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Full text of "Faust, Part 1, followed by an Appendix on Part 2;"







f A U S T 











I 886 


Ix the Introduction and Notes contained in this 
volume will be found the substance of some lectures 
on the Faust of Göthe, given at Newnham College, 
Cambridge. My aim in the Introduction has been 
to suggest what I believe to be the true meaning 
of the whole Faust Poem, and in the Notes to explain 
allusions, phrases, or constructions, which I have 
found to present difficulties to my own pupils. 

My book can lay no claim to being a complete 
study of Faust ; but my hope is that it may lead 
readers on towards a complete study — including at 
the same time its spiritual meaning and external 

My best thanks are due to the friends who 
have helped me and been interested in my work — 
above all to Professor Dowden and the Editor of 
the Series. 


Newnham College, Cambridge, 
Oc tober 1885. 



In writing the lives of the greatest men whom the world 
has known, we are in some cases as much embarrassed 
by the wealth of material as in other cases by the 
poverty of material at our disposal. If we think of our 
own greatest poet, Shakspere, — Shakspere, whose name is 
rather sacred to us than famous, — it is the author of 
Hamlet and the Tempest we know and remember, not 
the man who was born in Stratford-on-Avon in April 
1564, and who died in Stratford in April 1616 ; indeed, 
so little is known of this William Shakspere, that there 
are people, even in our time, who believe that the great 
plays and noble poetiy which bear his name were not 
written by him at all. 

Very different is it in the case of the greatest German 
poet. We know everything about him from the begin- 
ning to the end. We have volumes of autobiography, 
biography, letters, reminiscences, and correspondence. 
We know so much about him that sve almost lose sight 
of the man himself, — we cannot see the wood for the 
trees. And hence, because there is so much to teil, the 
account that I shall now write of his life must seem, and 
must be, a very meagre and incomplete account, and 
must leave out many, I had almost said all facts and 
incidents that do not bear upon or lead up to the pro- 
duction of one single work — Faust. 


Johann Wolfgang von Göthe was born in Frankfurt- 
am-Main. No town in Germany is more interesting, 
none more füll of memories, than Frankfurt. Here is 
the hall in which emperors were crowned, the site of 
the Castle which Charlemagne and his followers once 
occupied, the old Rathhaus where grave and reverend 
councillors held counsel for the welfare of their town. 
Here are the river, the bridge, the city walls, looking 
pretty much as they looked some one hundred and fifty 
years ago. Here, alongside of wide new streets and 
handsome modern buildings, are the old narrow pictur- 
escjue Gassen, and the quaint houses with their high 
steep roofs and gables rising tier above tier. And here, 
between noon and one o'clock, on the 2 8th of August 
1749, Johann Wolfgang von Göthe was born. 

Göthe used to say that, while his mother had given 
him her joyous temperament, her serenity of soul, and 
her poetic faculty, he owed his streng frame of body, his 
earnestness of purpose, and his sense of duty, to his 
father. His father, Johann Caspar Göthe, held the 
office of Imperial Councillor in Frankfurt. He was a 
man of wealth and position, of studious habits and 
reserved nature — upright, straightforward, and business- 
like, — a man more likely to be respected than loved. 
Göthe's mother, Catherine Elizabeth Textor, the eldest 
daughter of the chief magistrate of Frankfurt, was twenty- 
one years younger than her husband, and only eighteen 
years older than her son. ' I and my Wolfgang,' she 
used to say, ' have always held closely together ; that is 
because we were both young, and not so wide apart 
from one another as Wolfgang and his father.' All 
writers agree in saying that Göthe's mother was most 
loveable and charming, — that she was joyous, calm, 
vivacious, sympathetic — all in one. ' I love humankind,' 
she used to say; ' and old and young feel it. I go with- 
out pretension through the vvorld, and that pleases all the 
sons and daughters of men. I demoralise no one, try 


always to find out the good side, leaving the bad to 
Him who made men.' 

Next to his mother, Göthe, as a child, loved bis Httle 
sister Corneba ; be brought ber all sbe wanted, wisned 
no one eise but himself to feed and nurse ber, and was 
jealous wben sbe was taken out of the cradle in whicb 
he watcbed over ber. 

One more of his near relations, whose influence be 
feit in cbildbood, should be mentioned. His father's 
mother lived under tbe same roof with bim, and occupied 
a large room, to whicb tbe cbildren were wont to resort 
at play-hours. ' Sbe possessed tbe art of amusing us,' 
writes Götbe, ' with all soits of trifles. One Christmas 
Eve sbe crowned all ber benefits by treating us to a 
puppet sbow, and tbus creating a new world in the old 
house. Tbis unexpected spectacle powerfully attracted 
tbe younger spirits ; on me in particular it made a very 
strong Impression, whicb ecboed into a great long- 
enduring influence.' 

Tbere must, I tbink, bave been something new and 
Strange about Götbe in his cbildbood. Wberever he 
came or went be produced and left the Impression of an 
uncommon, unusual boy. In his games be was always 
leader, at his lessons be was always quicker tban otber 
cbildren, and from tbe first all who knew him foresaw 
and foretold his future greatness. 

He was not only a marvellous child, but be enjoyed 
no common advantages from bis birth. The people be 
lived with — bis fatber, bis father's mother, bis mother, 
his little sister — were uncommon people. His mother 
used to invent fairy tales for him ; a French officer, 
Count Tborane, quartered in his parents' bouse during 
tbe French occupation of Frankfurt, used to teach bim 
French ; bis fatber sought out the best teachers in 
Frankfurt for bim ; and wben only eight years old he 
was able to write (not of course very correctly) in tbe 
German, French, Italian, Greek, and Latin languages. 


His beauty, his talents, his happy, loveable nature, pro- 
cured him an indulgent freedom rarely granted to 
children, and gave him from his earliest years that self- 
reliance and independence which were characteristic of 
him through Ufe. May we not see in the circumstances 
of Göthe's childhood and youth the explanation of that 
somewhat unsympathetic tranquilHty which has been 
made a reproach to him, and which is, indeed, one of 
the distinct characteristics of his genius ? It has been 
Said that the author of Faust and Wilhelm Meister does 
not appear from his childhood to have feit any but intel- 
lectual emotions. It is a hard saying : I do not wholly 
admit its truth. Still, so much is undoubtedly true that, 
more perhaps than any other great man, Göthe lived by 
and through his intellect. The games of his childhood, 
the passions of his youth, were for him only a series of 
experiences destined to enrich his mind. To see, to 
reflect upon, and to know nature, men, the past, the 
present ; to assimilate all things to himself, or at least 
to put himself in harmony with this great whole, which 
we call the world ; and to seek in this harmony happi- 
ness, wisdom, the Inspiration of the artist, and the 
dream of the poet — such were the aims of Göthe 
throughout his long life. 

The two events which made most impression upon 
him as a child were the earthquake in Lisbon (1755) 
and the Seven Years' War (i 756-1 763). The first, it 
is Said, shook his faith in the mercy and justice of God. 
' Never perhaps ' (as he somewhere writes), ' had the 
demon of terror diffused his shadow so quickly and so 
powerfully over the earth.' The second made him doubt 
the goodness and justice of men.^ 

When the French came and occupied Frankfurt in 
January 1759, they set up a French theatre in the town, 
for which his grandfather, the chief magistrate Textor, 

^ And yet, dazzled by the great qualities of Frederick, during the 
war the boy sided with him against Maria Theresa. 


gave Göthe a free admission ticket. Of this he daüy 
availed himself, much to the discontent of his father, 
although with the consent and approval of his mother. 
At first he understood httle or nothing of what he heard 
— he was only ten years old, — but by degrees he came 
to understand and enjoy both tragedy and comedy ; and 
then arose in him the wish to look behind the scenes, 
and to see how the representations which dehghted him 
were got up. Fortune favoured him by throwing in his 
way, as he loitered about the theatre, awaiting the 
opening of the door, a lad of his own age belonging to 
the Company. The two boys made friends together, 
and Göthe was taken behind the scenes, on to the stage, 
and into the green room. Thus early began his theatrical 

Göthe had written some httle poems before this time, 
but he now for the first time wrote theatrical pieces, 
half allegorical, half mythological. Mercury was his 
favourite character. ' Mercury in particular,' he says, 
' was then so vividly in my mind that I should be ready 
to swear still that I had seen him bodily.' 

The earnestness with which Göthe threw himself into 
whatever he undertook, and the facility with which he 
mastered any subject he worked at, led specialists in 
various lines of thought or research each to regard him as 
a pupil or follower, and to plan out his future for him. 
One would have had ■ him a man of science ; a second 
an artist ; a third a physician ; a fourth a theologian ; a 
fifth a diplomatist ; a sixth a lawyer. His father, how- 
ever, was bent on his adopting law as his profession, and 
thus qualifying himself to hold some high civil office 
in his native town. Accordingly, in 1765, at the age 
of sixteen, Göthe was sent to the University of Leipzig 
to study jurisprudence. 

Some eighteen months before leaving home for Leipzig 
Göthe had made the acquaintance of a girl, whose 
character he has described in the Margaret of Faust. 


He used to spend much of his time during the next 
year in the society of Fräulein von Klettenberg, whose 
letters and conversation were the origin of the Confessiotis 
of a Beaiitifiil Soul, which he afterwards incorporated in 
Wilhelm Meister. He occupied himself, too, with books 
on mysticism — Van Helmont, Paracelsus, and others — 
chiefly because this was a subject that interested Fräulein 
von Klettenberg. Some of the results of these studies 
we see in the early Scenes oi Faust. 

In April 1770 Göthe went to Strasburg to pursue his 
university studies. The town of Strasburg may well 
feel proud of the influenae it exercised upon his genius. 
What happy and inspiring days were those he spent 
there ! The cathedral, the old town, the rieh piain of 
Alsace, the Rhine, which traverses it from one horizon to 
the other, the Vosges Mountains, the Black Forest — all 
enchanted him. And he had friends here too — Herder, 
Lenz, Wagner, Jung Stilling, and Lerse (whose character 
he has described in Götz von BerlicJmigeii). They started 
among themselves a sort of literary and artistic club, ■ 
chiefly, it would seem, for the purpose of studying English 
literature. Shakspere, Ossian, Fielding, Richardson, 
Sterne, Goldsmith, they read with enthusiasm. Herder 
was the leader in those happy meetings. Herder 
is, indeed, Göthe's master. The part which he played 
towards the young poet was at once stern and kind. 
Older than Göthe by five years, Herder carried on his 
education, and helped him to shake off the shackles 
of pedantry and conventionalism. Herder revealed to 
him the philosophy of history, anu showed how the 
great works of poetry and of art are intimately united with 
the social destinies of men, and represent the life of 
nations. Long after, and when at the summit of his 
fame, Göthe still remembered with pleasure those happy 
days at Strasburg, and wrote in his Memoirs : 'I did 
not pass a Single hour with Herder which was not 
instructive and productive for me.' But Göthe stood in 


awe of Herder while he learned from him. ' I most 
carefully concealed from him,' he writes, ' my interest in 
certain subjects which had rooted themselves within me, 
and were by little and Httle moulding themselves into 
form. These were Götz von Berlichingen and Faxest. 
. . . The significant Puppet Show fable of Fatist 
resounded and vibrated many-toned within me. I, too, 
had wandered about in all sorts of science, and had 
early been led to see its vanity. I had, moreover, tried all 
sorts of ways in real life, and had always returned more 
unsatisfied and troubled. Now these things, as well as 
many others, I carried about with me, and delighted 
myself with them during my solitary hours, but without 
writing anything down.' 

At Strasburg, again, we find Göthe in love, this time 
with the daughter of the Pfarrer at Sessenheim — Frede- 
rike. In his affection for women Göthe was constant — 
but ' constant to a constant change.' He loved Frederike 
perhaps more earnestly than he had ever loved before ; 
but he left her, and in time forgot her, as he had for- 
gotten Gretchen in Frankfurt and Aennchen in Leipzig. 

Göthe completed his legal studies in Strasburg, and 
was admitted an advocate in August 1771. He then 
returned to Frankfurt, but in the spring of 1772 he left 
home again, and, at the urgent wish of his father, went 
for a time to the small dull town of Wetzlar. Here it 
was that Councillor Göthe himself had attended the 
sittings of the Rezc/iskanuiiergericht before he had begun 
to practise as an advocate, and hence he maintained 
that Wetzlar was th'=> fittest place in the world to gain a 
more exact knowledge of law procedure. 

In the garden of the village inn of Garbenheim, about 

a mile and a half from Wetzlar, Göthe became acquainted 

I; with Johann Christian Kestner of Hannover. Kestner 

' wrote a description of him, as he appeared to his friends 

at this time, from which I borrow a few extracts : 

' ' . . . He is a true genius, and a man of character, 


possesses an extraordinarily vivid imagination, and speaks 
mostly in Images and similes. . . . He is passionate in all 
his emotions ; exercises, however, often great control over 
himself. His way of thinking is noble ; being very free 
from prejudices, he acts as is pleasing to him, without 
inquiring whether he pleases others, whether it is the 
fashion, whether Convention allows it. . . . He loves 
children, and never wearies of their Company. . . . 
Women he holds in high reverence. In pj-mcipüs he is 
not yet established, — is as yet but striving after a 

Kestner was at the time engaged to be married to 
Charlotte BufF, a cheery, pleasant, true-hearted girl, who, 
when their mother, the pattern of a good housewife, died, 
became a second mother to her eleven brothers and 
sisters. Göthe met Lotte Buff in Wetzlar, and was at 
once attracted by her freshness and naturalness. When 
he watched her in the midst of the numerous flock of her 
brothers and sisters, ordering and disposing everything, 
housewifely, gentle, pure, and tranquil, this feeling of 
attraction deepened into love. May not the Scene, so 
familiär to us all, where Werther first sees Lotte, be, 
like so much eise in the book, a transfer from 
reality ? 

Göthe's peace of mind sufifered greatly at this time : 
the struggle was a hard one between love and renuncia- 
tion. Still, he was true to his friend, true to the girl he 
loved, true to his better seif, and he tore himself away 
from Lotte. But his soul had been stirred to the 
depths by the simple ' ingenue Güte ' of Lotte, in whom 
he could mirror his own personality, and who was 
never to be his. 

Kestner and Lotte were married on the 4th of April 
1773, and the first few weeks that foUowed Göthe spent 
in idling, dreaming, and regretting. He soon roused 
himself, however, for work and endeavour, and two 
months later he sent to the happy married people 


in Hannover the first completed copy of Göt:: 7>on 

' Götz von Betiichifigei!,' writes ^Ir. Hutton, ' is the 
only great production of Göthe's in which a really noble, 
self-forgetful 7!iaH Stands out in the foreground to give us 
a moral Standard by which to measure the meaner 
characters. It is the only great production in which 
awful shadows of remorse haunt the selfish and the guilty.' 

Göthe's next work was Werther (^Leiden des jimgen 
Werthers). Werther is a book that has been much 
praised and much blamed — unjustly blamed, I think. 
Carlyle says, in speaking of it : ' That nameless unrest, 
the blind struggle of a heart in bondage, that high, sad, 
longing discontent, which was agitating every bosom — 
had driven Göthe to despair.' Werther is, indeed, only 
one outcome of the Sturm und Drang Period, — only the 
cry of that dim, deep-rooted pain from which all men of 
a certain age were then suffering. 

To these years — from 1770 to 1775 — belong the 
dramas Clavigo and Stella., the Fragment on the Wan- 
dering Jeiu, the early Scenes of Faust, the verses on 
Prometheus, and some of his most beautiful songs. His 
IjTics and songs are perhaps the most interesting of his 
creations at this time ; it is a souI that sings, — a soul 
that has lived and suffered, but in which all pain is 
calmed and at peace. Innocence, The Calm of the Sea, 
The Sentiment of Aututnn, The Evening Song of the 
Traveller, The King of Thule, — all are poems in which 
the simplicity of German legend is joined to the per- 
fection of art. 

It was in the spring of 1775 that Göthe met ' Lili,' 
speaking of whom in after years he said to Eckermann 
that she was the first woman whom he had deeply and 
truly loved, and that all the affection which moved hini 
in after years was light in comparison with what he had 
feit for her. 

Anna Elisabeth Schönemann (or Lili, as Göthe calls 


her) was the daughter of a rieh banker in Frankfurt, and 
only sixteen years old. Neither her family nor his 
would have approved of their marriage. Her family 
would have regarded it as a mcsalliance, and his family 
would have dreaded a connection with a fine lady and a 
spoilt beauty, such as Lili seems to have been. They 
were engaged for a time ; but Göthe left her, hesitated, 
reflected, — and after reflection gave her up. 

With the year 1775 the first period of Göthe's life — 
his youthful period — comes to a close. 

It was just at this time, in the autumn of 1775, that 
Karl August, the young Duke of Saxe-Weimar, invited 
Göthe to visit him in Weimar, and thither he came in 
November 1775. -^ few months later he was made 
Privy Legation Councillor to the Duke, with a salary of 
1200 thalers (something like ;^i8o) a year, and at the 
same time he was given a garden house for his tem- 
porary residence. The post of Privy Legation Councillor 
was an office with no particular duties, and was obviously 
given to Göthe in order to keep him at Weimar near 
the person of the Duke. 

The friendship of Gothe and Frau von Stein dates 
from this time. She was seven years older than Göthe, 
the wife of Freiherr Von Stein, the Master of the Horse 
to the Duke. She was a refined, graceful, highly-culti- 
vated woman, with a face that Göthe used to say haunted 
him after he had seen her likeness, and long before he . 
had met her. His relation to her he has described as 
' the purest, fairest, truest, in which he ever stood to any 
woman, except his sister.' Frau von Stein's influence 
was, indeed, almost the only pure and good influence 
near him during the first years spent in Weimar ; for 
here was the most imaginative of German youths, — the 
author of Götz, of Werther, of the Kmg of Thule, — 
thrown at the age of twenty-six into the midst of all 
the luxuries and frivoHties, and temptations, of a petty 
German Court. 


The first months at Weimar were spent in a wild 
round of pleasure. Being the Duke's guest, Göthe found 
it hard lo refuse to join in the boisterous doings to which 
he was invited, and in wliich the Duke was leader : in 
the autumn, journeys, rides, shooting-parties ; in the 
winter, balls, masquerades, skating by torchlight, and 
dancing at peasants' feasts. Evil reports flew about 
Germany, — the Court of Weimar had a bad name. 
The friends of Göthe mourned to see him abandon 
himself to noisy and riotous dissipations. — And yet it 
would be a serious error to forget that, after a short 
period of youthful recklessness and revelry, these years at 
Weimar were years of immense toil and of hard ser\ice. 
He devoted himself with industry and enthusiasm to the 
public business ; he made himself acquainted with every 
part of the Duke's territory ; he did his best to de- 
velop its resources ; he opened mines ; he helped to 
disseminate education ; he threw himself with vigour 
into the reconstruction of the tiny army. ' This immense 
practical activity,' writes Professor Dowden, ' in part 
alien to his nature, was balanced by his love for Frau 
von Stein. 1 Göthe returned to literature and art a fuU- 
grown man, instead of the intemperate youth he had 
been, and the fruits of his years of toil are seen, united 
with a purer idealism, in all his later writings ' (in a 
letter written 28th September 1885). 

A combination of causes led up to Göthe's Italian 
journey (September 1786-June 1788), the most moment- 

^ Charlotte von Stein died in the year 1827, at the age of 85. 
Göthe's and Charlotte's friendship was a hfelong, but not an un- 
broken friendship. Between the years 1788 and 1805 they were 
estranged from one another and seldom met ; but during the later 
years of her hfe they were friends once more. When dying, she 
left directions that her funeral procession should go by back streets, 
and not pass Göthe's house, lest seeing it should add to his grief. 
The civil authorities, however, overruled her wish, and the pro- 
cession moved along the familar street. Göthe's grief was silent, 
but not the less real. 


ous period in the history of his intellectual life. His 
desire to complete certain great poetical works which 
he had already thought upon and begun, to disentangle 
his life from the complexities which had entwined them- 
selves around it, to give free course to his impulses 
towards art, above all, a longing to possess his soul in 
peace — contributed together to drive him from Weimar 
to the land which he had yearned for from childhood. 

The larger number of the great works which the 
following period offers to us were composed at Venice, 
at Florence, at Rome, at Naples, and at Palermo. At 
Florence, in the shades of the Cascine, and at Sorrento, 
he wrote some of the happiest scenes of Torquato Tusso, 
— at Rome he completed his Ip/ngeme.^ A whole pro- 
cession of poetic figures filled his imagination. Faust, 
Egmont, Wilhelm Meister accompanied him amid the 
enchantments of Naples and Sicily. It appears to have 
been a time of pure and perfect enjoyment. When, in 
1788, he left Italy to return to Weimar, it was with a 
feeling of regret so strong that he was positively un- 
happy for months afterwards. 

With Iphigenie auf Tattris opens the second period 
of Göthe's dramatic genius ; it reveals in a striking way 
the poet's second manner. In Italy the sight of the 
antique monuments and of the radiant sky which lights 
them up had awakened in him the sentiment of a new 
beauty. To the inspired restlessness of his early writings 

1 The first Act of Tasso had been written in 1780, and Göthe took 
two Acts with him to Italy. Iphigenie, in its earlier prose form, 
was completed before Göthe went to Italy ; he began to dictate it 
on i4th February 1779, and it was acted in Weimar on 6th April 
177g. So in conception it belongs, as Tasso does, to Weimar and 
Frau von Stein ; Frau von Stein is everywhere in it. So, too, in 
Tasso; Antonio, the man of action, and Tasso, the poet, are the two 
sides of Göthe's life in Weimar, which he feels ought to help each 
other, though they often mar each other. All this shows the 
importance of the Weimar years, which, indeed, led on to the 
ardent longing for a purer idealism in Italy. 


there succeeded an enthusiasm for calm and for majesty 
of form. The passionate writer of Weriher, the impetu- 
ous author of Götz von BerlicJiingen, did not fear to 
appear passionless and cold, provided that he realised or 
approached his new ideal of beauty. Did Göthe desire 
to give in Iphigejiie a reproduction of ancient poetry ? 
No, certainly not. This was not his aim. Iphigenie is 
a modern work, above all, a German work. One may 
disapprove of this mingling of the religious philosophy of 
Germany with the memories of Athenian tragedy. But, 
accepting this, how can we fall to admire the marvellous 
beauty of the details, and to be deeply moved at witness- 
ing the struggle between truth and falsehood, which is 
made the prominent feature of the -whole. 

Eginont followed close upon Iphigenie. As the stream 
meets the river, so the characteristics of Göthe's nrst and 
second manner meet in this play. We have the populär 
Scenes füll of life and movement, which recall Götz von 
Berlichingeyi ; and we have the grave lessons, the 
psychological studies, which foretell Faust and IVilhebn 
Meister. Torquato Tusso was published in 1790, the 
same year as the Faust Fragment. We can scarcely 
understand the true character of this work if we do not 
connect it with certain complications of the inner life of 
the writer. Göthe loved these confessions, which were 
for him a means of freeing himself from painful memories 
and cares of mind. Only this time the confession is dis- 
guised with so much art that we are reduced to conjecture. 
Artist and poet as he was, in a society of noblemen and 
courtiers, did he suffer from the contrast 1 Had he 
sufifered simply in thought, by reflection, and, so to speak, 
in an ideal manner ? Or had he, indeed, in reality 
known the painful feelings of his hero .'' Is this play, 
then, a picture of his own life, of the struggle between 
the actual and the ideal, the ill assortment of a passionate 
pcet with the jealous and artificial environment of a 
ccurt .'' 


The Faust Fragment appeared in 1790. the completed 
First Part oi Faust in 1808 ; the Second Part oi Faust 
was not finished until i'S'32,1 the year that Göthe died, 
and not pubHshed until after his death. As I wish to 
speak of the Faiist poem at more length, I shall defer 
all account of it until I have brought to a dose this brief 
sketch of Göthe's life. 

Göthe had returned to Weimar in 1788, and in the 
same year he met and feil in love with Christiane Vulpius. 
Christiane was a girl of humble rank, the daughter of a 
good-for-nothing father, who had deserted his wife and 
children, and left them to live and support themselves as 
best they could. She is described for us as a ' pretty 
girl, with a füll round face, beautiful hair, small nose, 
pouting lips, and little dancing feet.' Later on, in 1806, 
Göthe married Christiane. She was a woman of very 
little education, but she loved Göthe, and she made him 
a good and devoted wife. 

The French Revolution burst upon Europe during the 
closing years of the eighteenth Century. It made a deep 
impression upon Göthe's mind, and several of his slighter 
works were the outcome of his reflections upon it and 
upon the social condition of Europe at the time. The 
happiest of these, and to my mind one of the most 
delightful of Göthe's works, is his idyllic poem, Hermann 
und Dorothea. Somewhat earlier than this the Rojnan 
Elegies were written, and a little later Göthe's version of 
the old German poem Reinecke Fuchs. But the most 
important event of these ten years was the growth of 
Göthe's friendship with Schiller. Their friendship began 
in 1794, and lasted for eleven years — the happiest years 
of Göthe's life. Göthe says of Schiller that ' every week 
he became greater than before ; each timc that I savv 
him he seemed to have gone forward in judgment and 

1 He had hoped to have finished Part II. in August 1831 ; but 
he afterwards broke the seal and kept retouching his manuscript 
until February 1832. 


knowledge.' They both wrote for the Hören and the 
Musenahnaiiach, two periodicals edited by Schiller; and 
they wrote together the Xenien, a series of epigrams 
aimed at the populär writers, the pedants, and the 
poetasters of the day. One strong wish, too, they shared 
in common— the elevation of the German Stage. ' The 
theatre at this time' {i.e. at Weimar in 1801), writes 
Crabbe Robinson, ' was unique ; its managers were 
Göthe and Schiller, who exhibited there the works which 
were to become Standards and modeis of dramatic 
literature.' Perhaps they aimed too high, — they thought 
only of art. Still, he who aims at the sky shoots higher 
than he who means a tree, and undoubtedly their efiforts 
had an ennobling influence on the stage. 

It has been urged, and on good grounds, that, 
although Göthe was stimulated and strengthened by 
Schiller, he remained still the same Göthe, but that 
Schiller's intellectual nature became gradually changed 
and ennobled under the influence of Göthe's friendship. 
They loved one another warmly and sincerely, the)- 
shared the same aspirations, they rejoiced in each other's 
triumphs. If it is sometimes hard to join sympathy for 
Göthe as a man to admiration for him as a poet and a 
thinker, Schiller's friendship seems to come forward to 
protest, and to shield him against any harsh judgment. 

The Venetian Epigrams, several Ballads, and Wil- 
helm Meisters Lehrjahre (begun 1777, finished 1796), 
belong to this period — the second period of Göthe's 
career as a writer. ' I have had occasion,' writes 
Göthe, ' to reflect much upon myself, much upon others, 
much upon the world, and much upon history ; from 
this reflection I have drawn many conclusions, — possess- 
ing, it may be, little novelty ; but it is good to teil them 
after my manner : all this will form a whole in Wilhelm 
Afeisler.^ This romance is, then, a picture of human life 
inspired by the society of the eighteenth Century. It is 
a book often tedious, and sometimes trivial ; but it con- 


tains the beautiful episode of Mignon, and Göthe's 
reflections on the character of Hamlet ; it is, too, one of 
the most important witnesses to the growth of Göthe's 
mind and art. 

Of Göthe's other works the most vvorthy of record 
seem to me his novel the Wahlverwatidschaßen (1809), 
his autobiography Dichttmg tind Wahrheit (1811-1814), 
the Westöstlicher Divan (18 14-18 16), a series of poems 
in Imitation of Arabian and Persian poetry, and Wil- 
helm Meisters Wanderjahre (i 82 1). Göthe was, besides, 
the author of several scientific works, which belong to an 
earHer time (^e.g. the Metamorphose der Pßajizen, begun 
1788, finished 1790, and the Farbenlehre, begun 1797, 
finished 1806), and it is a fact no less wonderful than 
interesting that with scientific men he ranks among the 
most profound and original writers on natural science. 
He at no time, however, took the pains to acquire an 
exact knowledge of the mathematical or physical sciences, 
so that at times, it is said, he failed fully to understand 
his own deductions. 

There is but little eise in Göthe's life which calls for 
notice here, — I will only mention his meeting with the 
great Napoleon at Erfurt in 1808 ; his friendship with 
the passionate and enthusiastic child Bettina Brentano ; 
his acquaintance with Felix Mendelssohn, who, in the 
autumn mornings of 1830, used to play for him selec- 
tions from the great composers, and explain what each 
had done to further his art ; his untiring eagerness and 
perseverance in study and self-culture. Self-culture was, 
indeed, his paramount object through life ; viewed from 
one Standpoint, no life has ever been more selfish ; 
viewed from another, few, if any, lives have benefited 
the world so much as his, Whether Göthe's work would 
have been as great and as uncommon, had his life been 
different and less self-centred, is a question to which I 
unhesitatingly answer — no ; but greatness may, perhaps, 
be bought at too dear a price. 


Göthe died in 1832 with that calm and serenity which 
liis whole life had pursued as its ideal. It was in the 
early days of spring, on the 22d of March : — as the 
shutters of his window kept out the Hght, he asked 
that they might be opened, and his last words were, 
' More light.' 


From the earliest times there have been legends about 
wizards who, in exchange for certain stipulated benefits, 
seid themselves to the Devil, and were afterwards either 
saved from his power by Divine mercy or violently 
carried away by the Devil's messengers. One such 
legend is the legend of Theophilus, which apparently 
arose in the sixth Century in Asia Minor. It is essen- 
tially Oriental in its character. Theophilus, in return for 
the promise of wisdom and wealth, does homage to the 
Evil Spirit in eastern fashion, — he delivers himself up to 
him body and soul ; he is, however, saved in the end by 
the intercession of the Virgin Mary. 

The unreasoning and imaginative spirit of the Middle 
Ages used to point to the most learned and thought- 
ful men of the time as if they had entered into a league 
with the powers of evil, — and in the sixteenth Century 
all the scattered beliefs and suspicions as to learning, 
witchcraft, and diabolical agency took definite form in 
the Faust legend.^ It was built upon the basis of the 
old legend of Theophilus, but with an admi.xture of 
various circumstances and characteristics borrowed from 
later sources. The Faust legend would, indee.d, appear 
to have become a kind of common receptacle for all the 
wonderful and supernatural beliefs of the Middle Ages, 
— of the time that was passing away. 

' See an interesting article headed Faustus, by Mr. Richard 
Garnett, in the Encyclop<sdia Britannica, ed. 1879. 


The Chief difiference between the modern and the old 
legends consists in the salvation of Theophikis, while 
Faustus actually becomes the prey of the Evil Spirit. 
In Göthe's treatment of the story he has returned to 
the old conception, and in the end Faust is saved. 

The Dr. Faustus of the legend has been frequently 
connected with the printer Fust — the companion of 
Gutenberg ; yet, though the first printer may have been 
looked on by many as possessed of magical powers, 
there is not any evidence, beyond the similarity of name, 
that there is a connection between the Dr. Faustus of 
the legend and the printer Fust. On the contrary, the 
Faust legend does not assume definite shape until 
more than a Century after the invention of printing. 

There did, however, actually exist in the sixteenth 
Century a Dr. Faustus, for whom acquaintance with magic 
arts is claimed. This was Johann Faust of Knittlingen, 
a countryman and acquaintance of Melanchthon, with 
whom he spent some time in Wittenberg in the year 
1530. Of him populär tradition teils that in the year 
1525 he rode on a wine-cask out of Auerbach's Keller in 
Leipzig, and a picture representing this occurrence and 
some explanatory verses are still to be seen there. 

The earliest published edition of the Fausf story — 
upon which all later variations were based — appeared at 
Frankfurt-am-Main in the year 1587, with the title, 
History of Dr. Johaitn Faust ^ the far-renowned e^tchanter 
and black artist. In this history Faust, in bis passion- 
ate and eager longing to understand all mysteries and 
all knowledge, makes a covenant with the powers of evil. 
He summons the Devil to appear to him in the depths 
of a woo(J near Wittenberg. The Devil appears in the 
form of a monk ; it is not, however, the Prince of Dark- 
ness himself, but one of his servants, Mephostophiles 
(such is the oldest form of the name). On the condition 
that Mephostophiles shall do for him whatsoever he 
desires during twenty-four years, Faust sells his soul to 


him, and signs the compact with liis blood. And now 
Faust leads a life füll of earthly enjoyment and sensual 
pleasure. Every delight that can gratify sight, hearing, 
taste, is offered to him, and yet, in spite of all seductions 
and allurements, the longing for higher things fiUs his 
soul, and he is often filled with remorse and longing to 
repent, — yet does not repent. At last, in the twenty-third 
year of their compact, Mephostophiles, fearful lest even 
then Faust may escape from his power, brings back to 
life Helen of Troy, and gives her to Faust as his wife. 
The beauty of Helen satisfies Faust's desires, and the 
year passes by. In the last month of the twenty-fourth 
year Faust gives himself up to lamentation and mourning 
and woe ; the last night he spends along with three 
friends in the village of Rimlich near Wittenberg, and 
wams them to live a different life from the life he has 
lived : then follows the end. In the night Mephos- 
tophiles comes, Claims him, and carries away his soul. 
In the morning the mangied remains of Faustus are 
found strewn about the room. Such is the story of the 
Fmist book. I cannot help thinking that the origin of 
the whole story was something like this : — Early in the 
sixteenth Century there lived a leamed scientific man 
named Faustus, a friend of Melanchthon, who, because of 
his learning and knowledge, was suspected of practising 
magic arts, and who unhappily lost his life through the 
explosion of some chemicals with which he was making 

Soon after its appearance in Germany the Faustbuch 
was translated into English, Low German, Danish, and 
French, and it was from the English translation that 
Marlowe took the plot and the incidents of his stränge 
and wonderful play. Several editions or versions of the 
Faustbuch were brought out in Germany between 1587 
and the time when Göthe first thought of writing his 
Faust (i.e. about 1770), and there is a tradition that 
Göthe, when a child, saw a copy of one of these upon 


a little table before the house-door of a bookseller in 
Frankfurt, and bought it for a few kreutzers. There 
was, too, the Volkslied Dr. Faustiis, written in rhymed 
verses of four lines ; and there was the German transla- 
tion of Marlowe's play, Dr. Faustus. This translation, 
or an adaptation of it, was often acted on the German 
stage during the seventeenth Century. Out of this latter 
the Puppet Play of Dr. Faustus was constructed, which 
gradually became altered in various ways by changing 
times and circumstances. It is probable that Göthe saw 
this Puppet Play of Dr. Faustus in his childhood in 
Frankfurt, where wandering bands of players used to 
come to act, especially at fair times. 

Lessing and Müller (called the Painter Müller) each 
wrote a tragedy of Faust., and one of Lessing's friends, 
writing about the lost manuscript after his death, says 
that Lessing's Faust was written at a time when in every 
quarter of Germany a Faust was either being written or 
published. There must have been something in the 
intellectual atmosphere of the day, — some general craving 
for knowledge, some dissatisfaction with the conditions 
of life, which made the legend attractive. Göthe, like 
so many others, turned his thoughts to it ; but he alone 
saw the typical universal dement hidden in it, — he alone 
was able to engraft his own life and the ruling motives 
of all human life upon this wild growth of a former age. 


It was in Strasburg (1770) that the idea of the Faust 
poem first grew up in Göthe. A friend of Göthe — by 
name Jung Stilling — has described him for us at this 
time. ' He was a youth ' (Jung Stilling says) ' füll of the 
joy of life, winning all hearts, and kind, with large clear 
eyes and a broad splendid brow — a beautiful soul in a 
fair body, — Casting, like a god, an irresistible spell over 


all who knew him, and ruling and Controlling without a 
rival his circle of friends, although hc never sought to 
rule or control them.' 

In Wetzlar, too (1772), Faust was often the subject 
of conversation between Göthe and his friends, and the 
poem which Gotter vvrote to him upon receiving a copy 
of Götz V071 Berlichinge7i ends with the words : 

,5d)icf tntr bafür bcin' Dr. ^auft 
Sobalb bctn Kopf '\\\\ aufgebrauft.' 

In the spring of 1775 Göthe had written nearly one-half 
of the First Part, or, to speak more exactiy, he had 
written nearly all that was published in 1790 as the 
Faust Fragment. At this time Göthe went to Weimar, 
when years passed without a Scene or a line being added 
to Faust, and the manuscript must have been yellow 
with age when he took it with him to Italy in 1786. In 
Rome two Scenes were added, and thus was completed 
the Faust Fragment, which really belongs to the time 
before Göthe went to Weimar — to the time before 1775. 
In his conversations with Eckermann Göthe says : 'Faust 
entstand mit meinem Werther, ich brachte ihn im Jahr 
1775 mit nach Weimar.' ^ Thus in 1790 only two- 
thirds of the First Part were finished, and for seven 
years more Göthe added nothing to this. In 1797, 
however, urged on by Schiller, Göthe began once more 
to work at Faust, and during the next eleven years he 
finished Part I. and wrote a considerable portion of Part 
II. It is worth noting in passing, that the second period 
oi Faust activity, though extending from 1797 to 1808, 
mainly hes between 1797 and 1801. In 1808 Part I., 
as we now have it, was published, but Part II. was 
delayed by many causes, — Göthe's Oriental and scientific 
studies, the loss of Schiller, the political convulsions 
which dibturbed Germany after the battle of Jena. In 
1824, when he was already seventy-five years oid, only 
1 Bd. 2, S. 62. 


Acts I. IL and III. had been written. The third Act of 
Part IL, generally called Die Helene^ was published as 
a fragment in 1827, and the interest and admiration it 
excited encouraged Göthe in bis old age to work out the 
whole of bis grand plan, and to complete Part IL On 
2 8th August 1831, on bis eighty-second birthday, Göthe 
finisbed and sealed up the last pages of bis manuscript, 
wbich was not published until after bis death in the 
spring foUowing. 

Thus Faust may be called the work of Götbe's whole 
life. The idea of it began to fill bis thougbts and to 
inspire bim at the age of twenty-one, and it remained 
with bim until the end. The two Parts form one whole, 
and if Part IL would be incomprebensible witbout the 
First Part, Part I. would no less be a fragment witbout 
the Second. Beautiful as the episode of Margaret is, it 
is notbing more than an episode in Faust's life. We 
may sometimes regret that Göthe did not complete the 
Second Part wbile the plan was still fresh, while he was 
still young, and while all bis faculties were in their first 
vigour. Yet, on the otber band, Faust would not then 
have been, what it now is, a record of Götbe's whole life, 
— the storebouse in wbich be garnered up all bis wisdom 
and experience.^ 

If we would rightly comprebend the Faust poem, its 
inner meaning and underlying train of thought, we sbould 
never allow ourselves to forget tbat it was begun in 
Götbe's extreme youth, and at a time wben be, along 
with many others, was filled by a spirit of restlessness 
and of dissatisfaction with the conditions of life. The 
Faust tragedy is indeed the most complete expression of 
the Sttirm und Drang Period. And if, at the same time, 
Faust is the greatest product not only of German 
literature but of the newer German culture, there is, 
surely, bere conclusive evidence what an important place 

1 I give as an Appendix at the end of the volume a brief account 
of the Second Part of Faust. 


Ulis much-abused period should hold in the history of 
modern intellectual life. 

In Faust \ve have the old subjcct of the tragic struggle 
bctween cur innate feeling of infinity and oiir conscious- 
ncss of human finiteness, — only more deeply reflccted 
on, and reflected on after a newer fashion. We would 
know all, and do all, and experience all, and we cannot ; 
the spirit is willing, but the tiesh is weak. Werther's 
sclf-consuming sensitiveness, his Prometheus-like spirit 
of defiance, shows itself in Faust as a passionate protest 
against dead learning and dead records, as a strong 
desire for fulness and completeness of life that will not 
be Stilled and will not be suppressed. Were it possible 
to describe in a sentence the spirit of the Faust poem, 
it would be in those few words, in which Göthe sums up 
the hopes and aspirations of his own life — 

(litis Dotn Balbcn 311 ciittDÖbncit, 
lliib im (Sattjcn, C5utcn, Sdjöiicu 
Hcfolut 511 Icbcti.'i 

The legend oi Dr. Faustus, a child of tlie Reformation, 
was, indeed, of exclusively theological bearing. True, 
in it Faust is already a learned man, with a mind pre- 
sumptuous and proud, who wishes to search out the 
causes of all things in heaven and earth. But the 
motive of his pride of knowledge is in the legend 
degraded and degrading. Faust closes a bargain with 
the Powers of Evil solely that he may through magic 
arts shine before the crowd, and the edifying end of his 
history is, that the sinner at last, in punishment of his 
audacity, is sent into the everlasting pains of Hell. Nor 
had the Puppet Play of the populär stage, which first of 
all worked upon Göthe's imagination, got beyond this 
conception. Even in Marlowe's Dr. Faustus, great as 
this play undoubtedly is, Faust remains unforgiven, and 

^ Generalbcichtc : see the Gesellige Lieder, vol. i. p. 129, of 
Goet/ie's Werke, ud. 1827. 



is seilt into eternal suffering. The transforming into 
tragedy of our desire of the knowledge of good and evil 
is the invention of Göthe's genius. But the legend 
afforded to Göthe not only the firm foundation of given 
situations and characters, it offered him besides the 
priceless advantage of that twihght background, half 
mystic, half real, on Avhich alone the sway of passion and 
demoniac influence could have possibility of development 
and could command credibility. 

From the first \ve stand in the midst of the story. 
The Dedication, The Stage Prehiäe, The Prologue 
in Heaven, which now open the poem, belong to the 
enlarged edition of 1808, and are wanting to the Faust 
Fragment of i 790, which begins with the first monologue. 
This passionate soliloquy, though at times lyrical in 
form, is throughout füll of vivid dramatic progress. As 
in every great dramatic poem, the first Scene foreshadows 
the future development of the story. Undoubtedly this 
monologue is the earliest portion of the Fmist poem. 

It is night, the lamp burns dimly ; Faust, in his 
narrovv, high-arched, Gothic room, sits in an armchair at 
his desk. Long suppressed, and therefore all the more 
passionate, there struggles forth from his heart a cry of 
despair at the deceptiveness and imperfection of human 
knowledge. All branches of learning he has studied 
with untiring effort, and now he is as wise as before, and 
only feels that we can know nothing. In his unsatisfied 
desire for knowledge he grasps at the wonder-working of 
magic, in the hope that, through the power of some 
spirit, the secrets of nature may be revealed to him — 

,VOo faff x&i bid/, unenbltdjc Hatitr ? 

(£ud) Srüftc, tDO ? yc[X (QucIIctt alles £cbcns, 

1\\\ bcncii f^immcl itnb (Srbc l^ängt, 

Pal]tn btc tDcIfc Bntft [idj brängt — 

yc[\i quellt, tljr trän!t, unb fdjmad^t' tdj \o »ergcbcns ? ' 1 

LI. 455-459- 
1 • You gush forth, you offer drink, and I languish unsatisfied.' 


And now Faust imagines that the living forces of nature 
arc present with him ; but, unsatisficd, or satisficd only 
for an instant, he turns away — 

,lUoIit' Sdjaufpicll aber a(b, ciit Sdniufpicl nur!' 

Filled with grief at his want of power to bear the world's 
sorrows and joys. Faust next calls to his aid the Spirit 
of the Earth ; but he is only hurled back more rudely 
into the consciousness of his own nothingness. The 
Spirit of Earth speaks — 

,T>n aicicfift bciu (Seift, bcu bu becjrctfft, 
llidit mir!' 

LI. 512, 513. 
Faust Starts and shudders — 
IPctn bcnti ? 

3dj, €benbtlb i)er (Sotttjcit ! 
llnb ntdjt einmal bir 1 ' 

LI. 514-517. 
With fine artistic feehng Göthe now introduces the 
conversation with Wagner, Faust's disciple. We have 
here the contrast between the unsatisfied desire for more 
living, more spiritual knowledge,i and the dark, dead 
learnedness which is occupied with all kinds of external, 
tangible science, which attains results and is satisfied 
with them. 

It is easy to teil what were the influences which led 
to the conception and production of this Scene. On the 
one band, in the magical conjuring of spirits through the 
power of human genius, we see the impatient wish to 
find fulness and completeness of knowledge ; on the 
other band, in the crushing answer of the Spirit of the 
Earth we see the influence of the teaching of Kant as to 
the unknowableness of the nature of things, which had 

^ The knowledge which is so grandly described in one of our 
Collects : ' In knowledge of Whom standeth our cternal life. ' 


stamped itself on Göthe's mind diuiny his intercourse 
with Herder in Strasburg. 

So far the explanation of the character of Faust, which 
Göthe himself gives us. With it the Fragment of 1790 
breaks off, only to resume the thread of the story again 
after the bargain between Faust and Mephistopheles has 
been already agreed to and sealed. The Scenes which 
now fill in these gaps in the Faust Fragment (see text, 
II. 606-1770) were inserted in their completeness for the 
first time in the edition of 1808, and were for the most 
part written in 1797-98. Although Göthe had meantime 
outgrown the opinions and passed beyond the intellectual 
Standpoint which he held when he first conceived the 
poem, these Scenes preserve throughout the same original 
train of thought, while they yet elevate and widen the 
action. Their aim is, through an inevitable necessity of 
his nature, to lead Faust to his despairing compact with 

What now remains for the daring stormer of heaven 
after the crushing Donnerivor-t of the Spirit of the 
Earth ? 

,Dcn (Söttern gictdj' idj nid^t 1 §u tief ift es gcfül^lt ; 
Dem lüurine cjleidf tdi, ber ben Staub t>nrdju)ül|It, 
X)cn, xoxt er fidj im Staube näbrenb lebt, 
Des IDatibrcrs Critt Deriiidjtct unb begräbt.' 

LI. 652-655. 

The thought of suicide now urges itself upon him, — 
not indeed through the desire of cowardly self-annihila- 
tion, but through the desire with a brave heart to destroy 
the miserable material hindrances which separate him 
from the consciousness and knowledge of the truth — 
,3d? fül]le mid? bereit 

2tuf ticuer "^okiw ben 2letl^cr 3U burdibnngcn 

§u neuen Spt^ären reiner <Il]ättgfett. 

Dies t|oI]c £ebcn, btes (Sötterroonnc ! 

Du, crft nodi lüunn, unb bic oerbicncft bu? 


^ci, teljrc mir ^cr I^ol^cu (£r!)cnfoniic 
(Entfdiloffcn bcincn i\üc!cn 511 1 
Pcrmcffc i>idi bic pforten auf^m-cifjcu, 
Por bcitcn jcbcr gern riorübcrfdjlciclit 1' 

LI. 703-711. 

It is, I think, most impressive and suggestive that it 
is the passing sound of church bells and of the Easter 
hymn which hinders the taking of this last grave step. 
With what consoling power the Choir praise the Risen 
One, the Master, who is near to all who act and love. 
And how forcibly is awakened in the despairing man the 
gracious memory of Sabbath stillness and prayer, and of 
the merry games of the joyous spring festival — 

,Dtc ^\\v'dm quillt, bic €rl)e hat midj tpicbcrl' 

The Scenes which immediately follow — the walk out- 
side the town gate, and the grave monologue, in which 
Faust seeks to translate into his mother tongue the 
foundation text of the New Testament, ' In the beginning 
was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the 
Word was God,' stand in the dosest connection with the 
Scene that goes before. 

Those happy holiday-makers on the Easter Sunday 
afternoon — types of dififerent ranks, sexes, and ages — 
play the same part in the poem that they play in real 
life. Here are the servant-girls and their sweethearts, 
the students and the Citizens' daughters, the beggar, the 
soldier, the fortune-teller — all absorbed in and engrossed 
by the amusement or the interest of the passing hour. 
And it is only the grotesque side of this happy, limited 
life that we see in Wagner as he walks by Faust's side, 
longing to be back at his books and parchments, away 
from this fiddling and shouting and nine-pin playing. 

Very gladly would Faust be a man along with men ; 
but how can his high-aspiring feeling of infinity confinc 
itself within this common life of earth ? It is significant 
that here for the first time Mephistopheles Steps in, — 


Mephistopheles, like lago in his disbelief of goodness, 
and his cold sneers at everything elevated ; and yet not 
a plagiarism from lago, but a true demon and no man, 
in his passionless malice, in his disinterested love of 
evil for its own sake. The ' archangel ruined ' of Milton 
retains fine traits of character, which interest us against 
our will ; while in Mephistopheles no trace of good 
appears, and the base uses to which he puts his powei-- 
ful intellect destroy all its fascinating effects on the niind. 
Milton draws Lucifer in the hour of his fall, with the 
lingering rays of light not yet faded from his wings. 
Göthe depicts an inferior rebel, after ages of debasement 
have destroyed all traces of his pristine State. ^ 

In the Scene that follows we feel how gladly Faust 
Avould turn back again to the pious, childlike simplicity 
of unquestioning faith ; but how can he, after that all 
kinds of doubt have already wrestled in his soul ? 

. . , ,,3ni Einfang xvav bas IPort," 
fjicr ftocf tdj fdjon ! . . . 
3dj fann i>as Wovt fo I-jodj uninöglidj fd/ät3cu ; 
. . . ,,3'" Einfang roax bcr Sinn." 
3ft es bcr Sinn, bcr alles tDtrft unb fdjafft ? 
. . . ,,3ni ^Infant} voav bic Kraft." ' 

LI. 1224-1233. 

But what is power without realisation and fulfilment .'' 
This is not humility and childlike Submission : it is 
the proud consciousness of inalienable freedom of Will. 
For Faust to go back is impossible. 

1 'Though Mephistopheles is evil relatively,' vvrites Professor 
Dowden, ' yet in Göthe's optimism he is only evil as a part of a 
great whole, which is good, and so he is overruled by God for 
Faust's good, stimulating him as a spirit of unrest and negation, 
to go from one ideal to another in search of the Highest, while he 
is trying to draw Faust down — but in vain. ' — In a letter written 
28th September 1885. In this I wholly agree, believing as I do, 
tcrrible as the trutli is, that the existence of evil in the World works, 
on the whole, for our good. 


Faust goes forth out of the martyrdom of his study into 
the wide world, out of lonely self-conlemplation (or, as 
Mephistopheles expresses it, ' vom Kribskrabs der Ima- 
gination ') into busy, active life. ' All thcory, dear friend, 
is gray,' Mephistopheles moralises ; ' the golden tree of 
life alone is green. . . . A wretch who speculates is like 
an animal on a barren moor — led hither and thither by 
an evil spirit, while all around lie fair, fresh fields.' It 
is the Crossing over from speculation to experience. 
Freed from all restraints, Faust will trj^ what life is. 
The struggle with life is all the harder, in proportion as 
it is undertaken with more determined resolve to arrive 
at truth. 

It was a difficult but almost indispensable task for 
Göthe to make dear to us the revolution that had taken 
place in Faust's manner of thought and purpose in life. 
In a letter to Schiller in March 1800, he speaks of this 
as a gap that had yet to be fiUed in the Faust poem. 
As a matter of fact there is no sufficient explanation 
given, and possibly Göthe found that such an explanation 
lay beyond the limits of poetic representation. But if 
so, all the more was it needful for the poet to show us 
that the total change in Faust's conduct was the inevit- 
able result of a total change of mind. Hence that 
famed monologue of curses in which Faust laughs to 
scorn not only all phantoms and illusions, not only all that 
has to do with jugglery or magic, but also all the most 
essential and real of life 's blessings — fame, home, fidelity 
to wife and child, love, hope, faith, patience — followed 
by the heart-breaking confession of complete disillusion — 

,3d) \^_<\ht midi jU bodi gebläl^t, 
~Sn beineu i\ano; gehör id) nur : 
Per tjvo^c (Seift hat tntd) rerfdimäbt, 
Vox mir pcrfdiliefjt fidi bie Hatur. 
Pes Jcnfcns ^o^>^\\ ift jcvriffen, 
mir efclt lange ror allcni lüiffen.' 


,£af5 ttt bcn {liefen ber Stnnlidjfcit 
Uns g[ül|cnbe Seibcnfdjaftcn ftillcit.' 

,5tür3en unr uns in bas Hanfdjcn ber §cit, 

3ns Hollen ber Becjebenfieit I 

Da mag benn 5d]nier3 unb (SenuJ5, 

(Selingcn unb Perbni§, 

2nit einanbcr ipcdifeln, n^ic es fann ; 

Hur raftlos betl^ätigt fidj ber lUann.' 

LI. 1744. 1759. 

One feels as Faust utters these words that he goes too 
far, and that Impulse hurries him on. Faust does not 
give up ideaHsm, but remains the same restless ideahst 
that he was before ; he only carries over his idealism 
into new circles of activity. 

It is at this stage that Faust makcs his agreement 
with Mephistopheles. Göthe has borrowed this incident 
from the Faust legend, but has fundamentally enlarged 
it. The two souls which dwell in Faust — the sensual 
realistic soul, which clings to earth ; and the idealist 
soul, striving upward out of commonplace reality, display 
themselves in co-operation and yet in contrast, now that 
Faust Steps forth from the seclusion of speculation into 
a life of action. Faust binds himself to Mephistopheles, 
that is, lets loose passion, not in order to live in shallow 
enjoyment of life, and to lose his real seif, but as the 
earnest thinker, who, after he has outgrown the unprofit- 
able wisdom of the schools, wishes to be filled and 
permeated with fresh feeling and experience. For Faust 
sensuality and passion are not ends, but only means, of 
gaining knowledge : Faust can only fall into Mephis- 
topheles' power if he has revolted from himself— 

,lPcrb' idj Iicrnl]ic3t je mid? auf ein Af'anibctt legen, 
So fei es cjicidj nin ntidj gctban 1 
Ifannft bn niidj fdjnieidjelnb je belügen, 


l)a% idj mir fclbft gefallen mag, 
Kantift bu muli mit (Scttufj Iictvügcu : 
Das fei für midj bcr letjte (Lag !' 

LI. 1692-1697. 

Here we return again to the Fmist Fragment of 1790 ; 

it begins immediately after the bargain has been Struck 

with the words — 

,llnb voas ber gaitjcu llIcnfAlicit jugctlicilt ift 
lUill idj in meinem inncrn Selbft genief^en, 
Hut meinem (Seift bas ßodjft' unb (Eieffte greifen, 
3br il-''obI unb lüeb auf meinen 23ufen Kinfen 
llnb fo mein eigen Selbft 5U ibrent felbft ermeitern 
llnb u'ie fie felbft am lEnb audj idi jerfdjeitern.' 

LI. 1770-1775. 

The tragedy of knowledge becomcs a tragedy of Hfe. 

Now especially is it clear that Faust is the twin brother 
of Werther, although certainly more manly and more 
capable of action. In Faust, too, Hves the secret desire 
to which Werther so finely gives expression : * Ah, hovv 
often have I longed to fly with the wings of the stork 
that flew over me — to the shores of the boundless ocean, to 
drink the welling joys of life from the foaming cup of the 
Infinite, and to feel only for one moment in the limited 
powers of my breast a drop of tlie happiness of that 
Being who creates all things through and for Himself.' 

Only collective humanity lives a complete life ; and 
it is at once the surpassing greatness and the tragic 
guilt of Faust, that he resolves to be what German 
thinkers call ' der Universal Mensch,' that is, to feel and 
know all that humanity can feel or know. 

The poet has been careful from the outset to show 
distinctly the tragic guilt of his hero. Faust asks with 
Indignation : * What am I then, if it is not possible to 
win the crown of humanity, towards which all my feel- 
ings and senses aspire?' Mephistopheles answers : 
' Thou art in the cnd what ihou art. Place on tliy hcad 


a wig of a thousand ringlets, set thy feet on stilts a yard 
high, thou remainest still what thou art. Believe mc, 
completeness belongs only to a God.' And the incom- 
parable Scene with the Student, in which Mephistopheles 
ruthlessly exposes the weaknesses and failings of science — 
it, too, ultimately teaches moderation and self-restraint — 

,X)tr tDifb gciDt§ einmal bei beincr (Sottäl-jnlidjfett bange' 

It is the purpose of the Fmist poem to represent the 
whole varied vvorld of active life. Because Faust in his 
unlimited idealism strives to be ' der Universal Mensch,' 
he can find no füll satisfaction in any one single occupa- 
tion in life ; again and again disappointed, he must pass 
through every phase of life. Thus the poem inevitably 
falls into a long series of separate pictures, or rather of 
separate tragedies. 

Faust's new life begins with the Scene in Auerbach's 
cellar. It is one of the earliest Scenes that Göthc 
wrote. Füll of boldness and humour though it be, 
considered as a part of the whole composition, it is a 
retarding, disturbing element. It had a meaning as 
long as the picture of the Easter holiday-makers was 
wanting — that is, it had a meaning and importance in 
the Faust Fragment of 1790, but not in the Faust of 
1808. Now it only says the same over again that the 
former Scene had said more gracefully and poetically — 
namely, how thoughtlessly the crowd lives on, occupied 
with small interests and trivial pleasures. 

The series of tragedies demanded by the idea of the 
poem opens with the Gretchen episode. — The satis- 
faction which thought had not supplicd to Faust is to 
be secured to him by sensual pleasure — 
,Dcs Dcn!cns ^abcn tft jcrriffcn, 
mir efclt lange r>or allem IPiffen. 
£af5 in bcn ütcfen ber Sinnlidifcit 
Uns glül^enbe Scibenfdjaftcn ftillen.' 

LI. 1748-1751. 


But now arose the difficulty that the hero of tlie suc- 
cceding Scenes must be one capable of enjoying life, 
while the same hero in the early Scenes had been a 
lonely ihinker, harrowed by grief, and grown old before 
his time. Hence the Insertion of the mad Scene in the 
Witches' Kitchen, when the drinking of the Witches' 
brew takes away thirty years from Faust's frame and 
age. What was fantastical could only be obviated by 
what was fantastical.^ 

Gothe wrote this Scene in 1788, in the gardens of the 
\^illa Borghese outside Rome, at a time when his mind 
was thoroughly possessed by the beauty and ineffable 
grace of ancient art. Perhaps, therefore, the very con- 
trast between his strong a^sthetic feehng and the character 
of the subject which occupied him led him to give to 
the latter the coarsest and ugliest expression. 

It is well known that the Gretchen tragedy is one of 
the oldest component parts of the Faicst poem ; the 
Fragment of 1790, however, only carries the action on 
to the Scene in the Cathedral {i.e. Scene xix. of this 
edition). The murder of Valentine, the Walpurgis Night, 
the Dungeon Scene, belong to the edition of 1808. 

Careless and bold Faust begins this new chapter of 
his life ; but soon he finds again his better seif. It is 
füll of poetry and of truth to nature, how he is inwardly 
touched, and shrinks from his crime, when he looks in 
upon the quiet happiness in which the girl lives and 
moves — 

, Umgibt niidj l]icr citt gaiibcrbuft ? ' 

Margaret is one of the most pathetic crcations in 
literature. Ignorant, uneducated, she uses none but the 
simplest words, and sometimes speaks ungrammatically ; 

^ The Scene in the Witches' Kitchen has no connection with tho 
Fattsl legend. The motive of its introduction is of course the 
making Faust young again ; but Göthe, with a wilfulness not seldoni 
manifested in his life, seems also to have intended to ridicule here 
the whole theory of witchcraft and its use in literature. 


artlessly vain, yielding to persuasion, and finally led to 
deceit, infamy, crime, and madness, she is at once real 
in her words and ways, and ideal in her embodiment of 
simple womanhood. It is said that nothing in all 
literature moved George Eliot more than the pathetic 
Situation and the whole character of Gretchen. It 
touched her more than anything in Shakspere.^ German 
critics try to make Margaret typical of many things ; but 
she will always remain, what Göthe intended her to be, 
simply a woman, and nothing more. 

Unembarrassed, the girl has shortly and briefly 
repelled the stranger who ventured to offer her his arm 
and his escort as she came down the Cathedral steps ; 
but inwardly her thoughts are busied about him, and we 
hear the unconscious echo of awakening love in her 
dreamy song about the King of Thule's faithfulness (see 
text, p. 123, Scene viii., 11. 2759-2782). 

Then foUows the walk in the garden, the self-revela- 
tion and discovery of two hearts overflowing with love, — 
a Scene füll of the simple and pure happiness of love, 
and all the more beautiful because of the contrast 
offered by the conversation between Mephistopheles and 

We watch the risc and growth of Faust's passion in 
the solemn soliloquies in the Forest and in the Cave. 
How he shudders at the thought of undermining the 
peace of the girl he loves, and how he longs to be free 
from his dissolute comrade ; and how the unrestrainable 
desire rises up again and again within him ! We watch 
the rise and growth of passion not less in Gretchen, 
whose suppressed emotion finds utterance in that most 
lovely of love songs : ' Mein Ruh ist hin ' (see text, p. 
155, Scene xiv., 11. 3374-3413)- 

Next follows the Strange and grand Scene in which 
Gretchen, in the midst of her innocent loving chatter, 

^ See Life of George Eliot, ed. by her husband, J. W. Gross, vol. 
iii. p. 421. 


cjuestions Fanst about his religion, and he speaks out his 
confession of faith in words that stamp themselves never 
to be forgottcn in the memoiy of cveiy reader capable 
of comprehcnding and measuring their force and mean- 
ing. And there is a boldness and significance peculiar 
to the highest genius in the fact that it is at this time, 
immediately after the dose intercourse of soul with soul, 
that the fall into moral guilt takes place. 

The Gretchen tragedy becomes a social tragedy. 
The inevitable reaction follows. Terrible and unpity- 
ing, the injured spirit of the home and of the family takes 
vengeance. Nowhere eise has Göthe placed himself so 
close by Shakspere's side as in the Scenes that follovv. 
What a terrible progression is there in their rapid suc- 
cession ! The talk at the well, and the gnawing pain 
of conscience in Gretchen's heart ; her prayer to the 
Virgin — 

,2ld} neige, 

Du Sdiincrjcnvcidic, 

Dein 2lntlit3 cjuäbig meiner Hotb !' 

I'I- 3587-3589- 
The foreboding, füll of anguish, of what the world's 
judgment will be — 

,31ir Zlntlttj tDcnben 
Derflärtc von bir ah. 
Die fjänbc bir 5U rcidien, 
Sd^auert's bcn Heinen ! 

LI. 3S28-3S32. 

Then her share in the deaths of mother and brother ; 
last of all the drowning of her child in her frantic despair, 
and the final Scene in the Dungeon. Who blames the 
poor girl for not following Faust when he comes to save 
her from the sentence of death, which is not her due ? 
Is it Tiot an act of virtue that she will not foUow him, 
choosing rather to suffer, and be saved through suffering ? 


Here we stand at the conclusion of the First Part of 
the Faust poem, — I shall add a few words as to the 
additions found in the version of 1808. The poetic 
prefaces, namely, The Dedicaiion, The Stage Preliide, 
The Prologue in Heaven, come from the very heart of 
poetry — above all, The Prologue in Heaven. It is 
wonderful how the poet was able to reason with such 
conscious clearness upon the foundation thought of his 
youthful poem, and to put this reasoning upon the 
deepest questions of human existence into such sharply- 
defined form. — The judgment to be i^assed upon the 
wandering of Faust and MeiDhistopheles on the Brocken 
on the Walpurgis Night rests on a different basis. The 
motive of the Scene is indeed clear, — in coarse and 
degrading dissipation Faust's conscience had to be 
blunted and dulled. But why was this fantastic farce 
prolonged to so great a length, and overburdened with 
satiric allusions to the fleeting subjects of the day ? And 
why is the Interlude of Oberon's and Titania's Golden 
Wedding introduced here, a poem which had been 
originally intended for a very different purpose ?^ The 
waywardness and inartistic wantonness of this portion of 
the poem have been justly blamed ; and these uncon- 
nected interludes are all the more disturbing since they 
come at the very close of the Gretchen tragedy, just 
when our sympathies are strained to the utmost, as we 
await the fatal end. 

What is most exceptional and most powerful in the 
Faust tragedy is, that it does not merely grapple with 
this or that riddle of human life, but lays hold upon the 
very heart of human tragedy, namely, the irreconcilable 
contradiction in our nature, which strives to reach upward 
to heaven, and which yet is bound fast within earthly 
limits. And the depth and width of this foundation 
thought attain unequalled completeness of expression 

^ It was originally intended to be a continuation of the Xenien 
Kampf \\\ Schiller's Musenalmanach ; sce above, p. xxiii. 


through the power and might of the poet's fancy and 
force of language. 

In Proportion as the purport of the Faust poem was 
more significant and all-embracing, the more natural was 
it that Göthe should feel himself, so to speak, spellbound 
within its circle, and should return again and again to 
add to and enlarge it. Already, at the tinie when the 
present form of the First Part appeared, there were in 
existence many beginnings and jottings down of the 
continuation and enlargement he had planned, while the 
incidents of the series of separate tragedies demanded 
by the subject of the poem were conceived and realised 
at intervals throughout his whole life. 

There was need, as Göthe himself once expressed it, 
to raise the hero out of his sphere of sorrow and miser)-, 
and to guide him into higher regions and worthier 
relationships. But it is certain that Göthe, while he 
was still in the füll freshness of his poetic power, saw in 
the clearest way that the immensity of the subject of the 
Faust tragedy, in the sense of a symbolical, common 
tragedy of humanity, must remain for ever opposed to 
the firm setting of a perfect self-contained work of art. 

When Göthe, in June 1797, announced to Schiller his 
Intention of again taking up the Faust poem, Schiller 
wrote to him : ' I grow giddy when I think of the wind- 
ing up ; what makes me anxious is, that from its nature 
your Faust appears to supply an infinity of material — 
how will it be when the whole has to be worked out ? 
For a mass of subject-matter which swelh up so high 
and juts out so wide I find no circle large enough to 
keep it within bounds.' Göthe replied : ' Your remarks 
as to Faust delighted me ; they accord excellently with 
my purposes and plans, — only that I expect to make my 
work at this barbarous composition less difficult, and 
rather to quiet exorbitant demands than to fulfil them. 
The whole will always remain a fragment.' 

The füll completion of the Faust poem is impossible. 


because never can the moment arrive in which man's 
longing for perfection and infinity shall niingle and 
blend with his sense of actual limitation and finality. 
In his old age Göthe became untrue to this belief. The 
Second Part of Faust offers itself not only as a continua- 
tion, but as a completion and conclusion. But this pro- 
posed conclusion is not a crowning of the high-soaring 
structure, it is only an insufficient, temporary roofing in. 

Yet if the Faust poem cannot be considered perfect 
as a work of art, it is none the less in my judgment the 
greatest work in modern literature ; and this not merely 
from an aesthetic, but also from a moral Standpoint. It 
is not only a great poem, it is likewise a God-sent 

Looking at the two Parts of Faust as embodying the 
results of Göthe's whole wisdom of life, the lesson taught 
seems to me the duty of incorporating our ideal desires 
with practical activity, and so of limiting them, at least 
provisionally. Faust, at the end of Part II., draining a 
marsh and reclaiming from the wild sea a piece of land 
for happy human beings, is Faust, the Idealist, who 
leaves his study in Part I., now educated for putting this 
life to highest uses. Yet, though limited, his ideal 
cravings are not finally enclosed and shut up from end- 
less Progression, and so he ascends heavenward through 
ever higher and purer efiforts to the highest Love. 

3f]i' nal\t end] roicbcr, fdircanfenöc (Seftalten, 
i)io frül] fid] einft beut trübcit Blid gcjcigt. 
Der jud] xd] wol ciid] diesmal fcft 311 halten ? 
5üH id] mein I^ers nod^ jcitcm IPal^n geneigt ? 
3Iir brängt eud^ 5U ! llun gut, fo mögt il]r uralten, 
Wie xhc ans T^unft iinb Hebet um mtd] fteigt ; 
2Ttein Bufen füMt fid] jugenMid] erfdiüttert 
Dom öciuberljaud], ber euren ^ug umroittert. 

3f^r bringt mit eud| bie Bilöcr froljer tEage, 
Unb mandie liebe S<i}atten fteigen auf ; 
(Sleid] einer alten, I^albüerflungnen Sage, 
Kommt crfte £ieb' unb 5r<?unbfdxift mit berauf ; 
"Der 5dimer3 toirb neu, es irieberl^olt bie Klage 
Des Cebens labyrintbifd] irren €^auf, 
Hnb nennt bie (Suten, bie, unt fd-jöne Stunben 
Dom (SIü(f getäufd]t, üor mir Iiimr>eg gcfd^ujunben. 

Sie liören nidjt bie folgenben (5efänge, 
Die Seelen, benen id] bie erften fang ; 
öerftoben ift bas freunblid]e (Sebränge, 
Derflungen, ad\ l ber erfte IDieberflang. 


Znein Cetb ertönt bcr unbcfannten lITenge, 
3f]r Beifall fclbft mad\t meinem fersen bang ; 
Unb was fid] fonft an meinem Cieb erfreuet, 
Wann es nod] lebt, irrt in öer IDelt serftreuet. 

Hnb mid) ergreift ein längft entroötintes Seltnen 

Zlad\ jenem füllen emften (Seifterreid] ; 

(£5 fd]tDebet nun in unbeftimmten Conen 

TXlc'm lispelnb £ieö, ber 2(eol5l]arfe gleid] ; 

€in 5d]auer fa§t mid], Cl^räne folgt öen Cl^ränen, 

Das ftrenge f^ers es fül^lt fid] milb unb roeid] ; 

Was id] befi^e feE^' id] toie im IPeiten, 

Unb voas Dcrfdiroanö toirb mir 3U IPirflid^feiten. 

Porfpiel auf bewx Cl^eatcr. 

Dtrcctor. Sf^catcrbtdjter. litfttge pcrfon. 


3I]r Beiden, tixe xhv mir \o oft 

^n Zlotii uni> Crübfal beigcftanben, 

Sagt, was tfir vool in öcutfdunt Canben 35 

Doli unjrer Untcrncbtniing I^offt ? 

3d] n?üii[d]tc [du- i?cr 2Tlonge 5U bebagcn, 

^efoiiöcrs weil \\c lebt uiiö loben läjgt. 

Vk Pfoften fin^, bie Bretter aufgcfdilagen, 

Hitt» jedermann crtoartet fid) ein 5^ft. 40 

Sie fi^cit \d]on mit liol]en 2tugenbrauncn 

(Sciafi'cn ba uitc) möditen gern erftaunen. 

3d] tceiß lüie man öen (Seift öes Volfs »erfölint, 

Vod] fo »erlegen bin id] nie gen?efen ; 

öu^ar finb fie an bas ^efte nidit geiüöl^nt, 4S 

2IIIein fie haben \d)vedl\d} üiel gelefen. 

XDie maduni »ir's, ba^ alles frifd] unb neu 

Unb mit Bedeutung audi gefällig fei ? 

Denn freilid] mag id] gern bie Zllenge feben, 

IPenn fid] bor Stront nad] iinfrer Bube brängt, 50 

llnb mit geit>altig uneborbolten Hieben 

Sid] burd] bie enge (Snabenpforte su^ängt, 


'Bei I^ellcm Cagc, \d\on vov Vxevcn, 

TXixt Stößen fid] bis an bxe Kaffc ftdit, 

Unb vok in f^uitgcrsnotl^ um Brot au Bäcfertl^üren, 55 

Hm ein Billct fid] faft bk iiälfc brid]t. 

5)ie5 JDunber voivft auf fo ücrfd^icbne Ceute 

X>ei: i)id]ter nur ; mein 5rcunb, 0, tlju es I^eute ! 


fprid] mir nid]t Don jener bunten 2T{enge, 

53ei bereu 2lnbli(f uns bcr (Seift cntflielit. 60 

PerIjüIIe mir bas toogcnbe (Sebränge, 

T)as roiöer lüillen uns 5um Strubel sielet. 

Hein, fül^re mxd\ sur ftitlen fjimmelsenge, 

Wo nur bem Did]ter reine 5reube blül]t ; 

Wo £ieb' unb 5reunbfd]aft unfres fjersens Segen es 

Znit (5ötterl^anb erfd]affen unb erpflegen. 

2Id) ! voas in tiefer Bruft uns ta entfprungen, 
IDas fid] bie Cippe fd)üd]tern corgelallt, 
tni^ratl^en jefet unb je^t üielleid]t gelungen, 
Perfd^Iingt bes toilben ^tugenbticfs (5eu?alt. 70 

0ft roenn es erft burd] 3<J^J^<? burd^gebrungeji, 
€rfd]eint es i)t »ollenbeter (Seftalt. 
IDas glänst, ift für bex\ 2tugenbIi(J geboren ; 
Vas <£<iik bleibt bcr rtad]a?elt unoerloren. 

Cuftige perfon. 

tDenn 'xd\ nur nid^ts r»on rtad]u?elt I-jörcit foUte ! 75 
(Sefe^t ba^ xd] voxx XXad}wdt reben u?olIte, 
IDer mad^te beim ber lTcitir>eIt Spa^ ? 
Den u>ill fie bod] unb foU ilin I^aben. 


Die (Scqcmcart von ciuciii In*a»en Knaben 

3ft, bäd]V \d}f immer and} fd]on if as. 80 

IVct fid] bobaglidi mitsntbeilen wc\\], 

T^ax ivirb c»es Polfes Caune nid]t erbittern ; 

v£r tt)ünfd]t fid] einen großen Kreis, 

Um ibn geupifj'er 5U erfdiüttern. 

Drum feit) itur brao unb seigt eud] mufterbaft ; 85 

'ia^t pbantafie, mit allen ibren (Hbören, 

Dernunft, Derftanb, ^mpftnöung, Ceibenfd^aft, 

T)od], merft endi wol, nidit ol^ne HarrEieit Iiören ! 

Befoitbers aber la^t genug gefd^Iin ! 
IlTan fomntt 5U fdxiu'n, man wiU. am liebften [elin. 90 
Wirb üieles vov ben ^(ugen abgefpoimen, 
So ba^ bie IUengc [taunenb gajfen fann, 
Da babt xb^t in 5er Brette gleid] geu?onnen, 
3br feto ein üielgeliebter iTtann. 
Die ZlTaffe fönnt il^r nur öurd] Ztlaffe 3tr»ingen ; 95 

£in jeber fud^t fid] enölid] felbft roas aus. 
IDer Pieles bringt, u^irb 21Tand]em etroas bringen ; 
Unb jeber gebt jufrieben aus öem ^aus. 
(55ebt ibr ein 5tücf , fo gebt es gleid] in 5tüif en ! 
Sold] ein Hagout, es xxxn^ eud] glücfen ; 100 

€eid]t ift es Dorgelegt, fo Ieid]t als ausge<5ad]t. 
IVas bilft's, n?enn ibr ein (Sanjes bargebrad]t I 
Das Publicum wxvb es eud] bodi ^erpflücfen. 

3br füblet nid]t, rrie fd]Ied]t ein fo[d]es f^anbiner! fei ! 
IDie menig bas bem ed]ten Künftter sieme ! 105 

Der faubern Ferren pfufd]erei 
3ft, merf id], fd]on bei eud] 2T(arin:e. 



<£in fold^er Porrourf lä^t mxd\ ungcf ränf t ; 
€in 2T(ann, ber red]t 5U rptrfen bcnft, 
2T(u§ auf bas befte IDerfseug I]alteit. no 

Bebcnft, il]r I]abct rocid^cs ^ols 5U fpalten, 
Unb fel|t nur I|in, für u?en il]r fd)rcibt ! 
IPenn biefcn Cangerocilc treibt, 
Kommt jener fatt üom übertifd^ten 2T(aI^Ie, 
Unb, voas bas ^Illerfd^Iimmfte bleibt, ns 

<3av mand^er fommt r>om £efen ber 3ournato. 
Xflan eilt scrftreut 3U uns, roie 5U ben ZHasfcnfeftcn, 
Hub Neugier nur betlügelt jeben Sd^ritt ; 
X>ie Damen geben fidi unb il^ren Pu^ 5um Beften, 
Unb fpielen of|nc (Sage mit. 120 

^ Was träumet iljr auf eurer Did]terl]öl|e ? 
Was mad\t ein colles fjaus eud| frof^ ? 
23efel]t bie (5önner in ber HäFje ! 
^alb ftnb fie falt, I]alb finb fte rofj. 
Der, nadi bem 5d]au[picl, I^offt ein Kartenfpicl, 125 
X>er eine roilbe Xladit an einer Dirne ^ufen. 
Was plagt i^t armen CI]oren r>iel, 
5u fold^em §wed, bie I^olben 2T(ufen ? 
3d] fag' eud^, gebt nur mcl^r unb immer, immer mefjr, 
So !önnt ifjr eud] vom ^kk nie cerirrcn. 130 

5ud]t nur bie 2T(enfd^en 5U r>cru?irrcn, 

Sie 3U befriebigen ift fdiroer. 

Was fällt eud] an ? €nt5Ü(f ung ober Sd^mersen ? 


(Seif lim unb fud)' bir einen anbern Kned^t ! 

Der Did]ter follte wol bas ^öd\\k Hed]t, 13s 


Das 21Tcn)'d>^nrcd]t, bas il]tit ilatur porgöunt, 

Hm ^cincht■'iIIcn frcDcntlid] ücrfdiorjcu ! 

Xl^o^urd^ Ixnr>egt er alle rjcrscn ? 

IPoburd] bofiogt er je^es €Iement ? 

3ft es öer €inflang nidit, 5er aus beut 3u[eit bringt, 140 

Unb in fein fierj bie tPelt 5urüif e fdilingt ? 

IDcnn bie JTatur bes ^^ibens eip'ge länge, 

(Sleid^gültig brebenb, auf bie Spiubel su'ingt, 

XPenn aller IPefen unbarmon'fd^e ZlTenge 

Derbrie^lid] burd] einanber f lingt ; 145 

IDer tbeilt bie fliojßeub intnier gleid^e Heilte 

^elebenb ab, ^)a^ fie fid] rbvtbmifdi regt ? 

IDer ruft bas £in5elnc jur allgenteinen IDcilie, 

Wo es i)i berrlid^en ^Iccorbeit [dflägt ? 

IVcv lä^t ben Sturm 3U leibenfduiften u:>ütben ? 150 

"Das 2lbenbrotb im ernften Sinne glübn ? 

IDer fduittet alle fdjöiten 5i'üblingsblütben 

^luf ber (Seliebten Pfabe I]in ? 

ITer flid;t bie'unbebeutenb grünen Blätter 

5um (£bren!ran5 I^erbienften jcber ^Irt ? 155 

IDer fid]ert ben ©Ivmp, vereinet (5ötter ? 

Des 2rcenfd]en Kraft, im Did]ter offenbart. 

luftige perfon. 

So braudit ^ie beim bie [djönen Kräfte, 

llnb treibt bie bid^frifd^en (Sefd-jäfte, 

IDic man ein Liebesabenteuer treibt. 160 

^ufäüig nabt man fid], man füblt, man bleibt 

Hnb nadi unb nad; unrb man oerfloditen ; 

€s ipädift bas (Slüd, bann u?irb es angefod]ten, 

ZÜan ift ent5Ü(ft, nun fommt ber Sdimers beran, 

Unb eiy man fid^s uerfiebt, ift's eben ein Homan. 165 


€a^t uns audi \o ein 5d]aufptcl geben ! 

<5rcift nur tynexn ins r»oIIe 21Tcnfd^cnIebcn 1 

(Ein lebet lebt's, nid]t vielen ift's bcfannt, 

Unb wo il^r's pacft, öa ift's intereffant. 

3n bunten Bilöern u)enig Klarl^eit, 170 

Diel 3rrtl]um unb ein ^ünfd^en 2PaI]rI]eit, 

So xokb bet befte Cranf gebraut, 

"Der alle IDelt erquirft unb auferbaut. 

Dann fammelt fid] ber 3ugenb jd]önfte Blutige 

Vov eurem Spiel unb Iaufd]t ber Offenbarung, 175 

Dann [äuget jebes särtlid^e (5enmtl^e 

Tius euerm IDerf \idi meland^oPfd^e Hal^rung, 

X>ann roirb balb bies, balb jenes aufgeregt, 

(Ein jeber fielet, toas er int f^erscn trägt. 

Ztod\ finb fie gleid] bereit 3U toeinen unb 5U lad^en, iSo 

Sie eilten nodi ben Sd^roung, erfreuen fid] am Sdjein : 

XDer fertig ift, bem ift nid^ts red]t 3U mad^en ; 

(Ein IDerbenber roirb immer banfbar fein. 


So gib mir aud] bie Reiten roieber, 

Da \d\ nod\ felbft im IDerben toar, 185 

Da fid) ein <5ueE gebrängter Cieber 

Ununterbrod^en neu gebar, 

Da rtebel mir bie IDelt oerliüEten, 

T»ie Knospe IDunber nod] »erfprad], 

Da xd\ bie taufenb Blumen brad], 190 

Die aUe Cl^äler reid^Iid] füllten. 

3d) tjatte nid]ts unb bod\ genug ! 

Den Drang nad] lDaF]rI]eit unb bie £uft am Crug. 

(5ib ungebänbigt jene Criebe, 

Das tiefe fd^mersenüoUe <5lü<S, 19s 


T>05 rjaffci- Kraft, Mc XUadyt bev £iobc, 
(Sib tncine 3iiötntb mir surücf ! 

Cuftige pcrfon. 

Der 3ugcnb, guter 5reunb, bcDarfft bu allenfallf 

Wenn b\d\ \n 5d]lad]tcn 5ohtbe örcingon, 

ITcuu mit (Seiralt an bcincn l^jals 

5id] allerliebfto ilTä^d^^n bäugeit, 

IDeim fern öes fdit:ellen Kaufes Kraus 

Vom \d]voev errciditeu S^clc ipinfet, 

lOenu nad] bem beft'geu IDirbeltauj 

Die näd^te fd'jtuaufenö mau oertriiifet. 

Dod^ ius befamüe Saiteufpiel 

ZHit Ifinth nnb ^limtutb einsugreifeit, 

read] einem felbftgeftedteit ^iel 

^ITit boictem '^vvcn biii5ufdnr>eifen, 

Da5, alte fjerrn, ift eure Pflid^t, 

Unb roir oeref^ren eud-; barum n\d\t minder. 

Das 2tlter mad]t tiid^t fin^ifd-;, wie matt fprid]t, 

^5 fiitöet Ulis itur nod\ als roalu-e Kiuöer. 


Der IDorte jtnb genug geroedifelt, 

£a§t tnidi audi ettc>lid] Cbatett [ebtt ! 

3nt)eß ibr Xomplituettte ^red^felt, 

Katttt ettoas ilüßlidies gefd^el^ti. 

ZDas I^ilft es üiel r>on Stituntuttg reöett ? 

Dem <5aubernben erfdieittt fie itie. 

(Sebt ibr eud] eitimal für Poeteit, 

So cotutttatt^irt bie poefie. 

fud] {][ befaitttt, i»as rcir bewürfen, 

IDir rooUen ftarf (Seträttfe fd]Iürfett ; 

lo FAUST. 

Xlun braut mir un»cr3ÜgIid) brau ! 

Was I]cute nicf]t gefd^ietjt, ift morgen nid^t getlian ; 225 

Unb feinen Cag [oH ntan cerpaffen. 

Das 2TcögIid^e foll 5er (£nt[d](u§ 

^el|er3t [ogleid^ beim 5d]0j.->fe faffen ; 

(£r toill es bcnm nid]t fal^ren laffen 

Unb iDirfet toeiter, toeil er mu§. 230 

3Ijr roi^t, auf unfern öeutfd^en ^ütjnen 

probirt ein jeber was er mag ; 

X)rum fd]onct mir an biefem Cag 

profpecte nid^t unb nid^t 2.T(a[d]inen ! 

(5cbraud]t bas gro§' unb fleine i^immclslid^t, 23s 

X)ie Sterne bürfet il^r cerfd^roenben ; 

2lit XPaffer, 5cuer, 5<^Ifß"K>änben, 

5ln d]ier unb Dögeln fel^lt es nidjt. 

So fd^reitet in bem engen Bretterl^aus 

Den gansen Kreis ber 5d?öpfiutg aus, 240 

Itnb n?anbelt mit bebäd^t'ger 5d]neIIc 

Pom fjimmel burd] bic IDelt jur Eiöüe. 

Prolog im i^immcL 

Der r^crv. Die l^tmmltfdjcn fjccrfcfjaai-cu. Ztadjf^cr 

Die brei ^rjentjcl trctcti oor. 
X)io Sonne tönt nad\ alter JDeife 
^n i^ru^orfpliärcn IDcttgcfang, 
l\nb xlive Dorgcfd]ricbnc l^c\\c 
DoUoiibct fie mit i)onncrgang. 
3I^r 2lublicf gibt bcn €ngclu Stärfc, 
IDemt feiner fie ergründen mag ; 
Die mibegreiflid] Iiol^en IDerfe 
5inb I^errlid^ roie am erften Cag. 


Itnö fd^ncU un6 unbegreiflid? fd]neüe 
Dreist fid] uml^er öer (£röe Prad]t ; . 
€5 ir>ed]felt paraöiefesl^elle 
ITiit tiefer fd^auerooUer ^tad^t ; 
(£5 fduiumt bas 2Tceer in breiten 5Iü[[en 
2tm tiefen (5mnb ber 5^'lf*-^n auf, 
Unb 5cl5 unb ZHeer toirö fortgeriffen 
3« ercig fd^nellem Spl^ärcnlauf. 

12 FAUST. 

XXnb Stürme Braufcn um öic Wette, 
Pom TTiect auf's Canb, vom £auö auf's Xfleet, 260 

Unb hüben u?ütl]enb ciue Kette 
Der tieffteu IDirfung rings uml^er. 
Da f[amntt ein bli^enbes Perl^eeren 
Dem pfabe vor bes Donnerfd^Iags ; 
Dodi be'xne Boten, J^err, »erel^ren 265 

Das fanfte iPanbehi beines Cags. 

(gu Drei. 
Der 2lnbli(f gibt ben angeht Stärfe, 
Da feiner. bxd\ ergründen mag, 
Unb alle beine I|of]en XPerfe 
Sinö I^errlid] toie am crften Cag. 270 


Da bu, i^err, bid] einmal u?ie6er nal^ft 

Unb fragft roie alles fid^ bei uns befinde, 

Unb bu m\d] fonft geroöl^nlid^ gerne [al^ft. 

So fiel]ft öu mid^ aud] unter bem (Sefinbe. 

Der3eil^', id^ !ann nid]t Ijol^c IDorte mad^en, 27s 

Unb voenn mid] aud^ ber ganse Kreis »erl^öE^nt ; 

ZlTein patl^os brädite bid] geu?i§ 5um Cad^en, 

^ätt'ft bu bh- nxd\t bas ^£ad]en abgeu?öl]nt. 

Von Sonn' unb IPelten voeilß xd\ nid]t5 3U fagen, 

3d] fel|e nur wie \\di b'xe 2T(en[d]en plagen. 280 

Der fleine (Sott ber IDelt bleibt ftäts von glcidjem »H" 

Itnb ift [0 tounberlid], als u?ie am erften Cag. 
i£in tpenig beffer toürb' er leben. 


i^ätt'ft ^u ihn: n\d]t ^ou 5d]cin ^cs l^inunclslidits 

gcgclvn ; 
£r nennt's „Dernunft" nnö braud^t's allein, 285 

IXuv tl]\cv\\d\cv als jebes öiier 511 fein. 
i£r fdieint mir, mit Perlaub von euer (Snaben, 
IPie eine i^er langbeinigen ^if'^^c" ! 
Die immer fliegt unb fliegend fpringt, 
Xlnb qlc'xd] im (Sras il^r altes £ieöd]en fingt. 290 

llnb lag' er nur nod\ immer in öem (5rafe ! 
jn icbcn Quar! begräbt er feine Hafe. 

Der £jerr. 
£iaft t)u mir weiter nid^ts 3U fagen ? 
Kommft bu nur immer an3uflagen ? 
3ft auf bcr *£rbe cu?ig öir nid^ts red]t ? 295 

Hein, fjerr! id^ finö' es bort wie immer, I^erslid] 

Die ZITenfd-jen dauern mid] in ibren jammertagen ; 
3d| mag fogar bie Firmen felbft nid]t plagen. 

Der ^err. 
Kennft bu ben 5auft ? 

Den Doctor ? 

Der fjerr. 

tlTeinen Kned^t ] 

5ünr>abr ! er biejit end-j auf befonbre IDeife. 
Hidit irbifd] ift bos »üboron ülranf nod] Speife. 

14 FAUST. 

3tjn treibt 6ie (5äl]rung in bie 5^nic, 

(£r ift fid] feiner ^olll^eit f^alb betonet ; 

Pont f^immel fordert er bie fd^önften Sterne, 

Hnb r»on 5er (£rbe jebe I]öd]fte Cuft, 305 

Hnb alle Zlälf unö alle 5^i'"^ 

^efriebigt nid^t bie tiefbewegte Sruft. 

X)er -^err. 
IDenn er mir jelgt and\ nur »ertoorren bient, 
So roerb' id^ itjn balb in öie Ktarlieit füE]ren. 
IDeifj bod] öer (5ärtner, roenit bas Bäunid]en grünt, 310 
Va^ ^lütlj' unb 5rud]t bie fünft'gen 3abre sieren. 

TOas roettet il^r ? "Den follt il^r nod\ verlieren, 
IDenn iE^r mir bie (£rlaubni^ gebt, 
3I^n meine Strafe fad^t 3U fül^ren ! 

X>er JE^err. 

So lang er auf ber (Erbe lebt, 31s 

So lange fei bir's nid^t »erboten. 
<£5 irrt ber ZlTetifd; fo lang er ftrebt 1 

T>a banf id^ eud) ; benn mit ben lobten 
^db' xdi mxdi niemals gerii befangeti, 
2tm meiften Heb' id] mir bie rollen frifd]en ZPaiigen, 320 
5ür einen £cid]nam bin id^ nid^t 3U f^aus ; 
mir gellt es u?ie ber Kal3e mit ber ZlTaus. 

X)er ^err. 
Xlun gut, es fei bir überlaffen ! 


^iet]' öiejen (Seift von foincin Uvquoü ab, 

llnb fixhf ihn, fannft c>u ihn cvfaffcii, 32s 

2luf öciiicin ll">ccje mit Iicrab, 

Unö ftci)' befdiämt, tpenn öu bcfctmcit mußt: 

£iii guter ITteufdi iu fciuem bunfolu Drange 

3[t fid] öes redeten IPeges ipoI beipu^t. 




'Sd^ou gut ! uur i)auert es uid]t lange. 33° 

Znir tft für meine rOette gar nidit bange. 

IDenn id] 3U meinem groecf gelange, 

(Sriaubt il^r mir üriumpl] aus üoUer Bruft. 

Staub foll er freffen, unb ntit £uft, 

IDie meine iriut^me, bie berühmte Sdilange. 33s 

Der fjerr. 
Du barfft aud] i5a nur frei erfd]einen ; 
3dl iiahe beines 6Ieid]en nie gel^a^t. 
Don allen (Seiftern, bie üerneinen, 
3ft mir ber Sdialf am ujenigften 5ur £aft. 
Des 2rcenfd!cn Cl^ätigfeit f ann allsuleid^t erfd^Iaffen 34° 
(£r liebt fid] balb bie unbebingtc Ixnii ; 
Drum geb' id] gern ilim ben (Sefellen ju, 
Der reist unb wirft unb mu^ als Ceufel fd]affen. 
Dod] il^r, bie cd]ten (Sötterföl^ne, 
<£rfreut eud] ber lebenbig reid]en 5d]öne ! 345 

Das IDerbenbe, bas eir»ig wirft unb lebt, 
Umfaff eud] mit ber Ci^be bolben Sdiranfen, 
Unb was in fdiwanfenber (£rfdieinuug fd^webt, 
^efeftiget mit bauernben (Sebanfen. 

Per Bimmel fd?Ite§t, bie (Ersengel ücrtt)etlcu fi*. 

i6 FAUST. 

ZHepIjiftopIieles allein. 

Port ^cit 3U ^cit \eii' \<i\ bcn 2JIten gern 
Unb I]ütc mid] mit il]m 3U brcd^cn. 
(£5 ift gar I]üb[d] pon einem großen fjerm, 
So menfd]lid] mit i>em tEeufel felbft 311 jpred]en. 

Per Qlra^öc)ie erftcr <II]etL 


3n einem tiodicjetpölbtcn, eiujcn, gotf^ifdicn (^immcr ^aitft 
uiirubig anj feinem Scffcl am pult. 

^aho nun, ad], pbtlofopl^ic, 

3urifterct unö Zllcöicin, 35- 

Xlnb leiöer aud] ilbcologic 
X)urd]au5 ftuöirt, tnit botßcnt i^Mnühi ! 
Da [tciy id] nun, id] armer Zl]ov, 
IXnb bin \o flug, als wie ^uvov ; 

f^ciße riTagtftcr, hei^c Voctov cjar, 360 

Unb jicbc fd^on an öte seli^dn ^ahj 
i^erauf, bergb unö quer unb frunttn, 
JITeine Sdiüler an öer Zta\c beruin 
llnb [ebe, öaß n?ir nidits a^iffen fönnen ! 
Das u->ill nur [d^ior bas fjerj rierbrcnnon. 365 

öu?ar bin id] tjefd]eiter als alle bic Caffen, 


Doctorcn, ZITagifter, 5d]rei6er unb Pfaffen ; 

TXixdi plagen feine Scrupel nod\ ^toeifel, 

5ürd]te mxd] tr>eber r>or I^öUe nod] Teufel. 

2)afür ift mir aud] alle 5i'cub' entriffen, 370 

^ilbe mir nid]t ein, rcas Hed]t5 311 wiffen, 

öilbe mir nid]t ein id^ fönnte roas Iel]ren, 

Die ntenfd^en 3U beffern unb 3U befel]ren ! — 

^nd\ liah' id\ roeöer (5ut nod| (5elb, 

Zlod\ <£I]r' unö :6^errlid]feit öer Welt ; 375 

(£5 möd^te fein i^unö fo länger leben ! — 

Drum I]ab' id] mid] 6er ITcagie ergeben, 

0b mir öurd^ (Beiftes Kraft unb Xflnnb 

Xlxdit maiidV (Selieimni^ ir>ürbe funb ! 

Da§ \d\ nxdit mel]r, mit fauerm Sd^toei^, 380 

gu fagen braud]e, toas \d\ nid\t voe'x^ ; 

Da^ xdl erfenne, voas bie IDelt 

3nt 3'i'i<?rften 3ufammejtl]ält, 

5d]au' alle IDirfensfraft unb Samen, 

Unb tl]u' nid^t mel]r in IDorten framen. 385 

® fäl]ft bu, üofler 211o)ibenfd]ein, 
^iim legten VTlal auf meine Pein, 
Den id] fo mand^e 2T(itternad]t 
Ihx biefem Pult Iierangen?ad]t ! 

Dann über Büd7ern unb Papier, 390 

Crübfel'ger ^reunb, erfdiicnft bu mir ! — 
2Id7, fönnt' xdi bodi auf Sergesl^öl^n 
3n beinem lieben £^id]te gcl^n. 
Um Bergesliölile nxit (Seiftern fd]tt)cben, 
2luf IDiefcn in beinem Dämmer u?eben, 39s 

Don allem IPiffensqualm entlaben, 
3n beinem Cliau gefunb mid] babeit ! 

SCENE I. 19 

IVcW ! ftccf ' \d} in bctn Kcrfcr uod] ? 

rorfIud]to5, butitpfcs niaucrlod] ! 

Wo folbft ^a5 liebe l7iininol£'Ud]t 400 

Crüb ^urd] cjontaltc 5d]ciboit brid^t ! 

i\''fd]ränft mit öiefcm Büd^erl^auf, 

T)o)t IPürmo nagen, Staub bcöccft, 

Vcn bis an's I]oI]c (5cu">ölb' I^inauf 

(£iii angcraud]t papior uniftcdt ; 40s 

Itiit (Släjcni, ^üd][eu riitgs umftollt, 

2nit 3iifti"uinentcn vollgepfropft, 

Urväter fjaiisratl] breingeftopft — 

Vas ift beine IDelt! bas I]ci§t: eine IDcIt! 

Unb fragft ^u nod], toarum bein fjcrs 41° 

5id] bang in beinern ^ufen flemntt, 

iDarunt ein unerflärter 5d]mer3 

Dir alle Cebensregung bemmt? 

Statt bct lebendigen Hatur, 

'Da (Sott bie 2Tcenfd]en fdiuf binein, 415 

Umgibt in 2^aud] unb JTcqber nur 

Vidi tEI>iergeripp' unb ^obtenbein. 

5lieIV ! 2tuf ! hinaus in's toeite £anb 1 

Unb öies gelieimnilgoolle ^ud), 

Don rtoftrabamus eigner £janb, 420 

3ft bir es nidit (Seicit genug ? 

(Erfenneft bann ber Sterne Cauf, 

Unb roenn 5ftatur bid] untermeift, 

Dann gebt bie Scelenfraft bir auf, 

U^ie fpridit ein (Seift jum anbern (Seift. 425 

Umfonft, ba% trorfnes Sinnen I^ier 

Die beil'gen ^eid^en bir erüärt. 


3I)r fd^rocbt, il]r (5eiftcr, neben mir ; 
2lntrt)ortet mir, tr>enn il^r mid] I]ört ! 

(Er fdjiägt bas Buc^ auf unb erblttft bas gcidjcn bcs 

^a ! ir>eld]e IDonne fliegt in biefem Blirf 430 

2luf einmal mir burd] alle meiite Sinnen ! 

^dl fül]lc junges, Iieil'ges £eben5glü(f 

rteuglüljenb mir öurd] Zletv' unb 2löern rinnen. 

Wav es ein (Sott, öer bie[e ^eidien fdirieb, 

Die mir bas inn're Cobe)i ftillcn, 43s 

Das arme fjer3 mit 5i"euö^ füllen, 

Unb mit geI]eimni§r>oIIem Crieb 

Die Kräfte ber Ttatur rings um" mid] I^er entijüllcn ? 

Bin id] ein (Sott ? ZTcir toirb fo Iid]t ! 

3d] fd^au' in biefen reinen S^o^n /Uw.* 440 

Die roirfenbe Hatur r>or meiner Seele liegen. 

3c^t erft erfenn' id), roas ber IDeife fprid^t : 

„Die (Seiftcru?elt ift nid]t t)er[d]Ioffen ; 

Dein Sinn ift 3U, beijx f^ers ift tobt ! 

2luf 1 habe, Sd^üler, unperbroffen 44s 

Die irb'fd^e Bruft im 2TforgenrotI] !" ^ 

(Er befd]aut bas gctdjctt. 
lüie alles fid] 3um (Sanken ujebt, 
(£ins in bem anbern n?irft unb lebt ! 
IPie f^immelsfräfte auf unb nieber fteigcn. 
Unb fid] bie golbnen (£imcr reid]en ! 4So 

Xfüt fegenbuftenben Sd]n?ingcn 
Pom JE^immel burd] bie (£rbe bringen, 
.^armonifd] all bas 2111 burd^flingen ! 

XPeld] Sd]aufpiel ! aber ad}, ein Sd^aufpiel nur ! 
Xüo faff \di bid], unenblid^e Ifatur ? 45s 

SCENE I. 21 

£ud7 Bi'üfto, ivo ? 3br Quollen alles Gebens, 

2h\ ^o^oll iMintnoI un^ ^£r^o Kinat, 

i)abiii c>io weite i3ru[t fid] drängt — 

3In* quollt, xiiv tränft, unb [d^mad^f \d] fo uorgobons ? 

€r fcbläat iinnnllig bas 3ndi um nnb crblicf t bas getanen 
bcs CErbcjciftcs. 

IV'ic anbets vo'wft b'ws ^oidv'it auf midi ein ! 460 

Du, (Soift bor frbo, btft tntr näbor ; 

5d]on fübr \d] meine Kräfto böbor, 

Sdion glüiy \d\ wie von nouotn IPoin. 

3di füblo IHutb, mid] in <>ie Welt 5U uxigcn, 

Dor £rbo IPob', bor *£rbo (Slücf 5U tragen, 465 

2T(it Stürmen mid] borumjufd'ilagen 

Unb in bes Sdiilfbrud^s Knirfdvm nid^t 5U sagen. — 

(£s roölft fidi über mir — 

Der JlTonb Dorbirgt fein lid^t — 

Die Cam}.v fd^unnbet ! 470 

<£s bampft ! — £5 5U(f en rotbe Stralilon 

ZHir um <>as Pjaupt ! — £5 ux^bt 

(Ein 5d]auor com (Seu?ölb' berab 

Unb fa^t midi an ! 

3dl fübl's, bu fditrebft um midi, erflebter (Seift ! 473 

<£ntl]üae bid] ! 

j^a, roie's in meinem fersen roi§t ! 

^n neuen (Sofüblen 

21II meine Sinne fid] eruniblon ! 

2d:} fül]le gans mein fjerj bir I]ingegoben ! 4S0 

Du mu^t ! bu mu^t ! unb foftet' es mein €.ehen ! 

(Er fai^t bas 3udj unb fpricbt bas gädyn bcs (Sciftes 
acbciuiniigroU aus. (Es 3ui-ft eine rötiilicbe ^lamnic, 
bcr (Seift erfd/eint in ber ^[aniine. 


Wcv ruft mir ? 

5ciuft ah^ttvenbet 
5divedl\d\e5 (5e\xd\t ! 


"Du Iiaft midi mäd^tig angcjogcn, 
2h\ meiner Spl^äre lang gefogcn, 
Hnb nun — 

Well ! \d\ ertrag' bid^ nid^t I 485 


^u f[el]ft eratf^menö mid] 311 fd^auen, 

ZlTeine Stimme 3U I^örcn, mein 2lntlil3 5U fel^n ; 

tTtid] neigt öein mäditig Seelcn^el^n, 

"Da bin id] ! — Weld\ erbärmlid] (Srauen 

5a^t Uebermenfd]en bid^ ! Wo ift öer Seele 2^uf ? 490 

Wo ift bie Sruft, bie eine IPelt in fid^ crfd]uf 

Hnb trug unb liegte, bie mit ^reubebeben 

€rfd]tDolI fid^ uns bcn (Seiftern gleid] 5U lieben ? 

Wo bift öu, 5ciuft, ö'?^ Stimme mir erflang, 

^er fid] an mid\ mit allen Kräften örang ? 49s 

Bift bu es, ber, r>on meinem £jaud] un«)ittert, 

^n allen Cebenstiefcn sittert, 

(£in furd]tfam roeg gefrümmter IDurm ? 


Soll id] bir, ^lammenbilöimg, roeidien ? 

3d] bin's, bitt 5ctuft, bin deines (Sleid^en ! soo 

SCENE I. 23 

3n Co&cnsffutlvn, itn Cbatonftunn 
WaW id] auf uii^ ab, 
Wehe l]\n uit^ lyv ! 
(5cburt unö (Srab, 

(Ein eroiges 2:lTccr, sos 

(£in mcd]fclnc) iPcbcn, 
€iit alübcnb Cobcit. 

So fd]aff' id] am faufonbcn ITcbftuI]! ber ^eit 
Uni) toirfo Cicr (Sottboit Icbcnöicjes Klciö. 

Der bu bie tt>citc Welt umfd]rc>eifft, 510 

(5efd]äftiger (5eift vok naii fülil' id] mid] bir ! 

"Du g[eid]ft bem (Seift, ben öu begrcifft, 
Zlxdit mir ! Dcrfd/roinbct. 

5auft sufammcnftüi-jcitt). 

Wem beim ? sis 

3d], Cbeitbilb ber (SottI]eit ! 
Unb itidit einmal bir ! 

(Es flopft. 
Ö) (lob ! id] fenn's ; bas ift mein ^«nmlus. 
(£5 tpirb mein fd]önftes (Slücf 311 nid]te ! 
Va^ biefe 5nIIe ber (Sefidite 520 

Der trotfne 5d]Ieid]er ftören mu^ ! 

IPaoiiier im Sdjlafrorf e iint» ber lTad]tnmt5C, ctttc £ampc 
in ber ßanb. ^anft iDcitbct fidj luupillit}. 


Vcvie'ilitf xd\ fjör' eud^ beclamtrcn ! 
3I]r laf't geir>i^ ein gricdiifd] Crauorfpiel ? 
3n btcfcr Kunft möd]!' \d} voas profttircn ; 
Denn tjeut 311 üage vo'wft bas üiel. 
3d] l^ab' es öfters rül]meit I]öreh, 
(£in KoinöiMant föimt' einen pfarrer IcI^rcn. 

3ci, toenn 6er Pfarrer ein Komödiant ift ; 
IDie bas bcnn vool 5U Reiten fommen mag. 

7idi ! roenn man fo in fein 2T(ufeum gebannt ift 
Unb fiel]t b'xe IVcli faum einen 5ciertag, 
Kaum burd] ein ^^H-nglas nur von roeiten, 
IDie foU nxan fie öurd] Ucberrcbung leiten ? 

tPenn il^r's nid]t fül]lt, il-jr iperbet's nid]t erjagen, 
IDenn es nidit aus 6er Seele öringt, 
Unb mit urfräftigem Beilagen 
X>ie fier^en aller i'^örer 3ir>ingt. 
Sifet il^r nur immer, leimt sufannnen, 
Sraut ein Hagout £>on anbrer 5d]mau5 
Unb blast 6ie fümmerlid^en 5lanunen • 
2tu5 eurem 2tfd]enl^äufdien 'raus ! 
Beu)unb'rung r>on Kinbcrn unb 2tffen, 
IDenn eud] barnad^ ber (Säumen ftel^t ; 
Vod\ voevbd il]r nie ^erj 5U f^ersen fdiaffen, 
iDcnn es eud] nid]t r>on fersen gel-jt. 

SCENE I. 25 


2lüc'm ^or Portraa mad]t bes Hcbnors (5IüiJ ; 
2d\ fixhV cf ipol, iiod] bin idi rocit lumd ! 


Sud] er bcn re6Ud]en (SetDinn ! 

Sei er fein fd'jollcnlautor «Tbor ! 

€5 trägt Porftaub unb rod^tcr 5inn sso 

Jllit roenig Kunft fid] fclber cor. 

Hub ipenu's eudi Crnft tft rras 511 fagen, 

3ft'5 nötbig IPorteu nad'jsujagcn ? 

3*3, eure 2?ec>en bie fo blinfeub finb, 

3n beuen ibr ber 21Teu[d]beit Sd^ni^el fräufelt, 553 

5tnb unerquidlidi, n)ic ber HebeltDinb, 

Der bcrbftlid] burd» bie Dürren Blätter fäu[elt ! 


1\A\ (Sott ! Die Kunft ift lang 

Unb fürs ift unfer Cebeu. 

2TTir uiirb bei ineiuetn fritifd'jett ^eftreben s6o 

Tioi>^ oft unt Kopf unt> ^ufen bang. 

lüie fd^roer finb nid]t bie ZHittel ju crtDcrben, 

Durdi bie man 5U ben Quellen fteigt ! 

llnb eb' man nur ben balben iPeg evreidit, 

IHu^ mol ein armer üeufel fterben. 565 


Das Pergament, ift bas ber beil'ge 23ronnon, 
IDoraus ein ürunf t>en Dürft auf eit»ig ftillt ? 
frquicfung Iiaft öu nid]t getoonnen, 
irenn fie bir nid]t aus eigner Seele quillt. 


Perseil^t ! es ift ein gro^ (Srgefeen 57° 

Sidf in ben (Seift ber Reiten 3U »erfcfeen, 
^u fd^auen toie cor uns ein roeifei- TXicmn gebad]t 
Un6 roie roir's öann sule^t \o t^errlid^ tocit gchvad\t ! 


ja, Bis an bie Sterne roeit ! 

2T(ein 5i'^unb, öie Reiten öer PergangenE^eit 575 

5inb uns ein Sud] mit fieben Siegeln. 

IDas xl\v öen (5eift öer Reiten I]ei§t, 

Das ift im (Srunö ber I^erren eigner (Seift, 

3n öem bie ^^'iten \\d\ befpiegeln. 

Va ift's benn ujalirlid] oft ein 3ammer ! 580 

Xflan läuft eud] bei bem erften Blid baoon. 

(£in Kel]rid]tfa^ unb eine Humpelfammer 

Unb I]öd]ftens eine „fjaupt= unb Staatsaction", 

ZTcit trefflid^en pragmatifd^eix ^Tfaj-imen, 

IDic fie ben Puppen u?oI im ÜTunbe siemen ! 58s 

2tIIein bie IDelt, bes tnenjd]en f^ers unb (Seift ! 
Znöd]t' jeglidier ^odi was baoon erfennen. 

3a, t»as man fo erfennen I|ei§t ! 
IPer barf bas Kinb beim redeten Hamen nennen ? 
"Die u?e)tigen bie toas baüon erfannt, 59° 

'l)k tliöridit g'nug il^r »olles fjerj nidit u)al]rten, 
Dem pöbel il]r (SefüI]I, il]r Sdiauen offenbarten, 
fjat man pon je gefreusigt unb perbrannt. 

SCENE I. 27 

3di bitt' eud}, 5rcunö, es ift tief in bcv IXadit, 

^yUy müffeii's öicsntal untcrbrod]on. S9s 


^d\ l]ätte gern nur immer fortgetoadit, 

Um fo gelebrt ntit eud] mid] 5U be[pred]e)t. 

Vod] morgen, als am crften 0)'tertage, 

(Erlaubt mir ein' nnb anbre 5l*t1g*-^ 
i IlTit €ifer Iiab' id] mid] öer Studien befliffen ; 600 

j öw?<Ji' ii'ci^ idi piel, bodi nx'ödiV id] alles u:>i[[en ! 


5auft allein. 

lt>ie nur bcm Kopf nid^t alle £ioffiuing fd-jannöet, 

X)er immerfort an fd]alem ^euge flebt, 

2nit gier'ger Vianb nad] Sdiä^en gräbt 

Unb frol] ift, roenn er Hegenu?ürmer finbet ! 605 

Darf eine foldje nienfdienftimme liier, 

Wo (Seifterfülle mid] umgab, ertönen? 

Vod] ad} ! für diesmal banf id] ^ir, 

■Dem ärmlidjftert von allen i£rc)enföl]nen. 

Du riffeft mid] von bet Per5it>ei^ung los, 610 

Die mir öie Sinne fd]on jerftören ifollte. 

^td] ! öie i£rfd]einung toar fo riefengro^, 

Da§ id] mid] red]t als grcerg empfinben follte. 

3d], €beTibilö ber (SottI]eit ba^ fid] fd]on 

(San5 nal] gebünft bem Spiegel eit>'ger ir>abrl]eit, 615 

Sein felbft geno^' in liimmelsglans unb Klarl]eit 

Unb abgeftreift bm frbenfobn ; 

3d], mebr als ttberub, »Neffen freie Kraft 


Sd\on bmdi i>\e 2töern öcr IXatm 5U flicgon 
Unb fd^affenb (ßöttcrieben 511 cjeitic^cii C20 

5id] al^imngsüoll oerma^, wie mu§ id^'s bü^x>it ! 
(Ein Donnerroort I^at mid] IjtntDcggerafft. 

Z?id)t barf id^ bir 3U gletd^en m\d\ Dermcffcn ! 

^lab' xd} bk Kraft, bid^ ansujicl^n, &e[ef[cn, 

So I]att' id] bid^ 3U I^alten feine Kraft. 625 

3n jenem fel'gen Shigcnblicfe, 

3d] fül]lte mid] fo flein, \o groß ; 

X)u ftie^eft graufam niid^ 5urürfe 

^n's ungemiffe 211enfd^eitIoo5, 

IDer lelirct mid^ ? roas foll id^ mciben ? 630 

Soll xdi gcI]ord^en jenem X>rang ? 

2tdi ! unfre Cl^aten felbft, fo gut als unfrc Ceiben, 

Sie I^emmen unfers Gebens (Sang. 

"Dem JPjerrlid)ften toas aud] ber (5eift empfangen, 

"Drängt immer fremb unb frember Stoff fid^ an ; 63s 

IDenn tcir 3um (Suten biefer IDelt gelangen, 

Dann I^ei^t bas Be^re Crug unb IDalpt. 

Die uns bas £<£bm gaben, I]errlid]e (5efülile, 

(£rftarren in bem irbifd^en (5eir>ül]Ie. 

XDenn pl^antafie fid] fonft mit fül^nent 5tug 640 

Unb I]offjtung5r)oII sunt €u?igen eru?eitert, 

So \\t ein fleiner Haunt il^r nun geiuig, 

IDenn (5lüd auf (Slücf im 5^'itenftrubel fd]eitert. 

Die Sorge niftet qk'xd] im tiefen fjersen. 
Dort u?irfet fie gel^eime Sdintersen, 645 

Uitrul^ig toiegt fie fid] unb ftöret Cuft unb Hulj ; 
Sie bedt \xd^ ftäts mit neuen tlTasfen 3U, 

SCENE I. 29 

Sic mag als i^aus uuö l7of, als It>db uub Kiiib 

:as 5ouor, iraffor, Vold] xmb (Sift ; 
i>u bcbft r»or allem loas nid^t trifft, 650 

Unb was bn nie rerlierft bas mu^t bu ftäts bcirciiien. 

Den (Sötteru qkidf \d} nxdit ! ^u tief ift es gefüFilt ; 
Dem lUurme aleid] id], bot bun Staub bm-d\a:>ül]lt, 
Den, ir)ie er fid] im Staube näbrent) lebt, 
Des IDanbrers Critt r)ernid]tet iinb begräbt. 655 

3ft es nidit Stanh, voas öiefe Ijoljc IDanö 
2Ui5 Iiuuöert 5äd]ern mir verenget, 
Der Crööel, ber mit taufen^fadunn Caub 
3n biefer 2^Tottcnrt)elt mid] brät:get ? 
i]ier foll td] finbeu, toas mir feblt? 660 

Soll idi uielleidit in taufenb i^üd]ern lefen, 
Dat5 überall bie 21Tenfd]en fid] gequält, 
Dajß bie unb ba ein glüdltd]er geir>e[en ? 
iPas grinfeft bn mir, fjoljler Sdiäbd, tjcr, 
2Us ba^ bein X^im, toie meines, einft oermirret, 66s 

Den liditen (lag gefud]t, unb in öer Dämm'rung [d]tDer, 
Zriit £uft nad] IDabrbeit, jämmerlid^ geirret ! 
3lir 3nftrumente freilid] fpottet mein, 
ZTlit ^ab iinb Kämntcn, IPalj' nnb ^ügel. 
^d] ftanb am ^^bor, tbr feiltet Sdilüffel fein ; 670 

^loar euer ^ort ift fraus, bod] bebt ibr nid^t bie Z^iegel. 
(5ebcimni|3DoII am Iid]ten (Lag, 
ۊ|Bt fid) Hatiir bes Sdjieiers nid]t berauben, 
iinb u?as fte beinent (Seift nid]t offenbaren mag, 
Das 5U-^ingft bu il";r nid]t ah mit I^ebelu nnb mit 
Sd^raubcn. 675 

30 . FAUST. PART I. 

Du alt (5crätl]c bas xd] utd]t gebraud]t, 
■ T)u ftelfft nur I]tcr u?cil i)\d] mein Pater brauditc. 
Du alte 2^oIIe, bn voiv\t angeraud]t, 
So lang, an öie[etn puIt 5ie trübe Campe fd^maud^te. 
tDeit beffer I^ätt' id] bod\ mein IPenioies cerpra^t, eso 
2II5 mit öem IPentgen belaftet I^ier 511 fd^tDifeen ! 
Was bu ererbt von deinen P atern Iiaft, 
( £rtt)irb es, um es 5U befit^en !. 
IPas man nidit nü^t ift eine fdiwere Caft ; 
Zlur roas 6er 21ugenblicf erfd^afft bas fann er nü^en. 685 

Dodi warum tieftet fid] mein "Blid auf jene Stelle ? 
3ft jeites 5Iäfd]d]en öort bcn klugen ein THagnet ? 
IParum wirb mir auf einmal lieblid] I^elle, 
2t(5 u?enn im näd]t'gen IPalö uns ZHonbenglans 
umtDeI]t ? - 

3d) grü§e bid], bu eiujige pf^iole, 690 

Die \d\ mit 2lnöad]t nun I^erunterl^ole ! 

3n bir üerel]r' xd\ Znenfdienmi^ unb Kunft. 

Du 3"t)egriff ber I^olben Sd^Iummerfäfte, 

Du 2hiS3ug aller töbtlid] feinen Kräfte, 

€ru)eife beinern Zlleifter beine (Sunft ! 69s 

^d\ fel]e bid], es roirb ber 5d]mer5 gelinbert ; 

3d] fciffe bid], bas Streben roirb geminbert, 

Des (5eifte5 5IutI]ftrom ebbet nad\ unb nad}. 

3n's I]oI]e VTicet rocrb' id] Iiinausgeioiefen, 

Die Spiegelflutl] erglänzt 3U meinen 5üßen, 700 

gu neuen Ufe rn lodt ein neue r Cag. 

€in ^^uerroagen fd]u?ebt auf leidsten Sd^toingen 
2tn mid] I^eran ! ^d} fül^le mid] bereit 

SCENE I. 31 

^luf neuer Balin ^en IJletber 511 ^lu•d>^^l•ingen 

5u neuen Splxiren reiner ül^ätitjfeit. 705 

Dies Iiolie £eben, biefe (5ötteru>onne ! 

Du, erft nod] IPurtn, unb bie »erbieneft bu ? 

3a, feln-e imr ^er ^oI^en ^£r^enfonne 

tf ntfd]Io[fen deinen 2\ücfen 5U ! 

Dermeffe b\d\ öie Pforten aufsureifeen, 710 

Vov benen jeber gern norüberfd^Ieid]! ! 

r^ier ift es 5*-'^^ öurd] üliaten 5U beu?eifen 

Daiß 21Tannesunirt>e nid^t c»er cSötterl^öbe rrcid]!. 

Vot jener ^unfein i^öl^le nid]t 5U beben, 

3n ber fid] pbantafie 3U eigner Qual »erbamntt, 715 

ZXad] jenent Durdigang bin5uftreben. 

Um beffen engen ZlTunb b'w ganje I^öIIc flantntt ; 

5u biefem Sdu-itt fid] beiter 5U entfdiließen, 

Itnb a»är' es mit (Sefal^r ins 2ad]t5 öal^in 5U fliegen ! — 

Zinn fomnt bex*ab, h-yftanne, reine 5d]ak, 720 

I^erDor aus deinem alten ^utjterale, 

Zln bie \di viele 3aln-e nid^t ge^ad^t ! 

Du glänjteft bei ^er Däter ^reubenfefte, 

(Erbeitertcft b\c ernften (Säfte, 

tPenn einer ^id] beut andern 5ugebrad]t. 72s 

Der üielen 3ilc>er fünftlid] reid]e Prad]t, 

Des Crinfers pflid]t, fte rcimu?eis 3U erflären, 

2tuf einen ^nq bic i^öblung auszuleeren, 

-Erinnert mid] an ntand^e 3i-^9*-'ii^iiad]t. 

3d-! roeröe je^t b\d} feinem Hadibar reid]en, 730 

3d] K?erbe meinen W\t^ an beiner Kunft nid]t seigen : 

^ier ift ein Saft, ber eilig trunfen mad]t. 

JlTit braimer ^lutb erfüllt er beijie rjöble. 

Den id] bereitet, ben id^ loäble, 


Der Icfete Crunf fei nun mit cjanscr 5ccle 7 

2tl5 feftlid] I|oI]er (5ru§ bent 21Torgcn 5ugebrad]t ! 
€r fctjt bic Scfjale an bcn IHuub. 
(SIocfeuFIang unb (£l]orgefang. ^ 

Cl^or ber (£ngel. 
Cl^rift ift crftanbcn ! 
5reu5e bcm Sterblid^en, 
Den bic ücrbcrblid]cn, 
5d]Ieid]cnben, crblid^en ^ 

2T(ängcI umroanbcn. 

Wdd\ tiefes Summen, n:>eld] ein beller (Eon 
3iel]t mit <5ewalt bas (Sias pon meinem ITlunbe ? 
Derfünbiget il]r bumpfen (3lodcn fd^on 
Des 0fterfeftes erfte 5cicrftunbe ? 74s ^ 

3I]r CI]öre, fingt il-;i- fd^on ben tröftlid^en (Sefang, 
Der einft um (Srabesnad]t von €ngel5lippen flang, 
(5eu3i^Iieit einem iteuen Sunbe ? 

Ctjor ber IDeiber. 
Znit 5pe5ereien 

J^atten toir ilin gepflegt, 7; 

IDir feine Creuen 
f^atten il]it I^ingelegt ; 
Cüd]er unb Binben 
Keinlid^ umu?anben roir ; 
2td] ! unb tüir ftnben 7= 

(CI]ri[t nid^t mel^r liier. • , 

Cljor ber (Engel. * 
€I]rift ift erftanben ! 
Selig ber Ciebenbe, 

SCENE I. 33 

Dcv Die Iiotrübcnbe, 

f^cilfain unö übeiibc 760 

Prüfung bcftanbcn ! 

Was [ud]t \hv, mäd]tig unb gelinb, 
3Iir I^immclstöite mid] am Staube ! 
Klingt bort umlicr, wo toctdie ZlTcnfdien finb. 

_^C Botjdia ft t^Ör' id? IP^^f^ nrTt>tn mir ^c^U ^or 

_^Iaubg. 765 

Das IPu n bcr ift bc.^ (^[piibpiT^; ri<>bftpg; 'H\]}i?, 
öu jenen 5pl]ären irag' td] ntdit 3U ftreben, 
IDober bie Iiolbe Had]ridit tönt, 
llnb bod}, an biefen Klang r»on 3i^9^'^^ <^iif gßu?öl]nt, 
Hüft er aud] je^t surütJ ntid] in bas Ceben. 770 

Sonft ftürste fid] ber fjimmelsliebe Ku§ 
2luf mid^ I^crab in ernftcr Sabbatliftille ; 
'Da flang \o al^nungsooll bes (Slocfentones 5ül(e — 
Hnb ein (Sebet tr>ar brünftiger (Senu^. 
€in unbegreiflid^ Iiolbes Seltnen 773 

Crieb mid] burd] IPalb unb Il'^icfen I^in 3ugel]n 
Unb unter taufenb I^n^en Cl^ränen 
5ülilt' id] mir eine IDelt entftel^n. 
Dks Cieb »erfünbete ber 3ug'?nb muntre Spiele, 
Der ^i'üliliitgsfeier freies <5lüd ; 780 

€rinnrung bä lt mid] tmn mit fin blid^emjS^fä&k^ 
Vo m Tetjten, ernften Sd?ritt ^urilrf.. 
tönet fort, ibr jü^i ^v F^immor^rit^.^t»- 1 
'!5t e Ct^ränc quillt, bie (g rbf f-jnt mid] tricbrr ' 

• Cfjor ber 3iii'g*?i*- 
fjat ber 23egrabene 785 

Sdion fid] nad] oben, 


Ccbenb (Erijabcne 

fjerrlid? crl^obcn ; 

3ft er in iPerbeluft 

5d]affenbcr 5reu5e nai] ; 790 

2ld\ ! an ber (£rbe Bruft 

5inb tDtr sum Ceibc ba. 

Cie^ er bk Seinen 

5d\mad\tenb uns I^ier ^miXd ; 

2td] ! roir berceinen, 795 

ZHeiftcr, öcin (Slücf ! 

(Ef]or ber (Engel. 

dl^rift ift erftanben 

2lu5 ber I)enr>c[ung Sd\oo^ ! 

i^ei^et üon Banben 

5reubig eud] los I 800 

^I]ätig il]n preifenöen, 

Ciebe beir>eifenöen, 

Brübcriidi fpeifenben, 

Prebigenö reifenden, 

lüonne nerl^ei^enben, 805 

(£ud] ift bot nieiftcr nali, 

<£udi ift er ba l 


Vor bcm ZhoY. 

5pa5icrgängcr aller 2kt jicf^cn hinaus. 

(Einige f^anbiüerfsburfd^e. 
IParum bcnn bovt hinaus ? 

XO'w qehn I^inaus aufs '^ägetliaus. 

V\c i£rfteii. 
W\v aber rooUen nad} öer lltül^le n?anöeni. sio 

<£iu ^anbtX)odshm\d\. 
3dl vath cud] nad] öem IPafferl^of 3U gelin. 

Vcv WcQ J>abiii ift gar nid]t fd]ön. 

i)ie 5ir>eiten. 
IDas ttjuft öenit bu ? 

€in i)ritter. 

3dj gelje tnit öen anbent. 

rradi Surgborf fommt berauf ! (5cw\% ^ott ftubet ilir 
Die fd-jöuften 2T(äbd|en unb bas befte Sier 815 

ilub iiänbel r>on ber erften Sorte. 

"Du überluftiger (Sefell, 
3urft bidi 5uiit britteuinal i:)as 5olI ? 
3di mag nid^t bin, mir graut es vov bem ©rte. 


Hein, nein, xdi gelie nad] öer Stabt 3urü(f . 820 

Wxv finden iE^n gctoi^ bei jenen pappein fteljen. — 

Das ift für mid] fein großes (SIüiJ ; 
€r roirö an deiner Seite gel^eTi, 
^it bxv nur tanst er auf öem pian. 
IDas gel^n mid^ beine 5i"cuöen an ! 825 

fjeut ift er fidler nid]t allein ; 
X>er Krausfopf, jagt' er, u?üröe bei il^m fein. 

3Ii^, roie bie roacfern Dirnen fd^reiten ! 
£)err ^ruöer fomnt ! u?ir ntüffeit fie begleiten. 
(£in ftarfes Bier, eilt bcisenber ^ohad 830 

Itni) eine VTlagb inx Pu^, öas ift nun mein (SefdimacF. 

Da fiel]' mir nur bie fd]önen Knaben ! 
€5 ift ir>al-;rl]aftig eine 5d]mad] ; 
(SefeUfd]aft fötmten fie bie allerbefte I^aben 
Hnb laufeix biefen ZlTägben nad] ! 83s 

' ^tüeiter Sdiüler sunt cvftcn. 
rtidit fo gefd]u?in(5 ! Dort leinten fommen 3u?ei ! 
Sie finb gar nieblid] angesogen : 
's ift meine 21!ad]barin öabei ; 
3dl bin öem llTäödien fel^r gewogen. 


Sic gehen il^ren ftilleu Schritt 840 

llii^ uebtnen uns ^od] and] am vSiiöo mit. 

f^err trüber, nein ! id] bin nid^t gern genirt. 
(Sefd-ju^inb ba^ wit bas IPilbpret nid"!t Derliercn. 
X)ie fianb, b'w Sam:E'tag5 ihren iVl'en führt, 
tDirb Somttags b'id] am heften careffiren. 845 

Hein, er gefällt mir nidit, ber neue ^urgemeifter ! 
Xlun, ba er'i' ift, tt>irb er nur täglid] breifter. 
ITnb für bie Stabt, was thut bcnn er ? 
iDirb CS nid^t alle Sage fd^Iimnter ? 
(ßehordien foll man mehr als immer 850 

Unb sahlen mehr als je Dorher. 

Bettler fnicjt. 
3I;r guten J^errn, il^r fdiönen grauen, 
So ipolgepu^t unb hacfenrotl^, 
^eüeh' es eud] midi ansufd^aueu, 
Unb feht utib milbert meine Tcoth ! 855 

£aßt I^ier mid] nid^t oergehens leiern 
Zinv bex ift froI>, ber geben mag. 
(Ein Cag ben alle 2T(enfd\m feiern, 
(£r fei für mid"» ein £rntetag. 

2tnbrer Bürger, 
nidits Keffers ireiß id] ntir an 5oitn= unb Feiertagen, 860 
^lls ein (Sefpräd] von Krieg unb Kriegsgefd^rei, 
IDeim hinten toeit in ber ilürFei 
Die Pölfer auf einanber fdtlagen. 
VTlan ftel^t am 5enfter, trinft fein (Släsdien aus 


Hnö fielet öcn 5Iu§ I]maB öie bunten Sd^iffe gleiten ; 86s 
'T)ann feiert man ^Ibenbs frot) nadj fjaus 
Hnö fegnet 5i^ie5' un5 ineöensjeiten. 

X)ritter Bürger, 
fjerr Had^bar, ja I \o Ia§ id7'5 aud] gefd^el^n: 
Sie mögen \\d] öic Köpfe fpalten, 
UTag aEcs burdf einanöer gel]n, 870 

Dodi nur 3U f^aufe bleib's beim Otiten ! 

2tlte 3u bcn Bürgcrmäbd/cn. 
€i ! tt>ie gepult ! bas fdjöjie junge Slut ! 
Wet foU fid] md\t in eud] »ergaffen ? — 
Zlm nid]t fo ftol5 ! es ift fd^on gut ! 
Unö usas il^r roünfd^t, öas mü^t' id? u)oI 3U fd^affen. 875 

2tgatl|e, fort ! xd\ nel^me mid] in 2ld^t 
lT(it fold]en fjej'en öffcntlid] 5U gel]en. 
Sie Iie§ mid) 3u?ar in Sanft ^tnbreas' Zladit 
5)en fünft' gen öebften leiblid] feigen. 

^ie Jtjibre. 
tnir seigte fie il^n im Kryftall, sso 

Solöatenl^aft mit mel^reren Derroegnen ; 
3d] fei)' mid) um, id\ fudV il]n überall, 
2lIIein mir toill er nid^t begegnen. 

Burgen mit I^olieit 

lllauern unb Rinnen, sss 

Xfläbd\en mit ftolsen, 
^öljnenben Sinnen 


21Töd]t' xd\ goipiimen ! 
Kübn ift baf IHüI^cn, 
i]crrlid] öor SCol^n ! 890 

Unb b'ic 'Lromyctc 

Caffon iv'xv werben, 

Wie 511 öor ,^rouöe, 

So 5utn Dorc»orben. 

Das ift ein Stünneii ! 895 

Das ift ein €.chcn l 

l\iäbd]cn Ulli) i^urgcu 

21Tüffon fid] geben. 

Kübn ift bas ZHülicn, 

fjerrlid] bcv Colpt ! 900 

Uiiö bio Soldaten 

5icl^^n Jjaüon. / 

^aiift unb IDagncr. 
Dom €ife befreit ftnb Strom unb Bäd]e 
T)nvd-} bes ^rül^Hngs bolben, belebenbeii ^licf ; 
3m iTbale grünet i^offnungsglüd ; 905 

Der alte IPinter, in feiner Sdiwädic, 
Sog fid] in raube Berge jurücf. 
Von bortlier fenbet er, fliebenb, nur 
0l>mnäditige 5d]auer fönugen «Sifes 
jn Streifen über bie grünenbe 5Iur. gio 

IJtber bie Sonne bulbet fein iPei^es ; 
lleberall regt fid] Bilbung imb Streben, 
2llle5 lüill fie mit 5arben beleben ; 
"Dod] an i3lumen feblt's im i^einer, 
Sie nimmt geputöte ZlTcnjdien bafür. 91s 


Kcl^re b'xdi um, von bicfcn i]ölien 

Xlad} 6er Stabt jurüif 5ufcl]en ! 

2tu5 öem I]oI]Ien, ftnftcrn Clior 

X>ringt ein buntes (5eu?immel Iierr>or. 

^ebet fonnt fid] I^eute fo gern ; 920 

Sie feiern bie <tuferftel]ung bcs I^errn : 

^enn fie finb felber auferftanben ; 

2tu5 niedriger I^äufcr dumpfen (5entäd]ern, 

2Iu5 ^lanbwetfs' unb (Seujcrbesbanben, 

2Iu5 bem X>rucf r>on (5iebeln unö X>äd^ern, 925 

2tus 6er Strafen quetfdienöer €nge, 

2tu5 6er Kird]en el^ru?ür6iger Xlad\t 

5'mb fie alle ans £id]t gebrad^t. « 

Siel^ nur, fiel] ! u?ie bel]enb fid] 6ie IHenge 

Durd] 6ie (Särten un6 5eI6er serfd-jlägt, 930 

IDie 6er 5Iu§, in Sreit' un6 Cänge, 

So mand]cn luftigen 2"cad]en beu?egt ; 

Un6 bis 3um Sinfen überla6en, 

(Entfernt fid] 6ie[er le^te Kalin. 

Selbft von öes Berges fernen pfaöeu 935 

Blinfen uns farbige KIei6er an. 

3d] I]öre fd]on 6es Dorfs (Setümmcl. 

^ier ift 6es Polfes mal^rer ^immel, 

5ufrie6en jaud]5et (Sro^ un6 Klein : 

£iier bin xdi 2Tcenfd], bier 6arf id]'s [ein ! 940 

Zfüt eud], JEierr X>octor, 3U fpasieren, 
3ft cI]renDoll un6 ift (Seminn ; 
Vodi wüvb' xd} nid]t allein mid] l]er verlieren, 
IDeil xdi ein 5(?in6 r>on allem Z^oben bin. 
Das 5i<?6eln, Sd]reien, Kegel fd]ieben 94s 


3ft mir ein gar ocrba^tor Klang ; 

Sic toben, wie vom böfon (Seift getrieben 

Xlnb nennen's ^i'onbe, nennen's (Sefang. 

iSaucrn unter bcr £inbc. 
(Ean3 iu\b (Sefautj. 

Der 5d]äfer pu^te \xd\ sum Can3 

mit bnnter ^adc, 23an5 unb Krans ; 9so 

5d]nuicf loar er angezogen. 

Sdion um öie €\nbe xoat es doII, 

llnb alles tankte fd]on u?ie toll, 

3ud]Iie ! 3ud]be ! 

3ud]Iieifa! f^eifa! I^e! 955 

So ging öer 5ici>eIbogeu. 

(£r brücfte I^aftig fid] I^eran, 

Da ftielß er an ein llTä^dien an 

21Tit feinem «Ellenbogen. 

Die frifdie Dirne fcbrt fid^ um 960 

Xtnb fagte: „Hun, bas finb' id] öunun!" 

3ud]I]e ! 311'^^^ ! 

3ud^I]eifa ! J^eifa ! fje ! 

„Sexb nid\t fo ungcjogen !" 

Docfj f^urtig in öem Kreife ging's, 96s 

Sic tankten rcd^ts, fie tan3ten liitfs 
Unb alle Hö(Je flogen. 
Sie rouröen rotl], fie u?urben ir>arm, 
Hub mieten atlimenb 2lrnt in 2lrm, 
3ud]I]e ! 3udil'!e ! 970 

3ud]I'!eifa ! .^eifa ! f|c ! 
"[ Unö Viü^V an^ Ellenbogen. 


„Unb tlivC mir bod} nidit [o oertraut ! 

Wk mandiet ijat md}t feine Braut 

Belogen unb betrogen !" 975 

(£r fd]nieid]elte fie bod} bei Seit', 

Hnö Don ber £!inbe fd^oU es loeit ; 

3ud]I]e ! 3udil]e ! 

3ud?beifa I i^eija ! X^e ! 

(5e[direi unb 5ieöelbogen. 980 

2nter Bauer, 
f^err Voctov, bas ift fd^ön von eudj 
1)a§ il]r ujts I^eute nid]t »erfd^mäljt, 
Hnb unter biefes Dolfsgebräng' 
2ll5 ein \o f^odigelal^rter gel^t. 

So nel]ntet aud] bcn fdiönften "Krug, 985 

Den toir mit frifd]em Crunf gefüllt. 
3d| bring' il^n 3U unb n?ünfd]e laut, 
T>a^ er nid]t nur bcn X)urft eud? ftillt : 
X)ie ö<^¥ ^'^i^ tEropfen t)ie er l]egt 
Sei euern Cagen sugelegt. 990 

3d^ nel^nxe ben €rqui(fungstranf, 
<£ru)ieör' eudi allen £^cil unö X)anf. 

Das Dolf fammelt ftd^ im Kreis umljcr. 

Filter Bauer. 
5ürn?al^r, es ift fel^r rool getl]an, 
X)a§ il]r am f rollen Cag erfd]ei)it ; 
i)abt il]r es üormals bod} mit un s 99s 

2tn böfen Cagen g ut geme int. 
(5ar mand^er ftel^t lebendig l^ier 
Den euer JPater nod] sulefet 


"Der beiden 5i*-'t>erimitl] entriß, 

2115 er öor Scudi^ ( ^icl gofo t^t. (UAytil looo 

;)lud] öainals ihr, cht junger HTauii, 

3In- gingt in jcbcs Kranfonl^aus ; 

(5ar ii!and]c £cid]c trug mau fort, 

3I]r aber tarnt gcfuub I-;orau5, 

Seftaubct maudie I]artc Proben ; 1005 

Vem ^dfcv l]alf bcv £jelfer J^robcji. 

(Se[unM]eit beut beir>cil]rteu ZlTanu, , 

Va^ er uod] lange Ijelfcn fann ! 

Por jenem Proben ftebt gebüd't. 
Der Ijelfen lel^rt uuö i7ÜIfe [d]icft. loio 

(Er 9cl]t mit lüiujncni uicttcr. 

Wcld] ein (Sefülil mu^t öu, großer Jllann, 
"Sei öer üereliruug öiefer IlTenge I^aben ! 
® glürflid], ir>er dou feinen (Saben 
Sold] einen Dortlieil jielieu famt ! 
X>er Dater ^eigt bid] feinem Knaben, 1015 

<£in jeber fragt unb drängt unö eilt. 
Die 5ieöel fto<it, ber Onser roeilt. 
Du gelift, in Z^eifien ftel^en fie. 
Die rnü^eu fliegen in bie i^öl]' ; 
Hub loenig feblt, fo beugten fid) bie Knie, 1020 

^Is fäm' bas Denerabile. 

Hur irenig 5d]ritte uodi binauf ju jenem Stein ! 
'fjier u;oUen u^ir dou unfrer IDanb'rung raften. 


^ier fa^ id] oft gcöaitfcnooll allein 

Unb quälte inid] mit Beten unb mit haften. 1023 

2tn J^offimng reid^, im (Slauben feft, 

2T(it Cl^ränen, Seufsen, £jänberingen 

X>ad)t' id] bas €nbe jener peft 

Pom ^errn bes fjimmels 3U er5tDingen. 

Dav 21Tenge Beifall tönt mir imn roie ^oI|n. 1030 

® fönnteft bu in meinem 3nnern lefen, 

IDie roenig Pater unö Sofyx 

Sold] eines Hul^mes roertl] gemefen ! 

2T(ein Dater rcar ein bunfler (£l]renmann, 

X)er über bie Ttatur unb il]re fjeil'gen Kreife, 1035 

3n Heblid]fcit, jebod] auf feine IDeife, 

VTiit grillenl^after Znill^e \ann, uji^i.^i^<Jb <xj,AJi^^<,äU<n^. 

Vav, m (Sefellfd]aft von ^tbepten, 

Sid] in 5ie fd]U)ar3e Küdie fd]Io^ 

llnö, nadi unenblid]en ^ecepteit, 1040 

"Das tDibrige 3ufammengo§. l^ooju^U 

X)a n?arb ein rotl^er £eu, ein ful^ner ^i'cier, 

3m lauen Bab ber Cilie »ermälilt 

Unb beibe bann, mit offnem ^lammenfeuer, 

2tu5 einem Brautgemad; ins anbere gequält. 1045 

(Erfd^ien barauf mit buitten färben 

X>ie junge Königin im (Blas : 

^ier loar bie ^Irjenei, bie patienten ftarben, 

Hnb niemanb fragte : IPer genas ? 

So I]aben roir mit I]öIIifd]en £atipergen, 1050 

3n biefen SI]äIern, biefcn Bergen, 

IDeit fd]Iimmer als bie peft getobt. 

3d] I^abe felbft bcn (Sift an Qlaufenbe gegeben ; 

Sie roelf ten Ijin, id) mu^ erleben, 

'Da^ man bie fred]en 21Törber lobt. 1055 


IVw fönnt \hv eud] barum botrüBcii ? 
»Ilnit nid^t ciit braocr 21TaniT genug, 
Vw Kauft, ^10 luau ihn übertrug, 
(Scunffcubaft unc> pünftlid'» au55uübcn ? 
IPcnn t'u, als 3üugliug, ^oiuou Dator cbrft, 1060 

So roirft öu gcnt von tfim empfangen, 
iPeun t>u, ab 21Tautt, b\c iriffenfi-;aft üerntebrft, 
So tann tiein 5obn 5U böbernt <5iel gelangen. 

© glücflid], it^cr nod] boffen fanu, 
2lus liefen i ZlTeer bcs 3i'i't^^^i"^^ aufjUtaud'jeu ! 1065 
Was man nidit toei^, öas chcn braudjte man, 
Unö voas man ifeiß, fatm man nid'jt braudx'u. 
t>od} la^ luts tiefer Stunde fd-;öne5 (5ut 
Durdi foId]en ilrübfinit nid^t perfüntmern ! 
^etradite, u?ie in 2lbenbfonnegIutI] 1070 

X)ie grünumgebnen I^ütteu fdnmmern ! 
Sie rüd t unö »eid'^t, ^er (Tag ift überlebt : 
i)ort eilt fie bin xmc> föi:bert neues £ebeu ! 
(D, ba% fein 5IügeI mid^ r>om Boöen liebt, 
3br nad) unb immer nad^ ju ftreben ! 107s 

3dl fäb' im eiD'gen ^tben^ftral^I 
Die ftille iPelt 5U meinen 5üBon, 
€nt5Ünbet alle fiöIVn, berubigt je^es Cbal, 
Den Silberbad] in golöue Ströme fliejgen. 
Xlxcbt bemmte bann ben göttergleidien Cauf loSo 

Der it)ilbe öerg mit allen feinen Sd^luditeu. 
Sch_on tbut bas VTlecv fid] mit erroärmteu i3ud]teu 
Vov ben erftaunten klugen auf. 
Dod] fd^eint bie (Söttin euMidi loegsufiiifen ; 


2lIIcm bex neue Crieb ermadjt, loSs 

3d? eile fort il|r em'ges £xd\t 5U trinfcn, 

Por mir öen Cag unb I^inter mir öie Had^t, 

X>en ^immel über mir unb unter mir öie IDellen. 

(£in fd]öner Craum, inbeffen fie entiücid^t. \ 

Zldi ! 3U bes (5eiftc5 klügeln roirb \o leidet 1090 

Kein !örperlid]er 5Iügel fid^ gefellen. 

X>od] ift es jebem eingeboren, 

X>a^ fein (Sefüt^l I^inauf unb üormärts bringt, 

IDenn über uns im blauen 2^aum üerloren, 

3I]r fd^metternb Cicb bie Cerdje fingt, 1095 

IDenn über fd]roffen 5id]tenliölien 

Der 2tbler ausgebreitet fd]tt)ebt, 

Unb über ^läd^en, über 5cm 

X>er Kranidj nadi ber fjeimatl^ ftrebt. 

3d) liatte felbft oft grillenl^afte Stunben, noo 

Dod] foId]en Crieb I^ab' id^ nod] nie empfunben. 
man fielet fid) Ieid]t an iPalb unb 5oIbern fatt, 
Des Pogels 5ittid] n?erb' id^ nie beneiben. 
IDie anbers tragen uns bie (Seiftesfreuben 
Pon Bud^ 3U Bud), von Blatt 5U Blatt ! U05 

X>a irerben IDinternäd^te I^olb unb jd]ön, 
(£in feiig £ehen n?ärmet alle (Slieber, 
Unb adi I entroUft bu gar ein uüirbig Pcrgamen, 
So fteigt ber gan3e £jimmel 3U bir nieber. 

"Du bift bir nur bes einen Criebs bewußt; mo 

® lerne nie tcn anbcrn fonnen ! — 
5it>ei Seelen a^ol^nen, ad} ! in meiner Bruft, 


Dk eine tüill ficf] üon bor aiiboni trennen. 

Die eine I^ält in berber «Ciebeslnft 

5\d] an bic IVolt, mit flantmernt>cn 0rgancn ; ms 

Die anöre liebt gcioaltfam \\d\ vom Duft 

<5u ben (Sefilbon Isolier 2U]ncn. 

gibt 05 (Seiftor in bcv Cuft, 

Die 5iril'd]en £r6' un<? I^innnel berrfd^enb weben, 

So fteigot nioöer aus bent golbnen Duft 1120 

IXnb fül^rt mid? toog, 5U neuem, buntem ^ehen l 

301, u?äro nur ein 5<^iif'tn'mantoI mein, 

Unb trüg' er mid] in fremde länger, 

2Tcir föUt' er um öie föftlid]ften (Semänber, 

ZX\d]t feil um einen Königsmantel fein. 112s 

Berufe nid^t bic tnol befannte Sdjaar, 
Die ftrömenb fid^ im Dunftfreis überbreitot. 
Dem 21Tenfd]on taufenbfäTtigc (Sefalir, 
Von allen (Enben Iier bereitet. 

Von ^wrben bringt bor fd]arfe (Soiftersabn 1130 

2tuf bid] f^erbei mit pfeil gefpi^ten jungen ; 
Don IlTorgen sielin, »ertrodnenb fte I]eran 
Ilnb näliren fid] Don boinen Cungen ; 
Wenn fie bor llTittag aus bor IDüfte fd]idt. 
Die (Slutli auf (Slutlf um boinen Sd^eitel I-jäufen, 1135 
So bringt bor IDeft ben Sd^parm, bor orft erquidt 
Um bid] unb 5oIb unb ^lue 5U erfäufon. 
Sie I^ören gern, jum Sd^aben frob gouuinbt, 
(ßobordien gern, lüoil fie uns gern betrügen, 
Sie ftellen roie Dom f^immel fid] gefanbt i .40 

Xlnb lispeln englifd], u?cim fie lügen. 
Dod] gel^n anr ! ergraut ift fd]on bio IDoIt, 


Vxe £uft gemi]It, bcr Xlehd fällt ! 

2tm 2lbenb fd]ä^t man crft bas ^ans. — 

Was ftel]ft öu fo unö bliiJft erftaunt I^inaus? 1145 

Was iann bxd] in ber Dämm'rung fo ergreifen ? 

Sieljft bvL ben fd^roarjen fjunb burd) Saat unb 5to]ppd 
ftreifen ? 

3d] faf^ if]n lange fd]on ; nid]t loid^tig fd^ien er mir. 

Setrad]t' il]n red^t ! für roas Iiältft bu bas Cfjier ? 

5ür einen pubet, ber auf feine iDeife 1150 

Sid] auf ber Spur bes J^crren plagt. 

53emer!ft bu, »?ie im tr>eiten Sd^necfenfreifc 
(£r um uns I^er unb imntcr näl]er jagt ? 
Hnb irr' id^ nid]t, fo sielet ein 5euerftrubel 
2tuf feinen ()fabm Ijinterbrein. nss 

3d7 fel^e nid]t5 als einen fd]u>ar5en pubel ; 
<£s mag bei eud] u?oI Stugeittäufd^ung fein. 

ZTtir fd^eint es ba^ er magifd] leife Sd]Iingen 
^u fünft'gem "Banb um unf re 5ü^e sielet. 

3d] fei]' iljn ungeu?i^ unb fiu-dttfam uns umfpringen, 1160 
IDeil er, ftatt feines £jerrn, 5ir>ei Xlnbefannte fielet. 


Der Kreis tt■'ir^ eng, \d]on ift er nah ! 

Du [iel^ft, ein I]un&, unö fein (Scfpenft ift ba ! 
(£r tnurrt un^ juxnfelt, lecjt fid] auf bcn ^aud], 
(£r u?ec»elt. Dilles l^uuöebraud]. 1165 

(Sefelle öid] 5U uns I Kotnnt' Her ! 

£s ift ein pubelnärrifd] Sljier. 
Du ftelieft ftill, er ir>artet auf ; 
Du fpridift ibn an, er ftrebt an b\v I^inauf ; 
Derliere ir>as, er u?irb es bringen, 1170 

Xlad] öeinent Stod ins JDaffer fpringen. 

Du Iiaft irol red^t, id] ftn^e nid]t öie Spur 
Von einent (Seift uni» alles ift Dreffur. 


Dem Pjunbe, K^enn er gut gesogen, 

IDirb felbft ein roeij'er lllann geir>ogen. 1175 

3a, beine (5unft cerbient er gans unö gar, 

€r, öer Stuöenten trefflidier Scolar. 

Sie ijebcn tu bas 5tabttI]or. 



5auft mit bcin pubcl I^crctntvctcnb. 
Perlaffen I^ab' id] 5clö unö 2tuen, 
^te eine tiefe Had]t bcbe(f t, 

Znit al^nungsDoIIent, I^eil'gem (5rauen uSo 

3n uns bie be^re Seele vocdt. 
(£ntfd]Iafen finb nun wilbc Criebe 
Xfüt jebent ungeftümen SI]un ; 
(£5 reget fid^ bie SHenfdienliebe, 
^ie Ciebe (Sottes regt fid^ nun. nSs 

L Sei rul]ig, Pubel ! renne nid]t I]in unb toieber ! 
2tn ber 5d]rDeIIe, xoas fd^noperft bu I)ter ? 
Cege bid^ l^inter bcn 0fen nieber 1 
2T(ein beftes Kiffen geb' id] bir. 

Wie bu brausen auf bent bergigen Wege ngo 

T>utd\ Hennen unb Springen ergebt uns I^aft, 
So nimm nun aud\ von mir bie Pflege, 
2(l5 ein roilWommner, ftiller (Saft. V, 

2ld\ wenn in unfrer engeit ^elle 

i)ie lampe freunblid] toieber brennt, 1195 

Dann roirb's iji unferm Bufen I^elle, 

3m i^ersen, bas fid] felber fennt. 

Pernunft fängt u?ieber an 5U fpred]en 

llnb -Eröffnung u?ieber an 5U blülin ; 

ZtTan felint fid] nad] bes Cebens öädien, 1200 

2td] I nad\ bes Cebens Quelle I]in. 

Knurre nid]t, Pubel ! S^ ben fieiligen Conen, 
^ie je^t meine ganse Seel' umfaffen. 


irill ^cr tbicrifdic €aut nid^t pa[)'oit. 

IV'n- fiiib goir>obnt, c>a|3 ^io Zlloiifdicn oerliöl^nen, 1 

IVa^ \\c \nd]t oerftol^n, 

Va^ ftc Dor ^em (Sutcn imb 5d]önc)t, 

Das xl}ncn oft bcfd]tr)crlid] tft, murren : 

Wiü. CS K>cv iriimb, toie [ic, bofnurrcn ? 

2lbcr ad] ! fd^on fübl' id] bei ^em beften IDillen 1 

Befriebicjuitg ntd]t inel^r aus ^etn Sufeii quilleii. 

^Iber u->arum tnuf^ ^er Stront \o halb üerftegen 

Unö u?ir aneber im X>urfte liegen ? 

i)aüon I^ab' id] fo oiel frfabruiig ! 

'Dod] öiefer 2T(angeI lä^t fid] erfe^eu ; 1 

IDir lernen ^as Uebenrc>ild]e fd]ä^en, 

IDir [ebnen uns nad] ©ffenbarung, 

Die nirgends ir>ür^'ger unb fd]öncr bremit 

2lls in ^em neuen Ceftament. 

ZTiid] örängts bcn (5runbteft auf5ufd]Iagen, i 

VTlii reMid]em (S:fübl einmal 

Das Iieilige ©riginal 

3n mein geliebtes Deutfd] 5U übertragen. 

€r fdilägt ein Dohnn auf uiib fdncft ficfj an. 
(5e[d]rieben fte[]t: „3"^ Einfang axir bas ZPort.'' 
^ier ftoiJ' id] \d}on l Wcv bilft mir it>eiter fort ? i 
^d\ tann bas Wort [0 I]od] unmöglid] [d]ä^en ; 
3d] muf5 es anbers überfe^en, 
ll'^enn id] com (Seifte red]t erleud]tet bin, 
(5efd]rieben ftebt: „ 3"^ Einfang a^ar bet Sinn." 
^ebenfe wol b\e erfte ^^'il*-'/ i 

i)a% beijie 5cber fid] nid]t übereile ! 
3ft es ber 5imt, ber ades a->irft unb fd]afft ? 
(£s foEte ftebn : „ 3'" -tnfang a->ar bie Kraft." 


Vod], and] inbem xd] bk\cs niei5erfd]reibc, 
Sd}on toavnt m\d\ was, ba^ id] bahc'x nid]t bleibe. 1235 
2Tcir I^ilft ber (Seift ! 2luf einmal [elf id] llatl) 
Unb fd^reibe getroft: „ 3"^ Einfang wav b'w ^iiat" 

Soll \d\ mit b'iv bas ^in^nter tf]eilen, 

Puöel, \o la^ bas JEjeuIen, 

So Ia§ bas bellen ! 1240 

Soldi einen ftörenben (5e[eIIen 

2Tcag id] nid]t in öer 2TäI]e leiben. 

(£iner üon mts beiben 

2T{u^ bie ,5^üe meiben. 

Ungern Ijeb' id] bas (5aftred]t auf ; 1245 

©ie CI]ür' ift offen, l]aft freien £auf. 

2tber toas mu^ id] fel]en ! 

Kann bas natürlid] ge[d]el]en ? 

3ft es 5d]atten ? ift's a:>irflid]feit ? 

IDie tr>irb mein Pubel lang unb breit ! 1250 

€r I]ebt fid] mit (5eit)alt ! 

Vas ift nid]t eines fjunbes (Beftalt ! 

IDeld] ein (Sefpenft brad]t' id] ins I^aus ! 

S<i]on fiel]t er loie ein Hilpferb aus, 

TXiit feurigen 2tugen, fd]redlid]em (5ebi§. 1255 

<D ! bu bift mir geroi^ ! 

5ür foId]e I]albe £]öllenbrut 

3ft Salomonis 5d]Iüffel gut. 

(Seifler auf bcni (Sauge. 

Irinnen gefangen ift einer ! 

Bleibet I]au§en, folg' il]m feiner ! 1260 

IPie im <£ifen ber 5wd]5, 

^agt ein alter ^öllenlud]s. 


2lbcr gehet 2ld]t ! 

5d}webet Hn, fditocbct w'iebev, 

2tuf unb iticöcr, 1265 

Hnö er bat fid] los gemad^t ! 

Könitt ibr ibnt iiü^on, 

Caßt ibu ntd^t fi^cn ! 

'Denn et tliat uns allen 

Sdion viel ju (Scfallen. 1270 

(£rft 5U begegnen bent Cbtere, 
Sraud)' id^ öen Sprud^ öer Piere : 

Salamander foll glüben, 

llnbcne fid] n^inben, 

Sylpbc r>erfd)trtnöen, 1275 

Kobolö [id] müben ! 

IDer fie nid^t fennte, 

4)ie Elemente, 

3Iue Kraft 

Hnö (£igenfdiaft, 1280 

IDäre fein 2T(eifter 

Ueber öie (Seifter. 

Derfd]t£>inb' in 5Icintmen, 

Salamander ! 

Hau[dicnö fliege 3ufammen, 1285 

Unbene ! 

Ceud-jt' in ZlTeteorenfdiöne, 

Sylplie ! 

Bring' bäuslid^e fjülfe, 

Incubus ! Incubus ! 1290 

Critt Iieruor unb mad^e ben Sd^Iug ! 


Keines öer Diere 

Stecft in bem d]ierc : 

(£5 liegt Qan^ rul^ig unb gfinft ntid] an. 

3d] Vidb' ilint nod] nid^t vod} getl^an 1 

Du follft mid] I^ören 

5tär!er befd]n?öreit. 

^ift bu, (SefeUe, 

(Ein 5Iüd|tling ber f^ölle ? 

So fiel] bies 5cid]en, 

X)em fie fid] beugen, 

Die fd]u?ar3en 5d]aaren I 

5d]on fd)£DiIIt es auf mit borftigen paaren. 

Perujorfenes iX)efen ! 

Kannft bu ilin lefen, 

Den nie entfpro^ncn, 


Durd] alle f^intmel gego^ncn, 

5repentlid] burdiftod]nen ? 

fjinter bcn (Dfen gebannt, 

5d]u?illt es u?ie ein €IepI]a>it ; 

Den gansen Haum füllt es an, 

(£5 loill 5um riebel 5erflie|3en. 

Steige nidit 3ur Dede I^inan ! 

£ege bid] 5U bes ZITeifters 5ü§en. 

Du fiel]ft, ta^ \d\ nid]t Dorgebens brol]e, 

3d] oerfenge bid] mit Iieiliger £ol]e ! 

(£ru?arte nid]t 

Das breimal glülienbe £id]t ! 

(£rn?arte nid]t 

Die ftärffte uon meinen Künften ! ^ 


tritt, iIt^crn bi-r ITcbcI fällt, gcficibct tric ein fatjrcnbcr 
Sdiolaittcus, liiutcr öcin ©fcii I^crror. 
ID03U öor £ärm ? was ftcbt i)cm i^orrii 511 X>icnften ? 

5auft. ^ 

1)a5 ai]o ivav bcs pubcis Kern ! 
(£\\\ fabjcnbcf Scolaft ? Der (Tafus madit m\d} lad]cn. 

3d] faluttre I?en geleierten i^errn ! 1325 

3Iu- babt inid] loeiMid) fd^toi^en nmdien. 

Wie neuuft öu b'xd] ? 

X>ie 5i*age [d7etnt mir flein 
5ür einen, ber bas Wort fo fcbr Derad]tet, 
Der, weit entfernt r>on allem 5d]ein, 
Hur in öer XDefen Ciefe trad]tet. 1330 

^ei euAi, iljr .^crrn, fann man öas lüefen 

(Seiröbnlid] aus c>em Hamen lefen, 

Wo CS fid] aIl5U öeutlidi loeif't, 

tDenn man eud] 5Hegengott, Derberber, Cügner I^ei^t. 

Hun gut, u?er bift öu öenn ? 


(£in Oxnl r>on jener Kraft, 1335 
i>ie ftäts i>as Böfe u?ill, uni) ftäts bas (Sute fd]afft. 

Was i[t mit biefent 2\ätbfeIiDort gemeint ? 


3d? Bin bev (Seift, ber ftäts ücnteiut ! 

Unb öas mit ^ed}t : benn alles, was entjtel]t 

3ft roertl], öa§ es 511 (5mnbe gel^t ; 1340 

X)rum beffer rpär's, ba§ n\d]ts entftünbe. 

So ift benn alles, toas il]r Sünbe, 

^erftöruitg, fürs öas Boje nennt, 

2Tcein eigcntlid^es Clement. 

Vn nennft b'xd] einen Jlt^eil un5 fteljji bodi Qan^ vov 
mir ? 1343 

Befd^eibne tDaF]rI]eit fpred)' \d] bii*. 
IDenn fid] ber 2T(en[d^, bie fleine Harrenrcelt 
(5eiriöl]nlid^ für ein (Standes I^ält. 
3d] bin ein Sljeil bes Cl^eils, öer anfangs alles roar, 
€in O^eil öer 5i"fterni§, bie fid] bas Cidit gebar, 1350 
Das ftolse Cid]t, bas nun bcr 2T(utter Xladit 
Den alten Hang, ben 2^aum ilir ftreitig madit. 
Unb bod] gelingt's il]m nid^t, ba es, fo oiel es ftrebt, 
Perl^aftet an ben Körpern flebt. 
Von Körpern ftrömt's, bie Körper mad^t es \d\ön, 1355 
(£in Körper I]emmt's auf feinem (Sänge. 
So, l]off' id], bauert es nid]t lange 
Hnb mit bcn Körpern upirb's 3U (Srunbe gel^n. 

Zinn fenn' id] beine mürb'gen PfTid^ten ! 
Vn f annft in (Sro|3en nid^ts r»ernid]ten 1360 

ITnb fängft es nun im Kleinen an. 


Unb freilid] ift nid]t viel bannt gotliau. 
Was fid] bcm I1\d]ts cntgogoitftellt, 
i)a5 ftiras, b\c\c plumpe Welt, 
So DicI als id\ fd]on untcruommcn, 1365 

3d] ivn^tc n\d]t ibr Itcisufoniineu, 
Zllit ircllen, Stürmen, Sdnitteln, "Bvanb ; 
(Scrubig bleibt am <£nbc ItTeer imö Caitb ! 
Unö bem oertiammten 5eug,ber tIliiei-= unb 21Ienfd]en= 

Dem ift nun gar nid]ts an^ubaben. 1370 

IDie üiele I]ab' id] fd]on begraben 
Unb immer circulirt ein neues, frifd^es Blut. 
So gellt CS fort, man mödite rafenb toerbcn ! 
Der luft, bem Il^affer wk bcv *£r<5en 
€ntir>inben taufenb Keime fid], 1375 

3m <Irocfnen, Renditen, ITarmen, Kalten ! 
I]ätt' id] mir nidit bie 5Iamme oorbelialten, 
3d] l]ätte nid]t5 Stparts für nüd]. 

So fe^eft bii 5er etoig regen. 

Der Iieilfam fd]affenben (5eu>alt 1380 

Die falte Ceufelsfauft entgegen. 
Die fid] nergebens tüdifd] ballt ! 
iX)as anders fudie 3U beginnen. 
Des Cbaos tt>unberlid]er Soi\n ! 

W\v wollen roirflid] uns befinnen. 
Die näd]ftenmale melir bar»on ! 
Dürft' id] iDol diesmal nüd] entfernen ? 


3<i? fel)^ nid^t, toarum bii fragft. 
^d] iiahc jc^t bid] fcimen Icntcn ; 
Befud]c nun mid], it?ie bii ntagft ! 1390 

^ier ift öas ^enftcr, Ijtcr bie d]üre ; 
€in 2^aud]fang ift bir aud^ getoi^. \; 

(5cftcl^ id^s nur ! Va^ \d} ijinausfpasiere, 
Perbictet mir ein ficities fjinberni^ : 
"Der Drubenfu^ auf eurer Sdimeüe. 1395 

"Das pcntagramma mad]t bir Pein ? 
(£i fage mir, bu Soiin ber i^öHe, 
IPenn bas bid] baimt, u?ie famft bu benn Ijerein ? 
iPie ujarb ein foldier (5eift betrogen ? 

^efd^aut es red^t ! es ift nid]t gut gebogen ; 1400 

Der eine IDinfel, ber nad] au^en 5U, 
3ft, u?ie bu fiel]ft, ein u?enig offen. 

"Das liat ber ^ufall gut getroffen ! 
Unb mein (Befangner u?ärft beim bu ? 
Das ift Don oI]ngefäIir gelungen I 1405 

Vax Pubel merfte nid]t5, als er I^ereingefprungcn, 
Vk Sadic fielet je^t anbers aus ; 
"Der Ceufel fann nid]t aus bem £jaus. 


T)od] wavum gch)t c>u nidit ^urd-js 5onfter ? 

'5 ift ein (Scfo^ c»or Zcnfcl unt) (55e[pcnftcr : mio 

Wo fio boroinaofd-;lüpft, ^a inüffon fio Huaus. 
Da» crfto (tobt uns frei, heim ^weiten imb iv'xv Kncditc. 

Die fjöUo l'elbft bat ibre 2^edite ? 
Das ftnö' id] gut ! öa ließe ftd] ein Pact, 
llnö fid]er wol, mit eud], ibr i^erren, fd^Iießen? 1415 

WaB man r>er[prid]t, i^as follft C>u rein genießeit, 
Dir ir>irJ5 öaoon nidits abge^uxicft. 
Dod] bas ift nidit io furj 5U faffen, 
Itnb w'w befpred^en bas junädift; 
Dod^ je^o bitt' id^ bod^ iinb böd]ft, 1420 

5ür JJiefesmal mid] 511 entlaffen. 

So bleibe t>od\ nodi einen 2tugenbliif 
Um mir erft gute JTiär' 5U fagen. 

3<?fet laß mid] los ! id] fomme halb 5urüc! ; 
Dann magft öu nad] belieben fragen. 1425 

3d] babe bir nid^t nad'jgeftellt, 
^ift bu bod] felbft ins (Sarn gegangen. 
Den üeufcl balte, a>er ibn Ixilt ! 
*£r wxvb Hin nidH Jobali) 3um jioeiteiunale fangen. 


Wenn birs Beliebt, \o hin \d\ and\ bereit, 
'Dir 3ur (SefeIIfd]aft liier 5U bleiben ; 
Dodi mit Bebingni§, bir öic ^eit 
^urd^ meine Künfte roürbig 5U pertreiben. 

^d] fel^' es gern, bas ftef^t 5ir frei ! 
Zluv ba^ öie Kunft gefäKig fei ! 

Vu. lüirft, mein 5reunb, für öcine Sinnen 
3n öiefer Stunde mel]r gewinnen, 
2lls in bes ^ai\ve5 Einerlei. 
Was b'iv öie sarten (Seifter fingen, 
^ie fd^önen 23ilber, bie fie bringen, 
5inö nid]t ein leeres ^auberfpiel. 
2iudi bexn (Serud] lüirb fid^ ergeben, 
^ann roirft bu beinen (Säumen le^en 
Unb bann ent3Üdt fid] bein (Sefülil. 
Bereitung braud]t es nid]t Doran, 
Seifammen finb rcir, fanget an ! 

Sd^roinbet il]r bunfeln 
IDöIbungen broben ! 
Z^eijenber fd]aue 
5reunblid7 ber blaue 
2letl]er I]erein ! 
Waten bie bunfeln 
IDoIfen serronnen ! 
Sternclein funfein. 


21TiIt>crc Sonnen 1455 

Sdioincn darein. 

f]imntltl'dior Söl^ne 

(5oiftic}o Sd'jöno, 

5d]ipanfen^o l^nujung 

5d]ixicbct üorübcr ; 1460 

Selincnöc Neigung 

folget Iiinübcr. 

Hub öor (Sciüänber 

^Icittoniöe Bäjiöer 

X>ccfcn öie Cänbcr, --^j^- 1465 

X)e(fcn öie £aube, * '^ 

Wo fid] fürs hieben, ** & ' 

Cief ht iSeöanfon, 

£iebcnbc geben. .* 

Canbe bei £aubc ! 1470 

Sproffenöe 2^anfen ! 

Caftenöe (Traube 

Sturst ins Bel^älter 

^rängenber Kelter, 

Stürzen in Bädien 1475 

5d]äunten(?e IDeine ; 

Hiefeln burd] reine, 

(£ble (Sefteine. 

£aiien bie fjöben 

fjinter fid] liegen, 14S0 

breiten 5U Seen 

S'xdi utns (ßenügen 

(Brünenber £ii\g,cl. 

IXnb bas (Seflügel 

Sd^Iürfet fid] ir'oine, 1485 

5lieget öer Soiuie, 


flieget ben I^cIIcit 

3nfcln eiitgccjcit, 

Die \\d] auf Weücn 

(Saufcinb beir»egen ; 1490 

Wo vo'w in (£f]ören, 

3aud]5en()c I^ören, 

Heber ten 2tuen 

Sansenbe fd]aueii, 

X>ie fid] im S^-ckn 149s 

2llle jcrftreuen. 

(Einige flininien 

Heber öie I^ölien, 

2tnbere fd]n>intmen 

Heber öie Seen ; 1500 

2lnbere [dimeben, 

2IIIe 5um i.cbcn, 

2tIIe 5ur 5t'rne 

Ciebenöer Sterne, 

Seliger .^ulö. 1505 


(£r fd^Iäft ! So red^t, if^r luft'gen, sarten 3ungen ! 

3I]r I-jabt xfyx treulid^ eingefungen ! 

5ür öies Concert bin id] in eurer Sd]uI5. 

X>u bift nodi nid]t ber Zflann ben (Teufel feft 5U I]alten ! 

Hntgaufelt il]n mit fügen Craumgeftalten, isio 

Perfenft il]ji in ein 21Teer bes IDal^ns ! 

T>odi öiefer Sdii^elle Räuber 5U serfpaltcn 

^ebarf xd\ eines Hatten^abus. 

Hid^t lange braud]' id^ 3U befd]u?ören ; 

Sdjon rafd^elt eine I|ier unb vo'wb fogleid] mid] I^ören. 1515 


Der fjerr bcr Z^attcit unt> öcr JHäufc, 

Der 5liegen, 51'öldic, IDansctt, £äufc, 

Seftclilt 5ir, Md] Kn-uorjuaxicjou, 

lln5 bicfc SdiiPcUc 511 bcnaaoii, 

So wie er fio mit 0cl betupft. — is 

Da fotntnft bu \d)on l}cvvotQcl}u\>ft ! 

5^ui- frifd] ans VOed ! Die 5pifee öie tnid] bannte, 

Sie filgt ganj vornen an bcv Kante. 

Xlod] einen i^ijg, [0 ift's aefd]elin ! — 

XXun, 5tiwft*?, träume fort, bis u?ir uns u?ieberjel^n ! 1= 

5auft crtDachcnb. 
^in id] ^enn abermals betrogen ? 
Perfdiiüijibet fo ber geifterreid^e Drang, 
Da§ mir ein SIraum bcn üleufel üorgelogen 
Unö ba^ ein puöel mir entfprang ? 


^auft. iricpbtftop{]cIe5. 


(£s f lopf t ? i^erein ! IDer u?ill mid-> ir>ieJ)er plagen ? 1530 

'^dl bins. 

.^erein ! 

Du mu^t es breimal fagen. 

i^erein bcnn ! 


So gefällft öu nur. 
Wxt mcrben, I^off' id], uns ücrtragcii ! 
^enii bif bie (5i*tIIeii 5U ücrjageit, 
Sin id], als cbler 3unfer, I^icr 153s 

3" rotl^cnt, golÖDerbrämtcm KIcibe, 
T)as VTiäntcldien von ftarrcr Seibe, 
Vie f^al^nenfcbcr auf öem fjut, 
Znit einem langen, fpifeen i)cgen, 
Hnb ratlie nun b'w, fürs unb gut, 154° 

Dergleid]e)t gleidifalls anzulegen, 
X)amit bu losgebunden, frei, 
€rfal]reft u?as bas teben fei. \J 

3n jebem Kleibe toerb' id) n?ol bie Pein 
Des engen (£rbelebens fül^Ien. 154s 

2d\ bin 5U alt, um nur 3U fpielen, 
^u jung um oI|ne IDunfd] 5U fein. 
IDas fann bie IDelt mir wol gen?äl^ren ? 1 
€ntbel^ren foUft bu ! foUft entbel^ren ! ^ 
Das ift ber eu?ige (Sefang, 1550 

Der jebem an bie 0I]ren flingt, 
Den unfer ganzes £ebeti lang 
Uns I]eifer jcbe Stunbe fingt. 
Hur mit €ntfe^en ipad]' id] IHorgens auf, 
3d^ möd]te bittre Qll^ränen roeinen, 155s 

Deit ^ag 5U fel^n, ber mir in feinem Cauf 
Zl\d]t (Eilten IDunfd] erfüllen wirb, nid]t €inen ! 
Der felbft bie 2ll]nung jeber £uft 
Zfiit eigenfinnigem Krittel minbert, 
Die 5d]öpfung meiner regen Sruft i 156° 


21Tit taufciiö Cebcnsfra^cn I^inbcrt. 

2[ud] tiui^ id], wenn öic lladit fid^ nicöcrfcitft, 

IMid] änq]'il\d] auf J?a5 £agcr ftrccfoii. 

2lud] ^a anrö feilte 2\aft aefd^enft, 

2Tlid] iperben irilöc Cräutne [d^recfcn. 1565 

Der (5ott, ber mir itn i3u[eix ipol^ut, 

Kamt tief meiit 3nnerfte5 erregeit ; 

Der über alleit uteineit Kräftett tbront, 

(£r fann itad] ^luj^eit itid]t5 beir>egeit. 

Unb fo ift mir öas Dafcitt eine Caft, 1570 

Der ^oC) eripiutfd]!, öas Cebeit mir »erlia^t. 

Hitb bod} ift nie ber Sob ein gan; wiUfommner (Saft. 

fcitg bet, bem er im Siegesglanjc 
Die blut'gen Corbeern um bie Sd^Iäfe winbet, 
Den er itad] rafd] v>urdn-af' tem Caitje 1575 

^n eines JlTäbdiens Firmen fiitöet ! 
tDcir' id] Dor bes bobeit (Seiftes Kraft 
*£nt5ÜiJt, entfeelt öaE^iitgefunfen ! 

llnb bod) liat jemattb eineit braiuten Saft 
3it jener Zla<i\t nxd]t ausgetrunfcit. 1580 


Das Spioniren, fd^eint's, ift Deiite £uft. 

^lllmiffenb bin id^ itid^t ; 5odi oiel ift ntir betinii^t. 


Wenn aus öem fd]recflid]en (5cit)ül]Ie 
(£tn fü§ befaitntcr ^on intd] 30g, 
'Den Keft pon ftnMid]cnt (5efüI]Ic 1585 

ZlTit 21nflaitg froI]cr ^eit betrog : ' 
So ^ud]' idi allein, it>as bie Seele 
Zfiit Codf= unb (Baufeltoerf utn[pannt 
Unb fic in 5iefe Crauerl^ölile 

2T(it BIenb= unb 5d]meid]elfräften bannt ! 1590 

Perflud]t üoraus bie l}ohe Ztleinung, . 

XDomit bei- (Seift fid] felbft umfätxgt ! ^ 

Derflud^t bas ölenben ber (£rfd]einung, 
"Die fid] an unfre Sinne brängt 1 
Perfludit ivas uns in Cräumeii I]eud]elt, 159s 

^es Hul^ms, ber Hamensbauer Qlrug ! 
Derflud^t roas als Befi^ uns fd]meid]elt, 
2l[s 2r>eib unb Kinb, als Unedit unb pflug ! — 
Per^udit fei ZlTantnion, wenn mit Sd]äöen 
(£r uns 3U fül^nen Cliaten regt, i^oo 

IPemt er 5U müßigem (£rge^en 
'Die polfter uns 3ured|te legt ! 
5Iud] fei bem Balfamfaft ber Qlrauben ! 
5Iud] jener I^ödiften £iebesl]ulb ! 
5lud] fei ber fjoffnung ! ^lud^ bem (ßlauben 1605 

Unb 5Iud] r>or allem ber (Sebulb ! — 

(5eifterd]or unfid^tbar. 
Wel\l roeli! 
Vn Iiaft fie serftört 
Die fd]öne XDelt, 

21Tit ntäd]tiger 5»-iuft. 1610 

Sie [türst, fie serfällt ! 

SCENE IV. ^ 67 

(£in ^albgott \\oX fte 5er[d]Iacjcn ! 

VO'xt tragen 

^ie (Lrütnincrn ins V\6\\.s I]inübcr 

Ititt) flagcn 1615 

lieber öie oerlorne 5d]ö)ie. 


Der €röenföl|ne, 


Saue fte if ieber, 1620 

3n öeinem Sufen baue fie auf ! 

Tfeueu Lebenslauf 


rnit t;c[Ient Sinne 

Unb neue lieber 162s 

Conen darauf ! 


l^ies ftnb bie Kleinen 

V>o\\ ben JUeineji. 

I^öre, u?ie 5U Cuft unö '^^oA^w 

2Utflug fte ratl^en ! 3630 

3it öie iüelt roeit, 

2lu5 öer €in[atnfeit, 

VOo S\\w\<i\\ mtt) Säfte ftorfen, 

iDoUeit fie öid^ locfen. ^ 

fjör' auf mit beinent (Sram 3U fpielen, 163s 

Der, roie ein (5eier, bir ant £ebeit fri§t ! 

Die fd]Ied]tefte (Sefeüfd^aft läßt bid] fül](en, 

Dafi bu ein THenfd] mit ZlTenfd^en bift. 

'i^oi), fo ift's nid^t genteint, 

Did] unter bas pacf 511 ftoßen ! 1640 


3d] bin feiner üon ben (5i'o§en, 

Dod] rpillft bu, mit mir »ereint, 

X>eine 5d]ritte 6urd]5 £cbcn nelimen, 

So roill xdi mid] gent bequemen, 

"Dein 3U fein auf öer Stelle. 164s 

^dl bin bein (Sefelle 

Unb madi' id] bir's red]t, 

Bin id] öein X)iener, bijt bein Kned^t ! 

Unb voas foll id] bagcgcn b'iv erfüllen ? 

Va^u I]aft bu nod\ eine lange 5rift. 1650 

Hein, nein ! Der Ceufel ift ein <£goift 
l\nb tliut nid]t leidit um (Bettes lOillen 
Was einem andern nü^lid] ift. 
Sprid] bk Bedingung beutlid] aus ; 
(£in foId]er X>iener bringt (Scfalir ins fjaus ! 1655 

3d] n?ill mid] I]ier 5U deinem i)ienft ücrbinben, 
2tuf beinetn IPinf nid]t raften unb nid]t rul]n ; 
IDenn u?ir uns Grüben lüieöerftnben, 
So follft bu mir bas (5Ieid]e tl]un. 

I^as l^rüben faim mid] wenig fümmern ; iC6o 

5d]Iägft bu erft biefe IPelt 5U Crümmern, 
X>ie anöre mag öarnad] entftoI]n. 
2tu5 öiefer <£rbe quillen meine 5i'*''ii«>on 


Unb btcfc Sonne fd]ciitct meinen Ceiben ; 

Kann \di m\d\ crft von ilincn fd]etöen, 1665 

Dann maa nxis irill unb fann gefd]el]n. 

i^auon will \d] nid^ts uunter boren, 

Ob man aud] fünftia baf^t nnb liebt, 

llnb ob CS aud] in jenen Spbären 

£in (Dben oi^er Unten gibt. 1670 

3n bie[em Sinne fannft bn's wagen. 
Perbinbe bid^ ! Vn follft in c>ie[en üagen 
2nit irenben meine Künfte febn ! 
^d\ gebe b'w was nod] fein UTenfd) gefel^n. 

Was willft bu armer Ceufel geben ? 1675 

IVavb eines ZHenfdien (Seift in feinem I^ol^cn Stteben 
Von bc'xncs (SIeid]en je gefajgt ? 
i)od} I]aft bn Speife bie nidit fättigt, I^aft 
T)n rott^es (Solb bas ohne 2^aft, 
QueiJfilber gleid], bir in bet Vianb serrintit, leso 

(£in Spiel bei öem man nie geiriintt, 
€in 2T(äbd]en bas an meiner 53ruft 
Zllit ^leugeln fd]on bem 2ftad]bar fid^ »erbinbet, 
Der flire fdiöne (5ötterluft 

Die roie eitt ZTteteor üerfd]u?inbet. 1685 

,5eig' mir bie 5i'ud]t bie fault el]' man fie brid]t 
Unb Sämne bie fid^ täglxdi neu begrünen ! 

€in foId]er ^luftrag fdn-ecft mid] nid-jt ; 
2Tlit foldien Sd]äl3en fann id] bienen. 


Vodi guter 5rcunb, b'ie ,§cit fommt aud] Ijeran, 1690 
Wo mir was (Suts in Hul^e fd]maufcit mögen. 

XDerb' \d\ beruFiigt ]c mxdi auf eiu 5<3ulbett legen, 
So jei es gleid] unt mid] getl^an ! 
Kannft öu mid^ fd^meid]clnb je belügen, 
Va^ id] mir [clbft gefaEen mag, 1695 

Kannft 5u mid^ mit (5enu§ betrügen : 
Vas fei für m\d\ öer le^te Cag ! 
4)ie iX)ette biet' id] ! 



Unt) 5d]Iag auf 5d]Iag. 
IPerö' id) jum 2tugenblicf e fagen : 

Pern?eile bodi, bu bift fo fd]ön ! — '''°° i 

X)ann magft 5u mxdi in 5^f[cln fd^Iagcn, 
5ann roill \d\ gern 5U (Srunbe geljn ! 
t>ann mag bie Cobtenglod e fd^allen, 
Dann bift bu beines XJienftes frei, 
T>'xe Uiit mag ftel^n, ber feiger fallen, 1705 

€s fei bie 5^it füi* ^^i<i? »orbei ! 1 

ZÜepl\\\to\>l}cks. ' 

23eben!' es iüoI ! roir ujerben's nid^t »ergcffcn. 

Va^VL I^aft bu ein »olles Zicdit. 
3d] iiahe midi nid]t freoentlid] permeffen ; 
IDie id] bel]arre, bin id] Kned]t, 1710 

<Db bciUy lüas frag' id], ober meffen. 



3d] l^cl•^o Knito gloid] beim ^octorjd^iuaus 

Zlls Diener meine pflid]t erfüllen. — 

Hur eins ! — Um Gebens ober Sterbens anüen 

Sitt' id] mir ein Paar 5^^il^'n *^^^- 171s 


^lud| toas (Sefdiricbncs forbcrft bu, pebant ? 

^aft bii nod] feinen JHann, nid^t JITaimesmort gefannt ? 

3ft5 nid]t genug baß mein gefprodines IDort 

2tuf ewig, foll mit meinen Cagen fd]alten ? 

Haft'jt bie XPelt in allen Strömen fort 1720 

Unb m\d} foU ein I^erfpredien lallten ? 

T>od] biefer ZPabn ift utis ins I^ers gelegt ; 

ll^er mag fid^ gern baoon befreien ? — 

i3eglücf t, lüer Creue rein im öufen trägt, 

Kein 0pfer toirb tl^n je gereuen ! 1725 

mitteilt ein Pergament, befd]rieben unb beprägt, 

3ft ein (Sefpenft, üor bem fid] alle fd]eueit. 

'Das Xüovt erftirbt fd^on in ber 5cber, 

i)ie fjcrrfd^aft fübren tPadis unb £cber. 

Was roillft bu böfcr (Seift dou mir ? 1730 

(£r3, ZHarmor, Pergament, Papier ? 

Soll xd} mit (Sriff el, ZlTeißel, 5eber fd]reiben ? 

^di gebe jebe Wab^ bir frei. 


Wk magft bu beine 2^ebnerei 

Zmr gleid] fo bit^ig übertreiben ? - 1735 

3ft bod} ein jebes Blättd]en gut. 

Vn unterseidtneft bid] mit cinent 5^röpfd]en Slut. 


Wenn bks bit »öllig (5'nüge tl]ut, 
So mag es bei bcv S^<^^e bleiben. 

Blut ift ein qan^ befonbrer Saft. 1740 

Zlnv feine S^vdit, ba% idi bies Bünbni§ bred|e I . 
Das Streben meiner ganzen Kraft 
3ft graöe bas voas \d\ üerfpred]e. 
3^7 I]abe mid] 5U I^od] gebläl^t, 
3n beinen Zianq gel]ör' id] nur: 1745 

"Der große (Seift I^at niid] »erfdimäl^t, 
Vor mir cerfd^Iießt fid^bie Tlatur. 
Des X>enfen5 S<^ben ift serriffen, 
Xfüt efelt lange vor allem IDiffen. 
£aß in bon ©efen öer Similid]feit 1750 

Uns glül^enbe £eibenfd]aften ftillen ; 
^n unburdibrungnen ^aubert;üllen 
Sei jebes IDunber gleid] bereit ! 
Stürzen ix>'\v uns in bas Z^aufd^en bct ^e\t, 
3us Hollen ber Begebenl^eit ! 1755 

Da mag benn 5d]mer3 unb (Senu§, 
(5elingen unb Perbruß, 
mit einanber tDed]feIn, u?ie es famt ; 
Hur raftlos betl^ätigt fid] ber ZHann. 

<£ud] ift fein TXla^ unb ^iel gefegt. 1760 

Beliebts eud^ überall 5U nafd^cn, 
3iu 5Iie^en etu?as 3U erl^afd]en, 


Scfoinm' cud] wol ipas cud] ergebt, 
itur aroift mir 511 unb fciö iüd]t blööc ! 

i)u hötcH ja, üon ^i'oub' ift nid]t bte 2\cöc. 1765 

Potn üaumol iroiI| id] nnd], bcm fd]incr5Ud';ftcn (5cnu§, 
i\n'Iicbtoin Via)^, crquicfoii^otn Dorbru^. 
ZlTctn ^ufoii, öor vom Wii]cnsbvang, gclicilt ift, 
Soll feinen 5dimer5eit Fünftig fid] üerfd]lie§en, 
Unb UX15 ^er ganjen JlTcnfd^boit 5ugetl]ei(t ift,'^^" rrjo 
WiU. id] in ntoinent inncrn Selbft genießen, 
21Tit meinem (Seift öas fjöd^ft' unb «lieffte greifen, 
3Iir Wol unö lüeli anf meinen ^ufen Kinfen 
Unb \o mein eigen Selbft 5U ibrent 5elbft eripeitern 
llnö u?ic fie felbft am fnt) aud] id] serfd^eitern. 1775 

glaube mir ber mand]e taufenb 3<^If*'' 
2tn biefer Iiarten Speife faut, 
X>aß von öer lüicge bis jur Balire 
Kein ITtlenfd] öen alten Sauerteig »cröaut ! 
(Slaub unfer einem, öiefes (5an^e ,780 

3ft nur für einen (Sott gemad]t ! 
(fr finöet fid] in einem etr'gen (Slanse, 
Uns I-jat er in öie Sinftc^rnif, gebradjt 
l\nb cud] taugt cinsig Qlag unC) llad^t. 

2tIIcin id] toill 1 

Das läßt fid] F;ören ! 1785 

Vod] nur Dor €inem ift mir bang : 


^ie ^eit ift furj, öic Kunft ift lang. 

3<i) bäd}t\ xi}t liefet cud] bclelircn. 

2l[[ociirt eud^ mit cincnt Poeten, 

£a§t ben fjerrn in (Sebanfen fd^toeifen 179° 

Unb alle eblen Qualitäten 

2Iuf euren (£Iirenfd]iütel I^äufen, 

Des £öu?cn XUutl}, 

X)e5 f^irfd]es 5d])teIIicjfeit, 

Des 3t<^Ii<?"<^i^5 feurig Blut, 179s 

X)e5 rtoröens "Dan' r barfeit. 

£a§t il^n eud-; bas (5el]eintni^ finben 

(5ro§mutI^ unb ^Irglift 5U oerbinben 

Hnb eud] mit tt>armcn 3ugenbtricben 

Xtad] einem plane ju üerlieben. isoo 

TXiödite felbft fold] einen Ferren fennen, 

IDürb' il]n ^errn ^Tlifrofosmus nennen ! 

Was bin td] benn, rocnn es nidjt möglid] ift 
Der Znenfd|f)eit Krone 5U erringen, 
ZXadi ber fid) alle Sinne bringen ? iSos 

Du bift am (£nbe — toas bu bift. 
Sefe bir perrüiien auf von BTillionen «Loden, 
Sefe beinen 5u^ auf eIIenI]oI]c Soden, 
Du bleibft bod] immer n?a5 bu bift. 

3d] fül^rs I Pergebens Iiab id\ alle Sd^äfee iSio 
Des ZHenfd^engeifts auf mid^ I^erbeigerafft, 
Unb a»enn id] midi am €nbe nieberfe^e. 
Quillt innerlid] bod] feine neue Kraft ; 


3d] bin nid^t um ein fjaar bivit l^öl^cr, 

i^iii öcm UncniMid]oii nid^t näl^cr. iSis 

IVic'in guter ^crr, il^r fcl]t b'xc Sadicn, 
Wie man 6tc Sad^en eben ftcl]t ; 
IV'xt muffen bas gcfd]citcr madicn, 
€1] uns bc5 £obcn5 5i"cubc flicl^t. 
Was fjcnfcr ! ^i'^^üid] rjänö' unb 5ü^ß 1820 

Unö Kopf unö Vi , öie ftnb bcm ; 

Dod) alles, ir>as id] frtfd] genieße, 

3ft bas örum lüeniger mein ? 

iüenn id^ fed^s I]engfte 5al'!len fann, 

5inb il^re Kräfte nid^t bie meine ? 182s 

3d] renne 5U unö bin ein red]ter ZlTann, 

^tls Iiätt' id"! oierun^sroansig ^eine. 

i)rum frifd] ! £a§ alles Siimen fein, 

Unb grab mit in bie IDcIt I^incin ! 

3d] fag' CS bir : ein Kerl ber fpcculirt, 1S30 

3ft u?ie ein Cliier, auf bürrer fjeibe 

Von einem böfen (Seift im Kreis l^erumgefülirt 

Unb rings uml^er liegt fd^öne grüne IDeibe. 

XDie fangen roir bas an ? 


XDir gelten eben fort. 
tüas ift bas für ein ZlTarterort ? 1835 

lüas l|ei|t bas für ein 'ieben fül]ren, 
5id7 unb bie '^ungens eunnviren ? 
£a6 bu bas beut X^errn 2"cad]bar IPanft ! 
IDas u?iüft bu bid] bas Strol] 5U brefd]en plagen ? 


Das Bcfte rvas bu it»i|'[c)i faimft 1840 

T)arf[t bn öcn ^ubeit bod] nid]t facjcn. 
(Slcid^ I]ör' \d\ einen auf bent (Sänge ! 

2Ttir ifts md]t möglid^ il^n 3U fel^n. 

T>er arme Knabe ir^artet lange ; 
X)er barf nid]t ungetröftet gel^n. 1845 

Kontnt gib ntir öeinen llod unb,c ! 
Die ZlTasfe tnti^ ntir föftlid] ftel^n. 

€r ücibct fidi um. 
Hun überla^ es meinem IPi^c ! 
3^7 braud]e nur ciit Piertelftünbd"!en .^eit ; 
3Tt5ef[en mad^c b\d\ 3ur fd^önen 5ctl]rt bereit ! 1850 

^auft ah. 
in »faufts langem KIcibc. 
Perad]te nur Dernunft unb IPiffenfdiaft, 
Des llTeTtfd]en allerl^ödifte Kraft ! 
£a^ nur in 3Ienb= uitb <5auberu?erfejt 
^id^ von bem Cügengeift beftärfen, 
So iiah' idi bxd\ \d\on unbebiitgt. — 1855 

3I]m iiat bas 5d]idfal einen (Seift gegeben, 
^er ungebditbigt imnter üoru?ärt5 bringt 
Hitb beffen übereiltes Streben ' 
Der (Erbe 5r(?uben überfpringt. 
Den fd]Iepp' xdi burd] bas w'ilbe ^.ehen, 1860 

Durd^ ^adic llnbebeutenl]eit ; 
(£r foü mir jappeln, ftarren, fleben 
Unb feiner llnerfättlidifeit 
Soll Speif uitb Cranf uor gier'gen kippen fdimeben ; 


<£v it>irö (f rquicfung ]"xd] umfonft orflcl^n 18G5 

Hiit» I-;ätt' er fid] aud] nid^t beut Ceufel übergeben, 
(£r jnüißte bodi 511 (Srunbe gel^u ! 
^£tn Sdnilcv tritt auf. 


2d] bin allHer erft !ur5e ^c'it 

Hub fontme voll €rgebonbeit 

»£inen ZITann 5U fpredv^n nnö ju fennen, 1870 

Den alle mir ntit fbrfurd-jt nennen. 

(£urc ^öfltd]feit erfreut mid^ [elir ! 
3br febt einen 211ann irie anbre ntebr. 
£jabt ilir eud] jonft fd]on lungetban ? 

3d] bitt eud], nel^mt eud] meiner an ! 1875 

3d7 !omme mit allem guten 21'lutb, 
CeiMid^em (Selb nnb frifd^ent i^tut ; 
nieine llTutter tcollte mid] !aum entfernen ; 
2Tlöd]te gern voas Hedits liier au^^'n lernen. 

- Da [eib if|r eben red^t am 0rt. isso 


2tufrid]tig, möd^te fd]on ir>ieber fort ; 

3n biefen llTauern, btefen i'^allen 

WxU. es mir feinesrregs gefalleji, 

(£s ift ein gar befdtränfter 2^aunt, 

21Tan fiebt nid^ts (Srünes, feinen i3aunt isss 

llnb in ben Sälen, auf ben l^änfen 

Vergebt mir i^ören, Sebn unb Denfen. 



Das !otnmt nur auf (Sewofyxliext an. 
So nimmt ein Kino ber 2Tcutter ^ruft 
Zlxdit qkxd\ im Einfang willig axx, 
Vodi halb evxxäl\vt es fid] mit £uft. 
So xDxtbs cucf] axx bct IDeisI^eit Prüften 
Zfüt jebem Cagc mcl^r gelüften. 


2In tijrem fjab n?ill id] mit 5ccuöen I^angen ; 
Dodi fagt mir nur roic fann id) tjingclangen ? 


€rflärt eüd\ elf il]r n?eiter gcl^t, 
Was voäi}lt il]r für eine 5cicultät ? 


^d\ voüxx\d\k red^t geleiert 3U it>erben 
Unö möd]te gern xx>as auf ber (£rben 
Uxxb XXX bem J^imntel ift, erfaffen, 
^ie IDiffenfd^aft unb bie Hatur. 


Da feib iljr auf ber redeten Spur ; 

Vodi mü^t il^r eud) nid^t jerftreuen laffen. 


3d] biit babei mit Seel' unb Ceib ; 
Dodi freilid) lüürbe mir bel]agen 
(£in u?enig 5i'eil]eit unb 5»?itr>ertreib 
21)1 fd'fönen Sommerfeiertagen, a 



(5obraudn öcr S'^xi ! fic gcl^t fo fd'jnell von binnen ; 

X)od] 0rc>nung Iclirt cud] Sott geii-)inncn. 

ZlTcin tliouror 5i"^-'unc), id] rati]' eud] brunt 1910 

(^ucrft Collegium logicum ! 

Da wh'b öcr (Seift eud^ xdoI ^ref|u•t, 

3n fpanifdie Stiefeln eingefdinürt, 

Va^ er beöäditicjer fo fortan 

l7infd]leid"!e c>ie (Seöanfeijbdiji 1915 

Unö nid]t etwa b'ic Krens ^i"^ Quer, 

3rrlid7telire I]in unb I^er. 

Dann lebret man eud] mand]en ^ag, 

Da^, ivas \hj fonft auf finen Sd^lag 

(Setrieben, roie *£ffen unb ürinfen frei, 1920 

t£in5 ! 5U?ei ! brei ! ba^n nötliig fei. 

Svoav ifts mit bcv (Se<5anfenfabrif 

IDie mit einem IPebermeifterftücf, 

Wo (£in Critt taufenb Sä^^^x regt, 

i)ie Sd^ifflein I^erüber Iiinüberfd^ie^en, 1925 

Die 5äöen ungefel^en flie^eit, 

(£in Sdilag taufenb Derbinbungen fd^Iägt. 

Der pi^ilofopl] bot tritt berein 

Unb beu?eif't eud] es müj^t' fo fein : 

Das €rft' n?är' fo, bas öu?eite fo 1930 

Unb brum bas Dritt' unb Pierte fo 

llni) xr^enn bas £rft' unb <5iPeit' nid]t uxir'. 

Das Dritt' unb Diert' rr>är' nimmermel]r. 

Das preifen bic Sdiüler aller ®rten, 

Sinb aber feine IPeber geir>orben. 1935 

irer ipill Rias Cebenbiges erfennen unb befdn-eiben, 

5ud]t erft ben (Seift beraus^utreiben ; 


"Dann E^at er öie CI]ei(c in feiner f^anö, 
5eI^It, leiber ! nur bas geiftige Banö. 
Encheiresin naturae nennts bie CE|emie, 1940 

Spottet il]rer felbft unö we'x^ nid^t toie. 

"Kann eud] nid^t eben qani »erftefjen. 

Vas vo'xvb näd][ten5 \d\on beffer gel]en, 
löenn if|r lernt alles reöuciren 
Un5 gefjörig djziffificiren. 1945 

2T{ir roirb r>on alleöeni [0 buntm, 
2lls ging' mir ein 2^ül]Irab im Kopf I^erum. 

Ztadil^er r>or allen anbern 5ad]en, 
2Hü§t' \l}v eud) an bie 21TetapI]Yfif mad^en ! 
1)a fel]t ba§ il]r tieffinnig fagt 1950 

Was in bes 2Tcenfd]en Birn nid]t pa§t ; 
5ür toas brein gel^t unb nid]t brein gel^t 
(£in präd]tig It)ort ju Dienften ftel^t. 
X>od7 Dorerft biefes I^albe 3al]r 
Hel^mt ja ber beften (Drbnung n?alir. 1955 

5ünf Stunben l]abt il^r jeben Sag ; 
Seib brinnen mit bent (SIodenfd]Iag ! 
f^abt eud] üorl^er vool präparirt, 
Paragraplios n?oI einftubirt, 
Damit xhj nad]I]er beffer fel]t, i960 

7>a% er nidits fagt, als nxis im 'Bndjc ftelit ; 
Vod] eud] bcs 5d]reibens ja befleißt, 
2115 bictirt' eud] ber Ijeilig (Seift ! 


i^as follt ttir mir nid^t smcimal fagoii ! 
3d] c»cnfo mir ivic picl es nü^t ; 1965 

Denn was man fd^iüarj auf ifcij^ t^ofifet, 
; Kann man gctroft nad] l^aufe tragen. 

Dod] it>äl]lt mir eine 5cicultät ! 

(5ur J^ed^tsgelel^rfamfeit fann id] midi nidit be= 

3d^ !ann es eudj [0 fcbr nid^t übel nelimen ; 1970 

J,d] tüci^, irie C5 um v>iefe £clire ftel^t. 
€5 erben fid] (Sefelg' nnb Hed^te 
IDie eine eu?'ge Kranfl>nt fort ; 
Sie fd]Ieppen von (5c\d}lcd}t fid] jum (Sefd]Ied]te 
Hub rüden fad^t dou ®rt 5U ®rt. 197s 

Vernunft u?irb llnfinn, IPoItliat piage ; 
Wd} öir, baß t>u ein vEnfel bift ! 
Vom Hedite öas mit uns geboren ift, 
Von bem ift leiber ! nie bie 5i'age. 

ZHein 2lbfd]eu roirb burd] eud] ücrmeljrt. 1980 

glücflid] ber bcn ibr belebrt ! 
5aft möd]t' id] imn O]cologie ftubiren. 

3d] tt>ünfd]te nid]t eud] irre 5U fül]ren. 
Wa5 biefe ll)iffenfd]aft betrifft, 



€5 tft fo fd]n?cr bcw falfd]cit Weg, 511 nicibcia ; 1985 

(£5 liegt in il^r fo uiel uerborgnos (5ift 

Unb üoii öcr ^trjcnci ifts fauin 311 untorfd]ciben. 

2tiit beften ifts aud] liier, u?eim \l}t nur i£inen l]ört 

Unb auf bes 2T?eifter5 Wotta \d}w'6tt 

3m (San5cn — I]altct eud] an iPortc ! 1990 

T^ann gel]t il]r burd] bie fidire Pforte 

,§um Cempcl ber (ScrDi^B|cit ein. 

Dod] ein Begriff mu^ bei bem Wovtc fein. 


Sd^on gut! Hur mu§ man fidj nid^t allsuängftlid] 

Dann eben wo Begriffe feljlen 199s 

Da ftellt ein IPort 5ur red]ten 3^xt fid? ein. 
mit Woücn Iä§t fid] trefflid] ftreiten, 
VTiit Woüen ein Svftem bereiten, 
2ln rOorte lä^t fidi trefflid] glauben. 
Von einem XDort Iä§t fid) fein 3ota rauben. 2000 


Perseifit ! id] I^alt' eudi auf mit üielen fragen, 

^Eein idi mu^ eud] nodi bemüijn. 

tDoUt il]r mir »on ber IlTebicin 

Zlidit aud\ ein fräftig IDörtd]en fagen ? 

Drei ^ahf ift eine furje 5<^it, =005 

Unb, (Sott ! bas 5clb ift gar 5U weit. 

IDeitn man einen ^ingerseig nur I]at. 

£ä§t fidi5 \dion el]er u^eiter fül^len. ^ 


ZTTcpE^iftopIicIes ror fid?. 

3^1 Hn ^C5 troiincii 'I.onS' nuit fatt, 

21Iub* ir>ioöcr rcd-)t öcit ücufol fpicicn. 2010 

X>cr (5ctft ^cr 2^To^ict^ ift leidet 511 faffcn ; 
3Iu- l?urdiftu^irt b\c^' nnb floittc Welt 
Ihn 05 ant i£it^c qehn 5U laffen, 
iric's (Sott gcfäUt. 

Dcrgclunts ^ajß ibr ringsum iriffcnfdiaftlid) fd^toeift, 2015 
>£iit jc^cr lernt nur icas er lernen famt ; 
X)od; ber öen ^tugenblicf ergreift, 
Das ift bev redete 211ann. 
3Iir feit) nod] siemlid^ ipol gebaut, 
2ln Kübnbeit irir^s eudi audi nid^t fel^Ieji 2020 

Unb ipenn ihr eud^ nur felbft oertraut, ^ 

Pertrauen eudi bxc andern Seelen, 
^efonöers lernt öie IDeiber fül^ren ; 
<£s ift ibr eu?ig Wel] unö Hd\ 

So taufenöfadi 2025 

2tu5 finem punfte 5U curiren, 
i^n^ roenn ibr balbmeg ebrbar tl^ut, 
Dann babt ibr fie all unterm fjut. 
€in üitel muiß fie erft certraulid] mad^en, 
Daß eure Kunft oiel Künfte überfteigt ; 2030 

5um IPillfomm tappt ibr öann nad^ allen Sieben» 

Um bie eiji andrer »iele ^afye ftrcid]t. 
Dcrftebt bas pülslein wol 5U brücfen 
Unb faffet fte mit feurig fd-;lauen 3lic!ej: 
Wol um bie fdilanfe fjüfte frei, 2035 

5u fel-jn, roie feff gcfd^nürt fie fei. 


Das flcljt fd|on beffcr aus. TXian fielet bodi voo un5 rote. 

(5rau, tl^eurer 5reunt>, ift alle tllieortc, 
ITnb grün bes £cbens golbner Saum. 

2d\ \dixvöv' end] 5U, mir ifts als vok ein Craum. 2040 
X)ürft' id] eucf) tool ein anöermal befd^u^eren, 
Pon eurer löeisl^eit auf öen (Srunö 3U I^ören ? 

Was xdi oermag [oll gern gefd^efjn. 

3d? fann unmöglid] toieöer gel|n, 
3d] mu§ eud] nod] meiit Stantmbud? überreidjen. 2045 
(5önn' eure (Sunft mir öiefes ^eid^en ! 


Seljr rool ! 

€r fdjrcibt unb gibts. 

5d]üler lieft. 
Eritis sicut Deus, scientes bonum et malum. 

Htad/ts ctjrcrbtetig 3U unb cmpficfjlt fi^. 

5oIg' nur bem alten Sprud^ unö meiner 2HuIime, öer • 

Sd^Iangc ; 
Dir roirb gemi^ einmal bei öeiner (5ottäI]nIid^feitf 

bange I 2050 


^auft tritt auf. 
il'^olnu foU CS min cjel]n ? 


IDoI^in CS b'xt gefällt. 
IPir \chn b\c ficinc, ^ann b'w gro^o Wcli. 
2Tiit ir>oId]or 5i"^'i^t^^', iiicldicm Hu^oii 
IDirft i)u öcTi (Turfum t)urd]fd]maru^en ! 

^lUoin bei ntcütent langen 53art 2055 

5eI]It tnir öte leidste Cebensart. 
(£5 lüirb tnir öer I?erfud] ntd^t glücPen ; 
2(i} trübte nie ntid] in c>ie Il'^olt 5U fd^icfon. 
Vov anbern fixhV \d} mid] \o flein, 
3d] iperbe ftäts perlegen fein. 2060 

21Tein guter 5r^iinb, öas toirö fid^ alles geben ; 
Sobalö öu öir üertrauft, fobalb ineiljjt bu 5U leben. 

IPie fommen toir benn aus bem f^aus ? 
Wo baft bu pferbe, Kned]t unb IPagen ? 

tDir breiten nur bcn llTantel aus, 2065 

Der foll uns burdi b'w £üfte tragen. 
Du. ninimft bei biefent fül^nen 5d]ritt 
Xlüv feinen großen Bünöel ntit. 
(Ein bisdieit 5cuerluft, bie id] bereiten u?erbe, 
fjebt uns bebejib von biefer <£rbe. 2070 

Unb fijib loir leidet, fo gebt es fd^netl I^inauf ; 
3dt gratulire bir junt neuen Cebenslauf ! 


2lnevhad}s Keller in Ceip5tg. 

§cd)c luftiger (Scfcllcn, 

Will feiner trinfen ? feiner Iad]en ? 
3d) tüill cud^ lel^rcn (5cftd]tcr ntad^en ! 
3tjr feiö ja I^eut ivk naffes Strol^ 2075 

Unö brennt fonft immer Iid]terIoI^. 


Vas liegt an bir ; bu bringft ja nid^ts I^erbei, 
Zl\d\t eine i)untml]eit, feine Sauerei. 

gie^t if|m ein (Sias VOdn über bcn Kopf. 
X)a I^aft öu beibes ! 

Doppelt Sdiwem ! 

3I^r roollt es ja, man foH es fein ! 2080 

^ur Cl^ür Ijinaus roer fid^ entsroeit ! 
tnit offner Bruft fingt ^unöa, fauft unb fd^reit ! 
2tuf! Vioüal £10 1 

XOel] mir, id] bin »erloren ! 
Saumwolle ber ! ber Kerl fprengt mir bie (Diivcn. 

SCENE V. 87 

Wenn öas (Gewölbe it)ict)crfd]allt, 2085 

5üI]It man crft rod]! bes baffes (Snmbgewalt. 

So vedit ! Iitnaus mit öcm, öcr ctivas übel nimmt ! 
21 ! tara lava t»a ! 

21 ! tara lara ba ! 

D'iQ KoI]Ien ftiib gcftimmt. 
2)a5 liebe, I^etlge röm'fd^e Heid^, 2090 

lüie hßlts nur nod] jufammen ? 

(£in garftig Cieb ! pfui ! ein politifd^ £ieb ! 
<£\n leibig Cieb ! X)anft (Sott mit jeöem ZlTorgen, 
X>a§ il]r nid]t braud]t fürs röm'[d]e 2\eid] 3U forgen ! 
2di lialt' es tDenigftens für reid]Iidien (Setoinn, 209s 
Da^ \d] n\d\t Kaifer ober Kansler bin. 
i)od] mu^ and] uns ein ©berliaupt nid]t fel]len ; 
IDir tDoIIen einen papft eriDäI]Ien. 
3Iir w'x^t voddi <?'"^' Qualität 
Dm ^tusfd]Iag gibt, bcn IMann crl]öl]t. 2100 

5rofdi ftngt. 
5d]ir>ing bid] auf, 5r'<^u Had^tigall, 
(5rü§' mir meiit Ciebd]en selintaufenbmal ! 

Dem Oebd]en feilten (5vu^ ! 3*^? i^'^'K baoon nid^ts 
Ijören ! 


"Dem £iebd)en (Sru^ unö Ku^ ! !5u toirft niirs nxdit 
vavtpeiivan ! 

Hicgel auf ! in ftillcr nad]t. 2105 

Hiegel auf 1 5er Ciebfte u?ad]t. 
Hiegel 3U 1 bes llforgcns friU]. 


3«, fin^^, fi"9^ i^iii' uii^ loli' unb rül]ine fie ! 
3d] ipitt 3U meiner ^eit \d]on ladien. 
Sie I]at m\d] angefülirt, öir vo'xvb fies aud^ \o 
mad]en. 2110 

^um Oebften fei ein Kobolb il^r befd^crt ! 
5er mag mit il^r auf einem Kreu3ir>eg fd]äfent. 
(£in alter BodP, u?enn er »om Blodsberg feiert, 
TXiaq im (5alopp nod] gute Had^t ifir meif ern ! 
(2in braoer Kerl von ed^tem S^'^^dl un^ ^lut 2115 

3ft für bie X>irne üiel 3U gut. 
3d) roill üon feinem (Sru^e toiffen, 
2ll5 ilir bie S^^n^tex eingefd^miffen ! 

Branber auf bcn Ctfdj fcf^Iagcnb. 
Pa^t auf, pa§t auf ! (5eI]ord]et mir 1 
3I?r J^errn geftel^t, id^ u?ei§ 3U leben. 2120 

Derliebte Ceute fi^en Ijier 
Unb biefen mu§ nad] Stanbsgebül^r 
^ur guten Xlad}t id] ivas 3um öeften geben. 
(Sebt ^ld]t ! ein £ieb vom neuften Sd^nitt 1 
Unb fingt ben Hunbreim fräftig mit ! 2125 

(Er fingt. 
(£5 u?ar eine Hatt im Kellemeft, 

SCENE V. 89 

Cebtc nur von Sott lutb Butter ; 

^atte fid] ein Hänjlein angcmäft't 

Tlls wie bcr Doctor Cutlier. 

Die Köd]in I^att' il^r (Sift geftellt ; 2130 

Va irarö's \o eng ilu* in ber Welt, 

2Us hätte fie Cieb int Ccibe. 

Cliorus jaudj3cnb. 
2tl5 Ijätte fie £ieb im Ceibe. 

Sie fuf^r I^erum, fie ful^r I^eraus 
Unb foff aus allen pfü^en, 2133 

Zernagt', serfra^t' bas ganjc fjaus, 
WoUtc mdits ibr IPütben nü^en ; 
Sie tliät gar mand]en ^tengftefprung ; 
Salb I^atte bas arme d]ier geiuing, 
7Ü5 iiätV es Cieb im Ceibe. 2140 

2tl5 I^ätt' es Cieb im Ceibe. 

Sie fam für ^tngft am I]eIIen Cag 
Der Küd]e 5ugelaufen, 
5iel an ben fjerb unb 3U(ft' unb lag 
llnb tliät erbärmlid] fd^naufen. 2145 

Da ladete bie Dergiftcrin nod] : 
fja ! fie pfeift auf bem legten 'iod}, 
2lls Ijätte fie Cieb im Ceibe. 

21(5 Iiätte fie Cieb im Ceibe. 



Wk \xd\ b'xe platten Bur[d]c freuen ! 2150 

(£5 ift ntir eine red]te Kunft 

Ven armen Hatten (Sift 3U jtreuen ! 

Sie \td}n vool fcl^r in beiner (5unft ? 


X)er Sd^meerbaud) mit ber f al^Ien platte ! 

Vas Unglürf mad]t il^n sal^m unb milb ; 2155 

<£v fietjt in ber gcfdiipollnen Hatte 

Sein gans natürlid] (£benbilb. 

^auft unb IHcpI^tftopIjcIcs. 


3d] mu^ b'xdi nun üor allen fingen 

3n luftige (SefcUfdiaft bringen, 

X)amit bu fiel^ft, ipie Ieid]t fid^s leben lä^t. 2160 

"Dem Volte I]ier wirb jeber Cag ein 5cft. 

Hlit toenig Wxi^ unb r»iel ^el-jagen 

"Dreist jeber ftd^ im engen ^ii'fcltans 

IDie junge Ka^en mit bem Sd^wans, 

IPenn fie nid]t über Kopfroel^ flagen. 2165 

So lang ber IDirtl] nur weiter borgt, 

Sinb fie pergnügt unb unbeforgt. 


X>ie fommen eben voxx ber Heife, 

ZlTan fiel^ts an il^rer rounberlid^en IDeife ; 

Sic finb nid^t eine Stunbe I^ier. 2170 

SCENE V. 91 

lDaI]rI]afttg öu I^aft Hed]t ! Zllexn £ctp3tg lob id] mir ! 
£5 ift ein flein Paris unö bilöet feine Ceute. 

5ür was fielift bu bie Cremten au ? 

£a^ nüd] nur gcl]u ! ^ei einem voücn (Slafe 

^iel] id^, n?ie einen Kinöersabn, 2175 

T)en 3ur[d]cu Ieid]t öie XPürnter aus öer i'cafe. 

Sie fd]einen mir aus einem eblen £jaus ; 

Sie fel^ejT ftolj unJ) unsufrieöen aus. 

ZHarftfdireier finbs geu?i§, id^ roette ! 


(Sib 2td]t, xdi [d^raube fie. 2180 

2T(epbiftopbe[es 311 ^auft. 
^en tEeufel fpürt bas Völtd}cn nie, 
Unb u?eim er fie beim Kragen Iiätte ! 

Seib uns gegrüßt, ilir fierrn ! 


Diel i)anf 5um (5egengru^ ! 
£ctfc, ITtcpt^iftopbeles von bcr Seite anfeljeut). 
IPas Iiinft öer Kerl auf £inem 5u§ ? 



3ft CS erlaubt uns aud\ 5U end\ 3U fe^en ? 2185 

Statt eines guten tErun!s, 6en ntan nidjt iiaben fann, 
Soll öic (5efenfd]aft uns ergeben. 

3I^r fd]eint ein feljr r>crrr)öl]ntcr 2T(ann. 

3Ejr feiö u?oI fpät r>on ^tppad? aufgebrod^en ? 
Viabt xliv mit f^crren i^ans nod\ erft 3U Hadtt ge= 
fpeift ? 2190 

fjeut ftnb ro'it tE^n üorbeigereift ; 
IDir I^abeit il]n öas le^te IMal gefprod^en. 
Von feinen Vettern wu^t er üiel 5U jagen ; 
Piel (5rü^e I]at er uns an jeben aufgetragen. 
(Er neigt fidj gegen ^rofdj. 

^ühnaver Ictfc. 
Da Ijaft bu's, ^er »erftel^ts ! 


(Ein pfiffiger Patron ! 2195 

Hun, aiarte nur, xd\ frieg il]n \d\on ! 

Wenn xd] nid]t irrte Iiörten vo'xv 
(Seübte Stimmen Cl^orus fingen ? 
(5ea)i^, (Sefang mu§ trefflid] liier 
Don öiefer iDölbung u?iec)erflingen ! 2200 

SCENE V. 93 

Selb iFir wol gar ein Dtrtiios ? 

(D nein ! Die Kraft ift \diwad], allein öie £uft ift gro^. 

(5ebt uns ein £icö ! 


IDenn ilir begcl^rt, bic Xfienge. 

ZXuv aud] ein nagelneues Stüd l 

XDir fommen erft aus Spanien 5urü(J, 2205 

"Dem fd]önen £anb öes ITeins unb bev (Sefänge. 
(£5 roar einmal ein König, 
Dev Ijatt' einen großen 5I0I1 — 

JE^ordit ! einen Sioh ! fjabt ibr öas vool gefaxt ? 
€in 5lof] ift mir ein faubrer (Saft. 2210 

2T(epfjiftopf)eIes fingt. 
<£s tx>av einmal ein König, 
Vev Ijatt' eiiien großen S^ol] ; 
Den liebt' er gar nid]t u)enig, 
2lls n?ie feinen eigjten Solin. 
Da rief er feinen Sdjneiber, 2215 

Der 5d]neiber !am beran : 
Da, mi^ öem 3u"f'^i^ Kleiber 
XXnb mi§ iljm £jofen an ! 


Vergebt nur nid^t bcm Sd^nciöer einsufd^ärfcn, 
^a§ er ntir aufs gcnaufte mif^t 2220 

Hub ba%, jo lieb fein Kopf il]n: ift, 
Die f^ofen feine 5cilten toerfen ! 

3n Sammet uttb in Seiöe 
Wav er nun angetlian, 
Blatte öänber auf öent Kleine, 2225 

^att' aud^ ein Kreu5 öaran. 
Itn5 u?ar fogfeid] 2T(inifter 
Unb Eiatt' einen großen Stern. 
"Da tDurben feine (Sefd]n?ifter 
Bei fjof audi gro§e £jcrnt. 2230 

Hub fjernt unb S^ann am f)ofe, 

X)ie toaren fel^r geplagt, 

"Die Königin unb bie ^ofc 

(5eftod]en unb genagt ; 

Unb burften fie nid]t fniden 2235 

Unb roeg fie Juden n\d\t 

W\v fniden unb erftiden ^ 

Dodi gleid], roenn einer ftid^t. ' 

CI|0ru5 jau(^3cnb. 
iPir fniden unb erftiden 
Dodi glcid], wenn einer ftidjt. 2240 

Srar>o ! ^rar>o ! bas roar fd]ön ! 

So joll es jebem 5IoI^ ergel^n ! 

SCENE V. 95 

Spifet bic Smget unb pacft )'ic fein. 

(£5 lobe b'xc 5i"cilicit ! es lobe ber Wem ! 

3d] tränfe gern ein (Sias, bie ^reilieit l}od] 511 eieren, 2245 
XDenn eure IDeine nur ein bi^d]en beffer a>ären. 

IPir mögen bas nid]t uneber I]ören ! 

2d\ fürd^te nur ber iPirt befd]n?eret ftd] ; 
Sonft gab' id] bie[en tccrtl^en (Säften 
2lus unferm Keller was sunt heften. 2250 

Zlnv immer Iier, id] nel-jm's auf m\d]. 

Sd^afft il]r ein gutes (Sias, \o u?oIIen anr end] loben. 
Hur gebt nid^t gar 5U fleine Proben ! 
Denn wenn id] jubiciren foll, 
Derlang id] aud] bas ITiaul red]t r>oII. 2255 

^Iltmayer Icifc. 
Sie finb »om HI]eine, roie id] fpüre. 

5d]afft einen Bof]rer an ! 


lt>as foII mit bem geid]el]n ? 
3I]r hßbt bod\ nid]t bie 5äffer r>or bor ill]üre ? 


Dal^iutcn iiat bev Wxvt ein Körbd^en IDerfseug ftel^n. 

ZHepljiftopI^eles nimmt bcii Solarer. 

Ztun fagt, toas tDÜnfd^ct iljr 5U fd^nxecf en ? 2260 

VOk meint il]r bas ? JE^abt il^r fo tnand]crlei ? 

^d\ [teil es eiiiem jeöen frei. 

^tltntaver 3U ^rofd?. 
2tl^a ! Du fängft fd^on an bie Sippen absuleif en. 

(Sut ! wenn xd] toälilcn foll, [0 w'iü \d] Hbcinroein haben. 
Vas Paterlanb cerleilit öie allerbeftcn (5aben. 2265 


inbcm et an bcm plat^, xvo ^r:o\d} fitjt, ein £odj in bcn 

©fdjranb bol^vt. 

r>er[diajft ein roeitig Wad\s, öie pfropfen gleid? 3U 

mad^en ! 


2td] 6a5 finb Cafdienfpielerfad^en ! 

2T(epijiftopIieIe5 3U Branbcr. 
Un5 ii]r ? 


3d) ir>ill CIiampagneriDein 
Unb red^t nmffirenb foll er fein ! 

SCENE V. 97 


l)ol]i-t; einer l]at inbcffcn Mc Il'^adispfropfcii cjcmadjt 

nnb fcrftopft. 

Ulan fann nid)t ftäts bas 5rotnJ)e indc>en, 2270 

X)a5 (Sute liegt uits oft [0 fern, 
€in ed]ter beutfd^er Zfiann mag feineii fransen leiten, 
i>od] xhje IDeine trtn!t er gern. 


itibctn ftd) ITtephtftopbcIcs feinem praf3C näl|crt. 
2d] muß gofteI]u, öeu Sauren mag td] nid]t. 
(Sebt mir ein <5las vom ed]ten Süßen ! 2275 

ZTCepIiiftopbeles bol^rt. 
€ud] foll fogleid^ Cofaier fließen. 

Hein, fjerren, fclit mir ins (5efid]t ! 
'!}d> feil C5 ein, ilir Iiabt uns nur 3um 53eften. 

€i (£i ! mit foId]en eblen (Säften 
Wäf es ein bißdien r>iel gcu^agt. aaSo 

(5efd]U)ini) ! rtur grab Iieraus gefagt ! 
Xfiit it)eld]em XDeine fann id] öienen ? 

Xfiit jebem ! rtnr nid^t lang gefragt. 

Icadjbcm bic £ödjer alle cjebotjrt unb Perftopft finb. 
ITCepIiiftopfieles mit fcltfainen (5ebcrbcn. 
ulrauben trägt ber XPeinftocf, 
iiörner ber (5iegenbocf ; 2285 



Der XDe'm ift [aftig, f^ols bie Heben, 

Der I^ölserne ^x\d\ fann Wem audi geben. 

(Ein tiefer Blicf in bie Hatur ! 

fjier ift ein IPunber, glaubet nur ! 

TXnn sielet bie Pfropfen unb geniest ! 2290 

tnbcm ftc btc Pfropfctt 3tct)en unb jcbcm bcr »erlangte 
IDcin ins (Sias läuft. 
fdtöner ^ruimen ber uns ^ie§t ! 

Zlm lautet eudi, ba^ il]r mir nid^ts »ergießt 1 
Sic trtn!en oicbcrt^olt. 

TlUe fingen. 
Uns ift gans fannibalifd] wol, 
^Is roie fünfl]unbert Säuen ! 

Va5 Volt ift frei ! 5el]t an, vok wols ifyn gel^t 1 4 2*95 

3d] I^ätte £uft nun absufal^ren. 

(Sib nur erft 2td]t ! Die :23eftialität 
IDirb fid] gar I^errlidi offenbaren. 

trtnft unoorftd/tig ; bcr IPctn fliegt auf bie €rbe unb 
uJtrb 3ur flamme, 
^elft ! 5cuer 1 f^elft I Die .^öUe brennt 1 

SCENE V. , ■ 99 

llTepI^iftopI^cIcs bic flamme licfprcdjcnb. 
Sei rul]ig, freunölid] €Icinent ! 2300 

gu bcn (ScfcIIcit. 
5ür diesmal wav es nur ein Cropfen 5«^3ofouer. 

Was foH bas [ein ? Watt ! iE^r besal^It es tljcuer ! 
(£5 fd]einet, öa§ il^r uns nid]t fennt. 

£a]g er uns öas jum 5u?eiten 2TCale bleiben ! 

3i) öäd]t', u?ir liieren il^n gans faditc feitroärts 
gel^n. 2305 

Was f^err ? €r roill fid) unterftel^n 
Unö liier fein fjofuspofus treiben ? 

sau, altes IPeinfa^ ! 


Befenftiel ! 
Du roillft uns cjar nod] grob begegnen ? 

IDart nur ! (£s foUen 5d|Iäge regnen ! 2310 

jictjt einen Pfropf ans bcm ilifrfi ; es fprtncjt il|m ^f euer 
3d] brenn ! id^ brenne ! 



Zauberei ! 
5to§t 311 ! 5er Kerl ift »ogelfrct ! 

Sic 3tel|cn bie HTcffcr uni) gcl^n auf ITicpfiiftopI^cIcs los. 

2T(epI]iftopI]ele5 mit crnftl]aftci- (Scbärbc. 
Sal\di (5cbtlb unb Wovt 
Peränbcrn Sinn imb 0rt ! 
Selb I]tcr uiiö bort ! 2315 

Sic ftct^n crftaunt unb fcl^n cinanbcr an, 


Wo bin \di ? IPeldies [d]öne £anb ! 

IDeinberge ! Sei]' xd] red]t ? 


Unb Crauben glcidi 5ur J^anö ! 

fjicr unter biefem grünen Caube, 
Sel^t, roeld] ein Stocf ! feE^t, rceldje Craube ! 

€r fagt Stcbcin bei bcr Hafc; bic anbcru ttjun es 
iDedjfelfeittg uttb tjcben bie Hleffer. 

ZtTcpIiiftopFieles roie oben. 
3rrtlium, la^ los ber klugen "Banb ! 2320 

Unb nterft eud], inie öer Ccufol fpa^e 1 

€r rcrfdjnjtnbct mit ^auft ; bie (Sefellen fal^rcn ausein= 

Was gibt's ? 


Wat öas bciue Xla\c ? 

i^raubcr 511 Stcbcl. 
lliib c>ciiio bah id] in öor X^anö ! 

*£5 ivav ein 5d]Iag bei* ging burdi alle (Sliobor ! 
5d]afft einen Stnbj. ! id] fiiifo nieder. : 

IXcin, fagt mir tmr, was ift gefdicbn? 

IVo ift bor Kerl ? Wenn id] i{]n fpürc, 
>£r foU mir nid]t loboitbig gd]n ! 

3d] bab' ibu folbft biuau3 5ur KoIIortI]üre 
^baf oiitcm SaÜe texten fobn. — : 

€5 liegt mir bleifd]uxu- iit ben 5ü§en. 

Sidj nadj bem dtfdjc tpcnbcnt». 
ilToiii ! Sollte idoI ber IDein nod] flio^eu ? 

betrug ivat alles, £ug unö 5d]ein. 

Zllir 5äud]te bod] als tvänT id] IPein. 

2lber lüie ipar es mit beit Craubon ? 


IXnn fag' mir eins, man fotl fein iPunber glauben ? 


2Iuf einem ntebrigcn Fjerbc fielet ein großer Keffcl über bem 
^eucr. 3n bcnt Dampfe, ber baron in bie ^ölic [teigt, 
3ei9cn fidj ccrfd^icbcne (Seftaltcn. €ine I1Teerfat5e fitjt 
bei bem Keffcl unb fdjäumt il^n unb forgt ba^ er nid/t 
übcriänft. Der llTcerfater mit bcn 3nngen fit3t bane= 
ben unb roärmt fidj. IDänbe unb Derfe finb mit bem 
feltfamftcn fjejenl^ausratl] gefdjmücft. 

^auft. ineptjiftopl]cIcs. 

Xfixv tribcfftcl-jt bas tolle <5auberrDe[eu ! 
Perfprid]ft öu mir id] foll gcncfcn 
3it öicfem XPiift von Hafcrci ? 

Dcriang \d\ Hatl^ von einem alten IDeibe, 2340 

Unb fdjafft bie 5ubclföd]erei 
IDoI brei^ig 2<^h^'^ ""»^ ^'^^ Ceibe ? 
Wcl} mir, roenn bu nidits Keffers lüci^t ! 
Sdion ift bie fjoffnung mir üerfdirounbcn. 
£jat bie Hatur unb I^at eirt eblcr (Seift 234s 

Xlid\t irgenb einen ^alfam ausgefunben ? 

ZHein 5rßunb, nun fprid]ft bu lieber !Iug ! 
V\d\ 3U Derjüngen gibts aud] ein natürlid] IlTittcI. 
2lIIein es ftelit in einem anbern Sud] 
Unb ift ein rounberlid] Kapitel. 2350 

^di u?ill es roiffen. 

SCENE VI. 103 

Ö5ut ! ein llTittol, ol^iic (Selb 
Hub uiib oauborct 511 haben l . 
^ccjib b\d] gloid] Iiiiiaur aufs 5olö, 
5ang an 511 hßdcn un<5 311 graben, 
(Erbalto b'id] i\nb deinen Sinn 2355 

3n einem gan^ befdn\inften Kreife, 
£rnäln-e bid] mit nngenüfditer Speife, 
f eb mit bem Dieb als Piel^ nnb ad]t es nidit für 2\aub 
i^en tiefer, bcn im ernteft, felbft 511 Mingeit 
Vas ift bas befte llTittel, glaub, 2360 

2tuf ad^tjig ^abj b\d} 511 ucrjüngen. 

T>as bin id] nid^t gctDÖI)nt ; id^ fann mid^ nid]t bequemen 
T>en Spaten in bie I^anb 5U nebmen. 
"Da^ enge £eben ftel^t niir gar nid]t an. 

So mu^ benn bodi öic fjeye bvan. 2365 

tDarum benn juft bas alte IPetb ! 
Kannft bn bcn öLvant nid]t felber brauen ? 

Vas war ein fd^jöner ^t'itoertreib ! 
3d] ivoUi xnbc^ woi taufend i^rüden bauen. 
Hidit Kunft uni) IDiffeufd^ift allein, 2370 

(Sebulb irill bei bcm iüerfe fein. 
€in ftiller (Seift ift 3abre lang gefduiftig ; 
Sie <5eU nur mad^t b'w feine (Säbrung fräftig. 


Hnb alles toas basu geljört 

€5 ftnb gar ipunöerbare 5ad]cn I 2375 

X>er Ccufel I]at fies 5ir>ar geleiert ; 

2tIIcin öer Ceufcl fanns ttid]t mad^en. 

Die Sf^tcrc crblttfcitb, 
Sicij, tneldi ein sicrlid^es (5efd]Ied7t ! 
Das ift öie IHagb ! bas ift ber Kned^t ! 

§n bot ilt]icrcii. 
(£5 fd^eint, öic 5i"au ift iiid]t 511 J^aufe ? 2380 

"Die Cl'jicre. 
53eim Sd^tnaufe, 
2his bein X]au5, 
^um 5d]orftein l]inaus ! 

IDie lange pflegt fie rool 3U fd^iüärmen ? 

^ie Cl^iere. 
So lang wiv uns bie Pfoten icärmen. 2385 

mepI]iftopI]eIe5 311 ^mift. 
iDie finbeft öu öie sarten Cl^iere ? 

So abgefd^maif t als \d] nur ctu?as falj ! 

Hein ein T>i5curs toie biefer ba 
3ft grabe ber, bcn xd} am liebften fül^re ! 

§u bcn d]icrcii. 
So fagt mir bod], Der^ud]te puppen, 2390 

iüas quirlt il-jr in beut i3rei Iieruni ? 

SCENE VI, los 

Wiv fod]Cii breite i3cttolfuppcn. 

Da habt \bv ein groi^ publihim. 

Tiev Kater 
madjt fic^ herbei unb fdjtncicbclt bcm llTcphiftopbcIcs. 
® ipürfle imr gleid] 

Hub inadie tnid] reid] 2395 

Xlnb la^ tnidi geirinnen ! 
(5ar fdiledn ifti beftellt 
Unb tDär' idi bei (Selb 
So loär' idi bei Sinnen. 

iPie gIü(JIid-! irür^e fidi ber 3lffe fd^i^en, 2400 

Könnt er nnr aud^ ins Cotto fe^en ! 
3nbcffcn babcu Mc juucjcn lllccrÜit^cbcn mit einer oivojjeii 
2<ui}cl ijefpielt lutb rollen fic berror. 

Der Kater. 
Das ift bie IPelt ; 
Sie fteigt unb fällt 
Unb rollt beftänbig. 

Sie flingt roie (Sias ; 2405 

arie halb brid^t ba5 ? 
3ft bobi intpenbig. 
fjier glänjt fie [el]r 
Unb bier nod] mel^r. 
jd] bin lebendig I 2410 

allein lieber Sobn, 


£ialt b'xd} bavon ! 
■Du mu§t [tcrbcn ! 
Sic ift von CI^oii, 
€5 gibt 5d|crbc)x. 

Was \oübaB Sieh? 

T>et Kater t^olt es t^cnintcr. 
iDärft bn eilt Dieb, 
IDoUt id] öid] gleid) erfcimcn. 
(2r läuft 3Ut Kät3tn unb lälgt fic burdjfet^n. 
Siel^ burd^ bas Sieb ! 
€rfennft bu ben Dieb 
l\ni> barfft il]it nid]t nennen ? 

tnepl^iftopl^eles fidj bcm ^cucv itäl]cin!). 
Unb biefer Copf ? 

Kater unb Kä^in. 

"Der alberne Sropf 

€r !ennt nid]t bcn Copf, 

€r fennt nid]t ben Keffel ! 

Unt|öflid]e5 Cl^ier I 

X>er Kater. 

Den IDcbel nimm I]ier, 
Unb fefe bid^ in Seffel ! 
€r nötf^tgt ben IHcpt^iftopl^eles 3U fi^cit. 

SCExXE VI. 107 


ujelcfjcr Mcfe §cit über ror einem rpicijct gcftaubcu, firfi 
il]tn balt) gcnäljcrt, balb ftdi ix^n ihm entfernt l|at. 

Was \eli xd] ? tOcld] ein Hmmlifd^ ^ilb 

<5oigt ftd] tu bicfont 5^iii^"'*-'ilVi^\^*-'I ! 243° 

© «Ltobo, loibe mir ^oit l'dMiolIftou öeinor 5lügcl 

Uuc> fübre midi in ibr v55ofilb ! 

^Id], ipcnn id^ nid]t auf öiefcr Stelle bleitie, 

IPenn id] es ir>age nai] 511 gelin, 

Kann id-j fie nur als iv'w im Hebel febn ! 2435 

T>as fd^önfte Bilb von einem IDeibe ! 

3fts möglidi, ift ^as Wc'xb fo fd-jön ? 

Zr(u§ id] an tiefem bingeftrecften £eibe 

T^en 3nbegnff von allen I^immeln febn? -'^' '^''-''' 

So etwas findet fid] auf €r^en ? 2440 


^'(atürlid], ir>enn ein (Sott fid] erft fed^s üage plagt 

llnb felbft am i£nJ?e i3raD0 fagt, 

Da mufi es tpas (Sefd^eites iceröen. 

Sixv diesmal fiel-; ^id] immer fatt ; 

3dl xvd% öir fo ein Sdxi^dien aus5ufpüren 2445 

llnö feiig, tr>er bas gute Sdndfal bat, 

Ziis Bräutigam fie beimsufübren. 

^anft fielet immerfort in ben Spiegel. JTicpl^iftopf^eles, 
fid? in bem Scffcl öebnenb unb mit t)cm ITcbel fpielcnb, 
fäljrt fort 3n fpredien. 

^ier ftt)' id-> mie ber König auf bem übrone ; 

Den 5^'Pt*-'r balt' idi bier, es feblt luir nod-; bie Krone. 


Die ^I^icrc, 
roddie bist^ci* allerlei n)unbcrlid^c Bciücgungeu bmd} 
einanber cjcmadjt I]aben, bringen bem ITTcpI^iftopfielcs 
eine Krone mit großem (Scfdjrei. 

(D fei bod\ \o gut 2450 

VTüt 5d]it)ei§ unö mit Blut 
X>ie Krouc 3U leimen ! 
Sic ^ciin ungcfd^icft mit ber Krone um iinb 3crbredjeu 
fie in 3ir»ei Stiicfc, mit ipeldjen fie lierumfpringen. 
Xlun ift es gefdiclpt ! 
IDir reöen unb fel]n, 
Wk iiöven unö reimen — 2455 

5auft gegen ben Spiegel. 
Weil mir ! \d\ toeröe [d^ier »errücft. 

^epI]iftopI]eIe5 atif bie dt^icrc beutcnb. 
Hun fängt mir an faft felbft ber Kopf 3U fd^majtfcn. 

Die Cfjicre. 
Unb wenn es uns glücft ^-. 
llnb u?enn es fid^ fd]icft, 
So finb es (5eöanfen. 2460 

5auft mic oben. 
ITlein Bufen fängt mir an 5U brennen ! 
Entfernen n?ir uns nur ge[d]u?inb ! 

2T(epI|iftopI]eIe5 in obiger Stellung. 
Hun tüenigftens muf^ man befennen, 
Da§ es aufrid]tige poeten fi)ib. 

Der Keffel, toeldjen bie Kä^in bisl^er anJ5cr lldji gclaffcn, 
fängt an über3ulaufen ; es cntftel^t eine gro^c flamme, 

SCENE VI. 109 

u'cicbc 5um Sd^orftctn hinausfdilägt. Pic fjejx fomint 
bnvAy Mc ^laininc mit cuti'etjlidjcm öcfd^rct bcnmter-- 

Die fjcj-c. 
:iu! 2lu! :iu! :iu! .46s 

Derbammtes <Zl}\cv ! üorfludito Sau ! 
Dcrfäumft ben Koffcl, ccrfcngft öic 5rau ! 
Porfluditos <Zbwv ! 

^auft imb lTtcpl]tftopI]cIc5 cvblicfenb. 
Was ift öas I]ici* ? 

Wcv feib tl]r liier ? 2470 

Was wollt ibr öa ? 
It^cr fd]lid] fid] ein ? 
Die 5*?ut-^i*pcin 
€ud) ins (Bebeiit ! 
Sie fälirt mit bcm 5djaumlöffcl in ben Kcffel unb fpri^t 
flammen nadi ^auft, iricpl]iftopl]cIc5unb bcn ill]icrcn. 
Die ill]iere u)in[cln. 


tpcldjer bcn ll?cbcl, bcn er in bcr Vianb I^ält, umfcl]rt unb 

unter bie (Släfer unb üöpfe fdjlägt. 

fntjuiei ! (£nt3it)ei ! 2475 

Da lieat ber i^rei 1 
Da liegt öas (Sias ! 
€5 ift nur Sipa%, 
Der üact, bu Zlas, 

öu beiner ZlTelobei. 2480 

jnbem bie liiere ooU (Srimm unb tEntfct5cn juriicftritt. 
v£rfeiutft bu ntidt ? (Serippe ! 5d]eufal bn ? 
(£rfeiuift 6u beinen i^errn unb JlTeifter ? 
Was bält midi ab, \o fdilacj' id] 5U, 


^erfd^mcttrc b'id] uni) beiiic Ka^eitgcifter ! 

f^aft bn vovm rotl^cn Wamms nid]t inefir Hefpect ? 2485 

Kannft bu bie i^al^itcnfcbcr nid]t ernennen ? 

^ah' id\ bxes 2tngcficf]t ücrftccft ? 

Soll \d\ m\di etwa fclber nennen ? 

Die i^e^-e. 
® fjerr, »erseitjt ben rollen (5ru§ ! 
5el^ td) bodi feinen pferbefu^. 2490 

tPo finö benn eure beiben Haben ? 

5ür biesmal !ommft bu fo baoon, 
Venn freilid] tft es eine XPeile fd]on, 
Va% vo'w uns nid]t gefeiten I^aben. 
2tudi bie Cultur, bie alle IDelt beIe<Jt, 2495 

f^at auf ben Ceufel fid] erftredt ; 
X>as norbifd]e pl^antom ift nun nid]t meljr 3U [d^aucn ; 
Wo fiel]ft bu ^örner, Sdttvoexf unb Klaueji ? 
Hnb voas tan 5u§ betrifft, ben id^ nid]t miffen faim, 
X>er rüürbe mir bei beuten fd^aben ; 2500 

Darum bebien' xdi mxdi, u?ie mandier junge ZTiann, 
Seit Dielen 3al]ren falfd]er XDaben. 

Die i^ej-e tan3cnb. 
Sinn unb Perftanb r>erlier id^ fd^ier, 
Seil \d\ ben 3iinfer Satan wieber tjier ! 

Den Hamen, IPeib, üerbitt' id^ mir ! 2505 

Die £jej;c. 
iParum ? toas I^at er eud^ getl^an ? 


€r tft \d\on lang ins 5<^^t'I&u<i? gefd]riebcn ; 
2lIIoin ^io IlToiifdicn finö nidtts boffcr öran ; 
Den i3öl'cn finö fio los, b'w i3öfon finJ) cjobliobcn. 
Du nonnft mid] I^crr ^aron, fo ift bic Sad^c gut ; 2510 
3d] bin ein CaDalier, loie anbre Caoaliere. 
Du 5uieifel[t nid]! an nteiixcnt eblen Blut. 
Siel] Ijer, iias ift bas IPappen, tas xd] fübre ! 
(Er iiiadjt eine unanftäubii^e (Seberbe. 

Die ^eyc Iad?t unmäßig. 
f]a ! ^a ! bas ift in eurer 2lrt ! 
3br feib ein Sdielm, u?ie it^r nur immer ivavt. 2313 

ZlTepI^iftopIieles 511 ^auft. 
Vfle'm 5tßunb, bas lerne u?oI perftebn ! 
Dies ift bk 2trt mit rjeren umsugel^n. 

Die ^ere. 
Xlüw fagt, iljr Ferren, was ilir fd]gfft ! ■— *-^ 

(£in gutes (Sias r>on bcm befannten Saft ! 
Dodi muß xdi eud} ums älti'te bitten ; 2520 

Die 3al^re Goppeln feine Kraft. 

Die f^ere. 
(Sar gern ! I^ier liäb id] eine ^lafd^e 
2lus ber id] felbft 5uu?eilen nafd^e, 
Die aud] nidjt mehr im minöftou ftin!t; 
3d7 ujill eud] gern ein (5Iäsd]en geben. 2523 

Dod] u^eim es biefer 21Tanu unvorbereitet trinft. 
So fann er, an^t ibr u?oI, nid]t eine Stunde Üben. 


<£s ift ein guter 5i^ßunb, bem es gebeil^en foH ; 

3d7 gönn' \hj,y\ gern öas 33efte deiner Küdie. 

öieiy öeinen Kreis, fprid] bcine Sprudle 2530 

Xhx^ gib il]nt eine Caffe doU ! 

Die fjcre, 
mit fcitfamcn (Scbärbcn, 3tcl]t einen Kreis unb fteüt 
iKunbcrbarc Sarf^en l^inetn ; itibcffen fangen bie (Släfer 
an 311 flingen, bie Keffel 3n tönen unb ntadjcn lllufif. 
§nlet3t bringt fie ein grofjes Bndj, ftellt bie IlleerFa^eu 
in 'i>cn Kreis, bie il^r 3uni pult biencn unb bie ^a<$i\ 
Ijalteu muffen. Sic tt>inft Rauften 3U il]r 3U treten. 

5ciuft 3U XlTcpIiiftopt^cIes. 
■ rcein, fagc mir, was foll ^as ir>crJ)en? 
Das tolle ^iwq,, öie rafenbcn (5ebäröen, 
Der abgefd]nia(itefte Betrug, 
5inb mir befannt, »erl^a^t genug. 2535 

(£i, poffen ! bas ift nur junt £ad]en. 
Sei nur nidit ein \o ftrenger Zltanit ! 
Sie nui| als 2lr5t ein fjofuspohis mad]en, 
Damit Ser Saft bxt xoo\ gebeilicn !ann. 
€r nött^igt (Jauften in 'Ocn Kreis 3U treten. 

Die ^ere, 
mit groii5er €mpt|afe, fängt an aus bem Sudjc 5U bc= 
Du muf^t üerftelpi ! 2540 

2lus fins mad]' ^d\\\ 
Wnb «gwei Ia|5 gel]n 
Hnö Drei madV gleid], 

SCENE VI. 113 

So bift bn rotd^ 

rorlior' c^io Dior ! 2545 

2hi5 Sw\f nnb Sc&iS/ 

So fagt bxc fjcr, 

VTiadi' S'whcn unö Z[d]t, 

So ift5 PoIIbrad]t ! 

Unb llcun ift (£tu5, 2550 

Uitö <5*?l'!n ift feins. 

Vas ift öas £)(>i-en=i£inmaLnu5 ! 

m\d] bnn% bk 21Ite fprid^t im 5it'ber. _ . 

Das ift nod] lange nid^t Dorübcr ; 
3d! fenit es ipol, fo flingt bas gan^c 'Sud}. 2555 

3d] I^abc mand]e ^eit bamit ücrlorcn ; 
Denn ein poUfommncr ITiöerfprud] 
Bleibt gleid] gebeimiü^DoII für Kluge roie für Ctjoren. 
XÜcin 5reuuö, bxc Kunft ift alt nnb neu : 
€5 mar bic Zivi 5U allen Reiten 2560 

Durd] Drei unb (Eins unö £ins nnb Drei 
3i'rtbuttt ftatt IDabrbeit 5U oerbreiten. 
So fd^mä^t nnb lebrt man ungeftört, 
IPer loill fid^ mit ben Itarm befaffen ? 
(5cu)ölinlid] glaubt bot TITenfd], u?enn er nur Xüotte 
köti, 2565 

€s muffe fid^ öabei bod-] and} was bcnkn laffen. 

Die fjej-e fäl^rt fort. 
Die Iiobe Kraft 
Der ir>iffenfd]aft, 


Det gan5cu it^olt »erborgen ! 

IXnb ivet nid]t öenft, 2570 

Dem wirb fie ge[d]enft, 

(£r I]at fie ol^ne Sorgen. 


Was fagt fie uns für Hnfinn üor ? 

<£b wirb mir gleid] ber Kopf 3erbred]en. 

2Tiid] bünft, id] Iiör' ein ganscs dlior 2575 

Pon I]unöerttaufenb Harren fpred^en. 


(Senug, genug, trefflid^e Sibylle ! 

(5ib beinen Cranf I^erbei unb fülle 

Die Sd]ale rafd; bis an ben l^anb l}\nan ! 

Denn meinem 5reunb toir b biefer Crunf nid]t fd]aben : 2580 

€r ift ein 2T(ann von üielen (5raben, 

Der mand^en guten Sd^Iud getl^an. 

Dk £7Cjc, mit r>tclcn Zeremonien, fdjcnft bcn dranf in 
eine Scfjalc ; wie fie ^auft an ben lltunb bi-tn^t, cnt= 
ftef]t eine leidjtc flamme. -lAAyN' ' 

llnr fr\\di I]inuntcr ! 3mnter 3U ! ^'^**^ '"'^ V 

(£5 n?irb bir gleid^ bas ^ers erfreuen. 

Bift mit bem Ceufel bu unb bu, 2585 

Hub u?illft bid7 üor ber ^I^^iuiue fd^euen ? 

Die J^cfe löft bcn Kreis, ^auft tritt I^evaus. 

Xlnn frifd] I^inaus I Du barfft nid^t rul^n. 

Die ^ej-e. 
Znög eudi bas Sd]lüdd]en wol bel^agen ! 

SCENE VI. 115 

llii^ faiiii \di b'xv was 511 (Scfalloii tl^un, 

So barfft ^u inirs nur auf lüalpurtjis [agcn. 2590 

Die I^crc. 
i^icv ift ein £ieö ! ir>enn il}vs 5uit>eilen fingt, 
So u?erbct il]i* befonöre XDirhuuj fpüren. 

ZTlepIiiftopIieles 511 ^auft. 
Konun nur cjefd^aiinb unb la^ bid] füllten ! 
Du nui^t notbipenöig tranfpiriren, 
Damit bie Kraft burd] 3""= w^^ ^teußres bringt. 2595 
Den eblen JlTüißiggang lelir ich, Iiernadi bid] fd]ä^en 
ilnb balb enipfinbeft bu mit iimigem frgc^en, 
IDie fid7 Cupibo regt unb Hu unb roieber fpringt. 

Caf5 midi nur fd]nell nod] in ben Spiegel fd]auen ! 
Das 5i"öuenbilb mar gar 5U fd]ön ! 2600 

Hein, J^ein ! Du foUft bas 2T(ufter aller 5i*auen 
ilun balb leibljaftig por bir fel]u. 

Du ftelift mit biefem Cranf im Ceibe, 
öalb .^elenen in jebem IDeibe. 



^auft. ITTargarctc üorübcrcjcfjciib. 

Zfiexn fd]önc5 ^räulctn, bavf id] wagen, 2605 

21Teineii Htm unb (Scicit il^r ansutragcu ? 

^in rDCÖer 5räulcin, lücbcr fd]ön ; 
Kamt ungcicitct nad\ ^aufe gcl]n. 

Sic madjt fidj los unb ab. 

Beim fjimmcl, bicfcs Kinb tft fd]ön ! 
So etrr>as I^ab id) nie gc[cl])i. 2610 

Sie ift fo Sitt' unö Cugenb reid? 
Itnb etroas fd]nippifd) bod] jugleid]. 
X>er Oppe Ziotl}, bct Wange '£\d]t, 
^ie Cage öcr lüett ücrgcff id]5 nxd\t ! 
IDie fie öie 2tugen iiieöerfd^Iägt, 2615 

£iat tief fid) in mein ^ers geprägt ; 
IDie fie fürs angebunbeu wat, 
T>as ift nun jum (£nt5Üden gar ! 
UTepfjiftopfjeles tritt auf. 

f^ör', bu mu^t mir öie X>irne fd]affen ! 

^un, roeld^e ? 

Sie ging juft »orbei. 2620 



Va t>to ? Sic fain von ilnvtn Pfaffen, 

Vcv fprad] fio aller Sünden frei ; 

3d] \d]lid] m\d] I^irt am Stuhl vorbei. 

(£5 ift ein gar unfd]ulc>ioi T)ing, 

Das eben für nid}ts sur i3eid]te ging ; 2625 

Ueber i>ie liab' id| feine ;5eiDalt ! 

3ft über »ietjel^n 3aljr' bod} alt. 


^u fpridift ja rrie Vians Cicöcrlidi, 

^er begehrt jeöe liebe Blum' für fid") 

Unö bünfelt il^m, es luär' fein >£I]r' 2630 

Unb (5unft, öie nid]t 3U pflücfen war'. 

(Seilt aber ^)od] nid]t intnxer an. 


JTtein f^err HTagifter Cobefan, 

£aJ5 er mid; nüt öent (Sefe^ in 5neöen. 

Unö öas fag' id^ il^nt fürs unb gut, 2635 

lücnn nid^t bas fü^e junge ^lut 

^eut Zlad}t in meinen Firmen ruht, 

So fiuw) u?ir um ZlTitternad^t gejd]iet)en. 


23cbcnft, tr>as gelin unö ftel^en mag ! 

3di braud^e ir>enigften5 üierjel^n Cag', 2640 

2Tur t>ie (Selegenl^eit ausjufpüren. 



fjätt' \d\ nur fielen Sämbcn ^ul^', 
^raud]tc bcn Ccufcl nid]t 60511 
So ein (Scfdiöpfdien 3U r>erfül]ren. 


3Ijr fprcd^t fd]on faft wie ein 5i'cin305 ; 2645 

1)od\ bitt' id], la^ts eud] nid]t »erbrießen : 

Was iixlfts, nur graöe 3U geniefcit ? 

^ie 5i*eub' ift lange nid^t fo gro^, 

^Us aienn il^r erft I^erauf, l^erum, 

^urd] allerlei Sriniboriunt, 2650 

T>as püppd]en gefnetet unb 3ugerid]t't, 

IDies leieret mand]e u?elfd]e (Sefd^id^t. 

JE]ab' 2tppctit aud] of|ne öas. 


3e<5t ol^nc 5d]impf un6 ol^ne Spa^ ! 

3d) jag' eud], ntit öem fdiönen Kinb 2655 

(Sel^ts ein= für allental nid]t ge[d]ipinö. 

2T(it Sturnt ift öa )üd]t5 einsunelinten ; 

IDir muffen uns sur £ift bequemen ! 


5d]aff' mir etroas r>om (Engelsfd^a^ ! 

Snlif mid] an il^ren 2\ul]eplafe 1 2660 

5d]aff' mir ein fjalstud] von if^rer ^^ruft, 

(Ein Strumpfband meiner Ciebesluft ! 


X)anüt ihr fobt, ^a^ \d] eurer poiii 

IDill föröcrlid^ unö öicnftUd-; fein, 

IDoUen w'w feinen ^lugenblief perlieven, 2665 

IDitl eudi nod] beut in ibr ^imnier fübren. 

Hub [oü fie febn ? fie haben ? 

llcm ! 
Sie ir>ir^ bei einer iTad^bariu fein. 
3nv»eijen fönnt ibr gan^ allein 

2ln aller i7offiunu3 füuftger 5reuöen 2670 

3it ibrem "Dunftfreis fatt cud] ujeiöen. 

Können iv'w bin ? 

ZTCepbiftopbeles. • 
€5 ift nod] 5U früb. 

5org' t>u mir für ein (Sefd^euf für fie ! 2tS. 

(5Ieidi fdienfen ? Das ift brar» ! "Da luiri) er reuffiren ! 
3d-> fenne mandien fdiöuen pla^ 2675 

Unb mand'jen altoergrabnen Sdiai?, ! 
3d] muß ein bisd^en rcpiöiren. 2lb. 


€tn üctncs rctntidjcs gimmcr. 

it^rc §öpfc ftcdjtctib unb aufbtnbcnb. 
^d\ gäh waB örum, toenn id^ nur voü^t 
Wev I]cut bcr I^err gcrocfcn ift ! 
(£r fal] cjcwi^ rcd]t rracfcr aus 2680 

Unb ift aus einem eMen ^aus : 
"Das fonnt id] il^m an bet Stirne lefen ! — 
€r U3är aud] fonft nid^t \o fedP geu?efen. 

IHcpI^iftopt^elcs. (^auft. 
fjerein, gan^ leife, nur Ijerein ! 

5auft nudi einigem Still fd?n)eigcn. 
3d? bitte bid], Ia§ mid] allein ! 2685 

2T(epIiiftopI]eIc5 t)erumfpürenb. 

Zl\(i\i jebes ^Tiä^d^en I]ält fo rein. 


5auft rings ouffdjauenb. 
IPillfommen fü^er Dännner jd]ein ! 
i)er öu öie§ £jeiligtl]um öurd]U3ebft. 
(Ergreif mein £jer5, bu fü^e ^liebespein, 
Die bn vom Cliau ber i^offiuutg fd]mad?tenö lebft. 2690 
W\e atl]met rings (5efül]l ber Stille, 
Der ©rbnung, ber ^ufriebenl^eit ! 


3" Mcfcr ^Irmutl] rx>cld]o SüHo ! 
3n bicfotn Korfor u?eld]c Soliafoit ! 

€r anrft fidj auf bcn Icbcntcn 5cffel am Bett. 
(D nitntn und] auf, bcr bu bie Dont>cIt fd^on 2695 

Bei 5i^*^uö uut) 5dimer5 ijt offnoit 2tnn empfangen ! 
Wie oft, ad] ! I^at an Mofoni Dätertbron 
5d]on eine 5d]aar von Kindern rinas' gebangeu ! 
DieIIeid]t liat, banfbar für öen I^eilgen <Ibrift, 
Tfic'xn Ciebd^en bier mit rollen Kinöermangon 2700 

^em ^U-;nberrn fromm bie vocltc ^anö gefüllt. 
3d] fül^I, o 21Täc>d]en deinen (Seift 
X>er 5iiII unö 0rc)nutig um mid) fäufeln, 
"Der mütterlid] bid^ täglid] unterroeift, 
Den Ceppid"! auf öen Cifd] bid] reinlid"» breiten bei^'t 2705 
Sogar öen 5anb 5U ^einen 5ü^en fräufeln. 
(D liebe £janb, fo göttergleid] ! 
X>ie JPjütte loiri» burd] t)id] ein fiimmeIreid^ 
Unb liier ! 

€r t|cbt einen Bettrorf^ancj auf. 

Was faßt ntidi für ein IDonnegraus ! 
fjier möd]t idi oolle Stimmen fäumen. 2710 

Hatiir ! bier bilöeteft in leidsten Cräumen 
Den eingebornen (£ngel aus. 

^ier lag bas Kinb ! mit uiarmem ^icbcn 

Den sarten Bufen angefüllt, 

Unb liier mit l^eilig reinem IV>eben 2715 

fntiüirfte fid] bas (Sötterbilc» ! 

Unb bu ! Was bat ^id] bergefülirt ? 

IPie imng fübl idi nnd] gerülirt ! 

Was lüillft öu bier ? Was w'xvb bas ^er^ 6ir fd]it>er ? 

2lrmfelger 5<-iuft ! idi fenne b\d] nid]t melir. 2720 


Umgibt inid^ I]ier ein ,5<Juf"^'^öuft ? 
Zfiid} ömngs \o grabe 5U genießen 
Hub fül]le mxd} in Ciebestrautn serflie^en ! 
5inb roir ein Spiel von jeöem Dvud öer £uft ? 

Unb träte fic ben 2tugenbIi(J I^erein, 2723 

IDie ir>ürbeft bu für öeinen 5i*c»el bü§en ! 
Der gro^e £ians, ad] wie fo ficin ! 
£äg, I^ingefd]mol5en il^r 3U ^üß*-'». 

2TtepI]iftopI]cIe5 f'ommt. 
(Befd^toin!) ! id] fei] fie unten fommen. 

5ort, fort ! 3d] feiere nimmermeE^r ! 2730 

^ier ift ein Käftd^en, leiölid] fd]ir>er ; 
3d] I^abs reo anbcrs I]ergenonnnen. 
Stellts I]icr nur immer in ben Sdjrein ! 
3d] fd]U)ör eud(, itjr vevqefyx bie Sinnen ; 
3d7 tl]at eud| Säd^eldien I]inein 2735 

Um eine anbre 5U getoinnen. 
^u>ar Kinb ift Kinb unb Spiel ift Spiel. 

^d] xoe\^ nid]t, foU id] ? 


5ragt il^r üiel ? 
IHeint il^r r>ielleid?t ben 5d}ai^ 3U roaljren ? 
"Dann ratl] xd\ eurer £üfternl]eit 2740 

X>ie liebe fd^öne Cagesseit 
Unb mir bie toeitre ZHüI) 5U fparen. 


3df I^off nid^t ^ay tl^r goi^ig foic* ! 

3d] Frat5 ^olI Kopf, reib an bcn i^ä^^olt — 

i£i- (teilt bas Käftdjcn in bcn Sdn'ciii uub brücft bas 
Sd^Io^ tptcbcr 511. 
Hur fort ! gcfd^winb ! — 2745 

lltn cud] c>a5 [üj^o jimgo Kmb 
llcid) i]0r50H5 lUuufd] uni> IVill 511 ipcubcu ; 
llit^ il]r \cht t>roin, 
^Us folltot iln* in ^cii fiörfaal Inncin, 
^lls ftüu^ Icibbafttg v>or oud] i»a 2750 

pbyfif unö inotapiiyfifa ! 
aar fort ! 2lb. 

Tnargarctc mit einer Satnpc. 
(f 5 ift fo fdiipül, fo dumpfig Ine, 

Sic mad)t bas ^cnftcr auf. 
llnb ift bod] eben fo it>arm nid]t ^raunj. 
(£5 vo'wb mir fo, id] uxn^ nid]t irio — 2755 

3d] ipollt, (?ic 21Tuttcr fäm iiad] X^aus. 
ZlTir läuft ein Sd^iuer übern Ceib. 
^in öod] ein tliörid^t furd^tfam IDeib ! 

Sic fätiijt an 5U finacn inbcin fie fidj aussief^t. 

(£5 n?ar ein König in (Ibule, 
(5ar treu bis an bas (Srab, 2760 

i)etn fterbenö feine BuI^Ic 
>£inen golönen ^ed]er gab. 

€5 ging ibm nid]t5 darüber, 
<£r leert' ibn leben 5d]tnau5. 
^ie klugen gingen ibm über 
So oft er tranf daraus. 



Unö als er fant 3U ftcrbcn, 
Säillf er feine Stäbt im Heid^, 
(ßönnf alles feinem (Erben, 
Von ^ed]er nid^t sugleid]. 2770 

€r fa§ Seim Königsmal^Ie, 
X>ie Hitter um \l}\\ I]er, 
2luf I-joI^em Däterfaale, 
X)ort auf öem 5d]Io§ am ZtTeer. 

"Dort ftanö öer alte ö'^'^^r, 2775 

Cranf le^te Cebensglutli 
Unb warf bcn I^eiligen Sedier 
fjinunter in öie S^^^k- 

(£r fal] il]n ftürsen, trinfen 
Unb finfen tief ins 21Teer. 2780 

X>ie 2tugen tl^äten itjm finfen, 
^ranf nie einen Cropfen mel]r. 

Sie eröffnet bcn Sdjrein, tt^rc Kleiber etn3uräumen unb 
crblicft bas Sdjmucffäftdjeu. 
IPie fommt bas fd^öne Käftd]en I]ier I^erein ? 
3d7 fd][o| bod} gan^ gcwi^ bcn 5d)rein. 
(£5 ift bod] tDunberbar! IDas mag ipoI brinne fein? 2785 
PieIIeid]t brad]ts jemanb als ein Pfanb 
ITnb meine ZlTutter liel] öarauf. 
"Da I]ängt ein 5d][üffeld]en am Banb ! 
3d] benfe vool, \d} mad} es auf ! — 
IPas ift bas ? (Sott im I^immel ! Sd^au ! 2790 

So was iiab \d} mein Cagc nid]t gefel^n ! 
€in 5d7mucf ! ITut bem fönnt eine <£belfrau 
2im Ijöd^ften Seißi'tcige Q<i}:in I 

SCENE IX. 125 

IV'xc folltc mir bic Kette \icl]n ? 

IVcm mag. bxc f^errlid^feit geboren ? 2795 

Sic }.nit5t fidi bamit auf iiiib tritt vov bcit f piegcl. 
IPenii nur bio 0InTing meine irären ! 
IVum ixcht bod] gleid^ gau5 anders brein. 
IPas Inlft eudi Sd^jönbeit, junges ^lut ? 
i)as ift wol alles \d}ön unb gut, 

:jlllein man läf^ts aud> alles fein ; zSod 

21Tan lobt eud^ balb mit v£rbarmen. 
Xlad} (Solbe drängt, 
^Im (Selbe bangt 
Vod] alles ! 2[di, xv'w ^trmen ! 


^jauft in (Scbanfcn auf uni) ab gelten!). §u it^m 
ITtep biftopbeics. 

2T(epbiftopbeIes. ^_^ 

Bei aller r>erfd]mäbte)T Ciebe ! Beim böUifdien €Ie= ' 

mente ! 2S05 

jd] ivoüt \d] tpü^te ttxis 2lergers, bay id^s flud^en 
fönnte I 

ir>as baft ? was fneipt bid-; beim fo febr ? 
So fein (Seftd^t fat] id] in meinem «Leben ! 

Id"! möd'jt mid] gleid^ bem Ceufel übergebeit, 
IJOenn \d} nur felbft fein Qleufel u?är ! 2810 



f^at fid) b'xt was int Kopf Dcrfd^obcn ? 
Vidi ficibets, roie ciit 2?afen!5cr 3U toben ! 


Denft nur, ben Scf^mutf, für (Srctd^en ange[d)afft, 

X)en I]at ein Pfaff I-;inn.x'ggcrafft ! — 

Die Zllutter !riegt bas i)ing 3U fd]auen, 2815 

(SIeid] fängts il^r Iieimlid] an 3U grauen : 

Die 5i*au I^at gar einen feineit (5erud), 

5d]nuffclt inuner int (5ebetbud] 

Hnb ried]t5 einem jeben Xfiöhel an, 

(Db bas Ding I]eilig ift ober profan. 2820 

Unb an bem Sd^mud, ba fpürt fies !Iar, 

Da| babei nid]t oiel Segen loar. 

„ZlTein Kiitb," rief fie, „ungered]te5 (5ut 

Befängt bie Seele, 3el]rt auf bas 23Iut. 

Woücns ber 21Tutter <5ottcs toeilien, 2825 

IDirb uns mit fjimmelsmanna erfreuen ! " 

21TargretIein 30g ein fdiiefes ITlanl. 

3ft lialt, bad}t fie, ein gefd]enfter (Saul 

Unb wai}iixdi ! gottlos ift nidit ber, 

Der ilin fo fein gebrad^t I]ierl|er. 2830 

Die 2T(utter lie^ einen pf äffen !ommen ; 

Der I^atte faum bcn Spa§ »ernommen, 

£ie§ fid] ben 2lnblid tool bel^agen. 

€r fprad^ : „So ift man redit gefinnt! 

tDer übcru)inbet, ber gemiimt." 283s 

Die Kird^e I^at einen guten 2:lTagen, 

^at ganse Cänber aufgefreffen, 

Unb bodi nodi nie fid^ über geffen ; 

SCENE IX. 127 

„T>\c Kird]' allciii, meine lieben 5i*auen, 

Kann ungorod^tof i5nt üert)auen." 2840 

Da:- ift ein allgemeiner i^rand] ; 
£in 3ut) uni) König t'ann es and]. 

Stridi ^ranf ein Spange, Kett nnö Hing, 
^115 irärens eben Pfifferling, 

Danft' nid]t weniger unö nid]t melir, 2845 

^lls obs ein Korb roll Hüffe u-iär, 
Uerfprad] il^nen allen bimmlifd^en CoI]n — 
Unb fie umren fel]r erbant öapon. 

Unb <5vctd}cn ? 

Si^t nnn nnrnbüoll, 
IPeib' n-ie^er was fie niill nod] foll, 2850 

A^enft ans (Sefdimeibe Zag nnb Had]t, 
llod] mebr an öen, öers ibr gebrad]t. 

i)es Ciebdiens Kummer tl]nt mir leib. 
5d]aff öu ibr gletd] ein neu (Sefd^mcib ! 
2tm erften wav ja fo nid]t nielj 2855 

ja, bem J^errn ift aües Kinberfpiel ! 

Hub mad} unb rid^ts nad] meinem Sinn 1 
£jäng öid] an ibre i"tad]barin 1 


Sei Ceufcl bod) nur nid]t wie Brei 
Itnb fd^ajf' chtcn iieueit 5d\mud Ijcrbei 1 

3a, gnäbgcr f^crr, t)oit Ijersot gerne. 

^auft ab. 
So ein üerliebter ^Fjor verpufft 
i£ud] Sonne, 2T(onb unb alle Sterne 
5um Zeitvertreib bem Cicbd^en in bie £uft. 


Der Had^barin ^aus. 

2TcartI]e allein. 
(Sott rier5eiE]s nteinem lieben 2Tlann ! 2865 

<£r I^at an mir nid^t rool getl]an. 
(5el]t ba ftrads in bie IPelt I]inein 
llnb Iä§t mid] auf bent Strol] allein, 
diät it^n bod} ipal^rlid] nid]t betrüben, 
d]ät it>n, loei^ (Sott ! red]t Iicrjlidi lieben. 2870 

Sic tDcint. 
DieIIeid]t ift er gar tobt ! — pein ! — 
J^ätt id] nur einen Cobtenfd]ein ! 

ITiargaretc fommt. 

5rau VTlattlie ! 


(Sreteld]en, was foüs ? 

SCENE X. 129 

5aft finfoii mir bk Knicc nieöcr ! 
Da ft^^ id] [0 ein Kä[td]ou ii>iober 287s 

311 motnoin Sdiroin, von 'Ebcnliol^ 
llnö 5ad]cn, I-jcrrUd] gauj mit) gar, 
Weit vcxchcv, als öas crftc war. 

Das mw^ fie ntd]t ber Zltutter [ageit ! 
^Lbßts it)icöer gicidi sur Soid]tc tracjcu. 2880 

2td] feil fie nur ! ad} fd^au fic nur ! 

ZHartf^e pu^t ftc auf. 
bu glüdPfelgc Creatur ! 

Darf mtd], Icibcr ! nid]t auf bor (Saffeu, 
Zlod] in bor Kird]o mit fobon laffon. 

Komm bu nur oft 5U mir I^orübcr 2885 

Unb kg ben 5d;muc! Her Iieimlid^ an, 
Spasier ein 5tünbd]0)t lang bom Spiegelglas üorüber ! 
IDir I-jaben unfre 5i"eube bran. 
Unb bann gibts oinoit ^tnla§, gibts ein 5eft, 
Wo maus fo nad} uitb nad} bon Ceuten feigen Iä§t. 2S90 
€in Kcttdien erft, bie perle bann ins (Dhj ; 
Die ZlTutter fiolits wol n\d}i, man mad}t xhv and] u?asDor. 

. 2T(argaroto. 
IDer fonnto nur bio hcibcn l\äftd]on bringen ? 
(£s gebt nid^t 5U mit roditon Dingen ! 
€5 Flopft. 


2tdj (Sott, mag bas meine ZITutter [ein ? 2895 

ZHartt^e burdjs Dortjängcl gutfenb. 
(£5 ift ein frember I^err. — fjerein I 

incpI)iftopI]cIes tritt auf. 
^in fo frei grab I^ereinjutreten, 
Znu§ bei öeit grauen Derscil^n erbeten. 

(Tritt cl|rcrbicttg r>or llTargarctcn 3urü(f . 
IDoUte nad\ S^<^u 21TartI|e 5d]iDerc)tIein fragen'! 

3dj bins. WcxB Viat ber i^err 5U fagen ? 2900 

ZHepI^iftopI^eles Ictfc 311 if^r. 
3d] fennc fte je^t, mir ift bas genug. 
Sie I]at ba gar r>orneI^men Befud^. 
Perseil^t bie 5reil]eit bie id] genommen 1 
WiU. nad} ZlTittage ipieberfommen. 

2TcartI]e laut. 
T>en!, Kino, um alles in öer IDett ! 2905 

Der ^err bid^ für ein 5i*äulein I]ält. 

3d) bin ein armes junges 3Iut ; 
2td^ (5ott ! ber i]err ift gar 5U gut : 
5d^mu<J unb (5efd]meibe finö nid]t mein. 

7(.d\, es ift nid]t ber 5d]nuid allein ; 2910 

Sie I^at ein iPefen, einen ^lidP fo fdjarf I 
XOxe freut mid]s, ba^ xd^ bleibeji barf. 

SCENE X. 131 

IVcis bringt er beim ? Verlange \clit — 

3^7 ivoüi, \d] häit eine fi-obere ITiähv ! 
3d] boffe, fie läj^t midis brum nid'jt büßen : 291s 

3Iu' illann ift toöt uni) Iä]ßt fie grüben. 

3ft tO(5t ? X»a5 treue fjers ! uu'b ! 
ZTlein 2T(ann ift toöt ! 2ld}, id] »ergeli ! 

2ld}, liebe 5rau, oerstoeifelt nid]t ! 

So I>ört öie traurige (Sefd^id^t ! 2920 

3d] mödite brum mein üag nid]t lieben ; 
IDüröe mxd\ Perluft 5U iloöe betrüben. 

5reut) mu§ £eib, £eiö mu§ 5reube I^aben. 

!£r5äl]lt mir feines Cebens 5d]Iu§ ! 

i£r liegt in Pabua begraben 2925 

i3eim beiligen Stntonius, 
2ln einer ir>oI gen?eiliten Stätte 
5um emig füblen Hul^ebette. 

£}abt ibr fonft nid->t5 an mid] 5U bringen ? 


3ct, eine ^ittc, cjro^ nnb \d\wef : 2930 

£a^ ftc bodi ja für il]]t breil]un6ert 2T(ef[en fingen ! 
3m übrigen finb meine Cafd^en leer. 

Was ! Zlxdit ein Sd^auftüdP ! fein (Se[d]meib ? 
IDas jeber ^anötoerfsburfd^ im (5runö öes 5e<fel5 fpart, 
^um 2tnget)en!en aufberoatjrt 2935 

IXnb lieber I^ungert, lieber bettelt ! 

Zflabam, es tl^ut mir I]er5ltd^ leib ; 
2lIIein er Ijat fein (5eI6 roal^rl^aftig nid^t persettelt. 
2tud] er bereute feine 5«lllcr fel^r, 
3a unö bejammerte fein UnglüiJ nod] üiel meljr. 2940 

2ld\ ! 5a§ bie ZHenfd^en fo unglü(f lid^ finb ! 
<5erDi^, id^ toill für il]n mand] Hequiem nod\ beten. 

3ijr toäret roertlj gleid) in 5ie €t) 3U treten ! 
3^!^ feib ein liebensrpürbig Kinb. 

2td^ nein ! bas gefjt jefet nod] nid^t an. 2945 

3ft5 nid]t ein 2Ttann, feis berroeil ein (Salan. 
<£b ift eine ber größten fjimmelsgaben 
So ein lieb X>ing im 2trm 5U Iiaben. 

Das ift bes Canbes nidtt ber ^raud^. 

SCENE X. 133 

Braud^ oöer nid^t ! £5 gibt fid] aud]. 


<£viälilt mir öod] 


3d] ftanö an feinem Sterbebette ; 
(£5 war voas beffer als r>on 21Tift, 
Von I^albüerfaultem Strol] ; allein er ftarb als Cl^rift 
IXnb fanb, ba§ er n?eit mel]r nod} auf ber ^ed]e I]ätte. 
„löie," rief er „mu^ id] mid^ oon (Srunö aus I]af[en, 2955 
So mein (Seu)erb, meitt IDeib fo 5U oerlaffen ! 
2ldi ! öie (£rinn'rung töntet mid^. 
Pergäb' [ie mir imr nod^ in biefem £chcn ! " — 

2TcartE]e tDciticnb. 
^cr gute ZlTann ! \d\ l\ab' iiim läncjft »ergeben. 

„2lIIein, roei^ (Sott ! fie loar mel]r Sd|ulb als id\." 2960 

^as lügt er ! iPas ! am Hanö bes (Srabs 5U lügen ! 


(Er fabelte gcrr)i§ in legten ^ügen, 

IPenn idi nur l|alb ein Kcimer bin. 

„3d] I^atte," fprad] er, „nid]t sunt ^cÜoertreib 3U gaffen, 

€rft Kinber unb bann Srot für fie 5U fdiaffeit 2965 

Unö Brol im aUertoeitften Sinn 

Unö fonnte nid]t eiitmal mein Cl^nl itt 5rieöen effen." 


Siat er [o aller Crcu, fo aller £ieb oergeffen, 
Der piarferei bei Cag unö Xla<iit ! 

Xtxdit bodi, er I^at eud) I^ersUd) brau gebadet. 2970 

(£r fprad^ : „^lls xdi nun roeg r>on ZHalta ging, 
Va betet' id] für 5i*au unb Kinber brünftig ; 
Uns roar beim aud] ber ^immel günftig, 
X>a§ unfer 5d]iff ein türfifd] 5cil|r3eug fing, 
Das einen Sd^afe bes großen Sultans fül]rte. 297s 

Da tnarb ber tiapferfeit il^r Col]n 
Unb id] empfing benn aud^, toie fid^s gebül^rte, 
ZHein vool gemeines Cljeil bapon." 

(£i roie ? €i n?o ? £jat ers r)ielleid]t oergraben ? 

' tDer roei^, wo nun es bie üier XDinbe Ijaben ! 2980 

(Ein fdiönes 5räulein nafjm fid^ feiner an, 
2tls er in Hapel fremb uml^erfpasierte. 
Sie fjat an il^m üiel Bei>s unb Creus getl^an, 
Da^ ers bis an fein feiig <£nbe fpürte. 

Der Sd^elm ! ber Dieb an feinen Kinbern ! 2985 

2tud] alles €Ienb, alle Zlotl} 
Könnt' nid^t fein fd^änblidi teben I^inbern ! 

3a fel^t ! bafür ift er nun tobt. 
IDär' idi nun jefet an eurem pla^e, 

SCENE X. 135 

Betrauert' xd} il]n ein süd^tig 2)'^liv, 2990 

Pifirte bann untenpeil, nad] einem neuen Sd^a^e. 

2ld] (Sott, irie bod} nietn erfter uxir, 
5itii)' id] nid]t leidet auf Mefer iPelt ^en an^er^I ! 
(£5 fonnte fauni ein ber5iger Härrd>^n fein, 
(fr liebte mir cias all5ur)iele IPaucJern 2995 

llnC) fremi^e IDeiber unc> frentben lüein 
llnC) bas oerfludite lüürfelfpiel. 

2"cun, luut I \o fonnt' es cjel^n nnb fteb^en, 
IPenn er eud] ungefäl^r fo oiel 

Don feiner Seite nad^gefeben. 3000 

3d^ fd]u?ör' eud] 5U, mit l>ent Beding 
Iüed]lelt' id] felbft mit cnd] bcn ll'mg, l 

(D C5 beliebt bem fjerrn 5U fdiersen ! 

2T(epbiftopI';eIe5 für ftdj. 
Icun mad^' id] mid] bei ^'^iten fort ! 
Die Ijielte rool ben Qleufel felbft beim JPort. 3005 

§11 (Srctdicn. 
Wie ftel]t es öenn mit il^rem l^ersen ? 

Was meint ber ^err bamit ? 

ZTtepIiiftopbeles für fid?. 

Du guts, unfd^ulbigs Kino ! 
Cebt icol, ibr 5raun ! 


£eht rool ! 


fagt mir bod\ gefd)ir»mb ! 
3d) möd^te gern ein ,§cugni§ I^abcn, 
Wo, wie un5 roann mein Sdiai^ geftorben unb he- 
graben. 301° 

3<i? bin t)on je ber ©rönung 5i^ßunö geroefen, 
ZlTöd^t' il^n andi toöt im Wodienhlättd\cn lefen. 

3a gute 5i*<^u, 6urd^ smeier ,5^wgen 2Tlunb 
IDirb allermegs bie IPaI]rI]cit funb. 
Siabe nod] gar einen feinejt (5efeIIen, ' 3015 

Den mill \d\ cnd\ cor öen Hiditer [teilen. 
2<i\ bring' il^n I^er. 

® tliut öas ja ! 

Unb Vixev 5ie 3u"9frciu ift aud^ ba ? — 
(£in brar»er Knab', ift oiel gereift ; 
Fräuleins alle ^öflid^feit crioeift. 302° 

HTü^tc üor J>em fjerren fd]amrotI] ir>erben. 

Vot feinem Könige öcr €r6en. 

Da I^interm ^aus in meinent (Sarten 
XDoIIen roir öer £^errn I^eiit ^Ibenö warten. 

SCENE XI. 137 


^^auft. IHcpI^tftopl^cIcs. 

IVk ifts ? roills f örbcrn ? voxUs halb gciin ? 3025 

2lb hvavo l ftjtb' id] cud] \n 5^ucr? 
3n fuiyr ^eit ift (Srctdicu euer. 
£jeut 2lbetib follt ilir fie bei nad]bars 2T(artIien feint. 
Das ift ein IDeib roie auserlefen 
5um Kuppler= unö (^igeunennefen ! 3030 

So red]t ! 

2)od^ roirö aud] u?a5 r»on uns begel^rt. 

€in Dienft ift vool bes andern tpertEi. 

XO'w legen nur ein gültig 5*-'ugni§ nieber, 
Da^ ilires €I^lierrn ausgerecfte (Slieber 
3n Pabua an beilger Stätte rulin. 303s 

Sel^r flug ! IDir roerben erft öic 2^eife ntad]en muffen I 

Sancta Simplicitas ! öarum ifts nid^t 3U tl^iui ; 
53e5eugt mu- obne oiel 5U upiffen. 


Wenn er nidits Keffers I|at, \o ift bcr plan serriffcn. 


Q) I^eilger tHann 1 Da. roär't it^rs nun I 3040 

3ft CS bas erftemal in cuernt leben, 

Va^ xl\t fal\di «geugniß abgelegt ? 

fjabt xiiv von (Sott, ber XDelt unb was fid^ örin beroegt, 

Vom Zllenfd^en, voas fid] il|nt im Kopf unb f^ersen regt, 

Definitionen nid]t mit großer Kraft gegeben, 3045 

init fred]er Stinte, füF]ner Bruft ? 

IXnb wollt iViv red]t ins ^nnvc gelten, 

^abt il]r bar>on, il]r mü^t es grab gefteijen, 

So üiel als »on fjcrrn Sd^tperbtleins Cob gerou^t 1 

Du bift unb bleibft ein Cügner, ein Sopl^ifte. 305° 


^ 3a, roenn maus nid]t ein bisdjen tiefer rpü^te. 
Denn morgen roirft in allen (Eieren 
Das arme (5retdien nidit betl^ören 
Unb alle Seelenlieb' il^r [d]U)örcn ? 

Unb sroar r>on J^ersen. 


(5ut unb '\<i\ön ! 3055 

Dann iv'nb von cxvqcv QIrcu unb Ciebe, 
Pon einsig überallmäd]tgem Criebe — 
U)irb bas aud\ \o von f^ersen gel^n ? 


Ca^ bas ! <£s vo'xtb ! — iPcim id] cinpftui)e, 
5ür öas (5cfüI]I, für bas (ScidüI^I 3060 

Xlad] Xlamen fud]c, feinen ftiibc, 
"Dann brndj öte IDelt mit allen Sinnen fdiroeife, 
ZXad] allen böd][ten IDorten greife 
lTn6 biefe (Slutli, von ber id] brenne, 
Unenblid], etoig, eioig neinie, 3065 

3[t öas ein teuflifd] £ügenfpiel ? 

3d] Iiab' bod] Hed^t ! 

fjör ! merf bir bies, 
3d] bitte bid? unb fd^one meine Cunge : 
IDer Hed]t bel^alten ipill unb bat nur eine S^nga, 
Bel^älts getriß. 3070 

Unb fomnx, id] bab' bes 5d]if ä^ens ITeberbru^ ; 
Senn bu baft 2?ed]t, oorjüglid] u?eil id; mu§. 


UTargarctc an ^auftcns 2Irm. lllartlic mit 
rrfcptiiftopl^cles auf unb ab fpajiercnb. 

3d] fül]!' es tpol ba^ mid] ber i^err mir fdiont, 
^erab fid? lä^t, mid] 3U befdiämen. 
(£in Heifenber ift \o geu?oIint 
2tu5 (Sütigfeit fürlieb 5U nel^men. 
3d'| roeiß 5U gut, ba% \old\ erfabrnen 2Tcann 
ItTein arm (Sefpräd] nid]t unterbalten faim. , / 


(Ein ^licf r>oit bir, €in Wort mel^r untcrl^ält 
2lls alle löcisljcit öicfer Welt. 3080 

(Er fü§t iljrc £^anb. 

3ncommobirt cud] nid^t ! it)ic f önnt iljr fic nur füffen ? 
Sie ift fo garftig, ift [0 raul] ! 
iPas I^ab' xd] nid]t fd^on alles fd^affen muffen ! 
Via Xfiutkt ift gav 3U genau. 

(5cl|n Dorübcr. 

Unb \l\t, mein fjerr, iljr reift fo immerfort ? 3085 

2td^, öa§ (5e£Der& nnb Pflid]t uns ba5U treiben I 
tnit roie üiel 5d]mer5 »erläßt man mand^en Q)tt 
Unö öarf öod^ nun einmal nid]t bleiben ! 

3n rafd)en 3al)ren geEjts rool an, 
So um unb unt frei burd] öie IDelt 5U ftreifen ; 3090 
Vod] fömmt bie böfe ^eit I]cran 
Itnb fid) als f^ageftols allein 5um (Srab ju fd]Ieifen, 
Das liat nod\ feinem u?oI gctl^an, v, 

2Ttit (5raufen feiy id^ bas von roeiten. 


Drum, n?ertE^er ^err, beratl^et cnd\ in Reiten ! 3095 

(ScI^n üorübcr. 


2Tlargarete. -^ 

3a, aus 6cn 2tugou ox\s bcm Silin ! 
Die fiöflidifoit ift cud] geläufig ; 
^Ulein ibr babt ^er 5i'0unöe Kiufig, 
Sie finb Derftänöigcr als \<i\ bin. 

© Befte ! glaube, u?a5 ntan \o oerftänbig nennt, 3100 
3ft oft melir €itelfeit unö Kur3finn. 



2td], ba^ bie (Einfalt baß bie Unfdiulb nie 
Sid] felbft \xvX> il^ren I^eilgeit IDertb erfennt ! 
T>aß 'Demutli, Hiebrigfeit, bie bödiften (Saben 
Der liebeDoU austl^nlenben llatur — 3105 

Denft ibr <x\\ midi ein tJlugenbliif dien nur, 
'^6:[ u?erbe <3eit genug an eud] 3U benfen I]aben. 

3Iir foib u?oI üiel allein ? 

3a, unfre H:^irtbfd]aft ift nur fleiix 
Unb bod] ujill fie r>erfelien fein. 3110 

IDir hah^iw feine ZTcagb ; muJ3 fod]en, fegen, ftridFen 
Unb nälin unb laufen früli unb fpat. 
lljib meine 2flTutter ift in allen Stüd'en 
So accurat ! 
VX6>S '^a'i^ fie juft fo febr fid] einsufd^ränfen I^at, 3"5 


XO'xx: fönnten uns rt>eit elj'r als anbrc regen : 

tHein Pater I^iiüerlie^ ein liüb\di Vermögen, 

€m fjäusd^en unb ein (Särtd^en r»or ber Statt. 

Vodi iiah' \d\ jefet \o siemlid^ ftille Cage ; 

ZHein Bruber ift Solbat, 312° 

ttlem 5d]rDefterd]cn tft tobt. 

3cf^ I^atte mit bem Uxnb vool meine liebe Zlotl\ ; 

Vod\ übemäiim' \d\ gern nod\ einmal alle piage, 

So lieb ipar mir bas Kinb. 

(£in €ngel, icenn öirs glid] ! 

3d| 30g es auf nnb l^ersUd? liebt' es mid^. 3125 

€s roar nad\ meines Daters Slob geboren ; 
X)ie ZHutter gaben toir verloren, 
So elenb triie fie bamals lag 
Hnb fie erl^olte fid] fel^r langfam nad^ unb nad^. 
Va !onnte fie nun nid]t bran benfen 313° 

"Das arme IDürmd^en felbft 5U tränfen 
Unb \o ersog id^s gans allein, 
2r(it Zfixld] unb lüaffcr ; fo u?arbs mein. 
2tuf meinem 2^rm, in meinem 5d\oo^ 
X0av5 freunblid^, 5appelte, n?arb gro^. 313s 

^u I^aft gen?i^ bas reinfte (Slücf empfunben. 

^od] aud] geu)i§ gar mandje \diwcve Stunben. 
J)es Kleinen IDiege ftanb sur Had^t 
^n meinem Bett ; es burfte faum fidj regen, 
XOax xd\ ermad^t. 3140 


53al(> mu^t' \d]5 träiiFcn, halb es 311 mir legen, 
^alö, it>enn5 nid]t fd]ipiog, vom 73ctt aufftobn 
llnb tänsclni) in bcv Kammer auf nnb niec)er gebn 
Unb frül] am (Tage fd"!on am U">afditrog ftebn ; 
Dann auf ^em 21Tarft unb an bcm fjeröe forgen 3145 
Unb immerfort wie heut \o morgen. 
Va gel^ts, mein i^err, nid]t immer mutbig 5U ; 
Dod] fdimetft bafiiv bas £[fen, fd]mecft bk Hub ! 
(Sct]u Dorübcr. 

Die armen IPeiber finb bod^, übel Dran. 
(Ein fjageftolj ift fdimerlid] 5U befeliren. 3150 

(f 5 !äme nur auf eures (5Ieid]en an, 
Zlüd] eines Seffern ju belel^ren. 

Sagt grab, mein ijerr, I^abt ibr nodi nid]ts gefunden ? 
fjat \xd\ bas fjers nid]t irgenötpo gebunden ? 

Das Spridjmort fagt : €in eigner fjerb, 3155 

(£in brapes IPeib finö (5olb unb perlen vocttli. 

^d) meine, ob ibr niemals Cuft befommcn ? 

2T(an bat mid] überall redit Iiöflid] aufgenommen. 

3d7 ujollte fagen : warb's nie frnft in eurem iierjen ? 


2Tcit 5raucn [oU man fid] nie unterfteijn 3U fd^crsen. 3160 

Tidl, ify: »erftcFit mxdi nid]t ! 


Das tl]ut mir Iierslid] leiö I 
Dodi xdi ücrftel] — ba§ il^r [el^r gütig fciö. 
(5cl]ii Dorübcr. 

^u fanntcft mid], o fleincr (£)tgel, toiebcr, 
(5Ieid] als xdi in öen (5arten fam ? 

Satjt iijr es nid]t ? id^ fd]Iug öie 2luqen nieöcr. 3165 

Unb bu r>er5cil]ft bie 5i*eil]cit, bic id] nalim, 
Was \id] bic 5i'*?d)I]eit unterfangen, 
2II5 bu jüngft aus bent Dom gegangen ? 

3d] tDar beftürst, mir tr»ar bas nie gefd^efjn ! 
(£5 fonnte niemanb r>on mir Hebels fagen. 3170 

2ld\ ! bad)t' id|, I]at er in beinem Betragen 
iDas 5rcd^cs, Unanftänbiges gefobn ? 
(£s fd^ien il]n gleid] nur aujumanbebt 
riTit biejer ^irne grabe E^in 5U I^anbeln. 
(Seftel^ id]S bod}, \d\ wix^tc nid]t u?a5 fid? 317s 

^u eurem Dortl^eil I^ier 5U regen gleid) begonnte ;| 
2lIIein gen?i^ id] u>ar red]t böf auf mid], 
Da^ id? auf eud? nidit böfcr u?erben fonnte. 


5ü^ €ic&d]0)i ! 

£a^t einmal ! 
Sic pflücft cino Stcrnbluinc iiiiö jupft bic 23lättcr ab, 
eins nadj öcni aiibcru. 

Weis foll (?a5 ? £incn Strauß ? 

Hein, es foII uui" ein Spiel. 



(Seilt ! il^r lad]t mid} aus. 3180 
Sic rupft uitb munncit. 

XDas murmclft öu ? 

2T(argarete I]alblaut. 

(£r liebt ntid] — liebt mid] uid]t. 

Du Ijolbes .^immelsaugeftdjt ! 

Margarete fährt fort. 
'iieht mid] — ZXxdit — £iebt mid] — i"cid]t — 

Das letzte Slatt ausnipfcnb mit holbcr ^rcubc. 
€r liebt mid] ! 


146, FAUST. PART I. 

^a, mein Kinb ! €a§ biefes BIumcntDort 
X)tr (Söttcrausfprud^ [ein ! €r liebt bid) ! 3185 

Perfteljft bu, \x>as bas I]ei§t ? €r liebt bid] I 
€r fa^t itjre bcibcn £^änbe. 

tnid] überläuft's ! 

(2) fd)aubre nid]t ! £a^ bie[eii 3Ii(f , 
£a^ biefen ^änbebrudf bir [agen 
Was unau5Jpred]lid7 ift : 319° 

Sidi I]in3ugcben gans uub eine IDonne 
^u fül^len, bie cu?ig fein niu^ ! 
<£wxQ ! — 3I|r <£nbc toürbe Persroeiflung fein. 
Hein, !ein €nbe ! fein €nbe ! 

IHargarcte brütf t il^m bic f^änbe, inadjt fidj los inib läuft 
iDcg. (£r ftct^t einen Jiiujcnblicf in (Scbanfcti, bann 
folgt er it]r. 

2T(artI^e foimucnb. 
X>ie Xladit btidit an. 

3a unb tpir woücn fort. 319s 

3d] bat' eud) länger I^ier 3U bleiben, 
2tllein es ift ein gar 5U böfer 0rt. y] 
€s ift als I^ätte niemanb nid^ts 3U treiben 
l\ni) nid]ts 5U fd]affen, 

2Us auf i)ss i"cadibarn 5d]ritt unb Critt ju gaffen 3200 
Hnb man fommt ins (Sereb, u?ie man fid| immer ftellt. 
Unb unfer pärdien ? 


3ft 5cu (Sang bort ausgeflogen. 
Jnutl]n?ill'ge Sommcrtjögel 1 

(£r fd^eint il]r gewogen. 

Unb fie iljm aud]. X>a5 ift öer Cauf ößr IDelt ! 

€tn (5artenl]äusd)en. 

ITtargarctc fprtngt l]crcttt, ftccft fidj I^intcr !)ic Sl]ür, I^ält 
btc ^tngcrfpi^c an btc Sippen unl) giicft burdj i)tc Hi^c. 

€r fommt ! 

5auft fommt. 
2td) Sd^elm, fo ncdPft b\i midi • 3205 

2:rcff' id] bid] ! 

(Er fü^t fic. 

il]n faffenb unb bcn Ku§ surücfgeBcnb. 

Hefter 2T(ann, von JE^erjCtt lieb id^ bid^ ! 

incpfjtftop{]cIcs flopft an. 
Sau]t ftampfcnb. 
XDet ba ? 

(5ut 5reunb ! 

148 FAUST. PART i. 


2T(artf|e fommt. 
^a, CS ift [pät, mein £jerr. 

Darf \d\ endi n\d\t geleiten ? 

Die TXivdkt toürbe m\d] — €cht rool ! 


ZHu^ \d] öenn gcljn ? 


2tuf balbig tOieberfel^n ! 3210 

^auji unb Htcpt|iftc>pl|elcs ab. 

Du lieBer (Sott ! mas fo ein Zflann 
7Xid\t alles alles benfen f ann ! 
^efd^ämt nur ftelj' xd\ cor iljm 5a 
Hnb jag' 5U allen Sad^en ja. 

Bin öod) eiii arm untDiffenb Kinb, 321s 

Begreife nid^t, roas er an mir ftnb't. 




5auft allein. 
(^xhabnat (Seift, t>u gabft mir, gabft mir alles, F f 
VOaximx id] bat. i)u I-jaft mir nid]t umfonft ^ 
5)cin 3lngc[id]t im 5euer jugeirenbct. 
(Sabft mir bic bcrrlid]c Hatur 5um Königrcidi, 322° 
Kraft, fio 511 füblcn, 511 genießen. llÄdii' 
Kalt ftauncitöcu ^cfud? crlaubft öu nur, 
Porgöimcft mir in ilire tiefe öruft, 
XDie in öen Bufen eines ^reunös 5U fd^aueit. 
Du fübrft öie Heilte öer Cebenöigen 322s 

Por mir Dorbei unö lel'jrft mid] meine Brüber 
3m füllen Bufd^, in €uft unö H'^affer fenuen. 
Uixö ir>enn öer Sturm im IPalöe brauft unb fnarrt, 
Die Hiefenftd]te ftürsenb Had]baräfte 
Unb Had]barftämme quetfd]en5 nieöerftreift 3230 

llnb ibrem 5aII buntpf I^ol^l öer ^ügel bonnert ; 
X>aim fübrft bu mid) 3ur fidlem f^ölile, ^eigft 
Vr(\i\ bann mir felbft unb meiner eignen Bruft 
(5el]eime, tiefe IDunber öffnen fid]. 
Hub fteigt üor meinem Slicf ber reine ZHonb 3235 

Befänftigenb hierüber, fdiiceben mir 
Von 5elfenn?änben, aus bem feud]ten Sufd? 
X>er Dorroelt filberne (Seftalten auf 
X[\v:> linbern ber ^etrad]tung ftrcnge Cuft, v 

'i:ia^ bem 2Tcen[d]en nidits PoIlFommnes rr>irb 3240 
(£mpfinb' id) nun. "Du gabft 5U biefer IDonne, 
Die mid] <>c\\ (Söttern nab uttb nätjer bringt, 
2Tiir ben (Sefäbrten, ben id] fdion nid]t mebr 
\£ntbebren fann, u?enn er gleid] falt unb fred] 


XTüd] r>or mir fclbft cnüebrigt unb 5U Zlxdits 3245 

XÜxt einem XPortl^aud] beine (5abcn roanöelt. 

(£r fad^t in meiner 23ruft ein tcilbes 5^uer 

Zladi jenem fd]önen öilb gefd^äftig an. 

So tauml' xdi von Begierbe 311 (Senu^ 

Unb im (Senu§ üerfd]mad]t xd] xxad\ Begierbe. 3250 

ITieptjtftoptjelcs tritt auf. 

fjabt il]r nun balb bas Ceben gnug gefüljrt ? 
IDie f anns eud] in bie Cänge freuen ? 
(£5 ift u?oI gut, ba'Q maus einmal probirt ; 
^ann aber toieber 3U roas ^TJcuen ! 

3cl] rDoIIt, bu Ijätteft mel^r 5U tl\xxn 3255 

W.S mxd\ am guten Cag 3U plageit. 


ZluxXf nun ! 'xd\ laff bid| gerne ruljn ; 

Du barfft mirs nidit im (£rnfte fagen. 

2tn bir (Sefellcn, unl^olb, barfd^ unb toU, 

3ft roal^rtid) wenig 3U verlieren. 3260 

T)en gan3en Cag l^at man bie fjänbe üoII ! 
kWas il]m gefällt unb u?a5 man laffen foll 
' Kann man bem ^errn nie axx ber Zia\<i jpürcn. 

Vas ift fo juft ber redete t£ox\ ! 
€r u?ill nod] Danf ba^ er mid) enniivirt. 3265 

IDic I^ättft bu, armer (£rbenfoI]n, 
Dein Cebcn oijnc midi gefül^rt ? 


Vom 'Kfihihahs tcv 3magination 

i^ab \d] bid] <>od] auf 5^'iton lanq curirt : . T v- 

lliiö uxir' \di nxd^X fo ipärft (?u fd]on ' 3270 

Von biofom £r5>ball ab fpasiort. — J\ 

lV>a5 baft c^u ^a tu liöblon, ,^oll'ourtt50u 

Vxd] iv'w eilt 3dnibu 5U ucrfi^ou ? 

Was fd^Iürfi't aus dumpfem IMoos uui) triefciiÖem 

Wie eine Kröte Habniug ciu ? 3275 

v£iu i'dv^uor fü^or <5ottPcrtroib ! 
^iv ftodt öor X)octor nod] im £cib. •- 


Porftcbft bu, n?a5 für neue Cebeusfraft 

ZlTir biefer IPau^oI in bcv (Dcbc fdiafft ? 

3a, iriür^oft c'u es abutou föimon, 32S0 

Du u?äroft ileufol gnug mein (Slüd nur nidit 5U gönnen. 


(£in überirbifdjes Dergnügeit : 

3n i'cad't unb übau auf ben (Sebtrgen liegen 

Hub frb' unb IMniniel u^oiniiglid] untfaffen, 

5u einer (Sottl^nt ftd] auffd^tt^ellen Ia[)'en, 3285 

"Der €rt)e TMad ntit ^IbnJSungsbrang burd^roüblen, 

IJlIIe \cd}s Cagemerf int i^ufen füHen, 

3n ftol^er Kraft id^; iDeiy nid'jt ir>a5 genießen, 

Balb Iiebeu?oitniglid'> iit alles überflie^eit, 

Derfdiipunbeit gauj bev v£rJ5eitfoI]n 3290 

Unb bann bie l]ohc 3"^i^^'^ — 

riüt etitcr (Scbäibe. 
3d] barf nid]t fagen irie — 3U fd]lieißeu. 


Pfui Über öid) ! 


"Das toill cnd] nidit betragen. 
3I]i' I?cibt bas Hed]t geftttet pfui 5U \aqen. 
TXian bavf bas nid]t cor fcufd]C)i 0l]ren nennen, 3295 
Was fcufd]e f^erscit nid]t entbel^ren fönnen. 
Unö furj unb gut, \d\ gönn' il^nt öas Pergnügen 
(5elegentlid^ fid^ etipas »orsulügeji : 
Vod\ lange I]ält er bas n\d}t aus. 
Vn bift fd]on u?ieöer abgetrieben 3300 

Itnö u?äl]rt es länger, aufgerieben 
2^\ CoIII]eit ober 2lng[t unb (Braus. 
(Senug bannt ! öein Ciebd]en fi^t öabrinne 
Unb alles ivh'b \i}v eng' unb trüb, 
"Du fommft il]r gar nid]t aus bem Sinne ; 3305 

Sie }:iat b'id} übermäd^tig lieb. 
(£rft !ant beine Ciebesujutl^ übergefloffen, 
IPie vom ge[d]mol3ncn Sd^nee ein ^äd)Iein übcrfteigt. 
^u I^aft fie il]r ins fjers gegoffen, 
ZXun ift öein Bädilein »ieöer feid^t. 3310 

Zfixdi bünft, anftatt in IDälbern 3U tl^ronen, 
£ie^ es bem großen fjerren gut, 
Das arme affenjunge Blut 
5ür feine Ciebe 3U beloE^nen. 

"Die ^eit n?irb il]r crbärmlid] lang ; 3315 

Sie ftel]t am 5cnfter, fielet öic tVolhn sietjn 
Ueber bie alte Stadtmauer Iiin. 
„Wenn \d\ ein Döglein n?är' \" fo gel]t il]r (Scfang 
Cag lang, I^albe ZTäd^te lang. 
€i]nnal ift fie munter, mcift betrübt, 3320 


<£tninal rcd^t ausgoircint, 

Dann mioöcr ruing, u?ie5 fd^ctnt, '/ ' 

llnö inmtcr üerliebt. 

5d]Iange! Sdilangc! 

nTcpI^iftopI^cIcs für ft*. 
(Seit ! c)a§ id] öid] fange ! 3325 

Derrud]ter ! I^ebe bid) r>on I^innoi 
Unb nenne nid]t bas fd]öne IDeib ! 
Bring bic Begier 5U ibreni fü^en Ceib 
Zud^t iDieöer oor bie balboerrüiiten Sinnen ! 

VO<xs foü es beint ? Sie meint bu feift entflolin 3330 

yXw^ balb unb lialb bift bu es [d^on. 

3d] bin ibr naii unb trär' id] nod] fo fern, 
3d] faim fie nie r>erge[fen, nie perlieren ; 
3a, id] beneibe fd]on '^<i\\ Ceib 'b(i^ fierrn, 
iPenn il]re Cippen ibn inbe^ berübren. 3335 

(Sar ir>oI, mein 5r^unb ! 3^7 ^l^b eud] oft beneibct 
Ums ^toiUingspaar, bas imter J^ofen toeibet. 

>£ntiliclje, Kuppler ! 

Sdcow ! ibr fd'jimpft unb id] mu§ Iad]en. 
i)er (Sott, ber Bub' unb Zrcäbd]eu [d]uf, 


(£r!ciimte glddti ben ebelftcn i^cruf, 3340 

2tudi felbft (Selcgonl]cit 511 inad]en. 
Zluv fort ! (£5 ift ein großer 3'-i"i"^<^i^ ! 
3I]i' follt in eures £iebd]en5 Kammer, 
Xlxdit dvoa in beu Coö. ^j 

tDas ift bie ^immelsfreuö in il]ren Firmen ? 334s 

£a§ mid^ an il^rer Sruft criparmen ! 
5ü{]l id^ nid]t immer il^re Xlotl} ? 
^in id^ öer 5lüd]tUng nid^t, öer Unbel^aufte, 
X)er Unnxenfd] ol^ne ^wed unb Hui], 
X>er toie ein IDafferfturs von 5el5 3U 5<'If'-'" brauf'tc, 3350 
begierig roütl^enb nad] 5em ^tbgrunö 3U ? 
Hub jeittDärts fie mit finblid] bumpfen Sinnen, 
3m fjüttdien auf bem fleinen 2UpenfeIb 
Unb all xlit liäusWdies Begiimeu 
Umfangen in ber fleinen IDelt. 3355 

Unb id], ber (5ottr»erI]a|te, 
£jatte nid]t genug, 
Va^ id] bie Reifen faßte 
Uitb fie 3U Crümmern fd]Iug ! 

Sie, il]ren 5i*it"ben nuißt' id] untergraben ! 336° 

Vü fjölle mußteft biefes 0pfer I]aben ! 
^ilf, Teufel mir bie ,§eit ber 2lngft perfürsen ! 
Was mu§ gefdiel^n, mags gleid] gefd]el]n ! 
^ Xfiaq xi}v (Sefdiid auf mid] sufammenftürsen 
Unb fie mit mir 5U (Srunbe gel^u ! 336s 

IDies lieber fiebet, u?ieber glül^t 1 
(Sel^ ein unb tröfte fie, bu Cl^or I 
Wo \o ein Köpfd^en feinen ^tusgang fielet. 


Stellt er fid] qkid] bas <£nbe vor. 

(£5 lebe, wcv \id\ tapfer Iiält ! 

4)11 bift bodi fotift [0 jientltd] etngeteufelt. 

nxd}ts 2lbgc\d]madtcf5 finb' id] auf öer iPcIt, 

2il5 einen tieufel öer Derstneifelt. 

(5retd?ens Stube. 

(5rctd]en am Spinnrabc allein. 

2T!etne Hul^ ift I]in, 

2T(ein f^ers ift fd^aun* ; 3375 

3d] finbe fte nimmer 

XInC> nimmermel^r. 

IDo id] tf]n nid)t I^ab 

3ft mir bas (Srab, 

Die ganje IPelt 3380 

3ft mir oergällt. 

tTTein armer Kopf 

3ft mir Dcrrüdt, 

IHein armer Sinn 

3ft mir serftücft. 3385 

ZHeine Huli ift I]in, 
allein iiers ift fd]iper ; 
3di finbe fie nimmer 
Unö nimmermebr. 


Xlad] il^m nur \diau xdi 3390 

^um 5ßnftcr I^maus, 
Zlad\ ilim nur gel] id) 
2tu5 öcm £jau5. 

Sein I]of]cr (5ang, 

Sein eMe (Seftalt, 339s 

Seines tTTunbes £äd)eln, 

Seiner klugen (Sewalt 

Unb feiner Hebe 


Sein fjänbebrucP 3400 

Unb ad] fein Ku§ ! 

ZTTeine 2^uF] ift I]in, 

VTlem ^erj ift fd]n?er ; 

3d? finbe fie nimmer 

Hnö nimmermel^r. 3405 

^ein Sufen brängt 
Sid] nad\ xfyn I]in. 
2td], bürft xdi faffen 
Hnb I]alten iljn 1 

Hnb füffen il]n 3410 

So n?ie id] u?oIIt', 
2ln feinen Küffen 
PergeEjen follt' 1 

SCENE XV. 157 

21TartI]ens (5artcn. 

IHargarctc. Jjauft. 
Pcrfprid] mir, fjcinrid^ ! 

Was id\ fann ! 

Xlim [ag, tote baft ^U5 mit ^cr Hcligioit ? 341s 

Du bift ein I]cr5lid] guter 21Taim, 
2lEein xd] glaub, öu bältft n\d\t vkl bavon. 

£a§ bas, mein Kinb ! i)u f ül]lft xd] bin b'xv gut ; 
5ür meine Sieben Iie]g id] Ceib unb ölut, 
Wxü niemanö fein (SefüI^I unt) feine Kird]e rauben. 3420 

i)as ift nid]t red^t, man mu§ öran glauben ! 

ITTu^ man ? 

2ld], tocnn id^ ettcas auf öid] fönnte ! 
Du cl^rft audi nid]t öie Iieilgen Sacramente. 

3d] cfjrc ftc. 

Dodj oljne Perlangen. 


^ur UTeffc, 3ur ^etd]te bift bu lange nid^t gegangen. 342s 
(5Iaubft bn an (Sott ? 


XflQxn Ciebd^en, voer bavf [agen, 
3d] glaub an (Sott ? 
Zltagft priefter oöer Wci\c fragen 
Hnb itjre 2tnttt)ort [d^int nur Spott 
Heber öen 5»^<^g^»^ 3U fein. 


So glaubft bu nid)t ? 3430 

Zni^t^ör mxd\ nid^t, 6u I]olöes 2tngefid^t ! 
Wct barf il]n nennen ? 
Hnö rcer befennen : 
3d] glaub il^n ? 

IDer entpftnben 3435 

Unb fid] unterminben 
^u fagen : id] glaub iljn nidjt ? 
Der 2lIIuntfaffer, 
J)er 2tüerl]alter, 

5a^t unb erl]ält er ntd]t 3440 

Did], mid], fid) jelbft ? 
ZDöIbt fid] ber £)immet nid^t ba broben ? 
Ciegt bie (£rbe n\d\t t^ier unten feft ? 
Unb fteigen freunblid) blicfenb 

<£wxqe Stenie nid]t I^erauf ? 3445 

Sd\au id\ n\d\t 2tug in 2tuge bir 
Unb brängt n\d\t alles 
Zladti f^aupt unb i^erjen bir 
Hnb roebt in eroigem (Sel]eimni§, 


Unfiditbar ftd]tbar neben b\v ? 3450 

(Erfüll ^aDon J?ein Vicv^, \o grofe es i[t 

Unb wenn öu 90115 in t>ent (Sefülile feücj bift, 

Zlenn es öann ir>ie bn tüillft, 

Henns (ßlücf ! fjers ! £iebe ! (Sott ! 

^d] I^abe feinen Hauten 34ss 

Vafiit ! (SefiU|I ift alles ; 

Harne ift 5d]atl nnb Haud^, 

Ilnuiebelnö i]inintelsglutl]. 

X)as ift alles red^t fdjön unb gut ; 
Ungefäl^r fagt bas bcv Pfarrer aud|, 3460 

Hur mit ein bisd^en anbern XDorten. 

€s fagens aller (Drten 
2IIIe i^ersen unter bom t^immlifd^n Cage, 
^ebcs in feiner 5prad]e ; 
IDarum nid-jt id] in 5er meinen ? 3465 

IDenn maus fo Iiört, ntöd^ts leiblidi fd]eincn, 
Stellt aber bod\ immer jid]ief barum ; 
Denn bn I^aft fein <£briftentlium. 

Ciebs Ktnb ! 

(£s tliut mir lang fd]on wcl}, 
Da^ id^ b'id] in öer (Sefellfdiaft fel^ 3470 

Wie \o ? 


Der 2T(cnfd], öen bu ba hex b'xv Ijaft, 
3ft mir in tiefer, innrer Seele Derl^a^t ; 
<£s I^at mir in meinem Ccben 
So nid]ts einen Stid^ ins f^ers gegeben, 
2ll5 öes nienfd^en ir»ibrig (5eftd|t. 347s 

£iebe puppe, fürd^t' il]n nid]t ! 

Seine (Segenroart betocgt mir bas Blut. 
3d) bin fonft allen 2^Tenfd^cn gut ; 
2lber, mie \d\ m\d\ fel]ne b'\d\ 3U fd]auen, 
^ah id\ vor öem tHeitfd^en ein I^eimlid) (5rauen, 3480 
Unb ViaW it]n für einen Sd^elm ba^n ! 
(Sott r>er5eit^ mirs, toejin idj il^m Unredit tf^u. 

<£s mu^ audi fold^e Käuse geben. 

tOoIItc nid]t mit feines (Slcidicn leben ! 
Kommt er einmal 5ur Cl^ür t^erein 348s 

Siel]t er immer fo fpöttifd^ örein 
Unb I]alb ergrimmt ; 

TXian fielet, öa| er an nid^ts feinen 2tntl]eil nimmt ; 
€s ftel]t il]m an öer Stirn gcfd^rieben, 
T)a§ er nid^t mag eine Seele lieben. 349° 

ITcir roirbs fo n^ol in deinem 5lrnt, 
So frei, fo I]ingegeben roarnt 
Unb feine (5egenu?art fd]nürt mir öas 3nnre 5U. 

SCENE XV. i6i 


Vcis übcrtnannt mid] [o fein*, 3495 

Va^i wo er nur mag 511 uns treten, 
ZHciu' \d] focjar, id] liebte c^id] nid^t niebr. 
2hid} wenn er ba ift, fönnt idi lüntnter boten, 
lliib öas trifft mir ins £]er5 I-jinein ; 
Dir, fjeinridi, muß es aud] fo fein. 3500 

Du I^aft nun b'xc ^Intipatf^ic ! 

3d] mu^ nun fort. 


2td], fann id] nie 
€in Stünbd^en ruliig öir am Sufen Iiängen 
Un^ Bruft an Sruft unö Seel' in Seele brängett ? 

2l(i\, wenn \d\ nur alleinc fd-jlief ! 3505 

^dl ließ bir gern Iieut Had^t bcn Hiegel offeji ; 
'Dod] meine 21Tutter fd^Iäft nidit tief 
llnb roürben u?ir von xl]v betroffen, 
3d] wäv' gleid] auf t)er Stelle tott ! 

Du €ngel, bas Eiat feine Hotl]. 3510 

fjier ift ein 5läfd]d]en ! Drei Cropfen nur 
3n ibreit Cranf umbüUen 
TXixt tiefem Sd]laf gefällig i5ie iTatur. 



Was tiiu idi rnd\t um 5cinctu->iIIen ? 
(£s vo'xvb ilit I^offentli(i] nid]t fdiaben ! 351s 

IDürb \d] foiift, Ciebdicu, öir es ratl^cu ? 

5cl^ td^ bid?, befter 21Tann, )tur an, 
Wei^ nid]t tpas mid] nad^ boiitcin IPillen treibt ; 
3d) tjabe fd]oii fo oiel für öid] getl^aii, 
Da^ mir 3U tliun f aft nid^ts melir übrig bleibt. \J 3520 

llupI]tftopI]cIcs tritt auf. 
Der (Srasaff ! ift er toeg ? 


fjaft inieber fpionirt ? 

3d] Iiabs ausfül^rlid] tt>oI »crnommen, 
i)err Doctor rouröen ba fated]ifirt ; 
Jp^off', es foU ilinen mol bcfommeu. 
Die Säbels finb bod} fel]r intereffirt, 3525 

0b einer fromm unb fd]lid]t itad? altem i3raud]. 
1 Sie benfen, budt er ba, folgt er uns eben aud?. 

Du Ungelicuer, fielift nid]t ein, 
iPic biefe treue liebe Seele 

Don il|rem (Slauben üoU, 353° 

Der ganä aUeiit 


3I]r fcltgmad]enb ift, [\d] I]cilig quälo, 

"Daß fic öt'it licbftcn ITlaiiu perlorcu I^altcii foH. 

Du üf^crjtnnlid^cr, ftnnlid^or 5r^i<?i*, >> '' 

£in lllägöclotii uasfülirct ^idi, 353; 

Du Spottgeburt von Dvcd unb 5oucr ! 

Hub 6ic ptjYfioguomic ücrftcl^t fic mciftcrlid^. 
^n mciuer (Sogcumart voxvbs ibr fic u?ct^ uid]t u?ic, 
2T[ei)t 2T(ä5fd]Cu ba n?cif[agt Dcrborgncu Siuu ; 
Sic füf]It, ba% \d] gau3 fid|cr ciu (Scuic, 354< 

PicIIcidit u?ol gar ber Ccufcl bin. 
llun Iicutc rtad^t — ? 


Was geljt öid^s au ? 

fjab \d\ bod} utcinc 5reuöe öran I 

^m Brunnen. 

(Srctc^cn un!) £tcsd^cu mit Krügen. 

fjaft nid^ts dou Bärbcld^cu gcl-jört ? 

Kein lüort. ^dti fomin gar u)cuig unter £^eute. 3543 


<5erüt§, Sibylle jagt' mirs I]cute ; 
Die iiat fid) enblid] andi betljört. 
Das ift bas PorneijmtI]un ! 


Wk \o ? 


(£5 fünft ! 
Sic füttert siüci, toenn fie niut i§t unb trin!t. 

7ld\ ! 3550 

So ifts il^r enblicf) rcd^t ergangen. 
XPie lange I]at fie an bem Kerl geljangen. 
Das lüar ein Spasieren, 
^uf Dorf unb Can3pla^ fül^ren I 
Xflu^f überall bie erfte fein, asss 

Curtefirt' iljr immer mit paftetd^en uitb IDein ; 
Silb't fid) roas auf iljre Sd^önl^eit ein, 
IDar bod) fo eljrlos, fid^ nid^t 3U [d^ämen, 
(5cfd]enfe r>on il^m an5unel]men. 
IDar ein (5efof' unb ein (5efd]Icd ! ' 3560 

T)a ift benn audi bas Slümd^en tr>eg ! 

Das arme Ding 1 

Sebauerft fie nod^ gar ! 
IDenn unfer eins am Spinnen toar, 


Uns llachtS' t>io ZITutter nid]t Hnuntcrlio^, 

Stan<> \xc bei ibrcm 23uWcn jüig. 3565 

2tuf bcv übürluinf unb im ^unfein (Sang 

IDarc» ibncn feine Stunde 511 laitg. 

'Do. mag [io c>onn fid» öucfcn mm, ^ 

3m 5ünöcrKnni>d]en Kirdibuig' tbun ! 

(Srctd]cn. \ 

>£r nimmt fic gcioi^ 3U feiner 5rau. 3570 

(£r roär' ein Harr ! £in flinfor 3u'i9 
fjat anöera-)ärt5 nod] £iift genmig. 
t£r ift aud] fort. 

■Das ift nidjt fdiön ! 

Kriegt fte ibn, folls ibr übel gebn ! 
Das Kränjel reijgen v)ie Buben ilir, 357s 

Unb ^äderling ftreuett ir>ir cor bie Cbür ! 

<5vetdiQn nad? f^aufc gcbcnb. 
IDie fonnt xdti fonft fo tapfer fd?mälilen, 
IDenn tbät ein armes IlTägMein feblen ! 
IDic fonnt id] über andrer 5ünöen 
Hid-tt IPorte gnug öer ^unge finden ! 35S0 

IDie fdjien mirs fd-jirarj uni» fdiioärjt's nod] gar, 
rnirs immer bod} nidjt fditoars gnug loar 
Unb fegnet' mid) unö tbat fo gro^' ! — 
llnb bin nun felbft ber Sünbe bloß ! 
Dod] — alles roas basu mid? trieb, 3585 

(Sott, toar fo gut ! ad], war fo lieb ! 


3n ber JTtauerIjöIjIc ein 21nbad)tsbtlb bcr Mater dolorosa, 
Bhtmcnfrügc bacor. 

(Sretd^en ftccft fvtfdje Blumen in bic Krüge. 
2ld^ neige, 

'Du Sd^mersenreid^e, 
Dein ^ntlife gnäbig meiner Hotlj ! 
Das Sd^roert im f^erscn, 359° 

2Tcit taufenb Sd^mcrsen 
Slidft auf 5U bcines Sol^nes ^ob. 

5um Pater blicfft bu 

Unb Seufser fdiidft bu 

J^inauf um fein' unb öeine Hotlj. 359s 

rOer fütjlet, 

IDie roül^let 

Der 5d]mer3 mir im (Sebein ? 

Was mein armes ^ers I^ier banget, 

XDas es sittert, n?as »erlanget, 3600 

tDei^t nur öu, nur bu. allein ! 

XDoI^in id| immer gel^e, 

IDie well, me voeii, vok ujel^e 

XPirb mir im Bujen ijier ! 

3d^ bin ad] faum alleine, 360s 

3d] roein', \d\ xx>cin\ id) roeine, 

Das £jer5 serbrid^t in mir. 

Die Sd^erben r>or meinem 5enfter 

Betl^aut' id] mit CI]ränen, ad\ ! 

2tls id] am früf|en 2T(orgcn 3610 

Dir biefe Blumen brad|. 


5d]ien hcVi in meine Kanunei* 

Die Sonjte früli Iierauf, 

5a^ \d] in allem 3ammer 

3n meinem i3ett \d]on auf. 361s 

fjilf ! rette mid] von 5d]mad] unt» Zob ! 

2ldi neige, 

■Du 5d-!mer5cnreid]e, 

X)ein 2tntli^ gnäbig meiner TXoth ! . > 

Strafe Dor (Srctdjcns dtjür. 
Dalentin, Solbat, (Srctdjctis Brubcr. 
IDcnn id] fo fa^* bei 'em (Selag 362° 

2X>o mand^er fid] Iierübmen mag 
Unb t>ie (Sefellen mir bcn 5lor 
Der 211ägiMein laut gepriefen vor, 
21üt pollent (Sias t)a5 £oh r)erfd'!u?emmt ; 
"Den ^Sllebogen aufgeftemmt, • 3625 

Sa^ id] in meiner fid^ern Zivi], 
fjört' all öem Sdiioabronireu ju. 
lln^ [treidle Iäd]Ienb meinen i^art 
llnb friegc bas volle (Sias 5ur £janö 
Unb fage : etiles nad^ feiner 2lrt ! 3630 

2lber ift eine im ganjeit 'ianb, 
"Die meiner trauten (Srctel gleidit, 
Die meiner 5ditt>efter bas lüaffer reid^t ? 
Sop ! *Iop ! Kling ! Klang I bas ging herum ! 
Die einen fdirieen : €r I^at HedH 363s 

Sie ift ijie <5ier vom gansen (Sefdiled|t ! 


Va fa§en alle bie £obcr ftuinm. 

Unb itu)x ! — ums i^aar fid^ ausjuraufeii 

Hn6 an ben XPänbeit Iiinaufjulaufeit ! 

ITtit Stid^elrcbcn, itaferütnpfcit 3640 

Soll jeber Sd^urfe inid] bcfd]itiipfcn ! 

Soll inie ein böfer Sdiulbiier [i^cn, 

Sei jeöcm ^ufallsiüörtdieii fdiici^eit ! 

Unb Titöd)t' id] fic 3ufammenfd]ntci^C)i — 

Könnt' id] fic öod] nid]t Cügner I]ei|cn. 3645 

Was !ommt Iicran ? Was fd]Ieid]t I^erbei ? 
3rr' id] mid^ nid]t, es finö il^rer srcei. 
3ft ers, gleidi päd \d\ xfyi beim 5^0^ ; 
Soll nid]t lebendig üon öer Stelle ! 

^auft. 2Ticpt|tftoptjcIcs. 
2t>ic r>on bcm 5<?»iftei' öort öer Safriftci 3650 

2lufrt>ärts ber Sd]eiit bes etogen Cämpd^ens flämmert 
Unb fdin?ad] un6 fd)iDäd]er feiticärts öämmert, 
llnb 5infterni§ brängt ringsum bei : 
So fiel]ts in meinem Sufen näditig. 

Unb mir ifts roie bem Kä^Iein fd]mäd]tig, _ 3655 

Vas an bcn 5^uerleitcnt jd]Ieid]t, 
Sid) leif bann um bic 2T(auern ftreid^t. 
Zlür ifts gans tugenblid] babei, 
(£in bisd]on T>icbsgelüft, ein bisd]en Kammelei. 
So fpuft mir fd]on burd] alle (Slieber 3660 

X>ic I-jerrlidie lDaIpurgisnad]t ! 
T>'\c fommt uiis übermorgen roieber ; 
Va tDei§ man bodi warum man u?ad]t. 


HücFt wol öcr Scf^Qfe inbcffon in bk ^öii, ^ 

Vcu \d] t>ovt hmtcn flinuncni \ch ? '3^ "^ 

lTicph\]iophc\cs: J 

Du fannft bic 5rcuöe halb erleben . 

'Das 'Kciiddyu heraufjubeben. ^ /T^ 

3d] fdiielte neulid] fo binetn ; 
5\nb berrlidie Cöioentbalei- bvc'm. 

5auft. / 

rrid)t ein (5efdintciöe, nid]t cht Hing, ' ^ 3670 
ZHeine liebe ^uble bamit 3U sieren ? 

3d? fab babei n?oI [0 ein Ding, 
2tis wie eine ^Irt von perlenfd]nüren. 

So ift es redit ! 21Tir tbut es ir>eb, 
iPenn xdi obne (5e[d]enfe 511 ilir geb. 3675 

€s [ollt cud) eben nid|t »erörteren, 
llmfonft and] etoas 5U genießen. 
2^^t, ba bev £i\mmel ooller Sterne glübt. 
Sollt ilir ein toalires Knnftftücf Iiören : 
3d] fing ibr ein moralifd] £ieö, 3680 

Um fie geipiffer 511 betbören. 
Singt 3ur §itl]cr. 

Was mad]j"t bu mir 

Dor £iebd]ens ilbür, 

Katbrindien, Her 

Bei frübent ilagesblicfe ? 368s 


£a^, Ia§ CS fein 1 

€r lä^t bid\ ein, 

2115 Zfiäbdicn cm, 

2tl5 2T(äöd]cn nid]t 3urü(fc. 

Heljmt eu.d\ in 2td]t 1 3690 

3ft CS voübvadit, 

Dann gute ITad^t, 

3I^r armen, armen Dinger ! 

^aht il]r ci\d\ lieb, 

Cf]ut feinem X>ieb 3695 

ZXuv nid]t5 3U £icb, 

2tt5 mit öcm Hing am S'ingev I yj 

Palcntin tritt oor. 
Wen Io(f ft bu F^ier ? Beim Clement ! 
Permalebeiter ^Rattenfänger ! 

^um Ceufel erft öas 3"fti*umeitt ! 3700 

^um Ccufcl Ijintenbrein bcr Sänger I 

Die gittjer ift entswei ! an öer ift nid^ts 5U I]alten. 

^un fott es an ein Sd^äbelfpalten ! 

21TepI]iftopl7eIes 311 ;^anft, 
fjcrr Doctor, nid^t geu?id]en ! 5i*ifd) ! 
fjart an mid^ an, vo'ie xd] end} fül|re ! — 3705 

^eraus mit eurem ^Icöerroifd? ! 
Zlnv 5ugefto^en ! id] parire. — 

Parire öen ! 

IParum öcnn nid]t ? 


:>lud] bcn ! 

(Scrr>i§ ! 

Dalcntin. \ . 

3cf] glaub, ber Ccufcl ftd]t ! '^'^ 

Was ift beim bas ? 5d]ou wirb bie fjaiib mir lal-jm. 3710 

21TcpIiiftopI]cIc5 511 ^anft. 
Sto'Q 5U ! 

Dalcntin fäüt. 
(D weil ! 


riun ift öer Cümmel sal^m ! 
Zlixu aber fort ! It)ir müffcit gicid] oerfd-jiüinben : 
X)enn \d]on entftcbt ein mörberlid] (Sefd]rei. 
2)d] voc\% mid] trefflid] mit ber Polizei, 
Dod) mit bem Slutbaim fd^Ied^t midi absufiitben. 3715 

Zfiavtlie am ^eiifter. 
heraus! fjeraus! 

(5retd]en am ^cnjier. 
fjerbei ein Cid^t ! 

ZHartbe tPtc oben. 
ZTfan fd^ilt unb rauft mait, fd]reit unb fid]t. 


Va liegt fd^on einer tobt ! 

IHartbe I^craustrctcnb. 
Die THörber, finb fie benn entfIoI]n ? 


(5retd^en I^craustrctenb. 
Wev liegt l]ier ? 


deiner ZHutter Solin. 372° 

\ TiUmädiVgev ! roeld^c Xloti} ! 

^d\ flerbe 1 öas ift balö gejagt 
IXnb bälber nod^ getl^an. 
Was ftel^t ir]r XDeibcr, I^eult unb f lagt ? 
Kommt I^er unb I^ört mid^ an ! 372s 

21ÜC treten um iljn, 
tHeirt (Sretd^cn, fiel] ! bu bift nod] jung, 
^ift gar nod] nid]t gefd]cit genung, 
2nad]ft beine 5ad]m fd]Ied]t. 
J^dl jag b'xvs im Pertrauen nur : 
^u bift nun einmal eine fjur ; 3730 

So feis aud] eben red]t. 

tnein Sruber ! (Sott ! IDas foll mir bas ? 

£a% unfern f^errgott aus 5em Spa^ ! 
(5efd]el]n ift leiber mm gefd]el]n, 
Hub rr»ie es gel]n fann, fo roirbs gel]n. 3735 

Du fingft mit (£inent I^eimlid] an, 
Balb fommen il]rer meF]re bran, 
Unb wenn bxd] erft ein Du^enb I]at, 
So l\at b\d\ aud] bie ganse Stabt. 


Wenn crft bic 5d]anbc iDirö geboren, 3740 

Wirb fie Iieimlicf] jur Welt gebrad]t 

Unb man siebt beit 5d]Ieier bei* Tcadit 

3br über Kopf unb ®bren ; 

3ct man ntöd^te fie gent ermorben. 

R^äd-jft fie aber unb tnad^t fid^ groß, 3745 

Dann gebt fie audi bei ^age bloß, 

Unb ift bod] nid^t fd^öner geworben. 

30 bdßliduu- irirb ibr (Sefid^t, 

3c niebr fud^t fie bes Cages £td^t. 

2d] feb irabrbaftig fd^on bie ^cit, 3750 

Daß alle braoc Sürgersleut, 

W'xa von einer angeftetften Ceid^en, ^ 

Von bir, bu TtTe^e ! feitab u-^eid-jen. 

T)\v foU bas £|er3 im Ceib ücrjagen, 

IPemt fie bir in bie 2tugen febn ! 3755 

Sottft feine golbne Kette melir tragen ! 

2^1 ber Kird^e nid^t ntebr am 2tltar ftelin ! 

3n einem fd^önen Spi^enfragen 

Did] nid^t beim cLan^e it^ol betragen ! 

3n eine finftre 3<^mntereden 3760 

Unter Bettler unb Krüppel bidi r)erftC(Jen 

Unb wenn bir bann audi (Sott oer^eibt, 

2tuf €rben fein oern:alebeit ! 

Befeblt eure Seele (Sott 5U (Snaben ! 
XDoIIt il^r nodi Cäftrung auf eud] laben ? 3765 


Könnt' idi bir nur an bcn bürren Ceib, 
Du fd]änblid] fupplerifdies IDeib ! 


Da I^offt' xd] aller meiner Sünbcn 
Vergebung reidje VTla^ 3U finden. 

XfiQxn Bruöer ! Weldic £)öllenpeiu ! 3770 

^d\ [age, Ia§ bie d]ränen fein ! 
Da bn öid) [prad^ft ber (£tjre los, 
(5abft mir öen fd]ir>erften fjer^ensfto^. 
3d] gel]e buvd] ben Coöesfd^laf 
,§u (Sott ein als Solbat unb bra». 377s 



2Imt, CDrgel unb (Scfang. 

(Srctdjctt unter üielcm Dolfc. 23öfcr (Seift Ijtnter 


3öfer (5eift. 
tt)ie anbers, (Srctd^cn, roar birs, 
2tl5 bu nod) üoll Hnfd]ulb 
J^ier 3um ^Itar tratft, 
2tu5 bem »ergriffnen Süd|eld]en 
(5ebete lallteft, 3780 

fjalb Kinberfpiele, 
fjalb (5ott im fersen, 
(Sretd^en 1 


3n beinem .fersen 3785 

Setft bu für beiner 2Tfutter Seele, bie 


Vmdi bxd} W Iclugcn, tangcn Pein Iiinüber fd]Iief ? 

2tuf öcincr Sdivocüe wcffen Slut ? 

— lluc» unter 6oincnt f^ci'son 3790 

Jxccjt ftd]5 nidit quillcnö fd]on ! "v 

llnö ängftot öid] unt» \\d} 

Zfixt al^nungspoUcr (5egenir>art ? 

ITcI]! lud]! 

IDär' idi öor (5cbanfon los, 379s 

Die mir I^erüber unö liinü&er gelten 
IDiöcr mid] ! 

Dies irae, dies illa 
Solvet saeclum in favilla. 

Böfcr (Seift. 
(Srinim fa§t bid] ! 3800 

X>ie pofaune tönt ! 
Die (Sräber beben ! 
llnö bein f^ers, 
2lus ^Ifd^enrul] 

öu 51cinimenqualen 3805 

IDieöer aufgefd]ajfen, 
^ebt auf 1 

XDär' id\ f^ier toeg ! 
^ir ift als ob bie ö)rgcl mir 
"Den ^Itlient perfekte, 3810 

(Sefang mein I^erj 
3nt Ciefften löfte. 


Judex ergo cum sedebit, 

Quidquid latet, adparebit, 

Nil inultum remanebit. 3815 

2Tlir tDirb fo eng 1 
Die Zrianeu\\>fe\kv 
befangen m\d\ ! 
Das (Scvoölbe 
X)rängt m\d\ ! — Cuft ! 3820 

^öfcr (Seift. 
Perbirg bidi ! Sünb unb Sd^anbe 
Bleibt mdit »erborgen. 
£uft? £idit? 
Weil bir I 

Quid sum miser tunc dicturus ? 3825 

Quem patronum rogaturus ? 
Cum vix justus sit securus. 

Böfer (Seift. 
3I]r 2tntli<3 o?enben 
Perflärte von öir ab. 

^ie f^änbe öir 511 rcid^en, 3830 

5d]auert5 öen Heinen 1 

Quid sum miser tunc dicturus ? 

Had^barin ! (£uer 5Iä[d]d^^n ! — 
Sic fällt tu ©l|umadjt. 


(Scgcnb von Sdjicrfc unb €renb. 
^au\t lltcpl]tftopl^cIcs. 

Derlangft bu ntd]t nad] einem Befeitftiele ? 3833 

3d-! it)ünfd]te mir beit alleri^erbften ^ocf. 

2luf biefem IDeg finb toir nod] roeit vom giele. 

5o lang xd] mid] nod^ frifd] auf meinen Beinen füllte 
(Senügt mir biejer KnotenftoiJ. 

Was l^ilfts, ba^ man ben IDeg »erüirst ! 3840 

3m Cabyrintli ber Cl^äler Iiin5ufd]Ieid]en, 
Dann liefen 5<?If<?n 5U erftcigen, 
Von bem ber Quell fid] eu?ig fprubelnb ftürst, 
T>as ift bie £uft, bie foId]c Pfabe tüürjt ! 
Der 5rüliling toebt 'icirion in ben Birfen 3845 

Unb felbft bie 5id]te fülilt tbn [dion ! 
Sollt' er nid]t aud] auf unfre (Slieber roirfen ? 

5ünr>alu-, id] [pure nid^ts banon ! 
21Tir ift es xpinterlid-» int Ceibe ; 



^d\ xx>ün\dik 5d]nec unö 5roft auf meiner Bal-;n. 3850 

Wie traurig fteigt öte unDoUfoinmne Sd^eibe 

7)es rollten Xflonbs ntit fpäter (Slutlj I]eran 

Unö Icud]tet fd]Icdit, ba^ man bei jebem Sdiritte 

Vor einen Saum, Dor einen S'^l\cn rennt ! 

€rlaub, ba^ \d] ein 3rrlid]t bitte ! 3835 

X>ort fei] xd\ eins, öas eben luftig brennt. 

^e öa ! mein 5reunb ! öarf id] öid] 3U uns fobern ? 

Was u>illft bu fo »ergebens lobern ? 

Sei bodi fo gut nnb leud^t' uns öa Ijinauf 1 

2tus (£tjrfurd]t, I^off id), foll es mir gelingen 3860 

VTlein leidstes Z7:aturell 3U smingen ; 
Hur si^sacP getjt geu^öl^nlidi unfer £auf. 

€i 1 ei 1 €r öenfts ben ^Tlenfdjen nad^sual^men. 
<5eif er nur grab ins (Teufels Hamen 1 
Sonft blaf \d\ iljm fein ^Ictcf erleben aus. 386s 

3d) merfe rool, il^r feib ber fjerr »om f^aus 

IXnb VDXÜ midti gern nad] eud] bequeme)!. 

2lUein bebenft ! Der Berg ift l^eute saubertoll 

Unb tt>enn ein 3i^»^li*^t eud] bie IDege weifen foll, 

So mü^t iljrs fo genau nid]t neljmen. 387° 

^auft, lITcpl^iftopI^cIes, 3rrlid]t im IPcdjfcIgcfang. 
3n bie Sraum= unb Räuber fpl^äre 
Sinb u>ir, fd^eint es, eingegangen. 
5ül]r' uns gut unb madi' bir €ijre, 

SCENE XX. 179 

Da% w\v votvoävts halb gclancjeii 

3n benmcxten ööeit Häumcn. 3875 

Sei]' bie ^äume hxntcv Räumen, 
W\e fic fd]ncll norüberrücfen 
Unb bie Klippen, bie \xd} bü^ien 
Xtnb bic langen ^olfcnnafon, 
IDie fte fd]nard]en, ipie fie blafcn ! 3880 

T)urd] bie Steine, biird] bcn ^a\en 
<£ilet '3ad\ unb Säd]Iein nieber. 
fiör' id^ Haufd]en ? hßv' id] Ciebor ? 
fjör' id] bolbe Ciebesflage, 
Stimmen jener rjintntelstage ? 388s 

„Was w\t troffen, was voxt lieben !" 
Unb bas <£d]o, vo\e bie Sage 
2Uter ^ßitcn, l]allet u?ieber. 

UI]u ! 5d]ul]u ! tönt es näl]er ; 
Kau3 unb K||)i^ unb ber -Ejäl]er, 3890 

Sinb fie alle n?ad] gebliebeit ? 
Sinb bas 21ToId]e burd]5 (Se[träud]e ? 
Cange ^eine, biif e Bäud]e ! 
Uttb bie Wut^dn, vd'k bie Sd]Iaitgen, 
IDinben fid] aus 5el5 unb Sanbe, 389s 

Strecfen iüunberlid]c Banbe, 
Uns 3u fd]recfen, uns 5U fangen ; 
2tus belebten berben ZITafern 
Strecfen fie Polypenfafern 
Xlad] bent IDanbrer. Ilnb bie 21Täufe 3900 


tlaufenbfärbig, fd]aareniDcife, 

Durd] bas ITioos unb bnvdi b'xa fjeibe ! 

Unb bie 5unfcniDÜrjner fliegen 

TTixt gebrängten Sditnärniejügen 

5um pertDirrenben (Selcite. 390s 

2tber fag' mir, ob roir fteljeit, 
0ber ob w\v roeiter gelten ? 
Stiles, alles fd^eint 5U breiten, 
5els unb Zäunte, bie (Scfid]tei: 
Sd^neiben unb bic irren £id]ter 3910 

X>ie \\d\ meieren, bie ftd^ bläl^en. 

5affe roacf er meinen öipf^I I 
fjier ift fo ein THittelgipfel, 
Wo man mit (£rftaunen fielet, 
Wk im öerg ber 2T(ammon glüljt. 3915 

IDie felt[am glimmert burd) bie (Srünbc 
(Ein morgenrötlilid] trüber 5d]ein I 
Unb felbft bis in bie tiefen Sd^lünbe 
X>e5 2Ibgrunbs roittert er I^inein. 
X)a fteigt ein Dampf, bort jiel^en Sdimaben, 3920 
JF^ier Ieud)tet <5lnti} aus X)unft unb 5Ior, 
X)ann jd]Ieid]t fie roic ein sarter 5aben, 
^anti brid^t fie tüie ein Quett I]crDor. 
fjier fd]Iingt fie eine ganse Strede, 
2T(it I^unbert 2tbern \\d\ burd)s d]al, 3925 

Hub I]ier in ber gebrängten <£de 
Dereinselt fie ftd^ auf einmal. 


Da fprübon 5intfcn in bet Zlälie, 

Wk ausgcftrcuter golbner Sanb. 

Dod] fdiau ! in ibrcr ganscn I^öF^e 3930 

€nt5Üni)ct \xdi bk Solfcntoanö. -^ 


€rleud]tet nid^t 5U biefem 5ßfte 

f^crr 21Tammon prächtig bcn Palaft ? 

<£in (Sind, öa^ bn's gcfcl^ot I-;aft ! 

3d| fpürc fd]on bie ungeftümcn (5äftc. 393s 


Wie raft bio IDinbsbraut bnrd] bie £nft ! 

Zflxt n?eld]cn Sdilägcn trifft fic meinen Zladen ! 


Du. mu^t bes 5(?I[en5 alte Hippen paden, 

Sonft ftür5t fie bid] I^inab in biefer 5d]lünbe (5ru|t. « 

<£in Hebel oerbiditet bie Had^t. ' 3940 

fjöre, toies burd] bie XPälbcr ftad\t ! 

2lufgefd]eudit fliegen bie €ulen. 

^ör' ! es fplittern bie Säulen 

<£ro\g grüner paläfte. 

(Sirren unb Bred]en ber 2tefte, 3945 

Der Stämme mäd^tiges Dröl]nen, 

Der IDurseln Knarren unb (Salinen ! 

3m fürd^terlid^ oermorrenen 5ciIIe 

Ueber einanber frad]en fie alle 

Unb burd) bie übertrümmerten Kbäfte 3950 

5ifd]en unb I^eulen bie £üfte. 

fjörft bu Stimmen in ber I^öije ? 

3n ber 5»-'i*ne, in ber ZXälie ? 


3«, bcit gait5cu Berg entlang 

Strömt ein rx)ütl|en6er ^aubergefang ! 3935 

fje^-en im (Il]or. 
^ie JP^ey en 3U öem ^ro<f cn sielen ; 
X>ie Stoppel ift gelb, öie Saat ift grüii. 
^ort fammelt \\di ber gro^e fjauf ; 
^err Urian fi^t oben auf. 
So gei^t es über Stein unb StO(f . 3960 

(£5 f — t bie fjeje, es ftmft öer Bo<f . 

'Die alte Baubo fommt allein ; 
Sie reitet auf einem 21Tutterfd]tr)ein. 

So eljre Öcnn, u?cm €Iir' gebül^rt ! 
5rau Saubo cor ! unb angefül^rt ! 3965 

(£in tüd]tig Sd^tcein unb 2T(utter brauf, 
Va folgt öer ganse i^ejenl^auf. 

Xücldjeti Weg fommft bu I^er ? 


Uebern 3^^nft*^i" • 
Da gu(Jt' \d\ bcv (£ule ins Heft I^inein ; 
Die mad]t' ein paar 2lugen I 


^ fal^re sur fjölle ! 3970 
XDas reit'ft 5u fo fd]nelle ? 

TXixd] liat fie gefd]un6en, 
Da fiel7 nur bie IDunben ! 

SCENE XX. 183 

Der Weg ift Breit, bcr Xüeq ift laiicj ! 
Was ift bas für ein toller Draiig ? 3975 

Die (Säbel ftid]t, 6er Sefeit fra^t, 
' \ Das Kino erfticf t, öie ZHutter plafet. 

.E^erenmcifter. fjalbes £I]ör. 
IDir fd]Ieid]eit ivk bie 5d]ueiJ int i^aus ; 
Die IDeiber alle finö ooraus. 
Denn gelit es 5U bcs Böfen I^aus, 39S0 

Das löcib Iiat taufenö Sd^ritt ooraus. 

minore ^älfte. 
IDir nel^men tas mdit fo genau, 
Znit tau[enb 5d]ritten ntad]ts bie 5i'au ; 
Dodi tcie fie aud^ fid] eilen fann, 
Znit *£inem Sprunge niadifs bot Iflann. 3985 

Stimme oben. 
Kommt mit, fommt mit, 00m 5clfenfee ! 

Stimmen ooit unten. 
Wxt möditen gerne mit in bie fjöl]'. 
Xüiv xr>afd]en unb blanf finb' lüir gans unb gar, 
2tber aud^ etoig unfrud]tbar. 

Beibe CI]öre. 
<£s fd]ir>eigt ber IDinb, es fliel^t ber Stern, 3990 
Der trübe ZHonb oerbirgt fid^ gern ; 
3m Saufert fprül]t bas ^^luberdior 
£)iel taujenb 5euerfun!'en Ijeroor. 

Stimnte von unten. 
fjalte! i^alte! 


Stimme von oben. 
IDer ruft ba aus öer 5ßl[enfpaltc ? 399s 

Stimme unten. 
Heljmt mid^ mit ! Hel^mt mid^ mit ! 
3d] [tcigc fd]on örcil^unbert ^ativ 
Hub fanu ben (Sipfcl nid^t erreid]ett. 
3d) n?ärc gern bei meines (Sleid^en. 

Beibe Ct^Öre. 
<£s trägt ber ^efen, trägt ber Stod, 4000 

Die (5abel trägt, es trägt öer 'Bod ; 
IDer I^cute ftd] nid^t lieben !ann, 
3ft cu?ig ein perlorner ZHann. 

j^dbtjeje unten. 
2dl tripple nad^, fo lange geit ; 
IDie finb öie anberit fd]on fo weit ! 4005 

3d] I^ab' 3U ^aufe feine Hui] 
Hnö fomme I:|ier 5od] nid]t öasu. 

CI|or ber ^ejen. 
Die Salbe gibt ben £jejen IHutl], 
€in Pumpen ift 5um Segel gut, 
(gin gutes Sd^iff ift jcber Crog ; 4010 

Der flieget nie, öer l^eut nid|t flog. 

3eibe Cl^Öre. 
Unb roenn n^ir um öen (5ipfel sieljn. 
So ftreid^et an öem Boben Ijin, 
Unb bcdt b'xc ^c'ibe voc'xt nnb breit 
2Ttit eurem Sd^u?arm bet f^e^-enlieit ! 4015 

Sie laffcn fid? ntcbcr. 

SCENE XX. 185 

'Das drängt un(> ftö§t, bas rufd^t unö üappert ! 
i)a5 jifdtt Ulli) quirlt, ^a5 jicl-jt unc» plappert ! 
i)a5 loud^tot, fprübt uiic» ftiiift uut> brennt ! 
>£in iDal]rc5 l7erenelement ! 

i"cur feft an mir ! fonft iinb vo'xt gleid] getrennt. 4020 
Wo bi[t bu ? ^ 

5ciu[t in bcr ^fcriic. 
I^ier I 

IDas ! bort fd]on F^ingeriffeit ? 
Da irerö' idi Bausrcd'jt brandneu muffen, 
pla^! 3mifer r>oIant) fommt. pla^ ! fü^er pöbel, 

r^icr, Doctor, faffe mid) ! unb fuitt in (£inem 5a^, 
Ca^ uns aus bcm (Sebräng entircidien , 4025 

£s ift 5u toU l'ogar für meines (Sleidu^n. 
X>ort neben leud^tet u?a5 mit gans befon^rem 5d]ein, 
£5 stellt midi loas nadi jenen 5träud]en. 
Komm, font)ii ! u?ir fd^Iupfen ba binein. 

X>u (5eift bas XDiberfprud^s ! Hur 5U I bn magft nüd? 



3di benfe bod] bas voav rcd]t !lug gemad]t : 
5um Broden roanblen loir in öer H)alpurgisnad]t 
Hm uns beliebig nun biefelbft 5U ifoliren. 

Da fteFj nur roeldie bunte 5Iammen ! 
*£s ift ein muntrer Klub beifammen. 
3nx Kleinen ift man nid^t allein. 



Dodi broben möd^t idi lieber fein I 

Sdion \elf idi (5Iuti] unb IDirbelraud^. 

Dort ftröntt bic 2T(eiigc 311 bem Böfen ; 

Da mu§ [idi mand^es Hätlifel löfen. 4040 


X)od] majtd]es Hätl^fel fnüpft fid] aud]. 

£a^ 5u bie cjro^e JPelt nur faufen ! 

IDir tDoIIen I^ier im StiEen I]au[en. 

(£5 ift bod^ lange I^ergebrad^t, 

Da§ in ber großen IDelt man fleine lüelten mad^t. 4045 

T>a fei]' xdi junge ^e^dtien nadt unb bIo§ 

Unb alte, bie fid] flug perl^üllen. 

Seib freunblid], nur um meinetirillen ! 

Die Ifiixl} ift flein, ber 5pa|3 ift gro§. 

3dl I]öre roas von 3nftrumenten tönen ! 4050 

PerfTud^t (Sefd^narr ! 21Tan mu§ fid] bran getr»öfjnen. 

Komm mit ! Komm mit ! €5 fann nid|t anbers fein, 

3dl tret' Iieran unb fül]re bid] l^erein 

Hnb idi perbinbe bidi aufs neue. — 

Was fagft bu, 5r*?unb ? bas ift fein fleiner Haum. 4055 

Va fieti nur Iiin ! bu fielift bas €nbe faum. 

<£in Iiunbert 5euer brennen in ber Hcilie ; 

2Tcan tanst, man fdiipa^t, man fodit, man triitft, man 

Hun fage mir, mo es u?a5 Beffers gibt ? 


tPillft bu bidi nun, um uns liier einsufütiren, 4060 

2Us Saubrer ober Ceufel probuciren ? 

SCENE XX. 187 

^voav bin xd] fel^r geipolint incognito 511 gebii ; 
"Dod] lä^t am (Sallatag man feinen ®rben fel]n. . 
i£in Kniebanb 3cidinet mid'j nid^t aus, 
Vod] ift ber pferöefu^ liier elirenüoU 311 ^aus. 4065 
Sielift bu bxc 5d])iecfe 5a ? Sie fommt I]erangefrod]en ; 
lM\t il^rem taftenC)en (Sefid]t 
^at fie mir fd]on roas ab gerod]en. 
Wenn xd] and} toill, cerläugn' id] liier mid] xxxd\t. 
Komm nur ! Don 5*-'uer gelien ir>ir 3U 5^uer ; 4070 

3d] bin ber IDerber unö bu bift öer 5i"^icr. 

gu einigen, bic um Derglimmcnbe Kol^Icn \x^en. 
3F|r alten fjerrn, n^as mad]t il]r liier am (£n5e ? 
3d) lobt' eudi, icenn id] eud] I]übfd] in ber ZHittc fänbc, 
Don Saus um3irft unb 3w9<^'^^^t'<^ii^ i 
(5cnug allein ift jeber ja 3U ^aus. 4075 

IDer mag auf Nationen trauen ! 
2Tcan l}abc xxodi \o viel für fie getl^an ; 
Vexxn bei bem Dolf, roie bei ben 5rciuen, 
Stellt immerfort bie 3ugenb obenan. 

3e^t ift man t)on bcn 2^cd\tcx\ allsutüeit, 4080 

3d] lobe mir bie guten Eliten ; 
X>enn freilid], ba toxv alles galten, 
Da voav bie redete golbne «gcit. 

IDir roaren walirtid] axxd] nid]t buntm 
Unb tliaten oft, u?as u?ir nidjt foUten ; 4085 


Vodi je^o feiert \\di alles um unb um 
Xlnb eben öa toirs fcft crl^altcn rüoütcn. 

Wer mag tool übert^aupt jc^t eine 5d]rift 
Pon mä^ig flugem 3nl]a(t lefcn ! 
Unb was bas liebe junge Volt betrifft, 4090 

"Das ift nod\ nie \o naferoeis geroefen. 

ber auf einmal fcl]r alt crfd^cint. 
^um jüngften Cag fül^I' \d\ bas Volt gereift, 
Da \d] 3um le^tenmal ben I^jej-enberg erfteige ; 
Unb roeil mein 5ä^d^en trübe läuft. 
So ift biß iPelt aud^ auf öer Heigc. 409s 

3I]r Ferren, gel|t nid^t \o üorbei 1 
£a^t bie (Selegenl^eit nid]t fal]ven ! 
^ufmerffam blidt nad] meinen iüaaren ! 
€s ftel]t ballier gar mand^crlei. 

Unb bod\ ift nidits in meinem £aben 4100 

Dem feiner auf ber €rbc gleid^t. 
Das nid]t einmal sunt tüd^tgen Sd^aben 
Der 2T(cnfd]en unb ber IDelt gercid^t. 
Kein Dold] ift I^ier, von bem nidit Blut gefloffen, 
Kein Keld^, aus bem fid] nid^t in gan^ gefunben £eib 4105 
Der3el^renb l^ei^es (Sift ergoffen, 
Kein Sd^mucf, ber nid^t ein liebensu^ürbig IDeib 
Perfül^rt, fein Sd^mert bas nid^t bcn Bunb gebrod^en, 
Zlxdit etcoa I^intcrrüds ben (5egenmann burdjftod^en. 

5rau 211uljme I fie Derftel^t mir fd^led^t bie Reiten. 4"o 

SCENE XX. 189 

(Sotban gcfd>^I-;n ! (Sofdicbn gctiian ! 
Porlog' fio ficii auf iTouigfoitoix ! 
llnv Houigfcitoit ycl}n idis an. 

Va^ idi m\d\ imr nid]t fclbft ccrgeffo ! 
I^oiJ3' td] mir tas bod] eine 2T{e[fe ! 411s 

Dor gan5C Strubel ftrcbt iiad] oben ; 
Du glaubft 5U fd]iebon unb bn u?irft gefd]obou. 

IDer ift beim bas ? 

Setradjtc fte genau ! 
Cilitb ift bas. 


2tbams erfte S^au. 
nimm bid} in 2ld\t t>or il^ren fdiönen fjaaren, 412° 

Dor biefem Sd^mud, ntit beut fie eiitjig prangt I 
21>enn fie bamit bcn jungen IHami erlangt. 
So lä^t fie ilin fo balb nid^t ipieber faliren. 

T>a fifeen srooi, bie ^llte mit bor lungen ; 
Die haben fd]on roas Hed^ts gcfprungen ! 4125 

Das bat nun beute feine Hub. 
(£5 geilt 5um neuen üans ! Zum Fonnn, wir greifen 5U. 


5ciu[t mit bcr 3""9cu tan^cnb. 
(£inft I|att' \d] einen fd]öncn Craunt ; 
Va \aii \di einen ^Ipfelbaum, 
^roei jd]öne 2lepfcl glänzten bvan ; 4130 

Sie reisten mxdi, id\ flieg binan. 

^ie Sd\öm. 
X>er ^epfeld]en begetjrt \l\v \d}t 
Unö 'idion vom Parabiefe I]er. 
Von 5reuben fül\V id] mid] betoegt, 
Va^ audi mein (5arten foldie trägt ! 4135 

ZHepfiiftopI^eles mit bct 2lltcit, 
(£inft Ijatt' id^ einen roüften Craunt ; 
Da \ali xd\ einen gefpaltnen Baum, 

X>er iiatf ein 

So — es tx?ar, gefiel mirs bod\. 

Die ^llte. 
3d] biete meinen beften <5ru^ 4140 

■Dem Hittcr mit bem pferbefu^ ! 

fjalt' er einen bereit, 

IDenn er nid^t fd|eut. 

2?erflud]te5 Polf ! it>as unterftel]t if)r eud^ ? 
^at man eud] lange nid]t beriefen, 4145 

(Ein (5eift ftel^t nie auf orbentlid^en 5ü|en ? 
Xlun tanst il]r gar uns anbern ZHenfd^en gleidj ! 

Die Sd^öne tanscnb. 
Was vo'xü. bcnn öcr auf unfernt Ball ? 

SCENE XX. 191 

5auft taujcnb. 

(£i ! bei- ift chcn überall. 

Was anörc tansen, mu^ er fd]ä^cn ; 4150 

Kann er nidit jebeit 5d]rttt befdu'oä^cit, 

So ift öer Sd-jrttt \o gut als iüd]t gefd|cbn. 

2lnt meiften ärgert il^ii \obalb w\t oortoärts qd\n. 

Wenn ilir cud] \o \m Kretfe örel^en inoUtet, 

Wie ers in fetjter alten JTtüI-jIe tl^ut, 4155 

Das li\e^ er allenfalls nod] gut ; 

Sefonöers, u>enn ilu- il-jn öaruni begrüben foUtet. 


3I]r fei5 nod] immer ba ! ^flein, bas ift unerE>ört. 

Derfd^roinbet bod\ ! u?ir l^aben ja aufgeflärt ! 

^as Ceufelsparf, es fragt nad] feiner Hegel: 4160 

IDir finö fo fing unt» öeiutod] fpufts in Cegel. 

IPie lange l^ab' id] nid]t am ITabn liinausgefeljrt 

Unb nie w'ubs rein ; bas ift bod} unerl^ört ! 

Die Sd^öne. 
So l]ört bod\ auf uns tjier 5U ennüviren ! 


3d] fags eud] (ßeiftern ins (Sefid^t : 4165 

"Den (5eiftesbefpotisnnis leib' id; nid^t ; 
2T(ein (Seift fann il^n nid]t ej-erciren. 
(Es tDtrb fortgctan3t. 
f^cut, feb' id], tpill mir nid]ts gelingen ; 
Vodi eine Heife nebm id] immer mit 
Unb boffe nod] cor meinem legten 5d]ritt 4170 

X>ic Ceufel unb bie i)id]ter 3U besunngen. 


(£v tDtrb fid] gletd) in eine pfü^e fe^cn, 
Das ift bie ^trt, ivk er fid^ foulagtrt, 
Unb wenn Blutegel \idi an feinem 5tei^ ergeben, 
3ft ev r>on (Seiftern nnb von (5eift curirt. 4175 

§u ^^auft, i>cx ans bem Sans getreten ift. 
Was läffeft bu bas fd^öne 2^äbd]en fal^ren, 
Das bit 3um Cans fo lieblid^ fang ? 

2ld] ! mitten im (Sefange fprang 
(Ein rotl^es JTläusd^en it^r aus bem JHunbe. 

Das ift roas Hed^ts ! Das nimmt man nid^t genau ! 4180 
(Senug bie ZTlaus voat bod] nid]t grau. 
IDer fragt barnad] in einer 5d]äferftunbc ? 

Daim fal^ \d\ — 




ZHepIiifto, fielift bu bort 
€in blaffes, fd^önes Kinb allein unb ferne ftel^en ? 
Sie fdiiebt fid^ langfam nur r>ont <Dvi, 4185 

Sie fdieint mit gcfdilofenen ^üfecn 3U geljeu. 
3d7 mu| befennen, ba^ mir bäud]t, 
Da^ fie bem guten (Sretd^en gleid^t. 

£a§ bas nur fielen ! Dabei roirbs niemanb ir>oI. 
€s ift ein ^auberbilb, ift leblos, ein 3bol. ^^ 4t9o 

SCENE XX. 193 

3I^m 3U begegnen ift md\t gut. 

Dont [tarron BItcf crftarrt öes ZHenfd^en Blut 

Unb er lüirö faft in Stein ocrfelirt : 

Von bet ZHeöufe Iiaft öu ja gel^ort. 

^ürroaljr es finb bie Jtugen einer lobten, 
T>'w eine liebende fjanb nid^t [diloß. 
T)as ift bie Bruft, öie (Sretdjen mir geboten, 
Vas ift öer fü§e £eib, ben id] geno§. 

"Das ift bie <5ciuberei, bn Ietd]t cerfülirter Cf>or ! 
Denn jebem fontntt fie loie feilt liebd^en vor. 

tüeld] eine IDonne ! iveldi ein Ceiben ! 
^di fann von liefern Blid nid]t fd]ciöen. — 
IPie fonöerbar — mu^ liefen fdiönen ^als 
€in ein3ig rotbes Sdinürdiett fdintüden, 
Zlxdit breiter als ein ZlTefferrüden ! 

(Sans red^t ! idi feli es ebenfalls ; 
Sie fanti bas rjaupt aud] unterm 2lrme tragen, 
Denn Perfeus I^ats ibr abgefdilagen. — 
llnv immer biefe £uft sunt IPat^n ! 
Komm bod] bas fjügeld]en I^eran ! 
fjier ifts fo luftig, wie im Prater 
llnb bat man mirs nid]t angetlian, 
So feb id] iral^rlid] ein Ci^eater. 
Was gibts bcnn ba ? 

> o 




(SIcid] fängt man iDiebcr an. 
(£m neues Stüd, bas lefetc Stüd von fieben ! 4 

So viel 5U geben ift allliicr bcr ^raud). 
(£in Dilettant I]at es gefd]rieben 
Hnb "Dilettanten fpielens aud^. 
Perseitjt, il^r f^errn, toenn id^ r>erfd]a)inbe : 
VTixd] öilettirts öen Vothang auf5U5ieI]n. 4' 


tDcnn idj cud? auf öem BIo(f5berg finbe, 
Das ftnb' id^ gut, benn ba gel]ört itjr Ijin. 




(Dhexons nnb Citantas qolbne £}od}^s\t. 


^cutc vuiien vo'xt einmal 
ilüebings toacfrc Söhße. 
2ütev 'BevQ unö feudites Sl^al, 42; 

Das ift bxe gan^e Scsne ! 

Va% 6ie ^od]3Ctt golbcn fei, 

SoII'n funfjig ^al^v fein oorüber ; 

2(ber ift ber Streit oorbci, 

Das (Solöen ift mir lieber. 42: 

5eiö itir (Seifter wo xdi bin, 
So seigts iit liefen Stunben ! 
König unb bie Königin, 
Sie finb aufs neu perbunben. 


Kommt 5cr purf unb örebt ftd] quer 
IXnb \d]le\\t ben 5uß im Hcilien ; 
f^unbert fommcn Hntcrbcr, 
Std} audj mit il^m 3U freuen. 

2lriel betregt ben Sang 
^n bimmlifd] reinen ^önen ; 
Diele 5ra^en lodt fein Klang, 'wX« 
Dod] locft er audi 5ic Sd}önen. 

(Satten bie ftd] »ertragen tcollen, 
Cernens üon uns beiöen ! 
IDenn fid] 5U)eie lieben follen, 
Braud]t man fic nur 5U fdieiöen. 

5d]moIIt öer ZHaitn unb grillt bie ^i'cxu 
So faßt fie nur bel^enbe, 
5ülirt mir nad] 5em mittag fie 
Unb ilin an Sorbens <£nbe. 

0rd?efter. Cutti. 
5Iiege)tfd]nau5 unb ZHüiJennas 
ZTtit ibren ^Inoenranbten, 
5rofdi im Caub unb (5riE im (Sras, 
Das finb bie JlTufifaitten ! 

Salit, ba fommt ber X>ubelfacf ! ^»^^v^u^ 
<£s ift bie Seifenblafe. 


l^ört bcn 5d7necfcfd]nicfcfd"!nacf 
i)ui-d] feine ftumpfe itafe I 

(5cift, ber fid] erft bilbet. 

Spinnenfu^ imb Krötenbaud] 

Unb ^lÜQoldieu bcm U)id]tdieit ! 4260 

^wat ein Oiierd]eu gibt es nid|t, 

Dod] gibt es ein (5eöid]td]en. 

(£in pärdien. 

Kleiner 5d]ritt unb bober Sprung 

X>urdi i^onigtbau unb i)üfte ; 

^rx>ar öu trippelft mir genung, 4265 

Vod) gebts nidit in bie Cüfte. 

^Neugieriger Heifenber. 

3ft bas nxdit ZlTasferabenfpott ? 

Soll id^ 5en 2lugen trauen ? 

0beron ben fdiönen (Sott, 

2tud] Iicute Her 3U fd^auen ! 4270 


Keine Klauen, feinen Sdiwan^ l 
Dod] bleibt es aujßer ^meifel, 
So u?ie bie (Sötter (Sried]enlanÖ5, 
So ift audi er ein Ceufel. 

ZTorbi[d]er Künftler. 

Was id] ergreife bas ift lieut 4275 

^ürmalir nur [fi55enu)eile ; 
Vod} id] bereite mid] bei §ext 
5ur italienfdien Heife. 


2td), mein ItnglüdP fül^rt mid] I^er ! 
Wie xv'xrb ntd]t f^icr gelubert ! 4280 

Unb von beut gansen fjejrenl^ccr 
5in5 stoeie nur gepudert. 

3ungc fjßfe. 
"Der puber ift, fo toie ber Ho(f , 
5ür alt' unb graue Wa'xhdien ; 
"Drum ftl3 id) nadt auf meinem Bocf 4285 

Unb setg ein berbes Ceibd^en. 

löir liahcn 3U r»iel Cebensart 
Um I]ier mit eud] ju maulen ; 
Dod) I^off id], foHt il>r jung unb sart, 
So wk il]r feib, perfaulen. 429° 

5liegenfd]nau3 unb TXiixdennas, 
Umfdiujärmt mir nid^t bie rta<f te ! 
5rofdi im Caub unb (Srill im (Sras, v^ 
So bleibt bod) aud] im Cactc ! 

IDinbfaijne naä^ bcr einen Seite. 
(SefeIIfd)aft toie man rDÜnfd^en fann. 4295 

lDaI]rI]aftig, lauter Bräute ! 
Unb 3unggefenen, Ifiann für ZHann, 
Die I^offnungsDoIIften Ceute ! 

IDinbfal^ne nadj ber anbcrn Seite. 
Unb tl)ut ftd] nid]t ber Boben auf 
Sie alle 3U Derfd]Iingen, 4300 


So lüill idi mit bel^eiibeni £auf 
tSIcid] in i)ie f^ölle fpringcn. 


2Us 2n\cct<in \inb vo'w ba 

ITlit fleineit fdiarfou 5d]ccrcn, 

Satan, unfern i7errn Pa^a, 4305 

ZXad] Wmbm 5U pcrcl-;ren. 


SehX u?ic fie in gedrängter Sdiaav 

Xlaxv 5ufammen fd^ersen ! 

2Im (£nbe [agen fie nod^ gar, 

Sie l]ätten gute fersen. 4310 


2d\ mag in biefem fjej-enl^eer 
Xflidi gar 3U gern Dcriieren ; 
Venu freilid) öiefe wü^t id] el]r 
2Il5 ZUufen an3ufül]ren. 

ci-devant (5eniu5 öer ^eit. 

TXixt red]ten Ceuten u)irb man u?as : 4315 

Komm, faffe meinen <5ipfel ! 
Der Blocfsberg, n?ie öer beutfd^e parna^, 
£jat gar einen breiten (Sipfel. 

^Neugieriger Hcifenöer. 
Sagt ujie Iieißt öer fteife ZTiann ? 
€r gel^t mit ftolsen 5d]ritten ; 4320 

€r fd]nopert, roas er fd]nopern fanit, 
„€r fpürt nad] 3efuiten." 


3n bcm Klaren mag \d\ gern 
Unb aud] im Crüben fifd]cn ; 
^arum fel^t il^r ben frommen fjerrn 4325 

5id] aud] mit Ceufeln mifd^en. 

3a, für bie 5rommen, glaubet mir, 
3ft afles ein Pel]ifel ; 
Sie bilben auf bem Slocfsberg t^ier 
cSar mandies (Eonpentifel. 4330 

Va fommt ja tool ein neues (Et^or ? 
3d] I^öre ferne Crommeln. 
Xluv ungeftört ! €5 finb im Holir 
^ie unifonen Dommein. 

IDie jeber bod] bie Beine lupft, 433s 

5id] wie er fann, IieraussieF^t ! • ^^xx-, 
Der Krumme fpringt, ber plumpe I|upft 
llnb fragt nid^t rcie es ausfielet. 

Das lia^t fid] \d\wct bas Cumpenpacf, 
Unb gab fid] gern bas Heftd^en. 4340 

€s eint fie I^icr ber Dubelfacf 
IDie örpl^eus Ceier bie Beftjen. 

3d7 laffe mxdi nxd\t irre fd^rei'n, 
nid]t burd] Kritif nod^ ^o^eifel. 


Der Ceufel mu§ bodi etwas fein ; 4345 

VOk Qähs bcnn fonft aüd] tieufel ? 

"Die pbantafic in meinem Sinn 
3ft diesmal gar 5U Iierrifd] : 
5ünt>al";r roeim idi bas alles bin, 
So bin id] l^eute närrifd). 4350 


Das XPefen ift mir rcd]t 3ur Qual 
Unb mu§ midi ^a§ oerbrie^en ; 
3d] ftel>e I^ier 3um erftenmal 
I1id}t feft auf meinen Sü^^-'u. 


^it »iel Vergnügen biit id] ba 4355 

l\nb freue mid] mit biefen ; 
Denn von ben Ceufelit fanii id] ja 
2luf gute (5eifter fd]lie§en. 


Sie gebn ben 5Iämmd]e.n auf ber Spur 
llnb glaub'n fid] nai] bem Sd]a^e. 4360 

2tuf Ceufel reimt öer S^exfel nur ; 
Da bin id] red|t am pia^e. 


5rofd] im £aub unb (Srill im (Sras, 
Derflud]te Dilettanten ! 

5Iiegenfd]nau5 unb ZTcücfennas 4365 

3I]r feiö bod} ZlTufifanten ! 


'J)ie <S>ewan^ten. 
Sansfouci, fo I]ei§t bas f^eer 
Pon luftigen (5efd]öpft;n ; 
2tuf öcn 5ü§en gclits lüd^t mefjr, 
Dtnm gel]n u?ir auf öen Köpfen. 4370 

X>ic Hnbcf]ül^td)en. 
Sonft iiaben voxv mand]en Siffen erfd]ran5t ; 
2tun aber (Sott befolgten ! 
Unfere Sdiuiie finö burd^getanst, 
2X)ir laufen auf na(f ten 5oI|len. 

Don bem Sumpfe fommen w\v 437s 

IDoraus roir crft entftanben ; 
Vodi finb u?ir gleid? im Heifjen tjier 
X)ie glänsenöen (5alanten. 

2tu5 bcr f^ölje fd^o§ id] I]er 
3m 5tern= unb ^euerfd^eine, 4380 

Ciege nun im (5rafe quer : 
tPer ijilft mir auf bie Seine ? 

X>ie 2T(affir»en. 
pia^ unb pia^ unb ringsl^erum ! 
So gel]n bie (5rä5d]en nieber : 
(ßeifter fommen, (5eifter aud], . 438s 

Sie Iiaben plumpe (Slieber. 

Cretet nxd\t fo maftig auf, 
IPie (glepl^antenfälber ! 


llnb öcr piumpft' an öie[em Cag 

Sei Pucf , öcr öerbe, felber ! 4390 

(5ab b'xo lieBenbe Hatur, \^ 

(5ab öcr (Seift eud] 51ügel, ] 

folget meiner leidsten Spur, 
^luf 511m HofenI]ügeI,! 


Wolhnyig un6 Hebelflor 4395 

(£rl]ellen fid] oon oben. 

Cuft im Caub unö lüinö im HoI]r 

Unö alles ift serftoben. k*^Jü( 

Crübcr Cag. 

^auft. iricpl^iflopl^clcs. 

3m (SIenbl Persmeifelnö ! <£rbärmlid? auf öer 
€rbe lange »erirrt unb nun gefangen! 2Us 2Tiif[e-- 
tl]ätcrin im Kerfer 3U entfe^Iid]cn Qualeit eingefperrt, 
öas I]oIbe unfelige (5efd]öpf ! Bis öaliin ! öaliin ! — 
Derrätlirifd^er, nid]tsu)ürJ)iger (5eift, unö bas baft bu 
mir üerbcimlid]t ! — Stel] nur, ftel] ! Wälie bie teuf= 
lifd^en 2lugen ingrimmenb im Kopf I^erum ! Stell unb 
tru^e mir burd? beine unerträglidie (5egenu?art ! 
(Befangen! 3m unn?iebcrbringlid]cn <£Ienb! Söfen 


(Sciftcrn übergeben unb ber rid]tenben, gefüI]IIofejT 
2Tcenfd)I]eit ! Unb m\d\ toiegft bu tnbe^ in abge= 15 
[d)ma(iten «gerftreuungen, oerbirgft mir il^ren voadi- 
fenben 3<^^titj^^i^ unb läffeft fie bilflos peröerben ! 


Sie ift bie crftc nid^t. 

5auft. 20 

f)unb ! abfd^eulid^es llntliier I — Wanble ilin, bu 
unenMid]er (Seift I t^anble ben iPurm toieber in feine 
-^unbsgeftalt, toie er fid] oft näd^tlid^er JDeife gefiel por 
mir I^er5utrotten, bem Iiarmlofen IDanberer r»or bie 
5ü^e 3U follern unb fid) bem nicberftürsenben auf bie 25 
5d]ultern 3U I^ängen. XDanbl' xfyi roieber in feine 
Cieblingsbilbung, ba^ er r>or mir im Sanb auf beni 
Saud] !ried|e, xdi iF]n mit 5ü^en trete, ben Vevvoox'- 
fenen ! — "Die erfte nid^t ! — 3ammer ! 3^^"^^*^ • ^on 
feiner 2T(enfd]enfeeIe 3U faffen, ba^ melir als (£in 30 
<5efd|öpf in bie ©efe biefes (£Ienbs üerfaitf, ba^ nidit 
bas erfte genugtE^at für bie 5d]ulb aller übrigen in 
feiner roinbenben Cobesnotl] t>or ben 2lugen bes eroig 
Per5eil]enben ! Zfixv roül^lt es ITiavt unb £ehen bmd\, 
bas €Ienb biefer (Einsigen ; bu grinfeft gelaffen über 35 
bas Sd^icffal von Caufenbcn Bjin ! 

Hun finb roir fd]on toieber an ber (Srense ui^feres 
It^i^es, ba xx>o cud\ 21Tenfd]en ber Sinn überfd]nappt. 
IDarum madift bu (5emeinfd]aft mit uns, loenn bu fie 40 
nid]t burd]füliren fannft ? XDillft fliegen unb bift Dorm 
Sd]rr)inbel ntd]t fidler? X)rangen roir uns bir auf 
ober bu b'xdi uns ? 


5Ictfd^e bcinc gefräßigen ^^Iinc mir md]t fo entgegen ! 45 
2Tlir cfelt5 ! — (Sroßcr I^errlid7er (Seift, ber bu ntir 511 
erfd]einen icüröigteft, öcr i)u mein I^ers fenneft unb 
meine Seele, u?arum an ben Sdianbgefelleit m\d\ 
fd]mieben, ber fid] am Sdjaben n?eibet unb an Derberben 
fid^Iefet? 50 


€nbigft bu ? 


Hette fic! ober voali b'xtl Den grä§lid]ften 5Iud] 
über bid] auf 3^^i'tau[enbe ! 55 

^dl fann bie 'Banbe bes Häd^ers nid^t löfen, feine 
Hiegel nidjt öffjten. — Zi^tte fie ! — iDer toars, ber fie 
ins Perberben ftürjte ? ^d\ ober bu ? 

5auft blidt voilb umt^er. 60 

(5reifft bu nad] bem Donner ? Wol, ba^ er eud) 
elenben 5terblid]en nid]t gegeben u?arb ! i)en unfd]ul= 
big fntgegnenben 3U 5erfd]mettern, bas ift fo Cyran» 
nenart \\d\ in Derlegenfieiten £uft 3U mad^en. 65 

Bringe mid] Iiiit ! Sie foll frei fein ! 

Unb bie (Sefabr, bor bu bid\ ausfe^eft? tPiffe, 
nod] liegt auf ber Stabt Slutfdjulb r>on beiner .^anb. 70 
lieber bes (£rfd]Iageiten Stätte fd]u?eben' räd]enbe 
(Seifter unb lauern auf ben icieberfet^renben ZTcörber. 


Zlod\ öas von bxv ? Xflovb unö Cob einer JDelt über 
&id) Ungetreuer ! 5üijre mid] I^in, fag id) unö befrei, fiel 75 

3d7 füllte bxd}, unb rcas id^ tl]un !ann, tjöre ! JPjabe 
id\ alle 2T(ad]t im fjimmel unö auf €r5en? Des 
SI]ürner5 Sinne voiU. id] umnebeln; bemäditige öid^ 
ber 5d]IüffeI unb fül^re fie F^eraus mit 2T(enfd]enIjanb. 80 
^d\ toad^e ! bie ^auberpferöe finö bereit, id] entfül^re 
end\. Das vermag id). 


2tuf unb baoon '. 

0ffen ^clb. 

^aiift, IHcpl^iflopfjcIcs auf fcfjtDar3cn Pf erben 

Was weben b\e bort um ben Habenfteiit ? 

XDei^ nid]t ujas fie fod^en unb fd^affen, 4400 

Sdiweben auf, fd^roeben ah, neigen fid), beugen fid?. 

€ine f^eyensunft. 


Sic ftrcuon unc> uxnbon. 

Vovhc'i ! Vorbei ! 



mit einem Buttb Sdjiüffel utib einer £ampe vov einem 
eiferncn ill]ürdjcn. 

VTlxdi fa^t ein längft ciitoobutcr 5d]aucr ; 4 

Der rnenfd]lieit gait^er 3ainmer fa§t inid] au. 

f^ier tDoI^nt fie I^inter tiefer feud]ten Zfiauev 

Unb iEir Dcrbred^en u?ar ein guter IDalin ! 

T)u jauöerft 511 ibr ju gelten ! 

Du fürd]teft fie roieöersufeljen ! 4 

5ort I öein <5agen 3Ögcrt öen Cob I^eran. 

€r ergreift bas 5djIoß. €s fingt intDcnbig. 

2T(eine 2T(utter, bic f^ur, 

Die mid) untgebrad]t Iiat ! 

nieitt Pater, ber 5d]elin, 

Der mid] geffen bat ! 4 

riTein Sdi^efterlein flein 

l7ub auf bic X^eiii, 

2h\ einent fülilen (2)rt ; 

Da u?arb id] ein fdiöne^ I^>al^v>ögeIein ! 

5liege fort, fliege fort ! 4. 


5auft auffdjlie^cnb. 
Sic aE^nct nid^t, ba§ bcr (Sciicbte Iaufd]t, 
"Die Ketten flirren I|ört, öas Strol^ öas raufd^t. 
€r tritt ein. 

tHargarete, [td? auf bem !£agcr ocrbcrcjcnb. 
Well ! rr>el^ ! Sic fommen. Bittrer tlob l 

^auft leifc. 
Stitt ! Still ! xd] fomme bxdi 5U befreien. 

ITtargarete, fid^ por H\n l]tiitDäl3cnb. 
Bift öu ein llTenfd], \o füt|Ie meine Xlotli. 442s 

Dn wirft bie IDäditer aus bent Sd^Iafe fd^reien ! 

€r faißt btc Ketten, fie auf3ufd/Ite§en. 

2T(argarete, auf ben Kntccn. 
XDer B)at bir J^enfer biefe 2Ti[ad]t 
Heber ntid] gegeben ! 
Du I|oIft mid] fd]0)t um ZHitternad^t. 
€rbarmc bid] unb Ia§ mid] lebeit ! 443° 

3ft5 morgen frül] nid]t seitig genung ? 

Sie ftet^t auf. 
'Bin id] bod} nod] \o jung, \o jung ! 
Unb foll fd]on fterben ! 

5d\'6n voav \d\ aud] unb bas xoat mein Perberben. 
Zlaii war ber ^r^unb, nun ift er weit ; 443s 

^erriffen liegt ber Kraus, bie Blumen serftreut. 
5affe mid] nid]t fo gcwaltfam an ! 
5d]one mid] ! Was I]ab id] bir geti]an ? 
Ca§ mid] nid]t vergebens ^el]en, 
f^ab id] bid] bod] mein tiage nid]t gefel]en ! 4440 


IDcri)' \d] i?o)i 3<^'"'"t'i' übcrftdicn ! 

^d] bin nun gan5 in bc'mcv lTiad]t. 
£a^ mxdi nur crft bas Ktnt> nod] tränfcn ! 
3^7 leerst' CS b\c\c gany lXad}t ; 

Sic nalimcn mirs utn niid) 5U fränfcn 4445 

Unö fagcn nun, id] bätt' es untgcbrad]t. 
Unb niemals wctb' \d\ w'xcbct froK 
Sic fingen £icöcr auf mid] ! es ift bös von öcn Ccutcji ! 
(£in altes rnärd]en cnbigt fo ; 
Wcv beißt [ie's beuten ? 4450 

5auft tpirft (id) nicbcr, 
€in Cicbcnöcr liegt bir 3U 5ü^en 
Die 3ammerfncd!t]d]aft auf3ufd]lie§en. 

21Targaretc rptrft [icb 311 il^m. 
la^ uns fnien bin l^eilgen an3urufen ! 
Siefj ! unter öiefen Stufen, 

Unter öer Sd]tt)cIIe 44S5 

Siebet öie X^ölle ! 
Der Bö[e, 

TXiit furd]tbarent (Srimme, 
2T(ad]t ein (Setöfe ! 

5auft laut, 
(ßretd^cn! (Srctd]en ! 4460 

ZHargaretc aiifmerffam. 
Das war öcs ^rcunbcs Stimme ! 

Sic [prittat auf; bie Ketten faücn ah. 
Wo ift er ? ^di bßb ibn rufen Iiören. 


3d^ I^in frei ! mir [oll ntemanö ir»eljren. 

2tn feilten i^als tDill id} fliegen, 

2tn feinem Bufen liegen I 446s 

(£r rief : (5retd]e)t ! er ftanb auf 5er Sd^n^elle ] 

mitten burd]s fjeulen imb 'Klaypen ber JE^öUe, 

Durd^ bcn grimmigen, teuflifd]en ^ol^n, 

(grfannf id^ 5en fü^en, 6en liebenöen Con. 

3d] bins ! 

'Du bifts ! fag es nod] einmal ! 4470 

3bn faffcn!). 
€r ifts ! €r ifts ! IPoI^in ift aüe Qual ? 
IPotjin (5ie ^tngft bes Kcrfers ? ber Ketten ? 
T>u bifts ! Kommft mid^ 5U retten ! 
3d] bin gerettet ! — 

Sd^on ift bie Strafe toieber ba, 4475 

2tuf ber id] bid] 3um crftenmale faE], 
Unb ber I^eitere (5arten, 
IDo id] unb 2T(artI^e beiner roarten. 

5auft fortftrebenb. 
Komm ntit ! Komm mit ! 

(2) n?eile ! 
IDeir id^ bod] fo gern it)o bu roeileft. 4480 


<£ile ! 

IDenn bu nid]t eileft, 
IPerben w'ws tljcu^ bü^en muffen ! 


Wie ? öu !a)inft iiid]t me[\v füffen ? 
2Tcem ^i'^unö, \o fiirs von mir entfernt 4485 

Unb hß)t5 Küffeit oerlernt ? 
IDarum voivb mir an öeinem fjalfe \o bang ? 
iDenn fonft von deinen IDorten, deinen Slicfen 
<£in ganser fjimmel mid] überbrang 
Unb bu mid] füßteft als tDoIIteft bn mid-» erfticfen. 4490 
Küffe mid] ! 
Sonft füff id] bid] ! 

Sic umfaßt tl]n. 
(D tr>el] J beine Cippen [inb falt, 
Sinb ftumm. 

Wo ift bein Cieben 4495 

(ßeblicben ? 
War brad]te mid] brum ? 

Sie ujcntiet fid? von if]m. 

Komm ! 5oIge mir ! Ciebd]en, faffe 21TutI] ! 
3d] Iierse bid] mit taufenbfad]er (Slutb ; 
Hur folge mir ! ^di bitte b'xdi nur bie^ ! 4300 

21Targarete, 5u it^m gerocnbct. 
Unb bift bus bcnn ? llnb bift bns aud] getoiß ? 

3d] bins ! Komm mit ! 

"Du mad]ft bie Süffeln los, 
riimmft tüieber mid] in beincn 5d]oo§. 
IDie fommt es, ba^ bn bid] r>or mir nid]t fd^euft ? — 
Unb u?ei§t bu benn, mein 5reunb, wen bn befreift ? 4505 


Komm ! fomm ! fdiou roeid^t bie tiefe 7Xad\t 

Zfie'me IHutter liab id] umgebrad]t, 
2T(ein Kinb iiab \di ertränft. 
tOat es nid]t b'w nnb mir gefd]cn!t ? 
Dir aud] ! — Du bifts ! id; glaub' es faum. 43>o 
(5ib bcine ^anö ! £5 ift fein Craum ! 
X>eine liebe Vianb ! — 2ldi aber [ie ift feud^t ! 
IPifd]e fie ah l W\e mxd\ bäud|t 
3ft Blut brau. 

2ld] (Sott ! n?as Iiaft bu getl^an ! 4515 

Stede bcn X>egen ein, 
^di bitte bid] brum ! 

£a^ bas Vergangne »ergangen feiii ! 
Du bringft mid? um ! 

Hein, bu mußt übrig bleiben ! 4520 

^d] XDXÜ bir bie (Sräbcr befd]reiben, 
5ür bie mu^t bu forgen 
(5Ieid] morgen ; 

"Der 2T(utter (:>cn beften piafe geben, 
ZTTeinen Sruber fogleid] baneben, 4525 

Xfixd] ein rcenig bei Seit', 
Zluv nid]t gar 5U toeit ! 
Unb bas Kleine mir an bie red]te Bruft. 
niemanb ujtrb [onft bei mir liegen ! — 
XÜxd} an bet)te Seite 3U fd]miegen 4530 

X>as u?ar ein fü^es, ein Iiolbes (5Iüd ! 


Wyev es roill tiiir nid^t mel^r gelingen, 

Znir ifts als ntülßt' id] m\d] 3U b\v sioingen 

^tls fttcßoft bn mid} von b'it jurücf ; 

lh\b bod] bift ÖU5 uub blicfft \o gut, \o fromm. 453s 

5üI|Ift bu ba^ id] es bin, \o fomm ! 

Dal^inaus ? 



3ft bas (5rab brau^, 
Cauert bet Coö, fo fomnt ! 

Von liier iits eu^ige i^ubebett 4540 

llnb toetter feinen Sdiritt ! — 
Du geiift nun fort ? ® Xieinrid], f önnt id; mit ! 

Du fannft ! So toolle nur ! Die Cf^ür ftel^t offen. 


3d] barf nid-;t fort ; für mid] ift nidits 5U boffen. 
Was bilft es fliebn ? fie lauern bodi mir auf. 4545 
€5 ift fo dcnb bettebi 5U muffen 
Unb nod] ba^n mit böfem (Serciffen ! 
(£s ift fo elenb in ber 5i*<?mbe fdjtDeifen ; 
Unb fie roeröen mid] bod} ergreifen ! 

^d\ bleibe bei bir. 4550 


(5e[d]minb ! (5c[d]tDmö ! 
2?ette be'in armes Kinb. 
Sovt ! immer ben VOcq 
2tm 'Sadi tynanf, 

Hebet ben Steg 4sss 

3n ben XDalb I]incin, 
Ciitfs wo bie plante ftclit 
3tn Cctd^. 
5a^ es nur gleid] ! 

(£s toill fid] I]ebeit, 4560 

<£s sappelt nod] ! 
2^ette! rette! 

^efmne öid^ bod] ! 
Hur (£inen Sd^ritt, \o bift bu frei ! 

Waten toit nur ben Berg vorbei ! 4565 

Va fil3t meine 2T(utter auf einem Stein, 
€5 fa§t midi f<^It f'^"" 5d]opfe ! 
^a fiist meine ITCutter auf einem Stein 
IXnb toadelt mit bem Kopfe. 

Sie n?inf t nid]t, fie nidt nid]t, ber Kopf ift il^r \d\toet, 4570 
Sie fd|Iief fo lange, fie toad^t nid\t mefy:. 
Sie fd]Iief bamit roir uns freuten. 
€5 iparen glü(JIid]e Reiten ! \^ 

f^ilft Ijier fein 5I^I?^ii, l^i^ft fein Sagen, 
So roag id^s b'id\ l]inir»eg3utragen. 4575 


'iaß mtd] ! Hein, id] k'xbc feilte (Seir>alt ! 
5a[[e inid] nid^t \o mövbcv\\d} an ! 
Sonft I]ab id] öir ja alles 311 Cieb getl^an. 

Vct' ^ag, graut ! Ciebd^en ! Ciebdien ! 

(Lag ! 3<^ '^^ u?irb Cag ! Der le^te üag bringt 
I>erein ; 4580 

Zllein i7od-!5eittag foUt' es [ein ! 
Sag niemand bajg bu fd^on bei (Sretd^en loarft. 
Wei\ meinem Kranse ! 
€5 ift eben gefd]et;n ! 

lüir iDerJJen uns uneberfcbn ; 4585 

2tber nid]t beim Üanse. 
i)ie illenge drängt fid], man I^ört fie Jtid^t. 
i)er pta^, bie (Saffen 
Köimen fie nid^t faffen. 

X>ie (Slode ruft, bas Stähdnen brid]t. 4590 

IDie fie mid] binden unö pacfen ! 
5um ^^lutftuH bin id] fd]on entrücft. 
Sdion 3udt nad] jebem Haiien 
X)ie 5d]ärfe, bie nad] meinem 5Üdt. 
Stumm liegt bie XDelt u?ie bas (5rab ! 4595 

tt)är' id] nie geboren ! 

ZHepBjiftopI^eles crfdieint brausen, 
2luf ! ober ibr feib oerloren. 
Unnü^es ^agen ! ^«^uößrn unb piaubern ! 


ZTtcinc pfcrbe fd^auöern, 

Dev ZfiovQcn bämmcrt auf. 4600 

Was fteigt aus bem 'Beben I>crauf ? 
Der ! bet ! 5d)icf il^n fort ! 
Was tüill bet an bem Ijeiligcn 0rt ? 
€r rptU mtd| ! 

3)u foßft leben ! 
(Sertd]t (Sottes ! Dir liab xdi mxd\ übergeben ! 460s 

2TcepI]tftopEieIe5 3U (^auft. 
Komm ! fomm ! 3^] laffe b'xdi mit ii^r im Stid]. 

Dein bin idi, Pater ! 2^ette mid^ ! 
3I]r €ngel ! il^r I^eiligen 5d]aaren, 
Cagert endi uml^er, mid] 3U beiüal^ren ! 
f^einrid) ! 2Tcir grauts cor bir. 4610 

Sie ift gcrid]tet ! 

Stimme t>on oben. 
3ft gerettet ! 

2T(epI)iftopI^eIes 311 ^^auft. 

^er 3U mir ! 
DcrfdjtDtnbct mit ^auft. 

Stimme dou innen pert^allent). 
f^einrid] ! fjeinrid^ ! 



I. The dedication to Fatist was written, it would seem, in 
June 1797. The period of youth, in which Götz von 
Bei-lichingen and fragments of the First Part of Faust 
had been written, appeared to Göthe now as a time of 
aimless blind effort, — so to speak, the ' dark ages ' of 
his own life. Since then he had Hved in Italy, and had 
come to know and to reverence Greek Art and the 
repose of Greek Art. The poet of Iphigenie and Tasso 
had lost his love for old Gernian architecture and old 
German manners, for Götz and medisevalism. The 
Storni and stress time of his life was over. 
S. nmtPtttert= 'breathes upon ' ; ' By the magic air which 
breathes around your path.' 

10. By the 'shadows,' and ' first love and friendship,' and the 

' kind ones ' are meant Göthe's sister Cornelia, who had 
diedin 1777, his friend Merck, who had died in 1779, 
and Gretchen,- whom he had known and loved in Frank- 
furt in the year 1764. Göthe had likewise in his 
thoughts the friends of his youth who were now estranged 
from him, — Klopstock, Lavater, and the Stolbergs ; and 
again Jakobi, Klinger, Schlosser, Kestner, who were 
separated from him by the circumstances of their lives. 

1 1 . i]albr>crf lungncn = ' half-extinct,' ' half-forgotten ' 

12. mit belongs to Komiut, from vb. tnitfommcn. 



13. 'The pain is fresh, grief mournfully teils over life's erring 
labyrinthine course, and names the dear ones, who — 
cheated by fortune of fair hours — have vanished from my 
In I. 13 tr>trb = Ht. 'becomes.' 

1 9- gcrftobcn = ' dispersed. ' 

20. Der? hingen = ' silent. ' 

bcr erftc lPtcbcrfIang= 'the echo that first rang.' 

21. The meaning of the line is, ' We shrink from telling our 

griefs even more than our joys to a crowd and to unknown 
people.' There is another reading of this line : ,IlTcin 
Sieb ertönt' instead of ,lTicin Seit» ertönt.' Some 
copies of the edition of 1S25 have £t.eb, but as a rule 
this reading is not found until after Göthe's death. 
Riemer and Eckermann's edition of 183S reads £ctb : 
Schröer and Loeper prefer £eib : Düntzer is in favour 
of £teb. The weight of evidence seems to me to be 
rather on the side of £cib. 

23, 24. ' If some still live who once took pleasure in my song, 
they wander scattered through the world. ' In line 23 
ir>as is used of persons. 

25. cntlDÖt^nt= 'unwonted,' lit. 'weaned,' ' disaccustomed.' 

27. unbeftitnmt = ' uncertain.' 

28. lispclnb =' faltering. ' Bowring translates 'murmuring.' 
31, 32. 'What I possess I see as if far off, And what is gone 

becomes reality.' 

Dorfptcl auf bcm Cfjeatcr. ^ 

The Prelude, like the Dedication, was written in 1797. It 
was suggested to Göthe by a translation of the Sanskrit drama 
Cähmtalä by Kälidäsa (published at Mainz in 1 79 1 ). CäkiinlalA 
begins with an abstract of the subject matter in the form of a 
dialogue between the stage-manager and an actress. 

The Prelude has more to do with the stage in general than 
with the Faust tragedy, yet the concluding lines — 

NOTES. 219 

,5o frfircitet in bcni engen Srettcrbaus 
Den gan5cn JCrcis ber Sdjöpfung cius, 
llnb tranbclt mit brbcidit'gfr SctjnrUc 
üoin Bininicl biird; bic WcU jur Böüc/ 

are a true description of the First Part of Faust. 

Göthe introduces a stage manager, who has set up his 
theatrical booth in a German town and discusses the prospect of 
his enterprise with a poet, who writes his plays, and a £u[ttgc 
PerfoTt, who represents the pubHc as well as the actors. The 
Faust Fragment had made no Impression on the public, and it 
had been attacked and ridiculed by the poet's literary enemies. 
Göthe makes use of this Preface to contrast the poet's pure 
aspirations with the lower tastes and desires of the public and 
of stage managers. Again, the Stage Manager may be said to 
be Mephistopheles, and the Poet Faust. 


38. Tr. ' Especially since it lives, and lets me live.' 

39. Die Pfoftctt, 'posts.' 

Die Srcttcr, 'boards.' A booth of boards is here meant, 
such as was made use of for the German puppet theatre. 

42. (Sclaffen = 'sedat«.' 

43. Derföf^tlt = 'reconciles,' 'wins.' 
48. mit Bcbcutung = ' significant.' 

gefällig = 'agreeable,' 'pleasing.' 

5 1 . IDef]en = ' surging ' ; but it is dat. plural of VOt\\ = ' pain,' 

' throe,' ' pang,' not of lüetiCU = ' to surge,' — infinitives 
have no plural. 

52. Sicfj 5ir>ängt burdj, 'and forces its way through.' 

53. vox Dtercn, 'before 4 o'clock.' In Göthe's time plays 

began to be acted much earlier than at present, but still 
at the earliest not before 5.30 or 6 o'clock. 

54. ITttt Stölgcn = ' with blows '; 'pushingand shoving.' 
Kaffe = ' Seilers' box,' ' ticket box.' 

55. Göthe writes an occasional Alexandrine, no doubt uncon- 

sciously. The Alexandrine was the metre of his early 
dramas : ,'Dit £autte bcs Dcrlicbteu ' and ,I)tc intt= 
fdjulbigcn. ' It was, too, the metre of the populär 
Faust poem. 



59. Note that the Poet speaks in stanzas — in a niore poetical 

form than the Stage Manager or the Lustige Person. 
bunt= ' motley.' 

60. Bei bereu 2InbIt(J, 'in presence of whom.' 

61. iDogenbe (Sebrättge = 'surging throng.' 

62. uns 3Uin Strubel ßtct^t = 'draws us into the whirl of Hfe.' 

63. stillen i^immclsettgc, ' some vale of heavenly stillness. ' 

64. IPo nur bem Dtdjtcr . . . The emphasis is not on Didjtcr. 

The hne means, ' Only there does pure joy bloom for 
the poet.' 

65. 66. ' Where Love and Friendship produce and develop 

with power divine the blessings of our heart. ' These 
blessings are richness and fulness of emotion. 

67. uns "^a cntfprungcn = 'has been conceived by us.' 

68. ftdj, dative = ' to itself. ' 
fd/üdjtern = ' timidly.' 

üorgclallt, 'muttered,' or 'stammered.' 

69. illt§rattjetl= 'failing' (z^. what has failed now). 
gelungen =' succeeding ' {i.e. what has perhaps succeeded 


70. DerfdjUngt= 'destroys '; but lit. 'swallows without taking 

time to value or understand.' 

71. ®ft rocnn CS crft burd? 3^^*^^ burdjgcbrungen. Q)ft erft 

nad/ 3'l^I^^^l 'S ^^^ meaning here, i.e. ' often only after 
years': iDcun es burdj 3al^rc burdjgebrungen, i.e. 
' when it has pressed on through years. ' The meaning 
is — 'when it has been toiled at for years,' and Göthe 
has in his thoughts his own poem, which he had pub- 
Hshed as a fragment in 1790, but which he had con- 
tinued to work at ever since. 

72. (Erfdjeint es, i.e. 'it is made known.' 

74. bcr X\.<xi\XOt\i=' for after- time.' 

76. (Sefe^t = ' supposing, ' 'if; ' If I should want to talk of 
after-time, who then would make play for our con- 

78. Pen i.e. Spaß. 

NOTES. 221 

79. Heie he refers to himself, and thinks of his own importance : 
' the presence of a fine fellow like me is worth some- 
thing, I should think !' 

81. bcl]aalidj= 'genially.' 

fidj mi5utf^cilcu= 'pour out his nature . . . 

82. Compare with this the Poet's words, 1. 59, ,0 fpttdj mir 

ntdjt von jener buntcti rUcttcjc.' Note the deep con- 
trast between the ,I)iditer ' and the ,£uftigc Per[on.' 
85. 3et9t cudj tnuftcrf^aft = ' set the fashion,' ' set an example.' 
88. tjören is dependent on Ia§t, ' Let Fancy ' . . . and Folly 

too, ' be heard.' 
90. 3U fdjau'n — 5U fcben. The Hne means they come to see 
a show ; it is not what they hear er learn they care for, 
it is what they see. 
93. Breite = 'breadth,' ' width of interest.' 
100. A ragout, ?.e. a dish made out of various ingredients. 
Göthe elsewhere speaks of ,€in Hagout POIt IPatjrl^cit 
u. Don Sügen.' 
loi. vorgelegt = i served up.' 
ausgebadjt = ' invented.' 
102, 103. The crowd in its shallowness only cares for and 
values Single incidents ; it is incapable of understanding 
and valuing an artistic whole. 

104. An Alexandrine. 

106. [aubcr. A. Selss, in his notes to Faust, Part L, says 
fauber, when placed before £)err, ITtcnfcf^, "Kuniit, 
Kerl, often means the reverse of clean or pure, i.e. 
' dishonest ' ; cf the ironical use of the French word 
joli, and the EngUsh 7iice. 
Pfufdjerct = ' bungling tricks.' 

108. urtgefrän!t = ' unoffended. ' 

HO. I]altcn = ' hold on to.' 

111. tDCtdiCS £7013, i.e. ' you have light work.' 

112. ' Consider for whom it is you write.' 

114. übertifditen nTaf]Ie, a meal consisting of too many dishes ; 

cf. übcriaben, überfüllt, überhäuft. 
117. ITtasFcnfeft = ' masquerade. ' 



1 19. Cf. ' Spectatum veniunt, veniunt spectentur ut ipsse,' Ovid, 

Artis amat., i. 99. 

3Um Sefteit gebett= 'to give for the common advantage,' 
' to give as a treat ' ; hence 1. 119 means, ' The ladies 
show themselves and their dress to gratify us.' 

LI. 117 and 119 are Alexandrines ; so, too, 126 and 129. 

1 20. Unb fptclctt q\\\z (Sage mit = ' and act, too, without 

wages. ' 

122. IPas mad^t ein rollcs fjaits cudj frol^ ? = ' What is there 

will make a füll house glad for you?' i.e. 'Do you 
think a füll house can be satisfied?' 

123. bie (Sönner= 'the patrons.' 

125, 126. X)er — X)cr, 'thisone,' 'thatone.' 

127, 128. ' Why plague so much for such an end as this, poor 

fools, the gracious muses?' 
130. t»om gicic Itic OCrirrcn= ' never go astray.' 
132, 133. Sic 3U bcf riebigen ift fd^tDCr. Here the Poet makes 

a movement of weariness and disgust, when the 

Director Interrupts himself and exclaims, ' What ails 

you ? is it rapture or pain ? ' 

136. Pas ITlcnfd^enrcd^t = 'the birthright of mankind,' i.e. his 

freedom of will. 

137. freDentIidj = ' wantonly.' 

140. ber (EinHang =' the harmony,' which swells forth froni 

his bosom, and unites in his heart things outward and 
things inward. This line is an Alexandrine. From this 
on I leave the Student to note all such lines for himself. 

141. 3urücfc fd^Iingen, from fdjiingen = ' to knot or bind,' not 

fdjiingen = ' to swallow. ' 3urü(f c fdjlingcn = ' to bind 
laack,' hence here ' to keep imprisoned.' 

142. From 1. 142 to 1. 157 the Inspiration of the Poet gradually 

rises to its highest expression. 

143. (Sleidjgültig= 'listless.' 
brct]enb = 'twirling.' 
3n)ingt = ' forcibly puts.' 

145. Pcrbrie^Iidj^ 'suUen.' 

147. 'S>t\zh<i.Vit> = ' cheering ' ; ' Who then can cheer and divide 

the monotonous round of life ?' 

NOTES. 223 


148. bas (Einzelne =' what is individual. 

5111" allgemeinen lUcibc = 'to a consecration that is 

150, 151. Anster has beautifully translated these lines : 
' WTio to the tempest's rage can give a voice 
Like human passion ? Bid the serious mind 
Glow with the colouring of the sunset hours ? ' 

154, 155. It is the Poet makes immortal, and reaches the 
wreath of glory. 

156. Heie Düntzer and Stahr read pcreinet (Söttern, but I 

prefer to read with Schröer and Loeper, ,Dcreittet 

Olympus, the name of a mountain on the boundarj' of 

Thessaly and Macedonia, of great height, and regarded 

as the home of the gods. 
rcrcincn or t)cretnigcn= ' to make united." There is 

here an allusion to Iliad, i. 602-604, where Apollo and 

the Muses, by their songs, reconcile the gods who are 

at variance. 

XOtx fidjcrt !>cn ®Iymp, i.e. 'who gives us Olympus to 
inherit?' lit. 'who secures for us Olympus?' Cf. 
Wilhelm Meisters Lehijahre, ii. 2 — XOzx bat (Sötter 
gebtibct, uns 511 ihnen erhoben, fie 511 uns bernieber 
gcbradit, als ber XJidjtcr.' 

157. The climax of the passage is in this line — 

' The Söul of Man sublimed — Man's soaring spirit, 
Seen in the Poet gloriously revealed.' — Anster. 

159. bic biditerifdicn (Sefdiäftc= 'poetic functions.' 

162. rerfIoditcn='entangled.' 

163. angefodjten, from anfcdjten = ' to disttirb,' or ' to attack,' 

here ' to disturb. ' 

165. cl^' man fidi's r>crfiebt = ' before one expects ' ; ftcf? 
DCrfctien = ' to foresee,' ' io provide' {providere) ; [id? 
es Derfei^en, with accus, or gen. = 'to expect,' or 
'look for.' 

168. ntcfjt rielen ift's befannt='by not many is it compre- 

hended.' ricIen, dat. case._ 

169. tbr's pacft= 'you grasp it.' 



170-179. The Lustige Person takes life, speaks of life, lightly ; 
and yet in 11. 170-179 he describes povverfully how the 
poet reveals the secrets of their own hearts to nien. 

175. laufdjt = ' hearkens to. ' 

176. jcbcs 3ärtttd)C (Scmütl]C= ' each gentle heait.' 

1 78. aufgeregt = ' stirred up,' ' now this, now that is stirred up,' 
i.e. this emotion, er that. 

181. 'They admire your flights, they rejoice to see the show.' 

182. ' A mind once formed is never suited after.' 

183. (Ein If erbenber = ' one yet in growth.' 

In 182-183, as well as in 174, 175, the Lustige Person's 
advice to the Poet is to appeal to, to seek to influence, 
men while they are young. 

184-197. In these lines we do not listen to the poet who from 
1769 to 1790 thought out and wrote the earliest por- 
tions of the Faiist poem,— it is an older man who 
speaks, — Göthe in 1797. He mourns ovev bis lost 
youth ; in spite of his failures he was happier then ; if 
he is to write and do as the Lustige Person would have 
him, he must be young again. 

1 86. gcbräligtcr = ' crowding. ' 

193. Den Drang \\<xi\ VO<x\x.\t\i u. btc £uft am (Erug='the 

striving after truth, and the joy in Illusion.' 

194. ungebänbigt= ' iincontrolled,' lit. 'untamed.' 
2!rtebc = ' passions.' 

198-213. The Lustige Person will not allow that a poet must 
be young in order to please the young. The master 
must be able to control and command his art. A 
soldier needs to be young, a lover needs to be young, 
a runner needs to be young, but not a poet. Have M. 
Victor Hugo, Lord Tennyson, Mr. Browning, or Göthe 
himself, proved the tnith of this or not ? 

204. t]Cft'gcn I'DirbcItan3 = ' breathless whirling dance.' 

206. in bas Saitenfpiel cittjugreifcn ; note the construction 

of eingreifen with in and the accusative. The particle 
ein = t^incin. The phrase means something like ' lay 
hold upon ' the harp. 

207. Jtnniutl^ = ' power to charm.' 

NOTES. 225 


208. fclbftgcftecf t = ■' self-erected.' 

209. 3l^l"Clt = ' digression. ' 
biti5itf6n)cifcn = ' loiter toward.' 

210. ßcrrn for licrren, voc. case, 

212. The Poet must have feit some amusement at the patronis- 
ing encouragement of the Lustige Person. 

216. &rcdifcln = lit. 'turn on a lathe'; here, perhaps, ' manu- 

218. £titnntUTtg= 'mood,' ' inclination,' ' inspiration. ' 

220, 221. The Director only echoes, somewhat more crudely, 
the words of the Lustige Person. 

223. fchlürfen = ' sip.' 

224. unoerjüglid) — ' prompt.' 

225. ,Wa5 licutc nidit gcfdiicbt, ift morgen nidjt gctban;' 

a wise saying enough, with much the same underlying 
thought as ' Never put off tili to-morrow what can be 
done to-day ' ; or, ' Procrastination is the thief of time.' 

227. Das ülötjlidic foll bcr €ntfdjhi§ . . . beim Sdjopfc 
faffett ; meaning one should seize Opportunity by the 
forelock. Opportunity was represented of old as bald 
save for one lock of hair. She fled before men, but 
the \nse pursued after, and tried if possible to seize her 
by her one lock of hair and stop her. 

229. (Hr refers to ber (£ntfd)Iu§, 1. 227 ; ' it will not stop nor 
pause ; it works on, because it must. ' 

234. profpcctc= 'scenery.' 
niafdnncn = ' machineiy.' 

235. bas aro^' imb Uc'xnc RtTntncIsIid5t= 'the sun and the 


237, 238. 2In IDaffcr, ^eiicr, ^clfeniränbcn, 2ln übicr unb 
Dögeln fet^It es nidit (instead of ,an U,bicrcii,' etc.), 
i.e. ' There shall not be wanting water, fire, walls of 
rock, nor beasts and birds ' — stage properties such as 
these Göthe remembered to have seen used when 
Mozart's Zauberflöte was represented in Weimar in 
the year 1794, at his own wish and Suggestion. 

242. X>o\\\ Bimmel burd) btc IPelt jur ßöllc.' The old stages, 
on which the Mysterj' Plays used to be acted, had three 



stories : the highest represented heaven ; in the middle 

was earth ; the lowest represented hell. The spectator 

was thus able to see what was passing siniultaneously 

in heaven, earth, and hell. 

In the Stage Prelude we have the Manager füll of anxiety to 

satisfy the claims and wishes of the curious uneducated crowd, 

while the Poet, filled with purest, most ideal aspirations, 

opposes him roughly and feels no sympathy with his anxieties. 

The Prologue has, indeed, no direct especial application to the 

Faust poem, yet the Manager in his, so to speak, flippant 

indefiniteness, speaks words which are prophetic of what the 

whole poem will be : 'So traverge the whole circle of creation 

from heaven through the world to hell.' Thus might Faust, 

Part I., be described, while the Second Part is the journey 

through creation back from hell to heaven. 

In May 1827, at the age of 78, Göthe said to Eckermann: 
' People come and ask what idea I have embodied in my Faust ? 
As if I knew myself and could express it. " From heaven 
across the world to hell, " — that might answer, if need were ; 
but it is not an idea, it is only the course of the action.' 

Prolog im f^tmmel. 

The Prologue in Heaven makes it clear that what the life of 
Faust represents and signifies is the strife between heaven and 
hell, the struggle between good and evil. That this struggle 
goes on unceasingly round us, and that we should try, however 
it be, to be on the side of the good, was, I think, the chief 
part of Göthe's creed. His belief that good must finally triumph 
he shows plainly in Part II. 

Of this Prologue there is nothing in the Faust Volksbuch. 
The idea of it Göthe takes from the first chapter of the Book of 
Job, verses 6-12, where Satan appears before the Lord and 
offers to tempt and overcome Job. 

Göthe thought the Prologue in Heaven would have called 
forth praise rather than censure. Henry Crabbe Robinson, in 
his Diary, speaking of an interview with Göthe, says : ' On my 
mentioning that Lord Leveson Gower had not ventured to 
translate the Prologue in Heaven, he seemed surprised. " How 

NOTES. 227 

so ? that is quite unobjectionable. The idea is in Job." ' That 
this could be a ground of objection had never occuired to him. 

Sic t»rct (Erzengel. — The three Archangels step forth 
according to their rank, as defined in the Cdestial 
Hierarchy of the so-called Dionysius the Areopagite, a 
bock of much fame in the Middle Ages. Dante made 
iise of tliis book when writing the Divine Coviedy. 
(ErjetlCjel, from Gr. ä.pxä.yyeKo's = ' archangel ' ; cf. <S.xy 
bifdjof, from Gr. äpxeTTTiVKOTros = ' archbishop. ' 

243. Göthe, in liis early translations or adaptations of Ossian, 

has the hne, ,XOo aufftcigt töncnb btc Sotmc' Cf. 
too, ' The morning stars sang together, and all the sons 
of God shouted for joy' (Job xxxviii. 7). 

244. By the Srubcrfpf]ärett Göthe probably means the fixed 


Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher (he was born 
about 580 B.c.), taught that the physical law by which 
the heavenly bodies move and are held together ex- 
presses itself in sound, to us inaudible, which he calls 
the music of the spheres. We do not hear it because 
we are used to it from our birth. And, indeed, when 
one remembers the ünceasing movement and growth 
going on all round us, one sometimes thinks that it is 
•only through custom we can be deaf to the roar that 
lives at the other side of silence. 
246. Poitncrgatig ; a grand word ; Schiller had used it before 
in one of his early poems, Elysituii : ,Scr9C bebtctt 
unter beffcn Dottttcrgatiij.' 

245. lUenn = tr>cnn aiidj, obglctd?; 5tc = bic Sottnc. 

250. am erftcn ^<X<X,= ' the day of their creation.' 

251. Raphael has told of the sun and stars ; Gabriel teils of 

the wonders of land and sea ; Michael of storms and 
lightnings and thunders. 
254. fd^aucnjoll. There is no English word to express 

257. foitgcriffcn = ' huiTied on,' i.e. by the revolving of the 
carth. Cf. \Yordsworth's lines about the soul of a dead 

' Rolled round in earth's diumal course 
With rocks and stones and trees." 



262. IDtrfung = ' agency ' or 'action.' 

263. Light travels quicker than sound, so we see the lightning 

before we hear the tliunderclap, though both happen 
simultaneously. bIit5Cnbes Perl|CCrctt = the desolating 
lightning ; por belongs to ^ammt. 

265. 3otcn, i.e. 'angels'; but angels in the sense of mes- 


266. Das fanftc IDanbcIn bctnes ila9s='the gentle move- 

ment of thy day. ' 

268. I)a = tt»cnn audj; cf. 1. 248. 

crgrünben = ' comprehend ' ; lit. 'fathom.' 

271. IHcpt^iftopt^cIes ; the name (written, however, Mephos- 
tophiles) appears first in literature (so far as I can dis- 
cover) in the Faustbuch of 1587. Marlowe uses the 
form ' Mephostophilis,' and the shortened form 
' Mephosto. ' Shakspere, in Act I. Sc. i. of the Merry 
IVives, calls him ' Mephostophihis.' Düntzer thinks 
the populär form of the name may have been Mephis- 
tophles, and that Göthe formed his Mephistopheles on 
this. Various derivations have been given of the v^oxA ; 
for example, Mt; (pavaro (piXtjs (not loving Faust), and 
Mr; (pwTO(pl\rjs (not loving light), etc. None seem to 
me satisfactory. Göthe himself did not know the 
meaning of the name. 
Mephistopheles' language is very characteristic, and 
strangely different from the language of the Angels. 
He is from the first a humourist and a Philistine — a 
being without emotion, pathos, or passion. 

277. Patt^OS, Gr. 7r(iöos = £eibcrt. How could there be pathos 
in the life or words of one without Ideals, all whose 
desires and efforts were limited to earth ? 

280. ftdj pIa9eTl = *fret themselves.' 

281. von gicidjcm 5djla9= 'of the same stamp.' 

There are several Alexandrines in the speech of Mephisto- 
pheles, and Schröer thinks that Göthe occasionally 
uses them to mark less noble language and thought. 

282. iDunbcrItdj= 'stränge,' 'odd,' — not tDunbcrooII = ' won- 

derful. ' 
285. Derttuuft= ' Reason.' Reason is divine, and something 

NOTES. 229 


in which Mephistophcles had no share. Göthe uses 
the word Dcrminft in the sense in which Kant uses 
it — as something far higher than Intellect ; Reason 
passes on from things understood by the Intellect 
[Derftanb], things which are finite and subject to 
temporal conditions, to things infinite and unlimited by 
conditions ; Reason has the power to conceive Ideas ; 
Intellect has only the power to understand them. 

286. As a Materialist and the enemy of everything Ideal, it 
becomes Mephistophcles to declare that man has 
become ' more brutal than any brüte.' 

2S8. laiigbeiniacn §tfabcn = <Srasbüpfer (grasshoppers), or 
^cufdjrecfc (grasshoppers also), which never fly up- 
wards, — not the singing, chiiping cüada (Lat.); Itl., 
cicala or cicada. 

292. Quarf = 'puddle.' 

297. bauern mtd) = ' move my pity.' 

298. The true order of the words is, ,3dj fclbft fogar mag btc 

^(rmeti nidjt plagcti.' 

299. IHcinctt Kncdjt. In the Lord's answer there is intense 

interest for us ; He recognises and claims Faust as His 
servant, because of his longing for and search after 
truth, in spite of all Faust's doubt, and failure, and 
weakness. ■ 
304- ,üom ßimnicl forbcrt et bic i*önften Stcrnp, 

llnb Doit bcr £rbc jebe bödjftc £uft, 

Unb alle XXäV unb alle 5er"e 

Scfricbigt ntcf;t bic tiefbcoiegte Sruft.' 

The lines recall to one a verse in Shelley's ' Ode to the 
Skylark ' : — 

' The desire of the moth for the star, 
Of the night for the morrow ; 
The devotion to something afar 
From the sphere of our sorrow. ' 

The yeaming and longing of Faust 'seem to Mephistophcles 

310. ' The gardener knows if there is life in the tree. ' (Srüncn 
is a beautiful word, of which we have no English 



317. (£s irrt ber lllenfdj fo lang er [trcbt = ' man must still 
err, so long he strives,' — a line whose trutli not few 
among us have feit. 

319. befangen = abgegeben, befafft. The line means, 'I have 
no fancy for the dead.' 

321, 322. It is in this life that men's characters are formed for 
good or bad, hence it is with the living, not the dead, 
that the spirit of evil is concerned. In chap. v. of St. 
Paul's Epistle to the Romans there is a verse contain- 
ing an interesting and curious thought : ' He that is 
dead is freed from sin.' 

324. ,§tet) biefen (Seift von feinem Itrqnelf ah,' 'Divert and 
draw this Spirit from his original source,' ' Tear him 
free from his ideal strivings.' This source is 'God 
Himself,' or ' Infinite Reasonableness,' from which 
come to mankind all higher aspirations. 

326. mit tjcrab= 'down with thee.' 

328, 329. ,<2i« guter ITtciifiäj in feinem bunfeln Drange 

3ft stdj bes redjten IPcges t»oI bewußt.' 
The thought contained in these lines is the thought most 
present with us in the closing scene of Part II. Göthe 
once compared the Prologue in Heaven to the Over- 
ture of Mozart's Don Giovanni, where a particular 
musical phrase occurs, which is not repeated until the 
last scene of the Opera. 

335. inut^me= 'aunt,' 'cousin'; cf. Gen. iii. 14. 

336. Observe that Göthe does not represent the Lord as reply- 

ing to or contradicting the boast of Mephistopheles. 

337. bcincs (SIeidjen = ' those like thee.' In Old German 

Mythology there were many devils. We must not, how- 
ever, conclude from this line that Göthe believed this ; 
rather, I think, he held that there were many manifest- 
ations of one negative principle, and Mephistopheles 
was one manifestation. 

339. ber 5rfialf='the rogue,' or perhaps we may translate it 

' scoffer. ' 

340. crfd^Iaffen = ' flag.' 

341. (Er liebt fidj, 'the middle voice' = er liebt, here simply. 
343. ' Who stirs, and works, and must as devil be doing.' 


344. bic cditcn (Söttcrföt^ne, ' the archangels.' 

346. Pas lDci"cicilbc= 'the germ of growth,' as opposed to the 
Clement of decay. Throiighout the Tragedy of Faust 
it is taught that growth and destruction are the two 
forces which rale the world, and that the Angels pre- 
side over the former, and the Devils over the latter. 
That this was the idea in Göthe's mind when writing 
ihese four lines must be clear to any one who will com- 
pare them with the words of Mephistopheles, Sc. III. 
II. 1362- 13 78. In this Scene, written about the same 
time as the Prologue in Heaven, Mephistopheles says 
that his part is Contradiction, Sin, Destruction, or 
E\'il — almost synonymous terms in Göthe's mind — and 
that the ever-circulating ,ncilCS frifdjes Slllt,' the 
thousand genns ever upspringing in air, water, and 
earth — definitions of bas lücrbcilbc — are diametrically 
opposed to the principle of which he is the incarnation. 
Das IPerbctibe has been misunderstood to mean creative 
power or creative essence. But, according to the rule 
for German participles when in the neuter gender and 
used in an attributive and collective sense {e.g. bas 
Scbcnbc, bas Slül^cnbc), bas IDcrbcnbc cannot mean 
Power, Essence. It can only mean the sum total of 
rising or growing things, or the aggregate of vital germs 
in the world. (See in A. Selss' edition of Faust, Part 
L, his note on this passage.) In the Sprüche or 
' Wise Sayings ' of Göthe he thus refers to ,bas 
IPerbcttbc ' : ,Dcr Dernunft tft auf bas lüerbettbc, 
bcr Dcrftanb auf bas (SctDorbcne auget»icfen.' — 
Sprüche, 896. 

348. in fdjtr>an!cnbcr (Erfdictnung. Appearances, things that 
are seen, come and pass away, — orily the Ideas which 
stniggle in them for embodiment endiffe. Cf. ,^nics 
Dergänoiltdjc ift nur ein (Slcidjni^,' as the Chorus 
Mysticus at tlie close of Part IL sings. 

350-353- Observe here the cynicism and contemptible irrever- 
ence of Mephistopheles, in contrast with the calmness 
and grandeur of the Lord. I think' from the firsl it is 
manifest that Faust, not Mephistopheles, musi conquer. 

353. tncnfdjlidj= ' humanly,' 'kindly,' 'patiently.' 



A high arched nanow Gothic room. Faust restless in bis 
chair at his desk. Rembrandt painted a picture of the scene 
Göthe here describes, and Lips made an engraving of the picture 
reduced to a small size. This engraving was prefixed to the 
first edition of Faust, i.e. to the edition of 1790 ((Ein ^rag» 
ineut). In this picture magical forms appear to Faust. On 
one side, in front of the lower part of a window, is seen a magic 
circle with letters encircled by rays of light. Behind the circle 
there reveals itself the shadow of a figure holding in one hand 
a round mirror, towards which the other hand points. Atten- 
tive and expectant, Faust looks towards the apparitions, trying 
to discover their meaning, and the import of the magical letters. 
In 1829 Göthe read the whole of Part I. through to certain 
actors who were about to represent it. At first, and up to the 
scene in the Witches' Kitchen, he read in the bass voice of a 
middle-aged man ; but after Faust has dnmk the youth-bringing 
drink he read on to the end in the clear strong tenor of a young 
man. (This Laroche related to Schröer, the editor of one of 
the best editions of Faust. ) 

354. Faust's monologue was probably written as early as i773' 
Throughout it seems füll of memories of the opening 
Scene of the Faust Puppet Play, which was founded on 
the first Scene of Marlowe's Faust. In Dichtung und 
Wahrheit Göthe says : ' The Puppet Play echoed and 
vibrated in many tones through my mind ; I also had 
gone from one branch of knowledge to ariother, and 
was early enough convinced of the vanity of all. I 
had tried life in many forms, and the experience had 
left nie only the more unsatisfied. I now carried these 
thoughts about with me, and indulged myself with them 
in lonely hours, but without committing anything to 
writing. Most of all, I concealed from Herder my 
mystic cabalistic chemistry, and everything connected 
with it.' 
356. Itnb tcibcr aw&i dhcoloaic. Faust mourns most of all 
the time spent over theology, because this it was, he 
thinks, had led him first to doubt, had led him away 
from the happiness of faith ; cf. 765 — ,Dte Botfdjaft 
l)ör' tdj iDoI, allein mir fehlt bcr C5laubc.' 



360. Sct^C IHagiftcr, l\Ci^e Doctor; similar titles to our hm- 

versity dignities Master of Arts and Doctor of Letters, 
or Law, or Divinity. The academical title Doctor 
dates back to the thirteenth Century. 

361. 5ctiCU is the old form of the word jchtl. 

366. !£affcn='fops,' 'triflers.' 

367. 5*rciber =' Clerk,' meant in particular in the Middle 

Ages a theological student. Düntzer quotes the fif- 
teenth Century couplet — 

,i£in Sd^rcibcr ber Heber tan^t unb springt, 
Ilciin (than) ba§ er in ber Kirdie singt.' 

368. Scnipel, Lat. scroJ>u/t<s =' the smallest of weights'; but 

already in very early times the word scropiiltis was used 
of small mental anxieties. 

370. The feeling of self-satisfaction which a small mind, such 

as Wagner's (cf 1. 573), feels in its knowledge, Faust 
cannot have. 

37 1. n?as Hedjts = ' aught worth knowing.' 

373. Here Schröer puts a note of exclamation and a dash — to 
show that the train of thought is broken. Faust has 
been giving expression to mournful regrets over the 
failure of his dreams for bettering mankind, but now 
he changes to rough bitter complaints over his own life. 
377. After having studied at Leipzig, and after having been 
much disheartened by the deadness and formality of the 
teaching there, Göthe, now living in Frankfurt, tumed to 
the consideration of Mysticism and Magic. For months 
lie shut himself up in a garret, poring over books of 
the alchemists, and trying to discover the Philosoph er's 
Stone and make the Elixir Vitre by help of clumsy 
crucibles and retorts. Here, in these lines, he seems 
to write a parody of his own life at this period. 
382. Cf. this poem of Göthe to Merck — 
,€rfcnne jebes Dinges (Sefialt 
Unb fühle toie bie gan3e IPcIt 
Der grojye .^immel jufammen bält.' 

Der junge Göthe, 3, 156 f. 

384. IDtrfensfraft = ' productive power.' 
5atncn -here ■Keim, ?.<-. 'germ.' 



385. fraincn= 'search,' 'pokeabout,' ' rummage.' 

386. © fät^eft bu = ' O that thou wert looking.' 

395. bcr I)ämmcr = bic Päimncniltcj. Tieck has somewhere 

,2lin 2lbcnb bei Däimncr bcr Bäume' 
tr>eben = 'hover.' 

396. lütffcnsqualin= 'painof knowing,'but tDtffcn, i.e. ' know- 

ledge,' and gctDlffctt, i.e. ' conscience,' are very closely 

403. IPÜrinc is the old form of the plural : Middle High Ger- 

man lüumic. The usual Modern German form is 
IPÜrmev. LI. 398-417 contain a description of the 
study of a Student in the sixteenth Century, and need 
little or no comment. 
bcbecEt, participle belonging to 23Üd?crI)aitf. 

404. bcn, i.e. the Süd]crl]auf. 

405. angeraudjt = ' smoke-stained ' ; the aiigcraiidjt papicf 

describes the labeis or headings on the various shelves. 
nmftccft, 3d sing. pres. ind. 

406. Goes back to describe further the UTaucrlodj, to which 

participles umftcllt, tjollgcpfropft, brcingcftopft apply. 

408. Urnätcr fjausratl] = ' ancestral lumber.' 

415. T>a (Sott bic IHcnfd^cn fdjuf t^tnetn = 'for which God 
created man ' ; we must take bal|iucin together and 
translate it as a relative adverb. 

420. lloftrabcttttUS. Michel de Notre Dame was born at 
Saint Remy in Provence in 1 503. He was a physician 
and an astrologer, and in 1555 he published a collec- 
tion of prophecies — Prophecies de Rlichel Nosb'adanius 
— in which he foretold, among other things, the death 
of Henry H. of France. 

418. He will up and out and away into the free open air ; 
Nostradamus shall be his guide ((Scicit), and there he 
will understand what he cannot grasp in his close con- 
fined room. Bat on a sudden he feels that spirits are 
near him — he pauses, and calls on them to answer 

430. He opens the book and sees the sign of the Huiffofositius. 
The term IHafrof'ostnuS was used by Pico di Miran- 
dola, by Paracelsus, and other mystical writers, to 


denole the universe. Tliey imagined a mysterious 
connection between the Macrocosm, ?'.^.the universe, and 
the Microcosm, i.e. man. In the sign of the Macro- 
cosm we must imagine some symbol such as the astro- 
nomical signs of the heavenly bodies ; but it is unlikely 
that Göthe had before his mind's eye any particular 

443. From 1. 428 on, Faust speaks like one inspired, and 
believes, as he looks upon the mysterious sign, that he 
sees and hears what eye hath not seen nor ear heard. 
The verse quoted, 

,llic (Scifterrocit ift tiid^t pcrfdiroffcn/ etc., 
is perhaps a merely imaginary quotation from Nostrada- 
mus, or some other philosopher ; but Wilhelm Scherer 
thinks Göthe may have heard these or similar words 
fall from Herder's ups, and quotes from Herder : ,I)tc 
urältcfte, bcrrlicbftc ©ffcnbaruuij (Sottcs erfAeint bir 
jebetx IHorcjcn als dbatfadie.' the earth is möst beau- 
tiful at dawn, but very few people then see it, and the 
few that do are almost all of them rüde labourers, whose 
eyes have no sight for that vvonderful peace, and cool- 
ness, and unspeakable sense of rest and hope which 
lie like a blessing on the land. 

445- unDcrbroffctt='cheerful,' 'unwearied.' 

449-453- ^ beautiful personification of the natural forces of 
life, which audibly and harmoniously work together, 
and while they ascend and descend, reaching golden 
pitchers from band to band — give life to living juices, 
which, like spells, penetrate and quicken all organisms. 
We must not forget Göthe's love for and knowledge of 
natural science. In these lines may we not see the 
first germs of his book, Die Metamorphose der Pflanzat 
tind Thiere? 

453- bnr4fHngcn = ' to fill with harmony.' 

454- ein Sdjanff icl. A show only, an imaginaiy representa- 

tion he sees in the sign. The first cause, the source of 
life, which man from the first has longed and sought to 
know, remains unknown. 

458. btc iDcIFc Sruft. The breast, in which the heart beats, 
signifies the region of feeling and emotion. Feeling 



and emotion dry up and vvither if the intellect and 
understanding only are exerted and used. 

459. He makes the sign of the Earth-Spirit, and this recalls to 
him a better known and more familiär world. He 
feels his powers quickened and enlarged. 

466. m'id} t^crum3ufdjlagctt = ' to battle with.' 

467. 3U jCigctl, ' to shrink.' Then follows a pause, as Schröer 

points out. From 1. 462 to 1. 468 Faust has been be- 
coming more and more passionate and excited ; and 
now he sees, or fancies he sees, before him the Earth- 
472, 473. (£s tr)cf|t ein 5djaucr= ' there falls a horror.' 
47 5 "47 7- Obs. the rhyme in these lines. They are immedi- 
ately followed by some extremely irregulär lines, — the 
form here indicating Faust's extreme agitation. 

479. (idj crtr)ÜI]Icn= ' to heave.' 

480. t|tnci,C3cbctt=: 'drawn to.' 

481. €v fpridjt bas gcid^cu bcs (Sctftcs gcljcimnt^DoII aus, 

i.e. he uses some form of conjuring. 

482. When Faust was performed for the first time in Weimar, 

Göthe caused the Earth-Spirit to be represented by a 
gigantic face rising out of a mist and filling the whole 
back of the stage. The words of the Earth-Spirit were 
sung to music of Eberweins. 
<Sefidjt= 'apparition.' One feels about the appearing of 
the Earth-Spirit that probably no one but Faust would 
have been able to see it. 

484. gcfoacn, lit. 'sucked'; here with the sense of ,öicfud;t,' 
' thou hast sought food for thy intellect. ' 

486. flct^ft cratt^metlb = ' aspirest after'; the particle er has 
here the same force as in crrctdjen = ' to attain.' Cf. 
,cr' in ,Dctn crat!]mcnben Sdjritt mül^fam 3crg \\\\\' 
auf,' and in ,2{ciuc Kül^Iutig tnar '^(x. 311 eratt^titcn.' 

490. Übcnncttfdjen, acc. sing., in apposition with btd). It 

signifies 'superhuman,' and is a fine word invented by 

Göthe to describe a Titan like Faust, who, in moral 

greatness, Stretches far beyond man's common measure. 

bcr Seele Huf = ' the inner voice,' ' self-knowledge.' 

493. (ErfdjIDCIIen, intr. = 'to expand.' 



494. bc5 Stimme = 'whose voice.' 

495- fi"-"i? *>r^i"9- Obs. Göthe uses ficb brang here for fidi 
briinatc. Luther also uses fidi brangen for fidj 
brätigcu ; but it is ^^Tong all the same. 

496. roll meinem i7audj itmunttort = ' who my presence 
breathing, seeing ' is B. Taylor's translation. In sport- 
ing language tDittcru means to recognise that the game 
is near at hand by the scent which the wind carries. 
So Faust becomes conscious of the presence of the 
Earth-Spirit by his breath. Again, the word utn= 
irittert is used of an approaching thunderstorm. 

498. ' A trembling, fleeing, writhing worm.' 

500. betnes (5lcidiett = ' of thy kind,' i.e. 'a spirit hke thee.' 

501. The chant of the Earth-Spirit recalls what is said in the 

' Prologue in Heaven ' of the creative power, which 
eternally works and moves. Cf. Shelley's lines— - 
' Xature's vast frame, the web of human things, 
Birth and the Grave." 

503. iPcbc I]tn unb her. Because of It?ebftuM = ' loom,' and 
IPcben = ' to weave.' IPebc in this line has been 
changed into XOt\[t, but wrongly changed, since tpebctl 
means the spontaneous movement of a li\-ing being, 
while tfehcil is not rightly used of a personal con- 
scious being. 

512, 513. For Faust, crushing, heart-breaking words. 

514. 5ufammenftür3enb = ' overwhelmed,' lit. ' collapsing.' 

518. The ,^antulus,' who is still to be found in certain Ger- 
man universities, was a Student appointed as assistant 
to a Professor. He was at once his secretary and his 
pupil. He was the go-between (JTltttelsperfoti) be- 
tween the professor and the other students. He usually 
lived in the professor's house, as Wagner did. 

5 20. (Scfidjtc = ' visions. ' 

521. trccfne Sdiletdier ; perhaps 'duU wTetch'will do as a 
translation, but ' hanger-on ' is nearer the literal mean- 
ing of the German. 

Wagner is the representative of dead pedantry, of 
knowledge mechanically acquired, without living 
thought or poetry. A man hopelessly material, prosaic, 
and commonplace, an irreclaimable Philistine. 



527. Kotnöbtant means in German an 'actor' simply. 

530. rriufcuin. The learnecl men of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth cenluries, in their love of Latin and all things 
Latin, used to call their study a museum (i.e. a place 
where the Muses dwell). 

533. Wagner cares only for rhetorical means of persuasion, 
and does not care a straw for the overpowering con- 
viction which drives a man to speak and teach, whether 
he will or no. 

536. Scl]agcn= 'serenity.' Bayard Taylor translates — 
' Serene in primal strength. ' 

538-545. A picture of the laborious patchwork of the pedant in 
contrast to the creative spirit. 

539. ' You cook the scraps from others' fare. ' 

540. btc fümtncritdjen ^^Iatnincit= 'starveling flames.' 

542. 'The admiration of children and apes.' 

543. ' If such be your taste.' 

544. 545. Cf. the old German proverb — ,Was ntdjt DOlI f^cr» 

3cn fotntnt bas gct^t ttid/t 3U £^cv3en.' 

546. ' But it is declamation makes the success of the Speaker.' 
To learn to speak or to write without thought or 
regard for the contents of a speech or of what is written 
— that is, to care for form only — is the error which 
Göthe satirises here. 

548, 549. * Then let him seek some honest gains, and let him 
be no tinkling fool ! ' Such is the advice Faust gives. 
Far better for a narrow-brained man, such as Wagner, 
to earn his living by some honest trade ; he is not 
fitted for higher tasks. — The clothes of court fools had 
bells attached to them. Such a fool announced his 
presence by the tinkling of bells. 

555- f3ii betten tf|r bcr Iltcnfd^l^ctt 5djiitt3cl fränfclt' — bcr 
IRcttfdjtiett may be dative : ' In which ye twist (dress 
up) paper shreds {i.e. rubbish) for mankind ' (B. Taylor 
says shredded thoughts) ; or bcr rtTctlfdjtlcit may be 
genitive, and the line may mean, ' In which ye dress up 
the flimsy records of mankind (i.e. of the past).' 

557. fäufelt=*rustles.' 



558. This is the first aphorism of Hippocrates. Already in 
Middle High German \ve have, ,()tu filtlft tft lanc bas 
leben fictn.' -Mephistopheles says ihe same later on, 
Scene iv. 1. 1787. 

561. bang um='fearful about,' ' anxious about.' 

562. crtPCrbcn= 'compass.' Wagner means parchments, books, 

and knowledge all cost a great deal, all are difficult to 
get at. 

566-569. One of the sayings in Faust, which has become 
proverbial in Germany. 

570. (Ergeben not (Ergötzen appeai-s in the Faust Fragment of 
1790. (Sc^cn in crgetjen is the causal of gcffen in 
fcrgeffcn, and meant originally = ' to make forget.' 
So ftd^ ergctjcn should mean ' self-forgetfulness ; ' but 
Wagner uses it in an ignoble sense, and means ' self- 

576. A phrase taken from chap. v. ver. i of the Book of Revela- 
tion — ' And I saw in the right hand of him who sat upon 
the throne a book written ^\•ithin and without, and 
sealed with seven seals.' 

578. bei- ßcrrcn eigner (Seift= 'the spirit of you all.' 

582. Kebriditfay = ' a rubbish barrel. ' 

Humpelf atnmer^: ' a lumber garret.' 

5S3. eine Baupt» unb Staatsactton, perhaps 'a first -class 
political Performance.' Such pieces were named heroi- 
cal and historical dramas. They were later on laughed 
to scorn, and driven from the stage by Holberg and 
Tieck. They had been first introduced at Dresden by 
Veithin at the beginning of the seventeenth centur}-. 
They offered, as the moralities had earlier done, a con- 
trast to the populär farces and burlesque pieces of the 
day. However, here Faust does not refer to regulär 
Raupt= unb Staats Aktionen, since these belonged to 
a later period than his time, but to earlier didactic 
and historic compositions, which resembled them in 
style and Contents. And, no doubt, Göthe had in his 
mind, too, the Puppet Stage, and the Punch and Judy 
Show, which was sometimes called in jest ,etne 5aupt= 
unb Staats Aktion.' 

590. bapon = />. ber lüahrbeit. 



591-593. Cf. a sentence in a letter of Göthe's to Sophie von 
Laroche, written 22d December 1774: — 'To-day I 
received back a copy of Werther, which I had lent to 
some one ; at the beginning on the blank page was 
written: "Tais toi, Jean Jacques, ils ne te comprendront 
pas ; " — it affected nie strangely, because that passage 
in Ämile (i.e. one of J. J. Rousseau's greatest books) 
had always appeared to me very remarkable. ' 

593. In Göthe's conversations with Eckermann \ve read — 
' There is need of a second Redeemer Coming, to 
deliver us from the austerity, the discomfort, and the 
tremendous pressure of circumstances under which we 
live.' — Eckermann. ' If He should come, the people 
would crucify Hirn a second time.' — GÖTHE. 

600. midj bcf[if|'cil = 'bestowed diligence upon,' past participle 

of bcfictißcn. 

601. ,§ir>ai- tpcilß x&i v'k\, 'i>o&i mödjt' idj alles iDtffen.' 

There is no type of human character which Gotha 
describes with more force and truth than Wagner's. 
He never e.Kaggerates, and never seems to ridicule him. 
603. fcfjalctlt gcuge = ' shallow trash.' 

605. HcgeutDÜvttlcr. At 1. 403 we have had the old form of 

the pl. IDünnc. 

606. With line 606 begins Faust's second monologue. This is 

not found in the Faust Fragment of 1790. Yet this 
does not prove that it had not been written at that 
date. The whole character and spirit of it belong to 
Göthe's 5tunn= unb Draiicj period — to the time when 
IVert/ier was written. 

615. gcbünft, from bünfctt, another form of bcilFcu, our Eng. 

ihink. Understand I^attc. 

616. fein fclbft 9Ctto§ = ftdj voo\\\ cicftel= ' took delight in.' 

617. abgeftrcift= 'laid aside.' Understand I^attc. 

620. fdjaffcnb, etc., 'in creating to enjoy divine life.' 

621. The construction is, 3*. €benbtlb ber (Sottlieit, bas fidj 

fdjon . . . fidi abmmgsrioll iicnnaig . . . bitrdj btc 
2Ibcni bcr Hatiir jii flic"^-cii unb fdiaffcnb (Söttcricben 
3U cjcnich'cn. 
[tdj fcntta^ = ' had ventured on,' ' aspired to,' 'dared.' 



622. (Ein Donnertüort, i.e. the words of the Earth Spirit : 
' Thou art like the spirit, which thou compreliendest, 
not me.' We are made to feel the tremendous Impres- 
sion produced on Faust by this saying. 

627. Small in the presence of the great apparition ; great in the 
consciousness of knowing his own littleness. 

635. frcmb Ullt» frcmbcr are adverbs in form, but they are here 

used in an adjectival sense — 
' To all the noblest that the mind conceives, 
Some alien substance ever cleaves. ' 

636. Good is the enemy of best ; we content ourselves easily 

with earthly satisfaction, and throw away all that is 
ideal as unreal, or delusive. 

638. {^cri-IiLhc (ScfüMe, in apposition with Me, the subiect of 

, gaben.' 
640-643. We are hemmed in by the narrow bounds of reality • 

Phihstinism and the narrow opinions of the majority 

ruie US. 

fouft='formerly' (I. 640), and tum = ' now ' (I. 642), 
are opposed to each other. 

643. When many a fortune makes shipwreck in the rou^h 
waves of time. 

650, 651. 'Aühough you are not Struck, you tremble before 
everythmg, and you must ever be weeping andanxious 
lest you should lose what you have. ' 

652-655. In some verses in a Jetter from Göthe to Riese 
wntten 28th April 1766, we read: allein ^toh — 
glaubt' es, Jan 10 tief 511 mir herab [i* (Söttcr nieber= 
ItcHeti ! - cVi iah td? crft, baß mein erhabner -flua 
- niAts toar als bas :i3cniüf7'n bes iPucms im 

657. (Jädjcrn = ' shelves. ' 

658. {Eröbel='rubbish.' 
Canb = ' fripperj'. ' 

659. orangen = ' to narrow in.' 

663. 'And here and there one happy man is found." Göthe's 

pessimism. The subjective character of the early 

scenes of Faust would be clear to us without Göthe's 

own testimony : ' in Faust and Werther; he writes to 



Eckermann in 1826, ' I was obliged to delve into my 
own breast, for the source of that which I related lay 
near at hand.' 

666. ' Searched in the clear day, searched in the dull twilight.' 
F. Meyer von Waldeck (in the Güthejahrbiich, I. 
s. 384) has pointed out that \ve must here read ,betx 
Itdjtcn Cacj,' and not ^z\\ leidjtctt Sag.' £eidjt is 
meaningless here, and is, of course, a printer's error. 
Loeper is the only editor who had heretofore given the 
line correctly. 

676. ' You old tools, whose use I never knew. ' 

678, 679. 'You old scroll, the smoke has stained you black, 
since ever by this desk the dim lamp has smouldered.' 
Sdjmaudjcn is Dutch 'smoken,' and English 'smoke.' 

680. rcrpraffcn = ' to waste.' 

683. ' Earn it anew, then it is thine own.' BcfttjClt is a strong 
Word, meaning ' to have as one's very own, after having 
earned. ' There is a line in Göthe's Prometheus (written 
1773) which serves as an excellent commentary on this 
passage in Faust — 

,Sni&cr. — IDie tiicl ifl benn bein? 
,ptomctI}eus.— Der Kreis ber meine IPirffamfeit erfüllt.' 

686. It is here that, in intense mental excitement, his thoughts 
turn to self-murder, and the hope of release from the 
narrowness and restlessness of life brings him moment- 
aiy comfort and calm. Göthe himself in his youth — 
in his Storni and stress period — had thought of suicide. 

694. 211155119 = ' outcome,' ' expression.' 
698. ^lutl^ftrom = ' high tide,' ' flood. ' 

699-702. Before his spirit lies tlie piclure of the State after 
death, as if a sea were spread before him, as if a new 
day were breaking, summoning him to new shores. 

702-705. It is a favourite fancy of Göthe's to fly with the sun 

across the waves. 
707. crft liodj rDltrm= 'but now a worm.' The words of the 

Earth-Spirit are rankling still in P'aust's thoughts. 

710. Dcrmeffe btdj='dare. ' Dcrmcffe, the weak form of the 



imperative for ücrmii5. Göthe also uses nel^m, t^clf, 
mc§, betrete for nimm, t^tlf, mt§, betritt. 
Mc Pforten ='the gates of death.' 

715. ' The fancy of men,' says Faust, ' has tiirned the fear of 
death into the pains of hell.' 

71S. bicfem Sdjritt, i.e. 'self-murder.' 

719. 'And even at the risk of changing into nothingness. ' 

726. 'The art, the richness, the pride of the many figures, and 
the drinker's task to explain them in verse.' 

733, 734. ' Old cup, now fill thee with the dark-brown flood.' 
— Anster. 

735, 736- ,Per le^tc dritnf fei . . . bem IHorgcn 3U9ebrad]t I' 
' My last draught be drunk to the Morning !' As he 
speaks Faust raises the cup aloft, — he puts it to his 
lips — and at that moment come the sound of the bells 
and the song of the Choristers. 
737. dhrift ift erftanben. It is founded upon the old Easter 
song of the Christian Church, beginning — 
,(E[]n(l i)l crftanbcn 
Don bcr OTarter Sanbcn.' 

The first of the three angelic choruses rejoices over 
Christ's release from mortality ; the second exalts Hirn 
as the loving One ; the third celebrates His restoration 
to divine creative activity. Göthe heard a similar 
chant sung by the common people in Rome in the year 
1788, but his true model was undoubtedly the German 
Easter hymn of the Middle Ages, which begins 

,Ct)rif} tj} erjlanben 

Don ber ITlartcr Sanben.' 

739. perberblidj = ' destructive,' ' hurtful.' 

740. fdjieidjenb = ' clinging. ' 
erblid) = ' inherited.' 

741. ll'länge[= 'failings,' or ' Imperfections. ' 

The comforting, trustful, solemn words of the Angels 
cannot fail to make an Impression on Faust ; they teil 
him of a world from which he is separated, in which 
he has been happy, which seems to him now like a 
lost Paradise. 



748, The words of the angel at the grave of our Loid : ' He is 

risen,' proclaimed that the redemption of men was 
fulfiUed ; this Göthe calls ,(Scir)t§t)eit einem neuen 
Bunbc,' i.e. ' Certainty to a New Covenant.' 

749. <D\ox ber tüetber. See St. Mark xvi. i — 'And when 

the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Maiy the 
mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices 
. . . '; and compare St. Luke xxiv. 10. 

760. I^cilfam unb übcnbe, for I^etlfame uub übcnbc. 

768. I^olbc Ztadjridjt = ' good tidings.' English, 'Gospel'; 
Greek, 'EiVayyiXLov, 

774. In Wilhelm Meiste}- Göthe writes : ' Once I prayed out 
of the depth of my haart — " Now, Almighty One, give 
me faith." I was then in the condition in which one 
must be, but seldom is, when one's prayers may be 
accepted by God. Who could paint what I then feit ! 
. . . My soul was near to Him ! . . . " This is 
faith," I cried, and sprang up almost in terror. For 
such emotions as these all words fail us.' 

785-788. By changing the order of the words the meaning 
becomes clearer : ,f^at ber Begrabene, fdjon lebenb 
€r{^abenc, fidj nadj oben t^errlid? crbobcn,' i.e. ' The 
buried One, the exalted One even when in life, has risen 
gloriously. ' 
The Cf^or ber 3Ünger are the disciples, — according to St. 
John XX. 3 St. Peter and St. John were the disciples 
who came early to the sepulchre. 

789-792. The Risen One is conceived of as going on, so to 
speak, to higher development ; as near to unearthly 
happiness, near to the creative source of joy. 

794. Sdjntadjtenb = ' in sorrow. ' 
uns is accus, case. 

795) 796. 'Ah, we are weeping, Master, over Thy happiness' 
(and we should not weep). 

799. As Christ tore Himself free from literal bonds, namely 
the grave -clothes, and at the same time from figurative 
bonds, namely the bonds of care and sorrow which 
bound Him to life and this M'orld, so do ye break loose 
from the fetters of evil. The old German Easter 
hymn contained this verse — 



,(£hriftus ift crftanbcn 
geioacrlidic uon bcm t3t, 
von öllcn fineii 15anbeti 
ijl er cilcbiij&t,' 

So 1-805. ' T*^ y°^' praising Hirn by yoiir works, to you who are 
loving, to you who feed the hungry, to you who preach 
and brhig joy to others — to you Christ is near.' 


Faust's lonely studies had brought him intö a State of morbid 
despair, whence he could find no way back to life and activity. 
The Easter songs have awakened him and summoned him back 
to reality. We know from the ' Prologue in Heaven ' that it is 
Mephistopheles' purpose ,^auft feilte Stralßc fadit 3U führctt,' 
and now we feel füll of curiosity and anxiety to know whether 
the change to cheerfulness and hopefulness that has taken 
place in Faust will stand the test of Mephistopheles' temptations. 

As to the places here mentioned or described : the place 
itself is Frankfurt-on-the-Main (where the Scene was written) ; 
the Jägerhaus is a spot in the neighbourhood, to which the 
Frankfurt people often walk ; the ,2X)affcrbof' is a well-known 
locality near Frankfurt ; the lUÜble is Mühlberg, not far 
distant from Frankfurt. The people who assemble before the 
gate and talk represent all kinds of happy, heedless, holiday- 


817. übcrluiltg = ' swaggering. ' 

824. platt means in the Frankfurt dialect dann'ng-greeit, and 

here a particular dancing-green near Dorfkirchweihen. 
Göthe's house in Weimar Stands near the dancing-green 
(I vvrite dancing-green, although the (Idii3plat5 in 
German towns and villages is by no means necessarily 
of grass). 

825. Notice that the verb angeben = ' to concern/ always takes 

the acc. case after it. 

827. Iler "KransFopf = ' curly head.' 

828. Dirnen = 'girls,' now used in a bad sense, like Yx. fille. 
fdireiten=: 'step out.' 



829. ^cxx 2Srubcr, an expression formerly in use among Geiman 

students. Obs. that Sdjüler means ' Student ' (our 
' undergraduate ') as well as ' schoolboy. ' 

830. CEobacf, cf. Eng. 'tobacco'; the more usual form CEabarf 

is from the French /al>ac. 

832. The Bürgcrmäbdjcn (i.e. the citizen's, shopkeeper's 

daughter) looks down on the other girls. 
mir, the dativiis ethiais, and often, as here, difficult to 
translate : 'Just look (for me) at . . .' 

833. eine Sdjmadj = ' a shame.' 
839. gciDogetT = ' devoted to. ' 

841. ' But they'll take us with them in the end.' 

842. gctttrt= ' embarrassed,' 'put out' — from French gene 

(orig. from gehenna = ' torment '). 

845. fat:cfftrctt, from French caresser ; very noticeable is the 

number of French words that have been adopted in 
Southern Germany. 

846. The form Burgctnciftcr for Bürgctrtiactftcr was most prob- 

ably taken from the living spoken dialect. 

852. The 2ScttIcr sings to a little 'lyre'; cf 1. 856— ,£af5t 

l^ier niidj nid?t pcrgcbens leiern.' 

853. bCKfenrotf^, in this Compound bacfctl is dative plural. 
861. Krieg Uttb Kricgsgefdjrci = ' war and rumours of war.' 
864. That is, ' in a tavem by the river.' 

871. bleib', 3d. sing. pres. subj. ' If only at home all remains 

as of old. ' 

872. ' Ah ! but you're nicely dressed ! pretty young things ! ' 

873. ' Who would not lose his heart for you ?' 

874. CS i[t fd^oit 9Ut = ' that's right !' 

875. bas trü^t' idj= 'that I could know' (or should know). 

878. Sanft 2tnbreas' Z^Tadjt. In North Germany the 30th 
of November — St. Andrew's Night — is held to be the 
most favourable night for what is called the ,Bräu= 
tiganifdjait/ that is, the night on which a girl may see 
her future husband. In the south of Germany it is the 
night either of St. Andrew's or of St. Thomas' Day. 
The girl places two cups on the table and then Stands 



on her bed and repeats this verse, or some similar 
one — 

.Bettfponb, icf) trete fi*, 
5anft Iln&reas, id; bitte Did^, 
ia% i<o(t; erfdieinen 
Den ßcrjallerliebftcn meinen. 
Soll er mir njerbcn reidj, 
Scl;en{t er eine 'Kanne XDcin ; 
Sollt er mir n>erben arm. 
So fcfjcnfe mir eine Kanne ITaffer.' 
Thereupon the form of the future bridegroom is sup- 
posed to enter by the door of the room, and drink out 
of one of the two cups set upon the table. 
S80. im Kr\'ftall. In a crystal it used to be believed that the 
future, or what was unknown, could be read (see 
Grimm, IVörterbiich, 5, 2482, 2, c. ) 
885. ^tntxen = ' pinnacles,' 'turrets.' 
889. Kühn ift ^as rriül|en = ' Bold is the venture.' 

902. Rieben baDon= 'go marching away.' 

903. Faust and Wagner enter on another part of the stage. 

The latter part of the Scene was most probably written 
about the same time as the first part ; but the change 
in metre, in tone, and in spirit is notable. 

905-910. The growing green of trees and plants is füll of 
promise — it promises flowers and fruit, it fills men with 
hope. Winter is given personality ; the sun has over- 
come him ; he has been driven back to the mountain 
heights, and now he sends only impotent showers of 
sleet across the green piain. 
Streifen = 'belts,' or 'stripes.' 

912. Silbung unb Streben = ' growth and effort.' 

914. bas HePtcr means here the river-bank of the Main, cf 
Itl. rivicra, and Middle Latin riparia. Because there 
are few bright trees and flowers here, the sun is content 
with the bright-coloured dresses of men and maidens. 

925. 2Iu5 bem Drucf r>on (Sicheln unb Dädiern. The high 
roofs, high gables of the houses in old üerman towns, 
which seem as if they might any day fall upon the 
passers-by, and which when we travel we think so 

248 P\\UST. PART I. 

picturesque and beautiful, deprive the inhabitants of all 
distant view, and allow only a narrow and contracted 
sight even of the sky. These lines describe the contrast 
between life in the North and life in the South. In 
the Second Part of Faust Homunculus says, ' If Faust, 
who is dreaming about Greek antiquity, were to waken 
here in the land of high-roofed gloomy houses, he vvould 
die at once.' 

926. quctfdjenb = ' crushing. ' 

929. bcl^^nb, because it comes from bei f^anb or bei Ijänbcn. 

930. fid? 3ci-fd/lageit = ' to sally out.' 

939, 940. Here we see Faust's true and best seif, bis brave, 
cheerfui, hopeful spirit ; and here too we see Wagner's 
true seif, his narrow, selfish, pedantic cheerlessness. 
945- Kcgcl fd^iebcn = Kegel iDcrf en = ' play at nine-pins.' 

949- Then we turn to another part of the stage, where peasants 
are dancing under the lime tree. The song here sung 
was not_ printed until 1808, although Göthe had it 
already in his thoughts in 1795 when he wrote Wilhelm 
Meisiet-'s Lehrjahre (see 2 Buch 11 Kap.) This 
dancing and merry-making does not describe the German 
Spring Festival (^rüt^Iingsfcft), but only the gladness 
and merry-making of an Easter Sunday afterhoon. 

965. fjurti3 = ' quick,' 'brisk,' 'nimble.' 

973. ' And do not make so free,' she said. 

976. €r fd/meid/elte = ' he coaxed.' 
bei Seite = 'aside,' 'apart.' 

977- fd?oII, preterite of fdjellcn. 

984- i^od/gclal^rter is dialectic for I|oc^ge[cfjrt. 

987. ' I bring it to you and drink to ' (in German «ttrtnfcn) 
'your good health.' 

993- It is very rarely that the first-and third lines of a quatrain 
are unrhymed in German poetry. Göthe no doubt 
mtended to represent Ijy a less musical verse the more 
prosaic nature and speech of the common people. The 
words he uses in the two addresses of the old peasant 
are the simplest and plainest ; the tone of the verses is ' 
entirely that of prose. 



1000. ' When he set a limit to sickness.' Seuche is from the 

same root as the EngHsh word 'sick.' Faust's father 

had been a physician. 

1007. bctoät^rt =: ' skilled and tried. ' 

1009, 10 10. ' To Him above bow down, my friends, 
Who teaches help, and succour sends. ' 

Bayard Taylor. 

1011-1021. The dehght in praise and the self-exultation 
arising from praise are qualities especially character- 
istic of small minds. — Das Denerabtie is the conse- 
crated ' Host ' which is sometimes solemnly carried 
through the streets in foreign (/.e. Roman Catholic) 

1034. bunüer Ehrenmann, t.e. 'a great man Uv-ing in 

obscurity and retirement.' 

1035. ,bic I]ctltgen Krctfe' bcr Hatur are the regions of 

growth and decay. Cf. in Göthe's poem, ' Das 
GöttUche ' — • 

,itaifi ccoigcn, pbcrncn groffen (Scfegcn müvfcn 
£Pir alle unferes Dafeins Kreife pollenbcn/ 

1036. 1037. 3't ^'^'^^''^fci^ = '^^'i"^^ h°'^^s'^sff°^'^'; init grillen= 

l|aftCl' inübe='with self-willed, not methodical, 
effort ' ; hence witTi fruitless, vain effort. 

1038. 21beptcu (Lat. adepitis, from adipiscor), ' those who have 

attained.' In the Middle Ages alchemists, philo- 
sophers, and physicians — all those whose end in life 
was the discovery of the Philosopher's Stone — were 
called adepts. 

1039. [djtparje Küdic = ' dusky Workshop, where black arts 

were practised ' ; i.e. 'a laboratory.' 'The black art' 
is supposed to be the same as necromancy, which is a 
form of the word veKpo^xavrüa (which means prophesy- 
ing by means of summoning up or back those who are 
dead). But in translating necromancy ' black art ' 
the Latin niger, ' black,' has become confounded with 
the Greek ve/cpös, 'dead.' 
1041. Das lüibrt9e=: 'opposing substances.' 

.1042-1048. Göthe uses the technical langiiage of the alche- 
mists. The so-calied metallic seed prodiiced by the 



melting of gold was called ein rotl^cr £cu, the seed 
produced by the melting of silver was called bie Siltc; 
both were mingled together, and the product of the 
two was called bie junge Königin. If that which 
was called ,bic junge Königin' appeared in the 
chemist's glass, then it was thought the Philosopher's 
Stone was found. 2Ius eittcm Brautgemadj ins 
anbcrc gequält means, ' diiven by heat from one 
vessel into another.' 

1050. £attPergcn, Lat. electiiarium ; Itl. laititario : l^ölltfdjctt 
SiattPergen — ' hellish confections. ' 

1053. (Sift — in the sense of ' remedy '— is here made masculine, 
whereas it is neuter when it means 'poison.' In the 
Bavarian dialect bev (Sift means ^ atigo:^ 

1055. It is, I think, Düntzer who conjectures that Göthe took 
the idea of this helpful activity of Faust, upon which 
the episode with the peasants rests, from the history 
of Nostradamus. In the year 1525, when Nostra- 
damus was twenty-two years old, Provence was 
devastated by a pestilence. The young physician 
went boldly from house to house, through the villages, 
and saved the lives of many of the sick, himself 
escaping all infection. 

1064. Faust Interrupts the chatter of Wagner, and proceeds 
with his own thoughts. 

1072. Sic rü(f t unb toeidjt, i.e. the sun is setting ; Faust follows 
in imagination, and longs for wings to carry him on- 
ward towards the sun, over the infinite sea. 

1083. auf tl]un= ' to open up.' 

1084. bie (Söttin, i.e. 'the sea.' 

1084- 1099. The Impulse to foUow after awakes anew in him. 
But no wings of the body can be like the wings of the 
soul. Yet the desire to soar away from earth is born 
with every nian (,Dodj ift CS jcbcni eingeboren'). 
With these lines compare the passage in IVerther 
beginning : ,H^ic oft l]ab' id) midj mit ^^ittigen eines 
Krajiidjs, bcr über midj l^inflog, 3U bem Ufer bes 
nngcnieffencn Illecres gefcl^nt . . . ' (dagcbudj com 
^8 2Iuguft, UWiher's Leiden, i Theil). In a letter 
written to Riese in April 1766, and in letters written 



from Switzerland in 1765, \ve find the same yeain- 
ing to escape from earth. These lines — 1084- 1099 
— would seem to belong to this period of his life, 
1108. pcrgaTncn(t) = 'parchment.' Wagner, pedantic, book- 

wormish, dry-as-dust as ever ! 
1 1 10. ' You know only one impulse, one motive ; but yoii 
are happier than I am.' Faust, violent, Titan 
like, strives to overstep the bounds that are set to 
human knowledge. Two souls dwell within him ; 
the one soul holds him down to earth and reality, the 
other would raise him upward into an ideal region of 
higher aspiration. Cf. in \Yieland's Lyrical Drama 
Die Wahl des Herkules (1773) the verse — 

,© ©öttin ! £öfe mir 

X)as Rätlifel meines fjersens auf ! 

Qxoo Seelen — ju getfiß fühl' idj's ! — 

§tt>o Seelen fämpfen in meiner Sruft.' 

1 1 16. Duft, a rare Low German word for , Staub' and ,Dutlft.' 

Göthe uses it again in Faust, Part IL, in the Bacca- 
laureus Scene (Act IL) 

11 17. ,gu ben (Seftibcn l]oIicr 2lt]nen.' Such lines as 1. 1117 

hint at the belief that there had been a higher, 
divaner origin of mankind, that man had lost a 

111S-1125. In his conversations, Göthe more than once spoke 
of his youthful belief in spirits, even relating circum- 
stances when he fancied their presence was revealed 
to him. This passage is, I think, an expression of 
such belief Wagner, however, who comprehends 
nothing but the dry learning with which he is 
crammed, sees in Faust's words only a reference to 
the Weather Spirits, and takes the opportunity of 
displaying his own knowledge. 

II 27-1 146. In old German superstitions there were spirits of 
the air — a spirit of the North Wind, of the South 
Wind, of the East Wind, of the West Wind. In the 
eklest Faust book (1587), the Devil describes them 
to Faust. 

I 1 30. There is a curious allusion in Burton's Anatomy of 



Melancholy, Pavt I., to this belief in the presence of 
invisible spirits : — ' The air is not so füll of flies in 
Summer as it is at all times of invisible devils, — this 
Paracelsus stiffly maintains.' 

II 38. gctr»anbt=' prompt.' 

1141. Hub lispeln cnglifd], toentt ftc Iügeii='They lisp like 

angels, and lead men astray.' I have seen an amus- 
ing translation of this line : ' They lisp in English 
when they lie.' 

1142. ergraut =' grown dark,' i.e. the sun had set, and the 

evening red was gone. 

1 1 46. ergreifen = ' lay hold on. ' 

1 147. ftreifcn= ' to course.' 

1147-1156. Faust's receptive (al^nungsroll) natme sees far 
more than the sober conventional Wagner, who is 
afraid of spirits, but is unconscious of their presence 
when they come. Part of the old legend is, that 
Mephistopheles used to be seen following Faust in 
the shape of a dog. 

1 152. Sdjnccf cnfrcifc = ' spiral circles.' 

II 54. ^eucrftrubel. Grimm {Wörterbuch) explains as vortex 
jgnis, i.e. ' a whirling, circling fire ' ; but we may 
translate it here ' trail of fire.' 

11 58. Sdjltngcn = ' snares.' Observe Faust is quite regardless 

of Wagner here. 

11 59. §u fünfttgctn Banb, />. ' hereafter to entangle us. ' 

1 1 64. f nurrt = ' growls.' 

1 1 65. tDcbcIt = ' wags the tail. ' 

1 169. f^tnauf ftrebcn, here = 'gambol up.' 

1 1 73. XJreffur = ' training. ' 

1175. geiOOgen (with dative). A wise man will even tolerate 

a dog. Wagner thinks it necessary to make excuses 

for Faust's noticing the dog. 
1177. Scolar, Lat. Scolaris; Itl. scolare. 



Faust's Study ; Faust refreshed, and more at lest than in the 
fiist Scene. 

1183. ungcftüm= 'passionate.' 
(Ibun— 'action.' 

11S5. Die Siebe (Sottes (obj. genit), i.e. 'love to God.' One 
recalls here a passage in Dichtung n. Wahrheit, Book 
xiv. — ,3cnes tpunberlifbe XOoxi (Spinoza's) „IPcr 
(Sott rcdit Hebt, muy nidit rcriangett, !)a§ (Sott itin 
lüiebcr liebe," erfüllte mein gaujes Hadibcufen. nu= 
eigcniiütjig 511 [ein in 2lÜetn, am Uneigennüt^iafteu 
in Siebe nnb Jfreitnbfdiaft, voax meine bödifte Snft 
. . .' Schröer bids us here compare Göthe's poem, 
' Weltseele. ' Yet how far Göthe's unselfishness ex- 
tended, whether it really went beyond thought and In- 
tention, is perhaps uncertain. 

1186. Observe the dog always liowls when Faust speaks of 

holy things. 

1187. fdjuopern is the English word 'snuffle. ' The dog is 

smelling at the Pentagram on the door. 

1200, 1201. Obscure lines such as these were surely written in 
the first passionate fit of inspiration, but they became 
so firmly fixed and grafted in the first version of the 
poem that Göthe left them untouched when he 
worked out the Faust Fragment in succeeding years. 
They would be hard lines to explain, yet we feel 
somehow what they mean. 

1206. Some editors take this unrhjmied line into the following 
line : I follow Schröer's example, and leave it by 

12 10. Faust becomes restless through the near presence of 

12 12-1223. Eftbrt and work can refresh him and shield him 
from temptations from within. So he tums to the 
Gospel of St. John. This he will translate into 
German, his own mother-tongue, — the language 
of all that is natural and loveable. According to 
Widmann's Fatist book Mephistopheles forbade Faust 
to read the Gospel of St. John. 



I220. JTttd; brängt5= ' I feel impelled.' 
1224. See St. John i. i. 

1237. ,^m 2lnfang wciv btc ÜI^Qt.' Ilere, as elsewhere in 

Faust, Gotha exaUs action above thought or word : 
,X)as i[t bcr IPeisI^cit Ictjtcr Sd^Iu^.' It is not so 
much fulfihiient as fulfiUing that is of worth in his 
cyes, it is the doing, the effort to do. 

1238. The words of St. John, to which the evil spiiit present 

had a special antipathy, compel him gradually to 
betray his presence. Faust's activity, too, and joy in 
his work must gradually have withdrawn him out of 
Mephistopheles' power and reach. It is füll time 
for him to become visible ; he howls and barks (f|cuit 
lltlb beut), and increases in size, so that the room is 
filled with his presence. 

1256. ' Now I am sure of thee ! ' 

1258. Salotnonis Sdilüffel {Claviada Salovwnis) seems to 
have been the name of a book which gave instraction 
in the conjuring of spirits. King Solomon had come 
to be regarded as the discoverer of the art of magic. 

1260. f^au^en = ,I]tc au§cn.' 

1262. §agt= 'quakes.' 

1272. Sprudj bei* Piere is the mode of invoking the four spirits 
of the elements. In Marlowe's Faust, also, the 
spirits of the elements are invoked. What Faust 
wishes to discover is whether any one of these four is 
hirking in the mysterious shape. 

1273-1276. Salatnanbcr, the Fire-Spirit ; llnbette, the Water- 
Spirit ; Sylpl^C, the Air-Spirit ; Kobolb, the Earth- 
Spirit, — but not the great (Erbgeift, whom he has 
invoked before. At 1. 1290 l{oboIb is transiated by 
Incubus. The Romans understood by ' Incubus *"^ 
spirit that watches over treasure, or later, a spint ^hat\ 
oppresses men when sleeping ; and later still, a ,4nis- 
cliievous household sprite. Kobold is from the Gr. 
KÖßaXos, i.e. a rogue, a knave. Cf. Grimm's Deutsche 
Mythologie, Eng. translation, pp. 501, 502. 

1291. madje \>t\\ £^diluf5= 'make an end.' 

1300. ftcl^ bies (5cicl]eil, 'he makes the sign of the Gross,' or 



possibly a sign in which appear the letters I.H.S., 
— the three initial letters (Greek) of our Lord's name. 

1304. Dcrmorfcucs lDefcn = 'outcast.' 

1306. Den tlic cntfprof5ncn, i.c-. the name of Him who has 
been from eternity. 

1307-1309. Itliausgcfprodicn, 'the name whicli never shall 
be spoken ; the name which fills all the heaven ; the 
name of Him vvhom they pierced.' 

1313. ' It will disperse as vapour.' 

1317- 3d? rci-fCTtOiC bidj mit lictlicjicr £oI]C refers to the 
thrice-fold glowing light of 1. 1319, and means a 
sign — the sign of the Trinity, which Faust holds up 
before Mephistopheles. 

1322. Mephistopheles, see above, notc to I. 271, ' Prologue in 
Heaven.' (£in falircnbcr Sdjolafticus means 'a (men- 
dicam) travelling scholar.' In 1. 1324 Scolaft Stands 
for SdjoIafttCU5. In the Faiisi book ^Mephistopheles 
appears in the form of a gray monk or abbot (see 
Das älteste Faiistbuch, Wortgetreuer Abdruck von 
Kühne). The historic Faust was himself a travelling 
scholar ; so too was Paracelsus. 

1324. Cafus = (German, ^all) 'event,' 'result.' He means 
the fact that the poodle has changed into a scholar. 

1326. rt)ciMtdj='soundly,' 'bravely.' Mephistopheles speaks 
sarcastically, referring to Faust's labours at St. John 
i. I. 

1334- ^ücaciigott, ^Hcgcnfürft, and ^Hcacnmann were names 

given to the Devil. The ^Iteaciiaott is Beelzebub ; 

Dcrberbcr='destroyer'— the "angel of the abyss, 

Rev. ix. ir (i.e. Abaddon, Apollyon, Gr. äivoWvt^v); 

SÜgncr, — in St. John's Gospel, viii. 44, the Devil is 

called a murderer and a liar. 
1336. bas 23öfe, 'evil,' /.t'. 'destruction.' 

bas (Sutc, 'good.'/.t'. 'creation,' ' production.' 
1338. ' I am the spirit that denies.' 
1 340. 3ft lücrtl] = ' deserves. ' 
1344. In the scholastic teaching of the Middle Ages the Devil 

was looked upon as the Executioner, the Fulfiller of 

the justice of God. 



1347- Wenn here has the force of iiibcm; — btc üetnc 
lTarrcim)eIt= ' the mikrocosmic fool.' 

1350. In the teaching of the Greeks as to the cieation of the 
World, darkness came into being before light ; so too 
in the account given in Gen. i. 2, 3. Observe 
Mephistopheles' enmity to light; he understands 
clearly the spintual and physical identity of light 
and hfe. Oae may compare here verse 4 of the 
first chapter of St. John's Gospel— ' That was the true 
light ; and the light was the life of men.' 

1354. ' Still fettered unto bodies cleaves.' 

1358. wixb CS, i.e. ,bas Sic^t'— 3u (Srunbc gcf^cti. 

1360, 1361. 'Thou canst not work general ruin, so thou 
beginnest with small things.' 

1363- 1366 «That M-hich opposes itself to Nothingness— that 
homething of a clumsy world, however much I have 
tned, I could not get at it (I have not disturbed it). 
Spite of waves, storms, earthquakes, fires, sea and 
land remain undisturbed.' 

1 368. (Scrul]tg means ' perfectly quiet '— gc being a strengthen- 

ing particle. 

1369, 1370. bcm Dcrbamtntctt §cu3 . . . ift nidjts ati5ul]abcit 

- ' theie is nothing to be made of this damned stuff 
this beastly human brood.' ' 

1374, 1375- per fuft, bcm IPaffcr tüic bei- €rbcn €ntt»itibcn 
taufenb Keime 1tdi = «In air, in water, and on earth 
a thousand germs break forth and grow. ' Göthe once 
Said to Eckermann : ' Let men continue to worship 
Hirn who gives the ox his pasture, and to man food 
and drink according to his nced. Biit I worship Hirn 
who has filled the world with such a prodigious 
energy, that if only the millionth part became em- 
bodied in living existences, the globe would so swarm 
with them that war, pestilence, flood, and fire would 
be powerless to diminish them. That is my God. ' 

^377- bie ^flatttmc, flames in which nothing living can exist. 

1379- rege, adj., 'moving,' 'in motion.' 

1382. tücfifc^ ballt= 'is wickedly clenched.' 

1384. Mephistopheles has called himself above (1. 1350) ,€in 


(Ehctl bcv Afiiiftcrnijj, Me bas ticbt acbar,' so here 
Traust names him a son of Chaos, and a little later on 
a son of Hell. 

1392. (£tu HaudjfattiJ, etc., ' there is a chimney for you too.' 

1395. I)ntbcilfu]g. The I)rubc is in German mythology a 
female demon that oppresses men when asleep. 
Drubc has nothing to say to the Keltic word Druid. 
There is an Old High German word triit, and in Old 
Norse a iPallfürc is called ThniJhi: In IMiddle 
High German the word tnttcitfuOj is 
used for a protecting sign as early as the 
fourteenth Century. The sign has the 
well-known five-sided form. Faust uses 
for Prubcnfu^, the learned expression 
Pentagramvia (also called Pentalpha, 
because five A's can be made out of it). Compare in 
Tennyson's ' Brock ' — 

' But Katie snatched her eyes at once from mine, 
And sketching with her slender pointed foot 
Some figure like a wizard's pentagrani 
On garden gravel, let my quer)' pass. ' 
It is here supposed that spirits cannot enter a room if 
there is a Ilrubcnfilf, over the threshokl, and if the 
Corners of the Dnibcnfiilg are well closed and met 
together. On the side towards the outside they were 
not securely closed, hence Mephistopheles could get 
in ; but on the inner side the corners of the figure 
were well closed, hence he could not get out again. 

1403. ' What a happy chance.' 

1417. abc3C5ti'acft='cut off.' 

1420. hodi uiiti böchft, both adverbs (liödjft for am hödiitcii). 

1423. gute llüir' is an expression for 'good news,' ' good 
tidings,' — in Middle High German giiotiu tliaere. 
In Luther's Weihnachtlied we find gute neue DTär. 

1426. nadiftelleu (with the dative) = 'to set snares around or 

for any one.' 

1427. (Sarn, literally ' thread,' here 'meshes.' 

1430- 1433. Mephistopheles has bethought him of a way of 
escape, — he will have Faust luUed and charmed to 
sleep. . 



1438. (Einerlei =' monotony.' In the Faust book of 1587 
Mephistopheles devises a spiiit-play and spirit-song 
for Faust's enterlainment : ,Dcm (fauft gefiel bas 
(Sdufclfpiel U)oI.' The song now sung teils the 
dreams which pass before Faust as he sleeps : — The 
arched ceiling opens, the starry heaven is covered 
with clouds, the clouds vanish and the stars appear ; 
the children of heaven float past, they awaken a 
longing to follow after them, the folds of their gar- 
ments cover over what is earthly,^ — lands, bowers 
where lovers linger. Mephistopheles' purpose in 
this spirit-play is to awaken in Faust the longing for 
earthly pleasures of every kind, and to draw hini 
away from the wish for real earnest work, which 
niust have brought him peace at the last. 

1453- scrronucn = ' scattercd.' 

1467. fidj depends on q,zht\\ in 1. 1469. 

1471. Sproffcnbc Haufen = ' budding tendrils.' 

1472. 'The weight of the grapes is crushed down inlo the vals 

of the wine-prcss. ' 
1476, ' Foaming wine flows in streams, pours througli jewclled 
cups and vessels ' ; perhaps this is the meaning of 
' through clear precious stoncs,' — but the whole poem 
is most fanciful. 

14S2. ums (Senüijen = um bas (Scuiiacu = um bie ^üllc öer 
c\vüueni>cr ßüijel = ' round the crowd of grecn hills.' 
1484. bas (Scflüijcl - ' birds.' 

1490. ftdj cjaufelnb bcinecjcu = ' ihey mirror themselvcs in the 


1491. From the islands we hear the peoplc mcrry-making and 


1502. 3um Sehen — ' lifeward.' 

1503. 'AU towards the distant stars of rapture and love.' 
1509. Cf. 11. 1428, 1429. 

15 16. In all mythologies ccrtain animals are sacred to the gods, 
but in Gcrman Mythology ccrtain animals (e.g. cats, 
ravens, mountain-cocks, snakes, adders, toads, spiders, 
caterpillars, gnats), likewise, are sacred to the spirit of 
evil — a notion which is foreign to classical mythology. 



1520. ^Vhen some spot or some thing is reverently nnointed 
with oil, it is iheieby dedicated to God ; whcn, on 
the contrary, it is Mephistopheles who anoints, tlien 
the anointing must liave a contrary effect, and the 
spot or thing become sacred to him. 

1525. Raufte, voc. case of Faustus (in Latin, 'the fortunate 
one '). Faustus was the name of the ' famous doctor ' 
— famous in legend and stör}'. 

1527. aciftcrrcichc Drang = ' spiritual sway. ' 


As to the characters of Faust and Mephistopheles, Göthe, 
talking to Eckermann, once said : ' Faust is so singuIar a being 
that only a few persons can reproduce his spiritual condition in 
their own minds. The character of Mephistopheles, too, through 
his irony and as the living result of a vast Observation of the 
World, is veiy difficult to comprehend. He is too negative to 
be demoniac' 


1535. cMcr 3un!cr='a squire of high degree.' Mephis- 
topheles' dress on the Puppet Stage was a red tunic 
under a long mantle of black silk, and a cock's feather 
in his hat. Göthe retains this costume, and this 
was the dress worn by Mephistopheles when I saw 
the Play acted in Germany in 1S79. ^^ the veiy 
remarkable representation of jFciusi at the Lyceum 
Theatre (1885-S6), Mr. Irving wears a similar dress, 
except that his long cloak is scarlet, not black. 

1 540. furj unb cjnt ratbcn ^ to counsel briefly and appositely — 
(futj Ullc) ijut is the same as the English phrase 
' Short and sweet '). 

I545-I56i- These are amongst the saddest, bitterest lines in the 
poem, ,nnfcr jibyi'ifdu's fotüol als aefelliacs 'S.chcn, 
Sitten, öciuoliniicitcn, IVcItflUijbctt, pbilofopl]ic, 
Jieligion — lUles ruft uns 3U : J)a§ mir cntfagcn 
foücti.' — Dichtung und Wahrheit, 16 Buch, liut 
Faust's whole nature revolts against this ; he has 
reached mature and perfect manhood ; he is between 
forty an<l fifty years old ; he is too young to be with- 


out desires. And after all, thc question of renuncia- 
tion is the most difficult of all problems. It buys for 
US the peace which passeth all understanding ? yes, 
but at what price ? 

1553-1557- Cf. Job vii. 13, 14, IS— 'Whcn I say, My bed 
shall comfoit me, my couch shall ease my complaint ; 
then thou scarest me vvith dreams, and terrifiest nie 
thiough visions : so tliat my soul chooseth strangling, 
and death rather than life. ' 

1558. Der, i.e. bcr Sag. 

1559- Krittcl - ' cavilling.' 

1 56 1 . £clicnsf rat3cn — ' giinning niasks of life.' 

1562, 1563. The spirit-song and spiiit-play called up by 

Mephistopheles have banished all the peace and feel- 
ing of restfulness which the hymns had brought him. 
1569. ' Ile cannot move external forces.' 

1572. The scornful words of Mephistopheles (hcre and in 11. 
1579, 1580) lefer to Faust's lesolve as to self-murder 
in Scene iii., and are meant to goad him on to the 
outburst of passion and despair which follows. 

15 77- '•''• 'Oh, had I perished before the power and might of 

the Earth-Spirit'; cf. 1. 517. 
1581. ' 'Tis then your practice to play the spy's part.' 

1583. bcm [dirccfitdjctt (Scnnil'jic refers to the storm of thoughts 

in Faust's breast. 

1584. (Ein füfj hcf'aiintcf for ein füfier Iicfanntev is quite per- 

missible and regulär. 
1586. 2lnflaiuii ffol^er gcit, ' echoes of happier times. ' 
1589. (Erauerl^öl^Ic = 3iiin'"Crtl]aI = vale of sorrow. 

1587- 1606. Faust's curse, which includes even the sentiment of 
childish faith that rcturned to him on the Easter 
morning, placcs him unconsciously in the power of 
Afephistopheles. The Chorus of Spirits points out his 
rupture with the order of life and of goodness. The 
pure spirits, who direct the harmonies of e.xistence, 
lamcnt over Faust's conduct, and warn him ; but 
Mephistopheles calls thcse voices altfliig, and brings 
forward the conditions of his compact, proniising 


delights, which in anticipation appear worthless to 
Faust. The lament of the spirits is certainly not 
ironical, as some have thought, nor are the spirits evil 
spirits, as Mephistopheles asserts. Evil spirits would 
not cry out IVcii ! Wd} 1 as these do. On the con- 
trary, the course of the drama, as it is afterwards 
developed, is here shadowed forth by the spirits, and 
Mephistopheles no more comprehends them than 
Faust does. He is deceived, as in the Fifth Act of the 
Second Part. [The substance of this note is taken 
from an excellent note of Bayard Taylor's. ] 

1607. In the Puppet Play there is, too, an invisible choir of 
warning spirits. In RIarlowe's Faust, likewise, appear 
a good and a bad angel, who, in decisive moments, 
after their manner, give good or bad counsel. 

1614. bic ürümntcni bcr fdiöncn lüclt, i.e. 'the ruins of Faust's 
fair ideal world.' In the Austro-Bavarian dialect the 
Singular bas Ürumtn is found. By a blunder the 
plural of ürninm, Mc drümincr, came to be looked 
on as a feminine singular (cf. bic 23ccrc out of 
bas 23ccr), and hence arose the plural form btc 
Crüntmcrn. Der (Eriimnicr and bas (Erütmner are 

also found. 

1616. 5d?önc for 5diönl]ctt. 

1 6 1 7 . 11 uidjtigcr , ' Thou, who hast shown Thyself to be mighty. ' 
16 19. prädjtigcr is comparative, and an adverb. 

1626. It is quite impossible for me to believe that this chant is 
sung by evil spirits. It is an echo of the words 
spoken by the Good Angel in Marlowe's Play, who 
lingers near Faust and mourns over his fall. 

1 627-1634. Mephistopheles tries to prove that they are his 
children, and not the children of light, who are 
singing. Observe how he mimics and caricatures 
their measure and manner. 

1635-1638. Before these lines we must imagine Mephistopheles 
to have paused. Then he speaks words, simple, 
kind, human, and to the point, which any one might 
have spoken to Faust in his then condition. 

1639- 1648. He then goes on to suggest remedies for Faust's 
griefs and misery. 



1640. päd meant oiiginally (Scpäcf, and giadually canie to 
mean the pcople who carry bas (Scpäcf (Uiggage). 
Mephistopheles uses it contemiituously, and means 
common, low people. 

1646. (Scfctic means herc a Kaincrabc (i.e. ' one who inhabits 
the samc Kainmci"'), Eng. 'comrade. ' (ScfcIIc is in 
Old High German fafaljo, 'one who occupics the 
same Saal as anothcr person.' 

1649. At first Mephistopheles evades Faust's question, ,lVci5 
foll td) bacjcgcn Mr erfüllen ? ' and then he clothes 
his demands in the most harmless dress. 

1661-1670. 5d)Iäaft bu crft btefc IPcItjU CEvümmcni . . ., 
the meaning is, ' If you take this world from nie, 
what then follows is indifferent to me, for I was 
created for this world ; our fcelings, our desires, our 
loves, and our hates were meant for this world, — what 
do I care for a world where there is no scope, no 
need for them ?' 

1663. quiüctt for quellen. The intransitive verb quellen, 
quelle, quiüft, quillt, quoll, aequollen (with the 
stem-vowel i) — to be distinguished from the causal 
verb quellen, quelle, quellft, quellt, quellte, gequellt 
(with the stem-vowel a) — is found occasionally in 
Göthe speit quillcn not quellen. (Quillen is the 
Low German form. Cf. briuiJCU for brängcn, 1. 

1670. (Ein (Dbcn ober Unten gilit; cf. in U'il/idin Meister, 
in the Confcssions of a Beautiful Soul : ' Oh, why 
must we, in ordcr to speak of such things, use Images, 
which only represent cxternal condilions ? Where is 
there anything high or low, obscure or cnlightened, 
in His sight ? We only have an above and below, a 
night and a day. And just therein did Christ resemble 
US, because we should otherwise have no share in 
Hirn.' Cf. also Mephistopheles' words after the com- 
pact has been signed : ' And you He dowers with day 
and night,' 1. 1784. 

1675. From the very first the sujieriority of Faust to Mephis- 
topheles is evident. The narrow limits of Mephis- 
topheles' nature can comprchend nothing ideal ; his 


Line • i i • i i i. 

pettiness and heartlessness ha%'e oiily to do with what 

is iinite. This Faust perceives and asserts. 
16S6, 1687. Faust has gone ovcr all the pleasures, the worth- 
lessness of which he knows, and now breaks oflF, 
impatient, vvith the words — 

' Show me the fruits, that ere they're gathered rot, 
And trees that daily with new leafage clothe them. " 

Thus scornfully describing the cheating, disappointing, 
inadequate character of all the desires of men to a 
human soul in its supreme endeavour. 

1688-1692. Mephistopheles only half understands Faust, and 
takes his words quite literally. 

1692- 1698. Faust, in his despair, agrees to what Mephistopheles 
offers, but yet declares that what is offered is worth- 
less. If the day should ever come when common 
joys and low aims satisfy him, when he shall give up 
his ideal strivings, may it be his last day. Low 
aims can as little satisfy him as low pleasures can 
delight him. 

1693. fct es um midj gcthan, 'may it be all over with me.' 

169S. iLop = 'done.' French, ioper=' io agree"; Italian, 
topare ; Spanish, topar. 
Hub ^äA&<\ auf 5d)Iag refers to hand-clasping ; Mephis- 
topheles has first laid his band on Faust's and said, ' I 
agree ' ; Faust now lays his band on Mephistopheles' 
and says, »Sd^lacJ auf Sdjlag' = ' my band on it !' 

1699. The wager is this: If Faust can find the peace for 
which he longs for one moment's time, if Mephis- 
topheles can satisfy him with enjoyment for one 
moment, then all is one to him, then he surrenders 
himself to Mephistopheles. The one moment of 
supreme contentment is for Faust a spiibol of 
endless capacity for happiness. The wager with 
Mephistopheles rests upon this couplet, which we 
must bear in mind, until we meet it again at the close 
of Part II.— 

,ir'crbe id; 3UIU 2liigcnblicf'e fagcu 
Dcriücilc bodi, bit bift fo fd^ön.' 

1707. ' Weigh thy words well : I shall not forget them,' 



1 709. f rcpcntlidi = ' wantonly. ' 
lun-rncffcit = ' boasted.' 

17 10. Wie id] bcliarrc='so long as I remain here,' ?.^. 'so 

long as I live.' 

171 1. ©b bcitl, etc., bciu gen. sing., /.<•. ' of thee, or of \vhom, 

what care I ?' 

17 12. Poctorfdintaits, i.e. the banquet given on the taking 

of a Doctor's degree. When writing these lines 
Güthe must have meditated a scene describing such a 
banquet, and must have aflerwards forgotten all about 
it, as, so far as we know, no such scene cver formed 
part of the poem. 

17 14. lim 'Gebens ober Sterbens tfi[Ieu = 'in casc of either 
life or death,' i.e. ' as life or death is uncertain.' 

17 16. We fcel how useless and ludicrous such a written agree- 
mcnt is. If Faust is ever satisfied with himself, ever 
lays himself down upon a bed of idleness, ever bids 
time pause because he is happy, t/wn he shall have 
attained his heart's desire, and will care nothing for 
what follows. — The deeper meaning that Mephis- 
topheles has not the power to draw Faust's spirit 
away from its ideal hopes and aims, Faust himself 
does not clearly see. He sees only that man as a 
mortal being is bound and limited by this life, and 
he hopes for no satisfaction from earthly enjoyment. 
The ideal life in the midst of earthly things shall 
become clearer to Faust as time goes on, but not 
through Mephistopheles, — rather in spite of IMephis- 
topheles. Peace and content are hindrances to 
Mephistopheles, — but in his conception they cannot 
really exist at all, because they are part of the ideal 

1719. fcbaltcn = ' to rulc,' 'dispose'; [dialtcit mit means here 
' to guide,' 'control.' 

1722-1723. 'Yet this delusion (that such things as truth and 
steadfastness exist) is rooted in our hearts, and is 
there any one that would be undeceived?' 

1727. eilt (Sefpenft, etc., ?.<'. 'a spectre, before which all 

172S. The meaning is, 'the pen robs words of all their life.' 



1729. Scbcr Gölhe here uses for Pcraantcnt= ' parchment.' 
Üld MSS. were often written on skins. The mean- 
ing is, ' sealing-wax<Snd parchment are our masters.' 

1737. The sentence, ' Non Sacramentum sine sanguine,' may 
lie at the bottom of this requirement, for the Devil 
is the imitator of God. The Signatare with blood 
comes in the Theophihis legend, in the Fausthitch 
of 1587, in Marlowe's Dr. Faiisttes (?i59o), and 
in the German Puppet Play, where Göthe had 
liecome familiär with it. The idea was borrowed 
from ancient German Mythology, where we find, if 
two persons wished to make a covenant together for 
life and for ever, they let some drops of their blood 
flow together, and then drank it. 

1739- ^raöc = po[fc='Joke,' 'so let the joke stand.' 
1 741-1759. A Speech füll of despair; the great spirit (bcr (£rl!»= 
gcift) has despised him ; the thread of thought is 
broken ; he will strive no more and search no more, 
but will seek forgetfulness in stultifying pleasure. 

175-1 1753- 'In the impenetrable cloak of niagic, let cvery 
wonder be at once prepared. ' 

1754. bas Kaufdien bcr §Ctt= ' the rush and hurry of time '; 
bas Hollen tier 23ei3ebcnl]cit=: ' the rush and roll of 
circumstance. ' 

1 757- l?Cl"t>ni1g =: ' vexation ' ; but here perhaps ' failure.' 

I759' ' Restlessness is man's best activity.' 

1762. 3"l {!flicf]cn=: ' while upon the wing.' 

1763. ^cFotnm' = 3d sing. pres. subj. = 'may it agrce with 


1764. hlöbe= ' bashful." 

1765. I)u höreft ja= ' listen now ' (as I told you before, I teil 

you again). 

1766. Z)cm 2;aumeI = 'to rapturous excitement I dedicate 

niyself ' Love, the only passion in which selfishness 
changes into renunciation, becomes degenerate in him 
who heartlessly seeks only his own enjoyment. In 
such love, where there is not even reverence for tlie 
ioved one, there is no peace, it is only agonising 
pleasure, idolising hatred, inspiring anguisli. 



1768, 1769. From here on there is a change of tone. Bchind 
the passionate sensual desires awakened by Mephis- 
topheles we dimly see and feel the theoiies of the 
idcalist. Bccause other men have loved and suffered 
through love, Faust will go and do likewise. 

' My bosom, which is healed from greed of knovvledge, 
shall henceforth close itself against no sorrows.' A 
few moments before Faust had in despair expressed 
his resolve to cast himself into the wild rapture of 
sensual plcasure, thus giving himself wholly into the 
power of the Evil One ; but here his better seif rises 
up, and once more he eludes Rlephistopheles' grasp. 
The craving for completcness of knowledge is stilled; 
he is now filled with longing for completcness of life. 
The weal and woe of men he will share, its hcights 
and its depths, — 'and they and I at last together 

1770. In the Faust Fragment the Scene ' Faust and Mephis- 
topheles ' begins here. Every earlier mention of 
Mephistopheles is wanting, that is — everything be- 
tween the lines 605 and 1770. 

1775. 3Cr[djcitcni= *to make shipwreck.' 

1 776-1 784. No man can enjoy and comprehcnd completc ful- 

ness of life, — this ,~s[t mir für einen (Sott acnmdit.' 

Göthe himself often speaks through the moulh of 

1 782-1 784. ' God dwells Himself in eternal light ; us devils He 

has banished into darkness ; to you bclong day and 

1785. Faust. 'But T will!' Mephistopheles. 'A brave reply. 

To me there scems to be only one obstacle, ars longa, 

vita brevis.'' 

1 788- 1802. Suppose you let yourself be taught. Vou can do all 
this in Imagination, not in rcality ; go make a friend 
of some poet, let him wander in the fields of thought, 
and then endow you with eveiy conceivable human 
quality. A man so endowed I should call .Sir 
iMicrocosmus. — Again Mepliistophelcs misunderstands 
the idealism of Faust, and makes his aspirations 
appear ludicrous. 



The M.icrocosmus is the universe, material, intcllcctual, 

Spiritual, — thc Microcosmus is man, the universe in 

miniature. ]\Ian, whose nature is tripartite, — material, 

intellcctual, spiritual. 
1S05. bl-tiujon for brältcJClt. Cf. notes on 11. 142, 1211, 

antl 1663. 
1808. 5oi"f'CU = lit. ' socks,' höre ' stilts.' 
1 8 1 1 . hevbcto,crafft = ' heaped up. ' 

181 7. ' As man view thingfi.' 

1818. ' We must be wiser." 

1821. ßcnfcr is an oath — a German ' Hang it !' 

1822. Here again Mephistopheles does not understand, or wil- 

fully misunderstands, Faust's meaning. Cf. with 
these lines once more the following two lines from 
Göthe's Prometheus : — 

,Brubcr. — tüie uicies ift bcnn bcin? 
^Prometheus.— Der l{reis bcr meine lDirf|aiufcit erfüllt.' 

1824-1S26. ' If I can pay for six horses, is not their strength 
mine ? I race along, and am as good a man as if I 
had four-and-twenty legs.' 

1830. Herder had earlier written (Frankf. gel. Anzeige 

20, 23 October, 1772) : ,5pccitIatioii als Baupttje^ 
fdiäftc bc5 Sehens, uieldi clcitbcs (Sefdiäftc ! ' 

183 1. auf bürrcr Reibe = 'on a harren moor.' 

1837. bie ^il'lö'^"^ for ,bte Knaben' is Low German (Saxon), 

and is still in use ; cf. 1. 3019, B. Taylor translates 
it by 'students.' 

1838. IPanft = ' paunch, ' here used as descriptive of comfort- 

able self-satisfaction. ZTadjbar IPanft accordingly 
means 'a first-rate commonplace Philistine.' 

1839. Here translate : 'Why plague thyself with threshing 

straw for ever?' Straw has been already threshed, 
and 110 grain remains in it. In Klinger's Faust 
{Faust's Leben, Thaten und HöHeiifakrt, Petersburg, 
1791) come the lines : ,inan bort bir nodi immer an, 
ha\] bn bid) ntit 23üdiern abijeoieben iinb auf leerem 
Stroh cjebrofdien baft.' 
1S42. (SIeid;i = focben. 


1847. 'The disguise will become me well.' 

1849. ' I only neecl a quarter of an hour's time ' to settle matters 
with him. 

1851-1S55. ' Go, despise reason and knowledge — man's highest 
povvers ! By means of juggling and magic let thyself 
be strengthened by the spirit of lies, — then I have 
ihee beyond question.' It has been said that these 
words are inconsistent with the character of Mephis- 
topheles ; I do not, however, think so. Surely one 
who knew as mach as he nuist have been conscious 
liow weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable would be all 
the pleasures he had to offer to Faust. And therefore 
he has made the covenant with Faust. Faust is to 
give up all, and the payment he is to receive will 
turn to dust and ashes in Ins grasp. [It is told of 
Lord Byron, who, if any man ever did, possessed all 
the things which make life desirable — rank, beauty, 
genius, fame, — that when asked, did he indeed find 
life delightful ? he answered, ' I enjoy nothing.'] 

1858. übereilt = 'precipitate.' 

1860. fdjicppcit = 'trail and drag.' 

1861. nitbebeutcnt]Ctt for nnbci>cutenM]cit = ' insignificance.' 

1862. 5appeltt = ' struggle.' 
[tavrcn = ' grow chill.' 
flcbetl= 'stick,' 'cling.' 

1S63, 1864. This was the punishment of Tantalus. 

1865, 1866. ' And though he had not sold him to the devil, 
A soul like his could not escape froni ruin. ' 

1869. (£i-gcbenl^ett= ' devotion.' 

In the conversation that follows Göthe is speaking 
through the mouth of Mephistopheles, and satirising 
German Universities, especially the teaching he had 
himself received at Leipzig. The Student we nieet 
again in Part IL, where he is called Baccalaureus. 

1874. ' Have you perchance elsewhere begun?' 

1875. ' I pray you, accept mc as a pupil.' 

1877. 'äicIMiduMn, that is, 'a tolcrable amount of money.' 


1878. ' My molher woukl scarcely let me away froni her.' 

1881. 'To teil you the truth, aheady I should like to be gone.' 

1884. bcfdivätlFtcr i\auin = 'a cramped, continecl place.' 

1892. wvci> CS Clidi acliiftcit^ ' will it delight you?' ijclüftcu, 
impers., witli dat., lit. ' to long for anything.' 

1S94. il^rcni, i.e. tuisdovi's neck. 

1895. I|ingelangcn =' attain to.' 

1897. ^acultät. In German Universities there had been in caily 
times three Faculties — (Sottcsgclahrtbctt, Kcdits^ 
gclalirtlicit, and Bcilfunbc or iUeIttiicisI]cit, — that 
is, Theolog}', Law, and Philosophy (which included 
jMedicine), the last a most comprehensive term. For 
some time IMedicine and Philosophy had been 
separated, so that there were now four instead of three 

1 898-1 901. The Student wishes to study Science and Nature, — 
the things which are in earth and heaven ; but 
practically, not theoretically. 

1910. Mephistopheles advises him to begin with Logic, which 
was at the time the chief subject studied at German 
Universities by students in their first year. The art 
of arguing was so highly esteemed at the time that it 
had come by pedants to be confounded with thought 
itself. ' Through rules of logic,' said Mephistopheles, 
'men learn to think, the mind is trained, drilled, 
screwed up in Spanish boots. Logic teaches us to do 
everything according to nile, in orderly fashion ; what 
you have heretofore done automatically, as, for 
example, to eat or to drink, you must henceforth do 
methodically, with a first place, and a second place, 
and a third place.' 

1913. Sticfeltt is put for the more usual plural Sticfcl. 

5panifdiC Stiefel was a form of torture used during 
the Spanish Inquisition. 

1914. bebäditttjcr = ' more reflectivc.' 

191 5. btnfdilcidH'n = ' plod along.' 

1916. KrcU3 itllb (Qlicr= 'here and there," ' at random,' 'zig 



I9I7' 3vrltd?tivcn = ' to shoot like a Will-u'-the- Wisp ' (/.<.'. 

1922-1927. ' True it is, the machinciy of ihouglit is far too 
refined to be reduced to rulcs,' — in ihis intcrpesed 
sentence Mephistophelcs, soliloquising, speaks tu him- 
self, and jeers at liis own reasoning. 

1923. lUcbcrtnctftcrftücf = ' a masterpiece of weaving'; cf. 
Göthe's Antcpirrheinai GcdkJilc, iii. 90 (Säninitliche 
Werke in 40 Bdn., 1827-42). 

1925. Sd]iff[ctn= ' Shuttle,' .so called because a Shuttle is the 
shape of a little ship. Cf. the Frencli navdle. 

1934.. This line he speaks aloud : ' Scholars everywhere speak 
in praise of this' ; and then adds to himsclf : ' but they 
are no thinkers (lücbcr) for all that. ' 

1936- 1939. And now follovv the lines, so ciushing and anni- 
hilating for all pedants : ' For he, who seeks to learn 
or give descriptions of a thing that lives, begins with 
driving out the spirit ; the limbs are there in his 
grasp, and all but that which gave them life !' 

1940, 1941. Chemistry names \\\\% Enchciresin natunt, — sneer- 
ing at itself, though this it knows not. Enclicircsis 
(Gr. ^7xei'p7;(rts) naturic means literally ' a treatment 
of nature ' ; here, however, Göthc seems rathcr to 
mean the mysterious, elusive force by which nature 

1942. ' I haven't a notion what you nican.' 

1 944. rcbucircit = ' to rcduce. ' 

1945. cjcl^örlg claffiftciren = ' appropriately to classify.' 

1949. The name Metaphysics from Aristotle's timc on has l)ccn 
used to describe what is supersensual. The name 
arose from the order in which Aristotle's writings 
were arranged. His book on immaterial things came 
/xerci rä (puaiKä, i.e. followed his book on rh. (pvcnKÖ. [i.e. 
his writings on natural science). 

1950-1960. The huniour of these lines needs no furthcr com- 
ment, save that the Student takes it all in sober, solcmn 
carnest. ,X)a fet]t bafj il]i- ticfftiinicj faißt Was in 
bcs lllcilfdicn fiint llidjt pafjt.' Tr. ' There see, or 
think that you See piain, what does not pass within 
the brain.' 


1955. 'To Order rigidly adherc' 

1959. parät)i"apl]OS, the accusative casc plural of the Latin 
form, — i.e. according to paragraphs. 

1963. bei" I]etlii3 (Seift for bcv IiciUiJC (Seift. Gütlie is fond of 
imitating the German of Hans Sachs, as when he 
writes ,^cr gi'OB (Sott,' or ,ciii fdilüditifdi lucis.' 
Such are pecuUarities of dialect rather than archaisnis. 
Cf. also in Gothe, ,cin tüdjtig Ulauu' ; ,cill thätiij 

1964- 1967. These four lines have become proverbial as de- 
scriptive of contemptible copying down and swearing 
by a teacher's words, without ever thinking uut their 
meauing or reasoning as to their truth. 

1970. cudj is dat. or loc. case='in you'; es is acc, governed 

by nehmen; fo fcbr übel =' so veiyill'; übel is an 
adverb. We have exactly the same phrase in English, 
i.e. 'to take a thing ill.' 

1971. tim^ ' with,' i.e. ' with this study.' 

1972-1979. ' Laws and rights are transmitted like a sickness.' 
Tlie legal decisions of past times are not in harmony 
with our present circumstances. Through privilege 
and through misuse of power wrong has taken the 
place of right in history and in tradition ; even our 
manner of viewing things is influenced by them. 
That which was wisdom originally is now become 
absurd, that which was once beneficent has become 

1986-2000. Mephistopheles has a horror of theology, and hence 
seeks by all and any means to repel the Student from 
studying it : ' There is poison in it ; it is not very 
different from physic ; it is best for you to hear one 
teacher only, and to swear by his words.' And then 
(1994-2000) with truly devilish delight he praises the 
prevalent false manner of teaching of learned pedants, 
— above all things impressing on the Student the value 
of words— ,3m (Sanken, f^altet eudj <xw. IPorte!' 

2001-200S. The perfect simplicity and innocence of the Sdjülcr 
are admirably described. 

2009-2010. The fashion in which Mephistopheles has been 
instiiicting the poor boy was devilish enough, although 


he has been wearing the mask of a pedantic Professor. 
Up to this he has acted tlie part of a teacher, now 
the teacher shall act the part of the Devil. From 
this on he speaks as a cool, heartless man of the world. 

2015. rtitgsum tutffcnfdjaftitdj fd|U)cift= ' that you drift round 
in the fields of science. ' 

2019. 'You are fairly well made, you will not be wanting in 

2023. füt^vcit= 'guide,' 'influence.' 

2024, 2026. ' Their eternal coniplaining, manifold as it is, can 

all be cured in one way.' 

2029, 2030. ' A title must first of all make theni trust you, and 
show that your skill surpasses the skill of many.' 

2031. Literally, 'you are welcome to toucli all the bag and 
^i^gg^ge ' (5icbcufadjcn). 

2038, 2039. (Srau is the colour of ashes, neither hot nor cold ; 
grün is the colour of the plant's life. The tree of 
life is called golden, because from the earliest times 
gold has been esteemed as most precious, most beauti- 
ful of created things (cf. the phrase ' Age of Gold '). 
These two lines have become a German proverb. 

2041. bcfdjiy crcn = ' to trouble. ' 

2042. auf belongs to {]örctt. 
2045. Stamtnbudj = ' album.' 

2048. ' Ye shall be as gods, knowing good and cvil.' 
2050. 'One day thou shalt tremble at thy likeness to God.' 
2052. Mc ficinc, bann btc tjvofjc lüclt. Thesubstance of both 
Parts of Faust is given in these two lines : the little 
World is Faust's individual experience of human 
desires and passions, — he issues forth from bis seclusion 
to share in the ordinary history of men. — Ilere is the 
First Part of Faust. The great world is life on a 
wider stage of action ; intellectual forces are sub- 
stituted for sentimcnts and passions ; the narrow 
interests of the individual are merged in those of the 
race, and government, war, activity on a grand scale, 
take their place in order that Faust's knowledge of 
life and men shall be complete. — Here is the Second 
Part of Faust. 


iluifiim, Lcit. acc. from ciirsiis ; fcbmarntjCtt = ' first to 
taste, then to experience.' It meant originally to he 
a guest at another's table. Schiller also uses the 

2055. 'Just as niy beard is too long for the fashion of to-day, 
.so my manneis are wanting in ease and knowledge 
of life.' 

2069, 2070. ^cucrluft= ' gas.' About the year 1766 Caven- 
dish had discovered certain uses to which coal-gas 
might be applied, and in 1782 the Brothers Mont- 
golfier showed how gas could be used to raise a 
balloon from the earth. These discoveries had 
interested Göthe greatly, and in a letter to Lavater, 
written in 1783, he says : ,(£raÖ3cn Pidi tiidit aiidi 
Mc üiuftfabrcr? 3* tnaoi i>"cn incnfdhcn aar 511 
gerne \o ctaias gömicii. i?ci^cu, ^c!l (£rfiiitieru 
lln^ ^eu gufdjaucru.' 


The Scene is believed to have been written on lyth Septem- 
ber 1775. Göthe was well acquainted with Auerbach's cellar 
when he was a Student in Leipzig. The tavern still exists. 
Two pictures hang on the walls : one represents Faust sitting 
at table drinking wine along with a number of students — under- 
neath is the inscription, ' Vive, bibe, obgriecare, memor Fausti 
hujus, et hujus pcence : aderat claudo hoec, ast erat ampla, gradu 
(1525).' (Live, drink, carouse, remembering Faust and his 
punishment : it came with halting step, but was in ample 
measure.) The other represents Faust riding off out of the 
window upon a wine-cask. The inscription (in German 
doggerei) underneath has been thus translated by Professor 
Blackie — 

' Dr. Faustus on that tyde 

From Auerbach's cellar away did ryde. 

Upon a wine-cask speedilie, 

As many a mother's son did see. 

By subtle craft he did that deede, 

And he received the devil's meede. ' 

As to the appropriateness and use of this Scene see Introduc- 


tion, p. xl. Alephistopheles feels himself heie quite at home 
and comfortable ; Faust, on the contrary, is silent aiu! morose 
— levolled by all he sees. 

Of the fouv sludents piesent — Frosch is the youngest. In the 
Bavarian Palatine schoolboys are nicknamed frogs. Brander is 
rtlder and less coarse and rüde than bis companions. Siebel is 
already bald and somewhat stout, whence Altmayer calls him 
Schmerbauch. Altmayer is the shrewdest and sharpest of the 


2073. 5cdic luftigicr (5cfcIIcn = 'a wine-party of merry boon- 


2074. ~sdj xviü cnd) lehren ; cf. our English phrase, ' Fll 

teach you to.' Frosch is angiy at their grave faces. 
2076. liditcrtol'! = 'all aflame.' 

2078. Säueret = ' beastliness.' 

2079. Doppelt 5djaiein = ' twice a swinc.' 

2081. cnt5iyctt =' quarreis. ' 

2082. There is a German drinking-song called ,l\ilitba,' from 

its refrahi, ,Huuba, Kutiba, i\unba, Piitclla.' 

2084. ' Bring cotton wool ! the fcllow will split my ears !' 

2088-2089. In his edition of Fa7(si Schröer makes the six 
syllables, ,21 tara lara tia ' form a line in themselves, 
and ,21 1 tara lara ba ! Die Kehlen finb aeftininit ' 
form an Alexandrine rhyming wilh 1. 20S7, ^hich 
also is an Alexandrine. I foÜow his arrangement in 
the text. gefttninit = ' tuned. ' 

2090, 2091. The seng which Frosch begins to sing was prob- 
ably some trifling populär seng. Schröer compares 
with it the song of the ' Kapuziner ' in Wallenstein's 
Lago — 

,Unb bas römifd)C i\cid\ bas ©Ott crbnriu, 
Soüte jctjt beiden römif* 2lrm.' 

2092. ,pfui ! ein poütifdj £teb.' Brander thinks this a stupid 
duU song, and so protests against it. This line has 
been often quoted as evidence that Göthe would ex- 
cludc all political aspiralions from literature. His 


silence during the great national movement of 1S13- 
14 has been set down to indifference to the fortunes 
of his coiintry. In 181 3, in a conversation with 
Soret, he said : 'IIow coukl I have taken up aims 
without hate ? and how could I have hated without 
youth ? If these events had found me a young man 
of twenty I should certainly not have been the last, 
but I was already well over sixty years when they 
came. . . . There is a stage when national hatied 
disappears ; when one Stands to some extent above 
the nations, and sympatliises with the weal or woe of 
a neighbour people as with that of one's own. This 
latter stage of culture suited my nature, and I had 
confined niyself in it long before reaching my sixtieth 
year. ' 
2093. Ictbig = ' offensive.' 

2098. At a Commeice in a German university (that is, a con- 

vivial meeting of students held at the end of a Semester 
or Term) the Student who can drink the most is elected 

2099, 2100. 'You know what quality it is decides the choice 

and elevates the man.' 

2101, 2102. These lines are taken from a populär song of the 

sixteenth centuiy. 
2104. ricnDcbren = ' to hinder.' 
2 1 10. angeführt = ' led by the nose. ' , 

21 12. Cross-roads were supposed to be the favourite resort of 

witches. Grimm {Deutsche Älythologie, Eng. Trans- 
lation, ed. 1880, p. II 15) says : ' They listened also 
at crossways, where boundaries touched : the part- 
ings of roads were accounted meeting-places of sprites 
and witches.' 
fcfjäfcni = ' to play,' ' wanton, ' ' sport. ' 

2 11 3. In Germany the Devil was believed often to appear as 

a bleating goat, and in Switzerland always as goat- 
footed. He seems to have been thought of as a kind 
of satyr-like Kobold. 

2 1 1 4. inccf crn = ' to bleat. ' 

21 18. i(]r (dat. case) with btC = Eng. 'her.' 



21 18. cingcfdjmiffcn, past participle of fdjinctffcn = ' to smash 

2122. liadj StanbcsgcbÜIir^ 'as befits their dignity.' 

2124. rom ncucftcn 5d?llitt= 'of the ncwesl cut' {i.e. 'fashion'). 

2125. Hunbrciin = ' Chorus,' 'refrain.' 

2126-2149. ' Theie was a rat in the cellar nest.' This song 
and this Scene were written in September 1775, 
during the height of Göthe's passion for Lili ; it is not 
only Brand er that satirises Siebel, but also Göthe 
satirising himself, in order to escape from the unrest 
of the strengest attachment of his life. Writing to 
the Countess Augusta von Stolberg, he says : ' I feit 
all the time like a rat that has eaten poison ; it 
scampers into all holes, drinks every kind of moisture, 
svvallows everything that comes in its way, and its 
entrails burn witli unquenchable fire.' See Bayard 
Taylor's note. 

2128. Vcx Hangen, bas HälljCl, and the diminutives bas 

iuiUjlcin, bas Hältjdjcn, are all difilerent forms of 
the same word. anmäftCU='to falten.' The 
students have as little respect for Dr. Luther as they 
have for the Pope (cf. 1. 2098). 

2129. This line rhymes with 1. 2127, £utf]CV being pronounced 

£uttcr, though the name is said to be derived from 
2 135- foff, preterile of fauffcu = ' to drink,' ' gulp down.' 

btc PfutjC, (pl. Pfützen or Pfüt5Cil) = 'puddle.' 
1236. gcnmoit' = 'gnawed away.' 
3Crfrat3t' = 'scratched away.' 

2137. ' Nothing would help its madness.' 

2138. tll&t is not imperfect conjunctive, but an old form of the 

imperfect indicative ; it is more correctly written tet, 
which is the Middle High German form. I have heard 
South Germans say : ,3d? tct CS gcru' = ' I did it 
willingly.' The line means : ' It jumped and sprang, 
mad with torment.' 

2144. ' Fell down on the hearth and lay convulsed.' 

2145. tf]ät, sce 1. 2138. The use of tl]ät with the infinitive 



is tlie same construction as the English ' did ' wilh 

the infinitive. 
2145. fdinaufcn = ' to wheeze,' 'breathe.' 
2147. fic pfeift auf bcin Ictjtctt £odj = 'it is at the last gasp' ; 

lit. ' it is piping on the last hole.' 

2150. platten = 'dull.' 

2151. (£5 tft tnir eine redite Kunft, etc., 'it is a fitting art to 
' strew poison for such poor rats.' nttr, the dat. of a 

pers. pron. , is often used in German expletively, for 
liveliness of expression ; for example, ,la% mir herein 
i>cn Eliten,' ' let the old man in here ' {/or nie). 

2154. 5djincer= 'fat.' Altmayer means Siebel when he says 

2163, 2164. 'As the kitten plays witli her tail in a narrow 
circle, so, in a continuous round,' says Mephistopheles, 
' without any wish to advance beyond it, these merry 
fellows, with very little wit, lead a happy life, — satis- 
fied if they escape headache, and if the host will give 
them credit.' 

2168. I)ic, i.e. Faust and Mephistopheles. 

2169. tpunberltdjc XÜeifc= ' odd manners.' 

2171, 2172. In a description of Leipzig written in 176S, 
Leipzig is called paris int Kleinen. Göthe had 
studied in Leipzig from 1765 to 1768. 

2175, 2176. The meaning is, 'I can draw out their secrets as 
easily as a clüld's tooth.' 

2179. Their dress is peculiar (see above, 11. 1536- 1539), and 

hence Brander takes them for lluirFffdireter. The 
riTarFtfdn'cicr [i.e. ' mountebank ') belongs to a past 
age ; he was a man who offered quack medicines for 
sale at fairs, and was at the same time a conjurer and 
a strolling actor. 

2180. fdjraubcn= ' to screw,' here 'to make fools of,' ' to drive 

into a corner. ' 

2181. ' Even if he had them by the nape of the neck.' 

21 84. Mephistopheles was lame (cf. below, 11. 2499, 2500). 
According to Christian tradition the Devil limps, 
because of his fall from heaven into the abyss of hell. 


In Pagan Mythology Vulcan limps, Wieland the 
smith limps, and Thor threatens to make Loki lame. 

2 186-2188. Tr. ' And forgood wine, which cannot be had heie, 
give US the pleasure of good Company. ' ' You seem 
a very fastidious gentleman.' 

2189, 2190. Hippad/, a village between Naumburg and Leipzig. 
1711115 von Jvippadj meant ' a country bumpkin,' ' an 
Ignorant country squire of good family.' 

2195. ' A Sharp knave.' pftffii}= 'sly,' 'cunning,' 'sharp.' 

2196. idj frtctj tt^n fdjon='ril have him yet.' Kriegen is 

colloquial for bcf'omniett ; it comes from fvtcc} = ' war,' 
and means literally ' to grab,' rather than ' to get.' 

2204. nagchlCU, answering to the English 'brand-new.' 

2214. Sol^n. Schröer says in the Oberrhein dialect the it in 
Sof^n is scarcely heard, hence Sot^ll is made to rhyme 
with ^^lol]. Der Floh is here, so to speak, a caricature 
of the Haus -Geist or Kobold. When the Kobold 
entered into the Service of any man or any family, 
according to German Sagas and Legends, new clothes 
used to be ordered for him, as here for the Floh. 

2219. bcin Sdjneibcr ciiijufdiärfcu =: ' to impress upon the 
tailor. ' 

2221. fo lieb feilt Kopf ihm ift^'as he sets a value on his 

2226. ein KrcU3 — ' an order. " 

2233. bic §ofc= ' the maid.' 

2234. ' Stung and bitten.' 

2248. bei" Wivt befdjmeret fidj=: ' the host would be vexed.' 
2251. ' Out with it then, I'll take the blame on me.' 

2254. jubiciren = urteilet!. The students were taught in Latin, 
and hence got into the way of using Latin words. 

2256. Altmayer takes them for dealers in wine from the Rhine- 


2257. In the Faust legend and Faust book, it is Faust who con- 

jures ; in Gölhe's poem he only speaks twice during 
the M'hole Scene (see 1. 2183 and 1. 2296) ; he rcmains 
silent through disgust and reserve. 

2269. ntuffirenb = ' sparkling.' 

2270. bas ^rembc, here 'what is foreign,' ' outlandish.' 



2272. Per ^^miljC for bcr ^raitjOfc is found occasionally in 
German poetry ; for example, in the Xcnioii of Göthe 
(first/;7«te/in 1S36 — vol. Ivi. p. 98, ed. 1827-42 of 
Göthe's Works)— 

,3l?r fötmt mir immer ungefcbcut 
iric Blüdicr'n Ilciifnuil fetsrn ; 
Ccm iran5eu liat er t\\&\ bcfrcir, 
3d; uoti pliilifter^ncgcn.' 

The tone of almost exaggerated patriotism, chiefly 
directed against anytliing and' everything French, is 
heavd among Göthe's contemporaries most loudly in 
the writings of the Göttinger Dichterbund. 
2276. dofaicr^ ' Tokay," i.e. 'best Ilungarian.' 

2278. einen jum 23eftcn hokzw (or balten) = ' to make game of. ' 

2279. (Ei (£i ! is an exclamation one hears Germans use every 


22S1. ITur gcrab bcrans gcfagt^ ' speak out " 1 

2284-2287. These four lines make a spell whcn Mephistopheles 
speaks them. When the Scene is acted they are ac- 
companied by movements of the hands, which keep 
time to the rhythm of the lines spoken, but are also 
meant to caricatiffe the motions of a priest during the 
Performance of divine Service. — 'Tlie vine tree bears 
grapes, the goat puts forth homs ; the grapes are 
juicy, the vines are of wood ; tlre wooden table like- 
vvise can give wine.' 

22S9. Cf. 1. 766, ^OiS IDunbcr ift bes (Slauhcns licbftcs 

2290. The bored holes have meanwhile been stopped with 
sealed corks. 

'^ -7 

292. rcr9tcJ3t= 'spill." 
2293, 2294. These two lines sound like a fragment of some 
drinking song. 5anaioI= ' happy as a sow ' ; the 
expression sauuiolfetn is found in Hegel {.Ästhetik, 
iii. 566) ; ,obnc ihn (Aristophanes) gclffcn jU l^abcn, 
läfft ftdi Fauni tPtffcn, xü'xt bem lUcnfdicit fau mol 
fein fann'; and in Widmann's Faustbiuh (' Wahr- 
hafte historieti von dr. Joh. Faust.' etc., 1599), i. 47, 
Kap., come the lines — 



,5ie tun roic fäii utib wilbe ticr, 
ITctin man iljncn gibt unb tröget für, etc. 
Cf., too, above 1. 2078. 
2295. 'Such are men,' says Mephistopheles, ' when they are 
free ; when in a drunken revel they show what they 
really are. ' 
2296-2298. Faust says, 'I should like to leave them and go ' ; 
Mephistopheles, on the contrary, feels himself at home, 
and rejoices in their ,23e[ttalttät.' 
2298. Mephistopheles has warned them not to spill the winc ; 
the Devil's gifts are unreal mockeries, — the gold he 
gives men turns to dust and ashes, the wine he gives 
burns like fire. 

2300. bic flamme bcfprcdjcnb = 'charming away the flame.' 

2301. ^cgcfcucr = ' cleansing fire,' ' a bit of purgatoiy.' 

2303. ' It seems you don't know vvho 7üe are !' 

2304. ' Let him try that game a second time ! ' 

2305. ' I think we had better send him off quietly !' 

2306. 2307. Siebel addresses Mephistopheles in the 3d person, 

which is by no means respectful : ' What, sir, you 
dare to make so free and play your ßofuspoFllS on 
US?' i]ofuspofus is a phrase used for magic, sleight 
of hand (see Grimm's Wörterbuch, 2, 2, 1731) : it is 
Said to be derived from the words — IIoc est corpus 
metnn — used by the priest when consecrating the 
sacred elements. 

230S. altes n?cinfa§ = ' old wine-tub.' Siebel is veiy stout. 
23efcnfticl= 'broomstick.' Mephistopheles is very Ican 
and thin. 

2310. ' Wait now, there'U be blows !' 

2312. DOgcIfrci means 'outlawed'; it used to be said of a 

person found guilty of using magic, and hence no 
longer under the protection of the law. The English 
equivalent is 'fair-game.' 

2313. Mephistopheles makes motions with his hands and 

speaks a spell — 

' False word and form of air, 
Change place and sense ensnare, 
Bo herc and there ! ' 


23 16-23 19. ^^ ^^^ FmtsibucJi of 1587 the heading of one of 

the chapteis is : ,1). ^auftt aäfto ipollcii itill (il^ncu, 

i.e. fid?) fclb bic imfcii abfdiiiciöcu.' 
2321. fpalßC, 3d. sing. pres. conj. 
2324, 2325. ' It was a stroke tliat went thiougli all my limbs ! 

Fetch a chair ! I'm falling ! ' 
2329. fclbft, i.e. ' with my own eyes.' Altmaycr speaks. In 

the legend and in the picture it is P'aust not Mephis- 

topheles who rides out of the tavern on a wine-cask. 

2332. llTctn (originally mcitt (Sott!) is a vulgär expression of 

astonishment. It is found again in a poem of Göthe, 
called ScJnieider-Cotirage {Gedichte, ii. 263, ed. 1S27- 
42): ,(£5 ift ein £cfiu§ tjcfallcn 1 iriciti! Sciijt, 
tucr fdjoy babraiifj ?' 

2333. Göthe uses here the old form (Eiuj for iütjc, to niake 

a rhyme with Betrug. 

2334. nur c)äud;itc sometimes used for midi bäuditc. 


Iklephistopheles brings Faust into the Witches' Kitchen in 
Order to procure for him a drink which shall take thirty years 
from his age. The Witches' Scene in Macbeth should be com- 
pared with this, and was no doubt in Göthe's thoughts when he 
wrote. Düntzer, Loeper, and Schröer bid us remember here 
the witcli pictures of Breughel and Teniers. In the judgment 
of the Middle Ages monkeys and apes stood midway between 
human beings and the lower animals ; but while man was 
regarded as the creature of God, the ape M'as regarded as the 
creature of the Devil. 

2337- 'This senseless witchcraft sickens and disgusts me.' 

2338. genefett = 'recover,' ' recruit life's powers.' 

2339, 2340. The whole scene appears to Faust like the dis- 

order and chaos of a bad dream. In general, Faust 
looks on Mephistopheles' magic as a mere swindle. 
2341. Subclfödjerei= ' the brew in that pot.' 5ubcl is con- 
nected with ficbcn='tQ seethe,' also with the EngHsh 
' suds.' 



2347-2361. ' Yes,' Mephistopheles says, ' there is another way. 
Abandon all efifort and aspiration ; live by haid work 
and on the simplest fare ; and thou shalt keep thyself 
young tili eighty.' 

2358. f]alt es nidjt für Haub, i.e. <xw bir fclbft, <x\\ bcincr ^^ctt. 
We have ihe same expression in the Bible, Phil. ii. 6 
• — ' Who . . . thought it not robbery lo bc equal 
with God.' 

2366, 2367. These lines are not found in the edition of 1790. 

2368. §cttf>crtrctb= ' pastime.' 

2369. ' Why, a tliousand bridges niight be built meanwhile ' — 

an allusion to the many so-called Devil's bridges. 

2372. ' In silence the spirit is busied with it for years.' 

2373. 'Time only clears and strengthens the fermentation.' 
2376. fies, i.e. fic es ; obs. Icl^vett followed by Iwo accusatives. 
2378. jtcrlidj^ 'fine,' 'delicate.' 

2381-2383. ' Gone from home 

To the rout — 

Through tlie chimney she went out.' 
2384. ' How long will she stay away rioting?' 
2385-2389. The absurd meaningless answers of the aninials 
please Mephistopheles as much as they disgust Faust. 

2390. Mephistopheles means ,rci"fhldite Puppen ' to be a term 

of endearment. 

2391. ' Why are ye stirring the broth so ?' 

2392. Bettclfuppc, a kind of soup, made out of water and all 

sorts of scraps and leavings, given without payment 
to beggars at monastery doors. A satiric allusion to 
the worthless nature of the literature populär at the 
time. This is the first time that such satire appears 
in the Faust poem, but in the Walpurgis Night Hcene 
later on many niore of such allusions are found. 
They have, of course, nothing whatever to say lo the 
Faust poem itself. In a letter written to Schiller in 
July 1797 concerning a volume which he sends, 
Göthe says : ' Herewith goes the again murdered, er 
rather putrefied, Gustavus III. It is really just such 
a beggar's soup as the German public loves.' 
2397. (Sav fdilcdit tfts bcftcllt, i.e. um midi, 'Things are going 
badly with me. ' 



2398, 2399. ' And had I but gold, so had I my reason. Hay- 
ward translates, ' Had I money, I should not want 
for consideration. ' In one of the Zahvie Xemen 
Göthe wiiles — 

,(5cfunbcr incnfcfi oImic (Selb 
3ft halb franf.' 

Cf. the old proverb, ,(5clb regiert btC IPcIt." 

2401. ins SottO, an allusion to public lotteries so populär then, 
and still so populär in Germany. 

2402-2415. Per JTieer!atcr (from Indian Merkata), 'a long- 
tailed ape.' The little apes come up rolling a ball, 
which the Meerkater likens to the world ; he bids 
the llleerfätjdictl not to trust it — it is breakable, as 
the World is perishable. ' It says to you, I am alive ! 
But, dear son, shun it ; thou must die ! It is of 
earth ; it will break in fragments !' The whole is an 
ironical parody of a sermon on life and death. With 
11. 2406, 2407, cf. the German proverb, ,(SIÜ(f Ulli) 
(Sias, XOxt halb bridit bas ! ' 

2416-2421. In the Middle Ages the looking through sieves 
(called KocsKwois ixavTewadai), or crystals, or mirrors, 
was a favourite magic process, especially used for the 
discovery of a criminaL In earlier times, too, there 
was supposed to be virtue in looking through a sieve. 
Theokritns, i. 31, and v. 31, speaks of a Ko<TKi.v6ixavTi.s, 
i.e. ' a sieve-inteipreter.' 

2427. IL'^cbcI means here ^lietjcuilicbcl, 'a brush for beating 
off the flies.' Rlephistopheles, as god of flies (Beel- 
zebub), was to hold it as a sceptre. 

2430-2440. ^Yhat Faust sees in the mirror is of course the 
creation of Mephistopheles. It is not Margaret, and 
it is not Helen, but the perfect, ideal beauty of the 
human form — ,3ft5 möglidi, ift bas IPctb fo fdiötl ? ' 
The image seen in the mirror is not a sensual, but a 
purely resthetic symbol, the significance of which is 
not further developed in the First Part of Faust. 
The coarser dement, by means of which Mejjhisto- 
pheles achieves a temporary triumph over Faust, is 
represented by the potion prepared by the \Yitch. 



2442. See Gen. i. 31 — 'And God saw everything that lic had 
made, and, behold, it was very good.' 

2448-2464. We are meant to note the contrast betwecn the 
growing passion of Faust and the ludicrous acting of 
Mephistopheles, seated on a throne with a brush for 
a sceptre and suirounded by monkeys. These bring 
the crown to Mepliistopheles, and drop it on the way 
and break it. "With blood and sweat he will glue it 
together for them, like a true kingly autocrat who 
makes fast and firm his power with the blood and 
sweat of his people : 11. 2458-2460 refer to the 
dreary jingle of certain poets wlio now and then, 
through good luck, get hold of a thought. 

2466. The Witch addresses the Meerkater. 

2474. The Witch's soup, like Mephistopheles' winc, lurns to 
flame when spilt. 

2478. ' This is just a joke in return for your greeting.' 

2479. Per ilact='time' (in music). 
2Ia5= 'Carrion.' 

248 1 . (Scripte = ' bag of bones ' (lit. ' skeleton '). 
2486. Cf. 1536 and the lines following. 

2490. Pfcrbcfufj. AU notions of the Devil having a horse's 

hüof or a goat's foot are traceable to the tradition 
that he was lame, and limped in consequence of his 
original fall from heaven. See note to 1. 2184. 

2491. eure hcibcn Haben. In Northern Mythology ravens are 

the messengers and companions of Odin ; only in 
later times did they come to be regarded as birds of 
ill omen. Cf. in Macbeth, I. v. — 

' The Ravcn himself is hoarse 
That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Undcr my battlements." 

Here, as in Part II. Act IL, they are assigned to and 
associated with the Devil. Grimm {Deutsche ÄlytlioL, 
Eng. Translation, cd. 18S0, p. 997) says in Gennau 
Mythology the Devil often appears as a raven, 
2495-2502. Euphemistic names for the Devil were early in use ; 
he was called der Familiär- Geist (the Familiär Spirit), 
or Liicifer (name of the morning star), or again, 


das I\reis/crlein (thc little mastcr), or Magisle7-lein. 
Grimm (in his Wörterbuch) teils how the Devil was 
called — Junker Hans (young Hans), Schön Hans, 
Junker Stopf, Feder Hans (because of the feather 
he wore in his hat). Klinger, in his version of 
the FaiistlmcJi, represents the Devil as saying to 
Faust : ,Dcrinutblid| \\a\i bu bcn (Teufel mit bcu 
I^övncru uiib bcii Socfsfüfscn crtpartct.' That 
the Devil of our days is no longer represented with 
horns, tail, and claws, as in the Middle Ages, is 
characteristic of the times \ve live in. Crime, mean- 
ness, every sort of evil it is our custom to be reserved 
about, we seldom paint them in their true colours, or 
call them by their true names. 
2507. No one believes in Satan any more. 
2509. ' They are quit of the Evil One, but Evil still remains.' 
2516, 2517. One notices and is conscious of the silence of Faust 

during Mephistopheles' disgusting talk with the hag. 
25 iS. fdiafft, from f*affcn, which in Schwabian, Austrian, 
'and Bavarian dialects means ' to desire,' 'command." 
It is not the strong form, fdiaffen, fdiuf,__gcfdiaffen, 
but a weak form, fduiffeit, f*affte, cjcfdiafft. 
2531. Again follows a caricaturing imitation of the movements 
''of the priest and his attendants during the Perform- 
ance of the sacred offices. 
2536-2539. It is excellent how ISIephistopheles evades answer- 
ing Faust's doubts : ' As a physician it is needful and 
necessary that she goes through this rigmarole ; don't 
you be so stern and unbending.' 
2540-2552. With the senseless arithmetic of the Witch compare 
the wordä of the Witches in Macbeth, I. i. 3 — • 
' Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, 
And thrice again to make up nine ! ' 
Cf. also Macbeth, IV. i. This playing with the num- 
bers 3x3 comes also in .thc Freimauer Lieder, and 
hence it has been thought that Göthe there and here 
is mocking at the customs and rites of freemasons. 
However, Göthe was for many years an active mem- 
ber of the brotherhood. Whcn in Strasburg in his 
youlh he had made a special study of numbers and 



their significance, — beginning vvith tlie teaching of 
2558. Bodin {Di'nioiiomaiiie, 011 Traitc des Sorders) says it was 
one of the principles of magic that incomprehensible 
words er terms have moie power than comj^rehensible. 
Pliny had written : ' Minorem fidem liomines adhibent 
iis, qucc intelligunt.' 
2561, 2562. Mephistopheles irreverently refers to the Christian 

doctrine of the Trinity. 
2564. bcfaffen = ' to concem oneself with.' 
2567-2572. It was part of Göthe's poetic creed that the truest 
and deepest insight into things is not tlie result of 
conscious labour, but falls lipon the mind as a free, 
pure, unsuspectcd gift. His distaste for metaphysics 
arose from the fact that it forced him to think about 
his thinking. Thus here the Witch gives expression 
^ to his own thoughts ; cf. one of the axioms in the 
Zahme Xenien — 

,3a, btis ift bns rcdjtc (SIcis, 
Da^ man iiidit »ci^, 
IVas man bcnft, 
Wenn man bcnft ; 
2(Ucs ift als \v\t gcfcJicntt.' 

Gedichte, iii. 246 (ed. 1827-42). 

2577. Sibylle, the name given to an inspired prophetess by the 
Romans, and a term also used in the Middle Ages by 
Christians of an inspired singer. 

2582. Sd^hicf ='draught.' 

2585. Btft mit bcin (Teufel bu Ullb blt, i.e. ' on terms of in- 
timacy.' Faust calls the Devil bu from the beginning 
on ; Mephistopheles begins to call Faust bll from 
1. 1346. The use of tl^l' and er, as well as bit, marks 
the varying mood of the Speaker. 

2588. ' Much good may the draught do thee.' 

2590. auf lUalpnrijts, i.e. 'on the Blocksberg on Walpurgis 

2592. IPirf'utuj = ' effect.' 

2596. I'llüf5iciijang= 'indolcnce. ' Mephistopheles understands 
well that an indolent, unregulated course of life con- 
tributes to tlie grcnvlh (if all furms of sensual desire. 


2V98. (£upi^O, /..-. ' desire ' ; the namc of thc god of lovc among 
the Romans. 

2?go When Gölhe, in 1829, read the First Part of Faust aloud 
to his friends, after Faust liad drunk the Witches 
potion, instead of his former deep bass voice, he 
made him speak with the clear tenor voice of a youth. 

2601 2604. Mephistopheles' purpose in giving Faust the love- 
potion was to bring him into a State of mad mtoxica- 
tion, in which every woman's form which he saw 
shoüld appear beautiful to Iiim. Mephistopheles fails 
of his purpose, because Faust is not overcome by 
wild, unrestrained passion, but loves Margaret with 
a deep and enduring love. 

2604. The pronunciation of fjcicuc varies considerably in 
Faust ; here we have Iicloucit, elsewhere BcIeilC 
(in Greek the accent is on 'the penult— 'EXe'cT;). 


Ilere we take leave of the old v^a«.f/ legend, which we do not 
find again until the appearance of Helen in Part II. For the 
episode of Margaret, Göthe ' delved in his own breast.' 
Margaret is drawn partly from her namesake Gretchen, a girl 
in Frankfurt in a somewhat humble walk in life, whom Göthe 
as a boy of sixteen imagined he loved, and partly from his 
betrothed Lili — Anna Elizabeth Schönemann— the daughter of 
a banker in Frankfurt, for whom Göthe feit the strongest 
affection of his life. All the Gretchen Scenes were written 
during the spring of 1775, and Göthe's engagement to Lili was 
not broken off until August 1775. The town described is 
Line . , , 

2606. il^v aujutragcn. To use the 3d per. sing, m addressmg 

another was, in Göthe's youth, not unusual ; more- 
over, it was old-fashioned, and Göthe was glad, if 
possible, to introduce antiquated words and forms 
into his Faust. It is now very seldom used, and 
only to inferiors by superiors. 

2607. ^ränlcin meant at the time only a lady of high birth. 



261 1. Sic tft fo SWmb ducjcnb rcicfj; so Schröer p.ints the 

iHie, ^v•^^.Ie in gencral thc editions have Sitt- utlb 
^ugcub But, ns Schröer well points o"' 
although you can have üugcnbixtd), you cannot have 
bittreid? as Sttt IS compounded with fatn, and there- 
fore it IS better to read Sitt' imb Enacitt) rcid? 

2612. ^nipptfd? = Eng. 'snappish,' lit. used of closing the lins 

quickly. '^ ' 

2614. Die Jlacjc bcr iüclt, an accus, of time. 
2617. lUic fic fnr3 angebimbcn trar = ' how short and sharp 
of Speech was she.' Grhiini, in his Wörtcrlmcl 
espla.ns the vvord by ,miI^, a,cir „,an U)ilbc, lUlbäu' 
ötgc u,l]ierc fur3 aiibiiibct.' The phrase has been 
very amusingly misunderstoo<l by both French and 
i^nghsh translators ; one French translator has 
' Et la jupe courte ! 
D'honneur ! c'est ä ravir ! ' 
And Lord Leveson Gower — 

' As with her govvn held up she fled, 
That well-turned ankle well niight'turn one's head ! ' 
2628. r^atts £iobcrrid? Bayard Taylor translates 'Jack Rake ' 
Hans IS short for Johannes. Luther writes of ,inclc 
iiaitfcit' nuich as he would vvrite of nicic Kcrfc ' 
Cf. also in Götz von Berlkhingen ,BaitS Küd?Cti= 
liieiitcr.' • ' 

2630. nnbMiuFcIt ifjm, i.e. imb VixnMi es il]m = inib es 

fimfelt ,l]lll = ' he fancies ' ; the verb bünfelu is formed 
out of thc Substantive bünFcI= 'a fancy,' 'a conceit.' 

2632. ' But the thing does not always succeed.' 

2633. I7CIT IlTagifter £ohefan,— tr. 'Mr. Pedagogue.' The ex- 

pression appears (irst in 1624 in a satiric poem by 
^eumeister: ,I)as hccröiitc ilL, auf deutfd? maaiftcr 
iobciait.' - ' 

2634. (Scfct3 Stands here for 'prejudice and custom' : 'Just leave 

prejudice and custom in peace.' 

2650. Brinihorium, from the French hrimhorion ; it si-nifies 

' meaningless preambles. ' "^ 

2651. piippc-hen = 'don.' 
tjcFitetct = ' kneaded.' 



2651. tjcridjtct — 'sliaped,' 'mouklod.' 

2652. tüclfdic^ ' Fiench,' or ' Italian,' or simply 'foreign.' 

Probably Göthe here alludes to love stoiies such as are 
found in the Decavieron of Boccaccio, or in books like 
the Hcptamcroii (attributed to Maiguerite of Navarre, 
b. 1492, d. 1558). 

2654. ' Without scolding and without jesting.' 

2657. ' We cannot capture here by storm.' 

2659-2662. Cf. Göthe's poem Lebendiges Atidcnken {Ged. i. 
46, cd. 1827-42), where we have — 

,<£in Sdilcicr, ßalstudi, Stniinv)fbiiii&, ijinge 
5itib tDahrlidi feine ticincn Dinge.' ' 

2671. ' The place where you can breathe the same atmosphere.' 

SCENE vni. 

Margaret's home : a small, neatly-kept room. — One cannot 
fail to notice the entire change in Faust since the preceding 
Scene, although only a few hours have elapsed. At the 
first meeting with Margaret it is the Witch's potion that speaks 
through him ; here better, though obscure, aspirations re- 
possess him, under the new, blissful^ disquieting form of love. 
Mephistopheles is incapable of understanding the transforma- 
tion in Faust's feelings, because the strongest negation of his 
denying nature is that of love. Göthe was not only keenly 
sensitive to the Operation of atmospheric influences upon the 
mind, but he also believed in the existence of a spiritual air, 
through which impressions — independent of any known sense 
— might be communicated. It is the atmosphere of peace, 
and Order, and contentment, and chastity, which unconsciously 
touches Faust in Margaret's room, and it is the sultiy breath 
of evil, of impending temptation and ruin, which oppresses 
Margaret on her return. 

2689. Cf. Rastlose Liebe, and IVoniie der Wehmitth {Gedichte, i. 

85, 98, ed. 1827-42). 
2695, 2696. • Receive me then, thou who, in thine open arms, 
hast welcomed year by year, in joy and grief, the 
generations gone.' 



2699. bcn llCtltgcn (£t]rtft='her Chiistmas gift.' 

2703. fäufcln= ' to whisper around.' 

2704. imtcnDetfcn = ' to teach.' 

2705. l|ct§cn= 'to bid.' 

2706. The custom of strewing sand on the floor still survivcs 

in out-of-the-way parts of Germany and England. 
2709. IPottttcgraus = ' blissful fear.' 
2712. ctngcbornen (Engel, i.e. the angel Gietchen ; perhaps 

' angelic child ' would do as a translation. 

2715. IPcbctl means here the movement of a living being ; cf. 

1- 503- 

2716. (Entanrftc ftdj= ' was developed,' 'unfolded.' 
2722. HTtdj brang cs = cs brängtc mtdj; cf. 1. 495. 
2727. dians, tr. 'loiit'; but cf. 1. 2628. 

2731. Iciblidj = ' tolerably.' 

2734. ' She will lose her senses with delight.' SiuilClt for 
Stillte ; the form is found in Middle High German, 
and at present, too, in some German dialects. 

2736, eilte ailbre. Mephistopheles means Faust, or some one 
eise, might have charmed a better, nobler girl (cillC 
anbre) with such jewels as these. 

2739. Mephistopheles speaks as if angrily indignant. 

2744. The meaning is, ' I think so hard, I work so hard, 
for you.' Mephistopheles purposely misunderstands 
Faust ; and observe, it is Mephistopheles who actually 
puts the casket into Margaret's press. 

2752. XXux fort! A broken line, without rhyme, implying the 
haste with which Faust and Mephistopheles retreat. 

2753,2754. l|tc ; braufj. Observe Margaret speaks in dialect, 
and uses only the simplest words. 

2759. The bailad of the King of Thule was written in 1774. 
Like the songs sung in Auerbach's cellar, it niay 
or may not have been originally intended for Faust. 
An earlier version was published in 1782, in a collec- 
tion of Volkslieder by S. von Seckendorf The pre- 
sent Version appeared for the first time in 1790, in 
the Faust Fragment. Thule was supposed by the 
ancients to be the most remote of all lands. Tacitus, 



in his Germania, spcaks of 'Ultima Thule.' The 
name is now commonly belie\-ed to refer to the 
Shetland Islands, wliich lie off the north-east coast of 
2761. 23lll]Ie= 'lover,' but used here of a woman, as we find 
' lover ' likewise in English poetry. J5ublc is now 
only used with a bad sense. 

2765. Die 2liigcn gingen ihm über =' his eyes overflowed 

with tears. ' 

2767. llnb als er fant 511 fterbcn; cf. the Eng. phrase, 
' when he came to die,' and the Fr. ' il vint ä mourir.' 

2773, 2774. Note the prepositions used here, — auf where we 
use in English 'in'; <x\\ where we use 'by': — auf is 
the English ' up.' 

2775. In New High German ,gcdjer' means ,(ErinFcr' = ' a 

drinker,' but in Old High German it means the 
0rbner einer (Scfellfdiaft, i.e. 'the master of a 
feast,' so that, when used here, there is nothing con- 
temptuous in the name. 

2776. Sebcn5glutfj = 'life glow.' 

2781. ttjäten = tliatcn ; the fomis tbät, tbätc, tbätcn are 
poetical, formed after the analogy of the conjunctive ; 
cf 1. 2138. 

2 7 82. Schubert and Zelter have both written music to this 
bailad ; Schubert's setting is dramatic and beautiful. 

2790. Sdjau for fiel] \><x\ is peculiar to South German dialect. 

2791. mein Cage='my life long.' Sage for Sebetagc: mein 

is uninflected, and originally the old gen. sing, of the 

ist pers. pron. 
2798. euc^ ; she means, 'all you girls, who like me are poor, 

what does beauty, what does youth, avail you ?' 
2802-2804. These three lines have become almost proverbial in 

Germany. By them one already sees that a sort of 

vague dissatisfaction and yearning has been aroused 

in Gretchen by Mephistopheles' gift. 



A Street in Frankfurt : Faust Walking thoughtfully up 
and down. 
2805. ' By all love ever rejected !' 

2S07. fncipcu; Eng. 'knip'; here tr. 'ails.' 

2808. So fcttt ©cfidjt \aii idj for So ein (Scftdjt fat^ idj nie. 

281 1. Dcrfd^obcn, past participle of Dcrfdjicbcil = ' to dcrange.' 

2812. pidj flcibct5 = 'it is becoming.' 

2814. ein Pfaff='a priest' (now, however, only used as a 

term of contempt). 
f^tiitDcgraffcn - ' to grab.' 
281.6. ' Something began secretly to haunt her,' — 'some secret 

fear began to haunt her.' 

2817. (Scvudj = ' sense of smell. ' 

2818. Sdjnuffcit. In Low German bic Sdjunffc = bic tTafc ; in 

High German [djnaubcn= 'to smell' ; fdjnuffcin is of 
course the Eng. 'snuffle. ' Cf. fdjtiopcru in 1. 1187. 

2824. Scfäugt^ 'ensnares.' 
auf3ct)reit = ' waste,' ' consume.' 

2825. IPoIIcns, i.e. xviv moUcn es. 

2826. IVixb, i.e. fic iDtrb. 
rjttnmclsmanna='heavenly food.' See Exod. ii. 

2S27. The mother sometimes calls her jinargrctlctu' ; Valentine 

calls her Gretel ; Faust always calls her Gretchen. 

In the Faust Fragment the name Gretchen is found, 

I think, for the fii'st time at the beginning of the song, 

,IlTcinc Jvul^ tft I]iit.' 
ein [djtcfes lTiauI=: 'a W17 face.' 
2828. (Es is understood before 3ft. 

\\oXi is an adverb, much in use in South Germany 

and in Austria, meaning 'indeed,' or some such 

, (Einem oic[djenftcn (5aiil fiet^t w\<\\\ nidjt ins IHauI,' i.e. 

' \Ve do not look a gift horse in the mouth.' 

2832. ücrnomtncn, past participle of üerneljmen = ' to under- 


2834,2835. He Said, ' You think rightly,' or ' that is the 

proper view ' ; — ' He that overcometli gaineth the 

2836-2838 contain Mephistopheles' own reflections. 

283S. cjeffcn = ge=cffcn, and is the true past participle of cffcit. 
(Scijcffcn is found for the first time in the seventeenth 
Century; cf. the past participle Übci'Cffcit (from 
Übcrcfl'en, ' to over-eat '), where the g has dropped out 
and been lost. 

2840. Cf. the proverb, ,l{irdjcnaut bat cifcnic ^äbiic' 

2S41. ein allgctnctltcr 53raudi= 'a common enough practice.' 

2843. Stridi, i.e. er ftrtdj (from ftrcidjcn)= 'he swept away.' 

2844. Pfifferling = ' toadstool. ' 
2851. (Sefdimctbc= ' the jewels.' 
2857. madj= ' make haste.' 

2859. ^ret= 'gruel,' or something equally tasteless. 
2S62. ücrpnfft — ' blows away. ' 


A room in Martha's house. — In this Scene the characters of 
Margaret, Martha, and Mephistopheles are set before us in the 
clcarest manner by a few simple realistic touches. 


2S67. ftracfs = ' straight out,' — an adverb in the genitive case 
from the adjective ftracf = 'straight outstretched.' 

2S69. übät, i.e. '/ did nothing to sadden him.' ilbät = 
,tl!at'; see on 1. 2781. 

2S72. Cobtcnfdjein. There is in Germany an official registra- 
tion of all marriages, births, and deaths, which is pub- 
lished at stated intervals. It is piain that Martha 
cannot have cared much for her husband, because, if 
she only /lad had the certificate (Üobtcnfdjcin) of his 
death, she was ready to marry again. 

2876. (Hbcnbol3 = ' ebony.' 



2879. fic. In thls line and in 1. 2881 the 3d pers. sing, is used 
as a pronoun of address ; even in Göthe's time tliis 
was unusual and antiquated ; cf. 1. 2606. 

2SS0. CEf^ät is here conjunctive not indicative ; 'she would 
have it carried at once to Confession.' 

2S82. Stage direction, JTlartbc put3t fic auf, i.e. ' Martha puts 
the jewels on Margaret'; aufput5en = ' to trim up,' 
' to adorn.' 

2884. mit for bamit. 

2S87. Sptccjcicjtas. It was not nnusual in Germany, as well 
ns elsewhere, to join the foreign name of a thing to 
the familiär name in the mother-tongue — thus the 
foreign name was brought nearer, and made more 
familiär. Spicijcl is the Latin speailum. 

2889. Jlnlaf) = ' occasion.' 

2896. Porl^ängicI. The little window in the door had a 
curtain, this Martha draws aside. Dorl]änc}cI, populär 
diminutive of Porl]ang. 

2898. erbeten is used for erbitten for the rhyme's sake. 

2901-2904. ' I know you now — that is sufficient. You have a 
visitor of high rank. Pardon the liberty I have 
taken ! I will come back in the afternoon. ' Obs. 
Sic t]at (3d sing.) used for ,\\\x l]abt,' i.e. 'you 

2906. ^räulein. Cf. 1. 2607. 

2907. Blut means here 'thing,' or 'girl.' 

2913. Pcriangc. Obs. how often the pronoim is left out by 

the uneducated peo]5le. 

2914. ITläf^r. In Middle High German rnät]re means (and 

can also mean in New High German) Hacijricbt. 

2921. mein Qlaij, i.e. 'my life long'; cf. 1. 2791. 

2922. Dcriuft is subject of IDürbc. 

2923. Cf. the proverb, ,l{ein frcni) ol'jnc leib.' 

2926. St. Anthony is buricd in the Chiesa di Sant' Antonio in 
Padua. In the oldest Faust book we read that in his 
third journey Faust reached Padua, and there is the 
church of St. Anthony — ,Daf5 itjrcs gleidjcn in gauj 
3talia nit cjefunbcn u)irb.' 


2933- Sdiauftürf , i.e. ' a piece of money to reniembcr him by' ; 

' a keepsake.' 
2934. 5c(fcl; Eng. 'satcheL' 

2936. * And would rather hunger, lather beg, than part with.' 
2938. iicr3ettcln = ' waste. ' 
2942. iAcquictn. The prayer for the departed begins thus — 

' Requiem reternam doiia eis domine ' ; hence the 

prayer came to be called a requiem. 
2946. 'Well, if it isn't to be a husband, let there be meantime 

(^fnlleiI) a lover.' (Salait is a Spanish word. 

Mephistopheles seems purposely in this Scene to use 

somewhat high-flown,' absurd language. 

2952. was bcffcr^cttpas, ein wtmq, bcffcr. 

2954. auf bcr(5cdjc = im 5diulc)budj, auf bcr Hedjnuttg. The 

line means, ' He should have had a still worse fate.' 
2958. Dcrgäb' fic tnir = ' If she would only forgive me.' 

2962. ' He was, I am sure, delirious in his last agony.' 

2963. * I had no need to kill time by gaping.' Mephistopheles 

takes great pleasure in exciting the old woman, and 

making her speak out all her meanness. 
2969. By piacfcrct she means ' my work and woiry.' 
2972. lirütlftia = ' fervently.' 
2977. tiiic fidi CS gclnitjrte = ' as it was fitting.' The verb 

gcbübrctl is impersonal and reflexive. 
2982. Hapcl, from Itl. Napoli ; the more common, ,HcapeI,' 

is from the Gr. and Lat. form of the word . 

2990. ein 3Üd]ttc} 3*^1?'^ = *^ decent year.' 

2991. 'Meantime I should look around. ' Ptfil'Cn is formed 

from the Fr. visiere. Eng. 'visor. ' 

2995-2997. IPanbern, IDeiber, Ifctn, Ifürfelfpiel; cf. the 
proverbs : ,I)rct VO . briuaeji pciu : lUeib, ir*iirfel 
unb bei- lUcin.' ,Iivct IP. ftnb cjroffe Käuber, IVein, 
IDürfelfpicI nub ireibcr.' ,IUeiber, lUcin unb 
IPürfcIfpicI lun-bcrbeii llTenfdjcn, lyer's nierfen tpiü.' 
IPÜrfelfpicI, 'gambling with dice. ' 

2998-3000. ' Well, if on his side he had only made allowance 
so just and generous, your quarrel had been easily 



3002. The interchange of rings means bctrothal. 

3009. Cf. 1. 2872. 

3012. ' I should like to read his death in the newspaper.' This 
is such a deHghtful touch that one wilHngly ovevlooks 
the anachronism contained in the line. In the six- 
teenth Century there could scarcely have been a 
,Wod}cnhlatt' in Frankfurt. 

3014. Mephistopheles alludes here to our Lord's words, St. 

John viii. 17. 

3015. Vfahc gar einen feinen for ,Viahc einen gar feinen/ a 

misplacement peculiar to certain German dialects. 

3016. * For your sake I will bring him before the judges.' 
3020. ' IIa shows great courtesy to young ladies.' ^rälllcins \ 

c{. Jungens, 1. 1837. 


A Street : Faust and Mephistopheles mcet. 

3025. fürbcrn for förbcrn = rornHirts getjen ; cf. Middle 

High German pürbern from nürbcr, and English 
— Xo furtJur from fnrthcr. 

3026. [irai»0 ; a cry of applause borrowed from the Italian 


3028. ZTadjbar for Ztad^barin is still heard in the Volkssprache. 
3030. gtgeuncr is used here in the sense of a fortune-teller. 

3037. Sancta Simplicitas ; said to have been the words uttered 

by Huss when he saw a wretched old woman carrying 
out some of the wood for his burning. 

3038. Bc3CUgt nur='onIy bring your testimony.' 

3039. Faust angrily addresses Mephistopheles in the 3d per. 

sing. ; usually he addresses him as t)u. 

3040. (^eiliger lllann ! I)a tuär't il^vs nun = ' On this 

occasion you want to play the saint '; lit. ' You would 

be one on this point.' 
3044. ' Of man, of what is found in his head and licart.' 
3050. Of course there is a widc difference between con- 



jectures, even though false, made in good faith, and 
Statements made with Intention to mislead. 

3051. What Mephistopheles means is that Faust's lovc of truth 
would not stand much searching out. Faust was 
about to swear unchanging love to Margaret, — love 
which to Mephistopheles appeared wholly incredible. 

3056. Tiann rotrb — the predicate ,9cfprodien ' is wanting — 
' then words will be spoken about eternal faith and 
love . . .' 

3059-3061. IPcTtn xd} ctnpftnbc = ' If so I feel,' 'If I seek for 
a name for this feeling, for this yearning . . .' 

3067. 3^ ^*^^' ^^'^l Hcdjt, i.e. 'You will deceive her.' 
Mephistopheles here, as often, cannot imderstand 
Faust, — hence Faust's anger : ,Böl" ! ittcrF'bir!' 

3069, 3070. ' He who will be right (if he only have a tongue) 
will be right.' 

3072. 'For you are in the right, — espccially since I must give 


We are to imagine the certificate of death to have been 
brought and accepted. Faust and Margaret, and Mephis- 
topheles and Martha, walk together in the garden. 


3081. 3TI*^*^1'^'l^'''^'ft- ^I'irgaret uses the foreign word as being, 
she thinks, suitable in speaking to a grand and learned 
person like Faust. 

3083. ' What is there I have not had to do ?' 

3084. genau, tr. 'stingj'.' 

3086. (5ctPCrb = 'trade,' here translate 'business.* 
3092. \i(h fdilctfctt is the weak form of the strong verb ,fdilcifctt, 
fdiliff, gcfAIiffcn:' the verb more usually used is 
,[idi fdilcppctt,' — it means, ' to go wearily.' 

3096. aus bcti klugen, aus beut Sinn = ' out of sight, out of 

3098. f]äufig, an adverb standing for banfcHUicife, i.e. 'in 
crowds. ' 


3101. I{ur3[iuu= ' shallowness.' 

3104. I)cmutl], Hicbrtcjfctt ; it is curious how here Faust 

mentions the essentially Christian virtues — humility, 

lowliness. Margaret Interrupts him, not having un- 

derstood his meaning. 
2Tiebrtg!ctt=; ' lowliness.' 
3107. gctt gcmtcj means here lange §ctt. 
31 16. ' We might do tliings far more easily than other people ' ; 

there is a great charm about Margaret's chatter and 

innocent boastfulness. 
3125. 3d? iO<i C5 auf = ' I brought it up.' 
3135. 3appeltc= 'it kicked,' 'itplayed.' 
3141. trtnf'cn, intr. = 'to drink'; trällFctt, tr. = ' to givc to 

3143. tan3Cn, neut. verb= ' to dance '; tälljClu, tr. = ' to dance 

(a child).' 
3149-3152. These lines are wanting in the Faus^ Fragment. 
3 151. ' It rests with such as you.' 
3155. 3156. 'citjncr fjcrb tft (Solbcs lUcrtV is a well-known 

German provcrb. 
3160. matt foll fidj nie untcrftdpt = ' one should never allow 

oneself. ' 
3173. ' It seemed just at once to strike him.' 

3175. (Scftcl^' idj's bodj= 'still, I must own.' 

3176. bcgottntc. This form of the preterite is also found in 

Lessing, Wieland, Rückert ; it was in common use in 
the fast half of the eighteenth centuiy, but it is essen- 
tially incorrect. 
3179. Stcvnblllinc, 'a Michaclmas daisy '; also callcd in Ger- 

many, (Säufcblüiiidjcu and iriavteiiblüindjcn. 
31S5-3194. These lines are unrhymed iambics. 
31 87. IW'xd] überläuft's, tr. 'I am trembling for fear !' 
3196. 3*^ ^'"^^ cud)='l would pray you'; the preterite con- 

junctive uscd für the conditional. 
3201. man Foiiimt ins (Scrcb= 'one is talked about.' 
3203. 'The wilful summer birds!' In the German dialects 
the Soniincruögcl = ' the butterfly.' 



3215, 3216. Margaret speaks South German, and pronounoes 
,Kinb' Kint, and ,ftnb't' fint. 


The Forest and Cavern Scene (the first thirty-four lines 
unrhymed iambics) was written in Rome, 1787, or in Weimar 
immediately after Göthe's return from Rome. — Faust's words 
express the moral resistance of his higher to the tempting of his 
lower instincts. We have here Faust's almost inspired enjoyment 
of nature. We have feit before, in his first monologue, this long- 
ing for the ' broad, free land ' — for release from the bondage of 
unsatisfying studies. His impatience is not with nature, but 
witli the inadequacy of the physical sciences, which endeavour 
to wrench from her with levers and screws and hammers the 
secrets which she does not willingly disciose. Faust now looks 
on nature with the eyes of a lover, and she is transformed in his 
eyes. It is no longer a cold, amazed acquaintance ; her heart 
is open to him like the heart of a friend, and all living creatures 
become his kindred. 


3217. (Erl^ali'ncr (Seift, 'the spirit of nature,' the ,(5cift bcr 
(Erbe' of Scene I. — i.e. a manifestation of God. 

3219. Cf. 1. 499, where he called Him ,^lamtncnbtlbung.' 

3222. Iticf/t falt ftauncnbcn 3efndj='no cold, amazed ac- 
quaintance,' lit. 'cold, wondering visit.' 

3225. bic i\cibc bcr €cbcnbtgcn= 'all living creatures ' — that 
is, the life that exists in trees, in the air, and in water. 
' \Vhat is called the Darwinian theoiy,' says Schröer, 
' was clear to Göthe from his youth ! ' 

322S. brauft unb fnarrt= 'roars and howls.' 

3229, 3230. Ziadibaräfte, ZTadjbarftätnino = ' neighbouring 
boughs and tree-trunks.' 

3231. ihrem ^all, i.e. 3U tbretu ^o.\\\ bunipf and boM are 

both adverbs. 
3236. Then after storm, wind, and tempest ' rises the pure, 

tranquil moon.' 
3238. 'The pale, bright shadows of the ancient timcs ' — an 

allusion to the dream forms he had read of in Ossian. 



3240. ,0 baf5 bcm l'ttcnfd;nMt nidjts l^otlfotnmncs iPtrb €mp= 
ftub id^ nun.' In these last weeks and days Faust has 
learned moie, and understands better what life is. 
3245. ' Even when he humbles me in mine own eyes. ' 
3250. It is because Faust resists, and never wholly yields to 
Mephistopheles, that he in the end conqucrs. 

325 1-3254. Faust hasjust said, — by one woidof Mephistopheles' 
mouth the divine gifts are changed to nothingness : — 
how true this is we now feel when we see every noble 
impulse of Faust dragged down by Mephistopheles' 
mean conception of it. 

3254. Here, as Schröer well points out, we must read ,311 was 

ITcitct:,' not ,311 iDas Heuern, ' because ITcueii is 
here the weak genitive. 

3256. am gutct'i Cag = 3ur guten Stuttbc, i.e. 'at every hour.' 

3257. Observe when Mephistopheles is courteous (ironically 

courteous) he addresses Faust as ,tl]r'; when he is 
out of temper he addresses him as ,bu,' or ,cr.' 
3261. btC f^änbc üoll = ' I have my hands füll.' 
3263. an bcr ZTafc fpüreit, i.e. 'teil by your face.' 
3265. ' You will have thanks, forsooth, that you weary nie.' 

3268. Krtbsfrabs bcr 3'"'39i"'^^'<'" means something like 
' perverseness of thy Imagination.' The older form 
of the Word is KribI'C5=Kvabhcs, a word formed from 
frabbcn, or frabbcllt, which signifies ' to move awk- 
wardly, like a crab (Krabbe).' 

3273. 5djuI]U= 'an owl.' 
rerfi^cn = ' to mope.' 

3274. fdjiürf ft = ' suckest. ' 

3277. 'The Student (lit. teacher) is still lurking within you.' 

3279. IPanbel here means ' sojourn ' ; it meant originally 

IPcdjfcI, Der!ct^r ; then (Sang, IDcdjfct ; then, as 
here, 'abiding,' or some such word. 

3280. al^ncn= ' feel,' 'imagine,' 'surmise.' 

3255. auf fdjmcUcn = ' expand into. ' 

3286. ' To pierce into the earth's core with impulsive foreboding. ' 


3287. 2lllc fedjs ÜagciUCrF- ' tbe work of the six days of crcca- 

3289. ' To overflow with love of everything that is.' 
3291. btc l^oI^C 3'ltuttion, i.e. 'the glorious hour of intuilion.' 
3294. ' You're a nice fellow to say pfut.' 
3296. fcufdj=: ' modest,' lit. 'chaste.' 

3298. ' Of now and then deceiving yourself.' 

3299. ' But you will not hold out long.' 

3300. That is, ' You are where you were before, weaiy of 

thought, weary of effort ' ; abgetrieben raeans, ' hunted 

down,' 'wearied out,' ' over-driven.' 
3303. babrtnnc = tn bcr Stabt. 
3309. fie, i.e. 'bmxz £tcbcstputf|. 
3313. Pas affenjunge 23Iut; just as one calls a little child, 

' little monkey, ' so here affenjung means, ' young' as 

a child.' 
3318. ,lPcnn tdj ein Pöglcin tpäre.' The song is found in 

Herder's Stimmen der Völka- (1779), 5 Buch 12, 
where he calls it jFliig der Liebe. Mr. Brooks (as 
quoted by Bayard Taylor) thus translates it — 

' Were I a little bird, 
Had I two wings of mine 
I'd fly to my dear ; 
But that can never be, 
So I stay here. 

' Though I am far from thee, 
Dreaming I'm near to thee, 
Talk with my dear ; 
Wlien I awake again 
I am alone. 

' Scarce there's an hour in the night 
When sleep does not take its flight, 
And I think of thee, 
How many thousand times 
Thou gav'st thy heart to me. ' 

3321. ausgetPeint= ' wept beyond her tears.' Cf. the line of 
Dante^ — 

' Lo pianto stesso H pianger non lascia. ' 

Inferno, Canto xxxiii. 94. 



3325. (5clt is a South German exclamation= nidjt loal^l" ? 

3326. ' Get thee hence, Satan,' St. Matt. iv. lo. 
3335- tnbc§=: 'meantime.' 

3349. Der Unmcufdj= 'the monstcr.' 

3352-3355. He likens himself to a stream rushing down from 
Alpine heights, and threatening to engulf and luin 
the small cottage built on the mountain-side as it 
hurries by. The cottage is the httle woild in vvhich 
Margaret lives, unconscious (mit finblidj blimpfctl 
Stillten) as a child. 

3356, 3357, were printed as one üne in the edition of 1790. 

3358. Faust still likens himself to the rushing torrent : ' Was 
it not enough that I seized the rocks and hurled them 
down, but I must undermine her peace likewise?' 

3364, 3365. ' Let fall on me her fate and crush me, 

One ruiu whelm both her and nie ! ' 

3369. er, i.e. Faust. 

3370. ' Long live the brave man.' 

3371. ' Thou art in most things devilish enough.' 


Ilere for the first time in the heading of the Scenes Margaret 
is called Gretchen. This and the preceding Scene seem to be 
identical in tinie. The lovers are separated ; Faust strugglcs 
with all the force of his nobler instincts to resist his p.assion, 
while Margaret is wholly possessed by an intense, unreasoning 
yearning for his presence. In representing her as seated at 
the spinning-wheel, Göthe is thinking of the Margaret of his 
boyhood. Visiting at her house on one occasion, he says : 
' Only one of the young people was at home. Margaret sat 
at the window and span ; the mother went back and forth . . .' 

3381. rcrcjällt= ' embittered.' Perijällctl is formed from ijallc, 

Eng. ' gall.' 
3385. ' My senses mazed.' 
3413. ' And on his kisses at last expire.' Franz Schubert and 

Löwe have both set this loveliest of love songs to 




In the Faust Fragment, and in the edition of iSo8, 'Mar- 
garet ' is again foimd in the heading of the Scene. Faust 
and Margaret are alone together in Martha's Garden. Mephisto - 
pheles does not appear until Margaret has gone. 


3414. The Faust of history is called Georg, the Faust of the 

legend Johann ; perhaps Göthe cared particularly for 
the name Heinrich, and therefore gave it to his hero. 

3415. ir»tc baft bu's mit bcr Hclitjion for ,trtc bältft bu es 

3422. ' If I had any power over thee ' ! Of auf bidi so used 
I know no other example ; it Stands for über bidj. 

3431 ■3458- 21tiJ5l^ör' for mtjßrerftel^. The versification here 
resembles the irregulär metre of an ode. 

There is sufficient evidence that Göthe meant here 
to give his own imperfect (as he admitted it to be) 
conception of God. He believed in the immanence 
of God in all things : the sun, the stars, the earth, 
the human heart and all its emotions, are simply 
invisible — visible manifestations of His existence ; he 
recognised Hirn in His infinite aspects ; he would not 
define or describe Him. ' The nature of God,' Göthe 
elsewhere writes, ' immortality, the being of the soul 
and its connection with the body, are eternal problems, 
wherein the philosophers are unable to give us any 
further knowledge. ' 

Whether Faust's explanation is Panlheism in either 
a Spiritual or a materialistic fomi ; whether it is an 
undoctrinal view permitted to a Christian, or, as 
Margaret fears, there is no Christianity in it, are 
questions which each reader will best decide for 

3446. Sdiau idj nidjt; understand ,btcs Dilles,' that is, 'Do I 
not see all this in thee?' 

3466. Icibüdj = ' bearable,' ' reasonable.' 

3474- So nid)ts = nidit5. 

3478. bin fonft allen lllenfdicu gut='I usually like,' ' feel 
kihdly towards every one. ' 



3483. l{äU3C means here 'odd peoplc,' lit. 'a species of owls.' 
B. Taylor translates 'queer birds.' 

3486. fpötttfd) = 'mocking.' 

3487. ergrimmt = 'grim.' 

3488. Obs. the double negative ; Margaret does not always 

speak correct German. 
3493. fdjnürt mir bas 3»lire= ' my heart shrinks.' 
3512. '^n 'll]XCn Cranf (onc would have expected ,il^rcm 
CEranf '), with il^rcn, the accus, case, \ve must undcr- 
stand some word such as ,gcmifdjt/ cjccjoffcil. 

3521. (Srasaff, i.e. 'Httle monkey.' Göthe clsewhere uses 

this word as an ironical term of endearment. 

3522. Mephistopheles always knows what lias happened in his 

3524. In this line Mephistopheles, speaking contemptuously 

and obsequiously, uses the 3d pers. pl. in addressing 

3530-3532. ' Füll of her faith, which alone means happiness to 

her. ' 
3534. überftnnitdj = ' supersensual.' 


At the spring : Gretchen and Lieschen with pitchers. 

3546. 5ib\Ak. Mephistopheles has called the Wilch above a 

Sibyl, and here by Sibylle is meant a witch, an old 

3550. I follow Schröer in letting this 2Id] 1 form 

a line for itself. 
3556. €urteftren= ' to court,' ' to pay court to.' 
3560. (5efo[e= 'fondling.' 

(Scfd^Iccf for (Scfiiffc = ' kissing.' 
3564. Ulis . . . ntdjt l]tmintcrliet5 = 'did not let US out.' 
3569. The ancient custom was for the sinner to confess his er 

her sin to the priest in the presence of the congrega- 


tion, dressed only in a shirt or shift. Cf. the punish- 
ment of the Duchess of Gloucester in Heury VI., 
Part II. 
3572. bic !£uft means here btc ^rcil]cit. 

actmita is used in Frankfurt and in parts of Middle and 
South Germany for gcnua. 

3575. rcii5CU means here either abreißen =' to tear down,' or 

5erreif)Cn = ' to tear in pieces.' Similarly Göthe 
uses fdiipcifcn for heniiiifditpctfcn, lialtcn for aus= 
(galten,' JfOlcjei- for Hadifolacr. 

3576. fjäcfcrlittg, ?>. 'chaff' — instead of flowers. ^f 

3577. fdiinäblcil= 'put down with rebuke.' | 
357S. tl^ät=,tbat'; cf. 1. 2781 note ; in 1. 3583 we have tf^at. 

Schröer points out that Göthe originally wrote : ,S<\\[ 
tdi ein armes IfiäaMcin fehlen.' 
35S1. fdin-iiii^ts nodi aar = fd}ipär3tc id) es andj nodi oben- 

35S4. 'And I, who thus could feel, I am the same." — Anster. 


We must suppose a long interval of time to have elapsed 
between the last Scene and this. §tpingcr means literally 
' stronghold, ' but here it signifies a way or walk within the 
town walls, along which, in niches, sacred pictures and Images 
were placed. Göthe here has Frankfurt in his thoughts, 
where, round the town, within the walls, was the favourite walk 

of his childhood : ,(5ärtcn, I^öfc, I^intcrgcbäiibc 5icbcn fidj 
bis aw ben giuinger t^eran,' Dichtung mid Wahrheit, i, 15. 


3588-3595. With the opening words of Gretchen's prayer 
compare the old Latin hymn — 
' Stabat Mater dolorosa 
Juxta cmcem lacrimosa 
Dum pendebat filius ; 
Cujus animam gementem, 
Contristatam et dolentem, 
Pertransivit gladius. ' 
Cf. St. Luke ii. 35. 




3595- fein' lUtb bcillC IXoiil. Göthe and other writers oftcn 
elide llie tevmination of an adjcctive or pronoun, 
when an adjective or pronoun follows with the same 

3597. tr>ül]Ict=' wrings.' 

3608. Sdjcrbcn, ?.£'. 23Iiimeufdjcrbcu = 'flo\ver-pots.' 

3616. von Sd)mad} Ullb Cob. Margaret is Uiinking of self- 
murdcr when she thus speaks. SIio is not tliiuking 
of her motlicr's death, nor of Faust's absencc. 

scENE xvrii. 

In the Royal Library in Berlin thcrc is an autograph nianu- 
script of this Scene, bcaring the date 1800. Tt was piiblishcd, 
however, for the first tinie in the cdilion of 1808. Schröer 
thinks the appearance of Faust and Mephistopheles at Gretchen's 
door in this Scene rcmains unexplained and unnatural, for nuist 
not Faust have been absent and away from the town during the 
Scene at the well and the Scene wherc Gretchen prays before 
the little shrinc ? I do not, however, think that this nccessarily 
follows, and Faust seems to me to come on this evening to pay 
a customaiy visit. Düntzer thinks that the unity of the plot is 
disturbed by the introduction of Valentine ; wc should, he con- 
siders, have had a gradual, uninterrupted heightening of tragic 
interest : first the Scene am BniUltcn, then the Scene im 
giuiligcr, then the Scene im Dome. But Düntzer forgets it 
is the guilt of murder that obliges Faust to fly from the town. 
He is thus prevented from hearing of the misery which swiftly 
comes upon Margaret. Without such a motive his flight would 
be a heartless desertion. I think, moreover, that we would not 
willingly lose the picture of Valentine, the brave soldier, the 
honest man, whose death is another link in the fatal chain of 
Margaret's destiny. 

3620. bei 'cm (Sclag for bei einem (Sclag. In South Germany 
one hcars frcquently such abbreviations. (5e(ag 
meant originally a feast whcre cach guest brought his 
own contribution ; here it mcans ' a carouse, ' ' a drink- 

3621. fidj beviil]meii = ' to lionsi. 



3622, 3623. mir bcn ^lor bor lluigMciit laut gcprtcfcn Dor = 
' they piaised aloud in my liearing each his ilower 
among maidens.' 

3624, 3625. ' With füll glass they washed down the toast.' 
Pcrfdjuicinmt refers to bic (ScfcIIcn, anfgeftemmt to 
Valentine. The meaning of 1. 3625 is, ' On my elbow 
I would rest. ' 

3627. SdjuHibrontrcn = ' swagger.' 

3628. lädilcnb for lädjclnb ; with reference to the spelling cf. 

,licfoitbrcm,' for ,bcfonbcrin,' 1. 4027 ; and 'tr>anblcit' 
for ,ipaubcln,' 1. 4032. All three are examples of 
the Frankfurt dialect. 

3632. traut; aveiy beautiful word, for which I know no good 

English equivalent ; perhaps ' true-hearted ' is the 
best rendering here. As to the word (Srctel, cf note 
to 1. 2827. 

3633. (Einem bas IPaffcr rcid)cn = mtt tl]m fidj pcrgfcidicn 

föllTiCU, i.e. ' to bear comparison with. ' 

3634. (rop = 'done.' 

Klttig ! Klang ! describes the clinking of their glasses. 

3638,3639. ' I could tear out my hair, and dash my brains out 
against the wall.' 

3640. 5tidiclrcbcn= 'words that sting.' 
Hafcriimpf cn = ' nose upturned. ' 

3648. beim ^cllc pa(fcn = fcftf]altcn. At this moment Faust 
and ]Mephistopheles enter, Mephistopheles foreseeing 
that the misery and shame and sin of Margaret must 
now be made publicly known, and secretly rejoicing in 
the thought. 

3650-3652. Margaret's home was near to the city wall, and so 
probably was the cathedral where Margaret used to 
pray ; from the window of the sacristy came the light 
of the ever-burning lamp. The more usual form, 
instead of iflämmcrn, is flimmern ; cf. flappcnt and 

3653. ' The darkness of night presses on us.' 

3655. fdimäditig = 'sleek' or 'languishing.' Originally fdimädj' 
tig meant ' desiring,' ' longing '; later it came to mean 
' slender,' ' slim.' 



3659. Hamiiicict = ' frolic' 

3660. [pilfcn = ' to lurk.' 

3G61. IPalpurcjisiiadjt, /.<-. ' the night between 3oth April and 
Ist May.' 

•3664, 3665. 'Meanwhile will the treasure risc upwards, which 
I saw glittering down there?' This remark of Faust 
refers to some treasure which Mepliistopheles has 
promised him. There used to he a common super- 
stition that somcwhere in the earth there was a 
treasure hidden ; it Iny in a kettle, and once in seven 
ycars it rose to the earth's surface ; cf. the proverh : 

,Dcr Sdjatj l^cbt ftdj alle 3al]rc imi einen X7al]ncn= 
3669. In Joacliimsthal in Bohemia, in tlic fiftcenlh Century, 
the first thalers wcre coined ; hence the term tl|aI'Cr 
On one side was the lion (löu'c) of Bohemia, on tlie 
other a likeness of St. Joachim. 

3673. A line from Lessing's Play, Eviilia Galoiti, was perhaps 
in Göthe's thoughts when he wrote — 

,PcrIcn aber, meine ITIutter, perlen bcbcuten JEhröncn.' 

Act II. Scene vii. 
3677. nnxfonft=: ' without payment.' 

36S2-3697. The cid English song from which the first verse 
of this song is taken is to be found in Hamlet. 
Oi^hclia sings it, Act IV. Scene v. The second verse 
is Göthe's own. In Schlegel's translation of the Ihird 
verse of Ophelia's song Saint Charity is rendered by 
Saint Katherine ; hence, perhaps, Göthe writcs, 

3699. Ivattciifäucjcr. A German legend teils of a rat-catchcr 
in Ilamcln who enticed all the children forth from 
the town, and then locked them up for cver in a 
mountain-side. Göthe niade a poem of tliis story 
(see Gedichte^ i. 185, ed. 1S27-42), and Mr. Browning 
has madc it familiär to us all in the ' l'icd Piper of 
Ilamclin.' Cf. also in Komco amijiiliet, Act III. Scene 
i., the line where Mercutio calls Tybalt a rat-catcher — 
' Tybalt, you rat-catcher, will you walk?' 

3701. Valentine seizcs hold of the singer, who is Mepliistopheles, 



Mephistopheles begins the fight, but in such a way 

that he only parries the blows, while Faust strikes. 
3706. ^lebcrtinfdj is a goose's wing used for dusting ; it is a 

slang word for sword. 
37 1 1. Faust strikes Valentine through with his sword. £ümtncl 

= ' clown.' 

3713. mörberlicb (Scfdjrci = ' cry of murder. ' 

3714, 3715. 'I can grapple with the police, but not with tlie 

death sentence.' The police is an institution made 
by man, but the punishment of assassination and 
murder is by God Himself, and with God's punish- 
ment the Devil had no power to grapple. Faust and 
Mephistopheles hurry away. 
3717. ' They swear and storm, they yell and fight.' 
3727. Note ,gcnmig,' Frankfurtish for ,gcmtc}.' There is 
something most touching in the mingling of love and 
wrath in Valentine's dying words. 

3732. IV as [oU Itttl" bas ? = ' What shall tliat mean [for me] ?' 

3733. ' Leave God's name out of the matter.' 

3756-3759. ' You'U never more stand near the altar with your 
golden chain on ; you'll never more be led to the 
dance wearing your fine lace collar.' 

3760. 3'^"^'"'^f'^'Jcn ; (Ecfcn is often found for (£cfe in the 

German dialects. 

3761. bid} ncrftcdcn, i.e. bii [ollft (from 1. 3756) bidj i^crftccFeu. 

3763. ' On earth thou shalt be cursed.' Dcrmalabcit — from 

I>at. vtalediccre ; Itl. iitaledire ; Fr. viaitdirc ; RI. H. G. 
inalcbtcu. Cf. 1. 3699, Dcrmalcbcitcr ixattcnfäugcr. 

3764. Bcf cl]It = ' commend ' ; 2d pers. pl. imper. 

3769. rcidjc nialg ; properly an accus, used absolutely, but it 
is here used adverbially ; tr. 'in füll measure.' 


Göthe at first intended the requiem which Gretchen now hears 
to have been sung for her own mother, but he afterwards 
changed his mind, and allowed some time to have elapsed be- 
tween the mother's death and the Scene in the cathedral. 


Gretchen's fast meeting vvith Faust had been at the calhedral, 
when Mephistopheles had said of her — 

' So innocent is shc indeed 
That to confess she had no need. ' 

Now all is changed. Throughout this Scene the lines are ir- 
regulär and unrhymed. 

3776. The words spoken by the Evil Spirit revcal llie thoughts 

and feelings that risc up in Gretchen as she hears the 

tones of the organ. 
3779. r>crgrtffncil = ' worn and lingered.' 

3788. Because she had died wilhout confession and absolution. 

— like Hamlet's father, who, because he was 

' Unhousel'd, disappointed, unanel'd,' 

had to suffer long, and to wander without rest on earth 
as a ghost. 
3 7 89. This line is not in the Faust Fragment, because the 
Scene describing Valentine's murder was not written 
tili later — after 1790. 
3791. qutllcub for qucllcnb. 

3798, 3799- The hymn Dies irae was M-ritten in the thirteenth 
Century by Thomas of Celano ; the first vcrse has been 
thus translalcd : 

' Day of wratli without a moiTOw, 
Eartn shall end in iiame and sorrow, 
As from saint and scer we borrow.' 

3801. ' The trumpet sounds.' 

381 1, 3S12. 'The singing movcs my heart to its depths.' 

38 13-38 15. ' When the Judge then shall sit, whatcver is hidden 

shall appear ; nothing shall remain unavenged.' 
3817-3820. 'The pillars of the w-all imprison me, the vaulted 

ceiling is crushing me.' 
3825-3827. 'What shall I, wretched man, then say? What 

helper shall I appeal to ? when scarcely the just man 

is safe.' 
3834. ^IäfdjdjCtI = 'phial,' ' flask.' Here the /a;«/ Fragment 

comes to an end, — the remaining Scenes of Part I. 

were not published until 1808. 



This Scene was written in iSoo, some tvventy-five years after 
its first conception. It is alluded to prospectively by Mephis- 
topheles in the Scene in Ihe Witches' Kitchen : ' Thy wish be on 
Walpurgis Night expressed.' On one occasion, tallcing to 
Eckeimann, Göthe said : ' I employed myself but once with the 
Devil and Witch material ; I was then glad to have consumed 
my northern inheritance, and turned again to the banquets of 
tlie Greeks.' It was, I think, only in his youth that Göthe 
could have written a Scene so purely Gothic. After his feeling 
for the repose and symmetr}' of classic art had been awakened 
during his sojourn in Italy — after he had written Iphigcnie, Tasso, 
Hennann und Dofothea — it would have been difficult, perhaps 
impossible, for him to have conceived and planned the \YaIpurgis 
Night Scene. The ist of May was the ancient festival day of the 
Druids, when they made sacrifices upon their sacred mountains 
and kindled their May fires. Their gods were looked on as 
devils by their Christian descendants, and hence arose tlie 
superstition that on the night between 30th April and ist May 
a conclave of wizards, witches, and fiends met together on the 
Brocken or Blocksberg, the highest mountain in the Harz ränge. 
But in the eighth Century there lived an English saint, named 
Walpurga, who emigrated from England to Germany, and after 
her death the ist May was the day dedicated to her in the 
Christian calendar. Thus the name of Walpurga or Walpurgis 
becanie connected with the night on which witches and fiends 
met together on the Brocken. 

The reason for introducing this stränge Scene here is piain : 
Mephistopheles leads Faust over the Blocksberg in order to 
stupefy him, and make him forget Gretchen. He falls in this ; 
love is stronger in Faust than Mephistopheles can conceive. 

The Scene begins two days after Valentine's death. Schierke 
and Elend are two villages at the foot of the Brocken in a 
barren, rocky country. 


3838. There is something janing and discordant here in Faust's 
vigour and cheerfulness when one remembers the 
Scene that has gone just before. — In the lines which 
describe the Brocken Göthe writes from niemory : 
he had visited the Hartz Mountains in 1777. 


3851. Sdjctbc-'disk.' 

3855. (Erlaub, imper., that is, ' allow that I leave you a 

3vvlidjtcr (Will-o'-the-Wisps) are superstitiously bclioved 

to bc demoniac beings, who mislead travellers. 
3857. fobcnt (sometimes used for f orbern) = ' summon.' 
3861. HaturcII = ' nature, ' ' Icmper. ' 

3864. ins Ccufcis Hamen ! As used by Mcphistoplieles Ihis 

curse is amusing. 

3865. ^larf erleben — ' flickering life.' 

3871. The Berlin MS. of the ' Walpurgis Night' begins with 
this part-song, and bears the date 5th November 
1800 ; it is thought that the beginning of the Scene 
was written later. There is some doubt as to how 

\the different verses of the song are to be assigned to 
the three singers ; probably Mephistopheles sings the 
first and fourth, the Will-o'-the-\Visp the second, and 
Faust the third and fifth. 
3876. Sei\' — id} fe{]c. 

3879, 3880. ' The giant-snouted crags, ho ! ho ! 

How they snort and how they blow ! ' 

Shelley, Translation of the 
' Walpurgisnacht. ' 

Two huge granite rocks near Schierke are called ,bic 

3881-3888. In this stanza all Faust's dccp-rooted love of 

nature comes out, spite of spells, and witches, and 

3890. ' Jay and screech-owl and the plover. ' 
3892. inoIdje= ' lizards,' 'Salamanders.' 
3896. Banbc= 'coils.' 

3898. IHafcr, J.c. 'knots and gnarls.' 

3899. polypcnf afern — ' polypus-feelers. ' 

3900. In Northern Mythology mice are associated with witches ; 

a little farther on Faust sees a red mouse come out of 
the young Witch's mouth. 

3903. ^unfcniDÜrmer= ' glow-worms. ' 

3904. gebrannten 5djujärtner3Üg,en = ' crowded swarms.' 


3905. §um licnpirrcitbcil (Scicite = ' as a wildering escort.' 

3909. bic, lel. pron., lefeiring to ^cls Ullb Bäume. 

3912. 5ipfel='skiit.' 

3915. inaininon, a Hebrew woid signifying ' weallh ' ; cf. St. 

Matt. vi. 24, and St. Luke xvi. 9, 11, 13; cf. also 
Paj-adise Lost, Book ii., where the name is given to 
one of the fallen angels. 

3916. o;Iiinincrt, same as Eng. 'glimmer.' On Walpuigis 

Night it was supposed hidden treasures could be seen 
gleaming through the mountain-side. 

3919. iinttcnt for getinttcnt. Faust speaks heie of summer 

lightning, not real lightning. 

3920. SdjU'abcn mean here either ZTcbcIftrctfcit, ?'.<;■. ' rolling 

vapours,' or giftige (Srubenbutift, i.e. 'poisonous 

3935- t^ic nngeftümcn (Säfte, i.e. 'the Witches,' who are 
approaching. According to Grimm {Dciitsche Mytho- 
logie, Eng. Translation, p. 996), when Witches travel 
abroad they rouse the winds and storms, — so, too, the 
Weird Women in the EdJa — when they ride forth by 

3936. The Greek word for ' tempestuous wind' in Acts xxvii. 
14 ('a tempestuous wind, called Euroclydon') has 
been translated by Luther ,lDttlbbraiit.' 

3943. 3944- <>tc Säulen etpig grüner paläfte, i.e. the trees 
of the forest. 

3945. (Sirrcn, commonly written firrctt, describes the groaning 
of the branches ; lit. = ' to creak,' ' to squeak.' 

3955. The §aubergefang is sung by the Witches in chonis — 11. 
3956-3967 ; at 1. 3974 they begin again. 

3959. Urian is used by Bürger, and Claudius also, for the chief 
of the devils. Like ' Grobjan ' and ' Schmierjan,' it 
is formed from Jan [i.e. Ur-jan), which had come to 
be a common nickname. Jan is short for Johann, 
ßcrr Urian is identical with the devil Auerhahn, to 
whom, in the Faust legend, Wagner sells his soul. 
The Auerhahn is one of the animals sacred to the 
Devil. The spirit Auerhahn is found also in the 
Faust Flippet Play. 



3962. Bailbo was the name of Demeter's nurse. Göthe makes 
her symbolisc gross, shameless sensuality, wliich, 
according to populär belief, characterised the congre- 
gating of devils, wizards, and witches. 

3965. aitgcfül]rt= ' leading on,' ' taking the lead.' 

3968. ^IK'M'*'^'''' ^^ ^^^ Ilsethal, north of the Brocken. 

3969-3973. The differcnt voices are descriptive of the crowd of 
Witches huriying by, — they ride against one another, 
and crush one another, and wound one another. 

3971. According to Bodin [Demotiomaiiic, on Traitc des Sor- 
ciers), witches were believed to ride sometimes on a 
goat, sometimes on a broom, sometimes on a stick, 
sometimes on nothing ; cf. 1. 4000, etc. 

3989. The voices are the voices of those who know all the rules 
by which to avoid faults, but beyond this negative 
talent their virtue does not leach : to Ijc free from 
faults is both the highest and the lowest degree of 
excellence, for it Springs from either impotence or 

3990-3993. Moon and stars are hidden by clouds, and thcn in 
the darkness it is seen how the Wizards and Witches 
emit fire sparks. Shelley thus translates the verse, 
most poetically, though not literally — 

' The wind is still, the stars are fled, 
The melancholy moon is dead ; 
The magic notes, likc spark on spark, 
Drizzle, whistling through the dark. ' 

3995. ' This verse can only refer to science, which cannot 
properly advance, because it is hindered by pedantiy 
and the restrictions of the schools ' {i.e. ' the rocky 

clcft '). DÜ.NTZER. 

4000-4003. The Chorus of Wizards and of Witches answcr the 
Voices that have just spoken : there are brooms, 
sticks, forks, and goats, — he who cannot rise by 
means of these is lost. 
4004-4007. The I]aIbl]Cre signifies ' Mediocrity. ' 
4008-401 1. Witches are supposcd to anoint themselves witli a 
particular magic ointment, and then to seat themselvcs 
in a trough, and with a ragged .sail to sail up to the 



4015. ßcrcill]cit means ' assemblage of witches ' ; cf. (Il]riftcn= 

tjcit ; bcit is the Gothic haidus and Englisli hood, 
whicli mcans 'way,' 'manner.' 

4016. ' They crowd and push, they roar and clatter ! 

They whirl and whistle, pull and chatter ! 
They shine, and spirt, and stink, and burn.' 

Bayard Taylor. 
4023. 3ii'ifci^= 'sq"h-e.' 

In the Middle High German poets of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries the Devil is named Valant, Foland, 
and Volland. Polaili) is identical with the limping 
god Loki. 
pöbcl is used for Volk, — it is the Fr. peiiplc, derived 
from the Lat. popiclus. 
4028-4033. 5trälldjctx= ' bushes.' IMephistopheles finds him- 
self in congenial society here, and wishes to amuse 
himself after his own fashion ; Faust, on the contrary, 
wishes to isolate himself, and only to look on from a 
4036. "^wx Kleinen = ' in small circles. ' 
4039. bcnt i?öfen= ' the Evil One.' 

4041 . fitüpft fidj = ' is knotted.' 

4042. Mc ijro^e IPeIt= ' the multitude.' 
faufcn = ' to riot. ' 

4044. ' It is transmitted from the past.' 

4051. Dcrfludjt (Scfdinarr = ' cursed din !' cf. M. H. G. 5uar 

= ' the string of a musical instrument.' 

4052. (Hs Faun nidjt ailbcrs fein, i.e. ' It is inevitable ; you 

must come.' 

4064. Ktticbanb = ' the Order of the Carter.' 

4065. Cf. 1. 2184. The foot on which the Devil limped was 

supposed, Grimm teils us, to be a horse's hoof. 
4067. taftenbcn= 'feeling.' Die Saften are the feelers or 
horns of a snail. 

407 1 . 'I am the wooer, and thou art the lover. ' 

4072. am (£nbc = 'at the outskirts.' 
4074. 5aU5= 'revel.' 

^ugcnbbraus = ' youthful riot. ' 


4075. ' At home every one is enough alone.' 

4076-4095. Whether tlic four characters now introduced are so 
many individual satires is a doubtful question ; all 
four are discontented vvilh the present time and tlie 
rising generation. It has been thüught that the 
Author typifies the romantic school headcd by Tieck 
and the Schlegels. It is piain that the episode is a 
general satire on the conventional and therefove reac- 
tionary dement in politics and literature. The words 
of Mephistopheles, and his sudden assumption of old 
age, is a grotesque parody of the tone of the four 
Speakers, — he takes up the strain and exaggerates it 
to the point of absurdity. Anster thus Iranslates — 
' The wine of life 
Is low with nie, and therefore 'tis that I, 
An old man, think the world is on the lees.' 

4096. It has been suggested that in the Cröbcll^crc (/.<'. 
' huckster witch ') Göthe means to satirise Ilofrat 
Beireis, an eccentric collector of curiosities in Helm- 
städt. Cf. the description of the witches' wares in 
' Tarn o' Shanter' (which was written ten years before 
the Walpurgis Night Scene) — 

' Coffins stood round likc open prcsses, 
That shaw'd the dcad in their last dresses ; 
And by some devilish cantrip slcight, 
Each in his cauld hand held a light,' — 

and so on. Göthe was well acquainted with Burns's 
4110. niuf^mc = ' aunt er any feniale relation,' but in jwpular 
language any old woman, whether a relation or not, is 
called ^rau iriul^mc (similarly it is the custom among 
intimate friends for young people to call older people 
(DnFcI and Satltc). In the Second Part of Faitst 
Mephistopheles calls the Lamia 111 ü 1] m dj e Tl (1. 
7756), and in German Mythology the Nixies are 
called iriül|mdjctl. 

41 14, 41 15. ' Let nie not lose myself! am I to call this a 
fair?' Göthe had in remembrance the Frankfurt 
and Leipzig fairs. 

41 19. Loeper quotes two lines from a poem by Langbein, which 


appeared in the Göt tinger Musenalmanach for 1783, 
p. 204, on Frau Lilith, Adam's first wife — 

, Unb mifet, fie reitet allemal 
3n bet IDalputgisnadit 3uni Ball.' 

The name Lilith is found in Isaiah xxxiv. 14, where 
Luther translates it ' Kobold,' the Septuagint ^/j-wovaa 
{'Empusa'), the Vulgate 'Lamia,' the English Bible 
'screech owl,' and the Swedish Bible 'Elfvor' or 
'Alp.' One Legend teils that Lilith had beautiful 
golden hair, with which she used to attract and cap- 
tivate men ; but those who loved her always died 
young, and after death a single golden hair used to 
be found twisted round their heart. Mr. Rossetti has 
written a sonnet on the legend. 
4128. Düntzer and Schröer both quote here the following 
observations of Wieland to Böttiger (30th June 1S08) : 
,lVk bat Ibncit bic iralpnrgisuadit iittfcrcs ■Köiiias 
bcr (Sctttcn' acfallcn, bcr, nidit 5ufricben bcr IVch 
acscicjt 511 haben, baf5 er nadi _2?clicbcit^ lludn-I 
^Inaclo, Kapbacl, dorrcaaio unb U,itian, Vinxv nub 
Jvctnbranbt fein fantt, ftdi unb uns nun au* ben 
Spafi aetnadn, 5U 3cio;en, baig er, fobalb er unll, aud^ 
ein l^öüenbrcu^hei fein föitne.' 
412S-4135. Cf. Göthe'spoem, ' Der Müllerin VerratW [Gedichte, 

i. 194-196, ed. 1827-36). 
4144. Friedrich Nicolai is here meant. He was bom in 1733, 
and died in 181 1. He was the literary associate of 
Lessing and of Moses Mendelssohn. He hated the 
Romantic School, especially in its Sturm und Drang 
Period, and soon after the appearance of Werther's 
Leiden, he published a malicious and rather stupid 
parody'called ' Freuden des jungen ^Yerther.' Nicolai 
had long been an utter disbeliever in spirits, visions, 
or any kind of superstition, and unluckily it happened 
that about the year 1791 he himself began to see 
apparitions and to have visions. These were cured 
by the application of leeches to his back, and hence 
the name proftopbantasinift which Göthe here gives 
4147. ' And now you even dance like one of us.' 



4150. ' When others dance he weighs the matter.' 
4155. ,n?tc cv's in feiner alten Iluiblc ttjut.' Nicolai's many- 
volumed Journal is alluded to — Die allgemeine deutsche 
Bibliothek (1765 -1798), and Die neue allgemeine 
deutsche Bibliothek {1798- 1806). 

4160. ,cs' is in apposition with ,I)as dcufelspacf' {i.e. 'the 

devil's paclc '). 

4161. ÜCt'^el is the countiy residence of the Von Ilumlioldts, 

near Berhn, one of the many so-callcd ' haunlcd 
houses.' Nicolai, in 1799, wrote a paper on Appari- 
tions, which was read liefere the Berlin Academy of 
Sciences, and in it the apparition seen at Tegel by the 
Minister Wühelm von Humboldt was dcscril)ed. 
This line, ,IUir finb fo fhuj nnb bennod^ fpufts in 
dcc^cl,' has been strangely misundcrstood by trans- 
lators. Shelley, confounding (lEegcI' with Seidj, 
translated it by ' pond.' Stapfer and Gcrard de 
Nerval thus translate : ' Nous sommes bien prudents 
et cependant le creuset est toujours aussi plein. Que 
de temps n'ai-je pas employe dans cette idee.' Here 
(Ccgcl' was mistaken for ,5djmcl5tiC(JcI,' and ,CS 
fpuft' supposed to signify ,CS fprubelt,' and the 
whole to mean : * We are so wise, and yet the cauldron 
is for ever füll.' 

4165-4167. In these lincs thcre is a play on the word ,(Scift'; 
in the first line it means 'spirit,' 'apparition'; in the 
second it means both 'apparition' and 'intellcct'; in 
the third it means 'intellect.' 

4167. All the Witches and Spirits, etc., dance on without 
heeding him. 

4169. A satiric allusion to Nicolai's many-volumed dcscription 
of a journey tin-ough Ciermany and Switzerland (1783- 

4172. pfü^c= 'puddlc.' 

4173. fidj foulaaiirt = rrench se soiilager, the g being pro- 

nounced as in French. 
4 r 74. Nicolai had been cured of the tcndcncy to sec apparitions 

by the application of kcches to his back. Cf. note to 

4179. According lo Cirinim {/-eittsche Mythologie, Kng. Trans- 



lation, p. 1082) red mice were wont lo run out of the 
mouths of witches. Göthe probably inteiided the 
mouse as a symbol of the bestial element in the Witches' 
Sabbath day, by which Faust is disgusted and repelled. 

4 1 82. 5djäf crftunbe = ' love's hour. ' 

41 86. Faust sees a vision of Margaret, alone, and pale, her feet 
in irons, — and the very fact that he sees her in this 
liour shows that Mephistopheles has failed to drag Faust 
down to his level, — love in him is unconquerable. 

4190. In the sketch of a Scene which Göthe never completcd, 
but which has been printed in the Paralifomciia to 
Faust, we find:-, (Eilt anderer ühcil bcs 2?roi,fiMts. 
(Etcfcrc Hegion. Bocbc3criuit5crfd;iciuiiiio(. (Scbräiuv 
. . . Hacft bas 3bi-''I- I^ic Räitbc auf bcm Kücfeii.' 
Instead of ,ZTad't öas ~^o\' Schröer suggests to read 
,tTacFtC5 3boI.' Göthe never completed tliis Scene ; 
instead we have the conversation between Faust and 

4194. The Medusa Gorgon, who, according to the Greek 
legend, turned every one who looked at her to stone. 

420S. pClfcilS killed Medusa in the wilderness, and out of her 
blood sprang snakes, and also the winged horse 
Pegasus. By this mythological talk Mephistopheles 
seeks to draw Faust's attention away from the 
prophetic vision he has seen. ^^^lat Faust, has seen 
is Margaret aheady tried, condemned, and put to 
death, — the trace of the axe upon her neck, the feet 
chained, the hands bound behind the back. 

42 1 1. The pratcr, from Lat. pratutn = ' a meadow,' is a public 

park in Vienna ; the crowd of people to be seen there 
on feast-days and holidays, the gay booths, the round 
games, the swinging, the puppet theatre, niake it 
resemble somewhat a Blocksberg scene. 

4212. Translate, 'And if they have not bewitched my senses.' 

4213. They now come to a theatre, of which Servibilis is stage- 

manager. Servibilis Loeper translates ,biet!ftbarcr 
(5cift.' He resembles the supernumeraiy of our 
theatres, who is ready to do anything and everything 
when occasion requires. In Servibilis Göthe satirises 
all dilettantism and dilettanti ; in 1799 he had wrilten 



an nrticle on ' Dilettantismus ' in Literature, of wliich 
the words spoken here by Servibilis are an echo. 
4220. ITüd} bticttirt's, from Italian »n diktta ; tr. 'Asamateur, 
it's my part to draw up the cuitain.' 


Considered in its relation to the Fnitst poem, this Sccne can 
only be rcgardcd as supcrfluous and unnecessary. What have 
fairy beings like Obeion and Titania to do with wizards or 
witches, the brood of devils, or the rcvclry of the Blocksberg? 
Or, on the other band, wliat have the inquisitive traveller, the 
orthodox divine, the northern artist, to do with Oberen and 
Titania? Apparently Göthe wanted to satirise certain of his 
contemporaries and certain tcndencics of the age, and he took 
occasion to do so here, calling the sclting he gave to his remarks 
and aphorisms the ,lUaIpuroiisnadjtstraiim, ober ©bcrons nnb 
Citauias tjolbttc ßodj3Ctt.' It woidd ccrtainly have been niore 
fitting if, as was originally intended, he had allowed the Scene 
to be a continuation of the Xcnicn in Scliiller's Musen- 
almanach. The 'Golden Wedding' is called by Göthe an 
3lltcnnC530 — a namc givcn to a particular form of Italian 


4224, 'To-day for once we rest, we sons of Mieding,' that is, 
Mieding's successors. Johann Martin Mieding was 
the stage - manager and decorator of the Weimar 
theatre ; he died in 17S2, when Göthe wrote a poem 
called 'Auf Miedings Tod.' 

4229. Streit. The quarrel was concerning a littlc Indian boy, 
whom Titania wished to keep for herseif. Cf. Shake- 
speare's Alidsumincr Nighfs Drcam, Act II. Scene i. 
It has been thought that the Heraids' announcement 
foretells the final reconciliation of the conflicting 
Clements in Gcrman literature — Oberon and Titania 
symbolising the Classical and Komantic Schools, or 
perhajjs reason and Imagination. 

4235. Pitcf, Oberon's faithful attendant spirit ; Schlegel, in his 
translation of the Midsiimmcr AH^hTs Drcani, calls 
him ,I)roU.' 




4235. brcbt ficfi quer = ' whirls around.' 

4236. fdjlcif t bcn ^U% im 2lcit)Ctl = ' twirls the foot in measure. ' 
4239. 2U"tcl. See Shakespeare's Tcmpest, 

4241. riclc ^ra^cn = ' many an ugly face.' 

4244. Scntcns, 3d pers. pl. pres. conj. with cs added on, tr. 

' let them learn it.' 
4247. SrfimoIIt, from fdi]nolIcn= ' to be sulky.' 

(Sviüctl is a verb coined by Göthe, and means ' to have 

whims' ((Srillctl). 
4251. The Orchestra and Singers probably symbolise the crowd 

of literary aspirants, who, like insects (^licgcit and 

JlTÜ(f cn), keep up a continual piping and humming. 
4255. Dllbclfarf = ' bagpipe drone ' ; we must here imagine 

some droning gnat or fly to come in sight. 
4257. 5d]nccfcfdjtticfcfd]na(J, the word is meant to imitate the 

sound of the bagpipes. 
4259-4262. (Seift, bei" fidj crft btlbct= 'embryo spirit.' Göthe 

means to satirise clumsy poetasters who tack and 

stitch rhymes together, and call this ,ciu (Scbidjtdjeit.' 
4263. Düntzer believes the pävdjcit to represent the union of 

bad music and commonplace poetry. 
4267. The ,Hcugicrigcr Hcifctibcr' is Nicolai again. Cf. notes 

to 11. 4144 and 4169. 
4271. By the ,(Drthobor' is meant Comit Friedrich Stolberg, 

who had written an attack upon Schiller's poem, ' Die 

Götter Griechenlands.' 
4274. er, i.e. Oberen. 
4275-4278. The northern artist longs for the home of art, and 

prepares for a journey to Italy (such as Göthe himself 

had made), — as yet his works are merely sketches. 
4279-4282. The purift is not a Speaker or writer who is strict 

and rigorous about language, but an cesthetic, artistic 

person, who is rigorous about costume and dress. 
42S0. gelubcrt means here 'careless,' ' free from reStraint ' ; cf. 

the AI. H. G. verb luoberil. 
4283. The young Witch is supposed to be beautifui, and to 

have no need of powder to enhance her beauty. 
4290. pcrfaulcn = ' to moulder.' 



429 1. ^Itcgcnfdjnau5 - ' fly's snout. ' 

inücfcunas= 'mosquito-sting' (lit. ' nose '). 

4293. (Srtn = ' cricket.' 

4295-4302. The same Weathercock spenks bolh times ; at first 
it is delighted at the society it meets on the Blocks- 
berg, but presently it expects the earth to open and 
swallow everything down. It is believed the Counts 
Stolberg are here satirised, who, in youthful enthu- 
siasm for all that was natural, bid defiance to all 
conventionality, and latcr became narrow, reaction- 
ary, and absurdly prudish. 

4303. The .Genien, i.e. epigrams published by Göthe and 
Scliiller in the Äliisoialmanach in 1797 — are here 
joined on as symbolical insects to the real insects who 
were swarming on the Brocken. 

4307. Friedrich von Hennings had published in bis Journal, 
Genius der Zeit, an indignant protest against the 

431 1. llTufagct {i.e. ' Guide of the Muses ') was the name of a 
Journal also conducted by Hennings (1798-99), 
which was the rival of Schiller's Alusenaltnatiaeh. 

43 15 -43 18. These verses, also, were aimed at Hennings. 

43 17-43 18. The meaning is, ' There is as much Space on the 
Blocksberg as on Parnassus.' 

4319-4322. An epigram on Nicolai; see above note on 1. 4144. 
Nicolai scems to have hated Jesuils as well as ghosts. 

4323. By the Craue Lavater is meant, whom Göthe here contrasts 
with Nicolai. Talking to Eckermann in 1829, Göthe 
Said : ' His gait was" like that of a crane, for which 
reason he appears as the crane on the Blocksberg.' 

4327. The IfcItFinb (' Worldling') is Göthe himself; cf. 
Gedichte, ii. 269, whcrc he calls himself a il^cltftub — 
,PropIicte rcdjts, proplictc linfs 
Das U>eltfinb in bcr mitten.' 

4331-4338. These verses are descriptive of the stage and what 
takes place there ; but the dancers symbolise the 
philosophers. In the distance is heard the monotonous 
cry of the bitterns (i.e. the Kol]rbommchl), and to 
this music the dancers dance. At one time it was 



believed that these birds produced their stränge cry 
by blowing tlirough the reeds in a maish, and hence 
theii- name — Hobrcionimcltt. ,DonnncIn' for ..Hobr= 
boininclu' is unusual. Kohrciomiiui is from M. H. 
G. ,I^orotumbcI' ; in O. H. G. I^oro = ' marsh ' ; and 
in M. H. G. tummcI = 'noise,' 'din.' 

4335- lupfen =' to raise a little'; Eng. 'tolift.' 

4339-4342. Here I follow Schröer in reading ^icMcr. Loeper 
has ^icbclcr, which can only mean JficMcr. Düntzer 
reads ^iöclcr, i.e. bcr ^fiöJIc, which reading Bayard 
Taylor approves and translates 'good fellow.' The 
meaning of the verse is : ' How the rabble of philo- 
sophers hate one another, and would willingly put an 
end to one another' (Uul> gab' fid? gern bas Jvcft^ 
cfjcn); but the music of the bagpipes unites theni, 
as Orpheus' IjTe tamed the wild beasts (53cftjcit, i.e. 

4343. Next appears the Dogtttattft, he does not doubt the 
existence of the Devil in the least, and therefore the 
Devil must be something. 

4347-4350- The 3i>caltft is Fichte, who believed that everything 
exteiTial to himself was only a product of his own 
Imagination. Once a Company of riotous students 
smashed all his Windows ; when Göthe heard of it he 
remarked that Fichte might now convince himself, in 
the most disagreeable way, that it was possible ' for a 
Kot Me to exist externally to the l\Ie.' Anster thus 
translates 11. 4349, 4350 — 

' If I be all that meets rny sight, 
Then surely I have lost my senses.' 

4351. Then comes the licalift, who infers that all he sees on 

the Blocksberg must be a mere figment of the 
Imagination, and is infinitely disgusted. 

4352. ha% means ,fcbr' here ; obs. it is the positive of beffcr. 
4357) 4358- The believer in the supernatural sees in the 

appearing and presence of Devils evidence of the 
existence of spirits, and hence of good spirits. 
4359. 4360. The sceptic or doubter says of the supematuralists : 
'How those treasure - seekers pursue after a little 
flame, after the Will-o'-the-Wisps of superstition.' 



4363-4366. r>crfluditc ?itcttantcn. Van of ihe ürchcstra 
have got out of time thiough the general noise and 
confusion. Cf. 11. 4291-4294 above. 

4367-4370. Sie (ScuHlllbtcn aie the people who go with the 
times, and ahvays accommodate themselves to circum- 
stances, — these Göthe describes as standing now on 
their head, now on their feet. 

4371-4374. Die Ultbcl^ülfüdjcn are awkward, helpless people, 
the exact opposite to the ,gctDanbtcn.' ' Once many 
a bit we spongod, — but now, God help us ! our shoes 
are worn out, and we run about with bare feet.' 
crfd)ran3Cn = * gain by flattery'; in the sixteenth Century 
and ever since a fawning courtier has been called a 

4375-4382. The Will-o'-the-Wisps and Shooting-Stars (Stcrtt« 
fdjnuppc) represent two exactly opposite classes : the 
former are Parvenüs, people who have suddenly 
risen ; the latter are people who have Ijeen great, and 
who, through some change of fortune, have fallen. 

4383. Die llTaffircti. The heavy clumsy nature of these people 
is such, that even as spirits they trample down the 
grass, and need space around them in Order to feel 
comfortable. Bayard Taylor takes them to typify the 
'Ignorant, brutal, revolutionary masses.' 

4387. tnafticj = ' coarse and overfed ' ; mäftcit = ' to fatten.' 

4388. (EIcpl]antcu!äIbcr='young elephants.' 

4390. Why Göthe should call pucf 'plump,' or ,bcrb' (/.^. 
' coarse,' ' fat ') is stränge. Bayard Taylor in a note 
recalls the words of the Faiiy to Puck in the Mid- 
st(7niner Night'' s Dream — 

'Farewell, thou lob of spirits ! I'll be gone.' 
However, bcrb has also the meaning 'smart.' 

4394. Ho[ctll]ü(lcl is the name of the home of the Elves in 
Wieland's Oheron {2, 27 ; 12, 69). 

4398. Hub alles ift 3crftobctl = ' and all vanishes.' Here ends 
not only the lutermezzo but likewise the whole 
Walpurgisitacht. Göthe did not originally intend 
(as we learn from the Paralifomciia to Faust) the 
' Walpurgisnacht ' to have thus ended. There was to 



have been a Scene in which the Devils and Witches 
were to do homage to the Prince of Darkness upon 
the summit of the Brocken : — at midnight the phan- 
toms were to vanish, and the whole was to end in 
disorder, confusion, and storm. 


This Scene Göthe dictated to Riemer one morning between 
the years 1803- 1806. It must, however, have been in exist- 
ence long before, since in Wieland's life we read, that when 
he (in 1796) read the Faust Fragment, he expressed surprise that 
it did not contain the passage wherein Faust becomes so furious 
that even Mephistopheles is terrified at his violence. The 
Scene is in prose. Faust has just learned that Gretchen, home- 
less and in despair, had fled from justice, had been captured, 
and had been cast into prison. 

5. "^WX (£Icub = 'In misery'; the original meaning of 

,(EIcnb' is ,2ht5lanb,' /.r. 'exile,' ' homelessness ' ; cf. 

, Streifen ntdit bcrrlidu^ Iftämicr roii liot^cr (Schürt 

nun im €lcttb' {i.e. 2lu5laui)). — Göthe, as cited in 

Grimni's Wörterbuch. 
7. ctiigcfpcrrt, 'locked up,' 'shut up.' 
S. 23is baf]tn, i.e. ' To this it has come.' 
II. incjriinmcttb, ?>. 3"(Jfi'i"ii tjabcitb. The word is not 

found anywhere eise. 3"Öl"''ll'^^ — ' violent anger. ' 

22. bu mtcttbltdjer (Seift; the appeal to God here is won- 

derfully impressive. 
ipanblc bcit H?unn lüicbcr ; obs. the alliteration here. 

23. I^unbsgcftalt. Mephistopheles had appeared to Faust 

first of all as a dog. We learn from this line that 
Mephistopheles used occasionally aftenvards to assume 
a dog's form, — a detail which is taken from the Faust 
nädjtlidjer IPeifc, gen. case ; translate ' darkly ' ; but 
Düntzer here suggests what, I think, would be a 
better reading — tuidjtlidier lüctlc='in the night- 



25. Follcni = ' to ciawl.' 

26. ' And fasten on his Shoulders, as he falls.' 

33. in feiner roinbcnbcn Sobcsnotl] = ' in her agonising pain.' 
Cf in M. H. D. ,init tpinbcnbcr l^ant' (^6'. ,mit 
frampft^aft gerungener i7anb')) Giidnai, 906, 919, 

42. Drangen = brängtert. Cf. above notes to 11. 495, 2722. 

45. ' Don't grind thy greedy teeth at me.' 

57. ' I cannot loosen the avenger's fetters,' i.e. ' the avenger 
of blood'; ,5o fdjneü als bie i^adje bcs Hädjers' is 
a phrase used by Lessing. 

79. (El^ürncr [i.e. 'gaoler') is the old form of (Il|ürmer ; the 
M. H. G. form is (türner ; cf. Eng. ' /ur/i-key. ' 

SCENE xxiir. 

4399. tyebcit, as above, 1. 15, means here ' to bo busicd about.' 
Halien[tein= 'a walled-in place where the gallows stood,' 
so called becausc ravcns uscd to swarm there. The 
raven is called a gallows bird. Cf. 
,Z)ic iuibcn jidjcn fracf^jcnb juntal 
iuidj bcm ßodjcjcridjt 311 Ijaltcn tljr mal^I.' 

Chatnisso, i. 202. 
Byron probably i-emcmbercd the phrase ' ravenstone,' 
from Shelley's oral translation, when he wrote, in a 
rejected chorus of his play, The Dcfonncd Trans- 
fonncd — 

' The raven sits 
On the raven stone," 

4401. Cf. in Bürger's Lenore — 

,S\t\\ bn, fiel) \>a. am ^odjgrrid;t 
Can3t um bcs Habcs :rpinbcl 
rjnlb fidjtlHUlid; In-i monb«iItd;t 
€in luftiges ©cfinbcl.' 

4402. (Eine l7ejen3Unft= 'a Company of witches.' §nnft is 

related to 3tcmen (M. H. G. 3ctncn), as Uernunft to 
rcrncl^inen, — it means a Company who are bound 
together by a certain law or rule, — ir>as ftdj unter 
il^ncn 3tctnt. 



4403. 'They scatter, devote, and doom.' — Bayard Taylor. 

4404. As to this Scene, it is doubtful whether it ought to be 

printed as prose or verse, as the lines are quite irregulär. 
It is a kind of transition stage between the diflerent 
keys of tlie scenes which precede and follow. 


A prison : Faust with a bunch of keys and a lamp Stands 
before a little iron door. 

Schröer is of opinion that this Scene was written as early as 

4408. cht guter lDa{]tt. Faust means her love for him. 

4410, 441 1. ' Thy delaying keeps death a lingerer here.' 
4412-4420. The song is founded on the well-known fairy tale 
of the ' Machandelbaum ' (see Grimm's Kinder und 
Baus Märchen, Ed. 1837, Vol. I. No. 47 — 
,!Ttün ITlobcr, be tut fladjt't, 
ITiiitt üabcr, be mi att, 

ntütt ^iBcftcr, bc iTlarleenifett (little Maden), 
i-öiii alle niitne Bccttifeit (little bones), 
Uti bittbt fc itt ccn fübett Doof (silken cloth), 
Scgts unttct bcn mad^attbclboom ; 
Kitnttt, Kitoitt, o.äri tnatt ctt fdjöti Dagel bin tcf.' 
The Story is as follows : — The wicked stepmother 
killed her little stepson, cooked him, and set him 
before her husband for dinner, — when the father ate 
him up. The little sister collected the bones and 
buried them under the juniper-tree. The bones 
became a little bird, and it sang this song from the 
4413. Die is used for fte, and in 1. 4415 bcr is used for er. 
4415. c3cffen = ci;e9cffcn. See notes to 11. 2837, 2838. 
4423. Margaret knows that on the next morning she is to be 
put to death, — she thinks the executioners have come 
to fetch her. 
4431. OiemuiiJ for tjcmig, as above, 1. 3572. 



4440. mein (Ia9c = mctn £cbcn, or mein Scbctagc, as above, 
1. 2791. 

4443. Margaret thinks in her madness that she still holds her 

child in her arms. 
4448-4450. Margaret is thinking of old tales about the murder 

of children, and adds, ' Who told thcm I was meant 

in these?' 
4453. Faust kneels to her, and Margaret thinks he is praying. 

4459. (Setöfc = ' mad din. ' 

4460. Faust has heretofore spoken in whispers, — he now calls 

her name aloud, and she recognises him. 
4467. i^culcn unb Klappen = ' wailing and gnashing of teeth.' 
4480. * Oh, stay a little while, I love to stay with thee !' 
4499. ' ril love thee with unutterable love.' — Anster. 

4504. ' Dost thou not shudder before nie ?' 
4514. She dimly remembers that it is his band has slain her 


4519. ' You are killing nie.' 

4520. 'You must remain alive.' 

4523. (SIctdj morgen, — she means after her execution. 

4535- fo 911*^/ fo fromm = 'so good and kind.' 

4540 is without arhyme, so too 4550, 4554, 4556, 4557, 4560, 
4562, 4563, 4576, 4579, 4582. 

4545. ftc lauern bodi mir auf = ' they are lying in wait.' 

4567. ' She lays her dead band on my brow.' 

4576. She speaks passionately, violently. 

4581. She imagines it was to have been her wedding-day. 

4585-4591. ' We shall nieet again,' — she means at the place of 
execution. She goes on to describe the scene — the 
crowded streets, the tolling of the bell, the breaking 
of the stafif. During the reading of the death-sentence 
the ' Poorman's and Sinner's ' bell used to be tolled, 
and after the sentence, in token that life was spent 
and over, the judge used to break a white staff and 
throw the pieces at the feet of the condenined. 

4591. pa(fen= 'to lay hold of.' 

4592. Blutftul^I = ' scafifold. ' 



cntrücfcn = ' to push away.' 

4593. 3U(f cu = ' to twitch ' (O. H. G. 5iidion). 

4594. 3Ücfcn='to draw fortli from the sheath ' (M. H. G. 


4595. She imagines the stillness of the crowd after her death. 
4601-4604. Cf. Maigaret's words, 3493-3500. 

4606. im Siid) Iaffcn=:'to leave in the Kirch.' 

460S, 4609. Cf. Hamlet's words — 

' Save me, and hover o'er nie with your wings, 
You heavenly guards. ' 

Act III. Scene iv. 


BOOKS which I have used in prcparing this Edition, 
and which will be found useful by students of Göthe'c; 

Editions with Notes. — Faust, Parts I. and II., the 
editions of II. Düntzer, K. Schiöer, G. v. Löper ; also, E. J. 
Turner and E. D. Morshead's, and A. Selss' editions of Fatisty 
Part I. ; and Fatist, ein Fragiiwitf, ed. W. L. Holland (the last 
not annotated). 

Translations. — Parts I. and II. — Bayard Taylor's (Trans- 
lation and Notes), Anna Swanwick's, Sir Theodore Martin's, 
J. Anster's, J. Hayward's. 

Language, etc., oi' Faust.^ — G'öthe''s Sprache und ihr Geist, 
J. A. Lehmann. 

COMMENTARIES. — Vorlesungen über Göthe^s Faust ^ F. Kreyssig ; 
Hermann Grimm, H. Schreyer, A. v. Oettingen ; Göthe''s Faust 
erster u. zter Thcil erklärt, G. O. Marbach ; Neue Beiträge zur 
Kritik des Gedichts, F. Vischer ; Erläuterungen zu Faust, H. 
Düntzer ; The Spirit of Göthe's Faust, W. Coupland ; various 
articles in the Gothe Jahrbuch (1880-86); parts of Ilettner's 
Literatur-geschickte des iZten Jahrhunderts. 

SouRCES. — Über die Entstehung und Composition des 
Gedichts, K. Fischer ; Versuch einer Geschichte des Volksschau- 
spiels, Wm. Creizenach. 

Göthe's Life. — Göthe's Leben, H. Düntzer (excellently 
translated into English by T. Lyster) ; Leben und Schriflen, 
K. Gödeke ; Aus Göthe's Frühzeit, W. Scherer ; Life of Göthe, 
G. H. Lewes; Göthe (Foreign Classics for English Readers), 
A. Ilayward. 



Two tasks in especial were the care and delight of 
Göthe's old age — the working out of IVilheliii Meisters 
IVanderjahre, and the conclusion of the Faust tragedy. 

From August 1824 onwards the idea of the Faust 
poem had again taken possession of Göthe's mind. 
Many incidents, such as the parts relating to Helen, and 
the parts, which now form the beginning of Act II. and 
the concluding Scenes of Act V., had been planned and 
sketched as early as the beginning of the Century, — had, 
indeed, been conceived earlier still ;^ but all the rest 
falls into the time immediately after the conclusion of 
the IVanderjahre, — that is, from 1827 onwards. In 
August 1831 the whole was completed, although a few 
touches were afterwards added ; and in the following 
March Göthe died. Faust, Part II., was his last work, 
— contains his last thoughts on life and men. 

The Second Part of Faust has been much less read, 
and is much less known than the First Part. Part II. 

^ The plan of Faust, Part IL, was conceived as early as the 
Summer of 1775 (see Buch xviii. of Dichtung und Wahrheit, in 
Loeper's edition, ßd. IV., S. 54). In the year 1800 there were in 
existence, besides this plan, three fragments : the beginning of Act 
IL, the beginning of Act III., and the conclusion (it may be after 
wards modified) of Act V. The conception of the Helena, i.e. Act 
III., Göthe told Knebel (in a letter written November 27, 1827), 
was older than the trces he had planted in his garden on Novem- 
ber I, 1776, 


1 has not, indeed, the same interest for us that Part I. has : 

l it is a history of humanity rather than the history of 

I a human being ; it is the work of an old man, and 

' although the poet's hand has not lost its cunning, yet 

the freshness and strength which breathe from eveiy 

page of Part I. are wanting to it. But, nevertheless, 

Parts I. and II. are bound and joined together indis- 

solubly, — they belong to one another, and make up one 

whole : \ve have only read one-half of the Faust poem 

if we close the book at the death of Gretchen. 

If it be asked what is the hidden meaning of Part II., 
some such answer as this may be given : after the streng 
power of love, and the awful consciousness that he has 
brought misery and sin and death to a pure and trusting 
girl, have stamped out in Faust every common and 
sensual impulse, his aspirations and efforts turn once 
more distinctly and mournfully towards what is lofty 
and what is great, and continue in intensity of action to 
the end of an unusually long life. Gradually the desire 
to work for the good of others takes possession of him, 
and he dies contemplating a happiness created by him 
for others, and in the sure hope that all the knowledge 
and blessedness which he had dared to aspire to here 
shall be his portion hereafter. 

But this answer is not all-sufficing. As the IVander- 
jähre Wilhelm Meisters is not alone the continuation, but 
essentially the enlargement and the deepening of the 
Lehrjahre, so, too, Faust, Part IL, is not alone the 
continuation, but also essentially the enlargement and 
deepening of the conception, the foundation of which 

ihad been laid in the First Part. Here, as there, we 
have the stepping out from dreamy meditativeness into 
' the daylight of active life : here, as there, we have the 
longing and aspiration after the realisation of a fuller, 
freer, happier existence, — but all this according to a 
vaster, less definite plan. 

In the words with which Gölhc, in 1827, accompanied 


the earliest publication of the Heloia incident, he speaks 
out clearly as to the motives which guided him in work- 
ing out both parts of the Faust poem. ' I wonder,' he 
writes, ' that those persons, who have undertaken an 
enlargement and continuation of the Faust Fragment, 
have not come upon the thought that Part II. must 
necessarily raise itself whoUy above the earher troubled 
region, and must, through worthier circumstances, lead 
such a man into higher spheres.' 

And yet only in a limited sense was it Göthe's inten- 
tion to place the hero of the First Part in higher and 
broader spheres. The truth is that in the first four Acts 
of Part II. Faust subsides into the subordinate position 
of a spectator, and that, so to speak, unawares another 
liero, a very ideal and impersonal hero, is set before us. 
If it is the wonderful achievement and charm of the 
First Part that Faust is a distinct and conceivable 
Personality, and yet at the same time the typical bearer 
of all the aspirations of the human mind, — in Part II. 
the hero is far rather the idea of humanity or humanity 
itself. In place of the history of Faust \ve have the 
history of the chief tendencies of human development, 
in place of a tragic drama \ve have a poetically-treated 
Philosophy of History. 

There is not any doubt that through this enlarged con- 
ception the Faust poem gained in width, gained in depth ; 
but it was a conception that went beyond the limit of 
possible dramatic representation. If the Second Part of 
Faust Stands far behind Part I. in poetic strength and 
reality, if it never presses closely and kindly to our hearts, 
if the meaning is obscured through the formlessness and 
superabundance of material, this must not be attributed 
exclusively to the failing band and failing power of old 
age, but just as much to the nature and the capabilities 
of the subject. Instead of a logical continuous action 
there is only a series of separate pictures and fancies 
loosely strung together, which, as Eckermann once 


expressed it, witli Göthe's approval and assent, influence 
one another indeed, but yet concern one another little. 
And instead of the form and fashion, clear and plastic 
and warm with life, which makes Part I., even as a poem, 
one of the grandest of human creations, there is here 
the luxurious grovvth of an evil habit which had for a 
long time taken root in Göthe's mind, the habit of cloth- 
ing distinct definite ideas and opinions with the symbolic 
dress of mythological traditions, and thus of refming 
away these opinions in weak and shadowy allegories. 

Act I. 

The first Scene of Part II. is like a Prologue to the 
2lnmiiil)igc Second Part. We must suppose an indefinite 
(Pcgcnb. interval of time to have elapsed between the 
Saü)t nuf parting of Faust and Gretchen and this open- 
biumigcn ing Scene. Neither in his own Hfe nor in the 
Hafen lives of his poetical creations did Göthe ever 

gebettet. gj^^ space to remorse for irrevocable deeds 
done. When Faust disappears with Mephistopheles, his 
anguish has been suggested to the reader, but we shall 
hear no more of it from Göthe. Faust lets his dead 
past bury its dead. Göthe firmly believed in healthy 
and final recovery from moral as from physical sickness : 
the remedial agents were time and nature. He recovered 
from his own sorrows by withdrawing for a while from 
Society and giving himself up to the influences of art and 
nature. And this we are to suppose Faust does. — Up 
to a certain point one goes with Göthe and confesses his 
wisdom. Remorse alone is a poor thing, is weakening, 
is useless : Devils may feel remorse : — while Repent- 
ance, the beginning anew, fresh effort, is a great and 
noble thing. Yet, that grief such as Faust had suflfered 
could ever be wholly overcome or forgotten is harder to 
understand : sin may be pardoncd, but it can never be 


The region described at the beginning of the Second 
Part is the country surronnding Lake Lucerne, the natural 
loveHness of which can scarcely be surpassed by any 
scene on earth.i Faust seeks rest and peace in soUtude 
and with nature, and finds both after a time by the 
help of Ariel and the Elves, — beings without any higher 
emotions or moral perceptions, — typical of the heahng 
influences of time and of nature. Faust sleeps and 
awakens invigorated for renewed activity and fresh 
efifort. At this season Mephistopheles does not venture 
to approach him : Faust has overcome for a time all 
sensual and earthly desires, and Mephistopheles has now 
no power over him. 

In the next Scene, however, Mephistopheles again 
appears, and leads Faust into the great world 
and to the palace of the German Emperor. ^'•^''"■•*« 
Here Göthe follows the old legend : because ^^^^j^jj^g 
Faust desires to know all that is in the whole ^[,roncs. 
World — the whole of life — Mephistopheles 
proposes to him to visit the Imperial Court. Faust 
has been taught what is in man (the Microcosmus), he 
is now to learn to know the universe (the Macrocosmus). 
Faust's spirit shall be overcome through ambition and 
greed of power. In the Scenes in the Imperial Palace 
we have described for us the wretched political condition 
of Germany in Göthe's time. The State declines, and 
grows weaker ; the Emperor and his counsellors and 
flatterers are only busied about pleasure and enjoyment : 
- — -the Revolution is the striving after salvation of the 
oppressed people, and is at the same time only unreason 
and destruction. 

The Emperor appears surrounded by his ministers 
and lords. At first Mephistopheles plays the chief part. 
The Emperor can as little dispense with the daily com- 
panionship of his Fool as of his Astrologer, so Mephisto- 
pheles quite willingly comes forward and offers his Services 
^ Göthe had visited Lake Lucerne in the year 1797. 


as Court Fool. The ministers bring iip reports from their 
various departments, each one more discouraging than 
the other, The great need is money, and Mephistopheles 
suggests ways of supplying this need — first, by digging 
up all the lost treasures which men have hidden below 
the earth's surface ; and secondly, by the introduction of 
paper money. 

The Emperor is a prince who has every faculty which 
can qualify him for losing his realni ; he thinks only of 
himself, and how he may amuse himself from day to day ; 
the Fool and the Astrologer standing on either side of 
his throne are the two officials to whose counsel he is 
most inclined to listen. The land is vvithout law and 
Order, the judges themselves accomplices with the 
criminals, and all sorts of crimes are committed un- 
punished ; the treasury is empty, the high Steward is in 
the power of usurious Jews, and is more undecided from 
day to day how to supply bread for the Emperor's table, 

The part of the crowd in this Act is evidently imitated 
from the Greek Chorus. The titles of the ministers are 
taken from the medireval Organisation of the German 
Imperial Court, where titles were hereditary in certain 
princely houscs. The financial proposals of Mephisto- 
pheles meet with much favour, but for some reason the 
matter is postponed tili after the Carnival, which is now 
fast approaching. 


Not long before this tinic the Emperor had rcturned 

from Rome, where he had been crowned by 

ircitlauf= ^j-jg Pope ; in Italy he had seen the Carnival, 

'^"n^h ^"^ ^^ wishes now to see similar pageants and 

... „ spectacles represented at his own Court. Faust 
gcmaajem, r i _ 

pcrsicrt u. arranges the Carnival Masquerade and mtro- 
aiifgrputjt duces the characters. The entire Scene is an 


allegory, and its chief motive is the representa- 3iir Huim^ 
tion of every conceivable phase — political and rncnid;"n5. 
social — of human life. This is the first con- 
fusing episode in the Second Part of Fmist, and Göthe 
has added not a httle to the confusion by introducing 
now and then a double, possibly even a triple symbolism. 
The design of the Carnival Masquerade is similar to 
that of Scene II. in the First Part — the Scene before the 
city gate. The latter gives us a picture of life in a small 
Gemian town — a picture of a narrow circle of individual 
characters. The broader sphere into which Faust has 
now entered demands an equally broad and compre- 
hensive picture of human life as it is moulded by society 
and government. We are at first introduced to types of 
various classes of persons to be found in the world, 
or to successive stages in the growth of society symbol- 
ised — garden-girls, gardeners, mothers and daughters, 
wood- Cutters, pulcinellas, drunkards, parasites, satirical 
poets : then to the moral elements to be found in 
the world — represented by the Graces, the Fates, the 
Furies : then come the Symbols of a wise government 
— Hope, Fear, and Prudence ; next comes Pessimism, 
called here ZoÜo-Thersites :i then Poetry {i.e. the Boy- 
Charioteer, later on in the poem called Euphorien)'- 
appears as the companion of Wealth (Plutus), and 

1 Zoilus, in the third centun- before Christ, became renowned 
for his venomous abuse of Plato, Isocrates, and Homer. Thersites, 
whoni Homer calls ai'o"X((7Tos avrip, makes himself conspicuous in 
the Second Book of the Illad by his ill-temper and violent abuse 
of the Heroes. The two characters combined represent Pessimism 
in its most offensive sense. The Herald touches Zoi'lo-Thersites 
with his wand, when he changes into two beasts, an adder and a bat. 

- The Boy-Charioteer is Euphorion ; but Euphorien is not bom 
until Act HI. 'Euphorion,' said Göthe, ' is not a human, but an 
allegorical being. In him is personified Poetry, which is bound 
neither to time, place, nor person. The same spirit, who chooses 
afterwards to be Euphorion, appears here as the Boy-Charioteer, 
and in so far resembles a spectre that he can be present evefywhere, 
and at all times. ' i 


Avarice {da- Abgemagerte) follows on behind. — The 
part of Plutus is taken by Faust, while Mephistoplieles 
wears the mask of Avarice : the Emperor appears 
as Pan. The debasing influence of greed and gain, 
and the madness of speculation, are described ; the 
Gemurmel are the Chorus at one time, — at another 
time the Chorus is composed of women : the fauns, 
Satyrs, gnomes, and giants are brouglit in as types 
of the rüder forces of nature, or as types of the masses 
of unthinking, ignorant, rüde people, — i.e. the fauns are 
sensuahsts ; the satyrs, demagogues ; the gnomes, bar- 
barians (rieh people grecdy of wealth) ; the giants, stupid, 
stulDljorn ministers and rulers. 

At the end a fire breaks out, and the Carnival closes 
with this catastrophe, in which most critics see Revolu- 
tion symbolised. Because das wilde Heer lacks that 
foresight which comes of intelligence and wider experi- 
ence, it drifts into Revolution without knowing whither it 
is tending. 

After the Carnival Masquerade the Emperor gives an 

audience to P"aust and Mephistopheles in the 
tujtqaitcn. , , . , , . , , , • , , 

palace garden, m the sunshme. Mephistopheles 

still plays the part of Court Fool, while he represents 

Faust to the Emperor as a great conjuror, whose guide 

and companion he himself is. Mephistopheles, although 

he had postponed until after the Carnival the explanation of 

his financial schemes, had yet, during the Carnival, made 

them fully known to the Emperor and secured his assent. 

The deceptiveness of the papcr money which the Emperor, 

while in a State of intense excitement and enjoyment, 

had sanctioned, is now humorously, but somewhat cyni- 

cally, set forth. The Emperor, rieh in bank-notes, and 

looking forward to the hidden treasures which are soon 

to be his, amuses himself by showering benefits and gifts 

on all around him. Presently, however, he complains of 

the dulness of life, and calls upon P"aust to show his 

power as a magician by summoning before him and his 


Court, that same evening, the shades of Paris and 

Helen ; he wishes to see thc perfect types of male and 

female beaut3^ 

In the next Scene Faust consults with r\Iephistopheles 

in a crloomy srallery as to how he can summen 

back to earth the shades of Paris and Helen ; !i ' . 


but Mephistopheles teils hmi he has no power 
in the matter ; he has no power in the heathen world ; 
he has nothing to do with art and beauty. Helen is in 
Hades ; he cannot approach to where she is. If this thing 
is to be done, Faust must do it himself ; he must go and 
ask die Mütter, and from them obtain the means of 
summoning up these phantoms. Faust shudders, awe- 
struck at the mysterious word : — 

Faust, jltlüttcr ! 
Mcfhhtopheks. ,5diaubcrt's bidj ? 

Faust. ,l]Tüttcr! llüittcr! 's fItuo,t fo tinmbcrlidj ! 
iMcphistopkelcs. ,X)as tft CS cuidi, (Söttiucu iituT,cfanut 

CEudi Stcrblidjen, iion uns nid^t cjcru genannt. 
Du fclbft btft Sdjulb, bälg it]rcr unr bcbürfcn.' 
LI. 1604-1609. 

Mephistopheles places in Faust's band a magic key, 
which will aid him in the discovery of the Mothers, and 
bids him bring back a burning tripod, which will put it 
in Faust's power to summon up the phantoms of Paris 
and Helen. Faust ascends or descends to the Mot/iers, 
while Mephistopheles mutters : 

(Hcugtcrtg bin idj ob er u)icbcr fomntt.' 
Who were the illotliers ? We read of certain unknown 
goddesses who were worshipped in Sicily under the name 
of Mothers?- Like the Furies, when spoken of, they were 

1 In Plutarch's Life of Marcellus he writes : — ' In Sicily there 
is a town called Engyium, not indeed great, but very ancient, and 
ennobled by the presence of the goddesses called the Mothers. The 
temple, they say, was built by the Cretans, and they show some 


styled Eumenides, or well-disposed ; but the mention of 
them was avoided, and their name inspired men with a 
peculiar horror. Göthe had these in bis thoughts ; but 
if we go beyond this and look for the hidden meaning of 
the visit to the Mothers, it would seem intended to ex- 
press the effort by some process of abstraction to find 
ideal Beauty. The Mothers are the unknown, unreach- 
able (jnibetretene)^ unbeseechable (^iiHcrbetcne) sources 
of all immortal embodiments of Beauty. All creations of 
beauty, whether lost to the world or still possessed, Sur- 
round them. These are immortal. So, too, all noble 
conceptions, once conceived of, even if unrealised, en- 
compass them, — the unuttered thoughts of Plato ; the 
unwritten poems of Homer, Dante, Shakspere ; the 
unchiselled gods of Phidias ; the unfinished Dawn of 
Michael Angelo. 

Like so much oi Fatist, Part IL, all that relates to 
the Mothers is pure allegory ; with pain and effort Faust 
attains to them and finds, by their aid and counsel, 
ideal Beauty, — so the salvation and renewal of fallen 
humanity is only to be gained out of what is most 

• earnest, most deep, most ideal, and is to be won, as is 
declared still more distinctly in the last Scenes of Part 

yj IL, not through hasty, hurried superficialness, but through 
earnest moral exertion and labour. 

In brightly-illuminated halls — marshals, chamberlains, 
- „ , , pages, courtiers, and Court ladies await Faust's 
tctcS'l return with mipatience. Apparently Gothe had 
meant to introduce a little drama here, as 
Shakspere does in Hamlet, but he changed his pur- 
pose, and all that the Emperor and his Court are shown 
are living pictures of Paris and Helen. Faust returns 
from visiting the Mothers, in a priest's dress, and 

spcars and brazcn helmcts transcribcd with the nanic of Meriones 
and of Ulyssos, who consccrated tlicni to the goddcsscs. ' In later 
tinics the Motlios have bccn identificd wiüi Demeter and Persephone, 
but whether üüthe was aware of this is, I ihink, doubtful. 


ciowned, bearing a tiipod. The mysterious Kittersaal: 
music, the ringing of the shafts and triglyphs, ^«"""«nbc 
the singing of the whole bright temple, prepare "' ■'""^' 
US for the Coming of the highest ideal of Beauty. The 
shades of Paris and Helen pass over the stage : together 
they are typical of the highest and purest physical em- 
bodiment of the idea of Beauty — the human form ; 
Helen alone becomes afterwards the Symbol both of 
Beauty and of the classic dement in Art and Literature. 
Sonie of the courtiers and Court ladies pronounce them 
beautiful, some cannot discover wherein their much- 
praised beauty consists, — ^just as happens amongst our- 
selves when \ve sometimes catch glimpses of perfect 
beauty, or wisdom, or goodness, and pass by unheeding. 
New feelings are aroused in Faust by the sight of 
Helen's beauty : 

,Dtc lDoI]IgcftaIt, bie midi rorcinft ott^ürftc, 
3'i §auber[pti\jcliiiu3 bcalürftc, 
IVav mir ein 5*aniulnlb foldicr Sdiöne ! — 
Pu bift's, bcr id: bic Hcauiuj aller Kraft, 
Pen 3"fecgrtff ber ScibcnfAaft, 
Dir ITciguuij, Sieb', Jlnbetung, lüal^nfiun 5oIIc.'^ 
Fc72(sf, Part II. Act I. 11. 1883-1888. 

' This passage contains one of the few references to the First 
Part which we find in Faust, Part II. — The reader will remember 
Marlowe's description of Faust's rapture when he first is shown 
Helen : 

' Was this the face that launched a thousand ships, 
And bnrnt the topless towers of Ilium ! 
Sweet Helen, make me immortal with a kiss. 
Her Ups suck forth my soul ! see where it flies ; 
Come, Helen, come, give me my soul again. 
Here will I dwell, for heaven is in these lips, 
And all is dross that is not Helena. 

Oh ! thou art fairer than the evening air 
Clad in the beauty of a thousand Stars ; 
Brighter art thou than flaming Jupiter, 


Faust has seen his Ideal. His joy, his yearning, rises 
to a burning desire, to a resolution so powerful that 
nothing can intimidate it. Again the old, passionate 
blood seethes, although now warmed by a nobler fire. 
He endeavours to seize Helen, and to retain her by 
violence. The impetuous rash attempt to win at one 
blow as a permanent possession that which has only 
been revealed in a fleeting glimpse, fails, like his former 
attempt, tlirough that eternal law, which only gives the 
most precious gifts in return for labour and patience. 
The apparition of Helen vanishes, and in the abrupt 
reaction we see him, who would fain be superhuman, 
lying senseless on the earth, The first assault of his 
ambitious claim has been resisted, but his resolution 
remains irrevocable. He is humbled when he remem- 
bers how he is lowcring his human faculties by employ- 
ing them in furthering Mephistopheles' schemes : lience- 
forth he will abandon all that is unworthy, and continue 
his pursuit of perfect Art and perfect Beauty. 

Act II. 

In the second Act of Part II. we read of the Becom- 

ing (das IVcrden) and the Growth of Nature 

' ..„ and of the Human Intellect. Two subjects m 

tuolbtcs, . . ^ , , 

cnacs especial are put prommently forward : the 

gotifclics creation of the Homunculus, or undeveloped 
gimmer, Man, and the classical Walpurgis Night. The 
cljcmals Homunculus rcprescnts the desire of the still 
^auftcns, unformed for form, the sighing of what is as 
imucranbctt. yg^. ^j^jy thought for cxistence and reality. The 
Homunculus, therefore, vanishes after the first great 
revolutions of earth and of history comc to a firm, duly- 

When he appearcd to hapless Semcle ; 
More lovely tlian the nioiinrch of the sky 
In wanton Arethusa's azure arms.' 

7yie Tragical History of Doctor Faust iis, Act V. Sc. iii. 


proportioned settlement. The classical Walpurgis Night 
is the symbolical representation of primitive history, of 
the universe, and of divine things, according to Göthe's 
conception of them. 

Mephistopheles comes back to F'aust's old study, — the 
high-vaulted gloomy room where we first came to know 
P'aust. Wagner is now a celebrated and honoured 
teacher and Hves in Faust's house ; but Faust's room he 
holds sacred and keeps unchanged, awaiting his master's 
return. Mephistopheles takes down Faust's moth-eaten 
old cloak from the hook, wraps himself in it, seats him- 
self in Faust's chair, and rings a bell. Wagner's 
famulus opens the door and looks in just as Wagner him- 
self would have done in past days. Mephistopheles 
sends him to bring Wagner, though the famulus hesi- 
tates about disturbing him (so engrossed is he in some 
great work), and while he is away the Student whom we 
have known in Part I., now called Baccalaureus, enters. 
He has proved an apt scholar of Mephistopheles, and 
has developed into a cynical, irreverent, dogmatic man.i 
Next enters Wagner, bringing a phial containing chemi- 
cal substances, out of which he hopes to produce a man. 
Presently Homunculus is produced, or evolved within 
the phial, and proceeds to describe the visions which 
he sees of the beauty of art, of women, and of nature. 
A curtain is drawn aside, and Faust is discovered asleep, 
and Homunculus öfters to guide Faust and Mephisto- 
pheles to Greece into the midst of the classic Walpurgis 
Night, into the midst of Greek culture, and art, and 
beauty. Mephistopheles at first demurs, but presently 
consents to go when he hears that he shall also meet 
witches on the classic Walpurgis Night. Faust goes 
because he hopes to find Helen. 

The general object of the visit to Greece on the Wal- 

1 Göthe, when questioned by Eckermann, said he did not direct 
his Satire against Fichte, or any class of ideal philosophers, but 
personified in Baccalaureus the arrogance peculiar to youth. 


purgis Night is that Faust shall see objects which he 
has before known only in description and imagination, 
in which, nevertheless, all his feelings and emotions are 
absorbed. If Helen is the impersonation of beauty, if 
beauty is the embodiment of all that is perfect, then 
every desire and emotion should have been satisfied by 
its attainment. All that is most refining and refined and 
elevating in ancient art and ancient poetry is here in 
Symbol offered and given to Faust, and fails to satisfy 
him, just as in Fai/st, Part I., all the revelry and sensu- 
ality and wild boisterous plcasures of the Gothic Wal- 
purgis Night had failed. 

The Scene is at first the Pharsalian Fields on the 
banks of the Lower Peneios. Three different 
Klaffifdic groups represent three different stages of de- 
u:>aipur9is= yelopment : the first group represents the 
"'|,.', '"^ chaotic confusion of wild and violent natural 
gelber forces, here symbolised by griffins, ants, pigmies, 

and sphinxes ; the second group announces 
the entrance of Man, symbolised by nymjjhs and heroes ; 
the third group declares on the one hand the birth of 
Knowledge, symbolised by Thaies and Anaxagoras — one 
of whom seeks to explain the existence of the earth as 
the work of Neptune, the other as the work of Vulcan, 
- — and on the other hand the birth of Art, symbolised 
by the Teichines, ^ the Dorids, and the marvellous form 
of Galatea. 

There is oflcn a double allcgory in thcsc stränge 
scenes. As the whole is a symbolical represcntation of 
primitive history — so in the Griffins, with the legs and 
claws of a Hon, their breasts covered with black down, 
tlieir eagles' wings, their fiery eyes, their horses' ears, 
their fish-like fins, their harsh, gruff voices — we are to 
see Persia and the Persians ; the Sphinxes represent 
Egypt ; the Sirens, Greece ; the Colossal Ants, the huge, 

1 The Tclchines wcrc supposed to be the first workcrs in nietal. 


gold-burying Ants of India ; while tlie Arimaspians, who 
plunder the hoarded gold of the Ants, represent a one- 
eyed Scythian race. 

But the Scenes are, beyond all eise, descriptive of 
Greek heroic history and poetry, — here are the Lamiae, 
named after Lamia, daughter of Belus and Libya, loved 
by ZeuSji who, after her son had been killed by Here in 
her jealousy, had become the robber and devourer of 
children ; here is Cheiron the Centaur, the master of 
Hercules, Achilles, Jason, and Theseus ; here is j\Ianto, 
typical of poetic Inspiration, the daughter ofAesculapius.- 
Manto it is who speeds Faust on his way down the dark 
pathway that leads to Persephone, who alone can bring 
him to Helen. How Faust fares with Persephone, what 
words he spoke to her, is not told us. ' Faust's speech 
to Persephone,' writes Göthe, ' spoken to awaken her 
pity, so that she may give back Helen to life — what a 
Speech this must be, since even Persephone herseif is 
moved to tears by it.' — Then other stränge beings are 
met with : Seismos, the personification of an earthquake 
(o-eto-yMo? yv}s) ; the Cranes, who saw Ibykus slain ; a 
monster, named Empusa, the one-footed (e/j-ovcra),'^ be- 
cause her other foot was an ass's foot ; a Vampyre, and 
so on. 

Next follows a curious discussion between Homunculus, 
Anaxagoras, and Thaies, as to whether the universe had 
been produced through the action of Fire or of W'ater ; 
and later on is described a meeting between Mephisto- 
pheles and the Phorkyads. The Phorkyads are the three 
daughters of the sea-god Phorkys, and sisters of the 

^ I prefer to use the Greek forms of classical names,- — but in 
cases where Göthe has put the Latin forms I have thought it better 
to do so likewise. Göthe is not, however, always consistent, — c.g: 
in one page he writes Aesculapius, and a few pages later Perse- 

2 Göthe has wilfully taken Manto from blind Tiresias, ' prophet 
cid,' whose daughter she was, and given her Aesculapius as a father. 

^ See Aristophanes, Frogs, 1. 293. 


Gorgons — beings on whom ncither sun nor moon has 
ever shone, possessed of only one tooth and one eye 
between them. Mephistopheles, even, is terrified by 
their horrible appearance. The outward semblance of 
one of these he borrows, she becoming for the time 
absorbed into her two sisters, while he goes to Sparta, 
to the palace of Menelaus, to await Helen's return. 

The Scene changes to the shores of the Aegean 
.fclsbudjten Sea. Homuncukis, still imprisoned in Wagner's 
&es Zlccjäi^ glass phial, longs for free existence, and comes 
fdjm to Nereus, the Prophet, son of Pontus, for 

iHccrs. counsel. Nereus reviles the ambitions and 
aspirations of men : — 

,Stn!>'s incit[d]cn4timmcn, Mc mein 0l]r rcniimmt? 
Wie CS nur oilcidj im ticfftcu Ikv^lmi ijrimmt ! 
(Scbilbc, ftrcbfani, (Söttcr jU crrcidicn, 
llnb i)od] fcrbammt fidj inuncr fdbft jU gictdjctt 1' 

Act II. 11. 3482-3485. 

He refuses his help, because he is hastening to the 
festival of the Nereids, his daughters ; so he sends 
Homunculus to the restless, ever-changing Proteus, who, 
if any one can, will be able to teil him where to seek, 
and how to find, a new form and shape. 

Then pass by the Sirens (who are the Chorus of the 
Classische IVa/purgis/iacht), the Nereids, the Tritons, 
the Kabiri (divinities worshipped on the north-western 
coast of Asia Minor), the Teichines, water-gods, and the 
teachers of Poseidon, and the Pselli and Marsi, names of 
Italian Snake-charmers, whom Göthe here represents as 
Water-spirits. Presently we come upon Thaies, Homun- 
culus (still inside the glass phial), and Proteus in the dis- 
tance. Proteus persuades, and bears Homunculus away 
on his back to the wide sea. Here he sees Galatea pass 
by in her car of shell drawn by Dolphins.' Göthe did not 

' The dcscription here is of a beautiful picture of Galatea driving 
ovcr the sea, by Raphacl, in ihe Villa Farnesina in Korne. 


wish to introduce any of the Olympians in the Classical 
Walpurgis Night, so he makes use of Galatea, Nereus' 
daughter, instead of Aphrodite, as representing Beauty. 
Homunculus, in a rapture of love for Galatea, dashes 
himself against her shining car ; the glass phial is broken, 
and his Hght and hfe scattered and extinguished. 

It is, however, possible that Göthe does not mean 
Homunculus to have been utterly lost, and possible that, 
without his liberation, the subsequent progress of Faust, 
through beauty and art to action, would not have been 
realised. It is conceivable that Homunculus becomes 
Euphorion ; but I do not venture to assert this. 

Act III. 

The parts relating to Helen, though dating from the 
early years of the Century, were completed and 
rewritten between the years 1824-26. Göthe ^''""^ ^"" 
sent the beginning to his friend Sulpiz Bois- tr'^T'''^^ 
seree ^ to read : ' The cast from the model I cparta 
have so long studied,' he wrote, ' is suc- 
cessful, yet there is no end to the chiselling and per- 
fecting. May the entrance into the porch give you 
pleasure ! it gives, at least, a foretaste of what is to 
follow, even if much that is mysterious is contained in 
it.' Boisseree read the beginning with delight ; to 
make the legend of Faust's desire to possess Helen of 
Troy represent the yearning of modern culture, and, 
above all, the yearning of the poets of modern times for 
classical art and beauty, he esteemed a thought as bold 
as it was beautiful. And, indeed, the Helena Scenes of 
Faust, Part IL, belong to the highest regions of Poetry. 

Helen and the Trojan Maidens, one of whom is 

^ Boisser6e (born in 1783) was the son of a wealthy merchant in 
Köln, and a distinguished Student and collector of works of art. 
Göthe first came to know hini in 1810-11. 


named Panthalis, stand before the palace of Menelaus 
in Sparta — the palace which had been built by Helen's 
father, Tyndareus, near to the temple of Pallas Athene. 
About to enter her home again, Helen wishes to leave 
the past behind her, with all its failings and all its sins. 
She is represented as innocent, as the victim of fate, as 
robbed by violence, as one who has suffered unspeakable 
woes. The Chorus of Trojan Maidens seek, by praising 
lier all-conquering beauty, to cheer her and chase away 
her sad thoughts. But Helen sinks into gloomy melan- 
choly when she recalls Menelaus' parting words to her ; 
she dreads lest Menelaus may avenge on her all that the 
Greeks have suffered at Troy ; she remembers how he 
has bidden her prepare everything for a sacrifice, and 
has not named the victim : 

Helena. ,5o bann crfolcjtc bcs Bcrrn ferneres licrrfdjerutort : 
ll^cnn bn nun Dilles naiij bcr ©ri)nunc3 bnrdjgcfcl^cn, 
Dann nimm fo mandjen Drcifufs, als bu nötl^ig glaubft, 
llnb maiidicrlct (Scfäffc, bie bcr ©pfrcr fidj 
fywx Raub lun-Ianijt, roIl5tct]enb I^ctl'oicu ^cftgicliraud?. 
Die Keffcl, audj bic Sdialcn, juie bas fladjc Kunb ; 
Dcis rcinfte lUaffcr aus bcr bcil'acn ÖJuellc fei 
3u hoben Krügen ; ferner audj bas trocf nc ßolj, 
Der ^(ammc fdincU empfäntilidi, l]altc ba bereit; 
(Ein UH">Igefd)liffnes lUeffer fel]lc nidit .^ulet^t; 
Dodi alles 2lnbrc cjeb' id) bcincr Sonjc l]in, 
So fprad? er.' 

Act III. 11. 3956-3966. 

Helen next enters the palace, and there, cowering by 
the hearth, she sees Phorkyas, ugliness personified, whose 
form Mephistopheles has assumed. She comes back in 
terror and teils the Chorus and their leader, Panthalis, 
what she has seen ; and presently Phorkyas herseif 
appears on the thrcshold. Thcn follows an angry dia- 
loguc between the Chorus and Phorkyas ; thcy shrinking 


from her unsightliness. declare her to be a daughtcr of 
Phorkys, near akin to the Gorgons, and finally assert 
that the spirit of evil is hidden within her ; she reproaches 
tliem with their uselessness, their shamelessness, and 
their want of virtue. Helen steps between and puts a 
stop to their quarrelHng, and then Phorkyas teils how 
she, when Menelaus warred in Greece, had been left as 
stewardess of the palace and guardian of the home which 
Helen had deserted ; and with a kind of devilish delight 
summons up all the past before Helen's mind, and teils 
over the names of the heroes who have loved her — The- 
seus, Patroklus, Menelaus, Paris. When the past is thus 
recalied to her Helen becomes dazed and confused, — is 
the present real ? or is the past real ? is she innocent, 
as she feels herseif to be ? or is she guilty ? Phorkyas 
goes on to teil how Achilles, from the land of shades, 
buming with love for her, had made her his. Helen 
answers : 

,3dj als ~SboI, ihm bciii 2>^'^^ vcxhanb \d-> mich. 
(Es wav ein (Tranm, [o fagcu ja Mc lUortc fclbft. 
3dj fdjn)iiibc bitt, uui) tDcröc fcllift mir ein 2>bo[.' 

Act II. 11. 4267-4269. 

and then faints away. 

The Chorus speak wrathfully to Phorkyas : instead of 
speaking kindly words of comfort, instead of bringing 
Lethe's sweet dews of forgetfulness, she has raked up 
evil only from the hoarded records of gone-by times. 
Let her be silent, that the soul of Helen, ready to fly 
away and escape once more to the land of shades, may 
yet remain. Helen recovers, and again takes her stand 
among the Trojan Maidens. Up to this, through his 
unchanging desire of making others miserable, Mephisto- 
pheles has bewildered and terrified Helen ; but now, 
mindful of his purpose of wedding her to Faust, he speaks 
to her in another strain — speaks of her all-surpassing 
bcauty, says how he himself is conquered by it — asks 


her to say what her will is, and she shall at once be 
obeyed. Helen, speaking with queenly dignity, says 
her will is to complete the sacrifice which Menelaus, her 
lord, has commanded. Phorkyas says, all is ready — 
tripod, axe, water, incense. But where, Helen asks, is 
the Victim. She herseif, Phorkyas says, is to be offered. 
Her maidens too shall die ; they shall be hung aloft 
like snared birds fluttering along a line. Helen has 
foreseen this fate, but the Trojan Maidens stand turned 
as it were to stone by her words : 

,(5Icidj crftartcn 3ilbcni ftcht it^r ba, 
(Scfdjrccft itom datj 511 fdicibcn.' 

LI. 4318, 4319. 

Phorkyas says there is one way of escaping death : in a 
Castle near at hand, in a mountain valley, dwell a bold, 
heroic race ; their leader is Faust ; if Helen will put 
herseif and her maidens under his protection, they will 
cscape the wrath of Menelaus. Helen hesitates, but in 
the end consents, and she and her maidens are conveycd, 
concealed by mist and vapour, to Faust's castle. 

Faust appears on the castle Steps to receive them, — 
with a long train of pages and squires, in the 
l^uraliof dress of a media^val knight, he descends slowly 
unigclicn "^^d with dignity. The leader of the Chorus 
von icidjrn describes the grace and nobleness of his appear- 
}jiiantnft= ance, his 

ifdjcn <5c-- ,-,» v .. v ^ r r 

iHiubcu bcs '• • • ll^nttbcnisunu-btcje ©cftalt, 

intttdai= (Erl^abucn Illnftanö, licbcnsipcrtl^e öcgcutuart.' 

tcrs. LI. 4570-4572. 

Faust and Helen speak together ; he knecls to her, does 
homage to her, and speaks words of love : 

Jldena. ,3dj fül]Ic midi fo fcrit nnb bodj fo natj, 

Hub [agc nur 511 gern : Da bin idj ! Pa I 
Faust. ,3dj atbnic fanin, mir .gittert, ftocft bas IPort, 
(Es ift ein dranni, rerfAuJunbcn Cag unb ®rt. 

AlTENDIX. 351 

Helena. ,3dj f*ciuo mir lunlcbt unb bodj fo neu, 
~Sn bidi Dcnücbt, ^cln Unbct'aunton treu, 
Faust. ,Purd>3riiblc nidit bas cin3iaftc (Scfdiiif ! 

Dasein ift Pflidit, unb tpär'f ein 2UiaenbIiif.' 

LI. 4799-4S06. 

Presently Phorkyas hurries in to teil that Menelaus and 
a great army are approaching to put an end to their 
bliss — rejoicing as ever in the miscry the news will 
cause : 

,Hüftct cudj 3U herbem Streit ! 

r>on ber Sietjcrfd^aar umuninmclt, 

ll'^ic Peipt|obu5 rcrftüminelt 

^üf5eft bu bas ^ranngeleit. 

bammelt crft bic Icidjtc lUaavc, 

Diefer cjleidi i[t ant Elitäre 

ITeugcfd/Iiffncs ^cil bereit.' 

LI. 4816-4822. 

Sounds of war are heard, and the army of Menelaus 
marches across the scene. Faust conquers ; he distri- 
butes lands and rewards to his foUowers, and settles 
down in happy married life, in Arcadia, with Helen. 
Here a child is born to them, Euphorion,^ who 
is meant to typify the union of classic and -'" c'"'^'^ 
modern Art and Poetry. In his naked beauty, '^"'■'^ "''" 
his pranks, and his sportive, wilful ways, ^"^ '"' ■" • ' 
Euphorion suggests the classic myths of Cupid n^ g;,',-^,!^,,-,-, 
and the child Mercury, as well as the greater ^„j! £j^i,'i,t,„ 
freedom of the Romantic School It has been cd,nttigcr 
suggested more than once, and with great prob- £jain bis 
ability, that in the Boy-Charioteer, in Homun- nn bic 

^ In the Faust Legend Faust has a son by Helena, to whom he 
gives the name of Justus Faustus. In an ancient Greek myth Helen 
bears a son to Achilles (recalled ' from Hades) on the Island of 
Leuke. This son, born with wings, was called Euphorion (the 
swift or lightly wafted), and was slain by Zeus. Göthe unites the 
two stories. 


tincjs imu culus, and in Euphorion, Gothe describes for 
gcl-cnbc yg different periods and phases of bis own bfc 
j f"'*" '^ and devclopment : first, bis relations witb Court 
and official bfe ; tben bis first acquaintance 
witb tbe spirit of Classic Art, and bis strivings after a 
purer and bigber existence ; and last, tbe regeneration 
of bis nature in bis greatest works. But Götbe bimself 
Said, in 1827, tbat in Eupborion he represents tbe spirit 
wbicb be bad found embodied in Byron — tbat restless, 
niysterious, ever creative quality wbicb Götbe called 

Tbe Chorus entreat Eupborion to linger witb them in 
tbe peaceful Arcadian land of poetry. Faust and Helen 
urge bim to stay : 

,Kauin ins £cbcn ctucjcnifcn, 

i7citcnn (Eag (jctjcbcit fiium, 

5cl]ucft bu vow Sdiunnbclftufcn 

Pidj 311 fdinicvjCUüoIIcin i\auin, 

Siiib beim u)tr 

(Sar ind;its Dir ? 

3ft ticr l^olbc öunb ein üraum?' 

LI. 5265-5271. 

In vain. Euphorion will not stay witb them in a quiet 
peaceful bome on eartb ; be soars upwards and onwards, 
wbere destiny and death await bim ; bis wings are 
scorched by tbe sun's beat, and he falls at bis parents' 
fcet and dies. His voice is bcard from beneath : 

X<^\-\ tnid) im buftcru 2\cidj, 
llüittcr inidj iiidit alU-iiic' 

LI. 5293, 5294. 

Tbe Chorus now sing four stanzas, in wbicb all alle- 
gory is thrown aside — the dirge is a lament not for 
Eupborion, but for Byron : 

Chorus, illtdit allein ! — tuo bu audj tnctleft, 
Denn unr ijlaubcu bidi ju fcuiicn. 


2tdj ! tocnn in bcm (Eacj cntcticft, 
lUirit fein Ficv^ von btr fid? trennen, 
lüüjjten mir bod? Faum jn flacjen, 
lleiticnb finoicn u?ir bctn £oos : 
Dir in !Iar unb trüben Cagcn 
Sieb unb IlTutf] toar fdjön nnb groß. 

,2Id? I 3um (Erbenglücf geboren, 
i^ol^er 2lt|ncn, groffer Kraft, 
£ciber, früf] bir felbft rcrloren 
3ugenbblütl]e weggerafft ; 
Sd^arfer "Süd bic IDelt jU fdjauen, 
lUitfinn jcbctn fjerjensbrang, 
Siebesglutf] bcr bcften grauen 
Unb ein eigcitfter (Sefang. 

,Dodj bu rannteft unanfl|altfam 
^rei ins U)ilIenlofe Hct3 ; 
So entjtücitcft bu getualtfam 
Pidj mit Sitte, mit (Sefet, ; 
I)odj sutctjt bas t]ödifte Sinnen 
<5ah bem reinen IHutl] (Sctuidjt, 
lUoütcft fjcrrlid^es getDinnen 
2lber es gelang bir nid^t. 

,0?em gelingt es?— ürübc ^rage, 
Der bas Sdjicffal fidi lun-mummt, 
IPcnn am unglücffeligftcn (Tage 
Blutenb alles PoIF rcrftnmmt, 
Dod} erfrifdjet neue Sieber, 
Stct^t nidjt länger tief gebeugt 1 
Denn ber Boben sengt fie ujiebcr, 
VOk von je er fie gesengt.' 

LI. 5295-5326. 
Then foUows the death of Helen : 

,§crriffeu ift bcs Gebens mie bcr Siebe Banb ; 
Bejammernb Beibe, fag' idj fdjmerjlid) SebcuJoI! 
2 A 


Unb ircrfe midj nodj einmal in btc 2h-mc bir. 
Pcrfcpljoncia nimm bcn Knaben anf unö midj.' 

LI. 5329-5332. 

She embraces Faust and vanishes, — only her dress and 
veil remain in his arms. The dress dissolves into clouds ; 
these encompass Faust and bear him away. 

The Chorus of Maidens shrink from following Helen, 
and vanish from sight, dissolved into the Clements : 

' RoUed round in earth's diurnal course, 
With rocks and stones and trees.' 

Panthalis alone preserves her individuality and follows 
her Queen to Hades : — 

,H?cr feinen Hamen ftdj ermarli, nodi (Ebles miü, 
(5el]ört ben Elementen an, fo fal]rct t^in ! 
mit meiner "Königin 3n fein nerlangt midj l]cif5 ; 
I1id]t nur üerbicnft, audj ürene malert nns bie pevfon.' 

LI. 5369-5372. 

Act IV. 

In May 1827, in his gardcn at Weimar, Göthe worked 
at his fourth Act, in order to fiU up the gaps between 
Ihe Helena and the conclusion, which, as he wrote to 
Zelter,! had been finished long before. Undoubtedly 
the leading thought of the fourth Act is the resthetic 
bringing up of men and women through Beauty to 
Freedom. As the third Act was an allegorising history 
of Art, so Act IV. was to be an allegorising history of 
politics. But sad to say, the task which Göthe set him- 
' seif he has not accomplished. Act IV. is to be judged 
according to the intentions of the poet, not according to 
their poetic realisation. Act IV. is the last thing, and 

1 Göthe's friend, Karl Friedrich Zelter, was the Director of the 
Sinspng Academy of Berlin : he had set several of Göthe's songs to 


decidedly the weakest thing, that Göthe wrote : only tlie 

beginning belongs to the spring of 1827, the remainder 

falls into the first half of the year 1831, — that is, into 

the sad time following the death of his son, and after his 

own recovery from a severe illness. It is made up of 

Single unconnected pictures of the wretched condition of 

the old German Empire, — of anarchy, uproar, war, of 

strife between opposing emperors, of unstable, sHppery 

misgovernment, and of covetous encroachment on the 

part of the Church. A weaiy repetition of Act I. 

On the jagged rocky summit of a mountain Faust 

descends out of a cloud, followed presently by 

Mephistopheles wearing the seven-leagued ^^"^ö*"'-'' 

boots, — for classic times and manners are left l'' 
' jacricjc 

behind, and we are now back in Germany and £(.i,c„^i,,,-i,i 

in the Middle Ages. The scene around leads 

them to talk of creation and geolog}'. All happened 

through the beneficent mild power of nature, says Faust : 

not so, says Mephistopheles, fire was the source whence 

all things came ; it was Moloch's hammer that linked 

rock to rock, and scattered huge granite fragments over 

the plains. But why, he goes on to ask, has Faust still 

an unsatisfied, impatient air ? Has nothing that he has 

seen in the wide world given him pleasure ? A mighty 

project lures him on, Faust answers ; he will struggle 

with the sea and win back from it some land, and there 

make some men and women happy ; in action, and in 

working for others, he will find his own happiness. 

Mephistopheles teils him he must retum to the Court of 

the German Emperor and ask him for a grant of coast- 

land ; but, as the Emperor is at present at war with a 

pretender to the throne, Faust must first go and öfter 

the Emperor his counsel and aid, Faust demurs : he 

abhors war, and he understands nothing about warlike 

arts and stratagems. However, Mephistopheles per- 

suades him, and brings him three mighty men to fight 

on his side and form a body-guard. Faust comes to 


the Emperor and fights for him and conquers, aided by 
Mephistopheles' magic. The Emperor gives Faust, in 
recompense for his Services, a Stretch of sea-coast land. 
The fourth Act closes with a description of the disorder 
and lawlessness of the German Empire in contrast with 
the Order and quiet and law which Faust is introducing 
on his narrow tract of reclaimed land. 

Act V. 

And now follows Act V., which belongs, for the most 
part, to the years 1824-26. This Act, like Act IV., 
is as poetry insignificant. It is not a completing of the 
Faust poem, it is only a make-shift roofing over. The 
Faust tragedy must ever remain a fragment, because 
the aspirations of Humanity are eternal and infinite, and 
cannot be compressed into the history of a Single man. 
Just because we feel in the first four Acts that the 
Personality of Faust has widened and deepened into the 
idea of universal humanity, it is all the more irksome 
and disappointing to us when Faust is in the end driven 
back and narrowed within all the limitations of a declin- 
ing, solitary existence, — when he grows blind, and in 
lamentable aged weakness sinks into the grave. The 
salvation and redemption which humanity, through 
progress, improvement, and enlightenment, shall find 
for itself, if centred in one single existence, can only be 
miraculous, can only be an act of mercy. And Evil, 
instead of being subdued and overcome by the progress 
and enlightenment of humanity, is defeated in the end 
only because Mephistopheles, at the sight of the angels, 
overpowered by sinful desire, lets slip the fitting moment 
in which it was permitted him to take possession of 
Faust's soul. 

Yet we must be careful, because of the insufficient 
realisation, not to overlook the greatness of the ground- 
thought underlying Act V. That which carries this 


fifth Act on to dramatic expression, and even dramatic 
glory, is the significant reference to the last aims of 
active and creative Idealism, — -to the purposeful activity 
and brave diligence of each single man and woman : y 

,Dcm düdjtigcn ift bicfc Wdt nidjt ftutnm!' 

This was the first article in Göthe's creed of life. 

The Act opens on Faust's completed work. He is an 
aged man, one hundred years cid, living in a 
Castle which overlooks a green and fertile ^ ^ 
land, inhabited by happy, prosperous men and 
women. An unwholesome marsh still remains to be 
drained, and he covets the possession of a sandhill near 
at band, where is a hovel owned by an old couple, 
Philemon and Baucis, — these have charge of a chapel 
\ on the downs. Mephistopheles urges him to drive out 
the old people and take possession of the place. Faust 
demurs, and only reluctantly consents, but no sooner 
does he learn that the thing is done, and that Philemon 
and Baucis have been burned out of house and home, 
than he repents : the end attained is good, but he has 
done evil for the sake of good : 

,€s irrt bcr JTtcnfd? fo lancj er ftrcbt.' 

Then four gray figures — Want, Guilt, Care, and 
Death — come to visit Faust in his castle. 
The first three soon leave him, but leave him , " '^' ' , , 

Faitsf. , Deine IlTad^t, ^onje, [djicidjciib groig, 
3d? iperbe fic nidit anerfctmcn. 

Sorire. ,CErfaI]re [ie, unc id? cjcfdjunnb 
lllidj mit DcnPÜulVbimg von bir rocnbe ! 
Die iricnfdjcii finb im cjanjCii Seben blinb, 
TXun, ^an\ic, tocrbc bii 's am (£nbc 1 

J^amf (erblttibet). ,Z)tc Hadjt fdjeint tiefer tief I|creiu= 
2lüciii im 3ititcrn leudHet bellcs 'iiidit ; 


Was icfj gcbadjt, idj eil' es 311 rollbrtncicu ; 

Des l7cn-u Wovt es cjicbt allein (SciyiAt. 

Dom i^aacr auf, il|r Kiiedjtc I lUann für lluiiin ! 

'£.a\]t glücflidj fdjauctt tyas idj fühii crfattn. 

(Erarcift i>as lUcrF^ona, Sd^aiifcl riil^rt imb Spaten ! 

Vas ^llnjeftecfte mufj foalcidj oieratI]cii, 

2tuf [trentjes ®ri>iicn, va[d)cn ^leiij, 

€rfoIgt bei- allerfdiöitfte preis ; 
( Das \id} bas aröf^te lUerf rollenbc 
' (Seuügt i£iii (Seift für taufeni) i7ätibe.' 

LI. 68S0-6897. 

While the workmen are employed in the draining of 

the marsh and in the digging of a canal that will 

, ' , " . complete his labours, Faust at length recog- 
Uorliof PCS '■ . . 

CaiM'is nises and acknowledges that through activity 

and brave endeavour and love he has created 

happy, peaceful homes fbr happy human beings, and 

the feehng of satisfied attainment impels him to say to 

the passing moment, ,Deriueile bodj, i)u bift fo fdjön,'i 

and having said the words for which all his life has been 

the prcparation, he sinks back and dies. 

I'a/isL ,llnb fo rerbriiiat . . . 
I^ier KitiM^Mt, Humii uut) tSreis fein tiiditia ~sal|r. 
Sold? eilt (Seiuimniel mödit idi febn 
2Iiif freiem cSrnitb mit freiem Dolfe ftel|n. 
§um ^hujieublicf e biirft' idj faijen : ^ 
Permeile i)odj, bu bift fo fdjöii ! 
€s fatni bk Spur von meinen lErbetaijen 
lVui}i in ^Ilconen nnteraebn ! — 
3in r>oraefiil]I von foKbem Iiol|en (Slücf 
öenielj' uii jetjt ben bodiften ^Inaenbliif .' 

LI. 6964-6973. 

1 See Part I. Sccne iv. 1. 1700. 


The Chorus of Lemures ^ then lay Faust's dead body 
in the grave, and JMephistopheles and his 
attendant spints anticipate their hour of 

triumph : 

,'DcY Körper Itco,t, unb tnill bcr (Seift ctttflicf^cn 
2>di jcio,' ilint rafdi öcit bhitaefdn'icbucn (Titel. ' 

LI. 6999, 7000. 

Hell's mouth opens on the left side of the stage. 
Mephistopheles bids the devils catch the escaping soul : 

,. . . bas Sceldjcn, Pfydjc mit beu Jflüijeln, 
Pie rupft ihr ans.'- 

Ll. 7047, 7048. 

The heavenly hosts descend, the angels strewing roses, 
— roses from the hands of women who had sinned but 
who had loved much. The evil spirits are dismayed 
and amazed by the falling roses, and fly and hide them- 

^ The Lemures or Remures were with the Romans the shades 
and spectres of the dead. See Hör. EJ>. II. ii. 209 ; Persius, 
Saf. V. 185. 

- On the south wall of the Campo Santo in Pisa are two frescoes, 
which flash back upon the memory as one reads this Scene. 
Göthe had most probably seen them during the Italian Journey, 
1786-88. They belong to the middle of the fourteenth Century, 
and they are commonly ascribed to the painters Andrea Orcagna 
and his brother Bernardo. They represent ' The Triumph of 
Death' and 'Hell.' In 'The Triumph of Death, ' Death is 
painted as a female denion, passing by the wretched and the sick 
who caU upon her, and hurrying on to those who are füll of the joy 
of life, and who scorn her. In the midst are a long close line of 
dead people, from whose mouths the souls are escaping, repre- 
sented as naked children. Good and evil spirits descend from the 
clouds and seize on each one as it escapes : 

,D(is ii'i bas Scclcficn, P^d^e mit bm klügeln.' 

In the ' Hell ' Satan sits in the midst with flames issuing from 
every part of his body : on every side pain and torment, as horrible 
as Dante ever conceived or described, are represented. To the 
Icft crowds of men and women are awaiting judgment, and what 
Struck me much in this picture was the surprise depicted on so 
many faces — among the blessed as well as among the lost. 


selves in Hell. The roses, which are emblematic of 
pure, true love, scorch and sting Mephistopheles : 

Eiigd. jlüas ciid/ nidjt aiigcl'jövt 
inüffct il]i mcibcn, 
IPcis cudj bas 3i"ii"C ftövt 
Dürft tl]r nidjt Icibcti. 
Dringt es gcnmltig ein, 
lHüf|cii ti)ir tüdjtiij fein ; 
£icbc nur Stcbcnbc 
^ül^rct l]crcin.' 

LI. 7 132-7 139. 

Yet, burning with desire, Mephistopheles draws nearer 
to the angels : 

,€s ift mir fo bcI^agUd?, fo natürlidi, 

2{Is l]ätt' x&i cnd; fdjou taufcnb mal gcfcf;n ; 

So I^ctinlidj'fdtjdjcnl^aft begicrlidj ; 

mit jcbcm 23Iicf aufs ITcuc fdiöncr, fdjön. 

® nätjcrt cudj, gönnt mir (Einen 531icf'.' 

LI. 7160-7164. 

He is only the more tortured and scorched by the flamcs 
of love — of which the roses are the outvvard visible sign. 
The angels completely Surround him and Faust's grave, 
and then rise upward bearing away the immortal part of 
Faust. 1 

Mephistopheles, left alone, owns hiniself dcfeated : 

,mo finb fic l]ingc3ogen ? 
lliimünbigcs Polf, bu I]aft \\\iA] übcrrafdjt, 
Si nb mit bcr Beute I^immehinirts entflogen ; 
Drum I|abcn fic an bicfcr (Sruft genafdit ! 
ITtir ift ein grofjcr einziger Sdiah, entmenbet, 
Die l]ol]e Seele, bie fidj mir rerpfänbet 
Die haben fic mir pfiffig meggcpafdjt.' 

LI. 7212-7218. 

1 ^aufli'iis niiftcrblidjcs. 


Thus it seems as if it is by what men call accident 
that Mephistopheles is finally defeated, — it seems as if 
the angels rescue Faust's soul only because Mephis- 
topheles is engrossed and absorbed by the sensual 
desires awakened in him by their beauty. And yet \ve 
know that there is no such thing as chance or accident. 
Must it not be Göthe's meaning that evil in its intensity 
defeats itself? It is thevileness and foulness of Mephis- 
topheles' own nature which cause him to fail. 

The origin of the descriptive parts of the last Scene of 
Fmtst is to be found in a fresco, painted by an ^ . , , , 
early Italian Master of the Giotto School, on ^^ 'yy(s[^i^-^ 
the south wall of the Campo Santo at Pisa : ^^Jg^j^^'f,,, 
the fresco represents the life of some holy heilige 2lna= 
anchorites dwelling in the Thebaid, among cf;orctrn 
mountain clefts and rocks. At the beginning gcbirgauf 
of the Scene the actors are still near to earth, »<~rtbctlt, 
but all through we are made to feel that they seiflscrt 
are rising higher and higher, and gradually ^''l ■'^" 
leaving earth behind them : first are seen the * 
holy Anchorites dwelling among clifTs and mountain 
gorges ; then the three Fathers, the Pater Ecstaticus, the 
Pater Profundus, the Pater Seraphicus ; then the Choir 
of Blessed Boys, and the angels bearing aloft Faust"s 
soul ; then Dr. Marianus, who represents no exact per- 
sonality, but rather devotion to the \'irgin ]\Iar)', or per- 
fect purity. A little higher the Mater Gloriosa hovers 
over and past, and the choir of women penitents appear 
and kneel before her, among whom are Mary ]Magdalen, 
the Woman of Samaria, Mary of Eg)-pt, and one for- 
merly called Margaret. Margaret prays : 

(iTcigie, nciac, 

1>\\ (Dbucaicidie, 

Du rtrabicnrcidic, 

Dein ^lutlit, gitäbiij incincm (Slücf ! 

Der früh (Sclicbtc, 


lTiA)i incl^r (Sctrübtc, 
€r foiiuiit jurüif .' 

LI. 7456-7462. 

A prayer like to, yet how dififerent from, the prayer she 
had prayed long ago : 

Du fdjincv3Citrcid]c 

Dein 21utlt^ gnäMg meiner Hoth.' 

Margaret asks that it may be permitted to her to instruct 
and guidc Faust, and her prayer is granted : 

A/a/er Gloriosa. ^iowww I l7cbc btdj 511 l]öl]cr,n Sphären ! 
iPcnn er bidj al]net folat er nadv' 

LI. 74S1, 7482. 

The words with which the Scene ends set forth once 
again the ground-thought of the whole poem, that Love 
is the aspiring impulse in men's hearts which draws them 
upwards ; tliat this life is but a picture of what awaits us 
beyond death, where the aspirations and emotions which 
nioved us here shall be realised, where our unresting 
Innging for l-cnowledge and for goodness shall find fulfil- 
ment. That which draws us thitherward is Love. 

, Dilles fergänglidjc 
3[t nur ein (Slcidjnt^ ; 
Das lliijulänoilidic, 
I^icr unrb'? (Ercigntg ; 
Das llnlicfdiroililtdjc, 
f^icr ift es gctban ; 
Das €uM0i4l'cibIidjc 
5iebt uns hinan.' 

LI. 7491-7498. 

All that he adniired er condemned in himself, all that 
he admired or condemned in men, Cöthe has hurled into 
the soul of onc man, into the soul of Faust ; all the 


feeling of indestructible faith in himself, and the real- 
ised triumph of this faith, his imagination showed him 
now in the conchision and end of the drama. The 
Faust poem may be accounted the gospel of the redemp- 
tion of man through action. How were it possible to 
\ thir^ of the Second Part of Fernst as something apart 
and isolated ? The last phase of Part II. must have 
originated along with Part I.— the putting JNIephisto- 
pheles to shame and rebukc, the saving of Faust from 
his grasp, from which suddenly all power to retain is 
withdrawn. Through colossal, real creations prepara- 
tion is made for this salvation. Faust wrestles with the 
sea for a new portion of earth, and makes other men 
and women happy. In the ending of Faust's life we see 
the highest glorification conceivable of human creative 


Printcdhy R. & R Clark. EcünlmrHi. 



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