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Full text of "Fenland notes & queries. A quarterly antiquarian journal for the fenland, in the counties of Huntingdon, Cambridge, Lincoln, Northampton, Norfolk, and Suffolk"

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FENLAND 
NOTES & QUERIES. 

FOR THE FENLAND, 

IN THE COUNTIES OF HUNTINGDON, CAMBRIDGE, 

LINCOLN, NORTHAMPTON, NORFOLK, 

AND SUFFOLK. 

EDITED BY 

^ //. Bernard Saunders, 

RR. Hist Soc, 

Author of "Legends and Traditions of Huntmgdonshire/* 



VOL. I. 

[From April rst, 1889, to Oct ist, 1891,] 



PETERBOROUGH : ^ 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY GEO. C. CASTER, MARKET PLACE. \ 

X89I. I 



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PETEEBOROUGH *. 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY GEO. C. CASTER, 

MARKET PLACE. 



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REFACE. 



On the completion of the first Volume of " Fenland Notes 
AND Queries," the Editor desires to express his gratitude to tJie 
numerous Contrilutors who^ dwring the past three yearSy have 
assisted him in rmking the Magazine a success. The support it 
has met with has mme than ^stifled its existence. It has on all 
sides deen kindly and cordially received, not only anwngst 
Antiquaries, Imt hy others interested in the History and FolJchre 
of the District The utility and strength of such a Magazine 
depmds chiefly vpm its Contributors, and aWwvgh a list of these 
is published in this Volume, there are of course many others whx> 
have concealed their identity under a nom deplume or hy mitials. 
Still to all the Editor'* s sincere thanks are due. 

With the completion of this Volume the Magazine changes 
Editors. Pressure of other literary work has compelled Mr. 
Saunders to retire frcm that position, hut the Magazine will gain 
immensely by the change, as the Rev. W. D. Sweeting, M.A., 



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I PBEFACB. 

I 

^ Vwar of Maxey^ and formerly for rmny years EdMcyr of 

\ " Northamptonshire Notes and Queries," has consented to 

, carry on the worTc. Mr. Sweeting's reputation as an Antigmry^ 

and as the autJwr of numerous Archmological Worhs^ are so well 
! hnown^ that every reader of " Fenland Notes and Queries " 

^ will be pleased to learn of his acceptance of the 'position. No one^ 

however^ %s more pleased than the retiring Editor^ who will never 
^, cease to be interested in the welfare of the Magazine over whose 



W. H. B. S. 

Peterborough, January, 1892. 



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€IONTRIBUTORS. 



Mr. W. Andrews, F. R Hist. S., HuU. 

Mr. J. li. Blake, Peterborough. 

Mr. J. W. Bodger, Peterborough. 

Rev. Neville Borton, The Vicarage, 
Bnrwell, Cambs. 

Mr. Carter, Kimbolton, 

Mr. C. J, Caswell, Homcastle. 

Rev. F. Carlyon, Leverington. 

Mr. A. S. Canham, Crowland. 

Mr. Chas. Dawes, London Hospital. 

Mr. O. Dack, Peterborough. 

Rev. R. H. Bdlestone, MA., Gain- 
ford Vicarage, Darlington. 

Mr. N. Edis, Stamford. 

Mr. S. Egar, Wryde, Thomey. 

Mr. J. Fevre, Whittlesey. 

Major W. E. Foster, Aldershot. 

Mr. Fickling, B.A, St. Peter's Col- 
lege, Peterborough. 

Lord Bsrn^ Gordon, Paxton Hall. 

Mr. C. Golding, Colchester. 

Mr. W. W. Green, Manea. 

Mr. W. B. Ground, Castle House, 
Whittlesey. 

Mr. C. Hercy, 41, Great Russell 
Street, London. 

Mr. Geo. Hughes, Horwich, Bolton. 

Mr. S. Jarman, St. Ives. 

Mr. J. Johnson, B.A. 



Rev. R. D. Jones, St. Mary's Vicarage, 

Wisbech. 

Mr. T. Lawrence, The Grove, Ham- 
mersmith, London. 

Rev. T. H. Le Boeuf, Rector of 
Crowland. 

Mr. W. C. Little, Stagholt, March. 

Mr. Henry Littlehales. 

Mr. H. S. Miller, F.R'Astronomical 
and Meteorological Societies, 
Lowestoft. 

Rev. G. W. Macdonald, M.A., St. 
Mark's Vicarage, Holbeach. 

Rev. C. ;R. Manning, F.S.A., Diss 
Rectory, Norfolk. 

Mr. N. H. Mason, 35, Maclise Road. 
W. Kensington. 

Rev. W. M. Noble, Ramsey. 

Mr. Herbert E. Norris, F.E.S., St. 
Ives. 

Rev. J. R. Olorenshaw, Soham. 

Miss Mabel Peacock, Bottesford 
Manor, Brigg. 

Dr. Marten Perry, Spalding. 

Mr. Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

Rev. W. D. Sweeting, M.A., Vicarage, 
Maxey. 

Rev. C. E. Walker, M.A., Rectory, 
March. 

Mr. W. H. Wheeler, C.E., Boston, 



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IsiST OF Illustrations. 



PAGE. 
A Chart of Whittlesea Mere Frontispiece 

Arms of the Aveling Family of Whittlesea ... ... 69 

Aveling Monmnent at Whittlesea •.. ... ••• 1^ 

Gainsborough's Picture of Master Heathcote, 1773 ... 117 

Ancient Tomb Slab discovered at Orowland ... ... 133 

St. John the Baptist's Chnrch, Soham... ... ... 1^9 

Humphrey Tyndall's Monument ... ... ... ••• 236 

^ <inimy1a WonOPttl'" .. .„ ... ... ... 237 



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Index i .-(general). 



Abbot of Thomey's 

Court at Stamford, 

148 
Abbots of Ramsey, 113 
Abbotsley Church 

House (1519), 193 
Abraham Gill of 

Manea, 108 
Accidents at Lynn 

Ferry, 31 
Acre Silver, 126 
Adventurers, 41, 145, 

347 
Altering Surnames, 110 
Ancient Custom at 

Bourn, 43 
Annals of Peakirk, 350 
Apostles' Coats at Hol- 

beach, 9 
Apreece of Washingley, 

82 
Aukham Eels, 46 

Bailiff of Whittlesey 

Mere, 40 
Beach Gravels, 1 
Bedford Level in 1661, 

123 
Bells, 366 
Bells of Tydd St. 

GUes, 293 
Benedictine Convent 

at Chatteris, 41 
Benedictine Order, 41 
Bloody Oaks, 353 
Breaking of Fen Banks, 

75,347 
Breaking of Murrow 

Bank, 347 
Briefs, 9, 92, 373 
Bronze Celt found at 

Crowland, 4 
Brownes of Walcot, 361 
Buried at Cross Roads,' 

83 
Buried Forest, 2 



Buried upright at 

Soham, 116 
Burghley House taken 

by Storm, 82 
BurweU Church, 273 
Burwell, Fire at, 24 

Canals, 40 
Candlesticks, 7 
Carthusian Order, 41 
Cathedral at Soham, 

165 
Centenarian, 7 
CharacteristicFeatures 

of Fen History, 67 
Charms, 71 
Chastity, Vow of, 21 
Chatteris Market, 276 
Church Service inter- 
rupted at Thomey, 
230 
Churches at Whittle- 
sey, 7 
Cinerary TJms found 

at Crowland, 4 
Olaypoles of Market 

Deeping, 140 
Clocks, 371 
Coal found at Crow- 
land, 4 
Conflicting Theories in 

Fen History, 1 
Crowland Abbey Re- 
storation, 206 
Crowland Abbey, Sup- 
pression of, 65 
Crowland Notes, 84, 

111, 173, 211 
Crowland and Whittle- 
sey in 1792, 253 
Curates of Soham, 305 
Curious Funeral at 

Lynn, 360 
Curious Public House 
Signs in the Fens, 
260 



Curious Occurrence sfi 

Wisbech, 277 
Curious Superstitions, 

126, 206 
Customs in Collecting 

Fen Tithes, 57 

Danger in Crossing 

the Wash, 18 
Dangers of Lynn Har- 
bour, 18 
Decoys, 19 
Defoe's Visit to Lynn 

and Isle of Ely, 16 
Deodand at Helpstone, 

352 
Discovery at Crowland 

Abbey, 133 
Discovery of Silver 

Coins at Holbeach, 

254 
Doddington, Vow of 

Chastity at, 21 
Downham, Local 

Rhyme at, 27, 47 
Drainage Mills, 24, 74, 

195, 215, 248, 289 
Droves, 122, 123 
Drowned Condition of 

the Fens in 1740, 143 

Earthquakes in the 
Fenland, 28, 152 

Elvin's Dictionary of 
Heraldry, 95 

Ely at the End of the 
17th Century, 291 

Ely, Briefs at, 9 

Estates of the Fellowes 
Family, 15 

Excavations at Crow- 
land, 2 

Felix, Saint, 165 
Fen Droves, 123 
Fen History, 1 



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X. 



FINLAND NOTES AND QUERIES 



Fen Provincialisms, 48, 

88 
Fen Pumps, 195, 215, 
Fen Tigers, 63, 84 

248, 289 
Fenland Holmes, 25 
Fenland Parishes in 

1340, 136, 179 
Fenland Proverbs and 

Quaint Sayings, 91 , 
Fenland Superstitions, 

71, 114, 126, 206 
Fenland Towns in 1772, 

218 
Fenny Ferries, 40 
Fens in 1613, 10 
Fens in 1745, 220 
Fens in 1774, 10 
Fire at Burwell, 24 
Fishes of the Fen, 12, 

38 
Floods, 9, 18, 22, 36, 

329 
Fogs, 14, 19 
Folksworth in 1538, 

195 
Force Book, 126 
Forest Buried, 2 
Four Hundred Persons 

Destroyed by a Coat 

at Ramsey, 53 
French Colony at Thor- 

ney, 32, 41, 311 
French Prisoner's Es- 
cape from Norman 

Cross, 190 
French Refugees in the 

Fens, 81 
French Register at 

Thomey, 42 

George Fox in the 
Fenland, 312 

Ghastly Legend of 
Holbeach, 82 

G.N. Railway, 21 

Governor of Whittle- 
sey and Crowland, 
339 

Great Fire at Ramsey 
(1731), 129, 146 

Guide to the Fenland, 
128 

Gull, 347 

Hawkins of Marsh- 
land, 53 

Heathcotes of Con- 
nington Castle, 117 



Health of the Fens, 18 

Hemp Growing at Wis- 
beach, 18 

Herod's Coat at Hol- 
beach, 64 

High Dole at Gedney, 
344 

History of Holbeach, 
223 

History of Soham, 163, 
231, 297, 366 

Hockey, Horkey, or 
Hawkey, 114, 146, 
188 

Hocktide, 188 

Holbeach, Apostles' 
Coats at, 9 

Holbeach Vicars, 56 

Holmes, 25 

Homage, Jurors of the, 

' 8 

Hopper Supper, 189 

Horns and Skull found 
at Crowland, 251 

Horseshoe Supersti- 
tion, 71 

Houghton Church, 93 

Hung in Chains in 
Guyhim Wash, 216, 
261 

Huntingdonshire 
Grievances in 1642, 
242 

Huntingdonshire Liv- 
ings in 1291, 201 

Huntingdonshire 
Manors, 375 

Huntingdonshire Won- 
ders, 46 

Hunts. andCambs. and 
the Spanish Armada, 
278 

Ice Boat, 38 
Inn Signs, 127 
Inundations of the 
Sea, 2, 347 

Joisse Book, 126 
Jubilee of Geo. III. at 

Deeping, 206 
Jurors of the Homage, 

8 
Keeper of Whittlesey 

Mere, 40 
Kesteven, Brief for, 9 
Knights of the Royal 

Oal? in Hunts., 314 



Killing no Murder, 15 

Labeleye's View of the 

Fens (1745), 197 
Lawrence of St. Ives, 

140 
Layman's Mediaeval 

Prayer Book, 136 
Leeds Family, 290 
Legend of Holbeach, 82 
Legend of March, 16 
Legend of Peter- 
borough, 325 
Legend of Whittlesey 

Mere, 156 
Leland and the Fen 

Country, 126 
Leverington Rectory 

Act, 349 
Leverington, Whirl- 
wind Cakes at, 27 
Library, Destruction 

of, at Ramsey, 15 
Lincolnshire Rampers, 

51 
Lincolnshire Tales, 72 
Littleport, Brief for, 9 
Local Rhymes, 44 
Lynn Ferry, 31 
Lynn Hospital, 244 
Lynn Hustings, 244 

Manea in 1748, 73 

March, Legend of, 16 

Market and Fair at 
Whittlesey, 290 

Marriage Banns in 
Boston Market Place, 
51 

Martyrdom at Nor- 
wich, 47 

Masses for the Dead, 66 

Mediaeval Features in 
Fenland Churches, 
94 

Metrical Description 
of the Fens, 319 

MiUer's Toll Dish, 297, 
319 

Miracle Plays, 64 

Moated Houses in the 
Fenland, 206 

Monumental Inscrip- 
tions in St. John's, 
Peterborough, 354 

Monumental Inscrip- 
tions in St. Mar- 
garet's, Lynn, 77, 
152, 207, 282 



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IITDBX I. — (general). 



XI. 



Monumental Inscrip- 
tions at Soham, 306 

Monumental Inscrip- 
tions in St. Mary's, 
Lynn, 115 

Monumental Inscrip- 
tions in Thomey 
Abbey, 32 

Monumental Inscrip- 
tions at Whittlesey 
St. Mary, 99 

Monumental Inscrip- 
tions at Willingham, 
138 

Moulton Vicarage, 51 

Mumping Day at 
Chatteris, 27 

Names of Towns and 
Villages in the Fens, 
254 

Nene between Peter- 
borough and Wis- 
bech, 324 

Norfolk Mail Robbed, 
24 

Notes on Crowland, 84, 
111, 173, 211 

Nunnery at Chatteris, 
41 

Odes on the Fens, by 
Thos. Wells, 294 

Orford's(Lord) Voyage 
round the Fens, 10 

Origin of Gedney, 84 

Pancake Bell, 20 
Parclose Screen, 230 
Parish Church of 

Whaplode, 114 
Parish Registers of 

March, 158 
Parish Registers of 

Whittlesey, 5 
Parochial Certificates, 

373 
Participants, 42 
Paston Letters, 288, 366 
Peat, 4, 12 
Peterborough in 1774, 

175 
Pins Stuck in the 

Heart of a Pigeon, 

71 
Pleasures of the Fens, 

13 
Poulter and Throg- 

morton Families, 197 



Presentation of Ed. 

Lee to Crowland, 

132 
Price of Wheat at 

Ramsey in 1317, 36 
Prodigy at Somersham, 

138 
Proverbs and Quaint 

Sayings, 91 
Provincialisms, 88, 151 

Quaint Sayings and 

Proverbs, 91 
Quakers, 6 

Queen Ann's Bounty, 7 
Queen Katten's Day at 

Peterborough, 55 
Quicksands, 11 

Railway Making Across 

the Fen, 21 
Raining Wheat at 

Bourn, 206 
Ramsey Aits, or 

Heights, 294, 311 
Ramsey, Great Fire at, 

129, 146, 176 
Ramsey, History of, 

39 
Ramsey Pancake Bell, 

20 
Rare Clock, 261 
Rare Occurrence, 243 
Records of Fenland 

Marriages, 60 
Records of Finds, 27 
Rectors of Crowland, 

106 
Remarkable Journey 

from Wisbech, 30 
Restoration of St. Mar- 
garet's ChurchjLynn, 

210 
Rhymes, Local, 44 
Richard BroomhaU of 

St. Ives, 188 
Robert I^ymente of 

Diddington, 193 
Robert Vigerous of 

Spalding, 330 
Roman Coins found at 

Gedney, 344 
' Roman Coins found at 

Peterborough, 251 
Roman Coins f oxmd at 

Tholomas Drove, 345 
Roman Roads, 345 
Rood Loft Piscina at 

Maxey, 113 



Sailing Distances on 
Whittlesey Mere, 38 

Salmon in the Nene, 
244 

Seven Townships of 
Marshland, 314 

Shelrode, 39 

Shrove Tuesday, 20 

Siege of Crowland, 173 

Sluices Blown Up 
(1712), 146 

Soham and the Long 
Parliament, 163 

Soham, Brief at, 9, 10 

Soham Free School, 127 

Soham Mere, 156 

Soham Mere, John 
Holder of, 22 

Soham Residents in the 
16th Century, 360 

Somersham, Brief at, 9 

Somersham in 1728, 
194 

Spalding Gentlemen's 
Society, 251 

Spalding Races, 10 

Sports, 13 

St. Ipolett, 199 

St. Ives Mercury, 71 

State Prisoners at Wis- 
bech, 47, 203 

Stilton and Warboys 
in 1502, 189 

Stiltwalkers, 13 

Stocks and Whipping 
Posts, 287, 364 

Storm at Bourne, 28 

Storms on Whittlesey 
Mere, 39 

Story of Bricstan of 
Chatteris, 262, 283 

Superstitions, 71, 114, 
126, 206 

Suppression of Crow- 
land Abbey, 65 

Surgeons, Royal Col- 
lege of, 34 

Tempests, 23 

Theories in Fen His- 
tory, 1 

Thomey Abbey, 83, 147 

Thomey French Re- 
gisters, 312 

Thomey, Survey of, 41 

Thomey Volunteer In- 
fantry (1803-5), 128 

Total Eclipse of the 
Sun (1715), 56 



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zu. 



FENLAND NOTES AND QUERIES 



Trade Tokens at Chat- 
teris, 179 

Train Bands in the 
Fens, 96 

Tmnnli at Orowland, 3 

Tmntdus at Parson 
Drove, 345 

Turf Houses, 244, 278 

Underwood Family of 
Whittlesey^|3T, 195, 
339 

Vicars of Soham, 240 

Vicars of St. John's, 
Peterborough, 224 

Vow of Chastity at 
Doddington, 21 

Voyage from Cam- 
bridge to Lynn, 176 

Voyage Round the- 
Fens, 10 

Warborongh Beacon, 
315 

Water Parties on 
Whittlesey Mere, 230 

Water Spout at Deep- 
ing, Cowbit, Moul- 
ton, 54 

Water Traffic, 17 



Whaplode Drove 
Ohnrch in Chancery, 
255 

Where the Battle of 
Stamford was fought, 
352 

Whipping Posts and 
Stocks, 287, 354 

Whirling Sunday at 
Leverington, 47 

Whirlwind Cakes at 
Leverington, 27 

Whittlesey and Crow- 
land in 1792, 253 

Whittlesey Charities 
Inquisition (1667), 
266, 331 

Whittlesey Deed of 
Feoffment, 226 

Whittlesey Mere Cen- 
sers, 199 

Whittlesey Mere, His- 
tory of, 38 

Whittlesey Mere in 
1786, 37, 230 

Whittlesey Mere, 
Legend of, 156 

Widows, 21 

Wild Fowl of the Fen, 
12, 19, 38 



WiU 0* the Wisps, 287 

Willof Margaret Ashby 
of Walcot, 245 

Will of a Peterborough 
Citizen, 121 

Will of Wm. Bevill of 
Chesterton, 178 

Wills of C. and A. 
Swinscoe of Peter- 
borough, 341 

Windsor Park owned 
by a Wisbechian, 365 

WinnoldFair, 47 

Wisbech Castle and its 
Prisoners, 19 

Wisbech ChurchTower, 
72 

Wisbech in 1740, 130 

Wisbech School of 
Industry, 273 

Wisbech St. Mary's 
Church, 59 

Wiseman Family of 
Eastrea Hall, 97 

Wise Woman of Mar- 
ket Deeping, 244 

Woodward Family, 130 

Yaxley Barracks in 
1807, 176 



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Index il-cpersons). 



Abbot, 338 
Aelfwine, 39 
Affen, 224 
Agnes, 280 
Ainsworth, 360 
Alberd, 180 
Albin, 63 
Aldred, 279 
Alexander, 309 
Aleyn, 182 
Algar, 122 
Algerinns, 166 
AUen, 186, 209, 244 
Allington, 341 
Aired, 181 
Amable, 180 
Andrews,51, 330 
Anger, 6 
Angood, 277 
Ansell, 34 
Antwessell, 363 
Apreece, 40, 41, 82, 

268, 314 
Arketm, 180, 224 
Armistead, 237, 305 
Ashley, 245, 305 
Ashton, 359 
Askham, 194 
Aspelon, 181 
Aspland, 127, 181 
Asplow, 147 
Assewell, 151 
Atherstan, 166 
Atkin, 77, 289, 346 
Atkinson, 362 
Attenborough, 61 
Aubri, 181 
Aubnme, 213 
Auder, 282 
Anla, 137 
Anrey, 147 
Aveling, 8, 57, 61, 100, 

101, 102, 103, 369 
Aylemar, 180 
Ayre, 244 



Bacchus, 279 
Bacon, 194 
Baghnse, 149 
BaUey, 8, 32, 33, 36, 

122, 129, 176, 273 
Bald, 181 

Baldeswell, 147, 149 
Balding, 282 
Baldwer, 213 
Baldwick, 147 
Baldwin, 147 
Balguy, 355 
Ball, 181, 364 
Banks, 61, 306 
Barber, 35, 62, 129 
Barker, 82, 180 
Barnard, 194, 245, 361 
Barnes, 279, 360 
Bamet, 234 
Baroun, 181 
Barrett, 158 
Barrow, 298 
Barton, 280 
Basset, 285 
Batisf ord, 279 
Bande, 245 
Baye, 181 
Bayliff, 181 
Bayston, 224 
Bazeley, 194 
BeaJe, 99, 226, 282, 

332 
Beaty, 359 
Beaxunys, 180 
Bedells, 180, 281, 282 
Bedford, Earl, 32 
BeharreU, 161 
Belknap, 316 
Bell, 190, 302, 363 
Bellenden, 66 
Beloe, 314 
Belwood, 316 
Bemmington, 372 
Bencraft, 161 
Bend, 348 
Bennett, 154 



Benson, 107 
Bentley, 146, 194 
Benyon, 14 
Beresford, 137 
Bernard, 280, 362 
Bemes, 231 
Bemys, 306 
Berrow, 359 
Berry, 235 
Bertchmen, 149 
Besteney, 239, 306 
Betham, 359 
Betonn, 180 
Betts, 61 
Beverley, 341 
BeviU, 57, 178, 197, 

272, 332 
Bigge, 181, 194 
Biggs, 282 
BiUups, 277 
Bird, 140 
Birton, 147 
Bishop, 6 
BlackweU, 373 
Blagge, 318 
Blake, 16, 259 
Blatt, 194 
Blaze, 266 
Blencowe, 64 
Blenkinsop, 241 
Block, 343 
Bluck, 305 
Bludwick, 98 
Bliindell,107,255 
Blyth, 61 
Boardman, 160 
Bodenham, 82 
Bodger, 37, 139 
Bodham, 81, 183 
Bogy, 240 
Bohun, 224 
Bolde, 297 
Bolham, 224 
Bolland, 317 
Bolnest, 280 
Bond, 281, 367 



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XIV. 



FENLAND NOTES AND QUERIES 



Bonfield, 277 
Bonfoy, 93, 194 
Bonner, 181 
Bontemps, 42 
Boon, 6, 8 
Borks, 306 
Bossett, 327 
Boston, Lord, 52 
Bothway, 359 
Bothwell, 340 
BoteUer, 181, 182 
Bothamley, 262 
Boton, 224 
Bonder, 365 
Bourning, 183 
Bonltbee, 103 
Bower, 26, 213 
Bowker, 100, 106, 327 
Boyce, 273 
Bracenbnry, 26 
Bracker, 106 
Bradford, 273 
Bradley, 156 
Brann, 181 
Braunche, 77 

Bray, 211 

Brewster, 224 

Briant, 369 

Bricstan, 262, 283 

Bridge, 305 

Briggs, 6, 84 

Brithmer, 168 

Broke, 318 

Bromley, 194 

Broomhall, 188 

Brounyg, 180 

Brown, 60, 64, 86, 115, 
122, 129, 159, 245, 
305, 316, 343, 361 

Brownel, 194 

Brownlo, 95 

Brownlow, Lord, 40 

Bryant, 208 

Bryhte, 180 

Buckle, 230 

Bngge, 239 

BuU, 7, 305 

Bulmere, 240 

Bunting, 147 

Burch, 110 

Burdock, 327 

Burgess, 100, 181 

Burgh, 148 

Burghard, 240 

Burghley, Lord, 87 

Burie, 279 

Burleigh, 364, 365 

Bumham, 273 

Burroughs, 372 



Butcher, 107 
Butler, 107, 280 
Butt, 305 
Bycroft, 60 
Byll, 122 

Cabeck, 80 
Calle, 288 
Gallon, 181 
Calton, 281 
Calpy, 199 
Camden, 82 
CamweU, 341 
Carrowe, 279 
Carte, 180 
Carter, 41, 61, 224 
Carysfort, Lord, 40 
Caster, 131 
Castleton, 207 
Catesby, 20 
Catlyn, 180, 275 
Cavendish, 194 
Cawthom, 171, 277, 

300 
Cecil, 39, 87, 246, 364 
Chabert, 208 
Chacumb, 148 
Chad, 27, 47 
Chamberlain, 61 
Chambers, 379 
Chaplin, 279 
Chapman, 60, 224, 343 
Charles, 82 
Chatenden, 180 
Chaunterel, 181 
Cheeke, 342 
Chennery, 80 
Cherwight, 363 
Chester, 81, 150 
Chevis, 370 
Chicheley, 236 
Chiselden, 358 
Christian, 373 
Churchill, Lady, 15 
Clack, 367 
Claggett, 274 
Clapham, 35, 87 
Clarke, 5, 61, 63, 182, 

261, 277, 358 
Claxon, 8 
Clay, 43 
Claypole, 6, 140, 303, 

342, 362 
Clench, 240 
Clere, 180 
Clerenans, 180 
Clerk, 181 
Cley, 343 
OUci, 137 



Clipson, 8 
Coape, 179 
Cobley, 348 
Cockayne, 232, 308, 310 
Cockshott, 305 
Codling, 82 
Cok, 137, 180 
Cole, 195 
Colebie, 143 
Colman, 188 
Colewal, 181 
Collins, 305 
Colls, 273 
ColviUe, 266, 336 
Colyn, 180 
Coney, 182, 282 
Conmers, 106 
Cook, 207, 294, 362 
Cooper, 301, 303 
Cope, 195, 361 
Copeman, 305 
Coppinger, 255 
Cordel, 6, 281 
Coren, 239, 241, 303 
Comaschall, 361 
Cornwall, Earl of , 39 
Cornwallis, 62 
Cotton, 39, 40, 194 
Coulson, 271 
Coupe, 181 
Covell, 364 

Coveney, 267, 269, 331 
Coward, 360 
Cowling, 60 
Oowper, 281 
Cox, 358 
Coyne, 159 
Craddock, 20 
Crane, 129, 180, 181 
CranweU, 131,195,282 
Craunfeld, 180 
Craven, 313 
Oreede, 344 
Creene, 805 
Cremer, 80, 115 
Cressener, 172, 300 
CressweU, 282 
Crisp, 137 
Cristmasse, 154 
CromweU, 15, 63, 173, 

338 
Cropley, 279, 360 
Cropwell, 279 
Crosse, 362 
Crow, 371 
Orystys, 180, 280 
Cumbers, 310 
Cunnington, 62 
Cursol, 32, 41 



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on>EX iL— -(persons). 



XV. 



Cnrtis, 7, 180, 194, 

277, 343, 356 
Gnsance, 149 

Dalton, 281 
Dande, 181 
Dane, 280 
Daniel, 281 
Danois, 32, 312 
Darby, 306 
Darville, 9 
Datimo, 224 
Davie, 266, 269, 272, 

279 
Davis, 266, 343 
Dawbam, 330 
Dawbeny, 288 
Dawson, 266, 269 
Day, 269 
Defoe, 16 
Deighton, 65, 305 
De la Launde, 353 
De la Poll, 232 
De la Rue, 357 
Dennes, 307 
Dennison, 131 
Denny, 33 
Denshaw, 248 
Denshire, 26 
Denton, 181 
Derisley, 309, 310 
Desbrow, 365 
Despaigne, 43 
D'BstimauviUe, 61 
Deverenx, 247 
De Wake, 147 
Dicey, 72 
Dickerson, 64 
Dickinson, 343, 350 
Digby, 26, 63, 177 
Digbyn, 122 
Dighton, 65 
Dike, 182 
Dingley, 194 
Dinham, 259 
Dionis, 137 
Dixie, 300 

Dobede, 307, 309, 369 
Debet, 305 
Docwra, 232, 308 
Dodson, 124 
Dorset, 357 
Dow, 269, 271 
Dowe, 306 
Dowman, 232, 308 
Downes, 8, 290 
Downhall,343 
Downing, 343 
Doyley, 194 



Drake, 266 
Draper, 282 
Drawer, 158 
Drayton, 10 
Drewel, 197 
Dring, 179 
Drury, 194, 230 
Dugdale, 36, 39 
Dygnll, 85 

Bade, 81 
Eardley, 340 
Earlwin, 299 
Edgar, King, 39 
Edis, 115 
Bdmnnd, 137 
Bdmundson, 273 
Edward, 137 
Edwards, 60, 64, 185, 

266, 350 
Egar, 216 
Eldred, 356 
Elsden, 237, 371 
Elton, 374 
Elwes, 5 

Ely, Bishop of, 21 
Elys, 137 
Emerson, 60 
Eresby, 338 
Erhethe, 137 
Etheric, 166 
Eton, 137 
Eugo, 137 
Eustace, 137 
Everard, 64, 180, 185, 

210 
Ewin, 235 
Exeter, Countess of, 

82, 344 
Exeter, Earl of, 364 
Exton, 184 

Facon, 64 
Fairbum, 26 
Fairchild, 61, 106 
FaHwoUe, 137 
Far, 140 
Farmerie, 42 
Farthing, 183, 185 
Faulkus, 241 
Fawcett, 360 
February, 161 
Feckenham, 204 
Fellowes, 14 
Fenkell, 316 
Fermer, 180 
Fermor, 317 
Fforde, 132 
Ffygen, 188 



Field, 63 

Fiennes, 291 

FiUey, 356 

Finch, 370 

Fisher, 63, 224, 225, 

301, 303, 356, 369, 

370 
Fitzwilliam, 40, 364 
Flahau, 36 
Fleetwood, 340 
Flemyng, 180 
Fletcher, 305, 364 
Flexman, 180 
Flower, 62 
Flowers, 60 
Folkes, 137, 279 
Foreman, 224 
Forester, 137 
Forkington, 194 
Forster, 6, 8, 9 
Fortrey, 319 
Foster, 279 
Fox, 301, 312 
Francis, 301, 305 
Fraunceys, 224 
Frear, 227 
Freeman, 368 
Freer, 326, 364 
Frekenberg, 150 
French, 179 
Frere, 181 
Freschs, 149 
Freyshwater, 180 
Frisby, 6 
Frohock, 139 
Fryer, 277 
Frysell, 317 
Furgusson, 25 
Fykeys, 180 
Fysh, 115 

Gainsford, 138 
Gales, 266 
Gambal, 6 
Gamelyn, 180 
Ganelok, 180 
Gardner, 93 
Garlyk, 181 
Gamer, 61, 195 
Garsham, 306 
Grascoigne, 225 
Gates, 6, 269 
Gauston, 239, 303 
Gent, 161 
Gerband, 180 
German, 266 
Gemorm, 181 
Gerold, 180 
Gerveys, 137 



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xyi. 



FENLiND NOTES AND QUERIES 



Gery, 280 
Gewene, 137 
Gibbons, 24 
Gibbs, 62 
GHbert, 225, 306 
Gile, 181 
Giles, 303 
GiU, 108 
Girdeon, 281 
Girdlestone, 32, 33, 35 
Glapthome, 40, 332 
Gleive, 181 
Goakes, 161 
Goat, 266 
Godfrey, 131, 281 
Goe, 60 

Goldesberougb, 367 
Golding, 8, 53, 273 
Goldsbrow, 370 
Gooche, 107 
Goodman, 26, 359 
Goodrich, 73, 137 
Goodrick, 280 
Goodson, 63 
Goodwin, 60 
Goodyer, 258 
Gore, 306 
Gorges, 374 
Gossling, 327 
Gotdd, 163 
Granger, 266 
Grant, 61 
Gravye, 279 
Gray, 63 
Graype, 280 
Green, 77, 163, 194, 196 
Gregory, 225 
Grenehall, 121 
Greneham, 87 
Grey, 345 
Griffiths, 102 
Ground, 8, 67, 98, 226, 

332, 340 
Grummer, 298 
Gryndell, 224 
Guerin, 32 
Gunn, 348 
Gunning, 298 
Gnnton, 225 
Gylate, 282 
Gyles, 107 

HaeU, 282 

Haggitt, 301, 306 

Hake, 101 

Hale, 137 

Hales, 344 

HaU, 277, 303, 362, 364 

HaUe, 137 



Hame, 180 
Hammond, 146, 194 
Hamond, 236, 308 
Hancoc]^ 279 
Handasyde, 194 
HanMn, 36, 181 
Hanlounde, 181 
Hare, 19, 139, 224 
Harly, 7 
Harmston, 63 
Hameys, 180 
Harrington, 173, 248, 

330, 364 
Harrison, 25 
Hart, 61, 115, 226 
Harwood,171,300,306 
HasiU, 279 
Hatton, 316 
Haughton, 305 
Hawkins, 53, 172, 300 
Hawley, 114 
Haydook, 316 
Haylett, 208 
Haynes, 99, 103 
Hayward, 181 
Hease, 6 
Hechsetter, 297 
Heins, 131 
Helder, 22 
Helpiston, 147 
Hemment, 6, 61 
Hemont, 226 
Henderson, 62 
Henryson, 306 
Heron, 138, 342 
Herrof, 137 
Hervi, 181 
Heselarton, 147, 149 
Hewerdine, 161 
Hewet, 124 
Hewit, 61 
Hexham, 375 
Heyr, 137 
Hicke, 181 
Higham, 98, 273 
Highfield, 281 
HiU, 6, 226, 305 
Hindes, 289 
Hisme, 161 
Hitch, 280 
Hix, 277 

Hobson, 101, 359 
Hode, 345 
Hodges, 293 
Hodgson, 305 
Hodilowe, 279 
Hodson, 128 
Hody, 240 
Hogg, 186, 187, 207 



Hoggard, 6 
Holdich, 33, 103, 104 
Holland, 188, 338, 372 
HoUes, 111 
HoUiwell, 280 
HoUy, 182, 184, 185 
Holmes, 305 
Homerston, 280 
Hoogan, 81 
Hopay, 181 

HopMnson, 28, 64, 351 
Hopton, 339 
Home, 26, 173 
Hosebande, 180 
Hosier, 316 
Hoste, 209 
Hotchkin, 104 
Houghton, 195 
Household, 8, 161 
Hovedon, 28 
How, 306 
Howett, 306 
Howlet, 181 
Howson, 6 
Hubbert, 211 
Huddylston, 306 
Hudson, 137 
Hughes, 71 
Hulington, 141 
Hummings, 61 
Hunt, 34, 63 
Hurst, 366, 372 
Husee, 181 
Hussey, 132 
Hutchinson, 99, 132 
Hutton, 128 
Hyan, 5 
Hyde, 63 
Hynde, 317 

Ilett, 277 
Iley, 280 
lUmgworth, 245 
Image, 225 
Imrie, 305 
Ingle, 210 
Ingram, 62, 206 
Irby, 52, 342 
Ives, 332 

Jackson, 26, 211, 348 
Jacob, 180 

James, 9, 108, 109, 226 
JenMzison, 131 
Jennyngs, 188 
Jessop, 240 
Jobson, 162 
Johnson, 51, 61, 83, 
106,257,280,327,348 



Hosted by 



Google 



INDEX n.— (persons). 



xvu. 



Johnston* 225 

Jones, 59,138,281,305 

Jnel, 181 

Jtirdon, 180 

Jnrin, 358 

Jnstise, 181 

Eeble, 116 
KebyU, 318 
Kelful, 8, 271 
Kemble, 177 
Kendal, 210 
Kennet, 7, 244 
Kent, 127, 195, 282 
Kentish, 101 
Kerbook, 147 
Kettlethorp, 149 
Key, 224 
Kidd, 80 
Kimberley, 348 
Kinderley, 40 
King, 7, 64, 138, 160, 

266, 269 
Kingerley, 348 
Kirkes, 280 
Knight, 194 
Knolteshall, 147 
Knowles, 348 
Knowlton, 352 
Kormihil, 6 
Kynesman, 224 
Kyrkeham, 122 
Kys, 81 

Labeleye, 144, 220 
Lacy, 361 
Lambert, 35 
Lane, 281 
Langdale, 6 
Langham, 306 
Langthon, 304 
Lattimer, 246 
Launcelyn, 180 
Laurence, 137, 140 
Lavercock, 281 
Laweman, 180 
Lawrence, 63, 72, 113, 

181, 194 
Lawson, 305 
Laxon, 97, 227, 267, 

273, 332 
Laxton, 355 
Layf ord, 344 
Layton, 61 
Leaford, 143 
Le Bceuf, 107 
Le Comte, 357 
Le Conte, 42 
Leche, 149 



Ledvertby, 132 
Lee, 64, 107, 132, 147, 
313 

Leeds, 290 

Lefort, 137 

Leigh, 279 

Leighton, 61 

Leman, 194 

Le Man, 180 

LePla,32 

Leroo, 26 

Lesse, 154 

Letts, 216 

Levi, 54 

Le Vemonn, 180 

Le Warde, 180 

Lewis, 26 

Lier, 310 

Likkesnot, 149 

LiUey, 280 

Lincoln, Bishop of, 20 

Lincoln, Earl of, 40 

LirteU, 116 

Lister, 364 

Lloyd, 207 

Lodge, 52 

Loftus, 355 

Lone, 115 

Loomes, 6, 8 

Love, 240 

Lovell, 318 

LnmpkiQ, 91 

Lutlingus, 167 

Luttes, 137 

Lyne, 281 

Lyster, 146, 195 

Macdonald, 56 
Mackworth, 339 
Madan, 62 
Maldrie, 280 
Malherbe, 147 
MaUdn, 177 
Mallett, 26 
Man, 357 
Manger, 137 
Manipeny, 181 
Manning, 131 
Mapletoft, 299 
March, 181, 280 
Mareschal, 180 
Margar, 180 
Marlborough, 15 
Marlin, 60, 280 
Marmium, 149 
Marriott, 195, 216 
Marsh, 281 

Marshall, 60, 159, 225, 
280, 348 



Martin, 64, 279, 294, 

373 
Maskew, 160 
Mason, 7, 9, 94, 131 
Massam, 63 
Massy, 6 
Mateshale, 137 
Maulkinson, 61 
Maxey, 272 
May, 207, 307 
Maydwell, 105 
Mayer, 186 
Mayhew, 137 
McNeeve, 107 
Mead, 358 
Mears, 293, 373 
Mechelone, 149 
Meddowes, 365 
Meggitt, 64 
Meirs, 139 
Mepereshale, 180 
Merest, 309 
Merser, 154 
Messenger, 6 
Meurant, 305 
Meweyn, 180 
Middleton, 63 
Milcent, 181 
Mildmay, 39, 40, 362 
Miles, 303 
Milhaem, 240 
Milles, 15 
Millsent, 57 
Milnere, 137, 180 
Mitchel, 6 
Mobb, 161 
MoUe, 137 
Montague, 243, 354 
Montfort, 149 
Moore, 28, 52, 62, 98, 

99, 102, 104, 106, 

176, 236, 319 
Morgan, 305 
Morley, 127 
Morris, 48, 74, 293 
Morton, 74 
Mostact, 249 
Mousey, 305 
Mowbray, 64 
Munday, 317 
Munsey, 139 
Murgatroyd, 305 

Nalson, 159 
Naunton, 247 
Naylor, 314 
Neale, 74, 162, 255 
Needier, 132 
Negus, 277 



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XVHl. 



FENLANB NOTES ANI> QUSBIBS 



NeiUe, 67» 353 
Nelson, 80 
NevUe, 149 
NeviUe, 246, 317 
Newborn, 76 
Newby, 305 
Newdick, 266, 269 
Newman, 282, 366 
Newsam, 305 
Newzam, 60 
Nicholans, 240 
Nicholas, 180 
Nichols, 348 
Nickelson, 63 
Nigellus, 346 
Noble, 53, 180 
Noon, 161 
Norfolk, 127 
Norton, 138 
Norwood, 213 

Oakley, 14 
Gates, 62 
Ogle, 86 
Oldgate, 62 
Oliver, 181 
Orange, 64 
Orford, 10, 210 
Orgar, 181 
Orman, 305 
Orme, 266, 386, 356 
Osboum, 367, 370 
Outy, 181, 182 
Overall, 129 
Overton, 60, 134 
Owayn, 137 

Page, 305 

Pagnam (Pakenham), 

344 
Paine, 26 
Paley, 305 
Palmer, 180, 282, 306, 

361 
Palmere, 180, 181 
Pank, 61, 225 
Paris, 306 

Parker, 62, 181, 313 
Parlett, 78, 79 
ParneU, 313 
Parre, 306 
Parrott, 194 
Parsoun, 181 
Pate, 129 
Patrick, 7 
Payn, 181 
Payne, 7 
Peach, 280 
Peacock, 72, 131 



Pead, 60 

Peak, 359 

Pears, 60, 128 

Pecche, 306 

Peche, 239 

Pechey, 307, 309 

Pechy, 368 

Peck, 261, 280 

Pedley, 281 

^egg, 174 

Peirson, 34 

Pelag, 181 

Pelle, 248 

Penn, 293 

Percy, 247, 364 

Perkins, 35 

Perne, 107 

Perrills, 341 

Perrott, 247 

Pessok, 137 

Petchey, 239 

Peyor, 85 

Phage, 281 

PhiUips, 26, 124, 371 

Phillipson, 64 

Pickering, 138, 248 

Pierson, 218 

Piggott, 204 

Pilgryme, 279 

Pinder, 350 

Piribrok, 149 

Playters, 124 
Plommer, 282 
Plmnmer, 367 
Plumstead, 361 
Pollard, 350 
Porter, 180 
Poulter, 197 
Pounfreyt, 151 
Power, 282 
Powis, Earl of, 14 
Powler, 122 
Prate, 240 
Pratt, 122, 225, 279, 

280 
Prescot, 93 
Prestesman, 180 
Preston, 64 
Price, 290, 306, 351 
Proby, 161 
Procter, 60 
P'triche, 154 
Pujolas, 350 
Pull, 305 

Pulvertoft, 81, 357 
Purdhomme, 181 
ParMs, 131 
Purson, 193 
Pykeler, 180 



Pymlow, 66 
Pynder, 85 

Qnarles, 122, 142, 319, 
361 

Quinton, 130 

Raikes, 72 
Ram, 173, 303, 330 
Ramsey, Lord de, 15 
Randall, 273 
Randolf, 181 
Rands, 266, 269 
Ranulph, 169, 240 
Raven, 137, 180 
Raymente, 193 
Read, 139, 140, 195, 

266, 332 
Reade, 280 
Reay,'.6 
Rede, 317 
Reding, 147 
Reede, 343 
Reppes, 149 
Richardes, 280 
Richardson, 6, 8, 230, 

277 
Richars, 183 
Riche, 317 
Richmond, 62, 107 
Rickett, 62 
Rickman, 302 
Ridley, 195, 239, 241, 

303 
Rignal, 369 
Riley, 61 
Ris, 34 
Robbes, 181 
Robertson, 184, 190, 

208 
Robins, 232 
Robmson, 60, 131, 266, 

269 
Robyn, 181 
Rokeby, 182 
Rollett, 62 
Rootham, 139 
Rop, 343 
Roper, 348 
Rosamond, 161 
Rosas, 116 
Ross, 277 
Rossiter, 137 
Rothewell, 99 
Rothwell, 262 
Rous, 314 
Bowe, 62 

RoweU, 327, 357, 358 
Rowen, 180 



Hosted by 



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niDEZ n.— (psbsc^b). 



zix. 



Rxissel, 181, 339 
Russell, 181 

Rust, 302 
Rnston, 277 
Ryngedale, 181 

Sabberton, 277 
Sabyn, 181 
Saleby, 151 
Salisbury, 233, 306 
Salkyld, 106 
SalUbanck, 281 
Salmon, 81 
Salt, 15 
Sambrook, 356 
Sandiver, 107 
Sandwich, Lord, 10, 40 
Sandys, 124 
Sarvington, 281 
Sanlter, 281 
Saunders, 61 
SayweU, 138 
Scatter, 365 
Schaulere, 147 
Schefeld, 149 
Schylingthon, 151 
Scot, 180 
Scribo, 107, 294 
Scrubby, 240 
Seaber, 371 
Seaman, 279, 360 
Searle, 57 
Sears, 277 
Selby, 6 
Selede, 180 
Selfe, 115 
Senex, 152 
Serecold, 63 
Seward, 63, 277 
Shaa, 317 
ShairshaU, 122 
Shanks, 309 
Sharley, 299 
Sharpe, 31, 318 
Sheep, 266 
Shelstone, 61 
Shepherde, 160, 162 
Sheppard, 194 
Sherard, 230 
Sheriff, 338 
Shipman, 305 
Shippe, 364 
Shorten, 317 
Sier, 180 
Sigar, 275 
Silton, 150 
Silver, 370 
Sisson, 62 
Sizer, 368 



Skeeles, 195, 277 

Skeler, 363 

Skootred, 280 

Slack, 308 

Slater, 173 

Slater, 83 

Sley, 241 

Slow, 62 

Smith, 6, 8, 14, 32, 33, 

60, 61, 101, 104, 129, 

132, 179, 235, 277, 

305 
Smithe, 279 
Smyth, 180, 224 
Snell, 160, 280 
Snowden, 6 
Sondes, Lord, 15 
Sopere, 180 
Sotheby, 278 
South, 32 

Southwell, 107, 355 
Speechley, 7, 8, 57, 67, 

266, 269, 271 
Speed, 39 
Spenser, 239 
Spring, 371 
Squire, 356 
Staff, 8, 9 
Stainbank, 293 
Stalkere, 181 
Stanes, 305 
Stanroyd, 130 
Statewile, 159 
Staples, 371 
Stenkyn, 280 
Stephenson, 60 
Sterne, 308 
Steven, 280 
Stevens, 139 
StUes, 137, 173 
Stockbum, 241 
Stoddart, 313 
Stona, 62, 98 
Stone, 314 
Storr, 61 
St. Aubyn, 234 
St. John, 246 
StottnUe, 137 
Stubbard, 137 
Stubbolde, 343 
Sturmyn, 280 
Styles, 106, 213 
Styvede, 21 
Styward, 279 
Swan, 279 
Swann, 305 
Swanson, 100 
Swift, 61 
Swinscoe, 341 



Swinstead, 318 
Syers, 226 
Symons, 195 
Sympson, 65 

Tailboys, 336 
Talbot, 370 
Tasker, 60, 170, 301 
Tayler, 184, 186 
Taylor, 20, 60, 80, 240, 

279, 806 
Tebbit, 369, 370, 371 
Tebbitt, 234 
Tempest, 224 
Teringham, 124 
Tewth, 241 
Thakker, 154 
Tharbie, 279 
Thewar, 181 
Thirlby, 225 
Thistleton, 64 
Thompson, 62, 63, 64, 

107, 194, 305 
ThomhiU, 64, 119 
Thornton, 153, 232, 239 
Thorpe, 63 
Throgmorton, 197 
Thurgood, 280 
Thursby, 266, 336 
Tideman, 306 
Tindale, 64 
Tindall, 241 
Todd, 344 
Tomlinson, 60 
Tompsonne, 159 
Tomson, 122, 135 
Tonworthe, 85 
Tooley, 234 
Toon, 61 
Topping, 7, 9 
Torell, 317 
Torkington, 194 
Townsend, 23, 156, 180 
Trafford, 293 
Trappe, 180 
Treane, 281 
Tresham, 20 
Trice, 57 
Triplow, 277 
TroutbeU, 62 
Trygg, 224 
Tunstal, 47 
Turner, 62, 332 
Turtle, 62 
Twells, 8 
Tyers, 351 
Tyffeyn, 180 
Tyrrell, 318 



Hosted by 



Google 



XX. 



FENLAND NOTES AND QUERIES 



UUett, 60 
Undeme, 246 
Underwood, 36, 99, 101, 

103, 137, 272, 332, 

339 
Urlin, 299 

Vance, 64 
Veney, 10 
Verdun, 61 
Vermuyden, 145 
Vemam, 341 
Vigerous, 303, 330 
Visme, 305 
Vyse, 62 

Waddington, 195 
Wade, 280, 306 
Wager, 224 
Wagstaff, 305 
Waide, 189 
Wake, 60, 306 
Walden, 314 
Waldeschef, 149 
Waldron, 225 
Walker, 20, 60, 248, 

305, 341 
WaUer, 305 
WaUis, 57, 101 
Walsham, 159 
Walter, 363 
Waltham, 348 
Walton, 132, 340 
Wandley, 162 
Wapp, 182 
Warde, 181, 280, 282 
Wardell, 208 
Waring, 225 
Warner, 348 
Warren, 128, 147, 310 
Warriner, 355 
Warrock, 224 
Waryn, 181 
Waters, 363 



Watson, 6, 8, 20, 33, 

62, 83, 90, 204, 207 
Waylott, 367 
Wayne, 344 
Wean, 180 
Weatherby, 63 
Webb, 290, 361 
Webbe, 306 
Webster, 8 
Weddred, 226 
Wedon, or Weedon, 

298 
Welby, 211 
Welldon, 277 
Welles, 337, 352 
Wells, 33, 40, 84, 162, 

224, 294 
Weringg, 137 
Werke, 316 
West, 73, 137, 181, 

306, 317, 371 
Weston, 20, 101, 137, 

204 
Whale, 279 
Whateley, 15 
Wheatley, 329 
Wheldale, 63 
Whetston,137,215, 361 
Which, 34 
Whin, 305 
Whiston, 138, 146 
White, 62, 97, 204 
Whitstons, 102 
Whitting, 35 
WignaU, 26 
Wilbe, 294 
Wildblood, 161 
Wilkin, 308, 310 
Wilkinson, 224, 248 
Wihnot, 358 
William, 181' 
Williams, 160, 314, 341 
Williamson, 52, 305 



WiUoughby, 338 
Wilson, 122, 301, 303, 

305 
Windle, 162 
Windy, 161 
Wing, 34, 128 
Wingfield, 140, 247, 

342 
Winham, 305 
Winter, 266 
Wise, 279 
Wiseman, 6, 97, 267, 

270, 331 
Wode, 189 
Wodekoc, 180 
Wodeward, 180 
Wold, 181 
Wollyngham, 306 
Wolsey, 204 
Wood, 279 
Woodfall, 197 
Woods, 22 
Woodstock, 6 
Worrall, 61 
Wraight, 103 
Wren, 32 
Wressell, 31 
Wrey, 312 
Wright, 8, 62, 348 
Wro, 137 
Wryte, 181 
Wyche, 131 
Wyldbore, 116, 364, 

355 
Wyldebore, 325 
Wylson, 101 
Wymundle, 137, 182 
Wyngfeld, 86, 361 

Yarrow, 368 
Yates, 6 
Yaxlee, 306 
Young, 184, 266, 327 



Hosted by 



Google 



Index hi -(places). 



Abbots Ripton, 92, 93, 
181, 203 

Abbotsley, 193 
Abington, 280 
Addlethorpe, 243 
Alconbury Weston, 374 
Alford, 353 
Alwalton, 202, 357 
Andover, 14 
Aylington, 202 
Ayscough Fee Hall, 62 
Axholm, Isle of, 11, 26 

Balsham, 279 
Barford Bridge, 17 
Bamack, 361 
Barraway, 164, 303 
Barton, 17, 279 
Bassenhally Moor, 270 
Baston, 62, 84 
Beach Fen, 22 
Bedford, 17 
Bedford Level, 144 
Benefield, 84 
Bevil's River, 38, 40 
Blackbush, 269 
Bluntisham, 137, 203 
Bodsey, 314 
Borough Fen, 10, 64 
Boston, 40, 44, 51, 62, 

95,153,177,220,261, 

313, 337 
Bottisham, 279, 374 
Bottlebridge, 201 
Bonme (Cambs.), 279 
Bourne (Lines.), 28, 43, 

63,206,218,252,365 
Brackley, 40 
Brampton, 182, 201 
Brandon, 10, 17, 145 
Broughton, 181, 197 
Buckden, 181 
Bumham, 80 
Burwell, 24, 273 
Bury, 18, 181, 366 
Butterwick, 46 



Caldecote, 156, 202 
Calf Fen, 164 
Cam, 18 
Cambridge, 17, 176, 

235, 279 
Carbrook, 288 
Castor, 9, 87, 244, 251 
Chatteris, 27, 41, 179, 

194, 262, 266, 280, 

283, 374 
Cheryy Hinton, 93 
Chesterton, 178, 197, 

202, 279 
Cheveley, 163 
Chippenham, 339, 372 
Church Brampton, 7 
Clarborough, 31 
Clenchwarton, 315 
Clows Cross, 344, 346 
Coates, 5 
Coldham, 249 
Colne, 342 
Connington, 94, 117, 

157, 202 
Cottenham, 320, 374 
Cottesbrook, 281 
Coveney, 74, 108, 109, 

280 
Cowbit, 54 
Cross Keys Wash, 38 
Crowland, 1, 4, 5, 11, 

28, 45, 65, 84, 90, 92, 

132, 133, 138, 173, 

206, 219, 251, 253, 

313, 339 

Deeping, 2, 11, 17, 54, 
101, 151, 174, 206 

Deeping Gate, 362 

Deeping, Market, 17, 
244,374 

Deeping St. James, 95, 
147 

Deeping, West, 140 

Delph Dyke, 271 

Denton, 202 

Denver, 38, 75, 145 



Diddington, 193 
Ditton, 163 
Doddmgton, 21, 159, 

161, 163, 266 
Dogdike, 338 
Downham, 18, 27, 47, 

62, 368, 370 
Dunsby, 30 

Earith, 25, 144 

Eastrea, 5, 97 

Edmunds, Bury St., 17 

Eldemell, 345 

Ehn, 26, 131, 266 

Blsworth, 374 ' 

Eltisley, 280 

Elton, 9 

Ely, 7, 9, 10, 16, 17, 18, 
19, 22, 62, 73, 75, 
151, 163, 166, 168, 
218, 241, 280, 286, 
291, 299, 306, 346, 
374 

Empingham, 353 

Etton, 362 

Eye, 2, 215 

Eynesbury, 374 

Farcet, 39 
Fenstanton, 93, 137 
Fendrayton, 280 
Feversham, 279 
Flag Holme, 26 
Fleet, 213 
Fleet Hargate, 45 
Fletton, 201 
Folksworth, 196, 202, 

282 
Fordham, 279, 360, 372 
Fortrey, 75 
Fosdike, 261 
Foulmire, 279 
Friday Bridge, 249 
Frieston, 46 
Fulboum, 93, 279, 366 

Gainsborougb, 45 



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XXll; 



FENIiAND NOTES AND QUERIES 



Gavely, 241 
Graywood, 314 
Gtedney, 47, 51, 84, 

259, 344 
Gilden Morden, 280 
Glassmoor, 340 
Glatton, 39, 40, 202 
Glinton, 122, 351, 362 
Godmanohester, 26, 92, 

131, 181, 341 
Godwick, 209 
Grosberton, 44 
Grafham, 181 
Gransden, 282 
Grantchester, 374 
Grantham, 64, 92, 353, 

373 
Grant, River, 17, 145 
Graveley, 33 
Grayingham, 46 
Gunthorpe, 30, 222- 
Guyhim.216, 261, 327, 

344, 347 

Hacconby, 30 
Haddenham, 280, 366 
Haddon, 202 
Hamerton, 281 
Hardwick, 280 
Hargate, 45 
Harrimeer, 145 
Hawnby, 241 
Hawsted, 231 
Heckington, 95 
Helpstone, 86, 352, 

361 
Hemingford Abbots, 

94, 140, 180 
Hemingford Grey, 25, 

180, 375 
Hethersett, 307 
High Fen, 347 
Hinton, 40, 279 
Hinxton, 93, 373 
Hobhouse, 347 
Holbeach, 9, 51, 56, 64, 

82, 154, 219, 276, 

254 
HoUand, 11, 28, 45 
Holland Fen, 63 
Hobne, 21, 26, 39, 40, 

74, 156, 158, 294, 

297, 343 
Holme (Spalding), 25 
Holmes, 25 
Holywell, 26, 81, 180, 

203 
Homcastle, 363 
Horselieath, ^79 



Houghton, 25, 93, 180, 

203, 376 
Hubbert's Bridge, 262 
Humber, 17, 40 
Huntingdon, 10, 25, 

62, 201, 265, 296, 

312 

Ipswich, 23 
Isleham, 24, 95, 304 
Isle of Ely, 16, 18, 19, 
74 

Kesteven, 9, 14 
Kimbolton, 41, 242 
Kinderley Cut, 328 
King's Ripton, 181, 203 
Kirkley, 63 
Kirton, 46 
Kyme, 1, 336 

Landbeach, 280 

Langtoft, 84 

Leverington, 27, 49, 
91, 95, 97, 266, 345 

Lincohi, 20, 28, 41, 46, 
84, 177, 299, 337 

Lindsey, 11 

Linton, 304 

Litlington, 280 

Littlepprt, 9, 280, 374 

Little Casterton, 353 

Little Witham, 92 

Lolham, 62, 287, 362 

London, 17 

Longstanton, 280 

Long Sutton, 95 

Longthorpe, 247 

Lowestoft, 28 

Lowick, 316 

Luddington, 45 

Lutton, 46 

Lynham, 101 

Lynn, 16, 17, 31, 38, 
40, 46, 62, 63, 64, 77, 
114, 145, 176, 213, 
219. 244, 282, 288, 
291, 313, 314, 360 

Malreath, 280 
Manea, 73, 74, 108, 320 
March, 1, 10, 16, 158, 

244, 266, 281, 320, 

345, 347 
Marhohn, 92 
Marshland, 40, 53, 92, 

249 
Maxey, 95, 113, 361 
Medeshaastistead, 39 



Melbourne, 280 
Mercia, 39 
Middle Fen, 22 
Middle Level, 74 
MildenhaU, 17, 18, 145 
Milton, 364, 373 
Milton (Cambs.), 280 
Morborne, 7, 202 
Morden, 93 
Morton, 28, 64 
Morton's Leam, 7 
Moulton, 51, 53, 54, 

141 
Murrow, 215, 347 

Needingworth, 81, 281 
Nene, River, 17, 18, 38, 

40, 315 
Newgate, 51 
Newmarket, 63, 367, 

371 
Newton, 215, 266, 281, 

347 
Nordelph, 10 
Norfolk, 11, 18, 19, 152 
Norman Cross, 190 
Normanton, 339 
Northboro', 342, 361 
Northey, 327 
North Level, 221 
Northrop, 46 
North Thoresby, 299 
Norwich, 17, 47 
Nunton, 361 

Old Bedford Bank, 74 
Old River, 25 
OrtonLongueville, 201, 

373 
Orton Waterville, 202 
Orwell, 280 
Oundle, 190 
Ouse, 17, 18, 40, 74, 

144, 145, 271, 315 
OutweU, 10, 84, 289 
Over, 280 
Oxney, 249 

Papworth S. Agnes, 280 
Parson Drove, 281, 344 
Paston, 122, 303 
PeaMrk, 122, 350, 363 
Peterborough, 7, 10, 
19,21,26,38,39,40, 
45, 62, 63, 64, 87, 
121, 153, 175, 219, 
221, 251, 296, 325, 
327, 341, 348, 354, 
361 



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INDEX III.— (places). 



XXIU. 



Pinchbeck, 44, 86 
Ponders Bridge, 6 
Portholm, 25 

Qua Fen, 164 

Radwell, 282 

Ramsey, 10, 14, 20, 36, 
39, 45, 46, 53, 74, 92, 
129, 146, 164, 166, 
176, 180, 202, 220, 
294, 297, 311, 343 

Raveley, 140, 203 

Baveningham, 33 

Retford. 31 

Rettendon, 163 

Rippingale, 30 

Ripton, Abbots, 92, 93, 
181, 203 

Ripton, King's, 181, 203 

Rising, 46 

Royston, 280 

Salter's Lode, 74 
Santoft, 42 
Sawston, 279 
Sawtry, 45, 94, 140, 

158, 180, 202 
Sheldon, 299 
SMrbeck, 44 
Sleaford, 64 
Soham, 9, 10, 22, 94, 

116, 127, 156, 163, 

231, 297, 364, 360, 

366, 374 
Somersham, 9, 137, 

138, 146, 194, 203 
Southacre, 183 
South Level, 145 
Soutbsea, 348 
Spalding, 10, 11, 17, 

44, 63, 63, 173, 213, 

219, 257, 330, 344 
Spilsby, 26 
St. Ives, 14, 17, 19, 25, 

26, 71, 130, 131, 137, 

140, 188, 220 
St. Neots, 17 
Stamford, 17, 26, 92, 

122, 147, 352, 355, 

356 
Stangronnd, 201, 267, 

269, 343 
Staplehoe, 306 



Staunton, 241 
Stibbington, 202 
Stilton, 37, 38, 93, 168, 

189, 202. 278 
Stirtloe, 359 
Stoke Charity, 239 
Stoke Damarel, 26 
Strainfield, 30 
Streatham Ferry, 145 
Stretham, 374 
Stoak, 145 
Stowe, 279 
Stukeley, Great, 181, 

203 
Stukeley, Little, 181, 

203 
Sudbury, 14 
Surfleet, 44, 62 
Sutton, 93 
Sutton, Long, 46 
Sutton St. Edmunds, 

344 
Swaffham,Bulbeck,279 
SwafiEham, Prior, 93 
Swavesey, 234 
Sywell, 240 

Tallington, 141 
Tattershall, 209, 337 
Terrington, 183 
Thetford, 17 
Tholomas Drove, 345 
Thoresby, 92 
Thorney, 2, 32, 39, 41, 

45, 64, 75, 83, 128, 

201, 215, 230, 311, 

327, 346, 347 
Three Mills, 24 
Trent, River, 19 
Triplow, 279 
Trokenholt, 344, 346 
Trumpington, 279 
Turves, 270 
Tydd, 45, 215, 347 
Tydd St. GUes, 215, 

266, 293 

Ufford, 87, 319, 361 
Upton, 87 

Upwell, 108, 266, 281 
Upwood, 140, 203 

Washes, 1, 11, 17 
Wainfleet, 11 



Walcot, 245, 316, 361 
Waldersea, 328 
Walpole. 315 
Walsingham, 17 
Walsoken, 77, 315 
Walton, 202, 315 
Walworth, 35 
Warboys, 140, 180, 

189, 197, 203 
Washingley, 41, 82, 

314 
Weavlingham, 280 
Weldon, Little, 56 
Welland, 18, 40 
Wellingboro', 93 
Welney, 108, 109 
Werrington, 2 
Whaplode, 51, 63, 114 
Whittlesey, 5, 6, 7, 9, 
36, 57, 92, 96, 98, 99, 
126, 137, 156, 164, 
226, 230, 266, 290, 
294, 296, 339 
Whittlesey Mere, 10, 
22, 36, 37, 46, 74, 

190, 199 
Wiggenhall, 288 
Willingham, 138, 289 
Wilmington, 302 
Wimblington, 320 
Windie, 279 
Winscomb, 309 
Wisbech, 17,18,19,20, 

31, 38, 40, 47, 56, 72, 
96, 98, 103, 130, 131, 
178, 203, 215, 216, 
220, 266, 277, 280, 
281, 326, 344, 345, 
347, 356, 359, 365 

Wistow, 180, 203 

Witcham, 280 

Witham, 14, 40 

Wittlesford, 279 

Witton, 375 

Woodcroft, 137, 339 

Wood Ditton, 279 

Woodstone, 9, 102, 201 

Wryde, 215 

Wyton, 180, 203 

Yarmouth, 17 
Yaxley, 39, 46, 176, 
180, 201, 230, 278 



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1 



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guXmi p0to mi %mm. 



1 .—Conflicting Theories in Fen History— It is an unpleasant 

task to oppose commonly received scientific authority, but in the 

interest of truth at times it is a necessary duty. By a comparison 

of notes, observers, although lacking scientific training, may 

either confirm or correct theories. The object of these remarks 

is to enquire into the age and circumstances connected with the 

Fen gravel as represented by the beds at Crowland. I believe 

Mr. Skertchley in his "Fenland" is only following a generally 

received opinion when he states in chap, ix, page 321,—" The 

oldest of the true Fen beds consists of gravels, and there are at 

least two sets of these. The older series consists of isolated 

patches at March, Crowland, Kyme^' and elsewhere, and in reality 

are more ancient than the Fenland itself— they are, in point of 

fact, the remains of deposits formed in estuaries before the Fen 

basin was excavated — remains which alone have withstood the 

ravages of time. The newer gravels comprise the old beach 

which surrounded the Fenland when it was a great island-studded 

bay, and the gravel which was deposited upon its base at the same 

time just as similar beds are being formed in the Wash. Above 

these gravels come alternations of silt and peat, which bring the 

geological history down to the present time." Speaking of the 

Beach and Floor gravels on page 555, the same authority says— 

" These gravels belong entirely to the history of the Fenland, and 

their connection with the peat and silt which overlay them is 

shewn by the occurrence here and there of patches of those 

materials in the gravel itself." These two quotations embody the 

result of great experience and careful observation, but, so far as 

the Crowland gravel is concerned, the former statement is 

Vol. I. B 



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2 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

incorrect, and I will state my reasons for disagreement. I have 
found, from careful and frequent examination of the Crowland 
bed, that it cannot be of such an ancient origin as is ascribed to 
it, for it is underlaid in almost every pit I have examined by a 
bed of peat containing trees and plants, contemporaneous with 
those found near, beneath the blue buttery clay. This state- 
ment is based upon the examination of excavations made in all 
parts of the bed, and extending through a long series of years, 
and proves that whatever may be the age of some portions of the 
drift, the Crowland beds are, comparatively speaking, of modern 
origin. The above discrepancy in the classification and date of 
one portion of gravel gives rise to well grounded scepticism as to 
very much that has of late been written regarding what is termed 
prehistoric man, and that without questioning the truth of the 
existence of human remains and workmanship in the gravel, and 
even beneath it. The Crowland bed covers, at least, a thousand 
acres, and has an almost uniform depth of about ten feet. Its 
fossils, as a rule, are similar to those found at Thorney, Eye, 
Werrington, and Deeping, and possibly a few of more recent date. 
It seems impossible to believe that its isolation is the result of a 
denuding process that removed all the parts surrounding from the 
district that intervenes between it and the highlands. On the 
north side of the bed, in 1880 or 1881, about two acres of land 
were dug up for repairing the Wash banks, the material re- 
moved consisted of blue clay, which rested on a buried forest 
on the same level, and connected with the wood and peat that 
underlies the gravel ; and that there need be no doubt upon the 
subject, this forest rests right throughout on the boulder clay. 

The gravel at Crowland has much in its nature resembling 
the undoubted glacial beds, but will its nature allow us to bring 
it within the great ice age ? All those who saw the wild luxuriance 
of the subterranean forest aboYC alluded to, will admit that during 
its growth the climate must have been temperate, if not tropical. 
At the close of this period the district was again inundated by the 
sea, and then was deposited by some means the bed of gravel and 
the blue clay that joins and blends into it all round. If it can be 



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Fbnland STotes and Queries. 3 

shewn that an Arctic rigour again set in, then may we conceive 
that the land ice gripped the beach gravel, which was finally drifted 
from the neighbourhood of Eye into the place where it is now 
found. A fact which seems to favour this view exists in a small 
knoll of gravel at Palmer's Hill, midway between Eye and 
Crowland, in the very heart of the Pen — in the direct course the 
material would have to travel if this theory is correct. 

In the presence of such conclusive evidence that some portion 
of the drift is of more recent date than the Alluvium, it will be 
hard to credit all the recent hypotheses regarding the antiquity 
of man. Without entering, at the present, into this subject, I 
will state a circumstance that came under my notice a few years 
since. At Crowland, in the immediate neighbourhood of a 
tumulus that had been exhumed, several excavations were made 
to obtain gravel, in one of the pits chipped flints were found 
almost to the bottom of the bed. The gravel itself is rather poor 
here in specimens of flint boulders, and very much would have to 
be searched if any quantity was required ; and, undoubtedly, this 
portion had been disturbed, for the side of the pit shewed a semi- 
circular layer of chips, at least, two inches thick, containing 
fragments of worked stone. This depression was the workshop of 
the semi-savage who knew nothing even of polishing his rude 
stone implements, but was contented to use, either for war or the 
chase, spear heads and arrows of the most primitive description. 
This man, whose remains are as rude as anything known, lived on, 
and worked in drift that rested upon a forest growth ; and, 
stranger still, mixed indiscriminately with his urns of baked 
gault, were found many specimens of Roman jars and vases made 
on a wheel. 

This may appear a ravelled skein of statements, but they are 
facts, and cannot be argued away. Prehistoric man is thus 
brought into the range of recorded fact, and circumstances 
explain, to a great extent, the cause. The ancient Britons, driven 
back by the Eoman invaders, found on the south-west border of 
the Fens a refuge and place of comparative safety. The island of 
Crowland, cut off from the highlands by a treacherous bog, or dense 



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4 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

forest, gave them a site for a home. Here they Uved, undoubtedly, 
for a considerable time, extending to the greater part of the 
occupation of the Romans. The line of tumuli right across the 
gravel bed suggests that they were formed as well for purposes of 
defence as for sepulchre. The cinerary urns that were found 
intact, in their original position, were of the very rudest description 
of pottery, as were also the other fragments that were found in 
such abundance. Yet amongst these were several beautiful 
specimens of Roman ware, all more or less broken, and to add to 
the confusion, one bronze celt and several iron strikers were 
picked up. The reason I have recited these facts is to show that 
the discovery of human remains in the drift is not necessarily to 
prove that man existed before the historic period. 

Pirst, we have a buried forest underlying what the highest 
authorities have designated primary, or original, drift. The next 
is, that the remains of man of the most primitive description are 
found mixed with relics of a high state of civilization, some of 
them far down in the gravel itself. It must not be inferred from 
the above that I entirely dispute the statements of geologists 
as to the great antiquity of some human remains that have been 
found. But my experience and observations lead me to the con- 
clusion that scientific men may easily be deceived by cursory 
observations, especially if they have a bias in favour of any 
particular theory. Living in the Fens, and daily observing their 
nature and history, I cannot but feel that much that has been 
written on them is altogether misleading. The establishment of 
the fact that a subterranean forest underhes the Fen gTavel, and 
that much of the blue clay is contemporary, or nearly so, with 
this drift, gives certain data in computing its period in geologic 
time. 

In a future paper I will endeavour to tabulate a few facts 
relating to the composition and history of the peat. 

In conclusion. For many years I have been trying to form a 
complete collection of the different materials existing in the 
Crowland gravel, and on the 20th March, I found a specimen of 
hard coal which was well water worn, but still, upon being split, 



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Fehland Notes and Queries. 5 

showing its true coaly nature. This is the first and only specimen 
of this mineral I have ever discovered in the bed. 

A. S. Canham, Crowland. ' 

2.— The Parish Registers of Whittlesey S. Mary.— It is 

almost impossible to say with exactness at what date the register 
for this parish commences. In an iron chest in the church, con- 
taining the various volumes which form the register, there is a 
bundle of old pieces of parchment tied up with a string in a 
piece of brown paper. This is the earliest register. It is so 
decayed, cut, mouse-eaten, and so hopelessly in bits that it would 
be impossible to decipher one-fiftieth part of it. Some of the 
sheets look as if they had been used for cleaning metal utensils, 
or fpr cleaning varnish brushes. Picking out the best looking 
sheet, I found it was dated 1607, but I was informed that the 
earliest date to be traced is 1560. Next to this is a loose sheet of 
parchment, evidently torn out of a book, containing entries dating 
from 1662 to 1672. I was informed by Mr. John Fevre that this 
was supplied to the church by a gentleman living at a distance, 
who wrote saying that he had such a document and would forward 
it to the vicar if it would be of any value. Then comes the first 
preserved book, which starts in 1695 and ends in 1721. It is in 
excellent condition, the parchment a little discoloured by age and 
damp, but every entry from one end to the other is clear and 
distinct. The next volume is from 1721 to 1737. It is a much 
narrower book, of parchment, and also in an excellent state of 
preservation. The third volume is of paper, and covers the period 
from 1735 to 1805. After this the registers are divided, and are 
on the usual printed forms. One or two of these books are not in 
a good state of preservation. One especially ought to be rebound. 
The following are a few extracts from the first register book — 
1695 to 1721 :— 

BAPTISMS. 

June 28.. 1702 Elizabeth dan' of a frenchcMld, 

Aug 18. 1706 Rd Hyan, mius populi, cui mater, Eliz. Elwes. 
Sep. 15, 1706 Sarah Clarke of Estree or Coates. 



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Q Fenland Notes and Queribs. 

Dec 12 1707 Mary Massy of Georg (y* was in ye warrs) and 

Paliome. 
Aug 8. 1708 Martha Cordel baptized when she was about 30 

years of age. 
April 20 1709 Joseph Gates baptiz'd when 24 years old. 
Aug 21. 1712 John Hill of Jo & Mary strangers. 
Oct 12 1712 Kezia Woodstock of Laurance & Gemima. 

July 8. 1715 Gemima Woodstock of Laurance and Gemima. 

July 16. 1718 Sarah Watson of Tho & Joane baptized when she 

w^ about 18 years old. 
July 25 1718 An Watson baptized when she was about 28 years 

old, daughter of Tho & Joane. 
Aug 3 1718 Sara Frisby baptized at 55 years old. 

„ „ „ Hanna Howson of Eob* & Mary baptized when 

about 16 years old. 
Aug 5 1718 Jo'i Loomes babtized when about 31 years old. 

„ „ „ James Messenger baptized when about 20 years old 

BUEIALS. 

Nov 14 1698 Jane Langsdale widow in ye f enn at Ponds bridg. 

June 27 1699 Richardson's child not baptized. 

Aug. 16 1701 Dorothy Mitchel a stranger. 

„ 16 1701 Ann Selby a stranger. 

„ 16 1701 Annie Reay a stranger. 

Sep 6 1701 Samuel Warren a Yorkshireman. 

N9V 13 1701 W^ Hease a Scotchman. 

Dec 8 1701 Hen Forster a Yorkshireman. 

Dec 21 1701 Robert Smith of Coates an old Quaker. 

Dec 19 1701 W"» Wiseman 



}• 



_. _, __. [ Gents, brothers. 

24 „ Thos. Wiseman 

Jan 7 1703 Ezah Yates a stranger. 

July 3 1703 Ahce Briggs daur. of John & Mary drowned. 

„ 12 1703 Robt Hemment son of Henry, drowned. 

Aug 7 1703 Thomas Anger a town child. 

Oct 4 1703 W^ Hoggard hurried by the town. 

Ap. 8 1707 Stephen Bishop in y« Quakers yard. 

July 13 1707 Mary Snowden a stranger. 

Aug 21 1707 Christian Kormihil a hylander in Scotland. 

Jan 11 1708 A stranger out of Yorkshire. 

Feb. 10 1708 Francis Gambal ye parish clerk & a sweet singer. 

March 24 1708 John Olaypole an Oliverian soldier. 

May 30 1708 Alice Boon d' of Tho. drowned. 



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■- tr'**WP-'^ '■'^^WfrV^-'i^i'S-?^^*^^^!?^ 



Fenland Notes and Queries. 7 

Jan 6 1710 An Curtise of Henry drowned. 

July 16 1710 Susanna Harly drowned. 

Dec 30 1711 Amy Payne 104 years old when she died and had 

her memory perfect to y« last. 

Ann Bull widow gave a brass branch with six candlesticks in it to 
St. Mary's Chjirch August 6. A 1712 it cost 2. 7. 

1713 Buried of ye small pox this year about 68. 

This year 1713 y® small pox was so rife in Whittlesea as had nev' 
been in y*^ memory of man. 

March 27. 1714 An King a stranger. 

About the year 1706 Patrick Bp of Ely, wrote to me to give him a 
true account of the yearly value of St Mary's & St Andrew's 
Churches in Whittlesea & wc*^ I did. Hereupon the Bishop 
recommended them to the stewards of Queen Ann's Bounty as 
proper objects for an augmentation. About the year 1713 the 
first lotts were drawn & a lott of two hundred pounds fell to St 
Mary's Church. B^ I was never able to obtain either principal 
or interest while Wliite Kennet Bishop of Peterborow under- 
took the matter & in the month of October 1722 he secured y« 
200^ & all the arrears of interest, 7GI to the everlasting honor 
of that great good bishop. And here follows a true terrar of 
the land bought of William Speechly with the 2001 in the year 
1728. 

Afc the end of this register book is the following entry : — 

October 16. 1739. A Corporation Cutt being made through y« 4 
gross comons (be they more or less) near Stonehill & west end 
of those comons being endanger'd to be swallow'd up by Eliz : 
Forster, whose land joins to the s^ comons on y<^ west to prevent 
her wicked designs I desired John Loomes jun' to survey the 
said comons whi^^ he did Octb : 16* 1739 & writ wi*^ his own 
hands first as under written by me Tho : Topping, vicar of S* 
Andrews in Whittlesea. 

Gross comons belonging to ye churches of Whittlesea, liing on ye 
Norte side of Stonehil close one akre three roods & twenty five 
poles (liing East of y^ Corporation Cutt) and the other piece at 
ye West or lying West of y® Corporation Cutt, & siding y® river 
One akre & thirty six poles liing next to Stonehil Dole East 
end both pieces siding y® river caU'd Moorton's Leam. 

I came fr5 Church Brampton 3 miles fr5 Northampton to Whittlesea 
in the Isle of Ely on the 14*^ day of May 1701 to be school- 
master of y® Church's school & to be Mr. Masons' (y*^ minister 
of Whittlesea) his curat at Morbom in Huntingdonshire, 
belonging to him also when I came hither one Tozer Forster 
a cunning man & not too honest was in possession of the 4 gross 
comons, be they more or less & held them while Rev. Mason 
died wc»» was on y« 22nd day of September 1703. By a further 



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8 Fenland Notes and Queries. 



humble application to Georg. William, & Edward Downes y^ 
lords of y*^ mannor I obtained y^ Donative of St. Mary's Chm'ch. 
& likewise by y^ assistance of Mr. Twells y^ secretary of y* 
presentations'.! obtained from S^ Nathan Wright y^ Lord 
Keeper of y® Great Seal of England, y^ vicaridge of S* Andrew's 
Church in Whittlesea. After this Tozer Forster held ye same 
gross comons of me, & y^ year 1707 he took a lease of me for 21 
years paiing down five pounds & y^ yearly rent of one pound 
July ye 3* 1714 Toz. Forster died & his daughters aforesd held 
y® land while y® lease w^^ was for 21 years expired vf^^ was at 
Lady Day 1728 Then the 3 daughters of Toz. Forster applied 
to me for y^ same gross comons during my life & it was agreed 
on by both parties they paying unto me a guinea & a half a 
guinea upon entrance & y® old rent of 20 shillings yearly. When 
Tozer Forster died there was a great rumor spread abroad about 
ye parish y* he had robb'd the churches of some part of the 
gross comons aforsd, & to still ye noise of ye people I was forced 
to apply to ye jurors of the Homage & to entreat them to go 
down to Stonehill and to set out y^ bounds & limits of these 
gross comons w^h they did at Michaelmas Court 1714 The 
jurors names y^ were vide Homage book of St Mary's 1714 as 
follows: viz* Adam Kelful, Abram Houshold, Tho. Speechley, 
Tho. Golding, Will Baly, Geo. Watson, Rob. Smith, Jo^ Ground, 
Tho. Aveling, Ric. Loomes, Will Clipson, Tho. CHpson, Tho. Ground, 
Rob. Ground, Geo Claxon, Tho Boon. All these jurymen true 
men and good viewed ye land & ordered me to put down oaken 
stoopes into ye ground to divide y® church land fro y^ land of 
ye three sisters Mary Forster, Frances Staff a wid^ sister & UJiz. 
Forster [Here there is an erasure.] For y® view of y^ IG 
jurors I paid them 16^ & for ye 3 oaken stoops beaten down 
deep into ye ground to set bounds I paid James Richardson 
carpenter 8 Things continued in this condition while y^ year 
1730 in or a^* wci» year the corporation having occasion for gravel 
by ye perswation or threats of [name erased.] Eliz: Forster 
the corporation officers Jo^ Webster & Jo^ Baly dug up or made 
a deep ditch or dyke thru these 4 gross comons y® same Eliz. 
Forster directing them where to cut throu these 4 gross comons 
much in y® middle of them & then declared & affirmed to John 
Baly y* all ye land lying west of ye corporation dike was her 
land. When her wicked designing intentions came to my ear, 
well was not of a long time after, I writ to ye jurymen of St 
Mary's parish to go dovm to Stonehill & set out ye true bounds 
of Church lands to which they all v^Uingiy consented whose 
names were thus, for St Mary's Homage for Michaelmas Coui-t 
1739 [Here follow the 13 names] All ,these jurymen I 
accompanied to Stone hill myseK w*^ Edw* Speechly ab* 75 
years & Jo^ James ab<^ 70 years old who perfectly knew the 
bounds of ye Church land, who unanimously all affinn y* all ye 
land on y® west of ye Corporation Cutt belonged to ye Churches 



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FINLAND Notes and Queries. 9 

in Whittlesea at least to one of y' & y* ye s<* last named old men 
Edwd Speechly and Jo» James remembered y* matter perfectly 
well ever since y« gross comons were taken in W" the parishioners 
assigned & gave these 4 gross comons to Mr. Ric Mason y« vicar 
then. Now considering the base usage y* y^ s* grose comons 
have had fro ye family Those Forsters, Toz. Forster digging up 
ye way at y^Bast end leading into y® land y* no man might hold 
yc land but himself and fiUing up y« Dike at y« West end & so 
claiming it to his own land : Bliz. Forster being ye cause of having 
y« Corporation Dyke made in ye midst of ye 4 comons & so 
depriving me of any way to ye west part of ye land C^ throu ye 
river for these reasons I advise my success' whoev' y* may be 
to take ye land from y*' Forsters [a line erased.] I afiirm all 
this to be true f r5 my own experience over and over. Nov. 19. 
1739 Tho. Topping Vic' 

On the next leaf of the register is an extract from the will of 
Mary Foster, who left iu 1766 " the sum of one hundred pounds 
in plate to be used in the parish church," and underneath this is 
written a receipt for £110 Is. 8d., and signed Edward Darville. 

3.— The Apostles' Coats at" Holbeach.— An inventory " of 
the stufife " sold from Holbeach church in 1 543 includes the items 
of " Harod^s coate xviii d " and " all the AjposiyVs coats and other 
raggs^ viiis. iiiidy I am at a loss to understand these items, 
unless it is meant that some portions of the Apostles' garments 
were preserved here as relics. But how about Herod's coat ? 

E.G.A., Holbeach. 

4.— Fenland Briefs.— The following are a few collections 
under briefs referring to places in the Fenland : — 

SamersTuim. — At S. Andrew's Church, Whittlesea: 1669, 23rd Jan. 
Toward the releife of the distressed people of Somersham..,13«. 9^, 

Kesteven. — ^At Marholm Church (Norths.): 1670 for great Food 
[flood] in ye parts of Kesteven in Lincolnshire 1. 8. 

Littleport. — At Woodstone Church (Hunts.) : 1707 24 Aug. Littleport's 
brief 22Jd. 

SoJuim.— At Elton Church (Hunts.) : 1698. 12. March For Soham 
in Cambridgeshire 0. 4. 0. 

My.— At Elton Church (Hunts.) : 1702. Oct. For a Fire at ye Citty 
of Ely 0. 5. 2 



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10 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

The following are from the register at Castor Church (Northants.) 

EUrvorth. — March y® 5th 169^3 for Elsworth in Cambridge- 
shire 00. 09. 00 

Soha/in, — March ye 14:th 1696-7 for Soham in Cambridg- 

shire 00. 04. 00 

My.—Se^ 14. 1701 for Ely Cathedral 00. 05. 04 ob 

jE^^y.— Dec 20 1702 for Ely Aire [fire] 0. 6. 4 

Borough Fm. — May 28. 1704 for Jacob Veney of Boroug fenn upon 
a letter of request 12. 9 

5. —Lord Orford's Voyage Eound the Pens.— A newspaper 
extract from the Live Stock Journal, but undated, professes to 
give a review of a curious little book which has been reprinted 
for private circulation with this title, "Lord Orford's Voyage 
Bound the Fens." The newspaper extract says : — 

It is a record of incidents that occurred during the month of July, 
1774. Lord Orford, an experienced agriculturist, chaUenged 
Lord Sandwich to meet him on Whittlesey Mere, and to cruise 
about for four weeks, living on board their boats. Lord Orford 
started from Brandon, and made his way by water to Peter- 
borough, Huntingdon, and Ramsey. His Lordship says very 
little in his diary about the breeding of animals, but is particularly 
severe upon the inhabitants of the fens, especially the females. 
For instance, at Outwell he wrote, " Women very ngly ; of Dutch 
extraction ; " whilst he credits the population of Ramsey with 
a French origin. All he says about the cattle is, "The oxen very 
big ; the cows and cattle come to stare at us ; large and fine." 
He found the crops to consist of "barley, mustard, and hemp." 
Lord Orford and Lord Sandwich deserted their boats and went 
to Spalding races in a post-chaise, one pau' of horses doing the 
journey there and back, which he estimated at forty miles. 
When the boats had a chance they sailed, but the usual mode of 
progress from Nordelf to March was by the help of a fen horse 
caUed "Hippopotamus," whose pluck and lasting powers received 
frequent commendation. Some of the " stories " are rather " big." 
Lord Orford declares that more than one man who went down 
to the boats was "warted round the eyes like a carrier pigeon." 

J. T. M., Spalding. 

6.— Description of the Fens in 1613.— Michael Drayton was 
an antiquarian who lived at the close of the 16th and in the early 
part of the 17th centuries. His work, " Poly-Olbion," professes to 
give in the form of a poem "A Chorographicall description of 



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Fenlakd Notes and Quebies, H 

Tracts, Riuers, Mountaines, Forests, and other parts of this 
renowned Isle of Great Britaine, with intermixture of the most 
remarkable stories, antiquities, wonders, rarityes, pleasures, and 
commodities of the same." The following extracts refer to the 
Fenland, and will be interesting as describing the condition of the 
district immediately before Vermuyden came : — 

THE AEaUMBNT. 

Towards Lincolnshire our jprogrese layd. 
Wee through deepe HoUcmds Ditches made, 
Fowling <md Fishing in the Fen; 
Then ccume wee riext to Kestivsn 
And bringing Wytham to lier fall. 
On lAnds&g light wee last of all. 
Her scite and Pleasures to att&nd, 
And with tlie Isle of Axholme end, 

diSiWinto ^^^ ^^ yP^^ *^y earth, rich Lincolnshire I straine 
two parts, At Deeping from whose street, the plentious Ditches draine, 
Snd th?'®'" Hemp-bearing Hollands Fen, at Spalding that doe fall 
Thf L'ei th To^®*^®^ ^^ t^eir Course, themselves as emptying all 
of Holland Into one Generall Sewer, which seemeth to diuide, 
Bhore^f?^ ^'^"^ Holland from the High, which on their Easteme side 
the coast of Th' in-bending Ocean holds, from the Norfolcean lands. 
wafnfl^t!° I'o their Northern poynt, where Wainfleet drifted stands 
Doe shoulder out those Seas, and Lindsey bids her stay, 
Because to that faire part, a challenge she doth lay. 
From Fast and firmer Earth, whereas the Muse of late 
Trod with a steady foot, now with a slower gate, 
Son o?th?^T^<^^o^ Quicksands, Beach, & Ouse, the Washes she must wade, 
Washes, Where Neptune every day doth powerfully inuade. 

The vast and queachy soyle, with Hosts of wallowing waues 
From whose impetuous force, that who himselfe not saves 
By swift and sudden flight, is swallowed by the deepe, 
When from the wrathfull Tydes the foming Surges sweepe. 
The sands which lay all nak'd, to the wide heaven before, 
And turneth all to Sea, which was but lately Shore, 
From this our Southerene part of Holland, cal'd the Low 
Where Crowlands mines yet, (though almost buried) show 
Her mighty Founders power, yet his more Christian zeale, 
Shee by the Muses ayd, shall happily reueale 
Her sundry sorts of Fowle, from whose abundance she 
Above all other Tracts, may boast herself to be 
The Mistriss, (and indeed) to sit without compare 
And for no worthless soyle, should in her glory share 
From her moyst seal of Flags, of Bulrushes, & Reed, 
With her just proper praise thus Holland doth proceed. 
Hollands Yee Acherusian Fens, to mine resigne your glory 

Oration. ^^^^ ^^^ which lies within the goodly Territory 
Of Naples, as that Fen Thesposia's earth vpon. 
Whence that infemaU Flood, the smutted acheron 
Shoues forth her suUen head, as thou most fatall fen 
Of which Hetruria tells, the watry Thiaaimen, 



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12 



Fbnlahb Notes asj) Qubeies. 



A Njnnph 
supposed to 
have the 
charge of 
the shore. 

Fuell cut out 
of the 
Marshes. 

Brookes' and 
Pooles worne 
by the water 
into which 
the rising 
floods have 
recourse. 



The word in 
Falconry for 
a company 
of Teale. 



In History although thou highly seemest to boast 

That HanibaU by thee o'rthrew the Eoman Host. 

I scome th' Egyptian Fen, which Alexandria showes 

Proud Mariotis' should my mightinesse oppose, 

Or Scythia, on whose face the Sunne doth hardly shine 

Should her Meotis thinke to match with this of mine 

That coured all with snow continually doth stand. 

I stinking Lema hate, and the poor Libian Sand 

Marica that wise Nymph, to whom great Neptune gave, 

The charge of all his shores, from drowning them to saue 

Abideth with me still vpon my seruice prest 

And leaves the looser Nymphs to wayt vpon the rest, 

In Sununer giuing Earth from which I sqare my Peat, 

And faster feedings by, for Deere, for Horse, & Neat, 

My various Fleets for Fowle, who is he can tell, 

The speecies that in me for multitudes excell I 

The Duck and Mallard first, the Falconers only sport 

(Of Kiuer-flights the chiefe, so that all other sort, 

They only Greene-Fowle tearme) in euery Mere abound. 

That you would thinke they sate vpon the very ground. 

Their numbers be so great, the waters couering quite 

That rais'd, the spacious ayre is darkened with their flight ; 

Yet stiU the Dangerous Dykes, from shot doe them secure, 

Where thy from Flesh to Feast, like the full epicure 

Waft as they cou'd to change their Diet euery meale ; 

And neere to them ye see the lesser dibling Teale 

In Bunches, with the first that flie from Mere to Mere 

As they aboue the' rest were Lords of Earth and Ayre. 

The Gossander with them, my goodly Fennes doe show 

His head as Ebon blacke, the rest as white as Snow, 

With whom the Widgeon goes, the golden eye, the Smeath, 

And in odde scattred pits, the Flags & Reeds beneath ; 

The cool, bald, else cleane black, that white nesse it doth beare 

Vpon the forehead star'd, the Water-Hen doth weare 

Vpon her little Tayle, in one small feather set. 

The water- woosell next, all ouer black as Jeat, 

With various colours, black, greene, blewe, red, russett, white, 

Doe yeeld the gazing eye as variable delight, 

As doe those sundry Fowles, whose seueral pliunes they be. 

The diving Dob-chick, here among the rest you see 

Now vp now downe againe, that hard it is to prooue. 

Whether vnder water most it liueth or aboue : 

With which last little Fowle (that water may not lacke; 

More than the Dob-chick doth, and more doth loue the *brack) 

The lufiin we compare, which coming to the dish, 

Nice pallats hardly iudge, if it be flesh or fish. 

But wherefore should I stand vpon such toyes as these, 
That haue so goodly Fowles, the wandring eye to please 
Here in my vaster Pooles, as white as snow or milke 
(In water blacke as Stix) swimmes the wild Swanne, the like, 
Of Hollanders so tearm'd, no niggard of his breath, 
(As poets say of Swannes, which onely sing in Death) 
But oft as other birds, is heard his tunnes to roat. 
Which like a trumpet comes, from his long arched throat. 
And toVrds this watry kind, about the Flashes brinune 
Some clouen-footed are, by nature not to swimme. 
There stalks the stately Crane, as though he marched in wane 
By him that hath the home, which (by the Fishy carre) 



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Pbnland Notes and Queeibs. 13 



Can fetch with their long necks, out of the Rush & Beed, 

Lings, Fry, & yellow Frogs, whereon they often feed : 

And vnder them againe (that water neuer take 

But by some Ditches side, or little shallow Lake 

Lye dabbling night & day) the pallat-pleasing Snite 

The Bidcocke and like him, the Redshanke, that delight 

Together still to be, in some small Reedy bed, 

In which these little Fowles in Summers time were bred. 

The Buzzing Bitter sits, which through his hollow Bill 

A sudden bellowing sends, which many times doth fill 

The neighbourirg Marsh with noyse, as though a Bull did roare ; 

But scarcely haue I yet recited haLfe my store : 

And with my wondrous flocks of wild-geese came I then 

Which look as though alone they peopled all the Fen 

Which here in winter time when all is ouerflow'd 

And want of solid sward inf orceth them abroad 

Th* abundance then is scene, that my full Fennes doe yeeld, 

That almost through the Isle, do pester euery field. 

The Barnacles with them, which wheresoere they breed. 

On Trees or rotten Ships, yet to my Fennes for feed. 

Continually they come, and chief abode doe make 

And very hardly forc'd my plenty to forsake : 

Who almost all this kind doe challange as mine owne 

Whose like I dare auerre, is elsewhere hardly knowne 

For sure vnlesse in me, no one yet euer saw 

The multitudes of f owle, in Morting time they draw : 

From which to many a one, much profit doth accrue. 

Now such as flying feed, next these I must pursue ; 
The Sea-meaw, Sea-pye, Gull, & Curlew heere doe keepe 
As searching euery Shole, & watching euery deepe 
To find the floating Fry, with their sharpe-pearcing sight 
Which suddenly they take, by stouping from their height. 
The Cormorant then comes, (by his deuouring kind) 
Which flying o'er the Fen, imediately doth find. 
The Fleet best stor'd of Fish, when from his wings at full, 
As though he shot himselfe into the thickned skull, 
He vnder water goes, and so the shoale pursues 
Which into Creeks doe fly, when quickly he doth chuse 
The Fin that likes him best, and rising flying feeds. 
The Ospray oft here scene, though seldom here it breeds 
Which ouer them the fish no sooner doe espie 
But (betwixt him and them, by an antipathy) 
Turning their bellies vp, as though their death they saw, 
They at his pleasure lye to stuffe his glutt'nous maw. 
S*tSpe?SI2 ^*^® toyling Fisher here is tewing of his Net : 
The Fowler is employd his lymed twigs to set. 
One vndemeath his Horse, to get a shoote doth stalke ; 
Another ouer Dykes vpon his stilts doth walke : 
These Men with their spades, the Peats are squaring out. 
And others from their carres are busily about, 
To draw out sedge & reed, for Thatch & Stour git 
That whosouer would a LandsMp rightly bit 
Beholding but my Fennes, shall with more shapes be stofd 
Then Germany or France, or Thuscan can afford 
And for that part of me, which men High Holland call. 
Where Boston seated is by plenteous Wytham's fall 
I peremptory am, large Neptunes liquid field 
Doth to no other tract the like aboundance yeeld. 



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14 Fenland Notes and Queries. 



Kestiuen's When Kestiven this while that certainly had thought 
^ *^^ Her tongue would ne'er haue stopt, quoth shee O how I hate 
Thus of her Foggy Fennes, to heare rude Holland prate 
That with her Fish and Fowle, here keepeth such a coyle 
As her vnwholesome ayre, and more vnwholesome soyle 
For these of which shee boasts, the more might suffred be ; 
When those her feathered flocks she sends not out to me, 
Wherein cleare Witham they, & many a littie Brooke 
(In which the sunne itself may well be proud to looke) 
Haue made their flesh more sweet by my refined food 
From that so ramish tast of her most fulsome mud 
When the toyld Cater home them to the Kitchen brings 
The Cooke doth cast them out, as most unsauoury things. 
Besides, what is she else, but a foule woosie marsh 
And that she calls her grasse, so blady is &c harsh 
As cuts the cattels mouths, constrained thereon to feed 
So that my poorest trash, which mine call Kush & Reed 
For litter scarcely fit, that to the dung I throw 
Doth like the penny grasse, or the pure Clouer show 
Compared with her best : and for her sundry fish 
Of which shee freely boasts, to furnish euery dish, 
Did not full Neptunes fields so furnish her with store 
Those in the ditches bred, within her muddy Moore 
Are of so earthy taste, as that the Ravenous Crow 
Will rather starue thereon her stomach then bestow. 

7. —The Fellowes Family.—The founder of the Fellowes 
family in the Fens was Coulson Fellowes, son of William Fellowes, 
of London, and nephew of Thomas Coulson, one of the East 
India Directors. He was born on October 12fch, 169G, and 
married Urania, daughter of Francis OaMey, of Oakley Park, 
Salop, and sister to Henry Arthur, Earl of Powis. He purchased 
Park Place, near St. Ives, and soon afterwards Eamsey Abbey. 

The heir of Coulson Fellowes was William Fellowes, who was 
probably born soon after the removal of the family to Eamsey. 
In 1768 he married Lavinia, daughter and co-heir of James 
Smith, of St. Andrew's, Somersetshire. He represented Sudbury 
and Andover in Parliament for several years, and was High 
Sheriff for Huntingdonshire in 1779. 

His son, William Henry Fellowes, was born at Ramsey, on 
15th July, 1769, and married on July 23rd, 1804, Emma, 
daughter of Eichard Benyon, Esq., of Englefield House, Berk- 
shire. He represented Huntingdonshire in Parliament for many 
years. 

The eldest son of the above having died, he was succeeded by 



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FENLAim Notes and Quebibs. 15 

his second son Edward Fellowes, who was bom in 1809, and 
sncceeded his father in 1837. He married July 2nd, 1845, the 
Hon. Mary Julia Milles, eldest daughter of the late Lord Sondes, 
and sister of the present Earl. In 1887, the Jubilee year of 
Queen Victoria, he was elevated to a peerage, but was on his 
deathbed at the time. He died at the town residence of the family 
3, Belgrave Square, in August of that year. He left two sons and 
one daughter. William Henry, who succeeded to the peerage, and 
is the present Baron de Ramsey, Ailwyn Edward, and the Hon. 
Mrs. Whatley. 

The present Lord de Ramsey married on 12th July, 1877, 
Lady Rosamond Jane Francis Spencer Churchill, second daugh*: er 
of the late Duke of Marlborough, and he represented the County 
of Huntingdonshire in Parliament for several years prior to 
taking his seat in the House of Peers. His younger brother the 
Hon. Ailwyn Fellowes, is now one of the county representatives 
in Parliament. 

Ramsey Abbey, the home of the Fellowes, is one of the 
most interestmg historical spots in the Fens. For 600 years it 
was the home of a body of learned Benedictines. Its foundation was 
miraculous. The pious monks collected here a magnificent collection 
of books and valuable manuscripts. It was said to be the most 
valuable library in England. The building too was one of the 
grandest piles in the Fen country. Such was the magnificence of 
Ramsey at that time that in an old doggrell it was described as 
'* Ramsey y^ Riche." At the Reformation the magnificent library 
was scattered to the four winds of heaven ; vaulted nave and 
choir ceased to resound with the Divine praises, and the stately 
building fell into ruins. Its demesnes were granted to Sir Richard 
Cromwell, whose son rebuilt a manor house out of the ruins. In 
1674 it was sold by the representatives of this family to Titus 
Salt, the authur of " Killing no Murder." In 1703 he bequeathed 
the manor to his wife and two daughters. Catherine, the eldest 
of these, bequeathed it with an estate of £2,000 to her servants, 
from whom Coulson Fellowes purchased it in 1736 or 1737. 

The estates of the Fellowes include 15,629 acres in Hunting- 



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Jg Fenland Notes and Queries. 

denshire, 4,083 in Norfolk, and 309 in Cambridgeshire, making a 
total of 20,021, 

8 —A Folklore Legend of March.— Some of the old Fenland 
Legends are very quaint, and if they could be gathered together they 
would make a curious and unique collection. Some old residents 
have got these Legends stored up in their mmds as valuable pieces 
of history concerning the locality in which they reside. Many 
similar ones have no doubt been lost to posterity in consequence 
of the continuity of the tradition having been lost, and of the 
contempt with which local historians of a previous age used to 
regard such things, but that is all the stronger reason why efforts 
should be made to preserve those which yet remain. Some of 
them are ahnost beautiful in their conception, while others are 
equally quaint. What their origin may have been I will leave 
others to discuss. But about 40 years ago I was living at 
Wisbech and my business frequently took me to March. I then, 
heard from the old people of March a curious story which 
deserves to be preserved from oblivion. The old Legend told how 
the people of March in the 13th century endeavoured to build 
a church on the site where the present cross stands, but the devils 
were utterly opposed to the proposal. They considered the 
fenland was especially theirs, and they opposed with might and 
main the building of churches and the founding of monasteries. 
As fast as the people of March dug their foundations and built 
their church the devils came and pulled the work down. The 
masonry which the builders put up in the day time was destroyed 
in the night by the devils. This conflict lasted for some years, 
when the March people, not to be beaten, set up the stone crucifix 
as an object of terror to the devils. It succeeded in its object. 
The devils left the town, and that is how the cross came to occupy 
its present position, which no doubt would have been the better 
site for the church. J. L. Blake. 

9.— Defoe's Visi|j to Lynn and the Isle of Ely.— Daniel 
Defoe published in 1724 " A Tour through the whole Island of 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 17 

Great Britain," and the following extracts from the first volume 
describe his visit to Lynn and the Isle of Ely in 1722 : — 

From hence [Walsingham] we went to Lynn, another rich and 
poptQons thriving port town. It stands on more ground than 
the town of Yarmouth, and has, I think, parishes, yet I cannot 
aUow that it has more people than Yarmouth, if so many. 
It is a beautiful, well built, and well situated town, at the 
mouth of the river Ouse, and has this particular attending it, 
which gives a vast advantage in trade, namely, that there is the 
' greatest extent of inland navigation here of any port in 
England, London excepted. The reason whereof is this, that 
there are more navigable rivers empty themselves here into the 
sea, including the washes, which are branches of the same port, 
than at any one mouth of waters in England, except the 
Thames and the Humber. By these navigable rivers, the mer- 
chants of Lynn supply about six counties wholly and three 
counties in part, with their goods, especially wine and coals, 
viz,, by the little Ouse they send their goods to Brandon and 
Thetford, by the lake to Mildenhall, Barton Mills, and St. 
Edmundsbury ; by the river Grant to Cambridge, by the great 
Ouse itself to Ely, to St. Ives, to St. Neots, to Barford Bridge, 
and to Bedford; by the river Nyne to Peterborough; by the 
drains and washes to Wisbeach, to Spalding, Market Deeping, 
and Stamford; besides the several counties into which these 
goods are carried by land-carriage from the places where the 
navigation of those rivers end; which has given rise to this 
observation on the town of Lynn, that they bring in more coals 
than any seaport between London and Newcastle ; and import 
more wines than any port in England, except London and 
Bristol; their trade to Norway and to the Baltic Sea is also 
great in proportion, and of late years they have extended their 
trade further to the southward. 

Here are many gentry, and consequently is more gaiety in this town 
than in Yarmouth, or even in Norwich itself — the place abound- 
ing in very good company. 

The situation of this town renders it capable of being made very 
strong, and in the late wars it was so ; a line of fortification 
being drawn round it at a distance from the walls ; the ruins, or 
rather remains of which works appear very fair to this day ; 
nor would it be a hard matter to restore the bastions, with the 
ravelins, and counterscarps, upon any sudden emergency, to a 
good state of defence: and that in a little time a sufficient 
number of workmen being employed, especially because they 
are able to fill all their ditches with water from the sea, in such 
a manner as that it cannot be drawn off. 



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18 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

There is in the Market place of this town a very fine statue of King 
William on horseback, erected at the charge of the town. The 
Ouse is mightly large and deep, close to the very town itself, 
and ships of good burthen may come up to the quay ; but there 
is no bridge, the stream being too strong, and the bottom 
moorish and unsound ; nor for the same reason is the anchorage 
computed the best in the world ; but there are good roads 
farther down. 

They pass over here into the fen country, and over the famous 
marshes into Lincolnshire, but the passage is very dangerous 
and uneasy, and where passengers often miscarry and are lost ; 
but then it is usually on their venturing at improper times, and 
without the guides^ which if they would be persuaded not to do, 
they would very rarely fail of going and coming safe. 

From Lynn I bent my course to Downham, where is an ugly wooden 
bridge over the Ouse ; from whence we passed the fen country 
to Wisbeach, but saw nothing that way to tempt our curiosity 
but deep roads, innumerable drains and dykes of water, all 
navigable, and a red soil, the land bearing a vast quantity of 
good hemp, but a base unwholesome air ; so we came back to 
Ely, whose cathedral standing in a level peat country, is seen 
far and wide, and of which town when the minster, so they call 
it, is described, everything remarkable is said that there is room 
to say, and of the minster this is the most remarkable thing 
that I could hear, namely, that some of it is so ancient, 
totters so much with every gust of wind, looks so like a decay, 
and seems so near it, that whenever it does fall, all that it is 
likely will be thought strange in it will be that it did not fall a 
hundred years sooner. 

As my business is not to lay out the geographical situation of places, 
I say nothing of the buttings and boundings of this county 
[Cambridgeshire.] It lies on the edge of the great level, called 
by the people here, the fen country; and great part, if not aU, the 

Isle of Ely lies in this county and Norfolk As we 

descended westwood we saw the fen country on our right, almost 
all covered with water like a sea, the Michaelmas rains having been 
very great that year, they had sent down great floods of water 
from the upland countries, and those fens being, as may be very 
properly said, the work of no less than thirteen counties — that is 
to say, that all the water, or most part of the water, of thirteen 
counties fall into them ; they are often thus overflowed. The 
rivers which thus empty themselves into these fens, and which 
thus carry off the water, are the Cam or Grant, the great Ouse, 
the little Ouse, the Nene, the Welland, and the river which runs 
from Bury to Mildenhall. The counties which these rivers 
drain, as above, are as follows : — 



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Fenlajto Notes and Qitebies. 19 

Lincoln Warwick Norfolk 

♦Cambridge Oxford Suffolk 

♦Huntingdon Leicester Essex 

♦Bedford ♦Northampton 

Buckingham ♦Rutland 

Those marked with (♦) empty all their waters this way, the rest but 
in part. In a word, all the water of the middle part of England 
which does not run into the Thames or the Trent comes down 
into these fens. 

In these fens are abundance of those admirable pieces of art called 
decoys, that is to say, places so adapted for the harbour and 
shelter of wild fowl, and then furnished with a breed of those 
they call decoy ducks, who are taught to allure and entice their 
kind to the places they belong to, that it is incredible what 
quantities of wild fowl of all sorts, duck, mallard, teal, widgeon, 
&c., they take in those decoys every week during the season ; it 
may indeed be guessed at a little of this, that there is a decoy 
not far from Ely which pays to the landlord, Sir Thomas Hare, 
£500 a year rent, besides the charge of maintaining a great 
number of servants for the management ; and from which decoy 
alone, they assured me at St. Ives (a town on the Ouse, where 
the fowl they took was always brought to be sent to London) 
they generally sent up three thousand couple a week. 

There are more of these about Peterboro', who send the fowl up 
twice a week in wagon loads at a time, whose waggons before 
the late Act of Parliament to regulate carriers, I have seen 
drawn by ten or twelve horses a-piece, they were laden so 
heavy. 

As these fens appear covered with water, so I observed too, that they 
generally at this latter part of the year appear also covered 
with fogs, so that when the downs and higher grounds of the 
adjacent country were gUden with the beams of the sun, the 
Isle of Ely looked as if wrapped up in blankets, and nothing 
to be seen but now and then the lantern or cupola of Ely 
Minster. 

One could hardly see this from the hiUs and* not pity the many 
thousands of families that were bound to be confined in those 
fogs, and had no other breath to draw thail what must be mixed 
with those vapours, and that steam which so universally over- 
spreads the country. But notwithstanding this, the people, 
especially those that are used to it, live unconcerned, and as 
healthy as other folks, except now and then an ague, which they 
make light of, and there are great numbers of very ancient 
people among them. 

10.— Wisbech Castle and its Prisoners.— This is a page in 
local history which has not received the attention from local 



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20 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

historians which it deserves. The accounts of the castle are very 
meagre, and, although it is well known that, in the 16th and early 
part of the 17bh century, it was used as a prison for State offenders 
there is little or no record of who those prisoners were, or what 
were their offences. It is probable that many of them were 
detained for life, and dying there were buried in Wisbech. Messrs* 
Walker and Craddock, in their excellent " History of Wisbech and 
the Fens," give a list of the constables and a few particulars about 
them, but a list of the State prisoners would be equally interesting. 
A few names are included in Messrs, Walker and Craddock's 
work, but they are very few indeed. The only names mentioned 
by them are Watson, Bishop of Lincoln, who died at Wisbech in 
1587, Father Weston, Robert Gatesby, and Francis Tresham. 

A. P., Wisbech. 

11.— The Pancake Bell at Ramsey.— On Shrove Tuesday 
the custom of ringing the Pancake Bell was revived at Ramsey 
this year, and I see by a notice of the circumstance in a local 
newspaper that a peal was afterwards rung in honour of the day. 
This latter part is difficult to understand. The ringing a bell on 
Shrove Tuesday had its origin in summoning the people to church 
for the purpose of being shriven. It was the ancient custom for 
all Christians to get shriven on Shrove Tuesday, in order that they 
might be " in a state of Grace and their penances and fasting 
during Lent the more acceptable to God." When the meaning for 
ringing the bell on Shrove Tuesday had ceased to exist, the bell 
in many places was continued to be rung, and it was then used as 
an indication when the pancake reveky should commence. Taylor 
says that the orthodox time for commencing was 11 o'clock, but 
<' with the aid of a knavish sexton " the bell was commonly rung 
before 9 in the morning. " At the sound of the bell," he con- 
tinues, " thousands of people became distracted and forgetful either 
of manners or of humanitie." The first pancake was given to 
the latest riser, hence the couplet :— 

Maids, fritters and pancakes inough see ye make, 
Let slut have one pancake for companie's sake. 



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Fenland Notes and Qtjeribs. 21 

At Peterborough (St. John's) the pancake bell has continuously 
been rung. 

12.~A Vow of Chastity at Doddingtonin l393."-Fo8broke 
says, in his British Monachism, 3rd Edit., 363-4 : — 

Bpiphanius and other Fathers mention husbands who lived apart 

from their wives, and wives from their husbands, 

Among us men and their wives took them when growing old ; 
and certain hospitals required these vows before admission. The 
most common vow was, however, that of widowers and widows 
to observe chastity in honor of their deceased wives or hus- 
bands. These widows were called Viduce pullatae (from the 
habit), or. as they may be termed, Toov/rning widows^ .... 
These vows amongst us are very ancient. Gildas mentions 
Cuneglass's wife's sister, a widow who had made a vow of 
chastity. The anglo Saxon women also made them, and the 
women wore a ring and russet gown. The Bishop of the diocese 
issued a commission; and besides of observing the vow, the 
widow was for life to wear a veil and a mourning habit. Both 
were duly consecrated. The veil was put on by the priest, but 
the ring only was sufficient, whether they took the veil or habit 
or not. 

The following is the ceremonial of making a vow of this kind 
by a widow- 
is March, 1393. — Lady Blanch, relict of Sir Nicholas Styvede, Knt., 
alledging that she was a parishioner of John, Lord Bishop of Ely, 
humbly supplicated the said Bishop that he would think worthy 
to accept her vow of chastity, and from consideration of regard, 
confer upon her the mantle and ring, &c., and afterwards the 
said Lady Blanch, in the chapel of the Manor of Dodyngton, in the 
diocese of Ely, before the high altar, in the presence of the said 
reverend father then and there solemnly celebrating Mass, made 
solemnly her vow of chastity as follows in these words : — 
I, Blanch, heretofore wife of Sir Nicholas de Styvede, Knt., vow 
to God, and to our holy Lady St. Mary, and aU Saints, in presence 
of our reverend father in God, John, by the grace of God, 
Bishop of Ely, that I vtIU be chaste from henceforth during my 
life. And the said reverend Father received her vow, and 
solemnly consecrated and put upon the said vowess the mantle 
and ring in the presence of, &c. One of the witnesses is a 
notary public. 

13.— Making the G.N. Bailway across the Fen. I was 
travelling on the G.N. Railway one day, and when near Holme, 



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22 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

I spoke to an old man who sat in one corner of the carriage, and who 
had got in at Holme station. After speaking about the extent of 
Whittlesey Mere, the old man said : " I mind the time well, sir, 
when they made this line across the fen. The mere did not come 
within a quarter-of-a-mile of it, but the fen here was like a sponge. 
They raised this railway bank under great difficulty, long planks 
of wood were laid on the fen, and if one of the workmen stepped 
off the plank he used to slip up to his middle in the bog and had 
to be helped out. The draining of the lake made a great differ- 
ence to the Fenland here." 

J. F. 

1 4. -John Holder, of Soham Mere.— Some curious particulars 
about John Helder, who was born on the 17th of December, 
1797, in the immediate vicinity of Soham mere, were given by 
Mr. J. 0. Woods in the Antiquary for November, 1888. The 
circumstances were taken from an old MS. which had been kept, 
after the first 50 pages, in journal form by Mr. Helder himself, and 
which was found in the library of a dissenting minister of the 
Fenland. The greater part of the journal was taken up with 
circumstances concerning Holder's spiritual life. He appears to 
have been a farmer and a general man of business, but of con- 
siderable education, as his correct orthography, fine caligraphy, 
and style of composition sufficiently testify. He was of cultiva- 
ted and even erudite tastes, judging from the books he speaks of 
as reading. In May, 1724, he was married to " a young woman, 
who, before unknown, had appeared to him in a vision during a 
dangerous illness in the previous year." During that illness he 
renounced "carding and dicing, dancing and reading ungodly 
ballads, unchaste songs, and lascivious discourses in play books," 
in which he had much delighted. At the same time, also, he 
appears to have left the Church of England and became associated 
with the Independents. On this account he offended his relatives, 
particularly an uncle, who however relented on his death bed and 
left him his estate. In 1758 he was made a " Commissioner for 
Ely and Soham Levell in Middle Fen, etc., being encouraged to 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 23 

undertake and go through this business by the hopes and prospects 
of being serviceable to the poor inhabitants of these drownded 
parishes by helping them to much worke, which, with an increase 
of wages, will better maintain their Families, lately distressed by 
dearness and scarcity of Provisions, and by hopes of seeing the 
readiness of the Landowners to raise and lay out their money 
repaid with double interest." He himself had bitter experience 
of Soham "Meer " in relation to " these poor drownded parishes," 
for once he was overtaken by a storm when crossing it in a little 
open boat, with a small sail set, and was himself nearly drowned. 
On another occasion, in Dec, 1747, there being a great flood, he 
sent his son with other neighbours to fetch home the horses out 
of Beach Fen and in crossing the " oharn " in a boat with three 
horses, a rapid stream drove the sheets of ice against the boat, so 
that his son and two of the horses fell overboard, and the former 
was barely rescued. In February, 1745-6, "the wind lying 
north ekst, and blowing very hard brought the water against the 
Meer bank, and raised it higher than I have ever seen it before, 
and kept it rising so much as made me believe y® Meer was in 
danger of being drowned : y® bank then was very dry and con- 
sequently light, and upon a break of a frost not so solid as usual. 
The wind increased in the night and was very stormy. I got up 
soon after two of y® clock in y® morning and took my Bible to 
read in as usual before going out .... I knew if f Meer 
was drounded it w^ be a great loss to L*^ Townsend to my neigh- 
bours and to myself." But the " Meer " was all right. He lost a 
little son in 1728, and his wife in 1735, but had at least two 
other children, a son and a daughter — the former predeceased him 
and the latter is referred to as being at a boarding school at 
Ipswich. He never re-married, although in 1754 the world 
raised many reports against him concerning " a young woman 
who dearly and truly loved him and whom also he loved right 
well ; but God knew, he did not know, whether she were a 
true woman or not." He appears to have suffered many losses, 
and especially refers to a distemper raging amongst the cattle, 
which, in 1748, carried off all his save one. When the Norfolk 



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: 24 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

Mail was robbed in January, 1748-9, he was very uneasy about 
two drafts therein for £150 ; payment however was stopped, and 
fresh drafts- were subsequently sent him and paid in due course. 
For many years he was an invalid, and when only 38 years of age, 
he thus summarizes the accidents which had befallen him. 

i Twice was I left in the water helpless and one minute's time longer 

would very likely have put an end to my life : my head has been 
broken at six severaU times and places, yet not by the hand of 
man, but by faUs and by cattle and other strange accidents. I 
have had three violent blows on the mouth, one of them by a 
Earn, and two by horses, by which some of my teeth were 
broken and others loosened, and my speech much hindered : I 
have very often had great deliverances from danger by waggons 
and carts, also by horses and other cattle, and by theives and 
other enemies and by violent tempests. 

He enumerates many meditations, &c., which he wrote, but 
it is probable they were never printed. The following entries are 
also worth quoting : — 

June ye 8th, 1727. — I being this day at Isleham, saw & heard the 
biggest tempest that ever hapned in my memory, and which 
much damaged a house there, and terrifyed and confounded the 
ungodly for the present. 

i Sep. 8th, 1727.— On this day hapned a very dismial fire at Burwell, 

) whereby was 80 persons burnt to death. I was not present, but 

\ saw it at four or five miles distance, at about 10 of y® clock in 

the evening, and though my body was absent, yet my soul did 
sympathise and was present with them that were then aflSicted.* 

1st Dec, 1747. — There was a violent storm of wind & snow from the 
North w^^ did a great deal of damage about three in the after- 
noon About two hours after I was informed by one 

of our men of the great distress they had been under at ye Three 
Mills by ye Wind turning into ye North suddenly, the sail cloths 
being frozen and could not be roUed up, and the Mills aU like to 
be torn in pieces ; but by God's good Providence they were at 
last secur'd with little damage done to them. 

The last entry is dated December, 1764, when Mr, Holder 
would be 67 years of age. 

* An account of this fire, which happened in a barn duriug a puppet she w, was 
published by Flo. Gibbons in 1769. 



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F£NLAKD Notes and Qxtbribs. 25 

15.— renland Holmes.— All along the banks of the Ouse, 
especially from HuntiLgdon to Barith, are various small tracts 
of land called " holms." 

This is rather an interesting word to a fenman. It is 
variously traced to the Anglo-Saxon, Danish, Latin, and German, 
and means " a low, flat, tract of rich land on the banks of a river." 
The poet speaks of — 

The soft wind blowing over meadowy " holms." 

The word "holme" in Scandinavia was used to express a 
place surrounded by water ; and in a secondary sense, according 
to Mr. Furgusson, alluvial land by a river ; in which latter sense 
it mainly occurs in Cumberland and Westmoreland. In the 
former sense we may instance the Steep and[Flat Holmes in the 
river Severn, at Weston-super-Mare. 

The majority of Holmes were islands in the time of flood. 
Holme-on-Spalding Moor is an eminence in an ancient swamp. 
But in Huntingdonshire the name is generally applied to flat 
ground near the river. Harrison in his Description of England, 
p. 48, says, " Some call them the holmes because they lie low, and 
are good for nothing but grasse." 

The derivation of the word is now mostly accepted by 
etymologists as being of Anglo-Saxon source, signifying a river 
island — flat land lying along the river and occasionally flooded by 
its waters — hence the " Holmes " of Huntingdonshire. 

The Port-holme of Huntingdon is well known by reason of 
the annual racings held there. 

Whether the parish of Holme, some ten miles from Hunting- 
don, was named by the Saxon who may have settled there is, of 
course, uncertain. It is better to leave fanciful and apochryphal 
derivations to oblivion. It is true that the Anglo-Saxon meaning 
of the word is correctly applied to the " Holmes " on both banks 
lower down the river, in the parishes of Hemingford Grey and 
Houghton. 

At St. Ives the " Holmes " consist of a few fields near the 
Staunch and what is called the " Old Eiver," and in flow time are 
inundated. 



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26 FeNLAND NOTEg AND QUERIES. 

At Holywell one field adjoining the river sfcill retains the 
name of " Flagg-holme." This is rather an interesting compound 
word. It may mean that there was formerly some kind of signal 
by flags and harbour for boats at " Holywell," or that the district 
abounded with flag plants of the same species which are still 
plentiful. 

Flat-holme and Steep-holme are two small islands in the Severn. 
Axholme, Doonholme, Glenholme, Holmewood, and the proper 
names Holmes and Hume are further illustrations. Curious 
local names often upon investigation yield valuable historical 
information. 

Lewis, in his 2^o]pographical Dictionary, mentions the word 

Holm or Holme twenty-eight times, either as a simple name or in 

combination with other subordinates. It is very fairly distributed 

and the above comparatively large number shew it to be a popular 

name. 

Herbert E. Norris, St. Ives, Hunts. 

16.— Fenland Runaway Marriages.— The following extracts 
are from the Eunaway Marriage Registers of Haddington, pub- 
lished in Northern Notes and Qvsries, Vol. iii,, No. 12 : — 

1767 Aug 16 Nevil Goodman, Farmer, and Susannah Goodman, 

Spinster, both of Elm in the Isle of Ely, Co. 
Cambridge. W[itnesses] Jonathan Phillips, 
Bw. Bower. 

1769 March 22 Richard WignaU, Farmer, and Rachel Leroo, 
Spinster, both of Peterboro, co. Northampton. 
W[itnesses] Susannah Leroo, James Fairbaiifn, 
Barthew. Bower. 

1769 June 1 George Denshire, Esq., of All Saints, in Stamford, Co. 

Lincoln, Capt. in the 9th Regiment of Foot 
and Ann Brackenbury of Spilsby, same County, 
Spinster. 'W[itnesses] George Digby, Barthw. 
Bower. 

1774 Nov 25 John Jackson, of Godmanchester, Co. Huntingdon, 

Lieutenant of His Majesty's Marine Forces, 
and Sarah Paine of Stoke Damarel, Co. Devon, 
Spinster. Wptnesses] E. MaUett, Barthw. 
Bower, James Fairbairn, M. B. (?) Home. 



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Fbnland Notes and Quebibs. 27 

17.— Records of Finds, &c.— Mr. S. H. Miller, the author of 
Fmlandy writes as follows : — MskHj fiMs are made in the Fenland 
from time to time which are not fully known to the public. At 
all events the notes made of them are not permanently recorded, 
and Fenland Notes and Qu&iHes would afford the means of 
preserving the knowledge of such interesting records from being 
entirely lost to the future. Occasionally some notices are given in 
the newspapers, but these are not preserved except by a few 
perhaps, who take care of the cuttings. There is also much to be 
cleared up about certain phenomena in past ages, of finds of 
flints, pottery, coins, canoes, and a host of such things. The 
folklore, also, of the Fens, requires attention, especially with 
regard to local names, of rivers, fields, and roads, which are being 
changed in their character by railways, for instance, besides the 
loss of old landmarks by the process of cultivation, &o. 

18.— Whirlwind Cakes at Leverington— It is many years 

now since I was at Leverington, but I well remember that it used 

to be the custom at the feast then to make Whirlwind cakes. 

There was a curious old folklore legend attached to this custom. 

It was to the effect that while a certain old lady of Leverington 

was one day making cakes for the purpose of entertaining her 

guests at the feast, the devil came to her, and creating a whirlwind 

can'ied her off over the church steeple. In commemoration of this 

improbable event the custom had grown of making Whirlwind 

cakes. 

T. Laweence, The Grove, Hammersmith. 

1 9.— A Local Rhyme at Bownham.— In connection with St. 
Winnold's fair held here, the following rhyme is frequently 

heard : — 

First came David, then came Chad, 
Then came Winuold, blowing like mad. 

J. B., Peterborough. 

20.— Mumping Day at Chatteris.—The 21st day of Decem- 
ber has from time immemorial been known in Chatteris as 



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28 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

" mumping day," On that day old men and old women, and even 
young women, pass from house to house begging alms. A great 
many residents make a rule of giving a penny each to all 
" mumpers," others confine the gift to widows, and some, strangely, 
only acknowledge widowers. 

21 .—Earthquakes in the Fenland.--The following is a list of 
Earthquakes recorded as having taken place in the Fenland : — 

1048. In Lincolnshire, recorded in Historia IngulpM^ p. 64, Oxf. ed., 

1684. 
1117. Particularly felt in Holland (Line.) endangering and injuring 

Crowland Abbey. Ibid. p. 129. 
1185. Lincoln damaged. Bager Hoveden^ p. 359. 
1448. Shock felt in S. part of Lincolnshire. Ingul]^\ p. 526. 
1750. Shock attended by rumbling noise. Felt in Lincolnshire & 

Northamptonsbire. Chimneys fell — homesteads tottered. 

In Collection for a Topographical History of the Hundred 

of Aveland^ by John Moore. 
1792. Shock felt at Bourne and neighbourhood. 

S. H. Miller, Lowestoft. 



22.— Storm at Bourn in I800.-On Sunday, the 4th of May, 
1800, a memorable storm passed over the Fens, but was more 
severely felt at Bourn than elsewhere. In that parish alone no less 
than £700 worth of damage was done. Mr, Samuel Hopkinson, of 
Morton, near Bourn, wrote two letters describing the storm and 
its effects in that parish, and these letters were published in the 
Stamford Mmxury^ on May 9th and 15th, 1800. The early 
morning, considering the season of the year, was exceedingly hot, 
and nearer midday it became more oppressive. The air was calm, 
the sky serene, all was still. Cattle were observed to assemble in 
groups, to retire to barns and hedges, or to return home. As 
another indication of the coming tempest, Mr. Hopkinson 
mentions that the oxen " bellowed extremely." He then gives 
the following very graphic description of what occurred : — 

Though sensibly impressed with these concurring signs, I was more 
particularly struck at the perturbed and increasing state of the 
clouds, from 12 to -2 p.m., rugged fragments were incessantly 



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FENLAin) Notes and Queries. 29 



rising higher and larger than the preceding, assembling and 
uniting towards the Zenith, until, like the little one in the days of 
Elijah, they almost covered the face of the sky. About this time 
the southern horizon inclining rather towards the west, began to 
assume an uniform blackness. The thunder rolled and the storm 
howled. The air was chilled, the wind rose, and what I esteem 
a more certain prognostic than any other, small clouds, formed 
like fleeces, denser in the middle, and white towards the edges, 
mounted with great celerity in front, and preceded the vast 
black tempest, which was fast increasing behind. My well- 
disposed neighbours were already assembled in the church, for 
the purpose of paying their weekly adorations to the Supreme 
Being. Alarmed at the approaching darkness, and at the sound 
of the mighty wind, some ran into the porch, others into the 
churchyard to see the approaching storm. While thus assembled, 
our attention was suddenly arrested by a vast column of smoke, 
which seemed to arise from the ground about a southern mile 
from the place where we stood, just like the fancied representa- 
tion of Etna and Vesuvius. With several others I immediately 
ascended the steeple ; but, here description must for ever fall 
short ; no mind can comprehend, no tongue can tell, no pen can 
represent the scene now exhibited to the astonished sight. I 
was just in time to have a better view of the phaenomenon 
which alarmed us below, nor do I hesitate in believing it pro- 
ceeded from the sudden explosion of a large fire-ball, as the 
smoke was far more transparent, and ascended in a manner very 
different from what terrestrial matter is accustomed to emit. 
A sharp cold misty rain now began to beat on me ; the clouds 
vaulted one over another in confused impetuosity, just as 
delineated by the masterly hand in the tempestuous skies of 
Salvator Rosa. The edifice rocked, the wind roared, the thunder 
pealed, the lighting went abroad, and nature seemed struggling 
for her very existence. 

The fury of the storm now became excessive ; the sun withdrew his 
shining, and a partial darkness overspread the land. We could 
neither stand without support, see without difficulty, or hear 
any thing except the elements in disorder. We quickly descended 
for safety into the church. Here was a scene the most awful 
and extraordinary I ever witnessed through the course of my 
life ; such, as I supposed, it was not the power of the elements, 
in the ordinary course of natural operations, in so high a latitude 
at least, to have effected ; such, perhaps, as had not been displayed 
from the beginning of time, even unto this day. Such windows 
as were not well secured fell down into the nave of the church. 
The effects of the hail, aided by a dreadful wind, accompanied 
by heavy peals of thunder and flashes of lightning, upon the 
south and western windows, if I may be allowed to compare 
small things with great, I can liken to nothing so aptly as to an 
infinite number of muskets pouring balls incessantly upon the 
church, for the space of half an hour ; for the glass shivered and 
incorporated, as it were, with a shower of monstrous hail- 



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30 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

stones, beat quite across and struck the sides of the northern 
aisle with considerable force. The confused noise occasioned 
by the rushing wind, by the glass and hail, by the shrieks 
of the women, the cries of the children, together with the 
dismay, visible in the faces of aU, was much increased by a sudden 
hollow explosion, not unlike a gun discharged either in a cavern 
or with its muzzle close to a wall. This was soon discovered 
to be the effect of lightning, which struck and scorched the leg 
of a young man, who had retreated with many more under a 
pillar of the western entrapce for safety. As soon as the tem- 
pest abated, the inhabitants, whose continuance in the church 
was both uncomfortable and dangerous, eagerly returned to 
their respective houses, the windows whereof towards the south 
and south-west, were almost entirely demohshed. The cottage 
of the poor man, as well as the mansions of the rich, suffered in 
the general wreck. None hath escaped God's avenging arm. Of 
121 panes in eight sash windows in the western front of the 
vicarage house, only 21 were saved, which was owing to the 
sashes being left up. 

Toward the south, of five windows with 281 x)iines, there were only 
23 left. 

Add to this, I have a small green house and stables in a very shattered 
condition. 

The villages in this neighbourhood, especially Gunthorpe, Strain- 
field, Hacconby, Dunsby, and Eippingale, shared a similar fate, 
and exhibit, in appearance, houses in the metropolis, after they 
have been recently rescued from the ravages af fire, by dashing 
out the windows, and by seasonable exertions of the engines. 

Mr. Hopkinson then writes at considerable length of 
the damage done to the growing crops. Some of the fields of 
wheat had been " entirely swept away ; " the hedges had been 
"stript of their foliage," having the appearance of "arriving 
winter." He also tells of the injuries inflicted upon birds and 
poultry. He picked up "a pidgeon almost stript of its feathers, 
and learn that many have been taken up dead." Walking in his 
garden an hour after the storm, he found it in a state of " com- 
plete desolation," and " nothing was left^by the destructive blast." 
He found several hailstones of an inch diameter. One he 
measured very exactly, and found it to be l^in. in length, lin. 
broad, and half inch thick. He also says he was informed that 
many were found as large as pigeon's eggs, some measuring five 
inches in circumference. 



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Penland Notes and Queries. 31 

23.— A Eemarkable Journey from Wisbech.— On the 19th 
of November, 1841, a man named Thomas Wressel, aged 63, 
died at "Wisbech, and previous to his death he expressed a wish to 
his only sister, who resided with him, that his remains should be 
interred in the churchyard at Clarborough, near Eetford, at wjiich 
place he had previously lived, and where his mother and some of 
bis family had been interred. With remarkable resolution the 
sister decided upon fulfilling her brother's last injunction, and set 
forth from Wisbech with the remains of her brother in a donkey 
cart. The distance of road between Wisbech and Clarborough 
was 97 miles. During the journey the coffin, which projected 
from behind the cart, was covered with a ragged coverlid, upon 
which the dejected sister sat. After being 11 days on the road, 
she reached Clarborough on the 2nd of December, and the body 
laid as it had travelled in the cart in an outhouse of one of the 
village inns until December 4th, when it was buried by the Curate 
(Rev. W. E. Sharpe). The sister wore no mourning, but readily 
paid the funeral expenses. She was 60 years of age. Fifteen 
days elapsed between the death of the man and his burial. 
After the funeral the woman returned to Wisbech with the donkey 
and cart. 

24. —Accidents at Lynn Perry. — In 1630 an accident 
happened to the Perry boat crossing the river from Common- 
Staithe Quay to Old Lynn, when 18 persons were drowned. 
Exactly 166 years later a very similar catastrophe occurred, when 
no less than 22 persons were drowned. The latter circumstance 
happened in March, 1796, as the ferry boat was crossing the river, 
at seven in the evening, with about 30 persons on board. It ran 
foul of the cable of a barge and was overset, all the occupants 
being immersed. John Price, a sailor, witnessed the accident, and 
at the imminent hazard of his own life, dived into the water 
again and again, until he had rescued four of the passengers 
He had entered the water a fifth time, and had seized a woman 
when the rapidity of the tide tore her from him. He then 
narrowly escaped drowning. Only about a dozen of the bodies 
were ever recovered. 



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32 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

25.— Tombstone Inscriptions in Thomey Abbey.— Thorney 
Abbey has recently undergone restoration, but genealogists will 
be pleased to learn that every care was taken to preserve the 
monumental inscriptions on the walls and on the floor. Many of 
these latter have become very indistinct in consequence of the 
traffic which has passed over them. Amongst the monuments in 
the south wall is a small square stone, bearing a Latin inscription 
to the memory of the Kev. Ezekiel Danois, who died on the 24th 
Feb. 1674, but the age is left blank. The inscription speaks of 
him as the first minister of the French Colony, which began to 
assemble at Thorney, in 1652. But the accuracy of this claim is 
disputed, as a license is still extant granted by Bishop Wren to 
Stephen de Cursol, a Frenchman, to preach at Thorney, either 
in French or Latin. The date of that licence is 1600, which is 
half a century earlier than the date claimed for Ezekiel Danois. 
The following is a complete list of all the inscriptions now existing 
in the interior of the Abbey : — 

ON THE FLOOR. 

Here lyeth the body of Mr. George Smith : who was Steward vnto 
y^^ Righe Hon^ WiUiam Earle of Bedford : Hee dyed the 29 of 
October Anno 1651. 

In memory of Mr. John South who dep. this life November the xxx 
1727 aged . . . years. [The age had never been engraved.] 
Sarah the wife of John South died September ye 17'^ 1720 aged 
XXXVIII yrs. Also in memory of Charles the son of Jacob and 
Sarah Bayley who departed this life the 2Q^^ April anno domini, 
1741. 

Mark le Pla died ApriU 13 • 1697 age d75. Mary le Hover his wife 
dep. March 24 • 1693 aged 63. Also Mr. John Le Pla Esquire 
departed this life October y® v 1727 aged 72. 

John Girdlestone, M.A. died 20 March 1821, aged 76. Rebecca 
Girdlestone his widow died 10*^^ Jany. 1824 aged 75. 

He lyeth the body of John Le Pla junr. who departed this life Feb' 
the ix*^ 1723. in ye 36 year of his age. Also in memory of 
Charles Lepla who dep. this life August y® xxvi 1726 aged 37. 
Also in memory of Jane Lepla wife of John Lepla sen"* who 
departed this life the 24^^ February 1717 aged 84. 

Here lyeth the body of John Guerin who departed this life 13'^ of 
November 1724 aged 11 years 



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Fenland Notes akd Queries. 33 

F. S. 1710. 

John Girdlestone M.A. died 2, March 1821 aged 76. 

In memory of Frances wife of John Bailey who died 24 March 1831 
in the 34 year of her age. [Other half of the stone blank.3 

In memory of Mary widow of the late James Denny of Baveningham, 
Norfolk, who died 16tii June 1831 aged 63 years. Also Mary 
daughter of James & Mary Denny died Febry 10 . 1860 aged 42 
years. 

In memory of Thomas Bailey who died 22"^** November 1830 in the 
44th year of his age. 

Ann BaUey died Oct. 27, 1841 aged 92 years. In memory of John 
Bailey, who died January 13^^ 1822 aged 72 years. 

Here lyeth the body of William, fourth son of Benj. and Bliz. 
Holdich, who was bom on the 18th Dec. 1807, and buried on 
18th Dec. 1808. 

Susannah the wife of Benjn- Holdich who died April 3 . 1810 in the 

23rd year of her age. [A poetical epitaph is indecipherable.] 
Holdich 1810. 

Martha wife of John Bel .... died Oct John .... died . . . • 

Martha John 

In memory of James Watson, gent., who departed this life April 18 , 
1802 aged . 2 years. Also Mary wife of James Watson, gent., 
who departed this life January 1803 aged 65 years. 



Here lyeth ye body of Amelia y® daughter of James and Mary 

[remainder indistinct ; the name is probably Watson]. 

Here lies interred the body of Maria the wife of Wilson Wells Cler* 
and daughter of William Smith Esq. of Graveley in the county 
of Hertford. She departed this life y® 7th day of March in 
y® year of our Lord 1732 in y® . 32nd year of her age. 

Here lyeth the remains of Daniel Bayley Esq late of Willow Hall 
who died the 21st Jan 1774 aged 41 years. Also Mingay Bayley 
sister of the above Daniel Bayley Esq. who died the 5 of March 
1761 aged 24 years. 

Daniel Bayley of WiUow HaU 1763 aged 62 years. [This stone is 
greatly obliterated]. 



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34 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

Here lye interred Dorothy wife of Mr. AbrSIIi Ris Mar 25 A.D. 1714 
ag. 37. Also Samuel son of y« said Ab. and Dor. Ris Mar : 17. 
A.D. 1714 Aet. 6 [considerably obliterated]. Also Dorothy 
the daughter of Mr. Abraham and Dorothy Ris deceased August 
the xxn, 1722 age^ xvu. years. Also Jer. Ris Esq^ son of Mr. 
Abra"* and Dorothy Ris who dep^ this life Nov. 19 • 1753 aged 
50 years. Mr. Abraham Eis January y® 4*^^ A.D. 1717 aged 65 
years. Also Abraham y® son of Mr. Abraham & Dorothy Eis 
deceased Dec 24 • 1721 aged xxii years. Also the Eev^ Mr. 
James Ris A.M. late Minister of this Church son of Mr. Abraham 
& Dorothy Eis who departed this life Feb. 10 • 1758 aged 45 
years. 

The Rev. John Hunt (7) Master of Arts, Curate of the Donative of 

Thomey rector of Benefield in the County of 

Northampton. He died M . . . 1807 aged [looks like 60] years. 

Here lieth the body of Mr. John AnseU who departed this life the 
S^^ of February 1778 aged 66 years. 

Here lieth the body of Abigail the wife of Mr. John Ansell who 
depai-ted this life ... . 1760 aged 47 years. 

Mary the daughter of John and Jane Wing died 13 Feb 1808 aged 
17 years. Sarah Maria their second daughter died 1st April 1826 
aged 36 years. 

John Wing Esq'® died 20 April 1812 in the 61st year of his age. 
Jane Wing, widow of the above died 16th Oct. 1824 aged 
70 years. 

Here lieth interred the body of lames Le Pla who departed this life 
January .... 1677 Aetat 50 (?) Here lyeth also the body of 

Sarah the wife of lames le Pla who departed 17 77. 

Near this place lieth the body of John Lepla one of the sons of 
the above named James le Pla who died 4th Jan 1746 aged 60, 
Also Samuel Lepla one of the sons of the above John Lepla 
. . . 1794 (?) aged 16. i 

The Rev. Thos. Which A.B. sometime curate of this parish he died 
[some woodwork connected with the west door coyers the 
remainder of the inscription]. 

Here lieth ye body of John Peirson y« 3rd and youngest son of Ralph 
Peirson Esqr aged 5f years who departed this life .... 1666. 
Also the body of Eichard Peirson who dyed June .... aged 82. 



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Fenlaot) Xotes and Queries. 35 

ON THE SOUTH WALL. 

Sacred to the memory of Mr. James Lambert late of Walwojrth, 
Surrey, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons London who 
departed this life the 25^^ of Oct 1830 in the 29^^ year of his 
age. 

John Wing Esq. of Thorney Abbey died April 3rd A.D. 1812 in the 
61st year of his age. 

John Bailey Esq died January IZ^^ 1822 aged 72 years. Also Ann 
Bailey his widow died Oct. 27 1841 aged 92 years. 

[Brass]. In memoriam : Frances Bailey 1831 ; John Bailey 1836 ; 
John Bailey 1836; George Bailey 1836; Mary Denny 1839 
Edward Bailey 1865. 

In this Church near the south entrance are deposited the mortal 
remains of John Girdlestone M.A. incumbent curate of this 
parish, faithfully discharged the duties of his ministry within 
these walls for upwards of 50 years, resigned his soul unto his 
God at the age of 76 years, on the 2nd day of March in the 
year of Our Lord Christ 1821. Also the remains of Rebecca 
Girdlestone his widow who died at the age of 75 years on the 
10*h day of January 1824. 

[Brass]. In loving memory of John Clapham M.R.C.S. who practised 
42 years in this parish bom January 2nd 1808 died Feb. 7^^ 1882. 

Sacred to the memory of Samuel Perkins gent, of this parish who 
died February 14'^ 1841 aged 67 years. Also Alice Perkins his 
widow died July 19*^ 1846 aged 75 years. 

ON THE NOBTH WALL. 

Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth the affectionate wife of William 
Whitting Esqr who trusting in her Redeemer's merits for a blessed 
immortality departed this life vii, September MDCCOXXxn aged 
XXX years, deeply mourned as a wife a mother & a friend. Also 
to the parental memory of Spelman Swaine infant son of 
William Whitting Esq'® & his beloved wife Sophia Day bom 
June XXVIII mdcccxlvh died May xii MDCXXJXLVin the above 
WiUiam Whitting Esq & likewise his wife Sophia Day died and 
were buried at St Leonards on Sea A.D., MDCCC5LXXIX. 

Near this spot repose the remains of Sampson Barber late of Willow 
Hall in this parish who departed this life on 1st January 1828 
in the 52nd year of his age. As a simple tribute of respect and 
gratitude this stone is erected to the memory of a kiii<l and 
affectionate parent by his family. 



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36 FENLAJfD XOTES AND QUEUIES. 

Near this place lieth the body of Abraham Flahau who departed 
this life the 12ti» day of July 1755 in the 72nd year of his age. 
His wife & twelve children lie in the Church of St James 
Clerkenwell, London, with her father & mother, Henry & Dorothy 
HanMn. 

26-— Price of Wheat, &c., at Ramsey, in 1317.— From 
Dugdale's Monasticon and other sources, it appears that " During 
the great dearth which commenced in 1314, after great floods, and 
lasted till 1318 ; the price of corn at Ramsey in 1317 was 24s. 
per quarter ; three years before it was 7s. per quarter at Oxford, 
and in 1324 it was 6s. 8d. But in 1318, immediately on the 
cessation of the dearth, through an abundant harvest, the fall in 
price was far greater ; wheat fell from 40 pence the bushel to 
sixpence ; lambs were a penny each ; hens were six a penny and 
eggs 2s. per thousand. 

27.— The Will of John Underwood, of Whittlesea— Mr. 

John Underwood, of Whittlesea, Cambridgeshire, left £6,000 to 
his sister on condition of her carrying out his wishes respecting 
his funeral, and the lady wisely sacrificed her feelings rather than 
her fortune, and fulfilled his last injunction to the letter. The 
dead man was placed in a green coffin, clad in his usual everyday 
dress, his head resting on Saradon's '* Horace," Bentley's edition 
being placed under him, and the same editor's " Milton " lying at 
his feet. The right hand of the corpse clasped a small Greek 
Testament, while the left clasped a miniature edition of " Horace." 
No bell was tolled, but after the burial service had been read, an 
arch was turned over the coffin, and a piece of marble placed in 
the centre, inscribed "Non omnis moriar, 1733." The six mourners^ 
or the gentlemen who did duty as such, then sang the last stanza 
of the ode in which Horace deprecates any display of grief for 
the dead. Adjourning to. their dead friend's house, the six sat 
down to an excellent supper. As soon as the cloth was removed 
they performed a requiem in the shape of another Horatical ode, 
and after making themselves merry with a cheerful glass, departed 
to their several homes, and, we suppose, fulfilled the testator's final 
injunction to " Think no more of John Underwood." 

J. Feveb, Whittlesea, 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 37 

28.— Whittlesey Mere in 1786.— Mr. Bodger, of Stilton, 
published in June and July of 1786, a Map of Whittlesey Mere, 
of which a few copies were printed on satin and others on paper. 
The size of the plate was 2 feet 2 inches by 1 foot 7 inches. 
It was engraved by " that much admired artist, Mr. CoUyer, and 
others," who had " engaged to render it incomparably superior to 
any other publication." The title is as follows : — 

A 

CHART 

Of the Beautiful Fisheby of 

WHITTLESEA MERE 

In the County of 

HUNTINGDON 

AND 

Of such Navigable Rivebs with which 

It has communication 

Fbom theib Speing Heads to theib Influx into the Sea 

Most Respectfully Inscbibed to 

The Nobility and Gentby 
By theib much Obliged and most 
Obedient humble Sebvant 
JOHN BODGER. 

Above this title appears in the clouds the figure of Fama 
supporting a medallion, on which the arms of the County of 
Huntingdon are displayed, while underneath the title is an 
allegorical representation of a Triton, whose shield exhibits the 
united forces of France, Spain, Holland, and America at war 
wifch Great Britain, who appears in a warlike posture in the 
centre protecting British Commerce. This centre figure bears on 
his shield the British Arms, and the first-named Triton, represent- 
ing the enemies of Britain, is supposed to have succumbed to his 
superior strength. The harbour in the distance is a French Port. 
On the right is the figure of Mercy, holding a purse as emblematic 
of the wealth of the fieet of merchant ships seen at a distance. 

In the prospectus issued by Mr. Bodger he described the 
Mere as " one of the greatest curiosities in this Kingdom, being a 
most spacious and beautiful fresh water lake, on which have been 
exhibited several regattas, at which were present many thousands 
of nobility, gentry, and others, from various parts, who were 
accommodated with upwards of 700 sailing vessels and boats." 

Voii. I. B 



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38 



Fenlaisd Notes ahd Queries. 



Then, having explained what would appear in the Chart and 
afilxed his own name, he added the following piece of judicious 
advertising : " Estates surveyed and mapped in the most exact 
and elegant manner." 

"With the Chart the subscribers, whether for satin or paper 
copies, had every reason to be satisfied, and from a list of these 
which I have in my possession, I find they numbered about 320, 
At the bottom of the map was a Mst of sailing distances, &c., as 
follows : — 




BeviUs 
to 

Arnold's to 

Foleotes to 



SAILING DISTANCES. 

M. 

Foleotes Point 

Arnolds Shoals 1 

Swere Point 

Chalderbeach 1 

BeviUs 2 

Chalderbeach 

Arnolds 1 

Chalderbeach 1 

Swere Point 



p. Y. 

1 


1 
1 

4 
4 

1 



6 27 

3 32 
6 32 

6 32 
2 8 

7 16 

4 4 

4 38 
4 35 



DISTANCES AND FALLS. 



Whittlesea Mere 6 

Wisbeach 19 

Cross Keys Wash 26 

Eye at Sea 32 

Lynn 45 

Bar Beacon 50 

Eye at Sea 30 

Bar Beacon at Sea 46 

Eye at Sea to Bar Beacon 

Denver Sluice to Bar Beacon 21 5 



From I 
Peterborough ^ 
to 



Whittlesea- 
mere to 



M. F. 



5 

3 
5 



FT. I. 

1 6 

5 7 

12 4 

18 2 

19 
27 1 



8 11 
21 4 



The subjoined interesting historical memoranda also appear 
in the chart : — 

Whittlesea Meeb, the most spacious fresh w^ater Lake in the South- 
em part of Great Britain, on which have been exhibited several 
Eegattas, and Ice Boat Sailing, is situated on the Northern side of 
the County of Huntingdon, about thirty-eight miles West of the 
German Ocean ; six miles down the Nene from the City of Peter- 
borough, and two miles and three-quarters East of Stilton. — Its 
surface is 1,570 square acres, and in general the Depth varies 
considerably, and its circumference eight miles and three-quarters, 
abounding with a great variety of Water Fowl, and the f oUowing 
species of Fish, viz^ : Pike, Perch, Carp, Tench, Eels, Bream, Chub, 
Boach, Dace, Gudgeons, Shallows, &c., and in the summer months 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 39 



is visited by many of the Nobility and Gentry from various parts, 
but at times is violently agitated without any visible cause, and is 
fed by the waters of a large tract of country, whose overplus 
makes its way down to the Sea. The difficulties are too great to 
deduce the Origin of this beautiful and extensive piece of water, 
and at best it would be enveloped in conjecture and obscurity so 
as not to give satisfaction to the generality of readers ; but its 
Antiquity and Importance is visible by the authorities of Dooms- 
day Book, History of Ramsey, in the Treasury, Speed, Dugdale, 
Cotton, and Original Grant, &c., by its having been so early as 
664 granted by Wulpher, King of Mercia, to his new founded 
monastery of Medeshamstede (now Peterborough,) which was 
destroyed by the Danes in 870, when it reverted to the Crown. — 
In 956 King Edgar granted Geakeslea (now Yaxley) and 
Fearresheafod (now Farcet) to a faithful soldier called -^Ifwine, 
from whose descendant they again became the possessions of 
Ramsey and Peterborough monasteries, lately rebuilt thro* the 
beneficence of St. Ethelwould, Bishop of Winchester.— Doomsday 
Book mentions that the Abbot of Ramsey had one Boatsgate, the 
Abbot of Peterborough one Boatsgate in his own right, and a 
second Boatsgate (which he held of the Abbot of Thomey) with 
two fisheries and one virgate of land ; the Abbot of Thomey held 
two Boatsgates. — In 1244 Henry III. granted the manor of 
Glatton and Holme to his brother, Richard Earl of Cornwall, 
King of the Romans, who regranted them in 1261 to the Abbot 
of Ramsey, together with three cotes on Whittlesea Mere, with 
the lands and ditches round the said cotes. — In 1306 an inquest 
was made, when it appeared that the Abbot of Thomey had (in 
his own proper soil, abutting on the said Mere) five cotes ; that 
the said Abbot (to whom the greater part of the said fishery truly 
belonged) had, by ancient custom, five Boatsgates, with all their 
appendages to fish in Whittlesey Mere, at all times, except during 
the time called Shelrode ; (which beginneth a fortnight before St. 
George's day, and continueth a fortnight after). — To each of 
the said Boatsgates did belong forty Pollenets, forty Swerenets, 
twenty-four Widenets, twenty-four Bownets, one Draye, one 
Tramaile, also Settingtawe, and Syrelepes at the will of the owner. 
In 1360 Edward III. granted the manor of Glatton and Holme to 
his son, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, when they became 
part of the Duchy lands. — In 1507 Henry VII. granted the office 
of Keeper of the Swannery on the Mere to David Cecil for the 
term of seven years. — By an Inquisition made in 1559, first of 
Elizabeth, it appeared that Edward VI. in 1554 (sie) had granted to 
Sir Walter Mildway, Knt the manor of, and the King's lands in 
Farcet, with its appurtenances, &c., and that Court decreed that 
the north part of Whittlesea Mere from Arlmyndes Hill to 
Falstubb; was his property, and to avoid all future disputes 
Commissioners appointed for that purpose planted a Willow Tree 
on Arlmyndes Hill, and a post at Falstubb, and thejr also put dow» 



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40 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

three large Witch Piles in the water of the Mere between those 
places ; which north part is now the private property of Lord 
Brownlow. — In 1612 James I. granted the manor of Glatton with 
Holme to Sir Eobert Cotton, Knt — In 1614 at an Inquisition held 
at Holme it appeared that there were fifteen Boatsgates belonging 
to the said Mere, the Earl of Lincoln had one, to which belonged 
one Night's Setting, the Church of Peterborough two, to which 
belonged one Night's Setting, Thomas Glapthome two. Sir Anthony 
Mildmay one. Sir William Fitzwilliam one, Eobert Apreece, Esq., one, 
and the Lord of the Manor seven. — In 1662 Charles II. granted to 
Edward Earl of Sandwich the office of Master of the Swans 
within the whole Kingdom of England, and also the office of 
Bailiff or Keeper of Whittlesey Mere. — The Lord of the Manor 
has a right to summon the fishermen (or Fenny-ferries) to his two 
courts holden at Holme, when presentments are made, and by his 
BaiKff prove the nets with a Brazen Gougle or Mesh Pin, (kept for 
that purpose) and on being found under size, he is at liberty to 
take a fine or destroy them. Likewise has a right to seize all nets 
and poles used in Shelrode, and is entitled to fines and forfeitures 
for all blood shed on the said Mere with other manorial (sic) rights, 
&c., &c. — The present rights of Fishing are as follows, Viz^ William 
Wells, Esq^ Lord of Glatton with Holme, eleven Boatsgates, Lord 
Brownlow, Lord of Farcet, one, and a private fishery, the Church 
of Peterborough, two, and Lord Carysfort, one. 
Navigation " Canals," proposed by Kinderly, and others, as appears 
on the Map of Elvers, which, if carried into execution would unite 
Welland River to Witham ; Bevill's to None, and the Nene to the 
Ouse : the streams would then be forcible and open deep channels 
to the Sea, to the great advantage of navigation and drainage. — 
The Ouse is a river of great navigation and drainage, in many 
respects rivals the Himaber and the Severn. It has its head on a 
rising ground full of springs under Hinton and Brackley, in 
Northamptonshire, and carries off the great collected body of 
water it hath brought with it out of ten counties into the German 
Ocean, below the Port of Lynn, having made a course of one 
hundred and sixty miles. — The Map comprises part of fifteen 
counties, and. all the navigable rivers from their spring-heads, that 
have their Influx into the Sea, below the Ports of Boston, Wisbeach 
and Lynn. Also Marshland, and the Great Level of the Fens, the 
latter extending in length upwards of sixty miles, in breadth 
forty, and contains upwards of six hundred thousand square acres. 

The names which appear in the Chart are interesting, for 
although the Mere was not drained until 1851, most of them have 
passed into oblivion. Possibly, old residents in the neighbourhood 
could point out some of these spots, which where then so well- 
known, as Falstubb Point, the Reed Bush, Point Grounds, Breeks, 
but the greater number — except for this Chart — have been entirely 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 41 

lost sight of. The illustratioa which appears in this number is 
reproduced from a satin copy of the Chart in the possession of 
Mr. 0. Dack, of Peterborough. 

29.^The Apreece Family of Washingley.— Mr. Carter, of 
Kimbolton, asks for the Christian name of the Apreece of 
Washingley Hall, Huntingdonshire, who was shot by the Parlia- 
mentary soldiers at Lincoln, in 1644. 

30.— Chatteris, co. Cambs.— What is the probable origin and 
signification of the name Chatteris ? In the 1st vol. of Gentle- 
men's Magazine^ p. 30, in article of the town, the name is supposed 
to be derived from Chartreuse, as there was a Nunnery at Chatteris, 
founded in 980, A.D., but this was a Benedictine convent, and 
the Carthusian order was of a later date. In Domesday it is spelt 
Chatriz. Dugdale always wrote it Chateriz. 

S. H. MiLLEE. 

31 .—The French Colony at Thorney.--(No. 25).— The date 
of the license to Stephen de Cursol to preach at Thorney 
is said to be 1600. There was not a French Congregation 
at Thorney at that date. The Survey of Thorney, quoted by 
"Warner, would probably be made in 1594. The Manor was 
in possesssion of the Crown in 1596. In 1605 the first 
Drainage Bill was rejected by Parliament on the third read- 
ing — quoting a treatise written in 1629 — "At Thorney Abbey 
my Lord of Bedford lets between 300 and 400 acres of rising 
ground upon which the Abbey stands, for £300 per annum, 
whereas the rest of the Lordship of Thorney, containing 16,000 
or 17,000 acres of drowned ground is estimated as it now lieth of 
ittle or no value." Even in 1638 the fact that Thorney being 
inaccessible in winter time was made an excuse for not collecting 
£20 Ship money. In 1630 the Drainage Works commenced 
under the Earl of Bedford and 13 gentlemen adventurers. 
Vermuyden was afterwards introduced into the Bedford Level. He 
had previously in November, 1628, made a contract for the 
Drainage of certain lands in the Isle of Axholme. He and his 



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4^ Fenland Notes and Queries. 

co-adventurers the Parfcicipanfcs, as they were there called, brought 
over Dutch, Walloons, and French from Normandy, and other 
parbs of France, who stipulated for certain rights, which were 
readily granted. Among these was the right to worship 
according to the dictates of their conscience. They founded 
congregations and had pastors to preach to them in their own 
tongue.* Of this congregation there is a precious reHo preserved 
at Thorney, a French Register of Baptisms during 1654 — 1727, a 
small folio containing 1710 entries. 

We may note on the appointment of " de Gursoll " by Bishop 
Wren, that Warner gives in the first edition of his History of 
Thorney, 1640 as the date, which I should say is nearer the mark. 
We find persons of the same name prominent members of the 
two congregations at Santoft and Thorney. David Le Conte 
represented Santoft at the Coloque in London. The same name 
afterwards occurs as the Thorney representative. It is fair to 
assume the congregation at Santoft was formed prior to that of 
Thorney. 

It appears that Peter Bontemps was the first Pastor at 
Santoft. He was brought over by the Participants (most probably 
with the approbation of the Bishop of the Diocese). In June, 
1636, he writes : "I have dwelt here nearly two years, during 
which time the number of strangers in this place has increased 
by more than one-half, and is still daily increasing." He asks, If 
a Church for the French congregation is not to be built and 
maintained ? that he may be dismissed ? He left in August, 
1636. He practised the Geneva discipline in all things by 
Deacons and Elders. According to Dr. Farmerie^ the Chancellor, 
in his letter to the Bishop, who, after the congregation had been 
without a Minister for the space of two years, 1638, sent down 
among them Dr. Our sol, "who had taken the Oathes of Allegiance 

* They were not poor iUiterate men, to be compared with our navvies 
of the present day. They were, from all we gather, steady, upright people, 
men of education and abilities. In 1656 they appealed to Cromwell for 
protection. Of the 54 persons who signed the petition, only three signed 
by marh. In this they compare very favourably with a Grand Jury at 
Wisbech within the memory of the writer, one of whom signed with a cross. 



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Fenland Notes and Quebies. 43 

Supremaice and Canonical obeidiency to your Grace." Lavds 
reign of persecution was shewing signs of coming to an end early 
in 1640. Before the year was out we hear of a petition, " To the 
House of Lords, on behalf of the French, and Dutch congrega- 
tion assembled in the Isle of Axholme, for redress against the 
above-quoted Dr. Farmery, complaining that they did not enjoy 
the free exercise of their religion, as it ivas in those parts 
reformed from whence they came;'*'* and that he farther thrust upon 
them one " Cursoll," a Franciscan friar. Such being their 
opinions of the man, it need not be a matter of surprise that he 
was not recognised and never officiated at Thorney. In 
evidence he was spoken of very disrespectfully. M. Dispaigne 
was heard to say, that M. de Cm'soU was a thief, that he had 
stolen from the people of his Church £30 sterUng, that he was a 
very bad and dishonest man. 

In 1643 we hear of John d' Espaigne, a minister of the 
French Church at Santoft, and Stephen Cursoll who likewise 
pretends himself to be a minister for private ends, and by respects 
endeavouring to distm'b the peace and quiet of the French con- 
gregation in London. Such was Cursoll from what we gather, 
and his appointment to Thorney by Wren could not be earlier 
than 1640, from the best evidence we can command. 

S.E. 

32.— An Ancient Custom at Boum.— The following is a 
cutting from the Grantham Journal of April 13th, 1889 :— In ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the will of William Clay, gentle- 
man, of Bourn, in the year 1742, who gave land, the rent of 
which is to be expended yearly in white bread, to be distributed 
among the householders and commoners in the Eastgate Ward, 
the Constable's half -acre and the Dike-reeves half -acre were let by 
auction on the Queen's bridge on Saturday evening. Mr. F. J. 
Shilcock, the auctioneer, read the conditions of sale, which pro- 
vided that two good loads of manure should be put upon the land, 
that the fence be kept in proper repair, and that the bush in the 
centre of the field be not cut or injured in any way. The most 



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44 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

curious part of the auction is the manner in which the bidding is 
regulated. Two lads are started by the auctioneer to run a certain 
distance for a prize. Whilst they are running the bidding is 
carried on, and the person who has made the highest bid by the 
time the lads return becomes the tenant for the ensuing year, 

33.-Local Rhymes.-(No. 19). I have heard many local 
rhymes from old inhabitants of tliis district which have been 
handed down from generation to generation by oral tradition, 
and, unless they are preserved in pages of Local Notes and Queries 
they may be lost altogether. Amongst others are the following, 
more nearly connected with "Fenland": — 

When the Grand Sluice was opened on 15th October, 1766, it 
disappointed many who came to the opening ceremony, and one 
of the disappointed ones gave vent to his feelings by composing 

the following — 

Boston! Boston! Boston! 

Thou hast nanght to boast on 
But a Grand Sluice, and a high Steeple, 
A proud, conceited ignorant people, 

And a coast where souls are lost on. 

Another version of this rhyme is as follows — 
O! Boston! Boston! 
What hast thou to boast on ? 
But a proud people, 
And a lofty steeple, 

And a coast where ships are lost on, lost on. 
This has since been altered to — 

Boston, Boston ! What hast thou to boast on ? 
High Steeple, proud People, and Sands Ships are lost on. 
Boston is again coupled with Skirbeck, and Boston pride 
appears always to call for notice — 

Though Boston be a proud town, 
Skirbeck compass it all around. 
And another — 

SMrbeck straddle wide, 
Boston fuU o' pride. 

Then a rhyme on some neighbouring Churches — 
Gosberton Church is very high, 
Surfleet Church is all awry, 
Pinchbeck Church is in a hole. 
And Spalding Church is big with foal. 



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Fbnland Notes and Quebibs. 45 

The following refers to Crowland — 

In Holland stands Crowland, 
Built on dirty low land, 
Where youll find, if you go, 
The wine*s but so-so ; 
The blades of the hay 
Are like swords, one may say ; 
The beds are like stones. 
And break a man's bones ; 
The men rough and sturdy. 
And nought they afford ye. 
But bid you good bye, 
When both hungry and dry. 

Another rhyme on Crowland is — 

In HoUand, hark I stands Crowland, d' ye mark I 

There's wine such as 'tis ; there's hay like a swys ; 

There's beds hard as stone ; and when you wiUyou may be gone. 

And there is one of very great antiquity — 
Crowland as courteous as courteous may be, 
Thomey the bane of many a good tree ; 
Ramsey the rich, and Peterborough the proud, 
Sawtry by the way, that poor abbaye, gives more alms than all they. 

Or, as the lines appear in another form — 
Ramsey the rich, of gold and fee ; 
Thomey the grower of many a fair tree ; 
Croyland the courteous of their meat and drink ; 
Spalding the gluttons as men do think. 
Peterborough the proud, 

Sawtry by the way, 
That old abbaye 

Gave more alms than all they. 

Here is one referring to Gainsborough and Luddington— 

Gainsborough proud people 
Built new Church to old Steeple ; 
Whilst Luddington poor people 
Built brick Church to stone Steeple. 

There is a turnpike road between Spalding and Tydd called 

Hargate, which was very dangerous, and the warning is given as 

follows — 

Be ye early, or be ye late, 

I pray ye beware of Fleet Hargate. 

In Peterborough I have heard an old inhabitant say when the 
Cathedral and St. John's Church clocks have struck the hour to- 
gether — 



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46 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

When the Church and the Abbey, they both strike together, 
There'll be either a death or a change in the weather. 

The following is a 'curious old piece of folk lore connected with 

Peterborough — 

If in the minster close a hare 
Should for itself have made a lair ; 
Be sure before the week is down, 
A fire will rage within the town. 

A similar superstition refers to Eamsey — 
Should a hare in hasty flight, 
Scamper through the Ramsey Whyie ; 
Be sure before three days are gone, 
A fire will blaze in Ramsey town. 

The following refers to the antiquity of Eising— 
Rising was a seaport town 
And Lynn it was a wash, 
But Lynn is now the seaport town 
And Rising fares the worst. 

A somewhat similar rhyme refers to Lincoln, and is of very 
great antiquity — 

Lincoln was, York is, and London yet will be. 
The greatest Girvain City of the three. 

Another similar saying — 

Northorp rise and Grayingham fall, 

Kirton shall yet be greater than all. 

Then another — 

Butterwick o*er Frieston once held sway, 
But now it is quite the other way. 

A not very flattering rhyme refers to Sutton — 
Sutton long ! Sutton long I 
At every door a heap of dung. 
Some two, some three, 
The dirtiest town you ever did see. 
Another rhyme says — 

An Aukham eel, and a Witham pike, 
AU England cannot show the like. 

There are not many wonders in Huntingdonshire if the following 
is true, for two out of the three have ceased to exist — 
Lutton hiU, Yaxley stiU mill, and Whittlesey mere. 
Are the three wonders of Huntingdonshire. 

Eeferring to the rhyme in Part I. of Fenland Notes and 



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FbniiAnd Notes and Queries. 47 

Queries about Downham "Winnold Fair, I heard rather a different 
version from my Grandfather more than twenty years ago, when 
he was over 90 years old — 

First come David, then come Chad, 
Then comes Winnold as if he was mad. 

Charles Dack, Peterborough. 

34.— Whirling Sunday at Leverington.— The Rev. Fredk. 
Carlyon, M.A., rector of Leverington, writes concerning the 
Whirlwind Cakes spoken of in N'o. 18, Part I., and speaks of it 
as " Whirling '* Sunday. It is the Sunday in Mid-Lent, and he 
adds : None of the old people know anything of the origin of 
the Legend. But there are still many who recollect when there 
was a regular pleasure fair held in Leverington on Whirling 
Sunday, when a particular kind of whirling cake was made in 
most houses, and sports of all kinds, especially boxing matches, 
where carried on, and a regular holiday observed. There was no 
religious ceremony that I can hear of observed on the day beyond 
the ordinary Church Services. Whirling cakes still continue to 
be made in one or two houses, but that and the memory of the 
day only remain. The Legend of the old woman being whirled 
over the church steeple is still repeated. 

Fredk, Carlyon, the Rectory, Leverington. 

35.— Credney, co, Lincoln.— What is the origin and meaning 
of the prefix of this name ? The termination is Saxon, corrupted 
from ed water. S. H. Miller. 

36.— State Prisoners at Wisbech.— (No. 10). Your corres- 
pondent A.P. will find some additional particulars concerning 
the State Prisoners at Wisbech, which I believe have hitherto 
escaped the attention of local historians, in ''Memoirs of 
Missionary Priests," printed in 1742, and which contains an in- 
teresting account of the imprisonment in Wisbech Castle of 
Fr. Tunstal and his subsequent martyrdom at Norwich. The 
note on p. 70 of "Jesuits in Conflict," also furnishes some new 
matter, and several names and other particulars of prisoners 



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48 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

are given in "Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers," by F. 
Morris, S.J. H. 0. Colpman, Wisbech. 

Et. Gatesby, should be Eobt. Catesby, who was frequently 
imprisoned for his Recusancy in the reign of Elizabeth, and 
was probably the same individual who played a prominent 
part in the Gunpowder Plot of November, 1605. At some future 
time I will forward the will of Dr. Watson, the imprisoned 
Bp. of Lincoln. Justin Simpson. 

37.-Feii Provincialisms.--As local Dialects and Provin- 
cialisms, like many other relics of past times, are dying out from 
amongst us, it may not be uninteresting or unprofitable to direct 
attention to those we have heard in East Anglia — their derivation 
and peculiarities — in the pages of Fenland Notes and Queries. A 
perfect or complete Kst would be very difficult or impossible. If 
I can only succeed in making my collection interesting, perchance 
some readers with leisure and inclination will also contribute. 

We live in a progressive age— railroads, telegraphs, penny 
postage, and cheap education — all are supposed to understand 
the " three E's," and travel more or less. As we go through the 
country, coming in contact with a great variety of character, our 
own should become more polished. Like pebbles on the beach, 
whose angles and rough edges are gradually worn off by constant 
attrition, so men, by a species of mental attrition, which is as con- 
stantly going on, if they will keep abreast the times, lose much of 
that angularity, once their characteristic. The bump of locality — 
if there be one ? and phrenologists can perhaps enlighten us on 
that point — is not so strongly developed. Men become more cos- 
mopoHtan in their ideas. 

" Local Legends lose their charm, 
Old wives' warnings do no harm." 

The language of the lower orders has by these means been much 
improved, and that of the different parts of the country assimi- 
lated. The conservative tendency of the poor has in the past been 
somewhat remarkable in this respect. To the unconquered poor 
of a country we owe a debt for unwritten history ; it is they who 
have preserved the local legends and the numberless place names 



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Penland Notes and Qubeibs. 49 

that have been handed down to us from the remote past, to each 
of which may be attached a hidden meaning well worthy a 
portion of our attention and study. Names are not mere empty 
sounds — meaningless — chance combination of letters. There is 
much in our place names, dialects, and provincialisms that have 
an antiquity and depth of meaning — that few among educated, 
even highly cultivated persons, who have given little attention to the 
subject, can easily comprehend. Other words in common use are 
mere slang terms, devoid of meaning in the proper sense of the 
term, and unworthy a place in the vocabulary of an educated man 
or a gentleman. As many provincialisms will ere long be num- 
bered with the past, forgotten, lost in oblivion, some of a future 
generation may be gi'ateful for the preservation of a few of those 
words and phrases we have noted in the Fens of East Anglia. 

Addle. — To earn. A gradual increase. To grow. To thrive. It 
occurs in Townley Mysteries, p. 195. 

" With goodmen's hogs, or corn or hay, 
I ad(Lle my ninepence every day." 
He was addling good wages. A.S. adlean. It is said also of a 
swelling with matter in it ; that it is addled, viz., morbid, corrupt, 
putrid, addle-pate is frequently heard : ! he is a poor addle- 
pated fellow ; viz., a stupid, thoughtless person ; empty headed. 
(Saxon, aidlian, to be empty.) Addled, — Addled egg, a rotten 
one, or one that has lost the principle of vitality; sometimes 
called a shire egg on that account. The Gossards in the Fens 
(goose herds) when the eggs have been sat on for a certain time, 
take them from under the goose and shire them, viz., examine 
them with a light. An experienced person is thus able to say 
whether they have vitality or not. They are then disposed of 
before they are become addled. (V^elsh, liadl, rotten). 

Tusser says — 

When Ivye Embraseth the tree very sore, 
KiU Ivye, or tree else will addle no more. 

Agae, ^geb. — Sometimes speUed higre. In fact the speUings are 
various. A peculiar and dangerous violence of the tide in some 
rivers. Supposed to be caused by the confluence of two streams, or 
the channel becoming narrower or shallower, as in the case of the 
Wash. The first wave of the tide rising high above the preceding 
one — so high as to be dangerous to boatmen. Sometimes, hence 
the cry, 'ware Ego, the ager is out," when danger was apprehended 
from it. This sudden rush of water was of much more frequent 
occurrence in the Ouse, Nene, and Witham formerly than of late 
years. One effect of modem drainage works and enclosures is to 



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50 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 



make this phenomena of very rare occurrence ; in fact, ahnost un- 
known. It is the name of the Northern God of the Sea, applied 
like Neptune to the Sea itself. In one or other mode of spelling 
it is used by Drayton, Dryden, Camden, and others ; vide, C. 
Anderson, Scand. Mythology — Near Bridgewater this peculiar 
first flowing of the water (tidal wave) which at Spring Tides is 
one, two, or more feet in height, is called the " Bore," (Boreas ?) 

An all. — Also. " He is goin' an' all." 

At all. — I'm not going "at all" that I'm 'ware of. Nothing "at all," 
nothing whatever. A feeble expletive, which adds nothing to 
the meaning of the sentence to which it is attached ; vide, The 
Deans English, p. 110. 

As YET. — At present. " I can't help you as yet." " As yet I have 
not been able to do it." 

Ash keys.— The seed vessels of the ash tree. It is said by some 
that the failure of a crop of ash keys portends a death in the 
Royal Family ; vide, Forby, p. 406. 

Ax'd out.— Asked out. Having had the banns of marriage pub- 
lished three times, they were said to be ax'd out. " Ax," although 
pure Saxon, is now generally considered, a vulgarism. 

About. — He'll soon be about again; said of a person recovering 
from illness. 

Aesy vaesy.— Vice versa. The terms of the case being reversed. 
Heels over head ; wrong end forward. 

Back's up (His). — " He's offended ; his back is up." 

Badly.— I'm queer, badly ; i\ot very well. 1.— Sick, ill ; " How is 
your wife, IHng ? " Oh, she's sadly hadly, su*, she can't be spore 
(i.e. spared) me long I fear." 2.— Very much ; " That horse has 
been neglected, he wants attention ladly'' 

Back an' edge. — He swore back an' edge— completely, entirely. 

Batch. — A quantity of anything. A batch of bread; ?.e., the 
quantity baked at one time. 

Babe Bubbling.— Unfledged ; as a young bird. 

Bait (to).— To rest and feed a horse on a journey. To teaze ; as 
baiting the bull. 

Banging. — A great banging fellow ; large, heavy. 

Bbslings, Beastings. — The first milk from a cow after calving, 
A.S. By stings, used by Ben Jonson. 

Bents.— Dry stalks of grass after summer grazing. Teutonic, Bentz, 

Bottle. — A bundle of straw or hay, tied up with a band, is called a 
bottle of hay. Bottle is the diminutive of hoUe, French. A 
bundle, " as lotte de foin, a bundle of hay." Midnight Dream, 
Act iv., Scene 1. : Bottom—" Methinks I have a great desire to a 
bottle of hay." 

Blamed. It is a common imprecation, " Blame me," a mild oath, 
" I'll be blamed if it is not so " : i,e., condemned, 



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Fbnland Notes and Quebibs. 51 

Bleb. — ^A bubble. A blister. 

Bleb. — Open. Bleak. " It stands all out in the hlee.^^ 
BOBN DAYS. — "I never heard such a thing afore in all my hwn 
daysr Lifetime. g^ ^^^^^ 

38.— Holbech, co. Lincoln.— When was this name corrapted 
into Holbeach ? Some Court Rolls may show. Dugdale and 
others have it Holbeche. Was the place once called Oldbeche, as 
it stood on a small stream, which was thus distinguished from 
Newgate, running by Weston ? See Dugdale, p. 232. 

S. H. MlLLEB. 

39-— Marriage Banns in Boston Market Place.— In 1654, 

an Act was passed directing that no marriage be celebrated 
without a certificate from the Register proving that the bauns had 
been published three successive Lord's days at the close of the 
morning exercise, in the public meeting place, commonly called 
the church or chapel, or, if the parties preferred, in the Market- 
place, on three successive market-days. At Boston, Lincolnshire, 
the announcements in the Market-place were more popular than 
those of the church. It appears from the Registers in the years 
1656, 1657, and 1658, there were proclaimed in the market-place 
102, 104, and 108, and in the church during those years 48, 31, 
and 52, banns. William Andrews, Hull 

40.— Lincolnshire Hampers —Can any of your readers tell 
me why raised roads in Lincolnshire are called " Rampers? " Is 
it a corruption of " Jlampart ? " Charles Daok. 

41 .— Moulton Vicarage, Lincolnshire.— In the early years 
of this century, there was scarcely a resident Ticar or Rector in 
the various parishes of the Elloe division, although the churches 
are the most beautiful in the County of Lincoln, the parishes 
large, and the livings "/«/." The Yicars lived far away and kept 
a curate to do the two services of a Sunday, or in some cases only 
one service was held. Sometimes the curate did the work of 
two parishes at almost starvation stipends. Holbeach, Moulton, 
Whaplode, Whaplode Drove, Weston, and Gedney, had non- 
resident vicars. Dr. Johnson, of Spalding, an active m^strate, 



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52 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

was one of the non-resident class. The late Dr. Moore held 
Monlton and Spalding up to the time of his death. The last of 
the pluralists was the late Vicar of Spalding, Canon Moore, 
who held Weston and Whaplode Drove, and was also the 
Head Master of Spalding Grammar School, and lived at Spalding. 
These he gave up when he was appointed Vicar of Spalding. 

The following letter casts a strong light upon the Eccle- 
siastical history of the district at the time : — 

Ayscough Fee HaU, Spalding, 
Dear Sir, March 7th, 1827. 

I should have troubled you some weeks ago upon the subject of my 
License for non-residence, had not the loss of poor Mrs. Johnson 
disqualified me from writing, and I am yet almost unequal to the 
task. I have drawn up the petition, I trust, under existing 
circumstances, properly, and you are well acquainted with the 
Business, and can explain to our recently elected, and most worthy 
Diocesan, whatever he may think proper to ask. 
I take this opportunity to inform you that several friends of mine 
have communicated a piece of Intelligence, and which, as you have 
not transmitted, appears to me unfounded, viz. : that Lord Boston 
has thought proper upon the next avoidance of the Vicarage of 
Moulton to enter a caveat against my Executors presenting 
beg leave to state the two Suits in C 

commenced in that Court in rest .-^ P^®^5 

. torn ofr. 

Presentation, and to the perpetual 

Vicarage on or about the year 1766, and two Decrees obtained in 
Favour of my late Father, Col. Maurice Johnson, who thereupon 
nominated his Brother, the late Eev<^ John Johnson, who was 
instituted by the Bp. of Lincoln (Dr. Reynolds, I believe) and 
continued Vicar tiU his death, which happened in 1760, when he 
again presented his Brother in Law, the "Rev^ Jno. Lodge, who 
enjoyed till his death, and after that event HE [*Geo, Williamson, 
1767] presented the Rev^ Christopher Williamson, who, also, 
enjoyed it till his death in 1780, when I was instituted at Buckden 
upon my own petition, and have quietly and uninterruptedly held 
the same to this day, a period of Forty six years and an Half. 
My great grandfather, Maurice Johnson, instituted the Suits 
against Sir Edward Irby, Bart., ancester of Lord Boston. If my 
Information be correct, which I cannot * * * * 
' ask the favour of you to inform me 

Torn off. the Business can offain be brought 

nature forthwith that my 
Executors may have no occasion 
to litigate the Matter after my decease. 
In the year 1794 an Act of Parliament was passed for the Inclosure 

* Apparently in another hand. 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 53 

of the Parish Motilton, and a Commutation of Land in Lieu of 
Titles was directed, by sanction of the present Bp. of Winchester, 
and I am expressly named and recognised in the Act as Invpro- 
priator and Vicar, as well as Patron of the Vicarage, 

"And Whereas, (by my then Title The Kev^ Maurice Johnson is 
Impropriator, and also Patron of the Vicarage of MouUon, and 
also Vicar,'^ as by Reference to the said Act will appear. 

I shall be glad to hear from you at your earliest convenience. You 
may tell the Bishop of Lincoln that, independently of residing in 
my own Mansion House at Spalding, I continue regularly to assist 
my Son in Law, the Rev^ D' Moore, by preaching for him every 
Sunday. 

I must apologize for troubling you with so long a letter, and remain, 
Dear Sir, Your faithful and obliged Servant, 

MAURICE JOHNSON. 

To Richard Smith, Esq., 

Secretary to the Lord Bishop of Lincoln, 
Buckden, Hunts. 

42.— Four Hundred Persons destroyed by a Coat at Ramsey.— 

Noble, in his Memoirs of the GromioeWs, vol. i., p. 56, says, "That 
Major Cromwell died of the plague at Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, 
on the morning of February the 23rd, 1666, and was buried next 
evening in the church there. He caught the infection by wearing 
a coat, the cloth of which came from London ; and the tailor that 
made the coat, with all his family, died of the same terrible disorder, 
as did no less than four hundred people in Ramsey, as appears by 
the register, and all owing to this fatal coat." 

C. GoLDiNG, Colchester. 

43.— Fen Tigers.— During Elections or other times of excite- 
ment we hear the inhabitants of the Fen districts called " Fen 
Tigers." Can any of your correspondents enlighten me on its 
origin ? Is it from " Fen Dykers," a name which might have 
been given to the men who drained the Fens ? 

Chaeles Dack. 

44.— Hawkins of Marshland.— In September, 1883, the 
following letter was received by Mr. S. H. Miller, F.R.A.S., of 
Lowestoft, from Mr. C. G. Field, of 168, Castle Hill, Reading :— 

" Some few months ago a handsome Silver Cup came into 
my possession having the inscription, copy of which is enclosed. 



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54 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

I should very much like to know something of the history of the 
cup, and should be much obliged if you will give me some 
information of the man Hawkins and his acts, to which the 
inscription refers, in case in the course of your researches you 
have ascertained anything about him. I must plead, as my 
excuse for troubling you, the interest you evidently take in 
matters relating to the district." 

I have never been able to satisfy the enquiry made in this 
letter for want of some such medium as Fmland Notes and 
Queries^ but if any one will be good enough to throw light on the 
subject, I have no doubt others besides Mr. Field would be 
gratified. I expect there is a record of the event which took this 
Mr. Hawkins to Marshland — probably in the annals of some 
corporate body connected with the drainage. 

INSCEIPTION ON SILVEE CUP. 
On Lid. 
Expatiata ruunt per apertos flumina Campos Cumq : Satis Arbusta 

Simul pecudesq : virosq : Tectaq : cumq : suis rapiunt penetralia 

Sacris. 

On Owp. 
When by stem Neptune's rage and Boreas spleen 
Marshland in great extremity was seen 
The Banks the Bulwarks of that fatal land 
Being broken down by Nereus dread command 
All look^ for death all did their state deplore 
And sought assistance from the helpless shore 
But sought, till friendly HAWKiNS^came, in vain 
The swelling torrents madness to restrain 
He taught us Neptune's fury to withstand 
Preserved our cattle houses and our land 
Therefore that when He shal submitt to fate 
His children may His generous acts relate 
We that are owners of these doubtfuU plains 
A token that our Gratitude remains 
This Cheering Cup to Him do recommend 
Our kind preserver and our greatest friend. 

MDCCXXXV. FEBY. XVI. 

Benjamin Levi, Sculp., 1743. 

S. H. Miller. 

45.— A Water Spout at Deeping, Cowbit, Moulton, &c.— " On 
the 5th of May, 1752, about seven in the evening, a water-spout 
fell from the clouds on Deeping Fen, in the county of Lincoln, 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 55 

and took its progress in a very indirect manner, to the county 
bank or dike, whence it carried every thing that lay loose thereon, 
such as straw, hay, and stubble, violently before it. When it came 
into the middle of Cowbit Wash, where it was first seen, it was a 
dreadful sight to behold this moving meteor there fixed for several 
minutes, spouting out water to a considerable height, perhaps two 
yards ; so that it seemed as if the law of nature was inverted, to 
see water ascending, and all the time attended with a terrible noise. 
Upon the second rout, it made to the river ; on its arrival there, 
it discovered its length with some certainty, for it reached from 
side to side, the river being about three yards over ; in its march- 
ing along it drove the water before it in a rapid torrent, tearing in 
its passage a fishing-net : when it arrived at the church, it there 
stopped again, but not above a minute, whence it arose, and made 
its passage through the space that is between the church and the 
parsonage-house, without doing hurt to either ; so that however 
natural the cause may be, yet surely its progression could not be 
without the direction of him who rides in a whirlwind, and directs 
the storm. On its departing hence, the straw, hay, and stubble 
fell down upon the land in showers. This strange phenomenon 
ascended not far before it fell down again upon the land ; in 
passing through a small track of seed turnips, it broke in its way 
the stems from the roots. A gate it forced from off its hinges, 
and a stone it broke to pieces, and when at a distance it looked 
like a pillar of smoke ; when it passed a little beyond Moulton 
Chapel, it evaporated into a cloud, and was succeeded by a 
violent storm of hail, and after that of rain." 

C, GOLDING, Colchester. 

46.— Queen Katten's Day at Peterborough.--I remember a 
quaint old custom which used to be observed at Peterborough, but 
I know nothing of its origin or meaning. One day in November 
(I cannot remember which day) used to be locally called Queen 
Katten's day. On that occasion a party of people were accustomed 
to parade the streets of the city, the chief of whom was dressed 
as a queen, and they had a quaint ditty, \vhich they sang in front 



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56 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

of the houses of the principal residents. The song had several 
verses, all of which concluded with this chorus : — 

Some says she's alive, some say she's dead, 

But now she does appear with a crown upon her head ; 

And a spinning we wiU go, 

And a spinning we wiU go. 

J. L. Blake. 

47.— Total Eclipse of the Sun in the Pens in 1715.— The 

Total Eclipse of the Sun, 22nd April, 1715, passed over the 
whole of Lincolnshire and over the greater part of England and 
Wales— extending from Cheshire to Sussex. The central line of 
the Moon's shadow ran through the Fen district, about midway 
between Wisbeach and Holbeach ; totality would occur in those 
places about 9.15 a.m. Are any local records of the phenomena 
known ? q j^ q 

48.— A Holbeach Vicar and the Northamptonshire Family 
of Pymlow.— Can any reader of Fenland Notes and Queries say 
from what Parish in Northamptonshire came the Rev. Johm Pim- 
low, Vicar of Holbeach from 1660—1672. He was instituted to 
Holbeach 1660 (17th June), and I find he was a Sizer of 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where it is recorded that he came 
from the County of Northampton, but th^ place is not mentioned. 
He was admitted 23rd February, 1638— 9,, and the name is 
written " Pimlow " in the books of the College, and *^ Pymloe " 
in the University books. He took his B.A. degree in 1642. He 
was buried in the Chancel of Holbeach Church," beneath the Com- 
munion Table." His WiU I have a copy of. He leaves in it, 
" to my daughter Clare Pymlowe my farm at Little Weldon, 
Northamptonshire," but there is no entry in the Parish Register 
there of that name. His predecessor at Holbeach was John 
Bellenden, of whom I should also be glad of any informa- 
tion. 

Grant W. Macdonald, 

St, Mark's Vicarage, Holbeach. 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 57 

49.— Curious Customs in Collecting Tithes in the Pena.— 

The following particulars concerning an interesting bill of com- 
plaint, instituted by Ralph Aveling, of Whittlesea, in 1591> 
are curious as illustrating the manner of collecting tithes in the 
Fenland at that time : — 

** Feb. 12, 1591, 33rd Eliz. The manner of Tything settled 
in execution of a Commission from the Barons of the Exchequer, 
date Feb. 12, 1591. 

" Recites Strifes, &c. between parishioners and inhabitants of 
"Whittlesey S. Mary and Greorge Wallis Grentleman tenant and 
farmer of the Rectory and Parsonage of Whittlesey S. Mary. 

"And whereas Ralph Avehng and other inhabitants of 
W.S.M. and W.S.A. in the name of themselves as also of all other 
the Parishioners and Inhabitants of (Qy.) M. being all customary 
tenants unto the Queen's most excellent Majesty of Her Highness' 
manor of W.S.M. have for the Proof of the custom and manner 
of tything exhibited their English bill of complaint .... against 
the said Geo: Wallis. A commission bearing date 12 Feb. 1591 
(33 Eliz:) directed unto 

Robert Bevill Esq. 
Thomas Neville D.D. 
Robert Trice Esq. 
Robert Millsent Gentleman, 
to assemble at Peterborough by examination of witnesses &o. to 
find out customs .... and by their discretion finally to end and 
determine strifes and controversies. By virtue of this Commission 
in the 33'*^ year 1591-2 did assemble upon the deliberate hearing by 
virtue of their com"- as also by consent and agreement .... tried 
and found out by the oaths and depositions of Ralph Aveling, 
Robert Searle, Robert KelfuU, Will: Speechly and others, and 
decreed as followeth: — 

Calves. — Any person having 9 calves falling after Feast of S. Martin 
the Bp. in Winter (Martinmas) before the same Feast next f oUowing 
to pay on the latter Feast day — One tythe calf receiving back 2|d. 
Any having 10 calves between Martinmas and M. next at noon the 
tythe owner to choose the 3^^^ calf. Under 9 calves owner to pay 
at Easter following for every cow and calf 2^. If above 10 and 
nnder 19 then for aU above 10 2M. at Easter. 



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58 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 



Cows.— Any person having new milch cows betwixt Martinmas and 
M. whose calves shall die or be lost shaU pay 2d. for every old 
milch cow which shall have no calf Id. 

Foals. — For every foal under the No. of 9 between M. and M. Id. 
9 foals 1 for tythe less Id. returned Tythe foal to be paid as 
tythe calf (Qy. the 3rd). Sons and daughters &c. having cattle 
given to them (by parents or master excepted) or who shall buy 
with their own money to pay tythes as others. 

Lambs. — For 9 lambs at clipping day 1 lamb the owner to chuse 2 
of the 9 tythe owner the 3rd to pay back 0^. Ten lambs the 3rd 
for tythe under nine for each^OJd. 10 and under 19 as for calves. 

Wool.— For every 5 lbs. of wool Jd. a pound. If less than 5 lbs. 
0|d. for every fleece. 

Pigs.— For 9 between Easter and Easter 1 pig when it is a fortnight 
old if tJie owner do hill or make away with tlie rest. If weaned the 
tythe to be paid at 6 weeks old paying back OJd. — the owner to 
chuse and the tythe to be 3rd. Ten pigs 1 for tythe. Under 
9 0|d. for each. 

Eggs.— Every person having cocks and hens to (qy. 5) at Easter in 
full satisfaction. 

Ducks.— For laying ducks OJd. each— for 9 one young duck and 

OJd. back. 
Geese.— For 9 geese one tythe and OJd. back under 9 OJd. each. 
Hemp.— The grower to pull and use the hemp tythe as their own 

(except tlie watering thereof) and to carry the tenth sheaf unto 

the Parsonage gate— No tythe for hemp seed. 
Flax.— Grower to put water thereon and use the tythe as they do 

their own and to carry the KP^ sheaf to the Parsonage gate. Not 

to pay tythe for seed— the pulling, drying, carrying, dressing in 

lieu of tythe of seed. 

Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Peas, &c.— The owner lays 18 sheaves 
at every heap or shock and layeth out 2 sheaves by the furrow 
with the top towards the ridge. For loose corn tythe the 10*^ 
shock. 

Hay.— No tithe of Hay in the fields because the Parson has tythe 
grass 80a on the west of the Town at Northey Gravel. 12* in 
King's Delph in lieu of tythe of Hay. 

Feuit.— Owner to gather and carry the 10*^ to Parsonage, onions, 
leeks, garHc, gourds, cucumbers, pompions, and aU kmds of roots 
and fruits and for honey and wax to carry -3^ to Parsonage. No 
tythe for herbs and flowers. No tythe for timber or stubble. 

Easter Offerings.— Every man and his wife 2id. widows Id. 
Servants that take no wages nothing. Any arable lands unsown 
and hereafter mowed to pay tithe in kind. 

Whereas certain spelU of ground used as common pasture if any of 
them (except the Pingle) shaU be laid for hay tythe in kind or if 
hay sold^to be paid. Willows, osiers, wittings, or alders whereof 
no co'/mno9i is taken to pay tythe where the same shall be cut. No 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 59 

Tythe for willows, osiers, alders, or any kind of Fewell or Fodder 
as Thack Reed, Sedge Hassock growing in any of the waste grounds, 
waters fens marshes or moors. 
Bread and wine for Communion to be provided by the Inhabitants. 
All other tythes to be subject to the Ecc^ Laws. 

Signed R. Bevill. R. Millesent. Th. Nevill." 
After follows an Agreement between the Lords and Tenants of 
the Manor (after a long contest) for the Fen Tythes so far as 

relates to grain — 

Wheat 3.9 an acre Barley 3.3 Oats 2/3 Coleseed 5/- Grass and green 

seed 4/-. 

This latter is undated, and would seem to be a copy of a late 

composition. The mention of Coleseed is almost conclusive on 

this point, unless it was grown in England earKer than has been 

hitherto supposed. 

50.— Wisbech Saint Mary's Church.— The parish church of 
Wisbech St. Mary is about to undergo a general restoration. 
The chancel was restored recently by the owners of the great 
tithes. The church consists of a chancel, nave, aisles, tower, and 
south porch. The prevailing style of its architecture is Perpen- 
dicular Gothic of the end of the fifteenth century. The tower 
arch is early pointed Gothic of the end of the fourteenth century, 
of which style there are also traces in the moulding of the north 
door, and it is not improbable that the bases of the columns that 
divide the aisles from the nave represent a church of a still earlier 
date, possibly one of Norman times. The clerestory is probably a 
later addition. The font is as old as any part of the church. 
The tower, which is embattled, is an interesting piece of ancient 
masonry, and contains a set of five bells. The turret of the 
sanctus bell, surmounted by a cross, still remains on the eastern 
apex of the nave. There are many gravestones in the church- 
yard, the oldest of which bears the date of a.d. 1620. The 
Register dates from the year 1553, the first year of the reign of 
Queen Mary. The living is a Vicarage in the patronage of the 
Lord Bishop of the Diocese, a portion of the ancient foundation 

of the Abbey of Ely. 

Richard Devereitx Jones, 

St. Mary's Vicarage, Wisbech. 



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60 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

51.— Records of Fenland Marriages.— The following records 

of Fenland marriages are collected from old newspapers. The 

dates refer to the issue of the newspapers. 

1796. 

Jan. 22 At St. Bees, Cumberland — John Walker, of Deeping 
St. James, to Miss Wake, of Whitehaven. 

Jan. 22 At Ely— Lieut. Brown of the Notts. Militia to 0. Mar- 
shall, youngest daughter of Mr. W. Marshall. 

Feb. 5 At Crowland — John Ullett, an eminent farmer and 
grazier in Deeping Fen, to Sarah Cowhng, third daughter 
of William Cowling, of Crowland. 

Feb. 12 At Boston— W"'- Kobinson, Esq.,* to Miss Goodwin, both 
of Boston. 

Feb. 12 At Lynn — William Chapman, merchant, to Miss Emer- 
son, both of Boston. 

Feb. 12 The Eev. Bartholomew Goe, of Coningsby, to Miss 
Flowers, of Boston, 

Feb. 12 At Mareham-le-Fen, co. Lincoln— John Tomlinson, to 
Mrs. Tasker, landlady at the " Chequer " Inn, at Mare- 
ham-le-Fen. 

Feb. 12 At Sculcoates— The Eev. Mr. Edwards, of Lynn, to 
Miss Pead, daughter of the late Benj"- Pead, Esq., of 
Hull. 

Feb. 19 At St. Martin's, Stamford— Mr. Chapman, scrivener, of 
Wisbech, to Mrs. Newzam, late of Peterborough, 

Feb. 19 At Heckington, co. Lincoln— W. Smith, of Garwick, in 
that parish, to Miss Stephenson, only daughter of Mr. 
John Stephenson, of Swineshead Lodge. 

Mar. 4 At Bennington, near Boston — W. Overton, draper and 
grocer, to Miss E. Procter, both of Bennington. 

Mar. 4 Mr. Robert Martin, of Great Distaff Lane, London, to 
Miss Bycrof t, of Boston. 

Mar. 11 At Stanground, Hunts. — Mr. Pears, grazier, of Toneham, 
near Thorney, to Miss Taylor, of Peterborough. 

* Alderman William Robinson, of Boston, died Aug. 6, 1801. 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 61 

Mar. 11 Mr. Hart, attorney at law, of Bourn, co. Lincoln, to 
Miss Worrall, of Bourn. 

Mar. 24 At Ely — Rev. James Saunders, B.D., Fellow of Queen's 
College, Cambridge, and Eector of Sawtry Moigne, 
Huntingdonshire, to Miss Attenborough, of Ely. 

April 8 At Boston — Charles Carter, of Deeping Fen, Linos., to 
Miss Lay ton, of Boston. 

April 15 Thomas Clarke, of Wiggan, to Miss Hewit, of Colne, 
Hunts. 

April 15 At Bourn — John Swift, to Elizabeth Swift, of Market 
Deeping, Lines. 

April 22 Mr. Verdun, attorney at law, at Long Sutton, to Miss 
Maulkinson, daughter of Mr. Maulkinson, an eminent 
farmer and grazier, of Sutton Marsh. 

AprQ 22 Mr. S. Garner, farrier, of Wisbech, to Elizabeth Storr. 
third daughter of Mr. Samuel Storr, painter, of Wisbech. 

April 29 French Johnson, to Miss Toon, both of Boston. 

April 29 At Peakirk, Norths. — Mr. Hemment, graxier, of Thorney 
Fen, to Mrs. Fairchild, relict of Mr. Fairchild, of Deep- 
ing Fen. 

May 13 At Pas ton, near Peterborough — William Pank, a capital 
grazier, of Borough Fen, to Esther Shelstone, of the 
same place. 

May 13 Thomas Riley, draper, of Lynn, to Miss Grant, of Great 
Glenn, Leicestershire. 

May 27 Mr. Aveling, surgeon, to Mrs. Leighton, both of Whittle- 
sey, Cambs. 

May 27 The Rev. Mr. Banks,* of Boston, to Miss Hunnings, and 
daughter of Butter Hunnings, Esq.,t Mayor of Lincoln. 

Jane 10 At Boston — Chevalier d'Estimauville, a Canadian gentle- 
man, to Miss Blyth, niece to J. Betts, Esq. 

June 17 At Yaxley, Hunts. — Mr. Smith, of London, to Miss 
Chamberliu, of Yaxley. 

* In 1809 the Kev. John Banks, B.D., F.S.A., head master of Boston 
Grammar School, was presented to Braitoft Rectory. 

t Butter Hunnings, an alderman of Lincoln, and mayor for 1796, died 
on March 8, 1804, at Boston. 



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62 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

June 17 Mn Thompson, of Carlby, Lines., to Miss Ounnington, 

of Stibbingfcon, Hunts. 
June 17 Mr. Turner, watchmaker, to Miss Parker, daughter of 

Mr. Parker, tea dealer, both of Lynn. 
June 24 At Baston, Lines. — William Gates, aged 79, widower, to 

Ann Oldgate, of Baston, aged 77, widow. 
June 24 At Navenby, near Lincoln — Mr. Valentine Ingram, of 

Surfleet Marsh, near Spalding, to Mary Eollett, youngest 

daughter of Mr. Eollett, of the former place. 
July 1 Mr. George Moore, of the Post Ofllce, Boston, to Mrs. 

White, of Boston. 
July 8 Mr. Charles Slow, of Huntingdon, to Miss Stona, only 

daughter of William Stona, Esq., of the same place. 
July 8 Mr. Watson, baker, of Downham, to Miss Mary Eich- 

mond, of Ely. 
July 15 Mr. Sisson, jun., of Barholm, to Miss Gibbs, of West 

Deeping. 
July 22 At Gretna Green — Sampson Barber,* of Willow Hall, 

near Peterborough, to Miss Henderson, of Shap, West- 
morland. 
July 22 At Croft, near Wainfleet— John Troutbell, of Leake, 

oflScer of excise, to Susanna Wright, of the above- 
mentioned place. 
July 22 By special licence, at Lambeth Palace, by the Archbishop 

of Canterbury, the Lord Bishop of Peterborough, f to 

Miss Vyse, sister to General Vyse. 
July 22 At Huntingdon— Mr. James Flower, of Huntingdon, 

merchant, to Miss Eowe, daughter of Mr. John Eowe, 

of Huntingdon. 
July 29 Mr. Turtle, of St. Martin's, Stamford, to Miss Eickett, 

of Lolham. 

* See Fenlcmd Notes and Qtieries, p. 35, Part 1, Vol. I. 

f Spencer Madan was Bishop of Peterborough from 1794 to 1813. 
On Feb. 16th, 1830, there died at his house in the Close, Lichfield, aged 67, 
Wmiam Charles Madan, a Colonel in the Army, 7th and 37th Eegiments. 
He was the youngest son of Dr. Spencer Madan, Lord Bishop of Peter- 
borough, and Lady Charlotte, second daughter of Charles, Earl of Com- 
wallis. 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 63 

Aug. 5 James Digby, Esq.,* of Bonrn, Lines., to Miss Hyde, 
daughter of the Rev. Mr. Hyde,t of Bourn.f 

Aug. 5 Mr. Thos. Nickelson, tailor and woollen draper, Lynn, 
to Miss Middleton, daughter of Mr. J. Middleton, pilot 
master, of Lynn. 

Aug. 26 At Polebrook, Norths. — Mr. Donard Albin, printer, of 
Spalding, (one of the Spalding troop of Loyal Lincoln- 
shire Yeoman Cavaky), to Miss R. Seward, of Polebrook. 

Aug. 26 At Kirkby — Mr. William Goodson, plumber and glazier, 
of Sleaford, to Mary Harmston, of Kirkby. 

Aug, 26 At Polebrook, Norths. — Mr. Richard Massam, of Holland 
Fen, to Miss Hunt, of Polebrook. 

Aug. 26 The Rev. Henry Clarke, to Miss Serecold, both of 
Peterborough. 

Sep. 9 At Whaplode — Mr. Thompson, innholder, to Elizabeth 
Fisher, of Whaplode. 

Oct. 7 Mr. Lawrence, attorney at law, of Lynn, to Miss Gray, 
of Gaywood. 

Oct. 7 Mr. James Weatherby, of London, to Miss Sophia 
Thorpe, of Newmarket. 

Oct. 14 Mr. N. T. Darwin, of Bucklersbury, London, to Miss 
Wheldale, of Boston. 

* In " Obituary and Eecords for the counties of Lin6oln, Rutland, 
and Northampton," by Justin Simpson, it is stated, p. 115, that Mr. James 
Digby, of Red Hall, Bourn, died unmarried at the age of 77, on August 14, 
1811. He left property said to be worth £200,000, which was inherited 
by his two sisters, Mary, the wife of John IToweU, Esq., of Blackball, 
Devon, and Henrietta, married to George Pauncefort, Esq. The son of the 
elder co-heir, the Rev. John Digby Fowell, of Blackball * became, on the 
death of his uncle, the representative of this branch of the family of 
Digby, and died in 1828, leaving three sons and two daughters. James 
Digby was the last male heir of the ancient family of Digby, of South 
Lrfienham, Rutland, descended from Sir John Digby, of Eye Kettleby, 
Leicestershire. The arms of Digby are : az., a fleur de lis, arg. Crest : an 
ostrich, holding in the beak a horseshoe, or. Motto : Deus non f ortuna. 

t The Rev. Humphrey Hyde, rector of Dowsby, and vicar of Bourne 
Lmcs., died Jan. 18, 1807. The family of Hyde had been estabhshed at 
Dowsby for upwards of two centuries. 

X The announcement of this marriage was published in the Stamford 
Mercury of Aug. 5, 1796, and does not appear to have been subsequently 
contradicted. The date is given as "yesterday se'nnight" but the "place" 
where the marriage took place is not mentioned. 



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64 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

Oct. 14 At Kings Lynn—Blencowe, Esq., to Miss Everard, 
eldest daughter of Edward Everard, sen., Esq., alderman 
of that borough. 

Oct. 28 At St. John's, Peterborough — Captain Orange, of the 
86th regiment, to Miss E. B. Phillipson. 

Nov. 4 Mr. Brown, surgeon, of Thorney, to Miss M. Facon, 6f 
Borough Pen. 

Nov. 11 At Sleaford— Mr. R. Thornill, printer and bookseller, to 
Miss Tindale, both of Sleaford. 

Nov. 25 At Boston — Mr. Meggitt, to Miss Tance. 

Nov. 25 At Baldock — Mr. John Edwards, jun., a member of the 
corporation of Lynn, to Miss Mary Eliza Martin, a 
relative of the late Eichard Edwards, Esq., of Arlsey, 
in Bedfordshire. 

Nov. 25 Captain Eobert Thompson, of the Fountain, Lynn, to 
Miss Diokerson, of South Lynn. 

Dec. 16 Mr. Preston, of Sleaford, to Miss Mowbray, of Grantham. 

Dec. 23 Mr. Lee, late master of the " Windmill " Inn, Stamford, 
to Mrs. Thistleton, of Peterborough. 

Dec. 30 At Harmston, William King, Esq., of Merton, Lines., 
to Miss Hopkinson, of Peterborough. A young lady 
with a handsome fortune, and possessed of eveiy amiable 
qualification to render the married state completely 
happy. A very great concourse of people attended at 
the church to witness the ceremony. 
(To he continued.) 

52.— Herod's Coat at Holbeach.— (No. 3). — Your corres- 
pondent may not be aware that the Miracle Play of the 
Slaughter of the Innocents, performed usually on Candlemas 
Day, embraced as one of the principal actors therein " Herod," 
and probably the remnant sold was the vestment " Herod " 
appeared in by his then representative. The play entitled 
" Candlemas Day, or the Killing of the Children of Israel," was 
written by one John Parfre, and is preserved in the Digby MSS. 
in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. It bears the date 1512. King 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 65 

Herod is the chief character, and the others are Syemon (as the 
Bysshop), Joseph, Maria, and Anna (Prophetess), with Virgins, 
Knights, and Angels. I find also in the Miracle Plays of Coventry, 
and in the Guild Expenses, this ifcem under the date 1490) : — 
Md. payd to the players for Corpus Xisti daye. 
Itm : to Heroude . . . iij^- iiii^' 
" The Killing of the Innocents " was one of the plays acted by 
the^" Goldsmiths," or Guild of Goldsmiths, yearly, in the City of 
Chester, between Whit Monday and Whit Wednesday, in each 
year annually until A.D. 1577. 

" Magnus Herodes," or " Great Herod," was one of the Plays 
or Mysteries mentioned in the celebrated collection known as the 
Townsley Mysteries. 

Charles Golding, Colchester. 

The " stuflPe " sold from Holbeach church in 1543 formed the 
accessories used in Mystery or Miracle Plays, founded upon events 
recorded in sacred writ, and which were in Mediaeval times acted 
in Churches. The " Creation of the World," *• Slaying of the 
Innocents" (which accounts for the presence of Herod's coat), 
and numerous other scenes were principally enacted by the various 
guilds, in which as dramatis jpersonos> the Apostles, Holy Angels, 
etc., would take part. J. S. 

Mr. FiCKLiNG, B.A., of St. Peter's College, Peterborough, has 
also furnished a similar reply. 

53.— The Suppression of Croyland Abbey.— In Vol. 261 of 
"Miscellaneous Books, Augmentation Office," is the following entry 
of local interest : — 

"Payments by warraunts of the Counsaill — Firet payed the 
xxix*^ daye of Marche anno xxxij h viij (1541) to Willm. Symp- 
son xlo for his travayle attendaunce and charge taken given and 
susteyned in for and abowte the profe and tryall of a certyn 
informacon made and geven by the said willm. for ymbeselUng 
and conveying of certeyne goods by the late abbot of Crowland 
according to a warraunt of the Counsill in that behalf made as by 
the same more playnly apperyth." In a M.S. list of Crown 



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6g Penland Notes and Queries. 

pensioners of dissolved Conventual houses and Chantries payable 
at Michmas. 2 & 3 P & M (1555) I find one "Willm. Sympesunne 
a late inmate of Croyland, was in receipt of an annual pension of 
53/4, perhaps the same W. S. who " rounded " upon his superior. 
Some 16 years after the suppression of the conventual establish- 
ments, two kindred society's. Chantries and Guilds, shared a similar 
fate, judging from inventories taken a year or two before their 
suppression. It appears that the custodians of the church property 
at that time did all they could to preserve it from falling into the 
hands of the spoiler. Within a year or two the moveable property, 
plate, rapidly vanished, and when the Royal Commissioners took 
inventory, only little remained to reach the royal jewel house. 
The Commissioners appointed by royal authority for the county 
of Lincoln make no mention of Croyland, so probably they were 
considered as part and parcel of the revenues of the Abbey, and 
of course confiscated with its temporalities. One John Dighton, 
of Crowland, by will dated 18 Jan. 1507-8, and proved in London, 
9 Nov. 1508, bequeathed to the high altar of the parish church of 
Crowland, "for tithes forgotten, 12d. ; the Fraternity of St. John 
Baptist founded in the said church, 12d. ; fraternities of the Holy 
Trinity and Corpus Christi, ea. 12d.;; and to the Plough light 
founded in the said church of Crowland, 4d. To the head (or 
mother) church of Lincoln, 4d. To a priest to sing for my soul, 
Margaret my wifes & all Christian souls in Crowland church for 
a whole year, £5. I will that my executor cause to be said & 
sung for my soul & souls above said a trentall of St. Gregories 
masses as soon as it may be goodly done after my dec, the priest 
to have 10s. For an anniversary to be kept for my soul, Margaret 
my wifes, & all Christian souls in the parish church of Crowland 
on the day of my dec. by the space of 20 years, to distribute 
yearly 3s. 4d. Residue of goods to Henry D. priest, my son sole 
exor" & who proved the will." 

In my next paper I will give you the will of the last Abbot of 

^ * Justin Simpson, Stamford. 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 67 

54.-TIie Speechley and Ground Families.— The following 
Table of descenfc of the family of Mr. Edward Ground, of 
the North Bank, Whittlesey, in 1815, was taken from an in- 
scription on a silver cup in Mr. Ground's possession at that date: — 

Alice Speechley, widow of John Speechley, ob. 1658. 

Edward Speechley, son of the said Alice and John, ob. 1701. 

Edward Speechley, son of the said Edward, ob. 1743. 

Alice, daughter of the last mentioned Edwd. Speechley. married 
Henry Clarke, ob. 1776. 

Amey Ground, daughter of the said Alice Clarke, ob. 1786. 

Edwd. Ground, son of the above named Amey Ground, livinff in 
1819. ^ 

55.— Characteristic Features of Fen History.— Originally 
the Fens, stretching for some 70 miles from north to south, and 
at the widest 40 miles in breadth, or 680,000 acres, flourished as 
primaBval forests (Skertchley of the Geological Survey, asserts 0) 
of oak, elm, birch, firs, yews, and willows ; in fact, was as Dug- 
dale says :— A great level of firm dry land, and not annoyed with 
any extraordinary inundation from the sea or stagnation of the 
fresh waters. He endeavours to manifest this, although the 
strangeness is apparent, by giving instances of great oak trees 
being found when the great Cuts were made, some not severed 
from the roots remaining fixed in firm earth below the Moor. 
In Marshland, near Magdalen Bridge there was discovered, at 
17 feet deep, furze, nut bushes, and perfect nuts, imbedded be- 
tween the firm earth and the silt, which had been brought up by 
the inundation of the sea. If it was inundated by the sea, the 
question arises, "How did it become overfiowed by the sea?" Dug- 
dale tries to solve this problem. He takes it for granted that the 
Fens were once solid land, and I may mention that the Fens are 
surrounded by comparative highland, pretty nearly in the shape 
of a horsehoe. How did it then become a prodigious Fen? How 
did the ocean break in with such force as to uproot the great oaks 
and firs, and cover the whole level to such an extraordinary depth? 
If the ocean had not been in, how could Sir Robert Cotton, Bart., 
find the skeleton of a large sea fish, near 20 feet long, lying in 
perfect silt, more than 6 feet below the superficies of the ground, 
and as much above the present level of the Fens, when he was 



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gg FB2<niAND Notes and Queries. 

making some drainage improvements in Huntingdonshire. But 
when and by what means that violent breach and inundation of 
the sea was first made into the country, Dugdale is not able 
to positively afl&rm, therefore he must take leave to deliver his 
conjecture therein from the most rational probability, which is, 
that it was by some great earthquake, for that such dreadful ac- 
cidents have occasioned the like we have unquestionable testimony. 
However, he does not support his conjecture very much by 
mentioning the encroachments and the receding of the sea, which 
is taking place at the present moment in many places, as at 
Skegness, Cromer, Lyme, Eomney, Southport, etc. Perhaps a 
more rational explanation would be this. Those who have been 
to Hunstanton, in Norfolk, will remember Hunstanton Ness, or 
the high white cliffs. Geologists tell us that this chalk ridge ex- 
tended to the Lincolnshire coast, and within this ridge was a plain 
of soft blue clay, and the sea beating upon the chalk barrier, and 
aided by the rivers, broke through the chalk and scoured out the 
clay, not all, nor smoothly, but leaving banks here and there, and 
then a long struggle ensued between sea, land, air, frost und rain; 
in fact, every disintegrating agent assembled, and the elemenis had 
it for their battle ground for many long ages. Helping all this, there 
may have been subsidences and slight oscillations of the land it- 
self. Again, when we remember that the country is a low plain, 
varying from five to twenty feet above the Ordnance datum or 
mean tidal level, and much of it below high water level, and 
would be overflowed daily but for the erection of great banks, 
also that the water from the surrounding country, 4| times the area 
of the Fens, all had to pass through it, I opine that the silt, the 
alluvium, and the ooze would deposit in the Fen basin, the rivers 
would become choked up, settle into Lakes and Meres, and wander 
by numerous and shifting channels to the sea. Then commenced 
the growth of a luxuriant vegetation in fresh water, which we dig 
to-day as peat, and the more elevated land or islands, which varied 
from 20 to 80 feet above mean tide level, became overgrown with 
reeds, alders and osiers, which were haunted by wild fowl in- 
(To he continued). 



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ARMS OF THE AVELING FAMlLY AT WHITTLESEY. 



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Penland Notes and Qubeies. 69 

numerable. Vegefcation flourished and decayed, suspended matter 
still kept pouring down from the high country, and was deposited, 
until, in the 16 th century, the Fens were spoken of as an inland 
sea in winter, and a noxious swamp in sununer ; and terribly hard 
must life have been in the winter, when the frost stopped the 
boats and was not sufficient for the weight of man. The first 
attempt at reclamation is attributed to the Eomans, and there can 
be little doubt that the Eomans threw up the old Sea Bank, which 
originally was 150 miles in length. They also made the Carr 
Dyke or Catchwater Drain from the Nene to the Witham, and old 
Podyke in Marshland Pen. Next, in 1115, Eichard de Eollua 
reclaimed part of Deeping Pen, by shutting out the Welland by 
a strong embankment. Eichard de Eollus married the daughter 
and heiress of Hugh Evermure, Lord of Bourne and Deeping, who 
had married Torfrida, the daughter of Hereward Leofricsson, who 
was the son of the famous Leofric, Earl of Mercia, and the equally 
famous Lady Godiva. The monks of the monasteries founded on 
the islands are credited as giving special attention to the drainage 
of their own domains, but nothing very substantial was done until 
after the great and most destructive floods of 1607. James I., 
hearing of the great and frequent devastation made this royal 
declaration, that " for the honour of his kingdom, he would not 
any longer suffer these countries to be abandoned to the will of the 
waters, nor to let them lie waste and unprofitable ; and that if no 
one else would undertake their drainage, he himself would become 
their undertaker." So in 1609 the first district Act for Pen 
Drainage was passed, and Lord Chief Justice Popham and a 
company of Londoners commenced, but were not successful. 
Their works remain in Londoners' Lode and Popham's Eau. Por 
their trouble they were to receive two-thirds of the reclaimed 
land. After this there were loud calls for a skilled undertaker, or 
engineer, but England had none ; and in their dilemma they 
called to their aid Cornelius Vermuyden, the celebrated Dutch 
Drainage Engineer. This was in 1629, or 20 years after the first 
Act was passed. A contract was made between him and the 
Commissioners of Sewers, at Kings Lynn, he undertaking to find 



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70 FENiiAND Notes and Queriis. 

all requisite funds, to drain the Level according to a plan submitted 
by him, on condition that 95,000 acres of the reclaimed land 
should be granted to him as a recompense. But great was the 
outcry against this contract with a foreigner, one jealous John 
Bull exclaiming — " What, is the old activitie and abilities of the 
Enghsh nation grown now soe dull and insufficient, that we must 
pray in ayde of our neighbours to improve our own demaynes ? " 
So the contract was abrogated before many months. After this, 
Francis, Earl of Bedford was induced to take the head of affairs, 
and he engaged the services of Vermuyden, and then began 
earnestly the drainage of the Bedford Level, divided into the 
North, Middle, and South Levels. Very great difficulties were 
encountered from the very first, principally from the want of 
funds, the hostility of the Fen-men, (who, with the disappearance 
of the water, saw that they could neither fish, snare, nor shoot), 
and even the popular press of the day hurled its darts against 
the great undertaking. Six or eight years afterwards, the works 
being in fall progress, the great discontent among the Fen natives 
became fanned into a fierce flame by the member for Huntingdon, 
Oliver Cromwell, a man who from obscurity desired to gain influence 
in the Pariiamentary party of the Fen country. He went about 
from village to village, and from meeting to meeting, even ques- 
tioning the character of the improvement itself, and soon became 
the most popular man in the district, and was saluted as " Lord of 
the Fens." Many great riots occurred at this period, the works 
suffering very extensively ; the embankments were cut through, 
and the Drains dammed up, by which the work of many years 
was rendered void. Then raged the civil war, and the Fen 
country became in a worse state than before. The works began 
again about 1650, everything being at its very lowest ebb. Cheaper 
labour was required, and a thousand Scotch prisoners taken at 
Dunbar were made to work at the Drainage ; also five hundred 
prisoners taken by Blake over Van Tromp rendered valuable 
services. At length the works were declared finished, and the 
Lords Commissioners of Adjudication made their Official inspection 
for Parliament. They sailed upon the new rivers, surveyed the 



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Penland Notes aito Qubeies. 71 

new eaus and sluices, and returned to Ely, where Sir Cornelius 
Vermnjden read to them a discourse descriptive of the work they 
had inspected, in which he said there were then sown with wheat 
and other grain 40,000 acres. Mills, first worked by horse power 
were introduced in 1678, and it was not until after 1726 that 
the wind was utilised to draw the water from the dyke to the 
drain, and from the drain to the river ; but for some years past 
steam has been taking the place of wind, and now the luxuriant 
vegetation of the water is changed for that of the best arable 
land in the kingdom. 

Geoege Hughes, Horwich, Bolton. 

56.— Fenland Superstitions.— When taking up the founda- 
tions of an old house in the Fen, we found beneath the hearth-stone 
a low flat-bottomed glass bottle. The side was broken by the 
tool of the workman. Inside was a number of pins stuck into a 
dark substance. I have heard of other bottles, glass and stone, 
(probably of Dutch manufacture) being found in similar positions. 
It has been said they were intended as a charm to keep evil spirits 
away, and that the pins were stuck into the heart of a pigeon for 
that purpose. Some reader of Fenland Notes and Queries may 
perhaps be able to throw some light on the matter. I have seen 
horse-shoes nailed to the threshold of the door, which are said to 
have been for the same purpose. The horse- shoe in our day is 
said to be a token of good luck : some persons will not pass one 
on the road without picking it up, and I have heard of collections 
being made in this way. There is still a great deal of supersti- 
tion in the Fenland even amoug educated persons, more than 
many would imagine ; some believe in liiclcy and unlucky days ; 
others that if by chance 13 sit down to dinner at the same table, 
one will die before the year is out. S.E. 

57.— The St. Ives Mercury.— The first number of the North- 
ampton Mercury was published on the 2nd May, 1720, but what 
is most remarkable is that the then public is informed that what 
the paper will be may be judged by the St. Ives Mercury of the 
two preceding weeks. That it was printed here is conclusive from 



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72 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

its reference to the printing-office in Huntingdonshire. So that 
it is clear St. Ives had its own newspaper 169 years ago, at a time 
when there was scarcely, perhaps, a dozen journals in all England. 
St. Ives must have been a place of importance in the early years 
of the reign of the first Greorge. It evidently ranked with 
Northampton and Reading, as when a paper was started later at 
the last named place — this was also a Mercury — St. Ives was 
quoted as a most worthy pattern to follow, and a conclusive 
argument in favour of a Reading paper, seeing that St. Ives in 
Hunts, had got one. It is probable that the Messrs. Raikes and 
Dicey were proprietors of the St. Ives Mercury. After they 
dissolved business, through the heavy fine of Sir E. Lawrence, 
Mr. Dicey went to reside at Northampton, and it may be that he 
continued the paper there under the new title of the Northartipton 
Mercury. The dates given above agree in time, and seem to 
confirm this suggestion. Herbert E. Norris. 

58.— "Lincolnsliire Tales."— A second volume of Lincolnshire 
Dialect Tales and Stories, by Miss Malel Peacock, second daughter 
of Edward Peacock, F.S.A., of Bottesford Manor, Brigg, is now 
being printed by her publishers — Geo. Jackson and Son, Brigg. 
Miss Peacock's previous book, published two or three years ago, 
met with extraordinary success, and we understand the new work 
will be even more entertaining and interesting than its predecessor. 

59.— Wisbech Church Tower.— A correspondent writes thus 
concerning the perpendicular tower of the parish chm*ch of 
Wisbech St. Peter, which is practically detached from the main 
structure in mixed styles and of much earlier date : — 

"The tower is a massive structure, it is much adorned on every 
side, especially towards the top, with coats of arms exceedingly 
well carved. At the north side of the steeple, towards the 
summit, are these devices : — In the middle, the royal arms of 
England and France on a large shield, supported by an angel 
under a canopy. Above this may be seen a text SI and a text p[, 
crowned, and at the bottom corner of the upper storey, under 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 73 

the a;, the ajms of the See of Canterbury. *S may possibly be 
the initial of Thomas Goodrich, one of the revisers of the 
authorised version of the New Testament, and probably the 
Bishop of Ely at the time the tower was completed ; whilst p 
undoubtedly is the initial of the surname of Archbishop Morton, 
created Cardinal in 1493, who was some time Bishop of Ely, and 
builder of the second castle at Wisbech. The device in a 
corresponding position beneath the P is also mitred, and has a 
coat of arms quarterly, considered to be Cardinal Morton's. On 
the ridge below the window are seven curious shields. Of these, 
the first bears the arms of France and England ; the nature of 
the second is uncertain ; the third device is the Cross Keys, the 
emblem of St. Peter ; the fourth shield bears the arms of the See 
of Ely, supported by an angel ; the character of the sixth device 
is uncertain ; whilst the seventh shield bears the arms of the See 
of Ely impaling those of Cardinal Morton, mitred ; beneath these, 
in the corners of the arch of the belfry door, are two other shields, 
the first, keys in saltier (the aims of St. Peter), and the second, 
swords in saltier (the arms of St. Paul). The other sides of the 
tower bear devices of an equally interesting character ; the 
buttresses of the tower are very substantial ; whilst the pinnacles 
at the four corners of the summit, the balustrading, together with 
the intermediate pinnacles therein, and the central dwarf spire, 
are all both interesting and curious. It is probable that the tower 
was commenced circa 1520, at which time Nicholas "West was 
Bishop of Ely, and completed circa 1538, during the episcopate 
of Thomas Goodrich, who subsequently became Lord Chancellor 
of England." " Hbrewaed." 

60.— Manea in 1748.— A pamphlet of 23 pages, written and 

* It has been objected that the theory concerning the signification 
of these initial letters is unsound, on the ground that it is unusual to find 
one referring to a Christian name of an individual and the other to the 
surname of someone else ; but I would remark that there are many quaint 
instances of such " sermons in stones." At any rate the first letter is more 
like T than J, or I might be inclined to hold to the opinion that the initials 
were both those of Cardinal John Morton, whose name wiU be perpetuated 
in the Fens by the weU-known "Morton's Leam." 



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74 Fenlaot) Notes and Queries. 

published iii 1748 by Thomas Neale, M.A., rector of the parish, 
is thus headed : — " The ruinous state of the parish of Manea, in 
the Isle of Ely, with the causes and remedy of it humbly repre- 
sented in a letter, To Matt, Eobinson Morris, Esq., Lord of the 
Manor of Ooveney with Manea." 

The writer of the pamphlet begins by quoting a passage from 
Dugdale, page 415, where, speaking of King Charles I., he says, 
" And moreover to enrich these countries, by several new planta- 
tions and diverse ample privileges ; amongst which his royal 
intentions, that of the building of an eminent town in the midst 
of the level, at a little village called Manea, and to have called 
it Oharlemont, was one ; the design whereof he drew himself, 
intending to have made a navigable stream from thence to the 
river Ouse." Mr. Neale says, "There is an artificial square 
mount, at this day, not far from the chapel, which, so far as I 
can learn from tradition, was thrown up by his Majesty's order." 
I think probably tradition was right, as this pamphlet was written 
not much more than 100 years after King Charles' death ; I have 
always known it as Charley Mount. It is not so large as it used 
to be, having been partially thrown down, but is now a consider- 
able mound. The writer of the pamphlet then goes on to give 
three reasons, or causes, for this ruinous state of the parish. 
Firstly, the great number of mills erected of lafce years in the 
Middle Level. He says, " there are now no less than two hundred 
and fifty in the Middle Level. In Whittlesey parish only, I was 
told by some of the principal inhabitants there are more than 
fifty mills, and there are, I believe, as many in Donningfcon (query 
Doddington) with its members. I myself, riding very lately from 
Eamsey to Holme, about six miles across the Fens, counted forty 
in my view ; there are between Eamsey and Old Bedford Bank, 
and upon the forty-feet, sixteen-feet, and twenty-feet, and to Salter's 
Load in Well parish (surrounding Manea), fifty-seven. A great 
number of these mills throw their water directly upon Manea. 
This is the first cause of the ruinous state of Manea. Secondly, 
a large tunnel, above five feet wide and more than three deep, was 
laid down in 1712 under the forty-feet, both bank and drain. 



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Penland Notes and Queries. 75 

The visible design of this bank was to defend the lower parts of 
the level from the waters of the upper parts ; but by this tunnel 
the waters of a large tract of land above us (near ten thousand 
acres) have been continually poured into the twenty-feet, the only 
drain that Manea has to carry off its waters. And a third cause is 
the decay of the general outfall of the Ouse since Denver Sluice 
fell. Of this, I have many witnesses to produce, as well as my 
own experience. I have heard ancient people say, that if Manea 
heretofore were drowned two feet deep in February by a breach of 
banks, for it was never drowned otherwise, they could plow and 
sow those lands with oats that same year ; but now it is too well 
known, if it be drowned but one foot deep at that time, it can 
scarce be got dry all that summer. There is a person now living 
in Manea who remembers the Old Bedford Bank breaking opposite 
to that parish about forty-five years ago, but a fortnight before 
Lady-day, and laying the Fen lands of it a considerable depth 
under water ; and yet he assisted in plowing and sowing oats in 
the lower parts of it that same year : this could be owing to 
nothing else but the goodness of the outfall at that time. These 
are the evident and effectual causes which have by degrees reduced 
the lands, and in consequence of that, the inhabitants of Manea, 
to a low estate indeed, from keeping, as I have known them, 
between two and three thousand sheep, to not being able to winter 
three hundred without much trouble and difficulty ; from some of 
the worst lands in the parish producing, without much hazard, 
fifteen or sixteen comb (and I have been assured sometimes a 
last) of oats an acre, to not being capable of being plowed at all ; 
from every acre in the parish being occupied, to having a third 
part unlet ; from being the best place except one (Thomey) that 
Mr. Fortrey knew of in the Fens for a farmer to thrive in, as he 
told me above thirty years ago, to the greatest part being almost 
reduced to beggary ; from being called rich Manea, as I have heard 
ancient tradesmen of Ely say (when I first went to that school in 
1708), to being reckoned the poorest in the level ; from the tythes 
amounting to a hundred pounds per annum (exclusive of Coveney) 
as my predecessor Mr. Austin informed me, to their being worth 



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76 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

(when the curate, taxes, and repairs are paid) scarce the trouble of 
collecting ; from my paternal estate, which I am still possessed of, 
being worth about one hundred and thirty pounds per annum (not 
estimating a corn mill, and the best commonable house in the 
parish lately burnt) to its letting this present year under fifty 
pounds, and likely to fall." In one place, describing the former 
prosperity of Manea, he says, " Two hundred acres called Bond's 
Farm, in my memory had a good house upon it, and one Edward 
Newborn, as I am well informed who lived in it, got a thousand 
pounds upon it ; and when he died, above sixty years ago, twenty 
of his milched cows were sold for one hundred pounds. As to 
the thousand acres adjoining, called Fifties, I have many living 
witnesses to produce who not only remember many crops of oats 
and coleseed, but good wheat also growing in them ; beast fed with 
the hay that grew upon them ; and store wethers kept upon and 
bought out of them at eighteen pounds per score, and ewes at 
fifteen pounds ; but now, so miserably are these adventurers' lands 
reduced in value and goodness, that I have lately heard some of 
the most sensible farmers in that parish and neighbourhood say with 
asseverations, ' that if they might have the whole without price, 
and only be bound to pay the draining tax for twenty-one years, 
(supposing them to be exposed as they now are) they would 
absolutely refuse the offer.' " The remedy suggested by Mr. Neale 
was to get a Drainage Act and erect mills as the rest of the Level 
had done. Doubtless by his efforts this was effected, as I see in 

the Order Book of the Drainage Conmiissioners this entry : 

"May 21, 1751, Ordered that Mr. Neale be aUowed 20 guineas 
for his expenses relative to this Act, and that the thanks of the 
Board be likewise given him for his extraordinary care and trouble 
in that affair." Inferring to the Order Book, I find the first 

order at the first meeting of the Commissioners was this : 

" May 17, 1748, Ordered that each Commissioner at this and all 
subsequent meetings shall bear his own expence," But alas for 
the economic intentions of these self-denying men. On August 
3rd, 1749, it was ordered " that such Commissioners as shall attend 
this or any subsequent meeting shall have one shilling allowed him 



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Fenland Notes and Qubbies. 77 

for his afcfcendance at every such meeting." I believe now in these 
degenerate days the Commissioners of most districts have a good 
feed at their annual meetings. 

William Wiles Green, Manea. 

61.— Monumental Inscriptions in St. Margaret's Church, 

LjmLi— 

1.— Under the South-West Tower. 

hie iacet adam de walsokne [ quondam burgens lenn qui 
obiit quinto die mensis iunii anno dni millesimo tricentesimo | 
quadragesimo nono et margareta uxor | eius in cley nata quorum 
anime per dei misericordiam in pace requie | cants amen.x 

cum fex cum limus cum res vilisima sumus 

unde superbimus ad terram terra redimus. 

[In Lombardic letters, the first inscription marginal. The 
second under the feet of the effigies on this well known Flemish 
brass, now placed on a low platform under the South- West Tower.] 



2. — Next Last. 

X orate pro animabus roberti braunche leticie et margare | te 
uxorum eius et pro omnibus quibus tenentur qui quidem robertus 
obii XV die octobris anno domini m°cc°c | lxiiii anime eorum per 
misericordiam dei in pace requi | escant amen. 

[Marginal, in Lombardic letters, on the Flemish brass of 
Brannche, on which is represented the " Peacock Feast."] 



3. — Chancel Floor. 
Hie iacet corpvs lohanis Atkin | Aldermani viri gravissimi 
praehonesti reiq huius burgi publican admodum studiosi cuius 
Maioratum A**, rrs lacobi 5°. & 13^. Honorifice ac pie gessit E 
lohanna uxore eius unica | duodecim amoris sui pigrora suscitavit 
quorum in vivis tantumodo sunt novem [ gulielmus natu primus 
thomas lohanes sethevs anna dementia. lohana frideswitha 
& Margeria vixit A^\ 68 faeliciter. 15. die Septembris A^ Domini 
1617. in Chor obdormivit | [Marginal.] 

Insignis pietate viri, si funera flere. 

Convenit, AtMnnus tunc lachrymandus obit 



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78 Fbnlanb Notes and Queries. 

Heu lachrymandus obit nostri non iUius ergo 
Nos orbos terrse, illnmastra suprema tennet 
Praetoris burgi Lennse bis numere ftmctus 
Oppetiit faelix appetiitque Deum 
Addere plura vetat plangens respublica Lennas 
Nam renovata piget damna videre sua. 
[Brass, IN CAPITALS, with merchant's mark.] 

4. — Chancel Floor. 
Sta Viator : 
Die mihi, quod prosunt vires juvenilis & ardor. 
Ars. decor ingenium Cespite tecta iacent. 
Nil, nisi quod de te caveas, tibi restat, & ores. 
Sic, cum Ventura est mors tibi, salvus eris. [Capitals.] 
Hie deponitur Corpus Franci parlett genosi optime 
spei adolescentis, qui, extremis agens, Voluit in 
exequias suas jSeri Concionem populo, textu ex hoes. 
Eeioyce, 0, yong man, in thy youth, & lett thy | hart cheere thee 
in thy dayes of thy youth, and | walke in y^ wayes of thine heart, & 
in y® sight of | thine eyes : But know that for all theise things | 
God will bring thee to judgement : Eccles : 11 : 9. 

Obijt 29^ May : 1628. -^tat Suae 21. 
Fra : Parlett Ar, P. M p. [Capitals.] 
[Brass, with arms (on a shield) — a parrot, a label for difference ; 
and motto (on a scroll) — " Penses puis paries."] 



5. — Brass, Loose in Vestry. 
Thomas Parlet gener : filius Francisci Parlet | Armigeri huius 
Burgi Kecordatoris natu mini- [ mus tandem unicus, a re 
mercatoria ad ludum j literarium reversus admirandae pietatis & 
cha- I ritatis adolescens, quicquid terras habuit hie | deposuit A^ 
-Abatis suae xvij^ & salutis humanae | ciODixxxii, 

Debitor iste minor iustus, sua debita solvit 
Creditor omnipotens solverat ilia prius 
Debita vis solvas (Hospes) cum solveris ipse 
Vivas ipse Deo, Solvet & ilia Deus. 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 79 

6. — East Wall op North Chapel. 
D E I opt® Max : Sacru | In xpo spem ( Eesnrgendi beatam 
expectat | MARGARETA | Q : F : | Pilia pijs8% uxor fideliss% 
parens | indulgenfciss^sororamantiss* | materfamiliasprovidentiss*, 
pauperibus | opitulantiss*, et omnibus benevolentis8% | diem suum 
in clauso paschse clausit extremu | A**; Sal : ciddcxxxix | Cuius 
redivivse Era : Parlefc Ar : huius | burgi Recordator consorfcis 
suae I per xxxiv annos, cui peperit filios, | Francum, Edrum, 
Ricum, Thomam, | Filias Aliciam, Thomasinam, | Honoram, 
Annam, Joannam, | Margaretam et Margaretam. | 
hie I posuit memorise | Margarita f uit terris cum coniuge iuncta | 
et nunc in caelis splendida gemma micat 
Csetera, si nescis Quaeras ; valeasq viator 
Atq pie vivas, ut moriare pie. 
[Arms : a parrot impaling ; quarterly — over all a saltire wavy. 
Motto : " Pensez puis parlez." In capitals.] 



7. — Over Last. 

Sleepe in y® dust of death (w^^ could not sting) 

Till thou a glorious rising have to sing 

Alleluia to God who'l rayse this dust 

To right hand place & ioyes Amongst y^ iust 

Pure was thy name, thy practise also pure 

Thy iust remembrance promiss'd to endure 

Honor is ergo this is graven for view 

Such Honour to y® Saints is but their due. 

Psal : I 112. 6. 
"Who : being dead to us 

Yet speake by pafcterne thus 

Walke Vertues path Seeke gifts of grace 

By frequent meeting in this place 

Checke sinne with thoughts of death & doome 

in life thinke of the life to come 

feare God let life be vertues story 

That deathe may bring a Crowne of Glory. 

Hoc fac et ex fide Jesu vives. | Illustre virtutis et piefeate 

exemplar, | transientibus spectabile. 



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80 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

The corps of Katherin Cremer theres int-errd 
whose Soule unto a Kingdome is preferrd ; 
in gifts of nature grace she did excell, 
as steps to Glory wherein now she dwell 
a saint made perfect with her Lord & head 
wayting his second comming for the dead, 
come Lord Jesus come quickly 

This blessed Gentl~ was the eldest daughter | of M^. WiUiam 
Taylor of Burnham Merchant | y® prudent wife of M^. Henry 
Cremer of lynn | customer who livd together xx yeares in 
mu I tual ioye & comfort ; having borne unto him | 7 sonnes & 3 
daughters. She finished a happy | course in 39 yeares & fell a 
sleepe in the | Lord the 8 of octo 1647 

[Arms : 3 wolves' heads erased— on a chief — 3 cinquefoils. 
In capitals.] 

8.— Floor op South Chapel. 

Here I'esteth till his Eedeemer cometh | The body of Thomas 
Nelson Alderman | And once Maior of this Burrough who | 
Departed this life the 26*i^ of July 1654 | Aged 74 Yeares. 

And of Elizabeth his wife I Who departed this life | The 2*^ 
of February 1649 | Aged 69 yeares. 

Here Lyeth the Body of Jane the wife | of Mf John Kidd, 
Mercer She was the | Eldest daughter of Henry Chennery Esq | 
Alderman & once Mayor of this Corporation | She Departed this 
life y^ 4*^ of June 1718 Aged 27 

The Body of the same John Kidd | who was also Mayor of 
this Corporation | was here likewise interr'd vi Oct in the | xli 
year of his age & of our Lord | cio.iocc.xx.viii. 



9. — South Side op Chancel Floor. 

Here Lieth the Body of Doro*^^' | The Wife of William Cremer | 
WooUendrap. Daughter of Thomas Cabeck Of Heringswel | ...ster 
& Of Elizabeth His Wife | . . e Died lune y^ 4^^ ano -^tatis | 
23 Selutis 1657. 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 81 

She was the Gift of God so said her name | And so say I her 
vertues said the Same | The Lord her Gave & tooke thinking it 
best I To order me to Trouble Her to rest | William Cremer. 

[Arms : Cremer, as on N"o. 7, impaling 3 fleurs-de-lis.] 

10. — Floor of North Chapel. 

That wch"" thow sowest | is not Quickened Except | it die. 1 cor. 
15. 36 & John | 12 : 24. 

The Body of Eebecca y® | wife of lohn Pulvertof t | Apothecary 
who Dyed | in y® faith of Christ & in | hope of y® resurrection | 
the 10*.^ of August 1673. 

11. — Floor of North Chapel. 

Johannes Filius Edv : Bodham 

Natus 30 7bris f . ^„q 
Obijt 2 8bris t 



12. — Floor of South Chapel. 



H. S. E. I Anna fili . . . . ard Chester | Eq. Aur Uxor 

Henri . . I Hoogan MD .... y^ 29 Decemb. | 1678 [Arms nearly 
worn out.] | Here lies wh*at was mortal | of Mary Chennery | 
(Relict of Mr. Hen Chennery | and daughter of Eob. Eade 
M.D.) I to whose Character | The last day will do Justice. | She 
died Jan. y^ 17*^ 1721 aged 67. R. H. E. 

(^To ye continued). 

62.— French Protestant Refugees in the Pens.— In the 17th 
century many French Protestant families fled to England, and 
some of them settled at Needingworth and the neighbourhood. 
One of the Holywell registers contains a few notes about the 
briefs collected for their relief. 

" Collected upon y® breif for Michael Kys and Peter Kys, Hun- 
garians, y^sum of 5/-." July 16, 1667. 

" Collected upon the brief for the French Protestants : paid to 
Mr. Salmon 12/-." 1689. 

"Collected upon the Brief for the poor exiled Vaudois and 
French Protestants, £1 18 11." Herbert E. Norris. 



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• 82 Fenland Notes and Queries, 

63.— Apreece of WasMngley.— (No. 29, Part II.) On the 23r(i 
of July, 1643, Oliver Cromwell by storm took " Burghley House 
by Stamford town," an event (summarized) from the jp&rfect 
Diurnal of 27th July of that year. " The service, it is informed, 
was somewhat difficult, but it was taken with the loss of very 
few men, and many prisoners of note taken, amongst the rest, 
2 colonels, 6 or 7 captains, 400 foot, about 200 horse, great 
store of arms, and abundance of rich pillage." In a return 
(dated 29th July) of the officers taken prisoners upon that occasion 
and sent to Cambridge was Sir Wingfield Bodenham (of Eyhall), 
Sheriff of the county, and (under Captains, &o.), confined in the 
Tolbooth, or common prison, I find the name of Robert Price, 
Esq., of Washingly, recusant. This should be Robert Apreece, 
Esq., of Washingley. Spelling in the 17th century was not a point 
of strict accuracy. A pedigree of the family is given in the 
Visitation of Hunts., by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald, 
Deputy for Wm. Camden, Clar. 1613-14. I have no doubt 
Robert Apreece taken prisoner at Burghley, by some means obtained 
his release from Cambridge, rejoined the Royalist forces, and 
Robert Apreece shot at Lincoln was both one and the same person. 
None of our historians of the great Civil war, in which Oliver 
Cromwell played so conspicuous a part, have recorded many acts 
of his gallantry towards Royalist ladies. But one, in reference to 
the siege and capture of Burghley House I can place on permanent 
record, viz., his presentation of a painting of himself, by Walker, 
to the widowed Countess of Exeter, which is still preserved 
amongst the treasures of that princely mansion. 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

64.— A Ghastly Legend of Holbeach.— In " Fen and Mere " 
the story of the Revellers is told with a hope that it was not true. 
It was in Holbeach church the incident occurred which has been 
embalmed in verse by Eliza Cook and Mr. Rawnsley. 

I am unable to give the exact date or names of the actors who 
took part in the sad scene ; perhaps some reader of Fenland 
NoUs and Qu&ries can assist me. The best authenticated version 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 33 

seems to be that about the year 1800, A party who used frequently 
to meet at the "Chequers' Hotel" for game and wine agreed that 
whoever died first of the Jolly Quartett, should have a last rubber 
with him — a corpse. Be this as it may, a light was seen in 
the church late at night, brightest near the communion table. 
Prompted by curiosity, a man got a ladder and looked through 
the window. They were just in the act of finishing the game 
when he heard one ask, " Dummy, can you one ? " The names 
given are L. Slator, J. Barker, T. Codling, and Jonathan Watson, 
a doctor who committed suicide by opening both his arms and 
bleeding to death. He was buried at cross roads, a christian 
burial being denied in cases of felo de se ; temporary insanity 
being less common in the past than now. The friends had taken 
the corpse, placed it in a chair beside the communion table, placed 
cards in its hand, and thus, with it as dummy, played their last 
rubber. This sad affair, which seemed to have originated in a 
drunken frolic, caused so much horror and disgust, that the 
profligates who enacted it were obliged to leave the town. (?) 
There is some doubt as to the names of the living actors in the 
scene. No one, we can imagine, would care to have it known 
that he was connected with such reprobates, and might even be 
excused if some trouble were taken to prevent its being known. 

S.E. 

65.— Thorney Abbey.— "Mr. Manrice Johnson, of Spalding, 
has a drawing of Thorney Abbey, in a neatly written vellum map, 
of the Lordship made before the dissolution of the House, from 
which the structure appeared to be five, times as large as the 
portion which at present remains. It had side aisles and spires, 
probably on both the western towers, whereof only that on the 
north side remained, and was represented in the map," 

The above quotation is given by Warner, fi'om Dugdale. Can 
any one say what has become of this map and drawing ? Many 
persons, I feel sure, would like to know of its whereabouts, and 
what the Abbey was like in the olden time. Has the Duke of 
Bedford anything of the kind among his papers ? S.E. 



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84 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

66.— The Origin of the term Fen Tigers.— (No. 43, Part II.) 
Probably a corruption of Tike^ a country man, a clown ; (Celtic, 
Tiak or TiuCj a plowman). The term occurs very early as one of 
contempt. — ''Zone heythem tyheSj' vide M.S. Morte Arthure, 
p. 91. S. Egae. 

67.— The Origin of Gedney.— (No. 35, Part II.) Gedney— the 
prefix Gaed, a goad, (A.S.) ; also a man's name. Hence, Gaedan 
eUy Gaeda's water. S. Egar. 

68.— Croyland Notes.— The last Abbot of this wealthy and 
powerful Benedictine house, John Wells alias Briggs, had the 
temporalities restored to him 3rd October, 1512, and with 27 
inmates surrendered the Abbey to the Royal Commissioners, 4th 
December, 31st Henry VIII., (1539), and had assigned him an 
annual pension of £130 6s. 8d., a no inconsiderable sum in those 
days ; but was not spared long to enjoy it, as he was dead in 
September, 1544. His will, never before published, is appended : 
" In dei nomine Amen. I John Briggs, clerke, late Abbot of 
Crowlande in the county of Lincoln being of good memory doo 
make this my laste will & testament ffurste I bequeathe my soulle 
to Allmyghtty god the father in heauen our Lady & all the 
company of heauen they to pray to our Lorde god to take my 
soule to his great mercy so it maye withowte ende haue the frucyon 
of his godhed & be Assocyate withe them yn heaven my boddy 
to be buryed in suche place as my Executours shall thynke con- 
venyent. Item I wiU and bequeathe to the churche of Lincoln 
three shillings (&) foure pence. Item to the Eeparacons of the 
churche where my body shalbe buryed Twenty shillings. Item to 
the churche of Crowlande fforty shillings. Item to the churche of 
Langtofte six shillings (&) eight pence. Item to the churche of 
Baston six shillings (&) eightpence. Item to the churche of 
Outy well in the parrishe of saint Clements towardes the reparacons 
Twenty shillings. Item I will that one preeste shall sing & praye 
for my soule my fathers mothers Brothers & Sisteme w* oother my 
kynnesmen & kynneswomen soules for the space of flSve yeres he 
to haue yerely for his stypende one iundrethe (&) six shillings (&) 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 85 

eight pence. Item I will that Tymothe Dygull haue when he come 
to xxiiij*.^ yeres of age Ten pounds sterlinge. Item Alice Dygull 
daughter to John Dygull, & euery childe of the said John Dygull 
now borne to haue when they come of like age one hundred 
shillings & Alice to haue ouer and besides the ffiue poundes at her 
mariage thirty three shillings (&) f cure pence with one honnest 
fetherbedde & all that belongeth therunto. Item I bequeath to 
Beatrice Briggs daughter to the late William Briggs of Northf olke 
in lyke manner as Alice Dygull. Ifcem to Elizabethe Whytwell as 
to Alice & Beatrice as is aforesaid. Item to John Browne & 
henry Bjowne eche of them ffive poundes at like age. Item I 
wiU that euery childe of John Dygull Tymothe Dygull Beatrice 
Briggs Elizabethe Whytwell henry Browne & John Browne as 
many of them as dieth wifchowte Issue of their boddies lawfully 
begotten eche of theim to be oothers heyre as thus eury ones p'te 
to be denyed emonges theym that doo remayne & lyve. Item I 
will that eche of the women haue one Dyapr'e clothe w* p'te of my 
Lynnen such as my Executours shall thincke meet. Item I gyve 
to pson Tonworthe my gowne Lyned w*^ Dammaske. Item to 
my Chapleyn my nexte best gowne my satten Dublett a Jackett 
of Chamblett withe six spoones the litle standyng mazer his yeres 
wages & xiij^ (&) iiij^ for his liuery. Item I will that euery of my 
yemon serunts that shalbe yn suice w* me at my departure to 
haue one quarter wages one qrter(s) meate & dryncke or eUs 
Ten shillings in money ten shillings for hys lyuery & xiij^ (&) 
iiij^ to pray for my soule & my frendes soules & euery sunte 
(servant) as Brewer Baker the hyndes of husbandry their 
quarters wagis ffive shillings for their lyuery one monethes 
bedding (lodgng) & vj^ (&) viij^ to pray for my soule & my 
frendes soules and the children as Walter and Andrew if they 
will tarry as the hyndes hathe. Item to Sir John Pynder one 
fifurred gowne with one Jaquett of woorsted. Item to Sir John 
Peyor one oother gowne w* a Jaquett faced w* coony. Item to 
Sir Nicholas my shorte gowne. Item to Thomas Whytewell the 
the lytic graven salt w* the couer six spoones the Htle cup with 
the Egull & one goblet or one playne pece w* one fether bedde & 



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86 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

necessaries to the same. Item to his wiefiF my Eiding gowne of 
Russell woorsted with one Sarcenett Typpett. Item to John 
Dygull the oother two litle Salltes w* owt couers six spoones last 
bought & a playne mazer & if Whytwell take the playne pece he 
to haue the goblett w* one fether bedde next after Whytwell 
w* all things necessary to the same. Item to his wieff my 
Colendo'^ fifrocke w* the gowne subjned that I did vse when 
I was in the monastery. Item to Thomas Dygull six silver 
spoones w* a Doublet of Eussell woorsted & a Jaquet of the 
same. Item to his wyeff oae oulde Riall or ells seven yards of 
Saye for a Kyrtle clothe. Item to William Browne all such 
Cattail as was gyven hym when I was sycke at Crowlande w* one 
shodd Carte gevis one ploughe ploughes w* fco carte horsses & two 
Oxen. Item I will that all my pewter & brass as potts pannes 
Tubles (? Tubbes) barrells Bedding napery not bequethed be 
deuyded equally amonge the children aforenamed. Item I will 
my Executours fynde William Dygull honestly as long as he lyueth 
& at his dep'ture to se hyme buryed honestly. Item I will that 
ouer & besides the preests theirbe gyuen to poore ffolkes ' at my 
buryall six poundes thirteene shillings (&) foure pence and euery 
oother daye as vij*^ daye xxx*^ daye & twelve monethe daye eche of 
them one hundred shillings. Item I gyve & bequeath to Robert 
Wyngfelde the younger my godsonne my syluer Bason w* the 
cover. Item to Margarett Oecill fforty shillings. Item to Gutlake 
Edwardes three poundes six shillings (&) eight pence. The Rest 
of my goodes not bequeathed nor gyven as Corne Cattail plate and 
all oother I will they be soulde to the pfoo^ maiince of this my 
last will & that perfoormed the rest to be employed & bestowed 
in deeds of charity for my soule by my executo"^® which I by this 
my last will I make master Robert Wyngfelde thelder of Helpe- 
stone Esquier Thomas Wytwell John Dygull & Sir Thomas 
Greneham Clarke & Mr. Richard Ogle of Pynchbecke Esquier to 
be Superwysors euery one of the executours to haue for his labo^'syx 
poundes thirteene shillings (&) foure pence & the supervisors ffive 
poundes. In witness of the premysses to this my last will I have 
the xvij*^ daye of Auguste in the yere of our Lord god a thowsand 



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Fenland Notes and Queeibs. §7 

fpyve hoondrethe & f ourfcy And the xxxii*^ yere of the Eeigne of 
our moste gracious Lord King Henry viij*^ supreme hedde of the 
Churche of Englande whome Jhu presue Long to his pleasure 
caused this booke to be written Theis being wytnes Thomas 
whitwell Thomas Greneham Clerk ser John Prio' Clerk John 
Dygull & oother(s) Proved at London 11 Sept 1544 by Thomas 
Greneham & Robt. Wyngfeld before David Clapham, procurator 
(Iteg. 14 Pyng)." 

The Margaret Cecil named in the will I am unable to " tack 
on " in the pedigree of Cecils as now represented by the Marquis 
of Exeter, and the Marquis of Salisbury, K.G, David Cecil, the 
first of the family who settled here, c. 1494, a yeoman, resided in the 
parish of St. George, Stamford, and by will desired his body to be 
buried in the church of that parish. All things considered, I have 
but little doubt that she was a member of the family, perhaps 
daughter of David's eldest son, Richard Cecil, or second son, 
David. 

" Master Robert Wyngfelde the elder of Helpestone, esq," was 
auditor of the possessions of the Abbey by letters patent of seal 
of the house, for life, at £4 13. 4. p. an at its surrender, had that 
amount granted him p. an. by the King & is returned as receiving 
, such at Michs 2 & 3 P. & M. (1555). Had a grant of the manor 
of Upton in the parish of Caster, Northamps, 35 H.8., represented 
Peterboro' 1st & 5th Elizab. d. 5 Feb. 1575(6), Robert, s. & h. 
was aged 44 at his death. Robert W. J'^ (d. 1580). mar. Elizab. d. 
of Rich. Cecil, & sisfcer to Sir Wm C first Baron Burghley. Robt. 
W the elder by wiU dated 4 June 17 Elizab. & pr 6*^ July, 1576, 
in which he designates himself as Robert Wingfelde of Upton, a 
Northampton, esq. My wretched body which is naught but dust 
& ashes I commit to the earth to be buried in the church of 
Ufford, where my late wife, whose soul God pardon lieth buried, 
or elsewhere as it shall please them that shall take pains thereabout. 
He names, i,a,^ his sister M" Jane Cecill, Sir Robert Cecill, & 
appoints Sir WiUiam Cecil, Knt., Lord Burghley, & High Trea- 
surer of England, supervisor of his wilL v. Blores' Rutland, p. 69, 



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88 Fekland Notes aiid Queries. 

table 9, for a pedigree of this branch of the (Suffolk) family of 
Wingfield. 

To Eobt. W son of Et & Elizabeth (Cecill) W knted 1603, 
d. 1609 we are indebted for the trial & execution of Mary of 
Scotland, one of the most graphic & interesting narratives of a 
state trial yet written in our language." 
(To de continued,) 

69.— Pen ProvinciaUsms.— (No. 37, Part II). 
Boozer. — A beer drinker. — Dutch, luyzen. To tipple (W., bozi), 

fuddled ; stupid with drink. — Skelton. 
Bone or Boon.— Grift ; assistance ; help. " We ax'd them to give 

us a boon, but they would not. Then we should ha' got done 

in good time." 
Buskins. — G-aiters ; leggings. To busk : active ; busy. 
Busking or BusiCKiNa. — Said of fowls, or partridges, dusting 

themselves. " Here are the places where they have been 

busicking. 
Break the Ice. — To open a secret to a person ; to communicate 

unwelcome news. 
Blaring. — Roaring ; bellowing ; Meeting ; crying. The voice 

of sheep or cattle making a noise for food, &c. " What are 

those calves blaring about ; aint you fed them yet ? A great 

blaring fellow, ^\e., noisy. — " The cow blores," 
Behave. — " Behave yourself, do," viz., conduct yourself properly. 

To manage ; to govern. Hence behaviour used in a collateral 

sense. — King John i. 1. 
BoKE. — 1. To belch ; vomit ; nauseate. A.S., lelean. " It smelt 

awful ; I was fit to boke my heart up." 2. To rise quickly. 

" Its such light hoovy stuff, it will boke up in no time ; we 

shall want the stage in a hour," said of a stack of wheat. 
Bugaboo. — ^A bugbear ; a ghost. An ugly wide mouthed picture 

used in the May games (according to Coles) was so called. A 

monster; ore, or goblin. Introduced into the tales of old 

Italian romancers. Spencer says, " A ghastly bug doth greatly 

then affear," (Book ii. c. 3). Hamlet has "bugs and goblins," 



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Fbnlaot) Notes and Queries. 89 

(v- 2.) "Warwick was a bug that feared us all," (Henry 

VI., V. 2.) 

" To the world no bugbear is so great 

As want of figure and a small estate." — Pope.* 

Welsh, bwg ; a hobgoblin. A term synonimous with bogy, an 

imaginary monster (Bailey), used to frighten children. '* If you 

don't behave, bogie will have you," " Go to sleep, do, or I'll 

fetch the bugaboos to you," we have often heard in the Fens. 

" Bogie is probably from bogu, the Slavonic name for the 

Deity," {vide Words and Places, page 330). 

Baijker, — A navvy, (contraction of navigator) ; a man who 
worked in the rivers, on drainage works, or embankments in the 
Fenland was so called. They are now generally termed navvies ; 
excavators. — Navy, a canal {vide Halliwell.) 

Butty. — ^A mate, or companion. A term much used among 
navvies. 

BuER. — The burr, or halo round the moon, is said to be a sign of 

rain. 

" The burred moon fortells great storms at hand." — J. Clare. 

Burr is the prickly seed pod of the burdock. 
Butter Bump. — The bittern. Now a great rarity in the Fens, 

Once very common in the Mere and neighbourhood. — Vide 

Skelton, vol. ii., page 130. 
Bell-ringer. — The long-tailed titmouse was so called. 
Brunt. — Uunceremonious ; aprupt ; hasty. Swedish, " brant " — 

rough ; rude ; assault ; onset. " I'll bear the brunt of the 

quarrel, you need not fear." 
Buzzard (Fen). — Buzzard ; lutzart, Teut. ; Buzard, French. A 

great sluggish fowl. A kind of hawk, or kite, once common in 

the Fens. A senseless ignorant fellow ; a coward : a derisive 

name for a Fen man. 

" Of small renown, 'tis true, for not to lie, 
We caUed (your buzzard) hawk by courtesy." 

Hind and Panther iii., Dryden. 

Breedlings. — " Fen mm " were formerly so called. — Pepys, in his 

Diary, at Parson Drove, Sep. 17th, 166B, writes : "Which if 

* Pope was a little deformed man. 



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90 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

they be born there they do call the Breedlings of the place." 
In 1689 they were so called, according to Macaulay. Afterwards 
a century later, perhaps, they were known as " Slodgers." Fen 
Slodgers. BradUng — a river fisherman of East Anglia, may 
probably be the root of the old Fen name " Bradley ^ 

Big Wia.— a person in authority ; one of the "Nobs." It arose 
from Judges and others wearing wigs. In the United States 
persons of wealth and position are spoken of in some parts 
as ^' Big Wigs ;" more frequently ^^ Big Bugs^'' 

Bust.— Burst. The " Bank's bust "—"The Bank's busted "— 
was the cry of the Bellman at Crowland, early in the morning 
of Oct. 10th, 1880, when the Welland Bank gave way from 
the pressure of floods in the Wash. He was too excited to 
give more information. There was a general scare, not only at 
Crowland, but throughout the surrounding district, owing to 
the sudden awakening by messengers sent around the country 
side to warn the inhabitants. We heard one lusty hallo, " The 
Welland Bank's broke. Take care of your stock, I come by 
Mr. Watson's orders." And then away, without essaying 
further information. Owing to the scare thus caused and semi- 
wakefulness, many persons, at other times calm and deliberate, 
lost all presence of mind, and were guilty of actions which 
appeared most ludicrous when a correct knowledge of the extent 
of the mischief and the events of the morning became known. 
Bust — hot bread eaten with butter ; a loaf. 

Boggle (To).— To hesitate ; demur. " I boggled at it." To 
stumble ; to start, as a horse at some unaccustomed object ; 
to be uncertain ; to waver. Probably from log, o, quagmire. 
Nares gives boggier, a vicious woman. 

Baeren. — The vagina of the cow. Sw., larane ; Dan., larrend, 
Barrener, is a cow not again in calf. 

Brangle. — Dispute ; quarrel. Norse, lmnga^2. tumult ; dis- 
turbance. "I don't want no branglement about it." Also 
confused ; entangled ; complicated, as a brangled hank of 
worsted or cotton ; a rafiled skein. 

Bother. — To teaze ; to annoy. " Botheration to you, don't 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 91 

worry me." Pother (Hibernian). Idle chatter, superfluous 
verbage. Halliwell gives us dlother, which he says means to 
chatter idly. A stupid person is said to be blotherei 
" I blunder, I bluster, I blowe, and I blother ; 
I make on the one day and I man on the other." 

BoYKiN. — ^A small boy ; as a term of endearment, vide Sir 
John Oldcastle and Palgrave, a.d. 1540. 

Bole. — The trunk of a tree. Dan., hul. See Morte d' Arthur. 

Bumpkin. — An awkward heavy rustic ; a clown ; a loutish person. 
Dutch, ioomJcen — a sprout ; a fool. Hence we have Lumpkin 
(Tony), vide '' She Stoops to Conquer, " " with the vices of a 
man and the follies of a boy," fond of low company, but giving 
himself the airs of the young Squire. Nicholas Lumpkin 
owned Park House, Leverington, Wisbech. It is said Gold- 
smith wrote " She Stoops to Conquer " at this places in which 
Tony Lumpkin is a well known character. There is a very 
fine oak in the old fashioned garden associated with the above. 

Bumptious. — High ; arrogant ; puffed up. From the same low 
Saxon or Dutch root. 

Bunny. — ^A rabbit. Sir Thomas Brown says, probably Danish. 
A pet name for rabbit ; a term of endearment. " Oh ! Bunny, 
Bunny, Bunny, how could you do so ? " 

BouGE out (To). — To bulge out irregularly. 

Brao. — To boast unduly, U.S., not much heard in the Fens), 
From Braggaert; Belg,, to walk in state. 

By-By. — Sleep, from Greek, vide Bailey. " 60 by-by, there's a 
darling, nurse will sing to '00." The hum, or song, of the 
nurse to cause her nursling to sleep. S.E. 

(To te continued). 

70.— Penland Proverbs and Quaint Sayings.— The people 
inhabiting the Fens are called " Fen tigers " ; " Fen buzzards " ; 
" Fen yellow bellies," comparing them to frogs ; " Cambridgeshire 
camels," from the Fenmen formerly using stilts ; "Cambridgeshire 
men," because they fought the Danes and Normans when the 
East Anglians ran away. Frogs are known as " Fen nightingales," 
and " Lincolnshire bagpipes." " Web-footed, like a Fenman," 



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92 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

from their almost amphibious habits. "A Penman's dowry:" 
three geese and a pelt (sheepskin). "All hair and teeth, like a 
Ramsey man." "Bare as Boston scalp." "As high as Boston 
stump." " All the carts that come to Croyland are shod with 
silver," being in the Fens, no carts could travel there. " Arrested 
by the Bailey of Marshland," means an attack of Fen ague. 
"Like G-rantham gruel, two groats to a gallon of water," or 
" Grantham gruel, nine grits and a gallon of water," is said when 
anyone multiplies what is superfluous and omits what is necessary 
in his conversation. "They held together, like the men of 
Marholm, when they lost their common," is said when people lose 
their cause by disagreeing. " Lincolnshire, where the hogs drop 
soap and the cows drop fire," (cow dung was dried and used as 
fuel, pigs' manure was also prepared and used for the purposes of 
soap. "Lincolnshire hogs" is an uncomplimentary allusion to 
the Lincolnshire people. "He is on his way to Beggars bush," 
in Huntingdonshire, applied to a spendthrift. The tree called 
" Beggar's bush " is near Godmanchester. " As mad as the bait- 
ing bull at Stamford." " He was born at Little Witham," means 
a fool. " As wild as a wildmore tit " is applied to a hot tempered 
person. A wildmore tit was a small spirited horse which was 
formerly bred in the Lincolnshire Fens. " Wetting one's whistle," 
quenching one's thirst, may have originated from the use of 
whistle tankards. " As loud as Tom of Lincoln," the big bell in the 
Cathedral. " Gone to Humber," when anything is lost. " As 
queer as Dick's hatband," which went nine times round and 
would not tie, means an impossibility, as the hatband is said to 
have been formed of sand. " As stunt as a burnt wong," also 
"As tough as a burnt wong," A wong is a leathern thong. 
" Drunken Thoresby " is appHed to North Thoresby, and a some- 
what similar name is given to the inhabitants of Whittlesea, who 
are called " Whittlesea Boozers." C. Dack, Peterborough. 

71 .-Penland Briefis.-(No. 2.)— A book was kept at Abbots 
Eipton, in which the Briefs were entered, commencing from 1709. 
" In 1713, the amount collected, was £1. 6. 5^ ; being after- 
wards distributed in Essex, Chester, Nottingham & Stafford. 



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Pbnland Notes akd Queries, 93 

"Collected for y® loss by fire at Cherry Hinton, in y® 
County of Cambridge 2s. 9d." 

"Collected for loss by Fire at Folborne, com. Cam- 
bridge. 38." 1729, 

" Guilden Morden. com. Cambridge, loss by fire 1 s. 5d." 1 734. 

" Swaffham Prior, com. Cambridge, loss by fire 7s. 8^." 1736. 

Mem. "Collected in this parish (Abbots Kipton, Hunts.) 
towards a loss by fire that happened at Fenstanton in this county 
of Hunts in April last past — the sum of (in all) Thirteen pounds, 
six shillings & tenpence) whereof Nicholas Bonfoy, Esq., gave 
four pounds, one shilling for himself ; the rest of his family, six 
pounds, twelve shillings and sixpence : the rest of the Parish gave 
two pounds and ten pence." June, 1737. 

Mem. "Towards the loss by fire that hap'ned at Welling- 
borough in Northamptonshire in July last past, was collected in 
this parish on Aug. 20. following, the sum of seven pounds, seven 
shillings & seven pence halfp'ny— £7. 7 : 7j " 1738. 

" Hinxton. com. Cambridge loss by fire 6s. 2d." 1740. 

" Collected on a letter of request towards the loss by fire at 
Sutton in the Isle of Ely (damage about £2,080) £4. 8. 1." 1740. 

Mem. " There was collected in this parish towards y® loss by 
fire at Stilton in this com. (in March 1727) y" sum of £9. 16 : 1 
five guineas of which money were given by Nicholas Bonfoy. 
J. Jones, Curate." Herbeet E. Norris, St. Ives. 

72.— HoTigliton Churcli (Hunts.) — This church is rather 
singular in possessing no interior monumental tablets. They were 
probably removed at the restoration in 1850. This is a good 
example of the way in which interesting and valuable information 
is lost. If a transcript had been made of all the monumental 
inscriptions in the church before the so-called restoration, interest- 
ing genealogical records might have been preserved. It is a 
curious fact that there is only one monument attached to the 
church, and that is on the exterior south wall. It is an oval tablet, 
inscribed: "Near this place lieth the body of John Prescot, 
gent., who died 19*^ September, 1795, aged 69 years." 



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94 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

Among the many epitaphs to be found in Houghton church- 
yard, the following ajBfords an example of an exceptionally quaint 
nature : — 

" Sacred to the memory of Thomas G-aedner, who died Sep- 
tember 30th, 1826, aged 77 years. 

" My sledge and hammer lie reclined, 
My bellows, too, have lost their wind. 
My fire's extinct, my forge decayed. 
My vice is in the dust all laid : 
My coal is spent, my iron gone. 
My nails are drove, my work is done ; 
My fire-dried corpse here lies at rest. 
My soul, smoke-like, soars to the blest." 

Herbert E. Norris, St. Ives. 

73.— The Mason Family.— Mr. N. H. Mason is about to 
publish a genealogical work on the Mason family, who were 
connected with this part of England, especially in the counties of 
Huntingdonshire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, &c. 
Mr. Mason asks for any information concerning the family, which 
may be sent direct to him, at 35, Maclise Road, West Kensington. 

74.— Mediaeval Features of Fenland Churches.— Mr. Henry 
Littlehales has compiled an interesting pamphlet giving a list 
of special Mediaeval features in the parish churches of England. 
The little work is published by Eivingfcon. Its scope is almost 
too wide for such a small volume, and the list might be easily 
increased. The following is the list of Eenland churches with 
their Mediaeval features. Some of our readers would perhaps like 
to add to the list. 

HUNTINaDONSHIRE. 

Hemic gford Abbots : Tomb of Abbot of Ramsey. 

Sawtry : Brass. 

Conington : EflSgy of a Knight in the dress of a Friar. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

Soham : According to a wiU of 1607, a parishioner was in this 
church buried upright, at his " Steele's end," 



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Pbnlahd Notes and Queries. 95 

Leverington : Metal Lectern. 
Isleham : Metal Lectern. 

LINCOLNSHIRE. 

Heokington : Easter Sepulchral, Vestry floor. 1 

Deeping St. James : The Roman Catholic Church has a rood from 

a church in Belgium. 
Boston : Woodwork. 
Long Sutton r^Metal Lectern. 

NORFOLK. 

Lynn : Brasses, Metal Lectern. 

Northamptonshire. 
Maxey : Rood Loft, Piscina. 

75.— Elvin's Dictionary of Heraldry.— Mr. Charles Morton 
Elvin, M.A., of Eckling Grange, East Dereham, Norfolk, has just 
published a " Dictionary of Heraldry," which will be welcomed 
by every herald, antiquary, and genealogist. It supplies what has 
been a long felt want. It is probably the experience of even the 
most practised antiquary that at times he is at a loss to use the 
correct term in heraldry, and there has hitherto been no handy 
volume to which he could safely turn. Mr. Elvin's work provides 
this want. It gives a complete list of the terms used in Heraldry, 
and it is an admitted fact that none of the previous attempts in 
this direction — excellent as some of them have been — have suc- 
ceeded in giving anything like a perfect glossary. But Mr. Elvin's 
work is a great deal more than a glossary, it is quite an encyclo- 
paedia to the science. The illustrations, number about two 
thousand five hundred. Mr. Elvin has done all the drawings 
himself, but the engraving is the joint work of Messrs. J. C. 
Baker, L. Cully, and R. Rowlandson. The draughtsman, the 
engravers, and the printer are to be heartily congratulated on the 
excellence of their work. The letter-press description of the 
engravings occupies 65 pages, and the dictionary itself extends to 
134 pages. A herald painter can hardly afford to be without 
the work, but an amateur by its help will be readily able to blazon 
any coat that may come under his notice. Considering the exten- 



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96 Fenland Notes and Queeibs. 

sive strides which the study of heraldry and the tracing of 
ancestry has made within the last two years, Mr. Elvin's Dictionary 
will be particularly valuable to all who are engaged in such studies. 
It is impossible in the space of a short notice, like the present, to 
point out all the useful features which the work contains. It is 
admirably printed and published by Mr. W. H. Brown, Market 
Place, East Dereham. 

76.— The Manner of Raising the Train Band in the Fens.— 

The following is an extract from a M.S. in the possession of Mr. 
W. B. Ground, of Castle House, Whittlesea : — 

" A List of the several Persons, in Whittlesea charged to find 
Foot Arbs in the Train Band Militia for the said Isle &c : who 
are to provide for every Soldier a Musket the Barrel thereof to be 
four feet long and the Grange of the Boar thereof for a Bullet of 
12 in the Pound with Bayonet to fix on the Muzzle thereof a 
Cartridge Box and a Sword and they are to send in a List of such 
Able Bodied Men as shall be fitt for Service for an Approbation 
before the first Day of June next at Wisbeach given by the 
Deputy Lieutenant at Wisbeach aforesaid this Eighth day of 
May 1716. 

" N : B : by the Statute every 50£ a Year Estate or 1000£ 
Stock and Money at Interest is liable to find a Foot Soldier pur- 
suant to which the Deputy Lieutenant had by a Warrant dated 
as above charged the Township of Whittlesea with 24 Foot Arms 
and 7 Horses which appearing to the Inhabitants a charge too big 
for their Pound Kate by which the whole Township had been 
long Assessed to all Subsidy Taxes and by which the whole Yalue 
of their Estates was Eated at 3750£ so the 24 Men of the Foot 
Amounting to 1200£ and the Severn Horse at 500£ to a Horse 
Amounting to 3500£ the whole be 4700£ which is too much by 
950£ therefore upon Application being made to the Deputy 
Lieutenants the Town was abated 4 Men and One Horse which 
has brought the Charge much nearer (viz the 20 Foot to 1000£ 
and the 6 Horse 3000£ so that the Charge in all exceeds the 



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Fenland Notes aistd Queries. 97 

Rate no more thaa 250£ with which the Towa was forced to 
content itself. 

" As to the Horse the Great Estates only was Subjected to such 
as that of George Downs Gent. Lord of our Manor The Earl of 
Lincoln Sir John Brownlo D"^ Wrights Heirs Hugh Coventry 
Esquire M"^ Wiseman and M"^ Laxon, 

"And as the Foot is N*' 20 as above said they were to be 
raised by the rest of the Town after the Great Estates above said 
were taken out and every Estate though of the lowest Value 
chargeable to jSnd its part in Proportion with the Rest by an 
Agreement of the Inhabitants then met to consult about this Affair 
it was resolved to exempt all Estates under Forty Shillings a 
Year and to make an Equal charge upon the rest accordingly to 
the Yalue Assessed to the Land Tax for that Year which They did 
and as foUoweth in which charge I have set down every Man 
charged and the Value of his Estate as Assessed in the Land 
Tax in Column at the left hand of his Name and at the Right 
Hand what Shares or parts he and his partners bears of the 
Soldier and lastly the number of Soldiers whereby it will be plain 
that the charge is very near equal only thus much I much advise 
the Reader. That some small Estates belonging to Poor Men that 
have many children have been put at a less Value than Assessed 
to the Land Tax as for instance one of 4£ has been put in at 2£ 
and another at 3£ put in at 1£ at which they stand Rated here 
as if that were their true Assessment which being premis'd I shall 
say no more." 

77.— The Family of Wiseman of Eastrea HalL— "a.d. 

1649. October VK — An Indenture of this date made between 
Roger Wiseman of Eastrey within the Isle of Elye in the County 
of Cambridge Gentleman of the one part and Thomas Wiseman 
of Whittlesey and Thomas White of Leverington within the said 
Isle and County G-ent of the other part Witnesseth that the said 
Roger Wiseman for divers good Causes and Considerations him 
thereunto moving Doth covenant and grant to and with the said 
Thomas Wiseman and Thomas White by these presents that he 



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98 Penland Notes and Queries. 

the said Eoger Wiseman shall and will before the end of Miohaell- 
mas Tearme now next following in due forme of Law acknowledge 
and leavy one Fine S' Cognuzance de droit come ceo que il ad de 
son done w*^ proclamation thereupon had according to the Statute 
in such case provided of " 

[Here follows a statement of the property.] 

" All which premises do amount in the whole to Three hundred 
Acres and are situate lying and being within the Town and 
Territories of Whittlesey aforesaid The which said Pine and the 
execution thereupon had shall be taken and deemed to be and 
enure To the Uses Intents and purposes hereafter in theise p^sents 
expressed and declared and to no other use intent or purpose 
whatsoever that is to say To the use of him the said Eoger 
Wiseman and his Assignes for and dureing the terme of his 
natural Kfe w^out impeachment of or for any manner of Wast 
and from and after the decease of him the said Roger Wiseman 
To the Use and Uses of such person and persons and for such 
estate and estats as he the said Eoger Wiseman by his last Will 
and Testament in writing sealed and subscribed before two or 
more credible Witnesses shall declare limit and appoint And in 
default of such Declaration and Lymmittation then To the Use 
of the said Thomas Wiseman and the Heirs of his body lawfully 
begotten and to be begotten and for default of such Issue To the 
Use of the right Heires of the said Eoger Wiseman for ever in 
witnes whereof the said parties to theise p^'sents have interchang- 
ably set theire hands and Seals the day and Yeare first above 
written Eoger © Wiseman. Sealed and delivered the day and 
Teare within mentioned these beinge Witnesses — Willyam 
Higham— Will Ground." 

" Ann, the oldest daughter of William Wiseman of Wittlesey 
by Ann his Wife, married Will"" Bludwick of Wisbech, Gentleman. 

" Eleanor, another daughter married Thomas Moore of Wittlesey, 
Gentleman. 

" Margaret, another daughter married Eobert Stona (Clerk) of 
Kings Lynn in Norfolk in 1732.— (Seen in a Deed in 1817). 



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Pbnlahd Notes and Queries. 99 

"The Will of the said William Wiseman is dated the 15*^ April 
1714 & was proved at Doctors Commons 21^*August 1719. 

" Ann the Wife of the said William Wiseman survived him and 
afterwards married — Hutchinson." 

78.— Tombstone Inscriptions from Whittlesey St. Mary. 
South Wall of Chancel. 
1. 
Near this place I lieth enterred the body of | William Under- 
wood Esq. I who was many years one of y® six bailiffs | of the 
great level of the Fenns one of the | Deputy Lieutenants of this 
Isle & County | one of y^ justices of y® Peace (quoram | unus) | 
in y® county of Cambridge, Huntingdon | Isle of Ely, & 
Middlesex. He married for | his first wife Martha sole daughter 
of I James Rothewell of y^ Tower of London Esq. | and left 
issue by her at his death Martha | who married Michael Beale 
Gent. & I Abigail who married Webb Moore, Gent | He departed 
this life y® 23d day of July 1751 | aged 73. 



2. 

Sacred to the memory of | Henry Haynes | who died on the 
night of October 29'^ 1800 | in the 55*^ year of his age | To the 
Almighty who alone knoweth the heart | must be left the awful 
task I of recording his virtues | In the bosom of his family where 
they were most exercised | they will be best remembered | His 
children in silent anguish | perform the last mournful duty | 
towards a beloved parent | by erecting this monument to his 
memory | This marble further perpetuates the memory of | Mary 
the beloved wife of Henry Haynes | who after a life spent in 
innocence and virtue | resigned her gentle spirit | into the hands 
of God I on Saturday the 3rd day of March 1810 in the | 69*^ 
year of her age. 

3. 

Near to this place | lieth inteiTed the body | of Will°^ Underwood 

junr Esqr | late of the Inner Temple | London, barrister at law, 

he I Departed this life the 30*^ day | of September 1776 in the 

28*^ I year of his age | He was a gentleman sincere in friendship | 



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100 Penland Notes and Queries. 

generous & obliging in his Temper | affable & facjetious in con- 
versation I and highly esteemed by all who knew him | Near here 
to lieth I also y® body of Eothwell Underwood gent | his younger 
brother who departed this life | the 25 day of June 1723 | aged 
12 years. 

4. 

Sacred | to the memory of | Eliza Swanson | the lamented 
daughter of | George & Eliza Burges | She died Sep 10*^ 1800 | 
In the 11*^ year of her age | Thy Kingdom come. 



5. 

Sacred | to the memory of | Eliza | the beloved wife of | The 
Eev'^ George Burges | She died Jan^ 30*^ 1815 | In the 47*^ year 
of her age | Thy will be done | The Eev^ George Burges | vicar 
of Halvergate & Moulton | Norfolk | died Jan^ 24*^ 1853 | aged 
89 years | " I know that my Redeemer liveth." | Job xix. 25. 



6. 

This monument is erected | to the memory of | Thomas Aveling 
Es'^ I (who served the office of | High Sheriff for the Counties | of 
Cambridge & Huntingdon | in the year 1802) | He departed this 
life I on the 10*^ day of June 1806 | in the 67*^ year of his age. | 
Also to the memory of | Elizabeth wife of the said | Thomas 
Aveling Es'^ | who departed this life | on the 11*^ day of January | 
1807, in the 57*^ year | of her age. 



7. 
In loving memory of | Thomas Bowker | for 67 years a resident 
in this parish wherein | he held many offices of Trust, & who was 
appointed | a justice of the Peace for the Isle of Ely in 1825 | 
and a Deputy Lieutenant for the County of Cambridge in 1852 [ 
Born 8*^ of August 1791 Died 10*^ of May 1882 | Thou shalt 
go I to the fathers in peace | thou shalt be buried | in a good old 
age I Gren. xv. 15) This memorial was erected by his surviving 
children. 



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This Monument 
: is erected to the 

Memory op' 
i Thomas Aveling Esq 
I (ivho served the Office 
\ of High Sheriff /or the 
Counties <?/"Cambkidge 
fl«^/ Huntingdon in 
the Year 1802. ) 
He departed this Life 
ON the 
j loth DAY OF June 1806 
IN THR';;^.^ 
67th Year of his Age. 



Also to the Memory 

of 

Elizabeth wife of 

the said 

Thomas Aveling Esq 

who departed this 

life on the 

nth day of January 

1807 IN the 57th Year 

OF her Age. 




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\ ^'^.-- '--V^J^T^- 



Fbnland Notes and Queries. 101 

North End of Chancel. 

8. 
Spe resurgendi | luxta hie depositum quod mortale fuit, | 
Gulielmi Underwood Ar:e familia ejusdem ] nominis de Westou 
in agro Hart"? Oriundi | Elizabethgs etiam ux: ejus Gulielmi | 
Hobson Lincolniensis Ar : filiae unicae | qui vitarum suarum 
decurrere tramitem; | hie die 7° lanuarii Anno Dni 1683 Itta 1^4 
I Sept^f 1703 caelestem patriam ad migrantes | Gulielmus 
Underwood Arm : filius msereus. | Parentib! charissimis officiosae 
pietatis, | et memorise erg6 hoc monumentum posuit. 

9. 
Brass.— Here lyeth bvried the bodye of Thomas Hake, esqvier 

I Sonne and heire of Symon Hake of Depinge in | the covntie of 
Lyncolne esqvier and of Alice | His wife dovghter of Thomas 
Lynham esqvier svmtyme president of Walles^* which Thomas 

I Hake died the first of March An« Dni 1590 

who married Anne dovghter of Roger Wylson | of Govsner in the 
covntie of Lancaster gent | And of Jane his wife dovght;er of 
lohn Wallis which | Thomas and Anne had yssve 5 sonnei^ and 3 
dovgh I ters which died all yonge bvt William Hake the | yongest 
ther only sonne and heire now livinge. 

10. 
To the memory of Elizabeth Kentish wife of Richard Kentish 
Esq'' I who died of a pulmonary consumption at Kentish-town, 
near London | June the seventh 1792 aged 27 years | This 
monument is erected by her husband who designed it at Rome 
whither | he went for the recovery of his health impaired by 
sorrow | Natures best gift Eliza virtue hail | While life remains 
I'll hold thy memory dear | In sorrowing accents oft thy loss 
bewail | And from my inmost soul let fall a tear: | tribute of love, 
affection grief sincere | This marble is further sacred to y® memory 
of Eliz*^ Aveling, wife of Edw^ Aveling gent | and mother of y® 
above lady | who died Nov 2. 1788 at y^age of 53 years and of 
Rob Smith LLB | and formerly of St. John Coll. Camb. He 
departed this life January f 11 1801 aged 82 years. 



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|SRr- 



102 Penland Notes and Queries. 

11. 

This monument | is erected to the memory | of Mrs, Mary 
Griflaths I (and daught' of Web Moore gent | and Abigail 
his wife | one of the daughters of | Will"' Underwood Esq.) | she 
died March 18^*^ 1792 | in the 58*^ year | of her age. 



12. 

This monument is erected | to the memory of | Thomas & 
Stephen | sons of | Thomas Aveling Esqr & Elizabeth his wife | 
Thomas died March 24 • 1805 | aged 34 years | leaving a widow 
& five children | Stephen died at Newry in Ireland March 27'^ 
1804 I aged 32 years, leaving a widow and two children | Mary 
Eelict of Stephen Aveling died at Newry May 19 • 1805 aged 
29 years. 

13. 
In this church is interred ye body of ye Rev''^ Mr Francis 
Whitstons | B.D. late rector of Woodstone in Huntingdonshire 
and fellow of St. | John's College in Cambridge Born March 25 
Anno Dni 16f|- died Jan 25 Anno Dni 17|^ | He was second son 
of Thomas Whitstons of this town Esq^ who in memory | of his 
dutiful behaviour has erected this monument on which y® virtues 

I and merits of deceased are briefly and elegantly expressed by a 
very worthy | and learned friend of his in ye subsequent lines: | 
Siste paulium viator | Scire te non pigebit | Quam venerandum 
Depositum Marmor hoc tenet | Doctrinum in omni scientiarum 
genere | Sine fastu cumulatissimam | Veram sine dolo Sapientiam 

I Mores candidissimos | Et sinceram sine fuco Pietatem: | Zelum 
Deing | Non ignes caeKtus expelentem | Ut fidei adversaries 
consumerer | Sed amore intus ardentem divino | Animarum saluti 
invigilanti | Pastorem Evangelicum caelestia spirantem | Non 
ppimis inhiantem Beneficiis | Non potentiorum limina frequ^ntan. 
tem I Non popularem auram ambientem | Sed gregem proprium 
exemplo pareter ac doctrine | Fideliter emdientem | Sed antiquse 
Eidei Investigatorem sedulum | Et acerrimum investigatse vindi- 
cem I Quem et amici et Hostes veritatis | Paralum. stare in pro- 



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Fbnland Notes anb Queries. 103 

cintu semper viderent | Seu rationis prosternere telis, [ Aut sacris 
Dei refellere oraculis, | Vel ex primaevse Sapientiae monumentis 
I Profligare funditiis | Eepullutantem Haereseos Hydram, | Quae 
torvae colla nunc ferocius erigit | Virusq. evomit in os illibatum | 
Venerandse Matris Ecclesiae. | Haetam feliciter sociatae virtutes | 
Confestim Ilium, quern requiris, indicant, | Oujus marmor exhibet 
incisum nomen. | Ilium Angeli laeto ore in caelis excipiunt, | 
Ilium Homines in terris imitando I Eidem olim misceantur choro. 



14. 
In memory of Thomas and | Stephen sons of Thomas | Aveling 
and Mary Ann his | wife and grandsons of | Thomas and 
Elizabeth Aveling | Thomas died iVhY the 17*^ | in the year 1835 
aged 33 | years | Stephen died August the | 2nd 1876 aged 72 
years. 

North Aisle. 
15. 
The family vault | of | Henry Haynes. 



16. 
In memory of | Mary Anne | widow of Charles Boultbee | 
surgeon of Whittlesey | eldest daughter of | the Rev^- Thomas 
Holdich I and Ann his wife | who entered into rest | on the 8th 
day of May 1870 | In the 76th year of her age, | The memory 
of the just is blessed. 



17. 

In affectionate remembrance | of | Alice Haynes daughter 
of Henry and Mary Haynes | who died Dec 31, 1848 | in the 
70^*^ year of her age | also of | Susannah Wraight | her long 
tried and valued friend | only child of | Walker and Susannah 
Wraight | of Wisbeach ; | she departed this life | October 29th 
1854 I in the 78th year of her age. | Ye are my friends if ye 
do whatsoever | I have commanded you. 



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104 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

18. 
Near this spot | rest the remains of | Ann wife of the Eev^- 
Thomas Holdich | rector of MaidweU, in the county of 
Northampton | who on the 20*^ day of Feb^* 1806, in the 36th 
year of her age | was called to meet her God. | Her three surviving 
children | as a testimony of their aflFection ( have erected this 
monument to her memory. 



19, 
In memory of | Henry Haynes | sixty years deputy Lieutenant 
of' the I Isle of Ely | born April 21st 1782 died April 11th 1864 | 
also Mary Ann his wife | daughter of Eobert and Sarah Hotchkin | 
died Dec 2nd 1849 aged 73 years | also | nine of their children | 
five sons and four daughters | also | Sarah, relict of Eobert 
HotohMn, I of Tixover, Eutland | died June 11*^ 1828 aged 73 
years | Four surviving children | have erected this tablet | in 
aflFectionate remembrance. 



South Aisle. 
20. 
Sacred to the memory of | John Smith gentleman | and Eleanor 
his wife | the beloved and lamented parents | of Major Gen^ Sir 
H. S. W. Smith Bart. G.O.B. | By whom in dutiful and grateful 
remembrance | of all he owes to their early care and affection | 
this tablet is erected | John Smith died Sept. 2nd 1843 | at 
the advanced age of 86 | Eleanor Smith who was the eldest 
Daughter | of the Rev^ George Moore | died Dec 12th 1814 aged 
54 years. 

21. 

This monument was erected | and this chapel restored in 1862, 
by public subscription | to the memory of Lieutenant General | 
Sir Harry G. W. Smith, baronet, of AKwal | Knight grand cross 
of the most honourable order of the Bath | Colonel of the 1st 
battalion Rifle brigade | He entered the 95th regiment in 1805 | 
served in South America, Spain, Portugal, France j North 



T 
i 



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^^ ^j----T- ^ij-^^-i:>*^^y f-- ^ '^g. - ■^-.rr-^^^^-y-^-''-^^'-^----^'^^^--^^ - - -.-.., ^ ,- _, -^ 



Fenland Notes and Qubeies. 105 

America, the Netherlands, India | and at the Cape of Good Hope 
I of which he was governor and commander in chief from 1847 
to 1852 I and on the Home Staff to 1859 when he completed a 
most gallant | and eventful career of 54 years constant 
employment | He was born at Whittlesey 28th June 1788 | and 
died in London 12th October 1860 | Within these walls he 
received his earliest education | and in the cemetery of his native 
place his tomb bears ample record | of the high estimation in 
which his military talents were held | by his friend and chief the 
great Duke of Wellington j Coruna, Busaco, Fuentes de onoro, 
Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca | Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, 
Nive, Orthez, Toulouse, Waterloo, | Maharajpore, Ferozeshuhur, 
Aliwal, Sobraon, South Africa | Lord in thee have I trusted, let 
me never be confounded. 



22. 

In loving remembrance of George Moore Smith | youngest son 
of I Charles Smith & Mary his wife | born Sept XXI 
MDCCCXXIV I Died June VII MDCCCLXX | Looking for the 
Mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ | unto eternal life. 



23. 
Sacred | to the memory of | Fredk. Bowker | Capt 109*^ 
Regiment | who departed this life | August 6th 1869 | aged 29 
years | Deeply regretted by his brother oflScers | by whom this 
tablet was erected. 



24. 
In I memory of | Capt H. C. Bowker | Royal Marines | Died 
Oct 22nd 1870 | aged 32 | This tablet was erected | by his brother 
oflOicers as a mark I of their affection and esteem. 



Floor of Nave. 
25. 
The ) family vault of | Henry Lawrence | Maydwell. 



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s^^^pf^^p^p-- 



106 Fenland Notes and Qubeibs. 

26. 
The family vault | of the | Rev. Gteo. Moore | Vicar of the 
parishes | of Whittlesey. 



Floor of South Aisle. 
27. 
John son of John and Margaret T. Johnson | died Feb. 25th 
1807 aged 16 years | Margaret wife of John Johnson | died April 
9th 1807 aged 47 years | John husband of Margaret Johnson | 
died Dec 26th 1820 aged 60 years. 



28. 
The I family vault of | Thomas Moore. 



29. 
The I family vault of | John Smith, 

79.— The Hectors of Oroyland since the Dissolution of 
Monasteries. 

A.D. 

1539 Thomas Crowland, alias Parker. | " Appointed to serve the 
Cure of Crowland & to have for his labor therein £10 
& a chamber there called the master of the works 
office." The revenues of this Abbey at the Dissolution 
of Monasteries, £1217 5s. lid. 

1561 Syr Thomas Salkyld. 

1576 Thomas Fairechild. Buried 27th December, 1589. 

1589 Robert Chapman. 

1591 John WilUamson. 

1592 Robert Chapman. | In 1605 the Parsonage was appro- 

priated without a Vicarage. Mr. Auditor Conniers was 
the patron. The number of Communicants, 304. 

1624 Augustine Bracker. 

1640 William Styles. | Also Warden of Browne's Hospital, 
Stamford. In 1648 the Rector joined the Royalists 
and acted as a Captain. He escaped when Dr. Hudson 
was murdered at Woodford House. 



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Fenlaio) Notes and Queries. 107 

1654 15th September, Richard Lee.— "Presented to the Rectory 
of Crowland by Robert Richmond and Robert Southwell, 
patrons thereof." 

1654 6th December, John Gyles.— " Presented by Valentine 

Walton, the patron thereof." 

1655 4th April, Richard Lee.— " Presented by His Highness, 

OKver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth 

of England, & the patron thereof." 
1671 Nov. 6th, Hmry Perw^.— Instituted on the presentation of 

Robert Southwell. 1681, Prebendary of Lincohi. 
1722 July 7th, Culpepper Butcher. — Thoxm.^ Hackworth and 

Thomas Orby, patrons. 
1724 Barnaby Gooche. Inducted by Rev. McNeeve, Vicar of 

"Weston. Buried 24th October, 1730, near the Altar. 
1780 5th December, Jeames Benson. Patron, Steverly Butler, 

of St. Georges the Martyr, County of Middlesex. Value 

of the benefice, £80. Buried 26th March, 1761, near 

the Altar. 

1761 26th May, William Sandiver.—PB^tron, Thomas Orby 

Hunter. Buried 1st June, 1762, near the Altar. 

1762 9th August, James Thompson,— Imtitntei on the presen- 

tation of Martha Butler. Buried 10th Nov., 1766, near 

the Altar. 
1767. 13th Feb., Moor Scribo. Patron, Thomas Orby Hunter. 

Value of the benefice, £34 16s. 4d. Buried 18th July, 

1808, near the Altar. 
1808 28th Sept., James Blundell — Patron, James Whitsed. 

1810, Present Rectory built by subscription. The Rev. J. 

Blundell was also Vicar of Whaplode Drove. Buried 

28th March, 1884, within the Altar rails. 
1834 17th Sep., John Bates. Patron, the Marquis of Exeter. 

Buried 17th Dec, 1888, near the north-east pier of the 

old Nave. 
1884 4th January, Thmas Henry Le Bamf. 1887, present 

Rectory enfranchised. 

Rev. T. H. Le Bceuf, Croyland. 



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108 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

80.- Abraham GUI, Intruding Minister of Manea.— Many 
readers of Fenland Notes and Qiceries have no doubt seen or heard 
of Defoe's celebrated pamphlet—" The Shortest way with Dis- 
senters." But perhaps few have seen another written by him, en- 
titled, " The Experiment or the Shortest way with Dissenters ex- 
emplified in the Case of, Abraham Gill, a Dissenting Minister in the 
Isle of Ely," published in 1705. That and " An Answer," in 1707, 
supposed to be written by the Rev. Hugh James, rector of Upwell 
and Welney, contain information very interesting to lovers of Fen 
history. The object of Defoe's pamphlet was to show the various 
persecutions Gill was subjected to by the Church party, because 
he being a Clergyman of the Charch of England went over to 
the Dissenters. It appears that Gill was Curate of Coveney and 
Manea about 1696, and officiated at both places about two years, 
he then went to Welney. Defoe says, " In this Chapel Mr. Gill 
continued about seven years, conforming in all things to the 
usage of the Church of England, but in course of time he began 
to omit several parts of the service, until at last, his scruples in- 
creasing, he wholly omitted the Common Prayer, applying himself 
only to the pulpit, and conceiving he was not under equal obliga- 
tions as if preaching in a Parish Church, the Chapel he preached 
in being wholly independent, a privileged place, and in the power 
of the people." It seems Gill was first committed to Cambridge 
Gaol, or as it says. The Tolbooth Gaol, whence he was removed 
to Norwich Gaol, charged with Felony, Forgery, Trespass, Con- 
tempt, and other high crimes and misdemeanors, but he was dis- 
charged at the Assizes. In 1704 he was brought up by warrant 
to Wisbech, charged with breeding disturbances in the parish by 
a Conventicle, and was committed to Gaol at Wisbech for forging 
a License and preaching in a Conventicle ; he was there im- 
prisoned or enlisted for a soldier, and taken to Cambridge with 
others, where he was arrested for debt. There are several affidavits 
and testimonials in his favour, amongst others, this from Manea, 
signed by ten parishioners :—" That they have known Mr. 
Abraham Gill now a Minister of a Dissenting Congregation at 
Upwell, this ten or twelve years or thereabouts. He was our 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 109 

Minister for about two years, and well settled in our Parish with 
his wife, who lived together very comfortably and peaceably. He 
was able and diligent in his teaching, he was no drunkard nor 
swearer, and lived a pious life and conversation amongst us ; and 
these deponents do further say, that, to their knowledge the said 
Gill never had two wives living at^one time, but that he married 
his now wife after his former wife's decease." " The Answer " 
takes a very different view of the affair. From that it seems that 
Gill was the son of Kobt. Gill, of Eivingbon, Lancashire, and 
gives details of several scandalous things done by him in Lanca- 
shire before he came to the Fens. It then goes on to say he 
brought a woman with him, not his wife, when he came to 
Coveney, '*an obscure village in the Isle of Ely." After he had 
removed to Welney it goes on to say, " Thus this bold impostor 
lived in bare-faced wickedness at Welney an obscure corner of 
the world fitted for his villanies, making havock of poor souls, 
and revelling without control in all enormities that were for his 
pleasure or profit ; made nothing to forge Licenses 40 or 50 in a 
year ; married all persons who came to him from all places of 
the nation night and day ; for which this lawless wretch was well 
known, and noted in all the adjacent Counties." " Mr. James 
finding all admonitions and reproof ineffectual, prosecuted him at 
Norwich, and as was suspected found his Orders forged, for which 
they gave him several Citations for appearance, but he never 
showing his face in Court, was, at last excommunicated for 
forgery and other enormous crimes, from which excommunication 
he was never absolved, and the Chapel doors were shut against 
him." There is a copy of the Orders supposed to be signed by 
the Bishop of Chester, also a letter from the Bishop of Chester 
to the Bishop of Norwich : " My Lord, Abraham Gill was not 
ordained by me either Priest or Deacon. I have carefully ex- 
amined my Ordination Register, and find no such name as Gill 
there, nor any name like it ; besides there are many things in the 
forged instrument that plainly discovers the imposture." It then 
enumerated them, and finishes with, " I hope your Lordship has 
secured the rascal, and will make him a public example. Chester, 



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110 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

Aug. 19: 1702. N. Cestriens." Besides other things charged to 
Gill he was accused of being a swearer ; to confirm this, an 
affidavit was sworn at March, Feb. 5th, 1707, by John Walsham, 
to this effect, "That some time ago being at Stow Fair in 
Norfolk, a Place near adjoining the said Isle, he the Deponent 
went into a Booth in the said Fair, with an Horse-courser with 
whom he had business, and that soon after, the said Abraham Gill 
also came into this Deponents Company in the said Booth, not 
then knowing the Deponent, as he verily believes ; and saith also 
that during the time of his the said Gill's being in this Deponents 
company, the said Gill swore divers Oaths in a Customary-way of 
Swearing, without any Provocation ; at which this Deponent was 
very much scandalized, the said Gill appearing in a Clergyman's 
Habit, and afterwards took an opportunity to rebuke him for it, 
at which the said Gill did not seem to be in any way concerned." 
After reading the two pamphlets, I think any impartial person 
must come to the conclusion that Defoe was not a very truthful 
writer, and that Gill was a gross impostor. I have lately come 
into possession of an old Church Bible, most probably the one 
used in Manea Chapel in Gill's time, as I find on the first leaf, 
written in a good bold hand, "Abra. Gill Curate 1696" ; under- 
neath this, in a different hand, " a piget et pudet " ; then in 
Gill's writing, "Edward Burch Chapelwarden in the year 1691, 
and built the Pulpit and desk though much ag!* the consent of 
many of the Rich-Inhabitants yet he carried on the good act: 
sic. test. Abra Gill " ; under this, in another hand, " Monstru 
Horrenda." This paragraph of Gill's, written in the Bible, gives 
an insight into his character, and the remarks made by some of 
his successors show that they will not believe in his goodness. 
There is a review of the two Pamphlets in " Wilson's Life and 
times of Defoe," and any one not being able to see the Pamphlets 
had better read the review, as it goes farther into details. 

W. W. GREEisr, Manea. 

81 .—Altering Surnames.— As an instance of the manner in 
which names get quite altered by use in the course of years, it may 



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^ 



Fenland Notes aiib Qubmbs. Ill 

be mentioned that in the town of Eamsey, Sarah Fitzjohn is 
unknown, she is now " Sallie Figgins," and Elizabeth Allpress is 
ako changed into " Betsy Press." Cases have been heard of in 
this district where a country fellow at his marriage has signed the 
church register in the name he has always been called by but 
which is in reality only an abbreviation. 

D.F.D., Ramsey. 

82.— Notes on Croyland, No. 2.— (No. ^%, Part III.)— Very 
many of our Lincolnshire Church windows were formerly richly 
adorned with shields of arms of those families who either owned 
the manor, members of whom were benefactors or had sepulture 
therein. Col. Gervase Holies, whose family resided at Grimsby, 
just before the civil war, took notes of such as he saw, and which 
are comprised in the Harl. M.S., 6829, Brit. Mus., and of which un- 
fortunately for us little remains now to be seen, and in too 
numerous instances the folios of Holies are the sole remaining 
record. Our venerable Abbey Church (would some man of wealth, 
as in days of old, ere it be too late to save it from entire ruin, 
come down "handsome," and thus leave a noble example that 
others might " please copy":) windows just before Cromwell 
stormed the place, 9th May, 1643, contained some forty armorial 
shields, thirty-eight of which are beautifully reproduced in their 
proper colors in the " margint " of the M.S., fol. 239, which I 
now append retaining the original mode of spelling. 

Fenesfcre. 

G. 3 Keyes or 

B. 3 Crosses Portate arg 

Lozengy or and G ^ ... -.. Groun 

Lozengy Sa and Ermyne ... Pattm 

Empaled : Qteiiy France and England 

G 2 Barres betw. 6 Martlets or. 

6. 3 Crosses botany 

G. A Crosse Patonce or. Laiymer. 

G. Crosse Crusilly Fitchy a Uon ramp arg. .,. La Wane. 
G. a bende and 2 Bendlets above Grelk 



i 



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^^^^^^^^-. 



I 



X12 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

Lozengy Or and G Croun 

Or. a Saltier ergrayled sa ... Boteiorte 

Qfcerlj : — Arg a cheife G over all a Bend G ... Grumwell 

Chequy Or and G a cheife Ermyne. . . Tateshale 

Barry of 6 pieces Arg and B in cheife 3 1 wimiina 
Lozenges G. a mullet difference J ^ 

B a Bend Or Scrope 

Arg a fesse G in cheife 3 Torteauxes Dev&i'eux 

Arg. a chevron betw. 3 Martlets Sa 

Sa. a Frett Arg. Earingion 

Qterly : — Sa. a Crosse engrayled Or Willoughhy 

G. a Crosse Molin Arg. 

Arg. a Crosse Molin Sa 

Arg. a Saltier G. 

B a Saltier Arg 

Qterly :-Arg^ a crosse engrayled G betw. ) ^,^^,^,-^ 
4 Waterbougets Sa J 

G. Billetty Or. a Fesse Arg. ... Louaine 

Qterly : G and Or a Mullet in -f 1'* q^'ter Arg. Yere 

B, an Estoyle Arg 

Empaled: B an Estoyle Arg ,.. 

Or a Chevron G on a Border 

B 8 Myters Or Stafford^Epus 

B, a Chevror betw, 3 Garbes Or 

G. a Saltier Arg. Nevile 

Qterly : Bourchier Louaine j oTesbL. 



Qterly : France Semy and England and ) 
Border Arg j 

Qterly : France Semy and England 
label of 3 Ermyne 

Qterly : France Semy and England 
label of 3 Arg 



Qterly : France Semy and England on a ) 
Border B 8 Floure de Lize Or J 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 113 

Aig. a chevron betw. 3 Gryphons heads) jy^^^^ 
erased Gr J ^^ 

Gr 3 Water bougets Ermyne Roos 

Arg. 2 Barres and a Canton ... ... ... 

Gr. a Crosse Patonse Or. a Border Arg ... 

Gr. a Fesse betw. 6 Fleur de lize Arg 

Gr. Bezanty a Canton ermyne ... ... ... Zoicch 

Holies did not confine himself merely to note the armorial 

windows as then extant but left us also a record of the inscriptions 

on the bells : — 

In Multos annis resonet campana Johannis 

Sum rosa Pulsata mundi Maria Vocata 

Hec Campana beata Trinitate Sacra. 

Campang. 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

83.— Rood Loft Piscina at; Maxey.— Mr, Littlehales should 
not have inserted a comma after " Rood Loft," when noting a 
curiosity in Maxey Church. The Rood Loft has long disappeared, 
but a piscina remains above the nave arches on the south side, 
shewing that there was an altar in the Loft. Rood Loft piscinas 
are very rare. There are probably not a dozen in England. 

W. D. SwEBTiNa. Maxey Vicarage. 

84.— Abbots of Ramsey.— The will of John Lawrence " de 
Wurdebois," or de Werdebois, f' Abbot of Ramsey, was dated 1541, 
and he died the year after, leaving his Nephew, William Lawrence, 
(son of John Lawrence, of Ramsey, who died in 1538) his 
Exec'utor. William was Sheriff for Cambridge and Hunts., and 
died 1572, leaving to his son Henry Lawrence, of St. Ives, his 
armour, all his silver plate which had been left to him by his uncle, 
the abbot, and the iron chest in the library containing papers and 
evidences." This Henry Lawrence was the grandfather of Henry, 
the President of Cromwell's Council, and ancestor of the Lawrences , 
Barts., now extinct, and the Lawrences of Jamaica. What further 
is known of this abbot, or of the Lawrences, of Warboys ? 

N. Edis, Stamford. 



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114 Pekland Notes and Queeies. 

85.— Penland Superstitions.— S,E's account of the flat bottle 
containing " pins stuck into a dark substance," furnishes folklore- 
students with an example of the degenerate form of blood-sacrifice 
still prevailing in England. We learn from old legends that long 
after paganism perished, the hideous custom of interring living 
beings beneath the threshold or hearth-stone, or within the wall of 
of a new building, was kept up among our ancestors, and modern 
travellers inform us that the habit of securing a homestead against 
evil influences, by burying a human being, or animal, in the most 
sacred part of a house, is practised by many savage races down 
to the present day. Christianity at length succeeded in banishing 
the barbarous custom from civilized Europe, but it cannot be 
doubted that the heart of a bird or small mammal stuck full of 
pins, which is so often found under the fire-place, or foundation 
of old houses, is a substitute for the living sacrifice once offered 
to the powers of darkness with the intention of averting mis- 
fortune from the building. 

Mabel Peacock, Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

86.— Horkey.— I have often heard this term applied to a 
social gathering in the Ely and Littleport district. After the 
potato crop is got in a " potato horkey " is held to celebrate the 
event, very much in the same way as a harvest home supper is 
held. Can anyone explain the origin of the term ? 

T.V.W., Wisbech. 

87.— The Parish Church of St. Mary, Whaplode.— Consider- 
ing the mass of local history which centres around the old parish 
churches of the country, it is surprising that the history of so 
many of them still remains unwritten. This, however, can no 
longer be said of the Parish Church of St. Mary, Whaplode, for 
the indefatigable antiquary, Mr. W. E. Foster, F.S.A., has taken 
the matter in hand, and has produced a fascinating volume. With- 
out being bulky, it says all that need be said, and the only regret 
is that the history of every other Fenland Church is not equally 
well written. To Fenmen especially Mr. Foster's little work will 
be most acceptable. Elliot Stock is thepubhsher* 



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Fenland Notes and Qubries. 115 

88.— Monnmental Inscriptions in St. Margaret's Churcli. 
Lynn, No. 2.-(No. 61, Part III.) 

13.— Chancel Floor, 
H. S. E. I judetha fiKa sola | Sethei Hawley aldermani | uxor 
charissima Johannge Selfe gen^ | quae nobis decessit | xxvii^die 
Nov Anno Dni | mdolxxv Ano aetatis | xxviii® | Here lyeth the 
Body of I John Edis Gent | Who died the 18^^ of Aug^ 1731 | 
Aged 48 years | Also 3 of his Children. ( 



14.— Chancel Floor. 



Here Lieth | Elizabeth Late Wife | of M"^ Will"' Cremer of 
Kings Linn | Buried the 6*^ October | 1680 | Also Alice y^ 3*^ wife 
of y^ aforesaid [ Will"' Daughter of Will"' Hart Gent | She died 
y® 30*^ of Apr : 1700 Aged 44 yeares. | 

[Arms : 3 wolves' heads erased, on a chief, 3 cinquefoils, 
(Cremer) impaling ; .] 



15. — Chancel Floor. 

Percienal Fil. The : & | Sus : Fysh | 

NatusAug: 19 f i^qi i 
Ob : Sept : - - t ^^^^ ' 

Osstendunt Ferris Hunc. I tantum Fata nee ultra I Esse Siunt 



16. — Floor of South Chapel. 

Mary Keble Widdow | y® 3 Daughter of | Ho. Lone of Becoles | 
in Suff : Esq. died y« | 16 of Jan : 1693 | Aged 41 | 



17.— Chancel Floor. 

Hie Sepulti iacent | E Liberis Samuelis Brown Gten^'— Et Maria 
Uxoris ejus | Samuel xviii | Aprilis 1698 | Benjamin xxvn 
Augusti 1699 I Catherina xi Augusti 1701 | Alicia xiii Maii 
1705 I Infantuli ] Etiam Gulielmus xxvii Decembris 1709 | 
pene Brannis | 



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116 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

18.— Floor of South Chapel. 
Godfridus Wyldbore | Pharmacopseus | Latrinae Societatis | 
qui mortalibus dni | Saluti feram | ... orti tandem Herbam 
dedi I Quam in re Medica | Musica et PoeU | Palmam meruit | 

Secum tulit | Anno |^^^^^ . ^ ' 

[Arms : A fess between 2 wild boars passant. Crest : a boar's 
head erased. Motto : " Vince terpsum."] 



19.— Partly under Seats in South Chapel 

T . , n r Nat. 24 Jan. 1710 | 
^^^^^^^lMT)enat.l8Jan.l713| 

i-""^" {SafKe^l 

, T- . 11 (Nat. Jan. 11. 1717 | 
. . arahLirtell jpenat. Mar. 23. 1722 | 

20.— Partly under Seats in South Chapel. 

I The prison opened Thou set 

free | Then Satisfaction f uU shal . . | Psal .... | My 
hope in Christ . . ein is sure | as graven in marble to endure | 
. . 25 Phil. 3. 21 I Alleluia | For Christ who lives victorious | 
Such change shall give most glorious | By pious hope first changed 
be I That we y^ blessed hope may see. | 

[Capitals.] 



On the Chancel Screen. 

[Now divided and part on North and South side of Choir 
are these inscriptions.] 

Henricus Rosas | Anno Dni 1622 | . . . Anno Dni 1622 
Thoma : Carrow | et Thoma : Eobinson sedilibus | Beati pacifici 
Eegna lacobus | Tho. Gurlin Maior. | . . | e.r. r.c. l.r. 
1584. 

89.-— Buried Upright at Soham.— Can anyone furnish particu- 
lars of the parishioner of Soham, " buried upright at his stooles 
end," referred to by Mr. Littlehales. J. Johnson, B.A, 



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GAINSBOROUGH'S PICTURE OF MASTER 
HEATHCOTE, 1773. 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 117 

90.— The Heathcotes of Conington Castle.— The following 
article — and illustration on the opposite page — ^appeared m the 
Boy's Own Paper of November. The article is from the pen of 
the late Cuthbert Bede : — 

" Grentle reader of the Boy*s Otvn Paper ^ how do you like the 
dress of the little boy of whose portrait an engraving is here 
given ? " 

To which question I can imagine the quick response, "You 
don't mean a boy, but a girl ? " 

To which T should reply, "I mean precisely what I said — ^ 
little boy — of whom this is the portrait by that celebrated artist, 
Thomas Gainsborough, B.A., who is unrivalled (at least, I think 
so) as a portrait and also a landscape painter ; and in this lovely 
picture you have him at his very best in both styles." 

" But, surely ! " persist my boy friends — " surely you are under 
some mistake, and this painting is the portrait of a girl ? Look 
at the low-cut white frock deccending to the ground, and barely 
revealing one scarlet shoe ; look at the long, curling, chesnut hair, 
cut and trimmed like that of a girl ; look at " 

" Quite so ! " I say, abruptly interposing, " Nevertheless, the 
painting is of a faithful representation of a boy ; and it shows 
how a little lad of five years old was dressed rather more than a 
century ago — for Gainsborough painted this picture in the year 
1773. 

"The portrait is that of Master Heathcote, of Conington 
Castle, Huntingdonshire. He was the grandson of Sir John 
Heathcote, who purchased Conington estate 1753, from the heirs 
of Sir Eobt. Bruce Cotton, who was the founder of the Cottonian 
Collection in the British Museum, and was of kin to James I., 
who always addressed him as ' cousin ' when he went to court. 
Sir Eobt. Bruce Cotton, Bart., was also, of course, cousin to the 
hapless Mary, Queen of Scots ; and when Fotheringhay Castle was 
demolished after the death of her son James I — who, so far from 
destroying the castle, according to vulgar tradition, had got as 
much profit as he could out of it by letting it successively, to 
three noblemen — Sir Robert transfen-ed to Conington the pillars 



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118 Feklaio) Notes and Queries. 

and arches of the banqueting hall, in which the tragedy of Mary's 
execution was performed. These pillars and arches, instead of 
being inside the castle, as at Fotheringhay, are now on the outside 
of Conington Castle, the windows of the various rooms on the 
ground-floor being within the arches ; some of them enclosing the 
dining-room where now hangs Gainsborough's portrait of Master 
Feathcote. In the bedroom over the dining-room is a curious 
portrait of Mary, Queen of Scots ; and, in the Church — which is 
only a few yards distant — is a richly carved abbot's chair, from 
which she is believed to have risen at that lasfe supreme moment 
when she began to disrobe, in order to submit herself to the axe 
of the executioner. Both the chair and the portrait were exhib- 
ited in the very interesting collection of Mary Stuart relics 
gathered together at Peterborough in the year 1887 — the tercen- 
tenary of her execution. So you see that Conington Castle had 
some connection with Fotheringhay Castle. 

" The Sir John Heathcote, the grandfather of this girl-like boy, 
was the son of Sir G-ilbert Heathcote, who was a man of consider- 
able distinction. He was one of the founders of the Bank of England, 
and was the last Lord Mayor of London who rode on horseback in 
the procession on Lord Mayor's Day. He was the original of 
Steel's ' Sir Andrew Freeport,' of * The Spectator ' ; and he was 
mentioned by three poets, Bramble, in his * Letter,' Dyer, in his 
* Fleece,' and Pope, in his ' Imitation of Horace,' who has the 
line — 

" * Heathcote himself, and such large-acred men.' 

" The head of the family is now Lord Willoughby de Eresby, 
whose favourite seat, Normanton Castle, Rutland — visited by the 
Prince and Princess of Wales, and many other members of the 
Eoyal Family — ^is described by Dyer in these lines — 
" * And such the grassy slopes and verdant lawns 
Of beauteous Normanton, health's pleasing haunts, 
And the beloved retreat of Heathcote's leisure.' 

" A fine three-quarter length portrait of Sir Gilbert Heathcote, 
who was created a baronet in 1733, and is buried in Normanton, 
hangs over the side board, in the dining-room of Conington 
Castle, being separated from Grainsborough's Master Heathcote, by 



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Fenland Notes and Queries, 119 

a large full-length presentation portrait, by Sir Francis Grant, 
p. R. A,, of John Moyer Heathcote, Esquire, the eldest son of the 
Master Heathcote, of the picture. As Mr. Heathcote was born in 
1800, his age ^ goes with the century,' though you would not be- 
lieve it, to see his active habits, and to watch him still enjoying 
his favourite relaxation of out-door water-colour painting from 
nature, in which he has been a skilled artist all through his 
long, industrious, and most useful hfe, rivalling his old master 
and friend, De Wint." 

" Yes," interposes the gentle reader ; " I have a copy of his book 

* Fen and Mere,' written and profusely illustrated by himself, 
dealing with the drainage of old Whittlesea Mere, once so beloved 
by wild-fowlers, fishermen, butterfly collectors, yachts-men, and 
skaters — sports and pastimes of which the author-artist could say 

* quorum pars magna f ui.' It is a most interesting work, and has 
saved for posterity a true record, by pen and pencil of the scenery 
of the largest lake to be found between London and Windermere, 
up to the year 1850, when it was drained off the face of the earth. 
It must have been one of the happy hunting-grounds of Gains- 
borough's Master Heathcote." 

" I will acknowledge to you, that the picture is always taken, 
by a stranger, as the portrait of a girl ; and that when the stran- 
ger asks, ^ Whose is the portrait ? ' and its owner replies, ' My 
father,' the stranger at once observes " You mean your mother ! " 
and, like you, can scarcely be persuaded that the girl-like figure 
represents a boy who lived to place the initials m,f. after his name. 
This Master Heathcote was bom in 1768 ; he married Mary Ann 
Thomhill, in 1799 ; he restored Conington Castle between the 
years 1800 and 1813, from designs by Cockerell, the grounds 
being laid out by Lappidge ; and he died on Thursday, May 3rd, 
1838, aged 70. He left two sons and a daughter. The eldest 
son married a daughter of Lord Colborne, and, in 1833, made 
considerable additions to Conington Castle, under the direction of 
Blore, who was employed for the restoration of the Church. 
" And what is the history of this portrait of Master Heathcote ? " 
** Its History is this. It dates to the period when Gainsborough 



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120 Penland Notes and Queries. 

considered it advisable to enlarge the provincial reputation that 
he had gained at Ipswich ; and, acting upon the advice of his 
friend Thicknesse, had taken lodgings in the newly-erected circus 
in the City of Bath, when at the height of its fashion, and with 
the famous Beau Nash, still master of the ceremonies, although 
then old and feeble, and at the close of his career. Gainsborough 
soon found many sitters, and it became the fashion to employ him 
as a portrait painter. He received as much as a hundred guineas 
for a whole length portrait — a sum that, in those pre-Millais days, 
was considered most liberal payment. I need not tell you how 
greatly his pictures have been raised in value since then, and the 
high prices that they make whenever they are brought to the 
hammer. Not to mention the famous ' Duchess of Devonshire ' 
— which was first exhibited at the Academy, in 1783 — there was 
the half-length portrait of Mrs. Hibbert, of Chalfont, which was 
sold in March, 1885, for the sum of ten thousand pounds. We 
may judge, therefore, what would now be the value of this large 
picture of Master Heathcote if its owner should ever be disposed 
^0 part with it — a very unlikely occurrence. 

" Well ! Gainsborough had settled in Bath in the year 1760, 
and had prospered there, and had regularly sent his pictures up to 
London for exhibition at the Royal Academy and the British 
Institution ; and, after thirteen years' residence in the fashionable 
City of King Bladud, the artist began to consider the advisability 
of removing to London, the metropolis where he had lived and 
laboured in humble lodgings in Hatton Garden, working chiefly 
at low rates for the dealers until he married and removed to 
Ipswich, being then in his nineteenth year. He now possessed a 
fortune, and had made his name ; so that, when he left Bath for 
London in the year 1774, he went to fashionable quarters, and 
rented the half of Schomburg House in Pall Mall. Among the 
visitors who arrived at Bath, in 1773, were Mr. and Mrs. Heathcote, 
of Conington Castle, bringing with them their only child, a boy, 
named John, five years of age. Their other children had all 
died from the effects of a destructive sickness that had been raging 
in various parts of the kingdom ; and the parents had brought 



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Fenland Notes and Qubbies. 121 

their surviving child to Bath, as being a health resort. On 
hearing of Gainsborough's fame as a portrait painter, they were 
naturally anxious to secure a portrait of their son, and fchey applied 
to the artist for that purpose. But either from having enough com- 
missions on his hands, or for some other reason, he declined their 
request. The traditionary story is, that he told them that he 
' was visiting Bath for the purpose of recreation,' which must be 
an error, as he had already been living in the city for thirteen 
years, getting his living by his brush. Then the parents told him 
the circumstances of their case, and how their other children had 
fallen victims to the epidemic, and that one little boy was the only 
child spared to them, and that they greatly desired to possess his 
portrait for fear lest he should be taken from them. Then 
Gainsborough told them that they might bring the boy for him to 
see. They took him to the studio in the Circus on the following 
morning ; the boy being dressed in a plain white muslin frock, with 
a blue sash, scarlet shoes, and a black plumed hat— precisely as he 
is represented in the picture. 'Tou have brought him simply 
dressed,' said Gainsborough ; ' had you paraded him in a fancy 
costume, I would not have painted him ; now I will gladly comply 
with your request.' And so the parents obtained their wish, and 
the portrait of their only child was, in due course, taken from 
Bath to Conington Castle, where it has ever since remained, with 
the exception of one visit it paid to London to an exhibition of 
the old masters. It has never been engraved ; and I have made 
the accompanying sketch by permission of its present owner the 
eldest son of the Master Heathcote here depicted." 

91 —Will of a Peterborougli Citizen.— The following will of 
a citizen of Peterborough, made but a short time before the sup- 
pression of the Abbey, dated 15th July, and presented in London, 
21st October, 1538, may prove of interest to your readers : — 

"July 1538. I Edward Grenehall of Peterborough, co. 
Northampton, gent. My body to be buried in the church of 
St. Peter in the Monastery of Peterboro' To the Lord Abbot, 
bl ; to the Prior 10^, the three presidents of the said house, 



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122 Fenland Notes and Queeies. 

6s 8d ea, chaunter 6s 8^, & to every monk of the house being at 
my burial, 3s 4^. To the reparations of the parish church of 
Peterboro' & upholding of the Gilds in the said church, 50s. 
To the parish church of Paston 3s 4rf. To the four houses of 
the four orders of friars in Staumford 40s, that is lOs. to each 
house, desu'ing them to pray for my soul & all christian souls. 
For a priest to pray in the parish church of Peterboro' for my 
soul, & for the souls of my wife, father, mother & all christian 
souls 51. My executors to put one honest priesfc into the GUd of 
St. George & St. James to maintg,in God's service, to pray for my 
soul & all the bretheren & sisters of the said gild for one year, & 
for his salary I give 51 To my kinsfolk (s) neices Johan & Bllynor 
Powler, 4? to the one & 10s the other. Nephew Wm Wilson, 
40s, neice Jane, the painter's wife, 40s ; Edw. Browne, son of the 
said Jane 53s Ad ; cousins Eichd. Baylye 40s ; & Eobt. Pratt of 
Fiskerfcon, & to his 2 sons named in Sir Wm Pratt's will 40s. To 
Eliz. Stroggs, dau. of Thos. S. dl Qs 8d. To Jane Tomson, 31 6s Sd. ; 
Geo. Digbyn of Eye, 40s ; Wm. Shairshall, of Peterboro', 205 ; 
Christopher, son of my cousin Reginald Grenhall, 31 6s 8d. To 
my godsons Edw. Algar, Geo. Quarles, 31 Qs 8d ea, & to each of 
my other godsons, 12d ea. To Tho. Grenhall of Peterboro' 
es 8d. To my wife, Margaret, 601, plate & household stuff that 
was hers before marriage, also the cattle and implements of 
husbandry in my farm of the Thwartes, a salt seller of silver, all 
gilte with the cover, and a standing peice of silver which was 
Master Kyrkehams. To Reginald G my cousin & nephew 66? 
13s 4^ I will that my exors bestow 26s 8d in repairing of the 
highway between the grange place called the Sexten barns and the 
towns end in Peterboro' " towards the wynd mill," Also 26s 8d 
on the highway at the west end of the town of Glinton in the 
little lane there with the best advice & counsel of the inhabitants. 
In ahns to the poor people of PeyMrk & Glinton, 4?. To the 
town of Peterboro' for repairing of the great bridge in the said 
town 40s." One of the signatory witnesses to the will was Master 
Thos. ByU, Dr. of Medicine. 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 



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FjEiNLAND Notes and Queries. 123 

92 —Pen Droves.— The Fen Droves are black earthy cart- 
tracts leading from the distant farms to the main road ; they have 
a beauty of their own in the summer covered as they are with 
short mossy grass and redundant with forget-me-nots and the pink 
or lesser cranesbill, and scores of other trailing plants. In 
December these droves are almost impassible, and the carts that 
have made the pilgrimage up to the town show clearly they have 
sunk up to the axle in mud on their journey. An old folk-lore 
story runs that one man met another on one of these droves and 
inquired if he had seen a hat. " naw " said the other. " I would 
not care so much about the hat " explained the first, " but there is 
a man under that, and a horse under that," all three having sunk 

and disappeared in the black oily mud, 

D.F.D., Eamsey. 

93.— Bedford Level in 1661.— Lord Esm6 Gordon of Paxton 
Hall, Hunts., has kindly placed at our disposal a pamphlet 
which was pubhshed in London in 1661. The following is 
the title : — 

" A|relation|of the business now in hand concerning | Bedford 

" levell I written in a letter | to | a worthy member of this 

" parliament | by a person uninterested more than in his 

" pub I lick desires to preserve a work so beneficial for | the 

" Kingdom, and satisfaction of all just inte | rest relating to 

" it 1 London, printed in the year MDCLXI." 

The writer commences by stating that on May 6th, 1661, two 

bills were read in the House of Commons concerning settling the 

government of the great level, called the Bedford Level. He 

goes on to speak of Francis, Earl of Bedford, as the first to 

attempt to drain the Level, and traces the history of the work. 

in order to prove the Earl of Bedfords's title. 

He then proceeds : — " The said Francis and his participants have 

" the right title, but being hindered for some time by his late 

" majesty, and after by the commotions of the people, then by 

" the succeeding wars, by sequestrations, and their inevitable 

" absence or death, they were disabled in purse, or person, or 



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124 Penland Notes and Queries. 

'•durst not attend its presentation, so that the King being 
" martyrd, and Francis, Earl of Bedford, formerly dead, and so 
" many of his participants (as conceive they have a right to 
" neer a moiety of the 83,000 acres) made uncapable or having 
" not a conscience to act with them, I say William, Earl of 
" Bedford, (needing no other title but his own as heir to his 
" father) did (by ensnarement, judging charitably of those that 
"had but three months before shred the Kingdom into a 
"commonwealth) suffer his name to be used, in a pretended 
"act of parliament, dated 29 May, 1649. Wherein were 
" constituted such subtile laws, and such commissioners and 
"judfijes of the Level, as had endeavoured to level all but 
" themselves ; for in the first place they sold the King's 12,000 
" acres and then above 30,000 acres of the participants of the 
" said Earl's father, (being all loyal subjects) and upon their two 
"titles (as I said) two bills were presented to the house 
" to be enacted." 

The title of the participants claiming under the title of Francis, 
Earl of Bedford, was voted in with a petition and was read in the 
House before the other bill. The petition was from Sir William 
Playters, Knight, (Master for the Earl of Arundel), Sir John Hewet, 
Bart., Sir William Teringham, Knight, Col. Sam. Sandys, Col. 
Eobert Philips, Col. William Dodson, and others claiming under the 
original adventurers of the Bedford Level. The petition commences 
by saying " That whereas there hath been, and is a difference 
between the adventurers under the Et. Hon. Francis, the Earl of 
Bedford, and the intruders under the Et. Hon. William, Earl of 
Bedford, the said adventurers under Francis claiming their rights 
by virtue of a fourteenth part deed and several after laws of 
sewers, letters patent, and orders of council made in their behalf ; 
and the said intruders claiming under William by colour only of 
a Im made by the pretended parliament in 1649, and of such 
unjust disseissin and intrusions." In calling their opponents 
"intruders" the petitioners said that they did not wish to 
prejudice the name of Earl William, '*or lessen his interest 
in the fennes," but they meant only those that purchased 



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Fenlaot) Notes and Queries. 125 

the petitioners lands upon the title only of that pretended act for 
non-payment of taxes, so illegally, unwarrantably (and they say 
also) unnecessarily imposed." The writer of this pamphlet asked 
why should not the intruders make restitution, and adds, "I 
confesse the intruders reply plausibly ' give us our tax money we 
are out of, and take your lands.' But the petitioners adde to that 
old maxime that the business of tax is not only an unjust imposition 
but a subject for cheating ; for just when the 80,000 acres were 
divided into 20 lots, each lot did consist of three sorts of ground, 
bad, indifferent, and good. Now whilst each lot stood entire in 
possession of those who first undertook them, it was equal, but 
being subdivided to several persons, it was unequal that that land 
should pay a noble per acre which was not worth 9d., and that not 
above a noble which was worth above a pound. Then as to the 
opportunity of cheating, it was obvious to every one that if some 
few of them who ruled the waters did confederate, it were easie to 
let in water on good grounds, to m^ke them worse, and keep them 
upon bad, from being better, till the taxes made them weary of 
them, and (the petitioners say) this will be evidenced in case of 
one of the intruders who bought as many fennes at 2/6 per acre 
(the sum not amounting to above two or three hundred pounds) 
as within a short time were sold for £3, £4, and £5, per acre, so 
as about £30,000 was made of them. By this act of taxes, Col. 
Sam. Sandys is deceived of about 7,000 acres (which was conveyed 
to Trustees for the indemnifying him againsD great debts, wherein 
he stood engaged with Sir Miles Sandys) and the Earl of Arundel 
lost his shares (by employing one to pay the taxes, which suffered 
them to be forfeited, that there might be an opportunity to 
purchase them). Something might be added in Crane and 
Hoblyn's case to the same effect, but I am loath to trouble you 
with more of these sad truths and any wish that the intruders may 
not hold Machiavil's maxim that things which are unjustly gotten 
must be unjustly maintained, hoping that the intruders will prove 
better principled." 



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126 FsNiiAND Notes and Queries. 

94.— A Curiousf Superstition.— On Friday, May 7th, 1762, 
died an inhabitant of Whittlesey, and when he was going to be 
buried, some of his friends noticing that the bottom of the coffin 
was very wet, raised the lid to see what was the matter, and to 
their astonishment found in the coffin more than two gallons of 
strong beer which the man's wife had put in. She explained 
"That when her husband was alive he loved ale, and she was 
willing that he should not want it when he was dead." 

C. Dack, Peterborough. 

95.—Leland and the Fen Country.— In "The Itinerary of 
John Leiland that famous Antiquary. Begunne about 1538," the 
Author gives a poetical description of every County in England, 
beginning thus : — 

Here sueth the Propertees of the Shryes of Engeland. 
The Property of every Shyre 
I shall you telle, and ye will here. 
This is the account he gives of the Fenland : — 
Huntyngdonshire corn f ul goode. 
Lyncolnshire men ful of myghtys. 
Northamptonshire ffiil of love 
Benethe the gyrdyll and noth above. 
Northfolk ful of wyles. 
Cambrygeshire ful of pykes. 
Holond ful of grete dykes. 
He j&nishes up his description with the following quaint phrase 
That Lord that for us all dyde dye. 
Save all these Shires. Amen say we. 

Charles Dawes. 

96.— Acre Silver —Joisse Book, Force Book, &c.— Can any 
of your readers give explanations as to the meaning of the 
above terms, which are to be found in some of the old documents 
relating to the Fens ? In a verdict of the Court of Sewers of 1571^ 
these expressions occur : — The said dyke is to be repaired by 
menworks." " The common Sewer which ought to be repaired by 
Acre Silver." "The gate ought to be seured by the landowners 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 127 

according fco the joisse book." " The Radyke called Witham 
bank." The termination "booth" is also frequently met with, 
thus " from Antom gowt to danebooth," what is ifcs derivation ? 

W. H. Wheeler, O.E., Boston. 

97.— Inn Signs :— Dog in a DouMet— Cross Guns.— Can any 
reader of Fenland Notes and Queries give the origin, meanirjg, and 
date of the above signs, which are met with on the North Bank, 
between Peterborough and Wisbech. The Dog in a Doublet sign 
board is apparently an old painting, better executed than public- 
house signs in general. In the early part of the last century T 
find it written Dog and Doublet, E. 

98.— Soham Free School.— The following interesting par- 
ticulars of this School are furnished to the Soham Parochial 
Magazine by J. R. 0. : — 

This school was established in 1699, the cost of building being 
£224 7s. 6^d. There appear to have been two school-masters 
in 1699, Mr. Morley, who received £10 for half a year's salary 
due at midsummer 1699, and Mr. Luke Norfolk who received 
£7 10s. for a year's salary due at the same date. In 1716 the two 
masters were allowed £45 per annum to be divided equally be- 
between them, and 10 shillings per annum to a woman for 
sweeping the school. And there were apparently two masters till 
1749, when Mr. Robert Kent became sole master at a salary of 
£40 per annum. 

Mr. John Aspland was appointed master in 1790 (?). He was 
a self taught man of rather rough manners and eccentric habitSy 
and had the reputation of being a superior mathematician. He 
prepared his only son (afterwards the Rev. Isaac Aspland of 
Pembroke Hall) for the University and with such success that his 
son received a Fellowship and was afterwards appointed to the 
living of Earl Stonham. John Asplaud was of a musical turn, 
but as a teacher of languages and general knowledge he had 
no great skill. He failed to win the affections of his pupils, one 
of whom reported of him that he was somewhat merciless in the 
use of a whip, the handle of which served him for a poker. He 



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128 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

was a man of some humour and by his own account rather nig- 
gardly. His housekeeper having applied to him for some necess- 
ary articles, he replied, " Well, madam, they shall not blame you, 
I will write your apology and you may hang it up in self defence." 
He thereupon produced the following lines, which were hung up 
for the inspection of visitors : 

•' Be it known to all those 

Who perhaps may suppose 
That this house is not kept very clean, 

Neither mop, brush, nor plow,* 

Will its master allow, 
Such a niggard scarce ever was seen." 
In 1823, Mr. WilHam Warren was appointed to succeed Mr. 
Aspland at a salary of £60 per annum, such appointment to be 
terminable by six months notice from a majority of the Feoffees. 
The scholars were to be taught according to the rules, &c., of the 
Church of England, and the master was to attend the Parish 
Church with as many of the scholars as chose to go. No girls 
were to be taught in the school room, or any boy whose parents 
were not inhabitants. 

99.— A Guide to the Fenland.— Mr. S. H. Miller, whose 
intimate acquaintance with the history of the Fenland is generally 
recognized, has just issued an excellent little work, giving a short 
description of every Parish in the Fenland. 

100.— Thomey Volunteer Infantry, 1803— 1805— In the 

early years of the century war clouds were gathering thick and 
fast, and an invasion was threatened. There were two companies 
of Volunteer Infantry formed at Thorney. The Eight Company, 
under John Wing, Esq., Captain-Commandant, afterwards 
Lieut.-Col. ; the Left, under Mr. Isaac Pears, Captain. When 
first enrolled, October, 1803, there were 145 (oJBcers included) 
in the two Companies. In February, 1805, they had been re- 
duced by ten, ovring to resignations and death, while 7 recruits 
had been added. April 18th, 1804, there were received into 
Store 6804 Balls, 3780 blank Cartridges, and 630 Flints. The 

* A kind of rough scrubbing brush. 



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Fenlaot) Notes and Queries. - 129 

lasfe is an item that looks rather strange after an interval of 85 

years. There was a fair amount of firing done considering the 

numbers. Between June 4th and October 8th, 3324 cartridges 

were used, and the following may be quoted as a specimen of the 

practice : — 

Aug. 6. 40 shots, and only 5 put in the target. 

„ 7. 30 „ 7 

„ 8. 45 „ 10 

„ 9, 51 „ 11 99 

They met to drill between October 1st and January 1st, 30 
times ; between January 1st and August, 54 times ; and between 
August and February 21st, 1805, there were 21 meetings. At 
regular drill the attendance was good, 117, includiDg the non- 
commissioned officers, attended 15 and upwards out of a possible 
18 meetings between October and Christmas. The following 
gentlemen supplied waggons and carts for the use of the 
Volunteers : — 

WAGGONS. CARTS. 

Mr. Jno. Brown. Mr. Jno. Hutton. 

„ Jno. Bailey. „ Eobt. Pate. 

„ Sampson Barber. 

„ Richard Hodson. 

„ Geo. Maxwell. 

„ Pears. 

„ W. Jas. Smith. 

In a local Journal of 30 years ago, some verses on the Volunteer 

Movement occur, from which the following is an extract : — 

Did not our Fathers in the days of yore, 

When first Napoleon threatened Albion's shore, 

Eally round their leader, Thomas (? John) Wing, 

Unto the nation's Standard nobly cling 

To defend their homes and Britain's rights maintain ? 

Were they not mustered under Captain Crane ? 

A Noble Stalwart Band, deny it who dares, 

Were then the Thomey Local Volunteers. ^ ^ 

101.— Great Fire at Ramsey, 1731.~Mr. Thos. Darlow, of 
Eamsey, has forwarded to us two copies of the Post Boy news- 
paper, of the dates June 23rd and July 2nd, 1731. In the first 
of these appears a letter signed Edmund Overall, appealing for 
assistance in behalf of persons injured in consequence of a great 
fire. He says : — " The place I mean is Ramsey, in the County 



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130 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

of Huntingdon, where on Friday, the 21st of May last, about 120 
poor families were burnt out, and thereby reduced to the same 
necessity with those of Blandford and Tiverton, and are equally 
objects of pity and compassion. As this poor town is the place 
of my nativity, I persuade myself I shaU be excused in retaining 
some affection for it ... . Whatever is sent to me at my house 
in Bartholomew Close, near Westsmithfield, shall be acknowledged 
and the distribution pubHshed in your paper for their satisfaction." 
In the paper of July 2nd, Mr. Overall publishes a second list of 
donations, which he has received, amounting to £7 12s. Od., and 
which he states he had handed over to the Mayor and Aldermen 
of London, to go towards a common fund for relieving all who had 
suffered from the severe fires at Ramsey, Tiverton, and Blandford. 

102.— Wisbech in 1740.— The following was published in the 
Wisbech Advertiser of June, 1855: — "Wisbech seems to take con- 
siderable starts in improving its appearance once in about every 100 
years. We find in 1740 a windmill occupied the centre of the present 
Market-place; a large pond the centre of the Old Market; and an 
open sewer ornamented the north side of High Street, which was 
crossed by three little bridges. Planks were laid from these 
bridges to the other side of the street for those who had the 
courage to pass over the loose silt. But in 1750 the streets were 
first paved, the mill removed, and the pond filled up. A few years 
after that, the fine old stone bridge was built. The inhabitants 
at that time began to improve their shops, for in that year (1750) 
a Mr. Quinton, of St. Ives, put in what was then considered a 
handsome shop front with glass (the shop windows being generally 
at that time without glass), and let it to an enterprising young 
man, a Mr. Stanroyd, at the yearly rent of six guineas. The 
rates of 1855 were considerably more than the rent of 1750 ; but 
the handsome shop front of 1750 was not considered quite up to 
the taste required for shop fronts of 1855, and this week the chisel 
and hammer have been busy removing it, to make way for one 
more in accordance with the present taste, when the bulls' eyes 
of 1750 will be succeeded by the plate glass of 1855." 



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Penland Notes and Qitbries. 



131 



103.— Woodward Family, co. Hunts.— The following pedigree 
nofces are derived from family papers. Any additions will be 
acceptable. Arms : Or, three bars. Sable : a canton Ermine. 
Woodward, Quartering: Or, two bars befcw. three wolves' heads 
erased. Gules: Jenkinson. Crest: a squirrel sejant holding 
a nut in its paws. 

WOODWAED, — 

1^ 



-Woodward, = 



Woodward, = 



Thomas : 
Woodward (of 
Godmanchest- 
er?), Toill dated 
3 Dec, 1697, 
mentions 
cousin Alice 
Caster. 



Ann 

of Hunting- 
don, will 
dated 20 
March, 
1706-7. 



Susan : 
Woodward. 



: John John. 

Robinson. 



odf] 



Godfrey. 



Thomas Jenkinson, = Jane - 



of Ehn, CO. Camb., 
will dated 1 May, 
1714. 



living 1715. 



Thomas =Catha- Mary, Susanna, William Susanna Thomas = Sarah 



Wood- 
ward, (of 
Godman- 
chester ?) 



marr. marr. 

Mason. Edward 
Denni- 
son. 



JenMn- Jenkin- 
son. son, I. 
1698. 



Jenkin- 
son, of 
Elm, h. 
1691, d. 
1755. 



Thomas 
Wood- 
ward, 
eld. son, 
d. before 
14 Aug., 
1721. 



I 



Catha- Anna, 

Tyrrell 
Cran- 



r 



nne. 



Benjamin = Sarah 
Woodward, |. Jenk- 
2nd son of 
said Mary ; 

well, of Huntingdon 

St. Ives, Notary, d. 

CO. 1757. 

Hunts. 



Elizabeth =lst husb* 



Jenkinson, 
inson, co-h. ; 2nd 
husb^.,w<ajrr. 



co-h. 



,John Pea- 
cock, of 
Wisbeach 



Oct., 1765, St. Peter, 



John Heins, 
son of Mr. 
Heins, a well 
knovni por- 
trait painter I 
of Norwich* I 



d. 1759. 



Frances, = Thomas Jenkinson 
only child of Woodward. LL.B., 



Rev. W°^. = Sarah 



Conworth, co. 
Lincoln. 



Thomas Man- J.P. for Norf. and PurMs, rector 
ning, Esq., of Suff., of Walcot ofCarlbyand 
Bungay, h. 7 House, Diss, co. Anderly cum 
March, 1749, Norf., l. at Hunt- ~ 
d. 17 Nov., ingdon, 1744, edu- 
1833, Jni/r. at cated at Eaton, 
Diss, s.p. and Clare Hall, 

Camb,, d. 31 Jan^., 

1820, aged 75, Imr. 

at Diss, (see Qent. 

Mag., 1820, pp. 

189, 280), s.p. 
* Norfolk Tour, ii., 1131. 



Peacock, 
&. 1749. 
marr. 19 
May, 
1774. 



Jane 
Peacock. 
b. Nov., 
1754. 



W"^. Jenkinson PurMs, of the Temple, 
London; will 1812, mentions cousin 
Sarah Wyche, and relation Sarah, wife 
of Thos. Stanroyd. of Wisbeach, 



0. E. Manning, F.S.A., Diss Rectory, Norfolk. 



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132 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

104— Presentation of Eicliard Lee to Crowland.— The fol- 
lowing is a copy of M.S. 996, "Augmentation of Church Lands," 
Lambeth Library, being Oliver Cromwell's Presentation of Richard 
Lee to Crowland : — 

" Crowland 
*'BichardLee. 

" Know all men by those present, That the 4*^ day of Aprill, 
1655, There was exhibited to the Commissioners for approba- 
tion of publique preachers a presentation of Richard Lee, 
Gierke, to the Vicarage or Cure of Crowland in the County of 
Lincoln made to him by his Highness Oliver Lord Protector 
of the Common-Wealth of England & the Patron thereof 
under the great scale of England, Together with a testimony 
in the behalfe of the said Richard Lee of his holy & 
good Conversation. Upon perusall & due consideration of 
the premisses & finding him to be a person qualified as in 
& by the Ordinance for such approbation is required. The 
Conmiissioners above mentioned adjudged & approved the 
said Richard Lee to be a fit person to preach the Gospell, 
& have graunted him admission, & doo admitt the said 
Richard Lee to the Vicarage or Cure of Crowland aforesaid 
to be full & perfect possessor & Incumbent thereof & doe 
hereby signify to all persons concerned therein that he is 
hereby instituted to y® profitts & all Rights & dues incident 
& belonging to the said Vicarage or Cure, as fully & 
effectually as if he had been instituted & inducted according 
to any such Laws & Customes as have in this case formerly 
been made, had or used in this Realme. In Witnesse 
whereof they have caused the Common Seals to be here unto 
aflSxed & the same to be attested by y*' hand of the Register 
by his Highness in that behalfe appointed. Dated at 
Whitehall the 4*^ day of Aprill 1655. 

" Present 22nd March 1655 



« Eichd, Ledvertby 
Ben : Needier of Lo. 
Robert Hussey 
Bobert Smith 



Eichard Pf orde 

Geo: Lee 

R. Hutchinson of Walton 

Jo. Walton of AllhaUows. h." 



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Fenland Notes and Quhbies. 133 

105.— I>iscovery at Oroyland Abbey.— Much uncertainty has 
hitherto surrounded the History of Croyland Abbey, regarding 
the dates of the erection of its various parts ; but the extensive 
excavations made recently, for the purpose of underpinning the 
foundations, has brought to light many interesting particulars 
that will aid in forming a reasonable theory for a more consecu- 
tively complete record than has hitherfco been available. For 
instance, whenever an opening has been made, at the bottom there 
was the original foundation — piles driven through the peat into 
the gravel ; and on these were rough, small stones in layers, with 
" heavy earth." This "heavy earth" is the rubbish from the 
quarries from which the stones were obtained. The peat that re- 
mains amongst the piles is compressed into a hard, compact earth 
as solid as the surrounding materials. To all appearance a 
portion of the peat was thrown out of the trenches for the founda- 
tions, then the piles were driven in, and the other material 
thrown on until it was brought nearly to a level with the surface 
of the site, and on this the building was begun. 

So far as the present excavations go, no matter whether the 
superstructure be Norman or Perpendicular, no interference has 
been made with this early work. So far as relates to the nave, it 
is fair to suppose that the original plan of Ethelbald's Abbey has 
not been altered. Everywhere there seems to have been the most 
reverent care exercised in preserving, in any alteration that has 
been made, all that it was possible of former buildings. Several 
portions of Norman or Saxon work have been found encased by 
the latter buildings ; and the pillars of the Gothic nave have 
beneath them as foundations, most probably, the entire materials 
of the former columns, including both base and capital. Several 
of these foundations in the south arcade of the ruined nave have 
been examined, and they are all of similar construction, and one of 
them has been left open, and admirably protected by the Rector. 

It is seldom such a conjBrmation of history is to be found as 
that which is revealed in a massive stone tablet taken recently 
from the foundation of the south-west buttress of the tower. In 
order to show its historic importance it is necessary to refer to the 



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134 Penland Notes Aim Queries. 

work done at the Monastery between the years 1405 and 1423. 
Some time about the former date Abbot Thomas Overfcon appointed 
William of Croyland his master-mason ; and on p. 360 of Bohn's 
edition of Ingulfs Chronicle there is an account of extensive 
works carried out by him, amongst which are included the two 
transverse aisles of the church with their vaulted roofs, as well as 
a chapel in honour of the Virgin on the north confines of the 
choir. He also erected the whole of the lower part of the nave 
of the church, from the foundations to the laying of the roof, as 
well as both aisles, together with their chapels. 

On p. 393 of the same work the above statements are confirmed, 
and several particulars added which give interest to the tablet 
before referred to. The writer of the history states that he 
"thought it both becoming and opportune to hand down to 
memory the names of some of those who had given temporal 
benefits, so that posterity might devoutly repay them by praying 
for the repose of their souls." Thirteen names are recorded, the 
last but one being a John Tomson. The west front of the nave 
had been rebuilt by Abbots Henry Longchamp and Ralph Merske 
between the years 1190 and 1254 ; and when, in the early part of 
the fifteenth century, William of Croyland, under the direction of 
Abbot Thomas Overton, began the rebuilding of the nave, he 
undoubtedly, first of all, built the two massive buttresses to the 
west of the front to give it support, the wide-spread footings of 
which show that they were intended to withstand an extraordinary 
thrust ; and it was in this wide foundation, at a point considerably 
below the present surface of the soil (but when it was placed there 
most hkely level with it), that the tablet was found. Apparently 
it formed part of the foundations of the south wing of the porch 
that was erected a considerable time afterwards ; but it was the 
extraordinary spread of the foot of the buttress that gave it that 
appearance, and it was the unequal pressure caused by the weight 
of the more recent structure that produced its fracture. 

The stone is 7ft. 6in. long, 3ft. 7in. wide, and Sin. thick, and 
is a fine specimen of Barnack rag. The surface is clean and clear, 
not in the least worn either by time or weather. The inscription 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 135 

is as sharp in detail as it was when it left the hands of the mason. 
What gives it extra interest is the fact that the name inscribed 
npon it is the same as the donor before mentioned, viz., John 
Tomson,* and the sentiment embodied in the top Hne, "Orate 
p'aia" lends support to the theory that it is directly connected 
with the event before referred to, and is a memorial of the works 
carried out by William. 

To add to the evidence on this point, a sbone of a similar 
description is now visible beneath the only remaining portion of 
the north transverse aisle, which was built by the same person. 
It is of the same width and thickness, with a marked off margin 
containing letters exactly like the former. This is marked No. 2, 
in red ink, on the ground-plan of the Abbey, which is enclosed, 
No. 1 being the position of the stone described above. 

It is impossible to ascertain whether any similar tablet was 
found in a corresponding position in the south buttress, as the 
lower part of it was taken down and^ entirely rebuilt by G-. G-. 
Scott, Esq., in 1860, when the west front was restored, and the 
portion remaining of the south transverse aisle has been altered 
too much for anything but a mere fragment to remain beneath 
it. Possibly the examination of the foundations of the north- 
west buttress of the tower may throw more light on the matter. 

The extent of the works carried out by William would have 
rendered it quite possible for him to have done similar honours to 
many of his patrons. The west front of the cloisters was rebuilt 
by him as well as the nave with its north and south aisles. It is 
also stated that he ordered " two tablets to be prepared by the 
diligent skill of the sculptors, for the purpose of being erected at 
the altar of St. Guthlac ; and that he might render them more 
beauteous in appearance he ordered the lower one to be painted, 
while he had the whole of the upper one gilded." lb may 
reasonably be inferred from this quotation that tablet-forming 
was popular at this time. The history also states that he com- 

* The Editor of the British AreluBological Jom-Tialhos given his opinion 
that the slab is of the thirteenth century, and the inscription round the 
edge is in letters of that period, " Petre preces pro me Petro Pastor pie pro 
me." It has been adopted at a later period by Jo. Tomson. 



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136 Fenland Notes and Quebies. 



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pletely rebuilt the refectory house with artistic elegance and the ( 

greatest magnificence. 

The importance of the discovery of the tablet lies in the fact 
of its connecting the history with the building by an actual name, 
and the sentiment of the request, " Orate p' aia," might have been 
taken nearly direct from the language of the historian. Its size 
and the style of its execution forbid the thought of its having 
been put into the position in which it was found in any casual or 
accidental manner, and probability points to the conclusion that it 
is one of a series of memorial stones breathing the spirit of the 
devotion of the Church of the age, and commemorating the names 
and beneficence of its patrons, A. S. Canham, Crowland. 

106.— A Layman's Prayer Book, 1400— Mr. Henry Little- 
hales, whose list of Mediaeval Features in Fenland Churches has 
already appeared in Fenland Notes and Queries, has just issued 
some pages in facsimile from a Layman's Prayer Book in English, 
about 1400. The facsimiles are preceded by an interesting 
historical sketch of Mediaeval Service Books in England 
Rivingtons, London, are the publishers. 

107.— Fenland Parishes in 1340— The old records preserved 
in the Tower of London, the British Museum, and elsewhere, 
contain a large amount of valuable information with regard to 
this district in bygone days, and it seems surprising that they 
have beeii made so little use of in the compilation of county 
histories. The series of rolls which contains the names of the 
principal inhabitants of every ecclesiastical parish in the year 
1340, is called " Nonarum Inquisitiones in Curia Scaccarii," 
{Ump: Edward III). It is a record of the amount of the " ninth 
of corn, wool, and lambs " in each parish, and the names given 
are those of the inhabitants who certified that the proper sum 
was returned to the "venditors and accessors in each county." 
The cause of this levy is too long to be dealt with here, as also is 
the method of taxation. The names of the following persons 
were returned for various places in the county of Huntingdon : — 



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Fbnland Notes and Qubbibs. 137 

Som^sham.—Graifved le Forester, John de Eton, Nicholas 
Edmund, Eiohard le Heyr, Nicholas Pessok, Hugh de 
FaliwoUe, John de Fliwolle, Heury Eugo, John Stubbard, 
John Mateshale, Ralph de Hereford, Richard de Wymundle, 
William the son of Stephen, and John Mayheu. 

Bluntisham, — John Cok, Robert de Hale, John le Milnere, 
Robert Stoteville, Robert Laurence, John de Wemyngton, 
Laurence Stotville, Roger Weringg, Gregory de Aula, 
Thomas Ohci, Reginald Gerveys, and Simon the son of Hugh. 

St. Ives. — Thomas de Erhethe, John Herrof, William Atte 
Halle, John Raven, Robert Folkes, John Godrych, Richard 
Gewene, Nicholas Herrof, John in the Wro, Henry le Heyr, 
Thomas Lefort, and Geoffi-ey Edward. 

Fmsianton, — John Luttes, Richard atte Fen, Robert son of 
Dionis, Thomas son of Roger, John Molle, William West, 
Walter Crisp, John Elys, Gilbert Owayn, John Eustace, 
Simon da Weston, and Thoe Manger. 

In a future communication I will send the names of the 
principal inhabitants of other places. 

London Hospital, E. Charles Dawes. 

108.— Underwood Family.— (No. 27^ Part I.) — Catharine 
Cromwell, (bapt. at St." John's, Huntingdon, 7 Feb. 1596-7), 
sister to the Protector, mar. Roger Whetston, son (supposed) of 
Jonas, of Barnack, Northants., connected with the Underwoods 
of CO. Cambs. ' Francis Underwood of Whittlesea, commanded the 
detachment of Parliamentarians that captured by storm, 6 June, 
1648, Woodcroft-house in the parish of Etton, Northants., into 
which a party of Royalists had thrown themselves and put in a state 
of defence, under Dr. Michael Hudson, (Chaplain to the King and 
Rector of Uffington, Lines.) who was barbarously murdered, and 
Mr. Styles, Rector of Croyland, who escaped (and afterwards became 
Warden of Wm. Browne's Hospital, Stamford*). For this service he 

* 1677. William Stiles, warden, bur. ApriU 24.— /S^. MichaeVsy Stamford, 
bur, reg, 

1648. Edward Eossiter, by a shott from Woodcroft house received 
two womids whereof he presently died June 5 and on the 8th day of this 
present month was bur. at Etton. — Etton, Northamptonshire, pjr. 



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received the thaaks of the House of Commoas, and two days after, 
being a Lieut. Ool., was appointed Gov. of Whittlesey and Oroy- 
land. On his death, his widow re-mar. Col. John Jones, an Officer 
in the service of the Parliament and one of the Judges at the 
King's trial, for which he suffered death at the Eestoration. 
Eobt. Whetstone, of Barnack, who died in 1626, (supposed), 
father to Jonas W., mar.- Catharine, sister of Mr. Michael 
Pickering, (probably identical with, as the par. reg. of St. John's, 
Peterborough, informs us " Mychaell Pickering, gentleman, slayne 
by Ihoii Norton, gentleman, in a challenge, near Burroughe Berry," 
and was bur. 23 Sept., 1606) and had issue lonas Anne, wife of 
Mr. Eichard Heron, of Maxey, and Frances, wife of Mr. Allen 
King, of London. Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

1 09.— A Prodigy at Somersham.— Under date March 16, 1 712, 
the Rev. Daniel Whiston, Curate, writes in the Parish Church 
Register of Somersham, that Thomas, his son, repeated his 
Catechism well and distinctly as far as the Sacraments, in the 
Parish Church with the older children; and on the Sunday 
following repeated the same and the Sacraments as well, being only 
of the age of 2 years, 7 months, 21 days. " This," adds the rev. 
gentlemen, " is a great example of the quickness of his memory 
and of Grod's blessing upon the early endeavours of his parents in 
his religious education." S. Jarman, St. Ives. 

1 1 0.— Monumentallnscriptions at Willingham, co. Cambs. 

Parish Chitroh St. Mary's. 

All or most of the pre-ref ormation inscriptions were destroyed in 
1643, according to a reference in Carter's History of Gamlridge. 
A slab within the Altar-rails bears this inscription : — 

'*Here lyeth the body of [ Frances wife of James Saywell | 
gent, and daughter of Erasmus | Gainsford of Crowhurst | place 
in Surrey, Esq., and ye | bodies of their five children | Anno 
Domini 1693. 

[Arms : Party per pale nebuM or and gu, six martlets counter- 
changed for Saywell, impaling Gainsford.] 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 139 

An adjacent stone is inscribed : — 
" Here lyeth the body of | Mary Hare. In Hopes of a | blessed 
Resun-ection | She was fy® relict of St. John [Hare 1 Esq., and 
daughter of Erasmas Gainsford | of Crowhurst in Surrey, Esq., 
I shee dyed, Aug. 22, Ano. Dni., 1688 | and left behind her three 
children | very young, viz. : — St. John, Eliza, and | Mary." 
Another slab bears this inscription : — 
" Annie the daughter of | Andrew Meirs, bl. Vicar | of Pemsey, 
in Sussex, and | Sarah his wife dyed Oct. the | 28, 1690 | Anno 
j^tat siUB, . . . 

[Arms: Hare. A Chevron between three greyhounds pass, 
collared for Gainsford. 

There is an important monument with sculptured coat of arms 
to the Frohock family. The inscription is :— 

" In Memory of | Mary wife of Thomas Frohock | who died 
April 6, 1864, [ aged 71 years. Looking unto Jesus | also Sarah 
Frohock, who died Nov. 4., 1798 | aged 83 years | S. F. 1 1768. 
On the floor of the Nave is the inscription : — 
"Beneath this stone lyeth the | earthly remains of William | 
Read who departed this life | March 5, 1814 | aged 77 years. 
There are a few interesting monuments in the Baptist Chapel. 

^ In the floor is a slab : — 

" In memory of | the Rev. William Boodger, | 30 years pastor | 
of this congregation, | who died Ma. 8*^ 1781 | aged 67 years f 
also Lethica, | his wife who died, | Oct. 20, 1783 | aged 60 years." 
Another stone is : — 
" In memory of | John Stevens | who [died April 2 1831 | in 
the 30*^ year of his age." 

On the wall is a tablet inscribed : — 
" Near this place | lie interred the mortal remains | of John 
Rootham | born at | Riseley, in the county of Bedford | Deer, the 
30*^ 1766 I and preacher of the Cross of Christ | in this place 38 
years | His earthly tabernacle was dissolved | Dec. 5, 1827." 
A marble tablet bears the inscription : — 
" Near this place | are interred the remains | of Ellis Munsey, 



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140 FbihiAnd Notes and Qubbies. 

I 16 years a faithful mimsfcer | of Christ | He died Aug. 29, 1845 
Aged 42." 

Tvro other tablets are inscribed : — 
" In memory of | Mary, wife of | John Far | who changed time 
for Eternity | September 18, 1822 | aged 25 years." 

" To the memory of | Elizabeth Read | the wife of | William 
Bead | who died June the xxviii*^ | mdccoxvii | aged 58 years. 

Herbert E. Norris, St, Ives. 

111. -Lawrence of St. Ives.-(N"o. 84, Part IV.)— A John 
Lawrence is mentioned in the " Valor Ecclesiasticus " or King's 
Books, compiled in 1534, as being Steward of the Manors of 
lloiuixigford Abbots and Warboys in Huntingdonshire, as well as 
of others in the Counties of Cambridge and Northampton. 
From the same source it also appears that Thomas Lawrence was 
Steward for St. Ives Priory (which would appear to have been 
subordinate to the Abbey of Ramsey) at Sawtry Moynes, Upwood, 
and Great Raveley, in the County of Huntingdon, 

Charles Dawes. 

I12.--Adam Cleypole, or Claypole, of V^Test Deeping._The 

parish register of West Deeping records the burial of Adam 
Claypole, esq. 23 Jan. 1672(3). This bare fact does not give us 
any further information than showing from the addition of "esq." 
to his name that he was a man of position and substance, because 
at this period the prefix of "Mr." and affix of "esq." were only 
given to those who had a just claim thereto by reason of wealth 
or of gentle birth. Adam Claypole was a man of considerable 
note in his day. His father, of Northboro', also named Adam, 
was twice married, and had a numerous family. He married first 
at St. George's, Stamford, Elizabeth Wingfield (whose mother was 
sister to William Cecil, first Baron Burghley) 30 Sept., 1585, 
(bur. at Northboro' 7 Nov., 1619), and secondly, at Northboro', 
Jane Byrd, 25 Sept., 1620. This second lady was, I believe, the 
only daughter of John Bird of Beynton, co. Northampton, gent., 
who is named in her father's will dated 21 Aug., 1590, pr. in 
P.O.C. 15 Aug., 1 593 as then being under the age of 18 years. Adam 



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PiayiiAND Notes and Queries. 141 

senr., who d. in 1634, entered the family pedigree in the herald's 
visitation (Northants.) 1618-19, and from his second match 
sprung Adam, whose burial is recorded at the commencement of 
this paper. He was born in 1622, probably at Maxey, for that is 
where he was baptized in that year, but history has not handed 
down to us where he received his education. One thing is 
palpable, he did not imbibe the republican principles of his 
relative John, (the eldest son of his step-brother John), who 
espoused Elizabeth (bapt. at St. John's, Huntingdon, 2 July, 
1629), the 2nd and favourite daughter of Oliver Cromwell, in 
1645-6, (d. 6 Aug., 1658), but on the other hand, followed those 
of Lady Elizabeth Claypole, who as it is well known had a strong 
leaning towards the cause and friends of the exiled King, who 
interceded with her father to save the life of the first Charles. 
At the Restoration, while the remains of her Mth and 
kin were subjected to brutality hers were permitted reqiciescire 
in jpace in Henry 7th's chapel, Westminster Abbey. Adam, 
as before stated, followed a cause that was far from being 
remunerative, as the following particulars taken from the 
Royalist composition papers, 2nd series, vol. 1, p. 581, in the 
Public Record OflSce will amply illustrate. As "Adam Claypole, 
Gent., he surrendered himself to Sir John Cell, as by his pass 
dated that day appears. Took the solemn league and covenant 
22 Dec, 1645 before Samuel G-ibson, Minister of (St.) Margaret, 
Westminster, and the negative oath 27th Dec." His fine (as a 
delinquent) was fixed three days after at 600?. From the particulars 
of his estate furnished to the Commissioners (sitting at Goldsmiths' 
Hall, London) under his own hand, it appears that he was " seized 
in fee in possession to him and his heirs of divers messuages, 
lands, and rents, lying and being in the towns of Gosberton, 
Surfleet, Moulton, West Deeping, and Talliugton, co. Line, of 
the yearly value before the troubles 2701. Also a rent charge 
sol. p. an. out of certain marsh grounds of one Mr. Hulington in 
Holland in the s^- county for all which his fine for 2 years value is 
640Z. His personal estate he saith he hath none, is indebted to 
his two sisters, Jane and Anne for their portions, 1000/., but, by 



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142 FsNiiAin) Notes and Queries. 

an act done by himself, and produceth not anything to make it 
appear, he saith he is otherwise indebted in the sum of 800Z." In 
his letter to the Commissioners for sequestrators, says, by way of 
palliation, that for 3 years last past he had been in arms against 
the parliament for his Majesty under the command of the Lord 
Loughboro', being then under 21 years of age, and in Nov. last 
taking notice of the Ordinance of parliament for compounding to 
come in before the 1st day of Deo. did before that time apply to 
Col. Grell, Gov. of Derby for a pass to get to London. His estates 
at Grosberton and Surfleet are charged with the raising of 500?. to 
each of his sisters (Jane, born 1623, the name of the other I 
have not met with), and his personal estate is not more than 20L 
at the most. One would reasonably think that this would act 
as a caution, and lead master Adam to eschew anything and 
everything in any way approaching to Royalist principles, but not 
so, his political proclivities subsequently led him into trouble. 
In the proceedings of the Council of State (State Papers, Domestic 
Series, Interreg), 6 May, 1650, is an order that Mr. Cleypole be 
taken into custody of Mr. Serjeant (at arms) in order to his examina- 
tion before a committee of Council ; and on the 15 June following 
Adam Cleypole was by the same authority committed prisoner to 
Peterhouse upon suspicion of holding correspondence with the 
enemies of the Commonwealth on 8 July, 1650. I jfind Adam 
Cleypoole, of West Deeping, co. Line, Gent., entered recognizances 
to the Council of State, himself lOOOZ., two sureties, viz., George 
Quarles, of Gray's Inn, esq., and Richard Cleypole of (St.) James, 
Clerkenwell, Gent., 500?. each, conditionally that the said Adam 
Cleypole shall appear at (? before) the Council of State four dayes 
after warning (or notice) shall be left at his house at West Deeping 
to answer to what shall be objected against him for the matter 
for which his liberty is now restrained, and that he shall not 
act anything which shall be prejudicial to the Commonwealth. 
Apparently Adam was of good behaviour for a season, as I find 
nothing recorded against him — doubtless the ruling authorities in 
the meantime kept a watchful eye upon him. Despite his recog- 
nizances, there is an entry in the proceedings of the Council of 



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Fbnland Notes and Qubbibs. 143 

State under date of 6 March 1651-2, when it was ordered that 
"Mr. Colebie be returned to the prison from whence he came, and 
Mr. Claypoole committed to the Gatehouse for holding correspon- 
dence with the enemy." How long a time he remained there I am 
unable to say, but we may venture to hazard the conjecture that 
his enlargement may have been owing to the good oflGices of his 
relative John Claypole and his wife the Lady Elizabeth (ne6 
Cromwell). Who Adam's wife was is not known, but he certainly 
had a family. His name does not occur in the list of donors 
resident in the county of Lincoln who were contributors to the 
free and voluntary gift to H.M. Charles 2nd in 1661, either he 
had barely got over the expenses of indulging in the luxury of 
being an ardent royalist, or perhaps he was not residing in 
the provinces. In the Hearth Tax returns for this county 
(Lincoln) for 22 Car. 2, (1671), Adam Claypole, esq., of West 
Deeping, was assessed for eleven. 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

113.— The Drowned Condition of the Fens in 1740.— In 1740 
Mr. John Leaford published a pamphlet, of which the title was 
as follows : — " Some | observations | made of the | frequent 
drowned condition | of the | South Level of the Fenns, | and of 
the works made in | draining the same: | with | a scheme for re- 
lieving that level, | of carrying those works into exe | cution with 
some additions. | London | Printed in the year of our Lord 
1740." Mr. Leaford states at the outset his intention of making 
some observations which had occurred to him during the time he 
had been concerned upon several of the works made by the first 
adventurers and participants, for draining the Middle and South 
Levels and of the flux and reflux of the tides. It is clear from 
what follows that at that time both the Middle and South Levels 
were in a frequently drowned condition, for he says : " And I am 
humbly of opinion that if those works were carried into execution 
with some small additions, they would effectually relieve the 
drowned condition of those levels, and make the lands in the 
South Level (which are the sink of all the rest) certain summer 



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144 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

lands." The condition of the Ouse also was evidently in a very 
unsatisfactory condition, for Mr. Leaford says: "At the same time 
navigation would be render'd more certain and the outfall of the 
river Owze to sea would be kept open and preserved." If Mr. 
Leaford's hints were adopted he did not doubt that Bedford Level 
would become "a flourishing country, and consequently great 
nambers of indigent people relieved thereby." He then proceeds 
to trace the history of the drainage of the district, and concludes 
by stating his scheme. Shortly, it was as follows :— To open the 
two arches at Denver called Colonel Eussell's two eyes and fix 
Sluice doors in them to keep the tides out of the South Level ; 
to dam up that part of the course of the old Ouse across from the 
two eyes to the West shore ; to scour out St. John's Eau, laying 
the earth on the Norfolk side, and open the upper end of the Eau 
to the Ouse ; to take off the head of the arches of the bridge 
over the Eau, and make it a wooden bridge, high enough to navi- 
gate under, and to place a pair of ebb-doors at the mouth of 
Eoxham Drain to prevent the waters reverting up that drain. 
The total cost of the scheme was £4,000. 

A copy of this pamphlet is now in the possession of Lord 
Esm6 S. Gordon, of Paxton Hall, Hunts., who has kindly allowed 
us the privilege of making these extracts from it. 

It should be remarked, however, that Mr. Leaford's scheme was 
never carried out, for Mr. Wells, in his History of the Bedford 
Level, vol. I., p. 746, says : " Schemes were delivered for effecting 
an improved drainage, by two engineers of the name of Leaford 
and Smith, both of whom recommended the re-erection of the 
Sluice (at Denver), but the most important report, and that 
which fixed the Corporation, was received from Labelye, a native 
of Switzerland, and then employed as the engineer in the erection 
of Westminster Bridge. In 1748, the Corporation determined 
upon the^ re-erection of the Sluice." 

The pamphlet, in tracing the history of the drainage, gives an 
interesting review of the vagaries of the Ouse in the Fens between 
the years 1650 and 1740. The writer says that for many years 
previous to 1650 the Ouse took its course from Earith, by 



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Fenland Notes ajscd Qttebies. 145 

Streatham Ferry, to Harrimeer, where the river Grant fell iato it. 
From that point the united streams descended together, by a 
winding course by Ely and Litfcleport, to Denver, a distance of about 
40 miles, and took into it by the way the several rivers of Milden- 
hall, Brandon, and Stoak, besides several smaller streams. In wet 
seasons the waters used to descend out of the highland countries 
by the rivers above alluded to into the South Level, where for 
want of proper banks, the water expanded over the whole level, 
furnishing a sheet of water in many places 15 and 16 miles 
broad. To remedy this the Adventurers, in pursuance of Cornelius 
Vermuyden's scheme, made in 1650 a new cut in a straight line 
from Earith to Denver, 21 miles in length and 100 feet wide, 
parallel with the old Bedford, which was 140 feet wide, leaving a 
piece of land between to receive the overflow waters in times of 
flood. They also put a Sluice at Earith to turn the river Ouse in- 
to this new cut. The reason for this was that it would carry the 
Ouse waters a nearer way to their outfall by about 20 miles. As 
soon as these works had been carried out at great expense, the 
Ouse waters ran through the new cut with such rapidity that in 
time of floods they overrode the waters of the Grant that came 
down the old course of the Ouse, and meeting at Denver, they re- 
verted up the old course into the South Level, which they covered 
for want of proper banks. It being found impossible to embank 
the old winding course of the Ouse, and the rivers that fell into 
it, there being neither proper earth to make banks with, nor any 
bottom to support them, it was decided to erect a Sluice at Denver 
across the old Ouse, above the mouth af the Hundred-foot cut, 
which was carried out in 1652. But it was found that the flood 
waters shut the Sluice doors, and the Adventurers therefore made 
a drain to act as a slacker. By these means the tides and the 
Hundred-foot waters, when they overrode those of the Ouse, were 
kept out of the South Level for upwards of 60 years. Thus the 
lowlands then became secure summer lands. But as the gates of 
the new Sluice were so often shut, Navie;ators complained that it 
was an obstruction to navigation, and would very soon occasion 
the outfall to be silted up, and so destroy the haven of Lynn. In 



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146 Fekland Notes and Queries. 

1696 they stirred up the Corporation of Lynn to petition Parlia- 
ment for a Bill to remove the Sluice and the Hermitage Sluice at 
Earith, and let the water go down the old bed of the Ouse as be- 
fore, and as most of the people who knew the drowned condition 
of the Fens before these Sluices were put up were dead, several of 
the neighbouring towns and villages joined in the petition. The 
Bill was brought in, and it was opposed by the Bedford Level and 
some towns and villages " bordering upon the Fenns," and was 
finally thrown out. The writer adds: "Yet tho' the Adventurers 
gained their end in Parliament, they neglected to repair the said 
sluices, by which means they blew up in the year 1712, and have 
continued to lie open ever since, to the great damage of the owners 
of lands in the South Level." 

114.— Hockey or Hawkey.— In reply to T.V.W. (No. 86, 
Part IV.), the word Horkey should be spelled Hawkey, or Hockey. 
Hockday, or hokeday, or hocktide, was a holiday formerly ob- 
served in many parts of England in celebration of the destruction 
of the Danes. Hence the word hockey, or as it was sometimes 
spelled hawkey, came to be used as applicable to any holiday. 
The word hawkey is often found applied to a harvest home. This 
will no doubt explain the "Potato horkey" of the Fens. 

Fenman. 

115.— The Great Fire at Ramsey in 1731.-(No. 101, Part 
IV.) — With regard to the great fire at Eamsey on May 21st, 
1731, there is an entry in the Parish Registers of Somersham, 
under date October 7th in that year, to the effect that a sum of 
£32 2s. 6d. was "collected at Somersham in the county of 
Hunt° for a loss by fire at Ramsey in the said cy.," of which the 
" Rev. Rich^ Bentley, D.D., Regius Professor of Divinity, and 
Rector of Som"^ " gave £5 Ss., " Thos Hammond, Esq., J.P., 
Lord of the Mannour " £10 10s., and " Jasper Lyster, Esq., High 
Sheriff" £2 2s., Daniel Whiston, (brother of William Whiston, 
the celebrated Mathematician) the Ourate-in-charge of the parish 
gave 10s. 6d., the remainder being subscribed by " the inhab""^^, 
servants, and labourers " of the town. Charles Dawes. 



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Fehlahb Notes and Qubbies. 147 

1 1 6.— Thomey Abbey.— In the taxation of Pope Nicholas, 4 
c. 1291, I find this Abbey had property in the Borough of 
Stamford, of the annual value of 18s. 0^^. Not having at hand 
the Valor Ecclesiasticiis, of 26 H.8., the Ministers Returns of 32 
H.8., nor the Monasticon Anglican^ I am unable to say for 
certain whether the convent returued it with their other 
temporalities at the Dissolution. In 1139, Baldwin, son of 
Gilbert de Wake, (d. 1 8.H, 2 — 1171-2) founded a Bene- 
dictine Priory at Deeping Sfc. James, Lines., dedicated to 
St. James Wydo de Wake, a descendant of the founder, in 1231, 
gave to the Abbot of Thorney (Richard de Stanford) and their cell 
of St. James Deeping, certain tenements in the parish of All 
Saints', Stamford, a gift that received cenfirmation from the 
papal legate, Ottobon William Lee, the last prior of Deeping, at 
the Dissolution 31 H.8., had a pension of 8Z. p.a. granted him. 
In the Chartularium Prioralus de Depyinge in coni, Lincs,^ Earl. 
MS. 8658, fol. 53c.— 55 Brit. Mus., written c. 1350. I am able 
to lay before jour readers a (translated) copy of what kind of 
property the Abbey of Thorney possessed in Stamford. Fol. 58 b. 
Inquisition taken at Stanford, on the Q^^ day of April, in the 
8*^ year of the reign of King Edward (1315), the son of King 
Edward, before the lord John de Heselarton, knight, Elias de 
Birton then steward (senescalU) of Stanford, and Robert de 
Newerke, assigned by the commission of the noble man the lord 
John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, to enquire touching the fee and 
tenements of the religious men the abbot and convent of Thorneye 
in the vill of Stanford, by the oath of Eustace Malherbe, William 
de Apethorpe, Roger de Schauelere, John Asplow, Hugh Aurey, 
Gilbert de Reding, John de Knotteshale, Richard de Baldeswelle, 
William de Baldeweke, William Bunting, Henry de Kerbrok, and 
Henry de Helpiston. They say (dicii in the MS.) that the Abbot 
of Thorneye and the convent of the same place, ought to receive 
from aU tenants residing in their tenements Offare, Onfare, relief, 
Altol, Bucheyeld, Wmdowegeld, and all other customs as the lord 
the earl receives from his tenants ; and they say that the Abbot 
aforesaid of Thorneye is the immediate lord of the tenants and 



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148 Pbnlanb Notes and Queries. 

their tenements in Stanford, and the same abbot and his pre- 
decessors were seized of the services issuing from the tenements of 
the same from the time of the conquest and before, and held and 
ought to hold them in free, pure and perpetual alms, quit of all 
secular service. 

Nevertheless the aforesaid jurors say that the lord the earl and 
his predecessors demanded of the abbot and his predecessors two 
advents by the year at the court of the same earl, but they never 
knew that the aforesaid abbot or his predecessors made these 
advents.* 

Confirmation of the lord John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, for 
Stanford. To all the sons of the holy mother church who shall see 
or hear this charter, John de Warrenna earl of Surrey, greeting in 
the Lord. We have inspected the charters of the noble Kings of 
England, and also the confirmation of the illusfcrious King our 
lord, the lord Edward, the son of the most noble King Edward, 
formerly King of England, which manifestly testify that the 
abbot and convent of the church of the Blessed Mary of Thorney 
should have and of right ought to have certain rents in our vill of 
Stanford, to be received annually of certain their tenants ; which 
said rents they hold, and of right ought to hold Fol. 54 in free, 
pure and perpetual alms, according to the tenor of the said charters 
and confirmation. And we unwilling to infringe the rights and 
liberties of the said church in anything, but desiring more power- 
fully to increase and maintain them as we are held on account of 
the devotion which we bear and have towards the most glorious 
mother of God and the glorious Saint Botulph, for the safety of 
our soul and for the souls of our ancestors and heirs do 
grant for us and our heirs that the aforesaid church of the Blessed 
Mary of Thorney, and also the monks serving God there, may 
have all their liberties and immunities within our vill of Stanford 

* In the Botuli Hmidredorum of 3 E 1 (1274), the Justices (the Lords 
Willm. de Sco. Omero, and Willm. de Chacumbe) appointed to take 
cognizance of encroachments upon the Royal prerogative, public priviledges 
and rights, the jurors made to them the following presentment among other 
offenders. They say that John de Burgh, Abbot of Thorney and other 
spiritual loxds all claimed to have court of their tenants in the town 
of Stamford, that they have and still hold the same, but by what authority 
and how long a time they (the Jurors) know not. 



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Fekland Notes Aim Quebies. 149 

entire and onimpairedy and that the abbot of Thomey and his 
snccessors may have and hold for ever their tenants in our said 
vill, and also 8^ 1^^ of annual rent to be received annually from 
their tenants, and from the tenements of the said tenants within 
written. That is is to say from Robert de Newerk for one 
messuage in Eastgate, Sd.; from John de Eeppes for one tenement 
in Colgate, 5J^.; from Emma de Ketelthorp for one messuage 
in Cleymund, Sd.; from the prior of St. Leonards for two cottages 
outside the east gate, b^d,; from the brethren of Mount Carmel 
from one messuage, which is called Chekerstede, 2d,; from John, 
the said earl, for one messuage, one cellar, and one shop in the 
parish of St, Mary, at the Bridge (adpontem), ISd.; from Emma 
Bertelmen for one house within her mansion in the same parish, 
Id.; from Henry de Piribrok for a certain messuage in Westgate, 
9d.; from Henry Leche for a certain messuage in Westgate, 6|^.; 
from William de Baldeswelle and John Waldeschef for three 
messuages at the bridge of Malroie, 2s, M.; for a certain place 
opposite the church of the Blessed Peter, which said place 
Richard Marmium formerly held, 3^i.; from Roger Mechelone 
for one Messuage at the east bridge, 4^. ; from John Preschs for 
one messuage formerly Hemming Likkesnot, bd.; in our said vill 
of Stanford, with all their rights liberties and appurtenances as 
well in lordship as in demesne, in free, pure and perpetual alms, 
according to the tenor of the charters and confirmation, 
quit of all secular services, suits of court, customs and de- 
mands. 

"We forbid all and singular our ministers lest any of them by 
chance presume to injure or weaken the liberties, rights, and also 
the inmiunities of the said church in anything contrary to the 
tenor of this our grant and of the charters and confirmation of 
the said king. Commanding them that they with their power 
maintain, protect altogether and defend them. 

In testimony whereof we have placed our seal to this charter, 
these being witnesses : 

The Lord Thomas de Schefeld, John de Haselarton, Peter de 
M ontfort, William de Baghuse, Knights. Sir William de Cusance 



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150 Fenlanb Notes and Queries. 

Master John de Nevile, clerks, Robert de Newark, Richard de 
Frekenberg, and others. 

Dated at Reggate, on the 24th day of April, in the 8th year 
(1815) of the reign of King Edward, the son of King Edward. 

Letter (in French, other docmnents are in Latin) directed to 
the Steward for the charter aforesaid. 

John earl of "Warenne to his steward of Stanford greeting. 
Because we have granted and confirmed, for the safety of our soul 
and for the souls of our ancestors, to the abbot of Thomeye in 
pure and perpetual alms, the tenements and services of their 
tenants in our vill of Stanford, quit of all manner of services, we 
command you that from henceforth you suflFer them in peace and 
quiet without doing grievance, and that you cause their wages 
and distresses which are taken from them and their tenants to be 
delivered to them without delay, and that you maintain them 
according to the tenor of our confirmation. 

Given at Kington, on the 28th day of April, in the 8th year of 
the reign of King Edward, son of King Edward. 

This letter (in rubricated letters in the original) was read in the 
Court held on the Tuesday next after the Feast of Holy Trinity, 
in the 8th year of King Edward, son of King Edward, in the 
castle of Stanford, together with the charter of confirmation of 
the earl, as appears in the Roll of the aforesaid Court, these being 
present, Elyas de Birton, the steward then, Eustace Malherbe, 
Henry de Silton, and others of the Court. 

On fdl. 546 is a lease of houses in Staynford, as follows : — To 
all the faithful of Christ who shall see or hear the present writing, 
William by divine permission abbot of Thomeye and the convent 
of the same place, greeting in the Lord everlasting. Let all of 
you know that we have granted, surrendered, and demised to 
Walter de Apethorpe, in Stanford, Cecilia his wife, and Robert their 
son, our certain houses in Stanford, situate in the parish of All 
Saints, in the street which is called Byhyndebak. That is to say, 
that the aforesaid Walter, Cecilia, and Robert their son may have 
and hold the said houses, with the appurtenances, of us and our 
successors for the term of the life of each of them, freely, quietly, 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 151 

well, and in peace. Eendering for them annually to our prior of 
Deping, who for the time shall be, 30s. at the four usual terms of 
the year. That is to say, at Easter Is. 6^., at the Feast of the 
Nativity of Sfc. John the Baptist Is. 6^., at the Feast of St. 
Michael 7s. 6d,, and at the Nativity of the Lord, 7s. Qd. without 
further delay. But Walter, or Cecilia, and Robert, whichever of 
them shall live the longest, and shall be tenant of the said 
tenement, shall repair the houses aforenamed, and shall build 
them when they are ruinous at their own proper costs, and shall 
sustain them in the life of each of them, etc. In witness whereof 
the seals of the aforesaid Walter, Cecilia, and Robert are appended 
to the part of this writing chirographed remaining in our pos- 
session. These being witnesses: 

John de Chestre ; William ^ de Schylingthon ; Thomas de 
Pounfreyt ; Reginald Saleby ; Eustace Assewell ; Robert Talyng- 
thon ; William Gentyl ; Burgesses of Stanford, and others. 

Given at Thorneye, on the Saturday next after the Feast of 
Botulf the abbot, in the 25th year of the reign King Edward the 
third, son of King Edward (18th June, 1351). 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

I17.-Fen Provincialisms. -(No. 69, Part III.) 
Caselty. — Uncertain. " He is a caselty fellow." 
Cesses. — Peat cut in square blocks. 
Cop.— To throw. " Cop it here." 
Chares.— Odd jobs. 

Clat. — A. tell tale ; a tale bearer is called a tell-clat. 
Clung. — Heavy, tough. " This land ploughs up very clung.'* 
COPLING.— Unsteady. 

Copple-crowned.— Tufted. " The bird was copple-crowned." 
Gaq Mag. — Course, inferior, or bad meat. Grove gives Cagg 

Maggs as ''old and tough geese sent out of the Fens to 

London." 
Chelpy & Cheppy.— Saucy. " Don't be chelpy." 
Chunter. — To mutter. 
Corned. — The worse for drink. 



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I 



152 Fenlanb Notes and Queries. 

Ohimblby. — ^Chimney. 

Chambled.— Eaten by rats or mice. The parts of corn l^f t by 

rats or mice are called chamblings or chimblings. 
Cauve, or Calve. A bulge in a bank. 
Cauk. — Limestone or chalk. 
Clink.— Smart. " Clink and clean." 

S. Egar, Wryde, Thomey. 

118.— Earthquakes in the Penland.— (No. 21, Part I.)— In 
Shaw's Chronicle, p. 76. it is stated that a great Earthquake took 
place at Ely, Norfolk, and Suffolk, in 1165. No mention is made 
of it in the list of Earthquakes in the Fenland which was pub- 
lished by Mr. Miller in Part I. of Fenland Notes and Queries. 
Can any particulars be supplied ? T.V.W. 

119.— Total Eclipse 1715.— Eeferring to unanswered query 
(No. 47, Part II.), the following account of a Map of England and 
Wales, engraved by John Senex, showing the path of the Eclipse 
from Land's End to the Wash, may interest your readers, and 
stimulate enquiry as to any local records of the Phenomenon : — 
The Map is entitled "A Description of the Passage of the Shadow 
" of the Moon, over England. In the Total Eclipse of the Sun, 
"on the 22nd Day of April, 1715, in the Morning." At the 
bottom the following particulars of the Eclipse are engraved : — 
" The like Eclipse having not for many Ages been seen in the 
" Southern parts of Great Britain, I thought it not improper to 
" give the Publick an account thereof, that the suddain darkness, 
" wherin the Starrs will be visible about the Sun, may give no 
" surprize to the People, who would if unadvertized, be apt to 
" look upon it as Ominous, and to Interpret it as portending Evil 
" to our Sovereign Lord King George and his Government, which 
" God preserve. Hereby they will see that there is nothing in it 
" more than Natural, and no more than the necessary result of the 
" Motions of the Sun and Moon ; And how well those are under- 
" stood will appear by this Eclipse. 

" According to what has been formerly Observed, compared w*^ 
" our best Tables, we conclude y® Center of y® Moon's Shade will 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 163 

" be very near y® Lizard point, when it is about 5 min: past nine 
"at London; and that from thence in Eleven minutes of Time, 
" it will traverse y® whole Kingdom, passing by Plymouth, Bristol, 
** Glocester, Daventry, Peterborough, & Boston, near w** it will 
"leave y® Island: On each side of y® Tract for about 75 Miles, 
" the Sun will be Totally darkened; but for less and less Time, as 
" you are nearer those limits, w°^ are represented in y® Scheme, 
" passing on y® one side near Chester, Leeds, and York ; and on 
** y® other by Chichester, Gravesend, and Harwich. 

"At London we compute the Middle to fall at 13 min: past 9 
" in y® Morning, when 'tis dubious whether it will be a Total 
" Eclipse or no, London being so near y® Southern limit. The 
" first beginning will be there at 7 min: past Eight, and y® end at 
"24 min: past Ten. The Ovall figure [on the Map] shows y® 
" space of y® Shadow will take up at y® time of the Middle at 
" London ; and its Center will pass on to y® Eastwards, with a 
"Velocity of nearly 30 Geographical Miles in a min: of Time. 

" N.B. The curious are desired to Observe it, and Especially 
" the duration of Total Darkness, with all the care they can ; for 
"thereby the Situation and dimensions of the Shadow will be 
" nicely determined ; and by means thereof we may be enabled 
" to Predict the like Appearances for y® future, to a greater degree 
" of Certainty than can be pretended to at present, for want of 
" Such Observations. 

" By their humble Servant Edmund Halley." 

Halley was born 1656, became Astronomer Royal 1720, died 
1742. Possibly records of the observations of the Eclipse may 
be found in some Parish Registers of the Pen-land Churches. 

O.J.O. 

1 20.--Soliam and the Long Parliament.--The following are 
extracts from the Calmdar of the Committee for advancing mrniey. 
1642—1656. Part ii. page 792, (British Musuem, 2076. D). 

6 March, 1647. Samuel Thornton, Soham, Cambs. Assessed 
at £300. 

29 August, 1651. Order for his discharge from assessment, he 



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154 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

pleading Oxford Articles, and having compounded within 6 
months and paid his fine. 

The Committee for the advance of money had for its object the 
furnishing of the sinews of war to the Parliamentary Party. It 
was appointed 26th November, 1642. The " public faith " of the 
kingdom was given for repayment, with interest at 8 p^ cent, of 
all loans advanced for public service. The ratio of the assessment 
was one-twentieth of the real and one-fifth of the personal estate, 
but the assessments were often so much too high that instances of 
payment in full are extremely rare. The actual receipts were not 
more than one-sixth of the sum demanded. J. R. 0. 

121.— Hollbeach, Lincolnsliire.— The following answer of John 
Lesse and others to the complaint of John P'triche, Gentleman 
in the Star Chamber in the reign of Henry VIII. (Bundle 25, 
No. 192, Record OflSce) is interesting. 

So far as I can learn, it is the only document that can be found 
relating to the "complaint." One wonders how the respective 
parties fared in that court of ill-repute. 

W. E. Foster, Aldei*shot. 

"The Answer of John Lesse John Merser John Bennett, 
Robert Thakker and Robert Cristmasse to the Bill of Complaint 
of John P'triche Gentleman. 

"The said Defendants sayne that at the time of the first 
assemble supposed in the said Bill that they were and be p'chiners 
(parishioners) and inhabitant wt'in the parish of Holbysche 
named in the said bill of complaint and that out of time of 
remembrance of many their within the said parish hathe bene 
accustomed that when-soever any thinge or act was to be entreated 
or concluded for the benefitt or the well of the churche of Hol- 
bysche aforesaid or for the amendment of the Sea dykes and 
banks within the same town or for any oder cause or matt'er 
concerning the wealth of the said town it hath bene used by all 
the said tyme bycause the parish there is gret and the p'chiners 
also dwelling wyde a sondre that a beU wt'in the said churche 
bathe been used to be knolled or rungen to th' entent that the said 



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Fenland Notes ahd Qtjbbibs. 165 

parishioners herynge the said bell should resort thither to comon 
(?) and to entreat of and uppon such cause or matter as be above 
rehersed And the said Defendants sayen that the friday next 
after the feaste of the Nativite of our blessed lady last past 
between a xi of the cloke in the night of the same day and nj of 
the clokk in the mornynge of the Saturday next after the churche 
of Holbysohe aforesaid was robbed of asmocke Jewells plate and 
ornaments appteyning to the said churche as together did amount 
to the sume of coc marks sterlynge or theirabout After which 
robbery done and comytted that is to say the day and yere con- 
teyned in the said bill of complaint one of the bells in the said 
churche according to the customme aforesaid was rungen to the 
extent that the parishioner's their should assemble and resorte 
unto the same churche to comen treate and devyse howe and by 
whome the said robbery was commytted and done and by what 
meanys and circumstances they might come to the sewre knowledge 
of the same by reason whereoff the said Defendants with divers 
orders of the said parishioners herying the said bell in peaceable 
manner repaired to the said churche to th' intent and purpose 
aforesaid and for none order cause for their whiche assemble the 
said complayment hathe not only untruly surmitted the matter 
expressed in the said Bill of complaynt but also by his senestre 
means did cause the said defendants and oder of the said 
parishioners to be untruly indicted for the said lawfull assemble — 
"Whereof some named in the said indictment at the time of the 
said assemble we lx myles and above from the place of the said 
assemble And also that one of the said indictors was father-in- 
lawe to the said partryche and the other were special friends unto 
the said John p'fcryche and by his speciall and senestre labo^ putt 
uppon the pannell to the extent to f ynd untruly the said indict- 
ment And that at the tyme of the said assemble supposed to be 
done the said cpmplaynant was at London or nygh ther aboute and 
not at his howse in suche forme as he hath surmysed in his said 
byll without that the said defendants assembled ryoutously their- 
selves at Holbyche aforesaid after suche manner or to any such 
purpose cause or entent as in the said bill is untruly sunnytted 



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156 Pekland Notes and Qubribs. 

but only for suche cause and entent and under such manner and 
forme as before in this answer is expressed or that the said 
defendants or any oder caused the said belk ther to be rungen 
backwarde or that the said defendants or any oder assembled in 
forme as in the said answer is declared did fall in any contencion 
or variance amongst their selffe or that they or any of them ever 
en tended to pluck the said complaynent owt of his howse in 
manner and forme as by the same bill is untruly surmytted All 
which matter the said defendants and every of them shall be redy 
to averr and prove as this honourable court shall awarde and 
praying to be dismissed out of the same with their reasonable 
costs and charges by them susteyned in that behalff by reason of 
unlawfull suyte of the said parties." 

122.— Soham Mere.— ObZe (in 1746) speaks of the Mere as 
follows : " To the west of the town lies the famous and large 
Mere, which plentifully supplies the country with fish ; it belongs 
to Lord Viscount Townsend, who caused it to be drained four or 
five years ago at a very great expense, but which yet would very 
well have answered had not the last year's rains overflowed the 
banks and drained* it all again." J.R.O. 

123.— A Legend of Whittlesey Mere.— A writerf in the 
Leisure Hour for 1887 tells a thrilling story which he heard from 
the lips of the principal actor. He was a cottager's son in Holme, 
and on a certain Sunday in the month of February, 1851, he was 
employed in bird scaring in the Holme Fen. Around the drained 
bed of the mere there was then standing what was known as 
" the reed shore." This was a belt of reed surrounding the mere 
to the depth of about a quarter of a mile to half a mile. This 
reed shore, which was a great source of revenue to its proprietors, 
was like a miniature forest, the reeds growing to a height of 14 
feet and upwards. As a matter of course when any one got be- 
hind such a screen as this he would be lost to sight. Unfortunately 

* This word should of course be " drowned." Ml,. F, JV. ^' Q, 

t No doubt the late Eev. J. Bradley, (Outhbert Bede), who was Curate 
of Oaldecote, Hunts. 



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Fbnland Notes aki> Queriss. 157 

the little boy wandered from'^his proper post in the fen and got 
round by the reed shore, and advanced a few steps on to the dried 
bed of the mere. He had no sooner done so than he began to 
sink with no power to extricate himself, and no one near to render 
him assistance. Happily for him he had not ventured above a 
yard from what was comparatively speaking dry land, and al- 
though he kept on sinking inch by inch, and expected that the 
mud would soon be over his head, he stopped sinking when the 
mud had reached his armpits. It was then half-past 8 o'clock on 
the Sunday afternoon. He was enabled to mark the time and 
count the hours, as he could plainly hear the Connington Church 
clock, and he could also hear the trains on the Great Northern 
Railway, with the times of which he was pretty familiar. He 
shouted for help, but there was no one near to aid him, nor could 
there be until the next morning. The evening soon closed in> 
followed by a night that was not only very dark but very tem- 
pestuous. The boy afterwards told me that he was not overpowered 
either by fatigue or cold, but that he remained awake and sensible 
the whole of the night counting every hour by the Connington 
clock. He had ceased to call for help when the darkness set in. 
The next morning he could see one or two labourers in the dis- 
tance, but was powerless from the cold, and was unable to make 
any sign to them, even if it was possible for them to have seen it. 
At 10 o'clock he heard a man on the other side of the reed bed, 
but he had no voice to call him. Then the sound died away, and 
the boy thought that his last hope was gone. After half an 
hour's suspense he again heard the man pushing amongst the reed, 
and in a marvellously providential way the man's footsteps were 
guided to the very spot were the boy's head and shoulders and 
arms were seen above the bed of the mud. The astonishment of 
the man at the sight may be more easily imagined than described. 
It was with the greatest difficulty, being unassisted, that he could 
release the boy from his painful position, but at length he did so, 
and carried him through the reed shore on to the firm land. The 
lad was by that time completely paralysed with cold, and unable 
to speak ; he had been 19 hours in the mud. His deliverer was a 



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158 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

Holme man, and recognizing the boy at once took him home, 
much to the surprise of his parents, who had accepted his disap- 
pearance very philosophically, and had accounted for his absence 
by the gratuitous supposition that he had gone to the neighbouring 
village of Sawtry to see his grandmother who had kept him for 
the night. A surgeon from Stilton was quickly in attendance, 
and the boy was promptly cared for. Fot two days he seemed to 
feel acutely the effect of his 19 hours in the mud bed, but the 
next week he was at school apparently none the worse for his 
misfortune. 

1 24.— The Parish Registers of March, co. Cambs.— A yellow 
parchment volume is the oldest Register-book of St. Wendreda's 
Church, March, and though sadly stained by damp during its long 
repose in the vestry chest is still perfectly legible. The first page 
is inscribed thus : — " The register booke of Marche, all the 
christenings, buringes, and mariages, begynninge at the 25 day of 
March, Anno Dni, 1558, one year after another as followeth." But 
some loose sheets of coarse paper, brown with age, take us back 
another eleven years. They are evidently fragments of a yet 
earlier book, probably begun in 1538, when the king's highness 
gave commandment that such a book should be kept in every 
parish throughout the realm. The writing, careful and minute, is 
a little resembling modern German. The double column utiUzing 
every scrap of space, seems to tell us that paper was a luxury 
imported from abroad in the year of grace 1549, and therefore to 
be used carefully. The old leaves of the register would make us 
infer that the population of the " hamlett of Marche" must have 
been somewhat under a thousand when Edward VI. sat on the 
throne. One year, 1553, seems to have been very fatal, as 43 deaths 
are recorded. Perhaps this was occasioned by the ** sweatynge 
sycknesse " which wrought such havoc in the badly ventilated and 
worse drained houses of the xvith century. The entries are very 
brief and the age is never given. 

"Buryals, 1548. Esabel Drawer, servant to MeBarret, was 
bur. the 12 day of June. 



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Fbnland Notes and Qubbies. 159 

John the sonne of Humfrye Broune, was bur. the 18 of March." 

Lnstye seems to have been a not uncommon female name^ but 
Alis and Agnis are the favourites. George only occurs once in 10 
years. Julyan and Syslye and Lettes will scarcely be recognized 
as girls' names. It is instructive to notice the gradual change in 
the spelling of names. The old english Joan is not once found, 
and Jane is comparatively rare. Jone appears to be the correct 
orthography in, the days of King Edward. The following is a 
curious transposition : 

" 1557, John, the sonne of John Tompsonne, was buried and 
baptized the 17th of February." 

One Nichols Statewile was curate from 1558 to 1599, his name, 
together with that of William Walsham and Robert Ooyne, church- 
wardens, appears on every page of the register for 42 years. 
Strange that three men should have held office so long together. 
The oldest Register Book contains the baptisms, marriages, and 
burials of 96 years, ending somewhat abruptly and confusedly in 
the Commonwealth period. The last entry, a baptism, is dated 
1654, and is signed " John Marshall, Curat." It is out of its 
proper place, and seems to tell of difficulty in administering the 
sacraments of the church in those troublous times, and Marshairs 
signature occurs no more. "Was he " a malignant ? " In which 
case he may have been compelled to join his superior, John Nalson, 
the historian, the then rector of Doddington-cum-members, who, 
tradition says, was obliged to exchange his benefice for a some- 
what furtive existence in the remoter parts of the fens. In any 
case his successor did little to mend matters from a puritanical 
point of view, for he begins another Register Book — once a very 
handsome volume with embossed brass corners and clasps — with 
a long record of baptisms. 

*'Anno Domini, 1655, the names of those wch were baptised in 
the town of March the year of our Lord 1655, beginning, according 
to our English account, the 25 day of March, and also the days of 
as many of their births as I could learne, know, or find out by 
their frendes." Then follow fifty-eight baptisms, of which the 
following is noteworthy : 



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160 Fenland ITotes and Qubbies. 

*^ Robert, the Sonne of William Maskew, (as his parents affirm) was 
born in Barbadoes in Christ Church parish there, the 11th day of 
August, and baptised in this town of March the 20th day of 
November, next after." This display of zeal seems to have offended 
the powers that were, for the handwriting suddenly changes in the 
middle of the following year. In 1664 the burial register, records 
the death of two sons of Mr. William Walsham, grandchildren of 
the venerable Elizabethan churchwarden. Thomas "acquitted 
himself not ingloriously fighting for his king and country in the 
unhappy cival wars of 1641," so the Latin entry runs, while a 
similar inscription three months later, signed J. Nalson, records the 
virtues of another brother, John Walsham. Later on the register 
seems to have been rather carelessly kept, many marriages and 
burials are omitted altogether and others are entered in a 
very casual manner, of which the following is a specimen : 
"Mary, ye daughter of John Shepherd, was baptized about 
Lammas tide, either in this year or ye foregoing yeare 1664." 
Twenty years later Mr. Isaac Boardman was curate, but 
apparently not very careful, as another hand testifies beneath his 
scanty entries : "What marriages were celebrated in the beginning 
of ye next year are set down in Mr. Boardman's almanack for ye 
yeare : it is wished that such as are concerned would procure them 
and get them set down below." 

We may trace the resulting evils of pluraKty in the history of 
our little town in the steady decadence of the Church under the 
Hanoverian dynasty. Mr. V. Snell succeeds Philip Williams in 
1720, and with him begins the long reign extending over nearly 
eighty years of non-resident rectors. For more than half a centuty 
the curate of March seems to have been unable to maintain 
himself on the pittance offered him by the incumbent, and was 
forced to undertake any other work he could obtain. Four 
generations of parish priests, from Mr. King's successor onwards, 
had not only to shepherd the 2000 inhabitants of the vast hamlet, 
but also to undertake the duties of schoolmaster. We must 
picture him, therefore, spending weary hours — which should have 
been directed to private study and parochial work — in teaching 



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Fenlaitd Notes and Qxjsbi^. 161 

the rudiments of knowledge to a few shock-headed lads, and 
receiving the few pounds per annum yielded by " all that piece of 
land called the School Close." Thus heavily burdened, what time 
could the unfortunate curate possibly have found for parochial 
visitations and that close personal dealing by which alone the 
affection and esteem of the flock may be secured and retained ? 
No wonder the lower and more ignorant classes were slowly but 
surely alienated by rich neglect, and that a small body of Baptists 
obtained a footing in the town about the middle of the century. 
Meanwhile the rectors of Doddington kept studiously aloof from 
this wealthy but ill-favoured fen living. When they write to 
March their letters are addressed from London or Stamford, any- 
where but from their rightful home. Dr. Baptist Proby succeeded 
Mr. Snell, and was, I believe. Dean of Lichfield also for some 
years. Under the rule of the former — ^if, indeed, we can apply 
the expression, for he was hardly ever in the town, and was 
probably unknown even by the face to all save a mere handful of 
the principal people — things seem to have reached their lowest ebb* 
Fourpence seems to have been the annual charge for " Communion 
bread" for several years about the middle of the century, and points 
to a very small attendance at the Church's highest act of worship. 
Very strange and very saddening are many of the tales yet told of 
the apathy and neglect of this period. Early in the 18th century 
the parish register seems to have been written out by a person of 
very limited education. A shaky, uncertain hand records the fact 
that some burials are not entered but may be found " in Mr. 
Hewerdine's porkitt booke." No doubt we have the caligraphy 
here of the parish clerk ; some of the entries are very curious :— 
Burials, 1704.— April 16, the old Glasure Woman. 

June, 18, Richard the Brewer. 

June, 19, the wife of Parson. 
The following collection of names will hardly be paralleled: 
GeoflBie Mobb, John Rosamond, Priscilla ye daughter of Roger 
Februarie, Maximillian Gent, Thomas Goakes, Lawrence Wild- 
blood, Cornelius Windy, Kesia Noon, Robert Hisme, John 
Household, Abraham Beharrel, Abimlech Bencraf t, peruke maker. 



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162 Fenlakd Notes and Queries. 

Several of these names are still extant. Not a few entries seem 
indicative of carelessness or ignorance — " A woman buried from 
the Widow Eoods," " A stranger from the Black Swan," " A poor 
woman," whilst frequent records of drowning and inundation tell 
the tale of the olden time when the fenman's life was one pro- 
longed struggle against flood waters and spring tide. Not a few 
names are indicative of the winged inhabitants of the country 
before the great drainage systems were perfected — "Swan," 
"Goes," " Sparrowhawk." The following curious entry is found 
in the first page of the marriage register introduced after the 
passing of what is known as Lord Hardwick's Act — 

April 11, 1760. — ^Whenever the banns of matrimony have been published, 
and the man or woman shaU refuse to be married, out of the fee due to the 
curate for the refusal the parish clerk is to have one shilling. W. Windle. 

And then in another hand-writing — 
If the curate thinks fit to give it him. 
Oct. 6, 1763. Chaeles Chadwick. 

Towards the close of the century somewhat better times seemed 
to have dawned upon the church in our hamlet town. Either good 
fortune in the shape of a legacy or a resolve to deny himself for 
the good of his parish prompted the Rev. Abraham Jobson, curate 
in charge, to give up the office of schoolmaster and devote himself 
entirely to the execution of the sacred duties of parish priest. 
The following entry records the change : — 

Whereas the Rev. Mr. Jobson, Schoolmaster, for the charitable gifts of 

Mr. William Neale and Mr. James Shepheard, late of March (deceased), 

hath given notice of his intention to decline teaching the poor children 

under the said charity at old Michaelmas now next ensuing. We therefore, 

the Churchwardens, of March aforesaid, whose names are hereunder written, 

do elect and choose Mr. John Wells, of March aforesaid, writing master, to 

succeed the said Mr. Jobson in the said Mr. Neale's charity for teaching 

eight boys of March aforesaid, and also choose him to succeed the said Mr. 

Jobson in a piece of land called the school close given by the said Mr. 

Shepheard for the teaching three or more poor boys in March aforesaid. 

Witness our hands this seventh day of October, 1782. 

David Cowheed, "l ni.,,^«i,«r„^^«,.o 
John Oonthoene, j Churchwardens. 

The year before the following entry occurs in the register of 
Baptisms:— "April 17, 1781, Mr. William Wandby was this 
day nominated churchwarden for the Dean of Lichfield in the 



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Fbnland Notes Aim Qusbies. 163 

presence of the parishioners (who had illegally adjourned the 
vestry and were returning from church) by order of the said Dean 
and rector and by one his curate Abraham Jobson, Easter Tuesday, 
1781." Further light is thrown on this matter by reference to the 
churchwardens' book, where it appears that the case was laid before 
Sir Henry Gould at the Cambridge assizes, with the result that the 
right of the parishioners to elect both churchwardens was con- 
firmed. The costs paid by Mr. Jobson amounted to £47 and 
upwards. This case was again contested by the late rector of 
March (the Rev. J. W. Green, the first rector of the newly- 
constituted parish under the Doddington Rectory Division Act) 
in the year 1874, this time successfully after much litigation. 
The right of electing one churchwarden is now vested in the 
rector. Rev. C. E. Walker, Rector, March. 

125.-~History of Soham, (ly the Rev, J, R. Olormshaw).-^ 
In the Domesday Survey the name of the parish is spelt 
" Soeham," or " Seaham," and in more modern works " Seham." 
Other forms met with are "Soame," "Shoame," '*Swoham," 
"Some," "Saham." SoJiam is spelt "Soegham" in Charter 
No. 685. It occurs in a will of ^Ifloed about A.D. 972 ; this 
will recites the will of Queen -^thelfloed, wife of King Edmund I. 
It concerns grants of land at Rettendon, Soham, and Ditton. 
The Anglo-Saxon name is " Soegham." " Sceg " is obviously the 
same as Swedish dialect " sogg," wet, swampy, related to •* sagt," 
drenched ; all from the root verb seen in Anglo-Saxon "sigan," 
to sink, drain ; whence also the Icelandic " saggi," moisture, 
dampness. The root verb "sik" has produced the Greek "i-chor" 
and provincial English " sile " to drain. 

The following is an extract from the will above-mentioned : — 
"And I give to S. Peter's, and to 8. Aetheldryth and to S. Wiht- 
" burh and to S. Sexburh and to S. Eormenhild at Ely where my 
"lord's body rests, the three lands which we both promised to 
" God and His saint : that is at Rettendon, which was my morning 
" gift, and at Soham, and at Ditton, as my lord and my sister 
" before gave them ; and the one hide at Cheveley which my 



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164 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

" sister acquired ; and the fellow of the torque which was given 
" to my lord as soul-shot/' 

The termination "ham" is a very frequent one in English 
names and appears in two forms in Anglo-Saxon documents. 
One of these, "ham," signifies an enclosure, that which hems 
in, a meaning not very different from "ton" and "worth," 
(as in Northampton, Walworth). These words express the feeling 
of reverence for private right, but "ham" involves a notion more 
mystical, more holy. It expresses the sanctity of the family 
bond ; it is the home^ the one secret and sacred place. In the 
Anglo-Saxon Charters we frequently find this suffix united with 
the names of families ; never with those of individuals. (See 
Taylor's "Words and Places," page 82). 

The names Eye ffillj Eau Fen^ Soham Mere, all point to the 
time when what is now cultivated land, was nothing more than a 
watery waste. 

Qua Feriy it has been suggested, may be a corruption of 
<* Quay," i.e.j the place where ships used to load and unload. The 
statement is found in two or three histories, etc., of Cambridge- 
shire that Soham was, before the drainage of the Pens, a seaport 
town, its chief ti'ade being with King's Lynn, but the statement 
appears to need confirmation. Quay Fm is somtimes found 
"Calf Fen." 

Soham Mere is spoken of (e,g,, in an old geography, dated 
1794), as the largest lake in England, the next in order of size 
being Ramsey and Whittlesey Meres. Mere is the Anglo-Saxon 
for lake or marsh. 

Soil of this Parish : — The following is an extract from the 
chapter "On Soils," in a book published in 1813, entitled "A 
general view of the Agriculture of the County of Cambridge," 
by the Rev. W. Gooch : — 

^^ Soham with Barraway. — On the east of the town, a black 
sandy moor, lying upon a gravel ; the remainder a deep, rich 
black mould, lying upon a blue clay or gault or clunch. 
Pasture extensive of first quality ; a large tract also of second 
quality. The Mere, formerly a lake, now drained and cultivated 



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Fenland Notes and QuEmsa 165 

^•^and the soil a mixtoie of vegetable matter and brown clay,— 
contains about fourteen hundred acres." 

S. FeliXj who was brought from the Burgundian territory by 
Sigebert, the learned, one of the East Anglian kmgs, and who 
TWis the first Bishop of the East Angles, is said to have founded a 
monastery here about A.D. 680, and to have made Soham the seat 
of his diocese prior to the removal of the see to Dunwich, {du% 
a hill-fortress, wkh or ivkhy a bay ; sometimes called Dommoc,) 
a seaport on the coast of Suffolk, now almost annihilated by the 
ocean. Under the Conqueror, Dunwich, though no longer an 
episcopal city, had 236 burgesses and 100 poor; and it was 
prosperous under Henry II. It is reported to have had fifty 
religious foundations, including Churches, Chapels, Priories, and 
Hospitals. Camden, writing in 1607, says it then lay **in solitude 
and desolation," the greater part being submerged. S. Felix was 
Bishop seventeen years, having been consecrated about 631 by 
Archbishop Honorius. His episcopate was so full of *' happiness" 
for the cause of Christianity that the historian Bede describes his 
work with an allusion to the good omen of his name, (Felix — 
happy). Bede says of him that " he delivered all the province of 
East Anglia from long-standing unrighteousness and unhappiness;" 
as " a pious cultivator of the spiritual field, he found abundant 
faith in a believing people." It has been said that in no part of 
England was Christianity more favourably introduced. An im- 
portant feature of his mission was the combination of education 
with religion by means of a school such as existed at Canterbury 
in connection with the house of SS. Peter and Paul. This 
school, for which Feli?: provided teachers "after the model of 
Kent" was probably attached to the primitive East Anglian 
Cathedral either at Dunwich or Soham. The labours of S. Felix 
as an evangelizer, and educator, and a church ruler, were closed 
on the 8th of March, 647. He was buried in his own city of 
Dunwich ; and it is interesting to find the memory of the apostle 
of East Anglia preserved in the name not only of Felixstowe, (the 
dwelling of Felix) to the south-east of Ipswich, but in that of a 
Yorkshire village, far away in the north — Feliskirk, (the church 



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^i®6 FeniiAnd Notes and Queries. 

of Felix) near Thirsk. His remains were shortly afterward* 
removed to Soham^and interred in the chancel of the cathedral 
church which he had founded. This step was doubtless taken lest 
the Danes should get possession of them. In King Canute's time,, 
about 1031, they were again removed by a monk named Btheric 
to Ramsey (Ramsey is derived from the Gaelic word "ruimne " a 
marsh) and were solemnly enshrined by Abbot Efchelstan. 

" In those days (oirc. 1020) S. Felix, formerly Bishop of Bast 
Anglia, lay buried in the royal manor of Soham. For at this 
place the saint while still alive had built and dedicated a beautiful 
church and gathered together a goodly company of monks. These^ 
monks subsequently, after their good father was dead, seizing an 
opportunity for which they had long waited, carried away his 
precious remains from Dunwich, the seat of his bishopric where 
he had been buried, and laid them with great honour in their own 
church at Soham. Afterwards however when this same church (or 
monastery) had been utterly destroyed and the monks killed by 
the Danes, who ravaged the country in that quarter, this saintly 
man had met with less reverence and less honour. This continued 
up to the time of King Canute, when Etheric hearing of it and 
persuading the king by his entreaties to consent to his plan,, 
pointed out to Abbot Athelstan and the monks of Ramsey how by 
the expenditure of a little labour they might win for themselves 
inexhaustible riches and so urged them by the spur of self-interest^ 
to carry out his purpose. 

Athelstan therefore taking with him Algerinus, his prior at that 
time, and a party of pious monks, set out by water for the place 
which contained a relic (or coffin ?) of such value, and overawing 
by the combined authority of King and Bishop the resistance of 
those who were for opposing him, he placed the sacred remains 
and bones of the saint on board and began his voyage homeward 
to Ramsey amid the strains of joyous psalmody. The men of Ely 
however on hearing of this, grudging us so valuable a relic,, 
manned their boats with a strong band, hoping by their large 
numbers to carry oflf from the smaller party the remains which 
they had removed from Soham. In order however that it might 



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Fbnlaitd Notes and Qubries. Jgy 

Ibe clearly seen that the removal was taking place rather by the- 
Divine than by any human wishes, it came to pass that just as 
the ships of either party were approaching one another under a 
bright and cloudless sky, suddenly, to the discomfiture of the 
larger force and the benefit of the smaller, a dense fog arose 
which separated the two parties ; and so, while their adversaries 
were vainly wandering in different directions, our boat was carried 
onward in a straight course and safely deposited by the aiding 
waters on the bosom of our native shore. 

You may find it hard to believe this miracle which the wavering 
tradition of our forefathers has handed down to us, yet, reader, 
you are compelled to suspect it by no necessity so long as you are 
at all events convinced of the undoubted fact that the remains of 
S. Felix were, on King Canute's yieldiDg to the prayers of Bishop 
Etheric transferred from the aforesaid town of Soham to the 
church at Ramsey and re-buried with great reverence ; and there, 
even to this day does that holy man bestow on his worshippers 
many benefits. If you desire further to learn anything of his 
origin, his life or his good deeds, you must consult Bede who has 
composed a history of the English in admirable style, and among 
other men of the highest sanctity whom he there commends, has- 
deemed the praise of our saint worthy of a place." 

The Cathedral at Soham is said to have been erected by 
Lutlingus, a Saxon nobleman. The site of the Cathedral and 
Palace, which were adjacent buildings, appears to have been on 
the east side of the main street, opposite to the present church. 
Many vestiges of buildings and human bones are said to have 
been dug up about 150 years ago. 

A stone coffin, in an imperfect condition, was found in the same 
site a few years back, but unfortunately it was used by the finder 
to make cement with. A few bones (skulls, &c.) were met with 
in 1887, when the foundations for the Conservative Club were 
being excavated. 

The following story of King Canute (a.d. 1017—1035), based 
on the narrative of the Liber Elimsis, is told in Mr.. Miller*a 
Interesting tale entitled The Gamp of Refuge : 



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168 Fenlakd Notes asd Queries. 

" One winter King Canute went to visit the monks of Ely. 
Then the nobles of his court said, * We cannot pass : the king 
must not pass on the slippery, unsafe ice, which may break and 
cause us all to be drowned in the fen waters.' But Canute, like 
the pious and stout king that he was, said, 'Hold ice or break ice, 
I will keep the feast of the Purification with the good monks of Ely ! 
An there be but one bold fenner that will go before over the ice by 
Soham mere and shew the way, I will be the next to follow !" 
Now there chanced to be standing amidst the crowd one 
Brifchmer, a fenner of the Isle of Ely, that was called from his 
exceeding fatness Budde, or Pudding ; and this heavy man 
stood forward and said that he would go before the King and 
shew him a way on the ice across Soham mere. Quoth Canute, 
who, albeit so great a king, was but a small, light man ; * If the 
ice can bear thy weight, it can well bear mine ! So go on, and I 
follow.' So Brithmer went his way across the bending and 
cracking ice, and the king followed him at a convenient distance; 
and one by one the courtiers followed the king, and after a few 
falls on the ice they all got safe to Ely. And for the good deed 
which he had done. King Canute made fat Brithmer, who was but 
a serf before, a free man, and gave unto him some free lands 
which his posterity held and enjoyed a long time afterwards." 
(Page 464.) 

The Church. — It is impossible to say whether the " cathedral,' 
founded by Lutlingus was the same building that was destroyed 
by the Danes about 870, or how far it is true that these invaders 
first drove "the priests and all the people" into the cathedral, 
and then, setting fire to the building, destroyed both it and them 
in the flames. Nothing is known about the church or '' cathedral" 
of Soham before the xi century, except that the bones of S. Felix 
were interred in the chancel and remained there until 1031, when, 
as we have seen, they were removed to Eamsey, This may point 
to the rebuilding of the original church (destroyed in 870) on the 
same site, and to its having remained until the middle or end of 
the XI century at least. But there is no evidence to determine 
whether the building in which S. Felix was interred stood on liBe 



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Fbnland Notes and Qubeies. 169 

site of the present church, or on the opposite side of the road 
where the human and other relics have been found. If the former 
was the site, then the old building was probably incorporated into 
the present chancel. 

The existing church, which, like all churches of the same age, 
has undergone many changes since first erected, is said to have 
been built about the end of the 12th century. If this were so, 
however, we are confronted by a little diflBcalty. We know there 
was a Vicar of Soham named Ranulph in 1102, because on the 
29th of August in that year, Hubert de Burgh, Chief Justice of 
England, granted to the church of S. Andrew, in Soham, the 
lands which he had given to " Ranulph the Vicar " in trust for 
the church. 

The building in which S. Felix was buried must therefore have 
remained longer than the end of the 11th century, or the present 
church was built earlier than the end of the 12th century, or there 
was no church at all for nearly 100 years. The grant to Vicar Ra- 
nulph may have led to the erection of a new church. The same 
grant, it will have been noticed, speaks of the church as dedicated to 
S. Andrew, and it is referred to under the same name in various old 
documents and modern books of the following dates : — 1250, 
1302, 1570, 1746, 1780, 1808, 1840, 1875, and in the wills of 
the 16th century. But it is now popularly known as the church 
of S. John the Baptist, although no trace can be met with of any 
re-dedication. The only apparent reason for its being called by 
the latter name is that the " feast " is kept on or near S. John 
the Baptist's day. The evidence in favour of S. Andrew is 
however, overwhelmingly strong. 

The ground plan of the church is that of a cross, with provision 

for a central tower. In 1496* one — left a legacy for 

" taking down ye maste (or shafte) of ye steeple and towards ye 

making of another of stone ;" and in 1502 mention is made of 

" novum campanile." As the present tower at the west end was 

built about the 15th or 16th century, it may be supposed that the 

* An examination of the wUls of the 15th century, at Bury, would 
probably throw more light on this and other points. 



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170 Penland Notes and Queeies. 

central tower was newer finished in stone, bufc that there was only 
a wooden bell turret until the above legacy led to the erection of 
the west tower. The nave, which is lofty, measures 52 feet by 
22 feet, with side aisles of the same length and 9 feet wide, 
divided from the nave by arcades of four arches, springing al- 
ternately from octagonal and circular shafts, with moulded caps 
and bases, and plain pointed arches of two orders. The central 
tower, 22 feet square, Springs from four pointed and enriched 
arches of three orders, rising from semi-circular responds with 
enriched capitals and plain bases, the western arch being much 
enriched on its west side. Access to this tower was gained from 
the chapel (choir vestry) the steps still remaining. 

The chancel, which is 34 feet long and 18 feet wide, though 
probably of the same date as the nave, has been much altered by 
the insertion of decorated windows of about the middle of the 
14th century. That at the east end, of five lights, is large and 
was considered by Freeman one of the best specimens of its 
period. Its stone-work will amply repay careful examination. It 
was filled with stained glass by Clayton and Bell to the memory 
of the Eev. Henry Tasker, who died January 17th, 1874, after 
having been vicar of the parish for 41 years. The subjects re- 
presented are twenty in number, viz. : "The entry into Jerusalem; 
Christ weeping over Jerusalem; Institution of the Holy Com- 
munion; Washing the Disciples' feet; Gethsemane; The Betrayal; 
Christ before the High Priest ; Before Pilate ; Peter's Denial ; 
Before Herod; Behold the Man; Bearing the Cross; Crucifixion; 
Descent from the Cross; The Entombment; Sealing the Stone; 
Setting the "Watch ; The Eesurrection ; Appearance to Mary ; At 
Emmaus." 

At each side of this window is a small niche, in the smaller of 
which are still to be seen the letters IHS; and in and around both 
there are distinct traces of painting. On the north wall of the 
chancel there is a fairly clear representation of a bishop on his 
throne, clad in his episcopal vestments, the right hand uplifted in 
the act of blessing, and the left holding the pastoral staff. The 
figure measures 5 feet and the whole fresco 4 feet 6 inches by 9 



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^ -^'^ffl^.^4-- 



Fenland Notes and Queries. 17 1 

feet 6 inches, and was discovered in 1849, when the chancel was 
restored. There are traces of painting on several parts of the 
chancel wall, leading to the supposition that the whole of the 
chancel was at one time ornamented in this way. 

The arch into the choir vestry is of local or " clunch " stone. 

In 1849 the chancel was thoroughly restored at the joint ex- 
pense of the patrons and the vicar, the Eev. H. Tasker. A new 
roof was put on, and the whole of the lead re-cast; the mullions 
and tracery of the east window restored, and two new windows* 
inserted on the south side. The roof is of polished English oak, 
pannelled, with centre and corner rosettes of the same material, 
resting on a base of richly carved foliage. The wood work at the 
east end is of English oak, having five panels on the north side, 
and eleven at the east. On nine of the latter there has been cut 
out in bold relief in the Gothic character the Lord's Prayer, the 
Ten Commandments, and the Apostles' Creed, whilst each of the 
sixteen panels is beautifully ornamented at the top. The altar 
rail, also of oak, has seven panels, each pierced in a different de- \ 

sign, and all of a most handsome pattern. The stalls are twenty 
in number, and with the exception of six on the north side, which 
were added in 1880, were erected in 1849, together with the screen, 
which is a fine specimen of modern work. The carving at the 
east end was all executed by Messrs. Eattee, of Cambridge, 
from plans furnished by Messrs. Benomi and Cory, of Durham, 
and may be said to be one of the chief features in the church. 
The old stalls of the chancel, ten in number, and which have 
misereres, are now at the west end of the church. 1 

Immediately under the altar is the tomb of the Rev. D. Har- 
wood, formerly vicar of this parish, who died in 1746; also of 
Mrs. Eliz. Cawthorne, his sister, who died in 1782. 

At the south side of the chancel, within the rails, are ancient 
stone sedilia with a piscina, all of which were restored in 1849. j 

♦ It is not quite clear whether this is to be taken to mean two windows 1 
restored, or an alteration in the number, or position of the windows. Miss 

Bullman (High Street) has two or three old engravings of the Church ^ 

which might solve this point, and which are in themselves very interesting. | 



i 



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172 Fenlaistd Notes and Queeies. 

"The church* consists of a nave, two side aisles, two cross 
aisles, a sort of division between the nave and the chancel, which is 
handsomely roofed with wainscote, and two coats of arms remain 
carved on it, viz. : — a cross coup6 and two keys ^en saltire;' per- 
haps what I took for a saltire may be these keys on the tower. 

"The church is dedicated to S, Andrew, which may occasion the 
aforesaid saltires or S. Andrew's crosses on the tower." 

" The altar stands on an eminence of two steps and is railed in ; 
on the south side of the wall are the sediliaf and a place for holy 
water. About six feet from the steps, exactly in the middle of the 
chancel, which is stalled all round with good old oak stalls, lies an 
old grey marble disrobed of the figure of a priest, and inscription 
at his feet, and four ornaments at the corners which were of brass. 
This, probably, was for one of the former parsons. Under this 
stone, about 10 feet deep, by his own direction, lies the late Yioar, 
the Eev. Mr. Hawkins ; there is no inscription added to it, but 
this I was informed of by the clerk. 

" Close to this on the south lies a black marble slab with this 
inscription, ' Here lieth the body of Ursula, the wife of Will. 
Bowman, Gent., and daughter of Thorogood Upwood, Esq., who 
died 17fch July, 1700. Aet. 25.--Sic Phoenix.' " 

" Lately there was dug up in the entrance to the chancel, the 
head under the threshold, an old stone coffin,^ now removed into 
the north chapel or vestry. There are two or three coffin stones 
lying in the chancel, but no inscriptions on them." 

Two chapels have been added on the north side of the chancel ; 
the easternmost one of the 14th century, is now used as a clergy 
vestry, and contains an interesting old stone altar fixed into the 
east wall, and measuring 5ft. 4in, by 2ft. Sin, and 6in. thick, the 
front edge being bevelled off. Br. Cressener, vicar from 1678 to 
1717, was buried here, and there is a curious tombstone by the 
fireplace, in shape an irregular oblong, with letters cut in, and 
is most likely the same that Cole speaks of in the following terms: — 
* Cole's MSS., vol. ix, &c., July 28, 1746. f Clerestories in M.S. 
t This stone coffin, together with the fragments, have long since 
disappeared. 

(To de continued J, 



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Fenland Notes Ain> Queries. 173 

126.-Croyland Notes, No. 3— (No. 82, Part IV.)— The 
armorial windows that once adorned our venerable abbey formed 
the subject of my last paper. I will now relate an event attended 
with disastrous results when the windows were destroyed, and the 
abbey itself was not spared. Holdich, the historian, says the 
town was garrisoned for the king, and that in 1643 the parlia- 
mentary forces under Cromwell besieged and took it 9th May. 
The following account, entitled "A Certayne relation of the taking 
of Croyland," taken from the original copy which has the appear- 
ance of being written about the time it took place, assigns that 
event to the 28th of April. It is pretty certain that the author 
must have been one of the original prisoners, and the fact of a 
copy of Mr. Kam's letter being given, the narrator was not im- 
probably the minister himself : — 

" Upon Satterday the 25th of March, being Lady day, erly in 
the morneing, Captn. Stiles and Capt. Cromwell, mast, will Stiles, 
the minister of Croyland, with about 80 or 90 men, came to our 
towne of Spalding, wet at that time was vtterly unfurnished of 
men and armes, whereof they had intelligence the evening before 
by some of our maligna(n)t and Trecherous neybours ; nere breake 
of day they beset the house of Mr. Kam, the minister of the towne, 
where they tooke John Harrington, esqr., and the sayd Mr. Kam, 
and in a violent and uncivil manner carried them away to Croy- 
land, att the entering whereof all the people of the towne Grenerally 
were gathered together to se and triumph oner ther prisoners, wch 
put vs in mind of Sampson's entertaynements when he was taken 
by the Philistines : some others of our towne they tooke at the 
same time, but released all sane Edward Home, one of Captayne 
Escorts servants, so we 3 were kept together under strong guards, 
and about 10 dayes after, one Mr. william Slater, of Spalding, a 
man of about 66 yeares of age was taken by some of there scouts 
and made prisoner with vs, our vsage for dyet and Lodging was 
indiflFerent good at the time of our imprisonment, wch was 5 weeks, 
but some insolencyes we weare inforced now and then to indure. 
Capt. Styles one day quarreled with vs for praying, and forbade 
vs to doe so saying we shoold pray every man for himselfe, 



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174 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

Threfctening he wood take away the bible from vs, saying it was 
not fit for traytors to haue the Bible, and by noe meanes woold 
p'mit us to haue pen^ inok, or paper, though Mr. Ram did 
earnestly sue to him for them, and protested that he woold write 
nothing but what they shoold see or heare if they pleased. After 
we had continued there nere 3 weeks, on Thursday, the 12 of 
Aprill, some companeys of our frends aduanced towards our 
releese, where vpon, about 8 o'Clook that night, we weare all 
carried downe to the Bulworke on the north side of the towne, 
where we continued amunst the rude souldiers and townesmen till 
after midnight, but by reason our forces fel not on that night we 
weare carried into an alehouse, where we continued till daylyght, 
and then we weare had to our lodgings. But when our companyes 
approohed nerer our towne, then weare we all brought fourth 
agayne, and another prisoner, one Daniel Pegg, of Deepinge aded 
to vs and carried to that part of the towne where the first onset (?) 
was giuen : being all of vs fast pinioned and made to stand in an 
open place where the Cannon began to play. A while after we 
weare all 5 of vs set upon the top of the brest worke (according 
as had benn often thretened before) weare we stoode by the space 
of 3 Hours, our frends shooting fercely at vs for a greate pt (part) 

of the time before they knew (us ?) Harrington tooke 

one of his souldiers Musketts Charging it with pistall powder, and 
himself made 8 shots at his owne father, both he and all the rest 
of the Souldiers on that side supposeing we had binn Croylanders 
that stood there to brave them : when our frends p'ceuied who we 
weare they left (off) fireing upon vs and began to play more to the 
right hand of vs, whether Mr. Ram and Servant Home weare 
presently remoued, wch caused our p'ty to hould there hands : so 
little was done on that side of the towne that day, indede there 
works weare very strong and well Lined with Musqueters, who 
weare Backt with store of Hassock knives, long syths, and such 
like fenish weapons, and besides without there works was a greate 
water both brode and deepe, wch incompased all that side of the 
towne by reason whereof our smal forces coold doe no good at 
that time, neyther could they approch nerer mthout greate Haserd 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 175 

and losse : the Minister of the towne, Mr. Stiles, was very actiu® 
all the time of the fighte on the west side, where he commanded 
in cheefe runing from place to place, and if fearefull oaths be the 
character of a good souldier he may well pass Muster, wch made 
vs not so much to maruell at the abominable swereing wch we 
heard almost from euery mouth, yea, even when the Bullets flew 
thickest. But as the fury of the assalt did beginne to abate in 
those p'ts (parts), so did it begin to increase in the north side, 
whither presently Mr. Ram and Seriant Home were posted and 
there set vp upon the Bulworke for our frends on that side to play 
upon : who plyed vs with greafce and smal shot for a greate while 
to gether, supposeing Mr. Ram had been the vapoureing p'son 
(parson) of the towne, many of our dere and worthy frends haue 
since tould vs how many times they shot at vs with there owne 
hands, and how Heartyly they desired to dispatch vs : But the 
Lord of Hoasts, who numbers the Hayres of our heads, so guided 
the Bullets that of Multitudes wch fleu about our ears (and many 
of them within half Mosquet shot) not one of them had the power 
to touch vs, (blesed be the name of our good god). After we had 
contunued about 3 hours more upon the north worke our fources 
began to retreate, and then weare we taken downe and garded to 
our lodgings Mr. Harrington also and the 2 other prisoners which 
had continued al the while upon the west workes weare bringing 
up to vs, but the forces on the north side begin to fire agayne, 
where vpon they weare carried back towards these workes by a 
base fellow of the towne, and then our fources on both sides 
retreated." Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

1 27.— Peterborough in 1774.— •* Peterborough is the smallest 
city in England, and but very indifferently built. At one end of 
the town runs the Nen, here a considerable river, and which is 
lately made navigable to Northampton, near 50 miles higher. 
Over this stream is a good bridge, but the only building worth 
visiting at Peterborough is the minster : it is a noble gothic 
structure, the west front particularly rich in embelUshments, and 
is much admired ; however, the whole stands in need of consider- 



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176 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

able repairs, which for reasons that are obvious, will not perhap^ 
be hastily undertaken. Within it there is a painting of one 
Scarlet, once sexton here, who lived to bury two queens and all 
the housekeepers of the place twice over. Besides the cathedral, 
there is in Peterborough only one parish church." 

Gentlemen'' s Magazine, 1774. 

1 28.— Yaxley Barracks in 1807— The following is an extract 
from a newspaper of the above date : — " Barracks have been 
erected here on a very hberal and excellent plan for the security of 
French prisoners, who employ themselves in making bone toys and 
straw boxes and many other small articles, to which people of all 
descriptions are admitted on Sundays, when more than 200L a day 
has been frequently laid out in purchasing their labours of the 
preceding week. As a prison it is not only elegant, but convenient 
and spacious, and the enjoyment of health has been particularly 
consulted. We recommend it to every traveller of leisure to 
satisfy himself whether it merits the character of a ^filthy, 
swampy, infectious dungeon,' as a prostituted French journalist 
has wantonly and falsely asserted. It is capable of containing 
seven or eight thousand men, and has barracks for two regiments 
of infantry." N. Edis, Stamford. 

129.— Ramsey Fire. — (No. 115, Part V.)— In the Stamford 
Mercury is recorded the decease at Ramsey, 22 McL, 1825, of 
Mrs. Moore, relict of Eev. Peter Moore, formerly Prebendary of 
Lincoln, aged 95. She was a native of Ramsey, and when it was 
destroyed by fire in 1731 she was removed in her cradle. 

J. S., Stamford. 
P.S. — A reference to the parish register would supply us with 
the lady's christian name. Of whom was she a daughter ? 

1 30.— A Voyage from Cambridge to Lynn and Boston, 1827. 

— The Rev. Charles Frederick Rogesrs Baylay, Trinity College^ 
Cambridge, M.A., 1831, Rector of Kirkby-on-Bain 1846, died at 
his Rectory House, Third April, 1890, aged 84 years, and was 
burled in his Church-yard. The reverend gentleman, when a 



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Fenlaot) Notes and Queries. 177 

student at Cambridge in 1827, formed one of a crew who made a 
voyage in an eight-oar boat from Cambridge to Lynn, where they 
took a pilot on board and crossed the Wash to Boston — 20 miles 
of sea water, which can be rough sometimes, but on this occasion 
the day was fine and the water smooth ; they then proceeded by 
the Witham to Tattersball, and arrived at Lincoln on the 21st 
April, 1827— the day Bishop Kaye was installed. Nine stalwart 
worthies, in full boating costume, attendmg Divine Service in the 
Cathedral, astonished the sober-minded citizens of Lincoln as 
much as if a canoe full of Sandwich Islanders had landed in their 
city. Mr. Baylay was stroke, John Mitchell Kemble and Kenelra 
Digby were in the crew, and also Mr. A. T. MalMn, of Wimpole 
Street, London; this gentleman wrote to the ^* Times'' (4th Aug., 
1885), inviting other members of the party to communicate with 
him. As Mr. Baylay was the only one who responded, it was con- 
cluded that these were the only survivors of this adventurous 
voyage. Mr. Malkin in his letter says, " we took a pilot on board 
from Lynn to Boston, but were not nursed by a steamer, nor 
padded with cork ; more fools we, from an octogenarian point of 
view. All came fresh into Boston." A writer of the time says, 
" The vessel in which this very spirited expedition was conducted 
was an open row boat, very long and narrow, being about 42 feet 
by 3 or 4, evidently well adapted for speed, but more to be trusted 
to the smooth waters of the Bedford level than upon the in- 
constant main. In this wherry, however, having descended the 
Cam and the Ouse to Lynn, the gallant crew crossed the estuary 
of the Wash on Friday last over to the mouth of the Witham, 
with the assistance of a Lynn pilot, engaged for the purpose." 

On the 22nd, after a paddle round Brayfoot water, greatly to the 
gratification of the citizens who admired the boat and greatly 
applauded the crew, they commenced their return voyage ; again 
putting up at Tattersball for the night, they arrived at Boston on 
Monday morning the 23rd. On Tuesday they put to sea, but 
encountered rough water and were in some danger, as their boat 
endeavoured to go through the waves instead of riding over them ; 
they had to back into smooth water before they could swing the 



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178 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

boat, and returning to Boston, sent their vessel on a timber 
waggon with three post horses to Wisbeach, the crew going on 
foot ; neither of the survivors could remember their route from 
Boston, but it would no doubt be by way of Fossdyke Bridge 
Holbeach, and Long Sufcton, at any rate, they agreed that they 
re-embarked at Wisbeach, and in due time reached Cambridge — 
all well. 

An account of this rowing feat appeared in the " Lincoln and 
Lincolnshire Cabinet, 1828,^' whieh is. substantially correct, but 
not wholly so. The above is written from this account, corrected 
by Mr. Malkin's letter to the " TimeSy' and from communications 
I received from him and from Mr. Baylay in 1886. " There was 
no Fortescue in the crewe [as stated in the * Cabinet '] our 
stopping at Tattershall had nothing to do with the ownership 
thereof, neither were we attracted to Lincoln by Bishop Kaye." 

C. J. Caswell, Horncastle. 

131.-WiU of WiUiam Bevill, of Chesterton, 1487.-*an the 
name of Almighty God, Amen. I, William Bevill, of Chesterton 
in the county of Huntingdon, gentillman, of an holy mynde and 
good remembrance, being the xxx day of y® moneth of July, in 
the yeare of our Lord G-od, m.cccclxxxvij, make my Testament 
and my last will in this wise : First, I give and bequeath my 
soule unto Almighty God, his blessed modyr and mayd. Our Lady 
Saint Mary, and all the blessed company of heven, and my body 
to be buried in the chirch of St. Michael of Chesterton aforesaid, 
afore the autre of y^ blessed Lady St. Mary the Virgin, w*^ my 
best hoes in y® name of my mortuary, after the custume of the 
cuntre &c. Also, I bequeath to my sonne, Will'm Bevill, a great 
chest, a prewce cofer &c. Also, I bequeath to my sonne Rob't 
Bevill a fedre bed, w"' a bolster, twoo pillowes, twoo blanketts &c. 
The residue of all my goods not bequeathed, my detts payd, I give 
and bequeath to the aforesaid Eob't Bevill, my sonne, whome I 
ordeyne and make of this my testament myne executor &o. This 
was done the day, yeare, and place above written. Then p'sent. 
y*" parson of Chesterton aforesaid and other.' Charles Dawes 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 179 

132.— Trade Tokens at Chatteris.— Tokens were firsfc issued 
about the year 1643, and were proclaimed as illegal for current 
coin in 1672. Private enterprise was responsible for their intro- 
duction, and they were issued unofficially from time to time to 
meet the demand for " small change." They were generally made 
of copper, but sometimes of brass, and, as may be expected, they 
very often consisted of very crude specimens of the numismatic 
art. Four sets of these coins were issued at Chatteris between 
the years 1663 and 1670 ; and it is a remarkable fact that the 
name of the town is spelt differently on each. Probably the name 
of no place has been spelt in so many ways as that of Chatteris. 
In the Domesday Book it is called Chatriz, and in later records it 
has been indifferently alluded to as Ceatrice, Chartres, Chateriz, 
Chatis, Chaterys, Chattris, and so on almost ad infinihim. The 
following tokens were used in place of the ordinary coinage at 
Chatteris in the latter part of the seventeenth century : — 

1, — Obverse^ thomas * coape * at * the = a gate. 

Reverse, at * chattris * ferry = his half peny. 1670. 

2. — Obverse, thomas * bring * of h: chateris = his half peny. 
Reverse, in * the * isle * of * bly * 1667 = T.LD. 

3. — Obverse, william * smith hj of = a cooper making a cask. 
Reverse, chatris* 1670 = his halfe peny. 

4. — Obverse, iohn ^ French *of*1663 = The Drapers' Arms. 
Reverse, ramsey * and * chatteris-= his half peny. 

An illustration of the first coin is given in Boyne's British 
Tokens, The parish of Chatteris was formerly divided by a river 
called the Old West-water, running from Somersham to the Ferry 
turnpike. This river has become dry land since canals have been 
made in other directions for draining the Fens. A house near to 
the place where the Ferry formerly was, still retains the appellation 
of the Ferry House, and the steep bank of the river is now known 
as the Ferry Hill. Charles Dawes. 

133.-Fenland Parishes in 1340, No. 2.-(No. 107, Part V.)— 
The following is a further list of the principal inhabitants of 
various tdwns and villages in Huntingdonshire as returned to the 



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180 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

Exchequer Court in the 13th year of the reign of Edward III,:— 

Itameset/e (Ramsey).— Eoger Clere, William Ohatenden, Benedic 
Wean, Nicholas Carte, William de Staunford, and Henry le 
Smyth. 

Wardeboys (Warboys).— Galfred Noble, Thoe. Rowen, Richard 
son of Nicholas, John Pahnere, Roger Raven, Galfred Wodekoo, 
Galfred Gerold, Richard Gerold, Richard Margar, Henry Brown, 
Nicholas Brounyg, Benedic son of Laurence, and Nicholas 
Milnere. 

Jalceh (Yaxley).— Richard Alberd, Robert le Man, Hugh Colyn, 
Simon de Bernewell, Hugh Curteys, Richard Sopere, Robert le 
Smyth, William son of Roger, John Launcelyn, John Freysh- 
water, Henry de Emyngham, and Simon ArketilL 

i&tutr' (Sawtry).— William de Derby, John TyfFeyn, Robert 
Meweyn, John Wodeward, Thomas Flexman, Hamon Fykeys, 
John Beaumeys, John son of Eve, Galfred Beaumeys, John 
Prestesman, John Bryhte, and John Mepereshale. 

Haliwell (Holywell).— John de Haliwell, Roger de Craunfeld, 
Nicholas Scot, John Laweman, John Ganelok, Thomas de 
Hoghton, Henry Clerenans, John de Kerynton, and William de 
Bykeleswade. 

Hemyngford Prior' (Hemingford Grey).— William de Juye, Ralph 
le Vernonn, John le Warde, William Gerband, Ade Sier, 
Thomas Gamelyn, Robert Jacob, John Hame, John Nicholas, 
John son of Thomas, William Sier, and John le Smyth. 

Hemyngford Ablaf (Hemingford Abbots).— Simon atte Stile, Ade 
Amable, Reginald Fermer, Thomas Mareschal, Nicholas Trappe, 
Thomas Jurdon, John Selede, Simon atte Tounesende, Henry 
Barker, Sunon Everard, William Craunfeld, and John Aylemar. 

Hoghkne Wittone (Hough ton-cum-Wy ton). —Gilbert de Hoghton, 
Robert Porter, John Crane, William Betonn, Peter Cok, John 
Crystys, John Harneys, John Bryht, John Bedil, John Porter, 
Walter de Bytherne, and Robert be the hee. 

Wysiov (Wistow).— Thomas Palmere, Thoe. Hosebonde, Ralph 
Clerenans, Nicholas Catelyn, John son of Margarete, William 
del WoldC) Richard le Reve, Andrew Flemyng, John Pykeler, 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 181 

Thomas Aspelon, Robert Crane, and John de Pappeworth. 

Cfunmcesir* (Godmanchester). — Thomas Hopay, John Baronn, 
Galf red Manipeny, Henry Colewat, John Gleive, William Aired, 
William le Rede, G^lfred atte Russhes, John Milcent, Richard 
le Rede, WUliam Gile, and Henry Manipeny. 

Simcle Magna (Great Stukeley). — Andrew Balle, William le 
Smethesson, Alexander Robyn, John Lanrence, Simon Gallon, 
Roger Balle, Roger atte Stile, John Russel, John Warde, 
William Purdhomme, William Palmere, and Hugh Payn. 

Siimle P'va (Little Stukeley). — William Coupe, Thomas le Reve, 
Simon Howelet, Robert Ryngedale, John Baylyf, and William 
Hicke. 

Broghion (Broughton). — William Clerk, John Wold, John Parsoun, 
Robert Boteller, Thomas Bald, William Wryhte, Ralph sup' le 
Hull, Thoe Pelag, John Randolf, John atte Dam, Thomas de 
Broghton, John Bigge, and John Justise. 

Ripion Abb' (Abbots Ripton). — William Hanlound, HughThewar, 
Alexander March, Robert West, Andrew son of Philip, Andrew 
Oliver, Oliver Buk, John Robbes, William Hayward, John le 
' Renesson, Martin Outy, and Thomas le Neve. 

Ripton Reg' (King's Ripton). — John de Deen, Nicholas son of 
Thomas, John William, John Stalkere, Thomas son of Roger, 
John son of Thomas, John Palmere, Nicholas Wryhte, John 
son of Ralph, John Waryn, John Chaunterel, and Philip de 
Kenlowe. 

Biry (Bury). — Simon Hervi, John Juel, John de Biry, John 
Baronn, John Boner, William de Ellesworth, Thomas Prere, 
John Gernorm, John Sabyn, Galfred Haukyn, Richard son of 
Simon, and Thomas Aspeland. 

Grafh'm (Grafham). — Vital' le Noble, John Bal, Richard Denton, 
John Russell, Robert Husee, Roger Baye, Robert in the Hime, 
and Hugh atte Nook. 

BoTcedm (Buckden). — William in the Lane, William Orgar, Walter 
Parker, William Frere, Galfred atte Stile, John Burgeys, Jdhn 
Dande, John Brann, John atte Stile, John le Hunt, Henry 
G^rlyk, and Walter Aubri. 



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182 



Penland Notes and Queries. 



Brampton. — John Dike, Peter Boteller, John Wymundle, Robert 

Kokeby, John de Wolaston, John Oufcy, Richard Wapp, David 

de Glendale, John Rokeby, William Aleyn, and John son of 

Robert. 

Charles Dawes. 

134.— Monumental Inscriptions in St. Margaret's Churcli, 
Lynn, No. 3.-(No. 88, Part IV.) 

21. 

Here vnder | lyeth interred the [ Body of Edward Clarke | 

M who finished his | lyfe the 3 of ,| .... n 

our Lord | 1669 And 7 sones & on davgh | .... his Age 74 

years | slopes the de [Floor of 

South Chapel.] 

22. 

[Large blue slab with indent of fine brass, to Walter Coney, 
1479 which consisted of an eflfigy under a triple canopy of peculiar 
form (with some representation in the upper part) with a scroll 
over the head and surrounded by 19 smaller scrolls and 4 shields ; 
the whole within a margin having the evangelistic symbols at the 
corners. The inscriptions are thus given in *' Taylor's Guide to 
King's Lynn," p. 19 :— " Hie jacet Walterius Coney, Mercator, 
hujus ville Lenne quator Maior et Aldermannus Gilde Mercatorie 
Sancte Trinitatis intra Villam predictan continue per quator 
decim Annos et am plius. Qui obiit penultimo die mensis, 
Septembris, Anno D'ni mcccclxxix^ Cujus Anime Propicietur 
Deus. Amen." (margin) " Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus, mise- 
rere mei Peccatoris." (Scroll over head) "Laus trinitatis," 
(Smaller scrolls)]. [Next last S.] 



[Indent of 




brass inscription.] 
[Next last E,] 



24. 



Here lyeth interred | the Body of | Mr. Benjamin Holly 



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■ ■^ ! a, ' W!a;-*Va>.y.-A»W 



FfiNLAin) Notes and Queries. 183 

Alderman & twice Mayor | who died the 17*^ Aug. | 1703 | aged 
98 yeares. Mary | the wife of | Mr. Benjamin Holly | Alder- 
man was I Buried 24 Janu | 1672. 

[Arms : (below) on a chevron, 3 unicorns' heads erased, 
impaling on a bend 3 roundles. Crest : a sea lion (?).] [Blue 
stone. Floor of Chancel, north side.] 

25. 

In Memory of Mary ye Wife of Samuel \ Farthing^ who dep^ 
this life May ye 18th 2696 \ Aged 82 years, \ And also of three of 
her children, Samuel Farthing | Merchant, died | July 28, 
MDCCXXXY I Aged lxxiii.— Elizabeth his Wife | Daughter of | 
Thomas Bourning | of Soittliacre Gent. Died | July 27. mdcc 
XLiv I Aged Lxv. Here lyeth the Body of Samuel ye son of \ 
Samuel Farthing^ & Elizaleth his Wife ivho \ dep^ this life October 
ye 8t^ 1718 Aged 14 years. [Blue stone, Floor op Chancel, 

NORTH SIDE.] 

26. 
Under this Stone lyeth the Body | of | ®lrfaari gofb^am Mer- 
chant I who dying beyond the Seas in Norway [ by the care | of 
his loving wife daarlrnit | was brought over & here Interred | in 
this his native place | 

A„„^ f Aetat : 44: 
^™^tr>om: 1704: Nov: 3« 

[Arms : above on a cross 5 mullets, impaling 3 long stalked 

trefoils slipped, on a chief between 2 estoiles, a half moon.] 

[Blue stone. Floor op North Chapel.] 

27. 
[Skull] [under seats] nat. Jan, 17. 1709. [Blue stone 
Floor of South Chapel.] 

28. 

Benjamin Holly | Ob. 15 December | 1755 Aged 72. | Here 
lyeth I Alice wife of | Benjamin Holly Gent. | and Daughter of 
Mr. John Richars | of Terrington with | four of their children | 
who dyed Nov. [1711 Aged 27 years. 

[Arms : (above) on a chevron 3 unicorns' heads erased, impaling 



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f'\ 



184 



Fenland Notes and Queries. 



2 bars^ on each as many flenrs-de-lys ; crest : a bear passant.] 
[Blue stone, Floor of Chancel, north side.] 

29, 
Here lyeth the Body of | John Exton Senior Gent. | who dep. 

this Life the llth of | 1729 Aged 65 years. \ Here lyeth 

the Body of Iambs Exton | Attorney who departed this Life 
the 5tii I day of February Anno Domini 1723 | Aged 24 years | 
John Exton Esquire | Twice Mayor | Died 17 March 1769 | 
Aged Lx years. [Blue stone. Floor of Chancel, north side.] 

80. 
In Memory of | Nicholas Young of this Burough, | who died 
in March 1731 Aged 65. | and Susanna his Wife | Who died in 
February 1734 Aged 66. | Also of | Margaret Young their 
Daughter | who died the 21 : day of August 1764 | Aged 50, 
[Blue stone, Floor of Chancel, north side.] 

81. 



[Indents 




of brasses,] 



William Holly Gent : | died the 2d of April 1735 | Aged 48 
Years. [Blue Stone, next last north.] 

32. 
Simon Tayler Arm : | Omni laiide major \ Obiit Apr. 11. 
1738. Aet 35. | Walter Robertson Esqr. | twice Mayor of this 
Borough I died Noyr. the 9tb 1772 | Aged 69. | Alice | the eldest 
Daughter of | Benjamin Holly Esqr. | married first to | Simon 
Tayler Esqr. | and afterwards to | Walter Kobertson Esqi*. | 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 185 

died March the 3rd 1772 | Aged 64. | In Memory of Holly 
Taylee, Son of SmoN and | Alice Taylbr who Dyed August 
the twenty-first 1735. | Aged eight Yeares, \ Also of Pn-fflBB and 
Elizabeth Tayler, Daughters | of the above named, who dyed 
in their infancy. | Also of Catherine Tayler the Daughter of 
the above | named who dyed March the thirtieth 1788. | Aged 
thirteen years, \ Also of Ph-sjbe Tayler the Daughter of the 
above-named | who dyed October the fifth 1738. Aged five years \ 
Also of Ann Tayler the Daughter of the above-named | who 
dyed in her Infancy. 

[Arms : (at the top) 3 boars' heads couped, between 9 cross 
crosslets 3, 3, & 3 : impaling on a chevron 3 unicorns* heads 
erased. Crest : A boar's head couped.] [Blue stone, Floor of 
Chancel, south side.] 

33. 
Here lyeth ye Body of Mr. | Joshua Edwards (Upholster) | 
who died the 26th of November | 1747. aged 47 years. | Also 
Here lyeth the Body | of Susanna the Wife of | John Edward 
(Carpenter) | who died the 31st of December | 1748. aged 63 
YEARS. [Blue stone, Floor of North Chapel.] 

34. 
In Memory of Mary the Wife | of Aldn. Edward Everard | 
and Daughter of Benjamin | Holly Esqr. She departed | this 
life the 4th day of January | In the thirty-eighth Tear of her 
Age I In the Year of our Lord 1749. 

[Arms : a fess between 3 estoiles, impaling, on a chevron 
3 unicorns' heads erased. Crest : a man's head in profile, in a 
cap couped at the shoulders.] [Blue stone, Floor of North 
Chapel.] 

35. 
To the Memory | of John PARTHiNa Merchant \ Son of 
Samuel & Eliz. Earthing | He died Sept. 14tb 1749. Aged 
50 Tears. [Blue stone, Floor of Chancel, north side.] 



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186 Fenmnd Notes and Queries. 

36. 
In Memory | of Chaelbs Allen Merchant \ who Departed 
this life I August the 80th 1754 | Aged 42 Years. [Floor of 
North Chapel.] 

87. 
Here Lieth Interred | Mb. John Tayler Surgeon | who de- 
parted this life I the 14th of January 1757. | Aged 34 Years. 
[Blue stone, Floor of South Chapel.] 

38. 

H. S. E. I Johannes Mayer Arm : | ; condun . . . 

I . . . . ved pre | Ee . . . . tium [ exper 

aratae fidei | P • . . • or; | No . . paucis benevolus | 

. . . lieni studiosus ; | Su tor ; | Qui tutelis 

randis, | (Erant autem ectae fidei viro | Pluri 

ssae I . usarum . . enuum .. ind .. ss .... | .... d .,. p 

I c I I tanc I Aut 

rei isp | Aut foeli de | Orb scae 

I Ob : Sept. (?) 16. A:D: 1760 (?) Aefc : 

[Arms : (below) sable, on a fess argent between 3 cross crosslets 
or (?) ; a hurt between 2 foxes (?) gules. Crest : (above) •....] 
[White marble tablet, on north wall of North Chapel.] 

39. 

Vita adamum usque Lxxv provecta (?) | prope .... lessimi 

I sec I Judith Mayer | | 

XVIII MDCO . XI I hospitio . . . . v . . rim die ... . xerat | 

pauperum sex captorum | supp .mis .... . ascim . . . 

.'Is predito | fundatrici igitur elmine 

lectissimae | in om . . vcta | Gratae que erga extinctum volun- 
tates I perituro marmore fixit d. o. m. Dinturniora | vice elogii 
sunto. [Capitals, white marble tablet, on east -wall of North 
Chapel.] 

40. 

In Memory of | M'^- George Hogg | Merchant of this Place | 
who died April 26^^ 1767 ] Aged 70 Years. | [Blue stone, 
Floor of Nort5 Chapel.] 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 187 

41. 

Sacred | to the Memory of | Ann, | Wife of GEORaB Mooa Esq^- 
Merchant | Happy | in a most amiable disposition | She was | 
Courteous to all | Beneficent without Ostentation | Her Conjugal 
Virtues | Secur'd affection at home | Every ones Love | and 
Esteem attended her abroad | And tho she was | bless'd with the 
greatest aflBuenoes, | (a circumstance too apt | to swell the heart 
with pride) | she was adorn'd with a true xtian humility | it 
pleased God | to shorten a good Life here | for a better at the Age 
of 46 I on the 3^ day of April | 1768. | Reader ! | Animated by 
her Virtues, | Go, and do likewise. | [Blue stone, Flooe of 
North Chapel.] 

42. 

To the Memory | of Edward Everard Merchant | Alderman 
and twice Mayor | Of this Corporation | Who departed this Life | 
The 27*^ day of February | In the Year of our Lord 1769 | Aged 
70. 

[Arms : (at the top) a fess between 8 estoiles, impaling on a 
chevron 3 unicorns' heads erased. Crest : a man's head, in profile, 
in a cap, couped at the shoulders. [Blue stone. Floor op North 
Chapel.] 

43. 
Here lyeth | Five of the Children of | Edward Everard | 
Alderman ; \ and Mary his Wife ; | Who Died in their | 
Infancy. | [Blue stone, Floor of North Chapel.] 

44. 

JoSEPHirs Tayler I Doctor in Medicina Apprime Sciens | 
Obiit 3 Martii A.D. 1771 Aetatis 52. | Quem Vivum | Ob Mores 
Suavissimos | Nulli non dilexerunt. | Mortuum | Plorant deplort 
antque Conjux, | ^t undecim Liberi, | Defiant Cognati, | Moeren- 
Pauperes, | Lugent Omnes. | Et Anna Uxor ejus | Obiit 29 
Novemb. Anno Domi 1790 | -^Jtatis 63. 

[Arms : (at the top) 3 boars' heads couped, between 9 cross 
crosslets 3, 3, & 3 ; impaling a wolf (?) rampant ; in chief, a 
fleurs-de-lys between 2 roundles ; Crest : A boar's head couped, 
[Blue stone, Floor op Chancel, south side.] 



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188 Fekland Notes and Queeies. 

45. 
Thomas | Son of | Edmund and Elizabeth Holland | Died, 
4^^ June 1776. | Aged 26. | Years. | In Memory of | Hbnby 
Holland who Departed | this Life November 24*^ 1786. | Aged 
34 Years. | Also of | Maby his Wife who Departed | this Life 
December 6*^ 1786. | Aged 32 Years. 

[Arms : (at the top) a h'on rampant gardant, between 9 fleurs 
de lys in orb, a crescent on a mullet for difference. Crest: a lion 
rampant gardant. [Blue stone. Floor of North Chapel.] 

Eev. E. H. Edleston, Cambridge. 

135.— Richard Broomhall, Vicar of St. Ives, 1646.— In the 
year 1545 died Eichard Broomhall, vicar of St. Ives, who desired 
to be buried *in the chancel wherever Sir Edward Cohnan shall 
thinke most convenient.' He bequeathed to " the Hyghe Aulter 
xiid., to the torches xx^., to the bells xx^., to the repair of the 
Heighe way under the waytes iijs., iiijd., to Jone Jennyngs alias 

Ffygen my trundell bede &c to William Ffygen if he will 

fall to grace and sadnesse xxs. quarterlie to be paid or ells not. 
To Sir Ed. Colman, the bede that I use to lye in my selffe, with 
all that belonge to the same, my chamdette jackefcte. my worstede 
doublette, and the vouson of the vicarage of the parish church of 
St. Ives aforesaid, with all the tithe right and interest that I have 
in the said advowson.'* W. M. Noble, Eamsey. 

136.—Horkey, Hockey, Hawkey.— (No. 114, Part V).— 
Hock Tide was an annual festival which commenced 15 days after 
Easter. That it was long observed and that collections were made 
to a late date is certain, from the churchwardens* accounts in some 
parishes. Its origin has been much disputed. Being a moveable 
feast dependent on Easter, it would scarcely commemorate some 
fixed event as some have pretended. Brande, in the Fop. Antiq. 
discusses it at some length, as also does a writer in Ghamh&ra' 
Booh of Days, p. 498. Hock Tuesday festival is said by some to 
commemorate the massacre of the Danes, and this second Tuesday 



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Fenland Notes anb Quibbies. 189 

after Easter was long held as a festival in England ; but it is by 

many believed that the commemoration of this feast is connected 

with the pagan superstition of our Saxon forefathers, and, like 

others, preserved after they became Christians, and its origin was 

gradually forgotten. Hock money was collected in the parish of 

St. Giles, 1585, and in the parish of St. Mary. The Bishop of 

Worcester in 1450 inhibited those " Hork Tyde " practices on the 

ground that they led to all sorts of dissipation and licentiousness. 

Horkey is an East Anglian term for Harvest Cart or Harvest 

Home Festival. It is said to be derived from "hock," high 

(Oerman). The last load is the high load or "horkey load." 

Bloomfield wrote " The Horkey," a provincial ballad : 

" Home came the jovial Horkey load, 
Last of the whole year's crop ; 
And Oraoe among the Green Boughs rode 
Right plump upon the top." 

Herrick has a poem the " Hock Cart," or Harvest Home, where 

he says : 

" The harvest swains and wenches bound 
For joy— to see the Hock Cart crowned." 

Hence the " Potato Horkey " referred to would be the application 

of a provincial term to the completion of the Potato Gathering. 

Let the derivation be what it may, I think it has little connection 

with the Hock Tide or Hoke Tide Festival of which we read in 

the 15th and 16th centuries, and which may be traced back to the 

13 th century, if not earlier, and became obsolete early in the last. 

The Hopper supper was a feast given in Lincolnshire when the 

sowing was finished. This, with the sheep-shearing or clipping 

supper and other social gatherings on the farm seem to be lost 

sight of— events of a past age — and with them is lost much of 

that fraternal feeling and good fellowship that used to exist 

between master and man in agricultural districts. 

S. Egab. 

1 37.— Stilton and Warboys in 1502.— In 1502, the chapleyn 
of Warboys was one Wm. Wode, and the rector of the church of 
St. Mary in Stylton was named Richard Waide. 

W. M. Noble, Eamsey. 



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190 Fenlanb Notes and Queries. 

138.— A French Prisoner's Escape from Norman Cross.— 
Miss Baker (through the Peterborough Natural History Society) 
has forwarded us a copy of a pamphlet published iu 1828, which 
professes to give an " Interesting | Narrative | of a | Prisoner's 
Escape | from | Norman Cross | and | of his subsequent Perilous 
Adventures | (translated from the French) | Peterborough | 
Printed and sold by G. Robertson | Bookseller and Stationer | 
Market Place | 1828 | ." The pamphlet, however, is not what it 
represents itself to be. It is beyond doubt a mere imaginary 
sketch. The writer was no French prisoner, but a Mr. Bell, of 
Oundle, who was a schoolmaster there. The sketch, which does 
credit to Mr. Bell's power of fiction, was first published in 
Drakard's Stamford Newspaper, but since then, it has been frequently 
re-published, and has deceived numerous local and general his- 
torians. In the May number for this year (1890) of Cassell's 
" World of Adventure " the pamphlet in question is reproduced 
as a genuine historical narrative. A close examination of the 
pamphlet will furnish innumerable proofs of its fictitious origin. 
Nevertheless, it is not without its historical value, for its 
topographical description would probably be faithfully portrayed, 
as Mr, Bell was well acquainted with the district. The following 
is Mr. Bell's description of the Yaxley Barracks : — 

" The English had here upwards of seven thousand prisoners 
of war, of one nation or other, but chiefly Frenchmen. I will 
endeavour to describe a few particulars of the place, as well as I 
can recollect, which may at the same time also serve to illustrate 
my escape from it. 

"The whole of the buildings, including the prison, and the 
barracks for the soldiers who guarded us, were situated on an 
eminence, arid were certainly airy enough, commanding a full and 
extensive view over the surrounding country, which appeared well 
cultivated in some parts : but in front of the prison, to the south 
east, the prospect terminated in fens and marshes, in the centre 
of which was a large lake, of some miles in circumference, 
(Whittlesea Mere). The high road from London to Scotland ran 
close by the prison, and we could, at all hours of the day, see the 



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Penland Notes and ubbibs. 191 

Diligences and other carriages bounding along the beautiful roads 
of the country with a rapidity unknown elsewhere : and the con- 
trast afforded by contemplating these scenes of liberty continuaDy 
before our eyes, only served to render the comparison more 
harrowing to our feelings. 

"There was no apparent show about the place of military 
strength, fonned by turreted castles, or by embrasured battlements; 
in fact, it was little better than an enclosed camp. The security 
of the prisoners was effected by the unceasing watch of ever- 
wakeful sentinels, constantly passing and repassing, who were 
continually changing ; and I have no doubt this mode of security 
was more effectual than if surrounded by moated walls or by 
fortified towers. Very few, in comparison of the numbers who 
attempted it, succeeded in escaping the boundaries, though many 
ingenious devices were put in practice to accomplish it. How- 
ever, if once clear of the place, final success was not so diffi- 
cult. 

" The space appointed for the reception of the prisoners con- 
sisted of four equal divisions or quadrangles ; and these again 
were divided into four parts, each of which was surrounded by a 
high palisade of wood, and paved for walking on ; but the small 
ground it occupied scarcely left us room to exercise sufficient for 
our health, and this was a very great privation. In each of these 
subdivisions was a large wooden building, covered with red tiles, 
in which we ate our meals and dwelt ; these also served for our 
dormitories or sleeping places, where we were nightly piled in 
hammocks, tier upon tier, in most horrible regularity. One of 
these quadrangles was entirely occupied by the hospital and 
medical department. A division of another quadrangle was 
allotted to the officers, who were allowed a few trifling indulgences 
not granted to the common men, amongst whom I unfortunately 
was included. In another division was a school, the master of 
which was duly paid for his attendance ; it was conducted with 
great regularity and decorum, and there you might sometimes see 
several respectable Englishmen, particularly those attached to the 
duties of the prison, taking their seats with the boys to learn the 



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192 Penland Notes and Queries. 

French language. Another small part was appropriated as a place 
of closer confinement or punishment, to those who broke the rules 
appointed for our government, or wantonly defaced any part of the 
buildings, or pawned or lost their clothes; these last were put, I think, 
upon two-thirds allowance of provisions, till the loss occasioned 
thereby was made good ; and I must confess this part was seldom 
without its due proportion of inhabitants. The centre of the prison 
was surrounded by a high brick wall, beyond which were the barracks 
for the English soldiers, several guard-houses, and some handsome 
buildings for both the civil and military oflScers ; whilst a circular 
block-house, mounted with swivels or small cannon, pointing to 
the different divisions, frowned terrifically over us, and completed 
the outside of the picture." 

With regard to the internal arrangements of the prison and the 
daily life of the prisoners, Mr, Bell says : — 

" On Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, we 
had one pound and a half of bread, half a pound of beef, with a 
proportionate quantity of salt and vegetables, or, if no vegetables 
could be procured, we had in lieu, pearl barley or oatmeal. On 
Wednesdays and Fridays we had the usual quantity of bread, one 
pound of codfish, or herrings, and one pound of potatoes. No ale 
or beer was served out to us, but we were allowed to purchase it 
at the canteen in the prison. To ensure to us no fraud or 
embezzlement, each department or division, sent two deputies to 
inspect the weight and quality of the provisions, which, if not 
approved by them, and the agent to the prison, were invariably 
rejected and returned ; and if any difference of opinion existed 
between the agent and the deputies, a reference was made to the 
officers on guard at the time, and their decision was final. A 
regular daily market was held in the prison, where the country 
people brought a variety of articles for sale, and where every 
luxury could be purchased by those who had money. Our cooks 
were appointed from amongst ourselves, and paid by the English 
government, so that, in regard to diet, we had not much to com- 
plain of. The hospital, or medical department, I have heard, (for 
thank God I was never an inmate of it, except to visit a sick 



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Fenlakd Notbs and Queries. 193 

comrade,) was amply supplied wibh every necessary and afcfeendance; 
the nurses being generally selected from the friends of the sick. 
For our amusement, amongst other things, we had several excellent 
billiard-tables, very neatly made by the prisoners themselves, 
which were attended by many English officers and others oflF duty; 
but, unfortunately, these were the sources of frequent quarrels 
and duels, two of which terminated fatally whilst I was there, 
both between Frenchmen. Having no arms, they affixed the 
blades of knives, properly sharpened and shaped, to sticks, formed 
with handles and hilfcs, with which they fought as with small 
swords. I was a witness to one of these conflicts, and it sank 
deep in my memory for many months. It appeared, in some 
instances, as if confinement had deprived us of the usual humanity 
of our nature, and hardened our hearts ; for some shocking scenes 
of depravity and cruelty would occasionally take place, which even 
the counsel and presence of the good and venerable Bishop of 
Moulines, who voluntarily attended to the religious duties of the 
prison, could not restrain." 

ISQ.—Robert Baymente of Diddington.--There was grief 
and anxiety in the home of Robert Eaymente of Didington on 
Oct. 7th, 1546, for on that day he and his wife were about parting, 
he, to the war (with France or Scotland), she, to wait anxiously 
for the husband that would not return. By his will " he left his 
bodie to be as it shall please God," and ends his will with the 
significant words "In warre tyme made." 

W. M. Noble, Eamsey. 

140.— Abbotsley Church House, 1619 — Robert Purson, vicar- 
perpetuel of Abbotsley, died in 1519, leaving "towards the 
making of the church house in Abbotsley xx qrs. of barley ; and a 
brasyn morter and a pewter hangyng laver, &c." 

W. M. Noble, Eamsey. 



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194 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

141.--SomersIiam in 1728 — In 1728 an Act of Parliament 
was passed for repairing the road between Somersham and 
Chatteris Ferry. The preamble says : " Whereas the highway or 
road leading from Chatteris Ferry (which divides the Isle of Ely 
from the County of Huntingdon) to a place called Somersham 
Bridge at Somersham Town's End, in the said County of Hunting- 
don by means of the many heavy carriages and droves of oxen 
and other cattle frequently passing through, and the floods and 
inundations of waters often overflowing the said road, is become 
very ruinous and bad, and many parts, in the winter season, so 
deep that passengers cannot pass and repass without danger. And 
whereas the said road cannot by the ordinary course appointed by 
the laws now in being (for repairing the highways of the kingdom) 
be suflSciently repaired and amended without some other provision 
b3 made by Parliament for raising money to be laid out and be 
applied for that purpose. To the end therefore that the said road 
may with all convenient speed be effectually repaired and amended 
and hereafter kept in good and sufficient repair, so that all persons 
may pass and repass through the same with safety be it enacted 

that for the better surveying, ordering, repairing, and 

keeping in repair, the road aforesaid, it shall be in the power of 
the Eight Honourable William Cavendish Esquire (commonly 
called Lord Marquis of Hartington) son and heir apparent of His 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire, Sir John Hinde Cotton, Sir 
John Barnard, baronets. Sir Edward Lawrence, knight, Samuel 
Sheppard, Henry Bromley, Thomas Bacon, esquires, the Reverend 
Doctor Richard Bentley, Master of the College of the Holy and 
undivided Trinity in the University of Cambridge, the Reverend 
Samuel Knight, Doctor in Divinity, John Bigg, Roger Handa- 
syde, Anthony Hammond, James Forkington, Nicholas Boufoy, 
Thomas Hammond, John Brownell, Richard Drury, William 
Thompson, Stevens Bazeley, Charles Green, Roger Thompson, 
esquires, the Reverend William Leman, clerk, the Reverend 
William Torkington, clerk, the Reverend Thomas Parrott, clerk ; 
Dingley Askham, senior, Thomas Curtis, Dingley Askham, junior, 
William Thompson, Lawrence Blatt, Peregrine Doyley, Thomas 



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Fbnlaio) Notes and Queries. 195 

Underwood, gentlemen ; Jasper Lyster, senior, Jasper Lyster, 
junior, Thomas Ridley, Thomas Houghton, Thomas Cope, John 
Kent, John Marriott, John Garner, George Read, John Cole, 
John Cranwell, John Symons, G«orge Waddington, William 
Archdeacon, and Bennet Skeeles, who are hereby nominated and 
appointed trustees for putting this Act in execution," Then 
follow provisions "for erecting toll-bars, a list of tolls to be 
charged, &c. It is provided that coaches and passengers may 
pass toll free on election days, and that the surveyor may dig 
gravel or other material for repairing the road from any waste 
land, and failing that upon the lands adjacent to the road. 
Exemptions of toll are granted to all husbandry teams from Somer- 
sham, and it is stipulated that the powers of the Act are all to 
remain in force for 21 years. The Act also stipulates that the 
Trustees shall hold their meetings at " the * Rose and Crown,' 
in Somersham, or any other house within the parish of 
Somersham." J. W. Bodgee, 

Peterborough Natural History Society. 

142.— Folksworth, 1538.— Francis Grene, dark and parson 
of Ffolksworth was to be buried in the chancell of the parish 
church, before the ymage of our blessed lady in the south sede> 
1538. W. M. Noble, Ramsey. 

143.— Pen Pumps.~01d men are yet living who can well 
remember the days before the " Eau brink cut " and the great 
" low level " drains eJffected such a vast improvement. " You see 
master," said a cheerful rubicund patriarch who had had charge 
in days gone by of a drainage windmill, " Tt was just like this. 
She — alluding to the mill — was going all the winter when she 
could, but the water all ran back again. It could not get away, 
and often enough there was no wind for weeks together in the 
winter time, that's how the land came to be drowned ; but, bless 
you, sir, it is altered now, these steamers can drain every drop 
out of the land and the rivers are always running." Few of these 
quaint old-fashioned windmill pumps remain on the land. They 



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196 Fenlanp Notes ajstd Queries. 

arc repaired, indeed, when necessary, but never rebuilt. Steam 
power is cheaper and more effective, and so an ugly brick engine 
house with a low chimney which in the winter sends long clouds 
of smoke across the fen and adds not a little to the dreariness of 
the landscape, takes the place of the picturesque old-world 
machine. But you may see them yet on the banks of Vermuden's 
drain, one behind another, gradually receding into the distance, 
with their sails swiftly revolving in the face of a November gale. 
They stand 40 feet high from the brickwork base to the moveable 
head. Every part is of wood save the foundation. Indeed, in 
the old days a heavier structure would probably have sunk in a 
soil, which, to this day, trembles for a furlong or more as the 
heavy goods trains rumble across the fens. Not until you are 
close to them can you form an adequate idea of the size of the 
vast sails— 36 feet long and 6 or 7 feet broad. Within is the 
machinery, simple enough, consisting of a few great beams and 
massive cog wheels. All is of hard well-seasoned oak, Down the 
centre of the mill comes a beam which, with the aid of a few 
wheels, turns the great water wheel, the case of which is a promi- 
nent object outside. Thirty feet in diameter are some of these 
wheels. Their outer circumference studded with boards ("floats" 
the fenmen call them) which splash the water up out of the dikes 
to the higher level of the river. The lower part of the mill is 
usually filled up as a dwelling, a narrow inconvenient one it must 
be confessed, for the keeper. They are empty all the summer so 
far as man is concerned, but that kestrel you see hovering in 
the distance has probably three or four little ones to provide for 
who are safely housed amongst the great timbers of the roof. 
Soon after Michaelmas the tenant will take up his abode here, nor 
will he leave it again till March or April. The work is oftentime 
no sinecure, especially after heavy rains in " February-fill-dike," 
when the water is nearly over the young wheat and the winds are 
light and shifty. Early and late the keeper must be about ready 
to work round with chain and windlass the great head of his mill, 
or to get in his canvass should the strong wind increase to a gale. 
Any reckless handling may cause those great sails to '^ snap off 



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Pbnland Notes and Qubbibs. 197 

short like a carrot," for which he will be called sharply to acooont 
before irate commissioners, not gentlemen from London, bat fen 
farmers and landlords who know " the nature of things " and can 
distinguish accident from carelessness right well. The sails come 
sweeping down within two feet of the ground, which looks terribly 
dangerous when the wind brings them straight in front of the 
door, yet the little children run in and out unconcernedly all the 
day long. Not a few of those old windmills date back a century 
and a half and some perhaps even further. What visions do they 
recall of the olden time, when wheat was never grown on fen land, 
but only rye and oats were sown cautiously in the spring round 
the edges of " the grounds." 

Eev. C. E. Walker, Rector, March. 

144.— Poulter and Throgmorton Family.— Richard Pulter, 
of Broughton, who died in 1490, still has representatives of the 
same name living within a few miles of Broughton ; and we find 
a Throgmorton at the same place in 1541, probably an ancestor 
of the Mr. Throgmorton, of Warboys, who accused a family there 
of witchcraft in 1593. 

The family of Poulter above-mentioned intermarried in the 
16th century with the Bevyill's of Chesterton, a monument to one 
of whom is still in Chesterton church. The BevyiU's were also 
connected with the Drewells or Druels, one of whom was an M.P. 
for the county of Huntingdon. 

W. M. Noble, Ramsey. 

145.— Labeleye's View of the Pens, 1745.— In July, 1745, 
Charles Labelye, the engineer, was desired by the Duke of Bedford 
and the gentlemen of the corporation of the Fens to make a report 
of the then existing state of the Fens. A copy of this pamphlet, 
printed by Greorge Woodfall, at the King's Arms, near Cragg's 
Court, Charing Cross, is now in the possession of Lord Esm6 
Gordon, who has kindly placed it at our disposal 

On the title page Labelye quotes the following remark from the 
Commissioners of Sewers in 1596 : — " These fenny surrounded 



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198 Fbntand Notes and Qxtebies. 

grounds in former fcimes have been dry and profitable, and so may 
be hereafter, if due provision is made." The writer opens his 
remarks by a few sentences addressed " to the reader," in which 
he relates how it was he came to be connected with the Fens. He 
says : — "In the sunmier of the year 1743 I had occasion to travel 
on horseback, and in company with some friends, from Cambridge 
to Lynn ; to make my travelling instructive, I prevailed with my 
friends that we should go through the great level of the Fens. . . . 
The Fens were then in a most beautiful condition, and so dry, 
that from Cambridge to Denvers Ferry our horses had but once 
occasion to wet their hoofs in wading through waters." That is 
all Mr. Labelye tells us of that journey except that he made 
observations and asked "abundance of questions" about the Fens. 
But not being wholly satisfied, he commenced to collect and read 
all 'books and pamphlets he could collect relating to the district. 
After some general remarks upon the various drainage schemes 
that had been carried out, he proceeds to state : — " In June last 
[he is writing under date Aug. 8, 1745] His Grace the Duke of 
Bedford, governour of the corporation of the great level of the 
Fens, was pleased (without any solicitation of mine, or of any of 
my friends) to do me the honour of proposing to the corporation 
at their last annual court, that I should be desired to take a view 
of the Fens and to give my opinion relative to Mr, Leaford's 
scheme.* The corporation agreed to it, and His Grace obtained 
for me from the Eight Honourable the Commissioners for building 
Westminster Bridge a leave of absence for a short time." He 
then proceeds to speak of his second visit to the district. He 
says : — " I set out the latter end of June last for the Fens, which 
I found—especially the south level — in a most deplorable con- 
dition." Having reported the result of his visit to this part of 
the district he was desired to take a view of the remaining part 
of the Fens. The result of these views is contained in the 
pamphlet of which the " To the reader " forms an introduction. 
Among his observations are the following :— 

♦ See F. N. ^ Q„ part V., Nq, 113. 



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Penland Notes and Queries. X99 

" From what I saw of Mere Drain at Gunthorpe Sluice, and 
information I had about Thorney, I believe the north level may 

be kept drained much easier than the other levels When I 

saw the Nean at Peterboro, which is there a very good river, and 
remembered its pitiful remains at Wisbeach and Salter's Load, I 
could not help making several melancholy reflexions on the fatal 
consequences of diverting or rather annihilating, as it were, good 
rivers by traveling them into several pitiful streams or slackers." 

After giving some opinions in detail, he proceeds to give 
"a report touchino: Lynn navigation." He says that only a 
part of the report was inserted in Mr. Badeslade's History of the 
Navigation of Lynn," and the two last paragraphs "for very 
obvious reasons" were omited altogether. Futher on there is a 
piece entitled "a desperate and dangerous design discovered 
concerning the fen countries." 

Mr. Labeleye then proceeds to give a detailed report of the con- 
dition of the Fens as he found them at that time. He says that 
the greatest part of them which two years ago had been in a "most 
fruitful and beautiful condition were "deeply overflowed." The 
banks with few exceptions were in a very bad condition, most of 
them full of breaches or considerably wounded, and in many places, 
especially on the south side of the river Ouse, there was hardly the 
appearance of any bank left for miles together. In many places 
the beds of the rivers were higher than the general level of the 
fens. Where the banks were tolerably good, the owners threw the 
waters out of the fen into the rivers by means of windmills, but 
this system was not always successful. All the locks, shields, 
draw-doors, and other artifical works, with the single exception of 
Stanground, were in a decaying condition. 

146.— St. Ipolett. — Can any reader identify the place-name 
of St. Ipolett in Huntingdonshire ? I find in 1528 Robert Calpy, 
vicar of St. Ipolett, co. Hunts. W. M. Noble, Eamsey. 

147.— The Whittlesey Mere Censers.— The two ancient silver 
censers found in the bed of Whittlesey Mere about 50 years ago, 



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200 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

when it was being drained at the expense of the late Mr. William 
Wells, of Holme Wood, Peterborough, were, according to announce- 
ment, sold by Messrs. Christie, Manson, and Woods, of London, 
on Tuesday, June 2nd, 1890, in presence of a very full attendance, 
among whom were Mr. A. W. Franks, of the British Museum, 
the Duke of St. Albans, Lord Eosebery, Lord Powerscourt, and 
Sir George Wombwell. After nearly a hundred lots of the fine 
old silver plate belonging to the late Mr. Wells, of Holme, had 
been disposed of, came the thurible or censer of Gothic design 
and silver gilt, with chain all perfect. It is considered to be of 
English workmanship of the time about the end of the reign of 
Edward III., who died 1377, being found with the incense boat, 
which has the Tudor rose upon it and the rams' heads indicating 
that it belonged to Eamsey Abbey, it is no doubt correctly sup- 
posed to have come from the same abbey, which has long been 
ruined. It will be found figured in Shaw*s " Decorated Arts of the 
Middle Ages," and it is also described in the ArcJicBological 
Journal of 1851. It is 11 inches high, on a circular foot 3| 
inches in diameter. When it was placed before the audience 
there was some cheering, and the first bid was made of £500, 
which in the next three bids rose to £1,000, the only competitors 
being Mr. C. Davis and Mr. Bpore, the well-known expert, who 
however, did not advance beyond Mr Davis's bid of £1,155, at 
which sum he was the purchaser. The ship or incense boat, more 
properly a " naviculare," with its double Tudor rose in gilt on 
the cover, and the rams' heads and ondee ornament denoting the 
sea, which was much admired as a most interesting example of 
English work of the early Tudor period not later than 1486. It 
is 11 inches in length, and 8 inches high, standing on a hexagonal 
foot of elegant form. There were several competitors for the 
possession of this, but after £400 had been bid there were only 
Mr. Boore and Mr. Davis, who was again the purchaser at the 
price of £900. Much interest was felt as to whether the pur- 
chase had been made for the British Museum, as Mr. Franks was 
present, but from all that could be gathered it was for a private 
collector. The Times. 



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FENiiAND Notes and Queries. 201 

148.--Himtiiigdon8liire Livings in 1291.— In the year 1288 
Pope Nicholas IV. granted the tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices 
to King Edward I. for six years towards defraying the cost of an 
expedition to the Holy Land, and in order that they might be 
collected to their fnll value, a taxation by the King's precept was 
begun in 1288, and finished, as far as the province of Canterbury 
was concerned, in 1291 ; the whole being under the direction of 
John, Bishop of Winchester, and Oliver, Bishop of Lincoln. 
The particulars of this levy are still preserved, and printed tran- 
scripts of the original manuscripts may be seen in the British 
Museum. These records are of great interest at the present time 
as they give us the exact annual value of almost all the church 
livings in the different counties six hundred years ago. Hunting- 
donshire at this time belonged to the extensive diocese of Lincoln, 
and the following particulars are copied, as they stand, from the 
returns furnished by the authorities of that diocese. The livings 
are given under their respective deaneries, all being included in 
the archdeaconry of Huntingdon. 

Decanatus Euntyngdon. £. s. d. 

Bcclia Bte. Marie Huntyngdon, deduct, pore. Vicar ... 4 13 4 

Pens, Abbis de Thorneya in Ecclia I 10 

oim Scor deeadem indecimali J 

Item pens, prioris de Huntyngdon in eadem 10 

Ecclia prebendal. de Brampton 85 6 8 

Vicar ejusdem 4 13 4 

Summa 45 — 13 — 4 

Decanatus de JacTcelle (Yaxley). £. s. d. 

Ecclia de Jackele, deduct, pens. ..• 35 6 8 

Pens. Abbis de Thornye in eadem •. 16 8 

Ecclia de Staneground deduct, pens 20 

Pens. Abbis de Thorneye in eadem • 4 13 4 

Ecclia de Flecton • • 6 13 4 

Ecclia de Woodstun, deduct, pens 8 

Pens. Abbis de Thorneya in eadem • 6 8 

Ecclia de Botelbrigg, deduct, pens, indecimali 5 6 8 

Ecclia de Overton Longvile, deduct, pore 6 13 4 

Poro. prioris Huntingdon in eadem 1 10 



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202 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

Ecclia de Polksworth, deduct, pens 6 13 4 

Pens. Abbis Croyland in eadm 6 8 

Item, pens, prioris de North wood in eadem 13 4 

EccKa de Overton Wat'vile, deduct, pore 10 4 

Porcis prioris de Huntyngdon in eadem 10 

EcoKa de Alwalton 9 6 8 

Ecclia de Cestreton, deduct, pens, et pore 12 

Pens, prioris de Cruce Eoys in eadem 2 

Pore, prioris de Huntingdon in eadem 10 

Item, pore. Abbis de Thorneye in eadem 1 10 

Ecclia de Stibyngton, deduct, pens, et pore 12 

Pensio Abbis de Thiorneye in eadem 13 4 

Pore. Elemosinar. ejusdem dom. in eadem 1 

Ecclia de Newenton, deduct, pens 6 13 4 

Pens. Abbis de Thorneya in eadem 19 8 

Ecclia de Aylington, deduct, pens 23 6 8 

Pens. Abbis Rameseye in eadem 3 6 8 

Ecclia de Haddon, deduct, pens » 10 13 4 

Pens. Abbis de Thorneya in eadem 5 

Ecclia de Morborn, deduct, pens 6 13 4 

Pensio Abbatis Croyland in eadem 16 8 

Ecclia de Nassingele, deduct, pore, 6 13 4 

Porcio prioris de Huntingdon in eadem. Item porcioi 

ajusdem prioris in ecclia de Caldecote indecimali j 

Ecclia de Denton 4 13 4 

Ecclia de Stilbon, deduct, pore 6 13 4 

Porcio prioris de Huntyngdon in eadem 10 

Ecclia de Glatton, deduct, pens, et pore 21 3 4 

Pens. Abbis de Missenden in eadem 4 

Porcio Abbatis de Brunna in eadem 1 10 

Ecclia de Conyngton 20 

Eccli omnium Scor de Saltreya 8 

Ecclia S§i. Andree de Saltreya, deduct, pore 6 13 4 

Porcis prioris de Huntyngdon in eadem 10 

EocUade Walton 6 13 4 

Sm^ 290—4—8 



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Fbnland Notes and Qubrhs. 203 

Decanatus Set Joonis (St, Ives). £ s. d. 

Ecclia de Wardeboys, deduct, pens 20 

Pens. Abbatis Eameseye in eadem 2 

Ecclia de Bouhfcon, deduct, pens 13 8 

Pens. Abbis Eameseye in eadem '. 13 4 

Ecclia de Somersham 33 6 8 

Ecclia de Bluntesham • • 13 6 8 

Ecclia de Houghton Wy tton, deduct, pens 33 G 8 

Pens. Abbis de Eameseye in eadem 10 

Ecclia de Hertford 8 13 4 

Ecclia de Stivecle Maiore, deduct, pens 15 6 8 

Pens, prioris Scs. Andree Norhmpston in eadem 1 16 8 

Vicar ejusdem 4 6 4 

Ecclia de Stivecle Minor 10 13 8 

Ecclia de Halliwelle 13 6 8 

Ecclia de Wistowe, deduct, pens 5 6 8 

Pens. Abbis Eameseye in eadem 6 8 

Ecclia de Eypton, Eeg 8 13 4 

Ecclia de Eypton Abbis 23 6 8 

Ecclia 89!. Jvonis cum centu solam ) 25 

abbis Eaaneseye in vicar ejusdem J 

Vicar ejusdem 5 

Ecclia Eameseye Parochial 6 

Ecclia de Byri cum capsell. 1 00 1 o a 

de Wystowe, Upwode et Eavele/ ^"^ ^"^ ^ 

Sm* 267—10—0 

This appears to be the &st taxation of ecclesiastical benefices in 
Huntingdonshire, and subsequent levies up to the time of the 
compilation of the Valor Ecclesiasticus in the reign of Henry 
VIII. are based on the returns here given. 

Chas. Dawes. 

149.— State Prisoners in Wisbech Castle.— (No. 36, Part 
II.) — The following appeared in the Wislech Advertiser^ on 
August 20th, 1870 : — ^That many prisoners were consigned to 
long terms of imprisonment in the unhealthy dungeons of the 
ancient Castle of Wisbech is amply established by historical 



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204 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

record. One of our readers has handed to us an extract respecting 
one of these famous captives, John de Feckenham, who not only 
suffered imprisonment in VTisbech Castle, but died there. The 
extract is as follows : — 

John Feckenham was imprisoned in the Tower of London, in 
the time of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. He was Queen's 
Chaplain during Mary's reign. Dean of St. Paul's, and was 
appointed Abbot of Westminster Abbey in 1556. He preached 
Mary's funeral sermon. Because he would not become a 
Protestant he was imprisoned by Elizabeth for 23 years, first at 
the Tower, then under Horn (Bishop of Winchester), and again 
at the Tower. He was released for a time and resided at Holborn 
and Bath. He was, however, again imprisoned, and died in the 
unhealthy dungeons of Wisbech Castle in 1685. 

This John de Feckenham, who succumbed to the horrors of 
the Castle dungeons, was probably of Norfolk origin, as his name, 
John of Fakenham, implies. Many other ecclesiastics suffered a 
like miserable fate, as will be gathered in the researches made by 
Mr. R. B. Dawbarn, embodied in a paper (read before the Royal 
Archaeological Society when its members assembled at Wisbech), 
in which it was shown that political and religious prisoners were 
frequently incarcerated there, and that it was the scene of fierce 
faction disputes and plots. The following is an extract from the 
paper : — 

In the time of Queen Mary, William Wolsey and Robert Piggott 
were confined in it prior to their execution at the stake for heresy. 
In the reign of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I., many Roman 
Catholic prisoners were shut up here, and several noteworthy 
ecclesiastics died at Wisbech in captivity, and are buried in the 
churchyard. Among them are the two Bishops of Lincoln, 
Thomas White and Thomas Watson, the latter said to be the 
last of the ancient Romish hierarchy in England. John de 
Feckenham, or Fakenham, Abbot of Westminster and Queen 
Mary's private confessor, also died here in 1585. One prisoner a 
Jesuit father, William Weston, alias Edmunds, the friend of 
Garnet and Southwell, was confined eleven years in this building , 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 205 

and has left behind him a very interesting autobiography, under 
the title, Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers^ and edited by 
Father Morris. Weston, suspected of participation in the Bab- 
bington plot, was shut up in London, in the Clink, and afterwards 
in the Tower. His confinement at Wisbech Castle came between 
his imprisonment in the two above-named gaols. About a dozen 
co-religionists were sent into captivity with him, and during his 
stay from thirty to forty prisoners, on an average, were shut up in 
Wisbech Castle. He says the building itself stood upon a high 
terrace, surrounded by a moat full of water, and he refers to the 
great hall and other buildings as large, but everything was then 
in a ruinous state, which he attributed to the rapacity of the 
heretical prelates, who stripped the lead, iron, and glass from the 
building for their own gain. The dilapidation was so serious 
that a portion of the roof of the prisoners* lodgings fell in, but 
fortunately when they were absent. Compared with other prisons 
then in use, Wisbech was not a place of cruel durance to the 
Catholics, and the discipline became laxer as time wore on. The 
burden of their maintenance was defrayed by themselves, and 
twelve shillings per month was the sum paid by each. But from 
the first they were allowed to take their meals together in the 
common haU. Opportunity was given for exercise, and friends 
were allowed to visit them. The governor and the population of 
the district were exceedingly puritanical in their opinions, and 
sternly repressed all attempts at proselytism. Two servant lads 
in the Castle, whom the prisoners converted, on refusing to abjure 
their faith in Romanist doctrines, were flogged publicly upon the 
Market-place by the Governor. It is not impossible that the 
notorious Gunpowder Plot owed its origin to the association main- 
tained in Wisbech Castle between two of its promoters. Eobert 
Catesby and Francis Tresham, the arch-conspirators, were confined 
here together in the reign of Elizabeth. An address congratulating 
the Crown, in the time of Charles I., on the compulsion of the 
Catholics, and referring to some of them then confined at Wisbech, 
is probably the last known mention of Wisbech Castle as a political 
or religious prison. 



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206 FeniiAnd Notes and Queries. 

1 50.— Jubilee of George III. at Deeping.— We are told that a 
donation of a quai't of ale, a pound of meat, and a shilling loaf 
was delivered to every man in the parish who chose to accept it, 
and the like quantity of meat and bread, and a pint of ale to every 
woman and child, and such a quantity of ale was allotted for 
gratuitous distribution in the evening that two barrels remained 
over and above what could be consumed. A Ball took place at 
the New Inn in the evening, and the Lodge of Odd Fellows in the 
town, and the post office were illuminated. 

151.— Raining Wheat at Bourn.— The following is taken 
from "Admirable Curiosities," dated 1728. "April 26th, 1661, at 
Bourn, in Lincolnshire, it rained wheat ; some grains were thin 
and hollow, others firm, and would grind into flour. Pecks of it 
were taken from off church leads and other houses leaded, and 
several who were eye witnesses brought up quantities to London," 

152.— A Curious Superstition at Boston.— On Sunday, Sept. 
29th, 1860, a strange portent occurred. A cormorant took up its 
position on the steeple of Boston Church, much to the alarm of 
the superstitious among the townspeople. There it remained with 
the exception of two hours absence till early the following morn- 
ing, when it was shot by the caretaker of the church. The fears 
of the credulous were singularly confirmed when the news arrived 
of the loss of the " Lady Elgin " at sea, with three hundred 
passengers, among whom were Mr. Ingram, member for Boston> 
with his son, on the very morning when the bird was first seen. 

Newell Edis, Stamford. 

153.— A Previous Eestoration of Orowland Abbey.—I be- 
believe there was a partial restoration of Crowland Abbey about 
1816. Are there any records of what was done at that time ? 

F.S.A., Birmingham. 

154.— Moated Houses in the Penland.— I am told that the 
Fenland supplies extremely few instances of moated mansions. 
Can any one explain why ? Fenman, 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 207 

155.— Monumental Inscriptions in St. Margaxet's Chardi, 
Lynn, No. 4.~(No. 134, Part VI.) 

46. 

M I . • . . aughter of | . . . ophia Hoaa I . . . FeM- 1778 | 

. • . on ths . [Floor of North Chapel, partly covered by organ.] 

47. 

In Memory of | Ann May who died | October 17tb 1780. | 

Aged 78 Years. | Also Elizabeth May | who died Aug** 28*^ 

1788 I Aged 89 Years. [White marble.] [On the same (blue) 

slab lower down] this towne | And [Floor of 

North Chapel, worn.] 

48. 

Stephen Hogg Gentleman | died the 29*^ day of April 1785 | 
in the 36 Year of his Age. | Also Sophia his Widow | .... at 
crediton, DEVON, | 1- November 1838, | Aged 85 Years. | Also 
in Memory of | Frederick Allen Hogge, | their Grandson, | 
who died in China | 12*^ February 1839, | Aged 19 Years. [Blue 
stone, Floor of North Chapel.] 

49. 

John Castleton Esq' | Merchant | died June 5^^ 1788. | Aged 
40 Years. [Blue Stone, Floor of North Chapel.] 

60. 
In Memory of | Cooke Watson E . . | who died the 25*^ Day 
of Ja. ... I In the 76*^ Year of his . . .. | S. M. | Phebe Cooke et 

Alice W | Filise quae obiit 14** | Septembris A. D. 1790 

A.. I Johannes Jeffbry Wat.... | Obijt 3 Martij A.D. 1 . . . | 
iBt. 30, I Also Phebe Watson | Aunt to the above | Died 23 
May 1801 | Aged 70. [Blue Stone, Floor of Chancel, North 

SIDE, partly covered.] 

51. 
Sacred to the Memory of | The Rev^' David Lloyd L.L.D. | 
of Jesus College Oxford ] Master of the Grammar-School in this 
Town I for 34 Years. | Who departed this Life, Nov' 19*^1794. | 
Aged 60 Years. | In Him were united, with all the Virtues of 
private | Life, those inestimable Qualities, which ought ever | to 
characterize the Instructor of Youth. | To the Authority of a 



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208 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

Tutor, He added the | Tenderness of a Father. | Multis Ille bonis 
flebilis occidit 1 [Arms : (at the top) 3 lions in pale sejant, im- 
paling ; a lion rampant between 8 arrows, on a chief 3 roundles. 
Crest : a lion passant]. [Blue stone, Floor of Chancel, South 

SIDE.] 

52. 

In Memory of | William Wardell | Who Died January 2*1798. | 
Aged 43 Years. [Capitals, blue stone. Floor of South Chapel.] 

53. 

I ...... c I i I [Blue Stone, nearly 

covered by seats, Floor of South Chapel.] 

54. 

May 6*^ 1774 | Died Ann the Wife of | Walter Eobertson, | 
March 22. 1799 . . F«Ann Haylett Widow | . . Mother of the 
above* | October 20'^ 1808 died. | valter Eobertson Esq" | 
Aged 69 Years. | April 19*^ 1804 died | James Bryant Gent : | 
Aged 40 Years. [Blue Stone, (partly covered,) Floor op 
Chancel, South side.] 

55. 

In Memory of | Dorothy Daughter of | George and Dorothy 
Hogg | who died 28'"' March 1798 | Aged 23 years. [Blue stone. 
Floor op North Chapel.] 

56. 

I of Mary ] Ma | w | 

the I To the Gr | of H [Blue stone. Floor op 

North Chapel, partly covered by organ.] 

57. 

Here lyeth t . . | Timothy Healey | [Floor op 

North Chapel, partly under cupboard.] 

58. 

Sarah Chabert | Wife of Philip Chabert Esq. | 

[Blue stone, Floor op North Chapel, partly under cupboard. 

59. 

M'-. Stephen .... | if [ who Dep | August | 

Aged | Ma | born W | died 25*^ | 

[Blue stone, Floor op North Chapel, partly covered.] 



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Fenland Notes and Qttebus. 209 

60. 

Geob I Mayor. • « . | Wh. ... | In the [Blue 

stone, Floor op North Chapel, partly covered.] 

61. 

Susanna Allen | the tender Mother of twelve Children | bom 
23 October, 1755; | died 7 November, 1816. | Susanna. | Daughter 
of Stephen & Susanna Allen | born 23 July, 1785 ; | died 80 
March, 1820. | Stephen Allen, olk. | Died 15. March 1847, | 
Aged 92. I Minister of this Parish | for 56 Years. | -"as in Adam 
all die, so in Christ shall | all be made alive." [Blue stone. Floor 
OF Chancel, North side.] 

62. 

S. A. I 1820. [Next last North.] 

63. 
Sacred | to the memory of | Sir William Hoste, Bar* E.N. 
K.C.B. K.M.T. I second son of the Eev^ Dixon Hoste, rector 
of I Grodwick and Tittershall, and Margaret, his Wife | bom on 
the 26*^ of August 1780 at Ingoldisthorpe | in the County of 
Norfolk, died on the 6*? December | 1828, in London. He began 
his naval career, | under Lord Nelson he was present at the 
battle I of the Nile and for his gallant conduct in that | glorious 
victory was appointed to the command of | the Mutine brig, his 
most brilliant action was the | famous victory oflf the isle of Lissa 
March 13**" 1811, | when in command of the British Squadron 
consisting of | three frigates and a brig he defeated the entire | 
Franco-Venetian Squadron consisting of six frigates and | five 
smaller sail. In 1814 with only the 38-gun frigate | Bacchante 
and the 18-gun brig-sloop Saracen he | besieged the fortresses of 
Cattaro and Bagusa on | the coast of Dalmatia the former mount-* 
ing 90 I guns and the latter 134 both of which surrendered | 
after a 10 days cannonade. His health fell a victim | to his 
constant labours and anxieties which ended | only at the peace of 
Europe. His private character | was of such beauty and excellence 
as to I raise feelings of the warmest love | and admiration in the 
hearts of all who knew him. [Capitals.] 



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210 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

In memory of | the late | Rear Admiral Sir Will^ | Geo^- 
Leggb Hostb Bart j ei^egt gon of the above | born March 19*^ 
1818, 1 died Sept' 10*^ 1868. | also of | Theodore Orford | 
Kaphabl Hoste, his brother | born July 1«* 1819, died April 
15*^ 1885, on board H.M. Frigate | Volage in the Mediterranean. | 
cut off like a flower. [Capitals, under the former inscription.] 
[Large white marble tablet, on West Wall of North Transept ; 
it was intended to be placed in Sandringham Church, but was 
found too heavy for the walls of that church.] 

64. 
Sacred | to the memory of | Harriet | youngest daughter of 
the late | George Hogg Esq"*® ] and the beloved and affectionate 
wife of I Thomas Ingle M.D ; | who died suddenly at la Hague 
House I 8^ Peters, in the Isle of Jersey, | on the 28*^ of May 
1842, 1 ae* 48. [Capitals, white marble tablet, on North Wall 
OP North Chapel.] 

65. 
To the Glory of God | and | In memory of | Mary Elizabeth 
Kendall | who died March l^? 1870 | these columns with the 
capitals and arch | were restored in the same year | by her 
husband and children. [Brass plate, on South Bast Pier of 
Central Tower.] 

66. 
To the Glory of God and in loving memory of their Parents 
William Everard | fifteen years Churchwarden of this Parish, 
born May 19 1747 died April 3 1861 ] buried in the Cemetery 
Kings Lynn, and Harriet his wife born October 29 | 1800, died 
May 12 1872, buried in the churchyard Ilfracombe. | This font 
is dedicated by three sisters their surviving children a.d. 1874, 
[Black letter, brass plate on side of step to Font, South Side.] 

67. 
To the glory of God | and as a Thank offering from Lynn | 
and West Norfolk to HIM, who spared | the life of his royal 
highness | Albert Edward Prince of Wales | in perilous sickness, 
this Church was | restored to its ancient Proportions | by Volun- 
tary Contributions, at a cost | including special gifts, of £8000, | 



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Fenland Notbs Aim Qukbtbs. 211 

the sum of £1680, being provided by two | Art Loan Exhibitions, 
the Church was | re-opened by the Bishop of Norwich | March 
31»* 1875. [Black letter.] 

Architects: George Gilbert Scott & Ewan Christian. | Builders: 
J. Bell & Sons. | Secretary of Art Loan exhibitions : George 
William Page. | John Durst, Vicar. 

[Capitals.] [Brass plate on north side of N.E. Pier of South 
West Tower.] 

68. 
ifi To the Glory of God | and in loving memory of John Bray 
died Jan 31«^ 1883. [Capitals, at the bottom of stained glass 
window in North Aisle.] 

R. H. Edlbston, Gainford, Darlington. 

156.-Oroylaiid Notes, No. 4.-(No. 126, Part VI.)— Vpon 
this greate victory (as the Croylanders vaunted) one Mr. Jackson, 
a minister, then in the towne, drew the people into the Church, 
where he made them certayne collects by way of thankf ullnesse 
for theire good successe : the most part of the night following 
was spent in drinking, reuiling, and rayleing vpon the p'lament 
and Roundheads as if they had oflFered some extraordinary sacriJSce 
to Barkchus, insomuch that there was scarcse a sober man in the 
whole towne amongst them. And since we are fallen into the 
mention of Mr. Jackson, we cannot omit some passages of his : 
he was formerly a greate incendiary in another place some 10 miles 
from Croyland, where he stired vp the people in a dangerous and 
rebellious manner to take vp armes agaynst the plament, and 
drew many of good estates into action vnder the command of 
Captayne Welby, but God was pleased timely to rout that Company 
without much losse of bind : upon the defeat there Mr. Jackson 
with some others sheltered themselves at Croyland, where, what 
by preaching and what by priuate p'swading, he was a cheefe 
instrument of stiring vp the people of Croyland to take vp arms 
and to commit such outrages as they did : the last sabboth that 



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212 Pekland Notes and Queeies. 

we weare prisoners there he preached, and in his sermon did 
mightily incnrrage the people to play the men, commending them 
highly for there currage and vallour in the former encounter, and 
p'swaded them by many arguments to goe on in there resolution, 
saying that the cause was God's, and that He had fought for them 
and woold doe so still, and that all the good people of the land 
prayed for fchem, he sayd also those holy stones pray for you, these 
holy books pray for you, wch your enymyes teare in peeces to Light 
Tobacco withall, the holy vestments pray for you, that holy table 
prayes for you, wch they in many places make an horse Eacke, 
yea, the saynts in heauen pray for you, but of this enough and too 
much. To proceed in our relation, we heard no more of our f rends 
comeing to releue vs till tuseday, the 25th of Aprill, and then the 
towne was assalted on 3 sides by parte of the regiments of those 
noble gentlemen, Coronel Sr Miles Hubberfc, Coronel Sir Anthony, 
and Coronel Cromwell : when the forces adu(a)nced something 
nere the towne, Mr. Eam was agayne called for and brought out 
of his lodging and carried with al speede to the north [Bulworke, 
and being very straytly pinnioned, he was layd within the worke 
vpon the wet ground, where he layd by the space of 5 hours,' often 
entreateing that he might be set vpon the Bulworks by reason of 
the numnesse of his Limbs and his extrcame wearinesse with 
lying so long in that posture, but they would not snfFor him, the 
reason we conceaue was for that our frends thretened to giue noe 
quarter if any of vs weare agayne set vpon the bulworks : that 
tuseday proued a very windy wet day, and so continued till thirs- 
day Momeing, that most of our companeyes weare forced to quit 
there morish roten quarters and retreate, onely some smal partyes 
on the west and south held them in exercise day and night ; most 
p't of that time, through the weather was very extreame and they 
had no shelter to defend them from it : on Thirsday, in the after- 
noon, al the companyes were drawne downe upon the Q 

onely the towne is accessable, who so plyed the Croy- 

Janders vpon euery quarter that there harts began to fayle, diuerse 
of them stealeing away into the couerts and Morish grounds on 
the East side of the towne (w^h they call ., so famous 



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Pbnland Notes and Qubries. 213 

for fish and fowle) and many more that night followed there 
fellowes : on the frydaj Morneing, those few that remayned set 
the best face they coold vpon so bad a busynesse and seemed as if 
they woold fight it out to a man, but before daylight they moued 
for a treaty, w^h being granted they sent there vnreasonable 
propositions, wch being tourne a sunder and scorned, our men 
advaunced and entered the towne without any opposition, some 
of the cheefe actors got away, yet some weare taken in the towne, 
and many more since in seuerall places in the Country a bout : 
Capt^. Styles, Lieutenant Auburne, of Linn, Thos. Bowre, a 
scriuener of London, Mr. Jackson, the minister of ffleete, Mr. 
William Baldwer, and some 3 or 4 more, are now prisoners at 
Cambridge, some are committed to the prouest marshal of Spalding. 
Of Croyland onely one was slayne and one Hurt, of our men weare 
kOled 5, and some 18 or 20 wounded, whereof some since deade, 
there wounds being incurable by reason of there poysoned bullets. 
10 Ohampt Bullets weare found in one man's pocket, some of there 
Musquets being drawne by our men had such Bullets in them, 
and abundance of the same sort found by our Souldiers. The 
principalest man we lost was Mr. Nicholas Norwood, a gentleman 
exceeding zealous and actiue in this and other seruices, he dyed 
of a shot in the shoulder some 5 or 6 days after, and was much 
Lamented by al that knew him, and his forwardnesse for the 
publick cause. Thus it pleased the Lord to delivsr vs out of our 
imprisonment and miraculusly to preserue those that weare ap- 
pointed to dye, for wch we desire to blesse his name for euer, and 
blessed be the Lord for rayseing vp so many noble gentlemen and 
worthy frends not onely of our Neybours in the Country round 
about vs, but of other p'ts far distant from vs, who, with wonder- 
full currage and resolution, ingaged themselues to releue us or to 
dye in the place. 

The Coppy of the Letter wch Mr. Eam had sent to Croyland, 
wch they pretended to be the cause of that madnesse agaynst 
him : " As one that truly ^lesires your peace and welfare, I aduen- 
ture once more to write vnto you. My busynesse at this time is 
to intreate you to accept of the adnise of a frend, who, though 



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214 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

bufc a stander by, p'haps sees more than you that play the game, 
I beseech you consider how dangerously you runn the Hazerd 
both of your lines and fortunes in this Course you take : doe you 
thinke to take vp armes, to make bulworkes and fortifications 
without commission, to disobey all warrants and commands are 
not very high contempts, can you Imagine that the p'lament or 
the oommifcty at Lincoln can indure such aflPronts, or can you 
thinke to defend your seines agaynst such forces as may easily and 
spedyly be raysed agaynst you, surely your nombers and prepara- 
tions are not so greate but that a smal poure may preuayle agaynst 
you, neyther is your towne so inaccessable but that it may be 
approched many wayes, a peece of ordenance will soone batter 
downe your houses at 2 or 8 miles distance. Besides it is possible 
in a very "short time to famish your towne by cufcing of all supplyes 
of come and other prouison. P'haps you expect some forces from 
other p'ts that wil come in to your aydes, p'haps they wch haue 
so promised you wil not or cannot be so good as there words, or if 
they be, surely Croyland is not able to receiue at least to mayne- 
tayne any considerable nomber of men. Good neybours, thinke 
seriously on these things, and doe not desperately ruin your seines 
and your posterity, but herken timely to the councels of peace. I 
know your plea is that you doe stand vpon your owne good in 
defence of your seines and estates : so pleaded 0. H, so pleaded 

: and so pleaded al that stand out with the p'lament, but the 
p*lament allowes of no such plea, neyther will it indure to be so 
contemned, assure your seines that if the forces of Linn, Canbridg, 
Northampton, Notingham, Lincolne, Boston, and Spalding, be 
able to reduce you to the p'laments obedience or Justice, you will 
not escape them : my councel therefore is that you woold play the 
p'ts of wise men, lay downe your armes and submit your seines, 
listen not to them that aduise you to stand out, they will be the 
first that will forsake you. Let those that weare named in the 
last warrant present them seines to the committy without delay, 
it will be the best dayes worke that euer you did, and if they will 
be pleased to make vse of me, I will doe therein the best seruice 

1 can, not doubting but I shal obtayne there peace vpon f ayre 



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Fbnlahd Notes and Qubbibs. 215 

termes. Thus beseeching the God of peace to indine your harts 
to these motions of peace, I Rest your flfaythftdl frend, 

Spalding, January 31, 1642(3). Eobert Ram." 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

1 57.-Pen Pumps, No. 2.-(No. 143, Part VI.)— Water Mills, 

as these Wind Drainage Engines were usually called, were first 

erected in the Levels in the early part of the 18th century, or the 

latter part of the 17th. In the year 1678, the attention of the 

Bedford Level Corporation was directed to the artificial system 

of draining by mills. One of the first, of which I have seen 

any account, if not the first wind mill erected for drainage 

purposes in the Horth Level after the pattern of our Dutch 

neighbours, was one at Tydd St. Giles in 1693, at a cost of £450. 

It drained 2,400 acres in Tydd and Newton districts. The same 

account speaks of the " Leverington old mill." Later were erected 

the " Red Engine " mill near the Horse Shoe at Wisbech, " White 

Engine " mill on the Leverington Common, and the " Gorefield " 

mill. These a little more than half a century back (1835), were 

sold and converted into flour mills. The "Red Engine" mill was 

quite recently pulled down, and the materials offered for sale ; 

vestiges of the water wheel may still be seen indicating its former 

use. "From 1726 we may date the plan of draining by water 

mills, a plan which was later brought into universal operation 

throughout the Bedford Level, and continued until the early part 

of the present century." The mill standing near Murrow station 

on what was formerly the old Wryde stream was built for drainage 

purposes. In the Wisbech, Tydd, and Newton districts there 

were formerly 18 water mills, and fourteen in the parish of Thomey, 

For the year ending Lady-day 1811, the rental for the parish of 

Thorney was £19,463 7s. Od., and the mill rate was £738 68. lOd. 

The last wind mill used for drainage purposes in the North Level 

stands on the Northam farm (Eye), in a dismantled condition, 

having been superseded some 30 years ago by steam power, which 

is still deemed necessary for this low-lying district. 

S» jBaAR, 



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216 Fenlano Not£S and Queries. 

158.— Hung in Chains in GuyMm Wash. — ^The following is 
a copy of a broadsheet published in 1795 : — 

" The Dying Words and Confession of James Culley, Michael 
Quin, Thomas Qnin, and Thomas MarMn, Who were executed at 
Wisbech on Saturday October the 2Uh^ for the Eobbery and cruel 
Murder of William Marriott^ of Wisbech High Fen^ (1795). 

"At the Assizes for the Isle of Ely, held at Wisbech on 
Thursday the 22d of October, James Culley, Michael Quin, 
Thomas Quin, and Thomas Mabkin, were indicted for the 
Eobbery and Murder of WilHam Marriott, of Wisbech High Fen» 
on Friday the 3d of July last, to which Indictment the Prisoners 
pleaded NOT GUILTY ; — whereupon they were put upon their 
Trial before Henry Gwillam, Esq. Chief Justice of the Isle 
of Ely. 

" In the course of the trial it appeared, that on Friday the 3d 
of July, between the hours of nine and ten at night, the deceased 
had been out of the house to fetch some water, and on his return, 
after shutting the door, was immediately knocked down by one or 
other of the Prisoners, the candle put out, and was beat and 
mangled in a most shocking manner — after which they proceeded 
to the wife of the decased and a young man a lodger, who they 
treated in the same cruel and inhuman way — after having dis- 
patched them all three, as they they supposed, they went and broke 
open a box, out of which they took a watch, several silver spoons, 
some cash, and a coat ; most of which were found upon them 
when apprehended at Uttoxeter in Staflfbrdshire. 

" The whole of the evidence being gone through the Prisoners 
were called upon to know if they had anything to offer in their 
defence, who had nothing more to say than that it arose from a 
Quarrel. 

" The evidence being so very clear, that after deliberating for a 
few minutes, the Jury pronounced the Prisoners GUILTY. 

" Upon which the Chief Justice immediately passed Sentence 
of Death upon them in the following very pathetic and affecting 
manner : — 

^^. James Culley y Michael Quin, T/wmas Quin, and Thomas 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 217 

MarMuy — ^Tou have been tried by a Jury of your Country, and 
found Guilty of the horrid crime of MURDER— a crime at which 
human nature revolts, and which is punished with Death in most 
countries in the world — All that now remains of my melancholy 
duty, is to pass the dreadful sentence of the law upon you, which 
is, — *That you James CuUey, Michael Quin, Thos. Quin, and 

* Thos. Markin, be taken from hence to the place from whence 
*you came, and from thence on Saturday next to the place of 

* execution ; and that you be there hanged by the neck till you 

* are dead, and that your bodies be delivered to the surgeons to 
< be dissected and anatomized, pursuant to the statute in that case 
*made and provided. — And may the Lord God Almighty have 

* Mercy on your Souls.* 

" The four unfortunate men who were executed this day were 
born in Ireland, and had been several times employed as harvest 
men by persons in the Parish where this horrid crime was 
perpetrated. 

" William Marriot, the deceased, at whose house the murderers 
lodged, was very much respected, being considered an honest 
industrious character, and who acted in the capacity of Shepherd 
to a respectable Farmer in that neighbourhood. 

"This morning, about eight o'clock, they were conducted to 
the place of execution amidst an immense coucourse of people, 
where they appeared to be very penitent, and after a short time 
spent in prayer they were launched into eternity. 

"After hanging the usual time their Bodies were cut down — 
two of them were given to the Surgeons for dissection, and the 
other two to be hung in chains." 

After the murder had been committed, " Mr. S. Egar of Thorney 
Fen, and Mr. Letts of Guyhirne, followed, and found the four 
Irishmen in a house at Uttoxeter buying bread ; with the aid of 
the constable they were immediately taken and conveyed to 
Wisbeach in a cart, Messrs. Egar and Letts producing their 
firearms as a caution to their being refractory proved a good 
expedient. They were deadly weapons, Mr. Egar's a horse-pistol 
not in a fit state to be discharged, and Mr. Lett's two small 



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218 Fenland Notes and Queries, 

pistols, one minus a lock, the other would not have discharged had 
it been required. Fortunately they were not then required, nor 
ever afterwards, altho' it was deemed proper for Messrs. E. andL. 
never to go from home for some time afterwards unprovided with 
a brace of pistols and in proper order. Even so recently as 1831 
or 1832 some men in the parish of Thomey saluted Paddy with 
* Go to Q-uyhirne ! Go to Guyhirne ! Pat.' * Corder for ye ! Corder 
for ye ! returned the Irishman.' (Corder murdered Maria Martin, 
and was discovered some months afterwards by her mother 
dreaming she was buried in the red barn at Polestead.) There 
has not been a vestige of the Gibbet Post remaining this last year 
or two (1837)." M. A. Egar. 

On a map of the Bedford Level, published by S. Wells about 
1883, and in the old Ordnance Map (1834) the position of the 
Gibbet is shewn in the Wash about a mile west of the Railway 
Bridge, Guyhirn, on the North bank of Morton's Learn, (usually 
known as the Old River) and at equal distance between Guyhirn 
and the scene of the murder — on a farm then owned by Ralph 
Pierson, and now by J. W. Childers, Esq. S. E. 

1 59.— Penland Towns in 1772.— 4 Dktimary of the WorWy 
published in 1772, gives the following particulars of Fenland 
towns : — 

Ely is seated in the fenny part of the county of Cambridge 
on the river Ouse, which renders the air unhealthy. The buildings 
are but mean, and the inhabitants not numerous. It has a market 
on Saturdays, and is governed by a mayor. The fairs are on 
Holy Thursday, for horses ; on the Thursday of the week St. 
Luke's day falls in, which is October 18th, for horses, cheese, and 
hops. It is, with the territory about it, which includes Wisbech, 
and most parts round it, a territory of itself ; and has a judge 
who decides all causes, criminal and civil, within its limits, and 
is the see of a bishop. It has a free school for twenty-four boys, 
and two charity schools, the one for 40 boys and the other for 20 
girls, which are maintained by subscription. 

Bourn has a market on Saturday, and three fairs, on March 



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Fbnland Notes and Qxteeibs. 219 

7th, May 6th, and Oct. 29th, for horses and horned cattle. It is 
seated near a spring called Burwell head, from which proceeds a 
river that runs through the town. It is a pretty large place, and 
has a good market for corn and provisions. 

Crowland has a market on Saturdays. The town is seated 
very low, in deep fens, almost in the manner of Venice. It con- 
sists of three streets, separated from each other by water courses, 
and planted with willows, and the banks are secured by piles. 
They communicate with each other by a triangular bridge. The 
lowness of its situation admits of no carriages, and yet it is well 
inhabited on account of the great quantity of fish and wild 
ducks, taken in the adjacent pools and marshes. 

HoLBEACH has a market on Thursdays, and two fairs, on May 
17th and the 2nd Monday in Sept., for horses. It is seated in a 
flat among the dykes, and is but an indifferent town. 

Peterboro' has a market on Saturdays, and two fairs, on July 
10th and Oct. 2nd, for horses, all kinds of stock and wrought 
timber. It is seated on the river Nene, which is navigable for 
barges, over which there is a bridge to pass into Huntingdonshire. 
St. Mary's chapel is a handsome large building, full of curious 
work, with a large choir. This place is of no great extent. It 
sends two members to parliament, and the mayor, recorder, and 
other officers are elected by the Dean and Chapter. 

SpALDiiJG has a market on Tuesdays, and five fairs, on April 
27th for hemp and flax, on June 29th for horses and cattle, on 
Aug. 30th for horses, and on Sept. 25th and Dec. 17th for hemp 
and flax. It is an ancient and well built town, and is a mile in 
length upon the road; but is in a low situation, and enclosed with 
rivulets, drains, and a navigable river ; which causes it to be a 
place of good trade, having several vessels and barges belonging 
to it. 

Lynn has a market on Tuesdays and Saturdays, and a fair of six 
days, proclaimed on Feb. 14th. It is a handsome, large, well 
built corporation town, and sends two members to parhament. It 
is encompassed with a wall and a deep trench ; and there are two 
small rivers that run through its streets, over which there are about 



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220 Fbnlaijd Notes and Queries. 

15 bridges. It is a trading place on account of its commodious 
harbour. It is scoverned by a mayor, a recorder, a high steward, 
twelve aldermen, and eighteen common councilmen. Formerly it 
was well fortified, but has now only a battery of 10 guns. It has 
two churches, a very large chapel, and two dissenting meeting 
houses. There are about two thousand houses, mostly pretty 
good ones, built with brick, the streets are narrow but well paved, 
and it has a very good market place, with au elegant cross ; and 
there are here some remains of monasteries. 

Ramsey has a market on Wednesdays and a fair on July 22nd 
for small wares. It is seated in the fens, in a soil fit both for 
tillage and pasture, and is near the meers of Ramsey and Whittle- 
sea ; which with the rivers that plentifully water it, afford ex- 
cellent fish ; wild fowl are likewise in great plenty and are sold 
very cheap. 

St. Ives has a market on Mondays, and two fairs on Whit- 
monday and Oct. lOth, for cattle of all sorts and cheese. This 
town was large and flourishing before it was unfortunately de- 
stroyed by fire, since which it has never quite recovered its former 
beauty. 

Boston has two markets, one on Wednesdays and the other on 
Saturdays, and also three fairs, that on May 6th is chiefly for 
sheep, that on Aug. 11th is called town fair, and that on Dec. 
11th is for horses. It sends two members to parliament, and is a 
large, neat, and well inhabited town. It is governed by a mayor, 
who is clerk of the market, and admiral of the coast, a recorder 
and his deputy, twelve aldermen, eighteen common councilmen, a 
judge, and marshall of the admiralty, a town clerk, a coroner, and 
two Serjeants at mace. 

WiSBBAOH is merely said to be seated "in a fenny part of the 
county." 

160.-The Pens in 1745; No. 2.-In August, 1745, Mr. 
Charles Labelye made another "particular view of the Fens," 
and he related what he found in a pamphlet addressed to the 
Duke of Bedford, at whose desire the view was taken. He says, 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 221 

" I found the North level of the Fens in general Id a much better 
state and condition than much the greatest part of either the 
Middle or South level of the Fens. I observed the nature of the 
soil in the North level to be generally much of the same nature 
and quality as in a great part of the middle level, but rather 
better than in a great part of the South level. I found the 
natural declivity of the lands in the North level to be very incon- 
siderable though somewhat greater from Peterboro' than in most 
parts of the other two levels. I observed that declivity to be in 
general from the South-west to the North-east, that is to say for 
the most part from Peterboro' towards Clows cross. I found 
all the cuts and drains in the North level to be in a much better 
state and condition than most of those in the two other levels ; 
but far from being kept so deep and so clean from mud, reeds, 
and other weeds, as they ought to be ; in order to afford so quick 
and sufficient a discharge to the downfall waters as they might. 
I observed the banks of those cuts and drains to be in a much 
better state than most of those in the other two levels. The 
North Bank of Morton's leam, the banks of Sluice drain, and the 
bank next to Welland washes appeared to me the best ; and yet 
those banks in many places are in want of repairs ; but the rest 
of the banks along the inland cuts and drains are far from being 
so high and so broad as they ought to be. I found several of 
those cuts much narrower, more crooked, and with more sharp 
angles and short turnings, than they might, and ought to be; and 
I found them parted from one another by several (not only useless, 
but very prejudicial) dams, of which I shall take futher notice 
hereafter. I observed the natural fall of the waters, or the differ- 
ence of levels, in all the cuts which convey the waters to Clows 
cross and from thence to the sea through Sluice drain and Gun- 
thorpe's sluices, to be hardly serviceable ; and at the time of 
my taking this view there was hardly any current towards the 
outfall. I found the outfall to the sea between Gunthorpe's 
sluice and the wash way, greatly obstructed with many loose sands, 
frequently shifting by the various actions of the winds and tides; 
which often occasions the channels of the outfalls, both of Wis* 



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222 Fekland Notes and Queries. 

beach and Gunthorpe's to shift their situations, they being some- 
times very far asunder, as in the time of my view, and at other 
times they came near together and even uniting in one; all which 
alterations greatly increase the difficulty of keeping good outfalls. 
I observed by a method much less liable to errors than any spirit 
level or any other instrument that the fall or difference of levels 
between low water mark over against Gunthorpe's sluices, and the 
low water mark about 4 miles lower to it, over against the wash 
way, was very considerable, and near as much as it is in the 
mouths of much better rivers, it being certainly not less than 4 
feet 8 inches, which is a fall of 14 inches per mile. But I found 
the threshold of Gunthorpe's sluice so low, that it is certainly not 
above 5 inches higher than the low water mark at the wash way. 
Moreover I observed at the time of my view, another obstacle to 
the procuring and preserving a good outfall to Gunthorpe's 
sluices, which is, that the sea has raised the lands or has thrown 
a kind of bar about a mile below Gunthorpe's sluices, so that 
from that place to the end of the last new cut, made for the 
letting of the scours from Gunthorpe, there is a fall, or difference 
of level the wrong ivay of about 12 or 15 inches. I found the 
lower reservoir far from being so large and capacious as it might 
be made without endangering its banks, and a great quantity of 
sand and silt left in the way of the waters, which might and 
ought to be removed next to the banks, either on the inside or 
outside of them. I observed that at the time of my view, there 
were but two feet of water on the threshold of Clows cross gates, 
at which time the surface of the waters in Peakirk Drain and the 
new South Eau were not more than about two feet lower than the 
surface of the lowest lands in the Forth level ; and I was in- 
formed, that when these rivers are two feet and a half higher, the 
lowest lands begin to wet by the soke and downfall waters. 
Lastly I examined the two mills erected at the upper end of the 
second reservoir, which I found properly situated and of good 
workmanship, and certainly they must prove of great service in 
case of necessity ; but the use of mills being attended with a 
constant expense they ought not to be used but when all other 



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Fbnlanb Notes and Qubmbs. 223 

means fail. From all these and many other observations, I am 
clearly of opinion, that the chief cause of the bad condition of 
the North level of the Fens after wet seasons is owing principally 
to the want of suflScient outfall for the downfall waters, there be- 
ing no rivers that pass through this level, but what carry the 
downfall waters coming down from the uplands, which makes the 
case of the North level a very particular one ; and, in that at 
least, very different from the rest of the fens. It also plainly 
appears to me that the several cuts and drains, passing through 
the North level, are not suflBlcient (in the condition they are at 
present) to carry oflF the waters which they might, and should 
carry oflF, after wet seasons." 

The writer then proceeds at some length to detail the various 
works which he considers absolutely necessary to be done " with 
all convenient speed " to put the drains and cuts in the North 
Level in a proper condition. A copy of the pamphlet is preserved 
in Lord Esm6 Gordon's local collection at Paxton Hall, and he 
has kindly allowed the above extract to be made. 

161.— The History of Holbeach.— The Eev. Grant W. Mac- 
donald, M.A., has just published a History of Holbeach, which is 
well deserving the attention, not only of persons interested in the 
localhistory of that town, but also of Fenland antiquarians generally. 
Mr. Macdonald has apparently scraped together every record and 
every vestige of information relating to Holbeach that could be 
found, and judging from the result of his labours he has left no 
source of information untouched. He has arranged his matter 
carefully in chapters, and has provided a copious index. In 
addition to the information concerning Holbeach, the book con- 
tains matters relating to various Fenland places, as Crowland, 
Thomey, Boston, Doddington, Gedney, Ely, Fleet, Whaplode, 
Spilsby, Spalding, Skerbeck, Peterboro', Moulton, Long Sutton, 
Weston, Little Weldon, Sutton Bridge, as well as places in the 
surrounding counties not included in the Fenland district. In 
consequence of the number of family names mentioned, the book 
is invaluable to genealogists. Although the local matter has been 



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224 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

so well done, there will no doubt be a difference of opinion as to 
some of the author's remarks on general history, but these form a 
very inconsiderable portion of the work The book is nicely 
printed and bound by Mr. Poster, of King's Lynn, and is em- 
bellished with two or three suitable engravings. We are pleased 
to notice that Mr. Macdonald has been able to use, in two or three 
cases, matters that have been communicafced to the pages of 
Fenland Notes and Queries, 

162t-The Vicars of St. John the Baptist, Peterborough, 
firom the Year 1209.-The jfirst Vicar who was instituted in per- 
petuam Vicariam Ecclesiae Sti Johannis Baptistse de Burgo ad 
praesentationem Abbatis et Conventus de burgo beafci Petri was 
William de Waterford. He was instituted by Hugo Wells, alias 
Wallis, then Bishop of Lincoln, A.D. 1209, as appears from the 
Eegistry of Lincoln. He was succeeded by :— 

Henry de Wermingham ... 1264 J John Wylde 1468 

Richard de Braibroc 1269 f Richard Chapman ......1469 

Richard de Wahnesford ...1290 {John Carter 1469 

Walter de Horsham 1330 S^. John Foreman 1476 

Johannis Trygg (Rev. W. D. Sweeting gives date 

Thomas Daumo 1353 ^^^^^'^ 

Roger Praunceys 1359 J^l^^^^"^« 1^79 

Stephen Kynesman 1372 f^ ^T^'^ ^^^^ 

AdamWarrock 1373 ^^^^ ^^^^ 1^99 

Thomas Cupper ^^^^ ^^^P^«*^ 1^^^ 

*John AnketiU 1398 ^^^"^^^ Wilkinson 1510 

JohnBoton David Smyth 1517 

D-o JohannisBotylbrygg 1432 t^d^Phus^(>At./^,8.P.T.1522 

JWilliam Brewster 1433 ^"^^ ""• Ts IXS""'" ""' 

Magisto Johannis Hare ...1457 t*Richard Key, M.A 1542 

(Rev. W. D. Sweeting in Parish #rrv,^_ ttt-t/ • , c c c 

' Churches gives date as 1439 ) ■*- homas Wilkinson 1555 

Robert Bayston, L.L.B ...1467 ^"^^ ""as wEsolf" '""' 

JEdward Wager, M.A., 1559 to April, 1604. 

(The Rev. W. D. Sweeting gives date of induction as 1592, but the 
Rev. Edward Wager was Vicar of St. John's Church in 1587, as he 
makes an entry in the Registry of the burial of Mary Queen of Scots.) 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 225 

From 1604 to 1618 no trace of a Vicar is found, but 

♦Robert Thirlby, M.A., was inducted Feb. 19th, 1618, and died 
Dec. 29th, 1628 ; he was also Master of the King's SchooL 

♦Paul Pank was inducted Jan. 1st, 1628, and died Nov. 4th, 
1658, but his successor could not obtain possession until 
1660. Mr. Willson took charge of the Church during part 
of the Commonwealth period, but was ejected at the Restora- 
tion. Calamy speaks of him as " a man of excellent minis- 
terial skill and ability ; of signal Piety and Diligence in his 
work, and extraordinary success, doing good to multitudes." 
t*Simon Gunton, M.A., the historian of Peterborough Cathedral, 
was inducted Oct. Ist, 1660 ; he was also Prebendary of 
the Cathedral. He resigned about Feb., 1666 ; after which 
the Church was supplied for about a year and a half by 
Humphrey Austin, who in the Register book calls himself 
Deputy Vicar. He officiated till Aug. Ist, 1667, probably 
upon account of the Plague which the year before had raged 
in Peterborough, and was not entirely free till 1667. 

*(xeorge Gasooigne was inducted Aug. 1st, 1667, and died Sept. 
14th, 1680. 

JJos. Johnston, B.D., was inducted Oct., 1680, and resigned in 
1685. 
David Waldron, M.A., was indacted Sept. 20th, 1685, and died 
1687. 

JJohn Gilbert, M.A., was inducted March, 1687, and resigned 

in 1698. 
Isaac Gregory, M.A., was inducted Oct. 9th, 1698, and died 
Aug. 31st., 1707. 

♦William Waring, M.A., was inducted Feb. 20th, 1707-8 ; he 
was also Master of the King's School, and Precentor of the 
Cathedral. He died Aug. 13th, 1726. 

*Thomas Marshall, M.A., inducted Aug. 17th, 1726, and died 

Sept. 29th, 1748. 
John Fisher, M.A., inducted Jan. 14th, 1748. 

*John Image, M.A., was inducted Dec. 15th, 1766 ; was also 
Precentor of the Cathedral, and died Oct. 5tb, 1786. 



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226 FBNLAin) Notes and Queries. 

*John Weddred, inducted 1786, and died 1806. 

JJoseph Stephen Pratt, L.LB., inducted 1806; was also 

Prebendary of Peterborough. He resigned the living in 

1833. 
JJoha James, M.A., was inducted 1833 ; was also a Prebendary 

of Peterborough. He resigned the living in 1850. 
JBdmund Davys, M.A., was inducted 1850, and resigned 1865. 
JWilliam Hill was inducted 1865 ; was also Honorary Canon of 

Peterborough. He resigned 1875. 
Henry Samuel Syers, M.A., B.C.L., the present Vicar, was 

inducted 1875, and is an Honorary Canon of Peterborough. 
* Was buried at Peterborough. J Resigned the Living. 

Charles Dack. 

163.— A Whittlesey Deed of Feoffment.— The following is a 
copy— placed at our disposal by the Peterboro' Natural History 
and Archaeological Society— of a deed of feojffment executed at 
Whittlesey on Feb. 20th, in 1682 :— 

ffij^ia ifttHentUre Tripartite made the Twentieth day of 
February in the Five and Thirtieth year of the reign of our 
Sovereign Lord Charles the Second by the grace of God of 
England Scotland France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith 
Anno Dni 1682 §ttbtm Robt Hart of Witlesey within the Isle 
of Ely in the County of Cambridge Husbandman And Henry 
Hemont of Witlesey aforesayd in the Isle and County aforesayd 
husbandman and Alice his wife (the Feoffoure) of the first part 
And John Ground of Witlesey aforesayd in the Isle and County 
aforesayd husbandman (the Feofifee) of the second part And Eobt 
Beale of Witlesey aforesayd in the Isle and County aforesayd gent 
(the Attourney) of the third part ©Iitnes$£t|[ That the sayd Eobt 
Hart and the sayd Henry Hemont and Alice his wife for and in 
consideration of Six and Forty pounds and Ten shillings of lawf ull 
English money to them before the sealing hereof by the said John 
Ground well and truly contented and payd Whereof and where- 
with they acknowledge themselves fully satisfied And thereof doe 
acquitt and discharge the said John Ground his heyres Executrs 



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Fenland TScyiES and Queries. 227 

Administratrs and Assignes by theise presents f nte granted 

bargained sold enfeoffed and confirmed And by theise presents 

doe grant bargain sell enfeoffe and confirme unto the sayd John 

Ground ^U t^oBt Ten acres by estimation of pasture or marish 

ground lying in St Andrews Sixth Cottage Lott in Bassenhall- 

more in Witlesey aforesayd next the ground sometimes of John 

Frear afterwards of Willm Frear on the west and the ground 

heretofore of John Laxon now Kalph Laxon on the east and 

abutting upon Mortons Leame south and upon a Droveway north 

with their appurtences ^ all the estate right title interest 

reversion remainder claym and demand whatsoever which they the 

sayd Robt Hart and the sayd Henry Hemont and Alice his wife 

or either of them or any of them have or hath or ought to have of 

into or out of the sayd Ten acres of ground and every or any 

part thereof Sogetl^er with all Deeds writings evidences and 

myniments touching or concerning the same K0 l^t mA ia ^oU> 

all and every the above mentioned to be granted to Ten acres of 

ground and premises unto the sayd John Ground his heyres and 

Assignes to the onely use and behoof of the sayd John Ground his 

heyres and Assignes for ever ^nb tfee saiJr Robt Hart and the 

sayd Henry Hemont for them their heyres Executrs and 

Administratrs doe covenant and grant to and with the sayd John 

Ground his heyres Executrs Administratrs and Assignes by theise 

presents in manner and forme following That is to say ®^ai he 

the sayd John Ground his heyres and Assignes (under the chiefe 

rente and services heraf ter to grow due to the cheife Lord or 

Lords of the Fee or Fees for or out of the abovementioned to be 

granted Ten acres of ground and premises) shall or lawfully may 

from time to time and at all times for ever herafter peaceably and 

quietly have hold possess and enjoy to his and their owne use and 

behoof the same abovementioned to be granted Ten acres of ground 

and premises witliout any the lawfull lett suit trouble eviction 

interruption or disturbance whatsoever of or by the said Robt 

Hart and Alice his now wife and the sayd Henry Hemont and 

Alice his wife or either or any of them or their or either or any of 

their heyres or Assignes or of or by any other person or persons 



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228 Penland Notes and Queries. 

whatsoever lawfully clayming or to claym by the sayd Robt Hart 
and Alice his wife and the said Henry Hemont and Alice his wife 
or either or any of them or by their or either or any of their act 
assent meanes title or procurement And that freely acquitted and 
discharged aswell of and from the Dower or other interest of the 
sayd Alice now wife of the sayd Kobt Hart and of the sayd Alice 
now wife of the sayd Henry Hemont and of either of them as also 
of and from all other estates titles troubles charges and incum- 
brances whatsoever Except onely the cheife rents and services 
aforesayd ^«b that he the sayd Eobt Hart and the sayd Alice 
his wife and the heyres of the said Eobt And the sayd Henry 
Hemont and Alice his wife and the heyres of the same Alice shall 
and will at all every or any time or times herafter upon the request 
and at the costs and charges in the law (and of travell also in case 
such travell shall Three miles) of the sayd John Ground his heyres 
or Assignes make doe and execute or cause to be made done and 
executed all and every such further acts things and devises in the 
law whatsoever for the further better and more perfect assurance 
sure making and conveying of all and singular the abovementioned 
to be granted Ten acres of ground and premises unto the sayd John 
Ground his heyres and Assignes To his and their own use and 
behoof for ever in such sort as by him the sayd John Ground his 
heyres or Assignes or by his or their or any of their Counsell 
learned in the law shall be reasonably devised or advised and 
required |,nlr also That (for further assurance of the above- 
mentioned to be granted Ten acres of ground and premises to be 
made as aforesayd) They the sayd Eobt Hart and Alice his wife 
and the sayd Henry Hemont and Alice his wife shall and will 
before the end of Easter Terme now next coming upon the request 
and at the costs and charges in the law (and of travell also in case 
such travell shall exceed Three miles) of the sayd John Ground 
his heyres and Assignes knowledge and levy unto the sayd John 
Ground and his heyres One Fine sur cognisance de droit come ceo 
&c With proclamations thereupon to be had and made accord- 
ing to the usual course of Fines for assurance of lands used Of and 
concerning the abovementioned to be granted Ten acres of ground 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 229 

and premises By the name of Ten acres of fresh marsh with the 
appm^nces in Witlesej in the County of Cambridge Or by any 
other name or names quantitie quality or description And with 
usual changes of Release and Warrantie of or by the sayd Robt 
Hart and Alice his wife and the heyres of the said Robt and of or 
by the sayd Henry Hemont and Alice his wife and the heyres of 
the same Alice against them and every of them in the sayd Fine 
to be conteyned Wi\iit^ Fine so to be had and levyed as aforesd 
or otherwise And all and every other Fines Feoffments and 
assurances had or to be had levyed or executed by or between the 
sayd parties to theise presents either by themselves alone or joyntly 
with any othar person or persons of the sd Ten acres of ground 
and premises or any part therof either alone or together with other 
lands shall be and in use And shall be adjudged deemed and taken 
to be and in use to and for the onely use and behoof of the sayd 
John Ground his heyres and Assignes for ever And to or for 
none other use intent or purpose whatsoever '^xA hxtH^tt To the 
end and intent the estate in and by theise presents intended to 
be granted may so farre as it can forthwith (before the sd Fine 
can be had & levyed as aforsd) be settled and vested according to 
the true intent & meaning of theise presents They the sayd Robt 
Hart and Henry Hemont and Alice his wife Have made constituted 
and ordayned And by theise presents doe make constitute and 
ordayn the sayd Robt Beale their either & every of their true and 
lawfull Attourney for them either and every of them and in their 
either and every of their name and stead into all and singular the 
beforementioned to be granted Ten acres of ground and premises 
and into every or any part therof in the name of the whole to enter 
And peaceable possession and seisin therof or of any part therof in 
the name of the whole to take And after peaceable possession 
and seisin had and take as af oresayd To give and deliver peaceable 
possession and seisin therof or of any part therof in the name of 
the whole unto the sayd John Ground according to the true intent 
and meaning of theise presents Hereby ratifieing allowing and 
confirming all and whatsoever the said Attourney shall doe or cause 
to be done in or concerning the premises as fully to all intents and 



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230 , FsNiiAND Notes and Queries. 

purposes as if they themselves either or any of them had done the 

same |n faitnes wherof the parties abovesayd to theise present 

Indentures have interchangeably sett their hands and seales the 

day and year first above written. 

Robt -f- Hart Henry If]- Hemont Alice -j- Hemont 
his marke his marke her marke 

1 64.— A Church Service interrupted at Thorney Dr. Smiles, 

in his work on " Engineers," says : " When the new outfall was 
opened, in a few hours the lowering of the water was felt through- 
out the whole of the Fen Level. . . . The sensation created was 
such that at Thorney, near Peterborough, some 15 miles from the 
sea, the intelligence penetrated even to the congregation at church 
— for it was Sunday morning — that the waters were running, 
when immediately the whole flocked out, parson included, to see 
the great sight." 

1 65.— Water Parties on WMttlesea Mere.— The following is 
a newspaper cutting dated the 9th of June, 1840. — "Whittlesea 
Mere has of late years, on the day following the anniversary of 
Yaxley club feast, exhibited a scene of festivity, cheerfulness and 
joy. It may probably be the recollection of some of our readers 
that we last year gave an account of the gala day, which as is 
usual took place on the second Tuesday in June. The vessels then 
mentioned belonging to Mr. Buckle, Mr. Sherrard, Mr. Eichardson, 
&c., were this year fitted up in admirable style, and some splendid 
sailing was anticipated. The morning was remarkably fine, and 
the placid mere was glided over by upwards of 80 pleasure boats 
of various sizes and descriptions, containing by calculation 1000 
persons, many of whom were fashionable and well dressed ladies ; 
they assembled at the rallying point, on the south side of the mere, 
about the time Sol passed the meridian, when the scene was changed 
to one of disappointment and perplexity, about one o'clock, by a 
thunder storm, attended by a heavy downfall of rain, which lasted 
four hours in succession. The ladies' dresses were literally drenched, 
the boats were nearly half filled with water, and the only alternative 
was tore-oross the mere from the point at which they had assembled." 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 231 

1 66.— History of Soham^ (hy the Rev. J. R. Ohrenshaw).-^ 
Near the step of the chancel to the south, covered by a pew, lies an 
exceedingly old grey marble with a French inscription round the 
verge of it in old characters, but so covered by the pew that I 
could only read a word or two of it. By some oversight this was 
placed immediately in front of the fire-place in the clergy vestry 
in 1880, and is in danger of being altogether spoilt. In the same 
chapel as that in which Cole saw the stone coffin, he says there 
were on the floor several neat tiles with figures, and among them 
some with the arms of Lisle on them, viz., two chevrons and a 

f esse between them. A handsome brass eagle stands in this chapel 
also, but the tiles and eagle have disappeared. The east window 
has a few panes of stained glass with birds and flowers, together 
with some fragments, which, with a few in the two small windows 
of the chancel, are all that remains of the old glass. 

The westernmost chapel, filling in the space between the east 
chapel and the north transept, with an arch into it as well as into 
the chancel, is of late Perpendicular date of the 15th century. 
This is used as a choir vestry and for the organ, the entrance into 
the clergy vestry having been made in 1880. On the east wall of 
this chapel is the oldest monument in the church. It bears the 
following inscription : " The monumente of Edward Bernes 
Bsquier and Dorothie his wife, one of the daughters of Robert 
Drurye of Hawsted in the Oountie of Suflfolke, Bsquier, who dyd 
beare unto hir said husbande, nyne sonnes and six daughters, and 
dyed in the 42nd yeare of her age, upon the 18 day of february, 
1598. Ano regni Eegine Elizabethe 41." 

At the west end of this chapel there is a very perfect and 
elaborately worked Parclose screen, which was carefully restored 
in 1880. Five coats of arms were to be seen on it in Cole's time, 
but only faint traces of one or two now remain. There was a 
small screen under the arch to the chancel, but whether of wood 
or stone. Cole does not say. 

The transepts are about 18ft. 6in. long, and 15ft. 6in. wide, of 
the same date as the nave, buttressed and finished with octagon 
pinnacles at the four angles. Arches from the transepts commu- 



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232 Fenlaio) Notes Aim Queries. 

nicate with the aisles. In the south transept there is a good Early 
English double piscina, with an inscription (now almost entirely 
obliterated), in gold letters on a black ground. Cole gives the 
inscription as follows : " In memorie of Mrs. Mary Dowman, 
daughter and heire of Sir Roger Thornton Knt., wife to Mildraay 
Dowman esq., by whom she had issue two sons, Isaac and William, 
and three daughters, Anne, Mary, and Lydia. She died February 
ye ... in ye 29 (?) year of her age and lyeth interred in this isle 
1679 (?) " This transept has a large three-light Decorated 
window in its east wall. Here is a small brass plate bearing the 
following inscription : " Here under lieth the bodie of John 
Thornton gent who married Ann the eldest daughter of Robt 
drurie esquier, and by her had issue Roger, which sayd John died 
the xiii day of September An. 1598." This was in Cole's time in 
the south transept, with the head close to the gi*eat pillar on the 
north-west : it is now with the head against the east wall. 

Cole makes the following remarks upon the altar tomb under 
the north transept window : " By the number of leopards' faces 
about it I should suspect it might belong to one of the De la 
Poles', if ever they had any possessions in this parish, as they had 
about Babraham and Sarston ; in the window of the north chapel 
by it is also a leopard's face Or. But this is mere conjecture. 
On one part of the arch is neatly carved in stone a sort of dragon 
with a boar's head and opposite to it a rose." It is probably of 
the 15th century. Cole says that he was informed by Mr. 
Cockayne that the large marble slab to the memory of Thomas 
Docwra and his wife was laid down by Mrs. Docwra long before 
her death, so that the dates were neglected, but that he would get 
them added the first opportunity. This however, has never been 
done. 

The transepts, it has been ascertained, had north and south 
early English triplets, but these have given way to windows of 
much later and Decorated date. 

There is a small brass at the foot of the easternmost pillar on 
the south side of the nave, bearing the inscription, " Here lyeth 
ye body of OUiver Robins who dyed ye 12 daye of Avgvst 1608 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 233 

and had to wife Katherin Daugh : of Peter SaKsbvry.'* This 
with the one ah^ady mentioned, are the only old brasses of any 
kind to be found in the church. 

The nave aisles have five windows of three lights on each side, 
mostly of the Perpendicular period, but some are Decorated. 
All vestiges of the early and original windows have disap- 
peai-ed. 

Cole says that when he visited the church there was over the 
great north door on the wall a large figure of S. Christopher 
carrying our Saviour over a river. This has been white-washed 
over, but nevertheless continues very fresh and perfect. There is 
no trace of it to be met with now (1887). 

The new pulpit, the bottom part of which is of stone, stands 
against the first south pillar ; and the neat font railed all round 
and adorned with a light canopy, stands near the belfry door on 
the same side. In the north aisle runs all along, from one end to 
the other, a gallery. 

About the end of the 15th century it would appear that the 
church was lengthened by one arch to the west, making the total 
length from east to west 130 ft. including the chancel, central 
tower, and nave. The great west tower, 25 ft. square and 100 ft. 
high, or 110ft. inclusive of the pinnacles, with its upper part 
highly enriched and ornamented with tesselated work composed of 
flints, was also of this period, as well as the clerestory, the walls 
of which are crenulated and 11 feet higher than the original walls. 
This clerestory has five three-light Perpendicular windows on each 
side, and a flat pitched roof extending over the central tower in a 
continuous line, thereby obliterating all external traces of this 
tower. There is a lofty arch and fine four-light window in the 
west tower, and a good peal of ten bells. There are 122 steps to 
the tower, which Cole describes as follows : " The tower of the 
church at the top is adorned with eight large pinnacles, and on 
the south side by a little turret of lead for the bell of the clock. 
All round the upper part of the tower, just under the pinnacles, 
there are in black flint, set into the stones, the figures of Crowns 



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.234 FEajLAND Notes and Queries. 

for Ely and Salfcires, which are the arms of Bishop Barnet, Bishop 
of Ely, 1866— 74." 

The porches are large. The south one is of the 14th century, 
and was at one time groined with stone. What is said to have 
been the keystone of the roof is now inserted in the wall near the 
pulpit. Over the entrance of this porch is a large sun-dial, with 
the motto : " Ab hoc memento pendant seterna." The north 
porch is of the 15th century, and probably coeval with the tower 
and other Perpendicular work. It has a stoup at the west side of 
the door. There is an Ambry in the south aisle and also in the 
Clergy Vestry ; and a string course in the Chancel, transepts, and 
nave. The Royal Arms, now at the west end of the north aisle, 
are of the reign of Queen Anne. 

The remains of ancient woodwork are the roofs of the nave and 
aisles. The roof of the south aisle has the date 1725. A few 
more or less mutilated bsnches remain in the north side of the 
nave and in the south aisle. 

The repairs, alterations, and restorations effected in 1880, com- 
prised the complete repair of all the doors, windows, and other 
stonework both internal and external. New roofs were put to the 
north and south transepts, as well as to the two chapels, and a new 
floor to the tower. The re-plasteriog of the walls, the removal of 
all the galleries which surrounded and encumbered the Church, 
the removal of the font, the repairing and re-tiling of the 
floor, the re-glazing of all the windows, and the warming 
of the Church, were also done. The whole was under the 
direction of Mr. J. Piers St. Aubyn. Some portions of 
the work were carried out by Mr. Tooley of Bury S. Edmunds* 
and it was completed by Messrs. Tebbitt of Soham, at a 
total cost of about £3,000, which was raised mainly by sub- 
scriptions. Mr. Tebbitt, senior, died during the progress of the 
work, and it was then finished by his son. The Church is seated 
for about 575 persons. According to a return made in 1883-4, 
the Church formerly accommodated from 1,200 to 1,500, but this 
seems doubtful ; at least 200 seats were, however, lost by the re- 
storation in 1880, chiefly through the removal of the galleries. 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 235 

The following, from The EcdeaiologkU is interesting as giving 
an antiqnarian^s opinion of the restoration effected about forty 
years ago : Saint *Soham. — This fine church was partly re- 
stored in its chancel some three years since (1849), Some fine 
old stalls were ejected, which now lie in the north aisle, and some 
cumbrous and expensive new stalls put in. These new stalls are 
actually returned against a new open rood screen of very mean 
design and without doors. They have subsellae, and the desks in 
front are so absurdly high, that they can only be used standing. 
This is an unaccountable but probably well meant vagary ; but 
the new stalls have, we imagine, never been put to any use. In 
the north chancel aisle (sic) there remains the figure of a bishop 
of poor design in distemper. When we saw this church the nave 
was undergoing so-called restoration. It was well meant but 
nothing could possibly be worse. The tower had been lathed and 
plastered, some fine wide apart old oak benches brought closer to- 
gether to increase the accommodation ; some new uniform deal 
pews erected for the dissentient parishioners, and scraping and 
cleaning going on to the stone work. But we shall scarcely be 
believed when we say that we found the capitals of the lantern 
arches, of noble transitional foliage, actually being re-evt by an 
ignorant mason with the most ruthless of chisels, merely because 
any other process of removing paint and whitewash was found 
tedious. Defend us from such cruel " restoration !" 

Memoranda from Cole's M.SS. " Mr. Cockayne, who was an 
odd-looking man, short, squat, a nose like a hawk's beak, and 
small eye, and withal very penurious, died on Saturday, August 
1st, 1778, at Soham, where he had built a small house. He was 
very rich Sir John Cotton told me. Ten years ago he was worth 
about £40,000. An attorney, I think, left him near half of it, and 
he had £6,000 or £7,000 with his wife, a sister of Dr. Ewin, of 
Cambridge. He had got into a law-suit since he purchased an estate 
at Swavesey, some 4 or 5 years ago, with a litigious and shrewd 
fellow Berry ( ?) Dodson, who has been long used to tyrannize over 

* The omission of the name seems to point to some uncertainty as to 
the patron saint, and is the only cine met with as to the change of name. 



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236 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

the parish, but whose age and declining health would probably 
soon have put an end to the contest between them, had nob Mr. 
Cockayne's sudden death intervened, for he was taken ill but the 
Monday before. Dr. Ewin told me this summer that his brother 
Cockayne made himself so uneasy about his son, a youth of 19, 
the only child, that he was afraid it would endanger his health. 
Probably that and the law-suit, (for he was of a vehement law spirit 
also), might have hastened his end. He was afraid to put his son 
either to College or to the Inns of Court for fear of his morals, 
and was equally uneasy in regard to his situation at home, where 
was in the town an attorney's clerk, of whom Mr. Cockayne 
was much alarmed, as his son had gob acquainted with him, and I 
suppose whose morals he was afraid of. The son had the 
appearance of an idiot, and if he turns out well I shall wonder." 

" There is a small black marble on the step of the old altar, in 
the westernmost chapel, to the memory of Dorothy Hamond." 

" In this place lives Theodore Smith, Esq., Gentleman ; Usher 
to H.E.H. Frederick Prince of Wales and Justice of the Peace 
for the County. 

" In 1658, seven or eight urns were found by Sir Jonas Moore, 
in digging in a piece of ground belonging to Mr. Chicheley, in 
this parish.* 

<^Soham.— 1780: Church dedicated to S. Andrew— 6 bells.'* 
This information was obtained by Cole from the Testamentary 
Registers. 

Another link connecting Soham with events of the past may be 
found in the fact that certain remains have been discovered at 
various times in the present Cemetery. It is rather curious that 
human bones interred about eight or nine hundred years ago 
should have been met with in this particular part of the 
parish. It may perhaps be accounted for by the Cemetery being 
situated on rising ground and near the main road, and the bones 
may be those of soldiers who fell in one of the numerous fights 

* An urn was found in recent years in a fairly good state of preserva- 
tion, containing part of a human skuU, &c. It was in the possession of Mr. 
WUton, boot-maker, Church-gate Street, in 1889. 



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VHJFmtfAsaeBLLfiocrati or mviwrr r , qcB iw wri^lWAW 
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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 237 

which took place in earlier days. In the years 1865-7 Mr. R. 
Elsden discovered some Anglo-Saxon beads, &c., when digging in 
the npper part of the Cemetery. The articles met with included 
6 bronze brooches, 1 bronze "girgle-hanger" (as engraving below,) 




1 rock crystal bead, and 10 glass beads as well as a few fragments 
too small to be recognised. These were exhibited at the Society 
of Antiquaries, London, by the Rev. C. J. Armistead, P.S.A., 
then Curate of Soham. and were considdred of sufficient import- 
ance to be noted in the Society's Journal. The chief object 
of interest, the " girgle-hanger '* was engraved, and we are 
indebted to the Council of this Society for the loan of the block 
from which our engraving is produced. The whole of the 
articles were forwarded to the British Museum, and are now 
exhibited there along with other remains of a similar character. 
The brooches, &c. found in Lincolnshire and elsewhere, and 
which are to be seen in the Museum in the same case, are of a 
more valuable kind, several of them being larger and better made, 
whilst some of them are studded with precious stones. The 
'* girgle-hanger " found here is a fairly perfect specimen of the 



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238 Penland Notes and Qubbies* 

kind, but antiquaries are at a loss to know the precise purpose for 
which these articles were used, probably as ornaments or perhaps 
as keys. The piece of wire at the top has no connection with the 
" hanger," It will be noticed that that part of it to the left of 
the engraving has been broken in the centre. The engraving is 
about two-thirds of the actual size. 

It has not been ascertained when the Vicarage was created and 
endowed, certainly however before the year 1291, when the 
taxation of Pope Nicholas the fourth was made, for in that record 
the Rectory and Vicarage are thus respectively estimated — 
Diocese of Norwich, Deanery of Fordham, Saham £40, Vicarage 
thereof £16 13s. 4d. The former being the estimated value of 
the Rectory, then appropriated to the Priory of Pyne, in 
Normandy, the latter of the Vicarage. 

It is probably the great antiquity of this Vicarage that is the 
cause of the original dotation or endowment of it being no longer 
discoverable, be that as it may it cannot be found in the 
Augmentation Office nor in the Episcopal Registry, which is the 
genuine and legitimate repository for such documents. 

There is a record founded upon this taxation and bearing date 
14 Edward III, (a.d. 1341) which, if it did not mix the Rectorial 
and the Vicarial Tithes together, would probably be an 
instrument of great value and importance. It is a return of the 
value of the Nona or ninth part of the Corn, Fleeces, and Lambs 
in each parish of the county, and the return for Soham is more 
ample than might be expected. It states that the taxation of the 
Church with the Vicarage is £56 13s. 4d., but that the same 
ninth does not amount to the taxation by £29 19s. 8d., because 
the said taxation issues from the glebe and other things, together 
with various tithes which it enumerates, and which amount 
to £29 19s. 8d. 

In 26 Henry VIII., the annual value of the Vicarage of Soham 
was £32 16s. 4i^A. 

There was a suit in the Exchequer in 1692 about certain 
tithes of the Vicarage of Soham, in which the Vicarial Endow- 
ment was not produced, it was declared that Soham Marsh paid 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 239 

13/4 to the impropriator in lieu of all tithes great and small 

The living of Soham was occupied by Ridley, from 1547 to 
1552. The advowson was presented to Pembroke College by 
Henry VI. 1451, but some difficulties arose as to the legality of 
the conveyance, and the Bishop of Norwich claimed the 
advowson. 

The following is a copy of a document in the possession of 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, referring to this dispute :— " Be it 
knowen to all men, Andrew Bugge, of Sohm, in the counte of 
Cambrygge, Thomas Bestney, Edward Petchey, Thos. Calyngham, 
WiUiam Petche the elder, Thos. Peche of the Thornfyeld, 
Edmond Wake, Thos. Thornton of the Brok-street, (and others 
whose names are illegible) : We the names above wreten cestifi 
and will depose upon a bok that all the Vicarres of the paryshe of 
Sohm, have taken the gyfte of all the ryghte and due tytell con- 
taining (?) the gyfte of the advowson of the said Vicarage, of 
Pembrok Hall, in Cambrygge, from the gyfte of the Parsonage 
there by grant of King Henry VI. when the said Parsonage and 
Vicarage was fyrst given unto them. Nor never we know nor 
herd that any other man pretended any tytell conveying (?) to 
the said gyfte of the sayd Vicarage unto this tyme, unto the 
witness of the whyche thynge we the persons above named have 
sette our sealles, and for the * * * * witnesseth the same 
wryten at Sohm, the 4th day of June, the 18th year of King 
Henry VII. (1502)." 

In 1502 the Master and Fellows presented Oliver Coren Coryne 
or Curwen, a Fellow of Pembroke College. 

In January, 1528, Richard Gauston, not a Fellow, was 
presented, and it does not appear by whom : exchanging with 
Coren, the living of Stoke Charity. On Nov. 4, 1541, the college 
appointed trustees to make the next presentation in their behalf. 
But in 1542, the Bishop of Norwich (in whose Diocese Soham 
was) interfered, and granted the next presentation to Myles 
Spencer, LL.D. In 1547 the living fell vacant, and the 
presentation was claimed by Pembroke College, for Ridley, then 
Master, and by the Bishop of Norwich, for Dr. Spenser. Eidley 



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240 Feklajtd Notes and Quebibs. 

appeared forthwith as plaintiff v. the Bishop of Norwich and 
Spenser, in the Court of King's Bench, in a case of "Quare 
impedit," and in Easter Term, I. Edward VI., judgment was given 
n Ridley's favour. He was himself at once presented by the 
trustees before alluded to, and instituted on the 17th May, 1547* 

LIST OP THE VICARS Or SOHAM, 

Prom 1102, to the present time. For the names previous to the 
Reformation, we are indebted to the Rev. Dr. Jessop, the others 
have been obtained from the Parish Registers and other sources. 
Soham-Mere-in Can : Cantebr. ded. S. Andreae. 

1102— Ranulph. 

1250 — (circ) Nicholaus. 

1308—13 Kal. Oct. Adam de Milhaem (Yicar) on the nomina- 
tion of the Bishop and presentation of the Abbots of Pyne 
and the Prior of Rewlej, 

1321— Kal. Jan. John de Ely, (Vicar), on the nomination of the 

Bishop and presentation of Abbot of Rewley, who has the 

right of patronage by virtue of the grant of the Abbot of Pyne. 

1325—10 Kal. Mar. Job: de Burghard, ditto ditto. 

1330— Kal. Novemb. Joh: de Waunford, exchanging with Weting 
All Saints. 

1339—16 Febry. Joh : de Scrubby, on the nomination and pre- 
sentation of the above. 

1349 — 26 July. Will, de Leverington, ditto, 

1351 — 21 Febry. Thos : Bulmere, (exchanging with Terlyng, 
London.) 

1361—6 Jan. Will: de Wymondham, on the nomination and 
presentation of the above. 

1384—28 Nov. Thos: fitz Alam Taylor, on the nomination of 
the King^ owing to the vacancy in the Bishopric ; and pre- 
sentation of the Abbot and Convent of Rewley. 

1415 — 14 Sep. Mr. Joh: Hody, on the nomination of the Bishop 
of Norwich, and presentation of the above-mentioned. 

Joh:— Prate (exchanging with the church of S. Pancras, 

London.) 

1417—29 March. Joh : Love (exchanging with Sywell, Line.) 

1420—6 Deer. Joh : Clench, on the nomination and presenta- 
tion of the above. 



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Fenlaot) Notes and Queries. 241 

1427—8 April. Will : Bogy, ditto. 

1442 — ^August. Henr Faulkus ,, 

1445 — 16 Sept. Thos : Hawnby, (exchanging with Staunton.) 

1450 — 27 March. Job : Sley (exchanging with Clopton.) 

1470 — 23 October. Gawen Blinkinsop, on the nomination of the 
Bishop of Norwich and presentation of the Master and 
Fellows of Pembroke Hall. He was ordained Deacon by the 
Bishop of Ely, 1458, made Fellow of Pembroke 1467, and 
presented to the Vicarage of Soham in 1470, exchanging 
this for Gavely, to which he was presented by the Abbot and 
Convent of Ramsey, on December 1st, 1473, being then B.D. 
He was afterwards made D.D., and gave books to the Library 
and somewhat to the College Chapel. 

1478 — November. Thos : Tewth, on the nomination and pre- 
sentation of the Master and Fellows of Pembroke Hall. 

1478 — 14 Feb. Richard Sockbum, or Stockbnrn, of York dio- 
cese, Bachelor of civil law, 1466. LL.B. 1470; M.A. 1472. 
He was presented by the Chapter of Ely to the Chnrch of 
St. Mary's de Berngham, in Norwich diocese in 1487, being 
Doctor of Laws or decretalls. Afterwards presented to 
Sudburn with the Chapel of Orford in Suffolk. He was a 
benefactor to his college and died in 1502. In his will he 
appointed the Fellows of Pembroke to pray for him one year. 

1503 (or 2) — 14 Nov. Oliver Coren, or Curwen. He was chosen 
Fellow with eight others on the 4th of September, 1490. 
D.D, 1505. He died in 1542. 

1547—17 May. Nicholas Ridley S. T. P. on the presentation of 
Rich : Wylks, &c. 

1577 ?— 18 Oct. Humphrey Tindall B.A. Chosen Fellow 24 
November 1567 ; Master of Queen's College 1579 ; D.D. and 
Vice Chancellor 1685 ; Dean of Ely 1591 to 1614. He was 
descended of a very ancient and noble family which had its 
seat at Redenhall in Norfolk, and was son of Sir Thomas 
Tyndall, Knight, of Hockwold, Norfolk. He was bom in 
Norfolk in 1549, died October 12, 1614, and was buried in 
Ely Cathedral. He was oflfered the kingdom of Bohemia. 
There is a brass to his memory in Ely Cathedral in a good 
state of preservation. 

ITo he Continued.'] 



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242 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

1 67.— Huntingdonshire Grievances in 1642. — The following 
petition is contained in a collection of papers left to the anthorities 
of the British Museum by George III, It is dated A.D. 1642. 

"To the Right Honourable, the Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses 
of the House of Commons now assembled in Parliament. 

" The Petition of the Countie of Huntingdon Sheweth^ That 
your unwearied labours, and indefessive endevours for the publike 
good and safety of the whole Kingdome, have exstimulated us not 
onely to acknowledge obsequiously the same, but also have 
respectively induced us to present our lives and estates at your 
command, and Order. 

"The grievances, which for a long time hitherto have sorely 
oppressed us, have partly beene cleared by our endevours, and 
partly remaine still to the molestation of us all ; which we really 
suppose to be retarded by a malignant party, which are acknow- 
ledged to be the sole obstacles of your proceedings. 

" Our humble addresse is therefore to your Honours, that you 
would bee gratiously pleased to devote the Popish Lords, Bishops, 
and others from the House of Peeres, and exeuterate those evill 
Councellours from that Illustrous Assembly. For wee finde that 
by their mischievous designes your endevours are not onely frus- 
trated, but the very priviledges of the Parliament broken, and the 
liberty of the subjects debilitated, and the Members of both 
Houses unassured of their lives to the great preiudice of the whole 
Kingdom, especially a Religious member of the House of Peeres, 
the Lord of Kimbolton in our Shire, who was impeached by his 
Maiestie of High Treason ; but wee are confident of his Loyaltie, 
and have so absolute an opinion of him that he is not guiltie of 
the least of these Articles wherein he was arraigned. 

"Wherefore we humbly implore your Honours, that bee, and 
other may enioy the ireedome and liberty of the Parliament 
according to the legall progresses of Law, and the ancient 
customes and Rights of Parliamentarie tryalls. 

"To the granting of which Petition, desire we recommend our 
Service and Zeale unto your Honours, humbly beseeching you to 
reflect upon our Petition. 

"iSl? your Petitioners will be bound to pray ^ ifec." 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 243 

"The Lord of Kimbolfeon in our Shire" here mentioned, was 
Edward Montagu, the famous Parliamentary Greneral. It is 
probable that he was bom at Eimbolton Castle, as Collins alludes 
to him as a countryman of Cromwell's. He was educated at 
Sidney College, Cambridge, where he took the degree of Master 
of Arts. At the coronation of Charles I., he was made a Knight 
of the Bath ; and he afterwards represented Huntingdonshire in 
four Parliaments, till he was called by a writ to the House of 
Peers, as Baron of Kimbolton, his father being then living. In 
1640 he was one of the Commissioners appointed to treat with the 
Scots at Ripon, and he now became extremely popular from his 
endeavours to support the sinking liberties of his country. In 
the following year, through the fatal counsel of the Queen, and 
Lord Digby, the King had him accused of High Treason, together 
with five leading members of the House of Commons. This ace 
tended greatly to exasperate the nation, and caused the foregoing 
petition to be sent up from his native county. When the plots 
and counter-plots of both parties had driven them to appeal to 
arms. Lord Kimbolton, engaging in the service of the Parliament, 
had the command of a regiment in the battle of Edgehill, October 
23rd, 1642. On the 7th of the following November, he succeeded 
his father as Earl of Manchester. He was five times married. 
He died suddenly at Whitehall, in May, 1671, in his sixty-ninth 
year, and was buried in the Parish Church of Kimbolton. 

Chables Dawes. 

1 68.— Kare Occurrence.— Prom the following well authenti- 
cated facts it appears that the rare event of having triplets at a 
birth is not confined to the genus homo, but extends on very rare 
occasions indeed to the bovine species. In the Spring of 1887, 
on a small farm in the occupation of Mr. Simpson, of Addle- 
thorpe, a young cow dropped three male calves ; the family all 
did well and prospered, and were bought at three months old by 
Mr. Walter Welsh, who fed them, partly at Dalderby and partly 
near the place of their birth in the Marsh, until arriving at the 
mature age of 3^ years, and being in prime condition, he sold 



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244 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

them in September last to Mr. Alfred Goodyear, of Haltham, who 
kiUed them at the average weight of 64 stones 4 lbs. This 
profitable cow has since produced twin calres on two occasions. 

C.J.C., Homcastle. 

169.-St. James' Hospital, Lynn.— In the Minute Book of 
^he Peterborough Gentlemen's Society is the following entry :— 
" 1 735, Sep. 23. Mr. Kennet presented an ancient seal, lately found 
at Caster, with the image of St. James the Apostle, neatly carved 
upon wood, and the arms of Lynn upon it, with this legend round 

it COM : SIQILL : HOSPIT : S. lAOOBI. IN. LENNARE." 

170.— Turf Houses.— I have heard the expression "Turf 
Houses" applied to licensed premises at fairs in the Fen district. 
What is the meaning of the term ? T.A.6., March. 

171 -Salmon in the Nene.-On Wednesday, the 11th Sept., 
1822, a fish of the salmon species, and called a hooJc-Ull salmon^ 
was caught in the river Nene, about two miles from the town of 
March. It weighed upwards of 16 lbs., and measured 42 inches. 

172.~The Wise Woman of Market Deeping.— A newspaper 
cutting, dated Nov. 29th, 1822, says : "Lucy Barber, the *wise 
woman ' of Market Deeping, was taken before the Magistrates at 
Bourn, on a charge of extorting money, under pretence of fore- 
telling future events, from Mrs. Odell, wife of Mr. Odell, hatter, 
of Deeping. After a suitable admonition from the Magistrates, 
she was discharged, on paying expenses, and promising not to 
offend again." 

1 73.— Ljmn Hustings.— At the Norfolk Lent Assizes, in 1823, 
a case Allen v. Ayre and another was tried. The plaintiff who, 
during a Parliamentary Election at Lynn, the year before had 
been Mayor, had obtained a verdict against two inhabitants of 
that Borough, for damage done to the hustings, and subse- 
quently the defendants obtained a rule to show cause why such 
verdict should not be set aside, and a nonsuit entered. The 
case came on for argument in the Court of King's Bench 



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Fenlahb Notes Aino Qukries. 245 

before Justices Bayley, Holroyd, and Best, when the latter in 
giving his opinion that the hustings was not a building within 
the meaning of the Act, observed, if it were, every booth in 
a fair might come under the same denomination. The Judges 
were also unanimously of opinion that the Mayor could have 
no pretence to bring an action against the town, as he had 
no interest in the hustings, and that the rule must therefore be 
made absolute. 

174 —The Will of Margaret Ashbye, of Wacotte (Walcott), 
CO. Northampton, widow.— The husband of testatrix, Fras Ashby 
was probably of Walcote in the parish of Bamack in this county 
(who contributed 501 towards the expences of repelling the Spanish 
Armada in 1588) 2nd son of Everard son of Willm A of Loseby, 
CO. Leic (ob. 1499) & Agnes his wife (ob. 1492) dan. of Sir 
Richd Illingworth, Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Everard A 
mar. Mary dau. of Willm Baude of Somerby, co. Line. William 
elder brother of Francis was Queen Elizabeth's ambassador to 
James 6th of Scotland, who died s p. in that country in 1589. 
Frances A mar. Margaret dau. & heir of Philip Barnard of Alden- 
ham, Herts, who mar 1st Sir Barnard Whetstone of co. Essex, & 
secondly Eobert Brown of Walcott, (in the parish of Bamack,) 
CO. Northampton, esq. The latter made his will 17 Oct 14 Eliz 
(1572) & pr in P.C.C 14 Feb. following by his widow & extx 
Margaret, who by her will given below mar. her 3rd husband 
Frances A., by whom she had no issue. (Sir) William Brown, 
KB., her son by second husband, was bur. at Barnack, 20 Feb. 
1603-4, and whose younger brother, Eobert was cr. a Bart. 21 Sept. 
1621, bur. 25 Sept. 1623, a title that expired on the death (num.) 
of Robert, 3rd Bart., bur. at St. Michael's, Stamford, 3 Mch 
1670-1. Margaret Ashbye of Wacotte (Walcott) co. Northampton, 
widow, made her will 28 June 1594, pr. in P.C.C. last day of Apl 
1596. My body to be buried in the chapel of (S. Mary in) the 
parish church of Barnack as near unto my late husband Eobt. 
Browne as conveniently may be. To the poor of Bamack £10 to 
be bestowed upon the said poor people of the said parish. Item 



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246 Fenlakd Notes asb Queries. 

whereas my son Willm Browne oweth me £20 whereof £10 was 
bequeathed unto me by my dau. Judith Underne, & the other 
£10 was bequeathed by my said dau. Judith U to my late husband 
Pras A., esq., & my will is that the said sums my son shall pay it 
to the Right Honble the Lady Lucy St. John *(* 1609. The 
Ladie Elizabeth Saint John, widdowe, was buryed the flBirst dale of 
December = Wakerley p.r.) my goddau. wife of the Right Honble 
Lord St. John son and heir apparant to the Right Honble the 
Marquis of Winchester (Willm. 4th Marquis mar. Lucy 2nd dau. 
of Sir The Cicil 2nd Baron Burghley & first Earl of Exeter, K.G., 
& by her (who ob. in 1614) had 6 sons & dying 4 Feb 1627-8 
was succeeded by his 3rd son John) afterwards a distinguished 
royalist oflScer & the brave defender of Basing house): he had 3 
wives but not one named Liwy). £10 to be bestowed in some pretty 
Jewell according to her ladyships liking. The other £10 to the 
Right Honble the Lady Dorothy Cecill (d & coh. of John 
Neville Baron Lattimer, died in London 22 May 1608, & first) 
wife of Sir Thos Cecil (Knted at Kenilworth 17 Eliz., cr. Earl of 
Exeter 4 May 1605, died 7 Feb. 1621-2) to bestow upon a pretty 
Jewell according to her ladyships liking. To my son Bernard 
Whitstons (bur. at Barnack 21 Feb. 1600-1) my pair of livery 
pots of silver & parcel gilt, a pair of silver candlesticks, my silver 
chasing dish, & my gilt salt with the bear on the cover of it which 
was my fathers upon condition that he shall leave the said parcels 
of plate to his children. To my son William Browne (afterwards 
Knted, as a K.B., will pr. 16 Mch 1603-4, & bur. at Barnack 20 
Feb, previous) a bason & an ewer of silver parcel gilt, the ewer 
being of the fashion of the silver bason and ewer that I gave him 
before, & my 2 great cups with covers called pomegranets, half a 
doz. of silver plate trenchers, gilt pepper box & all the household 
stuff which was his fathers which is yet remaining in his hands 
& not already delivered unto him. Item I give unto my son 
Robt. Browne my great bason & ewer of silver parcel gilt, a neast 
of boules, either the 3 gilt boules without a cover or the parcel 
gilt boules with the cover at his choice to be made within one 
month after my death, my silver spice box and my silver jug. 



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FXNUHD NOTBS AHD QUBRIIS. 247 

Item I give unto my son Francis Whitstons (who was living in 
1621 at Longthorpe) the other neast of boules, either the gilt or 
the parcel gilt boules with the cover which my said son Eobt B 
shall refuse to make choice of. And also I give unto my said son 
Robt B my greatest gilt cup with a cover To my said son 
Francis W my new gilt cup with a cover & a silver drinking pipe. 
To Kitherine W wife of my said son Fras W my gilt casting 
bottle. To my said son Fras W my greatest silver bell salt with a 
cover. I will that my son Eobt W shall have my 10 silver spoons 
with gilt "knoppes," with the letters R & B upon the 
"knoppes," my silver carving spoon, and my silver snuffers. 
To my son Robt. W. my white silver bowl, a drinking 
pipe of silver, a silver salt without a cover, & my book of gold. 
My son Fras W shall have my mazar with the cover & foot gilt. 
Unto Margaret Underne, my grandchild, a silver tun, a covar, her 
little silver drinking cup, a little silver salt, a perfumery pan of 
silver, a lye pot of silver, a poriger of silver, a silver showing horn 
a comfit box of silver, an eye cup of silver, a toasting fork of silver 
a (t) both ends & her owne little goblet of silver parcel gilt, a 
silver hook, tooth pick, bodkin & lacing taggs, & a chain pearl & 
pomander being 3 rows of pearls & bugle to every pomander. 
To my grandchild Mary W daughter unto my son Barnard W my 
chain of gold being now worth above £40 the same to be made up 
100 mks by my executors either in money, goods, or chattels, & 
my ring with (a) table diamond. I will that my nephew Eobt. 
Nanton (Elizabeth only sister of testatrixs husband Fras Ashby 
mar. Henry Naunton of Alderton co. Suffolk, esq., son of Willm 
N., & Elizabeth his wife daughter of Sir Anthony Wingfield, 
K.G. Their eldest son, named in the will, Robt N of Lethering- 
ham priory, esq., Knited at Windsor, 17 Sept. 1615 ; principal 
Sect, of State 1618-20 ; afterwards Master of the Court of Wards 
& Liveries, died 1630, mar. Penelope d. & h. of Sir Thos. 
Perrot, Knt., & of the lady Dorothy his wife (dan. of Walter 
Devereux Earl of Essex, & afterwards remar. to Henry Percy 
Earl of Northumberland) shall have immediately after my death 
all the lands at Twyford in Leicestershire which was his uncles 



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248 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

Pras Ashbys my late husbands, the same to be discharged and 
freed from the estate which his said uncle did enter into with M^ 
Eobt. Wingfield and M'^ Fras Harrington for the perfiting and 
assuring of my jointure so as my said nephew do ratify and con- 
firm such leases as I shall hereafter make thereof of any part or 
parcel thereof. Also I give him my tablet of gold whereon M' 
Ashbys picture is being enamelled black. To my nephews brother 
(William Naunton, esq, heir to his brother, mar. in 1612 to 
Anne dan. & coh. of Laur. Pelle, gent. ; she d. 30 Oct. 1628, he 
11 July 1635. Their only son Eobt., a sufferer in the cause of 
royalty, bur. 25 Jan, 1664-5 aet 52) my seal ring of gold with 
the ram's head (couped ar. armed or) graven thereon. To my 
said nephews sister (Elizabeth, who died unm) my pair of gold 
bracelets with the hares bones within the locks. To my son 
Michael Pickering to whom I have already given and paid £50 
to the use of his children my gold ring with my seal of arms in it. 
Witnessed by Kath. Whitston & Annestus Densham. Mem. The 
day & year abovesaid the said Margaret Ashby appointed Fras 
Whitston, esq., & Eobt. Brown her sons exors in the presence of 
Kath. W. & Annestus D. Mem. Tnat on the 21st of April 1595 
by word of mouth she (testatrix) uttered as follows, that is to say, 
all her goods & chattells not before bequeathed were to be equally 
divided between her three sons Fras. Whitston, Eobt. Browne & 
Eobt. Whitstons in the presence of us, Eobt. Wilkinson, Martin 
Denham. & Thos Walker. Pr. last day of Apl 1596, by Thos 

Lovell not. pub. for exors. 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

175.-Pen Pumps, No. 3.-(No. 157, Part VII.)— Mr. S. 
Egar's communication on this subject raises a question which I 
have often desired to see discussed, namely; When were mechanical 
means for assisting drainage first applied in the Fen Country ? 
Mr. Egar's statement is dogmatic, though vague : " Water Mills, 
•* as these Wind Drainage Engines were usually called, were first 
"erected in the Levels in the early part of the 18th century or 
** the latter part of the 17th." I think I shall be able to shew 



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FsNLAND Notes and Quebies. 249 

that he is wrong, whatever construction may be put upon the 
above quoted sentence. 

In the Calendar of State Papers, now in course of publication 
by the Record Commission, there is an abstract of a letter dated 
April 2nd, 1592, addressed by one Guillaume Mostact to Lord 
Burghley, stating that the writer had undertaken to drain the 
Fens of Ooldham and praying — " that no grants of the sole 
" privilege of draining may be allowed to interfere with his, he 
" having perfected such an engine as was never seen in the king- 
"dom, and which he requests that no one may be allowed to 
** imitate for 21 years." [Cal. S.P. 1591—1594 ocxli. 14.] 
I have seen this letter in the Record Office, and it contains no 
information as to the mechanical means employed. 

In the same office are preserved some documents connected 
with a Chancery Suit, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, relating 
to the Coldham estate. They are much defaced, and in places 
illegible, but an engine and other improvements for the purpose 
of draining the estate are mentioned. Whether the engine in 
question was a wind mill may be doubted, but it is a curious 
fact that in one of the maps illustrating Dugdale's History of 
Imbanking and Draining [2nd Edn., page 244] two wind mills 
are shown as standing on the Coldham estate, near Friday Bridge, 
and on the bank of the river Ay (or Ea). The same map shews 
several wind mills in Marshland. Of course these may have been 
com mills, but in the case of the Coldham estate I do not believe 
they were. Now Dugdale's collection of materials for his history 
was made in 1643, and the first edition was published in 1652. 
I have in my possession a map of the Coldham estate, dated 
1684, which shows two wind mills with drains distinctly indicated 
as leading to them. These mills discharged their water into the 
Ehn Leam, and it may be assumed that they are the same mills 
as those shown on Dugdale's map. 

That there was at least one other engine for drainage in the Fens 
early in the 17th century is conclusively proved by Hayward's 
Survey [Well's Bedford Level, II., 210], which is dated 1685—6. 
In this an " Ingine bank at Oxney " is spoken of. In the St. 



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260 Fenland Notes and Queeier. 

Ives Law of Sewers [1638], which Scheduled the Lands decreed 
to the Adventurers, 26 acres, part of the Oxney Farm, abutting 
northward upon the old Engine^ are set out. Sir Jonas Moore's 
map shows this old Engine at Oxney as well as a mill at Friday 
Bridge. This map is not dated, but it is based on a Survey which 
must have been made before 1661. 

It is clear then that Engines of some sort were employed 
at an earlier date than has hitherto been generally supposed, and 
there is a strong presumption that wind was used as the motive 
power before 1650. 

In conclusion, I may note that Sergeant Callis in his Lectures 
on the Law of Sewers, delivered in 1622, alluded to "mills " in a 
rather contemptuous manner. He says : " This Goat is no such 
" imaginary Engine as the Mills be which some rare wise men of 
" late have invented but this invention is warranted by experience, 
"the other is rejected as altogether chargeable and illusory" 
[Callis Law of Sewers. Goats.'] It is evident that mills had 
then been projected, and it seems probable that some were in use 
at that time. 

The Calendar of State Papers, to which I have previously re- 
ferred, furnishes additional evidence of the invention of engines 
for drainage in the first quarter of the 17th century. 

Thus in 1617, Michael Van Elderhuys, a stranger, obtained a 
patent for " a new engine invented by him for raising water and 
"draining surrounded grounds." [Cal. S.P., 1611,— 1618,xa 108]. 

And in 1622, Robert Ramsay and John Jack had "a grant of 
" the Exclusive privilege of making an Engine invented by the 
" said J. J. and David Ramsay page of the Bedchamber to raise 
"water to drain land and mines." [Cal. S.P., 1619,-1623, 

CXXXII.] 

I may add that this Calendar contains abstracts of many im- 
portant and interesting documents relating to the drainage of the 
Fenland. The series is too voluminous to be generally accessible, 
and I venture to think that some pages of Fenland Notes and 
Queries might be usefully occupied in bringing some of these 
papers under the notice of Fen men, William C. Little. 



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FsNLAKD Notes and Qubbies. 251 

1 76.— Spalding Gentlemen's Society. — A very successful 
meeting of this Society was held at the Johnson Hospital on 
Tuesday, November 4th, 1890, and it is not too much to affinn 
that if its members will only give their hearty co-operation there 
is no doubt that the effort made last year to revive this, which is 
believed to be the oldest Antiquarian Society in the kingdom, will 
meet with its due reward. It may not be amiss to state that 
some twenty names have recently been added to its roll of members, 
and the meetings are held quarterly. Hitherto every meeting has 
produced some interesting matters to the Society. 

After preliminary affairs, which included the election of several 
new members, had been disposed of, the President called upon 
Major Moore for a report of his interview with Dr. Woolward, at 
the British Museum respecting the horns and scull which were 
exhibited at the last meeting of the Society. They were found 
eleven feet below the surface, on the farm of Mr. Caulton, at 
Crowland, in February last, and undoubtedly belonged to the red 
deer. It is supposed that they had been buried some 400 or 500 
years. The incrustations give them a very handsome appearance, 
and are due to the presence of the velvet when they were interred. 
Major Moore saw all the specimens of similar deer in the Museum, 
but there was nothing at all equal to these. He left there, at 
Dr. Woolward's request, some of the soil, consisting of silt and 
sea shells, in which they were found. 

Dr. T. J. Walker, of Peterborough, then exhibited a selection 
from his collection of Eoman coins, ornaments, urns, &c. All 
those brought before the Society had been obtained from Peter- 
borough or the immediate neighbourhood, and Dr. Walker gave 
an address on their significance. By the aid of plans and maps 
he shewed the position and importance of the large station which 
was situate at Castor on the Nene, four^ miles above Peterborough; 
he gave reasons for agreeing with those who believe that this 
was Durobriv8B, the seventh station mentioned in the fifth Itinerary 
of Antoninus. Among the exhibits from Durobriv« were portions 
of a tessellated pavement, some twenty feet square, which Dr. 
Walker had himself seen turned up by the plough in Sutton field. 



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252 Fbnland Notes and QuEBiiis. 

close to where the old Roman road, Ermine street, crosses the river 
at Castor. Dr. Walker then detailed the circumstances under 
which he had obtained a large number of Roman relics within 
the limits of the Borough of Peterborough. There were still 
discernable extensive embankments and other indications of what 
appears to have been a summer camp, one of the castra cestwa 
of the Romans. The coins found here are all of the end of the 
first or beginning of the second century of the Christian era. 
The various ornaments, the fibulm, rings, bangles, &c., were all 
in excellent preservation ; and the bones of the skeletons which 
must have lain there nearly 2000 years were many of them perfect. 
The most beautiful object exhibited was a little equestrian statuette, 
three inches high, which was discovered in 1886. It represents 
a fully armed warrior with crested helmet, fringed scarf thrown 
over the left shoulder, the end floating in the wind, the legs 
protected by greaves, the right arm extended to hold a spear 
which has disappeared, and on the left, which is dropped by the 
side, a lozenge shaped shield with large central boss and scroll 
pattern. The proportions of the horse are rude and clumsy, 
contrasting strangely with the elegance and spirit of the figure 
of the rider. This, believed to be the only Roman equestrian 
figure ever found in Great Britain, was figured in the transactions 
of the British Archasalogical Association for 1888. 

The Rev. Conway Walter, of Langton, near Horncastle, also 
read a paper on "the Influence of the dialect of Lincolnshire 
and East Anglia in the formation of Standard English," shewing 
the value of the writings of the Gilbertine Monk, Robert Manning 
of Bourne, whose poem **the Handlyng Synne" (A.D. 1303), 
though long preserved in the British Museum, has only been 
published recently in a limited edition for the Roxburgh Club, 
and whom Mr. Kington Oliphant has justly pronounced to be 
" the Patriarch of Modern English.** 

Four gentlemen were subsequently proposed for election as 
regular members, and one as an honorary member, of the Society. 
The ballot for these will take place in January. 

Mabten Perry, M.D., Pres. S. G. S. 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 253 

177.— Crowland and Whittlesea, 1792. -On June 17fch, 1792, 
a lengthy law suit between Crowland and Whittlesey came to an 
end. An MS., in the possession of Mr. B. W. Ground, of Whittle- 
sea, heads the case as follows: — "Lincolnshire, Holland : The 
King against the Inhabitants of Whittlesea in the Isle of Ely." 
The MS. goes on to say : " This Suit was conunenced on Account 
of the said William Searle and Family becoming chargeable to the 
Parish of Crowland from which place they removed him by Order 
of Justice as Quarter Sessions on Supposition of his belonging to 
the Parish of Whittlesea he having served as an Apprentice for 
the Term of Seven years To one Fawn a Blacksmith and from 
which place he afterwards went to Thorney and served one Dobson 
for the Space of One Year but Dobson was a Certificate Man 
from Farcett; therefore could not gain no Settlement and he 
afterwards went to live at Crowland at which place he Married a 
a Widow Woman who had always paid Rates as he did afterwards, 
but those Bates was deducted from his Rent, therefore no Settle- 
ment was gained on that ground. 

" But he had been Sworn a Pig Ringer by the Court Leet and 
paid fourpence for his Oath and served the Office several years. 

" He also was Appointed Ale Taster and Bread Weigher ; But 
for which he was never sworn into Office and only served in that 
Capacity half a Year; therefore it seems to rest entirely upon the 
Office of a Pig Ringer which is an Annual and Parochial Office 
and not a Lucrative place; on those grounds Whittlesea supported 
their Defence got their cause ; each party paying their own ex- 
pences, except what Whittlesea Expended in maintaining the 
Family while the Cause was depending and some other Trifling 
Expences It Cost each Parish £108 13s. 3d. N.B. It is to be 
observed that Cause was laid before the Quarter Sessions at Spald- 
ing three times. The last time there were four Justices two of 
them would have Quash'd the first Order upon Whittlesea, but 
not having a Majority was the Cause of its being removed to the 
Court of Kings Bench and Tryed before Lord Kenyon ; who 
likewise Rejected it the first time of hearing for Xonsufficient 
Statement of the Cause ; but after coming again and being re- 



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254 Fbnland Notes and Queries* 

stated Lord Kenyon as well as the whole Court were of one mind 
that the Man and his Family belonged to Crowland as above." 

178.— Names of Towns, Villages, &c., in the Pens—It is 

noticeable that the names of places that are more or less above the 
level of the surrounding Fen land end in ey, (JEyj Saxon for 
island), and there can be no doubt that when what is now Fen 
land was a waste of waters, these places stood out as islands, and 
got named for some peculiarity as : Ely is said to be called so 
Irom the quantities of eels that were caught there, others were 
named from different causes, of which there is no record. The 
principal places are : Ely, Thorney, Kamsey, Whittlesea, Eastrea, 
Stonea, Manea, Coveney, and Wardy HilL On the south of Ely 
are several small places : Stuntney, Northney, Quaney, Haney> 
Barwey, Fordey, Padney, Eye Hill, and Shippey Hill. Some 
places as now spelt end in ea, as Whittlesea, Manea, and others ; 
but in old documents we find they all end in ey. 

W.W.G. 

179 —Strange Discovery of Silver Coins at Holbeacli— The 

Spalding Free Press of December 16th, 1890, says :— On Friday 
the 5th inst., while two men were ploughing in Mr. F. Howard's 
"Twenty-six Acre," which adjoins the Washway-road, beyond 
Saracen's Head, one of them (Mr. Hubbard) felt the ploughshare 
strike some hard substance. He returned about five yards to see 
what it was, and was greatly surprised to see a quantity of silver 
coins spread over the land. They had been scattered out of a 
small earthenware jar which had been smashed into pieces by the 
blow fi-om the plough. The man was so astonished and shouted 
so loudly to stop his mate, who was ploughing in front of him, 
that his voice was heard a quarter of a mile away in all directions. 
Consequently, the news spread like wild-fire, and from the small 
hamlet it went throughout the neighbouring villages. In travel- 
ling, the report grew into a " pot of gold," and was the chief 
theme of discussion for several days. One enterprising publican 
from Holbeach offered the men ten pounds for their find, while 
report hath it that a certain gentleman offered a sovereign for a 



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Fenlakd Notes and Queries. 255 

single coin. The men were, however, proof against all offers, and 
handed the money to Mr. Howard, of Long Sutton, their master, 
who had expressed a wish to receive it. There were 29 pieces iu 
all — sixpences, shillings and florins, belonging to the reigns of 
Edward VI. (3), Marie (1), and Elizabeth (25). The last were 
dated from 1561 to 1562. The coins were in a splendid state of 
preservation, their only fault being that some were worn round 
the edges, and the lettering was not readable. The pot was of 
brown earthenware, unglazed inside, with no lid, and a small 
handle. From the remains it would be about six inches deep. In 
the coin collectors' lists the value of Elizabethan shillings ranges 
from 2s. to 5s., and Edward VI. sixpences from 3s. to 7s. Of 
course, to local antiquaries they would be more valuable, being 
found in the district. How is it there is no museum in the district 
where such treasures might be inspected by the public if not 
claimed by the Crown ? 

ISO.—Whaplode Drove Church in Chancery,— The following 
report appeared in the Morning Herald^ May 29, 1828: — ^Vice- 
Chancellor's Court, May 28. — In re Chapel of Whaplode Drove. 
This was a petition of certain individuals in the parish of 
Whaplode Drove, praying that it might be referred to the Master 
to inquire into the money arising from certain charity lands, 
attached to this Chapel ; and also that the Minister, the Rev. Mr. 
Blundell, officiating in the said Chapel, might be removed, on the 
ground that the money arising from the lands was misapplied, and 
that the Minister was not a resident of the parish ; that he 
neglected his sacred functions, and, in short, was not such a 
person as the parishioners required ; also that some allowance 
should be made the Churchwardens. It appeared that the lands 
in question were granted by Queen Elizabeth to John Coppinger 
and Thomas Butler, for the maintenance of a Minister, who 
should be a resident in the parish. Another complaint was, that, 
by a deed executed in 1795, new Trustees had been appointed, 
(and the property in question conveyed to their trust), who did 
not reside iu the parish. It was alleged, by affidavit, that bodies 



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256 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

were frequently buried without the performance of divine service. 

Mr. Heald appeared for the parishioners. He said the only 
question was, whether the Trustees were duly appointed — they were 
not duly appointed, for by the original grant it was necessary that 
they should be residents of the parish of Whaplode Drove. 

Mr. Bell, on behalf of the Minister and Trustees, accounted in 
an instant for a body having been buried without the funeral 
service. He stated that the rev. gentleman had waited some 
hours beyond the time appointed for the interment of the body, 
but nobody appearing, and the night rapidly advancing, the rev- 
gentleman proceeded homewards, when he met the body, and 
again returned. The chapel, unfortunately, being thatched, and 
small particlest of straw floating in the atmospher of the 
building, it was agreed not to introduce a candle into the premises 
(for it was night), lest a conflagration might ensue. So that of 
two evils they chose the lease, that is, that the body should be 
buried without funeral rites, till the following Sunday. 

His Honour the Vice-Chancellor said it was impossible to remove 
the Minister, but he "would order it to be referred to the Master to 
approve a scheme for the appointment of new Trustees, having 
regard to the instructions in the deed of 1795 ; also to approve of 
a proper scheme for the appointment of the Minister in future, 
and for the future application of the charity. 

This case gave rise to a wordy newspaper warfare, which was 
carried on in the columns of the Stamford Mercury ^ and it is 
presumable that feeling ran high in the parish as the controver- 
sialists epistles were inserted as advertisements, at so much per line, 
and as some of the writers were very verbose considerable sums 
of money, must have been expended in the literary war. " A 
constant Eeader,'* writing in June 11th, 1823, questions the 
accuracy of the report, as it appeared in the Morning Herald^ 
and at some length defends the action of the Trustees. He 
concludes by referring to the petitioners as follows : — 

"In order to help out and render more plausible this their 
appeal, they raked together whatever might serve the purpose ; 
and among other matters, that the incumbent has another living, 



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Fenlaio) Notes and Queries. 257 

that he onoe omitted due funeral rites to a corpse, and that he 
has a curate whose voice is inaudible. Of these, as not coming under 
its jurisdiction, the court took no notice. The counsel for the 
defendants, however, briefly stated — that, though the incumbent 
did not reside, he took the duty every alternate Sunday, agreeably 
to a plan that was laid down by the then Bishop — that he engaged 
the curate at the Bishop's request, to help out his own small living 
— and he might have further added, the objections here preferred 
were once brought before the said Bishop, at the house, and I 
believe in the presence, of Dr. Johnson, at Spalding, the result of 
which was a message first and a personal request after, that things 
should continue as before. As to the corpse, the counsel also, and 
very correctly, stated, that though the funeral had been fixed 
positively for six o'clock, it did not come till considerably after nine, 
when it was become dark, and the minister had to walk five miles 
— that the chapel was in the act of taking down — that the 
materials were stowed in the aisles — the reed littered on the floor 
— no candles at hand, nor to be had at a less distance than nearly 
a quarter of a mile — that, in consequence of these, the reverend 
gentleman took the corpse to the grave, and read over it what is 
usually read there — which is not only, he said, reasonable, but 
what the rubric commands, and consequently also what the 
law requires." 

A reply was published to this, but the writer did not append 
his name. He calls in question a statement that, " The lody of 
the chapel was not taken dotvn till two months after," and says: — 
" I asked him was not the chancel then taken or in the act of 
being taken down ? and were not the aisles filled with slate and 
other building materials, and the chapel littered from one end to 
the other ? — 2dly, •* The funeral was in August ;" as if by that he 
could justify the time or respite the allegation of darkness. It 
occurred, I believe on the 28th, when the sun sets at 7 o'clock ; 
and therefore I leave the public to settle the rest, if, as he cannot 
deny, the funeral was brought only at 9. — 3dly, " Candles might 
have been had at the parsonage," I admit they probably might ; 
but as, on enquiry, there were none in the chapel, nor, the Clerk 



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258 Fbnland Notes and QiTiaEUEss. 

said, nearer than the shop of Mr. Goodyer, which is the distance 
I mentioned, — and as, from that time, (because it was then 
thought the chapel would be taken down forthwith,) all funerals 
must be interred without going in, the corpse was taken to the 
grave, as before specified — a thing which certainly would not 
have been done, however, had the funeral been in proper time." 

With reference to the funeral incident, he says: — "The facts are: 
Some time before the event in question, a person died in the 
hamlet ; and, as usual, for some cause or other, no notice was 
given to the curate, who resides two miles oflf, till noon of the 
day of the intended funeral. The curate unfortunately was gone 
to Stamford on business: in consequence, a messenger, more 
stupid than the ass he rode, was sent to Crowland. There was a 
funeral fixed there at about the same time. In consequence, a note 
was sent back, desiring them to delay half an hour, and the 
incumbent himself would ride over. Just, however, as he was 
mounting, Mr. Clark drove up on his return, and having learnt 
the particulars, set off immediately to take the funeral in his way 
home. Now though the people, to a proverb, are never punctual 
to the time they fix, this, for some cause or other, was made an 
exception. In consequence, as the clergyman was approaching 
the chapel, the sun shining and likely for some time to shine 
gloriously, he met the procession coming back ; and, on enquiry, 
was told that he was " not ready, nor they disposed to wait, they 
had e'en put the old man in his bed." Shocked and disgusted, he 
knew not what to do ; but as the incumbent would have the duty 
there the next day, he wrote to him on the subject. What could 
be done ? At first a prosecution against the parties was thought 
of ; but it appeared a general opinion of those he consulted, that 
" the fellow was not worth shot and powder." The service, in 
consequence, was read over the grave." 

Continuing his comments on the previous letter the writer goes 
on : — " The incumbent," he says, " so far from alternate duty, 
sometimes does not come once in two months." — If he had said 
— sometimes has not done so^ he might have been right. But, in 
justice he would have said how long ago, and for what cause, 



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Penlahd Notes and Queries. 259 

which was no other than the then impassable state of the road." 

He also published a private note, as bearing on the matter, and 
which deserves to be reproduced not only as a literary curiosity^ 
but as containing a well drawn picture of a Fen man, half a century 
ago:— 

" Dear Sir, 
" As you were not at the Visitation, I think it proper to inform 
you, that as I and several more were standing at the Peacock, a 
dapper little fellow came bustling across the market place, of that 
anomalous description which is neither man nor boy, but which, 
in its own opinion, is more than both. His fen-boots — (for for- 
tunately I took particular notice) — glistened in the sun with 
reflection from the oil ; — his beaver was quaintly tucked up before, 
and at the same time artfully placed to make the most of his 
person. His eyes were in two directions at once, blinking like 
the emblem of wisdom in day-light ; but whether this may be 
natural, or it might proceed from the prodigious expansion of his 
views, as he came squirting the large laps of his funny little coat, 
I am not quite able to say. However, certain it is he no sooner 
attained the steps, than with a hop, skip, and jump, he also 
attained the summit ; and forthwith began to thread his way, 
with important speed, under the elbows of those who, otherwise, 
might have impeded his career, to the room of office. When there 
I understand, he began to produce some very serious, though, it 
was thought, groundless, accusations against yourself. And not 
knowing the extent of the allegation, if not timely and properly 
met, I have been induced to give you these outlines of his phiz 
and character, that you may not only recognise his person, but 
counteract his accusation, &c. " I remain," &c. 

Then comes Mr. William Blake, Chapel Warden of Whaplode 
Drove, who is probably the person who is described above. He 
says : — ^Were there a good Clergyman resident in Whaplode 
Drove, who would perform divine service in a proper manner, the 
Chapel would then be attended by the parishioners, as it had used 
to be in the time of the late deceased minister, who did reside at 
the Drove, and had the curacy of Gedney Hill, both which duties 



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2^0 FENiiAND Notes and Quebies. 

he performed for a great number of years in a proper manner, as 
a monument in the Chapel of Whaplode Drove has this inscription 
on it to testify : — 

Erected 
By Voluntary Contribution, 

To the Memory of the 

Eev. John Dinham, A.B. 

Minister of this Chapel, 

Who departed this life October the 14th, 1811, 

Aged 50 Years. 

Nearly half an age, with ev'ry good man's praise, 
Among his flock the shepherd passed his days. 
The friend, the comfort of the sick and poor, 
Want never knocked imheeded at his door : 
AU moan is death, his virtues long they try'd 
They knew not how they lov'd him tiU he dy'd. 
Peculiar blessing did his life attend ; 
He had no foe, to all he was a friend. 

I now ask this fussy meddling fellow without a name, if he 
never heard or does not know that the Rev. Gentleman did admit 
and confess, to the astonishment of the Solicitor, then in vestry 
at Whaplode Drove, after the petition was drawn up and signed 
which is now before the Master in Chancery, that he (the rev. 
gentleman) did agree to pay all the expenses which had occurred, 
if the parishioners would not send the said petition to Chancery. 
Moreover, he said that he would find the hamlet a curate ; such a 
one as the parishioners would approve of ; and that he himself 
would come oftener amongst us. These promises met with the 
approbation of the vestry, and the rev. gentleman was allowed 
four days to consult with the old Feoffees upon the subject : but 
instead of coming to make good his promises, he wrote two long 
letters, one to me and the other to the Solicitor, saying that he 
would not be responsible for any expense that had or might occur, 
neither did he care who were or were not the Feoffees ; — and then, 
and not until then, was the petition sent to Chancery. 

181.— Curious Public House Signs in the Fens.-" The Jack 
o' Both Sides" close to Chatteris (Cambs.); near here too ig 



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Fenland Notes arb Quisies. 261 

" The Pour Alls." This refers to the kmg, parson, soldier, and 
fanner, the following explanation being given : — 
" The king governs aU ; 

The parson prays for all; 

The soldier fights for aU; 

The farmer pays aU." 

King's Lynn has " The Rnmp and Bustle," and St. Ives *• Little 
Hell." On the North Bank (Peterborough) there are " The Dog- 
in-a-Doublet," and "The Cross Gruns." I believe the sign of 
" The Galloping Donkey " is also still to be seen near Whittlesea. 
" The "Mad Cat," at Pidley, is explained by the fact that the artist 
in painting the sign of ** The White Lion " made so poor an at- 
tempt that the house was afterwards known as " The 3Iad Cat." 

N. Edis, Stamford. 

182.—Himg in Chains in Guyhim Wash.— (No. 158, Part 
VII.) — The following appeared in the Wisbech Advertiser of Nov. 
19 th, 1890 : — "Antiquarians will be interested to learn that the 
apparatus known by the somewhat grim name of * Paddy's Night- 
cap,' which belonged to the old Guyhirn gibbet-post, is still in 
existence. Fenland Notes and Queries^ in its last quarterly issue, 
made a reference to the circumstances connected with the gibbet- 
ing of four Irishmen, in 1795, and this having been quoted in 
these columns, has elicited the fact that the iron framework, in 
which the culprit's head was fixed on the gibbet, is now in the 
possession of Mr. Edward Clark, of Guyhirn. It was popularly 
denominated * Paddy's Nightcap,' and is of iron, round in shape, 
with cross-bars and having a heavy iron collar which fitted round 
the neck. The framework came into the possession of the late 
Mr. Joseph Peck many years ago, he having given a man ten 
shillings to fetch it down from the gibbet. It was preserved in 
one of his farm-buildings until he handed it over to Mr. Clark." 

183— A Bare Clock— Mr. John Kingston of Fosdike, con- 
tributed the following particulars in the Spalding Free PresSy of 
November 18th, 1890 : — 

" I noticed in your last issue a paragraph in the Boston news 
giving a description of a notable clock, which was sold by auction 



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2®2 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

at Bosfeon on the 4th inst. I have a notable clock, which, nntil 
I saw the before-mentioned paragraph, I held to be nniqne. It 
now appears that two clocks were made by a Mr. Bothamley, of 
Kirton, something considerably over a hundred years ago, for 
the purpose of denoting the day of the month, the moon's age and 
changes, and the time of tidal high water in Posdyke Wash to the 
cattle drovers and travellers crossing the Wash. The clock 
recently sold at Boston was designed for use at the bridge or ford 
over the South Forty-foot Drain at Hubbert's Bridge, and it was 
there located for many years. The clock which I possess was 
designed for use at Posdyke, and shows the phases of the moon by 
a globe painted half white and half black, revolving on a vertical 
spindle ; the moon's age and the day of the month are denoted 
by separate hands and dials ; but the really special novelty about 
the clock is that it shows the rising and falling of the tide in 
Posdyke Wash, and points out by a hand on a separate dial when 
it was the safe and proper time for the guides and drovers with 
their cattle to start to cross the Wash — at that day a distance of two 
miles through the bare sands and shifting channels of the estuary, 
Por many years, before tide tables and almanacs were so plentiful 
as now, this clock was located at the Old Inn at Posdyke, and was 
the daily oracle consulted by guides and travellers crossing the 
Wash. Mr. Rothwell, the father of Mr. Eothwell still living at 
Posdyke, took the clock as part of the inventory when he entered 
upon the tenancy of the Old Inn at Posdyke in 1805, and it came 
into my possession in 1866. The clock is well made, and shows 
little or no signs of wear anywhere about its works ; it has a dead 
beat escapement and a pendulum bob weighing 26lbs., and is a 
splendid timekeeper." 

184.~The Story of Bricstan of Chatteris.— Mr. S. H. Miller, 
of Lowestoft, forwards us the following extract from Odericus 
Vitalis' "Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy" 
(Book vi. ch. 10) being a letter bearing the name of the Bishop 
of Ely, but written by Warin des Essarts at the Bishop's 
request:— "In the time of Henry, King of England and Duke 



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Fehlanb Notbs ahb Queries. 263 

of Normandy, in the sixteenth year of his reign over England, 
and the tenth of his government of the Dnehy* there was on 
the possessions of onr chnrch a certain free tenant called Bricstan, 
who lived at Chatteris. This man, according to the testimony of 
his neighbours, never injured any one, and, content with what 
he had, meddled not with what belonged to others. Neither 
very rich nor very poor, he conducted his afiFairs and brought 
up his family in moderate independence, according to the habits 
of laymen. He lent money to his neighbours who wanted it, 
but not at usury, while, on account of the dishonesty of some 
of his debtors, he required security. Thus holding a middle 
course, he was considered not better than other good men, nor 
worse than the ill-disposed. Being thus at peace with all mankind, 
and believing that he had not a single enemy, he was inspired 
by divine influence (as it appeared in the sequel) to entertain 
the desire of submitting himself to the rule of St. Benedict, and 
assuming the habit. In short he came to our convent dedicated 
to St. Peter the Apostle and St. Etheldrida, implored the favour 
. of the monks, and engaged to put himself and all he had under 
their rule. But, alas I the evil spirit through whose malice Adam 
fell in paradise, will never cease from persecuting his posterity 
to the last man who shall exist. God, however, whose providence 
ordereth all things in mercy and goodness in his omnipotence 
bringeth good out of evil, and out of good what is still better. 
When, therefore, the news was spread abroad (for Bricstan, 
though his acquaintance was not extensive, was sufficiently well 
known), a certain man who was in King Henry's employment, 
but more especially a servant of the devil, interfered with ma- 
licious spite. 

" We must make a short digression that you may understand 
what sort of man this was. His name was Robert Malart (which 
signifies in Latin malum artificem\ and not without reason. He 

♦ The editor of Bohn's edition of Odericns remarks that as Henry I. was 
crowned King of England on August 5th, 1100, and obtained possession of 
the Duahy of Normandy September 28th, 1100 the circumstance here 
related occurred between September, 1115, and August, 1116. 



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264 Pbnland Notes and Qitbeibs. 

had little else to do but to make mischief against all sorts of 
persons, monks, clerks, soldiers, and country folk ; in short, men 
of all ranks whether they lived piously or the contrary. That 
I may not be accused of calumny, this was his constant practice, 
wherever he was able to vent his malice. He slandered every* 
one alike to the best of his ability, and exerted himself to the 
utmost for the injury of others. Thus, mischievous to one and 
another, he may be accounted among those of whom it is said 
that Hhey rejoice to do evil, and delight in the frowardness of 
the wicked.' When he failed of truth for his accusations he 
became a liar, inventing falsehoods, by help of the devil, the father 
of lies. It would be impossible for any one, even if he had been 
his constant companion from childhood, to recount much more 
to commit to writing all the evil doings of this man, who was 
truly called * thousand-craft';* let us therefore proceed with our 
story. 

" When Robert heard the news that Bricstan wished to assume 
the habit of a monk, he lost no time in accordance with the 
teaching of his master the devil, who is always lying and deceiving, 
in presenting himself at the convent. Having a false account 
to give, he began with a falsehood, saying : * This Bricstan is a 
thief; he has fraudulently appropriated the King's money in 
secret, and wishes to become a monk, not to save his soul, but to 
save himself from the sentence and punishment which his crimes 
merit. In short, he has found a hidden treasure, and lias turned 
usurer with sums clandestinely subtracted from what is the King's 
by right. Being therefore guilty of the grave offences of theft 
and usary, he is afraid to appear before the King or the judges. 
In consequence,_I have the royal authority to forbid your receiving 
him into your convent. Whereupon, having heard the King's 
prohibition, and dreading his anger, we refused to admit the man 
into our society. What shall I say more ? He gave bail, and was 
brought to trial. Ralph Basset was judge,t and all the principal 

* Mille artifex; a name commonly given to the devil in the Middle Ages. 

f Ralph Basset was one of the minions of Henry I. whom he jaised from 
a low origin to the highest offices in the state, in preference to his nobles. 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 265 

men of the county were assembled at Huntingdon, according to 
the custom in England. I, Hervey, was also there with Reginald, 
Abbot of Ramsey, and Robert, Abbot of Thomey, and many 
clerks and monks. Not to make the story long, the accused 
appeared with his wife, the charges falsely made against him were 
recapitulated. He pleaded not guilty, he could not confess what 
he had not done ; the other party charged him with falsehoods 
and made sport of him ; he was indeed rather corpulent, and was 
short in stature, but he had, so to speak, an honest countenance. 
After having unjustly loaded him with reproaches, they pre-judged 
him, as in the case of Susannah, and sentenced bim and all his 
substance to be at the King's mercy. After this judgment, being 
compelled to surrender all he possessed, he gave np what he had 
in hand, and owned where his effects were, and who were his 
debtors. Being, however, pressed to give up and discover more, 
he replied in the English tongue : Wat min Laert Godel Mihtin 
that ie sege soth, which means * My Lord God Almighty knows 
that I speak the truth.' He often repeated this, but said nothing 
else. Having delivered up all that he had, the holy relics were 
brought into court, but when he was called upon to swear, he said 
to his wife : * My sister, I adjure you by the love there is between 
us, not to suffer me to commit perjury ; for I have more fear of 
perilling my soul than of suffering bodily torments. If, therefore, 
there is any reservation which affects your conscience, do not 
hesitate to make it known. Our spiritual enemy covets more 
keenly the damnation of our souls, than the torture of our bodies.* 
To this she replied : * Sir, besides what you have declared, I have 
only sixteen pence and two rings weighing four drachms.' These 
being exhibited, the woman added : * Dearest husband, you may 
now take the oath in safety, and I will afterwards confirm, in the 
testimony of my conscience, the truth you have sworn by the 
ordeal of carrying hot iron in my naked hand, in the presence 
of all who desire to witness it, if you so command. In short, 
Bricstan was sworn, he was then bound and carried in custody to 
London, where he was thrown into a gloomy dungeon. 
[To he continued.'] 



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266 PBNI.AKD Notes and Queries, 

185«— Whittlesea Charities Inquisition, 1667.— The following 
is an MS. record of this Inquisition, in the possesssion of Mr. 
B, W. Ground, of Castle House, Whittlesea : — 

" An Inquisition Indented taken at Whittlesea within the Isle 
of Ely aforesaid on Tuesday the 28th day of January in the 19th 
Year of the Eeign of our Sovereign Lord Charles the second and 
in the Year of our Lord Christ One thousand six hundred and 
sixty seven Before William Colvill Humphrey Orme, Christopher 
Thursby and Thomas Edwards Esquires Commissioners Author- 
ised by Virtue of Commission under the great Seal of England 
bearing date the 19th day of July last past to them amongst 
others directed for the due Execution of a certain Statute made 
in the High Court of Parliament holden at Westminster the 27th 
day of October in the 43rd Year of the Reign of the late Queen 
Elizabeth Instituted an Act to redress the Misemployment of 
Lands Goods and Stocks of Money heretofore given to Charitable 
Uses By the Oaths of Thomas Winter of Chatteris Thomas 
Reed of the same Francis Drake of Doddington James Granger 
of the same Thomas German of March George Young of the 
same Richard Sheep of Newton William Blaze of Tidd Saint 
Giles William Goat of tlie same Thomas Gales of Leverington 
Thomas Newdiok of the same William Dawson of Elm Richard 
King of the same Richard Rands of Wisbech Saint Maries 
and Thomas Robinson of Upwell Good and lawful Men of the 
said Isle who being duly returned impannelled and sworn 
according to the said Statute and Commission do say upon their 
Oaths that John Speechly of Whittlesea deceased did by his 
Testament and last Will Give to the use of the Poor people of 
Whittlesey the sum of Twenty Pounds the Interest of the same to 
be Yearly Distributed upon Saint Thomas's Day by the Ministers 
and Churchwardens there for the time being amongst the Poor of 
that Township which we found to have been relieved accordingly 
performed and also says upon their Oaths Nicholas Davie late of 
Whittlesea deceased Did give to the Use of the poor People of the 
said Township Ten Acres of Land lying in Whittlesea the Profits 
of the same Land to be Yearly distributed amongst the said poor 



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Pbnland Notes and Qubribs. 267 

People on Good Friday and Saint Thomas's Day every Year and 
that Thomas Davie Brother to the said Nicholas Darie and Ralph 
Laxon of Whittlesea aforesaid are Joint Trustees for the Disposal 
of the Profits of the said Lands and that the profits of the same 
hath been employed according to the Intent of the Donor and 
furthur say upon their Oaths that one Folliett did long since give 
and Settle One Messuage and Sixteen Acres of Land with the 
Appurtenances in Whittlesea for and Towards the Ease of the 
said Town of Whittlesea in the Maintenance of a certain Causeway 
called Aldrey Causeway in the Isle of Ely and Robert Coveney 
(Jenf* and Thomas Dow Deceased were Antiently Trustees in 
Trust for the said Lands and that the said Messuage and Lands 
are in the possession of Essex Coveney Gent" one of the Sons of 
Robert Coveney late of Stanground deceased In the County of 
Huntingdon Gent : or the assign or assigns of Robert Coveney 
the Father of him the said Essex Coveney and that there hath 
been since settled by the Court of the Exchequer Twenty six Acres 
of Fenny or Marsh Ground as an Improvement to the said 
Messuage and Sixteen Acres Viz. to the said Messuage Ten Acres 
and to the said Land Sixteen Acres which is likewise in the 
Possession of the Assigns of Robert Coveney Father to the said 
Essex And Also say upon their Oaths that Thomas Wiseman Gent, 
hath in his Hands as appears to them as well by his own Confes- 
sion as upon other Evidence Ten Acres of Land lying in 
Whittlesea aforesaid in a certain place called the Turfs belonging 
to the said Township of Whittlesea the Profits whereof ought to 
have been Yearly employed for the Publick Use and Benefit of 
the said Township and that the said Lands were formerly set out 
as an Improvement to an half full Land belonging to the said 
Township in pursuance of a Decree between the Lord of the Manor 
and Tenants of Whittlesea aforesaid and for which said Half full 
Land he the said Thomas Wiseman is one of the Feoflfees in the 
Interest of the said Township. And further say upon their oaths 
that the said Thomas Wiseman hath been in the Possession of the 
said Land which is Ten Acres for about Fourteen Years last past 
and that the same hath been Yearly worth three Pound per Annum 



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268 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

as the said Thomas Wiseman hath himself declared, And further 
say upon their Oaths the said Thomas Wiseman demanded to be 
due to him from the Town of Whittlesea and which hath been due 
to him £f and hd the sum of Thirty Pounds In Witness 
whereof as well as the Commissioners as the Jurors above named 
to this Inquisition have set their Hand and Seals the Bay and 
Year first above written. William Colville, Humphrey Orme, 
Christopher Thursby, Thomas Edwards, Thomas Winter, Thomas 
Read, Francis Drake, James Granger, Thomas German, George 
Young, Richard Sheep, William Blaze, William Goates, Thomas 
Gates, Thomas Newdick, William Dawson, Richard King, Richard 
Rands, Thomas Robinson ; The Judgment Order and Decree of 
William Colville, Humphrey Orme, Robert Apriece, Christopher 
Thursby and Thomas Edwards Esquires Commissioners by Virtue 
of his Majesties Commission to them amongst others directed to 
Inquire of Lands Tenements Rents Annuities Profits Heredita- 
ments Goods Chattels Money or Stocks of Money given to Charit- 
able Uses in the Isle of Ely made at Whittlesea within the Isle 
aforesaid on Tuesday the 2d Day of June in the 20th Year of the 
Reign of our Sovereign Lord Charles the second by the Grace of 
God of England Scotland France and Ireland King Defender of 
the faith &c and in the Year of our Lord 1668 as followeth : — 

|fiB[^ma« as well by an Inquisition Indented taken at Whittlesea 
within the Isle of Ely aforesaid the twenty-eighth day of January 
last before William Colville, Humphrey Orme, Christopher Thursby, 
and Thomas Edwards Esquires Commissioners By Virtue of a 
Commission under the Great Seal of England bearing date the 
Ninth day of July in the 19 th Year of our Sovereign Lord Charles 
the Second by the Grace of God of England Scotland France 
and Ireland King Defender of the Faith &c. to them and others 
directed for the due Execution of a certain Statute made in the 
43rd Year of the late Queen Elizabeth Intituled an Act to direct 
the Misimployment of Lands Goods and Stocks of Money hereto- 
fore given to Charitable Uses by the Virtue by the Oaths of 
Thomas Winter, John Read, Francis Drake, James Granger, 
Thomas German, George Young, Richard Sharpe, William Blaze, 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 269 

Wflliam Gkites, Thomas Newdick, William Dawson, Richard King, 
Richard Rands, and Thomas Robinson, good and lawful Men of 
the said Isle as the Testimony of several Witnesses upon Oath the 
Perusal and Inspection of several Deeds Copies Writings Terriers 
Maps Inquisitions and Decrees as well in his Majesties Court of 
Exchequer or Court of Chancery Accounts and other things it 
was found and hath appeared unto the Commissioners by virtue 
of Commission above Recited whose Hands and Seals are hereunto 
set That One Nicholas Davie of Whittlesea deceased Did give 
and devise unto the Use of the poor people of the said Township of 
Whittlesea aforesaid Ten Acres of Fen or Marsh Ground lying in 
Whittlesea aforesaid in a place called Blackbush lying next the 
Lands of the Heirs of John Day South, Robert Speechly North 
the East end upon Common long Drove the Profits of the same 
to be Yearly disbursed amongst the said poor People on Good 
Friday and Saint Thomas's Day in every Tear by Equal Portions 
as in and by the Testament and last Will of the said Nicholas Davie 
in the proved Prerogative Court of [left blank] and bear date 
20 th day of October in the Year of our Lord 1654 more and fully 
appeareth. ^ni J^urtl^er that one FoUiett did many years since 
give settle limit and appoint a Messuage and Sixteen Acres of Land 
with the Appurtenances in Whittlesea aforesaid for and towards 
the perpetual Ease of the Inhabitants of the said Town of 
Whittlesea in the Maintenance of their charge in a Causeway 
called Aldrey Causeway in the aforesaid Isle of Ely and that 
Robert Coveney Gent. Robert Beale Grent. and Thomas Dow late 
of Whittlesea aforesaid deceased were Antiently Feoffees In trust 
for the Employments of the Rents and Profits of the Messuage 
and Lands aforesaid for the use aforesaid And that now the said 
Messuage and Lands are in the Possession of Essex Coveney G^nt. 
one of the Sons of Robert Coveney Gent, late of Sfcandground in 
the County of Huntingdon deceased or his Assigns ^nb nha that 
there hath been since settled by and in Pursuance of a Decree out 
of the Court of Exchequer bearing date at Westminster the 12th 
day of February in the 14th Year of the Reign of the late King 
Charles the First of England &c Twenty six Acres of Fenny or 



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270 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

Marsh Ground out of the Wastes and Commons of the said 
Township of Whittlesea as an Improvement to the said Messuage 
And Sixteen Acres Viz : to the said Messuage and Ten Acres of 
Land and to the said Sixteen Acres of Land Sixteen Acres which 
said Twenty six Acres of Land are in the Possession of the Assign 
or Assigns of Eobert Coveney Father of the said Essex Coveney 
And also that Thomas Wiseman of Whittlesea Gent, hath in his 
Hands as hath appeared as well by his own confession as upon the 
Evidence to us shown Ten Acres of Land lying in Whittlesea 
aforesaid in a certain place there called the Turves belonging to 
the said Township of Whittlesea the Profits whereof ought to have 
been Yearly employed for the Publick Uses and Benefit of the 
said Township And that the said Lands were formerly set out 
as an Improvement to an Half Full Land belonging the said 
Township in pursuance of a Decree of the Court of Exchequer 
above recited and for which said Half Full Land he the said 
Thomas Wiseman is one of the Feoffees in trust in the Interest 
of the said Township and that he the said Thomas Wiseman hath 
been in Possession of the said Ten Acres of Land for 14 Years 
last past The mean Profits arising Yearly to three Pounds 
imaccounted for and Undisposed of by him the said Thomas 
Wiseman hath in his own person acknowledged before us otherwise 
then that He the said Thomas Wiseman pretends to retain the 
the same in his Hand for and in Consideration of Thirty Pounds 
which he Claimeth to be due to him from the said Town of 
Whittlesea and which should have been paid to him by one Robert 
Coveney deceased out of certain Monies due to the said Town of 
Whittlesea which was remaining in the Hands of the said Robert 
Coveney g,nb SB^ereas also it hath appeared unto us that there 
hath been One Hundred Acres of Fenny or Marsh Ground set out 
by the Consent of the Lord and Tenants of the said Manors of 
Whittlesea aforesaid in Pursuance of a Decree of the Court of 
Exchequer above recited (that is to say) Fifty Acres in a Place 
there called the Turves abutting South upon Whittlesea Dike and 
West upon the Tenants Doles in Wype And the other Fifty Acres 
residue thereof in a certain place called Bassenhall Moor abutting 



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Penland Notes and Queries. 271 

West upon Delph Dyke leading to Thorney South upon the Eiver 
called Morton's Learn to be used in Severalty for the Publick Use 
and Benefit of the said Town of Whittlesea And that there are 
Two other parcels of Ground called or known by the Name of the 
Angle and the Pingle heretofore limited and appointed by the 
Lords and Tenants of the Manor of Whittlesea aforesaid to be 
used in Half severalty and the benefit of the same Yearly sold by 
the Lords Bailiff of the said Township for the Use and Benefit of 
the said Township And also one parcel of Land lying in 
Whittlesea aforesaid commonly called or known by the Name of the 
Common half Acre ^nh WSi^tms it hath further appeared unto 
us that One Eobert Coulson Brother and Heir of one John 
Coulson late of Whittlesea deceased did on or about the third 
Year of the late Queen Elizabeth Did Surrender One Cottage 
with a Garden adjoining and two half Full Lands with the 
Appurtenances to the Use of Thomas Dow, Oswald Speechley, 
and Eobert KelfuU In Trust for the Publick Use of the said 
Township of Whittlesea which said Thomas Orn^e, Oswald 
Speechley, and Eobert Kelfall are all deceased And also that, 
there are two Alms Houses belonging to the said Township of 
Whittlesea situated in Old Whittlesea Street there and the 
Government of the same is no ways settled, ^x^ JK^mas it hath 
further appeared unto us that there are several small Sums of 
Money amounting in the whole to Fifty-five Pounds six shilhngs 
and eight pence for which several Persons have given several 
Securities be Specialties some to the Minister and Churchwardens 
of the several Parishes of Whittlesea Saint Andrew and Whittlesea 
Saint Marys and some other to Private Persons as by a Schedule 
of the same Debts to these Presents annexed appeareth with 
Securities by the frequent delaying the receiving the same and by 
Omission of Calling the Monies in Convenient Times aad for 
want of certain Persons instructed for the good Government of 
the same have proved much Damage to the said Township And 
also finding that the Annual Eents and Profits of the Lands and 
Tenements aforesaid have been lessened and fallen many times 
into the Hands of Persons unable to respond for the same and 



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272 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

the Inheritance too frequently of being lost by the long continuance 
of the same in the Hands of such particular Persons. And also 
for that the Donors heretofore giving and limiting the said Lands 
and Tenements nor any Decrees heretofore made for the Govern- 
ment of the same have provided for the best and most advantagious 
mode for the Interest of the said Township and for that most of 
the Trustees at first Assigned for Management of the same are 
dead For remedy and prevention of all the Inconveniences 
Misemployments and Misgovernments before recited. Wit do 
Order and Decree that Thomas Davie the only Surviving Trustee 
for the Ten Acres of Land heretofore mentioned to be given by 
Nicholas Davie deceased to the use of the Poor of Whittlesea 
aforesaid And also that the aforesaid Essex Coveney Son of the 
aforesaid Robert Coveney late of Sfcandground deceased and Grand- 
child of Robert Coveney of Whittlesea deceased which said Robert 
Coveney the Grandfather at the time of his death was the only 
Surviving Feoffee for the aforesaid Sixteen Acres given by the 
said Follieth for the perpetual Ease and benefit of the said Town- 
ship of Whittlesey in the repair of Aldrey Causeway aforesaid 
And that William Maxey who was Assign of Robert Coveney 
Father of the said Essex in Possession of Sixteen Acres parcel of 
the Twenty-six Acres improved in the right of the said Messuage 
and sixteen Acres in a Place called the Turves in Saint Andrews 
D. Land Lott Abutting South upon Whittlesea Dike North upon 
Long Drove way and West upon the Lands of Francis Underwood 
Esquire And that one of the Assigns of the said Robert Coveney 
Father of the said Essex Coveney being in Possession of Ten 
Acres residue of the said Twenty-six Acres which last mentioned 
Ten Acres lie in a Place there called Bassenhall Moor In Saint 
Andrews Eight Cottage Lott abutting North upon a Drove was 
West upon the Lands of Thomas Wiseman Gent. South upon the 
Twenty-five foot Drain And also that the said Thomas Wiseman 
being in Possession of the aforesaid Ten Acres of Land lying in 
Whittlesea aforesaid in a place there called the Turves in Saint 
Andrews C. Lott abutting East upon the Lands of Francis Bevill 
South upon a Droveway and North upon Saint Marys first Land Lott, 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 273 

And Further that "William Laxon and John Laxon who are the 
only surviving Trustees for the aforesaid Hundred Acres of Land 
whereof Fifty Acres lie in the Turves and Fifty Acres residue 
thereof in Bassenhall Moor as aforesaid heretofore limited and 
appointed for the Publick Use and Benefit of the Township of 
Whittlesea aforesaid do within three Months next coming after 
the date of these Presents Convey and Assure by good reasonable 
Conveyance and Assurance in Law to be devised unto Robert 
Bevill the Younger William Wiseman the Younger George Randall 
the Younger John Dow Robert Bailey Thomas Bradford William 
Higham Robert Boyce Son of Thomas Boyce Robert Colls William 
Rolt George Golding the Younger and George Bumham the 
Younger the several and respective Messuages Land and Tene- 
ments aforesaid and their several and respective Interests in the 
same as before mentioned so as the Estate in Law may be vested 
in the said Trustees to be persued and Executed by of Trust to 
and for the Interest and Benefit of the said Town of Whittlesea 
as hereafter shall be expressed and declared. 
To de continvsd, 

186.— Wisbech School of Industry.— In 1833, a "School of 
Industry" was established at Wisbech "for the purpose of instruct- 
ing female children in reading, writing, arithmetic, and plain 
needlework," and was held at the Exchange Hall. In 1834, the 
school numbered 51 children. It was perfectly unsectarian in its 

character. What became of this institution ? 

C. W., Lynn. 

187.— Burwell Church. — Extracts from Notes made by 
Alexander Edmundson, Vicar of Burwell, 1725— 173f, and 
bequeathed by him to his successors in the vicarage. 

"This being the first year of my being here, and everything 
almost being in great disorder, I began to rectifie what I found 
amiss, but particularly in relation to Church affairs. For, first, I 
found very few desirous of coming to Church : and, therefore, I 
read the King's proclamation about keeping Sunday holy ; which 
prevailed with some to come of tener to Church. Then I observed 



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274 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

that when Church was over, nay, even in church-time, they made 
no scruple of keeping their shops open and selling their goods on 
Sundays : and even some had so little sense of religion, that when 
I reproved 'em for not appearing at Church, they would answer, 
by way of excuse, that their customers came to buy things of 'em 
and so prevented 'em. This, therefore, I put down immediately, 
and also all barbers, etc., who were used, heretofore, to shave 
their customers on Sunday, pretending that they neither had 
leisure themselves to shave, nor had their customers leisure to be 
shaved on any other day. These two bad customs being pretty 
well broken, I began to enquire into the Church Endowments, 
and the charity money that had been left to the use of the poor. 
But these I found miserably misapplied, and many of 'em either 
embezell'd to private purses, or lost. However, I got some light 
into these matters from the Inhabitants, and some from the 
writings which then remain'd in the Vestry : and then I lost no 
opportunity to recover what had been misapplied, and to settle it 
according to the Will of the Donor. In this my Predecessor 
(Mr. Badcock) had open'd the way, which made my work more 
easy ; for he, finding that the Inhabitants had put the Church- 
Estate to improper uses, got an Order from the Arch-Deacon of 
Sudbury, Dr. Clagett, to have the church new pewed, which Order 
is as follows : — 
" * Whereas the right Eev. Father in God, Charles, Lord Bishop 

* of Norwich (upon complaint made to his Lordship by divers of 

* the inhabitants of the parish of Burwell, in the county of Cam- 
' bridge, against the intended repairing of the seats of the said 

* Church by making new pews in the same), hath specially 

* authorised and appointed the reverend Nicholas Clagett, D.D., 

* Arch-Deacon of Sudbury, his Visitor, to view and inspect any 

* Defect, Decays, and Eiyins in the said Church ; And whereas 
*the said Mr. Arch-Deacon, pursuant to his Lordship's special 

* appointment, did on tuesday the six and twentieth day of June, 
' 1716, personally appear in the said parish Church of Burwell in 

* the presence of diverse of the said Inhabitants, and did then 
*and there strictly view and inspect the seats of the said church, 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 275 

* and did find them much out of repair and ruinous ; He the said 
' Mr. Arch-Deacon required and ordered all the said Church to be 

* new pewed af cer the manner and form of five new pews lately 
' erected and set up at the East end of the said Church, and the 

* same to be painted in a decent manner as those 5 pews are at 

* present, and shall soon be further painted. And he, the said 
' Mr. Arch-Deacon, as the Bishop's Visitor, has likewise ordered 
' that there be a new pulpit made and set up of a larger size than 

* the old one, and the sounding board to be directed to the middle 
*of the church, and the desk to be repaired answerably to the 

* pulpit, and conveniently situated, and the old seats in the Middle 

* Isle to be quite removed. He has also enjoined the Font to be 

* removed near to the Steeple and be placed on the west-side of 
*the cross-Isle, there and directly over against the middle Isle of 
'the church, and to be painted with the same paint wherewith 
Hhe new pews of the church shall be adorned. And further, 
*Mr. Arch-deacon has ordered that George Hassel, who has been 

* Clarke and Sexton of the said parish for several years, should be 

* continued in his said places and offices, and enjoy the same and 

* the said profits thereof as formerly. 

' Nicholas Clagett, Visitor J 

" In presentia Hen. Goodwin, Not. 

" In accordance with these orders, the pews, etc., were finished : 
and in the same year there was a table hung up in the Church at 
the Entrance of the Chancel as follows : — 

"'William Sigar and Thomas Catlyn gave, by their last Wills 
' and Testaments* five score acres of land with some Tenements 

* called town houses, amounting to the yearly value of £40 and 

* upwards, to be expended in upon about and towards the reparation 
*and adorning of this church called St. Marie's. 1716. Alex. 
*Edmundson, Vicar y^ 

Neville Borton, Vicar of Burwell. 

♦ Where those houses and tenements are I cannot hear. 



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276 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

188.— Strange Discovery of Silver Coins at Holbeach.— 
(No. 179, Part VIII).— A slight mistake has been made (a pardon- 
able one from one who is evidently not a numismatist) in 
describing the silver coins discovered here in December last. 
They consisted of groats, sixpences, and shillings, and not any 
florins^ which were not coined till the reign of her present 
Majesty. The issue (silver) of Edward VI., Mary I., and 
Elizabeth consisted of crowns, half-crowns, shillings, testoons, 
sixpences, groats, threepences, twopences, and pence. Elizabeth 
issued a three-halfpenny piece, somewhat rare, and milled shillings, 
sixpences, threepences, and half-crowns (the latter very rare). 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

189.— A Mediaeval Prayer Book.— Mr. Henry Littlehales 
has just issued a reprint of " The Prymer," a prayer book of the 
laity in the Middle Ages, circa 1400. It is taken from a manu- 
script (G. 24) in St. John's College, Cambridge, Mr. Littlehales 
has done his work very thoroughly. 

190.— Chatteris Market.— The following advertisement ap- 
peared in the Stamford Mercury of April 11, 1834:— 

"At a numerous Meeting of the Inhabitants of Chatteris, in 
the Isle of Ely, held at the George Inn, on Tuesday the 25th day 
of March, 1834 ; 

" The Report of the Committee appointed at the last Meeting 
was read, by which it appears that a Market was formerly held at 
Chatteris, but in consequence of the frequently inundated state 
of the adjacent Pen Lands, and the bad state of the Eoads, was 
discontinued. 

" It was Resolved, that in consequence of the improved state 
of the Fen Country generally, the extent of corn grown in the 
parish of Chatteris, and its central situation in the midst of a 
large productive corn district, as also the great quantities of stock 
of every description brought into and sold from the parish of 
Chatteris and its vicinity annually, it is desirable, and would 



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Fbnland Notes anb Qubribs. 277 

contribute very generally to the advantage of the Neighbourhood. 

if the ancient Market were renewed and established. 
" In pursuance of the foregoing Eesolution, we whose names 

are hereunto subscribed do agree to renew and establish a Market 

to be held at Chatteris on Friday in every week, for the sale of 

Corn and Stock of every description, and that we will use our 

utmost exertions to forward and support the same, 

" Resolved, that these Resolutions be advertised in the provincial 

papers of our own and the adjoining counties. 

" And we do hereby give Notice, That we intend to meet for 

the purpose of holding a Market on Friday the Fourth day of 

April, to be continued weekly. 

eobert ruston f. richardson, juu. 

Daniel Fryer John Ruston 

J. S. Saberton John Ross 

Thomas Bonfield James Smith 

Richard Ruston John Negus 

John Richardson Henry Hall 

Fryer Richardson Thomas Hix 

William Seward Edward Ilett 

Joseph Smith John Sears 

Henry Skeels Robert Clarke 

William Curtis William Triplow 

Fryer Richardson John Seward 

Richard Ruston, jun. John Angood 
Robert Ruston, jun. Philip Cawthorne 
Christ. Billups John Cawthorne 

John Welldon William Skbels 

"Signed by upwards of fifty other of the Inhabitants of 

Chatteris." 

1 91 ,— Curious Occurrence at Wisbech in 1834.— The Lincoln- 
shire Chronicle of October 10, 1834, contains the following : — 

"A melancholy accident occurred on our river last Saturday. 
As one of the numerous fishing smacks which are constantly 
passing between this port and the sea, was hurrying up the river 
with the tide, its mast came in contact with the bridge, and as 
the water was very high and running at a rapid rate, the vessel 



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278 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

was immediately swamped, and its cargo and three persons which 
were in it were left floating on the water. One of them, an old 
man nearly seventy, was rescued, after being carried some way 
down the stream, and another by strong swimming soon made to 
the shore ; but the third, a boy about thirteen years of age, went 
down, and has not yet been found. The smack is a complete 
wreck by the accident, and thus the poor men, in addition to the 
loss of the boy, have completely lost the means of livelihood. 
The great height to which these tides run, (nearly twenty feet), 
renders it extremely dangerous, as the above fact proves, to 
approach the bridge with the mast or rigging up." 

1 92.— Turf Houses.— (No. 170, Part VIII.)— In reply to your 
correspondent, " T. A, G.," who asks for the meaning of the term 
"turf" houses, I think I can throw a little light on the subject. 
I have resided at Stilton for more than half a century, and I 
remember many fairs at Yaxley. At those fairs it was customary 
for some householders to hang out a square of dried turf, and this 
sign was sufficient to constitute the house during the time of the 
fair a licensed house. As far as my recollection serves me, no 
other license was required, and the exhibition of the turf prevented 
any legal consequences occurring to the householder for selling 
without the ordinary certificate. In many parts of Northampton- 
shire it was customary at fair times for householders wishing to 
convert their houses into temporary inns to exhibit a bush or 
bough of a tree. These were called bough houses. This was the 
common practice at Oundle, King's Cliffe, Fotheringhay, and no 
doubt in many other places. Possibly this custom gave rise to 
the adage " Good wine needs no bush,i" that is, needs no 
advertisement. A. W. 

1 93,— Hunts, and Cambs. and the Spanish Armada.— A very 
interesting and valuable " List of the names of those persons who 
subscribed towards the Defence of this Country at the time of the 
Spanish Armada, 1588, and the amounts each contributed," forms 
a scarce quarto tract of 1798, issued by Leigh and Sotheby, York 
Street, Covent Garden. The original manuscript cannot be 



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Fenland Notes akd Queries. 279 

found ; the author or editor of it is unknown. A second edition, 
with an admirable historical introduction taken from the State 
papers, Dom. Ser. of the period in H.M. Public Record OflSce, 
was published by my learned friend, the late Mr. J. C. Noble, of 
Dalston, London, in 1886. From the work of the latter I have 
appended the Cambs. and Hunts, contributors to the National 
Defence. The figures represent pounds. 
Cantabrigia. 

Feb. Edward Barnes, Gen. 24 Fehruarii 25 

John Cropley, eodem 25 

Henrie Seaman, eodem 25 

John Gravye, Sen., of Fordham, eodem 25 

John Pratt, of Woodditton, eodem 25 

John Folkes, of Swafham Bulbeck, eodem ... 25 
Edmund Bacchus, of Swafham Prior, eodem ... 25 

Thomas Smithe, of Stowe, eodem 25 

Edward Styward, Armiger, of Feversham, eodem 50 
George Foster, Gen., of Bottesham, 24 Febrvmii 25 
Edward Wood, Gen., of Fulborne, eodem ... 25 
Thomas Hancock, Sen., of Fulborne, eodem ... 25 
Eichard Hasill, of Balshaw (Balsham). eodem ... 25 

Gilbert Wise, of Hinton, eodem 25 

Thomas Burie, of Horsheath, eodem 25 

Eichard Davie, of Sawston, eodem 25 

Eobert Swan, of Icleton 25 

William Tharbie, Sen., of Witlesford, eodem ... 25 

Thomas Hodilowe, of Cambridg, eodem 25 

John Batisford, Gen., of Chesterton, eodem ... 50 

William Carrowe, of Chesterton, eodem 25 

John Martin, Gen., of Barton, eodem die ... 100 

John Chaplin, of Trumpington, eodem 25 

Kafcheryn Whale, Vidua, of Thriplowe, eodem ... 25 

John Taylor, of Thriplowe, eodem 25 

Edward Aldred, of Fulmeare, eodem 25 

Walter Pilgiyme, of Windie, ^^wi 25 

Thomas Cropwell, of Bourne, eodem 25 



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280 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

Feb, Seth Warde, of Abingfcon juxta Shingey, eodem 25 

Thomas Lilley, of Gilden Morden, eodem ... 25 

Nicholas Johnson, alias Butler, of Orwell, eodem 25 

Aprill Robert Pratt, of Malreath, 15 Aprilis 25 

Walter Hitch, of Melbourne, eodem 25 

Barbara Snell, Vidua, of Royston, eodem ... 25 

Thomas Peck, of Eversden, eodem 25 

John Marshall, of Eltisley, eodem 25 

Adam Thurgood, of Eltisley ... 25 

John Bolnest, of Litlington, eo^em 25 

Thomas HoUiwell, of Weavlingham, eodmi ... 25 

Henrie Graype, of Weavlingham, eodem ... 25 

William Gery, Gen., of Over, eodem die 25 

William Iley, of Over, eodem 25 

William Steven, of Over, eodem ... 25 

Johan Maldrie, Vidua, of Papworth Agnis, eodem 25 

William Peck, of Hardwick, eodem die 25 

John Steukyn, of Longstanton, eodem die ... 25 

Maye Richard Richardes, of Mylton, 29 die Maii ... 25 

William Agnes, of Landbeach, eodem 25 

Robert Peach, of Fendrayton, eodem 25 

John Barton, of Fendrayton, eodem 25 

William March, Gen,, of Ely, e(?^6??^ 25 

Daniell Goodrick, Gen., of Ely, eodem 25 

John Martyn, of Elye, eodem 25 

John Dane, Jun., of Elie, e(?^ew^ 25 

William Grauford, of Elie, eodem 25 

Edward Marohe, of Elye, eodem ... 25 

Thomas Wade, of Litleport, eodem 25 

John Kirkes, of Hadenham, eodem 25 

John Bernard, of Hadenham, e(?^em 25 

John Thurgood, Sen., of Wicham, eodein ... 25 

Edward Homerston, of Coveney, eodem 25 

John Reade, Sen., of Chatteris, ^iem ... ... 25 

William Sturmyn, of Wisbitch, 29 Maii ... 25 

William Skootred, of Wisbitch, eodem 25 



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Pbnland Notes and Qubribs. 281 

Maye Thomas Phage, of Marche, 29 Maii 25 

Roberfe Girdeon, of Wisbitch, eodem 25 

Junii Edmunde Laverocke, of Upwell, 20 die Junii ... 25 

James Sallibancke, of Wisbitche, eodem 25 

Robert Lyne, of Wisbitch, 6(?rf^ 25 

Robert Cowper, of Wisbitch, eodem 25 

Arthur Dalton, of Wisbitch, e(?tfem 25 

Thomas Jones, of Leverington 25 

Symon Treane, of Newton, eodem 25 

John Bonde, of Persondrove, ^<?^em 25 

Huntingdon. 

In the list for this county the scribe was not so particular as he 

was in many others by recording the donors' places of residence. 

In order, in some measure to supply this deficiency, I have referred 

to the Herald's Visitation of 1613 of this county, taken by 

Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald, deputy for William Camden, 

Clarenceux King of Arms. 

Aprill Thomas Cordall, quinto die Aprilis 25 

ThomB,^ T>ein\e\\, sexto die Aprilis 25 

* John Bedells, 6en„ septima die Aprilis 50 

William Sarvington, Gen. eodem 25 

Thomas Saulter, 8 die Aprilis 

Thomas Marsh, Gen., eodem 

John Pedley, eodem 

Richard Godfrey, 9 die Aprilis 

t Johan Calton, Vidua, eodem 

♦ J. B., a Knt. in 1613, eldest son and heir of Silvester B., of Hamerton, 
and his first wife Margaret, eldest dau. of WiUm. Highfield, of co. Chester. 
John, their son, also of Hamerton, mar. Matilda, one of the dans, and 
co-hs. of Wmiam Lane, of Cottesbrook, co. Northamps. Anns : Quarterly 

1 & 4 Gu., a chev. engr. ar. between 3 (2.1) escaUaps of the second BedeU. 

2 ar. 3 wolves heads erased (Wolleston) 3 parted per pale gu & az 3 crosses 
connterch. (Lave). 

t Johan C, vid (vu 1613) was the wid. of Nicholas C. of Nedingworth, 
and daiu of Silvester Bedell, of Hamerton, and had 4 sons, of whom 
Francis the eldest was a Knt., temp visit, and one dau. Anns : Quarterly 
1 & 4 az. a lion ramp, reguardant sable, in each quarter an ermine spot. ar. 
crowned or, Calton, 2 & 3 a cross en gr. 



25 
25 
25 
25 



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282 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

ApriU*Wi\liam Bedells, Gen., eodem 25 

iThomBA Audev^ Qen., 12 die Aprilis 25 

JHenrie Newman, eodem 25 

"Rohert GjlatQ, eodem 25 

Kemlm Keniy 18 die Aprilis 25 

Richard Draper, eodem die 25 

John Palmer, 29 die Aprilis 25 

Maye ThomB,s EslqU^ primo die Maii 25 

William Cony, Armiger ^(?rfem ... 25 

Miohaell BeaJe, secundo die Maii 25 

Anfchonie Warde, septimo die Maii 25 

Owen Biggs, 16 die Maii 

John Oranwell, ^^e 25 JIfoM 25 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

1 94.--Monumental Inscripfcions in St. Margaret's Church, 
Lynn, No. 5.— (No. 155, Part VII).— The following are two 
inscriptions I copied from recently erected memorials in St, 
Margaret's Church, Lynn, as supplementary to the inscriptions 
already published : — 

To . the . glory . of God . and . in . memory . of . Rachel Elizabeth 
Cresswell Born March. 25. 1803 Died Dec. 4.1888. [Black 
letter in stained glass window in 8. Aisle]. 

To the Glory of God. and. in loving Memory of Mary 
Balding Spinster, this window is dedicated by her sister Emma 
Jane Balding . A.D. 1888. [Black letter, brass plate under stained 
glass window in S. Aisle, east of last], 

R. H. Edleston, Gainford Vicarage, Darlington. 

* Probably brother to John B., of Hamerton, Knt., seated at Moldes- 
worth (2nd son of SUvester and Margaret), Hunts., who espoused Brigida, 
da. of , . , Power of co. Northampton. 

t Perhaps a mistake of the scribe for Audley, a family to whom, in 
the person of Henry A., esq., (of co. Beds.) Hen. 8 in the 29th year of 'his 
reign granted the manor of Great Gransden. Eobert A., gr. grandson of 
the grantor was seated here in 1613, m. Catherine, da. of WUlm. plommer, 
of RadweU, Herts., and had 4 sons 3 daus. temp yigit. 

% Of Folkesworth, 



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Penland Notes and Queries. 283 

195.— The Story of Bricstan of Chatteris. — (No. 184, Part 
VIII). — There, heavily ironed with chains of unusual weight, in a 
most cruel and outrageous manner, he suflfered for some time the 
horrors of cold and hunger. In this extremity of distress he 
implored divine assistance according to the best of his ability, 
inspired by his urgent necessity. But as he felt that bis own 
merits were but very small, or, to speak the truth, of no account 
whatever, having no confidence in them, he incessantly invoked, 
with sorrowful heart and such words as he could command, 
St. Benedict, to whose rule, as we have seen before, he had 
unfeignedly proposed to devote himself, and the holy virgin, 
St. Etheldrida, in whose monastery he intended to make his 
profession. In this dark dungeon, loaded with chains, tortured 
with cold, and wasted with hunger, he wore out &ye wretched 
months, and would rather, in my opinion, have chosen to die at 
once, than live thus miserably. But, still seeing no hopes of 
human help, he continued to call on SS. Benedict and Etheldrida, 
with sighs and groans and tears, and with heart and mouth. To 
proceed ; one night when the bells in the city were ringing for 
lauds, and Bricstan, in his dungeon, besides his other sufferings, 
had received no food for three days, so that he was quite exhausted, 
and entirely despaired of his recovery, he repeated the names of 
the saints with a sorrowful voice. Then at last the clement and 
merciful Grod, the never-failing fountain of all goodness, who 
never despises those who are in adversity, and chooses none for 
their wealth or power, at last vouchsafed to show His loving- 
kindness to the supplicant. It had been long indeed implored, 
but it was deferred, that the earnestness of his supplications might 
be more intense, and the mercy shown be more ardently loved. 
For now St. Benedict and St. Etheldrida, with her sister Sexburga* 
stood before the sorrowful prisoner. The light which preceded 
their appearance was so extraordinary that he screened his eyes 
with his hands ; and when the saints were seen surrounded by it, 

* Sexburga, eldest sister of Etheldrida, was married to Ercombert, 
King of Kent. She founded a monastery in the Isle of Sheppy, and 
afterwards succeeded her sister as Abbess of Ely. 



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284 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

Etheldrida spoke first : *Bricstan,' she said, * why do you so often 
pour out your griefs before us ? What do you implore us, with 
such earnest prayers to grant ? ' But he, spent with fasting, and 
being now thrown into a sort of trance by excessive joy and the 
supernatural visitation, could say nothing in reply. Then the 
holy virgin said: *I am Etheldrida whom you have so often 
invoked, and this is St. Benedict under whose rule you devoted 
yourself to the service of God, and whose aid you have continually 
implored. Do you wish to be set free ? ' On hearing this his 
spirit revived, and, waking as it were from a dream, he said, 'My 
lady, if life can by any means be granted me, I should wish to 
escape from this horrible dungeon, but I find myself so worn out 
by sufferings of every description, that my bodily powers are 
exhausted, and I have no longer any hope of obtaining my liberty.' 
Then the holy virgin turning to St. Benedict, said: 'Holy 
Benedict, why do you hesitate to do what the Lord has commanded 
you?' At this, the venerable Benedict laid his hand on the 
fetters, and they fell in pieces, so that the prisoner's feet were 
released without his being sensible of any act, the saint appearing 
to have shattered his chains by his word alone. Having detached 
them, he threw them indignantly against the beam which supported 
the floor of the prison, making a great opening, and waking the 
guards, who lay in the gallery in great alarm at the crash which 
took place. They supposed that the prisoners had made their 
escape, and lighting torches, hastened to the dungeon, and finding 
the doors fast closed, they opened them with the keys and went in. 
Upon seeing the prisoner they had left in fetters freed from his 
chains, their astonishment increased, and upon their demanding 
an account of the noise they had heard, and who had caused it, and 
how his fetters were struck off, Bricstan said nothing, but a fellow 
prisoner replied : ' Some persons, I know not who, entered the 
prison with a great light, and talked with this man my companion, 
but what they said or did I know not ; ask him who knows best.' 
Then the guards turning to Bricsfcan, said : ' Tell us what you 
saw and heard.' He replied : ' St.;,Benedict, with St. Etheldrida 
and her sister Sexburga, appeared to me and struck the fetters off 



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Fbnland Notes and Qubbibs. 285 

my feet ; if yoa will not believe me, at least believe the evidence 
of your own eyes.' As they did not doubt the miracle they saw, 
the gaolers sent in the morning to Queen Matilda, who happened 
to be in the city at the time, to tell her of it. The Queen sent 
Ealph Basset to the prison, the same who had before doomed 
Bricstan, who said that magical art was now employed. Ralph 
entering the dungeon, addressed the prisoner derisively, as he 
had done on the former occasion : 'What has happened Bricstan? 
Has God spoken to you by his angels ? Has he visited you in 
your prison ? Tell me what witchcraft you have been practising ? ' 
But Bricstan made no more reply than if he had been dead. 

" Then Ealph Basset, perceiving that his fetters were broken, 
and hearing from his fellow prisoners of the three persons who 
had entered the dungeon surrounded by light, the words they had 
spoken, and the crash they had made, and perceiving the hand of 
God in these events, began to weep bitterly, and turning to 
Bricstan, he said : ' My brother, I am a servant of St. Benedict 
and the holy virgin Etheldrida ; for the love of them speak to 
me.' He replied : ' If you are a servant of those saints, you are 
welcome. Be assured that what you see and hear about me is the 
truth and not the effect of magic' Ralph, then taking charge of 
the prisoner, conducted him with tears of joy into the presence 
of the Queen, where many nobles were present. Meanwhile, the 
report flew swifter than a bird throughout London, and coming 
to the ears of almost all the citizens, they raised shouts to heaven, 
and people of both sexes and every age praised together the name 
of the Lord, and flocked to the court where it was reported 
Bricstan was taken, some shedding tears of joy, and others 
wondering at what they saw and heard. The Queen rejoicing 
in so great a miracle (for she was a good christian), ordered the 
bells to be rung in all the monasteries throughout the city, and 
thanksgivings to be offered by the convents belonging to every 
ecclesiastical order. Bricstan went to many of the churches to 
return thanks to God in the fulness of his joy for his liberation, 
great crowds preceding and following him through the suburbs, 
and everyone being anxious to see him, as if he were some new 



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286 FBNLAJSfD Notes and Queries. 

man. When he reached the church of St. Peter, called in English 
Westminster, Gilbert, the abbot of that place, a man of great 
eminence in sacred and profane literature, came forth to meet 
him outside the abbey in a procession formed of the whole body 
of monks, with all the pomp of the church ; for he said : *if the 
relics of a dead man are to be received with ceremony in a church, 
we have much more reason for giving an honourable reception to 
living relics, namely, such a man as this ; for as to the dead, we 
who are still in this mortal life are uncertain where their spirits 
are, but for this man, we cannot be ignorant that he has been 
visited and delivered by God before our eyes, because he has not 
acted unjustly.' 

"When thanksgiving had been offered to God, to the best of 
their ability, according to what in their estimation was due for 
Bricstan's deliverance, the Queen sent him with great honour to 
the abbey of St. Etheldrida in the Isle of Ely. I went myself, 
attended by the whole convent of monks, to meet him, with candles 
and (arosses chanting Te deum Laudamus, Having conducted him 
into the church with befitting ceremony, and offered thanksgivings 
to God, we delivered to him, in honour of blessed Benedict his 
liberator, the monastic habit he had so loug desired. We also 
hung up in the church in view of the people, the fetters with 
which he was bound, that they might be a memorial of this gi-eat 
miracle, to the honour of St. Benedict who broke them, and of 
St. Etheldrida, who was his colleague and assistant ; and they 
long continued to be suspended there, to keep alive the remembrance 
of these events. 

" I have been desirous of making known to the sons of holy 
church these acts of the venerable Father Benedict, not because 
he had not performed greater wonders, but because they are more 
recent, and such miracles appear in our days to be infrequent in 
England. Nor, as regards our blessed Father Benedict, let any 
one be surprised that he wrought great and inconceivable wonders ; 
for, according to Pope Gregory, he may be equalled to Moses for 
having brought water out of the rock ; to Elijah, for receiving 
the ministry of a raven ; to Elisha, for raising iron from the 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 287 

bottom of a pit ; and to Peter, for having caused a disciple to 
walk on the water at his command. St. Benedict likewise, as is 
well known, shewed himself to be a prophet by predicting events 
to come, and an apostle by the miracles he wrought ; and to sum 
up all in a few words, he was full of the spirit of all the just. 
Since, therefore, we know with certainty that he obtained from 
the Lord all that he desired, let us continue joyfully in his service, 
knowing that through his intercession we shall not lose our 
reward ; and if St. Benedict did not refuse his aid to one who 
had engaged to become a monk, what must be the protection he 
will afford to those who are actually bound by their voluntary 
engagements to the rules of his discipline ? It is clearly manifested 
by many evident tokens that our kind patron, who is now glorified 
by God in heaven, unceasingly intercedes for his suppliant disciples^ 
and daily renders them effective aid in their necessities. We then, 
who have submitted to the light yoke of Christ, and labouring in 
his vineyard, bear the burden of the day with constancy and 
perseverance, may, through the divine goodness, be assured that 
Almighty God will save and protecfc us for the merits and prayers 
of our wonder-working mascer. Let us, therefore, earnestly 
supplicate the Creator of the universe that he will bring us out of 
Babylon, and the land of the Chaldeans, and conduct us to 
Jerusalem by the observance of his laws, and that He who is the 
Almighty and merciful God will give us a place in the company o{ 
the citizens above, to praise Him who liveth and reigneth for all 
ages. Amen." 

196.— Will o' the Wisps.— These phenomena were witnessed, 
I understand, at Lolham Mills, near Deeping, soon after the 
disappearance of the severe frost of the past winter. I understand 
that old residents in various parts of the Fens state that Will o' 
the Wisps were very commonly seen in their younger days, but 
have gradually ceased to be observed. Is this due to the improved 
drainage of the fenland ? F. G. A., Spalding. 

1 gy.—WMpping Posts and Stocks.— Are there any remains 
pf whipping posts or stocks still preserved in Fenland parishes ? 



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288 Feklaito Notes and Queries. 

198.-The Paston Letters — In the Paston Letters I do not 
find many references, to places in the Penland ; but this one, 
written at Lynn, and of historic interest, may be worthy of a 
place in the Notes and Queries. (From Fenn's Paston Letters, 
XXVIII, vol iv., p. 101.) 

" To my right worshipful father, John Paston. 

" Please you to weet that I am at Lynn, and understand by 
divers persons, as I am informed, that the master of Carbrooke* 
would take a rule in the Mary Talbot as for captain, and to give 
jackets of livery to divers persons which he waged by other men, 
and not by him, being in the said ship ; wherefore insomuch as I 
have but few soldiers in mine livery here, to strengthen me in that 
which is the king's commandment, I keep with me your two 
men Dawbeny and Calle, which I suppose shall sail with me to 
Yarmouth, for I have purveyed harness for them, and ye shall 
well understand by the grace of God that the said master of 
Carbrooke* shall have none rule in the ships, as I had proposed he 
should have had, because of his businessf ; and for this is one of 
the special causes I keep your said men with me, beseeching you 
ye take it to none displeasure with me, notwithstanding their 
herdenj at Wygenhall shall be don3 this day, by the grace of God, 
who have you in his keeping. 

" Written at Lynn, the morrow after my departure from you. 

" Item, as for such tidings as be here Th. shall inform you. 
(Written between 1461 and 1466, John Paston." 

1 and 6, E. IV.) 

* Carbrooke is in Norfolk, about midway between Castle Acre 
and Lynn. There was a society of Knight Templars at that 
place, and it would be interesting to know if there is any local 
trace of them now. The master of Carbrooke would mean the 
head of this society, who (f) was a busy-body and not fitted to act 
as subordinate under John Paston. 

% The word herden appears to have been derived from Anglo- 
Saxon Hyrdan, to guard, keep, or to muster, &c. The cognate 
noun was heord, a flock ; but also custody. Herd, (according to 
Home Tooke in '' Diversions of Purley ") is the past participle of 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 289 

hyrdan^ and is applied both to that which is guarded or kept, and 
to him by whom it is guarded or kept. " We use it both for 
grex and pastor." 

John Paston, the writer of the letter, was brought up in the 
family of the Duke of Norfolk ; was a soldier, and engaged in 
French wars ; became heir to his brother in 1479 ; High Sheriff 
of Norfolk in 1485 ; was made a Knight bannaret at the battle of 
Stoke in 1487 by Henry VII. ; and died in 1503. 

S. H, Miller, Lowestoft. 

199.-Pen Pumps, No. 4.-(No. 175, Part VIII.)— I am now 
able to give some further information as to the use of millR in the 
Fens at an earlier period than has hitherto been believed. Mr. 
Richard Atkins, of Outwell, whose observations on the state of 
the Fens were commended by Dugdale, made a complete survey of 
the country in 1604, and he wrote a tract on the subject which 
he called Relateo de Mariscis, I do not know whether this was 
ever published, or whether any complete copy is now in existence. 
Badeslade in his History of the Navigation of the Port of Lynn 
[pub. 1766] quoted largely from a manuscript copy. The Wis- 
bech Court of Sewers has in its possession a manuscript volume 
written early in the 17th century, and one of the latest documents 
contained in it is an imperfect copy of Atkins' celebrated report. 
In it he says : — 

" Over hath very good fens 2 miles broad and above a mile long 
" very meddowes wthin y® compasse whereof lye certen grounds of 
" Sir "William Hindes where there is an Ingin or mill placed to 
** cast water and not far from thence another mill for y® towne — 
" both serve to good purpose and empty y^ water into a ditch 
" which falleth into Willingham mere." 

In answer to some criticisms in local newspapers, aUow me to 
point out that I never asserted that the Engines of which I spoke 
were wind mills. I called in question the statement that " water 

mills " were first erected in the Levels in the early part of 

the 18th century, or the latter part of the 17th." 

William 0. LittiiB. 



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290 



Fbnland Notes and Queries. 



200.~Market and Fair at Whittlesey. — Lysons in his His- 
torical account of Cambridgeshire [Magna Britannia 1808] makes 
the following statement : — 

"Whittlesea had formerly a market which had not been wholly 
" disused until within the last twenty years ; the market day was 
" Friday, We have not ieen able to find any grant of it on record ; 
" there is a fair for horses on the 13th of June." 

The Eoyal Commission on Market Eights has recently published 
a Calendar of Grants of Markets and Fairs enrolled on the Patent 
Eolls since 1700 A.D. The following extract from this Calendar 
(Vol XI., p. 143) sets the point of the date of the grant at rest : — 







Applications for Grants. i 




Grants Made. 




1 


a 


j 


Grant Solicited. 


1 


Particulars of Grant. 


i 

S 

CO 

1-» 




1 

6 


CD 

O 

P 

1 


M. each week on Friday, 
for com, flesh, fish, and 
other provisions and 
merchandises. Three 
F. ammaUy, (1) on 11th 
June for three days, 
(2) on 25th October for 
three days, (3) on 25th 
January for three days, 
(if any day a Sunday, 
then on Monday follow- 
ing), for goods and 
merchandises. With 
court of pie-powder, 
with toUs and profits. 


1 

r-i 
rH 

d 
O 

1-H 


Grant to George Downes 
and his heirs of M. 
each week on Friday, in 
Whittlesey, Cambridge, 
and of three F. annuaUy 
there, (1) on 11th June, to 
continue for three days, 
(2) on 25th October for 
three days, and (3) on 
25th January for three 
days. 



It might naturally be supposed that George Downes, to whom 
the grant was made, was Lord of the Manors of Whittlesey at the 
time of the grant [1716 A.D.], but he was really the Steward. 
The Manors at that time belonged to Richard Price, Esq., and 
Nathaniel Webb, Gentleman. It would seem probable that 
Downes was a Lessee or Farmer of the Manor. W. 0. L. 

201 .—Leeds Family.— Can any one oblige by giving births of 
Thomas Leeds, 1620, Daniel Leeds, 1652; supposed members of 
a Leeds family bearing arms ' " Argt. a Fesse 3 eagles displayed 
sable " Yorks., Lincoln, Suffolk, Sussex, Cambs., Hants. 

C. Heroy, 41, Great Russell Street, London 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 291 

202.— Ely at the end of the 17th Century. — In a work re- 
cently published, " Through England on a side-saddle in the time 
of William and Mary," being the diary of Celia Fiennes, the 
following references to Ely occur : — 

" From thence [Newmarket] I went eight miles to Ely, which 
were as long as the 12 I came from St. Edmondsbery, ye 
wayes being very deep ; its mostly Lanes and Low moorish 
ground on Each Side deffended by ye ffendiks which are deep 
ditches with draines. Ye ffenns are full of water and mudd these 
also Encompass their grounds. Each mans part 10 or a dozen 
acres a piece or more, so these dieks are the fences. On each 
side they plant willows so there is two rows of trees runs 
round ye ground which Looks very finely to see a flatt of 
many miles so planted but it must be ill to live there. All 
this while Ely minister is in our view at a mile distant you 
would think but go, its a long four mile. A mile distant from ye 
town is a Little Hamlet from which I descended from a steep hill 
and so Cross a bridge over water which Enters into ye island of 
Ely, and so you pass^ a flatt on a Gravel causey which way ye 
Bishop is at ye Charge to repaire. Else there would be no passing 
in ye summer. This is secured by some dikes which surround 
more grounds as ye former fulls of Rows of trees and willows 
round them, which makes Ely looke finely through those trees, and 
yet stands very high. In the winter this Caussey is overflowed, 
and they have no way but boats to pass in. They Cut peate out 
of some of these grounds. The raines now had fallen so as in 
some places near ye Citty ye Caussey was Covered and a Remark- 
able deliverance I had for my horse Earnest to drinke, ran to get 
more depth of water than ye Caussey had, was on the brinke of 
one of these dikes, but by a speciall providence which I desire 
never to forget, and allways to be thankful for. Escaped. Yet 
bridge was over the River Linn, which comes from Norfolke, and 
does almost Encompass the island of Ely, which is 20 mile in 
bigness, in which are severall little towns as Wisbech, and many 
others. There is another River that joyns with ye Linn which 
Compasses this land into an island. At this bridge is a gate, but 



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292 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

by reason of je great raines ye roades were full of water, even 
quite to ye town which you ascend a very steep hill into, but ye 
dirtyest place I ever saw, nott a bitt of pitching in ye streetes, so 
its a perfect quagmire the whole Citty, only just about ye Palace 
and Churches the streetes are well enough for breadth, but for 
want of pitching it seemes only a harbour to breed and nest 
vermine in of which there is plenty Enough, so that tho' my 
Chamber was near 20 Stepps up I had frogs and slow worms and 
snailes in my Eoome, but suppose it was brought up with ye 
faggots. But it Cannot but be infested with all such things, 
being altogether moorish ffenny ground which Lyes Low ; it is 
true were the Least Care taken to pitch their streets they would 
make it Looke more properly an habitation for human beings, and 
not a cage or nest of unclean Creatures. It must needs be very 
unhealthy tho' ye natives say much to the Contrary, which 
proceeds from custom and use, otherwise to persons born in up 
and dry Countryes it must destroy them Like Eotten sheep in 
Consumptions and Ehums. 

" The Bishop does not care to stay long in this place, not being 
good for his health ; he is the Lord of all the island, has the 
command and ye jurisdiction. They have lost their Charter, and 
so are no Corporation, but all things are directed by the Bishop, 
and it is a shame he does not see it better ordered, and ye buildings 
and streets put in a better condition. They are a slothfiil people, 
and for little, but ye takeing care of their Grounds and Cattle, 
wMch is a vast advantage. "Where the yeares prove drye they 
gain so much that in case 6 or 7 wet yeares drown them all over, 
the one good yeare sufficiently repaires their loss. There is a good 
palace for the Bishop built, but it was unfurnished. There are 
two Churches. Ely Minster is a curious pile of building all of 
stone, the outside full of Carvings and great arches, and fine 
pillars in the front, and the inside has the greatest variety and 
neatness in the works. There are two Chappels, most exactly 
carv'd in stone, all sorts of figures, Cherubims Gilt, and painted 
in some parts. Ye Eoofe of one Chappell was One Entire stone 
most delicately Carv'd and hung down in great poynts all about 



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Fbnlakd Notes and Queries. 293 

ye Church. The pillars are Carv'd and painted with ye history of 
the bible, especially the new testament and description of Christ's 
miracles. The Lanthorn in ye quire are vastly high and delicately 
painted, and fine Carv'd work all of wood. In it ye bells used 
to be hung (five) ; the demention of ye biggest was so much that 
when they rung them it shooke ye quire so, and ye Carv'd worke, 
that it was thought unsafe, therefore they were taken down. 
There is one Chappel for Confession, with a Roome and Chaire of 
State for ye priest to set to hear ye people on their knees Confess 
into his Bare through a hole in the wall. This Church has ye 
most popish remaines of any I have seen. There still remains a 
Cross over the alter ; the Candlesticks are 3 quarters of a yard 
high, massy silver gilt, very heavy. The ffont is One Entire piece 
of White Marble, stemm and f oote ; the Cover was Carv'd Wood, 
with ye image of Christ's being baptized by John, and the holy 
Dove descending on him, all finely Carv'd white wood, without 
any paint or varnish, 

<* When I was upon the tower I could see Cambridg and a great 
prospect of ye Country, which by reason of ye great raines just 
before under water, all the ffenny ground being all on a flBiatt, 
unless it be one side of the town, which is all the high dry grounds, 
into which they drive up their Cattle to secure them in the wet 
seasons." 

203,— The Bells of Tydd St. Giles,— The old bells of this 
church were taken down from the tower and sent away to Messrs. 
Mears and Stainbanks' Bell Foundry, in London, on December 
20th, 1889, to be recast. The weight of the old peal was 33 
owt., the tenor weighing just under 10 cwt. The inscriptions on 
the five old bells were as follows :— 1st.— Treble, Sigismund 
Trafford, of Dunton Hall, Tidd St. Maries, 1710. 2nd, Henry 
Penn, Fusore. Omnia fiant ad ghriam Dei (Let all things be 
done to the glory of God) 1627 Abill Hodges, Rector. Tobie 
Morris cast me. 3rd. — Non clamor sed amm cantat in aure Dei 
(not noise but love sings in the ear of God). Tobie Morris cast 
me. 1627. B.C. A. W.F. ^ih.—Ccelorum Ghristi placeat tyle 



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294 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

Rex sonus iste (0 Christ King of heaven may that sound please 
Thee.) Jesus spede us. 1603. Joannes Wilbe generosus et 
Clement Martyn, Eector 1603. 5th.— James Scribo, Adam Cook, 
Churchwardens 1725. 

204.~Ilamsey Heights or Aits.— This place-name is indis- 
criminately spelt and written in the two forms above. "Which is 
right? "Heights" certainly seems a misnomer for one of the 
flattest parts of the Fenland. B.A. 

205.-0des on the Fens by Thomas Wells, Esq.— The follow- 
ing odes were written by Mr. Thomas Wells, of Hohne. They 
are printed on a folio page, but without any date or printer*8 
name. Perhaps some of the readers of Fenland Notes and Queries 
can state if they ever appeared in any periodical and the date 
they were written. Charles Dack. 

ODE to the NAIADS of ths River EOLME. 
By THOMAS WELLS, Esg[. 
I. 
"YT^E ebon Naiads of the inky Flood, 

That sluggishly supplies the lazy Lake, 
Arise in all the Majesty of Mud, 

Eise from your oozy Beds, ye Nymphs awake ! 
Dull as the Murmurs of your liquid Slime, 
Hoarse as the spotted Tenants of your Shore^^^ 
(When rous'd to Music by the Punt or Oar) 
To you I tune the slow, somnif'rous Rhyme, 
Senseless as is my Prose, but more sublime, 
The Eiver now that gaily glides, 
And pours its golden Tides. 
By Holme's proud Tow'rs to Whittlesey, 
The Peasant erst, in Accents rude, 
Call'd a Fen Ditch, and damn'd the Mud ; 

For which I damn'd his Blood. ^'^ 

And now the River Holme flows to the little Sea.^^^ 

Q) The Frogs. O An usual Phrase of the Author's, appHed to the 
Person who calls his River a. Ditch or Dike. (») The Little Mere may 
fairly be caUed the Little Sea, when Holme Ditch is termed Holme Biver 



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Fehland Notes ahd Qubbhss. 295 

To me that Eiver owes its Name ; 
To me you owe immortal Fame ; 
Like Alligators form'd of Mire/^> 
To heav'nly Honours you aspire : 
Then aid me now — in Gratitude you owe it, 
I made you Goddesses, make me a Poet. 

II. 
Where were ye, Nymphs ? when Rustics bold 

My fav'rite Trees invaded ? 
Their prostrate Pride the Flames infold, 

Their crackling Heads are faded/^^ 
Your sister Dryads rais'd a feeble Cry, 

At Holme's proud Pile their piteous Pangs we learn ; 
The House-maid, Cook-maid, Kitchen-maid, and /, 
From Holme's proud Pile a feeble Cry return. 
Me they suspended on ih& fatal Tree^ 
With serious, sad Solemnity f^ 
(Would I could tie them to the Stocks and lash 'em) 
Bleach'd by the Winds, I hung on high, 
The Earth below, above the Sky ; 
Like his my Air, my Habit too. 
My Jachet trim, and Trousers Blue,^^> 
The Traveller looked up, and thought me Mr. Matchm.^^^ 

III. 
Yet still the Empire of the Sea is mine,^^ 
My Streamers wave as frolic, gay, and pretty, 
(0 The -aigyptians supposed that the Alligators, whom they considered as 
Divmities, sprung from the Mud of the Nile. O The Trees of an 
Avenue planted by the Author, were lately cut down by the Country- 
People, and burnt. Q) The Author threatened to treat a Country-FeUow 
in this Manner for not puUing off his Hat to him, and actuaUy ordered the 
Constable to proceed and inflict the Punishment.-The Constable w^ how- 
ever wiser than the Captain. C) The Author was lately hung m Efiigy ^^ 
this Dress, it being reported that he had ome been at Sea, C) A SaUor 
who hangs in Chains, in the same Uniform, a few Miles from the Place of 
the Author's Execution, for the Murder of a Drummer. C) The Author has 
lately raised two private Conveniences, the one before the Windows of his 
House at Holme ; the other in the same position as to a Pleasure-House, 
which he claims, by the Side of Whittlbsea Mere. 



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296 Fbnland Notes akd Queries. 

As those that deck the Hats of Misses fine, 
In Huntingdon fair Town, or Peterlorough City. 
Whilst thro' the foggy Fen, 
Your sable Eiver flowing, 
Theme of the Poet's Pen, 
And wide enough for Rowing, 
Delights Nose, Eye, and Taste— vfhiah most I study, 
With Eels both fat and large, altho' a little muddy ; 
To you ye Nymphs the haUowed Shrine I've rais'd, 

Close to my festive Hall, 
And lo ! with equal Honours prais'd, 

Another fragrant Nymph attends my Call ; 
Famed Cloacina, with the yellow Hair, 
By you assumes her Seat, 
And each returning Morn with Inceuse sweet, 
And Oflf'rings due, your Votary shall appear. 



A Pindaric ODE to CLOACINA. 

By THOMAS WELLS, Esq. 

T3 RIGHT CLOACINA, I this Lay 
Inscribe to Thee, 
My fav'rite Deity ; 
What other Tribute can thy Votary pay ? 
Already sacred to thy Name I've rais'd 

Two splendid Temples ; one conspicuous stands 
Upon the Margin of fair Whittlesea ; 
The Tempest-beaten Sailor oft has gaz'd 
On the high Pile, and to remotest Lands 
His Course directed with security. 
From the rich Fane the passing Gales convey 
A gratefull Smell across the wat'ry Way ; 
Not half so ravishing the Wind 
That scatters Fragrance o'er the Seas of Ind. 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 297 

Before my Mansion's Windows fall in Sight 
The other Structure's built ; for with Delight 
Mine Eye can ever dwell on ought that's Thine ; 
Here perfect Taste unites with great Design : 
Aspiring to the Clouds its ample Dome 
Compleats with aweful Pomp, the tow'ry Pride of Holme. 
In this I ev'ry Day 

With fervant Zeal and humble Rev'rence pray, 
And costly OfTrings leave behind. 

Nor do I superstitiously confine 

My Prayers, Goddess, to thy hallow'd Shrine, 
When sudden Terrors agitate my Mind ; 

Wherever I may chance to be. 

Or trave'ling cross the Land, or tumbling on the Sea, 

I constantly prefer my Vows to Thee. 
Pull well thou know'st I was not near thine Altar, 

When the sad melancholy Tidings came 
That I had been suspended in a Halter ; 

Yet I to thee alone, illustrious Dame ! 
Of all the Gods, due Eites perform'd: Well pleas'd 
Thou smild'st benign, and my Distress was eas'd. 

206.— Miller's Toll Dish.— In a miller's advertisement, in the 
neighbourhood of Ramsey, the expression occurs, "one shilling 
per coomb and no toll dish." What is a toll dish ? B.A. 

207,— History of Soham, (hy the Rev. J. R. Olorenskaw).— 
1614—20 Jan. Thomas Muriell, B.D. Proctor of Cambridge 

1611 ; Archdeacon of Norwich 1621, and Rector of Hilders- 
ham, where he died. He was buried there Oct. 7, 1629. 

1629—21 Oct. Thomas Bolde, A.B. Chosen Fellow 29 Sep., 
1610 ; A.M. 1615 ; had a testimonial 1619 ; Junior Proctor 
1624 ; President 1629. 

1631—14 May. Roger Hechstetter, A,B. Chosen Fellow 13 Jan., 

1612 ; M.A. Rhetorical Lecturer 1617 ; had the Fellowship 



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298 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

of Grindall's Foundation 1618, and in chat year was Greek 
Lecturer ; Junior Treasurer and Hebrew Lecturer 1619, and 
had a testimonial in the same year ; Senior Treasurer and 
Catechist 1620 ; Philosophy Lecturer 1621 ; Bursar 1628 ; 
Junior Proctor 1680. ^* A very loyal and brave man."* He 
appears to be identical with the vicar referred to in " Walker's 
Sufferings of Clergy,"t under the name of "Exeter," of 
Soham Vicarage (then of the value of £100 a year) as 
follows : "April 10, 1644. Sequestered by the Earl of Man- 
chester for insuflSciency, malignancy, and particularly for not 
taking the covenant himself ; and what's worse, as it f olloweth 
in his charge because not above three or four of his parish 
had taken it, though it consisted of 800 families." He was 
buried at Soham, Sept, 1, 1660. 

1661 — 28 Nov. Thomas Wedon, or Weedon, Hertfordshire, A.B. 
Chosen Fellow 1 Feb., 1681 ; ejected 1644 ; restored 1660. 
J In 1660 a petition was presented to King Charles II. by 
the Master and Fellows of Pembroke Hall, for the present- 
ation of Thomas Wedon B.D. Senior Fellow of the College, 
to the Vicarage of Soham, which is the gift of the college, 
but some demur arose from a lapse to the crown, because of 
a misnomer in the presentation, 30 years before, of Roger 
Heohstetter the last incumbent, § And on the 21st October, 
1661, a warrant was granted for his presentation to the 
vicarage and he appears to have been presented on October 
31, 1661. He was buried at Soham, May 23, 1672. 
(It would appear that one Eobert Grimmer M.A. presented 
a petition to the king in July 1661 asking for the vicarage 
of Soham. He was thrown out of his ministry at the 
beginning of the wars for his constant adherence to the late 
king Charles I. Drs. Isaac Barrow and Peter Gunning 
gave a certificate in his favour, speaking of him as " an M. A. 

* Baker's MSS. (Additional 7033, p. 302). 

tp. 236., Part II. 

:J: Calendars ot State Papers, Domestic, (B,M, ?076, Vol xii.) 

§ Ditto Vol. xUii, 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 290 

of 80 years' standing of Jesus College Cambridge/* and it is 
said that he was presented to the living on July 22, 1661.* 
If this was the case he could have held it for a few months 
only.) 

1672—6 Aug. Robert Mapletoft, born at North Thoresby in 
Lincolnshire 25 Jan. 1609. Educated in Louth School, from 
thence sent to Queen's College, and removed to Pembroke 
when A.B. and chosen Fellow 6 Jan. 1631. Chaplain to 
Bishop Wren 1638. B.D. and ejected 1644. In the rebellion 
he lived quietly among his friends, particularly at Sir Robert 
Sharley's in Leicestershire where he became acquainted with 
Archbishop Sheldon, and had afterwards a private congrega- 
tion in Lincoln, where he used to officiate according to the 
liturgy of the Church of England, which had liked to have 
procured him much trouble, but it being found upon enquiry 
that his congregation had oflFered him a considerable sum of 
money and that lie had refused it, he came oflF safe. Upon 
the king's restoration he was again possessed of his Fellow- 
ship in 1660, and made Sub-dean of Lincoln, and about that 
time Hector of Claworth, in Nottinghamshire, (which he 
afterwards exchanged for the vicarage of Soham) and resigned 
his Fellowship 1661. He was chosen master of Pembroke 
College 1664 and was also D.D. About that time Archbishop 
Sheldon invited him to be Chaplain to the Duchess of York, 
then, as was supposed, inclined to Popery, and in want of a 
man of Dr. Mapletoft's primitive stamp, to keep her steady 
to her religion ; but he could not be prevailed with to 
entertain the notion. He lived very hospitably at Ely and 
wherever he resided, and was esteemed for the many pious 
and charitable acts he did in his lifetime. Dean of Ely 
1667. Vice-Chancellor 1671, and died at Pembroke Hall 
August 20, 1677, and was buried in a vault in the chapel. 

1677 — 3 Jan. Marmaduke Urlin or Earl win, of Buckingham- 
shire, admitted 1654, B.A. ; Fellow, October 15th, 1660 ; 

♦ Calendars of State Papers, Vol. szxiz. 



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300 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

A.M. 1661 ; Taxor and PhUosophy Lecturer, 1664 ; Rhetoric 
Lecturer, 1666 ; Bursar and Humanity Lecturer, 1667-9 ; 
Senior Treasurer, 1670 ; Dean and Catechist, 1671 ; Eector 
of Hardwick. Died 1678. 

1679—7 May. Drugonis, or Drue, Cressener, of St. Edmund's 
Bury, Suffolk. Admitted from Christ's College, 1661 ; Greek 
Scholar, A.B., and chosen Fellow 29th August, 1662 ; Rhe- 
toric Lecturer, 1664-5; Hebrew ditto, 1666; Greek ditto, 
1668; Junior Treasurer, 1669 ; Bursar, 1676; Framlingham 
Treasurer, 1667. Had leave to study law or physic, July 5, 
1671. Presented to Wearisley, 26 April, 1677, which he 
resigned 14 Jan., 1678, and was then presented to Soham. 
Junior Proctor, 1678 ; D.D., 1680 ; Prebend of Ely. He 
wrote a Commentary upon the Apocalypse. He died Feb. 
20, 1717, aged 79, and was buried Feb. 23, in the eastern- 
most chapel of Soham Church. The inscription on the flat 
stone is as follows: — Depositum | Drugonis Cressener | 
S.T.P. I Aulas Pembrochianae | PerxvAnnos | Socij | Hujus 
Bcclesiae | Per xxxix Annos | Vicarij | Ecclesiae Eliensis | 
Per XVII Annos | Canonici | Obijtxx Die Mensis| February | 
A D. MDCOXVii. I -3Btatis Suae | lxxix. 

1718— March 25. Reginald Hawkins, of Cornwall, admitted 
1684, A.B., 1687; A.M., and chosen Fellow Oct. 28, 1691. 
Greek Lecturer, 1698 ; Junior Treasurer, 1699 ; Hebrew 
Lecturer, 1701 ; Rhetoric Lecturer, 1702 ; Dean and Cate- 
chist, 1704-5; Chapel Reader 1705; Framlingham Treasurer, 
1706-8; President, 1707; Senior Proctor, 1708. He married 
April 2, 1722, Mrs. Margaret Dixie of Market Bosworth in 
the County of Leicester, Baronet, Cole says he built " the 
elegant and handsome Parsonage house, about the S. W. 
corner of the churchyard, opposite the tower." This would 
be what is now the old part of the vicarage. He died April 
1731 and was buried at Soham, and as Cole says, in the 
middle of the chancel. 

1732 (?) — John Harwood son of Mr. Harwood a draper, of Cam- 
bridge, admitted 1705 ; A.B. 1708 ; chosen fellow 24 Oct., 



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Fbkland Notes akd Queries. 301 

1711 ; A.M. 1712 ; D.D. Died Augast 9, 1746, and buried 
in the chancel of Soham Church. The inscription on the 
stone (und^r the altar) is as follows : (the Mrs. Cawthome 
mentioned is the foundress of " Cawthorne's " charity.) 
" In memory of the Rev. Dr. Harwood, late fellow of Pem- 
broke Hall, vicar of Soham, who died Agut. ye 9th, 1746 ; 
Also of Mrs. Elizabeth Cawthorne, widow, sister of the above 
Dr. Howard, who died 20 Feb., 1782." 

1747 — John Francis, of Canterbury, chosen Fellow Oct. 29, 1738, 
died 1782, aged 72, and buried at Soham. There is however 
nothing to mark the place of burial. 

1782 — The living was sequestrated, John Francis (probably son 
of the Vicar) being Sequestrator. 

1782 — Thomas Wilson, of Yorkshire, chosen Fellow Nov. 3, 1767 ; 
died 1796. He appears to have been instituted to the living 
on Nov. 4, 1782 ; and again on May 13, 1789. 

1797 — Henry Cooper, President of Pembroke College in 1788. 

1798— Henry Fisher, died 1824, aged 77. Buried at Soham. 
There is a tablet to his memory on the wall to the east of the 
north arch in the chancel, bearing the following inscription : 
** In a vault beneath are deposited the remains of the Eev. 
Henry Fisher, M.A., late Fellow of Pembroke Hall, for 
twenty-seven years Vicar of this parish. And an active 
magistrate for the county of Cambridge. Obiit Dec. 18th, 
A.D. 1824. ^tatis suae 77. 

Also of Ann, relict of the above named Henry Fisher, and 
daughter of Robert Fox. Esq., of Dunton Hall, Warwick- 
shire. Obiit May 11, 1825 : -ZEJtatis suae 69. 
Also of Elizabeth King, widow, another daughter of the 
above named Robert Fox, Obiit February 9, A,D. 1822. 
^tatis suse 70." 

The tablet is surmounted with a Coat of Arms, with the 
motto " Virtus sepulchris expers." 

1825 — George Haggitt, of Northamptonshire, chosen Fellow Oct. 
81, 1793. Buried at Soham. A tablet on the north wall of 
the chancel, within the rails, has the following : 



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802 Fexiand Notes axd Queries. 

" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. George Haggitt, Vicar 
of this parish, who died June 1st, 1832, in the 65th year of 
his age. In testimony of his zeal to promote scriptural 
education amongst the poor, he left ten pounds a year for 
ever to the Vicar of Soham, to be applied to the support of 
the Sunday School. This tablet was erected to their lamented 
brother by his affectionate sisters, Anne and Elizabeth 
Haggifct." 
1832— June. Henry Tasker, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke, Honor- 
ary Canon of Ely. The Vicarage was enlarged in 1834» 
the money being borrowed from Queen Anne's Bounty Fund, 
and the last instalment re-paid shortly before Mr. Tasker's 
death. Mr. Thomas Rickman was the architect, and the 
total cost appears to have been about £3,000 exclusive of 
interest, the contractors being Messrs. Bell and Sons. A 
protest of a somewhat formal character was made by the 
College authorities against the proposed enlargement of the 
house, on the ground of its being likely to prove a burden to 
future incumbents, and it seems that some alteration was 
made in the original plan. 

The chancel was restored in 1849, at the joint expense of the 
patrons of the living and the Vicar. 

The Girls' National School, in Bull Lane, was built in the 
year 1857, at a cost of £1650, the money being raised by 
voluntary subscriptions and grants from societies, Mr. Tasker 
apparently making himself responsible for £465. 
The stained glass window at the east end was erected by his 
relations in 1875, it bears the following inscription at the 
base : " In memory of Henry Tasker, Honorary Canon of 
Ely, and 41 years Vicar of this parish, died January 17th, 
1874, aged 79 years." 

He was buried in Wilmington Churchyard, the inscription 
on the stone being ; " Henry Tasker, second son of the above 
John Tasker, Esq., and Sarah Effield Tasker, Honorary 
Canon of Ely, and for 41 years Vicar of Soham, Cambridge- 
shire. Died 17th January, 1874, aged 79 years." 



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Fekland Notes and Queries. 303 

1874 — John Cyprian Rust, M.A. 

Henry Cooper and Henry Fisher, (page 301) are one and the 
game. It seems that this Yicar had some property left him and 
changed his name from Cooper to Fisher. The signature "Henry 
Cooper," occurs once in the parish registers, and is in the same 
handwriting as that of ** Henry Fisher." 

From the "Survey of Church Lands, 1649,"* we extract the 
following : — 

'* Item, We find that the parish of Soame hath a Vicarage of 
one hundred pounds per annum, butt noe settled minister. There 
is a chappell within two (sicj myles being nsed very seldom, butt 
necessarye to be employed. Wee desire that Mr. Daniell Miles of 
Katharine Hull, may continue with us still in the place as he hath 
done. The tythes that belong to the hamlett of Barrowaye doth 
amount unto sixteen pounds per annum, which is parte (?) of the 
one hundred pounds above specified." 

On page 2:39 it was stated that Richard Gauston was presented 
to the living in January 1628. A copy of his will has been met 
with and there appears to be no doubt but that he succeeded 
Coren in the living. His name however should be spelt " Richard 
Gunston." As his will is dated 1545 it is probable he held the 
living until 1547 when the presentation was claimed by Pembroke 
College for Nicholas Ridley. 

Oliver Cromwell appointed one '* John Giles " to the vicarage 
of Soham in 1655, as is seen by the following, but it is not known 
how long Giles held possession : — 

*' Soham, John Giles, rent (?) as aforesaid, by John Claypoole, 

Eobt. Yig (?) Robt. Ram of Spalding, Sam. Wilson, Ewd. 

Dusbenson, of Paston. 

Know all men by these presents that the 7th day of March, in yr. 
1654, there was exhibited to the Commissioners for approbation 
of pubhque preacher a presentation of John Giles, clerke, to ye 
Vicarage of Soham, in ye county of Cambridge, made to him by 

♦ Vol. iii., page 275, Lambeth Palace Library. 



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304 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

His Highness Oliver Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of 
England, and the patron thereof under his seale mannale, together 
with a testimony in the behalfe of the said John Giles of his holy 
and good conversation. Upon pernsall and due consideration of 
the premisses and finding him to be a person qualified as in and 
by the ordinance for such approbation is required, commissioners 
above mentioned have adjudged and approved the said John Giles 
to be a fit person to preach the gospell, and have guaranteed him 
admission and doe admit the said J. Jiles to the vicarage of Soham 
aforesaid to be full and perfect possessor and incumbent thereof. 
And doe hereby signify to all persons concerned herein that he is 
hereby intituled to ye profitts and perquisites and all rights and 
dues incident and belonging to the said vicarage as fully and 
eflFectually as if he had been instituted and inducted according 
to any such laws and customes as have in this case formerly been 
made had or used in this Eealme. In witnesse whereof they have 
caused the common seal to be hereunto aflSxed and the same to be 
attached by the hande of the Kegr. by His Highness in yt behalfe 
appointed. Dated at WhitehaU the 22nd of May, 1655."* 

Two masters of Pembroke Hall Cambridge are worthy of notice 
here because of their efforts with reference to the living of Soham. 

The first is John Langthon, sixth master of Pembroke. He 
was fellow in 1412 ; master 1428 ; and in that time did many 
things worthy of a fellow and master. By his favour with king 
Henry VI., he so far recommended the college to that most pious 
prince, that he obtained for the college the Rectory and Manor of 
Soham, the Priory and Eectory of Great Linton with the chapel 
of S. Margaret of Isleham. 

The other is Laurence Booth, eighth master 1450. A great 
benefactor to the college, particularly in the confirmation of 
Soham, Linton, and Isleham, which were very near being lost in 
the 1st of king Edward IT.f 

* Record Books of Commonwealth, MS. 996, fol. 80, Lambeth Palace 
Library. 

f This and much of the information about the Vicars is derived from 
" Hawes' and Loder*s Framlingham." 



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FbniiAbd Notes ahb Quebik. 



305 



LIST OF OUBATES. 

The list is nofc complete, and the dates (previous to 1850) do 
not necessarily denote the year of appointment. 



1527— Thos. Dobet (?) 
1552 — ^Matthew Lawson 
1582 — John Williamson 
1599 \ Thomas Walker, M.A., 

to [- S. John's College, 

1620 / Cambridge 

1622— Robert Pull 
1629 — Gyles Banokes 
1684— Ed. Whin 
1672 — ^Thomas Bridge 
1673— W. Wagstaffe 
1679 — Samuel Stanes 

„ — Robert Mousey 

„ — ^Zach. Paley 
1684 — Josh. Thompson 

1702 Newby 

1725 — J. Murgatroyd 
1729— Chrs. Hodgson 
1731 — Brian Berks 
1746— Wm. Wade 
1781 — James Bentham 
1783 — John Francis, junior 
1788 J 

to VCharlesHill 
1806* 
1806— John Ashley 



1846— Daniel Winham 

„ — Alfred Nicholas Bull 
1847— G, D. Haughton 

„ — Jas. Newsam 
1850 ^ 

to > Jas. Wm, Cockshott, M. A. 
1857 i 
1851^ 

to [-William Waller, M.A. 
1856) 

1854— William Wilson 
1856 — ^Arthur Charles Copeman 
1857 ^ 

to > William Shipman, M.A. 
1870) 
1856 J 

to [■ AUeyne Jas. Holmes, M.A. 
1871) 

1870-4 John Imrie, M.A. 
1871 — ^Arth. Richardson Meurant 
1872— Chas. J. Armistead, M.A. 
1873-4 William Bluck 
1874-5 Wm. Fred. Creeny,M.A. 
1874-7 G. Rainey Fletcher, B.A. 
1876-9 J. PopMn Morgan, M.A. 
1878^ 

to >- H. Aldersey Swann, M.A. 



1814— John William Butt 

1817 — James Edward de Tisme 1881 ) 

1818— Chas. Jos. Orman, B.A. 1879 ^ 

1825— Caleb CoUins to I Wm. Geo. Deighton, M.A. 

„ —William Wilson 1882) 

1831— W. K. Fletcher 1882-5 Clement Henry Brown 

1836— R. L. Page 1882-5 Jos. R. Olorenshaw, BA. 

1837— Charles Smith 1885-9 E. Osborne Jones, M.A. 

1845 — ^James Tidemore 1889 — Tom Ainsworth Beode 



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306 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

* In fche certificate of Nicholas West, Bishop of Ely and John 
Huddylston and Philip Paris, Commissioners for the collection of 
the loan in Cambridgeshire (raised in 1522) containing the names 
of the persons, their values taxable, and the amount with which 
they were charged, we find the following list referring to Soham : — 

" Edward Besteney 400 marks ; Thos. Besteney £40 ; John 
Pecche £70 ; John Henryson £30 ; Edwd. Bemys 100 marks ; 
Eic. Yaxlee £40 ; Jno Webbe £24 ; Thos. Yaxlee £30 ; Thos. 
Peche £40 ; Jno. Salusbury £40 ; Rich. Bye £30 ; Wm. Gore 
£26/13/4 ; Robt. Salusbury £20 ; Thos. Do we £40 ; Wm. Parre 

£26 ; £40 ; Hy Howett £20 ; Thos. Peche £23 ; 

Wm. Peche £20 ; Edmond Wake £20 ; John Garsham £25 ; 
Margett WoUyngham, widow £30." 

t Orders of the Gambrulge Militia,— On April 6, 1639, 250 
footmen were impressed for service and were allowed 8d. a day for 
— days march between Cambridge and Selby upon Cross ; the 
following being taken from Soham : — Henry Langham, John 
Balathfield (?), William Palmer, and Robert Price, 

In the same year a levy was made for sending out 30 cart horses 
and carters for service in Northern parts, and Staplehoe hundred 
contributed £30 out of £500 from Cambridgeshire, 

In 1640, 800 soldiers and 50 cart horses were levied from 
Oambs., Staplehoe hundred providing £55/10/0, 3 horses and 
25 men. 

And on June 21, 1640, 250 footmen were impressed from 
Cambs., those from Soham being Roger Langham, John Darby, 
Adam How, Thomas Gilbert, and Thomas Taylor. 

COPIES OP INSCRIPTIONS UPON TOMBSTONES, OR MEMORIAL 
TABLETS IN THE CHURCH. 

Chancel. 
Under the Altar : Rev. Dr. Harwood's (see list of Vicars). 

North Wall 
East of the fresco and within the rails : Rev. George Haggitt's. 

* State Papers, Domestic, 14 Henry 8. 2640. B.M. 
t Harleian MSS. 4014. B.M. . 



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Pbnland Notes akd Qubriis. 307 

Between the west arch of the chancel and arch opening into 
choir vestry, a tablet with the following inscription : " Sacred to 
the memory of John Dobede, Esq., of Soham Place, who died 
March 4, 1827, aged 62 years. Also of Margaretta his wife, who 
died Jannary 7, 1845, aged 87 years." 

Over the arch into vestry and on its west side : " Sacred to the 
memory of Joseph Fairman Dobede, son of John Dobede, Esq., 
of Soham Place, who died Jnne 11, 1845, aged 29 years. Also of 
Amelia Charlotte Dobede who died April 10, 1847, aged 22 years. 
Also of Emmeline Agnes Dobede, who died May 27, 1847, aged 
18 years." The above has coat of arms with motto " A son droit." 

Exactly over the centre of the same arch: "Sacred to the 
memory of Margaretta Frances Dobede, eldest daughter of John 
Dobede, Esq., of Soham Place, who died June 9, 1837, aged 18 
years. Also of Elizabeth Dobede, his second daughter, who died 
April 4, 1833, aged 12 years. Also of Catherine Jane, and 
William Pechey Dobede, who died in their infancy." The above 
has coat of arms with motto illegible. 

To the east of the above : " Sacred to the memory of Ellen, 

the wife of John Dobede, Esq., of Exning Lodge, who died April 

22, 1847, aged 25 years." Coat of arms with motto " Chacun a 

son droit." 

South Wall 

Close up to the east end, and within the rails, over the piscina : 
« In memory of Mrs. Frances May, widow of Mr. Thomas May, 
of Newmarket, and daughter of Mr. John Dobede, senr, of this 
parish. She died at Norwich on 8rd June, 1828, aged 69, and 
was interred at Hethersett in Norfolk. This tablet is erected in 
filial remembrance of a kind and aflfectionate parent by her only 
daughter Anne the wife of George Dennes, gentleman, of London." 
Choir Vestry, East Wall. 

" In memory of William Pechey, gentleman, who departed this 
life July 16th, 1697, aged 65 years. At the great day of judg- 
ment when the secrets of all Hearts shall be discovered then shall 
it be known what sort of man he was. Also, of Margaret, his 
wife, who departed this life 17 March, 1807, aged 82," 



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308 Fenland Notes and Queries. 



In north-easfc comer, on the floor : " In memory of Dorothy, 

wife of Robert Hamond, Her most sorrowfvll hvsband hath in 

token of his trve love dedicated this. She bare vnto the said 

Eobt Hamond, 8 children, 6 sonnes and 2 daughters, now living, 

and haveing rvnne ye race of her life here like a dvtifvU child, a 

sweet consort, a discreet mother, in ye midest of trovbles, possessing 

her sovle with patience, she willingly commended it into ye hands 

of God, and layd down ye tabernacle of her flesh in confidence of 

its resvrrection to a more happy life, ye 2nd day of Feb. An 

Dnil616." .r . ^ 

North Transept 

West wall over west arch and on south side of it : " Sacred to 
the memory of Mr. John Slack, late of this place, who died 
February 17th, 1840, aged 53 years. And of Margaretta Slack, 
his wife, died 25th June, 1871, aged 83 years." And on the floor 
near the south end of the screen is a small square block : " Mr. 
John Slack, 1840." 

Exactly over centre of same arch : " M. S. Martini Wilkin qui 
filius Thomae et Elizae Wilkin Ingenuorum, natus Anno Domini 
1674, obiit 1753. Etiam Sarae Mayer, filiae Nathanielis et Elizae 
Sterne ; Martini Wilkin et postquam ille obiisset Gulielmi Mayer 
Chirurgi, Uxoris. Nata est Anno Domini 1707 obiit 1776— 
Novissima dicimus. Valete Valete. Vos ordine, quo Natura 
permiserit nos cuncti sequemur. S: V: T: L." Surmounted by 
a coat of arms, and with cherub at base. 

North-east corner on the floor: "Here resteth the body of 
Thomas Wilkin, the elder, gent, who departed this life, the 22nd 
day of July, Anno Dom 1699 aged 65 years and 5 months. Here 
also lyeth ye body of Eiizth. Wilkin, wife to ye said Tho Wilkin 
who dyed December ye 11th, 1721, aged 81 years and 1 month." 
North Transept. 

North-west corner on the floor : " Here lye interred ye bodyes 
of Thomas Docwra, gent., and Mary his wife." No date. 
South Transept 

South wall : Inscription to the Dowman family at back of 
double piscina. (See p. 232, Part VII.) 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 309 

East wall, to the north of window : " Sacred to the memory of 
Thomas Cockayne, late of this parish Esqr. who died the 31st of 
July, 1778 aged 69. And also of Elizabeth, relict of the said 
Thomas Cockayne, who died the 29th of April, 1798, aged 75. 
And of Elizabeth, daughter of the aforesaid Thomas and Elizabeth 
who died an infant. This monument is gratefully and affection- 
ately inscribed by Thomas Cockayne of lekleford, in the county 
of Hertford, Esquire, their only son and representative." Coat 
of arms at base. 

West wall, and south of arch: "Sacred to the memory of 

James Merest, Esq., late of the Moat, in this parish, grandson of 

James Merest, Esq., many years clerk assistant to the House of 

Lords. He died May 6, 1812, aged 53 years. And of Elizabeth 

his wife, who died at Winscombe Court, Co. Somerset, Oct. 22, 

1834, aged 79 years, and was there interred." Coat of arms with 

motto " Invidia Major." 

South Aisle, 

Close to arch leading into transept and on south wall over the 
ambry : " Sacred to the memory of John Pechey, Esq., of the 
Holmes, Soham, who died March 29, 1818, in the Q^ year of his 
age. Also of Richard, son of the above John Pechey and Mary 
his wife, who died Feb. 6, 1795, aged 15 years." 

To the west of the south door and on the south wall : " Sacred 

to the memory of John Drage, Esq., who died 29th of April 1791, 

aged 72 years. Also of Sarah his wife, sister and heiress of Wm. 

Derisley, gent, who died 24 June, 1777, aged 76 years." Has 

coat of arms at base. 

South Aisle. 

Immediately under the arch into transept a stone with inscrip- 
tions to the memory of two or three members of the Dobede 
family, but the words are illegible. 

Just within the south door a black marble slab on the floor, 
with death's head and crossbones (the words now partly illegible) ; 
** In memory of Alice Shanks widow, of this parish who died ye 
9 day of January, 1730, aged 66 years. And also of Alice the 
wife of James Alexander, gent., the only child of the above-named 
AUce Shanks, who died ye 28th day of April, 1750, aged 63 years." 



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310 Fekland Notes and Qubeibs. 

On the west wall : "In memory of William Deridey, gent. An 
eminent attorney late of Staple Inn, London, whose extensive 
knowledge in ye law which he practised with great integrity, 
reputation and success was happily united with the several virtues 
and accomplishments which adorn the christian, the friend and 
the gentleman. He died June ye 5th, A.D. 1754, ^tat 44. In 
memory of Philippa Derisley, spinster who died Feby. the 5, 1755, 
-^tat 51. In memory of Phihppa Derisley, widow, who died 
Feby. the 4th, 1759, Mtsit 77." 

JN'orth Aisle. 

On floor at entrance, a black marble slab : " Here lieth the 
' bodie of John Lier, gent., son and heire of John Lier, and late 
of this parish, who departed this life 19th of October, A.D. 1655." 
The whole of this inscription is now nearly illegible. 
Nave — North Side. 

Between the middle arch and the one on its east side and over the 
octagon pillar : " In memory of William Wilkin, gent., who died 
Deer. 5, 1802, aged 70 years. Also, Mary Wilkin, his wife, who 
died Nov. 13, 1820, aged 83 years. Also, of William Wilkin, 
gent., their son, who died Jan. 7, 1831, aged 34 years." 
Nave, — Small brass to " Oliver Robyus." 
Brass on the base of Pulpit 

"This pulpit is erected to the Glory of God and in loving 
memory of Charles George Warren, who was drowned in the 
wreck of the steam ship Carnatic, in the Red Sea, September xiv, 
MDCCCLXix." Outside the Church. 

On east wall of south transept : " In a vault near this place is 
deposited the body of Thomas Cockayne, gent, who departed this 
life Jan. 30, 1737, in the 74th year of his age. Also the body of 
Judith his wife, who died Dec. 28, 1741, aged 72." 
At base of Tozver on south side. 

" Near this place is buried the body of Edmund Cumbers, who 
died in this parish ye 23rd day of April, 1794, aged 62. To whose 
memory and as a tribute of respect for forty-two years faithful 
services in one family this stone was ordered to be erected." 
Te be continued. 



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FEiHiAND Notes and Queries. 311 

208.-Ramsey Heights or Aits.— (No. 204, Part IX).— 
"Heights" does not necessarily mean great elevations. It 
might refer to those parts elevated above the Mere, or not subject 
to floods. Sax., heatho, means top, or reckoning from the 
bottom. We call the high seas, the deep. Hihth> was heights. 
Hig, high ; Eeah, lofty or noble. Our present spelling is some- 
what misleading, Milton wrote "highth"; the word was also 
written heygth formerly. The levels on the Ordnance map will 
show whether the part should be " heights." 

But "Ait" or eyght is a small island in a river. Both these 
are probably compounds. (Sax. ea^ also ig, an island). The 
locality will enable one to determine which name is appropriate. 
Now we write eyot for a little island. 

The Standard of June 15th, 1891, contains a letter deprecating 
the threatened " Destruction of Kew Ait." The writer says :— 
"Kew Ait is one of the prettiest of the Thames islands, and to 
destroy it would be a piece of vandalism." 

S. H. Miller, Lowestoft. 

" Ait " : A. S. dim. of ieg or ig^ an islet or little isle in a river 
or lake, an eyot or egot^ Blackstone II, 261 ; written also ey^ ayty 
eyet, eyght. R. Hodges uses it, 1649, " The ait where osiers grew." 
The writer in the TItms might have the above in mind when he 
wrote August, 1844, "Ait, a little Island in a River where osiers 
grew," Another author has a similar definition, " Among green aits 
and meadows " (Dickens). These definitions would apply to Ramsey 
Aits, I presume, and their surroundings. Hence the inference is 
pretty clear that ayt, eyet, or &ygU, is the proper mode of spelling, 
and not h&ightSy which would seem to indicate High Lands, an 
elevated district. "• -^' 

209 —The French Colony at Thomey.— (No. 31, Part II.)— 
Warner in his history says : " Nothing appears to be known for 
certain of the continental origin of this community." Can any 
reader of Fmland NoUs throw any light on a subject which would 
be of great interest to many of their descendants still living in 
the Fenland. Looking over a transcript of the Registers of the 



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312 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

Protestants' Church at Guisnes, 1668-1685, I was mterested on 
finding in it a great number of the names which I have before met 
with in extracts from the Sandtoft and Thormy French Registers. 
That of Sandtoft is said to have been carefully kept from 1641 
to 1681, and that of Thorney from 1654 to 1727. The inference 
is, that these three congregations were allied, and that we may 
look to the district east of Calais and Dunkirk (of which the 
churches of Marck and Guisnes, 6 miles east of Calais), were the 
centres) as being the source from which the Sandtoft and Thorney 
congregations emanated. Ezekiel Danois, the first minister of 
the Thorney congregation, 1652-1674, has been identified with 
Eziekiel Daunois, who is recorded as having been minister of the 
Huguenot congregation at Boulogne 1633-1650 by M. V. J. 
Vaillant. g, E. 

210.-George Pox in the Penland.— Towards the close of 
1656, George Fox, the Quaker, writes in his journal : 

"After having had several meetings in Lincolnshire, I had at 
last a meeting where two knights, one called Sir Richard Wrey, 
and the other Sir John Wrey, with their wives, were at the 
meeting. One of their wives was convinced, received the truth, 
and died in it. When the meeting was over we passed away ; and 
it being evening, and dark, a company of wild serving men 
encompassed me about, with intent (as I apprehended) to do me 
mischief. But I spoke aloud to them, and asked, ' What are ye, 
highwaymen?' Whereupon some Friends and friendly people 
that were behind, came up to us, and knew some of them. So I 
reproved some of them for their uncivil and rude carriage, and 
exhorted them to fear God ; and the Lord's power came over them, 
and stopped their mischievous design : blessed be his name for 
ever ! 

"Then I turned into Huntingdonshire: and the Mayor of 
Huntingdon came to visit me, and was very loving, and his wife 
received the truth. 

" Thence I passed into Cambridgeshire, and the Fen country, 
where I had many meetings, and the Lord's truth spread. Eobert 



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Fknulnd Notes and Qubribs. 313 

Craven (who had been Sheriff of Lincoln), and Amos Stoddart, 
and Alexander Parker, were with me. We went to Crowland, a 
very mde place ; for the town's-people were collected at the inn 
we went to, and were half drunk, both priest and people. I 
reproved them for their drunkenness, and warned them of the day 
of the Lord, that was coming upon all the wicked ; exhorting 
them to leave their drunkenness, and turn to the Lord in time. 
Whilst I was thus speaking to them, and showing the priest the 
fruits of his ministry, he and the clerk broke out in a rage, and 
got up the tongs and fire-shovel to us ; so that had not the Lord's 
power preserved us, we might have been murdered amongst them. 
Yet, for all their rudeness and violence, some received the truth, 
and have stood in it ever since. 

" Thence we passed to Boston, where most of the chief of the 
town came to our inn, and the people seemed much satisfied. But 
there was a raging man in the yard, and Eobert Graven was moved 
to speak to hun, and told him he shamed Christianity, which with 
some few other words so stopped the man, that he went away 
quiet. Some were convinced there also." 

The name of the "loving" Mayor of Huntingdon here 
mentioned I have not been able to obtain. The drunken priest 
of Crowland would appear to have been Kichard Lee, presented 
to the Eectory in 1654, and again in the following year, who 
remained till 1671. 

Fox again visited this district in 1662. Writing in that year, 
he says : 

" Travelling into Lincohishire and Huntingdonshire, I came to 
Thomas Pamell's, where the Mayor of Huntingdon came to see 
me and was very loving. Thence I came into the Fen country, 
wheite we had large and quiet meetings. While I was in that 
country, there came so great a flood that it was dangerous to go 
out, yet we did get out, and went to Lynn, where we had a blessed 
meeting. Next morning I went to visit some prisoners there, and 
then back to the inn, and took horse. As I was riding out of the 
yard, the officers came to search the inn for me. I knew nothing 
of it then, only I felt a great burthen come upon me as I rode 



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314 Fenlanp Notes and Queries. 

out of the town, till without the gates. When some Friends that 
came after overtook me, they told me that the officers had been 
searching for me in the inn as soon as I was gone out of the yard." 

Chas. B. Dawes, 

211.— Knights of the Royal Oak in Hunts.— This order was 
founded by Charles II. soon after the Restoration, as a reward to 
several of his followers. The Knights were to wear a siver medal 
with the device of the king in the oak of Boscobel pendant to a 
ribbon around their necks. It was subsequently thought proper 
to lay it aside, as it was found only to re-open old wounds and 
create animosity. The following list of names of persons in 
Huntingdonshire ^with the amount of their annual incomes) who 
were recommended for this dignity is obtained from a record kept 
at the time : — 

Major Lyonel Walden, Esq 0600£ 

Henry Williams, Esq., of Bodsey 2000 

Apreece, of Washingley, Esq 1000 

Robert Apreece, Esq 1500 

John Stone, Esq 1000 

Richard Naylor, Esq ...0600 

Thomas Rous, Esq 0800 

Chas. E. Dawes. 

21 2.— The Seven Townships of Marshland.— Mr. E, M. Beloe, 
of Lynn, made the following reference to the seven townships of 
Marshland in a recent lecture delivered at Lynn : — 

There is in the great basin which forms the Fen country a 
pavement as it were of peat. We have to limit our inquiry to a 
district which extends not more than 20 miles around Lynn. The 
whole of that district is paved as it were with peat. It is under- 
neath the whole town of Lynn. It runs up to the hills at 
Gaywood ; it goes through the whole of Marshland ; it edges the 
sea wherever it goes to Hunstanton and Brancaster. If you want 
to get a fine section of it you cannot do better than take a boat 
at low tide up the Estuary Cut. You wiU find about six feet from 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 315 

the surface one level line quite the whole four miles on both sides, 
which the cut divides. The district to which we must narrow our 
inquiry is bounded by the Nene on the one side, and by the Ouse 
on the other. These are the eastern and western boundaries, the 
northern being the Wash, and the southern the Fens. Leaving, 
then, the peat district uncovered which is the fen proper, go 
further south than the great fen, which at one time formed the 
common. It has since been divided up ; it is now called the 
Marshland Fen and the Marshland Smeeth. Radiating from this 
common are the seven townships of Marshland, which were once 
open to the sea, and they must have joined, when the sea ebbed 
and flowed over them, to form a great barrier and to shut it out. 
There must have been a great combination, for they formed a 
bank, which is the eastern boundary to the Nene, the northern 
boundary on the sea, and the western boundary passing what was 
then the Lin. Now, we will take this bank as the boundary of 
Marshland, and we will call it by its name, the Roman Bank. 
The Soman Bank formed the eastern boundary of the river Ouse, 
running down and forming a defence from the sea, which then 
flowed up past the Wiggenhalls. The people that formed the 
seven parishes called them by names which, as to four, had re- 
ference to this bank. We have the Wal-soken, the Wal-ton, and 
the Wal-pole, all of them having reference to the bank ; for 
"wall" formerly did not mean only that which was built of 
bricks and mortar, but anything of earth as well. Thus we have 
Clenchwarton— one of these seven towns, and the name of this 
village has a very singular derivation, to which I must call your 
attention! The " war " in Clenchwarton is well known to be 
equivalent to guard. The Warborough is a beacon, and is so 
marked on the Ordnance map ; there are two on the north coast 
of Norfolk, and War-ham, near Wells, with its grand Danish 
Camp is the Guard-town. The Wartown or Guardtown is a town 
which is created entirely by banks. You may take that name as 
clear as you may the Walpoles and Walton. The first syllable is 
also singular and can well be made out. It is written in Domes- 
day "Clench," precisely as on the other side or the German Ocean 



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316 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

we have " Helvoefc sluys." Now, mind, a sluice then was not as 
we have it now — to let water in, but " sluice" comes from exclusia 
—to exclude the water. That is well-known ; and therefore we 
have in Clenchwarton the town guarded by banks excluding the 
water. 

21 3.— The Brownes of Walcot, in the parish of Barnack, co. 
Northampton.— This family, long seated here, is said to have been 
descended from Sir John Browne (woodmonger) merchant taylor, 
a native it is said of Rutland, Lord Mayor 1480, son of John 
Brown, alias Moses, of Oakham and London, who was son of 
Richard Brown, alias Moses, of Oakham. Their pedigree has been 
imperfectly given in Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage^ and 
wrongly in WrigMs Rutland, In the following and succeeding 
papers I shall endeavour from par. regs., wills, and notes, in my 
own collection, to render it somewhat more complete, as to 
data, &c., &c. 

Sir John Browne, the Lord Mayor, named above, in his will 
dated 3 Nov. 1496 pr. 25 Jan. following describes himself as a 
Knight, Citizen and Alderman of London; desires to be buried in 
the parish church of St. Mary Magdalene, in Milk-street ; names 
his late son Richard as being buried in the church of St. Thomas 
of Acres and desires prayers to be said for the repose of his soul ; 
specially mentions the town of Lowyk, in Northumbland 
(? Luflfwyk, Northamps.), and bequeaths a sum towards the parish 
church there, and to "my poor kynnefolk dwelling within the said 
county;" and moneys to various persons to pray for his soul, 
among them being Maister George Werke, clerk, and Alice his 
sister ; Thomas and Raufe a Werke ; James a Werke, his wife 
and children ; Margaret Haydock, widow ; Sir John Fenkell, 
Knt., and my lady his wife ; Edward Fenkell, &c. Names his 
wife's sister, Elizabeth Belknap, late the wife of Richd. Hatton 
(? Haddon), mercer, and "my cosen her sonDoctour Hatton, and 
Margarefce Hosier, wife of John Hosier, mercer," and " my wife's 
brother, Thomas Belwoode." Leaves bequests to the four children 
of his son William (naming his late wife as " Kateryn, daughter 



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Fenland Notes iim Qitxbiis. 317 

of Lady Shaa ")> also to John "West, mercer, and his children ; 
George Neville, mercer, &c. '* Cosen " William Browne, mercer, 
of Stebonhethe (Stepney) is left overseer of the will, and wife 
Anne, and sons William and Thomas. 

Sir William Browne, Lord Mayor, 1513, son of Sir John in his 
will dated 29 May and pr. 1 July 1513, describes himself as 
" Citizen and Alderman of the City of London, nowe Maior of 
the same Citie;" desires to be buried in the church of St. Thomas 
the Martyr, called Aeon. After naming his late father, Sir John 
Browne, Knight, and Dame Anne, late wife, the following names 
occur : Maister Doctour Shorten ; Doctour BoUond ; "Katheryn 
late my wife," present wife, Dame Alice ; his children William, 
John Matthewe, Anne, and Elizabeth ; Sir Edmonde Shaa, and 
Dame Juliane, his wife (being named conjointly with the names 
of his own father and mother, undoubtedly these are the parents 
of his late wife Kateryn) ; Cousin Kateryn (Alee ?) ; John West, 
mercer, and my " cosen" his wife; godson Willm West, their son, 
and his brother John ; Isibell pyke ; Willm. Browne the younger, 
son of William Browne the elder,* late Alderman ; Richard 
Fermor, grocer ; Margaret Riche, wid. ; Erasmus Forde, mercer; 
cousins Thos. Riche and his sister Kateryn Riche, and (Frysell ?), 
Priour of Rochester. Also bequests to the children of his uncle, 
Thos. Belwoode, and to my poor kinsfolk's on my fathers side in 

(*Sir William B. the elder, Lord Mayor 1507, in his wm dated 20 
Mch. 1507, pr, in P.C.O. 6 June 1508, describes himself as "WiUiam 
Browne the elder, Citizen and Alderman of the Citie of London ;" desires 
to be buried in the parish church of our Lady in Aldermanbury. Leaves 
bequests to Thos Hynde, citizen and mercer, and my daughter his wife ; 
sons Anthony and Leonard Browne on their coming to lawful age or being 
married; cousin Mr. Geo. Works, elk ; my child Thos ToreU (?); my cousin 
Wm. Browne, Alderman, son of Sir John Browne, Knt., Sec. ; names his six 
chHdren, William, Anthony, Leonard, Kateme, Margaret, and Anne; lands 
and tenements at Stebonhith and in the town of Calais, left to his son 
WiUiam ; lands, &c., in the parish of S. Laurence Pountney to his son 
Anthony with reversion to son Leonard, who is likewise to inherit lands 
and tenements in the parish of our Lady, in Aldermanbury, in the lane 
caUed Love Lane. Bxecutors: Elizabeth my wife; my cousin Willm. 
Browne, Alderman, son of Sir John Browne ; Thos. Hynde, citizen and 
mercer ; and Sir Robert Rede, Knt., 0. J. of the Common Pleas). 



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318 ' PBNLAin) Notes and Qitbribs. 

Northumberland ; specifies the children of his wife Alice as John, 
Matthewe, Anne, and Elizabeth, appointing the said Alice their 
guardian ; soft William mentioned as under age. Leave bequests 
to Sir Tho. Tyrrel, Knt., and my lady his wife; and to my 
daughter Juliane, now wife of John Munday, citizen and Alderman 
of London ; and to my father in law Henry Kebyll, Alderman. 
Lands &c. in Essex, Executors : Henry Kebyll, John Munday, 
Robt. Blagge, one of the Barons of the King's Exchequer, and 
his sou Willm Browne. Overseers : Sir Thos. Lovell, Knt. ; 
Richd. Broke, sergt-at-law ; John West, mercer ; John Hosyar 
(Hosier ?), mercer. Assistant to the executors : Master Doctor 
Shorten. Alice widow of testator, mar. Willm. Blount, 4th Lord 
Montjoy, soon after her husband's death, died in 1521 and was 
bur. in the church of the Grey Friars. 

Sir John, L.M., 1480, is said to have had two wives, his first 
was Alice Swinstead, and by her a son, Robert, and his second 
Anne Belwood. In his will before quoted, he desires prayers to 
be said for the repose of the soul of his son Richard, surely he 
would have done so for a late wife. The Harl. M.S., 1541, fol. 
135b, has a Browne pedigree, in which Sir John's ancestor is 
stated to be Sir Anthony Browne, K.B. to Hen. 4. He is given 
2 wives, Alice Swinstead and Anne Belwood, from the former of 
whom the Brownes of Walcot (arms, az., a chevron betw. 3 
escallops or, within a bordure engr. gu) are made to spring from 
the latter, the Sir William, L.M. 1507 (instead of 1513). If 
any reliance can be placed thereon, we have at once the Montague 
Brownes, of Beechworth castle, Surrey, established as being of 
the same stock as we are now treating. It is somewhat strange 
that in not one of the wills quoted before is there the remotest 
allusion to the county of Rutland, from which hailed Sir John, 
L.M., 1490. One would think that the church of Oakham, its 
guilds, or poor would receive some recognition of his regard, 
Robert, his son, progenitor of the Walcot branch of the family. 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, settled here in the reign of Henry 
7, mar. Isabel, dau. and heiress of Sir John Sharpe, Knt., and 
had Robert, his successor, Edward, a Knight of Rhodes, and a 



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Fenlakd Notes and Qubbies. 319 

dau. Isabel (called Margaret in the Quarles' ped.), m. to George 
Quarles, of Uflford, co. Northamps, esq. 

Justin Simpson. Stamford, 

To he continued. 

214.-Miller's Toll Disli.-(No. 206, Part IX).— In reply to 
the correspondent who asks for information concerning the Miller's 
Toll Dish I may say it was the measure of the quantity of corn 
taken in payment for the grinding, and seems to be a relic of the 
old system of barter. " Toll is a part lifted off or taken away." 
Tooke connected it with the p. participle of A. Sax. Tilian, to 
lift up ; also, to till (to lift up the soil). A bell is tolled by being 
lifted up. 

Tol, tole, tohl, A. Sax., a tax, tool, &c., from tilian. (Sfa'nner). 

We find the phrase in Ivanhoe. After the first day's tourna- 
ment at Ashby, Gurth was entrusted with a bag of money for 
Isaac the Jew, but returning from the town with money still in 
his possession he encountered robbers, with one of whom he had 
a little fencing, whereat the other robbers, laughing, cried out, 
" Miller ! beware thy toll-dish." 

S. H. Miller, Lowestoft. 

21 5.— Metrical Description of the Pens, 1685.— The accom- 
panying verses appeared in a small volume published in 1685, said 
to be written by Samuel Fortrey, Esq., entitled " The History or 
Narrative of the Great Level of the Fenns called Bedford Level." 
The main facts in the " Narrative, &c.," are principally the same 
as those in Wells' " Bedford Level," but a paragraph relating to 
the Commons may be interesting to readers of Fmland Notes, 
The writer says : — " Most of the Commons in the map (Jonas 
Moore's) described, out of which the 95,000 acres were taken, are 
(by the Countrey) in Pursuance of the Act 15, Car. 2,, lately 
divided and enjoyed as Severals to the particular Owners and 
Commoners of such respective Towns to which those Commons 
belonged. And others finding that such Division and Cutting of 
the Conmions proved a great wast of Ground, and the Fences 
hard to be kept, and the great diminution of Stock, and decay of 



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320 PBNiiAND Notes and Qitbeibs, 

Houses ; many selling their Lands from the same, to the increasing 
of the Poor. Therefore they would not divide, but have by 
Agreement decreed in Chancery the same by way of a Stint to 
feed the same, every house alike ; so that in some Towns there is 
above 2,000 Milch Cows, besides a great running Stock fed 
thereon, viz., Cofctenham, Chartresse, March, Wimblington, Maney> 
and other Towns to their great improvement and Enriching." 
The verses are introduced at the end of the " Narrative " as a 
Postscript of the Bookseller to the Reader. He says :— " I have 
had come to my hands the verses following, which I find were 
formerly writ on this Subject by some Ingenious hand ; and 
therefore I thought it might not be amiss to annex them here- 
unto." 
A True and Natural Description of the Great Level of the Fenns. 

I sing no Battels fought, nor Armies foiled, 
Nor Cities raz'd nor Commonwealths embroil'd, 
Nor any History, which may move your tears. 
Or raise your spleens, or multiply your Fears ; 
But I bespeak your wonder, your delight, 
And would your Emulation fain invite. 

I sing Floods muzled, and the Ocean tam'd. 

Luxurious Eivers govern'd, and reclam'd, 

Waters with Banks confin'd, as in a Graol, 

Till kinder Sluces let them go on Bail ; 

Streams curb'd with Dammes like bridles, taught t'obey, 

And run as strait, as if they saw their way. 

I sing of heaps of Water turn'd to Land, 

Like an Elixir by the Chymist's hand. 

Of Dropsies cur'd, where not one Limb was sound. 

The Liver rotted, all the Vitals drown'd. 

No late discover'd Isle, nor old Plantation 

New Christned, but a kind of New Creation. 



I 



I sing of heaps of Gold, and Indian Ore, 
Of private Profit, and of Public Store ; 
No fine Romance, nor Fables I invent. 
Nor Coyn Utopia's, but a Scene present. 
Which with such rare, yet real bliss doth Swell, 
As would perswade a Monk to leave his Cell. 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 321 



I sing of an Afcchievmeat, from above, 

Both Blest aad Crown'd, which God aad good Men Love, 

Which Kings and States encourage and protect 

With Prudent Power, which none can disaflEect, 

But the poor Fish, who now wants room to play 

Hassocks, and Men with Heads more rough than they. 

Go on, Brave Vndertakers, and Succeed, 
In spight of Brutish Clamours, take no heed 
To those that curse your Generous labours ; he 
That good refrains 'cause Men unthankful be, 
Mistakes true Vertues aim, each worthy Act 
Doth a Reward, beyond Applause, expect. 

Make universal Plenty, and restore 
What Ten years Wars have ruin'd ; let the Poor 
Share your wise Alms, some will perhaps confess 
Their Obligation, and your Vertues bless ; 
But if the present Age forget their Friends, 
Be sure Posterity wiU make amends. 

They'll be indifferent Judges, at what Bates, 
And with what Arts you purchas'd your Estates, 
They will not grudge that you took so much Land, 
But wonder why you did not more demand ; 
They'l candidly believe, that Publick Zeal 
Had more of Influence here, than Private Weal. 

When by your Noble Pattern and Success, 
Taught and encourag'd all Men shall profess 
A hate of Sloth, and so the Sea shall more 
Feel your Example, than your Skill before. 
Whilst all to work that Publick Tyrant's bane, 
At once Conspire, as if he were a Dane. 

When such as have no Wit but to defame 

All generous Works, and blast them with the Name 

Of giddy Projects, are described to be 

But slaves to Custom, Friiends to Popery, 

And ranckt with those, who, lest they should accuse 

Their Sires, no harness, but the Tail, will use. 

When to your Glory, all your Banks shall stand 
Like the immortal Pyramide, and your Land 
Forget it e're was Sea, when those dull Wits, 
That Judge by Sence, become time's Proselytes, 
And such as know no other Argument, 
Shall be at last confuted by th' Event. 



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322 Fenlahd Notes and Queries. 

When Bedford's stately Bank, and noble Drain, 
Shall Paralell the Streights of Magellane, 
Or Hercules his Pillars, in due Fame, 
Because they wear your Livery in their Name, 
And your ]^noun shall share the Bays with theirs, 
Who, in times past, built Amphitheaters. 

When Cities shall be built, and Houses tall 
As the proud Oak, which you their Pounders call. 
Fair Orchards planted, and the Myrtle Grove, 
Adorn'd, as if it were the Scene of Love. 
Gardens with Flowers of such auspicious hew, 
You'ld swear, that Eden in the Desert grew. 

When it appears, the All-sufficient Soyl, 

With Primitive Strength, yields as much Corn as Oyl, 

To make our Hearts strong, as our Faces gay. 

Meadows so blest with Grass, so charg'd with Hay, 

With goodly Kine, and Beeves replenisht so, 

As if they stood upon the Banks of Po. 

When all dire Vapours (if there any were. 
Besides the Peoples breath) are tum'd to Air, 
Pure as the Upper Region ; and the Sua ; 
Shall shine like one well pleas'd with what is done. 
When Agues, Scurveys, Coughs, Consumptions, Wind, 
All Crude Distempers here their Cure shall find. 

When with the change of Elements, suddenly 
There shall a change of Men and Manners be ; 
Hearts, thick and tough as Hydes, shall feel Eemorse, 
And Souls of Sedge shall understand Discourse, 
New hands shall learn to Work, forget to Steal, 
New leggs shall go to Church, new knees shall kneel. 

When Ouse proves Helicon, when the Nean forsake 
Their lofty Mountain, and themselves betake 
To this delicious Vale, when Caps and Gowns 
Are seen at Wisbich ; when for sordid Clowns, 
And savage Scythians, There Succeeds a Eace, 
Worthy the Bnss and Genius of the place. 

What Trophees will you purchase then ? what Bays 
Will ye acquire ? what Acclamations raise ? 
What greater Satisfaction ? what Reward 
Of higher price, can all the World afford. 
Than in a work of such Eenoun and Merit, 
T'engross the glory, and the bliss t'inherit ? 



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Fenland Notes ako Qitebies. 32S 

Meanwhile proceed, and Opposition slight, 

Envy perhaps may bark, it cannot bite. 

Your Cause is good, your Friends are great, your Foes 

Have neither Power nor Colour, to oppose, 

Rubbs you may meet with ; why should that displease ? 

Would you accomplish Vast designs with Ease ? 

But vainly I, with weak insinuations, 

Your "Wisdoms importune, such fond perswasions 

Fit none but drooping Minds, whom fears oppress ; 

No terrour ; no alarm can you posess. 

Who, free from sinful Canaanites annoy. 

The Land of Promise, now in part enjoy. 

Your Proudest foes begin to sue for Peace, 
And with their hopes, their malice doth decrease ; 
They all confess, that Heaven with you Combines, 
Sit down therefore in safety. Your designs 
Begun with Vertue, shall with Fortune end, 
For Profit publick thoughts do still attend. 

And now a Muse as fruitful as the Land, 
Assist me, whilst my too unskilful hand 
Describes the Glories of this Place, a Skill 
Which might perhaps deserve some Laureates Quill. 
But I presume, the Reader's Charity 
And wise Conjecture will my faults supply. 

All Seeds, all Plants and Herbs, this noble field 
Doth, with a kind of Emulation, yield ; 
Would you see Plenty, it is stor'd with Grain, 
Like Egypt when Rome's Pride it did maintain. 
With roots of Monstrous bulk, flesh, fowl, and fish. 
All that the Belly or the Tast can wish. 

Here thrives the lusty Hemp, of Strength untam'd, 
Whereof vast Sails, and mighty Cables fram'd. 
Serve for our Royal Fleets, Flax soft and fine 
To the East Countrey envy could we joyn 
To England's Blessings, Holland's industry, 
We all the World in wealth should far outvie. 

Here grows proud Rape, whose price and plenty f oyls 
The Greenland Trade, and checks the Spanish Oyls, 
Whose branch thick, large, and tall, the Earth so shrowds. 
As heaps of Snow, the -Mps, or pregnant Clouds, 
The azure sky, or like that Heavenly Bread, 
Which in the Wilderness God's bounty shed. 



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324 FsNTiAKD Notes and Queries. 

After long Tillage, it doth then abound 

With Grass so plentiful, so sweet, so sound, 

Scarce any tract but this can Pastures shew 

So large, so rich, And, if you wisely S6w 

The fine Dutch Clover, with such Beauty spreads, 

As if it meant t'aflfront our English Meads. 

The Gentle Ozier, plac't in goodly ranks, 
At small expence, u^n the comely Banks, 
Shoots forth to admiration here, and yields 
Revenues certain, as the Eents of Fields, 
And for a Crown unto this blest Plantation, 
Almost in every Ditch there's Navigation. 

To scan all its Perfections, would desire 

A Volume, and as great a Skill require, 

As that which Drayned the Couatrey ; in one word, 

It yields whate're our Climate will afford ; 

And did the Sun with kinder beams reflect. 

You might Wine, Sugar, Silk, and Spice expect. 

Fond witless Usurer, to rest content 
In that thy Money yields thee 6 per Cent,, 
Which thou with hazard of the Principal, 
Dost rigorously extort from Men in thrall. 
Come here, and look for gain both vast and just. 
And yet so Constant, that thou need'st not trust. 

Unhappy Farmer, that employ'st thy Skill, 
Ai^d wasts thy strength upon some barren Hill, 
Which too ungrateful, scarce the borrowed Seed 
At length restores, much less relieves thy need. 
These Fields shall yield thee Gold, And yet require 
No labour, but the Alchymie of Fire. 

Poor Curate, whom thine envious Stars prefer 
To be some hide-bound Parsons Pensioner, 
On such hard Terms, that if thy Flock were fed 
As ill as thou, their Souls might starve for Bread ; 
When these fair Fields are Plow'd, then cast with me 
How large, how fat, the livings here must be. 

Ye busie Gentlemen that plant the Hop, 
And dream vast gains from that deceitful Crop, 
Or by manuring what you ought to Let 
Thrive backwards, and too dearly purchase Wit, 
Leave off these Lotteries, and here take your Lot, 
The Profit's certain, and with ease, 'tis got. 



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Fbnland Notes and Quebiis. 325 

Courageous Merchants, who, confronting fates, 
Trust Seas and Pyrates with your whole Estates, 
-^ Part in this Bank, methinks were far more sure ; 
And ye whom hopes of sudden Wealth allure, 
Or wants into Virginia, force to fly, 
Bv'n spare your pains ; here's Florida hard by. 

Pair Damsels, that your portions would advance. 
Employ them on this blest Inheritance ; 
And faithful Guardians, that would quit the trust 
In you reposed, like Men as wise as just, 
Here, here, bestow your Orphans Talents, ye 
Shall now no longer Friends but Fathers be. 

All ye that Treasures either want, or love 
(And who is he, whom Profit will not move ?) 
Would you repair your fortunes, would you make, 
To this most fruitful Land your selves betake, 
Where first your Money doubles, in a trice, 
And then by new Progression multiplies. 

If therefore Gain or Honour, or Delight, 
Or care of Publick Good, will Men invite 
Into this fortunate Isle, now let them enter 
With confidence ; since here they all concenter ; 
But if all these be choakt, and drown'd with flegm, 
Let them enjoy their Sloth, sit still, and dream. 

W. W. G. 

216.— A Legend of Peterborough.— On Sunday, the 15th of 
March, the bells of St. John's Church were rung in accordance 
with the terms of the will of Matthew Wyldbore, who for some 
years represented the city in Parliament. There is an old story 
which finds credence in the neighbourhood as explaining the 
reason why the money was left for this purpose. It is to the effect 
that Wyldbore was one day walking in the Fens near the city 
when a dense fog rapidly began to gather. In a short time it 
became so dense that it was difficult to see more than a yard or so 
in advance. Mr. Wyldbore experienced the greatest difficulty in 
finding his way, although he was quite familiar with every spot. 
After making various attempts to reach the city, he was obliged 
to confess to himself that he was lost. Darkness was coming on, 
which added considerably to the dangers of his condition. He 



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326 Fekland Notes and Queries. 

began to tremble at every step he took, fearing it might lead him 
into a qnagmire, or one of the many fen drains. He had finally 
decided not to attempt to traverse the fen any further, but would 
await as best he could the return of daylight, and with it, he 
hoped, the lifting of the fog. It was bitterly cold, and the 
prospect of spending the night under such conditions was anything 
but consoling. While wearily waiting in the mist and cold, with 
the hoarse croak of the frog as the only sound to break the 
stillness, he was suddenly startled by the sound of distant bells. 
They were far off, but attentively listening, he recognised them as 
the bells of St. John's Church at Peterborough. In the fog he 
had wandered away from the city instead of nearer to it. The 
bells were ringing a merry peal. The sound came down the 
wind over the fen clearly and distinctly. Mr. Wyldbore resolved 
to follow the direction in which the sound came. As he advanced 
step by step the sound grew nearer. His only fear was that the 
peal might cease before he should reach the city, But they 
continued to ring on, and at every step the bells sounded louder 
and nearer, and finally, they were still ringing when he reached 
the streets of his native city. In gratitude for his deliverance, 
Mr. Wyldbore left a plot of land, the proceeds of which were to 
be given to the ringers of St, John's, on condition of their ringing 
a peal on the bells on the 15th of every March. 

If any stranger was to visit Peterborough on the 15th of March, 
and hearing the bells pealing was to ask of the first citizen he met 
the reason, the probability is he would receive the above story as 
as a piece of local history. 

It has, however, been explained that the reason for the bene- 
faction was that Mr, Wyldbore was an ardent campanologist, and 
he desired to promote the study of bell-ringing. 

217,— The Nene between Peterborough and Wisbech, -In 
1862, J. G. Cockburn Curtis, C.E., held an Admiralty enquiry at 
Peterborough concerning the state of the river Nene between 
Peterborough and Wisbech. Some of the « recollections " of the 
witnesses were interesting. 



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Fenland Notes anb Queries. 327 

Charles Freer, of Stanground, said :— " The boata generally in 
use on fche river at Peterborough were 20 tons burden. He 
remembered Northey Gravel being dredged. It had the effect of 
lowering the depth of water at Peterborough. Woodstone Stanch 
was afterwards constructed. Before that was done, boatmen had 
to make a temporary stanch themselves at that point to get over 
the gravel." 

John Burdock, in charge of the North Level sluice at the Dog- 
in-a-Doublet, said :— " That in August, 1858, and also in 1859, 
the salt water got into Thomey river." 

John Bossett said :— " Salt water penetrated to Thomey several 
times in 1859, and got into the reservoir." 

Robert Gossling, who occupied a farm about half a mile from 
Northey Gravel, said :— " In 1858 the water in the Nene at that 
point was so salt that his stock would not drink it. It was 
brackish at the same time at Northey Gravel. The summer of 
1858 was the driest we had ever known. The water remained 
salt for three or four days, but we had never before known it to 
remain salt for a whole day." 

John Rowell, a publican, on Morton's Leam Bank, about 2 
miles from Stanground, said :— " The water in the river opposite 
his house was salt in 1858." 

George Bowker, keeper of the Stanground sluice, remembered 
salt water getting into the sluice in 1826. 

Mr. Thos. Marr Johnson, said :— " The highest flood line above 
datum at Peterborough Bridge, of which we had any record, was 
44ft. 4in. in 1852, and the same flood at the Dog-in-a-Doublet 
was 43ft. 2in. above datum. The lowest water of which he had 
any record at Peterborough, was 35ffc. 2in. on Mardi 5th, 1862." 

Mr. Richard Young, Mayor of Wisbech, said: — **1 am a ship 
owner and trader at Wisbech to a very considerable extent. I am 
well acquainted with the navigation of the river Nene. I have 
been a sluice keeper at the Foul Anchor twenty years, and was also 
a superintendent of the works of the Nene Outfall (North Level), 
under the Outfall Commissioners, from the upper end of Kinderley's 
Cut to the Sea. I remember the dams being placed in the river 



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328 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

in 1855 or 1856, one at; Waldersea, three miles above Wisbech, and 
one afc Guyhirn six or seven miles above Wisbech. The Waldersea 
dam was taken up in January, 1859, and the other about March. 
The object of those dams, as I understood, was to enable the 
contractor to carry out bis works. The effect of them was almost 
entirely to annihilate the navigation. Previous to the erection of 
the dams I was carrying on a very extensive trade with large 
vessels, importing myself into Wisbech from 90,000 to 100,000 
tons annually. I had adopted screw steamers, one in particular, 
carrying nearly 700 tons, which made 52 voyages in the 12 months 
previous to erection of the dams, and never stopped for want of 
water more than three times at the Cross Keys Bridge. All other 
times she came up to Wisbech, sometimes on dead of neaps with a 
full cargo, drawing 13ft. Gin. After the dams were erected the 
the pile berth which had been constructed for that ship gradually 
silted up, so much so that there was a sand-bank 5ft. above low 
water at the place where she used to ground in 9ft. of water. I 
have even driven my horses across to the other side of the river. 
There were a great number of other sand-banks formed all the way 
down from Wisbech town to Walton dam and the North Level 
Sluice at Foul Anchor Ferry, five miles below Wisbech. The 
silting up was not so bad from the upper end of Kinderley's Cut to 
the North Level Sluice. It continued to get worse and worse, 
until the dams were removed, both above and below the town, so 
much so that it entirely destroyed that branch of my business — 
the screw colliers. 

By the Inspector : I have seen Humber keels drawing 7ft stick 
on the sand-banks during neap ; before that ships of 700 tons, 
drawing 13ft., might have passed on the neaps. 

By Mr. Jackson : the bonding yards were about half a mile 
below Wisbech Bridge. Vessels of the size I have stated (700 
tons) have frequently come up to these before the dams were 
erected. After the dams were erected, they were obliged to stop 
and "lighter up." During the time those dams were up, I was 
supplying an immense quantity of coke and coal to Petreborough, 
by barges of from 17 to 25 tons burden 48ft. long, and 10 or lift. 



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FsifLAND Notes and Quebies. 329 

wide, drawing about two or three feet loaded, and about a foot 
light. I was under heavy penalties unless I fulfilled my contract. 
I had to pay those penalties, and a very heavy law suit besides. 
The silting up of the river and the consequent expenses of 
detention, &c., prevented me from fulfilling the contracts. I have 
a fleet of steam ships and colliers trading all over the world. I 
could not get these up to Wisbech. Between Wisbech and the 
Waldersea dam there was no difficulty in getting small lighters up 
on the tide, but only on the tide. The tide would last about two 
or three hours. At low water it was dry. This portion of the 
river had been improved, and was very deep before the dams were 
erected. When I got to Waldersea dam on the tide, I could pro- 
ceed through the dam, and navigate up to Guyhirn. The fresh water 
was kept up between Guyhirn upwards. Between the Guyhirn Sluice 
and Peterborough the navigation at that time was very bad indeed. 
In the summer of 1858, I could not navigate at all until the tide 
was let in. The merchants petitioned for the sluice to be opened 
and Mr. Leather consented. Notwithstanding the dams being 
there, there was not a navigable depth until the tidal water 
was let in. The fresh water had been drawn off through 
Stanground Sluice and the Dog-in-a-Doublet, I believe the last 
dam was removed in March 1859. Afterwards the shoals were 
gradually removed, and when the land floods came in the following 
winter, the obstructions were nearly or entirely removed. 

I have taken perhaps a greater interest in the tides and the 
navigation of the river than any other man in the district. 

It was my intention when the Act of 1852 was obtained, that 
long shallow sea going steamers should have been built to navigate 
right the way to Peterborough. I intended to come from the north 
of Europe in one bottom to Peterborough. This would have been 
greatly to the advantage of Wisbech, You can't improve Wisbech 
in the navigation without improving Peterborough. 

The works carried out under the Act of 1852 have not improved 
the facilities for vessels coming up to town. I do not apply this 
answer to the whole of the works which have been done from 
Wisbech Bridge to the county boundary. There were shoals in 



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330 Fenland Notes ijrD Queries. 

the town, which have been dredged out and the berths made 
better, I don't know whether the navigable area has been mnch 
increased. Quays have been constructed for a length of about a 
quarter of a mile. I think nothing important in the Nene, from 
Wisbech Bridge to the County Boundary, was carried out between 
1848 and 1852. I am aware that in the Autumn of 1852 there were 
very heavy continuous floods. Before anything was done to the 
channel under the Nene Valley Act there was a great scour through 
the town of land floods. Each land flood always scours the river 
all the way down. I have seen the owners of granaries, who had 
frontages to the river, throw stone in and build it up to protect 
the foundations of their buildings, leaving it there as long as the 
floods allowed it to remain. They had occasion very frequently 
to renew the operation. 

Thomas Andrews, Stanground, said : I have lived there 40 
years. I remember the fish being killed by the salt water at 
Stanground about 30 years ago — fish were killed by cart loads. 

Mr. George Dawbarn, merchant of Wisbech, member of the 
Corporation, and of the Nene Valley Commissioners, said : There 
was a change in the commerce of the port of Wisbech. The 
railways have almost annihilated the coal trade, but there are now 
indications that if proper facilities are given, the foreign trade 
will rapidly increase. 

218.— Robert Vigerous of Spalding.— In the Eev. J. R. 
Olorenshaw's Notes on Soham^ (p. 303, Part IX, six lines from the 

bottom), the name occurs of " Kobt. Vig (?) " I think 

there can be no doubt this was " Robt. Vigerous," as his name 
occurs in the Spalding Register of Marriages as the Justice of the 
Peace who witnessed most of the marriages here during the 
Commonwealth. He and John Harrington sign the appointment 
of Robert Ram, the then Minister of Spalding, to act as Registo 
(sic) in 1653. 

Robert Vigerous seems to have been an active Justice, and Ram 
a strong Parliamentarian. Ram signs the Register from March 
23rd, 1639, and on February 8th, 1656, is written, "Hue usque 



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Fenlabb Notes and Quebiss. 331 

scripsit Rob Ds Ds Eobt. Earn," &c. So that it is very evident 
that Vigerous and Earn acted together. Mabtbh Perry. 

219,— Whittlesea Charities Inquisition, 1667— (contintied).— 
And that the said Persons Trustees so named shall from and after 
the Executing of this Decree stand and be Seized of the aforesaid 
two Parcels of Land commonly known by the name of the Angle 
and Pingle and of and in the aforesaid Cottage with a Garden 
containing half an Acre and two Half Full Lands together with 
Twenty Acres of Improved Land allotted to the said Cottage and 
ten to the said Half Full Lands And the Ten Acres in the 
Occupation of the said Thomas Wiseman and Decreed to be 
Conveyed as before mentioned together as also with a certain piece 
of Land lying in Whittlesea aforesaid called by the Name of the 
Common half Acre And the Alms Houses before mentioned to 
such Publick and Pious Uses for the Good of the said Township 
of Whittlesea in manner also as shall be hereafter expressed and 
declared ^nb b^tnvLB the said Thomas Wiseman pretends to 
claim to Thirty Pounds as a Debt due to him from the said 
Township of Whittlesea which if due we conceive to be due to 
him from Robert Coveney deceased and finding that the mean 
Profits remaining in his Hands at Three Pounds ^ Annum as 
these ten Acres of Land for Fourteen Years Amounting to Forty 
four Pounds We do adjudge and Decree the said Thomas Wiseman 
tb be and in Consideration of his Satisfaction for the said Pounds 
is hereby declared to be discharged of the mean Profits of the said 
Ten Acres of Land unto the Feast of Annunciation of our Blessed 
Virgin Mary last past ^nb als0 we further order adjudge Decree 
that the several Obligors who stand indebted to the Use of the 
Poor of the said Township of Whittlesea in several Sums of 
Money according to several obligations and Bill in a Schedule as 
before mentioned hereto annexed do renew the several Securities 
for the said Monies within three Months to the Governors here- 
after named or any Seven or more of them for the Pious Uses by 
Bills and Writings Obligatory mentioned and declared And it 
was further Ordered adjudged and Decreed by the Commissioners 



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332 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

aforesaid that Francis Underwood Esquire Eobert Glapthome 
Esquire Richard Read Gent. Robert Beale the Elder Gent. The 
Vicar of Whittlesea Saint Marys for the Time being Thomas 
Wiseman the Elder Gent. John Laxon the Elder Thomas Ground 
Joseph Ives John Laxon the Younger Francis Bevill and 
Christopher Turner shall be and are hereby ordered adjudged and 
Decreed and Appointed to be Governors of the Yearly Revenues and 
Profits of the Lands and Monies in this Decree before mentioned 
And that they or any Seven or more of them four times in the 
Year meet in the School House in Saint Marys Church in 
Whittlesea (that is to say) on Monday next after the Feast of 
Saint John Baptist on Monday next after the Feast of Saint 
Michael the Archangel on Monday next after the Feast of the 
Nativity of our Lord and on Monday next after the Feast of 
Annunciation of our Blessed Virgin Mary And then and there 
the same Governors or any Seven or more of them shall at their 
said Days of Meeting or such of them as the said Governor or 
any Seven of them shall think fit Distribute the Rents and Profits 
of the same Lands Tenements and Monies in such Proportions as 
by any Seven or more of them shall be adjudged fit (that is to 
say) for the Relief of Tradesmen Poor and Impotent Persons 
fallen into Decay within the said Township putting out poor 
Apprentices born there Repair the Parish Churches Repair of 
their Streets Causeways Bridges Alms Houses and Publick 
Buildings and such other Publick Uses for the good of the said 
Township and Inhabitants of the same as the said Governors of 
any seven or more of them shall think fit and direct And it is 
further Ordered and Decreed and Adjudged by the Commissioners 
aforesaid that Hugh Underwood Gent, and John Laxon be and 
are hereby nominated directed constituted and appointed Bailiffs 
and Receivers of the Rents and Profits of the said Messuage 
Lands Tenements and Stocks of Money until the Feast of Saint 
Michael the Archangel next coming and that then Yearly on 
Monday next after the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel the 
said Governors or any seven or more of them shall nominate and 
Appoint two Bailiffs or Receivers of Known Ability and Integrity 



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Pbnland Notes and Qubbiks. 333 

and residing in the said Town of Whittlesea as well to let get 
and dispose of the said Messuages Lands Tenements and Stocks 
of Money for the Uses aforesaid for one Year next following and 
to collect gather and receive the Eents Issues and Profits of the 
same as the same shall occur for the Subsequent Year And that 
the said Bailiffs shall from time to time so Yearly to be nominated 
and Appointed to pay over said Monies so by them to be Collected 
in such manner as the said Governors or any seven or more of 
them shall by Writing under their Hands at any of their Quarterly 
Meetings direct and Appoint for the Uses afore-mentioned And 
the said Commissioners do further order Adjudge and Decree that 
so many of the said Trustees shall happen to depart this life or 
remove from the said Town of Whittlesea that there shall happen 
to be only five living and Remaining to Act in the Trust aforesaid 
That then the said Five Persons who shall be then Living shall 
Convey transfer and Assure all their Eight Interest and Trust of 
and in all Lands Tenements and Stocks of Money aforesaid unto 
Twelve other persons of known Integrity who shall be then 
Inhabitants of the said Town of Whittlesea and who shall be 
Elected and Assigned to the Homages at their next General 
Court to be holddn at the next General Court to be holden for the 
said Manors of Whittlesea Saint Marys and Whittlesea Saint 
Andrews aforesaid after the said Trustees shall be reduced to the 
Number of Five Persons as aforesaid And from and after the said 
Conveyances so had and Executed as aforesaid The said first 
Trustees shall be discharged to all intents and purposes And the 
said New Trustees so to be Elected and Assigned shall be and are 
hereby Decreed and Declared to stand to be seized and possessed 
of the said Messuages Lands Tenements and Stocks of Money 
aforesaid In Trust for the uses and intents before-mentioned as if 
they had been Actually and personally nominated and Assigned 
by this present Decree And the Commissioners do further Order 
and Judge and Decree that when any of the Governors aforesaid 
named shall happen to die or remove or dwell out of the said 
Town of Whittlesea or refuse to Act in the said Government 
That then the Surviving Governors at their next three Monthly 



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384 PBNI4AND Notes and Queries, 

Meetings from and after such removal or refusal shall from time 
to time Elect such other Person or Persons residing within the 
said Township of Whittlesea To Supply his or their or any of 
their place or places who shall so die or refuse to Act as aforesaid 
which said Person to be new Elected shall have the same power 
to all intents and purposes as if they had been Originally Named 
or Assigned in this present Decree And it is further Ordered 
Adjudged and Decreed by the Commissioners aforesaid to the 
Intent the Proceedings of the Governors may appear to Posterity 
that the Governors or any seven or more of them for the time 
being shall of the Profits of the said Estate Provide a large Paper 
Book so often as need shall require strongly Bound up in folio 
which shall be called the Town Book wherein all Orders and 
Contracts made by them and the succeeding Governors all Elections 
of new Governors BailiflFs and Trustees and all other matters and 
things which the Governors and Feoffees for the Time being shall 
in pursuance of these Orders and Decrees Act and do shall be 
fairly Written and entered and that no such Order Contract or 
Election shall be of Force until the same be entered and Recorded 
in the said Town Book and Subscribed by the Governors or any 
seven or more of them and that the said Governors shall provide 
a Substantial Chest with three several Locks and Keys wherein 
already Money Town Books Peoflftnents Deeds Counterparts of 
Leaves and Writings shall be kept And that the then several 
Keys by three such several Persons as the Governors or any seven 
or more of them appoint And that the Town Bailiff for the 
time being do Yearly and every Year by the consent of the said 
Governors or any seven or more of them first had shew to the 
Stewards Bailiffs and Homages of the Manors of Whittlesea 
aforesaid the Book and Accounts and other the Proceedings of the 
said Governors at the two General Courts to be holden for the 
said Manors of Whittlesey Saint Marys and Whittlesea Saint 
Andrews to the end the said Steward and Homages may peruse 
the same if they please And the said Commissioners do further 
Order and Adjudge and Decree that the Charges of Prosecution 
and Execution of this Commission of Pious Uses and all things 



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Fenlahd Notes and Quebhs. 335 

necessary for compleating the same shall be satisfied and Dis- 
diarged by the present Town Bailiffs of the said Township of 
Whittlesea and of the Rents Issues and Profits of the said 
Messuages Lands Tenements and Stocks of Money belonging to 
the said Town of Whittlesea to be allowed by the Governors 
before Appointed or any seven or more of them and the said 
Governors do further Order and adjudge and Decree that the said 
Town Bailiffs for the said Town of Whittlesea yearly to be Elected 
do make as well a New Rental of all the Lands Tenements and 
Messuages belonging to the said Town of Whittlesea within the 
Decree comprized and all the Rents Issues and Profits of the same 
for such Year as they shall be Elected and serve in the said Office 
And also make a Particular Account of such Stocks of Money as 
shall also during the said Tear to the said Township in manner 
as aforesaid and deliver the same Yearly at the next meeting after 
Saint Michael unto the said Governors or any seven or more of 
them to be safely kept in the Town Chest so to be provided as 
aforesaid for which Rentals and particulars the said Town Bailiffs 
shall be allowed such a Satisfaction as the said Governors or any 
seven or more of them shall direct and Appoint ^vii iDjfereas it 
hath evidently appeared unto us the said Commissioners that 
divers Parcels of Gores of Grass Lands within the limits and 
Bounds of the Manor and Township of Whittlesea aforesaid 
called by the names of the Constables Grass the Bulls Grass the 
Bellman's Grass Goves Grass Herds Grass Gore Grass in Eastrea 
Field have been anciently and appointed by the Consent and 
Agreement between the Lords and Tenants of the Manors of 
Whittlesea aforesaid (that is to say) The Constables Grass to the 
Constables The Bulls Grass and Boars Grass to the Constables for 
keeping each of them a Common BuU and Boar for the Use of 
the Inhabitants of the said Township The Churchwardens to the 
Churchwardens for the time being The Bailiffs Grass to the 
Bailiff of the said Town of Whibtlesea for the time being And 
the Bell Gore to the Belhnan of the said Town of Whittlesea for 
the time being and the Herds Grass to the several Neatherds of 
the several Precincts within the Manors and Townships aforesaid 



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836 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

for the time being Yearly and in Consideration of a Compensation 
and Reoompence for their respective pains and Charges in the 
due Execution of their respective Offices And we the said Com- 
missioners do hereby order Adjudge and Decree that the said 
several Parcels and Gores of Grass above-mentioned be for ever 
hereafter employed to the Particular Uses afore-mentioned as the 
same were before limited and Appointed between the Lords and 
Tenants of the said Manors of Whittlesea |« Wiitmz^ whereof 
tlie Commissioners first above Named to this present Decree have 
hereunto put their Hands and Seals the aforesaid second Day of 
June in the 20th Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord Kings 
Charg (skj by the Grace of God of England France and Ireland 
King Defender' of the Faith &c. and in the Year of our Lord 
1668 William Colville Humphrey Orme Christoper Thursby 
Thomas Edwards. 

220.— The Paston Letters, No. 2.—The letter here transcribed 
is found in Fenn's Paston Letters, Lxx., vol. iii., p. 283. It refers 
entirely to events and places in the Fenland and is remarkable as 
being written by a Tallboys, who we must presume was a lineal 
descendant of Ivo Tailbois, nephew of the Conqueror, about whom 
some notes will be found in " The Camp of Refuge," showing, 
too, that the Tailboys had held their own in the Fens for some 
400 years. In South Kyme church is a tomb with inscription to 
Gylbert Taylboys, a lord of Kyme : — 

*« To my right honouraile and right tvorshipful lord^ 
my Lord Viscount Beaumont 

" Right honourable and my right worshipful lord, I recommend 
me unto your good lordship with all my service, evermore desiring 
to hear of your prosperity and welfare, the which I pray God 
encrease and continue to his pleasure, and after your own heart's 
desire ; thanking you of the good lordship that ye have showed 
me at all times, beseeching you alway of good continuance. 

" Please it your good lordship to be remembered how afore this 
time Hugh Wytham* hath said he would be in rest and peace with 

♦ It is notable that a person h§re hears th$ name of the river. 



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FbniiAnd Notes ahd Queries. 337 

me, and not malign against me otherwise than law and right 
would; that notwithstanding, upon Monday last past, he and 
three men with him came into a servant's house of mine in Boston, 
called William Sheriff, and there, as he sat at his work, struck him 
upon the head and in the body with a dagger, and wounded him 
sore, and pulled him out of his house, and set him in prison 
without any cause reasonable, or without writ, or any other process 
showed unto him ; and that me seems longs* not for him to do, 
but as he says he is indicted, and as your good lordship knows 
well, I and all my servants are in like wise, but anf any man 
should have done it, it longs either to the sheriff or to your bailiff, 
as I conceive, and other cause he had none to him as far as I can 
know, but only for the maliciousness of that he hath unto me, nor 
I can think none other but it is so. And now yesternight my 
Lord WellesJ came to Boston with four score horses, and in the 
morning following, took him out of prison, saying afore all people, 
* false thief thou shalt be hanged, and as many of thy master's 
men as may be gotten,' as your servant John Abbott can report 
unto your good lordship, and hath taken him away with him to 
Tattershall, what to do with him I cannot say, but, as I suppose, 
to have him to Lincoln Castle ; wherefore I beseech your good 
lordship in this matter to be my good lord, and that it please your 
good lordship to write a letter to the keeper of the castle of 
Lincoln, that it liked him to deliver him out of prison under a 
suflBcient surety had for him, for and (if) they may keep him still, 
by this mean, they may take all my servants that I have, and so 
I may do again in like wise. 

" And also, as I am informed, without he be had out of prison 
in haste, it will be right grievous to him to heal of his hurt, he is 
so sore stricken ; and if there be any service that your good 
lordship will command me to do in this country, please it you to 
send me word, and it shall be done to my power with the grace 
of God, which have you, my right honourable and worshipful lord, 

♦ (belongs) f (JO 

trhis was Leo, the 6th Baron WeUes, kUled at Towton soon after, 
i,e., in 1461. 



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388 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

alway in his blessed keeping. Written at Kyme, upon Wednesday 
next after our Lady's day, the Assumption (15th Augt.) 

"Also, please it your good lordship to weet, after this letter 
was made there came a man from Tattershall* into my fenn, which 
ought* me good will, and because he would not be holden suspect, 
he spoke with women which were milking kyne, and bade them 
go to a priest of mine to Dokdyke,t and bid him fast go give me 
warning, how that my Lord Willoughby,J my Lord Cromwell and 
my Lord Welles proposed then to set a sessions, and hang the 
said William Sheriff, an they might bring the intent about ; and 
so, as I and your servant John Abbott stood together, the priest 
came and gave me warning hereof, which I trust for my worship 
your good lordship would not should happen, for it were to me 
the greatest shame that might fall, but and it please your good 
lordship to write to all your servants in this country that they will 
be ready upon a day's warning to come when I send them word ; 
I trust God they shall not hang him against the law, but I, with 
help of your good lordship, shall be able to let it. 

Kyme in Lincolnshire By your Servant, 

Wednesday, August William Tailboys." 

(Between 1455 and 1460 

33 and 39 Hy. VL) S. H. Miller, Lowestoft. 

* (owed) t (Dog-dyke) 

X The WilloTighby's, CromweU's, and WeUes' intermarried ; at the time 
when the above letter was written there was a feud between that combina- 
tion and the Lord of Kyme. These facts seem to explain the family 
relationships : — 

The Lordship of Eresby was settled by William I. on Walter de Bee, 
who married Agnes, the heiress of Hugh, lord of Tattershall. Robert, 6th 
baron. Lord Willoughby de Eresby, left a daughter Joan by a first wife. 
He married Maud (the 2nd wife) who was co-heiress of Ralph, Lord 
Cromwell of Tattershall : there was no issue. Sir Richard WeUes married 
Joan and was summoned to Parliament in the right of his wife, as Lord 
WiUoughby de Eresby, This is the person named in the letter ; the Lord 
Welles was his father. Richard WeUes was treacherously murdered by 
Edward IV. The son, Robert Welles (8th Baron Welles) took up arms 
against King Edward, as we shall see in another letter. The Barony of 
Welles became extinct in 1503. 

The last of the Fastens, William, Earl of Yarmouth, died in 1732, and 
leaving no male issue, the titles became extinct. His younger daughter, 
Rebecca, married Sir John Holland. 

The Oromwells herein named were of an ancient family of Nottingham- 
shre. 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 339 

221— The Underwood Family of Whittlesey.— Mr. S. T. 

Aveling, of Rochester, supplies the following memoranda con- 
cerning the family of the Underwoods of Whittlesey. 

Hugh Underwood— of Whittlesey in the isle of Ely Esquire, 
and one of the deputy lieutenants of that isle married 1st Wife, 
Jane 2^' daughter of Sir Henry Mackworth of Normanton co. 
Rutland Bar^ she died 17 January 1667.* 2^- Ann the thirteenth 
child of Sir Francis Russell of Chippenham [near Newmarket in 
the County of Cambridge,] by his Wife Catherine daughter and 
sole heir of John Wheatley, Esquire, by Elizabeth Smallpage his 
Wife, to whom he (Wheatley) was married at Chippenham 
Dec^'-lO*^^ 1631 — Ann was baptized at Chippenham 14^^ July 1650. 

By an old Minute book of the Manor of Whittlesey St. Andrew, 
indorsed "Anno 1726," it appears that Hugo Underwood was 
Steward of that Manor at a Court holden the 10th of April, 1630. 

Francis Underwood,t of Whittlesea Esq whom I suppose to be 
the father of Hugh Underwood of Whittlesey Esq was a great 
favorite of Oliver the protector, to whom he was probably known 
before the civil war broke out ; Oliver was so pleased with his 
adroitness, in the surprise of, and massacre of Woodoroft Castle 
(between Market Deeping and Peterborough) that he gave him a 
commission of a captain of foot of a company consisting of 150 
men. This commission is dated Dec"- 12*^- 1643, [it is signed 
" Oliver Cromwell,"] and appears to have been granted to him by 
Cromwell in right of his power as Governor of the isle of Ely. 
Francis rose to the rank of major, colonel, and lastly lieutenant 
colonel; so early as June 8*^* 1648, he was appointed governor of 
Whittlesea and Crowland, for he is so stiled in the thanks of parlia- 
ment, signed by the speaker Lenthall, for suppressing the forces under 
Hudson and Stiles, which were raised to favor the royal cause. 

* This Jane, was daughter of Sir Henry Mackworth, by Mary his Wiie. 
who was daughter of Eobert Hopton, of Witham, co. of Somerset, Esq. 
Jane was bnried in the Eastern aisle of St. Mary's Church, in Whittlesey, 
where the inscription on the stone was perfectly legible in 1813. 

t Francis Underwood was of Jesus College, Cambridge. See the^ Testi- 
monial in the possession of Thomas Moore Maydwell, of Clement's Inn, 
Middlesex, 1814. It is dated July 6th, 1632. Oliver, theprotector, was of 
Sydney Sussex College, Cambridge (Noble's Memoirs, Vol. I., p. 95. 



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340 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

It appears by the original papers in the possesion of the said 
Thomas Moore Maydwell, that this Francis was greatly entrusted 
by the commonwealth, the protectors, and the restored republic, 
these papers or documents consist of letters and commissions &c 
signed by the protector Oliver, Thurloe secretary of state, and 
" Valentine Walton."* Francis Underwood was certainly a useful 
person to his party, but his government was odious from his 
severity, and by having the custody of many loyalists, and others 
that were suspected of being so ; his name is yet remembered and 
reprobated in that part of the Kingdom ; he was undoubtedly 
vindictive, and having taken some umbrage, quarrelled with 
secretary Thurloe ; but the matter was settled by the latter's de- 
claring he had no intention to offend him. 

Francis resided in the Berristead house at Whittlesey, which 
house was in 1814 the property of Lord Eardley, and was rented 
of his Lordship by William Davie Ground who resided in it in 
that year. 

1728 April 30^^ Date of the Will of s^- Charles Fleetwood— 
proved in the prerog. Court of Canterbury 23 Aug** 1737 — by Ann 
his Wife and Sole Executrix. 

William Underwood (who at the time of his death resided at 
Enfield in the County of Middlesex) was the Nephew of Hugh 
Underwood. By the settlement made on the Marriage of the 
said William with Martha Bothwell^ daughter of James and 
Elizabeth Bothwell, and dated 29*^ xiugust 1699, certain lands in 
Glassmore in Whittlesey &c were settled on the said William and 
Martha and their Issue. This marriage took effect and the said 
William Underwood and Martha had Issue Male of their Bodies, 
but all such Issue Male died without having been marr^- They 
had also issue two Daughters (viz) Martha and Abigail. William 
Underwood made a Will which bears date 9'^ April 1745 and was 
proved in the prerogative Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

* There are also other documents of value with them (viz.): — ^An 
Historical Accomit (indorsed, "a Pedigree)" of ye ancient famUy of 
Underwood, Jany. 1728—9. Testimonial of Francis Underwood's education 
at the University of Cambridge dated July 6th, 1632. 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 34"! 

222.— Wills of Christopher and Alice Swinscoe, Benefactors 
to the poor of Peterborough.— The old parish registers of St. 
John's, Peterborough, supply us with the two following entries : 
" 1605-6 Chrystopher Swynscoe gentleman was buryed y® 7 daye. 
In the margin :— •" The sayd Mr. Swynscoe gave ten pounds to 
be bestowed upon y^ poore of y^ p'rish of Peterburgh w^ sume of 
XI: was distrybuted unto y^ sayd poore upon y^ daye of his 
funerall as by will he had appoynted. Laus deo." 1610-11 
24 Jan. M^'stres Alice Swynscoe, was buryed the 24 : daye. In 
margin— The sayd Ms'res Alice Swynscoe (was) a good benefactour 
to y^ towne of Peterbroughe, both in y^ tyme of her lyf as also at 
her deathe." I am not aware that a pedigree of the family is in 
existence ; judging from the " gentle " families named in the two 
wills he was well connected. 

Christopher Swinscoe, of Peterborough, co. Northampton, (Jent., 
by will dated 30 Jan 1605-6 pr in P.C.C. 11th Mch following 
(Reg. 20 Stafford), bequeathed to Chas. Beverley, son of James B., 
which Charles (or by what other christian names he is called; is 
now an apprentice in the city of York, 40 mks., whereof one half 
to be paid the next half year after my decease and the other half 
the next half year, to be paid out of (my) lease at Godmanchester. 
To good friend Richd. Camwell some time of Everton, co. Beds., 
gent., 20 nobles to be paid within one half year after my dec. : 
should he die within that time, the bequest to revert to his 
nephew, Eichd. Camwell, of Coin, Hunts. To Eobt. Walker of 
Geddington, 101 ; to his brofcher Richd. W. 61 To Alice Vernam 
wife of William V. 101 To Christ. & Elizabeth Walker, children 
of Henry W. 61 each. To Margery Perrills childi'en, 40s To 
John Swinscoe of London, which was John Swinscoe's son the 
parson 40s To Alexander WilUams of London, 5 mks. To 
Elizabeth AUington wife to Hugh A. of Tinwell, co. Rutland, 
esq. 40s. 

* 1599-1600 M'- Henry AUington bur, XXY Jan. 1611 
M"^ Eliz. AUington, wife to M^ Hugh AUington, esquier, 

* The par. regs. of TinweU, Rutland, supply these entries. 

AA 



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342 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

bur. Dec vj. 1612 M'^ Charles Allington & W' Bliz. Clipole 
(Oleapole) mar. May XXV. In the will of James Cleypoole 
of Northboro' als Narborrowe, co. Northampton, esq. (bur. 
there in the chappel adjoining to the parish church in the 
" toome " which I have placed there for that purpose, 14 Nov. 
1599) dated 1 Dec. 1598 & pr. in P.O.C. 7 Nov. 1599 (Reg. 86 
Kidd.) appoints as supervisors good brother(s) in law Henry 
Alliugton, Robt. Wingfield, & Ant. Treble, esqs ; & Edw. Heron, 
esq., Serjt.-at-law, all my very especial good friends and gives to 
each 5Z. Adam, 2nd son of James 0. (bapt. at Northboro', 20 June, 
1565, d. 1684) mar. at St. Georges church, Stamford, 30 Sept. 
1586. Dorothy (bur. at Northboro', 7 Nov., 1619) Wingfield, da. 
of John W. (who lived at the Nunnery, in the parish of St. 
Martin's,) 2nd son of Robt W. & his wife Elizabeth (Cecil, da. of 
Richd C. and sister to Wm. first Baron Burghley), & entered his 
ped. in the Heralds Visit (Northamps) 1618—9. M^ Henry 
Allington, a merchant in London, was, says the Lincolnshire Visit, 
of 1592, descended from Sir Gyles A. of Horseheath, Cambs. 
Knt., and settled at Grainthorpe, Lines., in the person of his 
younger brother, George. Their father, George, of Rushford, 

Norfolk, m sister to Sir John Cheeke, Knt, a tutor to 

Prince Edward (subsequently King), while Mary, another sister, 
m. 8 Aug. 1541 (d. 22 Feb. 1542-3), Sir William Cecil, Secretary 
of State, & subsequently Lord Treasurer, a fact that probably 
accounts for their advent in Rutlands. They bore [Quarterly, 
1 Sa., a bend engr. betw. 6 billets arg. 2 Gules, 3 covered cups 
arg. (Argentyne) 3 az., 6 martlets, 3, 2 & 1, or ; a canton erm. 4 
Per fesse arg. & sa., a pale counterchanged, 3 griffins' heads 
erased of the 2nd (Gardener) ; a mullet on a crescent for diff. 
Crest.— A talbot stafcant erm., with a difference as on the shield. 
Harl 3LS. 1550.'] M.'' Eliz AUmgton, wife to Hugh (elder 
brother of Henry and George named above) was the first wife of 
Robt. Wingfield, of Upton, Northamptonshire, esq. (bur. at 
Castor, 2 Apl. 1580). 

Hugh's will dated 2 Oct. 1616 pr 1 Oct. 1618 in P.C.C. 
(Reg. 94 Meade) in which he designates himself as Hugh 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 343 

Alington of Tynewell, co. Rutland, esq. & desires to be 
bur. in that church, or where his exor. shall think good. 
The parish registers of Tinwell do not record his burial there. 
Testator names sons (? brothers) in-law, John Wingfield, 
Adam Cleypoole, Richd. Wingfield, & Calibute Douninge, & my 
cousins Peter Chapman, & John Browne, of Stamford, esqs. ; 
Sir Giles A. (Knted at the Charterhouse 11 May, 1603), &c., &c. 
Peter Chapman of the City of London, Knted at Hatton-house, 
London, 8 Nov. 1617, in his will dated 22 Apl. pr. 17 May 1622 
(Reg, SavylU 48) refers to a lease of his farm or manor house & 
lands in Tynwell, names cousin Geo. Allington, &c. In the 
probate act book testator is designated as late of the parish of St. 
Clement Danes, co. Middlesex. M"" Charles Allington, whose marri- 
age is recorded at Tinwell was the eldest son of Geo. A. (d. 1633) 
of Swinhope, co. Line, esq. To M'"^'^ Jane Allington, wife to 
George A., of Louth, co. Lincoln, esq., 405, To M"« Mary Reede, 
of Ringstead, co. Norfolk, widow, 405. To Katherine, wife of 
"John Allington, of London, 205. To Katherine, wife of Medcalf 
Allington, of London, 205. Richard Rop my servant shall have 
my stock of hemp & my close at Ravely for the years yet to come 
101, better cheap than any other man. To cousin M'' Gregory 
Downhall, of London, 5 mks. To cousin M"* William Downhall, 
of London, 405. To John Cley servant to John Dickinson of 
Peterboro', Baker, U, To Thos. Stubbolde my pasture keeper, 
205. To Mrs. Dorothy Downhall, wife of William D., gent., 205. 
To Cath. Curtis, Elizabeth Edward, M"" Frances Dove, to each 
an angel.. To cousin Willm. Block & his mother of Ramsey, 105. 
each. To John Plumbe & John Daves my servants, 405. each. 
To my well-beloved friend and cousin M'* William Downhall my 
woods lying in Hoorae (Holme) co. Hunts, containing by estima- 
tion about 40a., the one called great Hoome wood & the other 
little Hoome wood (held by lease of the King's Majesty) for the 
remainder of the term, also in consideration of his being a good 
friend to my wife after my decease as I know he will be. I give 
him the title that he and I held by virtue of a lease in Stangronnd, 
CO. Hunts, for the years yet to come. To the poor of Ramsey 



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344 Fenlanb Notes and Queries. 

601. to be paid into the hands of Walter Creede, William Wayne 
& to M"^ Hales & to such chiefest & substantialist men of the 
parish as they shall choose, to be paid them at Lammas next, 
charging them as they will answer it (to) Almighty God at the 
dreadful day of judgment that they do imploy the same to some 
benefit for the use of the poor ; & the increase & benefit thereon 
to be bestowed amongst the poor people of Eamsey allways in 
Lent for their best relief so long as the world endureth. To Alice 
my wife all my annuities, the lease in North Wyfcham, co. Lincoln, 
held of Sir Henry Pagnam (Pakenham, d. 27 Mch 1620, ancestor 
of the noble family of that name — Earls of Longford in the 
peerage of Ireland and of the present Marchioness of Exeter), 
Knt & of my demeasnes in Hoome, ordains her full executrix & 
residuary legatee. To M"" Wm. Downhall my book of Martyrs. 
Appoints M'* Hugh & M'^ Greo. AUington supervisors giving to 
each 5 mks. To M^ Todd of Huntingdon, my best nag, & to 
M' Creed 5 mks. To the poor folk of Peterboro' lOZ. to be paid 
at my funeral, & to the poor alms folk in the Churchyard 20^. 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

To be continued. 

223,— Parson Drove.— Of this scattered village little has been 
written or appears to be known. It is said " Happy the country 
that has no history." If so, this is most surely a fortunate place. 
Nothing appears to have been placed on record to make or mar 
the happiness of anyone. There stands the old Church, verging 
on decay, and in its precincts the rude forefathers of the hamlet 
sleep. Stones, carefully kept, mark the resting place of families 
that have passed away. 

Stukeley speaks of "A Roman road passing over the river above 
Wisbech town towards Guyhirn Chappel then went to Trokenholt 
and Clows Cross there entering Lincolnshire, from thence that it 
went in a straight line to Spalding." At Gedney Hill Eoman 
coins have been found. The High Dole in the same parish is a 
square doubly moated, where ancient foundations have been dug 
up and Eoman coins found ; another like square is in the parish 



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Fbnland Notes aito Queries. 345 

of Sutton St. Edmunds, about two miles from the Southea Bank. 
In Parson Drove is a Mound or Tumulus, which has probably a 
like origin, while about two miles distant, at Tholomas Drove, a 
great number of Eoman coins have been found within the last 
few years, which seem to indicate a line of road to March, where 
it would connect with another Roman road which crossed the 
fens from the high lands at Eldernell to those of West Norfolk. 

The derivation of the name Parson Drove needs little more 
than a passing remark. Among the droves, dykes, or ways in the 
parish of Leverington, which in the distant past bore a marked 
resemblance to each other, this was Parsons Drove where the 
Chapel stood. The priest dwelt here, or it might be from a 
person of position or influence in the district named Parsons that 
it was so called. Dugdale in 16, Hen. vi. 1438 and 13, Eliz. 1571 
speaks of " Parsons Drove end between Belly miQ Brigge and Meys 
Brigge." A chantry founded at Fitton Hall in the reign of 
Edward III. (1330) by John Hode, then Lord of the Manor, and 
Martin de Holbeche, was transferred in (38, Hen. vi.) 1459 by 
permission of Bishop Grey to a Chapel then built at Parson 
Drove, now dedicated to St. John the Baptist. As a reason for the 
transfer, it is stated in an old document, that "the way and passage 
to and from Leverington was troublesome and dangerous in the 
time of winter." 

Pepys in his diary under date Sept. 17, 1663, refers to Parson 
Drove in the following terms : — " With much ado through the 
fenns along dykes where sometimes we were ready to have our 
horses sink to the belly we got by night with a great deal of stir 
and hard riding to Parsons Drove — a heathenish place. I was bit 
cruelly by the gnats." 

In Nov. 1698, 11 of Will. III., an Inquisition was held at 
Wisbech, when agreeable to the Act 43 of Elizabeth, it was found 
that a messuage and several parcels of land and pasture in 
Leverington Parson Drove, Leverington St. Leonard's, and 
Wisbech, containing 141 acres, and another 11a. 3r. Op, of land, 
lately alloted by virtue of a Drainage Act, with the appurtenances 
were held in trust for maintaining a curate or chaplain for per- 



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346 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

forming divine rites and services and foi; repairing and upholding 
the Chapel. 

There was anciently a hermitage in the parish at a place that 
still bears the name of Trockenholt. Trockenholt is mentioned 
in very early times. Wulphere, King of Mercia, in his Charter 
for the endowments and privileges of the monastery of Mede- 
hampstead (Peterboro') A.D. 664, names Trockenholt as one of 
the boundaries of the estate. After being over run by the Danes 
it lay desolate 111 years. It was given by Nigellus, Bishop of 
Ely, to the Abbey of Thorney in 1169. It is then mentioned as 
a hermitage which had formerly belonged to Ely. In a very 
ancient letter that Church is said to have enjoyed it 191 years ; 
on its site a very respectable modern farm house now stands. 
There are no remains of antiquity in the neighbourhood. When 
excavating foundations some years ago, human remains were 
found. 

Near this place is Clows Cross, at the junction of the North 
Level Drains, where the Fen waters are discharged into the North 
Level Main Drain from the New South Eau and New Wryde. 
It has always been a point of importance from the earliest times, 
and here was formerly 3 stone cross, but whether to mark the 
division of the Counties of Lincoln and Cambridge, or to indicate 
its other importance, is unknown. ^ 

Quoting from Atkyn's report on the Level made in 1618, 
" There stood upon the Bank of Southeae a cross designing the 
limits of Cambridgeshire and Lincoln in that part of the inland, 
and from that cross eastward there passed a watercourse through 
the inlands to the sea banke to a Goto or Clow called the Shire- 
Gote dividing still the Shires. At the head of this watercourse 
there was also a Clow from which Clow and the cross standing 
hard by it. The place took the name, viz. : The Clows Cross. 
This Clow (as most men deemed) served specially to take water 
out of the Southeae into the inland grounds in dry years, as well 
for the preservation of the partition and fence on both sides, as 
for the relief and succour of both man and beast. Many have 
talked that they have heard that much of the waters of the 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 347 

Feaas drayned that way and of great large watergates and wide 
passages there. I myself was by when the old pipes were taken 
up about 22 years since (1596) and observed that there were 
only two small pipes of plank layed together through the bank 
to take in water, not exceeding 18 inches square as I could 



At that time (1618) a stone sluice was being made at a cost of 
£200 or more, to be finished in the following May, besides which 
the banks and channels below the Clow were to be enlarged and 
improved. It should be borne in mind that Parson Drove Fen 
was not drained then. The country about Thorney is described 
as " A more Lerna^ surrounded with water, and serving only for 
fish and fowl, without any other benefit to the pubKc ; the rest of 
the Level is near of the same condition, and go all under the name 
of the ' High Fmne\'' In 19, Hen. III. (1234-5), it is spoken of 
as Heye Fen, belonging to the manor of Wysebeche, and to the 
towns of Leverington, &c. By a decree of Sewers, dated March 
25, 1653, this Fen with others were adjudged to be fully drained ; 
whereupon the Earl of Bedford and his participants took posses- 
sion of the 95,000 acres awarded them, which from that time 
have been subject to a perpetual tax for drainage purposes. This 
Tax is known as the Adventurers' Tax, and these Lands as 
Adventurers' Lands, to the present day. 

In 1437, the country around suffered from a disastrous event. 
The High Fen DyTce (Murrow Bank) gave way, owing to the 
pressure of the fresh water fi-om the west or High Fen side, which 
made so great a breach that nearly 12,000 acres of land in 
Wisbech, Leverington, Newton, and Tydd, are said to have been 
overflown and drowned. The breach in the bank here referred to 
is said to be the great GuU between Guyhime and Murrow, which 
is still a considerable piece of water. 

In 1571, the sea banks were unable to withstand a violent 
storm. Of the devastating effects of this flood, Holinshed gives a 
doleful account, in which he states *'the villages of Guihome, 
Parson Drove, and Hobhouse were overflown ; that large 
quantities of cattle and sheep were lost." In 1613, a very violent 



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348 Fbkland Notes and Queries. 

storm is recorded to have taken place on the 1st of November, 
which caused considerable damage in the district. The chancel 
of Parson Drove Church is said to have been washed down by 
one of these floods which devastated the district, and has not 
since been re-built. Its foundations and pavement have been 
found in digging graves. The Communion table itself is said to 
have been lost at the same time, and found by the present vicar 
many years ago in the kitchen of the village inn. 

John Bend, of Wisbech-Murrow, yeoman, by his will, dated 
1593, gave certain lands to the use of the poor in Wisbech- 
Murrow, Tholomas Drove, and Leverington Parson Drove. He 
therein declared that he had made a feoffment and willed a cottage 
and 16 acres in Leverington Parson Drove, to similar uses, viz. : 
for the poor of Parson Drove. This land lies in south Inham 
field ; with it is comprised the pubHc-house, now known as the 
Butchers' Arms. By the enclosure of Parson Drove Fen an 
allotment of 7 acres was added to the above, which with 2 acres 
of land in Leverington Marsh make 25 acres in all. The rents of 
the above, according to an order made early in the century, were 
paid yearly, on every New Year's day, to such poor belonging to 
the parish as had resided therein without receiving any parochial 
rehef for the space of six years last past, according to the donor's 
will. 

The inhabitants enclosed a piece of land from the waste early 
in the century, the rent of which was formerly apphed towards 
the support of a master to teach poor children to read and write. 
Of this school the late C. D. Weight was master for many years. 
By a scheme approved by the Charity Commissioners in 1873 
for the administration of the above, now vested in trustees, of 
whom the Rector of Parson Drove (Rev. Fred. Jackson, M.A.), 
and the Vicar of Southsea-cum-Murrow (Rev. A. W. Roper), for 
the time being shall be ex-officio. The first non-oflScial trustees 
were as follows : Thomas Johnson, Joseph Waltham, Cole 
Kimberley, Richard Gunn, Samuel Nichols, George Knowles, and 
John Warner, all of Parson Drove, farmers ; Joseph Kingerley, of 
Peterboro'; William Marshall and George Green Cobley, both of 



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PBNLAin) Notes and Queries. 349 

Parson Drove. For the year ending Jan., 1890, after paying to 8 
poor persons an aggregate sum of £12, and all expenses incidental 
to the management of the Charities, there then remained 
£83 12s. 8d. to be dealt with. This was divided into three equal 
parts. The first was applied, in accordance with the scheme, 
towards promoting Elementary Education in Parson Drove, by 
grants to the School Board, and scholarships of not more than 
£5 each to deserving boys and girls of not less than 12 
years of age, being children of poor inhabitants of Parson Drove. 
One other third part was applied to the benefit of the most 
deserving necessitous poor of Parson Drove, of whom 94 received 
small donations. The remaining one-third was granted to Cloth- 
ing Clubs, Peterborough Infirmary, and 31 recipienis for 
emergencies, who received an aggregate sum of £15 15s. Great 
changes were made by the Leverington Rectory Act, " a Bill for 
making better provision for the cure of souls within the limits of 
the parish of Leverington and certain adjacent parishes, all in 
the County of Cambridge, in the Diocese of Ely, 33 and 34 Vic, 
1870." By this Act four new parishes were formed principally out 
of the Parish of Leverington. Leverington Parson Drove was 
divided into two, Southsea-cum-Murrow and Parson Drove, both 
under the sole patronage of the Bishop of Ely. The Rev. 
F. Jackson, the curate or chaplain of the Church or Chapel 
of Parson Drove, after the passing of this Act, became the first 
Incumbent of the new parish, on which the trusts of the Parson 
Drove Chapel land ceased, and it became glebe vested in the 
Incumbent and his successors. 

A writer in the Wisbech Deanery Magazine, February, 1887, 
" A fenman himself and proud of the distinction," notices the 
difficulties which many of the Incumbents have met with in 
finding and retaining gentlemen in the various fenland curacies. 
One complains of the damp relaxing atmosphere, another twinges 
from rheumatism and ague, unknown among the hills and vales 
(although ague has been of rare occurrence in the fens since the 
present perfect system of drainage in the Level was completed). 
The dreary outlook and unsheltered waste around him was another 



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350 Penland Notes and Queries. 

grievance, while again we hear the lack of cultured society 
deplored by persons very hard up for an excuse in these days of 
cheap travelling. But what do the registers of this typical fen 
parish reveal ? From the following list of its Incumbents, that 
four gentlemen should hold the vicarage 200 years is marvellous, 
we could imagine it would beat the record of any parish in the 
most salubrious county in Britain. 

The following names occur in the Eegister : — 

1657. Eichard Edwards was approved Register (most probably 
the curate in charge) and took the oaths according to the act ; in 
that case lately made and provided. A Richard Edwards was 
buried January 26, 1658. 

1678. September. Anthony flPawcett Cler : was buried the 
9th day. 

Below an entry 25 of June 1678 is a note ("old curate's last 
entry ") " Peter Pindar of Jesus College Cambridge curate of 
Parson Drove. Aprilis Anno Domini 1679." He signed the 
register with his churchwardens in 1689. 

Henry Pujolas (an evicted Houguenot) was appointed 1692. 
He died 1749, aged 98. He therefore held the vicarage 57 years. 

John Dickinson was appointed 1749. Died 1790. He held it 
41 years, 

Richard Pollard appointed 1793. He died in 1842 and was 
buried at Bath. He held it 49 years. 

The last three were not fenmen, therefore not inured to the 
climate. 

Frederic Jackson, M. A., was appointed the first week in January, 

1844. He became partially paralysed January 3rd, 1891, but 

now somewhat recovered he is able to re-visit his church, in the 

ministrations of which he claims never to have missed a Sunday 

in 43 years. S. Egar. 

To be continued. 

224,— Annals of Peakirk.— The following circumstances, 
which deserve to be recorded in the annals of Peakirk, are reported 
in the Stomford Mercury of May 26th, 1822. 
" On Sunday night last, at Peakirk, near Market Deeping, John 



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FENiiAND Notes and Queries. 351 

Tyers and his sister, upwards of 70 years of age, were robbed of 
120Z. ia cash, all they possessed, being the money they had received 
a few days before for a common-right, which they had just sold. 
Four men entered their house in the night by breaking the window 
frame. The old man defended himself as long as he was able, but 
was at last over-powered and held down. The robbers pulled his 
sister out of bed by the hair of her head, and stole the sheets upon 
which she had been lying, also some bacon and several other 
articles. The climax of this frightful outrage is, that the sister, 
through despondency from the loss she had suffered, drowned 
herself on Monday evening last, in the North Meadow Drain in 
the parish of Peakirk, and was found dead on the following 
morning, in a situation where the water was not more than 12 
inches in depth. An inquest on the body was held on Wednesday, 
at the Wheat Sheaf at Gliiiton, by Wm. Hopkinson, Gent., 
coroner for the hundred of Nassaburgh, and after a full investiga- 
tion of the circumstances a verdict of lunacy was returned. The 
unfortunate woman was upwards of 80 years of age, and resided 
with her brother. It is believed that the aged pair, bereaved of 
their intellects through a too acute feeling of their loss and the 
treatment they had suffered, agreed to go together and drown 
themselves, and that it was only by the accidental company of 
neighbours on Monday night that the poor old man was prevented 
from joining his sister to execute their mutual fatal purpose ! 
The cottage in which they lived is situated in the North Fen of 
Peakirk : the robbers forced the door from the hinges, but were 
afterwards manfully resisted by John Tyers for nearly half an 
hour, during which time they threw two large stones and a piece 
of wood at him, and struck him repeatedly on the breast with a 
long pole. Having at length driven him into a corner, they 
overpowered him, tied his hands, and plundered the cottage of a 
variety of articles. There is the strongest reason to believe 
that the robbers reside in the neighbourhood, for when the 
old man, finding all resistance useless, asked them as a favor to 
put an end to his existence, one of them said, *No, John, you are 
a harmless old man, we will not hurt you.' " 



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352 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

225.— A Deodand at Helpstone.— Can anyone point to the 
time when the custom ceased of laying deodands upon cattle, 
implements, &c., which had been the means of causing a human 
death. I find in an old newspaper an instance of these deodands 
as late as July, 1822, at Helpstone. The circumstances were 
reported as under : — 

" On Tuesday last an inquest was held, at the Bell Inn, Help- 
stone, by Mr. HopMnson, coroner for the soke of Peterboro', upon 
view of the body of John Price, aged 12 years, in the service of 
Mr. Knowlton of that place, who on the preceding afternoon was 
killed upon the spot by the overturning of a cart, which he was 
driving without any reins to guide the horses. A man in the 
cart, named Robet Oliver, was also severely wounded and had 
several ribs broken ; and two other lads in the cart had a narrow 
escape. The law cannot be too severely enforced against those 
persons who daily, at the peril of their own and others' lives, are 
seen driving carlessly upon the public roads. In the present case, 
a deodand of 205. was laid upon the cart." S. W. H. 

226.— Where the Battle of Stamford was Fought.— I pur- 
posed, at first, merely to quote another of the Paston Letters 
which refer to events connected with the Fenland, but further 
consideration and research led me to the conclusion that a few 
notes and remarks are necessary to explain some points in the 
letter and to show where the Battle of Stamford was fought. 

The Chronicle of the RehelUon in Lincolnshire, 1470, is found 
in the Camden Society's Miscellany, Yol. I., and is set forth as 
" A Eemembrance of suche aotez and dedez as our souveraigne 
lorde the King hadde doon in his journey begonne at London the 
vi. day of March in the X yere of his moost .... reigne, for 
the repression and seting down of the rebellyon and insurrection 
of his subgettes in the Shire of Lincolne, commeaved by the 
subtile and fals conspiracie of his grete rebellez George due of 
Clarence, Richarde erle of Warrewike, and othere, ect." 

Now, the Lincolnshire forces were led by Sir Eobert Welles 
(who was much enraged by the death of his father. Lord Welles). 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 353 

The pedigree shows that Sir Robert was a second cousin of the 
Earl of Warwick. The principal estates of the "Welles family 
were the manors of Hellowe, Aby, "Welle, and Alford. 

Sir Robert "Welles mustered his forces at Ranby, about 15 miles 
west of Alford, and 7 miles north of Horncastle, " The battle was 
fought ^ at Empyngham, in a felde called Homefelde.' The place 
where it was fought, about 5 miles north-west of Stamford, near 
the road to York, retains the name of Bloody Oaks to this day. 
"We are told that some of the Lancastrians who fled from the 
battle threw off their coats, that they might not be encumbered 
by them in their flight ; and that the field called Losecoiefieldy 
between Stamford and Little Casterton, which by tradition, has 
been fixed upon as the field of battle, received its name from that 
circumstance. Perhaps that was the place where some of them 
were severely pressed by their pursuers." 

Blore's His. of Rutland, 1811, p. 142. 

The night after the battle the King slept at Stamford, and the 
next day marched northwards as the following letter shows. 
(Letter XXXIL, vol. ii., p. 37., Fenn's Paston Letters.) 
" To my cousin, John Paston. 

" The King came to Grantham, and there tarried Thursday all 
day. There was headed Sir Thomas Delalaunde and one John 
Neille, a great captain ; and upon the Monday next after that at 
Doncaster, and there was headed Sir Robert Welles and 
another great captain ; and then the King had word that the 
Duke of Clarence and the Earl of "Warwick was at Easfcerfield 
(? Chesterfield), twenty miles from Doncaster ; and upon the 
Tuesday, at nine of the bell, the King took the field, and 
mustered his people ; and it is said, that were never seen in 
England so many goodly men and so well arrayed in a field ; and 
my lord was worshipfully accompanied, no lord there so well, 
(? by Duke of Norf.) ; wherefore the King gave my lord a great 
thank. 

" And than the Duke of Clarence and the Earl of "Warwick 
heard that the King was coming to themward, incontinent 
(? immediately) they departed and went to Manchester in Lanca- 



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354 Fenlanp Notes and Queries. 

shire, hoping to have had help and succour of the Lord Stanley ; 
but in conclusion there they had little favour, as it was informed 
the King ; and so men say they went westward, and some men 
deem to London. 

" And when the King heard they were departed and gone, he 
went to York, and came thither the Thursday next after, and 
there came into him all the gentlemen of the shire ; and upon 
our Lady-day, made Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and he that 
was earl afore Marquis Montague ; and so the King is purposed 
to come southward ; God send him good speed. 

^^ Written the 27*^ day of March. 
Tuesday, 27*^ of For trowyth." 

March, 1470 (Name of writer not given.) 

10 E. IV. 

" The Confession " of Sir Eobt. Welles is given in p. 21, Vol. I. 
Camden Socy. Mis., as from Exc&r'pta ffistoria, 1831. 

S. H. Miller, Lowestoft. 

227.— Stocks and Whipping Posts.— In reply to the query 
in Part IX., No. 197, 1 may mention that there is a pair of stocks 
on wheels, and in tolerably good preservation, at Soham, but I 
do not know their date. J. R. Olorenshaw. 

228.— Monumental Inscriptions in St. John's Church, Peter- 
borough.— The following transcript of Monumental Inscriptions in 
St. John's Church, Peterborough, was taken in August, 1891. 

Chancel. J. R. T. 

1. 
Near this place | are interred the remains of | Matthew Wyldbore 

Esqr I son of John "Wyldbore Esqr and | Elizabeth his wife, he 
was born | in this city and received his | education at Trinity 
college I in Cambridge | He was a person | of an excellent under- 
standing I had good talents for | every kind of publick business, | 
and was many years a very useful member | of the Hon^^® Cor- 
poration I of the Great Level of the Fens. | He had the honour of 
representing | in two succeeding parliaments this his native city | 
and discharged the important trust ) with integrity, ability, and 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 355 

uniformity | He bore a long illness | with great fortitude and 
resignation | and died much lamented | by his relatives and 
friends | on the fifteenth day of March 1781 | aged 65 years. 

2. 

Near this place | lie interr'd the remains | of Charles Balguy 
M.D. I a man of strict integrity | various & great learning | and 
of distinguished eminence | in his profession which | He exercised 
through a course | of many years in this city | He died March 
y^ 2** 1767 I aged 59 years. 

In Memory of | Thomas Warriner, Gent. | late a native of this 
city I and one of its ancient inhabitants. | Reader | think not his 
example uninstructive | whose happy old age and affluence | 
Opened those affections — upon others | which bhey often contract 
upon ourselves | — in Hospitality to his friends | and liberality to 
the Indigent | He died the 15*^ of March | A.D. 1767 Mt. 80. | 
In Memory of | Tho^ Warriner, Gent. | (nephew to the above | 
Tho" Warriner Gent) | who dep: this life July the 29. 1777 j 
Also M" Ann Warriner | his wife dep: this life | December the 
10. 1780 I in the 43*^ year | of her age. | Mary Ann'| daughter 
of William Loftus, clerk | and Mary Ann his wife | (daughter of 
Thomas and Ann Warriner) | died May 16. 1815 | aged 12 years. 

4. 
To I the memory | of | Edward Laxton gent. | whose remains 
I are interred in the cathedral | burial ground | Beneath | this 
tablet lies I Mary Laxton | wife of the above | obt. 23^ January 

1799 I ^t. 63. 

5. 

Near this place lie the bodies of | John Wyldbore Esq' | and 

Elizabeth his wife | He was many years an able and | useful 

magistrate of this liberty | and died on the 27^^ day | of Oct'. 1755 

aged 88 years | He married Elizabeth daughter of | Noah Neale 

of Stamford in the | County of Lincoln Esq' [ A woman of great 

piety, charity | and humility who died on the | thirtieth day of 

May 1748 | aged sixty seven years | They had several children | 

three of whom survived them | Frances wife of Henry Southwell 



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356 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

I of Wisbeach in the county of | Cambridge Eq'^ Elizabeth wife 
of I Eobert Curtis of Stamford Esq' | and Matthew to whose 
memory the I opposite monument is erected. 

6. 

Underneath | are deposited the remains | of Thomas Sambrook 

gent. I who dep. this life Dec the 3rd 1759 | Also Elizabeth his 

wife I who dep. this life Feb the 1st 1774 | And also of Mary 

Sambrook | their daughter | who dep. this life Jan the 26*^ 1795 

I and at whose desire | and sole expence | this monument is 

erected. 

Chancel Floor. 

7. 
M"^ T. Fisher j Aet. 54 | Obt 12 Sep* | 1807. 

8. 
Walden Orme Esq' | Died the 26*^ of November 1774. 

9. 

Here lyeth the body of | M'^ Anne Squire | who died the 8*^' of 

Novem' 1751 I aged 35 years | Also Elizabeth their daughter | 

who died the 21st of August 1750 | aged 5 years | And also Ann 

their daughter | who died the 8th of June 1756 | in the 13*^ year 

of her age. 

10. 

In memory of | Hester the wife of | Humphrey Orme Esq' | 

who died the 14*^ of Decem'^ 1744 | in the 48*^ year of her age 

I Charles Orme | diedthe 24*^ Sep' 1792 | aged 26 years. 

11. 
Here lyeth the body of | John Eldred Esq' who | died the 7*^' 
of December 1763 | in the 73rd year of his age | Also of Mary 
his wife | who died Feb 21st 1756 | aged 84. 

12. 

To the memory of | John Filley who died Dec. the 18. 1794 | 
in the 64*^ year of his age. | Also | Mary the relict | of John 
Filley | who died Aug. 3rd 1817 | aged 75 years. 

13. 

Mat.^ Wyldbore | 1781. 



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Pbnland Notes and Queries. 357 

14. 

In memory of I Rebecca Man | Eelicfc of | William Man | and 
dau. of Abraham & | Catherine Delarne | who died February 1st 
1774 I in the 33 [qry. 35] year of her age | Also Thomas son | of 
W" & Eebecca Man | who died Dec 13'^^ 1818 | In the 71 year 
of his age. 

15. 

Here lyeth the body of | James Delarue Esqr | who departed 
this life Decemb^ | the 20*^ 1737 aged Q2 years. | Near this place 
lies Lot I the son of James Delarue jun'^ | gent, and Sarah his 
wife who I died March the 30^'' 1739 | aged 4 months. | Also near 
this place ] lies Ann Male their dau^ | died Dec the 28*^ 1767 | 
aged 1 year and 3 months. 

16. 

Near this place are interred | the remains of M""^ Mary Dorset, 
I Daughter of the Rev. D'' Neve | sometime rector of Alwalton | 
& Archdeacon of Huntingdon | who died March 3^ 1762 | aged 
3i5 I Here the weary are at rest ] And also near the body of her 
beloved | Niece are deposited the remains of | M''^ Jane Le Comte 
who died | May 31st 1766 aged 78. | I am come to my grave in a 
full age I like as a shock of corn cometh in, | in his season. | And 
in the same grave | lyeth the remains of | M'« Ann Eowell | who 
departed this life | Feb. 17*^^ 1776 | aged 72 years. 

Nave, West Wall. 
17. 
In a vault | behind this monument are deposited | the remains 
of Ann Pulvertoft widow | and sister of the late | James Delarue 
Esq^| She died April 12, 1788 | aged 81 years | Also | Beneath 
lie interred John Pulvertoft | her son | who died April 27 1786 | 
aged 56 years | And Mary his widow | who died April 14, 1790 
I aged 60 years. 

18. 

In a vault | behind this are deposited | the remains of Sarah 

wife of the late | James Delarue Esqr | She died May 22, 1757. | 

In the same place lie interred | Sarah his sister who died 13 March 

I 1765 I and James Delarue Es(]r his son | who died 8 March 

1780 I He himself having sometime survived | the much lamented 



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358 Fbnland Notes and Queries. 

part of his family above named | At length followed and lies 
interred with them | To whose memory in his life time he 
expressed j an intention of raising this monument | which his 
executors | have caused to be erected | He died 12 March 1782 | 
full of years and | truly respectable. 

19. 

Beneath this marble | lyeth the body of Mary Cox | wife of 
M' Thomas Cox surgeon [ daughter of James Delarue Sen'* Esq'' | 
and relict of M"* Robert Freeman, merchant | who departed this 
life September 19, 1763 | Also M'* Thomas Cox, surgeon | He 
having discharged the duties of his | profession upwards of 50 
years | with great fidelity and success | Departed this life July 
20, 1788 I He received his instructions from William Chiselden 
Esq'" and was | strongly recommended to the city | by D*^ Mead, 
Sir Edward Wilmot, | and D'' Jurin. 

20. 
Near this place are | deposited the remains of Elizabetha | 
Maria Editha wife of Eoberfc Freeman Esq'' | as a kind friend and 
affectionate wife, her | memory must ever be dear to those she has 
left I to lament her loss, her christian piety | enabled her to 
support her last moments with | a resignation & firmness of mind, 
felt only | by the truly good, with a trust in God | and a comfort- 
able expectation of a | happy futurity, she departed | this life 
April 17, 1795 I aged 65 years | Also | in the same vault | lie 
interred the remains of | Robert Freeman Esq'' whose | great 
liberality endeared him when living | to a large circle of friends & 
now departed | will cause his name to be long and | deservedly 
lamented | He died April 9*^ 1805 | aged 79 years. 

Nave Aisle. 

21. 

Underneath this marble | lies interred the remains of | Lieu. 
Henry Clarke | who departed this life | July the 29*^ 1773. | 
Also M'*'* Mary Clarke | relict of Henry Clarke | and daughter of 
John Rowell Bsq'^ | who departed this life July the 23'^^ 1795 | 
aged 39 years. | Near them lie two of their sons | John Clarke 



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Fhstland Notes asd Qubbiss. 359 

died May the 3^ 1767 | John Kowell Clarke | died Aug*^ the 31** 

1771 I and in the same grave with her dear | and tender parents 

lies Ann Clarke | who died Decern^ the 8*^ 1772. | All aged 7 

months. 

22. 

In memory of | Susannah Ashton relict of | Philip Asbton who 
died I the 28'^ of October 1768 | aged 74 years. | Also Capel 
Berrow their grandson | and son of Richard & Mary Berrow | died 
the 23'^ of April 1761 | aged 18 years. I Also of Susanna | their 
granddaughter and daughter of Richard & Mary Berrow | and 
wife of Thos. Baxter Aveling | of Wisbech | who died April y® 
4*^ 1775 I aged 29 years. 

23. 

Under this marble | are deposited the remains | of M'^ Richard 

Beaty | who departed this life | the 12"' day of December | 1785 

aged 75 years. 

24. 

Here lieth the body of | Christopher Peak | a member of the 

society | of Cliffords Inn London | who died the 27*^ day of 

March 1775 | in the 22nd year of his age | a gentleman of very 

promising | Abilities and greatly lamented | by all who had the 

pleasure | of his acquaintance | And also the body of j Christopher 

Hobson Esqr | of Stirtloe in Huntingdonshire | one of the Rulers 

of the Society | of Cliffords Inn, London | who died Jan 10*^ 

1791 I in the 77*^ year of his age | A gentleman possessing those 

I christian qualities | as to make his death | greatly lamented by 

all I His friends & Acquaintance. 

25. 

In memory of | Feast Goodman | who departed this life the 8 
of May I 1784 aged 73 years | Also Mary his wife | who departed 
this life the 31st of Aug. | 1780 aged 63 years. 

2Q. 

[Brasses.] — In memory of | Susanna the wife of | Brian Betham 

surgeon | and daughter of | Richard & Elizabeth Bothway | who 

departed this life | November 27, 1778 | aged 32 years | Also of 

[ the said Brian Betham | who departed this life | September 21, 



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360 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

1808 I aged 76 years | Also of | Will^ Tarrant Betham, surgeon | 
their eldest son who died at La Yaletta, Malta | Jan 13, 1802 
aged 28 years | and was there buried. || In memory of | M"" Rich^ 
Bothway | who departed this life | 25*^^^ September 1779 | aged 74 
years. | Also | M"*^ Eliz*^ Bothway | his widow | who departed this 
life I 29*^ March 1788 | aged 80 years. || In memory of | Susanna 
the wife of | Brian Betham surgeon | and daughter of | Joseph & 
Susanna Ainsworfch | who departed this life | April 17, 1763 \ 
aged 29 years | Also of | EKzabeth Bothway, spinster | daughter 
of I Richard and Elizabeth Bothway | who departed this life | Dec 
2, 1829 I aged 85 years. 

To be contiimed. 

229.— Soham Residents in the 16th Century.— I venture to 
suggest that the first three names in No. 193, viz., Edward 
Barnes, John Cropley, and Henrie Seaman, are those of residents 
in Soham. I made one or two unsuccessful attempts to find this 
list of contributors, and am glad Mr. Simpson has published it. 
I am led to think the three above-mentioned persons were resident 
in Soham, partly because the names were common there in the 
16th century, and partly because of their being followed by the 
name of a "Fordham" person. The names of E.Barnes and 
J. Cropley are mentioned in my notes on Soham. 

J. R. Olorenshaw, Bury St. Edmunds. 

230.— Curious Funeral at Lynn.— In a newspaper published 
July, 1822, the following account of a curious funeral at Lynn is 
given : — 

" Saturday se'nnight, William Coward, aged 85 ; he was for 54 
years clerk of the parish of St. Margaret, Lynn, and his faijihfal 
and attentive discharge of the duties of the office rendered him 
universally respected. He was borne to the grave by six grave- 
diggers, his pall supported by six parish clerks, and was attended 
by the two parish clerks of the town, together with the four 
sextons in their gowns." 

S. W. H. 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 361 

231.— The Brownes of Walcot, in the parish of Baxnack, co. 
Northampton. (Part X., No. 213).— George Quarles, of Uffbrd, 
husband of Isabel (or Margaret) Browne, was grandson & heir of 

William Q. & Amy his wife, da. of Plumstead, co. 

Norfolk. George, auditor to Hen. 7 & 8, had 2 sons & 2 dans., 
viz. : Francis, his heir, (bur. at Ufford 28 Nov. 1570) ; 2 John, 
draper of London (d. 12 Nov., 1577, bur. in the church of St. 
Peter the poor, London) ; 1 Alice wife of Wm, Cope, of Aston, 
Oxfords, & 2 Dorothy, m. Matt. Cornaschall. (George Q. of 
Ufford, esq., by will dated 10 June 1535 (Lans. M.S. 991 Br. 
Mus.) desires body to be buryed in the church of UfPbrd before 
the ymage of the holye Trinyte & that myne executours shall by 
an honest grave stone to be laid upon my grave, & shall cause a 
sculpture of me & Margarett my wife to be'graven in a place upon 
the said grave stone w*^ an epitaphye for the remembrance of our 
soules. To the hie aulter of Bernacke for tithes forgotten 
vjs viij^ ; to the reparations of the churche of Uffbrd, iijs iiij^. 
My executors to distribute on the day of sepulture 7*^ & 30**^ 
days Yjl xiijs iiijrf amongst poor people. Son, Francis, exor., 
Robt. Wyngfeld (Helpstone), John Plumsted, & Henry Lacy 
(Stamford) supervisors, & gives to each a good gelding.) Robt. 
Brown, the elder son of Walcot, one of the privy council to Hen. 
8, m. Elizabeth, da. of Sir Edw. Palmer of Angmering, Sussex, & 
is said to have left, with a younger son, John, of Welley, Wilts., a 
successor, Robt., of Walcot, who espoused Margaret dau. & heiress 
of Phillip Barnard, of Aldenham, & rehct of Sir Barnard Whet- 
stone, of Woodford-row, Essex, by whom he left a son & heir, 
Sir William, who d. in 1603. John Brown, of Northboro', esq., d. 12 
Mch 1559-60, & according to I.P.M. (State papers. Domestic series, 
Mis., Vol 14, No. 24) taken at Peterboro' 19 Oct. 1560, before 
Robt. Webb, esq., escheator, the jury found that Charles B. was 
his son & heir aged 15 years on the feast of St. Andrew next 
coming (Nov. 30). Died, seized in fee of the Manor of 
Norborowe als Norbrugh, 12 messuages, 12 cottages, 20 gardens, 
240a. land, 40a. meadow, 50a. pasture, 10a. wood, & 12s rent with 
appurts in Norborowe als Norbrugh, estates at Maxey, Nunton, 



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362 Fbnland Notes aio) Queries. 

Lolham, & Deepingate holden of the Queen by Knighfes service. 
Bridges, Northarrvptonshirey Vol, 2, p. 629, says these estates were 
held of the Bp. of Peterboro' by Knts service which he left to his 
son Charles a minor, 15 years old. On his dec. s. p. 6 Elizabeth 
the premises came to his brother John, draper, of London, who 
sold them in 1572 to James Claypole esq [who had a grant of 
arms & crest from Eobt. Oooke, Clar. 17 June 1583 (25 Eliz.) 
d. 1599, bur. at Northboro'. John C, a descendant mar. Elizab. 
Cromwell the favourite da. of the Protector]. John Brown, 
father to Charles made his will 8 Mch 1559-60 pr. in P.C.C. 13 May 
1560 (Reg. 29 Melhershe). I John Browne, esq,, of Narburgh, 
CO. Northampton, esq. Body to be buryed in such place & in 
such manner as shall be thought most convenient to my executor. 
To my eldest son Charles Browne my manor of Narborow als 
Narboroughe co. Northampton, with the hamlet of Deepingate, 
Maxey, Glinton, Eaton (Etton), Nunton, & one close called Ote 
close with all the rest of my lands lying within the manor of 
Norburgh & common fields of the same. Also goods and chattels, 
except such as I give by this my last will, with a brooch of gold 
having an image of a Xpofer in it being my lease of Swins 
meadow in the county of Lincoln during the term thereof for his 
preferment in learning. To my youngest son, John Browne, a 
tablet of gold, on the one side a bleu garfire set in a collet of gold 
compassed about with 15 small pearls & one greater, & on the 
other side enameled black with a A & a T graven in the middle, 
also all such cattle known by the name of Johnes cow or Johnes 
ewe. Finally I bequeath to the poor of Narborow als Nar- 
boroughe 208 to be distributed to *he very poor people at such 
convenient time as to my executor shall be thought best. Nephew 
Robt. Browne, of Walcote, co. Northampton, esq., executor, & for 
overseer I earnestly desire the right worshipful Sir Walter Mild- 
may, Knt., to undertake the same. Witnesses R. Bernard, Robt. 
Hall, Henry Atkinson, Clk., Richd. Crosse. Elizabeth Browne of 
Walcot, CO. Northampton (wid.) by will dated 12 Apl 1565 pr. 5 
Aug 1573 in P.C.C. (Reg. 26 Peter), Desires body to be bur. in 
the parish church of Barnack. To my son Robt. B. 40?. To my 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 363 

daus. Isabel & Frances, each 40Z. To the poor people of Baraack 
to be bestowed at my burial lOZ which sum is in the hands of Sir 
{sic) Eobt. B. To my son Humph. B. my bed which I lie in 
with the furniture belonging. To my sons Humphrey & Thomas 
my sheep that is in Leicestershire which be in number 110. To 
my da, Margaret 1 gown of black cloth garded with velvet. To 
my two daughter's Isabel & Frances 2 pairs of flaxen sheets 
each. To my son Thomas B. rest of goods & sole executor. 
Witnesses to signature of testatrix, Humphrey Browne, John 
Antwessell, Ant. Waters, Wa(l)ter, Skeler, Nichs. Cherwight, & 
others. Robert Brown, erroniously designated 8ir in his mother's 
will quoted above, made his will 14 (or 17) Oct. 12 Elizabeth 
(1572) pr. rehct Margaret, in P.C.C. 14 Feb. 1572-3 (Reg. 7. 
Peter) from which it appears he died before his mother. * 

The 14 Oct., 12 Elizabeth. I Robert Brown of Walcott, co. 
Northampton, esq., sick in body &c. To my wife (Margaret) for life 
all my lands & tenements towards payment of my debts, & after her 
decease the same to my son William & his heirs, for lack of such, 
to son Robert & his heirs, and in default to the right heirs of 
testator. My wife, for life, to receive yearly out of my lands & 
tenements being at or near Charing Cross in the suburbs of 
London, the which I have on lease, 40Z till the sum of 300? shall 
be received. I give the same to my dau. Judith for & towards 
her preferment, & after that sum is received, I give the same 
lease to my wife for the remainder of the term for the payment of 
my debts, & at her death to revert to my son WiUiam. All my 
interest in the parsonage of Peakirk to my son Robert, but wife 
to receive the profits till Robert attains the age of 24 years for his 
& my other childrens maintenance. Item to my wife for the next 
12 years after my dec. all my houses, lands &c. in London for the 
payment of debts, & at the end of that term to revert to my son 
William. To my son Robert, 2 geldings, 3 bedsteads, 3 feather 
beds with all their furniture. To my son William all my other 

* The early par. regs. of Bamack are lost, but extracts from an old book 
dated 1599 are in the Lansdown M.S. 991 (Bp. Kennett's collections) Brit. 
Mus,, and will prove of much service later on. 



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364 Fenland Notes and Queries, 

beds, hangings, brass, pewfcer, tables, forms, & all furnifcure & 
implements of my 2 houses here providing that my wife shall use 
& occupy the same for life. To my son Eobt. 101 yearly payable 
out of my lands &c. To my servant, John Waters 6 ewes, & 6 
more to my company keeper. To my maid Alice 40^, Henry 
Shippe, 4:0s ; & to Alice Bell 13s M. If my dau. Judith dies 
during her minority, the said 300? to revert to my son Eobert. 
To my wife all my plate, jewels &c. unbequeathed for payment of 
debts. Ordains wife, good friend Lady Harrington, & my very 
(good) friends M^ Thos. Cecil [Knted at Kenilworth, 1575, 
Governor of Brill 1585, K.G. 1601, cr. (first) Earl of Exeter 4 
May 1605, d. 7 Feb. 1621-2, bur. in Westminster Abbey] & Eras. 
Harrington (of Witham) esq., executors. To my sister Hall (? of 
Gretford) 61 13s 4^, Agnes Fletcher, 20s ; unto old Agnes, 30s ; 
my servant, Eoger, 20s. Witnesses, John Freere, Barnard 
Whitestons, Humph. Browne, Thos. Browne, Anthony Lister. 
Testator, mar. Margaret, da. & heir of Philip Barnard of Alden- 
ham, & relict of Sir Barnard Whetstone, of Woodford-row, 



1603-4 Sir William Brown, K^ of the honourable order 
of the Bath, bur, XX Feb. BarmcJc regs. Testator, eldest 
son of Eobt. whose will is given above was Knighted at the 
wholesale creation of that order at the coronation of James 1st in 
1603. His will, undated, pr. in P.O.C. 16 Mch. 1603-4 (Eeg. 44 
Hart) in which he designated himself as William Browne, of 
Wallcot (Walcot) co. Northampton, Knight of the Honourable 
order of the Bath. Constitutes wife Lady Elizabeth Browne sole 
executrix. (Her burial is not recorded in the Barnack reg.) To 
my brother Eobert Ball the debt & money due to me by the Lord 
Burleigh (Tho. Cecil, 2nd Baron & 1st Earl of Exeter) by bond 
or bill. Whereas Sir William Fitzwilliams, of MUton, co. 
Northampton, Knt., is indebted to me in the sum of 120Z. I give 
out of it 100? to my brother Eobt. B. and the odd 20? to my wife. 
I remit unto Eras. Covell of Hinthorpe (Inthorpe, Eutland) aU 

* I have several entries respecting the Whitstons of Barnack from the 
par. regs., also wills which will form a supplement to my paper. 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 365 

the debt he is indebted to me, viz. 12?. To M'^ John Browne, of 
Bourn (descended from the Stamford family, Merchants of the 
Callis), 00. Lincoln, 20?, or my best horse at his choice. To the 
right hoDOurable the Lord of Burleigh and the right honourable 
Lady Burleigh his wife as a pledge of the love born unto their 
house one peice of plate betwixt them. E.equests Lord Burleigh 
to protect in all good causes my dear & loving wife the Lady 
Elizabeth B. To all my wifes children a piece of plate of 10? 
price. To my two brothers, Sir Barnard Whetstones, & Robert 
Whetstones, & to the wife of the said Rob. W. 5? each. To 
Francis Bonder, now an apprentice unto M'^ (Robt.) Meddowes, of 
Stanton (Stamford, Mercer) at the expiration of his apprentice- 
ship 50?. In the declaration of the value of his will (Reg. 36 
Stafford, in P.C.C.) it states that he gave 100? to the poor people 

of the town of Barnack. 

Justin Simpson, Stamford. 

To be continued, 

232.— Windsor Great Park owned by a WisbecMan.— The 

Wisbech Advertiser is responsible for the following : — 

It may not be generally known that Windsor Great Park, the 
site of Her Majesty's residence, was once the property of a 
Wisbechian, who purchased it in the reign of Charles I. From a 
Windsor paper which has been put into our hands, it appears 
that in a lecture delivered a few days since in the Royal borough 
on " the History of Windsor Great Park and Forest," Mr. Menzies, 
of Egham, alluded to this fact in the following terms : — 

During Charles L's reign the Great Park at Windsor underwent 
many changes, and the common people and soldiers were guilty 
of riotous and disorderly conduct in destroying the deer, cutting 
the wood, and similar misdemeanours. In 1648 a survey was 
made of the Park, with a view to letting or selling it. In 1650 
a fee simple of the whole was agreed to be sold on behalf of the 
regiment under the command of Col. Desbrow, to Edward 
Scatter, of Wisbech, in the Isle of Ely, at fourteen years' pur- 
chase of the annual value, together with the deer and all the 



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366 Pbnland Notes and Queries. 

timber which had not been marked for the navy. The total 
purchase money was £22,755, but their appears to be no record of 
this amount having been paid. By order, passed in 1660, however, 
it would appear that considerable tracts had been absolutely parted 
with at small yearly rents, and that regular farms existed in the 
Park, the plough furrows being still visible in many places. 

Who was Edward Scatter, of Wisbech ? Ancient records do 
not appear to mention such a name, although there was a 
" Scotred " which has some resemblance to the name. 

233.-History of Soham, (ly the Rev. J, R. Olorenshaw).— 

THE BELLS. 

Entries occur from time to time in the Churchwardens' accounts 
pointing to various repairs made to bells, bell wheels, frames, &o., 
and to the repair of old bell ropes and the purchase of new ones. In 
1663 four bell ropes are charged for, costing 13/9; and at intervals 
between 1674 and 1694, five new ropes were procured, the price 
being about 3/- each ; but whether these later entries can be taken 
to determine the number of the bells is uncertain, probably there 
were 6 bells at this time. New wheels and brasses were put to 
the bells in 1676 at a cost of about £14. 

In 1694, 120lbs. of metal were added to the "greate bell " by 
Charles Newman of Haddenham, at an expense of £27/12/0,; the 
terms of the contract being settled at "ye Bull " with the help of 
half-a-crown's worth of ale and wine. A new clapper weighing 3« 
lbs. at lOd. per lb. was put to the fourth bell in 1699, and the 
clappers of the fourth and fifth bells were repaired in 1701 at a cost 
of £2/15/0. In 1706 the third bell was taken to Bury and was 
proved and "runned" at an expenditure of £8/13/0, besides 4/- 
for " drink for the helpers at taking down," and an allowance of 
2/- to Isaac Hurst for " damage done to the clock," and sundry 
other expenses. This work does not appear to have been carried 
out with sufficient promptitude, for we find the following entry, 
"paid court fees, the bell not being run'd in due time, ^j^:' 

In 1709 some, or all, of the bells were taken down and repaired, 
as is shewn by these entries :— " For carrying of the bells to 



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Fenland Notes and Queries. 367 

Pulbourne and expenses, for ourselves, horses, and men, being out 
two nights, and bringing ym back agen, £1/15/0." Paid Mr, 
Waylott *'part of ye charge of Running the bells, '£20;" (the 
balance £7, was paid in 1710). Drink to the value of £1/8/0 was 
consumed at " John Goldsberough's for ye ringers, and with ye 
bell founder ;" and £1/6/0 was paid Edmd. Rumbelow for drink 
and for " the use of his steyliards to weigh the bells by." The 
journey was not completed without some little difficulty, for Mr. 
Plummer was allowed half-a-crown towards the repair of his wagon 
shafts which were broken on the way to Fulbourne. Mr. Clack, 
Churchwarden in 1726, made a journey to Newmarket to get the 
clapper of the great bell repaired, two of the bells having had new 
clappers put to them in the preceding year. In 1755 a new frame 
for the bells was fitted up at a cost of £29 odd. The accounts for 
1757 contain this entry, " Money to be collected for the bells, 
£36/13/4," but no particulars are given as to the character of the 
work done. 

At the Easter Vestry meeting in 1783 the " principal inhabi- 
tants of the parish of Soham " agreed and ordered that the bells be 
re-cast and a sufficient quantity of new metal be added to make a 
peal of 8 bells, provided the feoffees of Mr. Bond's feoffement 
paid the sum of £85 in their hands and due to the Chureh, towards 
the expense of re-casting, &c. A subscription was also to be 
entered into for the same purpose and any deficiency was to be 
raised by rate, A counter proposal that the bells be re-cast into a 
peal of 6 bells only, met with no support. The project, however, 
seems to have fallen through for a time, for on Easter Monday, 
March 24th, 1788, the matter was again brought forward and the 
following resolution passed :— " Whereas, at the general vestry 
meeting of the principal inhabitants of the parish of Soham, the 
present bad state of the bells has been taken into consideration, 
the Tenor being split, and the other bells of so bad a tone that it 
is the opinion of Mr. Osbourn, bell founder, the work cannot be 
well completed without re-casting them, and whereas there is in 
the hands of the feoffees of Bond's Charity a balance of £120 to 
be appropriated to the repairs of the said parish Church," it was 



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368 Penland Notes and Queries. 

agreed that if the feoffees would undertake the work, the deficiency 
should be made up by rate. At a further meeting on May 26th, 
1788, the Churchwardens, William Pechy and WiUiam Sizer, were 
directed to agree with Thomas Osbourn of Downham to re-cast 
the bells. Another meeting was held on October 12th in the same 
year, " to take the opinion of the parishioners whether they were 
satisfied as to the goodness of the 6 new bells," and it was 
unanimously agreed by the inhabitants then present "that the 
bells are very good ones and give general satisfaction ;" and the 
Churchwardens were directed to pay Mr. Osbourn according to 
the contract. In 1790 it was ordered, at the usual Easter Meeting, 
that the Churchwardens, WiUiam Pechey and John Yarrow, 
" do as soon as conveniently may be, agree with Mr. Osbourn of 
Downham for putting up 2 new bells in the parish church steeple 
at as little expence to the parish as the nature of the work will 
admit," the feoffees of Bond's Charity agreeing to pay the 
balance due to the Church into the hands of the Churchwardens. 

The accounts for the years 1788 and 1790 furnish the following 
details respecting the bells and expenses :— 

1788.— 6 new bells weight as under :— (These are the present 
bells, but Nos. 5 to 10 ; four smaller ones having been added). 

1st— 8cwts. Oqrs. 5lbs.; 2nd— 8cwts. Iqr. 2lbs.; 3rd— 9cwt. 
3qrs. Olbs.; 4th— lOcwts. 2qrs. 201bs.; 5th— IScwts. 2qrs. 171b.; 
6th— 19cwts. 3qrs. 31bs.; 70cwts. Oqrs. 191bs. at £5 12s. Od. per 
cwt., £392 19s. Od.; 6 Clappers— 1541bs. at 9d. per lb., £5 15s. 
6d. Hanging, as by agreement, £30 Os. Od.; Total £428 14s. 6d.; 

Received by 6 old bells weight as under:— 1st— 5cwts. 2qrs. 41b.; 
2nd— 7cwts. 3qrs. Olbs.; 3rd— 8cwt. Iqr. 14lbs.; 4th— 9cwts. 2qrs. 
141bs.; 5th— llcwts. 2qrs. 81bs.; 6th— 17cwts. Iqr. 61bs.; *60cwts. 
Oqrs. 181bs at £4 4s. Od. per cwt., £254 5s. Od.; Received of 
Bond's feoffees, £120 Os. Od.; Total £374 5s. Od.; Balance £54 
9s. 6d. 

Preparing the frame for the new bells cost £22 12s. lid., 
besides sundry expenses for bell-ropes, iron work, &c., and Mr. 

* A slight error was made in the accounts, the weight being reckoned 
at eOcwts. 2qrs. 41bs. 



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Fbnland Notes and Queries. 369 

Eignal at the "White Lioa" was paid five shillings "for the 
Cambridge ringers." 

1790.— Two New Bells weighing together 15cwts., at £5 12s. 
Od.; £84 Os. Od.; Two clappers weighing 43lbs. at 9d.; £1 128. 
3d.; Hanging, &o., £11 3s. Od.; Total £96 15s. 3d. 

Received: Collected by Subscription £20 Os. Od.; From Bond's 
Feoffees £50 Os. Od.; Total £70 Os. Od.; Balance £26 15s. 3d. 

In 1807 subscriptions were raised towards the expense of two 
new bells to make a peal of 10. The amount collected was £66 
9s. 4d., of which sum the company of ringers, fiffceen in all, (five 
of them being members of the Tebbit family,) subscribed or 
collected £20, Bond's feoffees paid £10 17s. 8d., and the old lead 
and old bell frames realized £8 5s. 6d. 

The Tenor bell was re-hung in 1861 and a new stock, &c., 
provided at a cost of £5 or £6, and repairs effected in conneetion 
with some of the other bells at an expenditure of £10. 

Besides the occasions on which merry peals were rung on the 
bells already referred to, we find the following references to the 
bells in the Churchwardens' account books: In 1677, Thos. 
Chambers, junr., was paid £1 8s. Od. for ringing the "eight-a- 
clock " bell ; at a Vestry Meeting held on Easter Monday, March 
28, 1796, it was agreed that, as £2 was not a reasonable salary for 
the Sexton, (Mrs. Tebbit) for ringing the bell at four iri morning 
and eight in the evening, £3 be allowed her yearly in the future ; 
and in 1812 it was ordered that £5 be paid to Thomas Tebbit for 
ringing the night and morning bell as usual. In 1814 the 
following order was made : that £13 a year be paid to Thomas 
Tebbit for chiming the bells on Sundays and other times, winding 
up the town clock, tolling the bell in time of harvest, and for 
ringing the bell night and morning throughout the year (Sundays 
excepted) at such times as should be required by the parish 
officers. 

The bells bear the following inscriptions : — 

Nos, 1 and 2.— Revnd. H. Fisher, Vicar ; J. Dobede, and E. 
Tebbet, C. W. J. Briant, Hertford, Fecit iji New by sub- 
scriptions 1808, 



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370 Pekland Notes and Queries. 

Nos. 3 and 4.— H. Fisher, Vicar ; J. Dobede, and R. Tebbet, 
C. W. John Briant, Hertford, Fecit iSff Re-cast by subscription, 
1808. 

No. 5.— Cum Voce Venite : T. Osborn, Fecit 1788. 

No. 6.— T. Osborn, Fecit J788. (1788). Laudato Nomen. 

No. 7.— T. Osborn, Downham, Norfolk, Fecit J788. Wm. 
Pechy, Wm. Sizer, Churchwardens. 

No. 8. — Wm. Pechy and Wm. Sizer, Churchwardens. T. 
Osborn, Fecit J788. 

No. 9. — In Wedlock's bands all ye who join. 
With hands your hearts unite. 
So shall our tune full tongues combine. 
To laud the nuptial rite.* 
Thos. Osborn, Fecit J788. 

No. 10.— The Feoffees of Bond's Charity paid 120 Pounds 
towards the casting of these Bells. T. Osborn, Fecit J788. 

The following records of change ringing are copied from the 
lists hung in the belfry : — 

Peals rung in this tower by the Society of Soham Youths. 
October 25th, 1790. 5120 changes of Oxford Treble Bob, in 3 
hours and 33 minutes. 1st Bell, Thos. Tebbit ; 2nd, Lk. Golds- 
brow ; 8rd, Rt. Tebbit ; 4th, Jh. Finch ; 5th, Ed. Tebbit ; 6th, 
Rt. Silver ; 7th, Thos Talbot ; 8th, Thos. Brown. 

1st January, 1795, 5040 changes of Norwich Court in 8 hours 
and 30 minutes. 1st Bell, Ed. Tebbit ; 2nd, Thos. Tebbit ; 3rd, 
Rt. Chevis ; 4th, Thos. Tebbit, junior ; 5th, Robert Tebbit ; 6th, 
Lk. Goldsbrow ; 7th, Rt. Silver ; 8th, Thos. Brown. 

17th February, 1800. 5152. changes of Imperial the Third, in 
3 hours and 34 minutes. 1st Bell, Thos. Tebbit ; 2nd, Lk. 
Goldsbrow ; 3rd, Jh. Finch ; 4th, Thos. Tebbit, junior ; 5th, Rt. 
Tebbit ; 6th, Rt. Chevis ; 7th, Thos, Talbot ; 8th, Rt. SUver. 

A complete peal was rung in this tower by three brothers and 
their sons, of the Society of Soham Youths, on November 20, 
1809. 5280 changes of Oxford Treble Bob, in 3 hours and 35 

* A similar inscription is found on one of the bells in the Church at 
Kendal, Westmoreland, 



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Pbnland Notes and Qubribb. 371 

minutes. 1st Bell, Thos. Tebbit ; 2iid, Robert Tebbit, (son of 
Robert) ; 3rd, Benjamin Tebbit, (15 years old) ; 4th, John 
Tebbit, (son of Thomas) ; 5th, Robt. Tebbit ; 6th, Edward 
Tebbit ; 7th, Thos. Tebbit (son of Thos.) ; 8th, William Tebbit 
(son of Thos.) 

In honour of the Queen's acquittal a complete peal was rung by 
members of the Society of Soham Youths on November 16, 1820, 
5040 changes Oxford Treble Bob Royal in 3 hours and 43 minutes. 
1st Bell, Thos. Tebbit ; 2nd, William Tebbit ; 3rd, Robt. Tebbit ; 
4th, Robt. Staples ; 5th, Thos, Tebbit, junior ; 6th, Robert 
Talbot ; 7th, Jas. Seaber ; 8th, Benjamin Tebbit ; 9th, Thos. 
Tebbit ; 10th, John West. 

New Treble Bob Royal, 5010 changes, was rung in this tower, 
23rd November, 1821, in 3 hours and 41 minutes. 1st Bell, 
William Tebbit ; 2nd, Robert Tebbit ; 3rd, Robert Talbot ; 4th, 
Robert Staples ; 5th, Thomas Tebbit, junior ; 6th, John Tebbit ; 
7th, Jas. Seaber ; 8th, Robert Chevis ; 9th, Benjamin Tebbit ; 
10th, John West. 

Ten of the Society of Soham Youths rung in this tower, Feb. 
22nd, 1830, in 3 hours and 35 minutes, a complete peal containing 
5003 changes of Grandsire Tittum Caters ; performed the first 
attempt, conducted by W. Tebbit. Ringers :— W. Tebbit, J. 
Tebbit, R. Tebbit, R. Staples, T. Tebbit, junior, C. Elsden, J. 
Seaber, R. Chives, C. Spring, J. West. 

THE CLOCK. 

An entry in the oldest of the Parish Registers speaks of a 
clock in the Church (apparently in the tower) in the year 1601. 
In 1664 " Gadge the knacker " was paid QjQ for " lines" for the 
clock, this being the first reference met with in the Church- 
wardens* account book. From 1667 to 1689 various charges are 
entered for " keeping," " scouring," and mending the clock, and 
for "wyer" and "lines." In 1700 a new clock and dial were 
purchased of "Joseph Filleps" (Phillips) at a cost of £19/10/0 ; 
and there were other expenses attending the erection of scaffolding, 
&c. Some dispute appears to have arisen respecting the way in 
which the work was carried out, for 5/- was spent at Newmarket 



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372 Fenlam) Notes and Queries. 

"about ye too Arbetraters concerning ye clock," 2/- for an 
"arbetration bond," and 3/- to "a man judging the clock and 
condemning ; " the precaution having been taken beforehand of 
*^ drawing artickels when ye clock was bargined for." 

On May 9th, 1701, it was agreed by the inhabitants that 
Robert Crow "shall have twenty shillings a yeare for keepeing the 
clock, if he doe it well : " but this arrangement did not continue 
in force very long, for in 1704 an agreement was made with 
Isaac Hurst to look after the clock for Jive shillings a year. 
Some diJBferent plan appears to have been adopted in 1711, two 
shillings and sixpence being then expended with the Ely clock 
maker " and severall of ye townspeople about putting out Church 
Clock." In 1717 Robert Crow was again placed in charge, and 
seems to have continued to look after the clock until 1723, when 
Augustin Holland received £1/2/6 for half-a-year's salary for 
attending to it. Various necessary repairs were carried out in 
the following years, Robert Bemmington receiving 15/- per annum 
*for the clock," 

In 1752 the clock was taken to Cambridge for repairs, the cost 
being £6/8/0, and two shillings' worth of beer was consumed at 
the same time. 

In 1758 a formal agreement was made with William Burroughs, 
whitesmith, of Chippenham, that " he should maintain and keep 
in going the parish clock of Soham in good and sufficient repair 
for the term of ten years at the yearly sum of ten shillings and 
sixpence." A similar agreement was entered into with Edward 
Burroughs, of Fordham, in 1771, for ten years at the same rate. 
In 1773 a new dial plate was procured from London, the plate, 
with painting and gilding, cost £36 ; various other expenses 
were incurred in the removal of the clock for the purpose of 
refixing it to the new plate, &c. In 1814 the plate was regilded 
at an expense of £8 or £9. 

The present clock is said to have been procured from one of 
the colleges of Cambridge, and before the restoration of thei 
Church it required to be wound once in 8 days only, but owing 
to the removal of the west gallery less space was found for the 



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Fenland Notes and Queeibs. 373 

weights, and it now has to be wound every 3 days. It strikes 
the hours only. The Clock Bell, on the top of the Church Tower,, 
bears the inscription, " T. Hears, of London, Fecit 1826." 
To he earUinued^ 

234.— Parochial Certificates.— When looMns: through old 
vestry books I have frequently come across entxies relating to 
certain certificates received by the parish officers from various 
persons, and afterwards preserved amongst the parochial docu- 
ments. For instance, at the commencement of the oldest 
Churchwardens' book at Ware, amongst several others, is an entry 
in the following terms : — 

August y® 2 1708— Eeceived then & laide up in y® Chest in 
y^ Vestry Richard Marten & his wife Certifycate from y^ parish 
Stansted Mount Fitshet. 

Later on in the same book I found the following item : — 

Criss'^ Blackwells Certificate from Overton Longvile Hunting- 
tonshire June y^ 6 1726. 

What were these certificates ? Chas. E. Dawes. 

235.— Fenland Briefs.— A short time ago there appeared in 
the columns of The RertfordsMre Mercury an article from the pen 
of a local writer, giving a list of the briefs read in the Parish 
Church of Bishop's Hatfield. The information was gathered from 
records of these collections kept amongst the parochial registers 
between the years 1663 and 1717. A few of the briefs were 
issued on behalf of sufferers in the Fenland, and these, when 
compared with others referred to in the registers of parishes in 
this district, may perhaps prove of historical value, so it may not 
be out of place to reproduce the items in this journal. The 
entries from the Hatfield records are unfortunately for the most 
part given in a contracted form. 

**ffor John Ellis of Milton in the County of Cambridge 
July 5^"^ 1663 00-19-09." 

ITov. 6th, 1664. •* ffor Edward Christian of Grantham." 

June 2nd, 1668. "for Hinxton in Cabridgeshire .... 
00-12-00." 



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374 Fenland Notes and Queries. 

Sept. 23rd, 1670. "for Copenham [Cottenham ?] iii Cam- 
bridge £0 13 1^" 

April 6th» 1684. " for y« Isle of Ely 0-17-6^." 

Jan., 1685. " for Market Deeping in Lincolnshire 

00-15-5^^" 

Aug. 29th, 1686. " for y^ Parish of Aynsbury in Hunting- 
don 00-15-03." 

April 2nd, 1698. "for Elseworth Fire in Cambridge Shire 
00-10-09f." 

Dec. 1st, 1695. "for Grandcester in Cambshire 00-03-04." 

Nov. 29th,''1696. "for a Loss by fire at Stretham in Isle of 
Ely 00-05-08." 

Nov. 6th, 1697. " for a Loss by fire at Soham in Cambridge 
Shire 00-08-09." 

Aug. 24th, 1701. " for y^ Brief for Ely Cathedral 1-5-2^." 

Dec. 10th, 1702. " for y« Brief for Ely 00-15-00 

St. Mary's Parish in Ely." 

Sept. 16th, 1706. "for Chatteris in the Isle of Ely . . . 
. . . 00-09-10." 

June 29th. 1707. "Little Port in the Isle of Ely . . . 
. . . 00-09-06." 

June 6th, 1708. " for Alconbury cum "Weston .... 
Huntingdon . . . 00-11-02." 

June 13th, 1714. " Bottisham (Oambs) 00-10-01." 

Chas. E. Dawes. 

236.— Edward Elton, B.D.— I am seeking information regard- 
ing the ancestry of the Rev. Edward Elton, B.D., who in 1623 
was Minister of St. Mary Magdalene Church, Bermondsey, and 
the author of various theological treatises, and shall be obliged if 
any correspondent can supply even the smallest details. I am 
acquainted with his works, and seek only information regarding 
himself or his family. A religious treatise by John Brinsley, 
published in the early part of the 17th century, was furnished 
with " a commendatorie epistle " by the Rev. E. Elton ; and from 
this it appears that the latter came from the Fen country, of 



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Fbnland Notes and Qtjbeies. 375 

which also Brinsley was a native. Elton, referring to Brinsley, 
says : ** For the Author himself, though I have knowne him from 
my childhood, being borne neere unto him, brought up in the 
same Grammar Schoole, and after in the same College in Cam- 
bridge" &c. 

It appears that Brinsley was a noted Grammarian, sometime a 
Schoolmaster and Minister in Great Yarmouth, circa 1636. 

Can the Grammar School or the College mentioned by Elton be 
identified by anyone who is acquainted with the facts of 
Brinsley's life ? B. 

237.— Huntingdonshire Manors, 1685.— Amongst the papers 
preserved in Lord Salisbury's library at Hatfield House is a 
letter from Lord Burghley to Francis Cromwell and others, dated 
September 6th, 1585. This letter desires those in receipt of it to 
aid, further, and assist one John Hexham, who, by the authority 
of Thomas Gorges, Esq., is about to make a survey of the manors 
of St. Ives, Hemingford Grange (sic\ Hemingford Abbott, and 
Houghton with Witton, which the said Thomas Gorges holds 
jointly with the Marchioness of Northampton, the reversion 
thereto belonging to her Majesty in right of her crown. 

Chas. E. Dawes. 



End of Vol. L 



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