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THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. XXVIL 



Printed by NicDOLS, Son, and fiENTL&r^ 
Red Lion Pa86age» Fleet Street, London* 



THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



"Ts^^CU 



CONTAINING 
AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ACCOUNT 

. OF TBB 

t 

LIVES AND WRITINGS 

OP TMB 

MOST EMINENT PERSONS 

IN EVERY NATION; 

PARa^ICULARLY THE BRITISH AND IRISH; 
FROM THE EARLIEST ACCqUNTS TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



A NEW EDITION, 

V 

REVISRD AND ENLARGED' BY 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F. S. A 



VOL. XXVIL 



LOIfDONi 

PMINTBO FOR J. NICUOLS AND SON ; F. C. AND J. RIVINOTON ) T. PAYNB ; 
OTKIDGB AND «0N ; O. AND W. NICOL ; G. WILKIE | J. WALKER; W, 
LUWNDB8} T. BQERTON; LACSINGTON, ALLBN, AND CO.; J. CARPENTER; 
LONGMAN, HCR9r, REB8, ORMB, AND DROWN) CADBLL AND DAVJB8 ; LAW 
AND WHIITAXBR ; J. BOOKER ; J. CUTHBLL ; CLABXB AND SONS ; J. AND 
A. ABCH; J. HARRIS; BLACK, PARBURY, AMD AU.BN ; J. BLACK) J. BOOTH; 
J. MAWMANi GALXAND FBNNBB; R. H. ETAN8 | J. HATCHARDi i. MURRAY; 
BALDWIN, CBADOCK, AND JOY ; B. BENTLEY ; OGLE AND CO. ; W. GINGER ; 
BODWSLL AND MAATIN; P. WRIGHT | J. DBIGHTON AND SON, CAMBB1DGB| 
CONSTABLE AND CO. EDINBURGH | AND WILSON AND SON, YORK. 

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A NEW AND GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DtCTIONAET. 



Saa, 



or DE 8A (Em anusi^, a learned PiMtagwfle Jeniitf 
was bum in 1530^ at Cortde, in tbe prorioce of Uouro, and 
•ntered tbe society in 1545. After the usual coarse of 
studies, he taugbt at Coimbra, Rome, and otber places, 
•ttd was considered as an excellent preacher and ioierpre* 
aer of tbe scriptures, on wbicb last account he was om* 
ployed, by pope PiusV. on a new edition. of the Bible. He 
died at Arena, in the Milanese, Dec 30, 1596, in tbe 
eixty^stxtb year of bis age. His chief works are : ^* Scho- 
lia ie quatuor Evangelia,** Antwerp and Cologn, 1 596, 4io; 
•nd ** Notationes in totam s cram Scripturam,*' &c. -Anu 
tverp, 1598, 4to ; reprinted, with other scholia, or notes, 
by Mariana and Tirini. Dupin says, that of all the Coin« 
flseoiaries upon the scriptures there is nothing oior^ coo* 
eise and usefiil than the notes, of our author, whose sole 
object, be adds* is ta give the literal sense in u few words 
suid in an intelligible manner. De 8a was tbe author of 
Miecher work, whkh^ although a very small volume, is 
teid to have employ^ hioi for forty years : it is entitled- 
^ Apbarisoii CoiffessariorufD,*Vprinted first at Venice, 1595, 
IMmOf md afterwards frequently nepriated in various 
pisces Dupin calls it a moral work ( it seems rather a set 
of mies for coofessors in cases of conscience ; and. Lavocat 
aelb OS it contains some dangerous positions respecting 
both aMMnak end the authority of kings. It underwent so 
OMOy comotions and emendations before the pope would 
lieonsoit, thai it <tid not appear until the year before the 
oothor ditsd. The French tran»Utioos of it have maoj 



kio Bibl. 

Vm. xxvu, b 



2 8 A A15 I A S-G A ON; 

SAADI. See SAW- t r 

SAADIAS^GAON, orSaadia* th0^£«ceileB^ vleaxtied 

rabbi, Ae thibi of tlie aeademy of the Jewi^* vms born mf 

Pttbofirin Egypt, about the year 892. In tbe-year 93^^ 

he mis ittiWMl tyDavid Beni-Chair, the prince of <tbe.cq>* 

tivky, to preside ofer tbeacademy «t Sosa^ fiear B^kfyiottj 

wivere one of his first objects wms to^evplode Ae^ doctrtat 

of fbe transmigration of souls, which was very preiralpnt^ 

evM^among the Jews. But- having refusedi to 'snbsefrb« 

to a new regulation, which appeared to him to be repog^ 

nant to the Jewisli laws, a breach mrose between David 

and Saadias, which ^after-<aoaM yeam was oHuie tip, abtl 

Saadias was restored to his professorship, in which beeoni^ 

tinned with great reputation till his death, in the y^ar a48. 

Hm pnncipal wofts are, " fiepber ^Haemtoab,^^ w a' tiaa^ 

tfise.oeocefning tbe Jewish .articles of > lakb; fft't«i4hq»« 

lers ; bat we Imve tmly a Kransiation* wf it Iram «iiie aiiginat 

Atalric into 'Hebrew, whic^b w^'ptinied at GoastaatiDopla 

ki 1647, and often reprinted. ^'^ACdouDaQtafy «» nlm 

Book • Jeetra,*' printed, with otber Cqiaoaeiitaaiet on that 

book^ Wt 'Mantua, in 1699; ^^- An Arabic Xnuasbtidniof 'the 

a4iole. Old Testament,** ofiwirieh the Piantateuch is ioaatied 

in Jay*s and Waltoh*s Polyglottsyacedoipaniad iwiih tba 

Ladn version of Crabriel Sionita ; ' ^ A OoaunenfeaDy onitbw 

6dDg of SdiTgs,'* in Hebrew, printed at* Prague in 1409) 

#to ; ^' A' Oommentaty on Daaie^** Kkewise in > Mabfens 

in'serted tn^the great tabbinkal UUes ofVeeice.eeABe>ilf 

<<: A Oomaietkaiiy :on.Job/* in'iAriJ^ic,* the^S.4)f.«hieh 

JS! in die 'Bodleian iibrary at< Oxford ; ^aad a*coiiiiMiitaty 

eh ilKtit alliances, mentioiied by Abea Efi;ai'* 

SAAVCDRA. See OER¥ANT£& t > . ^ 

SAAVEDRA-FAXARDO (OfBooiBa), a SpMishfipolU 

ileal and moral writer,' was bora* May 6^ l58e^>atiAlgaMMm 

iittbe kiDgddm of 'MiUQia, i^ndslttdiedal^SslanMieoai' lA 

1606, he'went toRome tei^sect^taiy to tiie>icahliAA<tes- 

par de Bdfgia,- who was appointed Spaaisbaaabaaiadoi^i^e 

the pope,-^ and assisted inahe^xionBtav^'of tl6ai.atidi1i6(l8$ 

Held for the eleeHoti of Ae popett Gregovy JiV. awd^Uas 

baaVfn. For these aervices Saaaedra^wtts rewarded wiril 

a^ eanorrry in the* ehifrdi of St:>Jatnes, attbeegb be kmi 

ifever tikei^. prieitVoniera. iBem^time aiier Ae was #pu 

{loiiited agent freer 4be cobrt^of vSpaia^lit^eaiey.aiidt kii 



SAAVEDRA.FAXARDO. S 

conduct io this office acquired bin general etteem. la 
l^Siff he .a««isted at the electoral congceBs* held* there, 
itt wfaieb Fer^ioaod IIL wae cbop»n lung of tUe^JioiBanaL 
He^ftefwards was present at eight diets held in ^hvitief^ 
l«sd; tand JaAily.at the 8i#erai di^t)of the.emij^r^ i^t,IUitia« 
Ifeoonc^ Dviieve km appeaired 10 quality of plenipotentiary of 
tke oimle and of tbe house of Burgundy- .A&^jr Miag 
MapiDyed IB sovie* other diplomaiic affair^ • be, i eturoed 
Ao Madrid in li4^y>an.d iras ^pointed oiasler o£ ooremo* 
Dieaiii the iniroduction of ao^baiisadors; .butheididuotfn^ 
Joy fib is hmHNir long, as he died Aag. 24# 164>S. labia 
piiblic character he mdered tbe stale vei^- iini^taiH ser<r 
Tioea, aod^ as ai v^ritert is ran|Eed ampug tho^e who haar^ 
cmtribiited to polish and enrich tbe 8piH^ish Unguage^ 
Xbc S^nisb criucsi who p)ace him amoog tb^. c^e^sicai 
•9ff be fsrote Spauish as Tacitus wrote La(in. He has loofi 
hn^ fcnuwn,^ eseo is tbis cpiintry, by iiis. ^^ Embieuist*? 
Sibieb were • published in 9 vols 8 vo, in tlie early part of 
Ihe' last ceatiHiy. These poUtioo-nsoral instructiona tor a 
iUtfistiajfr pnnce^ were first printed in 1 640, 4U>^ under Abe 
talie of ^ Ideaj de on Principe Politico Cbristlano repre4 
aeatpda en»cien empnesas/'aiid repriiAedai Milan in 1642.; 
Ibay wave ' afterwarda translated into Latin^ and published 
ladar the- .title, ot ^ Symbola' Cbvistiano^Politifa^'V .aad 
IgQRetofteaJb^en' reprinted in ▼ariou$isises inFraece, Italy^ 
aad liaUand ' J^ wrotp also. *^ Corona Gotica, Gascejlaa^ 
J iAattri^ca fOMrliiicamaiiie . itlutiiiriida/' 1646, 4ito, vsbiob 
waa'^ have ^onaist^dof i,brae pa#ts^ but he lived. to com^ 
pkrte'MMa^Oiily ; the irf^t was' by ^wie^ de Caatro; a;nd 
^ iUspublica Ui^aria,'* publiidtaied in tOTO, Baa.. Of tbia 
work an English traoi^^tiQn.wes pubbsbed by I« E. in 17ii7. 

lti«raifcuid(0f .yi^Mt .giving K e^giric^i accauacof thej«- 
fmklkaiit IflttarS) not wiika iba manner pf Switt,. Taa 
I]teocihibai;^a'fra^ib!»ii^»«f it» ^o.laie.as 1770.* , : . . 

'SABATIER (iPBT£fi)» ^^..4«al^#d HreiKrh B^nedirunef 
Ipabom'M lV>iifiterS(in,.(«S8^ und- Allied m. Rb«^UnH AA^ncb 
jM»i«TAti>i Ha sptet^lwentfy ^ar^: ot jhi^. lite, \o prt^paring Cur 
^et pness a^l^arMa ^edision pf ^l the lir^aiin ft.equ^n^ vf rhaj 
aW(4barM» 7 wiUm^ tog^ber^. a^ iiQiied; i^ i^ne pauit, ofi 
«M*. > Jr iPOiPAMtr of(ttlfee< M^^M^^i^^^i but ha lived 
cwii^la^jipisotcM voljifna«.tbe i^ibera ^e^e .aomfkleted bjr 
Ia .Jb»»««Ja0.^.£oM4ica9e^ of «t.#4ur./ rTiikf <uikk m 



4 iAJb'A>rifiR. 

tus^'hdl^ et b^tera qutecamque in cocKctbfis M9S. et 

SABATIER (lUMtfAitL i-B»fciWE#<j), n^tfiy 'femitfWit 
fVei&^^to^geoiT, w^ %bm dtPiM^iiu 0^t«W I^e, and 
trftte ^Mi^ihg' tb^rb; ac^ired ' th^^ferst Va^k in' Ms' (H^- 

<ftrs«ibti; itna ifi ^vlny liituati<Mr WM fiHedi Btli kn^dlTf 

9d(^i''rinil, tfhdftucces^, W^re equally eimspiciM)!)^. H^ 

' t>«Mme Hceiisof^r6yaI ' of the acadew jr df sdehee*,' ^ prt>frt- 

^fM'Und detridtistratbr of di^ 8urgfcalMfih6ek;'irect^etiAry i>C 
emr^^otfdNioee^ Bnrg^dft-thajot of tM t^pitaA bf invarids^ 
aiidfa metnlyer ^'<be hntitote. His edti^tloM had %feen 

'riio^e Hbi^YlNltofd cdmpi^henslvethaif tistikl.*) Heaot^eoly 
i^nel kA accelH^t Gveek affd Lbfth ithdW, but wa^^ w«tl 
aeq^ktnted with ^ the Eti^iiib, Itaihn; and C^^mM Hn^ 

^mgtBi Besides his ptibRe-eicMeS'cf ^detoresbh ana- 
^Miy^iiitf tfdi^^^,' he Instx^kcted IxUthy j>rivalse^piV f«>t 

'^nlyieM»8 ^n country; bht ffibife oTIbl^h Vtlrtieffto'Whd 
%i^n^ attreictea tifParb tjy-his'lktdiE^ ifo irtMeh^r^ lltid> were 
diiitgli<^^ith'hts tltmA^cted fkffiieneifti' thd^CMittdbdr. la 

-M&'iiitti^f.dltj^'Bonaf&ft^ %p^o(h^' bMd' ^e^^'^Wk eon- 

viyi«Ag'«(n%«on«/ ahd^^^^ kytftf' <^' A^VMlMerti ^beoif be 
bbMo^ed the fttrOss of thib leglt^n kP^SMVi.^ (Mtbkfler dted 

' itPtt'lflfNRiiy'iM^ 18^11;'' l»fr^eiaMM^ifirft(!^tttek''t6'the 
Md^i4>trf4ire kte told IMdmiteii' ^MOkri^d of W^ bdilfly^eit* 
fie^.^"^ ^'^Vid^ tne/* b«%Md>io'A8^^Tfe^«tifa'^Qrft^ "^^i^em 

' ^e^ffM^y Mtyik tba)|(Vel'«to«ny^«RHds4^'drt<<Mir-dk« 

^ ian^td hiir>i6ri;''«<€0ftfiebdMrd^l!Be'Mte'>{iftotMl(^hi«& Film* 



' * 



padeou wu a dutingaisfaed feature in his cb<u4€Mi-.'l>MMg 

•osittua I-rfkdllleto ^ilA^'ifitfiih* ^'" 'iS''"' "ii .^'•'"'-» 
liii iv^rfes ktei t;'«»h<«k« «ttitolnM^Ulil^^cai!n4f 4>B» 

4to. -3. An ^tibh of -VerdW^ *<'>AWi^'d%m«MflM?* 
with additiSBs, itS8^ 2 vtfls; ¥fliit6.i')4';''ffH>Mftio«i<M>^ift 
MofteV "TrtStC compl«l'^'CKhitWijfHi^h^«rtii-iM.' 
lowed Vtttowa, « «•T¥ait»«bll^(R/^a*inMt^ie,■»<P^';^. 
Of Ibis a tlnrd edition, «rlth mtt>y«A^rbv«B&^%i)Jj(«it44 

1 Pier. HOir^id^ttdli Oate*it ihL Virr. 



« A BiA.T.l E JL 



;De# Qp^Mj^Jtioffv de^(;){Ha^jy^ qui ^e*pfatiqw»tX?,>j^ /rf|- 
quemment,*' ITse, 3 yoU. Svo. Besides these be cisipfvi- 
botefi maiij jessavs U> (^e nafldicfl i^iViifU.\; . m.\ i. ^ 

. . SATO AXmea (yaf«qis), »- levn9<J^F(tn<* :wH|#u^fi|» 
homjki CppUowi,. Qct, 3l| 17^5, and, af^ei^ nia^;,^^ -gg^ 
proficieacy, ip bis ftudifRi.a9UH)g,ibe ij^tbf rf. of ^e oi^atQljr 

Jp that 4;ity» went, tg Orleffis, W^^i^ be i^as «gm>loyed a^ 

^a.priyate ^utor. In H^ be was ipyited to tb^.cgtlegA^ 
CbaloQ8r«Vr-JM«M^D^ jivbere he Uiiybt tbe . t))if d.<|p4. loiixth 
^clas^a fpr fiixteer>:year«f. wbi<?b gfkv/e him a ^fl^lQ;|bq|^ii^ 
aioe pf w ftncritus. ^ His literary reputation tpc^ ll^jriie 

J>mpipally fr(^ bis^fSttiay ou tbe teoiperfl ffPf^ ^C.tbe 

'*pQ(pcis».. wbi(?b,l^ned tbe pfise of the academy of Pjrmiia* 
lie wa^t^a ajbout tw^ty-eigbt yf arg old $. buf ^Jl^^ie 
jthis %ddfef0e4,pti<;ouof4f .paper on the liiai^ o^tbeB^iDiiire 

rof CWAemagqa^.tbe acadexi^y of JBell^ l^etArijfi^ nt P4i:is. 
H? ivas (tift^pr^Dipip^ J^ne^ivs of founding th^ 9wAfsa^y ^f 
Cbak)«ft,procpr^4 ,i^ q^qr ,fqr it, ap4;»9t^.§f., s^cw^; 

,tary for tbirqr j^paj^., $ia?l^ was l;^is rqp^Utipp t^ij^jl^ 
Ihe bpnour.jto. qfffnBsgood with some of tb^. noyi^l pefi#» 
nagea fki Miarfvftt^ ^\l^^ waa ia j^^ipalar tqwb e^eeoqflAl^y 
tbefcing^pf Prpgiii^.fn|d ;5w<?de»j} nor was,Jw| je^m^- 
vour wit^ gi^pjsf iri, Ji^ Fr^oq* minister, .wbp^9Pftrjgf|d 
Jwa WW^fl if^i? »Ji«ilt :.M :ds» W* ^Bear> . Mwei?^%, |bafr Jpis 
m^^^ipfiffiW^iy^\)»^ f^V^^ ibin .oocaswqtd 

*i5#49j#fjt\MAB«^r-lW»Wfil»q^«y.j^ Ho)lap,4,wbH*;|5iiaed 
4itefi9»iifti«i^.#ifti w??P«» of ,i^esiqu8.|pfiVi}..^ja*a«l^ 

3jB«ft4» \*^»HW»^ ?«»l»;'iPhal«»iil7W, 

12mo, reprinted tbe A4J9W«fiW-'.=^2;:^1li#"¥»BBrt.4iM 

.*ffrnf«'',jih^,^J^,4^fl^ ftA9^|eotifn,,frf.wBWi|^/roiii 

. *¥farcb%TfH^fi,,at /VE^Bpii jJfi ftflf««Fm!P»a i|ir %ers 

^IWrw^a,iJJjrtlucatflop;,jl§ Ja,^ ^. I17^9fe».T9li. 

^^*P•^^Jl^Sh^^•en/tfi^ ^ tnwj4i^i> wMpiib. 



StockSate. $;^Kp)ictionnaire pour rinteili^eneedet aa« 
tears ciahsiqir^i^recs et Latins, tant sacr^ q^e profane^, 
conteiiant la .j^l^ographie^ Phisteire, fa fable, et leS anti- 
quiifo/' ibi4/l766— 1790, 36 vqIs. 8vo, arid 2 vbluires 6f 
platc*s. Voliiiiiiinous as this work is, the troubii^s which 
followed the revolution obliged the author to leave it in^ 
complete; but the manuscript of the concluding volumes 
is said to^be in a state Ifor publication. It is an elaborate 
^Uection, very useful for consultation, but not always 
correct, and contains many articles which increase the 
bulk rather than the value. A judicious selection^ it is 
thought, would supersede any publication of the kind in 
prance,* ^ ' 

SABBATINI (ANDkfiA), known likewise by the'iiaime 
ef Andrea da Salerno, is the first artist that deserves no- 
ttoe, of the Neapolitan schooK He is supposed to hi&ve 
lieen boni aboiit I48D. Enamoured of the style of l^ietro 
•Peri^ioo, who had painted an Assumption of the Vlifgj^n 
tn the dome ol^ Naples, he set but for Perugia to becocbe 
ibis pupil ; but bearing at an Inn on the roau some j^ainters 
extol the works of Raphael in the Vatican, he altered bis 
mindy went to Rome, and entered that«master*8 school. 
His stay there was short, for the death of his father obligi^d 
him to returh home against bis will in 1513 ; b^ returned, 
jiowever, a new man. ' It is said that he painted witbjfla* 
pbael at -the Pace, and in the Vaiicah^' and that he bbpitd 

with 
falls 
ipbael der CoH'e' iiic 
^est of that sphere. He had borrecthbis iirid.seleciliOA of 
attitude and features, ci'ep^Ti' of shadie^ peffifdps too mui^h 
sharpness in the marking of the muscle4>],k bfbkd'sfyYi^ of 
folding in Bis , draperies,* and a* cblouV^^hrch evi^h'^^Ow 
ihaintains its JPreshnessl ' t>t bis hume fdu^^ Wo]rt& 'at |7h|!A^t 
mentiohed* in tlieV catalogue bf hisi ^ftfttaye>i;''the iiltir- 
^eces a t K; ijlarfa delib^tJl-azte **dek*rf ^'y^mipfe 'Jir^fc- 
^ence ; for his iFf /scoes, ttie/e 1ind ei8eWhfei^,'^i4irtrdlW<f t>y 
the wri'teni ^ miragle^i'of'art; "ift^o^, \li^''^^iltfer baft, 
destroyed, fl'e'painted'meVvfs^ af fe^terfib; Gk^a^^'ind 
^iher placeis'ohhe liingcToni, 'foV bhur^ibfes aiid*i)riVate i'61- 
lections, wberie'his Madonnas ofi'en HV&t ttiblTe' of ^ftaphd^L 
This aistihguished artist diedli'tS^i.* ' '' ''' ^ ' 

* Diet &lit. Supplement' ^ ' " ^ POluDgtOB by^QselL 




. :- S 4« ^'A^TIN I. 7 

• ^S^B^ATJNF (IfORENZO), <Jalled Ldren^lif di Bologna, 

was^one of the most genteel aod most' deliiKate painters of 

'bisag^ . He bas been' often iffistaken for a sctioTar 6f 'fta- 

, phaefl froai the resertibtance of b'^' Hofy Famiit^s in ^t^fe 

of design and cblour lo thos^ of that ma^stei*, jthdAgh^tHe 

colour be always weaker. Helik^wUe painted MiidODiUiLs 

angels in Cabinet- pictorfesi whicn seem of PkrAiiH- 

and; n6r are bis altar-pieces diflfbrent: the tikHi bew- 

brated i$ that of 8. Michete at S. Giac'omo, ^nerav^d ]^ 

/Agostiim Caracci, and i^ecdmmended t<(> hib school sti'aoiV 

del of gracefbl elegance. Be excetted in iredco j "cohr^t 

in ddsign^ <:opiou8 in inventioh, equal to ev^y subj^^t, 

iand yet, what su'r prised, rapid. SUch '^et^ the talent's tl^t 

,pro^cuje^ him employ, net onlv in many patrician fattMtjes 

^ oTh|s own province, but a call to Koflne under' the pontifir 

<?ate of Gregdrio Xlil: wheVe/ stecprding to frfigliohi/Ue 

, pletped thuchy espeoialiy in his ndked figures, a braitch ffe 

f)ad not mtrch cultivated at BologAa% The Stories 6f St. 

^ Paul in the Capella Paolina, l^aith triumphant over Infidle* 

ilty in the Skla iregia, and vftrious other subjects in the 

•^IlerieA and loggie of tbe Vatican, are-tti^'wdrlcs'of BdV- 

Hbatiniy always done in competition with the best oiasteri^ 

• 'and always with applause: hence amoiig the gre^t c^- 

'^ours^ of masters who at that time thronged for prede- 

dence fn |lom^, he was selected to stiperinitend the 4^-' 

Ifei^ent departments of the V^atican ; iil which office be died 

/jm^ilje vigour of life, I W7.* ' 

SAB^LLICUSi whose proper liame ^as MAhcu^ ANTof* 
^ wy^CocpiysV or vernacularly 'MxlicAN'ro'Nio'Gdccio,; kh 
^^^Siji^n bistoriab and critic, ,was bqrn in 1436, iti the cam- 
.liNtgi^ 9f ^ome^ on the conBnes of the ancient country, of 
< Jtae^Sabin^s, frdm which cirdumsta);ice he took the name of 
^^^^eEixicfjs. .. He- was a scholar of romponius Lietus'a, an4 
^1^7^, Vlfi^^^j^pointed prbfes^r of eloquence at UdiiSio, t6 
^ Vij^*^,^^^?'.^? V^ likewise appmnted at' Venice, in 1484. 
^ J&QiQe tim^, ^.fter,^ .^h^n the plague obliged him to retire to 




r^i^bV qf^djit^'^^'f^^ a most beautiful specimen of eafly 
l^'^liOSfr^ P^^^^^^ theiie was a co|>y on vellom, in the Pi- 
)i<W4mniry. The republic of Venice was so pleased with 

1 Pilkiogton by Fai«ll; 



SAf f:^V?(PJtJ* 



.h8he;i,a|Bo ',<^ P,«^cT4p5iop,of Veflicek in, Uir*)*; hop^s j « 
" Dreloiruie on, tq^ Vtjne.tiif d &l>gistratj9i| }" lui^ two poeoip 
|ii*&'oti'ot)r W,t.nip>efiLuhli9. . Tt)e mMt cqwid«rabJf,9f. inf 
. oth'^V'Horlii isiis rhapsody of oistoriei : " Bhiypvodiff Hi^ 
. tori»ri)pD, Et>n^;k«." in t^i^ Si)])e&dv «Aci> coptiijif^iune 
bU>kW and' cpip'pciziDg a gje;iejqil tujlgry fnyn t^fl;,icrefr. 
tib^ lO| iU'^ear ) 5,03. Ttje firjt «diti9iyj)f)blfji(facd *t V«:( 
Aii^e in' r4it8, folit/, contained ,»nlj seren^Entw*^^ b^^ tlttP 
•ecc^d. 'in |iO|^- had the adclitiya of tiur<;e.|nort^ |orJHigJn| 

,)ittte^'eitiifr in,matter or luaatuerj to.rccoiaa|f;o^ tl^tiK>r)4 
.<fr;pianyoih*ir:f^qf it* kiiid, tQAffodern re^er, it W/Cw,^ ' 
^^^autnor butb reward and jcsput^tign, Ha ptiter nt^kf, 
arfe" '^iMOiurs^s, ' (1)0^1,. p|)iloso(fhipaJ, ai>d tJ[^r^»),,witU 
riiany .t.(^'T| [^(((ftn^i ^« whole printed jp tu^r y^lDipeit^ 
fciiio, &ii^}i jn 1^0,^ 't'tjere is b scarce, editiqi). of ^ta, 
'■■tpisiolEc /amili^ir§a, .nponoD Oration^ et PoQp^ata," V«rr 
jdice^ ^ f ..So,2^ fojio. .St(t>ellipiu lilfi^wiK wrofq, fiO[qn)en»r 
iTeVp'n 7t't^y'^tli«.iiittu|Ali$t»,Vf'«,i'>U9 Mai^iiou^r htv^lt ti^^ 
[i^e,.,)uMim ^lttrps,,,M4, s.0!n'e,bt^er;cliUsi9», vl»t^,^r9 
.to beTounqi^ <^riiter's ** Theaauruf ." Jle,di4d atVttnic^; 
il'iwe; U ha(«p« reputBtibg.be (Q^g^J gai{^,hyl4«>i»^^ 
«T yetiictjj^he fallow? V*W^ t^fW-''e-.tOP9ftfO w^dd Hk' of. 
«uJli(S«.^ot| whom not mu«p xeljiap^e .waji to b«^t»p«(4^ 9^ 
it-Is lerta^ii tUff W ^li4inpt,»t W PP1»^^i.,^S^>te^f^.lpJkaoWi 
" " ' ^^9ilftbe;d(/iip.^ii^r*H'PW>4(tl«^! 

l^iqnwHin i^(tl«fW^if;^]ii(iMiQ). 
Pw^eoaftij), i^w},>W i^i4ii^i»lr«>fi 

ft Wi.V'*'*^! pPHBWWft i»r 




^^MtniiTg^tf^.'^ ThSf^^t hA6 many foAoier«'(h>l6ibp4r 
fdnhi ftrtd"^ Acme ; bat their doctribtfii aretb 6bscurely ex^ 
prei^ed,' ns-'ih, Create d6u1>t9 M to what |b^ really wer^« 
ft u teifiOLrtil li/owevef/ that ^ey w^re couaemoed byi tha 
Ttitiitlitilih^y i^hd therefore L^rdner, and bi^folWen^ seem 
fffeased^ ta'^kdd S&belHus to the scanty l^st of UnltariaBi .91 
tfitfisariyttges.* " , - '; 

^ erASINUS'fGEbaciit), whose family name wis Soha^te^^, 
ofie' "^f^ the b^t Latin poets of bis* time, was born fn thc^ 
.ele^torat<^ 6( Brandenburg in 1508;'and9. at fift^n^ sen^ 
tt>- ^ Witt^mberg, where he was privately instructed bj^ 
HeMfcthqtr, in wboae hpuse be lived. He ,had a fpreai^ 
atpbHibn to- excel ; and an rritbusiastic regard for what waft 
eicfetient,' especially in Latin poetry ; and althoogh tb^ 
apeefmens be studied made him somewhat difBdent of faia 
Jlo#cf)rs^ he Ventured' to submit to the publifc, in bis ^siwn«- 
ty-i^ccnd yeaf, a poeo1» entitled ** Res Qestse C^saruai 
G^lmanorum,^' which spread faia repntation^all oiver &er«^ 
aiany^ and'tniide hH tbe princes, who had any regard t'oir^ 
p^lrte 4ltet^tfor^, hts friet^ds and pati^cnis. Afterwards he 
tmvelled' into' Italy, where he contracted an actauaintance 
fAfltk BKetiahu^ and other learned men; and, .on bis return 
^iked Erasmus ax F^ibtiy'^, whi^ that great man liraa m 
Che l^t ifoge' of {}fe. fn t5W, be married Melancthon^s 
^d^MdaogHieri at Wltibmberg, to ifrhom be was engamel^ 
B^fdfe bis jjbtittie^ Mo Itaily^ She ^id only fourteen, bul^ 
ilevy bandaome^/ ihd «nd^ir$]:ood Latin well ; and SaWus' 
a1«i^^'liv«^11^(>^ily^h1^er: 1)nt be had.s^eral aiterca^ 
tidhtf WHt( ATela^^thon, ' becanse he wanted to raise himself 
toPeivdliebiptoy^cfpts';^ ^iVid di^ im reliib the humility o^ 
MelanctboOj who conRtleif bttdicftf tt^ Uteriii^piir^ii^ Ai^d^ 
i«WM' i^ at iih tfobbld^o id^aiiegliis ebfldr^qV . this ihia- 



i«nctit|>l l'nill.>iMtl*Lr'IM -Mm^ 4}r>lb finwk'' >%' R'nnt.rniT'' 




M(f Vinintiae't^rdfesaof df tUe bellies learet^ 
h«'itflt>«iitiA^t U ^b '^eetiii'bl l^ricqdedbii^gf and, 
ifl«M»iM»'))rdtfMe4'to %i recmt pt t£(e h«w unlver-l 

'qb«ac« "and «1«<i(rnRig brtnigbt l^im td the l^noWledge, of. 
ONttletf^.'^ilfa/blnftidbM'bidt, and hd «H^ atao eo^oyed 
ott*^iotae' febtitti^^^/ pAVtiodtmytby die' dileetor ot Bran- 






00 &1M B IK V S. 

4«tb«i^ iatert iia%v wbope^ iw seem$ to bare •cMtraeMl 
-fax iUnov^ of mbmb • J»e 'died in 1660, .die 9aine year ih 
^«hich.Afekaetfaon<di^. M His Latis p9em» wi^epablisbail 
t9trX«if»iom li5M aiidri5^7^tbe tatter mtik additiooa, and 
il^Heoa f lie pdUisbed some oAet worlu^ less kp&Wa, 
^Inckem'enQmeratetd by'Nieeroo.^ /' 

mSAOCHETTI (Francis), an Italian poet^ but belter 

Mnowtkt9s»mtkev of novels; waabei'f) at Flotence about 

liBSA^ of 4m 'dQcieBt family, some branchen of vi^bfteh'bad 

j»q^ employaii^Dts) of great tnis^ and digMiy in the repub- 

}mh ^iMliilejoinig^ fae coooiposed soaie amatory verses, in 

.«lnitatwn;<af*niitf arch, but with a turn of tbougbt ^md 

*iiQrIe^|)eci^ari|o.^lm8eUv and he was frequently employed 

4n<di1^Mng up peelioal inscriptions for public monuments, 

^0. aa<wbieli sentiments of morality and a love of ^b^ny 

wensieKpeiited to be introduced. Some of thdte *are stHl 

^Btant^ jbuitaie pisrhaps more to-be peakedlor thestibJMt 

•diaift tbe siyto; Ssicobetti^ when, more advanced • in Ufe, 

fitted Mmta^o£Boer of tbe^magittraey both^at Flosence aod 

diSmtetd pdtts of Tuscany, and formed $in acquaiotanee 

5^jthith6!«qitifeariDeRt men of lus time^r- by whom, he WM 

itif^y ; respected. ^He anttred muofa!,' hofwever, during 

> Abel <»inlt oQttleata of. his country* ' He is supposed to ba^ 

i4Eiied>AbQui»ilieibeginning of the fifteenth betitiiry. Vet^ 

yj^ttie. of iiifr poetry lias been pnbltdaed* He is prinfipall^ 

.kimmn:kf )us<^>Nbveiis,'V an e«ellenft editioR of which 

was published at Florence in 1724, 2 vols. 8vo, byBoUeri, 

eihoifaamfrofiiiedA ear ifcoome/of hn • life. ffhHe u)e9 ere 

ikitli^ mannetf of 'Boceaeeio^ but shorter, jnore liyiAy^ and 

•io 94^il n»#e decent. * • ••'-.. r : : • :  ''. 

i^ SACeHI:(A(iamBi), en iUnsSrious IftaliHi painter, the 

•eon- of; a: patnthrvwarlsefnat RoaBeftniIl«^i,.!or 4^^ aetfee 

jwriten siiy^in 1:IF94.< Helearned^fae pflrtncipjes 9(>hkfjirt 

iltider » hie /fttiper^ « but ; became - eftcrwaftdsr the disciple; jof 

JSsand^iOD tAilhano^ emd ipade- >s«ah.^edhreneesi tibeVwMl^ 

iftrine ()mm>pf ftge,^4ie.taMed/the prisfi^ vitt; tbe>rltQe4etoy 

eiffi8tol:irfcs9$#/felm ell:^hiBj|iuebiOlden^€ompQlatonr# '^IMiih 

vlhisfbadgeJof Jbeneer^ ftb^y gave fahn ri}ie«ei|nftme of AA- 

.jdmiMbi^i .te.dmiete ilie' ditmmitilte Agnro -be ^tb^ 

,hmigr9tk(9fff; Bed whiofehe'ImgteteiMdL ifiUsappltisetltn 

sotthe tftpriisiief iPoHdo^o da Caraye^^ an^'Rephed, s4|d 

the antique marbles, together with biaatttdijeaim^aldttNDiPy 

1 Niceron, vol. XXyiy^WtftBhUir AiWi|M fteaCaomMt. 
* Ghigiieiii Hilt. Lit daulie.— Mte«n. 



' :« AC C B L^ II 

il.oilA«rd • #»adter», ' <#ite fife tew^ni iuspi I17 irbMl Ihi 
^Mhc^tiikm#tr ttOtfictrtocNsdit^i^.perfMiloivlnl^ 
i)ftisirffrt« 'Tb0 'IhrM Am ga»% llinr Mt teomMams^atid 
«ll^sificc^ ttf 4^^^; Md tte tint iMtte^ faiU tbe^berit 
colourist of all the Roman scbdbi. Ho. woril9»i^ttot'f*ry 
itk\kher<Mi9j oMrihg to tlu? infirmities wWeh attMded tti^kuer 
lyeirs; and «^)^ciaHf the gouty whtdi oceaftiMiedr freqtmlk 
Md ionfg int6ryb|fiiolis to hi» loboiira.* 'He ilM ^rkf^Wite 
ctoqr and fadf idf^m, ahd v^Mied io reft his, fune iMr« m^pPdh 
fbe iftiaHty ttton qiiafMity of bia perforflMiieesi" Mi» Mt 
IplftfAns 'iM^re' the carditiah Antonior Bs^belrmi (atid'#al 
Mort^ th^ protect<ir of the' academy ofpmrtirtg. • IMto*. 
eame afVerwards a great favourite of Urbian ¥Ili. tad* drear 
mk admirabte portrait b( hiin. 8e«wal of cbe flvMie edi- 
titek at >Rod)e ate* <eA)b6l)«$hed witb fab #orfav')aMte ef 
#faioh bave bec^rt t(anlted*aiAong'the mo^ admired iirodne* 
tions of krt in (hatr^eafntal; -iSuefa are bh^ ceicftyrated pietu^e 
If^tb^ ^Aeath of St. Atme, in the ebnrefa of ^v CMoft Ca- 
iiHart ; tti^ Angel appearing to 8t. Jo^pb^ ttb^ |irhfdipal 
Itltar-p^ece in S. Oidsefsi^e H Capo-leCbHie^ mdifaU jM. 
Avirtrea, Va cbe' Q<iiti<naK Butriiia tnost diitiaigifhheAipei'- 
ll^nnaneefl his famous phetore of SufRomnaldo^ fi)#tt«i>ly itk 
llb^'cbureh dedicated «td that saint, noir itiibe gaHeryof 
tlN$* Lmvre. Thitf ibdtbinrtiie'^prodiicttOD was ddnsiikfiMl 
iHih of the fbirr finest ptoeorerai Rome^ where Sibobl died 
ttf<f6^8.^^ •■ "•  ' ^' "• * • •• •' *' ^- 

-^ SACOfHTIT (A#ttKmYtMAmiir-OAS»Ak)/*a very dmliii* 

f^aithe^ hitMieiau iH 'f he lasl eentnry^ was borrt^an Miples 

May 11, 1735, according to one atito«m, kmt Dr.^toney 

- a^ys mv; >Hie was. edocated' m the e^>f^iertatori6 of St 

^0Mbftio;<i]ad^^ Dtinrntia, ^and imUie mpid fmigress iii<Dhe 

^Vbfericti^' aeteobirtg bifnself 'princtt>ally to the "rioKa/'im 

^wWbh H^ beeafille^tf «i(M aocdmpiisbed tterfonaet.' He 

ifiJKierwANii ytesided at^totote vight'yeaTa; 'Md alt'Veilk^^ 

^r^Hsn/i^'he' ieniai ntid #601! y^am, - be ^^was afipoiiived ^otosier 

ii^ifAh^ eofiiv^atorkr'of 'dieOypidaietto. > It Vitt %ere ^bre 

-M llf8i?cimi(ibaed:foFTtfab' etoiif^v but aiwa^idtept'-Uii' ai« 

stfradaiifl^seecaars^jrie ef eompolitkKi aepatatotod distihbt 

i Hli^eetMialiicale(MapostlTadsdhetioir«nly4eavi^ 

^iMd iilKniifdiiijg*with fiii^ ttfevMn^t 



12 B A C«C Hl^f-I. 



'iaf9rtM'*teur& of Gdrouiny, atid' among" olbefs Uheke df 
OMun»#i^ anft-Wttteitiberg^ whdre he^^ctl^eected the d«i^ 
-M»d«^^<^^i; ami after bavitig cotiypeMfATok" all ttve 
^i^i^v^HfiMtH in Italy af^ Oermi^ wfth ttKMtttriDg aii<s- 
iOMi^ k^ Mkn« lo Ertgfand in iV!^, and brt^ supi^nied the 
liMh^rdimt^tim'h^ had acqafred on the '^^trnttMht- Hh 
'6fU^^$r^ihe ^€id^^ and '^ Tamerlkno" werd eqital, says 
:i)p^.-Bumey, if not atip^rtor, to - any musical 4T^tat»' wt 
have heard in any part of Europe. ' H^ remaitudd^ heMF6iW» 
400 tMii^lh Eitghttid^ for his faoie and fcrtune. The first 
iMi<H)jiiy^d by'cabak, and by vrhat otigfatttohliFOinerdaied 
i^ ibe tkiinberi>f his woAa ; and cbe second- by %nae«tvt^ 
and.want of^ponoihy: ' . .v 

. tH^^tofiisedte^brAt^Mgagements which' were cSensA him 
tfirolB RdssiA, Pbrfngaly and even FraocO) but this' last \ie 
nt iMigtb acceded, in hope« of ^n ^stabti<shn)Mt A>r life. 
iAocoirdii»giy be went ibiliier in X7B\j bnViti^MaiMii^vik 
<k»uopAas t\m b6 eOkiiposed for ^aris,. ihhl^bt v^O^b^iM^ 
^initiim of AHn abitieies^ which, besides tbitf idi« vbelo|; 
in tO'^etich word»y prevetit^d tbi^ cik!>euHt&on^4n'ihi>M^ 
Miffio^opO) which his'otlier tocal pi^oduetit^S' in't^ 
^Imsgotkge bad^^nsfcanciy* doni6; iAt f^ari«^'4Ki#e«iei9 ^ ^>^ 
ijftMitCftdoisftd^ bet t«tuii»ed' Ibe fbUMf4ng-yM^^ 
^Wsere^i^oiiiy aagiMrftai hte' df^bta and eitibaitteiiiMits^; 
^ thi% 4«^V7S4| he took a 4iMl4oi(v<d Of €bii'OOtitttiQiil«lii 

Isettltd' a« Riyis^ wbem.be not^dtfly obcaiawd^a poasioii 
Jvdiactbe «)tt«M of VrsbeOi 4>«r tb^nbOiWieil ^feim^ lei 
i0oiis»}MMe of three .MKeosarliiltpic€Oict^>TbU(f9itt^^ 
elegant, and judicibu^etxilp<Mliidie^lw>lMs$iOokAi)Qri^ 

V^l 8aaiib{Ai'o«pbraal4i^Mplfti^«^ttb iQlogafa 
|il^ gimopipanledfreoiiatfl^ j^«f|df^ordbeiQnLb4ffecis, t^«ii4»r 
4nibtbo^leMi^44i^|)ikrah<^ hbdinr tDre^d^iiia>#aii ^ten^ 
iogijixi ^ i-^ou^ tflMMtihii ^btti^ / bw ' ffoim:mi'A nthmlfft^/mt 
o^t*s,l iB^iJbiofefiMd;«hoi«iik]iofieo^tim^ ^^PRF^ 
9MefbV'MMiJW»<^'njef>tt^ b^A ittbiHtediw^ 

»|^dapMaaJia^iMi«^ aWajriiaEife. 

jnfaa iPink^^bi^ioiis^ «»isboAl bate^SoadiU'iMdijoodfciflsii^ 
•sntdOe oapfe^ion^^fiitbb Voe^l -paiA^todbtijp ofteftpkt 
flawb^v. ^ jiub a^tti^fttfoipa beteoapaaedriii tfai^iewAasf 
was so entire^so piasterly» yet so new and nataral, that, 
there wks Viotmn| teflf fot ^riticllin^to ci^n^uV^ .[ibotkgb in- 
ii;iaierable beattMs to point out and aomirer Heoad a 



B AC CHI ^,f. IS 

awte sc^c^VlMtf^ aM 40 totally fre^ .ftx^ p^yd^iHry, that 
>lie «ri^0'fraqN€^tlytii0w wUbout eS/ort} i^v^, cbinkil^ of 
liiaii^f Qr.^.&aA0| l^r a^y part^uUi^/excflli^MjM.bUt 
.'i(Oi:ally occupied yfixb the idfsa* of tbe poet, and,^|M* 
pri^tyi cfwwteiHvyy a|i4 ^ffecf ;of tbe wMe 4f^a. ^ 
raocompatfUjneAta^t^O^gb^vq^ rich; md i'ngeniou^^ pMor 
^^1 off.At(eoti^n4voa^tfa^ voi^ l^ut byra coi^M^-i^a^ 
f»ivm3(|^,tbt)f cinoipal «el9<iy 'ift r^nider^' dUlinigiuiib^te 
ll^iro^gl^'all Mi^'fC^tcivaQi^e of ij^iuUvo apd pji^m?sqUe 
4e^ign.in <tbe N^trMmfnu^ 

, :^apcliiDi'« pHi^ef ^aracter was tkttk'oTa f eneroiAl and 
4hmo7^b&' m^9 /lo^iewbat too iinprud^nt ki' t,)^^ i^i4»^ 
^eQee;W>piiaeilablo jfetUngs, but a st#a4y fiiwd> jiii afi- 
%ctionate relation, and a kind master.' . • . - «-/!.<. 
^e&Hiet^i ^Er^)WI9)» a<^eiebKatedJefii«t,wAai>oniiii 
-il.^'W^' i«i::thfi dipp^^ pf Pemftia. He w^s ptpofeis^ df 

hi^ifiiiMmir^ YitrilescWjT aereo years.* Iieilie4 D^ceethar 
i^^>^ IjRM* #<Oflf^*V i*»<JJripwpal wor^sf a^e/* 'V4 (Sooli- 
iHiaik>ii;<>f tta9 HiHorjf of -tivof Jesuits? So^ii^yi*^ bef e^ ^^ 
OalaiidiM^ Ol t^jhS^^tloi VTf]^ «d# M 4h; and 
tfab piiMcoih ^v^irtesf,'ftrf» W}8ph-ri^6i. , 4^ ^n0i Ho 
^ fiftb' fn^ «pM ^i^^er^y J<Nii?#iioy> aod tbe whole : leoai^ 
plet»dlbjri^os-C^uc4«t'i^ o. Per^t, tooiHeif ^re ^yxinOf 

Jhocdk^.jiidioioMal^ t)^itM^M^ftlttcj||^esteemediy1en^lf3i.1^ Be 
mtioeq JiiItf!9tr^M9 fhofeot^ i^gt^db'! UQ«e»( ai tboi^ad 
lil ^iebdjp laotUflm(raMi'^C>l^ ,^»l#9f^ Ub«>ria^)«boRibia 
jlMM«M;%|iN[lioQ^^Vi^hlo|kr^fis^ Saq^htui ^Mirm^^U 

SACHEVERELL (Henry), D. D. a man whose W 

^dsH 8»lNiiidie4^n9et«r tofrfiM: 1Keierf»t9^M|el^2jbi) Milrlfao*- 
jHMgl^gleMftngbaiiifiD«u[oiii'faaitf^ im-fWff WftWr^if^mstio* 
^^tpffidBjr i(4letnmrao3teoif>fr#n»r^i^ iie4]«#riki<4ni 1,^^^ 

4faaABfaki£ OkBifrnfafeifAifetiillicbaelra^f'SM 

-Mpgdfia ^9»dbtJieAii^fl4|Hed Mint<asr*ttiia^foa)d oBewH^i 
FDpiib kiriidafcpnNiiyU MdUUkgMO^Hfottige, <43(sfec4 



^ b«deit .dii.Ti 




tS^J* ?tO J(l?0<? '5. •• ••«';»H 3 



^*f«"» »'^' < 



1« SAC H.^ V E R ELL. 

hes^qsi diumguiA^ tims^ \3^ a. regiilii^ 4^i^»imatiQA cf 
tke^diities of tbe boope, by his «oiii{uisiiioiHi, gpo4',0ftMi^ 
iier8> and genteel bebavioiur; qualiii€Btioii» M^eb recoM^ 
liMHKled ihioi tm t\mt society^ 4tf .wiueh be btoaiiif jf«lb>iiis 
^d^ Bs public tutor^ badthe ci^ ijd tbe educiitioo^df qk^^ 
cf-tbe young geotlmien of qnaiily.apd £»rttiQe itben-^QPei 
adoritted of tbe coUege. In 4bi8 atatita kt^ baA>th^ oare.of 
(be education gf a. great many perjeoa ^emii^e^t for i^v 
learning and abiliciea; and was cpateBi|MKary and Qhaaabe^ 
fblbxir wiib Addison^ and onecef bis cbief^iDlimates tMl tbe 
tine of Jus famous tciiil. . Mr^ Addison's <^ Aooeiiot of tbe 
gredibest English Poets/' dated April 4^ i694> iv alM««* 
widUpoem to tbe Muses on his intending to enter into 
bolj orders, wdk inscribed *f to if\t. Ueinry Sadiev^eU/' 
bis then dearest. friend and ooUeague. Iducfa bas b^n said 
by Sacbevereirs enemies of bis ingratMiude Ixi bia re^acions^ 
and of bis turbulent b«ba?ioar at Oxfe^l ; but t|iese appear 
to bare been groiindless calumnies, circulated only by tbe 
spirit of party. In bis youngec^years*be»rote aonie exoeUene 
Latin poenis> betides i^meral ia :tbe secondr and 'third ira^ 
pannes of xhg ^* Mx^tt AngKcan®/' ascribed to hia pupUs; 
aqd there is a gped <H^e of jsome* length in the second yo^ 
IttflDO^wiindec his .own-.niin>e«(traa8ciibed fsqnt^tbe'Ojifordr 
eollectioiv . oa queen Mary's death,' 160^)* He <teek* the 
degree of M.A.May 16, 1696; .B< O. Feb. 4, 1707; D.D. 
^uly I3 17p8.« His first preferment w^s Cannock^ or (Dank, 
ia^,9aif<)ty of StaiSb^rd. . He waa s^pefnted preaeber o£ 
St. Saviour's, Sonthwark^ in IIQS; and while in this sta* 
tiQD preached bis f(^ai.9Uf sermons (at JD^rl^y^ A^gniHp 
1.709 ; and. at Sc Panl'v,' Nov. 9, in the same year); and 
2^ 000 of .tl^em was supposied to point at lord Qodolpbin^ 
un4er then^meof ViJpooe^. Itb«i{,been aug gesied> slhet 
^ this circnm^tance; as much as to tbe docttioes .contained 
iaii^i^.,s^rjfDoas> be ,>was indebted for b49.,prose.cu;ioq,* and 
eveotna4ly ifor bis ^preferment. Being tnipea<;bed by^ tbe* 
5ouse of O*on;^pipns, bis trial began Feb. 27, 170^-Ip; 
and Qouui.ned 4i|ntii the 2Sd of March ; vKbea be .waa. sen* 
tent^ed to a sii ^pension from preaching for tt^rlee years, and 

^f^<i. WWMis jorderei . to be, burnt TbU pj;ofte<:Mt4<^ 
bearever, overtbvew tbe ministryi and laid tbe foundation 
oFlbis fortunie. To sir Simon Harcourt, who was counsel 
for hin)^«ibe presented asiWer bason gilt, with an elegant 
in^criptiofr, written probably by bis friend Dr« Atter- 



S A H S YB R£U k iS 

pf uiunipbalprogretsiibroiigl] sarious pacta of ^ Jung^i^mi} 
cUriog w^ich periofl ite was cqlialied iottiiiTBigjrDeiv 
&Urembary^ and» in the aaipeMiiUMiftb that bm^sofpegrioa 
pod^di had the valuable rectory of St Andnoiiv^^llQlboiM^ 
gia^Mibioiby tbequcieo, April 13^* 1(7 13. .At^baftitiaiQiliia 
reputation mrai. so high^ that be MHtaenaUed totaellithacfirki 
lermoQ preached .a&er his aentence e|(piied:(an Balai'Saha 
ifky) for: the saai^f 100/*;, and .apvarda of 40^000 •eopiaii 
it.is;aaid^ were aoon aoldir Wa find by Swift's. Joqfrnai -<<$ 
Stella, Jan. 22y>nil^iQ^ tbat he had ^lao interast cmnigft 
with the aainiitry to provide very aiaply for OM ^oi*iii$ 
bcothers; yet, aa t;bedeaii bad said befcnre, Ai|g* £4y ilit:^ 
** they hated ciimI affected to deapiie hint?* Ama^idaM 
al;»iaestate at Callow ia Derbyshire was sooa %fter left lb 
KW by .bis kinsman George Sacbevaffeit, esq. Ifr^iTH^ 
\ud poafixed a dedicatioD to *f Fifteen Discoaraesy ^eeoaaiow 
ally .deB?e0ed befoie the .university^ of >Qitford^'by fiVl 
Adanfia, M«,A* lata studaot of Cbriat-obonKhy and reofeoa of 
Staunton: npoa W.ya^ in Oxfordahire." After^tfai(l<^Mbt|» 
cation, we bear itttla of hiai| exoept by qQamels'iiiitiaJliii 
parisibaonerB. Ha! died Jane S^^ 1724) aiid, by. bis'^triii^ 
bequeathed to JBp. A(terbuffy» then ia exile^ who 'wad aiipa 
l^oaed to have per .led. for him the defanoa. be aiaderbi^aiMl 
the HpAiae o£ Pe^ra f,: the aiim of MOL The^ dachfeaai lot 

* " Vira bonorati«9imo» j- Thii speechi wfawi ori^iD^ly PHbf 

Voitent Juris oricdfo,' IJtMiL wai thbt add^tsecT. «Td tM 

. JbdkN^.I(RiegtiltMfi4Jaa;' UrdfUpMlaat »ifl .Tttafiartiaiihl^ 

' oroameotOt ;.^ , i iMMneot a^MOiW/ftit . i. , , r^- i" 

" BfMOHi H^ftcooar, Eqtnti Aurato, May itpfeas« yoiir tordshipf, 

AMifm ^riUimiaKagirtS U$lgtX If aM'bteiiF «y hard 4bKnne f^'fMr 

^1 fOvitodi . . ai(8RBdmifa>^. M r^dS'Wiwii^i^iil 

ft 3erenis9iine Kieaine h Secretiorlbus deavoured to exprr^a m^nXi lyi^ ,tl^ 
^ ' • ooosinis;" - ' utiDbik t>1a!nn^s« ; eve)) the defence t 

.J«a'<aii4tttf aKjiMa^'Oorsm Saprf lab m^dsa^ yMfr Lor^MlK k«f > iii l^afiH; 
u. g: . ^»«tM. 4 ofclaani;^tb4Jiiiwc^fM«»y^!^^ 

'. In Aula Westttionasteriensi, baih been J;rievou8ly misrepresenled. 

" '^ty6^V!0te'€ttalfteaudtk F(^'a4licfi^i«a«dti 1 iMvii*«anihfr j^r^' 

<> i\ ^ 39 mtMhi \vsvm >«cieQti9» . ' tyuncyitajtff r i««i tbif tana^irient^iTaar 

' beoi^n^ ^ coDctanfer de rensam j . , f^utTshiDs' pery^aU M^ Lydi, )|^ef^ 

.V 95 pHsdate Efctesis Joctrittann, are tm v<fry words I ipoice to' -your 

- : .^ iuvibiaiiOilin fl^4^Ai viito, • > ^ L^^ifiti < l^adpt ^bi^ tfr^ t^plafM- 

. ap4^|raf#,;»ft;^teJ^ ^ A^ttf^i^ 

any Qiscoaitruction : and may [ lOr 

Atip^ttis ' fAk mirtf Ik tkfe fMB4 df ^oA'miie^^ 

iTv>i.^^.f«)iciteriTiadiqB%^; ' : «T» ia e^ftf <f fpwH w<i«>y. M'M al jfa i 

*^' "-• 'GfllieaafAii ergo ' ^ my tx)rdrf, Wr-ord*hiV*^SA»f>i-' 

oni> ^•M^'k <'a>. iXBC ' ' dk(kitai^ktM:il«t»ui>tf^ko|P'>n '^^^ 

Aano Saluiis mdccx." ^ - . 




i8 S A C K V 1 L ly B. 

e^wnr^gatioe cf exprsssion^ a vCD|)iali8fietfB of pbonQolog^/ 
aoiiJiil'CKaainesB of irQrai&Qatidn/' noi to be feuiYdt in^aa^ 
Olbdr flaitr of 4be eoUecliioik. ." ,'^- <> > • j' '>•-•' v-. c>^> ■-; 
viJtoving.Jby' tbese prodnctmMteataUkbed 4^ v8putBiti6i» 
al hatDg theibestpoet in hisdiine^i be laU? ddum liift> pfea*^ 
mid amtmed the obaracier of tbe'«t«te9fBaa^ ^n* which** IM 
idto-hMtoaQie veiy. eminent He foniid tkisdite^ boMreveiv 
to'in^lbe^ei^tcitir of Fiaace and Italy; :and<waK on noam 
aooouiit.or4»tber in pmdnat Home^ vriiea* die news arlrmd 
oibiS {aftbor.flirKichard SacAinUe'a death 4n UMB, i/poa 
tfa>8^ he. obtained bis release! t'etomed bbnu^t enfcered^ioUK 
tbe iposaeasibn of a vast inheritaaee, and ooon afiM« wai 
ph)aiDted'to the peerage by the tide oi iatd BucUnmt^ 
Hfiteajjoyed this accession of honour and feftime too l^« 
raUy for*ai.wbiley but soon saw 'lods ertor. Sooie altiibiitv 
hita.iieiufp feotaiaoed tia the quecti, b«t otbers say^ tfant fcte 
ioMli^iiftjF of being- kept in ivaiting by an aldevmaid, of 
whooi he bad occasion to borrow moAeyiiiaade so 'deep wk 
unpreasion on btniy that he resolved frbai that>iaameiit 19 
he an ceconomst. By the queetr he wki/Te€aiv«d'aatci 
parbteular faKroar, and employed inarooy vcay idipeatanii 
a&irsii kiv i^a? he was sent ambassador to the Vniiedl 
FroviiHseii upon their oompkunts* ogaiMt thai earl\of Le»ft 
teaer ;. and, though he discharged ihdt aice and hnsarttmif 
S|asrjiitth%greBt integrity, yetsbe faroiurile, prevailed wttJa 
hifl niBtress to call him bon^e^and eoOfineihsoitDihis hoiiaer 
§Mf nine or ten; aoontihs ; . which oomnliadbdi lord^finakhttfit ia' 
aaid to have &uhmitted. to .so- obseqwioniiyy^thasiranrall tkm 
timeriiia . nearen \ifoiild :endttre^"openly'orMseeretl3r,^4>y idajr 
orbyintght, Dorste either vifenhchild.^NHbccUeaa^ \^Qm*i 
ereav dyiti^,. her; migestys fiarborttetaHrned^ teafaiditanbw 
Womg}y than erer.* lieWas madbcUight^^f ;tbe;garcai^iip 
1590^9 aUdchaacisHor af Oabrd iniiSAlf^AyoAn^ t|aaeB)fc 
apeaiakw|ecpEQiicix>ni ;.iw t589the w^ jonaack^toithtlsaitceftw 
suventfiiavletgh ifionegotia^ihg/^a^ pefeitCi^aiakSpailt^Mdnd^ 
^(fiDSi.ftUe dffhthW.' Burleigh tlMisaiaeyeac^jpuafaeedcHkhintf 
in bisQ0(tfioe9' btrrnr^ufe. of*!wh)i:hiihttbheeala)eiki>«i mkmtmb 
piffiKiimniiflter; ^and^asisutthieaeftediiiiM^Tldgdroialji'tei 
tkft^piUacfgoot^and iiei^me^eat^'suiafie^un iud - r^uvmurm 
^iIdpotti()n^ddaths}f)J^abeal^ tbe(anBi|B^iS9traaioQi d»ndtal 
Isiagdom: daroWfOg iai'iiift^4wjbk aihdna^lunMe1fbhi^>iiUaja 

Hrtanmw>tibtjr<cprbc^itnedi Itiog 4aE>es4iiaod'*lflat)skia^«^«a(> 
■awed his patent of lord highareasurer for life, before his« 






^ A (j k V t L t £. n 

^rmalin' Bngfafrtd, and ^ven before bi« lor<kdiip waJttf^ oil 
bh iAajea^ In Mareh 1604 ha was created earl of Donect 
Be was one <!^ tUofe arfaoin hta majesty consutediaid cotm 
fided in upon all occasions ; and he • tired in the Wgheit 
esitecin* ' and *repotationy witbcmt Mjr eAraorditiary Moaj 
of faealtliy till i607i 'Then' he wis seised athis bouse ai 
Horsley*, in Suvrey^'wieh *a disorder^ whiifb redaoitid him 
«^ Hnt'hisiife' was despaired of.- Arthis crisisi^ the king 
sent hhn a gold ring^eailm^lled iriack, set with utentydia^ 
^wfids'; and this message/ that '*< bis migesly: wished jiio^ 
a*<speiedy and petfect recdrery, with all happy atid* good 
silocdssy and tfaoK he might- Hve aa long as the diamonds of 
'limt ring did endure, and in token* thereof required him to 
wewb/aAd k^ep it for bis sake.'' ' He resoveiH^d this ill- 
BeiB tv-allappeaiiince; but soon after^ ashe was attentfci 
iag*a0tiie-coQncil-4aUe,' he dropp^ down, and immedi-'* 
al^ly «tfpinKl. * Tbis sadden death, wbicb happened April 
Id, IMS^'Was oeeasioned by a particular kind of dropsy on 
tbcbtain. • He was interred with great solemnity in West«- 
minater^abbey; hia funeral sermon being preached by his 
clisplatfi Dr« Abbot, afterwards abp» of Canterbury. Sir 
Biibert! Naanton - a^rites of htm in the following' terms t 
^"Tiiiey mucb commend - his elocution, but more tbeeX'^ 
veUeMy ef im pen. He was a scholar, and a pen<on of 
qviefe disfialcb ; * faculties that yet run in the blood : and 
tJkeyisy^fUm, tbat his setrataries did little for him bj^ 
wayof inditemeat^ wherein they- could seldom please him^ 
lie arm-so^fiUeie and choice iu'hia phrase and style.--«>I findf 
aeto tlsatbewtts iny way a inured in the fluAiona of tba 
cQairt^/ilrbidk.)weffe alt his time- strong, and in every tnan^a 
Boiec; xtae- Hoantids and the Cectla on the one part, mjr 
lwidra>fr£Bsea^ &o. on the other part: for he held the staff 
ofitluf tsiaaaory fieist in bis hand, which once in a year aaad^ 
tMaaoiBll behoWen'ter him. ' And' the truth is, as he ww a 
wisBBrtisah tad' a slont, he hild ho reason to be a partaker | 
i^fberStneffcaaMl'iablaod and grace> and was wholly in*r 
t«itiile»to<tkBfqiieea^B aenrices : and sqdh weita Mi abilities^ 
tint aha saeeiaed assidaous proofs of his sufficiency ; and ic 
bai b^emthooghit, tbaa she might bare more eonningin^ 
atruments, but none of a mor^ strong judgment and eon*'' 
frhsoea ksbia-ways^ which are symptoms of magnanimhy 
•fid.fiddifcy/'. • Lord*Ocfotd aaya^ that ^^few first mintneia 
bara left so Mx a character, and that hia family diadained 

1 C8 - 



90 SACKVIXL*. 

the office of an apology for it» agaioaH fome 'Itttli^ cavil% 

whjcb — 'spjreta exolescant; si irasoare^ <«g«ita yid#niw'-'V 

\' Several of Us leliers are printed id tke Cabal^; ,Wi4#> 

ifhicfa there is a La^in letter ef iip to Ik* fiMFtW>l9«999iiv 

Clerke, prefixed to that author's Latin translatiw/^wn.t^e 

, Italian <if Castiglione*8 *< Courtier,'* entiAeif *^ Da Cuiiidi 

aive Anlico,** fii^t printed ait Lendeti abooai^TU TUa 

he wrot^ while envoy at Paris. Ind^eed hia ewrty ca^ln %^ 

lesirning never forsook him, hut appoared m %he ^^Keroite 

^ of friii more formal political ftinctioas. Iij9>jvvaa»;«{iy>i Wp^« 

ton, frequently disguated i^ the pedantry. > and o^fl^ci^ |^« 

' |>arhyn>f' style, in whicb tihe pablio letlen aad ifmtpm^fitB 

were uViuatly fmmed. Even in die decliii^af Midpl^fulijii^ 

of the Star-cbetBb^r court, he pxamtialuj tftpd M0Q|i.r§|^ 

an unaccustomed style of eloquent BadgcaoelillrOsi^ry^V 

SACKYILLE (CHAaLe«^ sixdi saiLDf^Skdrs^t^d, Mid- 
dieses^, a celebMted wit aad poei, vKas4.:dQa^6«)ded iat-^ 
direct Kne from Thooaas lord Bockhuite^ a^,borp J[a9« 184^ 
1637. He had hia education undeca pti^fiA^ tutor;, a^r 
which, makiiYg the lour of itaiyi» he ratuitned to SuglajpA a 
little before the ReflA>Mtioii* Qe «m pboaeA in t^. fyai 
parliament that waa called after that «teot for Das^ Qri^^- 
stead in Sussex, made a great ^figiare aal agspai^^ q^pprAa 
caressed by Chotles^ If.^ tmt^rliMtritif^ as yfi^4ifirM^%:.io 
business, d^elined all uublio' emidoylQe&t. .H<» i9a% in 

truth, liKe'Vttltarfl, RocAester^firdl^j&C* ilMsQ^^lwifV^s 
or libertines of GharlM'tf ooonpcadfbtbojigiilti^iflfithpgf^ 

luuch as feats of gaUaii«^3it,a(difiQhsda|flimM4l»ifl0ll|^ 
inexcu^ble excesses *« lie waxtf;);a>rw)qBtfifnii45(Jp%.:6fat 
Dutch waff iu l^M} And, tbeitngbt beft)rpjth«i l^Qgnge-r 
menty compost* thie .cieM>«at^df|iO(ng ^JKii ^U y W/4'9^ebss 

* « One of these frolicks has, by crowd attemted to ronce the doorj aody 
the tndi^iiry of Wood, come dosrn %o betttg'Tepttll«d, cht»re4to^htt9^N«>iKii- 
^steKtr. r'SA^kvflle, #lio -^ « ' iliMi >^]i«»'iHUbflUMW SaAilrae UwleiBdowi 

^4 «aaUi«r>i« witfi. sir CbgrMt s^ . o{rt^,^if .,. :Fq«;^W« . ff 'S*?pwi«w 




nsJ^t,^ sir T^90a«s Ogte, got drauk at tbef^ were indicted, * dlA] 'Sfhie __ 
HbSCock in thw-ifHet^i^ C(»vviM-^st- ' -aned' irifWiitflrrt' |fctMSItrtThSti 4at 

^ .Kticb Prqftoe bn^uage,. that, the pub- telVes, ibat^STdb^a^t^ J W linVfflgt.'* 
Ik "W&figiKitioli »al i4rMlftic^t^€le1<> 1 t ^<' 2«0 aidlblMMp^ «lfaL 

l»15, 4u^.--J?«k'iedU.Qrtbt^RoyafL4kobleiiiSiorV.^^ * .-wrffc-^t-r-* 



H A C E V I L L E. 21 



lno#''ttl kndi^^ 'wUob it gvnemtty tBtetmeA the bttppiest 

of 4iis pvodiietioiis -j km% there u iwod to think it was not 

^ ongfftalljF ^Hifloft^, but only revised oit this occasion. Soon 

^vfter be #ttl nmle E grot te m aa of the bod-cbaaiber; and, 

*ob M;co«M bi bis distingtiMiQd politenass, aent by the 

Urij^ ii)[i6ri sei^^mi short lembtssies of 4:oa^plinient into 

'" France* UpM< «)» dehdi 0f Ihs iMieie Jamas Crao^old^, ^arl 

^'^ Mirfdlese«$ ia 16T4j that estate devolved on bim ; and 

**be saeceHiert^ libeMle^to die tfade by creation in 1^76* 

His fltlh^r dyiii|^ twayeora afc^r, be succeeded biHi ui hia 

Mate irM hoiiDiirs; He mterly disliked^ and openly dis* 

' eMMetmtioedv tbe^vtoieut meteures of James M*s reign; 

' Md early engeged ^orthe prince of Orange, by whom he 

- itm' luade wrd cfaamberlaitt of the bousebold, and taken 
iat6 tbe pril^ff«ocmlieil. In 1683, be attended Ling Wil- 
hitn to the oengveA <at die Hague, and was near losing his 

' life in the pasiNige« They west on board Jan. 10, in |t very 
severe season^ and, when -they were a few leagues ofF 
Geree, having by hftd*weatbeff been four days at sea^ the 

' Img was so impatient so go cm shore,' that be took a boat ; 

' wbetf , a tfaflpck ibg arising' soon after, they were so closdy 

- surrotrnded with tee,* es not to be able either to make the 
shore, or gethaek^totbeahtp. In this condition they re- 
mained twenty Hwo* be«ts, aknost despairing of life ; and 

' die^eold was «o bitter, that they vsould hardly speak or 

" sfaftd at their landing; and lord Dorset contracted a lame- 

' Bftss, whiMi contimiml &>r some tfme. In 1698, his faealrh 

ittse^slMy deebnit^^ be Tedred from public affairs; only 

iiew end then ' ap|)earing^at th^ council- board. He died at 

'9Mh Jan. 19, rKl5-f€^ after hating married two wives; by 

dbe latter of whoifti fae bad* a dMgbter, and an only son, 

Lionel Ctanfield Sackville, who was created a duke in 

ilio, apd died Oct. 9, 1765. 

' "bovd Dorset wrotefsei^eral little poems, which, however, 

l^i^ hot pifftrelrdus em^i*^ to tnske a i^nmeof thens«elves, 

buAriareiiicluded in J^obnson's collection of the *^£bglisli 

T^iMi:*^ ' flje^W^s *a' iirest^patrov <of poeu and men of wit, 

. .jpr^ho &tvf not failed m their brntotmninyitMs with histre 

'-'%& pMesMjf.i . Prior, Dtyden^ Geogreve,: Addikpo, and many 

:/^|^4f, llhtne Alt eiterted dV^nis^^Ws in tWeir several panegy. 

.jies«iifMs this patron; Prior more particularly, ^ose ez- 

- y tB if>e l yi^wroiiglit ebaieeter of hitA^ io tbe dedication of 
' klir)^rtik'€6 litH Aon, the first dithe of I>orset, is to this 

day adndred u a masteNpieee* ^ sayt, *^ The brightness 



if 

1*. 



M ff A C K T I L: L R 

of hk f>tf biy ito MiUdiijr ofi bn judlgiDtiiV^m^lih^ cao^w 
and generosity of bis temper, digbaguiihed him- in en ago 
of great politeneta, «ad at a teourt-itboundttig^ with meb of 
tbe finest sense and learning. Tk^ mast'eonMentf mtsfert 
itt their atfverai.iraya a^idaied to bis determtnatkui^ WaU 
ler thougktii an banour toiconacilt Una 'intba^oftneaaand 
lM«D)ODy of bis vevie; aad Dr. Bpsat, in t^e^idicaoy amid 
^ifyi of bis -pnaset J^ryden daieritiines by hian* undei^tiM 
ctemcter of Eogenins, as to tbe Jaipa of dramatic pocary •: 
Butler owed it tobim^ tbafc ibeco«rt taated his.' Hodibrast^ 
Wychfliileyy that the town liked bis ^PlaidH Dealer ;• aiid 
(be Jale duke of fiuckingbam deferred to fiuUishtbta i* Itr^ 
bearsar^.tiU be was sure^ as he-.expressed it, that my lord 
Dorteti.wouJd no( rehearse upon bim agauL If we wanted 
foreign testsmoi^. La Fontidne and St.Evremond have 
aeknoM^ledged that he was a perfect master of -rthe: bemty 
a^d fineaeasof their language^ and of «il they oaM Mes 
bcUea letti^s.^ • Nor uras tbi»nioety .of bis juii^inent'COfl'^- 
fined, ^aly to hooka and literatave : -be waa die sanve^ iii 
statuary, paintingv and other parts of art* -fiernii^l 
wpi|ld-have taken his opioiaai upon < the beaaty aad at* 
(itode of a figure ; and king Obarlea «lid not agree vrith 
lMy$ tiiatniy lady CleTeland'apiclnre arasftoiabed^ till i| 
bad ^ apfNTobataoQ of my lord Baokburst,*' 
. ** He- was a. man," says Dr.'Johaaonit ^ whosli^ dleganoo 
and judgcnent .4vere univeraaily'coafessBdy ahd 4i4k^0 
bounty to the iearned amd mmy was* gaiamUy tknt^wai ^Td 
the indulgent affeotion of the publio^' iondlloofa^acibr.Mfii 
aaiple testimony ie thia renmA : ^tl -bntiwi'oot^Uow' it *}^ 
but lord Bockbitrst may do whatbe wiil|^>y«t ia MUer 111 
the wrong/- If auob a. man attempted •poetry, waa*alffldl 
IvpodiNr that -Ihs. works* .wera praised. • 'Dryden; 'ithonH'^lf 
Prior tells truth, he dioDiitgopidied 'by his tenefideilde; %#S 
who laviab.ed bis blamJishniencs dii'thoae whom#e ilotlMba^fl 
to bsuvo aoi.wcU deaarnedtheai, wadertaking w^p^rodM^ 
Mihorsof our enubciaaatr^'supeim'to those > of aiMti^t^i 
lf^9,^ K I* wiaMld 4oatfincr)y QBT' Lordship in saaititv'^Md** fNm^ 
sfMafO. hi tii04[^y;*i WiquM it be iaifeigiiiea thai^^'tikii 
%mA ta «ntiiiuity,r aU . tbe saMey wene liule^^ie^Mlfntwi 
liactivea^ tf^qd itbaiihiaioage8t.cei^o.sitipn^was a^sdo^nof 
eybeyoa^abaiims i i .Tb9Mfum9i^ hoa^veiv «^ di«s<ie|pggerit04 
praise falls on the. encomiast, not upon the author; wboae 
peffoamaaiftei^aref 'i^bat they ptetBiyd^'ta>*b«i^tfa^'%ftf^h% 
gfl^man of wit; gay, f ij^otdi/s,' a^d ifi^y.. 'MsVej^^ 



SACKVILLR tS 

fiotpi^ flbewfireat leitiliqrAfl mnd; aikl liik ^^QatM^? 
fcs» keen imitated by PofM. ' •' 'i^ 

. 8ACROB0SCO. See HOLY WOOD*; ' . . :c 

; SACY. SeeMAISTRE. . > • . .^ 

, 9AD££L (AsTfiONV), oite'JiKflfbspvHRoterS'tif theire^ 
fQfWMiQonr¥fM borai in lia^^^at tivroaitlo^ of OliabdtJii 
Ifaft Macoimis, 'a.nd wB» • descended of t«iK>U6 andfoooitni 
^bo^iiy of. the Forez. Hit Micr djing iriicfi-'hei was fmwf 
y^ung). thfijoure o£ bis eda<taUon den)ir^d^bii<hi9.iiuidic^i 
ivbo4eDfc;iiitn to Paris, wbere be first waa ioitiaMl tai «bi 
^rtociplea of tbe Protealaat religion^ Tfae» ho 'aliieii«c«rdii 
beoanue bfaiier acquainted witb •at .Tbouiduae aiidOonen^ 
frfaen.iotraduced to Galvin and Be^a* On tbe death' of^aii 
imole'he^aa reoaUod homa^ and again sent > to Paris, iii 
^^odequenee of a eontest respectiag the. wiU<«£ that titrcie^ 
wbo had left eoBsiderable property^ * WlMle iicfey-becotii^ 
ing more attached to the cause of the raforiDaeiois b^ waa 
mdnoetiito study divinity^ instead of law, for wfaicb be had 
heCM origkiaHy iDtended ; and stuch wie bis progress and 
the pieamising appearance of bis i^ients aiMl iieal, 'ibatat 
ibe age of tarenty^ he w^s iiMritei} to preach to the eortgre^ 
g«lionof the ri^tbrmedatPiftris.! Their asseoibiiiig, ba^r^ 
av^o WJ3M ati«fided wish gjreajt dooger ; and^ in 15*57, whtA 
they met to celebrate the laofaaurnt^ aboiU'lsp,w9ve ap4 
yfOthtodKsd^and tfaroivis.iiito firison, their pastors oiily es- 
9fHPANg- The priestahavi<ig. circulated variouaisj^awdaloM 
5QporM^i)£•4h)i.al0etipg»^'|yrhiofal the judges f6und c^i'bd 
M»09 . fiadael ^as vi^mplbyed by Ms. brethren > iu'idfan^ing 
^p m vtftdicadoi^.oCitbdni. hext year he (wpa famiself tatmi 
¥lp9\4Wk impu^oxitd^ jbiili. th&kifg[io£.NaMiri^ Arfao had 
f^lmi>a«n,fiie(C|f :his^]heH»ersi^ kunediatidly sef^ w tjhiii 
W^/timilP refa^a^him^ «sibc|ingiNieiat hi$)flnv».4oi(«^ -ttnd 
IfA^npthllt&drofiaded^i vrenfciifr.fiieiiseni'iet.thdtipnsotH^ eucri^ 
pUlff^jotil^^afir(Mi)^.jaiMiavleai^di8addel. I dtuiot, bdt^ 
i90t»c)*h^inK ywMgl>t)Biife .fbc»hiniSomataiii:«t^tiHS orisfs ill 
Rarii^iMQ^ tQtiGedttDrijseaia^ififp^iOiOislaaa^ 'aiid'arh«i>iib« 
4t g i g rbliaeye4;t<»bqt0»yiv i'ewif!^ gp 

|{£ot^^fkrti af^Fi^th^.f9atpr<i|^iMdd in'ajqr^fd itii^0ipm 
ii9fpQ|ld^(«largy^lQril?fanceftibaU aajParis,yaiojeh':waB jmi^ 
l6n«j^2t<a dwvktng/byvfiaei faiaeiffli/admitaUjCbligni^jvTte 
kblS^^jf^')^'*^! l^V^B^' aadiithtt^^qtaeadland ^tismef$xa!^iit 

'»;h H9r'i;j7 /ai t *• •''^-* '■ '''•11" ' '.* * * ' ' 



^ SAD EX L* 

Gui^^w^wiiif; with mof^ (mry tbsn e^af: tha'^f^tv^e^MMMi 
of the reformed, Sadeel was obliged agM»»4o ie^t^m tke^ 
loetnopolis wbUJi^ however^ he oooutiae^ ^casiooaMy to 
?isu when it c^nid be dooe MraiiM>ut daoger. 
/ In lS^2t he i^reiided at^ a nauonal iyiiod.>ai Orient, 
wd then wei^tio fierne^ moA finaUy toG^evaiya, where bb 
4vas aasopiated with the vmiatefs of ihat plaee» H^ary IJf. 
who had a great respect for hkn, gave hiaft ai> iovitat^on 19 
^18 opurk, which, ^ler soffie hesitation, frosi hia ^erai^f 
40 public Hfe, he accepted, and waa chaplain at the«batlj0 
fof GoiKtray^ aad bad the charge of a miasion lo the mxk> 
^ttOki prtneea of Genaany ; bat unable at leagth to W(r 
ihe fatigues of a poiikary Me^ which he waa oMi^ed IfH 
jwsa <with hia royal beoefactor. he relwred to Geneva ia 
XB^ and leamned hia functiooa at a preacher, andnndev^ 
tpok the profeasorsbip of Hebrew uniil his deaftbi £eb»'l}% 
1591. Besides hia s^rnioHs, whioh Were higt^iy popi^ 
and peRmaiivOf he aided the cause of .ref<^roiatio.H by taking 
an active part in the controversies which arose out of ii^ 
IHid by .wriiingi of the practical kind«, One Fireinch^4»io« 
l^apjier tells us that Sadeel was an aasumed .name, but ia 
#Ur other aethorilties, we find bin called by thai nameool|f 
jwith the addition of Ghanbaus^ which alluded u>biaan» 
pefltorsh who wer^ barons of Chandiet(< Accordingly, hif 
works tiro entitled MAntonii Sadeelis Cbandieij npbilissii* 
loiNd) opera theological' Gene^ 1592, folio ; r^prinie^ 
UMn 4to; and \^V9 and l€\$^ fotio» They i^o^ais^ 
Hmoog o(bers» of the following tjFeatiaes . puVli^bed aepar 
«ateiy» ^* De terbo D^ sciipto,*' Gen* U99» ^^ Pe*vi^ 
peccatetum . remiasionV' ^^- 1591. V D^ ^ivi^^ Chriiiti 
faaerdotio et' sacrifioio^'* ibid. 1692. *} De spirituali :fit 
aacramenta)i inanducationo Corporis Qbvisti;" jiwo.itre#? 
^^iaea^ ibid* IS9^ ^ Posnaniensiuao assertiontmi tefutatioi'^ 
iiibid% 15984 f^Kefutatio libelli Claodii d^^ Sainc^M, intir 
tulati^ ^Ela«en. doctrinie CalviniaosQ at Bcaanip da <hihi| 
DoaatDi,^' ibfdi 1599, He wfote alao, in,Frei^> ^^Ub? 
.loire des pnrrsecvMons. et des murtyei de Tegfiae de Pltris^ 
dirpniarto 16&7t jusqu'au regne de,Cbai:lealX«" printed 
at Ly^s,. ia 1^3^ 8vo^ under the naeie of Zamaf^i U4 
wrote also <^ Metamorphose de RdHsaffl en pf?etre^'' in 
"vei^e^ part of a contreveiay he had with that writer,, who iy 
hia work on the troubles during the minority of Charles IX* 
bfed ^er^ifted iktem to^cbe rerbt'ttiers. * fKr iM^ iyy^Jahies 
Lectius, was prefixed to his works, and published sepa* 



4NlMi^Qeiimilt 1599, 8^.' The BiibitiQiM'dfitif gtm 
- im oar first ftukborky.' 

'3 S^kfii^ <yr SAI>E£, a celebrated PeraiMi f^oet atd me- 
^Ut^ was born in l'i75| M SMefA^r^V'Sebiras^ the capi* 
^^Per«ia^ aim! hvm^ Vacated at Oamascus, bntijuiUeil 
4i8'eountr5^wlienii#a8r<desobM!ed bjrtheTorkt, and coia«. 
iiieitped bis tfa^«. 'He was iiAer#ardB tekea firieotier, ami 
ipondemned ta vmA. at thelbrtMcaHiotis -of TH^ali. While 
i» tMs Heplbfabte sfiwdi he woa redeemed 'by a tneit^hafit of 
i4le(^i wbabiid Meoitioh regard fnr him as uygive bim fab 
dMi^t^rvEi mi^rriage, \tith « dowry of ooehoiKfared Beqeins. 
9hi^1adyi^Jlow^eri being an tnicilerable scold^ pmTedthe 
fjta^u^of fafe iifei' aed^gare him that ttnfcvourable o^iAioii 
%f «he^seif whioh i|r{y|>ear» oocasionatiy ia hie woiics. During 
eu^ <tf their akercatidne she repveaehed hies Mriyii- the fa- 
Wiirfr ber family had oooferred'*-^*' Are not you the man 
fnyfMhef botfght for ten pieoei^of gold ?*'-»--«' Yes," an- 
H^^e^cl'ISadi, '<'^d be sold me «^gain for an blmdred 0e« 

'-' •fl/e-' find Cb# other pattktriars of his life^ during wbieh 
il^ appear^ x6 hate beetf^ adtmred' for hia wise aayinga and 
t^ m4«. ' He is eaid to hUM'li^ed an hundred ' and t^veaty 
fears;' fhat^ iSj to ifti^ year 1295, bet difiierent dacea are 
fnsigned^'seme making bim %4i^ in 1193) and die in lar^. 
lEie competed «obb i^ variety et woi^cs in prose acid verse^ 
Arabic aiPid Persian^ ds«» fill two large Miovoltaies, vAMk 
m¥^ prhfted at Gakiitia^ id 17M. ft wos^ not, however, 
aSidt^ly as a |Mt^'%hhr4ib Mq^ed fteme, but tta ii* phtttaiCK- 
ffther'tted a nM^Iisf^ ■HiSft»<»ri#^iiB^quocedby*the'P4U^M» 
earths ddily and honfly occ#rfence«>of Hfe;^ andhMtemh^ 
Mjc^tig the c4ty wbeVe4ie«iai born, is^atill^irlilted irifth 
v«ftVnttr<>n. ^Ytii'' Ukyi'^it William OeaeUyv i^«kieg 
ol^^fiii ahrthlMr^'ir^i-k^) «^i rfitfll Me her^ snpf^ress tbatifaere 
i»( itttlMt^d^ro 1^d¥ i^ #bdr^ <oo)iec tioA^ eJT podtical compoil- 
«iWs> tuctfldfttifrg 4e!i^ei^ df Ub^ giosseal' s^t i i m a ti t ^^ ^^^ dad 
eMb hi»%io^ intSMiin^kytMeAf* G(liislani?^^r H Qmdm 
ft^kme^^Hih^ b^ no meiin^ iioMh^olMe^ >- Ml. ' dladwiif 
kiMV^tb wKon<^Ji^*oiA^e'^Mi>€^s;<!«lleint'4rbn df i«^ ^piodU 

KAedat^CMeiilta,^ rdOSy 4iv 4t0i' wMi theMikigtnal i^fsian, 
Itas been ^blig^d ic^tiniit eft disg«iiaeii^4ei0|fef;toges( wMob« 
lie days, << alth6iigH %iot ^0(fetis»r^'te'«he' eohrtfe'lMeatf ^ 

.1 H«fl^^ i4|as«?«f #ber|,tiMpf^an,--MorvMt WW Vavf^Mi urt. C\fS9^ 
disfL 



J. aji; - J. ,\' \ . '» ■: • '• i 'V 



te ' S ▲ P I. 

muvrfr' r6adet% eouML. not p^Msihljr be •tinpdeWd: ifitboiit 

transgressing tbe bounds of decency,-' ....;,• o . -: 

. ^ ' This wofk hiifl heea ioog kti^wn in Ewope Jby 'the editton 

«sfl .translation puMiabed b}iAbe letarnemi (MMiWir undfiv 

tbe tide of ^ Roaarium politieuai^ siy^tDiKeiU^ol fiofitiaihii^ 

xMoea Tbetttrum, Penned et Lfut/' Aw^ti iiffSi, Mi »rTfaene 

vfS'.abo a £rencb tcwitatiuo by ?< du rib]r«r» ]t€i3>4^.8«f]^ 

aed another by d^Aiegre^ io 1704>. J^nu^ aince wbipb tbd 

idbbe GaiNbift ga\iep a preferable tcanslation, first in 178^, 

nader the title of ^' EsBai bUtoriqtie siir ia I/egHlatioio de la 

. lUrse^V and •aftferanurda by tbe more approtpriate title of 

^GttKsbao, XMi rempire d^s rofteg^*' 1791^ Sva. Xbe.Eo^ 

gjibhy»ublic wbs in some degree Diadeaoqnainted mrttbttbia 

%vork >by« publication by JStepben SulUvaa^ €sq» entij^ledi 

<^' Select fables from Guliataiiy or tbe Bed of iRoses^ trana^ 

lated from, tbe original Persian of Sadi,'* 1714^^ l^mo^ 

These are ' chieBy of a political tendency, re^qoianieodiw 

justice. amI humanity to prince9. Mr*, Qladwiji^s inotudea^ 

tbe iiHu>le^ and is a valuable contribution to our Icaowledgts 

of PeraiaoiiiaoDers and Biorab. Sadi*s other worka^are eor 

tilled '^£ostan, or the Garden of Floivers^*' which, ia iqi 

vease^ aad M >Molam&at ;*' in ArabiCf sparks,* Tja^Sy cr spe«*' 

c^ineas* We may add, that Olearius publiabed tbe ^^ Gvv 

lifitan^" in German, with plates, in 1634, fol. under the 

ti^ of .^.Pevsianiscber Rosenthal.'" . . . * 

nSADLER (JoHv)^ an Ejiglisb writer, descended of aifa 

attcientt family in Shropshire, was born in 16 14| and- admits 

ted pensioner of Emanuel college^* io.Cainbfidgei^Noffu Id^' 

IfrtC^ adhere he became emiaeat /or bis.ka^^rled^.ia tba» 

Bkbrew and Oriental languagea. A/tei:. bavibgn (^mi • bw 

degrees . at 'the usual periodsi tb4t- of M^ A» inil$39» dlA 

wbiob year he was chpsen Mlow of bi^ cpllegei^ be rMiaimb 

tck LiieoloVIoo; wfattfe.be<made.a con^iderable/jsMtogrpfkr 

in the study of ibelaw^ and vraa admilt^OQi^ 9^ Jthe wmsh^ 

t^ra ilk ordinaryia tbecoadlt o£'CbaaoQry^,i/u4^ji,',A6449 

aAMi waa Hkeltise> aoe <of itb0ttwo.;iaa«ter4nof ..roqueiAa.. / !»» 

]6A9> be Was QbeAeo>ito«n>«I^rk>Qf Lcy>()9^b ^diP^lfshK^^ 

ill the satne^jteai^ Jo^4^y->a»;work.mtb.|Jpja li^i^ f ^ iRigbtaiof 

tbe^KingtloaBi/: jor^ Cuatom^iof .our. Auaeflloi»p4Mli¥^il1g tbft 

driity, f^ewaTf eleotion^ ort.sucQes8ion».vij3f,4Mi^iMng8 afidr 

pi«ii4oHnits,>our.tnie Jiberl^r, ^\xp allegiame^ctbreeiMate^^ 

tbcir legislative powieiv origiaaly judicial, and eaecutiveiv 

•* . '- -'-•«>■■. 

1 P'^^rMot Bibl. OrientiJ.--Q1adirin'8 Persian Classic*, vol. I.-*W«riox's 
T«6r tolihitoi.— Mooth. Iftev. 1TT4;--Brlt Cfit. wf. XXIX. 



SADLER. 9T 

mribAt ifilirtia; freely discuMed through the Biititb; Saxoa, 
Norman, laws and hiKtones." It was reprinird in 1€M^ 
aiid^'bas^ aiv^ys'been valued by lawyers and ethers; iHe 
WM 'gresily eKteevn^dby Oliver Cromwell ; who, by a lea* 
Mrfreoi Oorh, of Dec. 1, 1649, offered him the plaice ;cf 
ehtef justice of Munster in kdand, with a aalarry ^f iMOd; 
per aonum ; but this he excused himself from acoeptin^ 
itt August 1 656, he was fiyade master of Magdalen ooHegey 
ki Cambridge, upon the removal of Dr. Rainbows ^^ 
again soeceeded Sadler after the restoration. lu I65S, im^ 
Was chosen member t)f psrHament for Cambridge." Ms 
1655,' by warrant of Cromwell, pnnaant to an oidinjanee^ 
for^bWer regulating 'and limiting tbejorisdicDontef «hle: 
high court of chancery, he was continoed a master in^ 
ehancery^' when rheir nomber was reduced tosix oniy. 'It 
was by bis interest, that the Jews obtained the priyiiege oiP 
building a synagogue in London. In 1658, he was^cheseil 
ttember of parliament (or Yarmouth ; and in Deeeaiber of* 
tke year following, appoitited first coaimissioaef, mider the< 
great sea), witb' Taylor,* Wbitekick, and' others^ fer>iihe' 
probate of wills. In 1560, he piiblished in 4iio, his '<OU* 
bia : The New Island Iai;ely discovered* • With its religion^' 
rites of worship^ laws, castoms, government, ^laractcors^^ 
aiid lamgwige; with educatioa of their -children « in jbeiv' 
sciences, arts, and manufactures; with other things vcm 
markable; by a Christiaik pilgrim driven by tempdst^fnkn 
(Sfvita Vecchia, or aome other parte aboift Rome, tbrough 
the straights tntothe Atlantic ocean. The 6rst part;i" ^ Of' 
thw work, which appears to -be a kind-of' fiction, Dr. Jobn 
Wortbi^oni, in' » letter to \Mr.<^ifauel^IUrt)lib, daieit 
April ly 1661, slip's, ''Is the ^econ4 ptfriofOLBlAvlihetcM 
dmio'out ^hlortlyMt is Md to/treatof the/religiiQir, 'naar^- 
iiiip^ ' laws^ >mrttoms, ma ntier 4)f etbeation,! '&c; < > af . tliati 
plaSse. The detri^ protniseth tfmcb^at-ieiy.'f '' •- ^ 
t^Soen aft^'^ihe^veM^nuidn, /he^tost^liil bit' employments^* 
M viriAiie^'0f aAaet »6f pariiatffeiiit t^ '(parolisH^/'^^ficir'di^' 
vMl^g^riiii^ atfllri>veg^lftti)^g^ef! eorpoMMynat'^/ hit cotv^ 
^en^ll Hioi |Ml#mi«t9ag bivn'^io^ake^r^sobsoribe^itiBe ohtb^ 
md d^aiMWioB) th«re'r6q»iredf>ffi»<whibb'k iWM>d]toMeid; 
tbo^ ** it wks' wet I lawful/ tqion^ any preumde wharteiqer,/ ttf > 
tidi^ tom^ a^airrtt'tbe' bicig;V.M 'dbedieaoe(>so'^8bsokiiit^ 
tbar he'thoughi^itt^6t>4iie to^at^idartblyipoweri^thQughlia^ 
had never engaged^ or in any manner acted^ against the 



*t9 i An tin. 

^I5^btr^fc6iirt,. which he built ^t tJie exj^enseof S(>00f. Mil 

kiB^rt^i (Hher of his bouse) in Loncloh Were deifttroyed ; and, 

'&(jHOA afteij his mansion-bouse in ^^hropsbire bad the »am« 

^mc He 'was also now deprived of Vftoxhijlt on the river 

iPb^eiiy and other estates which he bad purcha^^d, beitig 

'tV6wn lands, and 6f a considerable est^ite in the Fens in 

'BettfoM Level, without any recompence. Thfese misfor- 

^ttioes abd several others coiping upon him, he retired to 

fhiatnahor and seat of Warm well in Dorsetshire, which he 

bad obtained with his wife ; where he lived in a private 

^mantieir^ afnd died in April 1^74, aged fifty-nine. Thomas 

Sadler, esq. deputy to lord Waipole, clerk of the pell^i 

« who contributed the above account to the editors of the 

General Dictionary, and Daniel Sadler, chief ^lerk in the 

Xl*id Annuity office, were his grandsons. Walker says he 

ilras informed that Mr. Sadler was a very insignificant man, 

^un6 Calamy tells ns that a clergyman of the church of En* 

"gland gave him this cbatiacter, *^ We accounted him, not 

^)1y ^ general scholar, and an accomplished gentlemao, 

tmt also a person of ^reat piety; though it most be ownec) 

he was not always right in his bead.^* 

' SADLER (Sir Ralph), an eminent English statesman, 

"^as born in 1507, at Hackney, in Middleses:. He was 

:fbe son of Henry Sadler, who, though a gentleman by 

-birth, and possessed of a fair inheritance, seems to bave 

been steward or surveyor to tbe proprietor of the manor of 

<ltllney, near Gfeat Hadham, in Essex. Ralph iri' early 

^ife gained a situation in the family of Thomas Cromw^n, 

earl of Essex, and by him was introduced to tbe notice of 

HeafyV III. who took him into' his service, bat at 'what 

time is not very clear. He was employed in ihp great woi^ 

of dissoIvin|^ the religious houses, and had his full sW^eof 

tbe spoil. In 1537, be commenced a long tourse 6f dibto* 

matic services, by afn embassy to Scotland, wbdfie monarch 

was then absent in France. The ohjects of bid ihis'sibn 

were to greet tbe <fae€n dbwager, to strengthen tbe"£n«^ 

glisb interest9 in the councils of regency whieb thei^ i^^-^ 

temed SdOUund, and to discover the pfobabfe eon^egtiencues 

'of tbe hlUfllat^ uhipn of Gotland with I^rance'. 1^aVl% 

;odlected' ibxih 'niformitidn atf be coufd pfocnrc! oA i!h^e 

topics; be Vecui^ed in tbe beginning oY' tbe follo^vitf^^y^Air, 

but VdtJt ag^iny Stotland^0oon afteV, osCe'trsibly 6 miiii^ 

tetogne. 



• A i.9 t. JUt 

. i^ & good eoire«pon4ieiiea betweeo the two crowns, biii 

really, a« appears from his state-papers, to detach the kinr 

,of Scotland from the councils of cardinal Beaton, who was 

.'at the bead of the party nost in the interest of France. He 

was ingtructfid also to direct the king^s attention to the wctf- 

'^owvkt possessions of the church as a source of reyeiiu^« 

mud to persuade him to imitate his uncle Henry VUljil^^s 

,ieoiiduct to the see of Rome, and to make common cau^ 

.with England against France, in all this, however^ Jbje 

appears to have failed, or at least to have left ScoUaiid 

.without having OMterially succeeded ia any part of hjl 

mission. 

In the same year, 1540, he lost his patron Cromw^ 

^ wba was beheaded ; but he retained his fkvour with Henry^ 

]aod in 1541 was again sent to Scotland, to detach the king 

6;om the pope and the popish clergy, and to press upon 

him the propriety of a personal meeting with H^nrv. This 

however the king of Scotland appears to have evaded wit)i 

coQsiderable address, and died the following year of a brokek 

heart, in consequence of hearing of the fatal battle of Sol*: 

way* The crown was now left to James V/s infant daughter 

Mary; aad sir Ralph Sadler's next employment wag t9 {end 

'his. aid to the match, projectedbyHenryVlII. between iiis 

son Edward and the young. <}ueen. But thia ended so ^a- 

avocessfuUy, that Sadler was obliged to return ^>. Englaodl 

-.in Dec. 1543, and Henry d^clar^d war against ScoUaod* 

Iq the ra,^an tjme he was so satisfied with Sadler^s senriceq^ 

leveo ia this lastnegociatioa, that he included him, by ihe 

Uitle of w Ralph Sadleyr, knight, aimong the twelve pei;^ 

^aoij[s whom he named as a privy-couacil to the sixteen 00^ 

.;bles tQ «(hom, ill his-wil^ be bequeathed the' care of bis 

,^f on,, and of ,the kinjgd^m. When this will was set aside by 

the •pf:otec|ar duke of Somerset^ and it becaile aecessar|r 

^jtQ rec(^ficil€| the king% eiceieutors and ^rivj-counfellbrs,,!^ 

^<^f^alth aad ^onours^ sir JUIph Sadler r.eeeived a confirm^- 

tejia^^f ^1 ;thQ ipburch'-Iahdi;. forpierly^ asslgi^ed^to him bjT 

"J^iirj^ with sjplp^^^id ^d^KftiofM. . • ^\ ^ '"! 

.^. When t|»e war with Scjikland was ^renewiep", sir. Ralph ^ 

'^^Hti^uMlied (ifBifeilP at the battle of PiAkie^ th^t h^ ifga 

:opih^ W^raiwd to t^ejde^rec of kai^t Wi^tjrbqt 

,«?e hM^ jp[otlHn|[.m^r^ of, him d^HTiPg t^e reign orEdwfuai 

*!^?r;.^^*P?, ***. *"-• &T*"t/. M^d'tfae, 40i;of tbfi. kiii^s 

reign, hb '•• termed master of the great ' wardrobe. In 
.fl fa m ry*n> ai ga» Ksdiho Mfli i ie^ mf/foumMk^A^^^m^ ketH'^iii he^ 



99 SAiD LB Q; 

Kj^f^toQii^i^rQf /kiiigbA.uf.'ibe biinp^rfiiwbiGb. irndbeeri^ov^ 
^^v^on. biioby H^ttfy'iVHL Ofi-^ibe. ftOcotsionrof^ElEi^ 
^^Hi^kf hQ.«gatii.iippif;4iasdiiit.c^ w«» caiMoD the priijb 
MHiMtilrf jiMJ^dr n^tsitied i^ bU rd^aib a gri^st .portion > of 'tfail 
f^^^etdm.iofitbiiti priuofltfSfc tie vi^ay UdOMiber o£'lier:firat 
PftfikM^ftt^i.fV^oQC'oF .thi^ ktt^btt of UM^shifit for tkv 

ciC: jtb^' people during itlM grotner (>art» if 'ilot>tbe'wlmlei,fo£ 
beri^f)ig/iN ..Wbet .^qqeenEiis^betb thoogbc pBop#r»lo> f|iH* 
\^Wti tjbrb Q»i]i9e of ibo mfomiatioii in SooUand^ aod doiaapk' 
por(/tbe nobilily.wbo were for it agaifvst Mary^ sir Ralpli' 
S^8i41ef,iivii4.(ber pnncipal agent, apd «o oegoftiaied «a to.. 
jNT^pane tbe n^aj for ElUsaheib's great iofluenee !• lbe4i6»{ 
faj^ > «if . £^0llaiwl» He was aUo coneeroed iir the anib**'. 
^^VM^fO^aaarea wbiait led to ihe*deatb> of <|iieen Marj^ 
iivi4 wtia^mppoiiiod ber keeper in the oaatle.of Totbiiryt} 
bm.s^b w^a)£lizabeUi^8 jealousy of tbi* uttforiunate prfn«- 
ceffv ikim ev€^ Sadler'a waichfuloeta becaaie Uabie to 'her 
a|»pipianf9 aiid on one occasion^ a Tery beavy eompbttnt^ 
vya^ oM.e agaVa^l kiai, that be bad pemilted Mary to^o«> 
CQoipai^y biai to tome ditiaiioe from the oastie of Ttxtintryy 
to^eiijpy the ppori of hawking. Sir Ralph had been hidbeao; 
to pQai^bsertfieai.to bis royai aBistress, ia aH ber maaivii^es^ 
aiHiperbap» in toina wbioh.he eould not altogether appraioBv 
tbi^t tlMSfComplaii»«.gave biffi gcecit uoeasifuet^ aod fae'atia« 
woiedu talber by an expostttlanon ithan avi^logy.. lie 
a^i^itted thai be bad isent forbia bawks aad &lceneT»4o di««. 
yert *^ the W^arabde Irfe" wbicb. be passed at Tolbury, ai|d- 
that he bad been unable to lesist the solicttatkNi frf tiw-. 
prisoner, to permit her to see a sport io which f ho greatlgr' 
dftligbted. £ut he.addv* that tbi» was under tlae airic^tesa 
precautioos iQt aeQuhiy^of ber person ^ aod he-dUciftrea 
to the secretary Ceoil, that rather than cominueaeiargd^ 
which sobjeeiedhifu ^o sucb.<niiscoimrMelion^ vvere- kinaa* 
more for fear of offending the qeeen (ban dread of idie 
punishoiont, be would absfidon bispresent charge On'omiK « 
^ition of aMrreadering b^n^elf iprisoner to t^^fToner fon: 
all the days of his life, aod concludes that he is.aoiweaifi 
of thi$ life^ thai-death itself would caake^bioi moiebappf/ 
£iizabeth aa^/ar ooiaplied with bis intimaiion aa to^tsom^ 
mil Mary ^:a n<iw keepef;^ . baf; ahe did-fiot withdraw be^ 
canfi'ieoee frofi^aia "EUifh ii» other «natters» and .after the 
^Mcetiya^.af .Ma^» ewpkigred bim tagoilo;tbo.aoiiat.ol 



f>.' 



gf • A D CI B IL 81 

fmr whh-Brfgitintf df¥ bU itl0lMr*9 ncboMt,'!^ Wbich'^'lh^r^ 

wiig> r^asoW'tO' tbtiik ^e might ba^e-beeH ^tt<dt^ti.(^<>Arfhtt 

miiilHaiptk hdd iictle 'diffl^hy in ^uo^$0diifg, Cf^tfrtl^ fiii>te 

Jhnd&^s 'totns Qf 'eaie,'>a^{tertly from thii'prolrp^t'h€$'hin 

<lf- fludoeediiig; ffCMie^ablf to tte thi^me of EAglaM.'* Tfti^ 

was thii faMl^trflite rir lUl^ SwUe!< wfts eiil^l<^<gd<ki (hg 

pdUie«emf«, 7fov"s<M)n after btft return f rood Siott&nd; (^ 

dfed^attfis Jbrdfthijli of* Stawdon^. Marcb 30^ 19t(7, in- ibt^ 

ei|gbtietirrjaftfl|r oC Mt'uge, imd was buried in tfae chuirdi o^ 

Sliiidoii,'>«Miiel^ his QibiMiiient iras deoorat^ witb rb& kih^ 

of iSo6ttand'$ 'stta^ndtfrd^^ wbiob ha took hi chef battle of 'Ma^u 

aettiargb;* - He left tiebiml him twenty-two manoi«) sev^rafl 

pafBOiM^y -and other* great portf6a« of lahd, initeaeveriit 

coMtties^df H^rtford^ GloaisesUfr^ Warwi6k> Budii^hahi^,' 

aifd'Woroetifer. Hie married MargarevMiteh^, « liUbdi'e^ir 

in/ the fdiriity^of his first patron^ Thotilas OoiofiveH; eart 

ofn Essex, in the' life-time, tbo«igb ivi tfae ab^encfe/^tf^tief 

faosbMidj Matthew ^Banni, a tradesmaii id Londo^' pt^ 

attmed to be dead at than tim^ and be afterwards prtHHirett* 

an act of parliattteoty'37 HeiKy VIII. fov the lagitiiMtion 

of' the children by her,' who were three soivS) anNl* four 

daog^idra^ Ailn<^ inarHed^to «ir Geong^ Horsey^ of Mg^ 

w^y hffiight; Mary, loThoaiaa Boliys aliter Bowies AVal^ 

lin^tonf «tq. Janev ee'Bdword- Baesb, of Staneieakl;' esq*.' 

(whieh three gentietireii' appear to baive been sheriffs •of ^hd' 

GOtoty of Hmfard^ ^^y^^i ^^ 1^ Etiz.); aod D6rothy;' 

to Edwani> £lryngten of BeMtaU, in the eounty of Bucks^-^ 

eiqit. /ilie sods Were^ Thoaias,' Edward, and Henry; Tha^-' 

nms steoeeded 'tO'^mndonj was sheriff of the oounty B9' 

Mfth^l. EUc^ was' knighved^ and * entertained king Jalnek * 

there itwo jWighta on 'his way to Scotland.* H^^ faiKl i^sue^,' 

Ikdpii aM <9e#irwde>tnarried td Waitev tfae flr^ lord Astoft. 

o6:ffaei'kingdodi:of Sieodand ^ -Ralph, his sbn, dytng with^' 

oaaKiague^iWasfMoee^ediniiitf lordiihipof SuMdon dnd 

otfam-^esihsest in: the 'bounty df Bertfoi^d^ by Whiter, th^ 

seoondnlord^Afisoti,' ^dtst. surrWing soiv^ Mb sister 6er^; 

trade tbdy'AsoiMii' Ttie burying^pd^ce <>i?'«te0'fttmMy f» itt^ 

thp i obaoeel' <tf * tteti o^dvel^ -at gtandoa. nAgdinst ^ aeath ^ 

wa^ritrtL^onumAitifor sir- Ral|Jh>6^dl«ry^hnb«'i^ffigt^'«* 

ofnhiaieeiiairitaraioar,^ ^aAd of ^his ahree Wsi^wid^fefar 

daai{)[hfersv> 'bad ^thrda insisrijMiliiiSjt'an iia»6^v%fse,7lii^f;nu i 

gbsta vetie, and^ Ettgiisb prose : s^hst^be^iibrthtwaH ift 

aAotbevoft)^iUrt TbQ^i. wSth^ l;h«i'4tffigi0^ Af 'himMtf^'i^^ 



ffroMmr, bU la«l^ ion ud dauglMi^r, aad an 9^fit»fk ia Eaw 
gliah prose. There are also several inacriptioiis for variMi 
^rsoiM of the Aston family. 

The uraDsactions of sir Ralph Sadler's oidsi iaeflheral»l^ 
embassies are recorded in *^ Letters and Negociaiions m 
Sir Ralph Sadler,^ &€. printed at Edinburgh, HM^r •«% 
Afom M88. in the advocates' library » but a more oooipileie 
eollectioti was recently published of his ^' Stati? j^pers aiMi 
Letters^** from MSS. in the possession of Arthur CUft^ 
e$(i* a descendant,, 1S09, in 2 vols. 4to« with a Ur# ky. Wal* 
ter Scott, esq. to which we are prin^sipaliy indebted £or t)kt 
preceding accoont* From this valuable aad inleaesdtg 
publication the character of sir Ralph Sadler will beiesiiir 
ipated according to the views tue reader 1|^& b^ea m^cm^ 
tomed to take of the measures of the reigns in whick ba 
lived ; and oh this account hb character will probably W 
nore highly esteemed in England than in Scotland. TfaiH 
lie shonid have preserved the favour of four such di^^oixtant 
sovereigns as Henry, Edward, Mary, and £Uzabetb» is 
extraordinary, but not a solitary instance*^ 

SADDLER (John), the first of a family of disti9g»ishe4 
engravers, the son of a founder and chaser^ was boru 
at Brussels in 1 550. He applied early in life tp dhiwing 
and engravings and published some priats at Amweipy 
. which did him great honour. Encouraged by ibis saecess, 
be travelled over Holland that he might work nudbt tlw 
inspection of the best masters, and found a geneiDus be* 
nefactor in the duke of Bavaria. He went afterwardsinto^ 
Italy, and presented some of his prints to pope Clemeot 
VIII. but receiving only empty compliments freas tJMia 
^pontiff, retired to Venice, wb^re he died 1 600» in kis fi^ 
^eth year, leaving a son named Juste or iustiiaft bjr Tibn^i 
also we have some good prints. Raphael Sadalar^ John'a 
brother^ and pupil, was bofro in 1555, and distiogviskiA 
kimsetf as an engraver, by the correctness of his drssriagif 
and the natoral expression of bis figur^s# He acoooipi 
John to Rome and to Venice, and died in the latter. 
Ra(4iael engraved some plates for a work entitled ^ 
opi&cio mundi,** 1617, 8vo, which 'is seldom found, 
feet The works executed by him and John iniCO^juactuH^ 
are, ^ Solitude, sive vitas patrum eremicolarami»** 4to^ 

«« S^«8B sacrtfi,*' '<Trophttum vitse soUtarvs;!* ^^ OiMp^ 

ft 

> lAk by Wtllsr Ssott, et^. ac— Brit. CiH. fsl. XKXVK. 



S A D f: L £ H. ii 

Ibm' anacborelfcuniy^ ^' Solitude sive vitse feminarum aha-* 
^Ibreficatam f* *' Reeueit d*Estampes/ d*apres Raphael,: 
Titieiiy Carrachey*' &c. amouating to more than 500 

Slnts/fn 2 Tols. fol. (jriled Sadeler was hepliew and pujpil, 
' Jobrr tfnd Raphael, but excelled them in correct draw-> 
ing; "and io the taste and neatness of his engraving. After ^ 
baving remairred sotne time in Italj, be was invited into^ 
(^ntiairjr by the emperor RodolpbusII. who settled a pen-«> 
•ion upon bim ; and Matthias and Ferdinand, this emperor^ti * 
fQccessors/ continued also to esteem and honour bim. He 
died at Pragilie in 1629, aged' fifty-nine, being born, at, 
Abfw^rp' in 1570, leaving ** Vestigi deir anticbitft d,i Ro- . 
Bi»,*'*R6mey 1660, fol. bbl. These engravers employed . 
their tilentf chiefly on scripture subjects. Mark Sadeler, 
rahked to the tbree above mentioned, seems to have been 
mfclHety *the editor of thfeir works.* 

'A^DOLET (James), a polite and , learned Italian, was 
boAmt Modenain 1477, and was the son of an eminent 
ciViliaYi, wbo, afterwaerds becoming a professor at Ferrara^ 
took bim along with bim, and educated him with great care. 
He ftcqn&red a masterly knowledm in the Latin and Greek 
eifify, anil then applied himself to philosophy and elo^ 
qiteice; taking Aristotle and Cicero ror bis guides, whom 
be'ixhfsidfred'as the first masters in these branches. He 
als^ cultivated Latin poetry, in which be displayed k very 
liigfef degree xA 'classi(»d purity. Going to Rome under the 
ponUfittete of Alexander VL when he was about twenty* 
two^ he was taken into the immily of cardinal Caraffa, who 
loved men of letters ; and, upon the death of thi^ cardinal > 
in -1511, passed into that of Frederic Fregosa, iarchbishop . 
of Sal^o;' where he found Peter Bembus, aad contracted 
an totSnaey with him. When Leo X. ascended the papal 
tbrbo^'in I5l9, be chose Bembus and Sadolet for bis se- , 
biefeiHts Y men 'extremely qualified for the office, as both 
of BBift wrote with great elegance and facility : and aoon 
aft^mMe Sadolet bishop of Carpeptras^ near Avignon, 
UpM*'th^ death df Leo; in 1621, he went to bis dioce^^^ 
andN^sided there during the pontUicate of Adrian VL; but 
CloBhitTfl; was no sooner seated in the chair, in 1523, 
titaf'he recdied bim to Rome. Sadolet submitted to hia 
kolinej^ but ^ condition that he should return to his dio- 
#oa6^t^)tt end of three years. Paul III vfho succeed^ 



1 f 



• Strati*! I>i.t— Diet. tM. 

Voiu XXVIL 9 



84 9^ A D O L E T. 

Clement VII. in 1534, called him- to Bome again ; vtkmit 
bim a cardinal in 1536, and eiD|]dojed bhn in Biany impor* 
Aaot embassies and negoeiattons. Sadolet, at tengtb, giown 
too old to perform tbe duties of his bishopric, went no 
more from Rome ; but spent the remainder oif bis days 
<here in repose and study. He died in 1547, not withoat 
(wison, as some have imagined ; because he corresponded 
too familiarly with the Protestants^ and testified much re* 
gard for some of their doctors. It is true, he had written 
in 1539 a Latin letter to the senate and people of Geneva, 
with a view of reducing them to an obedience to tbe pope; 
and bad addressed himself to the Calvioists, with tbea£Rec* 
tionate appellation of '< Chartssimi in Cbristo Frati'es ;'' 
but this proceeded entirely from his moderate and peace- 
able temper and courteous disposition. He waa a sincere 
adherent to the Romish church, but without bigotry.* The 
tiberality of sentiment he displayed in hia commentary on 
(be epistle of St Paul to the Romans incurred the centvre 
of the Roman court. 

Sadolet in his younger days was aomewhat gay, but re- 
formed his manners very atrictly afterwards, and beoame 
a man of great virtue and goodness. He was, like other 
scholars of his time, a close imitator of Cicero in bit prose 
works, and of Virgil in bts poetry. In theibeat of bis La« 
(in poems, bis <* Curtiua,'' be is allowed to have adorned a 
dignified subject with numbers equally ebaste, apirile^ 
and harmonious. His works consist of epistles, disserm- 
tioos, orations, poems, and eommentaries upon some parts 
of holy writ* They bave been printed oftentimes sepa« 
natety: and were first coUected and published together, in 
a lafge 8?o w>lumei, at IV^entai in 1607 ; but a more com* 
plete and excellent edition was publisihed at Verona, in 
1737^ 4 vols. 410. All bis contemporaries have spoken of 
bim in the higbest terms ; Erasmus particnlariy, who calis 
bim *' exiDMum mMM sum decus." ' 

SAEMUND (SiopusBON), a celebrated Icelandic writer^ 
was tbe son of a priest named Sigfisis, and was bom about 
tbe middle of tbe eleveatfa century, between lOM and 
1060.' He travelled at a v^y eariy period into Italy ind 
Crermany, ia order to improve himself in knowledge mad 
for a considerable time bis couatryvten wevenot at all aware 
eif what bad become of htm. At length Jonas, the sea of 



TiraboBdhi.— NiceroD, toI. XXVIIl.— OiiMWtll^f NitiSB.-*RsMoe*f Us. 



8 A E M U N D. Sa 



Ogmuf^f wbe wM aftenpardfl a bishop, found him at Parii, 
aod carried him back tolcdand. Here he took the order 
qI pf jesthood, and nacceede^ his father as priest of Odda. 
He also established a sahool^ and contributed with others 
to induce the Icelanders to pa(f tithes, and totAi a const* 
derable pairt with regord to the formation of the ecclesias- 
tical code of fadws* He died in i«I38 or 1 135, being about 
0^hty years of age. At the age of seventy he wrote a 
History of Norway, from the time of Harold Haarfager to 
that of Maguiis the Good. He is gieuerally allowed the 
merit of Ukving collected- the poetical Edda, by which 
meaitt'he preserred these curious and valuable remains of 
ti^aodent Scandinavian myliielogy, poetry, and morality, 
Irofn beifig loat* They were printed at Copenhagen^ 1787, 
4to,- with a Laidn translation, the editors of which, in their 
preface^ give a full account of the supposed authors, and 
the daim of Saemund to be considered as the principal 
collector.* 

SAGE (ALAm Rene' Le), the first of French novelists, 
was bom, according to one of his biographers, in 1677, at 
R«ys> in Britanny; or, according to another, in 1668, at 
Valines. At the age of twenty- five he came to Paris, wkh 
a view to atudy pbilowphy. His talents, although they 
did- not display themselves very early, proved to be e^uaUy 
brilliant and solid. He made himself first known by a pa- 
faiphrastic ttansladon of the ^^ Letters of Ariststnetns,*' 
wbidi he published in two small voluaries* He then* traveled 
thrdegh Spain, and applied to the study of the Spanish 
language, ouotoms, and writers, from whom be adopted 
plots and faMes, atid transfused them into his native tongue 
frith great facility, and auccesa His works of this kind are, 
«< Goman D*Aliarache ;'' the <' Bachelor of 9slamanca;'* 
«< GU Bias;*' <' New Adventures of Don Quixote," origi. 
wally written by Avelhineda ; ** The Devil on two Sticks,** 
as it is called in our translalion, in French ^ Le IDteble boi- 
tenx,^' and some others of jess note. Of cbe^Derilon 
tMio Sticks^'' we are told that the first edition had amaatng 
SBceess» and tbd second sold with still greater rapidity. 
Two itobiemen coming to *tbe bocAselIec% foubd only one 
single copy remaining, which each was for parchasiog: 
and the dispute grew so warm, that they were going to 
deeide it by the sword, had not the booksellar interposed. 



> Work shsymirti<oai.^aee Ai^lyttol Rtritw, «sL IL 

•B 2 



S< SAGE. 

m 

He was also distinguished for some dramatic f^iecea^ of 
^hicb ^^ C/rispio,*' and '^Turcaret/Vbotb comedies, werct 
the most successful, and allowed to fall very little short pf 
the genius of Moliere. ** Turcaret^'* which was first piayad 
in 1 709| has been praised by the French critics, as com? 
prehending a dialogue just and natural, characters drawn 
with peculiar fidelity, and a well-conducted plot. He 
composed also many pieces for the comic opera, whicb^ 
if somewhat deficient in invention, were \n general sprightly^ 
and enriched with borrowed fancies very happily adapted 
to the genius of the French theatre. . , 

When a favourite with the town, he appears to havie pre« 
sumed a little on that circumstance. It was bis custom to 
read his plays in certain fashionable circles, before they 
.were publicly represented* On one of those occasions, 
when engaged to read a piece at the duchess de BouiU 
Ion's, an unexpected affair detained him until a considera-; 
ble time after the appointed hour. The duchess, on his 
entrance, began to reproach him, but with pleasantry, for 
his having made the company lose two hours in waiting for 
him. ** If I have made them lose them," said Le jSage, 
^^ nothing can be more easy than to recover them. • I will 
not read my play," and iminediately took his leave, nor 
could any invitation induce him to vij>it the duchess a se- 
cond time. 

He had several children,- tb^ eldest of whom was long a 
distinguished actor^oo the French sti^e, under the name of 
Montmeuil^ and amids^. all the temp^tions of a theatrical 
life, was a man of irreproachable character. He died sud* 
denly while partaking t)f the pleasures, of the chase, Sepu 
8, 1743, and his death w^ a loss to. the pu.blic, and partir 
cularly to his father, who was now grown old, and bad^ 
been poorly rewarded by the age. which he contributed so<j 
often to eotfsrtain., He waslikewise at this tiii>e very d^^f> 
and obliged to have recourse to an ear-trumpet, whicb bfi., 
used in a manner that bespoke the old bumourist. It wa*.. 
his practice to take it out of his pocket, when he had reaiHMi y 
tq think that his cpmpany was composed of men of genius^ . 
byt he very gravely replaced it^ when he found that tb^ . 
were of an inferior stamp. 

This infirmity, however, depriving him of the pleasure* 
of society, he left Paris for Boulogne*sur-mer, in tbe ca- . 
tl^edral of which one of bis sons held a caponry: and al- 
tbpugb of an advanced age, Le Sage left tke oictcop^is ^ 



SAGE. S7 

Uut0, IHerattife, and gaiety, with considerable regret. He 
did not etyoy his retirement long, being cut off by a severe 
lUness, Nov. 17, 1747, in his eightieth year. He was in- 
terred at Boulogne, with the following epitaph : 

*' Sous ce tombeau git Le Sage, abattu 
Faur le ciseau de la Parque importune : 
S'il ne fut pas ami de la Fortune, 
11 fui toujours ami de la Vertu." 

Hie character is said to have been truly amiable, and bis 
eonduct strictly moral and correct, free from ambition, and 
one who courted fortune no farther than was necessary to 
enjoy the pieaaures and quiet of a literary life. 

Of oil his works, his *^ Gil Bias'* is by far the iilost po- 
jfKular, and deservedly ranks very high among the produc- 
tiona of historical fancy. It has been, we believe; trans- 
lated into every European language, and received in all 
nations, as a faithful portrait of human nature. Few books 
have been so frequently quoted, as affording happy illus- 
tratloos of general manners, and of the common caprices 
and infirmities incident to man. Le Sage, says Dr. Moore, 
pn>ves himself to have been intimately acquainted with 
human nature. And as the moral tendency of the character 
of Gil Bias has been sometimes questioned, the same au- 
thor very properly remarks that he never intended that 
character as a model of imitation. His object seems to 
ba^ been to' exhibit men as they are, not is they ought 'to 
ht : for thia purpose tfe chooses a youth of no extraordi- 
nary talents, and without steady principles, open to b& 
doped by knavery, and^perterted by example. He sends 
hitti 'like a 9paniel, through the open fields, thd c6verts, 
the igldttf heights, and fkenftracts of life# to raise, the 
gimse at whidi he wishes to Aoot; ^nd few moral hunts- ^ 
BMn ev^'aflbtrded^ more entertaining sport' '* ' 

^ The popuMi'ity of this nove^wfaibh c^uali; that of illmost 
9^ of odr cWtk mtjst' faveufttfe producttonsi thay afford' a 
IdHsdn to the %trtter» of'ficftion, who dre athbidotii^ that^thtj)^ 
wWft^'^iiT tire. ' Hid LeSag^ drawiV ' theyse exttavagfant 
aali'di9C0rced<fharabtA4'il%i<:hare sot^ommofa In'^he novela' 
pttitkM^'vrrlbiri tM la^t* twcfnty y^rt, Ms cd^ noi have 
expected that they would outlive the ndvelty bf i: firfat pe- 
nlsftl; brtrl, ifcpicti^g nature;' and nature onl)r, as hb found 
be^iii^'^eM of tlli'i^Anks and stations, be^kbek ttiat what'; 
wo^ld"{>leitfce* ndw ^otildf pf^ase for ibvei^, stnd that he wai 
•lteakin|f* a MAgfii^ge^ that tvdtild-be understood in every 



SS SAGE 

spot of the globe. The artifices of refined and highly po« 
lished society may introduce variations and disguises 
which gire an air of novelty to the actions of men ; but 
original manners and caprices, soch asLe Sage has describe 
ed, will perhaps at all times be acknowledged to be just, 
natural, ahd faithful, whether we apply the test of self- 
examination, or have recourse to the more easy practice ef 
remarking the conduct of those with whom we associate.^ 

SAGE (John), a bishop of the old episcopal church of 
Scotland, a man of great learning and worth, and ws able 
controversial writer in defence of the church to which he 
belonged, was born in 1652. He was the aon of captain 
8ag^ a gentleman of Fifeshire in Scotland, and an oiseer 
of merit in lord DufFus*s regiment, who fought on the side 
of the roytttists when Monk stormed Dundee in 1651. Al- 
though, like many other rc»ralists, he was soantily rewarded 
for bis services, he was able to give his ton a liberal edu- 
cation at school, and at the university of St. Andrew^s, 
where he t»ok his degree of master of arts in 1672. ' lie 
passed seme years afterwards as scboolniaster of the pa- 
rishes of Bingry in Fifeshire, and of Tippermoor iu Perth- 
shire> and as private tiitoor to the sons of a gentleman of 
fortune, whom he attended at school, and accompanied to 
the university of St. Andrew^s. In 1684, when bis-pui^tls 
left him, he removed from St. Andrew^ and when uncer- 
tain what course to pursue, was reeomnkendLedtoarcfabisfaep 
Hose, who gave him priest's orders, anct advised hia^ to 
officiate at Glasgow* Heine he continued to display itis 
^talents till the revolution in 16S8, when the presbyterian 
form of <^httrch government was established, and thte went 
to Edinburgh. He preached in this; city a while, but re- 
fusing to take the oaths of allegiance, iwas . obliged De^ de- 
sist, and found an asylum in the hoaae iof sir WiUiam 
Bruce, the sheriff of Kinross, who approved fats printiples, 
and a^tred his virtues. Returning to- Sdiilburgh in K95, 
where be appears to have written some defences ef- the 
ehureh to which he belonged, he was observed,^and>ebliged 
again to retii«. At length he found a safo retreat with 
the countess of Oallendaor, who employed him as chaplain^ 
and teter to'hev sons^ and afiterwards heiived^with sirJo^n 
Bteuart of Gamtully as chaplain, until Jan. 25, 1705, when 

1 ^picL Hist.^Moore's Life of Smollett— Blair'a Lecturetr-^BMttie^s DMer- 
tationi, p. 570. 



SAGE. 99 



ht wu conseorited' a bishop. lo the foUomog ytir 
hMitb began to decay, aad after trying the waters of Batb^ 
in 1709) and change of air in other places, without much 
benefit, he died at Edinburgh June 7, 1711. 

Bishop Sage was a man profoundly skilled in all tbe a&# 
cient languages, which gave, him ao eminent adrantage 
over his adversaries, the most distinguished of whom was 
Mn Gilbert Rule, principal of the college of Edinburgh, 
who, with moch zeal, and no mean abilities, w%s over- 
matched by the superior learning and historical knowledge 
of his antagonist. Sage wrote the second and third lettens, 
oenceroing the persecution of the episcopal clergy in Scot- 
laad, which were printed at London, in 1689, the nev. 
Thomas Merer having written the first, and professpr 
Monro the fourth. 2. ^ An acoount of the late, establish*^ 
■wot of Presbyterian Government by ihe parliament of 
Soiatland in 1690,'* Lond. 1693. 3. << The fundamental 
charter of Presbytery,'\ibid. 1695. 4. ^<Tbe principles of 
the Cypriaoic age^-^with regard .to episcopal power and 
jurisdiction," ibid. 1695. 5. '^ A Vindication'* of the pre** 
ceding, ibid. 1701* 6« ^* Some remarks on a Letter from 
a gendemaii in the city, to a minister in the country, on 
Mr. David Williamson's sermon before the General As«* 
sambly," Edtn. 1 703. 7. *^ A brief examination of some 
diiDgsin Mr. Meldram's sermon, preached May 16, 1703, 
against a toleratien to those of tbe^pisoopal persuasion,'* 
iUd. 1703. 8« ** The reasonableness of. a. toleration of 
those ef the Episcopal persuasion inquired into pucdy on 
•hnrch principles," ibid. 1704. 9. ''The Life of Qawin 
Douglas," bishop of Donkeld, prefixed to Ruddiman's edU 
tion of <' Douglas's Vingil," 1710. 10. '' An Introduction to 
Dmmmond's History of the Five James's," Edin* 17 1 1, with 
notes by.Raddiman, who always spoke highly of Sage as 
a aoboiar and companion.' 

SA<^ITTARIUS (Gaspar), an eminent Lodieraa divine, 
historian to the doke of Sasony, and pcofesaor of bistory 
at Halle, was bom Sept 23, 1(43, at Looenbiirg. He stu* 
died in, or visited the greatest part of tbe German univer- 
sities, srhere he was moch esteemed for his extensive lviow« 
ledge of history aad entiquities. He died March 9, 1j694^ 



^ I*iCe of Sage, anonyaious, but written by Mr. Jobn Gillao, a bishop of th« 
tame charch, Lood. 1*714, STo.-^^halmers'i Life of Ruddiman, p. 54.— Tytler*! 
Life of Kaimes. — Gillan's Life of Sage is scarce ; bvt an aiopl« AbndsmeDt nay 
We teen in tbe Bocyclopvdia BTitannieft* 



4^ SAGITTARIUS. 

leaviogf nearly 70 volumas of dissertatioM, priDcipailf out 
historical subjects; on oracles; on the gates of the an- 
cients; '^The sacoession of the Princes of Orangei" 4to; 
*' History of the City of Herderwich ;'* a life ot -St. Norbert, 
16BS y ^-'Tractatus varii d% historia legeitida," 4to ; *^ Uis- 
Ipfiaaatiqua Noribergse/' 4to ; ^' Origin of the Ikikes of 
^rainswick ;*' '^ History of Lubec ;" ^ Antiquities of the 
l^ingdom of Thuringia ;" ^' History of the Marquises and 
Elector^ of Brandenburg^" and many others, etiumeraled by 
Niceron* His life was written by Schmid, and published 
jij) 1713^ 8vo.* 

SiVINGTES (Claudius de), in Latin SANOTSSfos, was 
bom in 1^25, at Perche. He entered as' a regular caiKMi 
in the abbey de St Chen>n> near Chartres ; at the age of 
fifteen was admitted doctor of the Sorbonue^ 1566^ and re- 
sided afterwards in the house of cardinal de Lorrainei who 
employed him at the conference of Poissy, in 1561, and 
persuaded king. Charles IX. to send him to the oounoii of 
ficentf with eleven other doctors. In IS66 Oe Saiactesy 
wi^ Smon Vigor^ afterwards archbishop of Narboonei dis^ 
puted against two protestant minbters, at the house of the 
dpkede-Neversy and published the records of this cou«* 
f^i;9;ice two years after, and had also a controversy with 
Sadeely as we have recently noticed in his article* Ho 
bei^anie so celebrated for bis wriungsi sermonsi and zeal 
against the protestantSj^as to be pronseted to the bisboprio 
pf £vreux in U7^4 The £allQ«nng year he attended the^ 
fta^<i af Blois^ aad inisai, the eoiuioil of Bouen^; kum 
having .afterwaida joined the mast violent t a^iong the 
JUeagiuerS) was seized at LcHiviera by Henry Wch's pwrtf) 
whi) foiled a wrijdng among his papers, in whinh be pre^ 
tepdod' tQ iustify theass^&sioatian o^ Henry. UL and de- 
clared that the present king deserved the same treatment^^ 
Seii^ carried a& a prisoner to Caen, the- would ith^re have 
rfpeived the pviuabn^nt due ta hitt attempt, had not car- 
dinal de Bpurbpn, and smae other pfielates^ interceded thae 
i)if pnnUbinent should, be pecpetuai impmonfiient i He 
wai accQcdingly oonfined in the of^ tie de Cmvecoaur, ia 
t]|ie dio<^|se4)f..LisieuXy w|iere ha died in i 6^ 1 .. De Sainctea 
IfifiL m^fiy leanned.wQckst the> largest and xaost scarce aittong 
i^oh is a *^ Treatise on the Encharisty" in Lanin, fiilioi an 
edition of St James's, St. BasiPs, and St. Chrysostoxn'4 



^ ' 



' '^ ' V^osroB, M. fV^MofWl-^iet. Hist. 



SAINCTES. 41 

^* Liturgies**' Antwerp, 1560, 8yo, afterwards reptfutedi 
bet this is die only edition that is valued.' 

ST. ALDEGONDE. See MARNIX. 

ST. AMAND (James), a classical scholar and critic, was 
probably the desceodant-of a French fiimtly, bet we find no 
mention of bim in any French biographical work, and an^ 
unable to sqr much of bis early history. In 1705, he wai 
a student at Lincoln cotle^, Oxford, but made no lon^ 
stay there. His passion for Greek literature, but partieu^ 
burly for acquiring materials towards a new edition of Then* 
critus, led him to Italy, where^ though young, for he was 
•earce twenty, he obtained a distinguished reputation for 
learning, and became acquainted with men of title first 
erudition, among whom were Gravina, Fontanini, and 
0thera« By their acquaintance he was easily introduced 
into the best libraries ; and at Florence in particular, he 
iv«a favoured with the friendship of the learned professor 
Salvini, who furnished him with several nlaterials relating 
to Tfaeoeritiis ftom the Laurentian library and St. Mary'a 
HMmattery of Benedietines« The patronage and friendship 
of Mr. Newton too, the English ambassador at the grand 
dttke's eoul^ were of signal service to him. After spend-* 
ing some time with these arid other learned men, in a mu« 
tual exchange of literary treasures and observations, he 
retorned to England Ixf way of Geneva and Paris, and died, 
not about (750^ as Mf ; Warton says, but Sept 5, 1754, at 
his bouse in Ked-lion-sl^uafre, leaving the valuable collec- 
tien of books and MSS»'be had made ^road to the Bodleian 
library, and th«»'dttplical^ of his books to Lincoln collegefi 
Of the MSS. Mri- Warton availed himself in his edition 
of Theocritus. Mk. St. Amand.left also 8000/. to Christ^ 
bospital) and other legacies^' which shew that he was a man 
o£cowMd<Mrabte opulenefe.*- 

'S^r. A'MANT (MAMft^AliTaoKY-GfiRARn, sieur de), a 
FIrenoh poet, was bom at Roan in Normandy in 1 594. In 
dse epistle thidicetory to the third part of his works, be teHs 
as, that bis\Arth^ commanded a squadron of ships in the 
serviue^ of Slfeabetb queen of England for twenty*t^d 
years, and that be was for three years prisoner in the Black 
Towev at 'Consuntirtople. He mentions ailso, th^t two 

bffotliers of bb had been killed in an engagement against 

« y . , ,  '.  ' • 

1 Gen. Diet. art. SaiictesiQa.^-Moreri. 

« WartoD'i Preface to hm 'CbeOiVSliiK*-*<Osst« Jfnj^ v«LXXlV.-*->Wood'i C^- 
legef and Hails, and Annali.' 



42 «T. A M A NT. 

the Turks. Hh own life wai spent iii a oontinoal saccet- 
tion of travels, which were of no advantage to his fortune^ 
There are miscelianeout poems of this author, the greatest 
part 4>f which are of the comic or hnrlesque, and the ama* 
tory kind: The first volume was printed at Paris in 16£7| 
the second in 164Sy and the third in 1*649, and they have, 
been reprinted several times. '* Solitude, an ode/' ' wbioh 
is one of the first of them, is his best piece in the opinion 
of Mr.03oileau. In 1650 he published '^Stances snr la 
grossesse de la reine de Poiogne et de Suede.** In 1654 
he printed his ** Moise sauv£, idyUe heroique," Leyden ; 
which bad at first many admirers : Cbapetain called 4%- a 
speaking pictnre ; but it has not preserved its reputation. 
St. Amant wrote also a very devout piece, entitled *< Stances 
4 M. Corneiile, sur son imitation de Jesus Christ,*' Paris, 
1656. Mr. Brossette says that he wrote also a poem upon 
the moon, in which he introduced a compliment to Lewis 
XIV. upon his skill in swimming, an amusement he often 
took when young in the river Seine ; but the king's dislike 
to this poem is said to' have affected the author to such a 
degree, that he did not survive it long. He died in 1661, 
aged sixty-seven. He was admitted a member of the 
FVench academy, when first founded by cardinal Bicfaelien^ 
in I63S;«and Mr. Peltsson informs ns, that, in 1637, at 
bis ewn desire, be was excused from the obligation of 
making a speech in his turn, on condition that he would 
compile the comic part of the dictionary which the academy 
had undertaken, and collect the burlesque terms. This 
was a task well suited to him ; fi^r it appears by bis writings 
that he was extremely conversant in these terras, of whidi 
he seems to have made a complete collection Aom the 
markets and other phices where the lower people resort.' * 

ST. AMOUR (William de), doctor of the < fitorbonne, 
and one of the greatest ornaments of Christianify which 
appeared in the Romiri) communion in the thirteenth een-> 
tury, had his name ffom ^ Aanour in Franebe Coaip€i6> 
where he was born about <be commencement of thatcen- 
tury^. The zeal which he fAiowed against the new insttta- 
tion of' mendicant friars, both in bis sermons, and as theo- 
logical professor, induced the university of Paris to make 
ehoice of brm to defend i^ir interests againat the Domini- 
cans and Franciscans, who wished to engross the power and 

1 Gen. Diet— HorenV 



ST. A M O U R. 43 

iDfluence of the university to themselves. In \255^ tlie de«> 
bate was brought before the pope Alexander IV. wbo^ with 
intolerable arrogance^ ordered the university not only to 
restore the Dominicans to their former station, but also to 
grant them as many professorships as they should require. 
The magistrates of Paris, at fint, were disposed to protect 
the university ; bat the terror of the papal edicts reduced 
them at length to silence; and not only the Dominicans, 
hut also the Franciscans, assumed whatever power they 
pleased in that famous seminary, and knew no other restric- 
tions than what the pope imposed upon them. St. Amour, 
however, wrote several treatises against the mendicant or- 
ders, and partievlarly,' in J 255, or 1256, his famous book, 
** Perils des derniers temps,*' concerning the " perils of 
the latter days,'' in which he maintained that St. Paul's 
prophecy of the latter times (2 Tim. iii. 1.) was folfilUng in 
the abominations of the friars, . and laid down thirty-nine 
marks of false teachers. 

Some years before the pope had decided in favour of the 
tnendicants, a fanatical book under the title of an *^ Intro- 
duction to the Everlasting Gospel" was published by a 
Franciscan, who exalted St. Francis above Jesus Christ, 
and arrogated to bis order the glory of reforming mankind 
by a new gospel. The universal ferment, excited by this 
impious book, obliged Alexander IV. to suppress it, but he 
ordered it to be burnt in secret, being willing to spare the 
leputation of the mendicants. The university of Paris, 
however, insisted upon a public condemnation of the book ; 
and Alexander, great as he was in power, was obliged to 
aabmit. He then took revenge by condemning St. Amour's 
work to be burnt, and the author to be banished from 
France. St. Amour retired to his native place, and was 
not permitted to return to Paris until the pontifieate of Cle- 
ment IV. He died at Paris in 1272. His works were pub- 
lished there in 1682, 4to. He was a man of learning and 
correct niaimers, of great zeal, and, in the opinion of iL 
late writer, wanted only a more iavourable soil, in which 
lie might bring to maturity the fruits of those protestant 
principles, the seeds of which be nourished in bis breast.^ 

BAINT-ANDRfi" (Nathanael), an anatooM^, well 
hnowQ in this country on account- of the impostare of the 

> Bipg. UniT. srt. Amoar.—Miloer'i Eccl. Hist. toI. IV. p. 20.— Dapio.— 
Hotbcim. 



44 S A 1 N T - A N D R E'. 

RabUl-woman, and for various eccentricities of conduet| 
was a native of Switzerland^ but, on coming over to Eng* 
land, was placed by some friends under a surgeon of emi- 
nence, in which profession he became skilful. He, for a 
time, read public lectures on anatomy, and obtained con-^ 
tfderable reputation ; which was ruined by tbe part he took 
in the affair of Mary Tofts, as well as by many other irre« 
gularittes of character. He died in 1776^ after having 
been for many years the subject of more curiosity and con- 
versation than any of his contemporaries, though without 
any extraordinary talents, or claims to distinction. They 
who are eurious to know more of his character may have 
their curiosity gratified in the ^' Anecdotes of Hogarth*' by 
Nichols.* 

ST. EVREMOND. See EVREMOND. 

ST. GERMAN, or SEINTGERMAN (Christopher), 
an English lawyer and law-writer of the sixteenth century, 
is supposed to have been born at Skilton, near Coventry^ 
in Warwickshire, and educated for some time ^t Oxford, 
whence he removed to the Inner Temple for the study of tb^ 
law. Af^er being admitted to the bar, he became an emi- 
nent counsellor, and we should suppose a very popular one, 
as he frequently refused or returned his fees. What he 
gat by honourable practice and son)e paternal estate, he 
expended in the purchase of books, and j^ather^d^a very ' 
fine library, which was all the property he left to his heirs. 
Besides his legal knowledge, he was conversant in pbilo-' 
tophy ind the divinity of the times, and wrote on the lattei* ' 
siibject with so much freedom as to render his sentiments 
suspected, for which reason Bale has given him a yerjr ad- 
vantageous character. He is commended too for his piJ^t^." 
and pious ordering of his family, to whom be reaJ evh^y"*, 
night a chapter in the Bible, and expounded it. ' Re ^i^^l' ' 
Sept. 28, 1540, and not 1539, as Bale states.^ Hb' was . 
buried in the church of St. Alphage, within €ripple^te',^'^ 
London. It appears by his will that he was a co^siderabli^ 
benefactor to Skilton church, where his fathet siF tlqltiry I 
St German, knt. ^nd his mother lie buried, ^tid'toltbaf ^ ' 
Laleford. St. German has immortalized his name by'|i}i 
raluable and well-known work, which bears .tbp .tiij^.c^" 
'' The Doctor and Student, or Dialogues between sdobtot 
of divinity, and a student in the laws of England, conterni- '^ 

 t NichoVi Hofarth. ' ' ""' ''*^ 



ST. GERMAN. 45 

ing the. grounds of those laws/* first prioted by Ra^telly in 
Latio, 1523, 12mo, and reprinted in 152{$. Mr. Bhdginap 
enumerates above twenty editions which followed| the iasi 
in 1787| 8voy with questions and cases concerning the 
equity of the law, corrected and improved by Williami 
Muchall, or Murcbali. On the snbject of this celebrate4 
work, Mr. Hargrave (in bis Law Trfiots, 32i), has published 
frbm a MS, in tl>e Cotton library, " A Repli^fition of 4 
Serjaunte at the Laws of England, tx) certayoe pointes al^^ 
teaged by a student of the said lawes of England^ in a Diar 
logue in Englishe, between a doctor of divinity anti. the 
said student ;" and a little ^' Treatise coheermng writs of 
Subpoena." Two other tracts are attributed by Ames ta 
St. German, though they bear the name of Thomas God* 
frey, viz. " A Treatise concerning the power of the Clergy 
and of the lawes of the Realme," l2mo, no datoi; and ^* A 
Treatise concernynge divers of the Constitucyons provyn- 
cyall and legantines,** l2mo, no date. Tanner attributes 
to him ^' A Treatise concerning the division between 4he 
Spiritualitie and the Temporalrie," printed by Redman 
without date; and this seems to be the same work as '' Tb^. 
Pacyfyer of the division between the Spiritualitie and Teaw . 
poraltie," printed by Berthelet, which being reparki^lc . 
for impartiality and temperate language, was pointed out.* 
to sir Thomas More, as an example for him to follow iq :. 
his controversial writings. This incited sir Thomas to pub- ^« 
lish '^ An Apologye made by him, anno 1533, after he h^d? 
gevio over th' office of lord chancellor of Englande,"«print«» 
eq by Rastell, 1533, 12mo. St. German was also probably 
tbq author of/* Newe addicioas treating most specify of 
th^ power .of the Parlyament concernynge the Spiritualitie 
and the Spiritual Jurisdiction," 153 U 12ino, now reprinted - 
inriU t(ie: modern editions of the 'f Doctor and Student."  
Hp had-i controversy with %\t Thomas More» which pro« ^ 
duced ** Saleio and Bizance, being a dialogue between tfvo . 
EijgjishmeOy one called Salep, and the Q^ber Bizanci^/* ^ 
1533, 9^o. This was written in answer to More*s '' App-^ 
lo^V .above mentioned; and sir Thorns^ repliefl in (Ibe.. 
*^ Vqbellatioh of Salem and Bizance/* by RfM^l^ in \^%%^ 

Svit* * . 

Sf4J(NTrJ0HN (Henky),, lord viscount ^olioffbrQi|ey af 
ein^iei^^^^^tatesaian apd writer, was jde^c^iided from ^a ^ 

* Tsaatr. — B«l«.**Ath. Ox. rol. I.*<-BridfQaap'« Le^ml Bibliographx. 



46 SAINT-JOHN. 

ancient and ooble f8inily» and bom, as all bis biograpberi 
aajy in 1672, but it appears by the register of Batteraea 
parish that be was baptised Oct. XO^ 1678. His father, sir 
Henry St. John, son of sir Walter St. John, died at Batr 
tersea^ his family •seat, July 3, 1708, in bis eighty-seventh 
year : his mother was lady Mary, second daughter and co- 
heiress of Robert Rich, earl of Warwick. He was bred 
cip, with great care, under the inspection of bis grand*- 
father, as well as bis father, who neglected no means to 
cultivate his mind. It was once noticed in parliament that 
he was educated in dissenting principles, and it is very 
certain that the first director of bis studies was the famous 
Daniel Burgess, who, with all bis oddities (See Bu&Gfiss) 
was frequently employed as tutor to the sons of men of 
rank. Goldsmith seems desirous to impute Bolingbrdie's 
infidelity to this divine, and to his being obliged to read 
Manton's Sermons on the 1 19th Psalm ; but such an opi- 
jdioD is as dangerous as it is absurd. From Burgess or 
Manton, be could have imbibed only a higher reverence 
for religioa than was to be expected from a lively youth ; 
and as to the disgust be felt, to which his biographer 
seems inclined to trace his infidelity, it is probable that a 
boy would not have entertained much less dislike to a vo* 
luminous history of England, if obliged to read it wben be 
wished to be idle. But, whatever instruction be might re- 
ceive from bis first tutors, it is very certain, that he bad a 
regular and liberal education. He was sent to Eton, 
where be bad for his companion and rival sir Robert Wal- 
pole. ^^ The parts of Mr. St. John,'* says Coxe, ^* were 
more lively and brilliant^ those of Walpoie more steady 
and solid. Walpoie was industrious and diligent, bei:ftiise 
bis talents required application; St. J«bn was oegtigeBt, 
because bis quickness of apprehension rendered litbour 
less necessary.^* These characteristics prevailed i» bo|b 
throughout life. From Eton Mr. St. John wns removed to 
Christ-church, Oxford, where be made a shming ftgura as 
a polite scholar, and when be left the univetsily, -he^ mas 
considered as a youth highly accomplished, for publio iile. 
His person was agreeable, ami he had a dignity mixed wjlth 
sweetness in bis looks, and a manner v^y preposses^og^ 
and, as some of bis contemporaries said, ijrreatstiUe. He 
had much acuteness, great judgment) and a.prodigi<ws 
memory. Whatever he read be retained so^ as to mijce 
it entirely bis own ; but ia youtb^ be was aot ia general 



SAINT-JOHN. 41 

siiicb p}nn either to ^'rMdmg or refiectbii* Witfa-ymst 
parts, be had^ as- it> usiudly hftppens, great passions; 
whicb burridd him into those iodtscretions and follies' that 
distinguish the Hbiertine* He does not, however, appear 
to have been -wttboot bis serioua inoiDe»ts, nor always on- 
willing to listen to« the^ votoe of conscience. ^ There bos 
been someching always/' say»he, '^ ready to wihisper isi 
f»y ear, #hiie I van the covrse of pleasure and of basinesa^ 
* Solae Senescentem matttfe sanus equum^' * and while 'tis 
n^l, release thy aged horse.' But my genius, unlike the 
demon of Socrates, whispered so softly, that very dften I 
heard him not, in the hurry of thosd passions with wliioh I 
was transported. Some calmer hours there were ; in them 
I hearkened to him. Reflection bad often its turn ; and 
the love of stody and the desire of knowledge have never 
qaite abandoned me. I am not, therefore^ entirety vMpif^ 
pared for the life I will lead i and it is not without reaeofi 
that I promise myself more satisfaction in the latter part of 
it than I ever knew in the former.'* 

As these youthful extravagances involved him in discre- 
dit^ his parents were very desirous to reclaim him. With 
this view, when in his twenty-second year, they married 
him to the daughter and coheiiess of sir Henry Winche* 
ooe»b ef Bncklebury, in the county of Berks, hart ;< and 
upon sUs marriage a large settlement was made, which 
proved «ery serviceable to him in his old age, thourgha 
great part of what his lady brought was taken from him^ in 
consequence of bis attainder. The union in other respects 
was not aaucb to his liking« The same year be was eleesed 
lor the boreii^b of Wotton^Baaiet, and sat. in the fifth 
jparlioment of kiwg William, which met Feb. 10, 1700; 
and in which Robert Harlcy, esq. afterwards earl of Ox- 
ibi^ iras ohesen for the first time speaker. Of this short 
parliament, which ended June 24^ 1701, the business was 
the impeaobment of the king's onnisters^ who were eon- 
corii»d iat sbecondasien of the two* partition-treatiea ; ^uid^ 
Mr^'St John siding with the majori^, who were tbesi coo- 
sidered as tories, ought to be looked upon as coimneiicing 
Ml political career in that character. He sat* also- in ttie, 
nei^ whieb was the last-parliament in the reign of Wittiam, 
and thie £mt in that of Anme. He was charged, so early 
as 1710y with having voted this year against the succes^ 
saoD in the Hoase of Hanover ; but this he has pertMip- 
toriljr dented^ because in 1701 a bill was brought intoptfr- 



48 S A I N T . J O H N. 

iMoieQt, by sir Cfatrlei Hedges aifd bimsetf, etititted ^ A 
BUi for the tuth&r security of his mc^esty's person, and 
the suceeesioo b£ the crown m tbe Pmiestsnt line, and 
exuiiguisbiAg tbe hopes of the pretended prinee of Wates^ 
end all ether pretienders, and their open and €etrtt abet- 
tofift," Id July 17aev epon tbe dissoletion' of the second 
pariijpiDeat, 4he queen- making a tour from Windsor to 
BwJikf by way of Osford^ Mr* Sc iohnmtteiHled her; atid, 
at tfaat.uiuversity^mith seferal pemoes of the highest dis- 
tinctioQ, had the degree of doctor of laws conferred upon 
hioi. ... 

iPeraeveriog eteadily in the same tory-oenneetions, to 
wbicti he, adhered against 4be whig principles ^ bis femily, 
his: father and . gvandfatber being both of that party, h& 
gained such .an? influence in tbe house, that on A|Nril TO,^ • 
1704, be waa appointed secretary of war, and of the ma- 
rinea.. Aa this post rcqeired a cemtant eoifespondence 
with the deke of Martboroegh, it appears to'baTebeeii tbe ' 
priacipat foandation of the rumours raised many years * 
after, thaJt Jbie was in a particular manner attoebed- to the ^' 
duke« It is certain, that he knew hia' worth, and was 'h 
sincere admirer of bim ; but be alwaye denied any partien^' 
lar ponnection ; nor was he 'ever cbaiged by the duke of 
ducbeas iwitb iegratitode or bveacb-of engagement to tbem. 
In all political measuiesi Mr. 9t. John acted with Mr. 
Harley : and» thereforey when this minister was • removeA 
from the seals in 1 707, Mr. fit. Johnxhose to folk>w hnrfcf-^ 
tune, Md the ee^t diy resigned ids -pkce. He was not^ ^ 
returned in the aubae^uent pariiMDetit^ but, upon •herdhh-^'' ' 
aolution of.it in 1710, Harley being naale eiiameUer^ah^ ^ 
nnder^treas^res of tbe Exchequer, the peatof >«tereier]firf ^ 
state was given -le 'St. John. Abowt tbe sane dne hm^Hn^ '^ - 
the famous. ^< Letter, to the Exansiner,** to Wfebnd^eiMgf- ^ 
the firH of .thpse papers : it inB then uoieenrily 4aso«lbM 
tobi^iyv and gav» He tocmaideraUe pioofii oi« hiaruMlltiea * ^ 
es a wfitex; « for iivlhia aiegieaboittpaper eeeeomps^bMiied- ^ 
the outUneaiof thM' deaigii; ea whtefa 8i|riifc*emplayd*4rtM«i " -^ 
Helf fay,nq»r>at»yaiiieaanmh>> . • .f^ v «i • 

Uff^u tbe#(rilia^ of e aew; periiamentrw ? le» a w ba % (m -' 
was cb^«»k kaifhib of ^ke ^kiiw for^tkie^eaamep af Serhs^^ 
and|si^,buiy»afoc,Wia|ieniBasset; tetiMfle Ue^toctiM 
for 4n^fytfm9^. Ua e p p eee c d mmm upeh e^s lj e u J e f l atMU^ 
whi^rKT^lM fipth! all hia aUliiiear iir s«ritalM#aldMr- 
the whole neifbw c(£ the besiecsa of >^he»pete oi^JlMcbt,' 



ti' 



* • • 4* 



» f 



SAlKT-JOtiN. 49 

I 

wbicb however he wat not supposed to negdtiate td the 
advantage of his coiuicry: and tbereforer hsd M ample 
share of the ceoture bestotir^d on thmt traity ever since. 
The real state of the case is, that *' the two parties,** a^ 
he himself owns, ^ wcrre biN^me £aictioifs hi the strict sen^^ 
of tiie m>rd/* He was of that which prevmited (of peace^ 
against those who delighted in war ; far this was the hkn- 
gaage of the tiaaes : and, a peace behig resolved ofn by ilh6 
English jnioisters at all risks^.it is no wonder if it was nttfde 
with less advantage to the nation. He owns this, yet justi- 
fies the peace in general : ^* Though it was a cfnty/* sayif 
be^ ^' that we awed to our country, to deKver her frotn the 
necessity of bearing any longer so unequal a patt! in nd. 
unnecessary a .war, yet was there some degree of nierit lit 
performittg it. I think so strongly 'in this maniier, I Aih' 
so incorrigible, ifaat, if I could be placed in the same ciV- 
cnoistaiices again^ I vrould take the same resolution, aRd' 
act the same part. Age and experience flEklgfat ensblli tile 
to act with more ability and greater skill ; but all I have 
suffered since the death of the queen should m>t htnde:^ me 
from acting. Notwithstanding tliis, I iftiall not be sorprised 
if you think that the peace of Utrecht was not an^wenabld 
to the success of the war, nor to the eflbrts made irt tt I 
think so myself; and have riways owned,* ev^n when' it 
was making and made, that I thought so. Sifice we had 
committed a suceessAil folly, we ought to have reaf^l^d 
more advantage from it than we did.** 

In July i 7 1;, he was created baron St JtAn of L^diard- 
Tregpsre in Wiltshire, and vtacount Botiagbroke'; and was' 
also^ the aamt.year, appointed lord-lie a tenaht of the cotittty* 
of Bsseic. But these honours not coming up to tlie meti- 
sure of his ambitioo^ he mediated supplanting Hariey, 
oow ^art of Oxford, who had offended hini, ev6o in the 
matier of the* jpeerage. Pauiet St. John, the last eaH of 
Boltngbroket died the 5th of October preceding hitf crei* 
tion ; 4uid ihe eaorldom b«M3ame extioet by Uis decett»e, ariS 
this benetr. had beea promised to him ; but; hi^ preienee 
i« the House of Commons being so neoassary at tMt ttrnf^^ ' 
Harl^y paamiili^'upon him to ivmaio there'dortng that 
seasioQ ; with an asaaranoe, tb4t his tknl sbonkt' be pf b- 
serrfsl for him.^ ftat» when he expeetedifce did dtfe^otitd 
have keen renewed in his Atvour, be received oAty chit of 
visoKMHifc ; ivUch ha resented as an intended aflW)Af on tba 
part of Bailey, who hi^ got an earldottfor htoUVlf. -''f 

V0t. XXVII. E 



50 S A I N T - J O H N. 

continued,'* says Bolingbroke, ** in the House of Com- 
pdons during that important session which preceded the 
peace ; and which, by the spirit'sbewn through the whole, 
course' xyf h, and by' the resolutions taken in it, rendered 
the QORoluiion ef the treaties practicable. After this, I 
waadrairged into the Honse of Lords in such a manner as 
to make my promotion -a punishment, rtot a reward ; and 
was there left to defend the treaties alone. It would not 
-have been bard,'* continues he, ^ to have forced the earl 
of Oxford to use me better. His good intentions began to 
be very much doubted of: the truth is, no opinion of his 
sincerity had ever taken root in the party; and, which 
was worse for a man in his station, the opinion of his 
capacity began to fall apace. I began in my heart to re* 
nounce the friendship which, till that time, I had preserved 
iimcylable for Oxford. I was not aware of all his freacbery, 
nor of Che base and little means which he employed then, 
and continued to employ afterwards, to ruin me in- the 
'opiaion^'of the queen, and every where els^. I saw, how- 
ever, that he had no friendship for any body; and that, with 
nspect to me, instead of having the ability to render that 
merit, which I endeavoured to acquire, an addition of 
ttrengcb to himself, it became the object of his jealousy, 
and a reason for undenftifiing me.'' There was also ano* 
tbei^ transaction, which passed not long after lord Boliog* 
brokers being raised to the peerage, and which aggravated 
bis auimosity to that minister. In ' a few weeks after bis 
retarn from Fmnce, her majesty bestow^ the vacant rib- 
boas of tie order «f Uie garter upon the dukes Hamlltbn, 
Beaufort, and Kei>t,,and theccarts Powlet, Oxford, and 
Strafford. • BoHogbroke thoiigbt himseif • here &!gain ilf . 
usedj tomng an amfkitikMi, as« the mtnisiter well knew, to 
tteoeive subhjin insiaiQoe as- this i4rat of tHs distress's grace 
and fnvouiv Indflgnant at all she^e'jctrdomstaiioes^: we\tr^ 
told dm Bolingbrokev whdn.the treatiirar*s staff"' was tAetS, 
frb^ Oxferdy Mpfbssed liis joy Uy entavtadnfng;' that ver^f 
day, Jnly 7, 1X14, at dinner, the generals Statihope, Ca^ 
dogaii, and Fahner/3 air William WyiMhimii IKr. Oraggs; 
and otfairffentieaicMK Oxford sttkl'ttfy^il' Ms going out,v 
that ^someofcBem ironU smirt for it;^^ Mi Bolingbrofce^ 
vlas^ for ttrom being' iniieisible of tbeidahg^r to Wbibb del 
siDod exposed ;> yet he* was tick witbovt Aoptiii still of w^ 
ciarii^.hiiiseif, by making his court* to tihe<Wbiga;-i^d'it' 
isisett^in, that « little befereoliifrbe ted f repoied^io bring' 



«.A I N T-J O H N. 51 

in a bill to.^beJHouie of Lords, lo make ittreaifon to eiilbt 
foldien for ibe Freteoderi vrhiobwas passed into an aoft. 

.9oaOy however, after the accession of king George I. m 
1714> dieseaUwer^ laken from him, and all the papers 
111 his offioe secured* During the short session of parlia* 
ment at this juncture, be^ applied himself with his usual 
-iiMlustry lind vigour to keep up tbe^spirits of the friends to 
the late admiaistration^ withoutooiitting any proper ocea- 
aion of testifjing hia respect and duty to bis majesty, by 
assisting in settling the civil list, and other necessary 
points. But, when after^ the noeeting of the new parlia- 
ment,' his danger became more imminent^ bd withdrew 
privately to France, in March 1715. It ia said, by the 
continuator of Rapin's history, that his betirt began to fail 
him as soon as he beard that Prior. was 4aaded at Dover, 
and had pronrfsed to reveal all he knew. Aocordingly that 
evening his lordship, who had the aight before appeared 
at the play-house in Drury-'lane, and bitopoke another play 
for the neact night, and subscribed tova new opera that was- 
to be acted some time after, went off to Dover in disguise, 
as a servant to Le Viene, one of the French king'^ messen- 
gars. His lordship^ . no wever,' always affirmed thathetook 
this step upon cermin and r^eated infovniatiMs,^ dial a 
resolution was taken, /by the qmmi in pewer, not tonly =«tfo 
prosecute, but to pursue bim«tp the scafibjdi --^r 

Upon bisarrifal at Paris^-fbe seceived au* invitation: from 
tbe Prt^i^odeiv theuottt ^trivto- eiiga^ in '*hta semrice: 
wbiuh >«b^ at filnt ab9fi»iq|ely.jfefused, ^nd thougkt It wtse^ 
to make^tlia.best ap^cffftiiHi,4hat his prea^c cittumstanc^ 
would s^dmit^ to psav^t tbefirogreto of hisvpfosedutitaifQ 
Eoglaiifj* While tbi0(wasi^in;>donb^ ^^e >reitre^ imt^ D«B«r 
{4uio^ . wb^i^'be ocmlinued/Mllube beginning of duly ; aorir 
tb40«>iipw f'^Mtviugf vulaifeurable neim fmti some 'uf lits 
party iQ#.B9g|iandt bt«, compliedv with a^aeoonttUmsiKation 
Iran yi^P§eleQ(d«« u Md^^ taking vhfeMelWt tb^vebrdaor^ 
o97oe atjCommeydi^i^ritti oilt wiiki 4bem,liii( Paris,; 'and. ^iJ. 
ri^9d tbitlifr tbf»>kUrr tfidriodf: iftfer same xBoitH hiiorder to 
pffiouBfr fM^ tkaliei^iii'ftlke tootaiary ssMWOim^r.tis new 
nmM«rVAi|t»^M tfivasiefe ^rifif#io4. ;r3lid(vote<fi)t im^ 
PlOiobiiig/bimiQf btgh.^ ^ass^^d^ial the Hossse ef 

Ccipi«9PM' tb9fui{t]ue .prece<Ung^ wd six articles i^ra. 
bfpugbt inftf'^fbofiseytand ^n|a4(b)e>W8lpta^. August 4, 
134^^1 4^lii^b>'i9«ie>ie substeuee.as fblkxwsc U. f^That 
wliereaa be had assured tbe ministerii ef the States General, 



5S SAINT- JOHN. 

by order ftoiii Ime tm^eity in 1711, that she wonld malM 
no peace bnt in concert with ibem ; yel he sent Mr. Priov 
|o Fr&iicei rtiat same year, with proposaU for a treaty of 
peace with that mouarcbi withouttbe ooiuient of^the allioii'* 
8. ^' That be adnsed and promoted the making of a tepa^* 
I'ate treaty oc oooviBOtidn, with ¥rancei whi^h was sigaed: 
ill Septemheiv.'' S« << That 'he di«Qlo8ed to M» Mesoager, 
the FrMok minuter at London, this eonviention, wiiich waa 
the preliminary iastniotien to her majesty's pleBipotentir« 
aries at Utrecht, in October.'' 4. *^ That her majesty'a 
final instmotiont to her said plenipoteotianes weredisolosed 
by him to the abbot Guahier, an emtwary of France." & 
*' That be diaclosed to the French the laanner how Tour«« 
nay in Flawders might be gained by them/' 6. ** That he 
advised and promoted the yielding up ef Spain and the 
West-Indies to the duke of Anjou, then an eaemy to her 
majesty.'* These articles were sent up to the Lords in 
August; in consequence of which, be stood attainted of 
higfa^treason^ September the lOtb of the same year. 
' In the mean titnei his new engagements with the Pre* 
tender were so nnsoccesafol as to bring on hin^ a aimiiar 
tli6grace;for the year 1715 was seanwly expired, when 
the seals and papers of his newi aecretary 's oAce were de* 
manded, and giten up ; aad- this was toon followed by as 
accusation branched into seven ardeloB, in which ke was 
inipeaebed of treadie¥y, incapaeity, and .neglect. Thus 
disoarded, lie turned hu thou^ta ooce more to; a iwconoi^ 
ttation wick'h^ couniry, and in a short ttose^ 'by «hat cha^ 
•mctetittlv aetivfty with wbiohte prosaoorediaMiiis designs^ 
4ld pfoMhredv tlirough the <mediati#i of/ the eaci o£Su(r, 
th^n ftae;jBrttiib aoAi^i^MKlora* the Fvendbieonirt^ a prodbise 
of-pafdMy %pon cevtmn epmKtionsy firom tbw^kiing, wiio» 
in Joly ^9 ley eneaMi his faihtfrbaion'of BatteiBea/aodjaia- 
eoifn^'Sik dohoJ Ifn the rabandmo theM'^ioissttodeiihtai 
>t|lvowtpWwi4otoiA state <sf rtflectioo; aiid thia |i«odaeed» 
^tyysWa^yr ofbi^lief; a ««<}onselacio Pliilosepliioa,'' winc^hfUh 
^reb^tb^ eame ywr^ under ^he title of M BaAeetiont upob 
BluUi^^ InjilriBpieoehehaa^Arawniiiepictnre^iMa'omt 
^>€ii^ y^wkiM^ ^\t^ represented aa aifidienQe^'pivoeediag 
l^eNrt Arom^fbe OMliee of hi^ peneeumrs, tciKNie who had 
-«lr¥M <li]i'^eaftifitty *Willi abtlity aMd^ imi^riij^ m hq^^4ke 
4Mgie )of >bitf )Uso eowverted not wnly^nto a tolerable^ kf t 
wbai'^ippwn t» be an honomrabhsH iatsaiem' Urn inut aiso 
<iM«.year*wiAtteo sereral lei*eni,'in att^«er'fojthe<dBBf99 
brought agaiMt him by. thja Ihetenddr 'andJiis adhereota^ 



SAIN T-J'O H N. 5$ 

frindi iwe^'prtnted^ London in 1735^ ftw, together with 
aotwers-to tbem fcy Mr. ilatncs Mnrrajr^ aftei^firds made 
terl of Ehiabac by .tike Pretender ;. but, being the& imme- ' 
diafeely^ nippretsed) are imprinted in << Tk)daH» Cootioua- 
lioir^f RapoiU History of fiogbmd.'^ Tbd following y>ear^ 
he dtew up a Vinklf cotton of bis whole cendoot with vespee^. 
teidvBTtort'esi in the bifm bf a letter to sir WHtiam Wyiid- 
ham, which wa§ primed in 1 7*53, Sto. Ifc it written ^ith 
Ihe atttoat elegaineeand address, and abounds with interest 
inpand enteitaintng iinecdbtes. 

'. His &t«^ kdy hetag dead, be espoused about this tiei^ 
17 1 6, a second of great merit and aceompKsbiaents, niece 
10 madam de Meintenoti, and widow of the marquis de 
yillettd ;- with whom be had a rery large foriane, encum* 
bered) hoine?'er,t with a lung and tvoablesome law*siat« In 
die company aad oouTersatiofi of this la^, be passed Mi 
tune ns France^' semetiines in the country, aild sometimes 
at the oapttal, 'till 1723; wbeti the king was pleased to 
grant hint a ML and' free pardon. Upon the first netioe ef 
Siis' favtonr^ ihe^eapeotatmi of which had beentlie gov^rn- 
injg principle' of his politieal c6ttduct for several yeard, }be 
vettyrned' to ibis halite cenMitry/ Itis observable, ^> that bb- 
sbop'AsfertMiry was^baAisbed' at this very jeai^tuk^i; arid 
hapfifeDingy ^h hia)baang set islK>re ajt Galaisl^ 49 betfrfdbwt 
levd Bk>Hngbroke wds fbere^ he said; «' TheA I amc^K- 
ehafiged!" • iiis lordshipi'hfKHng obtaiilied, 7 ahodt^^lfK« yfvirs 
after Msfettirn^^rsffr^aGtof ^olfiJikne^ 'to,rest$t<e.fow to Mfi 
{sUtifly^haHijuiee, tatiil ta^mfchle jpim u^:p9iAei9'iiin^^iS^9iit' 
^bfilwhe-ahMslA make^ trhos^rh a^ W4t3^^ 
Aawley hiearf^Uxhrid^rJhoMi4dleatKr((vH^e^>Monyttkitf 
Mshob^^^dji^oanAgsaiffiett lm9\^imi^hjftwpiMitle^rtii»^fBL 
,tukm ,fiefi6Lm^vi\k^ri Here 'he()aiyvaiie^JiimAftf ,nifb' iprat 

VUpcy^Swift, ai^eofheanfrieBdai; 'htit «Mhs h]dob jtf^anstaa- 

tiafiedi wifhiAyJikff he^ww^lf^ M n»n themlt «Mre.«i«iilbr 

dinl^alMl lit;eodi<)ed«d«dcrn«ia^aaie'ia t^ ei:9eei>. 

iBjflfumdia^aaibte Miili'/^at^yelh'^aiaiaie^ mbt^^tlf^^^ 
em«Midiagfno^)iif^ff0&y/je^M^(bejptthUp^^M^ atfc^rdft- 
3Bebimgiifl)9oMieMieiia tetbeRmti^stevM'^ljibMwtQ arihese 
ieihiBtieemityth^.saipsiieA(fiiaeti4ti haMfiA^reftehieAthli^filll 
5dlec* of ^emrirofiwisy in(MdicA;he^Mih»ked^ felWiQ^p- 

jpteitibnvim £sisegaiiih«f^bi(i»sejif ,bo^^ 
oilfiiteri isllringiMiie jst^ temauMier: of ukiat ri^gif«]£aBdi^r 
^Duabyedrsaimhsa^ihe followiagii with, great hoUfieAs %g^t^t 
.^beassHsfuflcbithatiwbmAbdli pursued^. fiesMes. hia papers 



fit S A I K T-J O H N; 

|n the *^ Craftsmm/* which were the most popular in that 
celebrated coUeetiou, he published several pamphlets, 
which were afterwards reprinted in the second edition of 
bis *' Political Tracts/* a|id in tk|e authorized edition of 
his works. 

Having carried on his part^of the siege against the mini* 
ster with iniipitable spirit for ten years, he laid down his 
pen» owing to a disagreement >\ith bis principal coadju<? 
tqrs; and, in 1735, retired to France, with a full riesolo- 
tion never to engage more in public business. Swift, who 
Ipew that this retreat was the effect of disdain, veza^ 
tion,. and disappoiutmeiit, that his lordsbip^s passions ran 
bigb, and that bis attainder unreversed still tingled in his 
veips, concluded bim certainly gone once more to ibe Pre«- 
tender,. as bis enemies gave out ; but he was rebuked for 
this by Pope, who assured him, that it was absolutely un* 
true in every circumstance, that he bad fixed in a werf. - 
agreeable retirement near Fontainbleau, and made it bu 
whole business vacare Uteris. Qe had now passed the 60th 
year of his age ; and through a greater variety of scenesy* 
both of pleasure and business, than any of hiti contempo- 
raries. He had gone as far towards reinstating hioEiself in 
the full possession of his former honours as great parts and 
great application could go ; and seemed at last to think, 
that the door was finally shut against him. He bad not 
been long }f\ his retreat, when he began a course of ** Let- 
ters on the study and use of History/' for the use of lord 
Cornbury^ to whom they are addressed. They were pub- 
lished in 1 "J 52 ; anc), though they are drawn up, as all hl9| 
W^M'ks are, in au elegant and m^terly style,. and abouoil 
with just reflections, yet, on account of some . freedom*) 
takep with ecclesiastical history, they eacpos^d him to uMioh- 
censure, Sul\joiped to these letters are, his piece \\ upon 
Exile}" and a letter to lord B;agchurst ^< on tbe true use of 
study and Retirement." ; 

Upon the death of ^s father, who. lived to be extremely 
old, be settled at Battersea,,the ancient seat of the family, 
where he passed the remainder of his life. His age, his 
geniqs, perfected by long experience ai^dj^uch rellectioq, 
gave bim a superiority over most of. bis contemporariea,: 
which bis works l\ave not altogether preserved. Pope and 
Swift, however, were among his most ardent admirers; 
and it is well kpown, that the fprmer received itom him # 
the materials for his << £ssay on Maja." Yet, even in tbia 



SAINT. JOHN 55 

retirement, he did not neglect the consideratioft'ef publio 
aflkirs ; for, after the roncl>ision of the war in 1747, upoil 
measures being taken which did not agree widi bis notkma 
of political prudence, he b^aa ^* l^me Reflecuons oar 
the present state of the nation, principally with regUrd tio 
her taxes and debts, and on the cat»es and consequences 
of them :^' but be did not finish them. In 1749, c^ame dtit 
his *< Letters on the spirit of Patribtism, on the idea df'H 
Patriot King, and on the state of parties at the acdessioa ^ 
king George I ;•* with a preface in which Pope's condact, 
with regard to that piece, is represented as an inexcusable 
act of treachery to him. Of this subject we have already 
taken sufficient notice in our accounts of Mallet and Pope. 
Bolingbroke was now' approaching his end. ¥of some time 
a cancerous humour in his face had made considerable pro- 
gress, and he was persuaded to apply an empirical remedy, 
which exposed him to the most excruciating tortures. Lord 
Chesterfield saw him, for the last time, the day befote 
these tortures be(:an. Bolingbroke, wheh tfaey patted, 
embraced his old friend with tenderness, and said- ^ God, 
who placed me here, will do what he pleases^ with tee here- 
after, and he knows best what to do. May he bless you ^ 
About a fortnight after he died, at his house at Blittei^ea; 
Nov. 15, 1751, nearly eighty years old, if the date Usiliatiy 
assigned to his birth be correct. His corpse was itlterfea' 
with those of hi.s ancestors in that church, where there is a 
marble monument erected to his memory. V 

His lordship's estaite and honours descended to' his n^-' 
|riiew ; the care and profits of his manuscripts he left to 
Mallet, who published them, together with his worki alrefhdjr. 
jprinted, in 1754, 5 vols. 4to. They ma(y be divided intd- 
politieal and philosophical works : the fortner 6f Which bate' 
be<Ni mentioiied already, annd consist of <' L6tterir ilpoh^ 
History,"' « Letter to Wyndham,*' ** Letters on Patrioti^m,'^ 
and papers in the ** Craftsman ;" which hid bleto septt*' 
ntelf printed in 8 vols. 8vo, under the title of ^-Dif^rta- 
tien upoit Patties,'' << Remarks on the tlistoty of Enc^Hnd *'» 
md << Politieal Tracts." His philosoptric^l >fMkt cMsiiF 
o^ *^'nie^ llubstetice of som« letters wt-itteW'^ot^nitlly ilit 
French ab6dt 1720 to Mr. de Pomlly ; Idft^ ocdasiortbd b^^ 
one' of abp. Tillotson'a sermons*; sind lett^r^ or esftnyi- ad- 
dreteed to Alexander Pope, esq.^* As M^Uet had publifthetl' 
aia 8vo edkibn of the « Letters on History, ^'^Vid^^'^Lfeti. 
t» \& Wyndhai^,'' before ^^e 4to editSoti of tiiis"w6rks 



nhifial jf^ji/tin^ Av^iflls- ^^- Tfe^se es9ayA|i^addre«»ed to 

Vftfol} 4wy ftl.W^^^l^ tba 4ne||l irutbft ^f r;^^>aMon^ wd, 
. o4 ^bfii ^QfipjU^L , HQtvf^} e^pOfi^d llie (topftuseii Mifebpr lo 

'4^,4l^rp9^i(lfipj3t Qjfjh^ wqrks by tbe gm^A jurj- o(.Wta»^ 

'Wji^tp^i buf i|jei4le;if tkeoi w^ veiy ^Iq% .^n^l^pf 'lata 
yeafS tb^jr. afi^, perb3|)9 ^uU |e«s .cqiusuUed. Aa ^Uo0| 

J bWey^r^. wa8jpiU>lUb^4 ip IHOdr in 4 voU. Svo». iviib nmnjir 
aMitjgfiJi^ffbjti subs€;qviQnt w^boviti^s, tO the l^ffiof Bviifif- 

^bfp^e, .^^^b w^^ M^rU^n, by jQr. GQld^KBJtb* ^om^ tU$m 
\?j^fi\r0 ^t)i$9 ^ vaUiablt? ppllecuon 4of lorf) ^olfiigbaroW^ po-r 
liticf^rjdGtrrjefpondence was p^bli^d in 4tp,4M)|J 4 voivj ^a» 
by tbe, i^v. f^ilbc^l Pai:k^» wbLch p9iu^n# o^^h inibtma- 
tiqn (;e^ec^g ttie ineoordble p#f^pp of Uuf^b^ iHia^kt- 
r(ic.t.efba9,]t'ei;i; dr;^n by v^riou^a^l^p^iis, IftyGbesMri^ifi^ 
ly^f/i. (;;ockburD^ Kuff^oad (^Rderitb^ guManf)»of WarlMtar- 

'tp^)i lord W^ip9r(p^ Hprape W^lpoW»'iord Qt'jF^y^4(c. &«• 
a^d altbuugh tJbey di|^r in aomp pQlpl^i^^i^ci^piA Itrwifl^ 
tbp^ior^JBoliqgbjrokf, vKiM pppsi^^r^ bya^imsL fKililician 
of an ii^ppctajiit pls^ i ihat ti^^ifft iftbo iiwiviQ b^en .«i moit 
p^in^ to dp^iwu/e |)iQ[i i^san eneifiy, vf^u|^ ^e lif^n.¥Qry 
(fpsirous to ;^c(we biqi ^. a him^y w4 d^ ibipjr a)ty/W» 
credited ij? pv^y Miing soon§f ,^|aw^p ^i\|Jbl^/ affpoliiig. tt^ 
i^ndervidve bif (alents* Aqtbitioa and ^ipaeKirraKly ^ifaifft* 
tute the great obJ€tcUQiis,.to bi» pjabl^: aii4i|^Vafe«i2haiW-- 
tpr. Hi^infidelprincAftl^; wcir< lu^j^mi^ko^^iKa^oieiAfia 
deaths, except to |;iis.fj^)pQ4f. Lik^ (^^^erA^lik^iidiHiiala, 
he [pfs «vqr\ethi9g ))ehiad him n^w^ t^p.^ buiprodiua^ 
ip kh (ife-7^ime« 1^4 subjectec} jiimy^if to aociNiitfkwtedb 
which be could no longer reply. . tfi^ ^ift d^uMtec^fOOf^ Jib 
|\a* .?uff?rfd pqvflf\y>jr th^ im^ rft«5«*l»fkn%^f pf«V» *»<* 
by,..ii^e. uufof^v}i^g,p;;^j|idicea 4;^f.,p^nyj a^^jM il^taltiiJ 

'"PW-H*" fif tlii? ?'«^Sl^ ^qadeo^y, w^aa.b^iP in NunojS^^Be*- 
16,. 1.7, J^^,; c(f,^<|imily of JLoiwift. ^e w^ edwct«d ^mong 
t^'J^esy^.ts^.ilj^ 9oll^^;Qf F!oo6*anMA¥ltmi# 4»at in«ufay 

» tirt'kjr «crt^»bit/lk^o'eAt. 1809.— liiOK. Brit— Swift's Works.— Pop^t 
IKovloi by*lo«lpf<AP-ib»ii#t W^pof(*^Lyi6h%*i Erivirtmt.TOl. t.— ftbyal'iktMl 

tal Writers.— Warburton's I^ettera to Hvrd. fcc. &c» ,« . 



ST. L A M fi IE R T.' 57. 

eirtered into tb^ KrMy, which be qt:Atti(d Mt tKe pe4ce 
of Aix-la-^Chapelie irr'lT48, and joined the gaV parnr al- 
sambied by Stanislads, kbig of Poland, at Luntvule. There 
he became an admirer of M^daibe de Cbatekti Who return- 
ed bia Mtaobment. He wa^ afternrairdir intimate with, aud 
"die egregioes flatterer of 'Voltanr. It ii not' satd what 
'pare' he taokan ihi* Yetoluti6n, bt^t be etcitped {ts dih^ers, 
and died atPltris Feb. 9, 1605. He Was a ihati of genius, 
but hi« iiteps ih tbeiiterary career #ere rather slow, and lli- 
'commenturate with the activity of his genio* ; for his 'first 
poetieal work, '* Les F6ies de TAoiour et de l^ffymen,^ m 
tbeameat performance, was iiubhshed al>OQt 1760| when 
he was alrt^ady turned of forty years of age. His poem 
entitled *^ Les quatres parties da jonr^' appeared in J764> 
mod HOi^ii ranked him among the greatest poets of bis age. 
The 'Composition was acknowledged to possess novelty in 
the descriptions, interest in the details, and elegance in 
the etyte ; although» on the other side, it was charged with 
eoldnessi want of unity, and monotonous episodes. The 
nine year he miblisbed bis ** Esaai sor le luxe,'* 8ro. His 
liext, and jnsuy cetebrated, poetical perfbruiahce, '* Les 
Saisons," which was published in 1769, raised bim to the 
highest de^rf^ of repuuition. It was generally admitted 
that he exhibited her6 a large share of ingenuity and inven* 
tioo, by introducing pastoral poetry into a composition of 
a different sort, raiiaking it still preserve its native simplicity, 
and yet ass^iate naturally With more elevated subjects. 
"* An additional merit was discovered, with regard to this 
eleffant wof k, in the motiire of the author ; as bis professed 
dkeaign wstt te inspire the great proprietors of land with an 
dndmaiilon to live oft their manors, and contribute to the 
happinead Uf the cuitrvators. 

In97VS, he published bis ^' Fables Qrientales,^ which 
idid ifvile «kher to intnr^ase or to diminish his poetical fame : 
woA-msUffy yeiars after ive 'prdduced his *^ Consolation de la 
Yieillesse,** a proof that his talents had suffered ho dimi- 
DUftiun fttom age or infirmity. The last publication of Saint 
Ltebert is a phUdsopWtal work in prose/ It appeared in 
act&e, in 9 Volar. 8v^o, under' the title of '^Catechisme Uni- 
vefifeL" 'It" was intended to e)chtbit a system of morals 
grounded on human nature; and the fi^voijirite object of 
the author was to .confute the doewino/of a moval sense, 
which has been supported by many eminent metaphysicians, 
^ver since the writings of Shaftesbury and of Hutcheson. 



5S ST. LAM B-E R T. 

This work was justly deoomihated by some French critics^ 
allndin^ totbe age of the author, Le soir d'un beau jour' 
(the evening of a beautlt'nl day !) He wrote also i^ome ar- 
ticles for the Enoyclopedie, and many fugitive pieces in 
the literary journals.* 

SAINTE-MARTHE, in Latin Sammartbanus, • is the 
nameof a family in France, which produced man j men of let- 
ters. The first, Gaucher de Sainte-MarthE, had a son 
Charles, born in 1512, who became physician to Francis IL 
and was remarkable for his eloquenee. Queen Margaret of 
Navarre and the duchess of Vendome honoured him witi) 
their particular esteem ; and when they died in 1550, be 
testified his grief by a funeral oration upon each, published 
t)ie same year. That upon the queen was in Latin, the 
other in French. There is 'also some Latm and French 
poetry of his in being. He died in 1555 — ScEVOLE, or 
ScATOLA, the nephew of Charles, was born at Loudun in 
1536, and became very distinguished both in learning and 
business. He loved letters fcom his infancy, attained ah 
intimate acquaintance with the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew 
tongues ; and became an orator, a lawyer, a poet, and an 
historian ; he is also represented as a good friend, zealous 
for his country, and of inviolable fidelity to his prince. He 
bad, in the reigns of Henry IIL and Henry IV. several con- 
siderable employments, which he filled with great reputa^ 
tion. In 1579, be was governor of Poitiers, and afterwards * 
treasurer of France for this district. In 1593 and-1594, he 
exercised the office of intendant of the fiimnces, in the 
army of Breugne, commanded by tiiid duk^ de Montpeh-^ 
sier : and, in the latter of these years, he reduced Poitiers 
to the subjection of Henry IV. Some time after, he con- 
ceived thoughts of retiring to his own country, and de- 
voting the remainder of bis life to contemplation : but was - 
again made governor of Poitiers, in so honourable a man- 
ner that he could not decline it. Upoh the expirktioh of 
this office, he went to Paris, and'thence to Loddiin, wbetie 
he passed the rest of his days *^ in otio turn drgnitate.'' 
This town had been often protected from rtriti lA the civil 
wars merely by his credit, and therefore regarded him as ' 
its protector. He died there in 1638, universally regretted ; ' 
and his funeral oration was pronouY/ced by the femous 
Urban Grandier. He was the author of ^ ** La foiiange de 

> Diet Hist.— -BaldwiD'a LiUrary 49urn»l. , , 



S A I N T E-M A R TH E. - 59 

buTtlle dft Pokiers,^' 1573 ; *<^ Opera Poelica,** xonshtin^ 
^oie&y elegies, epigramsy «nd saered poenui^ m- French 
and Latin, 1575; *^ Gallorum doctrine illustariopi'clogia^** 
t^9S :7 ,b^t bis chief ^ivork,.%nd that iTvlach keeps his name 
still alive in the republic of letters^ is bis work called ** Pa>* 
doiTophia, ^eu de ptteroruoi eriuoatioiie/' prhked in 15M, 
and dedicated to Henry III. This poeol went tbroagh tea 
editions in the aiitbgr's/lifie^tiine, and hath goneabrough as 
foany since. It was neatly printed at London in 17(MI, in 
12aio, together with the '< Callip»dia*' of (j^ttlet. It is 
a)so printed with a coi^plete edition of bis and his son 
Abel's works, under the tule ^iSafnaiartbanonim patria el 
filii opera Latinact Galtiea^tumsoluta oratione,* turn versu- 
script^? Paris, 1633, 4to« ScoTcJe left several sens; of 
wiaom AfijE^ the eldest, born:at Loadun in 1570, applied 
himself,, like his fatiier^ to literature.. He* eultivated> 
Fceoch and Latin poetry; the latter were printed with 
tbose of his father in the edition just laeaHoned, ^bnt ase 
inferior to them. Lewis XII L settled on him a pension, 
for the services he. had done biin,.aiid4nade him a ceon*^ 
seller of state* In 1627, he was , made; librariatf to the 
kiog at Footaioifldb^aa ; , and bad afiter tbat > other- coositfis>* 
siona of importance. He -died et Poitieraan 1650, where 
hiji . <^ Qpuscula Varia^' were printed la 1645, $vo« This 
Al;^! bad a son of bis Qwn name, born iA-fc630, and aiter«* 
weeds idistinguisbed by bis iearaing. Hs^ succeeded bis fa-' 
ther aiiUbrarMinat Fontaioeblean, and in tbat quality pre«« 
sented, to Lewis tXIV» in 1668,.. ^^Un Discours p<mr le w6^ 
tab}i^€;ment 4e cet^Ma Qibliotheque.'* He died^.in .1^706. 

SpevplelsHsecand and third sons, Scsvow and Lawis, 
were born ial57U Tbey-were twin^mfbers, of the same 
tejqper» genius,; and stupids; with (this, difference only,< 
tl^t.^c^tijuole^if/^ntii^uediilayoiam, aqd married, wbile^ Lewis 
eiiibr;aced.!^(fl9clesiaaii€al ^Ute. They spent tbets lives 
t0|{e^^ ifi(P^£sct nn^on, and- wjEtre. occupied < in the same 
]ab4HU'«/ ^Xbc^y l^ere both counsettors to Uie king, and bis* 
toriqgr^{)Wi^ ^. ?rance. They were both interred at St^ 
S^eiUQ»(^o Paris, ifii t^e same grftve ; thougb Soevole died 
in. 1 650, a<||d,.L^wis.did not die tiit>.i656»t Tbey.<Ustin« 
guisbedt tlnaa^sebtea^.by their ktK)wledge,,andUl^<con|U1Mr- 
ti9p,v(^ijspotied tbei.^^'tCallia Chrbilia6ia,.a0ii sbriea omniuas 
Epf^c« &,c, l^f^jpeia^*' of wbiah there i${ an edtticatin 13 
vols, folio, 1715 — 1786, but three more volumes are yet 
necessary to complete it. u • 



€0 SAINT £-M A R t H E. 

Alifel tsitris, aodCuto^^ bi^ SAtHTE-MAnrrRtr, vU fneii 
dt lkattuf)^» and who dfstin^disbbd' th^msd^^ by fiiH^Hl* 
ltab(ic^li<ms ; bat tbtiir frorks ^vi not df a iral^rcf t6 make 
a plLrdciidatr ennoieratioti of tbem tiecesgary here:' ^ 

g^idii^ I^renc6 writer, was bom at Auatlffre irt* l»W. TW 
o^iy itiformitibn We tave of bis e$iiy lifis is^^gtfided to » 
itotice 6f the affection Which sohsisted betwMti bhn kndhi^ 
twiir-brbtb^r M: de la* Gume.' It appears thut he ^iMkhd 
himself to researches into the language and antiquitteS'bf 
bU country, and was admitted a memb^ of the trfcteh 
ac^emy, and that of inscriptions. In all his labeurs he 
was assisted by his brother, who lired with him, and ^^ 
bia inseplarable associate in bis studies, and ^eh in ' hiar 
auibsements. St. Palaye died in 1781* La Harpe has 
ptiblisfaed some spirited verses which be addressed in hii^ 
eightieth year to a lady who had etebroideried a waistcoai! 
for him ; but he is chiefly known as tin anthot- by ^'•Me-' 
ihoires sur r Ancienne Cfaevalerie,** d rols. M'tmt>, rn whieli 
he paints in very lively colours the tnaatfers anfd cUstottis 
6f tbat institution. Mrs. Bbbson puMMied' irfn Englirfl 
ti^nslatibn df this in 1184. -Atteth'iB deb^as^ tfa^- Mb^ 
MHlot drew tip, from his papeirs, ^^JJEhtmitdkp'^iklbtt^' 
«iiii^*^' in 3 Tds. 12mb. l^t.'Pals^ye faisd'^teedkaied iM M 
^ Universal French <7lt>ssa;sy,*' Which ivas^ be'vMr&i*&^ 
piims t|^ that of Dtf Cange, and left t^^ wei^kr ifft iMtM^^ 
6Ci:1{^t,.'dne a fatstdry of the vaYtatioh^ thiti'litfvrtdketi piMi 
hi the Fi^enc^ language, tbe other H ThtH^tmrf etf VfifMik 

''ST. I^AvIN <IteMi?rs* SAifbt/ttJ b^)^ tf^FWi^fhfiptJMncrf 
Akj^ seventeenth cf^ntury^'^wfts bohi at; I^aiis, ' a^ s«u Ated 
iMfitb a view to tfat!'ecclesiasti<iaf^^ores8l<ln, bii^Ms'p4(M» 
JMt^'itieiJt^m viiiolly to tfcte bend's lettMs'^iAd) p^iififi 
Wbfdi he diligendy cuiritsited\ lle^ sfrem th>e g^i^st fNfft 
of fafilife a« LiVri, -bf^bttib 1i^ was abty^, i^«gffr nq^cKii 
Bj> tb tfie ordei^,' ftV fe lived in a votnpltiia^M Hi<Mim 
^tj^e, birculitting and Hpiradti^ing the pemitioei^mtt^MMdiie 
!iad ieahit'frbm hHi m^ter, the poet Theopllite/ an^'^w 
which he was So strhh^lyatti^ciied^, "diat^bbii^MifrrMi lint 
catltb^ DtBcefi St. Pavings tettVMioi/ ii^H^'^ lyihg^im^faily 
itepbbsWi^. -iTbe stfdty of Mil ha^f^ 'bMri^cdtv«0MM<th9r 



S T P A V IN . 61 

hMNring^: tefribla voice H tb(e time TheopbUe died| in 
162Sy is eatireJywitboQ^ foUDd«UQp» for bis cboversioi)^ 
preoe(^d bis omn de^ih bol a very i bort ^me. He died, in, 
1670^ Waving several poeim not inelegantly writtqn^ which, 
form part of vol. IV.-of3arbin*s collection; an4 a coUec- 
iioQ pS hiaworlf^ was pubiisbed in 17$^, |2me^ witb Cbc^rle- 
TaJ^'j Laiaiie. and Mpntpla^ir* He was related to Claudiua 
S^ngiuni, «^ward of the housebol(l tp the king and the 
4oke.of Orleaas, who published ^* hes Heures" in French 
vevaei Pari«, t660, ^U^ in which the whole Paalter is trans- 
lated.^ ( 

ST. PIERRE (Chabl^s Irene'js Casteu j>e), a French 
iQf9nd aivd, political writer, was born in 16^8, of a noble 
£aaiily, at Saint*Pierre in Nonoaiidy. He stndied at the 
college of Caea, a^d waa brought up to the church, and 
Q|>aiued s^me preferipent ; but was more distinguished for 
bia political knovdedge* ^ Previous to \^is appearing in po-. 
Uytical life, be wroi^ some observations on pbilosopbicat 
gcafnoiar, in cooaequeoce of which. he was admitted a nieoi** 
her of the academy in 1695. His political fame induced 
the cardftial Polignac to take him with him to the confer- 
ences* ^r the peace of Utrecht ;- and here he appears to 
bavie announced 4Hie of |ii8 fi&vourite projects, the establish* 
meoit^of a kind of £f rppean di^t, in order to secure a per- 
petUAl pea^e, which cardiaiil Fteiiry received wiib good 
hem^oi^obut saw at once its practical difficulties. Such 
i^d^ was l:be ca^/e with most of the schemes be pi^blisbed 
injiis wgrks, wjbicbtarf^ now nearly forgotten. He cer- 
H^il^y^ boweyar,; bF^d the merit of discovering the defects 
of the government of Louis XIV. and pleaded the cause of 
> iil%reifr^i!¥ni8l^tutif>n with omch boldeess*. One of his 
b^{.i»otfks% waSf/^ A Memorial on the establishment of a 
y«opf»rtMMi%l 1raUlfi,V wi4cb.i8isavJ^.to have o^eliorated the 
^le$^ tj^mf^ inFraoccL He ^led in 1743, aged eighty- 
fiifq.1, Altnc tbA^df^l^ ofi^ouv 3^JV: he publjfbed some of 
}H^p}x\ill9^''.j^tjfM9!th^i tJjftjiTOPwqh i^i.aipawphl^ en- 
tMed.^ L%jJPe!(efWf«>^®«i 9^ tfje^uralitji of councils, for 
'idA^J:^^^^^:i^sffi^^^^^^Jfr^fich aq^d^QVi Footenelle 
enly gWi*>**'^ffi ^" l^ fayouf., ^A^ eiSifix^ of bis works 

'|[ST« JlBAiMCi*fi« yiciuap ^eJ, a polite French writer, 
wasUbv'iii^fib pf ^'i^tu^ci^lcf ^o«t^ sanate of Cbaml^erri in 

> Mottm^ifOict HiiU « Big^f by D'Akmbert— Diet. Hist 



r 
I 



•2 S T. ft E A I- 

SAvoy/ wfHBff^ he w^ born, bat it is'hot meiitiofied iq^ %vba€ 
-yeHrL H« ehme- rerj yoang to Fraoce, was some time li 
diseiple^^^f M. de Varillas, and afterwards distinguished 
'bidiMelfai Paris by several ingenious productions. Jn 1675^ 
b^^etarned to Gfaamberri, and ,weot thence to Engiaod 
with tihe dfiebess of Mazarin ; but soOn after came ^ba9k to 
'Pluis,' Where he lived a long time, without title or dignityy 
intent «ipon literary pursuits^ He returned a second time 
)io-6hamberri in 169^, and died there the same year, ad* 
vanced iti years, but not in the best circumstances. He 
Vras a mah of great parts and penetration, a lover of the 
aeiehces, and paifticularly fond of history, which he wished 
to h^KVe-fiitidied, not as a bare recital of facts and speechesi 
but as a picture of human natore philosophically contem- 
plated. He wrote a* piece, with this view, ^^ De PUsage 
de PHistaife,^ Paris, 1672, 120109 which is full of sensible 
and judicious reflections. In 1674, be published " Coq,^ 
joration de9 Espagnbis contre la R£publique de Venjie ea 
1618,'* i2mo, in a style which* Voltaire compares to that of 
Salliist ; but what he gained in reputation by this, he is said 
to have lost by his ^ La Vie de J^sus Christ,** published 
' four years after. He wrote many othe;* things : some, to 
iilustmte the Roman history, which he had made his partis 
cttlar study; sothe upon subjects of philosophy^ poIiti(VS(# 
and morals ; and notes upon the 6irst twd.book^oF Tully'a 
*^ Letters to AtlScus,** of which he tirade a French transla- 
tton* A heat edition of his Works was publisned at the 
Httgoein 1722, in 6 vols. 12mo, witboat .tt)e letters to At- 
tioos; which, however, were printed in the ^dition pf^ari^ 
1745, In 3 vol«. 4to, aiid^x 12m6.' ' i ,/ • . ^ ./ 

ST. SIMON (Louis de ftotrvROi, doke op), a Frcbch wf"-, 
t«r of memoirs, was the son of a duke of the piifk titled bpr^p^ 
June 16^ 1675, and Was introduced at the court of Louis ^IV, [ 
in bis fiheentfa year, but had'been <Mucated in virt,uoM^ P."?* ' 
ciplesi lihd never departed from them, ^itiiev a^ co^rt^ ^/. 
in the amiy, in which he sierved till I6i^7. ' )iv\ 1721 qe« wa^. 
appointed aftibassador e^ctraordinary to the^t:burt bifSpaM?^. 
for 'the purpose of soliciting the infknta iip n^rriagie^. (qi^^^ 
Louis XVa AfVei^b^n'g for some time co6fidential^vj^er XQ j 
th^n^edt, ^hkbof Orleans, be retirecl to hifl; qit^t^^ ^p^., 
palled knosr of his tirne in his library^ where ))^jg^^ fp-,^ 
cesi9^tfy ^atld forgot nothing. The marshat de IBelle-isIe 



S T. S t M O N. 0S 

used to say that lie was the, most inierewing«ad Bgrc««Ue 
dictionary he had ever consulted. At fourgci^e bb enjojed 
\\i his faculties as perfect as at forty : the presitebme of 
h(s death is not meniioned, but it appears toi lwtte>,uJLeQ 
plaCe about 1737. He cum posed "Mentoirs »f .ibe leign 
of Louis XIV. and. the Regency," wbich caiitiM 0(fa>iT»- 
riety of anecdotes relative to the courts of Louis XiV. antl 
XV. which are told in ai^ elegant style, bat hismannerras 
often sarcaslic, although, his jus^ce has nCferJieeii aalled 
in qaestioii. M. Anqiielil has made this noblesBafi's nx^ 
oibirs the basis of his history of '.' Louis XIV. Ms Cowit mni - 
the Regent." Some of the editions of these Memoifa haw 
been mutilated, but the most complete was priotedat&tas*' 
burfT, in 1791, 13 vols.,8vo,' 

SALDEN (Willl\m), a learned writer in tbesistrentii 
century, ttoin at Utrecht, was successively miuister of se- 
veral churches in HpHand, and lastly at the Hague, wh«r* 
be died ia 1694. His most knpvvo and valuable works att^ 
" Otia Theologica," 4tQ, cpntaiuing dissertatiooa en difFe* 
rent subjects, from the Old and New Testament ( " Cdb- 
cionator Sacer," l2aio^ aad " Ue Libris varioqqe «orun 
usu et abusu," Amsterdam, 1668, l2mo.' 

SALE. (George), a learned EngUsbwaD, wtio died .u 
London in L736, was 9 mail, who did iQUcb service JO tfaie 
repu1)tic of letters, hut of )iu private history we Vaxe >no 
account. , He bad a hand in the " Universal Bistury," atd 
exiecuted the cosmogony i^nd a. part of the history -foUow, 
ing. He Was also epeaged in other publicatiom; b^t biM 
capital work is" The Korau, commonly caUed the AJcoran 
of Mohammed,*' translated, into Eoglisti. immediately fraai' . 
tbe original Aratjic; wjth expianatory notes ttien from the 
most;' approved co^im^ntftors. To which is pref),x«d, & 
prielimliiary.]()iscourse,!' 1734,, dto.,, The prelimioary dift-i. 
courae^onsists of 1S6 pages^. amj, jLs, divided, jntp eight rrc- 
tioVi^ tlu: ,folto^i()g^ partici^ars; iiect,, i, 

"Of MobamfQe,d,.,9r, as ibhey Qi^reM K^r 

iff iiit :e i' t^eir^iitifrjf, r^gioJBi leamHif^ 

'antf^b' , " Of the^tafl^of Cbristian^y,.par->i 

tiima Cijurcffpf^^niid qf>J,udai?m,, at the , 

ti^e agp^fain^;,Ht>d of^lt^e m«tWdftl: 

lAih ^DLiigjIi^ xeligion,.afid tbe,eirouaKi.| ' 

•lamj' i .ilwreta" ,..S^^ 3,,-.V Pf thc.Kft^ 

> Aoquaiil) Bbi mf ra.— piei. fUi'- . .* SoiiaaaTf^i. Eradit.— Msnri. 



i4 SALE. 

tmi 'Hmkff liie pMuliattties of that book, tbe maimer of its 
being writien and published, and tlie general design of it.'' 
Sect. 4. ** Of tbe doctrines and positive precepts of the 
iJLoraOy libioh relate to faith and religioys dutiet /' Sect. 54 
^* Of cenata negative precepts in tbe Koran.'' Sect. 6. 
<<Of tbe inslitations of tbe Koran in civil affairs." Sect. 
9. ** Of tbe montbs commanded by tbe Koran to be kept 
sacred, and of the setting apart of Friday for tbe especial 
•ervi(5e of God." 8i^t. 8. ^* Of the principal sects among 
tbe MobaoMttedans ; and of those who have pretended to 
prophesy among tbe Arabs in or since tbe time of Moham- 
med." This pveliminary discourse, as should seem, might 
deserve to be poblisbed separately from tbe Koran. Mr. 
Sale was also one of the members of tbe society for the en« 
eottragement of learning, begun in 1736, but as be dted 
in that year, cotild not have enjoyed tbe promised advan* 
lages of it. He was one of tbe authora of the ** General 
DictUmafy," to whitb we so often refer, wbicb inclodes a 
translation of B^le, lO vola. folio. Mr. Sale left a son, 
wbo was fellow of New college, Oxford, where he took bts 
degree of M. A. in 1756. He was afterwards a frilow of 
Winchester college, in 1765, and died a short time after.' 

SALIAN, or SALLIAN (JfAMis), a learned JFeanit of 
Avignon, where be was bom in 1557, entered into that 
society in 1 578, and becaow a noted tntor* He waa after^ 
wards made rector of tbe coHege of Besaufon, and died at 
Paris Jan. .23, 1640, in tbe eigbty-tkird year of bt« age. 
He wrote some pione tracts, bM is pvinespaHy known K>r 
bis «' A nnaU of tbe Old Testament/* pubUdied in 1 6 1 •—'24, 
6 vok. folio. As tkia work appeared toe votmninona for 
general nse, M. de Spoade, bisMp of Faasten, revested 
leave to publish an abridgment in tbe mnnwer of bts abridg* 
meat of Baronius ; hot i^ian, consciaws beir snndi ori^- 
nals snifer by abridgments, iwfnted tbis reqanst with mocb 
politeness; an4 when induced at last to nsab^ an nbvidg^ 
mens bipMetf, eowtrived to do it in sncfc a minner aato 
rmder tbe original almost indiapensable to bia renders.* 

SALISBURY (JoBK of), one of tbe greatcit eroa«ieiita 
of tbe twelMi ceniaiy, was bom at Old Sartmi, wbeoot br 
derived tbe name or S^aiaatiniEMit, about 1116. AiMnr 
be bad gone tbiough a coarse of edneatton in England, be 
went to she imiveraity of Paris in 1 136^ and attended H(fm 



1 OeiiL lii^.| tsrarfwL n s swtH 'y LUt cf iohasoD. • yttimi.^ilcffmke. 



S A L I S^'Xr R Y. «« 

the lectures' of Abeiard and other i}n«6terj| with fucb hi« . 
dustry and sijccessi that he acquired an uiii;{]|amiQ]» share of 
knowkrdgd'both in philosophy and letters^, At f^ ^rly,.* 
fenod*Qf life, hia poverty obliged him to un4erta^e tbe 
eiBce of preceptor ; yet amidst engagemehts of this k^f%^ 
he found leisure to acquire a competent knowledgje of dia- - 
}eel)ts, physics, and inorals, as well a^ an acquaintaD<;0. 
whfa tbe Greek, and' (what was at that time a rare -^coom*. 
pKifhovent) mth the Hebrew, .languages. Jie,-msiy.)nm\y 
be ranked among the first scholars of his age. After many 
years had elapsed, be resolved to .revisit the companiopa. 
of Msr early studies on Mount St. Genevieve, in order to, 
confer with them on the topics on which they bad formerly 
disputed, His account of this visit affords a striking pic- 
ture of the philosophical character of this age. ^' I found 
tbeifiy^'^savs he, '*' the same meu, and in the same place ; 
nor had they advanced a single step towards Vesolvinjj our 
aottent' questions^ tioi* added a single proposition, how-« 
evi^r small, to their >tock of knowledge* Wbenoe I.ia« 
ferred, what Indeed' xt Was easy to collect, tlia^ diale^c^tic 
stcidies, Rb^eter* useful. they may be when connected wjth; 
other bratlches of liearnin^, are io tbemselves barren and 
useless:^' 'Speatrng tn' another place of the pbilosophera / 
of hit tiftye/ he' complains,' that ttiey collected auaitot$ ' . 
solely fcrr" the ostentation of science, and designedly ren- . 
dared their discourses 'obscure, that they might appear ^^ 
loadfed wftlrthe mysteries of wisdom ; ,and that though all . 
profelsM'td follow Ariltotle,''they were so ignorant of his 
tnfe doctrirre;' that hi^ attempting to ei^plaih his meanings 
tb^dftetl ildvanced'a^Ptatonic notion, or some erroneous 
telii^'#ijtiTC!lyttli«taiit^rom-the ttue system of Aristotle aod 
atWhttf/" nrOih the^1>bser<r4tions, lind from many similar 
p»ailg«% tobb ft>ui{(f4ti his writtrig^, it appears, that John 
. of^^M\ik/my'vfW9vi^^re '6f the" trlflinj;' character both of thei 
pbHIMc^1IV*inA-t## j^ifosophefll' of ftis igej'ovring, pror . 
b»Myi*Hd<Ws^db»i«ta "ihtSt&af gooil sebs6 ^hich he pps- 
aessM, ^t^ll'air w tbe tin^tral extent and variety of^his 
lcm i fl H g> ^*^^faA^Jfai?*M^Vyrh there afe ^^ident traces 
of^ fInflMM fjHtiit^i of so^nd* t)ifd6rftahdYng, of variou^ . 
•riikJlMi, ihid'#Mtf'Au«*aH6WtJcef&r the sigellfi which be 

iiv«iis^MlttHr^iitb^Btlgfali<f; afltei^ fiVs Ml 'iisit to Paris; ^ 
Imi 8tudie4 the oivil law uoder .VMejriudi^vjto ^tai^ght iri<^ - 
-great applaiise at Oxford in 1149. £mbraciog the monas« 

Vol. XXVII. F 



I 
/ 



i( SALISBURY. 

iXt life at Canterbury, be became tbe chief confidant of 
i;wo successive archbishops of that see, Theobald aiid 
Thomas a Becket. To the last of these he dedicated his 
celebrated work ^^ Polycraticon, or De nugis curialiam, et 
vestigiis philosophorum/' a very curious and valuable mo- 
Dument of the literature of bis times. Although he did 
not approve some part of the conduct of Becket, he sub- 
mitted to Henry the Second's sentence of banishment, and 
remained in exile for seven years, rather than give «ip the 
party of the archbishop, which was tbe condition on which 
be might have been permitted to return. In negotiating 
Beeket's affairs, he performed no less than ten journeys 
into Italy. In ope of these journeys, he obtained familiar 
intercourse with pope Adrian IV. his countryman, who 
having asked him what the world said of him und of tbe 
Roman church, John returned such an answer as might 
have been expected from the boldest of the reformers inr 
the sixteenth century, telling his hoUnesSf among other 
things, that the world said, << tbe pope himself was a but* 
then to Christendom which is scarcely to be borne.'* Tbe 
whole of this curious dialogue may be seen in the work 
above mentioned. 

. At length he was permitted to return to Engknd in 1 171 ,- 
and was a spectator of the murder of bis fn^nd Becket, 
from whom he endeavoured to ward off one of the blows, 
and received it on his arm, which was seriously hurt. In 
1172 be was promoted to the French bishopric of Char* 
tres, in the province of Sens, which he held ten years, 
dying in 1182. He composed many other works besides 
the *' Polycraticon," which is written in a plain coDcise 
style, and is an excellent treatise upon the employments, 
occupations, duties, virtues, and vices, of great men, and 
contains a number of moral reflections, passages from au- 
thors, examples, apologues, pieces of history, and com- 
mon-places. His familiar acquaintance with the claasics 
appears, not only from the happy facility of his language,- 
but from the many citations of the purest Reman tethers^ 
with which his works are perpetually interspersed. If ont^ 
fSaucon says, that some part of the supplement to Petronies, 
published as a genuine and valuable discovery tf Ipn yeart 
ago, but since supposed to be spurious, is quoied ia the' 
f Pofyeraiieon.** It was published at Paris in 1513, and 
at Leyden in 1595, 8to; and a French trAOslation^ o{ \^ 
entitled << Les Vanitez da la Cour^' at Paris, IMOriil 4lo^ 



SALISBURY! 67 

with a life of tke author prefixed. Among his othei" works 
are a volome of ** Letters/' published at Paris in 161 1^ 
for which his style seeras best adapted, and his corre- 
spondents were some of the first, personages of the age* 
Their contents^ as detailing important occurrences, are in- 
teresting, and their turn of expression sometimes elegant« 
Another of bis works was a learned defence of grammar^ 
rhetoric, and logic^ against one whom he calls Cornificius^ 
which contains a most carious account of the state of these 
sciences at this period. ' 

SALISBURY, or SALESBURY (WiixUM), a Welsh 
antiquary, was born of an ancient family in Denbighshire, 
and studied for some . time at Oxford, whence he removed 
to Thaires-Inn, London. Here be applied to the law,, but 
does not appear to have risen to any eminence, as Wood 
speaks of him as living in his latter days in the bouse of 
a bookseller in St. Paul's church^yard. His principal ob- 
ject appears to have been the cultivation of the Welsh 
language, and the translation into it of the Bible, &c. It 
would appear thai queen Elizabeth gave him a patent, for 
aeven years, for printing in Welsh the Bible, Common* 
Prayer, and ** Administration of the Sacraments.*' He 
compiled *^A Dictionary in English and Welsh," Lond. 
1547, 4to. '^ A Little Treatise of the English pronunci- 
atioq of the Letters." ** A plain and familiar introduction" 
to the same, Lond. 1550, 4to. ^'Battery of the Pope's 
Botteceulx, commonly called the High-Altar," ibid. 1550^ 
8vo. « The Laws of Howell Dha." «< A Welsh Rheto- 
rick,** revised, enlarged, &c. by Henry Perry, B. D. 
The period of his death is uncertain, but he was living in 
1547.* 

SALISBURY. See CECIL 

SALLENGRE (Albert Henry de), an ingenious and 
laborious writer, was bom at the Hague in 1694. His 
fattier was receiver-general of Walloon Flanders, and of 
aa ancient and considerable family* He was educated with 
great c^rei, and sent at a proper age to Leyden ; where be 
itudifrf hjstocy under Perizonius, philosophy under Ber- 
npcdy and law under Voetius and Noodt Having finished 
\l^ acadeiiical studies with honour, he returned to his pa- 
rents attba Hagu^ and was admitted an advocate in the 

t te1«n^*^TaDiier.-^-(?en. Diet.—- Itlnieker.-^Heiiry't Hiit «f OrMUMCain. 
ftcfitefUmV Utortry Hiftory ti tte Middle AgM. 
f Atk Os^mw edit. tiS. I. 

r2 



«8 8ALLEN6RE. 

^ourt of Rolland. After the peace of Utrecht in 1713, h« 
went to France; and spent some time at Paris in visiting 
libraries, and in cultivating friendships with learned meo. 
In 1716, he was made counsellor to the princess of Nas- 
sau ; and, the year after, commissary of the finances of 
the States General. He went again to France in 1717; 
and two years after to England, where he was elected fel- 
low of the Royal Society, in the list of which he is called 
'* Auditor*8urveyor of the Bank of Holland.'' He was au- 
thor of several publications, which shewed parts, learnings 
and industry ; and without doubt would, if he had lived, 
have been of great use and ornament . to the republic of 
letters; but, catching the smalUpox, he died in 1723, in 
' his thirtieth year. 

He was for some time editor of the ** Literary Journal,^* 
which began at the Hague in 1713. His part consists of 
four volumes, 1715 — 17 17^ The continuation was by 
Desmolets and Gouget. In 1714, he published '^L'Eloge 
de TYvresse,'' a piece of much spirit and gaiety ; in 1715, 
*< Histoire de Pierre de Montmaur,'* 2 vols* 8vo, a collec- 
tion of all the pieces written against that singular charac* 
ter *. In 1 7 1 6, ^* Commentaires sur les Epitres d'Ovide 
par M. de Meziriac,'* with a discourse upon the life and 
works of Meziriac ; ^ the same year, ** Poesies de M. de la 
Monnoye;" in 1716, 1718, 1719, ** Novus Thesaurus Anti- 
quitstum Romananim,'* a Supplement to Gnevius's col** 
Section, in 3 vols, folio; in 1718, '^Huetii de rebus ad 

* I*eter de Montroaiir was m Jesuit dounded oinch to the credit df eitber 

of the seveotpemfa century, who was party. Aoioog other expedients they 

tent in early life by bis rirdef to Rome, accused Mommaur oif baling killed the 

aud there he taught grammar with ere- porter of the collq^e of BouooQity on 

dit during three years. He afterwards which he was sent to priaon, aad aoarce 

left the Jesuits, aod set up as a drug- cleared of this imaginary crime, befort 



gist at Avignon, which situation proTed they accused hioi of othav more tnfii- 
•rery prottiable t'> him. Then going to /mous. Vatious attempts weiw mUb 
Parts, he attended the bar, wbicb he made to render him ridiculous. Mo- 
quitted to derote himself to poetry, nage set the fashion by a fictittoun^ 
dieplaying his taste chiefly in ana- *' Life of Montmasi^" which he. piih^ 
grams, and pooa» This did not, bow- lisbed in Latin, 1636, under the name 
ever, prevent his succeeding Goolu as of " Gargilius Mamurra.f* Others fSol- 
regius professor of Greek, from whence lowed his eaftmple, and Jf. do Safloii- 
iMjrasiuRiaaiedMontmaurtheOreciaiu fre published the work ahoveHneft- 
Hit constant practice was to ridicule tioned, which forms a carious and co- 
men of learning by satires and sar- tertatniog collection. Mootmanr «•■ 
«asms, frequently making alinsions-to ^o^rtainly m |iod po^ hut in other i«^ 
their names, taken from Greek and tpecta was not so deapicable as nMf| 
^tin, which were called Montmaur- authora itpresent him. Ha died is 
Wms. Hence a warfare commenced 1648^ aged feveoty-fiNir. 
doea Bol appear to hare re- 



SALLENGRE. c» 

eum pertinentibuB Commentarius/* with a preface written 
by bimaelf. Aboat the time of hit dcrath be was engaged 
in writiog . << A History of the United Provioces from 1609» 
to the conclttsion of the peace of Munster in 1648»'* which 
was published at the Hague in 1728, with this titlet^^Es- 
sai d'une Histoire des Pro?inces Uoies pour Panose 1631^ 
Ott la Treve finit, et le Guerre recommence avec I'Es- 
pagne/' 4to. ' 

SALLO (Dbnis db)i a French writer, the first projector 
of literary journals, was descended from an ancient and 
Boble fismily, and bom at Paris in 1626. During his edu« 
oatiouy he gave no proofs of precocious talent, and afforded 
little hope of much progress in Letters or science. But thia 
seems to have been the effect rather of indolence than in* 
capacity, for he afterwards became an accomplished Greek 
lindXatin scholar, and maintained public theses in philoso« 
pby with the greatest applause. He then studied the law, 
and was admitted a counsellor in the parliament of Paris in 
1652. This, however, did not seem so much to his tastft 
as general inquiries into literary history and knowledge^ 
and desultory readiog. It is said that he occasionally 
perused all kinds of books, made curious researches, and 
kept a person always near him to take down his reflections^ 
and to make abstracts. In 1664, he foritoed the project of 
the ^' Journal des Sgavans ;" and, the year following, be* 
gan to publish it under the name of Sieur de Hedouville^ 
which was that of his valet de chambre ; but the severity of 
his censures gave offence to many who were able to make 
reprisals. Menage's '* Anuenitates Juris Civilis** was one 
ef the first of those works which fell under Sallows cogni* 
aanee, and^ bis mode of treating it provoked Menage to 
i«tum his abuse with eqnal severity in his preface to the 
works of Malherbe, printed in 1666. Charles Patin'i 
^ Introduction i la connoissance des M^dailles^* was ano* 
tber work with which he made free, and incurred a severe 
retaKatioft. This warfare soon proved too much for his 
courage; and therefore, after having published hb third 
journal, he turned the work over to the Abb^ Gallois, who 
dropped all criticism, and merely gave tides and e«traets« 
The plan, however, in one shape or other, was soon adopt* 
ed in most parts of Europe, and continues until this day, 
Whether wit)i real advantage to literature, has never been 



* Niseron, vote. I. sad JL^^Mamtu 



70 8 A L L O. 

folly discussed. Voltaire, after mentioning Sallo as tfae in* 
Tentor of this kind of writing, says, with a jastice appli^ 
cable HI our own days, that Sallo s attempt ^ was after- 
wards dishonoured by other journals, which' were published 
at the desire of avaricious booksellers, and written by ob- 
scure men, who filled them with erroneous extracts, follies, 
and lies, , Things," he adds, '* are come to that pass, th^t 
praise and censure are all made a public traffic, especially 
m periodical papers ; and letters have fallen into disgrace 
by* the management and conduct of these infamous scrib-^* 
biers.'* On the other hand, the advantages arising from 
such journals, when under the management of men of can* 
dour and independence, will scarcely admit of a doubt. - 
Sallo died in 1669 ; and, 'although he published a piece or 
two of bis own, yet is now remembered only for bis plau- 
of a literary journal, or review.* 

SALLUSTIUS (Caius Crispus), an eminent Roman 
historian, was born at Amiternum in 86 B. C The rank 
of his ancestors is uncertain, but from some circumstances 
ip his writings, it is not improbable that his fomily was 
plebeian. Having passed his more early years at his native 
town^ he was removed to Romef, where be had the advan- 
tage of profiting by tbe lessons of Atticus Prsetextatus^ 
aurnamed Philologus, a grammarian and rhetorician of 
great celebrity. ' Under this teacher he applied to learning 

« with diligence, and made uncommon progress. It appears 
that he had turned his thoughts in his younger days to the 
writing of history, fof which he had unquestionably great 
talents ; but, as he himself intimates in his preface to the 
history of Catiline's conspiracy, he was diverted from thia 
pursuit by the workings of ambition. His early life too, 
appears to have been stained by vice, which tfce gross «nor-. 
mities of his more advanced years render highly probabte. 
In this respect he has found an . able advocate in hk lilte ^^ 
learned translator and commentator; but although Dr. 
Steuart's researches have removed some part t>f the re- 
proaches of ant'ient authors, enough remain^ to shew that 
Salhut partook largely of the corruption 'of the iig« in 
which he lived, and added to it by bis own example. The 

[ story of his having been detected in an adulterous inter- 
course \tith the wife of Milo, who, after a seVei^ whipping, 
{Bade him pay a handsome sum of rnoheyi m^y rest iipoiv 

* n 



SALLUSTIUS. Tl 

Htde authority, or may be altogether discarded as a fiction^ 
hot the general conduct of Saliust shows that the noble 
seotimenu in his works had no influence on his conduct. 

He appears to have' been advanced to the office of quaes- 
tor io the year of Rome 693, and in 701 was made tri- 
bune of the people. It was now that he employed all the 
arts of faction to inflame the minds of the people against 
Miioi^ the murderer of Clodi us; and those biographers who 
admit the fact of his being disgraced by Milo, as we have 
above related, impute to him motives of revenge ouly; and 
he was equally industrious in raising a clamour against 
Cicero, in order to deter him from pleading Milo*s cause. 
In 703 he was expelled the senate by the then censors, 
Appius Claudius and Calphurnius Piso, on account of hii 
profligacy, but restored in the following year by Julius 
Caesar, and was likewise made qa«stor, an office which * 
h^ employed in accumulating riches by every corrupt mea<* 
sure. During Csesar's second dictatorship he was made 
prsBtor, and when Ccesar went into Africa with part of faii| 
army^ he took Saliust with him, who performed some im- 
portant services, in return for which Casar made him. go- 
vernor of Numidia. It is here that his public character 
-appears most atrocious and indefensible. He seems to 
have considered this province as a fund destined to the im- 
provement of his private fortune, and plundered it in the 
most .inhuman manner. In vain did the oppressed Numi- 
dians exclaim against his rapacity, and commence a prose- 
cation against him* His wealth wa4 a sufficient guard 
against the arm of justice, and by sharing with Ccesar a 
part of the spoils, he easily baffled all inquiry into his pro- 
vincial administration. On his return, laden with this . 
wealth, he parcbased a country house at Tivoli, and on^ 
of the noisiest dwellings in Rome on the Quirinal mount, 
fiitb beautiful gardens, which to this day are called the 
gardens of -Saliust. In this situation it is supposed that he 
wrote his account of <* Catiline'<s conspiracy,'' and the 
^ Jugurtbine war^" aud that larger history, the loss of 
wbicb there as so much reason to deplortf. He died at the* 
a^e of fiftyi^oue, B.. C. 35. Having no children of his 
<Hnv ^ aflsple possessions passed to the grandson of his 
sister ; and tbeianitly flourished, with undiminished splen* 
door^ to a I«le sbie of ibe Roman empire. 

Whatever objections may be made to Sallqst's character 
as a maO| he bias ever been justly admired as a historian. 



y^ S A L L U S T I U »• 

He is equally perspicuous and instructive : hit style ia dealt 
and nervousy his descriptions, re(lectionS| speecbea, and 
characters, all shew the hand of a master. But his pttrtift«- 
lity may be blamed with equal justice, and even some of 
bis most virtuous sentiments and bitter invectives against 
corruption in public men may be traced rather to psrty 
spirit, than to a genuine abhorrence of corruption, which, 
indeed, in one who had practised it so extensively, could 
not bjp expected, unless the result of a penitence we oa 
where read of. His attachment to CsBsar, and bis disre-^ 
spect for Cicero, are two glaring defects in bis merit as a 
faithful historian. 

Of Sallust there are many excellent editions. His Dvorks 
were first printed at Venice,: in 1470, and reprinted thirty, 
times. before the conclusion of that century, but these 
editions are of great rarity. The best of the more modera 
are the Aldns of 1521, 8vo, the Variorum of 1690, 8vo, 
Wasse's excellent edition, printed at Cambridge in 1710, 
4to; Cortius's edition, 1724, 4to; Havercamp's, 1742, 
2 vols. .4to; the prize edition of Edinburgh, 17i5, 12mo; 
the Bipont, 1779, 8vo; that very accurate one by Mr. 
Homer, Lond! 17S9, Bvo; and one by Harles, 1799, 8vo. 
The late Dr. Rose of Chisvfick, published a very corpecc 
translation of Sallust in 1751, 8vo, with Cicero's Four 
Orations against Catiline ; and more recently Sallust haa 
fbuqd a translator, and an acute and learned commentator 
and advocate, in Henry Steuart, LL.D. F.R.S. and S. A.E. 
who published in. 1806, in 2 vols. 4to, ^' The Works of 
Salkist. To which are prefixed^ two Essays on the Life,- 
literary character, and writings of the historian; with 
notes historical, biographical, and critical." ^ 

SALMAdlUS, or SAUMAISE (Claude), one of the 
most learned men of the. seventeenth century, and whom 
Baillet baa with great propriety.classed among hia *^ Enftm* 
celebres par les etudes,.'* was bora at Semur-eo-Auxois, ia 
Burgundy. His family was ancient and noble, and his ik* 
tber, an eminent lawyer, and a member of the parliament 
of Bujcgundy, ^as.a man of worth and learning. Respect* 
itig the time of .his birth, all his biographqcs differ* Peter 
Buntian, who has compared their differences^ justly thinks 
it v^r^ strange that so many persons who were hia cootettt^^ 
poraries and knew bim intimately, should not have •ascer« 

'A lih hj Dr.'steuait,— and by Dr. Roft.— Dibdin's CImbics, 



S A L M A S I U S: tS 

taioed Ibe'esact dates ettber of fait birth or death. The 
fermer, however, we pteteme may be fixed either in 1 593 
or 1 694. He was educated at fint solely by bis fatberi 
who taoght him Latin and Greek with astonishing success. 
At the age of ten he was able to trandate Pindar very cor« 
rectiy, md wrote Greek and Latin verses. At the ag^e of 
eleveiif fais' father wished to send him for further education 
to the Jesuits* college at Dijon, not to board there, but to 
attend lessons twice a day, and improve them at bis lodg<* 
ings. In tbia scheme, howerer, he was disappointed. His 
motherr who was a protestant, had not only inspired Claude 
with a hatred of the Jesniu, but encouraged him to write 
satires against the order, which be did both in Greek and 
Latin, and entertained indeed throughout life the same 
aversion to them. Having refused therefore to comply 
with 'his fatber^s request in this respect, his mother proposed 
to send him to Paris, where her secret wish was that he 
dioold be confirmed in her religion. This being complied 
with, he soon formed an acquaintance with Casaubon and 
some other learned men in that metropolis, who were asto-> 
nished to find such talents and erudition in a mere boy« 
Dmring his residence here he conversed much with the , 
clergy of the reforaied church, and being at length deter- 
mined to make an open avowal of his attachment to protes- 
tantism, be asked leave of his father to go to Heidelberg, 
partly that he might apply to the study of the law, but 
principally that he' might be more at bis freedom in reli* 
gious mauers. Baillet calls this a trick of his new precep- 
tors, who wished to persuade Salmasius*s father that Paris, 
with respect to the study of the law, was not equal to Hei« 
deli>^rg, where was the celebrated Denis Godefroi^ and an 
excellent library. 

Salmasius*s father hesitated long about this proposition. 
As yet. he did not know that bis sod was so far gone in a 
change ef religion, but still did not choose that he should 
be sent to a place which swarmed with protestants. He 
therefore ^shed his son would prefer Toulouse, where 
were at that time some eminent law professors; but 
Claade refused, and some Unpleasant correspondence took 
place between the father and the son, as appears by the 
words in which the former at last granted his permission--** 
^' Go then,' I wish to show how much more I am of an in^ 
dolgent father than you are of an obedient son.'' The son 
indeed in this manifested a little of that conceit and arro^ 



94 S A I, M A 8 liU & 

' gani« whkii appimred in many iffistaDces in hb future life, 
and unmoved by the kindness he liad jost received, refused to 
tnmd by die way of Dijon, as his fistther desired, but joined 
some merchants who were fgoktg to Franefort fair, and ar- 
tived'iat Beidelberg in Oct. 1606, or- rather 1607, when 
he was only in his 'founeenth year. Whatever may be 
shottght of his temper, we need no other proof that he was 
one of the most extraordinary youths of this age that the 
world ever knew, than the letters addressed to him at this 
time by Jungerman and others on topics of philology. 
They mord an idea of his erudition, says Burman, which- 
could only be heightened by the production of his answers^ 
To Heidelberg he brought letters of recommendation 
from Casauboo, which introduced him to Godefroi, Gruter, 
and Lingelsbeim, and bis uncommon merit soon improved 
this into an intimacy. Under Godefroi he applied to the 
study of civil law with that intenseness with which he ap* 
plied to every thing, but as he now had an opportunity of 
indulging his taste for the belles lettres, and was admitted 
to make researches among tbe treasures of the Palatine li- 
brary, \ be spent much of bis time here, abridging himself 
even of sleep. By such extraordinary diligence, he accu- 
mulated a vast fund of general knowledge, but in some 
measure injured his health, 2^d brought on an illpess which 

. lasted above a year, and from which he recovered with dif« 
ficulty. 

With an insatiable thirst for knowledge, Saknasius had 
an early and strong passion for fame. He commenced au- 
thor when between sixteen and seventeen years of age, by 
publishing an edition of ** Nili, archiepiscopi Tbessaloni- 
censis, de primatu paps Romani, libri duo, item Barlaam 
raonacbus, cum interpretatione Latina : CI. Salmasii opera 
et studio, cum ejusdemin utrtimque notis,*' Hanover, 160t, 
and* Heidelberg, 1608 and 1612, 8 vo. By this puhlioBtioh 
against tbe authority of the pope, he seemed deoeramQii 
to make a more public avowal of his sentiments thanibe had 
yet done, and to shew his^eal for the protesums, by con- 
secrating his first labours as an author to their service^. In 
1609 speared bis edition of ** Florus/' printed «4 Paris, 
8vo, and dedicated to Gruter, whose notes are given ^ong 
with those of Salmasius. This was reprinted in 1686^ «itd 
in* 1 688, to which last he added ** Lucii Ampelii hbettns 
memerialis ad Macrinum/' which had never before ap^ 
peared. 



SALMASrUS: Vs 

I& 1610, he retamed home mud was adttikted ae ad?o« 
e%i^f but bad no iatentton to follow that profetsioD, and 
preferred liteiatare and critiQitai as the sole employeieot 
of his life, and decived the hqf^ast fepoiation thtft eradi^ 
tioQ caa confer. Sacb was hU feputaiion, thai be began 
to be courted by foreign princea and unitreruiies. The 
Venetians theaght his resideooe among them would be such 
an honour, that they offered him a pix^igious stipend; md 
with this condition^ that he should aot be obliged to read 
lectures aboTe three times a year. We are toU, that our 
university of Oxford made some attempts to get him ovei 
into England ; and it is ceitain, that the pope made similar 
overtuvesy though Salmasius bad not only deserted his re- 
ligion,- and renounced his authority, but had actually writ- 
ten against the papacy itself. He withstood, however, all 
these solicitations ; but at last, in 1632, complied with aa 
invitation from Holland, and went with his wife, whom he 
bad married in 1621, to Leyden. He did not go there to 
be professor, or honorary professor; but, as Vorstiiis io his 
" Funeral Oration^' expresses it, ^< to honour the uoivemity 
by his name, his writings, and his presence," 

Upon the death of his father, in 1640, be returned for 
a time into France ; and, on going to Paris, was much ca- 
ressed by cardinal Richelieu, who used all possible means 
to detain bim, and even. offered him his own terms; but 
could not prevail. The obligation he had to the States of 
Holland, the lo?e of freedom and independence, and the^ 
necessity of a privileged plac^ in order to publish such 
things as he was then meditatingi were the reasons which 
enabled him to withstand the cardinal. Salmasius also re^ 
fused the large pension, which the cardinal offered him,- 
to write iiisiiistory, because in such a work be thoa^t he. 
must either, give offeoce> or advance many things oontrary 
to bis QWi^ principles, and to trutht While he was in Bur* 
fiamdjto setile/amiAy a&irs, the cardinal died, and was 
soeceeded by Masariu, vrbo, upon our author's return to 
Pafi%. ' boaoorad him with the- same solicitatioiisaahis pM-* 
decessor had done, SslonasuiSi howeiver, decteed hisof- 
feia, aod slter about tbr^e years absence, retihmeditoHoU 
land: whence, though attempts wtere afterwards made ^ to 
draw him back to Franioe* it does not appear tbat.Jhetevef 
entert|tined, the least thought of removing. In ibejsammer 
of 1650^. he went to Syveden, ti^ pay.queep Cbriatina a 
V)sit| wi(h whom he continued till the summer foU^wiog. 



?«- S A L M A S I'lX S< 

The ^ception and treatment he met with, as it is described 
by the writer of his life, is very characteristic of that ex-* 
traordinary patroness of learned men. ** She performed 
fov him alt offices/' says he, ^* which could have been ex* 
pected even from an equal. She ordered him to choose 
apartments in her palace^ for the sake of having him with 
her,' * ut lateri adhsereret/ i^henever she would. But Sal<* 
masius was almost always ill while he stayed in Sweden^' 
the climate being more than his constitution could bear : at 
which seasons the queen would come to the side of bis bed, 
bold long discourses with him upon subjects of the highest 
concern, and, without any soul present, but with the doorfr 
ail shut, would mend his fire, and do other necessary of* 
fioes for him.** She soon, however, changed her mind 
with* regard to Salmasius, and praised his antagonist Mil- 
ton, with whom his celebrated controversy had now begun. 
After the murder of Charles I., Charles II., now in HoU 
la^d, employed Salmasius to write a defence of his father 
find 'of monarch)^. 'Salmasius, says Johnson, was at this 
time a man of skill in languages, knowledge of antiquity, 
and sagacity of emendatory criticism, almost exceeding all 
hope of human attaiiimeat; and havingV by excessiye 
praises, been confirmed in great confidence of hinselfy 
though he probably had not much considered the principles 
of society or the rights of government, undertook the em-' 
ployment without distrust of bis own qualifications, aud, aa 
bis expedition in writing was Wonderful, produced in 1649 
bii ^ Defensio Regia pro Carolo I. ad Serenissimum Mag* 
ne BritannisB Regem Carolum IL filium natu majorem, 
bttredetir et successorera legitimum. Suroptibus Regiis^ 
anno 1649.'' Milton, as we have: noticed in his life,^ was 
iimployed, by the Vowttn then prevailing, to answer this 
book of Salmasius, and to obviate the prejudices which 
the reputation of his great abilities and learning might raise 
against their cause ; and he accordingly published in 1651^ 
a I>atin work, entitled ^* Defensio pro Poputo Ahglieatto 
contra Ciaudii Salmasii'Defensionem Regiam.'* Of these 
two works Hobbes declared himself unable to decide whoae 
language was best, or whose arguments were wors^he 
Alight have added, or who was most to blasnfe for sctiifrility 
&nd personal abuse. Dr. Johnson 'remarks^ thait Saimasina 
had been so long not only die monafch, but the tyrant of 
literature, that almost all mankind were detigfated to find 
defied and inaulted by a new nane^ not yet considered 



S A If M A S I U & 77 

w aay one^s fivuX. There it po proof, however^ that Sal- 
iDuius*ff general reputation suffered much from a contepi io 
which he bad not employed the powers which b^ was ac- 
itnowledged to posneis. His misfortune was to treat of 
aobjectt which be bad not much studied, and any. repulse' 
to a man so accustomed to admiration, must have been ▼ery 
galling. He therefore prepared a r^ply to Milton, bujt did 
not live to finish it, nor did it appear until published. by. b^ 
son in the year of the restoration, when the subjecti jo 
England at least, was nq longer .fit foit discipssiQQ^ . He 
died at the Spa, Sept* 3, .1653» in consequence of an-ior- 
prudent use of the waters; bujt^as b^ had reproached Milr 
toa with losing his eyes in their contest Milton delight^ 
himself with the belief tfaat^be bad shortened Saimpisitis^a 
}ife« Nothing, however, can be more absurd, if any qrar 
4it is to be given to the account which Salmasiui's biogea^ 
pher, Clement^ gives of bis feeble coostitutioo, and loQg 
illness. 

. Salmasius, Dr. Johnson has observed, was not only tbe 
monarch, but the tyrant of literature, and it niust be al«» 
Jowed that although be bad few^ if any equals, in eaUeot 
of erudition, and therefore little pause of jealousy, be ^1^1$ 
impatient of contradiction^ and arrogant and supercilioui 
to those who diiFered from him hi opinipo. But he must 
have had qualities to balance these imperfections, before he 
could have attained the very bigh character giyen by tbia 
-most learned men of his age, by Casaubon, by Hoetius, by 
Grooovius» by Scioppius, by opr Selden, by Grotius^ 
Grttter> Balaac, Menage, .9ai]mviu8, Vofstius, ikc, &€. fco. 
Those who bave critically exanained his ^jritiogs attribute 
the kiperlec^ioas occasionally to be found .i« t^em to tbe 
liasty uiaoner in which he wrote» and a certain hmry and 
mpetuosity of temper when he took op any subject which 
engaged his attention. Gronovius seems to tbkik that he 
jsas sousetiiiies overwhelmed with the vastness of his eru* 
dition, and knew not how to restrain his pen. Hencf^ 
Groaoviiis adds, we find so many contradictions in bis 
works, for he employed no amanuensis, and ^was averse te 
ihetasfcof revisioiw 

Of his nmnerous works^ we may notice as die most vi^ 
luablei 1. ** Amid^ ad amicum,. d< suburbieariis regionibus 
«t eeclesiis suburbieariis, epistola,** 1619, 8vo, reprinted 
aserw correctly at cbe end of his epistles in 1 656. This 
was writteu in consequence of a dispute between Godefroi 



78 SALMASlUd« 

and father* Straiond. 2. '^HistorisB Augusts scHptorefs 
aex/' Pami I«20» fel. 3. '« Sept. Fiorentis Tertulliani 
liber 4e PaIKo/* ibid. 1622, 8to, aiid Leyden, 1656, Sto. 
This involved btai in a controversy with Denis Petau, to 
whom he published two answers. 4. *^ Pliniani ex^cita«^ 
t)ottea4n Caii JsiUi Selini Polyhist*' &c. ibid. 1629, -2 vols^ 
jbl. and Utrecht, 16B9, which last edition has another work 
edited by Saamaise, ** De homonymis Hiles iatricse exer^ 
ctitationes inedttie,'* &o. 5.^ '^ De Usuris,*' Leyden, 1638^ 
8vo. 6, <*Not« in pervigilium Veneris,'* ibid. 1638, 12nio. 
7. **De modo usuraram,^^ ibid. 1639, 8vo. 8. "Disser* 
tiuio defoenore trapezitico, in tres libros divisa,** ibid. 1640. 
9. *^ Simplicii cocnmentarius in Enchiridion Epicrteti,'^ &c. 
ibid. 1640, 4t0, and Utrecht, 1711. 10. << Achiilis Tatii 
Alexandrini Erotipon de Clitophontis et Leucippes amori^ 
bus, libri octo,** ibid. 1640, J2ino. 11. 'Mnterpretatib 
liippoaratis aphorisoai 69, sedt iv. de calculo,*' &c* ibid« 
1640, 8vb. ' 12. ^^ De Hellenistica : commentarius contro«- 
▼ersiam de lingua hellenistica decidens, et plenissimd per*' 
-tractans origines, et^ dialecticos Grascse lingu«,** Leyden, 
1645. IS. ** Observationes in jus Atticum et Rpmanum,*' 
ibid. 1645, 8vo, &c. &c. with many others on various sub* 
jfects of philosophy, law, and criticism. A collection of 
his letters was published soon after his death by Antony 
Clement, 4to, with a life of the author, but many others 
are to be found in various collections.^ 

9ALMON (Francis), a learned doctor and librarian of 
the house and society of the Sorbcmne, was born of aa 
opulent family at Paris, in 1677. He was well aeqiiainted 
with the learned languages, particularly Hebrew, possessed 
great literary knowledge, and discovered much affection 
for young penoiis who were fond of stud}, encommginjg 
them by his example and advice, and taking pleasure in. 
lending them his books. He died suddenly at his country 
house, atChaillot, near Paris, Sept. 9, 1736,; agiad fifiy* 
oine. He published a very useful work tUusttative ef • a 
part of ecclesiastical history, entitled ^ Trait6 de retode 
des ConcMes,** with an account of the principal 'antliofs and 
works, best editions, &a upon the subject of ocMincils^ 
Paris, 1724, 4to. This has been translated into Gevaum, 
and printed at Leipsie, in 1 729. He intended also lo have 
• 

> life by Clemevt.— .Baillct Jageineiit,^Bioiwi*i C«BS«rat«*Moi«ri««»Biir- 
i^n't *' ayUof«^"^-«Ssku OnooMStiooii. 



S A L M O N« 79 

given a supplement to << Father Labbe'a CoUeotion of Coun- 
cils, '.' and an ** Index Sorbonicus,** or alphabetical libraiy, 
10 which was to begiveo^ under the names of the respective 
autfaorsi their acts, lives^ chronicles, histories, books, trea^ 
tises, bulls, &c. but did not live to complete either.^ -: ^ 
. SALMON (Nathaniel), an English antiquary, was ^be 
son of the rev. Thomas Salmon, « M. A. rector of Mepsall in 
Bedfordshire, by a daughter of the notorious serjeant Bvad* 
shew. He was admitted of Bene't college, Cambridge, 
June i 1, 1690, where his tutors were dean Moss and arch«. 
deacon Lunn, and took the degree of LL. B. in 1695. Soon 
after he went into orders, and was for some time curateof 
Westmill in Hertfordshire ; but, although he had ' taken 
the oaths to king William, be bad so many scruples against 
taking them to his successor, queen Anne, that he became 
contented to resign the clerical profession, aod with it a 
living of 140/L per annum offered him in Suffolk. He then 
applied himself to the study of physic, which he practised 
firai at St« Itres in Huntingdonshire, and afterwards at Bi* 
sbops Siortford, in the coqnty of Hertford. His leisure 
time appears to have been employed in studying the history 
and aatiquities^of bis, country, on which subjects hepub^ 
lished, !• *^A Survey of the Roman Antiquities in the- Mid* 
land Counties in England^": 1726, 8vo. 2.. ^ A Survey of 
the Roman Stations in Britain, according to the Roman 
Itinerary," 1721, 8vo. 3. <VThe History of Hertfordshire^ 
describing tliie county and itsiancient monuments, partieu--^ 
larly .the Roman, with the characters of those that hav« 
been the. chief- possessors of the lands, and an account of 
the moat memorable occmrrences^^^ 1728, folio. This waa 
designed as a continuation of Cbanncey^s History^ and was 
dbdicaaed to the earl of .Hertford. 4. ^* The Lives of tfae^ 
£hgliah .Bishops firomthe Restoration to |he Revohitioo, fit 
-ti^ be opposed to the Aspersions of some latO'Writers *of 
Seeret iivtogr,'* 1753, a work which we have occasionally 
found /veay^jiaeful,- ^though the author's prejudices, ia 
•ttdraevinstaneea, appear rather strong. 5« <* A Suwiey of 
the Roman Stations in Euglaftd," 1731, (an improved edi« 
tjon pvobafely of the 6iBt two works above. meDtiened) 2 
vola^ 8vo. 6« ^ The Antiqukiesof Surrey,, collected huh 
lire most* ancient records, and dedicated to Sir J«hn£Te« 
lyn, hart with some Account of. the Present State and 

» Morcri.— Pict. Hist. - ;,- 



•O S A L M O N. 

Natural History of the County,** 1736, 8to. .7^ ♦'.TJije 
tory and Antiquities of Essexy fronot the Collections, of Mc 
Strangeman,'* in folio, with some notes and additions of 
his own ; bat death put a stc^ to this Work, when he ^ad 
gone through about two tbirdi of the county, so that this 
hiiftdreds of Cbelmsfotd, Hinkford, Lexden, Teiuirin^ 
attd Thorstable; were left unfinished. 

Mr. Salmon died April 2, 1742, leaving three daugbteral 
Bis eUer brother, 'Thomas, honoured with the uam^ of 
tile historiographer, is said to have died in }743, but miifa 
baVe been' living some years after this, when he published 
)hs account of Cambridge, &c. Mr. Oole says, '*he sraa 
bftMght up to no learned profession, yet had no smaU turo 
for writing, as his many productions, shew,, most of whicli 
were written when he resided at Cambridge, whereat last 
he kept a coffee-house, but not having sufficient, casipni^ 
removed to London.'* He told Mr. Cfole that he ba^^bcei^ 
much at sea^ and had resided in both ladies for some -tiqAfM 
H{^ best known publication, and that is not much knowi) 
noiV, is his ^< Modern History, or Present State of all Na^ 
tions," published in* many volumes, 8vo, about 1731, &ci 
and re-published, if we mistake not, in S vols« folio, from 
which it was afterwards abridged in 2 vols, and long jconti-t 
nued to be published uifder various fictitioua niunea. He 
M^rote also ^* Considerations on the hill for a general oatu* 
iralizakion, as ill may condujce to the improvement of our 
manufactures and traffic, and to the strengthening' or en* 
dangeririg of the constitution, exemplified in the cevjUu- 
tions that have happened in this kingdom, by ioiitiBg.<Mrer. 
foreigners to settle among us. With ai|. inquiry -iofQ ^e 
oature of the British constitution,' and the^eedom oc.isfMC^ 
vitside of the lower class pf people^ in .the several ph^i§a% 
it has undergone,*' Lond. 1748, Sva */n'jbe Forfig^er#^ 
Companion through the universities of Oxford /iq^ CBff^ 
bridge, and the adjacent counties, describifj^^t^ ^fiXVl^ 
colleges and other public buildings, with an account of dieir 
respective fottnders| booeiaiBtom, •bkhopsi cni mktm^m^ 
nmi «ien edtiesttdiB them,** ibid. 1746, '8v6/ TOs tttlir 

' ' • H lit."" '* '•*' 

wcf give from Cole^ as we have not seen the work» ^*J rjy > *^ 
Ottaly to lhi^ Mr.Sakmi tntendtd to write ««^be|)Mf«t' 
•late of the Untversities, ai^ of yhe five lad)acent couotieif 
of Cambridge, Huntingdon, J3ed(osd,.Baek8^ Mdl Oxfefsi^ 
l^ut published only the first volume, (744, 8vo, which tonr^ 
taina die kiatory of Oxford^ cduntj and univetjuty*/ ^({^ 

. .1 .,/ 



S A t II O N. 81 

tbls tre id<M some shrewd remarks oti univerMty eA^Q$^ 
tioo, and a college life, with the escpeoces attendiog U* 
la the preface be speaks of a " Geoeral Descnptioo of Eo^ 
gbndy and particularly of Londeo the metrofK^'' in 2 
woIm: which he had published. His oane is ako to a ^' Geo- 
graphical GraiBflsar^'* an ^' ExamiDation of Burnetts History 
of his own Tiflses,** and other works. The *^ New Histori-< 
cahaccount of St. George for England, aod the original of 
this order,** Lood. 1704, is ascribed by Mr. Goygh to 
Mr. ThosMs Salmon, the father, who, it may now be men- 
tioned, was distinguished as a musical theorist, aod wrote 
** An Essay to the Advancement of Mus^ic, l>y casting awaj 
the Perplexity of different Cliffs; and uniting all sorts of 
Music, Lute, Viols, Violins, Oi^an, Harpsichord, Voice^ 
fcc. in one universal Character, by Thomas Salmon, A M« 
of Trinity College, Oxford,'* London, 1672. This, book, 
says Dr. Bumey, ** is well written, and, though very illi-^ 
berally treated by Lock, Playford, aod some other profes-^ 
sors, contains nothing that is either absurd or impracticable} 
tior could we discover any solid objection to ita doctrines 
being adopted, besides the e6Fect it would have upon old 
music, by soon rendering it unintelligible. At present the 
leoor clef alone is thought an insuperable difficulty in our 
country, by dilettanti performers on the harpsichord ; but 
if Salmon's simple and easy musical alphabet wer^ chiefly 
in use, the bass clef H^ooid likewise be soon rjoadered as 
obsolete aod difficult as the tenor ; so that two parts . or 
defs oat of thiwe, in present iise, would become uniutel- 
ligible.*'** 

SALTER (Samuel), a learned Elnglish divine, was the 
•Idett son of Dr. Samuel Saltei^ prebendary of Norwich, 
and archdeacon of Norfolk, by Anne- Penelope, the daugh* 
ler of Dr. Jidia Jeffery, arclideacon of Norwich. He was 
tdotaMd for some time in the free-school of that city, 
he ffwmoved to that of the Charter-house, and was 



• TiMva WH • ViKiMH MnMm» Uttge Herbal,*' foit, which Dr. Pnltenef 
^letter rilsssd to Vk* abtfve fwinWy h SMolioBi vith womt degree of refl|Mct» 
•MCftma, aasttdenpiric, whoprac- Hit ** PolYgr^pftiicaP' ha* toUl batter 
llMli t^jrei* «aii t«rra«t soeccM for a than all Uie rest of his «roiks; th« 
IsSf fmm of yimn. He yoblitlMd a U»h editton of it it daH Loud. 1701. 
Sp m idoraSl e  — i bti of laediool bookt| His lived aboot the l4iter end of tbe 
tie obkf'of wbicb 'la bia ** CoMpleie aevenUenih ce«tiiry and b«^ianiiis of 
1% ratable, srD»iig|iat'a Siwyepeiied," the eigbteeaih. 
a »icb ostaM of IWI p9$^B i '* A 

< liNalef^s Ritt. of C. C. C €.— Cole's MS Atheim CsAUb. itt.BMt. Jdsf «--^ 
^mH^rmptnphr^ Jbc*— Ctent. Mag. toK LXVf. 

V<H. XXVII. G 



in SALTER. 

adAntted t>f Ba[ife*&>eollege) Oattib)idg«, June SO^^ ITM^ 
under th^ ' tnitMi of Mlv Chuiies Skottd vte. ' Sixsni utev fatr^ 
t»ktD^thef^dlftgt*^ec»f 8. A. in 1783, be w«s< tibweii iutQ^sr 
fellx]r>VsUj:^, ^Md teofe bia^tmtote^^sdegii^eiHi lT37i \ 'His nt^ 
ttli^l ^uhI At'iqyriTedAfAilitMM'i^ecoaMiieDdeii hirn oo sir dPfaiiip 
Yorke, thei> Ibrd^-^hief^ju^tice of the K^kigi'^-beiiflbvs^d 
aftert^Vd^' efttl of Havdwicke^ for the intcvoetkift'Of. Mb! 
eldbsif ton tbe-s^c^nd estrl^ who, with tftree of his brothers; 
in bofri^llidi^ht to'ubp. Herrings ura^i cdiM^ted Athtbat col4 
lege. As «odii iis that eminent lawyer waa mtde dqrd- 
chanccAlbr, be af^potttt^d Mn Sateer^his doaiastic cba|]ittmy 
and g«ive bitti a prebend in the divrcb of Glooce^t^ry whicfa 
be aftervrafdtt etehanged for one in tbat>ofiNori»idh; About 
the tiAiebf bis quitting Cambridge, be wasoite of the wrtterf 
in the ^ Atb^nian Letters.^' Soon aiterUie cbancelior gave* 
Mr. SaUer the rectory of 'fitirton Cog^les^ imibe conmy of 
Ltneotn, in 1740 ; where he went to raKidi^aoonaftMr^ attd9 
marrying Miaa Seeker, a relation, of the^tben bidiop of 
Oxford, cotitinued there titl 1750, when lie>wn8 JvooHnaEtedj 
minister of Great Yaraiootb by the dead and- chapter of 
Ndrwich. Here be peifomed the duties 4rf^ that kii^* 
}$arish with great diiigenoe, ttli bia ^promotion to.?«hcr> 
preacbership at the Charter-house in Janiiai^ iTB4} some 
tim^ befbre which (in July, 1731), abp; ^Hetiring; faiiii lio* 
nouredhimwith the degree t)fi>;D. at /Lainbdtb« Iti K76<f^ 
he wafr presented by the lord«^chaooeKor tothe* reocnayof 
St. BarfholDoi^w near the Rqyal Ex«ha:iige^ -sMbiek (was (the 
last ecde^astloal preferinent<fae 'pbcatriedf .hot ii\>Hom 
1701, he succeeded Eh*. Bearcroft as maBierof tfafe Obar^i 
tef<- bouse, who bad been his^pnNkptesa^ttr tke.piieacbfiw; 
skip. Wbtlei be- wai a. meinberoof iBiNifi^t myiie^ej^m^ 
printed Gveet Pindaric ad<la dRitfaufndpitkdq of t^e'pniicel^ 
of Orang^-and Wales, amdja co|qr^af LatcoJirevasaroiD ^^bel 
deafii of qpdcii' Caroiiiveti iBeddeH'taxkaroBxi^pdeadtod^Jod.' 
oceasiwib af^a^muacHMeetitigi^atGlouceatQii^ anotberlii^ansi 
thai lordHnayof, Septi 2/> 174iO,) ostbe cknBiiverBairy/Df<{timi 
fireoif Londoiii a tfaird> bsfore^the 8iinaio&«htt^«ifefig>y, IbtiSiS^ 
whioh'waai mdahiUatibed at*tbetiuie^ dod.iiadeaweBt i89nii» 
ral alterattonst-befqire in wab priitted; urid eoe^bBfore; dnr 
HoQse 4}f OooNhbas, Ja^ M^.i76a;.:le pqbibhedy ^iA: 
complete Collection of Sermons and Tracts*' of bis grand-' 
father Dr. Jeffery, ijSl,' in 2 vols; 8v9,'<viiK. ^fe^JiPf %^^^ 
fixed, and a new edition of *^ Moral andt BeUgiaai&^wiplKh* 
fisms/' by Dr. Whichcote, with large additions of sotna 



S A L T E IL 83 

4 

ietien tbU pataed betivymi him and Dr. Tuc)Eii«f ,. ^f con*. 
earhiAg' tlW' Use .of/&9i»9Qn iftBeUgiopyV <&c< ^.nd a bio* 
graf^icadsfNMfiaoey 1751,, 9vp.. Tp Miese.mfy. bc^.addedt 
^^ Som^Quema MUtive to tb« Jew% oocasiM^ by: a late 
sermofiy^^ littth dameotli^. papers occatiooed by the 
'* Quei*ie5^^^ pubiisbed Ihe Bam^ year. In 177S and 17.74» 
be'rMiaad ibrotigh the pres^ s^ven of tbe celebrated 
** Letiera e£tBeiiJ^oriieaai;V written by.jtbe rev, Henry 
Ttiylor^r of Cmw'ley ia H»nts« In J 776, Pr. Salter printed 
folrf>rivate.iisey ^The iirat 106 lines of the First Book of 
the Iliad f ; neatly aa written in Hoioer^s T^me and .Coun* 
try^'* and printed idso i» that year» *^ Extract froxfi the 
Statutes o£ ibe House» and Orders of the Governor^i re« 
speoting the Pensioners or poor Brethren" (of theXbarter- 
house)t ^ l&rso single sheet in folio s in 17.77j b^ eorr^cted 
the proof-sheets of Bentlejir's ** Dissertation on Pbalaris ;'* 
aid not long belbre his death, which happened May 2, 
177S^ (be pfiotied also an inscription to the memory of his 
parents, an acco«ni: of all which oaay be aeep in. the 
** Anecdotes of Bowyer." Dr. Salter was buried, by his 
own express direction, in the M)st pri^^ate maiiner, in the 
eommon burial-ground belor\giDg to the brethren of the 
Charter<*'house.' m 

Bi the discdssibn of philological subjects^ Dr, Salter 
pnnred himselfie^tfeifyiaccuMe Greek scholar; hia reading 
iras'iHmierBaly and e]< tended -ibroagh the whole circle of 
antiiest/litoratMreiS^.Mhe was acquiinted iwitb ^e poets, bis^ 
tCMMfiis^ ortttdra^Mphilosophers, andv^itips^ t>f G-reece and 
Ranie>; this taeniQi^t.was naturally :tenacioua« and it had 
aoqioredf greitt artiisciai jpdvw ers» if amch an expression be 
«llOvniblfl,ffay «siiigDoDotr»lv)heii he delivered bis sermons* 
Ter, «aitppi|iote ptaBaohing/iieibadiaecustotned Mowself for a 
ledg cQUffttef years./ Bo pefesitiiveMideediWiere Jub faculties, 
tbot,l)tiin>aijfe)nrryeani'beforer'his(ileaJtb^ beci>iiM.qtiote long 
p — 8hg fesr»fcom' almestfei^ery.apthQrjvhofief works be had 
pah]sd»d,/CB89B'nrith '^atotbicfib exaetnes&r Noc were his 
attidtes,eQafisiedtlK]d4)beteR-iiefs'x)fBntiiqpityj$ be was equally 
oonfeerssfit/wiUifEbgtisU^KlioratUr^ and with the laun^piages 
asiA pradfldtiooe bfifJtb^b'Jttaiqed.and faigenJoftis in Torioas 
plirta di*Mutdpe^ t>in hial^rUer ViSmbe had been acquainted 

iMbW oH'tK« TngA/riirtaJ have bc«ii ford, J78!,Sto, p. 434—439. 



84 £| A L T E IL 

v^ith ^eotley, and cheriAed hts vatMdty with firofioiotfd 
respect. He preserved many anecdotes W thnii great critrc, 
which were ptiblUhed from his papc^rs 'Iby^bur li^med 
English printer, Bowyer.* . . H u,. i. 

SALUTATO. SeeCOLUCCTO. * ' ' ' 

SALVA-TOR ROSA. Se^ ROSA: '=' 

SALVIAN, orSALVIANUS, an>elegant^nd tKrtHitiftrl 
writer, was one of those who are usually called fsLttiei^ dfthe 
church, and began to he distinguished abont^'^O.' -The 
time and place of bis birth cannot be settled with any ek^ 
actness. Some have supposed him to hkvt beefi M AiVt- 
can, but without any reasonable foundations while otttets 
have conchided, with more probability, thathe Uf^saGatil, 
from his calling Gallia his ** solum patrium f* though per- 
haps this may prove no more than that his famity carte 
from that country. His editor Balu^rus Infers from His 
first epistle, Chat be was born at Cologne in Germany ; and 
it is known, that he lived a long time at Triers, whc^re he 
married a wife who was an heathen, but whom he easSly 
brought ovfer to the' faith. He removed from Triers into 
the province of Vienne, and afterwards becatne a priest «f 
Marseilles. Some have said^ that h^ was a 'bishops but 
this is a ruistake, which arose, as Balu2lns very well- con- 
jectures, from this conrbpt passage in 'Gcnrtatfiu'*,"*'^*H6- 
milias scripsit Episcopus nvultas:^^ wbert'as' it ftouM %e 
read " Episcopis** instead bf *< Episcopus,** ^U befti^kno^n 
that he did actuaUy coflipose many hoitifli!^ 6r iretmfdha 
for the u^e of some bishops. He dfed V^ry oU xSvftttis 
the end of the fifth cf^ntury, iftier writirt^'aftd prfbHiWhg'a 
great many works; oT whicb,'^hbwevfeV, tidtMn^+iiHflarta^btil 
eight books **De Providentia'Dei ;*» fb.t^tottVi ^*««i?tt-. 
6US avaritiam, prcsertim Clericorum '(^t Sa<let^dhiai?'^^ttj^d 
nine epfsttes. ' llie best edition of kh^^p|^e/ii4fiat of 
Paris !«**, in 8 vo,' with ' the not^s bf^iSaJdaSiis',^ ^Hftl]fHntfed 
eleg^hily in 1€W, %vo: •rtfe^*'CoArtnttiiWdH«l!rf^W Vih^ 

centias tWn^risi^islpilbHshed WJA'it, yiSibn^btfei ifiS'by 
BatiiziUsr^ '• " ' ' ' •' " '• »• ' • " > I-';*- I •'* .lUXii i>oo^ 

SALviAlPlVtiUTSr(!rsy()Roest)} 6ktl4<I1il91iL^Jftt,^ft«m 

the fafour afM tiati'oha^e df thb e4ri)ibklrS<ffV^UAffmil'ihe 
son of Miphelingiolo Rossi,' aAd Wai idtH a<^9)brtoe6^n 
iSiXK : H^ M^as first phic^d as J piibit^u^dfer A^rfftWa-del 

1 Nicbolf'8 Bowyer.»Masten' HisL of C. C. C. C. 

• Cetc^ i^.*IV^-^orlUfat l«l«iM«s«^-^ftTiln«r^ Wbrtoi«a>iipiii. 



S A L V I A T L 99 

cifi. ^aj^dioelH. Ueti^ jpie baj for, V^s ,fe|lov^jpijpil,' Yasari^ 

in Roaae. His eoiployoient kepi p|^p^,with ni3 r^pi|it£^tioi]^ 
and, among other bejf^6ct|ti}9|^de^s,,,^e wa!» ^>^^p0^'>y 
bis patron, tbe cardinal, nofi^dit^n tys 9b^^ i¥^t^ a j series 
K^f.freaci^ef^jtlne 5U>je^t3 l^^iiig iifkey fcopi tlie. (i^^.^f St. 
4p4ii ^%p(j^. He pro(ji>fced a s,f 5 of cart^pqs (if tji§ history 
pjfiAle^fiidery 1^ pauer.i|s for .tapostries ; apa,,in conjunc* 
t^on wik^h y^!^u:i| orqaioented tb^Qapa/tments of the Can* 




.{^9^cbes fpr. tbe P^la^zo GriuialdL He afterwards travelled 
<^raugk ]L)0p]i]f^dy,fan4 luade #oinp staj^ac Mantua^ study* 
Jng ivlth o^UAfb ,ae|ijgl^t. tlfe works of Jutip Ilpmano. Xt 
l^lorepf^^.bf^yvas eq[>plQy^d by tl^e grand-duke to adorn the 
J^di^^^g Veccbiio,: in ope pf the, saloons be rfepresent^d tbci 
^|riptory.^i\4 tliun^pb of Fpriu^ (^amillus, a work greatly ad- 
4B^ir^fof tbq ti(ut][i Aod ^st^ of the' imitation^ and /the vi- 

•^ A ^€3tlp$s ^aflifc .a9d,a /disposition to ^roye, le4 Sajviati 

jl|9 apoQpt . jaa iRyi^iPPJo /^ancp, from the cardinal de 

j^^rraio? .in thq^ija^^^f ?r^'cU I.', then eng^gjed' in con- 

nfltriicf;^ fLn4|^l(4<i\f9;ng tjiijsi iiaUqe at Fontainebleau ; and 

4pnpg.,tol' ^^y^Afffft.^ paiiited. a.fioe picture |or the 

.^«K<ib of tj>§, Clpl^Ujie?! >t ^aris,, of the t^ing down /rom 

.■lfteft.'PfW?fv(Hi?ij5flon-^W'er,retu/9ed to Italy^ wbe^e tbe 

*.WhftlWW\f iC*«ft,jFffl^^ bi3.. continual disputes wi^h 

umk«^^mm .?*^9*J cpntmiial agitatiwi 

.«f/fBind ftrSWRt.W ^fR«''r..?/.W^^.dipd in U63, at 



was born 
good taste in Italy, cbieny py nis translations, jwb|cri ccm- 

lt»9f||tee,SS/fcq?;}^. i^'?'4?jSPf * .,?^ »!>« ^oH .of Job 
and the Lamentations j Boileau s'< Art Poetique; Addison's 

'J '} > 'j ' 1 • -■ " .< ' 



I 



M S A L V I N I. 

** Cato" and " Letters from Italy,** and other pieces. All 
these are literally translated, which obliged him to ihtro* 
duce into the Tuscan language a multitude of new com-r 
pound terms. He wrote also *^ Sonnets and other original 
Joems," 4to; "Tuscan prose," 1715, ,2 vols. 4toi "A 
hundred Academical Discourses f ^ " A funeral Oration for 
Antonio Magliabecchi,*' and other works. He died in 1729. 
The Salvinia, in botany^ was so named in compliment to 
him, but of his botanical talents we have no information, 
Salvini also belonged to the academy of De la Crusca, and 
was particularly instrumental in the completion of that ce- 
lebrated Dictionary, He had a younger brother, a canon 
of Florence, who died at an advanced age^ in 1751. He 
was also a distinguished man of letters, and published a 
work, entitled ** Fasti consolari delle' Academia, Fioren- 
tina,'' and the Lives of Magalotti and Migliorucci,* 

8AMBUCUS (John), an eminent physician, and one of 
the most learned writers in the sixteenth century, was born 
in 1531, at Tirnau in Hungary. He visited the universities 
of Germany^ Italy» and France, and applied with almost 
equal success to the study of medicine, the belles lettres^ 
poetry, history, and antiquities. His learning and repu;r 
tation introduced him with great<advantage at the courts of 
the emperors Maximilian IL and Kodolpbus 11. to whom 
he became counsellor and historiograph^'^ Sambucus died 
of an apoplexy at Vienna in Austria,, June 13,. 1584^ aged 
fifty-»thjee, leaving an excelleot " History ,^( Hungary,** 
}u the German histories published by Scl^ardius ; ^' Lives 
of the Roman Emperors;** Latin translations of ^^Hesiod, 
Theophylact, and part of Plato, Ovid, and Tf'fcncy^ides, j'* 
^ Comtneiitaries on Horace*s Art of Poetry ;** notes on se- 
veral Greek and Latin authors; '^Icones mediporum/* 
Antwerp^ 1603^ fol.; ** Emblemata,** Antwecf)^ ^^T?? ^P^^* 
and several other works in verse auid prose. • 

SAMPSON tTuoMAs), an eminent puntan diyine, was, 
according ta Strype, born ?it Playford in SM^S^Ut, and was 
a fellow of Pembrokerhall, Cambridge,* Wopfl says he 
was bor.n b 1517^ without specifying ^vl^er^^.; but aUds, 
that he i^as educated at Oxford, which seeoi^ most prpba** 
ble, as that' university was the scene of much o^. his f^ti^re 
life*. He jtppear;i ^9 h?ive imbibed the'princip^s Qf,th^ 

» Pabrnii Viite nkTonitn.^MorerL— SaxiiOiiom^s^fof).  ' -  

UiMMiltSOOm 



SAMPSON. M 

r^formatipn at a very early period, aud became such an 
acute reasotier tbat Wood inforins us he was the means of 
converting John Bradford^ the famous martjr. He began 
likewise ' very early to entertain those prejudices against 
tbe babits which occasioned so much mischief in the churchy 
and which were confirmed in him, and many others, by 
associating witli the Geneva reformers during cheii' exHe 
in the time of queen Mary, tie was ordained by arch* 
bishop Cnanmer and bishop Ridley, who, at bis request, 
dispensed with the habits, to which now, and ever after, 
be attached the idea df idolatry. He was chaplain in the 
army of lord Russelin his expedition against the Scots. 
Ii^ 1 55 1, he was preferred to the rectory of AllhaUows, 
Bread-street, London, which he resigned in 1553, and the 
year following to the deanery of Chichester. During the 
reign of Edward YF* he was accounted one of the ablest 
^nd most utfeful preachers in confirming the people in the 
'doctrines of the reformation. On the accession of queen 
Mary he concealed himself for some time ; but having been 
active in collecting money for the support of poor scholars 
in the twounlvdrsiVies, narrowly escaped being apprehended, 
and "Was obliged to go abroad, where he resided chiefly at 
Strasburgh, with the other English exiles, and had some 
hand in the Geneva translation of the Bible. 

On tlie accession pf queen Elizabeth he returned home, 
not only confirmed jitv ms aversion to the habits,' but with a 
dislike, itwduld^ppear, to the whol^ of the hierarchy, and 
tefiiskd thefi>isboprid of Norwich because dissatisfied with 
the Wore of the o^oe. He ppntinned, however, to .preach, 
patticdlarly atP^ai^rs cros^, where his wonderful memory 
and eloqiieni^e ivere very much admired ; and iii Sej>tember 
. ii^b he wks m&de ^ prebendary of Durbsim. In MichaeU 
IvtSi^-teirm'liei, he. waa installed dean of Cbrist-cbnrcb, 
^Oxifordl^ Ohi^ this bcpiision aome'members of that society, 
who recopmeod^d ihftii fbr thi situation, s^id, tfakt <Mt 
^a^ vety doubVfhl^' whbthbr there wag' a better man, a 
^^gfdater Ifni^j^, a biore complete scholar, or a inore pro* 
^fofi^ddjiltiey'. aMI it ii; ceruin that for some years he and 
dDriXSDkWremre'RuiDpbrev were the onlyprotestantpreacbers 
Wii Okford of in^ celebrity^ In ]5(t2, be resijghed his pre** 
't/^ii of l!hirhroi, and became so open andzealops in his 
^iilvbctfves' agalhst the habits, that after considerable for- 
bearance^ he yitM <?ited» with Dr, Humph];eyf before the 
Jiigb ixwmniiiion eoint atvi^ambetfa^aad Snipsoa was 



Si S A H P 9 O N. 

dfiPFiTl94 i^ii^^ doaMtry^ and for vope- tiooe pn{;|rJfM3#e(lr 

«^W^, 4n*^#> lij /|he.liw|tjBribip of Wig»ton4wRiU,l,v 
^|>I^i«^|^« aiMHtbad lik/ei^i^Q, Mc^rdifig to. Wooc^.n pnsrl 

c§njA»>wA^*flr#<?^wtS teii'de^4^jApapi 14*9. H^mfXi^. 

rifKlii4>isbwiHa%»pr>ni^<^ by whaio J^ baid two apWi,. 
J^e «f>fl J(4^ithmiel, . wbo . er^t^d a < aiomnm^ot to his .me*. 
Q^Rf^y^'WUbia LiMift inwiriptionp inibe:chapel .af.tbe hos^r, 
jdi^ ^If Iheic^f^^. wb^^ b^' waa burief). Bis works ajroi; 
ff w ;, rli /< Letter to Uie profeseons of Chri^it's Qo^pel^ ip tb<» 
parish of Alihaliows in Breadstreet,** Stra8burgh)16^4,.8vq|^ 
W^Htb . is jT/^pripted in the appendix to Str$pe'& f^i S^k»i<- 
asjl^cfil M^mpr^^ls, V vpK III. 2. '* A rWamiiag ^o take be?4 
qf *JFo.wieic's.P«alt«rV' Land... 1576 and I5a«k,» 8ko. Thi« 
V9ft>>^ popish psalter published by John Fowl^,.onc^ a 
]^^1^9W . of New-ciillegey Oxford, bi^t who w^nt ^Jbjcoad^.. 
l^ip^d prjot^y aod printed the pppisb controvert wi^rka 
fojc 9fip)^ year^..' 3* " Brief Collection of tbeChurd^ ji^nd 
Cefi^nAOfiies thereof"! Lond. IS^J.^ 8iro. 4. V Pray ^s, and 
iIedit|^^QP« Aposti^ike; gatberf^d an4 framed oujt of th^ 
J^ia^li^ft of the Apostles,'^ 4cc. ibid. 1592« i^ma Hewa^ 
al|o editor of two sermons of bis. friend John BrstdfordoijOiv 
repi^pt^ncfs ^od the LordVwpp^i^i, Lond- l^^^t 158L^.afud 
]^^i^f^ 8T9- Baker aecrib«s to bim^j a ;translatiop of *' a Ser* 
{pfifx.pl Jf^Jl^Cbrysosum ofPaciencei ofjjtbe endof Jthe^, 
^pjrld,;^nd the last judgment/! 1550, 8ro; ..andof ^^ Al'i 
Bofop^^c; pf the Resurreciipo of Chri^tf," byiohnB^f^i^iiwi, 
t^i^^t ^^9'u Othef wprk%| o|r;pap^sin|wbteh.be^wawpWi 
^ftec),.^|n«y be.s^en in pur avthoxities,? / , ^ v> ..t, 
J^ANAPPN (Npex.-.STERHEii),,a le^oed Je^uitroCJFjffOicei, 
WM boi:p,^ Bjouen in 1676«, . He tiaug)>(.(pQlite(ir(6ratMri» 
t^^t^ 4iAtiaguisbed ri^utatiqn At Cfieo^.. whe^e b^, c^j^tra^t^ 
^intipHiteffiff^dsbip with Huet, bisbop.p^ AYna^gh^i.A 
V^te ft>i?,pppj;ry,i^,aaid to. have been. this. PFW,9JRal,frqni od 
^W/^m, S9(?ft«w»i;d^ profea^^d rhef9r||q inl>ari^^*i>4, 

^%*f %^m Mw cKg^4 ?»i^b^e edvfifttjm.<rfthi9jprjrfpft 

9C^.fr ,(Pe,w4ft libwian ta ibe king^^fe/^ ^(| djf?d, ^jh 
^WWf Jilfril73?.,, I|# publi^^bed ««W?ft^yi;VKicw^l^i^ 

§ffi«flr./i^94i>'»P.P»blished tl^pjn^iq 9,pal^»Sf},fc»fli,3»tii<HWTi 



S A N A D O N, 89 

miliiMltf4ifaK'qtAlu6r^^^ Pari*, 1715, 12fm9Slid'Tarioiit theies 
aoif pb¥i<ri(lgic«t dhtterutiontf; but is best known by bis 
trtfi^kcio^ bf^the works of H&tBce with notes; a work 
whMlb liiis beeiV- very weil received. The*- satires and 
e^ytles' are* ably tmnitated ; but * the odes are ratber 
weMr^fitetf by a (anguid'pa^apbfas«'tbati aversion answerable 
totb^ oi^iginsl. His notes ate learned, and many of them 
vefy useful Ter understanding bis author; but- there lire also 
DiaAs of a falsely delicate "and fa^idious tisste, not uncom- 
nMi ambng'FVencb critics. The best editions of his lJo<- 
raee ^re 'those of Paris^ 17^, 2 vols. 4tOy and 1756, S 
vols.* l^mo. ' ' 

SANCHES' (AmroKio NvNEa Ribeiro), a learned phy« 
sieiahy Uras born March 7, 1766, at Penna-Macor, in For- 
togal. Hi^ father, who was an opulent merchant, and in<« 
tended bim foi the bar, gave him a liberal education ; 
biit, being displeased at finding bim, at the age of eighteen, 
obstinately bent' on tfee profession of physic, wttbdrew his 
protection, and he was indebted to Dr. Nun£s Ribeiro, 
his* mother's brother, who was a physician of considerable 
repute at Lisboti, fortbe means of .prosecuting his medical 
studies, which' be did, first at Coimbra, and afterwards at 
Saianrranca, 'vtrbere- be took the degree of M. D. in 17Sf4 ; 
and the year following procured the appointment of phy^ 
sicisCn to the tOwn of Benevente in Portugal ; for which, 
as is the custom of that country, he had a small pension. 
His stay at this place, however, was but short. He' was 
desirous of sdcing more of the world, and of improving 
bimlself in'^his 'ph3f^ssion. iWith this view be came and 
passed two years in London, and bad even an^lnteiUiph 
of fiiiiYg there ; ' ba't a bad state of bealth, which f^e attri«- 
buted'to the' rtlmate, induced hikn to. return to the conti^ 
ne«l?/'^&uon'afte*', we find bim prosecuting bis medical 
8tudi<*^^it L^di^b;^ tinden tfae-cdebrateci Boerhaave; and 
ft^^ilPi^d'SistiflSaieht'proof Of bis dtligetice and merit to. 
ibVervi^J^tliitf iirltSi, when the jfempress-of liussia (Anne) 
rfelJ^Wt*d^6bgfllkaVe to lidebibmeod to her thre* fhysi- 
diW^;<^H^^^K^«r-!iiirknfeUi&tleIy dx^^ iipbn Dr. SaYicfaAi 
i«WdWi?'4r'tIttrfrtJftlb^. ^bst ^ he was wtting out for 
Vm^m'lie mti'UfSmed' Otit >ils father t^i lately dead; 
ri^Bate<H»'^ib'dlBD^,^ Irif an tihsutdcssfiil law-^oitVitli the 

.r-Moreri.--.Dict. Hill. . • ' -?:^-' r. .f.P rT- ' 



so fcfcANCHES. 

Portuguese adaitNJcy« had loat i\w greMerpartafber for* 
tune, ' Ijq 'ufUfhediixUily ss&igned cxver liiis awn Uitiecjaiant 
#q4 /espe€tatiofi9 iu Portugal fov Uer suppprt. . Soou afier 
))is . arrival lat btp Peteridt>4u;g». Dr. Bidloo (sqqt of. the fa« 
.Hious; pfa^':$ipiafi 1^ .t)uLt naiue), iwho wajs at tthaiump. 6fit 
p^^icUu: to tJte. ea>{>i)ea8, -gave him an appoUiimeQit io the 
hospital at Moscow, wUeire he jremained till 1734, wheo fa^ 
vfM eiK^ployad as* pbysiviim to tbe army, Jn which, capacity 
h^ Wi^jpresfutat the siege of Asoph, where ho waa. atr 
talked wixh a dan^geroos fever, and, when be began to re* 
tovefy found bioi&eif in a tent, abandoned . bj his att^o- 
dantSy and plundered of his papers and effects; la 1740, 
h^ was-appointed one of the physicians to.tbeoourt, and 
fConsttlted by the empress, who bad for eight years, been 
]|dbio(iriug. under a disease, the cause of which bad ^ever 
^beeo ^tisfactorily ajicertained. Dr. Sanch^s, in a canvetw 
satioo wUh the prime minister, gave it. as hi» opinion, tb|t 
tbf^ complaint originated from a stone in one of tbe kid- 
neys, aftid adnitted only of palliation* At the .end of bax 
liiionlb^ tbe empress died, and tbe truth of hif opiuioQ waa 
penfirmed by dissection. Soon after the d^axh of. the em*' 
press^ .D4r» Sancb^s was advapced by: the regent ito^be^jl- 
fioe of first physician; but the revolution of 1742, whiqh 
pJaoed Elitsfibeth Petrowha on the tbronei depniv^dhim, of 
ujA his appoiptn^ents. Hardly a, day passed t^hat he did not 
'bear of some of his friends perishing on t)^ s^aiSqld ;^ and 
it WES n^t without much diflSouity \tapt he^ob^^ed I^ave 
t^.Yeisre frouv Russia. ^is.library9r.iYhifh,.jb,adi^c9^t h^ 
l$;QO,pounds sterling, he ^i^osed of Xp^thfiaqiivbepijr^f JSit* 

PeNrsburg) of which b^wasfa?^ |io^prafV.ffi^n^l>'l ^^ 
ini retHj'n, they agf^d to giv^j hiip.j.^,3^pgipn^/)l5i f^f^ 
poinds per annuip.. Puriog bi^ r^^^dep^ io .Ilq$^^ ]l^ 
hadavailed^iuiis^If of bis situat^Qp fit/^ufi^it^^^^s^hi^A 
€3orr<^poii4ence wiUi the Jesuits in Ch'^pj^^^y^^jJx^M^fii^m 
for. books of astronon?y an4 .<rther pc©§?«t*j| J!W!>^ Jw™,!^* 
^r piaotsi WgethjBr with otb(?F;s^rtivles9if iHtoral,hjftj0ry.,,.,ft 
was from Dr, Sanch^s th^t tb^ ]^te.Ur, Pf^ri^(}f^^^^ 
reoeivadtbe aeeds pf«th^ trjue rbc^ar^^ ^hf^kl^ff VliV^ 
destroyed by some acjcixifntj andit .^9^, ftfi^ tt|^e^gf/il 
yea». afterwards that rbpWh waa 9Mlti)Va^4;Wf)l^:f^^^ 
w tbiSi ewntryt from s^e<Is: seft^jOV^E .bXpth^^j^.^m- 
Mounsey. Id 17475 h^ >vent, to r«,W|? ^,P/i^% y^i^fjfg l)c 
remained till his death. He enjoyed the friendship of the 
Most tetebrated pbjsieiaztt and phitosophtos^ti^that tngk^. 



8 A N C H E 8. 01 



and, 'at ihe Mttttutiotv of & Royal Me^^t Society,' be wa« 

iAtdseti *tL' fbi^'ign ttsftdciace. He was likewise a fti^mb^r '6f 

tbe*rMMfct 'academy '€rf Lisbbn^ to 4h6 establUlMneftt dPwhi<^h 

Md adiidef hftd ptobabty contl^tlydted, as he^'dr^iKr up/tit 

t*i^ deHife Wthfc' c6ti4't df "Poitttg^l, sevefall inefbo>#i2l(6(^i 

-rtM plarns^Ki^c^ftaty to be^ diiopiei 4bl- tf^e^ncouti^geaife^t 

«f vdtetioe. Sothfe of th^esfe pkpefs, reJative to 'the ij^tti^ 

Uiirfimeiitor aivtiniv^i^iiy^ were piint^ durirt'g iife^ Mf*- 

tifti^'irir Pdrtogucie, aftd the r^^t hare b^t> feurtd mrio^jFj 

1rt# it(ahli5«ripts* ' H^s-seHic^ hi RDssiei retitained ht rIx^ 

neeti'yetffs ti'nnotWed; btit, when the late^mpi^si Calthe*- 

ihlne Brfcfendedthe throfte, Dr. Sanch6s wai'ncit'forgotteii. 

9ftf bdd M^kided h«r in a dangerous ithvedi ^h\^ft> siie vv«ts 

▼efy yoaf)g ;'ltid ^be now re^^rded bim' with a^ pe^i9k}n«6f 

a'tHdus^iid 'rout:Aes9 wbtch was pimctaally paid till bh death, 

R^lik^wisb received apenston frofin (h^ court of Portuwat^ 

tfnd tthdtheir from ' prince GalKtzm. A g#eat' parr of thrs 

iftiiiottit be employedin %tcts Of beneiroi^dde. OP the libe* 

r^ity With iVHb lie adtnmistered to the warns of Ms re^a^ 

ifonk and friends, seve^ striking instancbtf, 'Wiiitib'O'A' 

iithits will no/t pertnit'us to insert, have been retitt^ hy 

Mr.'de MageH^h. He was haturattyof an irignfr baibf t* of 

'body, arid, during *tbd fast' iHiity years of his fife, ft^ 

qq^ifetitly voided suiill- stones \Wrh his urine. The'di^osir 

ridn'cd this'dkeasd ihbreased ais he advanced in years,' aiifril 

fbt' a considerable Wme befofe his death, he was- confiiieU 

to' His ^pafrtn»^nts. Tfaeiast tisit he made was, in 17€2, to 

'tIM grMd'dtike of Eussia, irtio ^^s then at Pftrrs. • In Sep-r 

tt^bek'^^^i, be pert^i^e&^^M his end was approaching, 

^a!tt! hcfdi«tf'on«iB l#tH oP October foHowing. His library, 

ftfMbh'%a^^6rtriAet^bf^, be bequeathed to his brorbei*. Dr. 

Maiifr^fb^iSiinG)^,' Mrhb was likewise a puptVof Boerhaare, 

'ariii^Wbo t^dtd ilftlkpli^s; Hii manUscrrptS (aiiioi^g which, 

'^^jttfeii'a'tfdrtiiidterablfe nufhbef of papers on' med^t^l ^(rb- 

"Jhartf/'Wfe l^^teeti '^ti^eh by Mm to Boerhaate, V*n 8wld. 

len/ Otrii6it^sJ*^flklfef, Wctlftbf, Prfhgle, Rfthterg«r> ahtf 

'6\lidi^1«5ttiVk^d*\bfefa)ate-tn thfe pibs^ession-of JJk Awdr^. 

tan '^mikW%6^%,'0n th^ c^^i^ of the' ^nekieaf>d4iiek^ 

attdT'^tH^ iitfbj6<et^, ^i^-weH k>ho%^ ¥0 aied<ba» irlmler^ ; 

h^'M^^tri6^/im^e,it Mtittiy w^n f\6t teiifiihfed'td''his-o^n 

J^ft^or^^^hd Wss'efcsdd^ food^'of g<H)ertf l^ttmtii^; ^m 

% iHA to «kWwett jW^bTdtmdlt Vetsed in ^ol4iic8/»>' - v'- 



H SANOHEZi 

%W <«hiM6^ t *i^lAf8G^Mli«(dl«feli 'of: the < pi »toe& th (ten twy^ wi» 
•h\wti 4l->lte^t&rdeati^i>in ^tte- {u-ofvitide.iof ^Gstawndnm' in 

^44^ty6t'SftlaftiAii^ai(wb^e'lik was^psMsaimr^oC ffhetorib^ ami 

ntt^bttiOtwk'M4<'h4i^Mtfii^>the'^^^ (ia- 

tf U<^ f roiA^ tte^<y#igfinidiMiy. i^f hasicruidisms^stid » reHMkka nn 

-ite'^U8i()ti:6t>' Justus i^p6i«8^>tMopfHiisy.fl*d'odiers«i«sceib 

J^Kd tt^Iilis 4^flaikiigdMg« to lMpl1eaB!tjbeiri«dlllictttid^t•J>£Ms.;ll^ 

*I^tl^ 4^ leatMAg. • » ' LfpstiM' be|tow» Ahe-epitb^ts^ ^ 4l0tiiie{* 

Uttdr*^^ ad«airiibl0 ;'^' attd Scioppim aajils he a«0btto.'be«0iih 

f%tdi^red ts ^''coHMKlifis litenMonjUn QiiiQiJMka-ipateK eftv^ibo- 

fl^.'^*' SMdObM idi^in'lGOO^ inibe «er^ntj-fleT8tttb>|«ir 

^tSf^bto'^^e.:-! H^/pubUsbed a gMc^ituinjpivdrkf tmiMbJBoiB 

'<tf ck{»^c41 ^riiioishii Md was tbe edi^^^fiBaraifiiar^ Pom- 

v^iiiii 'Mela, Pcditiftn^s << SytvW' Aicut's^eniblraiu^ Vjer- 

-gW>^^U<i&ii«sj add^Hdraic^'siiAftrt of PcHft^. iiIi«»^Ubliod 

)Ai^(^'t4*^ dr^dtgraiftimars^ atid^soaieiadKar'pieQeajdo-gii^iii- 

ttiar^tM^i-iietQrio ; 'hut tliir«v^k.iiducbittpi|ii^petuated;U^ 

'^t^p^ftatkm id Kis ** Minerva^ de'einiM^rttiguaB >l4rtiD«/o'fi«.- 

-4^^an«ti'/ US7, &#o, which- «r^f)ofU)i)i;r(sprinitod> .impwife 

>^«h^6m'=«tmd»v a^ editi»fi was- pubiisbed irtr^Acmf lerdam, in 

'^l'>94/6r 1761^ 8v^ witbaisiipptecatontiby'iScaQppitia^'aad 

'^Wc»4/$'4yf PerisTotiiMs. Thiv^'Wiui capriatild mik fa^teoiiiu 

{})yotettido«i$ by -S4»bcMtuV'^^'Utracl]t,r>inMlZA5v.8TOQ aad 

'ttgain' bj^Bouier,* a« Leip^o^'iri IMii^iid «ibii8te«?yj ">. 

^^CKfii^Mi^/ (ri'M«w Gai^e^ atoatol^dS: AjoicQriiNig toidie 
•*^j)^tto<dl^vheiM)(ektyvimk;«iBdb]]MM^ dMiii- 

.^|l9tii1Pth«iediriMUl>'langttagf« ittvd^ that beUiuMeltrct^'UtiAe 
^etftfluf^MU^^ at Ordp^^ Midrid; aiBdltetef}pl{ibaa/)«id 
^ Wii^l^iastcboMi»cp)to6tta4)ii)efIch9hni)r>a^ 
' <ip»flti#H>tfe^ptyaargW'eortiflMcfcaibfefmi ^Stni^ts»4^e 

different times. It is perhaps no itaisiiawidii^ibl^jMrQpfcaif 

flJUn^bUi'^s^yoopaiifiritkoruiDirt 91«<diBd jadiltt^.Iiwjasqc 

ix>dwbti^ htafejibdroj a^DruVagcr^it/vGaUMilL ah ,ls7>A!^8Aafter 

3fi tfMprepiriraidiyidtsdseaxtfddiamUfk^i twi^ntor^ftiMs^be 

udm9ob,lan^i#ftiHDdd rttimtieMrjinMl Mm^ ^\^ldmu9iti^U 

I AbC BibL Hitp.— Sasft'Opoav^f it AiHat^ Sibl Biap^-^Did* 1 



SANCHEZ. <S 

Ht6ki6^x Mll^UrftrUkdwla6 /appointed poql^tecnc of jdiwyity in 

learned) 'smetiAsyt. and" he >-bfOMlie iOi\o ii^fi^iejfiloft Ml<lr 
l>nrled'pr6aqiwr9)of»'tlioilasi]CfMMaryyi^ v^¥9S;h9i l^flA^^* 
iinnrtd fortius; <bM»in6teqGe»>. tte^oUaiqe^ l^b«jWl9«IF9Us 
citte of ttkeioitheMif the obfoittiiaaile^ainoog ^vbAqillii&ispmt 
the il9lRrieptofk»flf 'hitixaiibnrf y^aAdtat.b^s d(9«^h)if) ^I9fl^> 
li^-'iio^wore dHtD''VwibBi<6ly''a^ciieiife U» defrny^Ah^^^n- 
pencNfe^ lof hit' fimi^K > The- leiwre ht^ €«ttU ipcM)e^£i[aq| Ms 
pvofei8ioi»ldlicia9>wafl «mp(03t«d^in the fltv^yijof t^M^^fflA- 
•laatRal faig(8«y af hb counlcyi-^ which 'pftfdttfMsds seftn^l 
«wrks that -are U|^y etueeaMd in Spajflu >8oiifte lof it^flp 
irere written- ift'L^n^ and soue probaUfjr iA.rSfMMiisb; i>Aic 
ear aAthorityf^loes -Bot speaify tvfaiob* . A«l^ng 1^m^\^^^ 
l« <* ScmmiK tbeotegba 8aor»»" Madrid^ 174a, (4 )Wk(. ^. 
•a^< AotMLiea Mon^^f ibid.>i194, Svcifj 8v^. . .P^i/^' Ai^Hwijr 
'>ofitbedioi»dh o^'Afiib^^V ibid l7d4r'8aQ^ ^^wt^ffk.ill^qiiVld- 
iog initeaaoed.'reatorcbi' 4i '^^> A ueati«e<oi^.Talei;aiiQt>iM« 
aiatten'ofiRe|igiaD^'''iilMdJL7e5y :^ roia. 4119^ Mtbevi arjiifl- 
golaraol^att €or<a Spaniab-divioe.' B. ^^Aaei^aj/.qiiit^ 
etequence'^of the pulpit in 'Spaln|V ibid. 1778^ 8)9e^>r Tfe^s^ 
is &'faMto#yr^8aclBd{<imtory'^mtba*otttiHry in wfwiw^'ii^ 
• ivitb (the:iMutfes(iof 'thesetwho .-were the be»t model^^ef ft. 
•Tbe-flesteratioii b^'aitme taste^irt this apeciea-of eUqufA^e 
•be attribute to 'hi&olBiinti'Jr men, beeeantKig etqeaitt^iW^b 
the*works<efabdae eoMHent French- prtaob^f a AHsu^t^d^- 
tsillecis! BearrdAiocBriy &eip£il<'' A eeiieetioo of hia :^»iens/* 
>ibidj S< <TiilK> 4tA. Tbeiei aia^e psHch admiPedi in, &pM»il end 
etftvb dtoeisamGtyefiracienetaftedlaiit^rliaUani ind^priii^^ 
o Vk«aae)<in|a4<^s^i4tQ«'« .7u i^' \/^|iaper -feed^in ilus iPeimiaj^c 
'A>eiei9E>iif^MadHd ieriiTtM^ eniAbeaieeiiiiief leemutafieg 
{3iadea09^<iii'aiNUa^\'!ahfaif4 XdiH'i^vti iThia^beinli'bisil^- 
''^4iae'44un«j|^')IBn^eatthee-badioa^r>le|i>oiised)t0'iim 
'^ittbtcaet pnddsmj^ landf hadt.i aaytoeuee<«ai»ug^ite' lareeeiyi a 
'o-epdel ofi aoonii lopprtrwMra Aa^a!»friiidb<reterded am ^ekjfeeiiof 
Msd^miifii^iiapalbiaeceiA in! ''(]i;ii'<'>f ^i ji "-..m 'i-i - 
'n'ui8ANe»iXKV^«*M9iVUB^rm(aANCnOK(&^ a 

6paoistf.pMMhliei ^^MmMl fbnfhiatiwmiliga'ffiK.tli^'fi6eQftfh 
«aiiMr^4rflb4iiimla€ S«mta>MBrih de Mi^ira). iHicbe. diocese 
'^^Se^it, lie 44e^^> After -b(An9 iosumotwl iftiidmisal 
*ilea»iiiti^:alfd^taiiii{^Ss|:iuiiadjtbe)Gnieeiaeri(bjs eefDy^aiitat 
^fidaniMbe^iihe #di iMnewed^vidi llM(de^eiBief,docftiiK>in 



»4 • 8 A iVf C H E 2. 

profession, received priest's orders, and- wa:§ made sa^^c^^- 
siir^fy j^jEfiidea^^M of Tnevino in, the dtpci^s^ of 6«rgof^.4^art 
of. t^pp m^ ii§9kn of Seville. . Tbe 6rst preferoifBiii k4 lield. 
tvwtjty^««*t. the 4e<;9pd.^f6n|.Aad.>lbQ4hprd ^tt«> >'^f9M 
Alj^yK l^fQ» 4o(^|iU» U((g of Ca^liliet appointed. Uta «Pr 
yt^ tp tti^'^emperof F,reder*«k.nL und .)>^ .was ^Up^s^ter-* 
w^48..^fiiplo2^'edi in. Aiaiilar..aoini|ijs(iioi»« of <a»|ba/»9ii$^ lo 
Qtbep: cvpwnefl bemls^ Wht^.Caii^iCus UI. booaiAj^'Pop^i 
Hfii^xy iV» ki^ of CastUle, sent him to co^gratiil^e. bis 
hoifiieiisi wbich crcasiQned bim to. take np bia re^ideoK^e at. 
Rome* ' In all hU eoabaasuss* he made barangu^ to. tb« 
diffei^ltffMriacea tA wboai be was s^nti which: are :(i|tii) pret. 
senvied in,MS« in tbe Vatican lihrarj*. On /the ^Qc^niw^oC 
p^pe P«Ai IL he imade Sanchea go^ero^^r of tb9> i^ftfttla of 
8t. Ang^y and keeper of the jewels and tcea^ucea of thffi 
Roman » cbttrcbf aad afterwa,rda promoted him .%o.'|fae^ 
bishopf ios of Zamora, Cidaborra, acvd Palencia» T\m^/t h/^ 
appointment^i however^ were little, more <tban sinociiii^^ wst 
he never quitted Rome,. and employed wbat time be oooM 
space from his official dutiea in that city, in eontposing a* 
great many works, of wbich a list oE twenty-nine: may.ibft* 
seen ia our authorities. He died at Rome Oolii 4* 'lf70« 
aod wjas interred in the church of St James of S}min» Ai^ 
thoHgh^ 00 voluminoas a writer, by far. the greator part oi 
his works remain in MS. in theiVaticaa and other iibmrfea^ 
ivf) know of three only which were poUisbed* I • bm hiatiHy. 
of Spain, ^^ Historic HispanisB partes •quatuar/^ T.hiaLM«v^ 
chaod seems to think was published^p^catel^t bal^;it>,waai. 
added to the *^ Hispania lUustrata!* of Bel #nd>^bot|i^jpub«ii 
lisbed at fjrancfort in iSlii^ and again ifi (6Q3. S. ^^jSpen.* 
culuoi vit9 humans^, in quo de omnibuaotnnimm: Tine^M-rii 
dinnm aC'Oondiuoaum cominodis ao ii¥ioaHi»odi»4f!aetal^<MMVi({ 
Rome^ H68, folio^ wbich, with three whsequoQteidilipf^ 
is aceorately .described I in the *^ fiibUothe^aSpenqeoiaiHterii 
Thi« woiif contaiiu so maoy severe refieot^Mlis on !tj^>p)etogjht 
ef tbe a^$kfH'^ umot tha^ soiw protectants wrMfwahaveJ^ead 
dicy)osed.|Q. confiidierhvm as a broih^ iip^^disgoifa^ Jc^Mi 
certainly, lingular tbajt Mb coo)d>teaard^ so mmh/ pi»p|#db 
ccnsure<in such an a^e» ^^ << Epistola 4e, i<a^|^iigAat)one;r 
Nigroppotis/' f6lioi without date, bMtvp^hably jbefeMitho/ 
aothor'a dealb. A copy of this Uki^wMfl MciirAi itt^lbA < 
*^ Bibl. Spenceriana.^' Those who are desirous of farther 
information reapectiAg Sanchez or his worb may be amply 



SANCHEZ. 9i 

gratifi^ in Marehand, who has a prolix anltile oti'tb^'saba 
ject.* '  .1 ' .. . ^ '.• M' 

SANGHBK' (Thomas ANtHwry), b lettnvNl ft^iird; 
ttiil librarian to thi^ k^li^; was b<M\ in 1780^; ktiA 'Ai^hx^ 
g«itsh«rd hktisetf 'by his' f€fse«rch^ into the Utett^y Mbitbtf 
ofhi^-ooHiUWy, afiid by some edition^ off it» abl^M:aut!boi^s( 
which he'll I nfittated .with Very valyablel not^. 'Ocrf> aiiiht^ 
rity, however, eonveys very littte information t^^pedilhg 
his personal history or bis wbrks^ and dt^es'notefto nieiv^ 
tion the concern he had in the new a4id moeh iitij>iidtf^^ 
edition of Aim^^no's <«Bibi. Hispafia.'' Hei died et MstJ] 
drid in 17»8. His mo^ celebrated work is his << CblleiSttOH* 
of Qasiiliian poetry anterior to the fifteenth ceatury, to 
which are preHiKed memoirs of tl>e first marquis of Santtl^ 
lane, and a letter addressed to the constable of Portugal, 
on the oTtgtn of Spanish poetry/' Madrid, 1779>-^lt6^^ 
$ tx>ls. '8vo. This history is now preferred to that of fe«her 
Sarmienso, which formerly enjoyed such reputation.' 
Ssfncheealso wfote " AVi Apology for Cervantes,*' in aos* 
wcftr to a letter published in the Madrid Courier; and *> A' 
Letter to.I>on Joseph Berni, on hi^ defence of Petefthd 
Crad,^^ ibid. 1 778,' 8vo.; 

SANGHO '(I^TKATiirs), an elctraordinary Negro, wa^ 
bom in I7Sd, on 'board a ship in the slaTe-Arade,- a fe# 
days after it bad quitted the coast of Guinea for f he> Spa«^ 
nidh' West indies; -and at Carthagena, i^ceived baptisn% 
from the hand of the bishop, and the name of Ignatius; itef 
losufais parents in his:fnfiMicy, a dls4?as^ of the Dew elim^^ 
hairing put aueai-ly-period to bis aiother's ei:istet4ce; wMIe 
his' futber d^eated the miseries > of slavery by an a^of 
sutoideV At lUeic^ More tham two years old,' his masv^r 
brvaghtihifH vo^E^and, and gate him to three maiden 
8is'tetf^^>it^0SideAft>avGk^nwich; who tbooght, agreeable t^ 
pi<igudi4>sisJ|fOS^ifttiei(Mnmon^t'tfaat time, that ignorance wav 
tlieyotfly^i$^mtity'fer'>hi^ oyedienie,' and'^hat to errlarge his^^ 
iiHliat>i^o«ld- go Miir toemancipaYe^ hi^ \^^on. By them' 
he^Jiii4^Sflibfld!^d^8aind)o, fMti» ftm^ied' ii^semManoeto^ 
the s&ii>fr«»f<^Do«V Q^ln»6te. - WM4e*in fibis A^tuatiow, «be 
dhM^i^ Aiotnagd)- 4rbo lrtdd>on> B(hckh^atll^';aetndentlilty 
8sn^> ttnd K^AFfredin ht<A a nktive fM^rfi^s'bf manner; as 
y^'^uiifrKotelit^^'seitvUttde,' ahd> 'tfm*6flned by edUi(iati^6 f^ 
br^^UglH Mtti Aieqoemiy-hon^'to^he^d(it;h^ss; indulged hW 

* J>Rt. iii»t. Supplement. 



M 9 1^ K e H O. 

fflJiMlMlftiMt' to kh^mrnxmrnmlke 4my of Mtflrtftnig a- g^ 

lii^iy iiijiiii>ihi»:#»d «Mnr' «iff0Mettfe4* 6fi Mgrf oet^^im 
Ift vaMiUi 8MH)^aiMNiiW Mknm -niu^fetj. Itie love tif fr^e- 
^ffil fa«A,,i«CMiitd:mli y6Ari> ftnd b^g«h to beat higb iti 
ki^^^m^m^ ladigmiitt^ «n4' ^be tfteM of constifit re- 
yp<iiwih ' wtii iiig 'fct^i the ^etaetitwt ef an imour^'finiiHy de- 
ipf BjiHid y» 141 AaiiiUki the famiiy, anil as* bit noble pa^ 
^p^^ff» yatpirfyaiiiady be flew to the^oc^ets for protec- 
tioa^^kfi iUnmk9ad'tim with repmof; 'Sfee at length, how^ 
«v#% «iiaeiHMl (bo wdmt kirn tnM ber househoM, where he 
DMMlilMfitM 4wcfar feili her deotfi, wliea *he found himself^ 
bfrbefi^Mi*!* htqMataad hUewn oftconoiny, possessed of 
muHMy poufOk an mmief , and ^o amttihy of tUny. FVee- 
<Im». '*i<^hnN /n^ teWut^ naturally led a dtsposhibii of 
African teature iaio tndirigences; and that which dlssi^ 
pMlri Mm an44^ Igaatiiis comt>lecely drahied the pnVse. 
QtrdaJwd iaaaseily aeduc^ hini ; but an ensuccessfdl coni 
tifit al-icrihhage with m Jew, who won his ciothes, had die-* 
tCii»iiind hks to athgurw the ptopettsity wfaicfh tippears to bd 
iwate among his cesntrymen. Ignatius loTed the ifteatre^ 
a^ JukLheeq #Mm lo^vead to consider rt as a resource iti 
th^.^DWof^arfTernty, and his complexion suggest^ aof 
oSBrit»tho.«ianaf(ev cS actempiing OtheHb and Orocnioho ;' 
biii:«(dhieattws Mid iaeonrtgible aniCifUuion nbnd^redtfaia 
ahMlMre». . He t n wi ed bis tniiid once more to s^rvtcef ancf 
waa retained a few months by the bhsplain at Aloplftgu-^ 
hmntr. INHa ro«t* hwA' been ev^r ausprckms to' Ijiih ; and 
the.lait«lulietaMi> placed himiihont his perton, %irfaiMf%l-'' 
bitoal regularity of life led km to. Uup||, p(.ft(Bi^tlili»'i* 
connexion^ iuMi he foraited ooe acceiidingly iwiihiie jwssy <fai r 
•efv'mf^mmwf^^mmmtol Wm India oHgin^ "^^Vff^Sb^tt^ 
close o^ 1T7^9 repeated ttt^acjks of Utf; y)m>Attd,aNrciwi|Hfcr 
tional cog|>ui#tMeLWndeiwd hipfi incafMihlvwf fcw b^i - .iliUwi « t 
MW«iw tiie 4vhe»s family. At tbis arifii, . &».mgi^ fih ^ 
which l^d |MP^t^i/e4 bisor-^biiougia yasfcaws S'seiwitia^ea^did^ 
n<U iail iwMwvt itself ; -mink the reafftt 6f l^s og^ jj^^jfi^;^^ 
it eitaM^d ' hinii %nd hia wife to mkI^ tb^raelMk i»« liifM 
9f gr^Peayr' wboM ^ me t t i ri mod ttgid ^ i t i << i» f y |tet%l» > ^ 
■s a i nt a i e rt -a nttmerOua fudtj^ of childreA^ IM^N^ amSI 
of dom^stip viaiM» #ngagiMi paiTBis psiaaieifai lasd m ci s< D d b i 
ptiblic imitaciee» HediadI Dec U^ 179^ oTi^lteAl'ar 
compUceiod d ii Aii e iJ . ''"".« 



BMiHQUO. 91 



fttrafited ilM jwpnltriioo oi th* gm/timtktkBigmMUif^^ 
die iMT^ci. A MauMMMKSik ibm-MmmmmmMmiifMiitf 
aaiid the tnvial Mid OMaMataiv loMMnlMaB ef ^'Aili^l' 

tke MMtS VCM ifdlTfi iaii flMB »">^*^^^ MMI'MMI^ ^MI^ 

wm; tiir9 |^«f6t.iNHPe'«oi|iMaiadi foieftteiiiigfe tiMpiMmy 
of .Bin tic JHB8 fHifTniiitil jHiUiihML and dfldiaMMlkfla<ite-' 

«f Igtotiw SmuIhiV judyMiit aad e«itiQkM» ihiii sinpiMl' 
•nif(s paid gff»k dafiifeoM iaJMOpinwiu .< ' 

ftu^li WM tM 9i$m wboaa a p aaiai pMla tap hai i avd iMi»! 
teaislt bara ,«adea«o«iied Aa dcfpaifeaa a^dalaiianiiMiif' 
tim biuBao^tod potfh aiaa Jdia van wiw fattii^ «Mi>#' 
kfaaF9ianf^ apd Apaiamaia of phtaia pnoaliaifa hiaaaM^ * 
accmiafh-d ^* Gad's ioaiga^ thoagli aat mi ahaaju^ nf^alM*' 
tmrA.4m6aktiimkoitb0 oaioinlis^ appaaMiaai paliifciaft«aM* 
Jl^giiUuva irffira.aaca n^fimig bat iha aboWaM of thadbval 
trade hai aoM imq^ avMfr oaafy anfiBo of Jint 'tyianagk » 
4aacbo left a wi|do|r, arboi^ aia batiora^ «ooa deadti «ttd < 
^9Qmf who earned op t|ia hmiajti ot a baabsaitr far wmim^ 
yearis aa^ died veij l^alj** ^ < . . ^-i ^ 

. SANqaONIATHCkli, t^ihanuaaaf a-spMel Pbtfa^il 
Mifiaaaaitpor^M oldai tbaXngp^MM^ about 4iM!&0«* 



'^ *nMr ifit alKM Vm )»atfoalpF^ orifioallj vrhten vilb n Yiev to avM- 

lMlBd.tei 
tpww w !■■■ I wwii CM. «DffeM MT utTti aiuiKweM." ,tiir raMM 

3a»i 1 1 hi ill iTiRi itoiWtHfc -liMMi^^-aMi 4M MMWA 



«6 MhUe tft wtt printed firom' »ay dapUcat# 

, ^.^ .iaiMMai«ar«Ctktiii» * i mi a m j ^y^ w ait if^ a>i ttt wtw w. ' 

api^Ol «2MiiTMMi, Hq. miteoi Uty were. a^drraMi^ 







> 



II 



'tt W pMfis-ntf * la pnbnciy acifovledcW thr Ji#. 

I CaHt. iiA^ f «tik ivo, villi • iHh ky tet|iiMi|ni m|. .. ><. 
Yofc. XXVU. • H 




SS SAN C iH.O.N I A T H O N; 

and of gvcai refMitaiioii^for diiigenoe and ^f«ithlalteiH» tie 
is; oaitl tobaTe. coUeoted^ joiit of the oioH auitliftniic rcclbrdf 
hecoidd procureyth»f^'Ant»c{uilies ofPboQnieia,^* withttM 
hciif» of iiome memoics wbicb came from HievoiyJ^aaW [Hie- ; 
rohaai^} orGifdeon^] a prioiC of;die God Jeooipr, Jaob . He 
wKoie* ^vettA things also / ^retaring -^ to • tbe Jews* . Tbetc 
<S Antiquities : of dNe .Pboediotaos/' .FbUoi>%Uiii8», in ibe 
same Fboonicia^ in the. days ^f Adrian^- translated. i»to> 
Greek ; and Athensus soon afterward jre^k^ned-hioitanKfflg!: 
the Phoeatciain wirtters. A lavge avid noble inEi^Qient"of 
this, workf EusebiQS bM given es^'TefbaiinYi in bis tk^t 
book of '^ £yangelical RreparationV'. cap. ix. x.. And Imsi 
piyodttced the strong .atteata^iou o£ Porpbjry^ the loostr 
learned - heathen of tliat age, to m ■. aiubeiuioiiy* • Upea 
these aatbohties, many .learned men. have cenciiidedthat 
tbevgeovaie wdftiogsci Sancboniatkonf.erefetrafialated bgr 
Pbilo-Bybiiusy and that SaDchoaiathon derived a great 
part, of: his ioformatioe from the hooks of Meses$ uBf^ seme. 
hare sapposed that Thoth, > called % tbe'GrfMfksi Her4att% • 
and .by the Ronsaiis^ Mevcttrj^ was, only aaotbeF.^aitfe^fpr 
Mosea; but the inconsistencieByoluefly ^shrenelogical^^bicll 
the learned have detected in these .acconiUfi/AQdi ^speeiaUy. 
tbe silence of the aneients conceroio^i.tbis .bistpriaa,! wbe^ 
ifibe had deserved tbe cbatacterigivea hia hj^ Porpbyfy^ 
ceaid not' have been entisely -oVeF-4epked,»eEf#te.d Justi 
ground of suspicion^ either /sgainac Porpbyty or-Pbilek 
Byhlius. . It seems most probable,- that Phiio-Byblias fa* 
bricated the work from the ancient eosmogoiTle^^ 'p^etend^ 
iog to ha?e translaced.it fjrdu) the PhosQiclan, ijp .order ;to^' 
prcN^idethe Gendie» wit?b 'an accoittir of 'the origin of tlie* 
world, which .might be set in opposition to that ot ^^b^ei* 
Ettsebius and I'heodoret, inddcdy who^ like the rest nf tno. 
fathers, were too credulous in matters of this kind, atkl 
after them some emigent modern writers, 'j^aT.e iqiaw, . 
gined^ that they have discovered a resembianoe' between '^ 
IS^ncbdniatlion^s account of the fori^atiot^' of the ^orld i%d, ] 
that of Moses; But an accurate examination, o^ the doc«., 
trine of Sanchoniathon, as it appears in the fragment pre;* , 
served by Ensebiup, will convince the unprejudiced readeiv^. 
that the Pticenician philosophy, if indeed it be Pbtenician^ • 
is directly opposite to the Mosaic. Sanchonlatbpn teache^ - 
that, from, the necessary energy of an ft^rqal t^rincipl^ 
aative biit wilhottt iBtelligenoe^ npon an eteraai passjvie 
ah^tie onuis, or Jfo/, arose the visible worldj; a dtictdne.. 



S A N C H O N 1 A T H O N, 99 

mfiihtdf ttidre are some appearances in the aocieot cos^* 
lM>g<olite9^ aitd which was not wttboiit its patrons aasang 
tk# Gfi^eks. It is therefore not anreasonable to coojeo ' 
tn^ei that the work was forged iti opposition to the Jewish'? 
c^sinogeny,' and that tbis was the circumstanoe which ren^' 
dtre<d -it so acceptable to Porphyry* 8uoh is the opinion - 
of >Bra«kef> on this history; and Dodweil and Dupio, tb^ 
felHii^r'in'Rft express treatise, have ako ende«fx>uted to 
iavalidate' ii» authenticity/ 

i BANCROFT (Dr. William)) an eminent English pre>^ 
late, was born at Fresingiield, in Suffolk, Jan. 30, 1616^ 
and edticated in grammar-learning at St. £dmand*s Bory^ ' 
ynhere hb was equally remarkable for diligent application 
tiy ti)» studies, arid a pious disposition *. In July 16S4, he 
wtts sent'to Bmanael college in Cambridge) where be be* 
ca^e rery accomplished in all branches of literature, took 
bis degi^e of B. A. in 1637, and that of M» A« in 1641, and 
waes ifi 164^2 chosen fellow of bis college. His favourite 
stodies-'Wiere theology, criticism, history, and poetry f, bnt 
iirall* Ms Acquirements he was bumUe and unostentaJtious. 
Iti 1 64S-he took the degree of B. D» It is supposed lie aeret 
sifbsoPiMftl the covenant^ and that this was connived at, be«> 
catise' U^ continued unmolested in his fellowship till 1649 ; 
at wbicih time, refhsing the engagemmi^ he was ejected. 
Upon this he went abroad, and became acquainted with the 
m^t eonsiderable of the loyal English exiles ; and, it is 

^^A9¥H^ bUhop TAQAfr't M5S» in bat chieily religtoud, «tactly(«iid ele* 

4be BcKflemn tbtmrfn the following ^ gantly transcribed irith hii own hand, 

lei<«r frb4k? ^iHa to* bit faUtef, dated ' wb4le a fellow of EnmnneL ^me of 

Seyfi^lfol^L .V I bafw latdy of- tbeM are from the first editioa of MUi^ 

fere^^.uprlpi^od ibe first fruits of that ton's lesser poems, which Mr. Warton. 

caning; wnicK' I intend, htving com* observes is perhaps the only tnitancs 

ii0aupU^4<Cw1c& in tbo-ebapeli and on record of thai r having veealted ferx 

*^ * ff^ffp^fM^^i V^y*^* ^'^^ God's almost seventy years, any slight mark , 

bless fiiff upon my endeavoars, I may of attention ornotice. Sancrofi, adds 

bS tSttu anfi/sframcnt in any neasure Mr. WarVm, even to Mi malermr yearsi 

fi^49/^iDel' bia'aiiiae before his peor retained bis strong eptrly pr^iliotioa : 

pie. JK*heU<bemjyjoT» *n^ .^^* crown to polife literature, which he still con- 

orUif f^Wcibg m'the Cord. T am tiaued tocuftiv^tfe; and fVom'tbew 

jwrSCkbeaulallbrttbUend l.waa.eent and*«her remaibsof faftsstbdieeiBtlbat.. 

"^4(f Tfil^-^^ ttheipfore, if God pursuit, now preserred i.o the Bodleiaii 

lends , me liffj andT abilities, 1 shidT be library, U' appears that be wi^ a difi- ' 

vilfitlir (<Pi^peb4rtii^ae(f and to be kpent gent reader of tbe poe<ry of his timet* • 

«DW^t9tfrsdi|i^J bi>ib»aEegUsben4JUtin.w.Wartoi)>e.: 

t An^'^ft'i'' Papers at Otford is a edition of Milton's Poems, 1785j pre- . 

velyf&SliSriblS'doHeciibiiof poetiy, ftice, p.'v. ' ' . 

^''^k^iMi'Ai lliitrClrftc.— Moteri*— Bfiic1cer.->^I)oawe1l% -tMmn^ cota-"' 
ceaMii^flui FfacstfflUia History of SaacboniatbOD/' added to, fbt^setoal eMss^. 
^^ tj Tf^ i«t|«^,(ii)f, AdViee," 1631.— Qebelin's «AUeforiei Orienmes.'* . 

M 2 



100 SANCROFT. 

iHo^OniDjr.biiWpDf^'DiiibuB, wfao;cgUiitQiXbiin totbe'rec- 

'Wvy »f: Hud^tM-krSpiuigi ,.aad t^ the.piqlti prebend 

.WiDurimmiiBrMarch '|j6M. In tbe »(»e jj^ar, he ^sgisted 

fw-Tepiowing thta' Littlrgy, pawiculwly,, jn,,rp'cii5in|j tbe 

^KfaAnnldu aiid fiubrwr 'In 1€62 be <wu cri-»t«!(i^ by man- 

'dkites', i>/'iX'«t'Gantbndge, wtd elected intutor of Ema- 

' nael ciilt^e,'whtoh.hegorernedwitt)gte%tprudence. In 

i6«i4 Ik wtas inranoted tothedeanery of York^ ^hicb i^l- 

"-'diougb hc'held but a few montbsy be e^pendfd on (^e 

'bidknngs' about SooJL more «ban-be bad received. ' Upon 

tbtfdeatb of Dr. John Barwick be ijras remor^d iot tbe 

deanery of-6l. PauV'B ; soon aft«r whjch,^ be resigned the 

masMrstoip of EmaKuel eellflee,«nd tbo rectory of Hcfugh- 

' ton: ' Off bis doming to St. Paul's he set himself mo8t'4i- 

Itgtntly to repair that tlathedral, which had^ufTered aVeatly 

: from the iRFi^ 3eal of tlie republican faoatics in tti^ ciril 

' Wars, tili' tbe i^eadfidfire in 166€-suggi^ted the more nntile 

'Uttdertaking- of rebuilding it. TowardB wis be !gave 1 400/. 

betides whet be procarcd hj his interest 9iid qollcit^ti<Mi8 

"smon^ bis private friends, and in parli^pient, v^ere'lie 

' bbtained ttieactfac layioff a duty W coals foii the rebuild- 

-:')0g df Che e«iiiednl. He. also ^built tb^ deanery, and 

' imppoved' tbe ^eVenaes-cif it. .1* Oct* 1668,^ tie >w^ ad- 

(nlMed M-chdvaodn <tf Qwti wb B^..-oq tb^, ltfng|!J jp^esenU- 

'fVm, which he reugaed in, i67a,,j,]Bfiwa^,^§^j»^oj^^ijtor 

<rf;lhe lower houae*l*oBi(0s»lJflB,;,,^f(4*^i^^ ^6^^/!^?^'°" 

Whwi<;t»prt«^ Hi i»l6B7,-8d^(HWd ^m, ,*;if}^r^^^. toJ>\s 

... . ..... .... . . .. JS,,^f;^sn- 



!iily wle(^e*«Br inciiittticwv tp. t(i§,?r^b'eR'»ft9P^f5S!ij^ , m 
' terbury. .; ju< •V91»ibeh^\A\'ttiifi^fompt usef^ ^r^^iq^i^ cpi 
►■Ptrhittg letters. tcatijpoMri rtp.SBfl^i^atgB/M^^olv pf^^?n. 
' fje'wsii WtpmI£in*^fiaoN))en|jcmi9ttf^MJf^ijs)^ J^f"' 
•» ders «rithe-diipoaaLlof;.i^iogf, ,ftlffiW»„i¥tW5ni}8j tej,*^ 
■'4ppw«d'ahiliitiaaj 6i»M4eVfi,iMfca" ' ' ShT*** 

vtlendsd ^^Oh^iicMifWR tyadpaa/^ iMP^ 

■#et*biyrieBhoiMti(Hi,iMi, bMia»A8(^ fltff'^* 

"aaeJiigo«idld«U>ef.frB«4Aff.'> i9<,H mf^^ 

-^'«Mrfta'JMuniL^.«ofnMB»i00 foR.^ |?^)>tit 

'"'h6'rtfti««J«n4st4:o(ih..Ab«iHt t^^ Kftf>ed 

' Wood('bi«hc^:bfJu(M|ldM4'pui(< p^*ouk 

<iO«lChki^Aoid«. to refiuwri. t9„jf}^.as]j^i(j^ej- hi 
that hoapita) Andrew Paphana, a papist, althougp be'canw 



SANCROFT. i»l 

sutb a nominatioD from tbe court, In June 1698| be joined' 
wifh fl^'%f ftSs bret^^eiY the bisMpft knM f^mmmi^thimi^ 
'IE fi% SMi^pin wHich iihe^ gaw lilieff TCatoAawbymboy 
leoii^d hoc ciiixielfy^ethHiioti'hf iibtfrt^oltccmioiaiKdeoio 
.1)6 read'^io chaYcb^. For tiii#'(fSscMiqMyiiirUdi ttae coiurt 
^^lled 4 libet^ tb^jr were 6oinAiictedi4»Uhorroflite;ClAM, 
^^^eing ^led for ^ nitsderaettbor dtl^ibe it9tfa^ w^nrjuioqimuKiy 
^ (o^^ ip;Kac j6y df the nation. Tbia yeHt tbe acftbbMltp 

,proiestal)t fifos^nters. We bavo the followiBgii^ooMlit>f 
Mti , tb)^' speech of Dr. W. Wake, bkbof of Liw^bv 'in 
boi\8e b!f lord?, lifarcb I7» 17 ia» at tbe apeoiog. of itbe 
4^cond arfide of die impeacbnieiit agahiftt iM«.8aehoMreH^, 
y Ipie person,*' tays he, «< iriio fif$t conoerfeed tbiaiieirign 
''ji^asibeTate most reverb Dr. Saaeroft,* tben* atebbi^p 



, ^is iti.t 
^'tbe boos 






.l^nd|agaiii5t the Assadltk^f popery, amd tkMKigbt of>neitbjtig 
(.e)|^^[tn'iit wise prebkte foreaeeki^ someaach levbHitieto as 
' soon 'qil^er .Was^ nappii jr brodght abo««, 'begaoitibaM^ider 
' boW |utterli< tinpyepiir^dth had been at«tbe-«68itoni«Od of 
. king C%ariWlf;t6 settle flianf'tbiilgs to/tbf- ftdkratttnge. of 
th^ Cbi/^c^/ynd^bat ilappf opp^M'titnvty badl.beM i^^t.for 
liKdxA'tif i[j(i6l? a' previoaa eat^e, as he<«fas iberefc^e d6a|i<eu8 

{hoold ni|«^ be'taK<^» f^r tbe better aod none perfeet.e^ita- 
^ »lisi(^^ip)6lPitl' It w«^¥MM«^^t(l aU the miiw^ lAbatr tlie 
06Vb ^>d6i^tl^dl^ibtefi>eiiafg«M|ttUy w..w«ti aaiiafted 
''Wfk im iV^ix&yimh dbr 4Miie» b^d owdeiagpuMt fiopery, 
''^^ i!H^^^%<ilUib!i^^iMie't]iMlM^.tbey had.|MtbMifid in 

'"'^^'^ii^'^M' 'iUtt^itf «vaa<tb0feforeiMiQiigbtj/?oilth4be 

. ^t^ '%d'1i8lte?^aK' ct^<^ sume'aime ^iHttUimiBfai be doing to 
14^^ t&Sti?^i^ut^<Bibg M^ pt^jbdiMoipiburiiel^. .'.Tbe 
^ se^d^^y l^dibki'' aM/tbe^rf^^ pniB.ofxi ib^«<MiMn* 

^'%f<W'ffi^ |Vedt' j^lMfe/t«d stfi^b'ttlJeav dinnef^i^were 
f '^>fefip mcMeMifi^ tQ«ebtr<lstedlifk]illiton B^ace 

^''mWMt^^ (th». <'yiatrieb>,^afteiifai4ft#'i^op 









102* S A?N C RO FT. 

Sharp, and Dr. Moore) are m tint tivae dpmi oi** beivdi'; > 

and I attsore will bear witoeiss totbe truth of''iD)i^reJaiio«t«' 

Tb^^desigD was ia short this; to improve, anrd, if poasiWe^j 

to inibfCe our di6cip(iQe;tO' review and enlarge >oQrLi«': 

targy, by correcting of some things/ by adding of'otheri^^;>; 

and it'it should be thought <adviseab)e by authority^ wfaeftv 

this itiatter shook! come to >be legally coaatdered^^ fW8t\itk'i 

convocatioDy then in parliament, by leaving someCet«^(cefCK>< 

monies, confessed to be indifferent in their naturea aS'ify*'- 

difFerent in their usage, so as not to be necessarily 'Oblecred 

by those who mude a scruple oftbem, till they sbbuid 4>e 

able to overcome either their* weaknesses or >prejmHces,c 

and be wiliiiig to comply with them.^* In October/ aci>< 

coaapanied with eight of .his brethren the bishops, Sancfjofii' 

MPaited upon the king, who had desired the ossisnaiMfie ^i 

their counsels; and advised him, among other things,* to^ 

annul the ecclesiastical commission, to desist from 'the ek*^^ 

ercise,of a dispensing power, and to cat! a free aiid reguU#'' 

parliament A few days after, though earnestly p^re^edi 

by hiams^esty, be refused to sign a declaration of ablMV^ 

rence of the prince of Grangers invasion. In I>eceHiber^ 

on ktnjg James's withdrawing himself, be is said to bavd- 

signed,and concurred with the lords spiritoalaiKl temporat,.^ 

in a declaration to the prince ofOiange, f6r aivee)»ar-' 

lifftnent, security of our lawa, liberties, |>ropereieSy laadof 

the oburch of England in particular, with a tiue fiidu1geiiee< 

te proteitant dissenteva. But in' a dedaration' signed (by^ 

hMS Nov. 3, 16SS, be says tbttt'"heiieTei» gav(e vbe priae^:? 

any invitation by word, - writing, or otherwise ;*' itUnttt^'t 

therefore have been in cofisequeoeeef the abdioiatioa tliht.^ 

he joined wiib the lord* tn^tjie above decl.aratieci4dii¥eid 

when the prinee came to St. Jameses, the arbhbisliopSMMh^^ 

wens to wait on 4iim, thongh he bad onee agreed to it|iti(ari 

did be- even setid. any message^. He i absented |ilitfself{ 

li&ewise from the x!cmvention, for wWeb he i^sersiM^y ^ksp^ 

sered by Bomet, who celts Um ** a poeri8pirisedif|nd4tiifi£ 

f«t Aann, ihatac^bd airery^niean pan in ail thiiigMiaJbitdEHkd:ir 

' i' ' ' ■' '• » . . • I oAs no ; nil 

IjQfll^iwj^iSa.ase of Jjj. yaaccouwtabj/ d«k„^ii4^mpt« 
Uely (>uQlishea« seems to hint instance j especially, since 1 hie 



let^ri 

thliV^afivirol^Vai tkio^^ s«cStft in pro« ahly <i^*€iii€if uf^U^^Ml^Jtipm 

nWwMW'revokitiop U^m liai» Imp <ar Un^m^pt^^M <4#Wf^o^rf iW* S l 

smpaofed. After ccosurin^ hiib for not of Orange lo accept (^ 4g^<^romeDL>'| 

j&ynig h^B n:spe(«t« to iB^ ft6# khig, — l^icobun^v Epfttdli^fTGrr^MMP 

WeilaOB4M|!», ff I ih»iiU/radier clmoM «oae, by Mt* KMll^ pM*!»rQ^4u^ 





UlAiIIow him ja the mora iraiik aod «ol. U p. lU , ,,. i ^j. ^i rs* 
•^^pusagmt Qflilj life, ttfaa in this - , i^ '^ >i ^flJ OliX. 



S iA rN C R O FT* lOS 

aciiM.- lie? iMphred," Btiys lie, «^ neidMT to actfec^.Ttoi^ 

ag«iiiBt» .ibAiJkiog'A intfirest ; wiucb, coDsideriog Im bigh) 

f^i^ -wa^ tbqtiglit ,iMry .anhecoEniDgk For, if he lhoiigkt»t 

a«iby:bis b^baimUF aftefw»ndd it ^eems k» did, i:h«fc the. 

ncutoD.wM ronnidg ntto tjceaoon^ vebelliw, and perjtiry^-iA 

wnfifek/straiige dttng ta.teeone wbo'Wfts at the befld of thei 

cjninohi to siti.aiieot aU Abe while* tbat tlija wb$^ in dehaie^ 

andnotoeeeiAojiiuob aadeclanebis opinioD, by spKdctng^. 

Toting^ Of pmiesiiog, not to meDtaoa tbe ^ber eceleatatfeiK 

c^'flSfSthodsitfaftt certainly beicaoie bis cbaraoter*? . i 

lAfltec W'ilUam aiDd Mikry were aettled on th^ tbroiie,*'ha' 

and a^eo other bisbopa refuaed to own tbeestabiiabed go^i 

yeroo^ent, from a conscientious regard to 4bjs allegianleer 

they bad swNMrn^ king Jatoies^ Eefusing likewiaeto^take 

tkra joailia ^ppeiiited by act of parliainenty he «ad: they 

were suspended Aus- 1, >6Bi9, ;and depfived tbe lat at 

Itth loJlewiiig* Oa the aosiioftlion of Dr» Tillolson ta 

thts.fl^ei Apiil 23i, 1691, Our archbishop re«eivddaaord^ 

ftom tJb^ then qveen IMlary, May £0, u> leare Lambeth** 

hoaae within ten daysi But he, resolving qoi i^ :siir tiU 

<j^eoted bjr<IaW| waa cited to appear before tbe bafont;4)f 

the.cQccbe^eer on tbe &ntt day of Trinky-4eniir Jiiue.i?^ 

I (9(1, t^^anawen a writ of intrusion; when he appeaced.^jr 

bis.attosoey ; Jbut^.'iaToiiUng topiK inAany plea, as tbe cmse 

siood^ judgment pa^^ against, lum^ in the :ferai ot law^ 

June. 2S^. And ibc aarae ^eoing he took beat in Lembetbt* 

b{idge»: and (went to. a prjiya,te bous^ in PalsgnnFe^bieedr 

oewr^.ineav tbe.,'TefBplo^. Thence,. ooAjig. .5, I69ij be 

ristiffed 40 Fresiegfield (the, fdape ef bia bir cb# and tbe ettatet 

[:^S^ A«year] andtneaoiienoe.pf <b«s aecestws .abiiTQ. direct* 

biMidred.yeaffa), wheceitbetJiived in a very pjeivate,«Aa0eier» 

tiU^ibai«giSiei£^.wilh ai^inteniiitjtingfev«x, Ang.eQ, i6a3^. 

he)iiipi ODiErtday jaaefding, ' Nov^. Mf and wsas bfttfied very 

]Mti8iteI^,Iittihe bioistlf had ordered, inPresiej^fieldcburcbn 

yerd» /^8eefi;aftefvi a> tomb was erected Qfe04MSrg;r#i'«f 'widi 

aaJitttoiptiiWiaqmpoa^byliknDs^; on tbe. right Aide ot 

wbesJitdiim^ iften jibcooufit (f>f i>ia <age>a«d>dyiiig9day jni JLa^ 

tin ;^ on tbe left, the following English : << William San« 

a^f&:ilbrh fn^fils parifli. afterwards by th€ pVoviderice of 

Ckm aacbbiahop of . Canterbury, at last dapnvijd of all, 

wliidi^bl& t;oul^ not keep with a good conGfcienee^ returned 

llijib^ijp'€^'<bU )ife;^.,ajad professeth herea.t the ,f6ot of bift' 

tfeoibyv'thafty' eainubfed be came forth, so nuked te must re* 

jtuni : thp ^rd gaye> abd tbe Lord bath tia^^ep a^way ' (as H^^ 






of tte ^^J^^ 



M|ne8t Uicryity to -wfa^t be tbow^Ul ^qt^.nM tf99^ii$ iM<l 
^USibiigli bis oppoa^|iOu botb (q J[aaAe^,U«jSn4:'W^i9f»iIlli 
MV iippe^r r^tliflf infeconcileaWc^^.wi^w/p,tH© l^niaoir 
^rtbose wlio kiu^w him bes^.tbit be i^Sf^TyijkintM>ikm 
rotegrity oi^ bi^ beftrt t.  . ^ i «,<-, j -s.q 'j^*" j:^^^ 

' Thoogh^of cousiderahle ftbilitfes .»i>4 nnpqup wi jeitby 

^ leih! j^ialogae'/ composed jointly: by, hifoiieV.Wtfl^l^^ 
^ ( friftids) beCweeo n prefiicl^r ^d a tjfi/^ A9»w wmf i^ \ tii 
Ae j^alf^s ;' and is entitled, 1, <« |*ur P4-mdk|»tMlit^.1sfiiilk 
dnilogisDMis ititer quendiiiip' Ordtais poedicanidliKltSal^iit^ 
Istam et f ar<^m ad )a<}i|euia daoma^m b^bitif^^^ilM/' 199 1 »- 
"f i^i'. ! 'ft Was leyeJJed ft , tbejtbeit«pvevail^ dt>f4^il€^i#f 
lri(|esiioation. An edition Mra9<4>ubli$bp4[^)R^^t!aAd 
imn^^tion in the fQllowin^yi^r^ ,by t^ri,feT«> B^ilbieili 
'^s'Aiibelf Kickofrs, dean of,Midd||?b^ip, .mj;^ a#) #t^H«ati0d 
tUi b We of H. Kendall Executed .iit;,)f o(tb«ti|IIMi An^ 
Ji rtl*^ i. <* Modern' r0|ju(iqs,,Mo»i«[lii)lnM«tbiiflf^ 
MbrgW, and olh0r teodcro.aflth9n,;fr7iai|/.^jf«-i1f}«h€!rt>ff 






■.T,::=7r.-|f*«*ftr o 



iW5b»drStrttBi!B llNiPdtt 

tem»t Id. *ite tnaMlilitj 








S A 1^ C -R a F ^. f 05 

Ur^^MMWltrd^srtfi4^yy^6fA) of AAtaenhal^ Vart. 'both 
Mbs^y^bttt'^prlrtcrpattf AfteiS '&is di^rir^ttod^ rot' Musing 
lk«riD#<lll|»'OMhi « Kfrt^ Mfffffim III; >tfd ti?! Ve^tjf ^ment t^ 

of iIms 

bi>fc<y^»^#>>f ii il fc » Letta^^^* ' noire of Wbicli 'wefe.p^obab(^ 
dertgVwf^M'be'm'acf^jfyulillc, his tal^hti for epistoUr^^ 
Vg'iilipeftr lo'jire«fi''didY&ntage. Re i^if^ behind him a 
vnMcinM ^tpnpeH and eoUection]^ In MS. vyhich' ujsoi^^l^is 
d«c#tt8ef<}Mit*^ito'htft nepbew*8 hands; after wli'ose deatQ 
they were purchased by bishop Tanner for eighty 'guinaas, 
wbdt ^aira-?|jli^6fny #itti tbe rest oF his manuscripts, to the 
BddteitaiFi libi^y. I^rom^ these the Rev. John Gntch; g^ 
^lelmtAy 'ftfbK^h^^^^ nai/9 toIs. STto, tarioos '"^ Miscelf 
lan to w w Tnii^ts ¥MVvhg to ' the History and Antiquities (^f 
Jiilfhirttltt«ttl«ftehhd;^ &€.'' 

fi8;AW0TIWS B^e SANCHEZ. " 

,  <9ANeT09lI06J er 'thkNToAriTS, an ihg^nious physkiao, 
kii^lHMAy'itt PM'f ; 2ft Capo d^stria, a town on the i)orde.r^ 
Msbe^f oflVr^^e: "He studied medicine and tpo)( hill 
d«g^ at#all>4b/^tfnd^ then- settled' at Venice as a pra.ct£< 



BaM'Wirtrgt^ar^r^t^Air'tfae spiice of t^Hirteen years^ iny 




V^t J^''^^ f?^^?^'^^* ^"Jf l»iJb,»|Ma ,teftMWMi>r^ «be 



tMBfyt«J4Uir^i|'P^,'' 19lo,i^6dt^b''f •< to\{M&qfir1Kii^';%^"' 



IW S A N C T O R I U S. 

stestble'secaretioDs and discharges, be wai enabted't^ de- 
termine with wonderful exactness tbe weight or qaanticy* 
Q^nnfleiisible petspirstion, as well as what kind ^fvfc)odt)r 
drinkiinefeased aiid ditniaished it; On sbese exipefiinentB>' 
heeMCSted a curious? system^ .whieh'wasdongadimfed byi' 
tbe faculty* It iv^s divtiiged first at Venice vniliGI 4,' andev 
tljietkle of ^^ Ars de Statica Medicina,'' conaprebendeditit 
seven ft^ctiofis of apborifinis ; and was often re|Mrihted-at dif*- 
fereiit places, with corrections' and additions by*- the author* 
Itwas tcsoslated into French, and pdolished at Paris 1722 ( 
and.iKchad next an EngUsh version of it, with large 'ex«- 
plaiiiatdons, 4>y Dr. Quincy ; to the third edition of wbieh 
ill 1^7255 and perhaps to the former, is added, >*S Dr. Janiea 
Keii's'Medicina Statica Britannica, with compamtive re44. 
marks and'csplaoations; as also physieo-medical essay^^ui; 
agties, fevers, on elastic fibre, the gout, the leprosy, kiug^s^* 
evil, ' .Fenereai dbeases, by Dr. Quincy." h- m.:* i. 

• Sanctorius published other works ; as, ^^ Methedi' vitaQ*^ 
dMnm. errorum omnium, qui in Arte Medica oontingtinty - 
l\bri quindecim,*' 1602 ; .^ Commentaria in primam sectto** 
nem Apborisinornm Hippocratis,.'^ 1609; f^ CommenCidit 
]Q. Artem Medicinalem Galent,*' 1^12 ^ ^^ Commeonma-iai 
pffimand partem primi.libri Canonis ATiceniMB^" 1625^ 
'^. De Ltthotoniia^ sen Calculi vesicEB sectiooe, Conamita^- 
tif)y.** 1,638^ AH these, which raised bis charaoter verjr 
greatly ^tmong his own professBon^ were in 16BQ printed 
tl^re together in 4 vols. 4to. : t* • 

. SaootMrius unquestionably confemeda benefit on -DiedieBl 
seieoce, by dinecting the observation ef medibal jnen *to 
the fuactioas of the skin ; bat unforturtately, the doetriaea 
w^re extended much too far; and^ coinciding with vthe^fise^ 
c^Miai^ prinoiples, which were coiiii»g:<iti&» TOgus taften 
the discovery of the curcolatton, at well as vritb the chamn 
c»^ notions, \ybicfa m^ere not yet exploded, ibey comribisted) 
tovceinpleie the establishment of the buinoralfnilmbgjf^. 
ulider the afaasckles of which the ptfaotioe o£ medititteooo^i 
tOMusdi almost itd our own' times* Sanctdmrsiisa^jaiso idief. 
abthov'pf several: inventiotisj Besides his statical fcMfir, htsj/ 
ittventedaD'. instrumcol for aoBasuria^sfas' ficroe of (tb^ 
pulsei;?' and several new^inetruaikeKits ofsnfeqgevyi] (He^fi^iL 
the fittt physician who «tteropted to^ niedsure the heaH^f 
tb^jjkiaiby a thermometeri in diffbreat diseases, andi at 
different periods of the .same disease; and it is to bis credit 



»^A N C T O R I U S. lOT 

ffail Iw ^vfb^'un* aneowed eneniy to eoipirtes aod empirMStl 
n^ftrocDft us irell as t»-aH occult remedies.^ 

?dBANi>BY '(PAULh'aii ingenious' Brtbt, descended £rofft 
a^hranobHuC the-fiErtnily of Saunbyy of Babw4srth in NoUHig** 
htdisfeir^iiwas/bdrB' at Nimingham in 17'32> In 174C its 
casieTftoLiondvny amililaving'ait eoriy predile<ition 'foi tbe 
ait5/>pboeiik«da«knis$ioa' to tbe drawing I'oom in the T<Hver^ 
whcbresHetfirsa ;atodied^ In 1 74ifr, William dtvke of Oum^ 
Imriami, iKrisbMg to have a survey of the Highlands of Seot>* 
laifti^^ivhiciifKvBsiihe scene of his meaoovable campaign iit* 
17)4i6^'iM#. Saudbif> was appointed draughtsman^ under 
tUbfUMpttetMa^'Of general David Watteon^ With whom lie 
tsawelted'^tbtoiigh the North and Western pans of that 
most tfomsastia country, and made many skebofaes. Daring 
biff)stay;^ fidibborglt he made a number of small etchings 
fsenn^thfese- designs; which on his return to Londoo were 
published in a folio volume* But drawing of plans abound* 
iaginstisaftgktiKiTes being tiett her congenial to his tastenor 
westlgr'Ofi^is^alenti^ be in 1752 quitted the service of the 
Sttorejv amdfcssided wtlh^bis brcftber, Mr. Thomas Saiinlby,: 
afciWdindsoiv shrd during his continuance there took morer 
thannattv eofey ivieWs* of ^Windsor and 'Eton, The aecaraey, 
taAeftandxpsritivfth wbtoh tbey wiere in an eminent degree 
iB»rbBd|r'i5l> fopdbliy -stmek sir Joseph Banks, that h& puk*- 
cfaseed dsemisJI^ and at a veity liberal price. Mr.Sandbyc 
bad^aooii arfteswardsishe honoor <rf being one of this geo* 
tleman's party in a tour through North and Sooth Waies; 
aiidk}faBideY«i^;MaaJBifanifae# of akeftcbes from reaiaDkabte 
soenes/icisdes^ seats, Ax* . . Underthe patronage of the l^a 
sw)VVMlBiu4i{&\\viBniWytatity he afterwards took many move' 
viewBsiidiiViacenclsiin' the'same coantry, whieb with thosa 
befiiae auctioned die^tvasisfei1red.tofcopper*p]8tefl^ and made 
senHBa%^setk df'prisits iiiMmitation. of dvawings, in bluer or 
IMmiiitJbu^ /Bhe .6est>lifat of the preoess by which tbii 
e^e^dfclgvrtoitotan oi^ravaog, Mr* Ssndby is said to- have* 
reimyediifrbmithe iion* Cjiasiea Gnovillei a gentleman of 
aeliiawIedged<!tahi0aAd' judgment (in every bsaaebrdf poUle^ 
aebl (fBrt(fiiing)ii>y<'.thisMhiB«^ Mr.'Sandfay so fisr impvovied 
nfin it pSf'AA liiilag[>ah0i'ffiqDilivating avt ofi^qiiatibta toa^ 
degteelif perfi^pttiehtiieiserthsfove knowfi in this toimtry; 

Bo^boHt *l(f«s;^iMn(Saadby^ and' seTeraliraeHibdr^ of : en 
aeadsmy«who9Biiatiat)iriiat>had premnsiy ibeen HoubiUiac^a 

I Blo/y Pjct Bist de Medicin««^Roes'tf Cyclopedjs* 



t08 S A N D 5 Y. 

» 

wiyfMiop. in Str Mar^'*-#^l|riiey J«rfehiqg to ^BOBlend . tli^iir 

ptan; una ektabibb'8 ttiei^ty orv 4» :broaiief \m\9f I10I4 9^9^^-: 

Yal itt^^t^^ fbi- th^ piirj^e of making Mniy^fogiilAUaii^ 

* Act- '^^6tit\etiiittg ^bese rdgfubtfoM'tt DHi7.r.Aa(itmliy<be: 

supposed th^ were variety 6#<aplnfQiiBy /but HegarAb^^bo 

^Vt^ bpe 6F' We'inembfers^ akid who d^trtedif teM *>|rery 

^Ifi^ii fiv^ in ttJe afts; disapptot^d bf the itb«le^cbtin^'Md 

^Wkh^tf^thes^b^iky tbtemain lis k tbmt ymg.>\Mt lih^wgit 

^Hnat etitik'gitig^tt^ biiMbefr tff stadMtssecyukl indoc^ %^<myd 

;6y young xti^n tb qcrit mo^«f profitable fittrsiiitay .4i€igtept 

^^^batWj^htbe'fndre saliabk tbeir tmleina^ 9iildr(io^0dft^e 

;id thb^ pjractic^ of the 'ana nfhove pnafoaocB fiJbMi l^^ca 

'^"^oulB ^iippon. ^Tbis mtuvaliy mvolved Jmih ioioMiyi^ii^. 

Siiti^s^b bid'biYithef ankts, and as tbbse ,dispiiit:e»)4i$f e 
ot iilWays (h^tiduet^d wictf pfailotophje^tt«(fagsiie^i|t||fb^- 
^ t'itiftt'itiitfYetibie^ sard tbings' diat bifrop^aoeoiaidMaw^l9«* 
'.thet^ 16*0 gev^c^ for tbe ^oamot.', 0«itlMi |>iiMi9»|i6Riiof 
' hi^"^ Adalysi^ of BeMty*^ tbey'raorcdbioii^bdi 'wUkioHtl^. 
'^Aoiob^lfa^ prinb'wMch ^ere tHbo'^qblisbod il^<rNdioiilo 
*,^i<'i^yd^^m, iirf^ df beaiKy, i6o.naseittxi>or'.^ight|iiAat 

'"'coMtiaoVt, spif-it ivrtb Wbieh tttisy ^BrB:ei4ibe«|^i]ca|^b)lll|ro 
'^^hjiil probabt^^ fankrli» of the 'bwibinf Miu S0fl«tf>jri<^.«bp^WM 
^^itbe'ii s^ veiry^fourrg infant' b«i>afii6twafdb(decJiiir^95tb9MC/b^ 
*^^b^il B^bri' MOfe MtiiMtaty <a€|t|iibiM|edbj«tth&Ato 
'^^WeTfit.'Ve wojHd oh tio aik>0utit^iiatQfitfeaw»ijiijliil9 «(i^h 
.wirat'tettd to bis' di^rkitei ^' • ' . »i ^-rnA ") /i.^-ii, t :. -.cj^ 
'-' ' W^^ inittttliioll' orub^ ififfTaifiioadrDQgrKiAfetsSra^by 
' " Wif {^lectbd a f o^al ^Mleciksift. ^ ^ % itbcqvMtoi^qi^ljoD 

' of tli^ dukd 0f*<3rkftM^ fbe «»an{uia>«A£d6stKnHy(rMiI);i68 

; 'kiVr^k\Ai ivhkb oftoe IwillddLiNrMbfpr^fibf^ 
'Httidelf aiii^d ad^aAMMUai «lir inaiituftiMtoapi^eMiimny 
'%Ui^'iini(fd^nihguSsbed*iraw|<hltinfen MMj|g(Abft]i»ftf^fiKft of 
' ^YtU(0^;^Mdr|:{birf>a 41P Ed^Mteiy(fomtt4imdtt^iS)MM^ 

''m(t'%tt^U'<td m l^pW8i6<toloffkbi|;rei^i»|9t,^f{tM)fl^ 

^ '%dd^6ii}yii'lMU^ng'/iaiid^4il^MbyiofiibiiljMq^ 

played as^n.a mirroi) For force, clearnessi and transpa- 
lency^it ibay ter/ tral]^ be sftia 'tt^ in water 



MhH^iMciget^ iMui.<i«bidir:«r9r|r$«i/tt«mly, i^i^ucisd^, ifriU 

^ittin^ Miend«i' fooiow^pf tl^bf^^k^rn^^ jP'^i^^M:!^^^^ 
i>JiMi#d' for • tiwb tgrMcer . aft i^Im t«i^<f lifHy qf ^^dia^uf^, / l^jpt 

dl(afee4}M<B), iwbb ibubdbdl : line /ieiH»^t.U|;»f t^u^p xiij^i 

tqbad'iittMM aUifain iO|>iinMii»> (luUlifb^ ^^i^s ;p;^ l^ttj^f 

^WMmutd^tQiiimj.Mntfmy^ foec^^ ,by. thf^t /aKl;hy# 

<>ii«.yf|li^roli kfid^Atfp«$ia»r' iniiHlMcb bft,e^f)^(^f^.tQ,,^(^«ri 

'f%bii4iM4l:;ti*«yA'OOobl xmly /Nn-ve IP" >«Ad m^« Pfope^^^y 
^^MtdS(ili|f'^h|^>doctrbM8 ^eotnitiwly <^U^d jCaiTipii^j^^ to 

tierning Jesus Christ, recorded m^kpii^W;T^H^^Rpi^\ J^d 
'^A§%SahMMMpri^tDib4&r»v#jlci ^£»itb«> ornb^U^^ ^rfppl^r^ntlj 

''«|Rf^ftAijNB>i^ iboriibMe^ Ai^t())%r^w;(;, ^^WA^nPe- 
^^ Ji«m^la«99l9atem iMsiiaM|iji«>iifHl *^yi Wi Wt.«^ftilic 

^S«»«j?'*lfltelrt^anoB9«ikii^o4c«Pff^ of 

jasttfying lutb ; and those who adopted Mr, Stfncb^iui's 

^o jH(tf?Hr.ii^l9>aiifiriii)ofi«M^ta^ hit' b9»#>gf,f 9b W «>f 



no S A N D E M A N.^ 

fmBLUB, of' wUth- every member is n^t oUdy ii)l«vred btt^tftfw 
qliired to paitake, attd ivbich cotMitt of' dbetr (Kiiilig tOg^t^ 
tber.at Miah oiber^s boiues i* the iviteruit between the- 
itMPrnin^aud'ftfseraoco'semee : tlmr-kiM of ehitifity n^^dtMi 
tibks ocoaaion> 'at the adutiinon of «r new nieiMbef> aiu!^^' 
o^heu times, wbrn tbey<deeiii it to b^ nec^Dsmry or Arof^er'j 
tbeii^ WeeUy coileodoribefoi^ the Lord'^ Slipper Vor the' 
support of the poor^ and defray in<^ other -expepoevi ittn^ ' 
tual exhortation ; abatiiienee from blood and thfngs strange 
led; washing each other's feet, the precept ctiuWfffiAg ' 
which, as well as other precepts, they understand titt^rally'; 
comnsuntty of goods so fsr as that every on^ is coe^ftBidkr 
all that ho has in his possession and power as liable to tbe ' 
caUs of the poor and church, and the tii^ktw^fulniess of (ay** : 
ing up treasures oti earth, by setting thesnaapait for*aii^> 
distant, Aiture, and uncertain use. Theyaiioiir ^erf p(ibVk^ 
and private dirersions so far as they are iiOt}'Oonnettt%d;witi^*^ 
V citrcuatstances really sinful; but appreiiending a Idftbb^^^ 
saored, disapprove of playing at cards, dice, &c. Th^ | 
maintain a plurality of elders, pastors, or bisbops^ >)n'«atb^* 
ckurch, and the necessity of the presenoe of two elders in* 
every act of. discipline, and at the admilYistration ^^>the  
Lord's 8iipper» In the choice of these^ eiders, want of^ 
iearoing, and engagements in trade, Ace. arer no sofiivitot * 
ohjectiuo; b«t second marriages disqualify ^f^r* 'the Jfiffiee ; 
andrtbey are ordained by prayer and .fastNtg,> imposWon of ' 
haods, and giving the right hand of jfallovwhipi 'liltboit 
disoipHbe they are strict and severe, and ^bitds tfaenss^^^es ' 
obliged to separate from the oocnman^ton s^ild iM)ltAi^'^f I 
ali s»ch religious societies as appear to them n^dt IW|ArMlls»'' 
the simple truth for their only ground: ro€4iope^ ai^ ^At^^* 
do not walk in obedience to it W^ sbatliiOAly tadd;iitfl§l^^^ 
in every cborch transaction, they eMeem 'unaniailry t4^>bl^^' 
absototely necessary. • ' '• "->•'* ijocji/od 

la 175^ Mn. Sandeman eoimnenced atcort'dspbridi^^^ 
with Mr. Samtiel Pik^e of London, an fiidepetlttetlt^i&ii^twafa 
ter; and in 1760 osme himself to Lond^tti^ Sfid'pi^lrtAfedf^ 
in varioaa places^ attrtctifig tbe ocowda: tbatl u^aUyiftAtft^^ 
novelties. While here be received an intitlAlofl to^g^Hfif i 
America, with wbicb lie coaiplied in-^l^e^f and dMtinH^'^ 
there propagating his doctrines and discipline i]\ variqus 
pfatces, partlcultirly in New-England, until it^ vj^'tUicalH 
disptites arose between Great Britain * and* the 'ColMii^^'ts 
irhen he became very obnoxious by taking ffie'p&lt' 6f ^tM^* 



S A N D E M A N. ill 

lomierw 'H« did not liyei bowerer, to witneas the unhappy 
cooflequenees of.tlial contest, bat died at Danbufj^ April* 
3^1771) «ged Ahy^thfee: Hi» sect, altbongh not Home*'' 
roM^i Alillelcitls, but Under vartons modtfioations, in Soot*''. 
Jai^d;; and ibb^e am a few brattcbeaof it in England, and' 
OB^.iQ 'Paors.Alleyi Balrbkan^ London^ Mr; SandidiBmni ^ 
b^dcMi^bia '^ Leu^rt cto Theron and Aspaiio," published i 
ht4<Mrroapendence with Mn Pike; '< Thoughts on Cbri$(>''' 
tiaiiity;V <<Tiie>ignof the prophet Jonah;'' ^^ The honour i 
of mafriage, opposed to all Impurities;" and *^ On 8ol^»i 
monV Sorig.'*^ . . « . 

SANAEBS ^Nicholas), a Roman catholic writer of eon<* 
sWJ^f able .fame, and olie of the principal champlans' of- 
popery in thediateeoth century, was bom about 1527, -at 
C^idewood in Surrey, and educated at Winchester sehooli 
wh<^noe he removed to New college, Oxford. He^e he 
BtitdleJ. chiefly canon law, and was made fellow of tMB<c()U 
lege in 15i8, and in 15^0, or 1551, took the degree ctf 
b^ebelor of laws. When queen Mary came to die throne, 
he bed the offer of being Latin secretary to her majesty, ' 
which be d^lined for the sake of a' studious^ academioai 
life, and remaiued at Oxford during the whole of herreigfii * 
In 1557 he was one of the professors of canon law, mud^ 
read what were called the ^' straggling lectures,'' i. e*l«o-'' 
tures IkX endowed, until the accession of queen Elizaiietby - 
wbe» bis priiHriples indoced hitn to quit England, fie^ar^ ' 
rived at Rdnie aboUttbe latter end of 1560, and sUi dying v 
divittky^ b^Hiiie doctor in that faculty, and was ordained 
priest by Dr. Thomas Goldwell^ bishop of St Asaph, *wti« 
at that time reaided^in the English hospital at Roma -'S^A ^ 
afteTy oai^dinal Neaiiis, president of the conucil of -Trent, = - 
beMng'of his' abilities, took him into his famity, and made « 
i]se«of/ bi0^. as his theologal, in the council. When the 
council broke up, Dn Sanders accompanied the can^dinal- 
to Pohnd^' Prussia, hnd'-Litfauania, where he ^as inistnl- ' 
aientalrinaeitlkig the discipline of the Romish chiirch^ but-'- 
bia ileal disposing him- to think most of his nalivecoonstryv - 
lie Fet4iro0d'to Fknde&sy end was kindly entertained 'by srir^ 
¥%9gy^* Englefield^ foriierly privy -<couns6llbr/ to - q^iiem !> 
Muyr aaditben in great 'fai^our witfa(«tbeieYniitl<of j)paill()^ 

«f Ida ttnk wtre ttfst poMUhed by tbeqast'lvei in a tract eallca *^ Ad acc6unt ^'* 
a«-CliraUi«ii»ra«aeet'i»bferMd by file 0bnreh'm8tMWr«hi't4«'Oi%nd^v ITSS/ 



U2 fiAVp$ti». 

iM^pi^t pMied, vbicb bis eatboUc m^m^y ordeiiid ^^km 
Mikiiit0i^oe of Ibf Engliilk popish eyilef . . Sao^^m w i«H 

ihtfirMi l»f> i«ioi)^r And 9i^tef^ be U?ed ther^ tw«||i«r 
4a4 pu f fo r mg ^ many chafitfibl^ <^es to bU >nd|gfpl> 
iirftnfriL Mocb pf ibU tii|i« hp iwiplflyfuj in 
tMtnee of popery agatasi Jewell^ Now eUt «94 ^itw 
««iit prolesiMit diniHfi. : ^ 

Some yean after, bavipg rec^v^d jid invit^tJM h^m^ 
pope, be took a journey to Rome, whence be iPwaJAM m 
iHNMo 10 fbtf popish bi»bopt pad ettergy io Irei4a4» 
haded dier^ in 1^79. At thui tioie Gerald FitagomM^ 
of Bmnoad^ was in arm^, a* he pr^teoded, in deitimof 
ibe Mhertiea and reKgion of bU <M^ui^iry ; but U^ ^6ii :hp 
f$nj Wat rovted and himself )cilM- The p^fl fifidifW 
took in tills rebellion is variously represenii^. t*iil(iap 
aays 4bot be was sent over pqrpoi&eiy to enpourtf^ I>#tr 
mond* and tba^ severaf conspaiyiQ^ (^ Spani4) soUU«;r» ow^l 
Of er with bimi and that when thoir apmy wa» vou(ed« be 
|M to ri)o woods, and died of hunger. All th#i tbe ca- 
.tboltes det^y in this aecoimt. Is, that Sanders w^s fOOit 
purpaarfy « but this they deny very feebly. Wi/th regard 
to ilio maonor of 8aoders*s death, Dodd seoms inclined to 
firefirr W^e^*s aeeount, wbo says that bo died of a dyseor 
^0fyif An4 Dodd hkewise adopts tbe report of Rusbtoii an4 
Mw, who ny thst ho died at tke latter ond of 158«,.Qr tbo 
l>ogiimiiig c# 11^1 1, becauM this was b>Bg before DesaM^iufa 
4^§$^ Md eontte^pi^otly dis^olrea in som^ "tei^asuiio the 
eupp eso d conooctioa betweeo him and Baodori. D<kUu 
Jbaiwe^eiR, wbo h genetaMy iiiipa|rtia)» aHe^if^ that several 
oitlioliea, km copiompoffhrtes> mase of opibJoo tWt bo wal{ 
mtPiP^A in tbo «paniab inbsiwt against qimtn KtialOMb ; 
Oo4 bis writiwgs prQOo iha(t bo a»iintiacied a depo^i[ powmr 

f«r. Mo waft, aooMin^ to all #eoooots, a ma» of J4AlftiM|) 
and area etwildoiwd aa iho asost aoot* adtotaafj^fw W^ 
ii taW iidlwi ui of 1NI^«V la l^igiiod^ wki4i Ml farigf 



Mold MosO'Olt He had, nooFOtoai,' ^ ooii^oa wjth 4Mi Vi 
^N|OM swiMy^ wM'^nipoiew km amat of ^rvmamffy oa W^ ik 
of mrgomeat, mid few of bis wotfca ha!r« s ot t i a a j the Qj^its^ 
w wki okiaMy wiBfO wiifteii. Aasooji; Ikooi apn^ r^^'nTlif' 
Supper of our Load, Ac** a d«%Nmof tbo laal 
beuig what ko calU ^A rgnfiiratiop of 



S A K D E R S. liZ 

t 

* * • ' • 1 

ii«o«f'AtetahlfdV YjoweM challenge/'', touvaln, in li66i 

^MOT, 4l». S. ^I^teatise of the Images of Cluut wd.bis 

VtiNU'; ^tifSftg a cdbfutation of* M^ Jewel's r^ljr upon tt^t 

«»^e«t,''*mirf/ 1 M, 8vo. 3. « Thq Rock ^f tbe CUurob/' 

•4*wcerning the primacj of St.l*eter,* ibid. 1566, 1^67^ St. 

'©itierN*, 16^4, ivo! 4. " A brief treatise ou Wsury,!* kM. 

nsmx 5. ^fteVisibili tnonarchii tcclesun" ibid. IWl, 

Mk>, AfttMrefp, 1591, Wiceburg,*U92. 6, ^ De prigiM 

et progressa Scbismaiis Anglican^' Coloii. USS^ Svc^ re- 

Cime^ at other places in 15a6, J538, anil 390> and 4wnf- 
cediutt) French in 1673, with some trapta oa fbo ieMia 
^faii church, which seem not of the coiuaroveasial kif^. 
Host of the former were answered. by English diwits ^of 
^Mitfienoe> particularly his large volume ^f Da fiaibili BI0* 
tiarch'ia'ecclesrflB,** by Bering, Clerk, and others, 9lwh9m 
^irs^ers in account may be seen in Sitrype's Life of f aitkeir. 
1*^t'oii the Engh'sh schism is refuted, aa to his looro i«H 
^rtant assertions^ in the appendix to Bur^et^s Histpry of 
the ^Reformation, vol. II.* 

' ZANDERS (Robert), an English writer, whose bistofjr 
ma^ not be' uh useful, was a native.of Scoiland, and born in, 
or aedr/Bneadalbane, about 1727, He was bv buiiaeoa f 
ciooifb-iii^ker n l:)at nofc being soccessfoi in trade, and bav*> 
ing'some t^Ients^ some education^ and a good aaettioiy^ hf 
comnienced, a hackney writer,^ aiul in, that capacisy pve«' 
duced some works. whic^ have been relished by tb« Ipwer 
ctassof readers/ When he came to I^ndai\ b aneertain % 
Bdt, having travelthd over most of the ^northern paru of 
lipase )iLingdoii»Sy h^ compiled, fjrpoa his. own aurviey apd the 
^for^tiQn of b99ks,. an itinerary, entitled *' The C^oH 

•lete l^ostisli Traveller,^^ fplio. It was published in nam* 

.>ers, wicn,tbe fictitious naoie of ^peaiper, profesiedly on 
dl^^jplao of fpUcjt^* Worthi^ ^ yiritb biograpbioal notices of 
ine pibsi^npiiieot vf^h of each county*. Aa the dealera io 
ihl^ ktf>4 q? pubH^ations tl\poght it too. goo4. a. ibkig to Am 
i&sL 'jt/i|s 1^^ i^pubiisheds d^ptivi^g M^c. l^neQcer #f 'hia 
D^d .g[;\pg tbfm t^ tlifee fiotifciotts gemiamHy Mfli.r 
'^; |or ^l^gland, Mr. Munmj/ jhr Sc.oilin4 ted 

^ ,^«^C^; fpf^ Walf^^ , Hi9 1^ eowipiM^afaMl 176«y 

g|t0|GiLlfn<I^ l^^lleoi^ \of Ufto^e; nnforauMai tid^ta 

^Afli. 6x.»voT.I?— Ood^s Ch. Hi^t— ^trype*! Parker, p, 377 Mid 3Sl.^ 
Itaai<r^p|lianiifcilni 0ffUia*i'te»ltri«ti<»Hfetory. 

voL.xxvir. I 



lU S A N D E R & 

who fatl a sacrifice to the iigurpd law« of tjbfir co^ntryp uiA 
thereb;^ maUe tbeir exit at Tybunu*^ He was* some tiai^ 
engaged with lord Lytteltoo, io as8i9tiog his lordship to 
coBQjpile bi^/* History of Henry IL^*'. an j^ Dr. JqIvvkxi, ia 
his life] of that poetical .nobleman^ ifitrod^ce^ this circum^ 
^aace iu no very honourable manner* ^'When tiine»*' sajfi 
hf^, ^^ j^rougbt the history to a third edition^ Reid ^e fop- 
eVer cQrrect9r) was either dead or dischaiyed ; and the sn^ 
pt^rioteniience of typography and puaciuation ifas com^ 
uiitted io a itian originally a comb-makeri bat then koe^wo 
t)y the style of Doctor Sanders* Something uncommon waa 
probablv ^xpected^ and something uncomo^ion was at last' 
done ; for to the doctor^ s edition is appeuded, ^hat tfa« 
world bad hardly seen before, a list of errors of nineie«ii^ 
pages/^ His most considerable work w.as fhis ^^ Gaifer 
Greybeard,'' ao illiberal piece, in 4 \o\^. 12mp», in wbipb 
the characters of the most eminent disseqtiag dirioesy hip 
Contemporaries, are very freely handled* He ha4> perhaps 
suSerecl either oy the contempt or the reproof of fome of 
that persuasion^ and therefore eodeavouced to .c^enge 
l^iu^elf on the whole, ridiculiug^ in particular, Pn.Qitl 
under the name of X)r. Half^pint^ and Dr. Cibbqns uoder 
that of Dr. Uymn-viaker. He was also the authoir of -the. 
notes to a Bible published weekly under the nao^e of .the 
re\\ Henry Southwell :, for this be received about .^wei^ty* 
pve or twenty -six shiIliuo[s per ^eeV, while Pr^^outi^w^ly. 
the pseudo-commentator, received . one hu oared. g^in^M^ 
for the u^e of his name> he haying no.oth^r |r^Qf};ip^n<^ 
tiou to the.puhliC) b^' which he might merit •a.ppsv^^f^^^t 
memory, thc^n ius livings t« i)r» Sanders a)so,.ccy^j}i^ 
" Letter- writers^*'" Histories of Eng^od^V. and oUw.wpifJii^ 
of the paste aitd scissors kiod.j but t^is ** Bpm^n ^if^PlyfllV 
written in a seriei^. of letters from a^n^b^eman t^l|is,^pt)^irj^ 
2 Vols. 12 mo^ ha^ some merit. Tovfitrds tb^ I'axtfur^ ^d^ 
his days j^e projpcte^ a, general chrpnolpgy of ^H S*fi<«f» 
and had already printed >ome sheeu of thd.worI{|[ ^4^ 
jthe patronagie^ of lor4. Hawke,. w^eJ? a disorder^. Miftn^i4j^. 
lungs jjjut a^eri9.djto. bis ^iistpace, JMarcb >^ A7§3m „|ljp 
was mufch lucjebted to the munificence ol^iAf. I^r^gyi^ 

* ♦" Di^HMT ^^^4ti\ Who ditil fb ^ rebtoiy of AsUrby \n\Jiu^n%iiri!! 
J779, vi« of a«oii«.Q«illNfJ«JCIii»': iiD«iilraftt,khitti^«%itBnr tai^ 

Urn G^Ileife, Cambridge, and ha4 ttia 




.*« 



8 A N b E It 9. US 

ISMFp. ' WM^iSiiJifttiH 6f this fnan't/faTstOTy tthd6f i^k 
4eeretA 6f BMe-'hiaktng tmy\je seen In dor aotliority.* 

' SANflERStoN:'^(t)r/toifc), to ertiincnt Kn^tUh 
btMkopy wais descended fh)m ' an apcieht farnily^ and wks 
tbf* yoah^est son of Robert Sanderson, of GUthwaite-halF^ 
ToVtes^kire, by^ EH^rabetb, ope of the daughters of Richard 
Carr, 'of Binterthwaite-ball, in the parish of EdcVesGelA. 
He was born at Rotherban^, in Torksbire, Sept. '19> 1 5*97^ 
and educated in tbe grammar-school there, whefe'liie ma^^ 
^uncommon a progress in tbe languages, that, at tbirte^^ 
be tras sent to Lincoln college in Oxford. Soon aftet 
ca&ir>g Ms degree of B. A. bis tutor told Dr. Kilbie> the 
rector, that bis ^' pupil Sanderson bad a metaphysical 
brain, and k matchless memory, and that he thought be 
bad' Improved or made tbe last so by an art of his omf in- 
ventio)[i.'* While at college, he generally spent eleven 
%ours a day in study, chiefly of philosophy and the cl.as* 
IMcs. In ld06 be was chosen fellow, and in July 160S^ 
completed his degree of M. A. In Novem(>er of tbe sam« 
year, be was elected logic reader, and re-elected in Nov. 
1609. His lectures on ibis subject were published, in 1 6 1 5, 
jftnd ran throogfa several, editions. In 1613, 1614, add 
If 15, be served the office of sub-rector, and in th^ latter 
of those years, that of proctor. In 1611, be was ordaihed 
dettton a6d spriest by Dr. Kii^g, bishop of London, and took 
th^ de^rte * ef bachelor oF divinity in 1617. In I6l8, h^ 
wa^ l^r^^Hital by bis coosin sir Nicolas Sanderson, lord 
ifisCMftt Ga^leton, to tbe rectory of Wybberton, near. 
BosiM^ 'itf Lincofnsbire; but resigned it the year following 
oti'a^doWht bf ^he Ui^bealtbineSs of its situation ; and abduc 
tkt'idettii tSme was collated to tbe rector}^ of Boothby-Pan- 
ttelV^or I^aj^nel, * iti the same connty, which be enjoyed 
ttbbv^ f'^y ytttts. HliVing now quitted his fellowship, he 
mt/ttUtA Anne, Ae daughter of Henry Nelson, B. ty. rec- 
t^k"df fibirgfi^ ill the county of Lincoln ; and soon after 
Mtiks' mkAe'ik ptebendaty of Sotttbwell, as be was also <ii 
ll^cobi '^a 1^24. He continued to attend to b^ parroohiai 
AMi^ lA si ^vdry'^xemplalry manner, and particularly la- 
boured ,muc|i to repgqcile.diflference^i anijl pi;eYeQt. lawrMiu 
iiyo^Jp Jits pMi^, iftad Jo the..aeighbAOiiM>od. He also 
often visited stek and dtseonsoiale families, grvjng adtir^e 

1 Oct. Mag. vol. LIII. p. 400, MS. 

I 2 



116 SANDERSON. 

and often pecfunmry a«Mbtance, or otitaioing i!he latter by 
applicafions to pei^ons of opulence. * He was often icalled 
t^oh to preach at assies and visitati'ons ; but hts practice 
of residing bl^'^seriDons, as h was then not ^ry cocnttioni 
raised '^me pr^juflice against hhn. Whiten observes, that 
ndtwithstariding he bttd an extraordinary memory, he bad 
stK^b an innate bashfdlness and sense of fear, as to render 
it 6f Httle use in the delivery of his sertnons. It was re-* 
marfced, when his sermons were printed in 1632, that " the 
best sermons that were ever read," were never preached*'* 
Attb^ beginning of the reigri of Charles I. he was chosenr 
one of the clerks in convocation for the dioceseof Lincoln : 

v. ' 

and Land, then bishop of London, having reeotnmentled 
hiih to that king as a mai^ excellently sEilFed in casmistical 
learning, he was appointed chaplain to his tfrajfestyin 16S1. 
When he became known to the king, bis'majissty put maiiy 
d&ses of conscience to him, and received from trim sottitions 
' which gave him so great satisfaction, ihi^iat the end of His 
month's actendatice, which was in November, th6 king told 
Mtn, Chat **fae shouM lorig for next November ; for he re- 
tfolVed to ha^e more inwanl acquaintance WTthiiirtl^' when 
^ the month and he returned.** The king indeed 'was never 
' absent from his sernrons, and used id say, that " he carried 
bis ears to hear other preacheVs, but his constl^ftce'tohfear 
M^: Sanderson/^ In 1633 hi obfeined, tfirdttgh fheeinrl 
of Rutland's interest, the rectory of Mtiston, in Lelceirter- 
Ah^, whicfc he- held ^ight years. Tn Aug; 16W, i^bisn'tfce 
colirt ^jfs trttertained at Oitford/ he was, among bilh^Ms, 
created D.^©. ; 'In 164i,'he was prdposed bybothHttiWfes 
of paritaroent to king Charles, who was then at OtrfaVd^'no 
be one of*their thastees for the'settKni^ df church afiWis^ 
and approved by the king r but that tWaty carte to'^rt^- 

• thing. The sitiie year, his "majesty iippbiifted'him t^egkis 
' professdi' of d5tpinity at Oxford, with' the c?an6ftf^ of^Otofet 
' chmrcb ianne^d :, but the national cahlttiitic^ ftMd^r^d bhn 
'ffOni entertrtgbn it'till 16116, and tbfen fce»'«?rfn6t»fcdhSit 

• irhdfeturbed'itooch moVethaO'a year: Hi r€43, b**^* flo- 
jttlhatd(FT)y' thi? pttftiamerit'ti^e of the^Assembly Af divii^is, 
but never-^t aniongtfaenn : n\?i(ber Aid M tA9f tH^iSMf^M 
w»t;j^tf^(fWf7ff, so 'that btii IMhg was sequesteirW^ bwt,^^iSo 

•great Was'hW rejpiit^lToo Tor pietyand learn?n^,*tbat bt^^s 

not Uepflved of it He had the chief hand iri drdiiving^p 

"^The Reason* of the universky of Oxford^galrti© this ae- 

^lema League <anct Covenant) the NegUtlve" Oaiti, and th« 



S AN D BR S ON. 117 

Ofdif)|incfi9 f^ooc^miDg DUciplioei «Qd Wonl^^r* and, 

v|[^enj4)^. parliament had $ent.prppQ«al« tq ik^ Ling for a 

«^p^p^)i^.iCh(VUfch ^nd »tate| l^is. cn^y^ty 4e^K^4' tb^A Pr. 

' ,;Sapd/erson, witb the dcictprs Ha|nn[^u4i.§bej4oi|i,sH)d IVW- 

]0y, sbouldaUftod biro^.i^Qd adnUe iiiii^ bpw iar ^^.Wgbt 

,mth a gQQd 9pp^i§qfe oofoply with ^bose propp3^. Ti^is 

|ieqi^$t w^ r^^^tisid by tb^ prost^y^eriaQ parQr r b^^ it 1^- 

iog.. complied wi^tb afterwards by the andfpqndeQtlf .wh^a 

bis iBjB^s^y was ^t Haoipton-cpurt, and in tb(^ ii^le of Wig^t, 

ia 1647 ^nd {648^ those divines atfendejjr biQ) ik;h^r^ X>r. 

§a^ader9op often preached before bim, and had qu^fiy .public 

^nd, private /cpxiferences ^ritb iviQ, to his majesig^'^ gl^t 

as^s^QM^faU'The king also desired binp, at Uainpjil^^copi^t, 

Mtk^o th^ parliajpent' bad proposed fhe abplishiDg pf .epj»- 

<'<H^' g^y^/^Koen^^ as ificor^^teo^t.with.moiiiaiy^byj tbft he 

iiropld«con«idef:.oi[ it, and declare hi^ju(Jg|q[i^t f ai^ v^t 

.))q iwyc^t'e m»(>ii tba(: .au|^j^f t vyas afterwards printed in,16^61» 

,.9vOj und^rtbis utle, ^^ £piscppaqy, as es)babUshed«by M^r 

in Eqglandi npi^ prejudicial ro. Re^ po^yer." ,, At $(^i)d^- 

.fon's t^King leave of his majesty in this bis h^t ^tteni^i^e 

.on hiio^ the Ling req^uef^ted hioi to 9pp(y biQis^lf; (g tihe 

WtiliugM "C^esi of Qonsciepce }'' to which his.^^ii^^r 

i,«r»«f tba(t <'h^ was nowgfrpwpt^i^^fand unfijb tQ writ^,Q|9j{ps 

i4)^|cpQ8i;ti#nca>*V iSut the king, told binn plainly,, f^it^^fui 

litbe jinpleat t^jng he mex b^ard from him ^ fqr, nRV^^^tfSS^ 

-fOf^J^^fl^ttto^j^e ^3vdge» pr.v^rite. cases of cpnacieope/'^y- 

^j|Jppnilbis:«99qasiQi^i \ValtQQ,.reIates the foUgyiri^g apeodipt)^ : 

.iSbifccia-Q^ft'^f these, ^onfe^bes.tl^ kii^g tpl^ S^d^rspp, 

ti^.Qf^p^>%bfffk %hBf. then w^it^fd with him, thai ^' the, r^- 

ofn^n^llgMlce of t^wjo.prrors did mup)i/fflic« him, whiph, w^, 

.JlMtWs«5m JrO tljg ev^of St^ffor^'s dea«b, ancj tbe a^bqliih- 

•iAg^^i|ll^op«^;ii).jpcotland^ aod that, if God evec re* 

K(9^e4ihim W the pe^^9,h]^ ppsspssipn pf.bi^ crowp,.be 

j<mqQJ<ft /J#iiiQn^ra(0 hi9. repentfu^pe jbyta p^blia copfession 

nil0d»)^- vi^liiiptifuy PfHance,^ by walkipg barefoot frpngi the 

afftlwer.gf \^^, Qi Whitehall, tp Sv PaplV' cbpr9lh wd 

(ffPiftid/ d^pirf^j t^e peopi^. to intercede with Qpd forbuftpfur- 

,<4Qe»!V Jn, l^*?» Dr-iSwdeffOj?. was qie«*«4 frpm hi^i.firo- 
lievs^^hdifija^ApaQpnrjr in Oxford by tbppafUi9,ii^ntary.,vH- 
ositomi 9iitAf^t»^ts> ifi» lilting, of Bpotbby-JPiipiiel. .^ Soon 
iBffj^ J^jv^aa^.t^Hkeu prisop^r^ mi ^^nrffd t^ U^(;^lj|^,:.,tQ.be 
r|exii^Og^ for Qoe<Clarke^. a p^rii^Q divine, aod.miqister 
«f f^tngtopf. ;wiio bad beep mad^ prisoner >y. . (^ Jifipg's 
^p^ityw. JSk^^^k9Tff^X^h30wiiAe9^ one 



118 . SANDSRSON. 

of wbicb W9^ ib^t tba sequestmtiOD of Us living shouM ke, 
recalled ; by which means be enjoyed % iBoderiM subsist* 
ence fpr bimselft wife^ aad: €bildmn» tjil the restofation. 
But^ (boifgh tbe.ariticles ^lipported aUo» thai be.<ihould live' 
undisttvrbed, yet be was far froia beiag- ^iiber qwt .or aatfe^ 
beiog xmce- wounded^ and several- tiKi^ ^plundered.; and 
the omrage. of the soldiers was sucl^ that, they not i>n\y 
came into his church, aod disturbed bim wbea readings 
prayeiSy but even forced the commoo prayer-book liroiit. 
him, aod tore it to pieces. Di^riag tbii r^ttremetit, here* > 
ceived a visitfrom Dr. Hammond, who wanted 1:9 discoorse > 
witbliim upon some points disputed between tde^Catriiatadi 
and Armiaians ; and he was often appli^ to /or resolution 
in cases of conscience, several letters upon wbicb aubjects' 
were afterwards printed*. In 1658, the.hon. RobertBoylel 
sent him a present of 50/. ; his circumstaAo^ m of mtnn^ 
the royalists at that time, being very low. Bnyle had read : 
his^ lectures ** I)e. juramenti pbligatiane,^* puUisbed the-^ 
preceding year, with great satisfaction j and asked Barldw, 
afterwards bisbpp of Lincoln^ if be 'thought Sanderaon 
CQuld be induced to write cases of conscience* proirided he 
had an honorary pension ,ailowed, to supply him with books 
and. an amanuensis? But Samlerci^ tqld. ^arJow, y tbat^ if-> 
any future tract of bis could bring any bene^itto mankind 
he ,wonld readi^ set about it without 'a pensiofwV' Upon 
thu^ Boyle sent the above present by the* bands of »Barlovr; 
and Saqdorsop, presently revised, fip\sbedf aiid puhMshed, 
biiiboolf <*l)e obUgapone o^nsoieiUiifOy*' wb)4bv as well to 

^ While Dr. HamRy>nd was at San- tqrn Dr, Sanderaop (aid »ith«')iMipb ,• 

deiio**i hon^y he laboured to fief'' «af oftatoets,' ^ dotid doctfr>r, give '^ttilb ' 

avaik km- to, fm^ to. bia ^veelltfi^ my * lenooibifan^ kdov* 'tfi^t.vvHHfr >l 

Biem6fy. and not to read |ii8 sermoni. jrou, nar aiiy-n^an Uvif^,.8|ipi| «vecj 

J}r» SaM^rtbn prbmiied to try the est- )>er5Qade doe to^pi^acb agaiu without 

penateoi^'inAhaVuif^v^O^i^ Ssadftf bdok.'^ a»aJmoii4"t^t4ie0r'" Gbidd'"^ 

followis|r»,<»c]'<^Bged. pulpits with a doctor. b# .imt afiffry^;. f^ffiif '^T^i? 

neighboarinz cterg^maoy be gave Dr. persaaoe you to f>reacb aj^ain without 

HadibOttd bii MrtMMh ^Mub wav «• b6ok» f wiftgWe yoo )^aV^^o'Wni'4lr^ 

▼ery ah^^eft o^^^g to prrack ft 4kp»e . .%bat  .«n . «f«f 1^4 ol-fjf * . &«. f ^ 

•tit was written, bHt before he had " ^ ' ^ ' 

fone Chi^gb a third partr'be becaifae 
dis^rArrodi iooiberffiii and .mlnost 

iBosj^ie «| J^isbii^, ^ Ou the^r le- it l|fui,l^D mi^ifM|s ^ )piD'4 , .- m • '^ i ( 

t iiibnsy My$,«11l%e9 iwHi»/rHb« - lift Iwitatediab itfbch<<«liditfepiriMi«d idK 

aMU «p4 bcsrd hitt^ read bi9 , iit$t ^cc- ofUiw ^^t at f h« ^pq^ oC f^4¥m^. i^9 i 

tare, b^ was out ib the Lord's prayer." aras often forced to'pvodiide, not what . 

LettBii vHUdn 'by £tti)aent Poraan*, was be*^, b^ if^ti tutppeue^ ^ ba^^ 

1813,.3 lM>U,8Toi' fmm wbea 'M>r. M bf Sfi'* . i I^MpMfr, ^|ii.')l9^*v -sUih 
Sssdmoawas preparing bU lectures, ^ ^,^^^ ., 




S A N D E R S aN. * lift 

9 

(b«t ^< Bu juramenti ' obligutione,'* were the substance of 
p«tof hi^dlmity lectures. 

In Aug'. 16eOy «|)on tfie restoratioff, he triis restored to 
fab profeMorship and mtionry ; Md soon after, at tU^ re- ' 
cpflMnendtttioD of' Sheldon, raised to the "bishopric of Lift*' 
coin, and con^crated Oct. 23. He enjoyed his new dfg- - 
nkf but about two years and a quarter; during wbicbrtlme ' 
be did all the good In bi^ power, by repairing the palace^At' 
Bugden, abgnienting poor Ticarages, &c. notwithstanding'^, 
he^waa old, and had a family; and when hi9 friends sng* 
getted a little more attention to them, be replied, that be 
left riiem ito<>od, yet hoped he shouid be able at his death' 
t<r give cbem k competency. He died Jan. 2^, 1662*:^, tn 
his seirenty^sixtb year ; and was buried !n the chancel at 
ftigd^n, in the plainest and least expensire tnanner, ac-' 
cording^ to bisowvi directions. Dr. Sanderson was in his' 
penm ' moderalely tall, of a healthy constitution, of a 
mild, cbeerful, and even temper, and very abstemious. In* 
his bebiiviour,' he"waa affable, civil, and obliging, but not 
ccremdtrioUs. H^ was a man of great piety, modesty, learn^ 
ing and aMKties, but nbt of such universal reading as might' 
be MppMed.' Bein^g asked by a friend, what books he std«* 
died most, when he laid the foundation of hlaf great learn* 
ing, he answered, that^* he declined to read many books, ^ 
bat what be did itead were Well chosen, and read oft^n; ' 
and added, that tliey wei^ chiefly three, Aristotle^s ' Rhe- ' 
tofio^^ Aquina$*« ^Sedunda Seeundse,* and Tulty, but espe* ^ 
cidlly hris -« OfficM,* wbieh he had not read oter less thaft ^ 
twenty times, and could even in bis old age recite without 
book'.*' He' told him also> the learned civilian Dr. Zqacb ^ 
had written v£lettienia Juriffprudentiee,^' which he thought * 
h^ c()dTd also'say Without book, and that no wise man cogtd.^^ 
road it tqo.Aften*. Besides his great knowledge in the fR^^ / 
tbers, schoolmen, alid casuistical atid controversUl diVi-';^* 
njtj,, Eie wa^ exi^ctly- versed io ancieutaad modern histofy, • 
was» a good- antiquary, aftd indefatigable searcher into te'- *' 
MWls,''itid;AYeH atquiirited with'b^raldry ancl.^eiiealogies; ,^ 
o|ay(bkb. last' aabject he Uifv2Q ¥^|s. m MS. now in* tiie ^ 
library of'irtf' Joseph' B^Yifcs. The ^onhfest and mo^t ' 
learned of his contempor a r i es speak of him in the most re- 
spMlfitlT^eiiiis>t ^That^staid' and' weU'^tftreighedmair 'Dn 
8*ttdetsbtt^^ say^ 'H^mThcrhd, « cohb6ives\ atrtbipgs H^rrrt 
b^sai^lgTy 4^^iU.iupQii them disctetelyi, idisoern^.tUnga ilmt i 
differ etaK:ily,''pMi^h his jfudgn^ent rario^rfalW;' ahd;e|^"'*, 
presses it aptly, clearly, and honestly.^'" ' • ' '^ * ' 



120 SAND E R S ON. 

Tb9 iMrfl obaraeter of this gpreat and jfpod own, Mr^ 
Granger obaervee, baa lately boen. rashly and feebly jatr 
tack^ by tbe aut^r of the M Confessional^'' and a» a^bly. 
defeaded by tbe author of '*A Dialogue betv^eea Isaae 
Wakon and Homologistas/' 1768. Every enemy lo cbur<cb 
government baa been, for tbe same reason, aa lenemy t^ 
bishop Sanderson and every other prelate ; but the up^ghu 
nets and integrity of bis heart, as a casuist, was never be« 
fore called in question by any man who was hoc an entire 
stranger to his cbairacter* He saw and deplored,- and^did 
hf,% utmost, honestly and rationally, to remedy ibe com^ 
plicated ilia of anarchy in church and stake ; wben ^^ erery 
* man projected and reformed, and did what was right in hi$ 
,own eyes* Nq image can better express aucb a couditioii^ 
than that of ;a dead animal in a state of putrefftotion,.ll^beni 
instead of one noble creature, as it waa,. whenijAfe.heki it 
together^ there are ten tbooaand liule nauseous reiitilea 
growing out of it,, every one crawling in a path of its own/'^ 

We shall n^w give some account of bis writings, which, 
for good souse, clear reasoning, and meanly style, bavii 
always been much esteemed. In 1615, he published, 1. 
*' Logic® Artis Cpmpendium,'' as< we have alreadyitteur 
tioneri. In 1671 appeared, at a posthumous work, bis 
f^ Physics scientisB compendium,'* printed at Oxford* 2, 
^* Sermons,*' preached and printed at different times, 
amounMng to the number of thirty- sis, 1681, folio;, with 
Iheauthor'a life by Walton prefixed. 3. *^ Nine Cases of 
Conscience resolved;*' published .at difiecoaa. times, b»t> 
fir3t eollected.in 1678, 8vo.. The la&fcof these aine^caaea 
is " Of the use of the Liturgy," tbe very same traet iwikicfa 
maa published by Walton in his Life of SaikdersQayi.lifif^ 
under the title of '^Qisbop Sandersou'ajudgaDenCoanoerit^ 
Sngaubmissioii to Usurpers,*^ In this traotisigiventa full, 
account of the manner in which Dr. Sandensawiicoadfucted 
himself in performing the service of the chureh,. in the 
times of tbe. usurpation. 4. M De Juramantt Ohligaiiooe,** 
1647, 8vo; reprinted aeveval times ainoei withy 5;.'^ De 
ObligaAiono ConsoieatisB." This last waa ficst prifited^' fas 
;)fe bave«*8aid^ at the request of Mrj Boyle, 'attd>tlp4irf:ated 
to himrtJie former, via. '^ De. JumarendiObliti^iiQiii^' 
ipraa translated into English by Charlea^'I/^'^dorii^Tfai^ coii- 
finement in the Isle of Wigbt, .and panted. 'ftHLoddoimin 

^ Modee't Scviagi)!, StfB|OQ 0n the €?!}« of ^Qar^by. p. 86. 



BAND E B son: 121 

1655, 8ro^ and of both there is «n Elyglisk'MRilkAoo 
entitled ^ Fnelection^on the Nature and Obtigattomof pro-^ 
missory oatiis and of coi»cienoe,*''LoivdotH *l4^v 3^^vuii« 
5to«^ &. «^ CcDSiirq of Mr« 4Q^<MyA8cfaaifi>liidibo4fcof'.4b« 
Confusions and Reifoltttions of OovanHnfOntj'^' 4'6(4api6vii<. 
Thw Ascham vtas the rump pirliatnQoUa<agM(t aOiMttdm^ 
and ivfB mordered there by is^me £«lgli^'r«7ldiBC^)•^i'lU 
^ Episeopacy, as established by^ Law in fiitglaild/ not prau 
jadiciai «o «be Ke^l Poawr^" 166 1, meittionedbcibM. v<«; 
'*Paic Ecclestie<9 s(bout Predestination^ «»«be FivePoiiilsv** 
printed at the end* of bis Life by Walton, &fo. Chrrhisbofl 
$eeiDs at first to have beau astrictCalnniftt in- tbose^potms^ 
for in 1632| ^wben twelve of bis aermons ^ere* ptaaaedicoM 
getber, th^ rteder tnay obserra in the margin some aciMi^ 
sations of Armimos for false doctrine ; but in consaqaatiaia 
of his* confefenaes with Dr. Hammond, he yelttedfrbaa.ihta 
rigid sense^ as^appeam by some letter^ that paasidd toUveen 
tbenr^ and which are printed in Hammond's works. 9^ 
*^ Discourse >concetniog the Church ii> tbew- paviicaisrs : 
first, coneeralng' the visibility of the trwe Cburoh ; second^ 
ly,.ooneemiagcheCbQrchof Rome,'' &o. l68d.;tpabUstied 
by Dn 'Wiiliam Asheton^ from a MS oopy, vi'bich he had 
from 'Mr. PuUeo^ the bebop's domestic cbaplaib. !€}• A 
largd preface to a book of Uafaer's, writtenat the&petiai 
coasmand <of Charles i.>and)entitled» '^Tbe Power oonMAu- 
nicated by G<>d to the Prinde, and the Obedience 'required 
of the Sabject/* &c. 1661» 4to, and Ua3, 8vo« ^.IK^A 
prefatory Discomrse, in defence of Usher and bta wrksng^ 
prefixed toacoileecion of learned treatises)*eiitsrted| ^ Chiai 
Tfslbalea ; or, nails > fastened by some great masters' ef 'ati* 
sembiies^' eonfirmiitg tht kitig's . supremacy; thoi'subjecu^ 
dnty^ and chwrcb govemmenc'by bishops,'" HUSl, 4ta • 19* 
^ Pfophemea ooaoeniing the retarnoC Popery,? 'niliMieeted 
in>aibeok eeititled *^ Fair* Warnings tlMf«eoondJpart)^f 'Loia- 
dbny 1^3; (This foliKne conkaina^akta^^sa^enil ^iniuKlli 
from' the 'H^tnaga'Of'Wbitgift and Hooka«|,fiaiulMfasVufbi«i^ 
itil widi aiiierw laoopposeicbeaeataneb^'iWfaqsviece^ytidt^'be 
'OpfMng w dooit arwhioh papery would oortaiflX^eiiMeiii j|3. 
i^^fThtpreSme m %hH Bd6k irfjCbipmoariP0ap^^»4)agMiifi^ 
irttb thesd* Wl)rds;^ hrhktbbeen tfa&^wiadumbf^te ttanidchil* 
14; <<id«>qipi0,'iheu^B»jila*sftM>JUr^fP^ 
the^ Ssderpta eicoipdra^t^wtnofiiti'Uilii. Ottoit.ynfiuitail. 
It was written to explain the oath of obligation to observe 

the penal^ataittt^s! rS. ^'* Ahrcres 6f TOtiiiou wd In^ 



las , S A ^ D i: R 8 O if.' 

qniiy eMMtchrning matten- ^ccIeBftsticaV* ' &c. Lond. 1667, 
4to* Dr. SaDderson and Dr. HamiUDnd were jointly con-^ * 
cei»i<}d/»a irovk entitled .^ A fJacificdisciourse of God'i ' 
grace^eod deccsos/' and pttblidied hy the tatier In 16B0. 
la the < preface to 4he Folyglott, Dr. Bryan Wafcon baa 
claased^Dn Sanderson among those of *hi$ much bofVouveA- 
friends wbo asustad him in that noble worrk. Peck, in the • 
secidml^almne of hit ^* Desiderata Curiosa/' has published 
the ^< ilistory and Antiquities of the Csetbedral Cboreh of 
tUe^Bicased Virgin 6t. Mary at Lincoln : containing an ex- 
act copy of all the ancient monumental inscripttons there^ 
in number i68f «» they stood in 1641, most of vrbich were 
soon after torn up, or otherways defaced. Collected by 
Ba^ra BandeMon, 8. T. P. afterwards lord bishop of that 
chutcb/and >compared with and corrected by sir William 
Dugdale'B MS surrey.'' > 

JB ANDERSON (Robert), an 8ntiqi)ary of considerable* 
note, was a younger son of Christopher Sanderson^ aju9«» 
tioe'of the peace for the county paialine of Durham, who 
had suffered for bis attachment to the Stuart fiimily during 
the citil war. He was bom July 27^ 1660, at Eggleston^ 
haJl, in that county, and entet'ed a student of St. John's 
cottege, Caoabridge, under the tuition of Dr. Baker, April 
7, 1^03. He remained in the Jinlversity sereral yean, and 
was contemporary with the celebrated Mattbewr'Prior. Re* 
monog to London, he afterwards turned <bis attentioh to ' 
the 'law, and was appointed clerk of the rolls, m the Roils - 
chapel. He oontributed largely to the compilation of Ry-^ ' 
mer*s Foadera, and was exclusively coAcemed in arranrgiiig - 
thl» three oooduding velumesj horn I H to 30, whii^h he' ' 
suoeessively dedicated to kmgs George <!; Mif llr (Sbe • 
Rymrh.)  , ^ .. / . • - • -3 

In 1704 he published a translation of ^'Original -L^tterlt^ 
from William III. whiktPrinte of Orange, to-<;haf1eJ ff^, 
L<fevd AriingtoHy and others, with an Account of tikl^iifit^s 
Reception at Middlebutgh, and hiBr Speech on 'that/oeoa^ ^ 
sidn;*' dediomfaig' iiie' book -to lord Wo^sioidd 'Uft'hlM'^ 
wn^o ^^:A*H'iBtch^ of Hetlry Vi" irt tbent»yofittntial«,'lwJ'* 
niitt ^noies^^of which the first fbur ha^e Udefy- lfic<t, irnd^n 
theitotbera^BtillreiBaniin manuscript amdngsthis fiapeV&c' 
In- <l^li4ibe' became' a-candfdatie' for the place of historro^"^ 

1 Life by WaltoD, witti tracts, 1 678, Svo.— Waltoa's Lives by ZoQch.-*Bio9. 
Brrt.— Ath. Ox. tol. IL-<-^isbop Bar)Qv'i R|w%in9> p< ^moA 634.-^Words^ 
vwUi's £oeK Biosraphy.*— Otnt. Mag. toL LXXL 



SANDERSON. 12S 

gntpNer to^queei) Anne» and received a very faandsoane offer 
of M9i^nce from Matthew Prior^ at that time 8Inbai8ador^ 
to the' oourt of France; His sncoeta, howerer/ was pre^ 
▼eated by the change of ministrj which auooeeded OTrtfae 
qttoen'a (Natb. Oa the 9ath f>f November, 17126, hccwas 
a^poif»4ed uaher of the high coort of oheneerjr, by sir* J» 
sepfo Jekyll, the master of the rolls. He oucaMdedvia^ 
lf^7, ky the death of an eUer bMtber, to a^considerable' 
laod^ property in Cumberlaml^ the north riding of York**' 
shi^e, and Durham. After -^s, tboogh be contifiiied 
chiefly to reside in London, be occasionaHy visited bts- 
couRlry seat at Aroiathwaite castle, a mansion pieasantiy 
siuiated on the banks of the Eden, about ten miles from 
CarKslew. He was married four times ; for the last time to. ' 
EKlsabetb Hickes of London^ when he had completed bis ' 
70th year. He died Dec. 25, 1741, at his house in Chan-* . 
cefy4aiie, in the 7^th year of his age, and ' was buried in 
Red- lion* Fields. He was a devout man, well read in di- ' 
viaity, attached to the forms of the church of England, and 
very regular in his attention to public and private worships ' 
He was slightly acquainted with the Hebrew language, and. 
conversant in the Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, and 
Feenpb. He^made a choice collection of books in varioaa 
languages, and-Mt behind him several volumes of jVfi9S« 
relating ohieBy to history, and the court of chancery, and - 
including a transcript of Thurloe*s State Papers. He kept 
a diary, ia which he noted down,- with minute attemtoit, 
the »lighteat occurrences of bis life. As he left ao issue, 
hift^estftiea descended* on the death of hisr last wi^, in 
17lii^/r!tothe.fanHly of Margaret, his eldest sister, married 
tot»'9enry I Milbolime^ of Newcastle*upon<-Tyne;' whose, 
great grandson, William Henry Milbourne, was high $he« 
riffof Ctimlierland in 17M.' ' < 

^814NBER86n, SeeSAUNDERSOK. 

JS^ND^UtJ^ (Ai^thony), anemmbnt topogn^fai^r and 
antjiqiuiry, Mraei''born4it'Aoliwerp, ,ih SeptL. liB^;; He was : 
fiiatiitaeght Uatialat Oedenarde, and piarsied bia'chsiical - 
stildi^iallha Jesuits' college Mo Glitfntt He li^n'stUdicd  
philosophy ox Blouayt and in 160^' obtained thenlegbee n( 
masMi^of 4irt9i. .After some stay in hiswatevef country, ^e*^^ 
en(«red'0n' a course oJF theology ar Loumio,) iwbi^h'liei^ 
completed at Douay, and in 1619, or 1621, took the 

* Owl - 1 '' .*■•*. •  ' « • '»• V. • ' .jf I 



124 S A N D £ R U S. 

degree of doctor io that faculty. Being ordained priest> he 
officiated for several years in various churches in the diocese 
of Ghent, was'remarkably zealous in the- conversion of he* 
retics, i. e. protestants, and particularly contended much 
with the anabaptists, who were numerous in chat quarter. 
Having, however, rendered himself obnoxious to the Hoi- 
landers, by some services in which he was employed by the 
king of Spain, their resentment made him glad to enter into 
the service of cardinal Alphonso de la Cueva, who was then 
in the Netherlands, and made him hi^ almoner and secre- 
tary. Some time after, by the cardinals interest, be was 
made canon of Ipres (not of Tournay, as father Labbe as* 
serts) and finally theologal of Terouanue. He died in .1664, 
an the seventy-eighth year of his age, at AfBihgham, an 
.abbey of Brabant in the diocese of Mechlin, atid was Inter- 
' Ted there, with a pious inscription over his graven written 
by himself. 

The long list of his works shews that his life was not 
spent in indolence. Some of these of the religious kind 
we shall omit. The principal, which respected literature, 
or the biography and history of the Netherlands, were, 1. 
'^' Dissertatio paraenetica pro instituto biblibthecae pubKctc 
"Gandavensis,** Cheat, 1619, 4to. 2. ** Poettiatum . llbVi 
tres,*^ ibid, 1621, 8vo. 3. " Panegyrictis in laudem B. 
Thomae de Villanova," ibid. 16;23, 4to. 4. ", Encomium 
S. Isidori,'* Antwerp, 1623,' 8 vo. 5. ** De Scriptoribiis 
Flandrise, Ubri tres," ibid, 1624, 4to." '6. <*'De Gand^- 
vensibus eruditionis fama ciaris,*' ibid. 1624; 4t6. ii*^1it 
Brugensibus eruditionis fama claris/* ibid. i'€^4^'4to, d. 
^* Hagiologium FlaudricB,** &c. ibid. I625^;'4tb*apd ^Ml 
additions, at Lisle, 1639. 9.. ^< £logia Cardibalitsfta.iBld^- 
titate, doctrina, et armis illustrrom,'* jjontain,' 16^^''4to« 
10. ^< Gandavium, sive rerum Gandscvensrutn -fibrK'tiik;^ 
Brussels^ 1627, 4to. 11. «< Dedans iyaircfltaie,W*^tfdll* 
tibne Antonits," Lbuvain, 1627, 4to. 12. /^BiMititiieelt 
Belgica manu3cripta,** 2 part^ or.volunfiesi Lfslfe, 'fkft^\iA 

1643, 4ro. is. '^Fl8todrfa lllusiratii * Cologne,' Itfilank 

1644, 2 vols. fol. a most i&aperb' book, tnsiirki^dwvrHo^lb^ 
collectors of foreign history and. tpi^ograpb^. ' TBei*^ l^'an 
edition published at the Hague in 173o; S^YOfr. Mk bottbe 
original' is preferred ion account, oF^^ti^ «ifperio^ htA^tftX 
the engravings. 1 4. ^ Chorograpltia saetil ^ilib^ritiai'^ibMb 
celebriikn. aliquot in ea provincia eccIeaifr|uins;^t.p^Dobio- 
rum descriptio,** Brussels and Antwerp, 16 59, 2 vols. fol. 



8 A N D E R U S. 125 

1669, This is a still more splendid work than the former, 
and of much more rare opcorrence in a complete state, very 
few copies of the second volume being in existence* The 
reason assigned is, that the entire impression of the second 
voiume waft suppressed as soon as completed, and remained 
in the warehoQse of a bookseller at Brussels until 1695, in 
which yearthat city was bombarded by the French, and all 
the copies, except a few in the possession of the author^s 
friends^ perished by 6re« This likewise was reprinted at 
the Hague in 3 vols. fol. 1726 — 27, but with diflfereut plates, 
^ud of cou^e this edition is not so highly esteemed. San- 
ders wrote other topographical works, which appear to re- 
main in MS.^ 

SANDFORD (Fhancis), a herald and heraldic writer, 
descended from a very ancient and respectable family, still 
seated at Saudford, in the county of Salop, was the third 
son of Francis Sandford, of that place, esq. by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Calcot Ghambre, of Williamscot in Oxford- 
shire, and of Carnow in Wicklow in Ireland. He was born 
in i630, in the castle of jCarnow in the province of Wick- 
low, part of the half Wony of Shelelak, purchased of 
J^mes I., by bis maternal grandfather, Cbalcot Chambre. 
He parpok iof n eminent degree the miseries of the period 
ifhich, marked his youth. At eleven years of age he sought 
an asylum in Sandford, being driven by the rebellion from 
.{/-^^iaud*; No;»QOQer had his pitying relatives determined to 
eiltica^e bimto some profession^ than they were proscribed 
Jfac adhering tp tbe cause of jtheir sovereign; he received, 
thereforejf only that learning which a grammar school could 
jghr^. • As sqme recompence- for the hardships be and his 
^^^j^yjbud.experienced, he was admitted, at the restora- 
^ppf AS puraqivaot in the college of arms ; but oonsciea- 
«tipi^1y ^a^ched tot J^n^es II.,. he qbtained leave to resign 
^lfuff^^^9^ Mn King, rougeclrs^on, who paid him 2201. 
/9j;.^ja|Q^e« He retired to tBIoomsbury, or its vicinity^ 
pfbe;^^ 4\?^l ^^J^M^^y ^^$ J^^^t ^^^ ^^ buried in St. 
^d^^s^y[j^p^^ob<V'<^y^^^v. The last days of this valuable 
fRi^^F9FX9iB^^^^ tpo unhappily with tbe;first, for he died 
no^^^^Wl^^" J9l^h' ^^gl^^f^ ^^i poor.'' He i^arried 
j^aig^gj^ 4^^!^^?; -^!^'lJi*ip Jokes, of Bottington, in 
jRti^jfiWWty 'pf.^oi^gompfy, relict of William Kerry, by 
4^ix^.^^,j^^)ue, , j^^is. literary works are, 1.. ** 4 genea- 



126 S A N^ D F (y It D. 

logioti Hiilory'^or tba Kitigft of PoHiigal,^* A;^ Xondooy 
l^fM^ folvjMiitllf'ii translation, pabH$bed in compHm^nt to 
(2attierin» of Braganza, coto96rt lo Cfeai'les 11. It is become 
umuie. ^^'^''Tt^ Order attd C^remomes used at the Fu- 
qeral af-tris Gi*a^^, George Duke of Atbetnarle,^^ Savoy^ 
IfiCra; Tbik is««bii^ Iblioy^rtie 'Whole reptiesented in en-> 
graving. '^. ^ A gen^logical Htttwy of -the Kibgi M 
Kngland) and Monarebs of Greiit Brttaii),* frbai' tfab ^fot'f)nan 
Coiigaest, Anno 1066^ to the year 167 7, infl^ven t^aKs 
or Books, containing a Diisconrse of tti^ir several Lively Mar-^ 
mges, and IiMoes, Times of Binfa, Deatb; Place j of Bti-^ 
rial) iiul mouvtneutal Inscriptions, with tbeir Effigi^, 8ea(s^ 
Tombs, Cenotaphs, Dei^ices, Arms,^* fco. Savoy, '^T^! 
ftiK dedicated to Charl^^ 11.^' by whose cdtnmfritd m^WOrW 
was underuk^n. It is Ins best and mos^ estimable p!^rkfttti*J 
anoe. The plan is excellent) tbe iinen^s of the tiurhei^oQ^ 
CDgraTiaga gr^tly enrieb and' adorn it : many are by n<^\^ 
>ar, othara by- the best artists^ that pei^iod, Infei'ioi- to 
htfli^ bat not con^tnptible, even -wbeA seen at thia age dt 
improvement in graphic art. The original note^ aref n6¥ 
the least valuable part of the v(^)rk, conveying greiA in- 
famiation, relative to the heraldic history of oar montirch^, 
princes, and nubility. Mr. Stabbing, So&aerset heV'ald; 
reprinted' it in 1707^ coniinuing it until thikt'year, gll^tfrg 
some additional information to the original works ^ but the! 
pkrea being worn oar, or 111 touched, this eclitiofi is fair in* 
ferlorto the first. ** The Coronation of k. Jaoo/es IC totl 
Or Mary/'. &c« iilustratedvirith scuipturei, SayOy, 1^87, ;af 
moat superb ivork. When James Jedatied b^ wduM il#^ii^' 
the account of his coronation printed, Mr. SandT6i^ Ih^ 
Mr. King, then rouge-dragon^ obtained tbe>eiit4M(MMMV 
consent to execute it ; the latter says, the^ '^i^t<^' |>i^ 
pased through his iionds, as well as the whole mmik]^W&Wi 
ami economy of it, though he declined baViii^ ^i^^kaWtl 
appear in the tttle*-page, contenting himself V(4m>ofk^ MiHt 
part'of the property, leaving the honour,^ aAd'two4^^%|3 
iog shares of it, to Mr. Sandford ; well (ofeskt\^;^h^'tdj^f 
tKat they wodid be maligned for it by dbers ^f tbM«'t)(BMff 
and he was not mUtafcen, foV Sandford, with^alt^^li6A<lor, 
had all. the malice, for having opposed the l^fehrPlhal^hll^ 
appointing Mr. Burghill to be receiver orf^eA-^'honM^ 
for the heralds, and endeavouring to vest it ia t^e lUngt fo 
that the afiair was taken and argued at the/oouacil ^l^«& 
The earl maishalj at the tnsinoation of some df Hb^^fe- 



»A N Eiro-li,l>. lar 

* 

fipiibed ^^ bi»^«ry of the corooaUop i bii/t b« ^nhmukkg, 
tbe.fiMpenflion wm torn ukeu off. . The bfokatilMt-iisii 
opt sj^o^^fulf. for tbe publication beiug delated :vmok 
i^lj^and %ke le^voliiuoq f^llowiog, wbi«b tbvewa danp 
01^ JHch,.^ undertaking! J^I^^srs. Saadj^offd aod Kitlg gainii 
i^Q ipfi^xip jtbaD.thoir expailf^e^, amqu^tiDg to <€00/.' ^ . ^^ 
., ^/CNPI^I (Anthony), ^a luUan ecele^iiMtiiml biatorianj 
y^ boru Jun« 3 1, I692»^nd becamai by tbe^iodtefiCfU'of 
b)f .)>isbc^ij (ardiaal llezgo«ico». who was afictirarda 'pipe 
Cl«pn^t XIII. UVraii^u ai^d pnofesaqrof e<}dio8)aaiical biB-* 
tfN%at^P;»difa« wberehadied^ FeU 23, 17.^1^. in. ihefiftf^ 
ujo^ ]f^ac of bU age. He i» koown priocipaMy by.ibii 
^:{ yitsQ.pQi^ficHm I^«anormn,^' Fei^cara^ 1 748^ vq»rint6dl 
i}fHiei«tbe.j:iti^ of '^ fiaais Historian EcoU^iasUo^J' He altar 
VX9^^uf.Mi*ff>^^ FajftiliaB Sacr«B;" <' Htsloiia S.. 8. ApM< 
tplqqui^r- \^ Dispfitsuiwe$ XX ex Hisioria. Ecelemstioa 
a4 y;^t(aA('P9f>M&cij[n Rowauoron)/' aad <^ OitsartationV^ 
W (^f^Qf^of tbe !^ Hi$torue Familiar SacfiDyV nvbiobtfaxlKa 

^rjifead attac^;ei4-V 

^^,S4J^]DIU.S /CuHisTOFHsa), or, Van Den S(aNi>^ a Som 
9iiii9^il.:>9i^te^i waa.born at Kooigsburg m ibeyaar ifiMi 
\fLer, becooMMS'^n ecclesiastic^ he went to Amsterdaoi^' 
w^jra h<B\,di^44^, Ij^^Oj aged only tbirty^-fiij^. He publisb^ 
fiW^ifiA wi>|k9». apiOQg wbicb* «r^f .!• " Nucleus* • Hisisorie» 
Eqcl§$ia^t|i^^,'! J^CiS^, ifv2 vok. 8ro, reprinted at'Colegu^ 

gin^ Aqi9^p^.L^7K'!.i <3. ^^ NotSB^en.Obaervaitone^iii.B. ji> 
Y^i:^fl,ct«^ ]^s(ar^p^ Xau^9t'' 1677, a wovk 6f epnsidcvti 
^le iWarBWi0> ; "t* .^* Ccotucia £pjg«ammatuai9^'. S. «< lai^ 
W»ff»fc¥>WP^I!^r^<te^^ iv . evapgeUocum ;" « 6. " Goafei^ 
a>ft|'iftejdftPfl»jPaW*FiliQ,.:et.SpiHiu 8aiioto» aecundam 
$^^t^ri«fttf7'j^f .Sc<iptiMra Saara; Triniiatia Biaiidati!ixi'<'i 
8/lltelbi,flnlj^,j^r|c«i<>Winacbkni>eiOr which waa pHblished 

#N^i ^<}i^)>f ^ bia I* Bibliotl^e^a Apti^Trinitariocunvf^* 
tmm^t.AP^^^ i2awbi,.4JQntaioii^j#n artmiiMiof itbe livea 
^lP^.^i^i^i6^i^^^nm awtWw^Ha^vl'Soaiertracisrigiyiaiy 
ma5W(PWiPiui5^>^.Ab^.Jii$tajcy/o£i|be Pojisb 8o«iiiiaiit.^«i : 

iMNRftARXiitlPAPHW)* .a ^^xmatk .paiQt9r,<'dv&a*'b6ra 
^iJfmn^PVi^ \^9Q*<>He^Yf^s„^utihyx3ois fatbeatoiagrdHi^' 
inarrMh^lftolPfsiJn^iiOatioii >tO.;ang«^iD0 aatf ;/lesigQqTg; 

^, AA- Ox. ▼oT. n.-rHarrVi, edHfon of Warc-^Nohle't Cpllejc of AroftTn 



12$ S A N D R A It T, 

being irresistible, be was suffered to todulge it, and 
on foot to Prague, wliere he pot himself lutder Giles Sade*^ 
ler, the famous engraver, who persuaded him to apfriy bii 
genius to painting. He accordingly went to Utrec^ and 
was some time tinder Gerard Honthrost, who took him into 
England with him; where he stayed till 1627, the year in 
which the duke of Buckingham, who was the p^tfnn id 
painting and painters, was assassinated by Felton at Pofts« 
mouth. He went afterwards to Venice, where be cof^d 
the finest pictures of Titian and Paul Yeroneste ; and from 
Venice to Rome, where he* became one of the most const* 
derable painters of his time. The king of Spain seB^Qg 
to Rome for twelve pictures of the most skilful haods tbon 
in that city, twelve painters were set to work, one of wbMi 
was Sandrart. After a long stay in Rome, be weat to Na« 
pies, thence to Sicily and Malta, and at length reiutfmA 
through Lombardy to Francfort, where be marr)ed« A 
great famine happening about that time, be reaMmd to 
Amsterdam ; but returned to Francfort opoo tbm ca asa 
tion of that grievance. Not long after^ be took poaacsaion 
of tbe manor of Stokan, in the docby of Neoborg, wbidb 
was fallen to him ; aud, finding it oracb in decay, si^td all 
bis pictures, designs, and other curiosUies, in order to 
fmise money for repairs. He had but just cofsplated these, 
when, the war breaking out between tbe Germans and die 
French, it was burned by the latter to the gvouodL He 
then rebuilt it in a better style ', but, fearing a ieeoad tn* 
vasion, sold it, and settled at Augsburgb, wiwre be etm*> 
cated many fine pictures. His wife dying, be left Aogft* 
burgh, and went to Nuremberg, where bo estaUisbed ati 
academy 6f painting. Here he published bis *' Acadenibt 
anis pictorise,^' 1683, fol. being an abrfa%aietit of Vasari 
and Ridoifi for what concerns the Itadiaa paiater% and of 
Charles Van Manderfor the Flemings, of tbe se^eateewb 
century. He died at Nuremberg;^ in 1688. Hia wotfc ^kom 
mentioned, which some have, called s u y etfe ial, ii bwt a 
part of a larger work, which ha pubtsbed faefera^va^r dMT 
title of << Academia Todeaea delta anrfaitetlura, acaiiaiifa, e 
pittiira, Oder Teutaohe acadeone der edlen baobild wiahlri 
ren^kunst^," Narea»berg, 1675---79, a vols. M. He pab» 
Ksbed also, <' Iconologia Dearuas^ ^i sl» aaliqwia eamaa- 
tur (Germanice), ibid. IMO, foL «^ AdmifasAik ie«l|pc«Ma 
Teteris, sive delineatio vera perCactissiflM statwarwi/* ibviC 
1680, fol. «* Roam aotiqac as saw tfaeaaruas,*' IM4; fM. 



9 A N D R A R r. 129 

^ I to iiiiioi iHn fV>ntinal{a/* ibid. 1685, fol. A German 
eiUlllin* of * all Ma works was published by Volkmanni at 
Hmrmtk^rgf ill 166^-^75, 8 vols, fol.' 
• SAKDYS (Ebwiir), a ^erj eminent English prelate, the 
thM fDii Bt William Sandys, esq. and Margaret bis wife^ ' 
iaB9tm4^ from the Ancieift barons of Kendal, was boru 
aaar HanrkalMad, in Pnrness Felh, lancashire, in 1519« 
TlMMsidte neigbbdurhobd, and almost the same year^ gave 
bM >li' > o two* XMher luminaries of tfa'e reformation, Edmund 
Omdal and fttrrfard Gilpin, ^r. Sandys*s late biographer . 
coB^mttmeBy that lie was educated at the school of Furness 
Aibb#y» wtieiiee be was removed to St. John's- college, 
Caiabriidfe) in 1553 or 1533, where be had' for his con- 
taapoi alien Redmayn and Lever, both great lights of the 
r«fiiihnatiin, beside others of inferior name, who continued 
ift4he bo«r ^ trial so true to their principles, that, accord- 
10^ td -Mr» Baker, the learned historian of that house^ 
*\pnoitmkiy tsMe fellows were, in queen Mary*s reign, 
e JM l^d fiMBQ 4tt John's than from any other society in either 
nmne may ^* Several years new elapsed of Sandys's life, 
ditaiiig^ wlvch-in mattetv-of religion men knew not how to 
act or what to^ believe ; btit^ though the nation was at this 
time tiirior aev^re restmints with respect to external con-* 
diMty ijiqairy waastMi at woric [in secret r the corruptions , 
of tbd oldvjeligion became 'better understood, the Scrip- 
toiti w^M mhveMilljp studied, and every impediment being 
reoaovUviMlh tlie<MipriQibu% tyranny of Henry VIII., pro- 
tatlMDtiaBi,^^iJik little variation from its present establish- ' 
OMBt ill £oglMid, became the religion of the state. 

Ouking tUa tatervallSandy^ who, from the independence 
nfiilMi ffnrinnr, oi* aoilie other cause, had never been ¥cho- 
lar vtfA fellDir of iii^ ooltege) though be had served the 
oflfee of ftoctor for the oniversity, was in 1547 elected 
iDfMlV •i';'€lotbolrini^bcU. He-was probably at this time 
Ti<lHi rf JhaciBham,' io Buckt) hir first considerable pre« 
fev>tPi» to «Ud^^ I5M) «»aa«dded a prebend of Peter-* 
boi^fh^ «t4 m 4 559^ the accond atalt at Carlisle. With- 
onitho lMe*of thaio«pi«foraBeats lie was enabled to marry, 
a My of bit own iiMn#, tl>0 daughter of a branch 



tiiMMifsi^by dietgonealogtsit, abettotiful and pious wo* 

M^JUia 



^ipkwvt that of tiis vice«chan- 
eeikmak^ ^atmiand Wm uuibapptiy conspicuous by bis 

Vol. XXVII. K 



ISO SAND Y S. 

9 

yieldiivg to the commaod or request of Dudley, duke of 
Northumberland, and preaching a sermon in support of 
lad J Jane Gray/s pretensions to the crown, after the death 
of Edward VI. The designs of Dudley's party having been 
almost immediately defeated, Sandys was marked out for 
vengeance ; and the popish party in the university, as the 
first step towards regaining an ascendant, resolved to de- 
pose the vice-chancellor, which wa9 performed in a man- 
ner very characteristic of the tumultuous spirit of the 
times. From this time, in July 1553, he ceased to reside 
in college, or to take any part in the administration of its 
concerns. 

He tben left the university, amidst the insults of his 
enemies, and the tears of his friends^ who reasonably an- 
ticipated a worse fate than that which befel him. On his 
arrival in London, he was ordered to be confined in the 
Tojver, where the yeomen of the guard took from him 
every thing which he had been permitted to bring from 
Cambridge ; but his faithful servant, Quintin Swainton, 
brought after him a Bible, some shirts and other necessa- 
ries. The Bible being no prize for plunderers, was sent 
in, but every thing else was stolen by the warders. Here^ 
after remaining three weeks, solitary and ill accommo- 
dated in a vile lodging, he was removed to a better apart- 
ment, called the Nun's Bower (a name now forgotten in 
that gloomy mansion), where he had the comfort of Mr, 
John Bradford's company. In this apartment they re** 
mained twenty-nine weeks, during which 'time the mildness 
yet earnestness of their persuasions wrought on their keeper, 
a bigoted catholic, till he became a sincere protestant, 
'* a son begotten in bondsji" so that when mass was cele- 
brated in the chapel of the Tower, instead of compelling 
his prisoners to attend, the converted gaoler frequently 
brought up a service-book of Edward VI. with bread and 
wine, and Sandys administered the sacrament in both kinds 
to himself and the other two. 

Here they continued until their apartments being wanted 
for the persons concerned in Wyat's conspiracy, they were 
removed to the Marshalsea. On their way there they found 
the people's minds greatly changed. Popery, unmasked 
and triumphant, had already shewn its nature again, . and 
general disgust had followed the short burst of joy which 
bad attended the queen's accession. Sandys walked along 
the streets attended by his keeper : and as he was generally 



SANDYS. 131 

known, the people prayed that God would comfort hioif 
and strengthen him in the truth. Struck with these ap« 
pearances of popularity, the keeper of the Marsbalsea said^ 
f' These vain people would set you forward to the* fire : 
but you are as vain as they, if you, being a young man^ 
will prefer your own conceit before thejudgmentof so many 
worthy prelates, and so many grave and learned men as are 
in this realm. If you. persist, you shall find me as strict a 
keeper, as one that utterly misliketh.your religion/' Dn 
Sandys nobly replied, *^ My years, indeed, are f^w, and 
my learning is small ; but it is enough to know Christ 
crucified ; and who seeth not the blasphemies of popery 
bath learned nothing. I have read in Scripture of godly 
and courteous keepers, God make you like one of them ; 
if not, I trust he will give me strength and patience to bear 
your hard dealing with me.'* The keeper then asked, 
" Are you resolved to stand to your religion ?" " Yes," 
said Dr. Sandys, "by God's grace." "1 love you the 
better, therefore," said the keeper, " I did but tempt you : 
every favour which I can show, you shall be sure of : nay, 
if you die at a stake, I shall be happy to die with you." 
And from that day such was the confidence wbicb this good 
man reposed in Sandys, that many times he permitted him 
to walk alone in the fields ; nor would he ever suffer him 
to be fettered, like the other prisoners. He lodged him 
also in the best chamber of the house, and often permitted 
his wife to visit him. Great resort was here made to Dr. 
Sandys for his edifying discourses, and much money was 
offered him, but he would accept of none. Here too the 
communion was celebrated three or four times by himself 
ftnd his companions, of whom Saunders, afterwards the mar- 
tyr, was one, to many communicants. 

After nine weeks confinement in the Marshalsea, he was 
set at liberty, by the intercession of sir Thomas Holcroft, 
knight-marshal. This, however. Was not accomplished 
without much difficulty, and so intent was Gardiner, bishop 
of Winchester, on bringing Sandys to the stake, that it 
required some management on the part of sir Thomas 
before be could succeed ; and no s()oner was Sandys libe* 
rated than Gardiner, being told that he had set at liberty 
one of the greatest heretics in the kingdom, procured or^ 
ders to be issued to all the constables of London to search 
for, and apprehend him. ,In Sandys's final escape, as re- 
lated by his late biographer, the hand of Providence was 

K 2 



132 SANDYS. 

strikingly visible. M'bile be was in the Tower^ wanting n 
pair of new bose^ a tailor was sent for, who, not being 
permitted to measure him, bad made them too long, and 
while he was now concealed at the house of one Hnrleston, 
a skinner in Cornhill, be sent them, as Hurleston's own^ 
to ^ tailor to be shortened. This happened to be honest 
Benjamin the maker, a good protestant, who immediately 
recognized bis own handy work, and required to be shown 
to the house where Dr. Sandys was, tbiett he might speak 
with him for his good. At midnight be was admitted, and 
informed Dr. Sandys, that all the constables of the city, 
of whom he himself was one, were employed to apprehend 
bim, that it was well known that his servant had provided 
two geldings, and that he meant to ride out at Aldgate to^ 
morrow. " But," said he, '* follow my advice, and, by 
God^s grace, you shall escape. Let your man walk alt the 
day to-morrow in the street where your horses are stabled, 
booted and prepared for a journey. The servant of the 
man of the , house shall take the horses to Bethnai- 
green. The man himself shall follow, and be booted as if 
be meant to ride. About eight in the morning I will be 
with you, and here we wilt break our fast. It is both term 
and parliament time, and the street by that hour u ill be 
full of people; we will then go forth -^ look wildly, and, 
if you meet your own brother in the street, do nbt shun, 
but outface him^ and assure him that you know him not.** 
Dr. Sandys accordingly complied, and came out at the ap- 
pointed hour, clothed in all respects as a layman and a 
gentleman. Benjamin carried him through bye-laues to 
JVfoorgate, where the horses were ready, and Hurlcstoo as 
his man. That night he rode to his father- in -iailr^s hoAse^ 
but had not been there two hours, when intelligence 
Was brought, that two of the guard had beet) dispatched 
to apprehend him, and would be there that night, tie was 
then immediately conducted tb the house of a I'iarther near 
the sea-side, where he remained two days and two nights 
in a solitary chamber. Afterwards he removed toth^'housfe 
of one James MoWer,' a ship-master, neaf Mlhori-shore^ 
where was' a fleet of merchant-men awaiting k wind for 
Flanders. While he was there, Mower gathered ii conr 
gregation of forty or fifty seamen, to whortt he gavle^iin ex- 
hprtation, with which they were so 'much delight^,' that 
they promised to. defend hitri at.the exjientife fef^thfe^r lives. 
On Sunday May 6, he embarked in the same vessel with 



SANDYS. 133 

Dr. Coze, afterwards Ushop of Ely, and the ship was yet 
in sjghtyi when two of the guard arrived on the shore to ap- 
prehend Dr, Sandys. 

His' danger was not even yet entirely over> for on his 
arrival at Antwerp, he received intelligence that king 
Philip of Spain had sent to apprehend him, on which he 
escaped to the territory of Cleve, from thence to Augs- 
burgh, where he remained fourteen days, and then re- 
9ioved tp Strasburgh. Here be took up his abode for the 
present, and here miquestionably spent the most gloomy 
portion of his life. His own health was at this time deeply 
injured; he fell sick of a flux (the usual concomitant of 
hardships and afBictions), which continued without abate- 
ment for nine months^ his only child died of the plague; 
and his beloved wife, who had found means to follow him 
about a year after his flight from England, expired of a 
consumption, in his arms. In addition to his sorrows, the 
disputes concerning church discipline broke out among the 
English exiles, on which several of his friends left the 
place. After his wife's death, he went to Zurich, where 
he was entertained by Peter Martyr, but, his biographer * 
thinks, the time did not permit him to receive any deep 
tincture either as to doctrine on discipline from Geneva or 
its neighbours. Within five weeks the news of queen 
Mary's death arrived; and after being joyfully feasted by 
Bullinger, and the other ministers of the Swiss churches, 
he returned to Strasburgh, where he preached ; afler 
which Grindal and be set out for their native country to- 
gether, and arrived in London on the ds^y of queen Eliza- 
beth's coroaatioii. / 

D<. Ssiqdys was now somewhat less than forty years old, 
in the vigour of his. mental faculties and with recruited 
bodily streo&tb^ • The first public s^ene on which he ap- 
p^ar^d was the great disputation between the leading di-. 
Tjn^s of , the protestant and popish side, in which, if his 
talent for debate bor^ any proportion to his faculty of 
preaqh^^g^ . he must have borne i vexy conspicuous part. 
Qn th^ 21ait qf Deceinbei^i 1559, he was consecrated by 
archbishop Parker to the see of Worcester. Browne Willis 
has most ujnjustly accufiied our prelate of having enriched 
bis family out of the land^ of this see ; on the contrary,' he 
transmitted it.to his successor, exactly as he found it, that 
i^, saddled, with the conditions of an exchange which the 
crown hao by statute a right to m(ike, He accepted it on 



134 SANDYS. 

these conditions, and what be was oever seized of, it was 
impossible for hion to alienate. After all, this was scarcely 
a matter sufficient to excite Browne Willis's superstitious 
reverence, for the rental of the manors taken away was no 
more tbian 193/. 125. 8^^. per ann. and that of the spiritu- 
alities given in exchange 1 94/. 

At Worcester began the inquietudes and vexations which 
pursued bishop Sandys through his latter days. The papists 
in bis diocese bated him, and he was at no pains to conciliate 
them. At Hartlebury, in particular, it was bis misfortune 
to have for his neighbour sir John Browne, a bigoted pa- 
pist, who took every opportunity to insult the bishop, and 
to deride his wife (for be had by this time married Cecily, 
sister of sir Thomas Wilford), by calling her •* My Lady," 
a style which in the novelty of their situation, some of the 
bishop's wives really pretended to; so that in conclus4ofi a 
great afiray took place between the bishop's servanu and 
those of the knight, in which several were wounded on 
both sides. At Worcester Dr. Sandys remained till 1570, 
when op the translation of his friend Grindal to York, he 
succeeded him in the see of London, a station for which 
he was eminently qualified by bis talents as a preacher, and 
as a govenior. During this period, he had interest to pro« 
cure for his kinsman Gilpin, a nomination to the bishopric 
of Carlisle, but Gilpin refused it At London, Dr. Sandys 
sat six years, when be was translated to York, on the re- 
moval of Grindal to Canterbury. 

Years were now coming upon him, and a numerous fa* 
mily demanded a provision ; but as it was a new and un* 
popular thing to see the prelates of the church abandon* 
ing their cathedrals and palaces, and retiring to obscure 
manor-houses on their estates, in order to accumulate for* 
tunes for their cjiildren, an abundant portion of obloquy 
fell upon Sandys, who seldom lived at York, and not very 
magnificently at Southwell. Yet be visited his diocese 
regularly, and preached occasionally in his cathedral with 
great energy and effect In 1577, during a metropoliticai 
visitation, be came in his progress to Durham, the bishopric 
of which was theu vacant, but was refused admittance by 
Whittingbam, the puritan dean. The archbishop, however, 
with his wonted firmness proceeded to excommunication. 
The issue of this contest will come to be noticed in our 
account of Whittingbam. In the mpnth of May 1582, 
bebg once more iq a progress through bis diocese^ a dia« 



SANDYS. 135 

bolical attempt was made to blast "bis character. He bap« 
pened to He at an inn in Doncaster; wbere^ through the 
cootrivance of sir Robert Stapleton, and other enemies, 
the inn-keeper's wife was put to bed to him at midnight 
when be was asleep. On this, according to agreement^ 
the inn-keeper rushed into the room^ waked the archbishop 
with bis noise, and offered a drawn dagger to his breast, 
pretending to avenge the injury. Immediately sir Robert 
Stapleton came in, as if called from his chamber by the 
inn-4e^per ; and patting on the appearance of a friend, as 
indeed be bad formerly been, and as the archbishop then 
thought him, advised his grace to make the matter up, 
laying before him many perils and dangers to his name 
and the credit of religion that might ensue, if, being one 
against so many, he should offer bo stir in such a cause; 
and persuading him, that, notwithstanding his iunocency, 
which the archbishop earnestly protested, and Stapleton 
then acknowledged, it were, better to stop the mouths of 
needy persons than to bring bis name into doubtful ques« 
tion. With this advice, Sandys unwarily complied; but, 
afterwards discovering sir Robert's malice and treacherous 
dissimulation, be ventured, in confidence of bis own in no-f 
ceticy, to be the means himself of bringing the whole 
cause to examination before the council in the star-cham- 
ber. The result of this was, that he was declared entirely 
innocent of the wicked slanders and imputations raised 
against bim ; and that sir Robert Stapleton and bis accom* 
pltcei were first imprisoned, and then fined in a most se- 
vere manner. This affair is related at large by sir John 
Harrington, a contemporary ^writer ; and by Le Neve, who 
gives a fuller account of it, from an exemplification of the 
decree, made ilti the star-chamber, 8 May, 25 £liz. pre* 
served in the Harleian library. 

The last act of the archbishop's life seems to havQ been 
the resistance he made against the earl of Leicester, who 
wanted to wrest from the see a valuable estate. It is to be 
regretted that after having made this noble stand, our pre* 
late should have granted a long lease of the manor of 
Scroby to bis own £amily. 

Of the decline of archbishop Sandys's age, and of the 
particular disorder which brought him to his grave, t\q 
circumstances are recorded. He died at Southwell, July 
10, 1588, in the sixty-ninth year of his age, and was bu- 
ried in the collegiate church of that place. He was the 



186 S AjN D Y S. 

t 

first English bishop .-who, by bis pradence. or. parstn^oy, 
laid the foundation of a fortune in bis family, which bi». 
justiBed their subsequent advancement to a peerage* With 
his father's savings^ the manor of Ombersley^ in Worcester-* 
shire, was purchased by sir Samuel Sandys, the eldest soq» 
whose. descendants, since ennobled by the family nampe» still 
remain iii possession of that fair and ample domain. There 
also^ the archbishop's portca^ together with that o£ Cicely 
his secdnd wife, is still preserved. She survived to 1610, 
and has a.monumei:\t at.Woodham Ferrersi in Essex, where 
she died, 

Dr. Wh! taker, whose late life of archbishop Sandys we 
have in general followed, as the result of much research 
and reflection, observes that after all the deductions which 
truth and impartiality require, it will still remain incoo** 
testable, that Sandys was a man of a clear and vigorous 
understanding, of a taste, is comparison, above that of the 
former ^e or ,the nejxt, and, whtt is more, of his . own : 
that he was a sincere Christian, a patient sufferer, an ifl-« 
defatigable preacher, {in intrepid and active eoclesiastieal 
magistrate* What was his deportment in pws|te life, we 
are no where told. On the other hand, it canool be de^ 
nled, that the man who after his advanoemervt to,s|)C^ lepis-* 
copal order, in three successive sjtations, either kindled 
the flames of discovd, or njever extingqjshed the<t), who 
quarrelled alike with protestants andrpapists^ with bis suo^ . 
cesser in one see (Aylmer) aqid with bis dean in another, 
who in his first two dio(:jeses treated the dkargy with a. 
harshness which called for the intefposition .of the .vnetfot* 
politan, and who drew upon himself from .two. geiijtleiHen 
of the country, the extremity of violence i^nd ^putrag^ ttw^ 
have been lamentably defective in Christian mee)^es«,And'. 
forbearance *f |n every instance, imleed, |ie l^ad.iiiet.pv'fith' 
greats provocation, and in the l^t the.trpalwi^t be raceiivedl . 
was atrocious i but su.cb wpunds are. u^xer. gr^t\ytQpfily. in^. , 
flicked, ^.n4 -rarely till &fter a s§rie^ of ^rriftAMoiMtPfi bqth 
tides. In docti^nal pointy, his^ biog/apber a^fi^njpts, hy 
various es^tracts.frqm his §erraous, tP.prpive affcbbisbop 
Sandys less inclined to C^lvinisn^ thau ^Qn}^ of bjl^*cpatem"^' 

I 

 « • I 

^-We'lMbir'aotif Mr. Lodge has t]^^« easy tWgaiice' o^ a courtier with a^ 

atowcd the same attention on the coo- muchfpieiy, metknets, and benevolence, 

duct'ofarclkhiBbopSaailyvt bafhil Ml- ai ever onrnmrnM tbe'clericat cha- 

fen«oa it totenHiai-Mereot. « This raoter.» Lodge'i I)liiitraypfi9, ?ol. \U 

pt^M iccmhkti f ba|tpily ^ uikited the p« 29g, 



SANDYS. 1S7 

pormries. On the other hand Dr. Whitaker asserts the 
atMar, systematic, and purely evangelical thread of doc- 
triQe which runs through the whole of bis sermons, namely, 
sflthFfeition through Christ alone, justification by faith in him,^ 
aanctificatiod thrpugh his holy Spirit, and lastly, the fruits 
of fiiith, produced through the agency of the same Spirit, 
and exemplified in every branch of duty to God, our neigh- 
bour and ourselves. These ** Sermons" were first printed 
almost immediately after the archbishop's decease, and 
again in 1613, in a quarto volume, Containing twenty-two, 
but have lately become so scarce that Dr. Whitaker un- 
dertook a new edition, with a life prefixed, which was pub- 
lished in 1812, 8vo. The archbishop was also concerned 
in the tranfslation of the Bible begun in 1565, and the por- 
tion which fell to his lot was the books of Kings and Chro- 
nicfes. Several of his letters and other papers are in- 
serted in Strype*s Annals and Lives of Parker and Whit* 
gift, and in Burnet's History of the Reformation, Fox^s 
Acts, &c.« 

SANDYS (Sir Edwin), second son of the preceding, 
was bom in Worcestershire about 1561, and admitted of 
Corptts-Christi-eollege, Oxford, at sixteen, under the ce- 
lebrated Hookjsr. After taking his degree of B. A. he was 
made probationer-fellow in 1579, and was collated in 1581. 
to a prebend in the chnrch of York. He then completed 
his deorfee of M. A. and travelled into foreig^n countries, 
and at his return was esteemed for learning, virtue, and 
prudence. He appears afterwards to have studied the law. 
Wbile'fae'was^at Pafis, he drew up a tract, under the title 
of <^ EofopaefSpecdlam,^' which he finished in 15<^9; an 
imi»evfect copy of which was published without the au- 
thors name br consent, iti 1605, and was soon followed by 
afiMier ■teipprks^ion.' -But the author^ after he had used 
alft means' to' sUppness these erroneous copies, and to 
puttisblfbe^i^inter^'OPthem, at length caused a true copy 
to bcl 't>nMtibed,^a Fittie before his death, in 1629, 4to, 
uK^r tbW^Uii9 : •^^fiht'Opai Speculdm ; or a view or survey 
cf» the'^tkti^ of 'r^Hgioh in (he Western parts of the world. , 
Wherein tM Rbth^ne religion, afnd the preghant policies 
of the church of^Qome.to support the ^aofie^ are notably 

. ., ^ ."' ,j • - . '  

1 Life by Dr. WUiUkesir.«-Biog. Brit.— Sirrpe's Cisniner, p. dU. 4QI.— 
Strype> Parke^ , p. 63, 78, 103. ){0S». 296, 333, 357, 4aS.^Strrpe»« QrincUl, 
p. S: 192, 329; 245.— Stryptf'i Wbitgift. p. 8B3.^HarMii9toiift BtNT View.— 
ps Neve's Arcbbiibops, TeL II.— fox's Acts aod MooHineDts. 



138 SANDYS. 

displayed; with some other memorable discoveries and 
memoratioos. Never before till now published according 
to the author's original copie, Multum diuque desidera- 
turn.'' Hags Comitis^ 16291. To this edition was a pre- 
face, which has been omitted in the latter editions ; thoagh 
some passages of it were printed in that of ]637| ito. It 
was also reprinted in 1673) and translated both into Italian 
and French. 

In May 1602| he resigned his prebend, and in May 
1603, received the honour of knighthood from James I.; 
who afterwards employed him in several affairs of great 
trnst and importance. Fuller tells us, that he was dex- 
trous in the management of such things, constant in par- 
liament as the speaker himself, and esteemed by all as an 
excellent patriot, *^ faithful to his country," says Wood, 
*^ without any falseness to his prince." It appears, bow* 
ever, that for some opposition to the court in the parlia** 
ment of 1621, he was committed with Seiden to the custody 
of the sheriff of London in June that year, and detained 
above a month ; which was bigbly resented by the House 
of Commons, as a breach uf their privileges; but, sir 
George Calvert, secretary of state, declaring, that neither 
Sandys nor Seiden had been imprisoned for any pariia-* 
mentary matter, a stop was put to the dispute. Sir Edwin 
was treasurer to the undertakers of the western plantations; 
He died in October 1629, and was interred at Nortlibome in 
Kent ; where he had a seat and estate, granted him by 
James I. for some services done at that king^s accession to 
the throne. A monument, now in a mutilated state, was 
erected to his memory, but without any inscription. He 
bequeathed 1500/. to the university of Oxford, for the en- 
dowment of a metaphysical lecture. He left five sons, all 
of whom, except one, adhered to the parliament durin*;^ 
the civil wars. Henry, the eldest, died without issue, 
Edwin, the second, was the well known parliamentary 
colonel, of whose outrages much may be read in the pub-- 
licattons of the times, and who, receiving a mortal wound 
at the battle of Worcester, in 1642, retired to Northborne' 
to die, .leaving the estate to bis son sir Richard, who was 
killed by the accidental explosion of bis fowling-piece iu 
1663. His son, sir Richard, was created a baronet in 1684^ 
and dying in 1726, without male issue, was the last of the 
family who lived at Northborne, where the mansion re- 
mained many years deserted, and at length was pulled 
down. 



S A N D V S. 1S9 

Theie was' one sir Edwin Sandys, who published, as 
Wood informs us» '* Sacred Hymns, consisting of fifty ee<» 
lec( Psalms of David," set to be sung in five paxtB by Ro« 
berfc Taylor, and printed at London, 1615, in 4to; but 
whether this version was done by our author, or by another, 
of both his names, of Latimera in Bttckingbamshire, is un*.' 
ceftain. * 

SANDYS (George), brother of the preceding, was the 
seventh and youngest son of the archbishop of York, and 
was born at the archiepiscopal palace of Bisbopthorp in 
1577. In 1588 he was sent to Oxford, and naatriculated 
of St. Mary Hall. Wood is of opinion, that be afterwards 
removed to Corpus-Christi-coliege, How long be resided 
in the university, or whether he took a degree, does not 
appear. In August 1610, remarkable for tbe murder of 
king Henry IV. of France, Mr. Sandys set out on bis tra- 
vels, and, in the course of two years, made an extensive 
tonr, having visited several parts of £urope, and many 
cities and countrres of the East, as Constantinople, Greece, 
Egypt, and the Holy Land ; after which, taking a view of 
the remote parts of Italy, he went to Rome and Venice, 
and, on his return, after properly digesting the observations 
be had made, published, in 1615, bis well-known folio, the 
title of the 7tb edition of which, in 1673, is, ^^ Sandys' 
Travels, containing an history of the original and present 
stateofthe Turkish empire; their laws, government, policy, 
military force, courts of justice,, find commerce. The Ma^ 
bometan religion and ceremonies, A description of Con- 
stantinople, the grand signior's seraglio, and his manner of 
living : alsa of Greece, with tlie religion and customs of the 
Grecians. Of Egypt; the antiquity, hieroglyphics, rites, 
customs, discipline, and religion, of the Egyptians, A 
voyage on the river Nilus. Of Armenia^ Grand Csuro, 
Rhodes, the Pyramides, Colossus : the former flourishing 
and present state of Alexandria. A description of the 
Holy Land, of the Jews, and several sects of Christians 
living there ; of Jerusalem, Sepulchre of Christ, Temple 
of Salomon, and what else, either of antiquity or worth ob- 
servation. Lastly, Italy described^ and the islands ad-^ 
joining; as Cyprus, Crete, Malta, Sicilia, the Eolian islands; 
of Rome, Venice, Naples, Syracusa, Meseua, ^tna, Scylla, 
and Charybdis; and other places of note* lUuatrated with. 

^ Ath. Ox. vol. 1,-rfi.ji. Diet.— FwU^jr** Worth ic«,—Cen«. Lit, 



HO SANDYS. 

fifty maps and figares.^' Most of the plates, especially 
those relating to Jernsalem and the Holy Land, are copied 
from the ^* Devotissimo Viaggio di Zuallardo, Roma^** 
, 1587, 4to. Of these travels there have been eight or ten 
editions published, and it still bears its repotation, bis ac* 
counts having been verified by subsequent travellers. Mr. 
Markland has a copy of this work, edit. 1637, with a MS 
copy of verses by the author, which may be seen in the 
^* Censura Literaria,'' but was first published at the end of 
his " Psalms,'* 1640, 8vo. 

Sandys distinguished himself also as a poet; and bis 
productions in that way were greatly admired in the times 
they were written. In 1632 he published ^ Ovid*s Meta- 
morphoses Englished, mythologised, and represented in 
figures,*' Oxford, in folio. Francis Cieyn was the inveft-> 
tor of the figures, and Solomon Savary the engraver. He 
had before published part of this translation ; and, iri th6 
preface to this second edition, he tells us, that he has 'at- 
tempted to collect out of sundry authors the philosophical 
sense of the fables of Ovid. To this work, which is dedi- 
cated to Charles I. is subjoined ^' An Essay to the transla- 
tion of the £neis.'' It was reprinted in 1G40. In 1636, 
be published, in 8vo, *' A Paraphrase on the Psalms of 
David, and upon the Hymns dispersed throughout the Old 
and New Testament,'* 1636, 8vo, reprinted* in 1688, folio ) 
with a title somewhat varied. This wfts a book whi^. 
Wood tells us, Charles I. delighted to read, v^hen a pri-» 
saner in Carisbrooke castle. There was an edition of 1€40» 
with the Psalms set to music, by Lawes. In this last yesrr 
he published, iu 12mo, a sacred drama, written ^rigtittfHy 
by Grotius, under the title of *^ Christus Patiens,*^ and 
which Mr. Sandys, in his translation, has called ** Cbti«t>s 
Passipn,*' on which, and <^ Adamus Exu),'' and MaaeniilS, 
is founded Lauder's impudent charge of plagiarisnyagain^ 
Milton. This translation was reprinted, with cuts, in 1^88, 
8vo. The subject of it was treated before in Greek by 
ApoUinarius bishop of Hierapolis, and after him by Gre- 
gory Naziansen ; but, according to Sandys, Grotius Ex- 
celled all others. Langbaine tells us, with regard to 6aii«- 
dys' translation, that *^ he will be allowed ah excellent 
aniat in it by Learned judges ; and he has foitoited Horace^ 
advice of avoiding a servile translation,T— ^ nee verbum 
verbo curabis reddere fidus interpres' — rso he comes 8Q 
near the sense of his author, that nothing is lost ; no spirits 



SANDYS. 141 

« 

^▼aporaie in the decanting of it into English ; and» if there 
be any sediaienty it is left behind/* He published also a 
metrical paraphrase of *^ The Song of Soloafton/' London, 
1641, 4to, dedicated to the King, and reprinted in 1648 
with bis *y Paalms.*' There are but few incidents known 
ooncerning our author. All who mention him agree in be- 
stowing on him the character, not only of a man of genius, 
but of singular worth and piety. For the most part of his 
latter days be lived with sir Francis Wenmau, of Caswell, 
near Witney in Oxfordshire, to whom bis sister was mar« 
ried ; probably chusing that situation in some measure on 
account of its proximity to Burford, the retirement of his 
iutiitiate acquaintance and valuable friend Lucius lord vis- 
count Falkland, who addressed some elegant poems to him, 
preserved in Nicholses *^ Select Collection,'* with several 
by Mn Sandys, who died at the house of his nephew, sir 
Fifancis Wyaty at Boxley in Kent, in 164S; and was in-« 
terred in the chancel of that parish^churcb, without any 
ipscription ; but . iu the paTish register is this entry : 
*^ Georgius Sandys poetarum Angkorum sui svculi facile 
princeps, sepultus fuit Muitii 7, Stilo Aogli®, ann. Dom. 
164A.^* His memory has also been handed down by various 
Vriters# with the respect thought due to his great wprDU 
^uA abilities^ Mr. Dryden. pronounced himith^ best nert 
siGer of the age, but objects to his ** Ovid,'' as too close 
aod literal ; 'and Mr. Pope deolared, in his notes to the 
IlUd; tbat English poetry owed much of its present beantfy 
tp bis ' traMAtious. ^ Dn Wiarton thinks that Sandys did 
moceitQ polish and tune the English versificatton than D^xv* 
bkm or Wi^ller, who, are! usually applauded on tbis subject j 
jiftt his poetns ane not now much read.i .The. late bie*^ 
C^mpberof bis father observes, that ^* the expsessive eiler^y 
Q&bia jtir#f^ will ctaiit)^ him to/a pksute among English cksi- 
fUfl9^<v^i^-hitit^y4»fses, .some of which. are beautiful, shall be 
f»r§QiU^^ Of the e^eellooeajOf biA styles the dedioatitiri 
^f l\ii^4fa^eb H> fHrince Henrys-will* afford a short feiiid very 
c9MpiQli«iN^'e«ample«"' - K ''SA 

. x^ANNAZ ARIU;^ (J^Mii^)^ vernacularly GtAeowH Sast* 
s^^^dEO, . si^^^brated Italian andLatiil poet^'Wasiibomat 
Hs^pl^ijivUf^^/MbS, His. family is said tosbave be(;h 
0ngim^if : <k' S^insh ^xtyttetion^-biit settled at an enrly 

,I.r ,' ,  ..' ,.'•!''! 

* Ath. Ox. voL n. — Gibber's preg, — Fujler's Wprlhies.— ;CwuraXit, .yuAff 

l«BlM|i;t.i>iKOsti^Wldt4k0rsiJifaia^^).fstid^^ '■■'■ J'. >1U li 



143 S A N N A Z A & I U S. 

> 

period at Santo tieLZofO^ a flourishing town situated betwe^il 
the Tessino and the Po, where it was long conspicuous for 
nobility and opulence^ Reduced at length by the calanni- 
ties of war, the more in^mediate progenitors of our poet 
removed to Naples. His father dying while this son was 
very young, his mother, unable from her poverty, to keep 
up her former rank, retired with her family to Nocera dt 
Pagani, in Umbrta, where Sannazarius passed a consider- 
able portion of bis youth* He had previously to his re« 
moral 'from Naples acquire^ the elements of the Greek and 
Latin languages, under the tuition of Juniauus Mains, who 
conceiving a high opinion of his talents, prevailed on his 
mother to return again to Naples, where be might continue 
his education. Here he was admitted a member of the 
Academia Pontana, and took the name of Actius Syncerus/ 
He had formed an early attachment of the most tender 
kind to Carmosina Bonifacia, a- young Neapolitan lady, 
but not being a favoured lover, uttered his disappointment 
in many of those querulous sonnets and canzoni which are 
still extant In compositions of this kind Sannazarius is 
considered as having surpassed every other poet from the 
days of Petrarch. To dissipate his uneasiness, he tried the 
effect of travelling ; but on his return, his grief was 
heightened by the report of the death of his mistress. Sbe 
is understood to be the lamented Phyllis of bis Italian and 
Latin poem^. 

The increasing celebrity of Sannazarius, as a scholar 
and poetj having attracted the notice of Ferdinand king of 
Naples, that monarch's younger son, Frederick, who was 
greatly attached to poetry, invited him to court, and be- 
came his patron ; he also grew into favour with Alphonsus^ 
duke of Calabria, the neKt heir to the crown, and under 
bim embraced a military life, and served in the Etruscaa 
war. During his campaigns, Sannazarius continued to 
cultivate bis poetical talent, and when in consequence of 
the series of misfortunes and deaths in the royal family, his 
patron Frederick came to the crown, he conceived the hope 
of very high honours, but obtained only a moderate annual 
pension, and a suburbati villa, called Mergillina, to whicbj 
although at first he was chagrined, he becahie reconciled, 
and this villa was afterwards the delight of his muse. In 
about four y^ars, Frederick was dethroned by the combined 
powers of France and Spain, and now experienced the dis« 
interested fidelity of our po^t^ who sold bis possessions to 



S A N N A Z A R I U S. 143 

I 

assist the fallen monarch, attended him to France, and 
continued firmly attached to him as long as he lived. 

In 1503, he again returned to Naples, was replaced in 
bis favourite villa, once more frequented the court, and 
obtained the favour of the reigning queen. Here be found 
another mistress in Cassandra Marchesia, one of the ladies 
of honour, whom he describes as very beautiful and very 
learned, but as he was now too far advanced in years for a 
passion such as he formerly felt, Cassandra is to be con* 
sidered merely as his poetical mistress, and the chaste ob^ 
ject of bis Platonic attachment. The attachment, it is 
said, was mutual, and a confidential intercourse continued 
to subsist between them till the poet's decease, nor does it 
appear that Cassandra ever formed any matrimonial con- 
nection. Sannazarius, however, has been numbered by 
some among the votaries of pleasure, and they tell us he 
affected the levity and gallantry of youth when in his old 
age. In his friendships he is said to have been uniformly 
ardent and sincere. In gi*atitude to the memory of Pon- 
tanus, who had given a powerful impulse to his youthful 
studies, he became the editor of his works. He is also 
commended for his probity, his love of justice, and abhor- 
rence of litigation. 

The indisposition which terminated his life was brought 
on by grief and chagrin, on account of the demolition of 
part of his delightful villa of Mergillina, in decorating 
which he had taken peculiar delight. Pbilibert de Nassau, 
prince of Orange, and general of the emperor's forces, was 
the author of this outrage on taste and the muses. He ex« 
pired soon afterwards at Naples, and, it is said, in the housQ 
of Cassandra, in 1530, in the seventy- second year of his 
age. The tomb of Sannazarius, in a church near his villa, 
which be built, is still to be seen, and has the same mix- 
ture of heathen and Christian ornaments which are so fre- 
quently to be found in his poems. 

His principal Latin poem, " De Partn Virginis," took up 
his attention, in composition, revisals, and corrections, 
about twenty years; obtained him the highest compliments 
from the learned of his age, and two honorary briefs from 
two popes ; and certainly contains many brilliant and highly 
finished passages, but it brought his religion into some 
suspicion. In a poem on the miraculous conception, that 
great mystery of the Christian church, we find the agency 
of tl^e Dryads and Nereids employed ; the books of the 



144 S A. N N A Z A R I U a 

Sybils^ substituted for those of the prophets,. Aod erer/ 
agent, name, or tercn^ banished, that is not strictly clas-* 
sicai, as if he meant to throw an air of romance on the suh* 
ject ; nor is the sincerity of his respect for the holy see less 
suspicious than his religion, for in such editions of his work» 
as have not been mutilated, are several caustic epigrama 
on the vices and follies of the popes. Sannazarius's ele- 
gies are, in point of tenderness and deU<:;acy, thought eqnal 
to those of Tibullus ; but his " Piscatory eclogues'* once 
contributed most to his poetical reputation. He is said to 
have been the inventor of this species of eclogue, but mo- 
dern critics seem to doubt whether such an invention be an 
improvement. The changing the scene of pastoral, -from 
the woods to the sea, and .from the life of shepherds to 
that of fishermen, has been thought very unhappy, and 
I>r. Johnson (Rambler, No. 36) has pointed out the defects 
of the plan with great acuteness* He thinks that Sannaza- 
rius was hindered from perceiving his error, by writing in 
a learned language to readers generally acquainted with 
the woi'ks of nature ; and that if be had made his attempt 
in any vulgar tongue, be would soon have discovered, how. 
vainly he had endeavoured to make that loved which was 
not understood. These eclogues, however, are written 
with great classical elegance and purity. Nor was Sanna- 
zarids less celebrated for his Italian compositions ; particu- 
larly his " Arcadia,*' which was lo»g read with admiration^ 
This, however, has now subsided, and modern critics com- 
plain of a portion of languor in the perusal of it, arising 
from its length, the mixture of prose and verse, and a want 
of interest in the plan and subject. All bi» works have 
gone through many editions, of which we may mention, 
** De Partu Virginis,*' with the eclogues^ &c. Naples^ 1 526, 
small folio ; the same, with other poems and the poems of 
other authors, Venice, 1528, 8vo ; and with " Petri Bembi 
Benacus," ibid. 1527, 8vo; << Opera omnia Latiua,*' Vc^ 
nice, 1535, 8vo, more complete than any of the preceding, 
another edition by Broukbusius, Amst. 1728, Svo, and by 
Vulpius, with his life, Padua, 1719 or 1731, 4:to ; of the 
<* Arcadia/* sixty editions were prin,ted before 1600. The 
best of the more recent ones are those of 1723, 4to, and 
1752, 8vo.* 

i GrosffwcU't PoIiti&B.-.Roscoe's Leo.«.TInilK>«cbi.-*K!eer0ii, wl. VIIX. 



SANSON. its 

SANSON (Nicolas), a celebrated French geograpbei'^ 
Was born at Abbeville in Picardv, Dec. 20, 1600. After 
he had finished bis juvenile stumes at the Jesuits* college 
of Amiens, he betook himself to merchandise | but^ siisx 
taining considerable losses, quitted that callings and ap* 
plied himself to geograpbyi a turn for which he had ac« 
quired tinder his father^ who had published several niaps^ 
When Only eighteen or nineteen, ^e drew a, map of An- 
cient Gaul on four sheets^ but did not publish i% till 1627^ 
lest, as we are told, it should, on account qf his youth, b^ 
thought his father^s ; or, which is rather, mor^ prol)able, les( 
it should not be sufficiently correct for publication. This^ 
however, was so favourably received, as to encourage hiia 
to proceed with confidence and vigour, and in the ooursi^ 
of bis life he executed nearly three hundred large m^p^ 
ancient and modern, and caused an hundred methodical 
tables to be engraven concerning the divisioas of the do- 
minions of Christian princes. He also wrote several worlsp 
to explain and illustrate his maps : as^ '^ Remarks upon 
tbe Ancient Gauls ;'' ** Treatises of the four parts of the 
World i" " Two Tables of the Cities and Places, which 
occur in the maps of the Rhine and Italy ;*^ ^' A Descrip* 
tion of tbe Roman Empire) of France> Spaii\| Italy, Ger<^ 
many, and the British Isles, together with the ancient 
Itineraries :" all which are very necessary illustrations of 
tbe maps^ which they are intended to accompany* Ho 
wrote also an account of the ** Antiquities of Abbeville^ f 
which engaged him in a contest with several learned men^ 
with father Labbe, the Jesuit^ in particular. He made 
also a ** Sae^red Geography,*' divided into two tables ; an4 
» ** Geographical Index of the Holy Land.'* He was j)re* 
paring other works^ aiid had collected materials for an atlas 
of bis own maps ; out bis incessant labours brought on an 
iilness, of whiqh, after languishing for near two years, he 
died at Paris, July 7, 1667, in the sixty'-eighth year of his 
)ile^ leaving two sons^ William and Adrian, who were like- 
wise geograf bei9 pf considerable merits Their father had 
received particular marks of esteem and kindness from the 
cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin ^ fmd was geographer and 
engineer to the king« His atlas was at last published at 
Wri% in l6iS, 2 vols. foUo.^^ 



.« ^- - ToLXIIIi 



•sit 

Vot. XXVlt. 



ue S A N S O V I N o, 

BANftOVINO (Fjuncis), ao Italia^ poe( md hktati$s^ 
was born in 1521 at Rome, and wa& the.sof of James San* 
sovitio, ah eminent'sculptorand celebf^ted arclitiieot^ whose 
eulogy Tasari bas left us. . He studied the belles ^ettr^.at 
Venic^i and took bis degrees in hw at Padpa; but tbat 
science not suiting his taste, be devoted biinself wb^Uy to 
poetry, lustbry, and polite literature and di^d ii;i^ 13S6, at 
Yenice, aged sixty^^iive^ leaving mor^ tban fifty w^rks, ^11 
wiitteu in Italian. They co,nsi^ of *^ Poem^ T' nutaa on 
Boccaccio's ^' Decameron^ on Ariosto,I}ante^ &c.*VtraDsla-^ 
tiona of ancient historians and some histories wricte/i by 
himself, as bis *^ Venem descritta/' of wiiich the best edir 
tioQ is that of 1663, 4to ; ** Istoria Universale dell' origine, 
guerrei, ed imperio deTurcbij" 1654, 13 vols. 4to^ reckoned 
a ^mpital work. His ^* Satires", are in a collection iwitb 
th^se of Ariostjo, and others, Venice, >560, Svo; his 
"^^ CapitoU" with those of Aretino, a&d di6Ferent writers^ 
154(0, and 13S3, 8vo; to ^ivbich we may add his <^ Cento 
tiovelle Scelte/^ Venice, 1566, 4U).' 
, SANTEUU or SANTEUIL (Joax Baptist), in Lat;n 
Santouus, a celebrated modern Latin poet, w.as boro at 
Faris May 12, 1630, of a good family. He studied this, 
belles lettres at the college of St. Barbe, and. in xhat of 
' ]U>uis le Grand, under the learned Fere Cos^rt, and e.n^^, 
terii>g s(X)o after among the regular canons of St. Victory^ 
devoted himself wholly to poetry, commencing his cacee/) 
by celebrating some great men qf that time. He al^p >(;aa 
employed to write many of those inscriptions which Vf^atj 
be seen on the public foui^itains and mofr^rnqnts^^Paris^ 
and this he did in a style at once ck^r,. es^^^y^ aivi disp^«| 
fied. When some new hymns were wapted if)f the Pafis 
]l)reviary, be wav requested by bis brother Cls^de^,$^^i§ffMh 
and Bossuety ^ compbsp 4.hem, ynhinh he. aci^piTipllibK^ 
with tb^ greatest success) and applause^ i0.,afv^lev4Jg^i. 
perspicuous, ajul maje^ic style,, ^urited. to'itjie* ^igRity,/^ 
the subject. The reputation which be.g^iued by,^pes^tpf) 
duced th^ or^er of Clugny lOj request agme; for ifl^^br^ 
yiary. \f ith this be complied aiid ip <ret,Hrn Aii?y fff^^kA 
bim J^t^ of (^(iation, luid^a peiisipo, . §^pteui, wa^i ^^^ 
lesteemedby the jtteratr of nis tinif., and ,by/h)any pefsopf 
of rank, among whom were the two prixic^; of .Cond^i fa-. 
I^tier'and son, whia^i^ bounty hje ffj^SiMn^j' e»pfi^f(K^4 

1 Nl6«c9a« fslrXXi{.TrTifsl|(Q«cki«7 



S A N T E' U 1/ 147 

.ttftti'ldoiii my J who settled a pemkb iipon hrfe. he 
grtortly ttflfended tbe Jestiits, hofrever, by his epitaph in 
jIHiifeJ dP thtrt e^iielrty AfiVauld. While Sanrteul's Latirt 
poem^'il^re alwaysr muth tidUiredhyVis codntiymea, W 
seeiii^'to hate eiYJ(yj^ed fulfy as much reputatioit, durhig hit 
Hfe^lMM, fcyrfli^wk, and oddities of character. La Bhi<£ 
yere,' tnider the naitie of Theodes^ has described bhn as, ]tl 
ene fiicMetit9"good-hQmoiired, tractable, easy, and eooi^ 
pluisant, in iainoth^r, harsh, violent, choleric, ' and ceprr^ 
cfoQs;' as at once simple, ingenuous, credtilou^, sp6rtite^ 
dnd volatite; in short, a' child with grey hairs, and Iti 
a|)eakin^ ffke a feol, and thinking like a ^age. He utters^ 
adds. La Brtyyere, truths in a ridiculous manner, and sen^ 
^ible things in a silly ifay ; and we are surprised to lind so 
much inteltect shining through the douds of buffbonety^, 
contortions, 'and grimaces. He had great credit fo^ his 
n^tt^ctsnis, itiany of which may be seen in the ** Santolisin^.*' 
When ifaeAike of Bourbon went to hold the states of Bur* 
gundy at Dijon, Santenl attended him, ^and died ther^^ 
Augilist 5, 1697, aged sixty^seven, as he was on the^Oinc 
ef netufnmg to Paris. His death was attrtbtited to an ifi-^ 
eonsrderate trr^k played' upon him by some one whoot hii 
oddity of elmracter bad encouraged to take Hberties, and 
who pm, some Spanish snuff into bis wine-glass, wincA 
bii>iigl/t ifik a, compfaiint of the bowels that provcfd f a^tat %i 
ft>\nteeA liotti's.' ' Besides hii Latin hymns, ipmo, be (eft 
i^^tohsldet^le HUthber of Latin « Poems,'* 1739, i vohn 
tt«io.'|"-'" ^ •"■ . • . . * 

».'SA^Et9L'(CtAtJ0e), brdiber of the preceditig, borrt 
fi6&l'^,'VtP29^ atso* Wrbte ^ome beautifuf hymns in the Parik 
W^\2»jk \nidfeV' th^ ifame of »^«antolius Magfc>rianus,*' a 
jAdi^^effVM'a^c^Ymt iof his bavirig resided a long time iii 
^riJHiib^oPf^tJ^Mdgloh'^ at Paris, as a secnhir eccle- 
stei^.^l^Omu^-th^ brother of SktiHeul, and a poet Kke 
A9hii;^'BB'W^'ijfqit totally dtffereitt temt^r and disposition; 
OffldP^^^iM^ kad'tk>deiit^, beUad none of that beat and 
M'H^Ui{riit^''^bf Miidb his brbtb^- was incessantly agitated. 
lK"#a '4Sf^^ei%&i brily fof bis p6etical klenti, bat bh 
ikliffP leafhi^ ktiifl ex^mplai^ pieit- He died Sd|>tember 
«^^e84i''*t«PaWs; jrged'fifty^^eVert. BeaWfe* bb fcymna 
<>#tld^''j^ibbI»'ibittv^K, wftiih '&re Very hoiheixius ^hd 
fmmStt'JBf tKe feidtiy inMS: 2 ydls. 4to; aome'^of^iia 

1 PtrraaULci ii(»iii&ierttKitlr«S.-^Sa)itoltaia.--Moreri.---Dict.Hiit. 

I* 2 



148 S AN T E U L." 

poetry has been printed with his brother^s Works. There- 
was another Claude Santeul, related to (he preceding, a 
merchant and sheriff of Paris, who died about 1729, ledv- 
ing some " Hymns," printed at Paris in 1723, 8?o.* 

SANZIO. See RAPHAEL. 

SAPPHO, an en)inent Gree'k (>oete8s, was a native of 
•Mitylene in the island of Lesboii. Who was her father is 
uncertain, there being no less tliah eight persons who have 
contended for that honour; but it is universally acknow* 
ledged that Cleis was her mothei*. She flourished, accordf- 
ing to Suidas, in, the 42d olympiad-, according td Euse* 
bins, in the 44th olympiad, about 600 years B. C. . tlef 
love-affairs form the chief materials of her biography; 
Barnes has endeavoured to prove, from the testimonies of 
Chamcfeleon and Hermesianax, that Anacreon was one of 
faer lovers ; but from the chronology of both, this has been 
generally considered as a poetical fiction. , She married 
one Cercolas, a man of great wealth and power in the is- 
land of Andros, by whom she had a daughter named Cleis. 
He leaving her a widow very ^^oung, she renounced all 
thoughts of marriage, but not of love ^ ; nor was she very 
scrupulous in her intrigues. Her chief v favourite appears to 
have been the accomplished Pbaon, a young man of Les- 
bos ; who is said to have beed a kind of ferry-man, and 
thence fabled to have carried ^'enus over the stream in his 
l>oat, and to have- received from her, as a reward, the fa- 
vour of becoming the most beautiful man in the world. 
Sappho fell desperately in love with him, and went into 
Sicily in pursuit of him, he having withdrawn himself thi- 
ther on purpose to avoid her. It was in that island, aud 
on this occasion, that she composed her hymn to Venus. 
This, however, was ineffect^ual. Phaon was still obdurate, 
and Sappho was so transported with the violence of her 
passion, that she had recourse to a promontory in Acar- 
nania called Leucate, on the top of which was a temple 
dedicated to Apollo. In t.hi8 temple it was usual fo^ de- 

f - " Sappho formed an acadero^/- of calpate her ? Aui might she notluiws 

females who excelled in music ; vtA it written the celebrated verses *< Blest 

was <)oobtle8* this academy which drew as the immortal gods is he/* kc. tor 

on her ihe hatred of the women o f Mi- another ? Many of onr po<^tical ladies 

tylene, who accused her ef heir «g too ^hO)A we could, nane^ have writtea 

fond of her own sex; but will njt her ejccellent impassioned songs of Gom- 

Jove for Phaoo^ and the fatal t' rmina* plaint in'a qale diafacjfcer/' ik. B«r* 

tioB of her existence, suffiqiefatly ex- ney in Hist of Music. 

! Morcrl— Diet, fliit: "" ' *^ 



S A P P H O. 149 

spairing lorers to make their vovrs in secret^ and afters- 
wards to fling themselves from the top of the precipice into 
the see, ut being an established opinion, that all those who 
were takfsn up alive, would immediately be cured of their 
former passion. Sappho perished in the experiment The 
original of this unaccountable humour is not known* Her 
genius, liowever, qnade her be lamented. The Romans 
erected, a noble statue of porphyry to her memory ; and the 
Mityle plans, to express their sense of her worth, paid her 
sovereign honours after her death, and coined money with 
her bead for the impress. She was likewise honoured with 
the ti lie of the tenth Muse. 

Vr^ssius is of opinion that none of the Greek poets 
excelled Sappho in sweetness of verse \ and that she made 
Arc^ifiilochus the model of her style, but at the same time 
tooU great care to soften and temper the severity of his 
exnression. Hoffman, in bis Lexicon, says, <^ Some au- 
thors are of opinion, that the elegy which Ovid made under, 
tbp name of Sappho, and which is infinitely superior to his 
other elegies, was all, or at least the most beautifuLpart of 
it, stolen from the poems of the elegant Sappho.*' She 
vyras the invehtr^ss of that kind of verse which (from her 
name) is called the Sapphic. She wrote nine books of 
pdes, besides elegies, epigrams, iambics, monodies, and 
other pieces ; of which we have nothing remaining entire 
Ibut an hymn to Venus, an ode preserved by Longinus 
t[which, however, the learned acknowledge to be imper- 
fect), two epigrams, and some other little fragments, which 
bave been generally published in the editions of Anacreon. 
AddiBon has given an elegant character of this poetess in 
the Spectator (No. 223 and 229), with a translation of two 
of her fragments, and is supposed to have assisted Philips 
in his translation.^ 

SARASIN (John FaANcils), a French miscellaneous au- 
thor, .was born at )lermanville, in the neighbourhood of 
'(ien,. about ^604, Jt is said, in the " Segraisiana," but 
we know not on what foundation, that he was the natural 
■00 of Mr. Fauconnier of Caen, a treasurer of France, by 
fl Woman of low rank, whom be afterwards married. Sara- 
sin began b|S studies ,at Caen, and afterwards went to 
Patfs, where he became eminent for wit and polite litera- 
fo^dy tbbtigh |ie t^asf viery defectiye in every thing that 

I den. fiict.>ivVoi»iM d« Poet Gr«c.»-?«wkct't Traiulatw* 



i5# 8 A It A S I N. 

490uld 4>9:DlJMk*ieariiivgv rHe ftheit taadfr tbe tour of Gmr^ 

\Mny^ BJoAy t»pqn lii^ return .to frsTice, wds afxpointed n 

flffiodiof tfttcri^tanry to the piiiica of* €ontu • H^ was a man 

.ctf^ UVAy ittiagiitation arid ready wit; and maeb oaffewed 

<l|3^'thios^ who i thought tlvamselws judged af that. arocLe. 

iHe'WM) -howoror, so frequently invited jon itbisnaocomit 

^hfeii h'e*began^ta)ieii^.matler->o^fact meii, £cam whom oo- 

tinttg ^ thekind is expected. ' He ivotiBko.unfomtnaM hi 

'his marriage, hia wife beinga anSmanoFa Yiulent^ uugo-* 

vehoable tein|>er. • It is said that he perauaded the .priooe 

of Conti to inarry the niece of 'carduiai Maeariii^ .ud fbr 

this good office received a great sunn ; hut this b^tng dta-* 

covered, the prioce dismissed him fixun bis ,ftervjce,> with 

-«fery mark of ignominyi as one who had sold hunself ao 

the cardinal. This i treatment it supposed, to have ooca* 

• rtoned bis death, which happened in t654« Pelisseo, piks-» 
ing through the town where Sarasiu died^ weoti to the 

• grave of bis old acquaintance, slied some tears, bad- a ohiss 
e^d orer him, and founded an anniversary,* though he hiai* 

^ aelf was at that time a protestant; . ' • > 

He published in his ttfe-ftime, ^* Oiseovrsdela Trage-< 
"di^S^^ <* L*Histoire du Siege de DunJiorque,'' in 1648; 
*^nd ^^ Lii Pompe fonebve de Voitursy'^ in the^^ MiaoeU 
lanea'^of Menage, to whan it Is addressed, iar i<i52. . At 

* hi^ death,- he ordered all his writings to> be ^^mm intp^the 

* hhnds' of Menage, to be di^>6sed.of os that gsoiileman 
should think proper ; and Menage published a 4to n)iiiaie 

- o^HbematParisial 6 56, with a^ortrait of the author en- 

'graven h^ Natitewil, wvA a discourse* of Pelisaoa spda his 

saeirits^ They dousist o^ poetry and prtec^; and.havBitiach 

iHt and eonsiiifrable ^ate, eteganee, . a^d ' iaraaiioDL >Be-^ 

^sM^'tbis eoUection itt^4toj two «ioii6"V4[>Iiiaies Jo •^iBoio 

' were publiahed at Paris in 1*675, uMlertbetfiler.ofif^Nou^ 

' ^toHes Oeavpes dd Mri^StA'astn^^ wUohieppipatit* donsisUof 

' tjhe^ pieces rejeetedby Mi^nage, iaaKly 'ufrfinislBBtl foalg* 

* n^entS) btit Bdleau etteouragedtbe eilitory ^ deAftooseye^ 

* ^^ publish them, Us not (inworthy of Salra^nf/ U' ^o.i.'^a . 
' 'SARAVlA'(iiii>AlAN A), of Sjpanitb Mtaictioo; buuto 
he dassed ^tnt/^vg £ngtt^b dimies, was a rtatise^^affAelais, 

- '('^bere he w4»»born in ISd'l. • Of bis early yeara.wa ibsive 

4lb «<dcoun%. 1 In IH2 he wea invited to L^yden tabetfiDo- 

. Cp^or of divinity, and was preacher in the French church 

**^ Niceitw* vols. Vr. aad IL— Moreri.^Pict H/st,i— Pfnc^idt |<ef Hotiuiiea 
lllnstrei, ^ • 



» A B A V I A. Ul. 

thetfei HatiDg attuUed tbe controvenij} respMiing cbuneh 
gdvarnmept, he inclined to tbut of epiiCDpacy» aod \a IS>87 
oane ta En^and ttberefaa wM.well received %ioiDe€ff 
daepvttiates a4id diviDQi of that day^ pajrucukriy Wbitgtflf 
archbisbofi df Canterbury. He first/ sieulad a^. Jersejiv 
where iia taugbt a school, and: preached lo bit cauatryiMii^ 
trho 'were exiles ftbere. He wai appoiaied. maaler of the 
free grammar-school atl Souifaamptop, where Ni<^«Jba 
Filler, the most reoowcied critic pf bis ag^e, received, bis 
edocatioQ priuoipaily under bioiy and be alao educated Bit 
TbioQsas Lake« secretary of state to Janaes I. He was sue- 
ees^vely promoted to a prebend in the cburchas of Glou- 
cester, Canterbury, and Westoainster. He displayed great 
leariHagt in defence of episcopacy against Beaa, when that 
divine recommended tbe abolition of it in Scotlaud. He 
died in 1613, at the age of eighty-two, and was ioterrad 
in Canterbury cathedral, where there is a monument to 
bis memory. AH his works were published in 1^11, one 
sroL folio* He roust have acquired a very considerable 
knowledge of tbe English language, as we find bit name 
in tbe first x^laas of those whom king Jaipea h ewploj^ed ia 
tbe new trauaUtton of the 3ible^ He Uvfisd ia gr^at iati* 
omcy with his fellxMir. labcAirer in tbe paqse of epU^op^oy^ 
the celebnated Hooker. *^ These two per;ions«*' say9 Wiu- 
<on^ ^f bcgtff a holy friendship, increasing daily to.so. hjgh 
aod mu^al .affections, that their two yrills seeoied to be buft 
aaeand thesame.!^^ > 

SARBIE WSKX, . or gA&siEvma (M4TTHUS CmW9\f a 

ihodcpi Latin poet, was. bom of illustrious patents^ ia IS95, 

in the duchy of Masovia, in Poland. . He entered amoag 

ifte Jesvita in 1612, and waa ^eot lo continue bis ibeologi- 

cal : studies at Bome^ where be devpted biuiself to tbe pur- 

Bujl ofjantiquttiep^aiid indulged his taate for ^fttry^ >Soma 

<Latin>^ 4Dde8^'\ which be presented to Vrban VUL gained 

Ifim that pontifTa esteem^ and thi^ boiMMar of being' cbosea 

*tim€09fic^ tli0 bymesf intended for a new breviary, then 

composing bjUrban^s orders. When Safbiewaki .reiurned 

)tai PoJaod».bi9.iaugbft etbicH philosophy, ^nd diviocty^ sue- 

^'ites^Tely atj.Wiloft. Suob was tbe esteeoa in which he was 

> Uld^^/tbaA when admitted to a doctor's d^ee there^ La- 

'dj^Iada'V.i kiag lof Folandi. who was preseot, drew. tbe ring 

^ Ath. Ok. toI. I.^Zoucfa*i edition of Walton'i liTet.— Strype'f life of WhiU 
aj^ .PV* 432^ 441 . — See lome reflectiQM on has poUticaL conduct at Lcjim ia 
aarouJia^i <'S^io^e"BpifitolsroiQ<^^ 



1« S A R B I E W S K I, 

from his finger, and put it on that of Sarbiewskt ; and this 
King is still preserved in the university at Wilna, ahd made 
xbe of in the inauguration of doctors. Ladislaus alsb chose 
him for his preacher, am o£Bce in which he gdined great 
applause; and he was frequently his majesty's companion 
in his joumeysy especially when he went to the baths of 
Baden. Sarbiewski was so enthusiastic in his admiration 
•f the Latin poets, that he is said to have read Virgil over 
mxtj times, and other poetical classics more than thirty 
times. He died April 2, 1640, aged forty «-(ive. His Latin 
poems contain great beauties, mingled with some defects. 
An enlarged and very elegant edition of them was publish- 
ed at Paris, by Barbou, 1759, 12mo. They consist of La- 
tin odes, in four books; a book of epodes ; one of dithy- 
rambic verses ; another of miscellaneous poems ; and a 
fourth of epigrams. His lyric verses are the most admired ; 
their style is elevated, but they are sometimes deficient in 
elegance and perspicuity.^ 

SARJEANT, or SERJEANT (John), a secular priest, 
who was sometimes called Smith, and sometimes Holland^ 
^as born at Barrow in Lincolnshire, about 1621^ and ad- 
initted of St. John'i^ college in Cambridge April 12, 1639, 
by the masters and seniors of which he was recommended 
to be secretary to Dr. Thomas Morton, bishop of Durham, 
While in this emplpyment he entered on a course of read- 
ing, which ended in bis embracing the popish religion. 
He then went over to the English college of secular priests 
it Lisbon in 1642 ; and, after studying there some time, he 
returned to England in 1652, and was elected secretary of 
the secular clergy, and employed in propagating his reli- 

g*on, and writing books in defence of it, patticulariy against 
r. Hammond, Dr. Bramh^ll, Dr. Thomas Pierce, Dr.Til- 
lotsop, Casaubon, Taylor, Tenison, StiUingfleet, Whitby, 
&c. In the course of his| controversies he wrote about 
fertv volumes or pamphlets, the titles of which may be seen 
|n Dodd. He bad also a controversy with the superiors of 
hb own communion, of which Dodd gives a long, but now 
very uninteresting account. He died, as his biographer 
tays, with the pen in his hand, in 1707, in the eigbty-sixtif 
year of his age.* 

1 Bailletf— Nov. AH. Entdit. 1753, Sto, p. 621^624.—I)ict. Bift-^Sndi 
vfioumt. 

< Dodd's Cb. Hilt.— Birch't TiUotion.— AUi. Ox, fol. 11. 



S A R N E L L I. T5$ 

- fiARNELL! (Pompey), a learned Italian prelate, wat 
b6rn at Poligrnano in 1649, and studied principally at Na« 
pies. He commenced his career as an author about 16689 
Mod published s6me pieces connected with grammar and 
jpolite literature. In 1675, after he had been admitted to 
priest^s orders, pope Clement X. made hitn honorary pro* 
tbonotary; and in 1679, he was appointed grand vrcar to 
cardinal Orsini, and obtained other preferment in th6 
church. He died in 1724. He was the author of ubovb 
thirty works, enumerated by Nicerdn and Moreri, of which 
we may mention, ** Lettere ecclesiastiche,** in 9 vols. 4to j 
'^irCiero secolare nel suo Splendore, overo della vita 
commune clericale;" ** Bestiarum Schola ad Hominei 
erudiendos ab ipsa rerum natura provide instituta, &c. de- 
cem «t centum Lectionibus explicata;** ** Memorie Crono- 
logiche de* Vescovi et Arcivescovi di Benevento, con la 
aerie de Duchi e Principi Longobardi nella stessa citta;^* 
and the lives of Baptista Porta, Boldoni, &c. He 8ome<- 
Gmes wrote under assumed names, as Solomon Lipper^ 
psopus Primnellius, &c.' 

SARPI (Paul), usually called in Englai^d, Father Paul, 
in Italian, Fra Paolo, a very illustrious writer, was born at 
Venice Aug. 14, 1552, and was the son of Francis Sarpi^ 
a merchant, whose ancestors came from Friuli, and of Isa- 
bella Morelii, a native of Venice. He was baptized by the 
name of Peter, which he afterwards, upon entering into 
his order, changed for Paul. His father followed' merchan* 
dize, but with so little success, that at his death, he left 
bis family very ill provided for, but under the care of a 
mother whose wise conduct supplied the want of fortune 
by advantages of greater value. Happily for young Sarpi, 
she had a brother, Ambrosid Mordli, priest of the collegi- 
ate cburch of St. Hermagoras, who took him under his 
care. Ambrosio was well skilled in polite literature, which 
be taught to serer^l children of the noble Venetians : and 
he tooK particular care of the education of his nephew^ 
whose abilities were extraordinary, though his constitution 
was very delicate. Paul bad a great memory, and much 
strength of judgment ; i|o that be made uncommon advances 
in every branch of education. He studied philosophy and 
divinity under Capella, a father belonging to the monastery 
pf the Servites in Venice ; and when only in his tendef 

I NiaeroBi volt XIiU.««M«reru 



154 S A R P 1. 

years, made great pM^gres3 in the mathettiatietfi'- and the 
Greek and Hebrew tongues*- Capella, though a celebrated- 
master, eonfessed in a little time that be oduld give his 
y^upil no farther iimroctionsy and with this opiaion of his 
talents, prevailed with him to asnMiie the religious habit of 
4be Sen^ites, rtotwithstandiitg bts mother and uncle repre- 
tsented fohifn the hardships^ and posterities of that kind of 
M($i an<l advised him with great i;€^ against it.. But he 
-"was steady in bis resolutions, and on Nov. 24, 1566„ took 
the habit^ end two years after made his tacit pcofessioo^ 
ivhich he solemnly renewed May lO, 1572. 

At this time he was in his twentieth year, and defended 
In a pobitc assembly at Mantua, ieverai difficult proposi* 
tions in natural philosophy and divinityi with such uncom- 
knon genius and learning, that th^ duke of Mantua, a gre^c 
patron of letters, appointed him bis chaplain, atthe^same 
time tliat the bishop of that city made him reader of canon 
law and divinity in his cathedral. Tbese employmeata 
animated him to improve himself in Hebrew ^ and he ap- 
pli^d also with much vigour to the study of history, in which 
he was afterwards to shine. During his stay at Mantua be 
became acquainted with many eminent persons ; and ^his 
patron, the duke, obliged him tp dispute with^ persona of 
all professions, and on all subjects. Paul had a profouud 
knowledge in the mathematics, but the utmost contempt 
for judicial astrology: ^^ We cannot,** be used to say, 
^* either find 'out, or we cannot avoid, what will happen 
liereafier," Fulgentio, his biographer, relates a ludicrous 
story, in wbii^h his patron appears to. have been a chief 
actor. The duke, who loved to soften the cares of govern- 
ment with sallies of humour, having a mane ready to foal a 
ifnule, engaged Faul to take the hoposcope of the animal's 
nativity .« This being done, and the scheme aettled, the 
duke sent it to all the famous astrologers in Euvope, inform- 
ing tbem^ that under such an a^ect a bastard waa born iii 
the duke's palace. The astrologers returned very different 
judgments; some asserting that this bastard: w^ldibe. a 
cardinal, others a great warrior, others a l^sbdp, aiifi o«bars 
a pope, and these wise conjectures tended > not flUttle>'to 
.abate the ct^edulity of the times. 

Sarpi, however, finding a coavt life tmiuitable t& bisia- 
fclination, left Mantua in about two yeara, and retaVned*to 
his convent at Venice. By this time be bad tn^dem^mh'- 
prising progreas in the caD4»a'«od c«nl law, in* oil flataa of 



8 A R P {• 155 

|)by$io» iVHk i&khe Cbal4«e fengufky^.; aii4» as usnftily faap^ 

tfmwh bk great r«pyta|ioti badoKpos^drliiaitU} «iuLcb<eiiT](&. 

JF^r, before he toft MantiiAi one ClaiMli<v~.who wsisjealoua 

^ k40 Wf^rior .tiii6vl% iUCCiufA.UaR to ibe, ipquWuicm cf 

>bQra«[f9 c'for bcMMQig <]9iwbdjUka^ the dooirmq oflbe.Triniljr 

^oi^M be^ proved .fiK>f|]k tbe fiftt cbftpter.of. Cenesu: bot 

Fault appealing' to Roohs, waa.bonaurabljr ac<)9i^led, and 

the i^ui^orieprkniaiKied for presuming 10 determine upQft 

tbiag^ wjitiM io a l^ffkguage he > did not underfita^d* . M 

jlw«myt*ti«p bfi. waa ordained priest ; . and nfterw^rdA, .wben 

be bad taken the. degree of doctor in diviqilyy vandi^-lis ad- 

loiUi^ a.menibei of tbeioollege of Padus^ waa cbo^^n.pro- 

vftneialof bis order for ibe. province of Veaice» tbougb be 

wiei then but twenty ^mx : an iostance wbicb b^ never bap- 

p^n^d before among the Servites. He acquitted himself in 

'i^ia^post^ ^as be did in every other, with the strictest inte^ 

.griiy^ hoaour^ and piety; insomuch that» in 1579> in a 

rgenecal chapter held at Parma, be was appointed, with two 

.Cftbars,. much bis s^iiors, to draw up new regulations and 

totiatiites for his order. This employment made it necessary 

:for bim to reside at Rome, where his exalted talents rocoip- 

roeaded him to the notice of cardinal Alexander Faroes^, 

and<»tberi great peirspnages* 

His employmeirt as provincial being ended, be retired 

lor lUuree yeMS,. wjiicb:be said was the only repose he bad, 

ever enjoyed ; and applied himself to the study of natural 

. pbilasopbyaBd/AnMomy.. Among other experiments, he 

employed bimaelf io the tfansmatation of metals; butn6t 

.with any view of discovering the philosopher's stone, wbiob 

bd^Iw^ys ridiculed as impossible. . In the course of bis ex-* 

i^flatiments,. be made some discoveries, the honour of wbiob, 

•^it^isiaaid, faas been appropriated by others. He lijsewise 

jdu^^ybad'Anatomy^ especially that part of it which relates to 

-itie^lBji^iviOD .which be made so many curipus observations, 

iitbait^ tha/cekabraUed Fabricius ab Aquapendente did not 

Kseroplo t^jemploy^ in terms of ^be bigbast applause, the 

faolbdrit^rvof^PauL on that anbj^ct, both ia bis lectures and 

siwiiiibilgab .^}Eul8eattO' tacpreasea bis surprise at Aquapeo- 

od^itc^ for notiwdimiwlodf^ing, in bia *^ Treatise of the £y V* 

the singular obligations he bed to Pl^ul, wliom be decbrea 

- AodlAw menotied idl 4he .hoi^our qf it. He ,aas9i!ts likewise, 

oiUa^ffaididisoov^ed.tbe ivalv«a. wbiob serre for the ciriCiji- 

• lati«Mi£ib€bblf)od, and this seems to be. allowed ; but not 

''ihetsli^ldisooveffiditlio eisculatieu tt^lf)( $» W»l«FUfi, Mof^ 



J^ .8 A H P I. 

ht^tt^ and* others hai^e'cooleiided, against ike claim of otrr 
countryman Harrey^ to whom that discovery has been 
psually, and indeed justly, ascribed. 

Father Paul's great fame would not suffer him any longer 
to ^njoy .his retreat ; forhe was now appointed procurator* 
^netal of his order; and during three years atRoaie} 
"iviiere he was on that account obliged to reside, be disco* 
tered such extraordinary talents, that he was called by tlie 
pope's command to assist in congregations where matters of 
the highest importance were debated. He was rery muck 
esteemed by Sixtus V. by cardinal Bellarmine, and by car* 
dinal Castegna, afterwards Urban VII. Upon his return 
to Venice^ he resumed bis studies, beginning them before 
sun-rise, and continuing them all the morning. The aftep* 
noons he spent in philosophical experiments, or in coovop* 
sation with his learned friends. He was now obliged to 
temita little from his usual application : for, by too intense 
3tudy, he had already contracted in^rmities, with which be 
was troubled till ol.d age. These made it necessary for him 
(O drink a littl^ wine, from which he had abstained till be 
was thirty years old ; and he tised to say, that one of the 
things of whicb^ be most repented was, that he had 
been persuaded to drink wine. He ate scarce aoy thing 
Imt bread and fruits, and used a very small quantity of food, 
because the least fnlness rendered him liable to violent 
|]iains of tl)e bead, 

- His tranqqiHity was now interrupted byovher causes* 
UpoU'leaiving Venice to go to Rome, he had left his friends 
under the direction of Gabriel CoUissoni, with w^pm he 
bad formerly joined in redressing certain grievanoes. But 
this man did (>ot s^rtsw^r Paul's expectation, being guilty of 
great pactions ; and» when Paul .intended \o TeUirn to 
Venice, dissuaded him frpm it, well knowing that bis, return 
Wou)d"put an end to his iqiipositions. He tberefor^aHfvklly 
represented, that, by staying at Romej he woul<|/be s^re 
to make fa]s fortune ; to wbich Paul, with more . boiiesty 
tbsi) policy, retiirned ftn- answer in cypher, Aha|t.,*^>;(bere 
wa4 no adymtcing himself $kt the court of ^om^ but by 
8Qfm(laIous means ; ud. that, far from valuing tiip digpiti«f 
there, he held them in the utmost abomination," ..«Afte; 
fhis be retpri^d toYenpc^.; aqd, pomiag tor ai^ irreqon- 
cileable rupture witfi Cpl)i$u^oni^ ^n ^ccoyntof hi&.eorrupi 

Sractjces^ the letter shewed Ms ^tter in -cyphf^ to eardioM 
*># fif^firioa, y%t-fnM then «t th« kiM of (btt.ii¥mi4U9ai 



S A R P t U1 

The cflrdmal did tidt think it cooTentent to attack Panl 
likn^elfy although be arhewed bis disaffection to bim by per- 
secuting his friends ; but when Paul opposed CoUissoni^a 
being elected general of the ordefi the latter accused bim 
to the inquisition at Rome of holding a correspondence witk 
the Jews ; and, to aggravate the charge, produced the le^ 
ter in cypher just mentioned. The inquisitors still did not 
think proper to institute a prosecution, yet Paul ynM ever 
after considered as an inveterate enemy to the court 6f 
Rome. He was charged also with shewing too great respect 
to heretics, who, on account of bis reputation, came to se^ 
bim from all parts ; and this prevented pope Clement Vlli. 
from nominating him, when be was solicited, to4be see.^of 
Kola. He was also accused of being an intimate friend of 
Momay, of Diodati, and several eminent Protestants ; and^ 
that when amotion was made at Rome to bestow on bimi4 
eardinaUs hat, what appeared the chief obstacle to his ad^ 
^ancement was, his having more correspondence with he* 
retics than with Cathoiics. '^ Diodati informed me,^* saya 
Ancillon, in bis '^ Melange de Literature," that,^ f^ obserri 
ing in bis conversaitions with Paul, bow in many opkiiona 
he agreed with die Protestants, be said, be was extremely 
rejoiced to find him not far from the kingdom of heaven^ 
and therefore strongly exhorted him to profess the Protest ' 
tant religion publicly. But the father answered,- that > ik 
was better for him, like St. Paul, to be atnatbema for his 
brethren ; and that be did more service to the Protestant 
religion in wearing that habit, than he coold do by laying 
it aside. — ^The elder Daill£ told me, that in going to aod 
coming from Rome with de Villarnoud, grandson to Mor^^ 
nay, whose preceptor he was, he had passed by Venice^ 
aod visited Paul, to whom Momay had recommended him 
by letters ; that, having delivered them to the father, he 
discovered the highest esteem for the illustrious Mr. Da 
Pkssis Mornay ; that he gave the kindest reception to Mr; 
de ViUamoud bis grandson, and even to Mr. DailK ;*'th«e 
afterwards Mr. Daill6 became very* intimate with fatjbeit 
Paul,'' JLc. All this is conGrmed by father PauPs lettertf^ 
which on every occasion express the highest regatd for tlvet 
Protestants. 

About 1608^ be was diverted from his private studi<r% 
Irtiicb he had now indulged, though amidst numerous ve?x^ 
Hkions, for many years, by the state of public aflairs." 'A 
4ispate arose becveett the rapubiic of Venioe aud^ibt vdilit 



MS S A E P L 

of Rome, relntiog Co ecclesiasticll'icninunums; and^ £ts 
both diviidtyi and law were obncerned iti it, fatber* PftuI wta 
apfMiinted dime and caaonin for the trepnblic of Veniee, 
to aetio conceit with the law-'OoiisQUorB. ' The disptiie had 
ooaiineDced, and been carried oBy onder Cleaient Vllf . ; bM 
when Paul V. cameto the popedom, hte veqcKred abs^aMs 
obedience wUhoub disputes. At lengthy ivbett be found 
bis cwmands slighted, the pope' eflEeomaiQnosated the 
dubO) the whole* senate, and all theirdominioos, in April 
hWfi, and the Venetiaos in return recalled tbeir ambassador 
at Rone, suspended the inquisition by ordcf b£ state, and 
pabliftbed by sound of trumpet a proolamation- to tbie efibot^ 
visL. f^ That^wbosoeTer bath received irom Rolae'any oof^ 
of a papal edict, published there, as welt against the law of 
God, as against the honour of this nation, shall itamediataiy 
briag it to the council of ten upon pain of 'deaths*' - But aa 
tbe annds, not only of tbe common burghers, but ako'df 
some noble personages belonging to the state, weredarmed 
aatbisfMpal interdict^ Panl endeatourcd to rebeve their 
fears, by a piece entitled '* Consolation of mind, to ^quiet 
the CQoscienci^s of those who live well, against the terrofe*s 
of the interdict by Paul V.'^ As this was- written^ for the 
sole «Me of the government under which be was faorn, it 
wss deposited. iu the archives of Venice; titt at lengdi/ 
fcom a<:opy clandestinely taken, it was first poblished >at 
the Hagaei both in the Italiaa and French laoguit^es^ iod' 
ttiiesanie year in English, under ibis titley ^^The-liightlKof; 
l^^vereigns and Subjects, argaedtfrom>the<civi^eiNion^^and: 
QomnKin law, under > the several beads of fixcomo^mittau.* 
tioosi Interdicts, Persecution, Gounciks, Appesihi^ MMli^' 
bility, describing the boundaries of* that power #falDh''4tij 
claimed tluoughout Cbtistendom by the Crown andtUe Mitrrt'^ 
an4of thoprivilegea which 8p[ler tain/ to i the aiibjeet^ ibdtii 
clergy and laity^ according to the laws of God »hd>Ment.^' 
faUi wrotey or assisted in writing and publittiiiigj «eveHiiK 
oilier pieces, in this controversy between- tbe'itWh<iatateir$' 
and bad the laquisitioiv cardinal BeIlainiMe,''aHtl^'oAMFH 
§|Wt personages, for his antagonistSi Paolart]dftisi)A>tlMi!(^ 
iifriiters,. whatever might be the abilities of tbKeie'adeonwpfiK^ 
were-at least superior to them in the justice of tbMif^loiiifto}- 
The.<propositiDtis maintained on the side of RoitieJ^'Wj^eH 
thesoi. that the pop^ iskwested with alt^e amfaol<iyno|t 
hoavien and earth ; that all princes are hisirasiads'^^atid' xka* 
b^.ms^ffiUiMk tteir laws at pleasure; tbatUnga WMy^ffUM^ 




- / 



S A R P I. r5» 

to hitRf asi be is temporU monarch of ^e vvhole eafdl ; '^at 
be ean discbftrge subjects from therr oaths of'drllegiance^ 
ami maieit tfaeir duty to take up dirms against- tli^'^o^^e^ 
itigii; ^t he ^^y depose kings wahout anyfaulc^cfM^ttiit^' 
ted by tUehi^if the ^dd of the cborcb reqfuires ic*;- th«itllM»' 
clergy are- exeixipt firocn all tribute tokings, abdaVe'tMkt 
accoiintdbietD them even in cases of high iTreaiion y tbat^tb^ 
pope cannot err ; tliat his decisions are to be reoeived'aAd- 
obeyed oq pain of sin, though all the trorld sbotrld jod^^ 
them to be false; that the pope is God 'upon* earvb, and 
that to cdi bis power in question, isto ciAlin question Ab 
power of God; — onaxiros equally shocking, weak,* 'perai--^' 
ctocts, end absurd, which did not reqnire^tfoe abilities to 
learning of iather Panl, to demonstrate their falsehood, and 
deatmctive tendency. The court of Rome, bowever, wa^ 
DOW sd exaspemted against htm, as to cite bimbyva decree^ 
Oct. 2iO, 1606, under pain of absolute 'excommohicatiob, 
to appear- in person -at Rome, to ansi^er the cbargeif of 
heresies against him. instead Of appearing, hb ptfblisbeA 
a miMiifestb, shewing the invalidity of the sofoa^ons ^ y^* 
offered to' dtspote with any of the pope's advocates^ in'*«i 
place of safety, on the arrtitfles laid to his charge. ' ' ' * 
Id Afxrii i607, the division between Rome arid the fk-^ 
public was h^ed bytb^ fnterposhion offVanee; ai)d' FM^' 
gentio rdbutes, tliattfae affair was transacted atRooSeby' 
cardinal Perron, accord^ to the order of the kiitg Ms 
master, 'Bat some EogUahi writers ^re of opinion, that^fai^' 
acoommodation between the Venetians and the ^pope Was^ 
owing to tbe <nlt§ieDndttet of king Janes I., who, if 'he bad 
betottljT su^pqrt^ the Vehetians, would certainly bt^h 
disubit^ them- fsom the see of Rome. Isaax; Wahon ob- 
sesvetf/ ihat during the* dk^ute it wasf refic^ted abhMitf,' 
'f'tbet tbe Venetians iwere all tarnedProteBtants, which wtls- 
beUetdd by mahy: for it was observed, that the EfygiiSft 
akebflssador (Wottmi) was often in ddnferencewltb thSsg- 
nat^( and.bisebapkinv Mr. Bedel/ more'Cften^'Witbifatb^ 
Bnattvi ^Ethoin.ibe peopl^ did not take to be bts ffieii^(i aMtt' 
aiMi^\for iftift the r^puUio of Vmiiod wns icirotvft td ^e^ 
ci^mwsMon/tei'jGregojy JadunidLnoy then their atbbasHtfd^r 
iK)£c^landj tK» make' all tbese* proceedings^ kf^wh 'to tbtf^' 
4li«g/of Eftglatld, dnd to'crsvd aproiaise of |iis AgslltMe^, 
irn^'«b<Mildreqiiiire^""&c. BorneMieDs lis, <<That'ihe 
lynleb between «the ^ope and theVepoblic wae brought v^y' 
nbaiifa[criM| eoTjifcai ii was.'expecteda^totai* 'serration ^dt'^ 



160 S A R P i. 

i>niy from the court, but the church of Rome, was like id 
follow upon it* It was set on by father Paul and the seven 
divines with milcb zeal, and was very prudently conducted 
by tbem. . In order to the advancing of it, king James or- 
dered bis ambassador to offer all possible assistance to them^ 
l^qd to accuse the pope and the papacy as the chi^f authors 
of all the mischiefs of Chtistendom. Father Paul and the 
^even idivines pressed Mr. Bedel to move the ambassador to 
present lung James's premonitioti to all Christian princes 
and states^ then put in Latin^ to the senate ; and they 
wfpre confident it would produce a great effect. But the 
jRmbaasador could not he prevailed on to do it at that time ; 
^d pretended^ that since St. James's day was not far off^ 
4t would be more proper to do it on that day. Before St. 
jfames'sday came, the difference was made up, and that happy 
o^pportunijty was lost ; so that when he bad his audience on 
that d|^y .in which he presented the book, all the answer he 
i;Qt wa^, that t^ey thanked the king of England for his good 
will, but they were now reconciled to the pope ; and that 
therefore they were resolved not to admit any change in 
tlheir religion, according to their agreement with the court 
of Rome." Welwood relates the same story, and imputes 
the miscarriage ^f that important affair to ^^ the conceit of 
presenting king James's book on St. James's day." But 
,Dr. .Uicbes attempts tp confute this account, by observing, 
,that the pope and the Venetians were reconciled in 1607, 
^and that the king's premonition came not out till 1609, 
.which indeed appears to be true ; so that, if the premoni- 
tion was really presented, it must have been only in manu^ 
.saript. 

The defenders of the Venetian rights were, though com-* 
^jprehended in the treaty of April 1607, excluded by the 
Romans from the benefit of itj some, upon different pre^ 
.fences, were imprisoned, some sent to the gallies, and all 
. .debarred from preferment. But then their malice was 
• chiefly aimed against father Paul^ who soon found the ef-^ 
.fects of it; for, on Oct. 5, 1607, he was attacked, on hir 
return to bis convent, by five assassins, who gave bim fif- 
teen wounds, and left him for dead. Three of thes0 
wounds only did execution : he received two in the n^ck : 
the third was made by the stiletto's entering his right ea|| 
^nd coming out between the nose and right cheek ; aixd sp 
, violent was the stab, that the assassin was obliged to leave 
«bis weapon in the wound. Being come to himself, ai)^ 



S A R P L 161 

hftYiDg bad bis wounds dressed, be told those abont binif 
tbat the first two he liad received seemed like two flashes 
of fire, which shot upon him at the same iustant ; aod 
that at the third be thought himself loaded as it were with 
« prodigious weight, which stunned and (|uite confounded, 
his senses. The assassins retired to the palace of the pope's 
nuncio at Venice, whence they escaped that evening either 
to Ravenna or Ferrata.^ These circumstances discovered 
who were at the bottom of the attempt ; and Paul himself 
once, when his friend Aquapendente was dressing his 
wounds, could not forbear saying pleasantly, that <^ they 
were made StUo Romana Curue.^^ ' The person who drew 
the stiletto out of bis bead, was desirous of having it ; but, 
as father's Paul's escape seemed somewhat miraculous, it 
was thought right to preserve the bloody instrument as a 
public monument : and th^efore it was bong at the feet of 
a crucifix in the church of the Servites, with the inscrip- 
tion, . ** Deo Filio Liberatori/* ** To God the Son the De- 
liverer.'* The senate of Venice, to shew the high regard 
they had for Paul, and their detestation of this horrid at- 
tempt, broke up immediately on the^oews; came to the 
monastery of the Servites^that night in great numbers ; or- 
dered the physicians tobring constant accounts of him to 
the senate; and afterwards knighted and richly rewarded 
Aquapendente for his great care of him. 

How scandalous soever this design against his life was, it 
was attempted again more tbau once, even by monks of 
bis own order : but the senate took all imaginable precau- 
tions for his security, and he himself determined to live 
more privately. In bis recess, he applied himself to write 
his ** History of the Council of Trent," for which he had 
begun to coUect materials long before. Walton tells us, 
that the contests between the court of Rome and the senate 
of Venice ** were the occasion of father Paul's knowledge 
and interest with king James, for whose sake principally 
he compiled tbat eminent history-of the remarkable coun^^ 
cil of Trent; which history was, as fast as it was written^ 
sent in several sheets in letters by sir Henry Wotton, Mr. 
Bedell, and others, unto king James, and the then bishop 
of Canterbury, into England." Wotton rela^tes, that 
Jaioes himself had a hand in it ;'for the benefit," he adds, 
** of the ChYistian world." This history was first published 
by sir Nath. Brent (See Bremt), at London, in 1619, iu 
JEblio, under the feigned name of Pietro Soave Polanoj 

Vol. XXVII. M 



192 S A E P I. 

ivhich^ii an tnh^frasi of PaoU^ Sarpi Vefiet^iaifp, .an();^i^* 
oated to Jaoiea Lby Aatony de Domioi^^ ardbbisibap of 
fipalatro^ It waa afterwards translated into LatMi, ^i)gH>b» ' 
Freocb/ and other lahgu^es ; and an,ew traiislation of |c 
into French by Dr. le Courayeri with notes, critical^. Iii^* 
4orieal| and tbeo)ogi€al» waa published at topdo^f.^^^So, 
8 vols, folio. BufnetU account of tbia wofk. may serve? po 
abew the ofNoion: which Protestants of all. Qomfnuivti^s bfipe 
ever entertained of it : "The style and WAy.oif vftxtipg^^ 
says bey *< is so natural and inasculine,. the^ ititnrigiies we|i;e 
ao fully opened, with $o. rwny judicious reBectip^a in a^l 
the paru of it, that as it was read wiUi gr^at pieaaurc, 9q.it 
.was generally looked on as (he rareat . pi^e of histiory 
which the world evQr saw.. . The author was soon guiesscq, 
4ind that raised the esieof^ of » the work : f>r taa be. waa i^c- 
counted one of the wiseat piei> ki the-world, so he,ba4 g^ipat 
oppOTtnuittea to gather exact informatiops. He Wd.fre^ 
acceaa to all the archives of the republic of Verijcef . which 
baa been 00 w looked on for. several ages a? very cpfa^t, 
both in getting good iatslligeoeey and tn.a mofijt carefiflfwaj 
of preserving it : to that among their reoprds lie mixsx ^W^ 
found the dtspatchea of. the ainbaasadqra and ijrelaf;^^ f{f 
that republic^ who were at Trent;; wihicb h^(?9;>s^rWV 
them, aod the counoil being of such high con^fiiq^q^/^jt 
IS not to be doubted, but there werefrc^qiiep^jaofigaf^i- 
cuJar informations, both of more public and aecreit/^ic^trfu:)^- 
actions transmitted thither* He bad also con tjract^^.p)^ 
friendship with Camillas Oliva, that wassecret^Qr.t9,,fn^,9f 
the legates, from whom he bad many discoveries. ,91^; jthe 
practices of the legates, and of theii; corresppn4^Ci^j4Yipi 
ttome: besides many other materials and :npv^s..jf>f ^^ii^e 
prelates who were at Trent, which he had. g^aber.e4tfi9g|S- 
then His work came out within fifty y^eai^.bJt the /coj^Ju- 
aion of the couocil, when several, who h^ b^ii.^pi;^^t 
tbere^ werestiJl alive ; and the thing wm ao r/e^wi^j^ tqeiiia 
memories, that few thought a man pfaq. great pf^q^ppe ^% 
he waa would have exposed bis reputation^ bf Wfttiitg in 
auch a nice manner thinga which be could not Jjua^i^. 
Never waa there a man more hated by the court of Epxpe 
than he waa ; and now he was at their mercy^ if i^ j^ 
abuaed the world by auph falsehoods in^mattc^iof ff^^^n^ 
have been since charged on his wqrk; butiipn^ %pli^§]^ 
^gaiitat him for fif^ yfiars." 
.^ Early in ilie wjtitei: of .i632» hU health .^g^J^.4^f4i^ 



8 A R P t. ifiS 

^€itVf\ artif ii6 ttnguhhed tin J^nmry tto Uth^ mhen be 

^xfiiretif fn his seret)t)^secorYd yeair. HebebiMr«d witiyiiie 

greatest cemstancy and piet}' doritig^ bU illness^ and the hiQl 

-words be ottered Vere '^Esto porpcitua/^ ^hicb wasundar^ 

ftood to be 'a prayer for the fepublic. ^ 

'  When- the tiews of his deatb reached Rotti€, the coaptiers 

'tejtnced; nofcoald the pope himself forbear sayings that 

-the hand of God was visible in taking him out of the worM^ 

as if it had been a miracle surely that a tnan of setenty-two 

-tiboulddie! His fdueral was distinguished by the pnWic 

-magnificence of it, and the vast conoours^ot' iK^bility aiKl 

"persons of all ranks attending it : 'and the ^enuti^) out of 

*^rat!tbde to hi^ meniory, erected'a monument to btiD, the 

mmAptiott upon which was written by John Ahtiidny Ve* 

'nerhf a fiofole Venetiati. He wa^of middle Miiare ; bis 

^biinad ttry large in prdportion to his body, which waa ex* 

Ifcremeiy f^an. He bad a wide forehead, in the middle of 

which wajr a 'very large vein. H» eye-bfows were well 

Jtrcfied'/IlhB eyes large, black, and sprightly; i)is nose long 

^'and htrg^^, ht^be^rd bht thin. His asi^ect, i^ough grave, 

"Mras e^ti^enfi^ly^oft and inviting; and be had a very fine 

'hanfdi TuVgentid relates*, that though se%'eral kings and 

'p¥ih6h btid desired hrm to sit fbr bis picttire, 3*et be ner^r 

'%w>tif(!'iiifflr ft to be drawn ; but sir Henry Wotton, in his 

littdr'tai>r, 'Collins, Writes thus: " And now, sir, havin|r 

i^t'm.^ss^trger, and not lonj^ after tl>e time when love-* 

^te/fs useto pass between friends, let me be bold to senki 

'JrdU'foir a new-yeaf^s gift a certain memorial, not altogether 

"StinWortby ofsome entertainment under your roof; namely, 

^!4'fl-ae'{)lctui*e irf father Pairl the Servitfe,' which was firit 

~^Ken ^by k^aintet whom Iseht unto him, my bouse tlien 

Ml^hWirriirg bis monaster^. ' I have newly added ther<« 

"blAo a mie df my own conception, •* Concilii TridentinL 

' Evtikerator; &c!>-^Ybu will' find a scaf in bis face, that was 

iVctii the'ROfhan assassinate, that would faav^ killed bim as 

he'v^^ tt^mefd to a wall near his convent.*" 

•^\ Father Folgentte, his friend and companion, who was a 

tiia^ tif great abiKttes and rntegrity, and is allowed on all 

'VioA% to have drawn up Faul*^ life with great judgment 

'-ind'^mpartiaiitj^; observes, that, notwithstanding the ani- 

*ftio^iry dPtb'6 court of Rome against him, the most eminent 

'pfi^lates of k'%\wiyn ^pressed the highest regard for htm ; 

and Protestants of all communities have Jusdy soppoged 

^%}M^^6 of the "Wiseat and best men that ever lived* %• Fa* 

M 2 



IQ4 S A R P I. 

ther Paul/* says sir Henry Wotton, " was one of the hum- 
blest things that could be seen within the bounds of* hu- 
Bianity ; the very pattern of that precept, quanta doctioVf 
tanto subniissioTy and enough alone to demonstrate, that 
knowledge well digested non inJUU, Excellent in positive, 
excellent in schoiastical and polepfiical, divinity : a rare 
mathefnatician, even in the most abstruse parts thereof, as 
10 algebra and the theoriques; and yet withal so expert in 
the history of plants, as if he had never perused any book 
but nature. Lastly, a great canonist, which was the title 
of his ordinary service with the state ; and certainly, in the 
time of the pope's interdict, they had their principal light 
from him. When he was either reading or writing alone, 
bis manner was to sit fenced with a castle of paper about 
bis chair and over his bead ; for he was of our lord St. 
Albania opinion, that all air is predatory, and especially 
burtful, when the spirits are most employed. — He was of a 
quiet and settled temper, which made him prompt in his 
eounsels and answers; and the same in consultation which 
Themistocles was in action, mn^xAai^w ivoioraTo^, as will 
appear unto you in a passage between him and the prince 
<^ Cond^. The said prince, in a voluntary journey to 
Rom€^ came by Venice, where, to give some vent to fais 
own humours, he would often divest himself of his great* 
Hess ; and after other less laudable curiosities, not long be- 
fore his departure, a desire took him to visit the famot^s' 
obscure Servite. To whose cloysler coming twice, he was 
the first time denied to be within ; and at the second it was 
intimated, that, by reason of bis daily admission to their 
deliberations in the palace, he could not receive the visit 
of so illustrious a personage, without leave from the senate, 
which he would seek to procure. This set a greater edge 
upon the prince, when he saw he should confer with one 
participant of nnore than monkish speculations. So, after 
leave gotten, he canoe the third time ; and ttien, besi^ies 
other voluntary discourse, desired to be told by him, ivho was 
the true unmasked author of the late Tridentine History ? 
— ^To whom father Paul said, that he understood he was 
going to Rome, where he might learn at ease, who was 
die author of that book.'* 

Cardinaf Perron gave his opinion of father Paul in these 
terms : ** I see nothing eminent in that man i he*is a man 
of judgment and good sense, but has no great learning : I 
observe his qualincanons to be nsere commom ones^ and 



S A & P I. 165 

liltle superior to an ordinary mdnk^s.'* But the learned 
Morboff has justly rf>marked, that '* this judgment of Per- 
jron is absurd and malignant, and directly contrary to the 
clearest evidence; since those who are acquainted with 
the great things done by father Paul, and with the vast 
extent of his learning, will allow him to be superior, 
not only to monks, but cardinals, and even to Perron 
himself.'* Courayer, bis French translator, says, that 
f^ in imitation of Erasmus, Gassander, Thunnus, and other 
great men, Paul was a Catholic in general, and sOme* 
times a Protestant in particulars. He observed every thing 
in the Roman religion, which could be practised without 
. superstition ; and, in points which he scrupled, took great 
care not to scandalize the weak. In short, he was equally 
averse to all extremes : if he disapproved the abuses of this 
Catholics, he condemned also the too great heat of the 
reformed ; aud used to say to tliose^ who urged him to de« 
clare himself in favour of the latter, that God bad not 
given him the. spirit of Luther.'* — Courayer likewise ob- 
serves, that Paul wished for a reformation of the Papacy, 
and not the destruction of it ; and was an enemy to the 
abuses and pretences of the popes, not their place." We 
see by several of PauPs letters, that he wished well to the 
progress of the reformation, though in a gentler manner 
than that which had been taken t^ procure it ; and, if he 
himself had been silent on this head, we might have col- 
lected his inclinations this way, from circumstances relat- 
ing to Fulgentio, the most intimate of his friends, and who 
was best acquainted with his sentiments. Burnet informs 
us, that Fulgentio preaching upon Pilate^s question, 
" What is Truth ?" told the audience, that at last, after 
many searches, he had found it out : and holding forth a 
New Tesument, said, it was there in his hand ; but, adds he, 
putting it again in his pocket, *^ the book is prohibited.** 

Of father Paul's whole works, ** Tutte le sue opere, con 
nn supplemento,** an edition was published at Verona, 
under the name of Helmsted, 1761 — 68, 8 vols. 4to; and 
another at Naples in 1790, 24 vols. 8vo. In 1788, a trea- 
tise was published at London in. Italian, entitled *^ Opi- 
. iiione di Fra Paolo Sarpi, toccente il governo della repub- 
lica Veaeziana,'' 8vo, we know not whether in any of the 
preceding editions. Of his works, we have English trans- 
lations, printed at various times, of " The Rights of Sove- 
reigns and Subjects," <* The History of the Council of 



16« S A R P I; 

Trent ;" hw ^' tetters f * « Maxim* of the Oovertimetit t4 
Venice, in an advice to the KepuMic f* aV»d a ■" Treariie 
of Ecclesiastical Benefices and Revenues.'*' 
^ SARRAU (Claude), in Latrn Sarravius, a learned 
French lawj^er, tras born towards the close of the siKteentfa 
century, of a noble family, and eddcated by hit father/ 
^ho was a man of letters, with the greatest care. ^ th6 
study of the law, be joined a ta^e %ft poihe literature,' 
philosophy, and criticism, wrote elegantly in Liitrn, and 
uas an excellent Grei^k sclrolar. H« had perased the 
eltssics with great attention ; and some Latin and French 
rerses which he Wrote, 'show that- be had formed his tairte 
on the best models. He practised at the bar atRouen^ 
but was an enemy to litigious suits, and always endeavoured 
to prevent his clients from coming into court, while recon- 
ciiiation was possible. He lived in intimacy and eorre« 
spondencd with the mi^t learned men of bis time, parti- 
cufcarly Saimasiusi Grotius, and our archbishop Usl>cr. It 
IB not mtrch pratse to add after this, that be bad Christina 
queen of Sweden for a correspondent. He was of the pro- 
testant religion, and appears to have been displea^ WUGf 
aothe symptoms of what he thought lukewarmneM in Hil 
fWend Grotius,' and wished him to be more deeided. "Sar- 
tixL died May 30, 1651, advanced in years, and wa«^ lai 
fiiemed in poemsand eloges by many learned 'Coihtempora^i 
lies.' He published the coHection of Grotins'rf ctiT^c^pon* 
dence entitled '^ Grotii epi^tols ad Gattos^," and^ bn owhf 
Latin letters were published in 1654, dNro, and reprinted at 
Utrecht ^th the letters of Marquard Gudius, inr 16M, 4tOp' 
and agaid at Leyden by Peter fiurman in ITU, who Tiasr 
Kvseried some of them in his valuable ** Sylloge.'^ ^ey 
contain many parfrculars of the Itterar y history of the Hmes; 
H6 appears ' to have been aii exeeeding admirer of ^8al£ 
nlasius. • 

SARTI (Josfil»tt), a sweet, tender, and graceftrl com- 
poser, was born at Faenza in 173<>. ItiVI^'^ hcf wenttcr 
Copenhagen as maestro di cappella to theyoting'kingof 
Denmark, for xihose theatre he composed an opera, which 
bad no great success. In his way back to Italy 4ie came 

. 1 Ufe br Fulfentjo.^Lrie of tir li^ory .t¥otton, pi«f«ai| «o^i« wvrlis, td^^ 
J 585. — BwT'ieii Life of Bedet.-^Welwood*« Memoirs. — Hickw't Discourses 
Qpon I>r. Burnet and Or. TiHutfion. 1693, 4ro, p. 50. — Morboffs Polyhtstor.-^ 
Conrajrtr't cdlUiii of.Uie CoiMieil dflVcou-^Life'by.Or. Johflsoa. • 
* M<K«ri<-T^iin|^a'f " Sytlo^e.^' 



S A R T L 1€7 

^w>gh iH^^f^ir A«d publnbed ux iou^w for the h;^* 
«il^/(ir^)|- h\ lli&d he wQ(U lOvVeniiret vhere ha was «(>« 
poiiiied master of the cQnscrrvatorio- of U^ Pieta» and CQin^ 
pof^.^pi ofW'^, wbi^^ ^'4^ iri such favour^ thatit was v^id 
^.b«^99le!4iW fx^usicord^e other world, *' nusic^.d^U' aluo 
n^pf^).'\'. Q/¥ f>4j^.jC<wpos(ed for Milan four operas, ,ia 
vibk^|Macc^i«:»ttugi-aDd which bad all very uaQommont 
•M^(;;«i#«,t .'lu |7$;3 hi wa» appointed oaaesUro di cappella to 
^ boQBoo iiD 4h^ ciljr. Hta op^ra of *^ Giulio Sabic^o*' 
WW su4>g at^ the saipe tioie hj MarchiB^i at Milan, and by 
l^af^iei^fivva at Venice. • }n 1734< it was brought on the 
a^^ at Viii^)n% aJt'ter it had been perfprnied at, all :th<^ 
[p^ippipal, theatres. of Italy during tw> yeara. His harasony 
was swQet^and simple, and his meloidy truly Tocal. 
. At the' eod of 1784 he again steered oprthward, having 
bw4^%engaged in the service of the empress of Russia for 
tbreeryears^ In i78i he estabiished a concert spirituel at 
](^eterahnrg« fof which be composed^ in the choral atyle^ a 
psalpv ittt the Russiiao language,, which was performed by 
6g,yoi,iQQs.,aQd.. 109 instrumeutSy. among which there were 
wili4 fnstrumenta pf every kind« In 1788 he composed a 
T^q Qeiwi..for |;be victory over the Turks at Opkzakow* 
I^^;was iqjpoiated director the same year of a conserva^ 
tpQiQi^ for.^he establishment of which the empiesa ex- 
p^de^^lQO p^ublesy and allowed 1500 in annual salariea 
aodotliusr. incidental expences: and in order to engage 
^^ tOrfeqifio io Russia^ her imperial majesty gave him aji 
^stfjtf^,,,w,^th woodf aodaeats upoo it of considerable valuer 
wi^^hrii^inf^d .bimtp spend the chief part of hia remaioiog 
4f JP ifi >pultimti9g his. lands, mace . than music. His open^ 
at)|f]irraid^'* nyi7S$, had pleased the empriessao mucb^ 
Wt^is)i^ )gi^ve,hifa a.goldep vase or bawl^ . and a . ring oi 
grf^ i^^lu^. Ill 17dp^.at,sii(ty yeiurs of age, he died in bis 
way back to his ovvn country for the recovery of bis healthy 
wbic^ t^ad l)een .Timch. impaired by the semrity of the di- 
qfat^, ,« Hia work^, .which are composed in so elegant, ua*. 
^raJ, and. pleasing a, style,, as is not likely to t>e soon out 
of f^ion^ are fpr. the church, U A miserere, accompanied 
opJiy by a tenor, and vioLoucello in solo parts, and ripienoc 
violiui in the choruses. 2. A motet, canjiiebor tibt^ jl 6. 
Seprario^nd contraito in the solo verses. ^. A florm^ in 
ifine, parts, for .the Rus/ian pi^ Greek church. For the 
theatre, twenty «*six <operask Chamber music printed. Sym- 
phonies in nine parts at Leipsig, 1756. Thr^e sonatas for 



168 5 A R T O. 

the harpticbordy wilb a flota MoouipamiiteiA, AfliiterduD. 
Three aonatM^ in Ixukdon^ 1769« ^^GioUo Sabiao cha^ 
xacteristica/' Vieooa, 1787«^ 

SARTO (AMDft&A D£L},^Qr ViOiNUCCiii, a fauioBt Iialiaf 
painter, was the son of a tailor,* wbenoe he had the nain* 
of Sarto, and waa born at Florence in 147 1 . He was »p« 
fadreDticed to a goldsmith, with whom be lived some tiiae) 
iHit was then placed with John BasHe, an ordinary painter, 
who taught him the rudiments of his art ; and aftsrwarda 
with Peter Cosimo^ and while with him, studied the car- 
toons of Michael Angele and Leonardo da Vinci ; and by 
these means arrived at a mastery in his art. Being at laat 
disu^is&ed with his master, be associated with Francis 
Bigio, and they painted various pieces in conjunction, at 
Florence and about it, for the monasteries. At length 
some of Sarto's pieces falling under the notice of Francis L 
that monarch was so pleased with them, that he inrited 
fiarto into France, and treated him with great liberality* 
He executed many pictures for the king and the aobiiicy ; 
bujt, wihiJA employed upon a St. Jerome for the queen •- 
8u>ther, he receiyed letters from his wife, with whom he was 
infatn&ted, which made him resoke to return thither^ He 
pretended domestic affairs, yet promised the king not only 
to return, hut also to hiring with him a good coJlecticin oif 
pictures and sculptures. In this, however, he was over- 
f uled by bis wife, and, never returning, gave Francis, who 
had trusted him with a considerable sum of moeoy, so ba4 
an opinion of Florentine painters, th^^ be would not look 
{avoujably on thew for some years after. Sarto afterwards 
gave himself np wh^ly to^ pleasure, and became at leagih 
very poor, £(e wia naturally jniid and diffident, and- set 
Vut vcary little value upon his own perfeviaances : yet the 
Flovenrines bail so great an esteem for his w«rk% that^ 
during the fury of the popular factions among them, they 
pceserved them from ithe flavies. Sarto died of the plague 
in J ^2Q, when, only 42. Sarto's works, in Mr. Fusek's 
opinion seem to have obtained ahek fuU share of justice* 
As a Tuscan, the suavity of bis tone and facility of prae« 
tice contrast more strikingly with the general austerity and 
elaboraiie pedantry of that school, and gain him greater 

E false than they would, had be been a Bdognese or Lorn* 
acd. It cannot, however, be deniaid that bis sweetness 
sometimes borders on iusipidity : tbe modesty or rather 

^ From X>r. Barney in Rees's Cyclopaedia. 



S A R T O. ]6» 

jniaiUaMfliHy ef bU eharader checked tbt fiiU emrtwn df 
1m |»oirieri; hit faults are of the negatire kiml, and defeoiB 
rather than blemishes. He had no iMtieiis of naCnre be* 
yood thenioddy 'Midr eoneetitmted aU feavdebeiMy in hia 
wife, Locvafcta ; and if it be true that bia taerffiaad hit fer«- 
tape and f fancis I. to h«r, cb a rawi i the nwit at least bate 
eqeailed iefoneaed featune bit oetebrated Madonna dil 
Saooa r heooe it was not uneatttral tbad tbe pfoporttoos of 
Aibert Durer should attract bioi asove than those of Mi^ 
diaelagnok>« His design and his ceiice)icieoS) e4iich se)^ 
ddoft rase above tbe sphere of comooon or doekestie lils> 
kept pane <wUh each other ; heie bis observation was aanttti 
and hiaearepentoeverp-whisparef social iaterconpseoremo** 
taoo. Tile great peovfiiarity, perha|M tbe gteat preragativei 
of Andrea appears lo me that paralMtsm of eompoftitioo, 
which distingtiishes tbe best ef bis bistoric works^ seen- 
iegljr as' nataml, obvbus and eai^y as inimitable. In se- 
lesse effects, in alternete batanee of action and repesOi be 
excels all tbe modems ; and if be was often enable to eon* 
ceiee tbe actt>rs themselves, he gives them prababiKty and 
iflsporunce by place and posture. Of costume be was 
ignorant bnt eone ever excelled and few approached him 
in breadtb^ form, and style of that drapery which ongbt M 
distingnisb solemn, grave, or religions snl^ects. * 

a4UAfA»8E. SeeSALMASIUS. 

SAUNDBRS (8ia £dm imD), lord chief jnstiee of tbe 
Kieg^s Beneb towards tbe close of tbe seventeenth cen- 
tury, seems entitled to some notice on account of bis 
^< Heports,'' althdngb his character in other vespecu may 
as well be oees^ned to obtivion. He %ras originally a 
swoUtng beggai- abent the streeu, without known parents 
er rebtioits. lie casAe often to beg scraps at Clement's 
leo, ssbese bis sprlghtllness and diligence made die society 
desiroas to eatrieate him from bis miserable situation. M 
he eppeared desivoos to learn to write, one of tbe auomiea 
fixed a beavd up at a window on the top of a stair^ase^ 
wbicb served hiie as a desk, and there he sat and wrote 
afMT copies of conn and other hands, in which at length 
lie acquired sneb expertnesif, as in some measure to set 
ep to€ himself, and earn a pittance by hackney-writing. 
Be also took all opportunities of improving himself by 

kding snob books as he borrowed of his friends, and in 

1 Ars«srfUt, rsl. l«*»PiUupgtoii by Fineli. 



in 6 A U N 'D E B 8. 

th^ Qoiarie of a fewryean, ibecaine<an sUe. zktomeyi tat6m 
¥ery ^eavBent ooiiBsel, hia practice in. the :}KirigU<*b^iiteb 
luaog -exceeded . by. none. All this vrowU i haVeJ tedout\iAfsd 
to hirb^noixry bad' bis progress in integrity kept paoe>with 
otber jceompiisbiDenca, botbe appearatto.bai«e homgliti iaev^ 
his proCessiom tbe low 'babiu -of bis early Me, smdibecawe^ 
aa^iDQoh- a^disgrace asan omameht to the 4ian . Hisr arteikdl 
cunning weoe equal to bi& knowledge, tod beicavried olaln3)r: 
alCatlse>by. sinisiier iheoiisy and wben detected, . he ^niBtori 
vnts'Oiiti>£.cpi]Dti9naDoe^ but evaded tbe maaervith aj^t^^ 
wUeh(b&liadBlsira{^ at luuuL Me vM&iniidi etoployte d 'by 
the king agbinst tbecity:of Londooy iii;the business* of- tike 
fU^niaifran/a, andfiwaaa^vevy fit tool in^^ibe fanndaiof tbir 
cxmrt^ and prompted >the' attorney ^'general .Sawyer^ to oTeiv- 
tbcfi^^tkie eity.cfaarter. )' It VMM 'wken this affiiir 'werto^li^e: 
hf ought to^ a deotsaon^ that. Saunders 'was, knighned aralr: 
made ioid chief jMtioe iaa* 23^t ie8{2-3>«. But juataa seat^ 
teooe waa about to be given, he was sessed widi 'anr*apoN 
plexy and died*. In one authority,. a diagostingidescripibon 
i^^girsttof his person, which secins.to' ha v^^oostesponded^ 
with' bis aiitid" - - • •.•••/ •>.•:..'/-.. i\'i, 

vHis << Eeporta^' are considered as pecaiiarly^iadmUe, 
ojs aceount of tlie correct state of tbe.f^adtnga so ithe iKs^ 
rwai cases in the cowt of KtagVbcBcb. Tb^r-'MneeB ifiiafi 
published in French^ 16^6, £ mis.- feiv andtfeptinced <sai: 
Eoglishy'Sttih the addition of sevieral thMaand^feienees^ 
in 17d9v A third edhioa, by aefjeant WilUacbs^ appeared! 
in.iW^t, witb.ncMs andvefereaoes, 2: vols. 8vo^/iasaalljK 
bflund;in)thireey^ ••■;•♦- 

fiAUNI>ERSON :(NicoiUiis)y an iHualrioile p]NfeBtor aC. 
the oaatbeinaties in tbe a^tfcrsityof^Caiahaidge^ aadLMM 
low.iof vthe Aoyal Society, waahorn* to 1683, atiThtolstoor'. 
iQ Y(»ksbire ; atherehtaifather, kctideb a efawlt-esiate, jea^ 
joyed a pdaoena.tbetfiacise. . Wfaenbe wl0 ayear'oldj bar 
wasdaprived^' by ibe'SBiall-fioii/ iiot gnfyioiihiiu^btf jhaft< 
ojE Ms . ejetbaU% which awaa diadolved by/.abseesaesq ai^ 
thaJt he ireiaited:nO'nitee.«idea'of: light ai»d'oaloutsithaa:Lif 
ha bad been besn. blinds » Ife/was seat^terly. to- at^peew; 
saboo) aa Peentscon, abd tbeneil^id tbe 'feaadatiait of^ that' 
kfeaiprledge ;of the Gceck aAd'&oi»aD'langui|gies^ wbiob faei 
aftervitards improved so faryifay insioaiaj^^^qsUcalioni to tbie* 
classic aai^Kife^ asilo lie^r. the, wdssrof Ettblsd, Avohiamdtss^' 



^ •♦ » ' * .  ■.:-.' .J- '!• 



^ Northli Live^ of the Cbaoctllun.— Barnet't Qwn. Tu|m.-<-^aogpn 



SAUNDERSON. 171 

aDdr&iopbaotus, inttd in ihttir origioal GhreekJ When li# 
idfft.pdsaesil some time at this tcbool, bis father^ nlHte 0b» 
cfetpAiion Icdiliiiti to be conversant in iminbeysy began to 
iiistff»ietiiii»fiA>tbeciiiitiiiun vules of aritbmetie. Here it 
Ht08 timt bifl gODkos ^firat appeared : for -be very soao be^ 
caflteabietu n^ork.tbe commoii queslioiis^ to raafce Jon^ . 
caJauhitiuai by ibe strength of bis meoiorjr, and to foroa 
new Tutea to himself for the more ready 3olviiig of sucli 
pasabltttRaafl are>orten pcoppsed to learners, as trialaofi 
sJviU^ At.eigbteen, be was iotroUiiced totfae 8cqiiaiiytaiiD0«> 
of Riebard Westof U^deitbanky esq. a gendecaan of fbrtimo' 
aaid alovor of iheifnatbeouiticsy vrfaa^' observing his unoom^ 
mciii eapaoity, took the.pAins to iastract bfm.in the prinei^. 
pl0 of Algebra and geo(iiietry» aodgave^him every eoeoQ^ 
lagaiaoitrin ibe f>mtiecut«on of ihese atndies. Soan afiMv 
bfibekiaaaeaaqaainted wttk Dr. N^ttletOB^ who took tbe' 
sanso pains with hina; and it waa to theae geotlebien thatr 
Iiejptfed hiB first inatatutien it) the natbematical srienccs. 
TJsey fumblied bipd with books^ and often read and ex-^. 
pcaindttd tfaces lo.liiiii ; but be soon surpassed bis nnaters^ 
and became fitter to teach than learn any thing fnMn'tfaem« 
.^iEBavpassfpn^iMr learning growing up with bim, his father 
scsit bim to a^privaie aoademy al Atmrcliff near SbeflMdir' 
BaailqgHKaiid metaphysics heing the principal learning of» 
thissdSQoU weM^-neiilier of tbam agreeaUeto the genius 
G^our AQtfaes } aad tlieielbre be made bat a abort stay.*^ 
Heaei^qin^d 'Some lioie. after in the country, prosecuting, 
bis studies in his own way, ivitbout ai^ otfajar assistant 
than a good author, and some person that could read it to 
faaaii hobsgable, by the strength of his own abilities, to 
sttlniioiMiS alldiftcttlties that nrigbt occur. His edueasioii 
hadjhithtftobeed otthe espeoceof his. father, who, haiv*- 
iagro oaflaeroua. family, footid it dtffiicolt to ponrinoe it ; 
asid bis/frteoda tfaerefoneibegan to think of fixiog bim in 
scone aitay of biirin^ss^ by wfaicb be aiight support- himsdf.' 
Bis osm iaoBaaudn led. him strongly to Cambeidgo; and, 
aftes siueh oonsidesation, it wasi resolved he should malco. 
hia appearance tfaens in a way very ttacoBMBQn>; not iLs&i 
sebolary but a master; for, hie friends, observing in bim a^ 
p^^uiiar felieiity in conveyiog his ideas to otbeie^ hoped- 
that he might t^adt^thenistbeaiatics'with'CPfdit and ad-»t 
vajiia^Oy • evtfu. Lo the oniversity ; oc, . if this deaigo sboisid 
miscarry, they promised themselves success in opening- a 
school for him in Loftdon. 



ITJ 8 A U N D E R S O N. 

Accordingly, in 1707, being now twenty-five, be wm 
brought t6 Cambridge by Mr. Joshua Dunn, iben a fellow- 
comiaoner of Cbritt's college ; where be resided with that 
frieod, but was not admitted a member of the college. The 
•ocieiy, however, mucb pleased with so extraordinary a 
guest, allotted bim a chamber, the use of their library, 
•od indulged bin in every privilege^ that could be of ad- 
vantage to him. But still many diflBculties obstructed his 
design : be was placed here without friends, without fer* 

. tune, a young man, untaught himself, to be a teacher of 
philosophy in an university, where it then flourished in 
the greatest perfection. Whistou was at ibis time matke- 
makical professor, and read lectures in the manner pro- 
posed by Saunderson ; so that an attempt of the same kind 
by the latter looked like an eocroachnsenton the privileges 
ef his office ; but, as a good^^natured man, and an encou- 
imger of learning, Wbiston readily consented to the appli- 
cation of friends, made in behalf c^ so uncommon a person. 
Mr. Dunn had been very assiduous in maldng known his 
character ; his fame in a short time had filled the univer* 
sity; men of learning And curiosity grew ambitious and 
fond of his acquaintance, so that bis lecture, as soon «s 
opened, was frequented by many, and in a short time very 
mucb crowded. *' The Principia Mathematica, Optics, 
and Aritbmetica Universalis, of sir Isaac Newton,'' were 
the foundation of his lecture ; and the}" afforded a noble 
field to display his genius in. It was indeed an ol^ect of 
the greatest curiosity that a blind youth should read lectures 
in optics, discourse on the nature of light and colours, ex- 
plain the theory of vision, the effect of glasses, the phsno- 
mena of the raipbow, and other objects of sight : nor was 
the surprize of his auditors much lessened by reflecting, 
that as this science is altogether to be explained by lines, 
and is subject to. the rules c$ geometry, he might be a mas- 
ter of these subjects, even under the loss of siglit. 

As be was instructing the academical youth in the prin- 
ciples of the Newtonian philosophy, it was not long before 

' be became acquainted with the incomparable author, al« 
thoagh he bad left the university several years ; and en- 
joyed bis frequent conversation concerning the more diffi- 
cult parts of his works. He lived in friendship also with 
the most eminent mathematicians of the age; with Halley, 
Ootes, De Moivrc, &c. Upon the removal of Wbiston 
from bis professorship, Saunderson's mathematical merit 



S A U N D E R S O N. 173 

was vniversally allowed so much saperior to that of any 
competitor, that an extraordinary step was taken iti hts* 
favoor, to qualify him with a degree, which the scatntes 
require. Upon applicatien made by the heads of colleges 
to the duke of Somerset, their chancellor, a mandate was 
readily granted by the qoeen for conferring en him the de- 
gree of master of arts : upon which he was chosen Lucasiaa 
professor of the mathematics, Nov. 171!, sir Isaac New- 
ton all the while interesting himself very much in the affair. 
His first performanoe, after he was seated in the chair, was 
an inanguracion^apeech made in rery elegant Latin, atnd a 
9tyle truly Cieeronian ; for he was well vensed in the 
writings of Tolly, w>Ik> was his favourite in prose, as Virgil 
and Ho'race were in verse. From this tinve he applied him- 
self closely to the reading of lectures, and gave np his 
whole time to his papils. He oontinned among the gen- 
tlemen of Cbrist^s college till 1 723 ; when he took a house 
in Cambridge, and soon after married a daughter of the 
rev. .Mr. Diokens, rector of Boxworth in Cambridgeshire^ 
by whom he had a son and a daughter. In 1728, when 
George II. visited the university, he was pleased to signift^ 
his desire of seeing so remarkable a person ; and accord- 
ingiy the professor waited upon his majesty in the senate- 
house, and was ihere creatCKl doctor of laws by royal favour. 
' Saunderson was naturally of a strong healthy constitu- 
tion; but being too sedentary, and constantly confining 
faimaett' to the house, he beoame at length a valetudinarian. 
For some years he frequently complained of a numbness in 
Jaris limbs, which, in the spring of 1739, ended in an in- 
curable mortiiication of his foot. He died April 19, aged 
fifty-seven, and was buried, according to his request, in 
the chancel at Boxworth. He was a man rather to be ad- 
mired than loved. He had much wit tfnd vivacity in con- 
vemation, ami many reckoned him a good companion. He 
bad also a great regard Up truth, but was one of those who 
think it their duty to express then* sentifK^ents on men and 
opinions, without reserve or restraint, or any of the cour- 
tesies of conversation, which created him many enemies; 
nor wss^ he less oflfehsive by a habit of profane swear^g^ and 
the obtrusion of iofidel opinions, which last' he held, not^ 
withstanding the kindness df providence towards him 
throughout his extraordinary life*. He is said, however^ 

• 

« « With respect to the iofidel part Ifonibly BeTitvWy ** ve M« bertiia^ 
•f Saunderioa*s cb«ra«ter/' fays the turaily reminded of Utejoka Uiat wM 



iU 8 A U N I) E R SP O N. 

to have reosived the notice of hie apptoaehh^^ dedih MAi 
gteu calmness acid serenity ; and after a gbi»rt tfilenciS) r^ 
.sufniog 'life and spirit, talked wMias modi eoMpesore 4M 
uimaii aad at icogth, wearetoWi appointed- te receive th^ 
.saerament the evetting before his dsatb, whieh a ^elirkiitt 
that never went off preiFen ted' hnn from doiag. 
I A blind man moving in tbesphciie .of a matbeitiaifcian^ 
seems a pbemoroeaoa diAcult to be aooonnted'for, ^nd'hats 
.excited tbe admiration of every age i«i which it* baa appear^ 
.ed. Tully oventions ic as a' thing s^aree credible in bib- eWa 
maafter in pbiiosopbyy Diodotes, that *^ be exercised feim^ 
seif io that science wttrb mptfe assiduity after he became 
Mind ; end, wbaa he thooght almost impossible to be done 
without sight, that be described his gaometrieal dia^anis/ 
so expressly to his «ohb)ars, tbat they conkl draw every 
line in its proper direotion." Jerome relates a more remark^ 
able iusUmce in Didymsia of Alexahdriay wbo,^^ though 
blind from his infimcy, and therefore ignorant df the very 
letters, appeared ao great a miracle to the worlds -^4 ivot 
onlyto leani logic, but geometry also, to psrfeetiovi) 'Which 
seems the most of any thing to require the bel^ of 'sij^^bt'/* 
But, if we consider that tbe ideas of extended quart^M!^ 
whiob atie tbe chief objects of laatbematies, tiiayias welt'b^ 
acquired fixHn the sense of feeling, as that^-of sight ^ ^bat' )i 
fixed and stea^ attention is the principal quatlfkftitKXl^fot 
this study; and that tbe. blind are by hece&sily «ieve'<abx 
strac^tcd than others, for which reason Democrhusis«aid 
to have pat out his eyes^ that iie might tbink< Hiore kt^ 
tensely; we shall perhaps be of opiaiott, tbat ^tbere'isil^ 
other bfanch of science bmter adaptckt to their elrcutti*- 
stanees. ...,-/■.■'.> 

It was by the sense of feeling, that S a e w d c»a oir acquln^d 
most of his ideas aa- first ; md tMa he e^oyed in great 
acuteaees and perieotion, as it comsaoniy happetlstoith^ 
bland, whether by tlie gift, of natere, or/ as4!; iridr6 pi^ 
bable, by the neoessity of spplioartion.' Yet lie couId*n6t> 
as sQme.haueiBiagine<l> and^as Mr. Bd^^e was toad^t^ h^ 
Urre of a blind man at Macstridit, distinguish colo^vs b|y 
that sense ; and, haviag made repeated triak, he Hied to 
say» it was pretending to impossibilities. But^ he eduld 
-# . . • . • . •''',' 

Stated oa. the learacd university, on ,they h»ve put in $aqod«r9oii» wba t)«« 

U beinp elfttied to fill ihe tuca jiaa "lieves 16 no GoJ at »ir/> Mouth. Rcf. 

ttlaaiu.iaiMy s»tB imsif4 o<itWbi».> vo1.XX£Vr. ' 

U^i i9f ,M^^ W ia :bav«i^ Ood « u^A. 



8 ^ U N D £ R 80 N. 175 

• 

fAhk gtetit^ nieeisy and exftctness discern tbe leafltdHForeitoe 
ofir(Higb and iMnooth in afturface^ of the least defect 6f po- 
Ij^ti.. ^Tbiks he disuttguisbed ia a set of Roman medals tbe 
l^uia^ from tb^ false, ihoii|^'tbey had been cobfnterfeiited 
«wiUit »<u:b eMcUiess as to deceive a camioisMur who bsd 
j udged by the eiye. His seo^e of feaUng^^ wfta very aocuraie 
•aifk^ \m dUtingaiiibmg the kast variatioo m the atinosphere ; 
ARd he bsfl been aeen in a gardeiry wbea obBenrations hav^ 
been making on the sm^. to take noiioe of ev«i*y cloudi that 
AOjfieotupied the observationt aioiost as justly as -they who 
ixviiid see it. He.ooulA tell wben any obji69twlLah6ld nearUs 
im^fOt when. be parsed by a tcee a« no great distance^ ^ro^ 
ividtfd tbere tiKSa a culm^aiir^ aod Uttle or do wind: th^e^hb 
4idi by .the dlffeeent pulae ^f tk^ ait- n^ou iiia face. 
, An e^ct and refined ear is > what saeh are eommonty 
bk^saed with who are deprived of their eyesi; aod oua prot^ 
ifesaoiT'was perhapa infecior to none in tbe eKcetlenee of his. 
tie coukl readily distinguish €o tbe fifth part of It note ; and, 
by bis perfora)a0ce ontbeflute^ wbicb behad learncat an 
f|rii^iiuaemeot:iA his younger year^, discovefed sach a ge»- 
ni^afor DQtQsky aa^ifbebad cultivated the art, would* faaTe 
]i^iK>tHibJ|y appeared as wonderful aa bis skill in tiie matbei- 
H^liesi J^bis qaickoesa in tbm sense he not^only dbain- 
gyj^be^ persons ( with Jwhoni he had ever once coh versed ae 
^^agijaSi^G^^ fix. ^in bia memory -the aound ' of libeir voie^ but 
inaooi^eraneasHise places also. He could judge of «be siee 
Ot.a roomy intaiifbtcb.he was introduced, of the diatanee 
be wAarfromi tbe wall:; and if ev^r be had walked oveir a 
pavea»aat in-otMirtSy piaazas, &c« whioh reflected a Mood; 
afid was afterwards oondueted thither agatik, be^ eoald 
exactly tell whereabouts in the walk he was placed, merely 
bjr tbf» aqie<it aoaaded. 

t.. There watseaacely any plart of the mathcmatica oh which 
b^ibad nQtiyxineDsomediing for the use o^ his pupih i but 
bevdiwofi^red no inteolion of publishing any o€ bis worhi- 
^iU 1733*) 37biaiv hi& friends^ alarmed by a ^leat f^vet 
.tb«it bad threatened. his life, and unwilling thatiua labeuta 
sboiibi bei 1qi^ to tbe'worldy impoftnned him to spare somi 
ij^aitf^ from^ bjua lectucesi and to amploy it in finishing somtt 
Af, bis WMrkfi ^ wbtoh be might leai-e behind him«t aa a ya« 
lu^ble legacy both to his family and the public. He yielded 
sb fat tor these entreaties as to coThpose in a.shoi*t timet)1i 
^^ Aleniehts of Algebra ;'' which be left perfect,, and 4faa9 
scribed fair for tbe press. It was^ published by subseriptitrti 



176 8 A U N D E R S O N. 

at Cambridge, 1740, in 2 vols. 4tQ^ with a good meuo- 
tiBto print of ih^ author, and an account of his life and 
character prefixed. 

SaundersoQ entertained' the moot profound veneration for 
sir Isaac Newton. If he ever diSeredjn sentiment froni 
any thing hi sir Isaac's tnathematical and phitosophical tfvU 
tings, upon more mature consideration^ he said, he always 
found the mistake to be his own. The more 1^ read his 
works, and observed upon nature, the more reason he found 
to admire the iustness and care as well as happiness of ex- 
pression, of that incomparable philosopher. Saundersoa 
left many other writings, tbongh none perhaps prepared 
for the press; Among these were some valuable comments 
on the ** Principia,'' which not only explain the more diffi- 
cult parts, but often improve upon ibe doctrines ; these 
are published, in Latin, at the end of his posthumous 
^* Treatise on Fluxions,*' a valuable work, which appeared 
in 1756, 8vo. His manuscript lectures too on most parts 
of aatural philosophy, might, in the opinion of Dr. Hutton, 
who has perused them, form a considerable volume, and 
prove an acceptable present to the public.^ 

8AURIN (Elias), a protesunt divine, was born August 
28, 1639, at Usseaux, in the valley of Pragelas on the * 
frontiers of Dauphiny, where his father officiated aft minis- 
ter. He was himself appointed minister of Venterole in 
1661, of Embnin in 1662, and would have been shortly 
chosen professor of divinity at Die, but meeting acciden- 
tally with a priest who was carrying the host to a sick per- 
son, he would not take off his hat. This trifle, ^s might ^ 
be expected in a popish country, was so much Msented, 
that Saurio found it necessary to retire into Holland, where : 
he arrived in June 1664, was appointed minister of the 
Walloon church at Delft the following year, and had a great 
share in deposing the famous Labadie. In 1671 i he was 
invited to be minister of the Walloon church at Utrecht, 
where he became very celebrated by his works, and had 
some very warm disputes with Jorieu, which were the sub* 
ject of much oonversation ; but he is said to have satisfac- 
torily answered the charge of heresy which that author 
brought against him. Saurin died unmarried at Utrecht, 
April 8, 1703, aged sixty ^four, leaving the following works:, 

1 Life prefixed to his Algebw—Msnia's Mk§. i>liilM.^ni9g. Jiril* 
nent^ toI. VlL-^HattOn's Diaiouary, 



S A U R I N. 177 

* 

m <^ ^xamihation of M. Jurieu*s Theology/* 2 toIs. Svo^ 
in which he treats of several important questions in divinity ; 
^ l(eflections on the Rights of Conscience/' against Jurieu^ 
tend Bayle*s Philosophical Commentary; a treatise on *^he 
Love of Crod/' in which he supports the doctrine of dlsin*^ 
terested love \ and another on the '' Love of our Neigh- 
bours,*' &c.* 

SAURIN (James), a very celebrated preacher, was the 
ion of an eminenX protestant lawyer, and was born at Nismes 
in 1677. His father retired, after the repeal of the edict 
of Nantz, to Gcnieva, at which place he died. Saurin 
made no small progress in his studies, but abandoned them 
for some time, that he might follow arms. In 1694, he 
made a campaign as a cadet in lord Galloway's company, 
and soon afterwards procured a pair of colours. But as 
soon as the duke of Savoy had concluded a peace with* 
France, Saurin quitted a profession for which he never was ' 
designed; and, on his return to Geneva again, applied 
himself %o philosophy and divinity, under Turretin and 
other professors. In 1700, he visited both Holland and 
Eoglaad. In this last country he remained five years, and 
preache'd among the French refugees in Londoif. Here 
also be married in 1703, and returifed to the Hague in 
1705. Soon ajfter. he became pastor to the church of 
French refugees, who were permitted to assemble in the 
chapel belonging to the palace of the princes of Orange -at 
the Hague, in which he officiated during the remainder of 
his life. When the princess of Wales, afterwards queen 
Caroline, passed through Holland on her way to England, 
Saurin had the honour of paying his respects to her, and 
she, upon her return, desired Dr. Boulter, the preceptor to 
prince Frederic, the father of the present king, to write 
kd Saurin, to draw iip a treatise '^ on the education of 
princes.** The work was done, but never printed, and the 
autboir received a handsome present from the princess; and 
afterwards a pension fron^George II. to whom he dedicated 
a voluikie of his sermons. Saurin died Dec. 30, 1730. He 
possessed great talentsi with a fine address, and a strong, 
clear, and harmonious voice» while bis style was pure, un- 
affected, and eloquent* His principles were what are called 
moderate Calvinism* Five volumes of his sermons have 
madf: (beiff appearawM at different times; the first in 1709^ 

1 CNtt fcp is . ■JJa r a r L— JWct> Hist. 
VOU XXVIL N 



17J5 S A U R I N. 

the second in 17129 the third some years after, the fourtk 
in 1722, and the fifth in 1725. , Since bis deat^i, the ser- 
mons relating to the passion of' Jesus Cb^ist,^ and other 
snbjects, were published in two volumes. In 1727 be 
published "The State of Christianity in France.**. 

But his most considerable work was, " Discourses histo* 
rical, critical, and moral, on the most memorable Events of 
the Old and New Testament.** His first intention was to 
have published a set of prints, with titles and explanations ; 
but, as that had been before executed by Fontaine ajziopgst 
the Roman catholics, and by Basnage amongst the prote$-» 
tants, it became necessary to adopt a newer plan. This 
gave rise to the work above mentioned, which the author 
left imperfect. Two volumes made their appearance in 
folio, and the work was afterwards reprinted in four in 8vo« 
Six other discourses form a part of a fifth volume in Svo^ 
published by Mr. Roques, who undertook a continuation of 
the work. It is replete with learning. The Christian and 
the heathen authors, philosophers, poets, historians, and 
critics, are cited with the utmost profusion, and it forms a 
compilation of all their sentiments on every subject dis- 
cussed throughout the work. The author shews himself to 
be a warm advocate for toleration ; apd, though the catho- 
lics are more frequently censured than commended^ yet 
his principles are very moderate. '^ A Dissertatip^ on t^ 
Expediency of sometimes disguising the Trutji*" .rai^e4 a 
clamour against the author, the fury of whicl^ he had not 
power to appease. As an historian, he believed thaC ne 
was permitted to produce the chief argumeii|;sof those that 
maintain, that in certain cases truth may be disguised j and 
the reasons which they gave who have asserted the contrary. 
Without deciding the question, it is easy to perceive th^t 
he is a favourer of the former. .His principal antagonist 
was Armand de la Cbapelle ; to whom Francis Michael Ga- 
nicon replied with great spirit, in a work, entitled ^'Lettres 
86rieuses & jocoses." The three first of the lettres, m the 
.second volume, are in favour of Skurin. He was answered 
by La Chapelle with great violence. Saurin imagined, that 
he should be able to terminate, this dispute by reprinting the 
dissertation separately, with a preface in defence of his 
assertions: but he was deceived; for La Chapelle pub-. 
ILshed a very long and scurrilous reply. It was Saurin^s 
intention entirely to have neglected this production ; but 
he found a new champion in FrMci9 Bruy^ This dispute 



S A U R I N. 179 

Vras ^t leDgjth brought before the synod of Gaoapen; whoy 
in Mfiy 1730, <^rdere4 the churches of Utrecht, Leydeii, 
and Auist^rdaiTii, to make their examinations^ and report 
the result of them to the synod .of the Qague, which was to 
sit in the September following. Commissaries were ap* 
pointed for this purpose. The synod of CampetQ gave, its 
opinion, and that of the Hague confirmedjt.: buti.h^viog 
made no mention of the instructions sent to the Walloon 
church at Utrecht, that assembly complained, and ordered 
Mr. Bon.voust, one of its ministers, to justify his -proc(^ed- 

' ings and his doctrine. This he did in a large oqtavo vo- 
lume, printed at tJtrecht in 1731, after ^he death of Sau- 
rin, entitled " The TriutDjih of the Truth and Peace; or, 

' Kcflections on the most important Events attending the last^ 

^j nod assembled to determine in. the case of. Messieurs 
Saurin and Maty/* Saurin had contributed to tliis peace^ 
by giving such a oeclaration of his sentiments as satisfied 

' the protcstant churches ; and lie repeated that declaratioQ, 
when he foresaw that the new lights, which Mr. Brqys had 

'thrown u,pon this subject, were going to raise a stoi^m iJ^at 
might perhaps have been severer than the last.. Saiirin!s 

tsermons are now well known in this country by the. selec- 
iions translated into English, and published in 1775 — 1784, 

By the rev. Robert. Robinson, 5 vols. 8vq, to which Dr. 

TfenryfluDter added a sixth volume in 1796.' 

SAURJN (JpsEPit), a French mathema.tician, was born 

^lu l^^'j!^ at Courtuson, in the principality of Orange. He 

wa^ educated by his father, and was at a very early age.made 

?^ I'minister at Eur^in Dauphiny. But he was (compelled to 
etirp to Geneva in 1683, in consequence of having given 
6nence in a sermon, which he afterwards heightened at 
jDorne by preaching against some of the established doc^^ 
triij^ of the church. He then withdrew to Holland, but 
was so.i)I received by his, brethren, that he determined to 
itirn Roman catholic;, with this design, in 2 690 he went to 
Faris^ and made an abjuration of his supposed errors under 
the famous Bossuet, rather, it is believed, to have an op- 

f»ortunity of pursuing bis studies unmolested at Paris than 
ron^ any motives of conscience or mental conviction. After 
this he had a pension from the king, and was admitted a 
member of the academy of sciences in 1707, as a geome* 
trician. The decline of Saurin^s life was spent in the peace- 

- ^ ^ lAfd by Robinsoo prefixed ta hit Seratons.^-Cbaufepif. — ^Moreri. 

N 2 



180 S A U R I I^; 

9 

able proseentton of his mathetnatical studies, ^ccnlomXlf 
interrupted by literary controversies wiih Rousseau and 
others. He was a man of a daring and impetuous spirit^ 
and of a lofty and independent mind. SauriQ died at Paris 
In 1737. Voltaire undertook the vindication of his memory, 
but has not |>een sufficiently successful to clear it from every 
unfavourable impression. It was even said he had been 
guilty of crimes, by bis own confession^ that oaght to have 
been punished with death. 

Saurin*s mathematical and philosopbieal papers printed 
in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, which are 
numerous, are to be found in the volumes for the years foU 
lowing; viz. 1709, 1710, 1713, 1716, 1718, 1720, 1722, 
1723, 1725, 1727. He left a SOI), who aoqoired some re- 
putation as a dramatic writer and lyric poet.* 

SAUSSAY (Andrew du), doctor of law and divinity, 
curate of St. Leu, at Paris, official and grand vicar in th6 
same city, and afterwards bishop of Toul, was born about 
1595, at Paris. He was preadier in ordinary to Louia XHL 
who had a great esteem for him, and by whose pcder he 
Wrot^ the ^* Martyrologinm Gallicanum,'' 1636, 2 vols. fol. 
M. du Saussay succeeded Paul de Fiesque in the diocese of 
Toul, 1649, and discovered great zeal in the government 
of bis church, and died September 9, 1675, at Taul» aged 
eighty. He left many works besides that above mentioned* 
which contain great learning, but shew very little oritical 
knowledfife.* 

SAUSSURE (Horace Benedict de), an eminent na- 
turalist, was born at Geneva in 1740. His father, an. en- 
lightened agriculturist, to whom we are indebted for some 
essays on rural economy, resided at Couchea, on the banks 
of the Arve, about half a league from Geneva. Botany was> 
his Brst study, and this made him acquainted with Haller, 
whom he visited in 1164', during his retreat at BeK,. He 
was further excited to study the vegetable kingdom ia con- 
sequence of his connection with C. Bonnet, who married 
his aunt, and who soon discovered the talents of his nephew. 
Bonnet was then engaged in eicaminiiig the leaves of plants; 
Saussure^also turned his attention to these vegetable organs^ 
and published ** Observations on the Skin of Leaves^^ about 
the year 1760. 

At this time the professorship of philosophy at Geneva; 

> Chattfepie.— HuttOD'fi Dictionar j. < Nfceroa, vol. ^L.— Diet, Hi«U 



6 A U S S tr R E. 1«1 

f 

f^ecame vacant, and Saussure, who was then only twenty- 
one, obtained the chair. While. in ihU office, be com* 
menced bis journeys anwng the mouDtaioa, to eKaouoe ibe 
«abstBnces of which the elevated ridges of our globe are 
cooiposed, and during the first fifteen of twenty years of 
his profesiorsbip, be was alternately enploy/sd ia fulfilling 
i)ie duties which kis aitttation iia{>08ed, and in iraversing 
ib0 ^iffereot mmntains in the neighbourhood of Geneva. 
Ha even ^swnttod bis excursions on one side to the Rhine, 
and on the other to Piedmonl. About this time, too, he 
traveUcd toAuvergfiev fbr the purpose of examiufng some 
«Ktingaisrhed /v^huuios ; and sofon after he undertook a tour 
to Paria^ HoiUoid, -England, Italy, and Sicily, (a these 
journeya his eonsAaut object u»s ilie study of nature. He 
idwaya carried with him the instruments necessary for ob*> 
aervations, and never set out without having formed for 
hhnself a iiegular plan of- experiments. 

In V719, he published' tlie first volame of ^* His Travels 
in ihe Alj^sy^' which contains a detailed description of the 
. environs of Geneva, and an account of an excursion as far 
as Chamouni^ a village at the foot of Mont-Blaoc. All 
ivaturalists have read with pleasure the description he has 
gii^ny in this volume, of his Magnttcmetre, The more he 
^8amiaed 'the 'mountains, the more be felt the importance 
of mineralo^ : to enable him to study this branch of science 
with atill greater advantage, he learnt the German langOage. 
The new m literal ogioal knowledge which he acquired may 
be easily seeil by comparing the latter volume of his travels 
with the first. 

In the midst of his mimerovs excursions in the Alps, and 
«ven during the time of the troubled politics of Geneva in 
1782/ he found epportunitiea to make faia bygrometrical 
expevimeiits, the resvlt of which he published in 1783, 
iMnitf the titleof "Kssays on Hygrometry." We are in- 
debted to biiH for -the invention of the hygrometre, altbough 
Deluc bad aiready invented his whalebone hygrometre, 
which occasioned a dispute between him and Saussure. In 
1786, be gave xtp his professorship in favour of his disciple 
Pictct* The second volume of the^Travels of Saussure was 
published in 1786 ; and contains a description of the Alps, 
which suvroand Mont-Blanc. Some years after the publi- 
cation of this volume, Saussure was received as a foreign 
associate in the academy of sciences at Paris; but our au- 
thor not only honoured^ but was desirous of serving his 



182 S A U S S U It E. 

country. He fofunded the Society of Arlt, to wblch Ge-» 
neva i$ greatlyindebced, and presided in this society ti» 
the very last, its prosperity being one of his principal obi 
jeet^. He also shewed his zeal to 'serve bis country while 
be was member of the Council of B'ive Hundred, and of 
the National -Assembly of Fran<»e. It wa»from hi« assidu^ 
ous labour in that Afisetnbly that his heakh iirsr began ta 
fail ; and in 1794 a paralytio stroke deprived^ bad of the use 
of one side of his body. It was, howeveit, afte^ tfaisracci*- 
dent that he drew i>p the two lastvolcmiesof bi^ TrarelB^ 
wbich appeared in 179^6. They contain an account of hid 
trayds in the ittoontains of Pic^dnvont; djfwitzerlandyand in- 
particular of bis ascent to the samrmit of Motit Blaiic. 

He gave the last proof of bis attashmiaiit to sci«)ce im 
publishing the *^ Agendd,*'' #hich <£ooipletes tbe foiirtfa vo«« 
lume. Daring his illness he ^so published hisobserrationa 
^on the FusibHity of Sion6s with the Blowpipe;'* and he 
directed the.^' experimenis on the height of the bed ef the 
Arve.'' When he was^ at the baths of PkMnbieres for faifl^' 
health, he obsertped tlire mountains ac a distance^ 'and pro- 
cured specimens of the strata'he perceivcui iti the most ateep 
rocks. 'He bad announce to the public, thatheinteluiad 
to complete his travels by his ideas on the pvimitirei state oi 
the earth; but tbe more new facts W acquired, and' di^ 
more be meditated on this subject, the icss could viie det)er«4 
mine with regard to th6se great revolutiona which- have pre^* 
ceded the present epoeb« in general, hk was a Neptuoiasiy' 
that is to say, be attributed to water the revoluitions of thla 
globe. He admitted it to b^ possible that elastic iioids, iri 
disengaging ' themselves from the cavities, migbt-^ raise 
mountains. .  .< 

' Though his health was gradually ioapairod by degiiees, 
he still retained the hope of re-e»tablisiiing it, butiitrengdi 
and life forsook him by slow and pain&il step% and be dleok 
March 22, 1799, lamented by 'bis family and bk coiidtry.^ 

SAUVAGE8 (Francis Boiwier be), tbe ibvento^of 
modern nosology, was born at Alais, in Ltivwer l.anguedocv 
May 12, 1706. He appears to baue owed little to his Arsi: 
tutors, bat bis own talents enaUed him to make a rapid 
progress in literature and philosophy. With a view  to 
study physic, be went to Montpetlier in I122y and received 
the degree of doctor in 1726; The thesis which be de«« 

1 i(«ife by ^Diicbieri a most extravagant panegyric. 



•S A U V A GE S. 183 

fended )on- this ocoasion'wfui on a singular subjeot, '^ Si I'a* 
notiT'peuft fftre 'gu6ri par les remedes tirds des plantes?** 
T6 determiqe whether jove can be oured by herbs seema 
rmfaer a trial of skill, tban a serious discussioo. It procured 
kifn^ howe^rar^* due name, of the love-doctor, and it is said 
that be wrote same poems oo the same subject. lu 1730, 
be went, to Paris with' a > view to farther improvement 
in bis profeMlioo, and afterwards returned to Montpel- 
liefy where* be obtaiited a profelsorship in 1734. His re- 
putetioa foir ingenuity of specula^^ion and extensive reading 
for some 'time retarded his practice, but these speculationa 
were not allowed much w<eight in the treatment, of his pa- 
tients. In 1740, be was appointed demoAstrator of the 
piaots inthe botatoic garden, and in 1752 be was made pro- 
fisssor of 'bottmy^ He married in l'74$f and had two sons 
and« feardaaghtersy who survived himj A serious disease, 
whi^h continued nearly twa years, proved fatal in the midst 
of hia useful and' honourable career, in the month of F^*^ 
bnnary, i767> • in She sixty-first year of big age. 

8auvages was much* loved by bis pupils, to whom be 
epmmnniaated freely all that he knew, fiod • received witli 
Aqpial readiness whatever information at^y one waa ensd>led 
to give' him* He was an able matbematician, an, accurate 
obteiNrePof pbe^omena^ and ingeniotts indeviaing ex.peri- 
mflOtS';'biut< bad too much bias to systems, so that .he did 
BOttfdivays consuk facts umnfluenced by prepossessipjo. He 
waa a. member of the most learned societies of Europe^ viz. 
of: the Royal 'Society .of Loftdon, of those of Berlin, U.psa^ 
Stockholm, asid »MontpeUier^ of the Academy- ^ Natursa 
GuoDsorum^^' of the.Physioo-Botanica.1 Academy of Flo- 
rence, and of the Institute of Bologna. He obtained tb# 
piiaes given by- many public bodies to . the best essays on 
gtiflrensufageots;- and a colleotion^ of these pri^e^e&sajs waa 
poUishedat l:.yoos in 1770, in two volumes, with the title 
of ^ Chef d^CEuivces deM.de Sauvsges.'* 
• His- worbs <were very nameious on various medical si|b- 
jeots^ ^and be published a .valuable botanical work, '^ Me- 
tfaodus foliorum, seuPlantde Flors Monsp^liensisjuxtaibUo^ 
fum sordineiD,"' ooAloivtting about 300 planta, omitted in 
Magnol's >^ Botanicon Moiispeliense ;'' but that on which bis 
fame naost depends was hijs aystem of nosology. This was 
psteededby a small work^ entitled f Nouvell^s clashes das 
Maladies,^' &c. 1732, 12mo; and after considering the 
subject for thirty years, he produced hii eomplete systemj 



m S A U V A G E 8. 

f^ Nosologic^ methodical fiis^fos morborum chi9s^gi9M/SiB^ 
et species/' &c. M63y B voUt.BvQ, and aft^r ^^ d^(ft^ 
1768, 2 vols. 410. Siace th^ appearance of thU ,vfOTJk, tbe 
^ubj/^ct bas .b^en abiy jcjuluvated by Lion^eus, bj.V^g.e]^ by 
^flgar, and lastly, by Dr, Ci^Uen, to wbqjfC ^fiiRgeaiMt 
ipany give die prpference.' 

,. SAU V£;UR (Jos£«PU), an emioent French mathemiitiiliaA 
was born at La Fieche, Search 24, 1632, De ^^asi ^otaUy 
djumb^ till he vyas seven year« of .age -^^ and ever* af)^r wa» 
obliged to spe^k very slowly aad with diffiqulilgrt v file v^jf 
^ar]y discovered a great tura for mech^nics» ai^d when 4eni 
to t^e college of the Je^i^s to learn poliiie. literature, n^ada 
very little .progvess, but read with greediness, booka of 
arithmetic and geooiejtry. He was» however^ prevaiWd on 
to^o to Paris in 1670^ and| being io tended for tbp eburob^ 
applied . hijEDself for a tiene to the study of philosophy and 
theology; but mathematics was the only study, he culU« 
ifated with any success; and during his course of .philoso* 
phy, he learxicd the first six books of Euclid iQ.tbe space .o| 
a month, without the help of a master. .:•.«• 

. As he had an impediment in his voice, he W9iS ^dvMed i 
M« Bossuet) to give up the church, and to apply hi 
to the study of physic : but this being against tihc),if)flUlia«^ 
lion of his uncle^ from whom he drew bis prin^^alii^ 
sources, Sauveur determined to devote himself to ki^Jh^ 
vpurite, $tudy» so as to be able to teach it far bis< suppi^t* 
This scheme succeeded so well, that he soon bQC«9^ tb€| 
fpishiouable preceptor m mathematics, and at twenty-ltoee 
years of age be had prince Eugene for bis soholar.^H^Hir 
had not yet Dead the geometry of Des Cartas; bul^ a 
foreigner of the. first quality desiring to be taught U^ be 
made himaelf master ot it) in an iuconcelvably sm^U spae^j 
of time*-*- Basset being a fashionable game, at tbat.tijmr 
the marquis of Dangesu asked him for some.calciilatioiM 
relating to it, which gave such satisfaction, *tbat <SiMiveur 
bad the honour to explain them to the king andquee^* . 

In 1681 he was sent with M. Mariotte to ChaQtilli, to 
make some experiments upon the waters therey in wbichi 
he gave great satisfaction. The frequent visits be made 
to this^place inspired him with the design of writing a-trea* 
Use on. fortification ; and, ia order to join practice with 
theory^ h^ went to the siege of Moots in 1691| where be 

^ ]p:ioy, Diet. Hist, de Medicme.— Diet. Hist. 



S A U V E U R. 18« 

pMSneA all the while in the trenches. With the same 
T^ewalso he visited all the towns of Flanders ; and on his re- 
turn he became the mathematician in ordinary at the cour^ 
with a pension for life. In 1680 he had been chosen to 
leaoh mathematics to the pages of the Danphiness. In 
1686 be was appointed mathematical professor in the Royal 
College. And in 1696 admitted a member of the Academj 
of Sciences^ wliere he was in high esteem with the mem- 
bers of that society. He became also particularly ac^ 
quainted with the prince of Cond^, from whom he received 
many marks of favour and affection. In 1703, M. Vaubsua 
having been made marshal of France, he proposed Sau* 
Veur to the king as his successor in the office of examiner 
of the engineers ; to which the king agreed, and honoured 
bim with a pension, which our anthor enjoyed till hit 
deaths which happened July 9^ 1716, in the sixty-fourth 
y^ar of bis age. 

Sauvetir was of an obliging disposition, and of a good 
fempev; bumble in his deportment, and of simple manners. 
He was twice married. The first time he took a precaution 
flOtorelikea mathematician than a lover; for he would not 
Aieot the lady till he had been with a notary to have the 
conditions he intended to insist on, reduced into a written 
form; for f^r the sight of her should not leave him eitough 
roaster of himself. He had children by both his wives; 
and bji^ the latter a son, who, like himself, was dumb for 
tbe fivst seven years of his life. 

An extraordinary part of Sauveur's character is, that 
didiigh be had neither a musical voice nor enr, yet he 
studied no science more than music, of which he composed 
an entire new system. It was be also who first invented tbe 
knon^hord and the echometer. He pursued h2s researches 
even to th^ music of the ancient Greeks and Romans, to 
tbe Arabs^ and to the very Tt^rks nnd Persians themselves; 
and WHS the Inventor of the term Atousticsy now generally 
adopted to signify the theory of sounds and their proper*^ 
ties. But Dr. Burney does not speak very highly of som« 
of his musical theories. 

Stluyeor^s writings, which consist bf pieces rather than 
of set works, are all inserted in tbe volumes of tbe memoira 
of tbe Academy of Sciences, from 1700 to 1716, on vari- 
ous geometrical, matbematical, philosophical, and tmisical 
subjects.^ 

1 Kioerra, toK IV^^-Huttoa's fiict,^Baraey's Hist. Qf Muiic« 



ise SAVAGE. 

SAVAGE (Henry), an English divine, was bcrn iboat- 
1604, of a good family,- in the parish- of Eldsfield, Wor^ 
eestershire. He entered of Bialiol college, O^fbi-d, asa 
Commoner in 1621, took the degree of B. A. in Nor. 1625/ 
in 1624 was made probationer fe))o«r, and in I6S0 com*-' 
pleted his master's degree. On the commencement of the 
rebellion, be travelled into France with Williatti Idrd 
Sandys^ whose sister, the lady Mary, he afterwards mar-* 
ried. Soon after bis return he obtained the mastership dt 
his college, Feb. 20, ]650> being at chat time bttcbelOf'bf 
ilKvinity, and next* year took his doctor's degree iti' the 
same faculty. Notwithstanding this -^compliance with the" 
usurping powers,' he. was, on the restoration, madeehap-i 
lain in ordinary to bis majesty, prebendary of Glonc^ester 
in 1665, and rector of Bladbn near Woodstock in Oxford^ 
flhire. He died, master of Baliel college, June 2, 1673, 
and was buried in the chapel. /* 

Dr. Savage had a controversy with John Tombes, on in- 
fant baptism, and with Dr. CornelinsBorges on ohwrchw 
reformations, which produced some pamphlets of little 
consequence now ; bis principal work was \\i& Mstory ^P 
Balliol college, entitled *• Balliofergus, <H<'«i commentary 
upon the foundation, founders, and affoirs of Balliol coN' 
lege,'^ 1668^ 4to. Wood says, he had no natural genj^f^ 
a work of this kind^ and has committed ma^vy bliitMdfs^ 
and it may be added,- that his style is uncommonly Vdgue,*' 
diffusive, and pedantic. His aim was to appear gre^tln" 
little things, and the gravity with which he didtusf^slhe' 
origin, derivation, &c. of the name Katheri<n«, wketbei'it' 
should be spelt with a R or a G, at what tioi^ the ietter'^ 
was introduced, and the double i in BaUio), h truly'^ori-^' 
derfnl. By his wife, lady Mary iSandys, he left isdue 
Henry, Edwin, John, Katfaerine^ and 'Thoiiitati,' Md" iiad' 
buried two daughters in 1670 and 167), in St. Mary^Ma^v 
dalen^s church, Oxford. His 'widow dfc^* iti aniobacur^^ 
bouse in St» Ebbe's parish, between the cbunch arid We^- 
gate. May 15, 1683, and was buried in' St'Mairy^Magds* 
len's church.^ .» . . 

SAVAGE (John), D. D, the benevolent preaid^Mit of tb^ 
famous club at Royaton*, and, as Mr. Cole says, the wAy 

^ Of Ibis club» see an acconot by the list of membera, we fiod lUlpln 

Mr. Gough ill Gent. Mag. LIII.' p. Freeman and Chrlsropher Anstey, both 

814. Dr. Sarage, however, was not B. D. The club likewise h'ad its cl|ap» 

the only clergyman belonging to it. In lam, and a welUstored wine-cellar ! 

> Atb. Ox. vol. lI.-*Chabnen*t HuL of Ozf.— Wood's MSS. ia Mat. AihmoU 



S A V A G E. IS7 

olergjiQRn ever admitted into it, was a member of Ema* 
nuei college^ Cltmbndge» where be took bis degrees, and 
was D. D. of both universities. He was rector, first of 
Bjrgr^ve, then of Clotball, Herts, and lecturer of St. George, 
Banover^square, -London. In his younger days be had 
traiFelled wi4b James, fiftb earl of Salisbury, who gave him 
the great liviag of Cloihell, where Dr. Sa?age rebuilt the 
rectpry^house. In his niore advanced years he was so 
lively, pleasaf)ti and facetious, that he was oaUed the 
^^Anstippus^' of the age. One day, at the levee, Qeorsre L- 
asked bim, << How- long be had stayed at Rome with lord 
Sajiisbury ?" . Upon his answering b<m kmg, *^ Why,'' said 
the. king, ^< you stayed long euough, why did you not 
convert the Pope?*' ^' Because^ sir," replied be, ^' I had 
nothing beiter to offer him.'' Having been bred at West*- 
mtnster, he bad always a great fondness for the school, at* 
tended at all their plays and elections, assisted in all their 
public exercises, grew young again, and, among boys, 
was a great boy himself. He used to attend tbe schools, 
to furnifib tbe lads with extempore epigrams at the elections* 
I)e di^d March 24, 1747, by a fall down the stairs belong* 
i^g to tb<3«Aca£folding for lord Lovat's trial ; and the king's 
scholars liad so great a regard for him, that, after his de- 
o«fl8e^ tbey made a collection among themselves, and, at 
their own* charge, erected a small tabjet of white marble to 
hi4- memory in the East cloister, with a Latin inscription. 
Besides a visitation and an. assisse sermon, Mr. Cole attri- 
biAlf s the following works to him : 1 • ^^ The Turkish His* 
t(H'y by Mr. Koolles and sir Paul Rycaut abridged,*' 1701, 
2 voUi'SvOf Tinb was shewn to sir Paul, who approved of 
it so muohy that he designed to have written a preface to 
it^. bad not death prevented him. 2* '^ A CollectioD of 
li^tiserB^ofthefAiicientSy whereby is discovered tbe morality, 
gallaiutry, tirit, hiwnour, manocr of arguing, and in a word 
the ^nius of tha Gte^ aikl Romans," l7oa, 8vo.' 

•SAVAGE (BJ€Hard)i an eminent instance of the use« 
le^sn^l^and ii4signifioaMy of knowledge, wit, and geoios, 
without prudence and a proper regard to the commoa 
mattims.o£ (life), waa bojrn in 1698.- He was the sott of 
Ajine coantesa of Maqdeslield, by the eaclx)£ Rivers. He 
might have been considered as the lawful issue of the earl 
pf Mact^esfield ; but bis mother, in order to procure ^ 



}M SAVAGE. 

S6p9^ratipn from her husband, made a pablic^confi^ssion of 
adultery in this instauce. As soon as this spurious oflfspring 
^4s brought to.lighty the countess treated him with every 
kind of unnatural cruelty. She committed him to th^ care 
of a poor wofnany to educate ^ her own. She prevented 
the earl of Rivers from making him a bequest in his will 9^. 
6000/. by declaring him dead. She endeavoured to send 
him secretly to the American plantations ; and at last, to^ 
bury him in poverty and obscurity for ever, she placed him 
as an apprentice to a shoemaker in Holboro. About this 
time bis nurse died s and in searching her efFects^ which 
he imagined to be his right, he found some letter^ whicb 
informed him^of his birth, and the reasous for which it was 
concealed. He now left his low occupation, and tried 
every" method to awaken the tenderness, and attract the 
regard, of bis mother : but all his assiduity was witbput 
^ifect ; for be could neither soften her heart, nor open her 
baud, and. he was reduced to the miseries of want. By 
the care of the lady Mason, mother to the countess, he 
had been placed at the grammar-school atSt. Alban^ 
where he had acquired all the learning which his situation 
aJlowed ; and necessity now obliged him to become al^ 
a^Hhor. 

The first effort of his uncultivated genius was a pc^pi 
against Ijpadly, bishop of Bangor; of which th^ author 
ivas afterwardfi ashamed. He then attempted to writd fpr 
the stage, but .with little success : yet this atten^pt was at* 
tended with some advantage, as it introduced hi.m to tiie 
acquaintance of sir Kichard Steele and Mr. WiJks. Whilst 
h^ w^B in dependeDce on these gentlemen, he was an assi* 
duoua frf^queiner of the theatres, and never absent from a 
play in several years. In 1723 he brought a tragedy op 
tiie stage» in. which himself performed a part,^ the subject 
of which was V S|r Thomas Overbury.'* If.fve consldar 
the circumsUUVces. under which it was written, it wiU aRbrd 
atopce aouncoinmon proof of strength of genius, an(^ an 
e^femie^,^ ipind not to bAiruffled, Whilst he was em- 
ployed upon this work, he was without a lod^og, apd 
oftea Miiti)qu^,food ;i npr.had he any other conveniences for 
•tu4y than. tih($ ^eiUl^ qjc the st/eet; and, when he had 
ipt^ed a speech,, be, ^4)uld. step, into a shop^ and beg the 
«<^;^^fi BU"« inlii and paper. ,. The profits pf ,this play 
i^mpWAfd. to. about 290^.; ifjid it propurec} Wm the notice 
wrf^>#*^JR,9£>iW^y persons pr distii^c^iop, jsoime rays of 



I 



I 



SAVAGE. i^ 

genius glimmering through all the clouds of poteitj and 
oppression. But, when the world was beginning to be* 
hold him with a more favourable eye, n, misfortune befet 
him, by which'not only his reputaftbn, but his life, was in 
danger. In a night-ramble he fell into a coffee-hoase of 
ill-fame, hear Charing- Cross; when a quarrel happened, 
auid prie Mr. Sinclair was killed in the fray. Savage, with 
his companion, was taken into custody, tried for murder^ 
anU capitally convicted of the offence. His mother was so 
inhuman, at this critical juncture, as to use all means to 
prejudice the queen against him, and to intercept all the 
hopes he had of life from the royal mercy ; but at last the 
countess of Hertford, out of compassion, laid a true ac- 
count of the extraordinary story and sufferings of poor Sa- 
vage before her majesty ; and obtained his pardon. 

He now recovered his liberty, but; had no means of 8tJb'«« 
sistence; and a scheme struck him, by which hfe might 
compel his mother to do something for him, and extort 
that from her by satire, which she had denied to tfaturdl 
{iffection. The expedient proved successful; and lord 
Tyrconnel, on his promise to lay aside his design, received 
him into his family, treated him as his equal, and engaged 
to allow him a pension of 200/. a-year. In this gay period 
of life, when he was surrounded by affluence and pleastkre, 
he published "The Wanderer, a moral Poem," 17C9, 
which was approved by Pope, and which the author him- 
iself considered as his master-piece. It vx^as addressed t6 
Ihe earl of Tyrconnel, with the highest strains of panegy* 
ric. ' These praises, however, iti a short time, he found 
himself inclined to retract, being discarded by that noble- 
man on account of his imprudent and licentious behaviouf. 
He now thought himself again at liberty to expo^ the 
cruelty of his mother, and accordingly pubNshdd ** Th6 
Bastard, JBLpoem." This had an extraordinary sale : and, 
its appearance happening at a time when the countfesa ws^ 
at Bath, many persons there in her hearing todk freqnerit 
opportunities of repeating passages from it, ontll ^hatfid 
obliged her to quit tne place. 

Some time after this, Savage ft)rmed a reitoliition of ^p* 
plying to the queen : she had given him his life, and b^ 
hoped her goodness otiight enable him to support h. A« 
published a poem on her, birch-day, which hti dtftitled 
** The Volunteer Laurekt.*' She grfiicioasly seni hixti flftjf 
pounds^ wilh aa intiuution that beaug^htaDncialt^ t%p€fit 



I 



ido SAVAGE. 

the samd bounty. His conduct with regard to this pension 
iras very* characteristic ; as soon as he had received it/ he 
iuimediately disappeared, and lay for sotne time out of (be 
reach of his most intimate friends. At length he wa9'seen 
again, pennyless as before, but never inforihed any p^rs6n 
where be had been, nor was his retreat ever di^coviered. 
His perpetual indigence, politeness, and wit, stilhraisedhim 
new friends, as fast as bis misbehaviour lost him his old 
ones ; and sir Robert Walpoie, the prime minister, was 
warmly solicited in his favour. Promises were given, but 
ended in disappointment; upon which be published'' a 
poem in the •* Gentleman^s Magazine," entitled, ^^The 
Poet*s Dependence on a Statesman.'.' 

His poverty still increasing, he only dined by accident, 
'when he was invited to the tables of his acquaintance, frodi 
which the meanness of his dress often excluded him. Hav- 
ing no lodgings, be passed the night often in mean house$^ 
which are set open for any casual wanderers, sometimes iu 
cellars, amongst the riot and filth of the meanest and moit 
profligate of the rabble ; and sometimes, when he ws^ 
totally without money, walked about the streets till he was 
.weary, and lay down in the summer upon ^ bdlk, and, ^h 
the winter, with his associates in poveity, among the ashes 
of a glass-house. His distresses, however ^fflSctive^ 'neveV 
clejected him. In bis lowest sphere, his pride kept tip his 
spirits^ and set him on a level with those of the highest 
rank. He never admitted any gross familiarity^ or sob- 
mitted to be treated otherwise than as an equal, Ttii^ 
wretched life was rendered more unhappy, in J^SS, by 
the death of the queen, &nd the loss of his pension. His 
distress was now publicly known, and bis friends, there^ 
fore, thought proper to concert some measures for pj:'a- 
curing him a permanent relief. It was proposed that he 
should retire into Wales, with an allowance of 50/. per 
annum, to be raised by subscription, on which he was to 
live privately in a cheap place, and lay aside all his aspir- 
ing thotights. 

This offer he seemed to accept with great joy, and set 
outiin bis journey with fifteen guineas in bis purse. His 
friends and benefactors, the principal of whom was Pope^ 
expected now to hear of his arrival in Wales ; but, on the 
14th day after his departure, they were sui'prised with a. 
letter from him, acquainting them that he was yet upon 
the road, and without money, and could not proceed with^ 



SAVAGE. 191 

Outii,.r4(;mitt2^qce. TJbe mpney was aent, by which be was 
^labi^d xo rea(:h. Bristol f whence he was to go to Swansea 
hy wat^r,. (ie, could uot immediately obtain a passage^ 
and therefore was obliged to stay some time at Bristol ; 
^wbere, with bis usual facility^ be made ah a<cquaintaace 
;^itb!the. principal people^ and was treated witb all kinds «f 
<c^ility. At Ust \^ jreacbed the. place proposed for bis rfe* 

. fiideoce^ where be stayed, 9, year^ and completed a tragedy^ 
.in^bicb be bad b^gun in London* He was now desirous of 

..qt^mpg to town tq Wing it on the st4ge: but bis firieads, 
ao.d .particularly Pope^ wbo; was 'bis chief b^nefiictor, op- 
p^sed the.desig* very -strongly ;, and advised bim to put it 
into the bands of Thom^n apd Malleti to fit it for tbe 
staget ^"d to aUo.w bis friends to receive the profits, out of 
^wbicb an annual peijisioD should be paid bim. The pxopo* 
sail be r^ectedi quitted Swansea, and set off for London; 
buti at Bristol, a repetition of the.kindnesshe.had formerly 
foii.pdf ipvited bim .^ ^t^y. He stayed, so long, that by 
his' imprudence and misconduct be wearied out all' hi^ 
friends. |^is wit bad. lost its novelty ; and bis i^regdar 
beh^^viQury aUsdl^Ute hours, grew, very troubkfome to men 
of bif^nesis*^. His; n\9nay ws|s speDt» his clbaths wjorn oukp 
^nd.hi^t^h^bby appesMTjauce.made it diiEcuIt for bim to ob- 
tain ^ diuxfeiv Ueref however, he stayed, in tbe midst nf 
Pp^^''% hungei:i and conteo^pt^ till the mistress, of a oo0ea«* 
bou$e, to. whom^ be owed about SZ. arrested him for tho 
4eb.t. ^ H^ c^P'uld fi^id uo bail, and was therefore- lodged ia 
j>ri^on. . tfuriug bis confinement, . he began, and almost 
finished) a ^atire^ eiatitled ^^ Lo^oo and Bristol deJine* 
;^t«d ;*\iii ^i^der to be revenged op tbose who bad no moutt 
genj^x>sityjbb4n tp suffer a man, for whom they professed 
a-^i^afdy tp.l^nguisb in.a-gaol^or sosmfll a suip. 

Wb^fi be bad been six months in prij5oo,.be received s 
letter froiQ Pope, on whom his chLsf dependafice now 
rested, containing a charge of very atrocious ingratitude. 
Salvage returned a very solemn protestation of bis inno- 
cence ; and he appeared mucb disturbed at the accusation* 
][n a few days after, be was seized with a disorder, which 
at^rst was not suspected to be dangerous; but, growing 
daily more languid, and dejected, at last, a fever seizing 
faim, he expired, August 1, 1743, in bis forty»sixth year^. 
fuid was buried in the church-yard of St. Peter, at the ex- 
pence of the gaoler. Thus lived, and thus di^d, Richard 
Savage^ leaving behind him a character strangely chequered 



wilh.vii^ef^aD^ good <)i)alitie|, .,fh,W9$t Imw0|||i|^ iiii4oiii)t^ 

edly a oi^n bf excellenc parts ;.4||pHl». J^ he, a^qAwed t^j 
fulj benefits of a liberal. educaUoi^ aiid.]^ .bit iDaUtval^ 
talents been cuUivated to the b^ a4vanuige»' bo mgliti 
Iiave made a Respectable 6gare ia Ufe* .: I}e ma ba|II9 ^ 
an agreeable temper^ and a lively floiv of' wi^, wUcb oaiMte; 
his company macb <;pvefced ; nor waa Mai^jarigV^floty b#th 
of writings aud of tneo^ iof^ripr to bis fvit ; bM be .WMloO} 
inucb a slave to bis pasaio^s, and bi|i..p^Otta wtfwtoo^ 
easily excited. He wa^ warn ia hia /riafi4abi|iat kiHrMh^- 
placable in bis enmity^ and bis gi#atM(faiiW IvbicbMm'^'' 
deed the greatest of all faults, was iMgeatiMtfei*4i«i$6emtdi 
to think every thing du^ to bis W^At$ «p4 tku, he waa 
little obliged to any one foe tb^f&wura^bkbbetbeiigbtf 
it their duty to ponfer on.biin.: it ia ib ^rofo rt :lbe :lesl. 
to he wondered at, that he; oever tigbtly ettimtled ' Ibe 
kipdness of his many frieada aed beeefactboii or 'pm^... 
served a grateful and due senae of tbeir geDeMaky ne w e ri a 
bim. 

The works of this original writer) after. bairiagleeg faiit" 
dispersed in magazines and fugitive peblieatioiM, ,.weMft 
coUected aud published by T. Eraoa, bookaelkf/ iti tbei 
8traod, in an elegant edition iu two v^IdidjH^ MlMey ie>/ 
which are prefixed the admirable ^ Memeirs etf fliw a g e^^  
written by Dr. Samuel Johnson. They baveabiQeibeeaiki^^^ 
eorporated in the " English Poeta.** * . / *. % i 

SAVARON (JoHN)f a celebrated preaideni ee4 tfeoie^ i 
nant-general iu the senescbalsbip and p^eakKel eeutft oF^ 
Clermont io A uvergne, was bora 'there abiMititb^4Mgt»-; 
liing of the seventeenth century. He bad M eatenaiv^ •> 
knowledge of tbe belles lettres and law, udwni eiie'Of»tbe ^ 
most learned men and eloquent osagistrateirof<4iia tnei ^ 
He attended tbe stales-general held ar Paris in MMf ea a ' 
deputy from the Tiers £tat of the pmvmce^f Anvergne, ' 
and defended its rights with zeal and fir»neaa igntH at4W * 
nobility and the clergy. He afterwardi pleaded wilhgieit 
credit in tbe parliament of Paris, and died ntraveryad- < 
tanced ag« in 1682, learing many learned works timdi' ' 
Esteemed ; the principal are, an edatiopft %f ^ §idotiiii!i - 
Apollmaris," 1609, ^lo. with notes. ^< OHgitie de CHdr- ' 
aiont, Capitale d' Auvergne," tbe most complete edMien of 
which is by Peter Durand, 1662, folio. <* Traitd dei^ 

> Life by 0r. J^sioa. • • r 



8 A y A ft O K 1»S 

«< ft«MfK<> IVk " ^IHHJI^e H 8MTmlnt« da Rol et de 
■M Itofcoit lli mtrt l>epotine U Nobteste,** 1615, 8vo, twp 
piifttr i^ eitfiodv urid tcit<^ work. ^ Chvonotogif • des Etau 
Gfo#l%ay/' tV)0'; tb* otsject t>f vrliidi i« to prote that tbd 
Tiefli'ltMlMBi tUWrnys bad adarittance there, a leat, and a 
d^Hbemtiveirbi^' 

SAVA'RY (Viunfcn)^ teigneor Ak Breveii a learned 
P^ttiebltiaii #Im> ba;d ike merit of introducing^ oriental 
jNlatitif 1M» bit tsoMtr^ feboat the beginning of the ie« 
vcMeMlh vwtlttrr, wat the French ambaisador at Con- 
•tatithiaple fof tfiremy^t#6 years. On bit return, about' 
1)11 ty Httirr' 11^« M)t 'hhn to Rotaae as aAibassadof 
iB2.tti« peiilfBeaie of Pbul IT. where, in 1513, be ap« 
p0te»to bavw«Btabiisbed a pridting^ffice ; for in th^ title 
of a traitslaliaw of BeUarmin'tf conclusion, and a Psalter into 
Ainabte, fliey are tM to eooiie ex typographia Tavartana. 
Btemij it am to have east ^t types, and employed on 
thMa two workai a« oorrdetori, * Seiaiae and Sionita, two 
Maronttes from mount Lebanon. In 1615, Savary re- 
tamed M^aris, bringing with him Sionita and the printer 
Hnlifi) who, in the saole ]rear, printed in stnall quartd, 'iii 
Turkish aad French, the << Treaty of 1604, between Henry 
t\m Gpaat^ king df France^ and the snhan Amurath,** &c. 
Tb# Mlvtvilig^ year appeared an Arabic Grammar, editedf 
by 8 i #aai U and Betromta. It appears that Savary had the 
in>erality to lend his types to those who were desirous of 
priming urorks^in thn orienul languages. He died in le??, 
Whaii^ fPt aMi latd, the English and Dutch made offers for 
tbw M#chttie ^ bis types, Und the orienul manuscripts 
Hrliicb ba had enUecti^d in the Levant; but the king of 
Fratica bongist tlmn, and eoon after a new establishment 
eppaared ht Paris for orieiitat printing, all the credit of 
wMob nas gifnn to the cardinal Richelieu, while the name 
of teaasy.waa not once mentioned. Sic ws fionwbiSf fcc. 
UMie typ^n are said to be still esrtant in the nrf al print* 
ing ^oe. Savary published an' account of his travels, 
lirom wbieh wn kare, that he prqected certain conquests 
te the Levant, tor the extension of the commerce oF hia 
co«iutcy9 and the propagation of Christianity. The number 
of orieatsA MSS* which he broogfat from the Levant amoontl 
tojnipaiy-aeveo.' 

VOI..XXVU, 6 



.194 s A V A K y. 

subject of trade, was bom aMDoii^ in Aujou pept 2fp 
1622. He was seat to PariS| and put appreot^^/t<^ a gner- 
phant; and carried on trade till 1658^ wtxeiji bele^t o,ff tbe 
.practice, to apply with more attention to the,, Jtbipiry/, it 
IS said, that he had acquired a very coo^etjsi^t foct^n^ ; 
but^ in liS67y when the king rewarded wiqi certain privi- 
leges and pensions such of his subjects as had tvy^elyif . cbiJ* 
dren alive, Savary was not too rich to, put in h\$ claiop. . Qe 
was afterwards admitted of the council fof the /eformatijsyi 
of commerce; and the orders,^ which p^^edin 1670, WSfl^ 
drawn up fi^om his instructipns an4 advice, ^(^lugi r^* 
quested by the commissioqera to digest Ivs principles in^ 
a volumes he published at Papiij^ in 1675^ 4tpy /' LePariWt 
Negocianty ou. Instruction g^n£i:aie pour ci^ qui. regs^rde 
fe Commerce des M^rcbajPidises de France ei des Ifays 
!Etrangers." This went through many editions, the ^€:^t:f)( 
which is that of 1777) 2 vols. 4to ; and has been tr^^nsjj^tejfl 
Into almost all European languages. In 1688, hfi pu^- 
tished '^ Avis et Conseils sur les plus iroportantes jtpatiefi^a 
da Commerce/' in 4to; which has be^u con&idierec} 2\Sr<at 
second volume to the former work, and oftc^n ce-pVU^^H- 
He died in 1690; and, out of seventeen ghildrei^ wni^ 
he had by one wife, left eleven. ., .^^ 

Two of the sons, James and Philemojkc, becaj^e af^efv 
wards writers on the same subject. Jamqs Savafy being; 
chosen in 1686 inspector general of the manufaciur^Sj^t 
the custom-house of Paris, took an account of all the ser 
Teral sorts of merchandise that passed throMgb it; aa^ 
ranged in alphabetical order all the words relating to mfp 
nutactures and commerce, with de6nitions and eKplicatic^ 
merely at first for his private use, but being told how use- 
ful such a work might prove, if extended ^nd metuodizec^ 
be employed his brother Philemon to assist him^ but , died 
in 1716, leaving it unfinished. Philemon at length pub* 
lished it at Paris in 1723, under this title, ^' Dictiounaire 
Universel du Commerce,'' in 2 vols, folio; and^ animated 
Cy the favourable reception given to this work, spent three 
other years in making it more complete and perfect ; and 
finished a third volume, by way of supplement to the tvvq 
former, which appeared in 1 729. This was after .his deaths 
which happened in 1727:^ This "Dictionary of Com;* 
inerce'* has been universally spoken of as a very Excellent 
work, and has been often reprinted. The best edition ia 



savarV. iis 

thkVi^tei by Pbliiber^ at CopenbageDi iK59-^66p & 
vols, fed.' 

SAVARY (Nicholas), a French tr&veller, was born at 
T^tre in Brituny^ and parsued his studies at Rennes with 
conrfderable distinetion. In 1776, he visited Egypt, at 
which place he remained fot the space of three years* 
Whilst here he paid particular attefition to the maimers of 
^e inhabitants, a knowledge df the Arabic tongue, and an 
investigation of antiquities* From Egypt he went to the 
islands of the Archipelago, over totist of which he travelled, 
and examined then^ with careful attention. On his return 
to France, in 17^0, he published, " A translation •of the 
Koran, with a sketch of the life Qf Mahomet^^ He also 
puMisbed an extract from the above work, which he called 
^ LtL Morale de Mahomet^ His principal W6rk waa 
^* Letters on Egypt," which have been well received, a^ 
translated into different European languages. Yet it is 
objected to this work, and with great appearance of reason^ 
that the author has yielded too much to the powers of a 
'lively imagiaatioa, and that he has given rather a fasci- 
tiating than a porrect picture. *. Volney^s Travels may se^e 
to restore the likeness, and correct Savary*s exuberkhcioa* 
Encouraged, however, by the^smccess of this work, Savary 
published his '^ Letters pjof Greece,'* which is likewise, aik 
"agreeable add entertaining performanee. Soon after thia 
period-he died, at Paris, in 1788.' He was a man of coti- 
aiderable talents, an excellent taste, aqda lively faprcy ; and^ 
jdthough many of his positions have been cculltrcrverted, a^ 
well by Volhey, as by other writers on the s^me subjects^ 
his works are written in a style and manner which reader 
them highly interesting to a large clato of Headejri.* 

S A VILE (Sir GkoitO£), tiqarqnis of Haliihx/ a cdebrated 
atatesman, but of eqbivocai cbar^cttr, was descended frond 
pk ancient family in Yoykshira. He was ihe son of sir 
William Saviie, bart. and Anne, daughter of Thomas Iqrd 
Coventry, lord keeper of the great seal. He was boui 
probably aboQt 1630. Upon' the death of his fii<her, h^ 
aacceeded to the title of baronet, and soon distinguished 
himself by his abilrties in public affairs ; and being zealoua 
in bringing about tthe restoration, waa 'created . a peer, i^ 
consideration of his own and his fatber> merits. In 166S 

be tvas appointed of that remarkable committee, which sat 

• 

1 mum, Tols. IX aud X^-Diot Hiit • Diet 0iit. 

O 2 



196 3 A V I L Ev 



At Btttok-faall for the examthatioii o( tb^ aeckmnts of the 
money which bad been given during the Dutch war^ of 
idiidi no member of the Hooie of CbrnmoiH Waa admitted. , 
In April 1672 he waft k^alied to a ieatiti the privy oounail; 
and/ June foHowitig, went over to Hollftod with dte dofce 
of Buckingham lOid thd c^rt Of Arttngeon, at ambasaador 
extraordinary iknd plenij^otentiary, to treaa about a peace 
with France, when he iflet with great oppoiitiMi^ from bia 
eolleagifes. "'' 

In 1675 he opposed with '¥ijfoay the fion^resisting tetfc^ 
bill^ and wa^ remoi^d frMtt the eoonoH^board the yeto 
follbwiag by tfao interest of the earl of Daoby, ibe-trea^ 
surer. He bad provokod this lord by one of tboae Mittl^ 
eisihs ill which he dealt M Urgely. In the examination 
before the cocriidl concerning tibe revenue of Iretamd, hird! 
WidrihgtOD conftfssed that be httd made an offer of m eoa« 
sMdrable suiA to the lord tteasorer, and thai hia lordship 
bad reject^ it very mihlly, and ift sofih a* manner as not m 
discoirrage a: second attempt. Lolpd HallAiK cbkerved tifvotf i 
this, that «* it would bo ao in aw h^fc strange il^ man abMid 
aask the dse oF another man's ^Hfe, and che other AmM 
indeed refuse it, but with grent civility.** His' ne mova l 
was very agreeable to the duleof York, wlia at tba«'tsm».' 
had a ntiore vmlent aversion to hifm diati even to Sbaftesbnryr 
hidfself, because he htfd spoken wkh gveat fimrocas anil 
spirit in the House of Lord^ against tbe«d0clMaioh for « 
toleratton: However, upon a;' change of the amniatry ift 
H79, hitf lotxbhip tiaa Mride a member 'bf the new couaciL 
The satne year, during the agitation of the bill for the M«» 
tiosion of the duke of York, he seemed avesse to it;f bee 
proposed stlcfa limiuitions of the dlike*s autboriv^ whei^^e 
irefwti'shotrid dev^v^ upon Mm, as should cUsahle Uiai 
from doing any harm ehber ineburch or MUe ; aoeh a»tbe 
taking out of his hands all power in ecclesiastioal mattera^ 
ihe dispoiAd of the public money, ind the power of peace 
or war, and lodging these in the two Houses of ParHameat ; 
mA that the puiiament iii being at the kiog*s death shoeld 
Mmttoue withofot'e ne# sominoos, and assnmethe admins*- 
tration; but bis" lordship's arguing so aaech against the 
d^nget of turnlirg the monarchy, by the bill of exehisioni 
hiio an eleetite government^ was thought the more eztm*' 
ordinary, becanfte he made M hereditary king the subject 
of his mirth, and had often said '^ Who. takes a coacbmaa 
to drive him, because his' fn^ber was a good coachman T* 



S A V I L E. m 

^ITet he WM bow jmIqus of a simU dip in tbo sufiGenioi} h 
tbmigli he at Ibe faiBO tiipe ctudied Ito infuse snip tome, 
peraom e. seel for a 4:QiiifiiOQweeUb ; and. to tbese he pre"-; 
teiNledy that be preferred HoitMops to an exclusion, be-, 
cauie tbe oue.kept np the monarchy stilly . only patsiog 
cTerjone person; whereas (the pi^ber re^Uy inlroduced a 
commonwealiby as soon as there was a popish king on thf 
tbffone. And it eras sakcl hy some of bis fri^ends^ that the 
limiutions proposed were so advantageous to public liberty^ 
thai a man aiigbt be lempl^ to wish for a popish kibg,. ia 
opder to obtain ihem, U pon ij^s gveat di&rence of opi- 
nion^ a faction wju q^ioUy fofmed in the new copncii; 
lord Halifaxt with the .eerls of ^sez and Sunderland, de« 
daring for limitatioiis, luid against tbe eyqlusion, while 
the easl of fihaftesbuiy was equally zealous for the latter ; 
and when the bill for. it. was brongbt into the House or 
Lprds^ lord Hali&x appeared with great resolution at the 
bead of the debates against it. This so highly exasperated 
ifae Hosse of Commons^ that they addressed the king to 
rboioM htm fron bis councils ainl presence for ever : but 
lie fwevailed with bis mugesty soon after to dissolve that 
parlmBenli and was created an earl. However, upon his 
BsjeaQr^s defencilig to call a new parliamenti according tp 
bis. promise to his lordsbipt bis vexation is said to. have 
be«] sajpreat ae^ afiect bui health, and he expostulate4 
severely aofth ^«e who were ^ent to him on that ajfair^ 
psf usiag> the post both of secretary of state and lord-lieute*- 
nanl of IvelaBd. A pi^rMament being called in 1680, ha 
still opposed the exclo«on-bili, and gsined great reputes 
tion by his euMgeioent of the debate, thoi^h it occasioned 
a new address from the House of Commons to remove him. 
However, after rejectiag that bill in the House of Lords, 
bis lordship pressed them, though without success, to pro^ 
coed to limitetians ; aad began with moving that tbe duke 
might be obliged to live five hundred miles out of England 
during the kiogfs life*. Ia August 1682, be was created a 
marqkiis, and soon «fter made prtvy-aeal, and, upon king 
JafMsVaccession, president of tbe council. But on re« 
losing his consent to the sepeal of the tests, he was told 
by tlwt monareh, that, though be could never forget his 
past services, yet, since he would not comply in that point, 
be was scsolved to hare nnanimity in his councils, and, 
therefore^ dismissed him from all public ea^>loy3iiebu. He 
was alteBwarda eoasulted by Mr, Sidney* whjether he. woul^ 



m S A VILE. 

ndtiii^^ the' prioee of OnmgeV cominlg' 69tlr; but, thU 
matter being only hinted^ be did not en66drage M fkrtbisr 
explnnaciony looking ^pon tbo attempt ^ as impra<iticable^ 
shnse it depended on^so ma^y accidents. Upon the arfiiral 
of ibat prince, be was sent by the' king, withtbe ^arts of 
Rochester aind Godoipbin, ' to treat with him, fhen at Htni'^ 
^erfoiti. 

In ^at ^ttsembly of tbe lords whicb ttiet a^r king Jameses 
mtbdravring bimftelf the 'first timer from Wbitehatt, 'tb^ 
.toarqms was chosermieir prudent ;' and, ^on the< Mng^ 
iH0lurn from F^ever^baiA^ be was sent^ together* whh tbe 
earl of -Shrew^uiy and lord Delamere, firom the prince '6f 
Orange, ordering bis majesty to ^qnft bis palace at "Wtiite*^ 
ball, and retire to Hulk In tbe convention- parliiimeAt^ 
be #aa chosen* speaker of tbe Hoai^ ef Lordii ; anrd str^nti^ 
0^1% stipportiBd' the motion for the vacaticy of the throne, 
and tbe oorijnnotive sovereignty of tbe priwice and^prindess, 
.Iipo0'«i4i0se accession be was again made privy-seal. Bnt, 
in tbe-aession ef f 6S9, upon the- inqmry into the authors 
nf tho'proseoittiona against lord Hussell, Algernon Sidney, 
-iu. tbe marqoisi having eoncurred in these oonnctls in 
1683, now quitted tbe court, and became a »ealou^ op- 
|>oMr of die measunss of tbe governmefift titt bis dedtb^ 
wtiich happened in April I6d5, and was octasidned'^^y^ 
ftngfene in a rapture be bad long neglected! Tbere 
aeema Utile in bis conduct that is steady,' or ki4HS ebwtti;^ 
aer 4hat:i& amiabki. Towards brsendbe showed ^ertM^^i^B 
of repentance^ wbicb^ aeeordiog to Bumet^'^o^^traAsfent. 
^ Ve waa^^ sayn diat writer^ '• a man of g¥eat a^ reaAr 
ant, iUi -of life and vety pleatont, machfUftted «6 Mtli^; 
Iseietvhia wit tuvn upon ^mkiuers of -r^igiOn-$ ^ tb«t%s 
paosed for a^ bald^and deftevmbied atheist; i|b6Ugh'%€}ofiBen 
protested to me, that he-was notoiye, ^«a!d}'as&di>'4«<^>be« 
'Jiembtbere^waa net one in the world. He ^ofttfbssed'lfe 
could not. swallow down ail' that divines mipdtfed^M'^ftte 
worlds beiwas.a Chriatian- in suboasssioa'} be betidlied'^ 
nBHabiasiie'«ottld; ^and hoped^ that God weidd^ itde"l|iy>4t 
tO'bis^cbarge^'if be cootd not digeatiton'asan*ostritti<#Ml9 
aior take into i>is belief things jshat must bun!t>btm. 'S^4le 
imdanyacrupkfi, ibey were tidt'»soogbt forwor'Obeifiihed 
by.bim^ ^for he neuenvead 'an atbBiiSical book»b} ii!ia4ife. 
Ju sic^nen) 1 kaewibbn-^very^mMhiaflected wick' a ^sense 
A.m£ religipnc Iflvas then otmn mith bim, be ^seefaietl full of 
ipod purposesy^bu^fthey'wem off waih faU^iekmss^. Il^l^ 



S A V I L R 19» 

continualty talking of morality and friendship^ Ha vrufi 
]lonct:»al in bis paymentsi and just in all private dealinga; 
but> with relation to tbe public^ he went backward and 
forward and changed sides so often* that in the conclasioo 
no tide trusted him ; be seenaed full of commonwealth no« 
tioqs, yethew^t into the' worst part of kiog Charles's 
reign. The liveliness of his imagination was always top 
itard .for 4its judgmant. Hia severe jest was preferred by 
him to ail ar^umeats whatever; and he was endless in 
council ; for, when after maci^ discourse a point was aettlei)^ 
if he^aouldiiiida new jest, whereby he could make jthat 
^Nrbfch was digested by himself seem ridieoioji^^ h^ cQuld 
not <hi9id| hut would study to raise the credit of bis wil, 
though it made oth^s call his judgment ifi question. Whw 
be talked to me, as a philosopher, of the contempt of tfa^ 
world) I asked him what he meant ky getting so aaoy 
new titles, which i called the hanging himself about with 
bells and. tinsel; be bad no^ other e&cuse for it but this, 
ithat) if the world were soch foola as to value those matters^ 
aoiaa muat-be a feK>l for company: be considered theia 
•l^ut^as rattles,, yet rattles please children ; so these might 
b^ of use to hia family.'* 

lifiByhis first wife, daughter of Henry Spencer, earl of 

,8u(»der)aiidy he had a son William, who succeeded bim; 

*p^i by a second wife, the daughter of William Pierrepointi 

aMondaett^of Robert earl of Kingston, he had a daughter 

'(iectr«de» who was married to Philip Stanhope, third earl 

of Chesterfield, and was mother to the celebrated earl, wbO| 

^eiys, Mttty, may be perhaps justly compared to his grand* 

father ui« extent of capacity, fertility of genius, and brti- 

.Uanqy of wit. They both, adds be, 'distinguished them- 

seWeaio pariiameiii by their eloquence; at court, by their 

.keowledge of (be. world ; in company, by their art of pleas* 

.ifig. They were- both very useful to their sovereigns, 

<itboegh'het-aiufch attached either to the prerogative or to 

«tfae petiHKi of any kiog. They both knew, humoured, and 

(despised the Afferent parties. The Epicurean philosophy 

waa their common ttudy. WiWam, the second marquis of 

' Hali&xv died in' 1^9, wben the dignity became extinct in 

. Jiiaiaviily) but was revived in 1700 in the person of Charles 

Moatague. The marquis William left three daughters : 

Anne, mavried tQ 'Charles Brace, earl of Aylesbury; Do- 

jrotby, to Richard Boyte, the last earl of B«urliDglDo; 9mA 

Marjj ito fisukwUe* Tuftoo> earl of ThaueU 







•» 
^ 



lyiodeUt S^,i»i W94^o,|tfc^«W5/>^^ All ii4iM»lii 

were printed ^^e^^ i^^j^jjjucJ^tJkviB^^d tbf»;l*ii* eiAi 

Uon came ouL^oj7.\7,|, 8^^ lh^e..f«Mi,^a 

the Seconif J, tpwhyjh if^^i\U^ S.late»,i&ic, V 

end of bis| ^*Hi5tpry.^.^W|^^2^^ 

yatiorw upon the ^eigp^^PJf^d^fLnd j^IJi 111.1^4 lUdMld 
I^/'witl),R!emarks ^p» tUfirfj^i^iW Cop9peW^f.*^n^/*lKi 
Favourites^' .16 ^p. % j) W. *?^ *SJ?i^^r»; p|4^ii| ^mn tiiUfi^ 
frpqa a jpufnil wbich l)^ k^'tqyerK,day jpf, ^V^^k% <0nw«r 

^uish^'dipe?^ of bii Uni^ Of tf:ig^p^^ef^^ 

vere made, one,of which feU.ialo,(be.b9n^%i#/iP^<|^ 
of Nouingfcfapi, .and w^s clefj^c^,,l|y.t«ii^ 5Hw ioA«d- 
devolved pn the inarquw*B graad-qaKgiHei^fpMy.jhlfiifigyt 
tox\^ in whose possession it long j^fnaipe^ ji^V^jHopf^ aa 
the late lord Orfprd iiijTorme^, I^r^^.I^^lcui^ ^iil*n|;^^ !i|c 
perusal of these fi)^n)oirSy, tb^t, tb(p papif|i;«vPf Yhosoiidlijin'^ 
were represented jp an upfavoiyable ljght« pr^^aitodiOiiAafl^ 
to burn ihepi ap'd, ihi^? 't^ie.publicj^fj b^^/^pc^jM^^^' 
prot)ably a'curifluf aiid vajpftW^ wcy:tV : ,.i u •• uf.i) :»rr 
SAVILE (g*r Henby), a ino^t ^<;ar^e4 m^^il, im)4 4<«9eali ; 
benefactor to ttie, Warning of his .C9un^oi, jH^a ihetiliM.«£ 
Henrj ^avije of Bradley* ifi the iqvyns^p qi| Si(aialltfi4i^^ia<i 
the parish of Halifax,. X9rksbir^^ by .iUJi^hvdflfi|||b^or>iiifi. 
Robert Jftfiiips^eiv. He waa boyn ^ Br^j}^^. Sft^dbSti^^ . 
a|[)d first^ntereci of BraseQrng^e^pol|^0^,,.Q4i$9^,whedGei- 
be Was electe/l to %ft9P^oIji?ge in, ;i|6i;,^:^|iit^iAMii»0li.* 
the degrees iij arts,, and .wa« cho»qfi,tJf^lWff^o .Wbtl| bo 
proceeded mastpr of art^ ip 1530» bf^.r^.,^ntfaafede^pnBi^.^ 
on the Alpoagest pf ftolen^y^ ,whic^ prpcMTf^ i^4h0 «tf»* 
putation c\f a man \vondfirTul)y ^idll^ .ip mftbtBi^lm and* 
the Greek language j Jn. thfC, ^oriji^lPf ^ mbni^. {miMkaam 
uriiy read a public^ leptu^p i^ ,tb(;;iHMiy^rMV;C(»r.soii|ftA^^ 

> liMli*« IMs.*^1Cd)r8l ^oa NoMe AWm» bt Mr. Park^Malone's Life ftt 
Ar|4«IM«l0MnfttM^lftMirt&^Driaftiiiy. ^ '•^- •^^'^ ' 7^^^ 



ftA-y W«r «b| 




faibdy of Ui^«iii«<^ity^ b^ tbe' dbettfrs iinci niafCl*^ ijincf^^ 

iMMie h^ U«(i^^l^tiMiinfl;i fi|d i^U '£)iia^d edn8iderftl]|lii^ 
ifiGstiesti 4cium irij^frii to tterbonoiirf Ih 167^ be vtsiijep. ' 
(he 'x!Mt4fiieilt,^ bi§6afn^' acquainted y^hh >arioa8 learbed'^ 
fopaigMftSf- a^d obeaniea '^tiatij, ykbbable MSS; or copies pt 
lb«m^ ^H»4fl smA^to'^a\^e i^droedf a fiian oY Iii|^ acc^oi:}, 
plifito^i^, a^cT ^'W^' ^adl^ itlhot in the Of^ek tongrue ,U^ 
qa0M £tiaabetb^JM;^^ k'&dtb6rWi$(getprei(s^,^t^ 
Graek aM mii^i^auW Witblt^inajie^^ a |;r6^t^ 

eiiiMffi lo^Mm; * iV ^ysdie^ifai >ilad«^iK^rHen ib^Mertoa^r 
colUgevwbieh'bii gbt^Hie<ljfttK'i^r|d tbiity yearamth gre&t^' 
C4«dUy Mdig^itAy tatied it!^'i^&pd&tjioii for /learning, by^~^ 
a ^Mi^ioBi patrdKage of iidcfeUtii mo^t distiiigoi^bc^ fqr 
talema- an^-iMaslly. In' T59^^ be wal cbofen provost or 
BcoqMdoi)e|rfi»/'df^#bicb society, abo be increased tbe &me;^ 

blf^fifigiV^'*'^'^'^^ "^^^ '^"^^^ ^^^ limbng wbom Wat,^ 
thaib^^aoeaie^ihke iobn flaleB. It is i»ald» how^ver^ jthai^ 
b^jriMmtir^d^i^ni<^*d^ftm aitioM the ^yaungei scholars by/; 
bu «et«Htj!^^«id''hia d{sli)|e of th0se who iiirere thpiightr'^ 
aprMktIjr Hfri^i^^ tile os#d to say, << Give me the plodding/ 
slUMnti ' Jf t'^&tfid^ldol: tot wits^ I would ^q t'6 Newgate^ ^^ 
tbailejbe^be witE'' Jbbi^ Earie, afrerw2|rds bishop ot Salis-"! 
blirjti:^wiasttbe '^^ si^bblar he ever accepted on the recoin* ' 
mendation of being a wrL ' Jatnes 1. U|M>^ hi$.ac^e^^|^^to ^ 
^he^ciowfi of Englantf, Mpfeit;^^ a par^^uTaf .^g^rd. for 
hiin^i^ancli'Weiihl dUfcVe ptef^ed. bim either in /chujfch o^^ 
«sateci iMi€'*«r jfted^y defined % '^nd 6tt\v accepted tha ^ 
hbnow«j{teiigteUofM f]n>iir h\n fti^festyit Wluflsor ofi Sepi!^'; 
2i^^Id04i -Hi^oAF^kiit dyiVig ^Uodtl&l tipae, he devoted^ 
hvfb#tffne^tr%M^ibepi'oitib1fing of learning. In 1619; 
h^Aiatifdle^t^ leeCUre^; ' erf . professorships, one in geqfhe-: ^ 
tofi tb# ikhef^^ ^ttbh<MKY^''ih tbe tini^ibrsity ofChtford; 
VKldc^>hc^'ettd6#ed^diidt)vUhi3 fifaliry of leof a year, t|e*;^^ 
sidea a>tegtttoy ^BOOlA fer^pdrctiasing mbte lands for tbe/ 
nne^ 'I Iii %He preamble idf the deed, b^ WBich a salary 



same 



fMwiafioexied^'t^'fhese two p^CTObs«>rsb^'ps, it is express!^!, 
said that ^geametry' waa almost tot&ll^uhkndWn and abaa^^ 

4oaed in Engbnd '' >;J9sigg«.»iM. JlJif »ftPfe piPpfeWPf rtf-geo^ 
mitYv i but ATiibrey saya, pntha tatiMNiity v>£bUn^^M«ii^O 
tbfti W first tent for Ciinttr for that puipoie^ who^ comiBg 



tot S A y I L E. 

with biflTgeotor aod quiulraiit^ *^'Ml to resolving of tri« 
tli|^e»'and *doing a great many fine things* 'Said ibe grave 
kirigbt^ ^ Do 3^u call thift reading of Geometrie ? This is 
abewing of tricks^ man/ and do dismissed him with scome^ 
and sent for Briggs.'' SirHenry also furnished a library 
with oiatbainatical books near the mathematical school/ fwt 
tbe^Me'of bis professors; and gave 100/. to tbe mathemao 
lieal ebeat of his own appointiag; adding afteri^rds a 
legacy of 40/. a year to the same ckesti to tbe university 
and to' bis professors jointly. He likewise gave 120/. to-t 
wards 4be new^bui^dingof the schools; several rkre anaau^ 
adripts and printed books to tbe Bodleian.library ; atids 
good quanti^ of matricea and Greek typestothe printiilg^ 
press^ at Oxford. Part of tbe endowinent of tbe professor^ 
airips was tbe manor of Little Hays lil £ssetx. He died, at 
Eton^oollege, Feb. Id,' 1621^1 and' vnM buried in the 
cbapel tfaikre, t>n tbe^ sooth aide of the communion tahle^ 
near* the body of his son Henry,- «with an inscription 'on a 
biack marble stone. Tbe 'univettsity of Oxford paid htm 
tbe greatest bonoura,- by having a pnbtic speech 'and verses 
> made in Iris praise, which were published soon' after io' 4lfls^ 
undctf the title of -<* Ultima Linea Savilii/' and- a sudiptV- 
ous honorary moottment was erected to hts »meflak>ryen'tfae 
south wsdl) at the upper end of tbe choir of Mertonreolfoge 
chapel. Sir' Henr^ Savile, by universal consent^ ranfii 
asMMig: the most ^leamed asen of histime^ andtibeokost 
liberal patrons of leavning; and with great 'justice ibfe 
highest enconiuuH are bestowed osi him by all tbe fea#ne4 
of his time: by. Isaac Oasaubonf BDeroerus, Meibomiit^ 
Joseph Sea)igerf:aad< especially the learned bishop <Mkm»- 
tagu ; who, in ius-^^ J)iatribsB'' upon SeMeuV ^ History ikf 
Tithes,'? styles hi»i *^that magazine of learaiag., whose 
memory shaUbe honourable amoagst-uot only the leoracdy 
but the righteous for evev." 

.We here already meotnoned sevend noble instaeeesof 
his munificence to t^e republic of letters : aad'hiii works 
exhibit equal zeal for the promotion of iiteratuie. In IMff^ 
he published an Bngiish vension of, l.^M'^aur Books of 
tbe Histories of Cornelius Tacitus, and the Life of Agri-^ 
cola; with notes upon them,^' folio, defdiefiited to <}ueeii 
Eliaabetfa. - The notes weee esteemed so valuable as to be 
translated into Latin by Isaao Oruter, and publisbed at 
Amsterdam, .1049, in idmo^ to which Grater subjoioed a 
ipeetise of eev aed>^ published iu i$9S, uad^ the 



S A y I L £. 203 

# 

2. ^*A ViBw of cectaia MiliuryMaUen, or commdntariM 
eoBceming' Koman Warfare;" which, soon after ito fint 
appearance^ -was translated into LAtin by Marquardus Foe* 
benuv and printed at Heidelberg in 1401, hot haviog b««» 
eoane evceeding> scaixe^ was reprimed by <]«Hter« In \S9^ 
he^pofaliibied a ooUeciion of the faest aaciaot' writers of out 
Bng^liih history, ent^itled, 3. *^ Aenioa. Anglicariim Scrips 
loi^ postBedam precipoi, ex vetustissimis codicibes nnot 
priomii in lucem editi :" to which be added chronologtoal 
tabled at the end, from Jnilius Cseaar to the cooling in of 
WsUiam- ttie Conqueror* Thia was.repriniied at Ft'anofert 
in. IMJ,' fvfaicb. edition has a complcce index to it. Tbsi 
eoliectinn dontaios Williaai bftMaJnsbiuryfs history of tho 
Idogs of. England, and the UvesL of the Englbh bishopaf Ibe 
histories of Henry of Huntingdon ; ticeannals of Bogerde 
fiDvedea-v the obroniide of JEthelwen), and the history of 
Ingolphus ; with a * dedicalbion to qaeea Elizabeth, &c; 
WhaitoOy in- the preface to his '' AngliaSajcoa," cbjeots 
only to Maitasbaryls bistary, . which he says was panted 
ftomah inoorreet MS. 4. .He Undertook and finished an 
^dkioiY^' most beaotifnliy printed, of ^^St. Chiysostom-s 
Wqrk»^' h) Greeks printed in: 1613, 8 vols, folios In tba 
|tfefMe^'ifar*>says, <^ that, having . liiiiiself visited, about 
ttmi^pa yeaiB. before, aU 4he public and ' private Jibnriea in 
flWtain, and copied out thence whatever be thought sseful 
to^kia design^ he then sent some learned men into Fjmnee^ 
Oeriaafiy^ 'Italy,, and. the East; totransoribe such parts as 
lie^liacl not already^ and to collate the othera^with the best 
jnanuKfipts.** - At die same time, he tnakes hia adcaow- 
ledg'meiifl'to several greal men for their asaiatance;. as 
Vbnanuk, yeUa*os, Scfaoitus, Isaac tCasaobon, Fnonto Dm- 
cmtxh Janus Grutenss^* Hoescbeiius, &cv In the eighth 
aVokime are inserted ;sir jHenEy &vile^a osi^n notes^ witli; those 
of the learned John Bois» Thomas; Allen, Aodnew Doarnes^ 
iaad>ethar leai^ded men.' The wh<rie chai|^ of this edition, 
including' the several sums paid to learned men, at home 
and ablroac^ ' employed in finding out, transcritMOg^ and 
.QoUating, the best. n^nuacvipts^ is said to. have amounted 
to lio iesa tban<«000/. ; bnt^ as soon as* it was finiriied, thte 
Jbish9ps and clergy of France employe^i somewhat unfairly, 
at has tbeeu' said, Fronton Due, or Fronto Duomis, who 
was a leamod -Jesuit, to reprint it at Paris, in 10 vols« folio* 
with a Latin tnraoslatioD, which lessened the price of sir 
Bepry'h edition i yet we are told, ihft tboiliottsaiut ee^ea 



f 04 S A y I L E. 

which he printed were all' sold*. In 1.6 IS, he published e 
Latin work, written by Thomas Bradwardin, abp. of Can«» 
terbury, against Pelagius, entitled, 5. ^< De Causa Dei 
contra Pelagium, et de virtute causarum ;** to which he 
prefixed the life of Bradwardin. This book was printed 
from six MS8. carefully collated. 6, /' Nazianzen^s Ste* 
liieutics/^ 1610. Towards this^ says Oldys, he was fk« 
▼oured with the MS epistles of Nazian2en out of the Bod- 
leiaa library, '^ which was a singular codrtesy, and done be- 
cause of bis affection to the storing and preserving of thie 
library,^* as if any thing could liave beeh refused to such^ 
benefactor. 7. **Xenophon*s Institution of Cyfus,** Gr/ 
11513, 4to. In 1621, he published a collection of his dWn 
mathematical lectures.' S. <' Prflele'ctionfes Tredecim iri' 
principium Elemeqtorum Euclidis Okoniae habits,*^ 4tb. 
9, '^ Oratio coram/ Eli^utbethft Regina Oxonise babita, amio 
t592/V Oxon. 1638, 4to; published by Dr. Barlow frotd 
the original in the Bodleian library, and by Dr. Lampbire^ 
in the secoad edition of ** Monarchia BipUahnica,'' Oxford, 
1681, 8vo. 19. He transhited into LatiA king Jaipes*^^ 
<' Apology for tlie Oath of Allegiance.^* Six lexters'of his^^ 
written to. Hugo Blotius, and Sebastian T^figuageliifi," 
keepers of the imperial library, were published in Lambe- 
cius^s ^ Bibliotbeca,^ vol. III.; fouf bre printed ambn^ 
^* Cattidepi Epistolee,** and others are In the Cotton' am 
Harleian MSS. He was also concerned in the new tnrns- 
ktion of the Bible, executed by command of James I; be^ 
i»g oneof the eight persons at Oxford who undertook to 
translate tHe four Gospels, Acts, and Revelations^ He left 
behind him several MSS. some of which are now^ln the 
Bodleiaa library, such as 1. ^< Orations.*' 9. '< Tract of 
thepriginal of Monasteries.** 3. << Tract concerning the 
Unioni of England and Scotland, written at the command 
of king.Jiimeal.*' He wrote notes likewise upon the marr 
gio of many-books in his Ubrary, particularly of Eusebius^a 

* tbif worlc required such Ion; and before CbryiottoiD wtt flnkhed, wbe* 

etaieappIicatimi.tbatttrBenry'BUdy sir Heory lay tick, Mud, « If sir 

tboogbvlieraclf neglecled, and comins^ Harry died, tbe woald ban Cbryaoa- 

io him one day into bis ttndy, tbe tmn for killing ber botband.** Wbicjk 

saidi *'Sir Henry, r would I irere a Mr. Bois bearing, told bar» ««Th«t 

book too, and tbea you would a little would be a gr^t pity, for he was one 

more reipect me." To which one of the tweetett preacbere imoa tiie 

ftaoding by, replied, •• Yon muet then apostles' times;" «ltb which tba van 

Ike an almanack, madam, that be might so satisfied, that she said, ** the fWuUl 

fbaage every year :» which answer dis- not do it for aU tbe world.** 
pldafed ber.^Tb^ 9U» lady, a little 



S A V I L E. ios 

 

^ Ecclest8sticaL;|listoi7,'* which were afterwiirds nsed^ and 
thankfully acknowledged^ by Valesius, in his ^diti'oh of 
that work in 1659. He is mentioned as a meikiber of tb'e 
society of Antiquaries^ iii the introdnction to the '* Architt-* 
ologia,'* and indeed there was no liti^rary honour kt that 
time of which he was not worthy. 

He had a younger brother, ThomXs Savile, who was 
admittad probationer- fellow of Merlon college, Oxford, i'rtf 
1530; afterwards travelteil abroad into several countri^: 
upon his return, w^s chosen fellow of Eton college ; and 
died at London ii^ 1592-3, whence his body wiis reoiijved 
to Oxford, and interred with great solemnity inthcfcHdiif 
<>f MertoQ college chapeL He was a man of great Teailnihgv 
and an intimate friend of Camden ; among whose l^ti^rv 
there are fifteen of Mr, Savile's to him; 

There was apothex Henry Savilg, rdated to tfafe liboi^tf 
family, and familiarly called Long Harry Savile, wh6 eti« 
tered a student of Merton college m 15^7, during the war- 
(feuship of sir Henry, and was soon after made one of th^ 
portionists, commonly called postmasters* Afler tAtng 
the degree of B. A. he left Merton college, and removed ttf 
St^^Albari-hall. where in 1595^ he took the degree of Mi 'A. 
Under th^ inspection of his learned kins'man, he bi$cnAm^M' 
f minent schofar, especially in the lAathematiCs', jbhjf&i)^ (ill' 
ik^ich 'facuUy he was admitted by the University to pi^c^' 
tise), phemistry, painting, heraldry, and abtiqilities. After- 
W4rds| in order to extend his knowledge, he Cravefl^d itYtoT 
Italy, France, and Germany, \vherie he greatljr irtp^dV^tl 
bimse]t He' fs said to have written several Ihings*, 'b^ ndfci| 
have beeiij>ublisbed. Re gave Camd^tf the ancSetit cbpy 
of Asser iMenevensis, which he published 'tn 160^y stnd 
which contains the legendary story of the dtsdoM lietweeji 
tlie ifibw scholars whidh Gilmbald VoUght with hitnto Ot- 
tord^ at the restoration of the University by king Alfried*, 
&c. This H'ei>ry Savile U^ed some years Hfter his retuM 
from the continent, in the parish Of St. Martin's ih Aia 
Fields, London, and dying there April 29, 1617, aged 
forty i^nine, was buried in the chancel belonging to the pst^ 
rlskchUrch, where was a monument to his memory. Among 
the Cotton MSS. ia a letter fromiiimto Camden, <<con-^ 
Cemfti^ antiquities near Otley in Yorkshire." 

There still remains one of this family to be noticed^ Efi 

^ John Savile, elder brother to sir Henry, who was born at 

Bradley in 1545,' and entered a commoner of Bmenoily 



2B6 S A V i L E. ' 

college about 156^1, wheiipe^ Witbdiii tiikM^ r^legvdei^he 
went to the Middle Temple fep thie study of the laiitr. Be- 
ing called lo'the bar, be becaifie at^tuom' reader of tbat 
>bottsein 1596, steward af the lordship of WalcM^ehl^ sei^- 
jeatlt at law in 1 504, one of the barons of the exetiequ^ 
in 1 598, and at the same time one of the jti$tieeb>ef as^H2^. 
In Joly 1603, a little before bh coroiiatiofi, king^ Jittfrcas 
ootil^red the honour of ki^i^htbood ' on him, Wmg one^Sf 
4be judges who were. t6 attend that scAemnhyi He died^ at 
London, Feb. 2, 1€06, aged si^ety-one, - and was buried ift 
St. DuBsttut's church, 'FIeet-sf»*eet, but bis heait wH^ Isu^ 
yied in Metbley churdi^ Yorksbhre, where is a cAontfmetit 
to bis memory^ erectefd-by his ^n.' Gamden acknowk^dg^ 
the assistance he received* fK>m ^ir Joh^ ' Satiie in his bis*- 
torical labours. He left at his deatb several pieces fit^fot* 
publication, but iilone bav^ itppeared, except *< Reports of 
dkers cases ill the courts of Common pteas andexche^eiv 
foim 22 to 36 Elizabeth/^ atbinfolio, pritlted^rstrintBTS^ 
and dgain in 16»8.* .:....' 

SAVONk^ROLA (Jerome)/ a cei^rated Ittflian^eifotik; 
watf bom at Ferraia iw 1452. In f466 heibe>C9m^;i*^{)Qln^ 
nican at Bologda^ and afterwards preadhed kt Ftorence^^bUl 
with very little success, and lei% the pftadev- )n 14<89M 
was invited by Lorenzo^ de Medidi to revo^tt ;to ^Vtoulsfce, 
where be became a vei^y popular pfeacbef. Byjpf«ie^ysk»lli 
ta superior sanctity; and by a fervid el6q«eii^i^'ii%{'bU^ 
tie4 away the feelingti of his hearers, and gsw^ aci ase^^ 
ilanc^ over their mind» by his propbeeies, whkrb M^et>d 
diitteted both against church and state.. Having by iii6§B 
fiiMns> acquired a powerful influence, be begiin todei^ilf^ 
the patronage of Lorensso, and avoided bis'^^iyfidcieinti^} 
After the death of Loreo2o, he fdaced^biiiisetf atthe beiRl 
of a popular pafty in Florei^ce, who aimed dt th# establisb^ 
moot of a free constitution. Savonarola ^eetnd to* h0^ptt^ 
aised them solnetbing betv^een a repubiio and a tkkebtttiQfw' 
By such means hisparty became very foriiiidablei)i'aiid^<0^ 
flatter them yet more, be denounced terrible jadgmeilttf v& 
^ court of komCj and to the rest of the italtau sutos. - 'bi 
149S many eomplait>ts having been called to 'Rottfe|^<iii» 
which he was accused of having reproached, in bis^senaons/ 
the conduct of thas court and tbe vioes of the otevgy, lie 

^ Alb. Ox. vol. I.— Bios. Brit.-^Watson>8 Halifax.— Ha nrood'i Alumni Eto- 
aerset, p. 9 and 63.— P«ck.*a Il«si4«rst9.-t^5|rype*t Whitgii^ p. 344.-i-t«ttcn 
by £iDiB«ii( Ftnonfi 1819, d roli« 8?o.«-Wood's Annalt. 



S A Y Q N ABO L A. 



»07 



wa^vpvUi^ljr •m«mtwW€iAe^ , wlp^ at fim .he regBii^d 

9aifar 9A to.f^VsiUiii from pr^f^iUng, but Qodinig t^at sUeoif^ 
(VllMBCl9i|ftid/w?da^.s^baM0MO|1,an(^wa^td.j^^jn lHs.qfl^«et. he 
jjQ)ft iH »f 4 hU. {i|ii«M0«9 aiul rei|^we4 bk inveaivea ag^ft 
^e 'j^lQiP^ ai;4 tbe,«9m^ of. Roipe. But whe^ t^ fof^ 
MMMifiX.thr^9if.ef^A to interdict the ci^^ the magistntes 
C ft W l p aud^d it^ipA.t^.d^sistr. from preaching. At lepgtb lie 
jproiiiirfdi^e^«A«jaUMiK^o( a friar of bisqwA^qni^n^ i^aiii^ 
* Jln^it>^men\9^,^,Vem^ whq .proposed to comfiroi hia 
^$^i^'^, liOiptriyB^s \>y tbe, ordeal, of walking lljroAjgh, jtbe 
ilAfnitfy pr/^iided any ,on^ oC tbc^ ^dyermie^.iyouid do the 
^9lMERf^ oXh# chaU<^pge .wai^aociBpted by a Franciscan fri^r^ 
aL»4,%^f^mi^ apppinied fortbe trial. . Sa,vouarola,. finding 
tihjitjibefadyer^o^pailty w^re not to <)^ ii^do^dat^y propotud 
Ifb^.t ,Doav&aioo should l^e allowed tp carry d^.^o^tj with 
J9aWiii}tO}^ej5jre«..Thi» «a#. e^cUifBued ^gaiq^ by thp. whole 
asMta^bly #a ,a« impioM^.a^d §af:f ileig^oHs propp§^U ijb was» 
b(|wei^,i4A^b>ted upoq by, Dqinenico, who tbqreby f Iji^d 
the ordeal. But the result was fatal to tt^e credit of Say^o^ 
jmQsA»9,.wbo»wa9 deserted by tbe popoji^^ apprehended 
aipyddracB^^ p(wn^ and condemped to. be firtf ftrnkr 
gMf<^.odt tb^n .biKnt» wbich se^eu^e yr^^-p^t iqtaexieeii* 
tt^il:^p*iithf 2^jDif M«iy, lt498. » ',^ 

;, Vaf^^s ,Qp\m9f^ b^ve ji^e^n entertained pf .^is piaa'a 
lflal<f9tM^Qt9r4 ^me iof tbe.frienda of Jib^rty and p^r^ea* 
tan(i89^ib|kV0 r^iiM^idef^ hi^i aa a qaan wbp, bad ei^vaiex) 
vM^s ond gO!94 iRt^ptiopsy tboi^h perverted by a sp\fi^j}S, 
faQatiQis0) ;r.and tfaeire seema ao reason itp doi^bt that be^iyAa- 
ic^ly a friend tp, the. liberty Qf Florencei and (eUaa boivot^l^: 
ind^Mtion/itjtiie profligaqrof tke ,^ourt of Rofiie,,.afKl 
tbe .€»i9ru|>tiQa of tbe .^atbolic church*, Fpr tbe&($ }ml x^r 
mmn aovae ba^e ^^on a4>nitted bjm aano^igth^ r^lpriv^^ 
and mar^ra*. Sut bif title to this hotioijr seftips very ijues* 
tionable^ . a.nd. tbe pbar«y:t^r of a leader of a. party is as di^*, 
wroible in bia conduqt.as tb^t of a reformer.. . There a^e a, 
g^t nunibejr of bis ^ermon^ rej^nainiDg, and other worlo^ 
. ifi I«Atin aoid Italian^ most.of tbeip on religious subjcAtau 
. His life, inserted in Bates's ** Vit^ Selectoruip/' was written. 
in Latin by John Francis Jpicus de Miraud(4%» prii|ce of 
Concordia. Queti published an edition of it, to which b^^ 
added uote»> with the Latin translation of some of Savo- 
narola's worksi and a list of them.' 



I Tiralwicht.:— BoicQs*! LoreBto.«-Cen, DicC 



^^w 



9 A-^Y^ltRi 



mA mm Sie m^f^m miuiitt^A 0d^mn^^ 
im ifterf ardi > b^ntfaytor lo tbtf Ukmryri^ftjM edliegtti^ 
Alter itndyiiig law Mtb^I«^eff Ta«ifri^*>ll»>ifvAaaiteitt«d|: 
to the bar, Md had a Ui^ge abam m( fwaoliafciaih ♦LaadaJlf/-^ 
and ot^ the Oxfiud cuomc* Ii» 1^1 be iTat luMghied^oaatfi 
in Feb. I6BO9 waaaMoiaAed aftlofMy««werak -Aala iiwyai^ 
be fomed buabilf after the lord ehief. jtialioe Haiti mitoac> 
ivhom he praetiaed, nad- oC whom h*.wa0-*»jaat*ahdaiimai.' 
Like that eaoeltent pemmt be wai a- «aoi'Of geaeral hiana^ 
ing, aodt accordipg to GiGiiim% of aa iii«egc)iy.«tfM4iotfaiH|ix 
could corropt; bttthiakKV^^vrnoi'mpfm^ 
hot man, aod fiorwani to aerpa all il^a 4eiigaa al^ Iba tamu-^ 
Rad thk beeo alaraya the caae^ boareaari* kkig iumtafmwMi 
not have diaauased btai fiom the offioe^^f attofneygeaaari^i 
wtflch he did ia 1687| beeauae be petioaifed ifca«>airdftoW'' 
bert cotdd net hare beea prevailed opoa toatouMfftbe-laian* 
to aoch purpe^ea aa aiere never intended* h^ tjbe lif^iiliiai^Bii 
On the other liand, Grftnger allowa that ha araa^jnailjibQaaN* < 
snred for his harrii treatmem; of ford lUmel on* biaitmi^r 
aad it ia. certain, that be aupported aaaieof kiitfCMAMMaSac 
art»tr4ry nieaaor^ being the mauafpr ia ^priffiag^ that! 
city of London of its ebartaer. At the tiaof o£ite aaadllM i 
ttoti, he sat as member of paiiiaaMiit for tbt mJH^y^^i^i 
Cambridge and was expeiled the bouae for 4Mmic am^j 
cerhefd, is attomey-geaeral, 10 the prbsec^utioo affair IDib^'i 
maa Armstrong wbo wae executea for being v4M ^^thft > 
cotfspirators in the Rve^house plot. In the aeft aaaaaiaaij 
h€ was re^chosen^ and amiears to have aat ^ietl|f«<fat ibem 
rctekindcfr of bis Kfe. He died in l60St at HigMMMoVl 
Hampablre, where he ^ad an estate, and lebuik rbn paiilb a 
cftiitdfi^ His only da^ughter married the earl of Pmafcr^^Ml^t* 
and died in 1 70b* . Under hia name» and those of i^eitgar i 
Pmch^ fliir George Treby, and Henry PoUexfe^i^ vfarp pubni 
lish^ in 1690, tolio, <^ Pleadiuj^ and arguments wi|bi«|llWIi 
prO\:^dings in the court of kina^s bench upof ^t^*Q4j»Qij 
WaArantOy touching the charter of the cii^ of LopdoaKti^it^'i 
tfai judgment entered thereupon.^' ' , ' s 1 • - a 

9AXE (Maurice, Count of)^^. a cel^rat^ ccmmander^ j 
was bom October 19, 1^96, At Dr^en, ..and p» tb»»H 



KAA. Oa. vol. R;i-««fAl¥l Own 1%D«i.-^1ft^')tfS AMkik Btif. tfii£ 



IC 



•* • 



v-^ 



u.y.^'^f 



Amsm^ CMMeUJot tbo nigwmm f t .^^ He giCre evMent prooiii' 
of hh «stt lor 'niUtfifyp aflkiiH ft^tn h»*«tifldMi6d ; ims' 
tMgfat $m veald mMlwmie mkh tk^^itwrnt MB^Hty^' lior 
ctt^bo twierbe (NWailad «^ to iKiidy'a fetr boors hi 
tlMAOrtMDg, otherwise tban^bfa premise that beshoold 
riiaiioi>.faaiMbMii l|i 'Cb# aAefnoM.- lie Irted to biv^ 
BMMchsMii •b^ut kiati for wbieh mBoit tbetr 4angM<;e was 
tbe •olyforeign Me wbMi be MfKn^y leartir grmimatU . 
oaMjf* He atcfl»4«d tbe elector ifr all bis mfffhrry e^peiiv- 
tiom ;;. MIS «t tbe iiegeof Liste in rTOB, 'si1i<ii*t}nl^ tv^tvo. 
yceiB qld, iNnl moaiMcKhe^i^Mob^ ««Mrfarai ttmes berth UV 
theoitvaadatthefei^retB, ialligbi^irrf^tbbkm^, hid^Tath^f, ' 

ragomi tfao oiegd of 1V>b¥fiay, Ib^ year TAiroiHVtV; vH^re hi^ 
teice earrawly eftdafvod 4^tk^ atiH kt (he battle' of ^al- 
p)iu|Qet» f$r firodi b^f^g^o^ketf by^tbe'dttra^f cartuigo 
wfaidb«iitteMdbd tbe en«fa^^ennfenf, he decfar^d iti the even* 
iogV^'^^h^the was well pleased v^itfa the day.^* In 1711^ 
he>tfaM6eedl tt^ Ving of Poland to' t^fraj^ond/wbere/iite. 
smnr over dbe riv«t<, bi sight ^the enenr^, with hU pistol 



batldi dufmg whtcb time be saw, without any seem- 
ing ^oacltioa> tfa^ officers aiM liibore^twenlty soldiers fall 
bybis^ekte: Wben'ho retired to Dres'deti, the Vingy/who' 
ba4'.bMii'«ritiie5Sir to lits Courage and abilities, raised a coqi<* 
pAny.ef -borae for Utm/; Oonnt Saxe i^pent the whole wiui 
tefnin teaebibg hifregftnent some^fiew evolutions', whiofai 
be bad Vfn^ented, and n^arched -them against the owi^dea 
tb^yecr foRoiiring'. This regi'niettt surfed miich at thQ 
b^Kto of Gadelbusby where he made them relurn tbreo 
^mm lo tbe attsv^k. This campaigi) beltig ended, piad. da 
KcHiigiMiiate marriad btm to the ybiing countess'de Lpbeni^ 
9 fbbofid amiable hdy, wbdse' namd was f^idofi^j which 
naMO, ooarii Saxe tfkorwards said, coutribtited as rnucb ta 
tt bit cboiee eti tbe couotes;!^ a^ her beauty and large lor* .; 
mod. Tbh bidy brotigbt brm a son; who died youiigi anid \ 
tbe OMtie baving at- length idisagreeoient with her, prO'?-. 
tmed bit oiartiago to be dissolved in \T2\^ but promisedt 
ibo coiMMcss never to marry again, and kept his word. She < 
married a Saxoa offiqer soon after, by wfaooi sb^ bad (l^oe* 
^btldrM, aod tbey lived \n barmony togiecher. If was witb. , 
griat frlbcmnee that the ccAintess bad consented to Itier 

aiV<^i<Vf tfVg' diMfrfved^ fee #b« . teved^xeunt Sase; Md 
<J^ latter Jreq9««itly «9Miiied e^eifirtfdt ef lerinf uten. 
Vou XXVlI. P 



^is 8 A- X B. 

such It atep. He continued to signalize bioiself in the wsrf. 
against Swedeni was at the &iege of Strakund in Decebibef 
1715) when Charles XII. was blocked up^ and bad tbt 
isiatisfaction of seeing bim in the midst of his grenadiers^ 
The bebaviour of this celebrated warrior inspired coui}|; 
Saxe with a high degree of veneration^ which he ever xe^ 
taiiTed for his inoinory. He served against, th^ Turks ii^ 
Hungttry in 1717, and on bis retcurn to Poland in UlSr^ 
received the order of the white eagje from the kij)g, . . Fn, 
1720, he visited France^ and the duke of Orle^i)s» thv^ ten 
gent^ ga^ve him a brevet of osaregbal de can[i{^» Cau|)t Sax^^r 
afterwards obtained l^B^e from his Polish maffsty to serva. 
in Francci where he purciiased a Gei/man regimen^ ^i l^sj;;^ 
wbich afterwards bore his naoue. He changed the ancie^)^ 
exercise of this regin^etitTor one. of hia own inventipn.; an^ 
the ohevalier Folard^ oo- seeing this exercisej, foretQld imr 
n^diately, in his Comoxentary on Polybius^ tqin. III. b. iu 
cjbtap, 14, tliat cpunt Sai^e would be a great general. JOiiiH 
ing bis residence in France, be learnt mathematics ai^d tt;^ 
art of fortification with astonishing facilityi iiU j72i^.wtieip 
prince Forduiandi duke of Courland|, falling .^dai^gen^^blb 
ill in the month of December, he turned bis ttipt%bti(.(q$ 
obtaining the sovereignty of Courland* Witb. tbisjYJ^^/^- 
set out.for Mi^ttau, and arrived there, M^y. \Bi'l^2^.^,{J^q, 
was received with open arms by the states^. oa^d^^^fii^y^''' 
ral private ifiterviews with the duchess dQyvffgeiij^f.f^o^^i^ 
land, wjio had resided there since her Jhu$bs^nd*|s.^pc€;^e«, 
This lady was Anne Iwanaw, second dau£hter,^;of,,t^e/(;at?«?. 
I wan Alexiewit!!, brother of Peter the Great,. ({I<^^ 
having communicated his design to her, soqn /etjgfigpaib^ir' 
fQ> bis interests ; and she acted with such i;idef|f^gf^]^ a,rr^ 
4our, and conducted .afiairs so well,* that b^ was.jups^i^ 
iDousiy elected duke of Coorla^d^ J^\y .5, 17^%../;Rh}fh 
choice being opposed by Poland and Busj5i«^ . ^ dii^^he«||: 
aopported count Saste with all ber interest, and fjypn.wifu;^ 
to Riga and Petersburg, where sbe xedooldied, fa.^r solicita-i^ 
11098 in favour of the latc^ election^ There, aeems indeed> 
to be no doubt, but that, if the cou^t b^d retiufned bcsr 
jiassioii^ he would not only bave aiai^tain^d bis ground vok 
Coiwland, but shared the throne of Russia, which tbis prin^ 
cess afterwards ascend^ ; btit, during his stay at Mittaut 
an affair o{ gallantry between bim and one of ber tadiefi 
brqkeroff tbe nuMrriage, and induced tbe dnche^ lo aban* 
do^bim^. JffOMAhm jmoment tbe.countV a^aira jtaoki Mr 



dtiWapijJrlurn, tfnJ be wa^ forced lb go ^ack tty^rfris itf 
f729, Tftd* foUbwItig retriark'dWe circuiristance bcctirredf 
dtrriiiW thi courte of his eutetpritti Having' written froii^ 
GAi^fland t^ Frtince for a supply of meo- and money; made- 
iholselle le Cotivfetir,' a celiebratfed actress} 'wfct^ wtiij at that . 
CifWe aiiacherf t6 him, paiwn^d'hef jeweh anfd ^btdi iihd 
iek\thita 40,OdO livres: ' Wheh codnt Saxe feibhied'''<0 
Vkrh; h^ applied hinnseTf tb olt^ft^ a eomptete IdnoWIedge^ 
bf^ the tnatheniAtiYs', and acquired in taste for tnecblahics'J' 
H^ i^fciserf the cbrntnand ^f'the Pblish Army offer^^htita? 
By^hekin^, hlsbrother,'-iri 1783', and dtstinguished Mm- 
•elf 'drt'thte Rhine under marechal Befwfck; particnlafly af 
ihe iiheb 6f' ^EJtlirigeri, ^^Hdthe steg^ 6f Ptompsburg, afeei? 
tHficIif' *he ivas madd lieutenant-genera? August I, i734r 
fidstilities hiVing: recomrfiencedon tfee dealh of ifie em|>e« 
rdt'ChjlHes VI. courtt Sistx^ %o61t'Pragire by^ssauU, NoV: 
26, f741^ then Egra an(J Ellfebogei^, rai^^d rfregitrienfdf 
BftW^ns, And BrotigKt* back marechral de Brbgtio'li'ahmy' 
tfjlwit the'Hhihe,^^hfe^etfe fixed irarioiii p8rfts,"And Mfziid' 
tfte-itfertchies df L'ahterfeitrg. He i^ani ap^oirtted ri'iar^chkr 
df'^Flranecf, 'Miii-ch^^e; 7744^ ^aftd comoikrided' thfe thiiitt\ 
bd(^»ii<f thfe*afii^?n'-F!ahdcrs, Vh^re h&ik> ^xuMfbb^' 
^v^a'ih^'trh^f\i of the enemres, who were ibperVotiiC 
iftt^beP/ ayiAafl'e'eise'crf suth-excelleht-marticuvrfis^ thiV 
h#f«afc'AWf^tftretfi to fertiiin inactive,' fot 'tiwfy '^ere Afrtfd' 
tc?WrdeffeB6^ aAy thJng." TtiU campaign in flanderjl'dld 
e8«it'>Sa:fe^'grtkt' honoiir, 'and-was don^tdfrr^ as -a - chef-' 
*«ai*y^o^4hfe^ miKtary art: Hfe \iron'thdfam<wi« bMtle^ol 
itWit^ifl'Wntier^rlie king's C6miii«nd, !»Wy 1 1,- t74^,^hfe*'ft;' 




army. Tbi«»tiitory 
ftifldwed^fey ^h!^ ci^tlire^ o* Touri)ay; whtcfe the Ft&ndh h't^' 
*tftj«f'; ctf^GWertV Bruges, Oudenarde, O^tend^ Atb, fcc.'; 
rfrrd'tit the-tfAe^that rtie ianVpmgH was supposed* to 6^ 
flWshed;- h^^ tfertik-Brtris^li, F^brtiary ^d, 1746.' Nor wa«' 
th*^nexir^etfrffp?IWft*le8S'bon(roYa»yte tii cotint SaxeV K^ 
i*dH th£?'Wtiffe bfliaucotfx; Oc*f i»I/ th^'^ameyear, IIW*^* 
riW4iW m«j^??*jV"'fo^^v^M'saclV a constant sferws cf gki-'. 
rifiii^^ set^vlcesV'ffe^laftnl'bini-mafecbal geirerttl of his CHwrpi 
awVd^ih^icSj'^Jih. -fg; UriW! WAreebat'SMe tjArrVed troopi-r 
rWd aeitahd,-^ gWhed the b»ttt^ ^f-tanfeldt, My 2 foltew^i- 
irt^;^ Irpproted th^^ sieg^ of Berg^n-op-Edorti^ bf whicb M; 
d%f'E^afrdi-m*dt'hlttiseif master^ an« ^todfc 



210 S A X E. 

Hvf If 17.48. In consequence of tbese.victoriei a p^seft 
tMi& concluded at Aix-la*Cliapelle, Oct. 19^ the same yeat. 
Marecfaal Saxe went afterwards to Chambord, whieh tAm 
kinpfaad giren biin, ordered bis regttnent of HultiMis tbl* 
tber, and kept a stud of wild borses, more proper for light 
earalry than those osed by the French. H^ visited BerKn 
•eme time after^ and was magnificently entertained by* Ma 
IPrUssioo taajesty. On bis return to Paris, he forntofV a pl«u 
for the establishment of a colony in the island of ^Pa4i9gd ; 
• bat gi^^e it iip^ when fie found tbat Englarid tinU Bottand 
'Opposed it. Count Saxediedi after a nine dayi^ iltfYosi^ at 
<Miaaobord^ 'Hm. SO, 1750, in the fifty^foat tb yenr of bis 
«ge« Me wvote 'a book- on libe art bf war, taH^d ^<Mes 
^Aeveri^*' of wbkfa « very splendid edition, with bia^Ub^ 
^WQiapublisbed in 1757, (lvola;4to. Ttiere isalso apn-Ea^^- 
'liib' tvsmalaiioii ^ k. His << Life^ was printed m ^?9^'t 
*W«. [2III0, reprinted often. 

• • Count Saxe ws« a astfn of ordinary stature, pf a robisai 

'institution, and eatraordinary stiengtb. To an aspect^ 

-tioble, warlike, and nsild, he joined mftny excellent qaalU 

tiea<of disposition. Afiab]e in hn manners, and ^disposed 

' 'to aytttpatbiae with tbe unfortunate, bis gevkerosity soose* 

' liaiea carried bim beyond tbe limits of hia fertune. ..He 

waa reaswrkably eareful of the iives^of hia owen; Otaiday 

a general officer was pointing out to bima postiwhioh w^oqld 

bdve been of great use ; *^ It wtil only cost yoav'"' saiA>be, 

. «i a doaen .gmnadieia :'^ ^^bat wowid do very w<elV^ -replied 

' tbe -nfarshfd, ^^wereltonly a doxen lientenant^generala.** 

- ^e had been educated and died in the Lutbetwa orebgion. 

** It is a pi4!y <8aehl the queen of France, avben-ebe^bBmitof 

•> bis death) that we cannot say a single D^pmfundis J^ a 

man who has saade n$ stn^g so muiy 2> ij^a^iMU.M . (.^elTgion 

hid not tDWch influence on biageiiet«il ooo<luitt) bM ott>dbia 

deaah-sbadheis aaid to bare reviewed faiserioas gaiabremaise^ 

and expreasedniqeb penitence.' ) .. .v/^*, 

. SAXI, or 9A884 (Joseph Authokt), ah eccMasaical 

' liiatorian, was born at Miianin 1^73.- He Jtnr aotttt-tiiDe 

taugbaihe belles iettrea in bta native city, < and' aftenaarda 

was empleyed aa a missionaiy. In 17M be wan aidwiikted a 

dociorxif cbe AnsbwsianceM^geat Mikn, and. ^igbt yeara 

afietfsaada wa^appoiiMed^litlsotarof tfait eoUege,'aMkkeaper 

f(^ita.«ne library. Ha dM aboat I746v ^^^aaasi>ialltbar 

uut. 



9 A X I« 219 

JdS woLBj theol^giMly kktorical, and cbrbnofogieal ^^verM^ 

mn^tig.wbich are, \. ^* EpistoU ad Card. Qairium de Lil0- 

jrikufa MediolaHenttum/' 4io. 2. <<De Studib Medteln- 

l^ensimti AntiquU et Nom/* Milan, 1729.' 3. <' Arcbik 

;«pi«coporuin MediataQenaium Series criiioo^ehitociologica^'* 

ilHd; 17S#, 4to. 4. '^ St. Garoli Borramei HoaaUlfB, prcfa- 

.tipuB et notis/* 1747, &c. 5 ypla. fol. Somd of ibe weeks 

f^f Saxi bave been iiMerted in tb# coHection '< Reram ItftM- 

carumiSeriptores'' by Muratorii' ' 

8AXIU$ (CflBiSTOPJifiE), a very learned philologer and 
;Jit0rary bhtoriaA, way bprtr at Eppeodorff, a tillage betweeii 
:Cb)eaiiiii9 and Frey)>erg^ in Saxony, where hia fitd»ef iMis 
'iC4:iergyman, Jan. 13^ 17l4i. Hia proper name wis Cbm- 
,'fppber Gmtlob Sacb, wbicb> when be comnaenrced ikotiior, 
-^ 'Ladinieed into Sachsiti% and aifterwarda into Sanios, 
tdroptxng ^ Goitlob aHoigetber, His f$iUier first gave bim 
some instructions in the learned languages, wbi«b he after- 
.\wainds improved at the school of Cbejnnitz, but more effec- 
. tii«lly^ at tbe electoral school of Misnia, where be also stu- 
died classical aoliquitles, history, and rinetoric, and in 1795 
went to Leipsi^ with the strongest recommendations for in * 
idbstryand p!rofick9ioy» Here he studied philosophy under 
:^ike eelebristed.WoUF, bat as be had already perused the 
^r ilirttMi^s botfeof the ancient and modem philosophers ^vsith 
: profound atteotioe^ be is said to have h^u the courage' to 
differ from, the ou rreut opinions. Philosophy, bowfever, as 
. flkea ttfu^t> "WW les4 te bis taste than the study of antiqai- 
ties, dassiml kmi^Iedge^and literary history, to wbioii be 
detctnniaed tit d.4vot^ bis da^s ; and the lastraetioas of pro- 
' lisainet.Oteist^ Itad bis linng in the btase «nth Meokenius, 
^ wbb 'had'an^eJt^^lent Ubiwy^ were eircumstances which 
vfiry l^ow^iiUgF'doofin^ed this reitoliHion. He bad aot been 
■z here aMvoa :;^ri trbeo twa young noblemen were eoafided 
-tahb^olate^ vid 4)il indaeed biai to cultivate the modem 
languages most in us^ 'Hia first dispuUftioa had for its 
/laubjeBel, ' V 'Vindtois^i-sMundum libertatetn pro.Maronis 
^- iRncadei oili altaam :Jq. Hardiiidus n«kper assertor injece- 
r nt^'V Eeifisic, ,\1^f!i. AjqaoiI^ otber learned men who highly 
A appfaiAded.ihta dissertation waa.tb;^ second Peter Bormann, 
; vin tdMe pilsliBce to f bis Virg;3^ but who Afterwards^ in his 
*■ eba^lalBSer.as .H'Crtti^y ftommitti^d^soBte tiogular mistakes in 
w Aondeamioy «SiM?ittf» white be? applauded j^Aicbt^yUot knew- 

^ Vkt Hist. 



$14 SAiXI^UiS. 

iQg .tiiat ila/f^ woneiUMian^ tba aaisf »2 < In: 1 73 ^ iSaxiu^. took 
. his^ova^l^rV d^mtii %vAifiotjpsaMtitd bU Htorary career bjr 
.^n^iffg a> ownb^^lP: eficidiioal artkles ia tbit '> Noira. acti 
^Huditpr^m," i^nji oeber iitararj JQvrjiatt^ from Akiayttario 
174.7.;. Thili ^Qipiojrrnauj} iiiiKiiUei^biin^sometiioeBiQ cou^ 
^ayi996ie^.wi^i |iifl.ieiiri]^i.brelhn»o, parUcula% with Peiai" 
Jl^pf oiannr . ^r witb . foneign autbort jfwtUit wboee wonbi.b&had 
^k^(i lilve^m^i^ fai l744:h^iniiteft.ih&moet consi^rabie 
p^ts^ <^£ Ger«iany^'Wii yira«/ at .FjitDck^i.on. tb^ Matofc 
^W'ipg.Mj^t^QOf^^P^ti^ of tb0 Empcvoivw la .17;^ibe)waa 
^pqjuf^d professor .'^Jbiistorif^jaDiiqttiiicq/. and.cbetorio.at 
y^re^bii and .on^Mlmfigparliiao^Q.prQnQonefiii aaorsl- 
j^iqn on .;bp ^i^rlpe^pf 9Qtiqml(^,.wbi9fa>ivai« pripted:in l!7fi3; 
j^io,^ Afusr tbis.JHa JHe;ifidfims<l»])hav^)b&E?ti ifeTOtedi edtiootj 
jt9^t)ie.d<j|;ies qC bU p^>fe83Qf»bip^faiid ihaeoBipuaiiJoB o£a 
{[f^tjpapy viQorkfi Qi)jMibJQPt3 af pbualqgy.aiidtj»'itiiciMi» 
B9(9f^ io Ger^iin^ I^m.>principally<i«»< iAtiiii .. !IU^e< nrast 
iqW^ider^l^e^ o/[ xb§9Q^ ^hQ omty «iie. aiuch> fcoo«»nila thu 
!CflW\^Ty» 'is.b;i« **jOuQi|)aHiQoa Ut^rft»tt»,?' »i)r Lueiaij 
jpicuQpa/jr, ccN9pi^ing Qf a series fV6 l)iopiApbi«al.aiidx:rai«- 
^ P9Mpes or r^fen^noea ro^pectU^; ib« i^iiWt ^mam wrnen 
jpf,^ycfy agaor iwiQa^ .^ftdiorievery .br.airiifeo£ilill«mtiii«( 
in cbri^oijagical /ordeiv. Tbe firat voluipaof'tuiaappflajMi 
iff A'77^, ^.vp^ aod it .c<?^i4aui^;t9 b« publiisbodiUntiliadMB 
vj^l^j^ea. .^erq , cp^ple.te4 ^itb . a, get^mhind^hi ui//i7ML 
5^9 tbjs,,jin 17^5, b^, addled ai); leigtub oraup^I^ti^mary.vGf 
Xuxpe^ froiu>v}iiob we h9<\^ a«u*aDted »omepfu^(i«iaa«iio£bii 
l^fjpj.asgiyfln bybw^if^ ..^blsia a woii^;.akiuMtiindis|iaii> 

h^ye U§^(vtl^prodiUQtion Q£,miii)y^7Jffriir)»VJiabonr 4odvaitcn» 
^y^u^99^ niu^i^i^* i}Q^i^5(0r»iiateiMi^tted,,tivbiQbiafejiiigHt 
^j^vQ ^c^w^ted Xp ^duf^yif.^ %pd aHq/ EoglUh sesksf ..ib to 
fvejy t'9^^iga, undert^Hif^g of the j^ind^ jia^vedryiinip^cfefid 
W.i^ bfve,3Gen.i)o.accQiwt,o£'bi4iJfttiiQr da]M «jBa beMlao'dk 

piu^iy-accond y^Ac' , _.\ .^.. . ;, .,,, i, ,x.«l - i^>f 

^. ^A;^0 .(Q,{CAMMAXiGu^^a'i)|iQi8b^b)$i9riaii| 3Uisi»pfi9^ 
Jjo bav^ j^eeii ^ i)atij?e^o£,J3teo|^itirfe,f,bMA 4bii»' baaj.boea df 
<][UiAjut^d ppi^t.. M tq Ki* n*«^ .«K)cAAr» il ia ieipidfiHt' from 
j]pauyiiponi|aients,pf.I)ani^ aniii<y#ty^jtbiit ili$.»i.jW> .obw 
f^cu,r^,9r.ljite..Qrigio. jn ih^,biftWry.9f DemnarKi .v8axo>hiaA 
fgiC/ calj^ the X)^llja»^ bw coqatry<#ef^:4?4«marJt. bia cottotvy.]^ 

' ' SairTi Onomast. vol. VllL-rrHadci do Vitis PhiiotpgbriHD. toL L^ . „^ 



S A X O. «1* 

^oiiaite bis origin to Aaiibria^ otberf iviib^vicre resMn to 
findandia, a Datiisb istand. Tiie name SoalMK$ieiii^ is idto 
added to «kat<of . SaKo^ > iaisome aditkitis of kis vi^orka. H^ 
has beea called Lougua, wbiob haa ittduped some toatir}^ 
Imte^: bis descmt to the n^ble^faoatfy of tbe Latigir. Othm 
iHuf e aadiercb^ei^ tb a«cviba'tlAa'tia«ie to-the height 6fbb 
statnee. Ssnoo^ i» bis preface) speaks «f hia ane^tora^w 
Inaihg been diatingoislied in war^ vtbieb IndieateA that thejr 
«ere>df']id ugnoble vacjai ' Hi4 Mine of Gfannaatic^ti w*a 
tstolaritad lexpfeftsive of^faia aetainnmeiit^ in liMrsUiilte. 
Tfaere. are )diffHrBfit opiniona con^^erniag the year cf'bia 
^klk It is^ 'however^ ^ertaiii tfaat be flourished in ' the 
ttalfth. Ncetitorjr* - Cdrpeovitfs evideaTOUfed, by aotnfb acixtfe 
and aobttie.neaaonings^ t^a^eertaiii thie date* Tbeeduca- 
Jtaon «f Sexais 4eqdaliy ki^Ued in vn^^ertattiiy. ' PoAtopp^ 
dan sopposea-tbasbrst^idiedat P^riSy and theve acqnfred 
the deganaa of style for which be afterwards was distih^ 
gisiabad. It l&«artainj that in the |9th century ihe'CitnbA 
Had the Donea fraqnehtly went lo Fmnoefor education. It 
4iuiy^ hoiae? ar^ be doabted, wbetbev in the rage for trifft 
vfaiebithantciiiaviaflad at Paria, Saxo coold have proctrrad a 
boaater^ jwhoi wiu» capable of 'instructing him. We must ht 
aatberiiooliaied'teaupfyaae that be owed his attainnnents t6 
kH\tww iadaati-y 'and taleniSi b a^ipears that be applied 
lOT t^eology^^ for we ftnd him appointed capitular in tba 
libhopriia iofi Lofidans, and tffterwtards a prefece In tbe'ba^ 
>haftrai'of RoaehiM; While b^ filled this office he was sent; 
intliiaiy by Absalon^ tbe biaho|^ (if Boacbildi 10 Paris, witb 
a*¥tecw ol inviting some tnonks iVooi 6t Gecileviere, wfat> 
siiight sanieel tbe'depravedmoralB of those' whith belon^^ 
lo <£skaiBtto% Wilbim Abbas aooapted the ih^Mitatfoit of 
fiasco, wd tbtee brotbar^ followed Mm. These tii<xiki in^^ 
irodbosd iitto Dentnarft the monastic discipline wbitfa had 
facien.piMeiibedby'St. Aiigustiaew Variaas opltiions hate 
been offered about the date of Saxo's death. Pontacnoa 
happfiaa if :to have bclea in the year 1 ^08. Some cotifettara 
the ximead bai^e baen 119D^ tAhexs in 1201. But, whih 
im. reflect «h^ in Ms "pfe^a be speaks of Waldemar II. 
who ascaadad i ha ' tht^M af Danmark in 120$; and that 
Andrew Buno/ «o wbain- the hi^tdry is dedieated^ sUcceedied 
Ab8alou.'m'tbi8ibi«b6prie ifn 120!2> wa dandbt agrea with 
those who have adopted t^ earlier dates. Though soma 
others bav^ fixed tbe date iii 1204| and others in 120*6, the 



01» i kJCtf. 

•eieotyt. fie' wag irurfed^if the 6al!hcAli1il of RosbtAld: 
3Uire0oei»iirrie.s tff(«fWitfd^;'at) insefiptibrt was add^d to his 
tomb iby i^ftgo? tfrnei bishbp of 9calat)dfe. Thotyih tnorA 
•kegtfnt t^tes ttiigbtf ha^ been ifiteftted, sa^s Klo'tziu?^ 
oofieNootdd have beeA in6kie trde. . '| 

. 'A<k9alon, biab6p (rfUdsc&fld, first ftistigatedSaxo to unL 
dtittaketb^'hUtoiyfif D^ntnarir,' ai^ assisted b1nl WUhUitt 
Mli^ice^rrd «^ith lyookit. Skm etop]tifeA twetity "^ears m 
aocKMtipthllitlgl^iii andeniaking,''at)idai1a«t*rtnderiad it wtffl 
iliyi^'ex{ieetatiohs of Abtralon v wUo, KoweNef, died bef* 
fyt& tl^ history Was eoM^^Ieted^'wli^ch Sato' inkcrib^Q' to 
Anditew'Sono, wfco wis the sttdce«ior to the see; Aftdt 
raaaaiilin^itl'MS. for tBree'bdildi-ed yeari, Cfaristianos Pe« 
itttens* undertook the t)uWkitf0n,* haviog rteeived thvi niai- 
fioierfpt ^accijyatdy writreh^frOih Bergeius the archbishop 
t»f<Lt^iM)eds. Itwas d^trieredtb be priht€;dt6'5odo^tlsBai 
4fo9 As^^etnllifr, aMd wa^ published at Faris hi "1514, and 
republished at Basil/ in 1554, by Oporhttis. A thiM ^dfi^ 
JfeMi ^p^kred ^t Fraifiefort on the Mai*ne,'fn t itQ. At last, 
fifephamus Jbbnsneff 9Ce|bihahius, histoHan'Wihfe^kffig, and 
fitofedsfiif of eloqcrence and history ih tbe'\infrfef si'ty or ^of^, 
Mtb theatd or some Danish ' nobles; kifd the Ifberif c^Vi- 
%»ilMfAbh of the king, w^s ehabled to p\i6T\Ai in *AH\bti'\)f 
tSufcOj tftftflfo, [jrlftted at Sora, 1644.* A'setofi*/^h' o<F 
4te wlumti ^ppevtttA in the following year, ^coHtafnnl|^ ^h^ 
*** I'HD^egOmena,** and' coploua notes. Tliere is*i \t^t€t edi- 
rfdft' by Christ. Adblphus Klotz, printed at;Ilei[iilc' iVi 
l?T*l, 4iio, ahd'thete are several Danish translations. ; Thef 
<TediMISty*cyf *8axo is somewhat donbtfdl, 'biit tis'sM^i'ft 
^d, afid ninth praised by critics of amliOrity.*" ' ' '^' ' ' 
•'"SAY- (fluiniOftL), a iWisentSng minister' of coVsMte^li^ 
taients. was born in 1675, and wds the'st^bol^td'sbii c^'ihe 
Hev.'Oites Say, who had beert' ejectfe'd 'ft'OiA"tlhe?^vtcki^ge 
«f'fit; Mithael's in Southamptori by the B^i'tHblbft^iJi^.aet 
in 1^62 ', and, after king Janies* th^ secbnd^;jlibf&)^ty brcorr- 
Mience, wa^ chosen pastor 'of a dissentittg cbhjt^ib^tibn at 
iGoestwick in Norfdik; Where he eomihufedtifl'WSdeatb, 
April 7, r*9^. Some years yfter; thesnHject oi tiJJs "tvtltite 
lining at Southwark,' vvhi^e h^ had been lit sbbooT, knd 
^onversintr with some of the dissenters of that place* m6t 



V"j^igyn ^V.a^ 'V.W©^ W P$. cxo, IS(^ pre^qfaedjbgf bis 

piog syrppyly iq^UowJ %? t.be.mi;>istry, Mr. Ss^ cntenrd 
11^ a puFijl ^u the^Acad^j of tbe |l^)i. Mr- t1uwa^]U)ii« 
At London about 1692, wbere be bad for bv ifellow-^Mii* 
dp^ifi ^c,-(^^l§vs^dJ^ Dt^ l9m^^^pjt% Hqghes thepoet^ 
iffl ^Mr, Josiajj if 9j;jfi aftj^f warji^cbbifkhc^ of Tuam- Wheh 
mf^ b^(l'|^ni9be,cl ^ia,^^iU^p^ be, became cbaplainio TbooiM 

il^d ..tbre^. ye^r9« ,Tbencf ^ b^: j erooved to Ando^fir tt 
tfamphbir^ tben:; to 1c!acmc(V)^b in.iN'prfolli, and soon* afiuft 
}Q,4l»owe5toi(lm SMfii;:Jk^.:vvl)erej.be.Qontipned. laboiiri9g i& 
vYpf'd and .daetrine,e\gbtee9.y^s^ Hrwas aft^rward6 «9r 
j^as^QJC; with tbe Eev: Mr. i^piuei Ba?cter;at Ipswich niiit 
y/?ar|>; aiid ^!^^tly was called j^.io, 1734, tn&iuxead O^r.Edr 
i^tin4.Ca(afny .i];i;Westo(iin8ter^ wbere be di^sd it bU bqtfae 
ii^^aip^^-^triee^ Ap^i^ ^^i ^'^^^9 ^f ^ jnortificiE^tipo . ia b^ 

Y JTp . bis f i^>ei'?) ,ser;^bn^ preacbed by Dn<)badiah,JHogj^% 
i^pd al^terjyards.prJDted^ a due elogiiua is paid to bis u^'mit 
Vt^Vi^r ab^itys^;,andy aoon after hU deatbi atbUi qoai^tf 
Voivjofe ^<;rf :W^ pqeaps^^ with two essays in prose, ^V.Oii;tji0 
naf^QjiiPj^, yajirie^^ and Power of Numbers/' writt^' a^ 
le, f eati|9^t o(^e Richardson tlie painten wer^ ptiblishe^ 
ipV tbif ben,^t cif bis daughter^ who manned the.Bi^V. Mi^ 
Tjwi^% of Had]^<eigbi in Suffolk. Tbe essays have }>eeq^ mooh 
^mjred by per$ojis.of taste tmcl judgm^nt^ , Aiyi ibe G^fir 
^|efnan*3 M^gazin^ fcur- 17^0^ p. 56 3^ „hjw. rescued iro^ 
.pblwAon spme .remarks, ^y tb^ same judlciotts haod,* from 
the margid ot a qbpy of Mr. Auditor Beo^poU ^ Preiiataij 
^pisQWX^^ to.hia Edition^ of,JoboftQn's\Pss,liK|S| apd the 
<!piidu$^pn;of.tbft,piscQur8e». 1741." 
iZl^ i.^^.P'Jf'f^fi^:^^ ^^ wprks^' we; are,. told that Mr. Sq^ 
^ wj^'a tena^ritWbaud^ af^ ii^dulgent^fiEtther, andof ajnoat 
beoeiyplqpt, cpiQio^Drcatiye. dispos^^^^ ever ready to dp 
,goo4> jAU^ to dis.tribifte. He was Well versed in aistroDOi^jr 
'an4 natural p^it^o(>by ; ,ba(jl a ti^te for iniis^9 aiad poettjrt 
; wa^ a /g<K)d' critic^ and a loaster of the. clai^esu Yet > so 
^ great \yfj^ 'tis ^odest^p. tHat he was l^AOjyrii qoly lo a hw 
.select frijsnds^ .aqd neVf^r pbbljsbe^abov^ two^o^ three s^i;- 
mon's, whrch'were in a manner extorted fromliim/* Among 
.ihft moAen JLs&ft poet» foout^buaus' iratf hw Awafite; 
amongsthe English^ Milton, whose bead, etab^d^^l&Ir. 



«i$ fir 4 Y^ 

Bic^ajrd«pD, ; if pre^xe^ to h^ second .^my^ A It^uer from 
Mr. Say to BJr, HugBes, arifi two from Mr. Say to Mr. Dun* 
coiDbe» with a Lat;ip. translation of tbe beginning of ^^Pa-p 
radise. Lost,'* are printed .^cpongtbe *^ Letters of Eaii^^^ 
persons deceased," vol. I. aiul vol. 11, His cbars^cter* o| 

^rs^ Bridget Bendysb^gra^nd-daughter 9f.O)iy,^r,QiK>«i)«i?dilf 
in the appejndix to yoK II. first appeared (without a.ow^e) 
in.G^nt. Mag. 1765, p. 357. In thd.saiperoiuffe, p, 423, 
" The Resurrection illustr/ited by tb^ Ctlacg^ of rtf« Sil^T 
worm'' is by tbe same band. Apd ,^oq[^e,pf h\$ poj^tic^ 
pieces are jn Kicbols's " Select CoUipctipn, w'- ^It i ..r 
, ' Mr, Say bad. collected, all the fonns of prayer on pubjl^c 
occasions from the time of arcbbishop Laud, wbicii a£t§f 
^is death were ofjfered to the then arc^hbisfiop of Xoi^ (Dr« 
Hearing), hut jvere declined by b^ip as ** of^ver lik^y. to b^ 
employed in compositions of that tort for the public^ tbaj^ 
work being in the province of Canterbury.'* Y^ . uoUkc^ 
as it seemed) this event soon bappen^d.^ » 

SCjEVOLA. See St. MABTHE. , 

^ SCALA (Bailtholomew}» ^x^ Italiaq, emioeot ad a ^tatea* 
man and man of letters, when letters yirere jU9t reviving xi^ 
Europe, \yas born about 1424, some say 1430. Jtie w;^ 
only the son of a miller ; 1)ut» going early to Fjo^wcf » b^ 
fell vinder the notice of Cosmo oe Medigij;. who^ Q)i>serKipg 
uncommon parts in him/andatura for Jeyttef/^, took .him 
under his protection^ and gave him fui education. ^ftslAXf 
clied tbe la^. ; . ^nd» taking a doctor's degree in that ^ac^)^|| 
'frequei)ted the bar. After the death of Cosmo iq. 1464^1 
Peter de Medici shewed the same regard for him.». ^^ 
5cala> thrpugh bis. mean$, was trusted by the xep^bUq ii^ 
%he most important negociationa^ tn 1471,, t\\p fr^^dQimjoC 
the city was cpnferred op bioi ^od bis descend^Pf^f <u»4 -^Iw 
year after be obtained letters of nobility c be vn^ tbf|a.a^ 
cretary or cbanceUpr pf the republic^ I^ ^4.34,. \\ie Iflo- 
rentjnes ^ent a sol^mj^ embas«^.t/o Imipcfnt.VI^|r xo^^f^Qn^ 
gratulate bijps op bis being raised to tlie po|^^fiQ^^; when 
Scala^ one .of the .emb^^v, delivered, a. ^^eept^ up. .v^rf 
pleasinjg to. the pope^ that be was made jl^y l^m .% ^9?gbt< of 
the golden spur, ap<^ senator of Epme* . In,14S^ b^ yn^ 
ipade holy-standard-bearer, to tbe .republic. { He died a| 
Florence in 1497 ; i^nd left, amqng qt|i^r cbUd^reo^ a davgb^ 

- > Qet)k\ htag. See ladex.-^Abji. Henlfig^ Lctterf.->HviliOB*s Hist of Dif. 
leatiDg Chuisehef . 



8 C A L A; ,319 

^t, jiktatd Ale;fanq3'ai who afterwards became famous ^ 
fa^ le;^rning and skill in the Greek and Latin tpngues. 
' During bis fife-time were published the aboveuie^tione^' 
i^eech ^0 pope Innocent; another speech which he ina40 
^ chancellor of Florence, " Pro Imperatoriis militarib^ 
«rgnis datidis Constantio Sfortise ImperatorV' 1481; and 
^^- Apoh>gTa contra TUuperatores civitatis Florenti^*^* 1496^ 
in folio. His posthumous works are four books, </I)e His- 
toria Plorentina,** and ** Vita di Vital iani Bgrroraeo;^* both 
prit^ti&diatllpme in 1677,. 4to. This history of the Floren- 
tine republic was written in twenty bool^s, and deposited ia 
ib^'M^diceau library; but, as only four of these books an^ 
f)^ of aiifth were nnisbed, no more have been thought m 
for the press. H^ was the author also of " Apologues^j 
and of ^ome Latin and Italian ^* Poems.'* Some few of his 
It^i^i^s have been published; and there are eight in th^ 
eollectibn of Politian, with whom Scala, as appears from 
the correspondence, ba(l the misfortune to be at VitriancQ. 
Politian probably despised him for being his supjerior ia 
every thing but lettefs, and Scaja valued himself tpo much 
oh bis opnfehce. Erasmus also has not passed a very fa^ 
i^tirable judgment on him : he represents liim as a Cicerp;- 
fiikir In his ^t^yle. - Scala^s daughter Alexandra, above men- 
fionecf, was no l^s .distinguished by her personal beauty^ 
thdh her literary acquirements. She gave her hand to the 
Gr^ek Marulltis (See Makcllus) ; and Politian is numbered 
amohg-her unsuccessful admirers; a circumstance that may 
iff some degree account for the asperities which marked hia 
eontroversy with htf father. She is said ^o have been as* 
listed in her s.tndies bv John Lascaris. and Demetrius Chal- 
eondyias. In.evidepce of her proficiency, we are tolfi 
thttt she replied to a Greek epigram, which the gallantry of 
¥<)Vtt\M sifUrei^^ to her, in the same language and mea^ 
sUir^; ^nd^vn d pnblic representation of the ** Electra'* of 
Soph6cletf at Florehcei she undertook to perform the prin^ 
.elpal femafie^ 'dliairacter, which, according to Politian, she 
dirf with ^it kudcess. She died in 1506.' 

SCAlIgEH." fJuLiosC-ESAR), a very learned and emi- 
nent Critic, was qorir, SLccording to his son's account, April 
S9, 1494, art Ripa, a castle in tbV territory of Verona, and 
was the Son of Benedict Scaliger, who, for seventeen years, 
cpm^pand^d the.^roi^ps, of Matihias, king of Hungary^ to 

I Tiraboscbi.— Gen. Diet.— Qreitwcn*t PoliUao.— Roicoe*! Lorenz*. 



*«) 8 C A !L 1| G fc 

Nrhotnliie iragr rtl&tetf. WSi tnb^W ^fhn BttkiAte Vo6^m^f 
duugfiter of botint Plifis. From "the s^tlM al^thoHty ^ 
I^arn, tbat Scaliger was a dt^endlEiiK fVdoi the' afictMt 
^rmceii of Verona ; "but #bile other -psfrticuiars oftbe bfr^ 

• atid family of Scaliger are called in ^ue^tion, ttii^«eeinii fo 
be refuted by the patent of natnralisktion i^hich Francis I. 
panted him in 1528, in which sm^b an bonoumblc^'deiRc^nt 
woold unquestionably have be^n HOtiaH^ whereas in ibis 
instrument he is called only <* Juiiug Cflfrsar d^to'Sc^lln^e 
*Boirdons, doctor of ffliysic, a natrv^ of V\e¥out3ii** WWn 
therefore, hit critical asperities had rah»ed' him enem4i«y 
tb^y didiiot fairtostKf^ him. of bis rdyal Oridn, and ih^ 
Mead of it, asserted that he \n» the isoti of a «d)00^ Master 
(some say an illuminator) of Verona, one Bene^ctBbl"* 
•den, irbo, removing to Venice, took the name^of ScaK^r^ 
eith^&r because he had a if^aU for his sigfi, or Kved ih a'Mreet 

Meklledfrom thut rnstromeitt^ and ahbougb ThvteiiUil'^ihs ' 
inclined to consider thi^ ^ory as the fabricat](»lri or^b]gM- 
tine Niphns, out <rf pique to Sc^tigief, it is certMn ttiki the 
Toval origin of the Bcaligers has alway* a))p4^ft[r&d V6t!itit- 
^1, and we have now no means torembyel tlife tthe^- 
tainty. ' '■ ' - m ;-' >v n^^t 

^ De was taught Latin at hoiiie, ^nd, aceotW^tohti'Mh, 
hkd ftyr his preceptor John Jocondoii ofVefdna,' -Wfab^^e 
feim^^lPin Tarious parts of his worlcs men^oitt a^^his'^ti^^ ; 
^bttt^en this cfrcumstanc^ hhi oppdn^tits irk nidt ^pdftd 
to credit, and tell us, that atf be was tb<i^ d^eettdidlfW 
'princes, St was nfeeesstiry 'to provide Ijlm 'with li jiff^ptor 
like JobuHdus, irhfo ^is a iman tiot ohiy of ht^ tbiMifcUr, 
ls»t a geHllemaii by lAHh. ' Th^y atsd add uimie timiA^ 

 stances which certainly inakd it dofubtfttf #h^M)er<^Sattlifer 
ffreaHy wte taught by Jocundns, bccliuile 'It wa» h^fttbi^j - 
IHi 'knbi^Iedge of Latin, lior by phHosB|% (^ tmM^, 
"Miat MbAcandbs^ lifequif^ hb r^ptitktidn, %tlt^%^-hi^ iXiWin 
Hie'fin^ rfrts. (See JdctrNDW.) It apjiears, :fad#k^r^4is8 
HjtiesttiontLbib, thki at the age of t«lrelv« 6e&1%eV m^^fhe- 

< aented t^ the empetor'Md^titniniinV who msfde <hkti''6nrof 

• liis pa^, and that be s^ved' that einpeitW sev^t^^ yelirs, 
' %M gav^ prooA of hfs ^htlonr and Uekterity in n»9erW»i- 
' ')»editions, 'in which ht attend^ hts mister. flc^'¥rasiat 
^ tMa bilttle <)r Rav^fina iti I5l^. in WhibB heloit hvifotBer 
' ^tirf%rothey Titns, ^hpse bfi&len M iotivef^ to^f^e9#ihi, 
*' wb^re has iBOtherTteMied, MiQ ibtii^e time after Clied^^^b 



S C A L I G £ B. 28^ 

W^ Hiim 4yaie ifi iHtfUMr ckr^mms^wcf, ScdW foti«4 
ljl>iime)f alnott witboot a mainftenMce, and tbereWa^ jr^* 
;i|c4vad t9 enuir into the Fraociscan ordart for wbick piirfKiw 
/^ wi^nt to Bolagna» aod applied himself vi'goroiwly .|P 
dltud^ ^apeciallyto logic and ScatuV» divinity ; out Gbi)ng- 
jng his viewi^ ^f ib^ eccleaiaatical pfofe9sv>n| T;^ ^t9iR 
tf^^^erf^ inftQ.tbe ^rinyy and served •ome time in PiedosH^ 
;A pbysiciaD^ wbom be knew a,t Turin, persuaded bipi ia 
.|li»4y p^W ; and acpovdingly he prosecuted it at bi^ I^t 
r.iwrft honra, while he was in the army ; be; likewi«e learclfd 

,tb(» GjEeek langmg^» oi which. be. had bee^i enlir«(iji HSJfR^ 
.ifaoft t^ll tb^n. At length, freqoei^t attadca of i-b^vg^vt 
^^^tjeirmjoed iijio^ fi^foriy years of age». to. abandon fjyiiU* 

^ry \if^ and devote hwself enMi;^Ty to the pipfieasion^of 
,«9byf^ic« In i}m .be bad already af:^ira<l both skill. ^^^ 
\ ^me, and the bisbof^ of Agen, be^g. indisposed* a^d ^g• 
^.^sebopding spme need of a physioif^a in hi^. Jo^rney tQ^ 

^icM^^se^. niqa^t|9d Scal^g^ to attend bim« Scaligf^ :c^- 
^/leated 9|iQn. condition tba^ be .sbonld not siiaj at 4fil^ 
.<«JbyQ;fe;,Qig^ 4^ys: tber^ ^wever* be oono^iv^d M/<a|t- 

taqbiQieH^ fo( ^joupg lady, said t9.b# v^ n^te tbv fSvf* 

teen years of age, and remained at Agen wai^in^ fyf bf^r 
.rftfurwft^* ogkB^ent* .J%a% obiaiitedt b^e nwri^d ^^£«4a 1^29^ 
^]^V#d..wit^)ier twenty-nine years^ i&nd bad fiJ^fip cbtUr^o 
^•ky<)^% jsesteu.^ wbpm survived biin» Whaf^er bi^ftqi- 
b^^ ^ 19^^ b&ve been now a map of ^ome iPffns|4^JMWPf 
t f/9r i(b^ Iftdy ^HW ^^ ^ ^^^^^ 9^^ optdent faotjlj^ . . , ^ 
ic .'Aft«f t^ia fi^tlemeot at Agpn, he b^gftn V^ apply bj,m»lf 
,i»vfc»m*yitot tlwe. general studies ,whic^ ip^g^pbm tiflost 
-Ao^wn i«:tbfi litiya^y world, He learned ti^ E'r^npbitongye 
,eiM|.bi»:fic^ c^ming^ i^fci^ ho jsfiiak^ perfcc^ljf «eAI lo^rtiree 
^^nml^a AFhI 4h<?Pk ffiarfe. hiwelf .nwtflr pf . tbf ..Gaaison, 

• luiiiw^ $P^Wfbf' Q«fno?#if yupgar^ap, and.,^plavBui9pu 
nPl>MMig.lheffe}^pdieii Jjem^iniitiwd biin^elf ^y ihe prac- 
vMc^y^^yiiCf i. Itjia P9>b3hl§ that he W,taUn aidoc|pr'a 
~5^gl'#0 i^,,«l^.4a-fapA|l^ya| Padua ;,fpif, tbe;let^C» «f WlP- 

,p-g»f^^ii(l,^Mktit)l)*,,,.A4 te^ b^Att. lv» studies l^te^ itjipa 

jj^f^^^rti^i^Hy: ^ Vfone i he . eominf iqced aiH^or, . nooe -of 

ifbiiiwovlt^hafii^.fipv^fed. wmI l\e wa^ forHy-seFenj hut 

' »bftj|»ow gfiin^ a I)AI9A in tbej iffflw^lip of )etter%.:iabH^h 

. ii|«f .jhpvti gi^i^nd fo^qiidiible. ..ffomtbii^ ti«aa, qmtlP^ 

Wipo. find if pntfoipeivy ^ph^ed. J^ifi.^t^U his^deMbj.«b»cb 

happened in 1558| in thm seventy- fourth year^ ^, ^ 



S34 •OALiaK& 

carmen de sapi^tia 4K b«i|fcikii<UM^*'* ibidr-'IA^^ Him»' htk 
^^Poemau. ia 4iw M^t^ divita»r. li5'M 9|Kl>lM0|fHA 
16* << De camicU dioieii0i^bu>»*' prftfiued tOt^D. q dJ iti a a 
of Thence printed ft: Pims 1352^ fol. ^ • ^ . 

SCALIGCR ^psfiPH JasTvs^s^a^f th9 pteqediafi^ 
beir.to hW tal^^im 9M»d Uunp^Y^ was bMii at A|^« io liiM) 
and, at; ^leveo yean of ^^je^ was a«iit mlb ^••otf bia iim» 
tbeia to the college of Bordaanx, where he was tanght 
Latin« ThcM y^rs af tec« oa the apptarlMce of the pbyiwV 
he wap obliged to returo hoiae «o hit iatfaer, adio ibea 
auperiateiaded bis ^diKiitioa. He. required of bia evecgr 
cUy a short exerckie or ihemo upon some bklorieal aiiia^ 
jed^ and; made him traoioribe aome poema^ wUchhe'hbi* 
w^£ bad c9«aipo«edr This k»t laak is aupposed lo hf Witar 
tpiredhim with ataite for poetiy, and so eager* was b&to 
ihQvv.his piT^ficiaoq^ that be wrote a m^/edy o^n the 
stQiy Oif Oedipus <befeM ho wpta aevwntaea^ ' HM-.fiabet 
riving ia 15 5,Sj he UNtnt to Pam the yearfoUowing to atiidjr 
Oreeh^ and attended the leotun^ of ^Tocnebos fee mw 
monib;^ ^.B;aL£AdiDg the aiualaoMtie toa diia*oi|i)i bb^a^ 
so]ye4 to ^lufy it by h^OMpeUf and with the aamlanpo^of 
some kooWl^e ,.of >tbe coojngacton^ aitempt«d t to- ^toad 
Hom^x with icstflpkn/:%;ipii» io whkh he aogeowitwt^ reof 
aoon». aod at .the (yuate d|)|>fi formed to bimaBtf a kind*iof 
graQi^arji with vidiicb he wf4 opiibled to fRDcred tto^ite 
other Greek poets> and next tc-lhe hiatoriaoa a»d e na t asai 
and b^ persevering in. this ooerae^, b0 gAned ioi the-apioe 
of two years a perffot hnowledge of tbo langoaga Ho 
afkerward% turned his thoughts to |he Ihehrewr^ f3ii«li tm, 
leam^ by bimself in the same maaiier» AttjaeoiagNod 
iodeej^ tbaj; be had an oJi^traordinaqr capaeily Car liatokif 
Ungua^es» and is said to have beeti wett skiiM iti^W»iaat 
tbap tbirteen. I^e ipade t^e same ffogresa in tho.'seioneai| 
and in, every branch of literal a re; aod be'aclettgtb obiaii iad 
the repuUtiuDL of bei^g the upost learned mask of his ff%' 
and hjs biograpbais ba^e ha^d^d dbwq to MiiltiOfrfs^«baar 
^^.progre^ of hia studies an4 the pbetailetogy vofc bie »| »i M pr 
cations. lo 1 A^^ he wi^. ifiviied oa^ihe.nnivetaqr of Ley* 
den,, to be bo^or;ary prqfaseor of Seiijai itcltrei^^oiv whMli 
occasiojQ> if we may h^ieve tbe. ^ Ateol^MMy'^ Uitarif iV( 

^t'CMi-'Pic t^Niceroo, vol. XXirt-^Life by bif^•o^^i|| BiMSi'i Tp{il.]i|lHfi^ 

^ 1 '•»•'* * 



JV O A 1 £ (lir ft. ^Is 



•1^ kjiUff IMUbd Mm wMt gveil boMnedb AM iife^eet 
JBcaUg«r:h«(ctdet«nmned to soMpi- the offer; snd, waitlog^ 
^qpoo Ao kinif^ mi acquaint hiin wHll liii journey, and the 
MflMMiof ity ^WoU, Mr. 8eaiig«r/' taid his linjett^^ 
'< the Duteh want to hare yoo rnhh. (htiiii aud to alldvr'you 
bifoffliitspewit I ftttk glad of iV Adding some cfeher re- 
smAM of a grosier khid. Henry iras no patioh of leart^inj^ 
or leaned oMn : bat aoMefaavevuppotea thatfae wiAed to 
moitify'Sealiger, lAm bad-riveady shewn too much' of Ml 
Mwr's nmky ^aiBid anogaaa spmi. He noar went to Lejri 
dan; adiaro' he tfpent the raniainder of his life; and'diM 
these of:a diepsj, Jan.- fll, 1 6ao, witboiit hating ever beeA 
osan-ied. fie wsw « -man of peif^t aobriety of mamitrii 
aad^vhose adiole tiase was mm spent in scndy^. - He bad as 
greafe^ pans as has Atlher, ^anid * Aar greater' learning/ having 
been, trained u^ it Ammi his tnfiincy, which' his iktfaer baa 
not. I|e baKl« p^fcund veneration for fats Mber, and uti^ 
tetDOaasiy extendad it te^an imitation of his irritable tern- 
peiv'aKd disreapeot far hia learned contemporaries. Bui he 
WM often, m* disoem^ and enoourager of metit. While at 
lieyden he was so stmek with the eaity appearance of ta* 
Itiit imilftitiusy'tbat'he nndertoek to direct bis ttudies. 
Gaetius repaid -Us care by the utmost resnect, and Scali- 
gesFs eomeek' men comiiands te him. Toe elder Sculiger 
lieed «jsd died ie the ehorob of Rome t but the ^on em- 
MuMD&if the pcioeiples of L«tfaer, and rehrtes that his Aithet 
also had kiaentiona of doing so. 

« The r Works of Joseph l^aKger ere very numerous and^ 
vsMoua ; hmt >hia *'Opns de Emendatione Temporum,^ 
pttDted.at Paris 16ft3 in fetio^ is his greatest performance, 
io ashioblM haa colleoled every thing which might serve to 
- aftabiiak the pitneiplei ct chronology, ahd was tbe first 
wiiei nadertaek te farm • oomplete system. He has ia this 
work MMleffad hsa name memorable to posterity, by the 
ijwenridn of th^Jelian period, whteh consists of 7980 years, 
bmiig the eoajinoad product of the three cycles, of 'the 
swssgi, the mooB 19, end Roman tndict^on 15. This pe* 
rieri.hadr.itabegfaMMDg Axed to the 764th year before the 
crtelloni aad k ootyet completed, and comprehends all 
othet -eyries^ ' periods^ and epoehas, with the times of all 
mtieaniUw afctiona end histories. Scidiger has, tbereforOi 
been styled the father of chronok^ ; and his ** ThesaofOi 
TMSpdrum, complec^ens Eusebii PamphiU ChfonacoB eiMir' 
iMigogicis ChroaologiK Canonibus,^' in which he has cor- 
Vol. XXVIL Q 



SAtf ^. CALiaBB. 

fwtod'taRd.ivQfoanedltiBany.tlH iik Iiii(^^0|wi9^4e 6oH»f 
dUtoM TeiB(ioffUfii»'Vst8eiD0 to giiva4vNP «i«tffic;ieiil'roliiHi| 
tos^llia ititte. THieAMt edkign 0f ff De. Efs^wlajtiwi^ Tai&«» 
pi^iilA" is that of Oane^ra^ ifiQ^^: foliQr^i qfi ibe ^f Tbe^katvnit 
TeotpocilBi" chat6f Aiiisteri}afV)kvl6ifS| Mi>J}v^(fQ)ki. . ^ 
/ Ha.vtfote.iioteA'aDd a&aiMdv«i8i^n» sirpoaialmaiiiiidl(fb« 
Greek aiidii«lin:aulhQf>:(Ahci9e cipotiiV^rotMflesLiagmi 
I»aliaa>'.fv«r6 vtitteo bjr Jhim ,ait 'twett^tyiyeur^. of ;3kge<;aluii 
«earfielytu>jr< of .liM editions .0f.rtbft>pba9ie4'ane n«(«f' Mdm 
eileeaia : <9iei$a«d Voasiu^'^oblierMs^.tbitiU^ciQPi^t^ 
t^ iioM^ asdi quotes. Pet^ Yi^tiwrius^ 'i^ba: 4(lid». { ^bai( Spriin 
ger was boni.tQ'CD]irupti4;be'ancleiHs.mtb«ritb«<i)/t(>.iiic(rnrct 
tiMH.. It lis certain ^. atiJfmi^tbiit hednlt'taoiQilicb^iii 
.4ioiVWtttral'orni9ian^tftii(l«(»i^b Jiftjofte^ ifaom^ai|{DQa^(dM 

5f9i$.of iogmmfi^ eioa. i» iibk«r: no^sfi Jbooif al o£ ^ik^ •^eon 
MBfii ke.tAkeaw^ his «uiborfA0ie4iftii«g^ and ^\m^{f%}0ai9M 
tboir^octisppMAsedtiyUbibis txAMsim^l^siMng^ m} lo job 
7 Ue^vTotfa 'fonte di^seruitioMtufHm su^mM] {oSdmtiqnJtjn^ 
a^di ganro:8pe«iaeo«i of fata ^kUHiv att> bra^lmr^^^Ulan^ijA 
So qmie aiLaUoi Uiiidbtiioa^tor4wQiMnMri9^(pf Ajra^ 
9vowrbi[# v^ab wtee4>tiblishodai^JUe^0|)})t62ftyim)^tbc^ 
]QOtes^ of £ffpemo% ac the. request oC < Iwm .(fMaitboo^r tnb^ 

^^rawbo.onders^QfCid Ai^^biewc^ild^AieivOidop^dWfgaJ^li^ 
itv / H6.wai.ako oUig:pd^Q>wmto 4oi»f^ifimltf>v#|yf»l;fH«mG[«^ 
aiH): bis looAtrtKteoiy: iwiitb S<;ipppiArs9 . ooaic^if mi^^o<bi9gkftB 
pbjof his faimly iahiis wo;d(,..«a^ulc4i:'S{>«iV«|btta|j|to^ 
apjigndoffo goofcis }Scaii0$rai^V is;a yvK«t4rbA4(t«flMllpl^«S 
Ifti^ratpr ranoonr'iiiDd.ipee^afm) o^t9qByi .iI^A 'j^emiiift;^ 
ito;»ivMc^4berf$ 4si noCjimii^ pootio^i «pirM#)<iiiefi« 4^i|)MMa#A 
at lUeyden, li^ldy«i!o^ bi|;^VE|^VQlsB>'V^bij^#re^a|(M^ 
aad coiiiaiiijcn^jrini^f«stirigci)ai!ii(w(Mr9 n^il^^i^ry.^tAfyd 

8vo.' \ f, ii ♦! • . I :' 'lilt ,1;,:/; ,i)'.v;,jiufii.| 7l;l:»iy) ?tw 

: TJMBre;MOAv?^f^ Scdigj^rao^i^Vi .000 {Mrliltftdeabi^hi^IiP^^ 

ixtlQA6;;^jlh# otb^t ai/ Cko^tf^BW f(^$0yiaMi 6H'f9fl|0iKMd 

aoii or Qtbori.«t4Jed.i'^SQqAig^af(a jP(f)in^i'\ ^lifiift^mM^m* 

> Gen. PicU—Niceron, vol. XXIII«:^Ba^* Vit»; dcc.-^Saxii OaQmasU 



8 C A M O Z Z I. Mt 

pritm^ lJv<»<«ti id^te trebiteer, md went to Veoki^ fbr inr^ 
ptOMDicm/ t^lieitB ^erwardsi on PalladioU ddNith^ lie bcv 
cttitd die Ami ^vrohitect, and wm ^mploryied in vafi^iM 
nvovkviKLrticobrl^f the addition* iotlie hbrary of 8t. M«rk^ 
the Oiytopve' theatre at Vioenea^ > and tha «i&w aheatne Bi 
fiBbbioni0ta4' In^KS 1 5:be pabliabad in 9 yofo^^ttnalk fotio^^a 
«mi!k ' ^^ntteled Miyidea >d«ir' ArcfaitattiKa oiiivarM^V. m 
iix^bookss <tb«isi:xcb'o# urbioli, ooataiiiin^ibie fit«^or^Miof 
architectuve, 4» aaast ^steecnad. Tbe f rcoeh* havie a troaa^* 
latloivof bi{i'HPorkvatid<an abhidgiiMtit' by Jbabert; ^Salik^ 
MoatfS abopiiblisbad ^* Dtneorsi 90|)raleatitifhiu4i ftodia^*^*^ 
lS<9^>foL vritb fbny pUtes; NO'^ad in^ 161^..^:'' > > j-*, 
'ii SOA'PULA (JOHN^)^ tbe raf^iftdd author of ^a G^ek LiSxU 
feoo^'^atodied'^bai aa Lauaa^nne^ but baa his nattioretonj^ 
ity^be Moala of litdMlttli^aieMiav ooaocooM'ofJttaWlMti 
Attdleanthig^ norfpir-hia Yirtoou»'kidusti7V''bucior*tf gnoiy 
act of disingOfmNiy aod: fraud «rbiob be ^offiffimed-agaiiiiife 
ai< amiiiM?' iiteraty ckav^tarof the^iittnecitbJMiftiiry* 
BeiDgieMpfoye4J>y tldivry Stapbant, the calebiatard^piitf-L 
Uffy at /a dtmrtfedorto bia- press,- wfaita fad was puMiahing hia 
. 9 fTMsaiuffiis ' Liod^ Gman/^ Scapttta eaiaactad tboMI 
wbrdsc^ami^irjiltmitibna viiudh be reckoned moat usitfblv 
aiMiip^Uiditblaoi'lfi otiefolume, and ppbUshed abeiaar'aa' 
0r)gf«ilil #orkj'>Witb tt» dwn liaitie. The cdmpitation aild 
frtiMne>4thlb/i^WlH^Bxa:m^ had cost Stephens immMselaboul^ 
tm^eitpMt^,} bfft4t a^s so^imich admired by tbeleariied 
lAetk-^v^bfCfm'ike h^ sli^wn tt, and seemed tin be of sodK, 
dsBdritiirt'k^airtiiiioe to the acqtusitkM» of the^Oreak taiiu 
giia^> 'tfakt h6' reasonably hoped his bboor woaild hm 
4v&mfeA^'Mk^nd/^t^^nd that the ^money be had^xpeade4 
a^id^bb'HkpfeUd'byca rapid and extensive sale. Before^ 
ht^^r^fi bi)i^#oi^k cMiae abroadi .Soapola^s abridgmant ap- 
pbarod<' ^hlcb^ ftom its sixey price, and obvioisa utility 
was quickly purchased, while the I'besanrus ittelf lay neg-^' 
le^Um^ib'-tbe' aotbor^s hands. The conseqaance was a 
btffkrtiptey oa Iho part of Stephens, while he who bad oe«i 
oaskHied it ^ss ei^wing the ^its of bis ireachery. Sea- 
jmlals Lairicon waa'fitst^ published in 1 5S0, w 4to. It waa 
afterward' enb^ged) and papbtisbed in folio. It has gone 
through several editions, the best of which is the Elsevir* 
of i6M, som^ cbptas ^ wUcb bare tbe 69lkiwiog imprint, 
^ ix>0dini> knpeii^is Jomss Rirktoii et Samnelis Thooi[^ 

tt2 



928 S C A P U LA. 

son;'' but it is the genaioe £bevir edition, the ^lame&of 
Kirktpn aod Thompson being appended only to the oopiep 
they purchased from the Leyden pr<^rietojs. Stephens 
charges the author with omitting a great many amporfeant 
articles, and with misunderstanding and .perverting hia 
meaning, and tracing oat absurd and trijSing etyo^ologie^ 
which be himself bad been careful to avoid* I)r. Ba$b}i, 
8o much celebrated for his knowledge of the. Greek, laxit- 
guage, and his success in teaching it, would uever permit 
bis scholars in Westminster-acbool to n^ake use of Scapu,la^^ 
SCA;RB0R0UGH (Sir Charges), an emiueot physic, 
cian and mathematician, was bora about 1616. After the 
usual classical .education be was admitted of Caius college^ 
Cambridge, in 16^2, and took his first degree in arts, isi 
i636. He was then elected to a fellowship, and comr 
mencing A. M. in 1640, he took pupils. In the mean 
time, intending to pursue medicine as bia profession, he 
supplied himself to. all the preparatory studies^ necessary for 
that art. Mathematics constituted one of these studies : 
and the prosecution of this science having obtained bin» 
the acqMaintaace of Mr, (afterwards bishop) Setb Ward; 
then of Emanuel college, they mutually fissisted each othef 
in their researches. Having met with some- diflicnki|ss ii| 
Mr. Ougbtred's '^Clavis M^ematica,'' which appeared to 
them insuperable, they made a. joint visit to the ftuthor| 
then at his living of Aidbury, in Surrey. Mr..Oi;igbtr04 
(Bee 0u6HTR£d) treated thqm with great politeness, bei^g 
much gratified to see these ingenious young men apply ap 
aealousiy to. these studies, ^nd ia a short.time foUy resolve<| 
all their questions. They returned to Cambridge complete 
masters of that .excellent tr^eatise, aod were the first that 
read lecturer upon it ther^^. In^ the ensuing civil wars^. Ma* 
Scarborough became likewise a joint au£krer with bis £d^ 
low^studeot forthe royal cause, being ejeeted/rom his teU 
lowsbip at Caius. Upon this reverse bf fortune he witb^ 
drew to Oxford^ aod en tering. himself .at. Mertoo.collegef 
was incorporated . A. M« of that univer;5ity> 23d of June,' 
1646. The celebrated Dr,iHarvey w^ then warden of 
that college, and being employed in writing bis^ treatise 
*^ jPe Ceneratibne Animalium," gladly accepted the assistv^ 
ancex/>f Mn Scarborough. ..Tbe latter also, becapie ftc*' 
quainted' with sir Christopher Wren, then a gentleman 



1 Clark'i Biblios:. Qict. ?ol. IV.-^Bflilfet Ji^emei 



..« 



SCARBOROUGH. 229 

IJomtnofter of Wiidhath coHcfge, artd engaged him to trans- 
late ** Oughtred*^ Geometrical Dialling'' into Latin, which 
li^s printed id 1649. 

Updn leavitTg Oxford, and taking the degree of doctor 
of phytic, Dr. Scarborough settled in the metropolis, where 
he practi^d with great recantation. In the College of 
physicians, of Which he was al fellow, he was particularly 
respited a^ a than of uncomhion talents; and, in 1658, 
hj the Special appbintptetit of the president, he introduced, 
ii^ftfa Uti ^legatit L^tin spfeech, the marqtkis of Dorchester 
fdt his admission into the cdllegeT that year. In the mean 
timd Dt Scarborough bcfgan to read his highly celebrated 
atiatomical lectures at Surgeons* Hall^ whic^h he continued 
for sixteen or seventeen years, and was the first who in- 
troduced geometrical and mechanical reasonings upon the 
muscles. 

' Such extraordinary titerit Sid not escape the notice of 
kingf Charles II., who conferred on him the order of knight- 
hood in 1669, ^nd tt the same time appointed him his 
principal physician. He was nominated to the same ho- 
nourable office by his majesty's brother, which be held both 
before and aft^r his accession to the throne ; and he also 
Served king'WiUlam in the same capacity. He was like- 
wise arppbinted bhysiti^n to the Tower of London, and held 
that office tiH his death, which occurred about 1696. Sir 
Charles Scarborough was married and left a son, who was 
created doctor of civil law at Oxford, in August 1702. In 
1705,' this gentleman printed in folio, from his father's 
mianuscript, *' Afi English Translation of Euclid's Elements, 
with etcellent 6^*planatory notes.** Sir Charles also wrote 
♦* A Treatise upon Trigonometry;" "A Compendium of 
tiV« Graoimaf;'* and **An Elegy on Mr. Abraham 

SCARROlff (PXul), ah eminent btlrlesque French wri- 
ter, was the? son of Paul Scirron, a counsellor in parlia- 
ment, "and bbrn at Pariis^ in 1610. Although deformed, and 
of verj^'irregular manners, his father designed him for an 
iecclesiastfc, and he went to Italy for that purpose, in his 
twenty-fourth year, whence he returned equally unfit for 
bis itltehded profession, and continued his irregularities un- 
tif be lost the use of his limbs, and could only use hif 

1 Biog. Bnt.Tol. VII.— Sapplenent— Koight'i Life olColet—Aih. Ox.tpJ. II. 
Cok'i Iffi Attaw GMUb. ia Bril. Hvl. 



«8» S C A It K K, 

bMds and tongoa. Hits iMppehted in hit- iwenttf-^evemy 

J^ear; but, melancholy as his c^iiydidon Wa^, bb bdrlesquef 
)umour i>ever forsook him : be was continually talking aiitf 
writing in this strain ; and hf* hoase became tbe reude«^ 
VOM of all the tnen of wit Afterwards, a fresh tni«fortune 
overtook bim : bis father, who bt(d bitherto sttpplied biS^ 
>i^nts, incurred the displeasure of cardltiiti Richelieu, and 
was banished, and althoogh Scarroft prefivehted an bnA^Ie 
retjuen to Richelieu, which iVoiil ' its^ faatApur ' pleased 
that minister, no answer* apptfarS tin bdve bfe^n rettfrhed^^ 
and ,b6di Rrclielteii aitd his father died sooA after, ^ StJlif*^ 
rot) at length, betptess, ahd dtffortMd ^s he wtts, dM^ 
eeived th6^hts of marrifeige^and, in 1 65.1, Was ^iialfy 
married to mademoisfelle d^Aubign^j afterwards ibe cfele*- 
brated m-adam db Maihtewon, who lodgett near him, ^dd 
was about si jcteen years of age. Unequal as^ this iriaidb 
was, she bad influence enough to produce »»me aabtfary 
ebange in his manners and hsd>its, and berwifand<3ekuty 
siprtred lo increase the good company which fi^qiientedliW 
hovi^, Scarron died in 1660, and witfaln k few mititt^ df 
bis deatb, when his acqiiaintance wefe abcAit Bttil att^tA 
tears, <* Ali ! my good friends,^* said He; « yoti Wift he¥^ 
cry foi- <yie so mudi as I have madeybn liUgh'.'^ *' • utJiiU\ 
; 'tie bad a considerable fond of w(t, buteodld'nev^t^^Dj^ 
j^eat^k from ranning into buffoonery, wl)fehf pehrctd^Ufli 
worics to such a degree^ that few men of ta^e tri ^}^^i&f 
have been able to peruse them. The^ wnk inteil ^dMivfbti 
10 «be tefinled age of Louis XVI.. and bave'n^vet^'b^ 
^ectuaHy revived since. Yet Ms « ^VirgU Trnvestte^uaft^ 
tii$ *^CoH)ibaJRonwirix)e" are occasionally read/ ^^Ph^Wbciii 
ttf biff works were' printed at Paris^ in 1689, and'af^'Attit 
9ter4^ i^n 1797 and < 75^, lO'voJsl Iftno;^ »^» •' '^^^ 
' SGIlAiW (OflaHLfis), a leanied Gerrv^n, Was'baniP^ 
3inp^ in iftie eteetorate of Oofogne, 1646; tA^ A(lbW>|w«lh 
n major fn- the army of the landgrave of' Hesde C^ss^./^^'fl^ 
itf as educated for the ebmcb at Duisbodrg'; 'and^ /iMvtrig 
«i^Ui^ tbe Oriental tonguea bb partieuhir Mady^ becaitie 
professor of ibem in- that mnverslty in J«T7/ Jtt 16^*9^ be 
removed to Leyden, to filt the same post Ifer a larger *sU- 
|>end ; and there cohtjnQed tUl 1729, when he* diM ^ aa 
apoplexy. He pubHsbed' some ttdeful books in'theOriet^ 
tal way; as, U, " Opus 4^*'"^^'"> cpmplectens Grap^ 

1 Mortrk--I>ict. Hist.— D'ifracU't CuriotitiM, rol 11. 



\f( C HT A 4 ?> ^. «tt 

i^d^tt b^|iM>i»^ jqm^y.vWittif^iQi. in UiU K|r<irk) till dmibir 

S(;^a^.ivK9jt^ t,^)e) rf p^fiin^nr Jbj hun^elf^ At tbfi emd of ^ it 
111 fiuj^oili^il,:. 'VJ»4N6Q>^ S]M[i»lcuWQ^ CoQ^ordantialie.!* i^v 

^t^JS^\t^SV^ 1716, 8tQ.. ,4u '^'Ar 

|,emp,in,^ri^fl o/, ,thp biphqp Miir Thomas, wmteiifron 
M^tob^ir^i^o i^Q,pa|4ri^<^»,of.AoM9ch9iM)d a .Latin. «9r3ipa bjr 

b^p9^1f,"> A7Jl^i. 4t^ ih5«> ^^^frniQ Aqademicuff de Ungoa^ 

di^ny a^ttL^jdi^Qj «9:pat2j^M§/of all tbe H^revir^ Cbaldfe«y 
|i>i):iaQy,.and iiaimnAaii bQQks #^ oiainiscripu io tbe liW 
Ihr^rj tb^e ; wki^i w49Joi^«4 ,^ ihfi.Qs^Xjaix^t of tbat li? 
binary, publiftbedin iTH"' . // 

SCUALKEN (GojofRBV)». nn . ingenious paiolec, was 
bom, at Port,, iu )<4%« Ui» fatbec pilac^ bw firsK with 
^plo^pq. y^n. ](lpQg9trateii, and afterKvMf wiib Gervrjl 
SlofTi, Croff) lybo^ be caugbt a. greM deUcf^&y of .Gw«bing } 
bjiti.b^.j^bi^f pract^Ge was. to*pamt c^dle-^bts. .He 
placed the oljje9|.;at^d a cmHllo ip |i dark^xoom.; ^aud look^ 
iKr^^SgbiA'^^l bpljS, paipted byday-ligbt wbftt Jit.iaw 
int tbp.4^kf\fm^^r / Sow^eti^ios b^ drow ,poriWit% .aod 
fUl^i ffiitb 4utft ^i^w X9 ^^\^f^f Uii Aphtha hufinest 
tm,wmfikiflPgrff9f¥^i JiW KwlWi, . Clo^lprmaib .ai^d^atbem^ 

h^ibjfi^miM^SJ^h ^^%W^ W?maj^rty.tibf ,WMik:A0.bQl4 
AU Ji ltb%»a*iow: flpw 4pw^ »P9« . bift fii^pw;*f» A^ ifi »*^ ji»uf^ 
H^f Uttbflr«|difigi, |bfi[driqw/]^U,PYa|i^tfir4^.i^tbe^fABie;8itii^ 
atioD. Delicacy,, wia qo .p^rt^ef:bi^ cbff^tor :.ih%iikig 
ilkimnr^ fe«b^,w)Wi«W imrki^d; v^Hb Jtbe,.sinalUpfwc^ bm bad 
AlWid«Ml*l b«d.«, stbq ask^d, Jiif^, fl^'boo ibc^ face jwaa finiabett^ 

ifjpbe m^^ pq%M% [f^ b^r ba^d<^ • " No/! rwlwi . Sobfttt»ii# 

dl!g'Wih[^ib«4ofiMji59r7iJenWtfi¥W,iA Engjiwd, 'be /lettled^iit 

•ibo^Vbig^^ wlwT9ibfi.djf?J i^ARP^I *^n>e arfdUiopiO. f w»r 
-dAtefogtrbilPillPy.bflfftHfMliflOWjaHlhpiri^^ j 

iirSCwESUB (CHARMs^i(Wfifif,a(^aryJefirn^,cheroiay 

' Walpole'^ Anecdotct. 



tSa. 6 C H £ E L E. 

Pomexsuiiay. v)ierp hit fa^imr «V a teNloiiia. Mnrkig^. 
shown ap iocliaatiQn to U»rn pbACSnaqy^ be wM bound ^pn 
prentipe to an apothecary at Gottenbtirg^ wMh .wk#m ha 
lived eight yewrs^ and at his lebure houis cootmed Iq 
make himself ooastipr of the science of cbe«»istryy readiag. 
the best authors^ and making such experiments a^ his eon*^. 
^ned means would permit. From Gc^nbufg, heweo^ tcr: 
Malmo> and two years after to StockholBa. In 1773 be 
went to Upsal, and resided for some time in tb^ house o| 
^r. Lopck. Here Bergman first found himt taw bis merit 
and eilcours^ged it, adopted hi&.opinions» defended bim 
math zeily and took upon him the charge of pubUshiog hii^ 
trjeatises. Un4er this libeiral patronage (for Bergman pre^ 
cured him also a salary from the Swedish academy}| 
Sdieele produced a series of discoveries which at once 
astonished' and delighted the world* He ascertained the 
natuire qf manganese f discovered the existenee and singur/ 
hit properties of oxyjDuriatic acid : i^nd g4v>e a theory 91 
the, composition of muriatic a,cid| which pronises hix to 
he the true one. He discovered a new earth which. {iiw( ^ 
afteiwards called barytes ; and ha determined the consti- 
tuents of the vol^le alkatu All these discoveriea are mrt 
lated in one pa|)er published about 1773. Ue disoQwred*: 
and as'certaiued the properties of many acids, tbo aatuim , 
of plumbago and molybdeoa ; analyzed fluor spai) which 
had eluded the searches of all preceding chemists^. an4 
determined the constituents of tungstate of lime. Hin 
two e^ays on the prussic acid are particularly intei^stingi 
and display the resources of his mind, and bis patiei|t in«. 
dastry, in a very remarkable poiat of yiew» . His differeafc 
papers on s^nimal substances are partioulacly intecestiogji 
and replete with valuable and accurate information. Oo; 
oae occasion, in bis treatise on fire^ Scheele attampied 
the veiy difficult and general subject of combustiouj. buA 
hia attempt was not crowned with suooass. The acuiMViftfi^ 
however, with which he treated it deserves our admiratioD ; 
and the vast number of new and important facts," w^ich lie 
brought forward in support of his hypothesis, is truly, 
astonishing, and perhaps could not havo been brought to- 
gether by any other man than Scheele. He discovered 
oxygen gas, and ascertained the composition of the atmo« 
sphere, without any knowledge of what had bpen previously 
done by Dr; Priestley, His views respecting the nature of 
atmospheric air were much more correct than those of 




I 



S.C H G £ L %. 33S 

Ulieitlby ; aifedMi «ffperiiiient8 on iregetatioti. tfnd respiration^ 
fbUMM on tbtMe-vieirs, were possessed of considerable va- 
loe. Thttie: and other diM;o?efies whit^ stamp the charac- 
Mr of HdiMle atfaph^tosopher, are Co'be found generaHy 
in AeittkniMwticM of the> Royal Society of Stockholm. Dr« 
B^Moes pQblii^b«d an £n^Bh translation of rao^ of hit 
dhsetftatidn^, 'with nteful andinge^^ions notes. There ii 
abo an English translation of ' hts dissertation on afir and 
fyfe^ irifb Mces by Richard Ktrwan, esq. 

In^lTfT bevvtteapt^oititedby the medical college to be 
a^tiic^caiynt Koplng ; «nd in this situation he remained 
ulitil bis dMih| although k w^ often wished that he bad 
obtain^ ii tnbi^ eonsfticnoos sieoatlon. He is said to have 
been offered an anntiity of S00& if he would settle in Eng- 
land,' and djttt bis death only prev^ented his accepting it. 
On May 19,' 1786, be was confined t6 hia bed ; on the ^Ise 
he' bequeathed bis whole ptoper ty to the widow of his pre«- 
decessor at Koping, whom, when his end was approaching; 
be married oat of a principle of gratitude^ and on the same 
dfty he died, aged only forty-four. 

According to the report of hfs^friends, the moral cha« 
ranter of thi^ ii^enious man was irreproachable, and though' 
bis mannersr were reserred, and he mixed little in com* 
pany, he'Mfaa of a very friendly and communicative dispo- 
siliM. He'attained high fiime under very disadvantageous 
cir^Qmatanoey. He understood none of the modem lan-i 
gtages, jMccept the German and Swedish, so that he had^ 
not the "benefit of the discoveries made by foreigners, unless 
by the ilow and uncertain medium of traustations. Th^ 
in^portant services, however, which he rendered to natural 
ph^osopby;*^eatitled him to universal reputation, and be 
phtkinedit.' 

SCB'EPFER (JoHN)^ a learned German, was born alf 
Sfrasbuvg in I Ml, and probably educated there. He ap-^ 
pUed himself pHncipatty to the study of Greek and Latin 
anttqnMes, and of history ; and made himself a tolerable^ 
vdtbal critic fTpon Latin and Greek authors. He was dri-. 
ven out of his own countty by the wars ; and, as Christina 
of Sweden was at that time the general patit>ness of all metf 
of letlefs, he withdrew intd her Kingdom in 1649. He waa 
made, the same year, profe&sor of eloquence and polities 

1 CteiVB CheniiCil JonraaL ia ^enl* |f«s« v^* LlXr-r^V^onoon's Biit< €iU» 
Bof al Society, 



mt S.C H EF V E R; 

«t Upial; a£terwftrdi> faDneraryrprcieiflDrmyal'of /felitk^ 
of psicpre^aDd natiwy* .and asaetaor Joi^hB mya) QoUfge^ofi 
ant^quiities ; and, aden^ih^ Ubrarijttr of.tbe imivaiSsityofi 
Upsal. He died in 1679, aftecbavijig. publisbed n groa^ 
nmnbQr -of w^^ Many of hia piecea irekte MiOiMlc itod 
|[)po)ii|i aaitA^uules, ami »re. ^ barfouod io tbe^i^laotlniiofi 
Cr»vii)s and GxoBOviu^. He wx^oie .note&npbQunarfry^an^ 
9iei)t.au.t)^r9 s.upQn ^ian^ Pbsdrtt99 '^^Arliaiii'sllaatipai^i 
of which l9st be mafdi^aUoaiLatin imvien > Patron&iia» Hjfc^: 
gint^y JuUi^ Ob9i!equefi%, Jii0tit),>&e. • )ll«it¥aa oaa^fitil^sfe 
who..>sfxH4iy dfltf^^ad ibaaMbaatiei^;of .tkai^liwgaifintJQfi 
Pisuoffi.ua^ pretended t» Jba^e^-beea foundLat Tlr^u ; > frhicdl^ 
bovt^a ver^ 'H generally j udged U^ . ba^.'ai forgavy^ ^ and .accardU 
loftlyf r^f^tCMi by BiamitR) and^>tban critiaa.; .• > . ^ «..t 
. SCH^INiER (Ciiitm'OBiUR)».ac;pn8iderri>lai>niatbeina^i 
upian and asiroaomer, was bpiHA at M oodaiHiebn im Sah«a«* 
baiH in 1615, He angered iotQ the. society :<)£{ika Jaaaltia 
wi)f;ti "ha wa9 tti^aoiy ; and afiemvarda ;ta«iig^ \h6 Uahii^i^ 
i$^|igMa ^ni Ibe mathama^icfi at Lagabtadt^,f'riborg, Brisaoi 
and Rome. At length, he became ffadxir^iaf tba;.ca)legci 
^f the JesaiM "at Naiisse.iii- Sileaia^ anoi'iCottfeaakH tlbJtiie 
^fcbdi^ Cbarlaa, Ha died io 1650, at tb^ag^iof.aaKenay* 

...•S^beinar wa9 d»iafly remavkable far baila^ oM o&tba 
fif^tcwhaab^jrveditbaapots in .ibe «an.arilbithe:Jia]aaQapa# 
ibf^ugb apt. tba. very ftfil; for bia obiervamxasiofij^ase 
ipqu ^ar^^tn^adai at.IngaUiadjtt in, tbe4a^teitfaRtl(i£ 
li U« wbafiaaa Galitao and . Harriai< both observed themchi 
Ibf tattLai^partof ike yffkrb^fono, or. i6ia. ..Schaiiian caaM 
tifiOed bi^ QbaecvaiioaA oa tbe:aQlar phM|ooi^iia.iu«iiiianf 
9»aars jift^frvMad^ at B^QQ^y. i^tb great amdtttt§r.andl.acea^ 
ragy, coastantly nfiakii^> drawings^of tbami ^aa piifotaiv /da« 
H^ibkig their plaoa$« figaras, magniMida^ rawotation^ )i(nd 
p(»rioid$, ^ thai RiaciQU dali^arad it^aa.bU Apioimn ^t*.thahi 
^a$. little raaypn tQ bo|)^ for ai^y bet^r <ab«aryatiaiaa oC tboaa 
apota«, Pas 'Cartes and. HeisaUtis aJi$o faiy>it<baii>MbtbaM 
jud^^ent^ pQtbingfsaMbe.aapa^AediQfithaiikmd oioea^aa^ 
fif^a^tory. ;Tba9^ obaMvationfrii^era pitbltsfiadiiji 44:H)^ tte 
94»a i^aUiQe ^ip,. vfidet, tbe ititie^ior/^ iRosa. Umoa// .fcai 
A^fnoatj every pager ia adomad vvitb aa inaga .9(1 tba^^un 
m^^ , »pi^i- . H^ fj^rpuei ikjisojaeraral saiiJlar piaoasLiralatiag 
(0 mathematics and philosophy^ tba prinoipjdloC wbtabianai 

1 Gen. Dict--Ntc«Kai..f«l>^UCXi;Si > ;.• < u T* < 

« o.vri. » *' ' ■* lit '.; » • '• • ,.» ^ < '  . • • ^«  • 'J ' 



scH Eisner: 235 

ikis c^riiued at Lotidon^ in I6$3) in 4to. 2. *<8ol'EeIip^ 
lioiiiji<fiisqtti9iiionts MmtbeMiatide*'* ' .3; ^' 0e Oonntfoi^r- 
daei NcMtttMibat Astronomicift.'* ' ' 

. 8CHEDHAMMBR (Gomthyer Christok!«r), aede^ 
BrBtecl:<S^lr«»an p&f slcian ani) f^ilmopber, wa» born Marct^ 
3^1649^ arJena^ >luid'^a8 soit of Christoptier Schelham-^ 
tneVf 9 \taroed ^rofefsov of anatomy and surgery in that 
eit^; irod ai Kiil, -wh^re be wb» also physician ta tbe'dake 
of-' HoliCeiitv <Sonibler died January Yf^ t716; in trb tiaty* 
aevenrth- yekti leaving* <* Inttpodnetio 'in artem tnedicEln,^ 
Hkllv. 1726,' 4tOy^^ aind a gvedvt number of vaktable and l'earn-> 
ed vofks on pbyaiC) <if vrtiicb it is to be wished that adotft** 
plete collection was pobtttdied. H« published ' also scntte 
botooioal diasartabons/ mnd ftfst described the' plsci^diar 
ehange \siii»b, during : gdnainaticrn^ takes ptaee in the co^ 
tyiedon el pkims. The Schethaatmeray in botany, -«ras sK9 
eaUttdr Ih honMr^f him. His iife, by Stbeffelios, in^ Latin, 
Vnoi^, VtQ^y Svo, fs prefixed to the letters writleti tie him 
by several f the literati** * * ' 

. SGHSUOUZER (Joim JAiffts), an eminent pbyfeieianf 
and.naeerlAii^- was tbe son of a very learned physii6ikn t)f 
the same names at Zurich, where he was born, August* 2;^ 
hAl^Li ifo &tbet dying in the prime ef life, he app^rs 
(o^iaveibeert 4efb ao the care of fena meiher, and his mater^ 
Dai:rigrind£ttber« • He was educated at Zurieb^'dnder'tbei 
iiblestipnofasiofs^ oP wbom he has left «s a list,' but aa)» 
than, hb might «witk « gtear pibpMety add YAs^'omi nasie to 
tbc^.^inunbek'^'as he-went thrbvghtfae grefeiter part ef Ma 
ajbndies/^ista tiootliev guide thaii^ hi»' own judgim^nt; ' lit 
]092r lieioonimeneed his tratels, and remained- iotne'tim# 
atiAMxkpif^ atoendiinig fbeteotnm 6t Wagemei4» fk^maftfij 
fatberand 'sovry Stdivn,' '^/ in • 1 693 1 he went to UtrMht^ 
wfaste'b^ took ibis -d^^gvee of diMste^ of pbyiAoin Jan; 1694^ 
and in Hi»5?Mti»itM «6 Nuremberg and Altdorf to sindjr 
isatliemalittki under Sthsrm sind fiimmart 'To'Sturm bead^ 
dresaed a leevhedldtt^r^eii'tbB generation of fossit^iMis^ 
wbii^ be attempted to explain on mathematicil pciae4plea{ 
h^f disoovering tlje fallacy df chis^ be adopted the fbeorjr 
of our Dr. Wiwdwwrd,: whose woriL on 'the subject of tbe 
natural hiscory of the ^artfa be translaied iMo Lado, MA 
pnblisbed a» Zurich it) 1904.. ' ] <> ' ' >' <' 

5 Bict Hnt.— Reet'i Cydopsdw, ait. SdidbsfflBKrs, 



J36 S C H E U C H Z E K. 

.* Returning to Zurich, before thi^ perigt!, he was appoint- 
ed first pbysiciau of the city, with the reversion of the pro- 
fessorship of mathematics. He now began to write various 
dissertations on subjects of natural history^ particularly tligl 
of Swisi^rland, and wrote a system of natural history lo 
German, which h^ published in parts in the years 1705, 6, 
and 7, tb6 whole forming three small 4to volumes. He 
published afterwards three more in 1716, 1717, and 1718^ 
which complete the natural history of Swisserland, with 
^e exception of the plants, of which be had formed ao 
IferbaL of eighteen vast volumes in folio. His " Nova title- 
raria Helvetica*' began in 1702, and were continued to 
1715* In 1694 he began his tours on the Alps, which he 
repeated for many years, the result of which was published 
under the title of ^Munei-a Alpina/' one volume of whicfai 
WM pubHshed at London in l708, 4to, and four at Leyded 
in 1713. In the course of these journeys,, he improved the 
geography of his country, by a small map of Toggenbourgy 
and by his map of Swisserland in four large sheets. Amidst 
all these pursuits, his official duties, and his extensive lite<* 
Tary correspondence, he found leisure to gratify his taste 
Ibr medallic history, and translated Jobert's work on that 
subject, which does not, however, appear to have been 
printed* In 1712, Leibnitz, being acquainted with bis 
learning and fame, procured him an invitation from th9 
esar, Peter the Great, to become his majesty^ physician^ 
but the council of Zurich induced him to decline the offer, 
liy an additional salary. Some time afterward, he obtained 
acanonry; but, according to Meister, his colleagues bad 
1^ very profound respect for him, of which be gives tbQ 
iUlowing ludicrous proof : A favourite crane belonging to 
I>r, Stheuchzer one day made her escape, and the doctor 
was obliged to climb the roof of the house to recover her^ 
wMch be did at no small risk. The canons are said to have 
declared on this occasion, that they would have given a 
pension to the crane, if the doctor had broke bis neck. It 
appears that this disrespect was mutuaL They considered 
Scheiicb'zer as an intruder, and he despised their ignorance 
hi condem'ning the Copernicah system, and the theory of 
S^iiitimerdani, as profane and pernicious. He appears tq 
ha^t bid ^ considerable hand in the political and ecclesi- 
astical aHairs of Zurich, and bad at one time a sharp con- 
troversy on religion with a Jesuit of Lucerne, \vhom Meis- 
ter describes as the Don Quixote of the Romiah church. 



$ C H S U C B Z £ ft. kil 

In 1 73 1 appeared his great work, '* Physica saera^^* ia 
4 vols, folio, which was* immediately republished in French 
at Amsterdam, in both instances enriched with a profusioti 
of fine plates illustrative of the natural history of the Bible. 
This bad been preceded by some lesser works on the same 
subject, which were now incorporated. He did not long 
survive this learned publication, dying at Zurich about the 
end of June 1733. He was a member of many learned so* 
cieties, of our Royal Society, and of those of Berlin, Vienna, 
&C. and carried on a most extensive correspondence with the 
principal literati of Europe. He left a welUchosen and nu« 
merous library, a rich museum of natural history, and a col- 
lection of medals. Besides the works we hav6 incidentally 
noticed, he published, 1. ^' Herbarium Diluvianum,'* Zu- 
rich, 1709, reprinted and ealarged, atLeyden, 1723, folio. 
^. ^'Piscium querelse et vindiciae," Zurich, 1708, 4to. 3* 
•* Oratio de Muttheseos usu in Theologia,'* ibid, 1711, 4i<ju 
4. ^^Museuip Diluvianum," ibid. 1716, 8vo. 5. " Homo 
diiluvii testis,^' ibid. 1726, 4to. G. <^ De Helvetia aeribusr^ 
^quis, locis, specimen,*MbId. 172S, 4to. He also wrote in 
German, a treatise on the mineral waters of Swisserlandl^ 
Zurich, 1732, 4to. In 1740, Klein published '^ Sciagra-- 
phia lithblogica curiosa^ sep lapidum figuratorum nomen- 
clator, olim i. Jo. Jac. Scheuchzero conscriptus, auctus et 
fllustraius,** 4to. Of his '* Physica Sacra,'' we have no* 
ticed the (irsi edition published at Augsburgh, 1731-^1735, 
four vols, folio, or rather eight volumes in four, the texl 
pf which is in German ; this edition b valued on account of 
Its having the first impressions of the plateski The Amster* 
dam edition, 1732 — 38, 8 vols, has, however, the advantage 
of being iu French, a language more generally understood^ 
and has the same plates* Scheuchzer had a brother, pro* 
fessof of natural philosophy at Zurich, who died in 1737. 
and is known to all botanists by his laborious and learned 
^* Agrostograptxift,'* so valuable for its minujte descriptions 
of grasses. He bad a son with whom we seem more inte* 
jested, Joflii Caspar Scheuchzer, who was born at Zurich 
in 1702, and afler studying at home came over to England^ 
and received the degree of M. D. at Cambridge, during the 
royal visit of George I. in 1728, and died at London April 
13, 1729, only tweuty-seven years old. He bad much of 
the genius and learning of his family, and was a good anti- 
quary, medallist, and natural historian. H? translated ip(Q 
English Koem'pfec> hist9ry.of Ja^wsn^ I7.27|t2 vo}^«lQliu;i^ ^od 



•3d 8 C H E U C K 2 r ft. 

BQCm,^ &c. bot did not live to^ooifdete t«. tiiiev vM^^d^iEiiiii 
afAceatase DninDcalation. Some part^ ijhe conwipond^tM^ 
of this loamed hxxAly is in ibe British MutMia.^':^ '" < '*l 
:>SC|IIAyONI (Ancnua), mimed - M^uIv ati'^emtftMt 
orttst, was faoni Id I53£y al Sebetyico; in Iteltnitia. '-Iil9 
pamotB^ wha veerefioDr, placad him vitba iiCfMo-painter at 
VeBiee, where, at bk Umuve bifor^ be aJoqiutiM> ^mjfpiftitfff 
taste, by sladyiDg tbe etdiings a«d)ooiopoBmbns oJl^tfrMi^ 
giano and the.ivorks ofr6iorgiaiie>^and!^itiaa m theip^MM 
bttiMitogs of tbe city^ At j lengthy -TiiUiHba^g litt^hSdi 
of bifi ttofortuoate sttnationi'aad |irmmmngrtaUiiAt^^Jb(i^ 
Itifli under bis care, and^isoenf afaer«ard«:eiiiylbyed iyi4ii:-'i)i> 
.tbe libnary of fit Marco^'wbcreSduatom is iuud toihsM^ 
painted tluree entire cielings^ J^eUa||'bis>*6tf9ngtb)^'h^ vtw^ 
tnred to paiat, in competitioR wich.%iindreux>y'a> pictuM^ 
tor tiie cburch of the-Banta Oroee, repretetiting tfad-'vM^^ 
tadon of the Virgin toEUaabetb; and thqugh bo^d^nOti 
ecpial bis antagonist^ yet be reoeifed a «ontiditiitble itium^ 
of applaose. Scbiavoni was aecouifted oae< of iM 'dm^ 
eoloiucists of the Venetian sebooV anii toucblottrngiisa^f^i^ 
ficed'abnost erety other attribute of the art; yietiJb)ii»odm^ 
posttioas are managed with great descterisy, and^€^e^W|^ 
with aatootsbaog^ freedom. IVo of bia mojftadNwred*tm«!k9* 
are in jtbe chuocb of tbe Padri Tcatioi' at AimiHi^^ir^ip^e^ 
aenting tbe Nativity and tbe Assuiapcion of the'Vip^n^i Md^ 
bis <* Perseus and Andromeda,'^' and tbe ^^Apoitl^ ac ^dlM' 
Sepnlcbre^^' are in the royal collection at. Windyor^t .Ke 
died at Venice i;i .1^63, attbeage<of<sixty«' • **j ^ ^^ 

SCHLAVONETTI (Lawis), aTeryingeiiiooittAiMs^fiMMi 
bom ak Bassaao, ia tbe Venetian territory^ lA^iril Iv- fl^S^P 
His father was a atatknMr^ wbo was enable to gite^bim^tt^ 
inefuly bntlitniced eduoation. FVotn bis' ifwfabcy^hialwA^^ 
peculiar taste for drawing ; lind attained snob prMcivn^il! 
that an able pointer, Julius Golini, to U^m'S0ni&(<tf^4irto' 
productions were shewn, undertook to iilstroctbiQi le^cbat- 
art. At the age of thirteen Lewis was put under his^'Wfe, 
and tbe high •opinion he bad fovmed of the boy V genituf #aa 
confirmed by the lapid progress be made^ while ^blsaiwiabto 
disposition endeared him so mttch^ that he lo^ied biiii a^bi* 
own son. Afker tbtee yean of oseful instruotioh, he bad- 
tbe ipis^rtune to lose this master/ wbo ej^pired snfaii arnn^^' 

cmc— Ay»coiisVf CaUlogut 9f MSS, * Arycavill'e, vol t^Struti'i Dicto. , 



S O H LA V O M E*TT-1. tit 

Mfil'4Q!y|]fsucikit owfrcoinnsei'fce turoedlift TieivS'to<!otifii 
^lO^ttdm V ^bose -axteAsit^ typographical' add ofcaleogrd« 
pbi^edreqilOQm u veadefed more famous by tbe gtvtng em» 
pIoymeDt td Bartolttai aikl Volpato ; and tbe worics of tboia 
fiMIVigava'freab impulse to the yoodi'a ardour ft/rimpiture* 
Dffit. • About); this time he-becaoie acqusitmed with one 
}iPrio(*>ai) indiffereiit' engraver^ with whom be worked abooi 
s%wdk.e.4Gn0iltb8y wbeni foidHighebad «lbau$ted bis fe-nolof 
ui^vuotk^ii^'tbe resolf ed te alter bis siteatioiii A copjrof e 
l^fiimilyte^heUneiaaiiiierj /roni Bartolozafl» after Oart- 
I^JMaiiailta^ gaii^edUoiiliplrt^Htate employment iVoni Covint 
iUmaiidm, and ataraoled tbe neitioe of Mnfientadi) an 
MgHHTerapd^ntsdllef ieoppoHition to Remandint. .Aboue 
tliisilifoe tame to Bastaiie^wf etched ebgra^'r of ardittee^ 
tiire^ -btit ^Qian of- oofMasiniates>oraft and* address; He bew 
ppmeiacquaioted >wi%hiScshiavoneui at Mr. 3antach's^ ami 
wiA ultintatety Um 0ieans,of btingiii^ini to Eogland,^eye 
lie b0<ialiit Mquaiitted witb 6artX)lozzv. and lired in bia 
henna untU b»estebbsbed ^lianself w bia own foitiKlatioir; 
^fyw ivrkttth BcUavoHelti auUtvated lua genius with a; Miceesa 
thatjAnsjireraditbefeHpectatioiis which wel-e - first fermed of 
it^i fend conducted all his affaM^s with an uprrrghtneaa and 4o<j 
t|igAity>iha«»will canaehia aMinory to be eqwlly revered afK 
%gimtieaiatt end'an! avtist. Ht died^t Broosfiton, • Jancf T; 
U^i^f, in ithei ftirty<- fourth yenr of bis age ; and'on the 14th 
ifiaa baiiccl^iftii^id<iiiigit0Bohureb-yard^ with a^oieeuiity 
WiMtby x>fth)a talents apd cb^racteTi 

^ Jn biS'{)0tsM,.Mr.^hiiwoQieUi waaraitbor' tall and 'weli 
made, and his Amiable anodesty^ equabiKty of temper^ end 
piMDpuieas lo ob(ige^ wonthe^rood vi'ill oftH'wWsiiv'^nd 
Cftwersed wittar biov Many acta '.of 'his privaaelifls sbon^d 
the:eiiceUenoe*ol.hi» character.; aeaeng otbeis/' as'^o«Ai ^aa 
h^^hc^ao to derive >pro6t Arombis piofessftoo^ he'dcM^oted« 
TPfi/rtum -idi^ip ie Uie aupport of his rahMfives< in iDaly ; ani|. 
oQUBtanliyiYetmtied to bia aged paitent a atipeod sufficient 
tAren^weihini ^omfont. 

Soeie t>f «bta prifacipal perfbramoces are^-the*^ Madre* 
IkAoaowp'. after iVasi dyke: the Portrait of that Ma$ti^f>in 
theti^hftDaoterofi Farid : Micbaei Ang^lo's celebrated Carwon' 
ofiiibe 8nrpriase of the Soldiersioo' the Banks *of the Arno-s^ 
aiaeries of Etebioga^ from designs by Blake, illustrative of' 
Bhiir^a Gi^ae : tbq Portrait of Mr. Blake,' after PbiiKps, ^fer 
the same work : the Landing of the British Troops iq Egypt^ 
from Lpnthertycrtifg ; and the* ^Etching of the Caiuer bury , 
iPilgriiiiage, from Stothard^s esteemed picture. 



140 



S C H I A V 6}i Ett t 



. There is no circdmsUnce which more forcib\;jr a^eJva'.Mi:^- 
SchiATOoetti^s power of delineation, than his pnnt from the 
Cartoon, considering the disadvantages under which he 
produced it. He had neither the benefit of an original, qr 
an authentic copy, but engratred after a copy painted by H. 
Howard, R. A. firom SangalloU copy of his own . study of 
Michael A ngelo's Cartoon. The work of the '* Canterbury 
Pilgrims^' being no larther advanced than the etched state, 
is another and still more striking example of his powers aa 
a draughtsman ; every line is expressive of the object it 
afaBs to represent Thb is the last great work of Mr. Schiar 
vonetti^s hand. From his own avowal in conversationt at 
TarioQS times since he undertook it, and even during his last 
iUoeas, it was a performance on which he meant to concen- 
trate all his powers, and to build bis reputetioo. . He had, 
however, others in view, particularly a portrait of the pre* 
aident of the Royal Society, from a picture by Mr. PhilUps, 
md the splendid representation of the Stag Runt, by Mu 
West, in which Alexander IIL king of Scotland was rescued 
from the fury of a stag by Colin Fitzgerald. \ Scbiavooetti, 
in the opinion of his biographer, classes with Gerard Au«' 
draOy with Edelinck, Strano^e, andWoollett. He not only 
possessed the powers of dehneation, the harmony of linesi 
the union in tones and in a general effect, which severally 
distinguiA these eminent men ; but he added a brilliancy 
and playful movement to bis productions, approaching uk^te 
nearly to the free pencilling of the painter, than any thing 
that can be found in the performances of those art|s^.^ 

SCHIDONI, or rather SCHEDONE (Babtolomeo), wef 
born at Modena in 1560. He is said to have acquired 1^ 
principles of the art of painting in tlie school of the Caju 
racci, but must have remained there a Very short time^ as. 
it is difficult to meet with any traces of their style in hia 
works. He afterwards studied, and with the greatest suc-^ 
cess, the works and manner of Corregio. When his eart^ 
works came to be admired, Ranuccio, duke of Parma, toak 
him into his service, and for this patron he painted several 
pictures, which were among the principal ornaments of the 
collection of the king of Naples, who was heir to the Fafw 
nese family. Sir Robert Strange counted in that palace an4 
the city of Naples near fourscore pictures by this ai'tist* 
There Hre but few in the other collections. . In the cadie^ 



< UU by ft braUwr ftrttft, Cfoner, in Qeit. Mftf . v^. IXJOL 



s t ti i b 6 N t 241 

kind of Modem ihere is itaadmrable picture of km of 8. 
Oemihianp ^i^storipg a dead child. to life; there acp el9o b 
few at Parm^^ but in ge^era^l they are seidom to he mur 
With to purchase. la aU be is the iioiutoir of Cj>|regio) and 
l>etween their vrorki some poaooia^eura have foand it, diffir 
tult to dii^tinguisb^ nor has.fuiy artist sqai|cce$sful^ imitated 
bioii either in the barmooy of his colouring, his kAowledgf 
of liglitand shadow^ oc the graces be has diffused through* 
out manjr of his compositiobs. Schidoni is said to have beeft 
addicted to gaming, which wasted his substance^, and disr 
lufbed his mind ; and at ia&t to bate fallen a sacrifice tp M| 
t)ot being able to overcome tl^e mortification pf having oj^ 
tii^bt lost more than he was able to pay. Bm di^d fUt tho 
age of fifty-six, in 1616.* 

SCHILLER (Fredeaic), a German writer, prinoipimi: 
known in tiiis country as a dramatist^ was bom Nov. XQ^ 
1759^ at Marbach, ip^ the duchy of Wurcembcfgy wbenf 
bis father was lieuteoaat in the service of tbe duke. Whil# 
A boy, he was distinguished by uncommon ardour of imagi^ 
nauoii, which be never sought to limjt or controuL Whei(^ 
Voun^, h<; was placed in tbe military school at StuttgnmL 
but disliked the necessavy. subordination. He was inteade4 
for tbe profession of surgery, and which he studied for so«i# 
time ; but from the freedom of his opioious, he was obliged 
to withdraw himself through appreh^nsian of tbe copse^ 
quences, and it is said that, at this time, he produced bia 
irst play, *< The Robbers." This tragedy, though full of 
faults and pernicious extravagancies, was tbe adoiiration of 
ell the youth of enthusiastic sentiments iu GermiaD^, and 
aeveral students at Leipsic deserted their college, with the 
•vowed purpose of forming a troop of banditti in the forest* 
of Bohemia ; but tbeir first disorders brought on them a 
summary punisbmetot, which restored them to their senses^ 
ftttd Schiller's ^ographer gravely tells us^ that this circumif 
etance added to bis reputation. Tbe tragedy certainly was 
quite adapted to the Uste of Germany, was soon traos-^ 
}ated into several foreign languages, aud the author ap- 
pointed to the office of dramatic composer to the theatre of 
Manheim. For this he now wrote bis '< Cabal and Love,*! 
the " Conspiracy of Fiesco," and ** Don Carlos," and pub- 
lisbed a volume of poems, which procured him a wife of 
good family and fortune. This lady fell in love with 

t Pilkik(toii.>-Str«tt.— StrMffe** Catalogue. 

Vol. XXVII. R 



f« S C H 1 L L E R. 

him from feading his works, and is said to hare foil^ed 
him from those habits of dissipation in which he had in- 
dulged, and to which he was in great danger of falling a 
i^ictim. He was now patronized by the duke of Saze^Wer^ 
tnar, who conferred on him the title of aulic counsellor, and 
nominated him to the professorship of history and philoso- 
phy at the university of Jena. He had previously written 
an account of the ** Revolt of the Netherlands from the 
Spanish government,^' and he now set about composing his 
" History of the thirty Years* War in Germany," a work 
which has been much admired in bis oivn country. At 
length he removed to Weimar, where the pension, as ho<- 
tiorary professor from the duke, was continued to him ; and 
produced the ** History of the most memorable CoDspira*' 
cies,** and the " Ghost* Seer," which displayed the peculiar 
turn of his mind, and were much read. In the latter part 
of his life he conducted a monthly work published at Tu- 
bingen, and an annual poetical almanac, and composed a 
tragedy entitled " The Maid of Orleans.'* He was the ail- 
fhor of other dramatic pieces, some of which are known, 
4hough imperfectly, in this country, through the medinm 
4>f translation. He died at Weimar, May 9, 1 805, and 
Jie was interred with great ftineral solemnity. In b?s privatlft 
character Schiller was friendly, candid, and sincere. In 
his youth he affected eccentricity in his manners and appeair* 
unce, and a degree of singularity seenfs always to have ad* 
bered to him. In his works, brilliant strokes of genius are 
unquestionably to be found, but more instances of 'extfa^ 
vagant representation of passion, and violation of trtrtfr and 
nature. They enjoyed some degree of popalarity here, 
during the rage for translating and adapting German plays 
for our theatres; and although this be abated, they have con- 
tributed to the degeneracy of dramatic taar^e, and bare not 
produced the happiest effects on our poetry.* 
' SCHILTER (John), an eminent jurist, was bom at Pe* 
gaw in Misnia, Aug. 29, 1632, and studied at Leiftsic and 
JIaumberg, wherein 1651, he i^moved for two years to 
Jena, and then completed his course at Leipsk. 'In 1655 
be took the degree of doctor in philosophy, as be did the 
same in the faculty of law at Strasburgb some years after. 
He practised for some time as an advocate at Naumberg^ 
where prince Maurice of Saxe made him keeper of his ar« 

A Gent. Mag.— Rett's CfdopKdia. 



SCHILTER. 343 

jcbiveny and intendant or director of the territory of Sul, ia 
the coQDty of Jdenneberg. About 1686 he accepted an 
invitation to Strasburgb, where he was appointed counsellor 
and advocate of the state, and honorary professor of* the 
academy. He died there. May 14, 1705, in the seven ty- 
4bird year of his age. He wrote a great many volumes on 
aubjects connected with antiquities and with his profession, 
the principal of which are„ 1. *^ Codex juris Alemannici 
feudalia,*' 1696, 3 vols. 4to. 2. ^' Thesaurus antiquitatuna 
Teutonicaram,*' 1728, 3 vols. foL a posthumous publica- 
tion, edited by Scheraius at Ulm. 3. '^ Institutiones Ca« 
poniciy^' 1721, 8vo, in which he endeavours to reconcile 
ihi& canon law to that in use among the protestaut churches^ 
.4. ^Miistttutiones juris publici/' 1696, 2 vols. 8vo, onie of 
his first, andavQry learned work** 

. SCHMIDT (Christopher), a learned German, was born 
JVIay 1 1» 1749, at Nordbeim, and studied law at Gottingen. 
In 1762 he visited Sc. Petersburgh in company with count 
Munich, in whose family be had been tutor for some time^ 
biUt returned; to bis studies, and took his law degrees at Got- 
^ogf^y whence be removed to Helmstadt He was sooa 
After appointed professor in the Caroline college at Bruns- 
w\cki where, he lectured on history, public law, and statis« 
fjps ui^til 1779, when the prince made him a counsellor and 
kaep^r of the archives at Wolfenbuttel. In 1784, the 
prince added the title of aulic counsellor. He died in 1801» 
I» bia visit to Russia he contracted a fondness for that coun« 
ti;y aad its language, and employed much of his time on 
^s lMfltory« This produced various works, published in 
'German* ^' Letierg on Russia,*' *^ Materials for a knowledge 
of tbe Cpostkution and Government of Russia/' '< An at- 
tempt ^yvards a new iotroduction to the History of Russia,'* 
&c. ^c* He pHblished also ^' A manual of History," ^^ His* 
toricai miscellanies^" and ^* A History of Germany,'* which 
ia spoken of-as an eloquent and useful work.' 
' SCHMIDT (£rasmos), an excellent Greek scholar, was 
l>orn atDelitzcfa in Misniai 1560, and became eminent for 
bis skill in tbe Greek tongue and in the mathematics ; both 
which, although they are accomplishments seldom foun4 
141 tbe same person, be professed with great reputation for 
sMny years at Wittemberg, where he died in 1637. He 

^ Niceron, vol. IL^Moreri.— Diet. Hiflt"Saxii Onofluit. 
« Diet Hirt. 

R 2 



S244 S C H M 1 D Ti 

published Hn edition of ^ Pitodar'' iii 1616/ 4tO| with ft 
Latin version and learned notes. While Heyue finds many 
defects in this edition, be honours the editor with the title 
of " Editorum Pindari facile princeps.'* He wrote notea 
also upoh Lycophron, Diodysius Periegetes, and Hesiodf 
which last was published at Genera in 1693; an excellent 
<^ Concordance to the Greek Testament/' fol. the best ^di^* 
tion of which is that of 17 17 \ dnd a ** Commentary on the 
New Testament/* much Esteemed, Argent 16^0^ fol.' 

SCHMIDT (John Andrew), a learned Lutheran divine, 
was born at Worms, in 1652. In his twenty-seventh yeari 
he hurt his right arm with a fall so much, thai ha could 
never recover the use of it : he learned to write, howeter, 
ao Well with the left, as to' be able to compose near a hun- 
dred publications, without the help of an amanuensis^ but 
Chey are chiefly theses upon subjects of ecclesiastical his- 
tory. One bf his pieces is entitled ** Arcana dokninatiociis 
in rebus gestis Oliverii Ctomwelli ;'* another is against a 
book, supposed to be Le Cterc^s, with this title, " Liberii 
de sancto amore Epistolae Theoiogicee." He translated Far-^ 
die's " Elements of Geometry^' out of French into Latin. 
He died in 1726 ; and his funeral oration was made by John 
Laurence Mosheim, who speaks very highly in his praise.* 

SCHNEBBELIE (Jacob), was son of a native of Zu^ 
rich, in Switzerland, lieutenant in the Dutch army at the 
memorable siege of Bergen-op-Zoom in 17i7 ; when, after 
a gallant resistance of two months, it was, as generally be*'* 
lieved, siirprised by the French under marshal Lowendat* 
Upon quitting the service Mr. Schnebbelie came over KO 
England, and settled in th^ business of a confectioner, iit 
which capacity he had frequently the honour of attending 
on king George II. He afterwards opened a shop at Ro- 
chester, where one of bid sons still resides ; and the .san^e 
profession his son Jacob (who w<^s born Aug. 30. 1760, in 
Duke^s Court, in the parish of St. Martin in toe Fields) 
followed for some time, first at Canterbury, and afterwards 
at Hammersmith \ till, nature pointing out to him the pro* 
per road to fame and credit, he quitted his shop and com- 
menced self-taught teacher, at Westminster and other 
public schools, of the art of drawing, in which he made a 
profioiency which introduced him to the notice of many 
among the learned and the great. To the earl of Lei« 

1 Mocm— Diet. Hist. • UortiL 



8 C H N E B B E L I E. ii$ 

cc«ter*s notice be was first introduced by accidentally 
sketching a view in bis park near Hertford, and was em- 
' ployed by bim in taking some of the most picturesque 
landscapes about Tunbridge Wells, with s» view to their 
publication for his benefit. At their noble president's ex^* 
press recommendation he was appointed draughtsman of 
the society of antiquaries ;^ and filled that office with equal 
credit to himself and his patron. The merits of his pencil 
are too generally known and acknowledged to require any 
exaggerated eulogium. Happy in a quick eye ^nd a dis- 
criminating taste, he caught the most beautiful objects in 
fhe happiest points of view ; and for fidelity and elegance 
pf delineation, may be ranked high among the list of first- 
rate artists* The works put forth on bis own account are 
not numerous. In 17Sl he intended to publish six viewy 
of iSt. Augustine^s Monastery, to be engraved by Mr. Rp- 
gers, &c. ; five of which were completed, and one small 
view of that religious house was etched, by himself lo 
17S7 he etched a plate representing the Serpentine River, 
part of Hyde P^irk, with the house of earl Batburst, a dis- 
tant view of Westminster Abbey, &c« now the property 
and in the possession of Mr. Jukes, intended' to be aqua- 
tinted for publication* Mr. Jukes purchased also from him 
several views of Canterbury cathedral, St. Augustiqe^s mo- 
nastery, tic. Ip March 1788 be published foqr views of 
St. Alban^s town 'and abbey, drawn and etched by himself; 
which in the November following were published', ^qua- 
tinted by F. Jukes. About the same time that he set on 
foot the ^Antiquaries Museum,*' he became an associate with 
the late James Moore, esq. F. S. A. and Mr. Parkyns, in f hft 
/* Monastic Remains*;** which, after five numbers had ap- 
peared, be relinquished to his coadjutors. The assistance 
he occasionally gave to .^^The Gentleman's Magazine,*' the 
imallest part of his merit, it will be needless to particu- 
larize ; bis masterly hand being visible on whatever it was 
escerted. It is of more consequence to his fame to point 
out the beauties of many of the plates in the second and 
third volumes of the ^' VetustaMonumenta''* of the Society 
of Antiquaries ; and in the second volume of the ** Sepul- 
chral Monuments of Great Britain f,** the far greater part 
of the numerous plates in which are after him ; or iii the 
^ery many drawings be had finished, and the sketches btf 

« See Gent. Maf. toI. LXL pp. ^43, MtS, 1907. 

t la the prefts^'whkli h«^is graufolly etainiMioisM. 



246 S C H N E B B E L I E. 

had designed, for Mr. Nicholses ** History of Leicester^^ 
shire." He had completed also some views of King^i 
college chapel at Cambridgei in a style worthy that most 
beautiful and most perfect of all our gothic buildings, aod 
in a manner which had so far recommended him to royal 
notice, that, had his life been spared, there is no doubt 
but he would have been properly distinguished. 

Mr. Schnebbelie was not contented with drawing the 
remains of antiquity ; his. close pursuits had made him a 
proficient in the study of our national antiquities, and a 
judge of the different styles of Gothic architecture and mo- 
numents. His description of the various places and build* 
iogs which he had examined were judicious and accurate, 
and discovered what attention he paid to them.. An out- 
line, if we may so call it, of Gothic architecture, had been 
suggested to him, to have been illustrated by drawings of 
the various parts ; and he had actually begun to compile a 
work under the title of '^ Antique Dresses since the reign 
of William the Conqueror, collected from various works ^ 
v^ith their authorities." It may be safely affirmed, that 
few artists have produced more specimens of their talents^ 
in their particular departments, than Mr. Schnebbelie ii) 
the four last years of his life, which is the short space of 
time since he seriously took up the pursuit. 

Thus much for his professional abilities. But he bad 
qualities of still greater worth, the virtue's of an excelletft 
beairt. Those only who knew him intimately, and more 
especially those who at any time have traveHed with him 
when he has been employed as a draughtsman, can judge 
of \be alacrity of zeal with which he has dispatched h\i la- 
bour, of the cheerful pleasantry with which he has rdieved 
Its toil, and of the ingenuous frankness of his natural dis- 
position. On all these accounts his loss will not be easily 
•made up to his friends; and to his family it is irreparable. 

He died in Poland -street, Feb. 21, 1792, in the tfairty^^ 
second year of his age, after an illness of six weeks, which 
commenced with a rheumatic fever, occasioned by: too 
intense an application to his professional engagements, 
and terminated in a total debility of body; leaving an 
amiable widow and three children. Two sons and a 
daughter died during the last year of their father^s life ; 
and a son was borti five days after his death. He was in- 
terred in the burying-ground belonging to a new chapel 



S C H N E B B E L I E. 247 

then, building for St. James's parish^ in the road from ToU 
t^obam court to Hampstead, 

^ The very small portion of time which elapsed after the 
talents of Mr. Schnebbelie became universally ^cknow-* 
ledgedy did not enable him to lay by much store for his 
surviving family/ who received a handsome relief from the 
Society to which he was draughtsman. * 

SCHOEPFLIN (John Daniel), a learned historian and 
antiquary, was born September 6, 1694, at Sulzbourg, a 
town in the margraviate of Baden Dourlach ; his father, 
holding an honourable office in the margrave's court, died 
soon after in Alsace, leaving his son to the care of his mo- 
ther. After ten years studying at Dourlach and Basil, he 
kept a public exercise on some contested points of ancient 
history with applause, and finished his studies in eight 
ye^rs more at Strasbourg. In 1717, he there spoke a 
Latin panegyric on Germaoicus, that favourite hero of 
Germany, which was printed by order of the city. In 
return for this favour he spoke a funeral oration on M. 
Barth, under whom he had studied ; and another on Kahn, . 
the professor of eloquence and history there, whom he was 
soon after elected to succeed in 1720, at the age of twenty*' 
six... The. resort of students to him from the Northern na- 
tions was very great, and the princes of Germany sent their 
^ons to study law under him. The professorship of history 
At Pr^ncfort on the Oder was offered to him ; the czarins^ 
invited, him to another at St. Petersburg, with the title of 
historiographer roval ; Sweden offered him the same pro- 
fessorship at Upsaf, formerly held by Scheffer and Boeder^ 
his countrymen ; and the university of Leyden naiped.bim 
successor to the learned Vitriarius. He preferred Stras- 
bourg to all. Amidst the succession of lectures public and 
private, he found time to publish an innumerable quantity 
of bistprical and critical dissertations, too many to be her» 
particularised. . In 1725 he pronounced a congratulatory 
oration before king Stanislaus, in the name of the univer- 
sity, on the marriage of his daughter to the king of France; 
and, in 1726, another on the birth of the dauphin, besides 
an anniversary one on the king of France's birthday, and 
others on bis victories. In 1726 he quitted his professor- 
ship, and began hb travels at the public expence* From * 

1 Account dr^vD ipp by Mr. 6o«(b for Mr. SctiaeblMlM'f << Antiqwrks If ii^ 



if*8 « C H O £ P F L I N, 

Pans he went to Italyi stayed at Rome bxx monthi* i^ 
ceived from the king of the Two Siciliqs a copy pf th^ 
** Antiqaities of Herculaneuoi," s^nd froqi the duke qf 
Parma the ^* Mtiseum Florentinum,** He came, to Eng-? 
likdd at the begSni)ing of the late king^s reign^ and left i( 
the day that Pete Courayer, driven out of P^ris by theolo, 
gical disputes, arrived in Lqndon. He was now honoured 
ivith a canbnry of St. Thomas,, one of the most distinguishe4 
Lutheran chapters, and visited Paris a third time in 1728, 
Several dissertatlotis hy him are inserted in ti^. ^* Memoirs 
of the academy of inscriptions and belles letires;*' one^ 
ascribing the invention of moveable types to Guttenberg of 
Strasbourg, 1440, against Meerm^n, 

In 1733, he narrowly escaped from a dangerous illness. 
He had Ibng meditated one of those works, which alone, by 
their importance, Extent, and difficulty, miglu immortalise^ ' 
a society, a ^* History of Alsace."' To collect materials 
for this, he travelled into the Low Countries and Germany 
in 1738, and into Svsitzerland 1744. At Prague he found; 
that the fragment of St. Mark^s Gospel, sp carefully kepi 
there, is a continuation of that at Venice, . The cbanceUty 
D'Aguesseau senc fbt hini to Paris, J 746, with the satijr 
view. His plan was to write the History of Alsace, and, to 
illustrate Its geography and policy before and under the 
Romans, under the Franks, Germans, and its present gpi. 
vemors; and, in l75t, be presented it; to the k.ing.pf 
("rande, who' had before honoured him with the title ^ 
** Historiographer Royal and Coiinsellor,*' and then gavp 
htrfi an appointment of 2000 livres, and a copy of , /the cata*- 
logiie of the royal library. He availed himself of this op^ 
p6rtunity to plead the privileges of the Protestant univer- * 
shy of Strasbourg, and obtained a confirmation of (benu 
His second volume appeared in 1761 ; and be bad preparedji 
lis four stipplementi, a ootfectton of charters and KecpXdsk 
)in ecclesiastical history, a literary history, imd a list of 
authors who had tfeated of Alsace : the publication pf these 
he recdmtnended to Mr. Koch, his-assistant and successor 
in his chair. Between these two volumes he published his 
^* Vindiciae Celticae,'* in which he examines, the origin, 
revolution, and language of the Celts. The ** History of 
Baden** was his last considerable work, a duty which he 
thought he owed his country. {le completed this history 
in seven volumes in four years ; the first appeared in 176^^ 
the last in *n^6. Having by this history illustrated his 



8 C H O E P F L I M. 249 

cddntryi %d prevailed upon the marquis of Badeo to build 
1L room,' in whidi all iCs ancient monuments were deposited 
in 1763. Me engaged with the elector palatine to found 
the academy of ManheSm. He pronounced the inaugural 
discourse, and furnished the electoral treasury with i^n-- 
tiques. He opened the public meetings of this academy^ 
which are hela twice a year, by a discourse as honorary 
president. He pYoved in two of these discourses, that no 
electoral Hbuse, no 'court in Germany, had produced a 
greater number of learned princes than the electoral house. 
In 1766, he presented to tiie elector the first volume of tb9 
^^ Memoirs of a Rising Academy,'* and promised one every 
two years. 

A friend to humanity, and not in the least jealous of hia 
literary jproperty, be made his library public. It was ibe 
most complete in the article of history that ever belonged 
tcr a private person, rich in MSS. medals, inscriptions^ 
figui'es, vases, and ancient instruments of every kind, 
collected by bim with great judgment in his travels, AU 
thiese, in his old age, be presented to the city of Strasbourg, 
vithout aiiy other condition except that his library should 
be open both to foreigners aud his own countrymen. The 
cky, however, rewarded this disinterested liberality by a 
f)6nsioni of a hundred louis. He was admitted to the de« 
bates ih tbe senate upon this occasion, and there compli* 
nieited tli^ senate and the city on the favour they bad 
shevn to fiterature ever since its revival in Europe. No« • 
vember 22, 1770, closed the fiftieth year of tbe professor- 
ship of Mr. S. ; this was celebrated by a public festival : 
the univllrsity assembled, and Mr. Lobstein, their orator, 
pronounced before them a discourse in praise of this ex* 
traordinary'man, and the whole solemnity concluded with 
{I grand iinteruinment. Mr. S. seemed born to outlive 
Jiims^Ti'. Mr. Ring, one of his pupils, , printed his life la 
1769. Itt 1771, be was attacked by a slow fever, occa« 
sioned by an obstruction in his bowels and an ulcer in hit 
lungs, dfter an illness of many months. He died August 7y 
the fiirst day of the eleventh month of his seventy-seventh 
year, sensible to the last. He was buried in the colle- 
giate church of St. Thomas, the city, in his favour, dis- 
pensing with the law which forbids interment within its 
limits. ' 

1 Oeat Maf . 1783, liy Mr. Gonffk, fW^mOy from Hades de Vitii Philo. 
logoram, ToL III. or ffw IMns't Uf^ 



250 S C H O M B E R G. 

SCHOMBERG (Alexander Crowcher), a learned 
English clergyman, was born July 6, 1756, and educated 
at Southampton-school, where be laid the foundation of his 
classical learning, and displayed bis taste in some juvenile 
performances which were much approved. He afterwards 
tukivated these attainments under Dr. Warton at Winches- 
ter-school, whence he removed to Magdalen -college, Ox- 
ford, of which he becan>e M. A. in I78t, and fellow and 
tutor. Although formed to excel in polite literature, his 
inclination led him into other pursuits, and the whole ceco- 
nomy of human life became the subject of his observation. 
The interests of nations, the relations of arts, the cir** 
cuitous channels and the secret recesses of commerce, and 
the wide range of operations in manufactures and agri- 
culture, were open to his intuition. His "Chronological 
View of the Roman Laws,'* published in 1785, was the in- 
troduction to a larger work, for which he had furnished 
himself with ample materials, by his, study of juridical an- 
tiquities. Connected with this, was his " Treatise on the 
RIaririme Laws of Rhodes," in which he clearly investi- 
gated ih^ origin, and elegantly described the nature, of the 
maritime codes which bore an analogy to the Rhodiai 
laws. During the intervals of his occupation as tutor »f 
the college, be visited the principal seats of commerce and 
manufactures in England and on the continent. There-* 
suit of these researches was given, in 1787, in his ** Histo- 
rical and Political Remarks on the Tariff of (he Commer- 
cial Treaty with France,'* which proved the very erilght* 
ened progress he had made in the science of political 
(Economy. From that time he had, with minute atteition, 
observed the effects of that famous treaty upon both na- 
tions ; and he had made a considerable progress in print- 
ing a series of facts and collateral deductions, under the 
title of ** Present State and Manufactures in France,'* 
when he was interrupted by an excruciating disorder, 
which proved fatal April 6, 1792, at Bath, whither be ha4 
gone in hopes of relief from the waters. He was a man 
of an amiable disposition, and greatly lamented by his 
friends'. He had taken orders, but bad no preferment in 
the church. » 

SCHOMBERG (Frederic duke of), a distinguished ge- 
neral, was descended of a noble family in Germany, and wjH 

I Gent. Mag. vol. XXIL 



S C H O M B E R G. tSt 

the son of count Scbomberg, by his first wife, an English lady^ 
daughter of the lord Dudley; ivhich count was kilted at the 
battle of Prague in Bohemia in 16t'0y together with seve- 
ral of bis sons. The duke was b6rn in 1608. He served 
first in the army of the United Provinces, and afterwards 
became the particular confident of William II. prince of 
Orange ; in whose last violent actions he had so great a 
sbare^ and particularly in the attempt upon Amsterdam, 
that, on the prince's death in 1650, he retired into France* 
Here he gained so high a reputation, that, next to the 
prince of Gondii and T urenne, he was esteemed the best 
general in that kingdom ; though, on account of his firm 
adherence to the Protestant religion, he was not for a con- 
siderable time raised to the dignity of a marshal. In Nov. 
1659 he offered, his service to Charles II. for his restora- 
tion to the throne of JEngland ; and, the year following, 
the court of France being greatly solicitous for the interest 
of Portugal against the Spaniards, he was sent to Lisbon ; 
and in his way thither passed through England, in order 
to concert measures with king Charles for the support of 
Portugal. Aniong other discourse which be had with that 
prince, he advised his majesty to set up for the head of 
the Protestant religion ; which would give him a vast as- 
cendant among the princes of Germany, make him umpire 
pf all their afihirs, procure him great credit with the pro- 
testants of France, and keep that crown in perpetual fear 
of him. He urged him likewise not to part with Dunkirk, 
the sale of which was then in agitation ; since, considering 
the naval power of England, it could not be taken, and the 
possession of it would keep both France and Spain in a 
dependence upon his majesty. 

. In Portugal he performed such eminent services to that 
kingdom that he was created a grandee of it, by the title 
of count Mertola^ with a pension of 6Q00/. to himself and 
bis heirs. In 1673 be came over again into England, to 
com n^nd the. army ; but, the French interest being then 
very odious to the English, though he would at any other 
IJune of his life have been acceptable to them, he was at 
that crisis looked on as one sent over from France to bring 
our army under French discipline* Finding bimselfi there- 
fore^ obnoxious to the nation^ and at tlie same time not 
loved by the court, as being found not fit for the designs of 
the latter, be soon returned to France. In June 1676> he 
was left by the king of Francei upon his return to Parisy 



fSt 8 C H O M B E R 6. 

Kith the command of bis army in Fland^rft ; and soon after 
i>bltged the prince of Orange to raise tbe siege of Maes-* 
tricbt, and was made a marsbal of France. But, when 
ibe prosecution against tbose of tbe reformed religion was 
4»egun in that kingdom, he desired leai^e to return into his 
owo country ; which was denied him, antl a}l the favour be 
could obtain was to go to Portugal. And, though be had 
preserved tliat nation from falling ondef 4he yoke of Cas« 
,tiley yet now, when he came tbitber for refuge, tbe inqui-- 
•ition represent^ tbat matter of giving harbour to do 
heretic so edionsly to tbe king, that he was forced to send 
^the marshal away. He went thence to England ; and^ 
passing through Holland, entered into a particular con-' 
iidence with the prince of Orange ; and, being invited by 
tbe elector of Brandenburgh to Berlin, was made governor 
of Prussia, and placed at the head of ail the elector's 
anni^. He was treated likewise by the youtig elector 
with the same regard tbat his father had shewn him ; and, 
in I6ft8, was sent by him to Cleves, to command tbe 
troops which were raised by the empire for the defence of 
Cologne. 

When tbe prince of Orange was almost ready for bis ex-r 
]Mrdition into England, marshal Schomberg obtained leave 
s>f tbe elector of Brandenbourg< to accompany his higfaneas 
jri tbat attempt ; and, after their arrival at Londeii. he ta 
^supposed to have been the aut^bor of that renrarkabie stra* 
jtagem for trying the affections of the people, by raising 
mn imiversal apprefaen^n^over the kingdotn of tile ap-» 
fHt>ach of the Irish with (ire and sword. Upon the prince's 
advancement to the throne of England, he waa appo^Med 
master of the ordnance, and general of his mi^esty's forces!; 
io April 1^9, knight of the garter, and tbe same month na- 
toralizedby act of parliament ; and, in May,was created a fca- 
roo, earl, marquis, and duke of this kingdom, by the name 
and title of baron Teys, earl of Brentford, marquis of Har^ 
ivieb, and duke of Schomberg: The House of Commons lik«» 
wise voted to him 1 OOfiOOl, for the services which he had 
done; but he received on^y a small part of that^mln, thekmg 
after his dealh paying his aon 5000/. a year foi* thie remain* 
d<r. In A«g. |6S9 he bailed' for Ireland, with an army, 
£»r the redviction of that kingdom ; and, having mustered 
all bis forces there, and finding tbem to be not above 
I4,00a men, among whom there wet« bat 2O00 horse, he 
miRbed to D«idalk,ivhwe<fae posted ^iniwlf ; %iDgrtamm 



5 C B O M B £ R GJ ' 353 

I 

b€&ng come to Ardec^ witbio fire or wc miles of. hMli> with 
Bboe^e thrice hi» number. Schombergp, tberofore^ beii»{^ 
di$9rPpointecl of the sopplies from Englaody which bad been 
promised him, and bis armj; being so greatly inferior to tlie 
Irisb> resolved to k^ep himself on the defensive* He tegr 
there six weeks in., a miity season ; aod his laan^ for ivaiit 
of due management, contracted such diseases that almost 
one half of them perished. 

He was censured by some for not making a bold aitem]lt.; 
and such eomplaims were sent of this to king WiUiamt ^hat 
bis^majesty wrote twice to him, pressing him on the m^ 
ject. But the duke StSW that the enemy was well posted 
and well provided, afid bad several good oflBcers liBseng 
them ; and knew that, if he met with a check, his wkofe 
army, an4 consequently all Ireland, bad been lost, sieee 
be could not bave made a regular retrctaL The sorest 'me- 
Uiod was to preserve his army; which would saVe Ulster^ 
and although bis coodoct exposed him to the reproathes of 
some persons, better judges thought, that bis management 
of this campaign yvas one of the greatest actions of hia lifa^ 
At the battle of the Boyne, July 1, 1690, he passed the 
river in bis- station, and immediately rallied and enoou- 
raged the French Protesunts, who bad been left exposed 
by the death of their commander, with this short barangoe; 
^^ Allons, m^essieursy voili vos pers^cuteurs," pointiag to 
the French Papists in the enemy's army. But these words 
.wer§ scsjrcely uttered, when a few of king James's^ guards, 
who n^tqrned fall speed to their main body, .after' the 
slaughter, of tbeir companions, aad whom the* Freacb re* 
fugee^t suffered to pass, thinking them to be of i^beir owe 
par^y,. fell f^r^usly upon the d^ike^ and ga,ve him 4;w» 
wounds over the head, which, however, were not mortal. 
Up9q lihis, the Freni^b regiment acknowledged their ^rror 
by coac^miuing a greater^, for, firing rashly on iheeBemy^ 
tbcjj shot bio^ through the neck, oif which wound he ie^ 
st^tly died* He a^as- bMned in SU Patrick's catbedtaJ, 
where the dean and cbsf^^r erected a smaU moimmefit to 
his boAoufi, at their oyf^ expei^e, with an elegunt inscrip- 
tion by. Dr< 3arif^ wjbich is printed in the DeaoU works^ 

Burnet tells us^ that he was ** a cairn man, >of great %f*> 
plicatioA and conduct, ^nd thought much better than be 
apok^ ; 9if true judgjpoent, of exaqt probity^ and of an fauai* 
ble and obli^g temper." And anotl>er writer ohaerves, 
that he bj|d a. thorough expe^ieBoe of, the world; knev 



254 S C H O M B E R a 

•Den and Chings better than any man of his ptfofeasion eve/r 
did ; and was as great in council as at the liead of an army. 
He appeared courteoas and affable to every person, and 
yet had an air of grandeur that commanded respect from all. 

In king William's cabinet are the dispatches of (he duke 
of Schomberg in Ireland to king William, which sir John 
Dalrymple has printed in ihe second volume of his me- 
moirs ; '< because,*' he remarks,. *^ they paint in lively co« 
lours the state of the army in that country ; clear Schom*- 
berg of inactivity, which has been unjustly thrown upoa 
him ; and do honour to the taleuis of a man, who wrote 
with the elegant simplicity of Caesar, and to whose repu^ 
tation and conduct, next to those of king William, the 
English nation owes the revolution.* 

SCHOMBERG (IsaAg), oue of a family of physicians of 
some note in their day, was the son of Dn Meyer Schomi- 
berg, a itative of Cologne, a Jew, and, as it was saidy 
librarian to some person of distinction abroad, which oc** 
cupaiiuo he left, and came and settled in Londop^ wb^a 
be professed himself to be a physician ; and, by art and 
address, obtained a lucrative situation amidst the faculty^* 
In 1740 be had outstripped all Ahe city physicians, and 
was in the. annual receipt of four tbousaud pounds. He 
died March 4, 1761. This, his son, was born abr^ad^ 
aad at the age. of two or three years was brought lo EU^t 
land, where he received a liberal education, and afterwards 
studied at Leyden, After his return to London be set up 
in practice, but had a dispute with the college of pby«i^ 
ciaus, at<, we are told, his father had. before him. The 
particulars of this dispute are not uninteresting in the 
history of the college. 

. After Dr. Schomberg bad practised some years as a phy« 
sioiaH in London, he received a notice from the college of 
^ir intention to examine him in the usual form, and to 
admit him a licentiate* This notice he was thought to 
have treated with contempt ; for, instead of submitting to 
the examination, be objected to the names of some persona 
who were to be examined at the same time, and behaved, i^ 
is said, with some haughtiness to those of the college who^ 
he complained, had used him ill, in ordering him to ba 
examined in such company. The college considering 
themselves the sole judges of what persons they should* 

1 iSIrch'i Livei.— Buroet^g Own Times.— Swift's Woiki. See lodsx. 



S C H O* St B E R a 2SS 

^t upon/ refosed to attend to the doctor's objection, but . 
ezasbined the persons against whom he seemed most to 
-exeept; but this not tending to make upthe dispute^ they 
proceeded to interdict the doctor from practice until he 
b«d given such satisfaction as his conduct required. In 
the mean time the doctor submitted to be examined, and 
in 1750 procured the degree of doctor of physic to be con- 
ferred on him by* the university of Cambridge ; and, thuji 
4rapportedy demanded his admittance a second time, not 
as a licenciate, but- one of the body. This demand was re- 
fused to be complied whh, and it was objected, that the 
doctor, though naturaKsed, could not hold the office of 
•eensor of tlie college, which was an office. of trust; ^nd 
this refusal brought llie determination of the business to 
the decision of the lawyers. A petition was presented to 
the king, praying him, in the person oC the, lord chancellor, 
io exercise his visitatorial power over the college, and re- 
store the licenciates to their rights, which, by their arbi- 
trary proceedings, the president and fellows had for a sue- 
jpession of ages deprived them of. This petition came on 
to be heard at Lincoln's Inn hall, before the lord chief 
justice WiHb, baron Smythe, and judge Wilmot, lords 
commissioiiers of the great seal ; but the allegations therein 
eontained not being established, the same was dismissed. 
This attack on the college was the most formidable it ever 
sustained. 

• In this dispute Dr. Schomberg was supposed to have 
pmployed his pei> against his adversaries with considerable 
effect. It is certain he was well supported by bis friends ; 
one of whom, Moses Mendez, esq. exposed his opponents 
to ridicule, in a performance entitled <* The Battiad,*' since 
iteprhited in DiUy's Repository. 

From this period Dr. Schomberg took his station in the 
medical profession, with credit and approbation, though 
without the success that inferior talents sometimes expe- 
rienced. On the last illneds of David Garrick, he was 
(nidled in, and hailed, by his dying friend, in the affectionate 
terms of*^*' though last not least in*our dear love.*' He sur- 
vived Garrick but a short time, dying at his house in Con- 
duit*streec, the 4th of March, 1780; and the following 
character was given of him by one who seems to have 
]cnown bim well : 

^^ His great talents and knowledge in his profession^ 
were universally acknowledged by the gentlemen of the 



aA6 &a H M firlitbOi 

facaltj ; mid his tmdkroess vmi Hanwoitijr-rtocdiiiWlMlirf'^ 
him ta tbc friendtbip tad/eelcemy' at svett cs^iraMsiiMn, ao^ 
his pabicnCs. . He W8s fitedin^d with tmcotBONm quklM^i* 
Md lagacityin dbooveixiBf ifae Mvrees, «iidi traAitg t^> 
progressi of a disMrder $ and tboufffa in ifewmmi .a-fnevA^m' 
pradem regicnefi^ milKr ibM Tne&iae, ]r<t^ in emei^jtNil' 
caMs, ha prmoribed miih a eorrcttt aad happy bcidndBa 
«qual to the oacaaton* He waa ao. aMfM^frooi cbait aonH4' 
avarioe. generally afaavged, periMpf often mith great ia)ii»«' * 
tiee^ on. the faauky, ttiat laaiiy of bb fineiidaii>«ffliBMic<«fr» • 
coantaooea fooftd- it iBtip«»9ible4k> foree onbiai ihaa remnrd 
for bta •ervieea whiah be bad Je.feiriy earned, and vAiMi 
his attendance so well laemted. Am a oian be was ataeeni 
aind juat in bit piineipiet^ Araok and aMnafalrin bia feampef y ^ 
iastreetive and itreiy is convefsatioo^ bis maaj aingulari* .« 
ticB endearing bioi MlLfarlber-tobttacqaaiBtaoce^ asiibey ^ 
prooeeded from an bonetiplaiaaeia e£aiaiinei^ and ^riaibiy *- 
flowed frem a betievoieat ataaplietay tof bear^ ' He^anaq'feip* 
aiaay days, aenaible of bit approaobing aedy^wbieMie erf^ l 
countered with, a calniness> and. resignalioM, »oc eatMyiao ^ 
be taaitated by tbote who ncm xegeet the less "ofiio. gebUl^ < 
snan> so valuabie a frieody and to tkitfal a phyMifit/N « "i V 
Dr. ScboBibet^ bad a yoeeger brotber^; iULNf' 8a*O0«* * 
tnOy M. D. wbo first teitied at Yamioiiib<ae m phyMfia|> 
and publttbed tome wogks>oe. profeiwonei eid^eeia ibalrpii > 
dicated ability, and otbers from wbi€h.be denied ikli^«a4r ' 
putation* Of the fiirmer kind af«, l» ^ Apbelrisaii jtmd^ 
iici^ Bire obserratioiiea medioiD^*'> for the u^mofw/LwifmHsin 
and in alpbabeticai order, 1750^ 9^^ SL ^ BmMpmMm^ 
tiatii Aiiaetattonet in etecaa pfaonetadoaei tynoptit^^' ATdti 
S. !>' Van Swieceo*s domawntiriea^ aMdged**. ^ ^ A 
Treatise of tbe CoKca Piotonmi, or I>ry Belly*aciie»'' Lt44^ 
6ve. 5. ^^ Duport de aigvis iiii>fbei'aei . kbtt if u at e e r/ * 
1766. Of tbe latter, are soaw draeiBtio- pie aea of «Mf 
little value/ and 6. ^AnOie en tbe peasenC aeMKett/^ 
1749>. 7. <' Aa Aceottnt of die preaewt aabelliee,'* i7M# 
B. «Tbe Life of Msscenass'* 19C7, l8tto»^UkeB aridbo«fe 
addnoariedgmetit finaas Meihsiiea^ • 9l ^* A xrfitieai Dhse>» 
tation.on tbe cbaiectera aad writinga of pNMiar aad Uoeaee, 
in a letter to the right hon. the earl of B — /* also a shame- 
fal-rnstance of plagiarism frgm Blondeirs ^^ Comparison de 
Pindare et D^Horace.*' It would have been well if bia pU^ 
fertwgs bad only 'been from books ; but after he had remoted 
so Bath, and practised there some years with cooaid^rable 



!#* 



• I 



S C H Q II B £ H O. 957 

he.tfted hk skill ti|>on tlm ^^ondt of a p«blic cba* 
rUft' mmif Ask^fmom fbUowing; wnt obliged to raake a pre- 
<i>fiil»te fietimt frofli Batfa, and from p«iblic practice. He 
jffrnw to iia«#hidbimtelf .fint at Paugbourn in Berkshire, 
a«d aft«n«arda at. Reading, arbere lu? died June 29, 17^2. 
Im ibe obituary be ia called ^< Ralph Sebomberg, £sq''^ 
' 8CUON£li (Joiiii), a nosed Gefinan pbilosopber and 
i«atbeinasici«ii» wa« botii at Caroiostadt in 1477, and died 
ia4647f af«d aeveat jr. Froan bis unc^mmoM acquirements, 
he v««s choian matbematical professor at Nuremberg wlien 
be waa bat a Jioang man. He wrote a great many works, 
aad vsas partieulwriy famoas lor bis astronomicat tables, 
wWcb he published after the manner of ttose of Regiomon- 
taiUMy and to wUeb be gave tbe title af kesolutas on ac* 
couat af ibeir eleai^iiess. Bnx^ noicrithstanding his great 
kmwledgei he aras, after tbe fasbioii of tbe limesy much 
addioied ta judicial astrology, wbiofa he took great pains 
to impivre.. . The list of bis uaitiags is chiefly as follows : 
i. ** Three Baoka of Judicial Astrology." 2. '* The astro* 
ncaaieal tables Aafoed Resolutie.*' 3. << De Usu Gtobi 
S^Uifeti; De Gofaposiuoae Globi Coelestis; De Usu Globi 
Terrestrisy el de CouDpositione ejusdem.'* 4. ^' :£quato- 
riaasi Asif oftomietiiii,^' 5. '^ Libailus de Disiantiis Loco* 
ru|D par laatraaiaotofQ at Nuiaeros investigandis.^* 6. " De 
Coaipoaittoae Torqueti." 7. ^' In Constructionem et Usans 
jiao taagnii aiee Radii Aatsonomici Annotationes.'* ^. 
** Hiaarii Cybodn Canooes.** 9. '< Pianispbasrium, seu 
Malaariscapiaak" 10« ^ Organum Uraaieum." 11.^* In* 
itrtMMDtaaa iaipediiaentonim Lnn»." All printed at Nik 
reoiberg, ki |5d|, Ceiio. Of these, tbe large treatise of 
diaUiag aeodescd bha more knosvn ia the learned world 
th^atl hia^tber warka besides, in which be discovers a 
iufptiaiaf geaiaa awl fend of learniog. of that kind ; but 
tooia have attvtbated tbia to hia sen.* 

SCHONNING, SCHOENING, or SCHONING (GEa- 
RAa^, a leamad Neraiegiaii, w9a born at Skatnoes, in Nord- 
landi m I7M. He went in 1740 to the school of Dron- 
thenaf the aader of wfaiafa caoeetved so high an opinion of 
his lalams, m ta assist him in carryuig ob his studies at 

1 Enrop. Ma(, for IADS.— Nicb(4s*s Bovfer-^Miautet of Proceediogii of tb« 
llo?al college of Phyticiant, relating (o Df. Isaac ScI)omberg» from Feb. 5, 
n4^»4oD^ 88. inse. SfO, I7S#. 

t AlMUA** aiof* Wt--ttMoii*s PicUs«ir3r.«-«sMri XAi«struai^-^Mii Om» 
■laatiooo. 

Vol. XXVII. ' s 



258 S C H O N N I N G. 

Copenhagen, where in 1758, be was elected a ae0iber of 
tfae-aci^deiny of sciences at Copenhagen. In 1764 be Was 
Appointed professor of history and eloquence at Sora, and 
received literary honours from various societies. In 1773, 
1774, and 1775, he went on a tour, at the king*s expenoe^ 
through various parts of Norway, to examine the remaioa 
of antiquity, but was recalled to Copenhagen to be keeper 
of the archives, and jn 1776 was appointed a member of 
the society formed for publishing Icelandic works from the 
collection of Arnas Magnaeus. He died July 18, 1780. 
He is said to have passed bis time and employed bis 
thoughts entirely on his peculiar studies, having an utter 
aversion to theological controversy, and being equally par- 
tial to olen of merit of all persuasions. His works are ah- 
n^eroos, but many of them are academical dissertatiotfs. 
Among those of a more permanent form are ^' An Esaay 
towards the ancieht Geography of the Northern Countriea, 
particularly Norway ;*' ^' Observations on the old Nbrtbefn 
Marriages and Weddings ;'' ** De Annt Ratidne «pud ve- 
teres Septentrionales^'* ** History of Norway from the 
foundation of the kingdom till the time of Harold Haaf- 
fager," 1771 — 1781, 4 vols. 4to, the last volume edited 
by Suhm ; ^* Travels through Norway,'* &e. He was abo 
the contributor of many papers to the Transactions of Ae 
Norwegian society, and of the academy of aoieoees at Ga- 
penbi^en, on subjects of antiquity, bearing some relatiaa 
to the northern nations.^ 

SCHOOCKIUS(MAETm), a learned and very Idionmia 
writer, was born April 1, 1614, at Utrecht^aad was silc- 
cessively professor of languages^ rhetoric, history^ natavaL 
philosophy, logic, and experimental philosophy in that 
city, at Deventer, Groniogea, and lastly^ at Fraoefart 
upon Oder, where he died in 1665, aged fifiy^ooe: Scbooc- 
kius delighted in singular subjects^ and has left a prodi- 
gious number of works. Burraan says be aever ktiew a 
man who published so much and acquired so little fame^in 
.the learned world. Some of his works are critical, athera- 
on philosophy, divinity, history, and literature, chiefly in 
12mo or 8vo, &c. The ssost known are, tracts on turfs, 
^* De Turffis, sou de cespitibus Bitaminosts ;" " On But- 
ter;'* << On Antipathy to Cheese;*' '' On £gga and Chic-* 
kens ;*' ** On Inundations ;" ** De Harengts, sen HalecU 

I Disc HitL 



SCfiOOCKlUS. 3i» 

bur i^ <^i)^ SigtatorM fistus ;** « De Ciconiis f «' De Ni^ 
\fk\bf <' D« Sternutatkme;" ^ De figmento legk iUgim;** 
^ De Bdiii*' Eccletiastich et Canonicis)'* 4to ; << De SUda 
Reipublica fcftiderati Belgii," &ci. &c. He wrote ulso sgainst 
ik!« €ftfte8, at the request of the fniiioua Yo^tkny with 
whom he wa9 tiuieb connected. Some other pieces an sin* 
gular subjects are inlsft *^ Exercttationes yari»/' 166S, 4lo^ 
ipepriiitedl under the title of '^ Mairtini l^heniidis exMcica- 

8CII00T£N (Fraiicis)^ pfofessor ofmatheuMtics «t 
Leyden about tine nriddle of the serenle^nth century, waa 
a very aeme preAoient in that science. He puUisbed, ia 
M»9| an edition of Descant's geometry, with learned 
and elaborate annotations on ahat work, as also those of 
Beanttie^ If udde, and Van Heaai^lu Scbooten pnUiriMd 
^A»o-twd very useful ilnd lettrned works of hirow^ oonapoii- 
lion ; '.^< Prittolpia Ma«he^eo9 vniversalis,'' lOKl, 4to } and 
^ fisercitaitontis Macbematiees,'* 16^7^ 4te.* • 
' SCBOTT { Ai^DRBtr), k very karried Gentian, to wb6m 
tfaeTOpubH<; of listtevB has been considerAbly indebted, was 
tent at. Anbwerp, Sept. 12, 4558 ; and educated at Loa- 
^aifr> Unon* tim tdilng and sacking of Antwerp in 1577^ 
ha rtiiTtw to D^uay ^ 'am}, after some stay there, went to 
*f^i4i, Mdiefi^Bvibe^iaa received liii)» ihto his house, and 
«Mt4e MavpiWtaer of his studies. Two years afker, he went 
Mte J8pdii> and ti^as at first at Madrid ; then he sewioved 
to Alcala, and then in ISfiO to Toledo, wbero his great 
-Mspuiiuiom prdevredbim a Grtfak professoiiAi|i/ The car- 
dinat Caspav^Mroga, ab^. 6f Toledb, conceived at die 
sa«e thne suth aH^teeon fisf Mai, abathe Itklged him in 
his-palWM^-and ep«eftaioed>biin as'long as^be renMnned in 
that piic^ In 1 5B4i,^he waa iiwrited to Saragoska, «o teach 
dsstific atid Ail Gteek ktigoage-i and,;two yeirS'i^r, 
tat^red^iitO'the'Society-iilt&siiits, smdwas oaiied^byihe 
general of 'thspibrd^' int» Italy te^teachi rhetoric at ReiBe« 
Heeoiftinuedt thffee^greasrtbere^ -and tben recxtfoed toiii^ 
aam cooatryv ^iwbese'he spent ttie i^omioder of a long lifit 
in stody and wvitihg ibooks. HBe waa>mt only well skilled 
ail Latin ^and X>eek iearntug^, 'bit bad also in hini a oandonr 
and l^neroBityieaMotoWb^looadaeQaiog tbe men of bis 
orderi- HeiMid ah Ernest* d^esins' to oblige mlliaankiad, of 

' I Ki<MrQa« toI* Xil.-^B«rmait Traj. £r^iU— Nicofau's Vita ^rofMSorttoi 
Gfimhiss* 
• Hiuton't Diet, new edit. 1815» 

S 2 



2M S C H O T T. 

what religion or country soever ; and would freely coinnnr<« 
nicate eren with heretics, if the eause of letters* could b«r 
served : hence protestant writers every where mention hin» 
with. respect He died at Antwerp Jan. 23^, 1629, after 
having published a great number of books.. Besides works 
imre iaipediately connected with and relating to bis owir 
profession, he gave editions o^ and wrote notes upon, se*- 
i^ral of the classics } among which were Aurelius Victor^ 
Pomponius Mela, Seneca Rhetor, Cornelius Nepos, Valer 
nus Fiacous, &c« He wrote the life of Francis di Borgia, 
and <; Hjspania illustrata," 4 vols. foUoy but there are rea* 
sqos for doubting whetfaper the '' Bibliotheca Hispana,*' ^ 
vols,, in one, 4to, waa a puislication of his own ; it seems, 
rather to have been compiled froia his MSS. He published^ 
however, an edition of Basil'd wo/ks, and is said to hav9 
tiau^latad Pbottus; b\xt this has been thought to be so much 
bel^^ tba abilities find If armng of Schott> that some hav# 
questioned his having been the author of it.^ « 

fiCHOTT (G^PAR), a learned J^uit, was born in 1608, 
in the diocese of Wurtzburg. His favourite studies wer^ 
philosophy and tqathematicsi which be taught till his death* 
He passed several years at Palermp^ when(;e he removed 
to Rome, where he contracted an intimacy, with the celcr 
brated. Kircher, who. communicated to hira several of his 
observations on the arts and sciences, Scbott was author 
of seveial works, qt which the most remarkable are, \p 
^ Physica curiosa^ sive Mtrabilia Naturas et artis,'* 1667^ 
.#to, 2. << Magia naturalis et artifioaalis,'* 1657 — 59, 4 vols. . 
4tp, reprinted in 1677. 3. "Technica curiosa,** Nbrio^?- 
beilg, 1664, 4to, in which is found the first idea of the air« 
pu^ip. 4*^<Anatomia Physico-hydrostatica Foutium et 
Fiomioam.'* S. ^* OrgsBum Matbematlcum.^ In the va- 
riool writings of this Jesuit are to be met with the gecms of 
the greater part of modern experiments in phjisips* Com*- 
plete seta of them should consist of ^0 vols,, but they are 
not easily procured, as they were almost entirely forgotten, 
till brought to notice in 1785 by the abb^ Mercier, in bia 
"Notice des ouvrages de Caspar Schott.^** 

SCUR£V£LIUS (Corneuus), a Dutch commeiitAtor, 
was the son of Theodore Schrevelius, first rector of the 
school at Haerlem, the history of which city he published, 

. • • • 

* Uapiiu— Niceroo, vol. XXVL'«-»Marchaiii ia Peniriaiii.«7>F(qiysa'A BibL 
B^*!;-— Snli OnooMt. 
 * Oiet Hilt.— BrHMt Manutl 4« Librakt « 



r 



S C H R E V E L I U S. 261 

«nd afterwards rector of that of Lejden. He was born pro- 
bably at the former place, and removed to Leyden with his 
father in 1^2^, who being then advanced in years resigned 
bis office in favour of CcftneKus in 1642. 'Cornelias ap^ 
pears before this to have studied and took his degrees in 
medicine, but his promotion to the school turned liis at* 
tention to classical pursuits, in the course of which he pdb- 
lisbed editions variorum of Hesiod, Homer, Ciaodian, Vir* 

{ril, Lucan, Martial, Juvenal and^Persius, Erasmus's col- 
oquies, &c. none of which bave^ been so fortunate as to 
obtain the approbation of modern critics. He applied, 
bowever, to lexicography with more success, and besides 
A good edition of the Greek part of Hesychfus*s Lexicon, 
published himself a Greek and Latin Dictionary, whieb haft 
been found so useful to beginners, that perhaps few works 
of the kind have gone through so many editions. Those of 
this country, where it still oontinoes to be printed, have 
heen enlarged and improved by Hill, Bowyer, and others. 
Schrevelius died in 1667.V 

SCHULTENS (Aibbrt), a German divine, was bom «t 
Groningen, where he studied till 1 706, and greatly distin* 

fuished himself by taste and skilUin Arabic learning. He 
ficame a minister of Wassenar, and professor of the orien- 
tal tongues at Franeker. At length he was invited to Ley- 
den, where be taught Hebrew and the oriental languages 
with reputation till his death, whicb happened in 1750. 
There are many works ,of Scfaultens, whic^ shew profound 
lekrning and just criticism ; as, ** Commentaries upon Job 
and the Provert>s ;** a book,' entitled *^ Vetus et regia via 
Hebraizandi ;*' «< A Treatise of Hebrew Roots,'' kc. H^ 
bad a son John Jacob Schultens, who was professor of divi- 
fiity and oriental languages at Leyden, in bis room. This 
John Jacob was father to the subject of the following ar- 
ticle.* • 

SCHULTENS (Henry Albert), was bora Feb. 15, 
1749, at Herborn (where hisfither was at that time divinity^ 
professor), and was educated at the university at Leyden, 
where he applied himself with great diligence to the Ara- 
bic, under his father's instructions, and those of 8chei«- 
dius, wbo then lodged in his house. By his father's ad- 
vice, be commenced bis study of the eastern languages by 

1 Foppen B'ibl. 'Belg.— BMlletJaftraeDi^— Morcri. 



iff S e H U L T E N SL 



foaming tbe Aitfbici' to wWdiluft appUiid jdoiioff 4w» jmns 
l>e£ore he began the Hebrew. Tbit» amoog other reaftODi, 
iiiay aecount for the ^prefefence which he alviqrt gave to 
the Anifbie iiteratoffa, ^aoil- which waa so groat ihu ho fins 
often beard to wiah that. the dttticaof his statioo woaU al» 
knr him to devote the n^hcde of hk tisM to it. He^ iioweveic» 
studied sbeG/aeb and Latin cbasios with liie mtmeiAdili"' 
geace onder Heni8tiBrhiMa» BbnnkaoBos^ and ValiienaaiK- 
He also cuttivated aa fftxiiiainlanoo with the best.aiadern 
writers, aavang whom he*io geneni gav^ the preferenee^P 
the EngBsh ; be was vemarkablgr fond cf Pope ; and of 
Shikspeane be was an eatibqsiastio'ad«airer4 

In 177^1 when only, in his ^tsyenty^lhinl year, ha ipub* 
•ttsbed a work emillod << Aatbelogia Sententiariwi Asabion- 
vtai/' with a Latin tmnslation and natas^ of wbicb sir Wi|« 
liaas Joneis seatified hsa apprebatioo. Soon after tUa Schni* 
tens wMt 4d Englaad, ia order td ezanMne tjie- Aibbic MitiS. 
in the Bodleiaa UMary, and- msisM for some ^tiaaa at 0&<r 
fotd^ as a gentleman oommooer of* Wadham^coUege^ Hene 
anrktt# than three months dicing the short wintet A^JMf be 
4nwM)ribed Poaook's <^ Meidsiaiiis'' with his. /tranabiilioo and 
«iMKes, a/work adnoli took np no less than 64£.>fdia pages, 
*Tho late psoteson WUse, in a letter io tbeifiitbor tal JSohnl*- 
teas, laya of him : ^f it is impossible for any one Jxi he 
jBore generally respected in this place* or iwfeed' toiibe 
ttore doserrinf^of it Hia afashties^ his aaiiablo disposition, 
end hia polilo hohaifioer, reeoasmendhim ^nangly.^)all 
those among ns( who- knew bim only by jpeputaaion, andiap- 
dfoar him • so ell who are personally acquainted with lum^'* 
The nniv€frstep"tnstified iti sense of his extrsk>rdieaiy>nmrit, 
Jby confendngon-linn (in May 1916) the'degree^of M^>A< 
liydiptooeu He also'sriBitadOambridge^.wbambet^qMmt 
0f fortnight ; deling whiofa.ttine he corneoteA jereeal enrdrs 
in the cataliogne of Arable oimnnsoripts, and aaade several 
Udditiona ta it.' In Londee'he peUished a speoimea of 
Pocoek's «^> Meidaatusi'' J>r:> Morton oflered to make him 
his assistaet ar the British Mosemn^'ead fao.secere teihim 
ahe reversion' of faiso#n^piate^< bot the ambition o£&hqi- 
tens was-ttobeapfofoisof of fiastem kaguag^s; esid-as 
there was no pao^abiiity of this epf^mntmeot in En^laad* 
he deiermitted ito xetuitn to Hoiked. Sir Wi^Am Jooesy 
whose friendship be asnduOusly caltivatedy adrised him to 
study the Peiaian; wHiob be did with great difigeneb ; tint 
he complained that this pursnic wia» often interrupted t^ 



S C H U L T t: N S. 06t 

other ttvocacioDS, ai^d ikat he was not able Xq devote 40 
iDocb lime to it as be wished. 

Soon after biii arrival in the United Provinees* Ue w^ 
cbosen professor of oriental languages in the acadeoiJQal 
school of Amsterdam, where be resided during ftve yeara^ 
sind enjoyed the esteem and friendship of a numerous ac- 
quaintance. Besides Latin lectures to the students, be de* 
^cred some in Dutcibf on the Jewish a&|;iquities and ori- 
ental bistor}', which were macb frequented and greatly ad« 
mired. On the death of bis father, ia 17 7 8, b^ was called 
to Leyd^ ashia successor. In Nov. 1792^ be was attack* 
ed by a malignant csdurrhal Saver thai terminated in af coii-^ 
sumption^, of which hfi died in August 1793« Some time 
beforehis deaths bis physician found him reading the latter 
|»attof St. John^sgospely of which he ex pressed the wacmei^t 
admuration, and luided^ ^ It ia do small consolation to me, 
that, to tfae vigoor of health, I never thought leas iyglUy of 
siie character and rdigteo of Christ, than I do now, in the 
' debility of sickness. Of the truth and excellence of Chris- 
tianify I bate Always been. coovi need, and have always, as 
fas as buQUia frailty would ailow, endeavoured so to expr^s 
this conviction tbat, . in these my last hours, I aught with 
bonfideaoeJosdc forwards to a blessed immortality," SchaU 
•teas^ ID fata private chaiacter, was in every respect an 
amiable aad worthy man. . . . 

. I As a teacher^ professor Scbultens had the happy taLfut 
' of Headeriog the driess sdb^ects plain and interesting to bi^ 

• fHipils. TUs^iqaa particularly the case with tim principles 
' of the Hebrew grammar, an intiaiate and accurate knoww 

ledge of which he recomnseoded as iodispensably necessary 
to all who wished to undersund the Old Testament in the 

* oqginal laogoage* In translating and. explaining the Bible, 
be preserved a judicious medium between t^oae who 

' sfaoQght the Hebrew text too sacred to be the subject of 
critioisai} and those wiyo, like Houbigant,. without a suffi* 
cieot acqoaiaiaace with the genius of the language, ven- 
tured OB needless alteratioos. Hence be .ivas much Mis- 
pleased srith' a work by profes^r Kocberus of Berucy en- 
titled '^ Viodipiss sacri textus Hebrici Esaiie vatis, adversu» 
tL Lowthi criticam ;'*. concerning which be said, in a letter 

,. to Dr. Fiadlay, of Glasgow, ^' It violates the bouods oi 
nrndemtion and decency by the assertion that the teyjt of 
Isaiah could not gain any thing by Dr. Lowtb's conjectures. 

' I am of >a very different opioion. When at Oxford and 



«64 SC'H»OLTH N 8. 

Ldndo^/l was ititinately ae^pminMd : ititb insk^fif Lowtb^^ 
bMi'fln oppKyrtuhitjr cpf knomt^g his exedWDt Aivpceiitton^- 
and am ttie^hrt miacii v^fxed that Koifaenn; frcmi btar fiecy 
flEMi agtfftist innomtion, -dboDtd 1i«ve been iiidacedtolreitf 
him* "with tn&vbr'itVf ft$ if ihe Ixnfaop hiad been a rash and pe**. 
mIj^i icf^niv." Sohoitefift'i sentimentt en this subject- ace- 
flUore f istiy errprdft^eil in a^me Aiticies* Mrbieli be wrote for 
tbe << B^htiorhecn Critiea," •piibRsbofi^ fay IVy^tenbacb, par^ 
ficularfy in the review df Kefttiicot'a BMe. TheBe^jUdiw 
erous'sennmieiits, togethbr with his '^lemiTe abilities «ad^ 
knoiHedge of'theaubjecr, bis eulogist observes, reodcredr. 
bitti aiiimrabty qualified to ba^e given- a near Tefaioo of ikft^ 
Old l*estament. Tbts at one cime be designed, and nearly* 
finished a translation of the book of Jab, wbiob unas phb- 
Hsbed after bis- death by Herman Muntinge, 1794, dro^ hud 
bis sentiments 'of tbis portion of sacred ivrit are ao mnch at 
ramnce mth those of the most able and popular eommeii^ 
tatori, that we rpestion if it will meet'arith general- appro* 
bationl * , - . . . t 

fVofei^or 'SdyultetiSy' thongb a very indastrtons studbnty' 
published little bei»ides the ^* Anthoiogia^' ahvady sndniscMi*^ 
ed^ and tbe foHowing, '^ Pars verstoiiis ArabicQ&kbri Co<> 
laili Wa Dimnahi stve Pabntarum Bitpai;*' a siq >ple m eB l> 
to'D^Uerbeiot's ^ Bibliatheque Orientaie;'' a^ Datciv tran^4 
ladon of Eiehorn on tbe literary merits of Miohsielis ; wtH 
three Latin orations. He at one tiin6 Hesamied'bis intendo'd 
edition of Meidanius, the cahe of irfarcb be left: ta ptHKres^* 
sor Sehroeder, who (iubllsbed a Toiume 4to, trader* the title 
^ Meidini proverbiornm Arabicovam parr, liatine veriitdt 
notis illustravit H. A. Scultens. Opas postbnmiiin,^* ITM. 
It ought to con!ffst of twb more voKiineB^ bat we^ktiotsihot 
that they ha^e appeared.^  : 

^CHULTETUS. See BCULTETUSu ' 

SCHUliMAN (Anva MAtiTA'A), a asost learned OerreiU 
lady, was the daegbter of pan^ts who werebotiideaeeilded 
f<t>fn noble Pmtestartt femiites^and wasbornatCcddgney in 
160^7. She discovered from faer infancy an uneomiMiefa^. 
eifityin acqairitigTariousaccomplisbments, a'^cattirng with 
bar. scissors upon paper aU sores of figures^ without any 
model, deiignin'g flowers^ embroidery, nvnsio vooal and in** 
stramental, paiating, scalptur^, and engrarii!^; andis said 
to have succeeded, equally iu all these atts, Mr; £>ciyD> 



SeHVRMAN. M4 

¥0ry:k«»owiiig> Antoa Mari^ a SohurfkiM is skilled^ in tbk mrK 
\^fitii:iiiriumefiaUr-Dthe^» ew^n ip a f»rodigy*of*.ber teK." 
Menhand^writiagift^li iangitaget «V4» ioiflaitabte ; and soiM^ 
ciifiotas <phpfBDB9'l»f^'prc9efv«d'.4^ of -it in tbetQ 

<aBbinetsj Mr Joby^ m hhi jonrnty to Munater, reiales^ ibtt^ 
bet was' aryMeyt^^ivkffiosg lo the bea«ty ^ of her- writings i* 
Ftenckj Oreak^ ^HdolreW) Syriac, and Arabic; and cf hw 
ritiUincbiwing^ i-a mintatur^o^ find m'akiog portraits upol^ 
gia«s^ with tlie po»ni>of a tlia«K>nd. She painted ber ow» 
l^ietaire 'by oieotts of-a Iteking-giaw; and made artiSotat 
pafen-raso iike nateral ones^tbait tbey eaald not be diiitin4 
giiiabed hmt. by. prioki n^ ibeta i^idv a ne^d le. » 

Tbe- po\0erg of kek tmdttfstfrndttig ware not iafertor tm 
ber fkilfi ia tbose arts:: fbr at dei^eo, when ber ^rottbera' 
f^re exaoHaed in 'LUttin^ sbe often- wbispered to tbem wbab 
tfaeyrivreiia to <aa6w^ry tboagb sbe uras only a casual bearet 
of tfa^rkaionsk' tier btber tberefore began to instmet' 
ber more perfectly in that knowledge wbich made lierao^ 
jastJy celebfttted^ and/very soon the Latin^ Greek, and He- 
brew famgalsiges b6oa«e so fatnititr to ber, that' abf notf 
only wfifiaev bat ^obe theon, ut a manner whiofa furpristfcl 
ebefoidflt Inrae'd neo^ She liiade a great pragf ^ss atso ia' 
thO' flyriac^rChddee, Arafaiot arid Efcbiopic; and oftbe 
livaDg 'laBgua^t^s; she 'imderstood afid spok^ rdadilyi'the' 
Fr^ncb^ Eiighsk, and Italian. She utas oompetently rereed 
in geogftpby, astronomy, pbilosophy, and ll^ acienoeai' 
adiBB to be- able tor-judge of tbem witb eMactncisa: bat aU 
tbeseiaccompllshawnti yielded ini last to divinity, and Hbe 
stttdy of tfaescriptHres. - ' . .* 

* Herfaiber, who liad settled at Utreftht wbile ahe traa ah 
infant, and. afterwards removed to^raneker foe the mote 
convenient educaifon'6f hia children, died there in 1M3. 
Hiff- widcfw dien mi»rned to Uli^eltt^ wbiffre AnnH Mafia 
contiBfiedbbr^tatKea'vevy intensely; wbiob probably pfe«* 
vented bier from-^marpying^ &a sbemif^ht have 'done advao^ 
tageaaaiy with Mr. Cats, peaaioilaty of Holland^ and ia 
di^brated ptfet, wbo wroto veraea in ber praise when ahe 
was only* fourteen. :Her modett.y,wbi9b was aa great ^aa 
her knotvledge^' would havekeptber in^obscufttyi if Rivew 
tn$^ 8p(Buiheiaa,'an4 Vossius, badn^s made her merit knowot 
jSaimaaiua -idso,' Beverotioins, and HuygeUSi oaaiotaiiied <ji 
literary correspondence with ber; and, by shewing ber 
letter^, spresid her fame into foreign eountrieSi Tbis pro- 



364 S C H U R M A N. t 

aoved her A iknr^^^owkence ' whk Biiluic, G«i0efidi^ M^'«' 
flfuiDUS^'BocdMiit^ Coarart, and other eniuaBt men } persons 
of tk^ -first rank paid her visits, aiid ca^diaal BiohcUaa 
liipewise sinewed her marks of faU esteeni. About I65i(^ a 
grMt altesatton took piece in jier religious system* She 
yesformed lier derotions in private, ^vithoiitifireqecociag 
any cbnreb, upon wbich it was reported that dus. waS/ iv* 
ettiied'to popery; but she attaobed herself to the foBXMa 
iOjyBtic Laliadie, aud embracing his priacipies and praettce^ 
lived some time -witb htm at Alteoa, in HoUtein, aitd atv 
tended bioft ai his death tbece io 1674. She afcerwarda 
retired to Wie^vart, in FriKelaod, vbere the faesoos Pean^ 
the Quaker, vi^ted her io 1617 ; she died at tliis pkiee in 
1678'/ She tedk for bar device these words of St^ Ignatias: 
^ Amer meus c^ueifi:iuis est."- 

She wrote *^Oe vites buinaiies termino," Ultraj. i6S0| 
^' Dissertatio de ingeoii muliebris ad doctrioam etmeliores 
Uteras>aptitudiae/' L. Bat* 1641, 12iiio. These two |neqes, 
with letters in French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, to ber 
leaM^ned cerrespoiidents, were printed in 1648, under tbe 
title of *^ A. M. a Schurmati Oposenia Hebraea, Grseca, 
Latina, Galliea; prosaica ^ ooetriea;" entairged ia a ^d 
editioB at Leydeo, 1650, )2cno. She wrote afterwards, 
^ {^okieria, seu meiioris partis eieotio.^* Tbis is a>d€£Mioe 
of bfsr attachment to Labadie, and was printed at Aheiia-br 
1673, when she was with biro.' 

SCHURTZFLEISCH (Conrad Samuel)^ m learned 
GevQiao^ was bom Decemlier 1641, at Corback, in the 
coimty of Waldeck*  Having taken a doctor's degree in 
philosophy at Wittemberg, in 1664, be returned to Corbae;, 
jwbe«e be t^ght duriog some time instead of bis iatber, 
#nd tben returning^ to Wittemberg^, pabiished a leaornetl 
]ni^f> entitled ^< Judicium de ^(rrissimiB' pradentim civilis 
aoriptoribiia," &e« eoder the assuitied name of -^Sfiiibtthis 
Tbiodattts Sarckoiasiiis.-' la this. little work| wbiobcon- 
ai^s but of a leaf end half, the author passes judgnseotvery 
f^Hiy 01^ fifteen German lawyersyorpolicicai writers, wbich 
Wfi^d bii^ meny enetnies, and engaged faini in a liieravy 
war, which prodeceda greftt ^mber of pieces pelleoted 
]byCra^i^s, 8v<s under the aiile of ^* Acta Sarqkmasiana^** 
wed evee oceeiiened hie being strack oat from the list of 

* Gen. Dict.-.Niceron, vol. XXXIII.— Bullari's AcaUcmie deg Sciences.— 
Bonnsn Trsject Eitidit. • 



8 C H U R T a r L B I S C H. 20 

4ottl6rs bf the ttitiidenitjr of Wifefe«alMrg» . He. ifB% howi* 
ev^Ty not only resMwd to thaft tule. uvcv yeaart .aitei» buft 
appfoimcldl prolcasor of kbiory^ then of ptMtejr^ aiul at 
iength of Greibk. In 1 TOO, £chu rtefiobch sitcoMdued lor ibe 
vbetoriiml chair, aiidc became oonmieilor and UbcaciaQ to ibm 
duke of Sne-WtMiMur, and died July 17, 1708. He left a 
gf eat tiuoriaer of learned worka on hbneey^poetry, crilioitoi» 
ktermorO) &c. the oaoat pelebrateii ef . mrfaicb are, *' Diapn** 
tatione* UflftorkMB ctvika," Lei^>sic, l^9d,.S totai.4if). Hemjr 
Leoiiavd Schiirtefleiksch, bit brother, was also author of 
•one works, atnong^irkiQb is, ^^Histona Entiferoarum ordi** 
piallenimaei,*' Wittenberg, 1701, 12idoJ 
t' SOfiWJkRTZ (Bj&aftsHOLET), nrhp passes for being the 
diecoTerer of tbat fatal ^ompotkion ao well known by the 
name of gun-powder, was bom at Fribvirg in GeraMoy in 
the thirteenth century, andis aaidto have discovered this 
^ngerous secret in priaoo, as he was*oiaking soone cfaemi*- 
eal ecipertmenta. Albert us Magnns speaks of him as -a 
Cdrdelier, and says that hie invented some sorts of firof 
ermt. The discovery ef this fatal secret has been attribated 
' by some to the^Chieese^ ^nd by others to our countryman, 
Roger'Bacon: however, the use of artillery was iotrodaaed 
pbcnit die time >of the battle of Crecy, l^Mp- and m^ule aa 
abselnte change in the whole art of war ; whether a benefit 
*cial otle, 'has not yet been decided.* 

8CIOPPIUS (Caspar), a learned German writer, and 
one ef the most avrogant and contentious critics of bis Ume, 
#as born abont 1 576 ; and studied first sut Amberg^ then at 
ileidelbbrg, afterwards at Altdorf^ at the charges of the 
ttlectot palatine. Having made a considerable stay at In- 
gotstadt^he returned to Altdorff, where he began- lio pahUsh 
soone of his worksi. Ottavia Ferrari, a celebrated ptfofesaor 
at Padua^ seys, that be ^* poblidied books when he was but 
sixteee, which deseived to- be admired by old men ;" some, 
however, of ihia early pipduetions da not deserve this en* 
eoBUttfla. Heioek a<joaroey into Italy; and, after he had 
beto some timeat Vf^rana, returned into Germany, whence 
he went again ihio^Iftaly, and pablisbed at Ferrara a pane* 
gynei iipoa Ae king of Spain and pope Clement Vlil. In 
1599^ tie embraoed' the Roman catholic religien^ but bad 
an eatraordtnary antipathy to the Jesuits; against whom^ 
Bailiet tells us, he wrote about thirty treatises under ficti- 

« 

1 NioefoOi vol. If— -Morari. 9 ]Pullart'i Acs4eniie des BeieBON.— Morerw 



9€8 S C I O P P I U S. 

1 

lions names. Nor was he more lenient to the ProtestantSy 
^nd solicited the princes to extirpate thetn by the most 
bloody means, in a book which he published at Pavta in 
1619, under the title of ^* Gasp. Scioppii ConsiHarii Re^i 
Classicum belli sacri, site, Heldus Redivivus." The fcl* 
lowing is the title of another, printed at Mentz in 1612, 
against Philip Mornay du Plessis; and which, as he tells 
us in the title-page, he sent to James I. of England, by 
ivay of new-year^s gift : '^ Alexipharmacam Regium MU 
- tkaconum et veneno aspidum sub Pbilippi Mom«i de Ples^ 
$is nuper Papatus historic abdito appositum, et seretiisi. 
Jacobo MagnsB BritannisB Regi strens Januariffi loco miH 
Deri missum.*' He had^before attacked the king of England, 
by publishing in 161 1, two books with these titles : " Ec* 
ciesiasticus auctoritati Sereniss. D. Jacobi, &c oppo^itus,** 
and '< Collyrium Regium Britannite Regi graviter ex o^uKs 
laboranti muneri missum :** diat is, ** An Eye-salve for the 
use of bis Britannic majesty/' In the first of these pieces 
he ventured to attack Henry IV. of France in a most violent 
manner ; which occasioned his book to be burnt at Paris, 
He gloried, however, in this disgrace ; and, according te 
bis own account, had the farther honour of being hanged 
in effigy in a farce, which was acted before the king of 
England. He did not, however, always escape with impu^ 
nitj ; for, in 1614, the servants of the English ambassador 
are said to have beaten liim with great severity at Madrid. 
Of the wounds he received in this conflict^ be, as usual, 
made his boasts, as he also did of having been the prinei*^ 
pal contriver of the Catholic leagqe, which proved so 
ruinous to the Protestants in Germany. In his way through 
Venice in 1607, he had a conference ^itfa iartier P^ul, 
whom be endeavoured by promises and threats to bring over 
to the pope's party; which, perhaps, with other ctrcum* 
stances, occasioned his being imprisoned there three or four 
days. After he had spent many years in literaiy tontesti^ 
be applied himself to the prophecies of holy scripture, «nd 
flattered himself that he had discovered the true key to 
them. He sent some of these prophetical discoveries to 
cardinal Mazarine, who paid no attention to them. It has 
been said that he bad thoughts at last of going back to the 
communion o'f Protestants ; but this, resting upon the sin- 
|;1e testimony of Hornias, has not been generally believed. 
He died in 1649. 
Be was indisputably a very learned man ; and, had his 



S C I O P P I U S. 26> 

Biacieratioo and probity been equal to bis learning, might 
justly bave been accounted an ornament to the republic of 
iatters : bis application to study, bis memory, the multitude 
of bis books, and bis t^^uickness of parts, are surprising. 
Ferfarius tells us tbat be studied day and night ; that, diir* 
ing the last fourteen years of bis life, be kept bia>self shut 
«p io a little room, and tbat bis conversation wiib those 
wfao went to visit him ran only upon learning; that, like 
another Ezra, be might bave restort^dthe holy scripture, if 
it had been lost, for tbat be could repeat it almost by heart; 
and tbat the number of bis books exceeded the number cif 
i|is3%ftri. He left bebind hini.aUo several nhanuscripts, ' 
vvbicfa, as Morhoff lelU us, ^* remained in the hands of 
Picnfcciua, professor at Padua, and are not yet published^ 
to tbe no small iodignatiqn of tbe learned world,^' He was 
ne?erthelesa a man of a malignant and contentious spirit^ 
and li^ed in continual hostility with the learned of his time, 
nor did bei spare the best writers of ancient Rome,"evea 
Cicero- bimself, whose language be censured for impropri- 
eties and barbarisms* Niceroo enumerates upwards of an 
bundred different pablicatious by Scioppius, alt of whicix 
axe Juwr &Uen into oblivion,^ or only occasionally consulted. 
Tbey are mostly pglei^ucal, on subjects of criticism, reli^ 
gious ppinions^ tbe Jesuits, Protestants, &c. many of them 
under .^e iici;itiOtt9 names of Nicodemus Macer, Oporinus 
Qrubinius, .Aspasius Crosippus, Holoferues Krigsoedenu^ 
and other barbarous assumptions,^ 

SC0POLr(JoHN Anthony), an eminent naturalist, was 
bornina72i, at Cavalese^ in the bishopric of Trent Re 
stnctaed.at.](i)9i^uckt and at twenty years old obtained tW 
degree. of licentiate in medicine, and afterwards was ia* 
tcuated.witU the. care of the hospitals of Trent, and of his 
fiativetQwn Cavalese; but as this stage was too small for fait 
amjbiiuoi^ J)e requested that bis parents would permit him' 
to.go.ta Venice^ In that city, under tlie auspices of Lo^ 
taria Loj^ti,* be,, en tended his knowledge of medicine, and 
added- tp ,i( a, more intimate acquaintance with pharmacy, 
botany, andpatural bistory. Qo his return he, traversed 
tb9 mouDtains of Tirol and Carniola, where#he laid tbe 
fonndaiioa of his *^ Flora'' and '* Entomologia Carniolica.** 
Iiir 1754 be ac;cQmpanied count de Firmian, prince bisbopi, 
and afterwards cardinal, to Gratz, from wbence he went t9 



1 Hiceroo, ?•!. XXXY.<^6to.. 01ct; 



• • . • 



ilo S C O t t t 

Vienoa to obtain a diplotoa to pmctice in the Amtcwii 40» 
minions. His examihution is said to hav£ been ragorodSf 
and bis tbesis on a new method of classing plants to haM 
beea received with great regard. • Tbe frieadabip of Yaat 
Swieten, if in this instance it can be called frkUubbtpy pro^ 
cored him the o$ce of first physician .to the Austtian miners 
of Tirol. In this banishment he coottoiiied mora than teli 
years ; for it was only in 1766| after repealed aolicitafeioBa» 
that he obtained the. post of coonseUor io.tfae mining' d»*> 
partmenty and profe^or of mineralogy at Sobemnitz^ but 
in this.; interval be.prodnoed his '^ Anniinea Historioo^na^ 
(urales," 17.69 to 1771,. Syo» In this new-^ office lie' waa 
indefatigable in teaching, eaploring new mines, compi^iog 
different works on fos$il% and. imfNTo^ng the .methaKl . of 
treating mitverals ; bnt after ten ymrs^ iabonr^ he i9as*0Dt 
able to obtain the newly*eatabJisbed ohatr o£ natural 
tory at Vienna^ yet aoon after hia .attempt,. tabont tbe 
of ]i776i» he was appointed professor 'of dbemistry.aird ho^ 
tany at Pavia. In this sitnajtioe be published some phatiM* 
ceutical essays, translated and greatly augmented 'AiMquer*a 
Dictionary, and esplained the oontents of theicdiiitieliif 
natural history belonging to the university^. .tmderthiB title 
of '' Delicise Floras et Faunas Instibncfie>V ,the last fnurtiJikf 
which.be did not live to complete. The-fM^sidiena^ the 
Linnsan society, who dedicated tbe ScajHHm^tohiBmemorff 
informs us that,, after some domestic .cb^gfioy aodmndi 

Eublic persecution, be diedat Pavia^ M&y. 8». 11A6.. lie 
ad been concerned with all the most eminent men <df that 
* 

university, Volta, Fontana, and otbeniy ia- detecting vtfae 
misconduct of their colleague, the oelebraited.SpaliaiMBailij 
who bad robbed tb^ public moaeum* Biittfae> emileBor^ 
loth to dismiss so able a professor, conteated Uikiaetf with 
a personal rebuke at Vienna to the culpcit, andihia aocuaera 
were silenced, in a manner which was auppoafedjto.lMte 
eaused the death of Soopoli. Tbe survivoFs iteld (their 
story,^ as explicitly as they durst^ in a >clpeMlar letter tfrtbe 
learned of Europe*' , > ^ 

. SCOTT (David), was born, near Haddingtoe) in East 
Lothian, 1675, and brought up to the law inSIdinbnrgb; 
but never made any figure at the bar. Attached tathd royal 
family of Stewart, he refused to take the oaAhs to the revo« 
lution*8ettlement, whidi brought him inta many difietiltMSy 

A Crit. RcT.voU lJCVU.«-i4teH's Gyclopwdia art Scopoluu 



g C O T T. V 2*^* 

stnd flomatiaies iiDprisonment. He bad rk> great Inowl^ge 
of hiMory ; but an opinion of hi9 own abilities Induced faith 
to write diat of Scotland, wiiich was pViblished'iiY l^^T, la 
one volume fotio. It is a pefformance of not much value. 
He died At Haddington, 1742, aged sixty-seven.^ 

SCOTT (DANfEL), a dissenting minister, was the son of 
a merchant in London, and was educated with Bntler and 
Seeker^ afterwards eminent prelates in the church of'Eng- 
laod| under the teamed Mr. Jones, at Tewkc^sbut)!^, in 
Gloucestershire, from whose seminary he removed to 
Utrecht, in Holland, pursued bis studied with indefatigable 
ceal, and took- bis degree of doctor of laws. While he was 
in tisieicity, he changed his opinion concerning the mode 
of baptism, and became a baptist, but occasionally joined. 
in oommanion with other denominations. On his return to 
England, he settled in London or Colchester, and devoted 
bit time to various learned ahd lisefuL treatises. In 1725 
appeared bis '^ Essay towards a Deitnonstration of the Scrip- 
ture Trinity,'* withont his naafie, which was for' some time 
Hsoribed to Mr. James Pierce, of Exeter. In 1738, a se- 
cood <eclition, with some enlargements, was sent out from 
the press^ and in- both editions the anthor^s friends have 
labott^ed'to prove that dishonourable methods were taken to 
prevent the spread of it. A new edition of this Essay, freed 
from the learned quotations with which it abounded, was 
prantedy' some years back, in 4to, and, without any disho- 
tiouridde means, added very little to the Sobrntan 'cause« 
la 1741, he appeared to more advafitage in ^' A New Ver- 
sion of St Maathevt^s Gospel, with Critical Notes ; and an 
'Exusiostionf of Dr.' Mill's Various Hidings;** a Very learn- 
'ed and aceunub performance. At the persuasidn of his 
dtgniBed ftiends, Becker and Bdtler, to- whom he dedicated 
fats work, be published, in 1745, iir two volumes, folio, an 
'^ Appeadix tq H. Stephen^s Greek Lexicon ;** a monument 
t)f hisr'amaaing diligence, critical skill, and precision. He 
lost ae«eral- hundred pounds bj this publication, and, by 
his close application to it for many years, broke bis health 
- and spirits. Be was never married, and died suddenly^ in 
a retirement near London, March 29, 1759. 

His father^ by his first wife, had a son, Thomas Scott, a 
dissenting taiAister at. Norwich, who published several oc- 
casional $ermons, and died in 1746, leaving two sons, one 

J Preceding edHioa of tbit l>ici. 



172 SCOTT. 

Tbomu ScoCt, a dissenting minister at Ipswich, autbor of 
a poetical veriion of tbe ]£»ok of Job, a second edition of 
which was printed in 1774. This has been thought more 
▼aioable as a comaientary than as a translation. His other 
ion was Dr. Joseph Nicol Scott, who was first a dissenting 
ministery and published ^ vols, of sermon^ ** preached in 
defence of all religion, whether natural or revealed/' He 
was a strenuous opponent of the doctrine of eternal punish- 
ments. He afterwards practised physic in London^ and 
died about 1774.' 

8COT1' (George Lewis), a learned member of the 
royal society, and of the board of longitude, was the eldest 
son of Mr. Scott, of Bristow, in Scotland, who married 
Miss Stewart, daughter of sir James Stewart, lord advo- 
cate of Scotland in the reigns of William III. and queen 
Anne. That lady was also his eousin-german, their nK>- 
thers being sisters, and both daughters of Mr. Robert 
Trail, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, of tbe same fa- 
mily as the rev. Dr. William Trail, tlie learned author of 
the ^* Life of Dr. Robert Simson, professor of mathematics 
at Glasgow/* 

Mr. Scott, the father, with bis family, lived many years 
. abroad, in a public character ; and he bad three sons born 
while residing at the court of Hanover. The eldest of these 
was our author, George Lewis, named, in both these names,, 
after his god-father, the elector, who was afterwards George 
I. George Lewis Scott was a gentleman of considerable 
talents and general learning ; he was well-skilled also in the 
mathematical sciences *, for which he manifested at times 
a critical taste, as may be particularly seen in some letters 
which, in 1764, passed between him and and Dr. Simson^ 
of Glasgow, and are inserted in Dr. Trail's account of ''The 
Life and Writings of Dr. Simson." Mr. Scott was also the 
autbor of the '^ Supplement to Chambers^s Dictionary,** in 
51 laree folio volumes, wliich was much esteemed, and for 
which he received 1,500A from the booksellers, a consi- 
derable price at the time of that publication. Mr. 
Scott was sub-preceptor, for the Latin language, to his 
present majesty when prince of Wales. After that he was 

* From the prafaoe to a new edition of " An Eatay towards a demoastntuw 
oTthe Trinity,*' repriot«d in 1778 or 1779. 

* Or. Burney, in the Cyclopiedia, ipeaks of Dr. Scott a« an cxoellaot mn^ 
aidan, pod the author of ■ome valaablc articles oo that subject, in the Supple- 
to Cfaambcn's Dictiooarj, 



SCOTT. * 21S 



ap^otated a commissioner of excise ; a situation vrhiolr bis 
friends considered as not adequate to his past d«sert% and- 
inferior to what be probably would have bad» but for tbe 
freedom of his political opinions. From some 'cofce8poo<t-*> 
ence wiilr G.ibbou, to wi|om» iu partieidar, be wrote an 
excellent letter of directions for mathematical studiesi we 
may infer that b^ did not differ much from that gentleMUi 
in matters of religious belief. Mr. Scott died Dea 1780U 
He was elected F. S. A. in 173o, agdF. II. S. iu 1737. 

Mrs. Scotty his widow, survived bim about fifteen yeafii^ 
and died at Gatton, near Norwichy.io Nov. 1795. She was 
sister to tbe late celebrated Mrs. Montagu, of Portmao-^ 
square. From the pen of a very intelligent and equally 
candid writer, we have the following account of  this lady : 
<* Sb^ was- an excellent bistoriau, of great acqiiiremetitsi 
extraordinary memory, an.d stror\g seuse.; and opnstanily 
employed in literary labours; yet careless of faoiay.aiKl 
free from vanity and ostentation. Qwing to a disagrcegnent 
of tetnpers, she soon separated from her busbaiid ; .but in 
every other relation of life she was, with soree^peeuliarities, 
a woman of exemplary conduct, of sound principles, en-< 
livened by the warmest sense of religion, and. of a cbartcy^ 
so un.bounded^ so totally regardless of he^self^ as to be 
almost excessiye and indiscriminate.. Her talenu were not 
so brilliant^ nor her genius so predominant,, as those of bee 
sister, Mr^. Montagu : but iu some departments of litera- 
ture she was by no means her inferior. . When she left ber 
husband she united her income with that of ber intimate- 
friend, lady Bab Montagu, the sister of lord Halifax, atid 
they continued to live together to the death of tbe letter. 
From that period Mrs. Scott continually changed her. ha* 
bitatipn, for restlessness was. one of ber foibles. Her in- 
tercourse with tbe world was various aud extensive ; and 
there were few literary people of her day with whom she 
bad not either an acquaintance or a correspond,ence. Yet 
when she died^ not one of her contemporaries who knew 
her literary habits came forward to preserve the slightest 
memorial of her ; ainl she went to her grave as unnoticed 
as tbe most obscure of those who have done nothing worthy 
of remembrance. Under these circumstances, the writer 
of this arii<:le trustsf to a candid reception of this imperfect 
memoir, while be laments that Mrs. Scott herself shut out 
some of the best materials, by ordering all ber papers and 
Toluminous correspondence, which came into the hands of 

Vol. XXVII. T 



t74 SCO TT. 

her executrix, to be burnt ; an order mueb to be lamented^ 
because there is reason to believei from the fragments 
which remain in other. hands, that her letters abouoded with 
literary anecdote, and acute observations on character and 
life. Her style was easy, unaffected, and perspicuous; 
ber remarks sound, and her sagacity striking^ Though her 
fancy was not sufficiently powerful to give the highest at- 
traction to a novel, she excelled in ethical remark^, and 
the annals of the actual scenes of human nature. In dra- 
matic effect, in high- wrought passion, and splendid imagery^ 
perhaps she was deficient.*' 

The folh)wing is given on the same authority, as an im- 
perfect list of Mrs. Scott's works, all published at London, 
without ber name, and one with a fictitious name, 1. *'The 
History of Cornelia," a novel, 1750, l2mo. 2. '^ A Jour* 
ney through every stage of Life," 1754, 2 vols. 12mo. 3. 
** Agreeable Ugliness ; or, the triumph of the graces," &c. 
1754, 12mo. 4. ^^ The History of Gustavus Ericson, king 
of Sweden, with an introductory history of Sweden, from 
the middle of the twelfth century. By Henry Augustus 
Raymond, esq." 1761, 8vo. 5. " The Histor>' of Meek- 
knburgh," 1762, 8vo. 6. '< A Description of Millenium 
Hall," second edition, 1764, 12mo. 7. *^ The History of 
sir George Ellison," 1776, 2 vols. 12mo. 8. "The test of 
Filial Dutv," 1772, 2 vols. 12mo. 9. " Life of Theodore 
Agrippa b'Aubigne," 1772, 8vo. ' 

SCOTT (Dr. John), a learned English divine, was son 
ef Mr. Thmnas Scott, a substantial grazier, and was born 
in the parish of Cbippingham, in Wiltshire, in 1638. Not 
being intended for a literary profession, be served an ap- 
prenticeship in London, much against his will, for about 
three years ; but, having an inclination as well as talents 
for learning, he quitted his trade and went to Oxford. 
He was admitted a commoner of New Inn in 1657, and 
made a great progress in logic and philosophy ; but left 
the university without taking a degree, and being ordained, 
came to London, where be officiated in the perpetual cu- 
racy of Trinity in the Minories, and as minister of St. 
Thomas's in Soutbwark. In 1677 he was presented to the 
rectory of St. Peter Le Poor ; and was collated to a prebend 
in St Paul's cathedral in 1684. In 1685 he accumulated 
the degrees of bachelor and doctor in divinity, having be- 

1 fidtton's Dirtionary, new fdit. — Censura Literaria, volt. I. and II — Sbcf* 
field's Ufe of Gibbot!.— Geut. Mag. vol. LXVIU. aadLXXV. wbare are mum •( 
AUa. Scoit'tf leiters. 



SCOTT. 275 

fore taken iro degree in any othef ikculty. In 1691 be 
succeeded Sharp, afterwards archbishop of York, in tba^ 
rectory of St. Giles in the Fields ; and the same year was 
made canon of Windsor. Wood says that '^ be mifjrht soon 
ba\*e been a bishop, had not some scruples hindered him ," 
and Hickes has told us that he refused the bishopric of 
Chester, because he could not tal^e the oath of homage; 
and afterwards another bishopric, the deanery of Wor-< 
Cester, and a prebend of the church of Windsor, because- 
they were ail places of deprived men.* This, however, 
Dn Isham attributes entirely to his growing in&rmities. 
He died in 1694, and was buried in St. Giles's church : bis 
funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Isham, and afterwards 
printed in 1695. In this sermon we are told that *^ be had 
many virtues in him of no ordinary growth : piety towards 
God; kindness, friendship, affability, sincerity, towardi 
men; zeal and constancy in the discharge of the pastoral 
office ; and, in a word, all those graces and virtues which 
make the good Christian and the good man." When po- 
pery was encroaching under Charles IL and James II. he was 
Ofie bf those champions who opposed it with great warmtb 
arvd courage, particularly in the dedication of a sermon 
preached at Guildhall chapel, Nov. 5, 16S3, to sir Wil- 
tiam Hooker, lord-mayor of London, where he declares 
that ^ Domitian and Dioclesian were but puny perseca* 
tora and bungW rs in cruelty, compared with the infal- 
lible cut-throats of the a{)ostolical chair.'' 

This divine wrote an excellent work, Called " The Chris- 
tian Life,*' which has been often printed, and much read* 
The Unt pan was published 1681, in 8vo, with this title, - 
^ The dhristian Life, frotti its beginning to its consumma- 
tion' in glory, together with -the several means and instru- 
ments of Christianity conducing thet^unto, with directions 
for private devotion and forms of prayer, fitted to the se- 
veral states of Christians ;" in 1685, another \)art, " whereia 
the fundamental principlcis of Christian duty are assigned, 
explained, and proved ;^' in 1686, another part, " whereia 
Ihe doctrine of our Saviour's mediation is explained and 
proved.'* To these volumes of the *• Christian Life" the 
ploufl author intended a continuation, bad not long infir*' 
mity, and afterwaf^ds 'death, prevented him. This work is 
itot now much read, although the ninth edition was pub- 
lished in 1729. Mr. Orton, in his " Letters to young Mi- 
nisters," seems to recommend the first volume only. 

T.2 



27^ SCOTT. 

Dr. Seott published two pieces agaiost the papists : f .. 
'^ Examination of Bellarmiiie^s eighth note concerning sanc« 
tfty of doctrine.'* 2. ** The texts examined, which papista 
cite OQt of the Bible concerning prayer in an unknown 
tongue.*' Both these pieces were printed together, Oct. 
1688, while king James was upon the throne. He wrote 
ako ^* Certain Cases of Conscience resolved, concerning the 
lawfulness of joining with forms of prayer in public wor- 
ship,*' 1683, in two parts; which were both reprinted, and 
inserted in the second rolume of a work entitled *' A col- 
lection of Cases and other Discourses lately written to re« 
coyer Dissenters to the Communion of the Church of £ng« 
land,** 1685, 4to. His whole works, incliiding sermons, 
&c. were published in 2 vols. fol. 1704. ' 

SCOTT (John), a poet of considerable genius, and a 
very amiable man, i^as the youngest son of Samuel and 
Martha Scott, and was born January 9, 1730, in the Grange- 
Walk, in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey. 
His father was a draper and citizen of London, a man of. 
phin and irreproachable manners, and one of the.society 
of the people called 4)ttaker8, in which persuasion our poet 
waa educated, and continued during the whole of his life, 
although not with the strictest attention to all- the pecu* 
liarities of that sect. In the seventh year of bis age he waa 
put under the tuition of one John Clarke, a native of Scot* 
iand, who kept a school in Bermondsey-street, attended 
young Scott at his father's house, aiid instructed him in the 
rudiments of the Latin tongue. In bis tenth year his father 
netired with his family, consisting of Mrs. Scott and two- 
sooa, to the village of Amwell m Hertfordshire, where, for 
some time, he carried on the malting trade. Here our 
poet was sent to a private day-school, in which- he is said 
to have had few opportunities of police literature, and those 
few were declined by his father from a dread of the small^ 
pox, whieb neither he nor his. son had yet caught- Thi» 
terror^ perpetually recurring as the disorder made its ap« 
pearance in one quarter or another, occasioned such fre- 
quent removak as prevented hia son from the advantages^ 
of regular edueation^. The youth, hpwever, did not neg« 
lect to cultivate bis mind by sucb means as were in his 
power. About the age of seventeeii he discovered an io-. 
cliaation to the study of poetry, with which he combined m 

> Biog. Brit«— ^tb. Oz. rol. it 



SCOTT, «77 

<deligfattn riewrng the appearances of rural aatafe. At 
this time be derived much assistance from the conversatioti 
«nd t>pimons of one Charles Frogley, a person in the burn- 
able station of a bricklayer, but who had improved a natural 
taste for poetry, and arrived at a considerable degree of 
critical discernment. This Mr. Scott thankfully acknow* 
ledged when he had himself attained a4*ank among the wri*^ 
ters of his age/ and could return with interest the praise 
-by which Frogley had cheered his youthful attempts. The* 
only other adviser of his studies, in this sequestered spot, 
was a Mr. John Turner, afterwards a dissenting preacher. 
To him he wi^s introduced in 1753 or 1754, and, on the 
removal of Mr. Turner to London, and afterward« te Col* 
leton in Devonshire, they carried on a friendly- eorre* 
spondence «n mauers of general taste. 

Mr. Scott^s first poetical essays w:ere published in the 
Gentleman^s Magazine, ^* the great receptacle for the ebul- 
litions of youthful genius/* Mr. Hoole, his biographer, 
has not been aMe to discover all the pieces inserted by 
bim in that work, but has reprinted three of them, whiek 
are added to bis works in the late edition of the Eoglisk 
poets. With the taste of the public during his retirement 
at Amwell be could have little acquaintance. He had 
lived here about twenty years, at a distance from any lite* 
rary society or informatien. His reading was chiefly con*- 
fined to books of taste and criticism; buttbe latter at that 
time were not many nor very valuable. In the ancient or 
modem languages it does not appear that he made any 
progress. Mr. Hoole tfaihks be knew very little of Latin, 
aitd bad no knowledge of either French or Italian. Those 
who know of what importance it is to improve genius by 
study, wiU regret that such a man was lefl^ in the pliable 
days of youth, without any acquaintance with the noble 
modelr on which English poets have been formed. They 
will yet more regret, that the cause of this distance from 
literary society, the source of all generous and qsefiil 
emolatton, was a superstitious dread of tlie small-pox, 
already mentioned as obstructing Us early studies, and 
which continued to prevail with bis parents to such a de* 
gree, that although at the distance of only twenty miles, 
jtbeir son -had beewi permitted to visit London but once in 
twenty years^ His chief occupation, when not in a humour 
.to study, was in cultivating a garden, for which he had 



^8 5 C O T T. 

a particular fondness, and at length rendered one 6f the 
.inost attractive objects to the visitors of Amwell. 

About the year 1760, be began to make occasional, 
though cautious and short visits to London ; and in the 
spring of this year, published his '* Four Elegies, De!»crip«- 
tive and Moral," epithets which may be applied to almost 
all his poetry. These were very favourably received, and 
not only praised by the public critics, but received the va- 
luable commendations of Dr. Young, Mrs. Talbot, and 
.Mrs. Carter, who loved poetry, and loved it most when ifi 
conjunction with piety. But for many years he abstained 
from farther publication, determined to put in no claims 
that were not strengthened by the utmost industry and fre- 
quent and careful revisal. This, probably, in some cases 
checked bis enthusiasm, and gave to his longer poems an 
appearance of labour. 

In 1761, during the prevalence of the jstnall-pox at 
Ware, he removed to Sl Margaret^s, a small hamlet about 
two miles distant from Amweli, where, Mr. Hooie informs 
us, he b.ecame first acquainted with him, and saw the 6rst 
aketch of his poem of Amweli, to which be then gave the 
title of '^ A Prospect of .Ware and the Country adjaceftt«^' 
In 1766, he became sensible of th6 many disadvantages h^ 
laboured under by living in continual, dread of the small- 
pox, and had the courage to submit to the operation of 
inoculation, which was successfully performed by the late 
baron Dimsdale. He now visited London more frequently, 
and Mr. Hoote had the satisfaction to introduce him, among 
others, to Dr. Johnson. *^ Notwithstanding the great dif- 
ference of their political .principles, Scott had too much 
love for goodness and- genius, not to be highly gratified in 
«the opportunity of cultivating a friendship with that great 
'exemplar of human virtues, and that great veteran of hu- 
man learning ; while the doctor, with a mind superior to 
the distinction of party, delighted with equal complacency 
in the amiable qualities of Scott, of whom he always spoke 
with feeling regard.*' 

In 1767, he married Sarah Frogley, the~dau|rhter of his 
early friend and adviser Charles Frogley. The bride was, 
.previous to her nuptials, admitted a member of the society 
of quakers. For her father he ever preserved the highest 
respect, and seems to have written his Eleventh Ode with 
a view to relieve the mind of that worthy man from the 



3 C O T T. I7» 

mpprefaeDBion of being neglected by bioi. Tbe connect 
tion be bad formed in his family, bowever, was not of long 
juration. His wife died in childbed in 1768, and tbe same 
year be lost bis father and bis infant- child. For some time 
be was inconsolable, and removed from Amwell, where so 
many objects expited the bitter remembrance of all be held 
^dear, to the bouse of a friend at Upton. Here, when time 
and reflection bad mellowed his grief, be honoured the 
memory of hi^ wife by an elegy in which tenderness and 
love are expressed in the genuine language of nature. As 
be did not wish to make a parade of his private feelings, a 
few copies only of this elegy were given to bis friends, nor 
.would he ever suffer it to be published for sale. It pro* 
cured him the praise of Dr. Hawkesworch, and tbe friend- 
ship of Dr. Langhorne, who, about this time^ bad been 
visited by a similar calamity. His mother, it ought to have 
been mentioned, died in 1766 ; and, in 1769, be lost bis 
friend and correspondent Mr. Turner. 

In November 1770, be married bis second wife, Mary de 
Home, daughter of the late Abraham de Horne: ''a lady 
whose amiable qualities promised him many years of un- 
interrupted happiness.'' During bis visit in London, be 
increased his literary circle of friends by an introduction 
to Mrs. Montagu's parties. Among those who principally 
Jioticed him with respect, were lord Lyttelton, sir William 
.Jones, Mr. Potter, Mr. Mickle, and Dr. Beattie, who paid 
-him a cordial visit at Amwell in 1773, and again in 1781, 
jand became one of bis correspondents. 

Although we have hitherto contemplated our author as a 

student and occasional poet, he rendered himself more 

.Qoospieuotts as one of those reflectors on public affairs 

who employ much of tl^eir time itx endeavouring to be use- 

^fuK Among other subjects, bis attention bad often been 

.called to that glaring defect in human polity, tbe state of 

the poor; and hfiving revolved tbe subject in bis mind, 

with tbe assistance of giany personal inquiries, he published 

in 1773 ^< Observations on tbe present state of tbe paro* 

cbial and vagiunt Poor." It is needless to add, that bis 

advice in this matter was rather approved than followed. 

Some of bis propositions, indeed, were incorporated in 

Mr. Gilbert's Bill, in 17S2 ; but the whole was lost for want 

of parliamentary support. 

In 1776 be published his '^ Amwell,'^ a descriptive poem, 
which be bad long been preparing, and in which be fondly 



JSO SCOTT. 

hoped to immoitalize his favourite village. His biogra^ 
pbcfy however^ has amply demonstrated the imposstbiltty 
of communicating local enthusiasm by any attempt of this 
kind. The reflections occasionally introduced, and the 
historical or encomiastic digressions, are generally selected 
as the mosfr pleasing passages in descriptive poetry ; but all 
that is really descriptivCi all that would remove us from 
the closet to the scene, is a hopeless attempt to do that by 
the pen which -can only be done by the pencil. 

At such intervals as our author could spare, he wrote 
various anonymous pamphlets and essays, on miscellaneous 
subjects, and is said to have appeared among the enemies 
t>f the measures of government who answered Dr. Johnson's 
« Patriot," "'False Alarm," and "Taxation no Tyranny.** 
On the. commencement of the Rowleian controversy, he 
took the part of Cbatterton, and was among the first who 
questioned the authenticity of the poems ascribed to Row* 
ley. This he discussed in some letters inserted in the Gen<> 
tieman's Magazine. Of course he was led to admire the 
wonderful powers of the young impostor, and in his'XXIst 
ode pays a poetical tribute to his memory, in which, with 
others of bis brethren at that time, he censures the unfeel- 
ing rich for depriving their country of a new Shakspeare 
or Milton. 

I'hese, however, were his amusements ; the more valu*- 
able part of his time was devoted to such public business as 
18 ever best conducted by men of his pure and independent 
character. He gave regular attendance at turnpike-meet* 
ings, navigation trusts, and commissions of land tax*, and 
proposed and carried various schemes of local impro\'ement, 
particularly the fine road between Ware and Hertford, and 
-some useful alterations in the streets of Ware. Among his 
neighbours he frequently, by a judicious interference or 
arbitration, checked that spirit of litigation which destroys 
the felicity of a country life. During the meritorious em- 
ployments of his public and .political life, it can only b^ 
imputed to him that in his zeal for the principles he es- 
poused, he sometimes betrayed too great warmth ; and in 

* Wbeo once asked whether he was that an oath and an affirmative are sub- 
in the commission of (he p*:ace» he stnntiully the same, and that the mode 
answrered wHhAut hesitation that his of appeal to the Searcher of hearts is 
principal objection to taking Ahe oath, of little consequence, though he cer- 
was the oflfence which it would give to . tainly preferred the latter. Monthly 
the Society, Hit own opinion was, Review, vol. VII. N. S. p. 237< 



SCOTT. 281 

answering Dr. Johnson^s pamphlets, it has been allowed 
that he made use of expressions which would better become 
those who did not know the worth of that excellent cha- 
racter. 

In 1778, he published a work of great labour and uti« 
lity, entitled ** A Digest of the Highway and general Turn- 
pike lavvs.^' In this compilation, Mr. Hoole informs us, 
all the acts of parliament in force are collected together, 
and placed in one point of view; their contents, are ar- 
ranged under distinct heads, with the addition of many 
notes, and an appendix on the construction and preserva- 
tion of public roads, probably the only scientific treatise on 
the subject A part of this work appeared in 1773, under 
the. title of a '* Digest of the Highway Laws/' In the 
spring of 1782, he published what he had long projected, a 
volume of poetry, including his elegies, Amwell, and a 
great variety of hitherto unpublished pieces. On this vo^ 
iume it is evident he had bestowed great pains, and added 
the decorations of some beautiful engravings. A very fa* 
vourable account was given of the whole of its contents in 
the Montlily Review ; but the Critical having taken some 
personal liberties with the author, hinting that the orna- 
ments were not quite suitable to the plainness and simpli^ 
city of a quaker, Mr. Sco^t thought proper to publish a let- 
ter addressed to the authors of that journal, in which he 
expostulated with them on their conduct, and defended his 
poetry. Every friend, however, must wish he had passed 
over their strictures in silence. His defence. of his poetry 
betrays him into the error of which he complained, and we 
see far more of the conceited egotist than could have been 
supposed to belong to his simple and bumble character. 

After this contest, he began to prepare a work of the 
critical kind. He had been dissatisfied with some of Dr. 
Johnson's Lives of the Poets, and had amassed in the course 
of his own reading and. reflection, a number of observations 
on Denham, Milton, Pope, Dyer, Goldsmith, and Thom- 
son, which he sent to the press, under the title of H Cri- 
tical Essays," hut did not live to publish them. On the 
25th of October 178'i, he accompanied Mrs. Scott to Lon- 
don for the benefit of medical advice for a complaint under 
which she laboured at that time ; but on the 1st of Decem- 
ber, while at his hoiise at Radcliff„ he was attacked by a 
putrid fever, which proved fatal on the 12th of that month, 
and be was interred on the 1 8th in the Quaker burying- 



tM SCOTT. 



giouiKd at Rtddiff. He bad arrived at bis fifty-foortb year, 
and left behind a widow and a daughter, their only cbiid^ 
thcin about six years old. His death was the more lament* 
ed as he was in the vigour of life, and had the prospect of 
aany years of usefulness. ** In his person he was tall and 
'slender, but his limbs were remarkably strong and muscu- 
lar : he was very active, and delighted much in the exer« 
rise of walking ; his countenance was cheerful and ani* 
flsated.^' The portrait prefixed to his works is not a very 
correct likeness, nor was he himself satisfied with it. 

His public and private <;haracter appears to have been in 
every respect worthy of imitation, but what his religious 
opinions were, except that he cherished a general reve* 
Tence for piety, is somewhat doubtful. Professedly, he 
was one of the society called Quakers, but the paper which 
. that society, or some of his relations, thought it necessary 
to publish after his death, seems to intimate that in their 
opinion, and finally in his own, his practice had not in all 
respects been conastent 

His *^ Critical Essays'* were published in 1785 by Mr. 
Hoole, who prefixed a life written with much affection, yet 
^th impartiality. As a poet, Mr. Scott seems to -rank 
«mong those who possess genius in a moderate degree, who 
jplease by short efforts and limited inspirations, but whose 
'talents are better displayed in moral reflection and pathetic 
sentiment than flights of fancy. His <* Elegies,** as they 
mere the first, are among the best of his performances. 
Simplicity appears to have been his general aim, and he 
was of opinion that it was too little studied by modern 
iwriters^ In the '^ Mexican prophecy,*' however, and in 
<^ Serim,*' tbere is a fire and spirit worthy of the highest 
^Khooi. His '^ Amweir* will ever deserve a distinguished 
pAace among descriptive poems, but it is liable to all the 
^objections attached to descriptive poetry. His feeblest 
effort U the ** Essay on Painting,*' a hasty sketch, in which 
be professed himself, and that not in very humble terms, 
to be the rival of Hayley. Upon the whole, however, the 
-^pein of pious and moral reflection, and the benevolence 
and philanthropy which pervade all his poems, will con- 
tinue to make them acceptable to those who rbad to be iin- 
proved, and are of opinion that pleasure is not the sole end 
of poetry.' 

1 Lif« by Mr. Hoole.— EogliUi PoeUi 1810, nev edit. 31 vols. 8to. 



SCOT. 2«» 

SCOT (Michael), of Balwirie, a learned Scotch author 
of the fifteenth century, made the tour of France and Ger- 
many, and was received with some distinction at the court 
of the eaiperor Frederick II. Having travelled enough to 
gratify his cnriosity, he returned to Scotland, and gave 
himself up to study and conteiBplation. He was skilled in 
languages; and, considering the age in which 'he lived^ 
was no nncan proficient in philosophy, mathematics, and 
medicine. He translated iivto Latin from the Arabic, the 
history of animals by the celebrated physician Avicenna. 
He published the whole works of Aristotle, with notes, and 
afiectt'd much to reason on the principles of that great phi- 
losopher. He wrote a book concerning *^ The Secrets of 
Nature,*' and a tract on " The nature of the Sun and Moon," 
in which be shews bis belief in the philosopher's stone. 
He likewise published what he called ^^IMensa Philoso<- 
phica," a treatise replete with astrology and chiromancy. 
:He was much admired in his day, and was even suspected 
of magic, and had Roger Bacon and Cornelius Agrippa 
for bis panegyrists.' 

SCOT (Reynolde), a learned English gentleman, was 
a younger son of sir John Scot, of Scot*s-hall, near Smeeth 
in Kent, where he was probably born ; and, at about seven- 
teen, sent to Hart-ball, in Oxford. He retired to bis native 
country without taking a degree, and settled at Smeeth ; 
and, marrying soon after, gave himself up solely to read-* 
ing, to the perusing of obscure authors, which bad by the 
generality of scholars been neglected, and at times of lei- 
sure to husbandry and gardening. In 1576, be published 
a second edition, for we know nothing of the first, of ^' A 
perfect platform of a Hop*garden,'* &c. in 4to ; and, in 
1584, another work, which shewed the great depth of bia 
researches, and the uncoinmon extent of his learning, en- 
titled " The Discoverie of Witchcraft," &c. reprinted in 
1651, 4to, with this title: <* Scot*s Discovery of Witch- 
craft ; proving the common opinion of witches contracting 
with devils, spirits, familiars, and their power to kill, tor- 
ment, and consume, the bodies of men, women, and chil- 
, dren, or other creatures, by diseases or otherwise, their 
By ing in the air, &c. to be but imaginary erroneous concep- 
tions and novelties. Wherein also the 'practices of witch- 
mongers, conjurors, inchanters, soothsayers, also the de- 

A Eocycl. Britanaicav— Mackenzie's Livei. 



2«4 SCO T. 

lusions of astrology, alcherayy legerdemain, and many other 
things, are opened, that have long Iain hidden, though 
very necessary to be knoyvn for the undeceiving of judges, 
justices, and juries, and for the preservation of. poor peo- 
ple, &c. With a treatise upon the nature of spirits and* 
devils,^' &c. In the preface to the reader he declares, that 
his design in this undertaking, was "first, that the glory 
of God be not so abridged and abased, as to be thrust into 
the hand or lip of a lewd old woman, whereby the work of 
the Creator should be attributed to the power of a crea- 
ture : secondly, that the religion of the gospel may be seen 
to stand without such peevish trumpery : thirdly, that fa- 
vour and Christian compassion be rather used, towards 
these poor souls, than rigour and extremity,'* &c. 

A doctrine of this nature, advanced in an age when the 
reality of witches was so universally believed, that even 
the great bishop Jewel, touching upon the subject in ai 
sermon before queen Elizabeth, could '^ pray God they 
might never practise farther than upon tlie subject,** ex* 
posed the author to every species of obloquy and persecu- 
tion ; and accordingly Voetius, a foreign divine, informs . 
tis in bis " Disput. Theolog.** vol. III. p, 564, though Wood 
says nothing of it, that his book was actually burnt. It 
tvas also opposed, and, as it should seem, by great autho- 
rity too : for, James I. in the preface to his ^* Demono- 
logie/* printed first at Edinburgh in 1597, and afierwards 
' at London in 1603, observes, that he '^ wrote that book 
chiefly against the damnable opinions of Wierus and Scott; 
the latter of whom is not ashamed,*' the king says, *' in 
public print to deny, that there can be such a thing as 
witchcraft, and so maintains the old error of the Sadducees 
in the denying of spirits," an inference which by no means 
follows from Scot's premises. Dr. John Raynolds, in his 
*^ Preelection's upon the Apocrypha,** animadverts on se^ 
. reral passages in Scot's ^* Discovery ;" Meric Cas^ubon 
treats him as an illiterate person; and Mr. Joseph Glanvil, 
one of the greatest advocates for witchcraft, affirms, that 
*^ Mr. Scot doth little but tell odd tales and silly legends, 
which he confutes and laughs at, aud pretends this to be a 
-confutation of the being of witches and apparitions : in all 
which his reasonings are trifling and childish; and, when 
he ventures at philosophy, he is little better than absurd." 
Scot did not livo to see the full effects of his endeavours to 
abate the prejudices of the times, nor could this indeed be 



SCOT. 2S$ 

fke work of a single hand, contending against the king on 
the throne^ many very learned meni alrnost the whole body 
of the people, and what was the last to yield, the statute- 
law of the land. His work, however, was reprinted in 1651, 
4to, and in 1665, folio, with additions, and was translated 
into German. 

This sensible, learned, upright, and pious man (for we 
know that he possessed the two first of these qualities, atid 
he is universally allowed to have had also the two last) died 
in 1599, and was buried aaiong his ancestors in the 
church at Smeetb. ' 

SCOT^ alias ROTHERAM (Thomas), a munificeni 
benefactor to Lincoln college, Oxford, was born at Rothet- 
am, in Yorkshire, from whence he took his namxe, but that 
of bis family appears to have been Scot. He rose by bis 
talents and learning to the highest ranks in church and 
state,, having been successively fellow of King's college^ 
Cambridge, master of Pembroke Hall, chancellor of that 
university, prebendary of Sarum, chaplain to king Edward 
IV. provost of Beverley, keeper of the Privy Seal, secre* 
tary to four kings, bishop of Rochester and Lincoln, arch- 
bishop of York, and lord chancellor. His buildings at 
Cambridge, Whitehall, Southwell, and Thorp, are emineot 
proofs of his magnificent taste and spirit. 

He was promoted to the see of Lincoln in 1471, and we 
learn from his preface to bis body of statutes, that a visit 
through bis diocese, in which Oxford then was, proved the 
occasion of his liberality to Lincoln college. On his ar- 
rival there, in 1474, John Tristroppe, tbe third rector of 
that society, preached the visitation sermon from Psalm 
Ixxi. 14, 15. '' Behold and visit this vine, and the vine* 
yard which thy right band hath planted, &c.*' In this 
discourse, which, as tuual, was delivered in Latin, the 
preacher addressed bis particular requests to the bishop,, 
exhorting hjm to complete his college, now imperfect and 
defective both in buildings and government. Rotheram is 
said to have been so well pleased with the application of 
the text and subject, that he stood up and declared that he 
would do what was desired. Accordingly, besides what be 
contributed to the buildings, he increased the number of 
fellows from seven to twelve, and gave them the livings of 
of Twyford in Buckinghamshire, and Long Combe in 

* Atb. Ox. vol. I. — Oldys*s Librariao* p. 913.-<i-Sec hn epitaph on Sir Thomas 
Scot, io Pcck*i CrvBwtll ColkctioM, p. SS.^G«a« Okt. 



2S6 SCOT. 

Oxfordshire. He formed also in 14'79» a body of stat«te»| 
in which, after noticing with an apparent degree of dis- 
pleasure, that although Oxford was in the diocese of Lin^ 
coin, no college had yet made proi^ision for the natives of 
that diocese, he enjoined that the rector should ' be of the 
diocese of Lincoln or York, and the fellows or scholars 
should be persona born in the dioceses of Dncoln and 
York, and one of Wells, with a preference, as to tlK>se 
from the diocese of York, to his native parish of Kotheram. 
This prelate died in 1500 at Cawood, and was buried in 
the Chapel of Sti Mary, under a marble tomb which be 
had built. ' 

SCOUGAL (Henry), an eminent Scotch divine, and 
second son of Patrick Scougal, bishop of Aberdeen, was 
born June 1650, at Salton, in East Lothian, where bi« 
father, the immediate predecessor of Bishop Bun>et, was 
rector. His fatlier, designing him for the sacred niii'i^try, 
watched over his infant mind with peculiar care, and soon 
had the satisfaction of perceivingtbe most amiably dispo- 
sitions unfold themselves, and his understanding rise at 
once into the vigour of manhood. Relinquishing the 
amusements of youth, young Scougal applied to his studies 
with ardour: and, agreeably to his father^s wish, at an 
early period directed his thoughts to sacred literature. 
He perused the historical parts of the bible with peculia^ 
pleasure, and then began to examine its contents more 
minutely. He was struclc with the peculiarities of the 
Jewish dispensation, and felt an anxiety to understand why 
its rites and ceremonies were abolislied. The nature and 
evidences of the Christian religion also occupied his mind. 
He perused sermons with much attention, committed to 
writing those passages which most affected him, and could 
comprehend and remember their whole scope. Nor was he 
inattentive to polite literature. He read the Roman clas- 
sics, and made considerable proficiency in the Greek,' 
Hebrew, and other oriental lairguages. He was also w^U 
versed in history and mathematics. His diversions were of 
a manly kind. After becoming acquainted with Roman 
bistory, be formed, in concert witlv-some of his companions, 
a little senate, where orations of their own composition were 
delivered. 

At the age of fifteen he entered the university, where 

1 Woo4'i CoiJrget and Hstls.— Chalmers's Bist. of Oxford. 



S C O U G A Li 287 

he behared with great modesty, sobriety, and diligence. 
He disliked the philosophy then taught, and ^applied him- 
self to the study of natural philosophy : and in conse- 
quence of this, when he was only about eighteen years of 
age, he wrote the reflections and short essays since pab- 
lisbed : which, though written in his youth, and some of 
them left unfinished, breathe a demotion, which shows ' 
that his mind was early impressed with the most important 
concerns of'humati life. In all the public meetings of the 
students be was unanimously chosen president, and had a 
singular deference paid to bis judgment. No sooner had 
he finished his courses, than be was promoted to a profes- 
sorship in the university of Aberdeen, where he conscien- 
tiously performed his duty in training up the youth under 
bis care in such principles of religion and learning as might 
render them ornaments to church and state. When any 
divisions and animosities happened in the society, he was 
very instrumental in reconciling and bringing them to a 
good understanding. He maintained his authority among 
the students in such a way as to keep them in awe, and at 
the same time "to gain their love and esteem. Sunday 
evenings were spent with his scholars in discoursing of,^ 
and encouraging religion in principle and practice. He 
allotted a considerable part of his yearly income for the 
poor ; and many indigent families of different persuasions, 
were relieved in their difficulties by bis bounty, although 
io secretly that they knew not whence their supply came. 

Having been a*, professor of philosophy for four years, 
he was at the age of twenty-three admitted into holy orders, 
and settled at Auchterless, a small village about twenty 
miles from Aberdeen. Here his zeal and ability in his 
great Master's service were eminently displayed. He 
catechised with great plainness and affection, and used the 
most endearing methods to recommend religion to his 
bearers. He endeavoured to bring them to a close attend- 
ance on ptsblic worship, and joined with them himself at 
the beginning of it He revived the use of lectures, look- 
ing upon«it as very edifying to comment upon and expound 
large portions of scripture. In the twenty-firth year of his 
age, he was appointed professor of divinity in the King's 
college, Aberdeen, which he at first declined, but when 
induced to accept it, he applied himself with zeal and dili- 
gence to the exercise of this office. After he had guarded 
his pupils against the common artifices of the Romish mis- 



2%S S C O U G A L. 

stonaries in making proselytes, he proposed tnro subjects 
for public exercise : the one, of the pastoral care^ the 
other, of casuistical divinity. 

The inward dispositions of this excellent man are best. 
seen in his writings, to which his pioiu and blameless life 
was wholly conformable. His days, however, were soon 
t numbered: in the twenty-seventh year of his age» he fell 
into a consumption, which wasted him by slow degrees : 
but during the whole time of bis sickness he behaved with 
the utmost resignation, nor did he ever shew the least im- 
patience. He died June 20, 1678, in the twenty-eighth 
year of bis age,- and was buried in King's college church, 
in Old Aberdeen. His principal work is entitled ^^ The 
Life of God in the Soul of Man/* which has undergone 
many editions, and has been thought alike valuable for the 
sublime spirit of piety which it breathes, and for the purity 
and elegance of its style. He left his books to the library 
of his college, and five thousand marks to the office of pro- 
fessor of divinity. He composed a form of morning and 
evening service for the cathedral church of Aberdeen, 
which may be seen in Orem's *^ Description of the Cha- 
nonry of Old Aberdeen,'* printed in No. 3 of the ^* Biblio- 
theca Topographica Britannica.*' His treatise on the 
** Life of God,*' &c. was first printed in his life-time by 
bishop Burnet about 1677, without a name, which the 
author's modesty studiously concealed. It went through 
several subsequent editions, and was patronised by the 
society for promoting Christian knowledge, and was re- 
printed in 1726 with the addition of ** Nine discourses on 
important subjects," by the same author, and bis funeral 
sermon, by Dr. G. G. * 

SCRIBONIUS (tjiROUs), a Roman physician, lived in 
the, reign of Claudius, and i» said to have accompanied this 
emperor in bis campaign in Britain. He wrote a treatise 
" De Qompositione Medicamentorum," which is very often 
quoted by Galen, but was pilhged by Marcellus the em- 
piric, according to Dr. Freind. At a time when it was the 
practice of many physicians^ to keep their compositions 
secret, Scribonius published his, and expressed great con- 
^ fideiice in their efficacy ; but many of them are trifling, 
and founded in superstition, and his language is so inferior 
to that of his age, that some have supposed be wrote his* 

_ • 

' Bibl. Topof. Britaik-^flnd Encfclop. Britanoica. 



8 C R i B O N 1 U 6. SBf 

jftrofk in Greek, and that it was translated into Liktin by 
iiome later hand : but Freind and others seem of a 
different opinion. The treatise of Scribonius has heeR 
seTeral times reprinted, and stands among the *^ Medico 
Artis Principes*' of Henry Stephens, 1567.^ 

SCRIMZEOR (Henby), one of the noost leamed mei 
of the sixteenth century, was born at Dundee ia Scotlimd^ 
in 1506, and after making great progress in tb.e Greek aoi 
Latin languages at the grammar school of tJiaU place, studied 
bbilosophy at St» Andrew^s university with equal suCQeas^ 
He aftei^wards studied civil law a$ Paris and Bourges. At 
this latter city he became acquainted with the Greek prof^, 
fessor, James Amiot, who recommended him to be tutor to 
two young gentlemen; and this served also tointrodttce him- 
to Bernard Bornetel, bishop of Rennes, a celebrated poUtii* 
cal character, who invited Mr, Scrimzeor to acQompany 
him to Italy. There he became acquainted with the most 
distinguished scholars of the country. The death of th# 
noted Franqis Spira ^ happened during his visit at Padiii^ 
and as the character and conduct of this remarkable peisoa 
at that time engaged the attention of the world. Mi. 
Scrimzeor is said to bi^ve collected memoirs of him, whicl|^ 
however, does not appear in the catalogue of his works* 

After he had stored his mind with the literature of foreign 
countries, and satisfied his curiosity as a traveller^ it was 
his intention to have revisited Scotland; but, on his jour- 
ney iiomeward, through Geneva, the syndics and other 
magistrates requested him to set up the profession of phi- 
losopliy in that city ; promising a suitable compensation. 
He accepted the proposal, and established the philosophical 

^PraDCisSpiniwu a lawyer of great, plied. Shortly aftec he fell into a 
vtputation at Cittadalla in ihe Venetian uee^ mslsacholy, loet bit health, and 
State, at ibe beginniof ofthefixteenth vaa remoTed to .Padoa fw tha ad- 
ceotory. He bad imbibed the prin- Tice of pbysioiant and diTinat; bat 
(eipiet of the Reformation, and waa ac- hb disorders augmented. The re- 
cused before John de la Casa> arelu •antationv which he said ho had mad^ 
bishop of Ben^y^Dto, th« pope's nun- from cowardice and interest, ftilad his 
cto atyeDice«'He made some coo- mind withcooilnual horror and remorse, 
cessions, and ashed pardon of the pa- and no Bwaoa being found to restooi 
|>al minister for his errors^ Bui the either his health or gwaee of fluind, hs 
nuncio insisted upon a public recants* fell a victim to bis miserable aitoatiQR 
tion. Spira was exceedingly averse to in 1548.-*Cdllier's Diet. art. Spira. 
this measure I hut at the pressing ia« There hare been manyadilisna of n 
stances of his wife and his friends, who *' Life of Spira'' published in KnglsaJ 
represented to him, that he must lose and Scotlasd, as a '* warning t» iyot". 
Jus practiae and ruin his afFain by tates»" 
l^eniiting against it, ha at last eom- 

t FreuMl*a HiiU of Pbysic.«Sloy Did. Hill. 

Vol. XXVIL U 



jBdO .S C R I M Z E O K. 

chair ; but after he had taught for some time at Getieta, i 
lire'brblie'out in his neighbotirbood, by which bis bonaie 
ivbs< coDsumedy and be himself reduced to great di«tf ess; 

*A4 ibis- time flourished at Augsburg that famous mercantile 
family, the Fuggers. Ulric Fugger, its then repreaenia- 
%ive, a man possessed ef prodigious, weahby and & munifi- 

'^ent patr<m of learned men, having heard of the misfor* 
tune which bad befallen Mr. Scrimzeor, immediateiy sent 
-him a pressing invitation to accept an asylum beneath ,bk 
roof tiU hig affairs could be re-established. Mr. Scrtinaeor, 
gladly availiag bimsel f of socha hospitable kindness, lost no 
^mae in going to Germany. 

WluUt residing at Augsburg with Mr. Fugg^^ be vraa 
«iacb employed ia augmenting his patronU library hf .¥Kst 
#eUactionS| piMroha$ed from erery corner of Europe^' •par- 
lii&ukrly manuscripts of the Greek and Latin author^* ; He 

HaUo eomposed many works of great learning and ingeouitj, 

.'wdhilst be contimied in a situation so peculiarly agreeable 
j|o the-'^ews and habits of a scholar ; and when be Mra^jdd^ 

;eiK>u$ of returning lo Geneva to print ifaem, Fug^er xA- 
4»ommeDded him, for this purpose, to the ?ery. teamed 

tjienry Stephens, one of bis 'pensioners* .> • 

Immediately on bis arrival at Geneva, L563, be^. war 
letroeMly solicited by the magistrates to re^unoe the diair 

4j^ philosophy. With tbb be complied, and notirithsltod- 
tag the dedication of much of his time to the study of pttf^ 
•ics, bet two years afterwards, insi^ituted a course of Jectan^ 
in the civil law, and had the honour of being its first pro- 

.lessor at Geneva, p Beiag now settled here, be tote/ided 
to have printed his various works, but a su^cioo wbich. 
Henry Stephens entertained, that it was bisinteetiQQ to 
eet up a rival press at Geneva,, occasioned great disficntions 
between them. The result of the dispute wap, thut almost 

^ nU 3criQ)ze0r's publications werei posthumoufl. .Am«u>g 
them are critical and explanatory notes upon • Atbensn^^s 
^ Deipnosopbists,*' published by Isaac .'Casa^footi at Ley-^ 
den in 1600, but without distinguishing his own not^fiNmi 
those of Scrimzeor ; also a commentary and ei»endati(^Ds 
of Strabo, whiqh were published in Casauboa'^ editioa of 
that geographer, 1620, but likewise without acknowledging 
the assistance he derived from Scrimzeor, Scrimzeor col- 
lated different manuscripts of all the works of Plutarch, 
probably with a view to an edition of that euthdr, "and also 
the ten booka of Diogenes {.aertius on the lives of the pbi« 



BCRIMZEOK. ti« 

losbpkers. Hift corrected text of this autlior, with Motat 
ftttl of teruditioA, cAine int6 Casanbon's posseMOn, and is 
SQppo^d ti> have Contributed muoh to the vahie of 'fat$ 
'edition of Laertius, prioted at Paris in 1599. The wovkt 
of Ph^mutiM aiifdr Paltephatas were also among' the solu- 
tions of Mf . Sorimisietor. To the latter of these authors' be 
made sach <ronsiderable 'additions that tli6 work became 
'parrtly ilfa own. ' The ttiavmscripts of both' these were for 
^ome cMe pt^erv«d in ^dm iibrarf of sir- Peter Young, aftttr 
that ^- Ms trncle Scrrm^edr, which was brought into Scot-- 
lan4'in t^TSf^ litfd b^ea^d^led to it. What became of this 
Taluabie bequest at the death of the former, is^ not krMwa. 
'^Our lea#Md phildiog^ teft tfl^ behind tnm, in maTioscript, 
the tfratidtts of I>gniM4i€fNei> tfiiobines, atid Cicero^ and tte 
EoclesitMtttai Hhvdfy erfitis^us, AH caiiefeilJy collated; 
mnd aihotig^hitf 4kerary^teTMiym was % coilectloo^of Ms 
Latin 'episties. But of^'cb^' many performance^ which bad 
^ntercbed liis'tpenj 7it does n4t appear ttaat any wer^|>idl« 
lish«dby-b(iMelf btft hi9 translation of " Jostmitfn^^NoMet^* 
into Greek.. ^Tbis^ was printed at P^ris in Id5§, And agtthi 
wftb HofotfiididvSs UtiO' tersi<H) at Antwerp in 15711: This 
work has been highly- extotted both for the parity of lis 
' language and >tfae-'aeeut«icy of its exe^cution* H« W^ote 
also a •LatiTH ttanslation of. '''I'he Basilica,*' tyr Basftte»^>a 
coHectlon: of RomM Laws^ which* lAe Eastern eotperon 
Basil) and Led) who reigned m the fifth ^Mntiirj, com- 
fnartdckl ta be transited into Greets, artd wbicb pfeserfi^d 
their atf thorny tiH the dissolutioh^of tbeEaiUern empfte. 

Almost the whole of his^life, although be artived at old 
age^ was spent in bis library. The time of bis'detfthfs 
«np«e«%aiii}- btt« it appears most likely, frooi a eompatison 
of diflbrent accounts, that ithappetied very near the ex- 
piraitida of.f-57lv or ^at the beginning of the succeeditig 
^ear, about the siaty-sirtb year of hrs age. , He died in the 
city of Geneta.' 

SCRIVERIUS, or SOHRYVER (PeITer), a consider- 
able phitologer and poet, waa born at flarletn in 15-76. 
tie was edaeated at Harlem and at Leyden, where be read 
law in his earty days, but deroted himself afterwards to a 
private and studious life, which ended' April' 90^* 1«60>' in 
the eigbty-^fourtb year of his age. His works are r ^* Ba* 



192 S C R I V E R X U 8. 

tavia illustrata.** ** Batavie oomitoiiiq. omttium Hutoria,** 
^* Miscellanea Philologica*'* *' Carmina Lakioa & Belgica^'^ 
'^ Populare Hollandie Chroiiicon/' '' Collectanea Veie- 
ram Tragicontm.'* He likewise corrected tbe cppj «f' 
** Vegetius^" and enlarged and wrote notes upon A^aUius** 
^ Ciironicon Greldricum ;** and was tbe author '.or editor of 
various other works, classical and historioal.^ 

SCUDERI (Gboros de), a French writer of eminence 
in his day, was descended from an ainnent a»d noble 
family of Apt in Provence, and bom at Havre-de*Gnice 
in 1603. He spent part of his youth at Apt, and iater- ' 
wards came and settled at Paris, where at first he subsisted 
by the efforts of his pen, particularly in poetry, and dra«> 
matic pieces, none of which are now in asy estusnatioo, 
and we may, therefore, be spared the trouble of giving 
their titles. In 1627 be published obserrations upon the 
*< Cid*' of Corneille, with a vifew of making his ^ourt to 
cardinal Riciielieu, who was absurdly envious of that great 
poet, and did every thing he could to oppose tbe vast re* 
putation and success of the *^ Cid :" and. by his influence 
alone enabled even such a man as Scuderi '^ to balance^'* 
at Voltaire says, " for some time, the reputation of Cor-' 
neiile." Scuderi was received a member of the academy 
in 1650. He had before been made governor of the caatle 
of Notre- Dame de la Garde, in Provence; and although 
this was a situation of very little profit, Scuderi, who was 
■till more vain than indigent, gave a pompous description 
of it in a poem, which drew upon him the raillery of Cha-' 
pdle and Bachaumont. Scuderi died at Paris, May 14, 
1667, leaving a name now better known than his wcnrks.* 

SCUDERI (Ma6DEL£inb db), sister of the preceding^ 
and his superior in talents, was born at Havre-de-Grace in 
1607, and became very eminent for her wit and her wri^ 
tings. She went early to Paris, where she gained admia* 
sion into the assemblies of learning and fashion. Having 
recourse, like her brother, to the pen, she gratified tbe taste 
of the age for romances, by various productions of that 
kind, which were very eagerly read, and even procured 
her literary honours. The celebrated academy of the 
Bicovrati at Padua complimented her with a place in their 
society; and some great personages showed their regard 

A Fof^a Bibl Belg.-^Saxii Qoottijiit. 

s Morari.^DicL HiiU— Niccroo, vol. JCV.^oVoltalre'f Sitd* de ha^'ii XIT. 



8 C U D £ B t. f$S 

by presents, and other merks of eateem. The mince of 
Paderboni, bishop of Muoster, sen]; her bis works and a 
medal ; and Christina of Sweden often wrote to her,' set- 
tled on her a pension, aind sent her her picture. Cardinal 
Mazarin left her an annuity by his will : and Lewis XIV. 
in 1683, at the solicitation of M. de Maintenoo, settled 
a good pension upon her, which was punctually paid. 
His Qiajesty also appointed her a special audience to receive 
her acknowledgments, and paid her some very flattering 
coroplimentSt She had an extensive correspondence with 
men of learning and wit : and her house at Paris was the 
rendesvoos of all who would be thought to patronize ge* 
nius. She died in 1701, aged 94; and two churches con- 
Mnded for the honour of possessing her remains, which 
was thought a point of sa much consequenoe, that nothing 
less than the authority of the cardinal de Noailles, to whom 
the aflair was referred, was Sufficient to decide it. She 
was a very volominoss writer as well as her brother, but ef 
more merit ; and it is reii^arkable of this lady, that she ob- 
tained the first prize of eloquence founded by the acade- 
my. There is much common-place panegyric upon her 
in the ^^ Menagiana," from the personal regard Menage 
had for her : but her merits are better settled by Boileau, 
in the '* Discours" prefixed to his dialogue entitled ^^ Les 
Hero des Roman/' Her principal works are,/* Artamene, 
ou le Grand Cyrus," 1650, 10 vols. 8 vo; ♦« Clelie," 1660, 
10 vols. 8vo; ** Celanire, ou la Promenade de Versailles,'* 
1698, 12mo ; <* Ibrahim, ou PlUustre Bassa," 1641, 4 vols. 
8vo; <' Almahide, ou TEsclave Reine," 1660, 8vols. 8vo; 
*• Celine,'' 1661, 8vo; <• Mathilde d'Aguilar," 1667, 8vo; 
^* Conversations et Entretiens," IQ vols. &c. These last 
conversations are thought the best of Mad. Scuderi's works, 
but there was a time when English translations of her prolix 
romances were read. What recommended them to the 
French public was the traits of living characters which she 
occasionally introduced. ^ 

SCULTETUS (Abraham), an eminent protestant di- 
vine, was born at Gruniberg in Silesia, Aug. 24, 1556, and 
after having studied there till 1582, was sent to Qreslaw to 
continue his progress in the sciences. He was reealled 
soon after, his father, who had lost all his fortune in the 
^re of Grunberg, being no longer able to maintain him at 



2dV S C U LT KTU^. 

tfae'cdfteg^'and tiberefore intendhig t^ htmg hin tip^'t^^ 
sobie trade. The young man was not at ^U'ipleased with 
sticb a proposal ; and look-out for the pla^e of a *tuior, 
Whicfh he found in the fiatniiy of a burgomaster of Frmtatl^^ 
and thn gave 4iim an opportunity of hearing* the feevmonft tff 
Melancthon and of Abraham Bucholtaer. >n I5S4 he 
took a journey hito Poland; and went to Gorlits in Losatia 
the year follovnng, and resided there abor^ twa y^ars^ 
constantly attending the pilbiie lectures^ and reading ptik' 
▼ate lectures to others. He employed faimself^in the aame 
manner inthe univewity of Wittcnaberp in 1588 and fM9^ 
and afterwards in tliatof Heidelberg tril he was adntftied 
itito the charch in 1594. He'offijclated in a village of tb^ 
palatinate for some months; after which he 'was-sest for 
by the elector palatine to i>e one of his preachers, in 
1598 he was appointed pastor of the* <!huroh 6f ^8t: Pranefe 
tft Heidelberg, and two 3rears after was made ft member ot 
the ecclesiastical senate. He was employed ^^everai times 
in visUing the churches and schools of the palatinate,* 
and among those avocations wrote some works, which re- 
quired great labour. He attended the prince of Anhalt to 
the war at Juliers in 16 10, and applied himself with ^reat 
|>rudence and vigilance to the re«£entIementof the aifiLifsrof 
the reformed church in those parts. He attended fnsM 
deric V« prince palatine into England in- i612, and^cdn^ 
Mieted an acquaintance with :th6 most learned men oft'th^ 
lingdomi but Wood speaks of bis having* nesided'isoon^ 
time -at Oxford- in 15^8. He took a journey to< BtidiiJeHA. 
burg in 1614, the elector John Sigismoad, who vos abeM 
renouneing Lutheranistn^ being desmous ef ospeertinf;' 
aaeasures with him with respect tu tliat cfaanrge:;' addion-lna 
return' to Heidelberg he accepted the place of emrt*} 
pnsacbei^, which he relinqiitahed when- appointed prc»- 
iessor of divinity in 1618* He was deputed aeon aAcp^«» 
the synod of Dort, where he endeavoured at first to pro* 
cure a reconciliation of the contending parties ; but fittdiei^ 
nothing of that kind was to be expected, be opposed vi* 
gorousty the doctrines of the Arminians. He preached at 
Francfort the year following during the electorid diet held 
there, his master having appointed him preacher to the 
deputies whom be sent thither. He also attended that 
prince in- his joum^ into Bohemia; and retiring iuto Sile- 
sia after the fatal battle of Prague, resolved to return to 
Heidelberg in order to' discbarge the fbnctions of his pro* 



S C iJ'L T t T U a •»« 

ifisorship liiere ; but the fiary of the w«r having disperied 
ib^ AUideals, be went to Bcetten, and afterwaids to. Scborn« 
dorf in the country of Wirtemberg, whence be reiDO?ed to 
£i»bdeB in August 1622. The king of Bohemia faisiDas*- 
ter h%A oonsented that the city of Embden should offer 
Scttitetns the place of preacher, hot he did sot enjoy it 
very loog; for be died October the 24'th| 1625. 

The principal works of this learned divine* who, as Fi^e-* 
her sa^s, wa« rec:koned another Cbryaostoui^ are, i« *^ Con* 
£uutk> disputationis Barooii de' bapiisaio ConstantioV 
Neost. 16P7, 4to« 2. ^^ Annates Evangelii per Europam 
15 Seeuli renpvaii, Deead. 1 et SS/' Heidelberg, 1648, 8vo. 
la these annak.of the reformation be has shown himself » a- 
very oandid and credible historiao^ 3. '< Axiomata con-» 
cienaodi/* Han. 1619, 8vo. 4. '* Obsenrationes in Pauli 
£pistolas ad Timotbeum, Titum, et Philemonem." 5. ^ Me^ 
dulla Pattuip," 1634, 4to. So indefatigable was bis apr^ 
plication, Jtbat he wrote the following linea over his stndj 

Amice; quiafub hue veiiis» 
Aut agito paucis^ aut abi : , 
Aut^me laboiantem adjuva. ^ 

SCULTETU8, or SCULTZ (John), a distinguished 
Mtfgeon^ was born in 1595, at Ulm, and studied •oaediciDer 
at'Padua, where he took bis degrees in that faculty in 1621*. 
On> his neturn to his native city, he practised with grea% 
reputation for twenty years^ until being called to Stutgar^ 
toa patient, he was there attacked with a fit of apoplesiy^ 
vhscb terminated his life December 1, 1645. He app$ar4 
to haive I practised aurgery extensively, and with great bold'* 
■ela in the operations of bronehotomyi of %ht trephine, and 
fov empyema. His prinoipal work is entitted ^ Armamen* 
tarion» CiHrurgicom, 43 tabulia aore inoisis omatum ;" audi 
was published afierhis deaths ^ at Ulm, in 1653. * Itsubdcw 
queotly pasaied through many editions, and Wsa translated 
iolo oMst of the European languages.' 

• SCYLAX, an. ancient nsathematiciah and geographeiv 
was a native of Caryaoda, iA C4ria, and is noticed by He* 
lodotus^ and i>y Suidas, who> however, has evidently oon» 
founded different persons of the aame name. There is ^ 
Beripl^g whtidi still reaoainsi bearing the naeae of Seylw^ 
and which is a brief survey of the^'couo tries along the aboret 

1 f rehcri Thftatnua^-r-ets. Pkt. . • Kloy Diet. BUt 4t M«4icmt«. . 



«9t text AX, 

of the Meditemtnaiiii and Euzine seasi together' with pail 
of the western coast of Africa surveyed by Haono ; but it 
seems doubtfal to what Scylax it betongs. This Periplm 
has come down to us in a corrupted state : it was first pob- 
lished from a palatine MS by Hoescbeiius and others hi 
1600. It was afterwards edited by Isaac Vossius in 1631^ | 
by Hudson in 1698, and by Gronoyius in 1700.1 

SCYLITZA, or SCYLITZES (John), called also Cu- 
KOPALATESy from an office he held in the household of the 
emperor of that name, was a Greek historian, known for 
bis abridgment of history from the death of Nicephorus 
LiOgothetesi in Sll, to the deposition of Niqephorus Boto* 
niates, in 1081. This history, from 1067, is the sameaa 
that of Cedrenus, which haa raised a doubt whether Cedre* 
nus.or Scylitza was the original author. Scylitza is thought 
|o have been a native of Lesser Asia, and a prefect of the 
guards before he attained the dignity, of curopabtes. A 
Latin translation of his history entire, was published at Ver 
nice in 1570; and the part concerning which there is no 
^iispute.was printed in Greek and Latin conjointly with that 
author, at Paris, in 1647.' 

SEBA (Albert), an apothecary of Amsterdam, who died 
in. i 736, prepared » splendid description, with plates, of 
l^s own museum, in four large folio volumes, which came 
put between 1734 and 1765. Hia three latter volumes weie 
ppsthumous publications. Many Cape plants are here en« 
graved, and amongst them one of the genes Sebea^ so called 
in honour of him. Yet Seba does not deserve to rank as a 
scientific botanist ; nor did LinnsBUs, who knew him, aa4 
by whose recommendation he employed Artedi to arrange 
^is fisheS) ever think him worthy to be commemorated in % 

Senus* Ify however^ we compare him with numbers who 
ave been so commemorated, he will not appear to so mucl| 
disadvantage ; for as a collector he stands rather high.* 
SEBASTIAN, SeePIOMBO. 
SECKENDORF (Vitus Loyis ds), a very learned Ger- 

CaU) was descended from ancient and noble families ; and 
>ru at Aurach, a town of Franconia» Dec. 20, 1626. He 
made good use of a liberal education, and was not only n 
master of the French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languagei^ 
)>u( had also some skill in mathematics and the sciences, 

'I Mr. Dewhunt in Atbeaeam, vol. IV. 
.9 Voitias de Hitt Grsc-^^ftye, yol. IL— Fabric. BibL Gnic* 
f Eeei*s Cyclopedia, 



8 £ O K £ N O R p. ISt 

^nst grdttt pmgress he made in his ^outi <iofnftlf tD dltf^MVi 
of Ernest the pious, duke of Snxe-Gotthiy this prince scMt 
for him ffom Cobourg, where be tbeh was, to beaddcftted 
with his children. After remaining two years at Gotha, h^ 
went, in 1642, tp Strasburg; but returned to Gotha id 
.)646, and was made honorary librarian to the duke. lu 
1651, he was m&de auHc and ecclesiastical counsellor; 
and, in 1663, a counsellor of state, first minister, and 
sovereign director of the consistory. The year after, he 
went into the service of Maurice, dtike of Saxe«>Zefi1^ on 
counsellor of state and chancellor ; and was no less regarded 
by this new master than he had been by the duke of Saxe- 
Gotha. He continued with him till his death, which hap* 
pened in 1681; and then preferred a life of retirement^ 
during which he composed a greatt many works ; but Fre* 
deric III. elector of Brandenburg, again brought him itM 
public life, and made him a counsellor of state and chancellor 
of the piniversity of Halle, dignities which he did not enjor 
long, for he died at Halle Dec. 18, 1692, In the sixty-sixm 
year of his age. He was twice married, but had only on« 
son, who survived him. Besides his knowledge of language^ 
he was learned in law, history, divinity ; and is also said to 
have been a tolerable piiinter and engraver. Of his nume« 
roas writings, that in most estimation for its utility, waft 
published at Francfort, 1692, 2 vols, folio, usually bouad 
up in one, with the title, ^< Commentarius HistoriCus fc 
Apologeticus de Lutheranismo, sivede Reformatione Reli^ 
gionis ductu D. Martini Lutheri in magna Germania, aliis« 
que regionibus, & speciatim in Saxonia, recepta & stabi* 
kta,*' &c. This work, which is very valuable on many*ac- 
fBounts, and particularly curious for several singular piece* 
and extracts that are to be found in it, still holds its repu^ 
jtation, and is referred to by all writers on the reformation^* 
SECKEIl (Thomas), an eminent English prelate, waa 
born in 1693, at a small village called Sibthorpe, in the 
vale of Belvoir, Nottinghamshire. His father was a Protes* 
tant dissenter, a piou^, virtuous, and sensible man, who^ 
having a small paternal fortune, followed no profession* 
His mother was the daughter of Mr. George Brough, of 
Sbelton, in the county of Nottingham, a substantial gen- 
tleman farmer. He received his education at several pri* 
irate schools in the country, being obliged by varioua acci« 

i VicsroDi vol, X)^lX.«-rMoreri.— >9siii Owmu^ 



MS 8 E C K E R. 

dents to cbange bis ' masters fteqaently ; y^ at] the age of 
BAneteen be bad not only made a considerable progress ia 
Greek and Latin, and read the bast and most difficult 
writers in both languages, but had acquired a knowledge 
of French^ Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac, bad iearn^ 
geography, logic, algebra, 'geometry^ conic sections, and* 
gone through a course of lectures on Jewish antiqui^es^ 
and other points preparatory to the study of the Bible. ^ 
the same time, in one or other of these academies, hp had^; 
an opportunity of forming an acquaintance with sever;B4. 
persons of great abilities. Among the rest, in the academy^ 
of Mr. Jones at Tewkesbury, he laid the fouudatipp of ^ ' 
iirict fjuendsbip with Mr. Joseph Butler^ a£t)erwaf:ds l^bop. 
of Durham^ 

. Mn Seeker' bad been designed by his father for prder^ 
among the dissenters* With this' view, his studies were 
directed chiefly, aad very assiduously, to divipity, b^i no^ 
being able to decide uppn certain doctrine^, or detei;mii^ 
absolutely what communion he should embrace, he |resoJU«ed; 
to pursue some profess^ion, whicb should leave him ^t^bertjy 
to weigh these things more maturely jo his thoughts^, fin^ 
therefore, about the end of 171^, he applied, l^iffi^lf t4>. 
the. study of physic, both at Londoo and Paris., 'Puriifg;, 
his «tay at Paris, he kept up a constan^t, correspoi^lenc/^ 
with Mr. Butler, who was now preacher at the Rqlls, Ildi^/ 
l9utler took occasion to mention his friend. Mr« Se^Ke^r* 
without his knowledge, to Mr. £dward Tulbot, who prp^/ 
mised, in case he chose to take orders in the church, of. 
England, to engage the bishop, his father, to provide £pr 
bim. This was communicated to Mr. Seeker, iua^it^r, 
^bout the beginning of May 1720. He had not at. that, 
time come to any resolution of quitting the study ^fp^y^iq^ 
but he began to foresee many obstacles to his puraying tt^a|( 
profession: and having never discontinued his appUcatJioa 
to theology, his former difficulties, both with regard to coj^** 
formity, and so.me other doubtful poiMts, had gra^oaliy 
lessened, as his judgment became stronger^ and bis reading 
and knowledge more extensive. It appears iklso from two 
of his letters from Paris, both of them prior to gthe.d^t^ol 
Mr. Butler's communication above mentioned, that he was 
greatly dissatisfied with the divisions and di^iturbances which 
at that particular period prevailed amoog the dissenters.- 
In this state of mind Mr. Butler's unespecte;d proposal 
found bim, and after deliberating carefolly on the subjept 



S E C K E .R. 499 

9f such 1 dhange for upwards of two months?, he ref^olred 
to' embrace the offer, and for that purpose quitted France 
about July 1720. 

Mr. Talbot died a few months after his arrival in England, 
but not withonc recommending Mr. Seeker, Mr. Benson^ 
and Mr. Butler, to his father^s notice. Mr. Seeker having, 
notwithstanding this loss, determined to persevere in his 
new plan, and it being judged necessary by his friends that 
be should have a degree at Oxford, and he being informed 
that if he should previously take the degree of doctor in 
physic at Leyden, it would probably help him in obtaining 
the other» he went thither for that purpose, and took his 
degree at Leyden, March 7, 1721, and as a thesis wrote 
and printed a disseHation de rnedicina statica. On his re- 
turn, he entered himself, April 1, a gentleman commoner 
of Exeter college, Oxford, about a year after which he 
obtained the degree of B. A. without any difficulty, in con« 
iequence of at recommendatory letter from the chancellor. 
In Dec. 1722, bishop Talbot ordained him deacon, and not 
long after priest in St. Jameses church, where he preached 
his first sermon, March 28^ 1723. In 1724, the bishop 
gave him the rectory of Houghton le Spring,, and this va- 
luable Kving enabling him to settle in the world, in a man- 
ner agreeably to his inclinations, he married Oct. 23, 1725, 
Miss Catherine Benson, sister to bishop Benson. At the 
earnest desire of both, Mrs. Talbot, widow to his friend 
Mr. Edward TaSbot, and her daughter, consented to live 
with tbem, and the two families from that time became 
one. ' 

At Houghton Mr. Seeker applied himself with alacrity to 
all the duties of a country clergyman, omitting nothing 
which be thought could be of use to his flock. He brought 
down his conversation and his sermons to the level of their 
understandings ; visited theni in priTate, catechised the 
young artti* igrtorant, received his country neighbours and 
tenants kindly and hospitably, and was of great service to 
the pobr^ sort by his skill in physic, which was the only 
i|se he ever made of it. Though this place was in a very 
remote part of the world, yet the solitude of it perfectly 
atiited his studious disposition, and the income arising from 
it bounded his ambition. Here he would have been con- 
tent to lite and die : here, as he has often been heard to 
declare, he spdnt some of the happiest hours of bis life : 
and It was no thought or choice of bis own that removed 



500 S E C K E R. 

bim to a higher and more public sphere. But Mrs. Seeker's 
health, which was thought to have been injured by the 
dampness of the ;iituation, obliged him to think of exchang- 
ing it for a more healthy one. On this account he procured 
an exchange of Houghton for a prebend of Durham, and 
the rectory of Ry ton, in 1727; and for the two following 
years he lived chiefly at Durham, going *over every week 
to officiate at Ryton, and spending there two or three 
months together in the summer. In July 1732, the duke 
of Grafton, then lord chamberlain, appointed him chap* 
Iain to the king. For this favour he was indebted to bishop 
Sherlocky who having heard him preach at Bath, thought 
his abilities worthy of being brought forward into public 
notice. From that time an intimacy commenced. betwixt 
them, and he received from that prelate many solid proofs 
of esteem and friendship. This preferment produced him 
also the honour of a conversation with queen Caroline. Mr. 
Seeker's character was now so well established, that on the 
resignation of Dr. Tyrwhit, he was instituted to the rectory 
of St. James's, May 18, 1733, and in tiie beginning of July 
went to Oxford to take his degree of doctor of laws, not 
being of sufficient standing for that of divinity. On this 
occasion he preached his celebrated Act sermon, on the 
advantages and duties of academical education, which was 
printed at the desire of the heads of houses, and quickly 
passed through several editions. The queen, in a subset 
quent interview, expressed her high opinion of th\^ sermon, 
which was also thought to have contributed no.t a little to 
his promotion to thd bishopric of Bristol, to which he was 
consecrated Jan. 19, 1735. 

Dr. Seeker immediately set about the visitation of his dio- 
e^se, confirmed in a great many places, preached in several 
churches, sometimes twice a day, and from the information 
received in his progress, laid the foundation of a parochial 
account of his diocese, for the benefit of his successors. 
Finding at the same time^ the affairs of his parish of St. 
James's in great disorder, he took the trouble, in concert 
with a few others, to put the accounts of the several officers 
into a regular method. He also drew up for the use of his 
parishioners that course of " Lectures on the Church Cate- 
chism," which have since been so often reprinted. ''The 
sermons," says bishop Porteus, <' which he set himself to 
compose were truly excellent and original. His faculties 
^ere now in their full vigour, and be had an audience t(| 



p E C K S R» 801 

•peak before that rendered the utmoit exertion of tlieoi ne-. 
cessary. He did not, however, seek to gratifj the higher 
part by amusing them with refined speculations or ingaoi- 
ous essays, unintelligible to the lower part, and unpvofita-» 
ble to both ; but b,e laid before tbeoi all, with equal ftieedoA 
and plainness, the great Christian duties belonging to their 
respective stations, and reproved the follies and vices 0f 
every rank amongst them without distinction or palliation.'* 
He was certainly one of the most popular preachers of bii 
time, and though, as his biographer observes, bis sermona 
may not now afford the same pleasure, or produce the same 
effects in the closet, as they did from the pulpit, accompa- 
nted as they then were with all the advantaees of bia deli- 
very, yet it will plainly appear that the applause they met 
with was founded no less on the matter they contained, 
than the manner in which they were spoken. 

On the translation of Dr. Potter to the archbishopric of 
Canterbury, Dr. Seeker was translated to the bishopric of 
Oxford, in May 1737. When the unfortunate breach hap- 
pened between the late king and the prince of Wales, Jhw 
highness, having removed to Norfolk-bouse, in the paridi 
of St. James's, attended divine service constantly at that 
church. Two stories are told of this matter, which, air 
though without much foundation, served to amuse the pub^ 
Lie for a while. The. one was, that the firat time the prince 
made his appearance at church, the clerk in orders, Mr. 
Bonney, began the service with the sentence, '^I will arise 
and go to my father,*' &c. — The other, that Dr. Seeker 
preached from the text, ^^ Honour thy father and thy mo- 
ther,'^ &c. — Dr. Seeker had the honour of bapiiziug all hia 
highnesses children except two, and though he did not at* 
tend his court, which was forbidden to those who went ta 
the king's, yet on every proper occasion be behaved with 
all the submission and respect due to bis illustrious rank* 
In con&equepce of this, his infiuence with the prince being 
supposed much greater than it really was, he was sent, by 
the kingV direction, with a message to his royal highness | 
which not producing the effects expected from it, he had 
the oiisfortune to incur bis majesty's displeasure, who had 
been unhappily persuaded to think that he might have done 
more with the prince than he did, though indeed be could 
not For this reason, and because he sometimes acted 
with those who opposed the court, the king did not speak 
to him for a great nuinber of years. The whole of Dp, 



SOS . S E C K E R. 

Secker^s parliamentary conduct appears to bare been *loya1^ 
manly, and independent. His circular letter to his clergy; 
and bis sermon on the subject of the rebellion in 1745, rank 
among the best and most efficacious documents of the kind 
which that melancholy event produced. In the spring of 
1748 his wife died, to whom he had now been narried up^ 
wards of twenty years. 

In December 1750, -he was promojted to the deanery of 
8t. Faults, in exchange for the rectory of St. Jamt»*s and 
the prebend of Durham. Hairing now more leisure beth to 
prosecute his own stuiHes, and to encourage those of othec^ 
he gave Dr. Church considerable assistance in his '^firat 
an4 second Vindication of the Miraculous powers,^' against 
Dr. Middleton, and in his *' Analysts of Lord Bolingbroke*s 
Works/* which appeared a few years afterwards. He like* 
wise assisted archdeacon Sharpe in his controversy with the 
Hotcbinsonians, which was carried on to the end of the 
year 1755. * 

During the whole time that he was dean of St. Paul's, be 
attended divine service constantly in that cathedral twice 
every day, whether in residence or not ;, and in concert 
with the three other resideotiaries, established the custom 
of always preaching their own turns iu the afternoon, or 
exchanging with each other only, which, excepting tbe case 
of illness, or extraordinary accidents, was very punctually 
observed. He also introduced many salutary regulations in 
the financial concerns of the church, the keeping of the re^ 
gisters, &c. &c. In the summer months he resided con«- 
ttantly at his episcopal house at Cuddesden, the vioinityof 
which to Oxford rendered it very pleasing to a man of his 
literary turn. His house was the resort of those wko were 
most distinguished for academical merits and his coev^caa* 
lion such as was Worthy of his guests, who always left biai 
with a high esteem of his understanding and learning. And 
tbough in the warm contest in 1754, for representatives of 
the county (in which it was scarce possible for any person 
of eminence to remain neuter), be openly espoused that side 
which was thought most favourable to the principles of the 
revolution ; yet it was without bitterness or veheoaenoe, 
without ever departing from the decency of his profession^ 
tbe dignity of bis station, or the charity prescribed by his 
ieligion; 

His conduct as a prelate was in the strictest sense of the 
word, esemplary. In his charges, he enjoined no duty. 



(ft E C K E R. 90S 

• • ^ 

tni itnposed no burthen, on those under his jurtsActioift 
which he bad not formerly undergone, or was not still ready, 
JM far as became him, to undergo. He preached constant- 
]jr in bis church at Cuddesden every Sunday morning, and 
Vead a lecture on the catechism in the evening ; (both which 
he continued to do in Lambeth chapel after be became 
archbishop) and jn every other respect, within his own pro- 
|>eT department, was himself that devout, discreet, disin- 
kcBCstcdy laborious, conscientious pastor, which he wished 
imd-eicborted every clergyman in his diocese to become. 
At length such distinguished merit prevailed over all the 
{political obstacles to his advancement ; and on the death of 
arohbishop Hutton, he was appointed by the king to sue* 
cedd him in the diocese of .Canterbury, and was accordingly 
eonfirmed at Bow-church on April 21, 1758. The use b€ 
made of this dignity very clearly shewed that rank, and 
wealth, and power, had in no other light any charms for 
faim, than as they enlarged the sphere of his active and 
industrious bedevolencei 

In little more than two years after his grace's promotion 
to the see of Canterbory, died the late George^ IL Of 
4rhat passed oh tha|^ occasion, and of the form observed ia 
proclaiming our present sovereign (in which the archbishop 
4>f course took the lead), his grace has left am account in 
iPtriting. He did the same with regard to the subsequent cere- 
toioniala bf marrying and crowning their present migestie3, 
whieh in consequence of his station he had the honour td 
acdemoijce, and in which he found a great want of proper 
l^recedents and directions. He had before, when rector of 
Sc Jame8(^s, baptized the new king (who was born in Nor* 
fettc-boDse, in that parish) and he was afterwards called 
aipon to performr the same office for the greatest part of h^s 
enajes^'s children ; a remarkable, and perhaps unexampled 
leoncurrenee of such incidents in the life of one man* 
' As srchbi«hop of Canterbury, Dr. Seeker considered 
iiimself as the Batoral guardian, not only of that church 
'over which be pnesided, but of learning, virtue, and reli- 
gion at llnrge;' and, from the eminence on which he was^ 
placed, looked iDund with a watchful eye on every thing 
that concerned' them, embracing readily all opportuaitiea 
to promote Am interests, and opposing, as far as he wat 
able, all attempts to injure them. Men of real genius oir 
«ttensive knowledge, he sought out and encouraged. Even 
Itboie of huAbfer talents^ provided their industiy was great, 



so* S e C it B & 

l»d ifceir inlMlWM goeid# h^ tcwuid ^Hk IwMtitai ^itd 
iBaodefloeotiiMi. Both yorta.ba vpomld (roqo^ntly employ.' in 
«Ad«iBta4tQg»./6iAiit«d to tbeir.xQippoUw abilitidSy Mil re* 
Wirdod ibMdiUi iv«y« wU«(l to their retpecuve wanu^- £[• 
iMit/bed Abevi with •book^ promoted subsKiuptioos to their 
vockfl^ QMtribtiled Imsely to them hiimelf^ .uiked with 
tboQi om tbcir p|»r«to oonoonis, .oatei^d^ warmly into their 
iotoroi^» uAod hin omdit for thom with the gr«at, ai^d gave 
Ahem pMfimaaiita of hia l>wo> He experuLed upwarda of 
30(U. im arraof tog and ifoproYing xbe MS lihsary .at Laaifi 
beihft. And • faevieg oi^aervo4 with ^onoetot that the Ubmiy 
of priAled books io- thu^ piJv^e.hiMl received oo acceicboe 
einoe the tioM of arcliifei«bQ# Teni«am he wade it hia btt> 
finess to.eeUeet bookie 'm all lapguagea fnoia. eaOil. parte of 
Serof e^ at a Tery gxea^ exppo^,. wMb » ^m pf fiupplyiug 
that (^Miaei I niiicb ^ ^ecord^ogly didy by iea^iog i^ien. to 
Ibo Ubcary at bis dea^U ... .^ 

. Jkll designs aod ]Mlitt4i«»% tbat tooded to advaoM gotti 
morals aod true religioo he patrooiaed with Mfd ai^ 
I^Aorostty. He oontriboted durgely ^o t)^p sfmnief^mm ^^ 
spbools for the poor^ lo jrek^Udi^g or repairing paraoofgOK/ 
bouses and places of wor^bip* ^^d g^ve at qpe iMDO^joft Jesft. 
tbfto A00/.iU>9wds oreotiog a ebap^l io tb$ |wi4^ l^gibelh^ 
to wbicb be afterwards luMed nfW .lOQ^.inpre. To the lOr: 
cjd|l^ for i^iroiii^iDg Cbriistiau knowledge tb^s, w^ a JiJptweL 
b^Q&ctqr J end to that for prop^g^tiog the gosp#lii| ($^j 
rfigapartSy pf nAiicbibe wnti tbe presideoti be paidjoa^^ 
ftt^^tiou^ wes cooptaot ^ the oMieMngs of it# 4tteoibeni» Md i 
avperiotended tbeir deliber^tioas. with,i;posiAoiiaiMA|^^i 
4oQi:e.ead teoiper«< He wfts sincerely. djGtsirous tp ia^»^o!«^ . 
Ko.the jainio«t Mxet^exceUent iqsijti^n, m^ po dlfbfk^f^i: 
fcooivlodge and belief of Cbris);ianity as. wid^ ^ dvP reKfUiuea 
pf .the SQi^ty, aod tho exibreo^ di^cuiiy of eslabli^biog . 
schooJa aod inissions ampngit tb^ Ind^nfi ^d .of ajwi^iog 
My effcK^ttud end dg^sible iiepressipps qS- xeliglf^, <^ .tbeir 
VO^ivUi^ed iniod% would ^d^il* JBut. Dt,, Mi^ybew^ of 
BpstQO ip New £i>glaodi having in ao angry pa^ophlft acr 
CHsed the society of not aufficieuUy ^nsfiK^iog these good 
purposes^ aod of doparti^^ widely froio^ t^e spirit of their 
idnarter, with many injurious reflections interspersed on the 

cb«i<cb of £eglaod« end the d^asigii pf #ppoi#titig 4>isbops 
in Aoiecicay bis grace on «(U these, accounts tboHgbt biipsolf 
pallid upon to.v»oeC|ite bis iovecti«m« jsbieh bf did ji».^ 
pbl^t aoMy 4m«4lifQ%. fotitied .'« M 4AWfff Io Jf>f4^ iUfr j 



S E C K E R. 305 

bew*» ObtenratioAs on the oharter and tondiiet of the Sim 
ciety for propagating the Gospel/' Loadou, 17649 reprinted 
in Aiaerica. The strength of argument, as well as fairne:ia 
and good temper, with which this answer was written; had 
a coosiderahle efiect on all impartial men ; and even on the 
doctor himself, who plainly percei?ed that he liad no coid- 
■ion adversary to deal with ; and could not help aoknow- 
fedging hioi to be ** a person of excellent aenae^ and of a 
happy taleat at writing ; apparently free from the aordid 
iUibeial spirit of higotry ; one of a cod temper, who often 
shewed much candour, was- well aequainted with the affaire 
of the society, and in general a fak reasoner.!' He wae 
theref9ire ao hr wrought upon- by his '* worthy aaawerer»*' 
as to abate oMich in his reply of his( former warmth asd 
acrimony. Bat as he still would not allow himself ta be 
** wrong in any material poioi,'^ nor forbear giving way 'too 
much to reproachful language and ludicrous misrepre^enlar* 
ttooa, he was again anUaad verted upon by the late Mr. 
jkpthorpe, in a sensible tract, entitled, *^ A Review of Dr* 
Mayhew*s Remarks," &c. n6S* This put an end to the 
dispute. The doctor, on reading it^ declared be should nol 
answer it, and the following year he died. % 

It appeared evidently in the course of this controversy 
that Dr, Maybew, and probably many Other worthy, osea 
aaKNigst the Dissenters, both at home add abroad^ 'bad 
iuaDceived very unreasonable and groundless jealousies of 
the church of England^ and its governors; and had, ia 
particular, greatly misunderstood the proposal for appoint^ 
iog bishops in some of the colonies. The nature of that 
plan is fully explained in bishop Porteus's life of our 
archbiahep, to which we refer. The question is now of 
less importancei for notwithstanding the violent opposition 
to the meaaurei when Dr. Seeker espoused it, no sooner 
did the American provinces become independent states* 
than applioataott %vas made to the English bishops by some 
of those states to consecrate bishops for them according to 
. the riliea of the church of England, and three bishops were 
actually^ consecrated in London some years ago : one for 
Pennaytvaaia, another for New York, mid a third for Vic* 
ginia. 

Whenever any pnblicathms came to the archbishop*s 
knawledge that were manifestly cidculated to corrupt good 
mera i s, or subvert the fesnidattons of Ckrisliamty, be did 
Jbis utmost to Iteptheciienlation of them } yet the wretched 



i06 .. S E C K E R. 

Mithors tbenaselvet fae was so far from witbing to* treat widi 
any undue rigour, that he baa more than once oumded- 
bis bounty to them ia distress. • And when, their <writiiigai 
eould not properly be suppressed {as* was too oftea the 
<:ase) by lawful authority, he engaged men of abilities to» 
answer them, and rewarded them for their trouble. Hi» 
attention was everywhere* Even the falsehoods and.mia** 
lepresentations of writers in the newspapers, <io religiott» 
or ecclesiastical subjects, be geitendly took care to ha«# 
contradicted : and when they seemed likely to injure^ m 
any material degree, the cause ofi virtue ead religion, . 00 
the reputation of eminent and wotfthy' oneB, he flrooM 
sometimes take the trouble of answering them himself^ 
One instance of this ktnd^ whieb does htm hetiour, .and 
deserves mention, was his defieoee of Bishop Butler, wbo^ 
ma pamphlet, poblishedin 1767, was accuaed'of having 
diisd ft papist. - r, ^ 

• The 5:ondttct which be observed towards tbe several dii 
visions and denominations of Christians in this .kingdoM^ 
was such as sliewed his way of thinking 40 be truly :hhend 
aind catliolic* The dangerous spirit of popery, indeed, hf 
thought should always be kept under proper legal r-ffe» 
siraints, on accoimt of its natutsl oppoeatioii, not Qolyi se 
the religioiH, but the civil rights of manlund* He tbevef 
fore observed its movements with cai^ and etbo^led hia 
olergy to do. tbe same, especially those whe wreae aituaiad 
in the midst ^of Roman catholic • families : agaiosK whoae 
influence they were .charged to be vpoa their guard, And 
•were furnished with proper books or iBStmetiona for jtbe 
pwrpose. He took all opportunities of cQiiib&ti«g the er- 
rors of the cbnrch of Rome, ia bis owewriiitigs; .andthe 
best answers that were published to some bold apologhaa 
for popery were written at his instanee, and underfhti dl- 
jpection. : t' . - i - < ».^ 

With the dissenters his gsace w«s sincerely tlasiiotts ^f 

cuUivatipg a good understanding* Heoensadeied them, 

in getieral, as a conscientious and vaUiabieclasaof >meii. 

'With 'some of -tb^ .most eminent of them, Watts,. Dod^ 

dridge *, Leland, Chandler, and Lardner, he maimasiiedtiiik 

* Tbe biographer! of eminent a is«> dridge's Lettert/* in bii xeal^ bas pco* 

tenten, with all their pr£jiidice» against ducf d two letters from archbishop SmicV- 

the hierarchy, setm Dev«r to exult er to that diTioa, forfeiting that be Ms 

more thaQ when thef ca|i produce not arck^tkop uniil leveml ye«n^s||er 

the correfp'oudence of a distipgui&bed Doddridi^e'a death. 
^yrslate. Sottbtf editor of •* Dr. Dod- 



S £ C K £ R. ' sor 

iotepcoone of friendBhip or civility. By th^ most candid 
and considerate part of tbem be was higliiy reverenced and 
ea^teemed : and to such among ibem as needed* help he 
stiewed no less kindness and m>erslity than to those of his 
own communion. 

Nor W4B his concern for the Protastant cause confined to 
his own country ; be was well known as the greatpatron 
and protector olf it. in various parts of Europe: from 
whence ho JMfl frequent applications for-assistance, which 
never foiled of beiif|;> favourably received. To several 
foreign Protestants be allowed pensions, to others he gave ' 
oocasion#I feiief^ ^nd to spme 'of x their universities was an 

annual beoefapioP. • -* 

. In publii; afiairSy his gi^ace acted the part of an honest 
cUixeUf and a^, worthy josember of the British legfsi&tctre* 
Sromhis enttaoce into the Ho«se of P^eerey his partia^^ 
mentary conduct was uniformly upright and noble. He 
kept eqiudiy pleM'fpoin the extremes -of fectious petulance 
and servile -depeodeoce ; -never wantonly thwartitig adtaii* 
niitMitiqn from- cnoiives of party zeal or private pique, or 
personal attacho^ent, or a passion, for popularly : nor yet 
going every length, jvakb every minister, from views of 
iatevest or aasbitmi.. He seldom, however, spoke in 
parliament, exoept.suhere the interests of religion and vir- 
^bieiseemed to reqaise it: but whenever be did^ he spoke 
Hitb psc^iety-and strength, ai|d wsas beard wtthattentioQ 
and. defienanee. Tboegb he never attached himself blindly 
to ai\y eet of asee^ yet his chief political connections were 
with the lat^ dui;e of Newcastle^ . and lord- dianceltoF 
Hardwicke. To these he owed principally bis advajnee*^ 
flsent; and; be lived long eaoogb to shew bis gratitade to 
th^oi ey: their deacendantt. 

During moretlitfu^ tee years that Dr. Seeker enjoyed 
the see of Caiiterbery, be resided constantly at his arcbioi* 
piscopal b^oseel I^Mobetb. A few months before hia 
death, libe dnsadful psio^ be felt bad compelled him to 
think of tiyieg the Bath waters : bnt thi^ design was 
stopped by the fenpl aoetdene which pet an end to his life^ 
His gvaee faB4 b^en fpr maey j^eara ^abject to the gont^ 
which, in the latter part of bis life, returned with more 
frequency and viplence> and did not go off in a regular 
aiaaaer, but left the parts afiected for* a long time very 
weak^ and wa^aucc^^d by paipain different parts of the 
body. About a year and a half before he died^ after a fit 

X 2 



SOS s E e K £ K. 

of the gout,> be was attacked wHfaa pain inf tbe arttr, near 
the sboalder^ which baling continued abotit twelve Okoothsj^ 
a siimiar pain fteised tbe upper and oeter ptit of the oppo« 
iite tbigby and tbe arm sooo' became' easier. Tbi$ waa 
much more grievons than the former, as it quickly disabled- 
bim fronf waU^ing, and kept binr in almost continual tor-* 
meat) eixcept whcR-be was io a reclbing positiofi. Doring 
this time he had two or three fits of tlie gout : but neither 
tlie gout nor tbe ibedichiee alleviated these painty . wbicht 
with the want of exercise, brought him into a genecal bad 
b\d>it of body. ' -» . 

On Saturday July 30^ 17^8, be was seized;^ as heaat-ai- 

, dinner, with a sickness at bis stomach. He recovered! be<» 
fore night : bat tbe next evening, while liis pbyricians were 
amending, bis senrands raising bim on bis couch, he MKi«^ 
denly cried out that his thigh-booe was broken. He^ iayr 
for' some time ifn great agonies, but- wbeit ^tfae surgeonr 
armed, and discovered wiib eertainty ibaA the bone wa«) 
broken, he was perfectly tesigned, and Mver afierwf^rd^ 
iidced a question about tbe event* A fever s0oo letisufd : 
•n Tuesday be became lethargic, and eontinued eo. tiU 
abovt five oVdock on Wediresday tAeritoon^ when'(b#,fp:s 
ptred with great calmness^ in the sevealf- fifth year <4hi^ 
age.* On examination, the tbigb4lofie waa fqund vloibe 
carious aboat four incbes in length, and at neerly'l^0>$piilf 
dMtance from its bead. He was buridd,pursuilnt4%hl9 
own drreeiions, in a dot-ered passagCi leading frotu^^t 
vate door of tbe palace to the north door ef/^Lambetlr 
ehurcb^. and be forbade any monutuent ^ epiti^ ffk,lfe 
pkced over him; 

: In person, Dr. Seeker -was tiiU and'Comely : in the ^arfy 
part of his life slender, and rather conauaii(>tftve:! but dfi^hB 
advanced' in years, his size tucffeased, yet uever to a de^ee 
of corputenoy' that was disproportionafte or troubleaoflpn. 
iiis countenance was open, ingenuous^ and ezpi}eA9i?et f 
By* his will, he appointed Dr. Daniel Burtoo^ and* Mr<. 
Catherine Talbot (daogbtev of the Rev. Mr. Ednrard Tal- 
bot)^ his exeeutefs; and leftthirteeo thousand pouitda iu 
tbe three per cent, annuities to Dr. Porteui aud Dr. 9tiiiloia 
1119 chaplains; in trust, to pay the interest tbeveof to Mra. 
TaHKys andber daugteer during their joinft lives, or the. life 
of the sarviv«ir | "and, after < tbie deeeaae <»f- both ^bese 
ladies^ eleven^ thousmd to be tcunsforvedto tbe foUuwtni; 

' 'efaUMable ptrfieaeai: 



,S E C K E R. 909 

f 

'' To Ite sMiety for; propagation of ibe gospel in foneignr 
fArt^y for 'the general uses of tlie societj, 1000/. } to^hft 
same soeie^ty, tqwards the establishmeot of a 'bnbop or 
bMiops tn the- king's dominions in America, 10002.; to tb^ 
eociety for pixNnottng Chriaiian kiiowlfidgie« hO^L\ to tlMi 
Irish protestant working sdboals, 6Q0L ; to tbe coqioraiiou 
tf the widows and children of the poor 4}lecg]^ 500/.; to 
the society of die stewards of the said cfaarity, iSOO/.; 
to Bromley college in Kent,* UXOl.; jto the hospitals, of the 
arcbbi<9bop of Cai»tcrbory,.at Croydon, jBt. John at Canter-^ 
bury, and St. Nichojas Harbledown^ 5001. each ; to St« 
Oeofge^B and- London hospitals, and the lying- in^koapkal 
in'Brownlow-'Striiet, 500/. each; to the Asylum io tbe 
pavfeb of Lambeth, 4001. ; to tthe Magdalen-bospital, the 
Lol^k^^^spiiai, the SoialUpox and lQO|:nlation<ii,Mpital, to 
eaeb" of which bis grace was a subaoribef, 300/. each; 
to-the iocorttblesait St Luke's hospital,. 500/..;. Vo wards the 
r^fpiajiring or rehoikting of houses heloQging.to poor liiringa 
i> «be diifcesjd e( Canterbury, 2O00i2!. 

' Besides these ddnations, he left lOOe/. to be distribi^tesl 
h^ongst hiS'^ert»nta.; 20QZ. to such poor persons as. be 
aif^st^ in hia Ivfe^tlme; iOOOt to. tbe two daogbtera 
of ^ his 1 ^nepheM^ • Mr. FrosC ; 500^. to Mrs. Sedker, the 
vAdQw bfi^bik nephew I^. (ieorge Seeker, and 200/* to Dr^ 
Dfitnid^illton'.^. Afler the payment of thoae an4 some other 
iUflMB#' legacies, » he left bis h;al and tbe residue of his 
jidi^efnaleiqite^to McThocpaa Frost of Nottingham. . The 
IgiMl^t^pdA 0^ histery noUe ^eollectton of hooks behe^ 
qUeathst^'tQ^the Avchiepiacopal library att Lambeth, tbe 
rest betwixt bis two chaplains and two other friends* To 
th^*ttiM(iiScft-ipt Kbraryio the same palace,: he left a large 
Ii4rafb^'^f tterylcttraed and uaJ liable MSS. written .by biiv« 
ietf Oft a grear^ttrieiy of snbfccts, critical end theological. 
His* #eU^kncwtt eastecbeticalieotunes, and his MS sermons 
be left to^be^reirised by bis two chaplains, Dr. Stintoo and 
Dr. Porttti^, by- wliomtbey were ptibjtisbed in 1770. Hjs 
apttohs' he ^gave to the arcblMBbpp of Canterbury, the 
Mshop of London, asid the bishop of Winchester for j^ 
time oeing, in trest, to he disposed of by them (asibejr- 
hecame vacant) le-snch persons as they should in their 
conseiencea think it«woiild hare, been most reasonable for 
him to have given them, had he been living. 
I 7be life prefixed to bis works was written by Dr. iVurr 
teus^ the late yery amiable aiid jnucb admjrep Ushop ef 



ilO S E C K E R. 

London, and reprinted separately by his lordship In IfdT, 
iti consequence of bishop Kurd's having, in bis life' of 
Warburton, '^ judged it expedient to introduce into bis life 
of bishop Warburton,.' such observations on the talents^ 
learning, and writings of archbishop Seeker, as appeared, 
both to Dr. Porteus and to many* other of his grace*ft 
friends extremely injurious to his literary character, and 
the credit of his numerous and usefcTl publications ; and 
therefore highly deserving of some notice from those wbd 
loved him in life, and revered him after death.'^ Thesei 
observations are indeed fully refuted in this excellent piece 
of biography, as well as the other slanders which the steady 
and upright conduct of archbishop Seeker drew upon him 
from persons notoriously disaffected to religion and the 
church ; and time, which never fails to do ample justice to 
such characters as his, has almost effaced the remembrance 
of them. 'Yet, as some have lately attempted to revive the 
calumny, and suppress the refutation, we have given some 
references in the note on this subject, not witbont cbnS* 
dence that archbishop Seeker's character will suffer little 
while he has a Porteus for his defender, and a' Hollis, a 
Walpole, a BIr.ckburn, and a Wakefield for his accusers;^ 

SECOIJSSE (Denis Francis), a French historian, w^ 
born January 8, 1691, at Paris. 'He began to study the 
Jaw in obedience to his father's desire, who was an able dd« 
vocate; but losing both his patents shortly after^he <)oitt6d 
the bar, for which he had not the least taste, and devoted 
himself wholly to the belles lettres, and French history. 
His unwearied application to books, which no other passion 
interrupted, soon made hi«i known among the learned ; and 
he was admitted into the academy of inscriptions ill 1723, 
and chosen by chancellor d'Aguesseau five years af^er, to 
continue the great collection of statutes, made by the 
French kings, which M. de Laurier had begun. As Se- 
cousse possessed every talent necessary for such an impor* 
tant undertaking, the volumes which he published were 
received with universal approbation. He died at Paris, 
March 15, 1754, aged sixty-three, leaving a library, the 
largest and most curious, in French history, that any pri^ 
vate person bad hitherto possessed. His works are, the 
eontinuation of the collection of statutes before mentioned, 

> Life by Portaus.— Gent. Mag. volt. LVIII. LXVIII.— See alto Index — 
Many of bis Letters are in Kippii'a Life of Lardaeri BaUer't life of Bftho|i 
HHdetiey, Doddrtdse's Letter*. 4e. Ice, 



B C C O U $ S £. 911 

lie the nixitli voluquo iiiclusiveiyy wbiicb uraa printed under 
ibe inspection of M. de«YiIlevduit, counselor to the court 
.of aids, wba succeeded. M. Secousse^ and published atable^ 
:fori)9iog a tenth voluoie^ and siiice, an eleventh and twejftb. 
-^cpussis also wrote many dissertations in the memoirs of 
tbe academy of ioscriptiions ; editions of several works, and 
Qf.sBKejcal curiQiis pieces; '^Memoirs for the History of 
.Charles, the Bisd," 2 vols. 4ta' 

SECUNDUS, John. See EVERAED. 

SEDAINE f<MiCHAEL John)^ a French dramatic writer, 

•was^born at Pari^^ June 4, 1719. Abandoned by bis friends, 

be was, at the age of thirteen, obliged to quit bis studies, 

in wbicb he was little advanced, and to practise a trade for 

iiia subsistence* -He was first a jounieyman, and then a 

ipaster mason, and architect; which businesses be con- 

^ducted with i&ncominon probity. Natural inclination led 

Jxim to. cultivate literature, and particularly the drama, for 

which ^be wrote various smajl pieces and comic operas, this 

most popular of which were, ^^ Le D^serteur ;*' and ^^Richard 

.Ccejur de Lion.^' All of them met with great success, and 

sx\M continue to be performed, but the French critics think 

thpf his poetry is not written in the purest and most correct 

^l^lCf and that bis pieces appear to more advantage on the 

«tage than in the closet. He possessed, however, a quality 

ikt grea^ter QQosequence to a dramatic writer — the talent c£ 

j^roducipg stage effect. He was elected into the French 

a,,cademy, in consequence of the success of bis ** Richard:' 

.Cceur deXion^^' and was intimately connected with all tbe 

m^ of. letters, and all the artists of his time. He died in 

Alay 1797,;aged seventy-eight* 

. jSJEU)GWICK (0«ADIAH)» a^nonconformist divine, was 
boi;u at Marlborough in Wiltshire, in 1600, and educated 
first at Quften's, college, and then at Magdalen-ball, Ox«> 
ford. After taking bis degrees in arts, he was ordained, 
aod became chaplain to lord Horatio Vere, whom be ac« 
compaoied into tbe Netherlands. After his return, he 
ivent again to Oxford, and was admitted to tbe reading of 
tbe sentences in 16*29. Going then to London he preached 
at St. Mjklred\ Bread-street, until interrupted by tbe 
bishop, and in 1639 became vicar of Coggeshall in Esses, 
where be continued three or four years. The commence* 
ment of tbe rebellion allowing men of bis sentiments' un* 

« Diet. Hilt. 



ilfi SEDGWICK. 

consti^ined Kl^ert]^ bif x0tuM>efl to IhW « 1 

f requeotly befope ihe pi^rlitwent, .inv^igbwigtfK^ilb jf»ic|rMi^ 
violence against the <;burcb ft^d $uie ^ ^q -(Ue .oN^rtiis^Qfr '«f 
botb^ bis blogritpl^rs cwoot deay tb»t be ^oqtf^MBcl bit 
full share, in ibe various cbaracters of <iHe of tbe <i8$eaiU7 
of divines, a cbaplaio la the .^riPsfj <)M of tbo^tnievsi. m4 
one of the ejectors of those \vIk> were called ^Mgmuratit Md 
scandalous ministers^*'^ — In 1646 ke becanie preaobec wt 
St. Paursy Covent^arden^ where Ws^ppeairs to have coop 
tintred until the decay of bi^i healthy wbea be apetin^ .tt 
Marlborough, and died there in Jaouary 165^.. As « dl^ 
vine» be was much admired in bis day^ and his prioia4 
Works had considerable popularity* Tbe-princiipai i>( them 
are^ <^ The Fountain opened,'' 1657 1 << An exposjuoii pf | 

Psalm xxiii." 1658, 4to | <' The Auaiomy of Secret Sios^V 
1660 ; i^ The Parable of the ProUigalj,'' 1660 ; *' SynofaW 
oT Christianityy^'^c. &c.--«Ue had a brother, JoHif, ao^adr 
hereot to the parliamentary caus^i and a- preacbef^ bul; of 
less note; and another brother Joseph, wbQ became batter 
in. Magdalen college in 1634<, and B.A. ^b 1^S7, andtbea 
went to Cambridge, where be took bis master^s degree, find 
was elected fellow of Christ's college* Aft^r the resixwa^ 
lion he conformed, -and was beneficed in the cbuiicb ; in 
r675 be was made prebendary of Lincoln, and wsa* also 
rector ofFisherton, where he died Sept* 22, 1702|i in die 
feventy-four^h year of bis age, leaving a son J,ohn %adg» 
wick, who succeeded him in the prebepd, and was vi^ag.oi 
Burton Pedwardine in Lincolnshire, where be died in Vf hi J 
SKbLEY, or SIDLEY (Sir Charles), a dramatic and 
miscellaneous writer, was the son of sir John Sedley^j^f 
Aylesford in Kent, by a daughter of sir Henry 3avile,i and 
was born about 1639. At seventeen, he became a (isUow* 
commoner of Wadham college in Oxford; but, taking no 
degree, retired to his own country, without either traiiel* 
ing, pr going to the inns of court. At the restqratiob b6 
came to London, and commenced wjt, courUer, poet^ and 
nian of gallantry. As a critic^ h€ was so much' admir^^ 
that he became a kind of oracle among the poets; and -too 
performance was approved or condemned,, till sijr. Charles . 
Sedley had given judgment This made king Charles jest- 
ingly say to him, that Nature bad given him a pi^ent iq be 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. II.^Brooks*! PuriUai,— WoQd't IIS impen in B(bK Aikinolir 
r-^Wllil'i Otthedrelf. ^ 



' 9 E D t B y. • •« 

iftfM5*$^.ttetroyr'm4 lord R<»el}ester placed him ia the 
tii^ ironic ^ pMtieal eritics. With these accompUfthinents^ 
he itttpMf^d hh estate by profligate pleasures, and was one 
of^ tfiwfc party of debauchees whom we ha^e already men« 
tioo^ in- our account of Sackrille lord Buckhurst, who 
faatiRg insulted public 4)ecency, wei'e indicted for a riot^ 
and all severely fined ; sir Charles in 500/. The day for 
paymeot being appointed, sir Charles desired Mr. Henry 
iCilligrew and another gentleman, both hln friends, to apply 
to the king to get it remitted ; which they undertook to do; 
1>at«fethe same time varied the application so far as to beg 
it for themselves, and they made Sedley pay the full sum. 

Aft^r this affair, his mind took a more serious turn ; and 
lie began lo apply himself to politics. He had been chosen 
to serv^ •for Romney in Kent, in the parliament which be- 
gno Mfty 8, 1661, and continued to sit for several parlia* 
nients after. He Was extremely active for the revolution^ 
«Mhich itas at first thought extraordinary, as he had receiv* 
ed favoera from James II. but those were cancelled by that 
princeVbaving taken his daughter into keeping, whom he 
ereated countess of Dorchester. This honour by no 
means satiified sir Charles, who, libertine as he had 
been» cotlsidered his daughter's disgrace as being thereby 
vsado'moreeoiMpicuoos. Still his wit prevailed over his 
feietitment, a( least in speaking on the subject; for, being 
a^ked> 'vi^by be appeared so warm for the revolution, he ii 
iaid to have answered, '^ From a principle of gratitude; 
for, M nee* bis im^eMy has made my daughter a countess^ 
itis ftt I sbokld do all lean to make his daughter a queen.** 
Iie*dled Airg.20, 1701. ' " ' ' 

' «Hia>wbrks iVere printed in 1719, 2 vols. 8vo ; and consist 
ef pfoj^fM, Mnslktions, songs, prologues, epilogues, and small 
OGcaaiofiaA ^ietes. His poems are generally of the licen- 
tioua ' kind, and do not afibrd great marks of genius, and 
liit» dramas are qiiite forgotten. Pope, according to Spence, 
tfaoughC'bim very insipid j except in some of his little love- 
verses.* M alofte thinks he was the Lisideius of Dryden^s 
^, Essay on^ dramatic poetry,*' and Dryden certainly shewed 
his respeet fbr him by dedicating to him his ^< Assignation."' 

SEDULIUS (CiEUus, or CjeciLius), a priest and poet, 
either Irish or Scotch, of the fifth century, is recorded aa 

A At^ Ok.^. lI>-Biog. Brit.**Hi|loii«'i Drydso, voL L p. M; II. p. 34« 
S7i.— Sp«a«c't AiiffQdvtMy MS. 



8M S I D L I U l§. 

the writer of an beniic poem, called *' Canfien P^schstey^ 
divided into five books. Tbe first begins witii the ercatioif 
of tbe world, and comprehends th^ mor^ remarkable* pas- 
sages of the Old Testament; The next three describe tbe 
life of Jesus Christ. This -performance • has been bighly 
ponmended by Cassiodortis, Grt^dirtns fTunineosis, aM 
others. S^olius afterwards w#ote a piece on the same 
subjects in prose. TtiiB pdem was printed by Aldus in tbe 
collection of sacred poets, in 1902. It^ts alsoin Maittaive's 
f< Corp. Poet.'' and bM since been published by itoeli^ with 
learned uotes^ by Arntzenius, 176l> 8vo, and byAfemle 
at Rome^ 1794, «to.' :  >. 

SEED (Jer&miah), an Eoglish di^iae^ who fms' bore ajb 
Clifton, near Penrith) in Cumberiand, of wbiidh place bis 
ierther was rector, had his sehooUedocation at Lowther^aod 
his academical at Queen's eoHege, in Oxford. Of ibis sot* 
ciety he was' chosen fellow in 17S2. The greatest part ef 
his life was spent at Twicketihami where he was assistant ot 
curate to Dr. Waterland. In 1741, he was preseated hf 
his college to the living of Enham in Hampshire, ^atiwhidi 
place he died in 1747, without ever having ebtmned any 
higher preferment, which he amply deserved^- He" was 
exemplary in bis morals, orthodox in his opinions, luid aa 
able head, and a' most amiable heart. A late romantic 
writer against the Athatiasian doctrines, whose testihionj 
we choose to^iv^, as It is troth extorted from an adverear}^ 
speaks of him in tbe following terms: *' Notwithstanding 
this gentleman^s being a' contender for the Trinity, yei^he 
^as a benevolent man, an upright Cbristtaiiy^ and a beauti- 
ful writer '; exclusive of his zeal for Uie Trinity, he was in 
every thing el^e ah excellent clergyman, and an admirable 
scholar* I knew him well, and on aicceoni of' hiS'amiable 
qualities 'Very highly honour his memory; tbotigh no two 
ever differed more in religious sentiments.'* He publisfaea 
in his life-time, ** Discourses on' several important Sob^ 
jects,'' 2 vols. 8vo ; and his *^ Posthumous Works, consist 
ing of sermons, letters, essays, &c." in 3* vols. 8vo^ were 
published from bis original manuscripts by Jos. Hall, M^ A. 
fellow of Queen's college, Oxford, 1750. They are all 
very ingeniotrs, and fhll of good matter^ but abouud too 
much in antithesis and point* 

> Votniu'dfe Poc^. L«t.*<->iC«ve, ro\, I.— -Maokeniie^ Scotch writers, toUL 
s SuAiplcmeBt to tbe &m editioo ef ibte Diet. publUhed^a 1767. 



8 E G E R S. «li 

' &EGKRS, or SfiCHERS (Guak^), m eft)iddfit ^in« 
ter« W0S born at Antwerp in 15^89. Under the in«ftrttctl<iM 
of tietity van Balen, and Abrabtm Janasen^ he had oiade 
considerable progread in ibd art before ha went to Ital j. On 
llis arriral at Rome, b6 becaipe th^ di8ci]|ile.of Bartdlomoiep 
Manfredi ; and from hiixi adopted a taste fdr the vigorcMia 
atyle of Michael Atigeio Caravaggio, to which he added 
aoaiewbat of the tone and ^blour he had brought with him 
from his native coodfry ; .producing the powerful effect of 
candle-lighty though often faUeiy applied in subjects which 
appertain to the milder illumination of the day. .He at 
length accepted the invitation of cardinal Zapara» the 
Spanish ambabsadoT at'Rome, to accompany him 'to Ma- 
dridy where he was prestoted to the king» and was engaged 
in his service, with a considerable pension* After some 
years be returned to Flanders^ and bia^feliow-citizena in^ejna 
impatteht to possetis some of bis productions \ hut they who 
had been accustomed to the style of Rubens and Vandyk^^ 
«rere ttnabie to yield bim that praise to* which he had beea 
accustomed, and fad was obliged to change bis manneiv 
which he appearii to have done with facslity and advantagei 
as many of his latter pictures bear evident testimony* Hif 
most esteemed prodoctions are^ the principal altar«pitce io 
the church of the Carmelites at Antwerp, the subject of 
which is the marriage of the virgin ; and the adoiration pf 
the magi, the altar-piece in the cathedral of Bruges* The 
former i^ much after the manner of Rubens* Vandyke 
painted his portrait among the eminent artiats of his coun- 
try, which is engraved by Pontius, He died in 1651, aged 
aixty-two.-^His son Daniel, who was bom at/ Antwerp ia 
'1590, was a painter of fruit and flowers, which be^ being 
-a Jesuit, executed at bis conyent at Rome. He appear^ 
indeed, to have painted more for the benefit of the society 
to which he had attached himself, than for his private ad- 
vantage : and when be had produced his most celebrated 
picture, at the command of the prince of Orange, it waa 
presented to that monarch in the name of the society, 
which was munificently recompensed in return. He fre- 
quently painted garlands of flowers, as Borders for pictures, 
which were filled up with historical subjects by. the first 
painters. He died at Antwerp in 1660, aged seventy.' 

1 ArgeoTiUe, fol. IIL— Pakiostoo^^rSir J. Rejnolds't Workf.~Ree»'t €/• 
alopae^i** 



sit S E G N t 

ft 

Sf^GNI (Behnakd), an early ItAlian miter/ wis "botn 
at Florence about the close of the fifteenth century. H# 
was educated at Padua, where lie became an accomplished 
. classical scholar^ hut appears afterwards to have gone into 
public life, and was employed in various embassies and 
Aegociations by duke Cosmo, of Florence. He wrote aii 
excellent history of Florence from 1527 to 1555, which, 
however, remai/ied in MS, until 1723, when it appeared, 
together with a life of Niccolo Capponi, gonfalonier of 
Florence, Segni's uncle. . He likewise translated Aristotle*i 
Ethics. " L*Etica d'Aristotele, Iradotta in volga Fioren- 
tino,'* Florence, 15£0, 4to, a very elegant boqk; an^ 
<^ Deir Anima d'Aristotele,'* 1583, also die Rhetoric and 
Poetics of the same author, &c« £[e died in 155 9 J 

SEGRAIS (JOHif Rbnaud de), a French. poet, was Wa 
at Caen in 1624, and first studied in the college of the 
Jesuita there. As he grew up, he applied himself to 
JFrench poetry, and was so successful as to be enabled to 
rescue himself^ four brothers, and two sisters, from the 
unhappy circumstances in which the extrav^^gance of i 
jfatber nad left them. In bis twentieth year he met ^hr a 
patron who introduced him to Mad. de M6ntp^s%fj itiS 
this lady appointed him hef gentleman in otdStiary^Jit 
which station he remained many yesct^, until dblig^ h$ 
quk her service, foi: opposing her marriage i^itti c(oii^hC08 
Lii^ttzun. He immediately fouhd a new patrotiess^in'Ma^ 
de la Fayette, who admitted him into her hous^,, anM'-ii^^ 
figned him apartments. Her he assisted in h^^ two rt^ 
Qoances^ ^ The princess of Cleves^* and ^* Zalda.^^ Aftiet 
seven years, he retired to his own cotmtry, with a rescfliir^ 
^ipn to spend the' rest of his days in sont(ide;'and tbiifi 
married his cousin, a rich heiressl about )67&. 'Madi d6 
Maintenon invited him to court, as tutor to tb'e duke'ln 
Maine: but hedid not choose to eirbhangertheSftd^pendeaeelbf 
a rehired life for the precarious favours of a'^otirt, and th'^r^ 
€ore continued' where he was. He was* adoikted df the 
French academy in 1662; and was the mearis of fe-esta^ 
blishing that of Caen. He diied at this place, of a dropsy^ 
in 170L He was very deaf in the last years of bis life, bu^ 
was much courted for the sake of his conversation, whic|i 
was replete with such anecdotes as the- pdHte^ world had 
furnished him with. A. great qumb^^pf ,tbefe apre to be 

* Tlraboschi.— H«ym Bibl. d'ltal. ^'* 



S £ G R A I S. »17 

found ,iD tl^e ^ SegraUiana;*' which was published many 
yenrs after, his death, with a preface by Mr. de la Mod- 
noye; the best edition, of it is that of Amsterdam, 1723, 
12mo. 

The prose writings of Segrais, though for the most part 
fidvolous enough, yet have great merit as to their style, 
which may be considered as a standard. Of this kind are 
bis ^' Nouvelles Francoises ;'* but he was chiefly admired 
for his poems, which consist of M Diverses Poesies,^* printed 
^t Paris in 1^58^ 4tp; 'VAtbis^** a pastoral; and a transia* 
tion of Virgirs Georgics and £neid. Of his eclogue^ 
and particularly of his translation of Virgil, Boileaa aha 
D'Aiembert speak very highly, but his Virgil is no Jonget 
read.' 

SEJOUR. SeeDIONIS. 

SELD£iy^ (John), one of the most learned tnen of tb« 
aeventeenth century, was the son of John Selden, a yeo« 
masi, by Margaret bis wife, only daughter of Mr. Thomas « 
fiak^r of Rushiogton, descended from the family of th« 
^aker^ in Kent, tie was born Dec. 16, 1584, at a housa 
calLed the Lacies at Salvinton, near Terring in Sussex, and 
tidvicsxed at the free- school at Chichester, where be madea 
^ery earjy progress in learning. In 1598, at fourteen years 
of age, ^ some say, but according to Wood, in 1600, be 
ms entered pf Hart-hall, Oxford, where under the tuition 
of Itfn Anthony Barker (brother to his schoolmaster at Cht- 
chesjte;} ajad Mn John Young, both of that hall, he studied 
ai>out . ^hr^jf years, and then removed to Ciiflbrd's Inn, 
London^ for the study of the law, and about two years 
afterwards exchanged that situation for tbe Inner Temple. 
Her^ he sooa attained a great reputation for learning, and 
acquired the friendship of sir Robert Cotton, sir Henrys 
^pelinan^ Camdep, and Usher. In 1606, when only twenty^ 
two years of age, he wrote a treatise on the civil govern* 
ment of Britain, before tbe comine in of the Normans^ 
which was esteemed a very extraordinary performance for 
his years* It was not printed* however, until 4615, and 
then very incorrectly, at Francfort, under the title *' Ana** 
leottfv Anglo- Britamricttr libri duo, de civile administratione 
Britannise Magnae usque ad Normanni adventum,'* 4to« 
]Nicolsoa is of opinion that these ^' Analecta** do not so 

1 Nfeerwi, «ol. XVI.<MS«ra^*aa.-«4)»iltsilbtrfsBiil. «f teMfpnWis if 



318 S £ L D £ N. 

otearly accouijt for the r^Iiginfi, government, and revolao 
. tions of state among our Saxon ancestors, as they are re- 
ported to do. It was an exceUenc specimen, however, of 
what might be expected from a youth of such talents and 
application. 

In 1610 he printed at London, his '^ Jant Anglorum fa- 
des altera,'' 8vo, reprinted in' 16$1, and likewise trans- 
lated into English by Dr. Adam Littleton, under his family 
name of Kedman Westcot, 16S3, fol. It consists of all 
that is met with in history concerning the common and 
statute law of English Brittany to the death of Henry IF. 
Selden had laid the fomidation. in a discourse which be 
published the same year an,d in the s^tne form, entitled 
** England's Epinomis;" and this is also in Dr.'Littietony 
volume, along with two other tracts, •* The Original orEc* 
clesiastical Jurisdiction of Teptamei^ts,*' and" The Dispo* 
tition or administration of Intestate goods," both afterwarda 
the production of Selden*8 pen. In the same year,, 1610, 
he published bis "Duello, or single coi|>bat;'' and' in 1612^ 
notes and illustrations on Drayton's " Poly-Olbiotj,*' folio. 
He seems to have been esteemed for his learning by the, 
poets of that time ; and although he had no great poetical^ 
turn himself, yet in 1613 he wrote Greek, Latin, and En« 
gWsh verses on Browne's "Britannia's Pastorals,^' and con** 
tribu'ted other efforts of the kind to the works of several 
authbrs, which appear to have induced Suckling to inrro- 
duce him in his. *^ Session of the Poets," as sitting '" elosQ 
by the chair of Apollo.** 

In' 16 14 he published a work whicb has always been 
praised for utility, his " Titles of Honpur," Lond. 4to, with 
an encomiastic poem by his friend Ben Jonson. It was re* 
printed with additions in 163!, fol. and again in 1671j and 
translated into Latin by Simon Jobn Arnold,' Francfort^ 
169^. Nicolson remarks that "as to what concerns our 
oobility and gentry, all that come within either of those 
lists will allow, that Mr. Selden's lltles of Honour Qugh^ 
first to be perused, for the gaining of a g^nefal notion of 
the distinction of a degree from ^n emperor tlown to a 
country gentleman.". In 1616 appeared bis notes (m ^ir 
John Tortescue's work " De laudibus legum Anglian," and 
•ir Ralph'a Hengham's " Sums," Lond. 8vo. In 1617 be 
drew up 3 dissertation upon the state of the Jews formerly 
fiving in England, for the use of Purcbm«, who printed it, 
although, as Selden complained^ very defectively, ih'hii 



S.E t P E N. Si» 

t 

^ Pilgrjmftge/' lo tb« ^ame y^^r bp published bis vi^tj 
learned wojri, " De Diis Syriis syotagoiata duo/* ThU is 
D<;t only a treatise on tbe idoj^atry of the ancient Syrians^ 
but affords a commentary on all the passages in tbe Old 
Testament, where mention is made of ady of the heathen 
deities. This first edition (Load. 8vo.) being out of print, 
I^udovicus de Di^u printed an edition at Leyden in 1629, 
which was revised and enlarged by Se)deii« Andrew Beyer 
afterwards published two editions at I^ipsic, in. 1668 and 
1.6 72, with. some additions, but, according to La Gierc, of 
)it|fe importance. Le Clerc offers also som^ objectiQO^ to 
tbi^ work. itself, lybich, if ju&t, imply that Selden bad not 
alwAyi^ been judicious in bis choice of bis. authorities, nor 
in tbe mode of treatiug tbe subject It qontribuled, bn^* 
ever, «to enlarge tbe reputs^oo which be already enjoyed 
both at home and abroatl, , 

In. his next, and oiie of his most memorable performr 
ances^ he did pot earn, tbe fame of it without some dan- 
ger. .Tbis was bis. ^^ Treatise of Ty.thes»" the object of 
which was t0'(>fove that tithes were not due by diviaf 
figbtundprCbristianity,. although ^^ clergy are entitled 
to them by «tbe . lavya. of the laud. This book was attacked 
by air ^Tj^mea ScmpiU in tbe Appendix to bU treatise enr 
tiMed; ** Sacrilege scried ly baqdled," London, 1619^ and 
by Dr. Richard Tii)esiey, archdeacon of Ilocbestery iu his 
" Animadyersions upon Mr. Seldeu's Hiatory of Titbes/* 
London, 16^1, 4to. Selden vnrrote an answer to Dr. Tilr 
lesley, which being dispersed in manuscript, the doctor 
publisbed.it with remarks in the second edition of hip 
M<^ Animiid versions," Loadon,. 1621, 4to, under this titla» 
<< A^ioEMi^versiona upon Mr. Selden'i Hisitory of Tithes, imd , 
bia Review ^hereqf. .,,£efpre wbicli j(in lieu of the two fir* 
cbf^pters purposely pretermitted) is premised a cataloguexif 
a authoi:s before theyeare I2\5y, maintaining. th» Jus djh 
vinum of Ty tbes, ^r more, to . be paid to tbe. Prieatbood 
under the Gospell/^ Selden's book was hkewise answejoed 
by. J)r.. Richard Montague in his <' Diatribe," London, 
A621, 4to; by Stephen Nettles, Bu D. in his '^Answer. to 
the Jewish Part oi Mr. Selden's History of Tythes," Ox- 
ford, \625 ;. and. by WilliAn^ Sclater in his ^^ Arguments 
about Tithes/' London^ 1623, in^ 4td. Selden's work bav- 
iug been reprinted in 1680, 4to, with .the old date put lo 
it. Dr. Thomas Comber answered Jt in a treatise entitled, 
V An Historical Vindication. of. tbe Divine Right of Titbea, - 
&c.*' London, 16S1, in 4to. 



$20 S E L D EN. ' 

This work also excited the displeasure of the coart, and 
the author was cabled before some of the lords of the high 
commission^ Jan. 28, 1618« and obliged to make a public 
submission, which he did in these words : " My good Lords, 
I most humbly acknowledge my errour, which 1 haye com'* 
mitted in publishing the ^ History of Tithes/ and especially 
in that I have at all, by shewing any interpretation of Hoiy^ 

' Scriptures, by meddling with Councils^ Fathers, or Canons, 
or by what else soever occures in it, offered any occasion 
of argument against any right of maintenance * Juredivino* 
of the Ministers of the Gospell ; beseeching your Lord- 
ships to receive this ingenuous and humble acknowledg- 
ment, together with the unfeined protestation of my griefe, 
for that through it I have so incurred both his Majestie's 
and your Lordships* displeasure conceived against mee in 
behalfe of the Church of England." We give this literally, 
because some of Mr. Selden's admirers have asserted that 
he never recanted any thing in his book. The above is at 
least the language of recantation; yet he says himself in 
fais answer to Dr. Tillesley, ^^ I confesse, that I did most 
willingly acknowledge, not only before some Lords of the 
High Commission (not in the High Commission Court) but 
also to the Lords of his Majesty's Privy Council, that I 
was most sorry for the publishing of that History, because 

' it bad offended./ And his Majesty's most gracious favour 
towards me received that satisfaction of the fault in so iin- 
timely printing it ; and I profess still to all the world, that 
I am sorry for it. And so should I have been, if I had 
published a most orthodox Catechism, that hbd offended. 
But what is that to the doctrinal consequences of it, which 
the Doctor talks of? Is there a syllable of it of less truth, 
because I was sorry for the publishing of it? Indeed,^ 
perhaps by the Doctor's logic there is ; and just so might 
he prove, that there is the more truth in his animadversions, 
because be was so glad of the printing them. And be- 
cause he hopes, as he says, that my submission bath cleared 
my judgment touching the right of tithes: what dream 
ma^Je him hope so ? There is not a word of tithes in that 

, submission more. than in mentioning the title; neither was 
my judgment at all in question, but my publishing it; and. 
this the Doctor knows too, as I am assured." Selden, 
therefore, if Ibis means any thing, was not sorry for what 
he bad written, but because he had published it, and be 
was sori'y he had published it, because it gave offence to 
the court and to tb« clergy. 



B £ L D E N« 



Ml 



' In 162i| king James having, in hb sflee^h ta die par** 
lianenty asserted that tbeir privileges were originally gran(0 
fiom tbe crown> Selden was consulted by the House of 
- Lords on thai question, and gave bis opinion in Isvour of 
parliaoient; which being dissolved soon after, he was coni't 
aiiued-to the custody of the sheriff of London, as a princi* 
pal promoter of the famous protest of the House of Com* 
mous* previous to its dissolution. From this oonfinemeat* 
which lasted only five weeks, he was released by the in- 
terest of Pn Andrews, bishop of Winchester, and returned 
to his studies, the first fruits of which were, a learned epis* 
tie prefixed to Vincent^s *^ Discovery of errors in two edi* 
tions of the Catalogue of Nobility by Ralph Brooke^** 
Lond. 1622, and the year following his ** Spicilegium iH 
Eadmeri sex Hbros Historiarum,'* foi. 

Although he had already been consulted by parliament 
on account vf his knowledge of constitutiooid antiquitiei» 
he had not yet obtained a seat in that assembly; but in 
1623 he was chosen a member for Lancaster, and in the 
parliament called in 1625, on the accession of Charles !• 
he was chosen for Great Bedwin in Wiltshire, and now 
took an active part in opposition to the measures of the 
court*. In 1626 he was chosen of the committee for 



* la Triniiy tenn» 1694, be was 
tbosen reader of Lyon'i-Inn, bnt ro- 
Aned to perform that ofice. In tke 
remitter oT the toner Tenplp is the fol- 
lowing panage : '* "U'hereaa an order 
was made at the Bench-lVble ihit tem, 
amce the last parliameit, and entered 
into the buttery-book in iheie vordi ; 
Joviiiti me OeUArit 1694. Memorm^ 
dian, that wbereat John SeMen, eaq* 
fWA of the utter barristen of tbia boaie, 
wa« in Trinity term last, ehoaen reader 
«l Lyea*s-lnB by the gentlemen of the 
same house, acoordmgtoliM oiderof 
tbeir boose, which be then refated to 
take upon bim, and perform the same, 
viUMittt some soileient eanseor good 
reason, notwiibstanding many oourte* 
out and fair persuasions and admonU 
tioiM by the masters of the bench made 
to bim ; for which caoae be baring iMcn 
twice coDvented before the masters of 
the beacb, it was then ordered, that 
there should l»e a im rteifmtur enterad 
vpon bis name, which was done acoord- 
logly; and in respect tbe bench was 
not then full, the farther 

¥OL.XXVIL 



coneerDing bim were respited until this 
term. Now this day being called ania 
to the table, he doth absolutely reraae 
to read. The masters, of tbe bench, 
taking into consideration bis conttfmpc 
and offence, and for that it is without 
precedent, that any man elected to 
read in ohanoary has been discharged 
in like case, much less baa with such 
wilfulness i«fused the same, bare or^ 
dercd, that he shall prasenlly pay to 
tbe use of this house the sum of 9Dt. 
for his fine, and tbat he stand and bo 
disabled erer to be called to the bench* 
or to be a reader of this house. Nov 
at this parliament tbe said order is eoa- 
firmed; and it is further ordered, that 
if any of this house, which beresAer 
shall be chosen to read in chaaoery, 
shall refuse to read, evofy such offender 
shall be fined, and be ^iiobled to bo 
called to the bench, or to be a rMder 
of this house.'* However, in Michael- 
mas term 1639, it was ordered, tint 
Mr. Selden «« shall stand enabled and 
be capable of any preferment in the 
H6nse, in sach a mawier at other 
^ ntter 

Y 



S3S S E L D £ K. 

drawing n^ articles of impeachment against the duke of 
Biickingliani, and was afterwards appointed one of the ma* 
nagers for the House of Commons on his trial. In 162T 
lie opposed the loan which the king endeavoured to raise^ 
and although he seldom made his appearance at the bar^ 
pleaded in the court of King^s Bench for Hampden, who 
had been imprisoned for refusing to pay his quota of that 
loan. After the third parliament of Charles L in which be 
aat for Lancaster, had been prorogued, he retired to Wrest 
in Bedfordshire, a seat belonging to the earl of Kent, where 
he finished his edition of the ** Marmora Arundelliana,'* 
Lond. 1629) 4to, i^eprinted by Prideaux, with additions at 
Oxford, in 1676, folio, and by Maittaire, at London, 1732^ 
in folio. 

In the next session- of parliament he continued his ac* 
tivity against the measures of the court, to which he had 
made himself so obnoxious, that after that parliament was 
dissolved^ be was committed to the Tower by an order of 
Uie Privy-'council, where he remained about eight monthly 
and as be then refused to give security for his good be* 
bariour, he was removed to the King*s Bench prison, but 
Was allowed the rules. It was about this time that he wrote 
bis piece ^^ De successionibus in bona defuncti, secundum 
leges Hebrseorum,'" Lond. 1634, 4to; and another, '* De 
buccessione in poutificatum Hebrseorum libri duo,'* re- 
printed at Ley den, 1638, 8vo, and Francforr, by Beckman, 
1673, 4to, with some additions by the author. In May 
1630 he was removed to the Gate-house at Westminster; 
and in consequence of tbb removal, he found means to 
obtain so much indulgence, as to pass the long vacation in 
Bedfordshire ; but when his habeas corpus was brought, as 
usual, in Michaelmas term ensuing, it was refused by the 
court, and the judges complaining of the illegality of his 
removal to the Gate-house, he was remanded to the King^s- 
bench, where he continued till May 1631, when he was 
admitted to bail, and bailed from term to term, until be 

Setitloned the king, in July 1634, and was finally released 
y the favour of archbishop Laud and the lord treasurer. 
Puring his confinement, having been always much attached 
to the study of Jewish antiquities, he wrote his treatises, "De 
Jure natural! et gentium, juxta disciplinam Hebr«orum,'* 

atirr barriften of this Honie are to all standing; and accordingly he was caUe4 
Intentf aad purposely any forOier act i« ibe bt uCb Mi€bi«liBas faliowiag." 
«( parliuuBt W tbt contrary noiwitk- 



S Ig L fi M. IM 

kn^A Km ^ UMr tlebndoa/' on tbe marriages, diVorMf, k^ 
^f the ancieot Hebrews. In 1633 be was one of the com* 
tnittee appointed for preparing the mask exhibited by th# 
geatlemen of the Inns of Court» before the king and queen 
on Candlemas night, in' order to show their disapprobation 
pf Prynne's book against stage->plays, called ** Histriomat* 
tiz:^* so variotM were Selden's pursuits, that he could evett 
Mperintend mummery of this kind^ while apparently nnder 
Ihe displeasure of the court. His next publication^ hofr* 
wiffeff effectually reconciled the court and ministers. 

During king Jameses reign, Selden had been of« 
dered by his majesty to make such collections at 
night shew the right of the crown of England to the 
dominion of the sea, and he had undertaken the work^ 
but, in resentment for being imprisoned by James, de^ 
clined the publication. An occasion offered now in whiok 
it might appear to advantage. In 16S4, a dispute having 
arisen between the English and Dutch concerning the 
herring-fishery upon the British coast, to which the Dutch 
laid claim, and had their claims supported by Grotius^ 
who, in his ** Mare liberum^' contended that fishing on th0 
seas was a matter of common right, Selden nOw published 
bis celebrated treatise of ^* Mare Clausum,'' Lend. 1635, foK 
In this he effectually demonstrated, from the law of natur# 
and nations, that a dominion over the sea may be ac« 
quired : and from the most authentic hiitorifes, that such a 
dominion has been claimed and enjoyed by several nations^ 
and submitted to by others, for their common benefit: 
that this in fact was the case of the inhabitants of this 
island, who, at all times, and under every kind of govern* 
ment, had claimed, exercised, and constantly enjoyed such 
a dominion, which had been copfessed by their neighbours 
firequently, and in the most solemn manner. This treatise^ 
iu the publication of which Selden is said to have been en* 
cooraged by archbishop Laud, greatly recommended him 
to- the court, and was considered as so decisive on the 
question^ that a copy of it was placed among the records o^ 
die crown, in the exchequer, and in the court of admiralty. 
This woik was reprinted in 1636, 8vo* An edition also 
appeared in Holland, 12mo, with the title of London^ but 
was prohibited by the king, because of some additions, 
and a preface by Boxhomius. It was translated into 
English, by the noted Marchamont Needham, 1652, fol. 
with some additional evidence and discourses, by special 



It4 8 E L O E N. 

command, and a dedication of eighteen pages, addtened 
to *^ The supreme authoritie of the nation and parliament 
of the Commonwealth of England,*' which is of course not 
prefixed to the trandation by J. H. Gent published after 
the restoration in 1663. Nicolson obsenres, that whea 
Selden wrote this book, he was not such an inveterate 
enemy to the prerogative doctrine of ship-money, as after* 
wards : for he professedly asserts, that in the defence of 
their sovereignty at sea^ our kings constantly practised the 
levying great sums on their subjects without the concur^ 
rence of their parliaments. The work having been attacked 
by Peter Baptista Burgns, Selden published in 1653, ^te^ 
a treatise in its defence, with rather a harsh tttle^ <* Viii« 
dicisB secundum integrilatem existimationis suae percoo* 
vitium de scriptione Maris clausi petulantissunum et 
mendacissimum Maris libbri, &c.'* 

In 1640, Selden published another of those works 
which were the fruit of his researches into Jewish antiqui- 
ties, already noticed under the title '^ De Jure Natorali et 
Gentium juxta disciplinam Hebrssoram,'' folio^ Pu£fendorff 
applauds this work highly ; but his translator Barbeyrac ob- 
serves, that *^ besides the extreme disorder and obscurity 
which are justly to be censured in his manner of writing, he 
does not derive his principles of nature from the pure tight of 
reason, but merely from the seven precepts given to Noah f 
and frequently contents himself with citing the decisiona 
of the Rabbins, without giving himself the trouble to 
examine whether they be just or not.** Le Clerc says^ 
that in this book Selden *' haa only copied the Rabbins, 
and scarcely ever reasons at all. • His rabbinical principles 
are founded upon an uncertain Jewbh tradition, namely,^ 
that God gave to Noah seven precepts, to be o|bserved by 
all mankind; which, if it should be denied, the Jews 
would find a difficulty to prove t besides, his ideas are 
very imperfect and embarrassed." There'is certainly softie 
foundation for this ; and what is siud of his style may be 
more or less applied to all he wrote. He had a vast 
inemory and prodigious learoii^^; wliich impeded the use. 
0f bis reasoning faculty, perplexed and embarrassed, bis 
ideas, and crowded bis writings with citations -and authori- 
ties^ to supply the place of argument. 

In this same year, 1640, Selden was chosen member for 
the university of Oxford, and that year and the following 
to oppose the miHtSHmi of |bf CQurli^ but hia cqp*t 



8 E^ L D E N. 321 

Amd taaj to tone appear ansteady^ la truth, be attempted 
what in those days was ioipossible, to steer a middle course. 
He supported -the republican party in the measures pre- 
paratory to the sacrifice of the earl of Strafford, but was not 
one of their Comoiittee for managing the impeachment^ 
and his name was even inserted in a list of members^ posted, 
up in Old Palace Yard hy some party zealots, and branded 
with the appellation of ** enemies of justice.'* On the 
aubjecjt of church-government, although be seems to have 
entertained some predilection for /the establiahmeJ9t, yet 
he mada no effoiit to prevent its fall, at all commensurate 
to his Jcoowledge and credit In the debaites on the 
question whether bishops sat in pariiameot as barons and 
peers of the realm, or as prelates, he gave it as his opinion 
that they sat as neither, but as representatives of the clergy ; 
and this led to the expulsion of them from parliament, 
AfterwiM^ds we find him concurring with other members of 
the House of Commons in a protestation that they would 
inaintaitt the protesunt religion according to the doctjrine 
of the church >of England, an^ wcg^ld defend the person and 
jauthority of the J^iug, the privileges of parliament,, and 
.the rij^hts of the subject In the prosecution of arch- 
bishop Laud, Selden was among those who were appointed 
to draw up articles of impeachment against him, an office 
which must have produced a severe contest between his 
private feelings and his public duties. 

Notwithstanding all this, the royalists were unwilling to 
believe that a man so learned and so well informed aa 
JSelden could be seriously hostile, and there were even 
aome thoughts of taking the g;reat seal from jbhe lord 
keeper Littleton, and giving it to him. Clarendon tells us^ 
that lord Falkland and himself, to whom bU n^ajiestv re- 
ferred the consideration of this measure, ^' did nojt doubt 
jof Mr. Selden's affection to the kjng; but withal they 
knew him w well, that they concluded he yroul4 absolutely 
refuse the place, if it we^'e offered to bios. Hfi was in 
years, and of a tende^r ^on^tijtution : he had for many 
years enjoyed his eaa^ !ivbicb he loved; iRas rich, and 
would not have made a journey to Yor]^, or haye lain oji^t 
of hia own bed, for any preferment, wbjch be ba4 never 
affected.** But in all probability his majes.ty^s. advisers saw 
that his want of firmness, and bit love of safety, were the 
veal impediments. When the king found him opposing in 
jiarliaoi^t the comipiasion of array, be desired lord Falk« 



iM § E L D E n; 

land to write to Selden on the ftubjeet,' Wlio vitidtcltte^ 
his conduct on that pointy but declared his intention to b# 
equally hostile to the ordinance for the militia, which was 
moved by the factions party, and which he justly declared 
to be without ady shadow of law, or pretence of precedent,^ 
and most destructive to the government of the kingdom. 
Accordingly he performed his promise, but this remarkable 
difference attended his efforts, that his oppoiition to the 
tommbsion of array did the king great injury among 
siuuiy of his subjects, while the ordinance i^hich armed the 
t>arliamentary leaders against the crown was cartied : and^ 
itccording to Whitelocke, Selden himself was made a 
deputy-lieutenant under it. There was an eqilally re* 
markable difference in the treatment he received for this 
double, opposition. The king and his friends, cohvroced 
that he acted honestly, bore no resentment against' him ; 
but the popular leaders, most characteristically, inferred 
irom this, that he must be hostile to their cause, and made 
Vain endeavours to induce Waller to implicate bite in th^ 
j[>lot which he disclosed in 1 649. Nor wis hik cfxbuf pation 
sufficient : for he was obliged^ by an o^ktfr, td tesrtify his 
hbstility against the traitorous and horrible plot f6T the sub- 
version of the parliament and state. 

In 1643, he was appointed one of the lay^^Ai^^mbers tor 
sit in the assembly of divines at Westminister, in which, his 
admirers tell us, he frequently perplexed those divines 
with his vast learning ; and, as Whitelocke relates, 
*« sometimes when they had cited a text of scripture to 
brove their assertion, he would tell them, * perhaps in your 
little pbcketobibles with gilt leaves,* which they would 
often pull out and read, * the translation may be thus ;* but 
the Greek and the Hebrew signify thus and thus ; and so 
would totally silence them.'* This anecdote, which has 
^ften been repeated to Selden*s praise, may afford a proof 
bf his wit, such as it was ; but as a reflection on the divmes 
^T that assembly, it can do him tio credit, many of them 
certainly understanding the original languages of the Bible 
as well as himself. It Was in truth, as an able critic haa 
t>bserved, a piece of wanton insolence. 

It is now necessary to revert to his publications, which 
Were seldom long interrupted by his poUtical i^gagements* 
{n 1642, he published << A brief discourse concerning the 
power of peers and commons in parliament in point of 
judicature/* 4to^ which eome bare, however, ascribed ta 



S E L D E N. 92T 

•tr Stmonids D'Ewes. It was followed by << A dtscooiM 
•onceming the rights and privileges of the subjects, in i^ 
coafereace desired by the lords in 1628," Lond. 1642, 4to ; 
^* Privileges of the Baronage of England, when they sit in 
fMnrliament,'' ibid. 1642, and 1681, 8vo; and an edition <tf 
Eutycbius's '^ Origines," with a translation and notea^ 
Lond. 4to, under this title, <^ Eutychii ^gyptii^ Patriarchsa 
orthodoxorum Alexandrini, Ecciesiae suai origines er ejt]^s«* 
dem Arabico, nunc primum edidit ac versione et coalmen* 
tario auxit Joannes Seldenus." Pocock (see P6cocK^ 
Vol. XXV. p. 91) inserted this work in his edition of th^ 
anoals of Eutycbius, which he translated at the desire of 
Mr. Selden, at whose expence they were printed at Oxford^ 
in 1656, 4to. Mr. Selden's book has been animadverted 
upon by several writers, particularly Abraham Ecchellensis, 
John Morin, and Ensebius Kenaudot. 
• In 1643, he afforded every proof of his adherence to the 
republican party, by taking the covenant ; and the same 
year, was by the parliament appointed keeper of the re* 
cords in the Tower* In 1644, he was elected one of the 
twelve commissioners of the admiralty ; and nominated to 
the noastership of Trinity-college, in Cambridge, which he 
did not think proper to accept. In this year, he puUjsbed 
bis treatise ** De Anno civili et Calendario Judaico,'* 4to« 
In 1646, the parliament was so sensible of his services that 
they voted him the sum of 5000/. in consideration of bis 
sufferings. What these were we have already related. la 
1647, he published his learned ** Dissertation annexed tQ 
(a book called) Fleta," which he discovered in jtbe Cot- 
tonian library. A second edition was published in 1685, 
but in both are said to be many typographical errors. In 
1771, R. Kelham ^sq. published a translation with notes. 
This work contains many cnrious particulars relating to 
ihose ancient authors on the laws of England, Bracton, 
Britton, Fleta, and Thornton, and shews what ule was 
made of the imperial law in England, whilst the Romans 
governed here, at what time it was introduced into this 
nation, what use our ancestors made of it, how long it con- 
tinued, and when the use of it tolally ceased in the king's 
courts at Westminster. 

Selden continued to sit in Parliament after the mur* 
der of the king, and was the means of doing some good to 
learning, by his own reputation and in6uence in that re^ 
spect^ He preserved archbishop Usher's library from 



$29 S E L D E N. 

bjeingsbldyaiid rendered considerable services to iJm u hmmm 
mtj of Oxford, taking all occasions, as in the cases of Pocook 
and Greaves, to moderate the tyranny of the parliamentary 
visitors, and often afibrding a generous protection to 
other eminent men. who were about to be ejected for theif 
adherence to the king. He also was instrumental in pre* 
serving the books and medals at St James's, by persuad* 
ing his friend Whitelocke to accept the charge of them. 
Of his conduct while the death of the king was pending, 
we have no account ; at that critical period^ he retired, it. is 
said, as far as he could : and it is certain that he refused 
to gratify Cromwell by writing an answer to the Eikxm 
Basiiike. In 1650, be published his first book, ^< .Oe 
Synedriis et proefecturis Hebrsorum,*' 4to ; the second aj^ 
peared in 1653, and the third after his death, in 1655. 
^any passages in this work have been animadverted upon 
by several eminent writers, especially what relates to ex* 
communication. Dr. Hammond, in particular, has ex- 
amined Selden's notion concerning the power of binding 
«nd loosing, in hie treatise concerning <« The power of the 
Keys.*' lu 1652, he contributed a preface to the <* De* 
cem Scriptures Historiss Anglicane,** printed, at JLoudoa 
that year, in folia 

In the beginning of 165^^ his heaJeh began to deeline, 
and he began to see the emptiness of all human leamieg ; 
and owned, that out of the numberless volumes be had 
vead.and digested, nothing stuck so close to bis heart, cor 
gave him such solid satisfaction as a single passage out of 
fit. Paul's Epistle to Titus, ii. H, 12, 13^ 14. On Nor. 
10 of that year, he sent to his friend Bulstrode Whitelocke, 
in order to make some alterations in bis will, but when be 
came he found Selden's weakness to be so much increased^ 
that he was not able to perform his intention *. He died 
Nov. 30, in the seventieth year of his age, in White Friars, 
at the house of Elizabeth, countess of Kent, with whom he 
bad lived some years in such intimacy, that they were re- 

« Bk letter nay be iQbJMaed, at '«MostbimiUefi«rvaD|» 

the last memorial of this great man. i ** J. Seldc% . 

«« Mj Lord, ** White Friers, Nov..lS» 1654.*' 

" I fttn a most bumble taitor to yoor •* I wMt to hisi,*' layi Mr. Whil^ 

Lordtbip, tbet you will be pleaecd, locke, ** and wot adviiod with aho«t 

that I might have your preteaoe for a settliog hie e»tate, and altering bis will^ 

ihtle time to-morrow or next day. and to be one of bit oiaOiitocs ; bolhift 

Thus much wearies the most wenh hand weafcoest so incnnseds that Wb • 

^nd body of Your Lordship's tiont were pvtfeaied 






S E L D £ N. IM! 

]M>ftid to be man and wife*^ and Dr. Wilkioi supposes, that 
the weaUb, which he left at his death, was chiefly owing to 
the generosity of that coantess : but there is no good reason^ 
for either of these surmises. He was buried in the Temple 
Vhtirch, where a monument was erected to him ; and abp. 
Usher preached his funeral sermon. He left a most val«a« 
ble and curious library to his executors, Matthew HaU^i 
«hrhn Vaughan, and Rowland Jewks, esqs. which they gene<-k 
rouyly would have bestowed. on the society of the Inoen 
Temple, if a proper place should be provided to receive it; 
but, this being neglected, they gave it to the university of. 
Oxford. Selden, himself, had originally intended it for 
Oxford, and had left it so in his will f, but was offended 
Because when he applied for a manuscript in the Bodleian 
librar}', they asked, according to usual custom, a bond ot 
1000/. for its restitution. This made him declare, with some 
passion, that they should never have his collection. The- 
executors, however, considered that they were executora 
of his will and not of his passion, and therefore destined 
the books, amounting to 80OO volumes, for Oxford, where 
a noble room was added to the library ftNr their reception* 
Burnet says, this collection was valued at some thousands 
of pounds^ and was believed to be one of the most curious 
in Europe. It is supposed that sir Matthew Hale gave some 
of Selden*s M8S respecting law to LincolnVInn library, at 
there is nothing of that kind among what were sent to the 
Bodldan ; and a few Mr. Selden gave to the library of tbe 
college of physicians. 

Selden was a man of extensive learning, and had as much 
skill in the Hebrew and Oriental languages as perhaps any 
man of his time, Pocock eaurepted. Grotius, over whom 
he triumphed in his ** Mare clausum,*' styles him *^ the glory 

* Aabrey layf be iliarned the coun- * whole to Oiford.'* We know not on 
tesB irbeD a widow, bat we know of no what authority this report wgireD, but 



•Iher authority Ibr tikit. Aubrey layt it ia ooiitr»dictory lo every other 'evi* 

also Ithat be aertr wmld owu the mar- dence. The aceount in the test ap. 

riage uutil after her death, and thea pean to be the true one. See the terms 

upon soflM law aecounL on which Seldeo't librafy was eeat to 

f In Mr. lillehols'e •« Uternry Asec* Odbrd in n note on A. Wood's Life^ 

iptes,'* it it said tM " Selden had sent 1773, p. 131. Wood and Barlow a»i 

bis library to Ozlbrd in bis lifb-time, sisted in rangiof the books, in openiof 

%«t Aeatinf that tbe^ bad lent out n seoie of whieh. Wood tells as, thejr 



book wIMioft f snlMcst csption, he found several pairs of spectacles, <* aa4 

sent ibrit back again. After his death, Mr. Thomas Barlow gave A. W. a pair, 

it continued sons time at tba Temple, which he kept in msoiorie of Seldea ^ 

'Wljbere it stiflhred same dimisotkm : at bif lut day/' 



list tbs ssssvlonb Itc 9^% SMt Hit 



3S0 S E L D E N. 

#f the English nation." He was knowing in all kwa^ himiMi 
and divine, yet did not greatlj trouble himielf with the 
practice of law : he seldom appeared at the bar, btttaome- 
times gave counsel in his chamber. ** His mind also/' says 
Whitelocke, ^^ was as great as his learning; he was as hos- 
pitable and generous as any man, and as good company to 
those he liked.'' Wilkins relates, that be was a man o# 
uncommon gravity and greatness of soul, averse to flattery, 
liheral to scholars, charitable to the poor ; and that, though 
he had a great latitude in his principles with regard to eccle- 
siastical power, yet he had a sincere regard for the church 
X>f England. Baxter remarks, that ^* he was a resolved se^ 
rious Christian, a great adversary, particularly, to Hobbes^s 
errors ;" and that sir Matthew Hale affirmed, ^ bow he had 
seen Selden openly oppose Hobbes so earnestly, as either 
to depart from him, or drive him out of the room." Bot 
the noblest testimony in bis favour is that of his intimate 
friend the earl of Clarendon, who thus describes him in all 
parts of his character : ^^ Mr. Selden was a person," sayt 
he, *< whom no character can flatter, or transmit in any 
expressions equal to his merit and virtue. He was of such 
stupendous learning in all kinds and in all languages, as 
may appear from his excellent and transcendant writings, 
tliat a man would have thought be had been entirely con- 
versant among books, and had never spent an hour but in 
reading or writing ; yet his humanity, courtesy, and afia* 
bility, was such, that he would have been thought to have 
been bred in the best courts, but that his good*natare, cha» 
rity, add delight in doing good, and in communicating ail 
he knew, exceeded that breeding. His style in all his 
writings seems harsh, and sometimes obscure ; which is not 
VhoUy to be imputed to the abstruse subjects of which he 
commonly treated, out of the paths trod by other men, but 
to a little undervaluing the beauty of a style *, and too much 
propensity to the language of antiquity : but in his conver- 
sation he was the most clear discourser, and had the best 
faculty in making bard things easy, and present to the un- 
derstanding, of any man that hath been known.*' His 
Jordsbip also used to say, that *^ he valued himself upon 
nothing more than upon having had Mr. Selden's acquaint* 
ance, from the time he was very young ; and} held it with 

* Selden's ityle is particularly la- sod made many alterations and esii^ 
boufed and nacoatb, and from his Mret before ba poi^d jilfaaa luotfel& 
^SS it appears that IM was faftidioMs, " ^ 



S B L D £ N. SSI 

gteat deliglit m long as they were safFered to rontinue to« 
getber in London : and he was very much troubled always 
irben he heard bitn blamed, censured, and reproached for 
•tayiog in London, and in the parliament, after they were 
in rebellion, and in the worst times, which his age obliged 
bim to do; and how wicked soever the actions were, which 
were every day done, he was confident he had not given his 
consent to them, but would have hindered them if he could 
with his own safety, to which he was always enough induU 
gent. If he had some infirmities with other men, they 
were weighed down with wonderful and prodigious abilities 
and excellences in the other scale." The political part of 
6elden*s life, is that which the majority of readers will con* 
template with least pleasure ; but on this it is unnecessary 
to dwell. The same flexibility of spirit, which made him 
crouch before the reprehension of James L disfigured the 
test of his life, and deprived him of that dignity and im- 
portance which would have resulted from his standing erect 
m any place he might have chosen. Clarendon seems to 
have hit the true cause of all, in that anxiety for hisown 
safety to which, as he says^ ^^ he was always indulgent 
enough.** 

Several other works of his were printed after his death, 
or left in manuscript. 1. ^* God made man. A Tract prov» 
ing the nativity of our Saviour to be on the 2'5th of Decem- 
ber,** Lond. 1661, 8vo, with his portrait. This was an- 
swered in the first postscript to a treatise entitled '< A 
brief (but true) account of the certain Year, Month, Day, 
and Minute of the birth of Jesus Christ,** Lond. 1671, 8vo, 
by John Butler, B. D. chaplain to James duke of Ormonde, 
and rector of Litchborow, in the diocese of Peterborough. 
2. <^ Discourse of the office of Lord Chancellor of England,** 
London, 1671, in fol. printed with Dugdale*s catalogue of 
lord chancellors and lord keepers of England from the Norr 
snan conquest. 3, Several treatises, viz. '* England*s Epi* 
nomis;** already jmentioned, published 1683, in fol. by 
Jledman Westcot, ali^s Littleton, with the English transla* 
tton of Selden*8 ^* Jani Anglorum Facies altera.'* 4. <^Ta« 
ble talk : being the discourses or bis sense of various mat* 
ters of weight and high consequence, relating especially to 
Religion and State,** London, 1689, 4to, published by 
{lichard Milward, amanuensis to our author. Dr. Wilkiit 
observes, that there are many things in this book inconsist* 
mt with SeldeaUgre^t l^Mrning, principles^ aa4 character# 



982 S £ L D £ N. 

It has, howeveri acquired popularity, and still contioues t#' 
be printed, as an amusing and edifying manual. 5. ** Let* 
lers to learned men ;** among which several to archbtsbop 
IJsher are printed in the collection of letters at the end of 
Parr^s life of that prelate ; and two letters of bis to Mr. 
Thomas Greaves were first published fr'om the originals hj 
Thomas Birch, M. A, and F. R. S. in the life prefixed to 
Birch's edition of the ^* Miscellaneous works of Mr. John 
Greaves/' Lond. 1737, in two volumes, 8vo« 6. ^< Speecbes^ 
Arguments, Debates, &c. in Parliament." 7* ^^ ^^ ^ 
considerable hand in, and gave directions and advice to** 
wards, the edition of " Plutarch's Lives," printed in 1657, 
with an addition of the year of the world, and the year of 
our Lord, together with many chronological notes and ex- 
plications. His works were collected by Dr. David WiU 
iins, and printed at Loudon in three volumes fol. 1726* 
The two first volumes contain bis Latin works, and tbe 
third bis English, The editor has pi*efixed a long life of 
tbe author, and added several pieces never published be* 
fore, particularly letters, poems, &c. In 1675 there was 
printed at London in 4to, '^ Joannis Saldeni AngU Liber 
de Numrois, &c. Huic accedit Bibliotheca Numaaria.'* 
But this superficial tract was not written by our aotbor, but 
by Alexander Sardo of Ferrara, and written before Seldea 
was born, being published at Mentz, 1575, in 4to. Tbe 
'* Bibliotheca Nummaria*' subjoined to it was written by fa« 
iher Labbe the Jesuit.' 

SELKIRK (Alexakher), whose adventpres have gtvea 
rise to the popular romance of Robinson Crusoe, was born 
at Largo, in Fifeshire, in Scotland, about 1676, and was 
bred a seaman. He left England in 17C3, in tbe capacity 
of sailing-master of a small vessel, called the Cinque* Ports* 
Galley, Charles Pickering captain ; and in the month of 
September, tbe same year, be sailed from Cork, in com- 
pany with another ship of '26 guns and 1{0 men, called dur 
St. George, commanded by captain William Dampier, in* 
lended to crnise against the Spaniards in the South sea. On 
tbe ooast of Brasil, Pickering died, and was succeeded in 
tbe command by lieutenant Stradling. They proceeded 
round Cape Horn to the islaiid of Juan Fernandez, whence 
they were driven by tbe appearance of two French sbips of 

I Biof . Brft.-«ea. Diet Ufe by Wilkiof .— Ufbees Life attd Lettcn.<-UU 

ten of emineiit Penoni, 1813, 3 volt. Sv*.—- Twdts't Life of Poood[, & 45 «0l 
^EX^AiMin'i lives ol MAm «iii Vsi^.-*Brit» CriU toI ^^A 



S E L k I R It. ISS 

^ guns eacby and left five of Stradling*i men on sfaore^ 
who were taken off by the French. Hence tbey sailed to 
the coast of America, wbere Dampier and Stradltng quar* 
felled, and separated by agreement. This was in the month 
of May 1704; and in the. following September, Stradling 
came to the island of Juan Fernandez, wbere Selkirk and 
bis captain having a quarrel, he determined to remain there 
alone. But when the ship was ready to sail, bis resolution 
was shaken, and he desired to be taken onboard ; but now 
the captain refused his request, and he was left with hit 
clothes, bedding, a gun, and a small quantity of powder 
end ball, some trifling implements, and a few books, with 
certain mathematical and nautical instruments. Thus left 
sole monarch of the island, with plenty of the necessariea 
of life, he found himself at first in a situation scarcely sup- 
portable ; and such was his melancholy, that he frequently ' 
determined to put an end to his existence. It was full 
eighteen months, according to his own account, before he 
could reconcile himself to his lot. At length his mind be* 
came calm, and fully reconciled to his situation : he grew 
happy, employed his time in building and decorating hie 
huu, chasing the goats, whom he soon equalled in speedy 
end scarcely ever failed of catching them. He also tamed 
young kids,^and other animak, to be his companions. When 
his garments were worn out, he made others from the skins* 
of the goats, whose flesh served him as food. His only* 
liquor was wiUer. He computed that he had caught, dar* 
Ing hts abode in the island, about 1000 goats, half of which 
be had suffered to go at large, having first marked them 
with a slit in the ear. Commodore Anson, who went there 
30 years after, found the first goat which they snot, had 
been thus marked ; and hence tbey concluded that it had 
been under the power of l^elkirk. Though he constantir 
perfcMrmed his devotions at stated hours, and read aloud^ 
yet when he was taken from the island, bis language, from 
disuse of conversation, had become scarcely intelligible. 
In this solitude he remained four years and four months^ 
during which only two incidents occurred which he thought . 
worthy of record. The first was, that pursuing a goat ea* 

Serly, he caught at the edge of a precipice, of which he 
as not aware, and he fell over to the bottom, where he 
ley some time senseless ; but of the exact space of time 
in which he was bereaved of his active powers he could not 
fi^ra an accurate estimate When, however, he came t# 



•$« SELKIRK. 

\ 

m 

Iiiinself^ be found the goat lying under him dead. It 
with difficulty that be could crawl to his habitation, and iC 
was not till after a considerable time that he entirely reco* 
▼ered from bis bruises. The other event was the arrival 
of a ship, which he at first supposed to be French^ but^ 
npon the crew's landing, he found them to be Spaniards^ 
pf whom he had too great a dread to trust himself in their 
hands. They» however, had seen him, and he found it 
extremely difficult to make his escape* In this solitude 
Selkirk remained until the 2d of February, 1709^ when he 
•aw two ships cotne to the bay, and knew them to be Eng-» 
lish. He immediately lighted a fire as a signal, and be 
found, upon the landing of the men, that they were two 
privateers from Bristol, coihmanded by captains Rogers and 
Courtney. These, after a fortuight^s stay at Juan Fernau* 
dez, embarked} taking Selkirk with them, and returned by 
way of the East Indies to England, where they arrived on 
the 1st of October, 1711; Selkirk having been absent eight 
years. The public curiosity being much excited, he, after 
his return, drew up some account of what had occurred 
during his solitary exile, which he put into the bands of 
Defoe, who made it the foundation of his well-knowa 
work,, entitled *^ Robinson Crusoe*** The time and place 
s of Selkirk's death are not on record. It is said, that so 
kte as 1798, the chest and musket, wliich Selkirk had with 
him on the island, were in possession of a grand nephew, 
John Seljkirk, a weaver in Largo, North Britain. Such are 
the particulars .of this man's history as recorded in ^ Thd 
Englishman,'^ Na 26, and elsewhere, but what credit ia 
due to it, we do not pretend to say«' 

SENAC (John), a distinguished French physician, waa 
bom in Gascony about the close of the seventeenth cen* 
fury, and is said to have been a doctor of the faculty of 
physic of Rheims, and a bachelor of that of Paris ; which 
last degree he obtained in 1724 or 1725* He was a roan 
of profound erudition, united with great modesty, and be- 
came possessed, by his industry in the practice of his pro« 
fession, of much sound medical knowledge. • Hit merits 
obtained for him the favour of the court, and he was ap«* 
pointed consulting physician to Louis XV. and subse^ 
quently succeeded Chicoyneau in the office of first physic 
eian to that monarch. He was also a member of the royal. 

I Sioclair'f SfatislNal Reports of ScoUand.— Cbalmeri'i Life of Defo^ dec. 



9 E N A C. ISS 

t 

acadeny of sciences at Parin^ and of the royal society of 
Nancy. He died in December 1770, at the age of abont 
^venty-Seven years. 

This able physician left some' works of great reputation^ 
^particularly his ^< Traiti de la Structure du Coeur, de son 
Action, et de ses Maladies,'^ Paris, 1749, in two volumes, 
ttto» An essay ** De recondite febrium intermittentium et 
reaMttenttifm naturft,*' Amst. 1759, is generally ascribed to 
Senac. He also published an edition of Heister^s Anatomy, 
Parts, 1724, and afterwards ^' Diteours sur la tSJkxhode de 
Franco, et sur celle de M. Rau toachant POperation de la 
Taille,'* 1727* <«Trait« des Causes, des Accidens, etde 
la Cure de la Peste,^' 1744. A work under the assumed 
name of Julien Morison, entitled *< Lettres sur la Choix des 
l^aign£es,*^ 1730, was from his pen; but the '^Nouvean 
Cours de Chymie suivant les Principes de Newton et de 
Suhl," Paris, 1782 and 1737, has been attributed by mis- 
take to Senac ; it was in fact a compilation of notes takea 
at the lectures of Geoffiroy by some students, and is iia« 
worthy of his pen. 

His son Gabriel Senac de Meilhan possessed political 
talents which promoted him in the reigns of Louis XV. atad 
XVI. to the places of master of the requests, ^nd intendant 
for several provinces. On the breaking out of the revolu« 
tion, he left France, and was received at some of theOer* 
man courts with distinction. He afterwards went to St. 
Petersburgb, where Catherine IL gave him a pension of 
6000 roubles, and wished him to write the annals of her • 
t'eign. On her death he removed to Vienna, where he 
died Aug. 16, 1803. He published, << Memoires d'Anne 
<Je Gonzague,'* *< Consideration sur les Richesses et le 
Luxe;" a translation of Tacitus ; and some political works 
on the revolution, with two volumes 8vo, of " Oeuvres phi* 
tosophiques et litteraires.'* ' 

SENAULT (John FaAHcis), an eloquent French divine^ 
was born in 1601, at Paris, and was the son of Peter Sen* 
ault, secretary to the council of the League. He entered 
young into the congregation of the oratory, then newly 
established by cardinal de Berulle, and was one of the 
most celebrated preachers and best directors of his time. 
He preached with uncommon reputation during forty years, 
1^1 Paris, and in the principal cities of France, and wrote 



1 Slpjr, Diet. Eiit. 4« Mediciae.-^Reet'i Cyck>p«dk.^Dict. Hift. 






ft« S £ N A U L T. 

tcrenil bo6ks on pious and moral snbjecU, which were 
much esteemed by pious catholics. He appears to havd 
.been a disinterested man, for be refused some considerable 
pensions, and two bishoprics, but wm elected general of 
tbe oratory in 1662. He died August 3, 1672, at Paris, 
aged seventy-one. His priQcip&l works are, *< A para- 
phrase on tbe Book of Job,** 8vo; *< L* Usage des Passions,"^ 
i2mo; <^L' Homme Chretien," 4to ; '<L' Homme crimrhei, 
4to ; *^ Le Monarque, ou les Devoirs du Souverain,** ISmo; 
<< Panegyrics on the Saints/* 3 vols. 8vo ; and tbe Lives of 
aeveral persons illustrious for their piety, jcc« It was this 
father, says L' Avocat, who banished from the pulpit that 
empty parade of profane learning, and that imlse taste, by 
which it was degraded, and who introduced a strong, sub- 
lime» and majestic eloquence, suited to the solemnity of 
our mysteries, and to the truths of our holy religion.' 

SENECA (Lucius Ann/eus), an eminent Stoic philoso^ 
pber, was born at Corduba in Spain, (he year before the 
beginning of the Christian sera, of an equestrian family^ 
which had probably been transplanted thither in a colony 
from Rome. He was the second son of Marcus Annieus 
Seneca, commonly called the rhetorician, whose r^naini 
are printed under the title of ** Suasoriie & Confroversise, 
cum Declamationum Excerptis;** and his 3^>ungest brother 
AnnsBUS Mela (for there were three of them) was memora- 
ble, for being tbe father of the poet Lucan. He was re- 
moved to Rome, while be was yet in his infancy, by his 
aunt, who accompanied him on account of the delicacy of 
his- health. There he was educated in the most liberal 
manner, and under the best masters. He learned his elo* 
quence from his father; but preferritigf philosophy to the 
declamations of the rhetoricians, he put himself under the 
stoics Attalus, Sotion, and Papirius Fabianus, of whom he 
has made honourable mention in his writings. It is pro- 
bable too, that he travelled when he was young, since we 
find in several parts of his works, particulaxly in - his 
*^ Qusestiones Naturales," some correct and curious obser« 
tations on Egypt and the Nile. But^these pursuits did not 
at all correspond with that scheme of life which his father 
designed ; and to please him, Seneca engaged in tbe busi- 
ness of the courts, with considerable success, although he 
w§a rather an argumentative than an eloquent pleader. . A^ 

* Diet. UUt de VAropikU 



B e N £ C A. Ul 

tooti as be arrived at manhood, he aspired to the honours 
of the state^ and beclime questor, praetor, and> as Lipsios 
will have it, even consul^ but the particulars of his public 
life are not preserved. 

In the first year of Claudtas, when Julia, the ditughter 
of Geroiaoicus, was accused of adultery by Messalina (a 
woman very unWorthy of credit), and banished^ Seneca was 
involved both in the charge and the punishment, and exiled 
to Corsica, where he lived eight years ; happy^ as he told 
bis mother^ in the midst of those things which usually make 
other people miserable. Here he wrote his books ** Of 
Consolation," addressed to his niother Helvia, and to his 
friend Polybiusi But, as Brucker remarks, it may be ques- 
tioned wbetlier stoic ostentation had not some share in all 
this, for we find him^ in another place, expressing much 
distress on account of his misfortune, and couiting the em^ 
peror in a strain of servile adulation, little worthy of so 
eminent a philosopher. When Agrippina was married to 
Claudius^ upon the death of Messalina, she prevailed with 
the etnperor to recall Seneca from banishment ; and after-" 
Wards procured him to be tutor to her son NerOj and Afra* 
nius Burrbus, a praetorian preefect, was joined with him in 
this important charge. These two preceptors executed their 
tHrust with perfect harmony, and with some degree of suc- 
cess ; Burrhus instructing bis pupil in the military art, and 
inuring him to wholesome discipline ; and Seneca furnish- 
ing him with the principles of philosophy, and thd preceptb 
of wisdom and eloquence ; and both endeavouring to con* 
fine their pupil within the limits of decorum and virtue. 
While these preceptors united their authority, Nero was 
restrained from indulging his natural propensities; but 
after the death of Burrhus, the influence of Seneca de* 
dined, and the young prince began to disclose that de- 
pravity which afterwards stained bis character with eternal 
infamy. Still, however, Seneca enjoyed the favour of his 
prince, and after Nero was advanced to the empire, he 
long continued to load his preceptor with honours and 
riches. Seneca^s houses and walk.s were the most magni- 
ficent in Rome, and he had immense sums of money placed 
out at interest in almost every part of the Svorld. Suilius, 
one of bis enemies, says, that during four years of impe*' 
rial favour, he amassed the immense sum of 300,000 ses^ 
tertisB, or 2,421,875/. of our money* 

All this wealtii, however, togethar with the luxury and 

VoL-XXVil. Z 



S38 S £ N E C A. ^ 

effeminacy of a court, are said not to bare proddced any 
improper effect upon the temper and disposition of Seneca. 
He continued abstemious, cojrrect in . bis manners, and* 
above all, free from flattery and ambition^ *^ I bad ratber,'' 
said he to Nero, ** offend you by speaking the truth, than 
please you by lying and flattery/' It is certain that while 
be had any influence, that is, during the 6rst five years of 
Nero's reign, that, period had always been considered as a 
pattern of good government. But when Poppasa and Tigeili- 
nus bad insinuated themselves into the confidence of the 
emperor, and hurried him into the most extravagant and 
abominable vices, be naturally grew weary of bis master, 
whose life must indeed have been a constant rebuke to 
him. When Seneca perceived that his f«iivour declined at 
courts and that he had many accusers about the^prince^ 
who we.re perpetually whispering in his ears his great riches, 
bis magnificent houses, his fine gardens, and his dangerous 
popularity, he offered to return all his opulence and favours 
to the tyrant, who, however, refused to accept tbem, an4 
assured him of the continuance of his esteem ; but the phi<- 
iosopber knew his disposition too \ve\i to rely on bis pro* 
mises, and as l^acitus relates, ^' kept no more levees, de- 
clined the usual civilities which had been paid to him, and, 
under a pretence of indisposition or engagement^ avoided 
as much as possible to appear in public.'* It was not long 
before Seneca was convinced that he bad made a just esti* 
mate of the sincerity of Nero, who now attempted, by 
means of Cleoui$;U8, a freedman of Seneca, to take him off 
by poison ; but this did not succeed* In the mean time 
Antonius Natalis, who bad been concerned in the conspi* 
racy of Piso, upon bis examination, in order to court tbe 
favour of Nero, or perhaps even at bis instigation, m^dn* 
tioned Seneca among the number of the conspirators, and 
to give some colour to the accusation, pretendedy that he 
bad been sent by Piso to visit Seneca whilst he was sick, 
and to complain of bis having refused to see Piso, who as a 
friend might have expected free access to him upon all oc- 
casions ; and that Seneca, in reply, bad said, that frequent 
conversationa could be of no service M> either party, but 
that be considered his own safety as involved in that of 
Piso. Granius Sylvanus, tribune of the prsetorian cobort^ 
was sent to ask Seneca, whether he recollected what had 
passed between himself and Natalis* Seneca, whether by 
accideat or design is uncertain^ bad that day left Canpa* 



S £ N £ C A. S39 

t)ia» and was at bi» country-^eat, aboilt four tbifes iilom the 
city. In the e?eiiing, while he was at supper with his wife 
t^aullina and two friends, the tribune^ with a dnilttary band, 
came to the hous^ and delirered the eoiperor's message^ 
Seneca's answer was, that he bad received no complaint 
from Piso^ of his having refused to see him ; and that the 
fetate of his healthy which required repose, had been bk 
apology. He added, that he saw no reason why he should 
prefer the safety of any other individual to his own ; and 
that no one was better acquainted than Nero, with his in*' 
dependetit spirit. 

This reply kindled the emperor's indignation, and le«rn^ 
ing from the messenger chat Seneca betrayed no symptoma 
of tertor or distress, sent him a peremptory cbitimand iiB-» 
mediately to put himself to death. This too Seneca receiv- 
ed with perfect composure,' and asked permission of thd 
officer who brought the command, to alter his will ; but that 
being refused, he requested of his friends, that since he was 
not allowed to leave them any other legacy, they would 
preserve the example of his life, and exhorted them to ex-» 
ercise that fortitude^ which philosophy taught. 'After some 
farther conversation with these friends, he embraced his 
wife, and intreated her to console herself with the recol* 
lection of bis virtues : but Paullina refused every consola-'- 
tion, except that of dying with her husband, and earnestly 
solicited the friendly hand of the executioner. Seneca^ 
after expressing his admiration of his wife's fortitude, pro- 
ceeded to obey the emperor's fatal mandate, by opening a 
▼ein in each arm : but, through his advanced age, the vital 
stream flowed so reluctantly, that it was necessary also to 
open the veins of his legs. Still finding bis strength ex^^ 
bausted without any prospegt of a speedy release ; io order 
to alleviate, if possible, the anguish of his wife, who was 
a spectator of the scene, and to save himself the torture of 
witnessing her distress, he persuaded her to withdraw to 
another chamber. In this situation, Seneca, with wonder" 
ful recollection and self-command, dictated many philoso- 
phical reflections to his secretary. After a long interval, 
bis friend Statins Atinsus, to whom he complained of the 
ledious delay of death, gave him a strong dose of poison ; 
but even this, through the feeble state of his vital powers, 
produced little efiiect. At last, be ordered the attendants 
to convey him into a warm bath ; and, as he entered, he 
4^priakled those who stoed near, saying, " I offer this liba- 

z 2 



340 SENECA- 

tion to Jupiter the deliverer.'* Then, plunging into tbe 
batby be was soon suffocated. . His body was consuaied/ 
according to his own express order,' in a will wbich he had 
made in the height of bis prosperity, without any funera! 
pomp. 

The character, the system^ and the writings of this phi- 
losopher have been subjects of much dispute among the 
learned. Concerning bis character, a candid judgef, who 
considers the virtuous sentiments with which his writings 
abound, the temperate and abstemious plan of life which 
be pursued in the midst of a luxurious court, and the for^ 
titude with which he met his fate, will not hastily pro- 
nounce him to have been guilty of adultery, upon the evi- 
dence of the infamous Messalina ; or conclude bis wealth 
to have been the reward of a servile compliance with the 
base passions of bis prince. It has been questioned whe- 
ther Seneca ought to be ranked among the stoic or the 
eclectic philosophers ; and the freedom of judgment which 
he expressly claims, together wiib the respect which ha 
pays to philosophers of difierent sects, clearly prove, that 
be did not implicitly addict himself to the system of Zeno; 
nor can the contrary be inferred from liis speaking of out 
Chrysippus, and our Cleantbes ; for he speaks also of our 
Demetrius, and our Epicurus. It is evident, however, 
from the general tenor and spirit of his writings, that he 
adhered, in the maia to the stoic system. With respect to 
his writings, he is justly censured by Qnintilian, and other 
critics, as among the Komans the first corrupter of style ; 
yet bis works are exceedingly valuable, on accoQDt of tb^ 
great number of just and beautiful moral sentiment^ which 
they contain, the extensive erudition which they discovc^r, 
and the happy mixture of freedom and urbanity, with 
which they censure vice, and inculcate good morals. The 
writipgs of Seneca, except bis books of ^' Physical Ques- 
tions," are chiefly of the moral kind : they consist of one 
hundred and twenty-four <' Epistles,*' and distinct treatises^ 
<< On Anger ; Consolation ; ^Providence ; Tranquillity of 
Mind; Constancy; Clemency; the Shortness of Life; 
a Happy Life ; Retirement ; Benefits." . 

From the excellence of tmany of his precepts, some have 
imagined, that he was a Christian, and it has been reported 
that he held a correspondence with St. Paul by letters ; but 
although he must have beard of Christ and his doctrine, 
and hia curiosity might lead turn (o jB(udc« ^pjne inquiry 



S R N E C A. .S4l 

about them, the letters pubfished under the names of the 
Philosopher and Apostle, have long been declared spurious 
by the critics, and perfectly unworthy of either of them. 
A number of tragedies are extant under the name of Se- 
neca, written in a bad style, but it is uncertain whether^ 
the whole or any of them were by this Seneca. Of his ac- 
knowledged works Justus Lipsius published the first good 
edition, which was succeeded by the Variorum, 1672, 3 vols. 
8vo, and others. Qf the tragedies, the best are those of 
Scriverius, 1621, the Variorum, 1651, &c. and ScbroedePs^ 
1728, 4to." 

S£NNERTUS (Daniel), an eminent pbysidan of Ger- 
many, was born at Breslaw, where his father was a shoe- 
maker, Nov. 25, 1572. He was sent to the university o^ 
Wittemberg in 1593, and there made a great progress in 
philosophy and physic, after which he visited the univer- 
sities of Leipsic, Jena, and Francfort upon the Oder ;> and 
went to Berlin in 1601, whence he returned to Wittem- 
' berg the same year, and was promoted to the degree of 
doctor in physic, and soon after to a professorship in the 
same faculty. He was the first who introduced the study of 
chemistry into that university. He gained great reputa- 
tion by his writings and practice ; patients came to him 
from all parts, among whom were persons. of the first 
rank ; his custom was to take what was o^Fered him for his 
advice, but demanded nothing, and restored to the poor 
what they gave htm. The plague was about seven times 
at Wittemberg while he was professor there , but he never 
retired^ nor refused to assist the sick : and the elector of 
Sax^ony, whom he had cured of a dangerous illness in 1638, 
though he bad appointed him one of bis physicians in ordi- 
nary, yet gave him Leave to continue at Wittemberg. He 
probably fell a sacrifice to his humanity, for he died of the 
plague at Wittemberg, July 21, 1637. 

Sennertus was a voluminous writer, and has been cha« 
racterized, by some critics, as a mere compiler from the 
works of the ancients. It is true that his writings contaih 
an epitome, but, it must be added, a most comprehensive, 
clear, and judicious epitome, of the learning of the Greeks 
and Arabians, which renders them, even at this day, of 
considerable value as books of reference, and is highly 
4:reditable, considering the age in which they were com- 

' T^citai. — AnUuiio Bibl! Hi«p. V€ttt«.-- Brttsker.^Saxli Oaoivast. 



94> S E N N E RT U S. 

posed, to bis learning^vand discriminatioiL It must tiot be 
forgot that he sdso attained some fame as a philosopher^ 
aod was the first restorer of the Epicurean system among 
the moderns. In a distinct chapter of bis ^' Hypomnemata 
Physica," or "Heads of Physics,'* treating of atoms and 
mixture, he embraces the atomic system^ which he derives 
i^om Mochus the Phoenician. He supposes that the pri- 
mary corpuscles not only unite in the formation of bodies, 
but that in their mutual action and passion they undergo 
such modifications, that they cease to be what they were 
before their union ; and maintains, that by their combina* 
lion all oEiaterial forms are produced. Sennertus, however, 
confounded the corpuscles of the more ancient philoso^ 
pbers with the atoms of Democritus and Epictetus, and 
held that each element has primary particles peculiar to 
itself. His works have' often been printed in France and 
Italy. The last edition is that of Lyons, 1676, in 6 vols, 
folio, to which his life is prefixed.' 

SEPTALIUS, or SETTALA (Louis), an Italian phy- 
sician of celebrity, was born at 'Milan, in February 1552. 
He evinced great talents from his early childhood, and at 
the age of sixteen defended some theses on the subject of 
natural philosophy with much acuteness. His inclination 
leading him to the medical profession, he repaired to Pavia^ 
for the study of it, and obtained the degree of doctor in 
his twenty-first year, and was even appointed to a chair in 
this celebrated university two years after. At the end of 
^ur more years he resigned his professorship to devote 
kimself entirely to practice at Milan, and while here Phi- 
lip III. king of Spain, selected him for bis historiographer ; 
.but neither this, nor many other honours, that were offered 
to him, could induce him to quit bis native city, to which 
be was ardently attached. The only honour which be ae« 
cepted was the appoiutment of chief physician to the statQ 
of Milan, which Philip IV. conferred upon him in 1627, as 
a reward for his virtues and talents. In 1628, during the 
plague at Milan, Septalius, while attending the infected, 
was himself seized with the disease, and although he re- 
covered, he bad afterwards a paralytic attack, which greatly 
impaired his health, ^e died in September 16S3, at the 
age of eighty-one. Septalius was a man of acute powers, 
and solid judgment, and wa$ reputed extremely successful 

1 NieeifDt vol. X)V.^£loy.<-Bnic|(er. 



S E P T A L I U St 343 

in bU practice. He was wartply attached t6 the doctrines 
of Hippocrates, whose works he never ceased to study. 
He was autlior of various works, atnong which are : *^ In 
Librum Hippocratis Coi, d^ Aeribus, Aquis, et Locis, 
Commentarii quinque,'' J 590; ^' In Aristotelis Problemata 
Commentaria Latina/' torn. I. 1602, 11. 1607 ; *^ Animad* 
Tersionum et Cautionuro Medicarum Libri duo, septem aiiis 
additi," 1629 ; the result of 40 years of practice, and equal 
to any of its contemporaries of the seventeenth century. 
*^ De Margaritis Judicium," 1618;' '* De Peste et Pes- 
tiferis AflFectibus Libri V." 1622; '* Analyticaruni et AnU 
masticarum Dissertationum Libri tl/' 1626, &c. &c. ' 

SEPULVEDA (John Genes de), a Spanish writer of 
no good fame, was born at Cordova in 1491, and became 
historiographer to the Emperor Charles V. He is memor- 
able for writing a ^' Vindication of the Cruelties of the 
Spaniards against the Indians," in opposition to the bene- 
volent pen of Bartbelemi de la Casas. Sepulveda aflSrmed, 
that such cruelties were justifiable both by human and di- 
vine laws, as well as by the rights of war. It is an act of 
justice to Charles V. to mention that he suppressed the 
publication of Sepulveda^s book in bis dominions ; but it 
was published at Rome. 7*his advocate for the greatest 
barbarities that ever disgraced human nature, died at 
Salamanca iu 1^72. He was author of various works be- 
sides that above mentioned ; in particular, of some Latin 
letters, a translation from Aristotle, with notes, a life of 
Charles V. &c. printed together at Madrid in 1780, 4 vols. 
4to. under the care of the royal academy of history, a 
proof that be still holds his rank.amit>ng Spanish authors. * 

«SERAPION (John), or John the son of Serapion, an 
Arabian physician, lived between the time of Mesne and 
Rbazes, and was probably the first writer on physic in the 
Arabic language. Haly Abbas, when giving an account of 
the works of his countrymen, describes the writings of Se^ 
rapion, as containing only an account of the cure of dis- 
eases, without any precepts concerning the preservation of 
health, or rel^ti^g to surgery; and he makes many critical 
observations, which. Dr. Freind observes, are sufficient 
proofs of the genuine existence of the works ascribed to 
Serapion, from their truth and correctness. Rbazes also 

1 Elor, Diet. H!«^. de Merlecine. — Rees's Cydopsdia. 
? NiceroQ, vol. XXUI.— Aoton. Oibl. Ili^. 



* •" 



844 S ERA P It) N. 

quotes them frequently in his '^ Continent.^* Serapion 
must have lived towards the n^iddle of the nin-tfa century, 
and not in the reign of Leo Isaurus, about the year 72(0, as 
some have stated. One circumstance remarkable in Sera* 
pion. Dr. Freiod observes, is, that he often transcribes the 
writings of Alexander Trallian, an author with whom few of 
the other Arabians appear to be much aoquainted. This 
work of Serapion has been published, in translations, by 
Gerard of Cremona, under the title of ** Practica, Dicta 
Breviarum ;*' and by* Torinus, under that of ^' Therapen- 
tica Methodus." There is another Serapion, whom 
Sprengel cklls the younger^ and places ISO years later than 
the former, find who was probably the author of a work on 
the materia medica, entitled *' De Medicamentis tam sim- 
plicibus, quam compositis.'* . This work bears intrinsic 
evidence of being produced at a much later period, since 
authors are quoted who lived much posterior to Rhazes. ' 

SERARIUS (Nicholas), a learned Jesuit and commen- 
tator on the Scriptures, was bom in 1555, at Ramberwiller 
in Lorrain. After studying the languages, he Caught ethics, 
philosophy, and theology at Wurtzberg and^ Meotz, in 
which last city he died, May 20, 1610, leaving many 
works, of which the following are the principal : *< Com* 
mentaries on several Books of the Bible,*'«Mogunt. 1611 ; 
<* Opuscula Tbeologica," 3 torn. foL ; and others which 
are collected in 16 vols, fol. Dupin gives this author 
some praise^ but objects to bam as dealing too much in 
dijgression, and as frequently being a trifling and incon- 
clusive reasoner. ' 

SERASSl (Peter Anthony), an Italian .bil>gfBpber, 
was born at Bergamo in 1721, and at the age of twenty had 
so distinguished himself as to be elected a member of the 
academy of Transformati at Milan, and on bis return to 
Bergamo, was apppinted professor of the belles lettres. In 
1742, he published his '^ Opinion concerning the-country 
of Bernaido and of Torquato Tasso," ^ a tract in whieh he 
^indicated, to the district of Bergamo, the hononrof bdng 
the native country of these po^, which had been denied 
by Seghezau, the author of a v^xy elegant life of Beraitrdo ; 
but Seghezai now candidly CMS^ofessed that bis oppobcmt 
was right, and that he. should, treat the subject diffenchtiy, 
were be.agaiu to write on )(. In the succeeding years, 

I f Kipd'f B\%U of Pbytic^^Reet'i Cyclo|>«edli. > Dnpin.— Diet. Hi^t, 



S E R A« 8 L 34S 

6er«iti published editioos of seTeral of the beat Italian 
writer9> with tb^ir lives, particularly Maffei, Molza, Poll* 
tiaoi Capella, Dante, Petrarch, &c. The most distin* 
guished of bis biographical productions, however, was his 
lifeofTasso, 1785, 2 vols. 4to, on which he had b^en 
employed during twenty years. Mr. Black, in bis life of 
that eminent poet, has availed himself of Serassi*s work, 
but not without discovering its defects, Serassi also pub* 
lished a life of << Jacopo Mazzoni, patrician of Cessena,*' 
a personage little known, but whose history he has rendered 
interesting. Serassi was employed in some offices under 
the papal government, and in the college of Propaganda. 
He died Feb. 19, 1791, at Rome, in the seventieth year of 
bis age. A monument was erected to his memory in the 
church of St. Maria, in Via late, where he was interred ; 
and the city of Bergamo ordered a medal to be struck to his 
honour, with the inscription <' Propagatori patriae laudis.'* ' 
SERGARDI (Louis), an eminent satirist, was born at 
Sienna in .the seventeenth century, and going to Rome, 
became so distinguished for his talents that he was made a 
bishop. His Laiin ^ Satires" were published under the 
name of Quintus Sectanus, and are said tp rank among the 
purest imitations of Horace's style and manner. He 
would have deserved to have been considered as the 6rst of 
moral satirists, bad he confined himself to the vices and 
follies of his time* but much of his ridicule is bestowed on 
the celebrated Gravina, who, with all his faihngs, ought to 
have been exempted from an attack of this kind. Sergardi 
died in 1727, The^ditions of his satires are: 1. '' Sectani 
Satyrse xix. in Phylodemum, cum notis variorum." Colon. 
1698, S^o. 2. ** SatyrsB numero auctse, mendis purgatsp, 
&c cum notis anonymi : concinnante P. Antoniano." Amst. 
Elzevir (Naples), 1700, 2 vols. 8vo. 3. *^ Sergardii Lud. 
antebac Q. Sectani, Satyrse, et alia opera/' Luc. 1783, 4 
▼ols. 8vo. * 

SCRRANUS (Joannes), or John de Serres, a learned 
Ffenchman, was born in the sixteenth century, and was of 
the reformed religion. His parents sent him to Lausanne, 
where he was taught Latin and Greek, and attached him- 
self much to the philosophy of Plato* and Aristotle ; but, 
on his return to France, he studic^d divinity, in order to 
qualify himself for the ministry. He began to distinguish 

• Life by Damiani in Anienicnm, ▼ol. V. — Black's Preface to liin T.ifc of Tasno. 
#FsbrODi V'nte Italorum, vol. X. — Laadi Hiiii. de fa Liili ratuie d'liaiie, vuj. \\ 



S46 8 E R R A N U S. 

himsrff bjhis wrhings in 1570; and, m 1573, was obliged 
to take refuge in Lausanne, after the dreadful massacre on 
(St. BartholomeMr's -day. Returning soon to France, he 
published a piece in French, called ** A Remonstrance to 
the king upon some pernicious principles in Bodin*s book 
de Republica :** in which be was thought to treat Bodin so 
injuriously, that Henry III. ordered him to prison. Ob* 
laining his liberty, he became a minister of Nismes in 
1582, but never was looked upon as a very zealous pro- 
testant; and some have gone so far as to say, but without' 
sufficient foundation, thajt he actually abjured it. He is, 
however, supposed to have been one of those four minis* 
ters, who declared to Henry IV. that a man might be 
saved in the popish as well as the protestant religion ; a 
concession which certainly did not please bis brethren. 
He published, in 1597, with a view to reconcile the two 
religions, ** De Fide Catholica, sive de principiis religionis 
Christians, communi omnium consensu semper et ubique 
ratis ;" a work as little relished by the catholics, as by the 
protestants. He died suddenly in 1598, when he was not 
more than fifty, and the popish party circulated a report 
that his brethren of Geneva bad poisoned him. 

He published several works in Latin and in French, 
relating to the history of France ; ^mong the rest, in 
French : '^ M6moires de Ivtroisieme Guerre Civile, et der« 
niers troubles de France sous Qharles IX., &c. ;" f' Inven-? 
taire g6n^ral de I'Histoire de France, iilustre par la con* 
fi6rence de TEglise et de TEmpire, &c. ;*' *^ Recueil des 
choses m^morables avenues - en France sous Henri II. 
Francois 11. Charles IX. et Henri III." &c. These hav0 
been many times reprinted, with continuations and im- 
provements ; but it is objected that Serranus is not always 
impartial. Besides his theological works, be is perhaps 
best known for his *^ Latin version of Plato," which was 
printed with Henry Stephens's magnificent edition of that 
author's works, 1578, 3 vds. fol. This translation, although 
more elegant, is not thought so faithful as that of Ficinus. 
Stephens had a very high opinion of Serranus, and printed 
in 1573, twenty-four of the Psalms, translated by Serranus 
into Greek verse, with two " Idyllia" fcom Daniel and 
Is&iah. Of this very rare volume, Francis Okely published 
^new edition at London in 1772, 12mo. ' 

. ' Niceron, toI. IV. — Moreri. 



S E R V A N D O N I. 347 

SERVANDONI (John Nicholas), an ingetiious archi* 
tect and machinist, was born at Florence in 1695. He 
rendered himself faniout by bit exquisite taste in arcbitec- 
ture, and by his genius for decorations, fetes, and buiid^ 
ings. He was employed and rewarded by most of the 
princes of Europe. He was honoured in Portugal with the 
order of Christ. In France he was architect and painter to 
the King, and member of tbe different academies esta- 
blished for the advancement of these arts. He received 
the same titles from tbe kings of Britain, Spain, Poland, 
and from the duke of Wirtemberg ; but notwithstanding 
fcbese advantages, his want of economy was so great, that 
he left nothing behind him. He died at Paris in 1766. 
Paris is indebted to him for many of its ornaments. He 
made decorations also for tbe theatres of London and 
Dresden. The French king*8 theatre, called la salle des 
machines^ was under his management for some time. He 
was permitted to exhibit shows consisting of single decora- 
tions, some of which are said to have been astonishingly 
sublime, as his representations of St, Peter's of Rome ; 
the descent of £neas into hell ; the enchanted forest ; 
and the triumph of conjugal love ; tbe travels of Ulysses ; 
Hero and Leander; and the conquest of the Mogul by 
Thamas Koplikan. He built and embellished a theatre at 
Cbambon for Mareschal Saxe, and had the management of 
ft great number of fetes in Paris, Vienna, London, and 
Lisbon. Frederick prince of Wales, too, engaged him in 
his service : but the death of his royal highness prevented 
the execution of the designs which had been projected. 
Among his most admired architectural performances, are 
the portal, and many of the interior decorations of the 
church of St. Sulpice, at Paris : the great parish church of 
Coulanges in Burgundy : the great altar of the metropoli* 
tan church of Sens ; and of the Chartreux at Lyons, &c. 
&c.» 

SERVETU8 (Michael), a famous Anti-trinitarian, and 
the great martyr of the Socinian sect, was born in 1509, at 
Yillaneuva in Arragon, or atTudela in Navarre, in 1511, 
His father, who was a nottCry, sent him to the nruversity of 
Toulouse, to study the civil law : and there, or as some 
^ay, when in Italy, he imbibed bis peculiar notions re- 

1 Diet. Hist.— £ncyc). Britai|.«-^ccrologie fles Hgrnmes CtUbres, |}oiif 
l^nnee 1707. 



548 S E R V E T. U S. 

«pecting the doctrine of the Trinitjr. After he ba^ been 
two or tbree years at Toulouse be resolved to remove into 
Germany, and propagate his opinions. He went to Basil, 
by way of Lyons and Geneva ; and, having bad some con- 
ferences at Basil with Oeeolampadius, set out for Stras- 
burg, to converse with Bucer and Capito, two celebrated re*- 
formers of that city. At his departure from Basil be left a 
manuscript, entitled ^* De Trinitatis Erroribus/* in the 
hands of a bookseller, who sent it afterwards to Haguenao, 
whither Servetus went, and had it printed in 1531. The 
next year, he printed likewise at Haguenau another book, 
with this title, <^ Dialogorum de Trinitate libri duo :*' in 
an advertisement to which he retracts what be had written 
in his former book against the Trinity, not as it was false, 
but because it was written imperfectly and confusedly. 
He then resolved to return to France, because he was 
poor, and did not understand the German language ; as he 
alleged upon his trial to the judges, when they asked him 
why he left Germany. He went accordingly to Basil, 
thence to Lyons, where he lived two or three years, and 
afterwards to Paris, where, having studied physic under 
Sylvius, Fernelius, and other professors, he took his degree 
of master of arts, and was admitted doctor of physic in the 
university. He now settled as a practitioner for two or 
three years in a town near Lyons, and then at Vienne in 
Dauphiny, for the space of ten or twelve. In the mean 
time, his writings against the Trinity had excited the indig- 
nation of the German divines, and spread his name through- 
out all Europe* In 1533, before he had left Lyons, Me- 
lancthon wrote a letter to Camerarius, in which he allowed 
that Servetns was evidently an acute and craft/ disputant, 
4>ut confused and indigested in his thoughts, and certainly 
wanting in point of gravity. While ServetuB was at Paris, 
his books being dispersed in Italy, were very much ap-r 
proved by many who had thoughts of forsaking the church 
of Rome:* which, in 1539, excited Melancthon to write a 
letter to the senate of Venice, importing, that *' a book of 
Servetus, who had revived the error of Paulus Samosatenus, 
^vas handed about in their country, and beseeching them 
to take care, that the impious error of that man may be 
avoided, rejected, and abhorred.*' Servetus was at Lyonf 
in 1542, before be settled in Vienne; and corrected the 
proofs of a Latin Bible that was printing there, to which 
he added a preface and some marginal notes, under 



S E R V £ T U $. U9 

the- name of VillaDOvanus, from the town wher6 he was 
bom. 

During this time, Calvin, who was t];ie bead of the oburcK 
at Geneva^ kept a constant correspondence with Servetus 
by letters, and as he tells us, endeavoured, for the space of 
sixteen years, to reclaim that physician frooi his errors; 
Beza informs us, that Calvin knew Servetus at Paris, and 
opposed his doctrine ; and adds, that Servetus, having en- 
gaged to dispute with Calvin, durst not appear at the time 
and place appointed. Servetus wrote several letters to 
Calvin at Geneva from Lyoiis and Dauphii>^, *and consulted 
him about several points : he also sent him a manuscript 
it>r his opinion, which, with some of his private letters, 
Calvin is said to have produced against him athis trials 

Servetus, however, was inflexible in his opinions, and 
determined to publish a third work in favour of themVThis 
came out in 155'3, at Vienne, with this title, " Christianis- 
mi Restitutio," &c. without his name, but being discovered 
to be the author, he was imprisoned at Vienne, and would 
certainly have been burnt alive if he had not made his 
escape; however, sentence was passed pn him, aild his' 
effigies was carried to the place of execution, fastened to a 
gibbet, and afterwards burned, with fiv^ bjales of his books. 
Servetus in the mean time was retiring to Naples, where be 
hoped to practise phystc with the' same high reputation as 
be had practised at Vienne ; yet was so imprudent as to 
take his way through Geneva, where be was seized and cast 
into prison ; and a prosecution was presently commenced 
against him for heresy and blasphemy. The articles of i?is 
accusation were numerous, and extracted from his various 
writings; some of them are decidedly on the point of his 
anti-trinitarianism, others are more trivial. The magis- 
trates^ however, being sensible tbat the trial of Servetus 
was a thing of the highest consequence, did hot think fit to 
give sentence, withput consulting the magistrates of the 
Protestant cantons of Switzerland: to whom, therefore^ 
they sent Servetus's book, printed at Vienne, and also the 
writings of Calvin, with Servetus^s answers; and at the 
same time desired to have the, opinion of their divines about 
thai affair. They all gave vote against him, as Beza him- 
self relates ; in consequence of which he was condemned 
and burnt alive, Oct. 27, 1553, His death has been made 
the occasion of numerous attacks on the character and 
memory of Calvi'.i, who, however, bsui a very able advocate 



350 S £ R V E t* U S. 

in the life of S^fvetus bj Chuufepie, transitfted by the ttet. 
James Yair, mioister of the Scots church in Caropveref^ 
1771, 8 vo. Servetu8*s death may more properly be refer- 
red to the spirit of the times, and may justly form a reflec-* 
tion on the reformers in general, who were adopting the 
intolerant practices of the church which they bad left. 

Servetus was a man of great acuteness and learning. He- 
was not only deeply versed in what we usually call sacred 
and prophane literature, but also an adept in the arts and 
sciences. He observed upon his trial, that he had professed 
mathematics at Paris ; although we do not find when, nor 
under what circumstances. He was so admirably skilled id 
his own profession, that he appears to have had some know- 
ledge of the circulation of the blood ; although very short 
of the clear and full discovery made by Harvey. Our learn- 
ed Wotton says, '* The first that I could ever find, who 
had a distinct idea of this matter, was Michael Servetus, a* 
Spanish physician, who was bornt for Arianism at Geneva, 
near 140 years ago. Well had it been for the church of 
Christ, if he had wholly confined himself to his own pro* 
fession ! His sagacity in this particular, before so much in 
the dark, gives us great reason to believe, that the world 
might then have just cause to have blessed his memory. In 
a book of bis, entitled ' Christianismi Restitutio,* printed 
in 1553, he clearly asserts, that the blood passes Uirough 
the lungs, from the left to the right ventricle of the heart, 
and not through the partition which divides the two ventri-> 
cles, as was at that time commonly believed. How he in- 
troduces it, or in which of the six discourses, into which 
Servetus divides his book, it is to be found, I know not« 
having never seen the book myself. Mr. Charles Bernard^ 
a very learned and eminent surgeon of London, who did 
me the favour to communicate this passage to me, set down 
at length in the margin, which was transcribed out of Ser- 
vetus, could inform me no farther, only that he had it from 
a learned friend of his, who had himself copied it from 
Servetus.'* The original editions of Servetus's works are 
very scarce, and tliey have not been often reprinted^ but 
bis doctrines may be traced in various Socinian systems.* 

SERVIN (Louis), a celebrated lawyer in France, who 
flourished at the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth 
centuries, was descended of a good family in the Vendo« 

 

^ Cbtufepie,— Mocb^im. 



S B R V I N. 351 

mois. In 1 589 be was appoitiidd advocate^geueml to the 
parliament of Paris, and distinguijubed himself in that sta- 
tion by bis zealous support of the liberties of the Gallican 
church, and his opposition to the pretensions of the court 
of Rome. In iSOO he published a work in farour of Henry 
IV. who had succeeded to the crown, entitled ** Vindici« 
secundum Libertatem Ecclesite Gallioanse, et Defensio Re* 
gii Status Gallfi^Francorum sub Henrico IV. Rege." In 
1598, being joined in a commission for the reformation of 
the university of Paris, he delivered '^ a remonstrance'* on 
the subject^ which was printed. To him also is attribute^ 
a work in favour of the republic of Venice in the aifairi of 
the interdict. In the reign of Lewis XIII. at a bed of jus- 
tice holden in 1620, he made strong and aniaiated remon- 
strances in favour of the right of parliament to register x 
royal edicts. On another similar occasion, in 1626, for 
the purpose of compelling the registry of some financial 
edicts, as he was firmly but respectfully making fresh re« 
monstrances to bis majesty, he suddenly fell and expired at 
the king^^s feet' 

SERVIUS (MavroS/Hokoratus), a edebrated gram* 
marian and critic of antiquity, flourished in the fifth cen- 
tury. He is known now chiefly by his commentaries upon 
Virgil, which Barthius and others have supposed to be nof 
thipg more than a collection . of aacient criticisms and re- 
marks upon that poet, made by Serviusii They were first 
published by Valdarfeir in 1471, and reprinted several 
times in that century, afterwards in an edition of Virgil, 
at Paris, by Robert Stephens^ 1532, in folio, and by Fui- 
vius Ursinus, in 1569, 8vo. A better edition was given by 
Peter Daniel at Paris, in 1600; but the best is that printed 
with the edition of Virgil, by Masvicius, in 1917, 4to. 
Burman, in his edition of 1746, has so blended these notes 
with those of Hetnsius, as to render it difficult to determine 
bow he reconciles their opposite authorities. There is also 
extant, and printed in several editions of the ancient gram^ 
marians,«a piece of Servius upon the feet of verses and thc: 
quantity of syllables, called ** Centimetrum." This was 
first printed in 1476. Macrobius has spoken highly of 
Servius, and makes him one of the speakers in his *^ Sa- 
turnalia.'^* 

> Moreri.— Diet. Hi»t. 

* Fabric. Bibl. Lat.— Baillet Jagemeof.— Saxti Onomast. 



852 S E t t L t. 

SETTAL. See 8EPTALIUS. 

SETTLE (Elkanah), u poetaster, much noticed in pete' 
tical history, and of whom, therefore, kome account may 
he expected, was the son of Joseph Settle, of DanstAble, 
in Bedfordshire, and was bofn in 16#8. In 1666 be was 
entered a commoner of Trinity college, Oxford, but qait.- 
ted <he university and came to London probably in the 
following year, when he eommeuced author and jjioliticiair. 
At his outset be joined the whigs, who were then, though 
the minor, yet a powerful party, and employed bis talents 
in their support. Afterw.ards, he went over to the other 
aide, and wrote for the tories -with as mmrh spirit, and 
doubtless as much princi(de, as he had employed for the 
whigs. Among other effusions, he published a berofc 
poem on the coronation of James IL ; and wroie paragraphs 
and essays in the newspapers in support of the administra- 
tion. In this change of party he bad woefully- miscalcu-^ 
lated ; the revolution* took place, and from' that period 
having lost the little credit he had, be lited poor and de-^ 
spised, subject to all the miseries of the most abject state 
of indigence, and destitute of any advantageous and repu- 
table connection. In 16S0 be was so violent a whig^ thit 
the famous ceremony of pope-burning on the 17th ofNo^ 
vember was entrusted to his management, and be 8een» 
to have been at that time much in the confidence of those 
who opposed governmeut. After his change be became 
equally violent against those with whom he had before 
associated, and actually entered himself a trooper in king ' 
Jameses army at Hounslow Heath. In the latter part of 
his life he was »o reduced as to attend a booth in Bartholo- 
mew-fair, the keepers of which gave him a salary for wrii^ 
ing drolls. He also was obliged to appear in his old age 
as a performer in these wretched theatrical exhibitions^ 
and, in a farce called ** St. George for England,*' aci«d a 
dragon inclosed in a case of green leather of bis cmh- in* 
vention. To this circumstance, 4)n Young refers in jtbe 
following lines of his epistle to Mr. Pope : 

" Poor Elkanah, all other changes past^ 
For bread in Smithfield dragons hlss'd at last^ 
Spit streams of fire to make the butchers gape» 
And found his maoners suited to his shape, &C/' 

In the end, he obtained admission into the Charter-house, 
and died there Feb. 12, 1723-4. The writer of a perio<li- 
x;al paper, called <<The Briton/' JFeb. 19, 1724, speaks 



S E T T L E. S53 

triF bitti lU tben jost dead, and adds, '' be watf a nAn of taU 
suture, red face, abort black hair, lived in tbe city, and 
bad a numerous poetical issue, but shared the misfortune 
of several other gentleoien, to survive them all.'* 

Settle bad a pension from the city, for an annual pane* 
gyiic to celebrate the festival of the Idrd-mayor, in conse* 
quence of which be wrote Various poems, called ** Tri« 
umpbt for the Inauguration of tbe Lord«mayor,** tbe last 
of whicl) was in 1708. His dramatic pieces, all now forgot^ 
Amootvt to nineteen. His poems it Would be difficult to 
enemenite, and not worth tbe labour.^ 

SEVERINUS (Marcus AuR£Lius),adi8tingdished phy- 
sician, was born at Tarsia, in Calabria, in 1580, and hav- 
ing, after some intention of studying law, given the prg-^" 
ferenoe. to medicine, he received tbe degree of doctor in 
the ooiversity of Naples, wh^re be taiight anatomy and 
surgery with such reputation, as to attract a crowd of stu** 
deiits to the dniversity. As a practitioner, however, bis 
method was harsb, and be carried tbe use of the actual - 
cautery to a great extent He died at Naples, July 15^ 
1656, at the age of seventy-six. He was a man of bold 
and original mind, but somewhat attached to paradox ; and 
•was the author of several publications, a list of which may 
■te seen in our authority, and at the time of his death, wlis 
preparing for publication some papers, which be meant to 
illustrate by engravings; they were published* together^ 
under the title of ^^ Antiperipatias, hoc est, adversus Aris- 
toteleos de respiratione piscium' Diatriba.'* *' Comoieuta*- 
rtus in Theophrastum de piscibus in' sicco viveiiiibus.** ^ 
^ Pboca anatotnic^ spectatos,**' 1661. A sort of extract or 
abridgment of bis writings on sArgery was also published 
in 1664, with the title of ^^Synbpseos Chirurgicae Libri vi.** 
and so late as 1724^ a new edition in 4to, of ^^ De Absces- 
^uum recondita natura.^' ' 

SEVERU8. See SULPICIUS. 
V SEVERUS (Publics Cornelius), was an ancient Latin 
poet of the Augustan age> whose f^ iEtna*' was published 
with notes and a proae interpretation by Le Clerc, at Ani- 
sterdam, 1793, in 12mo, but some copies h^ve the date 
1715. It is annexed to *^ Petri Bembi iEtna,'* and is alst) . 
in Maittaire's *' Corpus Poet.'' It bad been before inserteil 
• , • ' • ' . '■ ] 

1 Biog. t>raiii«*— If aloHe'f bryden, tol. 1. 1^. l6l. 174. v^M. IL 115, ficc^*- 
Nichols's Bovyer.. . . f Sloy, Bicu Hist., de M«dec|jie. 

Vol. XXVII. *" A a 



354 S E V £ R U S. 

aittong the <<Catalecta Virgilii^'* published by ficalifer*, 
whose notes, as well as thode of Ltndebrogios and Nioolaa 
Heinsius, Le Clerc has mixed with his own. Quiatilian 
calls Severus *' a Tersificator,'* rather than a poet ; yet adds^ 
that ^^ if he bad finished the Sicilian wajr,*' probably, be- 
tween Augustus and Sextus Pompeius, '^ in the manner 
be Ijad written the first book, be might iiatre claimed a 
ttuch higher rank. But though an immature death pre- 
vented him from doing this, yet his juvenile works shew 
the greatest genius/' Ovid addresses biro, not only as bia 
friend, but as a court favourite and a great poet. ^ 

SEVIGNE; (Mary be Rabutin, lady de Chantal and 
Bourbilly, and marchioness de) was the only daughter of 
Celse Benigne de Rabutip, baron de Chantal, &c. . head 
of the elder branch of Rabutin, and Mary de Coulanges, 
She was bom February 5, 1626, and lost her father the 
year following, who commanded the squadron of gentlemen 
volunteers in the isle of Rh6, when the English made^i 
descent there. In August 1 644, at the age of eighteen, she 
married Henry, marquis de Sevign^, descended of a very 
ancient family of Bretagne. He was a major-general and go- 
vernor of Foufferes. She had by bira a son and a daughter, 
il is said that her husband was not so much attached to her 
as she deserved, which, however, did not prevent madam 
de Sevign^ from sincerely lamenting his death, which hap- 
pened in 1651, in a duel. 

Her tenderness for her children appeared, not only by 
the care which she took of their education, but also by her 
attetition in re-establishing the affairs of the house of Se« 
vign6. Charles, marquis of Sevign6, her son, acquired a 
laudable reputation in the world ; and Frances Margaret, 
her daughter, appeared in it with great advantages* The 
fame of her wit, beauty, and discretion, had already been 
announced at court, when her jiother brought her thither 
for tl^e first time in 1663, and in 1669, this young lady 
was married to Francis Adhemar de Monteil, count de 
Grignan. Tt^ mother being now necessarily separated 
from her daughter, for whom she bad an uncommon degree 
of affection, it is to this circumstance we owe the cele«* 
brated <^ Letters*' so often published, and so much admired, 
particniarly in France, as models of epistolary correspond- 
ence. They turn indeed very much upon trifles^ the in* 

> Tosaivi 4c Foel» Ut— Fabric BibL Ut^ 



1^ £ V I G N B'. SJ5 

tidents o( the dfty^ and the news of the town ; and they 
are overloaded with extravagant complimentB, and expres** 
Bions of fondness^ to her favourite daughter ; bat withal^ 
they show such perpetual sprightlinesS) they contain such 
easy and varied narration, and so many strokes of the most 
lively and beautiful paintiiig, perfectly free from any affec- 
tation, that they^ are justly entitled to high praise. 

Madam Sevign£ often visited her daughter, and in her 
last journey to GrignaO) after having gone through incre-^ 
dible fatigue during a* long illness of this darling child, she 
was herself seized with a fever, of which she died in 1696. 
^he best edition of madame de Sevign^'s ** Letters/* pnb« 
lished by the chevalier Perrin, is Paris, 1775, 8 vols. 12mo* 
This contains the ^ Select Letters*^ of her society, but not 
those from madame de Sevi|^n6 to M, de Pompone, on M. 
Fouqoet's disgrace ; nor those that are in the ^' Collection 
of Bussy Rabutin^s Letters,'' which may be met with sepa- 
rately. A collection of ^* Ingenious thoughts ; literary, 
historical, and moral anecdotes," which are dispersed 
through these letters, were published, 1756, l2mo, under 
the title ** Seyigniana.'' Her Letters have long been 
known in this country, by a translation published about 
1758—60.* 

SEWARD (Anna), a poetess and literary lady of coasi- 
c)erable celebrity, was the daughter of the rev. Thomas 
Seward, rector of £yam in Derbyshire, prebendary of Sa-* 
llsbury, and canon residentiary of Lichfield. In his youth 
he had travelled as tutor with lord Charles Fitzroy, third 
son of the duke of Grafton, a hopeful young noblenfaii, 
who died upon his travels in 1739. Mr. Seward returned 
to England, and soon after married Miss Elizabeth Hunter, 
daughter of Mr. Hunter, head-master of the school at Lich- 
field, the preceptor of Johnson, and other eminent lite- 
rary characters. Mr. Seward, upon his marriage, settled 
at his rectory of Eyam. In 1747, the second year of his 
marriage. Miss Seward was born. 

Mr. Seward was himself a poet, and a contributor to 
Dodsley's collection ; he was also an admirer of our ancient 
drama, and in 1750 published an edition of Beaumont and 
Fletcher's plays. Thus accomplished himself, the talents 
of his daughter did not long escape his observation, and 
under his instructions she laid the foondation of a laate fpr 

1 Diet. Hiit.— BIa¥3 Uctur«s. 
A A 2 



iS4 S E W A R D. ^ 

poetry. The authors be recommended to hei were tho^tf 
of queen Anne^s reign. She waseavly familiar with Pope, 
Young, Prior, and their predecessor Dryden, and in later 
life, used to make little allowance for poetry of an older 
date, excepting only that of Sbakspeare and Milton. The 
desire of imitating the compositions which gave her plea- 
sure, very early displayed itself. She attempted metrical 
versions of the Psalms, and even exercised herself in ori- 
ginal composition, before she was ten years old. An ** Ad- 
dress to the first fine day of a backvi-ard spring," which 
has been preserved, intimates considerable command of 
numbers and language, though the ideas cannot be called 
original. 

About 1754, Mr. Seward removed with his family to 
LichBeld, which continued ever afterwards to be his daugh- 
ter's residence, although varied, during her fatber^s life» 
by occasional visits to his rectory at Eyam. For the iirst 
ten years of Miss Seward^s residence here, she was rather 
checked than encouraged in the cuitii'ation of her poetical 
talents. Her* mother possessed no taste for her daughter's 
favourite amusements, and even her father withdrew his 
countenance from them, under the apprehension that his 
continued encouragement might produce in his daughter 
that dreaded phenomenon, a learned lady. Poetry was 
therefore prohibited, and Miss Seward resorted to other 
amusements, and to the practice of ornamental needle- 
worky in which she is said to have excelled. When, how- 
ever, she arrived at an age to select her own society and 
studies, f her love of literature was indulged, and the sphere 
in which she moved was such as to increase her taste for 
its pursuits. Dr. Darwin, the enthusiast Mr. Day, Mr. 
Eilgeworth, sir Brooke Bootbby, and other names, well 
known in the literary world, then formed part of the Lich- 
field society. Dr. Johnson was an occasional visitor in their 
circles, but not much of a favourite with Dr. Darwin or 
Miss Seward. He neither agreed with the one, nor flatter- 
ed the other. 

In the meaii time Miss Seward^s poetical powers appear 
to liave lain dormant, or to have been very sparingly exer- 
cised, until her acquaintance with lady Miller, whose fan- 
ciful arhd romantic institution at Bath Easton, was alter- 
nately the subject of public attention and of some degree 
of ridicule. Miss Seward^ however, became a coutributor 
to the vaae, and the applause abe recelfed eocouraged her 



SEWARD. 357 

m 

to' commit some of her ^says to the press, particularly her? 
poems on major Andr6 and captain Cook» wbicb were re« 
ceivied by the public witb great favour, and certainly were 
calculated to couvey a very bigb impression of the original, 
powers of iheir auUior, and procured her the admiration and 
corres{jondence of many of the most distinguished literary 
characters of that time. 

In 1780, Mrs. Seward died, and the care of attending her 
surviving parent devolved entirely upon his daughter. This, 
was soon «;mbittered by a frequent recurrence of paralytic, 
and apoplectic affections, which broke Mr. Seward's health,, 
and gradually impaired the ton6 of hij mind. His frame, 
resisted these repeated assaults for ten years, during which,. 
Miss Seward had the melarlcholy satisfaction to aee, tbai[ 
even when he bad lost consciousness of every thing else, 
her father retained a sense of her constajit and unremitting 
attentions. In 1790 this scene closed, by the death of Mr. 
Seward. His daughter remained mistress of an eaay and! 
independent fortune, and continued to inhabit the bishop's^ 
palace at Lichfield, which had been long, her father's resi-' 
dence, and was her's until ber death. ■[ 

While engaged in attendance upon her father. Miss 
Seward, besides other occasional pieces, published, in 1782,, 
ber poetical novel, entitled ^' Louisa," which rapidly passed 
through several editions. Other pieces, chiefly on occa-, 
sional topics, fell from her pen ; some of which foupd tjheir 
way to the public, and others have been printed from ma-, 
uuscript, in the late collection of her poems. ' In 1799 sbo. 
published a collection of original *' Sonnels.*' They wer^ 
intended to restore the strict rules of the legitimate sonixet, 
afid contain some beautiful examples of that species of 
composition. In 1804 she published a 5^ Life of jDr. Par- 
win," which^ although a desultory performance, and writtea 
in that affected style which she had now adopted, and Which 
prevails throughout her correspondence, is valuable as a 
collection of literary anecdote. In this publication she laid 
ber claim to the first fifty verses in the *' Botanic Garden,'*, 
which she had written in compliment to Dr. Darwin, but 
which he bad inserted in his poem without any acknow- 
ledgment. 

After the publication of the '* Sonnets,^' Miss Seward did 
pot undertake any large poem, yet she continued to pqur 
forth her poeitcal efl'usions upon such occasions as interest- 
ed her feelings, or excited her imuginaoiou. These eiforts, 



^58 SEWARD. 

however, were unequal to those of ber earlier muse. Age 
waft now approaching with its usual attendantSi declining 
health, and the loss of friends. Yet her interest in litera* 
ture and poetry continued unabated^ and she maintained 
an unrelaxed correspondence, not only with her former 
friends, but with those later candidates for poetical distinc* 
tion, whose exertions she approved of. For a yfear or two 
preceding 1807, Miss Seward bad been occasionally en«- 
gaged in arranging and preparing for the press the edition 
of her poems published after ber death by Mr. Scott, and 
which she would probably have published herself, but her 
constitution, infirm for years, was now rapidly declining, 
und after nearly two years of much suffering from bodily 
complaints, she expired, March 25, 1809. To Walter 
Scott, esq. she bequeathed her literary performances, and 
particularly the works she had so long intended for the press ; 
and her ** Letters" to Mr. Constable, the eminent book« 
seller of Edinburgh. In the same year, 1810, these gen- 
tlemen executed the trust reposed in them ; the latter, by 
an elegant publication of her " Letters,*' in 6 vob. and the 
former by a publication of her *^ Poems,'' and some literaiy 
correspondence, in 3 vols. 8vo, with a biographical pre- 
fiice, written with Mr. Scott*s usual taste and acumen. The 
^ Poems** will always remain a monument of Miss Seward's 
talents, and place her in an honourable rank among the 
female candidates for literary honours. Her *^ Letters,** 
however, are, in our opinion, less calculated to leave a 
iavourable impression of her character. They may be 
justly considered as the annals of vanity and flattery, and 
in point of style exhibit every defect which bad taste could 
introduce." 

SEWARD (Wiixiam), a biographical writer, was the 
^on of Mv. Seward, partner in the brewbouse under the 
£rm of Calvert and Seward, and was bom in January 1 747. 
fie first went to a small seminary in the neighbourhood of 
Cripplegate, and afterwards to the Charter-house school, 
where he acquired a competent knowledge of Greek and 
Latin, which he improved at Oxford, Having no inclina* 
tion to engage in business, he relinquished his concern in 
the brewbouse at his father's death ; and being possessed 
of an easy fortune, did not apply to any profession, but 
devoted bis time to learned leisure, and, among other 

• Ulh by Walter Scott, ta^ 



SEWARD. 859 

purauitSi amuaed himself with collecting the materials for 
what be called ^* Drossiana,** in th^ European Magazine) 
which he hegan in Octpher 1789, and continued without 
intermission to the end of his life. After be bad published 
in this manner for some tio^Ci he was advised to make a 
selection, which, in 1794, he began with two volumes, and 
these were followed in the three succeeding years by thre^ 
more, under the title of ** Anecdotes of some distitt* 
guished Persons, cbieily of the present and two precediAg 
Centuries;*' a work which met with general approba* 
tion, and has been since reprinted. In 1799 he published 
two volumes more on tbd plaii of the former work^ which 
be entitled ^^ Biographiana/* These were finished a vejry 
abort time beforp bis death* 

Mn Seward was in every respect a desirable acquaintr 
anee; he bad travelled abroad with great improvement, 
and was koow'n to most of those who had distinguished them- 
selves by genius or learning, by natural or acquired en- 
dowments, or even by eccentricity of character; and be 
bad stored bis memory with anecdotes which made his con* 
versation extremely entertaining. But though be wished 
to observe the manner of emiqent or extraordinary-men, be 
did not indiscriminately form friendships with them. Ha 
knew many, hot was intimate with few. He was the frieml 
of Dr. Johnson, bad conversed with Mr. Howard, and aaq^r 
descended to know Tom Paine» Party distinctions ap^ 
peared to have but little weight with him. He visited and 
received the visits of many .whose opinions were directly 
opposite to each other, and equally to his own. 

He spent his time Uke an English gentleman, with hoar 
pitality and without ostentation. In the winter he resided 
in London ; and of late years, in tlie summer, bQ varied 
bis place of abode* At one time be resided at Mr. Coxe's 
house, near .Salisbury ; at another, near Reading ; and the 
summer preceding his death, be made Richmpnd his resir 
dence. At all these places, and, indeed, wherever be 
came, be found acquaintances who respected and valued 
him for bis amiable qualities. He bore a tedious illness 
with fortitude and resignation. Without expressing any 
impatience, he viewed the progress of bis disorder, which 
be early discovered was a dangerous. one ; and continued 
bis literary pursuits, and received his friends, until a f^^ 
hours of bis dissolution, which took place the 24th April 



560 S E W B L'L; 

1799 ; and, a few days after, bis remains were interred in 
the family vault at Finchiey. ' 

SEWELL (George), an English poet and {Aysician, 
was born at Windsor, where bis father was treasurer and 
chapter-clerk of the college; received his education at 
Eton-school, and feter-bouse, Cambridge ; where having 
taken the degree of B. M. he went to Ley den, to-stady 
tinder Boerhaave, and on bis return practised physic in 
the metropolis with reputation. In the latter part of his 
life be retired to Hampstead, where be pursued bis pro- 
fession with some degree of success, till three other phy- 
sicians came to settle at the same place, when his practice 
so far declined as to yield him very little advantage. He 
4ept no bouse, but was a boarder. He was much esteemed, 
and so frequently invited to the tables of gentlemen in the 
neighbourhood, that he had seldom - occasion to dine at 
}iome. He died Feb. 8, 1726; and was supposed to he 
very indigent at the time of his death, as be was intended 
on the 12th of the same moiAh in the meanest nuinner, bis 
coffin being little better than those allotted by the parish 
to the poor who are buried from the workhouse ; neither 
' did a single friend or relation attend him to the grave. No 
memorial was placed over his remains ; but they iie' jiMt 
tinder a hollow tree which formed a part of a hedge«niw 
that was once the boundary of the charcfa<ryard. He was 
greatly esteemed for hit amiable disposition ; and is repre« 
aented by some writers as a Tory in his political principles, 
Vut of this there is no other proof given than bis writing 
some pamphlets against bishop Burnet. It is certain, that 
a true spirit of liberty breathes in many of bis works ; and 
he expitesses, on many occasions, a warm attachment to 
the Hanover succession* » Besides seven controvetsial 
pamphlets, be wrote, l. ^^The Life of John Philips."- 2. 
^ A vindication of the English Stage^ exeaaplified in the 
Cato of Mr. Addison, 17i6.'\ 3; «« 8ir Walter Raleigh, a 
tragedy, acted at Lincoln-srinn-fielda, 1719;.". and part 
of another play, intended to beicalled ** Richard the First,'^ 
the fragments of which were published in 1718, witii ^^Two 
moral Essays on the Government of the Thoughts, and on 
Death," and a collection of *^ Several poems^ published in 
his life*time." Dr. Seweil was an occasional assistant 
V> Harrison in the fifth volume of *^ The Tatler ; was a 

I By the lake litac I^ee^, in European ||fHS^if^» H^fi* 



S £ W £ L L. Sfii 

liriDcipal writer in the Diiuh volume of *^ Tbe Spectelor; 
and pablisbed a translation of ^^ Ovid's Metamorpbopeay ia 
opposition to the edition of^Gartb and an edition of Shaln 
•peare's Poems. Jacob and Gibber bave enumerated a 
considerable number of bit 9ingle poems ; and in Mr. Ni^ 
chob's *^ Collection" are some valuable ones, unnoticed 
by tbese writers. * 

. S£W£LL (William), th^ historian of tbe Quakeri» 
was ttie flon of Jacob Williamson Sewell, a citizen of Am- 
sterdam^ and a surgeon, and appears to bave been born 
there in 1650. His grandfather, William Sewell^ was an 
Englishman, Bnd bad resided at Kidderminster ; but being: 
one of the sect of tbe Browntsts, left his native coujitry for 
the more free enjoyment of bis principles in Holland» 
married a Dutch woman of Utrecht, and settled thece. The 
parents of the subject of this article both died when he wag 
young, but had instructed him in tbe principles of the 
Qtiakers, to which he steadily adhered during life. Hia 
education in other respects appears to bave been tbe fruit 
of his. own application; and tbe time he could spare from 
tbe business to which be was apprenticed'(tbatof a weaver) 
he employed with good success in attaining a knowledge of 
tbe Greek, Latin, English, French, and High Dutch« 
hmguages. His natural abilities being good, his applioa^ 
tion unwearied^ and his habits strictly temperate, be soon 
became noticed by some of the most respectable book- 
sellers in Holland ; and the translation of works of credit^ 
chieBy fromtbe Latin and English tongues, into Low Dutch, 
seema to liave been one of the principal sources from which 
bis moderate income was derived, in addition to tbe part 
be took, M different times, in several approved periodic' 
cal pubiioatioos. His modest, unassuming manners gained 
him the esteem of several literary men, whose productkNis, 
there is reason to believe, were not unfrequently revised 
«>d prepared for the press by him. His knowledge of his 
native tongue was prcMfound : his ** Dictionary," '' Gram* 
mar," .and other treatises on it, having left very little room 
for succctedinjg improvement : and he assisted materially in 
tbe compilation of Halma's French and Dutch Dictioriaryi 
His <^ History of the people called Quakers," written Brst 
in Low Dutch, fnd afterwards, by himself, in English 
j[dedic{ited to George I.) wits a very laborious undec* 

1 Cibbei's Live?.-— Nichols's Poepit, 



$6t 8 E W E L L. 

taking! m he was scrupulously nice in the selection of his 
Inaterialsy which he had been during many years engaged 
in collecting. Of the English edition, for it cannot pro* 
perly be called a translation, it may be truly said, that as 
the production of a foreigner, who bad spent only about 
ten months in England, and that i^bove forty yeai^ before^ 
the style -is far superior to what could have been reasonably 
expected. One principal object witb the author was^ a 
desire to correot what he conceived to be gross misrepre^ 
sentattons in XSerard Croese's ^ History of Quakerism.** 
The exact time of Sewel^a death does not appear ; but in 
a note of the editor's to the third edition of his '* Die* 
tionary," in 1726, he is mentioned as being lately de^ 
ceased. His ** History of the Quakers" appears to have 
been first published in 1722, folio, and reprinted in 
172^.' 

SEXTIUS (QuiNTUs), a Pythagorean philosopher, who 
flourished in the time of Augustus, seemed formed to rise 
in the republic, but be shrunk from civil honours, and de- 
clined accepting the rank of senator when it was offered 
him by Julius Csssar, that he might have time to apply to 
philosophy. It appears that be wished to establbh a school 
at Rome, and that his tenets^ though chiefly drawn firocn 
the doctrines of Pythagoras, in some particulars resembled 
those of the Stoics. He soon found himself involved in 
many difficulties. His laws were remarkably severe, and 
in an early period of bis estabiishnieni, he found bis mind 
so harassed, and the harshness of the doctrines which he 
wished to establish so repulsive to his feelings, that he bad 
nearly worked himself up to such an height of desperation 
as to resolve on putting a period to his existence. Of the 
school of SextiuB were Fabianus, Sotion, Flavianns, Cras- 
sitiua, and Cdsns. Of his works only a few fragments re«» 
main ; and whether any of them formed a part of the worh 
which Seneca admired so much, cannot now be deters 
mined. . Some of his maxims are valuable. He recooa^ 
mended an examination of the actions of the day to his 
scholars when they retired to rest ; he taught that the road 
to heaven fad astra) was by frugality, temperance^ and 
fortitude* He used to recommend holding a looking-glass 
before persons disordered with passion. He enjoined bis 
acholars to abstain from animal food. Brucker seems to 

1 G«nU Mag. vol. LXXXIL-^Preface to bis Hiitoiy. 



S E X T I U 8. 363 

doubt, however, whether the '< Sententise Sexti Pythago- 
rei/' so often printed by Gale and others, be the genaine 
work of this moralist.' 

SEXTUS EMPIRICUS, an ancient Gr^k author, and 
most acute defender of the Pyrrhonian or sceptical pfailo^ 
fiophy, was a physician, and seems to have flourished under 
the reign of Commodus, or perhaps a iittte later. He was, 
against what has usually been imagined, a different person 
from Sezti^, a Stoic philosopher of Cseronea, and nephew 
of Plutarch : but no particular circumstances of his life are 
recorded. Of a great many, that have perished, two 
works of his are still extant : three books of ^* Institutes of 
Pyrrhonism,'* and ten books against the ** Mathematici/' 
by whom he means all kinds of dogmatists. His works 
discover great erudition, and an extensive acquaintance 
with the ancient systems of philosophy; and, on this ac- 
count, chiefly, Brucker says, merit an attentive perusal. 
Henry Stephens ^rst made, and then printed in 1592, 6vo, 
a Latin version from the Gteek of the former of these 
works ; and a version of the latter, by Hervetus, had been 
printed by Plantin in 1569. Both these versions were 
printed again with the Greek ; whieh first appeared at 
Geneva in 1621, folio, but the best edition of Sextus Em* 
pirrcus is that of John Albert Fabricius, in Greek and 
Latin, Leipsic, 1718, folio.' 

SEYMOUR (Edward), duke of Somerset, and uncle, 
to Edward VL was eldest son of sir John Seymour of Wolf- 
hall, in the couuty of Wilts, knt. by Elizabeth daughter 
of sir Henry Wentworth, of Nettlested in Suffolk. He 
was educated at the university of Oxford, whence return- 
ing to his father at court, when martial achievements were 
encouraged by Henry VHL he joined the army, and ac- 
companying tbeduliLe of Suffolk in bis expedition to France 
in 1533, was knighted by him Nov. 1, of that year. Upon 
his sister's marriage with the king in 1536, he had the title 
of viscount Beaochamp bestowed upon him, in conse- 
quence of his descent from an heir female of that house ; 
and in Oct. 1537 was created earl of Hertford. In 1540 
be was sent to France to dispute the limits of the English 
borders, and on his return was ele<jted knight of the garter. 
In 1542 he attended the duke of Norfolk in his expedition 
into Scotland, and the same year was made lord 'great 

> Mooth. Rev. rol. lXXVlI.^Brocker.-->Seiier9 Epist. 
P Fabric. Bibl. Grates— 3rurk«r.*-S«3iii Oujmasticvii. 



S64 S E Y M O Ij R. , 

chamberlain of England for life. In 1544» being made 
lieutenanugeneral of the north, he embarked for Scodaad 
with two hundred sail of ships, on account of the Scots 
refushig to marry their young queen to prince Edward ; 
and landing in the Frith, took Leitb and Edinburgh, and 
lifter plundering and burning them, marched by land iuto 
England. In' August of. the same year, he went to the 
^sistance of the king at the siege of Boulogne, with seve- 
ral German and Flemish troops ; and after taking it, de- 
feated an army of 1 4,000 French, who lay encamped near it. 
By the will of Heiipy Vlll. he was appointed one of the 
sixteen persons, who were to be his majesty's executors, 
and governors of his son, till he should be eighteen years of 
age. Upon Edward's accession to the crown, it was pro« 
posed in council, that one of the sixteen should be chosen, to 
whom the ambassadors should address themselves, and who 
should have the chief direction of affairs, though restrained 
from acting without the consent of the major part of iHe rest. 
The lord chancellor Wriothesly, who thought the prece- 
dence in secular ailairs belonging to him by his office, op- 
posed this strongly, and urged, that it was changing the 
Jiing's will, who bad made them ^qual in power and dig- 
nity ; and if any was raised above the rest in title, it would 
be impossible to keep him within just bounds, since greater 
titles made way for exorbitant power. But the earl of 
Hertford had so prepared his friends, that ha was declared 
governor of tlie king's person, and protector of the king<» 
dom, with tbi^ restriction, that he should not act without 
the advice and consent of the rest. In consequenpe of this 
measure, two distinct parties were formed ; the one headed 
by the new protector, and the other by the chancellor; 
the favourers of the reformation declaring for the former, 
and the enemies of it for the latter. On Feb. 10, 1547-8, 
the protector was appointed lord treasurer, and the next 
day cre^ed duke of Somerset, and on the 17th of that 
month, had a grant of the office of earl marshal of England 
for life. On March 12th following, he had a patent for 
the office of protector and governor of the king and his 
realms. By this patent he had a negative in the council, 
but they had none on him ; and he could either bring his 
own adherents into it, or select a cabinet-council out of it 
^t pleasure ; while the other executors, having thus der 
livered up their authority to him, were only privy-coun- 
sellors like the rest, without retaining any authority pe- 



SEYMOUR 36i 

t 

truliar to themselves, as was particularly provided by 
Henry Vlllth's will. In August 154^ the protector took 
a comniission to be general, and to make war in Scotland, 
and accordingly entered that kingdom, and, on Sept 10, 
gained a complete victory at Musselburgh, and on the 29th 
returned to England triumphantly, having, with the loss 
of but sixty men in the whole expedition, taken eighty 
pieces of cannon, bridled the two chief rivers of the king- 
dom by garrisons, and gained several strong places. 

It may easily be imagined how much these successes 
raised his reputation in England, especially when it was 
remembered what great services he had done formerly 
against France ; so that the nation in general had vast ex- 
pectations from his government ; but the breach between 
him and his brother, the lord high admiral of England, lost 
him the present advantages. The death of the admiral 
also, in March 1548, drew much censure on the protector; 
though others were of opinion that it was scarce possible 
fof him to do more for the gaining bis brother than he had 
done. In September 1549, a strong faction appeared 
against him, under the influence and direction of Wriothesly 
earl of Southampton, who hated him on account of losing 
the office of lord chancellor, and Dudley earl of Warwick, 
who expected to have the principal admimstration of affairs 
upon his removal ; and other circumstances concurred to 
raise him enemies. His partiality to the commons pro- 
Toked the gentry ^ his consenting to the execution of bis 
brother, and bis palace in the Strand, erected on the ruirnt 
of several churches and other religious buildings,^ in a time 
both of war and pestilence, disgusted the peonle. The 
clergy hated him, not only for promoting tlie changes in 
religion, but likewise for his enjoying so many of the best 
manors of the bishops ; and bis entertaining foreign troops, 
both German and Italian, though . done by the coasent of 
the council, gave general disgust The privy counsellors 
, complained of his being arbitrary in hjs proceedings, and 
of many other offences, which exasperated the whole body 
of them against him, except archbish9p Cranmer, sir Wil- 
liam Paget, and sir Thomas Smithy secretary of state. 
The first discovery of their designs induced him to remove 
the king to Hampton Court, and then to Windsor; but 
finding the party against him too formidable to oppose, he 
submitted to the council, and on the 14th of October was 
coitmnitted to the Tower, and in January following was 



S66 S E Y M O U ft. 

fined in %h€ stioi of two thousand pounds a year> with tbe 
loss of all his oiBces and goods. However, on the 16th 
of February, (549-50, he obtained a full pardon, and so 
managed his interest with the king, that he was brought 
both to the court and council in April following : and to 
confirm th^ reconciliation between him and the earl of 
Wa^iirick, the duke's daughter was married, on .the 3d of 
June, 1550, to the lord viscount Lisle, the earl's son. But 
this friehdsbip did not continue long ; for in October 1 551^ 
the eafi, now created duke of Northumberland, caused 
the duke of Somerset to be sent to the Tower^ alledging^ 
that the latter had formed a design of raising the people ; 
anci that when himself^ and the marquis of Northampton, 
and the earl of t'embroke, had been invited to dine at the 
lord Paget*s^ Somerset determined to have set upon (hem 
by the way, of to have killed them at dinner ^ with other 
particulars of that kind, which were related to the king in 
so aggravated a manner, that he was entirely alienated'from 
his uncle. On the first of December the duke was brought 
to his trial, and though acquitted of treason^ was found 
guilty of felony in intending to imprison the duke of Nor* 
thumberland. He was beheaded on Tower-hill on the 22d 
of January, 1551-2, and died with great serenity. It was 
generally believed, that the conspiracy^ for which he suf- 
feredi was a mere forgery ; and indeed the not bringing 
the witnesses into the court, but only the depositions, and 
the parties themselves sitting as judges, gave great occa« 
sioo to condemn the proceedings against him. Besides, hia 
four friends, who were executed for the same cause, euded 
their lives with the most solemn protestations of their in** 
nocence. 

He was a person of great virtues; eminent for bis piety; 
courteous, and affable in his greatness ; sincere and candid 
in all his transactions ; a patron of the poor and oppressed ; 
but a better general than a counsellor. He had, however, 
a tincture of vanity, and a fondness for his own notions; 
and being a man of no extraordinary parts, was too much 
at the disposal of those who by flattery and submission in-* 
sinuated themselves into his esteem and confidence. He 
made likewise too great baste to raise a vast estate to b€ 
altogether innocent. But to balance these defects, he wad 
never charged with personal disorders, nor guilty of false* 
hood, of perverting justice, of bruelty, or oppression. Lord 
Orford remarks that his contributing to the ruin of the 
Howards hurt him much in the eyes of the nation : bis 



. S E Y M O U H. S.6Y 

severity to bis own brother, tbougb a tain and worthless 
man, was still less elecusable ; but having fallen by the 
policy of a man more artful, more ambitious, and much 
less virtuous than himself, he died lamented by the people* 

He appears to have been an author. While he was lord 
protector, there went under his name, ** Epistola exhorta- 
toria missa ad Nobilitatem ac Plebem universumque popu- 
lum regni Scotiffi, Lond/V 1548, 4to, which lord Orford 
thinks might possibly be composed by some dependent. 
His other works were penned during bis troubles, when he 
doesnot appear to have had many flatterers. During hia 
lirat imprisonment he caused to be printed a translation bj^ 
Miles Coverdale, from the German of Wormulus, of m 
treatise called ** A spirituail and most precious peari, teach* 
ing all men to love and embrace the crops, as a most sweet 
and necessary thing,'* &c. Lond. 1550, 16mo. To thia 
the duke wrote a recommendatory preface. Aboot that 
time he had great respect paid to him by the celebrated 
reformers, Calvin, and Peter Martyr. The former wrote 
to bim an epistle of *^ godly consolation,** composed before 
the time and knowledge of his disgrace ; but being deli* 
vered to him in the Tower, bis grace translated it from 
French into English, and it was printed in 1 550, under the 
title of <* An Epistle of Godly Consolacion,'* &c. Peter 
Martyr also wrote an epistle to bim in Latin, about the 
same time, which pleased the duke so much, that at his 
desire it was translated into English by Thomas Norton, 
and printed in 1550, 8vo. ' In Strype is a prayer of the 
duke ^^ For God^s assistance in the high office of protector 
and governor, now committed to him ;** and some of his 
letters are preserved in the library of Jesus college, Cam* 
bridge, and among the Harleian M8S. 

Somerset left three daughters, Anne, Margaret, and Jane, 
who were distinguished for their poetical talents. They 
composed a century of Latin distichs on the death of Mar- 
garet de Valois, queen of France, which were translated 
iqto the French, Greek, and Italian languages, and printed 
in Paris in 1551. Anne, the eldest of these ladies, married 
first the earl of Warwick, the son of the duke of Northum* 
berland, already mentioned, and afterwards sir Edward 
Hunton. The other two died single. Jane was maid of 
honour to queen Elizabeth.^ - 

 « 

> Birch*! LivQi.-*Co1Iins*s Peerage, hj lir E. Brydgef —Park** edition of 
the Royal and Noble Atttbon«— Strype^i Aiuialt. — Buraet'i Hisu of the Rdfor- 



S6S IS H A D W £ L L 

SHADW&LL (Thomas)i an English drasitftic poet, wa^ 
descended of a good family in the county of Stafford, but 
born at Stanion-hall^ in Norfolk, a seat of his father^s, about 
.1640. He was educated at Cai us college in Cambridge, 
and afterwards placed in the Middle Temple; where 
be studied the law some tiftie, and then went abroad. 
Upon his return from his travels he applied himself to the 
drama, and wrote seventeen plays, with a success which 
introduced him to the notice of several persons of wit and 
rank, by whom he was highly esteemed. At the Revolu* 
tion he was, by his interest with the earl of Dorset, made 
historiographer and poet-laureat ; and when some persons 
urged that there were authors who had better pretensions 
to the laurel, his lordship is said to have replied, *' that he 
did not pretend to determine how great a poet .Shad well 
might be, but was sure that he was an honest man." He 
succeeded Dryden as poet-laureat ; for Dryden had so 
warmly espoused the opposite inte^rest, that at the Revolu- 
tion he was dispossessed of his place. This, however, 
Dryden considered as an indignity, and resented it very 
warmly. He had once been on friendly terms with Shad« 
well, but some critical differences appear to have first se- 
parated them, and now Dryden introduced Shadwell in his 
Mac-Fleckno, in these lines : 

" Others to some fldnt meaning mak^ pretence. 
But Shadwell never deviates into sense ;*' 

which certainly was unjust, for though as a poet Shadwell 
is not to be mentioned with Dryden, as a writer of comedy 
he had no superior in that age. Hi^ comedies abound in 
original characters, strongly marked and well sustained, and 
the manners of the time are more faithfully and minutely 
delineated than in any author we are acquainted with. 
Shadwell is said to have written rapidly, and in the preface 
to his ^' Psyche" he tells us that that tragedy, by no means, 
however, his best performance, was written by him in five 
weeks. 

Lord Rochester had such an opinion of his conversation 
that he said ^^ if Shadwell had burnt alt he wrote, and 
printed all he spoke, he would have had more wit and hur 
mour than any other poet.^' Considering Rochester's cha« 
racter, this, we are afraid, confirms the account of some 
contemporary writers, that Shadwell, in conversation, was 
often grossly indecent and profane. Shadwell was a great 



S fi A D W E L 1. ie» 

faToilrile with Otway, and lived in intimacy * witli him } 
which might, perhaps, be the occasion of Dryden*s ex- 
pressing so much contemf^t for Otway, which was surely 
less excusable than his hostility towards our author. Shad- 
well died Dec. 6, 1692 ; and his death was occasioned, as 
tome say, by a top large dbse of opium, given him by mis* 
take. A white marble monument with his bust is erected 
in Westminster abbey by his son sir John Shadweli, and 
his funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Nicolas Brady, the 
translator of the Psalms, who tells us that ^^ he was a maa 
of great honesty and integrity, and had a real love of truth 
and sincerity, an inviolable fidelity and strictness .to hia 
word, an unalterable friendship wheresoever he professed 
it, and (however the world may be deceived in him) a 
much deeper sense of religion than many others have, who 
pretend to it more openly." 

Besides his dramatic writings, fae was the author of se» 
veral pieces of poetry, but none of any great merit : the 
chief are his congratnlatory poem on the prince of Orange's 
coming to England ; another on queen Mary ; a translation 
of the tenth satire of Juvenal, &c. The best edition of his 
works was printed in 1720, 4 vols. 12mo. 

Our author's son. Dr. John Shadweli, was physician to 
queen Anne, George I. and George II. by the former of 
whom he was knighted. In August 1699, be attended the 
earl of Manchester, who then went to Paris as ambassador 
extraordinary to Louis XIV. and continued there with that 
nobleman till his return to England in Sept. 170]. He 
died Dec. 4, 1747. 

There was a Charles Shadweli, a dramatic writer, who> 
Jacob tells us, was nephew to the poet-laureat, but Chet- 
wood, in his ** British Theatre," -says he was his younger 
sou. He had served in Portugal, and enjoyed a post in 
the revenue in Dublin, in which city he died August 12» 
1726. He' wrote seven dramatic pieces, all which, ex- 
cepting the " Fair Quaker of Deal," and the " Humours 
of the Army," made their appearance on the Irish stage 
only, and are pfinted together in one volume, 1720, 12mo.^ 
SHAFTESBURY. See COOPER. 
SHAKSPEARE (Willum), the most illustrious name 
in the history of English dramatic poetry, was born at Strat- 

< Biog. BriL^Biog. Dram.*-MaloQe'8 Dryden, toI. I. p. 26, 165—174^ S0> 
—207, vol. III. p. 77, lt)6, U4s— Cibbcr'i Li?es.— Nich«li»i P©«mf. 

Vol. XXVII. B b 



S7D S H A K S P E A R E. 

ford-upon«Avon, in Warwickshire, on the 23d day of Aprif^ 
1564. Of the rank of his family it is not easy to form an 
opinion. Mr. Rowe says, that by the register und certain 
public writings relating to Stratford, it appears that his an* 
cestors were '* of good figure and fashion" in that town, and 
are mentioned as '^ gentlemen/' an epithet which was cer<^ 
tainly more determinate then than at present, when it has be- 
come an unlimited phrase of courtesy. His father, John 
Shakspeare, was a considerable dealer in wool, and had 
been an officer and bailiif (probably high-bailiflF or mayor) 
of the body corporate of Stratford. He held also the office 
of justice of the peace, and at one time, it is said, possessed 
lands and tenements to the amount of 500/. the reward of 
his grandfather's faithful and approved senrices to king 
Henry VII. This, however, has been asserted upon very 
doubtful authority. Mr. Malone thinks ** it is highly pro^ 
bable that he distinguished himself in Bosworth field on the 
side of king Henry, and that he was rewarded for his mili- 
tary services by the bounty of that parsimonious prince, 
thongh not with a grant of lands. No such grant appears 
in the chapel of the^Rolls, from the beginning to the end 
of Henry's reign." — But whatever may have been his for- 
mer wealth, it appears to have been greatly reduced in the 
latter part of hb life, as we find, from the books of the 
corporation, that in 1579 he was excused the trifling week- 
ly tax of four-pence levied on all the aldermen ; and that 
in 1586 another alderman was appointed in his room, in 
consequence of bis declining to attend on the business of 
that office. It is even said by Aubrey, a man sufficiently 
accurate in facts, although credulous in superstitious narra- 
tives and traditions, that he followed for some time the oc* 
cupation of a butcher, which Mr. Malone thinks not in- 
<:on8istent with probability. It must have been, however, 
at this time, no inconsiderable addition to his difficulties 
that he had a family of ten children. His wife was the 
daughter &nd heiress of Robert Arden, of Wellinscote, in 
the county of Warwick, who is styled ** a gentleman of 
worship." The family of Arden is very ancient, Robert 
Arden of Bromich, esq. being in the list of the gentry of 
this county returned by the commissioners in "the twelfth 
year of king Henry VI. A. D. 143?. Edward Arden was 
sheriff of the county in 1568. The woodland part of this 
county was anciently called Ardtim^ afterwards softened to 
Arden ; and hence the name. 



S H A K S P E A R E. 371 

Our illustrious poet was the eldest sod, and received bis 
isarly, education, whether narrow or liberal, at a free school, 
probably that founded at Stratford ; but from this he appears 
to have been soon removed, and placed^ according to Mn, 
Malone's opinion, in the office of some country attorney, 
or the seneschal of some manor court, where it is highly 
probable be picked up those technical law phrases that so 
frequently occur in his plays, and could not have been in 
common use unless among professional men. Mr. Capell 
conjectures that his early marriage prevented his being sent 
to some university. It appears, however, as Dr. Farmer 
observes, that his early life was incompatible with a course 
of education, and it is certain that *' his contemporaries^ 
friends and JFoes, nay, and himself likewise, agree in his 
want of what is usually termed literature." It is^ indeed, 
a strot^g argument in favour of Shakspeare^s illiterature^ 
that it was maintained by all his contemporaries, many of 
whom have left upon record every merit they could bestow 
on him ; aud by his successors, who lived nearest to his 
time, when " his memory was green ;'* and that it has been 
denied only by Gildon^ Seweli, and others down to UptoU| 
who could have no means of ascertaining the truth. 

In his eighteenth year, or perhaps a little sooner, he 
married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years older than 
himself, the daughter of one Hathaway, who is said to 
have been a substantial yeoman in the neighbourhood of 
Stratford. Of his domestic cecouomy^ or professional occu- 
pation at this time, we have no information ; but It would 
Appear that both were in a considerable degree neglected 
by his associating with a gang of deer>stealers. Being 
detected with them in robbing the park of sir Thomas Lucy 
of Charlecote, near Stratford, he was so rigorously prose- 
cuted by that gentleman as to be obliged to leave bis family 
and business, and take shelter in London* Sir Thomas, oii 
this occasion, is said to have been exasperated by a ballad 
Shakspeare wrote, probably bis first essay in poetry, of 
which the following stanza was communicated to Mr. Oldys. 



u 



A parliemente member,* a justice of peace. 
At home a poor scare-crowe, at London an asse. 
If lowsie b Lucy, as some volke miscalle it. 
Then Lucy is lowsie whatever befall k : 

He thinks himself greate, 

Y6t an asse in' his state 
We allowe by his ears but with asses to mate. 



372 S H A K S P E A R E. 

If Lucy is lowsie, as some Tolke miscalle it, ' 
Sing lowsie Liucy> whatever befall it." 

These lines, it must be confessed, do no great honour to 
our poet, and probably were unjust, for although some of 
his admirers have recorded sir Thomas as a '' vain, weak, 
and vindictive magistrate,** be was certainly exerting no 
very violent act of oppression, in protecting bis property 
against a man who was degrading the commonest rank of 
life, and bad at this time bespoke^no indulgence by superior 
talents. The ballad, however, must have made some noise 
at sir Thomas's expence, as the author took care it should 
be affixed to his park-gates, and liberally circulated among 
his neighbours. 

On his arrival in London, which was probably in 1586, 
when he was twenty -two years old, he is said to have made 
his first acquaintance in the play-house, to which idleness 
or taste may have directed him, and where bis necessities, 
if tradition may be credited, obliged him to accept the 
office of call-boy, or prompter's attendant. This is a me* 
nial, whose employment it is to give the performers notice 
to be ready to enter, as often as the business of the play 
requires their appearance on the stage. Pope, however, 
relates a story, communicated to him by Rowe, but which 
Howie did not think deservingof a place in the life he wrote, 
that must a little retard the advancement of our poet to the 
office just mentioned. According to this story, Shakspeare's 
first emplo}mnent was to wait at the door of the play-house, 
and hold the horses of those w^o had no servants, that they 
might be ready after the performance. But ** I cannot,'* 
says his acute commentator, Mr. Steevens, ** dismiss this 
anecdote without observing, that it seems to wfnt every 
mark of prob)^biiity. Though Sbakspeare quitted Stratford 
on account of a juvenile irregularity, we have no reason to 
suppose that he had forfeited the protection of hU father, 
who was engaged in a lucrative business, or the love of his 
vrife, who had already brought him twa children, and was 
herself the daughter of a substantial yeoman. It is unlike«* 
ly, therefore, when he was beyond the reach of his prose- 
cutor, that he should conceal bis plan of life, or place of 
residence, from those who, if he found himself distressed, 
could not fail to afford him such supplies as would have set 
him above the necessity of liolding horses for subsistence. 
Mr.'Malone has remarked in his * Attempt to ascertain the 
wder in which the plays of Shakspear^ were written,' that 



SHAKSPEARE. 373 

he might have found an easy introduction to the stage ; for 
Thomas Green, a celebrated comedian of that period, was 
his townsman, and perhaps his relation. The genius of our 
author prompted him to write |>oetry; his connexion with 
a player might have given his productions a dramatic turn ; 
or his own sagacity might have taught him that fame was 
not iocompatibie with profit, and that the theatre was an 
avenue to both. That it was once the general custom to 
ride on horse-back to the play, I am likewise yet to learn. 
The most popular of the theatres were on the Bank-side; 
and we are told by the satirical pamphleteers of that time, 
that the usual mode of conveyance to these places of amuse- 
ment was by water, but not a single writer so much as hints 
at the custom of riding to them, or at the practice of hav- 
ing horses held during the hours of exhibition. Some al- 
lusion to this usage (if it had existed) must, I think, have 
been discovered in the course of our researches after con- 
temporary fashions. Let it be remembered too, that we 
receive this tale on no higher authority than that of CibberU 
Lives of the Poets, vol. L p. 130. Sir Wm. Davenant told 
it to Mr. Betterton, who communicated it to Mr. Rowe, 
who, according to Dr. Johnson/ related it to Mr. Pope.*' 
Mr. Malone concurs in opinion that this story stands on a 
very slender foundation, while he differs from Mr. Steevens 
as to the fact of gentlemen going to the theatre on horse- 
back. With respect likewise to Shakspeare's father being 
'^ engaged, in a lucrative business," we may remark, that 
this could not have been the case at the time our author 
came to London, if the preceding dates be correct He is 
said to have arrived in London in 1586, the year in which 
his father resigned the office of alderman, unless, indeed, 
we are permitted to cohjecture that his resignation was not 
the consequence of his necessities. 

But in whatever situation he was first employed at the 
theatre, he appears to have soon discovered those talents 
which afterwards made him 

*' Th' applause ! delight ! the wonder of our stage !*' . 

Some distinction he probably first acquired as an actor, 
although Mr. Kowe has not been able to discover any 
character in which he appeared to more advanuge than 
that 6i the ghost in Hamlet. The instructions given to 
the player in that tragedy, and other passages of hi^ works, 
show an intimate acquaintance with the skill of acting, and 
6uch as is scarcely surpassed in our own days. He appears 



374 S H A K S P E A R E. 

to have studied nature in acting as much as in writing. 
But all this might have been mere theory. Mr. Malone is 
of opinion he was no great actor. The distinction, how* 
ever, which he obtained as an actor, could only be in his 
own plays, in which he would be assisted by the novel 
appearance of author and actor combined. Before his 
time, it does not appear that any actor of genius could 
appear to advantage in the wretched pieces represeoied 
on the stage* 

Mr. Rowe regrets that he cannot inform us which was 
the fifst play he wrote. More skilful research has since 
found that Romeo and Juliet, and Richard II. and III. 
were printed in 1597, when he was thirty-three years old ; 
there is also some reason to think that he commenced a 
dramatic writer in 1592, lind Mr, Malone even places his 
first play, " First part of Henry VI." in 1589. His plays, 
however, must have been not only popular, but approved 
by persons of the higher order^ as we are certain that be 
enjoyed the gracious favour of Queen Elizabeth, who was 
very fond of the stage, and the particular and affectionate 
patronage of the earl of Southampton, to whom he dedi- 
cated his poems of '' Venus and Adonis,'* and his ** Rape of 
Lucrece.'' On sir William Davenant's authority, it has 
beeii asserted that this nobleman at one time gave him a 
thousand pounds to enable him to complete a purchase^ 
At the conclusion of the advertisement prefixed to Lintot*s 
edition of Shakspeare's Poems, it is said, '* That most 
learned prince and great patron of learning, king James the 
'first, was pleased with his own hand to write an amicable 
letter to Mr. Shakspeare : which letter, though now lost, 
remained long in the hands of sir William D'Avenant, as a 
credible person now living can testify.'* Dr. Farmer with 
great probability supposes, that this letter was written by 
king James, in return for the compliment paid to him in 
Macbeth. The relator of the anecdote was Sheffield^ 
duke of Buckingham. These brief notices, meagre as 
they are, may show that our author enjoyed high favour in 
his day. Whatever we may think of king James as a '^ learned 
prince^" his patronage, as welKas that of his predecessor, 
was sufficient to give celebrity to the founder of a new 
stage. It may be added, that Shakspeare's uncommon 
merit,'' his candour, and good-nature, are supposed to have 
procured him the admiration and acquaintance of every 
person distinguished for such qualities. It is not di^cultg 



S H A K S P E A R E. 375 

indeed, to suppose that Shakspeare was a man of bumour^ 
and a social companion, and probably excelled in tbat 
species of minor wit, not ill adapted to conversation, of 
which it coold have been wished he had been more sparing 
in his writings. 

How long he acted has not been discovered, but he con*r 
tinued to write till the year 1614. .During his dramatic 
career he acquired a property in the theatre *, which he 
must have disposed of when be retired, as no mention of 
it occurs in his*will. His connexion with Ben Jonson has 
been variously related. It is said, tbat when Jonson wag 
unknown to the world, he offered a play to the theatre, 
which was rejected after a very careless perusal; but that 
. Shakspeare having accidentally cast his eye on it, conceived 
a favourable opinion of it, and afterwards recommen4ed 
Jonson and his writings to the public. For this candour he 
was repaid by Jonson, when the latter became a poet of 
note, with an envious disrespect. Jonson acquired reputa* 
tion by the variety of bis pieces, and endeavoured to arro- 
gate the supremacy in dramatic genius. Like a French 
critic, he insinuated Shakspeare's incorrectness, his careless 
manner of writing, and his want of judgment; and as he 
was a remarkably slow writer himself, he could not endure 
the praise frequently bestowed on Shakspeare, of sieldom 
altering or blotting out what he had written* Mr. Malone 
says, that ^< not long after the year 1600, a coolness arose 
between Shakspeare and him, which, however he may talk 
of bis almost idolatrous affection, produced on his part» 
from tbat time to the death of our author, and for many 
'years afterwards, much clumsy sarcasm, and many mal^vo* 
lent reflections.'* But from these, which are the commonly 
received opinions on this subject, Dr. Farmer is inclined 
to depart, and to think Jonson's hostility to Shakspeare 
absolutely groundless ; so uncertain is every circumstance 
we attempt to recover of our great poet's life f. Jonson 
had only one advantage over. Shakspeare, th.at of superior 
leaYniag, which might in certain situations be of sonie im- 
portance, but could never promote his rivalship with a man 
wbo^attained the highest excellence without it. Nor will 

* Iq 1603, Shakspeare and several f Dot siDCe wriliog the abore, Mr. 

others obtained a license from king 0« GUcbfist'has published the yind:- 

James .to exhibit oomediet, tragedies, caiion of Jonson in a very able pamph* 

histories, See. at the Globe Theaire^ >et. See our account of JonsoUj vol. 

and elsewhere. XIX. p« U4. 



ite S H A K S P E A RE. 

Sfaakspeare suffer by its beiog known that all the dramatic 
poets before he appeared were scholars. Greene, Lodge, 
Peele, Marlowe, Nasbe, Lily, and Kyd, bad all, says Mr, 
Malone, a regular university education, and, as scholars in 
our universities, frequently composed and acted plays ou 
historical subjects *. 

The latter part of Shakspeare's life was spent in ease, 
retirement, and the conversation of his friends. He 
had accumulated considerable property, which Gildon (in 
his ^< Letters and Essays," 1694,) stated to amount to 
900/. per annum, a sum at least equal to lOOOZ. in our 
, days; but Mr. Malone doubts whether all his property 
amounted to much more than 200/. per annum, which yet 
was a considerable fortune in those times ; and it is sup* 
posed that he might have derived 200/. per annum from the 
theatre while he continued to act. 

He retired^ some years before his death, to<a house in 
Stratford, of which it has been thought important to give 
the history. It was built by sir Hugh Clopton, a younger 
brother of an ancient family in that neighbourhood. Sir 
Hugh was sheriff of London in the reign of Richard IIL a Ad 
lord mayor in the reign of Henry VII. By his will he 
bequeathed to his elder brdther^s son his manor of Clop- 
too, &c. and bis bouse, by the name of tbe Great Houses in 
Stratford. A good part of the estate was in possession of 
f^dward Clopton, esq. and sir Hugh Clopton, knigtit, in 
1733. The principal estate had been sold out of the Clop-? 
ton family for above a century, at the time when Shak- 
speare became the purchaser, who having repaired and mo- 
delled it to his own mind, changed the name to New Place^ 
which the mansion-house afterwards erected, in the room 
of the poet's house, retained for many years. I'be house 
and lands belonging to it continued in the possession of 
Shakspeare's descendants to the time of the Restoration, 
when they were re-purchased by the Clopton family. Here, 
in May 1742, when Mr. Garrick, Mr. Macklin, and Mr. 
Delane, visited Stratford, they were hospitably entertained 
under Shakspeare's mulberry-tree, by sir Hugh Clopton. 
He was a barrister at law, was knighted by king George I. 
^nd died in the eightieth year of his age, in December 

^ Thii wai the practice in Miltou's ders in the church wefe permitted to 

days. *' Ooe of hitf objectioos toaca- act plays, ^c." Johpson't Life of 

demical edacatioo, as it was theo con- Miltop, 
ducted, is, that nten desj^aed for or- 



SHAKSPEARE. 



877 



}J5\. His executor, about 1752, so]d Naa Place to' the 
Rev. Mr. GastreM, a man of large fortune, who resided in 
it but a few years, ' in consequence of a disagreement 
with the inhabitants of Stratford. As be resided part of 
the year at Lichfield, he thought he was assessed too highly 
in the monthly rate towards the maintenance of the poor; 
but, being very properly compelled by the magistrates of 
Stratford to pay the whole of what was levied on him, on 
the principle that his house was occupied by his servants iu 
his absence, be peevislily declared, that that house should 
never be assessed again : and soon afterwards pulled it 
down, sold the materials, and left the town. He bad some 
time before cut down Shakspeare^s mulberry-tree *, to save 
himself the trouble of showing: it to those whose admira- 
tion of our <^reat poet led them to visit the classic ground 
on which it stood. That Shakspeare planted this tree ap* 
peairs to be sufficiently authenticated. Where New Place 
stood is now a garden. — Before concluding this history, it 
may be necessary to mention, that the poet's house was 
once honoured by the temporary residence of Henrietta 
Maria, queen to Charles I. Theobald has given an inac- 
curate account of this, as if she had been obliged to take 
refuge in Stratford from the rebels, which was not the case. 
She marched from Newark, June 16, 1643, and entered 
Stratford triumphantly, about the 22nd of the same mouthy 
at the bead of 3Q0O foot and i 500 horse, with 1 50 wag- 
gons, and a train of artillery. Here she was met by prince 
Rupert, accompanied by a large body of troops. She » 
rested about three weeks at our poet's house, which was 
then possessed by his grand-daughter Mrs. Nash, and her 
husband. 

During Shakspeare^s abode in this house, his pleasure? 
able wit and good-nature, says Mr. Rowe, engaged him the 
^cquaintance, and entitled him to the friendship of the 
gentlemen of the neighbourhoods Among these Mr. Rowe 
tells a traditional story of ai miser, or usurer, named Oombe, 
who, in conversation with Shakspeare, said he fancied the 



* ** Ai the curiosity of this bouse 
•od tree brought much fame, and more 
company and profit to the town, a cer- 
tain man, on tome disgust, has polled 
thB house down, so as not to leave one 
■tone upon another, and cut down the 
tree, aad piled it as a stack of fire- 
3r9Q4i t9 tfie grea^ TcyatioB, km, aii4 



disappointment of the iohabitants; 
bowerer, ah honest silver-smith bought 
the whole stack of wood, and makea 
many odd things of this wood for the 
curious.'' Letter in Annual ilegister, 
1^60. Of Mr. Gastrell and his lady, 
see BosweU's Life of Dr. JolmiOOi vol. 
)1, 49g. IIL 443, 



S78 SHAK SPEAR E. 

poet intended to write his epitaph if he should survive him^ 
and desired to knovr what he meant to say. On this Shaks* 
peare gave him the following, probably extempore : 
^ *' Ted in the hundred lies here ingrav*d« 

Tis a hundred to ten his soul i» not sav'd. 

If any man ask, who lies in this tombe ? 

 Oh ! hor quoth the devil, ' 'tis my John-a-Combc'.** 
The sharpness of the satire is said to have stung the man 
so severely that he never forgave it. These lines, how- 
ever, or some which nearly resemble them, appeared in va- 
rious collections both before and after the time thdy were 
said to have been com{5osed; and the inquiries of Mr. Stee- 
vens and Mr. Malone satisfactorily prove that *the whole 
story is a fabrication. Betterton is said to have heard it 
%vhen he.visited Warwickshire, on purpose to collect anec* 
dotes of our poet, and probably thought it of too much 
importance to be nicely examined. We know not whether 
it be worth adding of a story which we have rejected, that 
a usurer in Shakspeare*s time did not mean one who took 
exorbitant, but an}f interest or usance for money, and that 
ten in the hundred, or ten per cent, was then the ordinary 
interest of money. It is of more consequence, however, to 
record the opinion of Mr. Malone, that Shakspeare, during 
iris retirement, wrote the play of " Twelfth Night.'* 

He died on bis birth-day, Tuesday April 23, 1616, when 
he had exactly completed his fifty-second year*, and was 
buried on the north side of the chancel. In the great church 
at Stratford, where a tnonument is placed in the wall, on 
which he is represented under an arch, in a sitting posture, 
a Cushion spread before him, with a pen in his right hand, 
and his left rested on a scroll of paper. The following 
Latin distich is*«ngraved under the cushion : 

*' Judicio Pylium, genio Spcratem, arte Maronem^ 

Terra tegir^ populus mosi'et, Olympus habet.'* 

f, , • • • 

'* The first syllable in Socratem," says Mr. Steevens, "is 
here made short, which cannot be allowed. Perhaps we 
should read Sophoclem. Shakspeare is then appositely 
compared' with a dramatick author among the ancients i 
but stilt it should be remembered that the elogium is les- 
•eoed while the metre is reformed ; and it is well known 
that some of our early writers of Latin poetry were uncom- 
inonly negligent in their prosody, especially in proper 

«T^ only notice wc*have of his and adds '< Terie good company, and 
peiioa is from Aubrey, who says, ** ba of a very ready, and pleasant, an4 
«ra» a bandioaM wettKtbapcd man/' smooth witt" 



S H A K S P E A B E. 37* 

names. The thought of this distich, as Mr. Toilet observes, 
might have been taken from * The Fa^ry Qtteeoe' of 8pen«^ 
ser, B. II. c. ix. st. 48, and c. x. st S. 

*^ To this Latin inscription on Shakspeare may be added 
the lines wfaic6 are found underneath it on his monument: 

^ Stay> passenger^ why dost thou go so fast ? 
Read, if thou canst, whom ^envious death hath plac*d 
Within this monument ; Shakspeare, with whom 
j^^uick nature dy*d ; whose name doth deck the tomb 
Far more than cost ; since all that he hath writ 
Leaves living art but page to serve his wit. 

Obiit Ano. Dni. 1616. 
aet. 53, die 28 Apri/ * 
'^ It appears from the verses of Leonard Digges, thatoot 
author's monument was erected before the year 1623. It 
has been engraved by Vertue, and done in mezzotinto by 
Miller." 

We have no account of the malady which, at no very ad- 
vanced age, closed the life and labours of this unrivaliad 
and incomparable genius. 

Hif family consisted of two daughters, and a son named 
I]amnet,whodiedinl596, inthe 12tbyearof hisage. Susan* 
nahycbe eldest daughter, and her father's favourite, was mar* 
ried to Dr. John Hall, a physician, who died Nov. 1635^ 
aged 60. Mrs. Hall died July 1 1, 1649, aged 66. They left 
only one child, Elizabeth, born 1607-8, and married April 
d2, 1626, to Thomas Nasbe, esq. who died in 1647, and af« 
terwards to sir John Barnard of Abington, in Norlhampten- 
shire, but died without issue by either husband. Judith, 
Sbakspeare^s youn|2[est daughter, was married ta a ]\|Ir.Tho« 
mas Quiney, and died Feb. 1661-62, in her 77th year. By 
Mr. Quiney she had three sons, Shakspeareig Richard^ and 
Thomas, who all died unmarried. Sir Hugh Clopton, who 
was born two years after the death of lady Baiyuurd, arhicb 
happened in l6b9-70, related to Mr. Macklin, in 1742, an 
old tradition, that she had carried away with her frodr 
Stratford many of her grandfather's papers. On the death 
of sir John Barnard, Mr. Malone thinks these must have 
felien into the hands of Mr. Edward Bagley, lady Bamard'i 

* On bii grave-stone unclerneath. It U ancertain whethcT ihtt reqMil 

•re these lin««, in an uncouth mixture and impivcatioo were writtfn by Shak»* 

of small and capital letters : p^are, or by one of hit frmids. Tho^ 

f* Good Frend for lesus SAKE for- probably allude to the o«stom of ro» 

beare moving skeletons after a certain time. 

To dioo T-E Dust EndoAsed H ERe and depotitmg them in ehamol-boiucti 

Blese be T-E Man ^spares T-Bs 'and similar execrations are lMlB4ta 

Stones many anciont Lilia ej^fhf* 
And eorst be He ^ movei my Bones." 



580 S H A K S P E A R E, 

executor, and if any descendant of that gentleman be now 
living, in bis custody they probably remain. To this account 
of Shakspeare's family, we have now to add that among 
Oldys's papers, is another traditional story of his having 
been the father of sir William Davenant. Oldys^s relation 
is thus given : 

" If tradition may be trusted, Shakspeare often baited at 
the Crown inn or tavern in Oxford, in his journey to and 
from London. The landlady was a woman of great beauty 
and sprightly wit, and her husband, Mr. John Davenant, 
(afterwards mayor of that city) a grave melancholy man ; 
who, as well as his wife, used much to delight in Shaks- 
peare's pleasant company. Their son, young Will. Davenant, 
(afterwards sir William) was then. a little school-boy in tbe 
town, of about seven or eight years old, and so fond also of 
Shakspeare, that whenever he heard of his arrival, he would 
fly from school to see him. One day an old townsman ob- 
serving the boy running homeward almost out of breath, 
asked him whither he was posting in that beat and hurry. 
He atiswered to see hh god- fdiher Shakspeare. * There's a 
good boy,' said the other, ' but lyave a care that you don*t 
take God's name in vain.* This story Mr.Pope told me at the 
earl of Oxford's table, upon occasion of some discourse 
which arose about Sbakspeaie's monument then newly 
greeted in Westminster abbey." 

This story appears to have originated with Anthony 
Wood, and it has been thought a presumption of its being 
true that, after careful examination, Mr. Thomas Warton 
was inclined to believe it. Mr. Steevens, however, treats it 
witi) the utmost contempt, but does not perhaps argue with 
bis usual attention to experience when he brings sir Wil- 
liam Davenant's ** heavy, vulgar, unmeaning face," as a 
proof that he could not be Shakspeare's son. 

In the year 1741, a monument was erected to our poet 
}n Weistminster Abbey, by the direction of the earl of Bur« 
lington. Dr. Mead, Mr. Pope, and Mr. Martyn. It was the 
work of Scheemaker (who received 300/. for it), after a 
design of Kent, and was opened in January of that year. 
The performers of each of the London theatres gave a be- 
nefit to defray the expences, and the Dean and Chapter of 
Westminster took nothing for the ground. The money re- 
ceived by the performers at Drury-lane theatre amounted 
to above 200/. but tbe receipts at Covent-garden did not 
exeeed 100/. 



S H A K S P E A R E. 361 

From these imperfect notices, which are all we have been 
able to collect from the labours of his bio'grapber& aod 
commentators, our readers will perceive that less is known 
of Shakspeare than of almost any writer who has been con-* 
#i<lered as an object of laudable curiosity. Nothing could 
be more highly gratifying than an account of the early 
studies of this wonderful man, the progress of his pen, his 
moral and social qualities, his friendships, his failings, and 
whatever else constitutes personal history. But on all these 
topics his contemporaries and his immediate successors 
have been equally silent, and if aught can hereafter be dis* 
covered, it must be by exploring sources which have hi* 
therto escaped the anxious researches of those who have de- 
voted their whole lives, and their most vigorous talents, to 
revive his memory and illustrate his writings. In the sketch 
we have given, if the dates of his birth and death be ex-r 
cepted, what is there on which the reader can depend, or 
for which, if he contend eagerly, he may not be involved in 
controversy, and perplexed with contradictory opinions and 
authorities ? 

It is usually said that the life of an author can be little 
else than a history of his works ; but this opinion is liable 
to many exceptions. If an author, indeed, has passed his 
days in retirement, his life can afford little more variety 
than that of any other man who has lived in retirement ; 
but if, as is generally the case with writers of great cele- 
brity, be has acquired a pre-eminence over his contempo^ 
raries, if be has excited rival contentions, and defeated the 
attacks of criticism or of malignity, or if he has plunged 
into the controversies of his age, and performed the part 
either of a tyrant or a haro.in literature, his history may be 
rendered as interesting as that of any other public charac« 
ter. But whatever weight may be allowed to this remark, . 
the decision will not be of much consequence in the case 
of Shakspeare, Unfortunately we know as little of the 
progress of his writings, as of his personal history. The 
industry of his illustrators for the last thirty years has been 
such as probably never was surpassed in the annals of lite-t 
rary investigation, yet so far are we from information of the> 
conclusive or satisfactory kind, that even the order in which 
his plays were written, rests principally on conjecture, and 
of some plays usually printed among his works, it is not yet 
determined whether he wrote the whole, or any part* 



8f» S H A K S P E A R E. 

t 

Much of our ignorance of every thing which it would be 
desirable to know respecting Shakspeare^s works, mtist be 
imputed to the author htmself. If we look merely at the 
state in which he left his productions, we should be apt to 
conclude, either that he was insensible of tbeir value,- or 
that while he was the greatest, he was at the same time the 
humblest writer the world ever produced ; '^ that he thought 
liis works unworthy of posterity, tbat be levied no ideal 
tribute upon future times, nor had any further prospect, 
than that of present popularity and present profit." And- 
foch an opinion, although it apparently partakes of the' 
ease and looseness of conjecture, may not be far from pro* 
bability. Bub before we allow it tiny higher merit, or Kt* 
Cempt to decide upon the affection or neglect with which 
he reviewed his labours, it may be necessary to consider 
their precise nature, and certain circumstances in his sitoa-^ 
tion which aflPected them ; and, above all, we must take 
into our account the character and predominant occupations 
of the times in which he lived, and of those which followed 
his decease* 

- With respect to himself, it does not appear that he printed 
any one of his plays, and only eleven of them were printed 
in his life-time. The reason assigned for this is, that he 
wrote them for a particular theatre, sold them to the ma- 
nagers when only an actor, reserved them in manuscript 
when himself a manager, and when he disposed of his pro- 
perty in the theatre, they were still preserved in maimscript 
to prevent their being acted by the rival bouses. Copies of 
some of them appear to have been surreptitiously obtainedi 
and published in a very incorrect state, but we may sup* 
pose that it was wiser in the author or managers to overlook 
this fraud, than to publish a correct edition, and so destroy 
the exclusive property they enjoyed. It is clear, there- 
fore, that any publication of his plays by himself would 
bave interfered, at first with his own interest, and after-^ 
wards with the interest of those to whom he had made over 
bis share in them. But even had this obstacle been removed, 
we are not sure tbat be would have gained much by publi« 
cation. If he had no other copies but those belonging to 
the theatre, the business of correction for the press must 
have been a toil which we are afraid the taste of the public 
at that time would have poorly rewarded. We know not 
the exact portion of fame he enjoyed; it was probably the 
hig^beat which dramatic genius cauld confer, but dramatic 



9 H A K 8 P £ A R E f8S 

Ijenias was a new excellence, and not well understood. Its 
claims were probably not heard out of the jurisdiction of 
the master of the revels, certainly not beyond the metro- 
polis. Yet such was ShakspeareU reputation; that we are 
told his name was put to pieces which he never wrote, and 
that he felt himself too confident in popular favour to un«> 
deceive the public. This was singular tesoludon in a man 
who wrote so unequally, that at this day the test of inters 
nal evidence must be applied to his doubtful productions 
with the greatest caution. But still, how far his character 
would have been elevated by an examination of his plays ia 
the closet, in an age when the refinements of criticism were 
not understood, and the sympathies of taste were seldom 
felt, may admit of a question. ^^ His language,*' says Dn 
Johnson, " not being designed for the reader's desk, was all 
that be desired it to be, if it conveyed bis meaning to the 
audience.^ 

Shakspeare died in 1616, and seven years afterwards ap« 
peared the first edition of his plays, published at the charges 
of four booksellers, a circumstance from which Mr. Malone 
infers, ^' that no single publisher was at that time willing to 
risk his money on^a complete collection of our author's 
plays." This edition was printed from the copies in the 
hands of his fellow-managers, Heminge and Condell, which 
had been in a series of years frequently altered through 
convenience, caprice, or ignorance. Heminge and Con* 
dell had now retired from the stage, and, we may suppose, 
were guilty of no injury to their successors, in printing 
what their own interest only had formerly withheld. Of 
this, although we have no documents amounting to demon* 
stration, we may be convinced, by adverting to a circum* 
stance which will, in our days, appear very extraordinary, 
namely, the declension of Shakspeare's popularity. i We 
have seen that the publication of his works was accounted a 
doubtful speculation, and it is yet more certain that so much 
had the public taste turned from him in quest of variety, 
that for several years after his death the plays of Fletcher 
were more frequently acted than his, and during the whqla 
of the seventeenth century, they were made to give place 
to performances, the greater part of which cannot now be 
endured. During the same perioi only fuur editions of 
his works were published, all in folio; and perhaps this 
unwieldy size of volume may be an additional proof that 
they were not popular; nor is it thodght that the imprfsso 
fions were numerous. 



> 



664 S H A K S P E! A R £. 

These circnmstam^es which attach to our author and tb 
bis works, must be allowed a plausible weight in accounting 
for our deficiencies in his biography and literary career j 
but there were circumstances enough in the history of the 
times to suspend the progress of that more regular drama, 
of which he had set the example, and may be considered 
zti the founder. If we wonder why we know so much less 
of Shakspeare than of his contemporaries, let us recollect 
that his genius, however highly and justly we now rate it, 
took a direction which was not calculated for [Permanent 
admiration, either in the age in which he Ih^ed, or in that 
which followed. Shakspeare was a writer of plays, a pro- 
moter of an amusement just emerging from barbarism ; and 
an amusement which, although it has been classed among 
the schools of morality, has ever had such a strong ten- 
dency to deviate from moral purposes, tiiatthe force of law 
has in all ages been called in to preserve it within tht 
bounds of common decency. The church has ever been 
unfriendly to the stage. A part of the injunctions of queen 
Elizabeth is particularly directed against the printing of 
piays ; and, according to an entry in the books of the Sta- 
tioners' Company, in the 41st year of her reign, it is ordered 
that no plays be printed^ except allowed by persons in au- 
thority. Dr. Farmer also remarks, that in that age, poetry 
and novels were destroyed publicly by the bishops, and 
privately by the puritans. The main transactions, indeed, 
of that period could not admit of much attention to matters 
of amusement. The reformation required all the circum- 
spection and policy of a lon^ reign to render it so firmly 
established in popular favour as to brave the caprice of any 
succeeding sovereign. This was effected in a great -mea- 
sure by the diffusion of religious controversy, which was 
encouraged by the church, and especially by the puritans, 
who were the immediate teachers of the lower classes, were 
listened to with veneration, and usually inveighed against 
all public amusements, as inconsistent with the Cbristiah 
profession. These controversies continued during the reign 
of James. I. and were in a considerable degree promoted by 
bim, although he, like Elizabeth, was a favourer of the 
stage as an appendage to the grandeur aiid pleasures of the 
court, ^ut the commotions which followed in the unhappy 
reign of Charles I. when the stage was totally abolished, are 
sufficient to account for the oblivion thrown on the history 
and worka of our great bard. From this time no inquiry 



S H A K 3 P £ A R EL S9S 

was mftde^ until it was too late to obtain any inforaiation 
more satisfactory than ^he few hearsay scraps and contested 
traditions above detailed. '^How iutle," says Mr. Steevens, 
*^ Shakspeare was once read, may be understood from Tate^ 
who, in his dedication to the altered play of king Lear, 
speaks of the original as an obscure piece, recommended 
to bis notice by a friend ; and the author of the Tatler hav- 
ing occasion to quote a few lines out of Macbeth, was con^. 
tent to receive them from D'Avenant's alteration of that 
celebrated drama, io which almost every original beauty is 
either aukwardly disguised, or arbitrarily omitted." 

In fifty years after his death, Dryden mentions that be 
was then become '^ a little obsolete." In the beginning of 
the last century, Lord Shaftesbury complains of his " rnde 
unpolished style, and bis antiquated phrase and wit." It is 
certain that for nearly an hundred years after his death^ 
partly owing to the immediate revolution and rebellion, and 
partly to the licentious taste encouraged in Charles II.'s time, 
and perhaps partly to the incorrect state of bis works, he 
was almost entirely neglected. Mr. Malone has justly re- 
marked, that '' if be had been read, admired, studied, and 
imitated, in the same degree as he is now, the enthusiasm 
of some one or other of his admirers in the last age would 
have induced him to make some inquiries concerning the 
history of bis theatrical career, and the anecdotes of his 
private life," 

His admirers, however, if be had admirers in that age, 
possessed no portion of such enthusiasm. That curiosity 
which in our days has raised biography to the rank of an 
independent study, was scarcely known, and where known, 
confined princip^illy to the public transactions of eminenr 
characters. And if, in addition to the circumstances al- 
ready stated, we consider how little is known of the persc- 
^ nal history of Shakspeare's contemporaries, we may easily 
resolve the question why, of all men who have ever claimed 
admiration by genius, wisdom, or valour, who have emi- 
nently contributed to enlarge the taste, or increase the re- 
putation of their country, we know the least of Shakspeare; 
and why, of the few particulars which seem entitled to cre« 
dit, when simply related, and in which there is no manifest 
violation of probability, or promise of importance, there is 
scarcely on« which has not sweilisd into a controversy. After 
4 careful ezaminatiou of all that modern research has dis^ 
i^overed, we know not bow to trust our curiosity beyond 
Vol. XXVII. Cc . 



386 8 H A K S P £ A R E. 

the limits of those barren dates which afford no personal 
history. The nature of Shakspeare^s writings prevents that 
appeal to internal evidence which in other cases has been 
found to throw light on character. The purity of his mo- 
rals, for example^ if sought in his plays, must be measured 
against the licentiousness of his language, and the question 
will then be, how much did he write from conviction, and 
bow much to gratify the taste of his hearers ? How much 
did he add to the age, and how much did he borrow from 
it ? Pope says, ^* he was obliged to please the lowest of the 
people, and to keep the worst of company ;'* and Pope 
might have said more, for although we hope it was not 
true, we have no means of proving that it was false. 

The only life which has been prefixed to all the editions 
of Sbakspeare of the eighteenth centpry is that drawn up 
by Mr. Rowe, and which he modestly calls ** Some Ac- 
count, &c.'' In this we have what Rowe could collect 
when every legitimate source of information was closed, a 
few traditions that were floating nearly a century after the 
author's death. Some inaccuracies in his account have 
been detected in the valuable notes of Mr. Steevens and 
Mr. Malone, who, in other parts of their respective editions, 
have scattered a few brief notices which are incorporated 
in the present sketch. The whole, however, is unsatis- 
iactory. Shakspeare in bis private character, in bis friend- 
ships, in |iis amusements, in his closet, in his family, is 
lio where before us ; and such was the nature of the writ- 
ings on which his fame depends, and of that employment 
in which he was engaged, that being in no important re- 
spect con netted with the history of his age, it is in vain to 
Ipok into the latter for any information concerning him. 

Mr. Capell is of opinion that he wrot^ some prose works, 
because ^* it can hardly be supposed that he, who had so 
considerable a share in the confidence of the earls of Essex 
and Southampton, could be a mute spectator only of con- 
troversies in which they were so much interested.*' This 
editor, however, appears to have taken for granted a de- 
igree of confidence with these two statesmen, which he 
ought first to have proved. Shakspeare might have en- 
joyed the confidence of their social hours, but it is mere 
conjecture that they admitted hini into the confidence of 
their state aflEairs. ' 'Mr; Malone, whose opinions are en- 
titled to a higher degree of credit, thinks that his prose 
compositions, if thfey should be discovered, would exhibit 



S H A K S P E A R E. 387 

the same perspicuity, the same cadence, the same eIe-> 
gance and vigour, which we find in bis plays. It is unfor- 
tunate, however, for all wishes and all conjectures, that 
not a line of Shakspeare*s manuscript is known to exist, 
and his prose writings are nowhere hinted at. We have 
only printed copies of bis plays and poems, and those so 
depraved by carelessness or ignorance, that all the labour 
of all his commentators has not yet been able, to restore 
them to a probable purity. Many of the greatest difficul- 
ties attending the perusal of them yet remain, and will 
require, what it is scarcely possible to expect, greater sa- 
gacity and more happy conjecture than have hitherto been 
employed. 

Of his poems, it is perhaps necessary that some notice 
should be taken, although they have never been favourites 
with the public, and have seldom been reprinted with his 
plays. Shortly after his death, Mr. Malone informs us, a 
Very incorrect impression of them was issued out, which in 
every subsequent edition was implicitly followed, until he 
published a correct edition in 1780, with illustrations, &c. 
But the peremptory decision of Mr. Steevens on the merits 
of these poems must not be omitted. ** We have not re- 
printed the Sonnets, &c. of Shakspeare, because the 
strongest act of parliament that could be framed would fail 
to compel readers into their service. Had Shakspeare 
produced no other works than these, bis name would hav« 
reached us with as little celebrity as time has conferred on 
that of Thomas Watson^ an older and much more elegant 
sonneteer.'' Severe as this may appear, it only amounts to 
the general conclusion which modern critics have formed. 
Still it cannot be denied that there are many scattered 
beauties among his Sonnets, and although they are now 
lost in the blaze of his dramatic genius, Mr. Malone re- 
marks that they seem to have gained him more reputation 
than his plays; at least, they are oftener mentioned or 
alluded to.' 

The elegant preface of Dr. Johnson gives an account of 
the attempts made in the early part of the last century, to 
revive the memory and reputation of our .poet, by Rowe, 
^ope, Theobald, Hanmer, and Warburtou, whose respec« 
tive merits be has characterized with candour, and with 
singular felicity of expression. Shakspeare's works may 
be overloaded with criticism, for what writer has excite^ 
so much curiosity, and so many opinions ? but Johnson^f 

c c 2 



588 S H A K S P E A It e:. 

preface h an accompaniment worthy of the genius it cele- 
brates. His own edition followed in 1765, and a second, 
in conjunction with Mr. Steevena, in 1773. The third 
edition of the joint editors appeared in 1785| tlie fourtfarin 
1793, the fifth in 1803, in 2r volumes^ octavo, which has 
since been reprinted. Mr. Malone's edition was published 
in 1790 in 10 volumes, crown octavo, and is now become 
Exceedingly scarce. His original notes and improvements, 
however, are incorporated rn the editions of 179'3 and 1803 
by Mr. Steevens. Mr. Malone says, that from 1716 to 
the date of his edition in 1790, that is, in seventy-four 
years, ^^ above 30,000 copies of Shakspeare have been 
dispersed through England.'' To this we may add with 
confidence, that since 1 790 that number has been mote than 
doubled. During 1803 no fewer than nine editions were 
in the press, belonging to the booksellers of London ; and 
}f we add the editions printed by others, and those pub* 
lished in Scotland, Ireland, and America, we may surely 
fix the present as the highest aera of Sbakspeare's popu- 
larity. Nor among the honours paid to his genius, ought 
we to forget the very mag^itficent edition undertaken by 
Messrs. Boydell. Still less ought it to be forgotten how 
much the reputation of Shakspeare was revived by the 
unrivalled excellence of Garrick's performance. His share 
in directing the public taste towards the study of Shak- 
speare was perhaps greater than that of any individual in 
his time ; and such was his zeal, and such his success in 
this laudable attempt, that he may readily be forgiven the 
tbolish mummery of the Stratford Jubilee. 

When public opinion had begun to assign to Shakspeare 
the very high rank he was destined to hold, he became the 
promising object of fraud and imposture. This, we have 
already observed, he did not wholly escape in bis own 
time, and be had the spirit or policy to despise it *. It 
was reserved for modern impostors, however, to avail 
themselves of the obscurity in which his history is involved. 
In 1751 a book was published, entitled <' A Compendious 
or briefe examination of certayne ordinary Complaints of 
diuers of our Countrymen in those our days; which, al- 
though they are in some parte unjust and frivolous, ye\ 

. * Mr. Malonn has givrn a litt of 14 logoes. Of these « Pericles" ba»fbnA4 

pla)5 ascribed ta Sbakspeaie, either advocates for its admisj^ioA irio tei 

l»y liie ^ilitora of the two later folios, works, 
fr by tbe aonpiters- pf vicieot cata* 



S H A K S P E A R E. 88^ 

are tbey sil by way of dialoguei throughly d^ated and 
discussied by William Shakspeare, gentleman." This bad > 
been originally published in 1581, but Dr. Farmer has 
clearly proved that fT. S, gent, the ouly authority for at<p 
tributiug it to Shakspeare iu the reprinted edition, meant 
William Stajford^ gent. Tbeobatd, the same accurate cri- 
tic informs us, was desirous of palming upon the world a . 
play called *^ Double Falsehood," for a posthumous one of 
Shakspeare. In 1770 was reprinted at Feversham, an old 
play, called ^The Tragedy of Arden of Feversham and 
Slack Will," with a preface attributing it to Shakspeare^ 
without the smallest foundation. Bat these were trifles 
compared to the atrocious attempt made in 1 795^6, when» 
'besides a vast mass of prose and verse, letters, &c. pre- 
tendedly in the hand-writiug of Shakspeare and his cor- 
respondents, an entire play,, entitled ^' Vortigern," was 
not only brought forward for the astonishment of the ad- 
mirers of Shakspeare, but actually performed on Drury* 
lane stage. It would be unnecessary to expatiate on the 
merits of this play, which Mr. Steevens has very happily 
characterized as ** the performance of a madman without a 
lucid interval," or to enter more at large into the nature of 
a fraud so recent, and sp soon acknowledged by the au- 
thors of it. tt produced, however, an interesting contro- 
versy between Mr. Malone and Mr. George Chalmers, 
which, although mixed with some unpleasant asperities, 
was extended to inquiries into the history and antiquities 
of the stage, from which future critics ^nd historians may 
derive considerable information *. 

SHARP (Abraham), an eminent mathematician, me- 
chanist, and astronomer, was descended from an ancient 
faitaily at Little- Horton, oear Bradford, in the West Riding 
of Yorkshire, where he was born about 1651. He was at 
first apprenticed to a merchant at Manchester, but his in- 
clination and genius being decidedly for niathematics, he 
obtained a release from his master, and removed to Liver- 
pool, where he gave himself up wholly to the study of ma- 
thematics, astronomy, &c. ; and for a subsistence, opened 
a school, and taught writing and accounts, &c. Before' 
be had been long at Liverpool, he accidentally met with a 

* This sketch of Shakspcare's Life having since been thrown on Sbak'- 

was drawn up by the present writer for ' speare** history, it is here reprints^ 

H 90mrum edtiion of bis works, pub- with very few alterations, 
iished in t804| ao4 no additional tisbt 



390 SHARP. 

merchant or tradesman visiting that town from London, in 
whose house the astronomer Mr. Flamsteed then lodged ; 
and such was Sharp^s enthusiasm for his favourite studies, 
that with the view of becoming acquainted with this emi- 
ment man, he engaged himseiiP to the merchant as a book- 
keeper. Having been thus introduced, he acquired the 
friendship of Mr. Flamsteed, who obtained for him a pro- 
fitable employment in the dock-yard at Chatham. In this 
be continued till his -friend and patron, knowing his great 
merit in astroAohiy and mechanrics, called him to his as^ 
sistance, in completing the astronomical apparatus in the 
royal observatory at Greenwich, which had been built about 
the year 1676. 

In this situation lie continued td assist Mr. Flamsteed in 
nfiaking observations (with the mural arch, of 80 inches ra- 
dius, and 140 degrees on the limb, i^ontrived and gradu- 
ated by Mr. Sharp) on the meridional zenith distances of 
the fixed stars, sun, moon, and planets, with the times of 
their transits over the meridian ; also the diameters of the 
sun and moon, and their eclipses, with those of Jupiter^i 
satellites, the variation of the compass, &c. He assisted 
him also in making a'catalogue of near 3000 fixed stars, as 
to their longitudes and magnitudes,' their right ascensions 
and polar distances, with the variations of the same while 
they change their longitude by one degree. But frooi the 
fatigue of continoully observing the stars at night, in a cold 
thin air, joined to a weakly constitution, he was reduced 
to a bad state of health ; for the recovery of which he de* 
sired leave to retire to his house at Horton ; where, as 900n 
as he began to recover, be fitted up an observatory of his 
own ; having first made an elegant and curious engine for 
turning all kinds of work in wood or brass, with a nnatifidril 
for turning iri'egular figures, as ovals, rOses, wreathed pil- 
lars, &c. Beside these, he made himself mostofthd tools 
used by joiners, clockmakers, opticians, matbenrtatical in- 
strument-makers, &c. The limbs or arcs of bis large eqiia«* 
t6rial instriiment, sextant, quadrant, &c. he graduated with 
the nicbst accuracy, by diagonal divisions into degrees and 
minutes. The telescopes* he made use of were all of his 
6'wi\ mnkitig'y and the leh^a grMUd, 'figured,' ftud "adjusted 
with his own hands. , . 

It was at ihis time that be assisted Mr. Flamsteed in cal- 
culating most of the tables in the second volume of his 
<< Historia Ccelestis," as appears by ihtit lett^rs^ in the 



SHARP. 391 

kands.of Mr. Sliarp*^ friends at Horton. Likenrise the 4:u- 
rioos drawings of tbe charts of all the constellations visible 
in our hemisphere, with the still more excellent drawings 
of the planispheres both of the northern and southern con- 
stellations. And though these drawings of the constella- 
tions were sent to be engraved at Amsterdam by a masterly 
hand, yet the originals far exceeded the engravings in pqint 
of beauty and elegance : these were published by Mr.Flam«- 
steed, and both copies may be seen at Horton *. 

The mathematician meets with something extraordinary 
in Sharp's elaborate treatise of ^* Geometry Improved/* 
(1717, 4to, signed A. S. Philomath.) 1st, by a large and 
accurate table of segments of circles, its construction and 
various uses in the solution of several difficult problems, 
with compendious tables for finding a true proportional 
part ; and their use in these or any other tables exempli- 
fied in making logarithms, or their natural numbers, to 60 
places of figures ; there being a table of them for all primes 
^o 1100, true to 61 figures. 2d. His concise treatise of 
Polyedra, or solid bodies of many bases, both the regular 
ones and others : to which are added twelve new ones, with 
various methods of forming them, and their exact dimen- 
sions in surds, or species, and in numbers : illukrated with 
a variety of copper-plates, neatly engraved with his own 
bands. Also the models of these polyedra he cut out in 
box-wood with amazing neatness and accuracy. Indeed 
few or none of the mathematical instrument-makers could 
exceed him in exactly graduating or neatly engraving any 
mathematieal or astronomical instrument, as may be seen 
in the equatorial instrument above mentioned,' or in his 
sextant, quadrants and dials of various sorts ; also in a cu- 
rious armillary sphere, which, beside the common proper- 
ties, has moveable circles, &c. for exhibiting and resolving 
all spherical triangles ; also his double sector, with many 
other instr^iments, all contrived, graduated, and finished, 
in a most elegant manner, by himself. In short, he pos- 
sessed at once a remarkably clear head for contriving, and 
an extraordinary hand for executing, any thing, not only ih 
mechanics, but likewise in drawing, writing, and making 
the moss exact and beautiful schemes or figures in all bis 
calculations and geometrical constructions. 

* Such is the language of his biographer, who wrote in 178.1. (Gent. Mag. for 
Hiat year.) Whether these coriosities are still to be seen at Horton we know not. 



9SS SHARP. 

The quadrature of the circle was undettaken by htm for 
bis own private amosetDenty in 1699, deduced from two dif- 
ferent series, by which the truth of it was proved to 79 
places of figures ; as may. be seen in the introduction to 
Sfaerwin's tables of logarithms ; and in Sherwin may also 
be seen his ingenious improvements on the making of lo^ 
garithms, and the constructing of the natural sines, tan- 
gents, and secants. He calculated the natural and lo^ 
garithmic sines, tangents, and secants^ to every secoud in 
the first minute of the quadrant : the laborious investiga- 
tion of which may probably be seen in the archives of the 
V Royal Society, as they were presented to Mr. Patrick Mnr-r 
doch for that purpose; exhibiting his very neat and accu- 
rate manner of writing and arranging his figures, not to be 
equalled perhaps by the best penman noiv living. 

The late ingenious Mr. Smeaton says (Philos. Trans, an, 
1786, p. 5, &c). << In the year 1689, Mr. Flamsteed com- 
pleted his mural arc at Greenwich ; and, in the prolego- 
mena to his ** Historia Ccelestis,'' be makes an ample ac- 
kiiowledgment of th^ particular assistance, care, and indns- 
try of Mr. Abraham Sharp ; whom, in the month ot Aug^ 
1688, he brought into the observatory as his amanuensisy 
and being, as Mr. Flamsteed tells us, not only a very skilful 
mathematician, but exceedingly expert in mechanical ope- 
rations, he was principally employed in the construction 
of the raural arc ; which in the compass of fourteen months 
be finished, so greatly to the satisfaction of Mr. Flamsteed, 
th^t be speaks of him in the highest terms of praise. 

*^ This celebrated instrument, of which be also gives the 
figure at the end of the prolegomena, was of the radius of 
6 feet 7| inches ; and, in like manner as the sextant, was 
furnished both with screw aqd diagonal divisions, all per- 
formed by the accurate hand of Mr. J^barp* But yet, who- 
ever compares the different parts of the table foe conver- 
sion of the revolutions and parts of the screw belonging to 
the mural arc into degrees, minutes, and seconds^ with ^ 
each other, at the same distance from the zenith on diffe* 
rent sidea; and with their halves, quarters, &c. will find as 
notable a disagreement of the screw-work from the band 
divisions, as bad appeared before in the work of Mr. Todd- 
pion : and hence we may conclude, that the method of Pr. 
Hook, being executed by two such masterly hands as To'm- 
pion and Sharp, and found defective, is ia reality not tf 
ife depended dpon in nic^ matters. 



SHARP. 39S 

I 



*^ From the account of Mr. Ftamtteed it appears also, 
that Mr. Sharp obtained the zenith point: of the instrument^ 
or line of coiiitnatioQy by observation of the zenith stars, 
with tlie face of the instrument on the east and on the west 
side of the wall : and that having made the index stronger 
(to prevent flexure) than that of the sextaat, and thereby 
heavier, he contrived, by means of pulleys and balancing, 
weights, to relieve the band that was to move it from a 
great part of its gravity. Mr. Sharp continued in strict 
correspondence with Mr. Flamateed as long as be lived, aa 
appeared by leuers of Mr. Flamsteed's fouad after Mr 
Sharp's death \ many of which I have seen. 

'^ I have been the more particular relating to Mr. Sharp, 
sn the business of constructing this mural arc ; iu>t only 
because we may suppose it the first good and valid instru- 
ment of the kind, but because 1 look upon Mr. Sharp to 
have been the 6rst person that cut accurate and delicate 
diviamns upon astronomical instruments; of which, inde- 
pendent of Mr. Flamsteed's tesumony, there still remain 
considerable proofs : for, af$er leaving Mn Flamateed, and 
quitting the department above mentioned, he retired into 
Yorkshire, to the village of Little Horton, near Bradford; 
where he ended his days aboat the year 1743 (should be, 
in 1742) ; and where 1 have seen pot only a large and very 
fine collection of mechanical tools, the principal ones be** 
ing made with his own hands, but also a great variety of 
scales and instruments made with them, both in wood and 
brass, the divisions of which were so exquisite, as would 
not discredit the first artists of the present times : and I 
believe there is now remaining a quadrant, of 4 or 5 feet 
radius, framed of wood, but the limb covered with a brass 
plale ; the subdivbions being done by diagonals, the lines 
of which are as finely cut as those upon tl^e quadrants at 
Greeowteh. The delicacy of Mr. Sharp's hand will indeed 
permanently appear from the copper-plates in a quarto 
book, published in the year 17 IS, entitled < Geometry Im- 
proved' by A. Sharp, Philomath* (or ratber 1717, by A% S/ 
Philomath.) whereof not only the geometrical lines upon 
the plates, but the whole of the engraving of letters and 
figures, were done by himself, as I was told by a person in 
the mathematical line, wbo very frequently attended Mr. 
Sharp in the latter part of his life. I therefore look upon 
Mr. Sharp as the first person that brought the affair of hand 
division to any degree of perfection.'* 



394 SHARP. 

* 

Mr. Sharp kept up a correspoodeiKe by letters mth ctost 
pf the emioent matbeinaticians and astrooooierB of his time, 
as Mr. Flamsteed, sir Isaac Newton, Dr. Ualley, Dr. Wal- 
lis, . Mr. Hodgson, Mr. Sherwin, &c» ; the answers to which 
letters are all written upon the backsi or empiy spaces, of 
the letters he. received, in a shorc^han'd of his own contriv- 
ance. From a great variety of letters (of which a Urge 
chest-full remain with bis friends) from these and many 
other celebrated mathematicians, it is evident that Mr. 
Sharp spared neither pains nor time to promote real science. 
Indeed, heittg one of the most accurate and indefatigable 
computers that ever existed, he was for many years the 
common resource for Mr. Flamsteed, sir Jonas Moore, Dr. 
Halley, and others, in all sorts of troublesome and delicate 
calculations. 

Mr. Sharp continued all bis life a bachelor, and spent 
his time as recluse as a hermit. He was of a middle stature, 
but very thin, being of a weakly constitution ; he was re- 
markably feeble the last three or four years before he died, 
which was on the 18th of July, 1742, in the ninety-first year 
of his age. 

In his retirement at Little Horton, he employed four or 
five rooms or apartments in his house for different purposes, 
into which none of his family could possibly enter at any 
time without his permission. He was seldom visited by 
any persons, except two gentlemen of &*adford, the one a 
mathematician, and tivs other an ingenious apothecary: 
these were admitted, when he chose to be seen. by them, 
by the signal of rubbing a stone against a certain part of 
the outside wall of the house. He duly attended the dis- 
s^ting chapel at Bradford, of which he was a member, 
every Sunday ; at which time he took care to be provided 
with plenty of ^ halfpence, whidh he very charitably suffered 
to betaken singly out of his hand, held behind, him during 
his walk to the chapel, by a number of , poor people who 
followed him, without his ever looking back, or asking a 
single question. 

Mr. Sharp was very irregular as to bis meals, and remark- 
ably sparing in his diet, which he frequently took in the 
following manner: A little square hole, something. like a 
window, made a communication between the room where 
he Was usually employed in calculations, and another cham- 
ber or room in the house where a servant could enter ; and 



S H A R P« S95 

t^eforetbis hole he had contrived a sliding board : the ser*-^ 
rant always placed his victuals in this bole, without speak* 
ing or making any the least noise ; and when he had a little 
leisure he visited his cupboard to see what it afforded to 
satishy his hunger or thirst. But it often happened, that 
the breakfast, dimier, and supper, have remained untouch- 
ed by him, when the servant has goneto remove what waa 
left — ^^so deeply engaged bad he been in calculations. Ca^ 
vities might easily be perceived in an old English oak table 
where he sat to write, by the freqnei^t rubbing and wear- 
ing of his elbows. By his epitaph it appears that he was 
related to archbishop Sharps but in what degree is not "men- 
tioned. It is certain he was born in the same place. One 
of bis nephews was the father of Mr. Ramsden the cele* 
brated instrument-maker, who said that this his grand- 
uncle was for some time in his younger days an exciseman, 
but quitted that occupation on coming to a patrimonial es- 
tate of about 200/. a year. Mr. Thoresby, who often men- 
tions him, had a declining dial for his library window, made 
by Sharp.' 

SHARP (James), archbishop of St. Andrew's, and the 
third prelate of that see who suffered from popular or pri- 
vate revenge, was born of a good family in Bau&bire in 
1618. In his youth he displayed such a capacity as deter- 
mined his father to dedicate him to the church, and to send 
him to the university of Aberdeen, whence, on account of 
the Scottish covenant, made in 163S, he retired into Eng- 
land, and was in a fair way of obtaining promotion from his 
acqtiaintance with doctors Sanderson, Hammond, Taylor, 
and other of our most eminent divines, when he was ob- 
liged to return to his native country on account of the re- 
bellion, and a bad state of health. Happening by the way 
to fall into company with lord Oxenford, that uoblemau 
was pleased with his conversation, and carried him to his 
oirn house in the country. Here he became known to se- 
veral of the nobility, particularly to John Lesley, earl of 
Rothes, who patronized him on account of his merit, and 
procured him a professorship in St. Andrew's. After some 
stay here with growing reputation, through the firiendsliip 
of th^ earl of Crauford, ^he was appointed minister of Grail. 
In this town he acquitted himself of hift ministry in an exem^ 



196 SHARP. 

I 

. plary and acceptable mannar ; only ione of the mdre rigid 
sort would sometimes intimate their fears that be was not 
sound ; and it is very certain that be was not sincere. 

About this time the covenanting presbyterians in Scot- 
land split into two parties. The spirit raged with great 
violence; and the privy-council established in that country 
could not restrain it, and therefore referred them to Crom- 
weU himself, then protector. These parties were called 
public resolutioners, and protestators or remonstfators* 
They sent deputies up to London ; the former, Mr. Sharp, 
knowing his activity, address, and penetration ; the latter, 
Mr. Guthrie, a noted adherent to the covenant. A day 
being appointed for hearing the two agents, Guthrie spoke 
£rst, and spoke so long that, when he ended, the protector 
told Sharp, he woold bear him another time; for. his hour 
for other business was approaching. But Sharp begged to 
be beard,, promising to be short ; and, being permitted to 
speak, in a few words urged his cause so well as to incline 
Oliver to his party. Having succeeded in this imporunt 
aflfair, he returned to the exercise of his function ; and 
always kept a good understanding with the chief of the op- 
posite party that were most eminent for worth and learning* 
When general Monk advanced to London, the chief of the 
kirk sent Sharp to attend him, to acquaint him with the 
state of things, and to put him in mind of what was neces« 
sary ; instructing him to use his utmost endeavours to se» 
cuce the freedom and privileges of their established judica- 
iures; and to represent the sinfulness and o6fen8ivene8s of 
the late established toUration^ by which a door was opened 
to many gross errors and loose practices in their church. 

I'be earl of Lauderdale and be bad a meeting with ten of 
the chief presby terian ministers in London, who all agreed 
upon the necessity of bringing in the king upon covenant 
terms. At the earnest desire of Monk and the leading pres^ 
by terians of Scotland^ Sharp was sent over to king Charles 
to Breda, to solieit him to own tbe cause of presbytery. 
He returned to London, and acquainted his friends, *< that 
be found the King very affectionate to Scotland, and re- 
aolved not to wrong the settled government of their church :'* 
at last he came to Scotland, and delivered to some of the 
ministers of Edinburgh a letter from the king, in which hif 
majesty promised to protect and preserve the government 
of the clMircb of Scotland, <<as it is settled by law.*!* jhe 
clergy, understanding this declaration in its obvious mean- 



SHARP. 3£>7 

ing, felt all the satisikction which such a commtinication 
Goutd not fail to impart; but Sharp, who had composed 
the letter, took thift very step to hasten the sobversiox) of 
the presbyterian church government, and nothing could ap- 
pear more flagitious than the manner in which h^ had con- 
trived it should operate. When the earl of Middleton, 
who was appointed to open the parliament in Scotland as 
his majesty's commissioner, first read this extraordinary 
letter, he was amazed, and reproached Sharp for having 
abandoned the cause of episdopacy, to which be had pre* 
viously agreed. But Sharp pleaded that, while this letter 
would serve to keep the presbyterians quiet, it laid his kna- 
jesty under no obligation, because, as be bound himself to 
si^pport the ecclesiastical government *' settled by law,** 
parliament had only thus to settle episcopacy, to transfer 
to it the pledge of the monarch. Even Middleton, a man 
of loose morals, was shocked with such disingenuity^ and 
honestly answered^ that the thing might be done, but that 
for his share, he did not love the way, which made his 
majesty's first appearance in Scotland to be in a cheat. The 
presbyterian government being overturned by the parlia- 
ment, and the bishops restored. Sharp was appointed arch- 
bishop of St. Andrew's ; and stilt, in consistence with his 
treacherous character, endeavoured to persuade his old 
friends, that be had accepted this high office, to prevent 
its being filled with one whp might act with violence against 
the presbyterians. 

All this conduct rendered him very odious in Scotland, 
and be was accused, of treachery and perfidy, and reproach- 
ed by bis old friends as a traitor and a renegado. The ab- 
surd and wanton cruelties which were afterwards conimitted, 
and which were imputed in a great measure to the arch- 
bishop, rendered him still more detested. Nor were these 
accusations without foundation, for when after the defeat 
of the presbyterians at Pentland-hilis, he received an order 
from the king to stop the executions, he kept it for some 
time before he produced it in council. 

Sharp had a servant, one Carmichael, who by his cruel- 
ties bad rendered himself particularly odious to the presb^* 
teriaos. Nine men formed the resolution, in 1 679, of %ray- 
laying him in Magus-moor, about three miles from St. 
Andrew's. While they wfite waiting for this man, the pri«^ 
mate himself appeared in a coach with his daughter, and 
the assasiiiins immediately considered this as a 6t opportu^ 



398 SHARP. 

nity to rid the world of such a moiister of perfidy and 
cruelty^ and accordingly dispatched bim with their swords, 
with every aggravation of barbarity, regardless of the tears 
and intreaties of his daughter. Such is the account given 
by all historians of the murder of Sharp ; and that he fell 
by the hands of fanatics whoofi he persecuted, is certain. A 
tradition, however, has been preserved in different fami- 
lies descended from him, which may here be mentioned. 
The primate had, in the plenitude of bis archiepiscupal 
authority, taken notice of a criminal amour carried ou be-* 
tween a nobleman high in office and a lady of some fashion 
who lived within his diocese* This interference was in that 
licentious age deemed very impertinent; and the arch* 
bishop^s descendants believe that the proud peer instigat^ 
the deluded rabble to murder their ancestor. Such a tra* 
dition, however, is contrary .to all historical testimony, and 
all historians have been particularly desircMis to prove that 
the meeting with the assassins waa purely accidental.^ 

SHARP (John), a learned and worthy prelate, was 
descended from the Sharps of Little Horton near Bradford, 
in the county of York, a family of great antiquity. He was 
;5on of Mr. Thomas Sharp, an eminent tradesman, and was 
born at Bradford, in Feb. 1644. In April 1660, he war 
admitted a member of Christ college, Cambridcre, where 
be pursued his studies with unwearied diligence, and ob* 
tained the degree of B. A- in. Dec. 1663, with considerable 
reputation. Yet most of the time he had been afflicted 
with a quartan ague, the long continuance of which bad also 
brought on hypochondriac melancholy. The favourite stu-* 
dies of his youth are said to have been those of botany and 
chemistry. About 1664, he was desirous to obtain a fel- 
lowship in his college, but the fellowships belonging to the 
county of York being then full, he was excluded by the 
statutes. At a future vacancy, however, the whole society 
were unanimous in their offer of it to him ; bat he had then 
better views. 

In 1667, he took the degree of M. A. and was ordained 
both deacon and priest. lu the same year, he was recom- 
mended by the celebrated Dr. Henry More, as domestic 
chaplain to sir Heneage Finch^ then attoroey-geaeral : 
to four of whose sons he was tutor : two of whom, having 
afterwards entered into orders, he successively colla;ted9 

* Encyd. Tb-ifnn.— CooVa Hist, of the Church of Scotland.— Wodrow's Hift. 
^U|Dg't HitU of SootUnd. 



SHARP. Z99 

when archbishop of York, to the rich prebend of Wetwang 
in his cathedral. At the opening of the Sbeldonian theatre 
in July 1669, he was incorporated M. A. with several other 
Cambridge geiitlemen, whom the fame of that intended 
solemnity bad brought to Oxford. In 1672, sirHeneage 
Finch obtained for him from the king, the archdeaconry of 
Berkshire, vacant by the promotion of Dr. Mews to the see 
of Bath and Wells. In the same year, sir Heneage was 
appointed lord keeper of the great seal, when he gave an 
eminent' proof of the confidence which he placed in the 
judgment and integrity of his chaplain. Attached to the 
interests of the church of England, he had considered the 
necessity of inquiring into the characters of those who might 
be candidates for benefices in the disposal of the seal. But 
the many avocations of his high office prevented his per- 
sonal attention to this point: he therefore addressed his 
chaplain to this effect : ** The greatest difficulty I appre- 
hend in the execution of my office, is the patronage of 
ecclesia^ical preferments. God is my witness^ that I 
would not knowingly prefer an unworthy person ; but as 
my conrse of life and studies has lain another way,! cannot 
think myself so good a judge of the merits of such suitors 
as you are. I therefore charge it upon your conscience, 
as you will answer it to Almighty God, that upon every such 
occasion, you make the best inquiry, and give me the best 
advice you can, that I may never bestow any favour upon 
an undeserving man ; which, if you neglect to do, the guilt? 
will be entirely yours, and I shall deliver my soul.? This 
trust, so solemnly committed to his care, Dr. Sharp faiths 
fully discharged ; and his advice was no less faithfully fol- 
lowed by his patron, so long as he continued in office ; 
and never was a conscientious disposal of church prefer- 
ment of more importance than in the dissolute reign of 
Charles II. 

In 1674, he preached a sermon, the first in the collec- 
tion of his printed works, which occasioned a controversy ; 
and to that controversy we are indebted for his excellent 
"Discourses on Conscience." In 1675, he was preferred 
by the kindness of the lord keeper to a prebend of Nor- 
wich, as also to the valuable rectory of St. Bartholomew 
Exchange, London ; and not long afterwards, to the rectory 
of 6t Gileses in the Fields. At this time, there were resi- 
dent in London, $ome of the most eminent divines of ot|r 
nation, with whom he had the happiness to be wellac- 



406 SHARP. 

quainted. Tillotson and Clagett were hjs more particular 
friends : bis connection with TiUotson bad commenced 
early in life, and to Clagett be waa attacbed by a similarity 
of manners, of study, and of inclination. On the death of 
Clagett, be published a.%*olume of bis sc^rmons, to which he 
prefixed an account of bis worthy friend. (See William 
Clag£TT.) In 1679, be took the degree of D.D. in which 
year he had accepted the lectureshipjat St. Laurence Jury^ 
which he resigned in 1683. In 168.t, be was promoted by 
the interest of bis former patron, now lord high chancellor, 
to the deanery of Norwich. Upon the death of Cbariesi II. 
be drew up the address of the grand jury for the city of 
London. He had been chaplain to that monarch, as be 
was also to his infrituated successor. 

In the reign of James, he was one of those distinguished 

preachers, who vindicated with boldness the reformed 

religion, and exposed tviih success the errors of popery. 

On May 2, 1686,'iiu delivered in bis church of St. Giles's^ 

a meniorabld discourse, in which he expressed a pontempc 

of those who could be converted by any arguments in favour 

' of the Komish faith. It was therefore considered as a re* 

* flection uot only upon those courtiers who had conformed 

to that religion, but even ut>on the king himself; and be 

accordini^ly experienced the resentment of James and his 

party. On June 17 following, a mandate was issued to 

Coiupton, bishop of London, to suspend the obnoxious 

^preacher ; but Coniptou was too firm to the protectant in<» 

terest to obey so tyrannical a command. He wrote a 

letter to lord Sunderlaud, whic^h he requested might be 

communicated to the king. In this letter, be said ** that ^ 

the only power he had over Sharp, was as his judged; and 

that he could not in that capacity condemn him, without 

the forms .of law/* He added, ** Sharp was so willing to 

give his majesty all reasonable satisfaction, that he madt 

him the bearer of the letter.'* But to this no answer was 

returned, nor was Sharp admitted. The bishop therefore 

recommended Sharp to desist from the exercise of his 

function : and prevailed on him to write a petition to tbe 

king, in which he expressed his sorrow for constructions ' 

that were offensive, and promised to be mere guarded for 

|he future. But the petition was not. admitted to be read. 

It bad been resolved indexed to humiliate Compton, as well 

as to punish Sharp. For, because the mild prelate refused 

to condemn him uncited, unheard, undefeuded^ untried, be 



SHARP. 401 

was hiQAelf stispended by that ecclesiastical ccmm'usion, 
which suspended also Sharp; and was another example of 
the vengeanoe which arbitrary power determined to eze* 
cute on those who had the courage to oppose it. 

.Dr. Sharp, during his suspension, resided at his deanery 
at Norwich. He there amused his leisure hours in collect* 
ing coins, of which, as well British, Saxon, and English, as 
Greek and Roman, he then and afterwards amassed suffi- 
cient to furtiish a choice and valuable /cabinet. To his re- 
searches of this kind, the learned and the curious are in- 
debted for his ingenious and accurate *^ Remarks on the 
English, Scots, and Irish money,'' which he commtinicated 
in 1698-9 to Mr. Ralph Thoresby ; in an introductory letter 
to whom he acknowledges his partiality to the study of 
antiquity, but modestly fears that he made that a business, 
which should be only a recreation. Part of these * Re- 
marks" were published by Mr. Ives in his " Select Papers,'* 
but the whole by Mr. Nichols, in 1785, in his " Bibliotheca 
Topograpbica Britannica," vol. VI. They were commu- 
nicated to him by Mr. Gough, who purchased them in MS. 
at the sale of Mr. Ralph Thoresby's Museum, in 1764. 

Dr. Sharp did not remain long in disgrace. In January 
1686*7, he received information from lord Sunderland 
that he was restored, and might return to his parochial 
charge. From the time of his suspension, till this welcome 
news arrived, a guard or sentinel is said to have attended 
bis lodgings. In Aug. 1688, he was summoned with the 
other archdeacons, before the ecclesiastical commission, 
for disobeying the king's orders in r^pect to the ^* Decla- 
ration for liberty of conscience." But they agreed not to 
appear before that cour.t, and Dr. Sharp drew up the rea- 
sons of their refusal. 

On Jan. 27 following, he preached before the prince of 
Orange, and on the 30th, before the convention. On both 
occasions he prayed for king James. The first time it gave 
no offence, because the abdication of the monarch had not 
then been voted. But the throne being declared vacant 
oft the 28th, the prayer of Dr. Sharp for the king, as well 
as some passages in bis sermon on the 30th, were heard not 
without surprise, nor without disgust. The vote of thanki 
to him for his discourse was long debated. The compli* 
ment at length was paid, with a request to print it : which, 
however, be thougbt proper to decline. 
Vou XXVIL D D 



N 



408 SHARP. 

I 

Unfavourable as this affair might seem to bis promotion 
on the accession of William, yet be explained himself in 
such a manner to that prince, as to become an object of his 
regard. Accordingly, on the promotion of Dn Tillotson to 
the deanery of St. PauPs, he was promoted to the deanery 
of Canterbury, and installed Nov. 25, 1689 : and was sue* 
ceeded in the deanery of Norwich by Dr. Henry Fairfax. 
About this time, he was appointed one of the commissioners 
for ^^ revising the Liturgy ;'^ an employment ia which ht 
assisted with particular attention, but the spirit of opposi- 
tion prevailing, the labours of these commissioners were 
rendered useless. 

The merit of dean Sharp was now in the highest estima* 
tion, and upon the deprivation of those bishops who re- 
fused the oaths to William and Mary, be was considered 
as a proper person to succeed to one of the vacant sees. 
But neither the favour of his majesty, nor the persuasion 
of his friends, could prevail on him to accept the offer. 
He declined the promotion, not from any scruple of con- 
science, but from a delicacy of feeling ; for be entertained 
a particular esteem for the prelates who. were deprived. 
This refusal, however, which refiects equal honour on his 
disinterestedness and on his sensibility, displeased the king. 
But bis friend. Dr. Tillotson, the day after his DomiBatioo 
to the see of Canterbury, waited on him, and proposed an 
expedient, by which he might accede, without violatiogbis 
resolution, to the kind intention of his majesty. Thb was, 
that he should promise to accept the see of York, when it 
should become vacant, and that he should ground his pre- 
sent refusal on his wish to be preferred to his native 
county. To this he agreed, and Dr. Tillotson acquainted 
the king with What had passed ; when his majesty signified 
his approbation of Dr. Sharp's intention. - In a few days 
afterwards, Lamplugh, the archbishop of York^ died^ and 
Sharp was consecrated in his room, July 5, 1691. His 
elevation to this dignity, says Thoresby, the historian of 
Leeds, was not only to the comfort and honour of bis na- 
tive county and family, but to the universal satisfaction'and 
joy of the whole nation* 

In 1693, he visited his diocese, when he found the col- 
legiate church of Southwell in the greatest concision, its 
government neglected, and its members in distraction and 
aiiimosity.i By the wisdom and moderation of his excellent 



S H A .R p. 403 

^* Injunctions,'* be restored.it to its fomoer decency, order, 
and hospitality. In 1697, as metropolitan b^ represented 
to the king, that the see of Sodor and Man had continued 
vacant fonr years, with which his majesty perhaps might 
not be acquainted ; that, of necessity, it ought to be filled ; 
and that the patron of the bishopric should be reminded, 
that any further delay would preclude his nomination. ^ 
The isle of Man was greatly indebted to the archbishop fof 
this remonstrance, as it occasioned the earl of Derby, the 
patron of the see, to insist on the primitive Wilson's ac- 
ceptance of it: whose modesty had before declined the 
honour, and who could not even now receive it, without 
saying, ** he was forced into the bishopric." 

On the acccitsion of queen Anne, the archbishop was 
sworn one of her privy council, and was appointed lord 
almoner. In 1705, he concurred with those who appre* 
bended the church to be in danger ; but their opinions, 
however zealously defended, when they became the subject 
of parliamentary debate, were-discountenanced by a great * 
m^ority ; and the church was declared to be ^^ In a most 
safe and flourishing condition." In 1706, he was nomi- 
nated one of the commissioners for treating of the union 
between England and Scotland. He is said to have been 
appointed merely out of respect to bis dignity ; but would 
not be psesent, even once, at the treaty. In the affair of , 
Sacfaeverell, on which the opinions of men were so much 
divided, in 1709, he joined with those peers, who expressed 
the most contemptuous opinion of the sermon, but did not 
think the preacher guilty of a misdemeanour; and who 
entered theic^ protest against the sentence of the majority. 
He afterwards opposed the intended promotion of Swift to 
an English mitre, in this remarkable caution to the queen, 
^' that her majesty should be sure that the man whom she 
«as going to make a bishop^ was at least a Christian." To 
this, it is said, he was induced by the solicitation of Swift's 
iospiacable .enemy, the duchess of Somerset : to whose 
aamest intreaties, rather than to the interposition of Sharp, 
Synih owed his disappointment. The archbishop, we are 
told, was more reconciled to Swift afterwards, and e^en 
asked his forgiveness; yet, although his grace might be led 
to an unjust insinuation of Swift's not being a Christian, 
and might, as all do, respect his uncommon talents, it does 
not appear, from a review of tlie whole of his character, 

D D 2 



404 SHARP. 

that he would have done much honour to the episcopal 
bench *. 

In 17129 archbishop Sharp perceived his health to de« 
ciine, and was recommended to try the benefit of the Bath 
waters, but his recovery soon appeared hopeless. Not long 
before his death, he procured sir William Dawes to be 
appointed bis successor, merely from his good opinion of 
him, *^ that he would be diligent in executing the duties 
of his office.'^ In the reign of queen Anne, the greatest 
attention was always paid to his recommendation, and in 
that of William, also, he had been joined with several other 
disinterested prelates, in a commission from his majesty, 
'' to recommend deserving clergymen for the crowo-pra« 
ferments.*' Among the many distinguished divines who, 
on various occasions, had been indebted to his interest, 
were bis particular friend Tillotson, the bishops Bull, Beve* 
ridge, Wilson, Potter, and Gibson ; Dr. Prideaux, though 
be himself thought otherwise, and Dr. Mills. 

He died at Bath, Feb. 2, 1713-14, in the sixty-ninth 
year of bis age. His remains were removed to York, and 
interred privately in the ^cathedral on the 16th following, 
where a marble monument of the Corinthian order, was 
afterwards placed to his memory, with an elegant Latin 
inscription by bishop Smalrjdge, one of bis intimate 
friends. Archbishop Sharp bad married, in 1676, Eliza- 
beth, the youngest daughter of William Palmer, of Win- 
thorp, in the coiinty of Lincoln, esq. by whom be had 
issue. His eldest son, John Sharp, esq. a learned and in* 
genious gentleman, is said to have been member of parlia- 
ment for Rippon, in the county of York, but this must 
bave been before the union, as we find no such name in 
the list of members for Rippon since that event. His gon 
Thomas we shall soon have occasion to notice. 

The character of Sharp, says Mr. Todd, whose accunte 
and well-arranged memoir we have followed, affords one of 
the best examples that can challenge imitation, whether be 
is considered as a man, as a scholar, as a divine, or as a 
diocesan. His amiable disposition and unshaken integrity, 
bis distinguished learning and extensive charity, will trans* 

* Arcbl>itbop Sharp took offence at gentoug letter appearetl in the Gent 

(be Tery nnbecommg way in which Mag. for 1814, p. 20, by which it weald 

meny grave points of doctrine and dis- appear (bat a passage in a tract of uur 

cipline are bandied in Swift's ** Tale of prelate against popery suggested te 

a Tob.** Concerning Uiis, a rery in- Sirift the plan oi outline of that satire. 



SHARP, 405 

mil his name to latest ages, as one of the greatest ornaments 
of this country. He was that faithful and vigilant gover- 
nor, who promoted the diligent clergy of his own diocese to 
the dignities in bis cathedral : who conferred, indeed, on 
the deserving whatever was in his own gift, without the 
least regard to political opinions and party interest ; who 
enforced the laudable injunction of residence to the pre- 
bendaries of York, Southwell, and Rippon : who, in ail re- 
spects, promoted by true discipline the decency of the 
church, as '' by sound doctrine he exhorted and convinced 
the gainsayers.*' 

His ** Sermons,'* which are collected into 7 vols. 8vo, 
have always been admired, as written with clearness, and 
they were delivered with grace and justness. It was ob* 
served of Tillotson and Sharp, that the two metropolitical 
sees were filled by the two 'best preachers of their time. 
In the management of controversy be was calm and candid, 
and scorned to calumniate or misrepresent the subjects of 
dispute. He. was wont to say of himself, *' That in his 
sermons against the papists be bad always dealt honestly 
and fairly with them, charging tbem with nothing but what 
their church openly avowed in her creed, aud councils, 
and public offices.*' ' 

SHARP (Thomas), a younger son of the preceding, 
was born about 1693. He was admitted of Trinity college, 
Cambrid