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Full text of "Flora Franciscana. An attempt to classify and describe the vascular plants of middle California"

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The 
Arnold Arboreti 
Purchase 



June 1971 



FLORA FRANCISCANA, 



Parts I & II 



INDEX OK ORDERS. 





PAGE. 




PAGE. 


AMARANTACEiE, - 


162 


iLIiECEBRE^, 


130 


Anacardiace^, 


77 


JUGLANDE^,, - 


74 


Aristolochiace^, 


237 


Leguminos^, 


2 


Caltcanthe^, 


73 


LlNE^aE, - 


94 


CAPPAEIDE.E, 


246 


LOASE^, 


232 


Caryophylle^, 


114 


Malvace/e, 


101 


Celastrine^, 


78 


Nyctagine^, 


159 


Ceratophyll.e, 


230 


PHILADELPHEyE, 


203 


Cistoide^, 


240 


Polygale^, 


93 


Crassulace^, 


183 


POLYGONEJE, - 


132 


CRtJCrPER^, 


247 


Pomaces, - 


51 


Cucurbitace^, 


235 


PORTULACEiE, 


175 


Datisce^, - - - - 


240 


Resedace^, 


245 


Drtjpace^, 


48 


Rhamne^, 


79 


ELATINEiE, 


113 


Rosacea, - 


55 


EPILOBIACEiE, 


205 


RUTACE^, 


74 


FlCOIDE^, - - , - 


239 


SAIilCARIiE, 


230 


Frakkeniace^, 


114 


Salsolace^, - 


164 


FuMARIACEiE, 


278 


Sapindace^, 


75 


Geraniace^, 


96 


Saxifrages, 


186 


Halorage^e, 


227 


TiTHYMAIiOIDES, 


88 


Hyperice^, - 


112 


ViOIiARIEiE, 


241 



[Pages 1—128 issued 30th March ; 129—280 issued 2l8t December, 1891.1 



F>RICE, $l.SO. 



DoxEY & Co., San Francisco : Wili-iam Wesley & Son, London. 
CuBERY & Company, San Francisco. 



FLORA FRANCISCANA 



AN ATTEMPT 

rO CLASSIFY AND I)P:SCRIBF THE VASCULAR PLANTS 

OF MIDDLE CALIFORNIA. 



EDWARD L. GREENE, 

Associate Professor of Botany, in the University of California. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 
CuBERY & Co., Prin^ters, .587 Mission Street, below Second. 

1891. 

(X. 



T.TAD A nil 



(3 K 1=14 



Copyright, 1891, 
By Edwakd L. Greene. 



FLORA FRANCISCANA. 



SERIES I 



PHANEROGAMOUS or FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Vegetables having stamens and pistils, and producing seeds, 
of which the most essential part is a distinct embryo. 



Class I. ANGIOSPERM^. 

Seeds enclosed within a pericarp. Cotyledons two or one. 



Subclass I. DICOTYLEDONOUS or EXOGENOUS 

PLANTS. 

Embryo with two cotyledons. Leaves netted-veined. 
Flowers having their parts usually in fives, fours or twos. 



Division I. CHORIPETAL^. 

Corolla (often wanting) of petals which are distinct, at least 

at base. 



LIBRARY 
NLy/ YORK 



2 LEGUMINOS.E. 

OrpehI. LEGUMINOS/E. 

Boerhaave, Hortus Academicus, ii. 22 (1720) ; Haller, Stirp. Helvet. 565 
(1742) ; Juss. Gen. 345 (1789). 

Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate, stipulate, compound (in Cerci>^ 
simple) leaves ; leaflets mostly entire, a few of the upper, in some 
genera, converted into tendrils. Sepals more or less united and forming 
a 2— 5-toothed or -cleft cup, the odd tooth or segment inferior. Petals 5 
(sometimes by abortion fewer), more or less united above the base ; the 
two lowest joining to form the kyel ; the two lateral enfolding this and 
called the wings ; the uppermost one broader than the others, usually 
erect, but in the bud folded down over the others (except in Cercis) and 
called the banner ; the corolla as a whole papilionaceous, or butterfly- 
shaped. Stamens usually 10, distinct or diadelphous (9 and 1), or mona- 
delphous. Pistil 1, usually becoming a legume, i. e., a 2-valved 1-celled 
pod with 1 row of seeds ; these attached to the upper suture, and contain- 
ing no albumen, the large embryo filling the integuments. 

Hints of the Wenera. 

Leaves simple, -.-------------1 

equally pinnate, mostly tendril-bearing, ------- 2, .S 

" unequally pinnate ; leafletb several pairs, ------ 4—9 

pinnately 3-foliolate, - - 8, 9, 11, 12 

palmately 3-foliolate, ----- ]0, 18 

" palmately 5— 9-foliolate, -----------10,16 

Unarmed shrubs ; leaves variously l~3foli<)late, - - - - - - 13,1.') 

Spinescent shrubs ; leaflets 3, 1 or 0, - - - - - - - - - 14, 17 

1. CERCIS, Linnreus (Eed Bud). Shrubs with simple leaves ; the 
flowers in axillary fascicles, appearing in spring before the leaves. Calyx 
campanulate, with 5 broad obtuse teeth. Petals 5, the banner small, 
enfolded by the wings ; keel-petals distinct, larger than the wings. 
Stamens 10, distinct. Pod thin, flat, oblong, wing-margined along the 
upper suture. 

1. C. occidentalis, Torr. in Gray, PI. Lindh. 177 (1845). Widely 
branching, 6—20 ft. high : leaves round-cordate, entire, obtuse or emargi- 
nate, 2 in. broad, on petioles of 1 in. or less : &. % in. long, rose-purple : 
pod 2 in. long, ^^ in. broad, acute at each end. — In the Coast Range from 
near Sunol, Behr, northward ; also in the Sierra at low altitudes. Very 
beautiful when in flower. Apr. 

2. VICIA, Van-o (Vetch). Weak herbs with angular stems, climbing 
by tendrils which terminate the pinnate leaves. Peduncles axillary, 
1 — 00 - flowered. Calyx 5-cleft or -toothed, the upper teeth shorter. 
Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1). Style filiform, bent upward at apex and 
villous all around, under the stigma, or else on the outside only. Pod 
oblong, several-seeded. 

* Raceinofte-Jioire red peretinials. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 6 

1. Y. ^is-autea, Hook. Fl. i. 157 (1S30). Stout, 5—10 ft. high : leaflets 
10 — 13 pairs, liuear-obloug, obtuse, miicroniilate, 1 — 2 in. long ; stipules 
1 in., semisagittate, toothed at base : peduncles much shorter than the 
leaves ; the dense raceme 1-sided, 5 — 18-flowered ; fl. dull red : pod 
glaucous, black when ripe. — Common along streams, climbing over 
shrubs and small trees. Seeds as large as small peas and said to be a 
fair substitute for them when young. May, June. 

2. V. Americana, Muhl. in Willd. Sp. iii. 1096 (1801). Weak, 2—5 ft. 

high, climbing by branched tendrils, nearly glabrous : leaflets 8 — 12, 
thin-membranaceous, vivid green above, paler beneath, closely but deli- 
cately feather-veined, elliptic-lanceolate, entire, obtuse, mucronulate, 1 
in. long : peduncles shorter than the leaves, 3 — 8 flowered : fl. ^-^ in. 
long, bright purple : upper calyx-teeth very short, lower well elongated : 
pods 1 in. long, glabrous. Var. truucata, Brewer : V. tnmcala, Nutt. in 
T. & G. Fl. i. 270 (1838). Lower and stouter than the type ; leaves linear 
to oblong-linear, usually dentate or even serrate toward the truncate 
apex : fl. larger and paler. — The type of this species occurs in the upper 
part of the Sacramento valley among the foothills of the Sierra, extending 
thence northward to the British boundary and eastward across the conti- 
nent. The variety is also somewhat rare, and not known except from 
San Benito and Contra Costa counties ; but there is plenty of it among 
the Mt. Diablo hills back of Antioch, Byron, etc. The following has 
been confused with this. 

3. V. linearis, Greene. Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 276 (1838), under 
LatJiyrus : V. Americana var. linearis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 134 
(1876). Low, decumbent or diffuse, or taller and climbing by branched 
tendrils : leaflets 6 — 10, subcoriaceous, glaucescent, the few veins promi- 
nent, confluent along the margin of the linear entire mucronate leaflet : 
peduncles equalling or exceeding the leaves, few-flowered : fl. 1 in. long, 
violet-purple : pods shorter than in the last. — Common throughout 
middle and southern California, but in the Coast Range only. Very 
common also in the Eocky Mountain region, where broad-leaved smaller- 
flowered forms prevail ; but in all these variations most easily dis- 
tinguished from ['. Americana by the color, texture, and venation of the 
leaflets. 

4. V. Californica. Erect or decumbent, 6—12 in. high, villous- 
pubescent, scarcely climbing, the tendrils short, stiffish and not branch- 
ing : leaflets 8—12, subcoriaceous, delicately feather-veined, cuneate- 
obovate, truncate or refuse, 5—7 lines long, more or less dentate toward 
the mucronulate apex : racemes exceeding the leaves, 3 — 5-flowered : 
calyx-teeth all broad and short : corolla % — i^ in. long, deep purple. — In 
Calaveras Co., collected by the author in June, 1889. The plant cannot 



4 LEGUMINOS^. 

be referred to T'. Americana, on account of its low zigzag stems, short 
and simple tendrils, subcoriaceous leaflets, and soft-pubescent herbage. 
It may be the T'. iruncata, var. villosa, Kell. 

* * Few-flowered annuals. 

5. T. exig-ua, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 272 (18.38). Slender, 1-2 ft. high : 
leaflets 4 or 6, oblong-linear, obtuse : peduncles filiform, shorter than 
the leaves, 1 — 2-flowered : calyx-teeth lanceolate from a broad base : 
corolla white or purplish, 2 lines long : pod glabrous, 4 — 5-seeded. — Hill- 
sides or plains, preferring stony or sandy soil. Mar. — May. 

6. V. Hassei, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxv. 129 (1890). Taller and less 
delicate than the last, the leaflets ampler, more numerous, deeply notched 
at apex : fl. 3 lines long : pod shortly stipitate, 5— Bseeded. — Of more 
southerly distribution than the preceding, but found at Benicia, Bigelow, 
and Santa Cruz, Anderson. 

7. V. SATiVA, Linn. Sp. PI. 736 (1753). Stoutish, suberect, 2--3 ft. 
high : leaflets 8 or 10, obovate-oblong, truncate or refuse, mucronate : fl. 
1 or 2, subsessile, % in. long, red-purple. — The Vetch or Tare, cultivated 
from time immemorial as a food and fodder plant, must have been brought 
to California a century ago by the Missionaries, and is of frequent occur- 
rence by way-sides and in old fields in most parts of the State. 

3. LA.THYRUS, Theophrastus (Wild Pea). Coarser plants than 
Vicia, with broader leaves and flowers, the style villous in a line up and 
down the inside (next the free stamen). 

* Tendril-bearing; the racemes 7nany-flowered. 

1. L. polyphyllus, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 274 (1838). Glabrous, stout- 
ish, the stem angular, 2 — 3 ft. high : leaflets 5 — 10 pairs, oblong, obtuse, 
distinctly petiolulate : tendrils short : stipules as large as the leaflets, 
triangiilar, acute, with or without sharp triangular teeth at base : pedun- 
cles shorter than the leaves : calyx-teeth subulate, ciliate, the lower twice 
as long as the upper : corolla % in. long, purple. — This, common in 
Oregon, is attributed to Humboldt Co., Bolander, but is otherwise 
Tinknown within the State ; but the next is very closely related to it. 

2. L. Bolauderi, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 363 (1885). Often shrubby 
below, 3 — 5 ft. high : leaflets 3 — 5 pairs, ovate, obtuse or refuse, mucro- 
nate, 1 — 11^ in. long, thin, on very short petiolules : tendrils ample : 
stipules broadly semisagittate, acute, more or less toothed : peduncles 
equalling the leaves : lower calyx-teeth lanceolate-acuminate, longer 
than the tube ; upper very short, broadly triangular, all glabrous along 
the margin, or nearly so : corolla ,^4 in. long, rose-purple, fading yellow- 
ish. — Frequent on wooded slopes throughout the Bay region and north- 
ward to Oregon. June. 



LEGUMINOS^. 5 

3. L. sulpliureiis, Brewer, in Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 399 (1867). 

Slif^litly pubescent, 3 ft. high, stem acutely angled : leaflets 8—12, sub- 
coriaceous, ovate- to oblong-lanceolate, acute, mucronate, less than 1 in. 
long, sessUe : stipules broadly semisagittate, acute or acuminate, sub- 
entire : peduncles equalling the leaves ; lower calyx-teeth lanceolate, 
nearly as long as the tube, sparsely ciliolate : corolla i^' in. long, yellow- 
ish, fading brownish. — Lower altitudes in the mountains from Nevada 
Co. to Calaveras. June. 

4. L. Jepsoiiii, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 158 ( 1890 ). Nearly or quite 
glabrous ; stem 5—8 ft. high, strongly winged along the angles and 
striate between them : leaflets 8—12, linear-lanceolate, acute, 2—3 in. 
long, subcoriaceous, venulose : stipules small, setaceously acuminate : 
peduncles stout, about as long as the leaves : fl. rose-purple ; calyx- 
teeth ovate-lanceolate, the lowest not much longer than the others ; 
corolla ,^4 in. long, relatively broad : pod 2—3 in. long, sessile in the 
calyx, 12 -16-seeded. —Muddy margins of sloughs, within reach of tide- 
water in the Suisun marshes, Jepsoii ; also near Stockton, Greene. 

5. L. Califoruicus, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 363 (1885 j. Tall like 
the last, with winged stems, etc., but foliage thin and the whole herbage 
soft-pubescent: leaflets 3—7 pairs, ovate-oblong or narrower, 1 — 2 iu. 
long, acute or acuminate ; stipules semisagittate, acute : peduncles 
equalling the leaves : fl. large, pinkish : calyx-teeth short : pod 2 in. 
long, narrowed to a stipe. — Along streams among the foot-hills on both 
sides of the Sacramento valley. May. 

6. L. vestitus, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 276 (1838). Low and herbaceous, 
or 8—15 ft. high and shrubby at base, soft-pubescent or nearly glabrous, 
the stems angled : leaflets 5—7 pairs, ovate-oblong to linear, cuspidate, 
subcoriaceous : stipules broadly or narrowly semisagittate, toothed or 
entire : peduncles about equalling the leaves ; fl. ^^ in. long, broad, 
purplish ; lower calyx-teeth lanceolate, acuminate, as long as the tube : 
ovary and pod appressed-pubescent. — Very common from San Joaquin and 
Sonoma counties southward. Variable in size, breadth of leaflets and 
stipules, but with distinctive leaf -texture and pubescence. Feb. — May. 

7. L. cinctus, Wats, Proc. Am. Acad, xxiii. 263 (1888). Stout, with 
angular stem and pubescent herbage : stipules semihastate, nearly 1 in. 
long, the broad basal lobe coarsely toothed : leaflets 10 —15 pairs, narrow- 
oblong, obtuse, mucronate, 1—1% in. long : peduncles much shorter than 
the leaves, few-flowered : calyx short, the lower teeth equalling the tube : 
fl. I3 in. long : pod 1%^ iii- lo^Si % in- broad, 3 -5-seeded : seed orbicular, 
2% lines broad, nearly encircled by the hilum.— Near Jolon, Monterey 
Co., Brandegee. 

* * Wilhoul leiidrih; pednncles 1 — S-Jioirered. 



6 LEGUMINOS^. 

8. L. Nevadeiisis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 133 (1876). Erect, slender, 
8 — 10 in. high, nearly glabrous : leaflets 2—8 pairs, ovate or oblong, 
obtnse, 1 in. long, thin : stipules narrow, acuminate at both ends : 
peduncles slender, at least equalling the leaves, about 2-flowered : fl. 
nearly 1 in. long, ochroleucous : calyx-teeth triangular, short, not very 
unequal, except the lowest one, which is lanceolate and much longer. — At 
middle elevations of the Sierra Nevada ; also in the Trinity Mts., MarsJiaU, 
in open woods ; strictly erect, the leaf-rachis ending in a slender recurved 
point. 

9. L. Torreyi, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 837 (1868) ; L. viHosvs, Torr. 
Pac. E. Rep. xii. 58 (1860), not of Frivalds. Erect, slender, 1—2 ft. high, the 
herbage thin, light green, fragrant : leaflets 4 — 6 pairs, with or without a 
reduced terminal odd one, round-ovate or oblong, % in. long, mucronate : 
stipules narrow, acuminate, the lower lobe short or almost obsolete : fl. 1 
or 2, short-peduncled, white or pinkish : calyx-teeth narrowly subulate, 
the upper a little shorter : pod 1 in. long, pubescent, 3 — 6-seeded. — From 
Santa Clara Co., Charles PaJache, to Napa and northward, in dry woods. 
Remarkable among plants of this genus as exhaling the fragrance of 
Aspervla odorata. It forms a link between Latliyrus and the Central 
American genus Cracca. May. 

■* * * Eachis dilated, ending in a ruditneittary odd leaflet ; peduncle 4 — S- 
flowered. — Genus Astkophia, Nutt. 

10. L. littoralis, Endl. in Walp. Rep. i. 722 (1812) ; Nutt. in T. & G. 
Fl. i. 278 (1838), under Astrophia ; Gray, Pac. R. Rep. xii. 58, t. 6 (1860), 
under Orobns. Stout and low, decumbent, densely silky-villous : stipules 
large, ovate or semihastate ; leaflets 1 — 3 pairs, cuneate-oblong, ^2 ^^• 
long or more : peduncles exceeding the leaves ; calyx-teeth nearly 
equal, about as long as the tube : corolla % — 94 i^^- long, banner bright 
purple, wings and keel white : pod large, oblong, obtuse, villous, 
8 — 5-seeded. — Strictly maritime, in sandy or clayey soil within reach of 
the sea-spray ; Santa Cruz, Anderson, San Francisco, Andrews, Greene, and 
far northward. The plant has as much the aspect of a Lotus as of a 
Lathi/rns, and perhaps ought to be regarded as forming a genus ; a view 
held by Nuttall, its discoverer. 

4. ASTRAGALUS, Dioscorides (Rattle- Weed, Loco- Weed). Herbs 
either erect or decumbent, with unequally pinnate leaves, no tendrils, 
persistent stipules, and axillary spikes or racemes of flowfers which are 
usually small for the size of the plant, and rather narrow. Calyx 5-toothed. 
Petals with slender claws, the keel obtuse. Stamens diadelphous, (9 and 
1) ; anthers uniform. Stigma terminal, minute. Pod various, seldom or 
never promptly dehiscent, often coriaceous and turgid, or thin and blad- 
dery-inflated, or thin and flat ; 1-celled, or partly 2-celled by intrusion of 



LEGUMINOS^. 7 

oue or both sutures. Seeds few or many, small for the size of the pod, com- 
monly reniform, on slender funiculi. — A polymorphous genus, embracing 
some hundi-eds of species, most of them inhabiting northern Asia and 
North America. Most of ours have, when fresh, a heavy somewhat nause- 
ating odor. Several are thought to be poisonous to cattle and horses. 

* A nil Hah. 

1. A. didymocarims, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 334. t. 81. (1840). Slender, 
pubescent, 1 ft. high : leaflets 9 — 15, cuneate-ablong to linear, emarginate, 
3-5 lines long : spikes long-peduncled, dense, ovate or oblong : fl. small, 
dull purplish : pods erect, 2 lines long and about as broad, scarcely exserted 
from the calyx, strongly wrinkled, 2-celled, 2-seeded. — Abundant along the 
eastern base of Mt. Diablo Range and far southward ; apparently not in 
the Bay region, or near the coast, where it is replaced by the next. 

2. A. iiigTesceiis, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 152 (1848). Smaller than the last, 
more slender, less pubescent, the less dense spikes cylindrical : pods 
deflexed, well exserted from the calyx, slightly wrinkled, strongly obcom- 
pressed. — Common on sterile gravelly hill-sides of the Bay region ; the 
flowers commonly minute and dull, but on the flanks of Mt. Tamalpais 
and northward larger and violet. An exceedingly well marked species 
which eastern l)otanists had confused with the jjreceding. 

3. A. teller, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 206 (1864); A. hypogloitis, 
var. singosus, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 115 (1863). Fhaca asiragalina, 
H. & A. Bot. Beech. 334 ( 1840). Slender, sparsely pubescent, 6—10 in. 
high : leaflets 9 — 15, linear or cuneate, acute or retuse : fl. many, capitate 
on a slender peduncle, purple : pod % in. long, slender, incurved, 2-celled, 
5 -10-seeded. — In moist lands, either sandy or alluvial. A handsome 
species ; the heads of purple and white recalling those of some kinds of 
clover. Apr. May. 

4. A. Breweri, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 207 (1864). Smaller than 
the last, relatively stouter, leaflets broader, heads few-flowered : pods 
with a short body and a very long incurved beak. — Common in fields of 
the Sonoma valley, Brewer, and in Lake Co., Mrs. Curran. Rarely 
collected and perhaps somewhat local. 

5. A. Battaiii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xix. 75 (1883). Strigose puberu- 
lent, 1 ft. high : leaflets 11 —17, obovate-oblong, emarginate : fl. few, 
capitate, the peduncles exceeding the leaves : teeth of calyx shorter than 
the campanulate tube : corolla 5 lines long, violet : pods spreading, 
very slender, subulate-beaked, 2 in. long, partly 2-celled, many-seeded. — 
Prairies of Mendocino Co., Ratlan, and of Humboldt, Chesrnit tt Drew. 
Species wearing much of the aspect of a Loins. June. 

* * Perenniah. 
■i—PofIs bladde ry-injialed , mure or less perfectly .^-celled. 



» LEGUMINOSrE. 

6. A. Coulteri, Benth. PL Hartw. 307 (1849) ; .1. Arlfm-SchoUii, Gray, 
Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 209 ( 1864). Stoutish, 1—2 ft. high, decumbent, often 
somewhat woody at base, whitish with a short close pubescence : leaflets 
9—15, oblong or obovate, obtuse or emarginate, ^o in. long : spike loosely 
10 — 20-flowered : calyx-teeth shorter than the tube : corolla Vg ^^- long, 
purple : pod ovate, aciite, ?4 in. long, chartaceous, hoary with a short 
pubescence. — Common in the southern parts of the State, but said to 
have been found in the first place near Monterey, Coulter. I have seen 
it to the northward of San Luis Obispo. 

7. A. rremouti, Gray, Pac. E. Rep. iv. 80 (1857). Ascending, 6 10 
in. high, silvery-canescent : leaflets 9—21, oval, refuse, J^ in. long : fl. 
subsessile, spreading, purple : calyx-teeth subulate, shorter than the 
tube : pod chartaceous, round-ovate, acuminate, 1 in. long, obscurely 
strigulose, mottled with purple. — At Sonora Pass in the Sierra Nevada, 
thence southward to San Bernardino, and eastward in the desert regions. 
Belated to A. Coulteri, but of different habit and with rounder pods. It 
has been referred to A. lentiginosiis ; but that has much smaller pods of 
a very different texture. 

8. A. leiitig'iiiosns, Dongl. in Hook. Fl. i. 151 (1830). Stoutish, diffuse, 
glabrous except a minute and sparse roughness upon the stems and along 
the margins of the 11 — 19 obovate or oblong leaflets : fl. spicate, or fewer 
and subcapitate, whitish : pod }4 — % ^^- long including the broadly ovate 
body and abrupt stout beak-like acumination, the whole slightly incurved, 
firm-coriaceous, white or freckled. — In Sierra Co. or Plumas, if at all 
within our limits ; for its home is upon the plains of N. E. California, E. 
Oregon, etc. Readily distinguished from the foregoing by its green and 
glabrous aspect, as well as by its firm and hard long-pointed and incurved 
pods. 

9. A. platytropis, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 526 (1865). Dwarf, tufted 
on horizontal rootstocks, silvery-silky : leaflets 7 — 11, obovate : peduncles 
scapiform, equalling the leaves, capitately few-flowered : calyx-teeth 
subulate, shorter than the tube : pod round-ovate, scarcely 1 in. long, 
abruptly pointed, puberulent, white or freckled. — In loose sand and 
gravel, near the summit of the Sierra at Sonora Pass, Brewer. Apparently 
not otherwise known within the State ; but it occurs in Nevada. 

H— H— Fods bladdery, 1-celled, the dorsal suture not at all intruded. 

10. A. Hookerianus, Dietr. Syn. iv. 1086 (1847) ; T. & G. Fl. i. 693, 
under Phaca (1840). Less than 1 ft. high, canescently pubescent or 
glabrate : leaflets 13—19, rather remote, oblong to linear, 3^ — % in. long : 
fl. short-pedicelled, whitish : calyx-teeth triangular, very short, the tube 
cylindrical : pod obovate-oblong, obtuse, tapering to a short scarcely 
exserted stipe, 2 in. long, thin, glabrous, white or mottled. — Another 



LEGUMINOS^. 9 

northeastern species, coming within our limits in the mountain counties 
of Nevada, Bolander, and Sierra, Leinrnun. 

11. A. Whitaeyi, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 526 (1865). Near the last 
but more pubescent ; fl. red-purple ; pod smaller, oval, narrowed to a 
slender stipe which is longer, about twice the length of the calyx. — Col- 
lected at Sonora Pass, B reiver. 

12. A. oxyphysus, Gray, 1. c. 218 (1864). Erect, 2—3 ft. high, stoutish. 
canesceut with a minute pubescence ; leaflets 9—21, oblong, 1 in. long ; 
peduncles exceeding the leaves, raceme elongated : calyx-teeth subulate, 
half as long as the oblong tube : corolla green ish-white, % in. long : pod 
compressed, oblique (semiobovate), acuminate at both ends, 1}^ in. long, 
on a stipe little exceeding the ca lyx. — Dry hills of the Mt. Diablo Eange, 
at Arroyo del Puerto, Brever, and in San Luis Obispo Co., Lenimon. 

13. A. curtipes, Gray, 1. c. Suffrutescent, the branches erect, 1 ft. 
high or more, cinereous-pubescent : leaflets 13 — 33, narrowly oblong, 
obtuse or refuse, ig — '^4 io- long : peduncles long, raceme short : calyx- 
teeth setaceous-subulate, little longer than the eampanulate tube : pod 
not compressed, semiovate, acute, \K^ in. long, pendulous on a short rigid 
stipe. —From San Luis Obispo southward, on dry hills. 

14. A. leucophyllus, T. & G. Fl. i. 336 (1838). Erect, tall, growing 
parts silvery-canescent, when older glabrate : leaflets 27 — 37, broadly 
linear, acutish, ^4 in. long : peduncles long, racemes short : calyx-teeth 
subulate, half as long as the oblong tube ; corolla yellowish : pod 
obliquely oval, l^^ in. long, on a filiform pubescent stipe nearly as 
long. — Low hills skirting the interior valley from Sacramento southward 
to Monterey ; very common between Livermore and Niles, and probably 
throughout the Mt. Diablo range southward. 

15. A. leucopsis, Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 56. t. 16 (18-59) ; T. & G. Fl. 

i. 694 (184U) under Phaca. Size, habit, foliage, inflorescence, etc., as in 
the last, but calyx-teeth of more than half the length of the tube, which 
is eampanulate : pod tapering at base, the stipe glabrous and only I3 
in. long. — The common Rattle- Weed in San Diego Co. It is credited to 
Santa Barbara Co. and is very likely to be found somewhat farther 
northward. 

16. A. tricliopodus, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 218 (1864) ; Nutt. in 
T. & G. Fl. i. 344 (1838), under Phaca. Slender, 1—3 feet high, young 
parts hoary, the older strigose-pul:)ertilent : leaflets very many, oblong to 
linear, 1,2 in. long : racemes short, on peduncles exceeding the leaves : 
calyx -teeth much shorter than the campaniilate tube : fl. yellowish : pod 
oval, obtuse at both ends, ^o in. long, on a short filiform stipe. — Also of 
southern California, but perhaps in San Luis Obispo Co. 



10 LEGUMINOS.E. 

17. A. crotalariae, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 216 (1864) ; Beutb. PL 
Hartw. 307 ( 1849) under PJiaca. Stout, decumbent, glabrous, except the 
canescent growing parts : leaflets very many, oblong-linear to obovate. 
sometimes retuse, j^ — 1 in. long : stipules broadly triangular, distinct : 
calyx-teeth subulate, half as long as the short-eampanulate tube : fl. 
white : pod thin, ovoid, 1 — IJ^ in. long, sessile in the calyx. — Plains and 
hills from San Francisco to Santa Barbara. A var. vir^atus, Gray, is 
described as having narrower stipules, a looser raceme, longer and 
narrower calyx-teeth, etc. It may be a hybrid between this and the next. 

18. A. Meuziesii, Gray, 1. c. (1864). Phaca NuUaUii, T. & G. Fl. i. 
343 (1838) ; P. deasifoUa, Smith in Rees' Oycl. (1819). Stout, erect, 2-4 
ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : stipules broad, not pointed, continued 
around the stem, sometimes nearly meeting or even cohering opposite 
the base of the leaf : raceme long and dense : fl. greenish : pod thin, 
large as in the last. —Plentiful in sandy soils along the seaboard, at 
Alameda, West Berkeley, San Francisco, etc. Dr. Torrey, in a Pacific 
Railroad Report, restored to this its first specific name given under 
Phaca, but inadmis>sably ; there being a much older Astragalus densi- 
folHis of Lamarck. 

19. A. iiiacrodon, Gray, 1. e. (1864) ; H. & A. Bot. Beech. 333 (1840), 
under Phaca. Erect, tall, glabrous in age, the nascent parts canescent ; 
leaflets 23-27, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, mucronulate : stipules small, 
lanceolate-acuminate : peduncles rather shorter than the leaves ; racemes 
long : calyx-teeth slender-subulate, equalling the campanulate tube, and 
almost as long as the corolla : ovary silky ; pod unknown. — This obscure 
plant was collected by Douglas only, some sixty years ago, somewhere 
between Monterey and Sonoma, probably near the former place. It 
should be carefully sought, though it may have become extinct. The long 
and slender calyx-teeth, according to the original description, so dis- 
tinguished it from its allies, as to make its recognition easy in case it 
should be rediscovered. 

20. A. Dong-lasii, Gray, 1. c. (1864) ; T. & G. Fl. i. 346 (1838), imder 
Phaca. Ascending, 1 ft. high, cinereous-puberulent when young, other- 
wise nearly glabrous : leaflets very many, linear or linear-oblong, % — % 
in. long : spike short, dense, 10 — 20-flowered : calyx-teeth subulate, shorter 
than the campanulate tube : pod thin, obliquely ovoid, 1}4 — 2 in. long. — In 
gravelly places along streams, from San Francisco to San Luis Obispo. 

21. A. Horiiii) Gray, Proc. Am, Acad. vii. 398(1868), Slender, ascend- 
ing, 2 ft. high or more, glabrous or pubasoent : leaflets 21 — 29, narrowly 
oblong : peduncles much longer than the leaves, bearing a dense spike 
of yellowish flowers : calyx-teeth broadly subulate, scarcely as long as 
the campanulate tube : pods densely spicate, ovate from a broad base. 



LEGUMINOS^. 11 

acuminate. % in. lonj?, somewhat villous. — From Tulare Co. southward. 
Easily recognized by its cone-like spike of somewhat imbricated pods. 

22. A. Pulsiferae, Gray, 1. c. x. 69 (1874). Slender, tufted, procumbent, 
white-villous : leaflets 5 — 11. obovate-cuneiform, usually retuse. 3 — 4 lines 
long : peduncles equalling the leaves, few-flowered : calyx-teeth linear- 
filiform, twice the length of the campanulate tube : corolla white with a 
purple tinge : pod }'2 in. long, ovate, incurved, villous. — Gravelly places 
in Plumas and Sierra counties, Mrs. Ames, Mr. Lemmon. 

-I— -1— H— Pods not 1)Iaddery, mostly of hard lexUire. 

23. A. Purshii, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i. 152 (1830). Stems a few inches 
long, forming matted tufts ; herbage densely silky-villous : leaflets 9 — 15, 
oblong : peduncles shorter than the leaves : fl. few, capitate, 1 in. long 
or less, bright purple ; calyx-teeth silbulate, shorter than the tube : pod 
ovate, incurved, 1 in. long, densely white-woolly, cartilaginous, obcom- 
pressed, the two sutures nearly meeting within, thus forming two incom- 
plete compartments. — On the eastern slopes of the Sierra if at all within 
our limits ; but common in Nevada and northern California. 

24. A. inalacus, Gray. Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 336 (1868). Low, stoutish, 
densely white-hirsute : leaflets 11 — 17, obovate, retuse : peduncles exceed- 
ing the leaves, spicately few- or many-flowered : fl. J'i, in. long, deep 
purple ; calyx cylindrical, dark-hairy, the slender teeth much shorter 
than the tube : pods pendulous, 1 in. long, 3 — 4 lines wide. Innately 
incurved, densely hairy, 2-celled Ijy intrusion of the dorsal suture, the 
cross section narrow-obcordate. — Eastern slope of the Sierra, southward. 

25. A. Andersonii, Gray, 1. c. vi. 524 (1865). Slender, canescent with a 
dense somewhat silky pubescence : leaflets 13 — 25, oblong, oval or obovate, 
mucronate : peduncles longer than the leaves : fl. many, yellowish-white, 
crowded in an oblong or cylindrical spike : calyx-teeth subulate-setaceous, 
nearly as long as the cylindrical whitish-villous tube : pods pendulous, 
falcate, % — % in. long, 2 lines wide, abruptly pointed, downy, 2-celled as 
in the last. — Habitat of the preceding. 

26. A. Congdoni, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 360 (1885). Stems 1--2 
ft. long, decumbent ; herbage soft-pubescent : leaflets 17 — 21, small, 
orbicular, obovate or oblong, obtuse or retuse : racemes loose, long- 
pediincled : teeth of the campanulate calyx short, triangular : corolla 
pale yellow : pod chartaceous, linear, curved, 1 in. long, jjuberulent. 
2-celled as in the above. — In Mariposa Co. along the Merced River, 
Congdon. 

27. A. Bolanderi, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 337 (1868). Low, sub- 
erect, slightly ijubescent : stipules scarious, united opposite the i)etiole : 
leaflets very many, oblong-linear, % — % in. long : peduncles stoutish. 



12 L E G U M I N S ^. 

eqvialliug the leaves ; raceme very short ; H. % iu- loiiff< purplish : calyx- 
teeth sleuder-subnlate, shorter than the tube : pod ovate, incurved, 
transversely veiny, less than 1 in. long, al)ruptly rec^^rved on the ascend- 
ing stipe, 2-celled. — Yosemite Valley and northward to Sierra Co., in 
gravelly soil at 6,000 ft. altitude and upwards. 

28. A. Mortoiii, Nutt. in Gray, 1. c. vi. 196 (1864). Stoutish, erect, 2 
ft. high, minutely appressed-pubescent : leaflets 17 — 21, oblong, % — 1 in. 
long : fi. greenish white, in a dense oblong long-peduncled spike : pods 
erect, % in. long, oblong, minutely pubescent, 2-celled, grooved at the 
dorsal suture, the ventral one externally prominent. — The western ana- 
logue of A. Canadensu ; found at Mono Lake, Brewer, and northward 
along our eastern borders. 

29. A. pycnostachyus, Gray, 1. c. 527 (1865). Stout, 2 ft. high, more 
or less villous-hoary : leaflets about 21, oblong, % in. long : fl. yellowish, 
in dense cylindrical short-stalked sjnkes : pods crowded, retrorsely imbri- 
cate, ovate, acute, laterally flattened, thin-coriaceous, glabrous, coarsely 
reticulate, 1-celled. — In moist subsaline grassy land near the entrance to 
Bolinas Bay, Bolander, 1863, Greene, 1888 ; also in a similar locality not 
so near the sea southwest of Mt. Tamalpais ; more frequent in the 
southern part of the State. 

30. A. Antisellii, Gray, in B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 152 (1876). Rather 
slender, 2 ft. high, cinereous-pubescent : leaflets 21 — 29, crowded, linear- 
oblong, 2 — 4 lines long ; raceme lax, few-flowered : calyx-teeth half the 
length of the campanulate tube : pod thin, linear-oblong, compressed, 
1-celled, % in. long, 2 lines wide above the middle, thence tapering to the 
slender stipe which is thrice as long as the calyx. — From San Luis Obispo 
Co. southward. 

31. A. speirocarpus, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 225 (1864). Slender, 
a span high, cinereous-pubescent : leaflets 9-17, obovate or oblong, 
emarginate : racemes short : calyx-teeth scarcely a fourth the length of 
the cylindraceous tube : pod thin, flat, coiled into a ring or spiral, stipi- 
tate, 1-celled. — From Sierra Co., Leminon, northward to Washington, in 
the var. falciformis, Gray, with pods curved only to the falcate, not into 
a ring even. 

32. A. Gibbsii, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 161. fig. 50 (1863) ; A. 
cyrloides. Gray, 1. c. 201 (1864). Stoutish, erect, softly hoary : leaflets 
11 — 21, ovate-oblong, retuse or obcordate : peduncles elongated ; fl. many 
in a dense short raceme : calyx downy, the teeth not half as long as the 
long-campanulate tube : pod pubescant, 1 in. long, cartilaginous, falcate 
or more strongly curved, stipitate, 1-celled. -From Placer Co. to Sierra, 
and eastward in Nevada. 



LEGUMINOS.E. 13 

33. A. Webberi, Gray, in B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 154 (1876). Low, very 
leafy, silvery-canescent : leaflets 11 — 21, oblong or obovate, 4 — 7 lines 
long : peduncles exceeding the leaves ; spike densely 9 20-fiowered : 
calyx-teeth subulate, half as long as the oblong-camijanulate tube : 
corolla white or yellowish, }.2 in. long : pod glabrous, cartilaginous, 1 in. 
long, oblong, obtuse, arcuate or nearly straight, somewhat comijressed, 
sessile in the calyx, 1-celled. — Plumas Co., Mrs. Ames, Mr. Letnmon. 

34. A. Leininoui, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 626 (1873). Minutely 
appressed-pubescent ; stems slender, diffuse, 1 ft. long or more : leaflets 
9-11, linear-oblong, mucronate, 4 — 5 lines long : peduncles filiform, 1—2 
in. long, having dense racemes of very small pale-purphsh flowers : calyx- 
teeth subulate-setaceous, as long as the short-campanulate tube : pod 
chartaceous, 2 lines long, ovate-oblong, obtuse, turgid, imperfectly 2-celled, 
the cross section obcordate.- Plumas Co. and northward, Bolander, Lem- 
mon, Greene. 

35. A. Clevelandi, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, ix. 121 (1882). Nearly 
glabrous, slender, erect, 2 3 ft. high : leaflets 15 — 19, less than % ^■ 
long ; peduncles exceeding the leaves, the loose spicate raceme of small 
white flowers often 6 in. long : pod very small. — This plant, much 
resembling MelUoias aiha, was first obtained by Mr. Cleveland in Indian 
Valley, Lake Co., afterwards by the author, on the northern slope of Mt. 
8t. Helena, where it is common along streams in open places. June, July. 

36. A. Austinse, Gray, in B. & W. Bot. CaHf. i. 156 (1876). Low, 
densely tufted, silvery-silky : stipules scarious, mostly united into an 
ovate body opposite the leaf : leaflets 9 — 17, oblong or oval-lanceolate, 
acute or mucronate, 4 — 5 lines long : peduncle equalling or exceeding 
the leaf : fl. capitate : calyx-teeth filifonn, longer than the campanulate 
tube, and nearly as long as the pale corolla, of which the banner and 
wings are pubescent externally : pod chartaceous, turgid-oval, hoary- 
pubescent, 2 lines long and scarcely exceeding the calyx-teeth, imperfectly 
2-celled. — High peaks of Nevada Co., Letnmon. 

5. GLYCYRRHIZA, Dioscorides (Licorice). Glandular-viscid per- 
ennials with unequally pinnate leaves, and flowers in axillary peduncled 
spikes ; calyx 5-cleft. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous ; the 
alternate anthers smaller. Pod short, compressed, prickly, indehiscent, 
few-seeded. 

1. G, glutinosa, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 298 (1838) ; G. lepidota, var. 
gluHnosa, Wats. Two or three ft. high, erect or decumbent, either nearly 
glabrous and viscid with minute sessile resinous dots, or more decidedly 
glutinous by a villous or hirsute glandular pubescence, never scurfy : 
leaflets 13 to 19, oblong-lanceolate, 1 or 2 in. long ; stipules ovate- 



14 LEGUMINOS^. 

acuminate to lanceolate, persistent : spikes merely oblong, 1 to IVg in. 
long, on peduncles of 1 in.: pod bur-like. — Common in orchards and 
fields about Vacaville, Jepson, where it is a troublesome weed; also at 
Stockton, Sail ford, and southward in the Mt. Diablo Range to Corral 
Hollow, Bremer. The species varies greatly in the degree of its hairiness 
and viscosity, but it is never lepidote. The absence of all scurfiness, the 
always short and short-stalked spikes, and above all, the thoroughly per- 
sistent stipules which, upon the lowest parts of the plant are even partly 
adnate to the petiole, render it impossible to merge the species in (j. 
lepidota as a variety. 

6. AMORPHA, Liimivus. Shrubs with unequally pinnate leaves 
which, with the young twigs and inflorescence, are pellucid-glandular 
and heavy-scented, the glands in age dark brown and opaque. Leaflets 
many ; stipules and stipels caducous. Flowers very small, dark purple, 
in long and narrow terminal spikes. Calyx obconic-campanulate, 5- 
toothed, persistent. Banner (the only petal present) erect, concave, nn- 
guiculate. Stamens monadelphous at the very base. Pod short, limulate, 
glandular, scarcely dehiscent, 1- or 2-seeded. 

1. A. Califoriiica, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 306 (1838). Three to eight 
ft. high, the nascent parts villous-canescent : leaflets 11 — 15, elliptic 
oblong, obtuse, an inch long : calyx-teeth acute, but broadly triangular 
and very short (broader than long). — Santa Barbara, N'n'tall, and doubt- 
less farther northward, though perhaps not within our limits. 

2. A. hispidula. Two to four ft. high, pubescent or glabrous, the 
glandular dots supplemented on the twigs, stalklets and leaf-rachis by 
aciite ijrickle-like glands with tips more or less recurved : leaflets 17 to 25, 
oval to linear-oblong, an inch long, refuse or emarginate : calyx-teeth 
triangular-lanceolate, more than half the length of the tube : petal red- 
purple : pod half obcordate, very glandular, twice the length of the 
calyx. — Frequent from Monterey Co., Hickman, to Marin and Napa. 
Confused with A. Californica, by Brewer & Watson, though entirely 
distinct. The prickle-like glands, interspersed among the depressed and 
sessile ones, are very characteristic ; nor are the elongated calyx-teeth 
less so. 

7. ROBINIA, Linnieus (Locust-Tree). Trees or shrubs with odd- 
pinnate leaves and stout prickles in place of stipules ; the leaflets 
prickly-stipellate. Flowers showy, in pendulous racemes. Calyx slightly 
bilabiate, 5-toothed. Banner large, roundish, reflexed, little longer than 
the wings and keel. Stamens diadelphous. Pod linear, flat, several- 
seeded, margined along the upper suture, readily dehiscent. 

1. R. PsEUBACACiA, Liuu. Sp. PI. ii. 722 (1753). Tree with large loose 



LEGUMIN08.E. 15 

racemes of very fra^jrant white flowers. -Native of the Altantic states ; 
long cultivated iu Califoruia for shade aud ornament ; now spontaneous 
in many places. 

8. PSORALEA', Roijeii. Perennials (one adventi\'ie species shrubby), 
punctate with dark dots and heavy-scented : leaves pinuately 3-foliolate 
(in No. 6 palmately 5-foliolate) ; stipules free from the petiole. Calyx- 
lobes nearly equal, the two upper sometimes connata Keel broad, obtuse, 
joined to the wings. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous : anthers 
tmiform. Pod ovate, indehiscent, 1-seeded. 

1. P, orbicularis, Lindl. Bot. Reg. xxiii. 1. 1971 ( 1837). Stem prostrate, 
creeping, the leaves and racemes erect, long-stalked : leailets 2 — 3 in> 
long, the terminal one nearly orbicular, the lateral pair obovate : raceme a 
few inches to a foot long, the flowers subtended by large deciduous bracts: 
calyx villous and pedicellate-glandular, cleft almost to the base, the 
lowest tooth as long as the purplish corolla : sttmiens diadelphous : pod 
ovate, acute, 3 lines long. — Frequent in moist grassy places. Jialy. 

2. P. strol)ilina, H. & Av Bot. Beech. 332. t. 80 (1840). Erect, 2—3 
ft. high, villous throughout, the stem and .stalklets glandular : leaflets 
rhombic-ovate, 2 in. long ; stii^ules large, broadly ovate, acuminate : 
peduncles shorter than the leaves : spike oblong, the bracts very large, 
deciduous : calyx % in. long, the lower tooth much the longest, equalling 
the purple corolla : stamens monadelphous : ovary pubescent. — Said to 
inhabit the mountains of Contra Costa and Santa Ciruz counties. 

3. P. macrostachya, DG. Prodr. ii. 220 (1825). Three to twelve feet 
high, the pubescence variable : leaflets ovate-lanceolate : stipules small, 
lanceolate : peduncles greatly surpassing the leaves : spikes cylindrical, 
silky-villous ; bracts acuminate, as long as the flowers : lower calyx - 
tooth longest, scarcely as long as the corolla : tenth stamen almost free : 
pod ovate-oblong, acute, 3 or 4 lines long, compressed, villous. — Very 
•common, either on hill-sides or in low ground, but in moist places, 
chiefly along streams in the mountain districts ; abundant and of rank 
growth in the Suisun marshes ; varying from nearly glabrous to some- 
what tomentose. June — Oct. 

4. P. physodes, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i. 136 (1830). Two or three feet 
high, erect, nearly glabrous : leaflets ovate, acute, 1 in. long ; stipules 
linear-lanceolate : peduncles about as long as the leaves ; raceme short, 
•dense, the bracts small : calyx covered with sessile glands and somewhat 
black-hairy, at length much enlarged and inflated, becoming 4 or 5 lines 
long, its teeth short, subequal : corolla scarcely h^ in. long, ochroleucous, 
often with a deep purple tinge : stamens monadelphous : pod rounded, 
compressed, 3 lines long. — Common in both the Coast and Contra Costa 
Ranges, in open places among thickets and trees. May— July. 



16 LEGUMINOS.E. 

5. P. GLANDULOSA, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1075 (1762). Shrubby or arbo- 
rescent, with loose elong'ated branches ; glabrous, but roughish with 
elevated glands : leaflets ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 2 or 3 in. long ; 
stipules subulate-setaceous, deciduous : racemes longer than the leaves, 
the bluish flowers more or less verticillate. — Native of Chile ; frequent in 
cultivation, occasionally spontaneous. 

6. P. Califoriiica, Wats, in Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 251 (1877). Low, 
tufted ; pubescence short, silky, appressed : leaves palmately 5-foliolate ; 
stipules scarious, lanceolate, deciduous ; leaflets broadly oblanceolate, 
acutish, ''}^ — 114: in- long : racemes shorter than the leaves, short- 
peduncled, rather loose ; pedicels slender : calyx silky-villous, % in. 
long, the linear acuminate lobes a little exceeding the petals : pod thin, 
villoixs, oblong with a lanceolate beak : seed compressed, 2 lines long or 
more. — Head waters of the Salinas, San Luis Obispo Co., Falmer. 

9. LOTUS, Touruefort (Lotus. Hosackia). Herbaceoxis or suffru- 
tescent, with pinnately 3 — co - foliolate (in the first species often 1 -f oliolate) 
leaves ; leaflets sometimes of even number but unequally distributed 
on the two sides of the rachis ; stipules foliaceous, scarious, or more 
commonly reduced to dark glands. Flowers solitary, or in umbels or 
heads which are naked or subtended by a 1 — 5-foliolate bract. Calyx 
5-toothed or -cleft. Corolla whitish, yellowish or purplish, changing to 
orange or red ; petals free from the stamens ; banner ovate or rounded : 
wings commonly meeting imperfectly and (by a twist in the claw) obliquely 
m front of the obtuse or acute, sometimes rostrate keel. Stamens dia- 
delphous ; the alternate filaments dilated or thickened under the anthers. 
Pod linear, compressed or terete, straight or arcuate, promptly or tardily 
dehiscent, or indehiscent, 1 — x- seeded. Seeds variously rounded or 
elongated, sometimes quadrate, smooth, tuberculate or rugose.— A large 
genus, related to the clovers and of some value as forage plants. The 
American species, quite numeroiis, are mostly Californian, and have been 
without sixfficient reason treated as constituting one or more genera 
distinct from Lotus. 

* Annuals with gland-like traces of stipules ; leaflets 1 — 3, on a linear 
rachis ; pods straight, readily dehiscent. — Genus Acmispon, Raf. 

1. L. Americanus, Bisch. Hort. Heidelb. (1839) ; Nutt. Gen. ii. 120 
(1818), under Trigonella : L. sericeris, Pursh (1814), not of DC. (1813). 
Hosackia Purshiana, Benth. Erect or decumbent, 1—2 ft. high, more or 
less villous : leaflets (rarely 5) ovate or oblong, acutish, ^£ in. long : 
peduncles slender, exceeding the leaves, the solitary salmon-colored or 
whitish flower subtended by a bract 3—6 lines long : calyx-tube very 
short, the linear teeth equalling the corolla : pod 1 m in. long : seeds 
oblong, smooth, dark-colored. On sunny banks, or in the dry gravelly 
beds of streams, or even in moist meadow lands ; very widely dispersed. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 17 

and variable in size, habit, pubescence, etc. Flowering, in some localities 
from May nntil December, i. e., throughout the dry season; in this 
regard, as well as in general aspect, very unlike the other annual species. 
* * Siipnles gland-like ; leaflets 4 — 10, unequally distributed on opposite 
niargina of a dilated rachis ; pods readily dehiscent. — 
Genus Anisolotus, Bernh. 

■i-Annnals ; floirers solilary, slwrt-pedicelUd, not bracted ; claws of petals 
approximate ; heel pointed. 

2. L. Wraiigrelianns, F. & M. Index Sem. Petrop. 16 (1835). Hosackia 
Wrangeliana and si(hpinnata, T. & G. Fl. i. 326 (1838), but not Lotus stib- 
pinriatus. Lag. (1816). Less than a foot high, ascendingj much branched, 
densely leafy, sparsely or canescently villous : leaflets about 4, cuneate- 
obovate to oval or oblong, 3 — 6 lines long ; calyx-teeth broadly subulate, 
equalling the tube : corolla 3 lines long, bright yellow, the broadly 
obovate banner erect ; wings meeting above the keel, not enfolding it : 
pod pubescent, straight, 7 — 10 lines long, 5 — 7-seeded. — Common through- 
out middle California, especially toward the seaboard ; latterly regarded 
as identical with the South American L. subpinnatus ; but that is a 
smaller jilant with narrow leaflets, relatively long calyx-teeth, the petals 
all narrower, with shorter claws, etc. Apr. May. 

3. L. humistratus, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 139 (1890) ; L. brachycarpus, 
Wats. Index, 225 (1878), not of Hochst. (1842). Hosackia brachycarpa, 
Benth. PI. Hartw. 306 (1849). Low and diffuse, the branches 5—8 
in. long, herbage soft-villous : fl. nearly sessile, yellow ; calyx-teeth 
linear, much longer than the tube : pod oblong, I3 in. long, pilose, 2 — 3- 
seeded. — Clayey banks and hill-sides ; as widely dispersed as the pre- 
ceding, but less common. May, June. 

4. L. deiiticulatus, Greene, 1. c. ; Drew, Bull. Torr. Club. xvi. 151, 
under Hosackia (1889). Erect, 1 — 2^4 ^- liigt, fastigiately branching, 
pale green and glaucous, sparingly pilose : calyx-teeth longer than the 
tube and, with the margins of the upper leaves, somewhat denticulate : 
corolla 2 lines long, pale yellow or salmon-color, changing to red : pod 
pubescent, short, 3-seeded. — A most distinct species, long confounded 
with L. Wrangelianus, but of different habitat, i. e., from Butte and 
Humboldt counties northward to British Columbia. It is a very common 
weed in grain fields of the upper Sacramento, and rank enough in its 
growth to be troublesome. It combines the characteristics of this group 
and of the next in its inflorescence ; the upper axils bearing two 
peduncles, one short and bractless, the other elongated, bracted and 
sometimes 2-flowered. Apr.— June. 

■i- ■)— Floirers 1 or many, on an elongated, usually bracted peduncle ; claw 

of the banner commonly remote from the others, keel mostly obtuse. 

++ Annuals ; feir-flowered. 



18 LEGUMINOS^. 

5. L. inicranthns, Beuth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 367 (1837). Ilosackia 
parvifora, Benth. Bot. Reg, i;nder t. 1257 (1829) ; H. microphylla, Nutt. 
in T.' & a Fl. i. 326 (1838). Erect, slender, 4—10 in. high, glabrous, 
glaucous : x^eduncle filiform, bracted, 1-flowered : fi. minute, i)ale salmon, 
turning red : pod 1 in. long or less, compressed, constricted between the 
seeds ; these oval or roundish, little compressed, smooth, — Prom Monte- 
rey northward. Apr, May, 

6. L. salsuginosus, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 140 (1890), Hosackia mari- 
lima, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 326 (1838). Ascending or depressed, slightly 
strigose, somewhat succulent, the branches 8 — 18 in. long : leaflets 4 — 6, 
obovate, obtuse \ peduncles 1 in. long, 1 — 4-flowered, naked or with a 
conspicuous 1 — 3-foliolate bract : corolla yellow, 3 lines long, the banner 
and wings equalling the straight keel : pod scarcely compressed, 10 — 12- 
seeded : seeds obliquely oval, smooth, — From Monterey southward, either 
toward the sea, or on subsaline flats of the interior. Mar. — June. 

7. L. rubellus, Greene, 1. c. 141 ; Nutt. in T. & G. Fl, i. 326 (1838). 
under Hosackia. Prostrate, slender, not succulent, strigose-pubescent or 
nearly glabrous : leaflets 6 ~ 10, linear-oblong, mostly acutish : early 
peduncles shorter than the leaves, bractless, 1-flowered, the later longer, 
bracted, 2-flowered : corolla reddish, scarcely twice as long as the calyx : 
pod slender, straight, 7 — 10-seeded : seeds quadrate, minutely granu- 
late. — Plentiful in sandy soils, San Francisco, Alameda and far south- 
ward, but apparently only along the seaboard. Apr, —July. 

8. L. nudiftorus, Greene, 1. c, ; Nutt, 1. c, under Hosackia. Near the 
last, but leaflets smaller and broader : fl. thrice as large : pod broader, more 
flattened, slightly curved upward at apex : seeds larger, quadrate, faintly 
tuberculate. — Eastern base of Mt. Diablo Range, near Byron, etc., on 
gravelly hill-tops ; thence sottthward throughout the State. Mar, — May. 

9. L. strig'osus, Greene, 1. c. Nutt, 1. c, under Hosackia. Strigose- 
pubescent, decvimbent or prostrate : peduncles long, commonly 1 — 2- 
flowered and 3-foliolate-bracted : fl. 4 — 5 lines long, yellow : pod pubes- 
cent, slightly curved upwards : seeds quadrate, but somewhat cruciform, 
being deeply notched at each end and at the hilum, the surface closely 
sinuate-rugose. — Same range as the last, and readily distinguished by its 
seeds which have something of the outline of a Maltese cross. But this 
and the two preceding excellent species, were confused in the " Botany of 
California," as elsewhere by the same eastern authors, under the name 
of Hosackia strigosa. Mar, — June. 

10. L. llirtellns, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 142 ( 1890 ). Stoutish, depressed, 
canescently hirsutulous, not at all strigose : leaflets 5—7, cuneate-oblong 
or -obovate, obtuse : peduncles stoutish, bracted, surpassing, the leavesr 
2-flowered: pod 1 in. long, subterete. straight, 7 — 10-seeded; seeds 



L E G U M I N O S .E. 19 

quadrate, notched at the hihim only, faintly ruguse and coarsely granu- 
late.—Kidges above Hetch-Hetchy Valley in the Sierra Nevada, Chesnut 
tt Drew ; also in the Mt. Diablo Range near Livermore. 

++ -M- Pereiininix ; Jiovers capitale-umbellate. 

11. L. leucophseus, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 145 (1890). HosacJcia grandi- 
Jiui-a, var. ? anllnjlloidex. Gray, Proc. Philad. Acad. 350 (1863). Low; 
ascending, less than a foot high, internodes short, leaves ample, herbage 
velvetY-i)ubescent : leaflets 5 7, obovate, 6 — 9 lines long, acute : pedun- 
cles equalling or exceeding the leaves ; umbel l-foliolate-bracted, 5 — 8- 
flowered : 11. more than f 2 ™- long? ochroleucous, becoming red- 
purple.— Dry ridges of the inner Coast and Mt. Diablo Ranges from 
Cohisa Co. southward throughout the State ; also in the Sierra Nevada. 
May. 

12. L. g-raiidittorus, Greene, 1. c. ; Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 366 
( 1837), under Jlosackia. TaU, slender with few leaves and long inter- 
nodes, nearly glabrous : peduncles slender, elongated, small-bracted, 
5 8-flowered : fl. nearly 1 in. long, deep yellow, the petals broader than 
in the last, turning orange. Same range as the last ; but less frequent. 

13. L. iiiacraiithas, Greene, 1. c, also in Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 81 (1885), 
under Ilomckia. Stoutish, 1 ft. high, silky-puberulent : leaflets 7 — 9, 
obovate or oblong, obtuse, % — 1 in. long ; stipules minute, subulate, 
caducous, leaving a dark gland-like permanent base : peduncles 2 — 4 in. 
long, 3 7-flowered ; bract ] -f oliolate : corolla 1 in. long, bright yellow, 
the banner ^ in- broad : pod stout, 1% in. long. — El Dorado Co., on 
Sweetwater Creek, Mrs. Cvrran. The young specimens, on account of 
their manifest stipules, would be referred to the next group ; the older 
ones, showing only the dot-like traces of them would place the species 
here ; but on the whole, it is a link connecting the two groups. 

* * * Perennials iviih true stipules ; leajiets never inequilaterally dis- 
tributed ; flowers in bracled umbels ; pods long, straight, tardily 
dehiscent. — Types of Genus Hosackia, Benth. 

14. L. foriiiosissiinns, Greene, Pittonia, i. 147 (1890). Hosackia gra- 
cilis, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 365 (1837). Slender, glabrous, the 
decumbent stems several, 1 ft. long : leaflets 5 - 7, from broadly obovate 
to obovate-oblong, obtuse, the lowest truncate or retuse ; stipules thin, 
ovate : i;mbels equalling the leaves, or shorter, the bract 3-foliolate ; 
calyx-teeth unequal, triangular, acute or acuminate, shorter than the 
campanulate tube : corolla 7 lines long, the wide-spread wings and much 
shorter keel rose-red, the banner yellow. — Common in moist ground 
along the seaboard from Monterey northward. The most beautiful 
species. Apr. May. 



20 LEGUMINOS^. 

15. L. pinuatus, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2913 (1829). IlosacJcia hicolor, 
Dongl. in Bot. Eeg. t. 1257 (1829j. Stoutish, glabrous, the erect stems 2 
ft. high : leaflets 5-9, obovate or oblong, acutish : stipules scarious, 
triangular : ijeduncles longer than the leaves, 3 — 7-flowered, naked or 
with a small scarious 1 — 3-foliolate bract : calyx-teeth triangular, half as 
long as the tube : corolla as in the last, but keel and wings white, banner 
yellow. — Said to inhabit the seaboard districts from San Francisco north- 
ward ; but not known to me as Oalifornian. 

16. L. Torreyi, Greene, 1. c. 146 (1890) ; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 
625 (1873), under Hosackia. Habit of the last, but slender, more or less 
silky -pubescent ; leaflets narrower, acute or obtuse : bract of the umbel 
sessile : fl. smaller, the keel and wings white, the latter not spread- 
ing. — Very common along streamlets and brooks in the middle or higher 
Sierra and the Coast Range. June —Aug. 

17. L. obloug'ifolius, Greene, 1. c. ; Benth. PI. Hartw. 305 (1849 1, under 
Hosackia. Erect, slender, somewhat appressed-pilose : leaflets 7 — 11, 
narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, 1 in. long, acute : stipules small, acute : 
peduncles exceeding the leaves, 5 —7-flowered ; bract subsessile 1 — 3- 
foliolate : calyx-teeth subulate, about equalling the tube : corolla yellow, 
turning i^urplish or brownish : pod slender, 2 in. long : seeds turgid. — 
From Monterey, Coulter, soiithward in the mountains. 

18. L. lathyroides, Greene, 1. c. ; Dur. k Hilg. Pac. R Rep. v. 6. t. 3 
(1853), under Hosackia. Slender, branching and flexuous, minutely 
pubescent : leaflets 5 — 7, linear-lanceolate, acute at both ends : stipules 
small, scarious, ovate-acuminate ; umbels 1 — 3-flowered, with or without 
a linear-lanceolate bract : fl. 5 lines long : calyx-teeth linear, acute. — At 
Fort Miller on the San Joaquin, Heermann, and southward. All the 
specimens seen by me indicate an annual root. Biit the original figure 
and description make it perennial. 

19. L. erassifoliiis, Greene, 1. c. 147 ; Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 
365 (1837), under Hosackia ; H. siolonifera, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1977 ; H. 
plalycarpa, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 323 (1838). Erect, stout, 2—3 ft. high, 
of a dull green hue, as if glaucous, but minutely piibescent : leaflets 
9 — 15, thickish, obovate or oblong, obtuse, mucronulate, ig in. long or 
more : peduncles nearly equalling the leaves ; umbel many-flowered, the 
1 — 3-foliolate bract a little below it : calyx-teeth triangular, short ; corolla 
purplish marked with green spots : pods thick, 2 in. long. — From Kern 
Co. northward, in the mountain districts. 

20. L. stipiilaris, Greene, 1. c. ; Benth. 1. c, under Hosackia. Not as 
tall as the last, more slender, villous with spreading hairs and often some- 
what glandular : leaflets 15— 21, obovate-oblong, acute, mucronate, }4 — 1 
in. long : stipules large, ovate : peduncles short, 4 — 8-flowered, the leaf- 



LEGUMINOS^. 21 

like bract near the middle, 3 9-foliolate : calyx 2 lines long, the subulate 
teeth short: corolla purple: pod straight, 1 — Ifg in. long. — In the Mt. 
Diablo Range, from Contra Costa Co. to Monterey. Seldom seen. It 
probal)ly includes the IJoi^ackia tnacropliyJla and hahamifera, Kell. Proc. 
Calif. Acad. ii. 123 & 125, but this may also be doubted ; and the species 
ought to be carefully studied anew, in the field, by those who know 
where to find any of the forms referred here. 

21. L. iiicauus, Greene, 1. *c. ; Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 79. t. 4 (1857), 
under HoaacMa. Low, stout, erect, densely villous : leaflets 9 — 15, 
obovate-oblong, acute ; stipules ovate : peduncles shorter than the leaves, 
G 9-flowered ; bract above the middle, 5-foliolate : calyx }4 ^- long, the 
STibulate teeth half as long as the tube. — Common in open pine woods 
about Nevada City, and for a few miles westward and northward ; but 
apparently of very limited distribution. 

* * * * Stipnies gland-like ; leajiela feiv, unequally distributed; viaiure 

calyx, iritli the xviall iitdehiscent nsnally arcuate long-pointed pods, 

deciduous. — Genus Sykmatium, Vogel. 

■i— Perennials ; a few woody at base. 

22. L. glaber, Greene, 1. c. 148 ; Vogel, Linnsea, x. 591 (1836), under 
Syrwatium. Hosackia scoparia, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 325 (1838) ; II. 
ijial,ra, Torr. Wilkes Exp. 274 (1874). Suflfrutescent, 2-8 ft. high, erect 
or decumbent, nearly glabrous : leaflets mostly 3, on young shoots 4 — 6, 
oblong to linear-oblong, H~}2 in- long, obtuse or acute : umbels many, 
sessile ; fl. 3 4 lines long, yellow, turning red : calyx-teeth siibulate, 
erect, rather less than half as long as the tube. — Usually tufted and 
reedy-looking, the foliage sparse, the flowers profuse. Common about 
San Francisco, and from Lake Co. southward throughout the State, in 
the Coast Range chiefly ; flowering almost all the year round. 

23. L, Beiithami, Greene, 1. c. Hosackia cy.ttisoides, Benth. Trans. 
Linn. Soc. 1. c. Resembling the last, biit smaller and mostly prostrate : 
umbels on peduncles which equal or exceed the leaves and are 1 — 3- 
foliolate-bracted at top : calyx-teeth more slender, stellate-spreading in 
the bud and recurved in flower. — Common on low hills near the sea in 
San Mateo Co. and southward. June, July. 

24. L. juiiceus, Greene, 1. c. ; Benth. 1. c, under Hosackia. Nearly 
glabrous, erect, shrubby, with slender branches reedy and sparsely leafy : 
leaflets obovate to oblong, 2 ^ lines long : fl. 3 lines ; calyx 2 lines long 
or less ; teeth very short and bluni — A more southerly species than 
either of the two preceding ; but said to have been found near San 
Francisco. 

25. L. argophyllus, Greene, 1. c. ; Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. v. 316(1854). 



22 L E G U M I N O S .E. 

under Hosackia. Decumbent or ascending, leafy and branching, silvery- 
silky throughout : leaflets 3 — 7, obovate and rounded, or oblong and 
acute, 2 — 7 lines long : umbels dense and capitate, on short simple- 
bracted peduncles : fl. 4 — 5 lines long ; calyx half as long, its teeth fili- 
form, silky, nearly as long as the tube. — From Yosemite, Chesrmi tfc Brew, 
and the foot-hills of the Merced, Asa Gray, southward. Very probably 
more than one species is embraced by this name and description. " H. 
argentea," Kellogg, seems distinct ; but we can not at present make out 
characters sufficient for its restoration. 

26. L. leucopliyllus, Greene, 1. c. HosacMa sericea, Bcnth. Trans. Linn. 
8oc. 1. 0. Slender, sparsely leafy, 1 — 2 ft. high, silvery-canescent with a 
close but short silky pubescence : leaflets 8, cuneate-oblong to linear, 
1;,' — 3^ inches long : umbels few-flowered, sessile or short-peduncled : fl. 3 
lines long ; calyx half as long, with slender teeth. — Plant with the habit 
of L. glaher, but silky-pubescent. Evidently rare, and confined to Monte- 
rey Co. 

27. L. procuiiibens, Greene, 1. c. and Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 82 (1885) 
under Hosackia. Pubescence as in the last, but much more leafy and 
diffuse : leaflets cuneate-obovate to oblanceolate, acutish, ig — 1 in- long : 
fl. sessile, 1 or 2 only in each axil : calyx-teeth subulate from a broad 
base, erect : pod nearly 1 in. long, straight, with an eusiform beak, 2- 
seeded. — From Tehachapi, Kern Co., Mrs. Curran, southward and east- 
ward along the mountains west of the Mohave Desert. May, Ji;ne. 

28. L. »va(leiisis, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 149 (1890) ; Bull. Calif. Acad. 

ii. 148 (1886), under Si/nnalium. Hosackia decuiiibens, var. ( ?) Nevadensis, 
Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 138(1876). Diffiise, the slender branches hard and 
wiry, at base more or less woody : sparingly villous or somewhat tomen- 
tose : leaflets 3—5, cuneate-obovate, acute, 3 5 lines long : umbel many- 
flowered, short-peduncled, 1-foliolate-bracted : calyx a line long, the 
slender teeth % line : pod strongly arcuate, the slender beak longer than 
the body. -Dry pine woods of the Sierra Nevada, from Sierra Co., Lemmuii, 
to San Diego Co. In my first description of the species I erred in attri- 
buting to it an annual root. It is, usually at least, perennial. In habit 
and geographical range it is most unlike the next ; but the technical 
characters of the two species are feeble. 

29. L. Doiig'lasii, Greene, 1. c, Hosackia decnmbens, Benth. Bot. Reg. 
under t. 1257 ( 1829). Larger and more leafy than the last, decumbent at 
base, the erect branches not wiry : pubescence more scant : fl. 4-7 lines 
long ; calyx l^^ lines ; the slender teeth as long as the tube : pod longer, 
less arcviate. — From Humboldt Co., Cliesuul ct- Hreir, northward. 

-H H- Annuals. 



LEGUMINOS^. 23 

30. L. toineiitosus, Greene, 1. c. ; H. & A. Bot. Beech. 137 (1836), 
imder Homckia ; Vogel, Liuurea, x. 591 (1836), under Syrmalinin. The 
numerons braches a foot or two long, flexiioiis, weak and prostrate : 
pubescence dense, somewhat tomentose : leaflets 5 — 7, ol)ovate or cuneate- 
oblong, acute, 3 — 6 Hnes long : umbels short-peduncled or subsessile, 
bracted : fl. 3 — 4 lines long ; calyx half as long, very villous ; the filiform 
teeth about equalling the tidie. — In sandy grounds near the sea, from 
San Francisco southward. 

31. L. Heeriiijiniii, Greene, 1. c. ; Dur. & Hilg. Pac. R. Rep. v. 6. t. 4 
(1855), under Ilumckia. Near the last, but less pubescent, neither the 
leaflets nor the flowers more than half as large, the leaflets broader and 
rounded. -Same range as the last. 

10. TRIFOLIUM, Pliny (Glover). Herbs with palmately (in one 
piunately) 3-foliolate (in a few 5 — 7-f oliolate) leaves and adnate stipules ; 
the leaflets commonly denticulate. Flowers mostly very many, in round- 
ish or ovoid or somewhat depressed capitate or umbellate clusters, on 
more or less elongated axillary or terminal peduncles. Calyx 5-cleft or 
-toothed. Corolla persistent ; banner and wings commonly coherent 
with the stamineal tube ; keel mostly obtuse and shorter than the wings. 
Stamens diadelphous. Pod concealed within or little exserted from the 
<3alyx, 1— 6-seeded, dehiscent or indehiscent. — An extensive genus of well 
known forage plants ; the Oalifornian species numerous ; those of our 
district almost all annuals, flourishing between March and May. 

* Heads or spikes not involucrate. 
H— Flo)i>ers pedicellate, at length reflexed ; calyx-teeth subulate, not plumose. 

1. T. Breweri, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 131 (1876). Perennial, 
slender, diffuse, 4 -12 in. high, sparsely pubescent : stipules lanceolate ; 
leaflets mostly obcordate, toothed or serrulate, 1^4 — % in. long on slender 
pedicels : calyx-teeth slender, much shorter than the whitish or pale 
purple corolla. — Only at considerable elevations in the Sierra ; occupying 
open places among subalpine forests. Jul. — Sept. 

2. T. grracileiitiiin, T. & G. Fl. i. 316 (1838) : T. denudatum, Nutt. PI. 
Gamb. 152. t. 24(1848). Erect, slender, 1—2 ft. high, whoUy glabrous : 
stipules ovate- or linear-lanceolate, acuminate : leaflets cuneate-obcordate, 
spinulose-serrulate, ^^ in. long : heads 15 — 25-flowered : calyx-teeth lance- 
olate-subulate, setaceously acuminate, thrice as long as the tube; shorter 
than the dull but usually deep purple corolla : pod exserted, 2-seeded : 
seeds obliquely oval, straw-colored, very smooth. — Open plains and hill- 
ssides throughout western California. Apr. — June. 

3. T. bifidnin, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 522 (1865). Erect, very 
slender, 1 ft. high, pale green and glaucous, the petioles and calyx more 



24 LEGUMINOS^. 

or less pilose-villous : stipules ovate-lanceolate, entire, setaceously acumi- 
nate : leaflets linear-cuneate, the sides remotely toothed, apex bifid and 
mucronulate : pedimcles slender, exceeding the leaves : heads 6—15- 
flowered : calyx deeply 5-parted, the teeth subulate-setaceous, about 
eqiialling the minute pale rose-colored corolla : pod included, 1-seeded : 
seed rather narrowly obovate-oblong. Var. decipieiis. Taller and 
stouter, the leaflets cuneate-oblong with closely serrulate margins and 
only a shallow notch at apex ; heads 15 30-flowered. — The type is 
common from Santa Clara Co., Torrey, Lemmon, to Solano, Jepson, and 
Mendocino, Bolander, but chiefly to the east of the Coast Range. In the 
Bay district the variety alone is found ; and this has hitherto been con- 
fused with T. gracilenlum, from which its pallid hue, hairy stalklets 
and calyces, as well as its flowers and fruits make it easily distinguishable. 

4. T. ciliolatum, Benth. PI. Hartw. 304 (1S49) ; T. ciliatum, Nutt. PI. 
Gamb. 152 (1848), not of Clark. Erect, 1—2 ft. high, glabrous : stipules 
narrow, acuminate ; leaflets cuneate-oblong or obovate, ^j 1 in. long, 
obtuse or retuse, serrulate : fl. purple, 3 lines long ; calyx-teeth lance- 
olate, very acute, rigidly ciliolate. — Throughout the western part of the 
State, both seaward and in the interior. Apr. — June. 

5. T. PROCUMBENS, Linn. Sp. PI. 772 (1753). Ascending or suberect, 
slender, pubescent : leaflets cuneate-oblong, emargiuate, denticulate, the 
terminal one on a longer stalklet : heads ovate or oblong, very dense ; 
fl. yellow : upper calyx very short ; banner deflexed over the other 
petals in age.- -A small and delicate Old World clover with pinnately 
8-foliolate leaves, small yeUow flowers ; beginning to appear spontane- 
ously ; frequent in lawns, having been introduced with lawn-grass seeds. 

6. T. REPENS, Rivinus, Tetrap. 17 (1690), Perennial, diffuse, creeping, 
sending up erect long-stalked glabrous leaves and heads : leaflets ob- 
cordate, denticulate : heads depressed-globose, at length umbellate : fl. 
white ; calyx-teeth unequal, lanceolate-subulate, shorter than the tube : 
pod about 4-seeded. — The common White Clover of eastern and European 
meadows and pastures ; a troublesome plant in lawns with us ; sparingly 
naturalizad in our district, yet common in the wild state in Oregon, etc. 

7. T. Bolanderi, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 335 (1868). Perennial, 
cespitose, glabrous : leaflets obovate-oblong, }4 in. long, reticulate, serru- 
late : peduncles few, elongated, exceeding the leaves : fl. few, 3—4 lines 
long, purplish : calyx-teeth lanceolate, not longer than the tube : pod 
2-seeded. — Moist ground in the neighborhood of the Yosemite, above the 
valley. 

8. T. Kiii^i, Wats. Bot. King Exp. 59 (1871). Perennial, erect, 6 10 
in. high, glaljrous : stipules lanceolate, aciiminate, entire : leaves long- 



LEGUMINOS^. 25 

petioled ; leaflets i^ — 1\4 in. long, ovate, oblong or lanceolate, acute, 
striate-veined, sharply denticulate : heads rather large, many-flowered, 
the raehis commonly produced above the flowers : fl. I3 in. long or more, 
deep purple : calyx-teeth setaceous-subulate, equalling the tube. — At 
Summit Station, Boland(v, and northward, in the Sierra. 

i). T. Beckwithii, Brewer, in Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 128 (1876). 
Stouter and taller than the last, often a foot high, the head of purple 
flowers, globose, 1 — l^j in- in diameter, the raehis not produced above 
the flowers : leaflets broader, often retuse or emarginate. — Near Truckee, 
on Prosser Creek and in Sardine Valley, Sonne ; also in Sierra Co. 

10. T. Leminoni, Wats. 1. c. 127. Cespitose, petioles elongated, almost 
equalling the upright or decumbent stems, a span high or less ; herbage 
appressed-pitberulent : stipules ovate, acuminate, toothed or entire : 
leaflets mostly .5, obovate or oblong, obtuse, of firm texture, coarsely 
toothed, % in. long or more : heads rather few-flowered : fl. }^ in. long, 
deflexed in age ; calyx-teeth villous, 2 lines long, exceeding the short 
tube. —Sierra Co., Leunnon. Species most related to T. Bolanderi and 
Kingii notwithstanding its 5-foliolate leaves. 

11. T. Howellii, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, xxiii. 262 (1888). Stout, erect, 

2 ft. high, glabrous : stipules large, ovate or lanceolate ; petioles short ; 
leaflets cuneate-oblanceolate, 1 ig— 3 in. long, remotely dentate : peduncles 
axillary, longer than the leaves : heads large, oblong : calyx-teeth narrow, 
about equalling the tube : corolla 4—5 lines long, yellowish, or white. — 
Trinity Mts., Humboldt Co., Chesnu' A Drew. The largest, and one of 
the most remarkable of western clovers. July, Aug. 

-I— ■)— Flowers nearly or ([ui'e sessile, no' reflexed (except in No. 12); calyx- 

teelli-elongaled, plumose, or at least hairy. 

■M- Perennials. 

12. T. eriocephalum, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 313 (1838). Erect or 
decumbent,6— lOin. high,soft-villous : stipules elongated, entire : leaflets 
oblong, 1 -11 2 in. long, serrulate ; fl. in dense ovate spikes, whitish, at 
length reflexed : calyx-teeth filiform, very villous, nearly equalling the 
corolla : pod hairy, 2 — 4-seeded. Mendocino Co. and northward. 

13. T. PRATENSE, Tragus, Stirp. Hist. 586 (1552). Stoutish, ascending, 
1 ft. high, pubescent : leaflets oval or obovate, often retuse, 1 in. long : 
heads ovate, 1 in. long, sessile : corolla elongated-tubular, rose-purple.— 
The common Red Clover of eastern and Old World meadows ; occasion- 
ally spontaneous with us ; plentiful m a wild state northward, where the 
Slimmer drought is less prolonged. 

14. T. lou§ripes, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 314 (1833). Erect or ascending, 

3 -12-in. high, slightly pubescent : leaves and heads on long slender 



26 LEGUMINOSiE, 

8talks : stipules foliaceous, semilanceolate, acuminate ; leaflets narrowly 
oblong, acute, % — l^g in. long, serrulate : heads round-ovate or ovate, 
% in. in diameter ; calyx-teeth white-villous, little shorter than the 
slender white (sometimes purplish) corolla. — In the high Sierra, from 
Mono Lake northward. About Lake Tahoe occurs a dwarf form with 
reddish flowers. In Trinity Mts., Humboldt Co., occurs an excessively 
tall form approaching T. piumosum in size and shape of the heads. 

15. T. inacrocephaluiii, Poir. Suppl. v. 336 (1817) ; Pursh. Fl. ii. 479. 
t. 23 (1814), under Lupinaxter : T. viegacephalum, Nutt. Gen. ii. 105 (1818). 
Erect or ascending, y^ — 1 ft. high, stoutish, pubescent : stipules large, 
foliaceous ; leaflets 5 — 7, oblong-cuneiform, mucronate, sharply and 
closely denticulate : head solitary, terminal, ovate-globose, 2 in. high : 
calyx-tube short, campanulate ; the filiform teeth very long, densely 
plumose : corolla % in. long, pale yellow and red : pod 2-seeded ; seed 
pale and smooth. — A peculiar very handsome species of northern districts; 
reaching our borders in Plumas Co., Lenution. Apr. May. 

16. T. Andersouii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, vi, 522 (1865). Dwarf, cespi- 
tose, the short depressed branching stems very stout and leafy, the whole 
j)lant densely silky-villous : stipules lanceolate, entire : leaflets cuneate- 
oblong, % in. long, acute, almost entire : peduncles axillary ; umbels 
depressed -globose ; fl. '^4, i^i- long, purplish ; calyx-teeth little shorter 
than the petals : pod tomentose, 2-seeded. Plumas Co., Levrmov, and 
eastward in Nevada. 

•M- -M- Annuals. 

17. T. Macraei, H. & A. Bot. Misc. iii. 179 (1833). Much branched, 
decumbent or almost prostrate, the slender branches 8 — 18 in. long, the 
herbage more or less villous- or pilose-pubescent : stip^^les broadly ovate, 
abruptly acuminate ; leaflets cuneate-oblong, obtuse, denticulate above 
the middle, 6 — 10 lines long : heads nearly or quite sessile, Tisually in a 
terminal pair, ovate, I4' — i^ i^- hi^li ; calyx-teeth longer than the tube, 
densely plumose-hairy, nearly equalling the small purplish corolla : pod 
1-seeded. Var. albopurpureuin. T. aJhopvrp^irenm, T. & G, Fl. i. 318, 
Often 1 — 1?'2 ft. high, ascending ; heads small, ovate-conical or sub- 
cylindrical, solitary at the ends of very long slender peduncles ; calyx- 
teeth slender, more delicately plumose, fully equalling the white-tipped 
purple corolla. — The true T. Macrn'i is Chilian, and is said to have lance- 
olate-acuminate entire stipules. No such stipules are found in our Oali- 
fornian plant : and the plant above described comes nearest to it and 
seems to occur only on the San Francisco peninsula, where it is common 
on rocky or sandy slopes and hill-tops. The variety abounds almost 
throughout the State, running into many forms, some of which resemble 
the next. May, June. 

18. T. (lichotomuin, H. .t A. Bot. Beech. 880 (1840) ; T. Ncohigopm^ 



LEGUMINOS^. 27 

Loja. Giorn. Bot. Ital. xv. 194 (1883). Erect or ascending, stoutish, 
1 — II3 ft. high, often flexuous and repeatedly dichotomons : pubescence 
longer than in the last, more spreatling : stipules broadly ovate, with a 
short subulate point ; leaflets cuneate-obovate or oblanceolate, the ujjper 
acute, ?4 in. long, sharply denticulate : heads long-peduncled, ovate- 
conical, '^i — 1^ in. high : calyx-teeth setaceous, densely hairy, equalling 
the red-purple corolla : pod with close elevated striae. — Plentiful on 
plains of the interior, from Vacaville, Jepson, to Antioch, Greene, and far 
southward. In so far as Hooker and Arnott's description goes, it accords 
with the plant first perfectly described by Lojacono under a new name. 
It is a p irticularly well marked species in the character of its pods. 

19. T. ainoeuuin. Commonly 2 ft. high, stout, simple or with few 
branches from the base, the heads 1-3, terminal and subterminal, herbage 
canescently villous : stijjules lanceolate to obliquely broad-ovate with a 
setaceous or triangular acumination ; leaflets broadly obovate, refuse or 
obtuse, erose-denticulate. 1 in. long or more, 10 lines broad : heads 
globose, in age oval, 1^2 iii- high : calyx-teeth linear-setaceous, pl^^mose 
throughout, 3 — 4 lines long, much shorter than the very showy corolla ; 
this light rose-purple with dark centre. —At Vanden Station on the Sacra- 
mento plains, Greene ; also at Little Oak, Solano Co., in the same general 
region, Jepson. By far the largest and handsomest of the annual clovers 
of middle California ; plentiful in its locality. It has been distributed 
for T. (JirJiolniinnii, but wrongly. May. 

20. T. colnnibinnm, Greene, Pittonia, i. 4 (1887). Erect, nearly simple, 
1 ft. high, somewhat silky-pubescent : leaflets 1 in. long, cuneate-oblong, 
obtuse, crenulate-denticiilate : head ovate-conical, 1 in. high : calyx-tube 
less than 1 line long : the filiform segments 5 lines, soft and silky-plumose 
throughout, deeply concealing the minute piirple corolla : pod striate, 
villous at apex. -Common about Yacaville ; readily known by its pale 
dove-colored heads altogether soft and silky, exhibiting no flowers, but 
seemingly made up of the long, densely plumose calyx-teeth. May. 

21. T. olivaceuiii, Greene, 1. c. Simple or branched from the base, 
1-1 ft' ft. high, glabrous except an appressed pubescence on the lower 
face of the leaves : petioles 1-2 in. long, with lanceolate acuminate 
entire stipules ; leaflets as in the last, but somewhat serrulate : heads on 
long slender peduncles, hemispherical in flower, 1 in. or more broad and 
high : calyx-tube 1 line long ; the linear-setaceous teeth 5—6 lines, 
densely plumose toward the base only, gradually less so above, nearly 
naked at the rather rigidly setaceous tips ; corolla deep violet-purple, 
very small and concealed : pod striate, glabrous. — With the preceding, 
but more common ; readily distinguished by its large olive-green heads. 

22. T. ABVENSE, Linn. Sp. PI. 769 ( 1753 ). Belated to the last two, liut 



28 LEGUMINOS^. 

of different aspect ; the numerous branches lateral, not basal ; the leaves 
and heads short-stalked : heads oblong or cylindrical, ^4 in. long, or less : 
calyx-teeth silky-plumose throughout, longer than the minute whitish 
corolla. — The Rabbil-fool or Mouse-ear Clover of Europe, naturalized on 
the Atlantic coast, has been reported from Alameda Co., Kellogg. 

* * Heads subtended by a flat or concave ( sometimes nearly obsolete ) 

involucre. 

■i— Corolla not inflated in age. 

■M- Involucre flat ; heads a little one-sided. 

23. T. WorinskjoWii, Lehm. Ind. Sem. Hort. Hamb. 17 (1825) ; Pugill. 
i. 36 (1828) ; Spreng. Syst. iii. 209 (1826) : T. helerodon, T. & G. Fl. i. 
318 (1838), partly. Perennial, spreading underground by slender 
root-stocks ; stems decumbent, 3 in. — 2 ft. long ; herbage flaccid, 
glabrous : stipules lanceolate, acuminate, laciniately multifld ; leaflets 
obovate-oblong, obtuse, pectinate-denticulate, 1 in. long or more : 
heads hemispherical, 1 in. broad or more ; involucre % — ^4: in- broad, 
laciniate-aristate : calyx-tube scarious, 10-striate, the alternate nerves 
less prominent, transverse veinlets ; teeth linear-subulate, much 
longer than the tube, all entire or 1 or more of them setaceously 2—3 
parted : banner elliptical, deeply emarginate, pale purple ; other petals 
darker. — Very common and variable ; on hills about San Francisco only 
a few inches high ; in springy places, or along perennial streams, coarse 
and fistulous, forming dense masses, the leaflets often 4 (but the fourtli 
only half as large as the others), and the calyx-teeth more or less cut into 
setaceous divisions. The Mexican T. involucratnrn, Willd., to which some 
authors have referred our plant, has narrow acute leaflets, entire stipules, 
and a calyx whose tube is less diaphanous, and less prominently nerved, 
and of which the teeth are much shorter and less aristiform. I have taken 
up what is clearly the oldest name for this perennial of the Californian 
seaboard. And I do not think that the T. fimbriatutn., Lindl. (1827) is a 
synonym of it. In Lindley's species, according to both the figure and 
description, the bracts forming the involucre are distinct ; and the 
stipules are much more regularly and deeply cleft than in any Californian 
plant. It is very probably the northern counterpart of our middle Cali- 
fornian seaboard species, and it may possibly prove confluent with the 
next. T. Wormskjoldii when first published was supposed to be a native 
of Greenland. The author afterwards corrected this error, having learned 
that the seed had come from California. The handsome figure in the first 
"Pugillus" represents most accurately the plant of the Presidio hills, 
San Francisco ; and no doubt it is the same. In cultivation at Berkeley, 
in dry soil, the species forms a sward, and continues growing and flower-* 
ing throughout the spring and summer months, just as in its moist native 
habitat. It is a valuable forage plant. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 29 

21 T. spinulosuin, Bowgh in Hook. Fl. i. 133 (1830) : T. atropur- 
pureiun, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 318 (1838) under T. heterodon. Perennial, 
slender, variable as the last as to size : leaflets narrowly oblong, acute at 
both ends, spinulose-deuticulate, ending in a stiff spinulose cusp ; stipules 
ovate-acuminate, spinulose-serrate : involucre deeply cleft or even divided : 
heads subglobose, small (less than 1 in.) : calyx-teeth narrowly siibulate, 
stiff and pungent, nearly equalling the corolla. — Moist meadows in the 
Sierra Nevada, from Tuohimne Co., Chesnut & Drew, northward. Perhaps 
at the far northwest confluent with T. fimhriatum. If so, it will take that 
name, as of earlier date. But according to Douglas' notes as published 
by Hooker, the keel and wings, both white, are shorter and more acute 
than in that. As compared with T. WormskjoJdii, it is equally tall, but 
always more slender, has different leaflets, smaller flowers in much smaller 
heads ; and its geographical distribution is entirely different. I have it 
from southeastern Oregon, Mrs. Austin, and from southwestern Nevada, 
Shocktey. My own No. 880, of Siskiyou Co., Calif., 1876, distributed as 
T. paucifloriDii (which is a very slender annual), is a good type of what I 
here have in view. 

25. T. variegatuiii, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 317 (1838). Annual, glabrous, 
decumbent or prostrate, with very numerous slender branches : leaflets 
obcordate to obovate-oblong, minutely spinulose-serrate : upper stipules 
roundish, lacinately cleft : peduncles slender, longer than the leaves : 
laciniate involucre, shorter than the small (3 — 15-flowered) heads : calyx- 
tube about 15-nerved ; the teeth broadly subulate, tapering to a setaceous 
point, longer than the tube, shorter than the corolla : fl. dull purple or 
whitish. Var. inelauantlinin. T. melanaathnm, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 331 
(1840). T. irideaiaiuni, var. melananlhum, Wats. More rigid, ascending, 
the branches often a foot long or more ; heads larger : calyx-teeth more 
triangular and only pungently acute or acuminate, of a dark purple 
almost to the base ; corolla deep purple. Var. major, Loja. Giorn. Bot. 
XV. 183 (1883). T. trisle, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 318 (1838), under T. spinu- 
losum. Flaccid and procumbent, but very stout and fistulous, the branches 
often a yard long ; leaflets oblong-cuneiform, 1 in. long or more ; heads 
1 in. broad more or less : calyx-teeth dark purple ; petals purple with 
whitish tips. — The rather delicate, pale-flowered plant which must be the 
type of this species we have only from the mountains, where it is common 
along streamlets and in springy places. In the higher Sierra, greatly 
reduced and often with 1-flowered involucres, it is confused with the very 
different T. monanlhum. The varieties belong to the interior plains and 
to the seaboard districts. These are perhaps distinct species ; but the 
characters on which to separate them do not appear. The var. major, 
often nearly as large every way as its perennial relative, T. Wormskjoldii 
— its branches sometimes even longer — is distinguished from that by its 
annual root and broader leaflets and calyx-teeth. The calyx-tube in all 



30 LEGUMINOS^. 

the forms is more than 10-striate, the nerves numbering 15 or 20. The 
flaccid herbag-e, prostrate habit, l>road leaflets and entire calyx-teeth 
make this easily distinguishable from T". oliganihuin and tridenlaluiti, 
with which it is confused in the " Botany of California." 

26. T. appendiculatiim, Loja. Giorn. Bot. Ital. xv. 181 (1883 ) ? Glabrous, 
flaccid, diffuse: leaves long-petioled: leaflets cuueate-obovate or obcordate, 
serrulate-spinulose, mucronulate at apex : heads hemispherical, 1 in. or 
less in breadth : fl. purple : calyx-teeth lanceolate-linear, entire, longer 
than the tube : keel of the corolla rostrate-attenuate, longer than the 
wings. — A. plant much smaller than described by Lojacono under this 
name, but having just the floral structure attributed to the species, 
certainly distinct from T. var legal tan, which it most resembles, has been 
collected by Mr. V. K. Chesnut at Lake Merritt, Oakland. I also saw 
the same in the Torrey herbarium, from Aubxirn, BulainJer (No. 4539), 
under the wrong name, " T. BiAanderi." 

27. T. oligranthuiii, Steud. Nom. i. 707(1841): T. pancijior inn, mitt 
in T. & G. Fl. i. 319 (1838), not of d'Urville : T. filipes, Greene, Pitt. i. 66 
(1887). Pale green, glabrous, erect, slender, with few ascending branches, 
6 —18 in. high : upper leaflets linear, acute, 1 in. long, spinulose-serrate : 
peduncles filiform, 2 3 in. long, exceeding the leaves : head small, 7 — 12- 
flowered ; involucre reduced, laciniately divided : fl. pale purple and 
white ; 2 — 3 lines long : calyx-teeth ovate-f.cuminate, pungent, entire, 
equal, shorter than the 10-striate tube. — Common throughout the State, 
along the borders of woods and thickets ; the most slender species, yet 
always erect ; the herbage of a pale glaucous hue ; corolla with wings 
meeting in front of the keel. In all other allied species they spread away 
from it. Calyx laterally compressed in fruit, the segments appressed to 
the obovate 2-seeded pod. May. 

28. T. Watsonii, Loja. Giorn. Ital. xv. 186 (1883). Erect, not slender, 
4 — 12 in. high, glabrous, purplish : leaflets 1 in. long or more, from 
narrowly elliptical to linear-filiform, the lower entire, upper remotely 
spinulose-serrate : heads large, showy, hemispherical ; involucre small, 
not deeply cleft : calyx oblong, 20-striate, the teeth I4 as long as the 
tube, ovate, very abruptly contracted to a short pungent tip.— Near Chico, 
Mrs. Bidtvell, Lr. Parry ; related to the next, but doubtless distinct. 

29. T. trideiitatuin, Lindl. Bot. Eeg. under t. 1075 (1827). Erect, 
8 — 16 in. high, glabrous, neither viscid nor clammy : stipules setaceously 
laciniate, erect : leaflets linear or lanceolate, sharply serrate : heads 1 in. 
broad, the laciniate involucre much shorter than the flowers : fl. % i^- 
long, bright purple with dark centre : calyx with 10-nerved tube, the 
rigid segments broad at base, abruptly narrowed to a subulate spinulose- 
tipped apex which is usiially subtended by a short stout tooth on each 



LEGUMINOS^. 31 

side. Var. soabrelluiii (T. scabrellum, Greene, Pitt i. 159), a slender 
plant with lou^'- almost filiform peduncles and broad truncate cuspidate 
leaflets, has a sparse scabrous pubescence upon its stalklets and growing 
parts. — The type of this common species, sparingly leafy, the leaflets 
linear, the stems firmly erect and the whole herbage purplish, belongs to 
the seaboard, where it abounds in clayey soils, both on hills and plains. 
In the Sacramento valley the plant i.s paler, weaker and less erect, but 
larger and with broader leaflets : the flowers paler and the calyx-segments 
mostly simple. The var. scabielluni is from the j^lains of the upper San 
Joaquin, and has marks enough for a species, if they were constant. But 
in the region of the lower San Joaquin, and in Livermore valley it appears 
to be confluent with T. (ridentatum. A constant mark of the species in 
all its forms, as distinguished from the next two, is the 10-nerved calyx 
without smaller intervening striae. Mar, — May. 

30. T. obtusillornin, Hook. Ic. PI. iii. t. 281 and Bot Beech. 331 (1840). 
8tout, erect, 1 — 3 ft. high, the herbage bright green, sparsely short-hairy 
uijder a lens ; the inflorescence and growing parts somewhat resinous- 
glandular : stipules setaceously lacerate, broad and spreading, in age 
reflexed ; leaflets elliptic-lanceolate, 1 — IJo in. long, spinulose-serrate : 
heads more than 1 in. broad, on long stoutish peduncles : calyx-tube 
oblong-campanulate, I4 in. long, with 10 prominent and as many lesser 
nerves, these branching and forming reticulations alx)ve ; teeth subulate- 
epinose, entire : corolla % in. long, lilac-purple with dark centre. — 
•Common on clayey hill-sides and stream banks in the open country along 
the base of the Mt. Diablo Range, and foot-hills of the Sierra ; originally 
from Monterey, Iwttglas ; extending northward to Oregon, IloveU. An 
exceedingly well marked species, readily known by its great size and more 
■or less gummy heads of large flowers, 20-nerved calyx, etc. May. 

31. T, rosciduin. Erect, with ascending branches, stout, 1—2 ft. high, 
stems flexuous, purple, leaves deep dtiU green, soft-pubescent throughout 
and very clammy, not at all resinous : stipules spreading or reflexed, 
setaceously fimbriate : leaflets ( often 5 ) 1 in. long, linear-lanceolate, 
pectinately setulose : heads as in the preceding (though not glandiilar), 
calyx the same ; corolla white, with dark red-purple centre. — Plentiful 
in the foot-hills of the Sierra, on shaded northward slopes and along 
streams, near Jackson, Amador Co., and southward to San Bernardino 
Co., Parish. A remarkable species on account of its pubescence and 
clamminess ; the whole herbage, even at noon of the driest day, feeling 
as if wet with dew. But for its conspicuous pubescence it might pass in 
the herbarium for a form of T. ohhtsijiomin ; but it is most distinct from 
that and every other recognized species of clover. June. 

32. T. inouauthuin, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 523 (1865) : T. viulli- 
■/■aule, Jones, Bull. Torr. Club, ix. 31 (1882). Perennial, dwarf, 1 — 6 in. 



32 LEGUMINOSiE. 

high, decumbent or prostrate, branching, sparsely villous : stipules entire 
or slightly toothed : leaflets obcordate to oblanceolate, 1—4 lines long, 
mostly retuse, mucronate-dentate : peduncles equalling the leaves : invo- 
lucre minute, 1 4-flowered : Q. }^ in. long, yellowish white with piirple 
centre. — Common in the higher Sierra from Kern Co., Palmer, to Lassen's 
Peak, Lemvioit. — A diminutive perennial, with which the 1-flowered state 
of T. variegaiu)n has been confused, perhaps from the first ; and Marcus 
Jones, in proposing T. mullicaide may have taken the latter for the true 
T. monantlmm, which Dr. Gray described as probably annual ; but it is 
strictly perennial. The flowers are twice or thrice larger than in the 
annual associated with it. 

++ -M- Itirolvcre cup-shaped ; floirers deielopirig equally all aroiutd. 

33. T. microcephalum, Pursh. Fl. ii. 478 (18M). Slender, much 
branched, decumbent or procumbent, soft-pubescent : leaflets obovate- 
cuneiform or obcordate, emarginate, denticulate ; stipules ovate-acumi- 
nate, nearly entire : heads subglobose, very small, oo - flowered, on slender 
peduncles ; involucre many-cleft, segments entire : calyx-teeth subulate ; 
broad, scarious, and sometimes toothed at base : fl. minute, pinkish : pod 
globose, 1-seeded.— Common in the Coast Eange, and on plains and hill- 
sides eastward throughout the State. May. 

34. T. microdon, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 330, t. 79 (1840). Larger than 
the last, not rarely 2 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so : involucre broader, 
deeply ctip-shaped, equalling the head, its many lobes conspicuously 
toothed : calyx-teeth rigid, triangular, aciite, serrulate below : corolla 
minute, white.—Abundant in many places about the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco ; also in the interior, and northward to Washington. May. 

35. T. cyathiferum, Lindl. Bot. Eeg. under t. 1070 (1827) ; Hook. Fl. 
i. 133 t. 50. Erect or ascending, 3—15 in. high, glabrous, pale green : 
stipules ovate, laciniate-toothed : leaflets obovate or oblanceolate, ig — 1 
in. long : heads large ; involucre broad, saucer-shaped, thin, with short 
many toothed and nerved lobes : calyx 5-nerved, membranaceous ; the 
nerves excurrent into branching setaceous-spinose tips whicli equal the 
small white corolla. — From Highland Springs, Lake Co. Simonds, and 
near Cisco in the Sierra, Greene, northward. June— Aug. 

-)— -1— Corolla more or less iiijlaied i)i age. 

36. T. barbigerum, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 79 (1857). Branches many, 
stout, with short internodes, nearly prostrate, 4—10 in. long ; herbage 
deep green, soft-pubescent : petioles elongated ; leaflets broadly obovate, 
obtuse, denticulate, % ^^- l^iig' o^ l^ss : involucre as broad as the long- 
peduncled heads, 4 8 lines wide, shortly lobed and setaceously toothed : 
calyx-tube short, thin and at length scarious ; teeth setaceous-awned, 
plumose, sometimes 2 — 3-parted, usually exceeding the small purple 
corolla : pod 2-seeded. — Frequent at Berkeley, San Francisco, etc. 



LEGUMINOSiE. 33 

37. T. Grayi, Loja. Giorn. Bot. Ital. xv. 189 (1883) : T. barbigerum, 
var. Andrewtiii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 335 (1868). Erect, stout, with 
long internodes, 1 — 2 ft. high, sparingly branched, villous •with long 
spreading hairs : leaflets 1 in. long, cuneate-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, 
obtuse or acutish, sharply serrulate : heads long-peduncled, 1 in. broad ; 
the involucre as broad : calyx-tube scarious, villous, 10-nerved ; teeth 
linear-subulate from a triangiTlar base, plumose, as long as the dark red- 
purple corolla. — First collected by Lr. Andretcs (1856) ; later, at Mendo- 
cino City, Bolander ; also in Marin Co., Mrs. Curran. A fine species ; 
not at all susceptible of being referred to T. barbigerum as a variety. 

38. T. fiicatuiii, Liudl. Bot. Eeg. t. 1883 (1836). Usually stout and 
fistulous, the decumbent branches 1 — 2 ft. long ; herbage light green, 
glabrous and somewhat succulent : stipules large, membranaceous, nearly 
or quite entire : leaflets H^l^o in. long, broadly obovate, obtuse or retuse, 
dentate or spinulose-denticulate : peduncles stout, far exceeding the 
leaves ; bracts of the involucre ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, scarious- 
margined, connate at base : heads hemisjjherical, 1 — 2 in. broad : calyx 
thin, campanulate, the short teeth entire, unequal : corolla Jg — 1 in. long, 
ochroleucous, fading with a red tinge : pod stipitate, 3 — 8-seeded : seed 
roundish, nearly 1 line broad, minutely granulate. — Common along 
the coast and in the interior. Variable in size ; often small and few- 
flowered. 

39. T. ainpleeteiis, T. & G. Fl. i. 319 (1838) ; H. & A. Bot. Beech. 330. 
t. 78 (1840) : T. <iuercelorum, Greene, Pitt. i. 172 (1888). Light green and 
glabrous like the last, but small, slender, the branches 3—10 in. long : 
leaflets %~-fi in. long, cuneate-obovate or -oblong, truncate or retuse, 
mucronately denticulate : peduncles slender, not surpassing the leaves : 
involucre half as broad as the heads, its lobes broad, scarious-margined. 
obtuse, sometimes cleft or toothed : calyx cleft nearly to the base, the 
subulate slenderly acuminate teeth very unequal, the larger rarely toothed 
or cleft : corolla ochroleucous, 2—3 lines long : pod membranaceous, 
translucent, finely reticulate with green veins, promptly dehiscent by one 
suture only, 4 6-seeded : seed small, transversely oval, emarginate at 
the hilum, coarsely tuberculate-rugose. — Not common ; but found at 
Monterey, Louglas, Oakland Hills, Chesnut, Simonds, Alameda, Greene ; 
plentiful on moist flats about Byron Springs. The type, collected by 
Douglas, is exactly this ; and it is more allied to T. fucahnn than to any 
of the following very common plants, two or more of which have long 
been confused with it. 

40. T. diversifolium, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 152 (1848) ; Greene, Pitt. i. 7. 
Diffuse, glabroiis, the branches flaccid though not very slender. 1-2 ft. 
long : stipules ovate, entire, subulate-pointed ; leaflets linear or oblong, 
obtuse or truncate, repandiy dentate or somewhat serrulate, 1 in. long : 



34 leguminosj:, 

peduncles slender, little exceeding the leaves : heads 8 — 15-flowered ; 
involucre of about 5 small ovate or oblong bracts : corolla in age oval or 
oblong, slightly inflated and about equally so from end to end, conspicu- 
ously striate : pod 2-seeded : seed transversely oblong, beautifully sinuous- 
rugose. — Eather common in low moist lands along the seaboard, where it 
prefers the vicinity of the salt marshes ; but also around ponds among 
the hills, and even on low subsaline plains of the lower Sacramento. A 
most distinct species every way, and one which, having its lowest leaves 
narrowest and its uppermost and later ones broadest, strangely reverses 
that order of leaf-widening which is otherwise universal, I believe, in 
Californian Clovers. Apr. — June. 

41. T. steuophyllnm, Nutt. 1. c. 151 ; T. ampleciens, Greene, Pitt. i. 6, 
not of T. & G. Near the last, the branches more slender, but wiry and 
upright : linear leaflets of about equal width on the lower and upper- 
most parts of the plant, all remotely serrate-toothed : peduncles much 
longer than the leaves, filiform : segments of the involucre oblong, connate 
at base : head small, hemispherical, the ( deep purple or white) corollas 
in age almost obpyramidal, being gradually inflated from a narrow base 
to a broad, almost truncate apex : pod 2-seeded : seeds obliquely heart- 
shaped, strongly rugose. — One of the most common species of western 
California ; perfectly distinct from the last by its different texture, 
extremely bladdery corollas and peculiar seeds. It inhabits dry plains 
and hill-sides, and in dry seasons is very depauperate, though always 
retaining all its characters. This is what Californian botanists and ama- 
teurs have always hitherto been taught to receive as the T. ampleciens of 
Torrey & Gray. Hence the true lunplectens, when first brought to the 
author, was published by him as a new species. Apr. May. 

42. T. depauperatum, Desv. Journ. Bot. iv. 69, t. 32 (1814). Only a 
few inches high, branched from the base, flaccid, decumbent, glabrous, 
few-leaved : leaflets Jg in. long, cuneate-oblong, obtuse or emarginate, 
denticulate : head long-stalked, few-flowered : involucre greatly reduced, 
with truncate short lobes : corolla larger than in the last, less inflated : 
pod 1 — 2-seeded : seed little broader than long, rather angular, tubercu- 
late-rugose. — Less common than the last, and a small, rather obscure 
species, seldom collected. It appears to be one of the few plants common 
to the western coasts of both North and South America. Mar. Apr. 

43. T. laciniatum, Greene, Pittonia, i. 7 (1887). Slender, flaccid, 
glabrous, ascending, 3—6 in. high : stipules ovate, acuminate, mostly 
entire : lower leaflets narrowly cuneiform, denticulate, the upper broad, 
truncate and 3-dentate at apex, the sides laciniately toothed or pinnatifid : 
involucre reduced and obscure : fl. 3 5, white with purple centre, much 
inflated in age : pod 3 — 4-seeded : seed oval, with the strong corruga- 
tion running intcj a more or less distinctly favose coarse reticulation. — 



LEGUMIN082E. 35 

Thus far collected only by the author, on subsaline plains of the lower 
San Joaquin, near Byron, Bethany, etc., where it is plentiful. The leaflets, 
commonly laciuiately and deeply pinnatifid, in occasional specimens are 
narrowly linear or linear-spatulate and quite entire. Mar. Apr. 

11. MELIIiOTUS, Mijrimn (Sweet Clover ). Erect herbs with pin- 
nately 3-foliolate leaves, the leaflets toothed, and small fragrant flowers 
in slender axillary racemes. Petals free from the diadelphous stamens, 
deciduous. Pod ovoid, small, scarcely dehiscent, 1 — 2-seeded.- Old World 
plants with sweet-scented herbage and very fragrant flowers. The follow- 
ing species are naturalized with us. 

1. M. Indica, Allioni, I-'l. Ped. i. 3()8 (1785) ; M. parvijiora, Desf. Fl. 
Atl. ii. 192 (1800); M. accidentaUn, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 321 (1838). 
Annual, glabrous, 1-3 ft. high, bearing many racemes of minute yellow 
flowers. — Common in low grounds, chiefly near the salt marshes or along 
rivers. A good fodder plant. 

2. M. ALBA, Lam. Encycl. iv. 63 ( 1796 j. Stout, 3 6 ft. high : fl. larger, 
white, very fragrant. — Spontaneous in northern California ; perhaps not 
within our limits. 

12. MEDICAGO, Tourmfort (Alfalfa, Bur Clover). Herbs with 
pinnately 3-foliolate (rarely 5-foliolate) leaves and flowers 2, 3 or many on 
axillary peduncles. Petals free from the diadelphous stamens, deciduous. 
Pod 1-several-seeded, falcate-incurved or coiled into a spiral. — Very 
valuable forage plants, natives of Asia, brought to California, by way 
of Mexico or South America in very early times ; some of them now 
naturalized almost everywhere in the State. 

1. M. LUPULiNA, Linn. Sp. PI. 779 (1753). Annual, slender, pro- 
cumbent, 1 — 2 ft. long, soft-hairy : leaflets obovate, small : fl. minute, 
in small oblong heads, yellow : pod small, reniform or curved almost into 
a ring, black when ripe, 1-seeded. — Foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, at 
lone and elsewhere. 

2. M. DENTicuLATA, WiUd. Sp. iii. 1414 (1801). Annual, much branched, 
decumbent, glabrous : leaflets obovate or obcordate, denticulate : fl. 2—3, 
yellow : pods coiled into 2 circles, their margins armed with hooked 
prickles. — Common everywhere ; valuable as a forage plant, but the 
"burs" damaging to wool. 

3. M. SATiVA, Moris. Hist. ii. 1.50 (1680j. Perennial, erect, glabrous, 
2 — 4 ft. high : leaflets cuneate-oblong or oblanceolate, toothed above : 
fl. X , racemose, violet : pod spirally coiled, unarmed. — This, the Alfalfa 
or Lucerne of the cultivators, is here and there spontaneous, but no- 
where very prevalent in the wild state. 



86 LEGUMINOS^. 

13. CYTISUS, Dioscorides (Broom). Shrubs with green very leafy or 
nearly leafless often angular branches, palmately or pinnately 3-foliolate 
leaves (leaflets entire), and solitary or racemose yellow or white flowers. 
Calyx with campanulate tube and bilabiate limb. Petals broad ; keel 
obtuse. Stamens monadelphous. Pod compressed, several-seeded. — 
Natives of the Old World ; becoming spontaneous on the Pacific coast of 
America. 

1. O. Oanaeiensis. Linn. Sp. PL 709 (1753), under Genista. Much 
branched, 3 — -6 ft. high, soft-pubescent, the branches and branchlets very 
leafy : leaflets }4 — M in- long '■ A- yellow, in numerous terminal short 
racemes, fragrant ; calyx with upper segment deeply, lower obsoletely 
3- toothed at apex ; banner not reflexed ; keel deflexed, releasiug the 
stamens. — Running wild in profusion on the grounds of the University at 
Berkeley : flowering throughout the year, but most freely in Jan. and Feb. 

2. C. scoPARius, Link. Enum. ii. 241 (1822) ; Linn. Sp. PI. 709 (1753), 
under Spartium. Size of the last, but sparingly leafy, the branches promi- 
nently angular : leaflets glabrous, often 1 only : fl. large, bright yellow, 
solitary or in pairs along the branchlets, in the leaf -axils and apparently 
racemose : pod pilose along the margins. — Naturalized abundantly north- 
ward ; more sparingly with us. Flo wering in spring only. 

3. 0. PROLiFERUS, Linn. f. Suppl. 328 (1781). Arborescent, branches 
terete and, with the young leaves, etc., silky-pubescent : leaflets 3, 
elliptic-lanceolate, 1 in. long or more : fl. white in lateral umbellate 
racemes : banner reflexed : keel shorter than the wings, enclosing the 
stamens : pod villous. — Native of Teneriffe ; a valued forage shrub in 
some countries ; escaped from cultivation at Berkeley. Jan. Feb. 

14. TJLEX, Linnxus (Furze, Gorse). Compact very thorny shrubs 
with simple prickle-pointed leaf-like organs, and scattered yellow flowers- 
Calyx of 2 nearly or qiiite distinct yellowish sepals. Banner nearly as 
long as the other petals, not reflexed, scarcely even erect. Stamens 
monadelphous. Pod few-seeded, little longer than the calyx. 

1. U. EUROP.35US, Linn. Sp. PI. 741 (1753). Three to six feet high, the 
numerous short branchlets villous, ending in a stoat spine : lower leaves 
sometimes lanceolate, more commonly reduced green spines % in. long : 
fl. 1^ in. long, yellow, solitary but often crowded on the branchlets ; calyx 
villous. — Spontaneous here and there about San Francisco, where it has 
escaped from cultivation. Highly ornamental when in flower. Feb. — Apr, 

15. SPARTIUM, Lohelius (Spanish Broom). Branches stout, terete, 
green and rush-like, glabrous, sparsely leafy with 1-foliolate leaves, or 
leafless, bearing terminal loose racemes of large yellow flowers. Calyx 
spathaceous, cleft to the base above, 5-toothed at apex. Banner roundish, 
erect ; keel acuminate. Stamens monadelphous. Pod compressed. 



LEGUMINOS/E. 37 

1. S. JUNOEUM, Linn. Sp. PL 708 (1753). — Native of southern Europe ; 
extremely beautiful when in flower, and, with its fascicles of long reedy 
branches, at no season unsightly. Spontaneous near San Francisco. 

16. LUPINUS, Catullus (Lupine). Leaves palmately 5— 15-foliolate ; 
leaflets entire, sessile ; stipules adnate, seldom conspicuous. Flowers 
blue, pinkish or yellow, in terminal racemes, with bracts mostly caducous. 
Calyx deeply bilabiate ; upper lip notched, lower usually entire, occasion- 
ally 3-toothed or -cleft. Banner roundish ; wings falcate-oblong, com- 
monly slightly united at tip in front of, and enclosing, the falcate usually 
slender-pointed keel. Stamens monadelphous, dimorphous, 5 with longer 
and basifixed anthers, the alternate 5 with shorter and versatile ones. 
* Pods several-seeded ; cotyledons distinct, petiolate. 
-)— Animals ; flowers not verticillate. 

1. L. gracilis, Agardh, Syn. 15. t. i. (1835). Erect, slender, 6—10 in. 
high, very pilose : leaflets 5—7, cuneate-obovate, ^ — }/^ in. long : raceme 
short, lax : upper lip of calyx bifid, lower 3-toothed : petals 3 lines long, 
blue and white ; banner shorter than the others ; keel exceeding the 
wings : pod % ^^- lo^ig • ^^^d 1 line broad. — From Monterey southward ; 
seldom seen. 

2. L. conciimus, Agardh, 1. c. 6. t. i. Low, stouter than the last, 
oanescently hirsxxte : leaflets 5—8, oblanceolate, 4—10 lines long, obtuse ; 
raceme short, dense, subsessile ; bracts linear-setaceous, persistent : upper 
calyx-lip 2-parted, lower deeply trifid : petals ^^ in. long, violet ; banner 
shorter than the rest : pod 4-s ceded : seed orbicular. — Same range as the 
preceding, and more common. 

3. L. hirsutissimus, Benth. Hort. Trans, n. ser. i. 409 (1833). Tall, 
erect, very hispid with viscid stinging hairs : leaflets 5 — 7, cuneate- 
obovate, retuse, obtuse or acute, mucronulate, ,^4 — l^g in. long : racemes 
loose : upper calyx-lip deeply cleft : corolla }4 ^^- long, reddish-purple : 
pod hirsute, 1 in. long. — From the Sa cramento valley southward ; in dry 
places. 

4. L. truucatus, Nutt. in H. & A. Bot. Beech. 336 (1840). Stoutish, 
erect, 2 ft. high, finely pubescent, at length glabrate : leaflets 5—7, linear- 
cuneiform, 3-toothed or entire at the truncate apex, % — 1}^ in. long : 
upper calyx-lip cleft : petals deep-purple, 4 — 5 lines long, the banner 
shorter : pod 1^ in. long.— From Monterey southward ; attributed to 
San Francisco by Brewer & Watson, I know not on what authority. 

5. L. Stivers!, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 192. t. 58 (1863). Much 
branched, 1 ft. high, sparsely pubescent, rather succulent : leaflets 5 — 7, 
broadly cuneate-obovate, 1 in. long, mucronulate : racemes few-flowered, 
dense, pedunculate : upper calyx-lip cleft, the lobes broad, acute : fl, ^ 



38 LEGUMINOSM. 

in. long ; banner short, yellow ; wings rose-red, shorter than the white 
keel : pod 1 in. long, nearly glabrous : seeds 6 or 7, compressed, angu- 
lar. — At middle altitudes of the Sierra, from Yosemite northward. Our 
handsomest Lupine ; first collected by Mr. Charles H. Stivers, an early 
member of the California Academy, and friend of Dr. Kellogg. 

6. L. sparsiflorus, Benth. PL Hartw. 303 (184:9). Branched from the 
base, erect, slender, 1 ft. high or more, canescently-pilose or hirsute : 
leaflets 5—9, linear, }.^ — 1 in. long : upper calyx-lip deeply cleft : corolla 
violet, 5 lines long ; banner shorter : pod }4. — 1 in. long. — Foot-hills of 
the Sierra, from Sacramento Co. southward. 

7. L. leptophyllus, Benth. Hort. Trans, n. ser. i. 409 (1833), Bot. Reg. t. 
1670. Slender, erect, sparingly branched, 1 — 2 ft. high, villous : leaflets 
8 — 10, narrowly linear, 1 — ^% in. long, glabrous above: racemes elon- 
gated : upper calyx-lip narrow, deeply cleft : fl. % in. long, petals nearly 
equal, purple. —Same range as the last. 

8. L. citriims, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. vii. 93 (1877). Slender, 
branched from the base, a span high, pubescent : leaflets 6 — 8, linear- 
spatulate, % — % in. long : raceme short-peduncled, rather dense : upper 
calyx -lip cleft, the lobes acute ; lower minutely 3-dentate : corolla yellow ; 
wings obtuse, nearly as broad as long : pod glabrous, 4-seeded : seeds 
compressed, "rhomboid." — Fresno Co., Eisea. Perhaps related to L. 
Sl.ivcrsi, though possibly belonging to the next section. Dr. Kellogg's 
description does not enable one to decide. 

-1— -I— Annuals ; flowers more or less rerticillale. 

9. L. micrauthns, Dougl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1251 (1829). Rather slender 
and weak, branched from the base, 6 — 18 in. high, pilose-piibescent, not 
at all succulent : leaflets 5—7, narrowly linear to liuear-spatulate, %~1}4. 
in. long, on petioles twice as long : raceme peduncled, verticils 3 — 5, often 
indistinct: pedicels l^g lines long (in fruit 3 lines); upper calyx-lip 
with divergent lobes ; lower long, entire ; corolla 2 lines long, blue, except 
the white and dotted middle of the erect mucronulate banner, the white 
spot changing to light blue ; wings narrow appressed ; keel woolly-ciliate 
toward the apex : pod 5-seeded : seed quadrate oval, whitish, with or 
without minute light brown dots. — Common everywhere ; but not at all 
agreeing with either the figure or description in the Botanical Register : 
and the type was from a very different and quite distant region of our 
western country, the upper Columbia River. 

10. L. polycarpus, Greene, Pittonia, i. 171 (1888). Erect, stoutish, 
rather succulent, 1 — 2 ft. high, with firm ascending branches from midway 
of the stem, pubescent : leaflets 7, narrowly oblanceolate, 1 in. long ; 
glabrous above : racemes with 4 — 7 very distinct verticils ; pedicels 1 



LEGUMINOSiE, 39 

line long : upper calyx-lip bifid, its ovate segments short, parallel ; lower 
scarcely longer, 3-nerved, slightly notched at apex : corolla 1^4 lines long, 
deep blue ; the obovate retuse banner with a white spot ; wings coherent 
at tip, inflated, exposing the base of the broad short keel ; this ciliate 
below the apex : pod rigid, slightly falcate, 7 — 9-seeded. — Very common, 
preferring rich low meadow lands adjacent to the salt marshes ; also 
occurring in a reduced form, on the low plains of the interior. 

11. L, trifidus, Torr. in Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 535 (1873). Slender, 
branched from the base, 6—10 in. high, pilose-canescent : racemes short 
(1 3 whorls): upper calyx-lip deeply cleft, segments divergent ; lower 
broad, deeply trifid : corolla 2^^ lines long, blue, the white spot on the 
lianner permanent ; keel deep, scarcely falcate, shortly and obtusely 
pointed, and with a few stiffish ciliolfe above the middle. — In sandy land, 
at San Francisco and Alameda ; in habit, pubescence, size of corolla, etc., 
very like No. 9, but most distinct. 

12. L. bicolor, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1109 (1827) ? Low, often diffuse, 
stoutish, 6—10 in. high, silky-pilose : leaflets 5 — 7, linear-spatulate, 1 in. 
long : upper calyx-lip short, bifid ; lower twice as long, entire : corolla 
4 — 5 lines long, blue and white, the white changing to red-purple ; banner 
reflexed ; keel falcate, acute, ciliate toward the apex : pod small, about 
5-seeded. — Sandy soil about San Francisco, in a slender depressed very 
hairy form ; also on gravelly crests of the Oakland Hills, where it is 
stouter, with ascending branches. The two may well be distinct species ; 
and neither plant agrees perfectly with the original L. hicolor of the 
Columbia River. 

13. L. pachylobus, Greene, Pittonia, i. 65 (1887). Stout, rigid, barely 
1 ft. high, with a few ascending branches from the base, hirsute through- 
out : petioles slender and long ; leaflets 5 — 7, linear, -^4 in. long : racemes 
on stout peduncles, whorls 2 — 4 : fl. 3 lines long, subsessile, deep blue : 
calyx-lips broad, the upper very short, notched ; lower entire and twice 
as long : pod large (13^ in. long, 4—5 lines wide), very hirsute, 4—6- 
seeded. — Briones Hills, east of San Pablo Creek, Contra Costa Co., 15 
April, 1887 ; collected only by the author. The fiill grown pods are very 
thick and succulent just before maturity ; even bearing down to the 
ground the stout branches. 

14. L. nanus, Dougl. in Beuth. Hort. Trans, n. ser. i. 409 (1833). 
Commonly 1 ft. often 2 ft. high, with many decumbent branches, not 
succulent, minutely and not densely villous-pubescent : leaflets oblance- 
olate, 1 in. long : racemes short-peduncled, 3 — 7 in. long, of many rather 
indistinct whorls of large deep piirple fragrant flowers : upper calyx-lip 
deeply cleft ; lower 3-dentate : corolla 6—7 lines long, the orbicular 
retuse banner closely reflexed, the white middle part turning rose-red ; 



40 LEGUMINOS^. 

wings lightly joined, forming an obliquely obovate inflated sac ; falcate 
keel with a long slightly ciliate beak. — Common on plains, especially in 
sandy soil ; the most beautiful species of the group, and by no means a 
dwarf, except in very dry seasons. 

15. L. carnosulus, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 144 (1886j. Erect, 
1 — 2 ft. high, usually simple, stout and succulent ; pubescence minute, 
appressed : leaflets oblanceolate, 1 in. long, obtuse, but with a small 
recurved mucronation : raceme loose, distinctly verticillate : upper calyx- 
lip deeply cleft ; lower entire : corolla deep blue ; keel villous in the 
middle.—Near Olema, Marin Co., Greene, and perhaps frequent north- 
ward ; for we have it from Oregon, Hovell. Readily distingiaished from 
the last by its succulent herbage. 

16. L. atlinis, Agardh, Syn. 20 (1835). Very stout and succulent, 
irregularly branching above (not from the base), 1 — 2 ft. high, Tisually 
almost glabrous, the pubescence very sparse and short ; stipules small, 
setaceous : leaflets 7, cuneate-obovate, obtuse or emarginate, 1 — l^o in- 
long, on stout petioles twice or thrice as long : racemes rather short- 
peduncled ; whorls 3 — 7 ; bracts equalling the calyx ; upper calyx-lip 
bifid ; lower entire or 3-toothed : corolla 5 —6 lines long, deep bluish 
purple ; keel broad, not strongly falcate, naked : ovary densely velvety ; 
pod glabrate, 1 — 2 in. long, 5— 9-seeded.- -Common in low, clayey soils, 
mostly near the sea ; but also in the interior, where it is more pubescent. 
Although authors who have seen the types say that this plant is the real 
L. affinis, Agardh's description does not well apply to it. Doubtless 
No. 15, which no field botanist could confuse with the present species, 
has been mixed with it by various authors ; possibly by Agardh himself. 

17. L. cervinus, KeUogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 229, fig. 72 (1868). 
Stout, pale green, appressed-pubescent, 1 ft. high : stipules STibulate, 
short ; leaflets 7, cuneate-obovate, obtuse, mucronulate, 1 — 2 in. long : 
raceme greatly elongated ; whorls distinct, many-flowered ; flowers on 
very short pedicels : upper calyx-lip cleft ; lower 3-toothed, the middle 
tooth slightly longer : corolla pale blue ; banner orbicular, pubescent 
exteriorly ; keel ciliate along the margin, and pubescent on the lower 
edge : ovary villous, 7-ovuled. — Pine woods of the Santa Lucia Mts., 
Lohh. Evidently a good species, but perhaps not of this group ; very 
possibly perennial. 

•1— -(- H— Perennials ; not voody at base. 
++ Flowers large (6 — 7 luies long). 

18. L. polypliyllus, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1096 (1827). Stem solitary, 
nearly simple, very stout, somewhat fleshy, erect, 3—5 ft. high, pilose- 
pubescent, equably leafy up to the inflorescence : stipules adnate for half 
their length or more ; petioles 6-12 in. long ; leaflets 11—15, lanceolate, 



LEGUMINOS.E. 41 

acute, hirsute beneath, glabrous above, 3 — 6 in. long : raceme short- 
peduncled, dense, 1 — 2 ft. long : fl. subverticillate, long-pedicelled, % in. 
long and as broad : calyx-lips of about equal length, the upper broader, 
both entire : wings bluish, banner red-purple ; keel falcate, acuminate, 
naked : pod 1 — l^g in. long, I4 in. broad, 7 — 9-seeded. — In open marshy 
ground toward the sea, from near Point Bonita light-house northward. 
Our most magnificent Lupine, but far from common ; well marked in 
habit, and belonging exclusively to the seaboard. May. 

19. L. longipes. Stems more or less clustered, erect, stoutish, not at 
all succulent, sparingly branched above, 2 — 4 ft. high, striate, glabrous 
or loosely hairy : leaves mostly basal, on petioles 12 18 in. long ; stipules 
setaceoiis-subulate ; leaflets 7 — 11, broadly lanceolate, acute, setaceously 
mucronulate, 2 — 4 in. long, glabrous, the margin often more or less ciliate : 
raceme peduncled, elongated, not dense : fl. much as in the last, but keel 
slightly ciliate in the middle : pod 1 in. long or more, densely hirsute, 
about 7-seeded : seed compressed, oval, brown with a dark diagonal 
line. — Along streams at middle or higher elevations in the Sierra, north- 
ward to Oregon. Very distinct ; and neither of the old names, L. macro- 
phyllus or grandifoliut^, seems to belong to it. June — Aug. 

20. L. latifolius, Agardh, Syn. 18 (1835) ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1891 : 
L. rirularis, var. lalifolius, Wats. ; L. adsurgens, Drew. Stoutish, erect, 
branching, 2 — 4 ft. high, minutely appressed-pubescent, the stem not 
striate, dark green and shining, equably leafly, the basal leaves not long- 
stalked : stipules linear-setaceous ; leaflets 5—7, broadly oblanceolate, 
thin, mucronulate, pilose-ciliate on the margins and the midvein beneath, 
1-21.3 in. long: racemes slender-peduncled, loose, the verticils often 
distinct ; pedicels slender : calyx-teeth elongated, the upper notched 
slightly at the narrow apex : fl. blue, changing to a dark tawny hue ; 
keel ciliolate below the middle : seed little compressed, the diagonal line 
narrow. — By streamlets and on wooded northward slopes of the Coast 
Range at low altitudes ; common in the hills near Berkeley. May — Aug. 

21. L. cytisoides, Agardh, 1. c. L. rivtdaris, Wats., not of Dougl. 

Taller than the last, more rigid, the stems striate : pubescence minute, 
stiffish and closely appressed : stipules lanceolate-subulate ; leaflets 7 — 9, 
oblanceolate, 2 in. long or more : raceme greatly elongated, but short- 
peduncled, dense, the flowers not whorled : calyx as in the last : corolla 
blue, the banner fading brownish ; keel strongly falcate, densely ciliate 
for a short distance below the middle. — Mountains of Kern Co., perhaps 
of Monterey, thence southward, where in Los Angeles Co. it is often six 
feet high, and very showy. Very unlike the last in habit, pubescence, 
inflorescence, etc. May -July. 

22. L. littoralis, Dougl. in Lindl. Bot Reg. t. 1198 (1828). Stems 
clustered, decumbent or ascending, somewhat succulent, 1 — 2 ft. long, 



42 LEGUMINOS^. 

silky, or at the nodes villous : leaflets 5 — 7, linear-spatulate, acute, 1 in., 
long, silky on both sides : fl. distinctly and rather remotely verticillate 
in a short-peduncled raceme : calyx-lips subequal, entire : banner red, 
shorter than the blue wings ; keel ciliate : pod linear, hirsute : seeds 
linear, brown with black spots. — From near Point Reyes, 3frs. Curran, 
northward, near the sea. The coarse yellowish roots have the appearance 
and something of the flavor of licorice and were used as food by the 
aborigines. 

23. L. alMcaulis, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i. 165 (1833). Stoutish, slightly 
succulent, stems decumbent, 2 ft. long or more, very leafy, appressed- 
puberulent : stipules small, subulate, deciduous : leaflets 7 — 9, oblance- 
olate, obtuse, mucronulate, 1 — 2 in. long, on petioles little longer : raceme 
6 — 10 in. long, short-peduncled : fl. rather distinctly whorled, of a dark 
tawny or yellowish brown ; banner and wings shorter than the long falcate 
naked keel. Var. silvestris. L. silrestris, Drew, Bull. Torn Club, xvi. 
150 (1889). More slender, canescently hirsutulous throughout : leaflets 
acutish : fl. cream-color, turning brownish. — The type, common from Mt. 
Shasta northward, may not occur within our limits. The variety, very 
possibly distinct, seems to differ mainly by its pubescence. It is found in 
the Trinity Mts., Dreu>, and something approaching it, but with pubescence 
less spreading, was obtained at Chico by Dr. Parry. June~Aug. 

24. L. foniiosus. Stoutish and suberect, or more slender and de- 
cumbent, 2 — 3 ft. high, sparsely silky-pubescent : stipules long, linear- 
setaceous, persistent : leaflets 7 — 9, linear-lanceolate, very acute, 1 — 1^ 
in. long, equalling the petiole : raceme subsessile, mo'^e or less whorled, 
but rather dense : fl. 6 — 7 lines long, rich violet, the banner and wings 
equalling, the latter entirely enfolding, the less elongated naked keel. 
Var. Bridg-esii. L. albicaulis, var. Bridgesii, Wats. Stipules narrowly 
lanceolate, the whole plant silvery-canescent, and even villous : raceme 
distinctly pedunculate, the verticils more remote and distinct. — This, 
while like L. albicaulis in its glabrous keel, is most unlike it in respect 
to relative size of petals and their coloring. The best type of the 
species is of the author's own collecting on Mare Island, 1874 ; next to 
that, No. 857 of the State Survey. The variety will very likely prove 
distinct. These are our very handsomest perennial lupines ; L. albicaulis, 
with its small tawny wings and banner, and long-protruding keel, one of 
the homeliest. Apr. — Oct. 

25. L. iieiiioralis. Stem solitai-y, erect, slender, flexuous, leafy 
throughout, 1 ft. high : pubescent throiighout, the stems and stalklets 
somewhat appressed-pilose, the leaflets rather coarsely silky : stipules 
subulate-setaceous ; leaflets 7 — ^11, narrowly cuneate-oblong, obtuse, 
mucronulate, 1 in. long, on petioles of 2 in. or less : raceme slender- 
peduncled, short and few-flowered, not whorled : both calyx-lips broad, 



LEGUMINOSJE. 43 

not elougatel, entire : corolla purple, the broad wings equalling the very 
falcate naked keel. —In dry open pine groves at middle elevations of the 
mountains in Calaveras Co., collected by the author, June, 1889. Perhaps 
.1. Audersonii, var. (?) Grayi, Wats., found by Gray in Mariposa Co., may 
be the same. 

26. L. sericatus, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. vii. 92 (1877). Stoutish, 
decumbent, ^3— 1 ft. high, very leafy, canescent with a minute closely 
appressed silky pubescence : stipules setaceously acuminate from an 
adnate base ; leaflets 7, spatulate-oblong, obtusish, 1^ — 2 in. long, on 
petioles as long : raceme short-peduncled : fl. large, in about 5 whorls, 
deep purple ; calyx-lips large, the upper cleft, lower obscurely 3-toothed ; 
keel slender-pointed, lightly ciliolate. — An elegant species apparently 
confined to a limited area in the mountains of Lake and Sonoma counties. 
No. 2180 of the State Survey collection appears to be this. Dr. Kellogg 
described it as woody at base. We have not found it so. June —Sept. 

++ ++ Fluirers smaller (4 — 5 lines long). 

27. L. onnstus, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 127 (1876). Low and 

decumbent, sparingly silky-villous : leaflets 5 — 8, oblanceolate, acutish, 
1 in. long, on petioles twice as long : fi. small, deep bhie, scattered in a 
short, lax raceme : keel strongly ciliate : pod I3 in. broad, l^^ in. long : 
seeds 4 or 5, 3 lines broad. Mountains of Plumas and Sierra counties. 

28. L. coufertus, Kellogg, Proc. CaHf. Acad. ii. 192, fig. 59 (1863) ; 
L. Tun-eiii, Gray, in Bot. King Exp. 58 (1871). Tufted, decumbent, 1— l^g 
ft. high, densely silky-villous, most leafy at base ; leaflets 5 — 8, . cuneate- 
oblong, acute, 1 in. long or more : raceme long-peduncled, dense ; bracts 
setaceous, persistent : fl. verticillate, subsessile, purplish ; upper calyx- 
lip cleft ; banner narrow, keel not strongly falcate, woolly-ciliate : pod 
% in. long, 2 — 4-seeded : seed roundish, white. Var. Wrig'htii. Taller 
and stouter : leaflets obtuse, miicronulate : raceme larger, on a longer 
peduncle : fl. 5 lines long : keel broad, scarcely falcate, densely woolly 
for a short space just below the apex. — Yosemite Valley and northward ; 
the variety (No. 114 of Wright and Palmer, 1888), in the mountains of 
Kern Co. 

29. L. miuimus, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i. 163 (1833) ; L. selluhts, Kell. 
Proc. Calif. Acad. v. 33 (1873). Appressed silky-villous, the scapose stems 
4 — 12 in. high : leaflets 5 —7, obovate or oblanceolate, acute, 3 — 8 lines 
long, on petioles thrice as long : raceme dense, less distinctly verticillate : 
fl. purple ; upper calyx-lip deeply cleft ; keel not falcate, woolly-ciliolate 
throughout: pod 4 lines long, 2 — 3-seeded : seed round-obovate, brown. 

Yosemite and northward. June Oct. 

30. L. Lobbii, Gray, in Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 533 (1873). Stems 
cespitose, 2—3 in. long, herbage villous ; leaflets 5-7, obovate or 



44 LEGUMINOS^. 

oblanceolate, acute, ^i — 1 in. long : raceme dense, 2—3 in. long, the 
peduncle shorter than the leaves : calyx-lips deeply toothed : fl. blue ; 
keel ciliate. — Same range as the last, but little known. 

31. L. lepidus, Dougl. in Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1149 (1828). Densely 
silky villous, a few in. to 2 ft. high, with few long-petioled leaves : 
stipules subulate, falcate ; leaflets 5—7, oblanceolate, % — 1% in. long : 
raceme short-peduncled ; fi. scarcely whorled, deep purple, the banner 
with a white spot ; keel abruptly falcate, woolly-margined : pod 1 in. 
long ; seeds white. — Attributed to the eastern slope of the Sierra in the 
" Botany of California " ; but no plant answering to the description of 
L. lepidus is known to us as Oalifornian. 

32. L. parviflorus, Nutt. in H. & A. Bot. Beech. 336 (1840). Stem 
solitary, erect, tall, branching ; herbage somewhat hirsute, at length 
glabrate, pale and glaucescent : stipules minute, subulate ; leaflets 5—7, 
oblanceolate : raceme slender, ^{ — 1 ft. long ; fl. subverticillate, small, 
blue ; upper calyx-lip notched, lower entire : pod ^^ in. long, 2 — 4-seeded: 
seed light-colored. — Yosemite, McLean, thence northward and eastward. 

33. L. calcaratus, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 195, fig. 60 (1863). 
Stems clustered, erect, stoutish, 1 — 2 ft. high : pubescence minute, silky: 
leaflets about 9, oblanceolate, acute, 1 — 2 in. long; raceme short-peduncled, 
dense : fl. scattered, small, purplish or white ; calyx-tube produced 
above into a spur ; upper lip notched, and with the spur colored like 
the corolla ; lower longer, entire : banner silky-pubescent on the back ; 
keel broad, abruptly apiculate, the margin ciliolate : pod 1 in. long : 
seed light-colored. — Eastern base of the Sierra, on the borders of 
Nevada. 

34. L. caudatus, Kellogg, 1. c. 198, fig. 61. Near the last, but the 
herbage canescent with a dense silky -velvety pubescence : racemes sub- 
sessile ; fl. subverticillate, deep violet ; spur of calyx shorter ; keel 
narrower and cymbiform, its margin densely woolly-ciliate. — Same habi- 
tat as the last ; obtained near Boca, Sonne, in 1888. 

35. L. meioiianthus, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 522 (1868). Resembling 
the last, but dense pubescence shorter ; racemes short, subsessile ; fl. 
smaller (only 2 lines long) ; calyx not spurred : banner glabrous ; keel 
merely ciliate. — In the Donner Lake district, near the highest summits, 
thence eastward and southward in Nevada. 

36. L. holosericeus, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 380 (1840). Slender, 12-18 
in. high ; pubescence silvery, closely appressed : leaflets 6 — 8, narrowly 
oblanceolate, acute, arcuate, i?^ — 1% in. long: racemes subsessile, 3 — 6 
in. long : fl. whorled, small ; calyx slightly spurred ; lips broad, nearly 
equal, the upper notched : banner broad, pubescent on the back ; keel 



LEGUMINOS.E. 45 

filiate : pod 1 in. lontr : seeds large.— Along the eastern base of the 
Sierra, and northward in Oregon. 

-I— •)— +- -1— Suffrulesceal or shrubby specien. 
++ Small-flowered dwarfs of the higher mountains. 

37. L, Daiiaus, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 335 (1868j. Matted branches 
•only 2 — 3 in. long, few-leaved ; pubescence strigose-hirsnte : leaflets 4-5, 
oblanceolate, 2—4 lines long, on long petioles : raceme dense, oblong and 
1 in. long, or shorter and capitate : upper calyx-lip bifid ; lower tri- 
dentate : corolla purple and white ; keel straight, ciliate, — A rare species, 
inhabiting the summit of Mt. Dana, and apparently only once collected. 

38. L. Breweri, Gray, 1. c. 334. Larger than the last, more decidedly 
suffrutescent, the branches prostrate or only decumbent ; pubescence 
•dense, silvery -silky and closely appressed : leaflets 7 — 10, spatulate or 
■cuneate, obtuse, 3 — 4 lines long : raceme 1 in. long, dense : upper lip of 
calyx cleft : corolla violet ; keel scarcely ciliate. — Apparently common 
in the high Sierra from Kern, Rothrock, to Sierra Co., Lemmon, 

++ -M- Large-floirered species. 

39. L. Grayi, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 126 (1876). Stems stoutish, 1 
ft. long, decumbent from a woody branching caudex ; hoary -tomeutose 
throughout: leaflets 5-9, cuneate-oblong, ^.^l^z ™- long, on petioles 
twice as long : racemes short-peduncled ; fl. verticillate, 6 — 7 lines long, 
deep blue : calyx-lips elongated, entire : petals subequal ; keel ciliate : 
pod 1 in. long or more, 4 — 6 seeded. — In dry pine woods of the middle 
Sierra. June. 

40. L. Ludoviciauus, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 184 (1885). Decidedly 

shrubby and the stout branches erect from the base, ] — 2 ft. long ; densely 
white-tomentose and with a coarser hirsute pubescence on the branches 
and stalklets : leaflets 7 — 9, broadly oblanceolate, obtuse, 1 in. long : fl. 
of middle size, subverticillate in a short dense short-peduncled raceme : 
calyx-lips broad, entire, subequal : keel strongly falcate, surpassing the 
other petals, somewhat woolly-ciliolate : pod 1 in. long, tomentose, 5- 
seeded. — Mountains above San Luis Obispo, Mrs. Curran. 

41. L. oruatus, Dougl. Bot. Eeg. 1. 1216 (1828). Woody branches stout, 
short, numerous, horizontal ; flowering branches erect, 1 — 3 ft. high, 
leafy below : pubescence short, silky, appressed : leaflets 5 — 7, oblance- 
olate, acute, 1 — 2 in. long : raceme long-peduncled, rather lax : calyx-lips 
subequal, the upper toothed or bifid : petals subequal, blue, the banner 
paler ; keel falcate, ciliate toward the apex : pod 1 14 in. long : seed 
white, almost orbicular, compressed, 2i.^ lines long. — Species of the dry 
northeastern plains ; common north of Mt. Shasta, and occurring in 
Plumas Co., Mrs. Austin ; always pronouncedly shrubby, though the 
woody branches are short and depressed. 



4:6 LEGUMINOSiE. 

42. L. albifroHS, Benth. in Linell. Bot. Reg. 1. 1642 (1833) ; L. DougJasilr 
Agh. Syn. 84 (1835). Arborescent, the distinct trunk-like woody stem 
1 — 3 ft. high, parted into numerous short leafy and flowering branches, 
these ending in a rather long-peduncled loose raceme : leaflets 7 — 9, 
oblanceolate, 1 in. long or more, silvery-silky on both sides : fl. verticillate, 
large, deep blue : upper calyx-lip broad, cleft to the middle, or less- 
deeply ; lower entire : petals siibequal, the broad baruier with a whitish 
spot which soon changes to rose-purple ; keel ciliate : pod 2 in. long, 
5__9.seeded : seed oval, 2 lines long, brownish, encircled marginally by a 
dark line. Var. collinus. Smaller in all its parts and with no trunk- 
like stem, the branches decumbent from a short caiidex. — Very common 
along the seaboard, though not near the shore, but on clayey slopes 
and along ravines ; the variety on rocky summits about the Presidio, 
San Francisco, and on the islands in the Bay. Very distinct from the 
next, although foreign authors having mixed them in their herbaria, 
seem to have found the confusion hopeless. Feb. — Apr. 

43. L. Chaiiussojiis, Esch. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 283 (1826). Com- 
monly 3 ft. high, but never arborescent ; the suff'rxitescent branches 
forming a more or less dense tuft and leafy throughout : foliage much as 
in the last, but petioles shorter ; raceme more elongated and dense, but 
scarcely peduncled : fl. less distinctly whorled, paler blue, or of a lavender 
shade ; banner with a permanent yellowish spot. — Apparently confined 
to the sand dunes of the San Francisco peninsula and Point Reyes. 
Probably not in the southern part of the State ; never away from the 
sea. The "var (?) longebrac'eaUis " of the "Botany of California" must 
needs be the very type of the species. Much later in its flowering than 
the last. Apr. -July. 

44. L. variicolor, Steud. Nom. Bot. ii. 78 (1841) ; Greene, Pitt. i. 216 ; 
L. versicolor, Lindl. (1837), not of Sweet; L. liiioraliH, B. &W. Bot. Calif, 
i. 118 partly, not of Dougl. Woody basal branches short, slender, very 
tough, the decumbent, or often assurgent annual ones very leafy, 1 ft. long 
or less: pubescence of the leaves scant, appressed, the stems often sparingly 
hirsute : leaflets 7 — 9, narrow, acute : raceme short, the whorls often 3, 
2 or 1 only : fl. large ; banner white or pale blue ; wings blue ; keel 
ciliate throughout its length : pods large. —Frequent on grassy north- 
ward slopes at the Presidio, San Francisco, and southward, in San Mateo 
Co. ; most nearly related to the next, the flowers occasionally yellowish, 
and there are manifest hybrids between the two. Apr. — June. 

45. L. arboreus, Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 682 (1803) ; Bot. Reg. xxiv. t. 32 : 
L. rivularis, Dougl. in Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1595 (1833j. From arborescent 
and 6—10 ft. high to suffrutescent and bushy ; slightly silky-pubescent : 
leaflets about 9, narrowly lanceolate, % — li^ in. long, acute, glabrate 
above : raceme often 1 ft. long ; fl. whorled, sulphiir-yellow, or the wings 



LEGUMINOS^. 47 

unci keel bluish, or all the petals blue : keel ciliate : pod 1^^ 3 in. long, 
8 -12-seeded : seed oblong, little compressed, dark-colored. — Very com- 
mon in the Bay region, especially on hills not far from the sea ; usually 
yellow -flowered ; but about Tomales and Bolinas Bays more bble than 
yellow, just as figured by Lindley under the name L. rirvlaris as the 
type of that supposed species. Southward, at Santa Barbara, etc., the 
flowers are wholly of a rather intense blue. Apr. — Aug. 
* * Pods -d-seeded ; coti/ledoiis connate. Annuals witli whurled Jtoirers 
(\t)d persisleiii 6 racf.y. -Subgenus Platycakpus, Wats. 

46. L. microcarpus, Sims. Bot. Mag. t. 2413 (1823). Branched from 
the base, or near it, 1 ft. high or less, somewhat succulent, villous 
throughout : leaflets 9, cuneate-oblong, 1 in. long or more : racemes 
short-peduncled : bracts subulate-setaceous, equalling the calyx or 
shorter : fl. short-pedicelled, purplish or flesh-color : calyx densely hir- 
sute ; upper lip short, subscarioiis, emarginate or cleft ; lower obscurely 
2 — 3-toothed. — T^hroughout the State, apparently in the interior only. 
The plant is of rather doubtful identity with the Chilian species so named. 

47. L. (leiisiflorus, Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. n. ser. i. 409 (1833) ; Bot. 

Eeg. t. 1689. Stem stout, simple below, parted in the middle into 
numerous wide-spread branches, 2 ft. high, succulent, sparsely villous : 
racemes 6 — 10 in. long, long-peduncled : bracts setaceous from a broad 
base : fl. white or rose-color, sometimes yellow, the banner greenish- 
dotted : calyx sparingly villous ; upper lip scarions, deeply cleft ; lower 
long, toothed. — Very common, both on the seaboard and plains of the 
interior. The yellow-flowered plant, possibly distinct {L. Meiiziesii, Agh.) 
occurs in Napa Valley and near Antioch, and has sometimes been 
confused with the next. Apr. May. 

48. L. luteolus, Kellogg, Proc. CaHf. Acad. v. 38 (Apr. 1873): L. 
Bridgesn, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 538 (Nov. 1873). More slender, 
simple below, loosely branching above, 2 ft. high or more, rigid, not 
succulent : racemes shorter and more dense ; bracts linear-setaceous : 
fl. rather small for the group (6 lines long), pale yellow, subsessile : upper 
lip of calyx ovate-lanceolate, entire ; lower 3-toothed. — A mountain 
species, from Sonoma Co. and Mendocino northward. June, July. 

17. PICKERING}! A, Nut (all. A rigid much branched spinescent 
shrub, with small nearly sessile 1 — 3-foliolate exstipulate leaves, and 
large solitary almost sessile purple flowers. Calyx campauulate, repandly 
4-toothed. Petals equal ; banner orbicular, the sides reflexed ; keel- 
petals oblong, obtuse, distinct. Stamens distinct. Pod linear, com- 
pressed, straight, several-seeded. 

1. P. moutana, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 389 (1840) ; Torr. Bot. Mex. 
Bound. 51. t. 14. Shrub 3 6 ft. high, the branches spreading widely : 



48 DKUPACE^. 

leaves crowded ; leaflets 14—^4 in. long, oblanceolate, acute, entire, some- 
what silky when young : fl. near the ends of the stiff spinescent branchlets, 
on short 2-bracteolate peduncles, from pale rose- to deep red-purple, aboui 
% in. long. — At middle elevations in the Coast Range ; often forming 
impenetrable thickets on hill-sides and summits ; the flowers very- 
beautiful. Apr. — June. 

18. THERMOPSIS, Roherl Brown (False Lupine). Stout erect 
perennial herbs with palmately 3-foliolate leaves, foliaceous stipules, and 
a terminal raceme of yellow flowers ; the pedicels subtended by persistent 
bracts. Calyx eampanulate, cleft to the middle, the two upper teeth often 
united. Banner roundish, shorter than the wings, the sides reflexed ; 
keel nearly straight, obtuse, equalling the wings. Stamens distinct. Pod 
long, linear, flat, several-seeded. — An Asian and West Axaerican genus 
analogous to Bapiisia of the Atlantic slope, but very distinct. 

1. T. macrophylla, H. & A. Bot, Beech. 329 (1840). Stipules ovate, 1 in. 
long or more ; leaflets elliptic-oblong, acute at each end, 4 in. long, villous- 
tomentose beneath, nearly glabrous above : pod straight, nearly erect, 
4 — 5-seeded. — An obscure and little known plant (unless the next be spe- 
cifically the same), collected by Douglas probably near Monterey, and at a 
comparatively recent date (1876) by Mr. Joseph Clarke in Mendocino Co. 

2. T. Californica, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 126 (1876). Stipules 
broadly lanceolate, less than 1 in. long ; leaflets obovate or oblanceolate, 
1 — 2 in. long, silky-tomentose on both faces : pod 6— 8-seeded. — Common 
on low hills in Marin, Sonoma and Napa counties ; also southward. May. 



Order n. DRUPACE/E. 

DeOandoUe, Flore Frangaise, iv. 479 (1805). 

Shrubs or trees with bark exuding gum ; bark, leaves and seeds more 
or less keenly bitter (containing hydrocyanic acid). Leaves alternate, 
simple, with small caducous stipules. Flowers perfect (except in 
N'uilallia), regular. Calyx tubular or eampanulate, free from the ovary, 
the tube lined with a disk, deciduous ; limb 5-lobed, imbricate in aestiva- 
tion. Petals 5, perigynous. Stamens about 20, inserted within the petals 
on the disk of the calyx-tube. Pistil 1 (in Nuliallia 5) ; style simple ; 
ovary 1-celled, 2-ovuled, becoming a drupe. Seed pendulous ; cotyledons 
large, thick, fleshy ; albumen 0. — A small order, commonly appended to 
Rosacese as a suborder ; nearly allied to Pomaceae, less intimately to 
Eosacese proper ; of economic importance, on account of the fruits — 
plums, cherries, almonds, etc. 

1. AMYGrDALUS, T/i^op/jras/ws (Almond-Tree). Leaves conduplicate 
in the bud. Flowers solitary or in pairs, from lateral buds, appearing 



DBUPACEiE. 49 

before or with the leaves. Drupe velvety -pubescent ; sarcocarp more or 
less fibrous, often thin and in maturity dehiscent, falling away from the 
putamen : this osseous or suberous, smooth or rugose. 

1. A. Audersonii, Greene. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 387 (1868), 
under Pninns. Shrub 3 —6 ft. high, the branches short, rigid, somewhat 
spinescent : leaves fascicled, spatulate or oblong, obtuse or acute, some- 
what serrulate, %—l in. long: fl. 1 — 3 from each biid, appearing with 
the leaves, ^3 in. broad, rose-colored, the petals orbicular : drupe I3 in. 
long, compressed, acute ; stone aciitely margined on one edge, furrowed 
upon the other, acute at each end, faintly rugose. Eastern borders of 
the State, from Sierra Co., LeuDnon, southward. A handsome bush when 
in flower : a true almond in its affinities, not a plum or cherry. 

2. A. fasciculata, Greene. Torr. PI. Frem. 10, t. 5 (1854), under 
Emplec'.ocladas. Shrub 2-3 ft. high, very rigid, divaricately branched : 
leaves fascicled, narrowly spatulate, entire, ^j in. long, nearly sessile : fl. 
very small, sessile ; petals linear, recurved : stamens only 10 or 15 : 
drupe subglobose, 5 —6 lines long, hirsute-tomentose ; sarcocarp thin ; 
stone subglobose, smooth, obtuse on both margins, acute at each end. — 
Eastern slope of the Sierra, in Mono Co. or Inyo, if within our limits. 
The linear and plane petals would be exceptional in any of the old genera 
of this order ; and Dr. Torrey's Empleclocladus may perhaps be valid as 
a genus. 

3. A. COMMUNIS, Linn. Sp. PI. 473 (1753). The Almond Tree, native 
of Asia Minor, and perfectly at home in California, where it is one of the 
most valued of orchard trees, is already spontaneous here and there, and 
will inevitably become naturalized in course of time. The same may 
be said of 

4. A. Peksica, Linn. 1. c. 472, the Peach Tree, a native of Persia, 
more hardy than the Almond, and more generally cultivated in America. 

2. PRUXUS, Varro (Plum-Tree. Prune). Leaves convolute in the 
bud (in our species). Flowers in umbellate clusters from lateral buds, 
appearing before or with the leaves. Drupe ovoid, glabrous, glaucous : 
the thick sarcocarp pulpy, sweet or pleasantly acidulous, and with the 
distinctive flavor of plums ; putamen bony, smooth, compressed, acutely 
edged on one margin, grooved on the other. 

1. P. subcordata, Benth. PI. Hartw. 108(1849). Arborescent, 3-10 
ft. high, much branched, more or less spinescent ; nascent leaves and 
twigs finely pubescent, in age glaljrate : leaves ovate, cuneate or obcordate 
at base, obtuse or acute, sharply serrulate, about 1 in. long, short-petioled : 
umbels 2 — 4-flowered ; pedicels I4 — % i^- long, fl. white, % in. broad : 
drupe % in. long, red, the pulp rather hard and unpalatable. Var 



50 DRUPACEiE. 

Kellog'^ii, Lemmon, Pitt. ii. 67 is a larger shrub with yellow dnipe 
larger, more pulpy and sweeter. — The variety in Sierra Co. and north- 
ward ; the type common in the middle and southerly parts of the State- 
Fl. Apr., fr. Sept. 

3. CERASCS, Theophrasius (Cherey-Tree. Choke-Cherry. Islay). 
Leaves conduplicate in the bud. Flowers corymbose or racemose from 
lateral buds which are often leaf-bearing. Drupe globose, glabroiis, 
destitute of bloom ; the sarcocarp sweet rather than acidulous (in our 
species), often keenly bitter, sometimes sour and astringent ; putamen 
osseous or ligneous, smooth, mostly globose, not prominently margined. 

* Flowers corymbose , from lateral buds ; dritpe small, iriih bony puiavieii. 

— Cerasus proper. 

1. C. emarglnata, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i. 169 (1830) ; C. glandulosa, 
Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 59 (1855). Pnuius emarginala, Walp. Rep. ii. 9 
(1843). Arborescent, 10-30 ft. high, the twigs reddish but dull, often 
pubescent : leaves obovate or oblanceolate, obtuse or acute, rarely emargi- 
nate, 1% — 3 in. long, finely serrulate, distinctly biglandular at summit of 
the short petiole : corymbs much shorter than the leaves, few-flowered : 
drupe oval, dark red, bitter and astringent. — My only Oalifornian speci- 
mens properly referable to this species were collected in Humboldt Co., 
Chesnul & Dreiv ; but Dr. Kellogg had it from Placerville, and, under 
the impression that our Coast Range cherry-bush was the true C. emargi- 
nata, gave to the old species a new name. 

2. C. Californica. Prumis emargiaala, B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 167, 
excl. syn. & var. mollis, not of Walpers. Shrub 3—8 ft. high, branched 
from the base and clothed throughout with a smooth shining bark : 
leaves obovate, oblong or oblanceolate, obtuse, retuse or emarginate, on 
sterile twigs acutish, ?:£ — IVg in. long, finely crenate-serrulate, mostly 
uniglandular, and that on the lower part of the blade, well above the 
junction with the petiole : fl. few, in a short corymb : frmt bright red, 
intensely bitter.- -Hills of the Coast Range, from Humboldt Co., MarslMll, 
to Mt. Tamalpais, Bolander, and frequent in the Oakland Hills ; also, in 
a narrow-leaved form from Donner Lake in the Sierra, Rev. Dr. Boiitf', 
northward to Siskiyou Co., Greene ; along streamlets or on drier ground, 
but always a mere shrub, in aspect as well as in character quite distinct 
from C emarginata. 

* * Floirers racemose, from axillary leajless bnds ; drupe large, viih lig- 

neous putamen. — Old genus Laurocbrasus. 

3. C. ilicifolia, Nutt. in H. & A. Bot. Beech. 340. t. 83 (1840). Prunus 
ilicifoUa, Walp. 1. c. 10 (Islay). Shrubby or arborescent, evergreen, often 
12—18 ft. high, with well rounded head and trunk clothed with a dark 
rough bark : leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, obtiise or acute, truncate 
or rounded at base, coarsely spinose-toothed, coriaceous, glossy above. 



POMACES. 51 

glabrous throiigliout, 1 2 in. loug, sbort-peiioled : racemes 1- 2 in. long, 
leafless; fl. small : drupe j.i iu. thick or more, slightly obcompressed ; 
putamen thin, scarcely ligneous ; sarcocarp thin, sweetish, scarcely astrin- 
gent when ripe. — Oakland Hills, thence southward throughout the State : 
a mere shrub in the Bay region, but attaining the size and proportions of 
a small but shapely tree in southern Monterey Co. 

* * * FIoirerK racenwse al the ends of leafy I'VCDichlets ; fJnipe small, axtriu- 
geid. — Old genus Padxts. 

4. C. demissa, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 411 (1840). Prunus demissa, 
Walpers, 1. c. (Choke-Cherby). Shrub deciduous, 3 -12 ft. high : leaves 
ovate or oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, rounded or cordate at base, 
sharply serrate, more or less pubescent beneath, 2—4 in. long, with 1 or 2 
glands on the petiole just below its summit : racemes 3—4 in. long, 
many -flowered : drupe globose, red or dark purple, astringent ; putamen 
ligneous, globose. -Hills behind North Berkeley, but more frequent back 
from the seaboard throughout the State. Fl. Apr. fr. Sept. 

4. XUTTALLIl, Torrey tC- Gray {Oso Berry). Shrub with the habit 
of Amelanchier, but flowers dioecious, in pendulous racemes terminating 
short leafj^ branchlets. Calyx turbinate-campanulate, 5-lobed. Petals 5, 
broadly spatulate, erect in the pistillate flowers, spreading in the stami- 
nate. Stamens 15, in two rows, 10 inserted with the petals, 5 lower down 
within the calyx-tube ; filaments slender, short. Pistils 5 ; styles short, 
lateral, jointed at base. Drupes 1 — 4, ovoid, with thin pulp and osseous 
putamen. Seed solitary ; cotyledons convolute. 

1. ]V. cerasiforniis, T. & G. in H. & A. Bot. Beech. 336. t. 82 (1840) ; 
Greene, in Garden and Forest, ii. 219. Shrub with clustered stems 2—6 
ft. high, the bark dark brown : leaves broadly oblanceolate, entire, obtuse 
or acutish, mucronulate, 2—3 in. long, short-petioled : racemes shorter 
than the leaves ; bracts conspicuous : fl. white, very fragrant : drupes 
6—8 lines long, slightly compressed, blue-black ; pulp bitter. Common 
in the Coast Range hills, near the sea ; also in the Sierra northward. 
The flowers exhale a rich odor of almonds. The fruit though bitter is 
eaten greedily by birds and mammals. Jan.— Apr. 

Order III. P M A C E /E. 

Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, Manuel des Plantes Usuelles, i. 211 (1819) ; 
S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. ii. 5-)2 ( 1821) ; Lindl. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. 93 ( 1821) ; 
Bartl. Ord. Nat. 399 (1830) ; Spach. Phanerog. ii. 49 (1834) ; M. J. Roemer, 
Syn. iii. 97 (1847). 

Trees and shrubs with astringent but neither bitter nor poisonous 
properties ; not giimmiferous. Leaves alternate, simple or unequally 
pinnate, with caducous stipules. Flowers i^erfect, regular, racemosely or 



52 POMACES. 

corymbosely clustered, white or reddish. Calyx-tnbe urceolate or cam- 
panulate, more or less coherent with the ovary, the usually short free 
portion lined with an annular or laminar staminiferous disk ; limb 
5-lobed, imbricate in aestivation. Petals 5, perigynous. Stamens mostly 
20, inserted on the disk. Pistil compound ; ovary of 2, 3 or 5 carpels, 
becoming a pome ; styles as many as the carpels. Seeds usually 2 in 
each cell, collateral, ascending ; cotyledons fleshy ; albumen 0. — Like 
the preceding a small order, important as yielding such fruits as the 
apple, pear, quince, etc. 

1. AMELANCHIER, Lo6<'/m,s( Service-Berry. June-Berry). Shrubs 
with deciduous oblong or rounded serrate or subentire leaves, and bracted 
racemose white flowers appearing with them in early spring ; the bracts 
caducous. Oalyx-tube broadly turbinate ; segments as long as the tube, 
erect or reflexed in flower. Petals from linear-oblong and plane to 
obovate and concave. Stamens 20, much shorter than the petals. Styles 
3 — 5, coalescent at base or distinct ; carpels as many, incompletely 2- 
celled, but only 1-seeded. Fruit small, berry-like, crowned with the 
persistent calyx-lobes, of a dark purple and more or less glaucous, the 
pulp sweet and edible. Seeds small, with a thin black testa. 

1. A. alnifolia, Nutt. Journ. Philad. Acad. vii. 22 (1834) : Gen. i. 306 
(1818), under Aronia : A. florida, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1589 (1833). Arbo- 
rescent, but seldom 10 ft. high : leaves nearly full grown at flowering 
time, but thin, dark green, oval or oblong-ovate, obtuse at both ends, 
coarsely serrate toward the apex, otherwise entire, woolly-pubescent 
beneath, even in age : racemes oo - flowered ; bracts setaceous, long- 
woolly : calyx densely tomentose, the triangular lanceolate teeth closely 
reflexed : petals spatiilate-linear, % in. long, plane : stamens very short, 
not equalling the calyx-teeth. Along streams in the mountain districts, 
from Lake and Mendocino counties northward ; perhaps also southward. 
What is probably a dwarf condition of this species, with leaves almost 
entire, is found on northward slopes of the Oakland Hills, and in similar 
situations among the Mission Hills, San Francisco. Fl. Apr. fr. June. 

2. A. glabra. Stout, divaricately branched : leaves at flowering time 
very thin, deep green, ^^ in. long, broadly obovate to orbicular, truncate 
or refuse, the margin sharply and rather deeply serrate all around except 
at the very base, glabrous throughout : racemes few-flowered : bracts 
glabrous : calyx glabrous ; the broadly triangular sharply acuminate 
lobes erect : petals cuneate-oblong, less than ^^ ^^- long ; stamens a 
little exceeding the calyx. — In the Douner Lake region of the Sierra 
Nevada, Rev. Dr. Bont'', June, 1888 ; the specimens in flower only. The 
total absence of all pubescence from the floral organs and even the 
bracts of the raceme, together with the shape and attitude of the calyx- 
teeth, mark this as a very distinct species. 



POMACEiE. 53 

3. A. pallida. Stems clustered and bushy, 8 5 ft. hish, rigid and 
with an ashy bark : leaves even at flowering time almost coriaceous, 
pale green, '^4 in. long, from oblanceolate and obovate to oblong, obtuse 
or retuse at apex, cuspidate, entire or sparingly serrate-toothed at apex : 
racemes 00 - flowered, but short and somewhat corymbose, the lower pedi- 
cels elongated : calyx more or less tomentose ; teeth triangular, acute, 
erect : petals obovate or obovate-oblong, slightly concave, 3 — 5 lines 
long.- A most distinct species, as well marked in floral character as in 
its very pale glaucous-looking coriaceous foliage. Common on dry hills 
of the northern and northeastern parts of the State ; perhaps not within 
our limits. Fl. May, fr. July. 

2. CRATAEGUS, Toumefort (Thorn). Thorny shrubs or small trees, 
with simple toothed or lobed leaves and corymbose heavy-scented white 
flowers. O.xlyx-tube urceolate ; the limb 5-lobed. Petals rounded, con- 
cave. Stamens 5—20. Styles 2^5. Pome more or less berry-like, red 
or purple, crowned with the calyx-teeth and containing 2—5 bony 1- 
seeded carpels. 

1. C. rivularis, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 464 (1840). Tree 10 15 ft. high, 
nearly or quite glabrous : thorns short, stout : leaves oblong-ovate or 
ovate, obtuse or acute, cuneate at base, incisely serrate, occasionally 
somewhat lobed, 1—2 in. long: corymbs small; fl. 4—5 lines broad: 
calyx-lobes short, obtuse, often pubescent on the margin : pome small. — 
Sierra and Plumas counties, and far to the northward and eastward. 

2. C. Douglasii, Liudl. Bot. Reg. t. 1810 (1835). Tree 10 25 ft. high, 
leaves and young shoots villous-pubescent : thorns 1 in. long : leaves 
11-2—3 in., broadly ovate, more or less incisely cleft or lobed and finely 
serrate : corymb many-flowered : fl. 5 — 8 lines broad ; calyx-teeth lance- 
olate, nearly as long as the tube, pubescent : fruit dark red or purple, 
sweetish but rather insipid. In the northern counties ; perhaps not 
within our limits. 

3. HETEROMELES, J/. ./. Rienwr ( Tollon. California Holly. 
Christmas Berry). A. small evergreen tree with simple coriaceous 
serrate leaves, and numerous small white flowers in terminal corymbose 
panicles. Calyx turbinate ; limb 5-parted, the lobes at length inflexed 
over the carpels and becoming fleshy. Petals 5, rounded, concave. 
Stamens 10 ; filaments dilated at base and slightly connate. Ovary 2—3- 
celled, 4—6 ovuled ; styles and stigmas 2—3. Fruit ovoid, red, berry- 
like with dry mealy pulp of acid and astringent taste ; carpels free from 
the fleshy calyx-tube above the middle. Seeds 1—2 in each cell, erect ; 
testa thin-cartilaginous. 

1. H. arl)utifolia. M. J. Roemer, Syn. Monog. iii. 105 (1847) ; Ait. f. 
Kew. iii. 202 (1811), under Craliegus ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 491 (1820), under 



54 POMACES. 

Photinia. Usually 10 — 25 ft. high ; nascent parts tomentulose : leaves 
dark green and shining, narrowly oblong to oblong-lanceolate, acute at 
both ends, sharply but not very closely serrate or dentate, 2—4 in. long : 
pome 3 lines long : seed one-half as long. — Very common along streams 
and on northward slopes, in the Coast Range. Fl. July, fr. Dec. 

4. SORBITS, Theophraslus (Mountain Ash). Unarmed deciduous 
shrubs or small trees with few and coarse branchlets and large winter 
buds. Leaves large, unequally pinnate, the leaflets serrate. Flowers 
numerous, small, white, in terminal compound cymes. Stamens 20. 
Styles distinct and as many as the cells of the ovary (3— .">). Pome very 
small, globose or pyriform, the coriaceous cells (2-ovuled in the ovary) 
1-seeded by abortion. Seeds brownish ; testa rather thin. 

1. S. occideutalis, Greene. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, xxiii. 264 (1888), 
under Pi/rus: P. samhucifolia, B. & W. Bot. Calif. 189, not of Cham. & 
Schl. Bushy and only 2—6 ft. high, glabrous -: leaflets 3-5 pairs, oblong 
or elliptical, obtuse, serrate only from about the middle, 1—2 in. long : 
cyme small, few-flowered : calyx glabrous : pome somewhat pyriform, 
coral-red.— In the Sierra from near the Yosemite northward. 

5. MALUS, Tourneforl (Apple-Tree. Crab- Apple). Small deciduous 
trees with more slender branchlets and small winter buds. Leaves 
simple, more or less serrate. Flowers rather large, reddish or white, 
corymbose at the ends of short lateral branchlets. Stamens 20. Styles 5, 
more or less united at base. Carpels 5, wholly covered by the adnate 
calyx-tube, ohartaceous in fruit, 2-seeded. Pome large, globose, depressed 
at each end, the flesh of acidulous rather than saccharine taste and 
destitute of grit-cells. 

1. M. rivularis, M. J. Roemer, Syn. Monog. iii. 215 (1847) ; Dougl. in 
Hook. Fl. i. 203. t. 68 (1833) under Pyrm. Tree 15—25 ft. high : leaves 
ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 1—3 in. long, often slightly 3-lobed, 
sharply serrulate, more or less pubescent when young : corymb somewhat 
racemose ; pedicels slender, 1 in. long : petals orbicular, 3 — 4 lines 
broad, white : pome red or yellow, short-cylindrical, ^g in. long or 
more. — The Oregon Crab-apple has been found as far southward in the 
State as Sonoma Co., Bigelow, and may perhaps be expected in Marin. 

2. M. COMMUNIS, DC, the common apple of the orchards already of 
frequent occurrence by waysides, is destined to become naturalized in 
California, as in many parts of the world where it has been long cultivated. 

6. PERAPHYLLUM, Nu'tall. Shrub low, diffuse, unarmed, with 
rigid, lanceolate, deciduous leaves, and the inflorescence, flowers and 
fruits of Mains, save that the cells of the carpels are divided each into 
two 1-seeded apartments by an incomplete partition. 



EOSACE.j:. 55 

1. P. raiiiosissimuin, Nutt. iu T. & G. Fl. i. 474 (1840). Only 2— 3 ft. 
high, but the long recurved and more or less tortuous slender branches 
spreading widely : leaves narrowly oblanceolate, short-petioled, acute, 
sparingly denticulate, 1 — 2 in. long : fl. rose-color, % in. broad ; petals 
strongly concave : pome globose, 5 — 7 lines in diameter, watery and 
acidulous, with the flavor of apples. — This peculiar wild apjjle of our 
western desert.'*, entering California along the eastern base of the Sierra, 
seems hardly distinct from 3IaJi(s ; though herbarium botanists misled 
by a technicality of the carijellary structure have wished to reduce it to 
Aiiielaachicr, to which it is not, in our judgment, at all closely allied; 
although ,1. pallida, of similar habitat, resembles it in habit and in 
foliage. 

Ordek IV. R S A C E /E . 

Jussieu, Genera Plantarum, 334 (1789), partly ; Endl. Gen. 1240 (1840). 
Herbs or shrubs often prickly, with alternate frequently compound 
leaves and mostly foliaceous commonly adnate stipules. Flowers perfect 
or unisexual, solitary, cymose, corymbose, or paniculate. Calyx free from 
the ovary, 4— 5-cleft, the segments valvate (rarely imbricate) in aestivation. 
Petals perigynous, as many as the calyx-lobes and alternate with them, 
or 0. Stamens 5— oo, perigynous (in Aruncus hypogynous). Pistils 
1 — 00 ; ovary usually 1-celled and with 1 ovule, sometimes many-ovuled; 
ovules pendulous or ascending. Styles as many as the ovaries, inserted 
terminally or laterally, persistent or deciduous. Fruit an achene or an 
aggregation of drupelets, sometimes follicular, dehiscent by the ventral 
suture. Seeds with little or no albumen. — A large order, of the temperate 
or boreal regions of the northern hemisphere chiefly ; furnishing some 
choice fruits (raspberry, blackberry, strawberry) and flowers (rose, 
spirsea, Kerria), and medicinal plants of astringent properties. 

Hints of the fienera. 

Unarmed shrubs ; 

Leaves simple, 

Pistils 3--5; fr. dry, dehiscent, 1— 2-valved, - - 1, 2, 6 
" 1 — 5 ; " an achene, ------ 6—9 

" cc ; " fleshy (mass of drupelets), - - - 17 

Leaves minutely 2— 3-pinnately dissected, - - . . - - 4, 5 

" small, pinnately 5-foliolate, --------15 

Prickly shrubs, .--.----.-. ---17, 18 

Herbs ; leaves ample, 3-pinnate, ----------- 3 

" '■ palmately 3-nate or 5-nate, -------- 15 — 17 

" " unequally pinnate. 

Calyx prickly, 11, 12 

" unarmed, 10, 13—16 

1. XEILLIA, Lon (Nine-Baek). Shrubs unarmed with surculose 
shreddy-barked stems and simple more or less lobed and toothed decidu- 



56 R0SACEJ5. 

ous leaves ; stipules free and deciduous. Flowers white, in corymbs 
terminating lateral leafy branchlets. Calyx 5-lobed with campanulate 
tube. Petals 5, rounded. Stamens oo, in several rows. Pistils 1—5' 
becoming as many inflated 2-valved several-seeded capsules which are 
alternate with the calyx-lobes when of the same number, slightly coherent 
toward the base. Seeds several, obovoid, with a shining crustaceous 
testa, and copious albumen. 

1. N. capitata, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 28 (1889) ; Pursh, Fl. i. 342 (1814) ; 
under Spinra. Surculiform stems 10-20 ft. long, more or less tortuous 
and reclining or interlacing among the branches of small trees : leaves 
short-petioled, ovate, acute, more or less distinctly 3-lobed and coarsely 
toothed, 2 3 in. long, glabrous or stellate-pubescent : fl. in hemispherical 
corymbs, or these on vigorous shoots racemosely elongated : pedicels 
and calyx more or less tomentose ; calyx-lobes shorter than the petals : 
follicles usually 4, exceeding the calyx, 3 4 lines long, ultimately splitting 
into 2 valves.- Common along streams in the Coast Eange from the Bay 
region northward. Apr. May. 

2. HVIUMX, Tournefort (B.AB.-DUA.CK. Steeple-Bush). Erect unarmed 
shrubs with simple leaves and no stipules. Flowers numerous, small, 
white or rose-purple, crowded in a terminal corymb or thyrsoid panicle. 
Calyx .5-lobed. Petals 5, rounded, imbricate in bud. Stamens 20 or more, 
inserted with the petals. Pistils about 5, becoming several-seeded folli- 
cles which are alternate with the calyx-lobes when of the same number, 
cartilaginous, not inflated. Seeds linear ; testa thin ; albumen 0. 

1. S. betulsefolia, Pallas, Fl. Ross. t. 16 (1784), Slender, widely 
branching, 1-2 ft. high, with reddish bark : leaves ovate-oblong, 1 in. 
long, subsessile or short-petioled, rounded at base, obtuse, sharply serrate 
except toward the base : fl. rose-purple in small compound fastigiate 
corymbs : carpels 1 line long ; ovules 5 8.— Moist places among rocks 
in the higher Sierra. July, Sept. 

2. S. Uoii^lasii, Hook. Fl. 172 (1830). Stouter, 3-5 ft. high ; growing 
parts and lower face of leaves tomentose : leaves oblong, 1 — 3 in. long, 
serrate toward the apex : fl. rose-colored, crowded in a long thyrsoid 
panicle.- Humboldt Co., Chesnul cO Dreir, and northward toward the 
coast or in the mountains. July. 

3. ARU>X'US, Lirimrus (Goats' Beard). Herbaceous perennial with 
ample tripinnate leaves and no stipules. Flowers dioecious, small, white, 
in niimerous slender panicled spikes at summit of the tall stem. Petals 
5, spatulate, convolute in bud. Stamens hypogynous. Pistils 3-5, 
becoming several-seeded follicles which are alternate with the calyx-lobes, 
otherwise as in Spir.va, but seeds pendulous. 



ROSACEA. 57 

1. A. TUlgaris, Raf. Sylv. Tell. 152 (1838); J. sib ester, Kost. {18UI 
Spira'a Aruncus, Linn. Sp. PI. 490 (1753). Glabrous, branching, 8—6 
ft. high : leaves 12 — 18 in. long : leaflets 2 — 5 in. long, ovate or lance- 
olate, acuminate, often with a pair of lobes at base, sharply and doubly 
serrate-toothed, short-petiolulate, thin, sometimes pubescent beneath : 
panicle large, compound, pubescent : fl. a line broad, nearly sessile : fila- 
ments elongated : carpels 3-5, glabrous.— In woods of the Coast Range 
northward. 

4. BASILIMA, Rafiuesqne. Unarmed shrub with stout branches, 
smooth dark-colored bark, coriaceous bipinnately dissected stipulate 
leaves, and terminal panicles of middle-sized white flowers. Calyx 5- 
lobed. Petals 5, rounded, imbricate m bud. Stamens qc , perigynous. 
Pistils 5, becoming coriaceous several-seeded carpels which are opposite 
the calyx-lobes connate at base, but ultimately 2-valved by a tardy second 
dehiscence along the dorsal suture. Seeds with distinct albumen. 

1. B. Millefolium, Greene. Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 83 t. 5 (1857), under 
Spinea : Chamxba'iaria Millefolunn, Maxim.: Sorbaria Millefolium, 
Focke in Engl. & Prantl. Rigidly erect and widely branching, 3 — 8 ft. 
high : leaves 2 in. long or less, with crowded pinnae and minute pinnules ; 
stipules small, free, entire ; the growing foliage, ijiflorescence, and even 
the carpels more or less densely stellate-tomentose : fl. % in. broad : 
fruit small, little exserted. — Eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada and east- 
ward, in dry rocky places. Of special interest as representing in America 
the otherwise exclusively Asiatic genus, Basilima (more recently named 
Schizono'us Lindl., and still later Sorbaria Maxim.), of which it has all 
the characters, though scarcely the habit. The foliage is resiniferous 
and fragrant as in the next genus. 

5. CHAM^BATIA, Beniham (Tar-Bush). A low unarmed evergreen 
shrub with smooth bark, coriaceous tripinnately dissected stipulate leaves, 
and terminal few-flowered cymes of rather large white flowers. Calyx 
with turbinate tube ani deeply 5-lobed limb. Petals 5, obovate, imbri- 
cate in bud. Stamens X), perigynous. Pistil 1, simple, becoming a cori- 
aceous obovoid large achene. Seed with scant albumen. 

1. C. foliolosa, Benth. PI. Hartw. 308 (1849) ; Torr. PI. Frem. 11. t. 6 : 
Hook. BDt. Mag. t. 5171. Dwarf, rather slender, wtth wide-spread 
branches, 1—2 ft. high, tomentose-pubescent and resiniferous, the calyx 
only somewhat glandular-hispid : leaves obovate-oblong, 2 in. long ; ulti- 
mate pinnule-5 minute, crowded; stipules small, linear, entire: petals 
3 —4 lines long : achene nearly filling the persistent calyx, abruptly 
acute. — Western slope of the Sierra from Nevada Co. southward to 
Mariposa, in pine woods at an elevation of 3,000 to 6,000 ft. Very resiu- 
ou; and heavy-scented : commonly called Tar-iveed. 



58 EOSACE^. 

6. SCHIZOJfOTUS, Rafinesque. Unarmed deciduous shrabs with 
simple toothed or lobed extipulate leaves and terminal panicles of 
numerous small white flowers. Calyx deeply 5-cleft, nearly rotate. 
Petals 5, rounded, imbricate in bud. Stamens 20, inserted on an annular 
peryginous disk. Pistils 5, wholly distinct, becoming 1-seeded hairy 
carpels, alternate with the calyx-lobes, very tardily dehiscent by the 
dorsal suture only, or indehiscent. 

1. S. discolor, Raf. Sylv. Tell. 152 (1838) ; Pursh, Fl. i. 342 (1814), 
under Spinea ; Maxim. Adn. Spir. 1.50 (1879), under Holodiscus. Shrub 
2 — 6 ft. high, the branches short, rigid, clothed with a gray more or less 
broken and shreddy bark : leaves ovate, cuneately narrowed to a short 
winged petiole, above the middle pinnately toothed or lobed, the lobes 
when present entire, deep green and nearly glabrous above, whitish- 
tomentose beneath ; panicles erect on short, erect or ascending branches ; 
carpels more or less densely hirsute throughout. —On the eastward slope 
of the Sierra, on dry rocky slopes and summits ; perhaps including the 
Spirssa damosa, Nutt., of the Rocky Mountains. July. 

2. S. arisefolius, Greene. Smith in Rees' Cycl. xxxiii. (1819), under 
Spirxa, also Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1365 (1830). Commonly 8—18 ft. high 
with long spreading or recurved slender branches, these and the stem 
clothed with a smooth unbroken dark brown bark : leaves short-petioled, 
deltoid-ovate, 2 — 3 in. long, two-thirds as broad at the almost truncate 
base, pinnately shallow-lobed from base to apex, the lobes entire or 
toothed, green and glabrate above, slightly paler beneath with sparse 
villous-appressed pubescence : panicle ample, 6 — 10 in. long, drooping 
in fl., erect in fr. : carpels compressed, hirsttte along both sutiires, the 
sides glabrous and covered with sessile globular resin-dots. — Woods of 
the Coast Range, near the sea-level or at low elevations among the hills. 
One of the most beautiful of shrubs when laden in June with its creamy- 
white half-pendulous panicles. In Marin Co. it often attains the height 
of 20 feet or more. 

7. CERCOCARPUS, HamhokU, Bonpland & Kunth (Mountain 
Mahogany). Unarmed evergreen shrubs or trees with simple leaves, 
small stipules, and axillary solitary or fascicled apetalous flowers. Calyx 
salverform, the 5-lobed limb deciduous. Stamens oo , in 2 or 3 rows on 
the limb of the calyx. Pistil 1 ; style terminal ; stigma terminal ; ovule 
solitary, ascending. Fruit a terete villous achene surmounted by a long 
villous twisted style. Seed linear ; albumen 0. 

1. C. ledifolius, Nutt. in Hook. Ic. t. 324, and T. & G. Fl. i. 427 (1840). 

Arborescent, 10—30 ft. high : leaves thick-coriaceous, narrowly lanceo- 
late, entire, more or less revolute, the midvein alone prominent, glabrous 
above, pubescent beneath, 1 — 1^4 ii- long, very short-petioled : persistent 



II S A C E .E. 59 

calyx-tube becoming 3 — 5 lines long : tail of achene 2 in. long. — Eastern 
slope of the Sierra, in the Mono Lake region, etc. 

2. C. betulsefolius, Hook. Jc. t. 322 (1840) ; Greene, Bull. (5alif. Acad, 
ii. 396 (1887) : C. belidoides, Nutt. in T. &. G. Fl. i. 427 (1840) ; Greene, 
in Garden and Forest, ii. 470 (1889) : C. parvifolius, var. glaher, Wats. 
Bot. Calif, i. 175 (1876). Shrubby or arborescent, 6 15 ft. high, the 
stem with a gray thin flaky bark ; branches spreading or recurved : 
leaves somewhat coriaceous, broadly obovate with more or less cuneate 
entire bise, but cjarsely serrate-toothed above the middle, conspicuously 
feather-veined, glabrous above, pubescent beneath, % — 2% ^^- long : 
calyx-tubs at length }£ iu. long : tail of achene often 3 in. long. — In the 
Coast Range throughout the State. 

3. C. parvifolius, Nutt. in H. & A. Bot. Beech. 337 (1840). Dis- 
tinguished from the last by the dark thick fissured and persistent bark 
of the trunks, always bushy habit, and strictly cuneiform foliage. — A 
Rocky Mountain species, probably reaching the eastern slope of the 
Sierra in middle California. 

8. PURSHIA, De Candolle. Unarmed shrubs with numerous stout 
branches and branchlets. Leaves small, crowded and fascicled, cuneiform 
and 3-dentate, with minute 3-angular stipules. Flowers subsessile, 
solitary or few at the ends of the short lateral leafy branchlets. Calyx 
tubular-funnelform, persistent, 5-cleft at summit. Petals 5, obovate, 
unguiculate. Stamens 25, perigynous in a single series. Pistil 1 (rarely 2) ; 
style terminal ; stigma lateral, i. e., decurrent down the side of the style ; 
ovule 1, ascending. Fruit a pubescent oblong or obovate achene. Seed 
without albumen, but with a layer of bitter resinous matter between the 
two integuments. 

1. P. tridentata, DO. Trans. Linn. Soc. xii. 158 (1818) ; Pursh, Fl. i. 
333. t. 15 (1814), under Tkjarea ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1446 ; Hook. Fl. i. 
170. t. 58. Branches strict and virgate : leaves cuneiform, % in. long, 
plane, acutely or obtusely 3-dentate at apex, white-tomentose beneath : 
calyx glandular : petals pale yellow, exceeding the obtuse calyx-lobes : 
achene oblong, attenuate at each end, well exserted from the calyx. — 
Eastern slope of the Sierra northward. 

2. P. glaiulalosa, Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 153 (1885). Of widely 
spreading habit, the branches divaricate : leaves % in. long or less, of 
cuneate-obovate outline, more abruptly narrowed to a distinct petiole ; 
blade 3-lobed almost to the base, the lobes obtuse or emarginate at apex, 
their margins closely revolute : achene obovate, scarcely exserted from 
the calyx. — On the Mohave slope of the Kern Co. mountains. Mi-k. Curmn, 
and eastward in Nevada. 



60 ft O S A C E iE, 

9. ADV^OSTOMA.^ Hooker & ArnoU (GnAMiso). Unarmed evergteen 
shrubs with rigid linear entire sessile fascicled stipulate leaves, and 
small white tiowers in closely panicled terminal racemes. Calyx obconical, 
5-toothed, 10-striate, the orifice bearing 5 oblong glands. Petals 5, 
orbicular. Stamens 10 — 15, inserted in bundles alternate with the petals. 
Pistil 1, simple ; style laterally inserted and flexuous toward the base ; 
ovary 1-celled, 1- or 2-ovuled, becoming an achene covered by the 
hardened i^ersistent calyx-tube. 

1. A. fasciculatum, H. & A, Bot. Beech, 139 (1840). Shrub 2 20 ft- 
high, with virgate branches covered with leaf -fascicles : leaves linear- 
subulate, 2 — 5 lines long, pungently acute, glabrous, often resinoTis ; 
stipules small, acute : fl. crowded, sessile ; calyx 1 line long, bracted at 
base, the teeth much shorter than the small petals : ovary obliquely 
truncate. — One of the commonest and the most characteristic bushes of 
the summits and elevated slopes of the Coast Range from Lake Co- 
southward ; also in the Sierra Nevada, but less common there. June. 

10. SANGlTISORBA, Fuchs (Buknet). Herbs with unequally pinnate 
leaves, coarsely toothed leaflets, foliaceous adnate stipules, and small 
bibracteolate polygamous or dioecious flowers in crowded spikes on naked 
peduncles. Calyx-tube turbinate, contracted at the throat, becoming 
3 — 4-angled or winged and persistent ; limb 4-parted, imbricate in the 
bud, deciduous. Petals 0. Stamens 2 — oo . Carpels 1 — 8, free from the 
calyx ; style terminal, filiform ; stigma tufted ; ovule 1, suspended- 
Achene membranaceous, closely invested by the hardened and angular 
smooth or rugose calyx-tube. 

1. S. otticiualis, Linn. Sp. PI. i, 116 (1753) ; Brew. & Wats. Bot. Calif, 
i. 186 (1876), under Poten'itm. Perennial, glabrous, 2—4 ft. high : leaflets 
about 9, ovate or oblong, cordate at base, ^ — 2 in. long : fi. polygamous, 
deep purple or red, in oblong spikes % — 1 in. long : fr. 1 line long. — 
Beported from Mendocino Co., Bolander. An Old World plant, perhaps 
not native with us, 

2. S. aiiuna, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 429 (1840), but m Hook. Fl. i. 198 
(1883), under Poterium. Annual, branching, glabrous, 1—2 ft. high : 
leaflets 9—18, oval, % i^^- long? deeply pinnatifid, segments linear : fl- 
perfect, greenish, in ovoid or cylindrical spikes }^ — 1 in. long : stamens 
2 or 4, short : fr. rugose between the 4 angles. — From Monterey and 
Kern counties northward. 

11. ACJiNA, Mulh. Perennial herbs, or the stems somewhat woody 
at the decumbent or creeping base. Leaves unequally pinnate ; leaflets 
incised or pinnatifid. Flowers in terminal more or less spicate clusters. 
Calyx-tube oblong, contracted at the throat, persistent, at length armed 
with retrorsely barbed prickles ; limb 3— 7-parted, valvate, deciduous. 



KOSACE.li. 61 

Petals 0. Stamens 1— lU. Pistils 1 or 2 ; ovary free from the calyx ; 
style terminal ; stigma capitate, multifid ; ovule 1, suspended. Achene 
enclosed in the hardened calyx-tube. 

1. A. trillda, Ruiz & Pavon, Fl. Peruv. i. 67 t. 104 (1798). Stems 1 ft. 
high, leafy mostly at the creeping and woody base ; herbage silky-villous : 
leaflets 9—18, oblong-ovate, 3—5 lines long, pinnately cleft into 3 — 7 
segments : 11. small, greenish purple in an interrupted spike ; filaments 
exserted : fr. ovate, 2 lines long, 8 — 4-angled ; angles with 2 — 4 stout 
prickles, the intervals with shorter ones. — Grassy summits or northward 
slopes of the hills along the sea Coast ; common at the Presidio and else- 
where near San Francisco ; also Chilian. 

12. AGIRIMOXIA, Branfeh (Agrimony). Tall perennials with odd- 
pinnate leaves and long slender terminal racemes of small yellow flowers. 
Calyx-tube urceolate ; throat encircled by a border of hooked prickles ; 
limb 5-lobeI, at length connivent. Petals 5. Stamens 5—15, in 1 row. 
Pistils 2, distinct, free from the calyx ; styles terminal ; stigma dilated, 
2-lobed ; ovule pendulous. Achenes 1 or 2, enclosed in the bur-like per- 
sistent calyx. 

1. A. Eupatoria, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 448 (1753). Hirsute or glabrate, 
2 — 4 ft. high, sparingly branched above : leaflets 5—7, usually 2-8 in. 
long with very small ones intervening, oblong-obovate, coarsely toothed, 
acute at each end ; stipules large, semicordate, toothed or lobed : calyx 
in fruit j>4^ — }^ in. long, the tube 10-sulcate above : achene 1, subglobose, 
1 line thick. — Apparently widely disseminated in California, but seldom 
seen ; common on the Atlantic slope and in Europe. 

13. GEUM, Gesner. Perennials with mostly radical lyrate or pinnate 
leaves, adnate stipules and large solitary or corymbose flowers. Calyx 
persistent, concave, the Upper part of the tiibe bearing 5 bracteoles 
alternately with the valvate segments of the limb. Petals 5. Stamens ao . 
Pistils GO , on a conical or clavate receptacle ; style terminal, straight or 
geniculate ; ovule 1, ascending. Achenes compressed, caudate with the 
persistent elongated naked or plumose styles. Seed erect. 

* Styles jointed near the middle, the upper part deciduous, the lower naked 

and hooked ; calyx-lobes rejlexed. — Geum proper. 

1. G. niacrophyllum, Willd. Enum. i. 557 (1809). Hispid, stoutish, 
1 ft. high : radical leaves lyrately and interruptedly pinnate, the terminal 
leaflet very large (8—5 in. broad), somewhat 3-lobed, subcordate at base : 
fl. scattered, yellow, % in. broad : bractlets of calyx small : achenes 
hispid.— In the Sierra Nevada, Bolander, Lemmon, and in Humboldt Co., 
Chesnut & Drew, but more common far northward. 

* * Styles straight, tvholly persistent, in age elongated and plumose ; calyx- 

lobes erect' — Genus Sieversia, Willd. 



62 ROSACEA, 

2. O. triflornm, Pursli, Fl. ii. 736 (1814). Soft-villoiis, 1 ft. higli : 
radical leaves interruptedly pinnate with numerous crowded cuneate- 
oblong incised leaflets : fl. large, few on long peduncles : calyx reddish ; 
the linear bractlets 4 — 9 lines long,, equalling the lobes and the erect 
petals : plumose tails of the achenes 2 — 3 in. long. — In the higher Sierra, 
and northward and eastward to Arctic America. 

14. ALC'HEMILLA, Tragus. Herbs of various habit ; ours small 
annuals with leafy stems, and minute green flowers fascicled in the axils 
of the palmately lobed leaves, Galyx-tube urceolate ; limb 4— 5-cleft, 
with or without as many minute bractlets or intervening teeth. Stamens 
1 or 2, minute. Pistils 1 or 2 ; style basal or lateral ; ovule 1, ascending, 
Achene ovate, compressed. 

1. A. arveusis, Scop. Fl. Oarn. ed. 2, i. 115 (1772) ; Linn. Sp. PI. i. 
123 (1753), under Apltanes : A. occidentaiis, Nutt., probably. Slender, 
simple or much branched from the base, 1 — 4 in. high, leafy, floriferous 
and hirsute-pixbescent throughout, the calyx-tube densely hirsute : leaves 
3-parted, the segments 2— 3-cleft : calyx-tube much contracted under the 
4-parted limb, bractlets minute. Var. glabra. Glabrous, even to the 
calyx-tube, which is broader than in the type, less constricted at the 
orifice, with relatively larger bractlets. — Common along streams, borders 
of thickets, or on open plains ; the variety in the valley of the Sacramento. 

2. A. cuueifolia, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 432 (1840). Differs from the 
preceding in having leaves longer than broad, cleff at the summit only, 
and a calyx-limb 5-cleft, without intervening bractlets. — Santa Barbara, 
NuUall, and possibly within our limits. 

15. POTENTILLA, Brunfeh (CiNQUEFoiii. Five-Fingee). Herbs 
(one species shrubby) with pinnately or palmately compound leaves, the 
leaflets usually toothed or cleft, and adnate stipules. Flowers axillary 
and solitary or in terminal cymes. Calyx from flat to campanulate, 
5-cleft, valvate, with 5 alternating bractlets. Petals 5, rounded or elon- 
gated, yellow, red or white. Stamens 5— oo ; filaments filiform or dilated. 
Pistils 1 — 00 ; styles more or less lateral, deciduous. Achenes on a 
glabrous or hairy dry (in one spongy-fleshy) receptacle. 

* Stamens 6 — go, uniform ; filaments filiform, or dilated at tlie base only. 
-)— Petals minute, linear-oblong ; stamens 5. — Genus Sibbaldia, Linn. 

1. P. procuMibeus, Clairv. Man. (1811) ; Linn. Sp. PI. i. 284 (1753), 
under Sil)baldia. Perennial, dwarf, creeping, the stems leafy and flowering 
at the ends : leaflets 3, cuneate, 3-toothed at the truncate apex, I4 — 1 in. 
long : peduncles shorter than the leaves : fl. cymose, yellow ; petals acute : 
achenes 5—10, raised on short hairy stipes.— High summits of the Sierra. 
4_ H— Petals spalulale, dark purple : stamens and pistils cc ; ripe receptacle 
enlarged, spongy-fieshy. —Genus Comarum, Linn. 



ROSACEA. 63 

-2. P. palustiis, Scop. Fl. Cam. ed. 2. i. 359 (1772j : Linn. Sp. PI. i. 
502 (1753), under Comarum ; Crantz, Stirp. Austr. 73 (1769), under 
Fragaria. A stout, subaquatic perennial, "witli creeping stems and large 
leaves pinnately 5 — 7-foliolate : leaflets obovate-oblong, 2 in. long or 
more, coarsely and .sharply serrate : fl. 1 in, broad, the inside of the 
calyx dark purple like the petals ; these miich shorter than the calyx- 
lobes : the juicy strawberry-like receptacle oval, ^2 ™- thick. — A common 
plant of northern and subarctic swamps, both in Europe and America. 
Sierra Co., Lemmon, and Butte, Mrs. Biduell. 

-)—-)—-)— Shrubby ; petals broad, rounded, yellow ; acheves villous, — Genus 
Dasiphoka, Eaf. ; Pickopogon, Bunge. 

3. P. frnticosa, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 495 (1753). Dasiplwra Jlonbunda, 
Eaf. Aut. Bot. 167 (1838). Much branched, 1~A ft. high, more or less 
villous : stipules scarious ; leaflets 5— 7, oblong-lanceolate, entire, approxi- 
mate, y — 1 in. long : fl. solitary or cymose : petals exceeding the calyx, 
M — % ill- long : stamens 30 : achenes 20, verj' villous. — Higher Sierra, 
and far northward around the northern hemisphere. 

-)— -1— -t- -)— Herbs of various habit ; petals rounded ; receptacle small, dry. — 

PoTENTiLiiA proper. 

++ Perennial ; Jiowers ajillary, solitary. 

4. P. Anseriiia, Linn. 1. c. Leaves odd-pinnate, often 1 ft. long ; 
leaflets 7 — 21, with smaller ones interposed, oblong, sharply serrate, 
white-tomentose beneath, silky or glabrate above : stems prostrate, with 
long internodes, rooting at each joint and producing at each a tuft of 
leaves and one or more long peduncled large yellow flowers : petals 
34^ — ig in. long, exceeding the calyx : stamens 20 — 25: achenes 20 — 40 : 
receptacle villous. — Along stream-banks, margins of ponds, or in springy 
places both along the seaboard and in the mountains. 

-M- -M- Peiennials ; Jiovers terminal, cymose. 
= Leaves ternate. 

5. P. gelida, C. A. Meyer, Ind. PL Cauc. 167 (1831). Leaves mostly 
radical ; leaflets broadly cuneiform, i<i — ^^ in. long, rounded at apex and 
coarsely toothed, the terminal one short petiolulate, the lateral sessile : 
fl. few : bractlets and calyx-lobes nearly equal : petals 2 — 3 lines broad, 
exceeding the calyx : achenes oo . — High Sierra, from the Donner Lake 
district, Bulander, Sonne, northward. July, Aug. 

6. P. Grayi, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 560 (1873) : P. Clarkeana, 
Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. vii. 94 (1877). Small and slender, deep green, 
scantily pubescent ; leaflets obovate, % i^- long, toothed at the rounded 
or truncate apex, the terminal one long-petiolulate : bractlets half as 
long as the calyx-lobes : petals exceeding the calyx : achenes 15 — 20. — 
Yosemite and southward, in the higher mountains. June, July. 

= = Leaves palmate or pinnate ; leaflets 5 or more. 



()4 R O S A C E iE. 

7. P. Wheeleri, Wats. 1. c. xi. 148 (1876). Decumbent, silky-villous , 

2 —3 in. high, leafy and flowering from the base : leaves palmate ; leaflets 
3 — 5, cuneiform, 3— 5- toothed at the rounded summit, ^2 in- long ; stipules 
entire : fl. opposite the leaves : calyx 3 lines long ; bractlets obtusish, 
smaller than the lobes : .petals obcordate, little exceeding the calyx : 
achenes 20. —Head-waters of Kern Eiver, at 8,200 ft., Rothrock. 

8. P. (lissecta, Pursh, Fl. i. 355 (1814). Stems 1 ft. high, more or less, 
ascending from a decumbent base ; pubescence usually almost none ; 
herbage of a deep rich green ; leaves iisually palmate, or closely pinnate ; 
leaflets 5 — 7, the lowest much reduced in size, uppermost 1 in. long, 
all pinnately cleft into narrow segments : fl. few, large and showy, in 
an open cyme : petals exceeding the lanceolate calyx-lobes : achenes 
10 —15. — In the higher Sierra ; frequent. July, Aug. 

9. P. Nuttallii, Lehm. Ind. Sem. Hamb. 12 (1852) ; Revis. 89. t. 33 : 
P. rigida, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 440 (1840), not of Wallich (1828.) : P. 
graciiis, var. rigida, Wats. Stout, 1 — 2 ft. high, decumbent at the very 
base, sparingly hirsute with short appressed hairs, no part tomentose or 
even canescent, but somewhat glandular : leaves palmate ; leaflets 5 — 7, 
the lowest pair much smaller than the rest, obovate- or oblong-cuneiform, 
coarsely pinnate-toothed or cleft : cyme rather contracted : petals broadly 
obcordate, larger than the ovate-lanceolate calyx-lobes : achenes 40 or 
more, smooth, slightly margined. — Frequent in the higher Sierra, but 
more common northeastward in the Rocky Mountain region. 

10. P. gracilis, Dougl. in Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2984 (1830) : P. Blaschke- 
ana, Turcz. in Lehm. Revis. 107. t. 64 (1856). Taller than the last, often 

3 ft. high, villous throughout, not glandular, lower face of leaves densely 
white-tomentose : leaflets 7 or more, often pinnate, more or less deeply 
pinnatifld or only coarsely serrate-toothed : cyme loose and ample : fl. 
and fr. as in the last.— Frequent in the higher mountains both west and 
east in the State. 

11. P. Platteusis, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 439 (1840). Decumbent or 
depressed, the slender stems 5—10 in. long ; herbage light green, sparingly 
silky or glabrous : stipules large ; leaflets 7 — 15, ajjproximate, nearly 
alike in size, 3€~M in- long, cut into 3—5 linear segments : pedicels 
slender ; cyme open : petals obcordate, 3 lines long, exceeding the lance- 
olate calyx-lobes : achenes 25—40, very thick, smooth, marginless.— From 
Sierra Valley northward and far eastward, in mountain meadows, or on 
elevated plains. 

12. P. Breweri, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 555 (1873). Suberect, 
rather rigid, 3 —10 in. high, densely white-tomentose : stipules broad ; 
leaflets 7 — 13, rather crowded, cuneate-obovate deeply incised, };^ — 3^ in. 
long : fl. as in the last, though smaller : achenes 20 — 25. —An alpine 
species prevailing from the Donner Lake district of the Sierra southward. 



ROSACEA. 65 

13. P. glaiKlulosa, Lindl. Bot. Beg. t. 1583 (1833) : P. Wrangeliana, 
Lehm. Re vis. 49. t. 19 (1856). Erect, 1 — 2 ft. high, glandular-pubescent 
and ill-scented : leaves pinnate ; leaflets 5—9, ovate or rhombic-ovate, 
coarsely and doubly serrate : cyme lax, leafy -bracted : fl. small ; the pale 
yellow obovoid petals scarcely equalling the calyx : stamens 25, in 1 row, 
on the margin of the thickened disk : styles attached below the middle 
of the ovary. Var. »va(lensis, Wats. Slender, scentless and scarcely 
glandular : leaflets small, simply incised : floral bracts inconspicuous : 
petals exceeding the calyx, light yellow. Var. reflexa. Cyme very lax. 
few-fiowered : petals deep yellow, small, but equalling the calyx-lobes 
and with them somewhat refiexed when fully expanded. Var. lactea. 
Leaflets cuneate-obovate, simply and deeply toothed : corolla large, 
exceeding the calyx, white. -In the mountains everywhere, from near the 
sea-level to the higher wooded parts of the Sierra. Most probably com- 
prising several species. The common type, which is of the Coast Range, 
is more accurately represented in Lehmann's than in Lindley's figure. 
The first variety belongs to the Sierra Nevada at almost subalpine ele- 
vations. Var. reflexa is of the foot-hills, in dry ground, usually under 
cover of shrubbery or in groves of pine. Var. lactea is of higher ele- 
vations in Fresno and Kern counties. 

+-i- -i-i- -i-i- AnnuaJs or hiennials ; flowers inconspicuous; achenes minute, 

very numerous. 

14. P. millegraua, Engelm. in. Lehm. Ind. Hort. Hamb. (1849) : P. 
rivalis, var. niillegrana, Wats. Tall, flaccid, soft-pubescent, leafy up to 
the inflorescence : leaves 3-nate, the radical on long slender petioles ; 
leaflets cuneate-obovate, obtusely serrate at apex only ; stipules ovate- 
lanceolate, entire : cymes diffuse ; fl. very numerous ; petals yellow ; 
stamens about 10 : achenes whitish. — Eastern slope of the Sierra, and east- 
ward ; but also on the lower San Joaquin, on muddy banks of the river. 

15. P. bieuuis. Biennial, branched from the base, erect and rather 
stout, 1 ft. high or more, the stems purple, leafy, the whole herbage 
pubescent and minutely glandular : stipules oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or 
acute, the lowest entire, the upper more or less toothed or lobed : leaflets 
3 (rarely), cuneate-flabelliform, irregularly incised, the broad teeth or 
lobes mucronulate : cymes mostly contracted and dense : petals small, 
yellow, spatulate-oblong, scarcely equalling the calyx : stamens about 
10 : achenes minute, whitish. -In moist places in the mountains, from 
Butte Co. to Kern and San Luis Obispo. In habit and aspect very 
distinct from those mostly extra-Californian plants which have been 
referred to P. riralls. They are all annuals ; this certainly biennial. 

* * Perennials ; petals obovaie to linear ; stamens 10 (20 in one species), 

alternately long and short, the filainen's moie or less dilated 

throitgJiont. Genus Hokkelia, Ch. & Schl. 

•)- Cymes lax, dicltoloinons ; Ijractlets large, often exceeding the calyx-lobes. 



66 ROSACEiE. 

16. P. froiulosa, Greene, Pittonia, i. 300 (1889). Erect or decum]:>ent, 
IM — 3 ft. high, leafy throughout, viscidly hirsute and heavy-scented: 
radical leaves with 7 — 9, cauline with 5 — 7 leaflets ; these 1 — 2 in. long, 
oval or oblong, doubly incised, thin and finely rugose ; stipules ovate- 
lanceolate, coarsely incised : cyme widely spreading, loose and leafy : 
calyx short-campanulate, the large spreading bractlets exceeding the 
segments, tripid at apex : stamens very unequal : petals ligulate, erect 
or little spreading, white. — A very well marked sxjecies, perhaps some- 
what local, but plentiful near Martinez, Frank Swett ; also at Santa 
Cruz, Parry. May, June. 

17. P. Califoruica, Greene, 1. c. 100 (1887) ; Ch. & Schl. in Linnfea, 
ii. 26 (1827). Size and habit of the last, but stem less leafy, leaves mostly 
radical: herbage glandular-pubescent, very fragrant: leaflets 11-21, 
the upjjermost more or less confluent, the lower distinct but approximate : 
leaflets I4 — ^ in. long, broadly cuneiform, toothed or deeply incised at 
the rounded apex : cymose-dichotomous inflorescence lax : calyx }4 ^^• 
high, short-campanulate ; bractlets exceeding the calyx-lobes and 
3-toothed at the broad apex, the middle tooth longest : petals white, 
spatulate, spreading or suberect. Var. elata. P. elata, Greene, 1. c. 
More slender than the type, equally fragrant ; leaflets deeply and incisely 
once or twice cleft : bractlets of the calyx like the segments triangular- 
lanceolate, entire. — The type is common on wooded slopes about San 
Francisco and Oakland. The variety, first described, as a species, from 
fruiting specimens which were misleading as to the filaments, is of Napa 
and Humboldt counties, Greene, ChesniU & Dreiv. 

18. P. multijuga, Lehm. Eevis. 29. t. 7. ? (1856); P. Lindleyi, 
Greene, Pitt. i. 101 (1887). Horkelia cuneaia, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1997 
(1837). Erect, 1 ft. high, leafy at base only, glandular-villous and 
fragrant : leaflets 19—25, rounded and incised above the middle, cuneate 
at base, ^4 in. long : inflorescence distinctly terminal, though ample, at 
summit of the slender nearly leafless stem : calyx cyathiform ; bractlets 
entire, smaller than the lobes : petals narrowly oblong, white, spreading: 
filaments subulate-dilated, the alternate ones little shorter. — Santa Cruz, 
Pringle, Parry, and southward along the coast hills. Most distinct from 
P. Californica in habit, inflorescence, calyx, etc., though confused with it 
in the " Botany of California," as was the next. 

19. P. Kello^gii, Greene, Pittonia, i. 101 (1887), also Bull. Calif. Acad, 
ii. 416, under Horkelia. H. Californica, var. sericea, Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. vi. .529 (1868). Stems stout, ascending, or almost prostrate, 1 — 2 ft. 
long ; herbage glandless, scentless, canescent with a short dense silky 
pubescence : leaflets 11 — 15, obovate, coarsely toothed, % — % ^^- long : 
calyx-tube cupulate ; lobe, lanceolate, }4 in. long, equalled by the oblong 
entire bractlets : petals pure white, spatulate oblong, l^ in. long. — In 



ROSACE.E. 67 

saudy soil, near the bay at Alameda ; also above Lake Merced in San 
Francisco Co., and near Santa Cruz, Parry. 

-)— -1— Cifmes nsually more coadensed ; bractlets smaller than the cahj.r-lobes. 
++ Leaflets in many pairs, deeply incised or lohed. 

20. P. Parryi, Greene, 11. cc. Slender stems 6—10 in. high from a 
tnfted leafy candex : herbage dark green with a sparse villous pubescence 
and some glands about the inflorescence : leaflets cuneate-obovate, cleft 
scarcely to the middle : cyme lax : calyx rotate (no proper tube) ; bract- 
lets narrow, half the length of the lanceolate lobes : petals cuneate- 
oblong. I4 in. long, white : achenes gray, oblong-reniform, minutely 
reticulate. — Near lone, //. Edwards, Mrs. Cur ran, Dr. Parry. 

21. P. laxiflora, Drew, Bull. Torr. Club, xvi. 151 (1889|. Stems 
slender, ascending, 1 ft. high : herbage sparingly long-villous : leaflets 
approximate in 10 — 12 pairs, divided into 2 or 3 segments, these linear 
and entire or deeply cleft into 2 or more linear lobes : cyme lax : calyx 
campanulate ; bractlets much narrower and shorter than the ovate- 
lanceolate acute segments : petals spatulate-oblong, entire, exceeding 
the calyx, white : filaments all petaloid-dilated : achenes only 2 or 3, 
light-brown, smooth and shining. — In pine woods of the Hy-Am-Pum 
Valley, Humboldt Co., Chesniit & Dreiv. 

22. P. Bolanderi, Greene, Pittonia, i. 103 (1887) ; Gray, Proc. Am, 
Acad. \'iii. 338 (1868), under Horkelia. Size and habit of the last, but 
cyme condensed and herbage densely hoary-pubescent, leaflets I4 — }^ in. 
long, cuneate-obovate, with 3 — 5 oblong rounded lobes : petals oblong- 
spatulate, white, equalling the calyx-lobes : achenes dark, ovate-reniform, 
minutely granular.— In Lake and Colusa counties, Bolander, Mrs. Cnrran. 

23. P. teimiloba, Greene, 1. c. 105 (1887) ; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 
529 1 1865), under Horkelia : II. congesia, var. lenuiloha, Torr. Pac. E. Rep. 
iv. 84 f 18.57). Stems 1 ft. high ; herbage canescently villous : leaflets I4 — H 
in. long, cuneate-obovate, deeply parted into 4—8 linear lobes, or the 
uppermost narrower, few-lobed or linear and entire : cymes compact : 
calyx 2 lines long ; lobes linear, surpassed by the oblong-spatulate white 
petals. — Sonoma Co., Bigeloin, and southward to San Luis Obispo, Mrs. 
Curran. A somewhat rare or local species. 

24. P. Dou^lasii, Greene, 1. c. Ilurkelia fusca, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1. 1997 
(1837 j. Erect, ig — l/'a ft. high : herbage purplish or dark green, glandu- 
lar-vUlous : leaflets ovate-cuneiform or cuneate-oblong, ^2 — 1 in- long, 
deeply cleft : calyx I4 in. long, more than equalled by the cuneate-oblong 
emarginate white petals. Var. teuella I Wats.) is distinguished as slender 
and small, with more deeply cleft leaflets, smaller fl., etc. In the Sierra 
from Yosemite northward ; the variety in Sierra Co. 



68 EOSACE^. 

25. P. ciliata, Greene, 1. c. Habit and aspect of the last, but herbage 
not purplish, villous : radical leaves with more than 20 crowded and 
imbricated pairs of leaflets, these divided into 3 oblong linear entire 
segments : cymes capitate-congested : calyx-segments lanceolate, exceed- 
ing the turbinate tube and, with the narrower and shorter bractlets, 
villous-ciliate : petals with linear-oblong blade and slender claw of equal 
length : filaments scarcely dilated : pistils very few (1 — 3). — Owens' 
Valley, Inyo Co., Dr. Kellogg. Plant with the aspect of the preceding 
species, but in floral character an " Ivesia." 

26. P. purpurasceus, Greene, 1. c; Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 148 
(1876), under Horkelia. Short-pubescent and somewhat pilose, 6 in. 
high : leaflets 2 — 4-parted into oblong or obovate segments : fl. few, in a 
rather open cyme : calyx % in. long, purplish ; bractlets small, narrow : 
petals broadly cuneate-oblong, nearly equalling the calyx-lobes, rose- 
colored : stamens 20 in 2 rows, the filaments in one row filiform. — Head 
of Kern Eiver, at 9,000 ft., Roihrock. 

■M- -M- Leaflets in few pairs, 3-denlate at. ape.r. 

27. P. Tiling, Greene, 1. c; Regel, Gart. Fl. 1872. t. 711, under 
Horkelia : H. iridentata, Torr. Pac. R Rep. iv. 84. t. 6 (1857) : Iresia 
tridentata, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 338 (1868). Stems slender decum- 
bent, 6 — 12 in. high : herbage canescent with an appressed silky pubes- 
cence : leaves mainly radical : leaflets cuneate-obovate to narrowly 
oblong, % — 1 in. long, 3-dentate or entire : fl. small, in a much branched 
dense cyme : petals white, spatulate to linear, little exceeding the calyx ; 
filaments varying from subulate-dilated to filiform : achenes more or less 
tuberculate. — Middle elevations in the Sierra. This and the preceding 
completely nullify both Horkelia and Ivesia as supposed genera. 

* * *• Perennials ; leaflets oo , crowded or even imbricated on the rachis 

(except in No. 31) ; stamens 5 — ^20, uniform, filaments not dilated 

(except in No. 32); pistils very few, or 1 only. — Genus 

Ivesia, Torr. & Gray. 

■^ Stems leafy ; floivers eyntose-panicled. 

28. P. Pickeriii^i, Greene, Pittonia i. 105 (1887) ; Torr. in Bot. 
Wilkes Exp. 288. t. 4 (1862), under Ivesia. Densely white-villous : leaf- 
lets at first closely imbricated, in later development only approximate, 
oblong, entire or 2— 5-lobed, 1 — 4 lines long : cymes dense, but arranged 
in an open panicle : calyx 2 lines long ; bractlets linear : petals spatu- 
late, equalling the calyx, yellowish : achenes 4 — 6. — A northeastern 
species, reaching Sierra Valley, Lemrnon. 

29. P. nu^uiciilata, Greene, 1. c: Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 339 
(1868). Resembling the last, but less densely villous : cymes less crowded : 
calyx }^ in. long, the lobes and bractlets acuminate ; petals white, with 



ROSACEiE. 69 

narrow claw and rounded limb : stamens about 15 : achenes 5 — 8. — 
Eastern foot-hills of the Sierra northward ; also in the Yosemite Valley. 

30. P. santolinoides, Greene, 1. c. 106 : Gray, 1. c. vi. 531 (1868), under 
Icesia. Stems slender, 3 2 — IJ2 ft- high: leaves densely wbite-villous, 2 — 4 
in. long, terete with the many small imbricated leaflets : fl. scattered in a 
very ample cymose-dichotomous panicle, on pedicels slender and at length 
elongated : calyx 1 line long, villous or glabrate ; bractlets short : petals 
spatulate or obovate, exceeding the calyx, white : stamens 15 ; filaments 
long, slender ; anthers purple : achene 1. — In the high Sierra, from 
Lake Tahoe southward to perhaps Kern Co. 

•»— -f— Alpine species with scapifonn almost leafitss steins, and a ter)ainal 
more or less compact cymose inflorescenct. 

31. P. Webberi, Greene, 1. c. ; Gray, 1. c. x. 71 (1874). Low, loosely 
villous : leaflets 9 — 13, only approximate, 3 — 5 lines long, 2 — 5-parted 
into linear segments : fl. mostly long-pedicelled in congested cymes : 
calyx 2 — 3 lines long ; lobes lanceolate ; bractlets small : petals narrowly 
oblong, yellow : stamens 5 — 10 : achenes 3 or 4, large, ovate. — Sierra and 
Indian valleys in the Sierra northeastward, Webber, Lemmon. 

32. P. decipiens, Greene, 1. c. 106. Iresia pygmxa. Gray, 1. c. vi. 531 
(1868). Dwarf, 1 — 4 in. high : viscid glandular and sparsely villous : 
leaflets much crowded, 1 — 6 lines long : inflorescence in age open-cymose, 
in fl. congested : calyx nearly rotate : petals oblong-obovate, retuse 
or emarginate, yellow : stamens 5 — 10 ; filaments subulate : achenes 
2 — 4. — Alpine summits of the Sierra. 

33. P. GfOrdoiii, Greene, 1. c. ; Hook, in Kew Journ. Bot. v. 341 t. 12 
(18.53), under Ilorkelia ; T. & G. Pac. R. Eep. vi. 72 (1855), under Ivesia. 
Taller than the last, sometimes 1 ft. high : leaves similar but more 
ample : cyme dense, terminating an erect scapiform stem ; calyx cam- 
panulate ; segments erect or little spreading : petals yellow : stamens 5 ; 
filaments filiform : achenes 2 or 3. Var. lycopodioides (Wats.). Ivesiai 
lycopodioides. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. .530 (1868). Dwarf, nearly gla- 
brous : leaves terete or nearly so by imbrication of the minute rounded 
leaflets, otherwise apparently as in the type. — The type at subalpine ele- 
vations of the Sierra. The variety may be a reduced alpine state of it 
or it may prove a distinct species. 

34. P. Muirii, Greene, 1. c. ; Gray, 1. c. viii. 627 (1873), under Iresia. 
Dwarf, densely silky-villous : stems 1 in. high from a thick caudex : 
leaves terete by imbrication of the minute silky leaflets : fl. small, in a 
close cyme : calyx purplish, 1 line long ; segments exceeding the narrow 
spatulate yellow petals : stamens 5 ; filaments short : achenes 2. — On 
Mt. Hoffmann in the Sierra Nevada, at 9,000 ft. altitude. John Muir. 



70 E O S A C E iE. 

16. FRAGtARIA, Brunfeh (Stkawberet). Perennial stoloniferoiis 
herbs with 3-foKolate leaves ; the leaflets coarsely toothed : scapes 
cymosely x - flowered. Flowers as in PoteudUa, but the numerous achenes 
borne on an enlarged pulpy edible receptacle. Petals in all ours white. 

* Leaves light-green, of tliin texture ; achenes superficial. 

1. F. Californica, Ch. & Schl. in -Linnsea, ii. 20 (1827). Often 10 in. 
high, commonly smaller : leaflets cuneate-obovate, rounded, sparingly 
villous on both sides : scapes and petioles slender : fl. % ^^- broad ; 
calyx-teeth and often the jjetals also more or less toothed : fr. small, 
globose. — Common along the seaboard ; preferring wooded or bushy 
moist slopes among the more elevated hills. 

2. F. vesca, Linn. Sp. PL i. 494 (1753), partly. Smaller than the 
preceding : leaflets thinner, more conspicuously veiny : calyx-teeth and 
petals smaller and entire ; fr. ovoid. — Frequent at middle elevations in 
the Sierra Nevada only. 

* * Leaves deep or dark green., of firmer texture ; each achene inserted in a 

small dtpression of the receptacle. 

3. F. Cliileiisis, Ehrh. Beitr. vii. 26 (1792). Dioecious : scapes and 
petioles short, the dark-green coriaceous leaves commonly depressed ; 
leaflets cuneate-obovate, nearly glabrous and somewhat shining above, 
villous beneath : fl. 1 in. broad.— Sandy banks and grassy slopes near 
the sea from the vicinity of San Francisco to Alaska. 

4. F. Virginiaua, Ehrh. 1. c. 24. Smaller than the preceding ; the 
(Jeep-green but rather dull subcoriaceous foliage pubescent on both 
sides : fl. }4 ^^- broad : fr. as in the last. — Sierra Nevada in Tuolumne 
Co., Chesitut & Dreir. 

17. RUBUS, Vergil. Shrubs or almost herbaceous undershrubs with 
stems unarmed or prickly, erect, reclining or prostrate. Leaves simple 
and lobed, or compound ; stipules adnate. Flowers white or red, solitary, 
corymbose or panicled. Calyx persistent, 5-lobed, without bractlets. 
Petals (5) and stamens (co ) perigynous. Pistils 2 — ao , crowded on an 
elevated receptacle, ripening into a coherent body of small drupes, so 
forming the aggregate fruit called a raspberry or l^lackberry. 

* Fruil hemispherical or conical, concave beneath, parting freely from the 

receptacle (Raspberry). 
•)— Unarmed ; leaves ample, palmately lobed. 

1. R. parviflorus, Nutt. Gen. i. 308 (1818) : R. Nutkanus, Mog. in 
DC. Prodr. ii. 566 (1825). Erect, 3—8 ft. high, the bark of the main stem 
becoming brown and shreddy ; branchlets and pedicels hirsute and more 
or less glandular-hispid : leaves membranous, 4—12 in. broad, irregularly 
serrate, the 3 - 5 lobes acute or acuminate : fl. few, in loose terminal 



EOS ACE. E. 71 

clusters, white or pinkish, 1 —2 in. broad : carpels go , tomentose ; fr. 
hemispherical, scarlet when ripe, " sweet and pleasantly flavored." Var. 
velatiiius, Greene, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xvii. 14 (1890). R. rduLinus, 
H. & A. Bot. Beech. 140 (1840). Leaves smaller, of much firmer texture, 
densely velvety-pubescent, evenly serrate : fr. dry, insipid. — The type is 
found only in the mountains of the interior or easterly parts of the State. 
The variety, very possibly a good species, belongs to the seaboard, where 
it is common along the banks of streams. Fl. Mar., fr. June. 
•i— -H- Stents prickly ; leaves S-foliolate. 

2. R. spectabilis, Pursh, Fl. i. 348. t. 16 (1814) ; Lindl. Bot. Eeg. t. 
1424. Stoutish, -5 — 10 ft. high, sparingly armed with stout straight 
prickles : leaves occasionally simple ; leaflets ovate, acute or acuminate, 
doubly serrate, often more or less lobed, the veins beneath and the stalks 
and stalklets sparingly villous : fl. 1 — 3, large, red : fr. large, ovoid, red 
or yellow, glabrous. Var. Menziesii. Wats. R. MenziesU, Hook. Fl. i. 141 
(1833). Foliage somewhat tomentose and silky. — Mendocino Co., Bolander, 
northward, in moist woods. The variety is of the San Francisco district, 
growing on wooded banks of streams, mostly near the sea. Apr. — June. 

3. R. leucodermis, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i. 178 (1833) : R. occidenialis 
var. Hook. 1. c. : R. glaucifullus, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 67 ? (1855). 
Stems 3—5 ft. long, surculose, recurved or trailing, the epidermis and 
lower face of leaves very glaucous : prickles abundant, short, straight or 
recurved : leaves 3 — 5-foliolate ; leaflets ovate or lanceolate, acuminate, 
doubly serrate ; stipules setaceous : fl. few ; sepals long-acuminate, 
exceeding the white petals : fr. hemispherical, glaucous, black and sweet, 
or red and acidulous. -The Black Raspberry of Oregon and Washington 
has a truly black fruit ; and it is the type of R. leucoderrnis. If the com- 
mon accounts of the fruit in the Californian shrub be true, ours should 
be a distinct species ; and Dr. Kellogg's name for it would be restored. 

■i^ -t— -i— A prostrate, unarmed, nearlyJierhaceons uadershrnt). 

4. R. pedatus, Smith, Ic. Ear. t. 63 (1793) ; Hook. Fl. i. 181. t. 63. 
Stem slender, pubescent : leaves glabrous or sparsely villous ; leaflets 3, 
but the lateral commonly parted to the base, 1 in. long, incisely toothed ; 
stipules ovate-oblong : fl. 1, on a long slender peduncle, white, % — % in. 
broad : fr. of 2 or more large elongated (oblong-pyriform) red acidulous 
drupelets. One of the prettiest ornaments of mountain woods from N. 
California near the coast, to British Columbia and Alaska. The large 
drupelets, usually 2 only, lie on the ground ; being too heav>' for their 
almost filiform peduncle. The plant is attributed to " woods near the 
coast above San Francisco," Neirtierry. It should be sought among the 
redwoods in Marin Co. and Mendocino. 

* * Fruit oblong or cylindrical, the drupelets persistent upon their 
elongated receptacle (Blackberry). 



72 ROSACEA. 

5. R. vitifolius, Ch. & Schl. iu Linnsea, ii. 10 (1827), also R. vrsiuua, 
1. c. 11. Stems woody, very prickly and glaucous, weak and trailing or 
suberect, 5 — 20 ft. long : leaves simple (on young plants ; also often on 
flowering branchlets), or pinnately 3 — 5 foliolate ; leaflets ovate to oblongr 
coarsely toothed, glabrous or more or less pubescent or tomentose ; 
stipules oblanceolate to linear : fl. imperfect ; staminate large, with 
elongated petals ; pistillate small, with petals short and relatively 
broad : fr. oblong, black and sweet. — Very common on hanks of streams 
throughout the Coast Range and in the interior ; variable and perhaps 
embracing more species than one. Fl. Jan. — Apr.; fr. May, June. 

18. ROSA, Varro (Wild Rose). Prickly shrubs with unequally 
pinnate leaves, adnate stipules and solitary or corymbose large flowers. 
Calyx-tube globose or urceolate ; limb 5-parted ; bractlets 0. Petals 5, 
rounded, spreading. Stamens co , on a thickened margin of the silky 
disk which lines the calyx-tube. Pistils qo ; ovaries free and distinct ; 
styles subterminal ; ovules solitary, pendulous. Fruit of few or many 
osseous large achenes enclosed in the fleshy-enlarged red berry-like 
calyx-tube. 

* Calyx-lobes deciduous from the fruit. 

1. R. g-ymiiocarpa, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 461 (1840). Slender, 1—4 
ft. high, armed with scattered slender and weak straight prickles : leaf- 
lets 5 — 9, rather remote, glabrous, oval, sharply doubly serrate, % — 1 in. 
long : fl. 1, 2 or 3, barely 1 in. broad : calyx-lobes ovate, with few or no 
appendages : fr. 3 — 5 lines long, oval or oblong, nearly or quite closed at 
summit : seeds few, smooth. Var. pubescens, Wats. Finely pubescent. — 
Common in shady places, near streams and on bushy northward slopes of 
the Coast Range ; the variety in the Sierra Nevada. Mar. — May. 

* * Calyx-lobes persistent. 

2. R. Sonomensis. Slender, 1 ft. high, with many flexuous very leafy 
branches well armed with straight prickles : stipules short, almost 
truncate, narrow, the margin closely glandular-ciliolate, at length revo- 
lute : leaflets 5, remote, broadly ovate or nearly orbicular, truncate or 
somewhat cordate at the slightly insequilateral base, }4 — J^ in. long, the 
margin evenly and coarsely serrate, the serratures minutely glandular- 
denticulate, both surfaces glabrous : fl. many, small, in dense terminal 
corymbs : calyx-tube round-pyriform, glandular-hispid ; lobes ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, without foliaceous tip or appendages, erect in 
fruit. — At the Petrified Forest in Sonoma Co., collected by the author late 
in August, 1888, and distributed as R. spUhaina'a, to which it is allied, 
but from which the characters of leaflet and stipule abundantly dis- 
tinguish it. 

3. R. spithainaea, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 444 (1880). Glabrous and 
sparingly prickly, low and slender 4 — 12 in. high sparingly branched and 



CALYCANTHEiE. 73 

sparsely leafy : stipules uarrow, acnmiuate, glandular-^iliate, not revo- 
lute ; leaflets 3—7, obovate or elliptical, cimeate at base, % — 1 iii- long, 
serrate and glandular-serrulate : fl. solitary or few in a corymb : calyx- 
tube glol)ose-oblong, densely glandular-birsute ; lobes broader than in 
the last, with a longer and more attenuate acumination, — Very common 
in pine woods at middle elevations of the Sierra from Yuba Co. southward 
at least to the Soda Springs west of Donuer Lake, but apparently seldom 
■collected ; and Mr. Rattan obtained it first on Trinity River. A well 
marked species, confluent with no other, and of very special habitat. 

4. R. ^ratissliua. Erect, miich branched, 4—6 ft. high, well armed 
with long straight rather weak prickles of which, on vigorous growing 
shoots only, two very long ones are infrastipular : foliage thinnish, 
bright green, glandular, very fragrant, the rachis decidedly prickly 
beneath and. with the stalklets, stipules and calyx-lotes, very minutely 
velvety-tomeutose : .stipules not glandular, those of the flowering branch- 
lets entire, of the growing shoots deeply and closely serrate-incised ; 
leaflets 5—7, ovate, acute, % — % in. long, regularly simply and rather 
deeply serrate, the teeth somewhat falcate : fl. 3 or more in a corymb, 
1 — lig in. broad : calyx-tube globose ; lobes with foliaceous tips. — 
Borders of wet meadows, and about springy places in the mountains of 
Kern Co. A shrub with the habit of R. Californica, but strikingly 
unlike any forms of that species in that the almost glabrous thin foliage 
is of a bright sweetbriar green, with much of the glandular indument and 
fragrance of that species. June, July. 

5. R, Califoruica, Ch. & Schl. in Linna^a, ii. 35 (1827). Erect, 
branching 3 — 8 ft. high ; prickles few, stout, usually recurved, mostly 
infrastipular in pairs : foliage deep green, of firm texture, more or less 
glandular and tomeutose ; stipules entire : leaflets 5 — 7, ovate or oblong, 
acute or obtuse, the serratures mostly simple, spreading rather than 
falcate-incurved : corymb few- or many-flowered ; pedicels pubescent 
and glandular ; calyx-lobes foliaceous-tipped : fruit globose, 4 — 6 lines 
thick, the persistent lobes erect. — The common wild rose of middle and 
southerly parts of the State ; most frequent along the seaboard and on 
banks of rivers in the interior. On the lower San Joaquin, among trees, 
we have seen it fifteen feet high, and showing a tendency to climb, the 
specific characters remaining the same. 

Order V. C A L Y C A N T H E /E . 

Lindley in Botanical Register, under t. 404 (18] 9). 

A small order, placed here on account of the analogy subsisting 

between it and some Rosaceae in point of floral structure ; but probably 

in no wise related to that order. It is represented in our district by one 

species of the genus Calycanihns. 



74 JUGLANDE^. 

CALYCAJfTHUS, Limiseus (Sweet-Scented Sheub). Fragrant shrubs 
with opposite entire exstipulate leaves, and solitary terminal large red 
or purple flowers. Sepals go , in many ranks, inserted on a persistent 
obconical tube ; the outer successively shorter and bract-like, the inner 
longer and colored like the petals ; all deciduous. Petals go , on the 
mouth of the tube, the inner shorter. Stamens go , inserted on the upper 
part of the tube within, the inmost without anthers ; filaments short, 
persistent. Pistils oo, distinct, inserted on the base and sides of the 
calyx-tube ; styles terminal. Achenes enclosed in the dry thin fibro- 
ligneous calyx-tube. Seed erect ; albumen ; cotyledons foliaceous, 
convolute. 

1. C. occideutalis, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 340. t. 84 (1840). Shrub 6—12 
ft. high : leaves dark-green, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, scabrous, 3—6 in. 
long : peduncles 1 — 3 in. long ; petals and larger sepals linear-spatulate, 
1 in. long or more ; inner petals incurved : sterile filaments linear- 
subulate, densely villous : fruiting calyx ovate, 1^ in. long : achenes 
villous, 4 lines long. — Common along streams in the lower mountains. 
Flowers of a dull dark red. May — Aug. 

Order VI. J U G L A N D E /E . 

De Candolle, Theorie Elementaire, 215 (1813). 

Eepresented by a single species of the genus 

JUGLANS, Pliny (Walnut Tree). Trees with hard wood, alternate 
exstipulate unequally pinnate somewhat resinoiis-aromatic leaves, and 
unisexual flowers. Staminate flowers in long aments, 12-40 stamens to 
each of the 3-lobed green perianths ; the pistillate solitary, or few and 
spicate, their calyx adherent to the ovary, 4-toothed and bearing 4 small 
petals. Pistil 1 ; style short ; stigmas 2, linear or clavate, fringed. 
Pericarp large, fleshy, indehiscent, enclosing a rugose nut which in 
germination parts into two valves. Seed without albumen ; cotyledons 
fleshy, 2-lobed, rugose. 

1. J. Calif oniica, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 349 (1875) ; /. mpesiris, 
var. major, Torr. Sitgr. Rep. 171. t. 16 (1854), Tree 40—60 ft. high, the 
trunk 2—4 ft. thick : • leaflets 5 — 8 pairs, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 2—23^ 
in. long : aments loose, 4—8 in. long : fruit globose, little compressed, 
1 in. thick : nut shallow-sulcate. — Frequent along streams, chiefly back 
from the seaboard. 

Order VII. R U T A C E /E . 

De Candolle, Prodromus, i. 709 (1824). Eut^, Juss. Gen. 296 (1789). 
Represented by a single species of the genus Plelea. 
PTELEA, Linnieris (Hop-Tree). Shrubs or small trees with alternate 
3-foliolate aromatic pellucid-dotted leaves, and corymbose regular flowers. 



RUTACEiE, 75 

Sepals, petals and stamens each 4 or 5, the latter inserted outside of a 
disk encircling the ovary. Ovary 2-celled, surmounted by a short style, 
and becoming an orbicular broadly winged 2-seeded samara. 

1. P. creimlata, Greene, Pittonia, i. 216 (1888). Tree 10—25 ft. high, 
strongly aromatic when fresh ; glabrous except the tomentulose flowers, 
and a sparse pubescence on the lower face of the leaves and on the fruit : 
leaflets cuneate-obovate, obtuse or acute, 1 — 3 in. long, crenulate or 
crenate-serrate : filaments vdlous near the base : samara ^4' in. long and 
as broad, truncate or emarginate at both ends, often triquetrous and 
3-seeded. In the Coast Range, from Lake Co. southward through Contra 
Costa, etc. May. 

Order VIII. SAPINDACE/E. 
Jussieu, Annales du Museum, xviii. 476 (1811). 

Trees or shrubs with opposite compound, or at least deeply lobed 
leaves, without stipules. Inflorescence compound, usually racemose or 
thyrsoid. Sepals 5, nearly distinct, or joined into a tubular calyx. 
Petals 4 or 5, distinct, and, with the few and definite stamens, inserted 
hypogynously, or around a hypogynous disk. Fruit a 3-celled capsule, 
or a double samara. Seeds large ; without albumen. 

1. STAPHYLEA, Linnirus (Bladder-Nut). Shrub with opposite 
stipulate, pinnately 3 — 5-foliolate leaves, the leaflets stipellate, and 
flowers in pendulous racemose panicles. Calyx deeply 5-parted, the base 
bearing a thick disk, the oblong lobes whitish. Petals 5, alternate with 
the sepals. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals. Ovary 2 — 3-lobed, 
becoming a bladdery 2 -3-celled capsule dehiscent at the apex. Seeds ^ 
roundish, bony ; cotyledons fleshy. 

1. S. Bolaiuleri, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 69 (1874). Leaflets 3, 
glabrous, broadly oval, 1 — 2 in. long obtuse, cuspidate or abruptly acute, 
serriilate : sepals I4 in. long ; petals slightly longer, somewhat spatulate. 
white : stamens and style well exserted : fruit linear-oblong, 2I3 in 
long. From Shasta Co. to Fresno, at considerable elevations in the 
middle ranges of the Sierra. 

2. ACER, Plini/ (Maple. Box-Elder). Trees or shrubs with oppo- 
site palmately lobed or pinnately compound leaves without stipules. 
Flowers small, greenish or reddish, in terminal racemes, umbel-like 
corymbs, or fascicles, perfect or unisexual. Calyx usually 5-lobed. 
Petals 5 or 0. Stamens usually 8 (3 — 12), in the perfect flowers inserted 
with the petals upon a lobed disk. Ovary 2-lobed, 2-celled ; styles 2,, 



76 SAPINDACEiE. 

elongated. Fruit a double samara, the two 1-seeded parts separating at 
maturity, each long- winged. Cotyledons large and thin. 

* Leaves simple ; trees not diucious. — Acee proper. 

1. A. inacropliylluin, Pursh, Fl. i. 267 (1814) ; Hook. Fl. i. 112. t. 38 ; 
Nutt. Sylva, ii. 77. t. 67. Tree 50—90. ft. high, 2~3 ft. in diameter : 
leaves }£ — 1 ft. broad, deeply 5-lobed, the sinuses rounded, the segments 
often 3-lobed, coarsely toothed : fl. large, in large crowded pendulous 
racemes which appear with the unfolding leaves, greenish yellow or 
reddish : stamens 9 or 10 ; filaments hairy : fruit densely hirsute or 
almost hispid, the glabrous wings 1 in. long or more, divergent. — Along 
mountain streams or on hillsides throughout the Coast Range ; also in 
the middle Sierra, where it is taller, more slender, and with a harder wood 
than in the Coast Range. A good quality of maple sugar has been made 
from the mountain form. The wood is white and susceptible of a fine 
polish. The young twigs when cut exiide a milky juice. 

2. A. glabrum, Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 172 (1828) : A. tripariitnm, 
Nutt. in T. & a Fl. i. 247 (1888). Shrub 8—15 ft. high, glabrous, slen- 
der : leaves 2 — 4 in. broad, roimd cordate in outline, laciniately 3 5- 
lobed, or sometimes completely 3-foliolate ; the lobes or leaflets doubly 
serrate, the teeth very acute : fl. corymbose on short 2-leaved branchlets : 
sepals and petals greenish, linear, 2 — 3 lines long : filaments glabrous : 
fruit with slightly spreading wings 1 in. long or less. — From Yosemite 
northward in the Sierra. Only a bush in California, but often a small tree 
in more northerly regions. 

* * Leaves unequally pintiate ; tree d i a cious. —Genim Negundo, Moeuch. 

3. A. Californicuiii, Greene. T. & G. Fl. i. 250 & 684 (1838), under 
Negundo ; H. & A. Bot. Beech. 327. t. 77 ; Nutt. Sylv. ii. 90. t. 72. Tree 
30—70 ft. high, the young twigs and partly developed leaves villous- 
canescent : leaflets 3, ovate, or the lateral ones oblong, acute, 3 — 4 in. 
long, the terminal largest and 3—5 lobed, or coarsely serrate : fl. of 
sterile tree umbellately clustered, the pedicels long and capillary, those 
of the fertile in drooping racemes : fruit pubescent l—\%_ in. long, 
including the nearly erect wings. — In the Coast Ranges from San Luis 
Obispo northward. Often planted for shade, along with the very distinct 
A. Negundo of the Atlantic slope. 

3. .ESCULUS, Linnxus (Buckeye. Horse-Chestnut). Trees with 
opposite palmately compound exstipulate leaves, and a large thyreoid 
inflorescence, the flowers on jointed pedicels. Flowers polygamous. 
Calyx tubular, unequally 5-toothed. Petals 4 or 5, unguiculate. Stamens 
5-8, exserted, often unequal. Ovary 3-celled : ovules 2 in each cell, 1 
abortive. Fruit a large coriaceous 3-valved capsule. Seed very large ; 



ANACARDIACEiE. 77 

testa chestuut-brown, showing a large white hilum. Cotyledons large, 
iieshy, somewhat coherent. 

1. iH, Californica, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 251 (1838) ; Spach, Phaner. 
iii. 35 (183-1:), under Calolhjirsus. A low spreading tree, glabrous, except 
the petiolnles and inflorescence which are minutely pubescent : leaflets 5, 
on distinct stalklets, oblong or elhptic-oblong, mostly rounded at base, 
acute or acuminate at apex, serrulate, 3 — 5 in. long : thyrsus cylindrical, 
often 1 ft. long : calyx 2-lobed, the lobes scarcely toothed : corolla white 
with a faint tinge of rose, % in. long : stamens 5 — 7, long-exserted : frnit 
smooth, usually 1-seeded : seed 1 in. thick. — Tree often 25 or 30 feet 
high, the rounded or depressed head of still greater breadth : very com- 
mon throughout middle California, l)ut much_ smaller in the foothills of 
the Sierra than along the coast. Admirable specimens are seen at Shell 
Mound, and on Point Isabel. Fl. May ; fr. Nov. 

ObderIX. ANACARDIACE/E. 

LincUey, Introduction to Nat. Syst. 2 ed. 166 (1836). 
Shrubs or trees with resinous and often acrid juice, alternate exstipulate 
leaves, and small variously clustered regular flowers. Stamens definite 
in number, as many or twice as many as the petals. Pistil 1 ; ovary free 
from the calyx. Fruit drupaceous. — Represented here by two species of 
the genus 

RHUS, Tlieoplirastus. Ours deciduous shrubs with trifoliolate leaves 
and small perfect or unisexual flowers in axillary bracted panicles or 
spikes. Sepals and petals usually 5. Stamens inserted under the edge 
of a disk lining the base of the calyx. Pistil 1 ; styles 3, distinct or 
united. Fruit a small compressed drupe with thin flesh and ligneous 
putamen. Seed erect ; albumen 0. 

* Floirers greenish, in stnall a.iillary panicles, appearing with the leaces ; 

<hvpe irhite ; putamen striate.— Genus Toxicodendeon, Tourn. 

1. R. diversiloba, T. & G. Fl. i. 218 (1838) ; Lindl. Bot. Keg. xxi. t. 
38 ; Hook. Fl. i. 127. t. 46. Erect and 3-6 ft. high, or ascending trees 
by aerial roots to the height of 15 ft. or more : leaflets ovate, obovate or 
elliptical, 1 — 4 in. long, variously lobed or toothed, the indentations 
obtuse, or the leaflet rarely entire : panicles short-peduncled, more or less 
pendulous : fl. Ifg lines long : fr. 2—3 lines broad.- Copious in the 
Coast Range hills, preferring cool northward slopes and the banks of 
streams ; absent from the more elevated portions of the Sierra ; the 
terror of many excursionists and of some botanists, and commonly called 
Poison Oak. 

* * Floirers yelloir, in stnnll dense spikes, appearing before tlie leaves ; 

drupe red, hairy ; putamen smooth. — Genus Lobadium, Raf. 



78 CELASTEINE^. 

2. E. trilobata, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 219 (1838). Diffusely branching, 
2 — 5 ft. high, aromatic-scented, more or less pubescent when young : 
terminal leaflet thrice as large as the lateral, cuneate-obovate, 1 — 2 in. 
long, 3-lobed and coarsely toothed above the middle ; lateral pair round- 
obovate, scarcely lobed, but coarsely crenate : spikes 3^ — ^^ in. long, 
short-pedicelled i fr. viscidly hirsute, the thin pulp keenly and pleasantly 
acid. — At middle elevations of the mountains, but not very common. 
The very tough and flexible branches were employed by the Indian 
women in their finest basket-work, and southeastward the shrub is 
locally known as Squaw Bush. Tlie species is clearly enough distinct 
from the Atlantic E. Canadensis, in which the leaflets are of about equal 
size, alike in form, and none lobed. These shrubs are scarcely congeneric 
with Poison Oak ; and probably both Toxicodendron and Lohadium are 
defensible as distinct from Rhus. 

OrdebX. CELASTRINEv^. 

Kobert Brown, in Flinder's Voyage, 22 (1814). 

Shrubs with simple exstipulate leaves, and small jaerfect regular 
flowers. Sepals and petals 4 or 5, imbricate in bud. Stamens as many 
as the petals, inserted alternately with them on or under the edge of a 
perigynous disk. Ovary free from the calyx, but immersed in the disk 
or encircled by it, 3- or 4-celled ; cells 1- or several-ovuled. Fruit 
capsular, loculicidal : seed without albumen. 

1. EUONYMUS, Theophrashis (Burning Bush). Deciduous shrub 
with 4-angular green branches, opposite leaves, and flowers in loose 
axillary cymes. Sepals and petals 4 or 5, widely spreading. Stamens 
very short, on a broad angled disk. Ovai-y immersed in the disk, 3 — 5- 
celled ; style short or 0. Capsule coriaceous, 3 — 5-lobed and -valved. 
Seeds 1—4 in each cell, covered with a fleshy red aril. 

1. E. occidentalis, Nutt. in Torr. Pac. E. Eep. iv. 74 (1857). Erect, 
slender, 7 — 15 ft. high : leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
serrulate, short-petioled, 2—4 in. long : peduncles slender, 2~4-flowered : 
fl. 5-merous, dark brown-purple, 4 — 6 lines wide : fr. smooth, deeply 
lobed. — Apparently one of our rarest shrubs ; found in Santa Cruz Co., 
Anderson, San Mateo, Behr, and Marin, Bigelow, Bolander. Fl. Apr. 

2. PACHYSTIMA, Rafinesque. Low evergreen shrubs with opposite 
leaves and 1 or more greenish small axillary 4-merous flowers. Sepals 
joined at base into a short obconical tube. Stamens inserted at the edge 
of the disk lining the calyx-tube. Ovary free, 2-celled ; style very 
short ; stigma conspicuous. Capsule small, oblong, coriaceous, 2-valved, 
I — 2-seeded. Seed with a white many-cleft membranaceous aril. 



EHAMNE^. 7'9 

1. P. Myrsiiiites, Raf. Am. Monthly Mag. ii. 176 (1818) ; Pursh, Fl. i. 
119 (1814), uuder Ilex: Mi/ginda myrtifoUa, Nutt. Gen. i. 109 (1818): 
Oreuphila mijrlifoiia, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 259. Branching and leafy, 
1 — 2 ft. high : leaves ovate or oblong, obtuse or acute, cuueate at base, 
serrate or serrulate, li—l}i in. long : fl. 1 line wide, on pedicels 1—2 
lines long : fr. 2 lines long. — Woods of the middle Sierra from Yuba Ca 
northward. 

Order XI. R H A M N E >€ . 

De Candolle, Prodromus, ii. 19 (1825). Ehamni, Juss. (1789). 
Shrubs with simple leaves ; stipules minute, mostly caducous. 
Flowers 4— 5-merous, small, perfect or unisexual regular. Calyx 4 — 5- 
cleft, valvate in jestivation. Petals cucullate or convolute, sometimes 0. 
Stamens as many as the calyx-lobes and alternate with them, i. e., 
opposite the petals. Ovary more or less free, surrounded by a fleshy 
disk, 2—3- or 4-celled ; ovules solitary, erect Fruit baccate or capsular. 
Seeds erect ; albumen fleshy or 0. 

1. RHAMXUS, Nicander (Buckthorn). Shrubs evergreen or decidu- 
ous with alternate leaves and axillary clusters of small greenish 4 — 5- 
merous flowers. Disk thin, lining the tube of the calyx. Fruit sub- 
globose, the juicy pulp enclosing 2 or 3 large nut-like seeds. 

* Seeds sulcate and somewhat concave on the hack ; cotyledons foliaceous , 

irilh recurred margins.— Bkamnvs proper. 

1. R. alnifolia, L'Her. Sert. Angl. 5 (1788) ; Hook. Fl. i. 122. t. 42. 
Erect, unarmed, 4 -6 ft. high, deciduous : leaves oval, acuminate, 2 — 3 in. 
long, crenately serrate : fl. solitary or. clustered, .5-merous, apetalous : fr. 
obovate, 3-seeded, )4 in. long, black. — Eastern base of the Sierra from 
near Truckee, Sonne, northward. 

* * Seeds convex on the back, sulcate ventrally if at all ; cotykdoiis fleshy, 

flat. — Old genus Frangula. 
■i-Erergreen species. 

2. R. crocea, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 261 (1838). Low, intricately 
branched, slender and spinescent, 2 — 5 ft. high ; leaves rigidly coriaceous, 
^2 ill- long, bright-green above, yellow beneath, roundish ovate in out- 
line, glandular-denticulate : fl. 4-merous, apetalous, often unisexual, 
short-pedicelled, solitary or few in a fascicle : fr. small, obovoid, scarlet, 
1- or 2-seeded. Var. ilicifolia. R. ilicifolia, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 
37 (1863). Arborescent, 12 — 15 ft. high, with ample leafy branches not 
at all spinescent : fl. 5-merous. — The low spinescent type, found by 
Nuttall at Monterey, occurs on Angel Island also, but is more rare than 
that arborescent variety which may very likely prove distinct. This is 



80 RHAMNE^. 

frequent from Clear Lake down along the Mt. Diablo Range to the 
southern part of the State. 

3. R. Californica, Esch. Mem. Acad. Petrop. x. 281 (1826) : R. 

okifolia, Hook. Fl. i. 123. t. 44 (1830) : R. lavrifolia, Nntt. in T. & G. Fl. 
i. 260 (1838 j. Bushy or arborescent, 4—20 ft. high, nascent parts pubes- 
cent, otherwise glabrous : leaves thin-coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, acute 
or obtuse, denticulate or entire, 1 —4 in. long : fl. subumbellate, 5-merous : 
petals small, ovate, emarginate : filament long ; anther exserted from 
the cucullate petal: fr. globose, ^3-/2 in. in diameter, copiously pulpy, 
black : seeds usually 2, hemispherical, as broad at base as at summit. — 
Along the seaboard, on sandy plains near the shore, where it is a low 
compact bush, or along streams among the lower and middle Coast 
mountains in arborescent form ; not in the interior, nor in the Sierra, 
except at low elevations northward and beyond our limits. Well known 
to druggists under the Spanish name of Cascara sagrada ; sometimes 
called Wild Coffee, from the likeness which the seeds bear to coffee- 
grains ; these said to have been sometimes used as a substitute for that 
article. Fl. Mar. Apr.; fr. Sept. 

4. R. toiiientella, Benth. PI. Hartw. 303 (1849). Near preceding, of 
similar habit, hui never either low-bushy or arborescent : leaves 2 in. 
long, narrowly oblong or elliptical, abruptly acute or acuminate, entire, 
the margin narrowly revolute, glabrate above, minutely and very densely 
silvery- or yellowish-tomentose beneath : fl. and fr. as in the last. — Foot- 
hills of the Sierra only, and from Butte Co. southward to Lower Cali- 
fornia. Pubescence peculiar. 

-1— -1— Deciduous species. 

5. R. rubra, Greene, Pittouia,i. 68 & 160 (1887). Shrub 3—6 ft. high, 
diffusely branched, the branches glabrous, with a thin reddish smooth 
and shining, or dull and slightly pubescent bark : leaves thin, short- 
petioled, obovate to elliptic-oblong, obtuse or aciite, closely serrulate, 
glabrous on both faces, or puberulent beneath : flowers few in umbellate 
clusters, 5-merous : petals concealing the anthers, the filaments short 
and deltoid : fr. broadly obovoid, I4 in. in diameter, deep red or purple, 
mostly 3-seeded : seeds narrowed at base. Higher Sierra, from Lake 
Tahoe, Parry, and Truckee, Sonne, southward ; chiefly on the eastern 
slope, but also on the western, from Calaveras Co. southward ; perhaps 
extending into Arizona. 

6. R. Pursliiaiia, DC. Prodr. ii. 25 (1825). Arborescent, sparingly 
branched, 6 -20 ft. high ; growing parts tomentose-pubescent : leaves 
thin, obovate- or elliptic-oblong, often ample, 2—8 in. long, l—'&}i broad, 
obtuse at base, acute at apex, margin often repand, always finely 
penticulate : fl. in umbellate cymes, rather few and large, 5-merous : 



RHAMNEiE. 81 

petals minute, cucuUate, bifid : fr. round-obovate, }-^ — J^ in. thick, black, 
3-seeded : seed obovate.— A northern species, credited to Mendocino Co. 
in. the "Botany of California;" found near Areata, Humboldt Co., 
Chesnui tO Drew. 

2. CEANOTHUS, Limixus (Califoknia Lilac). Arborescent, shrubby 
or suffrutescent, unarmed or spinescent, with petioled leaves and mostly 
thyrsoidly arranged, caducous-bracted fascicles or cymes of small perfect 
blue or white flowers. Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft, the lobes acute, con- 
nivent ; disk thick, adnate to the calyx and base of the ovary. Petals 5, 
eucullate and arched, on long claws. Stamens 5 ; filaments filiform, long- 
cxserted. Ovary 3-lobed ; style short, 3-cleft. Fruit 3-lobed and 
capsular, though coated with a thin layer of bitter resinous pulp ; 
ultimately separating into 3 unilocular 1-seeded carpels which are 
elastically dehiscent by the ventral suture. Seeds obovate without a 
furrow. 

* Leaves aileruale, nienihrarions or thin-coriaceous, glandnlnr-toothed or 

entire ; fruit nnappendged or slightly crested. — Ceanothus proper. 

H- Branches Jie.rible, not spinescent. 

++ Leaves thin, plane, entire. 

1. C. Audersonii, Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. v. 172 (1889). A slender 
graceful glabrous shrub 10 — 15 ft. high, the young branches and twigs 
terete, the bark smooth, light-green : leaves narrowly oblong, mostly 
obtuse, }4 — 1% in. long, delicately pinnate-nerved, pale beneath, on 
short slender petioles : thyrse elongated, lax, on a long leafy peduncle : 
fl. white, on filiform pedicels : fr. small, smooth. — Santa Cruz Mountains, 
near Ben Lomond, Anderson, Parry. One of the most beautiful species, 
and only recently discovered, in a region where men had ceased to 
expect new shrubs. 

2. C. parvifolius, Trel. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2d ser. i. 110 (1888) : 

C. integerrimus, var. ? parvijiorus, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 334 (1875). 
Erect, branched from the base, slender, very leafy, 2 — 3 ft. high ; 
branches and branchlets terete, pale-green and glabrous : leaves oblong, 
obtuse or nearly truncate, 3-9 lines long, obscurely 3-nerved from the 
base and faintly reticulate, wholly glabroiis : thyrse shorter but more 
lax than in the next, the peduncle leafless : fl. sky-blue or paler. — In 
open woods of the Sierra Nevada from near the Calaveras Big Trees 
northward, at a higher altitude than the next, with which it has been 
confounded, but with which it does not seem to be confluent. In some 
points it is more like the preceding species. June. 

3. C. integerrimus, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 329 (1840) ; C. Nevadensis, 
KeU. Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 152. fig. 45 (1863). Tall, loosely branching and 
sometimes arborescent, 5 12 ft. high, the branchlets green, more or less 



82 RHAMNEiE. 

angular when young, and warty in age : leaves ovate, 1—3 in. long, 
prominently triple-veined, pubescent or glabrate, entire or very slightly 
glandular serrate : thyrse long and dense, terminating leafy branchlets : 
fl. from deep-blue to white. — One of the most common species of the 
higher Coast Kange hills and foot-hills of the Sierra, and very ornamental. 
++ -M- Leaves thin or svbconaceous, plane, glandular-ioolhed. 

4. C. diversifolius, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 58 & 65 (1855) ; 

C decumhenn, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 335 (1875). Semi-herbaceous, 
decumbent and somewhat cree'ping, the branches a few inches to a foot 
long or more, hirsutely pubescent : leaves thin, }4 — 1/^ ^^- ^ong, elliptic- 
oblong, obtuse or acutish, glandular-denticulate, the glands stipitate : 
thyrse short, the umbels sessile : fi. sky-blue, few and long-ijedicelled : 
capsule with narrow wing-like crests. — At middle elevations on the 
western slope of the Sierra, in pine woods, where it carpets the ground 
almost for miles in certain districts. 

5. C. Leiiiiiioni, Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. v. 192 (1889). Branches 
erect or ascending, rather rigid, never even decumbent ; bark of a light 
gray, only the growing shoots and the foliage pubescent : leaves oblong 
or elliptical, 1 in. long or less, glandular-serrate, often whitish tomentulose 
beneath : fl. as in the preceding : fr. conspicuously crested at summit. — 
Foot-hills of the Sierra along the upper Sacramento, Mrs. Gates, Mr. 
Lemmon. Very unlike the last in vegetative character, habit, fruit, etc., 
and of another habitat. First indicated to Dr. Parry as an undescribed 
species, in specimens collected by Mrs. Gates at Rose Springs in 1874, 
and preserved in the Herbarium of the University at Berkeley. 

6. C. foliosus, Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. v. 172 (1889). Low, slender, 
the erect stems 2 — 3 ft. high, with many ascending very leafy branches ; 
nascent parts pubescent : leaves subcoriaceous, often fascicled, glaucous 
beneath, deep but dull green above, 2 — 5 lines long, obovate or oval, 
obtuse, short-petioled, closely denticulate, the mucronate teeth having 
very large rather deciduous resin-glands : fl. few, light blue, in a simple 
usually capitate raceme on a slender more or less leafy-bracted peduncle : 
capsule sharply crested at summit. — Wooded hills of Napa, Sonoma and 
Lake counties. Collected by the author, near the Geysers, in 1874 ; ten 
years later, near St. Helena by Mr. Rivers, whose specimens were shown 
to Dr. Parry, and the specific characters indicated. 

7. C. tomentosus, Parry, 1. c. 190. Erect, 4—8 ft. high, with rather 
few slender spreading branches ; bark glabrous and brownish on old 
branches, rusty -tomentose on the -growing ones : leaves coriaceous, 
short-petioled, ^^ — 1 in. long, ovate, obtuse, serrate, dark green and 
tomentulose above, densely white-tomentose beneath : thyrsus short and 
short-peduncled ; umbels pedicellate, few-flowered : fl. deep blue : fr. 



RHAMNE^. 83 

small, crested. — Fot)t-lnlls of the Sierra in Amador Co., back of loue. 
Parry, Greene. It is iu the State Survey collection under No. 4558. A 
fine species, in habit different from any of those Coast Eange shrubs 
which resemble it in foliage, and with which it was long confounded, 

8. C. velntiiius, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i. 125. t. 45 (1830). Stout, 
diffusely branching, 2 - 4 ft. high : leaves subcoriaceous, broadly oval, 
13^2^ 8 in. long, shining and thick-glutinous above, more or less velvety- 
pubescent and strongly 8-ribbed beneath ; petioles stout, i^ in. long : 
thyrse compound, loose and broad, rather short-peduncled : fl. white. — 
Higher parts of the Coast Range from Mt. St. Helena northward, and in 
the Sierra from near Donner Lake. June. 

9. C. thyrsilloriis, Esch. Mem. Acad. Petrop. x. 285 (1826) ; Lindl. 
Bot. Reg. XXX. t. 38 ; Nutt. Sylv. ii. 44. t. 57. Arborescent, 6—15 ft. high, 
glabrous or nearly so, branches angular, foliage firm-membranous, 
bright and shining ; leaves 1 — 2 in. long, short-petioled, ovate-oblong, 
strongly 3-ribbed : thyrse dense, sometimes broader than long, on short 
leaf>' peduncles : fl. deep blue : fr. small, smooth.— From Monterey 
northward, preferring northward slopes and cool ravines ; very showy, 
and said to have been cultivated in early days, but now seldom seen 
except in its native wilds, and these wilds are now almost obsolete in the 
vicinity of San Francisco. There are fine specimes on Angel Island. 
In the Berkeley hills it is associated with C. soredialus, with which it 
also hybridizes so freely that the undiscerning may regard the two as 
confluent ; but the last named is of the rigid and spinescent group. 

•M- -M- ++ Leaves pinnate-reined ; margins glandular-toothed, undulate or 
revolate ; surface mostly papillose or rugose. 

10. C. Parryi, Trel. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2d ser. i. 109 (1888). Arbor- 
escent, 6 — 10 ft. high ; branches sparingly villous or glabrate, angular, 
more or less papillose ; leaves subcoriaceous, oblong, obtuse, % — \% in. 
long, the pinnate veins supplemented by a pair of laterals which run 
near the more or less strongly revolute margin ; surface of leaf glabrate, 
lower face more or less tomentose-canescent : thyrse narrowly oblong, 
umbels subsessile : fl. blue : fr. small, smooth.— In the hill-country 
between Napa and Sonoma counties, Mr. Rivers, Lr. Parry, northward (o 
the interior of Hiimboldt Co., Marshall ; very closely allied to the next, 
but probably distinct. The geographical ranges of the two are entirely 
different. May, June. 

11. €. papillosns, T. & G. Fl. i. 268 (1838) ; Hook. Ic. PI. t. 272, and 
Bot. Mag. t. 4815. Stouter than the last, less arboreous, 4^6 ft. high : 
branchlets and stalklets hirsute-pubescent : leaves narrowly oblong, 
1 — 2 in. long, glandular-serrate, the siirface rugose and glandular-papil- 
lose : fl. blue, in short, mostly simple and short-stalked racemes : fr. 
small, smooth. —Hills along the seaboard, from Monterey to San Francisco. 



84 RHAMNEiE. 

12. C. iiiipressus, Trel. Proc. Calif. Acad. 2d ser. i. 112 (1888). Near the 
last, but the leaves much broader, not papillose, though strongly rugose, 
the midvein much depressed, the margin strongly revolute : inflorescence 
dense, subglobose. — A little known species of some station southward in 
the mountains toward Santa Barbara. 

13. C. (lentatus, T. & G. Fl. i. 268 (1838). Low and much branched, very 
leafy, the branchlets and veins of the leaf beneath rusty-tomentose : leaves 
crowded and fascicled, }.4 in. long or more, oblong-cuneiform, truncate or 
retuse, the margins undulate and revolute : fl. deep blue, in nearly 
simple slender-peduncled racemes, these very numerous and clustered at 
the ends of lateral branchlets : fr. small, smooth. — Monterey and south- 
ward. Apr. May. 

4— ■)— Branches spinescent ; flowers in simple chislers. 

•M- Leaves entire, triple-veined (except in the first). 

14.' C. spinosus, Nutt. in T. &. G. Fl. i. 267 (1838). Arborescent, 
20 — 30 ft. high : branches lax, spreading, leafy and glabrous : leaves 
coriaceous, shining, % — l^g in. long, oblong, obtuse or retuse, entire ; 
petioles slender : fl. deep blue, very fragrant, in a thyrse or simple 
raceme : fr. smooth, resinous, I4 in. thick. — Mountains towards Santa 
Barbara and southward. The most arboreous of our mainland species, 
though often merely shrubby. 

15. C. (Uvaricatus, Nutt. 1. c. 266. Eigidly and diffusely branched, 
the branches spinescent and divaricate, nearly glabrous : leaves ovate to 
oblong, }^ — 1^4 in. long, rounded at base, acute or obtuse at summit, not 
tomentose beneath, entire or minutely glandular-serrulate : racemes 
rather lax, often leafy : fl. blue or white : fr. of middle size, very 
resinous. — In the Coast Range ; very common. 

16. C. incaiius, T. & G. Fl. i. 265 (1838). Spinescent branches thick 
and stout minutely canescent, the foliage also cinereous-velvety and 
pale : leaves coriaceous, tomentose beneath, broadly ovate or elliptical 
obtuse, subcordate at base or somewhat cuneate, ^^ — 2 in. long : fl. 
white, in short racemes from thick spurs or axillary branchlets : fr. 2 
lines in diameter, resinous and warty. — In the Coast Range from Santa 
Cruz Co. to Lake and Humboldt. 

17. C. cordulatus, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 124. fig. 39 (1863) : 
C eglandnlosns, Trel. 1. c. 110 (1888). Low and widely straggling, pale- 
cinereous and more or less hirsute : leaves oval or rounded, }4 — 13^2 in. 
long, usually more or less cordate at base, entire or at apex serrulate : fl. 
white in short clusters emanating from axillary rigid branchlets : fr. 
small, not resinous-warty. — In the higher Sierra, and eastward in Nevada. 

HH- -M- Leaves triple-veined, glandular-serrate . 



R H A M N E iE. 85 

18. C. olig-aiithus, Nutt. in T. & G. 1. c. 266. "Stem and branches 
villous : leaves elliptic-ovate, nearly glabrous above, villous beneath, 
glandvilarly serrulate, rather obtuse : panicles lateral and terminal, very 
short, few-flowered, naked, or leafy toward the base : disk pentagonal ; 
ovary with 3 protuberances at the angles nearly as large as itself." — 
Mountains near Hauta Bfirbara. 

19 ? C. hirsutus, Nutt. 1. c. " Somewhat spiny and almost hirsute, 
particularly the young branches : leaves cordate-o\ate, glandularly 
serrulate, nearly sessile, rather obtuse : panicle terminal, elongated, 
leafy : disk obscurely pentagonal : protuberances of the ovary small." — 
Habit of the preceding. We give Nuttall's own descriptions of his two 
species which later writers of less than his experience in these shrubs 
have probably unadvisedly combined. Dr. Parry was of opinion 
that more than one species was embraced by the " C. hirsutus " of later 
writers. We note that if both Nuttall's names apply to the same shrub, 
oNganthus has the precedence over hirsutus. 

20. C. sorediatus, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 328 (1840) ; C\ azureus, KelL 
Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 55 (1855) ; C. intricatus. Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. 
V. 168 (1889). Shrubby or arborescent, 5 — 10 ft. high, nearly glabrous ; 
branches spreading or recurved, and with short stiff branchlets : leaves 
subcoriaceous, glossy above, glabrous or somewhat tomentose beneath, 
but silky along the rims, oblong-ovate, % — 1% ^- Ions'! rounded or sub- 
cordate at base : racemes of deep blue 3^2 — 2 in. long, usually not longer 
than broad. — Plentiful on Mt. Tamalpais, on the northern slope ; common 
in the Berkeley Hills, and far southward. Mar. — May. 

* * Evergreen shrubs ; branches mostly short, rigid and smaU-leaved, ivith 

warty stipules ; leaves muslly opposite, hard-coriaceous, closely 

pinnate-nerved, spinose-toothed or entire ; fruit with 

3 horns. — Subgenus Cerastes, Wats. 

■1— Shrubs prostrate or trailing. 

21. C. prostratus, Benth. PI. Hartw. 302 (1849). Prostrate, glabrous, 
the branches rooting, repeatedly subdivided, the whole forming a close 
mat a yard or two in diameter : leaves obovate or oblong-cuneiform, 
% — 1 iQ- long, obtuse or truncate, with 2 or 3 pairs of coarse spinose 
teeth above the middle : fl. few, bright blue, on short stout peduncles : 
fr. y^ in. thick, horns erect. — One of the characteristic undershrubs of 
pine woods in the middle Sierra from Mariposa Co. northward ; also in 
the higher Coast Range northward ; rejoicing in the alliterative common 
name of Mahala-Mats ; very beautiful when in flower ; fruit the largest 
in the genus. June, July. 

22. C. coniiiTens, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 16 (1889). Diffuse but not 
prostrate or rooting, the branches mostly simple, pliable rather than 



86 EHAMNEiE. 

rigid, 3 ft. long or more : leaves cuneate-obovate or oblanceolate, }4. — 1 
in. long, entire except at the truncate or retuse mostly 3-toothecl apex, 
glabrous and rugulose above, beneath white-totnentulose between the 
veins : fl. white : fr. in umbellate clusters, small ; horns narrow and 
elongated, closely appressed, imbricately overlapping at the summit of 
the capsule.— Habitat of the preceding nearly, but apparently at a some- 
what lower altitude and not common. 

-t— H— Shrubs erect, nntli short, rigid t)ranchlets. 

23. C. cuneatus, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 267 (1838) ; Hook. Fl. i. 124 
(1830), under Rhammis. Stems clustered, covered with a smooth gray 
bark, 6—12 ft. high, the branchlets short and remote, glabrous or nearly 
so : leaves cuneate-obovate or oblong, obtuse or retuse, entire, }4 i^i- iong 
or less, exceeded by the profuse simple subsessile umbellate clusters of 
rather large dull-white heavy-scented flowers : fr. rather large ; horns 
short, erect. Var. ramulosus. Smaller, the branchlets more numerous 
and more leafy : leaves narrower and longer, more tomentose beneath : 
fl. half as large, scentless, deep blue : fr. smaller and more elongated. — 
The type abundant at middle elevations throughout our whole district, 
extending northward to the Columbia : the variety in the Coast Eange 
only, and from Santa Cruz Mts., Greene, to Marin and Napa counties, 
Mrs. Curran, Dr. Parry. Feb.— Apr. 

24. . C. crassifolius, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 75 (1857). Taller than the 
last, the stems less clustered, more arboreous, and with darker bark : 
young branchlets whitish-tomentose : leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, ^ — 1 
in. long, obtuse, entire, or remotely spinose-denticulate, glabrous above, 
white-tomentose beneath : umbels often leafy-peduncled, larger than in 
the last, the fl. on longer pedicels : f r. rather small ; horns inconspicu- 
ous.— A species of the southern parts of the State mainly ; but said to 
occur in the Coast Range as far north as Mendocino Co. This, however, 
only on the authority of the "Botany of California," whose authors 
probably had the next in view as a part of their " C. crassifolius." 

25. C. divergrens, Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. v. 173 (1889). Low, 
much branched, the branchlets stout and divaricate, hoary when young : 
leaves 1 in. long very rigidly coriaceous, cuneate and entire below, above 
bearing 2 or 8 pairs of opposite coarse spinescent serrate teeth, the 
truncate apex with or without a similar tooth : umbels peduncled or 
subsessile : fl. large, rose-purple : fr. large, elongated, with 3 prominent 
horns and as many alternating crests.— Not common ; apparently first 
collected in Lake Co., Dr. Torrey, later in Napa Co., Dr. Parry ; also on 
hills near San Jeronimo in Marin Co., Dunn. Apr. May. 

26. C. rigidus, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 268 (1838) ; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 
4664: Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound, t. 9. Erect, 6 ft. high, the branchlets 



EHAMNE^. 87 

short, crowded, pubescent and very leafy : leaves coriaceous, broadly 
obovate, truncate, retuse or obcordate, % in. long, often nearly as broad, 
sharply but rather minutely spinose-dentate or -serrate, glabrous above, 
more or less tomeutulose beneath : umbels many, few-flowered, sessile : 
H. small, bright blue : fr. 34 in- thick, with short erect horns. — From 
Monterey southward along the coast. Apr. May. 

27. C. vestitns, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 101 (1890). Stems clustered, 6 ft. 
high, widely branching, the rigid branchlets cinereous-tomentose : leaves 
^'o in. long or less, hard coriaceous, subsessile, somewhat concave above, 
round-obovate, obtuse or retuse, (on young shoots acute) sharply spinose- 
toothed all around, cinereous-pxiberulent on both faces but more so 
beneath : H. small, white, in numerous subsessile corymbs ; pedicels % 
in. long, rather stout : fr. (immature) small, the short saliently spreading 
horns inserted at about the middle. — Borders of pine forests on moun- 
tains south of Tehachapi, Kern Co. Collected by the author in 1889. 
C. cuitealus, occurring in the same region, and to which it is related, was 
in mature fruit while the present species was but just passing out of 
Hower late in June. 

28. C. metacarpus, Nutt. Sylv. ii. 46 (1848) ; C. riiaevocarpus, Nutt. 
in T. & G. (1838), not of Cavanilles (1794), Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 80. 
Arborescent, often 8—12 ft. high, with dark-colored rough bark and 
rounded head of not very rigid branches ; branchlets rusty-pubescent 
and marked by large warty stipular glands : leaves alternate, thick 
coriaceous, obovate-cuneiform, entire, emarginate, whitish-tomentose 
beneath : fl. in pedunculate usually simple umbels, snow-white : fr. }c, 
in. long, with 3 horns at summit. — Summits of Santa Ynez Mountains in 
Santa Barbara Co., NuilaJl, Greene, Parry, and to be sought in similar 
localities on the unexplored higher mountains to the northward. A most 
distinct species ; the only one of its group, except C. rertiicosus of the 
San Diego mesas, with alternate leaves. Very showy, and much like a 
wild plum-tree in aspect, when in full bloom. Feb. 

Obscure species, and liybrids. 

29. C. Veitchianus, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 5127 (1859). Branches stalk- 
lets and surface of leaves glabrous : stipules obvious, membranous or 
subscarious ; blade of the leaf strongly pinnate-veined, obovate-cunei- 
form, obtuse, the young acutely, the older obtusely glandular-serrate, 
% in. long, smooth and shining above, tomentose between the stout veins 
beneath : fl. bright blue, in niimerous dense corymbs at the ends of all 
the branches. — Unknown in the living state except as cultivated in 
England from seeds collected l)y Thomas Bridges in California. Judging 
from the figure in the Botanical Magazine, the shrub could not be 
referred to any species known, even as a hybrid. The leaf-outline and 



m TITHYMALOIDE^. 

indentation — much more the strongly and exclusively pinnate venation — 
must exclude it altogether from C. Ihyrsijtorus, with which Dr. Parry 
placed it as a probable hybrid. We think it must be a good species, 
perhaps local and awaiting rediscovery. 

30. C. floribuiidus, Hook. 1. c. t. 4806 (1854). Pilose-scabrous through- 
out : leaves small, remotely pinnate-veined, less than % in. long, oblong, 
acute, undulate and glandular-denticulate : fl. blue, in very many 
globose sessile corymbs at the ends of the branchlets. — Also known to us 
by Hooker's figure and description only, and apparently a species. The 
figure shows to our eye, no mark which we should construe as indicative 
of a hybrid genesis. 

31. C. L»l)l)iaiius, Hook. 1. c. t. 4810 (1854). Of more lax habit than 
either of the preceding : leaves 1 in. long, obovate, distinctly 3-nerved, 
glandular-dentate : thyrse dense, oval or roundish, on peduncles which 
equal the leaves. — Like the last, grown in England from Californiau 
seed. Very possibly a cross between C ihyrsifiorus and sorediatus. 
Shrubs much like it are often seen in the Berkeley Hills. 

32. C. rugosus. Stems stout but i)liable, prostrate, glabrous in age, 
the growing parts canescently puberulent : leaves coriaceous, V^ — 1'^ in. 
long including the short petiole, obovate- or elliptic-oblong, acute at both 
ends, closely and saliently spinulose-serrate, 3-nerved, finely rugose on 
both faces, tomentulose beneath : fl. pale blue or white, in a short nearly 
simple raceme, the peduncle equalling the leaf. — Top of a high hill near 
Truckee, June, 1890, Sonne. Doubtless a hybrid, of which C. cunealns is 
one of the parents. Mr. Sonne suggests that C. relulums may be the 
other. The young leaves are subtended by triangular-subulate stipules 
a line long. 

OrdekXii. TITHYMALOIDE/E. 

Ventenat, Tabl. du Eeg. Veget. iii. 483 (1799). Euphokbiace^, Robert 
Brown in Flinder's Voyage, Gen. Rem. 23 (1814). 

Herbs shrubs or trees, often with milky acrid juice, the leaves simple, 
stipulate. Flowers axillary or terminal, bracted, imperfect, monoecious or 
dioecious, in all ours apetalous. Stamens 1 — co . Pistil 1 ; ovary superior, 
1 — 3-celled. Fruit a 1 — 3-celled capsule with as many lobes as cells ; the 
lobes in maturity separating from a central axis as a 1-celled 1-seeded 
carpel ; this elastically dehiscent by two sutures and exposing or ejecting 
the usually arilled or strophiolate seed. Ovules and seeds pendulous. 
Embryo embedded in fleshy albumen ; cotyledons flat. — A large family 
mainly tropical, often possessing poisonous qualities ; sometimes harmless 
or even wholesome. Very analogous to Rhamnese in friiit-structure ; as 
nearly related to Malvaceae. Feebly represented in middle California. 



TITHYMALOIDE^. 89 

1. CROTON, Linmrus. Pale scurfy or stellate-hairy plants with 
alternate exstipulate entire leaves, and racemose, cymose or solitary 
unisexual apetalous flowers. Staminate calyx 4 — 6-partecl, slightly 
imbricate in bud. Stamens 5—7, on a hairy receptacle ; anthers inflexed 
in bud. Pistillate calyx when present 5-parted. Ovary simple and 
1-celled, or 2 — 3-lobed with as many cells ; styles as many as the ovary- 
cells, simple or once or twice forked. Seed grayish, smooth and shining. 
* Fniii 3-lohed ; styles forked. 

1. C. Californicus, Mull. Arg. in DO. Prodr. xv^ 691 (1862). Hen- 
decaridra procanihens, Esch. Mem. Acad. Petrop. x (1826) ; H. & A. Bot. 
Beech. 389. t. 91. Suffrutescent, the woody basal part of the stem 
decumbent or prostrate ; leafy branches erect, 1 ft. high ; these and the 
foliage silvery-canescent with a fine scurf and a minute stellate 
pubescence : leaves narrowly oblong or elliptical, obtuse at each end, 
1 — 2 in. long, on slender petioles half as long : staminate flowers greenish, 
in short subsessile racemes ; calyx-lobes about 1 line long ; filaments 
hairy : pistillate fl. mostly solitary, on short pedicels ; styles twice 
forked : capsule deeply 3-lobed, ^4 in. thick : seed 2^^ lines long, with a 
small appressed caruncle. — Plentiful among the sand-hills about San 
Francisco and southward. 

* * Fruil, of a single 1-seeded carpel ; style simple. — Genus 
Ebemocaepus, Benth. 

2. C. setigerus, Hook. Fl. ii. 141 (1840) ; Benth. Bot. Sulph. 53. t. 26 
(1844) under Eremocarpus. A stout low annual with short but wide- 
spread leafy branches, the heavy-scented herbage with a spreading hispid 
and an appressed stellate pubescence : leaves ovoid or rhomboid, % — 2 
in. long, on slender petioles, the upper crowded and appearing opposite 
or whorled : staminate fl. few in a corymb, long-pedicelled ; calyx with 
oblong obtuse segments a line long : pistillate fl. 1, 2 or 3 in an axil ; 
ovary and style densely pubescent : capsule and seed 2 lines long. —Plant 
often a foot or two broad and only a few inches high, yet all the branches 
clear of the ground ; regarded as a troublesome weed, though the seeds 
are greedily devoured by wild fowl, whence the common name of Turkey 
Mullein has been derived, the nutritive character of the seeds being taken 
in conjunction with the mullein-like herbage. It is far more prevalent 
in the interior valleys and foot-hills than along the seaboard, in middle 
California. July — Nov. 

2. EUPHORBIA, Pliny (Spurge). Herbs with milky juice, alternate 
or opposite toothed or entire leaves, and inflorescence either terminally 
clustered, or solitary in the forks of the many branches. Both staminate 
and pistillate flowers within the same involucre ; this cup-shaped and 
like a calyx, the 4 or 5 lobes minute, usually alternating with as many 



90 TITHYMALOIDEiE, 

glands which have often a colored margin resembling a petal. Staminate 
flowers many, of a single naked stamen jointed upon a short pedicel 
which has often a minute bract at base. Pistillate flower 1, in the center 
of the involucre, pedicellate and soon exserted from it, consisting of a 
single 3-celled ovary, 3 forked styles and 6 stigmas each 2-lobed. Capsule 
3-seeded. Seeds smooth, reticulate, rugose or pitted, with or without a 
caruncle. 

* Stems erect ; stipules ; involucres in forked or umbellate lermiaal 

cymes ; glands flattened or convex ; seed carunculate. — 

Genus Tithymalus, Scopoli. 

-1— Glands crescent-shaped or ^-horned. 

1. E. Lathyris, Lmn. Sp. PI. 2d ed. i. 655 (1762) ; 1st ed. i. 457 (1753), 
as E. Lathyrus. Annual or biennial, erect, stout, 1—3 ft. high, glabrous 
throughout : leaves opposite, 4-ranked, linear-lanceolate, sessile, entire, 
obtuse, cuspidate, 3—4 in. long : inflorescence bracted, the branches 
twice or thrice dichotomous, the leaf -like bracts oblong-ovate : glands 
crescent-shaped, with broad obtuse horns : capsule ig in. thick, the 
lobes rounded, in age wrinkled : seeds reticulate rugose. Native of the 
Mediterranean region ; spontaneous in middle California, as an escape 
from gardens. 

2. E. EXiGUA, Linn. Sp. PL i. 456 (1753), partly ; Amoen. Acad. iii. 118 
(1756). Annual, slender, glabrous, 3—10 in. high : leaves alternate, 
linear, entire, acute or obtuse, the floral dilated at base and subcordate : 
inflorescence lax, repeatedly dichotomous : glands semilunate, the horns 
divergent: capsule smooth, scarcely a line wide: seed ovate-quadrangular, 
whitish, minutely tuberculate.— A weed of the grain fields in Europe ; 
reported as occurring at Santa Clara, B. F. Leeds. 

3. E. leptocera, Engelm. in Torr. Pac. E. Eep. iv. 135 (1857) : 

E. crenulata, Engelm. in Bot. Mex. Bound. 192 (1859). Annual or 
biennial, erect and simple, or with decumbent basal branches, 1 ft. high : 
leaves alternate, obovate-spatulate, obtuse, }4—l}4 in. long, entire or 
erose-denticulate ; the floral opposite or ternate, broadly rhombic-ovate, 
sometimes connate, acute, 3€— M in- broad : involucre turbinate, the 
oblong lobes nearly entire ; glands large, crescent-shaped, the slender 
horns entire or cleft : styles long, bifid : capsule 2 lines broad : seeds 
ash-colored, oblong-ovate, dark-pitted, about !}{ lines long, prominently 
carunculate.- -Common in bushy places either in sandy or clayey soil. 
Mar.— Sept. 

-)— -1— Glands discoid, entire. 

4. E. dictyosperma, F. & M. Ind. Sem. Petrop. 37 (1835) : E. Arkansana, 
E. & G. PI. Lindh. 53 (1845). Annual, erect, ^—IH ft- high, glabrous, 



TITHYMALOIDE^. 91 

stem simple below, or branched from the base : cauline leaves alternate, 

oblong- to obovate-spatnlate, obtuse or retuse, obtusely serrulate, % — 13^2 

in. long ; Horal opposite, round-ovate, siibcordate, mucronate, 2 — 6 lines 

long : involucres and glands small : style deeply bif^d : capsule rough 

with small warty protuberances : seeds subglobose, dark-colored, 

delicately net-veined, the caruncle thin and flat. — Of wide dissemination 

in the State, but less common than the last. Mar. — June. 

* * Sterns diffusely branched, nearly or quite prostrate ; leaves all opposite, 

unequal at base, stipulate ; involucres solitary, the glands with peta- 

loid appendages (except in No. 5) : seeds ash-colored. — Genus 

AnisophyiiLum, Haworth. 

5. E. ocellata, Dur. & Hilg. Pac. R. Rep. v. 15. t. 18 (1855). Annual, 
prostrate, glabrous, the branches 4 — 10 in. long : leaves thick, deltoid to 
ovate-oblong, often cordate at base, acute, entire, 2 — 5 lines long ; 
stipules setaceous, entire or cleft : involucres campanulate, less than a 
line long ; lobes fringed ; glands 2 — 4, yellowish or purplish, short- 
stipitate, circular and discoid, with or without a narrow margin : capsules 
a line broad : seeds round-ovate, obtusely angled, smooth or obscurely 
rugose. —Plains of the San Joaquin and southward. 

6. E. albomar^iiiata, T. & G. Pac. R. Rep. ii. 174 (1855) : E. Hart- 
wegiana, Boiss. in DC. Prodr. xv^. 31 (1862). Perennial, prostrate, 
slender, glabrous and pallid, the branches 3 — 6 in. long : leaves nearly 
orbicular, entire, obtuse above, somewhat cordate at base, 2 — 4 lines 
broad ; stipules joined into a triangular entire or lacerate white scale : 
involucres campanulate or turbinate, less than a line long ; the 4 brownish 
glands with a conspicuous white or rose-colored petaloid appendage : 
capsule nearly a line long : seeds oblong, 4-angled. — Southern like the 
last, but in the Kern Co. mountains. 

7. E. serpyllifolia, Pers. Syn. ii. 14 (1807), var. consanguinea, Boiss. 
in DC. Prodr. xv'^ 43 (1862); Millsp. in Pitt. ii. 84: E. sanguinea, 
Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 56. Diffuse annual, with ascending or horizon- 
tal but seldom prostrate slender branches : herbage glabrous, deep green, 
reddening in age : leaves obovate- to spatulate-oblong, 1 — 3 lines long, 
obscurely pinnate-veined, sharply serrate above the middle ; stipules 
setaceous, lacerate or subentire : glands of involucre minute, transversely 
oblong, reddish and with narrow 2 — 3-lobed or entire white or rose- 
colored appendages : seed quadrangular, the length scarcely twice the 
breadth, the sides more or less rugose-pitted, the angles somewhat 
prominent, hardly " sharp." — Common on plains and in the lower foot- 
hills of the Sierra. Perhaps wholly distinct from the Mexican type on 
which E. serpyllifolia was founded. 

8. E. occidentalis, Drew, Bull. Torr. Club, 152 (1889) ; Millsp. 1. c. 85). 



92 TITHYMALOIDE^. 

Habit of the last, but the glabrous herbage of a dull rather yellowish 
green : leaves oval or broadly oblong, only slightly unequal, very obtuse 
at each end, serrate above the middle or quite entire, mucronulate, 2 4 
lines long ; stipules setaceous-lacerate : appendages of involucre crenate- 
lobed : seed 34 line long, whitish, the faces more or less distinctly 
sinuate-rugose between the rather prominent angles. — Humboldt Co., 
C'hesnut & Lrev, and on Mt. St. Helena, Greene ; by streamlets and in 
moist situations. More nearly closely allied to E. serpyUifolia than is 
the following. 

9. E. rngnlosa, Greene. E. serpyUifolia, var. ntgulosa, Engelm. 
Millsp. 1. c. : E. serpyUifolia, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 57, not of 
Persoon. Wholly prostrate and very closely depressed, rather sl^cculent 
(very brittle when dry), much branched and in age forming a very close 
mat a foot broad or more : herbage glabrous, pallid and glaucescent : 
leaves veinless, sharply serrate or almost entire : stipules, involucre, etc. 
as in the preceding : seeds whitish, finely and transversely rugose 
between the scarcely prominent angles. — Native of the southern extremity 
of the State, but well established along the railroads in our district, even 
at Dwight Way Station, Berkeley, where it has appeared annually since 
1886. Totally unlike the preceding species in aspect, the very earliest 
branches lying flat upon the ground, and taking a peculiar zigzag course 
in their growth ; the stem lacking fibrous tissue, very excessively milky- 
juicy, the herbage peculiarly pallid. June— Oct. 

10. E. humistrata, Engelm. in Gray Man. 3d ed. 386 (1859). Annual, 
prostrate, slender, the branches hirsvite-piibescent : herbage dark green 
or purplish : leaves obovate or elliptical, very oblique at base, serrulate 
above the middle, 3 — 4 lines long, marked with a brown spot above ; 
stipules lanceolate, fimbriate : involucre cleft on the back, its red or 
white appendages truncate or crenate : pods sharply angled, puberulent: 
seed }4 liii6 long, ovate, obtusely angled, minutely rugose-roughened. — 
Near lone, collected only by the author ; common eastward, in the 
valley of the Mississippi. 

11. E. Preslii, Gussone, Prodr. Fl. Sicul. i. 539 (1827) : E. hyperiei- 
folia, Engelm. not of Linn. Erect or ascending, branched from the base, 

1 — 2 ft. high, glabrous or sparsely pubescent : leaves oblong-linear, often 
more or less falcate, serrate, 3^ — 1}4 in. long, often with a dark spot ; 
stipules triangular : peduncles longer than the petioles, collected in leafy 
cymes toward and at the summits of the branches : appendages of 
involucre white or reddish, entire : seed % line long, obtusely angled, 
wrinkled and tuberculate, dark-colored. — In the upper Sacramento 
valley, by I'oadsides ; not frequent, perhaps recently arrived from the 
eastern states where it is a common weed. 



P O L Y G A L E .^. 93 

Ordee XIII. POLYGALE>E. 

A. L. de Jussieii, in Annales du Museum, xiv. 386 (1809). 
Herbs or sbnibs often' witb milky juice. Leaves simple, entire, 
exstipulate. Flowers, excei)t as to tbe pistil, simulating tbe papilio- 
naceous ; but tbe affinities apparently witb certain allies of Euplioihia. 
We bave but two species ; botb of tbe genus 

POLYGALA, D-insroHcIes. Ours low undersbrubs witb alternate leaves 
and few irregular flowers in terminal cymes. Sepals 5, two larger tban 
tbe otbers, lateral and petal-like. Petals 3, joined to eacb otber and to 
tbe stamen-tube, tbe middle one booded above and beaked or crested. 
Stamens 6—8, unequal, monadelpbous, forming a sbeatb, tbis ojjen on 
one side, adnate to tbe base of tbe petals ; antbers 1 -celled, opening at 
top. Ovary sbort, 2-celled ; ovules solitary, pendulous ; style long, 
curved, dilated. Capsule membranaceous, flattened contrary to tbe 
narrow partition, roiinded and notcbed at summit, debiscent at tbe 
margin. Seed carunculate ; embryo large, in a tbin albumen. 

1. P. Califoruica, Nutt. in T. & G. FL i. 671 (1840) : P. cucullata, 
Bentb. PI. Hartw. 299 (1849) : P. Nuikaaa, Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 49. t. 
12 (1859), not of Moq. Stems many, slender, 2 — 8 in. bigb, from a woody 
base, mostly simple : leaves glabrous or sligbtly pubescent, oblong- 
lanceolate or ovate-elliptical, acute or obtuse, }4 — 1 ^^- long : fl. rose- 
purple, on bractless pedicels 1 — 3 lines : outer sepals 23^^ lines long, 
rounded saccate at base ; inner ones broadly spatulate, }4 in. long or 
less : lateral petals linear-lanceolate, somewbat ciliate, equalling tbe 
broad obtuse somewbat curved beak of tbe rounded bood : fr. mostly 
from apetalous fl. near tbe root ; capsule glabrous, broadly ovate, ^4 in. 
long, subsessile, refuse, narrowly margined : seed 2 lines long, pubescent ; 
caruncle wrinkled and bladdery, calyptriform, balf tbe lengtb of tbe 
seed. — In tbe Coast Range only, from Mendocino Co. soutbward. Nuttall's 
description of bis P. Califoruica, and Bentbam's account of P. cucuUaia 
are fully concordant, and tbe fact is certain tbat it was tbe Coast Range 
species wbicb eacb bad in view. 

2. P. coruuta, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 62 (1855) : P. Californica, 
B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 59, not of Nuttall. More woody tban tbe last, 
stouter and more freely brancbing, ^^-^l ft. bigb : fl. greenisb wbite, all 
fruiting : sepals densely tomentose : lateral petals only equalling tbe 
bood, tbis witb a narrow straigbt beak : capsule ovate, }4 in. long, 
emarginate or 2-tootbed at summit, narrowly winged : seed 3€ i^- ^ohg, 
densely bairy ; caruncle terete, its tbin lateral wing partially covering 
tbe body of tbe seed. — In tbe Sierra Nevada, at middle altitudes from El 
Dorado Co. nortbward ; not reported from tbe Coast Range ; bence not 
collected by Nuttall, nor known to Bentbam wben, unwittingly, be 
republisbed Nuttall's species under tbe new name of P. cucullata. 



94 LiNE.i:. 

Order XIV. L I N E >€ . 
De OandoUe, Theorie Elementaire 217 (1819). 
A small order, comprising little besides the. one genus 
LINUM, Vergil (Flax). Herbs with tough-fibrous bark, alternate 
(opposite ia No. 4) entire leaves without stipules or with glandular 
organs in the place of them, and cymose-panicled very regular and 
symmetrical 5-merous flowers. Sepals imbricate, persistent. Petals 
convolute, fugacious. Stamens monadelphous at the very base. Styles 
2, 3 or 5, often united below. Ovary of as many carpels as styles, each 
more or less divided into 2 cells by a partition proceeding from the 
dorsal suture. Fruit capsular, septicidally dehiscent. Seeds 1 in each 
half -cell, ovate, compressed, mucilaginous when moistened ; embryo 
large ; albumen thin ; cotyledons broad, flat. 

* Floivers % — 1 in. broad, blue ; sepals not glandular-margined. — 
LiNUM proper. 

1. L. usitatissemum;, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 277 (1753), partly. Annual, 
glabrous, glaucous, 1 —2 ft. high, simple up to the ample inflorescence : 
sepals oval, short-acuminate, 3-carinate-nerved at base, the inner scarious- 
fnargined and ciliate : petals broad-cuneiform, blue, with deeper veins, 
J^ in. long : capsule round-ovoid, equalling the calyx, tardily dehiscent, 
incompletely 10-celled, the septa not ciliate. — One of the cultivated flaxes; 
occasionally spontaneous. 

2. L. HUMiLE, Mill. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) ; L. usitatissimum , Linn, in part. 
Much like the last, but lower and more branching : capsule more 
elongated, jjromptly dehiscent, the septa ciliate. — Another of the long- 
cultivated flaxes of the Old World ; sometimes found wild by waysides. 

3. L. Lewisii, Pursh, Fl. i. 210 (1814) ; Trel. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 
V. 12; L. perenne, B. & W. Bot. Oalif. i. 89, not Linn.; L. decurrens, 
Kell. Proc. Oalif. Acad. iii. 44. fig. 11. Perennial, glabrous, glaucous, 
1 — 2% ft. high, densely leafy below, lax-corymbose above : sepals broadly 
ovate, not ciliate, 3 — 7-carinate-nerved : petals large, deep blue : capsule 
broadly ovate, obtuse, 3 — 4 lines long, twice as long as the sepals, the 10 
valves dehiscing widely, the septa ciliate. — While Messrs. Brewer and 
Watson make this beautiful plant '' Common on dry soils nearly through- 
out the State," Prof. Trelease limits its westerly range to the " Great 
Plains," thus excluding it from California altogether. It is frequent in 
our middle and higher mountains northward ; less common in the Coast 
Range, but found on the Salinas, Brewer, and at Colma and Millbrae, 
Behr. It is absent from the interior and drier sections of the State. 

* * Anmials ; leaves oflea with stipular glands ; fl. small, white, rose- 

purph or yellow ; sepals usually glandular-ciliale ; petals commonly 

with lateral teeth and ventral appendages, pistils only 2 or 3. — 

Subgenus Hesperolinon, Gray. 

-1— Petals yellow. 



LINEiE. 95 

4. L. digyiiniii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 334 (1868). Glabrous, 6 in. 
high : leaves opposite, oblong, acutish, ^4 — H in. long ; stipiilar glands 
; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, ciliate-denticulate, 1 line long : petals 
not appendagetl : styles and carpels only 2 or 3. — Near Yosemite Valley, 
Bolander, and northward in the Sierra Nevada, 

5. L. Breweri, Gray, 1. c. vi. 521 (1865). Slender, 3—12 in. high, 
glabrous, glaucous, few-flowered : leaves linear-setaceous, 6-8 lines 
long ; stipular glands conspicuous : sepals 1% lines long, ovate, acute, 
glandular on the margin : petals spatulate, emarginate, }4 ^^- long, 
3-appendaged at base : capsule ovoid, acute, about equalling the calyx. — 
Common on the Mt. Diablo foot-hills ; also found on Lone Mountain, 
San Francisco, Palmer. 

6. L. Clevelandi, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, ix. 121 (1882). A foot high 
or less, diffusely and loosely paniculate : leaves oblong, obtuse or acute, 
without stipular glands ; fl. minute : sepals narrow, acute, sparingly 
glandular ciliate ; petals obovate -oblong, constricted toward the base, 
retuse or emarginate, scarcely exceeding the calyx, the median appendage 
oblong, glabrous : capsule ovoid, acute, exceeding the calyx, the false 
septa complete to about the middle, then abruptly narrowed. — Lake Co., 
Cleveland. 

7. L. adeuophyllum, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 624 (1873). A foot 
high or less, loosely paniculate above, villous-pubescent or glabrate : 
leaves broadly linear, subcordate at base, margined with stipitate glands ; 
stipular glands : sepals 1 line long, lanceolate, acute, glandular- 
denticulate ; petals obovate-spatulate, mostly emarginate, 2 lines long, 
3-appendiculate and hairy at base, the median appendage obovate : 
filaments abruptly dilated and obtusely bidentate at base : capsule 
ovoid, acute, equalling the calyx, false septa narrow.— Lake Co., Bolander, 
Kellogg, Mrs. Curran. 

■i— -f— Petals white or pale purplish. 

8. L. dryiiiarioides, Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 152 (1885). Sparingly 
villous, 4 — 10 in. high, loosely dichotomous, with long slender internodes : 
leaves opposite or subverticillate, broadly ovate, acute or acuminate, with 
crowded marginal glands : fl. rose-colored, very small and remote, on 
short pedicels ; sepals lanceolate, acute or mucronulate, serrulate and 
sometimes glanduliferous ; petals ovate, emarginate, 2-toothed and 
3-appendaged at base : capsule ovoid, acute, equalling the calyx, 6-valved, 
the false septa incomplete, nari"ow, widening gradually to the base. — 
Lake Co., near Epperson's, Mrs. Curran. 

9. L. micrauthum, Gray, 1. c. vii. 333 (1868). Puberulent and some- 
what glaucous, 6—15 in. high, very loosely dichotomous-paniculate, the 
minute white flowers on almost capillary pedicels ; leaves spatulate- 



96 GERANIACE.E. 

oblong, obtuse or acutisb, witb or witbout stipi^lar glands : sepals ovate- 
oblong, acutisb, tbe inner sHgbtly glandular-ciliate ; petals wbite, obovate, 
a line long, not tootbed, destitute of lateral appendages : filaments 
round-tootbed at base and sligbtly bairy : capsule ovoid, equalling tbe 
calyx. — In tbe Sierra Nevada from middle California to Oregon. 

10. L. spergiiliiium, Gray, 1. c. Ratber larger tban tbe last, glabrous 
or witb scattered bairs : leaves linear, obtuse, little narrowed at base, 
witb or witbout stipular glands : pedicels slender nodding : sepals ovate, 
glandular-ciliate ; petals wbite or rose-colored, obovate, 2 — 3 lines long, 
3-appendaged at base : capsule ovoid, acute, exceeding tbe calyx. — Dry 
woods of tbe Coast Range only ; common in Marin and Sonoma counties. 

11. L. Californicum, Bentb. PL Hartw. 299 (1849). Grlaucous, glabrate 
or puberulent, 5 — 15 in. bigb, witb angular brancblets : leaves remote, 
linear, tbe stipular glands prominent : pedicels sbort, erect, not exceed- 
ing tbe rose-colored flowers, tbese clustered at tbe ends of tbe brancblets ; 
sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, earinate below, sparingly glandular-ciliate; 
petals obovate, I3 in. long, twice tbe lengtb of tbe calyx, dilated and 
3-appendiculate below ; filaments not tootbed : capsule ovoid, acute, 
little sborter tban tbe calyx, tbe false partitions broad, gradually narrowed 
upwards. Var. confertum, Gray, in Trel. 1. c. Low, densely leafy, tbe 
inflorescence coiidensed ; median appendage of petals obovate. — Eastern 
slope of Mt. Diablo Range, botb nortbward and soutbward ; also about 
San Francisco ; tbe variety on Mare Island. 

12. L. cougeslum, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 521 (1865). Size of tbe 
last, glabrous except tbe calyx, tbe brandies sbort and crowded : stipular 
glands small : fl. rose-purple, in close terminal clusters ; sepals pubescent, 
lanceolate, acuminate, not glandular ; petals I4' in. long, 2-tootbed, 
3-appendiculate, tbe median appendage long and bairy : capsule sub- 
globose, sborter tban tbe calyx. — A rare species, to be sougbt among tbe 
bills at tbe nortbern base of Mt. Tamalpais. 

Order XV. GERANIACE^. 

De Candolle, Flore Franqaise, iv. 828 (1805). Gerania, Juss. (1789). 

Ours soft-berbaceous plants witb acidulous, ' pungent or aromatic 
properties, and perfect mostly 5-merous flowers. Sepals and petals 
distinct, tbe latter deciduous, tbeir insertion, like tbat of tbe 5 — 15 
stamens, bypogynous. Filaments distinct or sligbtly connate at base ; 
antbers versatile, 2-celled, debiscing lengtbwise. Carpels as many as the 
sepals and alternate witb tbem (or fewer), united around a central 
column, becoming distinct and 1-seeded in maturity, or else forming an 
elastically debiscent 5— 10-valved many-seeded capsule. 



GERANIACE^. 97 

1. GERANIUM, Diosicorides (Cranesbill). Stems with enlarged 
joints. Leaves mostly opposite, palmately lobed ; stipules scarious. 
Peduncles umbellately few-flowered, or l-flowered. Flowers regular ; 
sepals and petals imbricate in bud. Fertile stamens 10. Carpels 5, 
2-ovuled, 1-seeded ; styles persistent, coherent with the central column 
until the carpel is ripe, then with it splitting away from it elastically 
from below upwards, each forming a coil, not bearded within. 
* Annuals ; Jiowers less than a half-inch broad. 

1. G. Caroliuiaimm, Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 682 (1753). Erect, much branched 
from the base, 1 ft. high, the pubescent herbage light-colored : leaves 
5-parted, the divisions cleft into many oblong-linear lobes : sepals awn- 
pointed, as long as the pale flesh-colored emarginate petals : carpels 
pubescent : seeds ovoid-oblong, blackish, minutely reticulate. — Common 
in the Bay region ; flowering in the early spring, but disappearing with 
the beginning of the dry season. 

2. G. DissECTUM, Linn. Amoen. Acad. iv. 282 (1759). Taller than the 
last, the herbage of a darker green ; leaves cut into narrower and more 
acute segments : fl. larger, bright red-purple, the petals more deeply 
emarginate : seed roundish, more strongly reticulate. — Eather common ; 
preferring moist and partially shaded situations ; continuing in flower 
until the end of June. 

3. G. MOLLE, Linn. Sp. PL ii. 682 (1753). Low, slender, diff"use, the 
branches a few inches to 1 ft. long, the herbage softly and somewhat 
clammily villous : leaves 1 in. broad or more, cleft into oblong obtusish 
lobes : sepals ovate-oblong, not awn-pointed : petals very small, rose- 
color : carpels glabrous, transversely rugose : seed minutely striate. — 
Plentiful northward, from northwestern California to British Columbia ; 
well established about the U. S. Marine Hospital, San Francisco. 

4. G. RETROESUM, L'Her. in DC. Prodr. i. 645 (1824). Stouter than 
any of the foregoing, light green, glabrous except a short stiffish 
retrorsely appressed pubescence on the stems and growing parts : leaves 
2 in. broad, 5-parted, the segments obtusely and not deeply 3-lobed : 
petals 2 lines long, obtuse, purple, equalling the aristate sepals : carpels 
slightly hairy : seeds oblong, minutely striate-reticulate. — Collected by 
the author, on moist sandy soil near the salt marsh not far from Mastic 
Station, Alameda, May, 1 887. Native of New Zealand. Possibly perennial. 

* * Perennials ; flowers about an inch broad. 

5. G. incisuni, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 206 (1838) : G. erianlhnm, Lindl. 
Bot. Reg. xxviii. t. 52. excl. syn. Erect, 1 — 2 ft. high, villous and glandu- 
lar-pubescent : leaves 2—5 in. broad, 3— 5-parted and laciniately cleft : 
sepals villous and glandular ; petals red-purple, these (within) and the 



9'8" GERANIACE^. 

filaments white-villous : beak of fruit glandular, \y^ in. long, short- 
pointed.— In dry open places of the Sierra, from Fresno Co. northward.. 

6. G. Ricliardsouii, F. & M. Ind. Sem. Petr. iv. 37 (1837) : G. alhi- 
florum, Hook. Fl. i. 116. t. 40 (1830), not Ledeb. (1829). More slender,, 
somewhat retrorsely pubescent, the stalklets more or less villous and 
glandular : uppermost leaves lanceolate, serrate but not lobed : sepals- 
canescent and glandiilar : petals clear white, villous on the inside. — Range 
of the preceding, but at higher altitudes and only in moist soils. Flowers, 
invariably white. 

2. ERODIUM, L'lleritier (Stobksbilt.). Vegetative characters of 
Geraniuni, but leaves often pinnate. Flowers and fruit almost the same ; 
but fertile stamens 5 only, as many scale-like sterile filaments alternating 
with them. Beak of carpel when ripe silvery-bearded within and spirally 
twisted. 

* Naturalized species ; leaves pinnate. 

1. E. cicuTAKiUM, L'Her. in Ait. Kew, ii. 414 (1789) ; Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 
680 (1753), under Geranium. Leaves chiefly radical, in a depressed 
rosulate tuft, usually 6—10 in. long, the many leaflets laciniately 
pinnatifld with narrow acute lobes ; cauline leaves reduced ; peduncle& 
exceeding them and bearing an umbel of 4 — 8 small bright purple 
flowers : beak of carpels 1 — 2 in. long.— Frequent in the Bay region ; 
perhaps more common in the interior and southward. This is one of the 
pasture plants commonly called Pin-clorer and Alfilerilla ; but it is not 
the important one. The herbage is rather strongly aromatic for a good 
fodder plant. 

2. E. MOSCHATUM, L'Her. 1. c; Rivinus, Pentap. t. 110 (1699), under 
Geranium. Coarser and larger, the radical leaves ascending, 1 ft. long 
or more ; cauline more ample ; leaflets unequally and doubly serrate : 
corolla pale and rather dull purple or rose-color : herbage with a delicate 
marshy odor. — This is the prevalent Pin-clover of middle California, 
where it is a hundred fold more abundant than any other species, of 
ranker growth, its foliage not depressed, and a moist valued plant for 
pasturage. E. cicularitim is less common and of little relative value. 
Both species are annual, and begin their growth with the coming of the 
first autumnal rains, and are in flower through all the later winter and early 
spring months. Though well established in California from a very early 
period, neither of them is with reason believed to be indigenous. The 
New World type of Er odium is simple-leaved. 

3. E. BoTRYs, Bertoloni, Amoen. Ital. 35 (1819). Radical leaves rosu- 
late, closely depressed, shining above, of oblong obtuse outline, the 
segments coarsely dentate : stems short : sepals 4 lines long ; pale 



GERANIACE^. 99 

purple or lilac petals longer : beak of carpels 2 — 3 in. long. — Common 
toward the foot-hills skirting the eastern borders of the interior plains, 
near Sacramento, lone etc. ; also in Marin Co. in many places. 

* * Native species ; leaves simple^, rounded. 

4 E. macrophyllnm, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 327 (1840). Subacaulescent, 
4—10 in. high, soft-pubescent and with some gland- tipped pilose hairs , 
leaves 1 — 3 in. broad, reniform-cordate with a broad open sinus, crenate- 
serrate : peduncles exceeding the leaves : sepals oblong, accrescent, at 
length }-2 in. long ; petals equalling them, pure white : carpel clavate, 
ig in. long (excluding the 1 in. beak), densely velvety-pubescent : seed 
■oblong linear, }^ in. long, dull, smooth. — Plains of the interior ; also 
toward the seaboard in Marin Co., northward to Oregon. Mar. Apr. 

5. E. Califoriiicuiii. Caulescent, the stem exceeding the rather few 
radical leaves, 6 — 12 in. high ; herbage without soft pubescence, but 
upper part of stem and growing parts with abundant spreading hairs 
tipped with pivple glands : leaves broadly cordate-ovate with closed 
sinus, slightly 5-lobed, rather coarsely crenate, the teeth obtuse, mucronu- 
late : 11. much as in the preceding but petals deep rose-red : fruit 
unknown. — Berkeley Hills and eastward in the Mt. Diablo Range. 
Sufficiently unlike the preceding, though little known and seeming rare. 
The herbage has a redtlish tinge, and the leaf bears a deep red-purple 
spot or zone near the base. The stem-leaves are more deeply and sharply 
lobed than the radical, and the species is in some points more like 
E. Te.raauin^ yet very distinct from that also. Apr. 

3. TR0PJ:0LUM, Uanieus (Nasturtium). Tall leafy climbing 
plants, the succulent herbage with a pungent juice. Leaves alternate, 
simple, exstipulate. Flowers large, axillary, solitary, irregular. Sepals 
not quite distinct ; the 3 upper somewhat conjointly produced at base 
into a long spur. Petals 5, unequal ; the 3 lower often shorter. Stamens 8, 
distinct from the very base. Carpels 3, becoming large corky sulcate 
achenes. 

1. T. MAJus, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 345 (1753) ; Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 23. Leaves 
orbicular, peltate, repandly lobed : petals usually orange-red, 1 — 2 in. 
long, broad and obtuse, unguiculate, the 3 lower fimbriate lacerate at the 
base of the blade : achenes }-^ — % in. in diameter. — Native of Peru ; 
escaped from cultivation in many places in California, especially south- 
ward, at Santa Barbara, etc.; also near Belmont, San Mateo Co. 

4. FLOERKEA, Willdenow. Low annuals, slightly succulent, the 
juice pungent. Leaves alternate, pinnately cleft, exstipulate. Flowers 
axillary, solitary, regular, 3 — 5-merous (all ours 5-merous, or by exception 
4-merous). Sepals valvate in bud. Petals convolute, as many hypogynous 



iOO GEEANIACEyE, 

glands alternating with them. Stamens 10, distinct. Style 5-cleft : 
carpels distinct, subgiobose, fleshy when young, becoming soft variously 
roughened achenes separating from their short axis. 

1. F. Douglasii, Baillon, Hist. v. 20 (1874) ; E. Br. in Lond. & Edinb. 
Phil. Mag. ii. 70 (1833), under Limnanthes, also Lmdl. Bot. Reg. t. 1673. 
Glabrous throughout, 6 — 18 in. high : leaflets narrowly cuneiform, 
incisely lobed or parted : peduncles 2 — 4 in. long : sepals lanceolate, 
3^ — 13 in. long : petals yellow, % in. long, obovate, emarginate : achenes 
obovate-pyriform, more or less tuberculate. — Coast Range and foot-hills 
of the Sierra, in very very wet places. Apr. May. 

2. F. rosea, Greene. Hartw. in Benth. PI. Hartw. 301 (1849), under 
Limnanthes. Very near the preceding, rather stouter ; leaf-lobes almost 
linear ; petals broader, white, fading with a tinge of rose : achenes 
broader, more coarsely and more sharply roughened. — Common in the 
interior, along the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin, on moist subsaline 
lowlands. Mar., Apr. 

3. F. alba, Greene. Hart-w.l.c., under Limnanthes. Smaller, relatively 
stouter, but the stems only 2 — 5 in. long : leaf -segments short, broad, 
3-lobed : young parts and calyx rather densely long-woolly : petals 
white, little exceeding the calyx. — A very distinct species, belonging to 
the upper Sacramento, thence ranging northward. 

6. OXALIS, Linaxus (Wood-Sokrel). Herbs with sour juice (con- 
taining oxalic acid), alternate palmately 3-foliolate leaves and cymose or 
umbellate regular 5-merous flowers. Sepals imbricate, distinct or slightly 
coherent at base, persistent. Petals convolute, deciduous. Stamens 10, 
more or less monadelphous, those opposite the petals longer than the 
others. Ovary of 5 united carpels ; styles distinct. Fruit an ovoid or 
columnar loculicidally dehiscent capsule ; the valves remaining attached 
to the central axis ; cells 2 -several-seeded. Seeds pendulous, the testa 
aril-like, at length splitting and becoming recurved. 

1. 0. Oregana, Nutt. m T. & G. Fl. i. 211 (1838) : 0. Acetosella, var. 
Oregana, Trel. Mem. Bost. Soc. iv. 90 (1888). Acaulescent, perennial by 
simple or sparingly branched scaly rootstocks ; herbage rusty-pubescent: 
leaves 1 ft. high : leaflets broadly obcordate, ciliate, 1 in. long, 1}£ in. 
broad : scapes 1-flowered, shorter than the leaves, bibracteolate above the 
middle : petals oblong-obovate, emarginate, white with purple veins : 
capsule ovoid.— Shaded slopes in the Coast Range. 

2. 0. coriiiculata, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 435 (1753). Perennial, erect or 
decumbent, 3 — 10 in. high, branching, pubescent : leaflets broadly 
obcordate : peduncles mostly 2-flowered : fl. small, yellow : capsule 
columnar, % in. long, densely pubescent, many-seeded. — Not common in 



MALVACE^. 101 

California. There are several named varieties and reputed species, and 
our forms deserve more thorough study in the field ; particularly as to 
the nature of the stipules, if present. A mere variety with brown-purple 
foliage is in the gardens as a border plant, and here and there spon- 
taneous. 

Order x\t:. MALVACEAE. 

Jussieu, Genera, 271 (1789). Malvj^, Adanson, Fam. ii. 390 (1763). 

Herbs or shrubs, with mucilaginous juice, tough-fibrous inner bark, 
alternate stipulate leaves and a more or less stellate pubescence. Flowers 
usually perfect, complete and regular ; the 5-cleft valvate (rarely imbri- 
cate) and persistent calyx often subtended by a supplementary whorl 
of bracts and thus appearing double. Petals 5, hypogynous, at base 
commonly joined to each other and io the base of the tube of the 
monadelphous stamens, convolute in bud. Stamens 5—cc , more or less 
completely monadelphous and sheathiag the styles ; anthers usually 
reniform, 1-celled. Ovaries distinct, forming a ring around a central 
columnar elevation of the receptacle and becoming achenes, or joined 
into one 5— 10-celled organ and becoming more or less capsular. Seeds 
usually roundish, with little or no albumen. 

Hints of tlie CJenera. 

Stamens oo; anthers reniform, 1-celled, 

(lalyx with cup-like invohicre at base, ------- 1 

with or without 1 — 3 bracts at base, 

Fruit a whorl of 1-seeded carpels, - - - - 2, 3, 5—7 

" " " 2— 9-seeded carpels, - - - - 4,7,8 

" a 5-celled capsule, --------9 

Stamens 5; anthers elongated, 2-celled, --.------10 

1. LAVATERA, Tounuforl. Stout shrubs with coarse flexible 
branches, ample palmately lobed leaves, and axillary showy flowers. 
Involucel 3-lobed. Stamineal tube divided at summit into numerous 
filaments. Style-branches stigmatose lengthwise, on the inside. Fruit 
a depressed whorl of 5-8 crowded achenes surrounding the angular 
column of the receptacle which scarcely exceeds them, and covered by 
the persistent calyx.— Genus artificially separated from Malta on account 
of the gamophyllous involucel mainly ; referred to Allhxa by Baillon. 

1. L. assur^eutiflora, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 14 (1854) ; Greene, 
Pitt. i. 77 ; Baker, Journ. Bot. xxviii. 240. Coarse, stout, soft-woody, 
flexuous-branched, 6—15 ft. high, the young branches, pedicels and 
calyx, rarely the leaves also, stellate-hairy or -tomentose : leaves long- 
petioled, 3—6 in. broad, angularly 5— 7-lobed, the lobes coarsely toothed: 
fl. solitary, on a long deflexed and curved pedicel : petals 1— 1^3 in. long, 
cuneate-obovate, truncate or retuse, abruptly reflexed from near the 



102 MALVACE^, 

base, rose-red with crimson veins : stamineal colurrm glabrotrs r styles 
exserted : fr. ig ^- broad ; carpels not beaked, equalling the summit of 
the axis. — Native of the islands off Santa Barbara and Sau Pedro ; long' 
cultivated about San Francisco, where it is become spontaneous both in 
the sand-dujies and along the seashore. Jan. — May. 

2. MALTA, Pliny (Mallow). Herbs with broad angular or rounded 
leaves, and axillary solitary or glomerate flowers. Involucel 3-leaved. 
Stamens and pistils as in Lavalera. Column of receptacle short, seeming 
depressed below the whorl of achenes. 

1. M. PABvrPLOEA, Linn. Amoen. Acad. iii. 416 (1756) ; Greene, in W. 
Am. Scientist, 155 ; Baker, Joum. Bot. xxviii. 341 ; M- obiusa, T. & G. 
Fl. i. 225 (1838). Simple or branching, the branches depressed and only 
a few inches long, or the main^ stem erect and 2 — 6 ft. high : herbage 
more or less pilose-hairy : leaves long-petioled, obsoletely 5 — 7-lobed, 
round-cordate, crenate, 1 — 3 in. broad : fl. glomei-ate, small, the pale blue 
corolla little exceeding the calyx : bractlets linear : calyx accrescent, the 
broad-lobed limb rotately spreading away from the mature fruit : achenes 
glabrous or pubescent, transversely and sharply rugose on the back, 
the acutely winged margins distinctly toothed. — A homely weed, 
extremely common, often small and depressed when growing in the 
streets or along country waysides, but in good soil erect with ascending 
branches and sometimes (in southern parts of the State) ten feet high. 

2. M. BOKEALis, Wallm. in Liljebl. Sv. Fl. 2d ed. 218 (1798). Habit, 
aspect and foliage of the last, but herbage more conspicuously pilose and 
often a little stellate-hairy : bractlets lanceolate : calyx-lobes deep,, 
closed over the mature fruit : corolla pale blue, }^ in. long, surpassing 
the calyx : achenes reticulate-rugose, the acute margins entire. — Rather 
common about Berkeley ; easily distinguished from the foregoing by the 
larger flowers, connivent calyx-lobes, entire-margined and irregularly 
rugose achenes, etc. The M. borealis of the " Botany of California " is 
the preceding. I formerly took the present plant for M. Niarensis, All., 
and specimens from middle Europe so named, but not authenticated, 
misled me. Both our species of this genus are naturalized from Europe. 
M. rolundifolia, so common on the Atlantic slope, has not appeared in 
California. 

3. SIDALCEA, A. Gray. Herbs with rounded and commonly lobed 
or parted leaves ; occasionally dioecious. Flowers in terminal racemes 
or spikes, rose-purple or white. Involucel 0. Stamineal column double; 
filaments of the outer series united into about 5 sets ; of the inner 
distinct. Style-branches stigmatic lengthwise, as in Malca ; fruit the 
same, except that the achene is sometimes beaked. 

* Annuals. 



MALVACE^, 103 

1. S, (liploscypha, Gray, PI. Fendl. 19 (1849) & Gen. 111. ii. 58. t 
120; T. & G. Fl. i. 234 (1838), under Slda. Erect, 1—2 ft. high, 
paniculately branching, pilose-hirsute with long spreading hairs : leaves 
long-petioled, rounded, the radical deeply crenate ; cauline 7-parted 
with 2 — 3-cleft oblong segments : inflorescence umbellate, the umbels 
many, at the ends of the branchlets, 3--5-flowered : fruiting calyx % in. 
long, deeply cleft, the segments lanceolate, acuminate : corolla 1 in. long, 
pale rose-color : achenes cochleate and nearly orbicular, scarcely a line 
in diameter, reticulate-rugulose on the back. — Very common on hills and 
in fields along the Mt. Diablo Range, both in the hills and ui>on the 
plains adjacent. Mar. — May. 

2. S. secuudiflora. Pubescence and foliage as in the last, but plant 
less branching, the flowers in terminal rather lax spicate racemes : 
petals oblique, purple, with a very dark spot at base : achenes nearly 2 
lines long, semiobcordate, strongly favose-reticulate. — Only less common 
than the last ; often associated with it, and confused with it in the 
herbaria, but never confluent with it ; and the specific characters appear 
quite sufficient. It may possibly be the same as S. diplascypha, var. 
minor (Gray, PI. Fendl.) ; but there is nothing in the description of that 
variety to indicate it. 

3. S. Hartwegi, Gray in Benth. PL Hartw. 300 (1849) ; PI. Fendl. 20: 
<S. ieuella, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 7 (1884). Erect, with slender 
ascending branches, 1 — 2 ft. high ; branchlets, pedicels and calyx short- 
pubescent : lower leaves 5-parted, the lobes linear-cuneiform, entire or 
trifid, of the upper linear, entire : fl. }4 in. long or more, rose-purple : 
outer phalanges of stamens narrow, closely approximate to the inner : 
achenes a line long, strongly incurved, the favose reticulation elongated. — 
Common in the foot-hills from Butte Co. to Calaveras, perhaps farther 
southward ; also on the plains adjacent. Mixed with the next in the 
" Botany of California," and the present writer, mistaught as to the type 
of S. Hartivegi., in separating the two, appears to have made a synonym. 

4. S. hirsuta, Gray, PI. Wright i. 16 (1852) ; Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 
286 (1887) : >S. delphinifolia, Gray, PI. Fendl. 19 & Gen. 111. ii. 58. t. 120 
(1849), not Sida delphinifolia, Nutt. Stout, erect, simple or almost 
f astigiately much branched, 2—4 ft. high ; the rather densely spicate 
inflorescence and the growing parts densely hirsute : lower leaves round- 
cordate, slightly crenate-lobed ; cauline completely divided into 7 — 9 
narrowly linear entire segments or leaflets : calyx }4 in. long, the lobes 
deep, acuminate : corolla rose-purple, 1 in. long : achenes rugose- 
reticulate, tipped with a long rather soft but hispid erect beak.— Valleys 
among the Coast Range hills northward, in Mendocino Co. etc.; also in 
the interior of the State, on the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin. 



104 MALVACE^. 

5. S. calycosa, Marcus Jones, Am. Nat. xvii. 875 (1883) r S. sulcata, 
Currau, Bull. Calif. Acad. L 79 (1884). Stout, rather widely branching, 2 
ft. high, glabrous below, sparingly hirsute above : inflorescence loosely 
spicate : calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, abruptly acuminate : corolla 1 in. 
long, deep or pale purple : achenes more or less perfectly sulcate on the 
back, by oblitei'ation of the usual transverse ridges. — In Marin Co., 
toward the coast, Jones ; also at the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada 
near Folsom, Mrs. Curran. 

* * Perennials. 
-H- Erect species, ivith branched inflorescence. 

6. S. Hickiiiaiii, Greene, Pittonia, i. 139 (1887). Stems tufted from 
a woody-fibrous tap-root, 2 — 3 ft. high, leafy throughout, rough with a 
stellate-hispidulous pubescence : lowest leaves orbicular, small, with 
slight crenate lobes ; cauline larger, round-flabelliform, coarsely and 
irregularly toothed around the semicircular margin, the petiole longer 
than the blade : racemes numerous, axillary and terminal, few-flowered : 
pedicels short, subtended by 3 filiform bractlets }4 i^- long : calyx-lobes 
oblong-ovate, acuminate : corolla purple, 1 in. long : achenes nearly 
orbicular, 1 line long, marked on the back by scattered transverse short 
and shaiTJ ridges. — A remarkable species, in aspect qiiite unlike any 
other known, but in character a true Sidalcea Canons of the Salinas 
valley, Hickman. 

7. S. Oreg-aua, Gray, PL Fendl. 20 (1849) ; Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 
i. 77 ; Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 234 (1838), under Sida. Sida malvxflora, Lindl. 
Bot. Beg. t. 1036 (1826), not of DC. Stems solitary or few from the root, 
2—6 ft. high, naked and paniculately branched above, leafy below ; 
inflorescence stellate-tomentose, peduncles and lower part of stem 
sparingly hirsute, the plant otherwise glabrous : lower leaves orbicular, 
7 — 9-lobed, the cuneate-obovate lobes 3-cleft at summit ; upper 7 — 9- 
parted, narrowly and deeply cleft : spicate racemes usually dense but 
elongated : calyx-lobes broadly ovate, acute, not longer than the tube : 
corolla ^2 — 1 in. long : achenes small, straight (semiorbicular), slightly 
beaked, smooth and glabrous, 1 line long. — In the northeastern counties 
of the State, doubtless within our limits, but more common in Oregon. 
It is also to be sought in the Coast Range ; for a fruiting spike only, 
evidently of this species, was collected by Mr. V. K. Chesnut in Sonoma 
Co., near Santa Rosa, in 1887. 

8. S. spicata, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 76 (1885) ; Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. xxii. 288; Regel. Gart. Fl. 291. t. 737 (1872), under Callirhoe. 
Smaller and more slender than the last, occasionally with a simple spike, 
but always erect ; herbage of a light green, pilose-hispid throughout and 
with a rough stellate or fascicled pubescence on the calyx, lower face of 



MALVACEiE. 105 

leaves, etc. ; racemes short, spicate-crowded or more open and elongated : 
calyx deeply cleft, the ovate acnte or acuminate lobes twice as long as 
the tube, very hairy : petals ^o in. long, deeply emarginate, red-purple 
or paler : achenes small, depressed, pubescent but not reticulate. — In 
moist ground in open woods, or along fences and borders of thickets in 
the higher Sierra ; the densely spicate typical form at Cisco and Donner 
Lake ; a taller, more branching and slender-spiked state occurring far 
northward, Mrs. Austin. Everywhere and in all its forms readily 
distinguishable from *S. Oregana by the long and harsh pubescence of the 
whole herbage, and its vivid light green hue ; the more deeply cleft 
calyx, with more attenuate as well as relatively much longer lobes, shorter 
and incurved achenes, etc. June —Sept. 

9. S. malvseflora (M09. & Sesse), Gray, PI. Wright, i. 16 (1852), not of 
Bot. Calif., or of later papers : S. Neo-Mexicana, Gray, PI. Fendl. 23 
(1849) ; Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 287 ; Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Am. i. 99. Sida 
malvwjiora, M09. & Sesse, in DC. Prodr. i. 474 (1824). Stems slender at 
least at the base, clustered and strictly erect, from a thick more or less 
grumose or tuberous root, 2 — 8 ft. high, occasionally simple, commonly 
with a few paniciilate branches ; glabrous, except a slight scarcely 
stellate or even fascicled pubescence on the calyx and pedicels, and a 
few scattered solitary hirsute hairs on the stem above and below : leaves 
small, the lowest truncate at base and incised-crenate, the upper 5-cleft 
or -divided, the segments entire and narrow, or broader and with a few 
pinnate lobes : calyx small, deeply cleft, the segments deltoid-ovate, 
acute or acuminate : achenes less than a line long, nearly as broad, 
minutely apiciilate, glabrous, smooth or more or less rugose-reticulate. — 
This Arizono-Mexican species, common in mountain meadows of New 
Mexico and Arizona, has been found in San Bernardino Co., Parish, and 
is almost certain to occur on the eastern side of the Sierra within our 
limits, in Kern, Inyo and Mono counties. It is wholly distinct from each 
and all of the five or six Californian species collectively designated 
.S'. mahiefolia in the State Survey volumes. 

■)— -i— Stems decumbent at base, simply racemose above. 

10. S. delphiiiifolia (Nutt.), Greene, not of Gray, PI. Fendl. & Gen. 
111. (1849). Sida delphimfolia, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 235 (1838). Sidalcea 
malvxjiora, Gray, in later writings, not of PI. Wright. (1852). Stems 
clustered from a tuberous-enlarged or somewhat ligneous crown, stout, 
erect from a decumbent base, or ascending, 1 — 3 ft. high : whole herbage 
rather stiffly hirsute, the hairs often fascicled in threes, spreading or 
somewhat retrorse, lower face of leaves with a sparse stellate pubescence 
beneath the hirsute : radical leaves crenate-incised, round, with open 
sinus ; cauline 7-parted, the segments deeply trifid : fl. often unisexual : 
calyx in fr. sometimes ^2 ^^- lt)iife'i "^^ry deeply cleft, the lobes broadly 



106 MALVACE^. 

lanceolate, acute : rose-red corolla often l^o in- long : achenes large, 
semiorbicular rugose-reticulate. Var. hiiinilis. *S'. linmiUs, Gray, PI. 
Fendl. 20. Often only 6 — 10 in. long and much depressed : hirsute 
pubescence scant or none : achenes more cochleate (almost orbicular). — 
The hairy type is southern, but is found in San Mateo Co. The variety, 
or perhaps a species, is the common early flowering perennial of the 
whole seaboard region of middle California. It is usually dioecious, 
the pistillate flowers being of less than half the size of the staminate. 

11. S. Californica, Gray, PI. Fendl. 19 (1849) ; Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 
286 ; Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 233 (1838), under Sida. Size and habit of 
the last, but not in the least hirsute, the whole herbage cinereous with a 
short and soft pubescence of radiate-clustered hairs.-- Of the Santa Ynez 
Mts., biit to be expected in San Luis Obispo Co. if not ui Monterey, on 
the higher mountains. 

12. S. asprella, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 78 (188.5); Gray, 1. c. 
(1887). More slender, 1 — 2 ft. high, without hirsute or hispid hairs, but 
roughish with a minute dense stellular pubescence : leaves of lower and 
upper parts of plant alike in form, all 5-lobed, the lobes with about 
5-rounded teeth : achenes rugose-reticulate throughout, dorsally some- 
what concave, the margin angled. — In the foothills of the Sierra only, 
and from Butte Co. to Calaveras. May~Jiily. 

13. S. glaucescens, Greene, 1. c. ; Gray, 1. c. Slender, 1—2 ft. high, 
glabrous, or with a minute and obscure pubescence on the altogether 
pallid and seemingly glaucous herbage : leaves all palmately divided, 
the cuneate divisions 3— 5-lobed or -toothed, or of the uppermost leaves 
linear, entire : raceme lax, few-flowered : corolla deep purple, the petals 
obtuse or truncate : achenes with elongated reticulation. In the higher 
Sierra only, from Mt. Shasta to Kern Co.; common there, and very 
beautiful. June — Sept. 

* * * Anomalous species ; perhaps sui generis, and if so, to he 
called Hesperalcea. 

14. S. iiialachroides, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 332 (1868) ; H. & A. 
Bot. Beech. 326 (1840), under Malca. Boot perennial : stems clustered, 
erect, 2-6 ft. high : herbage rough-hispidulous throughout with a 
stellate-clustered short pubescence : leaves ample, (2 —5 in. wide) cordate, 
3— 7-angled, the lobes coarsely toothed : inflorescence dioecious : fl. 
small, white, in short dense spikes at the ends of the numerous paniculate 
leafy branches : calyx-lobes broad, acute : some outer stamens joined 
in pairs beyond the tube, the others distinct : carpels somewhat stellate- 
pubescent or glabrous, the surface even, apparently dehiscent by a dorsal 
suture. -In swampy lands of the Coast Range from Santa Cruz Co. to 
Humboldt; not common. June Aug. 



MALVACE.1;. 107 

4. MODIOLA., Munich. Prostrate and more or less creeping herbs 
with pahnately divided leaves, and small flowers on long axillary 
peduncles. Involncel 3-bracted. Calyx 5-cleft. Stamineal tube simple. 
Stigmas capitate. Carpels numerous, '2-valved, partly 2-celled by the 
intrusion of a horizontal valve-like process between the 2 seeds. 

1. M. Caroliniana, Don, Diet. i. 466 (1831) ; Gray, Gen. 111. ii. 72. t. 
128 ; Linn. Sp. PI. 688 (1753), under Malia. Modiola muUifida, Moench. 
Meth. 620 ( 1794). Stems several feet long, more or less hirsute, leafy and 
flowering throughout : leaves of broad-ovate outline, truncate at base, 
palmately and deeply 5 — 7-cleft, the segments siibdivided or coarsely 
toothed : peduncles mostly solitary, 1 — 2 in. long, about eqiialling the 
petioles : corolla 3^^ in. broad, purple-red : carpels lunate, much flattened, 
hispid along the upper edge. — Naturalized at Auburn, Miss Harrison. 
Native of the southern U. S. and West Indies. 

5. SIDA. Herbs with undivided leaves. Involucel (except in ours 
where it is 3-bracteate as in the preceding). Calyx 5-cleft. Stamineal 
tube simple. Stigmas capitate. Carpels 1-celled, 1 -seeded, dehiscent or 
indehiscent, forming a short-conical fruit. Seed pendulous. 

1. S. hederacea, Torr. in Gray, PI. Fendl. 23 (1849) ; Dougl. in Hook. 
Fl. i. 107 (1830), under Malra : ,S'. obliqva, T. & G. Fl. i. 233 (1838). 
Perennial, stoutish, erect-spreading or prostrate, very leafy, }4 — 1 ft. 
high, hoary- or yellowish -tomentose throughout : leaves short-petioled, 
about 1 in. long, reniform, very oblique at base, plicate, serrate or crenate : 
fl. axillary, solitary or several arranged paniculately, the pedicels slender, 
at length deflexed : calyx subtended by 1 or 2 slender bractlets ; lobes 
acuminate : corolla ^^ in. long, cream-color : fr. short-conical, smooth, 
glabrous ; carpels 6—10, triangular, 1% lines long, attached by a straight 
ventral edge to the slender axis.— A depressed hoary weed, very common 
in low and subsaline clayey soils, throughout the interior of the State, 
and along the seaboard near salt marshes southward ; apparently easily 
propogated by its roots or rootstocks, springing up on railway embank- 
ments remote from its native soil. The fruit is very seldom seen. The 
author's many years' search for it has been rewarded with but a single 
whorl of full grown carpels. The cause of the plant's sterility should be 
enquired into. It is morphologically exceptional in either genus, Alalia 
or Sida, in which men have placed it. 

6. MALVASTRUM, A. Gray. Herbaceous or shrubby (ours mostly 
hoary-tomentose shrubs), with usually angular foliage, and solitary or 
racemose-panicled flowers. Calyx with an involucel of 1—3 bractlets, or 
none. Stamineal tube simple ; free filaments terminal and distinct. 
Styles 5 or more ; stigmas capitate. Carpels 1 -seeded, bivalvate-dehisceut 
or indehiscent. Seed ascending.— An artificial genus ; some species 
taken out of Malra solely on account of the capitate stigmas ; others 



108 MALVACEAE, 

easily referable to Sphxralcea; while the ascending ovule alone dis- 
tinguishes others from Sida. 

* Annuals. 

1. M. exile, Gray, Ives Exp. 8 (1860). Stems slender, diflFuse or ascend- 
ing, 3 — 12 in. high : herbage green but minutely and sparsely stellate- 
pubescent : leaves round-ovate, cordate or truncate at base, 5-lobed, 
sparingly toothed, 1 in. long, on slender petioles as long : fl. axillary, 
solitary or few, on slender pedicels }4. — 1 in- long : involucel of 3 linear 
bracts : calyx deeply 5-parted ; segments triangular, acuminate : corolla 
8 — 4 lines long, white : achenes 12 — 15, cochleate-rounded, less than a 
line wide, sharply rugose transversely. — A small species, of the south- 
eastern deserts ; but said to occur in Merced Co. 

2. M. Parryi. Prostrate or ascending, the purplish and often rough- 
hairy branches 1 — 2 ft. long ; herbage cinereous or hoary with a rough 
stellate pubescence : leaves 1 — 2 in. long, deeply 5-parted, the segments 
coarsely toothed or lobed : fl. mostly solitary, on slender peduncles 
1}^ — 4 in. long : involucel of 3 linear-setaceous persistent bracts }^ in. 
long : calyx-lobes deltoid-ovate, long-acuminate : petals, deep-purple, 
1.^ — % in. long : carpels 15 — 20, strongly cochleate, a line wide, sharply 
rugose transversely. — A very common early flowering annual of the 
plains and valleys of Monterey Co., and perhaps San Luis Obispo, Parry, 
Lemmon ; also near Tulare, Parry. There is a State Survey specimen 
(No. 542), obtained on the Nacimiento Kiver in 1861, which Dr. Gray had 
called " Sklalcea diploscypha ; " and, althoiagh the species bears much 
general resemblance to the annual Sidalceas — more than to any ilalras- 
Irum — it has probably been referred latterly to M. exile. Mar. — May. 

* * Shrubby or suffrulescent species. 

3. M. faseiculatum, Greene. Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 225 (1838), under 
3falva. Malvastrnm Thurberi, Gray, PI. Thurb. 307 (1854) : M. splendi- 
dum, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 65 (1855). Usually 6-8 ft. high, often 
larger and arborescent, the main stem a few inches thick ; bark smooth, 
gray ; branches long, wand-like, slender, racemose or amply racemose- 
paniculate above, these and the lower face of the leaves canescently 
short- tomentose : leaves angularly 5-lobed and coarsely toothed, 1}4 ^ 
in. long, and almost as broad : calyx-lobes triangular, as broad as long, 
acute : corolla rose-purple, % in. long : carpels smooth, tomentose 
above, promptly dehiscent : seed with a stellular-hairy minute reticu- 
lation. — A very handsome shrub or small tree, and the most common 
species, occurring from Mt. Diablo, RaUan, and Monterey Co., Abbott , 
southward throughout the State. 

4. M. Palmeri, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 250 (1877). Stouter than 
the last, the branches shorter, flexuous, the inflorescence terminal. 



MALVACEAE. 109 

subsessile : stellate tomentum coarser, yellowish or brownish : leaves 
3— 5-lob3d, the lobes and teeth obtuse ; stipules lanceolate, conspicuous: 
bractlets of the few large calyces linear-lanceolate, nearly equalling the 
acuminate calyx-lobes : petals 1 in. long, dull pinkish or yellowish 
white : carpels and seed as in the last. — Plentiful on bushy hills in San 
Luis Obispo Co., Palmer, Michael, also in Monterey and San Benito^ 
Hickman. A homely species, stouter than M. fasciculalum, equally 
shrubby though never as tall. 

5. M. marrubioides, Dur. & Hilg. Pac. R. Rep. v. 6. t. 2 (1855). 

Sufffutescent, 2 ft. high, densely tomentose : leaves thick, short-petioled, 
1^ in. long, ovate, subcordate, obscurely 3-lobed, sharply toothed : fl. 
subsessile in glomerate clusters in the axils of the upper leaves, or 
running out into a naked interrupted spike : calyx-lobes long-acuminate; 
petals rose-color, % — ^ in. long : carpels rounded or oblong, smooth and 
glabrous. — A rare or local species, as to the type, which is from Millerton, 
on the San Joaquin ; but a shrub six or eight feet high, with less con- 
densed inflorescence, but apparently much the same, is found along 
stream-banks back of Belmont, San Mateo Co. 

6. M. orbiculatum. SufFrutescent, the stout erect and simple 
branches 2—3 ft. high ; whole plant densely tomentose : leaves short- 
petioled, 1 — 2 in. long and as broad, the lower and smaller round- 
reniform, the upper orbicular, not even obscurely lobed but coarsely 
crenate, very obtuse or slightly retuse : fl. many, nearly sessile and densely 
glomerate in the axils of the upper-leaves and at almost leafless 
subterminal nodes : bractlets setaceous, much shorter than the lanceolate 
acuminate deep calyx-lobes : corolla deep rose-color, % in. long or more : 
fr. unknown. — Collected by the author, in the mountains south of 
Tehachapi, Kern Co., June, 1889 ; well marked in leaf -outline as distinct 
from the preceding and the following. 

7. M. Fremonti, Torr. in Gray, PI. Fendl. 21 (1849). Sphxralcea 
Lindheimeri, Bot. Calif, i. 85, by mistake. Suffrutescent, very stout, 
2 — 3 ft. high, densely white-tomentose : leaves very thick, short-petioled, 
1 — 3 in. long, broadly ovate, cordate at base, slightly 3— 5-lobed and 
crenate : fl. in short axillary pedunculate racemose clusters : calyx 
ovate, % ill- ^ong, only the setaceous tips of its lobes visible amid the 
deep and dense white tomentum, almost equalled by the 3 linear 
setaceous involucral bractlets : corolla % in. long, rose-color : carpels 
thin, smooth, promptly dehiscent. — From Mt. Diablo, Kalian, southward 
in the same range of hills ; also in Calaveras Co., according to Gray. 

8. M. multiflorujii. Shrubby, slender, canescently stellate through- 
out : leaves 3^ in. long or more, thin, ovate, slightly lobed and finely 
toothed : fl. numerous, small, on axillary leafy paniculate rather crowded 



110 M A L V A C E iE. 

brauchlets : calyx 3 lines long, subtended by 3 setaceous bractlets ; 
segments ovate-lanceolate, acuminate : corolla i^ in. long or less : carpels, 
snborbicular, i^ line long, wholly indehiscent, very conspicuously favose- 
reticulate both dorsally and laterally : the minute reniform seed smooth, 
glabrous.— Known only in a single fragmentary specimen, deposited in 
the herbariiim of the University long ago, with a few other specimens, 
all said to have been gathered near Monterey ; the collector's name not 
known. There is a blunt incurved very short vacant apex to the achene, ' 
suggesting that the shrub may perhaps as well be a Sphivralcea. 

9. M. Muiiroanuiii, Gray, PI. Fendl. 21 (1849) : Dougl. in Bot. Eeg. t. 
1306 (1830), under Malva. Branching from a mere woody base, 1— 2^^ 
ft. high, hoary with a scattered stellate-pubescence : leaves broadly 
ovate, cordate, 3— 5-lobed and acutely or crenately toothed, 12 in. long, 
exceeding the petiole : fl. in short and rather dense terminal and sub- 
terminal racemes : calyx-lobes acute or acuminate, 2—4 lines long : 
corolla scarlet, ^i—% in. long : carpels 2 lines long, oblong, rounded or 
short-beaked above and pubescent, reticulate on the sides toward the 
base.— A fine showy species of the Interior Basin, reaching our borders 
along the eastern base of the Sierra. 

7. SPHJIRALCEA, A. Hi. Hilaire. In all respects like Malvastrum 
except that the fruit is conical rather than depressed, the carpels being 
longer and 2-ovuled ; the lower seed ascending, the upper pendulous 
(when not wanting by abortion of the ovule). 

1. S. iucaua, Torr. in Gray, PI. Wright, i. 21 (1852), PI. Fendl. 23 
(1849), name only : S. Emoryi, Torr. in Gray 11. cc. Rather slender, 
1 2 ft. high, softly canescent with minute pubescence : leaves ovate- 
cordate, slightly 3— 5-lobed, crenate : calyx and scarlet corolla as in 
Malvastrum Munroanum, which the plant much resembles, differing 
chiefly in the longer 2-seeded carpels forming a truncate-conical fruit.— 
The publication of this dates from the Plant:© Wrightianse, only the 
names having been given in the Plantse Fendlerianse. In both places 
the name iucaua precedes Emofi/i. The plant comes barely within our 
limits along the eastern base of the Sierra, but is common in Arizona, 
New Mexico, etc. 

8. ABUTILON, Camerarius. Herbs or shrubs, usually soft-tomentose, 
with axillary solitary mostly yellow flowers. Involucel 0. Stamineal 
tube simple, autheriferous at summit. Styles 5 or more, with capitate 
stigmas. Fruit truncate-globose or -conical ; carpels dehiscent, several - 
seeded. 

1. A. AvicENN^, Gsertn. Fr. et Sem. ii. 251 (1802). Sida Abutilon, 
Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 685 (1753). A stout erect branching annual, 2—6 ft. 
high, the herbage green but velvety-pubescent and almost oily to the 



MALVACE.^. Ill 

touch : leaves roitud-cordate, acuminate, crenate-dentate, 3 — 6 in. long, 
on petioles of 2—5 in. : peduncles axillary, erect, shorter than the 
petiole : fl. small, orange-yellow : carpels about 15, inflated, obliquely 
birostrate, pubescent, 3-seeded. — A common weed in cultivated grounds 
at the East ; reported as established about Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co. 

9. HIBISCUS, Dioficorides. Stout herbs, with large and showy 
axillary and solitary flowers. Involucel of many bractlets, Stamineal 
column antheriferous below the summit ; above naked and truncate or 
5-toothed. Styles united ; stigmas 5, capitate. Carpels united into a 
5-celled lociilieidal capsule ; cells several-seeded. 

1. H. Califoriiicus, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. iv. 292 (1873) : H. 

Muscheutos, var. vccidenlalis, Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. 2-56 (1874) : H. lasio- 
■carpus, var. occidentalism Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 303 ; Wats, in 
Garden and Forest, i. 425. fig. 68. Perennial, stout, erect, branching, 
5—7 ft. high, velvety-pubescent : leaves cordate-ovate, acuminate, coarsely 
but not deeply toothed, 3 — 5 in. long, exceeding the petioles : peduncle 
jointed above the middle, 2—3 in. long, 1-flowered : calyx 1 in. long, 
cleft to the middle, the lobes acute : corolla 3 — 4 in. long, yellowish or 
cream-color, with dark purple center : capsule 1 in. long, acute, velvety- 
pubescent : seeds a line in diameter, globose, striate and tuberculate- 
roughened. — In moist or swampy places along the rivers of the interior, 
from the lower San Joaquin to Butte Co. It is possible that more than 
one species is included in the above synonymy. 

10. FREMONTIA, Torrei/. A stellate pubescent shrub or small tree 
with alternate and rather small lobed leaves ; stipules small, caducous. 
Flowers axillary, on short pedicels. Involucel of 3 — 5 small bracts. 
Calyx 5-cleft almost to the base, imbricate in bud, yellowish and petaloid, 
pitted at base, persistent. Corolla 0. Stamens 5, united to the middle 
of the filaments ; anthers linear, adnate, 2-celled, curved. Ovary 5-celled, 
many ovuled ; style acute, stigmatic at the apex. Capsule loculicidally- 
dehiscent ; cells 2— 3-seeded. Seeds ovate; embryo small, in copious 
fleshy albumen ; cotyledons ovate.— Genus monotypical, as far as known; 
unless our shrub be, as some very learned authorities assert, only a 
second species of the Mexican Cheiranihodendron. 

1. F. Califoriiica, Torr. PI. Frem. 6. t. 2 (1850) ; Hook. f. Bot. Mag. t. 
5591 ; Greene, in Garden and Forest, ii. 470 ; Sarg. Silv. i. 47. t. 23 ; 
Baill. Hist. iv. 70 (1873), under Cheiranthodendron. Arborescent and 
12—20 ft. high, or small and bushy ; branches stout ; bark dark gray : 
leaves thick, rusty-tomentose beneath, % — 23/3 in. long, broadly ovate- 
cordate, entire or 3-lobed, the lobes obtuse, mucronate ; petiole short : 
flowers many and almost crowded on the branches ; the corolla-like 
calyx 13 in. wide, yellow within, partly of a rusty- red without : capsule 



112 HYPERICE^. 

ovate, 1 in. long, densely hairy ; cells villous within : seeds ovate, 2 
lines long, pubescent. — Frequent in the lower mountains southward. 
Occasional, in a small bushy form, in Shasta and Nevada counties. A 
shrub of singular aspect, highly ornamental when in flower, especially in 
its southern and more tree-like development. It is not impossible that the 
northern and shrubby one, the very existence of which is virtually 
denied in the new Silva of North America, may prove a marked variety 
or second species. Fremont's type must have been the southern form. 
The mucilaginous properties of the bark have led to its employment as a 
substitute for that of the Slippenj Elm of the East ; and that name has 
been applied to our tree. 

Ordeb XVII. HYPERICE/E. 

J. St. Hilaire, Exposition des Families Naturelles, ii. 23 (1805). 
Hypebica, Juss. (1789). 

A small family, analogous to Malvacex, but scarcely allied to them ; 
here represented by a few species of the one principal genus of the order. 

HYPERICUM, Dioscorides (St. John's-woet). Glabrous perennials ; 
the bright green herbage punctate with pellucid or dark-colored dots. 
Leaves opposite, simple, entire, exstipulate. Inflorescence cymose ; 
flowers yellow. Sepals 5, imbricate in bud. Petals 5, convolute in bud, 
rotate in expansion. Stamens go, usually connate at base, into 3—8 
clusters. Styles 2—5, nearly or quite distinct ; ovary 1-celled with 3 
parietal placentae, or 3-celled by union of the placentae with the axis. 
Capsule with many minute seeds. 

1. H. couciimuiii, Benth. PL Hartw. 300 (1849) ; H. bracteatum, Kell. 
Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 65 (18.55). Erect, slender, wiry, very leafy, suffrutes- 
cent at base, ^o — 1 ft. high : leaves thickish and somewhat conduplicate, 
linear or linear-oblong, acute : cyme few-flowered : fl. 1 in. broad : sepals 
ovate, acuminate : stamens oo , in 3 fascicles. — Common on dry bushy 
hillsides in hard clayey soil, at middle elevations of the Coast Range, 
from San Mateo Co., Behr, northward. May, June. 

2. H. Scouleri, Hook. Fl. i. Ill (1830) ; H. formosum, var. Scoulen, 
Coult. Bot. Gaz. (1886), p. 108. Erect, slender, simple or branched above, 
altogether herbaceous from running rootstocks, 1 — 2 ft. high : leaves 
thin, shorter than the internodes, 1 in. long or less, oblong, obtuse, 
sessile, clasping : fl. large, in more or less panicled cymes : sepals oval 
or oblong, obtuse, 2 lines long or less : petals }4 i^i- long : stamens oo , 
in 3 fascicles : capsule 3-celled. — In wet grassy places throughout the 
mountain districts at middle altitudes. If this be specifically identical 
Mdth the Mexican II. formosum, it will stand almost alone among plants 
not of alpine or even subalpine habitat enjoying a range of almost three 



ELATINE.E. 113 

thousaud miles north aud south. Doubtless other characters than those 
of the form of the sepals are to be found by which the two species may 
be more satisfactorily distinguished. 

3. H. auag:alloi(les, Ch. & Schl. Linnfea, iii. 127 (1828). Diffusely 
branching, very slender, prostrate or assurgent, stolouiferous, forming a 
mat a foot or more in breadth : leaves oval or elliptical, 14^ — J^' in. long, 
obtiise, clasping, only half as long as the internodes : inflorescence leafy^- 
paniculate-cymose ; fl. scarcely 2 lines long, the obovate- or linear-oblong 
sepals exceeding the petals : stamens 15 — 20, nearly or quite distinct. 
Var. Nevadeiise. Erect from a merely decumbent and scarcely stolo- 
uiferous base, only a few inches high : leaves equalling or exceeding the 
internodes : cyme rather ample, strictly terminal, on a short naked 
peduncle : fl. 3 lines long. -The type frequent in springy places along 
the seaboard and among the coast hills, from Santa Cruz northward. 
The variety, of pronoiincetUy different aspect and inflorescence, is 
perhaps limited to the foot-hills of the Sierra. It may prove a species. 

Obder XVIII. E L A T I N E /E . 

Cambessides, in Memoires du Museum, xviii. 225 (1829). 
Low annuals with opposite leaves, membranous stipules, and axillary 
regular symmetrical 2 --5-merous flowers. Sepals, petals and stamens all 
distinct, hypogynous. Styles distinct ; stigmas capitate ; ovary 2—5- 
celled, becoming a 2— 5-celled capsule with central placenta and a 
septicidal or septifragal dehiscence. Seeds straight or curved. 

1. ELATINE, Linnxus (Watbe-wort). Glabrous dwarf and rather 
succulent plants of wet places, sometimes aquatic and floating. Flowers 
axillary. Sepals 2—4, nerveless, obtuse, persistent. Petals 2—4. 
Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals. Styles, or sessile 
stigmas, 2- 4. Pod thin, globose, 2— 4-celled, several- or many-seeded. 
Seeds cylindrical, straight or curved, striate-pitted. 

1. E. brachysperma, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xiii. 361 (1878). Commonly 
terrestrial : leaves oblong or oval, attenuate at base, sometimes lanceolate, 
14 in. long or less : fl. sessile, mostly dimerous ; stamens 2 or 3 : seed 
oval, nearly straight, I4 line long, coarsely pitted in 6 or 7 lines of 10—12 
pits. —Plains of the interior of the State, in very wet places ; also near 
the coast southward. 

2. E. Californica, Gray, 1. c. Floating : leaves obovate, narrowed at 
base, the lowest with petiole as long as the blade : fl. short-pedicellate ; 
sepals and petals 3 or 4 each ; stamens twice as many : seeds circinate- 
incurved, ^g line long, minutely pitted in 10—12 lines of about 25 pits.— 
In Sierra Valley, Lemnion. 

2. BERGIA, Liiiiiieas. Coarser annuals, not succulent, pubescent. 



114 FRANKENIACE^. 

Flowers pedicellate and often fascicled, 5-merous. Sepals with strong 
midrib, acute. Capsule crustaceous, more or less of the partitions 
remaining with the axis. 

1. B. Texana, Seubert, in Walp. Kep. i. 285 (1842) ; Hook. Ic. t. 278 
(1839), under Merimea ; T. & G. Fl. i. 678, under Elatine. Diffusely 
branched, the branches a foot long more or less ; herbage glandular- 
pubescent : leaves oblanceolate, acute, serrulate, % — 1% iii- long, nar- 
rowed to a short petiole : fl. fascicled, pedicellate ; sepals carinate, 1% 
lines long, exceeding the petals and stamens : capsule globose : seeds 
smooth and shining. — Moist or very wet places along rivers and ditches, 
from the middle Sacramento valley, southward to Merced. Although 
first detected in California by the author, in 1874, the plant is no rarity 
in the interior of the State. June — Oct. 

Order XIX. FRANKENIACE/E. 
A. St. Hilaire, Bull, de la Soc. Philom. 22,(1815). 

An order embracing scarcely more than the genus 

FRANKENIA, Linnxus. Herbs or undershrubs with opposite entire 
small exstipulate leaves usually sessile and even united at base by a 
slight membranous continuation of the blade. FL small, solitary and 
sessile in the axils of the very numerous branches and brauchlets, usually 
5-merous and complete. Calyx tubular, fiirrowed ; the lobes valvate and 
induplicate in bud. Petals hypogynous, narrowed to a claw which bears 
an appendage on its inner face. Stamens hypogynous. Style cleft into 
2—4 filiform divisions ; ovary 1-celled. Capsule invested by the 
persistent calyx ; the few or several seeds attached to the margins of 
the 2 — 4 valves. 

1. F. graiidifolia, Ch. & Schl. Linnaea, i. 35 (1826) ; Torr, Bot. Mex, 
Bound. 36. t. 5. Somewhat woody at base, erect, much branched and 
slender, % 1 ft. high, glabroiis or soft-pubescent, very leafy : leaves 
obovate to narrowly oblanceolate, revolute, ^ — % ™- long, of a dull 
green : calyx linear, }^ in. long, strongly furrowed, the lobes short, acute : 
petals small, red, the blade 1 line long or more, erose at summit, the 
appendage of the claw bifid : stamens 4—7 : style 3-cleft : capsule shorter 
than the calyx, linear, angular : seeds numerous.— A homely plant of the 
salt marshes along the seaboard, and subsaline moist plains of the 
interior ; glistening with a briny dew in a moist atmosphere, more or 
less incrusted with salt when the air is dry. Flowering all summer. 

Order XX. CARYOPHYLLE>€. 

Linnoeus, Philosophia Botanica, 31 (1751). 
Herbs or suffrutescent plants with inert watery juice, mostly opposite 
leaves and s-wollen nodes. Inflorescence usually dichotomous. Flowers. 



CARYOPHYLLE^. 115 

mostly 5-merous, complete and i-egular. Sepals united or distinct, 
imbricate in bud, persistent. Petals imbricate or convolute, often bifid, 
sometimes wanting-. Stamens usually 10, occasionally 5, distinct, hypogy- 
nous around a ring- like disk, or perigynous by cohesion of disk with calyx- 
tube. Styles 2—5, mostly distinct and with decurrent stigmas. Fruit 
a capsule opening by valves or teeth. — A large order, chiefly of northern 
or temperate regions ; of small economic importance, though the Old 
World genus Diaiitlius furnishes the carnations, picotees and other pinks 
of the florists ; and some other genera, such as Lychnis and Silene are 
more or less cultivated as ornamental plants. 

Hints of the <]<enera.. 

Calyx garaophyllous and tubular, at. least below; toothed or cleft at summit, 1—4 
Sepals distinct, or nearly so; 
Stipules wanting; 

Petals bifid, or at least emarginate, - - 5, 6 
'• entire, or at most only retuse, - -7,8 
Stipules present (scarious or setiforra) ; 

Petals, if present, conspicuous, 9, 10 
" minute, - - - - 11, 12 

1. VACCARIA, Dodonxus. A glabrous glaucous annual much 
branched above. Calyx gamosepalous, pyramidal with 5 prominent 
angles. Petals 5, unguiculate, not appendaged. Stamens 10. Styles 2. 
Capsule ovate, 1-celled, but with rudimentary partitions at base, 4-toothed 
at apex. 

1. V. VTJLGAEis, Host, Fl. Austr. i. 518 (1827). Saponaria Vaccaria, 
Linn. (1753). Lychnis Vaccaria, Scop. (1772). Erect, 1—2 ft. high, 
simple below, cymose-paniculate above : leaves cordate-ovate, acute, 
entire, sessile : petals red ; blade obcordate ; claw linear : styles short : 
seeds dark-colored.— An Old World weed of grain-fields, becoming frequent 
in our region. 

2. AGROSTEMMA, Linnxus (Corn-Cockle). Tall annual, sparingly 
branched above ; pubescent, not viscous. Calyx gamosepalous, tubular, 
coriaceous, 10-ribbed, 5-toothed. Petals 5, unguiculate. Capsule cori- 
aceous, 1-celled, 5-toothed. 

1. A. GiTHAGO, Linn. Sp. PL i. 435(1753) ; Lam. Encycl. iii. 643 (1789), 
under Lychnis. Erect, 2—4 ft. high, soft-hirsute : leaves linear-lanceo- 
late, connate at base : fl. solitary on long upright peduncles : calyx 1% 
in. long, the linear teeth as long as the tube, deciduous from the mature 
fruit : petals purple, not equalling the calyx-teeth ; limb broad, obtuse, 
entire ; claw unappendaged.— A weed of the grain-fields, more pernicious 
than Vaccaria, but not yet common in California. It has been found at 
Berkeley. 

3. LYCHNIS, Theophraslus. Herbs usually pubescent and more or 



116 CAEYOPHYLLE^. 

less viscid. Calyx gamosepalous, membranaceous, striate, 5-toothed. 
Petals commonly with cleft limb and appendaged claw. Stamens 10. 
Styles 5 or 4. Pod 1 -celled, opening by as many or twice as many teeth 
as there are styles. 

1. L. Californica, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 248 (1877). Perennial, 
cespitose, 2 — 4 in. high, glandular-puberulent above : leaves linear to 
linear-oblanceolate : ti. 1 — 3, on slender pedicels : calyx ovate-campann- 
late, y^ ill- long or less : blade of petal obovate, bifid, each segment lobed 
at the side : capsule short-stipitate, — A somewhat rare plant of the 
high Sierra. 

4. SILENE, LobeUus (Catchfly). Habit of Lychnis, and flowers 
about the same, often vespertine. Styles 3. Pod sometimes 3-celled at 
base, at summit dehiscent by 3 or 6 teeth. 

* Annuals. 

1. S. antirrhina, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 419 (1753). Erect, slender, loosely 
paniculate throughout, or more commonly simple below, glabrous, gland- 
less except a viscid belt of an inch, more or less, in the middle of each 
internode of the branches : leaves lanceolate, acute, 1 in. long : pedicels 
erect : mature calyx oval, 3 lines long, the teeth short : petals red, the 
blade emarginate a line long ; crown inconspicuous : seeds minutely 
papillose. — Common enough, in sandy soil, both along the seaboard and 
in the interior. The petals are very seldom seen, though perhaps never 
wanting. Mar. Apr. 

2. S. Gallica, Linn. 1. c. 417. Slender, 1 ft. high, sparingly branched 
or nearly simple, hirsute : leaves spatulate, 1 — l^o in. long : fl. racemose 
on very short pedicels, rose-color : petals with obovate entire blade and 
small appendages. One of the commonest weeds of fields and waysides ; 
the small flowers usually forming a one-sided spike or raceme ; the petals 
not withering so early in the day as in other species of the group. Mar. Jun. 

3. S. RACEMOSA, Otto, in DC. Prodr. i. 384 (1824). Stoutish, rather 
roughly pubescent, l}^ — 2 ft. high, dichotomously racemose from near 
the base : leaves lanceolate : fl. white, fragrant, ^o in. broad, unilateral : 
blade of petal cuneate-obovate, deeply bifid.— Occasional in fields about 
Berkeley ; flowers pure white, very fragrant, strictly vespertine ; plant 
about twice as large as »S'. Gallica and quite showy. 

4. S. NOCTiFLORA, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 419 (1753). Stoutish, loosely dichoto- 
mous, 1 3 ft. high, viscid-pubescent : lower leaves spatulate 3—4 in. 
long, upper lanceolate : fl. few, peduncled : calyx more than 1 in. long, 
the teeth subulate : corolla 1 in. broad ; petals bifid and appendaged. 
Uncommon, but occasionally met with along railroads and by waysides 



CAEYOPHYLLE^. 117 

in the mountain districts. Flowers of a rather dull greenish white and 
very strictly vespertine. 

* * Pereaniah ; leafy Ihroaghoui, usually loir. 

5. S. Meiiziesii, Hook. Fl. i. 99. t. 30 (1830) : S. Dorrii, Kell. Proc. 
Calif. Acad. iii. 14. tig. 12 (1863). Stems numerous, slender, decumbent, 
dichotomous, branching freely, % — 1 ft. high ; herbage glandular- 
puberulent : leaves ovate-lanceolate or -oblong, acute at each end, 1 — 2 
in. long : peduncles lateral and terminal, equalling the leaves, 1-flowered : 
petals white, 3—4 lines long, equalling the ovate calyx, bifid, unappend- 
aged : capsule ovate-oblong : seeds nearly black, tuberculate. — Dry 
woods of the Sierra Nevada, from Mono Lake northward. A small- 
flowered species, somewhat resembling an Arenaria, and the corolla not 
vespertine. 

6. S. Hookeri, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 193 (1838) ; Hook. f. Bot. Mag. 
t. 605] : S. Bolanden, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 330 (1865). Hoary- 
pubescent, 3 -10 in. high, very slender : leaves 1 — 2 in. long, spatulate, 
acute : fl. few, large, erect, on pedicels IJ^g ^^- loug : calyx % in.: petals 
twice as long, pale pink or white, the broad claw ciliate below, the blade 
cut into 4-6 lanceolate or linear entire or bifid segments ; appendages 
lanceolate, decurrent upon the claw. — From Mendocino and Plumas 
counties northward, on hillsides in the wooded country. 

7. S. Californica, Durand, PI. Pratt. 83 (1855). Puberulent and more 
or less glandular, 4 in. to 4 ft. high, simple or sparingly branched above : 
leaves ovate to oblanceolate, l}^ — 4 in. long, acute or acuminate : fl. 
large, on short pedicels : calyx 7-10 lines long: petals scarlet, deeply 
parted, the segments bifid, their lobes 2 — 3-toothed or entire, often with 
a linear lateral tooth; appendages oblong-lanceolate: capsule J^ in. long, 
ovate, short-stipitate. — From Placer and Mendocino counties southward 
in the mountains perhaps throughout the State. 

8. S. cainpanulata, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 341 (1875). Glandular- 
puberulent, ^2 — 1/2 ft. high, dichotomously branched above : leaves 
lanceolate, acute, 1 — 1^4 in. long : fl. on short deflexed pedicels : calyx 
inflated, campanulate, J^ in. long, rather deeply lobed, the lobes broad, 
obtxise or acutish, finely net-veined : petals % in. long, pale flesh color 
or greenish ; claw pubescent ; limb 4-parted nearly to the base, the lobes 
bifid to the middle or the lateral ones entire or merely notched ; append- 
ages oblong, entire, fleshy : filaments pubescent, exserted : ovary sub- 
globose, short-stipitate. — In the Coast Eange from Mendocino Co. 
northward. 

9. S. Lyallii, Wats. 1. c. Stems slender, ascending ; herbage glabrous, 
the inflorescence puberulent: leaves narrowly oblanceolate, 1 — 2 in. 
long : fl. few, in a dichotomous cyme, the slender pedicels erect : calyx 



118 CARYOPHYLLE^. 

inflated, campanulate, I3 in. long, net-veined above ; teeth broad, obtuse : 
petals brownish purple, 7 lines long ; claw naked ; limb shortly bifid ; 
appendages oblong, entire : anthers not exserted : ovary narrowly 
oblong. — Near Gold Lake and in Sierra Valley, Sierra Co. 

«• * Perennials ; erect, leafy only below the panicled or racemose 

inflorescence ; calyx oblong or clacate, never inflated. 

■i- Petals 4-paried or -cleft. 

10. S. laciiiiata, Cav. Icon. vi. 44. t. 564 (1801) ; Lindl. Bot. Eeg. t. 
1444. Lychnis pulchra, Ch. & Schl. Linnasa, v. 234 (1830). Pubescent 
and viscid, erect or ascending, 1 — 2 ft. high : leaves narrowly oblanceolate 
to linear, 2 — 3 in. long : ti. few or many, on elongated branches, 1 in. 
broad, bright scarlet, the pedicels (3>^— 3 in. long) not reflexed in fruit : 
petals deeply 4-cleft, the lobes linear, acute ; appendages ovate : capsule 
oblong : seed strongly tuberculate on the back.- -From the vicinity of 
Sacramento southward, but not common within our limits ; more preva- 
lent in the southern counties. 

11. S. Leinmoni, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 342 (1875). Only the 
inflorescence viscid-pubenilent : slender stems erect, from a decum- 
bent perennial branching base, 8 — 12 in. high, branched : leaves mostly 
on the young shoots, oblong-lanceolate to spatulate, acute : fl. in an open 
panicle, the slender pedicels erect or at length deflexed, % — % in. long : 
calyx ovate-cylindric, ^i in. long ; teeth acutely triangular : petals rose- 
color, 6—8 lines long ; blade broad, 4-cleft nearly to the base, the lobes 
linear, entire or notched ; appendages lanceolate, entire ; claw villous : 
ovary oblong. — Webber Lake Valley in the Sierra Nevada, Lemmon. 

12. S. CKliCideutalis, Wats. 1. c. 343. Often somewhat tomentose 
below, glandular-puberulent above : stems stoutLsh, erect, 1 14, — 2 ft. 
high, simple or branching : leaves oblanceolate, acute, more or less 
ciliate at base, 2—4 in. long : fl. in an open panicle, erect or nodding on 
slender pedicels ^3 l^o i^- lo^^g ■ calyx cylindrical, }b, in. long or more ; 
teeth ovate, obtuse : petals larger, deep purple, 4-cleft into almost equal 
lobes, or the lateral ones shorter ; appendages linear, entire, half as long 
as the limb ; claw slightly villous, without auricles : filaments slightly 
exserted : ovary oblong, I4 in. long, on a stipe as long.— Plumas Co. 

13. S. montana, W^ats. 1. c. Puberulent : stems slender, from a 
decumbent branching perennial base, mostly simple, 1 ft. high : leaves 
narrowly oblanceolate, acuminate, l}i~2 in. long : panicle narrow ; fl. 
erect, on short pedicels : calyx cylindrical. 9i in. long ; teeth oblong, 
acutish : petals little exceeding the calyx, rose-color ; blade deeply 
4-cleft into linear entire equal segments ; claw with basal auricles and 
terminal appendages somewhat lacerate : capsule oblong, its stipe 2 
lines long. — Sierra Co., and eastward in Nevada. 



CARYOPHYLLE^. 119 

14. S. Beruardiua, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxiv. 82 (1889). Glandular- 
jjuberulent : stems slender, from slender rootstocks, 1 ft. high, few- 
flowered : leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate, 1 — 2 in. long : peduncles 
slender, 1 3-flowered : calyx jo in. long, cylindrical, with oblong-ovate 
teeth : petals greenish, 8 lines long ; limb cleft to below the middle into 
4 equal narrow lobes ; api>endage nearly half the length of the limb, 
2-parted, the outer segment linear, entire, the inner oblong and lacerate ; 
claw naked, broadly auricled : stamens unequal, included : capsule 
oblong, short-stipitate. — Tulare Co., Palmer (n. 185), June, 1888. 

15. H. Shockleyi, Wats. 1. c. xxv. 127 (1890). Puberulent, slender, 
8 — 8 in. high : leaves linear-oblanceolate, 1 — 2 in. long : fl. few or soli- 
tary : calyx viscid-pubescent, cylindrical, 6 — 8 lines long, the acute lobes 
1}4 lines : petals rose-color or greenish ; limb equally 4-cleft to below 
the middle ; claws auricled ; appendages broad and more or less laciniate: 
stamens and styles equalling the petals : capsule oblong, long-stipitate : 
seeds tuberculate on the back. — At high altitudes on the White Moun- 
tains, Mono Co., Shockley ; collected in August, 1888. 

-i— 4— Petals bifid. 

16. S. pectiuata, Wats. 1. c. x. 344. Viscid-pubescent, erect, stout, 
1 — 1% in. high : leaves lanceolate, acuminate, 13^ — 2% in. long, the 
radical long-petioled : panicle narrow, strict or spreading ; fl. erect, on 
pedicels % — 1 in. long : calyx oblong, 3^ — ^ in. long, cleft almost to the 
middle into narrow acute teeth : petals rose-color or purple, 1 in. long ; 
claw naked, not auricled ; limb broadly oblong, deeply bifid, the segments 
obtuse ; appendages lanceolate, entire : ovary oblong, subsessile : seeds 
finely tuberculate. — In Plumas and Sierra counties, Lemmon, Mrs. Ames. 

17. S. incoiiipta, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 330 (1868). Viscid- 
puberulent : stems cespitose and leafy at base, 1 ft. high, simple or 
loosely branching above : leaves broadly lanceolate, acute, 1% — 2% in, 
long : fl. on slender and short pedicels : calyx oblong-cylindric, % in. 
long, the oblong teeth acute : petals % in. long, light rose-color ; limb 
cleft into 2 ovate-oblong toothed lobes ; claw naked, narrowly auricled ; 
appendages short, toothed : capsule ovate, short-stipitate : seed small, 
not tuberculate. — Neighborhood of Yosemite. 

18. S. Douglasii, Hook. Fl. i. 88 (1830) : S. muUicauUs, Nutt. in T. & 
O. Fl. i. 192 (1838). Finely puberulent, rarely somewhat glandular 
above : stems erect, slender, % — IJ^ ft. high, few-flowered : leaves 
narrowly oblanceolate or linear, 1 — 2 in. long : fl. erect, on slender 
pedicels : calyx oblong-cylindric, often somewhat inflated, 5 — 7 lines 
long ; teeth broad, acutish : petals rose-purplish or white, 8 — 10 lines 
long, with broad obtuse lobes, auricled claw and narrow appendages : 



120 CARYOPHYLLE.E. 

capsule obloug-ovate, long-stipitate : seeds strongly tuberculate on the 
back. — In the Sierra, from Donner Lake northward. 

19. S. Brid§:esii, Rohrb. Ind. Sem. Berol. (1867) & Monogr. Sil. 204 
(1868). Finely pubescent below, viscid above r stems erect, slender, 
simple, 1 ft. high or taller ; leaves narrowly oblanceolate, acute or 
acuminate, 1 — 2 in. long : fi. racemose, on slender spreading pedicels 
3 — 6 lines long : calyx oblong-cylindric, 4 5 lines long ; teeth narrow, 
acute : the white narrow bifid petals % in. long ; lobes narrowly 
linear ; appendages very small : styles long : capsule ovate. — Yosemite. 

20. S. verecuiida, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 334 (1875) : ,S'. Engel- 
mannii, var. Behru, Rohrb. in Linn^ea, xxxvi. 264 (1869). Pubescent and 
viscid throughout : stems clustered, ^3— l^a ft. high, erect or decumbent : 
leaves oblanceolate, acute, 1—2 in. long : fl. few, erect, on stoutish 
pedicels % — 1 in. long : calyx oblong-cylindric, ).^' in. long ; teeth 
triangular, acutish : petals ^4 in. long, rose-color : limb bifid to the 
middle ; lobes linear, the inner entire, outer commonly with a tooth near 
the base ; appendages notched at apex ; claw narrowly auricled : capsule 
oblong-ovate : seeds strongly tubercled on the back. — Common on the 
San Francisco peninsula from near the Presidio, and the Mission Hills, 
to Point San Pedro, San Mateo Co. Mar.— June. 

21. S. Ludoviciana, Wats. 1. c. xxiii. 261 (1888). Glandular-pubescent 
throughout, 1 ft. high : leaves narrowly linear, 2 in. long or less : 
peduncles 1 — 2-flowered, equalling the floral leaves : calyx narrow- 
cylindrical, }2 in. long ; teeth oblong-ovate, scarious-margined and 
ciliate : petals ,^4 in. long, the oblong limb bifid to the middle, with or 
without lateral teeth ; claw narrowly auriculate ; narrowly oblong 
appendages acute, more or less lacerately toothed : capsule subcylindric, 
on a stipe l^^o lines long : seeds flattened, tuberculate. — Monterey and 
San Luis Obispo counties. 

0. CERASTIUM, IJllIenhts (Mouse-ear Chickweed). Soft-pubescent 
and slightly clammy low herbs, with white flowers in leafy- or scarious- 
bracted dichotomous cymes. Sepals 5, neither carinate nor 3-nerved. 
Petals 5, bifid or emarginate. Stamens 10. Styles 5, rarely 4 or 3. Cap- 
sule cylindric, often incurved, thin and translucent, 1-celled, 00 -seeded, 
dehiscent at apex by about 10 teeth. Seeds rouudish-reniform, scarcely 
compressed, commonly granulate. 

1. C. viscosuM, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 437 (1753). Annual, soft-pubescent and 
somewhat clammy, the branches erect or ascending from a decumbent 
base, ^—l ft. high : leaves ovate, obovate, or oblong-spatulate, i^ — 1 in. 
long ; bracts of the inflorescence herbaceous throughout : cymes in 
early state rather dense : pedicels even in fruit only 2 lines long ; the 
calyx as long, the sepals acute : petals shorter than the calyx : capsule 



CARYOPHYLLE^. 121 

nearly straight, much longer than the calyx. — One of the most common 
weeds of early spring ; the corolla expanding only in sunshine or at 
mid-day. Native of Europe. Feb. — Apr. 

2. C. vuLGATUM, Linn. Sp. PI. 2d ed. i. 627 (1762). Much like the 
last, but root perennial : stems cespitosely branched at base : leaves 
oblong ; bracts scarious tipped : fl. more densely clustered and larger : 
fruiting pedicels much longer : sepals obtuse : jjetals equalling the 
calyx. Common enough in Oregon and Washington, this has been but 
once noticed in California ; Plumas Co., Mrs. Austin. 

3. C. arvense, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 438 (1753). Perennial, cespitose, downy 
with reflexed hairs, the inflorescence somewhat viscid : branches 4—8 in. 
high: leaves linear-lanceolate, 4— 10 lines long, acutish: cyme contracted, 
bearing about 3 flowers (sometimes 5 ; as often 1 only), the branches 
ascending, often little exceeding the pedicel of the first flower ; bracts 
ovate, obtuse, siiberect : sepals ovate-oblong, obtuse, scarious-margined, 
11^— 2 lines long: the obcordate petals twice as long: capsule nearly 
straight, little exceeding the calyx. Var. maximum, Holl. & Britt. 
Bull. Torr. Club, xiv. 47. t, 64 (1887). Often 1% ft. high : leaves linear 
to lanceolate, often 2 in. long : cyme not only repeatedly dichotomous 
(12— 20-flowered), but the branches almost divaricate ; floral bracts 
lanceolate and spreading : capsule more than twice the length of the 
calyx.— The type, quite like the European plant in all respects, is common 
on rocky and bushy hills about San Francisco, crossing the straits into 
Marin Co., but not reported east of the Bay. The variety, of which the 
most pronounced type is from Humboldt Co., Marshall, is in the State 
Survey collection as from Mendocino Co., Bolander. 

4. C. pilosum, Ledeb. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. v. 359 (1815) : C. 
ohIongifoUuin, Pac. K. Eep. iv. 70. Perennial, erect, stout, more or less 
densely pilose, the inflorescence glandular-viscid : leaves oblong-lanceo- 
late, 1-2 — 1 in. long, 1—6 lines broad, acute, almost sheathing at base : 
fl. few, large, in a terminal leafless cyme : sepals 3—4 lines long, obtuse; 
petals longer : capsule 6 —10 lines long, the slender teeth at length 
circinate-revolute.— A remarkable Siberian and Alaskan species, said to 
have been found long ago, on Point Eeyes, Bigelow. 

6. STELLARIA, LinnR'us (Chickweed). Low herbs with mostly 
quadrangular stems, no stipules, and small axillary and solitary, or 
terminal and cymose white flowers. Flowers as in Ceraslium, but styles 
usually 3 only, sometimes 2 or 4. Capsule globose or oblong, cleft below 
the middle into twice as many valves as there are styles. 
* Leaves ovale, peliolale ; root annual. 

1. S. MEDIA, With. Bot. Arr. 418 (1776) ; Vill. Dauph. iii. 615 (1789) ; 



122 CARYOPHYLLE^. 

Smith, Fl. Brit. ii. 473 (1800). Alsiae media, Camerarius, Hort. Med. 11 
(1558) ; Bauh. Pin. 250 (1623) ; Linn. Sp. PI. i. 272 (1753). Weak, flaccid, 
procumbent, rooting at the lower joints ; stems marked by a pubescent 
line : leaves ovate, I4 — 9i in. long, on slender petioles, or the upper 
sessile : floral bracts foliaceous ; pedicels slender, deflexed in fruit : 
calyx pubescent : stamens 3—10 : capsule oblong-ovate, 2—3 lines long, 
equalling or exceeding the calyx. — A very common weed of shady places, 
or sometimes in open ground. Dec. — June. 

* * Leaves lanceolate, sessile ; perennials, except n. 2. 

2. S. iiitens, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 185 (1838). Annual, the stems 
almost capillary, diffuse, sparingly leafy, 3—6 in. high, the whole plant 
very glabrous and shining, or with a slight pubescence below : leaves 
1^ — 1^ in. long, acute, the lower short-petiolate : fl. erect, on short 
pedicels, in a very lax bractless cyme: sepals 3-nerved, narrow, acuminate, 
2 lines long : petals deeply bifid, only half as long, sometimes ; capsule 
oblong, shorter than the calyx. Of the Coast Range, plains of the interior, 
and Sierra foot-hills ; very common, yet so delicate and inconspicuous 
as to be easily overlooked. Mar. —May. 

3. S. umbellata, Turcz. Oat. Baikal, n. 245 (1838). Glabrous, very 
slender, ascending, from slender creeping scaly rootstocks, 3—5 in. high, 
sparingly leafy, umbellate-cymose : leaves spreading, elliptic- or oblong- 
lanceolate, acute at each end, 4—8 lines long : pedicels elongated : sepals 
ovate-lanceolate, 1 — 1%, lines long, 1-nerved : petals : capsule about 
2—3 lines long. — High Sierra, in the Yosemite region. July. 

4. S. loiiglpes, Goldie, in Edinb. Phil. Journ. vi. 185 (1822). Glabrous 
and of a bright shining green, or glaucescent, erect or ascending, 2 in. to 
W2 ft. high : leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, %—^% in. long, acute, 
rather rigid, usually ascending : fl. few, on long and slender pedicels, 
these scarious-bracted or bractless : sepals IJ^- 2)^ lines long, scarcely 
nerved : petals as long or longer : capsule ovate-oblong, exserted and 
dark-colored at maturity : seed smooth.— Yosemite and northward. 

5. S. borealis, Bigel. Fl. Bost. 2d ed. 182 (1824). Glabrous and bright 
green, the slender stems usually weak and decumbent, leafy up to the 
leafy-bracted cyme, li—1% ft. high : leaves ovate-oblong to linear- 
lanceolate, 1^—2 in. long, acute, usually spreading, sometimes ascending: 
pedicels ^.i in. long, spreading or deflexed : sepals ovate to lanceolate, 
1—2 lines long : petals not longer, 2-parted or : capsule ovate, If^- 2 
lines long : seed smooth.— In marshes of Mendocino Oo., Bolander; a 
very large form. 

6. S. crispa, Oh. & Schl. in Linnaea, i. 51 (1826). Near the last, but 
smaller, more leafy, less distinctly cymose : leaves ovate, elliptical or 
lanceolate, acute or acuminate, %—% in. long, the margin more or less 



CARYOPHYLLE^. 123 

uudulate-crisped : ti.. solitary in the axils, or few in a cyme : sepals 
ovate-lanceolate ; the petals not equalling them : capsule ovate-oblong, 
little exserted : seeds smoothish. — From the Calaveras Big Trees, Hooker 
lO Gray, to Auburn, 3[iss Harrison, and northward to Alaska. 

7. S. Jamesii, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 169 (1827). Erect and 
rather stout, }4 — 1 ft. high ; herbage deep dull green, pubescent and 
very viscid : leaves lanceolate, acuminate, 1 ~3 in. long : cyme leafy, 
rather contracted, the branches short and divaricate : sepals oblong, 
acute, 2 —3 lines long, shorter than the 2-parted petals : capsule ovate, 
shorter than the calyx : seed smooth. — Dry pine woods of the middle 
Sierra, from Kern Co., Greene, northward. 

8. S. littoralis, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 69 (1857). Pubescent, ascend- 
ing, stoutish, 1 ft. high : leaves 1 in. long, ovate, acute, rounded at base, 
rather thick : .fl. in a terminal compound cyme : sepals lanceolate, acute, 
3 lines long, obscurely 3-nerved, shorter than the 2-parted petals : 
capsule included within the calyx. — At Point Reyes, near the seashore, 
Bigeloiv. 

7. ARENARIA, Chabrxus (Sandwoet). Mostly low tufted herbs 
with sessile usually subulate often rigid leaves and no stipules ; flowers 
white, cymose-panicled or capitate-clustered. Sepals 5 or 4. Petals as 
many, entire, emarginate, or 0. Styles 3, opposite as many sepals. 
Capsule globose or ovoid, dehiscent into as many entire, 2-cleft, or 
2-parted valves as there are styles. Seed reniform-globose, or laterally 
compressed. 

* Cespiiose perennials with scarious-bracted inflorescence ; valves of the cap- 
sule 3, clefl. or parted ; seeds not carunculate. — Arenaria proper. 

1. A. cougesta, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 178 (1838). Brewerina suffru- 
tescens. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 620 (1873). Glabrous, 6—10 in. high, 
from a cespitose and suffrutescent base : leaves linear-subulate, scabrous 
on the margin, rigid and somewhat pungent, those of the low sterile 
shoots 1— 2io in. long, of the stem ^2—1 in. long, spreading or suberect : 
fl. subsessile in several capitate-congested terminal fascicles, or pedicelled 
and subumbellate : sepals ovate-oblong, scarious-margined, obscurely 
3-nerved, 1%~1% lines long, acute : petals narrowly oblong, 3 — 4 lines : 
stigmas capitellate : capsule coriaceous, about equalling the calyx : 
seeds small, angular.— In the higher Sierra from near Donner Lake 
northward ; the flowers less crowded than in Nuttall's type from the 
northern Rocky Mt. region, the herbage less glaucous, etc. The capitel- 
late character of the stigmas is exceptional in this family ; and on this 
Dr. Gray at one time held the plant to be of a distinct generic type ; a 
view afterwards relinquished. 

2. A. capillaris, Poir. Encycl. vi. 380 (1804) : A. nardlfolia, Ledeb. 



124 CARYOPHYLLE^, 

in Hook. Fl. i. 98. t. 32 & Fl. Alt. ii. 166 (1830). Habit and foliage of the 
preceding, but leaves shorter : stems 6 — 10 in. high, very viscid above, 
especially the pedicels of the umbellate or more open and dichotomoiis 
cyme ; bracts small, lanceolate : calyx with a broad almost truncate 
base ; sepals ovate, acute, 3-nerved, membranously margined, l^^j — 2 
lines long ; petals longer : capsule somewhat exceeding the calyx. — High 
Sierra, but less common than the preceding; Donner Pass, Turiey; 
Webber Lake, C. T. Blake. 

3. A. pun^eiis, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 179 (1838). Rather compactly 
cespitose but not woody ; the short leafy and flowering branches erect ; 
herbage glandular-pubescent : leaves linear-si;bulate, pungent, 3 — 5 lines 
long, crowded : fl. few in an open leafy-bracted cyme : sepals lanceolate 
acuminate, pungent, 1%—^ lines long, obscurely 3-nerved : petals 
scarcely equalling the calyx : capsule shorter, few-seeded : seeds 
smooth. — In the higher Sierra, from Tuolumne Co. northward. 

* * Low annuals ; cymes foliaceous-bracted ; valves of capsule 3, entire: 
seeds not carunculate. — Old genus Alsine. 

4. A. Douglasii, T. & G. Fl. i. 674 (1840) ; Fenzl. (1833), under Alsine. 
Sparsely pubescent with spreading gland-tipped hairs, or glabrous, 
slender, branching, 3 — 12 in. high : leaves filiform, ^^ — li/g in- long, 
ascending or spreading, slightly connate at base : fl. large, on long slender 
pedicels : sepals oblong-ovate, acute, 1% lines long, 1 — 3-nerved : petals 
obovate, 2 lines long or more : capsule globose, equalling the calyx ; 
seeds large, smooth, compressed and acutely angled. — On stony hill-tops 
and sandy or gravelly plains throughout the State. Mar., Apr. 

5. A. Califoriiica, Brewer, in Boland. Catal. 6 (1870); A. hrerifolia 
var. (?) Calif ornica. Gray, Proc. Calif. Acad. iii. 101 (1864). Glabrous, 
very slender, 2 — 3 in. high : leaves lanceolate, obtusish, ] — 2 lines long : 
fl. small, on slender pedicels : sepals oblong-ovate, acute, 3-nerved, 
1 — 1% lines long ; petals spatulate, 2 lines : capsule oblong, as long as 
the calyx : seeds small, sharply muriculate. — Less common than the 
preceding, and confined to middle jiarts of the State. Apr., May. 

6. A. palnstris, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 70 (1876) ; Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad, 
iii. 61 (1863), under Alsine. Glabrous, flaccid, decumbent, leafy through- 
out, ^2 — 2 ft. high : leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, Jg — 1 in. long : fl. 
few, large, long-pedicelled : sepals elliptic, obtuse or acutish, nerveless, 
herbaceous, but with a narrow scarious margin, 1% — 2 lines long : petals 
oblong, twice longer : capsule oblong, shorter than the calyx : seeds 
numerous. — Dr. Kellogg, writing of this from San Francisco almost 
thirty years ago says: " A plant very abundant in swamps in this vicinity, 
known to us for the last ten years." It does not appear to have been 
seen by any one in recent years. Dr. Behr, who knew the original 



CARYOPHYLLEiE. 125 

locality, says it is extinct there. Mr. Parish has discovered it, or a plant 
very like it, in a marsh near San Bernardino. 

* * * Flotcers sovtelimes 4-fnerous; valves of capsule bifid; seeds ii:Hh a 
small caruncle at the hilum. — Genus Mcehkingia, Linn. 

7. A. iiiacrophylla, Hook. Fl. i. 102. t. 37 (1830). Stems low, ascend- 
ing, from running rootstocks, mostly simple, leaf}', puberiilent above : 
leaves in 3 or 4 pairs, lanceolate, acute at each end, 1 — 2 in. long, thin and 
flaccid : fl. few, on slender pedicels : sepals ovate-oblong, acuminate, 
1% — 2V^ lines long, 1-nerved, longer than the obtuse petals : capsule 
ovoid, nearly equalling the calyx : seeds few, large, smooth.^In shady 
places, from Marin and Sierra counties northward ; rather rare. In 
specimens from Humboldt Co., ChesxtU ct Drew, the leaves are broader 
than in the type, and scarcely at all acuminate. 

8. ALSIXELLA, DiUenius (Pearlwoet). Diminutive herbs with 
subulate or filiform exstipulate leaves, and minute long-pedicelled often 
apetalous flowers. Sepals 4 or 5, commonly rotate-spreading in fruit. 
Petals when present as many, entire or emarginate. Styles 4 or 5. Cap- 
sule 1-celled, Gc -seeded, dehiscent to the base into as many entire valves 
as there are styles ; the valves alternate with the sepals. 

1. A. occidentalis, Greene. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 345 (1875), 

under Sagina. Annual, glabrous or nearly so, almost capillary, decum- 
bent at base or ascending, 1 — 6 in. high : leaves in pairs (none fascicled), 
slightly connate, acute, }4, — % in. long : fl. 5-merou8, on long pedicels, 
these erect in fruit : sepals 1 line long • petals nearly as long : stamens 
10 : capsule exceeding the calyx. — Very common, in almost every variety 
of soil, throughout our whole district from San Francisco northward, but 
often a minute and obscure plant. Mar. — May. 

2. A. sa^noides, Greene. Linn. Sp. PI. i. 441 (1753), under Spergula. 
Sagiiia Linnxi, Presl. Rel. Hsenk. ii. 14 (1835). Biennial or perennial, 
cespitose, glabrous and somewhat succulent, 1 — 2 in. high : leaves J4 — J^ 
in. long, somewhat fascicled : pedicels elongated, nodding after flower- 
ing : sepals a line long, obtuse, exceeding the petals : stamens 10 : 
capsule twice the length of the calyx. — A plant of the far north ; found, 
however, at Webber Lake, Lennnou. 

3. A. crassicaulis, Greene. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 191 (1883), 
under Sagina. Perennial, stoutish and succulent, decumbent : leaves 
broadly linear, acute, 2 — 6 lines long, scarious and connate at base : 
pedicels 4 —8 lines long ; fl. erect or nodding, large, the sepals more than 
a line long ; petals smaller : styles very short : capsule ovate, scarcely 
exserted from the closed fruiting calyx. — A little known apparently 
maritime species found at Dillon's Beach, Marin Co., 1880, /. W. Congdon. 



126 CARYOPHYLLE^. 

4. A. ciliata. Annual, very slender and diffuse, 1—3 in. hig^h, rough - 
ish with short gland-tipped hairs : leaves subulate-linear, }4 in. long, 
their scariously dilated and connate bases sparsely ciliolate : fl. very 
numerous, short-pedicelled, erect, 4-merous : sepals ovate-oblong, very 
obtuse, surpassed by the capsule r seeds dull, muriculate.— Vicinity of 
lone ; a plant of compact habit, very different from the other species. 

9. SPERCiULA, Dodonxm (Oorn-Spureey). Herbs with linear and 
apparently whorled leaves ; the opposite pair (subtended by a pair of 
scarious stipular scales) being augmented by several crowded and spread- 
ing fascicled ones of nearly their own size which along with them seem 
to form a verticil. Flowers 5-merous, perfectly symmetrical (stamens 
10 or 5) ; the 5 styles alternate with the sepals, the 5 valves of the capsule 
opposite the sepals. Petals entire. Seeds laterally compressed, acutely 
margined or winged. Embryo spiral. 

1. S. ARVENSis, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 440 (1753). Glabrous or pilose- 
pubescent and slightly clammy, 1—2 ft. high, simple or with many 
decumbent basal branches : leaves almost filiform, 1—2 in. long : cyme 
terminal, ample,*dichotomous, the long pedicels nodding after flowering, 
but erect in flower and again when the capsule is mature : sepals oblong 
or ovate, 2—3 lines long, the white petals rather long, unfolding only in 
sunshine : capsule ovoid : seeds acutely margined. — Naturalized in fields 
and by waysides everywhere in the Bay region. Jan.— Sept. 

10. TISSA, Adanson (Sand Spurrey). More or less succulent herbs 
of maritime districts or subsaline plains inland. Leaves linear or 
subulate, with scarious stipules. Flowers arranged dichotomously or 
unilaterally. Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire (sometimes fewer than 5 or 
even 0). Stamens 2—10. Styles 3, rarely 5. Capsule 3-valved. Seeds 
winged or wingless. Embryo annular. 

* Perennials with fusiform fleshy roots. 
-)- Internodes not short (about 1 in.); fascicled leaves few. 

1. T. macrotheca, Britt. Bull. Torr. Club, xvi. 129 (1889) partly ; 
Hornem. in Ch. & Schl. Linnsea, i. 53 (1826), under Arenaria; F. & M. in 
Kindb. Monogf. Lep. 16 (1863), under Lepigonum. Stems ascending or 
depressed, stoutish, terete, often 1 ft. high ; whole herbage deep green 
and rather densely viscid-pubescent : leaves semiterete, linear-subulate, 
acute, often longer than the internodes (1 — 2 in.) ; stipules ovate- 
triangular, 2 lines long : pedicels }4 ^^- ^ong or more, subtended by leafy 
bracts often nearly as long : sepals }4, in. long, with narrow scarioias 
margins : petals as long, lilac : capsule ovoid, about equalling the calyx : 
seeds triquetrous-obovate, smooth, dark brown, with a very narrow or 
sometimes obsolete scarious wing. — Maritime only, and common from 
the Bay region southward, in sandy soil along the borders of salt marshes. 



CARYOPHYLLE^. 127 

2. T. leucautlia, Cxreene, Pittonia, i. 301 (1889). Habit of the preced- 
ing, but glabrous except a glandular pubescence on tlie more ample and 
loosely dichotomous inflorescence ; branches more or less distinctly 
quadrangular : leaves linear, acute, little exceeding the internodes (1 in. 
or more) ; stipules deltoid-ovate, acuminate, 2 — 3 lines long : pedicels 
1 in. long or more, at length abruptly defiexed, subtended by reduced 
and linear-subulate bracts : sepals 2 — 3 lines long, with broad scarious 
margins : corolla ^^ in. broad or more : filaments broadly subulate and 
almost petaloid : apex of capsule exserted, distinctly triquetrous : seed 
brown, smooth, of round-obovate outline and with a broad scarious 
wing. — Confined to clayey subsaline or alkaline plains of the interior ; 
plentiful at several points on the lower San Joaquin, also on the eastern 
side of the Livermore Valley, and southward perhaps throughout the 
State ; for Mr. Parish collects it near San Bernardino, It is the only- 
showy species. Mar. — May. 

-1— -I— Iidertwdes sJwrt; a.rillary kaf-fascicles conspicuous, 

3. T. pallida, Greene in Britt. 1. c; also T. macroiheca, var. scariosa, 
Britt. 1. c. Prostrate, diffusely branching and densely cespitose, the 
geniculate stems stoutish below, often naked and appearing suf?rutescent ; 
herbage pale, densely pubescent and very viscid : primary leaves oblong- 
linear, very acute, J/g in. long or more ; those of the fascicles shorter and 
relatively broader ; stipules ovate-acuminate, often 4 — 5 lines long : fl. 
either scattered singly on short branchlets or in reduced terminal cymes : 
pedicels i^ in. long : calyx }4 in. long : petals lilac : capsule as long : 
seeds obliquely orbicular, light brown, very smooth, broadly margined. — 
On high and dry clayey bluffs overhanging the ocean in San Francisco 
Co., also across the channel in Marin. In floral character quite like 
T. macrotheca with which it has been long confounded, though in vege- 
tative characters very distinct. It appears to have been collected only 
by Dr. Torrey (n. 41), Mr. Meehan (at Monterey ?) and the present 
writer. May — July. 

4. T. Clevelaiidi. Prostrate, slender, very diffuse, forming deep 
green mats }4.—l}>i ft. broad ; herbage pubescent but only slightly 
viscid : leaves narrowly linear, the fascicled ones subulate, all equalling 
or exceeding the internodes : fl. in terminal cymes only, small (I3' in. 
broad), pure whit«. — The plant to which I here give a provisional name as 
a probable new species was formerly abundant on rather sandy uplands 
about San Diego, and occurs sparingly on gravelly knolls at the Presidio, 
San Francisco. It is a part of the T. rUtosa, Britt., and may possibly be 
proven identical with the South American plant. But the name is so 
inapplicable to ours, that I believe the two will be found distinct. 
According to Dr. Britton, it has been found also at San Jose. Its close- 
matted habit, profusion of fascicled leaves, and clear white corollas, as 



128 CARYOPHYLLE^. 

well as its upland habitat mark it as wholly distinct from all others in 
our district. Apr. — June. 

* * Annuals; flowers usually lilac or loA'ender-color. 

5. T. EUBRA, Britt. Bull. Torr. Club, xvi. 126 (1889) ; Linn. Sp. PI. 
i. 423 (1753), under Arenaria; Fries, Fl. Hall. 76 (1817), under Lepigoniim. 
Stems slender, terete, prostrate, a few inches long, glabrous below, 
pubescent and more or less glandular above : leaves narrowly linear 
or subulate, acute or mucronate, ^4~^2 ^^- long ; stipules lanceolate, 
acuminate, 1 — 2 lines long : pedicels slender, 2 — 3 lines long : sepals 
oblong, obtuse, scarious-margined : petals reddish, about equalling the 
sepals : capsule ovate, obtuse, not exserted : seeds brownish, tuberculate, 
wingless, triquetrous-obovate, with a marginal elevation. — Roadsides 
above Petaluma, collected by the author in September, 1888. Doubt- 
less introduced from Europe, where it is common in many districts, 
chiefly at some distance from the sea. It was also found in the interior 
of Oregon, in the summer of 1890. 

6. ? T. aiandra, Britt. 1. c. 128 ; Guss. Prodr. Fl. Sicul. i. 515 (1827), 
under Arenaria. A. saUuginea, Burge, in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. ii. 163 (1829). 
Near T. rubra, but more slender ; stipules very short ; cyme leafless and 
widely divaricate, more profusely flowering ; capsules minute, sub- 
globose ; seeds very small, black. — A plant doubtfully referred to this Old 
World species by Dr. Britton, was found in Sierra Valley by Mr. Lemmon. 

7. T. marina, Britt. 1. c. 126. Arenaria rubra, var. marina, Linn. Sp. 
PI. i. 423 (1753). Spergula marina of pre-Linna?an authors. Lepigouum 
marinum, Wahlb. Root thickish, not much branched, perhaps sometimes 
perennial: stems ascending, 3 — 8 in. high, somewhat compressed or angu- 
lar, glabrous or somewhat glandular-pubescent : leaves semiterete, nar- 
rowly linear, acute, light green, glabrate, seldom exceeding the inter- 
nodes ; stipules broadly ovate, abruptly acuminate : cymes scarcely leafj' ; 
pedicels about twice as long as the capsules : sepals acute or acuminate, 
with a broad or narrow scarious margin : petals broadly ovate, obttise, 
scarcely equalling the sepals, whitish or pale rose-color : capsule ovate, 
obtuse, nearly twice the length of the calyx : seeds orbicular, with an 
elevated margin, reddish-brown, smooth, winged or wingless. — Common 
and variable, occurring mostly near the sea ; perhaps also on subsaline 
plains of the interior. 

8. T. salina, Britt. 1. c. 127 ; Presl. Fl. Cech. 93 (1819), under Spergu- 
laria. Roots slender and tufted, simple or much branched : stems 6 in. 
high, much branched, usually ascending, rarely divaricate and prostrate: 
herbage glabrous or pubescent ; leaves flat, linear-filiform, obtuse or 
acutish, glabrous, light or livid green, seldom longer than the inter- 
nodes ; stipules broadly ovate, short-acuminate, not shining : pedicels 



CAEYOPHYLLE.E. 129 

leafy-bracted, or the iipper bractless, none of them longer than the 
capsules : sepals oblong or oblong-ovate, obtuse, scarious-margined : 
capsule acute, much longer than the calyx : seeds round-obovate, tubercu- 
late or muriculate, the marginal elevation distinct ; hyaline wing narrow 
or wanting. Var. sordidtl. Stems ascending ; herbage very viscid and 
hairy ; fl. in unilateral leafless racemes : seeds nearly black, sharply 
muriculate, wingless. Var. Sanfordi. Stems erect repeatedly dichoto- 
mous : herbage scarcely viscid and only slightly pubescent : inflorescence 
partly dichotomous, only the ultimate branchlets unilaterally racemose : 
seeds dark brown, nearly smooth, wingless. — Nothing quite like the type 
of this, as defined by Kindberg, is known to me as Californian ; but a 
plant very near it is common on the seaboard. The first variety is very 
abundant in low rich soil above the salt marshes on the " Island," near 
Alameda. The second belongs to the plains about Stockton, Lathrop 
and elsewhere in the interior. Mar. — May. 

10. T. tenuis, Greene, in Britt. 1. c; Pittonia, i. 63 (1887), under 
Lepigoiium. Slender, prostrate, very diifuse, the whole plant 1 ft. broad, 
glabrous, or the inflorescence sparsely glandular-pubescent : leaves 
linear-filiform, 1 in. long, equalling the internodes ; stipules broader than 
long, acute, but small and inconspicuous : fl. very numerous, crowded 
and often subsessile on the countless dichotomous-cymose branchlets, 
apetalous : stamens 2 : capsule triquetrous, acute, more than twice the 
length of the oblong obtuse scarious-margined sepals : seeds reddish- 
brown, obliquely obovate, compressed, smooth, margined, wingless. — On 
hard clayey soil not far from Mastic Station, Alameda ; collected by the 
author in May, 1887 ; and the plant has not reappeared. 

11. POLYCARPON, La'Jiiiig. Low annuals, diffusely dichotomous, 
with flat leaves, small scarious stipules and minute cymose flowers. 
Sepals 5, carinate-concave. Petals 5, minute, hyaline. Stamens 3 — 5. 
Ovary 1 -celled ; style short, 3-cleft. Capsule 3-valved, several-seeded. 

1. P. depressum, Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 174 (1838). Very slender, 
prostrate, the many branches 1—2 in. long : leaves opposite, spatulate, 
glabrous ; stipules small, narrow : fl. miniate ; the pedicels with small 
bracts : petals almost filiform, shorter than the sepals, entire : capsule 
globose, 6— 12-seeded.— Said to have been found as far north as Santa 
Cruz Co.; otherwise known only from about San Diego and on the 
peninsula of Lower California. 

12. L(EFLINGIA, Lininvus. Low much branched rather rigid and 
pungent-leaved annuals ; the leaves with adnate and connate setaceous 
stipules. Flowers small, sessile in the axils of the leaves and branches. 
Sepals 5, rigid, carinate. Petals minute or 0. Stamens 3—6. Ovary 
1-celled ; style very short or 0. Capsule 3-valved, several-seeded. — Genus 



130 illecebkej:- 

closely connecting this order with Polygonese, tlirougli Laslarriiea, and 
with Amarantacese through Amaranlus, 

1. L. sqnarrosa, Niitt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 174 (1838) ; Gray, Gen. 111. ii, 
24. t. 106 ; Brandg. in Zoe, i. 219. The numerous prostrate or erect- 
spreading branches 2 — 6 in. long ; herbage glandular-pubescent : leaves 
and sepals subulate-setaceous, rigid and recurved, the leaves 2 — 3 lines 
long, the sepals somewhat shorter : capsule elongated, triquetrous, at 
length exserted, qo -seeded. — Plains of the lower San Joaquin, near 
Lathrop, Greene; also in the Sacramento valley, according to Brandegee; 
more plentiful farther south. 

2. L. pnsilla, Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 152 (1885) ; Brandg. 1. c. 
22U. Habit of the preceding, but smaller ; stems 2—3 in. long : sepals 
narrowly lanceolate, abriiptly acute, neither pungent nor recurved : 
stamens 5 : style : capsule triquetrous, not exserted, go -seeded. — Moun- 
tains near Tehachapi, Kern Co., Mrs. Curran. 

Ordeb XXI. ILLECEBRE/E. 

Robert Brown, Prodromus Florje Novae Hollaudife, 413 (1810). 
Diffuse or tufted herbs or suffrutescent plants with mostly opposite 
entire stipulate leaves, and clustered or open-cymose apetalous flowers. 
Sepals 5, 4 or 3, seldom distinct. Stamens as many as the calyx-lobes 
and opposite them, or fewer, perigynous (except in n. 1). Ovary superior, 
1 -3-celled, 1 — several-ovuled ; styles 2 or 3, often united below. Fruit 
1-seeded and utriclar, or a several-seeded capsule. 

1. MOLLUGO, lAriiiPcus (Carpet-weed). Low much branched annuals 
with exstipulate whorled leaves, and axillary flowers on slender pedicels. 
Sepals 5, white within, thus resembling petals when expanded. Stamens 
5, hypogynous, alternate with the sepals, or 3 and alternate with the cells 
of the ovary. Stigmas 3. Capsule 3-celled, 3-valved, loculicidal, the 
partitions breaking away from the many -seeded axis. 

1. M. VERTiciLLATA, Liuu. Sp. PI. i. 89 (1753). Prostrate, much 
branched, forming a mat 1 — 2 ft. broad ; branches rather slender, the 
glabrous liuear-spatulate leaves 3—8 in an imperfect whorl, unequal, the 
largest less than 1 in. long, scarcely equalling the internodes : pedicels 
about as many as the leaves, 1 — 2 lines long : capsule oblong, obtuse, 
little exserted from the calyx : seeds minute, round-renif orm, black and 
shining, somewhat striate. — By waysides in the upper part of the Sacra- 
mento valley; not common in California, and doubtless introduced; 
native of Africa and perhaps of tropical America. 

2. PARONYCHIA, Clusius. Herbs with opposite entire leaves and a 
pair of scarious stipules at each node; flowers (in ours) clustered in the 



ILLECEBRE.E. 131 

axils. Sepals 5, imbricate, somewhat cucullate under the apex and 
aristate or mucronate at the very tip. Stamens 5 or fewer, inserted on 
the base of the sepals, these often slightly united. Petals represented 
by 5 small setiform organs alternating with the stamens. Ovary 1-celled, 
1-ovuled ; ovule attached by a slender basal funiculus, ascending or 
subpeudulous. Utricle enclosed in the persistent calyx, at length bursting 
longitudinally. Seed smooth. Embryo annular. 

1. P. ("hileiisis, DC. Prodr. iii. 370 (1S28); Gay, Fl. Chil. ii. 521. 
Greene, in W. Am. Sc. iii. 156. Perennial, difTuse, cespitose, the tough 
and pliable short-jointed stems suffrutescent : leaves obkmg-linear, 
1^^- -3 lines long, membranaceoiis, pungent at tip, minutely appressed 
pubescent ; stipules thin-hyaline, ovate-lanceolate, 1 — 2 lines long : tl. 
few in the axils, very shortly pedicelled : calyx scarcely % line long, 
purplish ; sepals spinulose-tipped and only slightly cucullate : seed 
reddish-brown. — Frequent on grassy hillsides and summits at the Pre- 
sidio ; evidently indigenous ; otherwise known only as South American. 

2. P. pusilla, Greene, Pittonia, i. 302 (1889). Annual, slender, parted 
from the base into a few ascending branches, these with many short 
distichous branchlets ; herbage canescent with setulose straight or 
unciuate-tipped hairs : leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, sessile, 1 — 2 lines 
long ; stipules hyaline, minute, broadly ovate : fl. crowded, sessile 
minute, the sepals }4 line long, scarcely cucullate, the terminal bristle 
little longer than those scattered up and down the back : seed black, 
smooth and lustrous. — On an isolated outcropping of rock, in the mouth 
of a canon opening to the plains, at the eastern base of Mt. Diablo, near 
Bethany ; collected only by the author, 30 Apr., 1889. 

3. PEXTAC^XA, Barllinri. Perennials of cespitose habit, with 
alternate subulate rigid and pungent leaves, silvery hyaline stipules, and 
sessile flowers clustered in the axils. Sepals 5, united at base, very 
unequal, cucullate, the 3 outer large and with a stout divergent terminal 
spine, the 2 inner much smaller and with but a short awn. Petals 
minute, scale-like. Stamens 3—5 : staminodia 0. Style very short, bifid. 
Utricle enclosed in the rigid persistent calyx. Embryo curved. 

1. P. ramosissiiua, H. & A. in Bot. Misc. iii. 338 (1833) : P. poly- 
ene inokles, Bartl. in Presl, Eel. Hsenk. ii. 5. t. 49 (1835). Lveflingia rarno- 
siHsirna, Weinm. (1820) ; DO. (1829), under Paronychia. Stems prostrate, 
forming mats 6 in. to 2 ft. broad, woolly-pubescent : leaves 3—5 lines 
long, squarrose when old ; stipules lanceolate, shorter than the leaves, 
] -nerved : calyx-tube nearly a line long, the divergent oiiter lobes 2 
lines : utiicle apiculate. —On sandy plains and dry gravelly hilltops 
toward the sea throughout the State ; also South American. 



132 POLYGONEiE, 

Ordee XXII. POLYGONE/E. 

Jussieu, Genera, 82 (1789). Pebsicari^, Adans. Fam. ii. 273 (1763). 

Herbs, or rarely shrubs, with alternate or whorled leaves of revolute 
vernation ; stipules when present coherinj? around the stem and forming 
a sheath. Inflorescence various, but commonly racemose and terminal. 
Calyx of 4 — 9 nearly or quite distinct sepals, often colored and petaloid, 
persistent. Stamens as many as the sepals, or fewer, perigynous. Styles 
2 — 4, distinct or somewhat connate, opposite the angles of the len- 
ticular or triquetrous 1-ovuled ovary. Fruit a compressed or trique- 
trous achene. Seed erect ; embryo straight, in the midst of a fari- 
naceous albumen, or ciirved around it. — An extensive family, containing 
many homely and weedy plants ; but the tender leaves of the sorrels, 
and petioles of rhubarb, abounding in oxalic acid, are valiied substitutes 
for fruit in northern latitudes. The roots of the docks abound in tannin. 
Buckwheat is a well-known cereal. There are the closest connections 
between this order and the Caryophyllese on the one hand, and the 
Amarantaceae on the other. 

Hints of the Genera. 

Leaves alternate, stipulate ; 

Sepals 4—6, equal, appressed to the achene, _-..-- i 

" " the oater smaller and spreading, ... - - 2 

Perianth tubular below, 6-lobed above, -------3 

" campanulate, 6-cleft, --------- 4 

Leaves alternate or verticillate, exstipulate ; 
. Involucre wanting ; 

Flowers capitate, each with an herbaceous bract, - - 5 

Perianth tubular, cuspidately 6-toothed, - - - - 9 

Involucre tubular or campanulate, 

with 4 — 8 obtuse or merely acute teeth,^ . . - - . 6 

with 3—5 usually awned lobes, ----- - - 7 

with 3—6 cuspidate '>ften hooked teeth, - - - - 8 

Involucre 2-lobed, l-flowered, enlarged in fruit, ----- 10 

1, POLYGONUM, Columna. Herbs or undershrubs with alternate 
entire leaves and sheathing stipules. Flowers small, in axillary fascicles 
or terminal spikes or racemes. Perianth of 5 or 6 nearly distinct often 
colored and petaloid sepals. Petals 0. Stamens 4-9, commonly in 2 
sets or circles. Styles 2 or 3, distinct, or connate below, often very 
short ; stigmas capitate. Fruit a triangular or lenticular achene, usually 
closely invested by the persistent perianth. Embryo lateral, half 
immersed in the hard albumen, curved : cotyledons narrow.— A vast 
genus as now received by most botanists, but probably embracing several 
quite natural genera. 

* Leaves jointed upon a short petiole adnate to the 2-lobed or lacerate sheath; 

flowers axillary to leaves or brads; filaments of the 3 inner stamens 

broad at base; achenes triquetrous; cotyledons incumbent. — 

Polygonum proper. 

•)- Glabrous and suffrulescent; sheaths conspicuous; sepals colored. 



POLYGONEiE. 133 

1. P. Paronychia, Ch. & Schl. Linnsea, iii. 51 (1828) ; Meisn. DC. 
Prodr. xiv. 89. Stems stoutish, tough and pliable, ascending or prostrate, 
1 — 2 ft. long, leafy above, below clothed with the scarious sheaths, these 
^ in. long, brownish and 5-nerved below, lacerate above : leaves sub- 
coriaceous, 1 in. long, liu ear-lanceolate, revolute : fl. densely crowded at 
the ends of the branches, the spikes more or less leafy-bracted : perianth 
white or rose-color veined with green or brown, }^ in. long : sepals 
oblong-obovate : stamens 8 : styles as long as the ovary : achene 2 lines 
long, smooth and shining. — In sandy soil near the sea, from Santa Cruz 
northward, flowering almost all the year through. 

2. P. Shasteiise, Brew, in Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 400 (1872). 
Stems stout, rigid, ascending, 6—8 in. long, sparingly leafy : sheaths 
with herbaceous base, and a 2-lobed scarious usually deciduous lamina: 
leaves oblanceolate, acute, not revolute, 4—6 lines long : fi. 1 — 3 in each 
of the lower axils, white or rose-color with darker veins, !%■ — 2)^ lines 
long, attenuate to a naked pedicel : sepals round-obovate : stamens 8 : 
styles much shorter than the ovary, persistent : achene 2}^ lines long, 
smooth and shining. — Common on alpine slopes of the Sierra Nevada. 

3. P. Bolaiuleri, Brew. 1. c. Stems slender, woody and very brittle, 
tufted and strictly erect, % — 2 ft. high : sheaths much shorter than the 
nodes, herbaceous below, scarious and lacerate above, persistent : leaves 
narrowly linear or subulate, acute or cuspidate, j^ — ig in. long, not 
revolute : fl. solitary or few in the axils of short leafy branchlets, each 
involucrate with a sheath-like scarious bract on the joint of the short 
pedicel : sepals oblong-ovate, 1% lines long, rose-color or white, slightly 
spreading : stamen§,8 or 9 : styles half as long as the ovary. — Plentiful 
near the Soda Springs above Napa ; also on the eastern base of the same 
range of mountains bordering the valley of the Sacramento, but evidently 
somewhat local. Aug. — Oct. 

H— H— Annuals, with striale stems and less conspicuous sheaths; sepals 

mostly green with tchitish margins. 

•M- Branches leafu to the summit, floriferous throughout. 

4. P. AvicuLARE, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 362 (1753). Stoutish, much branched, 
prostrate, the branches 1 — 3 ft. long ; herbage glabrous, bluish-green : 
leaves oblong or lanceolate, acutish, 3^— 2^^ in. long : fl. on very short 
pedicels : sepals 1 line long, green, with white or rose-colored margin : 
achene broadly ovate, 1 line long or less, dull black and minutely 
granular. — A very prevalent weed in summer fields and vineyards ; native 
of Europe. Apr. — Oct. 

5. P. minimam, Wats. Bot. King Exp. 315 (1871). Low and slender, 
simple or with a few branches, 1 — 6 in. high : stems nearly terete, 
reddish, more or less scabrous-puberulent : leaves broadly ovate or 
ovate-oblong, % in. long, acute : fl. less than a line long, erect on slender 



134 POLYGONEJE. 

short pedicels : margin of sepals often rose-tinted : stamens 5 — 8 : 
achene smooth and shining, exceeding the sepals. — In the higher Sierra, 
from near Yosemite northward. Jnly — Oct. 

6. P. Kellogrgii. Erect, slender, simple or with a few widely divergent 
branches from the base, 1 — 3 in. high, the internodes very short, scarcely 
equalling the lobes of the sheaths, the whole plant glabrous : leaves 
linear, acute, I4 — '^4, in. long, almost divaricately spreading, never imbri- 
cated, not much smaller at the summits of the branches than below, all 
the axils fioriferous : fi. several at each node, subsessile, pj line long, 
greenish : achene 1.3 line long, light brown, smooth or obscurely striate, 
the face rhombic-ovate. — Common in the Donner Lake region of the 
Sierra ; near P irnbncai.urii, but with spreading and equal leaves, no 
distinct inflorescence, the achenes light chestnut-brown. It is in the 
State Survey collection under n. 6005. Aug.— Oct. 

■!-+++ Upper nodes approximated and more flonferous, llieir leaves reduced 

and bract-like. 

7. P. raiiiosissimnm, Michx. Fl. i. 237 (1803). Erect or ascending, 
2 — 4 ft. high, branching from the middle ; herbage glabrous and of a 
yellowish green : leaves lanceolate or linear, 1 — 2V2 in. long, acute, 
attenuate to a slender base ; sheaths scarious and loose, becoming 
lacerate to the base : fl. 1}^ lines long, yellowish, drooping on the 
slender pedicel : achene smooth and shining. — Said to occur in the lower 
Sierra ; not known near the seaboard. 

8. P. Douglasii, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 125 (1885) : P. tenue, 
Wats, not Michx. Erect, slender, sparingly branched above the base, 
1 — 1^{ ft. high, glabrous, or somewhat scabrous at the nodes : leaves 
thinnish, oblong to lanceolate, 1-nerved, with or without a few veinlets 
diverging from the midvein, the margin smooth, often somewhat revolute: 
stipules hyaline throughout, the sheathing portion short or wanting, the 
limb more or less lacerate : fl. 1 or nlore in each upper axil, on short 
deflexed pedicels : serials l^-g — 2 lines long, tipped with white or rose- 
color : achene black and shining. Var. latifolium, Greene, 1. c. Lower, 
often flexuous, the leaves broader and shorter : fl. commonly more 
spicate-congested at the ends of the few branches : achenes broader. — 
Common in the mountains at middle elevations, almost throughout the 
State ; long confounded with the eastern P. tenue. July—Oct. 

9. P. coarctatuiii, Dougl. in Hook. El. ii. 133 (181:0). Much like the 
last, but more freely branching, often diffuse, the herbage more or less 
scabro-puberulent throiighout : leaves firmer in texture, acute : fl. more 
spicate-crowded and on erect pedicels : sepals larger, rose-color or white 
with only a broad midvein of green : achenes very minutely punctate 
toward the apex.— Of more northerly distribution than the last, but 
plentiful as far south as the Petrified Forest in Sonoma Co. July— Sept. 



POLYGONE.E, 135 

10. r. iinbricatuiu, Nntt. in Wats. Am. Nat. vii. 665 (1873). Stems 
1 — 8 in. high, slender, anj,ailar, the branches few or many, all from above 
the base, ascending : herbage glabrous or at the nodes a little scabrous : 
leaves % — 1 in. long, linear, acnte, l-nerved ; sheaths rather large, bifid 
or lacerate above the short scarious base : fi. rather densely spicate, the 
bracts loosely imbricate, 2 — 4 lines long, often with a narrow scarious 
margin : fl. subsessile, 1 line long or less, whitish or rose-tinted : stamens 
3 or 5 : styles as long as the ovary : achene % line long, black, minutely 
tubercnlate-striate. —A subalpine s^jecies common from near Donner 
Lake northward in the Sierra. July — Oct. 

* * Leaves not jointed tvith the petiole, striately S-nerved (except in u. 14); 

sheaths 2-lobed or fimbriate; stamens 8, the inner 3 scarcely 

dilated. — Subgenus Dubavia, Wats. 

■1— Sle)ns hard and rigid; Jtowers spicate, solitary in the axils of bracts; 

styles persistent. 

11. P. Californicum, Meisn. in DC. Prodr. xiv. 100 (1856). Erect, 
slender, 3 — 6 in. high, panicled -spicate, the stem and branches glabrous, 
dark brown : leaves rigid, linear or filiform, }{ — 1^4 in. long, pungently 
acute : spikes very slender, elongated, the subulate bracts 1 — 2 lines 
long ; sheaths 1 line long, deeply lacerate-fringed, nearly eqxialling the 
pale rose-colored flowers : achene narrow, slightly exposed ; styles 
slightly divergent. — Valleys and dry hills of the interior from near Napa 
and Sacramento northward. July — Sept. 

12. P. Greeiiei, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 294 (1879) ; Bot. Calif, ii. 
480. Resembling the last, but with denser stouter spikes ; bracts and 
.finely fimbriate sheaths 2 lines long : achene oblong-ovate, with very 
vshort and stout almost erect styles. — Upper part of the Sacramento 
valley, Mrs. Bidicell, and northward. July — Sept. 

13. P. Bidwelliae, Wats. 11. cc. Smaller than the preceding, the 
branches fewer, more divergent : spikes short and dense : stipules very 
conspicuous, large, scarious and white-chaflfy, 2 lines long or more, 
equalling or surpassing the bracts, entire or only slightly lacerate at the 
2-lobed summit : fl. a line long, pale rose-color : achene oblong-ovate, 
less than a line long including the very divergent styles. — Known only 
from near Chico, Mrs. Bidnell, Dr. Parry, but a very well marked species. 

•1— •)— Slews leafy and Jioriferous IhroughoiU : flovers 2 or 3 in each 
axil: styles decidnous. 

14. P. Parryi, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, viii. 99 (1881). Usually with 
several upright branches 1 — 3 in. high, short-jointed, very leafy, rather 
sharply angled, glabrous : leaves %~1 in. long, linear, acute, l-nerved, 
the upper scarcely diminished in size, all somewhat spreading or merely 
ascending ; sheaths 2 lines long, broad and nearly distinct from the 



136 POLYGONE^. 

short petiole, cleft to the middle, or more deeply, into a lacerate and 
somewhat curled fringe : fi. several, sessile, less than a line long : achene 
chestnut-brown, smooth and shining. — Subalpine in the vicinity of the 
Yosemite, Parry; but it is represented in niimbers 6355 and 6451 of the 
State Survey, and may have been referred to P. imbricalum. It is a link 
connecting Duravia with true Polygonum. 

* * * Leaves not jointed, more ample, pinnately veined; sheaths cylindri- 
cal, oblique or truncate; f. in dense spikes or loose cyrnelets; stamens 
4 — 8, all the filaments filifonn ; styles deciduous; cotyledons accumhent. 
4— Stems usually branching, leafy, the spikes often panicled; styles short, 
often only 2 and the achene lenticular. — Old genus Persicaria. 
++ Weedy annuals of fields and gardens. 

15. P. nodosum, Pers. Syn. i. 440 (1805). Stoutish, erect or ascending, 
1 — 4 ft. high, freely branching, glabrous except the rough glandular 
peduncles, and scabrous leaf margins and veins beneath ; stem often 
piirple-dotted throughout : leaves lanceolate, 2—5 in. long, acuminate, 
short-petioled ; sheaths naked in age, glandular-ciliolate when young : 
spikes linear, usually drooping, 1 in. long or more : fl. white or pale 
rose, 1 line long : stamens 6 : styles 2 : achene lenticular, ovate. — Very 
common in cultivated lands, preferring moist places. July — Oct. 

16. P. Persicaria, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 361 (1753). Persicaria maculosa, 
S. F, Gray, Nat. Arr. ii. 269 (1821). Much like the last but the sheaths 
and bracts conspicuously ciliate : leaves less acuminate, subsessile : 
spikes shorter and erect : fl. rose-color : achenes often triquetrous. — 
Apparently uncommon in California, but reported in the Botany of 
Beechey's Voyage as here, and found in Humboldt Co. more recently, 
Rattan, Chesnul tfr Drew. Both this and the last are natives of Europe 
and Asia. It is impossible to say whether with us they are indigenous or 
introduced weeds. July — Oct. 

■M- -M- Perennials, either aquatic or of iret places. 

17. P. acre, HBK. Nov. Gen. ii. 179 (1817). Decumbent, rooting at 
the lower joints, 2 — 5 ft. high ; herbage light green, pellucid-punctate 
and acrid, glabrous or a little scabrous : leaves lanceolate, acuminate, 
short-petioled ; sheaths bristly-ciliate : spikes narrow and lax, 1 — 3 in. 
long, erect : sepals greenish and glandular-dotted, 1 line long : stamens 
8 : achene commonly triquetrous. — Very common in marshy fjlaces, 
along streamlets, etc. June — Nov. 

18. P. Hartwrightii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 294 (1870). Stems 
stout and simple, rooting at the decumbent base, above equably leafy to 
the summit ; herbage more or less strigose-hirsute : leaves broadly 
lanceolate, acute, 2—7 in. long, on very short petioles ; stipules with an 



POLYGONE^. 137 

abruptly spreading foliaceous border : fi. rose-red, in a dense ovate or 
oblong terminal spike : stamens 5 : style 2-cleft : achene lenticular. — Not 
common in California, but occurring between Berkeley and Temescal, in 
low ground ; also in the upper valley of the Sacramento. 

19. P. Mnhleiilierg-ii, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 13 fl880) : P. amphibiuni, 
var. (?) Mnhlnihenjli, Meisn. in DC. Prodr. xiv. 116 (1856 ). Stoutish, erect, 
2—3 ft. high, leafy throughout, scabrous with short appressedor glandu- 
lar hairs, with more or less of a softer ijubescence : leav,es broadly 
lanceolate, narrowly acuminate, 4 — 7 in. long, on petioles of nearly 1 in.; 
sheaths with no spreading aiargin : spikes 1 or 2, elongated and narrow, 
1—3 in. long : fi. and fr. as in the last. — Perhaps as rare as the preceding; 
but found by the author along the shore of the lakelet in front of the 
U. S. Marine Hospital, San Francisco, in July, 1888. 

20. P. ainphilnnm, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 361 (1753) ; S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. 
ii. 268 (1821), under Persicana. Aquatic with floating leaves, or genicu- 
late and rooting in the mud along the shores of ponds and lakes ; 
herbage glabrous, or nearly so : leaves elliptical or oblong, obtuse or 
acutish, very smooth and shining above, 2 — 5 in. long, on petioles half as 
long : spike mostly solitary, dense, ovate or oblong, 1 — IVa in. long : fl. 
rose-color : fr. lenticular. — Common in mountain lakes, both in the 
Coast Range and the Sierra ; also in the sloughs about Stockton. 

-)—-)— Sleiris from s!oul creeping rout.s(,ock-s, simple, scape-like, leafy at base 

chiejhi; spike terminal, solitary ; styles 3, elongated; achenes 

tri'jiietrous. — Old genus Bistokta. 

21. P. Bistorta, Linn. 1. c. 360. Bistorla major, Ray, Gerarde, S. F. 
Gray, Nat. Arr. ii. 267 (1821). Glabrous and somewhat glaucous ; the 
ample oljlong-lanceolate radical leaves often 6—8 in. long, acute ; cauline 
reduced and sessile on the long thin sheath, commonly revolute : stem 
1 — 3 ft. high : spike-like raceme oblong, % — 1% in. long, white or rose- 
tinted ; bracts ovate, acuminate : stamens and styles exserted. — Frequent 
in subalpine meadows of both ranges of mountains ; the inflorescence 
always shorter and broader, and the flowers paler, in the American than 
in the European plant. July — Oct. 

■i— -i— -i^ Branching and leafy perennials from running rootstocks; Jl. in 

more or less racemose or panicled cymelets; styles short; achenes 

triquetrous. — Subgenus Aconogonon, Meisn. 

22. P. polyinorphuni, Ledeb. Fl. Ross. iii. 524 (1849). Stout, erect, 
3 — 7 ft. high, nearly glabrous, the leaf-margins scabrous : leaves short- 
peduncled, ovate- to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, connate or rounded at 
base, decurrent on the petiole, 3—7 in. long : panicles loose, many- 
flowered, scarcely leafy: sepals greenish white, 1 — 2 lines long, exceeding 
the pedicels, shorter than the achene and not very closely appressed. — 
Subalpine in the Sierra, from Yosemite northward. July- Oct. 



138 POLYGONEiE. 

23. P. Davisije, Brew, in Gray Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 399 (1872). 
Somewhat decumbent, 1 ft. high, stout, leafy throughout, flextious and 
branching, pubescent with short spreading hairs, or nearly glabrous, the 
leaf-margins scabrous-ciliate : leaves 1—2 in. long, ovate or oblong, 
acute or obtuse, cuneate or rounded at base, subsessile : fl. in small 
axillary and terminal cymose clusters, much shorter than the leaves : 
sepals yellowish or purplish green, II2 — 2 lines long, narrow at base, 
shorter than the achene. — On barren slopes near the highest summits of 
the Sierra,* from Alpine Co. northward. Aug.— Oct. 

* * * * Twining or climbing annuals ivith broad leaves andjiowers in loose 
axillary panicles or racemes; sepals green with whitish margins, enlarg- 
ing in fruit; stigmas 3, subsessile; achenes triquetrous.— 
Genus Bildekdykia, Dumort. 

24. P. Convolvulus, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 364 (1753). Fagopyram carinalum, 
Moench. Meth. 290 (1794) ; S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. ii. 272 (1821). Bilder- 
dykia Convolvulus, Dumort. Fl. Belg. Prodr. 18 (1827). Twining or trail- 
ing, 1—2 ft. high, minutely scabrous : leaves 1—2 in. long, hastate- 
cordate, acuminate : fl. in axillary interrupted racemes : fruiting perianth 
1% — 2 lines long, equalling the somewhat opaque granulate-striate 
achene. — A weed in cultivated lands ; native of Europe, not yet prevalent 
in California, but already met with near Berkeley, and in the valley of 
the Sacramento. July — Sept. 

2. RUMEX, Pliny (Dock. Sorrel). Coarse perennials (rarely 
annual or biennial), with leafy stems, and cylindrical obliquely truncate 
scarious stipules ; the small green or reddish perfect or unisexual flowers 
fascicled or verticillate, forming panicled racemes. Perianth of 6 
(rarely 4) nearly or quite distinct sepals ; the outer herbaceous, spread- 
ing or reflexed ; inner larger, in some becoming greatly enlarged in 
fruit, appressed to the 3- (or 2-) angled achene. Stamens 6 ; filaments 
very short. Styles 3 (or 2) ; stigmas tufted. Embryo lateral, slender, 
slightly curved.— The docks (Lapathum) and sorrels ( Acetosa) seem like 
good natural genera. The retention of our native sorrel (Oxyria) as 
distinct from Acelosa on account of its dimerous flowers and winged 
fruit, appears to us a relic of the empiricism of a former century. 
» Fl. perfect or polygamous; valves accrescent, often with a grain-like 

protuberance on the back; leaves elongated, never hastate, pinnately 
many-veined; herbage scarcely acidulous (except in n. 9). — 
Old genus Lapathum ; the Docks. 
¥- Valves small (2 lines, more or less), one or more of them grain-bearing. 

■M- Valves with slender awned teeth; herlmge pubescent or scabrous. 

1. E. OBTUSiFOLius, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 335 (1753) ; Moench, Meth. 356 
(1794), under Lapathum, also S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. ii. 274 (1821). Tall 



POLY GONE ^. 139 

(3 — 5 ft.), erect, slender, somewhat scabrous : radical leaves oblong, 
obtuse, cordate or truncate at base, loug-petioled, the blade 6 — 15 in. 
long : fl. in loose whorls, on long pedicels, these jointed below the 
middle : valves ovate-deltoid, 2 — 3 lines long, with 1 — 3 setaceous teeth 
on each side, usually only one valve grain-bearing. Naturalized, but 
rather sparingly, and in low lands only. 

2. R. PULCHER, Linn. 1. c. 336 ; S. F, Gray, 1. c. 275, under Lapalhvni.. 
Erect, 2—3 ft. high, with rigid branches divaricately and widely spread- 
ing : leaves scabrous beneath, the radical oblong or lanceolate (some- 
times panduriform, acute, at base cordate or obtuse : fl. on short stout 
rigid pedicels : valves ovate, 2 — 3 lines long, with 4 — 6 rigidly awned 
teeth on each side. — Very abundant in fields and by waysides ; every- 
where in our districts a troublesome weed. 

3. R. iiiaritiiiius, Linn. 1. c. 335. Low (about 1 ft.), erect, stout, from 
an annual or biennial root : herbage minutely pubescent and of a pale 
or yellowish green : leaves linear-lanceolate, the margin somewhat 
crisped or undulate, short-petioled, the blade 1 — 4 in. long : inflorescence 
compact, the verticils dense : valves 1 line long, ovate lanceolate, all 
grain-bearing, and with 2 or 3 long-awned teeth on each side. -Common 
near tide-water in the vicinity of Stockton. 

++ ++ J'alres entire or only denticulate; lierlxuje glabrous. 

4. R. coNGLOMERATUS, Murr. Prodr. Goett. 52 (1770). Lapathmn vir- 
gatuin, Moench. Metb. 355 (1794); L. conglomeratvni, S. F. Gray, I.e. 
273 (1821). Stoutish, 3—4 ft. high, leafy-paniculate above : radical 
leaves ovate or lanceolate, cordate, slightly undulate : pedicels short, 
stout and geniculate in fruit, jointed near the base : valves small, all 
grain-bearing, ovate-lanceolate, acute.- Naturalized in many jjarts of the 
State, but perhaps nowhere troublesome or even at all common. 

5. R. CRispus, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 335 (1753) ; S. F. Gray, 1. c, under 
Lapa'hiun. Size and habit of the last, but panicles less leafy and more 
condensed : leaves long-petioled, truncate at base, strongly undulate or 
crisped : pedicels 2 — 4 lines long, rather slender : valves all grain-bear- 
ing, ovate or cordate, strongly reticulate. — Very common in waste places. 

6. R. IJerlaiulieri, Meisn. in DC. Prodr. xiv. 45 (1856). Stout, erect, 
2— 4 ft. high: leaves narrowly lanceolate, very undulate, more or less 
acuminate, narrowed below to an abruptly cuneate or almost truncate 
base, 6 in. long, short-petioled : pedicels 1 — 2 lines long, jointed below 
the middle : valves ovate-lanceolate, II3 lines long, finely reticulate, all 
grain-bearing. — Closely related to the Old World R. crispus, this is a 
native American species, and is said to have been found at San Francisco. 

7. R. salicifolins, Weinm. in Flora, iv. 28 (1821). Stems clustered, 



140 POLYGONE.E. 

ascending, 1 — 3 ft. high : lowest leaves oblong-, upper linear-lanceolate, 
3 — 6 in. long, acuminate, narrowed to a short petiole, not undulate, pale 
green : panicle open, somewhat leafy, the flowers crowded : pedicels 
slender, 1 — 3 lines long: valves ovate-rhomboid or broadly deltoid, l^g 2 
lines long, entire or denticulate, one or two of them with large whitish 
grains. — Rather common in low grounds, both near the coast and in the 
interior. 

■i~ -h- Valves}^ — }4 i»- long, not grain-bearing; herbage glabrous. 

8. R. occideutalis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 253 (1877). Erect, 
3—6 ft. high, sparingly branched : leaves oblong-lanceolate, usually 
narrowing upward from the truncate or somewhat cordate base, not 
decurrent upon the petiole, 1 ft. long or more, scarcely undulate, usually 
acute : panicle narrow, elongated, nearly leafless : pedicels slender, 
M — }4 ^- long, obscurely jointed near the base : valves broadly cordate, 
Avith a very shallow sinus, becoming about I4 in. broad, often denticulate 
near the base : achenes 1^^ lines long. — Frequent in marshy places from 
Marin Co. northward. 

9. R. hymenosepalus, Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 177 (18.59). Stout and 
fleshy, 1 — 3 ft. high, the stems and short petioles reddish and agreeably 
acidulous : leaves oblong-lanceolate, scarcely rounded at base, somewhat 
undulate, 1 ft. long : pedicels }4 — % ^^- long, jointed near the base : 
valves very thin, reddish when mature, broadly cordate, 4 — 6 lines wide : 
achene 2 lines long. — From the southern part of Monterey Co. southward, 
and eastward to the Rio Grande, in low sandy or gravelly washes and 
dry beds of streams ; also a weed in cultivated lands. A link between 
dock and rhiibarb, and sometimes used as a substitute for the latter. 

10. R. venosus, Pursh, Fl. ii. 733 (1814) ; Hook. Fl. ii. 130. t. 174. 
Erect, 1 ft. high, from running rootstocks, stout and with usually a pair 
of leafy sterile branches equalling or surpassing the small subsessile 
terminal panicle : leaves on short rather slender petioles, ovate or oblong 
to lanceolate, 3—6 in. long, acute or aciiminate, only the lowest obtuse 
or somewhat cordate at base ; stipules dilated and conspicuous : fruiting 
pedicels 4—9 lines long, jointed near the base : valves entire, cordate- 
orbicular with a deep sinus, ^4 — 1 in. broad, acutish or emarginate, rose- 
color, very veiny. — On the eastern slope of the Sierra only ; a plant of 
the Interior Basin of the continent, and of the high northern plains. 

* * (rlabruus perennials with reddisJi usually dia'cioas flowers ; valves 

not grain-bearing; leaves mostly either broad and rounded, or 

hastate, sparingly veined; herbage tender and acid. — 

Old genus Acetosa (the Sorrels). 

11. R. paucifolius, Nutt. in Wats. Bot. King Exp. 314 (1871). Erect, 
slender, 12 ft. high, leafy below: leaves narrowly lanceolate, or the 



POLYGONE.i:. 141 

lowest broader, not at all hastate, 2-4 in. loug. acutish, narrowed to a 
slender petiole : jjanicle naked, its branches slender, erect : fl. in loose 
fascicles Ja ^^^^ long, fruiting sparingly : pedicels filiform, jointed near 
the base : valves cordate-ovate, entire, nearly 2 lines long. — Near Lake 
Tenayo in the Sierra Nevada, Brewer, thence northward and eastward. 

12. R. digrynus, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 337 (1753) ; Hill, Veget. Syst. x. 24 
(1765), under Oxyria; Mill. Diet. 8th ed. (1768), under Acetosa; Wahlb. 
Fl. Lapp. 101. t. 9 (1812), under Rheum. Stoutish and somewhat fleshy, 
6—18 in. high, the stems usually several, from a perpendicular simple or 
branched fleshy root : leaves mostly radical, long-petioled, round- 
reniform, 1 — 2 in. broad : fl. perfect, greenish or reddish, in scarious 
bracted fascicles forming panicled racemes, dimerous, the sepals 4, 
stamens 6 and stigmas 2 : achene thin, flat, broadly winged, the wing 
exserted from the two spatulate erect inner sepals, red in age. — Common 
in cold wet rocky places, along snow-fed streamlets etc., in the higher 
Sierra ; and in like situations far northward around the whole circuit of 
the northern hemisphere ; a merely dimerous and wing-fruited sorrel, 
formerly cultivated in northern Europe — like other Acelnsa species — for 
its tender and keenly acid fruit-like and wholesome herbage. 

13. E. AcETOSELiiA, Linn. 1. c. 338. Acelosa tenuifolia, Mcench, Meth. 
357 (1794) ; A repens, S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. ii. 276 (1821). Stems erect 
from running rootstocks, slender, 6 — 18 in. high : leaves oblong- to 
linear-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, 1 — 3 in. long, usually hastate, the lobes 
often toothed : panicle naked, long and narrow ; fl. dioecious, small, red, 
in loose fascicles ; pedicels short, jointed at top : achene small, ovate- 
triqiietrous, '^-^ line long. Very common, and one of the most persistent 
of field and pasture weeds, multiplying excessively both by seeds and by 
its rootstocks ; native of the Old World, but now nati^ralized in all 
temperate regions of the globe. 

3. EMEX, Necker. Annual herbs with alternate leaves, and axillary 
solitary or clustered unisexual flowers. Staminate perianth 5— 6-parted; 
segments equal, spreading. Stamens 4 6 ; filaments filiform. Fertile 
perianth with urceolate tube and 6 unequal lobes in 2 series, the whole 
accrescent in fruit and indurated ; the outer lobes spreading and spines- 
cent, the inner plane, erect-connivent. Fruit a triquetrous achene 
enclosed in the tube of the perianth but free from it. Seed subterete ; 
embryo incurved. 

1. E. AUSTRALis, Steinh. Ann. Sc. Nat. ix. 195 (1838) : E. Centropodium 
Meisn. Linnsea, xiv. 490 (1840). Glabrous ; the stout and rigid prostrate 
branches 1-2 ft. long : leaves triangular-ovate, entire, 2 in. long, at base 
abruptly narrowed to a long petiole : staminate fl. often clustered at the 
end of a peduncle ; the pistillate sessile : fructiferous perianth I3 — % 



142 POLY G ONE ^. 

in. long, thick and almost woody ; outer lobes broadly subulate and 
thorn-like, the inner broadly ovate, mucronate. — Native of South Africa 
and Australia ; adventive on oiir sea-beaches ; collected in fruit by the 
author, on a railway embankment at South Vallejo in 1874. 

4. HOLLISTERIA, S. Wa'son. Diffuse and frag-ile annual with 
alternate cuspidate leaves and two small herbaceous free sti])ules at base 
of each. Involucre solitary, sessile in the leaf-axil, comijosed of 3 slightly 
united linear unequal obtuse bracts, 2-fiowered. Flowers unequally 
pedicelled, with a minute scarious bract at base. Perianth turbinate, 
membranous, 6-cleft to the middle. Stamens 9, on the throat, included. 
Styles slender. Achene glabrous, ovate, triquetrous at tip. Embryo 
curved ; the orbicular cotyledons accumbent. 

1. H. laiiata, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 296 (1879). Branches pros- 
trate, 1 ft. long or more ; herbage loosely woolly : leaves elliptical or 
oblanceolate, the lowest 1—3 in. long, the upper much smaller and more 
ovate, aculeate-tipped ; stipules linear-subulate, 13 lines long : peri- 
anth woolly, 1 line long, the linear-lanceolate lobes green, with a scarious 
margin, the inner slightly shorter and broader. — An interesting plant, 
perhaps somewhat local, near San Luis Obispo, Leinvwn. 

5. NEMACAULIS, Nuilall. Diffuse annuals with alternate (mostly 
basal and rosulate) exstipulate leaves, and small flowers without 
involucre clustered at the nodes of the slender branches. Flowers 
perfect, each with a free herbaceous bractlet. Perianth 6-cleft, colored, 
enclosing the achene. Stamens 3. Styles 3 ; stigmas capitate. Achene 
short-ovoid, ol)scurely 3-angled. 

1. N. deiindata, Nutt. Journ. Philad. Acad. 2d ser. i. 168 (1847); 
Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, xiv. 217 : N. NuUaUii, Benth. in DC. Prodr. 
xiv. 23 (1856) ; Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 16. Stems ascending, 1 ft. long, 
terete, glabrate, purplish : leaves narrowly spatulate, 1—3 in. long 
including the short petiole, densely tomentose-hairy on both sides : 
bractlets of the flower-clusters obovate to spatulate, 1 line long, the 
outer without flowers, the inner smaller, all very woolly within, glabrous 
without : fl. yellowish, scarcely }-^ line long, slightly exceeding their 
bracts, short-pedicellate, glabrous ; inner segments broadest : achene 
I3 line long.— Along sandy beaches in the southern part of the State ; 
perhaps not as far north as Santa Barbara. 

6. ERIOGIONUM, Michaux. Annual, perennial or suffrutescent 
plants with radical or alternate or verticillate exstipulate leaves and a 
greatly diversified inflorescence of involucrate, mostly small and dense 
primary flower-clusters. Involucre campanulate, turbinate or oblong, 
4— 8-toothed or -lobed without awns ; the pedicels few or many, more 
or less exserted, subtended by scarious and narrow or quite setaceous 



rOLYGONE^. 143 

hractlets. Perianth 6-cleft or -parted, colored, enclosing the achene. 
vStamens 9, upon the base of the perianth. Styles 3 ; stigmas capitate. 
Achene 3-angled, rarely 3-winged. Embryo in all Californian species 
more or less lateral and incnrved ; cotyledons foliaceoiis, mostly shorter 
than the radicle. 

* Pereintials, nfte)i iroodi/ ai haxe; inrolucre^ nmhrllnle (rarely solilaryj 

at swnmit of naked or leafy-hracted scape-like peduncles, iurbinaie, 4 — ^- 

looihed or lobed; perianth riarroived. to a slender stipe-like base; 

filamenls pubescent beloir.-'EB.ioGO'HVM proper. 

■i— Involucres deeply lobed, the lobes becoming rejiexed. 

++ Peduncles erect from a branched woody base; umbel simple 

or compound. 

1. E. tripoduiii, Greene, Pittonia, i. 39 (1887). Leaves linear-spatu- 
late, 1 in. long, inchidiug the short petiole, revolnte, tomentose on both 
sides : peduncles slender, 1 ft. high, bearing a whorl of leaves above 
midway and these parted into al)out 3 elongated and nearly erect rays, 
of which two bear a whorl of bracts in the middle, the third being naked; 
each ray with a single involucre at summit : perianth yellow, densely 
villous, less than 2 lines long, abruptly narrowed to a very short stipiti- 
form base. At Hough's Springs, Lake Co., Mrs. Curran. 

2. E. umbellatuiii, Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 241 (1828). More or less 
tomentose when young, the upper surface of the leaves, or sometimes 
the whole plant, glabrate in age : leaves obovate- to oblong-spatulate, 
1 — 2 in. long, on a slender petiole : peduncle 6—15 in. high, naked, bear- 
ing a simple umbel of naked rays subtended by a whorl of leaves : 
lobes of the involucre shorter than the turbinate tube : fl. yellow, often 
reddening in age, 2 — 3 lines long, tapering gradually to the long stipe- 
like base : filaments very hairy. — At considerable elevations in the 
Sierra, from Mt. Dana northward ; one of the most common and widely 
dispersed species of the genus, originally discovered in the Rocky Moun- 
tains, where it is more plentiful than in California. The two following 
seem to have been more or less confused with it. 

3. E. speciosuin, Drew, Bull. Torr. Club, xvi. 152 (1889). Habit 
and foliage of the preceding, but all the parts larger, the petioles 
shorter : umbel bearing 2 — 4 elongated rays which are usually again 
divided, all the nodes leafy-bracted : involucre small, the lobes acute : 
fl. numerous, bright yellow tinged with purple, % ^^- long, including the 
slender stipe-like portion : filaments slightly hairy. — Gravelly banks of 
the South Fork of Trinity River, in the Hyampum Valley, Chesnut A- 
Drew. Also doubtless along the upper Sacramento, where it may have 
passed for E. umbellalum. July. 

4. E. Tolinieanniii, Hook. Fl. ii. 134(1840): E. umbellatuiu, var. 



144 POLYGON E^, 

luonucepluilnin, T. k G. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 160 (1870). Woody basal 
branchlets short, very leafy, densely cespitose : leaves ovate, 3 lines 
lou^,--, narrowed to a sliort petiole, glabrate above : scape 2— 4 in. bigh, 
bearing a whorl of bracts above midway and a single large globose 
tiower-cluster of 1 or more small involucres : fl. yellow ; the campanu- 
late perianth abruptly narrowed to a short stipitiform base : filaments 
long-villous for a short space below the middle. — A neat and pretty 
alpine species, found at Sonora Pass, Brewer, and again from the 
Scott Moimtains northward ; more common on the high plains of 
eastern Oregon. Aug. 

5. E. Torreyanuin, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 58 (1870). Glabrous, 
the obovate- or oblong-spatulate leaves 12 in. long, coriaceous : 
peduncles stout, a span to a foot high, naked or with a single leaf in the 
middle, bearing a few-rayed umbel ; lateral rays leafy-bracted in the 
middle, often divided : fl. 3 — 4 lines long, yellow or reddish, the stipiti- 
form base very short.— Subalpine in the Sierra Nevada from Silver 
Mountain and near Donner Lake northward. 

6. E. stellatum, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 409 (1837) ; Hook. Fl. 
ii. 134. t. 177. More or less tomentose, the stems diffuse and leafy : 
leaves ovate-spatulate to oblauceolate : peduncles %~1 ft. high, bearing 
an umbel of 2—4 usually elongated and cymosely divided rays ; the 
nodes all leafy-bracted : fl. yellow : stipitate base of perianth elongated. 
Var. bahiaeforiiie, Wats. Inflorescence more compound ; leaves smaller 
and more decidedly tomentose. Rather common in the Sierra; also 
apparently in the Coast Range northward. 

7. E. robustum, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 126 (188.5). Whitish- 
tomentose throughout, the very thick caudex much branched, forming a 
broad tuft : leaves ovate, 1—1}4 in. long, erect, on stout petioles 2 in. 
long : peduncles stout, erect, 6 in. high, bearing an ample umbel of 
about 5 thrice divided rays; umbels and um])ellules siibtended, the former 
by spatulate, the latter by linear-lanceolate leafy bracts 1 in. long : 
involucres % in. long : fl. cream-colored, }i in. long ; stipe like base of 
perianth very short. Eastern foot-hills of the Sierra between Reno and 
Virginia City, Nevada, Mrs. Cur ran. Not yet found within the Cali- 
fornian boundary, but to be expected. July. 

8. E. coinpo.situm, Doiigl. in Benth. 1. 1. 410 (1837). More or less 
white- or yellowish-tomentose, the leaves densely so beneath ; these 
oblong-ovate, cordate at base, acute or acutish, 1—3 in. long on rather 
long petioles : peduncles stout, naked, %—!% ft. high, nearly glabrous: 
umbel of 6 10 long rays, each bearing a short several-rayed umbellule, 
subtended by whorls of linear-oblanceolate leaflets : fl. 2-4 lines long, 
cream-colored or yellow, the stipe-like ])ase relatively short. From Napa 
and Sonoma counties northward, at middle elevations of the Coast Range. 
^^. ^ PeduncJes deciurihenl or aliiwsi proslrate, from a simple or sparingly 

branched but slonl caiidrx. 



POLYGONE.E. 145 

9. E. Lobbii, T. & G. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 162 (1870). Hoary when 
young, with a soft arachnoid tomentum : leaves oval or more rounded, 
l^ — 11/2 in. long, on stoutish petioles, thick, glabrate above in age : 
peduncles 3 — 6 in. long, weak and reclining : umbel simple, of few stout 
and short rays, subtended by 3 or 4 oblong or oblanceolate leaflets con- 
nate at base : involucres 3^ in. long, many-flowered : fi. dull white with 
usually a tinge of rose, 2 — 3 lines long, the stipe-like base very short. — 
Common on barren rocky or gravelly alpine summits north and south of 
Donner Lake. Aug. — Oct. 

■i— -h- Involucres with slioii nearly or (iiiHe erect teeth; peduncles from 
a diffuse woody base (except iu n. 'J). 

10. E. pyrolsfoliuin, Hook. Journ. Bot. v. 395. t. 10 (1853). Leaves 
(from a short and thick, sparingly branched caudex) thick, glabrous, 
round-obovate to oblong, i^ — % ^^- broad, abruptly narrowed to a short 
petiole : peduncles glabrous, 2 — 3 in. high, bearing a simple 2-bracteate 
umbel of 1 — 4 short-pedicellate involucres, these sinuate-toothed and 
villous : fi. rose-colored, l}^ — 2 lines long, sparingly villous on the out- 
side. — In volcanic ashes near the summit of Lassen's Peak, Lemmon; 
also in similar places on Mt. Shasta. 

11. E. ursinum, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 347 (1875). Densely 
tomentose, the peduncle and compound 6 — 12-rayed umbel somewhat 
villous : leaves ovate, acute, 4—6 lines broad, cuneate or rounded at 
base, exceeding the petiole, glabrate above : peduncles stout, 6 — 12 in. 
high ; bracts elongated, oblanceolate or linear : involucres large and 
turbinate, sharply toothed: fl. 1}^— 2J2 lines long, pale yellow: fila- 
ments very villous. — Plumas Co., Mr. Leiuiiiou, Mrs. Atnes. Sept. 

12. E. incaiiuiii, T. & G. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 161 (1870). Rather 
densely cespitose : leaves t^blong-spatulate or oblanceolate, }4 — 1 in. 
long, short-petioled, densely tomentose on both faces : peduncles 
slender, 2 10 in. high ; umbel simple, of 5 — 8 slender rays subtended 
by a few small linear bracts, the central involucre sessile or the whole 
umbel reduced to a small head: involucres l^/g lines long, strongly toothed : 
fl. of a rather greenish yellow, in age often tinged with red, 1 — 3 lines 
long. — In the higher Sierra, from Mariposa Co. to near Donner Lake. 

13. E. marifoliuin, T. & G. 1. c. Slenderly but intricately branched 
at base : leaves ovate or oblong, I4 — 1^ in. long, usually glabrate above : 
peduncle 2 — 12 in. high ; umbel simple, of 5 — 8 usually short rays, the 
bracts short and linear : involucre 1 line long : fl. brownish or yellowish, 
1 — 21/2 lines long, the smaller staminate only. — In the higher Sierra, from 
Mariposa Co. northward. A small and homely species. July — Sept. 

14. E. Kello^gii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 293 (1870). Stems and 
sterile stolons slender and cespitose, forming a broad mat : leaves 



146 POLYGONEyE, 

oblauceolate, 2 — 4 lines long, subsessile, villous-tomentose : peduncles 
2 — 4 in. high, with a central whorl of 3 — 5 foliaceous bracts and a 
solitary terminal naked strongly toothed involucre 2 lines long : fl. rose- 
colored or white, l}^ — '^^■i lines long. In fir-woods on Eed Mountain, 
Mendocino Co., Kellogg A Harfurd. 

* * Involucres cylindric-turhitiale or prisriiatic, 5 — 6-nerred, with erect 

teeth, in heads or cymosely or virgately scattered on the branches; 

perianth abruptly contracted at base; filaments usually 

glabrous. — Subgenus Oregonium, Wats. 

-i— Perennials with scape-like peduncles. 

15. E. gracilipes, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxiv. 85 (1889). Dwarf, 
densely cespitose, the branches of the caudex bearing crowded oblauceo- 
late tomentose leaves % in. long or less: peduncles slender, 1 — 2 in. high, 
glandular-puberulent : involucres turbinate, tomentose, few, forming a 
solitary terminal head : fl. glabrous, rose-colored. — On the White Moun- 
tains, Mono Co., at the highest altitudes (13,000 ft.), W. H. Shockley. 

16. E. ovalifolium, Niitt. Journ. Philad. Acad. vii. 50. t. § (1834) ; PL 
Gamb. 166 (1848), under Eucycla. Cespitose, densely white-tomentose : 
leaves broadly oval or oblong, acutish, 2 — 6 lines broad, abruptly 
narrowed to a long slender petiole : peduncles slender, 3—9 in. high : 
involucres 3—8, in a close head, 2 — 2^2 lines long : fl. yellow, white or 
rose-red, 1% — 2^4, lines long, the outer sepals almost orbicular, the inner 
spatulate, obtuse or retuse. Var. proliferuiii, Wats,: E. proliferum, 
T. & G. 1. c. Larger than the type, the involucres loosely cymose- 
umbellate. — Mostly along the eastern foot-hills of the Sierra, and east- 
ward. The variety is one of the handsomest plants of the genus. 

17. E. Kenuedyi, Porter, Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 263 (1877). Densely 
cespitose but scarcely woody, white-tomentose : leaves narrowly oblong, 
1}^ — 3 lines long, revolute : peduncles glabrous, slender and wiry, 2 — 4 
in. high : involucres 2 — 10, in a dense head, somewhat tomentose, 1^2 
lines long, strongly nerved, the teeth short : fl. glabrous, white Mdth red 
veins, IJg lines long, the sepals all alike.— Obtained somewhere in Kern 
Co., W. L. Kennedy, 1876. 

18. E. latifoliuiii, Smith, in Bees Cycl. (1815) : E. arachnoideum, 
Esch. (1826). Stout, tomentose throughout, the short caudex sparingly 
branched and leafy : leaves oblong or oval, obtuse or acute, 1 — 2 in. 
long, rounded or cordate, or rarely cuneate at base, commonly undulate, 
often glabrate above, 1 — 2 in. long, the stoutish petiole often short and 
margined : peduncles stout, 6 — 20 in. high : bracts triangular : invo- 
lucres very-many-flowered, crowded in 1 — 3 large terminal heads, or the 
peduncles more than once forked above and the heads smaller : bractlets 
densely villous-plumose : fl. white, the sepals broadly obovate. — In 



POLY GONE iE. 147 

rocky or sandy places from San Simeon Bay northward to Humboldt 
Co., chiefly near the sea ; common and variable ; or possibly a complex 
species as here received. IJ. uhlohgifolium, Benth., of late referred here, 
is far less tomentose than the type, and has leaves narrowed at base. A 
plant of the State Survey (n. 6569) from Mendocino Co. is white- 
arachnoid-tomentose throughout, even to the involucres, and its leaves 
are nearly orbicular. The type is common on the San Francisco penin- 
sula, flowering in summer and autumn. 

19. E. uiulnin, Dougl. in Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 413 (1837) : 
E. auriculalum, Benth. 1. c. 412. Much taller and more slender than the 
last, the ovate or oblong leaves {% — 2 in. long) densely tomentose 
beneath, glabrate above : peduncle and loose panicle 1 — 2 ft. high, 
glabrous and glaucescent, or somewhat floccose-tomentose : involucres 
2 — 3 lines long, nearly or quite glabrous, 3 6 in each cluster : fl. 
glabrous or villous, 1 — l^^ lines long, white, reddish or sulphur-yellow. 
Var. paucitloruin, Wats. Panicle more diffuse, the involucres solitary 
or in pairs, the peduncle often inflated. Var. obloiigifoliuin, Wats. E. 
ajfi)ie, Benth. Often tomentose throughout ; leaves attenuate to a long 
slender petiole ; bracts sometimes foliaceous. — Common throughout the 
State in various forms, or possibly a complex species ; the type on 
clayey hills and banks not far from the sea ; the varieties belonging to 
the interior, the last one chiefly northward and commonly or always 
yellow-flowered. July — Oct. 

-i- -1— Shrubs iriiJi fascicles of smaller leaves in the arils; involucres capi- 
tate, the clusters more or less cymose-uvihellate. 

20. E. parvifoliuiii, Smith, in Rees Cycl. (1815). Branched from the 
base and tufted, 3 ft. high, more or less white-tomentose throughout : 
leaves broadly ovate or oblong, %—% in. long, on very short petioles, 
revolute and undulate, in age glabrate above : peduncles short ; heads 
few and dense : fl. glabrous, white or with a tinge of rose, 1}/^ lines 
long. — On the seacoast from Santa Cruz, Anderson, to Santa Barbara. 

21. E. fasciculatnin, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 411 (1837) : E. 

rosmarinifolium, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 164 (1848): J<J. eric se folium, T. & G. 
Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 170 (1870). Stems woody and brittle, mostly 2—3 
ft. high, with many fascicles of rigid, almost heath-like leaves, these 
^i — 9i in. long, oblong-linear, acute, revolute, subsessile, deep green and 
shining above, tomentose beneath : peduncles short, bearing a cymosely 
divided umbel of many sessile 5-toothed involucres : fl. white or pinkish, 
1 line long. — From Santa Barbara southward, mostly near the sea ; 
flowering almost all the year round, and a favorite food-plant with bees. 

22. E. polifoliniii, Benth. in DC. Prodr. xiv. 12 (1856) : E. fascicK- 
latum, Wats, in part. Less woody and less brittle than the last and 



148 POLY GONE ^. 

smaller : leaves oblong, revolute, narrowed to a short petiole, ciuereous- 
tomentose above, the indument denser and white on the lower face : 
peduncles elongated and naked, bearing mostly 2 or several large heads 
of clustered involucres, or these not rarely cymose-umbellate : fl. as in 
the preceding. — Sufficiently distinct from the last by its diflfierent habit, 
broader, thinner and cinereous foliage, etc. It is in general a plant of 
the interior rather than of the seaboard, and has a more northerly range 
than E. fascictilatuin, being plentiful on the mountains of Kern Co., 
north of the Mohave Desert. July — Oct. 

-!—•)—•)— Leaces nut fascicled; involucres scaiiered in open cymes. 

23. E. microthecum, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 162 (1848). Shrubby at base, 
erect, rather slender and diffuse, 3 — 12 in. high, more or less white- 
tomentose : leaves oblanceolate to linear, ig — l^o in. long, acute, more 
or less revolute, white-tomentose beneath, glabrate above : peduncles 
short, bearing a short cyme of once to thrice subdivided branches : 
involucres % — 1% lines long, attenuate at base, some of them peduncu- 
late : fl. }4 — 1 lin® long, white, rose-color or yellow. — A widely dispersed 
and variable species of the Rocky Mountain plateau, reaching our 
borders in the Sierras of Mono Co. and northward, in a reduced and sub- 
alpine form. 

24. E. corymbosiim, Benth. in DC. Prodr. xiv. 17 (1856). Very near 
the last, but stouter : leaves broader and longer, less revolute : cyme 
broader and shorter, with fewer involucres and rather larger flowers. — 
Of the same distribution as the last nearly ; reaching the eastern base of 
the Sierra. 

2.5. E. truucatum, T. & G. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 173 (1870). Annual, 

slender, floccose-tomentose throughout, 1 ft. high : leaves mostly rosu- 

late near the base of the stem, sometimes a whorl subtending the lowest 

node ; blade oblanceolate, 1 in. long, attenuate to a slender petiole, the 

margin undulate : inflorescence very lax, in a kind of umbel of 4 — 6 

elongated and di- or trichotomous rays : inflorescence few, oblong- 

turbinate, 2 lines long : fl. rose-color, 1 line. — Seemingly a local species, 

but plentiful among the hills just at the eastern base of Mt. Diablo. 

-i— -i— H— H— Inroincres scattered along the branches of an open naked 

dichotomoris panicle. 

-M- Snjfrutescenl perennials leafy below; herbage vhite-tomentose; 

panicle of few virgate branches. 

26. E. elongatuiii, Benth. Bot. Sulph. 45 (1844). Woody and leafy 
stem low (seldom 1 ft.), the simple or sparingly branched*flowering stems 
often 2 ft. high : leaves somewhat scattered, oblong-lanceolate, or 
broader, acute, 1 in. long, narrowed to a short petiole, in age glabrate 
iibove : involucres distant, 2-3 lines long, obtusely toothed : fl. 1 — l^-^ 



polygone.t:. 149 

Hues lonj?, white or rose-colored : acliene glabroiTS. -From Monterey 
southward uear the coast. 

27. E. trachygrouum, Torr. iu DO. Prodr. xiv. 15 (1856). Woody 
stems erect, rather sleuder, 6 —10 in. high, densely clothed with the 
living and dead leaves ; these narrowly oblanceolate, 1 in. long, narrowed 
to a sleuder petiole, the dense tomeutum persistent on both faces, as on 
the stems and peduncles : panicle short-peduncled, 3 — 5 in. high, twice 
or thrice dichotomous ; lower involucres scattered, upper more con- 
densed, sessile, campanulate-tubular, prominently but obtusely angled, 
glabrous except the woolly and obtusely toothed orifice : sepals white 
with a green midrib, the inner longer and somewhat narrower than the 
outer : ovary pubescent on the angles. — Abundant in dry gravel beds 
along Putah Creek, Jepaon, P. S. Woolsey, and elsewhere in like situations 
up and down the valley of the Sacramento, and southward in the 
interior. Entirely distinct in habit, foliage, etc. from the Texano-New- 
Mexican E. Wrighiii with which it has been confounded. Sept., Oct. 

28. E. Wrightii, Torr. 1. c. var. snbscaposuin, Wats. Woody and 
leafj' stems very short and cespitose : leaves I4 — l'^ ^^- long, oblong, 
obtuse, short-petioled, not persistent on the old branchlets : peduncles 
naked and scapiform, the involucres spicate on a few wide-spread 
cymose branches, or fewer and capitate-congested, tomentose throughout, 
the teeth rigid, acute : sepals less unequal than in the last, the midvein 
red. — High Sierra from near Donuer Lake southward. Sept., Oct. 

29. E. saxatile, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 267 (1878). Oaudex stout- 
ish, sparingly branched, very leafy, }<2 — 1 ft. high : leaves obovate, 
obtuse, 6 — 8 lines broad, 1 in. long, cuneate at base, short-petioled, 
densely tomentose on both sides : branches of the inflorescence short, 
spreading : bracts subfoliaceous, triangular or oblong and acute : invo- 
lucres 11.3 — 2 lines long ; teeth acute : fl. rose-colored, 2 lines long, the 
sepals all spatulate-oblong and carinate, about equal, the inner appressed 
to the achene. — In Reliz Canon, Monterey Co., Hichtiau, and Santa 
Lucia Mts., Palmer. 

■n- -M- AiDiualti irilli leaves )noslU/ hasal ami rosulale. 
= Pnvolucres 2 lines long, Inhvlar. 

30. E. virg-atuiii, Benth. in DC. Prodr. xiv. 16 (1856). Usually white- 
tomentose throughout : leaves oblong, 1 in. long on sleuder petioles : 
peduncle simple, or with only a few erect virgate branches, 1— 2^3 ft. 
high, the involucres remote, the 5 teeth very short : perianth 1 line long, 
buff or yellow ; outer sepals broadly obovate, cuneately narrowed at 
base, the inner about as long, spatulate-oblong : achene with a minutely 
puberulent rather slender beak. Near Monterey, Harlweg; towards the 



150 POLYGONE.E. 

Yosemite, Bolauder, u. 4953, a less tomentose or even somewhat g'labrate 
state ; banks of Putah Creek, Solano Co., Jepson, and very common 
farther northward in the State. 

31. E. roseum, Dur. & Hilg-. Journ. Philad. Acad. iii. 45 (1854) & 
Pac. R. Rep. v. 14. t. 15 (1855). Smaller, the leaves spatulate-ovate, 
undulate, narrowed to a long petiole : peduncle with rather divergent 
and stiff panicled branches : involucres remote, slightly widening 
upwards, rather deeply 5-toothed : perianth rose-color, % line long ; 
outer sepals obovate-oblong, not attenuate at base. — Of more southerly 
distribution than the last, but common as far north as Mariposa and 
Tulare counties. 

32. E. tlasyanthemum, T. & G. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 177 (1870). 
Usiially hoary-tomentose, sometimes nearly glabrate : leaves oval or 
rounded, 5 — 10 lines long, abruptly narrowed to a slender petiole : 
peduncle 1 ft. high, mostly rather loosely but widely branching, the 
branches often more or less cymose-dichotomous : invohicres rather 
remote, not always solitary, narrowly tubular (in the type), very shortly 
toothed, tomentose except the prominent ribs, these glabrous : fl. 
scarcely exserted, erect, not nu.merous, 1 line long, white or rose-color ; 
more or less densely villous on the outside. Var. Jepsoiiii. Panicle 
ample, as broad as high, the dichotomous branches widely spreading : 
invohicres campanulate-tubular, very-many-flowered, the pedicels ex- 
serted and recurved ; fl. rose-red. — The type, originally from near Clear 
Lake, Lake Co., Torrey, is plentiful along Putah Creek in the valley of 
the lower Sacramento, Jepson, Woohey; the variety, from Gate's Canon, 
not far from Vacaville, is more showy and may perhaps be a distinct 
species. Sept., Oct. 

== = Involucres 1 — IJ'g lines long, usually iurhinaie. 

33. E. viiiiiueum, Dougl. in Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 416 (1837); 
DC. Prodr. xiv. 17. Seldom at all tomentose except on the lower face of 
the ovate or orbicular slender-stalked leaves : peduncle 1 ft. high, 
branched from near the base, the branches slender and virgate, or some- 
times the whole inflorescence more spreading and repeatedly dichoto- 
mous : involucres very narrow and rather prismatic, the teeth very 
short : fl. few, rose-color or white, exserted ; outer sepals obovate, the 
inner obovate-oblong and only half as broad. Var. caiiinniii. Invo- 
lucres turbinate, many-flowered, disposed in divergent-branched dichoto- 
mous cymes : fl. rose-red : outer sepals broadly obovate, the inner 
spatulate-oblong. — Notliing quite like the type of this species of the far 
northeastern interior is found in middle California. The common plant 
of the interior of our State was named a var. eriocladon by Bentham. 
Our var. caninuni, found only at Tiburon, on dry hills, is so very unlike 
all else which has been called E. viiaineutn that it may take specific rank, 



POLYGONE.E. 151 

unless intermediate forms are found. July -Sept. 

34. E. grracile, Benth. Bot. Sulph. 46 (1844) & DO. Prodr. 1. c. Slender, 
1 — 2 ft. high, usually white-woolly throughout : leaves rosiilate or 
scattered, ovate, oblong or oblanceolate, tomentose on both faces : 
panicle of few or many usually rather strict and virgate very slender 
branches : involucres many-flowered, turbinate, the 5 teeth stout, promi- 
nent, acutish : fl. white, rose-color or yellowish, % line long ; outer 
sepals obovate, inner oblong. In the interior, from the Sacramento 
valley soil th ward ; apt to be confounded with E. virgaium if one over- 
look the small size of the flowers and the teeth of the involucre. As 
here perhaps too loosely defined it embraces E. leucoladoii, Benth., and 
E. acetoselloides, Torr., both of which may yet be found to deserve 
restoration. 

35. E. cithariforme, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, xxiii. 266 (1888). Pros- 
trate or procumbent, branching from the base, mostly glabrous except 
the floccose-wooUy lower face of the leaves ; these 8—4 in. long, dilated 
at summit, the rounded base abruptly contracted to a winged petiole, 
margin undulate : branches 1 ft. long, many times forked, the lower 
bracts foliaceous, the upper triangular : involucres glabrous, broadly 
turbinate, 1— IJ^ lines long, with broad teeth : fl. rose-color, 1 line long; 
sepals spatulate-obovate. — In San Luis Obispo Co., Lemmon. 

36. E. Pluiiiatella, Dur. & Hilg. Pac. R. Kep. v. 14. t. 16 (1855). 
Slender, 3 — 8 in. high : leaves rosulate very near the base of the stem, 
orbiciilar, h^ i^- broad, on slender petioles : panicle diffusely and intri- 
cately branched, the branchlets (like the leaves) grayish-tomentose : 
involucres very short (3^2 ^^^^ or even less) : fl. few, yellow, rose-color or 
white, -^4^ line long or more ; sepals broadly ovate-cuneiform and refuse, 
slightly unequal. — A Nevada species, common along the eastern base of 
the Sierra, but first obtained in Kern Co., Calif., on Pose Creek. 

* * ■«• Annuals; i nvolucres pedicellate in diffuse di- or trichotunwus cyuwse 

umJieh or panicles; perianth not attenuate at base; filaments 

glabrous. — Subgenus Ganysma, Wats. 

H— Nodes of the panicle leafy. 

37. E. aiigulosuiii, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 406. t. 18 (1837). 
Grayish-tomentose, 6 — 18 in. high, loosely and widely branching from 
near the base, the branches 4 — 6-angled : lowest leaves ovate or rounded, 
cuneate or somewhat cordate at base, obtuse, often undulate, ^g — 1 ^^• 
long, on rather short petioles ; upper oblong or lanceolate, subsessile : 
pedicels of the involucres I4- II4 in. long, filiform : involucre hemi- 
spherical, 1 ~2 lines broad, many-flowered, smooth or glandular : bract- 
lets mostly dilated and rather firm : fl. rose-color, purplish, or even 
greenish-white, ^j line long, not quite glabrous ; outer sepals ovate, 



152 POLYGONE^. 

concave, the inner lanceolate, plane, somewhat longer. — Plains of the 
interior, from near Sacramento southward. 

38 ? E. gossypiuum, Ourran, Bull. Galif. Acad. i. 274: (1885). Stem 
and branches scarcely woolly, obscurely angular, 1 — 2 ft. high, very 
diffuse : lowest leaves oblong, tomentose beneath : pedicels filiform, 
1 — 6 lines long : involucres turbinate, cleft to the middle, the lobes 
oblong, obtuse, villous on the inside : fl. about 5 to the involucre, the 
bractlets linear-spatulate, villous on the upper face ; sepals nearly linear, 
the inner aciite, slightly longer than the outer. — Plains near Bakersfield, 
Kern Co., Mrs. Curran. An ambiguous species, perhaps better referred 
to Nernacaulis, especially if the achenes be as reported, "lenticular." 
-1— -i- Panicle leafless. 

39. E. trichopodiim, Torr. in Emory's Rep. 151 (1848) ; Benth. DC. 
Prodr. xiv. 20. Nearly glabrous, the stem and branches vivid green : 
leaves round-cordate to oblong-ovate, l^ — 1 iu- long: peduncles branched 
and occasionally somewhat inflated below the nodes ; branchlets and 
pedicels filiform, the latter almost capillary : involucres minute ( ^s" line 
long), turbinate-campanulate, glabrous : fi. few, },^ line long, yellowish, 
Ijubescent. — San Benito Co., Hick)nau; otherwise a plant of the south- 
eastern extremity of the State, where it is associated Avith E. itiflaluni, a 
similar species not yet heard of as within our limits. 

7. OXYTHECA, N'uiiall. Slender annuals, glandular-pubescent (not 
tomentose), with a rosulate basal tuft of leaves and a repeatedly dichoto- 
mous paniculate inflorescence. Bracts of the flowering branches foli- 
aceous, more or less connate. Invokicres small, few-flowered, more or 
less distinctly ijedicellate, the lobes awn-tipped or unarmed. Perianth 
6-parted, usually glandular-ptibescent on the outside, the segments alike. 
Stamens 6. Achene commonly lenticular. — Apparently a natural genus, 
though no absolute character has been shown by which it may be dis- 
tinguished from Eriogomim. To name involucral awns as of such 
value is altogether empirical ; and to draw the line there excludes plants 
naturally inseparable from the Oxytheca type. 

* Brads united into a broad rounded concave disk. 

1. 0. perfoliata, Torr. & Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 191 (1870). Herb 
rather rigid, glaucous, reddish, branched from the base, 3—8 in. high : 
leaves 1 in. long or less, spatulate, ciliate : lowest bracts small, joined at 
base only, the upper large and conspicuous, perfoliate, 3-awned, net- 
veined : involucres almost sessile, narrowly turbinate, deeply 5-cleft, 
1—1)4. lines long, with long awns, 4— 6-flowered : fl. white, 1 line long. — 
Eastern base of the Sierra, beyond our limits, but to be sought in Mono 
and Inyo counties. 

* » Bracts joined at tiase only, not enlarged. 
■i—Involucres ivilh awn-tipped lobes. 



POLY GONE ^. 153 

2. (). douilroidea, Nutt. PL Gamb. 16\) (1848). Bresignoa ChiUmh, 
Reiny, in Gay. Fi. Ohil. v. 292. Atl. t. 58 (1849). Very slender and diffuse, 
1 ft. IukIi : leaves linear-oblaneeolate, }-2 — l^g in. lonjjr, acute, hirsute : 
bracts unequal, awnless, linear or linear-oblong : involucres turbinate, 
^2 — l^a lines lonj? (excluding the short awns), unequally 3 — 4-lobed, those 
in the forks on slender pedicels 1 — 4 lines long, the rest subsessile • fi. 
rose-color, % line long. — Also of the Nevada deserts, but doubtless 
occurring within the borders of our State. 

H— H— J HroJitcrt'g irilhont nwns, hristli/ or naked. 

3. 0. iiierinis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 273 (1878), and Erioqoimm 
vogaiix, 1. c. XX. 370 (1885). Slender and low, 3—6 in. high, rather diffuse: 
leaves broadly oblanceolate, 1 in. long, glabrous except the scabrous- 
ciliate margins : bracts linear-oblong, acute, awnless : involucres short- 
pedicelled, 4-cleft almost to the base, the oblong-lanceolate lobes 1 line 
long, acute but awnless : fi. rose-color, y^ li^^ long : achenes obtusely 
triangular. — Supposed to have been found originally on Mt. Diablo, Mtsx 
M. J. Baiicrofi, but better known from parts of the State lying south- 
ward beyond our limits. 

4. 0. hirtiflora, Greene. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 259 (1878), 
under Eriogonuiii. Glandular-xjuberulent and viscid, 6 in. high, erect, 
cymose-paniculate above : leaves 1 in. long, oblong-spatulate, with 
scabrous-ciliate margins and a broad red midvein : bracts hispidulous, 
oblong, I4 in. long or less, acutish : involucres awnless, ^2 line long, on 
slender erect or nodding pedicels 1 — 3 lines long : fl. 3 — 5, very hirsute, 
rose-red, J 3 line long. -Foothills of the Sierra in Tuolumne and Calaveras 
counties, Hooker ct Gray, also near lone. Parry. 

5. 0. spergulina, Greene. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 389 (1868), 
under Eriogouum: Oxytheca Reddingiana, Jones, Bull. Torr. Club, ix. 
32 (1882). Very slender, diffusely branched from the base, 3 in. to 2 ft. 
high, of a dull dark green or purplish, nearly glabrous, or somewhat 
glandular-hispid : leaves linear-oblaneeolate, I3 — 2 in. long, more or less 
hirsiite : x^edicels very slender, ^4 — % ^^- long, spreading : involucres 
turbinate, I4 line long, deeply 4-cleft, glabrous, awnless, 1— 2-flowered, 
the pedicels without bracteoles : perianth white or pinkish, I3 — 1 line 
long, slightly glandular-puberulent at base : achene lenticular. — In the 
middle and higher altitudes of the Sierra, from Kern Co. northward. 

8. CHORIZAXTHE, Robert Brown. Dichotomous annuals with few 
and mostly basal leaves ; the branches with ternate bracts at the nodes. 
Involucres 1 — 3-flowered, sessile, more or less tubular, coriaceous or 
chartaceous, often corrugated or reticxilate, 3 — 6-angled or ribbed, with 
as many cuspidate or rigidly awued teeth or segments. Flowers rarely 



154 POLY GONE ^. 

exserted, 6-parted or -cleft ; bractlets minute or obsolete. Stamens 9 
(rarely 6 or 3). Achenes triangulai-. 

* Villous or hirsute; involucres usually clustered, 6-anqled and snlcafe, 

the teeth cuspidate; bractlets obsolete: perianth 6-cleft, the sta)iteiis 

inserted at or near its base. — Chorizanthe proper. 

■^Erect or erect-spreading ; involucres mostly in dense cyrnuse clusters. 

•M- Margins of inrolucral loJies scarious. 

1. C. membranacea, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 419. t. 17 (1837). 
Floccose-tomentose, erect, sparingly branched, with long internodes and 
leafy nodes, }4 — 2 ft. high : leaves linear, acute, 1 — 2 in. long : bracts 
similar to the leaves but cuspidate : heads sessile, solitary or few upon 
the branches : involucres tomentose, 2 — 2% lines long, the limb at 
length dilated and with uncinate teeth : tube contracted in the middle : 
perianth villous, becoming II2 lines long, 6-parted, the segments oblong 
or spatulate : achene broadly triangular and rostrate-attenuate. — In 
rocky places among the foothills and lower mountains. May. 

2. C. stellulata, Benth. PI. Hartw. 333 (1849). Pilose-pubescent, 
3 — 6 in. high, umbellately branched from near the base: leaves scattered, 
or the upper opposite, 1 in. long, linear-oblanceolate : invohicres solitary 
in the lower axils, capitate-congested at the ends of the branches ; tube 
strongly (j-costate, becoming triangular, the angles ciliate or glabrous ; 
segments equal, with not greatly dilated scarious margins, the awns 
recurved : perianth short-pedicellate, the segments exserted, nearly 
equal, obcordately lobed : achene narrowly triangular. — A rare or local 
species, long known only from Hartweg's specimens obtained somewhere 
in the valley of the Sacramento, but rediscovered by the late Dr. Parry 
on volcanic rocks near Chieo perhaps the original station. May. 

3. C. Douglasii, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 418 (1837). Dichoto- 
mously branching and widely spreading from a short and simple main 
stem, this bearing one or two whorls of oblong-spatulate leaves which 
taper to a short winged petiole ; upper leaves reduced to sessile bracts : 
herbage hoary pxibescent : involucres in small terminal clusters with 
setaceous bracts, oblong-campanulate, contracted above, sharply angled, 
transversely corrugated between the angles ; teeth spreading, shorter 
than the tube, scarious-margined to near the uncinate tips and pinkish : 
perianth short-pedicellate ; lobes slightly unequal, truncate, the outer 
cuspidate, the inner shorter and refuse : achenes narrowly winged. — 
Apparently local in the Santa Cruz Mountains, near Felton and Ben 
Lomond, in sandy soil. Parry; first collected by Douglas, probably in 
the same district. A var. albeiis, Parry, 1. c, more pub'escent, and with 
white flowers, occurs in the valley of the Salinas. 

4. C. robusta, Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. v. 176. (1889). Stout, erect, 



POLY GONE ;E. 155 

6—18 in. high, dichotomously branched, the main stem below with 
Keveral whorls of oblanceolate petiolate leaves ; herbage hirsute, the 
inflorescence and growing parts almost canescently so : capitate cymes 
sessile and solitary in the lower forks, several and peduncled along the 
upper branches ; bracts linear, with ace rose tips : involucres oblong- 
campanulate, sharply angled ; segments unequal, the scarious margin 
very narrow, purplish, the uncinate teeth not widely spreading : perianth 
short-pedicellate ; lobes nearly equal, erose-denticulate and mucronu- 
late. — In dry sandy soils along Monterey Bay, at Aptos, also at Alameda. 

5. C. Breweri, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 270 (1878). Slender, soft- 
pubescent, erect, with ascending branches, 2 — 4 in. high : leaves ovate or 
rounded, 3 - (5 lines broad, on slender petioles; bracts linear-oblanceolate, 
acerose-tipped : involucres few in the head, small (l^j lines long) ; teeth 
slightly unequal, scariously margined at base, stout and curved, short- 
awned : jjerianth glabrous or villous, the segments broadly oblong, the 
inner ones shorter.~-At San liuis Obispo, on dry hillsides. Brewer; also 
in Santa Margarita Valley. 

•n- ++ LoJien of iin'olucre villioul scarious tnargiiis. 

6. C. valida, Wats. 1. c. 271. Stout, 6 —18 in. high, branching above, 
villous : lower leaves oblanceolate, 1 in. long, on long petioles : invo- 
lucres in dense heads 2-3 lines long, the lobes nearly equal, slightly 
spreading, the awns straight : perianth subsessile, narrowly tubular, 
'2^2 lines long, villous or glabrous, cleft one-third of the length, the lobes 
oblong, very unequal, the shorter ones ero.se : filaments adnate to the 
middle or even higher. — In Sonoma Co., near Petaluma, etc. 

7. C, Palmeri, Wats. 1. c. Stout but low (3— 5in.), villous-pubescent: 
leaves spatulate, 2 in. long; bracts oblanceolate, conspicuous: invohicres 
in large dense clusters, 2 lines long : one segment long-awned, the rest 
nearly equal : perianth subsessile, glabrous, rose-color, 2 lines long, 
broadly lobed above, the outer, lobes orbicular, inner shorter, truncate or 
bifid, shortly laciniate : stamens near the base. — From near Monterey to 
San Luis Obispo, on rocky hills. 

+- -t— Of diffuse habit, • involucres scattered, or in loose clusters. 
•M- Lobes of involucre with narrow scarious margins. 

8. C. pau^eus, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 419. t. 19 (1837). 
Branches prostrate, 6-12 in. long, hirsute-pubescent : leaves spatulate 
or oblanceolate, 1 in. long, mostly ojjposite ; bracts similar biit narrower, 
acerose at apex : involucres crowded on short lateral branchlets, 1^2—2 
lines long, unequally toothed, usiially margined ; teeth strongly unci- 
nate : perianth obconic, subsessile, shortly cleft ; segments equal, oblong, 
entire : filaments more or less adnate to the lower part of the tube. — 
Common on sandy hills on the San Francisco peninsula, and near 
Monterey. May — Aug. 



'156 POLYGONE.E. 

9. C. diffusa, Beuth. PI. Hartw. 333 (181:9). Near the last, but 
slender, the branches not leafy, the whole plant much smaller : leaves 
all at the very base of the stem, oblong or spatulate : involucres 1 line 
long, unequally toothed, the longer teeth equalling the tube, uncinate, 
the scarious margins broad and petaloid, pinkish : perianth shortly 
cleft ; segments obtuse, nearly equal, the inner somewhat narrower ; 
filaments inserted near the base. — Sandy plains near Monterey, Hartwfg, 
also near the seashore at the same place, and in the Santa Cruz Moun- 
tains, Parry: and Dr. Parry considered the plant a variety of C. pangenx. 

10. C. Audersouii, Parry. Proc. Davenp. Acad. v. 175 (1889). Branches 
a span long : leaves mostly radical, oblanceolate, narrowed to a winged 
petiole ; foliaceous bracts occasional at the lower nodes ; the loosely 
cymose inflorescence acerose-bracted : involucres sharply ribbed, the 
intervals somewhat corrugated ; longer segments equalling the tube, the 
alternate ones half as long, all scarious-dilated at base and uncinate- 
tipped : perianth narrowly obconic, with short spatulate equal entire 
apiculate lobes. Scott's Valley, near Santa Cruz, Anderson; also on 
Ben Lomond, Parry. July. 

++ •»-+ Lobes of involucre vilJioul scarw^is margins. 

11. C. cuspidata, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 379 (1882). Habit of 
('. pnngens, leafy-bracted : leaves narrowly oblanceolate, 1 in. long; 
floral bracts acerose : involucres loosely cymose-clustered, 1 line long, 
6-toothed, without scarious margins, the alternate teeth shorter, all 
armed with hooked awns : perianth subsessile, pinkish ; lobes nearly 
equal, oblong, acutish, the strong nerve excurrent as a short cusp. — This 
was regarded by Dr. Parry as only a common form of C. pungens; but 
by Dr. Watson's description, it should be very distinct. Sandy hills at 
San Francisco, Marcus Jones, Dr. Parry. 

12. C. Cleveland!, Parry, Proc. Davenp. Acad. v. 62 (1884). Prostrate 
or assurgent, the rather few branches 2—8 in. long, villous-pubescent : 
leaves mostly radical, broadly oblanceolate, narrowed to a rather long 
and slender petiole : involucres soft-pubescent, the triquetrous tube 
contracted above ; se'gments very uueqiial, 3 as long as the tube, the 
other 3 scarcely half as long, all uncinate : perianth shortly cleft ; outer 
segments broadly ovate, erose, refuse or emarginate, the inner narrow 
and lacerate : stamens 3 ; anthers orbicular. A well marked species, 
common among the wooded hills of St)nonia and Lake counties, in 
clayey soil. June — Sept. 

13. C. uiiiaristata, T. & G. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 195 ( 1870). Prostrate 
or assurgent, 3—8 in. broad, cinereous with a soft pubescence : lowest 
leaves spathulate, obtuse, pilose beneath ; cauline narrow, recurved and 
pungent : involucre with short and sharply angular tube, and stout 



POLYGONE^. 157 

riyitl segments one of which is long and straight, the other 4 or 5 short 
and uncinate : perianth yellowish ; segments unequal, the outer spathu- 
late, entire, the inner only half as large, crenate : stamens 9 ; anthers 
oblong. — Dry hills in Monterey and San Benito counties, and southward. 

-t— -H- -F- Stoutuh and erect, or erect-up reading, the rather coarse branchlets 

rery fragile at the joints; involucres scattered or loosely cymose, 

their segments nerer scarious-niargined . 

14. C. stiiticoides, Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 418 (1837). Erect, 
stoutish, often 1 ft. high, with spreading branches, villous-pubescent, 
often purplish : leaves (all radical) spatulate, petioled, hirsute : invo- 
lucres in rather close cymes, 1%, — 3 lines long, the alternate teeth large 
and almost equal : perianth sessile, glabrous, cleft one-third the length ; 
oiTter segments oblong-lanceolate, the inner larger and obovate : stamens 
at biuse of tube ; anthers oblong.- From Monterey southward. 

15. C. Xanti, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 272 (1878). Branching near 
the base, 4 — 12 in. high, hirsute and .somewhat tomentose : leaves ovate- 
oblong, 2-6 lines long on slender petioles, tomentose beneath; the 
lower bracts .similar or linear-oblanceolate : involucres in loose cymes, 
tomentose ; tube 2 lines long, with ijrominent angles ; segments unequal, 
abruptly recurved and uncinate : perianth sessile, rose-color, villous, 2% 
lines long ; segments linear-oblong, entire, acutish, the alternate ones 
.shorter : stamens 6— 9, unequal ; anthers oval.- From Tehachapi Pass, 
Kern Co., southward. June. 

16. C. Wheeleri, Wats. 1. c. Low, with spreading branches 3—4 in. 
long, villous and tomentose : oblanceolate leaves and bracts 1 in. long or 
less, tomentose beneath ; involucres in small terminal cymes, glabrous, 
1 line long, with short stout teeth, the alternate ones smaller : perianth 
sessile, li.>' lines long, glabrous, cleft one-third the length; segments 
broadly oblong, the alternate ones rather shorter and broader : stamens 
6, near the ba.se. — Towards Santa Barbara, Roihrock; considered only a 
form of C staticoides by Dr. Parry. It is unknown to us. 

17. C. fimbriata, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 168 (1848). Stem erect and simple 
at the leafy base, becoming much branched an*d widely spreading, the 
branches appressed-pubescent, the inflorescence villous and somewhat 
glandular, the whole plant purplish : leaves 1 — 2 in. long, obovate- 
xspatulate, refuse or obcordate at the rather abruptly widened summit ; 
bracts all setaceous, recurved, rigidly awned : involucres scattered in 
the lower forks, more or less clustered at the ends of the branchlets ; 
tube cylindrical, pubescent, strongly ribbed; segments unequal, recurved, 
straight or uncinate-tipped : perianth-segments exserted, red or purple, 
nearly equal, with an oblong obtuse terminal lobe and deeply lacerate- 



158 POLYGONE^. 

fring'ed margins below : stamens inserted near the base ; anthers oval- — 
In Santa Barbara Co., and southward beyond our limits. June. 
* * Involucres broadly triguetrons, 3 -9-(uolhed or lobed; teelh veri/ 
unequal; lube transversely corrugated; stamens on the throat 
of the perianth.— Qenns Acanthogonum, Torr, 

18. C. polygonoides, T. & G-. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 197 (1870). Diffuse, 
prostrate, 4—10 in. broad, glabrous or sparingly pubescent, the branches 
very fragile at the Joints : radical leaves narrowly spatulate, obtuse, 
narrowed to a slender petiole which is dilated at base ; bracts scarcely 
foliaceous, acute : involucres rather crowded on the short branches, 
broadly triangular-turbinate, 3-costate, with 3 stout and broad ixncinate 
teeth longer than the tube, the intermediate ones verj- small : perianth 
nearly sessile ; segments oblong, equal : stamens 6 or 9 ; filaments very 
short ; anthers round-oval : achene broadly triquetrous, rostrate.— Foot- 
hills of the Sierra near Placerville, Rattan, and about Ohico, Parry, Mrs. 
Austin. 

* * * Glabrous or glandular, never villous-tomentose ; nodes subtended by 

large bracts (except in n. 21); involucres coriaceo-chartaceous, 

tlie aivtis not uncinate; perianth bearing stamens at 

base. — G-enus Mucronea, Benth. 

19. C. Californica, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 197 (1870) ; Benth. 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 416. t. 20 (1837), under Mucronea. Sparingly 
hirsute and glandular, 1 ft. high or less, whole plant red or purplish : 
bracts amplexicaul or rarely perfoliate, deeply 3-lobed, the lobes cuspi- 
date : involucres solitary on the ultimate branchlets but at the lower nodes 
somewhat clustered, rather obtusely 2 3-angled and not sulcate : seg- 
ments of perianth obovate, entire,— In the Coast Range from San Luis 
Obispo southward. 

20. C. perfoliata, Gray, 1. c. Habit of the preceding, though branched 
from the base, the branches decumbent : bracts connate about the stem, 
forming a somewhat unilateral triangular disk, the lower 1 in. broad : 
involucres scattered on the slender branchlets, 1 J^~3 lines long, strongly 
angled and sulcate, becoming corrugated, mostly 4-toothed : perianth- 
segments equal, oblong, laciniately fring-ed. — Ih-y foothills of the Sierra, 
from Stanislaus Co. southward. 

21. C. iiisigiiis, Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 275 (1885). Very slender, 
2 — 4 in. high, glandular-puberuleut : involucres turbinate, several- 
flowered, almost hyaline between the 5 angles, the awns straight, equal : 
perianths pedicellate, exserted, villous, pale rose-color ; segments oval 
or oblong ; achenes lenticular. — Indian Valley, near the Salinas River, 
Mrs. Curran. 



NYCTAGINEiE. 159 

9. LASTARKI.KA, lit'nn/. A small diffuse rif^id fraf?ile annual with 
the aspect of ('horizanllie proper. Involucre 0. Perianth involucre-like, 
coriaceous, tubular, 5 — 6-cleft to the middle ; the narrow teeth rigid, 
awned, recurved and uncinate. Stamens 3, inserted on the throat ; 
filaments very short, with small membranous appendages intervening at 
their insertion. 

1. L. t'hilensis, Kemy, in (lay, Fl. Chil. v. 289. t. 58 (1849j. (Jhorl- 
zanlhe Laslarrura, Parry, Proc. Uavenp. Acad. v. 47 & 63 (1884). Hirsute; 
the assurgent or ascending branches 2—6 in. long : lowest leaves linear, 
obtuse, hispid-ciliate ; cauline in whorls of 4 or 5, unequal : perianth 
nearly concealed by the whorled bracts ; tube triquetrous ; teeth or 
.segments 5, 3 long and 2 short : anthers small, orbicular : achene tri- 
quetrous-oblong. From the plains of the San Joaquin, near Antioch, 
southward. 

10. PTEKOSTECilA, Flsrln^r d- Meyer. Our species diffusely dichoto- 
mous slender and flaccid (or in age somewhat wiry) annual with opposite, 
petiolate, exstipulate 2-lol)ed leaves, and small foliaceous bracts. Invo- 
lucres each of a single bract shorter than the solitary sessile flower, 
rounded and 2-lobed, in age larger, reticulated, loosely enfolding the 
achene, and gibbously 2-saccate on the back. Perianth 5- or 6-parted ; 
segments equal, oblong-lanceolate. Stamens as many or fewer, inserted 
at the base of the segments. Achene triquetrous. 

1. P. dryjiiarioides, F. & M. Ind. Sem. Petr. ii. 48 (1835). Glabrous 
or hirsute-pubescent : leaves obovate, obcordate or reniform-bifid, often 
with the lobes again 2-lobed, the lowest petiolate, the upper sessile, }4^—% 
in. long : fl. minute : fructiferous involucre I'^.i lines long, closely 
enfolding the minute light brown achene. — Common on rocky hills, and 
on sandy banks along the seashore ; very variable in pubescence, form 
of leaves, and, according to Nuttall, emljracing several species. 

OiiDER XXIII. NYCTAGINE/E. 

A. L. de Jussieu, in Annales du Museum, ii. 269 (1803). 
Herbs or suffrutescent plants (ours mostly coarse and fleshy seaside 
herbs) with tumid joints, opposite exstipulate entire leaves and show.y 
perfect flowers in axillary ]jedunculate and involucrate clusters. Invo- 
lucre calyx-like, closely subtending the flower-cluster. Perianth corolla- 
like, campanulate, salverform or tubular, the persistent base indurated 
and constricted over the 1-celled 1-seeded free ovary. Stamens few, 
hypogynous ; filaments slender : anthers small and rounded. Pistil 1, 
simple. Seed erect ; embryo encircling a copious mealy albumen. — A 
small family, containing a number of highly ornamental and a few 
medicinal plants ; as closely allied to Polygone* as to any other family, 
though of verv different floral structure. 



160 NYCTAGINE.E. 

1. MIRABILIS, Parkinson (Four-o'cdocs). Perennials with erect 
stems from large fusiform roots. Leaves mostly ample, not very succulent. 
Inflorescence axillary and terminal. Involucres calyx-like, herbaceous, 
5-cleft or -parted, enlarged in fruit but not otherwise altered. Perianth 
tubular or narrowly funnelform, with abruptly spreading limb, vesper- 
tine. Stamens usually 5, as long as the perianth ; filaments united at 
base. Stigma capitate, granulate. Fruit a rather large oblong nutlet, 
dark-colored and often obscurely ribbed. 

1. M. Froehelii, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 12i (1885) ; Behr, Proc. 
Calif. Acad. i. 69 (1855), under Ori/baphus: M. muUiJiora, var. pultescens, 
Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 2 (1880). Stout, decumbent, 1—2 ft. high, viscid- 
pubescent, in age somewhat scabrous : leaves broadly ovate, the lowest 
somewhat cordate, 4 in. long and almost as broad : involucre cleft to the 
middle ; lobes acutish ; fl. 5 or 6 : perianth narrowly funnelform, 1}^ 
in. long, the limb 1 in. broad, purple, pubescent and viscid on the out- 
side : nutlet ovate-oblong, light bi'own, smooth, 10-lineate. — Mountains 
of Kern Co. and southward. July— Sept. 

2. M. Ifevis, Curran, Proc. Calif. Acad. 2d ser. i. 235 (1888) ; Benth. 
Bot. Sulph. 44 (1844), under Oxyhaphiis: M. Californica, Gray, in Torr. 
Bot. Mex. Bound., 173 (1859). Stems many, rather slender, ascending 
from a somewhat woody base, 1 — 3 ft. high : herbage more or less viscid- 
pubescent : leaves rather fleshy, round-ovate to ovate-oblong, 1^2 — ^H ™- 
long, obtuse or acute, short-petioled : involucres short-peduncled or 
almost sessile, 5-cleft, the lobes often unequal, acute ; fl. 1 — 3 : perianth 
rose-purple, narrowly campanulate, 5 lines long, the lobes spreading, 
emarginate : stamens as long as the perianth or longer : nutlet ovate, 
smooth, 11^3 lines long. — Very common in the South, but possibly not 
within our limits. 

2. ALLIONIA, Linnxus. Perennial, with opposite unequal leaves, 
and axillary pedunculate flowers. Involucre herbaceous, 3-parted, 
unchanged in fruit, 3-flowered. Perianth funnelform ; limb oblique, 
4 — 5-lobed. Stamens 3—5, nearly distinct. Stigma capitate. Nutlet 
ovate, compressed, smooth and convex on the inner side, the back with 
a double line of stipitate tubercles enclosed by a rigid inflexed and 
toothed margin. Embryo plicate, the cotyledons unequal. 

1. A. iiicariiata, Linn. Sp. PI. 2d ed. i. 147 (1762). Slender, prostrate; 
herbage of a pale green, more or less woolly-pubescent and slightly 
viscid : leaves ovate, }4—^% in- long» ^ery unequal, obtuse or acute, 
exceeding the slender petiole : segments of the involucre concave, 
broadly oblong or rounded : perianth deep purple or paler, 2 — 4 lines 
long, the lobes emarginate, one much shorter than the rest : fr. 1^^ lines 
long, usually somewhat carinate on the convex side ; teeth of the margin 



NYCTAGINE.E. 161 

variable in number and size, but usually 5 on each side, either broad or 
narrow, sometimes gland- tipped. — Plant of very wide dissemination in 
Mexico and South America, common in southern California, occurring 
as far northward as Monterey. 

3. ABKOXIA, Jussieu. Decumbent or prostrate viscid-pubescent 
and rather succulent herbs with opposite and somewhat unequal leaves. 
Flowers in umbel-like heads on rather long axillary peduncles. Invo- 
lucre of 5—15 distinct or slightly united somewhat scarioxis bracts 
enfolding the base of the heads. Perianth salverform ; tube elongated ; 
limb of 5 or 4 emarginate or obcordate lobes. Stamens mostly 5, adnate 
to the tube and not exserted. Stigma liuear-clavate. Fruit coriaceous, 
3 — 5-winged, enclosing a smooth and cylindric achene. Embryo with 
but one cotyledon. 

* Wings coriaceous, lalcral, not encircling Ike fruit. 
-t— Wings thill, hnt solid; body of fruit rigid or ligneous. 

1. A. uiiibellata, Lam. 111. i. 469. t. 105 (1791) ; Hook. Exot. Fl. iii. 
t. 194. Perennial, prostrate, rather slender, viscid-puberulent, the stems 
1 — 3 ft. long : leaves almost glabrous, ovate to narrowly oblong, 1 — 1}^' 
in. long, narrowed to a slender petiole, obtuse, the margin often some- 
what sinuate : peduncles 2-6 in. long : bracts of the involucre narrowly 
lanceolate, ]^ in. long ; head 10— 15-flowered : perianth rose-purple, 
6—8 lines long ; lobes emarginate : fr. 4—5 lines long, nearly glabrous, 
the l.)ody oblong, attenuate at each end ; wings thin, nearly as long, 
broadest and often truncate above, narrowing toward the base : achene 
1% lines long. — Sandy places along the seaboard everywhere. June— Oct. 

2. A. inaritiina, Nutt. in Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 4 (1880). Perennial, 
prostrate or assurgent, very stout and succulent, somewhat pubescent, 
very viscid : leaves broadly ovate to oblong, cuneate or rounded at base, 
1 in. long, on short stout petioles : peduncles little exceeding the leaves : 
bracts ovate-oblong : fl. deep purple, % in- long': fr. viscid-pubescent, 
the wings somewhat coriaceous.- Along beaches from near Santa 
Barbara southward. June — Oct. 

-H- -f- Wings lliicl-er, tlie central cavity of the fruit extending thnmgh them. 

3. A. latifolia, Esch. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. x. 281 (1826j : A. aie- 
naria, Menzies, in Hook. Exot. Fl. iii. t. 193 (1827). Perennial, stout and 
succulent, very viscid, the stems prostrate, 1—2 ft. long : leaves broadly 
ovate or reniform, Jt'— 1^ ^^- long, obtuse : peduncles usually exceeding 
the leaves : bracts 5, rounded to ovate or oblong, 2—4 lines long : fl. 
numerous, 5 or 6 lines long, bright yellow, very fragrant, the lobes 
emarginate : fr. 4—6 lines long, coriaceous, acute at each end ; wings 
usually narrow.— Plentiful along the seashore from Monterey northward. 

* * Wings membranous, orbicular, encircling the fruit. 



162 AMAKANTACE^- 

4. A. Crux-Mallse, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 71. f. 16 (1863), 
Annual, branched from the base, stout and succulent, 6 — 10 in. high, 
sparingly pubescent and viscid : leaves ovate-oblong, 1 in. long, narrowed 
to rather long petioles : peduncles shorter than the leaves : bracts 
lanceolate-acuminate, united at base : fl. 7 — 9 lines long ; tube greenish; 
limb rose-color, 4-lobed, the lobes deeply cleft : fr. 5 — 6 lines long, 
pubescent, ccTarsely reticulate-pitted, the ovate body long-stipitate : 
achene 2}^ lines long. — Deserts of western Nevada, but found near Reno, 
Sonne, and to be expected within our State. May, Jiine, 

Obder XXIV. AMARANTACE/E. 

Robert Brown, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandise, 413 (1810). Ania- 
ranihi, Juss. Gen. 87 (1789). 

Herbs with simple exstipulate leaves, and small inconspicuoiis (mostly 
greenish) axillary solitary or clustered perfect or imisexual flowers. 
Calyx of 3 — 5 hypogynous more or less scarious persistent sepals, 
occasionally with a pair of bractlets at base, generally enveloped by dry 
and almost chaffy bracts. Corolla 0. Stamens usiaally 5 or more, distinct 
or monadelphous. Stigmas 2 or 3, sessile on an undivided style. Fruit 
utricular, sometimes circumscissile, or bursting irregularly. Seed small, 
compressed, vertical. Embryo curved. 

1. AMARANTHS, Dodonxus. Annual weeds ; leaves alternate, 
usually broad, veiny, and tipped with a short sharp mucro. Flowers 
green or purplish, in axillary spiked clusters or spikelets, the stamiuate 
usually mingled with the pistillate in the same cluster. Sepals distinct 
or united at base, seldom less than 3 or more than 5, more or less scarious^ 
erect, or the tips spreading. Stamens as many as the sepals, distinct. 
Stigmas linear. Utricle ovate, 2 — 3-beaked, circumscissile or indehiscent 
often deciduous with the perianth. 

* Sepals distinct, oblong-lanceolate, erect: Ji. monvecious. 

-)— Stout, erect; flower-clusters in naked, terminal and axillary spikes; 
sepals 5. — Amarantus proper. 

1. A. RETROPLEXus, Liuu. Sp. PI. ii. 991 (1753). Stout, 1--4 ft. high, 
paniculately branched above ; herbage dull green, roughish and more or 
less pubescent : leaves ovate or rhombic-ovate, 1 — 4 in. long, on slender 
petioles not so long : fi. green, in erect or somewhat spreading nearly 
cylindrical spikes : bracts lanceolate-subulate, scarious except the green 
carinate midrib, attenuate to a rigid awn, l)^ — 3 lines long : sepals 
narrowly oblong, mostly acute or even mucronate, exceeding the utricle: 
seed ^2 lins broad, black and shining, with a rather obtuse margin. — 
Gardens and waste lands ; native of tropical America, 
-i- H— Loir, diffuse or prostrate; sepals 1 — 3; fl. in small axillary clusters, 
■M- Sepals 3. — Genus Dimeianthus, Raf. 



AMARANTACE^. 1G3 

2. A. ALBUS, Liun. Sp. PI. 2d ed. ii. 1404 (17(53). Erect, i^— 2 ft. bif?h, 
rifjridly and widely branched from the base ; herbage of a light green, 
glabrous or nearly so : leaves oblong-spatnlate to obovate, 3^ — 1^£ in. 
long inclnding the slender petiole, obtuse or retuse, often crisped : 
spikelets 4 — 5-flowered : bracts subulate, rigid, pungently awned, 1 — 2% 
lines long, the lateral ones reduced or wanting : sepals oblong-lanceo- 
late, 8ubulate-mu(!ronate, shorter than the somewhat rugose utricle : 
seed I3 line broad, black and shining, very sharply margined^ — Too well 
known in the prairie regions of North America, under the name of 
Tiunble-ireed; only occasional in California. 

3. A. BLiToiDES, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 273 (1878). Somewhat 
succulent, weak and prostrate, the branches often 1 — 2 ft. long, whitish, 
the foliage of a rather deep shining green, glabrous or nearly so : spike- 
lets few-tlowered and contractetl : bracts ovate-oblong, shortly acumi- 
nate, about eqiial, 1 — l^-g lines long, little longer than the oblong obtuse 
and mucronulate or acute sepals : utricle smooth, little surpassing the 
sepals : seed % line broad, abruptly but rather obtusely margined. — 
Very common in the Rocky Mountain region, where it is indigenous ; 
becoming established along the railroad at Niles, Suisun, and perhaps 
elsewhere in the State, but an immigrant. 

•M- -M- Sepals and brads only 1 earli to the fertile Jloirer. — Genus 
Mengea, Schauer. 

4. A. Californicus, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 42 (1880) ; Moq. in DC. Prodr. 
xiii'. 270 (1849), under Mengea. Stems stoutish and rather fleshy, 
branched from the base, prostrate, the branches 1 — 132 ft. long, with 
many short lateral branchlets : leaves obovate or oblong, 1 in. long or 
less, including the short petiole, obtuse or acutish, with white veins and 
margins : 11. green or purplish, in many small dense axillary clusters : 
bract more or less scarious, little exceeding the utricle : sepals of stami- 
nate fl. ;\i line long ; of the fertile shorter : utricle slightly rugose, 
tardily circumscissile : seed 1.3 line broad, obscurely margined. — In low 
and moist rather alkaline soils, from Monterey, Hartneg, to Stockton, 
Sanford; also in the interior states of Nevada, Idaho, etc. 

2. NITROPHILA, S. Wa'.son. A low perennial branching glabrous 
herb, with opposite amplexicaul tieshy leaves, and axillary subsessile 
perfect bibracteate flowers. Perianth of about 5 equal erect concave and 
carinate sepals. Stamens 5 — 7, joined at base into a narrow perigynous 
disk : anthers 2-celled : staminodia 0. Style short ; stigmas 2, slender. 
Utricle subglobose, iudehiscent, 1 -seeded, beaked with the slender style, 
included within the connivent sepals. 

1. N. occidentalis, Wats. Bot. King Exp. 297 (1871) ; Moq. in DC. 
Prodr. xiii''. 279 (1849), under Banalia. Stems erect from a decumbent 



164 SALSOLACE^. 

base and running rootstocks, 3^8 in. high, angular : lowest leaves 
broadly ovate or oblong, 2 — 3 lines long, the others linear, semiterete, 
1^ — 1 in. long, acuminate, cuspidate : bracts much like the leaves but 
shorter, about twice the length of the flowers : fl. 1 — 3 in each axil, the 
lateral ones often pedicellate, 2 — 3-bracted, the central one often bract- 
less : sepals 1 line long, ovate, acutish, rather rigid, exceeding the 
stamens and style : seed % liii® broad, black and shining. — In alkaline 
lowlands of the interior, from near Sacramento, Pickering, and Lathrop, 
Greene, southward and eastward. 

Order XXV. SALSOLACE/C. 

Linnseus, Classes Plantarum, 507 (1738). Blil.a, Adans. Fam. ii. 258 
(1763). Alriplices, Juss. Gen. '83 (1789). Chenopodex, Vent. Tabl. ii. 
253 (1799). Chenopodiacex, Lindl. Intr. 2d ed. 2Q8 (1836). 

Herbs or shrubs, often succulent, glabrous, pubescent, mealy or scurfy, 
sometimes leafless. Flowers clustered, apetalous. Perianth of a solitary 
bract-like sepal, or of 2 which are distinct and valvate or more or less 
united, or of five distinct or united at base and calyx-like, never scarious. 
Stamens as many as the sepals and opposite to them, or fewer ; anthers 
2-celled. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled, becoming an utricle or achene enclosed 
in the persistent perianth. Embryo annular or spiral ; albumen mealy 
or wanting. — A rather large order, closely connecting Amarantaceje and 
Portulacese, hardly separable from the former except by vegetative 
characters ; containing many garden and field pests (goosefoot, pig 
weed) and as many useful plants like the beet, spinach, orach, etc. 
Several shrubby species of West American desert plains are valued 
forage plants, and the herbaceous kinds abound along the seaboard, in 
salt marshes, or on subsaline plains of the interior. 

Hints of the Genera. 

Stems nearly or quite leafless, stout, fleshy, cylindrical, articulated, - - - 8 
Stems leafy ; 

Leaves fleshy, terete, ----------- 9 

" plane, fleshy or membranaceous; 

Perianth of 1 bract-like sepal, ------ 3 

" campanulate, 8— 5-toothed, ----- 2 

of fertile fl. 5-cleft or -divided, - - - 1, 4 
" of fertile fl. of 2 more or less united bracts, 5, 6, 7 

1. CHENOPODIUM, Tabernaemontanus (Goosefoot. Pig weed). 
Herbs with alternate petiolate mostly angular foliage. Flowers small, 
greenish, sessile, clustered in axillary or terminal spikes or cymes, perfect, 
or pistillate only, bractless. Perianth herbaceous, 3— 5-parted ; lobes 
imbricate, often carinate or crested, persistent and more or less covering 
the fruit, remaining green and herbaceous or becoming colored and 
fleshy. Stamens 5 or fewer. Styles, 2, 3 or 4, slender. Pericarp 



SALSOLACE^. 165 

membranous, closely investing the lenticular horizontal or vertical seed. 
Embryo annular, or curved around a copious albumen. 

* Aiiiiunl, more or less mealy, not 'pubescent; seed horizontal; embryo 
annular. — Chenopodium proper. 
-I— Pericarp closely persistent upon the seed. 

1. C. ALBUM, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 219 (1753). Erect, stoutish, more or less 
paniculately branching, 1 — 4 ft. high ; herbage pale green or whitish 
with a mealy indument : leaves petiolate, ascending, rhombic-ovate, 
obtuse, acute or cuneate at base, sinuate-dentate or subentire, 1 - 2 in. 
long, whiter beneath than above : flowers densely clustered in close 
spikes, these forming a rather strict leafless panicle : sepals of fruiting 
calyx carinate, completely covering the fruit : seed smooth, shining, 
acutely margined. — A very common weed of fields, gardens and waste 
places ; native of Europe. June -Oct. 

2. 0. viKiDE, Linn. 1. c. (1753) : C. concatenatum, Thuill. Fl. Par. 125 
(1790) : C. alburn, var. viride, Moq. DO. Prodr. xiii'^. 71 (1819). Size and 
general habit of the preceding, but herbage green throughout and 
scarcely mealy: branches and leaves more spreading: fl. and fr. scattered 
in loose spreading spikes. — Rather frequent in cultivated grounds among 
the foothills of the Sierra ; from Europe like the last. 

3. 0. MUBALE, Linn. 1. c. Stoutish and rather low, often with many 
decumbent or ascending branches from the base ; herbage dark green, 
rather succulent, the growing parts very mealy : leaves petiolate, ascend- 
ing, ovate-rhomboid, unequally and sharply toothed : fl. in rather dense 
axillary nearly leafless cymes : fruiting calyx nearly closed, the sepals 
slightly carinate : seed opaque, punctate-rugose, sharply margined. — A 
more common weed than either of the preceding, preferring rich soil, but 
thriving everywhere ; very hardy, often flowering and fruiting through- 
out even our whole winter season. 

4. C VuiiVARiA, Linn. 1. c. 220. Rather slender and difl"use, 1 ft. high 
or more ; herbage somewhat pale and mealy, very ill-scented : leaves 
petiolate, ascending, obtuse or acutish, entire, 1 in. long : fl. in dense 
leafless spicate clusters : fruiting calyx closed, not carinate : seed shin- 
ing but delicately puncticulate, rather sharply margined. — Abundantly 
naturalized in the vicinity of Sacramento, though not otherwise known 
within the State. 

H— -fr- Pericarp separating readily from the seed. 

5. C. Fremoiiti, Wats. Bot. King Exp. 287 (1871). Erect, slender, 
J/g —2 ft. high, whitish-mealy : leaves broadly triangular-hastate, .^4 — 1 
in. long, obtuse or abruptly acute, truncate or cuneate at base, the upper 
narrower and from oblong to linear-lanceolate : fl. in small clusters upon 
slender opeu-panicled branchlets: sepals strongly carinate: seed smooth 



166 SALSOLACE.'E. 

and shining;. -Plant of the iuterioV Basin, reachin<i: onr liorders along the 
eastern base of the Sierra. 

6. C. leptophyllum, Nutt. in DC. Prodr. xiii'-'. 71 (1849). under C. 
nihil in; Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 91(1S7-1) : C. alliidii, var. leplophijUinii, 
Moq. in DC. 1. c. Erect and strict, simple or branching, % — 3 ft. high ; 
herbage white-mealy or glabrate : leaves lanceolate or linear, entire, 
f^ — 1 in. long, aciite, usually mucronate, short-petioled : fl. in short 
dense clusters formed into close or interrupted spikelets : sepals acute, 
strongly carinate: seed black and shining. — Same range as the preceding. 

* * Herbage not niealtj, glainhtlar-pnbegce)it and aromatic; seed 

Jiorizoiilal (e.vcepi itt it. 10); enibrt/o carred.- -Genera 

Ambrina and Botrydium, Spach. 

7. C. BoTRYS, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 219 (1753). BalriidiiDit aroiitaticiDii, 
Sp.ach. Phaner. v. 299 (1836). Annual, erect, often widely branching, 
1 — 2 ft. high, glandular-pubescent and highly aromatic : leaves ovate or 
oblong, 1 — 2 in. long, sinuate-pinnatifid, the lobes often toothed : fl. 
scattered in very numerous slender axillary cymose panicles : sepals 
acute, loosely investing the fruit : pericarp persistent : seed ig line 
broad, thick-lenticular, black and shining. — Frequent in the interior of 
the State ; native of S. Europe, and commonly called Jerusalem Oak. 

8. C. ANTHELMiNTicuM, Liuu. 1. c. 220: Spach. 1. c. 298, under Ambrina. 
Perennial, stems stoutish, decumbent, 1 — 2 ft. long ; herbage light green, 
glandular-puberulent, pleasantly aromatic : leaves thin, oblong, narrowed 
at base, obtuse, sinuate-serrate or sometimes remotely dentate, 1 in. 
long or less : inflorescence a terminal leafless panicle of dense but 
slender spikes : sepals not carinate, completely enclosing the fruit : seed 
smooth and shining, obtusely margined. Not rare among the foothills 
of the Sierra from Shasta Co. southward, by waysides. 

9. C. AMBROsoiDES, Liuu. 1. c. 219; Spach, 1. c. 297, under Ambrina. 
Annual, erect or ascending, 2 -3 ft. high, deep green, glabrous or slightly 
scabrous, the foliage occasionally puberulent : leaves oblong, attenuate 
at each end, acutish, remotely sinuate-toothed or entire, the uppermost 
and floral linear-lanceolate : inflorescence loosely spicate and leafy : 
fruiting perianth completely closed : seed smooth and shining, obtusely 
margined. — Very common by waysides and in waste lands at the out- 
skirts of cities and villages along the seaboard ; said to be native of 
tropical America, but in our district too hardy, flowering and fruiting all 
the year round and becoming suffrutescent. It is less aromatic than 
C. anthehninticum, and manifestly distinct from it, though there seem to 
be natural hybrids between them where they meet. 

10. C. CARiNATTjM, R. Br. Prodr. 407 (1810) ; Moq. DO. Prodr. xiiil 81 
(1849), under Bliium. Annual, slender, diffusely branched from the 



SALSOLACE^. 167 

base, the branches 6 —12 in. long ; herbage pubescent, glandular and 
aromatic : leaves ovate, oblong or lanceolate, 1 in. long or less, sinuate- 
pinuatifid, deep green above, paler beneath and somewhat glaucous : fl. 
glomerate in the axils : stamen 1 : fruiting perianth only partly enclosing 
the vertical utricle ; segments obtusely carinate, or at least thickened on 
the back : seed black and shining, the margin acute. — Introduced from 
Australia, and frequent in the foothills of the Sierra, at lone, etc. 
* * * GlahroHS or dighlly meali/; seed vertical, more or less exserted from 
llie more gdiuopJiyllous perianth; embryo annular. — Old genus Blitum. 

11. C. Califoriiicuiii, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 48 (1880) ; also Eev. Chenop. 
101 (1874), under Bliliim. Stems several from a long fusiform perennial 
root, stout, decumbent, mostly simple, 1 — 8 ft. high ; herbage light but 
rather dull green, the young parts a little mealy : leaves broadly 
triangular-hastate, 2 — 3 in. long, truncate or with sinuses at base, acumi- 
nate, sharply, unequally, and often deeply sinuate-dentate : tl. in dense 
clusters in a long simple terminal "spike : perianth campanulate, rather 
deeply .5-toothed, enfolding the utricle only loosely : pericarp persistent: 
seed somewhat compressed, % — 1 line broad. — Common both on the 
seaboard and in the interior ; the native American counterpart of the 
Old World ('. Bonus ITenrictis^ to which it was in early days referred. 

12. C. grlaucurii, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 220 (17.53); Koch, Fl. Germ. 608 
(1837 j, under Bliiam. Annual, stout and rather fleshy, erect with 
ascending branches, % — 1 ft. high : leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
1 in. long, obtuse, petiolate, remotely and rather coarsely dentate, 
glabrous and green above, paler and mealy beneath : fl. in axillary 
spiked clusters : perianth small, with rounded lobes, not quite concealing 
the vertical, or as often horizontal utricle. — In the Sviisun marshes ou 
elevated and dry ground ; apparently indigenous, though possibly intro- 
duced from Eur(jpe, where it is a common barnyard weed. 

2. ROUBIEVA, Mo(juin. Herb perennial, glandular, heavy-scented, 
with alternate pinnatifid leaves, and flowers few or solitary in the axils. 
Perianth bractless, deeply campanulate, 3— 5-toothed, at length saccate 
and contracted over the fruit, 3 5-nerved, net-veined. Stamens 5, 
included. Styles 3, somewhat lateral, ex.serted. Pericarp membranous, 
glandular-dotted, deciduous. Seed vertical, lenticular ; embryo annular 
around a coi>ious albumen. 

1. R. MULTiFiDA, Moq. Auu. Sc. Nat. 2d ser. i. 293 (1834) ; Linn. Sp. 
PI. i. 220 (17.53), under Clienopodinm. Stems several from an oblong or 
fusiform root, prostrate, 1 ft. long or more, branching and leafy ; herbage 
pale-green, glandular-puberulent, aromatic : leaves 1 — 1% in. long, 
lanceolate to linear, short-petiolate, deeply pinnatifid with narrow lobes, 
the nerves beneath very prominent :. fl. in dense glomerules : fruiting 



168 SALSOLACE^. 

perianth reticulate-nerved ; segments ovate, obtusish : pericarp whitish 
and with scattered glandular dots: seed siibrostellate, obtusely margined, 
dark brown, shining and minutely punctate-rugose. — Native of South 
America ; credited to Plumas Co., Mrs. Ames, as adventive or naturalized. 

3. MONOLEPIS, Schrader. Annuals, with the habit and foliage 
of Chenopodium, but the perianth consisting of a single scale-like or 
bract-like sepal (or this to be regarded as a mei'e bract subtending an 
achlamydeous flower). Stamen 1. Styles 2, filiform. Pericarp mem- 
branous, persistent upon the vertical compressed seed. Embryo annular; 
albumen copious. — In aspect wholly like Clienopodiurn, to which the 
genus may as well be united as Mungea to Amarantus. 

1. M. Nuttalliaiia, Greene. Roem. & Schult. Mant. i. 65 (1822), under 
Blilum: M. chenopodioides, Moq. in DO. Prodr. xiii. 85 (1849). BlUum 
chenopodioides ( fj'i^utt (1818), not Linn. Branches many, decumbent 
or almost prostrate, l£^-l ft. long ; herbage deep green, the growing 
parts mealy : leaves lanceolate-hastate, 14^1 in. long, entire or remotely 
sinuate-dentate, acute or obtxtse, cuneate at base, the upper floral sub- 
sessile : flower-clusters axillary, dense, sometimes reddish : sepal 
foliaceous and fleshy, oblanceolate or spatulate, often exceeding the 
fruit : pericarp somewhat fleshy, becoming dry and favose-pitted, 
adherent : seed lenticular or reniform, % line broad.^Alkaline soils 
along the eastern base of the Sierra. 

2. M. spathulata, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 389 (1868). Smaller 
and more slender than the last, more diffuse and leafy, but leaves smaller, 
narrowly oblanceolate or spatulate, entii-e, i^' in. long : sepal rarely 
exceeding the fruit : pericarp minutely papillose, separating from the 
minute shining seed. — A rare species of the more volcanic districts of 
the Sierra Nevada ; Mono Lake, and in Sierra Co. 

4. BETA, Columna (Beet). Rather coarse glabrous bieiyiials, with 
alternate leaves, the radical large and long-petioled, the floral reduced 
and sessile. Flowers fascicled in the axils and spicate-congested along 
the paniculate branches, connate at base, perfect. Sepals 5, inserted on 
the margin of a concave receptacle, imbricate. Stamens 5, opposite the 
sepals, the filaments subulate. Ovary partly inferior and encircled by a 
disk-like margin of the receptacle : style short, the 2 or 3 branches 
stigmatose on the inside. Fruit partly adnate to the receptacle, and 
enclosed by the thicked and somewhat fleshy sepals. 

1. B. vuLGAKis, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 222 (1753). Stout, 2-4 ft. high : 
radical leaves often 1 ft. long including the stout petiole, commonly with 
prominent nerves and a more or less undulate margin, the outline oblong 



SALSOLACE^, 169 

•or oval : inflorescence 1—3 ft. long. Escaped from gardens to moist 
lands bordering the salt marshes, where it is becoming a common weed 
in some places. ' 

5. ATRIPLEX, PJiny (Orache.) Herbs or shrubs, mealy or scurfy, 
monoecious or dicecious; inflorescence axillary and glomerate, or terminal 
and spicate or pani<?led. Staminate perianth bractless, 3 — 5-parted, 
enclosing as many stamens. Pistillate H. bibracteate, without perianth 
•or rarely ^\'ith 2 — 4 distinct hyaline sepals ; the bracts erect, appressed, 
■distinct or more or less united, their margins often becoming dilated, the 
surface sometimes in age thickened indurated and muricate. Fruit 
■compressed, utricular. Seed vertical. Embryo annular, around copious 
albumen. — A large and perplexing genus of plants in eastern N. America; 
the first group not natxirally separable from Chenopodmm; but some of 
the species so different from others in fruit' as to almost demand the 
reinstatement of several genera which have latterly been rejected, 
* Moncecious annuals, somemhat succuhnl and mealy; brads distinct or 
nearly so, ocate-ohlong to broadly triangular or hastate. 

1. A. hastata, Linn, var. oppositifolia, Moq. DC. Prodr. xiii^. 95 
(1849^ : A opposHifolia, DC. Kapp. i. 12 (1808). Bather slender, with 
■divaricate and somewhat decumbent branches 2 — 3 ft. long, or stouter 
and erect with ascending branches ; herbage mealy, not very succiilent : 
leaves triangular-hastate or deltoid, mostly entire, all the lower opposite : 
flower-clusters small, spicate : bracts small, triangular, entire or denticu- 
late ^4 in. long : seed 1 line long, dark colored. — Common along the 
borders of brackish marshes at Petaluma, and elsewhere to the westward 
of San Francisco Bay. 

2. A. patnla, Linn. Sp. PI. ii, 1053 (1753). Stout and succulent, 
mostly erect, 1 ft. high, with few ascending branches ; herbage deep 
■green, only the growing parts somewhat mealy : lowest leaves often 
■opposite, broadly lanceolate, sometimes with hastate base : inflorescence 
more or less leafy at base : bracts rhombic-ovate, thick and subcori- 
aceous, often }^ in. long. — Very common in salt marshes and near beaches. 

3. A. phylloste^ia, Wats. Proc. Am, Acad. ix. 108 (1879) ; Torr. Bot, 
King. Exp. 291 (1871), under Obi one. Erect, with short ascending 
branches, 6 — 18 in. high, pale and mealy-scurfy : leaves alternate, 
rhombic-ovate or -lanceolate, acuminate, with salient narrow hastate 
lobes toward the base, otherwise entire, 1 in. long : almost dioecious ; fl. 
mostly axillary : staminate calyx 5-parted : bracts linear-lanceolate or 
broader, aciite or acuminate, }£ — 3^ in. long, foliaceous, the sides 
indurated in fruit, 3-nerved, the lateral nerves often bituberculate : seed 
brownish, ^g line broad ; radicle nearly superior, — In subsaline soil near 
Lathrop, and southward. 



170 SALSOLACE.T>. 

4. A. spicata, Wats. 1. c. Stoiit, erect, 1 — 2 ft. high, sparingly 
branching, mealy : leaves alternate, rhombic-ovate, acute, coarsely and 
irregularly sinuate-toothed, 2 in. long, attenuate to a short petiole : fl. 
densely spicate, the 4-sepalous calyx usually stamiuate, but not rarely 
pistillate and with a horizontal seed : bracts of pistillate fi. ovate, acute, 
little enlarged in fruit, partly coherent at base l^s^ lines long : seed 
black, ^ line broad ; radicle inferior. — Alkaline soil among the foothills 
of the Mt. Diablo Eange, on Marsh's Creek, also near Livermore, and 
on low plains of the Sacramento near Ohico ; a common weed in fields, 
and one of several plants in which the supposed distinctions between 
Alriplex and Chenopodium fail. 

* * Herbs or shrubs, seldom, succulent or mealy, but silvery-scurfy; bracts 

mostly rounded and more or less completely united, naked or variously 

appendaged or winged, frequently hard and nut-like in fruit. — 

Genus Obione, Gsertn. 

-1— Mona:cious annuals. 

5. A. arg-entea, Nutt. Gen. i. 198 (1818) ; Moq. Chenop. Enum. 76 
(1840), under Obione. Stout, erect, 3^' — 1% ft. high, diffusely branching, 
the lower branches often decumbent ; herbage densely mealy-scurfy : 
leaves alternate (except the lowest), triangular-hastate to rhombic-ovate, 
acute or obtuse, 3^ — 2 in. long, mostly sessile : staminate fl. in terminal 
spicate clusters, or in the upper axils ; calyx deeply 5-cleft : fertile fl. 
short-pedicellate in axillary clusters ; bracts when mature 2 — 4 lines 
long, rhombic-ovate, united, indurated and spongy, margined except at 
base, bifid at apex, sharply and deeply toothed ; sides usually roughened 
with irregular herbaceous projections or with a double toothed crest : 
seed 1 line broad. — Eastern slope of the Sierra, from Sierra Co. south- 
ward, in alkaline soils. 

6. A. nodosa, Greene, Pittonia, i. 40 (1887). Stout, branched from 
the base, 1 ft. high, mealy and apparently scabrous : leaves broadly 
rhomboid : fruit-clusters borne at the enlarged nodes of the widely and 
irregularly branching stem : pedicels stout, thickened under the bracts ; 
these united and forming an almost globose fruit 2 lines in diameter, 
3-lobed at summit, the sides covered with lichenoid spongy projections. — 
Near Antioch, ilfrs. Curran; unknown except in the fruiting state, but 
remarkable for the nodose stem and branches, and the subglobose rough 
fruits. 

7. A. expansa, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 116 (1874). Erect, but with 
many decumbent and widespread branches, these 1 — 2 ft. long ; herbage 
silvery-scurfy and slightly mealy : leaves triangular and somewhat 
hastate, acute, 1 in. long or more, sessile : flowering l^ranches leafy and 
virgate ; staminate spikes slender, interrupted, naked above : fruiting 



SALSOLACE^. 171 

bracts compressed, the sides usually unappendaged and strongly reticu- 
late. — Same range as A. argentea, though reported on our side of the 
Sierra, in Santa Barbara Co., and therefore to be expected farther north. 

8. A. corouata, Wats. 1. c. 114. Stout, erect, 1—2 ft. high, branching 
and leafy, mealy : leaves lanceolate, entire, % — 1 in- long, acute or 
acuminate, attenuate to a short petiole or sessile : flower clusters 
axillary, androgynous ; fruiting bracts strongly compressed, orbicular, 
2 lines broad, united, surrounded by an herbaceous gash-toothed margin 
as broad as the body, the sides now and then somewhat muricate : seed 
^4 line broad. — Plains of the lower San Joaquin and southward. 

9. A. bracteosa, Wats. 1. c. 115 ; Dur. & Hilg. Pac. R. Eep. v. 13. t. 
14 (1855), under Ohione. Stout, branched from the base, 2 — 3 ft. high, 
mealy : leaves thin, sessile, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, % — 1 io- long, 
sinuate-dentate or the uppermost entire : staminate fl. in dense globose 
clusters in a naked terminal simple or branching spike ; calyx deeply 
5-cleft : fruiting bracts in small axillary clusters, cuneate-orbicular, 
1 — 132 lines broad, the upper rounded margin irregularly toothed ; sides 
smooth or muricate : seed less than }.2 line broad. — From the plains of 
Tulare Co. southward. 

10. A. Coiilteri, Dietr. Syn. v. 537 (1852) ; Moq. DC. Prodr. xiiil 113 
(1849), under Ohione. Erect, 1 — 2 ft. high, slender, virgate, rigid, 
branched and mealy : leaves lanceolate, attenuate at each end, mucronu- 
late, entire, rather thick, ig in. long, 1 line broad or less : fruiting bracts 
in axillary clusters, cuneate-orbicular, 1 line broad, the rounded margin 
reaching nearly to the base, and with short blunt teeth : seed % line 
broad. — A rare and long lost species, collected only by Coulter, now 
sixty years since, perhaps near Monterey ; the species possibly belonging 
to the shrubby group. 

•)— -1— Liaecious shrubby species (except a. 11). 

11. A. Californica, Moq. DC. 1. c. 98 (1849). Branches many, slender 
and wiry, prostrate, from a short and thick oblong or fusiform perennial 
root ; herbage densely mealy : leaves ovate- to linear-lanceolate, 3—8 
lines long, entire, acute, the lowest opposite : flower-clusters all axillary, 
the upper ones more staminate, the calyx of these deeply 4-cleft : fruiting 
bracts rhombic-ovate, membranous, distinct, 1% lines long, somewhat 
convex : seed y^ line broad. — On the seacoast, and along* the edges of 
salt marshes, from near San Francisco and Alameda, southward. The 
rather succulent roots are yellow, and have the flavor of beets. 

12. A. leiitiformis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 118 (1874) ; Torr. Sitgr. 
Rep. 169. t. 14 (1853), under Ohione. Diffusely branched, 2—12 ft. high, 
the branches terete, the branchlets divaricate, rigid and somewhat 



172 SALSOLACE^. 

spinescent, closely scurfy : leaves ovate- to oblong-rhombic or somewhat 
hastate, cnneate at base, % — ^% ^^- long : staminate calyx 5-parted : 
fruiting bracts orbicular, 1 — 2 lines broad, strongly compressed, united 
to above the middle, the free margins obscurely crenate: seed dark, 
% line broad. — From Tulare Co., southward and eastward. 

13. A, Breweri, Wats. 1. c. 119. Diffusely branched but erect, 6 ft. 
high, grayish-puberulent ; the branches terete, often long and flexuous : 
leaves ovate-oblong or somewhat rhomboid, cuneate at base, obtuse or 
acutish, 1 — 2 in. long : staminate calyx deeply 4-cleft : fruiting bracts 
ovate or orbicular, united at the margin to the middle, entire, convex, 
1 — \% lines broad. — Near the sea at Santa Barbara and southward ; but 
also in Monterey Co., on the Salinas River, Abbott. 

14. A. leucophylla, Dietr. Syn. v. 536 (1852) ; Moq. DC. Prodr. xiii*. 
109 (1849), under Obioue. Stout, shrubby, but the stem and branches 
flexible and mostly reclining, 1 — 2 feet long ; plant hoary-scurfy through- 
out : leaves thick, broadly obovate, obtuse or acutish, cuneate at base, 
sessile, 3-nerved, % — 1% iii- long : staminate fl. in dense clusters in 
short terminal spikes ; calyx large, 5-cleft : fruiting bracts in axillary 
clusters 2 — 4 lines long, rhombic-ovate, united, spongy, the sides 
2-crested, the narrow margin entire or obscurely toothed. — On sand 
beaches of San Francisco Bay, and along the seacoast southward. 

6. EUROTIA, Ada II so II.. (White Sage). Low shrubs stellate-tomen- 
tose, with alternate entire leaves, and dioecious flowers in spicate terminal 
clusters. Staminate flowers bractless ; calyx 4-parted ; stamens 4, with 
slender exserted filaments. Pistillate flowers bibracteate, without peri- 
anth. Fruiting bracts obcompressed, united, becoming enlarged and 
membranaceous, densely hairy, not winged or appendaged. Styles 2, 
somewhat hairy, exserted. Fruit oblong-ovate, sessile, the pericarp 
membranous and rather firm, pubescent. Seed vertical, obovate, with a 
simple membranous testa. Cotyledons broad and green ; radicle inferior. 

1. E. lauata, Moq. Chenop. Enum. 81 (1840); Pursh, Fl. ii. 602 
(1814), under Diotis. Branched from the base and erect, 1 ft. high or 
more, white-tomentose, becoming reddish with age, the branches strict, 
leafy : leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate, obtuse, 3^' — 1 }4 i^- long, 
obtuse, the margins revolute : calyx-lobes ovate, acute, hairy : fruiting 
bracts lanceolate, 2—3 lines long, adorned with 4 dense tufts of long 
white hairs, and beaked above with 2 short erect horns : utricle filling 
the cavity and loosely enveloping the seed, which is l^^ lines long. — A 
common forage shrub of the Great Basin and Rocky Mountain regions ; 
reaching our borders along the eastern base of the Sierra. 

7. GfRAYIA, Hooker & Arnott. Slightly scurfy or mealy shrubs, with 
alternate entire leaves, and small dioecious or monoecious flowers in 



SALSOLACEiE. 173 

axillary clusters or terminal spikes. Sl^aminate flowers bractless ; calyx 
4-parted ; stamens 4 or 5, with short subulate filaments. Pistillate 
flowers bibracteate, without perianth. Bracts membranous, strongly 
obcompres.sed, joined into an orbicular sac with a small naked orifice at 
apex, enlarged in fruit, net-veined and wing-marginetL Styles 2. Peri- 
carp thin and membranous. Seed vertical, orbicular, with thin mem- 
branous testa. Radicle inferior. 

1. G. spinosa, Moq. DC. Prodr. xiii'^. 119 (1849) ; Hook. Fl. ii. 127 
(1840), under ('hrtiopodiuiii: G. jjolygoldides, H. & A. in Hook. Ic. iii. 271 
(1840, but later in the year). Erect, branching and spinescent, 1 — 3 ft. 
high : leaves glabrous, or when young mealy, somewhat fleshy, oblanceo- 
late or spatulate to obovate, }4 — 1% ^^- long) obtuse or acute, narrowed 
at base: staminate fl. in axillary clusters; pistillate terminal and in 
simple or branching spikes : fruiting bracts 3 — 6 lines broad, sessile, 
glabrous, thin, white or reddish, coherent below the pedicel of the ovary : 
styles slender, at first exserted : seed nearly central, % line broad. — In 
alkaline soils east of the Sierra both northward and southward. 

8. SALICORNIA, Tuumefort (Samphire). Herbs or shrubs with 
cylindrical fleshy jointed and apparently leafless branches. Flowers 
very simple, in threes at the joints of the spike-like ends of the branches ; 
the lateral ones of each trio often only staminate. Perianth of 4 — 5 
distinct or variously united sepals, at length sjjongy-thicked about the 
fruit. Stamens 1 or 2. Styles 2 or 3, short. Pericarp membranaceous, 
adherent to, or free from the vertical seed. 

* Branches and Jiouers opposite. — Salicoknia proper. 

1. S. ainbig-ua, Michx. Fl. i. 2 (1803) ; Moq. DC. Prodr. xiii'. 151 
(1849), under Avlhvocneinum. Perennial, decumbent, often rooting at 
the base, usually freely branching, % — 13^ ft. high : spikes not thicker 
than the sterile parts of the branches, % — 2 in. long : perianth sac-like, 
with an anterior opening (formed of 2 sepals united above and below), 
enclosing the fruit : pericarp membranous, adherent to the obovate- 
oblong seed, this I3 line long, pubescent. — Plentiful in salt marshes 
everywhere along the seaboard. Some forms appear to be anniaal, and 
the species as here received may be complex — embracing several. The 
subject calls for sxjecial study and investigation. 

* * Branches alternate and flowers spirally arranged in the spikes. — 
Genus Spirostachts, Wats. 

2. S. occidentalis, Greene. Wats. Bot. King Exp. 293 (1871), under 
Hulostachys, and Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 125 (1874), under Spirostachys, 
Shrubby, diffusely branched, the main stem erect, often 5 ft. high, with 
a close and smooth gray bark : scale-like crowded and fleshy leaves 
broadly triangular and acute, amplexicaul, often nearlv obsolete : fl. 



174 SALSOLACEiE. 

densely spiked : perianth of 4 or 5 concave carinate sepals more or less 
united : pericarp free from the oblong seed, this 3^ line long or less. — 
Plentiful in alkaline soil at Byron Springs ; also in Tulare Co. In 
characters of the flower and fruit this group differs greatly from Sali- 
cornia proper ; but there are wider differences, of the same kind, within 
the limits of Alriple.r as now received, not to speak of the great diversities 
of habit between true Atriple.r and the Obione section ; consistency 
therefore forbids the dismemberment of the old Saliconiia, at least until 
Ohione and other genera shall have been restored. 

9. SUJEDA, Forskaal (Sea Elite). Saline herbs or shrubs, with 
alternate fleshy linear entire leaves, and axillary sessile usually perfect 
flowers. Perianth minutely bracteolate, 5-cleft or -parted, fleshy ; lobes 
unappendaged, more or less carinate, crested or winged, enclosing the 
fruit. Stamens 5. Styles 2, 3 or 4, short and thick. Pericarp mem- 
branous, free or slightly adherent to the vertical or horizontal lenticular 
seed. Testa shining, black and crustaceous. Embryo spiral: albumen 
scant. 

* Annuals. 

1. S. diffusa, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 88 (1874). Erect, }4-~l% ft. 
high, with elongated usually flexuous branches, glabrous or more or less 
pubescent •: leaves semiterete, narrow at base, acute or acuminate, % — 1 
in. long, the floral ones shorter, rather distant on the branches : clusters 
2 — 4-flowered : perianth cleft below the middle, the segments not carinate 
or appendaged : seeds usually vertical, }^_ line broad, very smooth. — In 
alkaline soils east of the Sierra Nevada ; but also on the western side 
near Fort Tejon, Blake. 

2. S. depressa, Wats. 1. c. ; Pursh. Fl. i. 197 (1814), under Salsola. 
Low and usually decumbent, with short ascending branches : leaves 
semiterete, broadest at base, }4 — 1 in. long, the floral ones shorter and 
oblong, or ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, rather crowded : perianth cleft to 
the middle ; lobes somewhat unequals acute, one or more of them 
strongly carinate or crested : seed vertical or horizontal, }4 line broad, 
very lightly reticulate. — East of the Sierra only. 

* * Perennials, often woody at base. 

3. S. Californica, Wats. 1. c. 99 (1874). Stout, 2—3 ft. high, very 
leafy, glabrous or somewhat pubescent : leaves broadly linear, subterete, 
not wider at base, 3^3 — 1 in. long, acute, crowded on the branchlets : fl. 
large, 1 — 4 in each axil : perianth cleft nearly to the base ; lobes not 
appendaged : seeds vertical or horizontal, nearly 1 line broad, faintly 
reticulate. — Apparently confined to the vicinity of sand beaches about 
San Francisco Bay, and seldom seen. 



PORTULACEiE. 175 

Okdee XXYI. PORTULACE/E. 

Jnssieu, Genera Plantarum, 313 (1789). 
More or less succulent herbs, with entire leaves and regular complete 
flowers which open in sunshine only. Sepals 2 (in Levnsia 4 — 8), some- 
times cohering at base. Petals 5, (in Lewisia 8 — 16) often united at base. 
Stamens commonly 5 (3— oo ), opposite the petals, hypogynous, perigy- 
nous or epipetalous ; filaments distinct ; anthers versatile. Ovary 
1 -celled, with few or many ovules on a central placenta. Seeds commonly 
^strophiolate ; embryo slender, curved or coiled around a mealy 
albumen, — A small family, intimately related to both Oaryophyllese and 
Salsolaceae ; containing some valued ornamental plants, and several 
weedy sjjecies. The tender herbage of many, like purslane and Olaytonia, 
recommends them as potherbs. 

1. PORTULACA, LobeJins (Pukslane). Fleshy annuals, with axillary 
and terminal yellow or rose-colored flowers. Sepals 2, united below and 
coherent with the base of the ovary ; the limb free and deciduous. 
Petals 4—6. Stamens 7 — 20, perigynous with the petals. Style 3 — 8- 
cleft. Capsule circumscissile, opening by a lid. Seeds small. 

1. P. OLERACEA, Liuu. Sp. PI. i. 445 (1758). Prostrate, glabrous, the 
herbage usually reddish or purplish : leaves flat, obovate, obtuse : sepals 
acute, carinate : petals 13^ — 2 lines long, yellow : stigmas 5 : capsule 
3 — 5 lines long: seeds black, dull, minutely tuberculate.— Native of S. 
Europe, and a very common weed of eastern N. America ; already 
frequent in California, 

2. P, pilosa, Linn. 1. c. Stems ascending ; linear and subterete 
leaves with long white hairs in their axils : fl. several, terminal : sepals 
membranaceous, not keeled, acute : petals 2—3 lines long, bright red : 
stamens 15 — 25 : stigmas 5 or 6 : seeds black, tuberculate.— Obtained on 
the State Survey ixi " dry sandy soils near the Soda Springs on the upper 
Sacramento," but not since reported. 

2. LEWISIA, Pursh. Low acaulescent fleshy perennials, with thick 
fusiform roots, and short 1-flowered scapes. Sepals 4 — 8, broadly ovate, 
unequal, persistent, imbricate. Petals 8 — 16, large and showy. Stamens 
00 . Style 3— 8-parted nearly to the base. Capsule ' circumscissile at 
base, the upper and deciduous part more or less valvate-cleft. Seeds oo , 
black and shining. — This genus should perhaps include Calandrinia, 
which is distinguishable only by the disepalous calyx. 

1. L. redlviva, Pursh. Fl. ii. 368 (1814) ; H. & A. Bot. Beech. 344. t. 
86 ; Hook. f. Bot. Mag. t. 5395 : L. alba, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 115. 
fig. 36. Leaves densely clustered on the short thick caudex, linear 
oblong, glabroiis, glaucous : scapes little exceeding the leaves, jointed at 



176 PORTULACE^. 

the middle, and with 5—7 subulate scarious bracts whorled at the joint : 
sepals 6 — 8, broadly ovate, scarious-margined,. % — % in. long : petals 
12 — 15, oblong, '%,~-^ i^- long, pinkish or white : stamens 40 or more ; 
capsule broadly ovate, 34 ^^- long. — On Mt. Diablo, at the summit, 
Brewer, and in hills east of Napa, Greene (1874) ; common far to the 
northward and eastward of California. 

2. L. brachycalyx, Engelm. Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 400 (1868). Leaves 
spatulate or almost linear : scapes jointless, bibracteate at base, shorter 
than the leaves : sepals 4, herbaceous, ^^4 in. long : petals 7 — 9, oblong, 
% in. long : stamens 10—15 : capsule shorter than the calyx. — In beds 
of disintegrated granite on the eastern slope of the Sierra, in Fresno Co., 
at 8,000 ft, altitude, Muir. 

• 3. CALA^^DRINIA, Humboldt, Bonpland <(• Kuatli. Sepals 2 only, 

subequal, persistent. Petals 3 — 10. Stamens 3 — 25, apparently always 

hypogynous. Capsule 3-valved from the summit, or cireumscissile at base. 

* Caulescent annuals; capsule 3-valved. — Calandkinia proper. 

1. C. Menziesii, T. & G. Fl. i. 197 (1888) ; Hook. Fl. i. 223. t. 70 (1833), 
under Talinum: C. caulescens, var. Menziesii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, 
xxii. 277 (1887) in part. Rather slender and diffuse, the branches 3 — G 
in. long : leaves linear-spatulate, mostly radical and long-peduncled ; 
the upper and floral reduced and glandular-ciliate : sepals ovate, acumi- 
nate, the margins and sharp keel glandular-ciliate : corolla little exceeding 
the sepals, white or bright purple : stamens 3 — 10 ; seeds broadly ovoid, 
shining. — From Santa Barbara, northward, through the Mt. Diablo 
Bange, to Oregon. A small depressed glandular-ciliate and small flowered 
species, apparently quite distinct from the next. Apr., May. 

2. C. elegans, Spaeh, Phaner. v. 232 (1836) : C. pulchella, Lilja, 
Linnfea, xvii. 109 (1843) : C. speciosa, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1598 (1833), not 
of Lehm. Larger and stouter than the last, glabrous, the decumbent 
and ascending branches often 1 ft. long, flowering throughout : sepals 
ovate, acute or acuminate, less sharply carinate, the keel and margins 
entire or with a sparse short and flattened but in no wise glandular 
ciliation : stamens 10 — 15 : corolla twice the length of the calyx, P4 in. 
broad when expanded, bright rose-red : seeds larger, nearly orbicular. — 
Very common throughout the Bay region and elsewhere in the State ; 
passing currently for C. Menziesii. Apr. June. 

3. C. Breweri, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 124 (1876). Habit of the 
preceding but still larger, the ascending branches often more than 1 ft. 
high, glabrous : pedicels rather remote, in fruit deflexed : sepals 
broadly ovate, truncate at base, surpassed by the long-conical m in, 
long) capsule : seeds dull, tuberculate.— Collected only by Brewer, on 



PORTULACE^E. 177 

the Santa Inez Mountains ; but to be expected in the southern 
extension of the Mt. Diablo Range. 

* * Acaulescenl perennials ; capsules circumscis.nle at base. — 
Subgenus Pachyrhizea, Gray. 

4. C. Grayi, Britton, Bull. Torr. Club, xvii. 312 (1890). Talinum 
pygmieuni, Gray, Am. Journ. Sci. xxxiii. 407 (1862), also Calandrinia 
pygmxa in Proc. Ana. Acad. viii. 623 (1873), not of^Miiller (1858). 
Glabrous : leaves linear, 1 — 2 in. long, with short and broadly winged 
subterranean petioles : scapes mostly simple and 1-flowered, 1 — 2 in. 
high, with a pair of small scarious bracts: sepals suborbicular, 2 — 3 lines 
long, glandular-toothed : petals red : capsule obtuse, nearly eqiialling 
the calyx. — In the Sierra Nevada at 8,000 ft., from Mt. Lyell northward. 

5. C. jVevadeiisis, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 623 (1873). Near the 
last, but larger : scapes 1 — 3 in. high, with a pair of larger and f oliaceous 
bracts, 1 — 3-flowered : sepals entire : petals white. — In the high Sierra 
with the last, though of more northerly range, from Summit, Cisco, etc. 

4. CLAYTONIA, Gronuvms. Glabrous herbs, often glaucous. 
Leaves radical except an involucral pair (sometimes united) under the 
racemose or subumbellate inflorescence of the usually scapiform 
peduncles. Sepals 2, persistent. Petals 5, equal, commonly united by 
their short claws. Stamens 5, hypogynous (when the petals are distinct), 
or each joined to the claw of its petal. Capsule membranaceous, ovoid 
or globose, 3-valved, elastically dehiscent, each valve elastically involute, 
ejecting the rather few black and shining seeds.— Plants inseparable 
from the next genus except by the scapiform stems and involucrate 
inflorescence. 

* Perennials, wUh deep-sealed tubers. 

1. C. laiiceolata, Pursh, Fl i. 175. t. 3 (1814) : C. Caroliniana, var. 
sessiUfolia, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 70 (1857). Radical leaf lanceolate ; 
cauline pair sessile, oblong or lanceolate to linear, 1—2 in. long : raceme 
nearly sessile, few-flowered, often with a scarious bract at base : sepals 
ovate, acutish : petals 2—4 lines long, emarginate or obcordate, rose- 
color or nearly white. From near Cisco in the Sierra, Kellogg, Rev. I)r. 
Bonte, northward. 

2. C. triphylla, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 345 (1875). Tuberous root 
small ; stem slender, 2—3 in. high, bearing a pair, or a whorl of 3 
narrowly linear leaves 2 in. long : fl. small, in a sessile or pedunculate 
compound raceme : bracts minute : petals oblong, 2 lines long, 
exceeding the rounded sepals.— Sierra Nevada, at rather high altitudes, 
from Yosemite northward. 

* * Fibrous-rooted species. 
•)- Perennials; pedicels axillary to manifest brads (except in n. 5). 



178 PORTULACEiE. 

3. C. Sibirica, Liun. Sp. PI. i. 20i ? (1753) ; Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 2243 ; 
Haw. Syn. 11 (1812), under Lunnia. Stems 1 — 1}4 ft. high : herbage 
almost dark green, disposed to blacken iu drying : radical leaves lanceo- 
late to rhombic-ovate, acute or acuminate, 1 — 2 in. long, long-petioled ; 
cauline sessile, distinct, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, not indistinctly 
parallel-veined : raceme very lax, the fl. on long pedicels : petals 4 lines 
long, rose-purple, retuse or emarginate at summit, at base narrowed to a 
distinct claw. — In open swamps (never in "cool woods") from near Point 
Bonita Light House in Marin Co., to Mendocino ; perhaps farther 
northward in California, and also in Alaska. The derivation of original 
C. Sibirica is somewhat obscure, but the present plant answers, better 
than any other Californian species, to the accounts given of it. 

4. C. alsinoides, Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 1309 (1810). Root sometimes 
(or always) annual : stems 4 — 10 in. high ; herbage light green, 
unchanged in drying : radical leaves broadly ovate, abruptly acute, 
veinless or somewhat feather-veined ; cauline pair sessile, distinct, very 
broadly ovate : petals 2 lines long, white, united at base but not 
unguiculate. — Common in moist woods, from Humboldt Co., and perhaps 
Mendocino, northward. 

5. C. asarifolia, Bong. Veg. Sitch. 157 (1833) : C. Nevadensis, Wats. 
Bot. Calif, i. 77 (1876) : C. cordifoiia, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 365 
(1882). Stems clustered at summit of a slender creeijing rootstock, 4 — 10 
in. high ; herbage rather succulent, dark-colored when dry : radical leaves 
cordate-reniform or ovate, orbicular, or obovate, 1 in. broad, abruptly 
narrowed to a long petiole ; cauline pair sessile, oblong-ovate : raceme 
short, lax, braotless : petals 4 lines long, white, broadly spatulate, with 
narrow claws. — A common species at the distant north, but found in the 
Trinity Mountains, Humboldt Co., Marshall. 

++ -M- Annuals; racemes braciless except at base, recurved. 
•M- Herbage light green, not glaucous. 

6. C. perfoliata, Doun, in Willd. Sp. ii. 1186 (1798). Stems 2—16 in. 
high : radical leaves from deltoid-cordate, deltoid or rhomboidal to 
rhombic-lanceolate, 1 — 2 in. long, on long petioles ; cauline pair joined 
into a more or less orbicular perfoliate nearly plane or strongly concave 
disk 3^—4 in. broad : raceme short-peduncled or sessile, with an ovate 
acute or acuminate small foliaceous bract at base : petals 1 — 2 lines long, 
white ; blade linear-oblong, retuse or emarginate ; claws united at base 
and stamens epipetalous : fruiting calyx 2 lines long, twice the length of 
the subglobose 3-seeded capsule : seed ?4 line long, round-oval, Ijlack 
and shining but depressed-granular (under a strong lens) and with a 
small. white strophiole. Var. (1) caniosa. Stout and low; the whole 
herbage very succii lent: fruiting calyx I4 in. long: seed nearly orbicular. 



PORTULACE^. 179 

l^a lines broad. Var. (2) augustifolia. Quite like the type save 
that the lowest radical leaves are linear, almost without distinction of 
blade and petiole, the later ones somewhat broader and lanceolate : 
involucre truncate and with acute angles on the upper side (opposite the 
deflection of the pedicels) rounded on the other. Var (3) amplecteiis. 
Like smaller states of the type ; but involucral pair of leaves united on 
one side only, forming a '2-lobed bract which is narrowed to a short 
petiole sheathing the base of the short raceme. — The most prevalent of 
Californian winter annuals, attaining its best development in the shade 
of oaks and laurels among the hills ; in open grounds mixch smaller ; in 
sandy soil near the sea usually reduced and depressed. The first variety 
is peculiar to the Mt. Diablo region, growing in open grounds, in fields 
and waste places. The second grows along with the type everywhere, 
and is remarkably different from it in that its earliest leaves are linear, 
only the later ones widening to the lanceolate, thus reversing the 
common order ; for in the type the earliest leaves are broader than long, 
only the later ones being somewhat narrower. This may perhaps be a 
species. It can hardly be referred to C. parvijiora, a plant which 
belongs to "Washington and British Columbia, and has a different 
foliage, always linear, an equilateral involucre, etc. Our third variety 
belongs to middle elevations of the Sierra. The flowering season of the , 
s^Decies is from March to July, according to locality. 

++ ++ Herbage glaucous, in age flesh-colored. 

7. C. gfypsophiloides, F. & M. Ind. Sem. Petr. ii. 33 (1835) : (J. spalhu- ' 
lata, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 282, excl. var., not of Dougl. Very ' 
pale and glaucous, 4 —10 in. high : radical leaves linear, one-half or one- 
third as long as the slender scapes ; cauline pair short and united on 
one side to form a quadrate disk-like involucre, or longer, lanceolate- 
acuminate and less perfectly united : raceme peduncled, many-flowered ; 
pedicels scattered, often 1 in. long : petals rose-purple, thrice the length 
of the calyx, cuneate-oblong, deeply emarginate, unguiculate at base and 
united around the ovary : seed dull to the unaided eye, under a lens 
roughened with a low and rounded but smooth and shining tubercu- 
lation. — On northward slopes and at the summits of the higher mountains 
of the Coast Range, from Tamalpais and Mt. Diablo northward ; plentiful 
in its localities, and the most beautiful of all Clayiouias. Mar., Apr. 

8. C. spatliulata, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i 225. t. 74 (1833) : C. exigua & 
tenuifolia, T. & G. Fl. i. 200 & 201 (1838) : C. spalhulata, var. lenuifolia, 
Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 282. Low, densely tufted and fleshy, 1—3 
in. high : scapes little exceeding the linear leaves ; involucral leaves 
lanceolate or linear, more or less dilated at base and there connate on one 
side, equalling or exceeding the short raceme : petals white or purplish, 
little longer than th-e sepals, truncate or rounded at apex : seed oval, 



180 PORTULACEiE. 

}'.2 line long, black aud shining, the polished low tnberculation appearing 
under a lens as a kind of reticulation. — Common on ledges of rock and 
gravelly summits of low hills along the seaboard. Douglas' type, 
figured in Hooker's Flora, is not with us, but is a northern plant with 
short involucral leaves connate on both sides. If ours should be specific- 
ally distinct, its name will be C. exigua. Most unlike C. gypsophiluides, 
this is a very inconspicuous and homely plant, usually appearing in the 
shape of a compact hemispherical tuft of glaucous succulent foliage, the 
small flowers seldom rising above the leafy mass, the involucral leaves 
commonly quite surpassing the raceme. 

5. MOXTIA, Micheli. Annuals, or by stolons or bulblets perennial. 
Leaves opposite or alternate. Flowers few or many in axillary racemose 
clusters, or in a single terminal raceme. Calyx, corolla, capsule and 
seeds as in Clayloniar; but segments of corolla often unequal and 
stamens reduced to 3. Seeds sometimes 1 or 2 only. 
■X- Leaves opposite. 
-1— Annuals. 

1. M. foiitana, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 87 (1753). Stems slender, erect, 
ascending or iirocumbent, 1 — 4 in. long : leaves narrowly oblanceolate or 
spatulate, dilated and somewhat connate at base, I4 — j^:£ in. long : corolla 
white, minute, little exceeding the calyx and seldom expanding, the 
petals unequal, united at base : seed minute, roundish, dull black, but 
under a lens shining and covered with an almost echiuate murication. — 
Common and variable ; the coarser form inhabiting the margins of 
streamlets and shores of muddy pools ; the smaller and nearly prostrate 
state found on dry ground under growing grain in rather low fields. 

2. M. Hallii, Greene. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 283 (1887 j, under 
C'lai/lonia. Larger than the last, 3^6 in. high, simple or sparingly 
branched from the base: leaves in 2 or 3 pairs, oblanceolate or spatulate, 
% — 1 in. long : corolla twice the length of the calyx ; petals equal : 
seeds 1 or 2, muriculate. — In Plumas Co., Lemtnon, and in southern 
Oregon; aspecies just intermediate between M. foniana and Chamissonis. 

-h- H— Perennial, stoloaiferous and ImJbilliferous. 

3. M. Chamissonis, Greene. Esch. in Spreng. Syst. i. 790 (1825), 
undcB Claytonia. C. stolonifera, C. A. Mey., C. aquatica, Nutt. and 
C. Jiagellaris, Bong. Stems weak, decumbent, 4 — 12 in. high, stolo- 
niferous at base, and bearing bulblets at the ends of short branchlets or in 
the lower axilg : leaves in few pairs, oblanceolate or spatulate, ig — 11^ in. 
long: racemes few-flowered ; pedicels elongated : calyx minute, obtuse: 
petals white, obovate-oblong, rounded and entire, three or four times the 
length of the calyx : seed rather opaque, under a lens tuberculate- 



P O R T U L A C E yE. 181 

rouprheued. -Common in very wet places in subalpine swamps throuf^fliout 

California. The seeds are exactly those attributed to his M. lampros- 

perma by Chamisso, and the species may jjossibly be identical. 

* * Leaves alternate. 

■)— Annuals. 

4. M. linearis, Greene. Dougl. in Hook. Fl. i. 222. t. 71 (1833), under 
Claijlonia. Stems erect, branching, 3—6 in. high : leaves narrowly 
linear, 1 — 2 in. long, clasping at base : racemes rather numerous : calyx 
large (2 lines or more), broad and obtuse : petals little exceeding the 
calyx, white, unequal: stamens 3, epipetalous: seed large {% line broad), 
orbicular, compressed, obtusely margined, smooth and shining. — From 
near Napa, Bigrluir, and Sierra Co., Lemmon, far northward. 

5. 31. diffusa, Greene. Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. i. 202 (1838), under 
Ctayiuiiia. Diffusely and dichotomously branched, 6 in. high, leafy and 
fioriferous throughout : leaves ovate or deltoid, acute, 1^ — 1 in. long : 
racemes numerous, few-fiowered ; pedicels very slender : calyx minute : 
corolla a little longer, pale rose-color : seeds compressed, minutely 
cancellate, obtusely margined. An Oregonian species apparently rare; 
said to have been collected in California by Kellogg & Harford. 

-)- H— Perennial ( f ), vinparous by deciduous axillary leafy buds. 

6. M. parvifolia, Greene. Moc. in DC. Prodr. iii. 361 (1828), under 
Clayiouia. Slender, succulent, 4-10 in. high : leaves borne on a short 
stem or caudex ^3— 1 in. high, ovate or lanceolate, 1 in. long or less, 
including the slender petiole : racemose peduncles elongated, leafy 
below, the nodes in age bearing bud-like plantlets : calyx minute : petals 
rose-color, 2 -4 lines long : seeds mostly solitary in the capsules, oval, 
shining.— From Calaveras Co., and Donner Lake, northward in the 
Sierra, on moist rocks. ■ Plant with the fleshiness and something of the 
aspect of a Seduru. 

6. CALYPTRIDIUM, Nuitall. Glabrous and rather succulent herbs, 
with alternate leaves, and small ephemeral flowers in scorpioid solitary 
or clustered scorpioid spikes. Sepals 2, broadly ovate or cordate-orbicu- 
lar, scarious, usually persistent. Sepals 2 — 4. Stamens 1—3. Style 
bifid. Capsule membranaceous, 2-valved, 6 -12-seeded.— A small genus, 
almostly exclusively Californian, and uncommonly well-defined for a 
genus of this family. 

* Annuals; branches leafy; slauten 1. 

1. C. nioiiaiidriim, Nutt. T. & G. Fl. i. 198 (1838). Branches 
depressed, 2—6 in. long : leaves spatulate or linear, 1 in. long or more : 
sepals and petals each 2, aboiTt a line long, the latter in age coherent and 
borne calyptra-like upon the summit of the long-exserted linear capsule. — 
From the Santa Clara Valley and Fort Tejon southward. 



182 PORTULACE^. 

2. C. roseum, Wats. Bot. King. Exp. 44. t. 6. (1871). Diffuse and 
nearly prostrate branches 3—6 in. long : leaves oblong-spatnlate, obtuse : 
sepals nearly orbicular, unequal : petals 2, minute, round-obovate, 
narrower at base : capsule oblong-ovate, not exceeding the calyx. — 
Sierra Co., Lemmon, and southward along the eastern base of the 
mountains. 

3. C. tetrapetalum, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 356 (1885). Branches 
erect or ascending from a more or less decumbent base, leafy up to the 
short dense spikes : leaves broadly spatulate, 1 — 3 in. long : sepals 
round-reniform, conspicuously nerved and scariously margined, 2 — 4 
lines broad, exceeding the 4 oblong or round-ovate petals : stigmas 
broad; nearly sessile : capsule oblong, 3 lines long, 12 — 20-seeded. — Lake 
Co. and Sonoma, Torrey, (jveene, Rattan, Simonds. A rather local 
species of the geyser district of the Coast Range : in the " Botany of 
California" referred to C. roseurn. 

* * Bieiiniah or aimuals; leaves radical; stamens 3. 

4. C. pauicuhituiii, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, xiii. 144 (1886) ; Kell. 
Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 187 (1863), under Spraguea. Plant of the same 
habit and aspect as the preceding, but larger (4 — 8 in. high), the spicate 
racemes densely panicled : sepals 4 lines broad, 3 lines long : seeds 
reniform. — Not yet found in California, but the original station, " West 
of Virginia City " is not far from the State line. 

5. C. uiiibellatum, Greene, 1. c; Torr. PI. Frem. 4. t. 1 (1850) under 
Spragiiea. Stems several, from a fleshy slender-fusiform biennial root, 
ascending or erect, about 1 ft. high : leaves mostly radical, in a rosulate 
tuft, spatulate or oblanceolate, 1 — 4 in. long inchiding the petiole ; the 
cauline reduced to bracts ; an involucre of siiiall scarious bracts sub- 
tending the terminal whorl of dense nearly sessile spikes : sepals 
scarious and pinkish or flesh-color, 2 — 4 lines broad, about equalling the 
obloug-obovate petals : capsule round-ovate, compressed, surmounted 
by a long style, few-seeded : seed obliquely oval. — In the Sierra Nevada 
from Yosemite northward ; also in the Coast Range near Santa Cruz, 
Anderson, and mountains of Humboldt Co., Chesnut & Brew. A plant 
of rocky or gravelly places, at high altitudes chiefly. July — Oct. 

6. C. nudniii, Greene, Pittonia, i. 64 (1887). Root annual, fleshy- 
fibrous : leaves all radical : scapes 3—6 in. high, naked, terminated by a 
compact orbicular capitate-congested cluster of short spikes : petals 
narrowly spatulate : stamens long-exserted ; anthers linear, yellow : 
fr. unknown.— A common annual of the Donner Lake district, apparently 
quite distinct from C. innhellatuin. 



CRASSULACE^. 183 

Ordeb XXVII. CRASSULACE>E. 

De CaudoUe, Bull. Pliilom. n. 49. p. 1 (1801). Part of Succulenlx, Vent. 
Tabl. iii. 271 (1799). 

Succulent herbs with exstipnlate leaves, Flowei-s perfectly s^-m- 
metrical, cymosely arranged. Sepals 3—20, more or less united at base. 
Petals as many, inserted in the bottom of the calyx, distinct or cohering 
below to form a gamopetalous corolla. Stamens as many or twice as 
many as the petals, when of the same number alternate with them ; 
filaments distinct, subulate. Ovaries as many as the petals, opposite to 
them, forming a whorl, each with or without a hypogynous scale at base. 
Fruit follicular. Seeds attached to the margins of the suture, small, 
albuminous. 

1. TILLJilA, MichelL Small and slender fleshy glabroxis annuals. 
Leaves opposite, entire. Flowers minute, axillary, white or pinkish. 
Sepals and petals 3-5, distinct or united at base. Stamens as many 
Carpels distinct ; styles short-subulate. Follicles 1— several-seeded. 
Seeds striate lengthwise. 

* Fl. clustered; petals acuminata; carpels 1 — 2-seeded. 

1. T. minima, Meiers, Chil. ii. 530 (1826) : T. leplopetala, Benth. PI. 
Hartw. 310 (1849). Simple or with few or many ascending branches, 
1—3 in. high : herbage very light green when young, in tige reddis.h : 
internodes short : leaves ovate or oblong, obtuse, 1 line long, connate : 
fi. in short axillary panicles, mostly subsessile, occasionally some with 
long pedicels : sepals 4, }4 line long, acute, nearly or quite equalled by 
the linear-lanceolate acuminate petals : carpels acute, not longer than 
the petals. — Very common in clayey or sandy soils in the hilly districts 
everywhere. Mar. — May. 

* * Fl. solitary; petals oral or oblong; carpels sereral-seeded. 

2. T. Druiiimoiidii, T. & G. Fl. i. 558 (1840) : T. angysiifolm, Nutt. 
1. c. ? Stems very slender, tlichotomoiis, diffuse, rooting at some of the 
lower nodes, 1 in. long or more : leaves oblong-linear, slightly connate : 
pedicels at length equalling or exceeding the leaves • petals red, fully 
equalling the obtuse carpels, and twice or thrice the length of the calyx- 
lobes. — Common in moist low places in wheat fields near Suisun. May. 

8. T. Bolaiuleri, Greene. T. avgvstifolia, var. (?) Bolanderi, Wats. 
Bot. Calif, i. 208 ( 1876). Stems stoutish, simple, 2—5 in. long, the lower 
portion with long internodes and rooting at the nodes ; leaves linear 
or linear-oblong, acutish, subterete, slightly connate: fl. short-pedicellate, 
the pedicel in fruit elongated and surpassing the leaves : petals oblong, 
acutish, equalling the carpels, more than twice the length of the ovate 
calyx-segments.— In characters of flower and fruit much like the 



184 CRASSULACE^. 

preceding, but widely different in all other particulars. Frequent on 
muddy shores about San Francisco. May. 

2. SEDUM, Columna (Stone-crop). Grlabrous perennials or annuals. 
Flowers in cymes, mostly secund. Sepals 4 or 5, united at base. Petals 
as many, distinct. Stamens twice as many. Carpels distinct, or rarely 
connate at base, few- or many-seeded. 

* Perennial with flat serrate leaves, and Jloivers in a compact 
compound cyme. 

1. S. roseum, Scop. Fl. Oarn. i. 326 (1772) ; Linn. Sp. PL ii. 1035 
(1753), under Rh.odiola. Rhodia qfficinarum, Orantz, Inst. i. 191 (1766). 
Sedum Rhodiola, DC. Fl. Fr. iv. 386 (1805). Stems simple, erect, 2—10 
in. high, from a thick rose-scented root : leaves alternate, oblong-lanceo- 
late, acute, rarely entire, 1-3— 1^2 in. long : cyme sessile, 1—2 in. broad : 
tl. on short naked pedicels, usually 4-merous, dioecious, dark -purple in 
age : sepals oblong : petals linear-oblong, lli lines long : carpels 
becoming 3 lines long, short-beaked. — In wet soil in the higher Sierra ; 
also in subarctic America and in Europe. 

* * Perennials with entire leaves, and floaters secund upon the branches of 

a forked cyme. 

2. S. spathulifolium, Hook. Fl. i. 227 (1833). Glaucous and often 
pulveriilent : stems 4—6 in. high, ascending from a branched and rooting 
caudex : leaves fiat, obovate or spatulate, obtuse, 6-10 lines long : fl. 3 
lines long : petals yellow, lanceolate, acute, twice longer than the ovate 
acute sepals.— Rocky places on the northward slopes of hills and moun- 
tains from San Francisco and Berkeley northward. 

3. S. Oreg-auum, Nutt, T. & G. Fl. i. 559 (1840). Resembling the 
last, but not glaucous : fl. larger (4—5 lines long) ; petals pale rose- 
color, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate ; sepals acute.— From Mendocino 
Co. northward. 

4. S. obtusatuiii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 342 (1868). Habit of the 
above, scarcely glaucous : leaves spatulate or cuneate, the uppermost 
oblong : fl. loosely cymose, pedicellate : petals yellowish, oblong-lanceo- 
late or ovate, twice longer than the broad obtusish sepals. — In the Sierra 
Nevada from the Yosemite northward. 

5. S. rartiatuin, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 193 (1883) : S. Douglasii, 
Wats. Bot. Calif, not Hook. Stems 3—6 in. high, decumbent at base 
from a branching rooting caudex : leaves oblong or oblong-ovate, obtuse 
or acutish, somewhat clasping by the narrower base, }4 — H iii- loiig '■ A- 
sessile ; sepals short, triangular ; petals yellow, narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, 3 lines long : carpels broad, the beaks abruptly divergent.— 
Coast Range, from Monterey Co. to Mendocino and Trinity. 

«■ * * Annual, with flowers cymose. 



CRASSULACE^. 185 

6. S. pniiiilnui, Bentli. PL Hartw. 310 (1849). Slender, simple or 
b^aucbin^^ 1 — 3 iu. high : leaves 1 — 2 lines long, ovate-oblong : fi. sessile 
in sparingly branched cymes ; calyx-lobes minute, triangular ; petals 
yellow, linear, acute, 1^^ lines long : follicles short, 1-seeded, the seed 
erect, filling the cavity. — Valley of the Sacramento, Harlweg; also at 
Placerville, Rallaa, and the Marysville Buttes, Jepson. 

3. COTYLEDON, Nicatider. Succulent herbs coarser than Sedtim 
and larger, but quite like them in all other respects save that the petals 
are more or less united into a tube, and the follicles erect or suberect 
rather than sjjreading. 

1. C. Nevadeiisis, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 212 (1876). Acaulescent, 
glaucous : leaves obovate to oblanceolate, somewhat rhomboidal, acute 
or acuminate, the larger 2-4 in. long : flowering branches 6 — 10 in. high, 
with scattered lanceolate to broadly triangular acute bracts : inflo- 
rescence a spreading compound cyme ; pedicels ^ — ^ in. long : sepals 
ovate, acute, 2 lines long or less : petals lanceolate, acute, 5 lines long, 
yellow or reddish : carpels ovate-oblong, 3 lines long. — Yosemite and 
northward. 

2. C. CJespitosa, Haw. Misc. Nat. 180 (1803). Nearly or quite acau- 
lescent, scarcely glaucous but dull green : leaves ovate-oblong to 
oblong-lanceolate, acute, the larger l^g — 3 in. long : flowering branches 
}4 — 1 ft. high, with broadly triangular-ovate clasping bracts : inflo- 
rescence a short and rather close compound cyme ; pedicels short and 
stout, subtended by broad bracts : sepals ovate, 2 lines long or less : 
petals yellow, broadly lanceolate, acixte, 4—5 lines long : carpels ovate- 
oblong, about 3 lines long. — From near San Francisco northward. 

3. C. laxa, B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 212 (1876) ; Lindl. Journ. Hort. See. 
iv. 292 (1849), under Echeveria. Nearly acaulescent, very glaucous : 
leaves lanceolate, sharply acuminate, the larger 3 — 5 in. long : flowering 
branches 1—2 ft. high, slender, with scattered leafy bracts, of which the 
lower are narrowly lanceolate, the upper shorter and broader : inflo- 
rescence of 2 —4 simple secund racemes 3 —5 in. long ; floral bracts 
small ; pedicels 2—3 lines long : sepals ovate, acute, 2 lines long : petals 
yellow, oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 5—7 lines long : carpels 
ovate-oblong, 4 lines long. — From near Monterey southward in the 
Coast Range. 

4. C. farinosa, Baker, Refug. Bot. i. t. 71 (1869) ; Lindl. 1. c. (1849), 
under Echereria. Short-caulescent, more or less white-farinose : leaves 
rather flaccid, ascending, lanceolate, acuminate, the larger ones 2—4 in. 
long, acute : flowering branches 6—10 in. high, with scattered broadly 
ovate to lanceolate clasping bracts : inflorescence a short and close 



186 SAXIFKAGE^. 

compound cyme ; bracts ovate-lanceolate : pedicels 1 — 3 lines long : 
sepals broadly lanceolate, }^ in. long : petals yellow, oblong-lanceolate, 
mostly acuminate. 4 — 6 lines long : carpels ovate-oblong, }^ in. long.-^ 
Near Monterey and Sonoma ; also in the foothills of the Sierra. 

5. C. Palmeri, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 292 (1879). Caulescent, 
not mealy or glaucous : leaves reddish, lanceolate, acuminate, 2 in. long, . 
8 or 9 lines wide at base and gradually tapering to the very acute apex, 
the margin obtuse : flowering stem with broadly triangular-ovate leafy 
bracts : inflorescence of a few simple spreading secund racemes, some- 
what glaucous ; pedicels 1^—3^ in. long : calyx broad ; sepals triangular- 
ovate, 2 lines long : petals pale lemon-yellow, 5 — 6 lines long : carpels 
•i lines, at length somewhat spreading, with divergent styles. — At San 
Simeon Bay, Palmer. 

6. C. Ling'ula, Wats. 1. c. 293. Habit of the preceding : leaves 
oblong, acute, 2—3 in. long, 1 in. broad : stems l^^— 2 ft. long, the 
branches of fhe cyme less spreading ; pedicels very short : sepals 
narrower and longer : carpels \^ in. long, somewhat spreading, with 
straight styles. — Habitat of the last. 

Order XXVIII. SAXIFRAGE >E. 

Ventenat, Tabl. du Eeg. Veget. iii. 277 (1799). Saxifrage, Juss. (1789). 

Herbs (Ribes shrubby) with simple alternate usually exstipulate leaves, 
the petiole often stipulaceously dilated at base. Stems mostly simple 
below, commonly leafless and scape-like. Inflorescence mostly either 
cymose, racemose or paniculate. Calyx of about 5 sepals, often more or 
less coherent below and united to the base of the ovary. Petals as many 
or 0. Stamens 5 or 10, perigynous or hypogyuous. Ovary of about 2 
carpels more or less cohering by their inner faces, commonly distinct and 
diverging at apex ; style often wanting and stigmas sessile on the tips of 
the lobes of the ovary. Fruit capsular or follicular (in Ribes baccate). 
Seeds many, small, albuminous.— A considerable family, analogous to 
Eosacese, b^^t with few and definite stamens, and albuminous seeds ; 
more closely related to Crassulacese, from which they are most readily 
known by the dicarpellary pistil and different (seldom succulent) herbage. 

Hints of the fienera. 

Shrubs; fruit berry-like, ------------11 

Herbs, or low alpine undershrubs ; 

Petals 0; capsule obcordate, compressed, ------ 10 

" 5, undivided ; 

Stamens 10, -_--------!, 5 

5, - - - - - - - - - 2, 3, 6, 9 

" 3, ---------- - 4 

Petals 5, toothed or cleft ; 

Stamens 10, ---------- - ^' ^ 

5, - - 8 



SAXIFRAGES. 187 

1. SAXIFRAGA, Pliny (Saxifrage). Sbort-stemmed or stemless 

plants with simple leaves, tlieii- petioles commonly sheathing at base. 

Flowers in cymose thyrsoid or panicled clusters or solitary. Sepals 

. distinct, or at ba.se conjoined to each other and the base of the ovary. 

Petals entire, imbricate in bud. Stamens 10, inserted with or below the 

petals, on the base of the calyx, or between it and a fleshy disk. Carpels 

2, usually partly united, dehiscent by the inside of the divergent beaks. 

Seeds with thin coat and no wing or appendage. — Herbaceous or more 

enduring plants of rocky woods or alpine heights, margins of cold streams, 

etc. ; very diverse in habit ; perhaps belonging to several natural generfu 

* Herbaceous; scapes slender, paniculate; calyx free from the ovary, 

rejlexed; petals unguiculate; filaments' filiforTn or clavate. 

■^Annual; leaves cmieate at base; filaments filiform. 

1. S. bryophora, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 53.3 (1865). Very slender, 
2 — 8 in. high : leaves not rosulate, but scattered up and down the lower 
l>art of the stem, 1 in. long, spatulate-oblong, acutish, entire, veinless : 
panicle lax, the branches bearing lateral pedicellate deflexed leafy plant- 
lets and a single terminal flower : petals oblong-ovate, 2 lines long 
including the claw ; blade white with a pair of round yellow spots at 
base : stamens nearly equalling the petals ; filaments filiform, somewhat 
flattened toward the base ; anthers red-purple : carpels nearly distinct : 
styles 0. — Common in the high Sierra from Mt. Whitney to Donner 
Lake ; the root apparently of but one year's duration, but the propa- 
gation is by leafy bulblets more than by seeds. Aug. — Oct. 

■i- -^ Perennials; leaves broad not cuneate at base; filaments more 
or less clavate. 

2. S. Marshalii, Greene, Pittonia, i. 159 (1888). Scape and leaves 
from a short crown, sparingly glandular-pubescent : leaves 1 in. long or 
more, on somewhat flattened petioles of 1 — 2 in., oblong, obtuse, the base 
abruptly acute, or nearly truncate, or subcordate, the margin closely 
beset with sharp triangular teeth ; scape 8—16 in. high, rather loosely 
paniculate at summit : petals 1% lines long, oval or oblong, white with 
a pair of oval green spois near the base, very shortly unguiculate : 
stamens equalling the jDctals ; filaments strongly clavate. — Hoopa Valley, 
Hum])oldt Co., C. C. Marshall, April, 1888 ; also obtained a year later, 
on Rogue River, Oregon, in large form, by Mr. Howell. 

3. S. Merteusiaiia, Bong. Veg. Sitch. 141 (1833): S. heteruntha, 
Hook. Fl. i. 252. t. 78 (1833). Scape and leaves from a scaly-bulljous 
base, glandular-pubescent, %, — 1 ft. high : leaves thin and pale, round- 
cordate, creuately or incisely many-lobed, % — IVg in. broad, on long 
petioles which are scarious-dilated at base : cymose panicle loose, the 
branches often flowering at apex and bearing granular bulblets down the 



188 SAXIFRAGES. 

sides : fl. as in the last, but petals longer, scarcely unguiculate, and 
stamens with petaloid-dilated filaments : capsule inflated-ovate. — From 
Sonoma Co., northward in the Coast Range. 

4 S. jestivalis, Fisch. Ind. Sem. Petr. ii. 37 (1835) : S. argufa, Don.' 
Saxifr. 356 ? (1822) : S. punctata of Bot. Calif., not Linn. Scape and 
leaves from a short thick creeping rootstock, glabrous or pubescent, deep 
green or reddish, sHghtly fleshy : leaves on long petioles, reniform or 
round-cordate, equally and deeply dentate ; petioles scarcely dilated 
except at the insertion : panicle narrow : petals oval, obtuse, unguicu- 
late, white, with a pair of yellow sjjots at base of blade : some of the 
dilated filaments antherless and petaloid : capsule oblong. — Margins of 
alpine brooks in the high Sierra, and common far northward ; variable in 
size, mostly larger than other species of the group. 

* * Stems short, cespiiose, very leafy; leaves evergreen. 

5. S. ledifolia, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 101 (1890) : S. Tolmiei, Gray, Bot. 
Calif, i. 195, not T. & G. Branches stoutish, ascending, very leafy : 
leaves spatulate-oblong, obtuse, entire, 6—8 lines long : peduncles 
terminal at the ends of leafy shoots, stout, 3 — 4 in. high, cymosely 5 — 15- 
flowered : calyx nearly free from the ovary, the almost distinct sepals 
erect : petals lanceolate, white, twice the length of the sepals : filaments 
dilated at summit : capsule large, purplish. — Moist open ground on 
alpine summits of the Sierra Nevada. Aug., Sept. 

* * * Stout slemless riparian herb; leaves broad, peltate. 

6. S. peltata, Torr. in Benth. PI. Hartw. 311 (1849), and Bot. Wilkes 
Exp. 309. t. 5 (1862) ; Hook. f. Bot. Mag. t. 6074. Leptarrhena immdala, 
Behr, Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 45 & 57 (1855). Scape (vernal) and leaves 
(appearing later) from stout horizontal rootstocks 1 — 3 in. thick ; 
peduncles and petioles 1 — 3 ft. high : blade of leaf orbicular, centrally 
peltate, 6 — 14 in. broad, 9 — 14-lobed, membranaceous, with a short- 
funuelform concavity over the insertion upon the petiole : fl. cymose- 
panicled, large, rose-color or nearly white : calyx 5-parted, nearly free 
from the ovary, the segments spreading in fruit : petals round-oval, 2- -3 
lines long, persistent and at length larger : filaments subulate : follicles 
distinct, divergent, turgid-ovate. — Along rocky margins of rivers and 
streams in the foothills and at middle elevations in the Sierra Nevada ; 
the rootstocks mostly submersed ; scapes and flowers appearing in 
spring, the leaves some weeks later. One of the largest and most 
remarkable of saxif rageous herbs ; the fleshy rhizomes said to be pala- 
table and nutritious insomuch as to have been in requisition for food 
with the aborigines of the mountain districts. Apr. — June. 

* * * * Slemless; root conn-like; calyx canipanulale, free from the ovary. 

7. S. Parryi, Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 69. t. 25 (1859). Scapes 
(autumnal) and leaves (vernal) 2 — 6 in. high, slender, pubescent ; leaf- 



saxifeagetE. 189 

blade rounded-subcordate, slightly crenate-lobed and -toothed, 1 in. 

broad or less ; petioles short : cyme lax, 3 — 7-fiowered : calyx only 

slightly 5-lobed, the campanulate brown-nerved tube nearly enclosing 

the 2-lobed capsule : petals ovate or spatulate, inserted by short claws 

nearly in the sinuses of the calyx, white, marked with purple or 

brownish veins : filaments slender-subulate, inserted below the petals : 

styles slender, in fruit exserted from the calyx. — A very remarkable 

species, long supposed to be peculiar to the dry hills of San Diego Co., 

there sending up its scapes and unfolding its flowers in November or 

December, the leaves appearing later in winter. It was fotind in our 

part of the State near lone, by Dr. Parry, in the autumn of 1887. 

***** Perennial, fibrous-rooted, the scape and leaves frorn a short 

crown; calyx partly adherent to the ovary; petals not 

Ufiguiculale; filaments not clavate. 

8. S. Califoruica, Greene, Pittonia, i. 286 (1889): S. Virghiieiisis, Gray, 
Bot. Calif, i. 195, not Michx. Leaves few, rather thick, reddish-veined, 
sparsely glandular-villous, oval, oblong or elliptical, 1 — 2 in. long, on 
broad petioles of ^i—l in. ; margin coarsely crenate to repand-denticulate, 
rarely either sharply dentate or nearly entire, tomentose-ciliolate : scape 
6 — 18 in. high, loosely cymose-paniculate : calyx nearly free from the 
ovary, the sepals reflexed : petals oblong, thrice the length of the sepals, 
white or rose-tinted : filaments subulate, inserted under the edge of an 
elevated perigynous disk which equals the summit of the ovary. — Plenti- 
ful throughout the State, on cool northward slopes of both ranges of 
mountains. In the Sierra Nevada the leaves are couspiciiously toothed. 
In the Coast Eange they vary from crenate to almost entire. Mar.— May. 

9. S. nivalis, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 405 (1753). Plant deep green or purplish, 
more or less viscid-pubescent : leaves oblong-ovate or spatulate-obovate, 
1 in. long or less, coarsely dentate, or crenate, or almost entire : scape 
1 — 6 in. high : fl. crowded or distant in a terminal cluster : calyx-lobes 
ovate, longer than the tube, erect : petals white, oblong or spatulate, 
exceeding the calyx : stamens filiform : styles very short : ovary and 
fruit usually purple.— Common at alpine heights in the Sierra. June-Oct. 

10. S. iuteg:rifolia, Hook. Fl. i. 249, t. 86 (1833). Plant light or dark 
green, more or less roughened with a short glandular pubescence : leaves 
varying from ovate to oblong-lanceolate and -spatulate, acute or obtuse, 
2—5 in. long, entire, remotely denticulate or more distinctly dentate or 
crenate : scape 1—3 ft. high : fl. in small clusters in an interrupted 
thyrse or panicle : petals obovate-spatulate, dull white, exceeding the 
reflexed calyx-lobes : filaments short, broadly subulate : stigmas sessile 
on the conical, at length widely divergent beaks of the ovary.— In swamps 
of the middle Sierra ;_ extremely variable, and possibly a composite 



190 SAXIFRAGES. 

species, some states of which would pass for S. Peiuisylranica but for 
their broad white petals. Other forms are very different. June — Sept. 

2. BOYKINIA, Nuitall. Perennial herbs with erect leafy stems, 
and corymbose or paniculate cymes of white flowers ; leaves round- 
reniform, palmately lobed or tootlied, the teeth with callous-glandular 
tips ; the petioles stipularly dilated at. base. Calyx 5-lobed ; lobes 
valvate, but early- open in the bud ; the tube more or less adherent to 
the ovary. Petals 5, entire, imbricate or convolute in bud. Stamens .5, 
short, alternate with the petals. Capsule 2-celled, dehiscent down the 
beaks. Seeds minutely granulate or papillose. 

* Leaces ex stipulate; flowers sectmd, the corolla, slightly irregular, 
the petals narrow. — Genus Thekofon, Raf. 

1. B. elata, Greene. Nutt. T. & G. Fl. i. 575 (1840), under Sa.rifraga. 
B. occidental is, T. & G. 1. c. 577. Slender, 1—2 ft. high, glabrous or 
glandular-pubescent, the bases of the petioles bearing brown bristly 
hairs : leaves thin-membranaceous, 5 — 7-lobed, 1 — 3 in. broad : calyx- 
lobes lanceolate-triangular ; tube oval and urceolate in fruit : petals 
cuneate-oblong, obtuse, persistent and in age recurved : seeds elongated- 
oblong, acute at one end, dark brown, rather • densely tuberculate. — 
Shady banks and rocky margins of streams in the Coast Range from 
Santa Barbara to British Columbia ; one of our finest saxifrageous 
plants. The corolla has just the irregularity seen in most species of 
Pelargonium. May—Aug. 

2. B. rotnudifolia, Parry, Proc. Am. Acad. xiii. 371 (1878). Near the 
preceding but larger, 2 — 3 ft. high ; leaves 2 — 4 in. broad, crenately 
incised or toothed ; stem and petioles villous as well as glandular : 
flowers short-pedicelled on the few and elongated branches of the 
inflorescence : petals small, little exceeding the calyx-lobes : calyx-tube 
in fruit broadly urceolate. — In the San Bernardino Mountains, but to be 
expected in Kern Co. 

* * Stipules manifest; flowers corymhose-cymose at summit of stem; 
corolla regular, the petals broad. — Genus Hemieva, Raf. 

3. B. major, Gray, Bot. Calif, i. 196 (1876) : B. occidentalis, var. 
elata, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 383 (1868). Coarse and stout, 2 — 3 ft. 
high, somewhat glandular-scabrous : leaves 4 — 8 lines broad, almost 
pedately 5— 9-cleft and coarsely toothed ; petioles abruptly dilated at 
base, the cauline short, with broad foliaceous stipules : calyx-lobes 
triangular : petals white, obovate. — In the Sierra Nevada, from Mariposa 

' Co. northward. Aug., Sept. 

4. B. ranunculifolia, Greene. Hook. Fl. i. 246. t. 83 (1833), under 
Saxifraga. Rather slender, 1 ft. high, glandular-pubescent above, nearly 
glabrous below : lower leaves % — 1 in. broad, 3-parted, the segments 



SAXIFRAGES. 191 

ciiueiform, obtusely cleft ; cauline few, simply 3-lobed, or more reduced 
and simple ; axils of the lower bulbiferous : fl. in a simple corymb ; 
petals obovate, white, twice the length of the acute calyx-lobes : calyx 
carapaiiulate in fruit. — On Spanish Peak, Plumas Co., Mrs. Austin, aud 
northward. 

3. IJOLAXDRA, A. Gray. Herbs with the foliage and habit of 
Boykinia proper, but flowers fewer, petals narrower aud purplish, aud 
ovary wholly free from the broad campauulate calyx. Seeds minute, 
with a thin loose coat. 

1. B. Califoniica, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 341 (1868). Erect, 
rather slender, 1 ft. high or less, glabrous, bearing granular bulblets at 
base of stem : leaves thin ; the lower round-reniform, 5-lobed, on long 
slender petioles ; upper sessile or clasping, incised or toothed, the floral 
reduced to ovate or lanceolate entire bracts : fl. solitary at the ends of 
paniculate branches : calyx broad, somewhat inflated, truncate at base : 
petals slender, subulate, recurved, persistent : capsule membranaceous, 
enclosed in the calyx. — On wet rocks in the Yosemite and northward. 

4. TOLMIEA, Torrey c& Gray. Perennial, with radical leaves (these 
in age gemmiparous at base of the blade) and scapiform racemose stems. 
Calyx funnelform, free from the ovary, membranaceous, gibbous at base; 
the 5 lobes somewhat unequal ; tube in age splitting down one side. 
Petals 5, flhform, inserted in the sinuses of the calyx, recurved, persistent. 
Stamens 3, inserted in the throat of the calyx opposite the upper lobe 
and the two lateral ones ; filaments short ; anther-cells confluent. 
Ovary elongated-oblong or clavate, attenuate at base, cleft above, 
1-celled, with 2 parietal placentse ; styles slender ; stigmas capitellate. 
Capsule at base attenuate to a stipe, dehiscent between the divergent 
equal beaks. Seeds globose, the close firm coat muriculate. 

1. T. Meiiziesii, T. & G. Fl. i. 582 (1840) ; Pursh, Fl. i. 313 (1814), 
under Tiarella; Hook. Fl. i. 237. t. 80 (1833), under Heuchera. Hispidly 
pubescent, 1 — 2 ft. high : radical leaves round-cordate, more or less 
lobed and toothed : stem with 2 or 3 small leaves : raceme loose, i-^ — 1 
ft. long ; fl. and capsule }'2 in. long, greenish or purplish. — Forests of 
Mendocino Co., Bolander, and northward. 

5. TELLIMA, Robert Brown. Perennial herbs, with leaves chiefly 
radical, round-cordate, toothed or palmately divided, their petioles 
stipulaceously dilated at base. Flowers in a simple terminal raceme. 
Calyx campauulate or turbinate, 5-lobed, free from the ovary, or coherent 
with it at base or even to above the middle ; the short triangular lobes 
valvate in bud. Petals 5, laciniate-pinnatifid, or 3— 7-lobed, or entire, 
distant and sometimes involute in bud. Stamens 10, short, included. 
Ovary short, 1-celled, with 2 or 3 parietal placentfe ; styles 2 or 3, very 
short ; stigmas capitate. Capsule conical, opening between the short 



192 SAXIFRAGES. 

beaks. Seeds very numerous, with a close coat. — An unsatisfactory 
genus, of two very diverse types, perhaps better received as distinct 
genera ; but the Lilliophragtna species are very closely analogous to 
typical Saxifraga: the typical Tellima is as near to the older genus 
MUella, to which, at the first, it was referred. 
* Corolla regular, the petals green, sessile by a broad base, lacinialely 
pinnalifid; styles and placentse 2. — Tellima proper. 

1. T. graudUlora, Dougl. Bot. Reg. t. 1178 (1828) ; Pursh, Fl. i. 314 
(1814), under MUella. Stoutish, 1 — 2 ft. high, from rather coarse tufted 
rootstocks ; herbage rough-hirsute : leaves round-cordate, more or less 
lobed, 2 — 4 in. broad : calyx 3^ — % in. long, inflated-campanulate : 
seeds light brown, oval, strongly rugose-pitted. — Wooded hills, or some- 
times in open ground, from Santa Cruz northward. May, June. 

* * Corolla slightly irregular, the petals while or pinkish, entire or 

lobed or toothed, shorl-ung wiculale ; styles and placentas 3. — 

Genus Lithophragma, Nutt. 

-h- Calyx turbinate, the tube more or less coherent uyith the ovary. 

2. T. attiuis, Boland. Catal. 11 (1870) ; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 534 
(1865), under Lithophragma. Stems one or several from a slender hori- 
zontal or ascending tuberiferous rootstock, commonly }^ ft. high, 
scabrous-hirsute : radical leaves very few, round-reniform, slightly 
lobed, 1 in. broad ; cauliue relatively broader, 3-lobed to the middle, the 
lobes coarsely toothed : calyx 1% lines long ; pedicels rather longer : 
lower (3) petals 4 or 5 lines long, 3-toothed, the upper (2) narrower and 
a trifle shorter, entire : styles short, not exserted from the calyx : seeds 
oblong, dark browrr, faintly striate-pitted or almost smooth. — Frequent 
on shady hillsides almost throughout the State. — Apr. — June. 

3. T. Cymbalaria, Walp. Rep. ii. 372 (1843) ; T. & G. Fl. i. 5,85 (1840), 
under Lithophragma. Stems very slender, almost filiform, 1 ft. high or 
less ; radical leaves % in. broad or less, 3-lobed, the lobes rounded, 
entire ; cal^line usually only an opposite pair, 3-parted : fl. very few, on 
filiform pedicels thrice the length of the calyx : calyx-lobes broad and 
short : petals spatulate-obovate, entire, the 2 upper smaller, with shorter 
and broader blade and more pronounced claw. — An apparently rare 
species of the South (Santa Barbara, etc.) ; the fruit not known. 

4. T. teuella, Walp. Rep. ii. 371 (1843) ; Nutt. T. & G. Fl. i. 584 (1840), 
under Lilhophragtna. Slender, 2—10 in. high, purple, roughish with a 
minute glandular pubescence : lower leaves parted into 3 — 5 cuneiform 
toothed lobes, }o in. broad, the cauliue few, smaller, all the axils bearing 
minute granular bulblets : pedicels few, ascending, as long as the 
obconical calyx : petals large, pinkish, 3 — 5-parted into linear divisions. — 
In the Sierra Nevada from Donner Lake northward. June. 

■i- -I— Calyx campanulate, with truncate or rounded base nearly or 
quite free from the ovary. 



SAXIFRAGE. E. 193 

5. T. scabrella, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 162 (1891). Slender, closely 
glandular-scabrous, 1 ft. high : leaves small ; lowest round-reuiform and 
3 — 5-lobed, or 3-cleft or -parted, in age bearing each a rather large purple 
bulblet in the axil ; cauline 3 or 4, alternate, deeply 3-cleft or -parted : 
pedicels nearly or quite equalling or even exceeding the calyx ; this 
with a rounded and obtuse base : petals entire ; the 2 upper oblong, 
obtuse, shorter and broader than the others, all with exserted slender 
claws : capsule very short, included ; styles manifest, glabrous : seeds 
murieulate. — In dry ravines among the pine forests of the higher moun- 
tains of Kern Co. ; also at the Marysville Buttes, Jepson. Equally related 
to T. cyinbalana and heieruphyUa. June. 

6. T. heterophylla, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 346 (1840) ; T. & G. Fl. i. 
584, under Lilhopluagma. Slender, 1 ft. high, scabrous-hirsute : lowest 
leaves :'^4 — 1 in. broad, with 5 shallow rounded lobes : cauline more 
deeply 3-lobed or -parted : pedicels very short, the broad truncate-based 
calyx appearing almost sessile : petals (at least the lower 3) obtusely 3- 
lobed : styles glabrous : seeds murieulate.— Common in the Coast Kange. 

7. T. Bolanderi, Boland. Catal. 11 (1870) ; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 
535 (1865), under Liihophragma. Near the last but larger, often 2 ft. 
high, more hirsute : radical leaves 1% — 2% in. broad ; cauline more 
divided : petals 3—4 lines long, obovate or oval, the upper entire, the 
lower often with a lateral tooth on each side : seeds muricate-scabrous. — 
Southern slope of Mt. Diablo, Brewer, and Mendocino Co., Bolander; a 
somewhat obscure species, easily confounded with the preceding. 

6. TIARELLA, Linnxus. Perennial herbs with siinple or 3-foliolate 
alternate more or less distinctly stipulate leaves, and a terminal panicle 
or raceme of small white flowers. Calyx 5-parted, the lobes valvate. 
Petals 5, entire, unguiculate. Stamens 10, inserted with the petals into 
the base of the calyx ; anthers with 2 parallel cells. Ovary 1-celled, 
compressed, the two valves early separating and becoming unequal, one 
becoming lanceolate-elongated, the other remaining short. Seeds few at 
the base of each placenta. 

1. T. nnifoliata. Hook. Fl. i. 238. t. 81 (1840). Pubescent, the flowering 
stems 6 — 15 in. high : leaves thin, ovate-cordate, rounded or triangular, 
3 — 5-lobed, the lobes crenate-toothed ; the radical ones long-petioled ; 
the cauline few, small, short-petioled : panicle narrow and raceme-like : 
petfils small and almost filiform.— From San Mateo Co., Kellogg, north- 
ward, in shady mountain woods. 

7. MITELLA, Touruefort (Mitre-woet). Small perennials with 
slender rootstocks, radical leaves, and scapose stem with a simple raceme 
of small usually green flowers. Calyx short ; the broad tube coherent 



194 SAXIFKAGE.E. 

with the base of the ovary and dilated above it ; lobes valvate in bud, 
spreading in flower. Petals 5, inserted on the dilated throat of the calyx, 
pinnately i)arted or palmately 3-cleft, their divii^ions, in the first group, 
almost capillary. Stamens 10 or 5, very short ; anthers cordate or reni- 
form, 2-celled. Ovary short and broad ; becoming a globular or depressed 
capsule opening across the summit. 

* Petals green, pinnately parted, 

1. .M. Breweri, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 533 (1865). Leaves short- 
petioled, 2 — 3 in. broad, round-reniform, doubly and incisely crenate : 
scape naked, a span high : calyx s^jreading, the limb with very shallow 
lobes, or merely 5-undulate : stamens 5, alternate with the pectinate- 
pinnatifid petals. — Forests of the middle and higher Sierra, from Mari- 
posa Co. northward. 

2. M. ovalis, Greene, Pittonia, i. 32 (1887). Leaves thickish, 2 in. 
long, oval or oblong, obtuse, cordate at base, with closed sinus, the mar- 
gin with shallow crenate lobes and mucronulate teeth ; upper face 
sparsely hirsute with curved hairs ; petioles ferruginous-hirsute with 
deflexed hairs : scape 1 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so ; pedicels very 
short : calyx-lobes short and broad : petals pinnately parted into 3 — 5 
linear lobes : stamens 5. — Mendocino Co., Bolander. This, the M. tri- 
fida of the "Botany of California," is very distinct from the plant of 
Graham ; for that has deep calyx-lobes and trifid white petals. 

* * Petals white, pahnately trifid. 

3. M. (liversifolia, Greene, 1. c. Leaves thin, ovate or orbicular in 
general outline, but with 3 or 5 shallow angular lobes, these entire, and 
the whole margin ciliolate : scape 1 ft. high : calyx-lobes small, shallow, 
whitish : petals white, cuneate-oblanceolate, palmately trifid at the 
abruptly widened apex : stamens 5. — Summit of Trinity Mountains, near 
lingering snow-drifts, July, 1886, C. C. Marshall. 

8. HEUCHERA, Linmeus (A-lvm-root). Perennial herbs, with leaves 
and flowering stems from a short branching caudex, the former long- 
petioled, palmately veined, roundish cordate, slightly lobed. Stems 
somewhat scapiform, bearing few alternate reduced leaves and a panicle 
or thyrse of cymose-dichotomous clusters of white or greenish or rose- 
colored flowers. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, the tube cohei'ent with the 
ovary below ; lobes obtuse, imbricate in bud. Petals 5, small, entire. 
Stamens 5, alternate with the petals ; anthers 2-celled. Capsule 1-celled, 
with 2 parietal placentae ; 2-beaked, dehiscent between the beaks. Seeds 
horizontal, oval, muriculate or hispidulous. 

1. H. rubescens, Torr. Stansb. Rep. 388. t. 5 (1853). Leaves thickish, 
1 in. broad or less, crenately lobed and toothed : scape 6 ^10 in. high, 



SAXIFRAGE.E. 195 

nearly leafless and almost glabrous : fl. loosely panicled ; calyx 2 lines 
long, oblong-campanulate, tinged with rose-color ; linear petals and fili- 
form filaments white or pinkish. — At higher altitudes in the Sierra, 
thence eastward. July — Oct. 

2. H. iiiicrantha, Dougl.; Lindl. Bot. Reg. xv. t. 1302 (1830). Leaves 
thin, 13 in. broad, ovate-cordate, 5— 9-lobed, hairy on the veins beneath : 
stem villous, bearing a few small leaves and a loose panicle often 1^2 ft. 
long : calyx campanulate, 1—2 lines long, acute at base, shorter than the 
slender pedicels, puberulent : narrowly spatulate petals and slender 
filaments white, well exserted. — Common in shady ravines both of the 
Coast Eange and the Sierra. May — July. 

3. H. pilosissima, F. & M. Ind. Sem. Petr. v. 36 (1838) : H. hirliflora, 
T. & G. Fl. i. 582 (184:0). Hirsute with rusty and viscid spreading hairs : 
leaves 1 — 3 in. broad, round-cordate, obtusely lobed and crenate : stem 
1 — ^% ft. high, naked or few-leaved, rather densely and thyrsoidly 
paniculate : calyx densely hairy, subglobose, the tube rounded, the lobes 
incurved : filaments and narrowly spatulate petals little exserted. Var. 
Hartwes"i? Wats. Stems 2—3 ft. high : panicle more open ; the whole 
plant, and especially the calyx, less hairy. — In the Coast Eange, and 
apparently not common ; at all events seldom seen. 

9. PARXASSIA, Tonrnefori (Geass-of-Parnasstts). Glabrous stem- 
less perennials, with entire petioled exstipulate leaves and simple 1- 
flowered scapes. Calyx 5-parted ; the base free from or adnate to the 
base of the ovary, somewhat imbricate in biid. Petals 5, oval or oblong, 
imbricate in bud, white, with conspicuous green veins, widely expanding, 
tardily deciduous. Stamens 5, alternating with the petals, and with as 
many clusters of short gland-tipped sterile filaments. Ovary ovate, 
1-celled, with 3 or 4 parietal placentae ; stigmas as many, closely sessile 
each directly over its corresponding placenta. Capsule 3— 4-valved from 
the apex, the valves placentiferous in the middle. Seeds with a thickish 
and somewhat winged loose testa, and little or no albumen. 

1. P. Califoruica, Greene, Pitt. ii. 102 (1890) : P. palustiu, var. Cali- 
foriiica, Gray, in Bot. Calif, i. 202 (1876). Radical leaves ovate or ovate- 
oblong, 1—2 in. long, tapering from the broad and sometimes slightly 
rounded base to a long or short petiole : scapes 1 — 2 ft. high, the very 
small sessile but not clasping leaf borne much above the middle : petals 
oval or obovate, sessile, entire, % in. long : sterile filaments about 20 
in each set, united to the middle, each tipped with a conspicuous antheroid 
protuberance. — In wet places at considerable elevations in the Sierra. 
P. palustns is not likely to occur within our limits. It is very distinct 
from the present species by its cordate radical leaves, and by that of the 
scape being also large, cordate-clasping and inserted low, near the 
radical ones. 



196 SAXIFEAGE^. 

2. P. flmbriata, Banks; Sims & Keen. Ann. Bot. i. 391 (1805). 
Leaves and scapes from thick branching rootstocks : leaves from reni- 
form to cordate-ovate, 1 in. broad : scapes 1 ft. high, slender, bearing a 
sessile leaf above the middle : petals obovate or oblong, narrowed to a 
broad claw which is coarsely fringed on both margins : sterile filaments 
completely united and forming a merely lobed carinate scale, or some- 
times free above. — Has been found near Mt. Shasta, and also in the San 
Bernardino Mountains : hence to be expected in the high Sierra within 
our limits. 

10. CHRYSOSPLENIUM, Tournefort. Low fleshy glabrous herbs, 
with petiolate crenate exstipulate leaves, and small axillary short-pedi- 
celled greenish flowers. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary ; lobes 4 or 5, 
obtuse. Petals 0. Stamens 8 — 10, very short, on the margin of a disk. 
Ovary 1-celled, 2-lobed above ; styles 2, short, recurved. Capsule com- 
pressed, obcordate, 2-valved at top, with 2 parietal placentae, go -seeded. 

1. C. §rleelioinaefoliuiii, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 589 (1840). Stems slen- 
der, depressed or ascending, rooting at the lower joints : leaves opposite, 
or the upper alternate, roundish or ovate, abruptly cuneate at base 
crenately dentate, 2—6 lines long, about equalling the petioles : fl. 1 — l}^, 
lines long, exceeding the pedicels : seeds large for the plant, ovate, 
In-own, shining. — In wet soil, Humboldt Co., Marshall, and northward. 

11. RIBES, Fuchs. Shrubs, with alternate palmately lobed often 
resinous-glandular or viscid leaves ; the stipules when present adnate to 
the petiole. Flowers racemose (rarely solitary) on short leafy shoots 
from lateral buds ; pedicels subtended by a bract and usually bibracteo- 
late about midway. Calyx-tube adnate to the globose ovary and more or 
less produced above it, 5-lobed (4-lobed in n. 21), the lobes commonly 
spreading or reflexed and usually colored. Petals 5, mostly smaller 
than the calyx-lobes, inserted in or near the sinuses. Stamens as many 
as the petals, alternate with them ; anthers short. Ovary 1-celled ; 
placentae 2, parietal ; styles 2, more or less united ; stigmas terminal. 
Fruit a berry, crowned with the withered remains of the flower. Seeds 
with minute embryo in a firm albumen. 

* Unarmed; leaves convolute in bud; calyx-tube narrow and elongated. — 
Genus Cheysobotrya, Spach. 

1. R. teimillorum, Liudl. Bot. Eeg. 1. 1274 (1829) ; Greene, Gard. and 
Forest, iii. 198. Chrysobolrya Lindleyana, Spach, Phaner. vi. 151 (1838). 
Shrub 5—10 ft. high, nearly glabrous, glandless : leaves light green, 
3 — 5-lobed at apex, not at all cordate : racemes oo -flowered ; bracts green 
and conspicuous : fl. bright yellow, scentless ; calyx salverform, the tube 
}^ in. long or more, thrice longer than the oval lobes : berry glabrous, 
amber-colored and translucent, acidulous when ripe. — In both the Coast 



SAXIFRAGES. 197 

Ranjje and tlie Sierra, but chiefly northward ; apparently uncommon 
within our limits ; on the Salinas, Klee. Called R. aureum in the " Botany 
of California ; " but that has spicy-fragrant flowers, a purple opaque 
sweetish fruit, and is not found on the Pacific Coast. 

* * Unaruied; leaces plailed in ilu bud; calyx-iube broader. — 
EiBES proper (Currant). 

2. R. bracteosuiii, Dougl.; Hook. Fl. i. 233 (1833). Shrub 4—10 ft. 
high ; branches glabrous : leaves 3 — 9 in. broad, 5— 7-cleft, glabrous, at 
least in age, but resinous-dotted ; lobes ovate or narrower, acute or 
acuminate, coarsely and doubly serrate ; petioles long : raceme go - 
flowered, 3 — 6 in. or at length 1 ft. long ; bracts persistent, from filiform 
to spatulate, or the lower larger and passing into leaves : fl. greenish- 
white ; calyx-tube saucer-shaped, the lobes roundish : berry black, 
resinous-dotted, I3 in. in diameter. — Woods of Mendocino Co., Bolander, 
thence northward to Alaska. 

3. R. cereniii, Dougl.; Bot. Eeg. t. 1263(1829). Shrub 1—3 ft. high, 
with many short stout branches, minutely pubescent, resinous-dotted 
and glutinous : leaves 1 in. broad, rounded or reniform, rather obscurely 
3-lobed, crenately toothed or incised : racemes compact, short-peduncled, 
3 — 5-flowered : calyx white, often with a greenish or pinkish tinge ; 
tube cylindrical, Jg in. long ; lobes short, ovate, recurved : petals orbicu- 
lar : berry scarlet, translucent, the pulp very firm, sweet, but with a 
disagreeable resinous flavor. — The commonest species of the Rocky 
Mountain region, reaching the eastern, and even the western slope of the 
Sierra Ne^^ada within our borders ; rather ornamental, whether in flower 
or fruit, but the fruit of no value. 

4. R. viscosissimum, Pursh, Fl. i. 163 (1814) ; Hook. Fl. t. 76. Shrub 
2 — 6 ft. high, with straggling branches and smooth dark brown bark : 
leaves thin, 1 — 4 in. broad, round-cordate, moderately lobed, both faces 
and the petioles clothed with glandular-viscid hairs ; stipules foliaceous 
racemes ascending, somewhat corymbose : fl. large, greenish-white 
calyx-tube campanulate, the oblong-ovate lobes scarcely spreading 
petals white, smaller than the calyx-lobes : berry oblong, ^g in. long, 
black, glandular-hirsute. — Forests of the higher Sierra, in dry rocky 
places, as far south as Mariposa Co., but more common northward. 

5. R. saiig^nineniii, Pursh, 1. c. 164 (1814); Smith, Eees Cycl. xxx. 
(1815) ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1349. Shrub 4—8 ft. high ; young branches 
dull-red and densely soft-puberulent : leaves cordate, 3— 5-lobed, thick - 
ish, 2 — 3 in. broad, very soft-tomentulose on both faces ; the ascending 
petioles 2 in. long, gradually dilated and very coarsely ciliate at base : 
racemes short-peduncled, ascending, 00 -flowered, dense : calyx not brac- 
teolate at base, campanulate-funnelform, 6 lines long, deep rose-red. 



198 SAXIFRAGE .E. 

cleft below the middle : petals white, spatulate-oblong', shorter than the 
calyx-lobes : berry small, oval, blue with a heavy bloom ; pulp firm, 
black, insipid. — From Del Norte Co. and perhaps Humboldt, northward 
to British Columbia ; perhaps not within our limits ; replaced in middle 
California by the three following closely related species, or subspecies. 

6. R. g-latiuosum, Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. i. 476 (1835) ; Walp. Rep. 
ii. 360 : R. sanguineum, var. gbuinosum, Gray, Bot. Calif, i. 207 (1876). 
Near the last but larger, 6—1 5 ft. high; the bark of young branches 
pale and shining, sparsely scabro-puberulent : leaves thin, 3 — 5 in, 
broad, glutinous when young, glabrous or more or less pubescent in age; 
petioles divaricate, very abruptly dilated at base and obscurely ciliolate : 
racemes long-peduncled, pendulous, very many-flowered : calyx with two 
conspicuous but caducous bracteoles at base, cleft scarcely to the middle, 
from pale pink to rose-color : berry large, globose, blue with a dense 
bloom, and glandular-hispid ; pulp black, dry, insipid. — Common on 
moist banks of streams, and around springy places, at low altitudes in 
the Coast and Mt. Diablo Ranges, chiefly or exclusively in the middle 
section of the State, not in the Sierra. Too unlike R. sanguineum to be 
a mere variety of it ; yet hardly more than a geographical subspecies, 
and remarkable, as a currant, for the long interval between the flowering 
of the shrub and the ripening of its fruit. In flower from January (or 
even Dec.) to March. Fruit not ripe until August or September. They 
who have described the berries of these shrubs as " bitter " must have 
made their test before it had become mature. No fruits can be more 
absolutely tasteless when ripe. 

7. R. malvaceum, Smith, Rees Cycl. xxx, (1815) : R. hibulosum, Esch. 
Mem. Acad. Petersb. x. 283 (1826). R. sanguineum, var. malvaceum, Gray, 
1. c. Shrub low and compact, 3 — 6 ft. high ; growing branches canes- . 
cently tomentulose, glabrous and red when mature : leaves thick, 1 — 2 
in. broad, strongly rugulose and somewhat scabrous above, more or less 
densely white-tomentose beneath ; the slight stipular dilatation of the 
petiole only obscurely ciliolate : racemes short-peduncled, ascending, 
dense ; pedicels and ovaries whitish-tomentose : calyx-tube subcylindri- 
cal, abruptly dilated and broadest just above the ovary ; segments short, 
spreading, the whole rose-color : petals white, roundish or subreniform : 
berry oval, I3 in. long, purple, glaucous ; pulp soft and sweet. — On dry 
open hills of the Coast Range, from Bolinas Ridge, Drew, southward ; 
very common in San Mateo Co., and Monterey ; occasional in Contra 
Costa and Alameda, Species exceedingly well marked in habit, foliage, 
flower and fruit. Fl. Mar. Apr. Fr. Apr. May. 

8. R. Nevadense, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 63 (1855) : R. malva- 
ceum, Kell. 1. c. 46, not of Smith : R. sanguineum, var. vanegalum, Wats, 
partly. Rather slender, loosely branching, 3—6 ft. high : bark of young 



SAXIFRAGE iE. 199 

branches shining, glabrous, of the older flaky and deciduous : leaves 
2 -4 in. broad, very thin, not rugulose, bright green and glabrous above, 
paler beneath with a sparse tomentulose pubescence ; stipular base of 
petiole clothed with very long coarse hairs each of which is sparsely 
pilose : racemes short and dense (1 in. long), pendulous on slender 
petioles of 2 in. or more : A. small, rose-red : calyx-tube urceolate, 
broadest just above the ovary, only Ifg lines long, the spreading segments 
as long or longer : berry small, globose, black, densely glaucous ; pulp 
soft, very sweet. — At middle elevations in the Sierra Nevada, in open 
groves of Sequoia, from Kern Co., Palmer & Wright (n. 101), and the 
Calaveras Big Trees, Greene, to Placer Co. A most distinct species, of 
peculiar habitat ; the foliage thinner and more nearly glabrous than 
that of E. glalinosuin, which is its analogue of the Coast Range. In all 
three of the last preceding the bark of the stem and older branches is 
close, smooth, dark brown and white-dotted, like that of young birches. 
In the present species it is flaky and deciduous. Doubtless the R. Woljii 
of regions east of the Sierra, in Nevada and Colorado, is another member 
of this group of American Black Currants. 

* * * Thorny; leaves plaited in the bud; Ji. few in the clvMer, or 
solita ry. — Gooseberry. 

•)— Fl. 5-nieruus; calyx-lobes reJle.red.—Qeims Geossularia, Philip Miller. 

9. R. lacustre, Poir. Suppl. ii. 856 (1811), var. moUe, Gray, Bot. 

Calif, i. 206. Shrub small and depressed, the spreading branches 3^^— 2 
ft. long, bristly or naked, armed with short triple or multiple thorns 
under the leaf-fascicles : leaves }{ — 1 in. broad, deeply 5-parted, the 
lobes incisely toothed and cleft, pubescent : racemes 3 — 9-flowered : fl. 
greenish- white ; calyx saucer-shaped, }4- i^- broad, its short lobes 
rounded ; petals small ; stamens very short : berry globose, red, ^{ in. 
thick, more or less glandular-hispid ; pulp juicy, acidulous. — At rather 
high altitudes of the Sierra, in rocky shades ; quite intermediate between 
Currant and Gooseberry. 

10. R, oxyacaiithoides, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 201 (1753). Mostly glabrous, 
2 — 4 ft. high ; thorns small, single or triple : leaves roundish, deeply 
5-lobed ; lobes incised and coarsely toothed : peduncles mostly shorter 
than the pedicels of the 2 or 3 flowers : fl. greenish-white, 3 — 4 lines long ; 
calyx-lobes oblong, equalling the campauulate tnbe, little exceeding the 
cuneate-obovate petals, about equalling the stamens ; style cleft, villous 
below, longer than the stamens : berry of middle size, glabrous, black, 
pleasant. — This widely distributed species occurs within our limits only 
toward the higher parts of the Sierra, and chiefly on the eastward slope. 

11. R. divaricatum, Dougl. Trans. Hort. Soc. vii. 515 (1830) ; Bot. 
Reg. t. 1359 : R. rillusum, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 547 (1840). Nearly gla- 



200 SAXIFRAGES. 

brous : stems clustered, the widely spreading branches 5—12 ft. long ; 
thorns single or triple : leaves roundish, 3— 5-lobed ; the lobes incisely 
toothed : peduncles elongated, slender, drooping, 3— 9-flowered ; pedi- 
cels with a small broad bract at base : fl. ^3 in. long ; calyx green without, 
dark livid purple within, the oblong-linear lobes exceeding the campanu- 
late tube ; petals white, fan-shaped, plane, the margins convolutely 
overlapping : filiform villous filaments and deeply cleft style long- 
exserted : berry small, glabrous, black, agreeable. — Along streams and 
on northward slopes throughout the Coast Range, from Santa Barbara 
northward. Our description is drawn from the Californian shrub, which 
differs not a little from the Oregonian type of Douglas' species, and is 
the R. villosum of Nuttall— possibly a subspecies. Fl. March. Fr. June. 

12. R. leptaiithiim, Gray, PI. Fendl. 53 (1859). Shrub 3—4 ft. high, 
glabrous, not bristly ; subaxillary spines usually solitary : leaves about 
I3 in. broad, 5-cleft, the lobes incised : peduncles short, deflexed, 1 — 3- 
flowered : fi. white, ^4, in. long ; calyx with slender cylindrical tube and 
spathulate lobes of about equal length ; petals short ; stamens exserted ; 
style glabrous, undivided : berry small, black, unarmed, glabrous.— 
Common in New Mexico ; thence westward to the eastern Sierra Nevada. 

13. R. Telutinum, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 83 (1885) : R. leplan- 
thum, var. brachyanihum, Gray, Bot. Calif, i. 205. Stout and rigid, 4—6 
ft. high, with strongly recurved branches, these not prickly, but with 
solitary stout axillary thorns : leaves very small, deeply 5-cleft, the lobes 
3-cleft, these and the growing branchlets densely velvety-pubescent or 
almost glabrous : peduncles short, deflexed, 2-flowered : fl. white or 
pinkish, velvety on the outside ; calyx-tube campanulate, as broad as 
long (2 lines), the segments rather longer : ovary white-villous or almost 
glabrous : berry small, black, velvety-pubescent or glabrate.— Common 
in the more arid mountain districts, chiefly eastward and northward, 
beyond our limits ; but also at Tehachapi, Kern Co. Variable in respect 
to pubescence ; but well marked in floral character and general habit. 

14. R. quercetoram, Greene, 1. c. (1885). The many rigid recurved 
glabrous branches forming a very compact bush 3—5 ft. high and of 
equal diameter ; very leafy and wholly glabrous : the subaxillary spine 
solitary : leaves small, 5-cleft, the lobes narrow, cuneiform, 3-lobed at 
summit ; petioles slender, 1 in. long ; peduncles slender, short, deflexed, 
2— 4-flowered : fl. light yellow, very fragrant : calyx-tube cylindraceous, 
2 lines long, about equalled by the linear-oblong reflexed segments, these 
a little longer than the petals ; stamens very short and included ; style 
glabrous, undivided ; ovary glabrous : berry large {% in. thick), globose, 
glabrous, dark red, pulpy and agreeable.— Very common about El Paso 
de Robles, and in the interior valleys and low hills of Monterey and San 
Luis Obispo counties. Fl. March. Fr. May. 



SAXIFRAGES. 201 

15. R. ambi^uum, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 193 (1883). Glandu- 
lar-pubescent and villous ; subaxillary spines short : leaves 1-2 in. 
broad, 5-lobed and incised : fl. mostly solitary, J3 in. long or less, greenish, 
more or less villous : stamens equalling or barely exceeding the white 
petals ; anthers very small, light-colored, glabrous, obtuse at both ends : 
fr. large, densely spinose. — Ou the Scott Mountains and northward ; but 
doubtless to be found within our limits. 

16. R. Marshallii, Greene, Pittonia, i. 31 (1887). Near the last, but 
glabrous : fl. 1 in. long ; calyx-segments oblong- linear, spreading or 
retlexed, equalling or exceeding the tube, dark-purple ; petals 2 — 3 lines 
long, salmon-color, rather thin, manifestly involute ; filaments slender, 
exserted ; anthers oblong, obtuse at both ends, glabrous ; ovary bristly. — 
Summit of Trinity Mountains, near lingering snow-drifts, July, 1886 ; in 
flower only. Possibly a glabrous and large-flowered state of the preceding. 

17. R. Victoris, Greene, Pittonia, i. 224 (1888). Shrub 5 ft. high : 
branches commonly very prickly ; subaxillary spines triple, rather 
slender : leaves (not very deeply 5-lobed) and growing branchlets pubes- 
cent and viscid : pedicels short, deflexed, with 1 or 2 persistent bracts 
and as many short-pedicellate greenish flowers }4, ^- loQg : calyx-tube 
short-campanulate, much exceeded by the green (occasionally livid- 
purplish) lobes ; petals 1)^ lines long, white, thinnish, involute, ac^^te 
and more or less toothed at apex ; filaments stoutish, little surpassing 
the petals ; anthers large, subsagittate, mucronate ; ovary glandular- 
hispid. — By streams in the Coast Range, but not common ; at Lagunitas, 
in Marin Co., Chesnut & Drew; Rutherford Canon, and near Calistoga, 
Parry. Possibly identical with R. occidentale, H. & A., a shrub which 
can not be identified by the very inadequate diagnosis given in the 
Botany of Beechey's Voyage. 

18. R. Californicum, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 346 (1840). Shrub 2-4 ft. 
high, with very rigid and flexuous glabrous branches : subaxillary spines 
ternate, short, stoutish : leaves small, 3 — 5-lobed and incised, sparsely 
glandular-puberulent when young, not at all viscid or heavy-scented, in 

''matiirity glabrous : peduncles very short, 1 — 3-flowered ; the very short 
pedicels each with a small round-ovate bract beneath : calyx-tube very 
short, the reflexed lurid-purple ligulate segments thrice as long ; petals 
white, thick, strongly involute, truncate and erose-toothed at summit ; 
filaments stou.t, thrice the length of the petals, the anthers ovate-oblong, 
mucronate, reddish ; style simple ; ovary glandular-hispid : berry large, 
prickly. — One of a goodly number of very clear species which herbarium 
writers have confused with R. Menziesii. This is very common, on open 
slopes and along streams in the Oakland Hills ; remarkable for its very 
early flowering, its short-jointed zigzag branches, small glabrous scentless 
foliage, etc. One can hardly be positive that it is the plant of Hooker Ar 



202 SAXIFRAGES. 

Arnot ; neither can one have much doubt. The description, as far as it 
goes, applies well. Fl. Feb., Mar. Fr. June. 

19. R. subvestitum, H. & A. 1. c. (1840) : Tall leafy open and rather 
handsome shrub 5 — 10 ft. high ; branches usually more or less setose- 
hispid ; subaxillary spines 3 or 4, rather slender : leaves more or less 
glandular-pubescent, very viscid and heavy-scented : peduncles 1 — 3- 
flowered ; pedicels elongated, the small bract persistent : calyx-tube 
broadly campanulate, Ijo lines long, the red-purple refiexed segments 
nearly twice as long : petals white-waxy, truncate, entire, strongly invo- 
lute ; filaments well-exserted : ovary densely glandular-hairy : berry 
large, as densely clothed with short stiff gland-tipped hairs ; pulp soft, 
sweet. — Very common in the Coast Ranges from at least Sonoma Co. to 
Monterey ; perhaps a variety of the next, but the differences constant, 
the flower very handsome. Mar. Apr. 

20. R. Meuziesii, Pursh, Fl. ii. 732 (1814) ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. xxxiii. t. 
56 : R. ferox, Smith, Rees Oycl. xxix. (1815). Size and habit of the last ; 
branches strongly hispid, or varying to glabrous : leaves more than 1 in. 
broad and of greater length than breadth, deeply 3-cleft, the lobes 
coarsely incised, usually soft-pubescent beneath, seldom or never viscid: 
peduncles slender, pendulous, 1 — 2-pedicellate above the middle, the 
bracts small, persistent : fl. ^ in. long ; calyx of a rich red-purple, 
pubescent exteriorly, the tubular-funnelform tube about half as long as 
the ligulate reflexed segments : petals large, thickish, truncate, involute, 
cream-color or whitish : filaments subulate, not exserted, only the large 
linear-oblong mucronate white anthers borne beyond the petals : ovary 
densely echinate : fruit very prickly ; pulp not ill-flavored. — From Hum- 
boldt Co. to Santa Barbara, but in the Bay region seldom met with out- 
side of Marin Co.; perhaps confluent with the preceding, though the 
typical forms of the two appear abundantly distinct. 

21. R. amictuiu, Greene, Pittonia, i. 69 (1887) : R. Menziesii, V. & R. 
Contr. U. S. Herb. i. 2, not Pursh. Shrub 3—4 ft. high, with rigid 
flexuous widely spreading glabrous or merely pubescent branches ; sub- 
axillary spines triple, short and stoutish : leaves small (less than 1 in.)o 
glabrous or pruinose-pubescent, 3 — 5-lobed, often broader than long : 
peduncles 1 — 2- flowered ; pedicels not at first apparent, the base of the 
flower enclosed by the large cucullate and more or less caducous bract : 
calyx dark crimson or red-purple, 34 — % in. long ; tube nearly cylindrical, 
about equalled by the segments : filaments subulate, little exceeding the 
truncate erose-dentate involute white petals ; anthers ovate-oblong, 
mucronate, rose- or deep-red ; ovary echinate ; berry large {}4 in- or 
more), usually strongly armed with stout prickles ; pulp agreeable. — 
Very common from Oregon to Kern Co. Calif., but apparently only in 
the mountains at some distance inland ; abundant at middle elevations 



PHILADELPHE^. 203 

of the Sierra everywhere ; formerly confused with R. Menziesii, from 
which it is very distinct. Owing to its inland habitat it was not obtained 
by the early explorers of the coast. Its large elongated dark red flowers, 
conspicuous cucullate bracts, and very large fruits, mark it as an excel- 
lent species, notwithstanding its great variability in respect to pubescence ; 
for while some specimens are almost hoary, even to the calyx, others are 
wholly glabrous. But the branches appear to be always destitute of the 
bristly hairs or soft prickles which, in other allied species are almost 
invariably present. The large well-flavored reddish fruits are rarely 
almost free from the prickles ; while in the more tomentulose forms the 
prickles themselves, as well as the surface of the fruit, are sparsely 
villous-hairy. In the shrub of our southern foothill regions, the bracts 
appear to be persistent, the pedicels elongating after flowering, 
-t— -i- Fl. 4-inerous; calyx-lohes erect. — Genus Egbsgnia, Berlandier. 

22. R. speciosnm, Pursh, Fl. ii. 732 (1814) ; Bot. Eeg. t. 1557 : R. 
stamineum, Smith, Eees Cycl. (1815) : R. fuchsioides, Berl. Mem. Soc. 
Genev. (1828). Robsonia speciosa, Spach, Phaner. vi. 181 (1838). Shrub 
6 — 10 ft. high, with long leafy red-bristly branches : subaxillary spines 
3, united at base : leaves subcoriaceous, dark green, very smooth and 
shining above, rounded and 3-lobed ; lobes short, crenately-toothed : 
peduncles pendulous, 2 — 5-flowered : fl. bright red, often 2 in. long from 
the base of the ovary to the tips of the long-exserted stamens ; calyx 
cylindraceous, the 4 (rarely 5) lobes erect ; anthers oval, small ; ovary 
bristly : berry small, rather dry, densely prickly. — The most beautiful 
species of the genus, and the only one in our flora which is evergreen ; 
frequent along the seaboard from Monterey southward. Mar. — May. 



Oedeb XXIX. PHILADELPHE/E. 

Don ; Edinb. Phil. Journ. 133 (1826). Part of Myrlacex, Juss. (1789). 

Shrubs or undershrubs, with opposite exstipulate toothed leaves, and 
cymose-paniculate or axillary and solitary white flowers. Calyx with 
turbinate tube adherent to the ovary ; the 4— 6-parted limb valvate in the 
bud. Petals as many as the calyx-lobes, alternate with them, convolute 
or imbricate in bud. Stamens 8 — oo in 1 or 2 series. Styles and stigmas 
several, the former, and sometimes the latter more or less coalescent. 
Fruit capsular, 4 — 10-celled, loculicidally or septicidally dehiscent. Seeds 
numerous, on axial placentae, mostly pendulous, elongated ; testa thin ; 
albumen fleshy. 

1. PHILIDELPHUS, Ruppius (Mook-Oeange. Syringo). Leaves 
ovate or oblong, short-petioled. Flowers 4-merous (sometimes terminal 
one 5-merous), more or less clustered terminally and in the upijer axils. 



204 PHILADELPHE^. 

sliowy. Petals obovate or roundish, convolute in bud. Stamens 20 — 40 • 
filaments subulate or filiform. Styles 3—5, united at base, or almost to 
the top : stigmas oblong, introrse, sometimes connate. Capsule 3 — 5- 
celled, loculicidally 3 — 5-valved from the apex ; the valves in age 2-parted. 
Seeds very many, pendulous, oblong, the thin loose testa reticulate, 
usually prolonged at both ends. 

1. P. Lemsii, Pursh, var. Californicus, Gray, Bot. Calif, i. 202 : P. 
Californicus, Benth. PI. Hartw. 309 (1849). Shrub 3—6 ft. high, nearly 
or quite glabrous : leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1 — 2 in. long, nearly 
or quite entire : fl. in a pedunculate naked cluster : calyx-lobes about 
twice the length of the tube : styles distinct at apex only ; stigmas 
narrow. — On banks of streams among the foothills of the Sierra from 
Mariposa Co. northward. May, June. 

2. P. GoiMloiiianus, Lindl. Bot. Eeg. xxiv. Misc. 21 (1838), & xxv. t. 32 
(1839). Shrub 8 — 10 ft. high, with spreading or recurved branches, 
sparsely pubescent or almost glabrous : leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, 
2—4 in. long, coarsely and remotely serrate-toothed : fl. in loose axillary 
clusters somewhat leafy at base ; petals ?^ — 1 in. long ; styles distinct to 
the middle ; stigmas more or less dilated ; calyx-lobes twice as long as 
the tube. — In the Coast Range, from Mendocino Co. northward. 

3. P. serpyllifolius, Gray, PI. Wright, i. 77 (1852). Shrub stout, 
rigid, branching, 3—5 ft. high, older branches whitish, striate : leaves 
ovate-oblong, J>^ — 1 in. long, entire, 3-nerved, pale on both faces with a 
minute appressed pubescence : fl. subsessile, solitary or in threes at the 
ends of the short, rigid branchlets, cream-color or white : calyx silky- 
pubescent, the lobes ovate ; style very short ; stigma thick, 4-lobed : 
capsule 4-celled. — White Mountains, Mono Co., Shockley. 

2. CARPENTERIA, Torrey. An evergreen shrub, with elongated 
subcoriaceoiis denticulate leaves, and terminal peduncled cymes of few 
large mostly 6-merous flowers. Calyx 5 — 6-parted, only the very short 
tube adnate to the ovary. Petals rounded, concave, convolute-imbricate. 
Stamens about 200 ; filaments filiform, somewhat distinctly gathered 
into 5 or 6 fascicles. Styles united throughout ; the 5—7 stigmas dis- 
tinct. Capsule 5 — 7-celled, dehiscent septicidally. Seeds nearly as 
in Philadelphus. 

1. C. Califoriiica, Torr. PI Frem. 12. t. 7 (1850) ; Greene, Pitt. i. 66. 
Shrub 4 — 6 ft. high, the many stems forming a dense clump ; bark pale, 
becoming shreddy, nearly glabrous on young shoots : thickish persistent 
leaves broadly lanceolate, remotely denticulate, in age more or less revo- 
lute, 2 — 4 in. long, short-petioled, ■ glabrate above, pale and tomentulose 
beneath : peduncle leafless : corolla nearly rotate, 2—3 in. broad, pure 
white : stamens with small bright yellow anthers : seeds oblong, with 



EPILOBIACE^. 205 

short obtuse appendage at each end. — A rare shrub, scarcely known in 
the wUd state, inhabiting the Sierra Nevada below midway of the State. 
In cultivatiou at Berkeley tioweriug in May, but perfecting no fruit. 

3. ^^' HIVFJjE A, Torrey. Low diffuse hairy undershrub, with slender 
stem, slightly petioled leaves, and terminal naked-peduncled clusters of 
small white Howers. Calyx white like the petals, 5-clett ; tube adnate to 
lower i^art of the ovary. Petals 5, ovate or oblong, narrowed at base. 
Stamens usually 10 ; filaments subulate. Ovary 3 — 5-celled, with a single 
ovule in each cell ; styles distinct ; stigmas introrse. Capsule septicid- 
ally parting into distinct cartilaginous 1-seeded portions which open 
ventrally only. Seeds oblong, with a short obtuse appendage at each end. 

1. W. luodesta, Torr. Pac. E. Rep. iv. 90. t. 7 (1857). Stems slender, 
trailing, 1 ft. long or more : leaves thin, ovate or oval, somewhat toothed 
or entire, 1 in. long or less : peduncle slender, bearing a close few- 
flowered cluster : fl. 2 lines broad or less : calyx-tube nearly hemi- 
spherical : capsule globular ; styles deciduous from it. — Borders of 
thickets, or in deep woods, through the Coast Range from Monterey 
northward. The only species ; though a small Fendlera, — F. Vtalieusis 
(Wats.), Greene — has erroneously been referred to this genus. 



Ordeb XXX. EPILOBIACE/E. 

Ventenat, Tabl. du Reg. Veget. iii. 483 (1799). Onagkari^, Juss. Ann. 
du Mus. iLi. 315 (1804). Onagrx, Adans. (1763). 

Herbs, often with hard shrubby-looking stems shedding a thin papery 
outer bark. Leaves simple, usually alternate, entire, toothed or pinna- 
tifid. Flowers axillary to the leaves, or in merely bracted or naked 
racemes or spikes, rarely panicled ; usually 4-merous. Calyx-tube partly 
or wholly adherent to the ovary ; lobes valvate in bud. Petals borne on 
the throat of the calyx-tube, or at the sinuses of the lobes, convolute in 
bud. Stamens 2 — 8. Styles single ; stigma capitate or 4-lobed ; ovary 
2 or 4-celled. Seeds naked or appendaged ; albumen none. 

Hints of the Ceiiera. 

Free portion of the calyx deciduous from the ovary ; 
Fruit 4-celled, capsular ; 

Seeds comose at apex, --------i, 2 

" not comose. 

Fi. yellow or white, - ... - 3, 4 

" purple or rose-color, ----- 5 — 7 

Fruit indehiscent, ----------- 8, 9 

Calyx-lobes persistent on the ovary, ---------- 10 

1. EPILOBIUM, C. Gesner (Willow-Herb). Tube of calyx little 
prolonged beyond the ovary ; limb deeply 4-cleft, campaniilate or funnel- 



206 EPILOBIACE^. 

form, or 4-parted to the base with the lobes spreading, deciduous. " Petals 
4, spreading' or erect, often emarginate or bifid, purple or white. Stamens 
8, the 4 alternate ones shorter ; anthers elliptical or roundish, fixed near 
the middle. Stigma oblong, clavate, or with 4 spreading or revolute 
lobes. Capsule mostly linear, 4-sided, 4-celled, 4-valved. Seeds numer- 
ous, ascending; the summit bearing a tuft of long white hairs. 

* Perennials (often sloloniferous) or annuals; fl. small, regular; petals 
ascending ; stamens and style erect. — Epilobium proper. 

+- Annuals, iriih terete stems; leaves alternate (except the Imvest). 

1. E. miniitum, Lindl.; Hook. Fl. i. 207 (1833). Diffusely branched 
from the base, the mostly decumbent or ascending branches }4 — 1 ft. long, 
puberulent : leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, entire or repand- 
denticulate, % — i^ in. long : fl. solitary in all the axils, very small : 
petals obcordate, white or with a tinge of rose : 4 long stamens equalling 
the style : stigma clavate, the lobes at length expanded and fimbriate : 
capsule pedicellate, about 1 in. long, more or less crenate : seeds rather 
few, smooth ; the coma very deciduous. — In the Coast Range almost 
throughout the State, on dry hills in the wooded sections. Apr. — June. 

2. E. paniculatnm, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. I 490 (1840). Erect at base, 
slenderly paniculate-branched above, 1 — 10 ft. high, from wholly glabrous 
to minutely and densely glandular-pubescent : leaves narrowly lanceo- 
late or linear, obscurely serrulate, 1 — 2 in. long, with smaller ones 
fascicled in the axils, the floral reduced to subulate bracts : corolla 
cruciform ; the rose-colored petals quadrate-oblong, abruptly and often 
deeply notch&:l, rose-purple and veiny, 1 — 2 lines long, rotate-spreading : 
capsule pedicellate, 1 in. long, attenuate at each end, often arcuate : 
seeds minutely papillose. Var. jvcnndnm, Trel. : E. jucundum, Gray, 
Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 57 (1876). About 2 ft. high, stouter, panicle con- 
densed and thyrsoid : petals }4 — }4 iJi- long, broadly obcordate, only 
ascending (not rotate-spreading). — The type extremely common seaward 
throughout California and far northward as well as eastward ; in the 
Bay region commonly 5 — 6 ft. high, not rarely 10 ft. The variety — or 
subspecies — confined to the interior valley, from near Sacramento, Drew, 
northward to Oregon. July — Nov. 

-H- H— Perennials, often sloloniferous; leaves mostly opposite (except 
the upper and floral ). 

3. E. Frauciscanum, Barbey ; Bot. Calif, i. 220 (1876) ; Trel. N. Am. 
Epil. 90. t. 15. Yery stout, simple, or rather closely paniculate-branched, 
2—4 ft. high, pubescent with soft short glandular hairs : stem reddish, 
subterete, but with delicate sharp angles running down from the leaf- 
bases : only the alternate upper and floral leaves strictly sessile, the 
lowest with a very short but distinct stout petiole, these 2 — 4 in. long, 



ETILOBIACE^. 207 

oblou^-lanceolate, rouuded at base, serrulate : racemes dense, notably 
leafy -bracted, the large red-purple or pale flowers appearing somewhat 
corymbose : petals }>^ in. long or more, deeply emarginate : capsule 2 in. 
long or more : seed obovoid-oblong, acutely pointed at base, the hyaline 
papillpe forming close longitudinal lines. — Plentiful in springy places, 
along streamlets and shores of ponds about San Francisco, at Point 
Lobos, Mountain Lake, etc., thence northward to Oregon and Alaska. 
Flowers large and mostly bright-colored ; the herbage not well described 
as "hoary," in the "Botany of California;" for the delicate pubescence 
seldom if ever imparts a shade of color to the plant. June — Dec. 

4. E. Watsouli, Barbey, 1. c. 219 ; Trel. 1. c. 16. Size of the preced- 
ing, but not stout, the terete stems with less marked lines, somewhat 
hoary with a soft pubescence : leaves oblong-lanceolate, rather obtuse, 
denticulate, rounded to short-winged petioles : fl. not crowded, suberect 
in the axils of the more reduced and acute upper leaves, rose-red ; petals 
elongated-obcordate : seeds more coarsely granulate-striiite. — On Russian 
River, Sonoma Co., and perhaps common along the seaboard northward ; 
also in Solano Co., on Alamo Creek, Jepson. 

5. E. holosericeum, Trel. N. Am. Epil. 91. t. 17 (1891). Loosely 
branched, at least the upper leaves and branches canescent with sub- 
appressed hairs ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtiise or sometimes acute, 
remotely serrulate, attenuate, or abruptly contracted and then cuneately 
narrowed, to short petioles : fl. small, scattered on the elongated branches, 
pale : mature capsules on peduncles equalling the floral leaves : seeds 
short-beaked, very minutely papillose-striate. — Of the southern part of 
the State, coming within our limits in Kern Co., according to the author 
of the species. 

6. E. adeuocanloii, Hausskn. Bot. Zeitsch. 119 (1879), var. occideutale, 
Trel. 1. c. 95: E. coloraturn, Bot. Calif, partly, not Muhl. Tall, with panic- 
ulate ascending branches and long internodes ; branches, inflorescence 
and capsules glandular-pubescent: leaves ovate- or triangular-lanceolate, 
ascending, abruptly rounded to short-winged petioles, prominently 
denticulate, the floral small, acute at both ends : fl. small : capsule 
slender, short-pedicellate : seed elongated, obovoid, very minutely 
striate. — Common in both the Coast Range and the Sierra, by streams 
and about springy places. 

7. E. Californicum, Haiisskn. Monogr. 260 (1884) ; Trel. 1. c. 96. t. 26. 
Tall, slender, more sparingly branched, glabrous below ; pubescence of 
the buds, pods, etc. of coarse ascending, not glandular hairs : leaves 
lanceolate, acutish, rather remotely serrulate, short-petiolate : fl. scat- 
tered : fruiting peduncles slender, almost equalling the floral leaves : 
capsules nearly glabrous : seeds almost beakless. — Apparently along the 
seaboard only, and less common than the last. 



208 EPILOBIACE^. ^ 

8. E. brevistylum, Barbey ; Bot. Calif, i. 220 (1876) ; Trel. 1. c. 100. 
t, 30. Stem stoutish, terete, 10--18 in. high, simple or at summit sparingly 
branching, marked with 2—4 decurrent lines : leaves mostly opposite, 
sessile, broadly lanceolate, denticulate with small rigid teeth : fl. small : 
inner row of stamens very short ; the outer exceeding the style : seeds 
tapering above.— In Sierra Co., Lemnion, and northward. 

9. E. exaltatnm, Drew, Biill. Torr. Club, xvi. 151 (1889) ; Trel. 1. c. 
95. t. 24. Stems simple below, only loosely and corymbosely paniciilate 
at the very summit, terete, glabrous : leaves all opposite except the 
floral, thin, rather pale, ovate- or oblong-lanceolate, acute, denticulate, 
2 in. long, abruptly short-petiolate : inflorescence glandular-puberulent: 
ti. large, rose-purple ; the obcordate petals 4—5 lines long : capsules on 
slender pedicels equalling the floral leaves : seeds small, linear-oblong, 
very minutely papillose-striate. — On Grouse Creek, Humboldt Co., Ches- 
nut & Drew, and northward. An excellent species of peculiar habit, and 
large flowers for this group ; the stigma 4-lobed. Aug. Sept. 

10. E. ursiiium, Parish ; Trel. 1. c. 100. t. 31 (1891). Slender, i^— 1 
ft. high, pilose with white hairs, the inflorescence minutely glandular- 
pubescent ; stem terete, with long internodes : leaves small, only the 
lowest opposite, ovate-lanceolate, denticulate, serrulate or nearly entire, 
abruptly rounded to the sessile base : fl. few ; petals white or very 
pale : capsules on very slender peduncles of more than half their length, 
glabrate : seeds rather rough-papillose. Var. subfalcatuiii, Trel. 1. c. 
101. t. 32. Densely tomentose or pilose up to the glandular inflores- 
cence : leaves narrower sometimes falcate, more cuneate at base, more 
remotely and inconspicuously denticulate. — Presumably common in 
middle California somewhere ; but no locality given, except "San Bernar- 
dino Co.," for either type or variety ; communicated to the author from 
the Calaveras Big Trees, 1888, Wuu Rieger. 

11. E. g:laberrimnTU, Barbey ; Bot. Calif. 220 (1876) ; Trel. 1. c. 104. 
t. 38. Nearly simple up to the short inflorescence, commonly 2 ft. high, 
glabrous, glaucous, the stems terete and slender : leaves oblong-lanceo- 
late, obtusish, repand-denticulate or nearly entire, the lowest short-petio- 
late : petals 2 lines long, rose-purple or paler : capsules very slender, 
straight or somewhat arcuate, often long-pedicelled : seeds rather roughly 
papillose-striate. — Common along streams and ditches at middle and 
lower elevations of the Sierra. June — Sept. 

12. E. Honieiuaimi, Eeichenb. Ic. Crit. ii. 73 (1824) ; Trel. 1. c. 105. 
t. 41. Stems stoloniferous at base, ascending, simple, 3—10 in. high, the 
inflorescence pubescent, and also the stem along the decurrent lines : 
leaves small, ascending, ovate-oblong, obtuse, from almost entire to 
remotely serrulate, the lower cuneately narrowed, the upper usually 



EPILOBIACE^. 209 

rounded to the sliort petioles : fl. few, small, erect ; petals very pale, or 
deeply colored : capsules slender, erect, on slender peduncles aboiit 
equalling the floral leaves :• seeds abruptly short-appendaged, from 
smoothish to notably rough. — Not known as Oalifornian except in n. 1417, 
Breioer, which came from Mt. Shasta or near there. 

13. E. al pi II mil, Linn. Sp. PL i. 348 (1753), in part ; Trel. 1. c. 108. t. 
44. Like the last, but with less obvious pubescence : leaves thin and 
delicate, all gradually narrowed to the slender petioles : fl. white or 
rose-tinted : capsules very slender, on peduncles often stoutish and as 
long as the capsules : seeds smooth, with a very manifest beak. — Scarcely 
known as Oalifornian, yet likely to be found anywhere in the high Sierra. 

14. E. OregOiiense, Hausskn. Monogr. 276 (1884) ; Trel. 1. c. 109. t. 25. 
Low, simple and stoloniferous, the stem erect to the summit ; inflores- 
cence sparingly glandular-pubescent, the plant otherwise glabrous : 
leaves crowded below, remote and very small above, suberect, ovate- 
lanceolate, or the uppermost linear, very obtuse, remotely denticulate, 
somewhat tapering to the sessile base : fl. few, erect, small, deep purple: 
capsules stoutish, surpassing the summit of the stems, their peduncles 
far exceeding the floral leaves : seeds smooth, obtuse, beakless. — A 
northern species, to which Prof. Trelease refers somewhat doubtfully 
certain alpine plants collected by Bolander (n. 4965) and Lemmon, along 
our northeastern borders. 

15. E. anagallidifollum, Lam. Encycl. ii. 376 (1786) ; Trel. 1. c. 110. 
t. 47. Very low, cespitose by the numerous stolons, the very slender 
stems ascending, nodding at summit ; pubescent in lines, the inflores- 
cence somewhat glandular : leaves small, uniformly distributed, narrowly 
ovate or oblong, rather obtuse, entire or sparingly denticulate, cuneately 
narrowed, the lowest wing-petioled : capsule narrowly linear, long and 
slender, the peduncles long or short ; seeds somewhat obo void-fusiform, 
short-beaked.— Common by alpine brooklets in Washington and Oregon; 
reaching Mt. Shasta, and doubtless coming within our limits northward. 

16. E. obcordatuiii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 532 (1865); Trel. 1. c. 
84. t. 6. Somewhat cespitose, the stems stoutish, ascending or decumbent, 
3—10 in. long : herbage glabrous, very pale and glaucous, the inflores- 
cence glandular-puberulent : leaves all opposite, broadly ovate, % — % 
in. long, repand-denticulate, rounded to very short winged petioles : 
fl. few, large, slender-peduncled, in the axils of the scarcely reduced 
upper leaves : petals obcordately 2-lobed, I3 in. long or more, rose- 
purple : capsule ?4 -1 in. long, subclavate, pedicellate, few-seeded : 
seeds finely papillate. — Common on moist slopes below perpetual snow, 
etc., near the highest parts of the Sierra Nevada, from Tulare Co., north- 
ward ; our most beautiful species. July — Oct. 

* * Perennial; fl. large, somewhat irregular ; style and stamens declined. — 
Genus Cham^enekion, Tourn., S. F. Gray. 



210 EPILOBIACE^. 

17. E. spicatum, Lam. Fl. Fr. iii. 482 (1778); Trel. 1. c. 80. t. 1. 

Stout and simple, 2—6 ft. high, glabrate below, the infloresceuce canes- 
ceutly puberulent : leaves alternate, lanceolate, acnte, entire, short- 
stalked, 3 — 6 in. long, deep green above, pale beneath : inflorescence 
racemose, the buds detlexed : calyx cleft nearly to the base : petals bright 
purple, ungu.iculate, H in. long or more : style surpassing the stamens, 
hairy at base : capsule short- or long-stalked, 1 in. long or more. — In the 
Sierra Nevada, apparently throughout the State, but far less common than 
in more northerly regions. July — Sept. 

2. ZAUSCH^ERIA, Presl. Perennial herbs (not at all suffrutescent), 
spreading by subterranean shoots. Leaves opposite, except the upper 
and 'floral. Flowers racemose along the leafy branches, large, scarlet. 
Calyx-tube globose-inflated just above the ovary, thence becoming 
narrow-funnelform, 4-lobed, within bearing 8 small scales, 4 erect and 
4 deflexed. Petals 4, little exceeding the calyx-lobes, obcordate or deeply 
cleft. Stamens 8, the 4 alternate ones shorter ; anthers linear-oblong, 
attached by the middle. Stigma peltate or capitate, 4-lobed. Capsule 
slender-fusiform, obtusely 4-angled, 4-valved, go -seeded. Seeds comose. 

1. Z. Californica, Presl. Rel. Hfenk. ii. 28. t. 52 (1835). Erect or 
decumbent, 1 — 3 ft. high, canescent with a minute but dense tomentose 
pubescence : leaves linear-lanceolate, % — 1}^ in. long, entire or denticu-, 
late, thickish, seldom at all feather-veined : fl. 1,^4 in. long ; calyx-tube 
narrow-funnelform, twice the 1-ength of the linear-lanceolate segments, 
these surpassed by the deeply cleft petals : capsule nearly glabrous, 
distinctly pedicelled : seeds oblong-obovate. — In the Coast and Mt. 
Diablo Ranges, from Lake Co. southward, on dry open ground. 

2. Z. latifolia, Greene, Pittonia, i. 25 (1887) : Z. Californica, var. 
lalifolia, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4493 (1850). Decumbent, seldom 1 ft. high, 
occasionally canescent with a villous and more or less glandular pubes- 
cence, more commonly nearly glabrous : leaves from broadly ovate to 
ovate-lanceolate, ^a — 1 in. long, very acute, more or less serrate-toothed, 
thin, conspicuously feather-veined : fl. 1 in. long ; calyx-tube narrowly 
cylindrical for about 2 lines above the globose base, thence widening 
abruptly to a funnelform throat, the whole not longer than the. petals : 
capsule subsessile, glabrous. — In moist ground in the Sierra Nevada, at 
considerable altitudes ; also at the eastern base of the Mt. Diablo Range ; 
scarcely more than a subspecies of the first, but of different and far more 
extensive geograpical range. June — Nov. 

3. Z. tomeiitella, Greene, 1. c. 26. Size of the last ; canescent with 
a short coarse somewhat tomentose pubescence extending even to the 
calyx and capsules : leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, entire or toothed, 
thickish, feather-veined : petals half as long as the narrow calyx-tube 



EPILOBIACE^. 211 

which widens gradually from the globose base : capsules sessile : seeds 
somewhat pyriform. — An obscure plant of the Sierra Nevada, only once 
or twice collected : inflorescence peculiarly strict and virgate. 

3. ttlNOTHEBA, Linmens (Evening Primbose). Herbs exceedingly 
diverse in habit. Leaves alternate. Flowers yellow, white or purplish, 
axillary, spicate or racemose. Calyx-tube prolonged above the ovary, 
mostly deciduous ; segments commonly coherent after as before the 
expansion of the corolla save as parting by a single one of the four sutures 
to liberate the expanding petals. Petals 4, mostly vespertine as to 
time of opening, and evanescent, usually obcordate or flabelliform. 
Stamens 8, equal, or those opposite to the petals shorter; anthers various. 
Ovary 4-celled, oo -ovuled ; style filiform ; stigma 4-lobed or capitate. 
Capsule from membranaceous to woody, more or less perfectly 4-valved 
and dehiscent, or indehiscent. Seeds in 1 or 2 rows in each cell, hori- 
zontal or ascending, naked, often slightly margined. — A complicated 
genus, by Spach and others divided into several, perhaps with good reason. 
* Calyx greatly prolonged beyond the ovary, deciduous from it; stamens 

nearly equal, anthers versatile; stigma-lobes linear; capsule coriaceous. 

•i— Flowers yellow, in a leafy spike, erect in bud, vespertine; tips of the 

calyx-lobes free; capsule narroivly oblong, sessile, straight; seeds 

in 2 rows in each cell. — Genus Onagba, Tourn., Spach. 

++ Coarse annuals or biennials. 

1. (E. Hookeri, T. & Q. Fl. i. 493 (1840). Biennial ; stem red, stout, 
angular, 3—6 ft. high : herbage canescently pubescent and somewhat 
villous : leaves lanceolate, sessile, acute, obscurely denticulate : calyx- 
tube 114 ill- loii^i the segments nearly as long : petals nearly IJ^ in., 
obcordate, very pale yellow, turning to rose-color : filaments slender, 
elongated ; stigma-lobes yellow, spreading : capsule ^4 in. long, sessile, 
quadrangular, with plane sides, canescent throughout with a fine close 
pubescence : seeds chestnut-brown, only 1.3 li^i^ long, not wing-angled, 
delicately striate. — Common in river bottoms and often in dry places in 
the southern counties. 

2. (E. Jepsoiiii. Erect, 3 —5 feet high, canescently pubescent when 
young, the older parts, and especially the capsules, hirsute : leaves rather 
thin, lanceolate, denticulate : calyx-tube II4 in. long ; segments only 
}4 in., their tips very short, not contiguous : petals less than % in. long, 
light yellow : filaments subulate, short, the long anthers exserted : style 
short ; stigma-lobes green, not widely spreading : capsule slender, l}^ 
in. long, tapering from below the middle to apex, scarcely angular, the 
valves with a broad prominent midvein, separating at apex only : seeds 
dark-colored, sharply angled.— Along the Sacramento River in Solano 
Co., Jepsoii, and near Sacramento, Dr. Pyburn. 



212 EPILOBIACE^. 

3. CE. grandipijOEA, Ait. Hort. Kew. ii. 2 (1789) : (1^. biennis, var. 
grandijiora, Lindl. Bot. Reg-, t. 1604 (1833). Erect, 3—5. ft. high ; stem 
and inflorescence scabrous and sparsely hirsute ; the ovate-lanceolate 
denticulate leaves minutely and sparsely pubescent : calyx-tube 1 — 2 in. 
long, the segments almost as long, their slender tips elongated : petals 
obcordate, 1}4 — 2 in. long, yellow, turning to deeper yellow : filaments 
filiform, declined : style shorter than the petals, the linear stigma-lobes 
}4 in- long, yellow : capsule obtiisely quadrangular, slightly tapering 
from near the base, the valves with a strong midrib : seeds sharply 
angled. — Common in cultivation, and sparingly naturalized about Oak- 
land, Alameda etc. ; differing essentially from (IE. biennis in its annual 
root, large almost scentless flowers, declined stamens etc. 

•M- ++ Perennial. 

4. (E. arguta. Stems rather slender, decumbent, about 1 ft. high, 
from a perennial root : herbage puberulent : leaves linear-lanceolate, 
saliently dentate, 2 — 4 in. long, 3 — 4 lines broad, the cauline broadest at 
the sessile somewhat clasping base : calyx-tube 1% in. long : petals as 
long, deeply obcordate, bright yellow turning to orange ; anthers fili- 
form, about equalled by the style ; stigma-lobes linear, yellow. — In moist 
places near Monterey, Michener, and southward apparently at consider- 
able elevations in the mountains. Very distinct from all our annual 
species of the group. 

-I— -)— Flowers diurnal, ivhile, fading pinkish, nodding in bud; capsules 

sessile, long and narrow; seeds in 1 roiv in the cell. — 

Genus Baumannia, Spach. 

5. (E. alhicaulis, Nutt. Gen. i. 245 (1818) ; Pursh, Fl. ii. 733 (1814), 
excl. descr. ; Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813), name only. Baumannia NuUalliana, 
Spach, Phaner. iv. 352 (1835). Stem erect or decumbent, from perennial 
running rootstocks, simple or branched, 1 — 3 ft. high : herbage glabrous 
or pubescent, the stem and branches with a smooth shining white bark : 
leaves linear to oblong-lanceolate, entire, repand-denticiilate, or toward 
the base pinnatifid, 1 — 3 in. long ; calyx-tube 1 in. long ; tips of the 
lobes free in the bud : petals white, becoming pinkish, 1 in. long, entire 
or emarginate : anthers ^4 i^. long, on filiform filaments : capsiile 1 — 1}{ 
in. long, nearly linear, though slightly tapering from base to summit : 
seeds terete, 1 line long. — Common along the eastern base of the Sierra 
Nevada north and south ; a harjdsome species, but the flowers ill-scented. 

6. (E. Callforiiica, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 223 (1876) : CE. albicaulis, var. 
Californica, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 582 (1873). Perennial and white- 
stemmed like the last, but low and stout, hoary- pubescent and somewhat 
villous ; leaves oblanceolate, acuminate, mostly ijetiolate, sinuately 
toothed or irregularly pinnatifid : fl. larger ; calyx-tube longer, the seg- 
ments somewhat villous : petals obcordate : capsule 2 in. long, slightly 



EriLOBIACEiE. 213 

tapering : seeds oblong, turgid, olitiisely angled. — Interior of the State, 
from Sacramento, Dr. Pybxirn, southward; flowers said to be fragrant. 

7. (E. trichocalyx, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. '494 (1840). Erect, often 
simple, white-stemmed, 6 — 18 in. high, from a biennial root : leaves all 
pinnatifid : calyx almost woolly, the tips of the lobes not free in the 
bud : petals obcordate : capsule thickened at base : seeds ovate-oblong, 
somewhat compressed. — Eastern base of the Sierra. 

-)—•)—-•— Nearly or quite acaulescent; fl. vesperline, Ike buds erect; capsule 

ovate, ribbed or wing- angled: seeds in 2 tows in the cells. — 

Genera Pachylophus and Lavauxia, Spach. 

8. (E. csespitosa, Nutt.; Eras. Cat. (1813); Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 1.593 
(1814) ; Nutt. Gen. i. 246 (1818) : CE. scapigera, Pursh, Fl. i. 263 (1814). 
Pachylophus Nuttallii, Spach, Phaner. iv. 365 (1835). Stem very short 
and stout, 2 — 6 in. high, from a biennial root : leaves oblanceolate, 
acute, petiolate, irregularly sinuate-toothed or nearly entire, glabrous or 
somewhat villous : calyx-tube four times the length of the segments, 
the tips of these not free in the bud : petals broadly obcordate, 1 — 1% 
in. long, white, turning to rose-color : capsules sessile, ovate-oblong, 
attenuate above, 1 — 1% i^- long, the margin of the valves tuberculate- 
crested : sesds oval-oblong, with a narrow groove along the ventral side, 
minutely tuberculate on the back. — Very common in the Rocky Mountain 
region, doubtless reaching our eastern borders. 

9. (E. triloba, Nutt.; Bart. Fl. N. Am. ii. 37. t. 49 (1823) ; Sims, Bot. 
Mag. t. 2566 (1825) ; Journ. Philad. Acad. ii. 118 (1826?). Stem very 
short or obsolete : root biennial : leaves runcinate-pinnatifid, petiolate, 
nearly glabrous : calyx-tube very long and slender ; segments with tips 
free in the bud : petals yellow, broadly obovate, 1 in. long, 3 — 5-nerved : 
capsule sessile, oblong or obovate, ^ in. long, with broadly winged 
angles, the sides at length ribbed and reticulate : seeds angled and 
minutely tuberculate. — Truckee Valley and northward, east of the Sierra. 
* * Acaulescent; fl. diurnal, yelloiv, erect in bud; calyx-tube flliform above 

the ovary; stamens alternately long and short; stigmas capitate; 

seeds in 2 rows in the cells of the capsules. 

4— Perennials ; calyx-tube persistent; capsules not winged. — 

Genus Tabaxia, Nutt. 

10. (E. Xuttallii, T. & G. Fl. i. 507 (1840). Canescently pubescent : 
leaves petiolate, oblanceolate, acuminate, 2 —6 in. long, pinnatifid ; the 
segments unequal, usually rounded or obtuse : calyx-tube 1 — ^% in. 
long ; segments somewhat shorter : petals ^^ in. long : capsules narrow, 
attenuate upwards, 6—10 lines long, obtusely quadrangular : seeds 
oblong, terete, 1 line long, obscurely lineolate. — Eastern base of the 
Sierra from near Carson City northward. 



214 EPILOBIACE^. 

11. (E. heterantha, Nutt. Joum. Pbilad. Acad. vii. 22 (1834). Jnssixa 
acaulis, Pursh, Fl. i. 304 (1814). Grlabrous : leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, entire or slightly repand-denticulate, 6 in. long : 
calyx -tube 1 — 3 in. long : petals };£ — K^ in. long: capsules ovoid-oblong, 
narrowed at each end, nearly 1 in. long, rather acutely angled : seeds 
minutely pitted. Var. taraxacifolia, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xiii. 589 
(1873). Leaves larger, more or less lyrately pinnatifld. — In moist moun- 
tain meadows of the Sierra Nevada, chiefly on the eastward slope. 

12. (E. ovata, Nutt. T, & G. Fl. i. 507 (1840). Sparingly pubescent : 
leaves mostly oblong-lanceolate, entire or denticulate, often somewhat 
undulate, 3 — 8 in. long : calyx- tube 1 — 4 in. long : petals % — ^£ in. long: 
capsules subterranean, chartaceous, 1 in. long, tapering above, scarcely 
dehiscent : seeds ovoid-oblong, smooth. — Very common in open grounds, 
from Marin and Solano Counties to San Luis Obispo ; only the very 
earliest leaves ovate. Feb. — Apr. 

•i— -t— Annual; calyx-lube deciduous; capsules ivinged. 

13. (E. ^aciliflora, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 341 (1840) ; Hook. Ic. t. 338. 
Herbage green and pilose : leaves linear, entire or obscurely denticitlate : 
calyx-tube not longer than the leaves ; segments short : petals 3 — 5 lines 
long, obcordate, turning gi'eenish : capsule hard-coriaceous, }^ in. long or 
less, angled at base, 4- winged above, the wings obliquely truncate and 
hairy ; seeds smooth. — Hillsides and plains of the interior from Butte 
Co. to Monterey. 

* * * Caulescent annuals (rarely more enduring); calyx-tuhe obconic or 
shori-funnelform; stigma capitate; capsides sessile, mostly contorted; 
seeds in 1 row. — Genus Sph^ebostigma, F. & M. 
-1— Maritime plants, with short primary axis (this Jiowerless after the early 
months) bearing crowded elongated narrow leaves, and radiating decum- 
bent or prostrate shrubby-looJcing /towering branches with broader 
shorter foliage; capsules angular, sessile, contorted. 
++ Flowers yellow, turning greenish. 

14. (E. Tirescens, Hook.,Fl. i. 214 (1833): (2J. cheiranthifolia, var. 
suffraticosa, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 592 (1873). Silvery-canescent 
with a short and dense appressed pubescence, also apparently slightly 
viscid : assurgent branches 1 — 2 ft. long, stoutish, purplish, appressed- 
pubescent : leaves from spatulate- and linear-oblong to ovate-cordate, 
usually entire, 1 in. long or more : petals 6 — 8 lines long : anthers 
linear-oblong, fixed below the middle, recurved or somewhat contorted in 
age : capsule pubescent, rather slender, attenuate at apex. — From Mon- 
terey to San Diego. 

15. (E. nitida, Greene, Pittonia, i. 70 (1887). The decumbent branches 
% — 1 foot long, very rigid : leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, glabrous 



EPILOBIACE^. 215 

and rather fleshy, dark green and histrous : petals % i^- long • anthers 
linear-obloug, fixed almost in the middle : capsule 10 lines long, stout, 
coriaceous, glabrous, acutely angled ; seeds black, obovate, acute at base, 
compressed, smooth but dull.^First noticed on San Miguel Island, but 
found along the shores of Monterey Bay, Aliliott. 

^-+ ++ Floivers liirniiig red or taivny. 

16. (E. spiralis, Hook. Fl. i. 219 (1833): (E. cheiranlhifolia, Bot. 
Calif. Radiating branches stout, procumbent, 1 — 3 ft. long : leaves from 
spatulate to ovate-cordate, 1 — 3 in. long, entire or dentate, more or less 
hirsute : petals 4 — 6 lines long : anthers linear-oblong, fixed in the 
middle : capsule acutely quadrangular, hirsute : seeds ovate, acute at 
base, compressed, dark brown. —Plentiful on the sand hills of San Fran- 
cisco and southward, flowering almost throughout the year. Our plant 
must be very distinct from the Chilian (E cheiranlhifolia, which has a 
different mode of growth, pellucid-punctate and glaucescent herbage, 
short roundish anthers, etc. 

17. (E. micraiitha, Hornem. "Hort. Hafn. Suppl." (1819); Walp. Rep. 
ii. 77 (1813), under Sphxrosl.igma. Size and habit of the last, but more 
slender and hirsute, the small calyx densely hairy : leaves from narrowly 
oblanceolate to linear-oblong, 2 — 4 in. long, acutish, more or less undu- 
late : petals only 1 — 2 lines long, entire or emarginate : capsule 4-angled, 
contorted, rather slender, gradually attenuate upwards, usually more 
than 1 in. long, sparsely but stiffly hirsutulous. — At San Francisco, near 
the Presidio, etc., and southward along the coast. 

-i— -t— Plants not maritime, erect at base and with ascending branches; 

capsules narrow, less contorted (except in n. 18 J; flowers 

yellow, turning red. 

•M- Radical leaves narroiv and peliolate, the cauline broad, sesgile; 

capsules sharply angled, much contorted. 

18. (E. hirtella. Stoutish, erect, simple, or with a few ascending 
branches from the base, 6—10 in. high, the herbage purplish, short- 
hirsute : radical leaves oblanceolate, denticulate, 1% in. long ; cauline 
ovate, sessile, f 3' in. long, coarsely toothed and more or less undulate or 
crisped : petals 1 line long or more : capsules hirsute, narrow, attenuate 
upwards, once or twice coiled : seeds pale, smooth, more or less regularly 
rhombic-ovate. — Common in the hill country away from the sea, from 
Lake Co. and Solano southward. Heretofore made a part of OS. mic 
rantha, a maritime species, with the trailing habit of the preceding group, 
which may be identical with the South Californian and maritime (E. 
bistorta. The present plant is strictly erect, flowering in early summer 
and soon disappearing. 

■M- -M- Annuals, without radical leaves; branches many, sle)ider, leafy; 
capsules narrowly linear, slightly or not at all contorted. 



216 EPILOBIACE^'. 

19. (E. stri^ulosa, T. & G. Fl. i. 512 (1840) ; F. & M. Intl. Sem. Petr. 
ii. 50 (1835), under SpJcvrosligma. Slender, erect-spreading, ig — 1 ft. 
high, all but the older parts clothed with short appressed or incurved 
white hairs ; leaves % in. long, linear-lanceolate, acutish, denticulate, 
subsessile : petals broadly obovate, l^.^ lines long, yellow, turning deep 
red : anthers roundish, basifixed : capsule about ^ in. long, sessile, 
straight or arcuate, not contorted, scarcely attenuate at apex. Var. (1) 
epiloMoides. Strictly erect, with ascending somewhat virgate branches : 
pubescence neither white nor appressed, but spreading and hirsute : 
pods longer and more slender. Var. (2) pubeus, Wats. 1. c. 594. With 
stouter and decumbent branches all from the base : almost canescently 
hirsute : pods more than 1 in. long, linear-clavate. — The type of this vari- 
able species appears to be restricted to the seaboard in the Bay district, 
and is common at San Francisco, Alameda, etc. The first variety is of 
the interior, from Oregon to San Diego, at which last place it comes out 
to the seaboard. The second belongs to the desert regions east of the 
Sierra. This looks like a distinct species ; and possibly even the first 
should be admitted in that rank. They would be almost or qxiite as 
good species as the commonly received species of Gayophytum, to which 
genus the present group is very closely related. 

20. (E. cainpestris. (E. denlata, Bot. Calif, i. 226, not Oav. Branched 
from the base and bushy, 6 — 10 in. high and as broad, more or less 
hirsute-pubescent throughout : leaves linear-lanceolate, 1 in. long, den- 
tate : petals very broadly cuneate-obovate, 4 — 5 lines long, turning brick- 
red : anthers linear-oblong, ^i line long, fixed toward the middle and 
versatile : pods more than 1 in. long, narrowly linear, slightly incurved. 
Var. cruciata (Wats. 1. c. under (E. dentala). Petals half as large, 
narrowly obovate or oblong, often emarginate. — Common on the plains 
from Ahtioch southward. The variety, not seen by me, may possibly 
represent the S. American <E. dentala; but it is certain that the type can 
not so be referred ; for that, from the description, must have callous- 
tipped calyx-lobes, and the short, rounded and basifixed anthers of the 
other members of this group. 

-)—-)—-)— Floivers v)hile or rose-colored, in a nodding spike, (spike erect in 
n. 34); capsules terete or obtusely angled, much contorted. 

21. (E. alyssoides, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 340 (1840) ; Hook. Ic. t. 339. 
Simple, or with ascending branches from the base, 3 — 12 in. high, canes- 
cently puberulent : leaves oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, narrowed 
into a slender petiole, entire or repand-deuticulate, 1 — 2% in. long ; the 
floral similar though smaller : spike elongated, many-flowered : petals 
rounded, rose-puri)le. 2^ lines long: capsule 1 in. long, slender, 
attenuate above, contorted : seeds ash-colored, minutely pitted. — Eastern 
base of the Sierra. 



EPILOBIACEiE. 217 

22. (E. Boothii, Dougl.; Hook. Fl. i. 2] 3 (1833). Stouter than the last, 
villous aud viscid : leaves ovate to lanceolate ; capsules broader : seeds 
brownish, anjjled, very minutely tuberculate. — From near Mono Lake, 
Chesnui & fhrtr, northward, on the eastward slope of the Sierra only. 

23. (E. decorticaiis, Greene. H. & A. Bot. Beech. 343 (1840), under 
Gaura. (E. gaurxjiora, T. & G. Fl. i. 510 (1840). Erect, stout, i^^-2 ft 
high, glandular-puberulent above ; the bark white, loose, exfoliating : 
leaves lanceolate to narrowly oblanceolate, attenuate into a petiole, 
denticulate : spike many-flowered, elongated, and often also crowded : 
calyx-tube narrowly funuelform, equalling the petals : petals I4 in. long, 
white or pink : capsules 8 — 15 lines long, stoutish below, narrowed 
above to a slender beak : seeds dark, 1 line long, angled. — From the 
valley of the Sacramento to Monterey Co. and far southward. 

24. (E. Xevadeiisls, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 224. f. 70 (1863) ; 
Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 137. Lower and relatively stouter than the 
last, the spike short, crowded and erect : leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
irregularly repand-dentate, the blade decurrent upon the petiole and 
even to the stem, which is wing-angled : bracts of the inflorescence 
petiolate : calyx-tube very narrowly funnelform, nearly equalling the 
ovary : petals ovate or obovate, short-unguiculate : anthers oblong, 
versatile : capsule stout, tapering from base to apex, quadrangular, tor- 
tuous : seeds oblong. — Western Nevada, and doubtless within our borders. 
* * * * Caulescent, annuals; leaves mostly radical; stigmas capitate; 

capsules pedicellate, linear or clavale, obtuse, not contorted. — 
Genus Chylismia, Nutt. 

25. (E. soapoidea, T. & G. Fl. i. 506 (1840). Erect, simple, or branching 
from the base, ^—2 ft. high, glabrous or puberulent : leaves lyrate-pin- 
nate or undivided, petiolate : bracts of the nodding raceme small or : 
calyx-tube funnelform, 1—2 lines long : petals longer, obovate, entire, 
yellow (sometimes purplish) : capsules glabrous, }4~1 in. long, on 
spreading pedicels of % in.— From Mono Lake northward, along our 
eastern borders. 

***** Paniculate branching annuals, without radical leases; calyx- 
tube nearly obsolete; stigmas capitate; capsules sessile, elongated, 
linear, refracted. — Genus Eulobus, Nutt. 

26. (E. leptocarpa, Greene, Pittonia, i. 302 (1889). Eulobus Cali- 
fornicus, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 515(1840). Erect, with somewhat virgately 
panicled branches, 2-5 ft. high ; glabrous, glaucescent : leaves linear, 
1—2 in. long, sinuately pinnatitid or coarsely and divaricately toothed : 
calyx-tube less than % line long : petals 4 — 5 lines long, yellow, turning 
red : stamens unequal, the shorter with globose, the longer with oblong 
anthers : capsules 3—4 in. long, deflexed : seeds smooth, ovate-oblong, 



218 EPILOBIACE^. 

3-angled, % line long. — Not reported north of Santa Barbara, but to be 
expected in San Luis Obispo Co. if not in Monterey. The only very 
near allies of this si^ecies, (E. crassiuscula and (E. augelorum, are Lower 
Californian, and have sessile contorted capsules. 

4. (tAYOPHYTUM, a. Jussieu. Erect very slender diffusely branch- 
ing annuals, with alternate linear entire leaves and axillary small white 
or purplish flowers. Calyx-tube not prolonged above the ovary, the 
4-parted deciduous limb reflexed. Petals 4. Stamens 8, the alternate 
ones usually minute and sterile ; filaments filiform ; anthers subglobose, 
fixed near the middle. Ovary oblong or linear, compressed, 2-celled ; 
stigma capitate or clavate. Capsule membranaceous, clavate, 2-celled, 
4-valved. Seeds few or many, in one row in each cell, smooth, naked, 
mostly oblong. 

1. 0. rainosissimum, T. & G. Fl. i. 513 (1840). Glabrous, or the 
inflorescence puberulent, erect, with spreading branches, 14 — ^H ft. high: 
leaves 1 in. long or less : fl. % line long, mostly near the ends of the 
branches : capsule 2 — 3 lines long, on pedicels of about the same length, 
often deflexed, 3 — 5-seeded. — Common species of the Rocky Mts. and 
Great Basin, reaching our borders in Mono and other eastern counties. 

2. Gr. diffiisum, T. & G. 1. c. Nearly glabrous, branching dichoto- 
mously and widely, 1 — 3 ft. high : fl. 2 — 4 lines broad, white, fading 
purplish : capsules l^ — % in. long, exceeding the pedicels, the cells 
4 — 8-seeded. — The most common Californian species ; abundant at middle 
elevations, in open pine and sequoia woods from Calaveras Co. southward. 

3. G. racemosuin, T. & G. 1. c. .514. Glabrous or canescent with a 
short appressed pubescence, % — Ifg ft. high, the branches mostly simple 
and elongated : fl. 3^ line long, axillary the whole length of the branches: 
capsules linear, sessile or short-pedicelled, 8 — 10 lines long, oo -seeded : 
seeds erect in the cells. — In Humboldt Co., and northward. 

4. G. lasiospermuin, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 164 (1891). Erect, very 
slender, 1 — 2 ft. high, with numerous dichotomous branches ; glabrous 
except a scant pubescence on the flower-buds : corolla 1^^ lines long, 
rose-color, turning purple : capsules on capillary erect pedicels, torulose, 
few-seeded : seeds canescent with an appressed silky pubescence. — 
Known thus far only from the Coast Range in the northern part of San 
Diego Co., but probably occurring within our limits. 

5. Gr. puinilnm, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 193 (1883). Near G. 
racemosuin, but smaller and less branching, seldom 6 in. high, glabrous 
or nearly so : fl. less than a line broad : capsule erect, short-pedicelled, 
1^ in. long, the numerous seeds oblique in the cells. — Said to occur from 
San Bernardino northward throughout the State. 



EPILOBIACE^. 219 

5. (tJODETIA, Spach. Erect simple or branching annnals. Leaves 
alternate, entire or denticulate. Flowers mostly purple, showy, in leafy 
spikes or racemes. Calyx-tube above the ovary obconic or short-ftmnel- 
form, deciduous. Petals 4, broad, sessile, entire, emarginate or cleft, 
diurnal and lasting for two days or more. Stamens 8, unequal, the fila- 
ments opposite the petals shortest ; anthers perfect, elongated, attached 
by the base, erect or arcuate-recurved. Ovary 4-celled, x -ovuled ; style 
short ; stigma-lobes short, linear or roundish. Capsule ovate to linear, 
4-sided, coriaceous, loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds ascending or hori- 
zontal, in 1 or 2 rows, obliquely angled, the upper part tuberculate- 
margined. 

* Floirers in a strict dense spike; capsule ovate or oJdonq. 
H— Tips of the catf/.i-lohes not free in the hud; sides of capsule not 2-costale: 
seeds in 2 rows in each cell. 

1. Gr. graudittora, Lindl. Bot. Keg. xxvii. Misc. 61 (1841) & xxviii. t. 61. 
(I^noihera Whilneyi, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 340 (1868). Puberulent : 
stem stout, simple or with a few short branches near the siammit, 1 — 2 ft. 
high : leaves lanceolate, 2—3 in. long, acute at each end, short-petioled, 
obscurely repand-denticulate or entire : calyx-tube turbinate, 4 — 6 lines 
long : petals 1 — 2 in. long, emarginate, pale purple with often a crimson 
spot in the middle or toward the base : stigma-lobes linear, },^ in. long : 
capsule oblong to linear, 8 — 15 lines long, xjuberulent, 4-toothed at 
apex. — Humboldt and Mendocino counties. 

2. a. purpurea, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 229 (1876) ; Curtis, Bot. Mag. t. 
3.52 (1796), under (Enolhera. G. Willdenoviana, Spach, Phaner. iv. 387 
(1835). Stem erect, 6 — 15 in. high, puberulent : leaves oblong or lanceo- 
late-oblong, obtusish, entire, glaucescent : calyx-tube funnelform, as long 
as the segments : petals broadly obovate, % in. long or more, crenulate, 
deep purple : stamens much shorter than the petals : stigma lobes broad 
and short, dark purple : capsule ovate-oblong, % — % ^^- long, hairy, the 
sides nearly flat, with a strong midvein. — Mr. Watson attributes to this 
species two rows of seeds in each cell of the capsule. No such plant hrs 
been recognized by the present writer ; neither has he seen the plant 
figured as the type of G. purpurea; nevertheless, it should be common 
in some part of California. 

-1— -i— Tips of the calyor-lobes slightly free in the hud; capsule 2-costate on 
at least lira of the sides (except in n. 3); seeds in 1 rotv in each cell. 

3. 0. dec urn bens, Spach, Phaner. iv. 388 (1835) ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 
1221 (1829), under Oenothera: G. lepida, var. parvifloia, Wats. Stems 
ascending, 1% ft. high, branching, sparsely hirsute : leaves ovate-lanceo- 
late, entire, pubescent, glaucescent : fl. sessile in the axils, and shorter 
than the leaves, red-purple : calyx-tube very short, half as long as the 



220 EPILOBIACEiE. 

aegmeuts : filaments of the alternate stamens very short : stigma whitish, 
appearing capitate by the close recurving of the broad lobes : capsule 
tomentose, somewhat quadrangular and tapering, the sides with a midrib 
but no furrows. — Another obscure species, perhaps not occurring in 
middle California ; doubtless wrongly referred to the next, for the cap- 
sules, if true to the descriptions, are essentially different. 

4. G. lepida, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1849 (1836) ; H. & A. Bot. Beech. 342 
(1836), under (Enolhera. Stem erect, branching above, pubescent with 
short appressed hairs: leaves ovate-lanceolate, entire, slightly pubescent: 
calyx-tube obconical, very short, greatly surpassed by the segments : 
petals rounded and emarginate at apex, pale purple, with a dark red 
cuneate spot at summit : stigma purple, cruciform: capsule ovate-oblong, 
sessile, closely ribbed and sulcate, densely white-villous. —Very common, 
apparently throughout the State. 

5. Gt. inicropetala, Greene, Pittonia, i. 32 (1887). Erect, slender, 
simple, 1 — 3 ft. high, puberulent : leaves 1 in. long, narrowly lanceolate, 
entire, sessile : spike rather short : calyx-tube scarcely 2 lines long ; 
segments 4 lines, the slender elongated tips twisted in the bud : petals 
linear-lanceolate, only 3 lines long, entire or erose : stigma purple, the 
lobes broad and short : capsule sessile, f4 in. long, linear-oblong, abruptly 
pointed, hirsute, the alternate sides bicostate. — Hills of Contra Costa Co., 
in the Mt. Diablo Range, near Walnut Creek, Greene, and about 
Martinez, Frank Sweit. 

6. G. Aruottii, Walp. Rep. ii. 88 (1843) ; T. & G. Fl. i. 503 (1840), under 
CEnothera: G. lepida, var. ArnoUii, Wats. Nearly glabrous, slightly 
glaucous, 1 — 2 ft. high, densely flowered at the leafy summit : leaves 
mostly opposite, except the floral, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acutish, 
obscurely denticiilate : calyx-tube very short : corolla deep purple : 
stigma purple, the lobes oval : capsule cylindrical-conic, bicostate on the 
sides, glabrous. — Common in the Sacramento Valley and southward. 

7. G. albescens, Lindl. Bot. Reg. xxviii. t. 9 (1842). Stem erect, rigid, 
pubescent, the branches very short, crowded at the summit : leaves 
glabrous, glaucous, lanceolate, entire : fl. sessile, densely crowded among 
the upper leaves on the short branchlets : calyx-tube funnelform, as 
long as the segments : petals obcordate, % in. long, pale purple, with a 
small darker spot in the centre : stigma-lobes narrow, greenish : capsule 
oblong, 8-sulcate, acuminate, villous : seeds roundish, scabroiis. — Lake 
and Solano Counties, to Monterey. 

* * Floivers in loose spikes or racemes; capsules mostly linear; 

seeds in 1 roiv. 

H— Racemes erect in hud; calyx-lobes distinct and rejiexed in flower; 

capsules sessile. 



EPILOBIACE^. 221 

8. G. Williainsoiiii, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 230 (1876) ; Dur. & Hilg. Pac. 
R. Rep. V. 7. t. 5 (1855), under (ICnotJiera. Erect, sparingly branching, 
rather slender, 1 ft. high, canescently pnberulent : leaves linear, entire, 
sessile : calyx villous ; its tube funnelform ; tips of the lobes free in the 
bud : petals nearly 1 in. long, lilac with yellow base and a deep purple 
spot in the centre : stigma-lobes oblong, yellow : capsules 6—8 lines long, 
attenuate from the base upward, bicostate on the sidas, pubenilent. — 
Sierra Nevada, from Placer Co. to Kern. 

9. a. quadrivuliiera, Spach, Phaner. iv. 389 (1835) ; Dougl. in Lindl. 
Bot. Reg. t. 1119 (1827), under (Ilnothera. Very slender, 1—2 ft. high, 
puberulent : leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, entire or slightly denticu- 
late : calyx-tube obconic, 2-3 lines long ; petals purplish with a dark 
spot at summit, 3 6 lines long; stigma-lobes short, purple: capsules 
5—10 lines long, attenuate at apex, bicostate at the alternate angles. — 
Common toward the coast everywhere. 

10. G. viiniuea, Spach, Nouv. Ann. Mus. iv. 389 (1835) ; Dougl. in 
Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2873 (1829), under (Eaothera; Bot, Reg. t. 1220. 
Steni erect, 1 — 3 ft. high, glabrous : leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, 
narrowed at base, 1-2 in. long, i^uberulent : calyx-tube 2 — 4 lines long : 
petals purplish with a dark spot at summit, ,%£ — \}^ in. long ; stamens 
short, subequal : stigma-lobes linear-oblong, purple : capsules 1 — \}4^ in. 
long, pubescent, slightly bicostate on the sides. — From the middle parts 
of the State northward ; the original, from Oregon, said to be " glaucous," 
but probably rather pale with a minute indument. 

11. Gl. teuella, Wats. 1. c. (1876) : G. CavamllesU, Spach, Phaner. iv. 
390 (1835). (E. (enella, Cav. Ic. iv. t. 396. f. 2 (1797). Puberulent, slender, 
erect, % — ^H f*. high ; leaves linear, acute or obtuse, mostly entire, more 
or less narrowed at base, J^ — 2 in. long : calyx-tube obconic, 1 — 3 lines 
long : petals 3 — 5 lines, deep purple : stigma-lobes purjjle : capsule 
linear, attenuate at apex, 8 — 14 lines long, quadrang^^lar, the sides not 
costate but tlie midvein usually prominent. — Common toward the coast 
throughout the State. 

■h- •)— Racemes nodding in the bud; calyx-lobes united and turned to one 

side under the open corolla; stigma yellow or white 

(except in n. 12); capsule pedicellate. 

12. Gr, pulclierrima, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 217 (1891). Slender, erect, 
1 — 3 ft. high, puberulent : leaves linear, acute at each end, nearly entire : 
calyx-tube very broad and short, almost cyathiform : petals 1)4 in. long, 
cuneate-obovate, truncate or retuse at the erose summit, lilac and streaked 
with white veins above, whitish at base, dotted throughout with elongated 
spots of dark crimson : stamens equal ; filaments lilac ; anthers white : 
style long ; stigma-lobes purple, obovoid : qapsule linear, 1 in. long, 
pedicellate, scarcely costate. — Fjom Fort Tejon southward. 



222 EPILOBIACE^. 

13. 0. ainoena, Lilja, Linnfea, xv. 265 (1841) ; Lebm. Ind. Sem. Hamb. 
8 (1821), and Nov. Act. Leop. xiv. 811. t. 45 (1828), under (£,>othera: 
G. vinosa, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1880 (1836). Erect, slender, 1—2 ft. bigb, 
puberulent : leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, entire or denticulate : 
calyx-tube obconic, 2 — 4 lines long : i>etals 8—15 lines long, wbite, pink 
or purple, witb a dark purple spot near tbe base : filaments rather stout; 
anthers deep crimson, the vacant upper end white or yellowish : stigma- 
lobes linear : capsule 1 — 1 ^ in. long, narrowed at each end ; pedicel 
2—6 lines long. — From Monterey northward ; the white-flowered and 
typical form seldom seen. 

14. Gf. rubicttiida, LindL Bot. Reg. 1. 1856 (1836). Near the preceding, 
but often 4 ft. high : calyx-tube longer, funnelform : petals jjurple, with 
an orange spot at base : anthers orange-red, the empty end bright yel- 
low : capsules sessile, scarcely attenuate at apex. — Of more northerly 
general range than the preceding ; perhaps not distinct from it ; it is 
nevertheless quite as possible that three or four species formerly dis- 
tinguished are confusedly embraced by these two names. 

15. Gt. Botta?, Spach, Monogr. Onagr. 73 (1835) ; T. & Q. Fl. i. 505 
(1840), under (Enollieva. Erect, sparingly branching, 1 — 2 ft. high, 
puberulent or glabrous : leaves linear-lanceolate, entire or sparingly 
denticulate, petiolate, 1 — 2 in. long : calyx-tube short-obconic : petals 
light purple, J^ — 1 in. long : filaments slender, and style elongated ; 
stigma-lobes short, yellow : capsule attenuate at each end, 10 — 15 lines 
long ; pedicel % — % in. long. — In the southern Coast Range from 
Monterey southward. 

16. {}. epilobioides, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 231 (1876); Nutt.; T. & G. 
Fl. i. 511 (1840), under (Enolhera. Habit of the preceding, but more 
slender, usually 1 ft. high ; glabrous or tomentose-puberulent : leaves 
linear or linear-lanceolate : calyx-tube 1 — 2 lines long : petals 3—6 lines, 
dull white, with or without a tinge of rose : stigma-lobes short : capsule 
acuminate, attenuate to a short pedicel or sessile, ^g — 1 in. long. — Said 
to occur throughout the State ; but we doubt its existence except from 
Santa Barbara Co. southward, where it is common. 

17. a. liispidnla, Wats. 1. c, and Proc. Am. Acad. 1. c, under CEnoihera. 
Erect, simple, a few inches high, often 1 -flowered: pubescence hispidu- 
lous : leaves narrowly linear, 1 — 2 in. long : calyx-tube 2 — 3 lines : 
petals purple, % — 1 in. long : filaments slender : stigma-lobes linear : 
capsules % — % in. long, attenuate at apex, below abruptly contracted to 
a short pedicel. — A little known species of the valleys of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin. 

18. G. biloba, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 231 (1876) ; Durand, PI. Pratt. 87 
(1855), under (Enolhera. Slender, erect, 1—2 ft. high, sparingly branching, 



EPILOBIACE^. 223 

nearly pflabrous : leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate, 1 — 2 in. long, 
obscurely denticulate, the lower on long and slender petioles : petals 
ligbt-purple, ^^ — '^4 in. long, cuneate-obovate, deeply 2-lobed : capsule 
puberulent, ^^ — % in. long, attenuate at apex, narrowed at base into a 
short pedicel. ^From Nevada Co. to Tuolumne in the Sierra, at low 
altitudes ; also plentiful in the Briones Hills of the Mt. Diablo Kange in 
Contra Costa Co. not far back of Martinez. A beautiful plant, and a 
near relative of Clarkia Xanliaua, from which genus Godelia is perhaps 
not naturally separable. 

6. CLARKIA, Pursh. Erect sparingly branched annuals, with alter- 
nate petiolate leaves, racemose or spicate purple flowers nodding in the 
bud. Oalyx-tube more or less prolonged above the ovary, deciduous. 
Petals 4, unguiculate, often lobed or cleft. Stamens normally 8, but 
those opposite the petals often sterile or rudimentary, or sometimes 
wanting ; anthers oblong or linear, fixed by the base. Ovary 4-celled ; 
style elongated ; stigma with 4 broad spreading lobes. Capsule linear, 
attenuate above, coriaceous, straight or somewhat curved, 4-angled, 
4-celled, 4-valved to the middle. Seeds angled or margined. 
* Petals S-lubed. 
•i-Cnly.r-iube ohco)iical; 4 stamens rudinieatary. — Typical Clarkia. 

1. C. pulchella, Pursh, Fl. i. 260. 1. 11 (1814) ; Lindl. Bot. Eeg. t. 1100. 
Stem 1 — 13>2 ft. high, puberulent : leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, 
1 — 3 in. long, entire, glabrous : petals J4 — % i^- long, with 3 broad 
divergent lobes, the claw with a pair of recurved teeth : perfect stamens 
with a linear scale on each side at the base ; the rudimentary ones 
filiform : stigma-lobes equal, dilated : capsule 1 in. long or less, 8-angled, 
on a spreading pedicel 2 — 3 lines long : seed obliqxiely cubical, minutely 
tuberculate. — Plumas Co., Mrs. Austin, and northward. 

•I— -1— Calyx-tube elongated and almost filiform ; stamens 4 only. — 
Genus Eucharidium, F. & M. 

2. C. couciuna, Greene, Pittonia, i. 140 (1887). Eucharidium con- 
cinnum, F. & M. Ind. Sem. Petr. ii. 11 (1885) ; Meyer, Sert. Petr. t. 12 ; 
Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1962. Simple, or with a few subcorymbose branches, 
1 — 2 ft. high, glabrous or puberulent : leaves ovate, entire : calyx-tube 
almost filiform, 1 in. long : corolla regular ; petals % — ^4 in- long, 
cuneate-obovate, 3-lobed, the middle lobe broadest, little longer than the 
others : filaments subulate ; anthers recurved after dehiscence, somewhat 
villous : stigma subpeltate, the lobes short, rounded : capsule sub- 
cylindrical, in maturity obscurely quadrangular, acutish. — Coast Range, 
from Mendocino Co. to Santa Barbara. May, June. 

3. C. graiuliflora, Greene. Eucharidium grandifiomm, F. & M. Ind. 
Sem. Petr. vii. 48 (1840) ; Sert. Petr. t. 13. Near the preceding, but 



'224 EPILOBIACE^. 

diffusely branching from the base : corolla larger, irregular, the 3 upper 
petals approximate, ascending, the lower one remote from these and 
declined, the middle lobe of each attenuate to a claw and far surpassing 
the others. —Very common in the Mt. Diablo Range. 

4. C. Breweri, G-reene, Pittonia, i. 141 (1887) ; Grray, Proc. Am. Acad, 
vi. 532 (1865), under Eucharidium: C. Saxeana, Greene, 1. c. 140. Gla- 
brous, 1 — 2 ft. high : leaves lanceolate, entire, short- petioled : calyx-tube 
slender, more than 1 in. long, abruptly dilated at base : corolla irregiilar; 
petals round-obcordate, with a linear-spatulate middle lobe proceeding 
from the deep, or rather shallow sinus and far exceeding the others : 
filaments clavate ; anthers densely white-villous along the sutures, erect 
after dehiscence as before : capsule sessile, 1 in. long, curving away from 
the stem : seeds large, tuberculate, conspicuously winged. —On Mt. Oso, 
Stanislaus Co.^ Brewer, and near the G-eysers in Sonoma Co., Dr. Saxe. 
Very erroneously described in the "Botany of California" as having "a 
narrow subulate lobe in the deep sinus." 

* * Calyx-tube obconic; petals never 3-lobed; stamens S, all perfect. — 
G-enus Ph-egstoma, Spach. 

5. C. Xantiana, Gray, Proc. Bost. Soc. vii. 145 (1859). G-labrous, 
glaucescent, 1 — 3 ft. high, stoutish, sparingly branching above : leaves 
narrowly lanceolate or linear, entire or denticulate, ashy-puberulent : 
petals 2-lobed with a subulate tooth in the sinus ; the claw short and 
broad : stigma-lobes broadly oval. — Fort Tejon and southward. 

6. C. eleg-ans, Dough; Lindl. Bot. Jieg. t. 1575 (1833): C. tmguicu- 
la>a, Lindl. 1. c. xxiii., under t. 1981 (1837). Glabrous or puberulent, 
reddish and glaucous, erect, 1 — 6 ft. high, simple or somewhat branching, 
stout and rigid : leaves broadly ovate to linear, repand-dentate : petals 
entire, the rhomboidal limb about equalling the linear claw : filaments 
with a densely hairy scale on each side at base : capsule }-^ — % in. long, 
stout, sessile, 4-angled, somewhat curved, often hairy. — On open or half- 
shaded hillsides of both the Coast Range and the lower Sierra. 

7. C. rhomboidea, Dougl.; Hook. Fl. i. 214 (1833) ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. 
t. 1981. Opsianthes gaaroides, Lilja, Linnaea, xv. 261 (1841). Puberulent 
or glabrous, 1 — 3 ft. high, rather slender : leaves thin, entire, oblong- 
lanceolate to -ovate, 1 — 2 in. long : petals with rhomboidal limb and 
short broad claw which is often broadly toothed : filaments with hairy 
scales at base : capsules pedicellate, 8—12 lines long, 4-angled, glabrous, 
curved near the base. — Of wider range than the last ; equally common. 

7. BOISDUVALIA, Spach. Annuals, rigid and leafy, rather low 
(except the first species) ; the leaves alternate, sessile. Flowers small, 
purple, in leafy-bracted spikes. Calyx-tube funnelform above the ovary, 



EPILOBIACE.E. 225 

deciduous ; the lobes not reflexed in flower. Petals 4, obovate-cuneiform, 
sessile, 2-lobed. Stamens 8, all perfect, unequal ; filaments slender, 
naked at base ; anthers oblong, fixed near the base. Ovary 4-celled, 
several-ovuled ; stigma-lobes short, somewhat cuneate. Capsule mem- 
branaceous, ovate-oblong to linear, nearly terete, acute, dehiscent to the 
base. Seeds in 1 row in the cell. — A very distinct genus in habit and 
aspect, but separable from Oenothera only by the erect calyx-lobes, and 
from Epilohiutn, to which it is even more nearly allied, only by the 
naked seeds. Fl. late summer and early autumn. 

1. B. densiflora, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 233 (1876) ; Liudl. Bot. Reg. t. 
1593 (1883), under LEnothera. B. BouglasU, Spach, Monogr. Ouagr. 80. 
t. 31. f. 2 (1835). Stoutish, sparingly branching, 1—3 ft. high, soft- 
pubescent throughout : lower leaves lanceolate, acuminate, serrate- 
toothed ; the floral broader, entire : flowers in rather loose terminal 
spikes : calyx 1% — 3 lines long, half as long as the purple petals : cap- 
sules ovate-oblong, glabrous or villous, 2 — 4 lines long ; cells 3— 6-seeded, 
the partitions separating from the valves and adhering to the placenta : 
seeds nearly a line long. Var. imbricata. Less canescent than the type, 
the whole plant larger and coarser ; spikes thick and dense, the capsules 
concealed under the very broad, acute closely imbricated bracts. — The 
type, figured by Lindley, is not in middle California, but must be Ore- 
gonian. The species is represented in the Bay region only by the 
variety, which is a plant of very different aspect. 

2. B. stricta, Greene. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 340 (1868), under 
Gayophytum. B. Torreyi, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 233 (1876). (Enothera 
Torreyi, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 600 (1873j. Canescent with a short 
stiff spreading pubescence ; plant slender, seldom 1 ft. high : leaves 
lanceolate or linear, narrow at base, entire or denticulate, the floral not 
differing from the others except as being smaller : flowers in a loose 
simple spike, minute : capsules linear-acuminate, 4—6 lines long ; cells 
6 — 8-seeded : seeds V^ line long or less, ovate. Frequent in the Coast 
Range from Santa Clara Co. northward. 

3. B. cleistogama, Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 12 (1884). Very pale 
and glaucescent, glabrous or hispidulous ; 4 — 10 in. high, rather slender: 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, }^ — 1^^' in. long, remotely serrate : fl. small, rose- 
red, the earliest ones cleistogamous : capsule rather coriaceous : seeds 
numerous. — Species well marked by its very pallid herbage, coriaceous 
capsules, etc. ; common on the Sacramento plains from Chico southward, 
also in Lake Co., Sinwuds, and near Petaluma, Greene. B. glabella, 
the only other species, is smaller than this, glabrous and not pallid. It 
may be found within our borders northeastward, but is mainly Oregonian. 

8. GAURA, Linnseus. Herbs with alternate leaves, and terminal 
spikes or racemes of scarcely regular white or rose-colored flowers. 



226 EPILOBIACE^. 

Calyx-tube prolonged beyond the ovary, deciduous ; the lobes spreading 
or reflexed. Petals 4, with claws. Stamens 8 ; filaments with or without 
a scale-like appendage at base ; anthers oval. Ovary 4-celled, with 1 or 
2 pendulous ovules in each cell ; stigma i-lobed or discoid. Fruit hard 
and nut-like, dehiscent at apex only, or not at all. Seeds 1 or several. 

* Filameals wilTi a scale-like appendage on the inside helow; stigma 4-lohed, 
surrounded by a ring or indusium. — Gaura proper. 

1. a, parviflora, Dougl.; Lehm. Pugill. ii. 15 (1830). Annual, erect, 
1 — 5 ft. high ; pubescence dense, spreading, very soft : leaves ovate to 
lanceolate, repand-deuticulate : fi. small, in dense strict terminal spikes; 
petals spatulate-oblong, scarcely unguiculate, shorter than the calyx- 
lobes, rose-red : anthers oval, versatile : fr. 3 — 4 lines long, obscurely 
4-angled at summit, 4-nerved, about 2-seeded, indehiscent. — Upper valley 
of the San Joaquin and southward. 

* * Filaments naked; sligina discoid. — Genus Heterogaura, Kothr. 

2. Gr. heterandra, Torr. Pac. E. Rep. iv. 87 (1857). Heterogaura, 
Californica, Rothr. Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 854 (1864). Annual, slender, 
erect, glabrous, except the younger parts, which are slightly puberulent: 
leaves very thin, ovate-lanceolate, entire or obsoletely sinuate-dentate, 
petiolate : spikes panicled, loose : the lowest flowers leafy-bracted : 
petals narrowly spatulate, 2 lines long, purple : anthers round-cordate, 
basifixed ; those opposite the petals borne on shorter filaments, lanceo- 
late, acute, sterile : fr. 2 lines long, obovoid, 4-angled. — On shady banks 
in the woods of the Sierra Nevada from Yuba Co. southward ; also at 
Fort Tejon. June — Aug. 

9. CIRCJEA, Lobelius (Enchanter's Nightshade). Erect slender 
perennials, with opposite petiolate thin leaves, and small white flowers 
in terminal and lateral racemes ; fruit on slender spreading or deflexed 
pedicels. Calyx-tube little produced above the obovoid ovary, the base 
nearly filled by a cup-shaped disk ; limb 2-parted, deciduous. Petals 2, 
obcordate. Stamens 2, alternate with the petals ; anthers small, rounded. 
Ovary 1- or 2-celled ; ovules 1 in each cell, ascending. Fruit pear- 
shaped, indehiscent, covered with hooked prickles. 

1. C. Paciflca, Ascherson & Magnus, Bot. Zeit. xxix. 392 (1871); 
C Luleliana, Boland. Cat. 12, not of Lobel. Glabrous, simple, ^^ — 1 ft. 
high, from a perennial slender running rootstock : leaves ovate, rounded 
or cordate at base, acuminate, repand-denticulate, 1 — 2% in. long, on 
slender jjetioles about as long : racemes bractless : fl. 3^ line long ; 
calyx white, with very short tube : fr. 1 line long, rather loosely clothed 
with soft hairs which are merely curved above, scarcely hooked, 1-celled, 
1-seeded. — Yosemite and northward in the mountains ; inhabiting cool 
moist shades, by springs and streamlets. 



HALORAGE^. 227 

10. LUDWIGIA, Linna'us. Herbs of various habit (ours creeping 
and aquatic or riparian), witb. entire leaves, and axillary or spicate color- 
less or yellow 4— 5-merous flowers. Calyx-tube prismatic or cylindrical, 
not produced beyond the ovary ; lobes 4 or 5, persistent. Petals as 
many, or 0. Stamens as many or twice as many. Ovary broad at apex 
and usually flattened, or crowned with a conical style-base ; stigma 
capitate, 4 — 5-grooved. Capsule 4 — 5-celled, dehiscent by lateral slits or 
terminal pores. Seeds very many, minute. 

* Leaves opposite; Ji. 4-merous, apelalous. — Genus Isnardia, Linn. 

1. L. palustris, Ell. Sk. i. 211 (1821) ; Linn. Sp. PI. i. 120 (1753), 
under Isnardia. Glabrous ; stems creeping or floating, 4 — 10 in. long : 
leaves all opposite, oval or ovate, acute, % — 1 in. long, tapering to a short 
petiole : fl. sessile, 1 in each axil : petals rarely present, minute, reddish : 
capsule oblong, 2 lines long or less, somewhat 4-angled. — Common on 
muddy banks and shores of streams and ponds in the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin valleys ; also in the mountain districts adjacent on both sides. 

* * Leaves alternaie; fl. 5 merous, inlh large yellow caducous pe'.als. — 
Genus Jussi^a, Linn. 

2. L. diffusa (Forsk, ^gypt.-Arab. 210, under Jussixa), var. Cali- 
foriiica, Greene. Jussixa repens, var. Californica, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 
217 (1876). Perennial, the stout floating stems 1 ft. to 2 yards long ; 
herbage altogether glabrous : leaves obovate to obovate-oblong and even 
lanceolate, obtuse or acute, 1 — 23^ in. long, on petioles of % — 1 in.; 
stipules gland-like or slightly scale-like : fl. 6—8 lines broad, deep 
yellow ; the petals obtuse, but not obcordate : fr. 1 in. long, spongy and 
indehiscent ; the pedicel ^^ in. or more. — Plentiful, forming extensive 
floating masses, covering the surface of stagnant waters in the interior, 
from Lathrop and Stockton to above Sacramento ; flowering in early sum- 
mer. The plant is far from agreeing with the description of L. (Jussi^aJ 
repens; and, following a suggestion from Baron von Mueller, I find it 
more nearly at agreement with L. (Jussixa) diffusa, which occurs in 
Australia. 



Oeder XXXI. HALORAGE/E. 

Eobert Brown, in Flinder's Voyage, 17 (1814). 

A small order, not very distinct from the last : the plants herbaceous 
and mostly aquatic, with small inconspicuous usually apetalous flowers 
sessile in the axils of leaves or bracts. Calyx, in fertile flowers, adnate 
to the ovary, its limb there short or obsolete. Fruit indehiscent and 
nut-like, 1 — 4-celled, with a single seed suspended in each cell. Coty- 
ledons small and short. Albumen copious. 



228 HALORAGE^. 

1. HIPPURIS, Linnxus. Erect stoiitish but low perennial aquatics. 
Stem simple, short-jointed, with linear entire leaves in whorls of 8 or 12. 
Calyx-tube globular ; the limb entire. Petals 0. Stamen 1 ; filament 
subulate. Ovary 1-celled ; style becoming filiform and elongated, stig- 
matic throughout. Fruit oblong-ovoid, nut-like, 1-seeded. 

1. H. vulgaris, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 4 (1753). Limnopeuce vulgaris, Vaill. 
Mem. de TAcad. 15 (1719) ; Ray, Syn. Meth. 136 (1724). Stem if-1 ft. 
high ; herbage glabrous : leaves J^ — 1 in. long, acute : calyx % line 
long : style and stamen rather conspicuous : nutlet nearly 1 line long. — • 
In shallow ponds and pools, and about springy places, from the seaboard 
to the high Sierra ; but not often met with in California. 

2. MYRIOPHYLLUM, Matthiolus (Water-Milfoil). Aquatic per- 
ennials. Leaves usually verticillate, sometimes opposite or alternate ; 
the submersed ones pinnately divided into capillary or filiform segments; 
the emersed ones pectinate or toothed or entire and bract-like. Flowers 
axillary, commonly unisexual ; the staminate with a very short calyx- 
tube, and 2 — 4-lobed limb or none. Petals 2 — 4. Stamens 4 — 8. Calyx 
of pistillate fl. with a more or less deeply 4-grooved tube and 4 minute 
lobes or none. Styles 4, short, often plumose and recurved. Fruit 
somewhat drupaceous, quadrangular, when ripe splitting into 4 one- 
seeded carpels. 

1. M. spicatum, Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 992 (1763). Stems often many feet 
long, growing in deep waters, branching above : flowers in emersed 
short-peduncled verticillate spikes 2 — 3 in. long ; bracts reduced and 
inconspicuous ; submersed leaves in whorls of 4 or 5 : petals 4, deciduous : 
stamens 8 : carpels rounded on the back, with a deep wide groove between 
them. — Perhaps not rare in California, but known only in Mountain 
Lake, San Francisco, where it is abundant and of rank growth in two or 
three feet of water. July. 

2. M. hippuroides, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 530 (1840); Morong, Bull. 
Torr. Club, xviii. 245. Stems 4 — 8 in. long, growing in mud or shallow 
water, the emersed branches erect, simple, leafy, flowering throughout 
their length : submersed leaves in whorls of 4 and 6, with 6 — 8 pairs of 
capillary pinnae ; emersed ones often alternate, linear-lanceolate, serrate 
or dentate, or the uppermost entire ; the lowest often pinnatifid : petals 
often pinkish and somewhat persistent : stamens 4 : carpels carinate and 
somewhat roughened ; deep grooves between them. — Rather common in 
Lake and Marin counties ; also at Stockton. June. 

3. CALLITRICHE, Columaa. Small and slender, growing in water 
or on moist shaded ground. Leaves opposite, linear, spatulate or obovate. 
Flowers solitary in the axils, subtended by a pair of falcate or lunate 
membranous bracts, mostly consisting of a single stamen and pistil. 



HALORAGE^. 229 

Filaments elongated ; anthers reuiform, the cells ultimately confluent. 
Styles 2, filiform, papillose. Fruit sessile or peduncled, 4-celled, more 
or less carinate or winged on the margins, 4-lobed, the lobes united in 
pairs, forming 2 discs with a groove between them, at maturity parting 
into 4 compressed carpels, each 1-seeded. 

* Fruit pedicellatf. 

1. C. niarprinata, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 135 (1857) ; Mor. Bull. Torr. 
Club, xviii. 235. Usually terrestrial and very small ; when aquatic the 
submersed leaves linear, l-nerved, passing gradually into the emersed, 
which are oblanceolate or spatulate, 3-nerved : styles elongated, reflexed, 
deciduous : mature fruit on slender pedicels, often buried in the mud, 
deeply emarginate at both ends, broader than high, the margins of the 
thick carpels widely divergent and narrowly winged. — Common in low 
grounds, among growing grain, etc., from San Mateo and Alameda 
counties northward ; commonly terrestrial, but burying its fruit in the 
wet earth. June. 

* * Fruit sessile. 

2. C. palastris, Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 969 (1753), essentially : C. verna, 
Linn. Fl. Suec. 2d ed. 2 (1755) : C. aquatica, Huds. Fl. Angl. 439 (1762) : 
C. paliens, S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. 555 (1821). Usually aquatic, with linear 
retuse or bifid submersed leaves, and spatulate or obovate emersed ones, 
these rounded or truncate or retuse at apex, narrowed into a margined 
petiole, and profusely dotted with stellate scales : fr. oblong, with a small 
apical notch, and narrow-winged above, deeply grooved between the 
lobes. — Credited to middle California generally ; but most of the speci- 
mens perhaps belong to the next. 

3. C. Bolauderi, Hegelm. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. x. 116 (1868 ?) ; Mor. 
1. c. 238. Coarser than C paltistris, with floating leaves obovate or 
rhombic-obovate : styles twice as long as the fruit, subpersistent : fr. 
roundish or obcordate with acute or obtuse closely approximated mar- 
gins. — In vernal ponds and pools (terrestrial states not seen), from 
Contra Costa Co. and Placer, northward. Apr. — June. 

4. C. stenocarpa, Hegelm. 1. c. 114. Mor. 1. c. 237. Floating leaves 
obovate, rounded and entire at apex, 3-nerved, tapering to a short 
margined petiole, with stellate scales ; the submersed linear, all of a pale 
or dull green : styles erect, twice as long as the fruit, deciduous : fr. 
much compressed, sharply winged, round-obovate, abruptly and deeply 
emarginate. — In the Sierra Nevada, near Summit Station, Greene, and 
near Mt. Stanford, Sonne; in cold deep pools in swampy meadow-lands. 

5. C. autninnalis, Linn. Fl. Suec. 2d ed. 2 (1755) : C. virens, Gold. 
Act. Mosq. V. 119 (1817); S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. ii. 556. Submersed, 



230 CERATOPHYLL^, 

bright greeu, internodes short : leaves linear-lanceolate, broader and 
clasping at base, retuse or bifid at apex, destitute of stellate scales : 
styles about equalling the fruit, deciduous : fr. occasionally short- 
pediTncled, orbicular, or somewhat longer than broad, the lobes wing- 
margined. — A northern species, sometimes growing in running water ; 
Sierra Co., Lemnwn. 



Order XXXII. C E R A T P H Y L L /E . 

S. F. Gray, Natural Arrangement of British Plants, ii. 554 (1821). 

Represented by a single species of the genus 

CERATOr-HYLLUM, Liyinxus (Hornwokt). Aquatic herbs, with rigid 
verticillate leaves, these usually pinnatifid and the segments toothed. 
Flowers clustered in the leaf-axils, involucrate, unisexual. Involucre 
multifid. Calyx and corolla wanting. Stamens 14 — 20. Ovary ovate, 
1-celled ; style filiform, incurved. Fruit a small nutlet ; the seed 
pendulous. Albumen ; cotyledons 4, verticillate, 2 larger than the 
others ; plumule conspicuous, compound. 

1. C. (leinersum, Linn. Sp. PL i. 992 (1753) : C. apiculatum, Cham. 
Linnsea, iv. 503. t. 5 (1829). Stem 1 — *1 ft. long, nearly glabrous ; inter- 
nodes short : leaves in whorls of 6 or 8 ; the linear segments acute, 
aculeate-toothed : achene 2 lines long or more, elliptical, somewhat 
compressed, short-stipitate, with a short spine or tubercule on each side 
near the base, not margined : style eqiialling the achene. — At San 
Francisco, Cliaviisso, and at Clear Lake, Simonds. 



Order XXXIII. S A L I C A R I /€ . 

Adanson, Families des Plantes, ii. 232 (1763) ; Juss. Gen. 380 (1789). 
Lythrari^, Juss. Diet. Sc. Nat. xxvii. 453 (1823). 

Herbs (as to our few species), with entire leaves, and axillary or spicate 
mostly 5-merous purplish (rarely apetalous) flowers. Calyx tubular, 
enclosing the ovary but free from it ; the petals and definite stamens 
borne on the throat of it. Style 1. Capsule mostly 1-celled by the 
vanishing of the thin partitions. Seeds numerous, small, on a central 
placenta, exalbuminous. — Family closely allied to Epilobiaceae, but 
necessarily separated on account of the superior ovary. 

1. LYTHRUM, Liniuriis. Calyx cylindrical, 10^12-angled or -striate, 
10— 12-toothed ; the teeth alternately long and erect and shorter and 
incurved. Petals 5 or 6, inserted on the throat of the calyx-tube alter- 



SALICARIiE. 231 

nately with the erect teeth. Stamens from the middle or the base of 
the calyx-tube, as many or twice as many as the petals. Style filiform ; 
stigma capitate. 

* Petals minuie, pale. 

1. L. Hyssopifolia, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 447 (1753). Annual, simple or 
branching, erect, 4 — 10 in. high ; herbage pale, glabrous : lowest leaves 
opposite : fl. subsessile in the axils of the alternate leaves, very small, 
whitish or pale-purple. — Not rare in the Coast Range, from Humboldt 
Co. southward throughout the State ; also, in a large form, in the 
interior, near Stockton, etc. June — Aug. 

2. L. adsurgeus, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 12 (1889). Stoloniferous per- 
ennial, the 5-angled branches 1 — 3 ft. long, decumbent or assurgent ; 
herbage pallid, glabrous, slightly succulent : calyx 2^^ lines long, 12-striate, 
the striae at length widening below : petals pale purple. — Plant very near 
the preceding in all points except its great size and perennial stolon- 
iferous habit. Common in wet places near the Bay, at West Berkeley, etc. 

* * Petals larger, bright red-purple. 

3. L. Californicum, T. & G. Fl. i. 482 (1840). Stoloniferous perennial, 
the roots spreading near the surface of the ground : stem erect, 2—3 ft. 
high, simple below, paniculately branching above : lower leaves lanceo- 
late ; upper and floral linear : stnse of the calyx not wing-margined ; 
teeth very short. — Common in marshy land ; also along streams, and in 
springy places, both in the mountains and around San Francisco Bay. 

4. L. Saufordi, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 12 (1889). Perennial, not stolon- 
iferous, the stout contorted roots deep-seated and more or less hori- 
zontally spreading like rootstocks : stem erect, 1 — 2 ft. high, branched 
from the base, acutely 5- or 6-angled : herbage deep green, glabrous : 
leaves all alternate, linear-oblong, sessile : petals 6, bright purple, 
showy : calyx minutely and very acutely 12-carinate ; teeth short, tri- 
angular, the main ones nearly equalled by the intervening processes. — In 
dry fields along the lower San Joaquin, near Stockton, Saitford, and at 
Fresno, Blulelti; a troublesome plant in vineyards and orchards, owing 
to the tenacious vitality of the roots, which send up shoots and form new 
plants when cut in pieces by the plow. 

2. AMMA.NNIA, Houston. Glabrous opposite-leaved annuals ; the 
flowers 2 or more in each axil. Calyx subglobose, more or less distinctly 
4-angled, 4-toothed, usually with horn-shaped appendages alternating 
with the teeth. Petals 4, purplish, small and deciduous, sometimes 
wanting. Stamens 4 — 8. Capsule globular. 

1. A. cocciuea, Rottb. Progr. n. 4 (1773) : A. lalifoHa, Bot. Calif, not 
Linn. Erect, stoutish, % — 2 ft. high, with few spreading branches : 



232 LOASE^. 

stem 4-angled : leaves linear-lanceolate, 1 — 3 in. long, with a broad 
auricled base : fl. 1 — 5 in each axil, mostly sassile : calyx 1% lines long, 
in fruit becoming 2 lines broad : petals sroall, bright purple : capsule 
bursting irregularly. — Common along the rivers and smaller streams of 
the interior ; on the Sacramento, Jepsun; at Stockton, Sanford. 

2. A. hnmilis, Michx. Fl. i. 99 (1803). Rolala ramosior, Koehne. 
Smaller than the preceding : leaves linear-oblanceoltite, not auricled at 
base but tapering, sometimes short-petiolate : fl. 1 — 3 in each axil : calyx 
globular, the accessory teeth as long aa the lobes or shorter : petals 
small, purplish : capsule globular, dehiscent septicidally. — Habitat of 
the preceding, but less frequent. In deference to a technicality of the 
fruit structure, the species has lately been transferred to Rolala, but 
unadvisedly, as we think. 



Order XXXIV. L A S E yC. 

Jussieu, Annales du Museum, v. 18 (1804). 

Plants analogous in some respects, though scarcely allied, to Epilobi- 
acese. Herbage clothed with stinging or jointed and barl^ed hairs. 
Bark of the brittle stems often white and deciduous. Leaves without 
stipules. Oalyx-tube adnate to the 1-celled ovary. Stamens often very 
numerous, and some of the outer petaloid. We have but the following 
rather polymorphous genus. 

MENTZELIA, Plumier. Erect rigid and rough often fragile annuals 
and biennials. Leaves alternate, mostly coarsely toothed or pinnatifid. 
Flowers solitary or cymose, large or very small, yellow or white. Calyx- 
tube cylindrical, ovoid or turbinate ; the 5-lobed limb persistent. Petals 
5 or 10. Stamens oo , inserted on the throat of the calyx ; filaments free, 
or in clusters opposite the petals, filiform, or the outer more or less 
dilated and without anthers. Ovary truncate at summit, 1-celled ; 
ovules horizontal or pendulous, in 1 or 2 rows on the 3 linear parietal 
placentfe. Capsule mostly cylindrical, and opening irregularly at the 
summit. Seeds angled or compressed. 

* Annuals, small-flowered; petals 5 only; stamens rather feiv; capsule 

linear; seeds few, not flattened, irregularly angled, opaque, usually 

minutely tuberculate. — Genus Trachtphytum, Nutt. 

■i- Seeds prismatical, with grooved angles. 

1. M. dispersa, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 137 (1876). Slender, 1 ft. 
high : leaves narrowly lanceolate, sinuate-toothed or entire, the upper- 
most often ovate : fl. clustered near the ends of the many branchlets : 
calyx-lobes 1 line long, shorter than the petals : filaments not dilated : 



LOASE^. 233 

capsules narrowly linear-clavate, %—% in. long : seeds very often in a 
single row, short-prismatic, tlie 3 angles grooved, the sides only faintly 
tuberculate. — Yosemite Valley and northward, chiefly to the eastward 
of the mountains. It seems probable that M. Veaicliiatta, Kell. may be 
identical witli this ; in which case that name must be ado^ated, as long 
antedating M. dispersa. 

2. M. attiiiis, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 103 (1890). Near the last, but 
stouter, ofteu 2 ft. high, simple and leafy below, widely branching above : 
leaves lanceolate, deeply sinuate-pinnatifld : fl. scattered, Jo iii- broad : 
calyx-lobes attenuate-subulate, 2 — 3 lines long : capsule 1 in. long, 
almost linear, hispid with short stiff hairs which have a pustulate base : 
seeds prismatical with grooved angles but relatively shorter than in the 
last, and more tuberculate. — Plains of the San Joaquin, and far southward. 

3. M. micrautha, T. & G. Fl. i. 535 (1840) ; H. & A. Bot. Beech. 343. 
t. 85 (1840), under Barlonia. Rather slender, 1 — 2 ft. high, simple below, 
corymbosely and rather compactly dichotomous above : leaves ovate, 
acute or acuminate, entire or serrate- or sinuate-toothed, 1 — 2 in. long : 
fl. almost minute, shorter than the floral leaves : petals 5, oval, exceeding 
the calyx-lobes : 5 of the filaments petaloid, with emarginate apex : 
capsules cylindrical, or nearly so, 3 — 6 lines long, few-seeded : seeds 
prismatical, the length about twice the breadth, the base often oblique, 
the angles with a very shallow groove, the sides only faintly tubercu- 
late. — Bather rare, but found at Clear Lak6, also on Mt. Hamilton, and 
far southward. 

■i- -i— Seeds irregularly angled. 

4. M. albicaulis, Dougl.; Hook. Fl. i. 222 (1833) ; Hook. 1. c, under 
Barlonia: M. Veatchiaua, Kell. fide, Wats. Stem low, branching from 
the base or only corymbose, rather slender, % — 1 ft. high, white, 
shining and almost glabrous : leaves remote, sessile, lanceolate, trom 
deeply sinuate-pinuatifid to nearly entire : fl. small, solitary or in loose 
clusters, not bracted : petals obovate, little exceeding the subulate- 
lanceolate calyx-segments : filaments all subulate-filiform : capsules 
narrow-cylindrical : seeds rather numerous (20—40), i.^' line long, tuber- 
culate, irregularly and obtusely angled. — Eastern slope of the Sierra : 
also at Ft. Tejou. 

5. M. coiigesta, T. & G. Fl. i. 534 (1840). Habit and foliage of the 
last : flowers clustered at the ends of the branches, half hidden by broad 
toothed bracts which are scarious at base : petals }4— ) 2 in- long : fila- 
ments all filiform : capsule clavate, 3^3 in. long : seeds nearly a line long, 
tuberculate. — East of the Sierra only. 

6. M. gracilenta, T. & G. 1. c. Less branching, 1—1^4 ft. high, 
stouter : leaves narrowly lanceolate, pinnatifid with many narrow lobes, 



234 LOASE.i;. 

or only sinuate-toothed : fl. usually clustered, not conspicuoTisly brac- 
teate : calyx-lobes 2 — 5 lines long : petals obovate to oblanceolate, 
rounded or acutish at apex, 4 — 8 lines long : filaments subulate-filiform: 
capsule slightly clavate-dilated, % — 1 "^- long : seeds in 3 rows, angular, 
minutely tuberculate, % line long. — Plains and foothills of the interior, 
from the Sacramento southward ; also east of the Sierra. 

7. M. uitens. Loosely diffuse, the lower branches decumbent, 1 — 2 
ft. long, all clothed with a glabrous very white shining bark ; leaves 
few, the internodes elongated : fl. solitary in the upper forks, and some- 
what chistered at the ends of the branches, 1 in. broad : petals oblong- 
obovate, obtuse or emarginate : stamens short ; filaments subulate ; 
anthers oblong : seeds tuberculate, sharply and very siniiously angled. — 
Near Benton, Mono Co., W. H. Shockley; possibly perennial. 

8. M. pectiuata, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. iii. 40. f. 9 (1868). Stem 
low and mostly simple, 4—8 in. high, clothed like the leaves with a rather 
dense barbed pubescence : leaves rather deeply and closely pinnatifid : 
fl. deep yellow, 1 in. broad ; petals mostly obcordate, with a minute cusp 
in the sinus : stamens very many, half as long as the petals ; filaments 
filiform, or slightly subulate-dilated at base ; anthers small, orbicular : 
seeds unknown. — Marysville Buttes, Jepson, and southward along the 
foothills of the Sierra. Possibly all the so-called M. gracilenta of the 
interior of California may be of this very genuine species. It is a very 
beautiful plant, resembling the next. 

9. M. Liudleyi, T. & G. Fl. i. 533 (1840) : 31. Bartonia, Steud. Nom. 
i. 189 (1840). Bartonia aurea, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1831. Slender, simple 
or biishy-branched, 1 — 3 ft. high : leaves ovate to narrowly lanceolate, 
2 — 3 in. long, from pectin ate-pinnatifid to coarsely toothed : fl. axillary 
and terminal : calyx-lobes rather broadly lanceolate, }4 — M i^i- long : 
fl. vespertine : petals obovate, abruptly acuminate or ciispidate, 1 in. 
long or more, golden yellow : filaments many, very slender, unequal, the 
longest almost equalling the petals ; anthers minute, oval : capsule 1 in. 
long or more : seeds angular, tuberculate. — Common in the Mt. Diablo 
Range, near Livermore, on Mt. Hamilton, etc., on dry open hillsides. 

* * Flowers large; petals 3 or 10; stamens very numerous, the outer peta- 

loid-dilated; seeds many, in double rows on the S placentx, horizontally 

flattened and winged. — Genus Nuttallia, Raf. 

10. M. l^vicaulis, T. & G. Fl. i. 535 (1840) ; Dougl.; Hook. Fl. i. 221. 
t. 69 (1833), under Bartonia. Biennial, stout, branched above, 2 — 3 ft. 
high ; stem white, scarcely roughened : leaves lanceolate, sinuate- 
toothed, 2 — 8 in. long : fl. sessile on short branches, 3 — 4 in. broad, light 
yellow, diurnal : calyx-tube naked ; segments 1 in. long or more : petals 
oblanceolate, acute, almost equalled by the numerous stamens : capsule 



CUCURBITACE.E. 235 

1}^ in. long, 3 — 4 lines in diameter : seeds minutely tubercitlate, 1^,^ lines 
broad. — Very common in the mountain districts at low altitudes, and on 
the plains near the foothills. 



Okder XXXV. CUCURBITACE/E. 

Haller, Enumeratio Methodica Stirpium Helvetise, 34 & 505 (1742) ; 
Juss. Gen. 393 (1789). 

Herbs, tendril-bearing, trailing or climbing, the herbage commonly 
scabrous and more or less succulent. Flowers axillary to the alternate 
leaves, solitary or clustered, unisexual. Calyx-tube coherent with the 
ovary ; limb of 5 lobes or teeth. Corolla with petals more or less united 
into a cup or tube. Stamens 5, more or less united ; anthers 2-celled. 
or one of them 1-celled. Ovary 2— 3- celled ; style often wanting ; 
stigma 3 — 5-lobed. Fruit large, fleshy. Seeds large, usually compressed, 
exalbummous ; cotyledons fleshy, foliaceous or hypogeous. 

1. CUCURBITA, Pliny (Squash. Pumpkin). Our species perennial, 
prostrate. Leaves cordate, lobed. Flowers solitary. Calyx-tube cam- 
panulate, 5-lobed. Corolla campanulate, 5-cleft to the middle or lower, 
the lobes recurved. Sterile fl. with stamens at the base of the corolla ; 
filaments tlistinct ; anthers more or less united, flexuous. Fertile fl. 
with 3 rudimentary stamens ; ovary oblong, with 3 placentae and many 
horizontal ovules ; style short ; stigmas 3, 2-lobed. Fruit fleshy, in de- 
hiscent, in our species with a hard shell-like rind. 

1. C. fflPtidissima, HBK. Gen. et Sp. ii. 123 (1817) : C. pen-nnh 
(James), Gray, Journ. Bost. Soc. vi. 193 (1850). Koot perennial, large, 
fusiform : stems many feet long, trailing : leaves fleshy, scabrous, 
whitish beneath, triangular-cordate, acute, the slight lobes rounded or 
angled, mucronate-denticulate ; petiole shorter than the blade : tendrils 
3 — 5-cleft : fl. 3 — 4 in. long, yellow : corolla-lobes obtuse, mucronate : 
calyx-tube % in. long, the linear lobes as long : fr. globose, 2 — 3 in. 
thick, smooth, yellow, on a slender peduncle 1 — 2 in. long ; shell filled 
with a fibrous bitter pulp : seed thin, obovate, 4—5 lines long, obtusely 
margined.— From San Joaquin Co. southward, on low plains ; herbage 
very heavy-scented. 

2. C. paliuata, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 137 (1876). Smaller, canes- 
cent with a short scabrous indument and a more appressed pl^bescence 
on the foliage : leaves thick, 2—3 in. broad, of round-cordate outline, 
palmately 5-cleft to the middle ; lobes lanceolate, acuminate, often 
obtusely toothed near the base : fl. 3 in. long, on stout peduncles : 
corolla-lobes acutish : calyx-tube 1 in. long, the teeth broader than in 



236 CUCURBITACE^. 

the last: fr. globose: seeds 5 lines long. —Near Fresno, Bioletli. and 
southward. 

3. C. Califoruica, Terr.; Wats. 1. c. Canescent with a short white 
stiif pubescence : leaves thick, 5-lobed, 2 in. broad ; lobes triangular, 
acute or acuminate, mucronate : tendrils slender, parted to the base : 
fi. small, 1 in. long or more : calyx 4 — 5 lines, the linear teeth 2 lines. — 
Fresno Co., Biolelti, and northward to the Sacramento Valley. 

2. MICRAMPELIS, Rafiaesque (Big-Root). Rather slender mem- 
branous-leaved trailing or climbing herbs, with simple tendrils, and 
small white flowers, the fertile solitary and the sterile racemose or 
panicled from the same axil. Galyx-tube broadly campanulate, the teeth 
very small or obsolete. Corolla rotate or campanulate, deeply 5 — 7-lobed, 
with elongated papillose segments. Sterile fi. with stamens at base ; 
filaments short, united : anthers distinct or more or less coherent. 
Fertile fi. pedicellate, with or without abortive stamens. Ovary globose 
or oblong, bristly, 2— 4-celled ; cells 1 — 4-ovuled : style short; stigma 
2 — 3-parted or -lobed. Fruit prickly on the outside, fibrous and watery- 
pulpy within, dehiscing somewhat irregularly near the apex. Seeds 
large, ovoid or more rounded, more or less compressed, encircled by a 
mere marginal line ; hilum linear, acute ; cotyledons thick, remaining 
within the integuments after germination. All our species perennials 
with very large fleshy fusiform roots. * 

* Leaves rather longer than broad; corollas rotate. 

1. M. fabacea, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 129 (1890) ; Naud. Ann. Sc. Nat. 
xii. 154 (1859), under Echinocystis. Megarrhiza Caiifornica, Wats. Proc. 
Am. Acad. xi. 138 (1876). Glabrous or nearly so, the younger parts with 
scattered short curved hairs : stem climbing, 10 — 30 ft. long :. leaves 
2 — 6 in. broad, of round-ovate general outline, more or less deeply and 
angularly 5 — 7-lobed ; lobes abruptly acute, mucronate, the sinuses 
obtuse : sterile fl. 15 — 30 in slender racemes, the pedicels 1 — 2 lines long; 
corolla 3 — 4 lines broad, of a dull or greenish white : fertile fl. 5 — 6 lines 
broad, without abortive stamens : ovary globose, densely echinate, 
2-celled, 4-ovuled : fr. globose, 2 in. long, densely covered with stout 
pungent spines % — 1 in. long : seeds 4, obovoid, 10 lines long, 6 lines 
broad. Var. agrestis. Stems 2 — 4 ft. long, prostrate or merely trailing; 
leaves and fruits much smaller, the latter armed only sparsely with very 
short almost innocuous spines. — The type is common all along the sea- 
board, growing in thickets and climbing high over shriibs and smail 
trees. The variety occupies the open plains of the interior, and is a weed 
in the grain fields of the valley of the San Joaquin. Fl. Jan. — Apr. 

2. M. macrocarpa, Greene, 1. c, and Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 188 (1885), 
under Echinocystis. Size habit and foliage of the above, but fruits more 



ARISTOLOCHIACEaC. 237 

than twice as large, equally spinescent, 4-celled, 14-seeded ; 12 of the 
seeds arranged imbricately in the cells, the other two lying horizontally 
across the base of the fruit, both attached to the same side. — Southern, 
probably occurring north of Santa Barbara. 

* * Leaves hruader than long; corollas campanidale. 

3. M. Marali, Greene, 1. c; Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 1. c, under Echi- 
nocysiis. Marah inuncala, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 88 (1854). Herbage 
more or less scabrous, rather succulent : stems 3 — 30 ft. long : leaves 
reniform or round-cordate, 3 — 6 in. broad, more pedately lobed than in 
the last : racemes of sterile flowers ^-^ — 1 ft. long ; corolla }^ in. long or 
more, campanulate, clear white : fertile fl. with abortive stamens ; pedicel 
slender, 2—6 lines long : ovary oblong-ovate, acuminate, more or less 
clothed with soft spines, 2 — 3-celled ; ovules 1 — 4 in each cell, ascending 
or horizontal, attached to the outer side of the cell : fr. ovate-oblong, 
4 in. long, attenxiate at each end, more or less muricate with short weak 
spines : seeds horizontally placed, somewhat elliptical or nearly orbicular, 
compressed, 1 in. long and about half as thick. — Shady banks, or open 
northward slopes, trailing or high-climbing ; common about Mt. Tamal- 
pais, also in Alameda and Contra Costa counties among the hills. 

4. 31. Watsonii, Greene, 1. c; Cogn. in DO. Monogr. Phaner. iii. 819 
(1881), under Echinocyslis. E. muricala, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 57 
(1854). Megarrhiza muricala, Wats. Slender, not succtilent, glaucous, 
somewhat scabrous : stems 6 — 8 ft. long : leaves broad-reniform, 5 — 7- 
lobed, 2—4 in. broad, the lobes broader above and sharply sinuate-toothed 
or -lobed : sterile racemes few-flowered ; fl. small, white : fertile fl. 
without abortive stamens, on slender pedicels 1 — 2 in. long ; ovary glab- 
rous or muricate : fr. nearly globose, 1 in. thick or somewhat larger, 
naked or with a few weak spines near the base, 2-celled, 2 — 4-seeded : 
seed nearly globose, }4 ^^- thick, attached to the outer side of the cell, 
marginless or nearly so. — Foothills on both sides of the interior valley, 
from Calaveras Co. to the Marysville Buttes. Mar. — May. 



Order XXXVI. ARISTOLOCHIACE/E. 
Lindley, Introd. to Nat. Syst. 2d ed. 205 ( 1836). Aristolochi^, Adans. 

Shrubs or perennial herbs, with alternate entire mostly cordate or 
reniform exstipulate leaves, and solitary apetalous perfect flowers. Peri- 
anth lurid-purple or greenish, with a valvate regularly or irregularly 
3-lobed limb ; the tube more or less adnate to a 6-celled ovary, which 
becomes a 6-valved capsule, or a berry. Stamens 6 — 12, on the ovary, 
and more or less adnate to the style ; anthers extrorse. Styles usually 
6, united at the base. Seeds in 1 or 2 rows in each cell. 



238 AEISTOLOCHIACE^, 

1. ARISTOLOCHIA, Dioscorides (Pipe- Vine). Perianth very irregu- 
lar ; tube iuHated above the ovary, deciduous from it. Anthers 6, sessile 
and adnate to the short simple style. Stigma 3 — 6-lobed or -angled. 
Fruit capsular, 6-angled, 6-valved, septicidally dehiscent. 

1. A. Californica, Torr. Pac. R Rep. iv. 128 (1857). A deciduous 
climbing shrub, 6 — 10 ft. high, more or less densely pubescent with short 
silky hairs : leaves ovate-cordate, obtnse or acutish, 2 — 4 in. long, short- 
petioled : peduncles slender, 1 — 2 in. long, with a small cordate or 
obovate bract in the middle : calyx-tube broadly saccate and doubled 
upon itself, 1 — 1% i^i- long from the base to the top of the curvature, 
3^ in. broad, little contracted at the throat ; limb bilabiate, the upper lip 
of 2 broad obtuse lobes, with a disk-like thickening on the inner side : 
anthers contiguous in pairs under each of the 3 broad obtuse stigma- 
lobes : ovary linear-clavate, pubescent : capsule spongy-coriaceous, 
obovate, attenuate to a slender base, 1}^ in. long, 6-winged : seeds 
cuneate-obovate, deeply concave on the upper side ; i-aphe prominent, 
spongy. — Not very common, but met with here and there from Monterey 
to Napa in the Coast Mountains, and in the interior along the upper 
Sacramento ; flowers dull purple, appearing in April. 

2. ASA RUM, Dioscorides (Wild Ginger). Perianth regular, cam- 
panulate ; limb 3-cleft, persistent, the tips of the segments infolded in 
the bud. Stamens 12, nearly free from the styles, the alternate ones 
shorter ; connective continued beyond the anthers, pointed. Styles 6, 
more or less united. Capsule globose, fleshy, irregularly dehiscent. 
Seeds large, thick, in 2 rows in each cell. 

1. A. Hartweg-i, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 346 (1875). Acaulescent, 
with creeping aromatic rootstocks, the branches of these bearing 2 or 3 
scarious sessile caducous bracts, and 2 long petioled leaves, and a 
pedunculate flower in the axil of the lower leaf : leaves 2 — 6 in. long, 
reniform-cordate, with large rounded auricles, acutish, glabrous and 
mottled above, the margin ciliate : peduncle stout, % — 1 in. long : ovary 
}£ in. broad: calyx-lobes ovate, narrowed to a linear apex, 1 — 1^2 in- 
long : filaments stoutish, nearly free from the style ; anthers 1 line long, 
the produced connective setaceous, 1 — 2 lines long : styles short, nearly 
distinct, scarcely equalling the anthers : seeds 2 lines long, ovate. — 
Forests of the Sierra, at 4,000 to 7,000 ft., forming tufts. 

2. A. caudatum, Lindl. Bot. Reg. under 1. 1399 (1831). More slender, 
with longer rootstocks, sparingly pubescent with long floccose hairs : 
leaves cordate-reniform, somewhat cucullate, acutish or obtuse, 2-4 in. 
long, sparingly pubescent above : peduncles slender, 6—15 lines long : 
ovary 4 lines broad : calyx-lobes oblong, with long-attenuate apex, 
1—2)^ in. long : filaments stout, the free apex of the connective shorter 



FICOIDE^. 239 

than the anther : styles united, equalhng the stamens : seeds 1^/^ lines 
long, ovate. — Woods of the Coast Range from Santa Cruz northward. 

3. A. Leiiiiiioiii, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 294 (1879). Much like 
the last, but the leaves not cucullate, rounded at summit, thin, not 
mottled, nearly glabrous above : li. smaller ; calyx-lobes obtuse, or only 
acute, not caudate : seeds narrowly ovate. — In the Sierra Nevada, from 
Pluma.s Co. southward to Fresno ; the whole plant delightfully aromatic. 



Okdek XXXVII. F I C 1 D E >E . 

A, L. de Jussieu, Genera Plantarum, 315 (1789). 

Very succulent herbs or shrubs. Leaves plane, triquetrous or terete, 
without stipules. Calyx-tube coherent with the ovary ; the lobes usually 
5, unequal, foliaeeous. Petals very many and linear or 0. Stamens 
5 — 00 , with slender filaments, inserted on the calyx-tube. Styles 4 — 20. 
Fruit 4 — 20-celled, dehiscent stellately across the summit, or circum- 
scissile, or indehiscent. Seeds usually numerous and minute. 

1. MESEMBRYANTHEMUM, Breyne. Flowers large, terminal. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary. Petals and stamens very numerous. 
Fruit structurally capsular, but in ours juicy and baccate. 

1. M. fequilaterale, Haw. Misc. Nat. 77 (1803). Perennial, glabrous, 
glaucescent, the stout prostrate stems several feet long, the short floTvering 
branches ascending ; leaves opposite, very fleshy, triquetrous with linear 
sides, 1 — 3 in. long: H. solitary, subsessile, 1^2 in- broad, bright rose- 
purple : calyx-tube turbinate, % in. long or more ; the larger lobes as 
long : stigmas 6 — 10 : fr. large, fragrant, edible. — Very common on 
banks and cliffs near the sea ; also Australian and Chilian. 

2. SESUVIUM, Linnxus (Sea Purslane). Flowers small, axillary 
and terminal. Calyx-tube free from the ovary ; lobes 5, apiculate on the 
back near the top, scarious-margined, often purplish within. Petals 0. 
Stamens 5 — co, inserted at the top of the calyx-tube. Styles 3—5. 
Fruit ovate-oblong, 3 — 5-celled, circumscissile about at the middle, 
GO -seeded. 

1. S. Portulacastrum, Linn. Syst. Nat. 10 ed. 1058 (1759). Stems 
prostrate, 1 ft. long or more : leaves linear- to oblong-lanceolate, % — l^^ 
in. long, acute or obtuse : fl. sessile or pedicellate : calyx 3—5 lines long; 
the lobes purple : stamens oo . — Valley of the San Joaquin, near Lathrop, 
Biol ell i, and southeastward, in moist alkaline soil. 

3. TETRAGrONIA, Linnxus. Perennial, with alternate plane fleshy 
leaves and axillary greenish apetalous flowers. Calyx 4-cleft, adherent 



240 D A T I S C E ^. 

to the ovary, 4— 8-homed ; the lobes yellowish within. Stamens several. 
Styles 3 — 8 ; ovary 3 — 8-celled. Fruit osseous, nut-like, indehiscent, 
3 — 8-celled, the cells 1-seeded. 

1. T. expaiisa, Murr. Oomm. Gcetting. vi. 13. t. 5 (1783). Leaves 
petiolate, rhombic-ovate, acute or acuminate, entire, more or less crystal- 
line-papillose, 1 — 2 in. long : fl. sessile, 1—3 in each axil : fr. 4-horned, 
about ^3 in. long, scarcely as broad. — Common along the beaches of San 
Francisco Bay, both in Marin and Alameda counties ; perhaps even more 
widely dispersed on this coast, where it is apparently native. 



Ordeb XXXVIII. D A T I S C E /€ . 

Robert Brown, in Denham's Travels 25 (1826). 

With us represented by a species of 

DATISCA, Liniuc'us. Stout glabrous dioecious perennials. Leaves 
laciniate-piuuatifid ; the segments coarsely toothed. Flowers axillary, 
subsessile, fascicled. Calyx of sterile fl. very short, with 4 — 9 unequal 
lobes. Stamens 10 — 25 ; filaments short. Calyx of pistillate fl. with ovoid 
tube somewhat 3-angled, 3-toothed, the stamens when present 3, alternate 
with the teeth. Styles 3, bifid, opposite the teeth, the linear lobes stig- 
matic on the inner side. Capsule oblong, coriaceous, 1-celled, opening 
at apex between the styles. Seeds oo , small, in several rows on the 3 
parietal placentae ; embryo cylindrical, in the axis of small albumen. 

D. g-lonierata, B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 242 (1876) ; Presl. Eel. Hsenk. ii. 
88. t. 64 (1835), under Tricerastes. Erect, 3 — 6 ft. high, simply or sparingly 
branching : leaves of ovate or lanceolate outline, acuminate, 6 in. long ; 
the floral shorter : fl. 4 — 7 in each axil of the long leafy raceme, the 
fertile mostly perfect : anthers subsessile, 2 lines long, yellow : styles 
exceeding the ovary : capsule oblong-ovate, 3 — 4 lines long, slightly 
narrowed toward the truncate triangular 3-toothed summit. — Very com- 
mon along mountain streams from Lake and Amador counties southward. 



Okder XXXIX. C I S T 1 D E /E . 

Ventenat, Tableau du Reg. Veget. iii. 219 (1799). Oistine^e, DC. 
Prodr. i. 263 (1824). Oisti, Juss. (1789). 

In Asia an extensive family, of which we have one species. 

HELIANTHEMUM, Valerius Cordus. Low, branching, suflFrutescent. 
Leaves alternate, simple, entire. Flowers perfect, regular. Sepals 
mostly 5, unequal, persistent. Petals 5, yellow, fugacious. Stamens oo , 



CISTOIDEiE. 241 

hypog-ynons ; filaments filiform ; anthers short. Style 1, short, deciduous. 
Capsule ovoid, 1-celled , few- or many-seeded ; the seeds borne on the 
middle of the valve. 

H. soopariiim, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 152 (1838). Plant a bushy tuft of 
slender almost leafless green branches, 1 ft. high ; glabrate, or stellate- 
pubescent : the few leaves narrowly linear, '^ — 1 in. long : fl. on slender 
pedicels, solitary or cymose at the ends of the branches : sepals 3 lines 
long, acuminate, the 2 outer linear and much shorter : petals 4 lines : 
stamens about 20 : cfipsule equalling the calyx. — Common on dry bushy 
hills, from Lake Co. southward. 



Order XL. V I L A R I E /E . 

De Oandolle, Flore Francjaise, iv. 801 (1805). Violace^, S. F. Gray, 
Nat. Arr. ii. 607 (1821) ; Lindl. Synops. 35 (1829). Viol^, Juss. (1789). 

Eepreseuted by a fair number of species of the principal genus of the 
order, 

VIOLA, Pliny (Violet). Low perennial herbs, with alternate leaves 
of involute vernation, foliaceous persistent stipules, and 1-flowered 
axillary peduncles. Flowers 5-merous, often of two kinds ; the earlier 
complete and conspicuous but often sterile ; the later with rudimentary 
petals, cleistogamous, producing numerous seeds. Sepals unequal, more 
or less auricled at base, persistent. Petals uneqiial, the lower one often 
spurred at base. Stamens hypogynous, the adnate anthers connivent 
over the pistil, broad, often coherent, the connectives of the two lower 
often bearing spurs which project into the spur of the petal. Ovary 
1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae ; style clavate ; stigma 1-sided. Cap- 
sule 3-valved ; the valves bearing the seeds along the middle. Seeds 
rather large, with a smooth hard testa, and a large straight embryo in 
fleshy albumen. 

* Leaves and peduncles all from asnhterraneait routslock. 

1. V. blauda, Willd. Hort. Berol. t. 24 (1806). Rootstock short and 
erect, or longer and ascending, at length producing runners : leaves 
round-cordate or reniform, ^ — 2 in. broad, glabrous or minutely pubes- 
cent, obscurely crenate-toothed : peduncles 1 — 4 in. high : fl. white, the 
lower petals purple-veined, nearly beardless, 3 — 4 lines long ; spur 
short. — Wet meadows in the Sierra, at middle elevations. 

2. V. ol>liqiia, Hill, Hort. Kew. 316. 1. 12 (1769): T". cucullata, Ait. Hort. 
Kew. iii. 288 (1789). Rootstock stoutish, branching, not stoloniferous : 
leaves glabrous or pubescent, cordate with a broad sinus, the lowest 
often reniform, the later acute or acuminate, crenate-toothed, cucullate 



242 VIOLAEIE^. 

when young : peduncles 3—10 in. high : fi. deep or pale purple or 
violet ; petals 5 — 8 lines long, the lateral and often the lowest bearded ; 
spur short and thick. — Sierra' Co., Anderson, Lemmon. 

3. V. ODOBATA, Renealm, Specim. 141. t. 140 (1611) ; Linn. Sp. PL ii. 
934 (1753). Rootstock stout, branching, stoloniferous : leaves round- 
cordate, obtuse, crenate, more or less villous or glabrate, on petioles 
3 — 10 in. long : peduncles shorter than the leaves : fl. large, violet, 
fragrant. — Occasionally spontaneous, as an escape from the gardens. 

* * Stems short or elongated, leafy. 
-f— Leaves widivided; flowers not yelloiv. 

4. V. cauiiia, Linn. var. adniica, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 377 : 
T'. adunca, Smith, Rees Oycl. xxxvii (1817). Scarcely stoloniferous, 
mostly tufted and low, 2 — 6 in. high, glabrous or piiberulent : leaves 
ovate or ovate-oblong, with subcordate or almost truncate base, obtuse, 
or rarely acutish, obscurely crenate, }4 — ^^6 i^- long ; stipules narrowly 
lanceolate, lacerate-toothed : fi. rather large, violet turning to red- 
purple ; lateral petals bearded ; spur variable, much shorter than the 
petals, or quite as long, usually straight and obtuse, sometimes curved 
and even acute. — In a low compact almost acaulescent state, with small 
leaves and large long-stalked rich violet flowers, common on grassy 
hilltops along the seaboard from San Francisco northward, flowering 
in February and March. Less frequent in the Sierra Nevada from 
Mariposa Co. northward ; the plant either subacaulescent and with short 
blunt spur, or several inches high, with spur varying from acute to obtuse 
and from long to short in the same localities. In the mountain forms 
the flowers appear to be paler, and the leaves are always larger. The 
leaves are less cordate and the whole plant more slender than in any 
Old World varieties of the species ; and perhaps the T'. adunca of Smith 
may be proven valid. 

5. V. ocellata, T. & G.Fl. i. 142 (1838). Erect or ascending, i^— 1 ft. 
high, nearly glabrous, or pubescent : leaves cordate or cordate-ovate, 
acutish, crenate, 1 — 2 in. long ; stipules scarious, entire or slightly 
lacerate : petals .5 — 7 lines long, the upper ones white within, deep 
purple without, the others pale yellow-veined with purple, the lateral 
ones with a purple spot near the base, and slightly bearded. — From 
Monterey northward, in woods of the Coast Range ; a very beautiful 
plant and the Pacific Coast analogue of V\ Canadensis. 

6. Y. cuueata, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xiv. 290 (1879). Slender, 3—12 ■ 
in. high, glabrous : leaves rhombic-ovate, acute, attenuate into a slender 
petiole, somewhat crenately toothed above : petals deep purple, with 
more or less white, 4 — 6 lines long, beardless, the broad short spur 
yellowish : capsule glabrous. — Humboldt Co. and northward. 

H— -i— Leaves undivided; fl. yellow witliin, often brown-purple without. 



VIOLARIE^. 243 

7. y. glabella, Nutt.; T. & Q. Fl. i. 142 (1838). Stems slender from 
a creepiuy rootstock, nearly or quite leafless below, 5 — 12 in. hig-h ; 
minutely pubescent or glabrous : radical leaves on long, the cauline on 
short petioles, reniform-cordate to cordate, acute, crenately toothed or 
creuiTlate, 1 — 4 in. broad ; stipules usually small and scarious, entire or 
serrulate : fl. bright-yellow, % in. long ; jDetals more or less purple- 
nerved, the lateral ones bearded : capsule obovate-oblong, 4 — 5 lines 
long, abruptly beaked. — In wet shades at middle elevations in the moun- 
tains, from Santa Cruz and Fresno counties northward to Alaska. 

8. V. peduuculata, T. & G. 1. c. 141 ; Bot. Mag. t. 5004. Stems 2~-G 
in. long, mostly prostrate or assurgent ; almost glabrous or puberulent : 
leaves rhombic-cordate, usually almost truncate at the broad base, 
obtuse, coarsely crenate, % — 114 ^^- long ; stipules foliaceous, narrowly 
lanceolate, entire or incised : peduncles erect, greatly exceeding the 
leaves, 4 — 8 in. high, conspicuously bibracteolate : fl. 1 in. broad or 
more, golden-yellow, the upper dark-brown on the outside, the others 
purple-veined within : lateral petals bearded : capsule oblong-ovate, 
4 — 6 lines long, glabrous. — On low hills, in open ground, from the interior 
near Vacaville, Jepsun, to San Francisco, and southward along the sea- 
board to San Diego. The most showy of our violets. 

9. V. sannentosa, Dougl.; Hook. Fl. i. 80 (1833). Stems prostrate, 
more or less creeping, slender, sparsely leafy ; slightly pubescent : 
leaves rather thick and persistent, reniform, round-cordate or ovate, 
}4 — 1/2 iii- broad, finely crenate, deep green above, often rusty beneath, 
usually punctate with dark dots : peduncles slender, elongated : fl. 
light-yellow, not large. — In woods of the Coast Range from Monterey 
northward. 

10. V. purpurea, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 56 (1855) : V. aurea, Kell. 
1. c. ii. 185. f . 54 ( 1863). Stems clustered, from a branching perpendicular 
root, 2 — 6 in. high : pubescence very scant but under a lens hispidulous, 
somewhat retrorse or at least spreading : herbage rather succulent, in 
early stages purple, except the upper surface of the leaves : leaves from 
broadly ovate to lanceolate, tapering to the petiole, entire or more or le,ss 
coarsely and often somewhat crenately toothed : peduncles little exceed- 
ing the leaves : petals 3 — 5 lines long, light yellow within, dark purple 
externally : capsule almost globular, 3 lines long, pubescent. Yar. 
piiietofniiii. T^ pinetonim, Greene, Pitt. ii. 14 (1889). Root or rootstock 
more or less horizontal or ascending, 1 ft. long or less : stems 3 — 10 in. 
high ; the short hispidulous retrorse pubescence not scant : leaves 
mostly lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, the broader coarsely sinuate- 
toothed, the others merely sinuate or almost entire : peduncles slender, 
elongated, bearing smaller flowers which are purple without and of a 
very pale yellow within, the whole fading with a bluish tinge : capsules 



244 VIOLARIEiE, 

round -obovate, cinereously hispidnlous-puberulent.— Californiau allies 
or subspecies of V. NuUallU, the widely distributed yellow violet of the 
Great Basin and Rocky Mountain regions. , The type, running into many 
forms, is of the Mt. Diablo Range and the Sierra Nevada northward : 
the variety is of the southern Sierra, from Kern Oo. to San Bernardino. 
It is found in dry pine woods of the higher elevations. 

-)— H— 4— Leaves divided or lohed; Ji. yellow. 

11. V. lobata, Benth. PI. Hartw. 298 (1849). Stoutish, erect, }^—l ft. 
high, from an erect rootstock, leafy to the summit ; puberulent or nearly 
glabrous ; leaves of reniform or cordate outline, 2—4 in. broad, the 
cauline short-petioled, all palmately cleft into 5—9 narrowly oblong lobes, 
the central lobe largest or longest ; some of the radical leaves less lobed 
or only coarsely toothed : petals 6 lines long, yellow, the upper brownish 
externally, the lateral slightly bearded : capsule 5—6 lines long, acute. 
Var. iutegrifolia, Wats. Leaves deltoid, acuminate, evenly crenate- 
serrate, not at all lobed. — Sierra Nevada and inner Coast Range ; widely 
dispersed. The plant with undivided foliage is probably distinct. Its 
leaf-outline is wholly different. 

12. y. Hallii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 377 (1872). Stems low, 
numerous, from a somewhat deep-seated erect rootstock : glabrous, pale, 
leafy throughoiit : leaves 3-parted, decurrent upon the petiole ; segments 
lanceolate, entire, acute ; stipules foliaceous, lanceolate or oblong, sub- 
laciniate : 2 upper petals dark purple, the others yellow ; spur very 
short. In Humboldt Co., Rattan, Chesnut tfc Drew, and northward. 

13. V. Douglasii, Steud. Nom. ii. 14 (1841); Greene, Pitt. ii. 14: 
V. chrysaiitha, Hook. Ic. t. 49 (1837), not of Schrader (1834). Root and 
clustered stems of the last, only the leaves and flowers appearing above 
ground ; more or less pubescent : leaves large, bipinnately dissected 
into long linear or oblong segments ; stipules lanceolate, entire or 
toothed : peduncles 2—5 in. long, equalling or exceeding the leaves : 
petals 5—7 lines long, golden yellow, the 2 upper brownish-purple 
externally : capsiile 5 lines long, acute.— Throughout the State, chiefly 
in the interior, on open plains and hillsides. 

14. V. Sheltoiiii, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 67. t. 2 (1857). Nearly or 
quite glabrous : leaves of broad-cordate outline, ternately compound, 
or 3-parted ; the divisions lobed or cleft into oblong or linear se^ents : 
peduncles about equalling the leaves : fl. not half as large as in the last, 
yellow, veined with purple. — A slender species of the woodlands of the 
northern Sierra ; Nevada and Plumas counties, etc. 

-1— H— +- H— Leaves divided; Jt. not yellow. 

15. V. Beckwithii, T. & G. Pac. R. Rep. ii. 119. t. 1 (1855). Foliage 
of the preceding, but plant more condensed and low, appearing as if 



EESEDACE^. 245 

acaulescent, the stems mostly very short : peduncles about equalling 
the leaves : petals 4 —7 lines long, very broad and rouilded above ; the 
upper deep purple, the others lilac with a yellowish base, the lateral 
ones bearded, the lowest emarginate : stigma bearded at the sides : ^ 
capsules obtuse. — In the northern Sierra ; a beautiful species, wrongly 
described in the " Botany of California " as with yellow lower petals ; and 
V. molilalia, Kell. is erroneously referred here. It is a small V. lobata. 



Order XLI. RESEDACE>E. 

De Candolle, Theorie Elementaire, 214 (1813). 

Herbs with alternate exstipulate leaves, and terminal racemes or spikes 
of small nearly colorless but often fragrant flowers. Sepals 4 — 6, often 
somewhat united at base, uneqiial, herbaceous, persistent, open in the 
bud. Torus bearing a rounded and glandular hypogynous disk which is 
produced posteriorly between the petals and the stamens. Petals 4 — 6, 
open in the bud, the lamina often lacerate or palmately parted. Stamens 
3 —20, inserted on the disk ; anthers oval, fixed by the middle, introrse. 
Ovary 1-celled, 3 — 4-lobed, of 3—4 carpels which at apex are distinct and 
divergent ; stigmas sessile, minute, alternate with the parietal placentae. 
Fruit membranous, 1-celled, open long before maturity. Seeds reniform, 
exalbuminous. 

1. RESEDA, Pliaij (Mignonette. Dyer's Weed). Characters of 
the genus almost those of the order. Two Old World species, fugitives 
from the flower gardens, are here and there spontaneous with us. 

1. R. AiiBA, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 449 (17.53). A tall stout sparingly branching 
perennial, with long spikes of whitish flowers : leaves deeply pinnate : 
sepals 5 or 6 : petals as many, all equal, 3-cleft. 

2. R. ODORATA, Linn. Sp. PI. 2 ed. i. 646 (1762). Annual ; leaves 
oblanceolate or spatulate, often undulate : spike or raceme short in fl., 
elongated in fr. : fl. greenish, the large anthers dull red : petals parted 
into about 6 spatulate-liuear segments. — This, the fragrant Mignonette, 
far more common in cultivation than the other, is less frequently met 
with in waste places. 

2. OLIGfOMERIS, Camhessedes. Annual, with narrow linear entire 
leaves, and very small nearly colorless flowers in terminal slender spikes. 
Sepals 4, lateral. Petals 2, next the axis, free or united at base, entire or 
2— 3-lobed, persistent. Disk obsolete. Stamens 3—8 ; filaments united 
at base. Capsule 4-angled, 4-beaked, qo -seeded. 

1. 0. subulata, Boiss. Fl. Orient, i. 435 (1867) ; Del. Fl. ^gypt. 15 
(1813), under Reseda: 0. glaucescens, Camb. Jacquem. Voy. iv. 24. t. 25 



246 CAPPARIDE^. 

(1834). Ellimiaruderalis, l^ntt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 125 (1838). Glabrous, 
5 — 10 in. high, branching from the base : leaves somewhat succulent, 
often fascicled, }^ — 1 in. long : fi. minute, subtended by small bracts : 
capsules in long loose spikes, depressed-globose, about 1^^' lines thick, 
angled and sulcate, shortly 4-beaked. — A seaside and alkaline-desert 
herb; not known north of Santa Barbara. 



ObderXLIl CAPPARIDE/E. 

Ventenat, Tabl. du Eeg. Veg. iii. 118 (1799), Cappakides, Juss. (1789). 

Herbs or shrubs, with more or less heavy-scented and pungent-flavored 
herbage, alternate simple or compound usually exstipulate leaves, and 
complete flowers in bracted racemes. Sepals or calyx-lobes 4 Petals 4. 
Stamens 6 — 8, mostly unequal, usually inserted on the very base of the 
calyx, sometimes hypogynous. Ovary and fruit commonly stipitate, 
composed of 2 closely united carpels. Fruit various ; a 1-celled silique 
with many seeds on 2 placentae, or the 2 valves 1-seeded and separating 
from the axis as nutlets. Seeds globose or reniform, exalbuminous. 

1. ISOMERIS, Nuttall. A low stoutish and rigid glaucous and 
puberulent shrub, with 3-foliolate leaves, and rather large yellow flowei's 
in short bracteate terminal racemes. Calyx persistent, 4-cleft ; lobes 
ovate, acuminate. Petals sessile, oblong, equal. Torus fleshy, dilated. 
Stamens 6, on the torus. Pod large, inflated, coriaceous, obovate-oblong, 
indehiscent. Seeds few, large, smooth. 

1. I. arborea, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 124 (1838); Torr. Bot. Mex. 
Bound, t. 4. Cleorne Isomeris, Greene, Pitt. i. 200 (1888). Common south- 
ern seaboard shrub, scarcely more than a species of Cleorne; probably not 
found many miles north of Santa Barbara. 

2. CLEOME, Linnxus. Ours erect branching annuals, with palmately 
3 — 7-foliolate leaves (the leaflets entire), and yellow flowers in bracteate 
racemes. Sepals 4, sometimes united at base. Petals sessile or unguic- 
ulate. Stamens 6, on the small toriTs. Pod oblong or linear, 2-valved ; 
valves deciduous from the slender placentae. Seeds co , round-reniform. 

1. C. lutea, Hook. Fl. i. 70. t. 25 (1830); Bot. Eeg. xxvii. t. 67. 
Glabrous or slightly pubescent, 1 — 2 ft. high : leaflets 5, linear- to oblong- 
lanceolate, 1—2 in. long, acute, short-petiolulate, equalling the petioles ; 
stipules setaceous, caducous ; bracts simple, bristle-tipped : fl. bright 
yellow, corymbose, the raceme elongated in fr.; petals 3—4 lines, 
exceeding the ovate-lanceolate sepals: stamens long-exserted: pod 6 — 15 
lines long, 2 lines broad, acute at each end ; stipe and pedicel each i., in. 
long. ^Valleys of northwestern Nevada and doubtless within California. 



CRUCIFER^. 247 

2. C. platycarpa, Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. 235. t. 2 (1873). Size and 
habit of the last, but pubescent and glandular: leaflets 3, broadly oblong 
to lanceolate, 6 8 lines long, obtuse or acutish : sepals linear-setaceous : 
pod -^4 in. long, ly in. broad : seeds 10—12 : style 2 lines long. — Range 
of the preceding. 

3. CLEOMELLA, De Candolle. Habit of Cleome; flowers smaller; 
leaves 3-foliolate. Pod short and few-seetled, ovoid or rhomboidal, the 
valves often produced laterally into horn-like appendages. 

1. C. obtusifolia, Torr. Frem. Eep. 311 (1845). Pubescent, very much 
branched from the base, % — 2 ft. high : leaflets oval or oblong, }^ — 3^ 
in. long, equalling the petioles, glabrous above ; stipules long and fim- 
briate : fl. small, in leafy racemes : sepals ovate, lacerate-ciliate : petals 
1 — 2 lines long : pods 2 — 5 lines broad, the valves acutely and often 
slenderly horned : style very slender, 2 lines long : stipe 3 lines, reflexed 
upon the pedicel. — Common along the northern and western borders of 
of the Mohave Desert, but said to have been found in the first place 
near Sacramento, Fremont., but there may be an error as to that locality. 

4. WISLIZENIA, Engelmann. Habit, foliage and flowers of Cleomella, 
but the pod didymous; valves contracted each upon its one seed and 
forming a n^^t-shell-like covering to it, nerved and reticulated; style 
elongated. 

1. W. refracta, Engelm. Wisliz. Eep. 14 (1848); Gray, PI. Wright, i. 
11. t. 2 (1853). Erect, branching, 1—2 ft. high: leaflets 3, obovate to 
oblanceolate, 5 — 9 lines long, usually surpassing the petioles: racemes 
dense, in age elongated: petals 1 line long: stamens and ovary exserted: 
cells of the ovary 2-ovuled: fr. 1}{ lines broad; the divergent obovate 
reticulate valves separated by a perforated partition: style persistent, 
1 — 2 lines long: stipe 2 — 3 lines, strongly refracted upon the pedicel. — 
Common at Lathrop, and near Sacramento; also at the south. 



Order XLIII. CRUCIFER/E. 
Adanson, Fam. ii. 409 (1763); Jussieu, Gen. 237 (1789). 

Herbaceous or rarely suffrutescent plants with watery pungent juice, 
alternate exstipulate leaves, and usiially racemose white or yellow or 
sometimes purple flowers. Sepals 4, imbricate, deciduous. Petals 4, 
often unguiculate, the laminae spreading in the form of a cross (unequal, 
and differently arranged in many of our Slrepianlhi), hypogynous, 
deciduous. Stamens almost always tetradynamous, i. e., 4: long, 2 short 
(except in some Sireplanthi, where they are in 3 imequal pairs, and in 
Athysanus and Helerodraba, which have them all of equal length); in 



248 CRUCIFEE^E, 

some species reduced to 4 and even 2, always hypogynous (except in 
Suhularia). Fruit usually a silique or silicle of 2 valves which separate 
from a central partition formed by the united placentae. Seeds attached 
to the outer edge of the placental partition all around, usually forming a 
single row under the valves; albumen 0; embryo curved, the relations 
of radicle and cotyledons various. 

lliiitjit of the Crenera. 

Inflorescence bractless; pods stipitate, -------- 12, 13 

*' " pods not stipitate; 

Pods 2-celled, 2-valved, regtilarly dehiscent from below; 

■' short, flattened parallel with the broad partition, - - 1, 2, 4 

" " flattened contrary to the narrow partition, - - 20 — 23 

" ovoid or globose, or the valves distended, - - - . 3, 7 

" longer, flattened or subterete, or 4-angled, beaked, - 8, 9, 14, 18 
" long, " " " beakless, 10, 11, 13, 15-17, 19 

" of 2 short opposite indehiscent 1-seeded cells, - - - 25 

" longer, transversely jointed or indehiscent, - . - 26, 27 

" orbicular, 1-seeded, indehiscent, ------ 6, 24 

" ovoid, several-seeded, indehiscent, ------ 5 

Inflorescence leafy or bracted; pods without partition, dehiscent from the 

apex or indehiscent, ----------- 28 

1. PLATYSPERMUM, Hooker. Low annual, with pinuatifid radical 
leaves, and slender 1-flowered scapes. Flowers very small, white. Silicle 
oval, about 8-seeded. Seeds flat, with a broad scarious wing; cotyledons 
accumbent. — The genus Leavenworthia of the Atlantic slope of the Con- 
tinent is very nearly related to this. 

1. P. scapigerum, Hook. Fl. i. 68. t. 18 (1829). Glabrous, 2—3 in. 
high: leaves somewhat runcinately pinnatifid: sepals equal, spreading: 
petals very small, scarcely unguiculate, obovate, white : pods about % in. 
long. — Sierra Co., Lemmon, and northward, usually in rather moist open 
ground. Apr. 

2. ALYSSUM, Dioscorides. Low perennials, with simple leaves, and 
more or less of a stellate pubescence. Flowers racemose. Sepals equal. 
Petals white or yellowish. Longer filaments often toothed. Pod orbicu- 
lar; valves convex, nerveless. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, slightly 
margined; cotyledons accumbent. 

1. A. ALYSsoiDES, Gouau, Hort. Monsp. 321 (1762); Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 
652 (1753), under Clypeola: A. calycinurn, Linn. Sp. PI. 2 ed. ii. 908 
(1763). Annual, branching from the base, decumbent, i^ — 1 ft. high; 
herbage canescent: leaves linear-spatulate, }4 — ^ i^- long: raceme rather 
slender, the white or pale yellow petals little exceeding the sepals : pod 
orbicular, with a thin margin, slightly emarginate, l^g lines broad, little 
exceeding the persistent sepals, 4-seeded, on spreading pedicels a line 
long: style }4 line. — Said to be naturalized about the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco, but we have not seen it. 



CEUCIFER^. 249 

2. A. MARiTiMUM, Lam. Encycl. i. 98 (1783); Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 652 
(1753), under Clypeola. Perennial, decumbent, the numerous branches 
1 ft. long or less; herbage softer than in the last, ostensibly glabrous, 
under a lens showing a few appressed hairs: fl. 2 lines long, the broad 
white petals twice the length of the deciduous sepals: pod orbicular, 

1 line broad, nearly glabrous, 2-seeded: pedicels slender, spreading. — The 
Sweet Alyssum is spontaneous in many places, especially on the San 
Francisco peninsula. 

3. PHYSARIA, A. Gray. Low herbs (our species perennial) silvery- 
canesceut with a dense close stellate pubescence, entire or pinnatifid 
leaves, and racemose yellow flowers of middle size; calyx more or less 
persistent as in Alyst<u7n. Pods globose or ovoid, or the valves more 
inflated and distended, nerveless. Style long, persistent. Seeds few, in 

2 rows, flattened, rarely somewhat margined: cotyledons accumbent. 

* Pods didymous. — Typical Phtsaria. 

1. P. didymocarpa, Gray, Gen. 111. i. 162 (1849); Hook. Fl. i. 49. t. 16 
(1829), under \'esicaria. Leaves rosulately crowded on a short crown 
or caudex, broadly spatulate, occasionally somewhat lyrate, those of the 
decumbent flowering branches oblanceolate, entire: racemes short: pods 
2 — 6 lines broad, /. e., more or less widely didymously-inflated, the parti- 
tion narrow or nearly obsolete. — East of the Sierra, thence common 
to Colorado. 

* * Pod globose or ovate. — Genus Le.squeeella, Wats. 

2. P. montana, Greene. Gray, Proc. Philad. Acad. 58 (1868), under 
Vesicaria. Habit of the preceding: rosulate radical leaves orbicular or 
obovate, long-petioled, those of the branches oblanceolate or spatulate, 
entire, or with few teeth : fl. 3 lines long: pods oblong-ovoid, 2% lines 
long, on slender recurved pedicels; style a third shorter. — On Lassen's 
Peak, Leminon, thence eastward and northward. 

4. DRABA, Dioscorides. Small plants of various habit, annual or 
perennial. Leaves entire or toothed. Flowers small, white or yellow. 
Sepals equal. Filaments mostly flattened, without teeth. Pods oval, 
oblong or linear, flat; valves nearly flat, nerveless or faintly l-nerved. 
Seeds in 2 rows in each cell, wingless; cotyledons accumbent. 

* Slender annuals or biennials; leaves mostly radical. 

1. D. stenoloba, Ledeb. Fl. Ross. i. 154 (1842): D. hirta, var. siliquosa, 
Ch. & Schl. Linnaea, i. 23 (1826). Radical leaves oblanceolate, }-2 — 1 in. 
long, rather thin, acute, scarcely at all toothed, sparsely clothed with 
stiff more or less branching or stellate hairs: stem 4 — 12 in. high, loosely 
racemose almost throughout, glabrate above, canescently pubescent 
below: petals bright or pale yellow, only 1 — 1^ lines long, obtuse: pods 



250 CRUCIFEE^. 

3—5 lines long, linear, acute at each end, glabrous, on spreading pedicels 
2—4 lines long: style 0.— In the Sierra Nevada at 7,000 to 10,000 ft., 
from Mono Pass and Yosemite northward. 

2. D. crassifolia, Grab. Edinb. Phil. Journ. 182 (1829). Habit of the 
last, but smaller, glabrous, the .stem racemose only above the middle, 
thus seeming more scape-like, the leaves thickish and a trifle fleshy, 
narrowly oblanceolate or linear, I4 — 1 in. long, rarely with 1 or 2 teeth, 
occasionally ciliate: petals yellow, scarcely a line long, little exceeding 
the calyx : pods lanceolate, acute at each end, 3 — 4 lines long, on pedicels 
nearly as long; style 0. — Habitat of the last. 

* * Stouter plants, often alpine and divarf, mostly perennial, 
very leafy below. 

3. D. aureola, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 430 (1880): D. aurea, Wats. 1. e. i. 
28, not Vahl. Occasionally only biennial, but stout, erect, stellate- 
pubescent, the simple or sparingly branching stem 2 — 4 in. high : leaves 
crowded at base, spatulate, obtuse, entire, I4 — % ^^- long: raceme short 
and dense: fl. bright yellow: pods broadly oblong, rather obtuse at 
each end, pubescent, 2 — 4 lines long, the ascending pedicels rather 
shorter; style short and stout. — In the typical form this is known only 
from Lassen's Peak, Lemmon, Horace Davis, Chesnut <.i- Drew. The Mt. 
Dana plant referred here by Mr. Watson is considered distinct by Mr. 
Lemmon who has seen both in the living state. 

4. D. Leiniiioui, Wats. 1. c. : D. alpina, var. algida, Bot. Calif, not 
Regel. Densely cespitose and dwarfed; the crowded leaves spatulate or 
oblong-obovate, ciliate and pilose, the hairs simple or forked: scape- 
like stem 3^ — 6 in. high: petals yellow, 1^^- 2}^ lines long, much 
exceeding the broad obtuse sepals: pods ovate to broadly lanceolate, 
somewhat twisted, on slender spreading pedicels; style short, stout. — 
High peaks of the Sierra Nevada. 

5. D. eurycarpa, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 520 (1865). Dwarf, 
densely cespitose, stellate-tomentose; the crowded leaves i.j in. long, 
spatulate, entire: scape few-flowered, 1 — 2 in. high: pod ovate, 5—10 
lines long, acute, beaked with a long slender style. — Found only by 
Brewer, on a dry summit, at 11,500 ft. altitiide, above Sonora Pass in the 
Sierra. 

6. D. Douglasii, Gray, 1. c. vii. 328 (1868). Scapes many, from a 
branching leafy caudex, i'2 — IH iii- liigh^ pubescent, corymbose: lowest 
leaves ovate; uppermost obovate or spatulate, 1 — 2 lines long, entire, 
pale, glabrt)us or with simple hairs, the margin hispid-ciliolate : petals 
white or yellowish, 2 lines long, exceeding the broad obtuse sepals : pod 
ovate-oblong, acutish at each end, puberulent, 2 lines long, beaked with 



CRUCIPER^. 251 

a slender style; cells 2-seeded.~ Sierra Valley, Lemrnon, and southward 
along tlie borders of Nevada, in high mountains. Of this species we 
find no mention made in Mr. Watson's recent account of the genus (1888). 

7. D. subsessilis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, xxiii. 25.5 (1888). Very 
dwarf, the short branches of the caudex forming a broad mat, finely 
stellate-pubescent: leaves oblong, obtuse, not ciliate: scapes very short; 
fruiting raceme about 1 in. long: petals small, white, scarcely exceeding 
the yellowish ovate sepals: pods broadly ovate-elliptical, 2 lines long, 
short-pedicellate, pubescent; style very short and thick. — White Moun- 
tains, Mono Co., at 13,000 ft. alt., Shbckley. 

8. D. Breweri, Wats. 1. c. 260. Biennial or perennial, densely stellate- 
pubescent, the shortly branching caudex bearing leafy stems 1 — 3 in. 
high : lowest leaves crowded, oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse, entire or 
sparingly toothed, 2 — 4 lines long, sometimes ciliate at base; cauline 
2 — 4, oblong-ovate: fl. small, white; sepals oblong, herbaceous: pods 
linear-oblong, 2 — 3 lines long, obtusish, pubescent, short-pedicellate; 
style very short or 0.~Mt. Dana, at 12,000 ft., Brewer, and on the White 
Mountains, ShucMey. 

9. D. glacialis, Adams, Mem. Soc. Mosc. v. 106; DC. Syst. ii. 338 
(1821). Dwarf and cespitose: leaves all in a rosulate tuft, linear-lanceo- 
late, entire, rigid and carinate, more or less densely stellate-pubescent, 
sometimes ciliate at base: scape with few not small yellow flowers: pods 
ovate to ovate-oblong, acute, usually pubescent; style very short. — Not 
rare in the higher Sierra; readily identified by the linear rigid carinate 
leaves. 

5. HETERODRABA, Greene. Slender diffuse annual, leafy only 
near the base, the elongated branches unilaterally racemose throughout. 
Leaves simple, toothed. Sepals equal. Petals without claw. Stamens 
6 but equal, 3 on either side of the orbicular compressed ovary. Pod 
several-seeded, 2-celled by a very thin and filmy partition, indehiscent. 
Cotyledons accumbent. 

1. H. uuilateralis, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 72 (1885); M. E. 
Jones, Bull. Torr. Club, ix. 124 (1882), under Braha. Pubescent with 
rigid short branching hairs : leaves cuneate-obovate, coarsely few-toothed 
above the middle, K2 — 1 ^^- long: branches horizontal and trailing or 
jj rostrate, H — 2 ft. long, in age rigid and wiry: pods on short rigid 
deflexed pedicels, 2 lines long, l^.j lines wide, stellate-pubescent and 
hispidulous, twisted when mature. — Abundant in fields among growing 
grain, from Colusa Co. southward along the bases of the mountains to 
the San Joaquin and Livermore valleys; also in Lower California, where 
it was first detected by Mr. Jones. An interesting plant of early spring, 



252 CKUCIFEK^. 

whose remarkable peculiarities of floral structure exclude it from Draha 
and link it very closely with Athysanus. 

6. ATHYSANUS, Greene. Habit and character of the preceding, 
save that the very small orbicular and straight pods are 1-celled and 
l-seeded. 

1. A. pusillus, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 72 (1885); Hook. Ic. t. 42 
(1837), under Thysanocarpus; probably including T. oblongifoiius, Nutt. 
Stems filiform, branching from the base, the branches mostly ascending, 
unilaterally racemose throughout: leaves few, ovate, sparingly toothed, 
3^ in. long: fl. minute, often apetalous: pods lenticular, more or less 
uncinate-hispid, scarcely a line long, rather acute at base; style very 
short. — Common on hillsides throughout western California. Mar., Apr. 

7. CAMELINA, RuelUus. Erect herbs, sparingly branching, with 
clasping or sagittate leaves, and terminal loose racemes of small yellowish 
flowers. Sepals equal. Petals entire. Filaments without teeth. Silicle 
obovate or globose, beaked with a persistent style. Seeds several in 
each cell, oblong, marginless; cotyledons incumbent. 

1. C. SATiVA, Crantz, Austr. 10 (1762); Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 641 (1753), 
wnAev Myagrum. Pubescent, ig — 2 ft. high: leaves lanceolate, sagittate 
at base, nearly entire: pods pyriform with acute base. — Formerly 
extensively cultivated in Europe for the oil of its seeds; now become a 
weed in fields of grain in many countries; not yet well established in 
California, at least in our part, but found in a field at Berkeley by Mr. 
Chesnut. in 1887. 

8. SMELOWSKIA, C. A. Meyer. Dwarf alpine perennials, with 
pinnatifid leaves, and white or pinkish flowers. Sepals equal, somewhat 
spreading. Petals entire. Silique short, attenuate at each end, commonly 
somewhat 4-angled, the valves being strongly 1-nerved and carinate. 
Seeds in 1 row, oblong, not margined; cotyledons incumbent. 

1. S. caly cilia, C. A. Mey.; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. iii. 170 (1831); Desv. Journ. 
Bot. iii. 168 (1813), under Hulchinsia; Stephan; Willd. Sp. iii. 433 (1800), 
under Lepidurn. Cespitose, stoutish, 2 — 6 in. high, white-tomentose to 
almost glabrous; leaves mainly radical, with long slender petioles, 
pinnate or pinnatifid; segments linear to oblong, entire or sparingly 
lobed; calyx villous: petals 2 lines long: pod }^ — }4 ^^- ^ong, a line 
wide, 4-angled, varying to almost flat, attenuate at each end, beaked 
with the short style and broad stigma: seeds 2 — 8, a line long. — Lassen's 
Peak, Lemmon, Chesnut tfe Drew, and northward; also in Colorado, and 
in Europe. 

9. PARRYA, Robert Brown. Perennials, with leaves mostly radical, 
rather firm in texture if not even somewhat fleshy, entire or toothed. 



CRUCIFEE^. 253 

Flowers rose-color or purple. Calyx nearly equal at base. Petals 
entire, unguiculate. Pod broadly linear or ensiform, acuminate, nearly 
flat; valves with a prominent nerve. Seeds rather few, margined or not 
so; cotyledons various. 

1. P. Meuzlesii, Greene. Hook. Fl. i. 60 (1830), and Bot. Beech. 322. 
t. 75, under Jlesperis. Phivnicaulis cheiranlhoides, 'Nntt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 
89 (laSS): P. ]\Ienziesii, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, xiii. 143 (1886). Cheir- 
authus Menziesii, Wats. Bot. King, 14 (1871). Caudex branching, partly 
subterranean and densely clothed with the persistent petioles of former 
seasons : radical leaves broadly oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, obtuse 
or abruptly acute, entire, 2 — 4 in. long, canescent with a stellate pubes- 
cence: cauline reduced to bracts: scape-like stems several from each 
branch of the caudex, decumbent, 6 — 10 in. high: calyx 2 lines long: 
corolla 4—5 lines, bright red-purple: anthers oblong: pods 1 — 2 in. long, 
broad, not carinate, narrowed to the slender style : seeds oval, margin- 
less. — In the Sierra, northward chiefly. Apr., May. 

10. ARABIS, Linnxus. Sepals erect, equal, or two of them slightly 
saccate at base. Petals white or purple, with narrow claw and flat blade. 
Stamens tetradynamous; anthers short, straight, ovate or oblong, scarcely 
emarginate at base. Stigma entire or 2-lobed. Pod linear, compressed; 
valves nerveless or lightly 1-nerved. Seeds in 1 or 2 rows, flattened, 
often winged; cotyledons accumbent. — As received, this is an altogether 
conventional genus embracing plants very diverse in aspect, the groups 
probably without real congeneric affinity. 

* Biennials; pods linear, ascending or erect. 

1. A. glabra, Weinm. Cat. Dorp. 18 (1810); Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 666 (1753), 
under Turrilis: A. perfoliala, Lam. Encycl. i. 219 (1783). Stout, usually 
simple, 2 — 5 ft. high; lowest leaves and base of stem hirsute or hispidu- 
loiis, the plant otherwise glabrous, glaucous: lower leaves spatulate, 
2 — 4 in. long, sinuate-pinnatifid or toothed, ciliate at least on the petioles; 
cauline ovate or ovate-lanceolate, entire, clasping by a sagittate base: 
petals dull-white or greenish-white, 2 — 3 lines long, little exceeding the 
sepals : pods erect, usually even appressed to the stem, 2 — 4 in. long, less 
than a line wide, straight on pedicels 3—4 lines long: style short: seeds 
in 2 rows, narrowly winged or wingless. — Common, and of rank growth 
in western California; of wide distribution both in Europe and N. America. 

2. A. repanda, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 122 (1876). Stem stout, 
2 ft. high, with few-spreading somewhat flexuous branches; pubescent 
with coarse and loose branched hairs: leaves obovate to oblanceolate, 
obtuse, 3 -4 in. long, coarsely sinuate- or repand-toothed, narrowed to a 
broad petiole: calyx !}{ lines long, little surpassed by the pinkish 
petals: pods ascending, 3 in. long, 1 — IJa lines wide; style very short: 



254 CRUCIFER^, 

seeds iu 1 row, orbicular or ovoid, very tliin and flat, broadly winged. — 
Yosemite, and mountains near Tebachapi, thence so^^tbward. 
* * Perennials; pods erect or ascending. 

3. A, platysperma, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 519 (1865). Stems 
several, from a snfFrutescent base, slender, 4 — 12 in. hig-h; canescent 
with a minute stellate pubescence: lower leaves oblanceolate or spatulate, 
entire, 1 in. long-; cauline small, sessile, not auricled at base: petals 
rose-color, 2 — 3 lines long: pods few, straight, erect, 1 — 2 in. long, 2 lines 
wide, acuminate; style 0: seeds in 1 row, with a broad thin wing. — - 
Yosemite and northward at alpine or subalpine elevations. 

4. A. Lyallii, Wats. 1. c. Habit of the preceding, but herbage either 
bright green or glaucous, only the lower part pubescent : radical leaves 
on slender petioles, oblanceolate, acute, entire; cauline oblanceolate, 
clasping by a sagittate base : petals 3 lines long, pinkish, twice the length 
of the sepals: pods straight, narrowly linear, 1 — 3 in. long; seeds in 2 
rows, narrowly winged. — In the Sierra from Mono Pass northward. 

5. A. blepharophylla, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 321 (1840); Bot. Mag. t. 
6087. Stems stout, tufted, 4 — 12 in. high; herbage deep green, glabrous 
or sparsely pilose-pubescent: lower leaves obovate to broadly spatulate, 
1 — 2 in. long, entire or sparingly sinuate-toothed, strongly ciliate; cauline 
oblong, sessile, obtuse or acutish: sepals usually purplish: petals of a 
rich red-purple, % ^^- long or more: pods 11}4 in- long, 1 — 13^2 lines 
wide, suberect, beaked with the short stout style: seeds in 1 row, a line 
wide, wingless or narrowly margined. — Common on rocky hills, from San 
Francisco to Monterey, and a most beautiful species. Feb. — Apr. 

■ * * * Perennials (except n. 10); pods spreading, recurved or dejie.red. 

6. A. Breweri, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 123 (1876). Low, tufted, 
rather rigid, 2 — 10 in. high, canescent with a dense stellate pubescence, 
and hirsiite above with nearly simple hairs: radical leaves spatulate, 1 
in. long, short-petioled, entire; cauline ovate-oblong, sessile, not sagit- 
tate, acute, % — 3| iji, long: petals rose-purple, 1 — 4 lines long, well 
exceeding the purplish sepals: pods spreading or recurved and rather 
crowded at the summit of the stem, 1}4 — '^14 ™- long, scarcely a line 
wide: seeds narrowly winged. — Inner Coast and Mt. Diablo Ranges, 
from Mendocino and Lake counties to Mt. Hamilton; usually growing 
on rocks. Apr. — June. 

7. A. Leiiiinoiii, Wats. 1. c. xxii. 467 (1887): A. canescens, var. stylusa, 
Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 431 (1880). Size and habit of the last, or smaller, 
stellate-pubescent below, glabrous and glaucous above: lower leaves 
spatulate-oblanceolate, ^o — '^4 ™- long, rarely with a few teeth, the 
petiole sometimes ciliate; cauline sessile, auriculate: fl. small, rose- 



CllUCIFER^ 255 

color, the sepals pubescent: pods short-pedicellate, spreading or some- 
what ascending, glabrous, curved, 1 — 2 in. long, ^3 line wide, more or 
less attenuate to a short style or sessile stigma: seeds in 1 row, orbicular, 
narrowly winged. — A northern montane species, found on Lassen's Peak, 
Leiinnoii, and in Plumas Co., iMrs. Austin. 

8. A. sircuatii. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 187 (1863); Nutt.; T. & G. 
Fl. i. 77 (1838), under ,Streplaut]tus. Stems more or less tufted, simple, 
1 — 2 ft. high, hirsute or more or less tomentose with branching hairs: 
lower leaves numerous, oblauceolate, acute, entire or coarsely serrate- 
toothed, the petioles slender; cauline linear-lanceolate, 1 — 2 in. long, 
auricled or sagittate at the base: petals bright purple, J^ in. long or less, 
the sepals half as long, often colored: pods rather scattered on the upijer 
part of the stem, the short pedicels divaricate, the silique arcuate- 
recurved, 3 — 4 in. long, barely a line wide; style 0: seeds narrowly or 
not at all winged. — In dry soil on rocky hills near Fort Tejon and north- 
ward, apparently in the Sierra chiefly. Mai'. — May. 

9. A, Holboellii, Hornem. Fl. Dan. xi. t. 1879 (1825): A, relrofmcta, 
Grah. Edinb. Phil. Jouru. 344 (1829). Turritis padda, Grab. 1. c. Stems 
itsually solitary, seldom 2 or 3, rather slender, ^^ — 2 ft. high, simple or 
with a few erect branches, more or less stellate-pubescent, with or without 
hirsute hairs below, sometimes glabrous, the upper part of the plant 
usually so, and glaucous: lower leaves spatulate, entire or toothed; 
cauline broadly oblanceplate, sagittate and clasping at base, J^ — 1 in. 
long: petals twice the length of the sepals, white, rose-color or purple, 
3 — 4 lines long: pods 1 — 4 in. long, 3^ — 1 line wide, glabrous, strongly 
reflexed, acutish: seeds as in the last. — A Rocky Mountain species, 
reaching our borders only on the eastward slope of the Sierra. 

10. A. Bolauderi, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 467 (1887). Biennial, 
with erect or ascending branches from the base, 1 — 2 ft. high, more or 
less stellate-pubescent throughout: lower leaves not known; cauline 
lanceolate, entire, 1 — 2 in. long, auriculate at base: fl. rose-color: fruiting 
pedicels slender, spreading, 1-2 lines long: pods glabrous, straight, 
obtuse, with a broad sessile stigma, 1 — 1)^ in. long, the valves 1-nerved 
to the middle:' seeds narrowly winged. — In the Sierra, at Yosemite or 
Mono Pass, collected only by Bolander, and in the State Survey confused 
with n. 9, from which it is disting^^ished by its different habit and 
biennial duration. 

* * * * Loir annual, irith aspect 0/ Cardamine. 

11. A. Ludoviciaiia, C. A. Mey. Ind. Sem. Petr. ix. 60 (1842). Carda- 
mine Ludoriciana (Nutt.), Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 191 (1834); Nutt. MSS. 
under Sisi/mhrimn. Nearly glabrous, branched from the base and the 
branches ascending, 6 10 in. long: leaves all pinnately parted into 



256 CKUCIFEE^. 

oblong or linear few-toothed or entire segments: fl. small, white: pods 
spreading on short pedicels, flat, rather broadly linear, 1 in. long: seeds 
orbicular, wing-margined. — Banks of the lower San Joaquin, near Bethany, 
etc.; manifestly indigenous both here, and in San Diego Co., as well as on 
the Atlantic slope of the continent. Perhaps better placed under Carda- 
mine, notwithstanding the want of elasticity in the dehiscence of the pod; 
for it is very incongruous with Arabis as now generally received. 

11. STREPTANTHUS, iVw^rt/L Mostly annuals, often stout and tall, 
and the few branches loosely racemose throughout. Leaves pinnatifid 
or toothed, rarely entire, except the cauline, and these mostly sagittate 
and clasping. Calyx whitish or colored, open or closed, often irregular, 
2 or all of the sepals saccate at base. Petals with broad channelled claw 
and (in our species) a narrow lasually more or less undulate limb. 
Stamens either tetradynamous or in 3 unequal pairs, the uppermost pair 
often with filaments united; anthers elongated, sagittate at base, curved 
in age. Pod from flat and thin to subterete; valves l-nerved or rarely 
carinate. Seeds more or less flattened, margined or marginless. — Greniis 
not at all definitely distinguished from Arabis, and as here given, with 
Caulanthus in part, and Slanfordia included, far more naturally consti- 
tuted than Arabis as received. The great diversities, and the strange 
irregularities of floral structure in certain members of the Euclisia 
section, would have the weight of generic characters if the whole group 
were less uniform in respect to habit and sensible qualities. All the 
species have a mild sweet herbage, much like cabbage, for which the 
larger sorts were used as a substitute in early times. The typical Slrep- 
tantJii, with broad Ijlade to the petals, are of the Southern Atlantic 
states and have no representatives with us. 

* Flowers regular; sepals spreading or loosely erect; stamens tetradyna- 
mous, no pair of filaments united; pods subterete; seeds not margined. 
— Genus Stanpokdia and part of Caulanthus, Wats. 

1. S. Californicus, Greene. Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 479 (1880), under 
Stanfordia. Branched from the base, the ascending branches 1 ft. long; 
herbage glabrous and glaucous, with a scant pubescence on the basal 
part of the plant: lower leaves oblanceolate with dilated petiole, obtuse, 
crenately toothed, 2 in. long; upper lanceolate, sessile and clasping, 
sharply serrate: fl. in a loose raceme on hairy pedicels 2 — 3 lines long: 
calyx deep piirple, 3 — 4 lines, equalling the whitish petals, these con- 
sisting of a broad fleshy claw which is cordate at base, and a very short 
and narrow almost obsolete limb: stamens not exserted; anthers linear- 
oblong: pod thickish, slightly compressed, 1 in. long: seeds wingless; 
cotyledons 3-lobed. — Abundant on the plains of the San Joaquin from 
Tulare southward; a showy plant, thoroughly congeneric with the next. 
The petals so far from being " without claws," are all claw, or with a 



CRUCIFEK^. 257 

merely rudimentary blade; in this respect differing only in degree from 
the following in all of which the claw is the broader and principal part 
of the petal. 

2. S. inllatas, Greene. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 364 (1882), under 
Caulaiilhus. Annual, erect, stout, the mostly simple stem fistulous and 
inflated above the middle, 1—2 ft. high, sparingly hispid or glabrous: 
leaves ovate to oblong, all sessile and auriculate, acutish, entire, 1 — 3 in. 
long: fi. large, i^urple; the glabrous sepals somewhat saccate at base, 
3 — 4 lines long; the petals with broad claw and ligulate blade: pods 
sulbterete, 3 — 4 in. long, on ascending pedicels of 2 — 4 lines: stigma 
sessile, deeply bifid. — On the Mohave Desert; but also along the railway 
in Kern Co., near Bakersfield, etc., where it may have been accidentally 
introduced. 

3. S. Coulteri, Gray; Wats. Bot. King, 27 (1871); Wats. 1. c, under 
Caulanllius. Erect, mostly 3--5 ft. high, sparingly branched above, 
more or less hispid: radical leaves broadly spatulate, sinuate-toothed; 
cauline oblong-lanceolate, clasping with cordate base, the uppermost 
entire: sepals 3 — 5 lines long, acute, hispid: pod straight, subterete, 
3 — 4 m. long, 1% lines broad, pendent upon the hispid pedicel, beaked 
by the stout style; stigma 2-lobed. — Very common on the plains below 
Fresno, near Tulare, Bakersfield, etc., associated with n. 1, but rangmg 
further southward. Apr. 

* * Sepals erect or connivent; stamens often in. 3 unequal pairs; pods 

co)iipressed (subterete in n. 5). — Subgenus Euclisia, Nutt. 

-)— Calyx regular; corolla cruciform or nearly so; stamens all 

distinct ( except in n. 5). 

4. S. heterophyllus, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 77 (1838). Size and habit 
of n. 3; hispid below, glabrous above, not glaucous: radical leaves 
irregularly pinnatifid, lower cauline similar, but the uppermost narrowly 
lanceolate and from remotely toothed to entire, sagittate-clasi^ing: fl. 
pendulous: sepals dark purple: petals purple with whitish undulate 
margins: pods 3- 5 in. long, pendulous, compressed, narrow: seeds i^ 
line long, narrowly winged. —Mountains of Kern Co., and southward. 

5. S. Parryi. Stoutish, simple or with few branches 1 — 3 ft. high, 
glabrous except a sparse hispidulous pubescence on the veins of the 
radical leaves, and at the base of the stem, pale and glaucous throughout: 
lowest leaves linear-oblong, 2 in. long, salientLy toothed; cauline lanceo- 
late, sagittate, entire: raceme long and loose: fl. % ^^- long? the somewhat 
shorter deflexed pedicels rather densely hirsutulous: calyx dark purple 
in the bud, fading to flesh-purple in fl.; the well exserted strongly 
crisped petals white, with dark purple veins: stamens in 3 unequal 
pairs, the filaments united for three-fourths of their length in the longer 



258 CRUCIFER^. 

pairs; anthers all fertile, linear-sagittate: pods 3—4 in. long, little 
compressed, apparently somewhat quadrangular. — Apparently common 
in Monterey and San Luis Obispo counties. Parry, Leintnoii; a hand- 
some species, related to aS'. CalifornicHs and (S'. iufatus, notwithstanding 
the erect sepals and the cohesion of the filaments in each of the two 
long pairs of stamens. 

6. S. cordatus, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 77 (1838). Perennial, stoutish, 
glabrous, glaucous, the clustered stems 1 — 2 ft. high: leaves thick, 
usually coarsely toothed at least at the obtuse apex; the radical ones 
spatulate-oblong, the upper cordate or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or acute, 
with broad rounded and auricled base: fl. 3 — 4 lines long: sepals broad, 
obtusish, colored purplish: petals exserted, greenish or yellowish or 
sometimes purplish: pods broadly linear, 2 — 4 in. long, compressed, 
straight, spreading or ascending on short pedicels : seeds flattened and 
winged. — A common species of the Rocky Mountains, reaching California 
in the Sierra Nevada and coming westward even to Kern Co., near 
Tehachapi; closely connecting with Arahis through A. repanda. 

7. S. barbatus, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxv. 125 (1889). Perennial, 
but stems apparently solitary as if from a horizontal rootstock, simple or 
branched, rather slender, 1 ft. high or more; herbage glabrous, glaucous: 
leaves all cauline, subequal, very numerous and rather crowded, broadly 
cordate and clasping, of oval outline, obtusish, entire or at apex toothed, 
}4 — 1 ill- long: raceme rather strict and dense: fl. small, dark purple; 
sepals obtusish, setosely bearded at tip: petals little exserted: pods 
spreading or recurved, 1 — 2 in. long, 1}4 lines wide, compressed: seeds 
narrowly margined. — River banks, in sandy or gravelly ground, along 
the upper Sacramento and its tributaries; perhaps common there, but 
rarely collected. 

8. S. tortuosns, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 152, fig. 46 (1863). 
Annual, erect, sparingly paniculate-branching above, 1 — 3 ft. high, 
glabrous, glaucous: lower leaves oblong, narrowed to a winged petiole, 
2 — 3 in. long, repandly toothed; middle cauline spatulate-oblong ok 
-obovate, auriculate-clasping, rather remotely serrate-toothed; uppermost 
round-cordate or cordate-oblong, mostly entire, abruptly or even cuspi- 
dately acute, 1 — 1% in. long, clasping by a deep closed sinus: sepals 
purplish, 3 — 5 lines long, slenderly acuminate, the attenuate tips reflexed 
in flower, exceeded by the purple-veined yellowish petals: 4 longer 
stamens about equal (one pair sometimes connate, KelL); anthers all 
equal, linear-sagittate: torus greatly enlarged under the fruit: pod very 
narrow, 3 — 6 in. long, falcate and recurved, the pedicel spreading or 
reflexed: seeds winged. — In the Sierra about Yosemite and southward. 

9. S. orbiculatus. S. Breweri, Gray, partly, and a part of S. tortuosus, 



CRUCIFEItiE. '259 

Wats., not Kell. Near tlie preceding, but low (}4 — IM ft. bigh), diffusely 
brancbed from the ba.se: lowest leaves round-obovate, very obtuse or 
even truncate, crenately or more remotely and repandly toothed, abruptly 
narrowed to a petiole as long as the blade; middle cauline obovate- 
spatulate, auricled jmd clasping; uppermost orbicular, mostly entire^ 
ol)tuse: sepals purple, 2- 3 lines long, acute but not acuminate, at length 
petaloid-dilated, undulate and whitish at the recurved tips: stamens in 
3 unequal pairs, but the upper pair much the longest: torus dilated: 
pods 2 in. long, falcate on ascending pedicels, strongly torulose: seeds 
wingless, though sometimes distinctly but very narrowly margined. — 
Common in the Sierra from Donner Lake northward; also on Mt. 
Diablo, McLean. Usually mixed with S. torluosus in the herbaria, from 
which its dissimilar habit, and very different floral structure well dis- 
tinguish it. But it is the " n. 1 " of Gray's *S'. Bretreri, and by modern 
rules would retain that name; but Dr. Gray's description was drawn 
wholly from his ns. 2 and 3; hence I continue that ixse of S. Breweri 
which the specific character warrants. 

10. S, (liversifolias, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 363 (1882). Erect, 
slender, branching above, l^o ft. high, glabrous: cauline leaves pinnately 
divided with 1 or 2 pairs of narrowly linear lobes, the upper nearly or 
quite entire, those of the branches broadly cordate, clasping and entire, 
)^' in. long or less: racemes few-flowered: sepals pale, 2 — 3 lines long: 
blade of petals rather broad, purple-veined: pods very narrow, 1% — ^}>i 
in. long, strongly reflexed. — Apparently a local species of the Cosumne 
Creek in Sacramento Co., Rattan. 

•i— -i— One or tiro pairs of .stamens vilh filaments connate; petals unequal, 

the upper pair larger and parallel, the lower smaller and 

divergent; plants all annual. 

-J— Calyx not manifestly irregular. 

11. S. Breweri, Gray, Proc. Calif. Acad. iii. 101 and Am. Acad. vi. 184 

(1864:), as to descr., and numbers "2" and "3" of sj^ecim. (seen. 9 supra). 
Branched from the base, 1 — 2 ft. high, leafy at base chiefly: leaves 
broadly ovate or obovate, acute or acuminate, sessile, dentate, 1—3 in. 
long, thickish; the cauline reduced and bract-like, lanceolate, acuminate, 
entire or denticulate, somewhat auricled and clasping: racemes elon- 
gated and the fl. scattered, short-ijedicelled: sepals purple, acuminate, 
glabrous or pubescent: petals exserted: 2 pairs of filaments connate, 
those of the uppermost and longest joined to the summit, and the anthers 
reduced to less than half the size of the others: pod IVg — 2i-2 in- long, 
less than 1 line wide, erect or ascending, mostly somewhat incurved. — In 
the Mt. Diablo Range southward, on Mt. San Carlos, etc. Apparently 
not collected since Brewer's time, and the district is a neglected one. 

12. S. barbiger, Greene, Pittonia, i. 217 (1888). Slender, rather 



260 CKUCIFER^. 

widely braucbing, 1 — 1}{ ft. bigb, pubescent or glabrous: cauline leaves 
linear, entire, scarcely auriculate: fl. svibsessile, 3 lines long: sepals 
greenisb, the rather acuminate tips becoming whitish, petaloid and 
recurved, the whole calyx commonly bristly-hairy, but often glabrous: 
petals white: filaments dark purple, the three pairs very unequal, the 
uppermost connate almost to the summit, their anthers much reduced 
and seemingly sterile: pods 1 — 2 in. long, narrowly linear, recurved. — In 
Lake Co., Simonds, and common in Napa Co., at Miravalle near St. 
Helena, Greene. 

•M- •!-+ Calyx irregular, three sepals more or less connivent behind the upper 

petals, the fourth separated from these and somewhat dejlexed; 

1 pair of filaments connate. 

13. S. uiger, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, xiii. 141 (1886). Branching 
loosely from near the base and above, 1—3 ft. high, glabrous, glaucous: 
leaves linear, 2 — 3 in. long, the lowest with narrow pinnate gland-tipped 
lobes or teeth, the upper entire, auriculate-clasping: racemes loose, 
flexuous: pedicels ascending, 1 in. long: calyx 3 lines long, of a very 
dark metallic shining purple; sepals ovate-cymbiform, the 3 l^pper 
slightly separate from the lowest, and connivent at apex: blade of petals 
very slender, white: upper pair of filaments connate almost throughout, 
their anthers small and sterile: pod 2 in. long, erect or ascending, nearly 
straight: seed narrowly winged.- Hills above the ferry lauding at 
Tibui'on; found only by the author, in April and June, 1886, now 
seemingly extinct there, and not elsewhere detected. 

14. S. albidiis, Greene, Pittonia, i. 62 (1887). Stouter than the last, 
equally glabrous and glaucous, even the cauline leaves with callous- 
tipijed prominent teeth, the base sagittate-clasping: racemes not flexuous: 
pedicels short: sepals 3 — 4 lines long, white, with purple base: petals 
% in. long, the lamina ample, crisped, white, with purple veins: upper 
pair of filaments united to the tip, their anthers small but polliniferous: 
fr. unknown. — On hillsides not far from San Jose, Sister Anna Raphael, 
Mr. Rattan. A handsome species, in floral structure quite distinct from 
S. niger, to which it is most related. 

15. S. Mildredae. Slender, much branched from the base, 1 — l}^. ft. 
high, more or less pilose-hispid: lower leaves coarsely and sinuately 
toothed; cauline linear-lanceolate, entire, clasping: racemes somewhat 
flexuous, not secured: fl. small, very dark metallic-purple: petals with 
small, slenderly attenuate white-margined purple blade: upper pair of 
filaments almost wholly united, their anthers reduced to mere rudiments 
and closely approximate, the other 4 stamens much shorter and little 
unequal: pods 3 in. long, slender, arcuate-spreading on the short pedi- 
cels: seeds oval, the upper half narrowly margined. — Common on Mt. 
Hamilton; dedicated to Miss Mildred Holden, in whose herbarium the 



CRUCIFER^. 261 

plant was first seen; but it is the S. glaiululosus, at least in part, of the 
State Survey collectors, probably not of Hooker, which seems to be the 
next. 

16. S. glaiululosus, Hook. Ic. 40 (1836): S. peramivnus, Greene, Bull. 
Torr. Club, xiii. 142 (1886). Piibescence and sinuately toothed foliage of 
the last, but larger, 1 — 2^2 ft. high: racemes more or less inclined to be 
secund: fl. very large, bright red-purple: sepals }4, ii- long, ovate- 
cymbiform, carmate, 3 strongly connivent at tip, the fourth hanging 
loosely apart from the others: petals well-exserted, white-margined: 
upper pair of filaments connate above the middle, thence rather widely 
divergent, their anthers smaller than the others, but not greatly reduced, 
apparently sterile: pod 3 in. long, a line wide, arcuate-recurved: seed 
narrowly winged. — Very common on clayey hillsides and banks, from Mt. 
Diablo and near Berkeley to Monterey; the most beautiful of all our 
cruciferous plants when in flower; the irregularity of the calyx not at all 
indicated in Hooker's plate, and his description imperfect. Named in 
reference to gland-tipped teeth of foliage ; but these pervade the group. 

17. S. llispidus, Gray, Proc. Calif. Acad. iii. 101 and Am. Acad. vi. 184 
(1864). Stiff-hirsute or hispid throughout, only 3 — 6 in. high, branching: 
lowest obovate- or cuneate-oblong, coarsely and somewhat incisely 
toothed, the teeth obtuse; cauline narrower, scarcely clasping: raceme 
short, loose, the fl. at length recurved: sepals red-purple with white- 
petaloid tips, half as long as the similarly colored petals : pods hispid, 
If-j — 2 in. long, 1 line wide, straight, erect: seeds winged. — Still known 
only from the summit of Mt. Diablo, but perhaps not rare in the southern 
extension of that range, which still remains too little explored. 

I 

18. S. secuudus. Slender, sparingly branched above, 1 — 2 ft. high; 
the long pinnately toothed or lobed lower leaves hispid-strigose, the 
cauline leaves lanceolate, sagittate, entire or toothed, and, with the 
branches, pedicels and pods, sparsely hispidulous with spreading short 
hairs: racemes rather dense, wholly secund: fl. flesh-color, 4 lines long: 
sepals sharply carinate, the keel hispid-ciliolate, the short tips greenish, 
the remote lower one distinctly, the opposite uppermost one obscurely 
unguiculate : petals, especially the iipper pair, with amijle purple-veined 
crisped limb: upper i^air of filaments connate to near their tips, the free 
parts scarcely divergent, the anthers reduced in size, but polliniferous : 
pods 2 in. long, very slender, falcate-recurved on the divaricate pedicels, 
the valves carinate-veined: seeds small, wingless. — Northern base of Mt. 
Tamalpais. A very beautiful pale-flowered species, of well defined habit 
and floral character, especially as regards the calyx, with its very narrow 
and downwardly attenuate upper and lower sepals, the laterals being 
broad, and yet at tips converging toward the middle upper one in the 



262 CRUCIFERiE. 

mauuer of this whole subgroup. So far as known, the plant is qiiite 
local ; and we have not seen it growing there since 1886. 
■M- )-+ -M- Calyx very irregular, the upperinost sepal greatly enlarged, in 
lestivaiion conduplicate over the others. 

19. S. poly^aloides, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 519 (1865); Greene, 
Pitt. ii. 46. Very slender, simple or virgately branched, 1 — 2 ft. high, 
glabrous: lower leaves unknown; cauline 1 — 2 in. long, linear, involute 
to appear filiform; sagittate at base: fl. subsessile, only the yellowish 
calyx conspicuous : upper sepal round-obovate, j^ in. long and nearly as 
broad, the several times smaller lateral and lower oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate : petals minute, scarcely exceeding the shortest sepals : upper 
pair of filaments twice the length of the others, connate throughout, 
their anthers rudimentary, sterile: pod 1 — 1% in. long, 5^ line wide, 
reflexed on the very short pedicels, nearly or quite straight, attenuate 
upward to the short style: seeds narrowly winged. — Rocky hills in the 
Sierra Nevada from Grass Valley southward to Amador Co., where it is 
very common. 

12. THELYPODIUM, Endlicher. Coarser than Streptanthus, often 
biennial; the racemes often shorter and condensed. Calyx green, 
whitish or purplish; sepals equal at base. Petals with narrow claw and 
flat linear to obovate limb, exserted, white, yellowish or rose-color. 
Stamens tetradynamous ; filaments never connate; anthers sagittate at 
base, curved. Pod usually long, linear, terete or slightly compressed, 
sessile or short-stipitate. Seeds in 1 row, oblong, somewhat compressed, 
not winged. — An excellent genus as to the typical species, but passing 
toward Streptanthus by easy gradations from terete to slightly compressed 
pods, and from narrow to slightly dilated claws of the petals. The 
differences in the relation of radicle and cotyledons sometimes not even 
of specific importance. 

1. T. integrifolium, Endl.; Walp. Rep. i. 172 (1842); Nutt.; T. & G. 

Fl. i. 96 (1838), under Pachypodmm. Biennial, stout, 3—6 ft. high, 
corymbosely paniculate-branching above, glabrous, glaucescent: radical 
leaves often 1 ft. long, oblong-elliptical, long-petioled, entire; cauline 
sessile, lanceolate-oblong or narrowly lanceolate, 1 — 2 in. long: fl. crowded 
and almost corymbose at the ends of the branches: sepals 1% — ^% lines 
long: petals spatulate-obovate, pale rose-color; claw exceeding the 
sepals : stamens exserted : fruiting racemes short, dense : pod % — 1 % in. 
long, slentler, somewhat torulose; stipe 1 line long: radicle of seed 
placed midway between the edge and the middle of one of the coty- 
ledons. — In subsaline moist places near Tehachapi, Greene, thence 
eastward and northward, chiefly beyond our borders. 

2. T. brachycarpum, Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. 231. t. 1 (1862); Gray, 



CRUCIFER^. 263 

Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 520 (1865). Biennial, erect, sparingly and virgately 
branching, 1 — 5 ft. high, pubescent or glabrous: radical leaves oblanceo- 
late or spatulate, pinnatifid or toothed; cauline narrow, sagittate and 
clasping, entire or toothed: fl. in long dense racemes: petals narrowly 
linear, white, 3 — 4 lines long; pod ;^4 — 1 in. long, acuminate with the 
slender style, ascending on short pedicels. — In the Mono district and 
northward along our eastern borders ; perhaps also on the upper 
Sacramento. 

3. T. Leinmoni, Greene, W. Am. Sc. iii. 156 (1887). Annual, stout, 
3 — 6 ft. liigli, glabrous and glaucous: lower leaves 3 — 6 in. long, including 
a short petiole, 3 in. broad, coarsely and angularly lobed below, repand- 
toothed above ; upper lanceolate, nearly entire, sessile by a narrow base : 
racemes 1 ft. long, rather loose: petals whitish, 3 lines long, exceeding 
the lilac-purple spreading sepals: stamens exserted: pods 2 in. long, 
acuminate, slender, somewhat torulose, not stipitate, ascending, on pedi- 
cels of 1t-2 lines. — Fields of San Luis Obispo Co., Lemmoii; also 
abundant among growing grain near Tracy on the lower San Joaquin. 

4. T. proceruiii, Greene. Brewer in Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 519 

(1865), under Sireptanlhiis; Wats. Bot. King, 27, under Caulanthus, 
Annual, stoutish, branched from near the base, 3 — 7 ft. high, glabrous 
except at base: lower leaves petiolate, coarsely pinnatifid; upper lanceo- 
late, sessile, acuminate: racemes long and lax: fi. greenish or yellowish 
white, 4 — 5 lines long, on ascending pedicels half as long: pod very 
slender, terete, 3 — 5 in. long, less than a line wide, acuminate, erect or 
somewhat spreading. — In fields along the northern and eastern base of 
Mt. Diablo and southward in the same range. 

5. T. flavesceus, Wats. Bot. King, 25(1871). Strepianlhusjiavescens, 
Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 65 (1857), not Hook. Stoutish, or rather slender, 
sparsely pilose-hispid below : lower leaves elongated, petiolate, sinuately 
toothed; upper entire, sessile, not auricled: raceme long and lax: fl. 
yellowish or rarely purplish, 4 — 5 lines long: sepals narrow and with 
the pedicels hispidulous: petals long-exserted, with linear and narrow 
claw; the blade dilated: pod 1^2 in. long, nearly terete, sparsely hispidu- 
lous, erect or somewhat spreading. — Very common in fields of the lower 
Sacramento, east and north of Vacaville, Jepson; originally from near 
Benicia, Bigeloir. 

6. T. Hookeri. Sireptaidkns flarescens, Hook. Ic. t. 44 (1836). 
Size, habit and whole aspect of the preceding, but lower leaves often 
pinnatifid, though as often sinuate-toothed; inflorescence the same, also 
size and color of fl., but sepals broader, less spreading, glabrous: petals 
with a rather broad claw and relatively narrow blade : pods 2 in. long, 
slender, terete, erect. — Common in the Mt. Diablo Range, especially in 



264 CRUCIFER^, 

the region east of the Livermore Valley, thence to the original station, 
i. e., Monterey. Although this and n. 5 have been placed in different 
genera, they are with difficulty held distinct as species. The only 
difference is in the petals; and by these the present plant would stand 
well in Slreptanihus if its habit and narrow terete pods were not those of 
the annual Thelypods precisely. 

7. T. rig'idniii, Greene, Pittonia, i. 62 (1887). Stoutish and very rigid, 
1 — 3 ft. high, with few wide-spread branches : hispidulous below, glabrous 
above, deep green, not glaucous: lower leaves somewhat lyrately pinna- 
tifid; upper oblong-lanceolate and laciniate-toothed : fl. yellowish, small, 
rather crowded and subsessile, the fruiting raceme long and loose : pods 
1}^ in. long, nearly sessile, ascending or somewhat spreading or curved, 
rigid, sharply tipped with a short style. — Eastern base of the Mt. Diablo 
Range, from near Antioch southward, chiefly on clayey hillsides. 

8. T. lasiophylluiii, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, xiii. 143 (1886); H. & A. 
Bot. Beech. 321 (184:01, under Turritis. Sisymbrium rejiexum, Nutt. PI. 
Gamb. 183. Thelypudium neglectiun, M. E. Jones, ? Am. Nat. xvii. 875. 
Glabrous or more or less hirsiite below, }4 — 6 ft. high, usually stoutish, 
rather rigidly erect, simple, or sparingly branching above the middle: 
leaves 2 — 4 in. long, pinnatifid with divaricate toothed segments, or the 
upper only sinuate-toothed: petals white or yellowish, 11^ — 2}4 lines 
long: pod slender, nearly terete, 1 — 2 in. long, short-pedicellate, straight 
or somewhat curved, ascending or strongly deflexed. — Common, and, as 
to size and pubescence, and the attitude of the pods, very variable. The 
common form at San Francisco is small, early flowering, and has suberect 
pods. In the Coast Range the plant is often a yard high or more, late 
flowering, with pods straight and strongly deflexed. On the plains east of 
the Mt. Diablo Range grows in great abundance a plant here referred 
which differs in being glabrous, with pods more or less curved, often 
spreading only, sometimes deflexed. All these need further examination; 
and T. negleclum may prove to be one of them. 

13. STANLEYA, NuUall. Stout perennials, with coarse and rather 
thick glaucous foliage. Flowers yellow, large, in long racemes. Sepals 
equal at base, spreading. Petals narrow, unguiculate. Stamens elon- 
gated; anthers linear, at length closely coiled. Pistil stipitate; becoming 
a long linear pod, with 1 -nerved valves. Seeds in 1 row, oblong, not 
winged; cotyledons linear, incumbent. — A remarkable genus, chiefly 
belonging to the Great Basin, with the aspect of Chuine in the preceding 
family, but genuinely cruciferous in technical character. 

1. S. pinuata, Britt. Trans. N. Y. Acad. viii. 62 (1889); Pursh, Fl. ii. 
739 (1814), under Cleome: S. pinualifida, Nutt. Gen. ii. 71 (1818); Gray, 
Gen. 111. i. 154. t. 65. Stems several from a somewhat woody base, 2 — 8 



CEUCIFER^. 2(55 

ft. hiyli, simple: lower leaves coarsely and irregularly more or less 
lyrately pinnatifid, the segments few, oblong; upper lanceolate, entire, 
with slender petiole: calyx 3- -4 lines long: petals half longer, their 
claws and the stipe of the ovary somewhat pubescent: pod 2 in. long, 1 
line wide, curved attenuate to a slender stipe 3 2 — 'H ^^- loii&i exceeding 
the slender pedicels. — From the valley of the Arkansas westward, reaching 
our borders in Kern Co., Heeruiann, and extending even into Santa 
Barbara Co., Torrey. 

14. CjVRWAMI\E, Dioscorides. Annuals or perennials of woods or 
moist places; rootstock often tuberous. Stems mostly simple, often 
very sparingly leafy. Flowers white or purplish, in short racemes. 
Sepals equal. Petals unguiculate. Silique, elongated, linear, compressed, 
beaked or pointed, the valves plane, almost nerveless, more or less 
elastically dehiscent. Seeds compressed, not margined. 

* WilhoKf Jleshy or tuberous rootstocks; leaves all pinnale. 

1. C. oligosperma, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 85 (1838). Annual, erect, 
slender, % — 1 f*- high, nearly or quite glabrous: leaflets small, in 3 — 5 
pairs, roundish, I — 6 lines long, often obtusely 3 — 5-lobed, petiolulate: 
petals white, 1 — \% lines long, twice the length of the calyx: pods few, 
3/2 — % in. long, 1.^ line wide, short-beaked, not becoming dry, the mature 
valves, while yet green-herbaceous, separating elastically and falling in a 
close coil; cells about 8-seeded. — Common on shady banks along streams 
and in open groves. Mar., Apr. 

2. C. Gambelii, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 147 (1876). Perennial, 
glabrous or sparsely hirsute, erect and stoutish, 1 — 2 ft. high: leaflets 
4 — 6 pairs, ovate-oblong to linear, sessile, entire or sparingly toothed, 
acute, % — 1 in. long: fl. white, on slender pedicels: petals 4 lines long, 
twice the length of the sepals: pods narrowly linear, ascending, 1 in. 
long, equalling the reflexed pedicel; beak 1 line long, slender. — Common 
in marshy ground near the sea at Santa Barbara, etc. 

3. C. Breweri, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. x. 339 (1875). Stems from a 
running rootstock, erect from a decumbent base, % — 1% ft. high, glab- 
rous, or slightly pubescent at base: leaflets 1 — 2 pairs, rounded or oblong, 
the terminal much the largest, ^2 — 1 ^^- long, entire or coarsely sinuate- 
toothed or lobed, obtuse, often cordate at base, the very lowest often 
simple and cordate-reniform: petals white, 2 lines long: pods 8 — 15 lines, 
obtuse or scarcely beaked with a short style, ascending on pedicels of 
3-4 lines. — Margins of pools and streams in the higher Sierra from 
Sonora Pass northward; also in Humboldt Co., Marshall. 

* * Stems from elongated or rounded and tuberous perennial rootstocks; 
the radical leaves often simple and those of the stem few. 



266 CEUCIFEll^. 

4. C. cuiieata, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 74 (1885). Ratlier slender, 
1 ft. liig-h, glabrous: radical leaves 3—4 in. long, two-thirds as wide, 
5— 7-foliolate; leaflets ovate, toothed or lobed, % in. long or more, 
tapering to slender petiolnles of greater length, some of these with a 
pair of secondary leaflets at base; cauline of 5 — 9 linear-cuneiform entire 
leaflets: fl. large, white, changing to rose. —In dry ground under oaks 
etc. near Jolon, Monterey Co., Greene. 

5. C. iiite^rifolia, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 389 (1887); Nutt. in 
T. & G. Fl. i. 88 (1838), under Denlaria: C. paucisecla, Benth. PI. Hartw. 
297 (1849), partly. Rather robust, 1 ft. high, glabrous, somewhat fleshy: 
radical leaves 1 — 5-foliolate, the leaflets usually rounded and more or less 
cordate and nearly or quite entire, 1~ 213 in. broad; iipper deeply lobed, 
or pinuately 3'— 5-foliolate, the segments linear or linear-oblong, entire: 
corolla large, white, nodding, the petals only campanulately spreading: 
pod conspicuously beaked. — Common in wet meadows, in open ground. 

6. C. Califoriiica, Greene. Nutt. 1. c. under Dentaria: C. paucuecta, 
Benth. partly. Near the last, but slender, tall, less fleshy; the leaves, 
both radical and cauline, with broad and ample repandly and mucronu- 
lately denticulate leaflets which are of a rich purple beneath: fl. smaller, 
rose-color. — Very common in rich woods, or dry shady banks of the 
Coast Range; doubtless to be retained as distinct from n. 5, on account 
of the strictly sylvan habitat, and the differences in form and texture of 
foliage, though Bentham and other closet botanists have confounded 
them. 

7. C. carrtiophylla. Stoutish, 1 ft. high or less, glabrous: radical 
leaves undivided, round-reniform to broadly cordate, slightly and some- 
what angularly 5-lobed and mucronately denticulate, 1 in. wide or more; 
cauline nearly as large, broadly cordate, acute, miicronate-denticulate, 
tapering from within the broad sinus to a petiole ^i in. long: fl. rather 
small, white: pods narrowly linear, slender-beaked. — In Weldon Canon 
of the Vaca Mountains, Solano Co., 1 March, 1885, Jepson; an exceed- 
ingly well marked new species, with caialine leaves quite like those of 

Viola glabella in outline. The rootstocks are more elongated than in 
the allied species, and are barely an inch below the surface of the ground; 
the petioles of the radical leaves very slender and 2—3 in. long. 

8. C. Nuttallii, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 389 (1887). Dentaria 
tenella, Pursh, Fl. ii. 439 (1814). Rootstock elongated, somewhat jointed 
and scaly: stem 6—10 in. high, naked below, but with 1—3 (usually 2) 
palmately or pinnately parted small leaves below the inflorescence; 
segments narrow-oblong or linear, i/^— 1 in. long, obtuse, often mucronate, 
usually entire: radical leaf said to be simple, roundish, 5-lobed: fl. 
i^_i^ in. long, in a small terminal cluster, white or rose-color: pod 
unknown.— Plumas Co., 3Irs. Ames, and northward. 



CKUCIFER.E. 2()7 

lo. XASTURTIUM, Plitni. Branching herbs gTowiug in water or 
wet places, glabrous, or hirsute with simple hairs; the roots annual, 
biennial or perennial. Leaves usually ly rate-toothed or pinnatifid; the 
petioles often aiiriculate-dilated at base. Flowers small, yellow or white. 
Sepals equal at base, often yellowish, spreading. Petals spreading, 
obovate or cuneiform, sometimes 0. Pods usually oblong or linear, 
sometimes much shorter and even subglobose, rather turgid, the strongly 
convex valves without midvein. Seeds very small, usually numerous 
and forming 2 rows in each cell, rounded, somewhat flattened, impressed- 
pnnctate; cotyledons accumbent. 

* Petals irliiie, exceeding the calyx; stems rooting at the decutnbent base; 

roots fibrous. — Genus Caedaminum, Moench. 

1. N. OFFICINALE, R. Br. Hort. Kew. 2d ed. iv. 110 (1812). Cardaininuin 
nasturHnni, Mcench, Meth. 262 (1794:). Sisymbriuiii nasturtliun, Linn. 
Sp. PI. ii. 657 (1753). Nasturtium aquaticum, Trag. Hist. 82 (1552). 
(Watercress). Aquatic, decumbent or procumbent, rooting at the 
lower joints, the branches f^ — 5 ft. long, stoutish and hollow: leaves 
I)innate, with rounded or elongated obtusely sinuate leaflets, the terminal 
one largest: petals 1}4 — 2 lines long: pods )^ in. or more, acute at each 
end, equalling the spreading pedicels; valves faintly nerved; style short, 
thick. Abundant in shallow ponds and pools and along streamlets; 
naturalized from the Old Workl, where from time immemorial it has 
been used as a culinary and medicinal herb. It is of very rank growth 
in California; stems five or six feet high having been observed. 

* * Petals vihite; stems stout and, with the large leaves, erect from a large 
perpendicular simple or branching root. — Genus Aemoracia, Ruppius. 

2. N. Aemoracia, Fries, ex Gray Man. 65 (Hoese Radish). Earlier 
radical leaves pinnatifid; later ones very large, oblong, crenate: stem 
2 — 3 ft. high: pods globular (seldom formed); style very short. -Escaped 
from cultivation and naturalized in moist lands along the lower San 
Joaquin. 

* * * Sepals and petals very small, spreading, yellow or greenish; pod 

often short; root biennial or annual (ejcept in n. 3). — 
Genus Radicula, Dillenius. 

3. X. simiatuiii, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 73 (1838). Ascending or decum- 
bent, from slender perennial rootstocks, 3 — 10 in. high; sparingly villous: 
leaves of oblong-lanceolate outline, 1 — 3 in. long, all alike sinuate- 
pinnatifid with mostly entire lobes: fl. light yellow, 2 lines long, on 
pedicels twice as long; sepals and petals disposed to be persistent: 
silicle oval or oblong, \% — 4 lines long; style one-third the length of 
the silicle. — In the Sierra from Lake Tahoe northward and eastward. 
Our plant is as here described; but much longer and even curved pods are 



268 CKUCIFER^. 

ascribed to the species by Niittall, whose type was from the Columbia 
Biver. 

4. N. cnryisiliqua (Hook.), Nutt., var. lyratum, Wats.: N. lyratum, 
Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 73. Annual or biennial, with several erect or 
decumbent branching stems seldom 1 ft. long; glabrous, or under a lens 
sparsely hispidulous: leaves mostly narrowly oblong or oblanceolate 
and rather regularly pinnatifid into divaricate linear or oblong-lanceolate 
entire segments: fl. very small, greenish yellow: pods }4 — % in. long, 
linear, more or less curved, pointed with a prominent style, the valves 
smooth; pedicels half as long as the pod; seeds m 2 rows. — By streamlets, 
in the Coast Bange and the Sierra; common in Marin Co. and south- 
ward. Nothing quite answering to the true N. curvisiliqua is found in 
middle California; neither indeed is the typical N. lyralum here, and 
very possibly our plant may prove distinct from both. The northern 
types of both are of different aspect. 

5. N. occidentale. Annual, erect, I3 — 1 ft. high, sparingly branched 
a!bove, or rarely from near the base, glabrous (sparsely and retrorsely 
hispidulous under a lens), leafy at base: leaves rather broadly oblanceo- 
late, coarsely toothed or somewhat pinnatifid: fl. minute: fruiting raceme 
elongated and rather dense: pods % — % in. long, linear, straight or 
slightly curved, abruptly tipped with a short style, obcompressed, % line 
wide, the thin partition less than 32 line: seeds round-oval, but almost 
cordate by a deep broad notch at the hilum. — Very common on moist 
low plains bordering the upper Sacramento, and in the foothills adjacent; 
a well marked species, most related to the next, though generally labelled 
"N. curvisiliqua " in the herbaria. The long pods, flattened contrary to 
the partition, are very characteristic. 

6. N. palustre, DC. Syst. ii. 191 (1821); Moench, Meth. 263 (1794), 
under Radicula. Rovipa nasturtioides, Spach, Phaner. vi. 506. Stoutish, 
erect, 2—3 ft. high, branching above, glabrous: leaves oblong-lanceolate 
in outline, coarsely and irregularly toothed or pinnatifid, 2 — 6 in. long: 
fl. a line long: pods linear-oblong, 3 — 5 lines long, on slender pedicels; 
style very short; valves thin, smooth and nerveless: seeds in 2 rows, 
nearly orbicular, scarcely notched at the hilum. — Either uncommon with 
us, or very rarely collected. Our only specimen which is clearly of this 
species comes from Humboldt Co., Cliesnut & Drew. The allied N. his- 
pidurn, which is hispid-hairy and has globular pods, is in Nevada, near us. 

7. N. dictyotum. Habit and foliage of the last, 2 — 4 ft. high, 
sparingly hirsute: racemes elongated, rather dense: fl. unknown; pods 
3 lines long, of ovate-lanceolate outline; valves of very firm texture, 
usually with a strong rather tortuous midvein and some anastomosing 
veinlets; partition rather thick, somewhat favose-reticulate by the 
impressions of the angular seeds. — On Grand Island, of the lower Sacra- 



CRUCIFEK^. 269 

mento, Sept. 1891, Jepson ; an uncommonly well marked species in the 
characters of its fruit. The name has a double application, being sug- 
gested by the reticulation of the valves as well as by that of the partition. 

IB. BARBAREA, Dodonieus (Wintek Cress). Erect branching glab- 
rous biennials or perennials of rather low stature, with angular stems 
and more or less distinctly lyrate or i)innatifid leaves. Flowers rather 
small, bright yellow. Sepals equal at base, erect. Pods linear, either 
somewhat flattened, or more distinctly quadrangular, pointed; valves 
more or less carinate. Seeds in 1 row, oblong, turgid, marginless; 
cotyledons oblique. 

1. B. vulgaris, R. Br. Hort. Kew. iv. 199 (1812). Erysimum Barhnrea, 
Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 660 (1753); Crantz, Austr. 54 (1792), under Sisymbrium. 
Stoutish, 1 — 3 ft. high; herbage bright green and glossy: leaves mostly 
radical, the very lowest sometimes simple, oftener with 1 or more pairs 
of relatively small lobes below a very large terminal one; cauline either 
simple and toothed, or pinnately parted: fl. 2 — 3 lines long: pods 1 — 2 
in., erect, ascending, or even arcuate-spreading, flattened, or more or less 
4-angled; pedicels always short and stout. — Common in moist open 
ground, or in shady places along streams; varying excessively in foliage 
and fruit, and perhaps embracing several good varieties or subspecies. 

17. ERYSIMUM, Dioscorides. Biennials or perennials, ours stout, 
simple or with few branches. Leaves narrow, entire or runcinately 
toothed, not clasping. Flowers large, yellowish or orange. Sepals 
erect, one pair strongly gibbous at base. Petals with long claw and flat 
blade. Anthers sagittate. Pod 4-angled or flattened, and the valves 
merely nerved. Seeds in 1 row, not margined; cotyledons incumbent or 
oblique. — It is conceded on all sides that there is no valid distinction 
between Erysimum and Cheiranihus, and each of our two species has at 
one time or another been referred to both genera. 

1. E. asperum, DC. Syst. ii. 505 (1821); Nutt. Gen. ii. 69 (1818), under 
CheiraiUhus. Canescent with short straight closely appressed hairs: 
stems solitary, rarely with a few branches above, 1 — 3 ft. high, angular: 
leaves narrowly spatulate or oblanceolate, entire or runcinate-toothed, 
1 — 3 in. long: fl. large, fragrant: sepals narrow, 4 — 6 lines long: petals 
from light yellow to deep orange, 8 — 12 Hnes long: pods slender, 
spreading, quadrangular, commonly 3 — 4 in. long, 1 line wide, beaked 
with a stout style. — Common in the mountains almost everywhere, but 
chiefly at some distance from the seaboard; usually with orange-red 
petals in the Sierra; a less tall form, with pale corollas, abounds in the 
Mt. Diablo Range, and may prove distinct. This is probably the E. 
grandijiorum, Nutt., referred to the next in the Bot. State Survey. 

2. E. capitatuin, Greene. Dougl.; Hook. Fl. i. 38 (1829), under 



270 CRUCIFEK^. 

ClieiraalJmii. Stout and low, ig — l'^ ft. high, spariugly pubescent with 
appressed bifid or 2-parted liairs; leaves narrow, entire, or sinuately or 
angularly toothed or lobed: fi. large, cream-color or yellowish, in a 
depressed terminal corymb, scarcely fragrant: pods in a short raceme; 
valves nearly flat, with a strong midvein, IVg lines wide, the whole 
1^ — 23^ in. long, abruptly and stoutly short-pointed: seeds flattened. — 
Among the sandy or rocky hills of the seaboard only, from Monterey 
northward to Mendocino Co.; easily mistaken for E. atipertiin, but we 
have not seen it with even yellow, much less orange-colored flowers. 
The petals are broader than in that species, but at San Francisco they 
are invariably almost white. Feb. — May. 

18. BRA.SSICA, Plini/. Large annuals or biennials, with erect often 
widely branching stems, lyrate or pinnatifid lower leaves, and yellow 
flowers. Sepals equal at base. Petals unguiculate; limb obovate. 
Pods linear or oblong, terete or quadrangular, with a stout 1-seeded or 
seedless beak; valves 1 — 5-nerved. Seeds in 1 row, globose; cotyledons 
incumbent. — An Old World genus, of which a few species, cultivated 
everywhere, have become more or less thoroughly naturalized with us. 
* Sepals erect, enfolding the claws of the petals. — Bbassica proper. 

1. B. CAMPESTRis, Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 666 (1753). Glabrous, glaucous, 
2 — 3 ft. high: lower leaves somewhat rough-hairy, lyrate with large 
terminal lobe; cauline oblong or lanceolate with a broad auriculate- 
claspiug base: fi. 3-4 lines long: pods nearly terete, 2 in. long or more, 
ascending, on spreading pedicels; the stout beak 8 — 10 lines long. — 
Abundant in fields, flowering in the late winter and early spring months; 
commonly but erroneously called Mustard, it is the Turnip of fields 
and gardens run wild and become naturalized. 

* * Sepals spreading, releasing the claws of the petals. — 
Genus Sinapis, Tourn. 

2. B. NIGRA, Koch; Riehl. Deutsch. FI. iv. 713 (1833); Linn. Sp. PI. 
ii. 668 (1753), under Sinapis. (Black Mustard). Not glaucous but 
dark green, roughish with scattered stiff hairs, stout, 3 — 12 ft. high: 
leaves all petiolate; the lower lyrate, with a very large and lobed terminal 
lobe; the uppermost lobed or toothed or entire: petals 3 — 4 lines long, 
twice the length of the yellowish sepals: pods closely appressed to the 
rachis of the raceme, 4-angled, ^2 — H iii- ^ong, sharply beaked with the 
long style. — Common as the preceding, but taking more exclusive 
possession of fence corners and rich waste lands; flowering only in early 
summer; the root strictly annual. 

3. B. SiNAPiSTRUM, Boiss. Sinapis arvensis, Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 668 
(1753). (Charlock). Annual, the herbage light green, rough with 
spreading hairs, 2 — 5 ft. high: lo"vyer leaves usally with a large coarsely. 



CRUCIFER.T.. 271 

toothed termiiic^l lobe aud smaller ones of angular outline on the rachis: 
fl. 4 — 6 liues loug: pods 1 — II3 in. long, ascending, nearly cylindrical, 
with a stout somewhat 2-edged beak a third as loug as the prominently 
nerved valves, ofteu containing a seed, the seeds under each valve 3-8. — 
Common by waysides in the vicinity of Berkeley and Oakland; flowering 
later than B. cauiprslritf, but earlier than B. nigra. 

19. SISYMBRIUM, Ih'oscundes. Erect and rather slender annuals. 
Leaves not clasping, lyrate-pinnatifid, or (in our species) finely dissected. 
Flowers small, yellow. Sepals scarcely gibbous at base. Petals unguic- 
ulate. Anthers mostly linear-oblong, sagittate. Pods linear or oblong- 
linear, terete or nearly so, obtuse or short-pointed; valves slightly 1 — 3- 
uerved. Seeds usually numerous, small, oblong and teretish; cotyledons 
incumbent. 

* Seeds in 2 rows; leaves finely dissected. 

1. S. cauescens, Nutt. Gen. ii. 68 (1818); Gray, Gen. 111. i. 152. t. 64. 
Simple or with few branches, % — 2)^ ft. high, canescent with short 
branching hairs: leaves 1 — 2 pinnate, the segments more or less deeply 
toothed or pinnatifid: petals 1 line long or less, about equalling the 
sepals: pods oblong to linear, or subclavate, '%—\4, ^^- lo^gi on slender 
spreading pedicels of equal or greater length, acute at each end, and 
beaked with a very short style: seeds ovate-oblong, ig" line long. — Plains 
near Livermore, thence southward throughout the State. 

* * Heeds in 1 roiu; leaves less dissected. 

2. S. iiicisum, Engelm.; Gray, PI. Fendl. 8 (1849). Glabrous or 
glandular-hairy, 1 — 2 ft. high, rather freely branching: leaves pinnately 
divided, the segments lanceolate or linear-lanceolate and incisely serrate : 
petals lanceolate-spatulate, surpassing the sepals: fruiting racemes 
elongated, the capillary spreading pedicels about as long as the linear 
pods, the valves of which are faintly 1-nerved. — In the Sierra Nevada, at 
6,000 to 10,000 ft. elevation. June— Sept. 

3. S. Hartweg'iauum, Fourn. Sisymb. 66 (1865): S. incisHin, var. 
Harliregiamim, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 41 (1876). Size of the preceding, or 
smaller, cinereous-puberulent, the racemes more regularly panicled: 
segments of the pinnately parted leaves 5 — 7, oblong, obtuse, often 
3-lobed: fruiting pedicels and very short acute pods erect and appressed 
to the rachis more or less closely. — In the Sierra, at rather higher 
elevations than the last, and less common; also in the Colorado Rocky 
Mountains, and far northward. This apparently very good species has 
also been referred to *S'. Sophia of Europe by American botanists. 

* * Seeds in 1 rou:; leaves pinnatifid or entire. 

4. S. OFFICINALE, Scop. Fl. Camiol. ii. 26 (1772); Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 660 



272 CRUCIFER^. 

(1753), under Erysimum. Rigid, erect, sparingly and divaricately branch- 
ing above, somewhat hirsute: lowest leaves depressed and rosulate, 
lyrately and somewhat runcinately piunatifid, 3—^6 in. long: pods terete, 
Vg in. long, tapering from base to summit, nearly sessile, closely appressed 
to the rachis in a long slender raceme. — Abundant by waysides and in 
waste grounds; native of Europe; commonly called Hedge Mustard. 

5. S. ACUTANGULUM, DC. F\. Fr. iv. 670 (1804). Hirsute with scattered 
simple hairs, 1 — 2 ft. high, with ascending branches: leaves 2—6 in. long, 
mucinate-pinnatifid: pods terete, 1 1^ in. long, less than a line wide, 
erect or ascending on very short pedicels. — Also from Europe, but not 
as common as the last. 

20. SUBULARIA, Linnxus (Awlwoet). Aqiiatic, dwarf, acaulescent, 
with tufted subulate. leaves, and a simple scape, bearing a few minute 
white flowers. Sepals equal at base (in one foreign species the sepals are 
united at base, and the stamens perigynous), spreading. Petals without 
distinct claws. Filaments without wings or appendages. Pods ovoid, 
slightly obcompressed; style 0. Seeds few, wingless; cotyledons in- 
cumbent. 

1. S. aquatica, Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 642 (1753). Scapes 1—3 in. high: 
leaves not so long: fl. scattered, less than a line long; petals not exserted; 
pods 13^ lines long, about equalling the pedicels, obtuse. — In stagnant 
pools, on the upper Tuolumne, Bolander; plant usually submersed 
altogether, and therefore easily overlooked. It ought not to be either 
local or rare in the higher mountains. 

21. THLASPI, Dillenius. Low glabrous herbs with simple stems. 
Lower leaves rosulate, entire or toothed; cauline oblong, auricled and 
clasping. Flowers rather small, white or pinkish. Pods cuneate-oblong 
or -obcordate, obcompressed but not strongly so; valves acutely carinate 
or winged; style rather long. Seeds somewhat turgid, wingless; coty- 
ledons accumbent. 

1. T. alpestre, Linn. Sp. PI. 2 ed. ii. 903 (1763). Stems several, from 
a perennial branching rootstock, J^— 1 ft. high or more: radical leaves 
1 in. long, including the slender petiole, obovate to oblanceolate, entire 
or few-toothed; cauline obovate to oblong, entire, obtuse or acutish: fl. 
white, 2—3 lines long: pods obovate to cuneate-oblong, 3—4 lines long, 
emarginate or truncate at the summit, tipped by a style 1 line long, 
spreading horizontally on the short pedicels.— Woods of Humboldt Co., 
Marshall, and northward. 

2. T. Californicuiii, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 365 (1882). Biennial, 
6 8 in. high : lower leaves oblanceolate, attenuate to a slender petiole, 

. few-toothed; cauline oblong-lanceolate, narrower toward the base, and 
usually narrowly auriculate: fl. 2 lines long: pods oblanceolate, acute, 
4—5 lines long.— At Kneeland Prairie, Humboldt Co., Rattan. 



CRUCIFER^. 273 

22. BURSA, Siegesheck. Slender nearly glabrous annuals, with simple 
or pinnate leaves, and small white flowers. Pods oblong or obcordate, 
more or less obcompressed, oo -seeded; valves carinate, 1-nerved. Seeds 
not winged; cotyledons incumbent. 

1. B. PASTORis, Wigg. Prim. Fl. Hols. 47 (1780). Thlaspi Bursa 
pasioris, Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 647 (1753). Capsella Bursa pastons, Moench, 
Meth. 271 (1794). Usually hirsute at base, otherwise glabrous, erect. 
}y^ — 2 ft. high, the stems racemose almost from the base, simple or with 
few branches: radical leaves usually in a depressed rosulate tuft, runci- 
nate-pinnatifid, or oblanceolate with coarse teeth; cauline sagittate, 
entire or toothed : pods cuneate-triangular, retuse at summit, 1 — 2 lines 
long and broad, on rather long spreading pedicels; seeds minute. — A 
thoroughly cosmopolitan weed, but native of the Old World; commonly 
called Shepherd's Purse; flourishing with us at all seasons of the year. 

2. B. (livaricata, O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. 21 (1891). Hymemjlohus dirari- 
catus, Nutt. (1838). Capsella divaricala, Walp. Slender, often diffusely 
branching and decumbent or procumbent, 3 — 8 in. high: lowest leaves 
sinuate-pinnatitid; cauline entire or nearly so: petals miniite, barely 
equalling the sepals: pod oblong or ovoid, little flattened, 2 lines long or 
less; obtuse, the valves rather thin; pedicels slender, longer than the 
pods. — Common everywhere, along the borders of salt marshes; in appear- 
ance very unlike B. pasioris, and perhaps better received as a distinct 
generic type. Mar. — May. 

23. LEPIUIUM, Dioscorides. Low herbs, with pinnatifid or toothed 
leaves, and small white or apetalous and greenish flowers. Stamens 
only 4, or even 2. Pod orbicular or ovate, strongly obcomjjressed, 
emarginately 2-winged at summit; valves acutely carinate; cells 1-seeded. 
Seeds not winged; cotyledons usually incumbent, rarely accumbent. 

* Annuals; pedicels fialtened. 
■i—Pods reiiculaled. 

1. L. latipes, Hook. Ic. t. 41 (1836). Branching from the base, the 
short branches stout and depressed, far surpassed by the leaves; these 
several inches long, irregularly and coarsely pinnatifid, the segments 
linear, entire or lobed; pubescence scant on the leaves, more dense on 
the branches, hisijidulous : racemes short, dense; pedicels 1 — 2 lines 
long: sepals very unequal: petals broadly spatulate, ciliate, greenish, 
exceeding the sepals: pod broadly oval, 2 lines broad, sparingly pubes- 
cent, strongly reticulate, the broad acute wings nearly as long as the 
body of the pod.- In saline soils at Martinez, Alameda, Monterey, etc., 
and in the interior along the lower San Joaquin. Mar., Apr. 

2. L. dictyotuin, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 329 (1868). Habit and 



274 CRUCIFEE^. 

pubescence of the preceding, bnt mncli smaller, the branches at length 
ascending: leaves narrowly linear, entire or with a few narrow divaricate 
linear lobes: petals little exceeding the sepals or wanting: pods rounded, 
1}4 lines broad, emarginate, with short aciite wings, finely reticulated 
and pubescent, exceeding the thick erect pedicels. — Originally found in 
western Nevada, in alkaline soil, but common in the Livermore Valley, 
also along the borders of marshes at Alameda. 

3. L. oxycarpum, T. & G. Fl. i. 116 (1838). Very slender, the elon- 
gated and loosely racemose branches decumbent or assurgent, nearly 
glabrous: leaves linear, with a few linear segments or entire: sepals 
caducous: petals 0: stamens 2: pods on slender deflexed pedicels, 
glabrous, rounded, 1^4, lines broad, the terminal wings tooth-like, short, 
acute, divergent. — Borders of salt marshes at Alameda, Vallejo, Greene; 
also in subsaline soils east of Wild Gat Creek in the Berkeley Hills. 

4. L. Oreg'aiium, Howell (1887): L. oxycarpum, var. (?) stricium, 
Wats. Erect, simple or with few ascending branches, 3 — 6 in. high, 
ostensibly glabrous (more or less hispidulous under a lens): leaves 
linear, with few linear segments or entire: sepals and petals less 
fugacious: stamens 4: pods round-ovoid, 2 lines broad, the terminal 
teeth more or less prominent and divergent, the body somewhat hispidu- 
lous or glabrate.— Plentiful in subsaline soil in the Livermore Valley; 
also at San Diego, Cleveland, and San Bernardino, Parish, beyond our 
limits. The type is from southern Oregon, and has pods less distinctly 
reticulate, with shorter and less prominent wings; but this and the Cali- 
fornian plants are not specifically different. 

-1— -i- Pods faintly or not at all reticulate. 

5. L. iiitidum, Nutt'; T. & Q. Fl. i. 116 (1838): L. leiocarpum, H. & A. 
(1840). Erect and with few ascending branches, or more diffusely 
branching from the base, %—!% ft. high, rather slender, almost glab- 
rous, or the branches distinctly hirsutulous; these racemose almost 
throughout: lower leaves loosely pinnatifid, segments linear; cauline 
often entire: petals often present, white: stamens 2 or 4: pods rounded, 
glabrous and shining, often of a dark purple, or with minute purple 
dots, 1% lines broad, with a small abrupt sinus between the short 
terminal teeth. Var. iiisigiie. Stoutish and mostly simple, 4—8 in. 
high, the mostly solitary fnaiting raceme shorter and denser: pods twice 
as large, round-obovoid.— Very common, especially toward the seaboard, 
in the middle and southern parts of the State. The earliest flowers, in the 
Bay region, appearing in January, have conspicuous petals, but are often 
sterile; the later and fertile are mostly apetalous. Southward the petals 
are always present. The variety is of the Mt. Diablo Eange, east of 
Livermore, Greene; and toward the base of the Sierra, San/ord. 



CRUCIFEEiE 275 

6. L. Menziesii, DO. Syst. ii. 539 (1821): L. Calif ormcum, Nutt.; 
T. & G. Fl. i. 115 (1838). Low aud diffuse, herbage light green, hispid- 
puberiilent or glabrate; branches 3—6 in. long; racemes numerous, 
rather nari'ow and dense: leaves of oblong outline, piunatifid, the seg- 
ments usually 3-cleft or -toothed: petals 0: pods rounded, 1 — 1% lines 
broad, glabrous, or around the margin more or less hispidulous, faintly 
reticulate; teeth at the summit very short and obtuse; pedicels short, 
ascending or spreading, often very little flattened. — Common, especially 
by waysides and in hard clayey soil; late flowering, i. e., Apr. — June. 

* * Stouter and taller; pedicels terete. 

7. L. iiiteriiiediniii, Gray, PI. Wright, ii. 15 (1853). Erect, branching 
above the middle, 3 3 — 1)^2 ft. high, puberulent or glabrous: lower leaves 
12 in. long, toothed or pinnatifid; upi)er entire or only sparingly toothed, 
oblanceolate or linear: petals 0: pods glabrous, rounded, 1 — If., lines 
broad, very shortly winged, the obtuse teeth slightly divergent; pedicels 
2 lines long. — Only occasionally met with in middle western California; 
more common east of the Hierra; differing from the Atlantic coast L. 
Virginicuiti in being more slender, and having incumbent cotyledons. 

8. L. Deaba, Linn. Sp. PI. ii. 645 ( 1753). Biennial or perennial, erect, 
a foot high or taller, the several stems corymbosely branched at summit; 
herbage canescently pubescent: lower leaves oblong-obovate, 1 — 3 in. 
long, sparingly serrate or entire; cauline narrower, sagittate and clasping: 
petals white, conspicuous: pods cordate, not winged, turgid, acutish. 
tipped with a slender short style. — Native of Europe, representing a type 
of Old World species widely different in appearance from all our native 
kinds, and probably not congeneric with them. It is met with occasion- 
ally in old fields at Berkeley and elsewhere in California. 

24. THYSANOCARPUS, Hooker (Lace-Pod). Erect and slender 
sparingly branched annuals, with minute or rose-colored flowers, in 
slender elongated racemes. Petals cuneate-obovate, or linear-oblong. 
Stamens 6, tetradynamous, or sometimes 4 only. Pistil a compressed 
rounded uniovulate ovary, short slender style, and small obtuse stigma; 
becoming a plano-convex or concavo-convex samara; the hard substance 
of the body of the fruit branching into several (12 to 16) radiating lines 
with diaphanous spaces or even complete rounded perforations between 
them, the whole forming a crenate wing. Seed solitary, somewhat com- 
pressed, wingless.- Genus almost too near TauscJteria of Asia, which 
differs in having a beak to the fruit, into which the otherwise involute 
wing tapers; and in some of our forms the wing is involute. 

1. T. curvipes, Hook. Fl. i. 69. t. 18 (1829): T. runcinalun, Hook.; 
Don. Diet. i. 196 (1831). A foot high or more, with few and rather strict 
racemose branches, or smaller and simple-stemmed; radical leaves in a 



276 CRUCIFER^, 

rosulate tuft, pinuatifid, with short obtuse lobes or subentire, hirsute; 
cauline oblong- or linear-lanceolate, entire, sagittate-clasping: fr. obovate, 
seldom 2 lines wide, strongly concavo-convex, glabrous or slightly tomen- 
tose, the marginal rays broad, dilated above, rather crowded, with narrow 
diaphanous spots (rarely a few perforations) between them. Var. (1) 
involutus. Taller and more strict: fr. elliptical, only a line wide; rays 
nearly obsolete, the purplish subscarious margin closely involute all 
around; style (rather prominent in fl.) deciduous. Var. (2) pnlcltellns. 
T. pulcheUus, F. & M. (1835). Radical leaves merely toothed: pods 
densely tomentose; the wing rather broader. — The type of this species 
has not been found south of Mt. Shasta, except in Humboldt Co., Mar- 
shall, 3Iiss Bush. The first variety is from Sonoma Co., Bioleiti, and this 
may not improbably be found distinct. Var. 2 is our most common form 
in middle California. 

2. T. elegans, F. & M. 1. c. Hook. Ic. 39. Rather stouter, with fewer 
racemose branches: lower leaves ascending, repand-toothed : fr. 3—4 
lines broad, of more rounded outline, nearly plane, the body densely 
tomentose, the rays separated by regularly ovoid ^perforations, and joined 
together beyond them into a very distinct diaphanous nearly entire 
margin. — Common on low hills of the interior valley in the neighborhood 
of alkaline or subsaline plains; also beyond the Sierra. Certainly a most 
distinct species in the character of its fruit, and of peculiar habitat, not 
being found at all in the Coast Range or toward the sea. 

3. T. laciiiiatus, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 118 (1838): T. ramosm, Greene, 
Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 390 (1887). Small and simple, or larger with many 
decumbent branches from the base, glabrous throughout and glaucous: 
leaves linear, entire, or with a few incised or opposite and divaricate 
narrow segments: fr. from elliptical with narrow margin, to almost 
orbicular with broad evenly crenate border, scarcely plano-convex, 
13^ — 2}£ lines broad, imperforate, or with irregular deep sinuses between 
the rays, or rarely with a few perforations, glabrous and very distinctly 
reticulate-venulose.— From Mt. Diablo southward throughout the State, 
and eastward to New Mexico; very distinct in its vegetative characters, 
but the silicle variable. 

4. T. radians, Benth. PI. Hartw. 297 (1849). Glabrous, 1 ft. high: 
lower leaves runcinate-pinnatifid; cauline ovate-lanceolate, auriculate- 
clasping: silicle round-obovate, almost plane, 4—5 lines wide, tomentose, 
the rays narrowly linear, ending abruptly near the edge of the broad and 
otherwise diaphanous margin. — Common in the interior valleys of Sonoma 
and Solano counties and northward. 

25. CORONOPUS, Ruellius. Diffuse prostrate heavy-scented annuals, 
with pinnatifid leaves, and the general aspect of some species of Lepidium. 



CRUCIFER^. 277 

Flowers minute, greenish. Stamens often 2 only. Pods small, short, 
didymous, 2-celled; cells indehiscent, subglobose, when ripe separating 
from the persistent linear axis, strongly rugose, 1-seeded. 

1. C. DiDYMUs, Smith, Fl. Britt. ii. 691 (1800); Linn. Mant. 92 (1767), 
under Lepidium; Pers. Syn. ii. 185 (1807), under Senebiera. Stems 
diffuse, % — 1}{ ft. long; the heavy-scented somewhat aromatic herbage 
more or less hirsute; leaves with small narrow segments: pod a line 
broad or more, emarginate at base and at summit, strongly reticulate. — 
Plentiful on bluffs overhanging the sea at Point Lobos; occasional at 
Berkeley, etc. 

26. RAPHANUS, Pliny (Radish). Coarse annuals, with large some- 
what fleshy lyrate lower leaves, and loose racemes of purple or yellowish 
large flowers. Sepals erect, the two outer gibbous at base. Petals entix-e 
or emarginate, unguiculate. Pod indehiscent, elongated, somewhat 
moniliform or at least constricted between the seeds, long-beaked. 
Cotyledons enfolding the radicle. 

1. E. SATivus, Linn. Sp. ii. 669 (1753). More or less hispid with 
scattered stiff hairs : fl. 8 — 10 lines long : petals purplish, with veinlets 
of darker color, rarely white or yellowish: pod thick, fleshy when young 
spongy in maturity, 1 — 2% in. long, 2 — 5-seeded. — The common Radish; 
long since become one of the prevalent and troublesome weeds in Cali- 
fornian fields everywhere; flowering and fruiting throughout the year. 

27. CAKILE, Sernpius (Sea Rocket). Glabrous very succulent sea- 
side annuals, with simple leaves and short racemes of smallish purple 
flowers. Sepals suberect, the two outer gibbous at base. Petals entire, 
unguiculate. Pod of 2 unequal joints, each 1-seeded, the upper and 
larger joint deciduous from the other. Seeds in the upper cell erect; in 
the lower pendulous; cotyledons usually accumbent. 

1. C. edeutula, Hook. Fl. i. 59 (1830); Bigel. Fl. Bost. 157 (1814), under 
Bunias: C. Americana, Nutt. Gen. ii. 62 (1818); Gray, Gen. 111. i. 170. t. 
74. A foot high or more, the stout stem and few ascending branches 
somewhat flexuous: leaves obovate, sinuately toothed: lower joint of 
silicle oblong, 3 — 4 lines long; upper twice as large, ovate, compressed 
and emarginate at apex. — Common along sandy beaches about the Bay 
of San Francisco at West Berkeley, Alameda, etc., also at Half Moon 
Bay; doubtless not rare on the coast and probably indigenous; but from 
the analogies of plant distribution in America where Old World genera 
are concerned, we should have expected the other species, C. marilirna 
of Europe, to recur on the Pacific coast, rather than that the Atlantic 
American species should have found place here. 

28. TROPIDOCARPUM, Hooker. Annuals, with Ught green pubes- 



278 rUMARIACE^, 

cent herbage, pinnatifid leaves, and loose leafy-bracted racemes of middle- 
sized yellow flowers. Sepals concave, spreading, equal at base. Petals 
spatulate-obovate. Stamens tetradynamous ; anthers rounded. Silique 
sessile, elongated, more or less obcompressed, flat or inflated, without 
partition, indehiscent or the valves (2 — 4 ! ) opening from above. — A 
remarkable genus, peculiar to California, and so closely linking this 
family to Capparidese that it might quite as well be placed under that 
order, especially in view of the second species. 

1. T. gracile, Hook. Ic. t. 43 (1836). Erect, very slender, usually 
only a few inches high, nearly glabrous: leaves linear, with opposite 
pairs of linear segments, the floral similar but reduced: stamens very 
unequal, all exceeding the short pistil : silique linear, 2 in. long, glabrous, 
flat, indehiscent: seeds in 2 rows. Var. scabrinscnlnin. T. scabrius- 
culum, Hook. 1. c. 52. Much larger, with many decumbent branches, and 
roughish-pubescent throughout, even to the pods. — Foothills of both 
ranges of mountains; and on the plains. 

2. T. capparideiiin, Greene, 217 (1888). Usually erect, less than a 
foot high, simple, or with few ascending branches, the stem stoutish but 
hollow: pods % — % in. long, linear-oblong, inflated, 2 lines wide, slightly 
obcompressed (the cross section transversely elliptical), conspicuously 
6-nerved; valves 4, 2 deciduous and 2 persistent, the dehiscence beginning 
at the apex: seeds in 4 rows, i. e., 1 row along either margin of each of 
the 2 persistent valves.— Abundant in low alkaline soil about the Byron 
Springs, and near Bethany, at the eastern base of Mt. Diablo. 



Order XLIV. FUMARIACE/E. 

De Candolle Systema Naturale Eegni Vegetabilis, ii. 105 (1821). 

Tender glabrous often glaucous herbs, with a bland watery juice, 
alternate pinnately or ternately divided or dissected leaves without 
stipules, and racemose white purple or yellow flowers. Sepals 2, small, 
decid^^ous. Petals 4, in 2 dissimilar pairs; one or both of the outer ones 
saccate at base; inner pair cohering by the callous apex and enclosing 
the anthers and stigma. Stamens 6, hypogynous; filaments in 2 parcels 
placed opposite the outer petals, usually diadelphous; anther of the 
middle stamen in each parcel 2-celled, those of the lateral 1-celled. 
Ovary of 2 united carpels, 1-celled, with 2 parietal placentae; style filiform. 
Fruit a several-seeded siliquose 2-valved 1-celled capsule, or indehis- 
cent. — A small family, in some points closely analogous to Cruciferae; 
but more related to the Papaveraceae, from which their irregular flowers 
not very sufficiently distinguish them. 

1. CAPNORCHIS, Boerhaave. Perennials, with tuberiferous or gran- 



FUMARIACEiE, 279 

ular or scaly snbterrauean stem or crown, fibrous rootlets, ternately or 
pinnately compound leaves, and racemose or paniculate flowers; the 
corolla often persistent over the mature fruit. Corolla flattened and 
cordate; the 2 outer petals larger, saccate or spurred at base. 

* Flo ire rs ov a scape; seeds shining. 

1. C. foriiiosa, O. Ktze. Eev. Gen. 15 (1891); Andr. Bot. Bep. vi. t. 393 
(1800), under Fnmavia; Pursh, Fl. ii. 462 (1814), under Corydalis; DC. 
Syst. ii. 109 (1821j, under Diclylra. Rootstock rather large, creeping, 
nearly naked: leaves and scapes 2 ft. high, the former twice or thrice 
pinnately compound, the final divisions incisely pinnatifid: fl. compound- 
racemose at summit of the naked scape: corolla rose-purple, ovate- 
cordate, with short spreading tips to the larger petals. — Common in 
woods of the Coast Eange and Sierra Nevada, in middle and northern 
parts of the State, and far northward. 

2. C. uniflora, O. Ktze. 1. c; Kell. Proe. Calif. Acad. iv. 141 (1871), 
under Dicenlra; Greene, Pitt. i. 187 (1888), under Diclylra. Roots fleshy 
and fasciculate, the cluster surmounted by bulb-like fleshy grains, and 
sending up leaves and a scape 3 — 5 in. high: blade of leaves of ovate 
oiitline, ternately or pinnately divided, the few segments pinnatifid, into 
few linear-oblong or spatulate lobes: fl. mostly solitary at summit of 
scape, narrowly oblong-cordate, flesh-color, the 2 outer petals tapering 
above, at length reflexed. — At rather high elevations in the Sierra, near 
Cisco, etc. 

3. C. pauciflora, Greene. Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 429 (1880), under 
Dicenlra; Greene, Pitt. 1. c, under Diclylra. Rootstock running and 
tuberiferous : scape and leaves very slender, 4 — 8 in. high, the latter 
biternate with very narrow segments: fl. 1 — 3, rose-color; spurs of outer 
petals stout, straight, not divergent; tips of same spreading or reflexed. — 
A species of the high mountains west of Mt. Shasta; to be expected in 
the Trinity Mts. 

* * Floorers panicled ur thyrsoidly arranged on a rigid leafy stem; seeds dull. 

4. C. chrysantha, Planch. Fl. Serr. viii. 193. t. 820 (1853); H. & A. 
Bot. Beech. 320. t. 73 (1840), under Diclylra; B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 24 
(1876), under Dicenlra. Pale and glaucous, 2 — 5 ft. high: leaves bipin- 
nate, the larger 1 ft. long or more; the divisions cleft into few narrow 
lobes: racemose panicle 1 — 2 ft. long: corolla linear-oblong, only slightly 
cordate, golden-yellow: capsule oblong-ovate. — On dry hills from Lake 
Co., and through the Mt. Diablo Range, to the southern part of the State. 

5. C. ochroleuca, Greene. Engelm. Bot. Gaz. vi. 223 (1881), under 
Dicenlra; Greene, Pitt. i. 187 (1888), under Diclylra. Lower and rather 
stouter than the last: inflorescence thyrsoidly condensed; the somewhat 



280 PAPAVERACE.E. 

larger corollas cream-color. — A southern species, bvxt occurring north of 
Santa Barbara. 

2. CAPXODES, Moehririg. Plants differing from Capnorchis only by 
an inequality of the 2 outer petals, only one of which is spurred or saccate 
at base. Our species are leafy-stemmed, not scapose. 

1. C. Caseaiuiiu, G-reene. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 69 (1874), under 
Corydalis. Perennial, glaucescent, 2 — 3 ft. high, branching: leaves twice 
or thrice pinnate; leaflets obovate or oblong, ^^ in. long, subsessile, some 
of them more or less confluent: racemes erect, dense, 3 — 5 in. long: 
corolla white or cream-color, with bluish tips to the petals; the straight 
spur ig ill- long, horizontal or ascending, very obtuse, exceeding the rest 
of the flower: capsule oval or oblong, turgid, tipped with a slender style: 
seeds shining. — In the Sierra Nevada from near Truckee northward. 

2. C. Biclwelliainiiii, Greene. Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 429 (1880), under 
C'ovydaiif<. Resembling the last in size and habit; leaflets smaller, acute 
or acuminate; spur slender, slightly curved. — Same range as the -last; 
first found above Cisco, by Mrs. Gen. Bidwell. 



ObdebXLV. PAPAVERACE/E. 

Jussieu, Genera, 236 (1789). Papavera, Adanson, Fam. ii. 425 (1763). 

Herbs {Dendromecon shrubby) with a colored or milky narcotic juice, 
commonly glaucous foliage, and mostly solitary showy 4-merous or 
6-merous flowers. Sepals 1, 2 or 3, caducous. Petals 4 — 6, crumpled in 
the bud. Stamens 6 — ao , usually hypogynous (in Eschsclilotzia mostly 
epipetalous); anthers innate. Pistil compound and the ovary becoming 
a capsule, or the carpels nearly distinct, maturing as almost follicular 
pods. Seeds oo ; albumen fleshy or oily; embryo minute, straight. — A 
not very large order, but of importance as yielding the opium of com- 
merce; many of the species valued in cultivation as 'ornamental plants. 

1, PAP AVER, Plinii (Poppy). Glaucescent more or less hispid herbs 
(ours all annvial), with milky juice, alternate lobed or dissected leaves, 
solitary long-peduncled flowers nodding in the bud. Sepals 2. Petals 4. 
Ovary with 4 or more intruded placentae which partially divide the 
interior of the obovoid or subglobose capsule; this opening by short 
roundish or triangular apertures near the summit between the parietal 
ribs: stigma 4 — 8-lobed, sessile and the lobes radiating over the summit 
of the ovary and capsule, or raised on a short style and the lobes capitate- 
recurved. Soeds oc' , small, scrobiculate or reticulate. 

1. P. Califoriiicum, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 313 (1887); Greene, 



FLORA FRANCISCANA, 



Part III 



INDEX OK ORDERS. 





PAGE. 




PAGE. 


Papavekace.?;:, - 


280 


Umbellifer.e, 


313 


Nymph^e.e, - 


287 


Corner, 


335 


Saeracene^, 


289 


Eli^AGNE^, - 


338 


Dkosere^, 


289 


Daphnoide^, 


338 


Laurine^, 


290 


Santalace^, 


339 


Berberide^, 


291 


LoRANTHEiE, 


340 


RaNUNCULACEvE, 


293 


CAPRIFOLIACEiE, 


342 


Sarmentos^, 


311 


RUBIACE^, 


348 


Araliace^e, 


312 


VALERIANE^ai, 


352 



[Issued 1st April, 1892. 



Price, Fifty Cents. 



DoxEY & Co., San Francisco : Will.iam Wesley & Son, London. 
CtJBERY & Company, San Francisco. 



FLORA FRANCISCANA. 



AN ATTEMPT 

TO CLASSIFY AND DESCRIBE THE VASCULAR PLANTS 

OF MIDDLE CALIFORNIA. 



EDWARD L. GREENE, 

Associate Professor of Botany, in the University of California. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 
CuBEKY <fe Co., Pkintees, 587 Mission Street, below Second. 

1892. 



Copyright, 1891, 
By Edward L. Greene. 



PAPAVERACE.E. 281 

Pitt. i. 16. Sparsely pilose-pubescent, 1 — 2I2 ft. liigh, letafy below; 
leaves pinuately parted or divided into acutish toothed or 3-lobed or 
entire segments: peduncles elongated: corolla 2 in. broad; petals brick- 
red, with a green spot at the base bordered with rose-red : capsule y^ i^- 
long or more, clavate-turbinate, 6 — 11-nerved; stigmas sessile and radi- 
ating, forming a flat cap to the pod; the short valvular openings somewhat 
quadrate: seeds coarsely and faintly reticulate.— Summit of the Santa 
Inez Mts. and northward. 

2. 1*. Leiiiiiioui, Greene, Pittonia, i. 168 (1888). Near the preceding, 
but larger, 1 — 3 ft. high : corolla 1 — 3 in. broad, apparently of a deeper 
red, the base of the petals green : capsule broader and merely obovate ; 
stigmas 7 — 10, their lower half sessile and radiant upon the pod, the 
upper half coherent and forming a conical apiculation. — Mountains of San 
Luis Obispo Co.; also said to occur in Marin Co. north of Mt. Tamalpais. 

3. P. heterophylluiii, Greene, 1. c; Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. 2 ser. i. 
408 (1834), under Meconopsis. Aspect and size of the two preceding, but 
the segments of the pinnately divided leaves singularly variable upon 
the same leaf, some linear, others in close juxtaposition oval; stigmas 
capitate at summit of a distinct and slender style. — Common in middle 
California, on wooded slopes, and bearing large nodding flowers; or in 
open fields among growing grain, with small erect flowers; or else these 
forms represent two species, M. heierophylla and crassifolia, of Bentham; 
but from his descriptions no one can decide to which plant belongs either 
name; moreover, we seem not to have any Calif ornian plant with such 
capsule as is attributed to M. heierophylla in Hooker's plate (Ic. PI. t. 272). 
In both our forms the pod is as broadly obovoid, and the openings as 
small and pore-like as in P. Californicum itself. 

2. ARGIEMONE, Tournefort. Stout prickly herbs, with sinuate -pinna- 
tifid prickly-toothed leaves, and large short-peduncled white or yellow 
flowers. Sepals 2 or 3, spinosely beaked. Petals 4—6. Stamens 00 ; 
filaments filiform; anthers linear. Ovary oblong, with 3 — 6 nervelike 
placentae; stigmas nearly sessile, radiating. Capsule oblong, prickly, 
1-celled, opening at summit by 3 — 6 valves separating from the parietal 
ribs. Seeds ovoid-globose, pitted. 

1. A. iiiuuita, Dur. & Hilg. Pac. R. Rep. v. 5. t. 1 (1855): A. hispida, 
B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 21, not of Gray. Perennial, stout, erect, 2% ft. 
high, very glaucous, glabrous under the dense armature of straight, 
spreading or retrorse white prickles: leaves elongated-oblong, cordate- 
amplexicaul, sinuately lobed: fl. few, terminal, white, 3 — 4 in. broad: 
sepals 3: petals 6: ovary densely prickly, the prickles erect. — Widely 
dispersed in the mountain districts, but absent from the Bay region; 
quite distinct from A. hispida of the Great Basin, which has a divided 



282 PAPAVERACEiE. 

and subdivided foliage, besides an abundant sliort-setose pubescence 
under the armature. 

3. PLATYSTEMON, Benlham. Annual glaucescent glabrous or hir- 
sute herbs, with entire leaves ; the cauline opposite or verticillate. 
Flowers rather small, white or cream-colored, on slender peduncles. 
Sepals 3, caducous. Petals 6. Stamens 6 — oo ; filaments filiform or 
flattened; anthers oblong to linear. Carpels 3 — oo , in maturity variously 
more or less united, or quite distinct. Seeds smooth and shining. — As 
here received this is a good genus as to agreement of the species in habit 
and floral characters; but the gynoecium is extremely different in the 
different species, and even within the limits of the same species; so that 
no constant characters for these genera are found; and Meconella has 
better claims to generic rank than PlatysHgma. 

* Carpels 6 — S5, iorulose, jointed between the seeds, usually distinct, hut 

not rarely coherent andforming a central seed-hearing cavity which 
is open at top; stigmas linear. — Platystemon proper. 

1. P. Californicus, Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. n. ser. i. 405 (1834); 
Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1679; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3579. Branching from the 
base, 6 — 12 in. high, sparingly hirsute: lowest leaves alternate; cauline 
opposite, all linear, entire, 2 — 4 in. long, sessile or clasping, obtuse: 
flower-buds ovoid; sepals hirsute : petals Jg in. long or more, pale yellow 
with a deep greenish-yellow spot at base, sometimes reddish-tinged on 
the outside; stamens oo ; filaments flattened and ligulate: torulose 
carpels breaking transversely into 1-seeded indehiscent joints. Var. 
criuitus. P. crinitus, Greene, Pitt. ii. 13 (1889). Less branching, nearly 
acaulescent, the whole plant even to the calyx densely crinite-hirsute: 
flower-buds globose: petals of a deep greenish yellow almost throughout: 
torulose pods very short, scarcely longer than the stigmas. — Throughout 
the western parts of the State, and extremely variable as to size, color 
and duration of the petals, and as to fruit-structure. Far southward the 
pods, few and wholly distinct, are, like the flower buds, nodding. In the 
middle sections the fruit is always erect, and the follicular jointed pods 
sometimes cohere to form a capsular cavity which itself bears a few 
naked seeds. This form was first detected by the author in Contra Costa 
Co., where it is prevalent. The variety is of very singular aspect; but 
under cultivation at Berkeley, far from its home (mountains of Kern Co.) 
it scarcely retains the characters I had assigned it as specific. 

* * Carpels 3 only, partly united and forming a 3-lohed 1-celled ovoid 

capsule open at top; stigmas ovate. — Genus Platystigma, Benth. 

2. P. linearis, Curran, Proc. Calif. Acad. 2 ser. i. 242 (1888); Benth. 
Trans. Hort. Soc. n. ser. i. 407 (1834), under Platystigma. Acaulescent, 
3-12 in. high, sparsely hirsute: leaves narrowly linear, 1 — 3 in. long, 



P AP AVER ACE. E. 283 

acutish: peduucles scapiform, very slender: fl. %--l in. broad: petals 
as in the last : stamens oo ; filaments filiform or flattened : capsule ovate- 
triquetrous, % "1- lo^& or more. — Less common than the preceding, 
preferring gravelly hills toward the sea, or bluffs of rivers in the interior; 
the larger forms showing the ligulate-dilated filaments of n. 1, from 
which species only the acaulescent habit and the strictly capsular fruit 
separate it. Mar.— May. 
* * * Carpels 3 only, united, fowling a slender elongated and twisted 
1-celled capsule; stamens few and dejinile; stigmas linear. — 
Genus Meconella, Nutt. 

3. P. Torreyi. Mecuuella Californiea, Torr.; Frem. 2d Rep. 312 
(1845). Platysligwa Californicnm„Bo\and. Oat. 4 (1870). Erect, slender, 
dichotomous from the base, 3 — 8 in. high, glabrous: lowest leaves ovate- 
spatulate or oblanceolate; upper linear, acute, entire, ^^ — 1 in. long: fl. 
% — 1 in. broad, white: stamens (usually 12) in 2 circles; filaments 
dilated upwards, those of the outer circle conspicuously shorter than 
those of the inner: capsule narrowly linear, %~'^% in. long. — The plant 
of the Sierra foothills (Mokelumue Hill, Bigeloir; Rose Springs, Mrs. 
Gates) is much more slender than that of the San Francisco region, and 
has flowers only half as large. This, however, can not be referred to the 
Oregonian type of Meconella, for that has but a single set of stamens. 
In our i)lant, whether of the Sierra or of the Coast Range, these, though 
sometimes only 8 or 10, are always in two sets, the outer circle with short, 
the inner with long filaments. — Mar. — May. 

4. P. deiiticulatus, Greene; Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 59 (1886), under 
Meconella; Bull. Torr. Club, xiii. 218, under Platysligwa. More slender, 
3 — 10 in. high, simple below, ternately branching above the middle: 
lowest leaves in a depressed whorl, the rhombic-ovate acute blade shorter 
than the linear petiolar basal part; cauline in whorls of 3 or more, 
spatulate or linear, obtuse, remotely and saliently dentate : corolla }^ — J^ 
in. long: stamens 6 — 9, in one set and all equal; filaments flattened, but 
broader below. — A very distinct species, common southward beyond our 
limits, but reaching Monterey Co., Hickman. At the time of its publi- 
cation, Dr. Gray wrote that he had been about to publish it as Flatystigma 
Clevelandi. Mar., Apr. 

4. DEXDROMECON, Bentham. Shrubs with alternate coriaceous 
entire leaves, and solitary rather large yellow flowers. Sepals 2. Petals 4. 
Stamens go; filaments filiform, short: anthers linear. Ovai'y linear; style 
short; stigmas 2, short and erect. Capsule linear, many-nerved, 1-celled, 
2-valved, the valves dehiscent somewhat elastically from base to apex. 
Seeds go , oblong or globose, " finely pitted " (smooth in the extra-limital 
insular species, D. JtexileJ. 



284 PAPAVERACEJE. 

1. D. rigiduiii, Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. 2 ser. i. 407 (1834); Hook. Ic. 
t. 37; Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound, t. 3. Shrub 2—8 ft. high, with many rigid 
ascending branches and slender branchlets ; bark whitish : leaves ovate- 
to linear-lanceolate, 1 — 3 in. long, very acute or mucronate, vertical, the 
very short petiole being twisted, the margin scabrous-denticulate: fl. 
1 — 3 in. broad, the petals nearly rotate-spreading: capsules slightly 
arcuate, IJ^ — 2}^ in. long: seeds 1% lines long. — In clayey or gravelly 
soil among the foothills of both mountain ranges, but more common in 
the Coast Range. Mar. — June. 

5. ESCHSCHOLTZIA, Chamisso. Glabrous and more or less glau- 
cous flaccid herbs, with colorless bitter juice (that of the roots reddish), 
and alternate dissected leaves. Flowers solitary, yellow or orange-colored. 
Calyx a synsepalous oblong or conical mitre-like organ deciduous from 
the more or less fuunelform-dilated and variously rimmed torus which 
bears the 4 petals. Stamens mostly oo ; filaments very short, more or 
less firmly attached to the base of the petals; anthers linear or oblong, 
usually longer than the filaments. Ovary linear; style very short; 
stigmas 2 or more, subulate-filiform. Capsule 10-nerved, 1-celled, oo - 
seeded, 2-valved, the valves elastically dehiscent from base to apex, 
forcibly ejecting the seeds; these spherical, reticulate, tuberculate, or 
rarely pitted; cotyledons either linear and entire, or deeply bifid into 
narrowly linear segments. 

* Torus with an erect hyaline inner, and a spreading outer and herbaceous 

rim; cotyledons deeply bifid, their linear segments divergent. 

■i— Perennials. 

1. E. Californica, Cham. Hor. Phys. Berol. 73. t. 15 (1820); Linnaea, 
i. 554 (1826); Raf. Fl. Tell. ii. 92 (1836), under Omonoia; T. & Q. Fl. i. 63 
(1838), under Chryseis. Glabrous, glaucescent, the stems decumbent or 
at length procumbent, 1 — 2 ft. long, regularly dichotomous below, above 
bearing a flower opposite each leaf: leaves ternately dissected, the ulti- 
mate segments linear, obtuse: calyx oblong or ovoid, abruptly short- 
pointed; torus-rim broad : petals about % in. long, bright yellow with 
an orange spot at base : pods small for the size of the plant (2 in. long) : 
seeds conspicuously reticulate. — This, the type of the genus, is found 
only along the seaboard, in sandy soil, about San Francisco, Monterey, 
etc. ; flowering almost all the year round. We doubt if it has ever been 
in cultivation; and it is certain that all or nearly all of the so-called 
E. Californica of the seedsmen's and even of the botanists' catalogues 
belongs to the next. 

2. E. Dou^lasii, Walp. Rep. i. 116 (1843); H. & A. Bot. Beech. 320 
(1840), under Chryseis: E. Californica, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1168 (1828), 
not Cham. Tufted stems decumbent, 1 ft. high or more, obscurely if at 
all dichotomous; peduncles more elongated, less regularly opposite the 



PAPAVERACE^. 285 

leaves: calyx ovate-acuminate; outer rim of torus narrow, not exceeding 
the erect inner one, in age closely detlexed: petals 1 in. long or more, 
deep yellow, shading into orange at base. — Originally from the plains of 
the Columbia, this i)erfectly distinct species is common in Humboldt Co., 
perhaps even farther southward on the western side. It is not found at 
all on the plains, but is in the Sierra as far south as Auburn, Mis,^ 
Harrison. Late in summer the flowers, reduced to half their si)ring size, 
are apt to be wholly orange-colored, when the species will be easily 
confounded with the next. 

3. E. crocea, Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. 2 ser. i. 407, also Lindl. Bot. 
Reg. 1. 1677 (1834). Stouter than the last, erect or decumbent, the herbage 
of a deeper green and scarcely glaucescent: fl. fewer, often strictly 
terminal: calyx large (1 in. long or more), long-conical; outer rim of 
torus very broad, more or less undulate: petals 1% — 2 in. long, deep 
orange throughout. — The most common middle Californian species; 
abundant in valleys, open plains, and on hillsides in the western parts of 
the State, in March and April often coloring the landscape for miles with 
its profusion of orange-colored bloom. The later and reduced flowers 
are paler than those of spring, whereas in the preceding these are of a 
deeper color. The buds also of the later and starved specimens of E. 
crocea lose much of their conical shape and approach those of E. Duug- 
lasii; but the broad torus-rim of the present species is a constant 
character ; and while much more abundant than the other in general, the 
two do not encroach upon each other's territory. 

4. E. glaaca, Greene, Pittonia, i. 45 (1887). Erect or decumbent, 
very slender, 2 — 4 ft. high, very glaucous: leaf -segments linear, less 
divergent than in the preceding: calyx slender-conical, varying in late 
specimens to ovate with slender acumination; outer torus-rim narrow, 
spreading: petals 1 — 1% in. long, light yellow with a very distinctly 
rhombic deep orange spot at base. — Species exceedingly well marked by 
a certain not well definable grace of its very beautiful white-glaucous 
foliage; discovered by the author on Santa Cruz Island, but found on 
the mainland in the mountains near Santa Cruz, by Dr. Parry. The 
dry-season flowers in this species become reduced in size, but undergo 
no change of color. 

-)— -t— Annuals. 

5. E. compacta, Walp. Rep. i. 116 (1843); Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1948 
(1837), under Chryseis: E. lenuisecla, Greene, Pitt. i. 169(1888). Annual, 
erect, 1 — 2 ft. high, glabrous, light green, more or less glaucescent: 
leaves finely dissected, the ultimate segments linear-cuneiform, 3-toothed 
or -cleft at the broad apex: calyx very thin and partly diaphanous, 
slender-conical; outer torus-rim broad, thin: petals % — 1% in. long, 
light yellow, shading into orange below the middle: segments of coty- 



286 PAPAVEEACE^. 

ledons almost filiform. — From Butte Co. southward on the plains of the 
interior, and also in the hill country about San Bernardino. A strictly 
annual species, the early state of which appears with one or more almost 
scapiform long peduncles rising from a compact tuft of radical leaves. 
Lindley's figure of E. coinpacta may be conceived to represent the 
maturer state of a plant which I in 1888 described as new, bvit the plate 
does not indicate the peculiarly thin and delicate texture, nor the very 
slenderly attenuate form of the calyx as displayed in my type; but 
specimens from the plains of the lower San Joaquin are more at agree- 
ment with the figure. Mar. — May. 

* * Annuals; the torus vnth no spreading rim (except in n. 6); 

cotyledons entire. 

■i— Branching and leafy above; peduncles subterete, 8-striate. 

6. E. ambi^aa. Slender, branching from the base, decumbent, glau- 
cous and scabrous-puberulent throughout, 1 ft. high or less: leaves 
small, ternately dissected, the ultimate segments short, approximate in 
threes: calyx ovate-acuminate, about 4 lines long, or 5: torus small, but 
with ample rim: petals deep yellow, 1 in. long or less: pods 1 in. long 
or more: mature seeds unknown. — In fields near Oholame, San Luis 
Obispo Co., Mr. & Mrs. Lemmon. Species connecting the two very 
natural sections of the genus. The general aspect is that of E. hypecoides ; 
the conspicuously rimmed torus forbids its being joined to that species, 
and would bring it nearer to Lower Californian E. peninsularis, to 
which, however, it can by no means be referred. 

7. E. hypecoides, Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. 1. c. (1834): E. Auslime, 
Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 69 (1885). Scabrous- or even hirsute-pubes- 
cent below, glabrous above, glaucescent: branches many from the 
annual root, decumbent at base, 1 ft. high or less, slender, sparingly 
leafy: leaves small; segmentsrather few, linear-cuneiform: calyx oblong- 
conical, 3^ in. long, abruptly slender-pointed: torus short-tubular, 1'^ 
lines deep; outer margin a mere herbaceous ring, the inner erect, hyaline: 
petals 1 in. long: seeds with a faint irregular reticulation. — Widely dis- 
persed along the foothills from southern Oregon, Howell, to Santa Cruz 
and Kern counties in this State. In cultivation at Berkeley, this is 
greatly admired on account of the rich profusion of small flowers. It 
was at first mistaken by me for a perennial. The early flowering state 
exhibits few and somewhat scapiform long peduncles. Apr. — June. 

8. E. minutiflora, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 122 (1876). Size and 
habit of the preceding, though more slender, more freely branching and 
with shorter peduncles: fl. very small (only I4 in. broad): capsule very 
slender, 13^2 i^- long: seeds nearly smooth, scarcely ^2 ^^'^^ thick. — Of the 
desert regions along the eastern base of the Sierra; probably in Mono 
and Inyo counties. 

-1— •)— Subacaulescent; scapose peduncles quadrangular. 



N Y M P H ^ E ^, 287 

9. E. rhoiiibipetala, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 71 (1885); Gray, 
Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 273 (1887). Glaiicous and tubercnlate-scabrous 
throughout; stemless or the stems stout, depressed, very leafy, the stout 
4-ansled peduncles little exceeding the subradical leaves: torus sub- 
cylindrical, with 2 minute approximate scarious margins: petals J^ in. 
long, rhombic-ovate, fugacious: capsules very large for the plant (3 — 4 
in. long): seeds large, very distinctly and regularly favose-reticulate. — 
A very common plant in grain-fields along the eastern foothills of the 
Vaca Mts. and the Mt. Diablo Range. Feb.— May. 

10. E. Lemnioni, Greene, W. Am. Sc. iii. 157 (1887). Habit of the 
last, or rather more slender, the scapose i^eduncles longer (6 12 in. high), 
the whole plant, even to calyx and capsules, almost hoary-pubescent: 
torus urceolate, 3 — 4 lines long, nearly glabrous, constricted just below 
the narrow double hyaline border: calyx ovate, long-acuminate: petals 
orange, about 1 in. long. — Fields near Cholame, San Luis Obispo Co., 
Mr. tt Mrs. Lemmon. 

11. E. CJespitosa, Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. 1. c. 408 (1834): E. tenui- 
folia, Benth. 1. c; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 412; Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1. c. 
Very slender, stemless, more or less scabrous or hirsutulous, at least 
near the base: earliest leaves simple and very narrowly linear, the suc- 
ceeding ones merely bifid or trifid, the later more compound: scapes 
3 — 8 in. high: corolla 1 in. broad, rotate-sijreading : seeds more or less 
densely muricate-squamose and bi;r-like. — Common in the foothills of 
the Sierra from Butte Co. southward to Fresno. A small but beautiful 
plant with the best of specific characters; although the very different 
E. hypec.oides was strangely confused with it by Dr. Gray in his latest 
dissertation on these plants. 



Oeder XL VI. NYMPH/EE/C. 

Salisbury, in Koenig & Sim's Annals of Botany, ii. 70 (1805). 

Aquatic perennial herbs, often with milky juice. Leaves alternate, 
peltate or cordate, involute from both margins in the bud, commonly 
floating when mature, and, like the naked 1-flowered peduncles, arising 
from a submersed stem or stout horizontal rootstock. Sepals and petals 
distinct (in our genera hypogynous). Stamens few or many. Carpels 
distinct, or united and forming a capsular fruit. 

1. NYMPH^A, Theophrastus (Yellow Pond-Lily. Spattekdock). 
Eootstocks stout, creeping in the muddy beds of lakes or sluggish streams. 
Leaves large, leathery, cordate. Sepals 6 — 12, imbricated, rounded and 
concave, yellowish or reddish within. Petals and stamens numerous, 



288 NYMPH^E^. 

short, hypogynous, crowded aroiind the base of the ovary; filaments 
short; anthers truncate, opening toward the ovary by linear slits. Ovary 
oblong or ovate, 12 — 20-celled; the sessile broad flat stigma with as many 
radiating striae. Seeds without an aril. 

1. ]V. advena, Ait. Kew. ii. 226 (1789), and 2 ed. iii. 295 (1811), under 
Nuphar. Rhizome several feet long, 2 in. thick, creeping, rooting from 
beneath, the upper side marked with scars of former petioles: leaves 
cordate, with narrow or closed sinus, % — 1 ft. long, % — M ft. wide, 
floating or slightly raised above the water on the stout usually semiterete 
petioles: sepals 6, the 3 outer less than 1 in. wide, nearly orbicular, 
greenish, the 3 inner more than twice as large, narrowed at base, yellow: 
petals about 1.5, small, concealecnaeueath the many stamens: ovary ovoid; 
stigma sessile, % — % in. broad, 15-rayed: seeds oval, light brownish, 
smooth and shining. — In deep sloughs about Stockton, Sanford; the 
flowers often fully five inches in diameter. May, June. 

2. ]!r. polysepala, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, xv. 84 (1888); Lawson, 
Trans. Roy. Soc. Canad. iv. 120; Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. ii. 282 
(1865), under Nuphar. Near the preceding, but leaves of broader and 
more rounded outline : sepals 9 — 12, all but the outer of a rich brownish 
red: rays of stigma 15 — 21, the margin somewhat crenate. — In the typical 
form, or near it, at Eureka, Humboldt Co., and in our northern moun- 
tain lakes generally; but common toward the coast in the vicinity of 
San Francisco, etc. with fewer and less highly colored sepals, thus 
approaching N'. ad vena rather too closely. 

2. BRASENIA, Schreher (Water-Shield). Roots fibrous. Sub- 
mersed stems, petioles, etc. coated with a colorless transparent jelly. 
Leaves centrally peltate, floating. Flowers pedunculate, purplish. 
Sepals 3 or 4. Petals 3 or 4. Stamens 18 36. Ovaries 6-18, becoming 
oblong-ovate indehiscent and somewhat drupaceous 1-seeded fruits. 

1. B. peltata, Pursh, Fl. ii. 389 (1814); Thunb. "Acta. Ups. vii. 142. 
t. 14," under Menyanthes; F. v. Muell. PI. vict. 15(1874), under Cahomha. 
Hydropeltis purpurea, Michx. Fl. i. 324. t. 29 (1803). Stems of variable 
length, 1 — 10 ft. : leaves of a dark purplish green, oval or elliptical, 2—5 
in. long, glabrous and shining above, gelatinous beneath, on petioles 
6 — 15 in. long: fl. brownish purple, scarcely 1 in. broad; petals much 
like the sepals but a trifle longer and thinner: stamens dark purple: 
carpels oblong, acuminate and tipped with the persistent style. — A 
curious aquatic, widely dispersed in the northern hemisphere; occurring 
also in Australia; not common on the Pacific slope of N. America, but 
plentiful in deep sluggish waters about Stockton, Sanford, and also 
detected in Clear Lake, Lake Co., Bolander, as well as in the northern 
Sierra, Brewer. 



SABRACENE.E, 289 

Ordeb xlvii. SARRACENE/E. 

Diimortier, Analyse des Families des Plantes, 53 (1829). 

A singular family of acaulescent herbs with hollow pitcher-like leaves; 
here represented by the monotypical genus 

1. CHRYSAMPHORA, Greene (Daelingtonia). Scapose 1-flowered 
stem, and long yellowish trumpet-shaped leaves from horizontal root- 
stocks. Calyx of 5 narrowly oblong imbricated sepals, persistent. Petals 
5, ovate-oblong, erect, with a small ovate tip to the oblong main jiart. 
Stamens 12 — 15, in one series, hypogynous; filaments subulate; anthers 
oblong, of 2 unequal cells turned edgewise by a twist of the filament. 
Ovary somewhat turbinate, being dilated towards the truncate or concave 
summit, exceeding the stamens, 5-celled; the cells opposite the petals; 
style short, 5-lobed, the lobes recurved; stigmas thickish, introrsely 
terminal. Capsule loculicidally 5-valved. Seeds go , ovate-clavate, thickly 
beset with short slender projections. 

1. C. Californica, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 191 (1891); Torr. Sm. Contr. 
vi. 4. t. 1 (1853), under Lailivgtoriia. Pitcher-like leaves \% — 2% ft. 
high, very gradually dilated upwards, somewhat spirally striate, the 
uppermost portion reticulate or mottled; the vaulted lid or hood ending 
in a forked foliaceous appendage; the Ijody of the pitcher also append- 
aged by a wing 2 —4 lines wide running down one (the inner) side: scape 
exceeding the leaves, scaly-bracted: fl. nodding; the yellowish sepals 
expanding; the purplish or reddish petals suberect; the whole flower 
2—3 in. broad. — In bogs, at middle elevations of the Sierra, chiefly north- 
ward, about Mt. Shasta, etc. May. 



Order XLVIII. DROSERE/E. 

Salisbury, Paradisus Londinensis, 95 (1807). Droseeace^, De Can- 
dolle, Theorie Elementaire, 214 (1813). 

An order of small bog herbs, represented here by two species of the 
typical genus, 

1. DROSERA, L in yf^j/s- (Sundew). Low perennials or biennials, the 
purplish or brownish herbage beset with bristles whose gland-like tips 
secrete a drop of glistening viscous liquid. Leaves (in ours radical and 
rosulate-tufted) petiolate, with a villoiis stipular fringe at base; the 
blade infiexed or involute in bud. Flowers in an unilateral scorpioid 
raceme or spike which is bracted, but the flowers not in the axils of the 
bracts. Calyx 5-parted, persistent, the segments imbricate in bud. 



290 DROSEREiE — LAURINE^E. 

Petals 5, convolute in bud. Stamens 5, bypo^ynous. Styles mostly 3, 
eacb 2-parted, tbe filiform or clavate forks stigmatose down tbe inner side. 
Capsule oblong, 1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae, 3-valved. Seeds go , 
small. 

1. D. rotnudifolia, Linn. Sp. PL i. 281 (1753). Leaves spreading; 
the rounded blade 2 — 6 lines broad, abruptly narrowed to the slender 
petiole: scape 3 — 6 in. high, f ew-fiowered : petals oblong, 2 lines long, 
little exceeding the oblong sepals: styles very short: capsule included 
in the calyx: seeds linear, with a loose testa. — In cold swamps of the 
mountains, from Mendocino Co. northward; also in the Sierra. 

2. D. Anglica, Huds. Fl. Angl. 135 (1798). Leaves ascending, cuneate- 
oblong, narrowed to the slender petiole: scape sometimes forked at the 
tip, f ew-fiowered : petals linear-oblanceolate, 3 — 4 lines long, nearly twice 
as long as the oblong sepals : capsule exceeding the calyx : seeds linear, 
with loose testa. — In the Sierra Nevada northward, Leimnon. 



Oedek xlix. L a U R I N E >E . 

Ventenat, Tableau du Eegne Vegetal, ii. 245 (1799). 

An extensive and important family of aromatic trees and shrubs. We 
have but one species. 

1. UMBELLULARIA, Nuliall (Califoknta Laurel). Arborescent, 
evergreen. Leaves alternate, petiolate, coriaceous, entire, exstipulate, 
highly odoriferous. Flowers perfect, in peduncled terminal and axillary 
■small capitate umbels; these in bud enclosed within an involucre of 
about 4 broad caducous bracts. Perianth with no tube; segments 6, the 
3 outer enfolding the others, all deciduous. Stamens 9; the outer series 
(6) spreading, the inner (3) erect and near the pistil; a circle of 6 stout 
short-stipitate glands intervening between the 2 series; anthers 4-celled, 
the cells of the outer series introrse, those of the inner extrorse. Fruit 
drupaceous, inserted on the enlarged and thickened base of the calyx. 

1. U. Californica, Nutt. Sylv. i. 87 (1842); Mez, Laur. 482 (1889); 
H. & A. Bot. Beech. 1.59 (1840), under Telranthem; Nees, Syst. 463 (1836), 
under Oreodapliue. Tree 10 — 75 ft. high, the growing twigs and the 
inflorescence very minutely puberulent : leaves oblong-lanceolate, 2 — 4 in. 
long, short-petioled, bright green and shining: peduncles Jg — 1 in. long; 
pedicels of the 5 — 10 flowers 1 — 5 lines; involucral bracts imbricate: 
sepals yellowish-green, IVg — 2 lines long, oblong: drupes on stout pedun- 
cles, ovoid or subglobose, about 1 in. long, dark purple, the pulp and 
putamen thin. — Common throughout the State, chiefly along streams in 
the mountains "and among the hills; the foliage pungently aromatic. 



BERBEEIDE^. 291 

Okder l. BERBERIDE/E. 

Ventenat, Tableau du Regne Vegetal, iii. 83 (1799). 

Shrubs or herbs, with alternate or radical exstipulate leaves (traces of 
stipules iu our species of Berheris). Sepals and petals 3 or 6 each 
(in Achlys none), hypogynous. Stamens 6 or 9; anthers opening by 
valves hinged at top. Pistil 1; style short or 0. Fruit a berry or a 
1-celled capsule. 

1. BERBERIS, Brnvfeh (Okegon Geape. Baebeeey). Ours low 
evergreen shrubs, with yellow inner bark and wood, and pinnate prickly 
leaves; putting forth, early in the season, clustered terminal and axillary 
racemes of yellow flowers. Sepals 6, subtended by 3 or more small bracts. 
Petals 6, opposite tlie sepals. Stamens 6. Berries globose or oblong, 
in our species dark blue, covered with a bloom. 

1. B. repens, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1176 (1828). Less than a foot high: 
leaflets 3—7, ovate, acute, dull green and glaucescent, not shining: 
racemes few. — Sparsely wooded hills in Lake Co., and far northward and 
eastward beyond California. 

2. B. dictyota, Jepson, Bull. Torr. Club, xviii. 319 (1891). Size of the 
preceding but stouter: leaflets 3 — 5, rather remote, hard-coriaceous, 
ovate, undulate, with rigidly spinescent teeth; the lower face pale green, 
upper bright green and shining, both faces very strongly reticulate- 
veiny. — An imperfectly known, but well marked species; the foliage 
extremely rigid and strikingly netted-veined. Marysville Buttes, Jepson. 

3. B. Aquifolium, Pursh, Fl. i. 219 (1814); Nutt. Journ. Philad. 
Acad. vii. 11 (1831), under Mahoiiia. Often 5 or 6 ft. high: leaflets 7—9, 
the lowest pair distant from the stem, ovate, acvite, bright green and 
glossy, sinuately dentate, the spinose teeth not very prominent: racemes 
mostly terminal: fruit nearly globose.- -In the Sierra from Kern Co. 
northward; credited to Monterey in the " Botany of California;" but we 
doubt its occurrence there. With the herbarists the species is too often 
mixed with B. repens. 

4. B. piuiiata, Lag. Gen. et Sp. 14 (1816). Habit of the last, but a 
smaller shrub; leaflets thinner, more prominently prickly, and the lowest 
pair near the base of the petiole: flowers more profuse, appearing in the 
axils as well as at the ends of the branches : fruit oblong. — Hills of the 
Coast Range, from Monterey northward to Marin Co. 

5. B. nervosa, Pursh, Fl. i. 219. t. 5 (1814), as to leaf only. Mahonia 
gluniacea, DC. Syst. ii. 21 (1821). Stem simple, 1 ft. high or less, at 
summit bearing a crown of large leaves, and many dry chaffy persistent 



292 BERBEEIDE.E. 

bracts: leaves 1 — 2 ft. long; leaflets 11 — 17, ovate, acuminate, somewhat 
palmately nerved: racemes elongated: berries larger than in other 
species. — In deep woods near the coast from Monterey northward. 

2. VANCOUVERIA, Murren & Decaisne. Perennial acaulescent 
herbs, with leaves 2 — 3-temately compound, and scapes bearing a raceme 
or panicle of small white or yellow nodding flowers. Sepals 6, obovate, 
reflexed, subtended by G — 9 oblong membranaceous bractlets. Petals 6, 
deflexed, but with cucullate-incurved tips. Stamens 6, erect, closely 
appressed to the instil. Carpel 1; the stigma cup-shaped; ovules 10 or 
fewer, in 2 rows on the central suture. Capsule dehiscing by a dorsal 
valve. Seeds oblong, somewhat curved, with a fleshy aril. — Naturally 
only a hexamerous-flowered group of the genus Epiiiiedium. 

1. V. hexandi-a, Morr. & Dec. Ann. Sc. Nat. 2 ser. ii. 351 (1831); 
Hook. Fl. i. 31. t. 13 (1829), under Epimedluin. More or less villous with 
brownish hairs, 1—2 ft. high: leaves long-petioled, spreading; leaflets 
1 — 2 in. broad, petiolulate, subcordate, obtusely 3-lobed, emarginate, the 
color light green, the textxire thin, the whole leaf dying at end of siimmer : 
scape exceeding the leaves; fl. 8 — 15 in a nearly simple raceme, yellowish-, 
white or yellow, J^ in. long: ovary glandular-pubescent. — From Hum- 
boldt Co., ChesniU tO Dreii\ northward, in woods. 

2. V. parvittora, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 100 (1890): V. hexandva, 
Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 66, not Morr. & Dec. Half as large as the 
preceding; leaves dark green or purplish, subcoriaceous, persistent 
through the year: fl. small and numerous, 25 — 50 in a panicle, white, or 
with a tinge of lavender: ovary glabrous. — Common on bushy hills of 
the Coast Range, from Santa Cruz to Marin Co. ; perhaps also farther 
northward. This, although formerly taken to be the real T'. hexaitdra, 
is a most distinct species. 

3. ACHLYS, De CandoUe. Perennial herb; the long-petioled leaves 
parted into 3 broad fan-shaped leaflets. Flowers small, spicate at sum- 
mit of a tall slender scape. Sepals and petals 0. Stamens 6 — 12; fila- 
ments filiform, unequal, dilated upwards; anthers didymous, broader 
than long. Ovary ovate; stigma sessile. Capsule small, spherical, 
dehiscent by a valve, 1-seeded. Seed affixed to the base of the capsule. 

1. A. triphylla, DC. Syst. ii. 35 (1821); Smith; Rees Cycl. (1812 ?), 
under Leontice. Rootstock creeping, ascending: leaves 2 or 3, on erect 
petioles 1 ft. long or more: leaflets 3—5 in. long, palmately nerved, the 
outer margin irregularly and coarsely sinuate: scape solitary, equalling 
the leaves; spike 2—4 in. long; fl. small, white, fragrant: fr. 2 lines 
thick. — From Mendocino Co., Bolander, northward, in deep woods. 



RANUNCULACE^. 293 

OrderLI. RANUNCULACE/E. 

L. Gerard, Flora Gallo-Proviucialis, 378 (1761) : A. L. tie Jussieu, Mem. 
Acad. Paris, 214 (1773). 

Herbs (our species of Ciernal.itis shrubby) with colorless acrid juice. 
Leaves alternate (opposite in Cleinalilis; the cauline ones whorled in 
Jm'iinDie), usually lobed or ternately divided, the petiole dilated at base 
and more or less clasping the stem, seldom stipulate. Inflorescence 
various. Sepals usually 5 (3 — 6), deciduous (in Fceonia persistent). Sta- 
mens GO, hypogynous (in Pceonia perigynous); anthers adnate, extrorse, 
opening by slits. Pistils 1 — oo, simple, becoming achenes or follicles 
(in Actn'a berry-like fruits). Seeds with horny albumen and minute 
embryo. — A varied, rather large, and interesting order, furnishing many 
ornamental and several important medicinal plants. The affinities of the 
family seem to be many; it being at several points in close contact with 
Rosacefe; at others indistinguishable from Berberidese except by the 
rimose dehiscence of the anthers; while the analogies of habit and some 
essentials of vegetative character link it as closely as possible to the 
Umbelliferje; moreover, some authors have found it difficult to draw the 
line between these plants and some Papaverace;e. 

Hints of tlie <>eiiera. 

Fruit a liead or spike of achenes; 

Flowers complete, ------.--. 3 4, 5 

" incomplete, the petals wanting; 

Sepals sreen and inconspicnous. ----- 13 

" petaloid, - - - - - - - - -1, 2 

Fruit of 3 or more follicles; 

Flowers irregular, ----------- (57 

" regular; 

Petals tubular and spur-like, -----. 12 

" rounded and concave, --. -. ..y 
" narrow and elongated, - - . ... jj 

" none; sepals petaloid, . - . . . 9 jo^ j^ 

Fruit many-seeded but berry-like, ------....15 

1. CLEMATITIS, Dioscorides. Half woody, climbing by the tortuous 
petioles of the compound leaves which are opposite, with clustered or 
solitary flowers in the axils. Sepals 4, petaloid, valvate in bud. Petals 
inconspicuous or 0. Pistils oo ; styles persistent, becoming feathery 
appendages of the large compressed and capitate-clustered achenes. 
* So7ne of the outer filaments sterile and dilated into petals. — 
Old genus Atragene. 

1. C. verticillaris, DC. Syst. i. 166 (1818). Atragene Americana, 
Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 887 (1806). Slender, nearly glabrous, leaves ternate; 
the petiolulate leaflets ovate or subcordate, acute : fl. solitary, nodding, 
on a peduncle equalling the petiole of the leaves, 2-3 in. broad, bluish- 



294 RANUNCULACEiE. 

purple: outer stamens sterile and enlarged to narrow spatulate petals. — 
In mountains from near Cape Mendocino northward and eastward. 
* * Petals 0; our species dioecious. — Olematitis proper. 

2. C. lasiautha, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 9 (1838). Silky-piibescent 
throughout, even to the outside of the sepals: leaflets 3, ovate, somewhat 
cuneate at base, coarsely toothed or 3-lobed or -parted: fl. large, solitary, 
erect on 1- '2-bracted peduncles; sepals white, ^4 in. long.— In the hilly 
districts, trailing over rocks and shrubs; the flowers often several at each 
node of the stem, but the peduncles 1-flowered. Apr. 

3. C. lignsticifolia, Nutt. 1. c. Leaves glabrous throughout, or 
somewhat pubescent, in our district silky-tomentose beneath: stems 
elongated, often climbing small trees to the height of 30 ft.: leaves 
5-foliolate; leaflets broadly ovate to lanceolate, usually 3-lobed: fl. 
panicled in the axils; sepals scarcely i/^ in. long.— In middle Calif, less 
frequent than the last, but rather common in the Mt. Diablo Range, also 
occasional in Marin Co.; most showy in autumn, when laden with its 
abundant heads of white feathery-tailed achenes. Fl. July. 

2. ANEMONE, Dioscorides (Wind Flowek). Perennial herbs with 
radical lobed or divided leaves, and a cauline involucral whorl of about 
three, or these more or less united. Flowers 1 to several, on erect 
peduncles. Sepals 5 or more, petaloid, imbricate in bud. Petals 0. 
Stamens and pistils qo . Fruit a head of compressed pointed (in some 
species feathery-tailed) achenes. 
* Styles long, in fruit hecuming plumose tails. — Old genus Pulsatilla. 

1. A. occidentalis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 121 (1876;): A. alpiua, 
Hook. Fl. i. 5, not Linn. Stems clustered, stout, }4,—^% f*- high, 
1-flowered: plant more or less villous: radical leaves long-petioled, 
biternate, the divisions pinnate, the lateral ones subsessile; the segments 
pinnatifid with narrow laciniate-toothed lobes: involucral leaves similar, 
subsessile about midway of the stem: sepals 6 or 7, %—% in. long, pale 
bluish-purple: head of achenes globose, the silky tails 1 in. long or 
more.- Dry ridges, at high altitudes, on Lassen's Peak; doubtless also 
in the Trinity Mts., and far northward. July, Aug. 

* * Achenes not plumose-tailed. — Anemone proper. 

2. A. Druinmondii, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 424 (1880): .1. multifidn, B. 
& W. Bot. Calif, i. 4, not Poir.: A. Baldensis, Hook. Fl. i. 15, not Linn. 
More or less villous, 3—10 in. high, 1— 3-flowered: radical leaves rounded 
and ternately multifid, on petioles of 1—3 in.; the involucral similar, 
subsessile: sepals .5— 8, white, 4—6 lines long: achenes oblong, 2 lines 
long, densely woolly, in an ovate head. — Habitat of the preceding, but in 
moister ground near snow. Aug., Sept. 



RANUNCULACE^. 295 

3. A. deltoidea, Hook. Fl. i. 6. t. 3 (1829). Stem solitary, slender, 1 ft. 
high or less, glabrous: radical leaves ternate, the leaflets deltoid-ovate, 
sometimes trifid; involucral sessile, rhomboid, incisely serrate: sepals 
about 5, oval, large, white: achenes ovate, pubescent, in a rounded 
head. — In Humboldt Co. and northward; on the border of woods, at 
considerable elevations. July, Aug. 

4. A. neiHorosa, Linn. var. Grayi. A. Grayi, Behr. & Kell. Bull. 
Calif. Acad. i. 5 (1884): A. Oregana, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 308 
(1887). Stem very slender, 1 ft. high, solitary, from a horizontal running 
rootstock : radical leaf remote from the stem, of reniform outline, trifid, 
the segments serrate; involucral loug-petioled, 3-foliolate, the terminal 
leaflet 3-lobed, each lateral one 2-lobed, all coarsely serrate: sepals about 
6, oval, white or bluish: achenes 12—20, oblong, 2 lines long, pubescent, 
tipped with a hooked beak, forming a globose head, the long pedicel at 
length curved into a ring. — Moist shady slopes of the higher Coast 
Range mountains, from Santa Cruz northward; common about Lagu- 
nitas on Mt. Tamalpais. The Oregon form, with deep blue sepals, on 
which Dr. Gray founded his species, is inseparable from our own, in 
which the sepals are often bluish, as indeed they are in the genuine Old 
World A. nemorosa in certain localities. Mar. — May. 

3. MYOSURUS, Lobelius (Mousetail). Small stemless glabrous 
annuals, with narrow entire leaves, and many slender 1-flowered (some- 
times short or obsolete) scapes. Sepals 5, spurred at the base. Petals 5, 
consisting of an oblong blade with a nectariferous gland or pit at base, 
and a filiform claw. Stamens 5 — 15. Pistils oo , crowded on a long 
slender receptacle; becoming a spike of small rather thin-walled achenes. 

1. 31. minimns, Linn. Sp. PL i. 284 (1753). Scape 1—5 in. high, 
rather stout, gradually thickened under the fruiting spike, this long- 
conical, 1 — 2 in. long: sepals with prominent slender spur: carpels 
crowded, the more or less distinctly rhomboid top with a manifest costa 
ending in an appressed straight beak: seeds oval or oblong. Var. (1) 
apus, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 277 (1885). Fruiting spike nearly 
cylindrical, nearly or quite sessile among the leaves. Var. (2) flliformis, 
Greene, 1. c. Spike nearly cylindrical, very slender, on a slender scape: 
carpels in few series, minute, with delicate costa, the slender beak shortly 
and abruptly recurved. — The Californian plant nearest the Old World 
type is miTch larger, with relatively longer scapes and shorter more 
conical spikes. This is found in the Livermore Valley (State Survey 
n. 1193), but is more common northward, reaching Vancouver Island. 
The first variety is on the lower San Joaqnin, in subsaline soil, where it 
grows with the other, and flowers earlier. Var. 2 is not rare, occurring 
at San Francisco, in the Oakland Hills and beyond them; but its best 
type is of the far South and insular (Guadalupe Island). Mar. — May. 



296 RANUNCULACE^. 

2. M. apetalus, Gray, var. leptnrus, Gray, Bull. Torr. Club, xiii. 2 
(1886). Smaller aud slender; the spikes (conical in the type) shorter but 
often very slender: achenes with an ascending or somewhat spreading 
prominent beak: seeds elongated-oblong. -Livermore and Sacramento 
valleys, and far northward and eastward. The type of this species is of 
South America. Mar. —May. 

3. M. alopecnroides, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 278 (1885); Gray, 
Bull. Torr. Club, xiii. 3. Scapes 1—2 in. high, stout, thickened upwards, 
or nearly obsolete, and the conical spikes subsessile: top of carpel 
oblong, with a wide soft-cellular border, and a conspicuous broad flattened 
spreading beak: seeds oval, striate-reticulate. — Interior valley; near 
Antioch, J/r.s. Curran, and about Vacaville, J^pso?;; the specimens of the 
latter with nearly or quite sessile flowers and spikes, these less elongated 
and somewhat oblong-conical. Mar. — May. 

4r. KUMLIENIA, Greene. Flaccid perennial, with rounded and lobed 
mostly radical leaves, and a nearly leafless 1 — 2-flowered stem. Sepals 
5—7, white-petaloid and conspicuous. Petals 5, small and inconspicuous, 
consisting of an oval fleshy nectariferous-pitted blade and slender claw. 
Stamens oo . Pistils qo ; becoming in maturity a rounded head of elon- 
gated thin and somewhat utricular 1-seeded carpels, each tipped with a 
persistent hooked style. 

1. K. hystricula, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 337 (1886); Gray, Proc. 
Am. Acad. vii. 328 (1868), under Eanuncuhis. Radical leaves long- 
petioled, round-reniform, with 5 broad but not deep rounded lobes; 
stems 4 — 10 in. high, with 1 or 2 leaves (3-lobed), and as many white 
flowers, the expanded corolla-like calyx % in. broad: ripe carpels 
brownish, of papery texture or thinner, lanceolate, 3 lines long including 
the uncinate style, loosely investing the linear-oblong acute seed. — A rare 
plant of the eastern slope of the Sierra at middle elevations; wearing the 
general aspect of a Eainmculvji, but displaying the flowers of a Caltha 
augmented by the nectary-like petals of Ilelleborus, the utricular fruit 
peculiar. It has been found at Forest Hill near Newcastle, Bolander, 
and on wet mossy rocks in the Yosemite, Parry. Apr. — June. 

5. RANUNCULUS, Pliny (Buttekctjp. Crowfoot). Mostly peren- 
nial, with a tuft of fibrous or fleshy-fibroiis roots, terete stems, which 
are erect, procumbent, creeping or submersed, and entire or cleft or 
divided (sometimes submersed and capillary-dissected) leaves. Flowers 
solitary, or few and scattered, regular, yellow (sometimes white). Sepals 
5, commonly reflexed. Petals 5 (rarely 10 or more), spreading, with a 
nectariferous scale or pit at base within. Stamens and pistils oo , the 
latter becoming compressed smooth or tuberculate or even muricate, 
glabrous or pubescent, usually beaked achenes, disposed in globose or 
somewhat elongated heads. 



RANUNCULACE^. 297 

* Mostly land plajtis, the leaves seldom cut into capillary segments; pedun- 
cles not rejiexed after Jiouerivg; flowers mostly yelloiv; petals icith a 
scale concealing the nectary; achenes without distinct transverse 
ridges. — Ranunculus proper. 
■^Leaves undivided; achenes riot strongly compressed. 

1. R. Bolanderi, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 58 (1886). Erect, stout, 
ly^ — 3 ft. high; peduncles and calyx pubescent: radical leaves few, with 
long petioles and reduced blade; cauline lanceolate, 3—6 in. long, rather 
remotely and coarsely callous-denticulate: petals broadly obovate, 3 — 4 
lines long: achenes many, in a large ovate head, the beak subulate, acute, 
slightly incurved. — Long Valley, Mendocino Co., Bolander; apparently 
rare. The species is much like R. lingua of Europe, but very distinct 
from the next, with which it has been confused. 

2. R. alisinaefolius, Geyer; Benth. PL Hartw. 295 (1849); Gray, Proc. 
Am. Acad. xxi. 368, excl. syn. and var. Erect, 1 ft. high, pilose-pubescent 
below, usually glabrous above; leaves mostly radical, short-peduncled, 
suberect, lanceolate, entire: stem branching above, and peduncles elon- 
gated: sepals and petals often persistent: achenes with a slender straight 
beak, and disposed in a depressed-globose head. — Moist meadows of the 
Sierra Nevada at middle and higher altitudes. June, July. 

3. R. alisinellns. R. alisnuvfolivs, var. aUsniellus, Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. vii. 327 (1868), xxi. 368. Dwarf, acaulescent, glabrous: leaves 
elliptical, entire, acute, thin and flaccid, reclining or fully sustained on 
the long slender petiole: scapes exceeding the leaves, very slender (often 
with a leaf), 1-flowered: fl. }4 in. broad: carpels few, the mature ones 
unknown. — Near the summit of the Sierra, also in the Trinity Mts., at 
higher elevations than the last, and in very wet ground. It has often 
been confused, by collectors and amateurs, with the next, to which it is 
about as much allied as to the preceding. 

4. R. Flaiiiinnla, Linn. var. iiitermedius, Hook. Fl. i. 11 (1829). 

Stems slender or even filiform, rooting at the lower joints, 4 — 10 in. long: 
leaves lanceolate, entire: fl. 2 — 5 lines broad: achenes few, with a very 
short stout straight beak. — Frequent in both ranges of mountains, along 
the muddy or sandy margins of pools, or in the smallest forms quite 
submersed. Californian specimens are more slender and smaller than 
the British American type of this variety; they are not, however, proj^erly 
referable to R. replans. That is distinguished by linear leaves and a 
prominent slender curved beak to the achene. 

5. R. pusillns, Poir. Encycl. vi. 99 (1804): R. pnsillus, var. irachys- 
permus, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxi. 367. Annual, erect, slender, 5 — 10 in. 
high: leaves lanceolate or linear, the radical on slender petioles, entire; 



298 RANUNCULACE^. 

caxiline sometimes toothed: fl. very small: achenes small, papillose- 
roughened, rather many, in a roundish or oval head. Rare in California, 
though common in the southern Atlantic states; found in Napa Valley, 
Bigelom, and in Marin Co., /. P. Moore. The achenes are either smooth 
or rough in even the eastern plant, so that the designating of ours as a 
variety seems unwarranted. May. 

6. R. Cymbalaria, Pursh, Fl. ii. 392 (1814). Glabrous, somewhat 
succulent, low, the crown of the perennial root sending out filiform 
runners: leaves long-petioled, small, round-ovate, obtuse, crenately 
lobed: scapes usually naked, erect, 3 — 6 in. high, 3 5-flowered; petals 
linear or linear-oblong, few or many (4 — 8) : achenes minute, short-beaked, 
striate on the sides, crowded in an oblong head. — At Mono Lake, Bulaiider, 
and in the Kern Co. mountains. Palmer; apparently not in western Calif., 
but common in alkaline soils in many parts of western N. America. 

7. R. Leminoiii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 68 (1874). Subacaulescent, 
villous-pilose below: leaves lanceolate or linear, entire: peduncles scapi- 
form, 1-flowered; petals small, spatulate-oblong: achenes turgid, villous- 
pubescent, with an iuflexed subulate beak, in a depressed-globose head. — 
Sierra Valley, Plumas Co., Lernmon. 

■t— -fr- Leaves mostly teniately lobed, cleft or divided; achenes usually much 
flattened (except in n. 8). 

8. R. ^laberrimus, Hook. Fl. i. 12 t. 5. A (1829). Glabrous, flaccid 
but rather fleshy, 3—6 in. high: leaves all petiolate; radical rounded, 
3-lobed or coarsely toothed; cauline subcuneate, tritid or entire: fi. 
several, large ; sepals spreading; petals 8 — 4 lines long, obovoid: achenes 
plump, smooth, puberuleut, with a short curved beak, and disposed in 
a large globose head. Var. ellipticus. R. ellipficus, Greene, Pitt. ii. 110 
(1890). Radical leaves elliptical, acitte, entire: stems shorter; fl. fewer, 
often apetalous. — The type, a plant of the far north and east, reaches our 
borders on the eastern slope of the Sierra northward. The variety, a 
plant of different aspect, and with very dissirnilar foliage, is found not far 
from Truckee, 3fr. Sonne, where it appears as if confluent with the type. 

9. R. oxynotiis, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. x. 68 (1874). Stout, glabrous, 
the tufted stems 3 — 6 in. high, at base encased within the dead petioles 
of the preceding year: leaves crowded, subreniform, or rounded and 
with cuneate base, crenately 5— 9-lobed, % — H if. broad; cauline broadly 
cuneiform, with 3 — 5 oblong lobes: sepals pilose: petals 4 lines long: 
achenes oblong, smooth, carinate on the back, acuminate with the subu- 
late curved style, disposed in an oblong thick fleshy head. — At great 
elevations in the Sierra, near snow. July — Sept. 

10. R. repens, Linn. Sp. PI. 554 (1753). Pubescent, the stems 1 — 2 



RANUNCULACE.E. 299 

ft. long, trailing, rooting at the lower joints: leaves ternately parted and 
often subdivided: sepals spreading: petals 5: achenes 1^ lines long, 
rather sharply margined, the nearly straight beak about If^ line long. — 
Frequent in lawns at Golden Gate Park and elsewhere in the Bay district, 
but scarcely naturalized. It is common about Eureka, Humboldt Co., 
Marshall, where it may be either native or introduced. 

11. R. inaxiinus, Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, xiv. 118 (1887): R. mac- 
ranthus, Bot. Calif., not Scheele. Pilose or hirsute, the stems stout, 2 — 5 
ft. long, trailing but not rooting: leaves broad, ternate, the radical on 
petioles 1 ft. long or more; leaflets laciniately lobed: sepals reflexed: 
petals 5— 8, oblong-obovate, obtuse, 7 — 10 lines long: achenes thiekish; 
the beak long, straight or slightly incurved; head roundish or broadly 
ovate.— The type of this species is of the Bay region, and is not common. 
It was formerly abundant in the marsh at Newbury Station, Berkeley, 
and is in the hills east of Alameda and Oakland; being also credited to 
Marin Co. In a smaller state, with quite small flowers, though with the 
same large achenes and broad leaflets, it appears in the middle Sierra. 

12. R. Blooiiieri, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 426 (1880). Nearly as large as 
the last, the usually glabrous but sometimes pilose herbage of a peculiarly 
light green, the stems ascending: earliest leaves round-cordate, coarsely 
crenate-toothed or lobed; the later ones 3— 9-foliolate, with leaflets 1 in. 
long and nearly as broad, the coarse teeth rounded and somewhat regu- 
lar: petals 5, retuse, '^4 in. long: achenes long-beaked, forming a roundish 
head. — Common on low grounds adjacent to San Francisco Bay. A very 
distinct species, much more frequent than the last. Feb. — May. 

13. R. Califoriiicus, Benth. PI. Hartw. 295 (1849): E. delphinifolhis, 
T. & G. Fl. i. 659 (1840), not HBK.: R. dlssectus, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 316 
(1840), not Bieb.: R. Deppei, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 21 (1838), under R. acvis, 
therefore by implication wrongly described as to calyx. The type deep 
green, with little or no pubescence, erect or decumbent, 1 — lig ft. high 
the stems freely branching and many-flowered: leaves ternately much 
dissected: sepals reflexed: petals 10 — 15, obovate-oblong, 4 — 5 lines long: 
achenes 1)4 lines long, much compressed, the beak short and recurved- 
head globose. Var. (1) laetus. Strictly erect, stoutish and fistulous, 
rather stiffly hirsute and glaucescent below, the herbage of a light yel- 
lowish green: segments of the much dissected leaves broader than in the 
type: fl. and fr. the same. Var. (2) cauescens. Stout and low, the basal 
parts canescently long- villous : leaves scarcely dissected, the 3 cuneate 
main segments only deeply incised: fl. large, fully an inch wide: fr. as 
in the above forms. Var. (3) cuiieatus. Slender, decumbent, the nascent 
parts silky-pubescent, the plant otherwise glabrous: leaves more or less 
deeply cleft into 3 cuneate lobes or segments, these incisely toothed: fl. 
small: achenes very many, in a round-ovoid head. Var. (4) latilobus, 



300 RANUNCULACE.E. 

Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxi. 375 (1886), in part, excl. R. Ludovicianus. 
Size, habit, fl. and fr. of type, bixt leaves cleft below the middle into 3 
broad cuneate-obovate coarsely toothed lobes. — The prevailing buttercup 
of western California, apparently not reaching the foothills of the Sierra 
eastward, hni ranging north and south toward the seaboard almost 
throughout the State, and running into several very well characterized 
varieties or subspecies, all of them carrying invariably that one mark, the 
multiplicity of petals, by which, along with the reflexed sepals, the species 
is distinguished from its European analogiae, R. acris. I here take as the 
typical form the common plant of the Bay region. From the summits of 
the Oakland Hills down to the bay and the ocean, the unpastured hills 
and level lands are almost yellow with its bloom in March. Var. 1 is of 
the interior, about Suisun, and also in San Mateo Co., occupying low 
meadow lands adjacent to the brackish marshes. Var. 2 belongs to the 
middle elevations of the Mt. Diablo Eange and the valleys among them, 
from Niles to the hills east of Livermore, thence southward to San Luis 
Obispo Co. It was a part of my R. Ludovicianus. Var. 3 is confined to 
the wet meadows that lie back of the ocean in San Mateo Co., doubtless 
also reaching San Francisco Co. In cultivation at Berkeley it behaves 
very unlike the other forms, is almost annual, ;. ^., many individuals 
come to flowering the first year from the seed, and die before the end of 
the year. Other individuals are of perennial duration. Var. 4 is n. 374 
of the State Survey, from Santa Barbara. R. Ludovicianus, properly 
defined, is a very different plant. 

14. R. Ludovicianus, Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. ii. 58 (1886), excl. 
plaut of San Luis Obispo Co. Ascending, less than a foot high; stems 
stout, striate, and, with the foliage, somewhat villous-tomentose or ter- 
nate: radical leaves parted into 3 broad coarsely and callously toothed 
segments; cauline parted into few narrow lobes: jjetals as in the last: 
achenes larger and much less compressed, often sparsely strigose-hispid 
and somewhat papillose. — In mountain meadows of the southeastern 
parts of the State, from Kern Co., Mrs. Curran, to San Bernardino, 
Parish, n. 1890. In the original account of the species I erroneously 
included with it the var. canesceiis of the last, thus leading Dr. Gray to 
merge the whole in var. lalilobus of the preceding. 

15. R. ru§ruIosus, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 58 (1890). Nearly glabrous, 
the stems slender and decumbent, or stoiitish and reclining, IJ2 — 3 ft. 
long: leaves about 5-parted or -divided, the divisions cleft into linear or 
lanceolate segments: petals 7—11, spatulate-oblong, ^2 ^^- long: achenes 
barely a line long including the short recurved style, the sides uneven 
with low rugosities. — This appears as in some sort replacing R. Califor- 
nicus in the southeastern mountains and foothills. The type is from the 
Chowchilla Mts., a slender suberect plant. A coarser form .with broader 



EANUNCULACE^. 301 

leaflets and a depressed mode of growth, bearing much likeness to R. 
repens, has been collected near Visalia, and east of Stockton. 

16. R. canus, Benth. PI. Hartw. 294 (1849): E. occidenlaiis, var. canvs, 
Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 374: R. Californicus, var. cauus, B. & W. 
Bot. Calif, i. fS. More or less silky-canescent, and most so when young; 
stems erect, stoutish, l^b— 2 ft. high: leaves ternately dissected into many 
narrow acute segments: petals 5 (rarely 7—10), round-obovate : achenes 
large, much compressed, the beak broad at base, short and hooked; 
head globose. Plains and hills of the interior, especially about Antioch, 
and northward to Chico, Mm. Bidirell; abundantly floriferous and very 
showy; apparently intergrading with R. Californicus on the one hand, 
and R. occidentalia on the other, but sufficiently distinct. Apr., May. 

17. R. occideiitalis, Nutt. var. Eiseiii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxi. 373 
(1886): A'. Eiseat, Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. vii. 115 (1877). Erect, slender, 
1 ft. high, more or less villous or hirsute with long spreading or appreesed 
white hairs: leaves 3-lobed or -parted, the broad cuneiform segments of 
the radical ones trifid: fl. loosely corymbose-pauicled: sepals reflexed: 
petals 5, obovate-oblong, 3 4 lines long: achenes broad and rouudpd, 
compressed and thin, glabrous, tipped with a short recurved beak. Var. 
Rattaiii, Gray, 1. c. Kadical leaves more deeply parted: stem taller, 
more freely branchmg and floriferous: achenes rather smaller, with 
relatively longer beak, their sides hairy and papillose.— True R. occi- 
dentab'x is probably not within our limits, unless perchance it occurs in 
Humboldt Co. The var. Eiseni is common in the Sierra Nevada at middle 
elevations, on dry open slopes. Var. Rattard is rather of the Coast 
Range, from Marin Co. northward. Apr. — May. 

18. R. Xelsoiiii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 374 (1872): R. recwvatuK, 
var. Nelsonii, DC. Syst. i. 290 (1818): R. tenellus, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 23 
(1838), not Viviani (1830). Densely hirsute, at least below, with short 
spreading or deflexed brownish hairs: stem 1 ft. high or more, the 
branches slender, spreading: radical leaves palmately 3--5-lobed or 
-parted, the segments cuueate, trifld: fl. very small and inconspicuous: 
sepals reflexed: petals elliptic-oblong: achenes in a globose head, small, 
smooth, glabrous or with short recurved hairs, the beak commonly as 
long as the body, closely recurved at tip. Var. tenellus, Gray, Am. 
Acad. viii. 373. Nearly glabrous: fl. very small: achenes with a much 
shorter beak.— The type of this, common in openings among the forests 
from Oregon to Alaska, is found in Humboldt Co., Chesnul d- Breia; the 
variety is of the Sierra Nevada, extending southward to Fresno Co. 

19. R. hebecarpus, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 316 (1840). Slender, erect, 
branching and leafy, 5—15 in. high, pilose-pubescent: radical leaves 
rounded or reniform, deeply lobed or cleft, the segments 3-lobed; fl. 



302 EANUNCULACEiE. 

uumerous, minute, on filiform pedicels: achenes rather few, in a g-lobose 
head, rounded and flattened, papillose and short-hairy, the beak very 
short, the small tip abruptly recurved. Var. pnsillns, B. & W. Bot. Calif, 
i. 9; Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, xiv. 116. Annual, very slender, usually 
reclining; organs of the fi. few and definite (4 or 5 only in each circle). 
The type is perennial, extending from the foothills of the Sierra near 
Chico southward to the southern seaboard. In the Bay region we have 
only the variety. It is common in the hilly districts from Napa Co. to 
San Mateo, in the shade of oaks, and along streams. Apr., May. 

20. R. MURiCATUs, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 55.5 (1753). A stoutish and glabrous 
annual with yellow-green herbage, and round-reniform slightly lobed 
leaves: fl. small and inconspicuous: achenes very large, with stout ensi- 
form beak and coarsely muricate-prickly sides. — Common about San 
Francisco, at the Presidio, Mountain Lake, and in the Mission Hills, in 
wet sandy soil, or about springs; also in Marin Co. ; doubtless naturalized 
from Europe; flowering at all seasons. 

21. R. delphiiiifolius, Torr.; Eaton, Man. 2 ed. 395 (1818), not HBK. 

(1821); Britt. Bull. Torr. Club, xviii. 363: R. lacustris, Beck & Tracy, 
Eaton, Man. 3 ed. 895 (1822); Greene, Pitt. ii. 62: R. multifidus, Pursh 
(1814), not Forsk. (1775): R. Purshii, Hook. (1829). Perennial, aquatic; 
stems a few inches to several feet long, mostly submersed, as are also 
most of the leaves, these all divided into numerous linear-filiform seg- 
ments: fl. (and some of the uppermost leaves) emersed and almost 
floating, 1 in. broad, yellow: sepals spreading: petals 5, broadly obovate: 
achenes slightly flattened, the sides faintly rugose, the basal part corky- 
thickened, the rather long and slender beak straight or somewhat 
incurved. — In mountain lakes; Humboldt Co., C'hesnut cfc Dreiv. A hand- 
some aquatic, more common on the Atlantic side of the continent than 
with us. Late in the season it may be found in a terrestrial form, with 
leaves less finely dissected. June, July. 

* * Aquatics, with leaves mostly capillaceous-muUifid and submersed; pe- 
duncles opposite the leaves, recurved in fruit; petals white, ivith naked 
nectariferous pit; achenes Utile compressed, transversely rugose- 
striate. — Genus Batrachium, S. F. Gray; Wimmer; Fries. 

22. R. aquatilis, Dod. Pempt. 576 (1583); Ray, Syn. 3 ed. 249 (1724); 
Linn. Sp. PI. i. 556 (1753). Perennial, the emersed and floating leaves 
when present, roundish, 3-lobed: sepals deciduous: styles subulate: 
achenes slightly rugose, usually hispidulous, 12—20 in a rather compact 
globose head. — Frequent in ponds and ditches, sometimes in running 
streams, or, on muddy shores appearing in a dwarf and wholly terrestrial 
form. The Old World type, with round-reniform emersed foliage, and 
hispidiilous achenes, not known in eastern America, has been found in 



RANUNCULACE^. 303 

Humboldt Co., Chean id ct- Drew. A state with flowers constantly 4-merous 
occurs in the sloughs near Stockton. Flowering and fruiting takes place 
at all seasons except midwinter. 

23. R. Lobbii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxi. 364 (1886): E. liydrocharis 
Lobbii, Hiern, Journ. Bot. ix. 66 (1871): R. acjuat/ilis, var. Lobhii, Wats. 
Bibl. Ind. 17 (1878). Annual, the floating leaves always present, deeply 
3-lobed, the middle lobe usually elliptical and entire, the laterals some- 
what larger, oblong, obcordate at summit : sepals persistent, em])racing 
the few (4 6) finely and rather sharply rugose achenes; style filiform, 
deciduous except the base, which remains upon the achene as a short 
beak. — In early spring only, in winter pools which go dry in summer; 
frequent in Marin Co. ; also in the Berkeley Hills toward San Pablo. 

6. DELPHINIUM, D/oscom/fs (Larkspur). Erect herbs, with petioled 
palmately divided leaves, and irregular mostly either blue or scarlet 
flowers disposed in terminal racemes. Sepals 5. colored and jietaloid, the 
upper one produced into a long hollow spur, the others plane. Petals 4 
(or 2 at the least), 2 of them developed backwards into a spur which is 
inserted into the spur of the calyx. Stamens ao , unequal. Pistils mostly 
3 (1 — 5), becoming many-seeded follicles. 

* Flowers blue, varying to pink or flesh-color (never scarlet). 
4— Root a cluster of coarse thickish and half-woody fibres. 

1. D. Califoruicuin, T. & G. Fl. i. 31 (1838): D. e.raltatum, H. & A. 
Bot. Beech. 318 (1840), not Ait. Stems usually several, stout, 3—5 ft. 
high, leafy up to the raceme, pubescent: leaves ample, deeply 5-cleft, 
the segments variously lobed: raceme strict, often dense, 1 — 1}4 ft. long: 
fl. small, either dull greenish or whitish, with a tinge of flesh-color or 
purple, little expanded, externally rather densely velvety-pubescent: fol- 
licles oblong, turgid, erect. — One of our few well-marked species of this 
intricate genus, inhabiting the Coast Range; preferring moist places on 
open or sparsely wooded hills. Apr. — June. 

2. D. glancum, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 427 (1880): D. scopulonim, B. & 
W. 1. c. i. 11, not Gray: D. scopulorum, var. glaucuni, Gray, Bot. Gaz. xii. 
52 (1887). Size, habit and leafiness of the above, biit glabrous and glau- 
cescent: leaves ample, thin, deeply 5-parted; segments laciniate-toothed 
or -k>bed: fl. in a narrow elongated raceme, on short slender pedicels, of 
a rather pale but very clear blue : sepals narrow, not wide-spread, glabrous 
or nearly so; spur tapering gradually to the end, which is abruptly 
curved downward. — In the high Sierra, where it is common, growing in 
masses, and occupying damp ground bordering marshes and streamlets. 

3. D. hesperiuiii, Gray, Bot. Gaz. xii. 51 (1887): D. simplex, Boland. 
Cat. 4; B. & W. i. 10, not Dougl. Stem solitary, rather slender and strict, 



304 RANUNCULACEiE, 

IJ/^ — 2}4 ft- high; herbage canescent with a short and close, or coarser 
and spreading pubescence; conspiciionsly leafy at base of stem only, the 
leaves becoming sparse and small toward the raceme, all rather small, 
much dissected, the lobes linear, obtuse: raceme dense, elongated: fl. 
well expanded, deep blue (except in the albino state, then pinkish) : spur 
stout and straight, about as long as the sepals: follicles erect, pubescent. 
Var. Hanseni. Very slender, with narrow, elongated and rather lax 
racemes of flowers one half as large as in the tyi^e, and of less intense 
blue. — The genuine form of this handsome species is of the Coast Range, 
where it is noted as our oidy late-flowering species, appearing in June, 
after the dry season has set in; the lower leaves at time of flowering 
having mostly died away. The variety in Amador Co., Geo. Hansen. 

4. D. recurratnm, Greene, Pittonia, i. 285 (1889). Stem solitary, 
stoutish and hollow, 1 — 2 ft. high; herbage cinereous-pubescent through- 
out, or nearly glabrous, glaucescent: leaves mostly subradical; petiole 
elongated ; leaf -segments cleft into about 3 linear obtuse lobes : raceme 
long, occupying more than half the stem, rather open, the lower pedicels 
more elongated: fl. lavender-color or bluish: sepals linear-oblong, wide- 
spread, or at length recurved, the blunt spur curved upwards. — In moist 
and subsaline ground on the plains of the San Joaquin from near Tulare 
northward to Byron; also in a taller and more leafy variety near Antioch, 
Chesnut d- Drew; Sacramento Valley, Jepson. Mar. — May. 

5. D. variegatum, T. & G. Fl. i. 32 (1838): I), gmndiflorum, var. 
variegatmn, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 317 (1840). Pubescent; stem simple, 
1 — 1}4 ft- high: leaves few, 3-parted into cuneiform segments, these 
cleft into broad linear lobes: raceme short, lax and few-flowered, the 
pedicels elongated, ascending: sepals dark blue, obovate-oblong, acutish. 
% in. long; spur short, straight: lower petals round-obovate, 3-lobed, 
the upper small, white: ovaries appressed-pubescent. Var. apicnlatum. 
TJ. apiculatum, Greene, Pitt. i. 285 (1889). Flowers smaller, many, on 
short suberect pedicels, forming a compact cylindrical raceme : segments 
of the leaves broader; herbage coarsely and retro rsely pubescent. — The 
type is of open fields and hills along the seaboard from Monterey to San 
Luis Obispo. The variety belongs to the interior valley of the State 
from one to two hundred miles farther north. 

6. D. ornatum. Puberulent; stem simple, stoutish, 1 ft. high: leaves 
on slender petioles, the blade divided and subdivided into rather few 
narrowly linear acutish segments: raceme strict: fl. very large, of a 
rather light blue and white, forming a rather dense short raceme, the 
pedicels erect : sepals 1 in. long, oblong, obtuse, the inner ones, and also 
the white petals, with conspicuously crisped margins: ovaries appressed- 
pubescent. — Related to the preceding, but very distinct in foliage and 
characters of sepals and petals. It is known only in herbarium specimens 



RANUNCULACE^. 305 

(State Survey n. 409) obtained at Niponia, San Luis Obispo Co., and which 
have been confused with those of D. variegation. 

7. D. troUi folium, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 275 (1872). Glabrous 
or somewhat pubescent; 2 ft. high or more: lower leaves very large, 
long-petioled, 5 -7-lobed; lobes cuneate, usually closely approximate, 
the sinus closed, the summit laciniately cleft and toothed: raceme loose, 
the pedicels, especially the lower, elongated and ascending: fl. middle- 
sized, bright blue (but petals white); the stout spur as long as the sepals 
or longer, gently curved downwards throughout its length: follicles 
glabrous, recurved-spreading. — In shady places from Humboldt Co. south- 
ward to Monterey, m the Coast Bange only, and not seen in the Bay 
region. The Monterey plant (McLean, 1874) is not quite like the type, 
and may be distinct. 

■i- •)— Roots scarcely woody-fibrous, thick and more or less fleshy, often 
tuberiform or grninoiis. 

8. D. (listiehnm, Geyer; Hook. Lond. Jouru. Bot. vi. 67 (1847): D. 
azure Km, Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. partly, not Michx. Root fleshy and 
branching, with fibrous rootlets: stem mostly solitary, strict, 1 — 2 ft. 
high, very leafy up to the narrow and dense virgate raceme: leaves light 
green, glabrous, thickish, the lowest cleft to the middle, or more deeply, 
into oblong callous-tipped lobes; divisions of the upper successively 
deeper and narrower, those of the uppermost narrowly linear: fl. smallish, 
somewhat 2-ranked, in a narrow elongated raceme; spur % in. long, 
straight, horizontal, twice the length of the sepals : follicles short, thickish, 
erect. — Plains of Humboldt Co. or Mendocino, Kellogg, northward to the 
British boundary, in rather moist open ground. July, Aug. 

9. D. nligiiiosnm, Curran, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 151 (1885). Roots 
scarcely fleshy, rather woody-fibrous but thick : stem leafy at base only, 
1 ft. high or more ; herbage deep green, almost glabrous : leaves fiabelli- 
form, 3-cleft, the segments about 3-toothed: fl. few, rather large, deep 
blue, in an open raceme; spur slender, straight, equalling the sepals. — 
Wet open ground near Epperson's, Lake Co., 3Irs. Curran. July. 

10. 1). Meiiziesii, DC. Syst. i. 355 (1818). Root a cluster of short 
roundish or compressed tubers: stem solitary, rather slender, 1 ft. high 
or less, leafy below, but leaves few, long-petioled, palmately parted, more 
or less pubescent: fl. few and large (1)2 in. broad), on long ascending 
pedicels; spur short, stout, straight: follicles short, thick, divergent. — 
From near San Francisco, where it is rare, northward to Mendocino and 
Humboldt counties, where it is common, as also far northward beyond 
our borders. Apr. — July. 

11. D. Andersonii, Gray, Bot. Gaz. xii. 50 (1887): D. decorum, var. 



306 RANUNCULACE^. 

Nevadense, Wats. Bot. Calif, i. 11 (1876). Root with more numerous and 
less fleshy tuberiform branches : stem low, stoutish ; herbage somewhat 
fleshy, glabrous, glaucescent: leaves few, deeply cleft, the segments 
cuneiform, deeply 3-lobed: raceme long and rather lax: fl. 1 in. broad, 
deep blue, the long spur mostly strongly uncinate-incurved at tip : follicles 
short, erect. — In the Sierra Nevada, near Truckee, Sonne, etc. May, June. 

12. D. decorum, F. & M. Ind. Sem. Petr. iii. 33 (1836). Root grumose, 
the tuberiform branches ending in many coarse fibres: stem solitary, 
slender, simple, mostly less than 1 ft. high: herbage of a very pale green, 
pubescent or nearly glabrous : leaves small, parted into 3 — 5 rather widely 
sundered segments, these broad-cuneiform, obtusely or acutely 3-lobed 
in the radical ones, narrow and entire in the few cauline: fl. rather small, 
in a somewhat open or more condensed raceme, deep blue, except the 
white uppermost petals; spur straight: follicles glabrous, widely diver- 
gent in maturity. — Common along the borders of thickets, or in more 
open stony places, among the hills of the Coast Range, from perhaps 
Santa Cruz, northward to Humboldt Co. Apr. 

13. D. pateus, Benth. PI. Hartw. 296 (1849): D. decorum, var. patens, 
Gray, Bot. Gaz. xii. 54 (1887). Pale green and glabrous, or deeper green 
and glandular-pubescent, very slender, 1 — 2 ft. high: leaves larger than 
in the last, deeply 5-parted; segments narrowly cuneiform and deeply 
incised: raceme very lax, the small flowers on almost filiform spreading 
pedicels: spur longer than the sepals, abruijtly narrowed to the uncinate 
tip: follicles glabrous or glandular-pilose, divergent. — At middle eleva- 
tions of the Sierra, on the westward slope, where it is the analogue of 
D. decorum, and evidently more than a mere variety of that species. 

* * Scarlet Jioivered species; the roots notflesliy. 

14. D. nudicanle, T. & G. Fl. i. 33 (1838): D. sarcophyllum, H. & A. 
Bot. Beech. 317 (1840). Glabrous or slightly hairy; stem simple, 1—2 ft. 
high, the leaves all near the base, long-petioled, 3 5-lobed, the segments 
mucronately 3 — 7-toothed or lobed: raceme very lax, somewhat pju-ami- 
dal, the lower pedicels greatly elongated: fl. 1 in. long or more; «epals 
bright scarlet, not widely expanding, the spur straight; petalsV^Uow : 
follicles glabrous, divergent at summit, sometimes narrowed at base to 
a short stipe. Rocky slopes and summits of the Coast and Mt. Diablo 
ranges of mountains, from Mendocino Co. to Mt. Hamilton and Santa 
Cruz; also in the Sierra Nevada, according to Brewer & Watson. 

15. 1). cardinale, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4887 (1855): D. coccineum, Torr. 
Pac. R. Rep. iv. 62 (1857). Stout, leafy up to the long rather dense raceme, 
and of ten 5 —8 ft. high : leaves large; segments acuminate : fl. 1 in. broad; 
sepals widely expanding: follicles (often 5 or 6) erect.— A magnificent 
species, common in the Coast Range from perhaps near Monterey south- 
ward throughout the State. July. 



RANUNCULACE.E. 307 

7. ACONITUM, Theophraslns (Monks' Hood. Aconite). In all re- 
spects like Delphinium (its separation therefrom a mere conventionality), 
save that the sepals are never wide-expanded, but rather connivent, and 
that the uppermost one is arched into a hood or helmet-shaped organ, 
instead of being prolonged into a spur. 

1. A. ColumbianuiTi, Nutt. T. & G. Fl. i. 34 (1838): A. nasulum, Hook. 
FI. i. 26 (1829), not Fisch.: A. Fischeri, B. & W. i. 12, not Eeichenb. 
Glabrous or sparingly pubescent, 2 — 5 ft. high; leafy up to the rather 
long and very loose raceme: leaves 3 — 5-cleft; segments broadly cuneate, 
laciniately toothed or cleft: hood narrowly oblong, with a salient acute 
beak: follicles 3 (rarely 5), glabrous, erect. — Frequent at rather high 
altitudes in the Sierra Nevada; also in the Coast Range from Lake Co. 
northward, in moist shades, along cold brooklets, etc. June — Sept. 

8. P(EONIA, Dioscorides. Stout perennials with more or less dis- 
tinctly tuberous and clustered, or at least fleshy and branching roots. 
Leaves ternately compound. Flowers solitary at the ends of the mostly 
simple stems. Sepals 5, persistent. Petals 5 or more, rounded, concave, 
red. Stamens cc , inserted on a plane disk founded on the united bases of 
the sepals. Pistils 2 — 5, becoming large leathery follicles. 

1. P. Brownii, Dougl. Hook. Fl. i. 27 (1829); Greene, Gard. & Forest, 
iii. 356. Roots deep-seated, elongated and branching, fleshy but scarcely 
tuberous: stem 1 ft. high and, with the herbage, very glaucous: leaves 
of cordate-ovate outline, the numerous segments oblong, obtuse.- In the 
higher Sierra, from the middle, or perhaps even from southerly sections 
of the State northward to British Columbia. It is also credited to Marin 
Co. by Dr. Behr, whose plant, however, is more likely to be of the next 
species. June. 

2. P. Callforuica, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 41 (1838); Greene, 1. c. Roots - 
rather more distinctly tuberous-thickened: stem and herbage when 
mature scarcely glaucous: leaves of pedate outline (broader than long), 
their segments lanceolate or oblong, acute. — On hillsides, among bushes, 
in the southern parts of the State, both along the seaboard and far 
inland; first discovered near Santa Barbara, by Nultall; readily distin- 
guishable from the preceding, even in the herbarium. March. 

9. CALTHA, C. Gesner (Marsh Marigold). Perennial herbs of very 
wet ground. Roots coarse-fibrous, fascicled. Leaves mainly or altogether 
radical, undivided, cordate or subsagittate. Flowers showy, terminal, 
solitary or several. Sepals 5-12, petaloid. Petals 0. Stamens oo. Pistils 
5 — 12, becoming small follicles. 

1. C. leptosepala, DC. Syst. i. 310 (1818); Hook. Fl. i. 22. t. 10. 
Leaves long-petioled, from oval to reniform, cordate at base, the sinus 



308 RANUNCULACE^, 

narrow or closed, the margin crenate or entire: stems several, leafless, 
1 -flowered: sepals about 10, linear-obloug, white, or with a tinge of lurid 
purple on the outside: carpels 8 — 10, very shortly stipitate, pointed with 
the short slender style. — In marshy grounds of the higher Sierra. 

16. ISOPYRUM, Linnxus. Low slender very flaccid perennials, 
with bi- or triternately compound leaves, and a few smallish white flowers. 
Sepals 5, petaloid. Petals 0. Stamens 10 — 40. Pistils 3—6, becoming 
transversely veined rather few-seeded follicles. 

1. I. occideiitale, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 316 (1840). Roots fascicled, 
fibrous: stem 6 — 10 in. high, parted above into few 1-flowered branches: 
leaflets 4—8 lines long, irregularly 3-lobed: pods short, sessile, obliquely 
pointed. — Under oaks, or other trees and shrubs, among the foothills on 
either side of the valley of the Sacramento; Forest Hill, Bolander, and 
Vaca Mts., Jepson. Mar., Apr. 

2. I. stipitatum, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 54 (1876): /. Clarkei, 
Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. vii. 131 (1877). Much smaller, the roots thickened 
almost to the tuberous : leaflets deeply 3-parted into oblong segments : fl. 
solitary: follicles broadly oblong, obtuse, distinctly stipitate. — Mendocino 
Co., /. H. Clarke, and northward. Apr., May. 

11. COPTIS, Salisbury (Gold-Thread). Low perennials; the hard 
tenacious running rootstocks and fibrous roots yellow. Leaves all radical, 
ternately compound, coriaceous, evergreen. Flowers few, borne umbel- 
lately at summit of a naked scape. Sepals 5—7, petaloid, narrow. Petals 
as many, narrow. Stamens 10—20. Pistils 3 — 5 or more, becoming stipi- 
tate follicles containing several crustaceous shining seeds. 

1. C. laciiiiata, Gray, Bot. Gaz. xii. 297 (1887): C. asplenifulia, Wats. 
Bot. Calif., not Salisb. Leaves trifoliolate, the lateral leaflets short- 
stalked, all ovate, nearly 3-parted, their divisions incised, acute : sepals 
and petals linear-attenuate : mature pods longer than their stipe: seeds 
oval. — A rare denizen of deep moist woodlands in Mendocino and Hum- 
boldt counties, G. R. Vasey, V. C. Marshall. 

12. AQUILEGIA, Tragus (Columbine). Perennials, branching above. 
Leaves mostly radical and biternate; the leaflets with roiinded lobes; 
texture membranaceous. Flowers, at the ends of the few branches, large, 
showy, usually somewhat nodding. Sepals 5, plane, colored like the 
petals. Petals 5, tubular, projecting like hollow spurs behind the sepals, 
and ending in a small globular cavity which is filled with honey. Pistils 
5, becoming follicles, each with many black shining seeds. 

1. A. truiicata, F. & M. Ind. Sem. Petr. Suppl. 8 (1843); C. A. Mey. 
Sert. Petr. 1. 11: A. Californica, Lindl. Gard. Chron.836 (18.54): A. eximia 



RANUNCULACE^. 309 

Van Houtte, Fl. Serr. t. 1188 (1857). Glabrous, or in soiitherly stations 
notably puberulent, 1—3 ft. high: fl. IJg — 2 in. broad, red tinged with 
yellow: sepals widely spreading or reflexed: petals truncate, the limb 
very short: spurs % — % iii- long? thick and blunt. — Common in shady 
ravines and on banks of streams. Apr., May, on the seaboard; June, 
July, in the Sierra. 

2. A. leptocera, Nutt. Journ. Philad. Acad. vii. 9 (1834): A. carulea, 
B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 10, not James: A. macrantJia, H. & A. Bot. Beech, 
t. 72 (1840). Neither as tall nor as branching as the above: fl. very large, 
pale yellow; sepals spreading, 2—3 in.; spurs slender, 2—3 in. long; 
pistils in the central earliest flowers commonly 7 or 8. — Woods of the 
higher Sierra; equally related to A. ccenilea of the Rocky Mts., and to 
A. chrysantha of Mexico, but distinct from both. June, July. 

13. THALICTRUM, Dioscorides (Meadow-Rue). Tall perennials, 
often heavy -scented, with fibrous roots^ hollow stems, bi- or triternately 
compound leaves, and many panicled greenish imperfect (dioecious) 
flowers. Sepals 4—7, small, deciduous. Petals 0. Stamens oo, with 
slender linear anthers on rather long almost capillary filaments. Pistils 
few or many, becoming ribbed or veined achenes which are tipped with 
the persistent beak-like style, and disposed in roundish head.s. 

1. T. polycarpum, Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 424 (1880), partly. Stout, 3—4 
ft. high, glabrous, not glaucous, aromatic-scented: leaves short-petioled 
or sessile; leaflets with acute or acuminate lobes: sepals lanceolate, not 
scarious: achenes very many in the head, broadly obovoid, short-stipitate, 
compressed, turgid, the style abruptly curved, the sides marked with low 
more or less anastomosing veins. — In open places near streams, chiefly in 
the Coast Range above and below San Francisco. Easily recognized by 
the peculiar aromatic odor, sharp-pointed leaf-lobes, and crowded heads 
of large turgid achenes. May, June. 

2. T. csesiam. Tall as the last, but less robust, not at all aromatic, 
glaucous throughout, even to the achenes: sepals oblong, obtuse, thin 
and somewhat scarious-margined: achenes from nearly orbicular to 
broadly lanceolate, veined as in the last, but not turgid. — Foothills of 
the Sierra, from Calaveras Co. northward; common near Chico: also in 
Lake Co., Mr. Whitmore. Apparently confused with T. polycarpum 
hitherto, but occupying a different range, and very clearly distinct. 

3. T. hesperiniii, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 24 (1889): T. diuicwn, Boland. 
Cat. 3 (1870), not Linn.: T. Fendleri, B. & W. Bot. Calif, i. 4 (1876) partly, 
not Engelm.: T. Fendleri, var. platycarpum, Trel. Proc. Bost. Soc. xxiii. 
304 (1886). Tall, scentless, glabrous except the growing parts and the 
lower face of the leaves, which have a sparse minutely gland-tipped 



310 RANUNCULACE^. 

pubescence: lobes of the leaflets rounded : sepals 5, lanceolate, not 
scarious: aclienes obliquely oval or semi-obovate, substipitate, the ribs 
or veins distinct and parallel. — Of more general distribution than any 
of the above, inhabiting both the inner Coast mountains and the Sierra 
Nevada; common along streams in the Oakland Hills, but not reported 
from west of Han Francisco Bay, where T. palt/carpiun replaces it. The 
species seems almost or quite confluent with T. Fendleri of the southern 
Rocky Mountains. 

4. T. occidentale, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 372 (1872). Rather 
slender, 2 ft. high: leaflets thin, sparingly glandular-puberulent beneath: 
achenes long (^4 — % in.), lanceolate, not oblique, substipitate, tapering 
above to a slender beak, the side parallel-ribbed. — A species of the distant 
north and north-east, but frequent in extreme northern Calif., reaching 
our limits in Sierra Co., at Gold Lake, C. A. Ramm. June — Aug. 

5. T. sparsiflorum, Turcz.; Ind. Sem. Petr. i. 40 (1835): T. Rkhard- 
sonii, Gray, Am. Journ. Sci. xlii. 17 (1842). Tall and rather slender, thin- 
leaved, strongly rue-scented: heads of achenes nodding: achenes very 
oblique, much flattened, tipped with a short incurved style, the sides with 
low nerves. — In the higher Sierra, from Donner Lake northward. 

14. TRAUTVETTERIA, Fischer & Mei/ei: Perennial herbs, with 
palmately lobed leaves both radical and cauline. Flowers small, white, 
terminal, in a corymbose panicle. Sepals 3 5, concave, petaloid, cadu- 
cous. Petals 0. Pistils go , becoming membranaceous 4-angled somewhat 
bladdery 1-seeded fruits disposed in heads. Seed ascending. 

1. T. g-raiulis, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 37 (1838); Wats. Bot. Calif, ii. 42.'5. 
Slender, 1 — 3 ft. high: leaves few, the radical long-stalked, all of thin 
texture, deeply 5— 7-lobed, the lobes acuminate, laciniate-toothed, beneath 
showing a sparse curled pubescence: achenes little more than a line 
long, broadly gibbous at base, disposed in globose heads.— -A plant of the 
far North, found in Plumas Co., on Mill Creek, Mrs. Austin. 

15. ACTJEA, Linnxus (Hekb-Christopher, Bane-Berry). Peren- 
nials, with roots somewhat knotted and tuberous. Leaves ample, ter- 
nately compound, ^'lowers small, white, in a terminal raceme. Sepals 
about 4, caducous. Petals 1 or more. Staihens 00. Pistil 1; stigma 
sessile, 2-lobed. Fruit indehiscent, berry-like, the fleshy pericarp, with 
a false line of dehiscence on one side, enclosing 2 closely packed vertical 
rows of flattened semiorbicular seeds.— A small genus, seeming to form 
one of the connecting links between this family and the Berberideae. 

1. A. arguta, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 35 (1838): A. spicata, var. argufa, 
Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 63 (1857): A. rubra, var. argnta, Greene, Pitt. ii. 108 
(1890). Stem 2—3 ft. high, bearing one or more large stalked leaves; 



SARMENTOS^. 311 

leaflets acute, coarsely and iucisely serrate: raceme oblong, 1 — 2 in. long, 
often with one or more short branches at base: sepals obovate, concave: 
petals with rhombic-ovate acute limb and nearly filiform claw: stamens 
25 or 30; filaments filiform, or slightly enlarged under the minute roundish 
anthers: berries rather obliquely oval, as large as peas, deep cherry, red, 
or occasionally snow-white. — Common on wooded northward slopes, under 
hazel bushes, etc., in the Berkeley Hills; also in the woods of the Coast 
Bange from Santa Cruz Co. northward. Specimens from the mountains 
of Fresno Co. seem doubtfully referable to this. Distinct enough from 
the Old World A. spicata, which has emarginate petals, black berries, 
etc.; more nearly allied to the East American .1. rubra. Feb. 



Oedek lii. SARMENT0S>E. 

L. Gerard, Flora Gallo-Provincialis, 378 (1761). Sarmentace^, Vent. 
Tabl. iii. 167 (1799). Vinifer^, J. St.-Hilaire, Exp. Fam. Nat. ii. t. 79 
(1805). AMPELiDEas, HBK. (1815). Vitace^, Lindl. lutr. 2 ed. 30 (1836). 
ViTEs, Juss. (1789). 

A small family, important as containing the Grape; closely allied to 
the Araliacese, and connecting with Rhamnese in some aspects of flower 
and fruit; also with Ranimcvilacese, through ClematUi.i, in vegetative 
characters, habit, etc. We have but one native species. 

1. VITIS, Varro (Grape). Shrubs with watery juice, climbing by 
branching tendrils placed opposite the leaves. Flowers small, greenish, 
very numerous, in thyrsiform clusters opposite the leaves. Calyx minute, 
cup-like, with or without traces of 4 or 5 teeth. Petals 4 or 5, distinct 
and spreading, or distinct at base only and united at apex, then falling 
off like a calyptra. Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them, 
inserted on a perigynous disk or elevation of the torus; filaments slender; 
anthers introrse. Pistil with a short style or none; stigma slightly 
2-lobed. Fruit baccate, 1 — 4-seeded. Seeds bony, rather large, grooved 
on one side; embryo small, in a hard albumen. 

1. V. Califoniica, Benth. Bot. Sulph. 10 (1844). Stem often 1—2 in. 
thick below, climbing trees to the height of 20 — 50 ft.: leaves 3 in. long, 
nearly as broad, round-cordate with deep and narrow sinus, obtuse, 
rather coarsely serrate, sometimes 3-lobed, canescently tomentose beneath, 
and when young more or less so on both faces: fr. 4 lines thick, in large 
clusters, purple, glaucous: seeds broad. — Along streams almost through- 
out the State, except in the higher mountains; but also absent from the 
immediate seaboard, especially in the northwestern districts. 

2. V. vinipera, Linn., the wine grape, native of the Old World, has 
escaped from cultivation, and will occasionally be seen in a wild state. 



312 AEALIACE.E. 

Order LIII. ARALIACE/E. 

A. Eichard; Dictionaire Classique d'Histoire Naturelle, i. 506 (1822). 
Arali^., Juss. (1789). Tribe of Umbellifer^, Baillon (1880). 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, with mostly stout hollow stems, and alternate 
lobed or compound leaves. Flowers small, in simple but often panicled 
or racemosely arranged umbels. Calyx joined to the ovary, entire or 
toothed. Petals 5—10, deciduous. Stamens as many or twice as many 
as the petals, inserted around the border of the calyx outside of an epigy- 
nous disk. Ovary more than 2-celled; styles as many as the cells, some- 
times connate. Fruit berry-like. Seeds pendulous; embryo minute; 
albumen fleshy. — An order closely allied to the Grape Family; but so 
near to Umbelliferse as to be scarcely separable therefrom by its fleshy 
and more than bicarpellary fruits. 

1. ARALIA, Vaillant (Spikenard). Our species a very coarse peren- 
nial herb, with ternately compound leaves and large serrate leaflets. 
Calyx 5- toothed or entire. Petals 5, ovate, slightly imbricate. Stamens 5. 
Disk depressed or 0. Fruit laterally compressed, becoming 3— 5-angled, 
fleshy externally; endocarp chartaceous. 

1. A. Californica, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 144 (1876). Herbaceous* 
unarmed, 6—10 ft. high, from a large thick perennial root: leaves bipin- 
nate, or the upper pinnate with only 1—2 pairs of leaflets: leaflets cordate- 
ovate, 4 10 in. long, abruptly acuminate, simply or doubly serrate with 
short acute teeth : umbels in loose terminal and axillary compound or 
simple racemose panicles which are 1 — 2 ft. long, each umbel subtended 
\>Y several linear bractlets: fl. 2 lines long; disk and style-base (stylo- 
podium) obsolete; styles united for half their length: fr. 2 lines long. — In 
shaded and moist ravines of the Coast Range. 

2. HEDERA, P//*iy (Ivy). Shrubby, climbing by aerial roots. Leaves 
coriaceous, evergreen, simple, lobed. Flowers in a terminal panicle of 
umbels. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals 5. Stamens 5. Styles united into a 
single very short one. Cells of the ovary 5 or 10. Berry smooth and 
black, with 2—5 seeds. 

1. H. Helix, Gerard, Herb. Em. 857 (1633); Park. Theatr. 679 (1640); 
Linn. Sp. PI. i. 292 (1753). Leaves ovate, angularly 3 — 5-lobed, those of 
the sterile and young shoots more deeply so than those of the flowering 
branches; these bushy, erect, projecting a foot or more from the climbing 
main stem: umbels globose.- fl. yellowish-green. — The English Ivy, com- 
mon on trees in parks, and on buildings, and well adapted to our climate, 
fruits freely here, and will often be met with wild, as an escape from 
cultivation. 



UMBELLIFER^. 313 

Order LIV. UMBELLIFER/E. 

Morison, Plantarum Umbelliferarum Distributio Nova, 5 (1672); Eay, 
Methodus Plantarum, 47 (1703); Van Eoyen, Flora Leydensis Prod- 
romus, 91 (1740); Haller, Hortus et Ager Gottingensis, 171 (1753); L. 
Gerard, Flora Gallo-Provincialis, 230 (1761); Crantz, Inst. ii. 113 (1706); 
Juss. Gen. 218 (1789). 

Herbs with mostly hollow, often striate, angled or fluted stems, mostly 
compound leaves which are prevailingly alternate; the petiole dilated 
or even sheathing at base. Flowers small, in simple or compoiind umbels 
(sometimes sessile and therefore capitate). Calyx almost wholly adnate 
to the 2-celled ovary. Petals 5, mostly valvate in bud, usxially inflexed at 
apex in flower. Stamens 5, epigynous, alternate with the petals; anthers 
ovate, subdidymous. Styles 2, simple, more or less dilated at base into 
a stylupodinin. Fruit of 2 closely approximated and often ribbed, some- 
times winged, always 1-seeded carpels; the intervals between the ribs 
usually occupied by one or more oil-tubes or viUx. The face by which 
the two carpels meet or partly cohere is called the commissure. A 
slender prolongation of the axis between these faces is called a carpo- 
phore, which, in maturity, is apt to split into 2 branches, with a carpel 
suspended from each. —An extensive and very natiiral family, of con- 
siderable economic imijortance, on account of the wholesome fleshy roots 
of some species, the aromatic seeds of others, and the medical properties 
inherent in many. The green herbage in many is acrid and poisonous; 
the rootstocks, tuberous roots, etc., of the half-aquatic species are dan- 
gerous to cattle and horses that are apt to feed on them in early spring. 

Hint« of tlie (lienera,. 

Umbels simple, or imperfectly or irregularly compound; 

Leaves simple, neither spinosely nor setaceously toothed, - - 1, 2 
" spinosely toothed, or lobed or parted, - _ . . 3 j. 

Umbels regularly compound; leaves compound, often finely dissected; 

Ribs of the carpels with barbed or hooked prickles, - - 28, 29 

Fruit more or less flattened laterally, broadly ovate or subglobose 
or elliptic-oblong, not broadly winged; 

Oblong or rounded; ribs filiform or prominent; oil- 
tubes 2 or 3 in the intervals, . - - . . 5 
Broadly ovate ; ribs prominent, obtuse ; oil-tubes none, 6 
Ovate or oblong ; ribs prominent, corky, oil-tubes 1 — 3, 7, 8 
Very small ; ribs not prominent ; oil-tubes 1 to the 

interval, --.---... 10, 11 
Ovate or oblong ; ribs filiform ; oil-tubes 1 or 2 to the 

interval, - - - - - -* - - - 12, 13 

Ovate, with broad commissure; ribs rather prominent; 

oil-tubes 1—3, -------- 14—16 

Linear or linear-oblong, rather large, not winged, - 22, 25—27 
Fruit not compressed ; ribs corky, rounded, ------ 9 

" somewhat compressed dorsally ; some of the ribs narrowly 

winged, - - - - -,- 17, 18 



314 UMBELLIFER^. 

Fruit much compressed dorsally and winged ; 

Lateral wings broad, distinct, the dorsal ones often less 

prominent, - ------- 19 — 21 

Lateral wings thin, coherent until maturity ; dorsal 

ribs filiform, 22-24 

1. HYDROCOTYLE, TournefoH (Marsh Pennywort). Low glabrous 
herbs, growing in or near water, with creeping stems. Leaves rounded, 
toothed or lobed, sometimes peltate; stipules scale-like. Flowers incon- 
spicuous, in simple umbels, or in whorls one above another, on a scapi- 
form erect peduncle. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals entire, acute. Fruit 
flattened laterally, suborbicular, acutely margined, and with 2 or more 
less prominent ribs or nerves on each side; oil-tubes 0; carpels coherent. 

1. H. prolifera, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. i. 15 (1854). Herbage 
light green and flaccid: leaves about 1 in. broad, peltate, emarginate at 
base, simply crenate, on petioles 1 — 4 in. long: peduncles equalling or 
exceeding the leaves: fl. in 1—4 whorls, each 4— 12-fiowered, with many 
bractlets; pedicels 1—6 lines long: fr. 1 line wide, emarginate at base; 
ribs 2 on each side, prominent.— Said to occur near San Francisco, a 
locality which we have not been able to confirm ; but it is common in 
the interior, near Sacramento, Drew; also in the Suisun marshes, where 
it exhibits dichotomously branched peduncles. June— Aug. 

2. H. raiiuiiculoides, Linn. f. Suppl. 177 (1781). Herbage dark green, 
of firm texture : leaves (sometimes floating) 1—2 in. broad, round-reni- 
form, 3— 7-cleft, the lobes crenate; petioles 2 — 10 in. long; peduncles 
much shorter {% — 3 in.), reflexed in fruit: fl. 5—10 in a capitate umbel: 
fr. very shortly pedicellate, 1 — 1)4, lines broad, with thickened but scarcely 
angled margins, rather obscurely nerved on each side, longer than the 
pedicels. — Abundant in shallow ponds, margins of lakes, etc., along the 
seaboard. 

2. BOWLESIA, Ruiz & Pavon. Slender very flaccid herbs, with 
sparse stellate pubescence, and opposite simple leaves with scarioits 
lacerate stipules. Flowers minute, white, in simple few-flowered umbels 
on axillary peduncles. Calyx-teeth rather prominent. Petals elliptical, 
obtusish. Fruit broadly ovate, with narrow commissure, turgid, becoming 
depressed on the back, without ribs or oil-tubes. 

1. B. lobata, R. & P. Fl. Peruv. iii. 28 (1802). Annual, the slender 
stems more or less dichotomous, 2 in. to 1 ft. long: leaves round-reniform 
or cordate, fj — l^^ in. broad, shorter than the slender petioles, deeply 
5-Iobed; lobes acutish, entire or few-toothed: umbels short-peduncled, 
1 — 4-flowered: fr. 1 line long, sessile or nearly so, pubescent, the inflated 
calyx not adherent to the carpels. — Among rocks, under trees etc., on 
hillsides from the valley of the Sacramento southward; frequent in the 
Coast hills south of San Francisco, and in Napa Valley. Apr., May. 



UMBELLIFER^. 315 

3. ERYNGIUM, Nicander (Button Snakeroot). Perennial herbs 
with rigid coriaceous spinosely toothed or divided leaves, and white or 
blue flowers sessile in dense heads which are encircled by a series of 
bracts forming an involucre; each flower also subtended by a rigid bract. 
Calyx-teeth manifest, rigid, persistent. Fruit ovoid or obovoid, scarcely 
compressed, covered with hyaline scales or vesicles; ribs obsolete; oil- 
tubes 0; carpels and seeds semi terete. 

1. E. armatum, C. & E. Bot. Gaz. xiii. 141 (1888). Diffusely branching, 
1 ft. high or more: radical leaves oblanceolate, serrately or spinosely 
dentate or incised, attenuate to a margined petiole; cauline narrower, 
sessile: heads peduncled, globose, }4 in. thick; bracts of involucre 
triangular-lanceolate, entire, thick-margined, 1 in. long and much exceed- 
ing the head; bractlets similar and as prominent: fr. with lanceolate- 
acuminate calyx-lobes longer than the styles. — Common in low ground, 
on the plains and among the foothills, almost throughout the State. 

2. E. Vaseyi, C. & E. 1. c. 142. Smaller, branching above: leaves 
oblanceolate, irregularly spinulose-serrate, attenuate at base: involucral 
bracts narrow, rigid, spinescent at tip and spinose-toothed, 1 in. long or 
less; bractlets similar: fr. with lanceolate acuminate-cuspidate calyx- 
lobes exceeding the short styles. — From near Mt. Shasta southward to 
San Luis Obispo Co. 

3. E. petiolatuia, Hook. Fl. i. 259 (1833). Erect, 1—5 ft. high, branch- 
ing above: radical leaves oblanceolate, irregularly spinose-serrate, nar- 
rowed to an elongated fistulous petiole, or the very lowest (submersed 
when young) reduced to a long terete petiole; cauline mostly sessile: 
heads peduncled, globose, ^ ^ in. high ; involucral bracts linear-lanceolate, 
spinosely tipped and toothed, often 1 in. long; bractlets lanceolate, 
cuspidate-tipped, little exceeding the flowers, scarious-winged below: fr. 
with' calyx-lobes like the bractlets but smaller, shorter than the long 
styles. Var. miniiniim, C. & E. 1. c. Only 1 — 3 in. high, all the parts 
correspondingly reduced; bracts of the involucre equalling the heads. — 
In marshes, but less common than the above; the variety only in the 
Sierra, at Donner Lake, Sonne. 

4. E. articulatnin, Hook. Lond. Journ. TBot. vi. 232 (1845). More or 
less branching, erect, decumbent or rarely prostrate: radical and lower 
leaves consisting of a long articulated petiole with or without a small 
lanceolate entire or laciniate blade; cauline sessile: bracts of involucre 
^ in. long, exceeding the heads, linear, cuspidate, spinosely toothed; 
bractlets tricuspidate, little exceeding the flowers, the central cusp largest: 
calyx-lobes lanceolate, cuspidate, little exceeding the styles. Var. iiiicro- 
cephalum, C. & E. Eevis. Umb. 99 (1888). Very small and slender: 
bracts ovate-acuminate, little surpassing the heads, these only 2 — 3 lines 



316 UMBELLIFER^. 

long: calyx-lobes sbort-mucronate. — In swamps and wet meadows from 
San Luis Obispo Co. to Plumas. 

5. E. Harknessii, Ourran, Bull. Calif. Acad. i. 153 (1885). Slender, 
not rigid, dicbotomously brancbing, 2 — 1 ft. bigh: leaves mucb as in tbe 
last, but blade of tbe lowest witb perfectly entire and unarmed margin; 
cauline petiolate, sparingly soft-spinulose on tbe margin: beads round- 
ovate, '}(i in. bigb, blue; bracts of tbe involucre longer tban tbe bead but 
deflexed: calyx-segments subulate, pungently mucronate, equalling the 
long styles. — In tbe Suisun Marsb, Bol.auder (1864), Greene, Curran (1883); 
named by tbe latter, in compliment to Dr. Harkness. 

4. SANICULA, Brunfels (Sanicle). Grlabrous perennials (n. 1 bien- 
nial), witb chiefly radical leaves, these mostly palmately divided and 
sometimes subdivided. Flowers unisexual, in irregularly compound few- 
rayed umbels; these involucrate witb sessile leaf -like usually toothed 
bracts; the bracts of tbe involucels usually small and entire. Calyx-teeth 
somewhat foliaceous, persistent. Fruit subglobose or obovoid, densely 
uncinate-prickly or tuberculate; ribs obsolete; oil-tubes many. Seed 
hemispherical. 

* Mature fruit pedicelled; leaves palnialely lohed or divided. 

1. S. Menziesii, H. & A.; Hook. Fl. i. 258. t. 90 (1833); Bot. Beech. 
141 and 347 (1840). Biennial: stem solitary, erect, branching loosely 
above, 2 — 5 ft. high: leaves 2 — 3 in. broad, of rounded outline, but witb 
deep broad lobes and cordate base, the shining surf ace delicately rugose; 
the 3—5 lobes sharply toothed, the teeth setaceously tipped; cauline 
leaves parted or divided into about 3 narrow segments : involucre small, 
of 2 or 3 narrow leaflets; tbe involucels of 6—8 lanceolate entire bracts 
a line long: sterile fl. nearly sessile: fruits 4 — 8 in each bead, becoming 
distinctly pedicellate and divergent, obovate, a line long or more, covered 
with booked prickles. — Abundant in moist open woods, and along streams 
in shade of thickets, throughout middle California toward the seaboard, 
and far northward. May, June. 

2. S. arctopoides, H. & A.; Hook. L c. t. 91 (1833); Bot. Beech. 141 
(1840). The whole herbage of a greenish yellow, and witb an offensive 
odor: main stem simple, very short; the many scape-like flowering 
branches at first depressed, later becoming elongated and divergent, 3—6 
in. long, each bearing an umbel of 1 — 3 elongated rays: leaves deeply 
3-parted, tbe lanceolate segments once or twice laciniately cleft: invo- 
lucre of 1 or 2 leaflets; heads large, }4 ^^- broad, encircled by 8 or 10 
oblanceolate mostly entire bracts which are yellow and resemble tbe rays 
of a composite: fr. l^^ lines long, naked at base, strongly armed above. — 
Plentiful on bleak hills near tbe sea, at San Francisco and far northward; 
also here and there in tbe interior of California. Feb.— Apr. 

* * Mature fruit sessile; leaves palmately divided (except in n. 5). 



UMBELLIFEK.^. 317 

3. S. iiuaicsiulls, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 347 (1840): S. laciinata, H. & A. 
1. c. Stems several, slender, erect, 1 ft. high or more: leaves long- 
petioled, of cordate outline, 3-parted; divisions laciniately once or twice 
piuuatitid, the segments with widely spreading acute often spinosely 
pointed teeth: fl. yellow, in many small heads disposed in compound 
umbels terminating sparingly leafy branches: fr. naked at base, uncinate- 
bristly above. — Wooded hills, among bushes, along borders of thickets 
etc., from Humboldt Co. to Monterey, towards the sea. It is not improb- 
able that <S'. iindiraiilis and Inciniala may be proven distinct; but while 
they are treated as one, to the former name must be conceded the priority 
which belongs to it. Mar. — May. 

4. S. Nevadeiisis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 139 (1876). Stout and 
low, the numerous branches ascending and almost scapiform, 1 — 6 in. 
long: leaves ternate, the divisions oblong-ovate, 3— 5-lobed, the segments 
lobed or toothed : rays about 5, sometimes branched : involucre of pin- 
natifid bracts: fl. greenish or yellowish, the sterile ones equalling the 
peelicels: fr. covered with stout forked prickles. — Foothills of both ranges 
of mountains, but chiefly northward. 

5. S. maritima, Kellogg; Bot. Calif, ii. 451 (1880); Greene, Pitt. i. 
269 (1889). Stoutish, 1 ft. high, rather fleshy: radical leaves long-petioled, 
the lowest oblong-cordate, not lobed, but crenate-dentate; some of the 
later more or less deeply 3-lobed, 2 4 in. long: involucre of large leaf- 
like lobed or parted bracts : umbel of about 3 elongated rays : fl. yellow, 
the sterile ones short-pedicellate: fr. nearly naked below, prickly above, 
2 lines long. — In moist lowlands adjacent to salt marshes about San 
Francisco Bay near Alameda, San Francisco, etc. Mar. — May. 

* * * Fruit sessile; leaves piunalely divided and subdivided. 

6. S. bipiiiiiatiiirta, Dough; Hook. Fh i. 258 (1833). Stoutish, slightly 
fleshy, 1 — 2 ft. high, herbage of a pecviliarly dark green: leaves mostly 
radical, but an opposite pair on the stem near the base, with 1 — 3 above 
these, all pinnately 3 - 7-parted, the divisions incisely toothed or lobed, 
decurrent on the toothed rachis, the teeth acutely or somewhat setaceously 
pointed : umbel of 3 or 4 greatly elongated rays : fl. of a very dark pur- 
plish red: fr. IJg lines long, prickly. — Very common on hillsides and 
open grounds generally. Mar. — May. 

7. S. bipinnata, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 347 (1840). Like the last in size: 
segments of the bipinnate leaves remote, not decurrent, narrowly obovate, 
cuueate, incisely mucronate-dentate: umbel compound: fl. yellow: fr. 
naked at base, echinate above. —Apparently of the interior only, from 
Kern Co. to Butte. Feb. — Apr. 

8. S. tuberosa, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 91 (1857). Very slender, the 



318 UMBELLIFERiE. 

solitary erect freely branching stem 6 — 18 in. high, from a small roundish 
not deeply seated tuberous root: leaves small, finely twice or thrice 
pinnate, the ultimate segments small: umbels 1 — 4-rayed, small: fi. 
yellow, the sterile ones long pedicelled : f r. broader than long, tiibercu- 
late. — Rocky hills, in sterile clayey soil, in both the Sierra and the Coast 
Range. Mar.- May. 

5. XRKkCXClX^ Bancroft. Perennials, glabrous or pubescent. Roots 
thick, elongated, yellow, fragrant. Leaves mostly radical, pinnately or 
ternately compound. Involucre sometimes wanting. Involucels con- 
spicuous. Flowers yellow. Calyx-teeth obsolete or prominent. Fruit 
somewhat flattened laterally, with prominent equal filiform ribs, and thin 
pericarp. Oil-tubes conspicuous, 3 — 6 in the intervals, 4 — 10 on the com- 
missural side. 

1. A. Hartweg-i, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 415 (1887); Gray, Proc. 
Am. Acad. vii. 342 (1868), under Dewei/a; C. & R. Rev. Umb. 121 (1888), 
under Veliva. Subacaulescent, light green, the petioles and veins some- 
what scabrous: leaves biternate and quinate; leaflets obovate or oval- 
oblong, 1-2 in. long, mostly confluent, coarsely and deeply mucronate- 
serrate: peduncles 1—2 ft. high; umbel 16 20-rayed, usually without 
involucre, but the umbellets subtended by linear-oblong reflexed bract- 
lets; rays 2 i^ — 4 in. long; pedicels short: fr. nearly orbicular, smooth, 
3—4 lines long, 1%—'^ lines broad, sharply ribbed. — Foothills of the 
Sierra, from Butte Co. southward; also near San Francisco. 

2. A. KeHoggii, Wats. 1. c; Gray, 1. c. 343, under Deirei/a; C. & R. 
1. c, under I'ehea. More slender than the last, mostly pulverulent : leaves 
triternate; leaflets ovate, ^ — % in. long, usually 3-lobed: umbel 8 — 16- 
rayed, mostly without involucre, the involucels of small linear bractlets; 
rays 1 — 3 in. long: fr. 1 — 2 lines long, nearly as broad, retuse at base, the 
ribs filiform. — Hills of the Coast Range, in wooded or open ground. 

3. A. Parishii, Greene. C. & R. Rev. Umb. 121 (1888), under Velxa. 
Nearly acaulescent, 1 ft. high, glabrous, somewhat fleshy: leaves ternately 
pinnatifid; segments ovate, irregularly lobed and cuspidate-toothed, the 
margins revolute: umbel about 20-rayed, with no involucre, but involu- 
cels of a few setaceous bractlets; rays 2 in. long or more; pedicels about 
4 lines: calyx-teeth prominent: fr. glabrous, 3 lines long, with prominent 
ribs. Of the South chiefly, but reaching our limits in Tulare Co., at 
8,000 ft. in the mountains. 

4. A. vestita, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 415 (1887); 1. c. xvii. 374 
(1882), under Deweya; C. & R. 1. c. 122 (1888), under Veliea. Stemless, 
2 — 4 in. high, hoary with a short hirsutulous pubescence: ternately com- 
pound leaves only 1 — 2 in. long; segments crowded and confluent, only 
1—2 lines long; involucre 0; rays many, 4 8 lines long, the involucels 



UMBELLIFER^. 319 

of several short lauceolute bractlets: fr. sessile, pubescent, 2}^ lines long, 
with inconspicuous ribs. — Mountains of Tulare Co., Palmer, southward to 
San Bernardino, at great elevations. 

6. CONIUM, Litmxtis (Poison Hemlock). Tall glabrous biennial, 
with large ternately-dissected thin leaves, and compound umbels of 
small white flowers terminating the paniculate branches. Calyx-teeth 
obsolete. Fruit broadly ovate, laterally compressed; carpels with 5 
prominent obtuse often undulate or crenulate ribs, and no oil-tubes. 

1. C. MACULATUM, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 243 (1753). Root fusiform: stem 
stout, fistulous, 3 — 7 ft. high, glaucescent, spotted with purple : leaves a 
foot long or more, two-thirds as broad; segments J^ in. long, pinnatifid, 
the lobes acute: umbels 12 -20-rayed: rays 1—1^^ in. long: fr. 1^^ lines 
long, shorter than the jjedicels. — Waste grounds, in shady places; rather 
rare in California, but of rank growth. 

7. SIUM, Dioscorides (Water Parsnip). Glabrous perennial aquatics, 
with angled stems, pinnate leaves with leaflets pinnatifid or serrate, and 
white flowers; the involucres and involucels of several bracts. Calyx- 
teeth minute. Fruit oblong, ovate or nearly globose; ribs prominent or 
obscure; oil-tubes few or many in the intervals. 

* Fruit with, corky rihs; oil-Lubes between them. — Sium proper. 

1. S. heterophyllum, Greene, Pittoma, ii. 102 (1890): S. cicutxfoUum, 
Bot. Calif, i. 261 partly, not Gmel. Stem stoutish and brittle, strongly 
angular and somewhat flexuous, 3 ft. high, from a cluster of fleshy fibrous 
roots, these thickened below the middle: lowest leaves simple, 2 — 10 in. 
long, rhombic-lanceolate, serrate or laciniate, on a stout fistulous petiole 
which is still longer and usually submersed; the later radical 3-lobed or 
-parted, thus passing to the cauline which are truly pinnate, but mostly 
with only 2 or 3 pairs of leaflets, these broadly lanceolate, acute, serrate : 
bracts of involucre broadly lanceolate, acute at each end: fr. \% lines 
long, broadly ovoid; oil-tubes broad, solitary between the ribs, 2 on the 
commissural side: cross-section of seed angular. — Common in brackish 
swamps, under the influence of tide-water, at Suisun, Stockton, etc. 

2. S. cicutaefoliuiii, Gmel. Syst. ii. 482 (1791): S. lineare, Michx. Fl. 
i. 167 (1803). Taller, more slender, less branching, not flexuous: leaves 
all pinnate, the leaflets of the earliest often pinnatifid or even dissected 
into filiform subdivisions, those of the later in 6 — 8 pairs, oblong-lanceo- 
late to linear, 2 — 4 in. long, acTiminate, sharply serrate: involucre and 
involucels of 6—8 linear bracts: fr. oblong, IV2 lines long; oil-tubes 
narrower, 2 or 3 in each interval, 3 or more on the broad side. — On the 
eastern slope of the Sierra northward, in Plumas Co., etc. 

* * Fruit with angled corky covering; oil-tubes beneath this. — ■ 

Genus Berula, Koch. 



320 UMBELLIFEItiE. 

3. S. erectum, Huds. Fl. Angl. 103 (1762): S. august if olinm, Linn. 
Sp. PI. 2 ed. ii. 1672 (1763). Bernla angmiifolia, Koch; Mert. & Koch, 
Deutsch. Fl. ii. 455 (1826). Stem angular, 1—8 ft. high, from a stolou- 
iferous crown, usually erect, corymbosely branching above: leaflets 
about 6 pairs, ovate-oblong to linear, 1}4 — 2 in. long, often laciuiate at 
base, the upper ones usually more or less deeply incised: jjeduncles 12 
in. long; rays 1 in. or less; involucre and involucelsof 6—8 linear entire 
lanceolate bracts: fr. '^.^ line long, less compressed than in the above: 
oil-tubes small, in twos and threes, concealed beneath the corky covering 
(confluent ribs). — Sierra Co.. Lehinnon, and near Tehachapi, Greene; 
usually in shallow but cold water, about mountain springs, etc.; 
apparently not in western California. 

8. CICUTA, Beder (Water Hemlock). Glabrous tall branching 
perennials of marshes and stream banks. Eootstocks short and erect, or 
horizontal and rooting from beneath. Leaves pinnately or ternately 
compound. Umbels of white flowers many-rayed; involucre small or 0; 
involucels of several small bractlets. Calyx-teeth small, acute. Stylo- 
podium depressed. Fruit broadly ovate or rounded, slightly compressed 
laterally, but the commissure narrow; ribs broad, obtuse, corky; oil-tubes 
solitary in the intervals. Seed subterete. 

* Roo' stock short, erect: roots fascicled, flesliy. 

1. C. Bolanderi, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 139 (1876); Greene, Pitt. 
ii. 6. Roots numerous, very coarse, 4—7 in. long, whorled around the 
base of a short-conical strictly erect axis: stem stout, erect, 4—9 ft. high, 
purplish below and very glaucous, paniculate from below the middle: 
radical leaves on petioles 2 ft. long or more, the blade twice or thrice 
pinnate: leaflets narrowly lanceolate-acuminate. 2—4 in. long, closely 
and sharply serrate, the setaceous tips of the teeth somewhat spreading. — 
Marshes about Suisun Bay, near Benicia, Martinez, Suisun, etc. ; also in 
similar situations (always within reach of tide-water) near Napa. 

2. C. occideutalis, Greene, Pittouia, ii. 7 (1889): C. maculata, Bot. 
Calif., not Linn. Roots few, at the base of a more slender often some- 
what ascending axis, 3—5 in. long, fusiform, often % in. thick above the 
middle: stem stout, 3—6 ft. high, green, scarcely glaucous, paniculate 
from toward the base: leaves bipinnate; leaflets 2—3 in. long, narrowly 
lanceolate, coarsely serrate.— In the Sierra Nevada, the type on the east- 
ward slope mainly or wholly. Farther westward, at Tehachapi, etc., in a 
taller coarse leaved form, which may be a variety or a distinct species. 
This is known only in flower. June. 

* -X- Rootstock horizontal, only partly or not at all subterranean, emitting 
roots from beneath only; roots fleshy-fibrous, cylindrical. 

3. C. Califoruica, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 344(1868); Greene, Pitt. 



UMBELLIFER.E. ' 321 

ii. 10: C rirosa, var. Califurnica, C. & R. Rev. Umb. 130. Rhizome freely 
branchiuc^, the branches '4 —1 ft. long, the older portion slender (fo in- 
thick or more) with long internodes, upper end abruptly clavate-enlarged 
and short -jointed: stem erect, 3—6 ft. high: lowest leaves bipinnate, the 
upper simply pinnate; leaflets ovate-lanceolate: involucre nearly obso- 
lete: seed sometimes with 2 oil-tubes in the intervals. — In eddies and 
along the margins of swift-flowing mountain streams of the Coast Range 
only, from near Santa Cruz to the Oakland Hills; the naked branching 
claviform rhizomes conspicuous, growing among bowlders and barely 
above water. 

9. (ENAXTHE, Ih'o.HCorides. Aquatic perennials, with glabrous 
decompound leaves and involucrate umbels. Calyx-teeth rather promi- 
nent, acute. Stylopodium short-conical; styles elongated in age. Fruit 
oblong, not compressed, with broad commissure, rounded corky ribs, 
and oil-tubes solitai-y in the narrow intervals. Seed compressed dorsally, 
flat on the face. 

1. (E. Californica, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 139 (1870); H. & A. Bot. 

Beech. 142 (1840), nnder He losciadium. Cicuta Californica, Greene, Pitt, 
i. 271, not Gray. Rootstocks erect or ascending, 1 — 2 in. long, % in. 
thick, solid: stem solitary, decumbent or procumbent, rooting at the 
lower joints, erect above and with one or more umbelliferous branches : 
leaves ternate and bipinnate (or tlie upper ones simply pinnate), the 
pinnae nearly sessile: leaflets approximate, ovate, acutish, toothed, at 
base often lobed, % — 1 in. long: umbels with few linear bracts or none: 
fr. 1% lines long, oblong, obtuse at each end, tipped with the long 
spreading styles; ribs and commissure very corky: seed usually angled; 
oil-tubes at the angles. — Very common, forming dense masses covering 
shallow pools, or stretches of muddy shore back of the salt marshes and 
among the hills throughout the Bay region and northward. The rather 
succulent herbage appears to be innocuous, and is said to be eaten by 
cattle without causing poisoning. It is therefore an exception among 
aquatic umbellifers. Apr. — Nov. 

10. APIUM, Bnmfels. Glabrous biennial, with pinnately or ternately 
compound leaves, and nearly naked umbels of small whitish flowers. 
Calyx-teeth obsolete. Stylopodium depressed or 0. Fruit ovate or 
broader; the carpels straight, obtusely ribbed; oil- tubes solitary in the 
intervals. Seed nearly terete. 

1. A. GEAVEOiiENs, Linn. Sp. PL i. 264 (1753). (Celeey). Biennial, 
with fibrous roots: stem erect, 2 — 3 ft. high, branching freely: leaves 
pinnate; leaflets in 1 or 2 pairs, cuneate-obovate or rhomboidal, sparingly 
toothed, 1 — 2 in. long, those of the uppermost leaves 3 only, oblanceolate, 
nearly entire: umbels sessile or short-peduncled; rays 6 — 12, slender, 1 in. 



322 UMBELLIFER^. 

long: fr. f-^ line long. — Very common in marshy grounds throngliout the 
Bay region, where its habits are quite those of an indigenous plant, but 
it is assumed to have established itself in the first place as an escape 
from the gardens. 

11. APIASTRUM, NuUall. A small and rather delicate branching 
annual, with leaves dissected into linear segments. Umbels sessile in 
the forks, or opposite the leaves, naked, few-rayed. Calyx-teeth obsolete. 
Petals ovate, concave, obtuse. Stylopodium depressed; styles short. 
Fruit cordate, laterally compressed, the commissure narrow; ripe carpels 
incurved, with 5 often obscure rugulose ribs ; oil-tubes broad and solitary 
in the intervals, with a narrow one under each rib. 

1. A. angustifolium, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 644 (1840); Torr. Bot. Mex. 
Bound, t. 28. A few inches to nearly a foot high; branches more or less 
dichotomous: leaves 1 — 2 in. long, biternately or triternately dissected 
into narrowly linear or almost filiform segments: rays of umbel very 
unecpial: fr. ^^ line long, somewhat broader, the 5 primary ribs occasion- 
ally supplemented by 4 less prominent intervening ones. — Common in 
early spring, from Mendocino Co. southward. 

12. CARUM, Turner (Bioscoridesf). Glabrous erect rather slender 
herbs, our species perennial, with tuberous or fusiform or coarse-fibrous 
usually fascicled roots, pinnately ternate leaves with few linear leaflets, 
and involucrate umbels of white flowers. Calyx-teeth small. Fruit 
ovate to linear-oblong; pericarp thin, with obtuse often filiform ribs; 
oil-tubes solitary in the intervals. 

1. C. Kellog-g-ii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 344 (1868); Greene, Pitt. i. 
273 (1889), under Alxnia. Stems several, 3—6 ft. high, from a strong 
ttift of coarse hard fibrous roots: lower leaves ternate, the pinnate 
divisions with linear segments 1 — 3 in. long or more: involucre and 
involucels prominent, somewhat scarious: calyx-teeth subulate, conspic- 
uous: fr. oblong, 1^4 — 2^2 Hues long; stylopodium prominent, styles as 
long: seed sulcate beneath the large oil-tubes. — Very common on open 
plains and hillsides about San Francisco Bay. July — Oct. 

2. C. Gairdneri, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 344 (1868); H. & A. Bot. 
Beech. 349 (1840), under Atienia; T. & G. Fl. i. 612, under Edosmia. 
Stem solitary, 1 — 4 ft. high, from a fascicle of fusiform tuberous roots: 
leaves mostly simply pinnate, with 3 7 linear or almost filiform leaflets 
2 — 6 in. long, the lowest rarely themselves pinnately divided, the upper- 
most cauline usually simple: involucre of few bracts or 0: involucels of 
linear-acuminate bractlets : f r. ovate, % — 1 line long, with long styles : 
seed terete. Var. latifoliuiii, Gray, 1. c. Smaller and very slender; leaf- 
lets broader, linear-lanceolate, J^ in. wide. — Throughout the State; the 
variety in the mountains northward and eastward. July — Oct. 



UMBELLIFERiE. 323 

3. C. Oregaiiuiii, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xx. 368 (1885); Nutt. herb., 
under Edusmia; Greene, Pitt. i. 274 (1889), under Atxnia. Aspect of the 
last, but with lower leaves more finely divided, the short lobes linear; 
fr. oblong, l^.^ — 2 lines long: seed sulcate beneath the oil-tubes, slightly 
concave on the face, with central ridge. — In the mountains along our 
northeastern borders. 

13. EULOPHUS, Nutlall. Our species at agreement with those of 
the preceding genus in habit, general aspect, vegetative characters, 
flowers, and even fruit, save that here the pericarp is thinner, the ribs 
less prominent, the oil-tubes xisually several in the intervals, and the face 
of the seed more concave. It is likely that a more natural classification 
of these plants would be to merge them in Carnrn, or to receive the 
entire series as one geographical genus under the name Atxnia. 

1. E. Califoriiicus, C. & R. Rev. Umb. 114 (1888); Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. vii. 346 (1868), under Podusciadium; Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 93 (1857), 
under ChR'rophyllum. Root unknown: stem 3 — 4 ft. high, nearly simple: 
lowest leaves 1 ft. long, triternately dissected into many linear entire or 
toothed segments; uppermost simple: involucre and involucels of many 
scarious lanceolate long-acuminate bracts: fr. linear-oblong, 4 lines long; 
oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 4 on the face: seed-face deeply con- 
cave. — Stanislaus Co., near Knight's Ferry, thence southward to the 
Santa Lucia Mts. May. 

2. E. Parishii, C. & R. 1. c; also Bot. Gaz. xii. 157 (1887), under Pint- 
piiiella. Root deep-seated, tuberiform: stem solitary, erect, 1 — 2 ft. high: 
lower leaves ternate, with linear-lanceolate leaflets 1 — 3 in. long, 2 — 5 
lines wide, the terminal leaflet remote from the others; uppermost 
simple: umbel 8 — 10-rayed, with few or no bracts; involucels of 2 — 6 
narrowly lanceolate bractlets: fr. ovate or oblong, 1}{ — 2 lines long; 
carpel with 5 slender ribs; oil-tubes 2 — 4 in the intervals, 6 on the face. — 
Foothills of the Sierra, from Placer Co. southward. 

3. E. Bolanderi, C. & R. Rev. Umb. 112 (1888); Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. vii. 346 (1868), under Podosciadiion. Stem 2 ft. high: leaves pin- 
nate, the segments narrowly linear: umbels many-rayed, the rays 5 — 9 
lines long; bractlets of the involucels scarious, exceeding the pedicels: 
petals with the inflexed tip very long-acuminate: fr. oblong, 1% lines 
long, the narrow ribs becoming elevated and undulate; oil-ttibes 2 — 5 in 
the intervals but small and often obscure, 6 on the face: seed much com- 
pressed dorsally. — In the Sierra, at higher elevations than the last, and 
ranging northward. 

4. E. Fringlel, C. & R. 1. c. 113. Slender, 1^2 ft. high, the pinnately 
compound leaves with broad inflated midrib, the divisions cut into nar- 
rowly linear segments: umbel 3 8-rayed; involucre scant; involucels 



324 UMBELLIFER^. 

of many scarious lanceolate bractlets a third as long as the pedicels: fr. 
oblong, 2 — 21.2 lines long; oil-tubes 3 — 5 in the intervals, 8 on the face of 
the carpel. Var. simplex, 0. & R. 1. c. Leaflets linear-lanceolate, entire: 
oil-tubes 2 or 3 in the intervals, 4 on the face. — The type is southerly, in 
San Luis Obispo and Kern counties; the variety in Sierra Co. 

14. PIMPIXELLA, Bninfeh. Perennials with decompound foliage 
and nearly naked umbels. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit ovate or broader 
than long, laterally compressed but with broad commissure; carpels 
5-angled, with distant usually slender ribs, and several oil-tubes in the 
intervals. Seed somewhat flattened dorsally, with plane or slightly con- 
vex face. 

1. P. apiodora, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 345 (1868). Stoutish, erect, 
glabrous, 2 — 3 ft. high, sweet-scented: leaves mostly radical, 2 — 3-ternate: 
leaflets cuneate-ovate, laciniately pinnatifid and toothed, 1 in. long: 
umbels long-peduncled, 6 — 15-rayed; rays 1 — 2 in. long, hispidulous- 
puberulent: fl. white or pinkish: fr. broadly ovate (not known in its 
mature state), 1% lines long: oil-tubes 4—6 in the intervals, 8 or more on 
the face. — From the Bay region eastward to the borders of Nevada. 

15. PODISTERA, S. Watson. Acaulescent, dwarf and cespitose, with 
pinnately parted leaves, no involucre, involucels of 3 — 5-cleft bractlets, 
and pinkish flowers. Calyx-teeth prominent. Fruit elliptic-ovate, glab- 
rous; carpels with filiform ribs, the cross-section oblong-pentagonal; 
oil-tubes 2 or 3 in the intervals, 6 on the face. 

1. P. Nevadensis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 475 (1887); Gray, Proc. 
Am. Acad. vi. 536 (1865), under Cymopterns. Obscurely puberiilent: 
leaves 3 — 4 lines long, thickish, the 3 — 7 lanceolate segments acute, entire: 
peduncles very short; umbels of 3 — 5 umbellets which are sessile, with 
very short pedicels, and equalled by the involucels : f r. little more than 
a line long, nearly sessile. — A low densely matted herb found among 
rocks near the summit of Mt. Dana, at an elevation of about 13,000 ft. 

16. F(ENICULUM, Pliny (Fennel). Perennial, erect and tall, with 
dark green striate stem, and equally dark sweet-scented and -flavored 
leaves dissected into countless linear-setaceous leaflets. Flowers yellow, 
in umbels destitute of bracts and bractlets. Calyx with turgid border 
and no teeth. Fruit oblong; carpels 5- ribbed; oil- tubes solitary in the 
intervals, 2 on the face. 

1. F. VTOGAKE, Gerarde, Herb. Em. 1032 (1633); Park. Theatr. 884 
(1640); Ray, Syn. 2 ed. Ill (1696), 3 ed. 217 (1724); Gsertn. Fr. et Sem. i. 
105 (1788). Anelhum Fceniculum, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 263 (1753). Cultivated 
from ancient times, and formerly in high repute as a medicinal and culi- 
nary herb; naturalized in many parts both of the Old World and the 



UMBELLIFER^. 325 

New, and common in central and southern California, attaining the 
height of 3—6 ft.; readily known by its dark green finely dissected foliage 
and large umbels of greenish-yellow small flowers. May — Sept. 

17. LIGUSTICITM, Dioscorides. Stoutish and rather tall perennials, 
with ternately decompound leaves, and white flowers in many-rayed 
umbels. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Stylopodium mostly conical, the margin 
at base undulate. Fruit ovate or oblong, somewhat compressed dorsally, 
the commissure broad; ribs somewhat prominent or even wing-like, the 
lateral ones usually broadest; oil-tubes 3—5 in the intervals, 6—10 on the 
face. Seed with rounded or angular back, plane or concave on the face. 

1. L. apiifolium, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 347 (1868): Nutt.; T. & G. 
Fl. i. 641 (1840), under Ci/napiiiDi. Stems erect, 2-4 ft. high, the inflor- 
escence puberulent: leaves mostly radical, ternate or biternate, then 
once or twice pinnate, the ultimate segments 9i—m in- long, ovate, 
laciniate-pinnatifid: umbel many-rayed; involucels of several narrowly 
linear long bractlets: fr. oval, 1>2^2 lines long; stylopodiiim short- 
conical; ribs narrow, acute; oil-tubes 3—5 in the intervals, 4 8 on the 
face: seed with rounded back and concave face. — Neighborhood of 
Yosemite, and thence far northward. 

2. L. (Jrayi, 0. & E. Eev. Umb. 88 (1888): L. apiifolium, var. minus, 
Gray, Bot. Calif, i. 264 and ii. 451. Stem 1—2 ft. high, the inflorescence 
glabrous: leaves ternate, then pinnate, the segments ovate, laciniate- 
pinnatifid: fr. narrowly oblong, 2--2i£ lines long; ribs almost wing- like; 
oil-tubes 3 — 5 in the intervals, 8 on the face: seed with angled back and 
slightly concave face.— Habitat of the preceding. 

18. SELINUM, Theophrastus. A genus of precarious status, the 
species easily referable either to the preceding or to the next, at agree- 
ment with both, as they with each other, in habit; differing from Ligusti- 
cum in having the carpel more decidedly winged, and the oil-tubes 
usually only one in each interval. 

* Involucels conspicuous; pedicels glabrous; wings of carpel thin. 

1. S. Paciflcum, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 140 (1876). Leaves ter- 
nately bipinnate; segments ovate, acutish, 1 in. long, laciniately toothed 
and lobed; peduncles stout, the umbel about 15-rayed; bracts of invo- 
lucre 1 in. long, equalling the rays, lobed and toothed; involucels of 
several linear entire or 3-toothed bractlets: fr. oblong, 3 — 4 lines long; 
wings rather narrow; oil-tubes conspicuous, rarely 2 in the intervals: 
seed channelled under the dorsal oil-tubes. — Near Sausalito, and in the 
Mission Hills. 

* * Umbels naked; rays and pedicels hoary-pubescent; wings of carpel corky. 

2. S. capitellatum, Wats. Bot. King Exp. 126 (1871); Gray, Proc. 



326 umbelliferjE. 

Am. Acad. vi. 537 (1865), under Splmxiiosciadium. Stout, 2 — 5 ft. high, 
glabrous except the tomentose inflorescence: leaves large, bipinnate, 
with dilated petioles; leaflets few, 1 — 2 in. long, oblong to linear-lanceo- 
late, laciniately lobed or coarsely toothed: umbels 6 — 8-rayed; umbellets 
capitate and globose, 3 — 6 lines thick: fr. cuneate-obovate, }4 ^^- long; 
carpels strongly ribbed, the lateral wings broader than the 3 dorsal; oil- 
tubes solitary, the seed with corresponding shallow grooves. — Banks of 
streams in the higher Sierra, from Mono Co. northward to Donner Lake. 

3. S. eryg:iiiifoUum, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 102 (1890). Stoutish, 1}4 ft. 
high : stem and bladdery-dilated petioles glabrotts, the leaves roughish- 
pubescent and the inflorescence white-tomentose: leaves bipinnate, 
rather small; leaflets ovate, acute, J^' in. long or less, with rather stiffly 
setaceous recurved tips and teeth: fr. unknown. — In the vicinity of the 
Yosemite, 1889, Elmer Drew. 

19. ANGELICA, Braunschweig. Perennials, stout and tall. Seg- 
ments of the large pinnately or ternately compound leaves broad, 
toothed; petioles dilated. Umbels many-rayed, nearly or quite naked. 
Flowers white or purple. Calyx-teeth minute or obsolete. Fruit ovate or 
oblong, strongly flattened dorsally, with a very broad commissure, 
margined by a broad somewhat scarious wing; dorsal ribs prominent, 
more narrowly winged; oil-tubes solitary or in pairs in the intervals. 
Face of seed plane or slightly concave. 

1. A. toiiieiitosa, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. Ill (1876). Hoary-tomen- 
tose, or the stem in age glabrate: leaves quinately bipinnate; leaflets 
firm, ovate, acute, very oblique at base, 2 — 4 in. long, the lower sometimes 
lobed, serrate with unequal acute teeth: iimbels naked, often dense; rays 
1 — 3 in. long: fr. 3 Imes long, broadly elliptical, the lateral wings thin, 
the dorsal acutish: seed thin, plane on the face, channelled on the back 
by the impressed dorsal oil-tubes. — Rocky banks of streamlets among the 
hills from Mendocino and Napa counties southward. 

2. A. Breweri, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 348 (1868). Glabrous or 
finely puberiilent, 3 — 4 ft. high: leaves ternate or quinate and pinnate; 
leaflets lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 2—3 in. long, sharply serrate, the 
teeth cuspidate, the lower somewhat lobed: peduncles long, sometimes 
bearing 1 or 2 dilated subscarious bracts; umbels naked; rays 2 in. long: 
f r. pubescent, oblong, 4 lines long, the lateral wings narrow, corky, the 
dorsal obtiise, not prominent; oil-tubes usually 6 (the dorsal or lateral 
in pairs), besides 2 — 4 on the face: seed more or less concave on the face, 
the oil-tubes forming deep channels on the back. — In the Sierra Nevada, 
from Mariposa Co. to Plumas. 

3. A. liiieariloba, Gray, 1. c. 347. Glabrous, stout, 2—3 ft. high: 
leaves twice or thrice quinate; leaflets 1—2 in. long, linear, cuspidately 



UMBELLIFER^. 327 

acumiuate, entire, or the lowest 3-parted, with their decurrent sometimes 
coarsely toothed lobes divaricate: umbels naked; rays 1 — 2 in. long: fr. 
glabrous, 4 lines long by 2 broad: lateral wings narrow, somewhat corky: 
oil-tubes solitary, or the lateral in pairs : seed nearly plane on the face, 
channelled under the dorsal oil-tubes. — At Mono Pass in the Sierra, 
thence southward. 

20. CYMOPTERUS, Rafinesqne. Low perennials, often subacaules- 
cent, from a fleshy tuberous or fusiform root. Leaves pinnately decom- 
pound, with small narrow segments. Umbels usually both involucrate 
and involucellate. Flowers white or yellow. Calyx-teeth minute or 
distinct. Fruit ovate or elliptical, obtuse or retuse, somewhat flattened 
dorsally, the lateral ribs and some or all of the others with broad thin 
wings. Oil-tubes narrow, one or sevex'al in the intervals. Seed dorsally 
flattened, more or less concave on the face. 

1. C. tereWnthiuus, T. & G. Fl. i. 624 (1840); Hook. Fl. i. 266. t. 95 
(1833), under Sell mi in. Glabrous, fg — ^}4 ft- high, leafy at base: leaves 
rather rigid, tripinnate; leaflets linear-oblong, acute, entire or 1 — 2- 
toothed, barely a line long: rays itnequal, }y£ — 2 in. long; involucre of a 
single linear leaflet or none; involucels of several short linear bractlets; 
pedicels 1 — 2 lines long: fl. yellow: fr. 3 — 4 lines long, 2 or 3 broad; 
calyx-teeth evident; wings rather thin-corky, aline broad; oil-tubes 2 — 4 
in the intervals, 4 — 10 on the , face. — In the Sierra Nevada, at great 
elevations. 

2. C. ciuer.arius, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 535 (1865). Stemless, 
from a subterranean creeping rootstock: peduncles (2 — 3 in. high) and 
petioles glabrous: leaves of cordate outline, bipinnate, the segments 
toothed, glaucous-cinereous with a fine roughish pubescence : umbellets 
few, subsessile; involucels of many somewhat united subscarious long- 
acuminate bractlets: fl. white: fr. I4 in. long; wings narrow, undtilate; 
oil-tubes 3 in the intervals, several on the face: seed narrow, strongly 
incurved, showing a deeply concave face. — Habitat of the preceding, but 
more restricted; Sonora Pass, and above Lake Mono. 

21. OROGENIA, S. Watson. Small subacaulescent perennials, with 
fusiform or tuberous roots, ternate leaves with linear segments, and 
white flowers in naked umbels; rays few, very unequal. Calyx-teeth 
minute. Fruit oblong, slightly flattened laterally. Carpels compressed 
dorsally, with filiform dorsal and intermediate ribs, the laterals excessively 
corky-thickened and involute, forming a cavity which is partitioned by a 
projection from the face of each carpel; oil-tubes 3 in the intervals, 2—4 
on the face. 

1. 0. fusiformis, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 474 (1887). The stoutish 
stem 3—6 in. high, from a long fusiform root: leaves 2 — 3-ternate; ter- 



328 UMBELLIFER^. 

minal leaflets often 3-parted, all 1 in. long or less: umbel 6 40-rayed: 
fr. ^4 in. long, 1^^ lines broad. — Eastward slope of the Sierra, in Plumas 
and Nevada counties. 

22. LEPTOTJ)NIA, NuUall. Stout and tall (except n. 4) glabrous 
subacaulescent perennials, with thick often very large fusiform roots, 
piunately decompound leaves, and yellow or purple flowers. Fruit 
strongly compressed dorsally, oblong or elliptical, with thick corky 
lateral wings, the dorsal and intermediate ribs filiform or obscure: oil- 
tubes 3—6 in the intervals, 4 — 6 on the face, mostly small, sometimes 
obsolete. Seed thin, with plane or slightly concave face. 

* Oil-tubes obsolete or very obscure. 

1. L. (lissecta, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 630(1S40); Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, 
vii. 348 (1868), under Ferula. Leafy at base, 1 — 3 ft. high: leaves broad, 
1 ft. long, ternate and thrice pinnate; segments ovate or oblong, % — 1 in. 
long, laciniate-pinnatifid and toothed, puberulent on the veins beneath 
and along the margins: umbel 8 — 20-rayed, involucrate with few linear 
bracts, the bractlets of the involucels more numerous: fl. yellow or 
purplish: fr. sessile or nearly so, 5 — 9 lines long, about 3 lines broad: 
seed face plane. — Throughout the State, both east and west. 

2. L. innltiflda, Nutt. 1. c. Near the preceding, but the leaves more 
finely divided: umbels without involucre: carpels 4 — 6 lines long: seed- 
face concave. — Only on the eastward slope of the Sierra. 

3. L. anoinala, C. & R. Rev. Umb. 53 (1888). Acaulescent, glabrous; 
scape slender, ^^ — 1 ft. high, bearing a 3 — 6-rayed naked umbel: leaves 
pinnate, with few distant narrowly linear divisions: rays of umbel 1 — 3 
in. long; bractlets of involucels veiny, scarious-margined, more or less 
united: fr. small, oblong, 4 lines long, 2 lines broad, the lateral ribs 
considerably thicker than the body of the carpel, the dorsal slender- 
filiform or obsolete: calyx«- teeth occasionally manifest. 

* * Oil-tubes 3 or 4 in the intervals, 6 on the face. 

4. L. Califoruica, Nutt. ; T. & G. Fl. i. 630 (1840) ; Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. vii. 348 (1868), under Ferula. About 1 — 2 ft. high : leaves ternate 
and pinnate or twice ternate; leaflets cuneate-obovate, 1 — 2 in. long, 
usually 3-lobed, coarsely toothed above : stem with 1 or 2 leaves : umbel 
15 — 20-rayed, naked or with 1 or 2 narrow bracts; bractlets 0; fr. 5 — 7 
lines long, 3 — 4 lines broad; margin of carpels thinnish. the dorsal ribs 
indistinct. — Hills of Kern Co. and northward along the Sierra. 

23. PEUCEDANUM, Theophrastus. Perennials of diverse habit, ours 
mostly low and subacaulescent, with fusiform root. Leaves ternately or 
pinnately dissected. Involucre 0; involucels usually present. Flowers 



UMBELLIFERiE. 329 

white or yellow. Calyx-teeth obsolete or manifest. Fruit strongly 
flattened dorsally, obloug to suborbicular, glabrous or tomentose; carpel 
with dorsal and intermediate ribs filiform and approximate, the lateral 
ones developed into a broad thin wing which until maturity is coherent 
with that of its companion carpel, forming a broad scarious wing to the 
fruit as a whole. Oil-tubes 1 — 8 in the intervals, 2—10 on the commis- 
sural side. Seed flat, with plane or concave face. 

* Stout; leaves finely dissected; fruit- wings broad; oil-tubes 1 — Sin 
the intervals; Jl. white (purplish in n. 4)- 

1. P. eurycarpum, C. & R. Rev. Umb. 61 (1888): P. macrocarpiDn, 
var. eurycarpum, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 385 (1870). Root tuberous- 
enlarged: stem 1 — 2 ft. high, branching, pubescent: leaves subdivided 
into countless small linear cuspidate segments: umbel 3— 12-rayed, with 
involucels of lanceolate acuminate often united bractlets; rays }4 — ^ i^^- 
long; pedicels 1 — 5 lines: fr. glabrous, 5 — 9 lines long, broadly elliptical, 
the wings as broad as the body or broader, the ribs filiform; oil-tubes 
large, solitary in the intervals, 2 on the face. — Plains and hills of the 
interior, from the Sacramento northward. 

2. P. dasycarpum, T. & G. Fl. i. 628 (1840): P. Pringlei, G. & R. Bot. 
Gaz. xiii. 209 (1888). Subacaulescent from a fiisiform root, tomentose- 
pubescent: leaves rather small, with countless short linear segments: 
peduncles stout. % ~1 ft. high; umbel 6 — 12-rayed, with involucels of 
linear-lanceolate more or less tomentose bractlets; rays 1 — 3 in., pedicels 
3 — 5 lines long: fr. nearly orbicular, 4—7 lines long, nearly glabrous or 
coarsely pubescent, the thin scarious wings broader than the body : oil- 
tubes large, usually solitary in the intervals, 4 on the face: seed deeply 
silicate under the oil-tubes, plane on the face. — In the interior almost 
throughout the State. 

3. P. toineiitosuiii, Benth. PI. Hartw. 312 (1849). Subacaulescent, 
more or less densely villous-tomeutose and purplish: leaves cut into 
very small filiform or very narrow segments: peduncles 1 ft. high or 
more: umbel of 4 — 8 equal rays 1 — 3 in. long; involucels of linear- 
lanceolate or ovate-acuminate bractlets : calyx-teeth manifest : f r. ovate to 
orbicular, 5 — 9 lines long, densely tomentose; wings rather thick, from 
somewhat narrower to even broader than the body, the prominent ribs 
concealed by the tomentum: oil-tubes mostly 3 in the intervals, 4 on the 
face: seed somewhat concave. — Common on bushy hills and open plains. 

4. P. Austinae, C. & R. Bot. Gaz. xiii. 208 (1888). Acaulescent, less 
than a foot high, apparently glabrous (minutely and sparsely scabrous 
under a lens): leaf -segments ovate, pinnately lobed or incised: umbel 
few-rayed, with small involucels: fl. white, or with a tinge of flesh-color: 
fr. elliptical, 3— 4 lines long; wings not as broad as the body; oil-tubes 



330 UMBELLIFER.E. 

solitary in the dorsal intervals, 2 in the lateral, 4 on the face: seed con- 
cave on the face, with a central ridge. —Plumas Co., Mrs. Austin, and 
northward. 

5. P. Vaseyi, C. & R 1. c. 144 (1888). Subacanlescent, 6 -8 in. high, 
pubescent: leaves small (1—2 in. long); petioles inflated; blade bipin- 
nate, the small ovate segments irregularly 3— 5-lobed: umbel with 2—5 
equal rays ; involucels of obovate petiolulate toothed bractlets : fl. 
perhaps yellowish: fr. broadly oblong, 1.3 in. long, emarginate, glabrous; 
wings twice as broad as the body; ribs prominent; oil-tubes solitary in 
the intervals, 4 on the face. —Among the foothills east of Sacramento 
and southward. 

* * More slender, leaves much dissected; fl. yellow (except in n. 8). 

6. P. utriciilatum, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 62S (1840). Rather slender, 
usually erect and branching, 1 ft. high or more, glabrous or puberulent: 
petioles short, their margins greatly dilated and forming a membranous 
saccate cavity; ultimate segments of the decompound leaves narrowly 
linear, 1^ in. long or less: umbel 5 — 20-rayed, with involucels of dilated 
obovate often toothed petiolulate bractlets : f r. glabrous, broadly ellipti- 
cal, 2 — .5 lines long; wings thin, as broad as the body; oil-tubes large 
and solitary in the intervals (or sometimes with 1 or 2 short accessory 
ones), 4 — 6 on the face; seed somewhat concave on the face. — Common 
throughout the State, at least in the western portion, and on plains of 
the interior. 

7. P. caruifolium, T. & G. Fl. i. 628 (1840). Herbage and general 
aspect of the last, but acaulescent or nearly so; petioles without bladdery 
dilatation; leaf -segments ^i—l in. long; bractlets of involucels often 
lanceolate: fr. 3— 4 lines long: wings narrow and thickish ; ribs obsolete : 
oil-tubes indistinct, 2 or 3 in the intervals, none on the face. — Common in 
central parts of the State. 

8. P. Parishii, C. & R. Bot. Gaz. xiii. 209 (1888). Caulescent, 4 12 
in. high, pallid and pubescent: leaves pinnate, with pinnatifid or entire 
leaflets, the ultimate segments oblong-linear or linear, cuspidate, toothed 
or entire: umbel unequally 4 12-rayed, with involucels of small linear- 
lanceolate acuminate bractlets; rays 1—5 in. long; pedicels 2—4 lines: 
fl. white: fr. obovoid, 4—6 lines long, glabrous, broadly or narrowly 
winged; ribs filiform or obsolete; oil-tubes small, often obscure, 6—8 in 
the intervals, 8 to 10 on the face. From Colusa Co., southward to San 
Bernardino. 

* * * Leaves not finely dissected, the leaflets with liroad or elongated 
segments; fl. yellow. 

9. P. triteruatuin, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 626 (1840); Pursh, Fl. i. 197 



UMBELLIFER^. 331 

(1814), and Hook. Fl. i. 264. t. 94, under Seseli. Herbage pale green, 
pubenilent: stem mostly leafless, 1 — 2^^ ft. high, simple: leaves bi- or 
triternate; leaflets 2—4 in. long, narrowly linear to linear-lanceolate: 
umbel uueqiially 5 — 18-rayed, with no involucre, but involucels of lanceo- 
late or setaceous bractlets : f r. narrowly oblong, I4 — % in. long, glabrous 
or pubescent; wings narrow; ribs prominent; oil-tubes very large and 
broad, solitary in the intervals, 2 on the face: seed-face slightly concave. 
Var. siliituin, C. & R. Rev. Umb. 70, has very narrowly linear leaflets, 
and a broad wing to the fruit. -Eastward and northwai'd along the Sierra. 

10. P. leiocarpuiii, Nutt. 1. c. (1840); Hook. 1. c. 263. t. 93, under 
Seseli. Habit of the preceding but stouter, }£ — ^H ft. high: leaflets 
thick, ovate to narrowly lanceolate, 1 — 2 in. long, acute, or in the broader 
forms sharply toothed at the broad apex: umbel few-rayed, naked, as are 
also the umbellets : fr. 4— 5 lines long, 2 lines broad, narrowed below; 
ribs rather prominent; wings half as wide as the body; oil-tubes 1 or 2 
in the intervals, 4 on the face. — From Sierra Co. northward. 

11. P. parvifoliiun, T. c% G. Fl. i. 628 (1840); H. & A. Bot. Beech. 348 
(1840), under Ferula: P. Californicum, C. & R. Bot. Gaz. xiii. 143 (1888). 
Short-caulescent, slender. 6 — 10 in. high: leaves bipinnate but with con- 
fluent upper leaflets; leaflets broad, obtuse, truncate or emarginate at 
the very apex, irregularly incised and with broad cuspidate teeth : umbel 
8 — 10-rayed; involucels of linear or lanceolate-acuminate bractlets: fr. 
broadly elliptical to orbicular, 3 lines long; wings broader than body; 
ribs prominent: oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 — 4 on the face. — 
Near Monterey, and southward in the Coast Ranges. 

* -j;- * * Stem stoul, tall, angular, leafy ; leaves pinnate; fl. yellow. — 
Genus Pastinaca, Tourn. 

12. P. SATIVUM, Wats. Bot. King Exp. 128 (1871); Linn. Sp. PI. i. 262 
(1753), under Pastinaca. Peucedanum Pastinaca, Baill. Hist. vii. 96 
(1880). Biennial, branching, 2 — 4 ft. high; stem angular or fluted; 
herbage nearly glabrous, of a somewhat yellowish green : leaflets of the 
pinnate leaves large, ovate or oblong, incisely toothed: involucre and 
involucels small or 0; fr. oval, 2 — 3 lines long, broadly winged, promi- 
nently ribbed; oil-tubes solitary in the intervals. — The Parsnip of the 
farms and gardens, native of Europe, is spontaneous here and there by 
waysides and in waste lands. 

24. HER.iCLEUM, Linmvns (Cow Parsnip). Perennial or biennial, 
with stout hollow fluted stem, ample lobed or compound leaves, and very 
large umbels of white flowers. Calyx-teeth small or obsolete. Fruit 
round-obovate, very much flattened dorsally, somewhat pubescent. Car- 
pel with dorsal ribs filiform, the margin winged, the wings coherent when 
young, strongly nerved toward the margin: oil-tubes solitary in the 



332 UMBELLIFER^. 

intervals, obclavate, extending' from the apex downward to or below the 
middle of the carpel, 2 on the face : seed thin and flat. 

1. H. laiiatnm, Michx. Fl. i. 166 (1803). Stem 3-8 ft. high: leaves 
ternate, 1 — 2 ft. long, the stout petioles and veins hirsute beneath, the 
base of the petiole much dilated; leaflets 4 — 10 in. long, rounded and 
subcordate, the lobes somewhat palmately arranged, acuminate, toothed; 
rays many, 3 — 6 in. long: fl. large, white, irregular, the outer petals being 
larger: fr. broadly obovate, 4 — 6 lines long, slightly pubescent. — In wet 
open ground, or in moist thickets, from the seaboard to the Sierra. 

25. MYRRHIS, Morison (Sweet Cicely). Perennials with thick 
aromatic roots, rather slender stems not tall, ternately-compound mostly 
radical leaves: involucres and involucels reduced or obsolete. Flowers 
white. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit linear to linear-oblong, more or less 
attenuate at base, acute at summit, glabrous or bristly along the ribs. 
Carpel nearly pentagonal in section, flattened dorsally if at all. Oil -tubes 
obsolete in mature fruit. Seed-face slightly concave to deeply sulcate. 

* Involucre and involucels scant or 0; fruit nearly glabrous, not attenuate 

to a slender base. — Genus Glycosma, Nutt. 

1. M. occideutalis, B. & H. f. Gen. PI. i. 897 (1865); Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. vii. 346 (1868); Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 639 (1840), under Glycosma; 
C. & K Rev. Umb. 119 (1888), under Osmorrhiza. Stoutish, puberulent 
or pubescent: leaflets oblong, 1}^ — 4 in. long, acute, coarsely serrate, rarely 
incised: umbel 5 — 12-rayed, naked or with 1 or 2 bracts; rays 1 — 5 in. 
long, mostly erect; pedicels 1 — 3 lines: fr. 7 — 12 lines long, 1% lines 
wide, obtuse at base, glabrous, with prominent acute ribs; the mostly 
conical stylopodium together with the style ^ — 1 line long. — Dry woods 
in the foothills and at middle elevations. 

2. M. Bolanderi, Gray, 1. c. Osmorrhiza occidentalis, var. Bolanderi, 
C. & R. 1. c. (1888). Leaflets ovate, incised: pedicels shorter: ribs of 
carpel obtuse; otherwise as in the preceding, of which it may be a 
variety only. — Woods of Mendocino Co., Bolander; apparently rare. 

3. M. ambi^ua, Greene. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 386 (1872), under 
Glycosma. Tall, glabrous or hairy at the nodes, the petioles and leaf- 
veins beneath pilose: leaflets ovate-oblong, acute, 2- or -3-cleft and 
incisely toothed: fruiting umbel with spreading rays: fr. 6 — 7 lines long, 
linear-oblong, acutish at each end, the ribs more or less setulose toward 
the base. — Woods near Cahto, Mendocino Co. 

* * Involucre and, involucels caducous or 0; fruit attenuate at base; ribs 

bristly. — Genus Osmoekhiza, Rafinesque. 

4. M. brachypoda, Greene. Torr.; Dur. PI. Pratt. 89 (1855), under 
Osmorrhiza. Stout, pubescent or glabrous: leaflets 1 in. long or more, 



UMBELLIFER.^. 333 

acute, laciniately lohetl or toothed: umbel only 1 — 4-rayed, with involucre 
and involucels of linear bracts and bractlets, the latter exceeding the 
tiowers: fr. 6 — 8 lines long, 3 lines wide, abruptly attenuate at base, 
rough-bristly on the very prominent ribs. -From near Monterey to 
Nevada Co. and southward. 

5. M. iiuda, Greene. Torr. Pac. R Rep. iv. 93 (1857), under Osmor- 
rhiza. Slender, 2 — 3 ft. high, more or less pilose-pubescent: leaves 
twice ternate; leaflets 1 — 2 in. long, ovate, acute or obtusish, rather 
deeply cleft and toothed: umbel long-peduncled, 3 — 5-rayed, naked or 
with small caducous bracts and bractlets; pedicels I4 — % in- long: fr. 
slender, 3 — 7 lines long, with slenderly attenuate base; carpels acutely 
ribbed; stylopodium very short.— Common in shady woods along streams 
almost throughout the State. 

26. CHJCROPHYLLUM, Columna. Rather slender annuals with 
ternately compound leaves, and small white flowers in almost naked 
umbels. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit lanceolate, or ovate-oblong and 
beaked at summit, the beak not as long as the body; ribs of carpel 
equal; oil-tubes present. 

1. C. Antheiscus, Lam. Encycl. i. 685 (1783); Linn. Sp. PI. i. 256 
(1753), under Scandix. Anthriscus vulgaris, Pers. Syn. i. 320 (1805). 
Weak and often half reclining; small umbels opposite the leaves, about 
3-rayed : f r. about 2 lines long including the short beak, roughened with 
short rigid incurved bristles. — In sandy soil at Alameda, Dr. W. P. Gib- 
bons; naturalized from Europe. 

27. SCAXDIX, Theophrastus. Annual, with pinnately decompound 
leaves cut into countless slender segments. Flower and fruit much as in 
Chserophyllum, except that the beak of the carpel far exceeds the body. 

1. S. Pecten venekis, Dod. Pempt. 689 (1583); Linn. Sp. PI. i. 256 
(1753); Crantz,Austr. 189(1769), under Chxrophyllum; All. Fl. Pedem. 
ii. 29 (1785), under Myrrhis. Erect, 1 ft. high more or less, leafy through- 
out, but radical leaves ample, of oblong outline, cut into many short 
ligulate acuminate lobes: bractlets of involucels many: fr. J^ — 3 in. 
long including the beak which is the conspicuous part of it, the body 
and the margins of the beak with tubercles ending in short prickles. — A 
weed in fields and by waysides in Napa, Contra Costa and Alameda 
counties; first detected in Napa Valley, by Mr. Sonne, in 1888; intro- 
duced from Europe. 

28. DAUCUS, Galen. More or less hispid annuals and biennials, 
with pinnately decompound leaves, involucres and involucels of lobed or 
divided bracts, and white flowers. Outer rays of umbel longest and in 
fruit connivent over the inner, giving a concave top to the umbel as a 



334 UMBELLIFER.E. 

whole. Oalj'x 5-tootlied. Fruit ovate or oblong; carpels semiterete or 
dorsally flattened; primary ribs filiform and bristly, the secondary more 
prominent, winged with a row of more or less united barbed prickles. 
Oil-tubes solitary under the secondary ribs. Seed nearly flat on the face. 

1. D. pusillus, Michx. Fl. i. 164 (1803): D. microphylluH, Presl.; DC. 
Prodr. iv. 213 (1830). Annual, erect, or the branches short and almost 
prostrate, % — ^ ^ t- high, retro rsely hispid : leaves bipinnate, the segments 
pinnatifid, with short narrowly linear lobes: rays 2—6 lines long, nearly 
equal; involucre bipinnatifid, equalling the umbel; involucels equalling 
the greenish white flowers: fr. 1)^—2 lines long, short-pedicellate, the 
prickles usually equalling or exceeding the width of the body: seed 
slightly concave on the face. — Found in nearly all parts of the State; on 
bluffs and hills near the sea often depressed and condensed. The herbage 
has a reputation as an antidote to the poison of rattlesnakes. 

2. D. Oakota, Linn. Sp. PL ii. 242 (1753). Biennial, stout, 2—3 ft. 
high, hispid: leaves 1 ft. long or less: involucre of many pinnatifid 
bracts equalling the large umbel; bractlets scarious, with an herbaceous 
midrib: fl. white, but the central one of each umbellet abortive and dark 
purple: fr. oblong-ovoid, the spines as long as its diameter: fruiting 
umbel deeply concave, resembling a bird's nest. — The common Carrol of 
the gardens; already becoming a wayside weed in middle California. 

29. CAUCALIS, Theophrastus. Genus in nature scarcely distinct 
from Daacna, but fruit more compressed laterally, and the seed-face 
deeply channelled. 

1. C. NODOSA, Huds. Fl. Angl. 114 (1798); Linn. Sp. PI. i. 240 (1753), 
under Tordi/lium; Gsertn. Fr. et Sem. i. 82. t. 20 (1788), under Torilis. 
Branching at base, the long branches reclining, leafy throughout and 
retrorsely hispid: leaves pinnate, with pinnatifid divisions: umbels 
small, naked, subsessile opposite the leaves: carpels unequal, the larger 
one a line long; surface tuberculate and prickly, the prickles barbed or 
incurved at summit. — An obscure weed, common in many parts of the 
State; native of Europe. 

2. C. iiiicrocarpa, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 348 (1840). Erect, slender, 
6 — 15 in. high, nearly glabrous: leaves much dissected, hispidulous: 
umbels terminal and at the ends of the branches, subtended by two or 
more foliaceous dissected bracts, 3 — 6-rayed; rays slender, 1 — 3 in. long; 
umbellets few-flowered, the pedicels unequal; involucels of short entire 
bractlets: fr. oblong-ovoid, 2 lines long, armed with uncinate prickles. — 
Very common, but slender and obscure. Like Daucus pusillus it is 
regarded as efficacious against the venom of the rattlesnake. 



CORNE.E. 335 

Obder lv. C R N E /E . 

Be CandoUe, Proilromus, iv. 271 (1830). Cornace^, Liiidl. Intr. 2 ed. 
49(183(i). 

Trees, shrubs or uudershrubs, with opposite exstipulate leaves, and 
naked or invohicrate cymose or capitate or amentaceous inflorescence. 
Calyx-tube coherent with the ovary; limb 4-lobed or obsolete. Petals 4, 
epigynous, valvate in bud. Stamens 4, alternate with the petals; anthers 
2-celled. Style tiliform; stigma simple. Fruit drupaceous, 1 — 2-seeded. 
Seed pendulous; embryo miniite; albumen fleshy. 

1. CORS'US, Plintj (Dogwood). Deciduous shrubs, or low semi- 
herbaceous plants. Flowers perfect, not in aments. Drupe globose, 
ovoid or oblong; putamen 2-celled, 2-seeded. 

* Flowers white, not involucnite, cymose, appearing later tlutn the 
leaves; drupe small, subglobose. — Cobnus proper. 

1. C. glabrata, Benth. Bot. Sulph. 18 (1844); C. & E. Bot. Gaz. xv. 89. 
Shrub 5—12 ft. high, with gray bark, and nearly or quite glabrous twigs 
and foliage: leaves oblong to narrowly ovate, acute at each end, or 
acuminate at apex, 1 — 2 in. long, green alike on both faces; petioles 
short, slender: fl. in many small open flat-topped cymes: fr. globose, 
white; stone little compressed, not furrowed, broader than high, the 
breadth 2 lines or more. —In the Coast and Mt. Diablo Ranges from 
Monterey Co. northward, also in the foothills of the Sierra. 

2. C. Torreyi, Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. xi. 145 (1876); C. & E. 1. c. 34. 
Size and habit unknown : leaves obovate or oblanceolate, abruptly acute 
or short-acuminate, on rather long and slender petioles, lower face paler 
and somewhat pubescent with loose silky hairs : cyme loose and spreading : 
fr. white; stone obovoid, 2}4 — 3^2 lines long, somewhat flattened, acute 
at base, ridged on the edges, tubercled at summit, higher than broad. — 
Yosemite Valley, Br. Torreif. 

3. C. Greeiiei, C. & E. Bot. Gaz. xv. 36 (1890). Size and habit 
unknown: twigs and inflorescence appressed-pubescent : leaves ovate, 
obovate or oval, acutish or rol^nded at base, acute or acuminate at apex, 
appressed-pubescent or glabrate above, beneath scarcely lighter but with 
a sparse appressed pubescence of stiffish hairs of which some are straight, 
others curved: fl. large, in loose paniculate cymes: calyx-teeth triangu- 
lar: styles with enlarged greenish tips: fr. dark blue or purple; stone 
globular, not furrowed, slightly ridged.— Probably of middle California, 
but the specimens, as found in the old herbarium of the University, were 
without a label, and neither the special locality nor the collector's name 
can now be guessed. 



336 CORNEiE, 

4. C. stolonifera, Michx. Fl. i. 92 (1803); C. & E. 1. c. 86. Stems 
numeroias, clustered, decumbent, forming a low thicket; twigs nearly 
glabrous, red-purple; inflorescence appressed-pubescent: leaves mostly 
oval or oblong and rather abrup.tly acuminate or only acute, at base 
usually obtuse, both faces very minutely and sparsely appressed-pubes- 
cent, but the lower very pale and appearing as if glaucesceut: cymes 
small, flat- topped: calyx-teeth minute; fr. globose, white; stone little or 
much compressed, furrowed on the edges. — An eastern species, crossing 
the continent however in northerly districts, and reaching California, 
in the northern coianties; Trinity Mts., C. C. Marshall. 

5. C. pubescens, Nutt. Sylv. iii. 54 (1842); C. & E. 1. c. 37. Shrub 
6 — 15 ft. high, with smooth reddish branches : leaves ovate, acute, 2 — 4 
in. long, paler and more or less pubescent beneath : fl. in convex cymes : 
fr. white, subglobose, 2 lines broad; stone somewhat flattened, mostly 
oblique, with a more or less prominently furrowed edge, the sides more 
or less prominently ridged. Var. Califoriiica, C. & E. 1. c. C. Cali- 
fornica, C. A. Mey. Pubescence said to be loose and spreading; leaves 
more roimded and broader; stone smaller, etc. — Throughout the State, 
in the variety chiefly; the type being mostly of a more northerly habitat. 
Our common form has a vernal and also an aiatumnal season of flowering 
and fruiting. 

* * Floirers greenish, involucrate ivilh 4 small caducous brads, 

umbellate, appearing with the leaves; drupe elongated. — 

Subgenus Macrocarpium, Spach. 

7. C. sessilis, Torr.; Dur. PI. Pratt. 89 (1855), and Bot. Mex. Bound. 
94. t. 7; 0. & E. 1. c. 33. Shrub 6—15 ft. high; bark of twigs greenish: 
leaves rather crowded, ovate, short-acuminate, pale and appressed silky- 
pubescent beneath : umbel terminal, nearly sessile, becoming lateral by 
the development of the twig; pedicels many, slender, silky, 3 — 4 lines 
long: involucre nearly as long, very thin, deciduous: petals narrow, 
acuminate: fr. oblong, 1.2 io- long or less. — By streams at middle eleva- 
tions of the Sierra, from Placer Co. northward. 

* * * Plant lorn, semiherbaceous ; fl. greenish, in a dense cyme, subtended, 
by 4 petaloid white bracts. — Subgenus Cornion, Spach. 

8. C. Canadensis, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 118 (1753). Flowering stem simple, 
erect from a subterranean creeping rootstock, 4 10 in. high: leaves 
mostly in an apparent whorl of 6 at the summit, ovate to oblong, 1 — 2^^^ 
in. long, acute at each end, subsessile: peduncle solitary, 1 in. long: 
involucral bracts ovate, 4 — 8 lines long: ovary silky: fr. globular, 2 lines 
thick. — In moist woods of the Coast Range from Mendocino Co. northward. 

* * * * Arborescent; fl. greenish, sessile on a thick convex receptacle, 

subtended by 4 — 6 large white petaloid bracts. — 

Genus Benthamidea, Spach. 



CORNER, 337 

9. C. \uttallii, Audubon, Birds, 467 (1838); T. & G. Fl. i. 652. Tree 
15 — 70 ft. high, with ascending or widely spreading branches and smooth 
bark: leaves 3 — 5 in. long, obovate, acute at each end, pubescent: bracts 
of involucre usually 6, obovate to oblong, 1% — 3 in. long, abruptly acute 
to acuminate, white, often tinged with red: head }^ — 1 in. broad, very 
dense: fr. 5 — 6 lines long, scarlet. — In the Coast Range from Monterey 
northward. May — July. 

2, GARRYA, Douglas. Evergreen shrubs with greenish bark, and 
opposite entire coriaceous leaves. I'lowers dioecious, in axillary pendu- 
lous aments, solitary or in threes between the decussately connate bracts. 
Petals 0. Calyx of sterile flowers 4-parted, with linear valvate segments. 
Stamens 4; filaments distinct; disk and rudimentary ovary 0. Calyx of 
fertile flower with a shortly 2-lobed or obsolete limb; disk and rudi- 
mentary stamens 0; ovary 1-celled, with 2 pendulous ovules; styles 2, 
stigmatic on the inner side, persistent. Berry ovoid, 1 — 2-seeded, dark 
blue or purple when ripe. 

1. G. elliptica, Dougl.; Bot. Reg. t. 1686 (1835); Greene, Gard. and 
Forest, iii. 198. Shrub usually clustered, 5 — 15 ft. high: leaves % — 3 in. 
long, dark green, elliptical, rounded or acute and mucronate at apex, 
truncate or rounded at base, the margin undulate, glabrous above, 
tomentose beneath: aments solitary or several; the sterile 4 — 10 in. long, 
their silky bracts truncate or acute; calyx-segments cohering at tip: 
fertile aments stouter, 2 — 6 in. long; bracts acute or acuminate; ovary 
sessile, densely silky-tomentose: fr. globose, 4 lines thick. — In rich shady 
places along streams, from Monterey northward. Feb. 

2. G. Fremonti, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. iv. 136 (1857). Shrub 5-10 ft. 
high, glabrate: leaves light green, ovate or oblong, not undulate, 11.3—21^ 
in. long, on petioles of ij in. or less: aments solitary, 2—3 in. long, with 
acute somewhat silky bracts: ovaries nearly glabrous: fr. globose, 2 
lines or more in thickness, short-pedicellate. — From Mt. Hamilton north- 
ward, on dry slopes and summits. 

3. G. buxifolia, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 349 (1868). Shrub 2—5 ft. 
high: leaves oblong-elliptical, 1— 1)^ in. long, 4—8 lines broad, acute at 
each end, glabrous above, densely white-silky beneath; petioles 1—3 
lines long: fertile aments 1 in. long, the short bracts acute, more or less 
silky: fr. glabrous, globose, subsessile, 21/3— 3 lines thick.— Apparently 
local on Red Mountain, Mendocino Co. 



338 EL^AGNE^. 

Division II. SYMPETAL^. 

Corolla of petals which are more or less united and forming 

a tubular part ; or corolla sometimes wanting and 

replaced by a colored and corolla-like 

synsepalous calyx. 

Oeder lvi. ELyEAGNE/E. 

A. Richard, Mem. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Paris, i. 375 (1823). 

A small family, as nearly allied to Salsolacese as to any other, and here 
represented by a single species of 

1. LEPARGrYR^A, Rafinesque. Shrubs with branchlets more or less 
spinescent, opposite leaves which are entire and with a scurfy indument. 
Flowers dioecious, small, clustered in the axils of the branchlets. Calyx 
of sterile flower deeply i-parted. Stamens 8, with as many alternating 
glands, subsessile, shorter than the limb of the calyx. Calyx of fertile 
flower with ovoid tube and spreading 4-lobed limb, the throat beset with 
8 contiguous glands. Pistil simple; ovary enclosed within the calyx- 
tube and appearing inferior, 1-ovuled; style elongated, acute, stigmatose 
up and down one side. Fruit appearing drupaceous by the enclosure of 
the stone-like seed within the fleshy persistent calyx-tube. 

1. L. argentea, Greene, Pittonia, ii. 122 (1890); Nutt. in Fras. Cat. 
(1813), under Ebcagnns, and Gen. ii. 240 (1818), under Shepherdia. 
Shrub 5 — 18 ft. high, little spinescent: leaves silvery-scurfy on both 
sides, mostly oblong, obtuse, cuneate at base, 1 — 1^4 ^^- long: staminate 
ii. II5 lines long; pistillate 1 line: fr. ovoid, 2% lines long, subsessile, 
scarlet, acidulous and edible. — From the Mono Lake region northward, 
on the eastward slope of the Sierra only. Common in the Great Basin, 
and called Buffalo Berry. 

Ordek lvii. DAPHN0IDE>E. 

Veutenat, Tableau du Regne Vegetal, ii. 235 (1799). 

Small family, intermediate between the preceding and the Caprifoli- 
acese. We have but one member, of the genus 

1. DIRCA, Linnfciis (Leatheewood). Branching deciduous shrubs, 
with smooth and very tenacious brown bark; the wood also very tough 
and flexible. Flowers in fascicles of about 3, appearing before the 



DAPHNOIDE.i;. — SANTALACEiE. 339 

leaves, but from the same buds, and these of yellowish or whitish very 
silky caducous scales, which appear as an involucre to the flowers. 
Calyx 0. Corolla tubular, but slightly oblique, yellowish, nodding, 
4-lobed. Stamens 8, inserted at base of the corolla-tube, exserted; fila- 
ments filiform; anthers small, oblong. Ovary sessile, 1-celled; style 
longer than the stamens. Corolla deciduous from the growing ovary, 
this becoming a somewhat drupaceous small fruit. 

1. D. occideiitalis, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. viii. 631 (1873): D. palm- 
Iris, Torr. Pac. R. Rep. 77 (1857), not Linn. Shrub 4—7 ft. high: bud- 
scales densely white-villous : leaves oval with rounded base, 1 — 3 in. 
long: fl. canary-yellow, subsessile, 3 — 4 lines long, rather deeply 4-lobed, 
the lobes nearly truncate, somewhat connivent, rendering the upper and 
broader part of the organ slightly urceolate. — On moist well shaded 
, northward slopes of the Oakland and Berkeley Hills. Peb., March. 



Obdeb IjYui. SANTAI.ACE/E. 

Robert Brown, Prodromus Florae Novse-Hollandise, 350 (1810). 

Represented by two species of the genus 

1. COM.INDRA, Nnttnll, Glabrous pale and glaucous low perennials, 
the erect stems from subterranean rootstocks. Leaves alternate, sub- 
sessile, entire. Flowers greenish-white, in small terminal and axillary 
umbels. Perianth urceolate or campanulate, with a 5-toothed persistent 
limb. Ovary surmounted by a 5-lobed disk which is free from the peri- 
anth. Stamens shoi't, their linear filaments attached by a tuft of basal 
hairs to the base of the perianth-lobes. Style filiform; ovary coherent 
with the perianth-tube, about 3-ovuled, becoming a drupe-like 1-seeded 
fruit. 

1. C. umbellata, Nutt. Gen. i. 1.57 (1818); Linn. Sp. PI. i. 208 (1753), 
under Thesium. Stem 6 — 15 in. high: leaves oblong, obtuse or acute, 
% — 1}^ in. long, umbels few-flowered, corymbosely clustered at summit 
of stem: fl. IJ^g — '-^ lines long, on slender pedicels, the oblong slightly 
spreading lobes white, about equalling the green tube, which is conspic- 
uously continued above the ovary: style slender: fr. not very fleshy, 
globose, 2^3 lines thick, on slender pedicels 2 — 3 lines long. — Western 
slope of the Sierra, from Fresno Co. northward. 

2. C. pallida, A. DC. Prodr. xiv. 636 (1857). Aspect of the preceding, 
but with narrower and acute leaves: fr. ovoid, 3 — 4 lines long, sessile, or 
the pedicels very short and stout. — Perhaps not within our limits; but 
found east of the Sierra northward, and in Oregon. 



340 LORANTHE^. 

Order LIX. LORANTHEvC. 

Jussieu & Richard, Annales du Museum, xii. 292 (1808). 

Evergreens, half -shrubby and parasitic on trees and shrubs; color 
yellowish-green or yellow. Branches dichotomous; the joints swollen. 
Leaves opposite, either coriaceous, or reduced to more or less distinctly 
connate scales. Flowers (dioecious in our genera) of 2 — 5 sepals coherent 
at base and valvate in aestivation, no petals; anthers as many as the 
calyx-segments and (in ours) sessile upon them; ovary inferior, 1-celled, 
1-ovuled, becoming a 1-seeded berry with glutinous epicarp. 

1. PHORADEXDRON, Nultall (Mistlktoe). Flowers globose, im- 
bedded in the rachis of jointed spikes. Calyx 3- (rarely 2- or 4-) lobed. 
Anthers sessile on the base of the lobes, 2-celled, opening by a pore or 
slit; pollen-grains smooth. Stigma sessile, obtuse, entire or more or 
less distinctly 2-lobed. Berry globose, pulpy, translucent, crowned with 
the persistent calyx-lobes. Embryo with foliaceous cotyledons. 

* Leafy species; leaves dilated upwards. 

1. P. flayescens, Nutt. PI. Gamb. 185 (1848); Engelm. PI. Fendl. 58 
(1849); Pursh, Fl. i. 114 (1814), under Viscum. V. leucocarpum, Raf. 
Fl. Ludov. 79 (1817). Branches 1 ft. long or more, terete, pubescent 
when young, usually of a light or yellowish green as also the foliage : 
leaves oblanceolate to obovate and nearly orbicular, i^ — 2 in. long, 
obtuse, 3-nerved, in age glabrous: bracts of the inflorescence connate 
into a short truncate cup : H. depressed-globose, the calyx-lobes ciliate : 
staminate spikes opposite or verticillate, usually shorter than the leaves, 
3 — 7-jointed, the many fl. in 4 — 6 rows on each side, fragrant with the 
odor of pond-lilies; anthers transverse, opening by 2 pores: pistillate 
spikes mostly opposite, shorter tlian the staminate: berries white, 2 lines 
thick. Var. yillosnm, Engelm. 1. c. P. viUosum, Nutt. 1. c. Leaves 
smaller, spatulate to orbicular, permanently pubescent: spikes smaller. 
— Parasitic on various exogenous trees in the interior of the State. 

2. P. BoUeauuiii, Engelm. Bot. Calif, ii. 105 (1880); Seem. Bot. 
Herald, 295. t. 63 (1856), under Viscum. Branches ^o ft. long or less, 
terete, puberulent when young: leaves very thick, spatulate to linear, 
obtusish, nerveless, }-^ — 1 in. long: spikes opjjosite or in fours, with con- 
nate minutely ciliate bracts; the staminate of two 6 — 12-flowered joints, 
the fertile of a single 2-flowered joint: anthers transverse, opening by 
pores: berry white, 1}^ lines thick. — From Placer and Lake counties 
southward, chiefly on firs and junipers. 

* * Leaves reduced to short mostly connate scales. 

3. P. juiiiperinnin, Engelm.; Gray, PI. Fendl. 58 (1849). Branches 



LORANTHE.E. 341 

% — 1 ft. long, very uumeroiis (forming a rounded rather dense mass), 
terete (the ultimate twigs quadrangular), glabrous: scales broadly tri- 
angular, obtusish, connate or distinct, ciliate: staminate spikes of a 
single 6— 8-fiowered joint (rarely 2): anthers transverse, opening by 
pores: pistillate spikes 2-flowered: berry globose, \^.{ lines thick, whitish 
or light red. Var. Libocedri, Engelm. Bot. Calif, ii. 105. Branches 
longer and more slender, the ultimate twigs more sharply quadrangular. 
— From Yuba Co. southward; the type on junipers, the variety on cedar. 

2. KAZOUMOFSKYA, Hoffmann. Small yellow or greenish leafless 
parasites upon coniferous trees: leaves represented by connate scales. 
Flowers axillary and terminal, solitary or several from the same axil. 
Staminate fl. mostly 3-parted, compressed, or the terminal ones globose : 
anthers sessile on the lobes, orbicular and 1-celled, dehiscent by a circular 
aperture at base; pollen-grains spinulose. Pistillate fl. ovate, com- 
pressed, 2-toothed, subsessile, the pedicel in fruit elongated and recurved. 
Fruit compressed, elastically dehiscent at the circumscissile base, forcibly 
ejecting the seed. Cotyledons rudimentary, indicateel by a notch in the 
axis of the embryo. 

* Staininale Ji. on peduncle-like joints, all or nearly all terminal. 

1. R. Americana, O. Ktze. Kev. Gen. ii. 587 (1891); Nutt. in PL 
Lindh. ii. 214 (1850), under Arceuthobium. Slender, dichotomously or 
verticillately branching, greenish-yellow; staminate plants often 3 — 4 in. 
long; fertile much smaller: staminate fl. 1 line broad or more, with 
round-ovate acutish lobes; the pistillate % — 1 line long: fr. 2 lines 
long. — Parasitic on Finns contorta; flowering in autumn, fruit maturing 
a year later. 

* * Staminate Ji. sessile, mostly axillary. 

2. R. Doaglasii, O. Ktze. 1. c; Engelm. in Wheeler's Rep. 253 (1878), 
under Arceuthobium. Slender, greenish yellow, I4 — 1 in. high, miich 
branched, but not verticillately, the accessory branchlets behind (not 
beside) the primary ones: spikes short, mostly 5-flowered: staminate fl. 
less than a line wide, with round-ovate acutish lobes : f r. 2% lines long, 
Var. abietiiiuiii (Engelm. Bot. Calif., under Arceuthobium). Fertile 
plant larger (1 — 3 in. high), the sterile smaller, with spreading or even 
recurved branchlets: fr. smaller (scarcely 2 lines long).- -The type on 
Pseudotsuga taxifolia, east of the Sierra southward, not for a certainty 
within our limits; the variety, or probably distinct species, on Abies con- 
color farther northward, in Sierra Co., Lernmon. 

3. R. occidentalis, O. Ktze. 1. c; Engelm. Bot. Calif, ii. 107 (1880), 
under Arceuthobium. Stoiit, 2 — 5 in. high, paniculately much branched: 
sterile plants brownish-yellow, smaller; fertile commonly darker, olive- 
brown : staminate fl. in long dense spikes, often 9 — 17 on a single axis. 



342 CAPRirOLIACE^, 

their buds ventricose with the upper edge curved outward; calyx 3 5 
(usually 4-) -parted, \% — 2 lines wide: anthers sessile below the middle 
of the lanceolate acuminate lobes: fr. 'I}4, lines long.— On various conifers 
of both mountain ranges, from middle parts of the State northward. 



OkderLX. CAPRIFOLIACE/E. 

Eichard, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat. iii. 172 (1826). 

Shrubs often trailing or climbing. Leaves opposite, mostly exstipu- 
late. Flowers terminal and cymose or subspicate, or solitary or in pairs 
in the leaf-axils, regular or irregular. Calyx-tube coherent with the 
ovary; limb 5-toothed or obsolete. Corolla 4— 5-lobed or -cleft; the 
lobes imbricate in bud. Stamens distinct. Ovary 2— 5-celled, or by 
abortion 1-celled after flowering. Fruit a berry or drupe. 

Corolla rotate or broad-cam panulate, regular; style short or 0, - - - 1, 2 

campanulate to tubular, more or less irregular; style elongated, - 3—5 

1. SA.MBUCUS, Pliny (Eldeb). Shrubs or small trees, with stout 
thick and very pithy shoots and branches, and pinnate foliage; leaflets 
5—11, serrate; young shoots and foliage heavy-scented. Flowers small, 
white or cream-color, very many, in compound cymes at the ends of 
terminal and lateral shoots. Calyx with 5 minute teeth. Corolla rotate, 
5-lobed. Stamens 5. Stigmas and ovary-cells 3—5. Fruits of the nature 
of drupelets, though berry-like, each with 3 (rarely 4 or 5) separate seed- 
like nutlets, each with a single seed. 

1. S. callicarpa. S. racemosn, Gray, Bot. Calif, i. 278, not Linn. 
Arborescent, 10—25 ft. high, clustered, and each of the several trunks 
often a foot in diameter; bark light brown, more flaky than fissured; 
pith of shoots white: young twigs and foliage pubescent with sparse 
stiff short somewhat retrorse hairs: young leaves with free ligulate 
callous-tipped stipules 1—3 lines long: leaflets 2—5 pairs, often with 
conspicuous false stipellse, or the later leaves on vigorous shoots com- 
pletely bipinnate, the ordinary leaflets from oval to oblong-lanceolate, 
abruptly acuminate, closely and rather deeply serrate, thin : cymes rather 
small but flat-topped: corolla rotate, white: fr. bright red.— Very com- 
mon by streams, and even in moist lowlands near the sea along the 
Coast Range; perhaps also in the Sierra. The arborescent habit, stipu- 
late and often bipinnate leaves, but more than all the broad and flat 
rather than thyrsoid inflorescence and fruit-clusters, mark this as a 
species very distinct from the Old World S. racemosa, in which latter 
the corolla-lobes, moreover, are closely reflexed against the pedicel. The 
eastern shrub, *S'. pubens, is easily distinguishable from both by a charac- 
ter not hitherto mentioned, i. e., the large and rounded very conspicuous 



>'ifM/ 



CAPRIFOLIACE^, 343 

winter-buds. The red-berried elder of the northern woods, from Oregon 
to Alaska, is not S. racemosa, for it has, like our species, very ample and 
almost flat-topped cymes; but neither am I confident of its identity 
with S. callicarpa. Our tree has small winter-buds, and is hardly in 
flower before April, putting forth its leaves in March. 

2. S. melauocarpa, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xix. 76 (1883). Shrubby, 
only 6—8 ft. high: leaves never bipinnate; stipules 0; leaflets 5—7, 
oblong-lanceolate, abruptly acuminate: cyme rather ample, broad but 
convex: fr. black, without })loom. — Common in the northern Rocky 
Mountains, reaching the Sierra Nevada, according to Gray. The species 
is nearest to S. pnhens, having rather conspicuous winter-buds, and con- 
vex or even somewhat pyramidal inflorescence. 

3. S. velutina, Dur. & Hilg. Pac. R. Rep. v. 8 (1855): S. Mexicana, 
Presl.; DC. Prodr. iv. 322 ? (1830). Shrub 5—6 ft. high, velvety-tomen- 
tose, the upper face of the leaves glabrous: leaflets 5 — 11, obliquely 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, sharply serrulate, subcoriaceous : corymb small, 
flattish : f r. dark purple, of an agreeable flavor. — The type of this is from 
the plains of Kern Co. ; and to the species may probably be referred an 
almost herbaceous elder common in the Sacramento Valley wheat fields. 
The shoots of this are simple, 5 or 6 ft. high, and bear an ample terminal 
cyme. But the leaves in this scarcely shrubby plant are commonly 
altogether bipinnate. Its fruit is unknown, for the plants, springing up 
in the fields after the spring plowing and as if from rootstocks, are cut 
down by the reapers while in flower. It seems unlikely that S. Mexicana 
can be this species. 

4. S. glauca, Nutt; T. & G. Fl. ii. 13 (1841). Arborescent, often 30 
ft. high at southerly stations, and the solitary trunk not rarely more than 
a foot thick, covered with a dark close very distinctly and rather finely 
fissured bark: twigs long and slender; leaves exstipulate, coriaceous, 
glabrous; leaflets 3 — 5 pairs, lanceolate, acuminate, sharply serrulate, 
seldom or never divided: cymes large, flat: fl. white: fr. blue with a 
dense bloom but black beneath it. — In rather dry and sparsely wooded 
ravines and open grounds throughout the middle and southern parts of 
the State; flowering and fruiting at intervals throughout the long season 
from March to December. Fruit acidulous, and when cooked not unpala- 
table. In San Diego Co. the author once measured a healthy tree of 
this species with trunk three feet thick. 

2. VIBURNUM, Pliny. Shrubs or small trees, with tough and 
flexible (not pithy) branches, simple leaves, and terminal flattened cymes 
of white flowers. Corolla rotate or open-campanulate. Ovary 1-celled, 
1-ovuled, becoming a drupe with a single more or less flattened stone. 
Embryo minute. 



344 CAPRIFOLIACE^. 

1. V. ellipticum, Hook. Fl. i. 280 (1833); Gray, Syn. Fl. i. 10. Stems 
2—5 ft. high, with glabrous pale brown bark: leaves from round-oval to 
elliptic-oblong, rounded at both ends, dentate above the middle, 2 in. 
long, subcoriaceous, 3— 5-nerved from the base, the nerves ascending or 
parallel: corolla 4—5 lines wide: stone of the bluish black fr. deeply and 
broadly sulcate on both faces, the furrow of one face divided by a median 
ridge. — In mountain woods, from Placer and Mendocino counties north- 
ward. 

3. OBOLARIi, Siegesheck (Twin-Fdower. Linn^a).' Trailing ever- 
green shrub, with erect long and slender 2-flowered peduncles. Calyx 
with limb 5-parted into subulate-lanceolate lobes, constricted above the 
globular tube, deciduous from the fruit. Corolla campanulate-funnel- 
form, not gibbous at base, almost equally 4-lobed. Stamens 4, in unequal 
pairs, included. Ovary 3-celled, becoming a dry indehiscent 1-seeded 
fruit. 

1. 0. borealis, O. Ktze. Eev. Gen. i. 275 (1891); Linn. Sp. PI. li. 631 

(1753), under Linnxa. Prostrate branches slender, pubescent: leaves 
obovate, crenately few-toothed, %—1. in. long, on very short petioles: 
filiform peduncles 2—6 in. high, with 2 bracts near the summit, and from 
the axil of each a rose-colored flower nodding on a filiform pedicel; 
pedicels bibracteolate near the summit: corolla % in. long or more, very 
fragrant.— In woods of pine and spruce, from Humboldt and Plumas 
counties northward. July. 

4. SYMPHORICARPOS, DUhnins (Snowbeert). Low branching 
shrubs, erect or spreading, never climbing. Leaves small, membran- 
aceous, mostly entire. Flowers small, nearly or quite regular, axillary 
and terminal, solitary or in dense spicate clusters, white or pinkish. 
Calyx with globular or oblong tube and 4— 5-toothed persistent limb. 
Corolla either short-campanulate and slightly gibbous, or salverform and 
regular, 4— 5-lobed. Stamens inserted on the throat of the corolla and 
as many as its lobes. Ovary 4-celled; 2 cells containing a few sterile 
ovules, the other 2 each with a single suspended ovule. Fruit globose, 
berry-like, containing two seed-like smooth 1-seeded nutlets. 

* Floiver shurl, nrceolate- or ope)i-campanulate, only 2 — S lines long. 

1. S. racemosus, Michx. Fl. i. 107 (1803); Bot. Mag. t. 2211; Bart. Fl. 
Am. Sept. i. 1. 19. Usually 3—4 ft. high, slender, with spreading branches: 
leaves round-oval to oblong, 1 in. long, glabrous above, pubescent along 
the veins beneath: axillary clusters mostly few-flowered, the lowest 
1-flowered: corolla reddish or pinkish, 2 lines long, slightly gibbous, 
moderately villous within, cleft above the middle: fr. H~}i in. thick, 
subglobose, snow-white.— -On banks of streams in shady places almost 
everywhere in the Coast Range; more slender than the eastern type, 



CAPRIFOLIACE.E. 345 

with a more graceful habit, thinner foliage and smaller fruit: very 
possibly a distinct species. Fl. May, fr. Oct. 

2. S. ciliatus, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. i. 4. ? Low and diffuse, seldom 1 ft. 
high, with many very slender but rather rigid leafy branches, and few- 
flowered clusters : leaves oval, obtuse, 3^ — % in. long, glabrous above, 
pubescent along the veins beneath, the margin rather densely ciliate: 
corolla rose-red, 2 lines long, slightly gibbous, cleft to the middle or 
more deeply, scarcely villous within: fr. small, globose, snow-white. — 
Common in the Oakland Hills on northward slopes, and answering well 
to NuttalFs description of >S. ciliatus as to leaf and flower, though he 
says nothing of the diminutive size, and even compares his Santa Bar- 
bara shrub with S. vulgaris. We would offer for our plant the provisional 
name *S'. nanus, in case it should prove distinct. It is earlier in its 
flowering, and much earlier in maturing its fruit, than the preceding 
species. Fr. July. 

3.* S. mollis, Nntt. I.e. (1841); Gray, Syn. Fl. i. 14. Stems more surcu- 
lose and straggling, but several feet long: leaves orbicular or broadly 
oval, }4 — 1 in. long, soft-pubescent beneath or sometimes on both faces, 
and even almost tomentose: fl. solitary or in short clusters: corolla 
open-campanulate, 5-lobed nearly to the middle, pubescent within: 
stamens and style included: berries rather small, white. Var. acutns, 
Gray, 1. c. Leaves soft-tomentulose, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute 
at both ends or acuminate, sometimes irregularly and acutely toothed. — 
Wooded hills of both ranges of mountains; the variety (probably a 
species, but little known) on Lassen's Peak. 

* * Corolla with more elongated and narrow tube; lobes short. 

4. S. rotuiidifolius, Gray, PI. Wright, ii. 66 (1853), and Journ. Linn. 
Soc. xiv. 11. Low, rather stout and rigid: leaves very pale and glauces- 
cent, subcoriaceous and more or less densely soft-pubescent: corolla 
elongated-campanulate, 3 4 lines long; its tube pubescent within below 
the stamens, twice or thrice the length of the lobes: fr. elliptical, small; 
nutlets oval, broad and obtuse at both ends. — Chiefly on the eastward 
slope of the Sierra; but near Tehachapi, Greene; also in Fresno Co. 

5. S. oreophilus, Gray, Journ. Linn. Soc. 1. c. 12 (1875). Erect with 
rather slender but short spreading or ascending branches: leaves oval 
or oblong, rather thin, not pale, glabrous or pubescent: corolla tubular- 
funnelform, 4 — 6 lines long, yellowish-white, with or without a reddish 
tinge ; tube nearly glabrous within, 4 or 5 times the length of the slightly 
spreading lobes: nutlets of the elongated drupe oblong, pointed at 
base. — East of the Sierra only. 

5. CAPRIFOLIUM, Brunfels (Honeysuckle). Erect or trailing or 



346 CARPIFOLIACEiE. 

climbing shrubs, with leaves either membranous or subcoriaceous, 

occasionally stipulate. Flowers larger and showy, in pairs on an axillary 

peduncle, or verticillate-spicate at the ends of the branches. Oalyx-limb 

small and 5-toothed, or obsolete. Corolla more or less gibbous at base, 

or bilabiate, or both. Stamens 5, on the tube of the corolla. Ovary 

2 — 3-celled, becoming a few-seeded purple or red or yellow berry. — A 

rather too heterogeneous assemblage, doubtless better received as several 

distinct genera, according to the views of the earlier sytematists. 

* Sterns erect, never twining or climbing; leaves all distinct; fl. axillary, 

2 on each slender peduncle, their ovaries distinct or connate, the 

corollas % in. long; calyx-limb minute or obsolete. — 

Genus Xylosteon of many authors. 

1. C. coeruleum, Lam. Fl. Fr. ii. 366 (1778); Linn. Sp. PI. i. 174 (1753), 
under Lontcera. Low (1 — 2 ft.), pubescent or glabrate: leaves thin, 
pale or glaucescent, ovate-oblong, obtuse, entire, 1 in. long or more: 
peduncles shorter than the flowers: corolla ochroleucous, gibbous at 
base, narrowly funnelform, scarcely at all bilabiate: bracts subulate or 
linear, commonly larger than the ovaries; these completely united, 
forming a roundish or ovoid 2-eyed sweetish berry which is black but 
glaucous. -From Mariposa Co. northward, in the Sierra Nevada. 

2. C. coiiju^iale, O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. i. 274 (1891); Kell. Proc. Calif. 
Acad. 67 (1862), under Lonicera. L. Breioeri, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 
537 (1865). Shrub 3—5 ft. high, freely branching and bushy: leaves 
thinnish, bright green, pubescent when young, ovate or oval, acute or 
acuminate, 1 — 2io in. long, short-petioled : peduncles slender, 3—5 times 
the length of the dark maroon flowers: bracts subulate, caducous; calyx- 
teeth subulate: corolla 4 — 5 lines long, gibbous-campanulate, the upper 
lip crenately 4-lobed, throat and lower part of filaments and style very 
hirsute: berries red, almost wholly connate. — Woods of the higher Sierra. 

3. C. involucratum, O. Ktze. 1. c; Banks in Richardson, App. Frank. 
Voy. 5 (1823); Spreng. Syst. i. 759 (1825), under Lonicera; Bot. Reg. t. 
1179. Erect, 1 — 3 ft. high: leaves large, thin, ovate-elliptical, acuminate, 
short-petiolate, 2 — 3 in. long, pubescent on the veins beneath and on the 
margin: peduncles short, the fl. subtended by a pair of large ovate 
foliaceous bracts: calyx-limb obsolete: corolla yellowish, gibbous at 
base, narrowly funnelform, with scarcely spreading lobes; these com- 
monly acutish: berries distinct, black. — A species of the Rocky Mountain 
and far northeastern regions, perchance reaching our borders in the 
Sierra eastward. The next has needlessly been confused with it, being 
clearly distinct. 

4. C. Ledebourii, Greene. Esch. Mem. Acad. Petrop. x. 284 (1826), 
under Lonicera. L. Mociniana, DC. Prodr. iv. 336 (1830): L. intermedia, 



CAPRirOLIACE^. 347 

Kell. Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 154. ? Stouter, 5—15 ft. high, often with the 
very long sarmentose branches reclining on or half climbing over other 
shrubs or small trees: leaves of firmer texture than in the last, and more 
hairy : corolla more strongly gibbous at base, strictly salverform above 
the gibbosity, the short rounded lobes spreading abruptly, the whole 
almost scarlet without, yellow within. — Very common along streams 
almost throughout western California, ranging far northward, and also 
extending into the mountains of Arizona; the habit of the shrub, and 
more especially its very different corolla, marking it as distinct from 
C. involucratum. Feb. — May. 

* * Stems usually more or less tivining; upper leaves often connate-per- 
foliate; fl. sessile in spiked whorls at the ends of the branches; corolla 
1 in. long, mostly bilabiate. — Capbifolium proper. 

5. C. ciliosuin, Pursh, Fl. i. 160 (1814); Poir, Encycl. v. 612 (1804), 
under Lonicera: C. occidentale, Lindl. Bot. Keg. t. 1457. Usually 
depressed, only a foot or two high, and almost prostrate : leaves ovate or 
oval, glaucous beneath, usually ciliate, otherwise glabrous, the upper- 
most one or two pairs connate into an orbicular or elliptical disk: whorl 
of flowers usually 1 only, rarely 2 or 3: corolla glabrous or sparingly 
pilose-pubescent, crimson-scarlet without, yellow within, ventricose- 
gibbous below; the limb slightly bilabiate; lower lobe 3 — 4 lines long. — 
In the Sierra at middle altitudes or lower, and far northward and east- 
ward. A small but very beautiful species. June — Aug. 

6. C. hispiduluui, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1761 (1835), var. Californicuni. 

Lonicera Californica, T. & G. Fl. ii. 7 (1841): L. hispidala, var. vacillans, 
Gray. Twining, 10 — 25 ft. high, the ultimate branches often a yard or 
two in length and drooping, hispidulous and somewhat glandular as to 
the upper portion and about the inflorescence; leaves ovate-oblong or 
elliptical, acutish, 1 — 3 in. long, the lower pairs without stipules, the 
intermediate with broadly ovate stipular appendages often J^ in. long 
and as broad, the one or two floral pairs connate, all very glaucous 
beneath, pale and glaucescent above, thickish but hardly subcoriaceous: 
spikes 1 — 5, each with 3 — 6 whorls of pink flowers; corolla hispidulous, 
3^ — % in. long; anthers exserted, narrowly linear, 2}^ lines long: berries 
crimson. — Common in moist ravines and on shady banks, climbing over 
small trees, along the seaboard only; very beautiful in flower. The 
Oregouian type of the species is much smaller, seldom or never twining, 
and with strongly ciliate leaves, even the uppermost small and distinct. 

7. C. interruptum, Greene. Benth. PI. Hartw. 313 (1849), under 
Lonicera. L. hispidtila, var. inlerrnpla, Gray. Stoutish, erect and 
bushy, 4 — 7 ft. high, less disposed to twine or climb; bark of branches 
white and almost shining, glabrous : leaves of a very pallid hue, white- 
glaucous beneath, glaucescent above, 1 in. or more in breadth, mostly 



348 EUBIACE^. 

orbicular or roiiud-obovate, never stipulate, several of the uppermost 
pairs connate: 11. numerous, in several interrupted spikes; corolla ^^ in. 
long, yellow, glabroiis. — Common on dry bushy hills of the inner Coast 
Ranges, and in similar places among the Sierras northward. May, June. 

8. C. subspicatuiii, Greene. H. & A. Bot. Beech. 349 (1841), and 
Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound, t. 23, under Lonicera. L. hispidala, var. sub- 
spicata, Gray. Size of the last, bushy but more straggling, the many 
ultimate branches and branchlets short and all floriferous; almost all 
the plant, except the upper face of the leaves, densely glandular-pubes- 
cent: leaves small, coriaceous, narrowly oblong, obtuse, tapering to a 
distinct petiole, very veiny on both faces, deep green above, apparently 
white-tomentose between the veins beneath, none of them either stipu- 
late or connate: spikes numerous, almost panicled, but the whorls of 
flowers few, each whorl with a pair of bracts at base: corolla ^o in. long, 
yellowish. — In the Coast Ranges, but southward only. How this and 
the preceding can have passed for varieties of C hispiduluin passes our 
comprehension. Probably no country can exhibit three species of this 
group which are more pronouncedly distinct. 



Order LXI. R U B I A C E /E . 
L. Gerard, Flora Gallo-Provincialis, 224 (1761): Jussieu, Gen. 196 (1789). 

Our species herbs (Cephalanthus and some species of Galium shrubby) 
with opposite or verticillate mostly exstipulate entire leaves, and 
4-merous perfect (rarely dioecious) flowers. Calyx-limb obsolete, or of 4 
teeth. Stamens distinct, alternate with the corolla-lobes and inserted on 
its throat or tube. Ovary 2— 4-celled, with a solitary ovule in each cell. 
Fruit indehiscent, dry or baccate. 

1. CEPHALANTHUS, Lmnxus (Button-bush). Shrubs with oppo- 
site or ternate leaves, and flowers in dense globose terminal and axillary 
peduncled heads. Calyx inverse-pyramidal, 4-toothed. Corolla with 
long slender tube and small 4-cleft limb. Stamens 4, short, on the 
throat of the corolla. Style slender, long-exserted; stigma capitate; 
ovary 2-celled. Fruit achene-like, 1 — 2-seeded. 

1. C. occideiitalis, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 95 (1753). Shrub or small tree, 
with ovate-lanceolate leaves 3 — 5 in. long, rather glossy above, often 
more or less pubescent: fl. white, in heads 1 in. thick, these solitary or few 
or several toward the ends of the branches. — River banks of the interior, 
especially of the Sacramento from Shasta Co. to Solano; also on the 
lower San Joaquin. June — Aug. 



RUBIACE^. 349 

2. KELLOGOIA,, Ton-ey. Slender perennial, with opposite leaves, 
and loosely cymose-panicled small pinkish flowers. Calyx-tube obovoid, 
somewhat flattened laterally, beset with bristles; teeth 4, very small, 
subulate, persistent. Corolla funnelform; lobes valvate. Stamens 4, in 
the throat of the corolla; filaments short; anthers linear. Style slender; 
ovary 2-celled; ovules erect. Fruit small, oblong, coriaceous, uncinate- 
hispid, splitting into two 1-seeded carpels which are indehiscent, 1-seeded. 
Embryo large, straight, in fleshy albumen. 

1. K. filicides, Torr. Bot. Wilkes Exp. t. 6 (1862); Gray, Proc. Am. 
Acad. vi. 539 (1865). About 1 ft. high, glabrous or minutely pubescent: 
leaves lanceolate, sessile, the stipules small and scarious: fl. small, in a 
loose dichotomous cyme; the long pedicels thickened above and articu- 
lated with the flower: corolla white, with a tinge of rose-purple, 3 — 5 
lines long, pubescent on the outside. — Foothills of the Sierra Nevada, 
from Kern Co. northward, in shady woods, and also at higher altitudes. 
A neat but not showy plant, not very different from Galimu except in 
the elongated corolla. 

3. SHERARDIl, Dillenius. Annual, slender, rough, with angular 
stem, and exstipulate leaves in verticels of 6. Flowers umbellate. Calyx- 
limb of 4 —6 accrescent teeth. Corolla salverform, with a slender tube 
and 4-cleft limb. Stamens 4. Fruit didymous, of 2 dry indehiscent 
1-seeded carpels, crowned by the calyx-teeth, and separating from each 
other when ripe. 

1. S. ARVENSis, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 102 (1753). About 3—6 in. high, 
hispidulous-roughened or nearly glabrous: leaves obovate-lanceolate, 
acute: fl. in small subsessile umbellate cymes: corolla bluish. Vicinity 
of Berkeley; first found by Mr. C. T. Blake, in 1889; observed also in 
1891, on the university grounds, by Mr. Bioletti; naturalized from Europe. 

4. GALIUM, Dioscorides (Bedsteaw. Cleavers). Herbaceous (rarely 
suffrutescent), with slender angixlar stems, verticillate leaves without 
stipules (or the smaller leaves of the whorls to be considered as stipular 
organs ? ), and small usually cymose flowers. Calyx-limb obsolete. 
Corolla rotate, 4-parted (sometimes 3- or 5-parted). Stamens as many as 
the corolla-lobes, short. Styles 2, short: stigmas capitate: ovary 2-lobed, 
2-celled, 2-ovuled. Fruit didymous (biglobular), dry or fleshy, separating 
into 2 closed 1-seeded carpels which are indehiscent, and glajarous, hispid, 
echinate or hirsute. 

* Fruit dry ivhen ripe.. — Galium proper. 
H— Annuals. 

1. G. bifolium, Wats. Bot. King Exp. 134. t. 14, f. 8 (1871). Simple, 
or at length with few branches, erect, 3 — 6 in. high, glabrous: leaves in 



350 RUBIACE^. 

pairs, or in larg-er specimens 4 in the whorl, lanceolate, the alternate pair 
(answering to stipules ? ) much smaller : peduncles solitary, lateral and 
terminal, naked, l-flowered, when in fruit about equalling the leaves, 
spreading: corolla minute, white: fr. recurved, minutely uncinate- 
hispid. — In moist shades of the higher Sierra. 

2. G. SPUBIUM, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 106 (1753): G. Vaillantii, DO. (1805); 
G. Aparine, Gray, Bot. Calif, in part, not Linn. Branching chiefly from 
the base, diffuse, 1 — 2 ft. high, glabrous except the retrorsely scabrous 
angles of the stem and veins and margins of the leaves: leaves 6—8 in 
the whorl, linear-oblanceolate, cuspidate: fl. 3 — 9 in axillary umbellate 
cymes; corolla pale green, the segments acuminate: pedicels recurved 
after flowering: fruit large, coarsely tuberculate, more or less uncinate- 
hispid. — Mostly in the mountains back from the seaboard; less common 
than the next. 

3. G. Aparine, Linn. 1. c. 108. Taller and more slender, 3 — 5 ft. high 
(or often only a few inches), climbing by the retrorse prickliness of the 
angles and leaf -margins : corolla minute, white: pedicels straight in 
fruit: surface of carpel smooth but densely uncinate-hispid. — Very com- 
mon in shady or open places in woods and along the salt marshes; 
readily distinguished by the minute white corollas, straight pedicels, and 
smaller and more prickly carpels. Though both these species are as 
much at home in our woods and thickets as any indigenous plants, it is 
probable that they came hither from the Old World within the last two 
centuries. The villous pubescence at the nodes, which is a part of the 
ascribed character of this species, is with us seldom noticeable; and yet, 
in a specimen from the Marysville Buttes, collected by Mr. Jepsou, the 
whole stem is villous at the angles, without a trace of the usual retrorse 
prickles. Mar. — May. 

-1— -1— Perennials. 

■M- Stem ivholly herbaceous; fruit not hirsute. 

4. G. asperrimum, Gray, PI. Fendl. 60 (1859). Diffusely branching, 
1 — 2 ft. high, the numerous slender branches and the leaf-margins more 
or less ciliolate-scabrous, scarcely spinulose: leaves in sixes, lanceolate 
or oblauceolate: fl. many, in naked cymes; corolla white (turning dark 
in drying): fr. granulate and rather densely setulose. — At middle alti- 
tudes in the Sierra, from Mariposa Co. northward, but not very common. 

5. G. triflorum, Michx. Fl. i. 80 (1803). Stem flaccid, 1 ft. long or 
more, reclining or at least decumbent, retrorsely aculeate-scabrous on 
the angles, or smoothish : leaves in sixes, thin, elliptic-lanceolate, acute 
at both ends, or cuspidate-acuminate, the margins and often the midrib 
beneath beset with very short usually retrorse and hooked prickles: 



RUBIACE^. 351 

peduncles few, once or twice 3-forked; pedicels divergent: corolla 
greenish: fr. hirsute with slender hooked bristles, or when ripe merely 
roughened. -In woods of both the Sierra and the Coast Range. 

6. (x. trifiduiii, Linn. Sp. PL i. 105 (1753). Erect or reclining, rather 
slender, 5— 20 in. high, glabrous, except the retrorsely scabrous angles of 
the stem, and the more hispidulous but sparse roughness of the margins 
of the leaves and the midrib beneath: leaves (in our forms) usually in 
fours or fives, linear or oblanceolate, or lanceolate-oblong, obtuse, 4 — 7 
lines long: peduncles slender, scattered, 1 — several-tlowered : fl. minute, 
white, often 3-merous: fr. small, smooth, glabrous. — In wet grounds, 
toward the seaboard in a very large form, and in the Sierra in the 
smallest states. 

-M- -M- Stem stiff rniesce at; fruit very bristly or hirsute. 

7. 0. augustifoliuin, Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. ii. 22 (1841). Rigid, much 
branched, shrubby at base, % — 4 ft. high, smooth and glabrous, or 
minutely pruinose-puberulent: leaves in fours, narrowly linear, % — 1 in. 
long, or on branches shorter: tl. dioecious, in many rather densely 
panicled cymes : corolla small, light-green : f r. with white bristles about 
as long as the body. — In Kern and Santa Barbara counties and southward. 

8. G. Matthewsii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xix. 80 (1883). Shrubby at 
base, smooth and glabrous, paniculately much branched: leaves in fours, 
oblong- to ovate-lanceolate, some of the upper cuspidate-acute, all 2 — 3 
lines long, with stout midrib and no veins: fl. in naked panicles: bristles 
of unripe fruit rigid, not longer than the body. — In Inyo Co. 

9. G. inultiflorum, Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. ii. 97, f. 26 (1863): 

(t. B/aoineri, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 538 (1865). A few in. to 1 ft. high, 
from a suffrutescent base, the erect stems tufted and little branching, 
glabrous, pruinose-puberulent or pubescent: leaves in fours, from 
broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, mucronate-apiculate or abruptly acumi- 
nate, thickish, 4 — 7 lines long, with 2, or sometimes 4, lateral nerves from 
the base; uppermost leaves often in pairs only: fl. thyrsoid-paniculate: 
corolla greenish: fr. densely white-hirsute, the hairs longer than the 
body. — In the higher mountains, chiefly on the eastern slope of the Sierra. 
* * Perennial or shrubljy; leaves in fours, 1-nerred; fruit baccate. — 
Genus Relbunitjm, Endl. 

10. Gr. pnbeiis, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 350 (1868). Herbaceous, 
somewhat cinereous with a fine pubescence partly soft and partly scab- 
rous: stems diffuse, 1 — 2 ft. long: leaves thickish, roundish-oval to 
oblong, mostly pointless, % in. long, the margins often hispidulous- 
scabrous: sterile fl. in small loose cymes, the fertile more scattered: 
young fr. smooth and glabrous, probably fleshy when ripe. — In and near 
the Yosemite Valley. 



352 VALERIANE.1;. 

11. a. Californicum, H. & A. Bot. Beech. 349 (1840). Herbaceous 
from slender creeping rootsfcocks, in low tufts, or diffuse with slender 
stems a foot long, hispid or hirsute, rarely glabrate in age : leaves thinnish, 
ovate or oval, apiculate-acuminate, }i~% in. long, margins and midrib 
hispid-ciliolate: fr. blackish, glabrous, on recurved pedicels. — Common 
in shady places, of the Coast Range chiefly. 

12. G. Nuttallii, Gray, PI. Wright, i. 80 (1852): G. sufmticosum, 
Nutt. in T. & G. Fl. ii. 21 (1841), not H. & A. (1840). Suffrutescent, tall 
and climbing, often 3-4 ft. high, mostly glabrous, except the minutely 
aculeolate-hispidulous angles of stems and margins of leaves, these also 
sometimes naked: leaves small, oval to linear-oblong, mucronate, 
mucronulate, or obtuse: fr. smooth and glabrous, purple. — In thickets of 
the Coast Range. 

13. Gr. Bolaiideri, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 350 (1868): G. marqari- 
coccum, Gray, 1. c. xiii. 371. Less shrubby, 1—2 ft. high, glabrous, some- 
times pubescent; angles of stem hardly scabrous: leaves oblong-linear 
or lanceolate, acutish, i.^' in. long, thickish, with margins and midrib 
naked or sparsely hispidulous: corolla dull purplish: berry large, 
smooth, white.— On the western slope of the Sierra, from the Yosemite 
northward, and in Humboldt Co. 

14. Gr. Aiulrewsii, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vi. 537 (1865). Small and 
densely matted; nearly or quite glabrous, the herbage bright green and 
shining: leaves crowded, acerose-subulate, either naked or sparsely 
spinulose-ciliate, 2—4 lines long: fl. dioecious, the sterile in few-flowered 
terminal cymes; fertile solitary, subtended by a whorl of leaves which 
are longer than the deflexed fruiting pedicel: berry smooth, blackish. — 
Dry summits of the Coast Ranges, from Lake Co. southward. 



Obder lxii. VALERIANE/E. 

Dufresne, Histoire Naturelle et Medicale de la Famille des Valerian6es 
(1811). Valerjanace^, Lindl. Synops. 137 (1829). 

Herbs with opposite leaves, no stipules, and mostly complete flowers, 
in a cymose or thyrsoid inflorescence. Calyx-tube coherent with the 
ovary; limb either obsolete, or composed of teeth which develop as a 
pappus or feathery crown upon the fruit. Corolla more or less irregular; 
the limb bilabiate, the lobes imbricate in bud. Stamens 1—3, epipetalous. 
Filaments and style filiform; stigma undivided and truncate, or minutely 
3-cleft. Fruit an achene; seed pendulous.— A small family, of some 
culinary and medicinal value; early referred to Umbelliferge, to which 
the plants bear some considerable analogy. 



FLORA FRANCISCANA. 



Part IV- 



Issued August 5th, 18©7. 



Price, One Dollar. 



Payot, Upham & Co., San Francisco: William Wesley & Son, London. 



FLORA FRANCISCANA. 



AN ATTEMPT 

TO CLASSIFY AND DESCRIBE THE VASCULAR PLANTS 

OF MIDDLE CALIFORNLN. 



EDWARD L. GREENE, 

Professor of Botany, in the Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D. 0. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

CuBERT &: Co., Printers, 587 Mission Street, below Second. 

1897. 



Copyright, 1891, 
Bt Edward L. Greene. 



VALERIANE^. 353 

1. VALERIANA, T'o»)-/if/oc<(VAiiEKiAN). Perenuials, with roots more 
or less lieshy, aud with a peculiar unpleasant odor. Flowers in terminal 
cymes. Calyx of 5 — 15 setiform lobes, which are inrolled aud scarcely 
seen in the flower, in fruit unrolling and appearing like a plumose 
pappus to the fruit. Corolla salverform, the tube not spurred. Stamens 
3. Ovary ripening into a flattened achene, which is mostly 1-nerved on 
one face, 3-nerved on the other, and with a more or less distinct nerve 
on each margin. 

1. V, sylvatica, Banks ; Richards. App. Frankl. Journ. 2 ed. 2 
(1823). Minutely pubescent, or almost glabrous; stem 8—30 in. high, 
from short ascending rootstocks : radical leaves mostly simple aud ovate 
to oblong, or some 3 — 5-foliolate ; cauline more or less distinctly pet- 
ioled, 3 — 11-foliolate or -parted, the divisions entire or few-toothed: 
fruiting cymes open, thyrsoid-paniculate : corolla 3 lines long, the tube 
short. — In subalpine moist places of the Sierra Nevada. 

2, VALERIANELLA, Tournefort. Low and dichotomous, or taller 
and simpler annuals, with cymose inflorescence. Corolla more or less 
bilabiate, spurred or gibbous at base. Calyx-limb none, therefore no 
pappus to the variously winged often meniscoid glabrous or pubescent 
fruit. 

* Steins dichotomous ; fruit not obviously winged or meniscoid. — 
VaijEbianella proper. 

1. y. OLiTORiA, Poll. Palat. i. 30 (1776). Only 3-6 in. high, slightly 
pubescent: fl. very small, the corolla-limb barely a line wide, pale blue: 
achenes obliquely obovoid, with midnerve more or less distinct on both 
faces. — Waste lands about San Francisco; infrequent. 

* * Not dichotomous ; cymes thyrsoidly congested at summit of the almost 

simple stem ; achenes usually winged laterally, often appearing 

meniscoid. — Genus Pleotritis, DC. 

2. V. iiiacrocera, Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xix. 83 (1883) ; T. & G. Fl. 

ii. 50 (1841 ), under Plectritis. Corolla white, only a line long, with stout- 
ish spur sometimes as long as the body, sometimes shorter ; limb some- 
what equally spreading, hardly bilabiate, or equally 4-lobed and the 
posterior lobe emarginate-bifid: fr. glabrous or puberulent, obtuse or 
lightly lineate-sulcate on the dorsal angle, the broad wing, circumscrib- 
ing the ventral face of the achene, spreading or incurved. — On hillsides. 
April— June. 

3. V. ciliosa, Greene, 1. c. Slender, erect, simple, seldom a foot high : co- 
rolla small, deep pink, very distinctly bilabiate, the slender and tapering 



354 DIPSACE^. 

spur much longer than the body : f r. of rouudish outline but with a stout 
and prominent apiculation, the otherwise glabrous back provided with a 
broad ribbon-like keel, this densely ciliate on both margins, the subros- 
triform apiculation bearing similar hairs, the turgid, abruptly infiexed 
wings leaving on the ventral face an elliptic acute opening. — Plentiful on 
the northward slopes of low hills west of Napa Valley ; growing with 
the preceding, and quite as distinct from it in form and coloring of 
corolla as in the striking characters of the fruit. April. 

4. V. coiigesta, Lmdl. Bot. Reg. t. 1094 (1827). Corolla rose-purple, 
3 — 4 lines long, with obviously bilabiate 5-cleft limb, the lobes oblong, 
obtuse; txibe very gibbous, spurred at base, the spur short, arcuate, 
obtuse: fr. pubescent, the keel prominent, obtuse, the circumscribing 
ventral-face wing broad, involute. — An Oregonian species, attributed 
also to California by some, but not positively known to us as Californian. 

5. V. magna, Greene, Proc. Philad. Acad., 1895, p. 548. Glabrous, 
the stout stems sharply angular, 3 — 5 ft. long, tortuous, half-reclining 
among shrubs, or on fences, and with rather numerous small branches: 
corolla white, bilabiate, with ample fuuuelform tube, and a short thick 
spur produced beyond the base: fr. glabrous externally, triquetrous- 
ovoid, the ventral concavity formed by the quite simple wings almost 
closed below, open above, the wings strongly hispid-ciliate within. — 
Collected only by the author, in Knight's Valley, Sonoma Co., June, 
1894. Species remarkable for its great size, and half-climbing habit ; 
the fruit showing afltinity with T'. aplianoptera. 

6. V. samolifolia, Gray, 1. c; DC. Prodr. iv. 642 (1830), under 
Betckea. Corolla a line long, obscurely bilabiate, with short obconic- 
saccate spur: fr. triquetrous, wholly destitute of wing, glabrous or a 
little pubescent. — Neau the coast, from Sonoma Co. northward. 



Order LXIII. D I P S A C E /€ . 

Coulter, Mem. in Act. Genev. ii. 13 (1823). Juss. Gen. 194 (1789) in 
part. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, and flowers in dense involucrate peduucled 
heads ; each flower in the head enclosed within a tiibuiar involucel and 
subtended by a bract. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary ; limb entire, 
or toothed, or with bristle-like segments that persist upon the fruit. 
Corolla inserted at summit of calyx-tube, 4- or 5-lobed. Stamens 4, 
epipetalous, alternate with the corolla lobes. Style filiform ; stigma 



COMPOSITE. 355 

simple, longitudinal or subcapitate. Fruit acbene-like, crowned with 
the calyx-liiub, 1-seeded. Seed pendulous ; albumen tiesliy. 

1. DIPSACUS, Tournefort (Teasel). Tall coarse biennials with 
muricate or prickly stem and foliage ; the cauline leaves connate. 
Involucre of rigid spreading unequal bracts ; bracts of receptacle rigid* 
acuminate. Involucel sessile, 4-angled, 8-ribbed, terminated by 4 short 
teeth. Calyx-limb cup-shaped, quadrate or 4:-lobed. Corolla lunnelform, 
4-cleft. 

1. D. FUiiiiONUM, Mill. Diet. (1768.) Stout, erect, very rough with short 
prickles, 4 — 6 ft. high ; radical leaves 8 — 12 in. long, elliptic-lanceolate? 
arcuate ; cauline connate-perfoliate: heads large, ovoid or oblong, on 
stout naked peduncles: bracts of receptacle rigid, recurved at the tips, as 
long as the flesh-colored corollas: stamens exserted. — Very common 
coarse weed in low and rich waste lands. 

2, SCABIOSA, Brunfels. Soft unarmed plants, with peduncled 
globose or hemispherical heads, the Howers of the outer circle often 
larger than the others. Receijtacle bearing hairs or soft scales among 
the flowers. Calyx-limb a cup-shaped border with 4 or more teeth or 
bristles. Corolla funnelform or salverform, often slightly irregular. 

1. S atropxjkptjRea, Linn. Sp. PI. 100 (1753). Suffrutescent, freely 
branching, 2 —3 ft. high: radical leaves lyrate ; cauline pinnate, the seg- 
ments oblong, toothed or incised: heads low hemispherical, in fr. ovate: 
corollas dark maroon to rose-purple, flesh-color, and white, the outer 
circle of them larger and exceeding the involucre ; calyx-limb pedicellate, 
in fruit bearing 5 pappus-like bristles. — An escape from the gardens of 
old-fashioned flowers, and become a luxuriant street and wayside weed 
in many places. 



Order LXIV. COMPOSIT/E. 

Vaillant, Act. Acad. Paris, 143 (1718); Adans. Fam. ii. 103 (1763)- 
CoRYMBiFER^ of Jussciu (1789), and of many earlier authors. 

Herbs or shrubs with watery or resinous (never milky) juice, foliage 
various, the individual flowers small, in dense closely involucrate heads, 
the head often resembling a simple flower. Calyx wholly or partially 
adherent to the 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovax-y ; the limb represented, if at all, 
by one or more scales, awns or bristles called the pappus. Corollas 
tubular, palmatifid or ligulate ; the tubular ones 4 — 5-toothed or -cleft, 
often called disk-corollas ; the ligulate commonly toothed at apex, known 
as the ray-corollas. Stamens mostly 5, syngenesious, their anthers thus 



356 COMPOSITE. 

forming a tube around the style. Pollen-grains globose, echinate. 
Style in all fertile flowers 2-cleft at summit (except in one suborder), 
stigmatose on the margin, the upper portion of the forks usually not 
stigmatose, often variously hairy or appendaged. Fruit 1-seeded, inde- 
hiscent, commonly crowned by its pappus of capillary or plumose 
bristles, or of scarious scales ; at the insertion on the common receptacle 
often subtended by a bract ; this commonly called the chaff: the recepta- 
cle described as naked when the chaff is wanting: the surface of the 
receptacle being diagnosed as alveolate, foveolate, or merely areolate, 
according as the insertion of the achenes forms deeper or shallower 
depressions ; or fimbrillate when the receptacle around these scars rises 
in teeth, or awns. —Our largest natural order, so-called, of flowering 
plants ; the genera and species most conveniently considered under 
subordinal, natural, by not easily definable groups. 

Rays none ; style branches elongated, usually clavate-thickened upward and obtuse ; 
stigmatic only below the middle 1. KUPATORIAt'K-K. 

Rays usually present ; anthers not caudate ; style-branches of perfect flowers flattpned, 
and with a distinct terminal appendage 3. ASTERACE^E. 

Rays none; anthers caudate ; style-branches of perfect flowers with no appendage; 
the stigmatic lines reaching almost to the naked truncate or obtuse summit. 

3. CJlVAPHAlilACE.*:. 

Rays none ; fertile fl. apetalous or nearly so ; the staminate involucres forming a 
raceme above the axillary pistillate one ; pappus none -t. AMBROHIACE^K. 

Rays seldom wanting; anthers not caudate ; involucre not scarious; receptacle 
chaffy; pappus never of capillary bristles 5. HELiIAMTHACE.^E. 

Rays present, fertile, the achenes of each more or less enfolded by its involucral 
bract ; receptacle chaffy, style-branches subulate, hispid 6. MADIACE.I5. 

Rays present ; receptacle naked, or merely fimbrillate ; pappus paleaceous or aristi- 
form, or when bristly rigid 7. HEliE]«IOII>E.A:. 

Anthers not caudate ; bracts of involucre more or less scarious ; style-branches 
truncate ; pappus a scarious crown, or a circle of small scales, or wanting. 

8. AXTHEMIDE.E. 

Anthers not caudate ; receptacle naked ; involucres not imbricated, mostly cylin- 
drical, the bracts not scarious ; jjappus of many soft-capillary bristles. 

9. SEXECIOKIBEJE. 

Rays none : anthers caudate ; style-branches united, stigmatic to the obtuse summit, 

smooth and naked, but often with a pubescent node below ; receptacle densely setose. 

^ lO. CY'XAROCEPHAIi.K. 

Flowers bilabiate, the marginal ones with lower lip elongated and ray-like ; styles 
with long truncate branches II. »HJTISIACEA\ 



C M P O S I T JE. 357 

Suborder 1. EuPATORiAOEiE. 

Heads ray less. Corollas all tubular and regular, never yellow, though 
sometimes cream-color. Anthers without tails. Style-branches elon- 
gated, usually clavate, minutely papillose or puberulent, the stigmatic 
lines only near the base. 

Hints of the Genera. 

Achenes l-angled ; pappus partly squamellate, ---____i 

Achenes .5-angled; pappus bristly, ---------- 2 

Achenes 10-striate, ---------____3 

1. TRICHOCORONIS, Gray. Weak and flaccid fibrous-rooted 
perennial of muddy shores. Leaves opposite or attenuate, sessile. 
Heads few, peduncled, terminating somewhat corymbose branches. 
Flowers flesh-color. Style-branches scarcely clavate ; rather linear and 
flattish. Papjnis of small awns and intervening paleae. 

1. T. riparsa, Greene, Eryth. i. 42 (1893); Pitt. i