedford, 
married Katharine, the widow of Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who had been beheaded, 
by Eichard III., in 1483. Jasper died in 1495 ; and, from that time, the title was extinct, until 
Edward VI. created Sir John Eussell Earl of Bedford, in 1649. 

§ A survey of Thombury Castle, with the parks attached to it, and other lands belonging to the 
Duke, was made immediately after his execution. See " ArchiBologia," vol. xxv. p. 311, where some 
curious particulars are given from Uns survey, together with copious extracts from the Stafford 



thornbury castle, gloucestershire. 33 

Plate 1. Thornbury Castle, South Front. 
The tower shewn on the left hand of the elevation terminated the south end 
of the weatem iront, and was the only part of it which waa completed. The 
embattled parapets of this tower, and of the stair-turret attached to it, were 
destroyed above a century back, but are here restored from similar examples. 
The section of a low building-, in front of this tower, belongs to the cloister, and 
gallery over it, which surrounded the Privy Garden, on its west, south, and east 
sides, and communicated with the larg-er apartments, by the doors seen in the 
elevation. The chimneys are most elaborately decorated. Those on the tower 
are built of stone. The double one, on the right hand of the tower, is of brick. 
The single tunnel, ornamented with spiral mouldings, is carved in stone, and 
had originally a cover, which waa perforated at the sides for letting out the 
smoke, and was finished at the top by a slender pinnacle. This curious 
chimney was perfect when Buck's view vaa taken, but has suffered some muti- 
lation since that time. It communicated with the " Duke's Jewell Chamber," 
to which the two windows in the upper story of the adjoinhig projection 
belonged. The tunnels of the chimneys, belonging to the two eastern rooms 
in this front, are destroyed. The larger windows are particularly worthy of 
notice, as examples of the last and most elaborate style of tracery adapted to 
domestic architecture. Some of these will be more fully displayed in the fol- 
lowing Plates. The plan is partly taken on the ground-floor, and partly on the 
upper floor, as is shewn in the Plate, in which the windows on the north side 
belong to the chambers above stairs. 

Plate II. Bay Windows in the South Front of Thornbury Castle. 
These elevations shew the interior and exterior forms of the bay-windows of 
the two eastern rooms in the south front, which exhibit a studied dissimilarity 
of ornaments ; each of them very curious. The plan of the lower window has 
several angular projections ; whilst that of the upper one is composed of five 
circular compartments. Both are described by lines drawn across the external 
elevation.* The upper window, which gave light to the room called, in the 

HouBehold Book, for the jear 1507. The foundation of Magdalen College, Cambridge, waa begun 
by this unfortunate nobleman, but the endowment was not completed hj him, and afterwards merged 
in the establishment formed by Sir Thomas Audlej, A..D. 1542. 

• A capridoua taste in windows was characteristie of the latest style of Pointed or Gothic arcM- 
tectnre. We find bay-windowa resembling these in the aisles and oratoriea of Henry the Seventh's 
cbapel at Westminster. The palace built by him at Richmond, now destroyed, had many such 



34 THOHNBURY CASTLE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

survey, " the Great Chamber," is proiuBely studded, on the inside, with armorial 
badges of the founder's family, and its alliances. The bay-windows in the two 
central rooms of the same front correspond to these in elevation, but are 
narrower, and less elaborate in their plans, particularly the upper window, 
which has a simple angular projection. 

Plate III. Two portions of the upper and lower plans of the windows, 
shewn in the preceding Plate, are here drawn on a large scale, together with 
sections of their sills, and of a mulliou of the upper window. 

Plate IV. This Plate is filled with other sections of the principal mould- 
ings in the same windows j and the two varieties of arches, in the lights of the 
upper and lower windows, are shewn at large, with the centres of their curves. 
All these details must have been designed by men who were well versed in the 
most complicated forms of masonry, and are worthy of the architect's careftil 
examination ; but any iiirther verbal description seems unnecessary. 

Plate V. Oriel Window and Doob-Way in Thornbury Castle. 
The entrance shewn in this Plate opened from the cloister that surrounded 
the Privy Garden into the Churchyard. The window above it belonged to the 
gallery over the cloister, which had three such windows looking towards the 
south. The details are of a neat character, without any complexity of mould- 
ings, and will be easily understood from the several delineations. 

Plate VI. Fire-Place in Thornbury Castle. 
The subject of this Plate is taken from the room marked A on the ground- 
plan, in Plate VIII. It stands in the middle of the south side, very near to the 
bay-window. This is altogether a beautiful composition, the mouldings and 
carved ornaments being disposed with excellent taste. 

Plate VII. Machicolated Parapet, Thornbury Castle. 
The construction of this sort of parapet requiring great care, in order to give 
it a bold and good effect, consistent with safety, the example here displayed has 
been measured and drawn nith the utmost accuracy ; and the manner in which 

windowB in the front, which looked towards the Thames ; and his gallery, in "Windsor Castle, has 
also some of the like character ; and a few other inatances might be named, but such examples are 
now very uncommon. 



THORNBURY CASTLE, GLOUCESTEBSHIEE. 35 

the several courses of stone are arranged, has been exactly ascertained. The 
examples shewn in some of the preceding- plates, selected from Hurst^Monceaux, 
Warwick, and Raglan Castles, may be compared with this ; particularly the 
latter, to which this at Thornbury Castle bears a great resemblance. The 
accuracy of proportion, and the neatness of outlines, in the projecting trusses, 
are worthy of particular attention. 

Plate VIII. Elevation and Plans of Thornbury Castle. 

The ground plan shewn in this plate has been already mentioned, in the 
general description of the castle. 

The elevation shews the front of the offices on the north side of the principal 
court, together with the section of the great gateway in the west front. The plan 
of the north front is also given on a scale corresponding to the elevation, and 
comprehends the gateway, with rooms on both sides of it. The whole extent of 
the western front is about two hundred and five feet ; and it would, doubtless, 
have presented a magnificent elevation, had not the untimely fate of the founder 
occurred. The height of the southern tower was about sixty-seven feet, with 
its battlements complete ; and the northern tower would, of course, have corre- 
sponded with its fellow in the elevation, as it does in the plan. The to«'er of 
the gateway in the centre would have been of the same height, and its turrets 
would have risen to the same altitude as that attached to the southern tower, 
which was seventy-five feet when complete. The intermediate parts would, 
probably, have been only about half the height of the towers, according to the 
proportions we find in the fronts of other mansions, colleges, &c., of this style.* 
At present, the front only rises to the height of about twenty feet, with the 
exception of the south tower, and a turret on that side of the gateway. " The 
Steward's Chambers," southward of the entrance, are still covered with the 
temporary roof mentioned by Leland, and have been kept in a habitable state j 
whilst all the other apartmente of this once splendid mansion have been 
demolished, or reduced to naked walls. 

Plate IX. Western Gateway op Thornbury Castle. 
This entrance has a postern door on the north side of the principal gates in 
the west front, but the arch towards the inner court comprehends the breadth 

' See plstea of Magdalen and other colleges in Oxford, amongst the " Examples of Gothic 
Arobitecture, First SerieB," The resemhlance of the Duke of Buckingham's buildings, at Thombuiy, 
to those of Cardinal Woleey, at Oxford, seems to be too alight for any inference of rivalry to be 
grounded upon it ; which has been done by some modem writers. 




36 THORNBURY CASTLE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

of them both. A section of the smaller arch is^ given on the left hand of the 
plate ; and one of the larger arch, on the right hand, in which the groove for a 
portcullis is shewn. The grates and portcullis art^ altogether wanting. The scroU 
over the gates contains this inscription, which is much defaced and difficult to 
read, — 

C^pi^ . 6att . (Datf . begon . m . t||e . jum . of . olort . lot'Ut . Aotit . jnCCCCCpf . 
C|)f . it . uttt . of . tf^e . rtpnt . of . ftsnge . I^tnrt , ti^e . hiii . b^ . me . 
ento. Sue . of . Suitltsnsl^a . Srlle . of . Ifterforiye . dtaSbriye 
axCtit . ;9ort||ampto. 

On one of the small scrolls below this, is the Duke of Buckingham's motto, 
JBotejsniabaiit.* Over the scroll, in the centre, is a shield charged with his 
arms quartered in four coats ;t and surrounded by the garter. The other shields 
are sculptured with heraldic badges, belonging to the builder's familj^ 

Plate X. This plate is filled with sections of the mouldings in the arches 
of the gates shewn in Plate IX., and those of the string-course and the label, or 
hood-mould over the gate. The capital belongs to the postern gate. 

Plate XI. Oriel Window in the North Front, Thornbury Castle. 

This magnificent window is on the north side of the middle room, on the 
upper floor of the building* already described. This room is called, in the old 
survey, ^^ The Dining" Chamber .'' It measured 38 feet in length, by 26 feet in 
breadth j and the height was at least 20 feet. The south side was lighted by a 
projecting" window, shewn in the general elevation on Plate I., opposite to which 
was the fire-place. The panels wrought under the basement of the window are 
of a rather uncommon style, but produce a very pleasing* effect. 

Plate XII. Various parts of the window, dehneated in the preceding plate, 
are here given separately, in order to shew the sections of the principal mould- 
ings, &c. The manner in which the projecting courses of the basement are 
bonded together, by oblique joints, is deserving of particular attention, (see 
No. I.) By this means, the whole course becomes like one stone ; and, being 

* DoKESENAVANT, DoBiNATAiTT, OF DoEES-EK-AVANT, is 811 old French word signifying hence- 
forward or hereafter, (See Cotgrave, Kelham, &c.) The import of this oracular motto proved 
most imfortunate. 

t These arms are said to have been quartered by the Duke ; viz. 1, "Woodstock ; 2, Bohun, Earl 
of Hereford; 3, Bohun, Earl of Northampton; 4, Stafford. — See " Sandford's Genealogical History," 
folio, 1677, p. 232. 



THORNBtlBY CASTLE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 37 

firmly set in the jambs, cannot be forced out of its place by the weight of the 
window. 

Plate XIII. Fire-place in Thornbury Castle. 

This fire-place is taken from the middle room on the ground-floor, and 
stands in the north wall. It bears a general resemblance to that displayed in 
Plate VI., with some differences of detail. The armorial badges, with which the 
outer mouldings of the former chimney are studded, are omitted in this ; but 
they are inserted in the panels over the mantel-piece. The first panel bears a 
device used by King Edward III., and afterwards by Henrj' IV., Edward IV., 
&c., a white swan, with its neck encircled by a crown, to which a gold chain is 
appendant. The next bears a mantel with cords and tassels dependant. On the 
central panel the device appears to be the nave of a carriage-wheel, with flames 
of fire issuing from it. The next has an escutcheon charged with the Stafford 
knot.* On the fifth panel is a cognizance used by King Richard 11., viz. a white 
hart, collared and chained. AU these badges are repeated on the chimney-piece 
shewn in Plate VI., as well as on some of the door-cases and other parts of the 
castle. The hearth is raised a httle above the floor of the room, and is enclosed 
by a ledge of stone, for preventing the fire from being spread about. The fiiei 
in general use at that time was wood, which did not require a grate.f 

Plate XIV. Door-case in Thornbury Castle. 
This door-case stands between the " Great Chamber" and the " Dining 
Chamber," on the firat floor. It is extremely elegant, being designed in strict 
correspondence with the chimney-pieces, and decorated with the same cog- 
nizances. One of these, the swan, is drawn on an enlarged scale. The same 
device is repeated in one of the spandrils, with the Stafford knot placed on the 
opposite side. The threshold, or sill, is raised above the floor, as is shewn in 
the section ; this was commonly done in ancient buildings, with the intention of 
keeping out the cold wind, as the doors were cut short at the bottom, to give 
room for the rushes or other litter with which the floors used to be spread. 

• " Some noble familieB applied a device, which being composed of simple cords implicated in 
a fantastic shape, were called knota. Those of Stafford, Bourchier, and "Wake, are the more ancient." 
— Dallavay'a Inquiry into the Origin and Progress of Heraldry, 4to. 1793, p. 396. 

t Two rery rich chimney-pieces in Windsor Caatle, erected only a few years earlier than these 
at Thornbury, and of a similar style, are engraved in " Pugin's Specimens of Gothic Architecture," 
yol. i., Plate LIII. See also that in the episcopal palace at Wells, engraved in the present work. 



■-■■2^ .T.'-: 



38 DEANEBY HOUSE, WELLS. 



Plate XV. Brick Chimneys, Thornbuby Castle. 

It seems rather extraordinary that hriek should have heen adopted as the 
material for chimneys placed on a building' of stone ; but it was evidently not 
done with a view to economy, as the construction is extremely elaborate and 
costly. These tunnels stand on the north side of the building ; one of them 
belonging to the "Dining Chamber," and the other to the room beneath it. 
The shields on the left hand are charged alternately with the Stafford knot, 
and an antelope seated, a badge of the Bohuns, earls of Hereford.* The date of 
this curious piece of workmanship is carved in brick on the base, 9bXtUi ClbriflEtlj 
(abbreviated) 1614. 



PLATE, No. 46—62. 

DEANERY HOUSE, WELLS, SOMERSETSHIRE. 

This interesting example of English domestic architecture, of the fift;eenth 
century, was chiefly, if not entirely, built by John Gunthorpe, LL.D., who was 
elected Dean of the Cathedral of Wells, 18th December, 1472. Dr. Gunthorpe 
had his early education in Balliol College, Oxford, where he was distinguished 
for his diligence and abilities. At a more mature age he travelled into Italy, 
and entered himself a student at Ferrara, under the celebrated Professor 
Guarini, one of the revivers of classic literature, who treated him with all the 
kindness of a parent. He gained the friendship of several other eminent 
scholars in Italy, where he took the degree of doctor in both canon and civil 
law ; and after visiting Rome, and other seats of learning, returned to his native 
country with a great reputation.f He was appointed chaplain to Edward IV. 
in 1466 ; became Master of King's Hall, Cambridge j and was employed by the 

* The golden knot, the silver swan, the blue mantle, and the antelope, were all badges of the 
familj. — Archsdol. vol. xxv. 313. 

t He had an intimate friend in Dr. John Phreas, or Free, an elegant scholar, and a native of 
London ; who also studied at Oxford, and afterwards at Ferrara. He practised physic some years 
at Borne, although he had taken holy orders ; and died there, a.d. 1465, a few months after he had 
been nominated, by Pope Paul II., to the bishopric of Bath and Wells : of which he never took 
possession. Dr. Ghinthorpe brought home a great store of valuable books ; some of which Leland 
found in the libraries of Oxford and Cambridge. See Leland, Comment, de Script. Brit. 2 — 462. 
Tanner, Biblioth. Brit. 365. 



DEANEBY HOUSE, WELLS, 80 

Xing' in several embassies to foreign princes. The archdeaconry of Essex, and 
prebends in the cathedrals of London, Lincoln, Salisbury, and York ; together 
with other benefices, were successively conferred upon him. He was appointed 
High Almoner to the king in 1478, and also secretary to the queen ; and, in 
1480, was advanced to the office of Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, with an 
allowance of 20^. a day. 

The accession of Richard Til. to the crown of England, in 1483, did not 
interrupt the dean's prosperity j for he continued in his office of keeper of the 
privy seal, as well as the enjoyment of his accumulated benefices in the church : 
neither did the final victory of the house of Lancaster, which placed Henry VIL 
on the throne, in 1485, deprive him of royal patronage. We find Dr. Gun- 
thorpe commissioned to treat with the king of Castile and Leon in 1486 ; and 
with the French king in 1490. He died in June 1498, and was buried in the 
cathedral of Wells. 

We are informed by Leland, who was nearly his contemporary, that Dean 
Gunthorpe was esteemed by Edward IV. above aU men of his time j and that, 
by the royal favour, he was enabled to display a style of splendour which no 
one, either of his predecessors or successors, could emulate. The Deanery- 
house is a memorial of his liberality ; and in viewing its exquisite details, we 
cannot help regretting, that so much of the original architecture should have 
been sacrificed in the progress of modem alterations.* 

Plate I. North Front of the Deanery, Wells. 

The whole edifice forms a quadrangle, inclosing a small court, on the north 
side of which stand the apartments sheuii in the accompanying plate. The 
iront towards the garden here displayed, is very picturesque, and remarkable 
for the rich ornaments of the principal windows. The ground-floor is divided 
into a kitchen, and other offices. At the west end is a staircase, originally lead- 
ing to a very fine dining-room, which occupied two-thii'ds of the first floor ; but 
which is now divided into smaller rooms, and totally disfigured. The upper 
end was lighted by two oriels of most beautiful workmanship j one of which 

• The Deanery was alienated firom the church of "Wells in the reign of Edward VI., a.d. 1552, 
when Dr. William Barlow, the bishop, granted it, together with other possessions, in exchange to 
the king, " for the benefit of some of his craving courtiers," as Strype remarks. The Dean, Dr. 
John Goodman, had been deprived of his benefice in 1550 ; but was restored on the accession of 
Queen Mary. See " Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials," Book 1. chap, xxviii., and Book 2, chap. xiv. 
« Le Neve's Fasti.'' pp. 36, 37. 



40 DEANERY HOUSE, WELLS. 

appears in the centre of this elevation. At the east end was a retiring^ chamber, 
about half the size of the dining'-room. Above these rooms is another floor of 
chambers. The parapets of the roof are embattled ; and, at the south-west angle 
rises a small tower, over the staircase, which, in its perfect state, was finished by 
battlements and pinnacles of a suitable style.* In this plate a few mutilated 
parts have been restored ; but the two windows in the lower story, next to the 
door, from which the mulUons have been cut away, are left in their imperfect 
state : and the two shafts to the chimneys have not been restored, as the originals 
are wanting. 

Plate II. Bay Window in the Deanery at Wells. 

This very elegant oriel, or bay-window,t stands in the centre of the north 
front, and originally lighted the upper end of the dining-room, as already has 
been mentioned. The basement is plain and solid, as high as the first floor. 
The panels below the bghts are sculptured with shields ; two of them bearing 
the rose and radiant sun, a badge of king Edward IV., Dr. Gunthorpe's great 
patron ;J and the other two what appears to be the tube or barrel of a hand- 
gun, in its primitive rude shape, formed of bars of iron fastened together by 
hoops. The scroll may be merely an ornament, or it might represent a leather 
strap, used in fixing the gun to the stock. This device, if the explanation be 
true, was meant as a rebus on the name of Gunthorpe ; agreeably to the quaint 
taste of that age. The same devices are repeated on the panels of the parapet : 
and immediately beneath them appear four great guns, protruding from the 
plinth, in allusion to the builder's name. 

The elevation shews the whole window, as seen directly in front. The 
section g^ves the projections ; together with the profile of the interior arch, and 
the inside tracery of the left jamb. 

* In " Angus' Views of the Seats of the Nobility and Gentry," 4to. ia a north-west view of the 
Deanerj-, at "Wella, from a drawing by John Carter, F.S.A., published in 1796, in which the tower 
appears with four pinnacles at the comers, finished with vanea. See Plate XLII. A short account 
of the building, and of Dr. Gunthorpe, ia also given in the same work. The drawing is neatly 
executed ; but inaccurate in some particulars. 

In " Archfeologia," vol. xxiii. p. 106, is a " Disquisition on the member in architecture caUed an 
Oriel," by the late William Hamper, Esq. F.S.A., containing some curious instances of its occur- 
rence in ancient records ; but the derivation of this term, and its proper meaning, have not been 
satisfactorily discoTered. 

J See " Eiample8,"vol.i. p. 14,andSandford's" GenealogicaJHistory of the Kings of England," 
fol. 1677, p. 370-381, &c. 



DEANERY HOUSE, WELLS. 41 

Plate III. The curious groining, in the roof of the ba3^-window, is here 
shewn, by a plan and section ; together with some details on an enlarged 
scale.* 

No. 2. Gives the termination of one of the three pendents, attached to the 
inner arch. These are sculptured with a rose, surmounted by a small fetter- 
lock J a badge used by the princes of the house of York. The same device is 
repeated on one of the two coats which are quartered on the shield. This 
badge might probably be used by the dean, as a mark of favour from 
Edward IV. 

Plate IV. The plan A is taken through the parapet and battlements of 
the window ; the other, B, is cut through the panels below the lights. Their 
respective places, in the elevation, are indicated by corresponding marks, in 
Plate II. The sections shew all the principal mouldings, on an enlarged scale. 

Plate V. South Fbont op the Deanery, Wells. 

No. 1. Gives an elevation of the south front, on a small scale. It is only 
two stories in height ; as is also the case in the east and west ranges of the 
quadrangle : but the north range has three stories. The windows of this front 
have been entirely modernised. It is terminated at the angles by two turrets, 
containing staircases. There turrets are square at the base, and are veay neatly 
fimshed at the top, by octagonal spires; one of which is here shewn on an 
enlarged scale. 

Plate VI. Oriel Window in the Deanery, Wells. 

The double window, displayed in this plate is of very uncommon desig^. 
Its place is shewn in the general elevation of the north front, Plate I. The line 
of the window is straight, and the projection is scarcely a foot from the main 
wall of the building, as is shewn in the section. The bottom part rests on two 
corbels, from which rises a low pointed arch. In the spandrils of this arch, as 
well as those over that of the lower window, are repeated the devices of a gun, 
a sun, and a rose, already explained. The tracery, in both the upper and 

• The groining here shewn has been copied from the window opposite to this, which looked into 
the inner court. It was exactly of the same size and character as the north window, excepting some 
small variations in the ornaments ; but it has been blocked up, and a passage cut through the centre. 
The window in the north front has also suffered some mutilation of the muUions. 



t THE bishop's palace, WELLS. 

wer lights, is extremely eleg;ant ; bearing a close resemblance to the windows 
'St. Mary's Church, Oxford.* 

Plate VII. The principal details of the window, shewn in the preceding 
late, are here displayed separately. The soffit of the arch is beautifully 
rought in tracery, and enriched with the armorial devices of a rose and sun, 
id a gun J in allusion to King Edward IV. and Dr. Gunthorpe. The same 
idges, as they appear on the front of the window, are given on a large scale in 
e present Plate. 

Plate VIII. Window in the North Front of the Deanery, Wells. 

This window, or rather pair of windows, gives hght to the eastern chamber 
' the first floor in the north front, shewn in Plate I. 

The external elevation is comparatively simple, having but very few mould- 
gs. The spandrils are enriched with the same armorial badges as the larger 
indows. The jambs of the recess on the inside are quite plain ; but the arch 
'er it is filled with very neat tracery : of which a plan and section are given in 
le present Plate. This window projects about 1 foot 6 inches from the 
incipal wall, running in a line with the adjoining- chimneys. The projection 
covered at the top of the window by a double course of moulded water-table ; 
section of which is here given. 



PLATE 53-58. 
THE BISHOP'S PALACE, WELLS. 

HE episcopal palace at WeUs appears to have been first erected by John de 
illula, sometimes called John of Tours, from his being a native of that city. 
[e became bishop in 1088, and, three years afterwards, translated the see to 
lath, probably on account of the superior size and importance of that city- 
here he erected a stately church, the abbey having been destroyed by fire the 
ear before his promotion. Notwithstanding the translation of the see to Bath, 
lis prelate is said to have pulled down the cloister and lodgings erected by his 
redecesBor, Bishop Giso, at Wells, and to have built a mansion for the resi- 

* See " Examples of Gothic Architecture, First Series," and " Specimens of Gothic Architecture," 
l.i. 



THE BISHOP^S PALACE, WELLS. 43 

dence of himself and his successors in the same place. He died suddenly 
about Christmas, in the year 1122, and was buried in the abbey, or cathedral 
church, at Bath. Bishop Jocelyn, who was elected in 1205, and died in 1242, 
built the chapel of the palace at Wells, which stiU remains perfect Robert 
Bumell, who presided from the year 1275, to his death in 1292, erected the 
stately hall, the subject immediately under consideration. Bishop Ralph de 
Salopia, or of Shrewsbury, fortified the palace, inclosing* it with an embattled 
wall and a moat He sat from 1329 to 1363. Ralph de Erghum is also said 
to have fortified the episcopal palace, and probably he made some additions to 
the works of his predecessor. This bishop sat from 1388 to 1400. That 
munificent prelate, Thomas Beckin^n, a pupil and a worthy imitator of the 
illustrious William of Wykham, bishop of Winchester, greatly improved the 
palace, as he also did the cathedral and city of Wells. He erected the gate- 
house, at the cost of above 200 marks. He also built the cloisters, the parlour 
chambers for the lodgings of visitors, the principal kitchen, with conduits for 
conveying water to it ; and also the buttery, cellar, and bake-house, and made 
stews for feeding fish. On these works he expended above a thousand pounds, 
a considerable sum of money in those days.* Bishop Beckington was conse- 
crated in 1443, and died in January, 1464-5.^ Leland, who visited Wells in 
1542, has given the following brief description of the palace, in his Itinerary . 
'' The Area afore the Bishop^s Palace lyeth Est of the Market stede, and hath a 
fair high Waul toward the Market stede, and a right goodly Gate House yn it, 
made of late by Bishop Bekingtufiy as it apperith by his Armes. On the South 
side of this Area is the Bisshop's Palace, dichid brodely and waterid about by the 
Water of S. Andres Streame let into it. This Palace ys strongly waullid and 
embatelid Castelle lyke, and hath in the first Front a godly Gate House yn the 
middle, and at eche ende of the Front a round Towr, and 2 other round 
Towers be lykelihood yn the Southside of the Palace, and then is ther one at 
every Comer. The Haul of the Palace ys exceeding fajTe. The Residew of 
the House is large and fair. Many Bisshops hath bene the Makers of it, as it 

is TkowJ'X 

• Itin«. Willelmi de Worcestre, Edit. Nasmith. 8vo. 1778, pp. 286, 287, &c. 

t Memoirs of Bishop Beckington, and the other prelates here referred to, will be found in the 
' Lives of the Bishops of Bath and Wells," compiled by the Eev. S. T. Cassan ; 8vo. London, 
1829. The researches of this gentleman hare elucidated many curious facts in the ecclesiastical 
history of England. 

X Lelapd's Itinerary, vol. ii. folio 41. 



I THE BISHOP 8 PALACE, WELLS. 

This magnificeot residence remained but a very short time after Leland had 
en it, before its dilapidation commenced. 

A new race of prelates succeeded, of a totally diflFerent temper from their 
nerous predecessors. These were needy men, who had no money to expend 

buildings and public works, but were intent on raising- portions for their sons 
d daughters, out of the spoils of the church. A royal license, issued in No- 
mber, 1550, authorising Dr. William Barlow, then Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
alienate and g^-ant in fee-simple, all the palace at Wells, with aU its precincts, 
d appurtenances, together with divers other lands, &c., to Edward, duke of 
merset.* The tragical fate of this nobleman, who was beheaded at the com- 
jncement of the year 1552, occasioned these possessions to revert to the 
)wn ; and, a few months afterwards, letters patent were granted for an ex- 
ange, by which the bishop recovered the deanery, the palace, and all the 
inor, borough, and hundred of Wells, &c., late parcel of the duke of 
imerset's estates-f These grants were followed by a letter— " signifying his 
BJesty's conlentation, that the Bishop having many fit places within the precinct 

the house of Wells, to make an hall of, and for his hospitahty, may {edifying 
e thereon) take down the great hall now standing, and grant the same away : 
mmending unto him for that purpose Sir Henry Gates, upon knowledge had 

the Bishop's good inclination towards him. Dated in September," 1552.J 
16 permission to take down this noble hall was immediately iised for the 
ipping off its roof, but the walls were left standing. Since that time, the 
bitable apartments of the palace have been reduced in extent, and some of 
s offices demolished. Nevertheless, it still retains a grand and venerable 
pearance, having much of the character of an old baronial castle. 

* Strype'e Eccleeiastical MemomlB, vol. ii. pt. 2, p. 257, Oxford edition, 8vo. 1822. 
t Stiype, vol. ii. pt. 2, p. 271. 

t Strype, p. 272, 273. Sir Henry Gates, or Tates, waa a gentleman of the privy chamber to 
ward VI., and brother to Sir John Gates, who was at first a groom of the chamber in the court 
lenry Till., but advanced under Edward Yl.to be rice-chamberi^, and captain of the guards. 
I acquired a lai^ estate by grants of lands taken from the bishopric of Winchester, and other 
lesiastical property. Sir John Gates was beheaded 22nd August, 1553, at the same time with 
patron, the Duke of Northumbeiiand, whose attempt to set Lady Jane Grey upon the throne he 
) sud to have projected. Sir Henry Gates was condemned on the same indictment, but his 
cution was respited. Bishop Godwin ascribes the ruin of the hall at "Wells to Sir John Gates ; 
I Sir John Harrington attributes it to Dr Barlow, in whose time the churches of Bath and 
jlls were most barbarously plundered and ruined. See " Godwin's " Lives of Bishops ;" and 
Fugte Antiquie," by Sir John Harrington, vol. i. 



THE bishop's palace, WELLS. 46 

Plate I. The Hall of the Bishop's Palace, Wells. 

No. 1. An elevation of the north side, which faces the front court of the 
palace, is here given. It remains tolerably perfect, excepting the porch, which 
was taken down not many years since. The porch was large, and had a vaulted 
roof over the entrance, with a chamber above it. The walls of the porch were 
embattled, and nearly as high as those of the hall.* The upper window, shewn 
on the right hand of the entrance, opened into a chamber at the west end of 
the hall : the two small lights below it belonged to an office under the chamber ; 
and the door near them led to the room over the porch. 

No. 2. Shews an elevation of the west end. The upper window belongs to 
the chamber, and the door led to the kitchen and other culinary offices. 

No. 8. This plan shews the entire form of the walls, but the columns that 
supported the roof connot be shewn, as every vestige of them has been erased. 
We have the testimony of William of Worcester, who saw this hall whilst it was 
perfect, that it had two aisles ;t and other instances might be adduced of halls so 
divided into a nave and aisles, by arches and columns : indeed, that seems to 
have been the usual plan in halls of large dimensions, previous to the fourteenth 
century, when an improved manner of constructing arched roofe of timber, 
superseded the necessity of columns. The length of the hall was divided into five 
bays, four of which were occupied by windows on each side, and one by the 
door. The three openings at the lower end of the hall, led by a passage under 
the floor of the great chamber, to the kitchen, buttery, pantry, and other offices 
now demolished.;]: The turret, at the north-east angle of the haU adjoins to the 

* See the view published by S. and N. Buck, in 1733, a veiy interesting performance, notwith- 
Btanding some yiolationB of perspectiye. The porch was then perfect, and was covered with lead, 
and the shell of the hall was standing entire, but without any roof. 

t " Memorandum quod aula episcopatus Wellensis continet per estimacionem circa 80 gressus 
super navem et duos elas. Latitude ejus continet circa 46 gressus. Et habet pulcrum porticum 
archuatum cum Tolta." Itin. W. de "Worcestre, p. 284. This was written about the year 1478. 

X The hall of the bishop's palace at Lincoln, erected nearly a century earlier than this, was built 
on a similar plan, but was not so long by about thirty feet. The central part of the roof was sup- 
ported by two rows of pointed arches, four on each side. There was a great chamber at the lower 
end of the hall, with a passage beneath it leading to the kitchen, buttery, pantry, &c., e:xactly as at 
Wells ; and it also had a porch in the same position, with a chamber over the entrance. The roof at 
Lincoln was carried in the same range oyer the great chamber ; but at Wells there seems to haye 
been only a flat roof oyer the chamber, with a gutter at the west end of the building. See the 
elevation in PI. 1, No. 2. The roof of the hall had undoubtedly two gables. 
2 H 



46 THE bishop's palace, WELLS. 

chapel, a curious and interesting little fabric, which still remains entire. Those 
parts of the plan which are lightly shaded have been pulled down : the darker 
parts are yet standing'. 

Plate II. Bishop's Palace, Wells. 

An external elevation of one portion of the hall is here shewn, with a 
section, and an internal elevation of a window. These windows form excellent 
examples of the style prevalent in the reign of Edward I., when the simple 
lancet light which characterises Salisbury Cathedral, had given place to the more 
enriched form of window seen "in Westminster Abbey. The curves in the 
tracery are simple, but neat, and of pleasing forms; and the mouldings and 
slender columns on the inside, are very elegant. 

In the lower part of the plate are sections of these mouldings, with their 
dimensions and the centres of their curves. 

Plate III. Turbet in the Bishop's Palace, Wells. 

The south-west turret is here shewn at large, in an elevation and a vertical 
section. It contains a closet, which communicated with the chamber at the 
west end of the hall. It has a drain beneath the floor, and the roof is groined 
with ribbed arches. Above the closet is a stab-case ascending from the roof of 
the great chamber to the top of the turret, which is ingeniously covered with 
stone, and has an opening just large enough to admit of a man's passing through 
it, in order to get on the roof. Some of the ornamental details are given at large 
on the right hand of the plate. 

Plate IV. A plan of the roof and battlements on the turret, described in 
the preceding plate, is here given ; beneath it is a plan of the octagonal closet, 
with the ribs and groins of its roof, &x. The sections shew the mouldings of 
the string-courses which surround the outsides of these turrets, in two series, 
giving them a singular appearance. The four turrets are of the same forms ex- 
ternally, and are all entire, but one of them now stands detached from the rest 
of the building ; the east end, and part of the south side of the hall, having been 
recently pulled down for the purpose of giving a more picturesque appearance to 
these ruins as seen from the adjoining garden. 

Plate V. Window in the Bishop's Palace, Wells. 
This window is one of a series in the upper story of the buildings at the east 
end of the court, which appear to have been erected at an earUer period than 






• 



THE bishop's palace, WELLS. 47 

the haU.* The external form of this ^dndow is remarkably simple, consistinsr 
u,e«ly of th^ parf„n.ti„„s, cWered round the edges. V Llde i, ™« 
enriched, and has two small columns and a moulded arch, finished by sculptured 
busts. The lower part of the window, on the inside, has probably been cut 
down in some modem alteration : a seat formed of stone, is commonly found 
under such ancient examples of domestic windows as remain entire. The orna- 
mental details are very neat, and shew the style prevalent about the middle of 
the thirteenth century. 

Plate VI. Chimney-Piece in the Palace, Wells. 

The style of this chimney-piece refers it to the latest period of Gothic archi- 
tecture, although it is pure from any admixture of Italian ornaments, which 
were introduced in the reign of Henry VIII. It was probably the work of 
Bishop Oliver King, who sat from the year 1496 to 1603, and who rebuilt the 
abbey church of Bath in a magnificent style, but died before its completion. 
The running patterns of foliage and fruit, which are carved on the arch and the 
cornice, are extremely richj and the octagonal piers on each side produce a 
very good effect. 

PLATE 59-^60. 

Plate I. Conduit for Water, Bishop's Palace, Wells. 

This little structure is externally of a quadrangular form, and the quoins are 
guarded by four buttresses projecting diagonally from the walls. The inside is 
circular, and has a round cistern in the middle of the floor for containing water. 
The roof is vaulted, and rises pyramidically at the top, which is finished by a 
small embattled turret, with the figure of a lion, or some other animal, seated 
upon it. The plate gives an elevation of one side, and a section taken through 
the centre. From the style of the windows and mouldings, we may attribute 
the erection of this conduit to Bishop Becldngton, who supplied the palace with 
water, as William of Worcestre tells us,t and who also built a beautiful conduit 
in the market-place at Wells. 

* On the ground-floor of the palace is a spacious room, of the architecture of the same age. It 
has a vaulted roof, supported by a row of columns in the middle. The present, bishop has repaired 
this apartment, and furnished it with specimens of mineralogy, fossils, Ac. In the same room are 
also a carved chair, a bedstead, and some other pieces of ancient furniture, which are said to have 
been brought from Glastonbury Abbey. t Itin. p. 287. 



48 GIASTONfiUBY ABBEY^ SOUEBSETSHIRE. 

Plate II. The plan of the building is here given ; one half shewing the 
lower part with the cistern, and the other, the upper part, looking towards the 
roofl The mouldings are all of neat and pleasing forms, and afford very useful 
examples of details, where elaborate ornaments are not required. 



PLATE 61—64. 

GLASTONBURY ABBEY, SOMERSETSHIRE. 

During a long aeries of ages, Glastonbury Abbey was regarded with great vene- 
ration, as one of the earUest places, if not the very first, where Christianity had 
been planted in Britain. The origin of it is lost in obscurity, and its early 
history is so mingled with very improbable legends, that no clear deduction can 
be made. The first establishment was, undoubtedly, very poor and small. The 
original church is said, in some very old accounts, to have been constructed in 
a rude way, with branches of trees, wattled together, and covered by a thatched 
roof.* What seems to have been merely a hermitage, inhabited by afew devout 
persons who retired to this place on account of its soUtary situation, Glaston- 
bury being then a small island, surrounded by marshes and thickets, afterwards 
became a numerous establishment of monks. Ina, king of the West Saxons, 
enriched the Abbey with most liberal donations, and was so great a benefactor, 
that he has been described as the founder of it j but there was certainly a church 
and a religious community settled here long before his time.f Ina, who had 
acquired the reputation of being a wise and valiant prince,J retired, in his old 
age, to Rome, a.d. 728, where he died in a monastery. From that time Glas- 
tonbury Abbey continued in a prosperous state, until the invasion of the Danes, 
who demolished it in the year 878. It was restored by the kings Edmund and 

* Sir Hemy Spelman, in his first volume of the Coancila of the British Church, folio, 1629, has 
giveu sn ideal repTeseiitatioii of this primltiTe oratory ; together with an impresaion firom a brass 
phite, formerly affixed to a column in the abbey church of Glastonbury, on which was engraved a 
legend of its being founded in the year 31, after our Ijord's Passion, by Joseph of Arimathea, and 
twelve disciples. This plate was evidently of no great antiquity, and probably had been put up 
when the presbytery was enlarged, by Abbot Monington, in the reign of Edward III, The inacrip- 
tion on it had only been copied from some monastic chronicles, as the learned editor remarked. 

t The church of Olaatonbury is styled ancigtU, in a charter dated a.d, 601. Spelmimni Con- 
cilia, 1—20. 

X Ina succeeded his cousin Ceodwalla in 689, and was one of the best and greatest princes of 
his age. Hia laws are still estaat. See Spehnan, Wllkiug, &c. 



GLASTONBUBY ABBEY, SOMEBSETSHIBE. 49 

Edgar, at the beginmng' of the tenth century, when the abbey was settled in 
regular monafitic discipHne, under the care of the celebrated St. Dunstan, who 
became, successively, abbot of Glastonbury, bishop of Worcester, and archbishop 
of Canterbury.* The destruction of this venerable establishment was effected 
with a degree of cruelty and -violence quite characteristic of Henry VIII. The 
abbot, Richard Whiting, had governed his monastery for many years, with great 
r^fularity and prudence; and was an old man of a pious and irreproachable cha- 
racter. The ample revenues of the abbey were partly expended in the mainte- 
nance of young men and hoys, who were educated under the care of the abbot ; 
and a large portion was spent in the relief of the poor, and hospitality to travel- 
lers and strangers. The abbot kept a numerous establishment of servants, as 
was commonly done in the houses of the prelates and nobility of ancient times. 
The steadiness of the abbot, in recusing to give up bis trust, for the purpose of 
destruction, made it necessary to bring him in guilty of some crime, in order to 
accomplish the impious project then in hand ; as the pretence was set up, that 
no religious house was destroyed, unless it had been voluntarily surrendered into 
the king's hands, or had been forfeited by felony or treason. Accordingly, when 
the visitors had found the abbot constant in his resolution of refusing to sign a 
surrender, he was apprehended at his manor-house of Sharpham, near Glaston- 
bury, and conducted to London. He was committed prisoner to the Tower ; 
and certain persons were sent to examine him, by Thomas Cromwell, the king's 
Vicar-General in Spirituals, and his prime minister in destroying the religious 
houses, who managed the prosecution.-)- Abbot Whiting was soon sent back, 

• A historiaii, whose diligent and iinp&rtial reeearcliea have cleared up some very ouiious 
points of hirtoiy, hue lately undertaken to vindicate the injured charactera of St. Dunstan, and some 
other eminent persons of the Saxon times, fi^m the calumnies with which they had been assailed 
by a party of modem writers, who seem to have studied how to excel in the art of defamation. 
The tack is, that the ordinary historiee of our country are so perverted, by pr^udices and misre- 
presentation, as to be unworthy of the least credit. But a taste for sounder information has arisen; 
and many conspicuous personages, in our history, are likely to change their places ; some to rise, 
and some to fall. 

See the " History of Europe during the Middle ages," vol. iii. forming part of Dr. Lardner s 
" Cabinet CyclopsBdia," 1684, pp. 260-297, &c. 

t See Btlis's Original Letters, Second Series, vol. ii. 116. The unprincipled character of Thomas 
Cromwell is intimatelydisplayedin an original paper of his notes, entitled"BemembraQces," Cotton, 
Lib. Titus, B. i., from which some extracts are pubUsbed in the above work. His memoranda, 
" to se that the evydens be well sortyd ;" and the businesslike manner in which he speaks of the 
torture called the Braei, are highly characteristic of the man. The Vicar-General having completed 
bis great work, the destruction of the monasteries, soon received bis reward. He was attainted of 



GLASTONBURY ABBEYj SOMEBaETSHIRE. 

ith an order to await the king's pleasure ; but, upon his arrival at "Wells, he 
'as unexpectedly summoned to take his trial, 14th November, 1639. Several 
rtful charges were made out, of the abbot having robbed his church of some 
late ; and of his concealing a treasonable book, which censured the king's 
ivorce, and which had been found on searching his chambers.* On these 
trange indictments he was condemned to suflFer the cruel death of a traitor ;t 
nd, the next day, the venerable old man was taken to Glastonbury, without 
h,e least regard being paid to his age and character : for he was not even 
llowed to take leave of his brethren, — a small indulgence, which he is said to 
lave begged with tears, but, being laid upon a hurdle, he was drawn up to the 
^orr Hill, and there hanged and quartered. Two monks, named Roger Jacob 
,nd John Thorne, were executed, at the same time and place, with their abbot, 
s his accomplices.]; The abbey was immediately seized by the king's oflScers j 
nd the monks were expelled.^ 

The buildings of Glastonbury Abbey were the work of many successive 
hbota ; and, at the period of its dissolution, the whole was most extensive and 
oagnificent. The abbey church was succeeded, in grandeur, by very few cathe- 
[rals J and the cloisters and habitable apartments were built on a scale corre- 

igh treason and heresy ; and beheaded, without the formalitj' of a trial, 20th July, 1640 : ahout 
hree months after he had been created Earl of Easei. 

* See an original letter, from the TiaitorB to the Lord PriTy Seal, No. 67. of the Eecords in 
Jumet'a History of the Eeformation, vol. iii. part 2, p. 211, Oxford edition, 1816. Hugh Cook, 
'■liai I'mringdon, abbot of Beading, with two of his monks ; and John Beche, abbot of Colchester, 
rere executed about the same time, and on similar charges. Collier imd Willis say they were con- 
lemued as traitors for denying the king's supremacy j but this they had acknowledged four yeara 
lefore, or they would not have been spared so long. 

t See the terms of the sentence passed on Edward, Duke of Buckingham, in 1521, Gentleman's 
Magazine, March 1834, p. 268. This horrible penalty has only been lately struck out of the 
BngUsh statutes, long after the actual perpetration of the butchety prescribed by the law had been 
liacontinued. 

J The following report was transmitted by John, lord Busaell, in a letter from "Wells, dated 
L5th November, 1539 : "My Lorde thies shalbe to aaserteyne that on Thnrsdaye the xiiiith dayeof 
;his present moneth the Abbott of Glastonburye was arrayned, and the next daye putt to execucyon 
^h 2 other of his monkes for the robbyng of Ghistonburye churche, on the Torre Hill next unto 
the towne of Glastonburye ; the seyde abbot's body bebg devyded into fewer parts, and hedde 
stryken off; whereof oone quarter stondythe at Welles, another at Bathe, and at Tlchester, and 
Brigewater the rest : and his head uppon the abby-gate of Glastonburye." 

See Ellis's Original Letters (First Series), vol. ii. p. 98. 

§ The site of Glastonbury Abbey was granted, 1 Edward VI. to Edward, Duke of Somerset : 
and afterwards, 1 Elizabeth, to Sir Peter Carew. 



GLASTONBUBY ABBEY, SOUEBSETSHIBE. 51 

sponding to the vast numbers of inmates, servants, and guests, who were usually 
lodged in the abbey.* These have almost totally perished. Of the great 
church, only some detached frt^ments remain standing ; with the exception of 
St Joseph's chapel, of which the walls are nearly entire.^ The Abbot's lodg- 
ings, which formed a spacious mansion, were pulled down in 1714j:J; and the 
rest of these noble ruins has been so thoroughly demolished, for the sake of 
the materials, that the only entire piece left is the kitchen, represented in the 
following Plates. 

Plate I. Abbot's Kitchen, Glastonbury Abbey. 

This remarkable structure, though generally described as the Abbofa Kitchen, 
was, more probably, intended for the general use of the community. Its erec- 
tion has been attributed to Abbot Whiting, who is said to have constructed it on 
the following occasion : — The King had taunted him for gluttony, and luxurious 
feasting ; and said, sarcastically, that he would bum his kitchen : to which the 
Abbot haughtily repUed, that he would build such a one as all the wood in the 
royal forests could not consume. The idle story is equally unsuitable to the 
characters of Abbot Whiting and of Henry VIII. ; and is sufficiently refuted, by 
the style of the building itself, which shews, that it was erected above a century 
before their time. Probably it was the work of John Chinnock, who governed 
the abbey from 1374, to his death, in 1420, and who is recorded to have rebuilt 
the cloisters, and several other apartments j some of which had been commenced 
by his predecessors. 

The plan gives horizontal sections at two diiFerent points. The lower half 
shews the floor, which measures 33 feet 6 inches square, within the walls. It 
has a door in the middle of the south side, and another opposite to it ; and a 
window on every side. The angles are crossed by the four arches of the fire- 
places, which reduce the upper part to an octagon. Every fire-place had a 

• The abbot's houBehold consiflted of 800 personfl. And the number of strangers entert^ed, 
on some occssions, had been 600. 

t This is a. very curious piece of architecture of the mixed style, which prevailed at the period 
when the pointed arch began to supersede the semidrcular one. See " Britton'a Architect. Antiq." 
vol. iv. ; Carter's " Ancient Architecture of England," folio ; " Vetusta Monumenta," vol. 17. ; 
" Grose's Antiquities ;" &c. 

J These bdgings are shewn in plates 36 and 37 of " Stukely'a Itinerarium Curioaum ;" and also 
in Hollar's " Views in the Monasticou." They were probably erected by Abbot Beere, the imme- 
diate predecessor of Whiting. 



02 GLASTONBUBY ABBEY, SOHEBSETSHIBE. 

Beparate shaft or tunnel ; but these have entirely perished. The bottom parts 
of the buttresses are rounded off in fi*ont ; which seems to have been done on 
account of their being inclosed by some passages and low buildings, which ori- 
ginally surrounded the kitchen, as appeara by the marks remaining on its walls. 

Plate II. Elevation op the West Side. 
The whole elevation stands complete, as here represented j with the excep- 
tion of the battlements, and the tunnels of the four chimneys : of which there 
was one at each angle, standing, probably, about as high as the base of the 
lantern. 

Plate III. This Plate exhibits a vertical section of the building taken in 
two parts : No. 1, on the left hand of the centre, extending along the line 
marked A, A, in the plan, Plate I. ; and No. 2, on the line marked B, B, in the 
plan. In No. 1. is shewn half of one of the flat-headed windows, and of the 
door beneath it : and, in No. 3, half of one of the arched windows. The roof 
is supported by eight arched ribs, springing from the angira of the octagon. 
These ribs are connected, at the top, by a circular curb, which forms the base 
of the inner part of the lantern. The walls of the lantern are double, the outer 
part being octagonal, and the inner of a cylindrical form, and eight openings are 
formed at the bottom of it, between the ribs ; as is more clearly shewn in the 
plans, upon the £rst Plate. 

The construction of this lantern is exceedingly ingenious, being well calcu- 
lated for relieving the kitchen from excessive heat or smoke, and, at the same 
time, light and strong : as its diu^bihty has erinced.* 

Plate IV. A compartment of one side of the lantern is here shewn in 
detail ; together with sections of all the principal mouldings. 

* Dr. Stukely thought that & bell was originally hung in the lantern, for the porpoBe of sum' 
moning the poor to receive alms ; and he has so represented it in one of hia plates : but there is no 
appearance of any bell having ever been placed there. 



THE GEOBOE INN^ GIASTONBURY, SOHERSETSHIRE. 53 

PLATE, 66—67. 
THE GEORGE INN, GLASTONBURY, SOMERSETSHIRE. 

■The Georg-e Inn ; or, the Abbofs Inn, as it is frequently called, appears to have 
been built by John de Selwood, abbot of Glastonbury, in the reign of Edward IV. 
He is said to have annexed two closes of land to it, situated behind the house, 
and to have assigned it to the chamberlain of the abbey. Mr. Grough, and some 
other authors, have described this inn as being' intended for the gratuitous enter- 
tainment of pilgrims resorting to the abbey ; but it seems more likely that it was 
built for the use of ordinary travellers who paid their own expenses, and to have 
been occupied by a tenant of the abbey.* It has been always distinguished by 
the sign of St. George slaying the dragon,— a very favourite cognizance of 
ancient times. 

Plate I. South Fbont of the George Inn. 

The front, which looks into the high street, exhibits a valuable example of 
the domestic architecture of the fifteenth century ; and has been so far pre- 
served, as to enable the draughtsman to restore the elevation to its original 
state J as it is here represented.t The entire elevation is distributed into small 
compartments, by the arrangement of the window-lights, and blank panels; 
giving it a very ornamental effect. Between two of the windows, in the upper 
story, is a small figure, standing in a niche, which seems to have represented 
St. George j and, opposite to it, is another small niche, resembling a tower, with 
a portcullis in its entrance. There appear to have been several small figures, 
similar to that looking over the battlements of the bay-window ; but all the 
others have been destroyed. It holds a cup in one hand ; as a symbol of hos- 
pitality. For the sake of internal convenience, the door is not placed exactly in 
the centre ; and only one side projects forward, in the form of a canted window. 

* GoBgh'B Additions to Camb. Brit. vol. i. p. 101, Joaa. GHarton, p. 282. Edit. Heame, 1726. 
John de Selwood wu elected abbot, 15th N'ovember, 14S7, and governed the monaetery tiU his 
death, in 1193. His familj name was Edmunds ; but he was denominated Selwood, &om the place 
of his birth, according to the custom of the clergy in former times. The George was always an 
Inn, and not an Botpital, as Mr. Qough would make it. 

t Some of the windows have been partly stopped up, and others are mutilated and deprived of 
the iron grates, with which they were originally guarded. Those in the lower atory have suffered the 
greatest injury. 



54 THE GEORGE INN, GLASTONBURY, SOMERSETSHIRE. 

Such a disregard of uniformity of parts, to which modem architects almost 
invariably adhere, may be commonly observed in the works of the middle ages. 
The central shield, over the door, is sculptured with the royal arms of France 
and England, quarterly, supported by a lion and a bull, as they were borne by 
Edward the Fourth. That on the dexter side bears the cross of St. George ; 
or, the arms of the abbey of Glastonbury. The third shield is defeced ; but the 
arnaa upon it, perhaps, belonged to the builder, abbot Selwood.* The roof 
which now covers the house, although of considerable antiquity, is probably not 
the original one, which seems to have been flat, and covered with lead. The 
top of the turret, on the right hand, has been raised by an additional piece of 
work, which is pierced through the middle, for the purpose of containing a 
small bell, 

Plate II. The ornamental details of the windows are here set out at large ; 
with sections of all the mouldings, on the jambs, mullions, cornices, &c. j with 
marks of reference to their respective places in the general elevation. These 
mouldings are very nicely designed, and have been drawn with great care and 
precision. 

Plate III. No. 1. Displays the stone truss or bracket, which supports 
the sign.t The cornice is decorated with several small shields, each bearing 
a cross, and has the letters, I.S. interwoven on one side ; being the initials of 
the builder's name, John Selwood. 

No. 2. Two horizontal sections of the front are here given ; the lower one 
being cut across the windows of the ground-floor, and the other, through those 
of the third, or upper story. The projections of the bay-windows, the two hex- 
agonal buttresses, or turrets, which terminate the ends of the front, and also the 
bracket for the sig^, are shewn on these sections. 

•Dr. Stukely noticed the supporters of the royal anna, when he lodged at the Greorge Inn, A.D. 
1723. The anna of G-lastonbury Abbey were bome with certain Tariationa. A cross always fonned 
the chief part, but Bomotimea it was plain, at others, botany, flory, &c. See Tanner, in Pref to 
"^otitiaMonastica," XKXIII. The anna formerly on the third shield are described by Mr. Qongh. 
Camden, toI. 1, p. 101. The back-ground in the central panel is filled with roses, and the sun 
appears over the shield with the royal anus. 

f Originally, it is probable, the sign consisted of figures of St. George and tbe Dragon, sculp, 
tuied on a large scale, and blazoned in proper colours ; as we know that formerly the signs of 
inns and tradesmen's shops were often embeBished with earring and painting of very costly work- 
manship. 



TRIBUNAL HOUSE, GLASTONBURY, SOMERSETSHIRE. 55 

No. 3. Gives a plan of the whole building, on the g^und-floor, shewing- 
the several rooms into which it ia divided, and also the passage, and the circular 
stone staircase. Beneath the two larg-er rooms is an arched cellar.* 



PLATE 68. 
TRIBUNAL HOUSE, GLASTONBURY. 

Plate I. The subject of this plate is a domestic building-, situated in one of 
the streets of Glastonbury, which has acquired the name of the Tribunal; but 
how it came to be so called, seems quite unknown. It undoubtedly belonged to 
the abbey, and appears to have been intended for a dwelling-house having no 
resemblance to a hall or court of justice. The small plan shews the ground- 
floor. There is one room in front, with a passage leading into the court behind 
the house. At the back of this room is a winding staircase, with stone steps, 
and another apartment looking into the back yard. The ceiling of this room is 
plastered, and divided into four compartments, with ornamental mouldings. A 
third room, behind the others, opens into the court. The details of tiie several 
parts of the front are neat and appropriate ; and from their style, as well as 
from the royal anns, and cognisance, sculptured over the door, we may judge 
that the building was erected in the early part of the sixteenth century, 
probably by Abbot Beere,f who contributed greatly to the improvement of 
various ediBces belonging to his monastery. The oriel, or bay-window, is 
said to have been formerly ornamented with escutcheons of the arms of several 
kings, abbots, and other benefactors to the abbey, in stained glass, but nothing 
of these decorations is now remaining. The plate gives an elevation of the 
whole front ; an upright section ; and two horizontal sections j together with 
details of the mouldings. 

* A DBrrow tunnel, for divining the water from this cellBr, has been magnified into a aubter- 
rftneouH passage, through which the moiiia are said to have secretly come from the abbey to viflit 
female pOgrima at the inn. This filthy story has no authority but what it may derive from the 
prurient imagination of its authors; and they, and not the monks, toe disgraced by such 
inventions. 

t Eichard Beere was installed abbot in 1493, and died in 1524. The windows in front of the 
abbot's lodgings appear to have been of a style similar to these, according to the print published in 
Stukely's Itin". Curiosum, which seems to have been drawn with core, however rude in execution. 



i6 THE abbot's barn, GLA8T0NBUBV, SOMERSETSHIRE. 

PLATE 69—73. 

THE ABBOT'S BARN, GLASTONBURY. 

This stately monument of the architectural magiiificence which formerly dis- 
ing^ished Glastonbury, was overlooked by Stukely, Goug-h, and most other 
mtiquaries and tourists, who have visited and desfribed the ruins of the abbey ; 
dthough it is certainly one of the finest, if not of the largest examples of its 
dud. No information appears as to the time when this ham was erected, and 
jve can only judge of its age by the style of the ornaments ; from which it may 
be referred to about the same period as the Idtchen, viz., the latter end of 
:he 14th, or the beginning of the 15th century, when abbot Chinnock presided 
>ver the monastery. 

Plate I. Elevation op the South Side^ Abbot's Babn. 
An elevation of the whole building on its south side is here exhibited, 
together with details of the symbols of the four evangelists, which are carved 
upon the gables of the roof. 

Plate II. Details of the Abbot's Barn. 

No. 1. at the top of the plate is given a plan of one-half of the barn, 
which will sufficiently explain the size and form of the whole. The threshing- 
floor is in the middle of the bam. The large doors through which the com is 
brought, are placed at the ends of the two porches or transepts, in which are 
smaller doors on each side. The beams and braces of the roof are shewn in 
the right hand portion of the plate. 

No. 2. shews a window in the gable of one of the porches. These windows 
are very handsomely moulded, in a hold and rich style. The details of the 
jambs and mullions are shewn at large, in the section No. 3, where the plan of 
one of the door-jambs is also drawn ; and likewise the coping of a buttress. 

Plate III. Elevation and Section of the Abbot's Barn. 

No. 1. The elevation of the west end is here given with one side of the 
north and south porches, in each of which is an arched door. The design of 
the great gable is at once appropriate and beautiful. The narrow loop-holra, 
necessary for the ventilation of the interior, are made subservient to architec- 



THE ABBOTTS BABN, GLASTONBUBY, SOMEBSETSHIBE. 67 

tural ornament; and the figure of the cross in the upper loops^ with the 
emhlems of the four evangelists^ and the mystical trirune form of the tracery 
in the windows above them^ are all memorials of that religious spirit which 
animated the pious builders. 

No. 2y shews a section of the roof, which resembles that of a hall, being 
supported by arches of timber, arranged very symmetrically, but in a plain 
manner. 

Plate IV. Detaii^ of the Abbot's Baen. 

The two gables of the main roof are terminated by statues, about half the 
size of the human figure. That on the west end, here delineated, represents a 
bishop, habited in the ancient ecclesiastical vestments, and bearing his pastoral 
staff.* Beneath this figiire is given a section of one of the coping-stones of 
the gables, which are worked so as to lap over each other, for the purpose of 
keeping the joints dry. The two smaller g*ables are terminated by crocketed 
finials, of which one is here drawn, both in front and profile. At the bottom 
of the plate are delineations of the coping on one of the buttresses, which flank 
the gables of the porches, each of which bears the figure of a mastiff dog, 
with cropped ears. Above these are given the front and profile of one of the 
heads which support the copings of the great gables. This is intended for a 
king wearing an open crown. In the top comer is a section of the cornice 
which nms along the sides of the roof, immediately imder the eaves. 

Plate V. Details of the Abbot's Barn. 

The upper part of this plate displays an elevation and section of one of the 
triangular windows in the great gables of the bam. These windows are well 
designed, and ornamented with very handsome mouldings.f Lower down in 
the plate is shewn one of the cross loops, of which there is a pair in each of the 
great gables. These loops resemble those commonly made in the walls and 
towers of ancient castles, for the purpose of watching or of shooting at the 
assailants ; here, their intent was quite harmless, and only for giving air and 
light to the interior of the building. 

* These statues probably represented some of the patron saints of the abbey, or of its principal 
benefactors. 

t The aisles of Westminster Abbey have windows in their roofs of a similar pattern to these, 
but of much larger size, and more elaborate detail ; and the nave of Lichfield Cathedral has win- 
dows in the clerestory, formed like these, of segments of three circles, arranged in a triangle. 



68 THE abbot's BARN^ GLASTONBURY, SOMEBSETSHIBE. 

Ill concluding the description of this fine example of ancient architecture, 
it can hardly be thought impertinent to express an earnest wish for its pre- 
servation. The builders of the middle ages have left monuments of their skill 
and liberality, with which few, indeed, of our modem works can be fairly com- 
pared. The excellent construction of these fabrics has enabled them to endure 
for ages, where they have not been destroyed by barbarous hands; and the 
taste Xvith which even the subordinate parts were finished, as we see in this 
example, could impart grace even to a bam. 



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INDEX, 



Abbot of Glastonbuiy, execution of the last^ 50. 
Alant, or Allan, or wolf-dog, or mastiff, 9. 
Almery, an office for distribution of alms, 31.* 
Aisles in ancient halls, 45. 
Architectural gardens, revived taste for, xiv. 
Armorial badges at Herstmonceaux Castle, 10. 

at Thombury Castle, 36—38. 

at the Deanery, at Wells, 40—42. 

at the Tribunal House at Glas- 

tonbury, 55. • 
Arms of Glastonbury Abbey, 54.* 
at Thombury Castle, 36. t 

B 

Bam, Abbot's, at Glastonbury, account of, 56 — 58; 
with five Plates, viz. 

I. south side, 56 ; pi. No. 69. 

II. plan, and details, ibid, ; pi. No. 70. 

III. west end, ibid. ; pi. No. 71- 

IV. details of gables, 57; pi. No. 72. 

V. windows and loop-holes, ibid. ; pi. 

No. 73. 
Barlow, William, Bishop of Bath and Wells, his 

dilapidations, 39,* 44. 
Bay-window in Herstmonceaux Castle, 1 1 • 

in Kenilworth Castle, 20. 

in Thombury Castle, 33, 34. 

in the Deanery, at Wells, 40, 41. 

in the George Inn, at Glastonbury, 

53, 64. 



Bay-window in the Tribunal House, at Glaston- 
bury, 55. 

Beckington, Thomas, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
his buildings, 43^-47. 

Beere, Richard, Abbot of Glastonbury, 55. f 

Brack, a sort of rack for torturing prisoners, 4 9.^ 

Brick-work at Herstmonceaux Castle, 7 — 9. 

at Thombury Castle, 38. 

Buck's Views, references to, 11,* 45.* 



Ceiling of timber, at Oxford, 4. 

Chimneys, difficulty of their management, xiii. 

ancient modes of placing them, ibid. 

— at Thombury Castle, 38. 

Columns, formerly in the Hall of the Bishop's 
Palace, at Wells, 45. 

at Lin- 
coln, &c. 45.^ 

Conduit at Wells, account of, 47 ; with two 
Plates, viz. 

I. elevation and section, 47; pi. No. 59; 

II. plans and details, ibid. ; pi. No. 60. 

Cromwell, Thomas Earl of Essex, 49.t 

Cupola, louvre, or lantern, 26.* 

D 

Deanery House, at Wells, account of, 38 ; with 
eight Plates, viz. 

I. north front, 39 ; pi. No. 45. 

II. bay-window, 40 ; pi. No. 46. 



60 



INDEX. 



III. Bay-^window, ceiling, and details^ 41 ; pi. 

No. 47. 
IV, __ sections and details of ditto, ibid.; 

pi. No. 48. 

V. south front, ibid ; pi. No. 49. 

VI. oriel-window, ibid. ; pi. No. 50. 

VII. ditto, plans and details, 42 ; pi. 

No. 51. 

VIII. window in the north front, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 52. 
Door-case in Eenilworth Castle, 21.* 

in Thombury Castle, 37. 

Drawbridge of Herstmonceaux Castle, 12. 
Dunstan, St., his character vindicated, 49.* 

E 

Elizabethan style of architecture, xm, 

, of domestic architecture, re- 
marks on its merits and defects, xviii. 

Elizabethan style of architecture in Kenilworth 
Castle, 15. 

Evangelists, symbols of the four, 56. 



Fire-place in Herstmonceaux Castle, 11, 12. 

— in Kenilworth Castle, 19, 21. 

inThombury Castle, 34. 

in ditto, 37. 

in the Bishop's Palace at Wells, 47. 

Flamboyant, a French term, applied to tracery of 

a pecuhar style, 24.* 
Furniture, ancient, in the Bishop's Palace at 

Wells, 47.* 

G 

Gable of Houghton Chapel, 2. 

of the Bam at Glastonbury, 57. 

Gables of carved timber, Mr. Pugiu's work upon, 

■ • ■ ^ 

viu.* 
Gardens, architectural, revived taste for, xiv. 
Gates, Sir Henry, and Sir John, 44-1 . 
Gateway of St. Edmund's Bury Abbey, l.f 

of Herstmonceaux Castle, 11, 12. 

of Oxborough Hall, ibid. 



Gateway of Thombury Castle, 35, 36. 

of Raglan Castle, 26. 

of Magdalen College, &c. 35.* 

George Inn at Glastonbury, account of, 53 ; with 
three Plates, viz. 

I. South front, 53 ; pi. No. 65. 

II. . Details of mouldings, 54; pi. No. 66. 

III. Bracket for the sign, &c. ibid, ; pi. 

No. 67. 
Glastonbury Abbey, its origin and destruction, 

48—51. 

— — , see Bamy George Inn, Kit- 
chen, and Tribunal House, 

Glazing of windows, manner of, xii. 

Glossary of terms in Gothic architecture, vi4 

Gothic architecture suitable to the country, xiv. 

Gunthorpe, John, LL.D., Dean of Wells, 38—40. 

rebus on his name, 40, 42. 

Guy's Tower in Warwick Castle, account of, 13 ; 
with one plate, 14 ; pi. No. 15. 

H 

Hall in the Bishop's Palace at Lincoln, 45.^ 

in Herstmonceaux Castle, 10. 

in Kenilworth Castle, 19. 
in Thombury Castle, 31. 
in the Bishop's Palace at Wells, 43—45. 
Herstmonceaux Castle, account of, 5 ; with six 
Plates, viz. 

I. Elevation, plan, &c. 9 ; pi. No. 9. 

II, 1 plans of the entrance, 11 ; pi. No. 10. 

III. front of ditto, 1 1 ; pi. No. 1 1 . 

IV. section and details of ditto, 12; pi. 

No. 12. 
V. ■ loop-hole and window, ibid, ; pi. 

No. 13. 

VI. machicolated parapets, 13 ; pi. No. 

14. 
Houghton Chapel, Norfolk, account of, I ; with 
five Plates, viz. 

I. west front, 2 ; pi. No. 2. 

II. window, &c. ibid, ; pi. 



No. 3. 



III. 



canopies, ibid,\ pi. No. 4( 



INDEX. 



61 



IV. 
V. 



west front, niches, 3 ; pi. No. 5. 
— parapets, &c. ibid. ; pi. 



No. 6. 



Inscriptions on Thombury Castle, 36-^38. 

■ formerly in Glastonbury Abbey, 48.* 
Jocelyn, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 43. 
Iron bars and grates in the windows of ancient 

castles and mansions, x. xi. 
■ in the hall windows of Kenilworth 

Castle, 20 • 

in the windows of lUglan Castle, 27* 

in the George Inn, Glastonbury, 63.f 



-, modem Gothic windows formed of, xii. 



Italian architecture introduced into England, xvi. 



Kenilworth Castle, account of, 15^18: with 
seven Plates, yiz. 

I. octagonal lobby, 19 ; pi. No. 16. 

II* elevation and details of ditto, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 17. 

III. section and plan of the hall, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 1 8. 

IV. window of the hall, 20 ; pi. No. 19. 

V. tracery and details of ditto, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 20. 

VI. bay-window in the hall, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 21. 

VII. fire-place in the hall, 21 ; pi. No. 22. 

Kitchen at Glastonbury, account of, 51 ; with 
four Plates, viz. 

I. plans, &c. 51 ; pi. No. 61. 

II. west side, 52 ; pi. No. 62. 

III. sections, &c. ibid. ; pi. No. 63. 

IV. — — details, &c. ibid. ; pi. No. 64. 
Kmg, Ohver, Bishop of Bath and Wells, notice 

of, 47. 
Knots borne by certain noble families, 37.t 



Lantern, on the Abbey kitchen at Glaston- 
bury, 52. 

2 K 



Loopholes in Herstmonceaux Castle, 12. 
in Glastonbury Bam, 57 • 

M 

Machicolated battlements of Herstmonceau 

Castle, 13. 

of Warwick Castle, 15. 

of Ragkn Castle, 26. 

of Thombury Castle, 34. 

Merton College Chapel, ceiling under the tower, 

account of, 4 : with 2 plates, viz. 

I. section and plan, 4 ; pi. No. 7. 

II. parts at large, ibid. ; pi. No. 8. 

Motto of the Family of Fienes, 8. 

of Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, 36. 

N 

Niche in the Greoi^ Inn at Glastonbury, 53. 
Niches in Houghton Chapel, details of, 3. 



Oriel, the meaning of the word not well under- 
stood, 40t See Bay-vnndow. 
Oxborough Hall, Norfolk, 11, 12. 



Palace, Bishop's, at Wells, account of, 42 ; with 
six Plates, viz. 
I. " elevation and plan of the hall, 45 ; 

pi. No. 53. 
II. ■ window in the hall, 46 ; pi. No. 54. 

III. .-^-^— elevation, &c. of a turret, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 55. 
IV. ■ plan and section of ditto, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 56. 

V. window of the gallery, ibid. ; pL 

No. 57. 
VI. ■ Chimneypiece, 47 ; pi. No. 58. 

Passage, subterraneous, at Glastonbury, false 

report of one, 55.* 
Porch of the Hall of the Bishop's Palace at 

Wells, 45. 
Porches of modem Gothic houses, xiii. 

■ of certain great churches, ibid, xiii.f 



62 



INDEX. 



Pugin, the late Mr., account of his publica* 

tions, v.— ix. 
, his executors, ix.* 

R 

Raglan Castle, account of, 21 — 24 ; with seyen 
Plates, viz. 

I. ground-plan, &c. 25 ; pi. No. 23. 

II. elevations, and plan of the hall, 26 ; 

pi. No. 24. 

III. window of state-chamber, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 25. 

IV. detaUs of ditto, 27 ; pi. No. 26. 

V. small window, ibid. ; pi. No. 27. 

VI. details of ditto, ibid. ; pi. No. 28. 

VII. window over the entrance, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 29. 
Ralph de Erghum, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 43. 
Ralph de Salopia, or of Shrewsbury, Bishop of 

Bath and Wells, ibid. 
Rebus on the name of Gunthorpe, 40, 42. 
Roof of the Hall of Raglan Castle, 26, 

of the Hall of the Bishop's Palace at 

Wells, 45. 



Sash-windows unsuitable to Gothic architecture, 

xi. xii. 
Seats of stone, commonly seen under ancient 

domestic windows, 47. 
Selwood, John, Abbot of Glastonbury, 53.* 
Sill, or threshold of a door, commonly raised in 

former times, 37. 
Signs of inns and shops, anciently made in a 

costly style, 54. f 
Shutters to Gothic windows, inconvenience of, xii. 
Smoke, its effects on architecture to be consi- 
dered, xiii. 
Statues on the Abbot's Bam at Glastonbury, b7. 
■ on the George Inn, 53. 

Staircases, improvement of^ in the reign of EU- 

zabeth, xviii.* 
Street architecture, application of the Gothic 

style to, XV. 



Survey of Thombury Castle, 29, 30, 30,* 31, 
31,t 32,* 32.§ 



Thombury Castle, account of, 28; with fifteen 
Plates, viz. 

south front, 32 ; pi. No. 30. 

bay-wiadows, 33 ; pi. No. 31 • 

detaUs of ditto, 34 ; pi. No. 32. 

details and sections, ib. ; pi. No. 33. 

oriel window and doorway, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 34. 

fire-place, ihid. ; pi. No. 35. 

machiolated parapet, ibid.i pL 

No. 36. 
elevation and plans, 35; pl.No.37. 

westem gateway, ibid. ; pi. No. 38. 

detailsof mouldings, 36 ; pi. No. 3 9. 

■^— oriel-window, ibid. ; pi. No. 40. 
■ details of parts in ditto, ibid. ; 

pi. No. 41. 

fire-place, 37 ; PI. No. 42. . 

door-case, ibid. ; pi. No. 43. 

brick chimneys, 38 ; pi. No. 44. 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

Triangular windows in the Abbot's Barn at 

Glastonbury, 57. 
in Westminster Abbey and 

Lichfield Cathedral, tdtVf.f 
Tribunal House at Glastonbury, account of, 55 ; 

with one plate ; pi. No. 68. 
Turret in the Deanery at Wells, 4 1 . 

in the Bishop's Palace, 46. 

Turrets in Herstmonceaux Castle, 11. 

, chimney-flues formed in them, xiii. 



Vaulted roof in Herstmonceaux Castle, 1 1. 

in Guy's Tower, Warwick Castle, 15. 

in Kenilworth Castle, 19. 

in Raglan Castle, 25. 

in the Deanery at Wells, 41. 

in the Bishop's Palace, 45. 

■ in the Abbot's Kitchen at Glaston- 
bury, 52. 



f 

( 



INDEX. 



W 

Warwick Castle, account of, 13. 

, Guy's Tower, 14 ; pi. No. 15. 

Wellsi see Deanery, Palace^ Conduit. 

Whiting, Richard^ last Abbot of Glastonburji his 

cruel treatment, 49, 50. 
Windows, remarkable, at Westminster Abbey and 

Lichfield Cathedral, 57.t 
f capricious forms of, in the reigns of 

Henry VII. and Henry VIII., 33.* 
, ancient domestic, style of, on the Con- 



tinent, XTi. 



Windows, in the reigns of Elizabeth and Jamea I. 
xyii. 

, in modem Gothic mansions, x. 

f difficulty of their construction in mo- 



dem Grothic houses, ix. 

, remarkable in Wressil Castle, x.* 



Wolsey, Cardinal, vindication of, 28.* 
Worcester, William of, reference to his Itinerary, 

43,* 45. 
Wykham, William of, Bishop of Winchester, 

43. 



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