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^^^^^^^^^^^H THE ^^^^^^^^^H 


f GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. J 


^^H Bt SYLVANUS urban, Gent. ^^^ 


^^H VOLUME ^^1 


^^H ^^H 


^^H ^^H 


^^H JULY TO DECEMBER inclusive. ^^M 


^^^^^^^^^■i ^^^^^ * .^^^^Hb^^^iH^^^j^^fl^^^^^^^^K ^^^^^r ^^^^^^^^1 


H M^^Bk ■ 


^^^^H sSn'J^a ^B^^K^^^^^I^^^B ^^^^1 


H f^^^^^^^ H 


^^H ^^H 


^^H JOHN BOWYER NICHOLS AND SONS. ^^H 


^^^1 ^^H 



LONDON: 

J. B. NICaOLS AND tONt, PUNTUU, 

25, rARUAMSNT RKSBT. 



154876 



PREFACE. 



T WISH there were many of my readers who could remember us 
clearly as I do myself what was occurring just a century back from 
this midnight hour, at which I am now penning these lines in my 
comfortable sanctum, surrounded by contributors who are doing 
honour which cheers me, to my modest but hearty hospitality. 

This night a hundred years ago, before I addressed myself to the 
task of writing that youthfully-audacious preface wliich heads my 
twenty-fourth volume, land Ilenry Cave, successor of honest Edward, 
issued from under the ancient portal of St. John's to walk to Covent 
Garden, where Sheridan was playing Coriolanus against Mossop in 
the same character at the other house. We went, indeed. Cave and 
I, less to see Sheridan than to pass an hour or two with him and the 
other phiyers in the green-room. Tlie great man was in high spirits 
that night, and, as we entered, he uttered an " Oh, look there!" so 
perfectly after the manner of Barry, in the Earl of Essex, when con- 
templating the body of Rutland, that we, who when we heard Barry 
utter those words, on the first night of the tragedy, had, in common 
with tlie seventy-four critics who occupied the three front rows of 
the pit, burst into tears, now burst into laughter. We really had a 
yoydMs time of it, in that season of our boyhood, a century ago. 
Shuter, who was playing Monenius, and Mra. Woffington, who acted 
Vcturia(the " Coriolanus" was a combination of Shakspere's and 
Tliomson's tragedies), kept up our hilarity when they came from the 
stage to the green-room, by mimicking Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard 
in ^(r. and Mrs. Beverley; and then Kidout and that never-to-be- for- 
gotten witch Mrs. Bellamy fell to imitating Barry and Mrs. Gibber in 
Jafficr and Belvidcra. Well, Cave and 1 returned to St. .John's in 
high spirits. Not only did we find awaiting us in the little room there 
our choice contributors, but three or four church dignitaries, who 
w«re among our most stanch supporters. The punch, I remember, wae 
intmiLiiliie; und it was while Dean— ^ was brewing the tliird bowl, 
and Woodwartl and Mocklin were disputing on a passage In Shakspcre 
which neither of them underatood, that I wro te my preface to the 
Tolunie tor the year. IIow I soared, and yet how modest I was, 
that night ! Flow delicately I touched on the dilUculty tliat yearly 
incroawd as preliioos were periodically required ; and how com- 



17 PBBFAOK. 

pkcentlj I prattled of the pleasure I experienced, seeing that the 
longer I shoidd be called upon to write such articles, the more 
proo& I should have of my success with the public. Above all, 
how truculent I was with respect to my rivals; how defiant; how 
gloriously vaticinatory as to the fhiitlessness of all competition 
against " The Gentleman's!" 

Well, it was young blood and flow of spirits that caused it all; 
not that what I averred was without foundation, for half England 
and all the clergy were purchasers, not merely readers, but purchasers 
of •• The Gentleman's " then. Nor was I a false prophet. I have 
stood my ground since then against a host of competitors, and I 
appeal from the partial friends and contributors who now encircle 
moy and that very same bowl filled by the Dean a century back, to 
-tlie public at largo, and ask " Has not Sylvanus grown lustier as he 
has grown older ? Is not his blood as good, are not his spirits even 
better than they were of yore ?" lliere can be but one answer, and 
that reply emboldens me to ask not alone for continuance but 
extension of patronage. I am told that my friends are anxious to 
present me with a testimonial. I fully deserve one. It would be 
mock-modesty to deny it. The only testimonial, however, that 
would really give me gratification, would be in each of my present 
subscribers marking this year by procuring the addition of a new 
subscriber to my list. This would be at once a service worthy of 
them and of me. There is nothing that so invigorates even the 
healthy aged as an improved " circulation." Indeed, without it, 
death is apt to visit the strongest; and I may fancy, without exposing 
myself to the charge of senile vanity, that England could little afford 
to lose 80 time-honoured an institution as that which we founded 
long before George the Third was King. And here I fancy my 
Mends breaking out into a chorus based on the old Cornish one of 
*• Trelawny," and singing — 

And shall Sylvanus die f And ihall SylvanaB die ? 

Then fifty thousand reading-men will know the reason why I 

But the chorus would be prcmatiue; and I am rather disposed to 
accept the fortuitous mention of the above number as an omen, and 
to conclude that my friends will fix at " fifty thousand reading-men," 
the number of the intellectual contingent who will acknowledge 
as a leader one who will be, in return, their very obliged and 
nateful servant, 

Stlyakus Ubbak. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

JULY. 1854. 



CONTENTS. 

PAOC 

KnOB OORBESPOKDFJtCF.— Inqulnr for " Fkir Papnent no Sjionge "— B«muk> on Siuk- 
tptnft Twnlnit of the Sbnir, hoi tlio old pronundattoD of <Arow— Tomuliu >t Dlerbui7, 
ctLGIcoc.— Scpnldinil Efllnin, k<. at Chenle* 2 

Tb« Political CooatitutioD of Fluland 3 

Uoiloigncd ImitatioDi : Shakapere of Brumiu, Scott of Horace Walpole, Eugene 

Sae and Damaa of Schiller .....<•..........,. 9 

Soppr«iaion of Female Infanticide in India ...-. 13 

Secret Instractiona in the antograph of Frederick the Great, writtvn on the lOth 

Jan. 1757-8 16 

The Map of London a Hundred Years ago , 17 

The Life of Girolamo Cardano, of Milan, Physician 24 

A Glaoccat Parii in June 1B51 3i 

The Neglected State of the Public Recorda of Ireland 36 

lines on the Death of Jamea Montgomery , 38 

A DteuD : from the German. Uy the late Mr. Henry Harriaon 39 

OOUUESrONDENCE OF SYLVANUS DRBAN.— Recent Writer, on St. Tlionuu of Canler- 
kan— Churctiwardent' AccouaUof St. Mary WoolnoUi— I'orlratt of John Uales— IJfc at 
Oxftntrlrca isao J9 

HUTORICAL AND KISCELLANEOUS UEVIEWS— Warddl't AiitlqulUciof Loedi,44: [1*7- 
maiil Rellgknu Foundatloiu at Yonshtl anil iu Vidnltjr, 46 ; Talfoard'i Sapplement to 
•• Vacation RamblM," M ) Uacaxlne for the Blind 49 

NOTES OF THF MONTR— Thraakininl R«tnoT»l of Cliur<;lie> and Burial Gronodi In London 

•;.,..,,---. I...... -„y Rtftinn BUI— Priioa at Oxford— Portrali 

of Sli Islftiurd— <>«ological Sodely— Work, of Dr. 
TkOh. '>r N'orrulk- U8. Collections of Sir William 
B^llium- - icv.iui^ j.uiitlidiod 60 

ANTIQUABIAN :etr of AnUijoariei, A« i The Archa»lagic«l Uutltute. S7 i 

Brltlih Ari.1.. i 61 

mSTORICAL CHBONICLC— Foroicn Newt, AS -, Domeatk Occurrcncaa M 

hvBottofu and Preftrmenli, S3 ; Birtlu,K7; MarrlaceM 68 

OBITVABr ; with Menuln of fir. Bacnt, Blahop of Bath and Wells i The Dron of Windsor ; 
Sir Jolw GeroPl, Bart. ; Sir T. S. Dyer, Uut. : Sir Dovld CunynKluine, Hart. ; Sir llobert 
UerM, Ban. : Sir W. A. Inellhy, Bail. ; Sir Ocurire Campbell ; Sir John Siinpaon ; 
AAalral MaekelW ; Vuv-Adui. ilydc l-arker, C.B. ; Capt. Tuter, ltJ<. ; Capt. W. r. 
Hobertl, R.N. ; Capt. Gllfanl, R.M. ; Ciipl. .loll n Fwilr, K.K. ; Comnunder O. S. Farsooa, 

BJC.; Rt Hon. D't;- '■" -■ 'iptaln Barclay Allardloe; Tboniaa Dnffleld, Esq. ; 

MMtraTe Urlseo, : luu'kcray: Natbanld WaUlch, M.D.; WiUiam 
WHnitii. 1C.D.; .'.1 . ; J. W. illgglna, Baq.: John Holmes, Eaq.; 
Mr. WiUiam Pkkara.,. , .„.....,.., i.-irijon 71— 8i> 

Ocataa, ■mafad In Chnmological Order b9 

Battatrar-Oeneral's Returns of Uortollty In the IbtropoUa— Marksta, 96; Ueteotologlcal 

DUry-Dally Price of Stocka 90 



Br 8YLVANUS URBAN, Ghht. 



EmbflUiabed with k Viaw of ui OaauioAi, Cross formerly esiiting tt Lbbds, 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



Ma. VwMAM, — Ptimit ooe of the oldest 

\tljem U«ia( oenapoodeata to uk if toy 

l^af joar readcra em prodace a copr of ■ 

■|*ltr at 1717. Ittribatad to Defoe, 

['«kaa w* an kaov, ar to Paicnon, the 

nder af tka Bask, les* known u a 

' writar thaa ba deaema. lU title U, Fair 

Ptfmmt ff» SpoHft; and a copy of it ii 

nid to have been lold in Londoa at 

, BfcHra. Sotbaby'i within two yrara. Tba 

, aBkjeet ia tba redeaption of the National 

' Dabt, which it adrocatea. It waa a rc- 

{ Jafndcr to a pamphlet of Broome, eocitled, 

1/a ami Lnr; a title in{setted br Pater- 

aoo'a book in defence of Walpole • Sink- 

iag Pnad. The Uit-mentianed work waa 

antitled, Protttdinfi of Iht Wtdiutday'i 

Ofai <8 IMdoy Strfl ; — which eoalaiaa 

tha beat acconnt exunt of tba fonaation 

\ ft tba Bank of Eogland, and aome ab- 

aaa aalenlationa ia fatoar of the mes- 

■ora of redeeming the National Debt. 

The object of tbe preaeat ioqairy ia to 

eomplete a collection, now in tbe Prcaa, 

of the wtitiaca of Pateraon. 

Yoon, he. S. Bawnisth. 
Ma. Ukbam, — There ia a trifling point 
connected with Shakapcre'a Taminff of 
Iht SArew, which, ao far aa I am aware, 
baa hitherto eacaped remark. It ia clear 
that in the aixteenth century tbe word 
aArrw waa prononoced aa if written throw: 
indeed at the prrsent day the people of 
Sbropabire alwayi call their county town 
Shrow-buty. Thia manner of pronunci- 
ation will gire the doting linea of the 
drama tbe merit of forming a rhyme, and 
they are ao aingnlarly weak in themielrea 
■I to stand in need of erery adrantags 
they can fairly lay claim to. 

The linea will then ran aa followt : — 
Bor. Now go thy waya : thou haat lam'd 

a curat ihraie. 
Lue. 'Tie a wonder, by yoar leaTS, aha 
will be tam'd ao. 

80 alio tba otoaiog linea of act ir. leene 1 . 
He that Imowa better bowto tame a lArow, 
Now let bim apeak, 'tia charity to ihew. 

.\ud again, in the widow's ipeeeh to 
Katharine in tbe laat acene : — 
Your huiband being troubled with a f Arev, 
Mcainrei my huiband'a sorrow by hit woe. 

I may remark, before I conclude, that 
the lame peculiarity it obeerrable in the 
word tAoir, which, though written in- 
differently at iheie or (Aoie, it alwaya pro- 
IMunced aa thou. Youn, &c F. J. Y. 



Mr. Edward A. Preemaa reqtiKta vatal 
mention that Dr. Tbnmam and he bopa^ ' 
in tbe ooone of tbe Bootb ct Jah, to 
open a Terr reaurkabla tamalaa on Ukr- 
bnry near l>anley, in Gtoacaitiiahira. It 
waa opened about 30 yean ^o, aad waa 
fonnd to contain a giaatii riiambfr witk 
thirteen akeletoaa, otM of them in a sitting 
poatnre. It ia tbon|bt, bowerer, that a 
Bore adentiftc examinatioa than waa then 
poaiibia it highly desirable. It will pro- 
bably take place shortly after the Cam- 
bridge Meeting of the .\ rchcological In- 
•titate, wfaaa Mr. Freeman hopea to bo 
able to annoonce the exact day. He will 
be rery glad of the company of any per- 
tODi intereated in tnch matters. — Soaw 
farther notice of thii matter will be iband 
in ottr RqxKt of tbe laat monthly meeting 
of the Arehaalogicsl Inttituu. 

At tbe aMCtiag of the Archcological 
Inatitnte held on tbe 5th Not. 1852 (tea 
our ToL XXXTIII. p. 621), attention waa 
drawn to two aepnlehral etigiea of tba 
14th oentary, sapposed to represent mem- 
bers of the family of Cbeyne, which wera 
remoTcd from the Church of Cheniea, co. 
Buckingham, at a repair some years since, 
and had been ditcorered by the Rct. Mr. 
Kelke in the beer-cellar of the adjoin- 
ing manor-booae. Viator now informs oa 
that on a recent visit to tbe tpot he 
was sorry to find these effigies ttill in 
the same lamentable position, much de- 
faced from tbe damp of tbe cellar. .KX 
the tame time that they were removed 
from the church, the like bad taate seema 
to have soggetted the separation of all the 
tlonea bearing braasei from the graces to 
which they belonged, and their atsembls^ 
together in one group in the centre of the 
chancel. The consequence has been, that 
they bare tnfferrd very conaiderably from 
tbe frequent treading that has paaaed over 
tbem. The mooumenta of the Rnosell 
family at Cheniea are in good condition ; 
but the preservation of memoriala of a 
more ancient date has not been regarded. 
Soma armorial bearings in the eastern 
window of the south aiale are in a confiued 
and diaordered state. 



EaaxTA. — VoL xli. p. 552, ool. 2,/or 
Sorby read .Sotby. 

P. S53, /or Rochford Town retd Roch- 
ford Tower. 

P. 668, col. 2, line 13, rtad Sir Matthew 
Wood, Bart 




THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



AHD 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



THE POLITICAL CONSTITUTION OF FINLAND. 

Nofc — This paper wu written twelve years ago for one of the great English reviews* 
for which the author had composed several articles od Northern literature, &c. It 
wu Intended as a warning to England, an appeal for Finland and the North, and for 
the holiest interests of Great Britain and the West. But the apathy in England at that 
time, and the belief in the " magnanimitj of the Csar," were universal. The article 
was rejected. 

I have juit re-discovered it among a mais of old papers, and it may now interest the 
British reader. 

la thus giving it to the press I do not change one word.* I would only add, that 
the Russification of Finland during these fourteen winters has been rapidly increasing, 
and that the peril to the rest o( Europe is consequently so much the greater. We have 
not a moment to lose in restoring that noble Duchy to our Northern alliance against 
the great oppreasor. 



SOME four or five thousand winter* 
■gone, the world was as fair, though 
Dot 50 delved and digged, as now. 
Game abounded in the forest, 6sh 
leaped in the stream, and the laughing 
landscape invited the wandering war- 
rior to pitch bis tent amid its glories. 
Thmi trom the cradle of the numan 
nee, Uie high table-lands of Central 
Asia — that bright point where all the 
lines of earliest poetry and mythologi- 
cal tradition find their common centre 
— isdued tribes and clans destined to 
rough-hew the path of a future loftier 
ciriiization, chiefs trustingly led out 
Into tlie wilderness by the hand of 
Providence to colonize, and clear, and 
cultivate. Xorthward, and westward, 
and southward flowed they on, land 
aAer land ooaupied by their peaceful 
hordes. First came ri.»T-using tribes 
of huntsmen and fishermen, the sharp- 
shooters or back-settlers of the great 
oeeupationf then the coPVBB-armed 
races of an advancing mastership 
over the earth ; and lastly, kindreds 
whose hands could smelt and smithy 
ISO!), that most important of all metals 



in the history of mankind. Thus 
by rapid sweeps spread they their 
dominion, and in the limit of their 
sway was included a large portion, 
perhaps the majority, of our present 
Europe. 

The names of these our primitive 
European settlers have undergone 
many changes in proportion as they 
have inspired hope or fear in the 
bosoms of other nordes their neigh- 
bours ; but we see their descendants 
still among us, and know them as Lapt 
and Fmlandert (in their own spcceo, 
Suomalaisen), subdivided into many 
stems, and still stretching from the 
eternal snows of the most northern 
north, down in a belt of settlements to 
the east and south of the Baltic at/ar 
at Hungary. 

But these first tribes possessed men- 
tal features peculiarly contrasted to 
those of their Keltic, and Gothic, and 
Thracian, and Slavic afler-comers. 
They were not robber-racea nor sword- 
wielders ; nor were they driven by a 
thirst of blood and conquest to gain or 
regain settlements in more fortunate 



I 



* We have found some compression and omission necessary from regard to oar 
available space. — Edit. 



7%« Political Conttitution of Finland. 



climes. Though brnve, they were yet 
backward ; to hiiu who asked, gave 
they ; before him who took, they re- 
tired. A certain mild melancholy, a 
certain consciousness of inward quali- 
ties fur outweighing any outward ad- 
vnntogc, and an indomitable patience, 
hardihood, and industry, have always 
been their charaoterislics. Thus, with 
some few exceptions, when their innate 
heroism has flashed high and burned 
bri|;ht against their roes, they have 
retired step by step northward, north- 
ward, northward, sometimes battling 
with, but more fre<iuently giving way 
before, the decrees of fate, until we 
now find them in their final home, 
busily moss-druining and fire-clearing 
as their fathers before them, and re- 
calling in their mythological songs the 
mighty men of old and the spirit of 
the post. 

St. Eric the Ninth, King of Sweden, 
excited thereto us much by the neces- 
sity of putting u atop to the plundering 
incursions of the North and East Baltic 
heathens as by motives of religion, 
commenced the colonization and Chris- 
tianization of Fiidand about seven 
centuries ago. The force of Paganism 
and the bravery of the inhabitants 
rendered this a afilhcult task; but the 
measures token fur that purpose were 
mostly of a mild character, and within 
a not very long period we find the 
Finlaudcrs believers in Christ, and sin- 
cerely attached to the Swedish rule. 
By aegrees letters and civilization 
were spread among the people, and 
the TVious chins and district govern- 
ments (Jiihlkunnat) of the native Fins 
rapidly subsided into one extensive 
province, the most valuable of all the 
possessions of the Swe<li3h crown. 

But almost coeval with these events 
we find the Uussiaiis ondeuvouring to 
spread their power to these north- 
eastern Bulliv lauds, and disputing with 
Sweden the right of conquest. As 
early as a.d. 1042 Wladimir Jarosla- 
vitsch, Prince of Novgorod, led an 
ex[>edition against the Jemcr {Iliimd- 
ldi»et), a Finnish tribe to the east of 
Lake Ladoga.* In 1 1U7 the Korelions, 
instigated by the Russians, plundered 



and burned Sigtuno, the ancient capital 
of Sweden, and murdered Johannes 
the archbishop;! and in 1198 Abo, 
the capital of Finland, was plundered 
by a llussian force.^ But, omitting all 
mention of intervening incidents, wc 
would merely observe that Finland 
was yet again coniiuered by Russia in 
1741, and was only recovered by the 
influence of diplomacy. 

Thus even the most careless observer 
will perceive that the ini|)ortance of 
Finland for the political aggraudixe- 
ment of Russia was felt from the ear- 
liest times. This was particularly and 
most projihctically understood by that 
great king and illustrious hero, Gus- 
tavus II. Adolphus. When the victories 
of Jacob de lo Gardie had enabled that 
monarch in some degree to dictate the 
terms of peace to be granted to that 
power which he characterised as " all 
of them bearing an innate hatred to 
every foreign nation, and upblown with 
pride," § he thus wrote to his mother 
and the council : — 

Tlie fortresses of Kexhulm, NSteborg, 
Jama, Kussorie, and Ivangorod [on whose 
poiMssioii he continurd to insist as a Was 
qui noH for the cstAbliiiliment of a settled 
imderslnriding], wrrc as it were the keys 
of Fiiiliiid and of Lifluiid, and that out 
the Kuu from the Baltic : should the Russ 
gaia back NOteborg or Ivangorod, or both, 
and afterwards come to know his own 
power, the convenience of the sea, and the 
many advantages to be derived from the 
streams, and lakes, and shores, which he 
has never yet considered or jiroperly em- 
ployed, be could then not only attack 
rialand at every point, and yet better in 
summer than in winter, which he had never 
yet understood, but also iu consequence 
of bis great force he could fill the Eost 
Sea with vessels, so that Sweden would be 
in perpetual danger : the king, on bis 
journey to Neva, had himself examined 
tlie possession, and hnd found how neces- 
sary it was to obtain a safe border against 
Russia. II 

And again, in bis speech to the Diet 
after the iK>ace in 1G17, he thus ex- 
pressed himself: — 

It was not one of the least of those 
benefits which God h.id shown to Sweden, 
that the Russ, with whom we had lived of 



I 



I 



* Finland's Forntid. 
f Idem, p. 6. 



At G. Rein. 



Helsingfors, 1831. Part L p. 3. 
t Idem, p. 6. 
{ Geijer. Sveoska Folkets Historia. Orebro, 1832-6. Vol. iii. p. 105, 
II Idem, p. 108. 



1854.] 



The PuUticul Constitution oj' Finland. 



oil) in in uncertaia aCate and most don- 
, ■erooj position, wu ouw obliged to iiban- 
aon for erer tliat den of plunder whence 
I kc ha* before so often disturbed nt, A 
dmogerous nclKhbour nai he ; bit 
aiooi (tretched from the Baltic to 
the Northern Ocean and the Caspian Sea, 
■nd approached the Black Sea itself. Ue 
had a powerful nobility, plenty of peasants, 
and popnloua cities, and could send great 
vmies into the field. Now, however, this 
•nemy could not put a boat into the Baltic 
without our permission ; the great lakes 
of Ladoga and Prjpns, the river Narva, 
thirty Swedish miles of broad morass, and 
(trong fortresaes, part us from him. Russia 
U shut out from the East Sea, and 1 hope 
to God that over that brook the Russ will 
not bop so easily.* 

Yes ! at tliut [leriod the ground ou 
which staii'ls Petersburgh, that iirinjr- 
garruoned capital 

wbera now wide earth 

DTi mortcacM erownj all bnmbly wnilctb.t 

iru then the soil of Swedish Finland, 
ami on the border Gustai' niiscd a stone 
irith tlie national arms, the Three 
Crowna of Sweden, and the inscrip- 
tion : — 

Boc lapii pqioit &ne» Ouatavui Ailolphat 
Btx Soaearam, fknsla Nomine, ilnnt opus.} 



AIm, for Sweden and for Europe ! 
Gustaf fell, and Uie boundorjr-stone of 
the great liberator is now replaced by 
thp jalace of the Czar, the guard- 
■ halls of the King of Poland, 
I, of Moldavo-Wttllnchia, — 
lue g:ii..'-jieepcr of Germany, Scandi- 
DaTio. Persia, Turkey, China, and of 
British India I 

But it is not here our intention to 
eot«r into all the details of Finno- 
Busaian aflairs. We have not to do 
with the past, but with the present ; 
and shall tlicrdforc take up the question 
from a (wiot of view (juitc near at 
hand. 

The consequences of the lust niin- 
ous campaigns in Finland are well 
known. X'he premature resistaucc and 



unhappy obstinacy of the honourable 
and uiiibrtunatc Gustavus IV. AdoU.J 
phus — a king betrayed by his own 
house, by his court, his army, and hi< j 
nobles — against the great tyrant un4] 
his Alilan decrees, threw him, uusup- ! 
ported, into the chiws of the norlhera ( 
eagle. Alexander, as ally of Napoleon^ ] 
but without any declaration of war, J 
nay, in the midst of professions oTI 
peace and security, invaded Finland,T 
took possession of its capital, bought^i 
the impregnable .Sveaborg, Finland'n 
Gibraltar, and with eager hand placed! 
upon his brows the gnltering dindeiu] 
of " The Grand Duchy of Finland." 
Since that memorable event, a sue* 
cession of stirring incidents at homeJ 
nnd abroad, a feeling of profoundj 
melancholy and despair at the loss ofl 
their " dearest shield," and the policy! 
of the Swedish government in holding] 
out the politically valuable quasi ac«| 
quisition of Norway as an ally as in- i 
bnitely more valuable than the re*j 
covery of Finland as an integral part I 
of the kingdom, have all concurred to.l 
bring about in Sweden and elsewhere f 
a long trance of inactive regret as to:i 
Finland and all its concerns. But thiai 
period has happily come to an end : J 
public attention has once more bcoal 
directed to a subject so important, andrJ 
we are now assured that it will bef 
allowed to sleep no more. 

The individual who has tlie principal I 
iiierit of having broken the ice un Inia^ 
question is Israel llwasser, a medical | 

firofessor in Upsala, and in t)nst yeara j 
ong resident in Finland. This gentle- t 
man entered upon his task with his] 
customary energy, real, talent, audi 
originality. Possessed of a fine ima- 
gination and great reasoning powers, 1 
no produced a work abounding ia-J 
noble passages, and which will alwnycJ 
remain a monument of his genius, high j 
principles, and commanding views.|' 
But unfortunately this work was dan- 
gerous, in its tendency, to the very ■ 



* 8^er. Svenaka Folkets Uistoria. Orebro, 1832-6, vol. iii. pp. 108, 109. 
f Theaa two lines are from Teguer'a beautiful poem " AieL" 
i Tbei Svenska i RyssLind Tijo ahrs Krijgz Historic. Aff Job. Widekiodi. Stock- 
holm, 1671. Ha. p. 9'29. 

i Some curious documents have lately been published in Russia relative to tliia i 
truuaction, The writer, the Russian General Michailoff>kij-Daiiilrfl°skij, has beea j 
lUsfraced for his paias. 

I Om Alliaus-Xractatcn emellan Sverige och Ryssland ar 1812. Politisk Betraktelse ^ 
Ofver Nordens Duvarande st'allning. On the Treaty of Alliance between Sweden and 
[ Xaiaia, m the year IBI2. A polilical meditation on the present positinn of the North, 
] By Pro.'euor Israel Hwaaser. Stuckholm, ltii8, Sm, 8to. pp. 109. 



Tht Political Conttitution of Finland. 



[July, 



oauM he had undertaken to defend. 
Loring Finland and wishing its pros- 
perity on the one hand, and carried 
too far by his adoiiratioti of the policy 
of Charles XIV. John in 1812 on the 
other, he brought forward the extra- 
ordinary assertion that, in this case, 
"all that is, is best," and that Finland 
was now an independent state under 
the protection ot Uussia, and to be- 
come separate therefrom must violate 
I its own constitution and the eternal 
I Tights of its Russian chief. This was 
I the dangerous, politically immonil, 
doctrine which has given rise to the 
whole discussion now carried on in 
Sweden. 

Like the dog in the manger, Russia 
had long been anxious that Finland 
•hould rather be independent (that i.i, 
for such a small state, nothing, or worse 
than nothing) if it could not be Russian. 
A hundred years ago the Empress 
Elitabcth, in a manifesto dated Mos- 
oow, March IS, 1742, made the follow- 
ing declaration : — 

At the same time and Trom the best 
Sntentious, and as we besides do not wish 

, to tci|Uire a tingle foot of (oTt\f,n aoil, we 
would willingly permit and would ineverjr 
W117 adiance the plan that the said Graud 
Duchy of Finland, provided it were io- 
clined to free tnd extricate itself from the 
rule and jurisdiction of Sweden, that it 
might for the future, as now has happened 
throaghthe sclfiihnesiof some iodividunU, 
preserTe itself from the dangers of ■de- 
structive war and the terrible calamltifs 
resulting therefrom, may conatitute ilaelf 
and remain a free country dependeut upon 
neither, under their own form of govern- 
ment cstabliihcd by tbcmtelvea, and od 
iuch a footing, and with tuch rights, pri- 

' vileges, and immunities, ts ma; serve to 
their own advantage and eteroal defence, 
■I may beat ault their own detirei, and at 

' they thcmtelvet may with it to be. And 
In thit are we willing to protect and sup- 
port them in this their new undertaking, 
whenever circamttaocet may require, to 
(laiit them with our troops when and to 
as great a number as they themselves may 
ask.* 

la 1788, when faction had paralysed 
the campaign of GuHtnvus III., this 
manifestowoH again distributed through 
the Finnish provinces. At the same 
time Frederic the Great and Ciitlia- 
rine hod guaranteed the anarchical 



and suicidical Swedish and Finnish con- 
stitution of 1720, in a secret article of 
their alliance of March 30, 1764, and 
in a public article in that of October 
2, 1769. We must remember that in 
this same treaty of 1764 these two 
powers had also guaranteed the still 
more anarchical Polish constitution, a 
political act which was followed, on 
the 6th of August, 1772, by the first 

f)artition of Poland. Nor was a sirai- 
ar fate at all improbable for Swedea 
at that period. It is said that Frederic 
had laid claim to Pomerania, ond 
Russia to Finland, as the groundwork of < 
this intended iirst partition of Sweden. 

Professor Ilwasscr, and some other 
later writers, have begun to render 
fashionable what we consider to be 
simply a cowardly and unmeaning 
jargon — that the possession of Finlano, 
ana especially of its Baltic sea-coast, 
is " necessary " for Russia as iU " na- 
tural border" and that there never 
could have been a solid peace in Scan* 
dinavia until this great object wofl 
gained ; while, now that it has been 
.iccomplisbed, the happy North need 
never expect to hear the trump of war 
again from a power so inimical to 
imiuder, conquest, and astute and spo- 
liating ambition, as the government of 
all the Russiast Nay, such is the 
language frequently employed about 
this said " natural boundary," which 
the foundation of the modern Peters- 
burgh first rendered really proctieable, 
much less necessary, that wo might 
sometimes bo almost afraid that the 
Swedish nnd Fiiniisb heroes, who so 
long and so gallantly defended their ] 
country, were actually and wickedly \ 
fighting against nature, and opposing i 
the simplest and most express designs ' 
of heaven. 

Accordingly, this is an argument so ' 
sublime, or so ridiculous, that there is 
scarcely any answering it. Province 
after province, river after river, dis- 
trict after district, country after eoun- 1 
try, are declared " necessary " for the 
existence of Russia, as forming its 
" natural boundary," and as assuring 
to neighbouring nations a most lasting ! 
aud most truly solid " peace ! " Where 
then shall we stop ? Certainly not at 
Tornea and the Isles of Aland ; for 
the whole of Finland is open to incur- 



Oiu Alliann-Traotalen, &c, (Review of) in " Liltrratur-DlaJet " for November] 
December, 1838. By Profctior Oeijer. 8vo. pp. 40. Stookbolm, 1838. p. 819. 



1854.] 



The Political Conitilution of Finland. 



I whenever Sweden, or an^ other 
[ Wtttenx power, loav think it " ne- 
/ " or •dTisBble. Certainly not 
rtt the Korweeian Alps, far ther can 
[ be " turned " both from the nortn and 
, the south. Certainly not at Zeeland 
or at Bergeo, not at Edinburgh or at 
' London ; for 

Then Uat « vorld bijrondt 

And aa to this go very particular 
■ fuieabilit^ " of Finland, more than 
any other line, for a " natural " north* 
wcrt border, we know nothing of it. 
I Jt u aotorioiM/y open to inrxtnon along 
tUiUihort*; oalr Irom within, by a 
nation who will lire and die free, can 
it be defended. And as to aggres.sive 
measure*, from 1703, when it was first 
founded, up to IS09, Petersburgh re- 
mained secure, never really alarmed 
at whatever force* could be brought 
■^inst it by a country 9u compurn- 
tiTelr poor and so thinly peopled as 
Sweden and Finland. In fact, and in 
one word, the very position of the 
country, which has been for so manv 
centuriea heart and hand Swedish, is 
that of a bulwark or shield of its 
mother-land, not that of an advanced 
oamp of Russia. Indeed we cannot 
eomprehend what reasons, except those 
of the wolf in the fable, an unprinci- 
plad state-code of insatiable and over- 
l«aohing ambition, could ever have 
b een discovered for seizing on a coun- 
try like Finland, inhabited by a totally 
different race, speaking a totally dit- 
ferent language, and professing a to- 
tally ditl'erent religion, from that of 
RuMia Proper, or any of its provinces. 
As to the " final peace " now gained 
by Sweden through the cession of 
r mland, the thing is ridiculous.' Russia 
never committed herself to any such 
folly. She merely " bides her time." 
The immense fortilications and enor- 
mous garrison daily accumulating on 
the islands of Aland, the nearest point 
to Stockholm, and only a few Lours' 
■ail therefrom, are perhaps the surest 



comment we could find on this honeyed 
text of amiable and philanthropic and I 
pacific loving-kindness t 

We now proceed to the work of • 
Finlander, in reply to the pamphlet of ] 
Professor Uwasser, and open the clear i 
and eloquent but somewnat extreme { 
pages of the pseudonymous Pekka ' 
Kuoharinen, first published in Stock* 
holm in 1838.* Professor UwasseV'^ 
asserted, that Finland uus an inda«] 
pendent state, with a fully exercised 1 
free representative constitution. Pekla.j 
Kuoharinen, in the eagerness of bis re> 
ply, went too far, and declared thai j 
Finland has no constitution, and was | 
simply a conquered province. In 1841. | 
appeared on the stage yet another 
anonymous writer, also a Finlander, 
and in a brochure.f full of the warmest 
patriotism, singularly united to tho. 
calmest self-possession, demonstrated'] 
that the truth lay between these two < 
combatants; and that Finland, althougb^ 
it did not exercise, undoubtedly ought; 
to enjoy, as entitled by law and byl 
solemn oaths, the free constitution of ^ 
which Professor Ilwasser had boosted 
ao much. We shall make free use of 
the statements of these two last writers ; 
for they are full of talent and logical 
Acumen, and display an exact acquaint- 
ance with all the documents required 
for deciding this important question. 
In fact, Olli Kehiiliiinen may be con- 
sidered as a necessary appendix to his 
countryman, supplying his omissions 
and amicably correcting whatever 
might have been extreme in his poli- 
tical views. 

Pekka Kuoharinen thus, with a 
master's hand, demolislifs the castle 
of cards built up so ingeniously by the 
ITpsala metaphysician : 

The Russian army marched into Fin- 
land at the close of February, 1808, in 
order, as the words run in the proclama- 
tion of its commander-ia-chler, " to take 
the country under hh proteelion and into 
hit occupancy, and procure proper lalii- 
fttclion, in case hit royal Swedish majesty 



* Finland ock dess Frsmtid. 1 aniedning af skrifteD Om Allians-Trsctaten, tie. 
3dje Ofr. UppL, jemte erinringar vid en leduare skrirt Om Borgii Landtdag, Sic. Af 
Pekka Kuobarineu. (Fiolaud and its future Prospects. In reply to tlie work " On 
the Treaty of Alliance," Ice. 3rd Edit, corrected. With Notes on a later Pamphlet 
" Oa the Diet iu Borgfl," &c. By P. K.) Stockholm, 1840. sm. 8to. pp. 104. 

\ Fiolands mwsrande Stats-forfattolng. £tt (SrtOk att forena de stridiga asigterna 
hot Heirar Hwtaser, ocb P.K. Af Olli Kek&liiiuea. (The present Constitution of 
Rnland. An attempt to unite the conflicting views of H. and P. K. By 0. K.) 
Stockholm, 1841. am. 8to. pp. &2. 



8 



The Political Constitution of Finland. 



[July, 



continued In the reiolution not to accept 
the reuonible conditiuni of peace ofTered 
him by bia majeitji the Emperor or France, 
under the mediation of hia majeaty the 
Emperor of Ruaaia."* 

It thus constituted an " anny of 
execution," wliicb hiul to carry into 
efl'cct tbc resolutions of other united 
powers. Sweden was to be forced to 
join the " Continentiil System," and 
for tliat purpose one of its provinces 
was invaded. Finland was considered 
as a limb of the Swedish national 
body, not at all as a land for itself, or 
its inhabitants as n separate peoplix, 
with whom separate treaties or agree- 
ments were to be made. It is therefore 
very clear that those who were then the 
enemies of Finland bad no intention 
from the bepiiining to regard it as a 
slate with wliich a " separate peace " 
was t<i bo entered upon and concluded. 
We Himll afterwards see whether or 
DO they had any such idea at any later 
period. 

On the 22ud of May, the High Court of 
Abo received a communication from the 
Rusaian cnmrnander-in-chief, and in con- 
aequence hereof it imued, on the 27th of 
the same month, a circular, which pro- 
claimed " that aa aoon aa it could poaiibly 
be arcompliaheJ all landowners ahould be 
aaiembled at the usual aaaize-halls, there 
to take the nath of allegiance gracionily 
commanded by his Russian majesty ; but 
if uotnithatanding, and ai naa not to be 
expected, any such hindowner or other 
peraun from any cause whatsoever did not 
with proleelion fur Iffe or properly, he 
could on this t'ondition refuse to take the 
oath in question. "f 

At about this time or a little before, all 
employ^a and persona of the middle or 
higher claaaea were commanded to take 
the same oath of allegiance ; and with luch 
aeverity was this carried through, that 
even school boys and gymnasium-acholars, 
provided they hail completed their l&th 
year, were compelled to go through the 
same ceremony. It occurred alao on this 
occasion, for iiiHtnrice in Tavastehus and 
iu Borga, that Russian cannnnt, probably 
however by a mere .iccident, happened 
to be drawn up oiitaid.- tlie rhurch-doora, 
while the ceremony of allegiance was 
being performed within. It it not our 
meaning to blame this circumstance, even 



although it ahonld not have been done 
without design (for the conqneror waa in • 
foreign land, and among a people as yet hit 
enemiea) ; we merely mention it as con- 
nected with the idea of a " separate peace." 
« » « • 

By a proclamation issued in Abo, May 
28th, by Count Duxhoevdeo the Ruuian 
commander-in-chief,t the inhabitsnta of 
Finland were ordered to give up all arms 
of every kind, and he who did not perform 
the aame within the s|>aoe of one week, 
waa not only to bo lubject to heavy fines, 
" but would also be regarded as a risbel to 
be capitally pnuiihed by military law, 
being, according to circumstances, either 
hanged or shot." Theae orders were 
executed with auch harshness, that even 
rifles of the finest bore were taken from 
the jieaaantry. Tlius was that country 
completely disarmed, which was afterward 
to make peace and alliance with its con- 
querors, on its own account. 

On the 5th of June, 1808, was issoed 
his Imperial IMajrfty's gracious manifesto 
retperiing the incorporation of I'inland 
with the Russisn empire. J It opens aa 
follows : " According to the decision of 
the Most High, whohaa blessed our arms, 
we hate united to the Russian empire for 
ever the Province of Finland. With satis- 
faction have we heard, that the inhabitants 
of this province, as a pledge of their 
fidelity and eternal attachment to the 
Russian Crown, have taken a solemn 
oath." It is further mentioned, that "the 
inhabitants of the now cooqnrred Finland 
have from this time forward taken their 
place among those peoples who obey the 
Ruuian sceptre and constitute with them 
one empire." 

In this manner was Finland, step by 
step, transformed into a Russian pro- 
vince. 

With these and further details Pclcka 
Kuobarincn has triumphantly demo- 
lished the whole nrguincnt of Professor 
Ilwasscr as to the independence of 
Finland, and the "separate peace" it 
made with Alexander. The import- 
ance of this reply, supported by public 
documents, will be imniedinlely \mT- 
ceived when we consider that it lies at 
the bottom of the whole theory of the 
impossibility of any restoration of Fin- 
land by Alexander in \hVi. As to the 
hindrances asserted to have existed 



• RuUetiner under Kriget imellan Sverige, Ryssland och Danmark, Aren I80B 
oeh 1809. Stockholm, 1812. p. 9, 3. 

t Samling a/ Placatcr, fnrordningar, Manifciter, m. m. Vol. I. Abo, 1821. p. 8. 
I Bulletiner under Kriget, aren 1808, och 1809. Stockholm, 1812, Sheet K. 
{ Samling af Placater, lie. torn. I. p. 9. 



1854.] 



Undetigned Imitations. 



•gainst th'ii same re-onion, on the 
gronnd of the dislike of the Finlonders 
to " sacrifice all ! " for that purpose, 
Pekka Kuoharinen continues as fol- 
low*: — 

A iaercd feeling unites two peoples, 
who hAve lived for centuries under the 
I gOTcrameat. They have ibared with 
> otlier weal and woe, glor; and reverses, 
yktarj and defeat ; they possess remcni- 
brancas in common, and a common history. 
They hare grown np as foster-brothers 
who, after the old northern castom, have 
miogled blood with each other, and have 
avenged motoal snITerings and injaries. 
So^ • foster-brother community is like a 
tree In whose crown the genii of post bi;cs 
whisper, and whose roots have pierced 
down to the iuner esrth. Such a feeling 
is deep, serioai, and holy ; and if ever the 
sword ahoald cut asunder the tie which 
united the inhabitants, it yet cannot blot 
out aenory and love from the hearts of 
the separated peoples. These cannot be 
changed as one changes the one garment 
for another ; they ore not altered by an 
oath of fidelity, at a tree is clipped or its 
stem hewn down. 

Finland bad subsisted as a part of Sweden 
for a space of above 650 years. It had 
received thence its religion, its civilization, 
its laws and its customs. It hadeojoyed 
in common with Sweden all the adnntages 
of a free constitution ; it had so growu 
together with the mother-country, that 
each individual called himself a Swede. 
In IBI3, PiuUnd was a three-years' old 
Basi'm province. By ita emperor it was 
bMled with all imaginable mildnesa and 
ftvoor ; every possible attempt was made 
to gain the confidence and the love of the 
inhabitants, all was done to satisfy it and 
falsi every reasonable desire. But can 
the mild rule of three short summers root 
ont the attachment founded on G50 winters 
of enlightened government? Thu ques- 
tion does not contain any complaint; ita 
object is only to explain a fact now gene- 



rally known. Even the magic influence 
which drew all to Alexander, disappeared 
in his absence like a blue mist before the 
antique love of country, and the old 
Swedish recollectioiu. Alexander was 
loved with a warm heart, but every one 
in his inmost bosom felt himself a Swede. 
Nor was tbis treachery, or a deceitful 
hypocrisy. It was the new attachment 
struggling with the ancient national feel- 
ing. It was, if one so will, the young 
storm of the moment battling to overturn 
the lofty oak whose roots held fast in the 
rock below. 

The author of this work was in Abo in 
1812 when the treaty was concluded there, 
lie was employed in the highest executive 
court in the country, and was thereby 
enabled to ascertain the opinion of both 
the men of influence and of the people in 
general, and he must give his testimony 
that there was but one voice among all 
classes for a re-union with Sweden. Tliis 
was by no means meant as dissatisfaction 
with the actual supremacy of Russia, for 
no cause had then been given for this 
feeling ; it was the expression of the old 
national attachment subsisting in every 
bosom. How far this general wish was 
prudent or not is quite another question, 
and does not now belong to our subject ; 
to show the emptiness of our author's 
assertions, it is sufficient that it was there, 
and that it was decidedly pronounced. 
Everyone who then resided in Abosawwith 
what delight the people greeted the foreign 
hero [Charles XIV. John, then Crown- 
Prince of Sweden], with whose person 
most of them probably attached hopes for 
the future. We now speak of 1H12; since 
then a new race has sprung up around us, 
with other household gods. Much has 
been clianged hereby, but much remains 
the same. The spirit of the past broods 
over the ocean, though innumrrable wares 
dash themselves thereunder and die away. 
Nations are the oceans — individuals are 
the biUowi that rise and fall .* 
(To be eonfmitmf.) 



U.VDESIGNED IMITATIONS. 
Siaki|Mf« of Eraimiu.— Scott of Hor. Walpole. — Eugene Sue and Dumas of SchtUer^ 



\YE bare all of us at one time or 
another had occasion to remark how 
the mind when possessed with nn idea 
becomes morbidly ncutc on that parti- 
cular point, and forces and distort.'i 
everything within its cognisance until 
it bends it to the serrice of the favour- 



ite conception. Thus political iptid- 
nwics discern symptoms of plots and 
intrigues where, to the ordinary under- 
standing, all is fair and above-board; 
wliile persons whose natures are sensi- 
tive and suspicious detect a sneer in 
every smile and a .sarcasm in every 



• Finland ocb deis Framtid, pp. 24-37. 
Gbkt. Mao. Vol. XLU. 



ieat. Those wbo trace the aimihirities 
between nuthors seem peculiarly ex- 
nosed to this tendcnoy, and often find 
food for sneculntion when tlic re- 
temblnnoe is so (light as to bo invi- 
sible to all eyes but their own : and 
ugttin, where the idea supposed to bo 
ttoleu is 80 obvious aa to bo all but 
IDoatc. Uf this kind were those two 
Siukluperiun critics who drew dowa 
upon their bouds tlie awful indigiw- 
tion of the oracle of Ilolt Court, one of 
them by detecting in the expression 
•' Go before, I'll follow," o translation 
of the Latin " I pnc, acfiuar," and the 
Other by imputing to Caliban who, 
after a pleasing dream, says, " 1 cried 
to sleep again," a plagiarism from an 
ode of Anacrcun. 

At the risk of being ranked with 
tbeno unfortunate gentlemen, wo ven- 
ture to bring forward some coinci- 
dences in which we conceive that the 
later writers have l>een intlucncod, 
though unconsciously, by nn indistinct 
reminiscence of the works of their pre- 
decessors. 

Whatever may be thought of Shak- 
sperc's erudition, and it is likely enough 
that, compared witli Ben Jonson'ii 
" huge store," his learning was but 
imali, still it cannot be doubted that 
lie hod sufficient acquaintance with 
Latin to peruse a book so easy and 
simple in itji language as the Colloquies 
of Krasnius, which was indeed written 
for the benefit of the little Krobenius, 
and, being extensively used in schools, 
not improbably introduced Shakspcrc 
himaeli'lo thcrudimcutsof that tongue. 

However that may be, in one of the 
Colloi|uies termed the Setuituliu, tho 
female portion of the commuuitv are 
represented as determined on legis- 
latiuj' for themselves, and summoning 
a parliament for that jiurpose. A de- 
bate arises as to whether a member 
who, when on her legs, speaks ill of 
her husband, is to be dccmetl out of 
order or no. One of them, Cornelia, 
then puts in this plea fur tho men. 

QnnniiQam antcm habemiia non paucns 
joitiB querimoniss caosos, tamen cxprnnh 
rertim omnium summft nostra potior est 
<)aam illorum conditio, llli dum qutrmnt 
rim, ptr amnta terrat ac maria volilanl , 
non lineeapUit ditcrimint : Uli, »' bellum 
ineiJol, ejrcitanlur buccina,ftrrei ttani m 
acit, dum not domi tedtmus tuta. 

To ibis passage wo tlu'uk that Ka- 



tharine is somewhat indebted when 
advocating the " awful rule and 
ri(;ht supremacy" of husbands over 
wives. 

Thy batbwd U tliy Ion), Uiy lirit, tliy keeper, 
Tliy lioul, tby noToroiipi : una UiAt can* for Uiw 
And (or tliy nulntenuirc : coramlu LU body 
To iiolnfal Inboiir both by na and land : 
To watcb tho nii^bt In stamu, tho dny in mid \ 
WliUe thou liwt warni at homo, tcouro and *afe, 
flaming of the Shrew, Act V. Scrnc 11.) 

Again, in the colloquy entitled PT\)ei 
el PueUa, the lover thus lU'ges his suit. 

PamphilM. — Saltern illud responde, 
utrum eel clegaotius spectaouluin, vilU 
bumi jscens ct computrcaccni, an amplcxa 
polum aut ulmum, eamque purpurcit uvi* 
dograTsni ? 

Uaria. — Responde tu mihl ^ciMin, 
utrum tpectacutum omacoius, ro*a nitfos 
et lactea in auo fnilioc, an decerpta digitis 
et marcvaceni .' 

Pamphitut. — Ego rotam erittimo /*H- 
ciorem yv(f tnareeteit in hominia maou, 
delocUna interim ct oculos et narcs, qiunn 
f ua leneteil in frutice, nam et ilUc futn- 
rom erat at marceaoenit. 

In writing this passage Erasmus evi- 
dently had in view Catullua's Epitha- 
lamiuiu, and we think that it bos in its 
turn supplied the conn of the well- 
known lines in the Midsummer's Night 
Dream. 

llul cnrlhtlor liap|<y !• tho roM dIsUII'd 

Tlun Umt, wlikh wiUiorIng on tlia vircUl than, 

Orutri, Ui CM, aud dla> in tingle blaaacdnaai. 

A little further on in the colloqny 
la.<it mentioned we find this passage : — 

Maria. — Attamen favorabilis atquo 
pUuiiibilis upud umueis virginitai. 

Pamphilut. — Elegana quidem res puella 
virgo : icd quid juxta naturaoi prodigiosia* 
anu virgioc ? Nisi matri tuac detluiisut 
floi ille, noa latum floaculum Dou habere- 
moB. Quod ai, ut spcro, non tterile erit 
nostrum coujugium, pro unA virfioe 
n)ult«s dabimua. 

In All's Well that Ends Well, Act 
I. Scene ii. Tarolles uses similar 
arguments to Helen. 

Parellet. — It is aot politie In the com- 
mon-wealth of QBturc to preserve virgioity. 
Loss of virginity is rational iocrease, and 
tliere waa never virgin got till virginity 
was first lost. That you were made of is 
metal to make virgini. Virginity, by being 
once lost, may be ten times found : by 
being ever kept, it ia ever lost; 'til too 
cold a companion : away with it. 

H*ltn.—\ will stand for't a little, though 
therefore I die a virgin. 

Pnrollfi.~~Thcre'a Uttlo con be said In 



1854.] 



Underigned Tmilattons. 



11 



It, 'tSs •ninit the role of natore. To 
l^«ak on behalf of Tirgioity is to accuse 
ypw mother's, which it most infallible 
i siaobeilienoe. 

Lovelace also had probably rcotl and 
Ijcmembered this dialogue, fur in an 
iXlegMcal EpiUph on the death of Mrs. 
[£Ucftbeth r'ilnicr, iiAer Iftudlng the 
^ tiarvM of the young lady's mind, he 
iy»— 
Vnr mn the moauanflt to teM 
Ajt6 taMrlaln this ui(<l-(neal. 

And in the eolloqny we hare the 
' icjllowing : 

Utria. — Fortaaaia alia Tidebor, nbi 

•lOrboa aot ctoa banc formam immutarit. 

Pamphihu.—'Sec hoc corpus, o bona, 

■pererit squc succulcntum. Sed ego 

B aootcnplor tantum istml undiqut fio- 

atfm* tUgau domicilium : hotfrilem 

' I adamo. 

Thi« metaphor, howcrcr, is so ob- 
Ttoas that possibly the resemblance 
I mry be merely the result of cbanee. 

We now turn to the Wizard of the 

I Korth ; and in James Wallace, a norcl 

_ by Robert B.igo, and edited 

r Scott, we tind that the hero from 

the book takes its name, and 

whoM parentage is anicnown, is brousht 

I vp wito one Parai.'elsu^ Holiuan, under 

the roof of the father of the latter; 

the disposition of younj» Ilolman being 

rish and pcrverjc, while that of Wal- 

I .. ,. I- ^<.vidy and modest. The two 

u contract a close friendship, 

l.iCe going forth into the world 

to seek his fortune, and search for his 
parents, the story is carried on by 
ncana of a correspondence between 
the two friends, in which the more 
rulional Wallace takes frequent occa- 
tioa to ailraoninh and reprimand the 
8tn:>ng and crotchety Ilolman. The 
nblancc between the plan of this 
woric and that of llcdgauntlct is obvious 
at a glance ; there is indeed one dif- 
r between the two, that Sir 

13 transposed the characters 
HI inK- I wo youths, and represents the 
wanderer as flighty and frivolous, 
"'■ ' •' ' <tftyer ut homo is steady and 

— -lurace Walj^olu's Castle of 
Otianto we meet with the following 
paaaagc: 

A* she said these words thoy (i. e. the 
IVinr/.. M .i;i,ij Bud iigi- maid Biancs) 
bear 1 icnt of the little wiudow 

bent I ill's open. Tlicj liitened 



attentively, and in a few moments tbonght 
tticy heard a person singing, but oonld not 
■lislinguieh the words. [The Priuces* 
theu opens the window and inquirei who 
is there, and the narrative tbns proceed* :] 
" I am not here willingly,'' answered tb* I 
voice ; " hat pardon me, lady, if I dis> i 
turbed your rest. I knew not that I was { 
overheard. Sleep had forsaken me. I 
left a restless couch, and came to wasty j 
the irksome hours with gazing on the ap« i 
proncb of morning ; impatient to be dis« 
misted from this castle." " Thy wordf ] 
and accents," said Matilda, " are of a maa \ 
lancboly cast. If thou art anbappy I j 

pity thee." " I am indeed i 

happy," replied the stronger, " but I da j 
not complain of tlie lot which heaven ha^ i 
cast for me. I am young and healthy. 
If I sigh, Udy, it is for others, and notj 
for myself." " Now I have it. Madam,'' j 
said Bianca, whiiipering the FrincesiaJ 
*' this is certainly the young pe.isant, andf J 
by my conscience, he is in love." ..." SpeavJ 
quickly," ssid Matilda, " the mominJ| 
dawns apace ; should the labourers comf I 
into the fields and perceive us," &«. 

With this scene compare The Lady j 
rif the Lake, canto vi. § 23. 

hot sadden kc I she lifts lier liead ! 
Tlic window toekt) wlUi canUous tread j 
Wlitt distant mnilc biu ttio pcn-er 
To win lier In tlilN wnfti! Iiour ? 
•Twa* from a turret Hint o'rrtimid 
Tier Intticod tiower tlie strain van sunf. 

Here follows the Lay of the Imprt 
soncd Huntsman, which is too lone U 
be extracted here, but, if our reader _ 
will take the trouble to compare it" 
with the extracts we have just given, 
they will find the turn of thought in 
the two to be the some. 

While we are upon this subject, we 
may remark, that in constructing the 
plot and drawing the characters of his 
Itokeby, Scott had in view this same 
tale the Castle of Otranto. Tlio Afan- 
frcd and Conrad of the latter corre- 
spond ])rcttT closely with the Oswald 
find Wilfred of the former ; the trials 
of the Isabella of Walpole are not very 
ditlcrcnt from those of the Matilda of 
Scott, and the fortunes of T7teodore 
seem to have suggested those of lied' 
mond O'Xeal. Many minor points of 
resemblance will occur to those who 
have fresh in their memory botlt the 
tale and the poem. 

We now again turn from the Wizard 
of the North to those modern French 
enchanters iUl. ,Sue and Dumas. In 
some of the works of these writers the 



12 



Vndetigned Imitatumt, 



[July, 



leading peraonaKe is represented m 
siAed with qaaliicationt almott aoper- 
human ; strength, beant^r, actirity, and 
•perfect acquaintance with all the arts 
or aelf-defenee; courage and sagacity, 
resolntion and endurance, t(^ether 
with the command of an inexhaustible 
parse, making up the wondrous com- 
position. It does not escape the ob- 
■erration of one so richly endowed that 
poetical justice is not always meted 
oat in this world, but that the ungodly 
not unfrequently flourish like a green 
bay tree, while the rirtuous are oUiged 
to put up with poTerty and contempt; 
aao, beng of a hot and impatient tern* 
perament, the hero cannot wait for 
the final distribution of rewards and 
punishments, but, taking on himself 
the duties he deems ^t>Tidence to 
haTe neglected, sets forth as a self- 
constituted avenger and benefactor, 
and cndeaTonrs, not unsuccessfully, to 
remove the inequalities, or as he terms 
it the injustice, of the dtTtne dispensa- 
tions. 

In the novel of Mathilde we find a 
hero of this kind — here, however, only 
in the bud ; but in the M^ttertt ae 
Paris he once more makes his appear- 
ance and this time full-blown as Ro- 
dolpk Prince of OeroUtein. In the 
Comte de Monte Chritto o^ain we 
have a remarkably fine specimen of 
the same genus, and the cliaracter is 
apparently so much a favourite with 
both the writers we have named, that 
we doubt not those better act^uainted 
with their works than ourselves, will 
call to mind more than one other in- 
stance. We submit, however, that the 
idea is anything but new, and that the 
sire and prototype of these numerous 
worthies may be found in our old 
fKend the Karl von Moor of Schiller. 
We will cite one passage out of many 
which exhibits the lofty views and as- 
pbations of that interesting enthusiast. 
He is addresMnff the band of robbers 
of which he is tne captain. 

Das hat each wol niemals getraOmt, 
das ihr der Arm hoherer MijestSten tejA I 
im verworrene Knenl uiisen Schlcksal 
ist auijgdOst Heate, beate hat ehie nn- 
siehtbara Maeht anssr Handwerk geadelt ! 
Bstat aavor dem,d«r«ach dies erhabaaen 



Loos ge^coehen, der eachUehergefilhit, 
der ewh gmtOrd^et hat, dig Scfarteklicbe 
Engel leiiiet finsteni Gcriehtas xa seyn 1 
EntblOaet eare Haaptcr! Kaiet in der 
SUnb and stefaet gehciligct aafl [aia 
knien]. Die RaOber, act ir. iceae v. 



Before, however, Schiller dismissea 
his hero from the ste^ he takes care 
to represent him as abinrine his crasy 
aspirations and bewailing nis emp^ 
self-conceit. In the last scene he re- 
signs the captaincy of the band, and 
this dialogue then ensues : 

Jtsfitcr.— HamatUoierl WosiaddeiM 
boeh fliegeode Plane I Sind Saifsn. 
Uaaea gewesen, die beim Raadi ainea 
Weibes lerplaxeo i 

B. Moor. — O fiber mich Narren, der 
ich w&hnete die Welt dorch Oread s« 
venchoneni, oad die Getetae dareh Geseta- 
lotigkeit aofrccht za halten. lA naanla 
es Racbe and Recht. loh masste mich an, 
O Vorsicht, die Scharten deinea Sdiwerds 
aoaiawetxen, and deine PartielichkeitM 
gataomachen— abcr — O eitle Kinderey — 
da steh ich am Rand einea eataetslidita 
Lebcna and erfthre mit Zahnklaopem 
and Healen das twti Heathen vi« iek 
ten gmuen Ban der liUlichen Welt m 
Graad riekten wfirien. Gnade, Gaade 
dem Knaben, der Dir voigreiCBB woUte i 
Dein eigen allein iat die Rache. [Die 
Rafiber, act v. scene ii.] 

It is much to be wished that M.M. 
Sue and Dumas, having copied so 
much from the German <£ramatist, had 
also followed him in this particular; 
but we are sorry to sav that Men- heroes 
leave the field with flying colours, and 
the impression left on the reader's 
mind is that a person playing a rCle of 
this kind b not merely useful but al- 
most necessary in the drama of life. 

It may, however, be said that thia 
conception was not new even in the 
hands of Schiller, but that he took the 
idea from the knights errant of the 
middle ages ; and in his preface indeed 
he terms his hero der teltaame Don 
Quixote. Uo has, however, so much 
developed and embellished the original 
design that it may be looked on as 
almost a new creation of his hands — a 
praise to which his French successors 
ate certainly not entitled. 

F.V. 



SUPPRBSSION OF FEMALE INFANTICIDE IN INDIA. 



IT is a fHTOurite remark among the 
balf-e<lucate<l natives of Bengal, llmt 
if ihc British empire in the East were 
■oddenljr brought to a close, the only 
memorial of its former existence would 
be found in some thousands of empty 
bottle* encumbering certain low shops 
in the bazaar. Until very recently 
this bitter taunt was not altogether 
devoid of truth ; but now we can 
proudly point to monuments more en- 
during and more useful thnn those of 
marble or bronze. Not only can we 
boast of our rnnds, cnnnis, colleges, 
and other material improvements, but 
we may also take credit to ourselves for 
tlie aappression of Thuggee, the aboli- 
tion of tne barWrtius rite of Suttee, and 
the marked diminution of the crime 
of Female Infanticide. On the lost 
named tiibjcct a few observations may 
not be unacceptable to the general 
reader, a)thou"h the topic is no longer 
pmnmied of the rcconuucndation of 
norelty. 

Of aU the indigenous peoples of Hin- 
doostan, the Rajpoots ore pro-eminent 
for martial prowess, lofty pride, cbi- 
Talrous bearing, and a certain degree 
of barbarous refinement. Their early 
achievements have been so eloquently 
chronicled, their manners and customs 
BO amply illustrated by Colonel Tod, 
(hat it wouM be a work of supereroga- 
tion to do more than refer to tlic Annals 
of Kajaslhan compiled by that dis- 
tinjniishe<l ofliccr. 

The besetting sin of the Rajpoot is 
a morbid and selfish vanity, that goes 
far to neutralise his many noble qua- 
lities. For the sake of popular ap- 
plause, of being greeted with the accla- 
mations of a mob of minstrclji, jugglers, 
and vagabonds, of being celebrated 
in the monotonous and interminable 
ehaDls of the bards, be will bestow on 
eaonuous sum of money on his daughter 
•a ber marriage dower, and st'iuaiider 
the remainder of his wealth among the 
motley crew assembled at the solemnity. 
In ancient times the Uajpootnce dam- 
sel selected her lover from the many 
tuitvni for her hand who cauie together 
for that purpose on some appointed 
day. Out on a certain occasion a feud 
arose, and a fierce civil strife cost the 
tnbe 10 much of its noblest blood, that 



the ceremony of the mala was discon* 
tinued by common consent. A revo- 
lution in manners ensued fatal to the 
independence of the gentler sex. A 
warrior disdained to owe his wife to 
aught but his own strong arm and 
trusty steel, lie won, but he wooed 
not. By force, or bv wile, he carried 
ofl°ll>e maiden he had learned to desire, 
and his captive became at once his 
spouse and bis slave. 

In all purls of India a false delicacy 
has rendered the position of father-in- 
law, or of brother-in-law, one of re- 
proach ; but among the Rajpoots such 
was especially the case, because the 
daughter, or the sister, was little better 
than the domestic drudge of her con- 
queror. It muy be easily imagined 
that a proud and sensitive race would 
chafe under such a terrible stigma, and 
would seek to avoid the disgrace. Nor 
should we be surprised if the unhu- 
manizcd barbarian scrupled at no 
means, however atrocious, to free him- 
self from the chance of such a calamity. 
Tlie most obvious and the most effec- 
tual way of escape was by destroying 
the innocent cause of his anxiety at 
her very birth. And thus female in- 
fanticide became a practice, an ordi- 
nary and recognised mode of removing 
an anticipated evil. 

In justice, however, to our common 
nature, it must be stated that it was 
not without a struggle that the Uaj- 
pootc submitted to what they deemed 
a necessary evil. We learn from their 
lustorian that they were often heard to 
exclaim, "Accursed be the day wherein 
a woman child was born to me!" and 
n more modem writer tells us that the 
late Rajah of Mynpooric was always 
moody and rcsllcBs when the crime 
was to be committed in his fort, and 
that he would strive to hush the still 
small voice within him, by bestowing 
presents upon the Rralimans, — money, 
a horse, or on elephant. 

It is true that the sword, the shield, 
and the s|>ear arc no longer the arbiters 
of wedlock, and that the Raj[>oots have 
ceased to use violence as » preliminary 
to matrimony. Hut the false position 
of the woman, and the inferior social 
position of the father-in-law, remain 
unchanged to the present day. The 



14 



Suppreation of Female Irtfanticide in India. [July, 



latter is in every thin" subservient to 
his son-in-law, can reniio him nothing, 
and may claim from him no service in 
retui-n. Until within the Inst few 
years his daughter's betrothal was the 
forerunner of his own ruin and de^a- 
dation. He was impoverishc<l by her 
dower, and insulted by her husband. 
It needed, therefore, no ordinary ten- 
derness of feeling, no common degree 
of moral courage, to nourish and bring 
up the puling babe that was to cause 
10 much vexation and sorrow ; ami in 
India marriage is a necessity. The 
tinmarried woman is almost an outcast 
from Booiety. It is an opprobrium to 
herself anil her family if she l)e not 
betrothed at the ago of puberty, which, 
in that climate, is uaually attaine<l be- 
tween the years of nine ami twelve. 
Female infimticide has consofiucntly 
continued to prevail down to our own 
limes. 

According to Colonel Tod, there are 
thirty-six royal races, chittem rnj-cdla, 
each of which is subdivided into nu- 
merous branches, mrha^aivX these again 
into unnumbered clans, or potro. 
Every linjpoot is supposed to be con- 
versant with his own pedigree, and to 
be able to repeat his golra acharya, or 
genealogical tree. Of course very few 
are gifte<l with this talent, and a ban! 
or professed genealogist has become a 
constituent member of a wealthy house- 
hol<l. To show the necessity of such 
an appointment, it will suflice to ob- 
serve, that families of the same trilje 
cannot intermarry, though centuries 
may have elapsed since their divergence 
from the parent stock. For instance, 
the Sceaodia and Aharyn, the two 
CTand Rulxlivisions of the Gchloses, 
became separated upwartls of eight 
hundred years ago, and yet at tiiis 
moment an intermarriage would be 
pronounced incestuous. It once hap- 
pened that a prince of Hoondi mamed 
a lady of another family, but, a bard 
recitmg the gotra ac/tnri/a, it appeared 
that the bride belenge<l to a aacha, or 
rimiilication, of the Chohan tribe, of 
which the Boondi family was also a 
branch. A divorce was declared with 
many expiatory rites, and both parties 
Were overwhelmed with shame and 
afiliction. 

It wiu naturally among the highest 
Uajpoot tribes that the humiliation 
arijmg from a dniightiT was most 



keenly felt, and among them Las like- 
wise been the greatest destruction of 
female children. In many clans not 
a single instance has been known for 
centuries of a female infant being 
allowed to survive. Hundreds of years 
luivc passoil away since the gloomy 
walls of the native fort at Mynpoory 
have been gladdened by the bright 
smile of the babe, or have re-echoed 
the ringing l.ingli of the merry girl as 
she toyed with her mother, her little 
brother, or her nurse. And this is no 
solitary instance. Death was the rule 
— life the rare exception. Unable to 
find wives from classes of equal rank 
and purity, the nobler Uajpoots have 
been compelled to marry the daughters 
of humbler tribes, conTocnsating the 
inferiority of birth by the magnitude 
of the dower. And thus the most 
lowly tribes of alt coulrl nowhere ob- 
tain a mate of Itajpoot blood. 

Nor was it merely the amount of 
dower to be paid with a daughter that 
caused n Rajpoot father so many 
anxious moments : he was equally 
obliged to siiu.indcr an enormous sum 
of money amongst the bards, mendi- 
cants, and Brahninns, who attended as 
nnbiiiden and most unwelcome guests. 
In former times fabulous wealth was 
thus squandered in oi-der to secure the 
mercenary eulogies of these dispensers 
of fame. Colonel Tod quotes from 
a native bard the following signifi- 
cant verse: "The Dahinia emptied 
his corters on the marriage of his daugh- 
ter with Pirthirnj, but ho filled them 
with the praises of mankind." Even 
during the present century the Rana 
of Oodiporc ex{)ended nearly 10,000/. 
in presents bestowed upon the chief 
bar<l ; and still more recently the 
bride's father was actually murdered 
because ho refused the attendant mis- 
creants the amount they demanded. 
These idle vagabonds would come a 
distance of twenty to thirty miles, and 
place themselves at a convenient spot 
by which the procession mast pass 
from the houseofthebride'sfather. The 
claim they made was one rupee — an 
English florin — for every one of them- 
selves, for each of their followers, and 
for every horse, foal, and dog in their 
company j and on the occasion above- 
mentioned the unfortunate parent hav- 
ing declined to give more than four 
pice (thi-ee halfpence) a bead, he was 




1 1854.] SupprtstioH of Female Infanticide in India. 



IS 



put to death ivith much ignominy and 
yjolence. 

An untravcllcil Englishman, or in- 
deed any one accustomed only to the 
niogca of Europe, ma; possibly o^scit 
that nothing is more easy than to In- 
troduco a (lemil statute, prohibiting 
iAJkuLiciUe, and rendering uulawt'ul 
theoa tttmultuousasseuiblagea at marri- 
■ge fSeatiTkla. No doubt these gather- 
iags might be prevented, and a recent 
enactment has actually been directed 
against them. But it would be really 
Impracticable to nut an end to the 
murder of female diildi-cu by uuy ic^al 
decr«!o. The Rajpoot chieftaiu dwells 
in » sort of fortified iuclosuro sur- 
rounded bv lolly mud walls. Ilis fol- 
lowers reside with him ; they practice 
the same cuiitonu, and arc entirely 
devoted to him. They regard the de- 
struction of the female infant ns rather 
a meritorious, or at least as a ncces- 
ttry act, and no prospect of emolument 
would Induce them to betray their 
chief. Besides, it would be a diflicult 
task to bring home the charge of mur- 
der. The babe when born is immersed 
in a bowl of milk, and its struggles 
cease almost before It has breathedtbe 
breath of life. Or a small piece of 
opium is fijced to the roof of its mouth, 
until it gradually melts, and is ab- 
rbe<l into the system. Or, yet more 
rrlble, the mother la compelled to 
ibo nipples of her breast with the 
[ drug, and thu.s suckle her child 
[emOi. 
But, although prohibitory edicts 
juld prove InefTcctual, the same ob- 

1'cction would not apply to a sumptuary 
>w to regulate the amount of dower, 
if the same could be rendered palatable 
to the most influential members of the 
Bajpoot tribe& The experiment was 
worth a trial, and it was recommended 
bv the fact that, in former times, the 
chieftain of Jycporc had endeavoured 
to regulate " tne dower and other 
uarriage expenditure with reference 
" the properly of the vassal, limiting 
to one year s income of the estate. ' 
\A true that tliis wise and beneCcent 
was foiled by the vanity of a 
LJpoot noble ; but, nevertheless, it 
Id out the best hope of success of 
ly that could be suggested. It had 
en tried on a small scale In Mairwitra, 
id had succeeded beyond Colonel 
od's most sanguine expectations. 




and there seemed no reason why it 
should not be equally effectual with 
the Rjijpoots. 

It should be premised that the first 
public officer who brought the question 
of female infanticide prominently be- 
fore the Government was Mr. Jonathan 
Duncan ; but the court of directors 
very wisely rejected his proposition 
of taking into their own hands the 
duty of endowing the Ilajpoot maidens. 
At a later period Mr. U. Montgomery 
exei'ted huuself to the utmost to check 
this unnatural crime ; but the system 
he introduced was found to be of too 
inquisitorial a nature, and calculated 
to give high umbrage to men of a 
iKiCuliarly susceptible temperament, 
llowever, in 1842, Mr. Uuwin having 
ascertained, while encamped in the 
Cbohan district, tliat there was not a 
single female child in existence amongst 
thcni, irainedialely adopted a practical 
and judicious mode of inspection. He 
ordered the native watclimen in each 
village to give notice, at the police 
station, of the birth of every female 
child. An officer was instantly des- 
patched to the house to view the infant, 
and the superintendent iufbrmed the 
magistrate. An official re[iort as to its 
health was made at the expiration of 
the first month, and in the case of ill- 
ness a trustworthy person was sent to 
ascertain the exact nature of the 
disease. These measures so far suc- 
ceeded, that a female child was saved 
alive in that very fort of which wo 
have already spoken as so long fatal 
to the sex. Mr. Tliomoson, the late 
lamented Lieutcuant-tiovernor of the 
North- VV^cst I'rovinces, — than whom 
no man was ever l>etter acquainted 
with the native character — instantly 
sent to the Ilajah a letter of congratu- 
laUon and a dress of honour. The 
good policy of this proceeding wag 
m&nifested the very next year, when 
the number of female infants preserved 
increased from 57 to 180. In 1S43 not 
one female Chohan was to be found in 
the district, while in August 18al 
there were no fewer than 1263 alive, 
from the age of six years and under. 
But even then it was evident that foul 
play had been at work, for the cor- 
responding number of males was 2161. 
Much haa no doubt been done, but it 
was reserved lor that zealous magis> 
tnite Mr. C. Raikcs to give the decisive 



itnlceto the bbonnof 

I pndcecMon. 

Ob tbe I2ik Xorember, 16SI, Hr. 
B*ikM Brrited tke Rajah of Mjapoorie 
awl the chief Chohao thakoanot the 
dirtricC to meet him at his camp at 
Samaim, aad thofe iadoced them to 
m^ the ibOowing reaalotioos : — 






16 S*erttIntlni€tmm»mtiktAmtegr^»/FnJ*ndcAtGrwal. [Jify, 

L ma a^ food: httiftfecfrdNc af 

jmtk Jtmwidt man tka 

Sed in Bca. L, vc win 

Iiim. If he pcnat, ve will pat hte «at 

of oar bratkCThooil, beeane he tarn ftoai 

his ova avarice braa^ht fiahoaoae ta the 

faher of the <■■■>! 

Hwnltina III.— Siaee Ito Minliani aT 
Bnbanas ai 
nfhm, vha 

ugt aasM at 
■ Co the I niriiaii Boaica, U a caaK of 
uj erik have we raaolve aad pcaaiiae, ahaa aaea aoav 
gn«a ap, ve, the aadenicBad, enter into u offered to aa or oar aeigUboaia, t» 
the foOaarteg eafafoaents, and atteit the oamplaia at oaoe to the 
aaau bcfiwe the aufiitrate of oar district, 
to that ae say act theteapon, and to the 
heat of oar power induce all of oar tribe 
to ds io likewise : — 

BeaolntioB I. — We will in fntare icga- 
bte oar mairi^e expenses bj the fear 
ibllovui^ grades^— 

It/ OrasEr. — For rajahs or thslookdars 
the dower to be driasniVd on behalf of a 
•on froB the paienia or gaardians of a 
■arriageable daughter shall not exceed 
IS. 500 (MM.)t oae-third of this inm to be 
paid at the period of betrothal, ooe-third 
at the door of the girl's bther when the 
maniage proceation arriTcs, and the re> 
msinder in die shape of pin mooej. 

Zmd Grad*. — For xemiodars, n. 250, 
one-third, &e. as above. 

3rd Ortdt. — For others in easy dr- 
eamstaaoes, n. 100, one-third, &c. 

41k Grmd€.—fat sU other decent people, 
one rupee. 

Besolation II. — If the father of any 
marriageable damsel chooses of his own 
will to give more than is specified in Ret. 



Resolatioa IV. — To prncnt aeaflMi 
ezpenditue in crow d ed pro ceari oaa, «a 
ondertake to invite to oar haiSy waMafi 
a inodefate nombcf of pcraoaa aaiy, aa* 
cording to the grade we bsloag to. 

These Ter^ sensible Resofailionsven 
solemnly ratified on the 9th Deoemtar 
following hj 360 chleCi and leadqg 
men of the Chohans, and up to the 
present time their condoct has provad 
their tinceritj. Verj recoitfy tin 
monstrons crime has been detected ia 
the Fanjanb, but prompt meaamtt 
were at once adopted for its pnmbk* 
mcnt aud suppression. The abotitioo 
of female infanticide is at least one 
honourable monument of British hu- 
manity and pcrsercrance, and generm- 
tions yet unborn will thank ue be> 
neficent conquerors who used their 
povrer to ameliorate the condition </ 
the people their prowess had subdued. 

J. U. 



SECRET INSTRUCTIONS IN THE AUTOGRAPH OF FREDERICK THE 
GREAT, WRITTEN ON THE 10 JANUARY, 1757-8. 



AT the dose of 1757 the affairs of 
Frederick the Great were in a most 
eritical posture. On the 18th June in 
that ymr be had been defeated by 
die Impeiul forces at KoUin on the 
Elbe, aad there lost 12,000 men. On 
the 6th Dec. we find Voltaire wridng 
of him to D'Alembert: " He will lose 
lui own dominions, together with the 
ooutriea he has conquered:" and 
again to D'Argantal : " He is beaten, 
and will b« ruined, without a new 
mirade." Some of fVederick's own 



letters and those of his sister the Mar- 
eravine of Bayreuth, which have 
heretofore been published,* are eooaOf 
desponding: but a most remarkable 
eviaence of the state of the great Con- 
queror's apprehensions at this ciiaia is 
exhibited in the following documenti 
which was recently communicated to 
the Academy of Sciences at Berlin. 
It was written at the time of his great* 
est peril, when threatened on the ooe 
hand with invasion by a French army, 
and on the other by the Russians ; and 



* SeeTbeCoartandTimetofnredwickthcGreatfeditadbyThomas Campbell. 1843. 
2 



1854.] 



The Map of London a Hundred Years Ago. 



17 



!♦ «>tiUing his secret instructions to his 
?"■ "n the event of his death or 

■ the cneiuy. The copy is a 
IlKTii one' 
" luttructioH &crete Pour le Coiite 
fie Finkeiutein. Berlin /f 10 de Jaiw. 
IT57. DtLoa La Sitnalion Critique 
Be trouTcnt not aflaireii ju dnis 
iToiu doaner mci Ordre pour cjue dons 
at L«« Ca.» Mnlheureux qui gont 
Bww hi tKMibilito des Eveneinenns 
BUS Sojfx antorisso aux jmrlis ouil 
kut prendre. Sil ttri»nit (de quoi le 
Cicl preserve) qn'unc de ines Armues 
> Soxsc fut totalleuient battue oubien 
^uc Lea Fron^ais chassassent les llano- 
_ eins de I.eur pais et si etablisscnt 
IkSl noiu meu.^ssalisent d'un Invassion 
^dooj la Vieilie iVlarubc, ou ([ue les 
pcnetrassent par La Nouvelle 
fkrche, il faut Siiuvcr la famille 
ojnle, les principeaux Dicastercs Les 
linistres ct le Dircctoire. Si nous 
Dmcs battus en Snxse du COle de 
lipsuc Le Lieu le plus propre pour 
« tnuuport de La famille et du 
rri'ssfir ■■«t a Custrin, il faut en ocCns 
i!le Royalle et touts cidcssus 
:lcnt escortez de toute li- 
iuarnison a Custrin. Si les Riu«c8 
[ilroieot par In Nouvelc Marcho ou 
}uil nous arrivat un Midhcur en Lusan, 
f»udr:iit que tout Se transportat a 
eliourg, enlin Le Dernier refuge 
Stettin, niais il oe faut y aller 
La Demiere exstrcmitt;. La 



Guamisson la famille Uoyalle et le 
Tresort Sent Inseparables et vont , 
toujoura ensemble il faut y ajoul^r les ' 
Diamans de la Couronne, et L'argen- 
terie des Grands Apartemens qui ea ■ 
pareil Cas ainsi que la Veselle d'or 
doit etre incontinent Monoy6c. Sil 
arivolt que je fus tuiJ il fuut que Lc« 
aifnircs Conlinuent Leur ti-ain sous Is 
nioindre allteration et Sans qu'on 
a'aiKTsoive qu'elles sont en d'autres 
Miiing, et en le Cas il faut hater ser* 
ment ct homages tant ici qu'en prusse 
ct sourtout en Silesie. Si javois la 
fatalitu d'etre pris prissonnier par 
I'Jvnciny je Defend qu'on fasse L* 
Mciudrc rellextion sur cc que je pou- 
rois ucrirc de Ma Detention. Si pareil 
Malheur m'arivoit je Veux rae Sa- 
crifier pour L'Etat ct il faut qu'oD 
obeisso a Mon frere le quel ainsi que 
tout Mcs iMinistres et Gcneraux me 
reponderont de leur Tette ({u'on otfrira 
ni province ni rniisson pour moy et 
que Ion Continuera la Guerre en pous- 
snnt Ses avanlngcs tout Conune si je 
n'avais jamais exsisate dans le Monde. 
J^espere et je dois Croire que Voiw 
Conte Fine n'uuri-z pas bessom de faire 
usage de Cctte Instruction mois eu cas 
dc Alalheur je vous autorisse a L'£ra> 

Sloycr, et Marque que c'est aprcs line 
lure et sainc Deliberation Ma ferme 
ct Constante Volonte je le Signe de 
Ma Main et la Muni de inon Cachet. 
(L.S.) Fbedebic U." 



THE MAP OF LONDON A HUNDRED YEARS AGO. 



THE extension of the metropolis 

Fof the Oritish empire is one of the mar- 

VeU of the last century; and its still 

ncreosing population has already 

•ached an amount sniBcicnt for a 

tate in itself, and exceeding many of 

Tic smaller continental governments 

ithnt particular; whilst it enormously 

rti ' ; them in wealth and intlu- 

c it is ditCcult, by mere num- 

1 ivcy an idea of its import- 

.1 urcs arc too abstract, and 

Lcui ,1. nil. -.ration soon fails in ideas of 

ictcnsion. It requires eyes practised 

,i,-,i,<».,iiin,l In large masses of 

] 100,000; and a 

„ , ,:. . , _ j)ond the scope of 

bo mind, — a mere idea of vastness. 

GrsT. Mao. Vol. XLII. 



It has occurred to me, however, that 
the extension of London may be better 
shown than by a declaration, thatitspo- 
pulation has attained to the enormous 
amount of two million souls ; and, that 
by setting forth the space of land which 
has been swallowed up, in providinn; for 
the shelter of the ever-increasing bulk 
of its inhabitants, during the last cen- 
tury, a more imnresfive notion of its 
size may be obtaincl. I am led to this 
bj the contemplation of an old map of 
London and its vicinity, published in 
1762, but with impraveinentt to 1768. 
The title is worth recording, it is as 
follows : — 

A Plan or Lomi>on oh thi Mm««ca/« 
at that of Pari), lo order to ascertiiia 
D 



16 



The Map of London a Hundred Yean Ago, [July, 

on; there aro fields on each lide. ItwM 
projected in 1756 and opened for tmffie 
in 1761. The New Itowl appe»i U 
an addition on the map ; it waaformM 
in consequence of an Act of Par liament 
TOwsed in 175G, to unite Islington to 
Faddington, and was violently oppoMd 
by the Duke of Bedford, who tho^^ 
it came too near to his house.^ Bat| 
with exception of a few habitationa at 
Bi^igKe Wells and about River Hmd, 
a Imo drawn from the near end of tii* 
City Road to Middlesex Homtal, 
formed the extreme boundary of tiM 
houses. All north were fields ; known by 
the name of Lamb's Conduit, and White 
Conduit Fields, the Foundling Hofmta^ 
standing alone within the former. Two 
aristocratic mansions. Montage HoOM 
and Bedford House, with theirgarden^ 
formed the boundary at this park Tha 
former of these was then the residenM 
of the nobleman to whom the map ii 
dedicated, nnd its high gables s^oke of 
the era of I^uis XI V. It was m fiwt 
constructed by an architect sent from 
France — the former mansion having 
been destroyed by fire. This noue 
mansion, known so well a« the Britiah 
Museum, has now passed away like iti 
former tenants, but its name is jare- 
serve<l by the adjoining street. 

Taking the line of Oxford Street 
from the comer of Tottenham Court 
Road, we find a tolerably compact 
mass of dwellings reaching to Marylo* 
bone Lane, .ind the village of that 
name is connected with it. A few 
houses arc also clustcre<l about the 
corner of Tottenham Court ond Homp- 
stead Roads. One of these was the 
old manor-house of Tottenham Court, 
which gave name to the locality, on 
indication of which is yet preserved 
in two massive imposts of stone, 
the remains of an entrance. Here 
also was the Adam and Eve public 
house, nnd the scene of Hogarth's 
"March to Finchloy." But beyond 
were nothing but fields all the way to 
Hampstead; and the "Mother Red 
Cap was a solitary house of resort 
for cockney excursionists, at a junction 
of the road leading to Kentish Town. 
It is now entirely surrounded by a 
dense mass of buildings, and retains 
very faint traces of ever having been 
honoured as a suburban retreat. 

The following account of the walk 
from Oxford-street to Tottenham 



the diffarenoe of the extent of tbeae two 
rivals, the AbM da la Qrive's Plan of 
Paris, and that of London by J. Rocqne, 
haTe been divided into equal squares, 
where London contains 39, and Paris but 
29, so that the saperfice of London is to 
that of Paris as 39 to 29, or as 5455 acres 
to 4098. London therefore exceeds Paris 
by 1427 acres, the former being 8} square 
miles, and Paris only 6^. Bj J. Rocqne, 
chorographer to his Majesty, in tlie Strand, 
Iiondon, 17S2, wiM neieiiiynwimmt* te 
ike ytar 1766. 

The latter part in italics was an 
addition to the original plate. The 
map is dedicated to the Duke of 
Montague. 

The extreme length of London, re- 
presenting a dense mass of inhabited 
nouses, unseparated by fields, was, at 
this time, contained within Whitechapel 
and Hyde Park. At the river side it was 
somewhat longer, reaching to a line 

?arallel to Stepney at one end, and to 
'othill Fields on the other. On the 
Surrey side, it extended fVom Rother- 
bithe to the then projected bridge of 
Blackfriars ; the road from which to 
St. George's Fields was planned but 
not yet executed. There were a few 
houses at the foot of Westminster 
Bridge, but Lambeth and Vauxhall 
were as yet outlying villages. The 
width varied : north of the Thames a 
few hamlets were approached, — Hox- 
ton, Bethnal Green, and SpitalficUls ; 
and Mile End Road, on the north side, 
was built on continuously, but I Inckncy, 
Ilomerton, Ncwington, Dalston, were 
scattered villages, or iiamlcts, contigu- 
ous, but not yet united to each other, 
and in the midst of fields and gardens. 
Islington was equally detached, and 
formed a lone street of dwellings, 
reaching from trio Angel Inn to Canon- 
bury House; and extending about half 
that distance down the branch called 
the " Lower Road." Between this and 
Hackney was an undisturbed range of 
fields, and gardens, a mile and three 
quarters across in a direct line. Isling- 
ton has now a population nearer to 
100,000 ; but in a Gazette, published in 
1751, it is stated to have contained 
nearly " 700 hoifses, including the 
Upper and Lower HoUoway, three 
sides of Newington Green, and part of 
Kingsland, on the road to Ware." 
There could therefore scarcely have 
been more than 5000 inhabitants. The 
City Road is marked out, but not built 



1854.] _ Tlu Map of London a Hundred Years Ago, 
Coart, written just fifty years ago by 



19 



Joteph Moeer, esq. (which, we think, 
bM MCAMd the researches of the au- 
thor of the Iland-book of London,) is 
gnphic, and not a little interesting : — 

Rathbooe Place was bailt soon after 
Sobo Square. I cui still remember whea 
the ttreet terminated where the oldhaM- 
tagm DOW end. Kt this place there were 
lan and iron gates, bejond which was a 
Urge pood surrounded with walks, u good 
deal rosambliog the reservoir in the Greco 
fark ; at the up|>er end of which was the 
%iae kind of sluice. Froatiug this, a 
hooae much celebrated for the manufacture 
of Bath bans and Tuabridge water-cokes, 
which was connected, by a row of largo 
and Tentrable clus, to another hmoas for 
conviriility, called the Cock and Pjc ; 
from which ingenious combination, the 
iilea of which was originally Gallic,* the 
book fieldshadthelrdominiaation.t Inthe 
garden of this mansion the busts of the 
^Umf-wtat, east in plaster of Paris, and 
Mrioady eoloared, were eshibiled. I do 
■atBaan those of Alexander, liaimibal, 
Csesar, aud such kind of fellows, but per- 
toas considerably more inaoceut, as they 
only hurt each other, vis. George Taylor, 
Brottghloo, Slack, and a long train of 
their satellites, who displayed their skill 
in the adjacent booth — I believe I should 
rail it amphitheatre — at Tottenham Court. 

These walks were a very pleasant pro- 
menade t for the inhabitants of the neigh- 
boarhood. Sec. as they were planted with 
tnca ami gfa*elled. On their sides, par- 
tisakriy on the east, a very large space of 
bowmI was laid out in gardens adorned in 
»• rui in ttrie style, with Chinese and 
other sommerbouses, tents, leaden Mer- 
curies, wooden Vcnoses, cockle-shell walks, 
flab-ponds, &c. according to the taste and 
optiuoce of their tenants. These delight- 
M retreats, in which after the toils of 
traffic or mechanical exertions our ances- 
tors reposed, or rather luxuriated, were 
dirided by lanes and allies, the intricate 
Baanders of which it almost required the 
•kill of Dsedalus, or the due of Queen 
Eleanor, to deselope. 

However, one way this labyrinth brought 
you to Tottenham Court Road, and the 
other to a held in which was a pond much 
celebrated for duck-hontiiig, and other 
mi iiupolitan aquatic sports, which bad 
the appellation of the Little Sea. This, I 
think, was the Tery spot whereon White- 
field's Tabernacle now stands. A very few 



cottages intervened between this and the 
Adam and Eve, Tottenham Court ; and 
still fewer from the latter to Mother Red 
Cap's. — Europeim itagaxint for March, 
1604. 

Beturniog to Oxford Street, and pur- 
suing our coiu-se westward, we find 
that, in 17C(j, the north side, from 
Miiryloboue Lane to Edgware Road, 
bad just been built on; but behind, all 
are fields up to the village of Padding- 
ton. The map, however, marks a very 
sigiulicant iodicution of the chango 
about to take place, the word " kiln" 
being found immediately in the rear of 
these bouses. 

Pursuing our imaginary walk round 
the metropolis 100 years ago, we will 
cross the Park from Tyburn to Ivulghta- 
bridge; and we observe, that the latter 
hamlet is hardly united to the end of 
Piccadilly, and that Uronipton, Ken- 
sington and Chelsea, are hamlets and 
townships, divided from each oUior by 
fields, but as yet in no way united to 
the mass forming London. Crossing 
the river to Uatteriwa, wo find our- 
selves upwards of three miles, iu a 
direct line, from tlie nearest of thoso 
suburban hamlets, connecting with 
London by the Borough of Southwnrk. 
This is Newington, but between this, 
however, lie, by the water- side, Vaux- 
hall and South Lambeth. A few scat- 
tered houses Bin on the roads between 
them. Walworth and Newington join 
each other; but Cambcrwell and Peck- 
ham are distant suburbs, quite en- 
circled with pleasant fields and gar- 
dans ; whilst Deptford, and Greenwich, 
are towns at a distance sufficient to bo 
pronounced perfectly distinct from 
London. 

Before I enter into a minnto consi- 
deration of the changes that have taken 
place, and which arc presented in the 
modern map of London and its en- 
virons, I cannot refrain from pointing 
out an indication of the »ocial condition 
of the metropolis 100 years ago as ex- 
enipllfied in the map liefore me. 

The insecurity of the roads about 
the metropolis, previous to the intro- 
daction of a more efficient system of 
police, and of the brilliant gas-lights 



* II est hi comnic un coq eo pate. 

t Mr, I'cter Cunningham gives the Cock and Pye FieUs as the old name for Seven 
Dials : which, according to the text, is a site too far to the Bonth-east. 
X " When Tottenham fields with roving beauty swarms.''— Gay to Pulleney. 



Tht Map of London a Hundred Yeart Ago. [July. 



80 



although now a matter of tradition, 
was to our fathers and mothers, and 
stjll more to a previous generation, a 
painftil and very annoying fact. But 
the mounted highwayman has so long 
disappeared that it is only by history, 
or from the narratives of grey-headed 
octogenarians, we are acquainted 
with the exploits of Dick Turpin or 
of Jerry Abershaw. Legislation has 
been long too fond of the in terrorem 
principle, but in 1766 our map tells us, 
that tne approaches to London were 
fortified b^ gallows, the sites of which 
I will pomt out, as they are draton 
on the plan in question. At the meet- 
ing of the Edgwaro Koad with Oxford 
Street was the celebrated " Tyburn 
Tree," a structure of triangular form, 
probably for extensive accommodation 
in case of a run of business. Casting 
our eyes up the Edgware Road, at 
Crickfewood, just over Shoot-up Hill, 
a little beyond Kilbum, in n vacant 
space by the roadside, are two gal- 
lows. One appears to have a pro- 
jecting arm to it, similar to what the 
old ale-house signs display by a coun- 
try roadside ; the other is in the form 
of a cross, and, it may be observed, 
each has its tenant ; but this of course 
was introduced by the draughtsman 
to show its purpose. We will now 
return again to Tyburn, and ]>ursuc 
our course to Shepherd's Bush. Here, 
at the point of the green, arc ttco pre- 
cisely similar to those just described. 
It must be remembered these were 
both on important roods from the me- 
tropolis, having considerable traffic, 
and crossing many lonely commons. 
I may here mention, that there was 
another, not indicated in this map ; it 
was erected in 1759, r little beyond 
Islington, on the rood to Ilollowav ; 
but It may have been removed at the 
time of our map. On the other side 
of the Thames, Kenningtou Common 
was the place of public execution, and 
the gallows is in form of a cross. At 
the comer of lliohmond Park, nearest 
Kingston, is one of triangular form ; 
the spot is called Gallows HiU, and was 
doubtless for the felons convicted at 
the county assizes at that town. All 
the other roads seem to Ix) free from 
these disgusting memorials of a bar* 
barons legislation ; but for the instruc- 
tion of seamen, a conspicuous and pro- 
jecting point of the Isle of Dogs has 



one of these dreary appendraes hang* 
ing over the river side, lliis was 
questionless for those convicted of 
murder and piracy on the high teas. 

We will now consider the changet 
that have taken place on the north 
of London, between the boundaries 
formed by the New River and £dg«« 
ware Road, as it comprises the moat 
important part of the additions for the 
accommodation of the population. 
There are those, still living, who re- 
member a clear vista across field* 
to Hampstead from Nicholson's dia> 
tillery in John Street, Clcrkenwell; 
and a very large portion of the enor* 
mous extension of Islington has been 
made within the lost twenty years. 
That part, which slopes down tne hill 
to the valley of the Fleet River, by 
Bagniggo Wells Road, is one of tlie 
most recent. Pcntonville takes its 
name from the proprietor, and is a 
district of great extent, which waa 
commenced at the close of the eigfa* 
teenth century. But it is to the pre- 
sent generation, that the credit of 
seizing upon snch large tracts of green 
fields bcloncs. White Conduit luuse, 
one of the former suburban places of 
untcrtuiument, which were generally in 
ffreon fields, has but very recently lost 
the last vestige of its former character, 
and its rounds have been covered 
with small tenements. The remains 
of the conduit, to which it owed its 
name, were visible twenty years ago, on 
a bare space of ground opposite ; and 
here, on a Sunday afternoon, was an 
unbroken line of holiday makers, going 
or returning, across the fields to Co- 
penhagen llousc, another rural place 
of entertainment, which then stood 
quite alone, a long way distant from 
uio_ march of bricks and mortar ; but 
which has, in its turn, recently passed 
.iway, and its neighbouring fields are 
appropriated for the new cattle mar- 
ket which is to tidce the place of 
Smithfield. 

We will return again in the direction 
of White Conduit House, but keeping 
a little to the north of it, directing our 
stops to a row of tall elms on tho side 
of the rising ground. It was close by 
this spot, that a well-defined Roman 
encampment, with deep valla, was to 
be seen. It was a parallelogram, and 
the fosse was from 10 to 12 feet deep, 
and about 20 feet in width. Specula- 



1854.] JTie Map of London a Hundred Yeurt Ago. 



21 



r a tV« 



tion bas made this llie camp of Sue- 
uwiiu, knd BattlebrMge at the foot of 
tfa« nlley tbe scene of tlic Uefuat of 
Boadic«a. There were but few diita 
for this idea; but some few remains 
of wfiiiicms hft»e been found in the 
1 1 not far from BattleUridgc 

tli >ri of on elepbunt was dia- 

coven^K At the perioii of my first 
aoqnaintuice with tbia spot, from the 
eacanipineut down to tlio Small-pox 
HoapiUd at BattJebridge, were nothing 
bat brickfields. About three or four 
Tcmrs ago, not having visited the neigh- 
bourhood for many years, I thought I 
would endeavour to trace out my re- 
'■■ " ■ ' '' I ' L'X'. It WBji with 

persuade mysiilf 
01 w.. i..t .ii.i_,r ui i. iiiioComluitllouse, 
altiiougii it still preserve:^ its nuiiie. 
But as to the Conduit, it had dis- 
appearod ; and every vestige by which 

I could have identified the place wus 
xl^ gone. I felt interested in tlie 
ol the '• encampment." I had seen, 

a few yenr.s before, indications of two 
house* being in course of erection in 
the centre, and occupying the rest with 
their ^dens. But, now that so niatiy 
dwellings hitd arisen on all sides, it was 
■lilticuU to find those houses. How- 
ever, I c^uigbt si^ht of the row of elm- 
tree* before meotioued, and, after a little 
reconuoitriug, discovered tbe range of 
dwellings, and looking over the "arden 
wall saw the deep trenches, whicn were 
not eftaily to be ctTaced. Muntfort 
Pla«e is tuo name given to the row of 
houae«i aud it lies retired, a short dis- 
tance bock from the Barusbur^ Uuad, 
about three quarters of u mile irom 
White Conduit House. 

Lamb's Conduit Fields, which lay 
between Tottcnhain Couii, and Bag- 
niggc Wells Koads, were first invaded 
by tbe Foundling Hospital, which was 

II Illy as 1745. All the streets, 
ii hospital, arc 8ubsc<|ucot to 
tilt: U.11L- oi our map, as well as the whole 
line of squares, Cavendish S()uarc ex- 
cepted, up to the Edgeware Uoud. 
Oppodite Bloomsbury S<iuarc wus lied- 
fr,rA n..,,.,.^ iln) residence of the Duke 

It is marked in our uinp 
11 lur to Montague House, 

:••< 'led down ut the beginning 

ii; jnt century. The iiunies 

I .1 the family of the Uussells 

iy spread about this district 
>rd, Uussell, and Tavistock 
&c. Portions of the dislrici. 



called Lamb's Conduit Fields, have not 
been covered until the present gene- 
ration. In many places little ocuei of 
uncovered land have remained here 
and tliere, while thick neighbourhoods 
have grown all around. It seems as 
if even bricks and mortur could not 
flourish on every soil, and were some- 
times condemned to a languid exist- 
ence. Whilst all about streets were 
nourishing, and sending forth their 
branches to encroach still further upon 
adjacent fields, or fading gardens, large 
districts between Gower Street and 
St. Pancras New Church were left un- 
covered, until the London University 
seized u^ion one i>nrtion, aud Boston 
S(}uare upon another. Gordon Square 
has been most unfortunate, and even yet 
presents a luebncholy picture of un- 
profitable soil, or unfortunate specula- 
tion. This ground was culled the Field 
of the Forty Foot-steps, and is the scene 
of Miss Porter's novel, so called. 

On the north side of the New Iload, 
between Battlebridgc and Hampstead 
Koad, in the rear of the houses front- 
ing it, is for the most part a low neigh- 
bourhood, es()ccially the district called 
Somers' Town, begun in 1786. At tlie 
Brill, which leads into this, the imagi- 
native Slukeley traced out the site 
of a large Roman encampment. The 
old parish church of St. Pancras has 
been rebuilt in the last lew years. .St. 
Pancras was formerly a poor secluded 
village, and Nordcn, who wrote in 
the IGth century, speaks of it as a 
haunt of thieves : " walk not there too 
late," says be. In the first quarter of the 
IStli century tliis neighbourhood was 
little belter ; the whole line of the New 
Roud, indeed, was ox tremely dangerous, 
and the public houses, here and there 
on its side, had but a questionable re- 
putation. One may often observe in 
several parte of the outskirts of the 
metropolis, certain neglected districts, 
which seem to take us back to the 
condition of a primitive civilization, — 
waste patches of soil, seeming as if 
pushed aside out of the highways of 
traffic, or, with a knowledge of their 
un worlhiuesij, to have skulked aside to 
shroud themselves in obscurity. These 
neglected spots are as freiiuently ten- 
anted by a class, or race, having but 
little in common with the busy hum 
about them. Nomadic in their habits, 
not exactly living in tents, but in a 
kind of machine midway between a 



S2 



Tkt Map of London a Hundred Yean Ago. [Julyi 



ran and a wag^n, tbey seem U> seek 
temporary rcstm^-placcd on loil which 
ciTilization has di^nine'l to occupy. 
Before the Great Xorthem Railway 
roiite<l thctu, Itattlcbric]^ hoii a num- 
ber of these tenants. A part of Lock's 
Fields in Walworth alv) cxbiMts the 
Bamephenomcna. Soiuctiinesthemcive* 
able nouses in which thoy lire b-x»ime 
fixtures to the »uil, an'l gradually ac- 
quire a more sLiMc foun'btion than 
wheels. Bntthcrearercasonsforaroid- 
iog this, as such dwellinfr; arc exempt 
from rates. A whimsical illustrittioii of 
this fact occum-<I, hut a few years a»o, 
intheTicinityof I>ockh<:ad. ll-;rc if a 
house built ofwood, and on whocL<. Its 
ingenious tenant has rendcrc-'I it in aji- 
pearance a Tcry comfortable lorlgin?, 
and the pa.«sing > tranjrcr would scarrely 
diseoTer its peculiar feature?. In an- 
swer to a summons from the parish 
authorities fjr rates the occupant 
declared " hii> hou-« wa? a ' wohikel.' 
• corf," and to prorc it, horses were 
hamcascl, and, amid a throng of ad- 
miring spectators, it was drawn down 
to the police office that the queftion 
might be settled. There was no gain- 
saying a fact so palpable, it was a 
"wehikel" as the man x<5ertc<l, and 
he and hb eitrt returned in triumph to 
its resting-place. 

The Regent's Park, which occupies 
so lus* a space in the district under 
c o w i rider ation, is a ^rcat boon to the 
metropolis. It has mtcrposcl a lar^c 
pap between the increasing neighbour- 
Eooda, and does its o£Ecc as one of the 
graat Inngs to purify an atmosphere 
*~^'"'" ^tiie breath of so many ihou- 
Tlie addition of Primroso Ilill 



maagoodmnre in a eood direction; 
kit hem modi has been neglcctcl 
mj, and how tardy has oar 
■est been in proriding those 
— ^ftriw w tioa, wnich are so emi- 
rAaoded bj onr social system, 
g oar aind on FHmrosc Hill, 
■ ■■■» ■ > i^hnce at what is going on 
**"Vb cxtcorion of Lon^n. St. 
V<nd has beeome an immense 
Bkood, with Portland Town 
«> to it, and we find it has 
dhed KObsm on one side, and 
od within • few fields of Hamp- 
, The groaads of Belsize House, 
safie iniBediately between IVim- 
' Hill and Hamprtead, arc now in 
~^lnasfonnaiion, and will soon 
d with reridcnccs : and it i< 



greatly to be lamented that this pro- 
perty was not secured to the nation, and 
a noble walk continneil from Regent's 
Park to IIam{i<t(:iul Heath. Pasnng 
Chalk Kanu on tbe cast, let us sec what 
isdoing in thcfiel'ls L'lar Kentish Town, 
through which wac-. a few years ago, so 
pleasant a ftroU up to the Heath. It is 
positiTbly diitres-'inz to behold snch 
giirantic ?irides of bricks and mortati 
but <till n>orc %> perceive the reckless 
and mberable iii.inncr in which the 
ground is Ijcing bid out. Many ranges 
of dwellings Irok a" if they had been 
tumblcl trv.'uthor \j chance, or as if • 
deliijcrate attempt at creating a rery 
ugly and l,ir dir'.rict Lad been re- 
solved on. 

Kchtiili Town U an old hamlet, but 
Camdvn Town, its neighbour, was be- 
gun in 17!<I, and is now of portentous 
dimension.:, 'trc-tchin^ out to shake 
hands with Islington. The increase 
in the Lift few yfir> lix« been im- 
nicnft', but in all this no ground has 
bec-n iut aiid-: {(it public recreation, 
noiwith-tanJin;; tbu enormous popu- 
lation who are iutcrt^teil in it, whilst 
time goes on, and ibilly tlic chances 
arc pfti-injr aw.iy for any cAcetiYe 
puqKKC. ITk- spao I have been con- 
sidering >»ctwe-'!n l.'linston and Kil- 
bum, which hx* >«en ensrulphed in the 
hut centurr, oxccptini lhu«c parts ap- 
propriate<l to H./irom'? pirk, measures, 
m a direct lino, three miles and a half, 
and is rather over two in width, on 
the averag*?. Thur, in this space alone, 
we have nearly as much area as the 
whole of London in 1 7<^'>. The space 
between the Edgware Roa'l, Padding- 
ton, and li.iy'waf^r, comprising the 
district called Weftboum Grove, has 
been filled up qnitc recently, and sub- 
sequently to the con«tnietion of the ter- 
minus of the Great Western Railway. 
The fine ranges of mansions facing 
Hyde Pftrk are for the most part 
recent, and the hist remnant of the 
gartlcners' gronnds ailjoining Bays- 
water will soon disappear altogether. 
There arc simil.v extenjions of the 
metropolis throo<;bnut Kenfington, 
Brompton. and Chel<«a : all tfae<e are 
now in close union with each other, 
and all the fiell* in the neii:fa!K>nrhood 
of Pimlico, about Kinz's BoaJ and 
down to the water>s:de. have been 
swallowed up in the last twenty years. 
Belgravia. a low dat soiL by nature a 
manh, but by fashion's caprice rcn- 



185<l.] The Map of London a Hundred Year* Ago. 



^ 



rertcd into a chosen si>ot for the re* 
lidencc« of wealth and nobility, serves 
■p unite in a compact muss the former 
WtlyinK hamlct« Inifore enumerated. 
Tlie " Vivo Fields" behind liucking- 
h»m Palace and Knightubridge, was 
(n op«n tpnce of considerable extent 
BDtil the Deighbourbood formed by 
Bdgrsvc Square nro!>e, and gradually 
doaed up the whole space between the 
Palace and Brompton. 
It it iiiifiossible in so Ruperficinl a 
ice oa vpacc comlemns mo to, to 
Tcjr ft Tory accurate or perfect idea 
of London's extension in every direc- 
tion. On the Surrey side it has fdled 
„f, .11 .1., . . .. ,,^ between Kent 

!" 1 and Walworth ! 

fo. ^...u^i.^.i- .,.,u,Ai in my recol- 
lection I*T between Kent Street and 
the N'ew Kent lio(u\. The latter hod 
fi ^ at the time of our map, 

111 V nntil within the last fifty 

ytars, and the Old Kent Kond had but 
a Terr tew scattered buildings here 
and ^tncrc. Now, all the intervening 
(pace (vacant in I7G6) between Vaux- 
hall and Kcnnington, Kcnnington and 
CamlKTwell, up to the Old Kent Road, 
B !, and but a small interval 

•t >i'ptford froni Rotherhilhc. 

„' again to the other side 
.we find tliatin 17')C, north 
oi luc um: uf the City lload, Finsbury 
Rakb, so Ions n favourite place of 
T<w^i-.>!v (;.... (o ti,^ citizens, made acom- 
I in between Islington, IIox- 

1 liinTJand. Strange to say, 

V I ■,.io distant plots have long 

:',.; . .lil'nred up, a I urge piece 

ol this a very few years .lincewas un- 
tonclicd, and yet is not wholly seized 
I !i the gradual wasting of the 

I ii is fast preparing the soil 

lor lUi ttn.ints. Here again we must 
regret, timt no attempt was made to se- 
'■ '• of land, so advantageouidy 

ween the densely-inhabited 
(iHiniis 111 CIcrkenwell, Iioxton, and 
Islington, for the jiurpose of public re- 
creation. It would have been near the 
bionics of many thousands who cannot 
.,(T,.,i ..iii.f.j. time, or money, for a trip 
into the regions of frcsn 
■'" fields, which are daily 
1 • Loncloncr so distant 

■■'■■ .f access. But a walk 

from the north end of 
..:'..'. 1 ;;, for so the remaining 
portion of this district is called, brings 



us to a fine piece of open ground ad- 
joining the Islington Cattle Blarket. I 
regret to say this will soon be covered 
with dwellings, and then this increasing 
neighbourhood will be as distant from 
a walk into fields as anv part of Lon- 
don in 1750. This supmeness on the 
part of the government, and perhaps 
of the people themselves, is the more 
lamentable, as the district-, I am now 
speaking of, has had around it many 
pieces of land very suitable in position 
for public purjKJses, although not suf- 
ficient in size to be elevatctl to tha 
dignity of n park. 

Further cast the same story of ex- 
tension must be told. The Tower 
ilamlels h.ive closed up, and become 
compart ; Spitalfields has long ceased 
to have a green blade ; and the time 
does not appear to be distant when the 
river Lee will be the eastern boundary 
of the metropolis. It is fortunate for 
the inhabitants of this part of London, 
and for a still increasing neighbour- 
hood, that Victoria Park has been 
fonnc<l ; but it is to be regretted thot 
it is not at a less distance from the heart 
of the city. At another extreme of 
London, llattersen, the some tardy 
wisdom has appeared ; Batlersea Part 
is an instalment of great value, but 
nothing more. 

Before I close this very imperfect 
sketch, I will just glance at the position 
of London n century ago and at the 
present time. In 17Gtj it contained 
out 8 J square miles ; it now covers 40. 
Should even the ratio of increase for 
the last century continue during a 
similar j>criod, London would cover 
'iOO square miles ; but, as the real in- 
crease has been iluring the last thirty 
years, should we take thnt ratio of in- 
crease, it is stupendous to contemplate 
the gigantic bulk to which it may at- 
tain ! What would our nervous an- 
cestors who, iilXl years since, endea- 
voured by Act of Parliament to prevent 
Loudon's extension, and wliat would 
Major Renncll say, to find a capital 
already exceeding in population the 
amount he considered the ultimatum 
of possibility in regard to adequate 
supplies of food? 

Alany other points of interest have 
occurred to me during this examina- 
tion, but I must leave their considera- 
tion for a future time. 

J. G. WALLsm. 



24 



JEROME CARDAN. 
The Life of Girolamo Cardsno, of MiUn, Pbygician. By Henry Morley. 



JEROME CARDAN wos born in 
1501, at I'avia. lie was the illegiti- 
mate son of a reprobate old scholar 
ood n young widow of Milnn. Had it 
rested with tlie sire the aon had never 
been born. As it was, he received 
welcome from no one, save the pre- 
railing plague, which planted its cir- 
bunclea on his young nose, in the 
1^ shape of a cross, and, it might almost 
I seeui, doomed him to live n life of 
plagues and crosses for tln-ce quarters 
\ of a century afterwards. 

What Cliarles Lamb sn^s of the 
poor generally may bo applied to Je- 
rome individually, — he was not brought 
1 up, but dragged up. lie was left, dirty 
I njd deserted, to slrangers, but when 
' death seemed to be laying his hand upon 
Ihim, when he h.id reached an age at 
irhieh he might be of some use to his 
ricked old sire, the latter took him to 
[llimsclf, and made of him his footboy. 
[He was but seven ye.irs oh! at the 
[lime, and unbaptizod. llai-d work and 
[ bod diet had nearly deprived his father 
Lof the service of the litlli; page. Tlic 
liather struck a bargain with St. Jerome, 
iTrhereby, if the samt saved the child, 
Vtbe child was to be called by the name 
lof the saint. Tlic contract wns duly 
liUlfilled on either side. 

The child vegetated into a weak 
|boy, but that boy evinceil early signs 
I of unusual intellect, and thereby he in 
liomc degree obtained n place in what 
(passed as the heart of his father. Un- 
educated, save by himself (not always 
the worst of masters), and barely in 
his teens, he >vrote a treatise on the 
Earning of Immortality, and he com- 
mencedanother on the best method of 
Iwiuning at games of chance. The 
joung Jerome was an inveterate gam- 
bler, and, when he developed into the 
old Jerome, his love for gambling was 
not only as inveterate as ever, but he 
was the weak slave of even worse 
vices, lie could neither confine him- 
self to one work nor one vice ; and 
when, at nineteen, the ycUow-haircd 
boy went to the university, he was 
oilected by external aud internal dis- 
orders, had several books, philosophical 
or puerile, in course of completion, and 
3 



was without any fixed principle, save 
that of somehow becoming famous. 
Altogether the young cotlegian was an 
exceedingly clever, witty, unclean, and 
unpleasant scamp. 

AVhntever Canlan did, he addressed 
himself thereto with the perseverance 
■inii power of a Hercules. Learning 
or libertinism, it was all one to Jerome, 
he became steeped to the lips in both. 
Never perhaps was youth so dissolute 
yet so highly accomplished ; never one 
so careless of his jwrson so refined of 
mind, when he chose. He could pass 
from " TomitU" to treatises on tri- 
angles, from dice to diidcctics, and 
from dirty habits to divine medita- 
tions. The love of music too was 
strong upon liiu, and his heart was 
not hardened, for when his barbarous 
old father died, in 151S4, Jerome ploced 
an epitaph over him, which, despite ita 
pedantic language, showed the filial 
.illlction of its author. 

The old geometrician left his family 
but scantily provided for, but the 
young schf>lar maintained a gay life 
lor a while on the means supplied to 
him by his mother. He held profitless 
ollices, and the poor mother helped 
him to hold tlicni with honour. She 
conferred upon liini respectability, by 
enabling him to give good dinners ; 
and as for economy, Jerome despised 
the idea of saving, tor astrology and 
his horoscope had foretold that he 
could not live bcyonil the age of forty- 
five, and e<ogitc la galerc was the device 
of tile scholar. At the same time he 
besieged the Almighty with prayers 
for health, long life, and much enjoy- 
ment, and, to make bis chance for the 
triple prize more secure, he opened a 
private account with St. Martin, and 
promised that patron unlimited alle- 
giance, if he would only help him to 
what he desired. St. Jerome must 
have been equally astonished and m- 
dignant when he found his pruteg^ 
giving all his custom in this line to a 
rival establishment. 

The stain on the birth of Cardan 
was obstructive to his career. It was 
only with c.xtreme difficulty that he 
was admitted Doctor of Medicine ; and 



1854.] 



Jerom« Cardan. 



35 



» im&Il practice, and much starvation, 

»t Sacco, were Jealously deemed iis 

ilmost 1 10 ^ood wr a soge with a bar 

Ills scntcheon. During the 

< \ ■dix yoors of his rt^idence »t 
Llic ikitle town just nuuied, Cardan 

lid Uie fuuadalioD of the mixed renu- 
ntion which attached to him during 
Ilia aiV-r-Iife ; be perl'ormed one or two 
ojes oi'diQiculty, wrote vari- 
ed treuti£e« that were not 
I'oct to merit, and de- 
j.irguly to gambling as 
1 » leioiJM c .viicieby to live. When he 
I not hij pen in hand the dice-box 
... it...r.-. .„,! Cardan wore a dagger 

< 1 be WHS Oil rapid with 
l- , i 03 he ever wiis with 

j 4ii>t ot \m tongue. He wa:^ a etrunge 
l^izture of fierceness and alTuctiou, 
jom and weak judgment, know- 
^e and ignorance ; simple faitli and 
^eot Hvage suueritilion ; and Mr. 
rley rery well says of him, that 
' wh«re Cardan was thought mud by 
neighbour*, we should think him 
[Wise; and where hid neighbours thought 
[vim wise, we should think liim mad." 
]« This i», however, to be tiikeu with 
|<ixceplion, as, lor instance, wiien Car- 
Idan, unable to maintain himself be- 
l«omingly, tempted fortune and took 
o..... i.;...i..if for wife the young Lucia 
1 rini, a dowerless girl, with 

R- ... .., removed to iSIilan, in 1532, 
I Famine alone gave them welcome 
[ ftere, nud Jerome and bis bride re- 
moved to the town of Gollareta, where 
[every day he grew poorer, save in 
[.knowledge and superstition, played 
^ Away too even his wife's jewels and 
I bo<l, an<i in nineteen months earned 
[forty crowns. The couple returned 
I snce more to Miltui, the wife with a 
' little son on her boaom, and the strange 
.triad took temporary shelter in the 
rworkhouse, a depth of degradation to 
- '''.•.5SO was reduced once 
>t which the poet was 
luvv.-.U as the pbyvician. 
! latter, it mu^t be confessed, was 
ninl.l. r mou of the two. He was 
at to live at the cost of 
I was it in bis nature to be 
[ nngratelul for service renderetl. lie 
[jouisht the battle of life in Milan like 
1 tnic-hearted soldier. He was otten 
i^kaaten down upon one knee, but with 
u ttout heart and arm he held the 
pMckler of resolution above bis head 
Gmt. ALio. Vol. XLIl. 



and pushed his way through opposing 
ills while he bore the blows of fortune 
uncomplainingly. He made a few 
friends, courted them assiduously, but | 
not servilely, obtained some small oc» 
cupation returning, indeed, but s \ 
slender honorarium for the exercise of 1 
any of them, and wrote treatises ( 
enough on various sciences to malee j 
the fortune and reputation of half a ' 
hundred scholars. And at last one of \ 
his treatises was printed. It iras that 
" On the Bad Practice of Jledicine In 
Common Use," and it gained for him 
more shame than honour. The phy- 
stciims could not refute him, but they 
could abuse both him and his treatise. 
The jioople at large followed the lead 
given by the faculty, and Cardan wajl 
uccounteit of as being the very slave 
of that crass ignorance he had at- 
tempted to expose. It has ever been 
so. The old stagers, being idly dis* 
posed, are wratlilul when they are re- 
quired to unlearn gross errors, and 
tliey take their revenge by denouncing 
every new teacher as an ignoramus. 
Jenner was called "fool and knave" 
by the entire body of medical gentle- 
men of his day, and when these wer« 
compelled to Ibllow Jenner they talked 
of bis discovery as if the merit were 
not his but theirs. 

Despite opposition. Cardan was en- 
abled to set up a household, tike his 
mother into it, and encage a "famulus." 
If be indulged much in dissipation, 
be was also a gigantic worker. His 
brain and his pen were never at rest, 
but be was not always happy in bis 
subjects. Fame descended slowly 
upon him for his scientific treatises; 
but when be brought his astrology to 
bear, by casting the nativity of Christ, 
and writing a biography of the Saviour 
confirmatory of the horoscope, he was 
spoken of as a daringly speculative 
atheist. He was not far from being 
seized by the Inquisition for this work ; 
but this was at a latur period, and he 
had already made his peace with the 
Church by submitting all he had 
written to her judgment. The judg- 
ment did not at all alTecl Cardan's 
convictions. He simply bowed, smiled^ 
and was silent. 

In the meantime Cardan maintained 

a terrible struggle for existence. The 

College of Milan steadily refused to. 

acknowledge him, and the few paUentS 

£ 



Jtr»mu Cardan. 



CJnlj. 



be aoauired Uvel; eokbled liiin to 
live. He wi« in that oooditioo that 
lh« birth of two children, » loa aod 
dMudMer, pt««ed npoa hia i and (ke 
dMWorhwiBotberralMTwiUia, Sad 
COoditioQ of aodetjr wli«a a oevlj- 
Imtb child mecto with no weleoaM, 
■ad the dcfwrtnre of a perent \» a 
Batter tor jojl 

It wa* not till 1239 that the turn- 
iaf poiot ia bis fortune wai fairly 
reached. In that year waa imprinted 
bis Praelica Aritkmttiea, wfaiclt gare 
bin laatiag fame a« aa author \ and in 
the Mve jear, after twelve of applioa- 
lim awl rebttfl', he wai enrolled among 
the BMOibera of the Mllaneie College 
of Pbjriiciana, " and acquired the legal 
richt of praotiaing fur fee*, or taking 
flffiee as a teacher in the utuTenity. ' 
It was but reasonable that thereupon 
he addressed himself to the completion 
of an able work oo consoUtion ; after 
much wearincsi and disappointment, 
he had Ibaml for both the oofuolatioo 
upon which he wrote. Yet, after all, 
he earned, even now, lees u a pby- 
^f^UTT than as an almanack-maker and 
dabbler in astrology. Uc adde<l some- 
thing by bij lectures, but he wu un- 
fortunate enough to bare friend* will- 
ing to Ien>l btu money, and he Btill 
frequented the gaming table, where he 
won, upon iystem, and occasionally 
plucked a pigeon. The funds, however, 
got very quickly spent. His coro- 
panionahip was not always with scholtm. 
Uif table was as often surrounded by 
lingers ; and they who sang, drank 
de(:|>ly, and the bouse of a man who 
was imbued with solemn ideas of re- 
ligion was but an unsanctificd home. 
Amid the extravagancea thinlcbild was 
born, and Cardan thereupon buckled 
himself to sterner labour, and in 1 J44, 
be was leaching the college youth of 
Pavio, at an annual income of two 
huuilred and forty gold crowns, which 
sum was irrespective of what be might 
be enabled to make by the practice of 
Ul ptoftssion as phyaioian. Ill-cm- 
plored as many of bis hours bad been, 
oe nad nevertheless found leisure and 
sufEcient clearness of intellect to com* 
pose hi* great work on Algebra. It 
was his masteq)iece, and, like all 
ehefi (ftruere, it was attacked by the 
soiulists, and not spared by the sages ; 
but Csrdnn bud an answer for all, and 
he and his book were triumphant. His 



pen was oocHpied beaides en mMOf 
otfasr aubjecti^ aad that at one tin 
sosc were coapiet«d, ant were neva 
•eriotisly intended to be 
were iluutratiTc of wtaden, tome 
aeieoce, seoie of art, loaw of i 
and a tract or two were ■ark«id 
tnek foolery as achoiars ooold 
dal^Jit ia who oceftrred to write i 
■ease rather than let their res 
minds run to wastb The result of i 
wu aa increase both et (ub» aadij 
some degree, of fortune, aod be f 
merited both, for never had tba 
seen a man who laboured more 
duously while he did labour, or wh 
could so easily, after his jubilant 
iaxations, put on again the burthen i 
toil, and work on like a giant 
freshed. Ue bore all well, for the i 
pie reason that he kept early 
and enjoyed full rest. " Ue liked 
spend ten hours in bed, during « 
of which he slept, if his health 
pened to be pretty good, 
was wakeful, be was accustomed! 
up and walk round his bed, i 
thousands, with the hope of 
himself sleepy. He took but little i 
'lidne, being a doctor . . . The 
dicinal remedies most used by him I 
procure sleep were bears' greaae^ 
an ointment of poplar, applied 
temully in tepentten placet. He lova 
old fashions in dress; and as rega 
diet be preferred heavy suppers to 
light ones, and fish to meat. His 
dinner was the repast of an anchorite, 
and the supper was in fact a late 
dinner. His beverage was wine and 
water, a half pint of each fairly com- 
mingled. Ue was an uneasy sleeper, 
he was ever looking for omens when 
awake, and his slumbers were op- 
pressed by fearful dreams ; but he was, 
m his way, happy, until swift death 
took from him nis Lucia, and then he 
returned to Milan, where, to draw his 
sorrowful thoughts from dwelling on 
his bereavement, he wrote a laboured 
encomium on gout and a panegyric of 
the Emperor Nero. 

Canlon might have found what the 
French call "distraction" in his sor- 
row hud he accepted an ofler made 
him to become physician to Pope Paul 
UI. (Alexander Farnese), but, favour- 
able as were the terms proposed, Car- 
dan declined them ; " the Pope," be 
said, " is decrepit, be is but a crum- 



1854.3 



Jerom* Cardum. 



bliag wall ; •nU aLoll I quit a uerlain 
for aa intecare position r" He bad 
Ike ooorace to resist an ofier even more 
taaptiag urom Chriatian III. King of 
DtummA. Cardan, aoconiing to tlie 
MggMtioa of Mr. Morley, declined the 
pa|»'a propoaml on tlie ground that it 
wmU nave inTolred bim ia political 
qoMtions, which be bated. It seems 
to na, however, that the Italian was 
probably afraid to trust himself in a 
capital wherein his bold speculations 
so atenul things were accounted of 
at tbe specttlalions of an atheist. He 
had manjr reasons for refusing the otTer 
of the royal Dane, but chief among 
tbcm was his desire to stand well and 
safiely with Rome. He objected to 
" the heresy of the Danes," and would 
not aenre a power which respecte<l 
Lather, whose horoscope he had cast, 
tnd of whom and of wuose system he 
had writt«n : " The heresy so widely 
profiagmted would, he said — and the 
start laid — Adl to pieces of itself; for 
it woakl rear up an infinite number 
of heada, so that, if nothing else con- 
Ticted it of falsehood, yet by that very 
multitude of opinions it would be 
ifaewa that, since truth is only one, in 

euraUty there naut be error." And 
iw lame, impotent, and illogical was 
thit ooDolnsion, arrived at by a mnn 
who was so deep a thinker, and who 
himself beUI opinir>ns which his church 
would not sanction, but which he knew 
to be true. The world would never 
have moved towards truth, nor retained 
whit of it is now held in possession, 
■ but for diiFcrence of opinion — tor that 
~ ' tion of thought out of which arises 
Btablo truth. The Church of 
1 once held that this world was the 
re«ble centre of our solar system, 
nd that the suo revolved around it. 
ae philosophic and not irreligious 
acn doubted this. Galileo reflected 
the doubt, and from reflection 
denial, llie old unity party 
med both, but even thnt party 
I been compelled to allow that Ga- 
Ueo waa right and the church wrong. 
*" sre it no better 9|)ort than to listen 
1 Jesuitical gentleman of these later 
ayi commenting upon Newton and 
philosophy. The latter, it will be 
rked oy the amiable individual 
,MI(l0B, hat been condemned by 
~«3iiireh, and is, therefore, utterly 
abominable; but (be will add) the facts 



as stated by Newton are doubtless, in 
tkemselves, incontrovertible. We have 
heard this admission miide many limes 
by men who denounce*! the philosophy 
as churchmen, but who ns relli^cllng 
men accepted it with their whole hearts. 
Aa for the doctrine of the Reforma- 
tion, it may be safely leil standing 
where Luther fixed it, with the remark, 
" If it be of Grod, it will continue to 
stand." 

And so Cardan established himself 
lit Pavia, where he laid up money 
by lecturing, by authorship, and by 
the practice of medicine, squandered 
ntucn of it in very indifferent company, 
and wrote precepts for his children — 
two clever scapegrace lads, and one 
gentle girl — whereby they might go 
through life more profitably than he 
bad dune himself, oome of these pre- 
cepts are terse and suggestive, and are 
strangely characteristic of the author. 
We have space but for a few, as, for ex- 
ample, " Time governs princes, princes 
govern men. hook tor the end to 
time." " Never sleep on feathers." 
"Never associate witri a stranger on 
the public road." " Live joyously 
wlicu you are ubie ; men ore worn 
down by cares." " It is more prudent 
to spend money usefully than to lay 
it by, for more results come of tlie use 
of money, which is action, than of the 
preservationof it,whichis rest." "Love 
children, honour brothers; parents and 
every member of the family love, or 
turn out of doors." " A woman left by 
herself, thinks ; too much caressed, sus- 

f)ecta : therefore take heod." " Never 
et your children have u stepmother ; 
if you do, never put faith in her at 
their accuser." " Deeds are masculine, 
and words are feminine ; letters are of 
the neuter gender." "If necessary, 
slip out of the tie of friendship ; never 
break it." " Put no trust in a red 
Lombard, a black German, a blinking 
Tuscan, a lame Venetian, a tall, thin, 
Spaniard, a bearded woman, a curly- 
pnted man, or a Greek." "Delay it 
the handle to denial." "Take care 
that you are better than you seem." 
" Never lie, but circumvent." " Bo 
more ready to help friends than to 
hurt foes.' It may be added that 
Cardan wos somewhat before his ago 
in even suggesting tender treatment 
in the education of children. He him- 
SL-lf, with much love, was far, however, 



sm 



Jerome Cardan. 



[July, 



from spoiling tbe child through sparing 
the rod. 

The troublous times in which Car- 
dun lived too often interrupted bis 
brief career of prospcritjr, but they 
never aflected hid industry. In 1550, 
when Italy yrns in a condition of ex- 
treme perd an<l agitation, the philoso- 
pher calmly wrote his thirteen books 
on Wctopoacopy, whereby he applied 
astrology to the lines en the forehead, 
and from a. consideration of both fore- 
told fortunes, and believed in the pre- 
dictions. This occupation he varied 
with researclies and essays on Subtlety 
and the Variety of Things — the former 
a book of much learning, ingenuity, 
and childish folly. As an illustriilion 
uf the last, we may cite bis theory of 
mountains : — 

Their origin (he says) is threefold. 
Either the earth awella, being agitated by 
freqncnt movements, and gives birth to 
mountains, u to pimples rising from a 
body . . ; or their soil is heaped up by 
tbe nindt, wliich is orten the cose in Africa; 
or, what is moat natural and common, 
they are tbe stones left after the material 
of the earth has been washed away by 
moDing water, for tbe water of a stream 
descends into the valley, aod the stony 
mountain itself rises from the valley, 
whence it happens that all mountains are, 
more or less, made of stones. Their 
height above the surrounding soil is be- 
cause tbe fields are daily eaten down by 
the rains, and tbe earth itself decays ; but 
stones, besides that they do not decay, 
also for the most part grow. 

On which delicious philosophy Mr. 
Morley well remarks that, — 
The notion that earth taken from stone 
leave* mountains, that a Salisbury Plain 
would be Mount Salisbury, if all the soil 
were token out of it, and only the stones 
left, wos so far curious ; but as it was tbe 
orthodox belief, it passed into Cardan's 
mind, with other science of the same kind, 
as learning that was not to be disturbed. 
He had no taste at all for revolutionary 
work, except in medicine. In mathe- 
matics, he was left with bis face turned in 
the right direction, and he made a greot 
and real advsnce ; in the natural sciences 
he was placed by his learning commonly 
with bis face tnrned in the wrong direc 
tion, and he went on into raetoposcopy 
and other nonsense. 

We may add, that Cardan accounted 
lor the earth being higher than the sea 
by stating that the former was lifted 
and held up by the stars ! 



One further idea of the complexion 
of Cardan's philosophy may here be 
cited from tbe same book. Our hero, 
when treating of the power of warmth 
OS a principle of life, quotes Joannes 
Leo, who relates that in Egypt the 
executioner cuts criminals in naif, and 
that the upper half being then placed 
upon a hearth, over which quicklime 
had been scattered, will understand 
andanswer questions for a quarter of an 
hour ! As Madame du DeSiind said, 
when told that St. Denis walked with 
bis own head under his arm, after de- 
capitation, " Ce u'est qua le premier 
pas qui coute," so in the case of the 
speaking semi-trunks of Egyptian cri- 
minals we might say that, if the torso 
surmounted the difficulty of uttering 
the first word, we might readily be- 
lieve that it talked for a quarter of an 
hour. 

Cardan was a negligent dresser, but 
he admired our English wool, as it will 
be remembered Erasmus did, who has 
put an eulogiuin thereupon into the 
mouths of one of the speakers in his 
" Colloquies." He says that it is no 
wonder that our wool is superior, see- 
ing that we have no poisonous animalfi, 
that even wolves are so scarce that 
sheep may pasture in safety ; and 
that England is infested only by the 
fox — a term which will earn for him 
the contempt of all eounti-y squires. 
According to him, our sheep in his 
days were the truly proper sheep of 
pastoral poets, and slaked their thirst 
only u{>on the dews timt fell from 
heaven, the waters of the land being 
too gross for their ovine appetites. 
These were just the sort of sheep for 
Amaryllis and Daphne to tend, for 
Acis to lead about in blue ribbands, 
for Watteau to paint at the feet of his 
shepherdesses, and for Dresden china 
bakers tu fix in their immortal ciny. 

But here Cardan is only speaking 
from hearsay. In I55i he came among 
us, looked scrutintsingly around hiui, 
and afterwards recounte<l his expe- 
rience and impressions. The occasion 
of his coming was to attend Hamilton, 
the Archbishop of St. Andrew's, whom 
good living had reduced to a condition 
from which native thentpeuties could 
not raise bim. A gohlen lure brought 
the then renowned Cardan to Scotland, 
and his sensible treatment, not being 
marred by much attendant ridiculoiu 



1854.] 



Jerome Cardan, 



29 



I bnl htfmleu practice, renovated the 
prebt*, and rescued bim from dying 
quietly, in order that be might altcr- 

> ■rnnnia perisb riolently. Cardan tra- 
^velled eo flowly that be was almost oa 
llBOe in reacbing England from Italy 
[ as vm French lleet has been in slowly 
L eliding from Brest to the Baltic. On 
I ai( return from Scotland, he saw, con- 
1 Tcrsed with, and learned to love, cer- 
' loinly the most loeeable of England's 

> (overcigns, our young sixth Edward. 
I Be sojourned some months here, and 
' this is his testimony touching our 

&ther*Bnd their habits. " It is worth 
eonsidemtion," he says in his dialogue 
, D» Morif, " that the English cure 
iKtde or not at all for death. With 
k]«*M anil salutations parents and chil- 
dren part ; the dying say that they 
depart into immortal life, that they 
diail there await those left behind ; 
ind each exhorts the other to retain 
him in his memory. Cheerfully, with- 
out blenching, without tottering, they 
I bear with constancy the final doom. 
I Tfcejr surely merit pity," be curiously 
I add*, " who with such alacrity meet 
daath, and have no pity on themselves." 
A apeftker in the dialogue then in- 
mtrea bow the English look and dress. 
" In figure," replies Cardan, " they are 
much uke the Itulians ; they are white, 
whiter than we arc, not to rwUly ; and 
they are broad-chested. There are 
•omc among them of great stature, 
urbane, and friendly to the stranger, 
bat they are <]uickly angered, and are, 
in that state, to be dreaded. They are 
■ttvng in war, but they want caution ; 
greedy enough after food and drink, 
rat therein they do not equal the Ger- 
mana. There are great intellects among 
them — witness Duns Scotus und Sui- 
Mth, who rank second to none. In 
dreas they arc like the Italians; for 
tbey are glad ti^ boast themselves most 
nearly allied to them, and therefore 
study to imitate as much as possible 
their munncr and their clothes ; and 
yet, even in form, they are more like 
the Germans, the I-rench, and tlie 
SfMUiiarda. Certain it is that all the 
b«rfauuns of Europe love the Italians 
ggore than any race among themselves." 
Cardan adds that the country as well 
«• llie people looked to him exactly as 
Italy aid. He would have thought 
bimsailf in his own land, especially 
when he " rode about on horseback in 



the neighbourhood of London." Nor 
in this do we see any exaggeration, for 
few of the Italian suburbs with which j 
he was acquainted could afford sue 
sights as tlie view from Harrow-on»j 
tbe-Hill, which only lacks water _ 
render it perfect, Ilumpstead Ileath,*! 
and the ride over the then open tieldaw 
from Highbury to Hornsey. All th«| 
English whom he passed, in group 
sictmg together, api>eared to him, "loJ 
figure, manners, dress, gesture, andlu 
colour," Bs so many Italians ; " butl 
when they opened their mouth," ha] 
says, " I could not understand so much'i 
as a word, and wondered at them, aaJ 
though they were my countrymen gone){ 
mad and raving." 

Cardan returned to Italy by a cir- 
cuitous rout4?, and enjoyed repeated'! 
ovations by the way from the hands i 
the le.irned. He took with him aiti 
English boy of respectable family,ij 
whom he had offered to bring up, but 
of whom he grew so tired ere man] 
il.iys had elapsed, that he had hinf] 
brutally scourged, in order to induce^ 
the lad to run away. The young Bri- 
ton however had no such idea of ail 
breach of contract, but clung to hi» f 
cruel protector, served him, gained hivl 
love, and met with strange recompcns8>f 
in being apprenticed to a tailor, — sooa-j 
nlXer wuicli he died, as much perhapa | 
out of indignation as from natural in- 
firmity. 

But what did Cirdan care? IliaJ 
fame and fortunes hud increased hy] 
his foreign expedition ; his literary ondl 
professional pursuits were eoteredij 
upon with renewed vigour, and haf 
not only obtained profit from bothfj 
but triumph over some of the nota* 
bilities of the world who dared to ossaife] 
him; and then he was among the 
chililren whom he love<l as tnough'1 
they were still indeed children, and! 
had not grown up to torture him withal 
anxiety and their ingratitude. HeT 
had indeed always loved them, but ha] 
had neglected the counsel of Solomon,J 
and had not brought thcin up in the] 
way they should go. There had been ] 
abundance of precept, but no good^ 
example — plenty of moral directioa-i] 
posts, but no smoothing of obstacles in't 
the road nor facilities for travel. BulrJ 
Cardan philosophically took things i 
the gods sent them, and he was 
the very high top-gallant of hii joy 



Jerome Cardan. 



[July, 



wliun down crnue terrible iufHnij upon 
him destruulive as the tbuDclerbolt. 

Jerome's son, Gianb«tista, was a wild 

youth, and bnd wild loves; among tbem 

WAS a certain Urandonia Scroni, fair 

and frail, whom be married, and br 

I irbom he was betrayed. Jerome a 

iliorrorwaa extreme at tbia union — the 

I ireddiog of a young physician with a 

5irl of fierce passionn and evil family, 
'be sire forgave the ion, but tlie for- 

[ giveneas brousht with it little felicity 

I to the youthful couplo. Their " vio- 
lent delights " had, as the poet says, 
"violent ends;" and, though two chil- 
dren resulted from the union, hatred 
■OOD took place of love, as well it 
night, for the mother gloried in boast- 

' ifig that Gianbatista was not the father 
of these hapless children ; aud terrible 

> was the wrath, incensed the word*, 
•nd toon incensed the deedf, that fol- 
Iowe<l. In brief, Uiunbntista destroyed 
his gay and guilty wife by poison. It 
was a crime in which his superiors 
were wont to indulge, but he was hardly 
of the rank and eminence to authorise 
himself to slay hin con«ort with impu- 
nity. Murder was the privilege of the 
nobility ; these would have deemed 
that society was retluced tu a condition 

I of anarchy, or at least of a degrading 
equality, if the democracy were per- 
mitted to trench upon the privileges 
of their betters; and accordingly Giuti- 
batista was arrested aud put n|Hm his 

, trial. He woa defended by his father, 
vho must have been fully aware of 
his son's guilt, but who nevcrtheleas 
■truggled to save him with a mingled 
ntfuctioii and ferocity of argument, a 
Uie and an abuse of logic, such as never 
had before, and never bus since, been 
employed to make the worse appear 

. the better cause. We know notoiug 
in history more touching than this pa- 

i temal attempt to tear a child from the 
grasp of the executioner. The defence 

' u a monument of sublimity and folly. 
Itadvocates, justifies, disproves, admits, 

, deoicf, excusea, beseeches, menaces, 

I weep*, laughs, bi^ilea, and bewilders. 
It u at once titanic and dwarfish ; 
grand aa Deniusthenc!<, and puerile as 
a parody. It presents to us the terrible 
wreck of intellect— madness strong, 
and nfTection stronger still. We see 
the profound lawyer on the vei'y point 
of persuading the judge* of the mno- 
oence of his client, out then some 



damning evidence makes him stumble^ 
and down goes intellect again, and up 
rises despair, and the hall rcsouncwt 
with the shrieks of the father scream* 
Ing for mercy for his child, since justioa 
would be too severe a lot for him. 
Mercy was not to be had ; tlie criminal 
coufe.xsed his crime ; the executioner 
did his office upon him privately witliin 
the prison ; and from that day Cardan 
felt that he was infamous and unut« 
terably wretched for ever. 

The stricken man endured the usual 
further lot of being slone<l, as it were^ 
by the calumnies of the pitiless. Ha 
triumphed indeed over these, but the 
scars rcmaine<l indelible, and not pain-, 
less, lie endeavoured to find soma 
solace in books aud in active employ- 
ment at Bologna; but the heart of the 
man bad withered within him, and with 
bis old energy bad departcil the old 
jxjwer of self-coDsolution. Prosperity 
had never affected him beyond a feeling 
of honest, silent pride ; " but in the 
bearing of adversity," he remarks, "my 
nature is not so firm, for I have been 
compelled to endure some things that 
are beyond my strength. 1 have over- 
oomo nature Iken by art; for in the 
greatest agonies of my mind 1 whipped 
my thighs with a switch, bit sharply 
my left arm, and fasted, because 1 waa 
much relieved by weeping when the 
tears would come, but very frequently | 
they would not." 

With increase of sorrow came in- 
crease of superstition. The mind, de- 
pressed on one side, swung over to the 
other, and he who had been so severely , 
tried by the realities of the material 
world courted slavery or solace in the I 
world of spirits. The noblest of rainda ] 
have yielded to the pressure of similar I 
influences, and too often intellectual 
giants, overwhcbned by tlie real, bare 
submitted to be bound by the irre- 
sistible dwarfs of the ideal- 
Cut Cardan's struggle with the real I 
was not yet over. At Bologna, if bia 
nights and the portions of the day 
spent in solitude were crowded with 
ghostlike visitants and noisy with the 
voices of imaginary demons, his busi- 
ness hours were hours of uncase — and 
even worse ; for he was imprisoned on 
a charge, as it would seem, of impiety^ , 
but after a three months' detention ho 
was delivered, and invited to Rome» I 
Thither, at three score years and teni 



1854.] 



Jerome Cardan. 



31 



tlie philosopher repaired in 1571, to 
be, during a thort period, the pensioner 
of the pope. AAer five years passed 
in that profitless pursuit of iveeping 
orer the irrevocable. Cardan died at 
Borne. His son Aldo he had disin- 
bmted, for good reason. His daughter 
wai {troridnl for hj marriage. His 
heir was Fazio Cardan, the son of his 
own guilty but favourite Gianbatista, 
whoae crimes never permanently over- 
threw the love built in the father's 
heart for the child of his hopes and his 
denMTT. 

And now do we find ourselves very 
much in the condition of an architect 
who, having prepared his foundations, 
b debarred from raising tliereon his 
structure. Our design was to build 
npon the biography of Cardan a sketch 
at least of his mingled philosophy and 
foUy. Want of space, however, forbids 
the realization of such design. We 
must leave him, who was as a wingless 
bird, acute of sight but unable to find 
his way through the mists to the 
heaven beyond, to the consideration 
of Mr. Morley's readers. We would 
invite these, however, when they have 
ftttdie<l the bio"Taphy of the Romanist 
•■tfc to peruse that of his contempoi'ary 
Ctuvin. The reformer was, no doubt, 
quite as intolerant of freedom in others 
as the head of the church from which 
he separated, because it not only vio- 
lated truth but disallowed liberty. 
Bat Calvin's philosophy shows, at least, 
what independence of mind may efiect 
for him who exercises it. Cardan was 
childishly superstitious, because his in- 
tellect was bent beneath the yoke of 
Rome. Calvin believed in God alone, 
and not in omens, and signs, and 
noises, and such nonsense, because he 
dared to use the reason with which 
God had endowed him. Beza and 
Meloncthon had inclinations akin to 
those of Cardan, and Zimmerman has 
shown how solitude engenders them ; 
but Calvin mocked at the ideas of pre- 



sentiment and mysticism. He wrote 
against astrology, and Cardan for it, 
probably for the same reason — a desire 
to leave the solution of all mysteries 
to Heaven. Cardan read the future 
in the colour and aspect of the stars ; 
Calvin more wisely averred that " the 
true astrology and astronomy is the 
knowledge of Heaven." He showed 
how astrologers drew wrong conclu- 
sions from correct premises, and in his 
peculiarly cutting style he lashed the 
folly of those who followed this science 
after the fashion of Cardan. But even 
Calvin was far behind the entire truth. 
He knew not of the opinions of Aris- 
tarchus of old, nor was even aware 
that Copernicus had so recently enun- 
ciated the truth upon the heavenly 
system. To C.ilvin the entire heavens 
still revolved around the earth, and 
his book thereon shows how much a 
man may write well upon a false idea. 
Thai veil has passed away, and among 
those who have explained the new gran- 
deur and the eternal truth, none have 
rendered a more splendid explanation 
than Dr. Chalmers in his Astronomical 
Sermons. In those sermons the readers 
of Cardan and Calvin will discover how 
fooliih was the wisdom of the first, 
how imperfect that of the second, and 
how unassailable that of Chalmers him- 
self. We recommend to inquiring and 
earnest men a study of the works of 
the great Scotish divine, after they 
have digested those of the Italian and 
Frenchman. If the pages of Cardan, 
Calvin, and Chalmers do not lead them 
to perceive where true wisdom resides, 
ana how true wisdom is to be attained, 
why then they may rest assured that 
they are not of the calibre of mind to 
work out to its ends a simple deductive 
process. Happily, they who have taste 
for the study enjoined are sure to pos- 
sess the intellect necessary to arrive at 
the truthful conclusion ; and they who 
have no^the taste will assuredly acquire 
it by devoting themselves to the study. 




A GLANCE AT PARIS IN JUNE, 1854. 



TIIE capital of France is at this 
moment in a state of transition from 
what it has been to what it will be, 
and any one who lias been absent Iroin 
it a few months would imagine on re- 
visiting it now that he was in another 
world. AV'bcre he was occustomod to 
meet with a tubyrinth of naiTOw dirty 
lanes, lined with no less dirty-louking 
shops, he will now tind spacious streets 
boitlered with absolute palaces. If our 
readers will supjiose that in one day an 
order had been given to demolish the 
whole of riccadilTy, theextensivc neigh- 
bourhood of Leicester-square, with the 
Strand and Fleet-street, and that this 
order was executed at once, all the 
inhabitants having been moved out, 
and then u spacious street, lined with 
loAy houses, built with stone, and 
ornamented with sculptures, reaching 
from Hyde Park corner to St. Paul's, 
this would be an exact picture of what 
has been done for the new Rue de 
Rivoli at Paris, which now reaches 
iu one continuous line from the Place 
de la Concorde to the far side of the 
Hotel de Ville. The length of this 
noble avenue of buildings cannot be 
much under a league. In the course 
of demolitiou several old monuments 
of Paris, chiefly of an ect-losiastical 
character, have been relieved from 
the buildings under which they were 
buried, and among these the interesting 
tower of St. Jactiues-de-Ia-Boucherie 
will form a prominent object. Nor is 
this all that has been done, or is con- 
templated. Not to speak of several 
new streets which have already been 
finished some time, a " boulevard" is 
to be opened from the present boule- 
vard, between the Porte St. Martin 
and the Porte St. Denis, across old 
Paris to the river ; another, to reach 
from the Madeleine to the outskirts of 
Paris, is in construction ; and the new 
Rue des Ecoles, in the quartier Latin, 
is half finished, and will, when com- 
pleted, reach from the Ecole de Mede- 
cine to the Jardin des Plantes ; and to 
make place for it, not only houses, but 
theatres, and even churches have felt 
the hand of the destroyer. It is also 
said that the destruction of the Jardin 
des Plantes itself ia contemplated. The 
4 



talk, also, is of clearing the ground be- 
hind and round the Cathedral ofNotre 
Dame, up to the point where the two 
branches of the river rejoin, and erect- 
ing an extensive and m.ignificent ar- 
chiepiscopal palace. One day, iu the 
year 1812, the King of Saxony being 
on a visit to Paris, the first ^lapoleon 
said to him, "JSh bieii! mon cotaiii, 
comment trounez-cous Paris f Cest tme 
belle ville, nest-ce-pat*" " Oui, Sire," 
replied the king; 'Equant elle sera 
hatief A few months hence, were 
the King of Saxony to see Paris 
again, he might fairly say, " La ville 
est hatie." But the striking feature of 
Paris at the present moment consists of 
masses of houses on every side pulled 
or fulling down, and even greater 
masses of new buildings rising from 
amidst the ruins, while the capital is 
literally occupied by an army of 
buihleis, and, which is worse, the at- 
mosphere is strongly impregnated with 
the dust of liuie and old mortar. 
Giving work to the labouring pupula- 
tiuuou this e.x tensive scale is a sure way, 
for the moment, to keep them from in- 
surrection; but the expenditun?, which 
is said to be divided equidly between 
the government and the municipality, 
nmst be enormous, and \»ill no doubt 
one day be severely felt. Its present 
effect is to make everything excessively 
dear ; and this is especially tlie cose 
with regard to house-rent. 

Great, however, as will bo the 
changes produced in the physiognomy 
of the French metropolis, their moral 
effect will be still more important, and 
the planners of them had no doubt 
this object in view. It may be truly 
said that the reign of the barricades is 
at an end. The extensive labyrinth of 
lauea and alleys which extended for a 
considerable distance round the Hotel 
dc Ville, formed the pivot of all the 
revolutions of Paris ; it was a district 
almost impenetrable to armies ond 
police, a gigantic " Rookery," in which 
va.Ht bodies of insurgents might as- 
semble, show themselves, ond conduct 
their attacks with the utmost effect, 
and when necessary disappear unhurt, 
and not easily to be followed or traced. 
Now, the wide Rue de Rivoli extends 




d 



1854.] 



A Glance at Paris in June, 1854. 



38 



into the very centre of this locality, and 
will allow of the advance of large bodies 
of troops who may set barricaiies at de- 
fiance ; while it will be cut through 
in a transverse direction by the new 
Iwnlevard. Bat this is not nil ; the 
once closely-inhabited ground imme- 
' diately behind the Hotel de Ville has 
been cleared to make place for a vast 
pile of barracks capable of holding 
teveral thousand men — the citadel of 
the state overlooking and commanding 
the fortress of the town. Paris is 
indeed fallen from its ancient power. 
The new Rue des Ecoles will in a 
similar manner intersect the more tur- 
bulent districts on the southern side 
of the river. 

In taking this strategic glance at the 
alterations now making in Paris, I can 
bardly help applying to the power that 
is the celebrated epigram ascribed to 
the poet Virgil, Sic cot rum robis. The 
Emperor of the French has been la- 
bouring earnestly to destroy the power 
of the mob, which certainly opened to 
him the way to the throne — is he 
labouring for his own advantage, or for 
that of others ? In a short visit to Paris 
during the present month, I have mixed 
intimately and rather extensively with 
nearly all classes of society, and beard 
Lonis Napoleon spoken of in private 
S9 a mere alternative — as having been 
the less obnoxious of two disasters — 
while the manner in which he reached 
the throne is forgotten by nobody. 
He has, however, still many things m 
his favour. There appears to be little 
sympathy for any ot the past dy- 
nasties ; if there be any leaning, it is, 
I think, towards the house of Orleans, 
— tlie reign of Louis Philippe is the only 
one to which people in general look back 
with regret as one of peace and pros- 
perity — but this parly has ruined itself 
lor the present by the "fusion," by con- 
sequent division, and by a mistaken 
advocacy by one portion of it of the 
policy uf Kussia. In fact, it has gained 
the character of being selfish, instead 
of patriotic. I believe, moreover, that 
stiU the republican sentiment is the 
predominant one in France, and that 
if the present state of things should 
BOW be suddenly overthrown, it is 
that sentiment which, be it for good 
or for evil, would gain the day. On 
the other hand, the position ot Louis 
Napoleon has been greatly atrength- 
0am. Mao. Vol. 5lLII. 



cned by the war with Russia, and 
especially by the English alliance. 
The alliance with England is wonder- 
fully papular, and from what I have 
seen I believe that in all classes the 
sentiment is cordial, and calculated to 
be permanent; when expressed, it is 
always accompanied witli a feeling of 
respect as well as of friendship ; they 
say, we are the two nations who have 
never been able to conquer each other, 
and therefore we may be friends with- 
out jealousy, ami our friendship is the 
triumph of civilization, and must en- 
sure the prosperity of both countries. 
The enthusiasm has risen so high, that 
some one has published a book to pre- 
pare the worlu fur the abolition of the 
channel! and I have before me more 
than one poem in which the Attiaaee 
is celebrated in very glowing language. 
There is, under the surface, less ab- 
solute enthusiasm in Froncc for the war 
with Russia than for the alliance with 
England, and it is perhaps more popular 
than it would otherwise be on account 
of that alliance. Any strong feeling of 
hostility towards Russia that is ob- 
servable in France may be ascribed in 
a great measure to the imprudent allu- 
sions which have been made by the 
Emperor Nicholas to the events of the 
year 1812. Nevertheless, France has 
evidently entered into the war with 
cordiality, as well as with confidence as 
to its results, and there are far moreout* 
ward indications of animosity against 
the Czar Nicholas in Paris than in Lon- 
don. The shop windows are literally 
filled with caricatures and prints re- 
lating to the war, some of them witty 
enough, but often rather coarse, and 
evidently in tended for the lower classes. 
In these prints, full justice is done to 
the English sailor, for our Gallic neigh- 
bour is especially proud of the fact that 
the two navies are riding side by side 
in friendly union. With a somewhat 
singular prejudice, which has long pre- 
vailed in France, when the English 
army is represented in these carica- 
tures, it is almost always by the figure of 
a highlander, for it seems to be a popu- 
lar notion that without highlanders an 
English army could hardly exist. Not 
content with the ordinary instrumen- 
tality of paper, caricatures against Ni- 
cholas have been circulated on pocket- 
handkerchiefs and such like articles. 
The same spirit of hostility is exhibited 



34 



A Glance at Parit in June, 1854. 



[July, 



in inuUitudes of popular aongu aud 
balloils, which are sold about the tovm, 
with auch titles as, La daiue du jmpa 
Nioolat, Lt cri de Guerre, J'veux »«««- 
/rer un Cotaque, La Dame det Coiaque*, 
Le cU/Kirt pour la T\iripue, Le Marteil- 
luis u Constantinople, nnU a multitude 
of others iu the name at;le. The samo 
subject baa taken possesaioD of the 
9tn(i>c. At the Vaudeville, there ia a 
piece entitled La Foire de tOrient, a 
ridirulouB caricature on the Emperor 
of Russia, in which there ore mounte- 
baiika.and white bears, and all that sort 
of thing, in abundance ; but it is at the 
theatre of the Varictds that the Quea- 
tion tt Orient is made amusing by its 
very absurdity. The Question tC Orient 
at the Vuriiit^a is not a drama at all, 
but H dialogue between two working 
masons, who are introduced talking 
politics, and astound the cars of the 
audience with a succession of bad 
puns, which keep ererybody in a roar 
of laughter by their mere absurdity. 
Here ia nn example. Sain-tu, says one 
to the other, ponrqwn titetidard du 
Prophite eat unt queue de chevalf Non, 
soys his companion. — Eh bienl c'esi 
pour qu'il loit crin (cruint) ! The other 
now takes him up; Sain-tu, he says, 
pourqtioi on appelle le Ditroit dt Con- 
ttantinnple la mer de TarlanelUt f Non. 
Eh bient c'ett pnrce ou'elle eit totgoura 
counerte de Tartanes 1! Another *•!»• 
pie. Sait'tu pourquoi CEmperew dt 
RuMie vent prendre la Turquie f Non. 
Eh bien / e ett pour que ion empire aiUe 
en croissant 1 1 1 

Society, in Paris, does not appear to 
have sustained any )>crmancnt change 
from the succession of revolutions whicb 
have followed the expulsion of the 
House of Orleans. In the fashionable 
world there is at present an evident 
tendency to English manners and 
forms, and I thought I could even 
truce a certain importation of English 
stifTness into French sociol manners. 
The suppression of the liberty of the 
press hns taken away one great cause 
of political excitement; but, inde- 
pendent of this, the strong political 
temperament of the lower orders seema 
to he ia a great measure extinguished, 
and it may be doubted if they will 
soon or easily recover their influence. 
The next revolution, when it comes, 
Ul probably originate among the 
Igber and more educated class, where 



:i great independence of sentiment 
and language still exists. This in- 
dependence has been recently shewn 
in an incident in the Academic dea In- 
scriptions (Inatitute of Franee), which 
has made a considerable sensation. 
^L Fortoul, the Minister of Public In- 
struction, has for some time aspired to 
the honour of being a member of that 
learned body. All bis inllucnce as 
Minister of State has been employed 
(and it must be borne in mind that 
the Institute comes immediately under 
his ministry) ; neither promises nor 
intimidations were spared for the pur- 
pose of obtaining votes. At length a 
vacancy occurred, but the spirit of the 
Acad(!mie rebelled against this attempt 
at undue influence, and the Minister of 
State was beaten by M. de Longp^rier, 
the talented conttreateur of the an- 
tiquities of the Louvre, who was elected 
into the vacant place by a majority of, 
1 think, two over bis powerful op- 
ponent. 

The French people seek, above all 
things at the present moment, peace, 
as the only condition on which they 
can hope to secure prc'sperity. They 
have accepted war against Russia, 
because they believe that it will end 
in making i>eaoe permanent. To them 
the English alliance represents peace ( 
and they received the empire with leai 
regret because they were told that it 
signified peace. The intluence of this 
word alone has already produced an 
improvement in the condition of the 
nation, which no doubt will go on im- 
proving if left to its own resources. 

Perhaps nothing in France has re- 
ceived a greater ahock from its recent 
revolutions than its literature. Most 
of the distinguiahed writers of the ge- 
neration which it passing away have 
been involved in political disasters, 
and have been prematurely swept 
from the stage. Victor Hugo lives a 
broken exile in the isle of Guernsey. 
Laniartino is almost forgotten. You 
sometimes meet in Paris a half-negro 
whoso hair has lost its colour and be- 
come white, aud who stoops alarmingly 
in the shoulders — it is Alexandre 
Dumas. This popular writer resides 
with his daughter, at the Maison d'Or, 
on the Boulevard, but has lately token a 
small "hfltel" in the Rue d' Amsterdam. 
I passed one evening on the Boulevard 
a gouty old man, bent almost double, 



1854.] 



A Glance at Paris in June, 1834. 



35 



k 



P 



who leemed hardly kbic to drag bim« 
telf along; he was returning from the 
DnaK, a Bort of estaminet, celebrated 
at a place of reunion for men of letters, 
nd waa pointed out to me as the cele- 
brated critic Gustave Pkncb, but he 
looks DOW like a critic of the past. 
Al&«d de Vigny, the author of St. 
Mars, ia a tolerably constant attendant 
at the Academic Fran^aise, and still 
holda up his head comme na Saint So- 
tnnmU, to use a French phrase ; his 
locks hang long, like those of the 
Franks descrilx-d by Thierry ; but, 
alas I they are no longer black. Emilo 
Deschamps has retired to Versailles, 
vltere he cultivates his garden more 
than the muses. Sainte-Beuvc has 
thrown himself into the Moniteur Uni- 
Tertcl, where he has turned a prophet 
of evil, and appears in wearisome arti- 
cles, which are read only in the pro- 
Tince*. The bibliophile Jacob (Paul 
Lacroijc) must also be classed among 
the forgotten ones, as well as hisbrother, 
who once enjoyed a reputation as a 
writer of romances and dramatic pieces, 
and who has married the sister-m-law 
of Balxac. Some of the writers of a 
higher class of literature remain, such 
as Guizot,Villemain,Augu8tin Thierry, 
and Victor Cousin, but of these Guiaot 
alone iis active. 

The names I have been enumerating 
have left few or no successors. The 
names which composelajeunelitterahire, 
such as Augier, Murger, Buscbet, Bar- 
bier, Cbampileurv. &c. are little known 
out of France, ^^ry, a poet of Mar- 
seilles of some merit, is understood to 
be aiming at a seat in the Academic 
Franfaise. The younger literary men 
of the reign of Louis Philippe lived 
principally in the journals, and the 
supprension of so large a portion of the 
perimlical press has almost destroyed 
their occupation. Some of the more 
talented are labouring to lay the foun- 
dation of a new and better school, 
which we may hope will soon begin to 
make itself powerful. An attempt has 
been made to guide the public taste 
by the establishment of n purely lite- 
rary journal, which is entitled FAthe- 
wntm Frani}tti»^ and is similar in form 
and price to our English Atheiutwn. 
It is ably conducted under the editorial 
care of Ludovic Lalanne, and numbers 
among its contributors most of the 
liaiiig men of the day. Among the 



writers in the Athenaiim Fran^it 
whose names arc best known in this 
country are Alfred Maury, Longperier, 
De Saulcy, Emile Forgues (who write* 
usually under the pseudonym of Old 
Nick), Delessert, &c. 

Some of the younger writers of the 
reign of Louis Philippe have now 
thrown themselves entirely into po- 
litics. One of these, an old friend of 
ours, whose name in past years has 
often been mentioned in our columns, 
Achille Jubinal, the author of Le» 
Tapitserifs historiquea de France, Lt 
Musie ctArmes de Madrid, and other 
important archceological works, and the 
editor of the works of Rutebeuf, and 
of many volumes of French medieval 
poetry, now represents in the legis- 
lative body of France the department 
of the Hautes-Pyr^n6es. In this qua- 
lity, though he has little leisure for 
literary labours, he remains heartily 
attached to literature and art, and in Ins 
zeal for the welfare of the department 
he represents may well be held out as 
a model for a member of parliament. 
It will hardly be believed that, although 
his career as a deputy has hardly yet 
exceeded two years, M. Jubinal has 
enriched his department with three 
important institutions of his own foun- 
dation — 1. TheSocift^Acodemiquedes 
Hautes-Pyrdn^es, which has already 
begun to publish memoirs and a bul- 
letin of its proceedings ; 2. A public 
library in the town of Bagnferes-de- 
Bigorre (the chief town of the division 
of the department he particularly re- 
presents), which already contains nine 
thousand volumes, nearly all obtained 
for it by himself, and without expense 
to the town ; and, 3. a museum in the 
same town, for which he has obtained 
about 80 paintings, some hundreds of 
engravings, and a considerable collec- 
tion of antiquities, objects of art, and 
collections of natural history, geology, 
and mineralogy. 

While mentioning M. Jubinal it may 
be observed that the taste for the study 
of mediaeval literature, which has been 
dormant since 1 848, appears to be re- 
viving. During the intervol most of 
those who cultivated this study for- 
merly, have, like Jubinal, left it to 
follow other pursuits. Lcglay has be- 
come the sous-prefect of a department; 
I'V. Michel is a professor at Bordeaux; 
Le Roux de Lmcy, baring inherited 



« 
4 



I 



36 



Iriih State Recordt. 



[July, 



a fortune, bos retired from Paris to 
Choisv-le-roi, where he has become 
a collector, instead of nn editor of 
old texts; Gdnin is Tecctatin;; in the 
Vosges ; Cbftbaille, more nuiiibltsthough 
not less zealous tbati the others, has 
become a corrector of the press, or, 
as we should say, a reader, in a print- 
ing office. Paulin Paris remains alone 
of this class, uiid is now editing a new 
and more perfect edition of Tallement 
des Reaux. A new school, however, is 
arising, in which one of the most pro- 
minent names at present is that of 
M. Anatole dc Montni^lon, who haa 
just completed the publication of the 
three volumes of the singular collec- 
tion of early French farces, the origi- 
nals of which were discovered a lew 
years ago in Germany, and purchased 
for the British Museum, and who is now 
passing tbrougli the press his edition of 
the rather celebrated " Book " of the 
Chevalier de la Tour-Landry. These 
publications form part of an extensive 
series of publications of medieval lite- 
rature which bos been commenced by 
M.<Tannet,one of the moat inteUigentof 
the publisbers of Paris, the successor of 
Silvestre. Of more extensive works of 
this class there are also several in pro- 
gress of great historical importance. I 
may mention especially the diplomatic 
history of the Emperor Frederic II. to 
form six volumes 4to. edited by M. 
Huillard-Brdhollcs, a name well known 
in this class of literature. It is under- 
stood that the expenses of this publi- 
cation are defray e<l by a nobleman 
distinguished as much lor bis learning 
and liberality as for his wealth — the 
Due de Luynes. It may be mentione<I 
also that M. Alexandre Teulet is pre- 
paring for publication the whole oi the 
Tr^sor des Chartes. 

There has been much more activity 
in the arts than in literature. Horace 
Vernet, Gudin, Delaroche, and David, 



names of old celebrity, still stand at the 
head of their profession, but there baa 
risen around tnem a young and nume- 
rous school, among the more remark- 
able names in whicn are Diaz, Autigna, 
Daubigny, Justin Ouvri6, Dauzats, 
Duval-le-Caiiius (the younger), Bac- 
cuet, Gabriel Lefebure, Mademoiselle 
liosa Bonheur, Glaize, Choss^riau, 
Camille Chazal, Goyet.Emile Thomas, 
ICIschoet, Clesinger, Courbet, Jules 
David, Giraud, Lev&el, Hanoteau, 
Lucot, llugard, Jadin, Uerot, Laemlcin, 
Lazarges, Luminals, Duveau, Mont- 
pezat, Borione, Dallemagne, and so 
many others that it would fill a page 
to enumerate tlieai. A certain number 
of forcigu artists liavc also settled in 
Paris, and contributed to the progress 
of art by bringing thither the principles 
of the schools of their dilTerent coun- 
tries. Among the more distinguished 
of these arc Kieck, Jiiger, Kiorbiie, 
Kniff, Stevens, Madame O'Connell, and 
Melbye. With such a host of talent 
collected together within its enceinte, 
Paris merits to be regarded as the 
centre of European art at the present 
day, and the great alterations which it 
is undergoing promise to make it one 
of the noblest cities in the world. Still 
I left it with an impression that public 
taste is considerably debased from what 
it was a few years ago. This struck 
me even in some of its recently erected 
monuments, among which I need only 
point out the new statues in the garden 
of the Luxembourg, most of which 
are execrable. The same observation 
struck me in glancing over the orna- 
mental articles in the shops, where a 
great proportion of the novelties are 
absolutely ugly, and it extends even 
to the fashions in dress, which, in the 
present season, have been less than 
usual distLDguiahed by elegance or 
taste. 

T.W. 



IRISH STATE RECORDS. 



OUR attention bos been again called 
to the neglected state of the public 
records of Ireland. It has been repre- 
sented to us that they are to be found 
in the vaults of the Dublin Custom 
House, in the dome of the Four 
Courts, where they are strewed upon 



the floor and arc trodden under foot, 
and in the dark oubliettes of a state 
prison. The editor of the " Kilkenny 
Moderator," who apparently has been 
the first to bring the subject before the 
Irish public, remarks tnat " he has a 
keen remembrance of the mode in 



I 



» 



which the late porter (the Bub-custo- 
dian of the Biriningbain Tower re- 
eonLi), dusted them, namely, by tiing- 
bg tbem from the height of about 
twenty feet on to the floor," and he 
adds, that "one precious Plea Roil was 
fbontl sadly mutilated by dump, all in 
a state of dust and dirt incredible." 
With these facta before us, there can 
Mwcely remain a doubt of the im- 
mediate necessity of adopting tiomc 
meaaore calculated to rescue the public 
records of Ireland from dustruclion, 
and to render them accessible to the 
public. It appears by a recent an- 
nouncement, " that the records of the 
Birmingham Tower in Dublin Castle 
ar« about to be cleansed and arranged 
under the direction of the present 
Under-Secretary, Colonel Lurcom," 
and as there are many other state re- 
cords in Dublin of equal if not of greater 
rilue, and in an equally neglected 
state, it is very desirable that they 
should be no longer overlooked, 

Considerable progress has, as we are 
informed, been made in Ireland in 
rendering the ancient records of the 
Chancery accessible to the public 
through the means of printed calendars 
and indexes. The rateut and Close 
Rolls of that court, which commence 
in the year 1301, have been tlius 
made available for every reign from 
that period to the close of Henry 
V'll.'s time, and those of the reign of 
Henry VIII. have been printed but 
not published. These calendars were 
printed under the directions of the Re- 
cord Commission for Ireland, which 
b^an its labours in 1811, and ended 
them in 1830; since which time a ca- 
lendar to the Patent Rolls of James I.'s 
reign has been printed, but is not yet 
published, and we understand tnat 
great desire is manifested by many of 
the literati of Ireland that the calendar 
to the entire series of these Chancery 
records should be completed. The 
contents of the ancient records of the 
King's Bench, Common Pleas, and Ex- 
chequer, are unknown to the public, 
owing to the want of books of refer- 
ence ; and nothing has yet been done 
towards the publication of the tran- 
script of the Irish statutes, which was 
made at considerable expense to the 
public when the Record Commission 
for Ireland was in existence. As the 
statute* for England, Scotland, and 



Wales have been printed, it appears to 
be but just and reasonable that those 
for Ireland should be published in like 
manner. Since the year 1830, when 
the Record Commission expired (a 
period of 24 years), nothing has been 
done towanls rendering the state 
records of Ireland accessible to the 
public (save the mere printing of the 
calendar of the Patent ItoUs of James I. 
above referred to), and, with the ex- 
ception of a trilling grant recently 
made for the purpose of effecting a 
hasty arrangement of the ancient re- 
cords of the Exchequer, no effort has 
been made during tliat long |)eriod of 
time towards their preservation or safe 
custody. 

In consequence of the want of a 
general record repository and of a sys- 
tematic guardianship, many of the 
public muniments of Ireland have (as 
we understand) on several occasions 
been abstracted from their places of 
deposit and sold to strangers. We will 
here make mention of two instances 
out of many. By the Irish Record 
Reports, vol. i. pp. 481, 482, it appears 
that "several volumes of original books 
of recognizances in chancery hud been 
dis{x>sed of in a chandlers shop in 
Dorset Street (Dublin), by a repre- 
sentative of the late Mr. Deanc, one of 
the Six Clerks, and clerk of the recogni- 
zances." These records were pur- 
chased, OS it appears by these Reports, 
ill or about the year 1812 by the late 
Sir William Belham, and tliey have 
lately appeared in the Catalogue of his 
Manuscripts, sold by Messrs. Sotheby 
and Wilkinson, numbered 80 to 85. 
^Vhether these jnihlic records have 
been purchased for the public benefit, 
and thereby the order originally made 
with respect to them by the Irish Re- 
cord Commissioners, that " they should 
be restored to the proper officer," has 
been carried into effect at this very 
favourable opiKirtunity, we have not 
hitherto ascertained. 

The other instance of abstraction 
and sale of public records to which we 
will advert, relates to the acquirement 
by purchase recently made by the pre- 
sent custodian of the ancient records 
of the Exchequer in Dublin, of several 
fragments of Irish records (for to frag- 
ments had they been cut) of the reigns 
of Edward I. and III., and of one entire 
roll or compolus only of the reign of 



I 
I 



38 



On the Death ofJamtt Montgotnety, 1854. 



[July, 



James I. This gentleman bavinpr been 
informed during the past year by tba 
Re». H. T. Ellacoinbe that iicveral of 
the Exchequer Records of Ireland 
were, ss he understood, then in the 
possession of the Buron de Lassberg ia 
Switzerland, who had procured thenj 
of a wandering Jew, he proceeded in 
the month of April, 18J», to that 
country, and recovered them at a coat 
of 30/. 

Where ao much confusion exists 
amongst the Irish public records, it is 
not surprising that the documents or 
records of any particular court are not 
to be found in any one place or depart- 
ment. As, for mstancc, the records 
of the King's Bench are deposited in, at 
the least, four different offices: 1. the 
Record Tower at the Castle; 2. the 
Rolls Office at the Four Courts; 3. the 
Dome of the Four Courts ; and, 4. the 
King's Bench Offices. Those of the 
Cuinmon Pleas are kept partly at the 
Record Tower, partly at the Rolls 
Office, and partly m the Common Pleas 
Offices; and the records of the Ex- 
chequer are deposited in part at the 
Record Tower, partly in the Custom 
House, partly in the Rolls Office, and 
partly in the Exchequer Record Offices 
at the Four Courts. 

With respect to all documents of a 
public character, it appears to as to 



be essentially necessary to bear in 
mind three important considerations : 
1st. that they should be carefully pre- 
served from injury; 2ndly. that tneir 
safe keeping should be enforced ; and 
Srdl^. tuat they should be made ac- 
cessible to all men upon payment of 
reasonable fees. To obtain these ob- 
jects, or at least some of them, two 
modes of dealing with records are sug- 
gested, namely, a Special Commission 
or an Act of Parliament. Judging of 
the future by the past, it will naturally 
occur to the many who feel an interest 
in this description of public property, 
that all former Special liecord Com- 
missions have ever been the occasion 
of large expenditure and little benefit. 
It is possible, we admit, that much 
useful work may be ciTect^d under a 
Record Commission ; but, owing to the 
many difficulties ever attendant upon 
its management, we cannot but come 
to the conclusion that nothing can be 
effectually performed for the future 
safe custody and preservation of the 
Irish Records, until they have been 
placed under the control of the Mas- 
ter of the Rolls for Ireland, by the 
passing of an Act for that country 
similar to that which has been passed 
for England, or that the English Act 
be extended to Ireland. 



ON THE DEATH OF JAMES MONTGOMERY, 1854. 

Havpt the Christian when he dies ; 

When both bis cares and trials cease, 
Ha finds bis mansion in the skies. 

His end is peace I 

Thy end was peace, immortal Bard, 

And now, before the throne above, 
Sonnds thy harp sweetly to the theme, 
Eternal love I 

Twas late when came the Bride^oom forth, 

But thou, prepar'd for many a day, 
Held up a lamp, which cast around 
A brilliant ray I 

" Prayer" was, indeed, thjr " vital breath," 
" Prayer" was, indeed, thy " native air," 
And at the very gate of death. 

Thy watchword, " Prayer I" 

With that exalted ((lorioas throng, 

Elected by the great I am, 
I hear thee join in the " new song," 

" Worthy the Lamb I" 

L, M. Trohntok. 



39 



1835. 



A ORE AM: 

tmilaled from the German. 

Bj the late Mr. Henkv Habbisom.* 

Cho. Gpoii Tii icaKuv TiXivra fuvit; 

Bleclr. Oavilv 

Burip. Oreit. 187. 

McTBOUcnT I uw a fair and innocent child 
Reclining on a bank of sunny fioweri, 
Her ligkl hair Btrcaming to the breezes wild, 
Aa tliu< she joyed her in the summer boors : 
And she had twin'd a wreath of jessamine, 
And smileil, and bound it in her locks of Kold, 
And looked into the glassy brook that rolled 
All playfully beside, and smiled again. 
Dear infant I in a world so bright and fair. 
Why sbould'st thou haply live to find a69ictioa there ? 

The scene bad changed : a mother sate alone 
Beside her sleeping babe, pure as the dream 
Of him o'er whom she watched ; metbioka the tone 
Of that soft voice that breathes his requiem 
Is all familiar to mine ear ; that eye 1 
It is the same, but calmer, holier now; 
And it hath lied — that untold witchery, 
That sate in smiles upon her infant brow. 
Oh I faithful bosom — loving and beloved — 
Tbo' skies are dark without, thy peace shall be unmoved. 

There is a gentle being Ilea within 

That hushed and darkened chamber : the bright wreath 
Of smiles that wantoned on her cheek arc gone 
For ever from that treasured form, and Death 
Hath fixed its impress there ; the eloquent eye. 
Now mute and passionless, shall charm no more ; 
And cold and palaeless does that fond heart lie, 
But faintly imaged in the love it bore. 
Farewell, thou sainted spirit — Death for thee 
Hath lost il4 boasted sting, tbe grave its victory. 



B. B. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVAN US URBAN. 

Bt WtUen on St. Thomu of Canterburr— Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Uary Woohiolh— 
Portrait of John Ualu— Ll/e at Oxford circa ICSO. 

Rbcbrt Wbitbrs on Saint Tbomas or Caktbbbdbt. 



Mb. Ubbasc, — Having been led, in the 
lint instance, by the perusal of the in> 
teresting volume by Mr. John Gougb 
Nichols, on " Pilgrimages to W'alsinghnm 
and Canterbury," and more recently by 
tbe valuable dissertation in tbe Quarterly 
Review, in September last, to make some 
research regarding the history of Saint 
Tbomas of Canterbury, I perceived with 
pleaaare that an account of recent dla- 



coverici in Saint John's Church, Witt- 
Chester, had been prepared for the Journal 
of tho ArchKological Association. Tbe 
curious mural paintings there brought to 
light include the most striking rcpreseota. 
tion, probably, of the martyrdom of Saint 
Thomas, which has escaped tbe fury of 
iconoclasm. On the appearance of the 
last number of the Journal I turned with 
agreeable expectations to the promiaed 



* See tbe Obituary of our present Magaxinc. 



40 



Corretpondenee of Sylvanuf Urban. 



[July, 



paper, aanouDced ii from the pen of 
Francis J. Bnigent, esq. a local antiquary 
peraonally unknown to me, but of vhoie 
■kill and fidelitjr in copying works of tliis 
description I have on several occasions 
had satisfactory demonstration. The paper 
compriiea curious infurmntion not only in 
regard to the mural paintings at Winches- 
ter, and at other places, of which coloured 
reproductions are given from Mr. Bai- 
gent'sdrnwings ; but it supplies many par- 
ticulars relating to Becket, his shrine, and 
generally to the tragic clow of his life. 
The antiquary ia indebted to the writer 
of this memoir for calling attention to the 
'* Passio et iniraeula gloriosi martyris 
Thome," a MS. bequeathed by William 
Wykeham to Winchester college, ond still 
prmervcd in the college library. This 
relation, it is believod, is inedited, but it 
appears to correspond with some of the 
fragments of (he Life of Becket, attributed 
to William of Canterbury. The author or 
compiler, however, is at present unknown. 

In perusing Mr. Baigeiit's dissertation, 
I was struck with surprise at finding a 
close similarity in the narrative of the 
martyrdom to that given in the Quarterly 
Review. 

At first, I wai somewhat startled by 
perceiving amongst Mr. Baigent'a foot- 
note references a citation of a passage in 
" Oamitr," whose metrical biography of 
Becket is very little known in this countrj', 
and I had reason to Ihiuk thot, with the 
exception perhaps of the talented author 
of the Review already mentioned, scarcely 
any writer is familiar with the poet of Pont 
St. Maxence. Dr. Giles has promised to 
bring his production within our reach in 
a Supplement to bis curious Collection of 
Biographit'.'i of Becket. 

Having been thus led to refer to the 
Quarterly Review, it became obvious that 
Mr. Uaigent had enriched his memoir not 
only with the cltation-s but with a copious 
transcript from the text. The former, 
indeed, he scarcely appears to have com- 
prehended, since he has 8im)>ly copied the 
names and pages indicated by the re- 
viewer, bnt gives us no clue to the worki 
tbos cited having been edited by Dr. Giles, 



or to the partlcnlar volume of his Collec- 
tion of Biographies to which reference is 
made. The expression tranieript, how- 
ever, is not strictly correct, since the 
plagiarism is uccom|>anied by certain 
omissions, of those passages and phrases 
especially which seemed in any degree un- 
favourable to Becket ; bnt the chief part 
of about seven pages of Mr. Baigent'a 
composition will he found, I believe, sub- 
stantially abstracted, with some interpo- 
lations nnd changes of phrase, from the 
interesting narrative of the reviewer. It 
can be no cnnsc of snrprise that Mr. 
Baigent was impressed like myself with 
the graphic recital, but it is surprising to 
fiod that he has omitted any acknowledg- 
ment of the source to which he has been 
so much indebted. The fidelity of the 
copyist, it moy be observed, is shown even 
in the adoption of the oversights of the 
original. 

For instance, the progress of the arch- 
bishop from his palace to the scene of 
the martyrdom had been inadvertently 
described by the reviewer as along the 
tovthem, instead of the northern, cloister ; 
Mr. Baigent has transcribed the blunder 
of the press, which the slightest considera- 
tion of the localities would have corrected. 

It must universally be a snbject of regret 
that any literary or antiquarian writer, 
those enpecially whose zealous researches 
and ability may well claim our respect, 
should thus fail to recognise the imperative 
obligations, not only of courtesy, but of 
honesty, in literary concerns. An unknown 
reviewer may appear perhaps less securely 
protected from the plagiarist than those 
writers who do not assume an anonymous 
character. Any deviation, however, from 
honourable dealing is not on that account 
less reprehensible. You, Mr. Urban, have 
always been foremost, and most properly, 
to denounce any literary pilfering. Un- 
pleasant as the duty must be, all who 
value historical or scientifio truth must 
insist upon the necessity of the strictest 
candour in literary relations, und denounce 
any such disingenuous appropriations as 
that to which I have called your attention. 
Yours, &e. A. T. 



ExTHACr* F»OII TBB ClICRCUWABDESa' AcCOtTNTS OF St. MaRY WoOLKOTU, 

Mi THE City or London. 



Mn. UaaAN,— Some few months ago 
I was (through the kindness of the Rector 
of St. Mary Woolootb) enabled to inspect 
an ancient volume containing the accounts 
of thn churchwardens of that parish be- 
tween the years l,'i39 ond 1C40. This 
interesting record appearing to have 
hitherto escaped (he observation of those 
whose publications have embraced sub- 
jects of a similar nature, I shall, so far as 



the limits uf this paper will allow, en- 
deavour to present sacb a selection of ex- 
tracts as may interest those who are 
curious in such matters. 

The church, from its architectural 
peculiarities, having received frequent 
notices at the hands uf writers eminently 
qualified for their task, I shall content 
myaelf with quoting a curious passage in 
an old Statute Book of St. Makv Wool- 



1854.] 



Corretpnndenre of Sylvanux Urban. 



41 



cavRoli, mentioned bjr Malcolm in hii 
Loadininia RediTifom, it. -H!!, which 
■flWdl *ome informiitioii u to the f^ccle- 
■iastJoil goTcrnmcDt of the pArish in the 
Middle Ktts : — 

" Tbr pnrith f ball cheae ij. oneate per- 
■oiu t^jrrcbr warrirns, both of gnoda and 
jpKxl n«mr, to rule th«^ pnoda and nrna- 
iiic:> ' mI cbjrrche, 

th> ihe brme 

lynl... ~,.., .,.. ,., .....=..;.. It longjthe 

tberto; that y» to wete, the suyd wardens 
to jadyr for ilie «ayd beam ly^hte iiij. 
tymea a Tere, tlmt yt to wete. E<ter. 
Myduimcr, Myghclmaa, and Cryatmaa." 

The |);irt>h waa alao In elect " two 
cirrks with connync in rrdyii|; uml syng- 
yog," whoMi annual Kagra together 
■Boanled ti> 3!>«. 

One of the earliest entries in the 
rolmKr, a.u. Ili39, make? mention of Sir 
John Percyvall, who liad a chantry in this 
charch. He «a« Mayor in l'19><, and 
^heri(! la I48ti, reeeived the honour of 
kniKlithood from Henry VII. and died 
area XMH. 

*• i5.'59. Il'm rccejved of the Maiater 
■ad Warden" of the Mrrchynt Taillora 
for the heme light of this churche aecord- 
ing to the devire of Dame Thouiasyn 
Percytall. widow, late wyf of Sir John 
Per . " 'li^ht. deceased, XXTJ' viij"" 

wed more of the Maister 
and -. ,.: of Mert'hant-taillouri for 
tf. tapera, th'oou of xi lb. and the other 
of \ lb. to bnrne about the aepulehure in 
tbia chirrh at Eater Sunday and for the 
ehurcliwardcna labor of thia churehe to 
P> iCe at the obit of S' John 

Pr' -jf hia wife according to the 

de' , c said Dame Thomaayn Per. 

rfvall lii« wyf iiij'', »]' iiij''. 

•• It'm rrcey»ed of the aaid Msiaterand 
Wttdcnns of Mercbant-tailloura for the 
reparaeiona of the ornaments of this 
ehi: Jin;; to the will of the taid 

S^ Trail, vj' 

t)veil of the Clilrchwnrdenna 

of 8atnt Edmnndii, in Lombard Strcte, 
for the paacall light at Ester aci-ording to 
the wilie of Thomas Wymonnd, that yg 
to «y »' for the luisrall and iiij'' for the 
par*on, or hya depolee, for eiorting the 
par}>bcn'a at their honsyll to say a pater 
noatrr and an ave for the aoole of the aaid 
Thomaa, v* iiij'' 

" Il'm receyved of Richard Pawtyn for 
the rest of the rent of the Cardynalla 
Hall and the tenement in the aley for a 
bole yere ending at the aaid Mygbelmas 
*iij'." 

Simon Eyre, Sheriff 1434, and Mayor 
144CI, caie a tavern called the Cardinal'a 



Hat with the adjoinini; tenemeota (*■ in 

the aley ") to n brotherhood of our Ladye 
iu this church. He died in 1459. 

" It'm rercyveJ of Sir Thomaa Revett, 
knight, by th'aode of Mr. Bowes, alder- 
man, for an annual quite rent goying out 
of the greate raeatuage in Lombard Strcte 
wherin the «aid Mr. Bowes dwellitb, 
grauiited for evermore by Sir Hugh Brice, 
kuight, for a hole yere iij' and iiij''." 

Sir Martin Bowes, .Mayor 1545, of 
whom there ia a portrait by Holbein in 
the Goldsmiths" Hall, was likewi^'e a bene- 
ficior to the church, and upon the ditso- 
lutinn of religioua houses the presentation 
to the living fell into hia hands. He died 
1 56.9; and suspended from the walla of the 
pre.<«ent bnilding, on eillii-r side of the 
or^ao, are his spurs, helmet, crest, sword, 
gloves, tabard, and pennons, a description 
of which is given in Allen's History of 
London, vol. iii. p. 691. 

Sir Hugh Brice. one of the Goveroora 
of the Mint in the Tower, was Mayor 
1485, and died 1496. lie built a i-hapel 
in this church called the " Cliarnell," an 
also part of the body and steeple, besides 
leaving money for the completion of the 
works. 

"It'm for holy and ive* agalnste 
Crystmas, iiij'' 

" Il'm for makyng a new stop for the 
orgynne the x.xiij. day "f Derember, ij" iiij'' 

" 1540. It'm paid for palme flowers 
and cakea on Palme Snndny, »j* 

"It'm paid for wafers ngninsteEslere,ij* 

" Il'm paid for watchyng of iJje 
aupulkur, viij'' 

•' It'm paid for rose garlands on Corpus 
Xti day, ij' 

" It'm for a holy water sprynkill, j"*. 

"It'm for ■ chayne for the same 
sprynkyll, ij"". 

" 154'2. It'm paid to Emery for mend- 
yng of y pewes, iij*. 

" It'm paid for bromes on Palme Son- 
day even, ij''. 

" It'm paid to Howe, the organ mak', 
for mendyng the organs, vij*. 

" 154.3. It'm paid for water to the fonte 
at Ester and Whytsontide, ij". 

'' It'm paid to a carpenter for iiij. days, 
ij' viij''. 

"1544. It'm for makyng and setting 
up a storehous in the Cloister, v'"" vj" vj*. 

" It'm paid for mending the Itelle 
whelea, ij*. 

It'm paid f a hunder"" of new latten 
nales to set the names on the pewes, 

(2*) ij"- 

" 1547. P"" to a mason for lieving down 
the stones where the imager it...!- »t th 
aide aulteres, xx'. 



GncT. Mao. Voi..\LlI. 



belly and ivy. 



42 



Correnpondenre of Syhanv* Urban. 



[July, 



" I*** to a carpentrr for taking down of 
the ixange of Sent George, *iij'. 

" It'in paiil for tlic half of the para- 
phraaet of Erainiufi, v*. 

" 1552. Payi) for a corporaa case, ij*. 

" It'm paid to How, the organ -inalcer, 
for hia f rrely fee, iiij", and for mendyng 
the belows of the oncansi, viij''; — xij""." 

I5S4. Tbit jrrar vrc find the church- 
wardens procuring the vr^jsela and orna- 
inentji necnaary for the performance of 
the niRHR, for a short time to be once 
more predominant. 

" It'm psid f(ir a crosse of copper gilt, ij». 

" It'm paid for a crismetoryc and a lytic 
pax of tyn, iij' viij"'. 

" It'm for brcde and ale at the watching 
of the arpulhure, j'. 

" Item paid for a pix, a crowe staffc, 
and a litllr crocyfix w' a fote and a pax, 
all beinc copper and gilt, xiij* iiij'. 

" Item paid for a hnllywnler ktorke * 
and sprinkle, iij**. 

" 1555. Itrm paied for a bayson and a 
candlesticke welle gilt, wcineo xx»j. ow. 
at iiij" x' of the ounce, vj"" v* viij"". 

" Item paid for a stole of grene cloth of 
bandskyn.t xij"*. 

" Item paidc at sundry tymes for oyle 
fbr the chrj'i-mc, iiij''. 

"It'm p»idr for twoo bawdrykkesj for 
the second bell and the seyntes bell, ij* iiij', 

" 1557. Item paide for the maunday 
in the chnrch on Maunday Thursday, 

" Item paide to White f ij. cnrdes 5 f 
the organs, ij'. 

" Item paide for makynge of the clerk's 
rowie for the gathiryng of his wages, vj'. 

■'155R. It'm paid for ijlb. of Ullow 
candells agaynst hallowentide, t'." 

The time had now arrived when the 
brief reign of Catholicity was to terminate, 
and " the Church become onre more what 
it was and still is — the temple of rational 
devotion." 

" 1559. Item paid to iiij. men for tak- 
ynge downe the altares and the alter's 
stones, xvj'. 

" It'm paid for takeing downe the ij. 
tabernacles, the rode, with Mary and John, 
and other images in the chnrche, viij'. 

" 1561. Item payed the v. daye of Sep- 
tember, 15G1, for mendinge of the May- 
dcn's pewe, ij'. 

"1564. Item paid- for the wrytlnge 
and entrynge of this accompte, iij* iiij'. 

• Stonp. 

t A very rich kind of cloth made of lilk and gold, embroidered aomelimes with the 
addition of peacocks' feathers. 

t The roiipler by which the clapper is suspended to the staple inserted in the head 
of the bell. 

{ I am quite at a lo!S as to the meaning of this item; perhape some of your Corre- 
londents may be able to explain it. 



" I59A. Item for mending the pnrv> 
man's aete, *iij'. 

" 1605. Item r«id the 20 daye of Octo- 
ber, 1605, for a newe book at the visita- 
c'on, x»j'. 

" Item paid the same daye for the *isit- 
ae'on dinner at the new bishop's visitac'on, 
»j« Tiij'." 

The " new bishop " here alloded to is 
Richard Vanghan, D.D. Prebendary of 
Holborn and Archdeacon of Middlesex. 
He was translated from the see of Cheater 
to thnt of I/>ndon in Dec. 1C04, and died 
Marrh 10, 1607. 

" 1606, Item paid in Assention Weeke 
for 13 dozen of poynts given to the child- 
ren in the perambulation, ij*. 

" Item for mending of the haldroae of 
the tenor bell the first of November, 
1606. iij'. 

" 1607. Item paid to the ringers on the 
5 dale of Novembere, iij*. 

' 6cd grant that we nor onrs ever 

live to see November the fifth forgotten, 

nr the solcmoity of it silenced.' — Bishop 

Sanderson. 

" Item paid the S4tb of Manhe, 1607, 
to the ringers, being the cnronaiion date, 
ij* vj'." 

This year the chnrch and steeple were 
repaired, and the bells re-hung. 

" Item for nailea for the new bell frame, 

XV'. 

" 1609. It'mpaidtomyfelloweohnrebe- 
warden for a potac'on for Mr. Parson, my- 
self, my fellowe, and divers other the an- 
cients of this parrish, according to the 
saide S' Martin Bowe* hys will, v*. 

" 16 10. Item paid for a booke called 
Bishoppe Jewell's workes, by eommannd 
from the Lord Bishoppe of London, xxiij*. 

" 1615. It'm p' for herbes on S Mar- 
tin's day, ij*. 

" 1638. Paid (him) for twice writing 
the answ.'ir to the Bp. of London's articles 
at his tritnnial visitation, 00 03 04. 

"16.30. Paid for an bower glasse, 
00 01 06. 

" Payd for a chayne for y* booke of 
martirae, 00 01 0(i. 

" 1640. Paid y« ringers at y« birth of 
y* young prince, 00 02 06 

" 1641. Paid the ringers on the day 
that the King returned from Yorke, 
(M) O'i Ofi." 

Till; King (Charles I) hud in l(i40 gone 
to Scotland to attend the parliament, and 



1854.] 



Cutrmpundentii uj Stf/ranua Urban. 



\&\ 



■ «ju»ll hy m»ii\ forur t\av ili^'iurbanors 

jitatcd. 

ul the 

.>r tlie 

:'ulil.'J), 

liun lu tlie hkiiig illicu at Vurkj, lulreaUiig 
hint tu reiuru, rsll a new }tiLrliumeul, anil 
p^rrsK tbe gritnaiicc* uf wbicli thejr 
aimpkiauid. Ttui hiul tbe duiircd cSWiC 
Ou HIS mum tu LaaJou oa tlic 2 Jib uf 
Noveubcrbc was rcceiveil nitUdEUkuuiitra- 



tioDs of ioyalty aud rc«|>ei!t, •bicb.aa i* | 
well knotf II, were truiuieiil a(rl iviUiriicviit. 

W'ilb tbifl yeiir tUn eutrirs it^iiiilrtat^r, 
extending over n |it*rit)d uf rurlier niore 
than a htmilieil yudr», aai! |i<>MiL'&aiiii;, iin 
doubt, many puiuiit of iiittfrest wbich 
would auiply repay a more Ulioiioua itxa- 
minatlon lluiu 1 wan euabivd to b«atuw 
U[)Ou tbeui, Your<, &•'. 

Alkkco Wm. Haubionp. 

Keimington, 



PosTSAiT or John BaiiKb, 



FouNOKK or THE Park Gbamm Aa Schooi. ai 

COVENTHV. 



Mft. UaBAW,— In Ihe Minor Corrra- 

1 yoor .1 '".--r you huve 

t to »l' ' I'ul lermit ta 

f)v> «4<<><i>'---> I..' . . .,i lilt; Portrait 

!■ . <, tlM) Fouoder of 

" jiool at Coventry, 

aud i>l3u lu ilic uUimate purpose be hud iii 
ticw m bccomiug potsuacd of it, viz. lor 
eolation to tbe Graakmiir Scbool. I 
, from the Utter cireuiii^tHuec, tbe mure 
eairuua U> correct a uiitlake which baa 
crept iuto your accouttt, which uiay teud 
til atfect ita perfect autbeuticity mid cou- 
aequdit hiatoric value, aa an origioal pic- 
lure of the founder by Holbein, in llie 
r- ouhtudiaua at Coventry. 
i» to «uppoae the iit. 
'M'li ' ;.. I. .1, i< at beat but 

• (alio r, of a bate 

Atxa, a' U'il,) to be a 

copy ol the paiuiing above alluded tu. 

!t f^em* »lr»t Carliftlc iuhia ** Rndowcd 
!■: - ' dated IfllH, <peak> of 

a itader aa hanging in tbe 

»' ^Tr. Reader, in bi» 

I- 'ipbed) meutiona, 

11 ^ _ n-fl, a portrait of 

tbe lonndrr a» haviui; been presented tu 
the school by dmie .\nua, widow of Sir 
J'>hn Uales, Bart, in the year i;04. But 
Mr. Carlisle boii been misinformed, aa my 
father, an old pupil at the Grammar School, 
cao ttitlify ; no portrait of the founder, or 
of any (»f tbe Hile« family, liaviug becu in 
the achni>l for more than half a century. 
I am also indjued Co believe the picture 



preaeated by Lady Hale« to the •ubool t» 
be identical with the portrait in St. Mary V 
Hull, which sometime during tbe Ust cen- 
tury wa!i probably placed in it< prej>ent 
positiim by the corporation of Coveotry. 
At all evcnti it is this one wbich waa 
etched by Mrs. Dawson Turner. Aa 
far as 1 have been able to ascertain, 
there ap|>eara to be no other original por- 
trait of John llaleB the founder extant than 
the one by I] jibein, )niiiited in 1554, and 
hitherto untnyraved, wbit-hdiiTers in every 
panicular from tbe St. .Mary's Hall pur. 
Iruit ; it is also iuteresling to note that 
aincc the date it beats, exactly three hun- 
dred years ago, till now, it has never left 
the posbession of tbe Hales family, uud of 
their direct inheritauts by deweot, on their 
extinciion in the Folrshill branch. That it 
was painted by Holbein is the tradition 
with which it has been banded down, aud 
of whose master-baud it, in addition, bears 
every evidence. Finally, it teems but con- 
clusive to suppose that j<dio Hales, being 
Clerk of tbe Huiiaper in Chancery, shuuld, 
in compliment to bis le^al chief, Chan- 
cellor Sir Thomas More, ])iitronise the 
great painter, who was the proti>g£ of 
Mure, and consent to be painted by bim. 

I am colleirtini; a few particulars of 
Hales uud his family, which, as connected 
with the school which educated Sir William 
Dugdale, may ou that aecuuut, if on no 
other, be accepiablo to you. Yours, &c. 
Joshua W. Buitkkwoktii. 

fVeef Street, June 20. 



Lire AT Oxwovld mncA 1C20. 



M«. Ukban, — The follitwiug record of 

li'il, ill. xUiit iu tbecarlicraunaU of this 

. the "good old times," may 

rthy ot a five minutes' pe- 

-«tiuAi. Uuu Keuerally finds that, in accuid- 
■ace with the particular views of the 
•pcatasr or ii "good old 

ttaaa " uia\ - it the world 

iralu«il ;.. ,..-., , ..) ijcr|>etruting 

k«s in pUire of minuets, or (bat it has 



fallen into tfieminacy by drinking two or 
three glasses of claret, and a cup of coH'ee, 
instead of a bottle or two of port and none; 
that Old Charley was a far superior being 
to A 05, and that tbe box of the York 
House was a better mode of reaching one's 
dciilhiation than a lieket for s firsl-cl&sa 
curriage liy the broad gauge Express. 

Tbe offender in the present story, Mr. 
Gregory Ballard, was uot sowing his wild 



44 



MUeellaneou* Reviews. 



[July, 



oati as > Freshman, but scatteriDg them, 
M it appean, bruad-ca>t, and by the 
bnihel, in hi< bachelor's gown. Yet be 
ItTed to repent him of his past follies, to 
attain to the respectable position of Re- 
gistrar of that University, which he had 
ontraged, to marry and to settle, and, 
erentnally, to be claimed as an ancestor, 
without a blush at bis enormities, by your 
correspondent. 

In the Register mBrkrd N. f. 186, «cc. 
the following story is told, and which I 
(hall somewhat abbreviate. Gregory Bal- 
lard, being then of the degree of B.C.L. of 
St. John's College, treats the Vice-Chan- 
cellor with contumely. The Vioe-Chan- 
eellor declares that he saw Mr. Ballard 
" about twelve of the clocke in the night 
drincking and bowsing in the boitum of a 



seller at the signe of the Catherine weele, 
and so guilty of noctivagation." The Vice- 
Chancellor thereupon iralls together the 
Heads of Colleges and Halls, and the Vice- 
regents of those absent, and cuusults with 
them, telling them that, having ordered 
Mr. Ballard on bis oath to go to the Castle, 
Ballard refused, answering " scornfully 
and fleeringly. " The meeting is of opinion 
that the statutes have been violated, ami 
agrees to meet again, Ballard being, in the 
meantime, admonished to appear. At this 
second meeting it was determined that if 
Ballard did not make an apology in the 
Convocation House be should be punished. 
But, discretion being the better part of 
valour, Ballard submitted. 

Yours, &c. L. 



HISTORICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. 



Tie Antiguiliet of the Burough <if Leed* 
lUteriiedand iUutlrated. fiy James War- 
dell, Member qf the Archaological Intli- 
Me qf Great Britain and Ireland, Author 
Hfthe l.ajii of Ebor, Ike Muuicipttl Hit- 
tory of Leedt, etc. ivo. pp.i'i. {Sixteen 
platet.) — We are always glad to witness 
a revision of the history and antiquities of 
a place which has formed the topic of our 
old topographers ; for, amidst the general 
progress of archteology, as of every other 
science, those very subjects are liable to 
fall most into arrear and into neglect, 
which have formerly had the advantage of 
the best writers of their day. Such authors 
have maintained a reputation so high that 
their compatriots have unwisely imagined 
that nothing remained to be learned be- 
yond what their pages contain. The pre- 
sent spread of local assuciations for the 
promotion of archwological research will 
lead to a different conclusion. It will be 
the object of the societies now in opera- 
tion in Essex and in Warwickshire to lead 
the way to a history of the former county 
superior to that of Morant, and to one of 
the latter which may supersede the time- 
honoured Dugdale, even in the improved 
edition of Dr. Thomas. In discussing the 
antiquities of Leeds the author of the 
smsU volume before us reviews the ground 
long since described by Thoresby, and sub- 
sequently commented upon by Dr. Whit- 
aker ; but many things have been both 
lost and found, forgotten and learned, ever 
since the time of the latter. 

Mr. Wardell has performed his task 
under a systematic arrangement : dividing 
tlu (ubjects of bis notice into six periods 



— the British, Roman, Saion, Danish, 
Norman, and MediKval. 

In opposition to the opinion of many 
antiquaries, and even of his predecessor 
Whitakcr, Mr. Wardell adheres to the 
idea that Leeds was the Ceer iMiteoith, or 
" city of the wood," of Neiinius ; but in 
this we cannot think he is judicious. The 
same place occurs under another ortlio- 
graphy as Caer-lindcoet, and there can be 
little doubt that it was intended to de- 
signate Lincoln. The district of Loidit 
with the adjacent wood of SImele is first 
mentioned in the narrative of Bede. In 
the Domesday survey it is described as 
I.edet. Osmondthorpe, in Temple New- 
sam, one of the townships of Leeds, is 
generally admitted (says Mr. Wardell) to 
be Bede's viUa regia in regione Loidit. 
" Here (he adds) numerous remains of this 
— the Saxon — period formerly existed, 
consisting of trenches, pavements, and 
cBOseways ; and the names of fields, as the 
Coutf-thaw and the Coney-garth, mean- 
ing the King's-wood and the King's- 
field, make known their Saxon origin." 
Here is one of the old errors that our 
author should have corrected ; for the 
Coney-shaw and the Coney-ifarth, names 
so frequrnt in the North of England, refer 
only to the presence of rabbits. A frag- 
ment of ancient stained glass, " repre- 
senting a king, with a shield bearing the 
arms of the East-Anglian kingdom," 
which was lately in one of the windows of 
the old hall at Oitaondthorpe, has led to 
the conclusion "that Edwin, who was so 
hofpitably entertained and restored to his 
throne by Redwsid king of the East 





NORMAN CROSS. FOUND AT LEEDS. 

F^T. Wardel'i AnUqt-utias of LBeds 



1854.] 



MitcelUtneoua Rtvuiot. 



46 



Dgles, and wbosi: e>ile and ilu|ii>nJency 

«u minutrly desoritwd by Bede^ wiis 

! iDooarrh who bmioured tliii place by 

pr^"-nrr." AU», for the theories nnd 

p r our elilcr autiquurics ! The 

Ml which Mr. Waidcll now 

li ? I'l lUii f.imiiu-nt of stained ^Inss, 

lf>»> tliitl It ii iiK'idy uuc of a aeriM 

Ihr bcaveiily huMt, lor the " km; " is 

ItHf/eJ, though 111 armour and wcaiiiig ii 

priiiivl, and the tlirre crowub upon bis 

I'oaC and bta aiiii'ld art: intended, not 

thf kincdom of Kiut An^ha, but fur 

ke Holy Trioiiy. tie U evidently one 

the nine orders of Angels, — the priu- 

ipalitieii and poweri in henvpnly placed ; 

Dd, from bi« cottuiuc, was delineated in 

• early juit of the lifteenih century. 

The castle of l^iccdi is kaid to have been 

•aieued and taken by Stephen, in bi« 

arcii towards Scotland, a.u. 1139. It 

al»o mentioueil (iuiys Mr. Wardell) at 

lie place of iinptisunineut of the dethroned 

kcliard II. in the following quaint and 

It- quoted extract from llardyiig'ft Cbro* 

f1i» kyiif then <cnt kjrn^ Ricbard to LodU, 
iTIiari 1 III prer1149e; 

I I'rotii ; ng went lie uedea, 

[ And : . ■-...: ted waa he. 

[ ]im -' .•!, ulicre he did die. 

ui, li. >>ering, Knareaborougb, 

kd Pouicfiact lie oil in Yorkihire, we 
IrlieTe it is no le&« certain that the tirat 
pi .-^ Kicbard's itupriAoninent wa^ 

in Kent. Therefore the people 
^ij«0u» need nut be surprised thai they 
jtbioK elae of their caatle after the 
? Stephen. 

' .\uioug the relict of antiquity in the 
hurch ia an inacripiion to a vicar who 
iu the reign of Edward IV. in the 
lllnwiu^ terma ; " Ecce bub hoc lapidc 
Diatur dnmiuna Tbomiit C'larell qnoii- 
kill biijns Keclesie veuerubilia vicariua, 
ni e:iiiilein pluribus decoravit ornaiuentis, 
incellumque ejuidem iiota hiatoria fabri- 
^»it, et j» die meniiia Marcij A" d'ni 
I'L'CCCliix" diem clausit extremum, ca- 
I anime propieietur deui amen." What 
the nova hiitoria with which we are 
ere told that Clarell built hii chancel } 
Parker iu his glosiiiiry informs ut 
Bder the word " Story " thai it wiu " in 
pnkisb Latin written Utoria and His- 
niS aa in William uf Wnrceater," but 
kplaiiii tb« term an " a tingle flmir of a 
Bilding," Did the munificeut vicar raiae 
' I chancel to a higher eleviitiun than be- 
lt iih a range of what were called 
Cre.niury windowi, — which at the period 
I question ia not improbable ; or did he 
Rlielliah it with a new series of painted 
ttory I Had the word applied to the 
M«r olsuie been dmravit, we aliould 



have inclined to lhi« latter interpretation; 
but /aincaeit icciua to apply more utrictly 
to architcolunil work, and, in cunnrctioa 
with a ciruumsliincc we have next to notice, 
deteruiinea us to decide in favour of the 
funiier. 

A very retiiurkHble monument of ancient 
Leedg, Ihotigh not at present preserved 
tbi re, is the ubeliscal C'ro^« whieh ia re- 
presented in the liihographtc platr of 
which we are favoured with impretsiuoa. 
" It was found in fragments, iu the walla 
of the belfry and clerestory of the nave 
and cliHiicel uf the parish church, on its 
demolition in the year IH^U. This in- 
teresting relic, no doiiht, originally stood 
in tile churchyard, and was broken in 
pieces and used as materials for repaira 
shortly after I he reformalion [or rather, 
we should say, when the iiota histuria wa* 
built by Thomas Clarell in tiie reign of 
Edward the Fourth.] A pa^Bll, and con- 
sequently a very remote origin, is ascribed 
by some antiquaries to rem'iins of this 
drsicriplion, but I think M-ithout any sutfi- 
cient authority. This cros.s, with the ex- 
ce|ition of the base, which is lust, is in the 
possession of the architect uf the new 
cbuich of St. Peter's, now resident in the 
metropolis. It is, in its present state, 
between nine and ten feet in height, and, 
being the only vestige uf Early-Normau 
sculpture connected with the borough, it 
is to be deeply regretted that it should 
not have been placed on or near to its 
ancient site." We earue^Uy second this 
suggestion of Mr. Wardell. After leaving 
casts in London fur the Architectural 
Museum and the National Museum at 
Sydenham, this cross should certainly be 
reslured to its own locality in Leeds. It 
appears to have represented on one side a 
half-length of the Saviour, and on the 
other full-length figures of two saints, 
perhaps Peter and Paul. At the foot, on 
the former side, is a nobleman, with bis 
sword and hawk, who defrayed the cost of 
its sculpture ; and on tlie other the sculp- 
tor has apparently represented himself, 
entangled in the meshes of bis favourite 
serpentine scrollwork ; whilst at his bead, 
seen as it were iu perspective, is a fellow- 
workman refreshing himself after hi> la- 
bours with a born of old English ale. We 
make no doubt that Mr. Le Keux, in his 
prujected work on Euglikh Cro^se&, wilt 
publish more elaborate represeutatiuus of 
this very curioiu example. 

Of the seals of Kirkstall and its abbats 
much more might be collected than is 
given in p. 'i(>. The other relics from that 
once tranquil and still impressive ruin are 
but few : they consist chiedy of pavement 
tiles, representations of which occupyteven 
of Mr. Warden's plates. The area has 



46 



MitceUaneou* Review*. 



[July, 



not hitherto been rzcaTatml, but the fac- 
toriei of Leedv now Kloaely ii|ipro«ch its 
walls, and Mr. Wiirdell gives a lainrntable 
account of the draecrntion and wilful 
damage to which thia venerable fuliriu has 
been vubjccted, " and at no period inure 
than the present, without an; effort being 
made, either in accordance with the general 
features of the building, or even by an 
ordinary surveillance, (o save it from the 
decay to which it is rnpidly hastening. 
The wnntOD ravages it lian undergone 
during the present year, if allowed to con- 
tinue, will in a very sliort time entirely 
destroy a pile which, on account of th« as- 
sociations connected with it, extending 
over a prriod of eight hundred years, is 
regariled alike with reverential frelings, 
oot only by the antiquary and hinlurian, 
but by every person of taste and educa- 
tion." Are the burgessea of Leeds too 
busy,— we are sure tbey are not too poor, 
to extend to their own Kirkttall some 
little regard, in point of purification and 
exploration, in accordance with the excel- 
lent example that has been recently nhown 
■t Fountains and some others of the mure 
fortunate ruins of Yorkshire ? 



Nxilet and Uteurdt i-/lhe Ancient Reli- 
gion* Poundaliont al Voui/hal, co. Curk, 
and ih Vicinily. By the Rev. Samdkl 
Hayman, B..V. I^ro. pp. CO. — We have 
here presented to us in the form of a 
closely printed pamphlet, materials which 
in other quarters might have been dilated 
into a volume of far greater pretensions. 
Mr. Ilayman has diligently compiled, 
from every availahle source, th« annals of 
the religiuUB fuundatiuns which he had 
seleoted for illustration, and has com- 
pleted his task by the results of pergonal 
examination. The district embraced in 
the work is situated at the mouth of the 
river Blackwater, in Munstcr, comprising 
|iortions of the counties of Cork and 
Waterford, and including the ancient city 
of Ardmore and the important town of 
Youghal. Besides the several religious 
loundations of those places, the others 
which are included are the Abbey of 
Moliina, KiUwran, or the Shunavine 
MooHKtery (hitherto unnoticed by topo- 
grapherA), and the Precejitory of Knighb* 
Templars at Khincrew. In the account 
of each huuse, the founder, and the pur- 
pose of the foundation, are first stated ; 
hiAtorjcal and local occurrences are ar- 
ranged in chronological order; and the 
present stale of the remains is fnlly de- 
scribed. Reninrkahle monumiiits are 
noted, and their inscriptions K<ven at 
length. Tiie burials of distiuguislicd per- 
sonages lire recordi:d. The grants made 
at the disiiululion are derived from the 



patent rolls ; and altogether, every feature 
of information is brought together that can 
be expected in a Monnsticon. 

Ardmore is especially memorable as one 
of the mother cities of Ubrintianized Ire- 
land, lirst converted by the labours of 
Saint Declan, in the early part of tlie fifth 
century. Ueclan, as depicted by Colgau, 
was " in persou handsome, in birth illus- 
trious, in garb and gait humble, in languiige 
sweet, in counsel mighty, in discourse 
powerful, in charity anient, in behnviour 
cheerfnt, in gills profuse, in life holy, in 
wonders and miracles frequent and emi- 
nent." The lord of Nan- Ueisi grnnteil him 
a sheeu-dowD, which urquired the nnmi: 
of Ard-more, or "the greiit eminence." 
Here Declan is supposed to Inve foumli'd 
his seminary about the year 110, aiid be 
was confirmed Uishop of Ardmore ut tbe 
■ynod of C'ashel in 448. The ancient ora- 
tory of Siiint I )eclan is still btnniling with 
a pillar-tower by its side. " In nil pro- 
bability, it is the very place where Utclan 
ministered during his life, and where his 
remains were de|)Osited when he rested 
from his labours. Tlie building is of smnll 
dimensions, 13 feet 4 inc. by H feet H inc. 
in the clear. The two side-walls extend 
about 3 feet 6 inc. beyond tbe gables, and 
form in this way a set of four square but- 
tresses to the building. The original en- 
trance was lit the west end ; but it is now 
rendered useless by an accumulation of soil 
on the outside to the very lintel. It is 
j> feet 6 inc. in height, and its linlcl is 
formed by a single stone more than C feet 
in length. The doorway tapers in width, 
from 2 feet at lintel to "i leet 5 inc. at 
base. Tbe east window has a semicircular 
head formed in one stone, and displays the 
same t«|>ering consiriiction witli the door. 
There were windows also in the north and 
south wslU. The south window is now 
built up ; and the only entrance into the 
building is through the north window, 
which has been opened down for this pur- 
pose. Tbe roof is modern : it was erected 
in 1716, for the preservation of the ora- 
tory, by Dr. Thomas Milles, Uishop of 
Waterford. The interior presents no 
feature of interest, save Uiat a large open 
excavation is shown as Ueclan's grave. 
The walls of this vault are of masonry, and 
the descent is by a few steps. The earth 
taken from it (and which is often put into 
it, that it may be consecrated by lying 
there) is superstitioiuly reverenced by the 
peasantry, and is considered efficacious in 
protecting from dineose. 

" The Round Tower, or Cloig-theach 
of Ardmore, is, owing to its beauty and 
fine preservation, one of the best-known 
structures of its kind in Ireland. It is 
built of a hard sand-stone, chiselled to 




Sftlnt l>«dnn at Ardmore. 



th» rarre, tnd brought from the nrnun- 
C»infl of Slirvp^An, nhoot foar miles db- 
hinl. The lower in about 15 feet in dinme- 
(ar at the base, from which it gradually 
tapen) to the apex, 97 feet nbDvc the «ur- 
Ikce of the ground, aud teriuinates in a 
oooical roof now half thrown oter bj in- 
jorirf from lightning. Pour <iring-cour9cs 
divide the exterior into live stonet. The 
mtrance it in the eatt «ide, at the diatance 
of 13 feet from the ground. It l!> I'ircular- 
braded, and tapers from I fi)Ot 1 1 iiicliea 
■I apringiug of the arch to 2 fret 7 inches 
*t htu. The full height of this fine donr- 
•■jr h S feet 9 incbe*. Around the outer 
rdgn it mt a hold Norman head ; and 
ivrfide arw biir-hnle«, two at each aide of 
thi 'he door. Aooes* 

to idrred eaajr. by 

oi<~ : .... 1 floors prorided 

by Mr. (MHl, the lord of the toil. The 
lower rilurin .ire lighted by iplaying spike- 
holes, fiume tqunre, some with tHroular 
hflsda ; and an the viBitor Ascends he utects 
grotesque rorlM^ls nt intervals, startni^ Mt 
him from the I'onc.nve walls. The hii'hest 
stfT'- 1-- *■ ■•■»■ raptreil winduns, fiiciiii; the 
C»f Each of these presents 

On T A triangular tirch, and on 

tbe mtcriur a trefoil head. In height 
they are respectively ;i feet 9 inches. The 
■toiielini' verlheopenings where 

Um bc«:^i :i rested, which tradi- 

tion Mjt •■..? -J. ^.xlrep and powerful rone 
tliat It was hearil at Glnun-mar, or The 
Gresat Cilrn, H tniles distant. The apex 
of the roof waa once surmounted by a 
I'rTvfi* rtf Mtnnr; but thi^ was anme years 
»>' >ri by a person firing at birds. 

•MS were made, in the year 
lK«i , niiiiiii ilie base of this tower, under 
♦he Mifierinlnidnnce .of Mestra. Odell, 



Windele, Hackett and Abell. and le>l to 
the discovery of two imperfect human 
skeletons at a considerable depth of enrtb. 
This circumstance induced some to think 
that the interments took place at a period 
subsequent to the erection of tlte tower, 
and was advanced as an nrgument for the 
Paiun origin of these structures. But 
there was nu little mii>conreption here. 
Instead of having been interred, with care, 
witliin the basement of the tower, these 
human remains had been interfered with 
at the time of it* erection. A foundation- 
stone occupied the place of one of the 
crania, and the skeleton evidently had 
been decapitated and otherwise injured by 
the workmen who cut the circular trench 
for the Inundations of the lower. We 
have no he.-'ilation in assigning this noble 
structure to the ninth or tenth century ; 
for the mouldings of the doorway, the 
grotesque corbel-lieada in the interior, and 
the square trefoil-heads of the windows of 
the upper story, all belong to this period. 
Attil, perhaps, we may find the reason for 
tlie erection of the Cloiy-theach at this 
time in ihe untrttlcd suite of the rountry 
owing to the predutory landinf^s of the 
Dubk-dalU, Fin-Gallt, nod other sem- 
rovers." 

Another memorial of the fir«t cvangeliser 
of Ardmore is the Teampvl Jifitcarl, or 
Church of the South. " Kew situations 
could be more romantically chosen for a 
place of worship. A sleep precipiioiu 
cliff, overhanging the occin, is its nest 
ling-pl/ice ; and just on llic verge of the 
frightful chasm stand the grey weuther- 
bleache>l ruins of tdc old chumh. The 
erclesissticul deiaiU belong to the thir- 
teenth century, There are uow slandiog 
the west gable, with portions of the south 



Muo«ltantou» Reviewt. 



[July, 



aide wall. The eiit gable wai blown down 
by a atorm about tbirtj yeara aince ; and 
wlirre the nnrtb wall stood, right uvfr the 
aen, ia a pilR of the luoat; sioiiea of the 
niio. The rnCrancea wrre two, both in 
the ROUth wall, at ita east and went rx- 
(remitiea. Of the door to the wc»t one 
jamb alone remaina. Tlie door towarda 
the eaat gable is nearly perfect, and ia H 
feet in heiiihl by -I t' ct li inches in width. 
Tlio liry-ttone of the flat arch of Ita head 
ii apparently inverted— ii matter which 
haa given rise to much apeculdtion | but 
the ri'fiull of n keen acrutiny will >how 
that it w»a Ml eut to the depth of a few 
invhei only, imil lluit then it in oouttrueted 
aa naual to meet tlie law< of gravitation. 
The cliiirch mejisurt:!! within wull« (>G feet 
by IH. It wu;4 lii^hted by a l.ir^e lancet 
window of two ligbta in the i;ii«i ^idilr, « 
narrow window (now built up) in the 
aoutli wall, and a aquare lapereil window 
high up in the west gable. Tbia iaat ia 
itow broken through at the bate, and 
affords a lO'idern passage into the ruiiu. 
At the east end i> a aquare planina, close 
to wliieli ii a rude modern altar. At the 
wctt end, on the outtidc, li a famoua Holy 



Well, the place of reanrt for pilgrima on 
the pattern day. 

" The festival of St. DccUd is kept, with 
many auperaiitioas i.i- ■r-r.^fr?. on the 
24th of July.wheo n.n .rt to this 

well, aa well as the s ; .l-place ia 

the oratory already deteribeil, and to a 
Urge boulder-atone lying among the rocka 
on the beacb, which ia called by hia 
name." 

We have come to the extent of our 
apioe, but before concluding we inuat 
point out the inlerraling notices which 
.Mr. Dayman haa cullecled relative to the 
ancient Light Tower, at the west side of 
the liurbour of Ynnglial, which was en- 
trusted to the care of the nuna of St. 
Anne's— nn appeal, it is suggested, at once 
to the religion and llie gallantry of the 
native Irish, It wa« an Anglo-Norman 
structure of (be 12th or 13tb century ; 
and was placed on a site so admirably 
chosen, that when, in I84H, it was deter- 
mined to erect a new Harbour Liglithouae, 
it was found deairahle to fix upon nearly 
the fame spot, and Ihc demolitnm of this 
remarkable monunient of the Normuu iu- 
Todera of Ireland became inevitable. 



.<«■ 




X 



-2. tfi 



li.r llul) Holl u< SWilt llotliui. 



8upptnH»'il In " VnriHnn Ramhin," 
ttmiittiui/ iif Rernllcrlioni of a Tnur 
Ihtaugh France, to tialf/, and homrwnril 
ill Strtlserlnnit, in Iht Vacadan iif lK4h', 
By T. N. Talfourd. 12i«o.— From the 
date on this title-page it might he aup- 
poned ihAt ilii» supplrnirntal tJinr of the 
iato gifted .luslice nf the Cnmrnon Pleas 
had not been iiilcndrd by himself for |uib- 
lication, but wn* now hrnn^ht forwnrd by 
•■'a family on their own snggrstion. Such 
■(exactly the coae. It appeal a that, 
h It wna chiefly at the solicitation of 



his own family, the companions of hIa 
lour, that the bonk haa lieen prepared lor 
the pre5t, yet it in the artual (thoush now 
poitliutnoui.) prodtirtinn nf Mr. Ju^ttec 
Talfuurd himself. In fact, the book waa 
not written during ihe journey, hut partly 
duriii)! the fidlnwing year, and only ar. 
ruiii;rd in shape fur the press during Ihe 
lust varalion. In spirit and in subslnnm 
it haa ihe advantage of Toura wriilen by 
way of diaries, which have oanally inlheir 
cnmposilion too large a projiortion uf Ihe 
personal advenlureji of the wril«ni, which 



ISM.] 



Mucellnneout HevUies. 



49 



arc gaacnllf of little if any iaterest cx- 
oej»t to the partiM concerneil. The intel- 
ktuul (piril of Tiilfoaril could not write 
bat «i(li ■ hiijlicr aim. Wbil.it a tour to 
P«ris, Itiilj, and Switjerland forms the 
Crouwt-work of thiii book, it« tftena con- 
tista in the ricollectioDs and reflections 
•agseattd in retracing tlit- course of bis 
travd*. It was a tour which he describes 
binuel^ to hnvc enjoyed more intensely 
titan tie erer roold another, iaastnuch as 
be had not then retired from the arduous 
Inboani and feierisb excitements of his 
foreosia life, wberent be had "sincr been 
bleaed b; Providence witb the attainment 
of a position which is rihitcd with no 
sharper anxieties tfana tho>e which attend 
the cndeavoar to discharge its duties." 

The more we Ix-como nc<|uaintcd with 
the inner niinrl of tliis highly amiable and 
caosocDtioos man, the more we are con- 
tteaiaed Co admire and love him : to es- 
t»^ " ' merely for his genius and 

hi "i> and creation of the beanli- 

ful : -. Ml* enUrged benevolence and 

his •■ober piety. He was not, like other 
aident and enthusiastic spirits, daxzled 
by tha pompous splendour of the Roman 
cbuicli, nor deceived by tlie fantastic 
freaks of a spurious Liberalism, The last 
Itepublican reign in France, and the 
pscndo-ttinmph of Liberty at Rome, which 
were cunteroporaaeoua witii the tour, did 
not [iretent the accuracy of bis [wlitical 
perceptions, attached as he ever enthu- 
siastically w*s to all that was truly libeial 
and free. The course of subsequent 
evenly has folly confirmed the accuracy of 
h" -••;-■:,)». There are few postages 
l>>' .)is little volume with which 

til' ,il not sympathise. As a brief 

specimen, and one in accordance with the 
spirit of the whole, we transcribe the fol- 
lowing lines. After describing his three 
days' passage from Marseilles to Genoa 
as " au enchanted voyage of delicious 
indolence," — " At noon on Wednesday, 
the chaim was interrapted by the vessel 
sweeping into the port of Genoa, and the 
imago of that pictorial city, so suddenly 
exhibited, so swiftly withdrawn, glistens 
in the past, as if it were an air-drawn 
fancy breaking through an enchanted 
slumber. Perhaps a visitor, fugitive as we, 
seeking to recall it after it has been ob- 
■oured by the concerns of busy life, will 
recognise at first only a confosed rainbow- 
(treak in his memory ; but that streak 
will gradually expaud in gorgeous colours, 
those colours will settle into shapes, and 
gmeotly the radiant semicirtile will ap- 

pe"' '— e, blazing in the sun; and 

(i ' rba will be clearly reflected 

in' I tual mirror. . . . The 

first imprenion on the spectator is rather 

CttNT. Mact. Vol. XLU. 



that of a wilderness of flowers than of 
clustered fabrics made with hands, .\round 
the circle, palaces, churchCK, villas, risCi 
tufted with bright orange trees, or gar- 
landed with the red oleander in long streaks, 
as if all bad sprung into life together ; 
even the light- house looks at if it had 
been cast oat of the rock far towards the 
clear blue sky by an effort of nature, in 
sudden perfection. . Onr guide 

conducted us through the Goldsmiths' 
Street, which is one of the broadest alleys 
of ttie steep ascent of the city, radiant 
with painted walls, resounding with con- 
slant hammers, and enriched by a picture 
of the Holy Family in stone, worthy of 
Raphael's hand, and nnw preserved be- 
neath a canopy by the brotherhood of 
working gnldsmiths, as the last relic of 
(be departed glory of their guild. Besides 
its association with on ancient aud once 
powerful community, now reduced to a 
society of craftsmen, this picture is in- 
vested with the dearer interest which be- 
longs to genius extinguished by death in 
the brilliiint uncertainty of its dawn ; fur 
its author, Pellegrino Piolo, died in hit 
twenty-second year, leaving, in his sue- 
cciisful attempts at various excellence, a 
problem never to be solved — in what »tyl" 
lie would have excelled in protracted liff 
or whether he nuuld have developed foi 
himself a style of art embracing the finest 
qualities of several styles. The story os- 
sociated with the Apprentice's Pillar at 
Roslin, of the murder of an extraordiuarjr 
pupil by an envious master, is applied to 
this picture, OS it is to several other works 
of precocious desert in different places ; 
but its verity in this instance is not re- 
((Uired to deepen tliut ane with which 
every Christian observer must contemplate 
the exhibition of rare powers juht slicwu to 
our species, and suddenly withdrawn to 
baffle its earthly nntici|>Htion, and add 
confirmation to the faith which tenches 
that this world is not the final home of 
genius." 

Magazine for the Blind. No. 1 . June 
1854, (Chapman and Halt).— Vie have 
before spoken of the value of the en- 
deavours now making to add to the 
resources of the blind. It is cheering loo 
to see that these cfTorts are made on the 
sensible plan of preserving as far as 
possible a common type for the Ulind aud 
the seeing. The present attempt at com- 
mencing a Magazine is a very promising 
specimen. It is in the lower-case Roman 
type, and we are assured by those who 
have taught the blind to read by meaus of 
that type, that it is a great improvement 
on tlie system of using capital letters only. 
This might indeed be suspected, previoua 
U 



60 



Not«$ oftht Month. 



[July, 



to any trial tt all. Obaerre the hdlitj 
■Cbrded to tbe touch by the Roman cfaa- 
neter. Thia one word Blind, u eon- 
tnated with the aameia capitali— BLIND, 

^1* ditHnetlTe signal! to the finger 
nneqaal length of the letten, in the 
dot to tbe I, and the eommeneiog eapltal 
ktter. It appear* to inrolre, at lint, 
nther more difliculty to a pnpil, in lo far 
■a the site of the indiTidnal letten is 
eonoemed ; but, when once thia is aTer> 
OOme, (and we have leen enongh of the 
power of the Blind to maater a dif- 
flenltj to be snre it may tooa be orer- 
come,) the finger pauei, we belieTe, at a 
mneh qniclcer rate orer the wordi ; and 
■dTantagea ariie from the occaiional (not 
eonitant) nie of the capital letter, which 
•re not to be despised. None of ns wonld 
willingly consent to have the distinction 
between onr proper names and common 
Bouns obliterated : why shoald we entail 
this on tbe Blind ? Erery marked point 
which is of nse to u* , is donblj so to 
Mfm. It is a great pitr that there cannot 
be common consent abont an object like 
this. When compilen of books who hsTo 
■Ireadjr got so far in the right track u to 
use the alphabetical chanoter, still stand 



ont, ootttending for a peculiarity, which, so 
far from being a benefit, is positirely 
datiimental to the purpose, we can aee 
neither sense nor kindness in tbe pro- 
ceeding. This Magaxine contains twelre 
pages of good clear readable matter ; and 
the price is but sixpence. How far 
the cheapness of the work will be met 
by its elnmlation is of course yet to be 
proved. " A. few yean ago," we tre told, 
"a similar attempt was made by Mr. 
Liambert of York, who not only edited 
the work, but set up the type, and printed 
it with his own hand, although labouring 
under total loss of sight. About twenty- 
f6ur monthly nnmbers were issned, when 
the undertaking was relinquished on ac- 
count of the expense." 

Wa heartily deaire a better measnre of 
suecess to tbe present work, and hope it 
may be found, to nse the words of the 
Editor, that " the medium which is here 
afforded for co-operation of the Blind 
tbemselrea, by contributing articles and 
oorreapondcnca to tbe Magazine, may 
awaken interest, snd tend to diminish the 
feeling of deprifation and infirmity." 

We undentand that selections from 
the Soriptures are in preparation. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 

nreatenod Remorsl of Clinrches and Burial Oronnili In London snd other ancient Cttlea— The 
Oxftrd UnlTcriitjr Beform Bill— Prlcoa at Oxford— Portrait of Sir It. H. Ingllt— Monnmont to Mr. 
Jnttln Talfourd— Oeologlcsl Society— Worki of Dr. llionuu Voung—Indez to Blomefleld's niiitory 
of Kvrfolk— US. Collections of Sir William Bethsai— Serial snd other Books recently jmbllthed. 



We hare been much surprised at the 
imall amount of opposition which has 
hitherto attended a Bill which, baring 
already passed the House of Lords, is now 
in the Honse of Commons under the fol- 
lowing title : "An Act to amend the 
Church Building Acts, and the Law re- 
specting the Union of Benefices in Cities 
and Corporate Towns, for the purpose of 
bnilding and endowing new Churches in 
places where required, in lieu of Churches 
in other places not required; and to facili- 
tate tbe Transfer of Church Patronage." 

This Bill, by its seventh section, pro- 
poses to give an arbitrary power to certain 
Diocesans, with the consent of the Primate 
and the CommisBioners for building New 
Churches, to condemn and order for de> 
itruction any Churches the benefices of 
which msy have been declared united to 
other contiguous parishes. 

This scheme, which originated with the 
*«T. Mr. Hume, an incumbent of the 

y of London, who has proposed to re- 

we no lesi than thirty of the metropo- 



litan churcbea (aa was detailed in our 
Magaiine for February last, p. 17H,) has 
unfortunately received the sanction, not 
only of tbe Biahop of London, bnt of other 
members of the Episcopal bench ; and by 
a sohednle attached to the Bill ita provi- 
sions are extended to several of our ancient 
cities which are most amply provided with 
churches, and, if once brouglit into action, 
will of course be equally applicable else- 
where, both in town and country. The 
cities at present scheduled are as follows,^ 
York, Lincoln, Norwich, Exeter, Bristol, 
Chichester, and Chester. 

Believing that the amount of desecration 
and destruction thus threatened is not as 
yet generally known, we think it drairable 
to deacribe the provisions of the Bill more 
particularly. Its preamble refers to seve> 
ral former Acts passed for building new 
churches and tbe union of small parishes : 
but the provisions of which, in regard to 
the latter point, have been shackled by 
certain limits of income and population ; 
as, for example, an Act pasMd in 1838 



1854.] 



Nottt of the Month. 



31 



eoold b« «pplied only to nnlte two con- 
li$aoai pari«he« of which the aggn%M» 
populaiion ihaold not exceed 1 500, and the 
ag^rrgaCe yearlj value should not exceed 
MIO/. ; and the \nt,{ law of this nature, the 
13 and 14 Vict. c. 98, to unite contiguoui 
pariahra " of which the agiiTYgate popula- 
tion should not exceed 1800 persona, not- 
withstanding tfae aggregate yearly value 
ibould exceed 500/." The present BUI 
propoiea to assume the like power" with- 
out regard to sg];regate population or ag- 
grcgmted yearly value." It further pro- 
poMS (by sect. 2), upon the union of two 
benefice*, to make them "-subject to a 
certain amount of rent-charge in perpe- 
tuity, in favour of some other specified 
benefice in the same diocese," however 
dbtant, oreven to transfer " the whole" 
of the income of one of the united bene- 
ficfs in that manner. 

But the most manstroa<i and innovating 
proposal as regards the Christian people 
whose present rights and posseasions are 
to be confiscated, is that contained in the 
aevrnth and eighth sections of the Bill : 
which would enact, that, after the ordinary 
forms of an Order in Council, !tc. hare 
been gone through, " the fee simple and 
inberitance of the .lite of each such Church, 
and the building materials of each such 
Chnrrh, and the burial ground or burial 
(Toaodi belonging thereto, if the same 
has or have ceased under competent au- 
thority to be used for the interment of the 
dead, ahall, without any further transfer, 
conveyance, or other form of law being 
bad, observed, or required, belong to and 
be veated in Her Majesty's Commission- 
ers for building new Churches, in trust 
to mak* lale or ditpoie of mth titn and 
hmrM fromi, or any part thereof, and 
iBch materials, at such times and at such 
price* and in such manner, as in their dis- 
cretion ihall seem fit." 

It appcara to u that the most extraor- 
dinary port of these destructive proposals 
ii that the parishioners, the parties most 
intereitMi, are to have no voice in the 
natter. Tbej are not asked or permitted 
to gf«e or withhold their consent, but ab- 
solute power is placed in the hands of the 
ercletiaatical authorities already mentioned. 
No longer implored to contribute to the 
spiritual aid of their destitute brethren, 
the parishionen of the devoted churches 
are simply ordered to " stand and de- 
liver ! " The only satisfaction offered to 
them is, they may remove the remains " of 
aoy drcfaied person whose body may 
m/;jin f/ir /.,,( twenty ytan (before the 
pi ■ Act) have been interred or 

drj )iy grave or vault disturbed," 

and iiiat a >uiu not exceeding ten pounds 
may be allowed to them for the exp«a«n 



of so doing. The like pittance is also 
offered for the removal of ■ tomb or mo- 
nnmenl. 

By the 16lh section it is provided that 
the Bishop of London may assign one of 
the churches, otherwise to be taken down, 
for the performance of service in Welsh ; 
and by the I7lh lie is directed to prepare 
a scheme for the transference to other 
churclies of the Lectnru founded in the 
churches to be pulled down. 

We are now desirous to direct attention 
to the arguments in opposition to thii 
scheme which are advanced, at a greater 
length than our present limits will allow 
us to detail them, in a very able pam- 
phlet which has appeared from the pen of a 
distinguished member of the Institute of 
British Architects. It is addressed to Iha 
Bishop of London, and urges in a jutt and 
forcible way the claims of " Consscoa- 
Tios verm De»kcbatio!*." 

Addressing the Bishop of London, the 
writer appropriately commeooea his ar- 
gnment by reminding his Lordship of 
his former brilliant success in exciting ■ 
spirit of Church extension by legitimate 
and voluntary effort, and suggesting that 
succeoi OS a ground for hesitating, to gay 
the least, before adopting other and ques- 
tionable raeana. He next pleads the bt>- 
torical interest attached to most of the 
City Churches as having been the reault of 
the last great Church-building movement 
in the diocese of London, and the fruit of 
great and noble devotion and >elf-<*acii<ice 
at a moment of unexampled ilutress au,l 
disaster ; — a* being a standing example to 
future and more prosperous ages, and not 
a mere investment on which such ages are 
to draw, to reduce tbeir own expenditure. 
He maintains the principle that it is our 
duty and aught to be our privilege to pro- 
vide for the arrears of population of our 
own day ; that this is n wholesome re- 
sponsibility, and one from which it will 
do barm to relieve ourselves, and which 
there are ample means to meet ; for in 
the poorest districts the owners of the 
land and houses at least ought to be able 
to do much, whatever may be the poverty 
of those who occupy them, and the rich of 
other districts are also always ready to aid 
those leas able to provide for themselves. 
He points out as a general rule the im- 
propriety of desecrating land once dedi- 
cated for the worship of God, or the se- 
pulture of the dead ; that any eases in 
which this ii admiasible should be viewed 
as strictly exceptional, and that the prin- 
ciple of the indiscriminate moti/uation of 
churches is dangerous in the extreme, is 
contrary to the very principles of cousecra- 
tion, and calculated to make that solemn 
rite a mere farce, having no real meaning. 




Nott* oftht Month. 



[July. 



M« trioM ihit in i plu* of aneli naor- 
BOOi wealtii, ami (Qch •luptmilana mer- 
nntilt tr<n«*<.'tionii, ■■ the Citjr of Lon- 
don- the m*rt of (he (lobe — it is but 
rl(hl lliil llin woribip or Ootl tltuuld be 
|ir<iTli!ril for on tome icM nicgarilljr rule 
lb«n mm caJoulatlonn of fixed |>opiilotion: 
lh*t til* nonrourae of |>eo|>le during dtTJ 
w«ek>il«y ii enormnua, tod night proTide 
eoni;rrK*tions »t diilj »enricei in every 
Chiircli, find (hit inch wrTice* would not 
be in>p|>ropriate, nor, it may be hoped, 
without result, in a citjr wboae traniac- 
tiona depend ao directly u|>on the divine 
biraaing, and that even where a few only 
join in them auch bleaaing may be looked 
for. He inggeata that a more active and 
xealona clergy might make the city the 
centre of niisaionary exertion to the whole 
metropolia, and itaelf the very pattern of 
paatural care and religioui cultivation ; and 
that, on Iht rimotal <ff thi pmt, which, 
if not actually cloaed agnioat (he poor, are 
well known to preaeot barriera which al- 
way* practically Ir^d to their eicluaion, 
there Btill reiiinina in moat pariabes a fixed 
population Bufficient to aupply tolerable 
oongregationa. He raiiea a well-grounded 
warning againit the effect which auppliea 
of mone^btaiord without exertion will 
have in checking the impulae that has lat- 
terly been given to voluntary effort, and 
in furniihing ready excuiea to those who 
wiah for them ; and this he boa reaaon to 
believe haa even now begun to act, and 
may be regarded ox the juat retribution to 
be expected from any attempt to further 
the cauae of God by apuriona meana. He 
Belt atigmatiaea "the horrible aacrilege of 
■elliog the burial-placei uf our forefathera " 
■> an act which even the moat uncivilized 
would repudiate with abhorrence, and 
which would bring about acenca againat 
•bich the tir«t aympathiea of our nature 
muat rebel, and which would outrage every 
principle in which we have been led to view 
Chriatiao burial. "On what principle, for 
inalance, are cemeteriea consecrated (not 
to mention the feea for opening graves) if 
tliey may be aold for iteculur purpoaea, the 
bodiei dug up, and the purchaae-money 
devoted to building churcbea eliewhere-. 
Would it not make conaecratiou appear a 
mere trick to delude the unthinking mul- 
titude — a lie, one may almost oay, not only 
to man but to God? Burial- places, my 
lord, are not tht proyn-tji of the Churth : 
they may in theory be ao called, but thia 
i( for the aake of placing them under her 
■acred protection, oa the aureat and moat 
iocJoUble aaoctuary, not for giving her 
power to aell the bodiea of the dead com- 
mitted to her charge ; and I contend that, 
- Church ever be guilty of ao 
each of triut, «d act by which 



the would deaervedly lo>e much of her 
hold upon the people, the piirehaiemoney 
would be the properly of the Parith, not 
nftht Church." The author alao, " but 
only for the aake of thoae who do not 
admit these principlea," pointa out the 
horrible effecta of audi desecratimi, and 
tbe acenea it would give riae to in a sana- 
tory point of view. Laatly, he proteata, 
" aa a lover of ancient art, of bihtorical 
monumenta, of the antiquarian associa- 
tions, and of the picturesque oniamenla of 
our cities, againat the wholesale destruc- 
tion with which such monumenta and re- 
miniscences are now threatened. We 
cannot, my lord, part with objecta so dear 
to ua unlcai the abaolute neoeasity of the 
sacrifice be demonatrated ; and I have en- 
deavoured to show that it ia tlievery reverse 
of being neoeoaary. Such conaiderationa, 
ioatead of having been too much considered 
in thia country, have been more neglected 
here than almost anywhere, and to tbe 
great detriment of our national character. 
What should wc think of promoting Cbria- 
tiaoily by the sale of our cathedrals ? Yet 
thii, on hard utlliuriun arg\imen(a, might 
just aa easily be proved feasible. Suob 
considerations are a part of the better feel- 
ings of our nature, and deserve not only 
to be respected, but sedulously cultivated; 
and wc not only beg, but we demand, that 
they shall not be outraged.'" 

Nothing, we tliiok, requires to be added 
to the force of these arguiuenta but that 
they should be reiterated and duly en- 
forced by tbe Christian laity upon the 
attention of their rcpreacntatlvea in the 
House of Commons. Petitions in oppo- 
sition to (be Bill have been preaeiited from 
several of the parishes of the City of Lon- 
don ; but none as yet from any of the 
other threatened cities, whose iuhabiloiita 
are probably in a great incasorc ignorant uf 
the impending mischief- There is, bow- 
ever, but little time to be lost. Tbe 
second reading of the Bill, having bean 
deferred from the 15th of June, is now 
fixed fur the 6th of July. 

Viewing the matter merely in a personal 
and historical point of view, as connected 
with the records of genealogy, the Society 
of Antiquaries baa addressed a memorial la 
Lord Viscount Polmeratou, urging tbe pre- 
servation of a due record of such memo- 
riola as would infallibly be destroyed were 
the proposed scheme brought into action. 
The important part of thia document 
runa thus : " Besides tbe particular case of 
the City churchyards, your memorialiata 
would desire to bring before your Lord- 
ahip tbe general quettion of the preserva- 
tion of existing Mouuiiiriits iu Churches 
and Churchyards, with reference to which 
tliey beg to submit tbe following facts : 



1854.] 



iVb/w of the Month. 



53 



" A Bill ii proposed to be brought be- 
fore PirlUment bj tbe Nortb Metro- 
|iolit*o Railwiijr Company, by which it is 
(Ought to obtaia Tor the compiiDy tbe 
{lower of purchasing •ererol Churchyards 
adjoining their line ; but no provi«ioa is 
made for preserving monumental inscrip- 

tiODf. 

" The Churchyard of St. Clement Oanea, 
to Portu^l-ttreet, Lincoln'«-inn-tield8,ha!i 
beco aliened to King's College Hospital. 
It is at present used as a place for tbe de- 
poait of building materials, and it is stated 
that some tombstones huTe already disap- 
peared. 

" When the Church in Threadneedle- 
street was removed for tbe formation of 
approaches to tbe new Royal Exchange — 
although some of tbe more interesting 
monuments (such as that of Miles Cover- 
dale) were removed to other Churches — no 
authentic record was taken (as yonr me. 
monalists believe) of the greater part of 
the slabs and engraved atones. 

" In St. Pancras burial-ground many of 
th« inscriptions published by Lysons, aa 
etisting, are no longer to be found; seve- 
r«I were destroyed on tbe recent restora- 
tion of the church. 

•' Your memorialists can scarcely over- 
rate tbe importance of these recordx, as 
evidence* of title and in tbe tracing of 
pedigrees ; and it is to be feared that, if 
they be destroyed, not only a great amount 
of valuable evidence will be lost, but fiici- 
liticf will be given for manufacturing in- 
scriptions and assumed copies of lost 
stones ; and, as in a recent peerage cose, 
for the Bctoal production of forged stones. 
Your memorioliaia submit the whole sub- 
ject to yonr Lordship's consideration ; 
and tbey especially desire to refer to your 
Lordship's judgment, whether a careful 
and accurate record of all Monumental In- 
scriptions should uot be made under tbe 
sanction of Government, and such record 
be made evidence ; and also whether all 
such mooumeutu shonlJ not as far as pos- 
sible be preserved : and they submit to 
your Lordship, that the preter^ation of a 
Reirord uf Inscriptions might beefhciently 
carri-' ■ • ■•■ilhout involving (compara- 
tive! a large expense, through 
the . ; . Registrar-General." 'To 
this very reasonable suggestion tiis Home 
Secretary has replied, in a rather off-liand 
vray, that " he does not see bow he can 
interfere in tbe matter." Such an answer 
'» very unsatisfactory, and we trust that 
the subject will be reconsidered. We could 
however have wished tliat the Society had, 
in the first instance, taken a higher ground, 
and endeavoured to protect and save the 
Churches — not merely the records tbey 
contain. 



The Oxford UnivtrtUy Rfform Bill has 
now made some progress in its passage 
through the House of Commons. The 
proposed Hebdomadal Council has been 
substituted for the Hebdomadal Board. 
The establishment of private Halls was 
carried, after a divi^iion, by a majority of 
92 ; but a proposal to allow students to 
live also in private lodging-houses, sanc- 
tioned by authority, was rejected. A 
clause has been introduced, requiring that 
tbe ordinances of the Commissioners shall 
always be " for promoting tbe main de- 
signs of tbe Founders." A more stringent 
adherence to the original foundations was 
proposed, but it was shown that this im- 
plied masses for tbe souls of the founders, 
and a variety of arrangements scarcely 
tolerable in a Protestant country. It was 
proposed that the visitors of a college 
should have a veto on any ordinances of 
tbe Commissioners, but this was nega- 
tived, after discussion. An elfeolive clieck 
upon innovation remains in the clauso 
providing that, "if two-thirds of tbe go- 
verning body of any college shall, by writ- 
ing, under their band and seal, declare 
that, in thdropinion, such ordinances and 
regulations will be prejudicial to said col- 
lege (as a place of learning and education), 
then the same shall not take place." Tbe 
admission of Dissenters to study has been 
voted by a majority of 252 to 181. No 
oaths or subscriptions will be necessary, 
except the oath of allegiance, to any per- 
son matriculating. A further proposal to 
dispense with the oaths and subscription 
to the Thirty-uine Articles, in the case of 
graduates, was thrown out by 2US to 191). 
Some of those who oppos«l Mr. Hey- 
wood's motion, especially Lord John Rus- 
sell and Mr. Sidney Herbert, advocated 
the admission of Dissenters, but thought 
that the present bill would thereby be cn- 
dnngerrd. 

The Chancellor's prizes at Oxford have 
been awarded as follows : — Latin Verse, 
Alfred Blomtield, Scholar of Baliol. Kng- 
lisb Essay, Thomas F. Fremantle, B.A. 
Scholar of Baliol. Latin E$say, not 
awarded. The Newdigate prize for Eng- 
lish Verse bas been awarded to Frederick 
George Lee, Commoner of St. Edmund 
liall. A general wish having been felt 
that tbe University should possess some 
memorial of its late respected representa- 
tive, Sir R. H. Inylit, a committee has 
been formed for the purpose of obtaining 
a full-length Portrait of Sir Robert, by 
Bubscription, which is lo be placed in tbe 
gallery of the Bodleian. 

A committee appointed by the Oxford 
Circuit to determiue the most desirable 
form in which to erectamemorial to tbe late 
Mr. Juitice 7'a{fourd, have recommended 



54 



Antiquarian Rtsearehei. 



[July, 



the erection of • mnr*! monument, with a 
buit ofthe ileceaied, in St, Mary'a Cliuroh, 
It Sintrord. 

At I ipecial general meeting of tlis 
Ottilogical Society, on tlie 24th of Mar, 
W. J. Hamilton, esq. wia unaniroouily 
elected Pretident of the Societj, on the 
reaignalion of Profeitor K. Porbea, in 
eon>ec]uen(;e of liia appointment to th« 
Chair of Naturnl Hiatory, at Edinburgh. 

Mr, John Pepya has preaented to the 
Royal Inatitution, in Albrniarle Street, a 
iifth donation of one hundred pounda. 

Dr. Thomaa Young's Miaceilaneoui 
Works are again announced in Mr. 
Murray'a liat. This work, the seientilie 
portion of which ia edited by Dean Pea- 
cock, and the hieroglyphic by Mr. John 
Leitnh, was deatrnyeid by fire on the pre- 
miieanf Mesars. Clowea when nearly ready 
for publiontion. It ia now reprinted, anil 
will appear u loon as Dr. Peacock's 
" Memoir of Dr. Young," which is iu tho 
prrti, shall be completed. 

Mr. John Nurao Chadwink, attorney* 
■t-law of King'a Lynn, author of ths 
" Memorials of South Lynn Vicarage," 
haa been laboriouily enicaged in supplying 
that great deficiency to Blomefivld'a Hi*- 
torf qf Norfolk, an Index Nominum. It 
bu been compiled according to the prin- 
ciple ahown by the Calendars of Inquiai- 
tlons in the public record offices, with 
arms; and is announced for publication, 
by subscription, in a few months' time. 

The collection of Manutcripti lift by 

Iht lalt Sir William Btlham has occupied 

• day's sale at Messrs. Sothcby and Wil- 

~ nsnu'a during the past month. We 

atpend a short account we had prepared 



of it, in order to notice the collection more 
fully in our next number. 

We are alao obliged to postpone to our 
next a reriew of Mr. Roach Smith's Cata- 
logue of his Museum. 

The first number baa appeared in 4lo, 
under the title of Miicellanea (Jraphiea, 
of Mr. Fairholt's illunlrations of the Ao- 
cieat, Mediieval,and Renaiasaooe Remains 
in the possession of Lord Lnndesborongh. 
It promises to bo a liighly interesting 
work, and we shall notice it more fully 
hereafter. 

Messrs. Constable of Edinburgh have 
published the first volume of a complete 
edition of the Works of Dugald Stewart, 
under the editorial superrision of Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton, who is also to supply a 
Biographical Memoir of the Author. 

In Murray's Britiah Classics, Gold- 
smith's Works ore now complete in four 
volumes octavo; and we have received 
the third volume of Gibbon's Roman Em- 
pire belonging to the same series. 

The latter work is also in progress in 
Bohn's smaller series of Britiah Classics ; 
as are the Works of .\ddi8on, from the 
edition of Bisliop Kurd. In his Standard 
Library Mr. Uohn lia.* republished the 
Works of Cowper, from Southey'a edition. 

In Mr. Bell's Annotated Edition of the 
Poets three volumes of Dryden and two of 
Cowper have now made their appearance. 

Mr. Washboum has published another, 
the fifteenth, edition of Clark's Introduc- 
tion to Heraldry, the most popular ma- 
nual of its class. 

Mr. Pulman has completed his interest- 
ing topographical work. The Book of the 
Axe, which we have heretofore noticed. 



ANTiaUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



BOCIBTT or ANTiaOABIie. 

May *. Rear-Admiral Smyth, V.P. 

Frederic Dixon Hartland, rsij. banker, 
of Oaklands, near Cheltenham, author of 
■ work containing the Genealogies of the 
Sovereigns of liurope, was elected Fellow 
of the Society. 

The AbbA Cochet, Honorary Member, 
presented a string of beads fonnd on the 
nerk of a woman in the Frank cemetery 
of Aubin sur Scie. The style of these 
beads led him to suppose that they belong 
to tho later Merovingian period — rather 
to the age of Churlemtgne than to that of 

ClOTlS. 

K. R. H. Mackenxie, esq. F.S.A. exhi- 

bltnl a jug of brown eartbeo-waro found 

I Ardleigh, near Colcheater. It was said 

have contained a small number of coins, 



of which no record has been preserved, 
together with a deed which was exhibited, 
of the reign of Henry V. 

J. Y. Akerman, esq. Secretary, then read 
a report of further excavations, prosecuted 
by him, at the expense of the Society, at 
Haiiiham Hill, near Salisbury, during the 
Easter recess, the result of which waa the 
discovery of four more graves; one contain- 
ing the bodies of a woman and child, with 
two dish-shaped fibtilie, a number of umber 
beads, a pair of bronze tweezera, a silver 
armilla, and two iron knives ; beiidra a 
bronze girdle-ornament in the shape of a 
lion's head full-faced. Another skeleton 
had, with it, an iron spear- head, the umbo 
of a ahicld, and a shallow circular flnt- 
bottomed dish at the head, formed of wood 
and covered with bronze. 



4 



1854.] 



Antiquarian Researche*. 



65 



The Secret try dso read a second note, 
detcrihiog the opeoing of four ancient 
Britith barrowi in South Wilu. One of 
tbrae barrowi contained a ekeletou, with 
the fragmrnta of a large um of the usaal 
deacription, which had apparently been 
disturbed at tome diitaot period. Three 
of tbcM barrowi were sitaated near Win- 
t«rslow Httl.bat the fourth ia on the Down 
jott within the Oeer-Leap of Clarendon. 
This last it teventy feet wide, but on cut- 
ting a trench from the bate to the middle 
a heap of calcined haman bonet waa alone 
dticovcrrd. 

These two last commnnications faaTS 
jut appeared in fall in the uzTth Tolume 
of .\rchte»logia. 

W. D. Sanll, esq. F.S.A. then read a 
note dcicribing the pretcnt atate of the 
Cattle o( Bcrkbampstead. 

Maf \l. Rear-Adin. Smyth, V.P. 

R. Redmond Catoo, esq. F.S.A. exhi- 
bited a bronze penanoular ring, found 
while digging for the foundation of a houte 
at Lincoln. 

Richard CuU, eaq. preaented engravings 
of two objecta of antiquity ; one, a bronze 
Teaiel in the form of a pail, fonndin 1828 
below the anrface of the toil upon Caslyr 
Hill, near Cambra, a imall town of the 
Tyrol to the north of Trenio, on the rim 
of which were four Etruscan intcriptionj, 
— two in the inner, and two on the outer 
edge. The other object was a small sta- 
tuette of an armed and galeated figure 
standing on a base, the edge of which was 
alto inscribed with Etruscan characters. 
Both these objects are preserved in the 
Mnaetiin at Trento. In a letter which nc- 
compaoied this exhibition, Mr. CuU ob- 
lerred, that Etrutcno antiquitiet were 
Ukely to be found in the locality mentioned, 
since the people of the Rbtetian Alps were, 
according to Livy (lib. t, c. 33), of Etruscan 
orif>iii. 

The RcT. Thomas HugD,F..S. A. exhibited 
a bronze statuette of ilerculos, found in 
New Cannon-street, London, at the point 
of its junction with St. Paul's Church- 
yard, 

The Secretary then read a letter from 
G. R. Corner, esq. P.S.A., suggested by a 
drawing made for the Society some years 
agn, being a copy of an ancient oil-paint- 
ing belonging to the Marq'iess of Salisbury, 
at HttAeld House. The picture hat been 
thought to be by Holbein, and au inscrip- 
tion on the frame states that it repre- 
sents an entertainment given by Cardinal 
Wolsey tu meet Anna Uoleyne : and the 
tcene ia supposed, at Hatfield, to be the 
mradowt opposite to the old palace of 
Richmond. Mr. Comer, however, be- 
lieves that the pictnre represents a rural 
tttt in the fields of Horalydown, in the 



reign of Queen Elizabeth, with a view of 
the Tower of London across the river. In 
a catalogue of the pictures at Hatfield, in 
the Beauties of England and Wales, it is 
stated to represent a Meeting of Henry 
VI II. and Anna Boleyne, at a country fair 
lomewhere in Surrey, within sight of the 
Tower of London. The date of the pic- 
ture appears on the drawing, 1590. 
although it has been painted over in the 
original. The costumes alto are sufficient 
to show that the date mast be much later 
than Holbein ; and Mr. Corner considers 
that the picture represents a f6te given by 
tome of the rich Flemith refugees, who at 
that |)eriod colonised the neighbourhood 
of Hortlydown, of whom Mr. Corner 
gave some interesting notices. The size 
of the original picture, which is exceed- 
ingly well painted and full of well-grouped 
figures, is about 40 inches by 30, and the 
name of the artist was discovered by Dr. 
Diamond, Mr. Thorns, and Mr. Fairholt, 
who, accompanied by the Treasurer of the 
Society of Antiquaries, paid a visit to 
Ilatlield for the |iarpoee of seeing this 
interesting picture. It is inscribed G, 
Hofnagel, a name well known for his very 
interesting views of Nonsuch and other 
English palaces. Mr. Corner added some 
notices of the history of Horslydown, a 
part of the metropolis of which but little 
account has hitherto been given by the 
local historians and topographers, and ex- 
hibited in illn.stration of his paper a very 
curious plan of Horseydown (os it was 
then called,) belonging to the Governors 
of St. Olave's Grammar- School, dated 
1547. 

May 18. Vitconnt Mahon, Pretideot. 

WiUiam Wansey, esq. F.H.h. exhibited 
an interesting collection of Etrnscan vases 
and other vessels in pottery and gloss, 
procured daring bis stay at Naples in the 
winter of 1852-3. These objects are said 
to have conic principally from the tombs 
at CuniK, in which such extensive cxea- 
Tttions have been made by the Count of 
Syracuse. Mr. Wansey also Laid upon the 
table two numbers of a publication entitled 
" Monumenti Anticlii posseduti da sua 
Altezza Reale il Conte di Siracuta, de- 
scritti e pubblicati do Giuseppe Fiorelli." 
Foh Napoli, 1853 ; containing an account 
of the earliest results of the excavations 
undertaken at CuiuK toward the close of 
185S. 

K. R, H. Mackenzie, esq., F.S.A. exhi- 
bited several small objecta of ancient art, 
namely, a human hand in Egyptiiin basalt ; 
a small figure of a Satyr found in Calabna ; 
and a portion of a statuette of Cinqueoeuto 
work in silver. 

The Secretary then read an extract from 
a letter addressed to liim by Moos. Fre* 



66 



Antiquarian Reiearehet. 



[July, 



deric Trojron, in which, — after alladini; to 
•o important diacovery recently made at 
Mulen on the lake of Zurich, where the 
mbaidence of the watera of the lake has 
espoied to riew aotne ancient habitationa, 
within which are calcined itonea, charcoal, 
•nd animal bonea, a great number of 
ntenails in atone, and the debria of pottery, 
•ocompanied by a single object in metal, 
namely, a bronze ring, — he atates that he 
baa just receired intelligence of a aimilar 
discovery on the borders of the lake of 
Bienne, in the canton of Berne ; but, 
instead of inttruments of atone, there hare 
been found celts, knives, sickles, a sword, 
•nd other objects, all in bronze. It ap- 
pears from these discoveries that the water- 
levels of some of those lakes have been 
•enaibly raised since the period to which 
tbe primitive habitations thus exposed may 
be referred. 

The formation of a railroad in the en- 
Tirons of Lausanne has led to the dia- 
oovery of the ikeleton of a woman interred 
five feet deep from the surface of the 
ground, without any appearance of a 
tamulos ; the akeleton placed on the bare 
earth. On the finger was a bronze ring, 
and on tbe arms bronze bracelets. It is 
worthy of remark that all the sepultures 
of the age of bronze in. the Canton de 
Vaud are found under the surface of the 
toil without any trace of tumulus, and 
that these graves differ in material respects 
ttova those ^ the Merovingian period, 
while in German Switzerland tbe graves 
of the same epoch are tumular.* 

Another communication was made by 
the Secretary in a " Note upon the Angon 
deacribed by Agathias, introductory of 
acme remarks and drawings of that weapon, 
of which specimens are preserved in the 
museums of Worms, Wiesbaden, Darm- 
atadt, and Mayence." These drawings 
bad been forwarded by Uerr Ludwig 
Lindenschmit, keeper of the Museum of 
Mayence. They arc extremely curious, 
as showing that the description of the his- 
torian is correct as to this formidable 
weapon, while they suggest that it was an 
arm peculiar to the Kipuarian Frank, 
since examples are never found in the 
graves of the Salic Franks, of which many 
have been recently explored in France. 

Tlie i'rcsident laid before the Society a 
translated extract of a Report to the Go- 
vernment of Guatemala, containing an ac- 
count of a visit made in 1848 to the mined 
city of Tikal, the remains of which were 
described, with several statues in stone 
and wood. 

May ib. Frederic Ouvry, esq. Treos. 
in the chair. 

The Secretary, by permission of Edward 
C. Brodie, esq. of Saliabury, exhibited a 



large collection of objects, discovered in 
that city during the progress of excava- 
tions for new sewers. They consist of 
knives of various descriptions, shears, 
spoons, padlocks, keys, weapons, buckles, 
leaden signs, rings, and some other ob- 
jects, tbe uses of which have not been 
ascertained. The knives appear to range 
from the I4th to the 17th century, and 
were mostly for personal use ; but some 
appear to have been the implements of 
curriers and cordwainers. The keys are of 
▼ariona forms, but the latch-keys arc the 
most remarkable of them. The leaden 
tokens or signs differ from examples 
hitherto met with ; one represents St. 
Michael, but without liis characteristic 
arms ; another is a star within a crescent, 
or the badge of the royal household ; and 
the third the figure of a preacher in a 
pulpit, surrounded by a le^nd. 

A memoir by Samuel Birch, esq. F.S.A. 
was read, on a vase, which has on it the 
representation of Perseus receiving the 
persea tree from Cepheus king of il^tbiopia. 
The paper entered into an elaborate detail 
of the adventures of the hero Perseus, aa 
represented on the varioiu works of an- 
cient art, and especially on those scenes 
selected by the vase-painters for the sub- 
ject of their pencil. 

June 1. Mr. Ouvry in the chair. 

The Rev. T. Hugo exhibited a Roman 
fibula found in Bridge Street, Blackfriart ; 
and Mr. O'Neill rubbings from a cross at 
Monasterboice. 

W. M. Wylie, esq. F.S.A. communi- 
cated an account of a further discovery 
of relics in tbe Anglo-Saxon cemetery 
of Fairford, Gloucestershire, including 
several fibulse, beads, a sword, the umbo 
of a shield, and three spicula, the blades 
of which were, as usual, of unequal sur- 
face, for. the purpose of producing a 
rotatory motion when hurled. 

Mr. Walmisley exhibited a miniature 
portrait of Sir Philip Sydney, painted by 
Isaac Oliter ; purchated at the aale of 
Addiscombe House, the seat of the first 
Earl of Liverpool, and said to have been 
one of several curious articlea transferred to 
Addiscombe .from the palace of Nonsuch. 

John Henry Parker, esq. F.S.A. read a 
further deacription of the churches in the 
South of France, which he illustrated by 
the exhibition of a number of drawings of 
remarkable examples. He remarked that 
consecration crosses, in the form usually 
called tbe labamm of Conatantine, are 
common in that diatrict. At Moiasac he 
found an inscription recording the dedica- 
tion of tbe church in 1063. 

Jtau 15. J. P. Ck>Uier, esq. V.P. 

Signer Bonncci, of Naples, was elected 
an honorary member ; and Mqor^General 



1854.] 



Antiquarian Reaearchet. 



67 



BacUef, M.P., James A. Hammeraley, 
e«q., anil Charles Edward Davia, eaq., 
werr elrctej Kellowi. 

Mr. Cooper, of MaeVnee Castle, Ire- 
Uod, exhibited a bronie and a silver fibula, 
the latter of verj large sise and of the 
"arbutus" pattern, of which a fine ex- 
ample was latelj exhibited to the Society 
by Lord Londesborough. 

The Kev. Tbos. Hugo exhibited seTcral 
■pecimens of Celtic armillie, said to have 
b«en recently discovered in Bucklersbury. 
No Celtic remains have hitherto been 
foand in London ; and it was remarkable 
that this gentleman at the same time, 
though in a distinct communicstion, called 
tb« President's attention to the frauds 
which be has experienced in the course of 
his intercourse with the labourers em- 
ployed in excavations in the City. 

K. R. H. Mackenzie, esq. exhibited a 
Bysantine crystal vase, purchased by him 
at Constantinople, and since mounted as a 
beaker by a French artist. 

W, B. Dickinson, esq. exhibited a fine 
example of an Anglo-Saxon bronze fibuh, 
discovered in a gravel-field near Warwick, 
with the remains of a human skeleton. 

Charles Warne, esq. exhibited a model 
of the Roman amphitheatre at Dorchester, 
on a scale of one inch in thirty feet. 

Hui;h Edmondktone Muntgomerie, eiq. 
exhibited an original letter, diiled Kept. 4, 
168)1. and addressed to the Sheriff of Stir- 
ling, which a|)pear8 tu have been a circular 
from the administration which ruled Scot- 
land under James I!, to the Lord Lieu- 
tenant or Sheriff Principal of each i^hire. 
It was evidently issued in antlcipatiun of 
the expedition of the Prince of Orange. 

Josiah Goodwin, esq. of Exeter, com- 
municated the discovery of a considerable 
number of skeletons at Cowick, near that 
city. The interments are evidently of two 
distinct kinds, but all appeared to be of 
the Chri<itian period, and some are pro- 
bably of the Dutch prisoner* who died of 
the plague temp. Car. II. 

William Titc, esq. F.S. A. read a descrip- 
tion of the Roman teM>ellated pavement, 
recently discovered on the site of the Ex- 
dae Office, in Broad Street, London. He 
also communicated a map showing the 
Roman roads east of the city. 

Tlie Sfxu'ety then adjourned to the Kith 
of November. 



THE AnCHJtOLOQICAL INSTITUTE. 

A/ay 5. The Hon. Richard Neville, V.P. 

Mr. Neville gave an account of a singn- 
Ur difcovery which had recently occurred 
in the course of his excavations at Cbes- 
terford, at a spot just outside the supposed 
limits of the Roman station, and adjoining 
the churchyard of that place. Several 

GiNi. Mao. Vol. XLII. 



deep pits had been found, excavated in 
Roman times in the gravel and natural 
soil, and containing a remarkable number 
of curious reliques, pottery, glass, objects 
of bronxe and other metals. In the course 
of these researches Mr. Neville found in 
one of these remarkable depositories a large 
hoard of implements and objects of iron 
in very perfect preservation, the mouth of 
the cavity having been closed over with a 
thick layer of chalk, by which means pro- 
bably the iron had been protected from 
decay. Mr. Neville produced drawings 
by Mr. Youngman of Saffron Walden, ex- 
hibiting the principal reliques discovered, 
which comprise massive chains of most 
skilful workmanship, their use has not 
been ascertained, anvils, hammers, and 
other implements of the forge, manacles 
and shackle -bolts, a great number of 
scythes, considerably curved, of much 
longer proportions than modern scythes, 
padlocks of very ingenious and complicated 
construction, and a large pair of shears, 
of unknown use, measuring not less than 
4 lit. 6 ill, in length. The metal retains 
its elasticity and temper in a remarkable 
degree. With these interesting illustra- 
tions of the mechanical arts and usages of 
Roman times was found a large iron spear 
and some blades, which may be the reliques 
of military weapons. Mr. Neville supposed 
that this assemblage of objects had been 
deposited for concealment and security, 
possibly on the occasion of some sudden 
danger to which the station had been ex- 
posed. The perfect condition of the objects 
seems to shew beyond doubt that they 
were not old metal laid aside for the pur- 
poses of the smith's shop : the work as 
well as the metal had been inspected nitlt 
surprise and admiration by the artificers 
of the craft, who had come from all the 
country round to see the repotted dis- 
covery. 

Mr. Le Keux read a memoir on ancient 
Crosses in England, including not only 
church-yard and way-side crosses, as also 
market crosses, but also upright stones of 
memorial, frequently sculptured. He ad- 
verted especially to the croiises of Queen 
Alianor, and the interesting particulars 
regarding them found amongst ancient 
records by Mr. Hunter. A large scries 
of drawings was exhibited, originally com- 
menced by Wm. Alexander, esq. F.S. A. and 
enlarged by Mr. Britton, aod comprising 
about 300 examples of various classes. 
Mr. Le Keux stated his belief that one of 
the statues intended to portray Alianor 
still exists at Leightoa Buzxard. It is his 
intention to publish a classified series of 
examples of this interesting class of ancient 
monuments. A voluminous collection was 
preserved in the Stowe Library, which, if 



5S 



Antiquarian Reiearchei. 



[July. 



■nlUble, might lopplf Ttluible eridanee 
reipectiDg crotaei now wholly destroyed. 

The Rev. Edward Trollope g&ve an ac- 
CAunt of a ainguUr bronze collar fonnd bj 
I Laplander oo a mountain in Finmark, 
and now in the poaseasion of Sir Arthur 
de Capel Broke, Bart. Sooh collars were 
worn by the Finland wise men or aoolh- 
nyerf, who pretended to inroke the apirits 
of good and eTil. The length ia 25 incbea. 
It i< of elaborate workmanihip, formed of 
a large number of piecea, to which are 
appeoded a great many little bella, reaem- 
bling bawk'a-bellB of bronze, chaina, and 
other omamenta. Sir Arthur obtained 
also two Tery curious ailrer ringa in Fin- 
land.of aptrtU or serpent form, and wrought 
with much skiU.ai ahown by Mr. Trollope'c 
drawings. Mr. TroUope communicated 
also notioei of a Roman sarcophagus lately 
found near Ancaster, where Roman remaiua 
have frequently been brought to light, and 
of a mural tomb with a croaa-alab of ele- 
gant deaign, found during recent repairs 
at Raunceby church, Lincolnshire. Thi< 
memorial bears the date 13M5. 

Mr. Way sent a short notice of the dis- 
covery of a block or pig of lead on the 
Mendip Hills, near Blagdon, Somerset, 
in August, 18&3. It was found in plough- 
ing, and wu brought to the Patent Shot 
Works of Measrs. Williams and Co. at 
Bristol. This reliquc of the metallargioal 
operations of the Romans in Britain is the 
earliest hitherto found. The form of the 
pig resemblea that of all which have been 
discovered at various timea ; on the top 
ii the inscription, hkitannic .... avo. 
r. . by which the date may be fixed aa be- 
tween A.D. 44 and 48, aince Britonnious, 
who was son of Claudius, appears to have 
received the title of Anguatus about a.o. 
44, and was set aside about a.o. 48 by the 
intrigues of Agrippiiu. He was poisoned 
by Nero in A.o. 50. A pig was found 
some years since on the Mendip bearing 
the name of Tiberius, but it has not 
been preserved. The traces of extensive 
Roman workings on that range of hilla 
are well known, and a company has been 
established, by whom the old slag is now 
fused, and a conniderable quantity of lead 
obtained. Mr. Way stated that, having 
casually heard of the discovery at Blag- 
don, he had sought to trace this relique, 
the only object, as it is believed, found ira 
England bearing the name of Brttannicus. 
Through the kind and prompt aaaiatanee 
of Mr. Oarrard, Chamberlain of Bristol, 
and Mr. Wasbrough, of Clifton, the de- 
sired object was obtained. Mr. Williams, 
the proprietor of the Shot Works, oq 
learning from them that this vestige of 
Itomun industry was on object of interest, 
had not only tent it forthwith for th« in- 



spection of the lastitnte, bat had gene* 
rously presented it to the Collection of 
National Antiquities at the British Mu- 
seum, where it will farm a valuable addi- 
tion to the little group of objecta of a 
aimilar claaa found in England. 

Mr. Yates gave an account of a Costrell, 
or veaael of red pottery, found at Gelde- 
stone, Norfolk, at a considerable depth, io 
forming an embankment by the river 
Waveney. Such vessels received the 
name of Costred, or Coitrel, from their 
use, being carried by a traveller at bis 
side. A similar example ia described by 
Mr. Chaffers, in the journal of the Ar- 
obseological Association, volume V. — Mr. 
Franks exhibited several moulded bricks 
of the llith oentnry, with casta from other 
specimens in the museum of the Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society, and offered 
some remarks on this class of architectural 
decorations of terra cotta. They have 
sometimes been regarded, but very incor- 
rectly, as of Roman fabrication. — Mr. 
O'Neill exhibited rubbinga from sculp- 
tures in Irehmd, and gave further notioes 
of early Christian monuments in that 
country. 

The discussion was reiumsd at aome 
length regarding the threatenad destruc- 
tion of Churches, especially in the city of 
London, and the desecration of sepulchral 
memorials. Mr. Markland made a forcible 
appeal to the meeting on this subject, and 
cordial concurrence in his views was ex- 
pressed by Mr. Beresford Hope, Lord 
Nelson, Mr. Hawkins, and several mem- 
bers who took part in the conversation. 
It was finally agreed that a deputation from 
the Institute should be appointed, and that 
an interview with the Bishop of London 
should be requested without delay. 

Amongst antiquities exhibited were a 
spoon and lifula of bronze, of Roman 
work, by the Rev. T. Hugo ; they were 
found in Bucklersbury ; several iron wea- 
pons of Anglo-Saxon date, by Mr. Bern- 
hard Smith ; a singular little bronze figure, 
finely patinated, from Winchester, by Mr. 
Greviile Chester ; impressions of Roman 
coins, part of a large hoard lately found 
with silver ingots, &c. near Coleraine : 
several pavement tiles, part of a floor, of 
geometrical design, found at Thornton 
Abbey, Lincolnshire, by the Rev. John 
Byron, by whom they have been presented 
to the British Museum ; a diminutive gold 
ring-brooch, lately found amongst the ruins 
of Monnin Castle, in Ireland, and bearing 
an inscription as yet unexplained. 

Mr. John Gough Nichols produced 
several beautiful specimens of needlework, 
the property of Miss Burr, of Stockwell. ' 
They comprised a cap worked in black silk 
and silver thread, supposed to have be- 



18540 



77i« Archaological Inititute. 



S9 



ianfcd to QoMB Elixtbetb ; it was long 
preaerred >t Uocklilfe, Bedruribbire : ■ 
worked KapoUr, •oppoied to have been 
worn with (he cap; a mantilla, and two 
very ancient lamplen of point Uce, with 
A chriatening auit of China aillc and point 
be«, from the Rectory at the same 
plaoa. 

Mr. RoIU brought a diminntiie watch of 
vtrj cariooi workmioihip, made by Salo- 
tuaa Cbeanoo, at Blois ; lome ornament* 
«f iron and bronze ; RoMO-Greek cm- 
afaei, ornamented with enamel; and a 
gold ring, (et with a cabaliftio intaglio. 
Mr. Whineopp aent an intereating inTen- 
lory of the honaehold goodi of a Suffolk 
geolJeman in 1601, presenting a detailed 
notion of the domestic condition of a amall 
•qairal reaideoee at that period. — Mr. Tite 
bronght ■ remarkable little illuminated 
MS., a book of prayers written and bound 
up in a rfaomboidal or lozenge form — a 
itiuge specimen of capricious fancy. — Se- 
Terat impresaions of seals were shewn, 
espeeially one of Sir Richard Bnrley, in 
the reigo of Richard II. found by Mr. 
Ready amongat the muniments at Qaeen's 
e*ll4ge, Cambridge, of which be is now 
iBgaged in copying the seals ; and a French 
nal of the fourteenth century, of which 
the matrix was in Mr. Pickering's pos- 
■waion. It is a good example, and ap- 
Man to hare been the seal of William de 
Sa;». canon of Le Puy, the ancient capital 
of V elay. 

JttM 8. The Hon. Richard Neville, V.P. 

Mr. Edwmrd Freeman invited the at- 
tMilioii of the Society to the existence of 
a nmarkable sepulchral chamber at Uley- 
barjr, Gtoncestersbire, partially exearated 
some years since, when some remains 
were found, now preserted at Guy's Hos- 
pital. This burial-place has been desig- 
nated as " the Giant's Chamber," and it 
appears to be in some respects aoalagous 
to the surprising works in Ireland, at 
New Grange and Dowth, on the banks of 
the Boyne. Mr. Freeman proposes to 
bring the sabject before the notice of the 
aanual meeting of the Institute, at their 
approaching assembly in Cambridge, and 
to make a careful exuminatiun of this re- 
markable place shortly after the meeting, 
when be kindly proposes to request the co- 
ppantton of irchcologists who take an in- 
Vmun in each researches. Mr. Dickenson 
raatrleed that a similar place of primeval 
{■teivwat existed near Stony Littleton, in 
Wlhshire, which had reccntlj been, exca- 
vated by direction of Mr. Poulett Scrope; 
the results would soon be published by 
Um Wiltshire Archcological Society. 

The Rer. H. M. Scarth sent a notice of 
■ ditcovery of a*reopliai(i near a Roman 
»illa at Coiob Down, S'>mcr>rt. Three 



cists, containing the skeletons of a mala 
and two females, were found, placed side 
by side, the heads to the north. At one 
aide of this group of interment* was placed 
a square stone chest, carefully constructed, 
with a convex cover neatly fitting into a 
groove in the tides of the cheit, which 
was filled with burnt bones. On the other 
side appeared a stone chest, measuring 22 
inches by 15, and containing the skull of 
a horse. Mr. Neville mentioned some 
curious faets in regard to the discovery 
of remains of the horse near early inter- 
ments. Mr. Scarth described also a curious 
little group of tumuli on Beaulieu Heath, 
Hampshire ; it comprises two conical bar- 
rows, with an oval mound between them ; 
they are placed close to one another, ■ 
ditch surrounding each. 

Mr. Dish Webb communicated a state- 
ment received from Mr. L. Clark, calling 
attention to the neglected state of the ruined 
atructures and sculptured tombs at lona, 
from the want of some efficient protection 
to prevent the injuries caused by recklesa 
visitors who come to that island in great 
numbers. It appeared that a amall sum 
expended in sastainiiig the remains of the 
cathedral might preserve them from the 
decay which has rapidly advanced in recent 
times. Mr. Westwood made some remsrks 
on the value of the sculptured monuments 
of the western islands of Scotland, and the 
importance of the endeavour to avert such 
wanton injuries as bad been reported ; he 
doubted not that the Duke of Argyll, the 
poaaaaaor of lona, would readily give at- 
tentioQ to the subject, if it were properly 
represented to him. 

Mr. Hawkins obaerved that it was an 
appropriate oocaaioo, when the attention 
of the Society bad been appealed to in be- 
half of the preservation of ancient moon- 
ments, to advert to the injuries with which, 
as he feared, many of far greater import- 
ance were actually threatened. He would 
recall to the meeting the visit of inspection 
which, at the instance of Professor Donald- 
son, many members of the Institute had 
made last yesr to WtitmiDster Abbey, to 
view the cundition of the royal tombs, and 
he believed that the unanimous opinion at 
that time had been that all so-called resto- 
rations were to be deprecated, and must 
prove destructive of the essential interest 
and authenticity of those memorials. Ha 
now perceived with great regret, amongst 
the estimates submitted to Parliament, one 
for no less an amount than 4,700/. for the 
repair of royal monuments in Westminster 
Abbey. He would propose that some 
measures should without any delay be 
taken, by petition to Parliament or by a 
memorial to the First Cummiasioner of 
Piihlic Wni!.«, to avi-rt, if poisihle, such 



Antiquarian Ketearches. 



IJuly. 



■ 



ilnatrucUre " r««tor«tioni." The Rev. 
Joseph Hunter obsrrycd thnt he iroulJ 
vcrjr htforlily occond the proposition tuado 
by Mr. Hiiwkini, nnd he ooiild not too 
strongly iraprrM upon the inrctinK thut 
no renovation of these venerable memorials 
could be carried out without the eacrifiue 
of nil that renden them most valuable to 
the historian nnd the antiquary. Mr. 
Neville, Mr. Westwood, nnd other meui- 
ben addreiitcd the meeting to the same 
effect, and the iulijcct was referred for the 
immediate consideration of the council. 

Mr. Nesbitt gave an aceouot of several 
sepulchral brassoi, of which he produced 
rubbings, obtained by him at Meissen. 
They comprised a striking portraiture of 
lifo'si/e of Frederic, son of Albert Duke 
of Saxony, nnd Grand Master of the Teu- 
tonic Kui^hts : he is represented in the 
mantle of that Order. His death occurred 
in 1510, Another meniorial portrays the 
mother of Frederic, Sidonia daughter of 
the King of Bohemia : she died about the 
same period. The engraving is in the style 
of Durer, and executed with admirable 
skill. Mr. Carpenter, the keeper of the 
prints at the British Museum, had care- 
fully compared it with the productions of 
Cranacb and other noted masters of the 
peHod; but the artist, Mr. Nesbitt stated, 
remains unknown. He exhibited also a 
very tine liguru of one of the Bishops of 
Lubeck, who died in 1561. 

Mr. Allies read an account of the dis- 
covery of numerous ancient reliques, ia- 
cludiog some of Anglo-Saxon eharacler, 
with pottery of various ages, found at a 
great depth in the clay at Naunton Close, 
near Leckharopton, to the south of Chel- 
Icnbam. These vestiges had been found 
in the operations of the pottery works now 
in activity at thut place. Mr. Allies ex- 
hibited many of these ancient objects, 
amongst which were some apparently of 
the Roman age. He gave also n notice of 
the discovery on Leckhampton Hill of the 
interment of a Saxon warrior, whose equip- 
ment presented certain singular details, 
more especially in the fashion of the hel- 
met, pronounced by the late Sir Samuel 
Meyrick to be without precedent in Eng- 
land. 

The Rev. W. Staunton described a 
curious object of stone, in form of a dimi- 
nutive Norman font, the upper part sculp- 
tured with grotesque heads. He stated 
that it had been found at Kenilworth Caslla 
in a singular manner, when preparations 
were made there for u horticultural display 
in 1848. The purpose of this relique, 
contemporary probably with the founda- 
tion of the castle by Geofl'ry de Clinton, 
in the reign of Henry I., remains un- 
known. Some bid supposed it to have 



been osed ss a cresset, or lamp. It mea- 
sures only eight inches in height. 

Mr. NevUlc c:illcd attention to a draw- 
ing which he bad brought of a Norman 
ri'lique somewhat similar in form, but uf 
larger dimensions. It h a piscina, in- 
tended to be placed detached from the 
wall, and had probably belonged to the 
ancient desecrated church of Wcnden 
Parvn, Essex. It is now placed in the 
garden at Wendcn vicarage. Mr. Neville 
exhibited also a line medallion of Cara- 
calla found at Icklclon, struck in Asia 
Minor, and bearing Greek inscriptions. 
It is a piece of great rarity, and of con- 
siderable value, .ts having been found in 
England, where such colonial coins are of 
rare occurrence. 

Aniungat antiquities exhibited were, — 
some Etruscan objects from the Canina 
collection ; arrow-heads of various periods, 
a cross-bow and a stone bow, with several 
specimens of early metal work, produced 
by Mr. Bernhard Smith, who also gave an 
account of an iron chamber for a piece of 
ancient artillery found at Bridgnorth. 
Mr. Franks brought a number of pheona, 
forked arrow-heads and other weapons, 
from Blenheim Park ; several curious 
reliques of the same kind from Bedford 
Castle, and ornaments of Saxon character 
from Norfolk, were sent by Mr. Greville 
Chester. Tl)e Rev. T. Jdugo brought a 
large bronxe celt, stated to have been 
found in the Thames, and curiously en- 
graved. Mr. Neville shewed a collection 
of fragments of celts, with some other un- 
usual objeeta of bronse, found at Mel- 
bourn. The Rev. J. M. Traherne pro- 
duced a beautiful miniature portrait of a 
Royalist gentleman, by S. Cooper, dated 
1655. It had been preserved by the 
Aubrey family in Glamorganshire. He 
also gave an account of certain reliques of 
Charles I. in the possession of Lord II- 
cbcster, especially his gold buckles, once 
the property of Sir Philip Warwick. Mr. 
Forrest sent a strikingly coloured cxamjile 
of Italian majolica ; some early enamels, 
and a fiuely-sculptured ornament of amber, 
probably of Italian work. 

Mr. Mac Adam of Belfast forwarded a 
representation of an enamelled vessel lately 
found in a ruined monastery near that 
place. It appeared to be of Limoges 
work, and to have been a cruet for the use 
of the altar, of twelfth-century work. Mr. 
Edward Hoare gave an account of the 
discovery of a bronze crucifix, of early 
character, at Kilcrea Abbey, co. Cork, of 
which be sent a drawing. 

Mr, G. B. Webb exhibited the original 
letters patent of Edward VI. in the first 
year of bis reign, confirming the charter 
granted to Caernarvon by Edward I. 



1854.3 



Antiquarian Jietearches. 



61 



I 



and radtin; subirquent confinnstions by 
Edward II. und other sovereigos. Thia 
documrat w» accompanied by another 
itutruraeot, dnted 16B8, purporting to be 
the iurrrnilcr by the Mayor and Burgesse* 
of ibeir privileges and powcri Co James 1 1 . 
and praying for a new charter. 

Several beautifill catts from sculptured 
iroriea of rarioua periods were shown by 
Mr. Weatwood. The society adjourned, 
10 re-aiiemble at Cambridge, where the 
uinnal meeting will commence on July 
4th, with the patronage of the Prince 
Albert, Cbsnce llor of the University. 



KKITISB ABCH.ROLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Jmt 14. Ralph Bcrnal, esq. M.A. 
Prcaident, 

Mr. Cbarlea Waroe presented a very 
carefully modelled plan of the Human 
Amphitheatre at Dorchester, on a scale of 
1 inch t') 30 feet, to the accuracy of which 
several members present bore testimony. 
Tlie Rev. S. T. Pettigrew exhibited a cu- 
rious vase of Meiicaa manufacture, having 
portions of silex introduced into a baton- 
like kind of ornsment. Mr. W. Meyriok 
exhibited a remarkably fine steel and gold 
official key, of beautiful workmanship; it 
is German and of a late period. A coro- 
net and cypher, contained within the 
8gare of a thistle, formed the top. The 
whole was drilled and underfiled, and pre- 
seoled an elegant official budge. Mr. 
Gtbba exhibited a mutilated figure of an 
eceleaiaitic found in Whitecbapel. It was 
formed of sUte. Mr. Pratt csbibitcd, 
through Mr. Planch^, two specimens of 
chain mail, a gauntlet and leg-piece. In 
many eSgiea the absence of any apparent 
lining to the gauntlets has led many anti- 
qnariea to conjecture that the glove of 
mail was a simple hag of interlaced rings, 
covering both the innide and back of the 
haodf, a supposition which this specimen 
prorea to have been correct. The Rev. 
Thoa. Hugo exhibited a portion of an ivory 
trypticfa, reported to have been found in 
the Minories. It belonged to the 14th 
century. The sculpture exhibits the Vir- 
gin enthroned and crowned, with the infant 
Christ on her knee, the Crucifixion, and 
the Two Maryi. Mr. T. Gunstoo read 
a short paper on the remains of what he 
coiuidered a Roman Villa, discovered io 
New Cannon Street, on the south side of 



Watling Street, near Walbrook. In the 
spring of 1 852 excavations were made for 
some new buildings, when in removing 
the debris from the demolished bouses 
were found, \%t. a variety of fragments of 
early pottery and glass ; 2nd. at about 8 
feet from the surface the workmen came 
upon two walls, running eist and west, 
varying in height from 3 to 10 feet; also 
a circular shaft, similar to that found be- 
neath the present Coal Exchange, an ac- 
count of which is given in the Journal of 
the .Association. The site indicates these 
fragments to have belonged to the ancient 
mansion known as La Real, or Tower 
Royal, the scene of many remarkable 
events during the reign of the Plantage- 
nets ; 3rd. at the depth of 12 feet, consi- 
derable Roman remains were exposed, con- 
sisting of walls of which the foundations 
were laid on piles ; about 20 feet of plain 
tessellated pavement of inch red tessern ; 
three piers, six feet apart, formed of the 
ordinary tiles ; and interspersed with the 
soil a qusntitity of fragments of stocco, 
red and striped ; blue and flanged tiles : 
coatiie pottery, glass, and Samian ware ; 
various bones of animals and birds ; and 
a human skeleton, lying east and west, 
nnd accompanied by iron nails from 3 to 
7 inches long. These remains formed the 
subject of the next paper, by Mr. Syer 
Cuming, which gave rise to a discussion 
on the site of the Tower Royal, the iden- 
tity of the present Walling Street with the 
great Roman road of thit name, which 
Mr. White and some others seemed to 
doubt, and on the term villa as not ex- 
pressing with correctness the ancient Ro- 
man suburban house. K paper on a 
series of Helmets, from the the 13th to 
Ibe 15th centuries, recently exhibited to 
the Association, from the pen of Mr. 
I'lanche, was read and illustrated by very 
accurate drawings by Mr. H. C. Pidgeon. 
Tills paper and its illustrations will appear 
in the next number of the Journal. The 
chairman then announced this to have been 
the last meeting for the season, and that 
the congress would be held towards the 
close of August at Chepstow. Visits were 
in course of arrangement to the various 
castles, abbeys, &c. of this rich antiqua- 
rian locality, and papers are in preparatioo 
for their respective illustration. 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



FOKEION NEWS. 



■r«f A< 





kTMA» 



■Irfth MctMtf VUaa* Ml dM s/lk a( 



«, to tin* Ui Mgk M»- 
for Aaacria, to a«MMtt4 (• 
I mmf I and bad )(i*«« ttimt %o Ikat 
Battboofh tba Eafaror MM** 
Im aay, thna, with tha Awtrtaa Oarvtrm* 
■Mat, aake a virtoa of (ha naicnitf 
wfaloh la Impoaad spon bin b^ tba diaa*' 
Haw f iHi af tba OnaMaa CaMfaltw 
•piMl tha TMm, riMla-baaM, m4 bf 



tba AlBai krmj, 
md Ibaag'i Im abanaoo* tba "material 
|aMMtt«,"th« wrafifftl Mtnra of »bld> 
WM tha caow of (h« war, tbii ratnnt 
I oot DOW, ai it woild ha** dona thm 



■MiBthi baafc, opan a proipaat of a apeedv 

> ttpmta. On tha eoatnry, K 

It (h« dcHnmf pqrpoM of <be Praoeh aad 



rHtotalla* af I 



ICnv,li"li (iovrrtiiiirntj, ai It ia 
nilly Ihrlr unljr tru« policy, bavtsf OBM 
Ukcn up armt, nut Ut lay them down 
anill «n«h ooadllinnt arc nbttlnril frum 
llir i-nemy ■• may plarn the lAairt of the 
Kmi nil ■ teoara baali, ami privcnt, to 
lat at poaiibla, tha rapetition of auoh an 

Tha baaat Garman Statca hiva ad- 
dt*<<ril III Aimlilii and I'muU Identical 
■mm. •t<MM" tlixir wtiah (list the Bond 
• I I Ilia ai a body to 

I >iv ; but ri|ireu- 

In ' wld re- 

i|ii<<< I f^om 

III. i|,.v,, . ' i:«r«nt 

(nrcai, ami • livrly iiic«rf«t in tlm pra* 
pxi'viilmi ::( ilie klnKilom of Orcroa. 

I '"'•Ian Uotrriimeiit, in reply (n 
iiiiili'iilloii*, ilaled June 14, 

■ ■' '- to lee 

III ', and 

:' !■; but 

iMi|ir llini iliii liiinri will (ire 
' tibinliitrly Id the trrtty of 
'III ninlnly initiralra llinl no 
' will be •ilmitlril. Il ulalfH, 
ilirw Tle«r» «rr In (irrfrrt hnr- 



IhvChddhP 



iCata, 

Gaacnl 

IhaatlhMajr. 

~ eoaneQ 



•f^' 



OaibaSBUlAqrai 
af aar taafc place at Taraa, between 
Anaa*. Lard Rac<aa. the 
4 Oamr ffaaha. Tbcy alter- 
b praaaadad la Sefaamla, where Mar- 
M. AnMa4 i t i W we d the Tarkiih 
Ob the latara of the French and 
Th'Hi* aaHBMdan ta Coaalaotinople, 
Ihtir twa p a «Mia art k aolion. The 
tuata i part «f tba Bafllah feroe hai now 
proraeicd to Varaa,tilfetber with a Preach 
dlriiinn, while aaiUlwi Prancfa dirition hu 
adraaaad to Adriaoople. On the Sth of 
Jane, tbaftrrt diriaioo of the Britiih army, 
nader Sir Oeorga Brown, left Varna and 
■arebed to Deraa, abont 18 mita, wbere 
a flamp baa been formed. 

Tba Roaiian commnnicaliont with 
Ocorgia are nuw completely intereeptdd, 
eicept by the chore of the Caapiaa, Iha 
paet leadinn tu Teflii being in po wa wd B a 
of Schimyl. All the fortmica on the 
inut«rn onait of the Black iSea were aban- 
doned by the RoMiana before the arrival 
of tba ataaaten, except Redont Kaleh, 
which wai abandoned at their approach, 
after Ktarcety tiring a ahot. Theac fort- 
reinea are now In the hanita nf the Circai- 
alaiMi ; the only fortn reniiiiuing in pofl- 
•eailon of the Rtupiiiinii between the sea of 
Afof and the Ttirkiiih frontier are Anapa 
and Houjitk. The officem nf Adm. Lyons'a 
atpiailrun liavii bud communlrRtinn> with 
thii neighbouring Clrcatsian cliicfa, to 
whom Adm. Lyoni hat sent 1(1,000 ball- 
oartridget, which had been captured from 
the RuBilant. 

The Vanubtan Prorineei. — On the 
:^Htli May Ucnrtnl Liprandi's corps was 
allocked by .|,tmo Turki, under Skender 
Itrg, at Hrankoveni, at tliey were abont to 
cromi the Alula, in courne of CTacuatiug 
Lower Wallnohia. The Rustiani con- 
tinued llipir retreat during the light, and 
miflVred nCTerely. After crossing the 



1854.] 



Foreign Ntwt. 



63 



bridge It Slalioi they deitroyed it, and 
were not punned further. 

Repeated atUckt were made upon Silia- 
tha between the jltt of May and the 9th 
of Jane. That of the 29 Lh of May was 
mado by ■ rery large force of Rugaiana, 
but waa repulsed with the lou of 1,500 
men, and among them Lieat.-Gen. SyWan 
and the younger Count Orloff. On the 
30th, at four in the morning, the Turki 
made a tally, and a fearful muaaore took 
place in the Ruiaian entrencbmentt. 
Many of the besiegers' guns were spiked. 
On the Slit Ma«sa Pasha, the Turkish 
military goremor, was killed by a shell 
while at prayers in a mosque. This brave 
and distinguished officer had raised him- 
celf from a simple cannoneer to the head 
of the Turkish artillery service, to which 
his death is a great lou. On the 9th of 
June Prince Paikiewitch was struck in 
the side by a spent ball. He was re- 
moved to Jassy, and is reported to be 
seriously injured. On this day an attack 
took place on two forts, which was re- 
polsad with a lou of 2,000 men. On the 
I3(h the attack was renewed after the 
mines which Gen. Schilders had carried 
nearly to the face of the counterscarp had 
bean e:(pIoded. These mines, however, 
biled of their intended purpose, and the 
attacking party found itself attacked, and 
was completely defeated. Geo. Scbilden 
wu wounded in the leg, which was ampu- 
tated abortly after at Kalarasch, and he has 
since died. Pnnca Gortschakoff, who had 
succeeded Paskiewitch in the supreme 
command, was also wounded, as well as 
three other general officers. On this day 
or the next a body of 2,000 men frum 
gchumla succeeded in getting into Silistria 
after a slight engagement with the Rub- 
stsna on ibeir way. On the 1 5th a 
general sortie took place. The greater 
part of the Russians were driven across 
the river, and their works destroyed. The 
Turks also gained possession of the 
islands in the Danube, and commenced 
the construction of batteries between the 
town and the river. The Russian troops 
to tha east and west of the town imme- 
diately commenced a retreat, and after 
cnxaing the river destroyed tbeir bridges. 
On the 16lb the siege #iu at an end. 
Since that time we learn that the Russian 
troops, both in Wallachia and Moldavia, 
and also in the Dobrudsohs, are in retreat, 
and in course of evacuating those pro- 
rincet as rapidly as possible. 

Grttet. — A French division, with an 
English regiment, now occupy the Piraeus. 
The ultimatum addressed by the Western 
Powers to the King baa been accepted, 
the ministry dismissed, and a new ministry 
nodcr M. Mavtocordato, who has lately 



occupied the post of Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary at Paris, appointed. All Greek 
officers absent from duty are recalled. 

The Baltic— Ou the 20th of May an 
expedition was undertaken by the Arrogant 
and Hecla steam-vessels under Capt. Yel- 
verton, through a narrow channel about 
13 miles inland, to the town of Eckness, 
near Hango Point, in search of three 
loaded Russian merchant veuela. The 
Bteamers on tbeir passage were attacked 
by a brigade of horse artillery tnpported 
by a considerable body of cavalry and In- 
fantry, but succeeded in reaching the 
town and carrying olTone of the prizes (the 
other two being aground) with the loss of 
three men killed and eight wounded, 
among the latter being Capt. Hall, of the 
Hecla, whose wound is however slight. 
The Russians lost 500 men and 10 officers. 
On the 22nd, some detached furts were 
bombarded by steamers at Hango Point, 
but .\dmiral Napier does not seem to have 
thought it worth while to attempt their 
destruction or that of GustafsvSrn. 

Admiral Pluiurid^e, with the Odin, Vul- 
ture, Leopard, and Valorous steamers, bat 
been cruising in the Gulf of Finland. A 
landing wai made at the ports of Brthe- 
atadt and Uleaborg, and the Imperial 
atores and buildings destroyed. An attempt 
at lauding at Gamla Karleby in four boats, 
under the command of Lieut. Wise, was 
repulsed by the Russians, with a loss of 54 
in killed, wounded, and missing. Among 
the former were Lieut. Carrington and Mr. 
C. F. H. Montague. The Leopard and 
Valorous have destroyed the Crown wharf 
at Kemi, in the Gulf of Bothnia. The 
French fleet has joined Admiral Napier. 
The fleet was off Sweaborg on the 4th of 
June. 

Ruiiia. — An order of the Minister of 
Police has appeared at St. Petersburg, 
prescribing the course to be taken in the 
event of a siege of that city. Both sides 
of the mouth of the Neva are being pro- 
tected with strong defensive works. The 
Emperor visited Cronstadt recently in com- 
pany with the Grand Duke Constantine, 
when the commander of that fortress is 
said to have been dismissed for peculation. 

fyoHce. — M. Billault has been appointed 
Minister of the Interior in place of M. de 
Persigoy, who has resigned on the ground 
of ill health. M. Mavrocordato left Paris 
on the 27th of May to take the Presidency 
of the Greek government. 

The organization of the camp of the 
North ut St. Omer is advancing rapidly, 
and a part of the troops who are to oompoae 
it have received orders to proceed to their 
posltians. 

Italy. — The Susa and Turin Railway, 
thirty-two miles in length, and connecting 



Domestic Occurrencet. 



[July, 



the Alpa with Genoa, wu opened, bjr the 
King and Queen of Sardinia, on the 29tb 
of May. 

Signor Gabbri, to whom the inquiry wai 
committed ui to the recent UMMination 
of the Dolce of Parma, wat himielf mortally 
■Ubiied on the 1 2th of May. 

Swilztrland. — A good undentanding 
hu been restored with Austria, and the 
blockade of Ticino has ceased. 

The Earl of Elgin has concluded the 
preliminaries of a treaty with the United 
Slattt Govemmcut, whereby the subjects 



of (he latter will be admitted to equal 
privileges with British subjects in tha 
Canadian fisherie:!, and free trade in raw ^ 
produce will be established between tha < 
British and American territories. 

China. — An attack made by the Im- | 
periaUsts on the foreign settlement of 
Shanghai, led to the storming and dcstruc- 
tion of their camp, on April 4th, by the 
English and American forces). Two sea- 
men were killed and twelve wounded of 
the volunteers. 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 



Jhm 10. The Crystal Palace at Syden- 
ham was formally opened by her Majesty 
the Queen, in the presence of about 
40,0(1(1 persons. Tlio ceremony was wit- 
neaseil by the Prince Consort snd the 
Royal Family, by the King of Portugal 
and his brother the Duke of Oporto, by 
the Foreign Ministern, the leading raein- 
bera of tbe Administration, the Royal 
Commissioners of IH51, the Royal Com- 
uissioners of the New York Exhibition, 
the Committee of the Dublin Exhibition, 
the Representatives of the Imperial Com- 
mis!^ion for the French Exhibition next 
year, by a Urge number of Peers and 
Members of tbe House of Commons, with 
their families, by the Mayors of the 
different corporate towns in the kingdonn, 
and by the Presidents and Vice-Presidents 
of llic chief U'Srued societies. One end of 
tbe great transept was occupied by the 
orchestra; in its centre stood the dais 
upon which her Majesty's throne was 
placed, surmounted by an ornamental 
canopy ; while on all sides were ranges of 
seats reserved for distinguished visitors. 
The great body of seasou-tiiket holders 
occupied rows of chairs extending from 
one end of the nave to the other, or took 
pouesaioo of raised benches at each ex. 
tramity. Her Majesty arrived at 3 o'clock, 
and was received with the roar of caunuti, 
the outburst of tlie National Anthem from 
the voices nnil instruments of l,.'iOO per- 
formers, ami tbe an-ianiations of Ihe entire 
company. When the performance of the 
National Anthem had terminuted, Mr. 
Laing, having ascendeil the itrps of the 
liaia, real! to her Mojesly an address, in 
winch, after dwelling at 8'>me length no 
tbe sucrei>s of the Great Exhibition of 
18JI, he described the views of the ili- 
irctors in its prr«eot successor : — 

"The first object was sought to be at- 
tained by the creation of a new Crystal 
*'klaee. forexecoding the original structure 



of 1851 in dimensions and in architectural 
effect — of a terraced garden and park oa 
a scale of magnificence worthy of tha 
palace, and of a system of fountains and 
waterworks surpassing anything tbe world 
has yet witnessed. 

" The educational object embraces a 
complete historical illustration of the urt« 
of sculpture and architecture from tha 
earliest works of Egypt and Ascyris down 
to modem times, comprising casts of every 
celebrated statue in the world, and restora- 
tions of some of its most remsrkabia 
monuments. 

" In saience, — geology, ethnology, zoo- 
logy, and botany receive appropriate il- 
luetratiouB ; the principle of which hat 
been to combine scientific accuracy wi(h 
popular effect ; and in its ultimate develop- 
ment the directors are bold enough (o look 
forward to the Crystal Palace of IH.'ii be- 
coming an illustrated encyclopedia of 
this great and varied universe, whera 
every nrt and every toienee may find a 
place, and where every visitor may find 
something to interest, and be taught 
through the medium of the eye to receiva 
impressions, kindling a desire for know- 
ledge, and awakening instincts of the 
beautiful. 

" Combined with art and science, in- 
dustry receives its due representation. 
The Industrial Exhibition is based on 
principles of commercial utility, taught by 
the experience 8f the Great Exhibition (n 
Wj\. The advantage to national interest! , 
of a place where the best products ail 
different industries and localities could be I 
seen and approached was no less manifest 
than the importance to individual pro- 
ducers of such an unrivalled means of j 
publicity, and the convenience to buyera 
and sellers of such a world's fair for tbe 
exhibition and inspecti<m of goods, and 
tike transactirm of mutual business. 

"The CrysUI PaUoe of leS-l will per- 



185-1.] 



Promotions and Pi-eformenlt, 



65 



pcluite those ulvanUge: under reguUtioua 
suited to the pcriiiiinent charncter of Iha 
iDdustrial Eibibition. As in 1851, the 
doors will be throw a open freel; for the 
products uf all u3tioa.H ; and the presence 
of so many dUtinguisbed rcprcicntativca 
of forrign governmcnlj, on this occasion, 
affords a gratifying proof that enlightened 
men throughout the world arc nlive to the 
ttdTantnges of snch oummaii centres of 
fricoilljr ouioa, both to the arts of industry 
and to the higher iuteresia of peace and of 
cirilization." 

After Mr. Laing had presented this ad- 
dress to her Majesty, the Queen made 
the following most gracious reply ; — 

" I receive with much pleasure the loyal 
and dutiful aJdness which you hare pre- 
sented to me upon the present occaaion. 

" It i> a source of the highest gratifies- 
tiun to myself and to the Prince, my 
Consort, to find that the Great Exhibi- 
tion of 1851, which was so happily in- 
lugtinited under our auspices, suggested 
the idea of this magnificent undertaking, 
which bus produced so uubic a monument 
of the genius, science, and enteqiriae of 
Biy lubjcctt. 

" It is my earnest wi^h and hope that 
the bright anticipations which have been 
fanned as to its future destiny may, 
uodrr the blessing of Divine Providence, 
be completely realized ; and that this won- 
derful structure, and the treasures of art 
and knowledge which it contains, may 
long continue to elevate and instruct, as 
■ell as to delight and amuse, the minds 
of all classes of my people." 

Mr. Francis Puller, the Monaging Di- ■ 
rector, introduced by Mr. Laing, then 
had the honour uf prc^ienting to bcr Ma- 
jesty a Sfrics of commemorative mednis ; 
after which Sir Joseph Poiton, Mr. Owen 
Joocs, Mr. Digby Wyatt, Mr. Samuel 
Phillips, Mr. Ferguson, Professor Owen, 



Dr. Latham, and Professor Forbes, pre- 
sented the hand-books of tbo sevi^ral de- 
partments, each being introduced by a 
short sjicech from Mr. Laing. This being 
over, her Majesty descended from the 
throne, and a procession was formed in 
the following order : — 
Superinteodaiits of Works and Principal 
Kmploy^s. 
Contractors. 
Architects of Industrial Courts. 
Principal Officers and Heads of 
Departments. 
Directors. 
THE QUEEN; 
U.R.H. the Prince Albert, the King of 
Portugal, tlic Royal Family, the Duke of 
Oporto, and their respective suites. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The Cabiuet Ministers. 
The Foreign Ambassadors and the Foreign 
Ministers. 
The procession passed round thesoutbern 
limb of the nave, re-entered the transcjit, 
and, winding slowly round its east side, 
paraded along the east and west sides of 
the nave, when her Majriity and the Royal 
visitors again took their seats on the dais, 
the ministers, amba&sadors, jcc. occupying 
the same places sa before. The orchestra 
than gave forth the solemn strains of the 
100th Psalm; at the close of which his 
Grace tlie Archbishop of Canterbury, 
standing forward on the left of the throne, 
offered up a prayer compofed for the oc- 
casion. This concluded, the Marquess of 
Breadalbane came forward, and said in a 
loud voice, " I am commanded by her 
Majesty to declare that this Palace is now 
opened." This was followed by tbo 
grand strains of the Hallelujah Chorus, 
after which her Majesty took her de- 
parture during a second performance of 
" God save the Queen." 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS. &c. 



(lATrTTS PnErEBUK.VTS. 

;ain Henry Wright, e«i. to b« 
iier of the tinhl Fields, and 
III I'owlell, Mil. to be Chief 
' Crown Lands for lUe eolony 
ii Ker, C!)i|. to be C'lticf Justice 

.- 1 uf Nevii— Thomas T. Watt, 

to tie t.-nnilintE-^urveyor at the port of 
'town, Vau Dienien's LAud ; ana Lieut. 

> mm, UN. to be Port Captsm 

pe of Cjood Hope. 

Caret White.eaq. late Captain 

' " '-:i-' of llie Corns of Gen- 

M.ite Mardonald, retired. 

I' .anry Cavalry, Capt. 

.1. iti..iiili»m, late of Id I.ife 

itTiK, 10 lie S<c<<iiil Major — Oloucestcrshire 

Ce.Nr. Mac. Vol. XLII. 



Cli 

K/r. 

Co.;, 
Of \ 

for 1 

Hobtrt 

Wiin-" 
of I 
>i 
U<..: 
tirh 



&; 



Uosiar Yeomanry, Major O. W. DIathwayt 

to be Lieut Colonel — Perthshire Militia, H.M. 
PrumnionJ, late Cant tOil HiKhlandcrs, to lie 
Major.— 6th M est York .Militia. »■. J. iJayly, 
late 91st Foot, to be Steund Major. 

J*nc 1. Captain Peter Uichards, C.B. to he 
one of the Lords Conimissloiiers of the Admi- 
ralty. — William Walter Car(;ill, est), to be 
one of the Coriis of UenlleiDeu-at-Arms, vice 
Hughes, retired. 

JuHci. John Price, e.vi to be Inspector. 
General of Penal Kstabliblinicnts and Hulks 
for the colony of Victoria.— William G. U. 
Shepalone, esq. to be Civil Commissioner and 
Resident Mngi^tmlefor theiUvision ofQueena- 
town, C^pe of Oood Hope. 

Junet. 3d West India llcgt. Major Samuel 

Iv 



66 



Promotion* and Prefermentt. 



[July, 



HixKl Murray to be Lient.-Uolonel ; Capt. 
G. B. T. Colman to br Major. 

June 8. Henr)- .Mari)ucM of Aiii<:ln«; sworn 
Lord Lieutenant and Costus Rotulomm of 
the county or Ani^leaea, and Edward- John 
Lord Hatberton Lord-Lieutenant and Cuttot 
Rotoloram of tUe county of Stafford.— Jamei 
Laurie, esq. to t>e one of Her Majesty's In- 
spectors of Schools. — lith Foot, .Major-Gen. 
T. J. Weniysi,C.B. to be Colonel.— 94ih Foot, 
Mainr-Gen. Henry Thomas, CU. tube Colonel. 
J»mt 9. Knif^hted, Lieut. -Col. Frederick 
Abbott, CD., late of Bengal EnKineeni, and 
Lieot.-Gorernor of the East India Company's 
Militar)- College at Addiscombe; and George 
Maclean, esq. Commissary-General to Her 
Majesty's Forces.— 7*1 Foot, Major Thomas 
Ross, irom 90ib Foot, to be Major, ricr Major 
R r. Campbell, who exchanres.— 2d West 
India Regiment, Major H. W. W. Wynn to be 
Lieut. -Colonel ; Capt, Thomas Gibbings to be 
Major.— Urevet Capt. A F. Ulylh (.\djntaut of 
a c^iralry depAt), h. p. 6ih y>.\. Ke^. to be 
Major in the Army. — Royal 3larines. Col. 
Second Comm. Thomas Wearing to be Colonel 
Commandant ; Lieut.-Col. H. I. Delacombe to 
be Colonel Second Commandant ; brerel Major 
A. B. Stransham to be Lieot.-Colonel. 

Jmme II. Loid John Rassell dcclaml Lord 
FmidentoflbeCouDcU.— Henry-PeihamDuke 
of Newcastle and the Right Hon. Sir George 
Grey, Bart, sworn two of Her .Majesty's Pnn- 
eipsi Secretaries of State (the former for the 
new War Department, and the latter fbr the 
Colonial Derartmcnt).— air Charles .\agostas 
Filz-Kcy, Knt., Goreraor of New South wales, 
snd Sir John Francis Datis Bart., some 
tisse GoTemor of Hong Kong, to be Knighia 
Commanders of the Bath iciril diriaion).— 
Peter Smith, esq. Chief Clerk of the Uffice of 
Secretary of Stale for the Colonies, and Major 
Georte Balfoor, East India Company's Serrice, 
to be'Companions of the Bath (citiI dirision). 
—Frederic Bernal, esq. to be Consul at Madrid. 
Jii»t U. Mar^ret Gordon MTherson, a 
minor, dan. of Alex. M*Pben«B,of Garbity. co. 
Horsy, H.D. in compliance with the last will of 
Alex. Gnat, sometime of Jamaica, and late of 
Arlington-street, esq. to take the sumaiBe of 
Grant after M'Pberson. 

Jmmt 16. James Misick and Dsniel T. Smith, 
eeqs. to be Members of the Council of the 
Turks and Caicos Islands. 

Jmat 19 Msjor^Senenl H. R. H. the Doke 
«r Cuabridre, K.G. to be Uent.-General in 
the Army.— The Rer. Philip Pennington, M.A. 
to be Chaplain, and C. Francis Berens Daw. 
kins, esq. lo be ScperinienJcri: (.■'. Tohce for 
the IsUnd of Mauritius. — William Young, 
lewis M. Wilkios, .\]cxai:der Camiriiell, iwi 
Stephen Fnlton. esqs. t-i Le Member* cf the 
B»cntis« CooBcil. and Lewis M. WiUins to 
Ik Clerk of the Eiccctire Cooneil, for Nora 
8oolia.—Gearfe Montagu, esq to be Sorreror- 
il_ftr Ibe distrKt of NauL— William 
lie, esq. 10 be a Member of the 
uoucil fbr the Bahama Islands.— 
I GiBasisrd. John Young, and James 
. to be Membera of the ExtcstiTc 
_ Uoatans.— lobert Gordon, esq. 

^D. to he a Xcabcr of lb* Legislatire Conn- 
d fer Xrw BrvBSwiA.— Charles Iionclas 
Skwart, esq. to he a Member of the Ccandl 
Arlbe Uaadof 81. TiBccst. 

By BRvet of tkis date. » Uect^ 




ranks by the brevet of Nor. IMC.— 19th Foot, 
Major-Gen. William Rowan, C. H. to be Colonel. 
— Mth Foot, .Uajor-Gen. G. A. Wetherall.C.B. 
to be Colonel.— 35lh Foot, Major Edw. Hely 
Hutchinson to be Lieut.-Colonel ; brerel M^or 
Charles Beamish to be Major.— Major-Gen. 
the Hon. George Anson to hare Ibe local rank 
of Lient.-General in the East Indies. 

JumtH. Granville-George F-arl Granville 
sworn Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

Junttl. William H.Uraper.esq.oneof the 
Puisne Judges of Canada West, Robert Bald- 
win, esq. and Edmund Campbell, esq. both of 
Canada, to be Companions of the Bath (nril 
division).— Gth Uragoons, Major H. D. W bit* 
to be Lieut.-Colonel; Cipt. Charles Csmeron 
Shule to be Msjor.— 3Stb Foot, Lieut.-Colonel 
W. R. Faber, from 73nd Foot, to be Lient..CoL 
rice Lieot.-CoU James Fraser, who exchanges. 
Jane M. Royal Artillery, to be Colonels, 
R. B. Rawnsley, R. Hardinge, R. Andrews, 
Browne Willis, T. U. Higgios, T. Fox Jilrang- 
ways, J. Eyre, C- Otway, W. C. Anderson, 
R. S. Armstrong. R. Clarke, and W. Fnrneaux. 
—To be Lieut.-Colonels, W. H. Askwith, F. 
Donlop, F. Dick, A. Tylee, C. J. Dallon, D. K. 
Wood, II. M. Time, K M. Eanlley Wilmnt, 
J. W. Fitzmsyer. G. R. H. Kennedy. G. Sand- 
ham, and C. V. Cockbum.— Royal Engineer*. 
10 be Cokmels, M. A. Waiers, P. Cole, E. Mat- 
son, and J. C. Victor.— To be Lieut.-Colonels, 
W. E. Delves Broughton, R. J. Nelson, G. 
Bnrgmann, and E Aldrich. 

Jmttt. 1st Life Guards, Mitior and LieoL- 
Col. and brevet Colonel Richard Parker to be 
Lieul.-Col. and Colonel; brevet Majrr Lord 
F. A. Gordon lo be Major and LieuL-f^lbnel. 
— «rd Ugfat Dragoons, Major Halter I'nett to 
be Lieul.-Colonel ; Capt. G. Forbe» to be M^or. 
—9th Light Dragoon*, .Major A. Liitle to be 
Lient.-Cblonel , brevet 31>jur J. R. H. Rcseto 
be Major.— llih Ugfai Iiragwrns, Major JcbD 
Douglas to Le Litut -Colonel : Capt. Ldniond 
Feel to be Major— Grenadier YuA Guards, 
Msjor snd brevet Co', "ne! Tt\',». Wood to be 
LieuL-Colonel ; Captains and Lietit -C«^.nel5 
and brevet Ccionels J. R. Craufurd, W Tfaom- 
ton, and the Hon. F. G. Uood, to be Majors; 
brevet Majon EG. W»D)ard,tfae H<.o K.W.P. 
Curion, and Lieut, ar.d Capt J. Reeve lobe 
Captains and LieBt..C;'ior,els — Co.'istTesa 
Guards, Capis. and Liekt.-Cblonels and bretct 
Colonels the Hen. G. F. Upton and Cordon 
Drammond lo be Majors ; Lients. acd Capts. 
C.L. C<:cks, J. C. M. L'.well, snd Jama Ha.aett 
to be Captains and Lieot.-Co:cEeU. — acMs 
Fuiieer Goards. Captains and Liest -CoiiKels 
and brevet Cols. Geo Motcntlfe ts.i E- >^ F. 
Walker to l« Majore: brtvet Ma:..-s K M:-jr- 
som ai.1 F. C. .\. S:ep'-ec.»c to U C>pu:u 
and Lieot 4>>loce'.!.— SttF'.--.:. t.'tve! L:*-.;:.- 
Col. Matthew :m-.:h l: U Uf -t.-Cc:. ; tT? «t 
Major John Rmer to be Major. -Mri F:->t, 
brevet Col. H. Havelock. C B. i: t< Ut.l.- 
Colonel: brevet Major '«'>. U. H. F. C.arke 
to be Major.— COib Foot, Ma: ;r J'.ii. J::.«> to 
be LMat.-Colo»l; brevet Ma;:e F R. i aj:.tr 
to be Majc-r.- 99th Foct. brevet C-.L J- X. 
Jacksca to be Lieat-C: >;»: : t revet L:t-::- 
Col.G. M.RerrestobeMaj-.r.-Bwet. bnevet 
LiecL-CoL Eardlrv Wi:&ot u b« C-.>:eel; 
Lieut, asd Capt. P. 1. C. Paget, -c.-j J^.'ntt 
Goaids, lobe Major.— Ird Irng. G&i;:j, Ca;t. 
T. T. S. CarlvoB lo be Ma;-cr. 



Gceerals are prsmotcd to be Gescrals, n Maior- 
g eee m ls loV LMOt-Cencrals, I»Co!>ncla 
•■ be M^jer- Cfwsli , »l Ue«L-C3b»eb to 
ke CaiMds. IS M^srs lo be Licat-Coloncls, 
mOptalBB to be M^on- Tbe brevet S- 
fj' •" en those Licncuat-GcBcnis. Maiir- 
GtMtala.Ca|ncl>.LacBceaU-Cotecl*. acd 
Mann who were prrmxce^ to their re»p«e'.:-e 



Natal PKOMcmoss. 

Mai ». Icsr- Admin: E. W B»--« t.- i« a 
Vke-.\dm. ob tbe Reserved La: . Sear- uim 
ioha Coode,CB. iobeVics>Adau «^ :l<t £: u : 
ChffL Michaei Seymser to be B<ar-JL^3ixa. U 
tie V-.t. 



1854.] 



Ecchaiattical Preferments. — Births. 



67 



Jiait 18. Lieal«n*nt Rodphck Urw, of HM. 
•Uaaahip Encouoliir, to be CoiuuMiider. 

WilWain Thornrly. esq. to be Dbtribotor of 
Sump* >l Liverponl. 

W.S. Kirk<ii. M.D. toboAttUUDl-Pliysiciaa 
of a«. tUrtholonii'Wi Hospiul.— Mr. Coote lo 
b* AuUUnt-Surgeon. 



MemitTi returned to teree in Parlianunl. 
titmdtH —Lord John RosmII, re-ei. 
M»rp€lk.—Rt. Hon. Sir Oeorcc Grey, re-el. 



ECCLEIIASTICAL PkXFCRMINTS. 

Bicbt Hon. aod IU«ht R*r. Earl of Aacklaad, 

V.l) (Uiahopof Hodor ud Man), Bisbupric 

or lUth and Wella. 
Uoo. and Her- H. Powrs, Biahopric of Bodor 

and Uan. 
Hon. and B«r. G. Wrllnlcy. Deanery of Wind- 

•or i alau, io b« Domeatic Cbaplain to the 

Uaceo. 
KcT. K. Barton (E. of St. Georte), to the Sub- 

OMnery uf the Cathedral Church of Christ, 

OahllD. 
ttt. T, C. H. Stretch, Archdeaconry of Gee- 

luiijr. dto. Melbourne. 

O. Wickham (V. of Gresford), Arch- 
jonry of Si Aaaph. 
,„^^B<'idi«ni, M . A ( .M . P. for N'ewcaallr-upon- 

Tynii). Chancellor of the diuceae of Ripon. 
iUt. L. T. Lenia, Vicarihip-Choral in the 

Cathftlral Chorch of St. Aiaph. 

^r. W. Allford, Folke R. Itorset. 
r. H Anilijs, Cnbington R. ilucka. 
BeT. II. Atkinaon, Bdermine Prebend aad Rec- 

lorr, dio. Fernj. 
Ber. W. A Uittiraby. Chapel of Eaa«, Derry. 
Rev K Ikiwrn. Uttle Wiirboraa<h R. Eaaex. 
II - ■: v.G.T.O. Bridgeman, BIymbill 

'irre. 
'irlton, Farway R, Devon. 

:>, All Saints' P.C. Gordon 

8qu. 

■«♦.(. :GeorreV. Wolverhampton. 

Raf. J < ijuii.iy, MeiKh P.C. dio. Armagh. 
Rev. K. (.'bApmaii, Normantoo R- Lincolnshire. 
K«v. C. C. Collins, St. Msry P.C. Aldermau- 

burv, London. 
Rev. H, \V Coventry, Woolatone B. Olouc. 
Rev. W. U C.n. Hevwood P.C. Wilts. 
Rev.C. a. ri. .le P.C. Middlesex. 

Rev. U. W. I. .ftiu P.C. Wilts. 

Kev, J |)«vi I liniuhire. 

Rev.T ' ; II iJi.irryUank P.C. Stair. 

Rev. i; lireintun !'.(". Ilerefordah. 

K*v. J 'i>poquin P.C'.dio. Llsmore. 

Rev \'. ^dori V. w. Wanyford P.C. 

anil ! SuiTolk. 

H'-f '■ 'lumber R. Herefordahire. 

•:-., M. Fagan R. w. Llanilterae 
. inshire. 
i r), Uaniltid P.C. Glamorcansh. 
K. , I i; Head, O'Brien's Bridge P.C. dio. 

k;IUIor. 
f!' •. f It'TnI.iv, Cahonra V. Lincnlnshire. 
-ly, Cartmel P.C. Lane. 
' . .rwan, Wuotton.Waven V. 

■ > diwickshire. 
>• .'. > Liujitiaoi, SI. Mary R. Lambeth, 

■^'il try. 

Kt'v. J. Llovd, Llanstephau P.C. Radnorshire. 
H*v- 11 J. lA)n)c*aon, S-acrofi P.C. Yorkshire. 
Rev. Sii C .Mact^reiiiir. Uurt. Swallow K Line. 
Rrt. W. f. .Vlackesy, LaneclilTe I'.C. Yorkah. 
Rev. G. Morgan, SI- I'aul P.C. Poole, Dorset. 
Ri>v. II. Murean, Aberavoii P.C. Glamorgansh. 
Bn. J. Murray. Nurlb Walsham V. w. Aotiur- 
Ub R. Norftilk. 



Rev. J. Murray, Wroxton V. w. BalseotI C. Oxf ' 
Rev. G. Morray, Deilham V. Eaaex, 
Rev. J. T. Oldrim, Uersion V. N.,tu. 
Kev. J. R. (Iwen, Llanverres R. Oenhlrbahlra. 
Rev. W. Qoekril, Warring ton R. Lancashire. 
Kev. H. B. Sands, Nortbwood P.C. Middleau. 
Itev. H F. Seymour, Harking V. Kaaex. 
Hev. 1.0 Sniilb.Tedsloiie-de-la-Mere R. Heref. 
Itev. J. U. Smith. SolUy R. Lincolniihtre. 
Rev. J. G. Smylh, North Elkingtoii V. and 

Sooth Elkinglou V. Liiicolnahire. 
Rev. T. Williams, St. George (or Kegidor) R. 

Denbighshire. 
Rev. J. St. O. Williams, Thomastovrn R. and 

V. dio. Klldare. 
Kev. W. \Mlloek. Cleenish R. dio. Clogher. 
Rev. J, H. C. Wright, Wolferlow V. Heref. 

Tb Chaplainciet. 
Bev. W. B. Artby, H M.S. Imperieuse. 
Bev. W. Field. Royal Asylum of St. AnnM| 

Rev. F. k. Gutteres, H..M.S. Vengeance. 

Rev. W. R. Jollev. II. .M.S. Amphion. 

liev. F. Lear(U. of Bisboploo), tu the BishooJ 

of Salisbury. " 

Hev. H. Maclean, to the Union, Caistor. 
Hev. T. E. Meredith (and Naval loalracta 

H. M.S. Algiers. 
Rev. P. Pennington, Colonial, laUnd of Mait>J 

ritiua. 
Rev. J. S. Rubson. H.M.S. Leander. 
Rev. J. H. Sheppard, at Wiesbaden. 

Collegiate and Sciolattic Afipointment: ' 
J. Conington, M.A. Profeasorahip of the Latin j 

Language, university of Oiford. 
Rev. fl. I'laler, Head-Mastership of the Gram- 

mar .School, Newark, Notts. 
J. Waley, M.A. Profeasorahip of Political Eco* \ 

nomy, Unirenity College, Loudon. 



Rev. H. G. Bunsen (V. of Lilleafaall), Lecture. 

Secretary for the Church Missionary Society, 

dio. Lichfield. 
Itev. E. Day, Lectureship, Umehouse, Middx. 
Rev. M..M. Uilloo.a .Mission tu 30,0(10 Fugitive 

Slaves in Cauada. 
Rev. II. T. Whately (R. of Rodinglon, Salop), 

Lecture-Secretary to the .-'ocieiy for the Pro- 

Eagaiion of the Gospel in foreign Parts, dio. 
.ichfield. 



BIRTHS. 

May 19. At Molshanger. Hants, Mrs. Wrnd* 

h&m S. Porul. a dau. 18. At May ball, 

Mra. Mackintosh, of Mackintosh, a sou. ■ 

19. At BramforJ ball, Suifulk. the lion. Mrs. 

George Warburtoo, a ilau. 21. In Gros* 

venor sq. the C'tess of Dartmouth, a dau. 

In Uelgrave sq. the wife uf the Right Hon. 

Sidney llerbert. a son. At Frankfurl-on-the- 

Maine, Mi^. Ldnioiid St. John Mildmay, a son. 

32. At Harrington square, Mrs. F. W. 

Oliphant. a dan At Carltim terrace, the 

Duchess of Argyll, a dau. as. The wife of 

J. Tolleroache. esq. M.P. a sou. — At Tun- 
bridge Wells, the Hon Mrs. E. Cropper, a aon. 

At Greystoke castle, Cumberland, Mra. 

Howard, a son. At t^alverley park. Tun. 

bridge Wells, tbo wife of C. G. Mansel, esq. 

Civil Service, Nagpore, a dau. 8«. At 

Boologne-sur-Mer, the Hon. Lady Mosiyn, of 

Talacre, a dau 1i. At Plaistow, Essex, 

Mn. W. 11. Bathurtl, a dau. At Edinburgh, 

the wife of Charles W. tjrde, esq. a son nnd 
heir. J7. At Norton coiiase, near Chi- 
chester, the wife of S. P. U. G)bbori .Mony- 

pcnuy, esq. a aon. 38. At Wiiideriuere, the 

wife of Lieut.-Cul. liellaats, 3d Bombay Eur, 



68 



Marriages. 



[July, 



Rert. » d«u. At Arklow lioose, Connaaght 

place, Lady Mildred Hope, a dau. 39. At 

tlic rcttory, Campsey-Ashe, Bufl'olk, Mrs. Jer- 

myn Pratt, a son. At New|)ort, tlic wife of 

Capl. Henry Hall Uare, of the 23d Royal Welsh 

Fasileera. a dau. 31. At Dorkiiijr, the wife 

of GeoTffe Cabitt, eso. a son. Ai Worcealer 

Earit, Surrey, the wife of Sir Frederick Currie, 
lart a son. 

JuHei. At College house, Bt. Hetifr'a, Jersey, 
the wife of the Kev. W. G. l>. Henderson, 

D.C.U a son. At Milfori), Lyniington, 

Hanta, the wife of Lient. William Charles 

Geary, R N. a son. 3. At Su.saex Kardcns, 

Hyde park, (lie wife of IJeut..Col. tirofton. a 

■on. At Halkin-st. West, Mrs. Barinjr, a 

aon. 6 111 Uurwoml place, the Hon. Mrs. 

Spencer I'onsonby, a son. At Queen street, 

May-fair, the Hon. Lady Vavasour, a dau. 

In (trof>renor-at. the wife of Capl. Sir James 

Clark lloss, R.N. a aon, At Hi^h Park, 

N. Devon, the wife of Paul Wilinol, esq. a 

iOn. 7. At UouIo^e-sur-Mer, Lady Louisa 

■Alexander, a aon. 8. At Wliiliinghani, 

IN. U. Lady lllanche llalfour, a son it. At 

LRawclidTe hall, .Mrs. Creyke, a dau II. At 

f Penaburst ca.<>lie, Kent, Lady De I'Isle and 

I Dudley, a son. At Norfolk crescent, Hyde 

hptrk, the wife of Captain Tyler, R.E. a sun. 
t -^13. At Connaught pi. the C'lesa of Rusae, 

Ta aon. At ^<outhaiuploo, the Hon. Mrs. 

^ Btretton, a dau. 



MARRIAGES. 

Dtc 8. At Melbourne, William Newman 
[Bhadwell Keen, M.I), second sun of the Kev. 
f C. T. Keen, of Aylsham, Norf. to Jesaie-Mar- 
I (*rel, eldest dau. uf the late William Macleod. 

»i|. H.E.I.C.S. of Calcutla, and Brixloo. 

18. At ^t. Kilda, near Mclliourne, William 

Cftttefurd, esq. Lieut. R.N. tUird »on of the 
[ late Lieut.-Gen. Robert Crawford, to Mnry- 
I Ann-Winlhorp,youniceHt dau. of the late Adm. 

Sir Lawrence W. Halsted, G.C.U. and grand- 
, d,iu. of the fir.Ht lx)rd Kxmoulh. 

Ptb. 30. At Uombay, Alfred Cotton IKay, 
j nq. 28th N. Inf. son of E. Way, esq. of New- 
[port, I.W. to UessieCbarlulie, only dau. of 
^Capt. H. Y. Ea^er, II. M. yuth Lisht Infantry. 
t 25. At Cochin. E. I. John Himpton, esq. 
[Lieut. 4Hth ,M.N.I. eldest aon of J. A. Simpson, 

esq. of Montairue pi. Russell aq. to Sophia, 

ridest dau. of Capt. Welch, Kl\i Madras N.t. 

, At Meerut, John Henry XomaH, esq. 

I Calcutta, to Kmily-Klitabeth. second dau. of 
k the Rev. George Carter, Minor Canon of Nor- 
TWicb. 

> 27. At Port Eliiabelh, Cape of Good Hope, 
; the Rev. H. BiulnaU, M.A. Chaplain to the 
I Bishop of Cape Town, to Sarah, dau. of J. (). 
' Smith, esq. 

I Uarch 2. At Bombay, T. Tristram Pieri, 

wq. »ih Bombay N I. to Charlotte-Mary, 

eldest dau. of the lale Rev. II. I). Tristram, 

Vicar of E^linchain, NorthuniliiTland. 

3. .<t lionKKong, Henry lloiiiie ilroiea, esq. 

> to Ellen, eldest dan. of Sir J. K. Douglas, K.N. 
r 7. At Mercaro, in Coori{, Jamrs Douglas 
* HohiHSOH, esq. Madra.H Civil Serv. to Gertrude, 

eldest dau. ol^tbe Kev. Alfred Fennell, U A. 
8. .\t Allahabad, Kdwaril HarriH Cr.athnl, 
' (all. of l'ddinj{s house, Dorset, .Major Hth Kci;l. 
' lo l.ooisa, relict of George Archer, esq. 

10. At llomhay, John Lodnjck H'arrfru, 
esq. Uumbay Civil Scrv. eldest son of John 
' Warden, eso. Member uf Council, to Emily, 
. dau. of Cbarles Dural, esq. 

21. At Nice, Nicolas, only son of the lale 
Freilerick lUonmer, of the Kussinn Corps 
t>i|,loniati(|ue, to Anne-Cathcnne-Franciska, 
•econd dau. of Croftuu Vandeleiir Fitigerald, 
eaq. of CO. Clare. 



23. At Madeira, William Cotiarl. esq. of 
Leonardpt. St. John's wood, lo Elizabeth, Afth 

dau. of Thomas H. Edwards, esq. At Ply- 

moutli, Lieut. Jobo James Vouvlas, K.M. 
second son of John DooKlaa, esq. of Walmer, 
to Margaret-Jaae, eldest dau. of G. A. Harbor, 
esq. Capt. late 8th Bengal Light Cavalry. 

April 4. At CholkTIon, the Kev. Jaroea 
AUgead, second son of Robert Uincelot All- 
good, ea(). of Nunwick, Northumb. to Isabella, 
Ihlid dau. uf the late C A. Williamson, esq. 
of llalgray, Dumfriesshire. 

e. At Goring, Sussex, Wm. Newton Warren, 
of Lincoln's inn, barrister, to l-'.lixiibell], dau. of 
Levi Kushby, esq. of Field pL near Worthing. 

At Inverness, Atfred-Koiiert, fourth son of 

the lale Col. Harry Cough Onl, K.A. of Itexley, 
Kent, lo llrlissa-Janr, third dau. of the late 

Rev. W. Sroyly. At Gibraltar, Lieut. John 

Henry j;f.Ji)il»,g2d Highlanders, to Margaret, 

dau. of Lieut..Cal. Warren, Sith Kegt. At 

Naples, Richard C. Xaylor, eso. uf Hooton 
hall, Cheshire, to Caroline, second dau. of the 
lale Rev. K.Tredcroft, of 'Tangmere, Sussei, 

H. At Hampstead, George Morgan Pafnore, 
esq. late of Demerara, to Georglana, youngest 
dau. of the late Kev. Edward Andrews, LL.1), 

of Walworth. At St. Mark's Kenningtou, 

Thomas lianitip, esq. son of the late Capt. 
Haiislip, of Norman cross, Hunts, 66th Regt. 
Co Charlotte. Ann, second dau. of the late John 
Laurie, eaq. uf Hadley, Middlesex. At Chel- 
tenham, Henry Gibbon, eaq of Great James 
Btreet, Bedford row, to Mary, second dau. of 
Robert Jacomb Hood, esq. of Bardon pk. Leic. 

10. At Monkstown, \\ illiain Richard Crat. 
hie, ciq. only son of the Isle Edward Crusbie, 
esq. of Dublin, and grandson of Sir Paul Croa- 
hic, Uart, to Catherine, only dau. of the late 
Rev. Saniuel Madden, of Kilkenny. 

12. At Kingstown, Sir Lionel SmUM, Bart. 
71st Light Inf. to his cousin, Fanny, fourth 
dau, of the late Thos. Pottinger, esq. of Mount 
Pottinger, CO. Down. 

13. At Cheltrnhaia, Capl. Cjaeknell, ItM. 
to Kate, youngest dau. of the late G. H. Dan- 
aey, esq. of Ludlow. 

15. At Kimlicn, Walter-Milbanke, yoaii(e«t 
aon of J. A. JVaJmitUj/, esq. of Besaboroogli 

Jardens, to Emma, eldest dau. of the lale 
ames Burrows, esq. of Lower Belgrave place. 

At Pentonville, J. W. Lrtlie-Jiukt, late 

of St. John's coll. Camb. lo Charlotte, elder 
dau. of C. Falckr, esq. 

17. At Frankfort, Francis Baoley, esq, 
youngest son cf late Kt. Hon.SirJoiin Rayler, 
Bart, to Charlolle, dan. of lale Mons. Frederic 

Ruulet, of Neufcliatel. At Guernsey, John 

Blackwood De Unlit, esq. Royal Eng youngest 
son of the Ule Gen. Sir A. l>e Butts, K.C.H. 
to Katharine-Carterelte, second dau. of Capt, 

R.C. M'Crea, R.N. At St. George's Hanover 

square, Alfred-George, second son of William 
Tarle, e»). of Kalou sq. lo Emily, dau. of the 

late William Dunlop, e^q. of Lenishaui. 

At raddington, Robert Cunitinr/, esq. of Helli- 
don house. Nurtliaoiptoflsh. to Harriet-Sarah, 
youngest dau of the late George Auslow, esq, 
of Urcwooil, .'^IttlTunlshire. 

18. At Brighton, KJniund Janet, eaq, M.O. 
of Kuss, Heref. to Eliubeth, widow of J. B. 
Eckley, esq of Credenliill, and eldeal dau. of J 

the late W. C. Brandram. eso. of Gower at. 

At llonltham, near Lincoln, Charles Coningsbir 
Waldo Nibtkor/i, e«q. late Capt. lat Royal Dra- 
goons, second son of Col, Sibthorp, M.P. to 
Charlolle-Eliiabeth-Mary, elder dau. nf Lieut- 
Col. Richard KUitnii, of Boulthani hall. • 

At Tunbridge, the Rev. Gorges Rirhard Dallas 
IVaith, Chaplain to the Dow. Lady Vivian, to 
Helen-Catherine, dau. of the late Lieut.-Gen. 

Middlemore,C.B. Colonel. At Thirsk, Major 

Samlert, K CS. to Jane, widow of William 



^ 



1854.] 



Man-iagM, 



69 



Mmry Bn^ntnn, tai\. At Ulonhun, CbariM 

' ■■ ■ ^ '' '/MA<iM*f, esqor FcnUke UArnfl, Uetl- 

t<i Rinily-Mary. rideflt iliu. of Sir 

''iit*s I'ayne. lUri nf KlonhAm bou»«. 

.\' iidH»t«Ad, the Rev. Frederic CMeere, 

IliinI ton of ibe UtrC. M. Clicrre, e<i|.or Pnp- 
worlli htll, Cftmb. to MariAnne-Emily, dtn. of 
the Ute Robert Hood, *m. of Furmly, co. Kil- 
kenny At Frnxfield, Joseph Tkoftbji, esq. 

of llrl()iiit?h.iDi, to Emma, fl«rcond dAti. of the 
Ulc RcT J. II. Duke, M.A. of Demerani. 

19. At Rdtberlleld (irey-i, (Xon, William 
SUpkeiu, CAi). of Maidenbeait, to Mary-.Vniie- 
.Melloney, youngest aurvivini; dau. uf the Ute 
Hrx. Urorre ricubeil. I>.l>. Ucclor of llratllcby, 

Uoc. At Newport Fajncl. John llopkinsou 

Bool. M.P. uf Sleafurd, to L'atherine-Anii. ae- 
cond dau. of the late Win. T. UawaoD, esq. of 

Levrrton hmi«<-. At 3t (ifonfe's Hanover 

*|ii.t: ■ . Henry ('. Puieiri, M.A. of 
One' I. to KinilyCiruliiir, dau. of 
Ihc 1 irpopir. M.A I'erp. Curate 
uf ^r ! At Colches- 

ter. I'su. I3lh ReKt. 

to t .rj K. Vrntrit, 

1(.A riiimiai Fi»ber, 

LMf. tiiabury chapel, 

*Sb» .| uf UlasKDw, 

(Me- -iracutnro. 

fbri' :>uel .Mor- 

ten ■ iiiplon, the 

ReT.t: w. >'*f/7.r. >l A Curat.' ul llusbnud's 
Boaworth, l/^ir. eldest aon of l.ieiU.Col 1'. 
Phipps.nf ( >3;.Iinds, Clonmel. to A)cues-Uertha, 

dau (It, eiq. J. P. At Stratford 

St. .\ ,nv. Tbomaa James Oeirthrr, 

of c J. Essex, to Elira-Marxaretla- 

Wi!- dau. of Willlaui Hewer, esq. 

lair ^At West Mam, Ei««». the 

HtM *, II.A. Tiinity coll. Camb, 

Cur 'inas. Wincbeatcr, and younj;- 

t»t • .Mr.l. Deck.Cainb.tuAunie, 

eldr- I. A. Chalk, esq. At West 

Hruniirtui*. J'jtiii. only son uf John Pbilips 
I'Mtifit, e»q. of the Wray, Urasmere, lu Kosa- 
KlKabeth, widow of the Rev J. S Money 

Kyrle. At Loi-kwood, n.:. leld, 

the Kri T B. Btpin. M..S. I 'lor 

of Liixuln rull. (KC.rd. rr..r. Mial 

Til, 1..1I. Ilirii4ii.,;liacii, and 

llei : M-\, to Klua, >ouii;^eat 

dan , e»<(. At linK-liffe, 

Tbii . . ' SumiiiMki, of liiti can- 

llc, U.^: luniaiiabelli, only dau. 

oliie.'^ ' I M.P. of Nevrby park, 

Yorksh. 

M. Kt UoinH-'y, Ibe Very Rev. Ueucge Henry 
Sacheverell JuSiuuh, Dean uf Wells, to Lucy, 
younxrst dau. of the late llenr-Adm. Robert 

ll'Urien At .Norwich, tin- Rev. U. W. 

Pt«nt. .MA. and Keclor of Gajwood, anond 
sObof Hrice l'earsf>. e^.j. uf Aiilil>ii>ball, Herts, 
tu .Alice- -Mafia, younKest dau. of llie Uev.t^anon 
WoUehuuse. .\l .Ml SouU' L.-ini;hain pi. Row- 
land-Hill, son of lliiMd Deny, esq. of Clyniuulh, 
banker, u> Julis-.M.iri;aret, eldest d.iu of Lewis 

H. Chandler, f».|. ol llernera st. At Wal- 

tiMiiutaw, the Rev. Mbadwell Morley Ilart- 
ttcrlk, U.\. sn-ond son of the late John lUrk- 
worlb,e»if r.Cl r.mhs liuuse, nearliull, to Kllen, 

dau. of A ' ■', e»q. \t Cbiirlton, 

Kent, till' Hanson AikttU. M.A. 

I*nncipal i.'i ..- . ..an colleiieaiCulliaiit,to 
Kliubeth, eldest tiau. uf J. V. riiseii, esq. of 
Blackbeatb. — At Paddiuzton, Tbns. Hunter 
Lamt, e«i. eldest tun of the bite Dr. Hunter 
LauF, of llrook st. to Catherine, younxer lUu. 
of the lato Robert Uleayard, esq. of ijlaidburu. 

At llstb, W m. Cuninzhanie CHi»»gkaiHe, 

Kq 7'Jth HiKhlandera, to Louisa-Kranrcs. only 

dau. ol John (iroiODd, esq. At Uatb, Jalne^ 

J. Hawtimt, Lieut. Mill Itcngal N.l. 10 Kmnia- 
Avffdfta-Wllmol, MCOnd dio. of llie laK Mi^or 



Parke, 6l<t Hegl. At St. Georfe'i Hanover 

square, tMward S. Dmdy, esq. of Arundel, 
Secretary to the Earl Marshal, to.Mary Caro- 
line, only dao. of the late Charlev Fita-Willlani 
White, fM\. of Croydon, and adopted child of 

ThoDiais R. Uort, esq. of Kaal Grinslead. 

At the church in Gordon «q. John Barclay, 
esq. M.I), of l.«iceat»r, to Kmnia-.Viary Anne, 
eldest dau. of John Hate Cardale, esq. of Bed- 

/ord bouse, Taviatock «(i. At St. Pancraa, 

the Rev. Lancelot Capol Unlkuril. Incumbent 
of Wytball, Wore, to Kllen, eldest dau. of 
Georife Hodjfklnson, esq. of the Grove, Kenliah 

Town. At St. Pancras, Georfre- William- 

Uryant, eldest aon of Georije Fred. KuMmark, 
esq. of FiUroy sq. to i:isrl.Sophii. yoiinuoat 
dau. of llenj CufrtireenhilI.esq.of Kiiole ball, 

Som. Kl Dll'ord IJ'Arcy, Hunts, Harrison, 

second sou of the late Henry Hiivtrr, esq. of 
P.den Vale, Wilts, to I'-liia-Jane, eldest dau. of 
the Rcv.T. Walker. Rector uf Ortord D'Atcy. 

At Hlackburn, tlie Uev. K. Ailu-rtrn Nmrt- 

fAarne. of Hutlon hall. Lane, to I d 

dau. of Joseph Feilden, eft4|. of ^'. 

.At Cbeddon Kil'ipaine, Tauiii . •. 

Francis John KUioh, B.l). Reclonf ll>iii\"rk, 
Devon, to Isabella, dan. of the late William 

Spekc, esq. Jordans, Ilnilnstcr. At Witney, 

Frederick, second survivinr son of William 
Hogge, esq. of 'Iliornhnm, Norfolk, and Ui|t- 
Kleswade, Beds, to Alice-Geor^ana, yount^cst 
dau. of the late Tomkyiis IH'w, esq. of Witney 

court. Hereford^h. .Vt Liveri»oul, the Rev. 

Cb.irles Heathcole t'orr, Jncumbent of St. 
John's, Liraehoiise, third sun of the late R. L. 
Carr, es*v to Diana, youngest dau. o( .\ntliony 

Strainson, esq. At .St. Hilary, (ilain. Ilaiuil- 

ton. youngest son of F.van H. iiaiUir, esq. of 
Gluucester pi. Portman sq. to Ellin- Maria, 
eldest dau. of the late Rev. Georife Traherne, 

Rector of .SI. Hilary. At Birch, Essex, the 

llev. Henry Nicholas f.'mvii, of Cally, Kirkcud- 
briiiblsb. to Charlolie-txiuisa, elilest dau. of 
tlic late Rev. Henry Freelnnd. Rector of Ilas- 

keion, SutTulk At Wesi Meon, Hants, the 

Rev. William Preston /iu/foM. second survivinj 
son of the lato Heury Hulton, esq. of Bevis 
Mount, near Soutbanipion, to Julia-Aiinei 
second dau. of the late Rev. John Gridin, Rec- 
tor of Bradley, Hams. At P»ddin»ton, the 

Uev. William ifnv/><^.l.eaininirlnii, to Frances. 
Harriet, Hecniid dau. of late Rev. John Morgan, 

Vicar of Burton Dassell, Wanv. At Went- 

worlh, Yorksh. the Rev. John t-rvell, M.A, 
Incumbent of Hwinton, to Sasan-Dctavia, 
youngest dau. of the late James Upton, eai). 

nf Great Russell street, llloomsbury. .At 

Hilchin, Herts, ibo Rev. George (iaiiuforftt 
only sun of G. R. Gaiusford. esq. of Brighton, 
to Annette, fourth dau. of Ibe Rev. Henry 

Wiles, Vicar of Hitchin. At Brighton, 

Joseph jAines Hnlfcrlt/, esq. of Hailey st. to 
Rebecca- Dennistoun, youngest dau. nf the late 
Alexander Lang, es<|. of i)verto:i, Duiobar- 

tonsil. .Vt Braithwell, near Doncaster, Ito- 

bert-I'eel. eldest son of Robert Peel WiUack, 
esq. of Uarlield house, near Maucbester, to 
Sarab-Anne, second dau. of Alexander Liagard, 

esq. At Maniiin^ham, near Bradford, John 

Uollingf, es<(. of West house, to Mary-Jaoe- 

Hoiie, eldest dau. of the Rev. W. Milton. 

At Itainsliury, Wilts, Joseph Henry C/or*. esq. 
uf AltwiKMl, near Maidenhead, eldest sou of the 
late Joseph Clark, esq. to Rachel, eldest dau. 

of William Ron land, esq. At Dinton. Wilts. 

Herbert Uarnard, esq. of Portland pi and 
Ham, aurrey, to Ellen, eldest dau. of William 

Wyndham, esq. M.P. At Cjinterbury, Wm. 

I,emoii Other, esq. of Widcombe bouse. Dc 
Beauvoir sq. and Threfldneedle st. to Ik'rtba, 
youngest dau. of William Mount, esq. of On- 

terbury. At Salcomtie Reris, Devon, Edw, 

H , Sollg, esq. of West beatb, Congleton, Clicsh, 



Marriages. 



[July, 



to Lncy-Cbarlolte, dtu. of the Ute iUr. Grori^e 
J. Cornith, Vicir tit Kenwyn and Ke>, Corn- 
will. At Si. Micbiel'a. ChnUr »q. R. J. 

Elringtont esq. lOtb Husamrs, to Eleanor, dau. 
of Robart Hand, eaq of St. Georee'a road, 

Ecclealoa aq. AI Haiti, the Rev. JohnChaa. 

KeaU, Rector or Hartley Weiitpall, Hanla. to 

Clara, dan. of Wjlllam Hudleatone, esq. 

At Camberwell. John Price Hitton, esq. to 
Francea, daa. of the Rev. .John Hurnall, of 
Peckhim Rye. 

n. At SL Peter'a Eaton sq. Capt. Robert 
Piltrmi, R.N. second aon of the late Lord 
Charles Fittroy, to Maria-Isabella, third daa. 
of John Henry Svnith, esq. of Heath hall, for- 
merly M.!'. for the University of Cambridge. 

At Clapham, Uenjamio Willlanu, esq. of 

the Lodfe, Hillingdon, J. P. Middlesex, to 
Catherine-Amelia, daa. of the late i^pencer 
UoKan Forde, esq. of Olanmyre, Cork. 

n. At Barbados, Fits Herbert Alleyiu, esq. 
second son of Sir Reynold A. Alleyne, Bart, to 
Anna-Maria- Best, second dau. of Sir R. Bow- 
cher Clarke, C.B. Chief Justice of Barbados 
and St. Lucia. 

35. At St. Leonard'son-Sea, Robert Drum- 
mond, eso. eldest aon of Charles Drummond, 
esq. uf Charinic cross, to Auj^usta-Cbarlotte, 
younj^est dau. of Col. Fraser, of Castle Fraser. 

At All Souls' Langham place, Robert B. 

Lateet. only survivtnc son of Robert Ldwea, 
esq. of Stanhope terr. Hyde park, and Kintstoii 
hsil, Surrey, to Kmma-Setina, dau of lUa late 
Rev. Edward .Murrny, and j^randdau. of the 

late Lord Ueoriry Murray. At Wtiicbford, 

Warwicksh. the Rev O. A. Walker, Curate of 
Pattiaball, Northaniptonsh second son of Jolin 
Walker, esq. of Westboume at. Hyde park, to 
Catherine-Amelia, eldest dau. ; and, at the 
same time, the Rev. Vernon Blake, Curate of 
Worloo, UxOD, son of Capt. Blake, R.N*. Gen- 
tleman-Usher to H.R H. Prince Albert, to 
Anna, aecond dau. of the Rev. R. B. Pinniger, 

Rector of Whichford. .\t Slreatley, Berks, 

J. I. P. Uuodu, esq. Town-clerk of Scarbo- 
rouEh, to Martha- Anne, only child of William 

Kiplinic, esq. of Mill hotise. At N'ewcastle- 

u[>on-Tyne, Wtlhatn-Hnmitton, second son of 
the late Sir Ueflnorlli WiUiamMOH, Hart, of 
Whitburn, to Mary, eUlest dau. of the late 
Robert William Ilrandlin^, esq. of Low Gas- 
forth, Northumberland.- At Harton-upon- 

Hnmher, the Rev, T. 1'. N. Buxlrr, .MA. Fellow 
of St. Catlinrine's hall, Cambridge, and Curate 
of Barton-uiwn-Humlier, to Helen U. ouly 

dau. of Capt. Howe. R.N. At St. Pancras, 

ThomaS'OlinthuB, eldest aon of Profeaaor 
DonaldtoH, of Bolton rardens, Ruascll aq. to 
Maria, second dau. of S. Netheraole, of Ja- 
maica. At Christ church. St. Pancras, the 

Rev. Edmund Dickie Kerehav, of Southam, 
Warwicksh. to Helene, eldest dan. of John 

Yonng, e»q. of lliEhbury park. At Biitirles- 

wade, Beds, James, eldest son of Robert Lkad- 
ttiek, esq. of Hii^h bank, Prestwich, Manches- 
ter, In l^nra-Janet-Emma, third dau. of Chas. 

Barnett, esq. of Stratlon park, Beds. At 

Wolverhampton, the Rev. W. Venablea Wil- 
Hawu, B.A. of Rhuabon, to Annie-Eleanor, 
eldest dau. of Edward Morris, esq. At Chea- 
ter, the Rev. Cecil Jervis Clarke, B.A. Curate 
of Eccleaton. near Cheater, to Margaret, younz- 
est dau. of the late J. \V. Hulme, e^q. MedlocV 

vale. Lane. At Cliellenhaiii, John IJaniel 

WilliOBU, esq. 38th Bombay Nat. Inf. to Har. 
riet-Henrietta-Amelia, eldest daa. of the Isle 

Capt. A. J. Ormsbv. Madras Army. At 

Wesl.Sbandon, Dumbartonab. Graham IFi/Hn, 
esq. son of John Wilkin, eaq. of Sprini^ gar- 
dens, to Isabella, youDiest dau. of Robert 
Napier, eaq. of Glascow. 

37. At Fareham, HanU, John Edward Pad- 
don, eaq. to Ann, only dan. of the late Henry 
Oaborn DOHglaa, esq. tod ^raoddan. of the 



laie Adin. Billy Doui;las. At Lechlade, the 

Rev. Alan H. Ckeale*, (grandson of tbe lale Sir 
Alan BelliDgbim, Bart, of Castle BeUinKham, 
to Fanny-Louisa, second dau. of tbe Rev. H. 

Came(ie Knox, Vicarof Lechlade. At Little 

Brickhlll, Bucks, Ihe Rev. James Charles Lett 
Court, MA. second son of Major Court, of 
Castlemans, Berks, to Rosa-Emma, dau. of 

tbe late Rev. William Spry. At Queenstown, 

Cork, Henry Jermyn Montgomery Campbell, 
Lieut. R. Art. to Uiuisa-Syoney, dau. of Hear- 

Adm. Sir W. F. Carroll. K.C.B. At St. 

Mary's Kensinii-ton, Frederic-Jnhn, only aon 
of Frederick P. Keeling, esq. of Colchester, to 
Mary-Davinia-Staart, dan. of David Stuart 
Galbralth, esq. of .Machrlhaniah and Drumore 

house. CO. of Ariryll. At Banior, Sir John 

Jmlkin-filsgerala, Bart, of Lisheen, to Mar- 
garet, widow of Samuel Banks, esq. of New 
Perry, Cheshire, and dan. of the late William 

Warner, esq. of Kitwell, Wore. At Clifton, 

Frederick, eldest son of the Hon. Georre King, 
of Fryern. Sussex, late Capt . of the 37tn Ennis- 
killena, to Charlntle-Mary-Heriut-Mallland, 
dau. of the late James Heriot, esq, of Ra- 

mornie, Fifeahire At Clifton. James Au- 

irustus Caley, eaq. Ceylon (.'ivil Serv. to Fanny, 
only dau. of the late James J. Campbell, esq. 

At West Brompton. Wm. Geo. WCIure, 

eaq. M.D. third son of Ihe late Geo. .M'Clnre, 
esq. R.N. to Lydia-Le-Messurier, sixth dau. of 
J. G. Moyle, e.sq. late President Bombay Med. 

Board. At Thornhill, Capt. Totrgaod, SSth 

Iten^al N. Inf. to Adelsiile'.Mary-Annc. second 
dan. of the late Wm. Slansfeld, esq. of the 

Manor house, near Wakefield. At Launeea- 

ton, the Rev. Samuel W. Tagerl, Curate of 
Trewen, Cornwall, youngest 'son of Samuel 
Tajrert, eaq. barristrr-al-law, Dublin, to Eliia- 
beth. eldest dau. of Henry Badcock, est) of St. 
Stephen's by Lauoceston. At Annahilt. Ire- 
land, the Ilev. J. Clement Govett, son of the 
Rev. R. Govett, Vicar of Staines, Middlesex, 
to Marianne, dau. of the Rev. Edward Leslie, 
Rector of Annnhilt At Castle Eden, Dur- 
ham, J. W, WfdderbtirH, esn. late Capt. 43d 
R.Il, only son of Ihe late John Wedderbnm, 
esq. to Margaret-Anne, only dan. of tbe IVe 

Thomas Whaite, esq. Lieut. 9<Ib Re^t. .\t 

Ipswich, Stephen, eldest son of the late Postte 
JackiOH, esq. of Ipswich, to Catherine, dnu. of 

Frederick Cobbold, esq. At Amwell. Herts, 

the Rev. Charles Grayson Ptcktkall, Curate of 
Shudy Camps. Cambridj^esh. to Ellen-Liiuisa, 
only dau. of Peler (Christie, e«q, of Hoddea- 

don, Herts. AtDevoniwrt, Kicliard-Winter, 

only sou of the late Rev. Richard Wmter 
Hamilton, LL.D. U.D. of Leed.t. to Charlotte- 
Amelia, only surviving dau. of E, M. Leiglii 

esq. of ColUimplon. At St. Pancras, L/ivell 

Lan/jelow, esq, second son of Capl. \Mni^\ow, 
Bengal Rit. of Hatlon, Middx. to Augusta- 
Julia, eldest dau, of J. C, Mason. esq. of .Meck- 

lenburgh sq, At Isle of Jersey. Henry Bad- 

cock, esq- of Birdhill. co. of Tipperary, to 
Hannah-Maria, youngest dau. ofthe late James 
Leche, e«q. formerly ("apt. SCIh Regt. of Fool. 

At the British Embassy, Frankfort-nn- 

Main, the Itev. W. S. Tumbull, .M.A of SI. 
John's college, Curate of Carlton. in-Lindric, 
Nolls, to AgneaMiry. eldest dau, of Ihe Rev. 

C. O. Smith, Rector of Carilon-in-I.indrlc. 

At Flrbeck, the Rev. Henry J. RUiton, Vicar 
of Edensur, to Mary- Dorothy, eldest dau. of 
Lieut. -Col, Jebb, Surveyor-General of Prisons. 

At Newport, Rarnstsple, Edward Liick- 

mere, esq. of Noltingh.Tm, to Selina, dau. of 
the late Thomas Heathcoat, esq. and niece of 
J. Heathcoat, esq. M P, fur Tiverton, 

38. At Hampstesd. the Rev, John fValktr, 
M,A. of MallDn. Yorkshire, lo Louisa-Ger- 
trude, youngest dau. of Baul George Wooddi 
esq. of Hillfield, Uampslead. 



^ 



71 



OBITUARY. 



RioBT Rsv. RicBABD Baoot, D.D. 
Bishop or Batii and Wells. 

Uaif 15. At Brigtitou, agrd 71, the 
Hod. Had Right Rev. Richard Bngot, D.D. 
Lord Biiibop of Bath and Wtlls. 

Dr. Bajot «a» born nt Darentry in 
Northamptonsiliire, on llie 22d Not. 1782. 
He wai the third sod of William first Lord 
B«$ot, by the Hon. Louisa St. John, 
diDxhtcr of John second Lord Viscount 
II 1 . 1^^ jjg ^jj edacateil at Rugby 
ich be entered with his elder 
'. harles (the Ute Right Hon. Sir 
Charte* Bagot), under the mastcrabip of 
Dr. James, in 1790 ; and thence proceeded 
in IBOO to Christ Church, Oxford. He 
took bis B.A. degree in 1803, and in 1804 
«u elected to a fellowship of All Souls, 
which he retained nntil 1806, when he 
married Lady Harriet Villiers, youngest 
daughter of Geurge-Bussey fourth Earl of 
Jtnej. He proceeded M.A. on the 7th 
Nov. in the same year, and wu created 
D.D. in 1829. 

Id 1806 he was presented by bis father 
to the rectory of Leigh in Staflbrdiihire, 
and Id 1807 to that of Blitlifield, and in 
the Utter year he became a Cnnon of 
Uindsor. In 1817 he was appointed a 
Canon of Worcester. 

In IH39 he was consecrated Biabop of 
Oiford -, and in 184.i, on the death of 
Biihup I^w, was translated to the see of 
Bath and Wells. 

On the appearance of the " Tract* for 
the Times," Dr. Bagot was, against his 
will, forced into prominent notice. He 
wa* accused of farouring the to. called 
Romanisers, and was besieged by letters 
from private persona, and by articles in 
the daily presj, requiring him " to suspend 
theaothorsof the Tracts, "and to clear the 
University of Oiford from all but true 
Protestants. On the other side, be was 
regarded as a shield from the indignation 
of the public. The Bishop deemed it 
prudent to require that the publication of 
the " Tracts for the Times " should cease; 
which they accordingly did. So great, 
however, had the outcry become, that the 
Biahop's charge of 18-12, in which he al- 
luded to the circumstances, was con- 
lidered oa an apology for the writers. 

The eacitement of this lime and the 
Biahop's failing health, together with the 
deaire cipresied in certain quarters that 
(kc Bishopric of Oxford should be ad- 
ministered by a more vigorotts and younger 
man, was the cause of his being translated 
to Bath and Wells, on the death of Dr. 
Law ill 184j. 



In the otual course of events, it might 
liavc been presumed that such exciting 
rircumstancea woald no more trouble Dr. 
Bagot. Yet there was one more serious 
triid reserved for him ; an attack was 
made upon him in the House of Commons 
by Mr. Horsmnn, for inducting the Rer, 
W. J. E. Bennett into the living of Frome, 
which by law be was compelled to do. 
This was the foremnncr of that painful 
mental aberrotion which afflicted Dr. 
Bagot shortly afterwards. From this 
period up to the time of Dr. Bagot's de- 
cease, the afiairs of the diocese of Bath 
and Wells were under the administration 
of the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, 
by an Act of Parliament passed for that 
purpose. 

To the private character of the late 
Bishop we bate beard the most eloquent 
testimony; he was gentle, confiding, and 
a lover of peace, wu a munificent patron 
of the Church societies, and a gcnerooi 
friend to the poor. His Lordship does 
not appear to have published any other 
than a Sermon before the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, in 1835, and 
Charges in 18.'54, 1837, 1843, and 1847. 

The Bishop bad been for some time 
suffering from disease of the heart, which 
eventually deprived him of the use of one 
of bis hands. Amputation was advised by 
his Lordship'a medical attendants, and 
the operation was performed, but the 
health of the tulTcrer gradually declined, 
and for some time past it had become 
evident that bit recovery w«» not to be ei. 
pected. 

By Lady Harriet, who survives him, he 
had issue eight sons and four daughters : 
1. Lieut. -Colonel Edwurd Richard Bagot, 
Lieut.- Colonel of the Westminster Militia, 
formerly of the GOth Royal Rifles, and 
Knight of the Redeemer of Greece ; who 
married in 1842 Matilda, widow of Oswald 
Perkins, esq. and has issue ; 2. Villiers, 
who died in 1810, in his second year; 3. 
Capt Henry Bagot, R.N. who married in 
1846 his cousin Wilhclmina-Frederica, 
youngest daughter of the Right Hon. Sir 
Charles Bagot, G.C.B. and has issue ; 4. 
the Rev. Charles Walter Bagot, Rector of 
Castle Rising, Norfolk, Chancellor of the 
diocese of Both and WclU, and Registrar 
of the diocese of Oiford, who married in 
1846 Mary second daughter of Colonel 
John Chester, and has issue ; 5. the Rev. 
Louis Francis Bagot, Rector of Leigh, oo. 
Stafford ; who married in 1848 Catharine, 
third daughur of the late Hon. and 
Ucv. John Evelyn Dotcaweu ; C. Harriet 



72 



Obituary. — The Dean of Windsov. 



[July, 



Frances, married iu 1837 to the Rev. XmtA 
Charles Thynnc, (uncle to the Mar(|Ueas 
of Bath,) a Canon of Canterbury, and 
Vicar of [.ongbriilge DeTcrell, Wilts, and 
has issue ; 7. Major George liagut, 
Captain in the 41 at Foot, and First Aide- 
de-camp to the Lord Lieutenant of Ire- 
land ; 0. Frnncea-Caroline, who died in 
1840, aged twenty-one; 9. Richard, who 
died iu IM40, aged nineteen ; 10. the Rev. 
Frederick Uaeot, Rrctur of Riidney Stoke, 
Somerset, and a Prebendary of Wells ; 1 1. 
Emily-Mary, who died in 185:1, having 
married in IB50 the lion, and Rev. George 
Thomas Orlando Uridgemnn, second son 
of the Earl of Bradford ; and 12. Mary- 
laabel, married in 1813 to Lord Viscount 
Downs, and has iesuc. 

The Dka.s or Winusur. 
June 10. At his seat, Uutleigh Court, 
near Glastonbury, in his tiSth year, the 
Hon. and Very Rev. George Neville 
Grcnville, Dean of Windsor and Registrar 
of the Order of the Garter, M.A. 

He was a younger son of the second Lord 
Braybrookc, by Catherine one of the 
daughters of the Right Hun. George 
Grenville, and brother to the present peer. 
He was born the 17th of August, 1 789, 
educated at Eton and Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and nominated in 181.1 by 
hia father as owner of Andtey End to the 
Maatersbip of Magdalene College in that 
Ualvertlty. Tiiia agi|wihtineat he held 
lor 40 ycara with gcri'St rmlit to hitDielf 
and oUvrtiitfflgn tf, the Soi'ioty, whote in- 
trir^nl* bn wan alHuyii mOit nniiona to 
},ioiiH)tK ; und, mlwn it bt'came fvidrnt 
aLiitit Kin iiiuiitli* ii':i> lliat hia ini'rfitning 
Inlii iiiitii* would i»i loii^'r ndmit of lii> 
r(aid«B|H^lMG|B^rid<'i I"' rctuctnntly 
^to the (jrcat concern 
he linil biren to 
^'ComiBcIed. 
(•Ouncctlor, the 
the honour of 
^•ad Uucheaa of 
i Sophia Ma. 
Lbto 4oj3im|h- 




the Rt. Hon. Thon).i4 Grenville for the 
term of his life, with remainder to the 
Master of Magdalene and his heirs male; 
but Mr. Grenville, with that kind and 
generous spirit which marked all his ec- 
tions, at once made over the extensive 
landed property to Mr. Neville, observing 
that his own means were ample, and that 
it was too late for him to turn country 
gentleman. Upon this gratifying oc- 
currence Mr. Neville ossumed the name 
and arms of Grenville, pursuant to Lord 
Glastonbury's directions. 

In 1846, having been for some time 
one of the Queen's Chaplains, he was 
appointed Dean of Windsor, without any 
solicitation on his part, by Sir Robert 
Peel, on the death of Dr. Ilobart. He 
diligently applied himself to the discharge 
of the duties of his high station, and ac- 
quired the confidence and regard of every 
person connected with St. George's Chapel; 
but, his health failing, he had for some 
time been obliged to abstain from active 
business, though he continued to reside at 
the Deanery great part of the year. In 
justice to his raemory.itcannot be too widely 
known that his charities, dispensed in the 
most delicate and unostentatious manner, 
were as munificent as his means were 
ample. At the close of his long incnm- 
bency, he left llaworden with the blessings 
of the poor on his head ; and at Butleigh, 
of which parish he had for a short time 
been Vicur, there was scarcely a dry eye 
when it beciimc known to the villagers 
that thi^ir benefactor had passed from 
them for ever. In the same spirit, during 
the time Vnc Dean and his family resided 
ut Winchiir, many a desolate fireside was 
made cheerful by the rierciso of his 
bounty, and his consideration for the sick 
poor of the dlHtriet was proverbial. Witli- 
out any pretensions to deep scholarship, 
the Dean liad acquired a good deal of 
genera! iiiformition, and his vivacity and 
courteoun manners rendered him a very 
ogreeabk mcinber of society. He also 
po«aessed n tender heart and generous 
disposition, and wa« greatly beloved by 
hia numerous family, for whom he cnter- 
Ininod the warmest afTection. From hia 
earliest yenr» lie had paid great attention 
to hi& reiii;Uiiu duties, thus laying the 
foundation Wn- that Christian and un- 
nITected piety which marked his long and 
tisefal cnrrer. 

The Drill itsarried in May, 1816, Lady 
Ckarlotto Lr^t^ the second daughter of 
George third Earl of Dartmouth, K.G. 
by vruoin, who anrvives him, hn baa left 
foar dnuitlii^ry and six sons ; — Ralph, the 
oldest, wlio HQCceedstothe family estates, 
Biul a**atiip« the aamame and arms of 
♦^'tenvllh', fnpoiMedia 1845 Julia Roberta 



foDith daoghter of Sir Robert FninklaDd, 
Bart, mid has i«aae Tour aona and two 
dtugbten ; William-Frederick, Vicar of 
Butleigh, married in 1847 Faooj Grace 
daughter of William Blackwood, esq. and 
haj five children : Seymour, a Minor 
Canon of Windsor ; Edward, Captain in 
the Poiileer Guards, now on the Staff in 
Turkey : Glastonbury, Lieutenant R.E. 
(erring in NoTa Scotia; William-Wynd- 
bam, a lebolar of Magdalene College, 
Cambridge. Of the daughters two only 
are aomarried. The eldest, Frances- 
Catherine, in 18'I9 became the wife of the 
ReT. Edmund Peel, Vicar of Wargrave, 
Berks; and the youngest, Harriet-Louisa, 
in 1854 married the Rev. Amndell St. 
John Mildmay, Rector of Lapworth, 
Warwickshire. 

The Ute Dean's remains were deposited 
in the family vault at Butleigh Church, 
on Saturday June the ITth, the funeral 
being plainly and unostentatiously con- 
docteil. and attended only by the nearest 
relations of the deceased , and the tenantry 
and serrants on the estate. 



J 854.] Obituary.— 5'ir J. Gerard, Bt.—Sir T. S. Dyer, Bt. 73 

Berocy, esq. of Barbados, daughter of B. 
Smith, esq. of Islington. 

He entered the navy in 1783, on board 
the Uoion 90, and in the same ye.ir was 
present at the relief of Gibraltar, and in 
Lord Howe's partial actions with the com- 
bined fleets of France and Spain. He 
afterwords served in the Elizabeth T'l, Cul- 
loden 74, Carysfort 28, Leander 5U, Bull- 
dog 1(), Alfred 74, end Victory 100; on 
the Home and Mediterranean stations. 
He received his first commission June 39, 
1793; and at the occupation of Toulon 
in August that year he served on shore. 
Esriy in the following year be contributed 
to the reduction uf Corsica, where be landed 
at the taking of the tower of Mortella, and 
witnessed the capture and destruction of 
the French frigates Minerve and Fortun^e. 
In the same ship be participated in 
Hotham's action of the 15th July 1795; 
and in bringing nnt of Tunis bay, on the 
9th March, 1796, of the Nemesis 'ii, and 
Sardine 32. He was next appointed to 
the Malionesa 40, Hector 74, Blenheim 
90, and Diadem 64, and to the command 
of the Ready gnn-brig, which he held for 
thirteen mouths. On the renewal of hos- 
tilities, after the short peace of 1802, Mr. 
Dyer joined, on the 5th July, 1803, the 
Sea Pencibles at Rye ; where he remained 
until appointed, July 3, 1805, First Lieu- 
tenant of the Vesuvius bomb. 

In Nov. 1805, Rear-Adm. Sir William 
Sidney Smith, meditating an attack upon 
the flotilla in Boulogne roads, issued a 
general notification of the intention of 
Government to reward any signal acts of 
bravery that might be performed during the 
approaching operations. Influenced by 
this announcement, Mr. Dyer volunteered 
the command of a boat with only nine 
bands ; and presently had the good fortune, 
at a distance of four miles and a half from 
the British squadron, to blow up, by means 
of a carcass expressly prepared, and in the 
centre of 26 of the enemy's vessels, one of 
the only two that were destroyed on that 
occasion. Six of his men were wounded; 
but he received no other acknowledgment 
of this very gallant exploit than that of 
being personally complimented by the Rear- 
Admiral. 

After a brief attachment to four other 
ships, Mr. Dyer, a few days subsequent to 
bis removal to rAth^nieune64, was wrecked 
nearTunis on the 27th Oct. IBOti, on which 
occasion the Captain (Robert Rajneford) 
and 396 of the crew perished: and he 
auflered a loss of property to the amount 
of 276/. which he never recovered. 

He next served in the Pompce 74, bearing 

the flag of Sir W. S. Smith, and Jane 32, 

until paid ofl: on bis return to England 

in July, 1807. He afterwards held the 

L 



Sin JoBM Gekaho, Bakt. 

Ai. SI. At LoYier Grove House, Roe- 
hampton, aged 50, Sir John Gerard, the 
twelfth Bart (l6U),of New Hall, Lanca- 
ihire, a Deputy Lieutenant of that county. 

This representative of an old Roman 
Catholic family, which was one of the first 
raised to the dignity of Baronet by King 
James the First, was born on the 8tb Dec. 
1804, the eldest son of John Gerard, esq. 
of Windle Hall, co. Lancaster (third son 
of Sir Robert-Cansfield the ninth Baronet), 
by Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Ferrers, 
nq. of Baddesley Clinton, co. Warwick. 

He succeeded to the title on the death 
of his ancle Sir William, the eleventh 
Baronet, oo the 2d .\ugnst, \%'2(3. He was 
appointed Lieut.-Colonel of the 3d Lanca- 
coshirc roiUtia in 1842, but resigned in 
1852; and in 1848 Major commandant of 
the Lancashire Hussars. 

He married, Dec. 3, 1827, Monica, 
daughter of Thomas Strickland Standish, 
of Stsndiih Hall, co. Lane, and Sisergb, 
oo. Westmerland, esq. but had no issue. 

Ue is succeeded by bis brother Robert, 

born in 1808, who married in 1849 a 

>ate(fater of Edward Clifton, esq. of Dor- 



Sm Thomas S. Dyeb, Bart. 

Uarch 17. At Dartmouth, Devonshire, 
•fed 83, Sir Thomas Swinnerton Dyer, the 
dxth Baronet (1678), Commander R.N. 

lU was bom on the 4th Nov., 1771, the 
eltteat son of Thomas Dyer, esq. (second 
•on of Sir John Swinoertoo the fourth 
Borooet,) by Mary, widow of William 

GxMT. Mas. Vol. XLII. 



74 Obituary. — Sir D- CvnyngJuitne. — Sir R. ITeron. [July, 



command for a short time of the Centurion 
Tcceiving-abip at Halifax; and on the 12th 
Jnly, IBIO, he was at length, through the 
influence of H.R.H. the Onlce of Kent, 
promoted to the rank of Commander in 
the Driver 18. He paid olT that iloop on 
the 8th Jan. 1811; and waa not aabae- 
qaentlf employed. He was admitted to 
the out-pcniiion of Greenwich Hospital oa 
the 24th April, 1837. 

He succeeded to the baronetcy April 13, 
1838, on the death of his cousin Lieut-Gca. 
SirTbomas Richard Swinnerton Dyer,Dart. 

He married April 14, 1814, Mary, dan. 
of John Davis, esq. and has left no issue. 
He is succeeded by his nephew, now Sir 
Thomas Dyer, formerly of the Royal Ar- 
tillery, son of the late Lieut.-Colonel Sir 
John Dyer, K.C.B. He married in 1832, 
a daughter of Colonel J. A. Clement, R. 
Art. 



Stn David Conyngiiahk, Bart. 
May 19. In Jersey, in his 8(itli year, 
Sir David Cnnynghanie, the firth Uuronet 
of Milncraig, co, Ayr (170U}, a Colonel 
in the army. 

He was born in the Cauongate, at Edia- 
buri;h, on the 11th Augu»t, 1*0.'), the 
elder SOD of Sir William Augustus Cuu- 
yncbaroe, the fourth Baronet, hy his first 
wire Frances daughter anil heiress of Sir 
Robert Myrton, Bart, of Cogar, Mid 
"othlan. 
^ He was appointed Enaign in the 92<1 
foot Nov. 14, 1781, Lieutenant in the 
same regiment Feb. 0, 178!, Cnptain in 
l\., •\:,\. ->n the 20th March following; 
.1 Foi.t Guards May .1, 178C. 
^'' i-t regiment he was engaged in 

Ipatar*! ut the acliuna fought during the 
ttiiaifD of 179'', iocltiding those of 
•nil ^ I'gcofValeo- 

wln five times in 

•», 1 III'- ■>uniiiiiig of the bat- 

tlDoelles, where he waa very se- 

iinUil He waa promoted to 

liJan. 1737, and Lieut.- 

, 17U4. and received the 

Culuutl June 2f;, 1797, In May, 

theai^tlim at Ostenil,be was taken 

anil he w.u relieved about a 

Oil (he llith August, 

iilcil Lieut. -Colonel of 

II the 7lh Feb. 180O, 

the riOlh ; and on the 

cjrhanged to the half- 

n>n<c<jucnce of family 

Ria prrsence iu England. 

1 was atntionary ; and 

'•- I ■--• at ibe head of 

rank. 

.is twice mar- 

U> Uie Hon, Mary 

(f Edward Arit Lord 



Thurlow, Lord High Chancellor of Eng- 
land ; which lady died in 1816. He mar- 
ried secondly, in 1817, Gertrude, daugh- 
ter of William Kempton, esq. of Ampthitl, 
CO. Bedford ; and became a second time a 
widower in 1842. By the former marriage 
he had issue five sons and two daughters : 
The former were 1. Edward. Thurlow 
Conynghame, esq. who died in 182S, aged 
twenty-three ; 2. Sir David-Thurlow, hit 
lucoeasor; 3. Robert-S. -Thurlow, who 
died in 1828; 4. Francis-Thurlow ; and 5. 
Arthur-Thurlow. The daughters, 1. Mary- 
Frances-Thurlow, marritd in 1828 to 
Lieut.-CoL the Hon. Augustus Frederick 
Ellis, younger son of ttie firtt Lord Sea- 
ford, and brother to the preaent Lord 
Howard de Walden, and who died in 
1841, leaving issue; and 2. Caroline- 
Anne-Thurlow. By his second *ife Sir 
David had further issue, three sons, 6, 
Hcnry-Sidney-Myrton ; 7. William-Au- 
gustus- Charles - Myrton ; 8. Augustus- 
Mytton ; and one daughter, 3. Jnlia- 
Myrton, married In 1844 to Fiederick 
William Kirby, esq, second son of R. C. 
Kirhy, esq. of Bland ford-square. 

The present Baronet, who was lately a 
Captain in the 12tli I^onecrs, was born io 
1B03, and married iu 1833 Annie third 
daughter of the late General the Hon. 
Robert Meade, and granddaughter of John 
first Earl of Clanwilliani, 

Sin RuuEKT IIriiom, Baet. 

Mai/ 2C. At his residence, Stubton, co. 
Lincoln, aged 8!l, Sir Robert Heron, the 
second Baronet (177H), a Deputy Lieute- 
nant uf Lincolnshire. 

He was born at Newark on the 37th 
Nov. 1765, the only ton of Thomas Heron, 
esq. of Chilham Castle, Kent, Recorder of 
Newark, by his first wife Anne, daughter 
of Sir Edward W'ilmot, Bart. M.D. Pliy- 
sician to King George III. He succeeded 
to Ihc baronetcy in Jan. 1 B05, on the death - 
of his uncle the Right Hon. Sir Richard 
Heron, some time Cliief Secretary of Ire- 
land, upon whom the dignity had bcca 
conferred, with remainder to the male 
issue of his brother. 

In comparatively early life Sir Robert 
became a politician, and afterwards look 
an active part in some of the election con- 
tests for Lincolnshire. In 1812 bethought 
of standing for the county, but abandoned 
that intention, and canvassed Grimsby, for | 
which borough he was returned, and ha 
first spoke in the House of Commons oa ' 
the Catholic question, bis maiden speech 
being complimented by Bankes, Plunkctt, 
and Whitbread, and as ho himself said la 
bis " Notes," " privately by Canning, 
who afterwards abused him publicly." At ', 
the general election in 1818, Sir Roberti 



1854.] Obitdary^— 5fi>- W. Ingilh^, Bt.—Sir G. Campbell 75 



*•! m ouididtte for the oountjr, bat with- 
drew on the third day of the poll, the 
Bumbere beint — for Pclham, 3,693; Chap- 
lia. 3.U69 ; HeroD S,G33. Ue attriboted 
hti defeat to not baTing paid ai^ents. In 
Deeember, 1819, Lord Fitxirilliam offered 
him a *at for Peterboroof h; and, although 
hia appearance there excited the ire of the 
dcrcy, one of whom called him " a rascal, 
•jacobin, and an atheiit," be wai returned 
witfaout oppoailion, in the room of the Hon. 
Wtlliam Lamb. At the general election 
in 1820 he was rechosen with Mr. Scarlett 
(aflerwarda Lord Abinger) ; and again in 
I8M, 1830, 1831, and 1832, without op- 
poaitiun. In 1835 there waa a third can- 
didate in the pertOD of Mr. Walker Per. 
rand, in 1837 in Mr. W. E. Surtees, and 
in 1841 in Mr. Thomas Gladstone; but 
noBsof theaa ConierratiTc gentlemrn were 
WBlwnfiBl, ihs old Whig aud FitzWilliam 
iolareat alwaya Mcuring Sir Robt. Heron'a 
return. At the dissolniion of 1852 he re- 
tired from Parliament, being then in hia 
■ted year. Ue waa chairman of the Board 
af Qaardiaos of the Newark Union up to 
a Tcry recent period ; and he not only paid 
grcAt atteotion tu Ihut office, but continued 
hii activity aa a county magistrate. Hia 
politics were thoroughly Liberal : he woa 
a Chriitian in the proper tense of the 
word, and be maintained a conscientious 
and consistent course throughout his life- 
He had been for some lime declining ; 
bat hia death, though daily expected, was 
sadden ; be was sitting in his library, and 
on being asked at bed-lime whether he 
was dis|iosed to retire, it was discovered 
that Ufe bad glided away. 

Ue married, Jan. 9, 1792, Amelia, 
daughter of Sir Horatio Mann, K.B. by the 
Lady Lucy Noel, sixth daughter of Bap- 
tist fourth Earl of Gainsborough. By her 
ladyship, who dit^d in Dec. 18-16, Sir Robert 
Uemu had no isaue, and the title lias cou- 
acqaently become extinct. 

Siv Wu. A. Ingilbt, Baiit. 

lias 14. At the house of John Cle- 
■iCBtson, esq. in Abingdoo-«trret, West- 
Binater, in bis 71st year, Sir William Am- 
•oUi logilby, Bart. (IT8I and 1796), of 
Ripley Castle, Yorkshire, and Keltlethorpe 
Park. Lincolnshire, a Deputy Lieutenant 
of Yorkshire. 

He was bom in Yorkshire in Jane, 1783, 
the third but eldest survinqg son of Sir 
John Ingilby, of Ripley, the first Baronet 
of tha creation of 1781, (a natural son of 
Sir John the fifth and last Baronet of an 
earlier creation in 164'^,) by Elisabeth, 
daagbter and sole beir of Sir Wharton 
Amcotes, of Kettlethorpe, Bart. When 
■tiU a boy, on the 9tilh Sept. 1807, be sue- 
to the baronetcy which hod been 



eonferred in 1 796 on his maternal grand- 
father with special remainder to him ; and 
on the 8th May, 1815, be also succeeded 
bis father in the baronetcy of 1781. lo 
l8S'i he receivfd the royal licence to prefix 
the name of Amcotts before bis own. 

On the succession of the Hon. Cbarlea 
A. Pelbam to the peerage aa Lord Yar- 
horougb, in Dec. 1823, Sir William In- 
gilby was returned to parliament for Lin- 
colnshire, after a contest with Sir John 
H. Thorold, Bart, in which he polled 3816 
votes, and Sir John 1575. He was re- 
chosen without op{iosition in 1826, 1830, 
and 1831 ; and after the enactment of the 
Reformed system of representation be was 
ekcled for the Northern division of the 
«anie county, which is called the Parts of 
Lindsey. He iva£ then opposed by Sir 
Robert Sheffield, Bart, who appeared on 
the Conservative interest,the result being — 
Hon. C. A. W. Pelbam . . . C561 
Sir W. A. Ingilby, Bart. . .4751 
Sir Robert Sheffield, Bart. . . 4056 
In 183S the Conservatives mustered 
mora strongly, and efTected Sir William 
Ingllby's defeat: — 

Hon. C. A. W. Pelham . . . 4489 

T. 6. Corbett, esq 4450 

Sir W. A. Ingilby, Bart. . . 3984 
Sir William Ingilby was twice married : 
first, in April 1822, to Louisa, daagbter 
of John Atkinson, esq. of Maple Hayrs, 
SlalTurdshire ; she died on the 23d July, 
1836. Ue married secondly, in 1843, 
Mary-Anne, only child of John Clement- 
son, esq. leijeaot-at-arms to the House 
of Commons, and granddaughter of Sir 
Thomas Turton, Bsrt. but having left no 
issue, both bis baronetciea expire with 
him. His Lincolnshire estates are in- 
hrrited by his sister Angnsta, who was 
married to Robert Cracroft, esq. and are 
entailed on his nephew Major Cracroft: 
the Yorkshire estates are inherited by Sir 
William's cousin the Rev. Henry John 
logilby. Rector of West Keal, near Spilsby. 
Sir William's body was interred at 
Ripley, his widow being chief mourner at 
the funeral. 



Sir GioiiGa Caupbbll. 

Hay 20. At Edenwood, near Cupar, 
in Fifeshire, aged 76, Sir George Camp- 
bell, a Deputy- Lieutenant and Magistrate 
of Fifeshire ; elder brother to the Lord 
Chief Justice, Lord Campbell. 

He was born in 1778, the eldest son of 
the Rev. Dr. George Campbell, for fifty, 
four years Minister of Cupar, by Magda- 
lene, only daughter of John Hallyburtoo, 
esq. of The Fodderance. 

He was knighted in 1833, in considera- 
tion of his active services in preserving 



the peice during the (giuting period of 
the R«rorm Bill. 

He msrried ia I8'i3 Margaret daughter 
of A. Ckriitie, etq. of Ferrvbank, and had 
iMue three aoiu, George, Cbarlet-Hallj- 
burton, and John-Scarlett ; and two daugh- 
teri, Margaret-Charlotte, married in 1845 
to Darid Jonea, eaq. of Pantgllis, M.P. 
for CaroiaKhenahire ; and Francei, mar- 
ried in 1850 to the Hon. Fitigurald Al- 
gernon Charles Foley, Lieutenant R.N. 
youngeit brother of Lord Foley, and baa 
iaaue. 



76 Obitdahy,— <S«r John Simpton. — Adm. Macktllar. [July, 

year wu wounded in the leg daring aa 
action with a French iqaadron under M. 
de Suffrein, in Port Praya bay. Haring 
remoTed in April 1 782 to the Enterpriza 
28, he saw eome active aervice in the Weat 
Indie*. He w>< afterwards employed in 
the Edgar 74, Hebe and Phoenix frigates, 
Alcide 74, Barflear 98, Salisbury 50, and 
Victory 100. He wai made Lieutenant 
Not. 22, 1790; and appointed in 1791 to 
the Circe, in 1793 to the Assistance 50, 
and Jan. 38, 1797, to the acting command 
of the RoTcr sloop. He was made Com- 
mander on the 5th July following. 

In Feb. 1798 Capt. Maekeller was ap. 
pointed to the Mincrra frigate, in which 
he distinguished himself in the destruction 
of the locks and sluice-gates of the Bruges 
canal, but whilst on shore was taken pri- 
soner together with Major-Gen. Coote, 
the military Commander-in-Chief. Having 
regained bis liberty in the following De- 
cember, and held for a short time the com- 
mand of the Wolverine sloop and Charon 
44, he was advanced to post-rank April 
27,1799. In Sept. 1800 he was appointed 
to the Jamaica 2f!, and in March 180 1 to 
the Terpsichore 32. His services wliilst 
on the East India station elicited the high 
approbation and thanks of the Bombay 
government; and having been latterly em- 
ployed in the blockade of Goa, he returned 
to England in 1802. 

In May 1804 be was oppointed Agent 
for prisoners of war and transports, and 
Governor of the Naval Hospital at Hali- 
fax in Nova Scotia, where he remained 
about six years. 

On the 2d Aug. 1815 he was appointed 
to the Romney 50 lying at Chatham ; in 
Dec. following to the Salisbury 58, bear- 
ing the flag of Renr-Adm. J. G. Douglaa 
at Jamaica; and May 14, 1H17, to the 
Pique 36, on the same station, whence be 
returned home, and was paid o9 in Dec, 
1818. He was made a Rear-Admiral in 
1825, Vice-Admiral in 18.37, and a full 
Admiral in 1847. He was in the receipt 
of a good-service pension. 

He hai left issue three sons and four 
daughters. Hi* eldest son, John Mae- 
kellar, is in the service of the East India 
Company, in which he is distinguished a* 
a linguist, and received a modal for hi* 
service* in the late Burmese war. 



Sir John Simpson. 

May 20. At York, aged 58, Sir John 
Simpson, Knt. an Alderman and Magis- 
trate of that city, and Distributor ofc 
Stamps for the district. 

He was the son of Richard Simpson, 
esq. an alderman of York, and was bom 
at Blundsby Park, near Pickering. He 
followed with his brother the business of a 
corn-merchant and miller. He was an 
alderman of the old corporation ; and, 
having been re. elected after the passing 
of the Municipal Reform Act, was the 
first Lord Mayor of York under the new 
r<f-gime. He received the honour of knight- 
hood from King William the Fuurtti 
during his mayoralty in 1H36, shortly 
after the city had been visited by the 
Duchess of Kent and her present Majeaty. 
He was a zealous supporter of the Whig 
party ; and was generally respected by 
his fellow -citizens a* an honourable and 
upright man, and a discreet magistrate. 

lie married in 18S0 the second daugh- 
ter of William Dunsley, esq. alderman of 
York. 

His funeral at the Cemetery on the 
25th May wni attended by the corporatioa 
and many other friends. The chief mourn- 
ers were L. Simpson, esq, of York, and 
A. Simpson, esq. of Malton, solicitor, his 
brothers ; Dr. A. Simpson ; the present 
Lord Mayor and Mr. Alderman Seymour, 
his executors, and other member* of his 
family. 



AUUIR.\L MACKbkLAK. 

April 14. At Cheltenham, in his 86tli 
year, Admiral John Mackellar. 

This gallant veteran was descended from 
an old and distinguished family in Argyle- 
shire, who were tbe lairds of Maine and 
Dale. He was the eldest son of General 
Mackellar, who was employed as chief 
engineer under General Wolfe in North 
-\merica, and died when holding tbe like 
command in Minorca in 1779, having 
married Miss Elizabeth Basiline, of that 
island, where his son was born. 

I'he latter entered the navy in 1781 on 
board the Rodney 50, and in the same 



VlCK-AOMIBAL Hyos Parkxb, C.B. 

May 25. At Ham, Vice-Admiral Hyde 
Parker, C.B. one of the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the .\dmiralty. 

Vice-Admiral Parker was tbe son of tbe 
late Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, Knt. who 
died in 1807, by his first wife Anne, 
daughter of John Palmer Boteler, esq. of 
Henley; and grandson of Vice-Admiral Sir 



1854.] Obituary. — Vice-Adm. B^/it Parker — Capt. Toxer. 77 



Hyde Purker, Bart, who wu loit in the 
Ckto in 1 /89. 

He entered the Royal Naval Academy 
Prb. 5, 1796, and embarked in Sept. 1799 
ai a volanteer on board the Cambrian 10, 
empluyed in the Channel and in cruixing 
anong the Weatern Islanda. In Not. 1801 
he rcmoTed ai a midshipman to the Nar- 
diaos 32, in which be saw much active 
•errice, and waa appointed acting Lieu- 
tenant in Sept. 1803, and by commidion 
dated Sept. 'ii. 1801. On the 22Dd Jan. 
1806 he waa advanced to the rank of Com- 
mander, and in the following June went 
on half-pay. 

In March 1807 he waa appointed to the 
Prometheuf tloop; and, after having ierved 
in the eipedition to Copenhagen, he waa 
made Post-Caplain on the 13th October 
following. 

On the nth March, 1811, he waa ap- 
pointed to the command of the Monarch 64 , 
braring the flag of Rear-Adm. T. Foley in 
the OowDt ; and on the l.ith April, 1812, 
to the Teaedot 38, atracbed to the force 
on the coaat of North America, whence 
he returned in August, 1815. 

On the ISth March, 1818, he was ap- 
pointed to the Ipbigenia 46, which waa 
paid off on the 12tb June, 1821. 

On the lit May, 1830, be was appointed 
to the St. Vincent 120, bearing the flag of 
Sir Thomas Foley at Portsmouth ; on the 
16tb Feb. 1831 to the Asia b4, on the 
Lisbon station ; and on the I Utb Dec, 
foUowiog, to the Victory at Portsmouth, 
where he remained until Feb. 1833. On 
\be 29th Aug. 1835, he was appointed to 
the Rodney 93, on the Mediterranean 
station, where he remained for four years 
and a half. 

On the oth Sept. 1831 CapUin Parker 
waa Dominated an Extra Naval Aide de- 
camp to King William the Fourth, and be 
waa nominated a Companion of the Bath 
OD the 18th April, 1839. He attained flag- 
rank Nov. 23, 1841 ; and from the 4th 
Aug. 1843, until the close of 1847, be held 
the appointment of Adni. -Superintendent 
at Portsmouth. In 1S45 he commanded 
an experimental squadron. He attained 
the rank of Vice- Admiral in 1853. In 1852 
he was appointed one of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty under the 
Duke of Northumberland aa First Lord ; 
and on the formation of the present ad- 
ministration he remuiued iu office as the 
senior proressionsl member of the board. 

Vice-AdmiraJ Packer murried, July Iti, 
1831, Caroline, daughter of the late Sir 
Frederick Morton Eden, Bart by whom 
be has left issne. His son. Commander 
Hyde Parker, now commanda the Fire- 
brand, 6, steam-frigate, in the Black Sea. 



Capt. Tozer, R.N. 

Feb. 21. At Plymouth, aged 65, Capt, 
Aaron Tozer, R.N. 

He entered the navy in 1801, as first, 
class volunteer on hoard the Phoebe 36, in 
which he served for nearly twelve montha 
on the Irish station. He sailed for the Eaat 
Indies in the D^daigneuae 36, and after hia 
return to England in 1803, in the Ia< 
trepid G4, he joined successively the Sal- 
vador del Mundo, Plantagenet 74, Pomp<!e 
74, and Phoenix 43. In the last he waa 
present at the capture Aug. 10, 1805, of 
La Didon 46, in which he was so severely 
wounded by a musket-ball through tlie left 
arm, near the shoulder, that he was after- 
wards in a great measure deprived of the 
«se of it. He was not awarded any pension 
for this wound, but the Patriotic Society 
presented him with the sum of SO/. In 
Dec 1805, he was appointed to the Ciesar 
80, in which, and the Triumph 74, each 
bearing the flag of Sir Richard Strachau, 
he was employed until made Lieutenant 
Aug. 11, 1807, into the York 74, in which 
he witnesKed the surrender of the island of 
Madeira. In 1808 he returned from the 
West Indies in the Lily sloop, and in Deo, 
-was appointed to the Victorious 74, in 
which, in August 1809, he accompanied ibe 
expedition to Walcheren, and while there 
was engaged with the batteries on the sea- 
front of Flushing. In 1810 be co-operated 
in the defence of Sicily, when threatened 
with invasion by Joachim Mural; aud iu 
that and the following years he saw much 
active service in the Adriatic and (he Me- 
diterranean. On the 22nd Feb. 1813, he 
took part in a conflict of four hours and a 
half, which terminated in the capture of 
the French 74 Rivoli; and his conduct on 
that occasion led to his being promoted on 
the 19th Feb. 1813, to be first Lieu- 
tenant of the Undaunted 38, in whose boat* 
he afterwards frequently distinguished him- 
■elf. On the S7th March, iu the same year, 
he was again severely wounded iu bringing 
out a convoy from under a battery near 
Cape Croisset, and again on the 18th 
August, in an attack on the batteries of 
Ca!.8is. (For fuller particulars of these 
achievements we may refer to O'Byrne's 
Naval Biography.) In consideration of bis 
■ervicei and sufferings, he was promoted 
to the rank of Commander on the 15th 
Jnne, 1814, and allotted in penbion of 15U/. 
on the 2nd Dec. 181 J. From July, 1818, 
to Jan. 1823, he commanded the Cyrene 
30, at Bermuda; aud from April, 1839, to 
Jan. 1830, the William and Mary yacht, 
under Capt. John Cbambeni White. At 
the latter date be was promoted to the rank 
of Captain. 

He married, Jnne 5, 1827, Mary, eldest 
daughter of Henry Hulton, esq. of Lincoln, 



Capt. Rob&rU^—Cttpt. Giffard.—Capl. J. Foot: [July, 



I 



» 



78 



Cspt. Toier hu bcqueatbed to hU only 
ion, tha Rev. Henry Funihiiwe Toier, 
Kcllow of Kxetvr cnllrKC, Oxford, the flng, 
Hag>Uff, and laah worn by an oUicer in tlic 
•my of King William HI. at the landing 
io Torbay in 1680; alao the flag of the 
Frmoh fHgata Didoo, atruclc when aba 
ramndared to U.M. frigate Pkaeoix in 
IMS. 



Capt. W. P. Robibtb, R.N. 

A}iril 10. At Stoneboiue, aged 66, 
Williiim Pender Roberta, esq. a retired 
Captain R.N. and a Deputy Lieutenant 
and Magiitrate for CornwalL 

Thia offioer entered the navy in 1797, 
M flnt-olaH volunteer on board the St. 
Alban'a 64, eonunanded by Capt. Francia 
Pender. Ha waa employed in the aame 
ahip nntil the end of 1800, and on the 3nd 
Dee. waa nominated midahipman in the 
Hercole 74. He afterwarda aerved in the 
Diamond 38, Salvador del Mondo, and 
Lively 38, in which laat be was present at 
the captore of three Spanish frigates laden 
with treasure, and the destruction of a 
fonrtb, off Cape St. Mary, Oct. S, 1804. 
He next removed to the Plaiitagenet 74, 
■nd Queen 98, commanded by Capt. Pen- 
der ; and in the lost he was ordered to act 
M Lieutenant about Anguat 1805, and 
confirmed in that rank on the Sih Feb. 
18U«>. On the 4th Sopt. 1807, he was 
appointed to the Talbot aloop. In which he 
•erved on the coast of Portugal ; on the 
99tb Feb., 1808, to the Conrageox 74, 
and on the lat Jnne following, to the Ariel 
sloop, in which be aerved in the Baltic 
until advanced to the rank of Commander 
on the 21it March, 1812. He accepted 
the rank of retired Captain, March 87, 
1845. 

In Sept. 1882, Capt. Roberts was elected 
Mayor of Pooryn for the year ensuing. 
He married in 1819, Harriet, second dau. 
of Capt. Rowland, of Peniance. 



Captain GirvAKO, R.N. 
June 1. At Oilt-Ata, in consequence of 
wounds received in defending H. M. ahip 
Tiger (as atated in onr last Mo^szine, 
p. 630), Capt Henry Wells Giffard, R.N. 
He waa the sun of Admiral John Gif- 
fard, by Susannah, daughter of the late 
Sir John Carter, Knt. of Portamoutb. 
He entered the service in 1824, passed his 
examination in 1830, and ubtaiued hia first 
commission March 4, 1831. On tha 14th 
May, 1833, he was appointed to the Volage 
28, and on the 2(>th Sept. 1837, to the Hya- 
cinth 28. In those ahips he was employed 
"Hiterrancan and Elast India Sta- 
u the capacity of First Lieu- 
'•me months after his pro- 
mk of Commander, which 



took plaoe on the 32od Feb. 1838. On 
the loth May, 1B39, he was appointed to 
the Cruiser 16, and in 1810 be accom- 
panied the expedition to China, where he 
waa present at the capture of Cbnaan and 
the blockade of Ningpo. Having been 
sent with despatches to Calcutta, be re- 
turned with Sir Hugh Gough, and in 
March 1841 was actively engaged in the 
operations at Canton. For tUeac servicea 
he was rewarded with a post-commission 
dated the 8Ui June, 1841. He still con- 
tinued in the Cruizer, and further distin- 
guished himself at Amoy, Chusan, and 
Chinghae, at each of which plaoea be waa 
intrusted with the debarkation of the 
troops. He left the Cruizer io the early 
part of 1842. 

On the 13th Oct. 1846, be was ap- 
pointed to the Penelope steam frigate, 
bearing the broad pendant of Sir Charles 
Hotham on the ooaat of Africa, 

Captain Giffard received his mortal 
wounds in dcfrnce of bis ship, which WM 
accidentally stranded near Odessa. He 
lost one leg, and was badly wounded in 
the other. In fact, he received several 
wounds while bravely defending his charge 
— hopeless as the struggle was— at every 
potiiblu disadvantage. He was buried on 
the 8nd of June with military honours, 
General Osten-Sackeo attending the fune- 
ral. A young midshipman of the same 
name, who also fell by his side, waa a 
distant relative. After the funeral, the 
captive crew of the Tiger were to proceed 
to Riaan ; and the officers to be sent to 
Moscow, with the exception of the First 
Lieutenant, who was ordered to St. Petera- 
bnrg to attend the Emperor of Russia. 

Capt. Giffard marrird, March 19, 1846, 
Ella-Amelia, fourth daughter of the late 
Major-Gen. Sir Benjamin C. Stephenson, 
G.C.II., and nieoe of the Rev. Sir Henry 
Rivers, Bart, 

Captain John Footc, R.N. 

April 19. At Memel, Captain John 
Foote, R.N. commanding H.M. steam- 
frigate Conflict. 

Ho waa the son of the late Capt. John 
Foote of Stonehottse. He entered the 
Royal Naval College in 1827 ; passed his 
examination in 1833, and obtained his 
first commission Jan. 27, 1835, On the 
4lh April following he was appointed to 
the Sapphire S8 on the Mediterranean 
sUtion ; on the 4tb Nov. 1 H39 to the 
command of the Pawn brigantine, and on 
th« 8tb Feb. 1843 to the Curlew of 10 
guns ; and on the 16tb Sept. 1843 to the 
Dublin &0, the flag-ship of Rear-Adm. 
Richard Thomas. He attained the mnk 
of Commander March 89, 1845; and on 
the 8th Nov. 1846 was appointed to the 



I 

I 
I 




1854.] OflrTUAnY. — Comm. Parton*. — Rt, Hon. H. Hohhouie. 79 

eommind of the Ronmond stcam-slooi) 
at the Cape of Good Hope. 

HtTiii; captured seTeral Russian Tcssels 
in the Baltic, ofT Riga, Capt. Foote visited 
Memrlon the 19th April nn busioess con- 
nected with his priica. He was accom- 
panied by the surgeon, Mr. W. H. Slog- 
Rett, and fire men. Ou their return their 
boat was swamped when crossing the bar 
of the river Haf, and the coptsin and four 
of the men were drowned. 

He is characterised as " a thorough 
tailor. a>i line and good an officer as ever 
belli Her Majesty's commission, and de- 
•erredly betored by his crew." He has 
left a widow and children. 



cipsl prizes which the French had taken 
in the East ladies during the three pre- 
ceding years. From the state of his health 
be went on half-pay in Dec. 1810. 

He was not again employed until the 
1st Not. 1941, when he was appointed 
Admiralty agent on board a mail stcam- 
vcssel. In ltl4.3 he published an interesting 
work entitled " Nelsonian Rcminitcences," 
which contains further particulars of his 
own career. 

He married in 1812, and had a no- 
mcrous family. 



CoiiMANOKB G. S. Parsons, R.N. 
Jn. 20, At Holt hill, Cheshire, aged 
*1, George Samuel Parsons, esq. Com- 
nander R.N. 

He entered the navy in 1795 as first- 
class volunteer on board the Barflcur, 99, 
Capt. J. R. Dacres, under whom he fought 
!n the action off Cape St. Vincent, Feb. 
H, 1797. In April, 1798, he removed to 
the Poudroyant 80 ; and in that ship he 
acted as signal-Midshipman to Lord Nelson 
■t the cajiture on the 18th Feb. 1800 of 
Ix> Gin^reux 74, and Villc de Marseilles 
armed store-ship ; and ag.tin at that of 
Le Guiliaome Tell 84, the fing-ship of 
Rear- Admiral Decrcs, on the 31st March 
following. During the expedition to 
Egypt, be officiated in the like capacity 
to Lord Keith, and had the command of a 
gtu-boat on the Lake Mareotis. On the 
Cth Aug. 1801 he was nominated acting- 
Lieatenaot of El Carmen, in which, at 
the close of the same year, he returned 
with Sir Sidney Smith to England. For 
his services in Egypt Mr. Parsons was 
preicnted with a gold medal by the Turkish 
i.goverameat. Ue wag confirmed as Lien- 
ienant, Mnrch 25, 1802, into the BaUvier; 
and lubseiiuently appuinted in 1803 to the 
Ganges 74, employed off the coasts of Irc- 
bnd and Spain. On the 3d Feb. 1805 he 
became First Lieutenant of the Racoon 
floop in the West Indies, in which vessel, 
and the Elk, he served at the blockade of 
St. Domingo and Cnra<joa, and fought in 
an action with eleven gun-boata ou the 
Spanish Main. In Feb. liiOO he removed 
to the Malabar 74 for his passage home. 
In September following he was appointed 
to the Texel 64, the flag-ship of Vice- Adm. 
Jame* Vaiboo at Leith ; in 1807 to the 
Orion 74, part of the force employed in 
the attack on Copenhagen ; and in 1809 
to the Valiant 74, whose boats ho com- 
manded at the cutting out of a convoy 
from the Basque Roads ; and contributed 
to the capture of the Cannoniire 40-gUD 
frigate, laden with tlie spoil of the pria- 



RioHT Uos. Henry HoBBOnss. 

April 13. At Hadspen House, Somer- 
setshire, aged 78, the Right Hon. Henry 
Hobhouse, Keeper of Her Majesty's State 
Papers, one of the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners for England, D.C.L. and F.S.A. 

He was born at Clifton, near Bristol, 
on the I'ith April, 1776 ; and was the only 
son of Henry Hobhouse, esq. (cousiii- 
german to the Ute Sir Benjamin Hub- 
lionse, Bart, the falherof Lord Broughton,) 
by Sarah, daughter of the Rev. Richard 
Jenkyns, Canon residentiary of Weill. 
He was a member of Brasenose college, 
Oxford, where he graduated B..\. 1797, 
M.A. 17^9. He was created D.C.L. by 
the same university oo the 27th of June, 
1827. He was called to the bar by the 
Hon. Society of the Middle Temple on the 
23d Jan. 1801. Early in the year 1806 
he was appointed to the office of Solicitor 
to the Customs, and in the year 1813 he 
was removed to a similar situation in the 
Treasury. On the 28th June, 1817, he 
was appointed Under.Secretary of State 
for the Home Department, and he held that 
office for ten years : in conjunction, suc- 
cessively, with the Rt. Hon. J. H. Adding- 
ton, Mr. Henry Clive, Rt Hon. G. R. 
Dawson, Mr. Spencer Perceval, and Mr. 
Spring Rice, now Lord Mooteagle. In 
July 1837 he resigned in consequence of 
failing health, and was assigned a pension 
of 1,000/.; having on the 23d of May in 
the previous year been appointed Keeper 
of His Majesty's State Papers, on the death 
of John Bruce, e*q. He was sworn a 
Privy Councillor on the 28tb June, 1828. 

The diseovery among the unarranged 
documents of the Stale Paper Office in 
1825 of the long lost theological work of 
the Poet Milton, and its subsequent pub- 
lication under the editorship of the pre- 
■ent Bishop of Winchester, so far excited 
public attention to the historical treasures 
in that repository, as to justify the issuing 
a Commission for the purpose of publish- 
ing such portion of the early corre- 
spondence of the State as might be con- 
sidered important to historical literature. 
On the formation of such a Commission 



ObituarYi^— C(B/i/. Barclay Allardiee. 



[July, 



Mr. Hobboiue reoderedTalaabUiuMttnee 
to Mr. SecreUry Peel, tad it vu accord- 
ingljr imed, bearing date the lOeh of June, 
18SS, directed to Mr. MuDer* Siittoc, 
Speaker, Mr. Secretary Peel, Mr. Ch«rle« 
W. W. Wvnn, Mr. John WiUon Crolcer, 
and Mr. l/obbouie. Of thew Mr. Wilton 
Croker ia now the only turriifor. The re- 
•nll of part of their labcun ba* been pab- 
liahcd onder the title of State Paprr>, 
Henry VIII. in eleven Tolumea 4to. tbe 
latl portion of which was iaaaed in 1852. 
From Mr. Hobhouse's poaition aa Keeper 
of State Papert and from hit ioliinate 
knowledge both practically and theoretically 
of the earlier State Poperi, be waa noani- 
mooalj reqneated by hia fellow Commii- 
tionen to aoperiotend tbe editing of that 
work, and be took extraordinary paina and 
care to gire to the world tbe moat accorate 
text of the documenti committed to his 
charge. 

Aa Kee|>er of State Papcra, he eierciied 
a vigilant penonal auperinteoileDce of the 
duties of that office until within a few 
wecka of hia death ; and it waa under bia 
direction a permanent syatem of arrange- 
mcDt of tbe State Papera waa laid down, 
baaed principally apon the arrangementi 
exitting in the officei of tbe Secretanea of 
State. 

Mr. Hobhouae waa for many yean Chair- 
man of tbe Quarter Sessiona in Somer- 
tetahire, and reaigned that office in 1845. 

He married, April 7, 180C, Harriett, 
lixth daughter of John Turton, esq. of 
Sugnall ball, co. Stafford, by whom be 
had iitue four aona and four daughter*. 
The aona are: 1. Henry Hobhouie, eiq. 
bom in 1811, M.A. and a barriiter-at-law, 
who married in 185.') the Hon. Chnrlotte- 
Etruria Talbot, youngest sister of Lord 
Tolbol (le Malabide, and baa aaon Henry; 
2. the Rev. Edmund Hobhouae, D.D. Fel- 
low of Merton college, Vicar of St. Peter'a 
in the East and Perpetual Curate of St. 
John's, Oxford ; :1. tbe Rer. Reginald 
Hobhouae, M.A. Rector of St. Ire, near 
Liskeard, Cornwall, who married ill Itiil 
Caroline, dau. of Sir William Iicwia Saiot- 
bury Trelawny, Bart, and baa one ion ; 
4. Arthur, who married in 184S Mary, 2nd 
dau. of Che late Thomas Ptrrer, esq. The 
daughter.', I, Harriett, married in 18.14 to 
her coiulo tbe Rev. Henry Jenkyas, O.D. 
Fellow of Orifl college, Oxford, ami now 
Professor of Divinity ia the university of 
Uurhtm: 2. Catheriue; 3. Eliza; 4. Elea- 
nor, who died 1st Oct. 1843, unmarried. 

Capt. Babclat Allakdice. 
Voy R. At Ury, co. Kincardine, in bit 
year, Robrrt Barclay Allardiee, eaq, 
y and Allardiee. 

ttaiu Barclay waa of Tery ancient 




genealogical descent Tbe Barclay! of 

Matbera are originallv derived from the 
head of tbe English Berkeley*, of Berke- 
ley in Glonceater^faire, driven out at the 
Conqae*t,and refuging bimaelf in Scotland ; 
bit pofseaaiont being given by ttie Con- 
queror to Robert PitzHardiog, who mar- 
ried a daughter of Berkeley of Durslcy, 
In the fourteenth century we find the 
Barclart forming alliances with tbe Keiiha 
and Setons. David Barclay, who was a 
Colonel under Gusiavus Adolphut. pur- 
cbated tbe estate of Ury in 1C48 from 
William Earl Marischal, his father having 
sold that of Mathers. Hit ton Robert 
Barclay was the celebrated apologift of tbe 
Quakers. 

Tbe gentleman now deceased was bom 
on the 25tb August 17 79, the eldest ton 
of Robert Barclay, ejq. of Ury, M.P. for 
CO. Kincardine, who died in 17i)7, by bis 
second wife Sarah Anne AUardioe, sole 
daughter and heir of Jamo Allardiee, of 
Allardiee, co. Kincardine, by Anne, 
daughter of James Barclay, banker, of 
London, — alio a descendant of tbe 
apologist of the Quakers. 

In early life be was much dislingnished 
for the great bodily strength which had 
rendered many of his ancestors remarkable. 
Colonel Darid Barclay, the first of Ury, 
was one of tbe tallest, strongest, and hand- 
somest men in the king'loin ; his grand- 
son was sumauied the Strong ; and the 
father of tbe late Captain Barclay was six 
feet high, of a handsome form, and a noted 
pedestrian. He walked from London to 
Ury, 510 miles, in ten sucoeative days, 
and bis ordinary pace was six miles an 
hour. He rcprcfcnted the county of Kin- 
cardine in three Parliaments, but his most 
substantial title to fame consists in his 
lubours as nn agricultural improver. In 
thirty years he improved 2,000 acres of 
arable land, and planted 1,500 acres of 
wood, setting an exnmple which produced 
the best effects in the north of Scotland. 

Captain Barclay received hit education 
at Richmond, Brixton Causeway, and Cam- 
bridge. Before attaining mtjoiity, which 
was tbe period when he waa entitled to 
take charge of his property, he evinced 
a strong predilection lor manly spur! 
Youth, high spirits, a peculiarly viguroi 
body, and a herrditary bias, account vei 
sufficiently for his earliest achievements. 
His first match for 100 guineas was de- 
cided when he was only fifteen years of 
age, by bis walking six miles within an 
hour, fair toe and heel. Two yeart 
afterwards he walked seventy miles in 
fourteen hours ; and when uineteen ninety 
miles in Iwcnty-oiic hours. In December, 
1 799, be performed the jouniey from Loi 
don to Birmingbam, by Cambridge, a 



:eu 



1854.] 



Obituary. — Capt. Barclay Allardice. 



81 



Unea of 130 mile*, ia two di^f. For a 
few jean after 1800 he appears to have 
retided principaUy at Ury, eateriog keenly 
into the sports of the field, and keeping 
a pack of hounds. Ills agricultural im- 
provements, however, were not neglected, 
but, on bis estate being put into a proper 
system of management, he entered the 
army, receiving a commission in the 23rd 
Regiment. In 1803 he was with Lord 
Cathcart's army in Hanover, and was after- 
ward] promoted to a company, but the only 
actual service in which he subsequently 
engaged was in the Walchereo expedition 
in 1809, when be koted as aide-de-camp to 
Lieut.- General the Marquess oF Huntly. 
The Local Militia of Kincardineshire was 
afterwards commanded by him, and brought 
into an excellent state of discipline. He 
resnmed fox-hunting on finally settling at 
Dry, and took charge of the training of 
the combatants in one or two well-known 
prize-fights. Training was a subject in 
which Uc took a deep interest, and he con- 
tributed to a work of Sir John Sinclair a 
chapter on the means of attaining vigorous 
lieslth by systematic attention to that art. 
In June, 1801, he walked from Ury to 
Boroughbridge in Yorkshire, a distance of 
300 miles, in five oppressively hot days. 
His match for &,000 guineas to perform 
50 miles in 31^ honrs excited great at- 
tention. In a preliminary trial he ac- 
complished 110 miles at a rate equal to 
Via miles in 24 hours; and he gained the 
S,000 guinea match on 10th Nov. 1801, 
by an hour and eight minutes, without 
being eicessively fatigued. We shall not 
detail his victories as a swift runner, al- 
though these are not the least wonderful 
of his performances ; but shall notice the 
feat, then unprecedented, of walking lOUO 
miles in 1000 successive hours. Believing 
that be could easily accomplish it,he did not 
go into regular training. Previous attempts 
bad ^iled — the pedestrians giving in at 
tiie end of 15, 22, or 30 days, from over- 
fatigne. Captain Barclay commenced his 
task at Newmarket on 1st June, at mid- 
nifhl, and finished it 42 days after, on 
12lh July, about three o'clock afternoon, 
amidst thousands of spectators. The pain 
be suffered during the journey wns exces- 
sive ; but. although he was so stiff that be 
bad to be lifted after resting, bis legs 
neter swelled, and bis appetite remained 
good during the whole period. About 
l(HI,00Of. depended on the match ; but 
the most remarkable circnmstance attend- 
ing it was, that, after a sleep of about 
seventeen hours when he had finished the 
journey, he was in perfect health and 
strength, and set olf, five days after, for 
Walcheren. Only one other pedestrian 
has aurpaased Captain Barclay's perform- 
GwiT. Mao. Vol. XLH. 



•no«,* but the report states that it well 
nigh cost bim his life. This was Richard 
Manks, a native of Warwickshire, who 
performed 1000 miles in as many hours at 
Sheffield in 18&0, commencing each mile 
at the commencement of each hour, 
whereas Captain Barclay's wager was to, 
walk each mile within each hour, ana 
permitted him to walk two miles con* 
secutively, and to sleep about an hour and 
a half at a time. At the close of the per- 1 
formance, the Captain's rate of travelling] 
was a mile in twenty minutes, while Munktl 
required nearly the hour, fell asleep as htj 
walked, or was only kept awake by bodiljt 1 
suffering. 

In his declining years, Captain Bsrclay'l 
taste for agricultural pursuits revived ; hal 
devoted much time and money to tbs] 
improvement of the breed of cattle and] 
sheep, and the annual sale at Ury for manyJ 
years drew together the most eminent sgriJ 
culturists from all parts of the kingdom. 
By the proprietors and tenantry of Kiti- ] 
cardineshire he was held in high esteem. 
Sincere, humane, truthful, and bold, baj 
lield in scorn everything that was dis»] 
honourable and oppressive. By his deatli! 
the county of Aberdeen has lost one of j 
its most enterprising and skilful agricul- 
turists, and one of the most universallfl 
popular and highly esteemed gentlemen | 
that it contnined. 

After the death of his mother in 1833,,j 
Mr. Barclay Allardice took immediata \ 
measures to claim the Earldom of Airtb, J 
she having' been on the 26th Feb. 1T8S| 
served and retoured eldest nearest lawful i 
heir portioner in general of William thai 
laist Earl of Airth and Mooteith, brother I 
of her great -great-grandmother. For thi» ] 
purpose he presented to the King a peti- ] 
tion, which was referred to the House of] 
Lords on the Sd June. 1834, and by the J 
House to the Lords' Committees for Pri- 
vileges. An earlier assertion of this claiml 
h ad been prevented by the peculiar circum- 
stances in which the heirs were placed. 
William Earl of Monteith and Airth, who] 
died in 1694, had two daughters, Mary, 
marned to Sir John Allardice, of Allar- 

* Many wonderful feats of pedes- j 
trianism are on record, each claiming to 
surpass all their predecessors ; but it if, ' 
difficult to institute a comparison from the] 
variance of their terms. In one instance, 
however. Captain Barclay appears to bavs . 
been exceeded in a match undertaken ex- 
pressly in imitation of him. This was by 1 
Josiah Eaton, who in Nov. and Dec. 18IS | 
walked on Blackheath 1100 miles in 1100. J 
successive hours. Sec the particulars in] 
the Gentleman's Magaiine, voL Lzzxv^ 
u. 621.— «</«■/. 

M 



8S 



Obituary— T^oma* Dvffitld, Eiq. 



[July, 



^ 



dice, and Elizabeth mirried to Sir Williim 
Gr«liain of Garltnore. There U ererf 
Rrouiiil for the preaumption that Lady 
Mary AllarJice w«i the cKler aiater, and 
■he U laid to bare claimed, in converta- 
t<on, to be Countcei of Strathern ; but ihe 
llveil to nil advanced age, and after her 
ilrith in 172U a luceenion of minoritici 
toiil< pIni'D in tlje Allnrdice line; and at 
iMi^tJi (ho diiiinlty of ICnrl of Mooteith wa* 
n»«Ufned by William (imhanii great-grand- 
ion of Lady Eliiabeth i and be eren voted 
on acvcral elections of Repreientatlvs 
Pccri of Scotland from 174-I to 1761 in- 
olotlve. Ida further uauinptiao of the 
dignity waa however prohibited by an 
order of the Home of Lordi in 1762 ; and 
the whole iinis of Lady Elisabeth Gra- 
ham became extinct on the death of Mary 
Bogle (niece to William the putative Earl) 
io 183L It »aa then clear that the whole 
right of laheritaDce devolved on the mother 
of Captain Barclay ; even if ahe had been 
deioended from the younger tlater. 

Mr. Barclay*! caae waa placed la the 
able handa of the preaent Vice-Chancellor 
Knight-Bruce, and the late Sir ilarris 
Nicolot, and the claim waa heard in the 
Houie of Lordi in July and August, 1839 : 
when the Lord Advocate (Rutherford) 
baving replied on the part of the Crown, 
it waa deemed adviaable, from the eourae 
of hia arguments, that Mr. Barclay-AlUr- 
dice should further assert hia claim to the 
two more ancient earldoms already named, 
the descent of which was involved with 
that of Airth.* On the 4th Aug. 1840 
be consequently petitioned her present Ma- 
jesty that the dignities of Earl of Strathern 
and Earl of Monteith should be awarded 
to him, the former as sole heir of the body 

* The Earldom wa* in fact one, the 
title of Monteith having been conferred by 
King Jamea the Firat in 1427 In exchange 
for that of Strathern, which he resumed 
ai a palatinate and male lief. I n the reign 
of Chorlea I. it was recovered by William 
Earl of Monteith ; but, jealousies being 
again raised a* to the royal import which 
attached to the name of Strathern, it was 
taken from him, and a new patent for the 
Enrldom of Airth was forced upon him in 
K^3, with remainder to the bdr general; 
the Earldom of Monteith, which they could 
not take away, being attached to it in the 
same patent. At the death of William 
Earl of Monteith in l«i94, the family docu- 
ments were violently seized by the Mar- 
chioness of Montrose ; and the charter of 
1633 was not reproduced from the Mont- 
^se charter-chests anlil about the year 
^780, shortly after which Mrs. Barclay 
Bade her claim, and was served heir of 
Im. 




of David Earl of Strathern, son of King 
Robert the Second, and the latter a* sole 
heir general of the body of Malise Graham, 
who was created Earl of Mooteilh in the 
year 1427. This petiiion was also referred 
to the oonsideratjou of the Houae of 
Lords; but no further proceedings were 
afterwards Uken. In \Mi Sir Harris 
Nicolas published a History of the Earl- 
doms of Straihim, Monteith, and Airth, 
a volume arranged with bis wonted re- 
search and acumen, and dedicated Io Mr. 
Hudson Gurney, a brother-in-law of Cap- 
tain Barclay. 

Mr. Barclay Allardiee had previoosly 
had two attacks of paralysis, from which 
he had partially recovered, when, three 
daya before his death, he met with 
an accident from the kick of a horse, 
which confined him to the house, although 
nothing very serious seemed to be 
apprehended. On Monday the 1st of 
May he was seised with an attack of the 
fatal disease which had been impending 
over him for years. Dr. Thompson, his 
medical attendant, was speedily in atten- 
dance ; but a few minutes before his 
arrival the hand of death had passed 
calmly and quietly before him. 

He married in 1819 Mary Dalgamo, 
by whom be had issue an only child, 
Margaret, who was married in 1840 to 
.Samuel Ritchie, and has a son and heir 
Robert Barclay Allardiee, born in 1841, 
and two other sons. This lady and ber 
family are resident in America. 

Thomas DorriELD, Eso. 

March IS. At the Castle Priory, Wal- 
lingford, aged 72, Thomas Duffield, esq. 
High Steward of that borough, and a 
magistrate of Berkshire. 

He was the second son of Michael 
Duffield, esq. by Alice, daughter and 
heiress of Jeremish Cnitchley, esq. His 
elder brother George- Henry exchanged 
the name of Duffield for that of Crutchley 
in 1806. 

Mr. DufBeld served the office of Sheriff 
of Berkshire in 1827. 

In 1833 he was a candidate for 
Abingdon, as a Conservative politician, 
and, in spite of the Reform Act then 
coming into operation, he defeated the 
former Wliig member Colonel Maberly, 
who had represented the borough from 
1818. The numbers were, for Mr. 
Duffield 1.57, for Lieut.-Col. Maberly 
43. Mr. Duffield was rechosen in 1835, 
1837, and 1841 without opposition ; and 
in April 1844 resigned his seat, in order 
to make room for Sir Frederic Thesiger. 

Mr. Duffield waa twice married : first, 
in 1810, to Emily, only child of George 
Elwea, esq. of Marcbam Park, Berks ; 



1854.] Obituary.— il/l Briteo, Esq.— 'Rev. E. Thackeray. 

Bnd leoondly, iu 1838, to AogniU- 
Elisabeth, lecond daaghter of Robert 
Riubbrooke, etq. M.P, for the Weitern 
DiTitioD of Suffolk. By the former Udjr 
he had iuue three loni, George who died 
ID 1833, Henry, and Charle* ; and fire 
daughlen : 1 ■ Caroline, married to Edwin 
Martin Atkins, eiq. of Kingston Lisle, 
Berks ; 3. Maria, married to Head Pot- 
tinger Beat, esq. ; 3. Anna, married to 
John 8. iniillips, esq. of Culham, co. Ox- 
ford I A. Susan, who died in 1841 ; and S. 
EUiabeth. By the second marriage he 
had further issue, one sou, Thomai ; and 
tvo daughters, Augusta and Mary. 



88 



He had been indefatigable in the discharge 
of his senatorial duties, usually giving his 
Totes as a Conservative and Protectionist, 
and against Roman CathoUc endowmeuti. 
Not lest remarkable were his urbanity and 
thorough kindness of heart, which justly 
endeared him to all who had the bononr 
and pleasure of his acquaintance. He was 
a good specimen of an English gentl«man. 
He married Oct, B 18J8, Frances 
daughter of the late Henry Woodgate, esq. 
of Spring-grove, Pembury, Kent, and 
niece to Lord Viscount Boync. 



MusoKAVE Brisoo, Eaa. 
Jdqr 9. At Coghurst, Sussex, aged 63, 
Mosgnve Brisoo, esq, late M.P. for 
Hi(ting(,a Deputy Lieutenant and magis- 
trate for the counties of Sussex and York, 
He was the eldest son of the late Cspt, 
Wastell Brisco, of Coghurst, by Sarah, 

daughter of Goulbnm, esq. He 

was a member of Sidney Sussex college, 
Camb., where be graduated M.A. I8I6. 

He was Arst a candidate for the borough 
of Hastings at the general election in Jan. 
I83S i when, togethisr with the Right Hon. 
Joseph Planta (who bad formerly repre- 
sented the borough), he opposed the 
rc-«leetion of Mr. North and Mr. Elphin- 
stona. The poll terminated thus — 
Frederick North, esq. . . . 37-t 

Howard Elphinstone, esq. . . S91 

- Rt. Hon. Joseph Planta . , 159 

Mnsgrave Brisco, esq. ... 157 

At the election of 1837 he was again a 

candidate, the former members having 

both retired, but to Mr. Brisoo the result 

was ss before — 

Rt Hon. Joseph Planta . . 401 

Robert Hollood, esq, . . . 383 

Musgrsve Brisco, esq. . . . 312 

Od Mr. Planta accepting the stewardship 
of the Chiltern hundreds in March 1844, 
Mr. Brisco was elected, polling 513 votes 
against Mr. R. R. R. Moore, a chartist, 
who had 174. 

At the electian of 1847 the poll termi- 
nated tbos — 

Robert Hollond, esq. ... 423 

Musgrave Brisco, esq. . . . 407 

John Ashley Warre, esq. . . 387 
Pstrick F. Robertson, esq. . 348 
And at the last election in 1852 he had 
another contest, which terminated thus— 
Patrick F. Robertson, esq. . . SOI 
Musgrave Brisco, esq. ... 487 

John Ashley Warre, esq. . .477 
John Locke, esq. ..... 386 

Mr. Brisco resigned his seat in Parlia- 
ment only a few days before his death. 



Thb Rev. Eliah Tiiackerav. 

April 29. At Dondolk, aged 83, the 
Rev. Ellas Thackeray, for more than half 
a century Vicar of that town, and thirty- 
one years Rector of Louth. 

This gentleman was a brother of the 
late Dr. Thackeray of Cambridge, and 
of Mrs. Pryme of the same town. He 
was educated at Eton, became a Fellow 
of King's college, Cambridge, and gradu- 
ated B.A. 1796, M.A. 1799. He studied 
for holy orders, but a regiment of Feoctble 
Dragoons being raised In Cambridge he 
accepted a troop, and proceeded early in 
1797 with the regiment to Ire-land, where, 
during the insurrection In that and the 
subsequent years, he saw some service, 
being on duty at the landing of the French 
prisoners at Buncrana on Lough Swilly, 
after Sir J. B. Warren's action, and he 
was the officer selected by the Commander- 
in-Chief, the Earl of Cavan, to convey the 
celebrated Wolfe Tone as a prisoner to 
Dublin. 

While stationed at Londonderry Mr. 
Tliackeray married Rebecca, daughter of 
Sir Robert Hill, Bart, and M.P. for that 
city, and sister to the Rt. Hon. Sir George 
H ill, Bart, who died Governor of Trinidad : 
by that lady he had no issue. 

After being employed for some time in 
the superintendence of the yeomanry corps 
in that locality, and boving attained the 
rank of Major, he followed up his original 
intention of entering the Church. He was 
nominated to the living of Dnndalk by 
Lord Hardwicke, Lord- Lieutenant of Ire- 
land ; and, after having been for some time 
the incumbent of Limavady and Ardee, 
he was promoted by the Lord Primate to 
the living of Louth. He took great part 
in remodelling and re-organising the Pro- 
testant Charter Schools of Ireland. 

His character is summed up as that of 
a truly Christian philanthropist. His 
piety was as unostentatious as it was 
sincere ; his delight Isy in acta of kind- 
ness and benevolence; and, without the 
sacrifice of a single principle of his own, 
he won the respect of those who most 
differed from him. His funeral was at- 



84 



Obituahy.— A^. Wallich, M.D., F.R.As.S. 



[July, 



tended by a Urge concouree of lorrowing 
mournen. The chief mourners were, Rev. 
Charlri Stevcnton, Callan, Kilkenny; Rev. 
R. W. Thackeray, Hunsdon, Hertford- 
ibire ; Rev. George Blacker, Mayoootb : 
Col. Blacker, Carrick-bousc, I'ortadown ; 
Capt. Barnaton, <IOth Rcgt. ; Col. Brown, 
Dublin C'lutle ; Stewart Blacker, e<q. 
Dublin ; Jamea Blacker, eiq. Carrick- 
house. And on each tide of which were 
the pall-bearera — Right Rev. Lord J. 
Bercaford, Primate of Ireland; Right Hon. 
Lord ClaremoDt, Ravenadale Park ; Rev. 
Dr. Campbell, Rector of Forkliill ; Rev. 
Edwin Thomai; Graham Johnston, esq. 
DuDdalk ; and Lennox Rigger, eiq. Rich- 
mond. 

The popular author, W. M. Thackeray, 
who i> a couiin of the deceased, has noticed 
bim in bis Tour through Ireland ; and 
in another work of the same writer the 
tatiriKt'a pen is arrested, end a very 
graceful and becoming complimeot is paid 
to the profession to which belonged " the 
gentle Klias," — no doubt meaning his 
relative. 



Nathaniel Wallich, M.D., F.R.Ah.S. 

April 98, In Upper Gower-street, in 
hia tiStb year, Nathaniel Wallich, M.D., 
F.R.As.S. and a Vice-President of the 
Linniean Society. 

By birth a Dane, Dr. Wallich entered 
the medical service of bis country when 
very young, and was in 18U7 attached as 
surgeon to the Danish East Indian settle- 
ment of Serampore. When that place was 
taken by the English, such of the Danish 
officers as desired were permitted to enter 
the service of the East India Company, 
an advantage of which Dr. Wallich availed 
himself, and this circumstance ultimately 
led to bis arriving at the highest botanical 
position known in India. Uia extensive 
acquaintance wiih plants soon attracted 
the attuiitioii of the Indian government, 
c>p(iMully at u lime when very few of the 
Company's servants had any knowledge of 
the subject. 

Upon Dr. Hamilton's resigning charge 
of the important botanical garden at Cal- 
cutta in 1U13, Dr. Wallich was appointed 
superintendent, and from that time for- 
ward his activity in collecting plants from 
all parts of our Indian empire, in de- 
scribing them, causing them to be drawn, 
and in dispatching line specimens of (hem 
to his adopted country, was unexampled. 
From 1818 to 1828 there was scarcely an 
English garden of magnitude that was not 
much indebted to his liberality. 

In 1820, in conjunction with Dr. Carey, 
he commenced the publication of Rox- 
burgh's '" Flora lodica," which was greatly 
augmented by hia own diacoveriei. A* 



soon aa the new art of lithography wu 
made available in India, it was seized upon 
as a ready means of placing before the 
world the little-known plants of Ncpaul, 
which was done in the " Tentamen Florie 
Nepalensis," a folio volume. For this 
large materials had been adcumulated 
daring the author's official examination of 
that province in 18S0. In I8'^5 he was 
depnted by the government to inspect the 
timber forests of Western Hindostan. In 
1836 and 1837 he was in Ava and the 
newly-acquired Burmese territory. In 
18S8 the state of his health, which had 
become greatly impaired, rendered hia 
return to Europe inevitable. Then it waa 
that he brought with him visible proofa 
of his never-tiring zeal in the pursuit of 
science. Eight thousond species of plants 
collected by himself, together with an in- 
credible number of duplicates, safely ar- 
rived in London, and were speedily, at bis 
recommendation, dispersed through the 
public and private herbaria of Borope 
and America. The East India Company 
sanctioned this great operation, with a 
noble spirit defraying the whole coat in a 
manner most honourable to themselves. 
His " List of Pbints from the dried speci- 
mens in the East India Company's Mu- 
seum," forma a large folio of SC5 pagea 
printed in lithography. At the same time 
that the laborious work of distribution was 
going on. Dr. Wallich's magnum opus, 
the " Plantic .VsiaticK Rariores" was pass- 
ing through the press, and eventually, in 
August 1832, formed three folio volumes, 
each containing 100 coloured plates. 

Shortly afterwards Dr. Wallich returned 
to his official duties in India, when he 
was appointed to the chief direction of a 
scientific party directed to explore the 
ncwly-Bcquired province of Assam, espe- 
cially with a view to determine the nature 
of the tea cultivation that had been ascer- 
tained to exist there. Ill health still pur- 
sued him, and after a visit to the Cape of 
Good Hope, and u further attempt to 
struggle against a climate which bad always 
proved his moat dangerous enemy, he finally 
bade adieu to Hindostan, and reached 
England with his family in 1817, to enjoy, 
alas ! for too brief a space, the repose and 
honours to which he bad gained a just 
title by a most arduous life. 

By those who knew bim intimately, Dr. 
Wallich will be much regretted, for he was 
not only an enthusiastic botanist and a 
learned man, but a charming companion, 
as well aa a warm and steady friend. — 
Gardner'i Chronicle. 



William Stangeb, M.D. 
March SI. At Natal, in bis 42d year, 
William Stanger, M.D. Surveyor- General 



1854.] 



Obituary. — James Wadmore, Esq. 



85 



of the Port Natal district, and, ts officio, 
> member of the Lfgislative and Execu- 
tive Coaacili,and F.G.S. 

Dr. Stanger was born at W'ubccb, in 
Cwnbridgtsbire, and educated at Edia- 
bnrgh, where be took his degree of Doctor 
of Medicine. He subsequently risited 
Aiutrolia, and was engaged in superintend- 
ing the road-works near Cape Towu, which 
were prosecated under the direction of the 
government. After his return to England 
be settled in London, where he commenced 
the practice of his profession. 

His knowledge of natural history and 
his enterprising character recommeaded 
bim to those who were engaged in fitting 
out the Niger expedition, which turned 
ont so disastrously in 1841. During the 
Toyage op the Niger, Dr. Stanger was one 
of the few who were not prostrated by the 
terrible fever which raged on board the 
ships, and it was mainly owing to his 
energy, in conjunction with Dr. Mac- 
William, that one of the steamers was 
brought down the river. Although not 
attacked with the fever, his strong frame 
never wholly threw off the effects of 
exposure to the pestileotisl swamps of the 
Niger. The scientific results of this ex- 
pedition were small, and nobody regretted 
this more acutely than Dr. Stanger, who 
had anticipated a rich harvest along the 
bonks of the river. 

In 1845 he obtained the appointment 
of Surveyor-General to the new colony of 
Natal, when it wits constituted a district 
of the Cape Colony, with a separate go- 
vernment. In 18&1, in couaequencc of 
hi* wife's foiling heulih, he obtained leave 
of aboenee, and returned to this country, 
where he remained about two years. His 
services were of great importance to the 
colony ; and he performed (he duties at- 
tached to his office laboriously and con- 
scientioasly. He bad little time afforded 
him to reduce to form his numerous ob- 
servations on natural history. One of his 
last contributions to this science was the 
discovery of a plant belonging to the fa- 
mily of Cycads, possessing characters dif- 
fering from any hitherto found in that 
family. This plant has been named after 
bim, Stangeria i and a very interesting 
sprcimen is now producing its peculiar 
fniit in the Royal Gardens at Kew. 

Or. Stanger seems to have fallen a 
victim to an ill-judged application of the 
so-called hydropathic treatment. He had 
travelled from Maritzburg to Port Natal 
on horseback, aud.iu order to relieve the 
fatigun he felt, was induced to submit to 
the application of the " wet-sheet." The 
next day infiammation of (he lungs took 
place, which carried bim off in one week. 
Dr. Stanget'i funeral wu a public de- 



monstration of the respect entertained for 
bis memory by those who knew him best. 
The Lieuteoaut-Govemor of (he colony, 
the newly-appointed Bishop, Dr. Coleoso, 
and a long procession of local celebrities, 
followed his body to the grave ; and a pro- 
posal has been made to erect an obelisk 
over his remains. At the suggestion of 
the Bishop, a subscription has aUo been 
commenced for the erection of a memorial 
window, in his honour, in the cathedral 
church of the neighbouring town of Ma- 
ritzburg. 



James Waomobe, Eso. 
Dec. 24, 1853. Kt Upper Clapton, aged 
71, James Wadmore, esq. a well-known 
patron of the fine art*. 

This gentleman waa born on the 4th 
Oct. 178^'. at a house in the Hampitead- 
road, nearly opposite the Chapel. His 
father, who bore the same names, held a 
situation of trust in the Stamp Office; and, 
after an education received at a Yorkshire 
school near Greta Bridge, the son waa for 
B time a supernumerary clerk in the same 
department of the public service ; but he 
was eventually apprenticed to Mr. Prickctt, 
a land-surveyor at Highgate, and com- 
menced business on his own account at 
Lissou Grove. At the raising of the St. 
Fancras volunteers in 1803 he entered the 
corps and acted as its fugleman ; and to- 
wards (he close of the war, by the wishes 
of his fellow-volunteers, he was gazetted 
as Ensign, and chosen by them to present 
a sword to (heir commandant on their 
being disbanded. 

Whilst still at Lisson Grove, Mr. Wad- 
more began to collect pictures, and bought 
Westall's Hagar and Isbmael, which, being 
too large for bis door, had to be taken in 
by the removal of his window sashes. But 
having by (he death of his uncle Mr. John 
Foster, of Bury-slreet, in 1815, acquired 
a considerable estate, Mr. Wadmore re- 
moved to No. 40, Chapel-street, Marjle- 
bone, and covered the walla of that large 
house with the productions of tbe easel. 
He was the indmate friend of mnny emi- 
nent living artists, among whom were Wil- 
liam Allan, Wilkic, Burnet, Denning, Fox, 
and Vincent. He had long desired a pic- 
ture by Wilkie, but the many engagements 
of that artist had prevented him from ful- 
filling the promise of painting one. When 
the picture of " The Chelsea Pensioners " 
was in progress, Mr. Wadmore called, 
and, after having attentively examined the 
picture, he turned to the painter, and ob- 
jected to the figure of a Life Guardsman, 
saying, " But, Mr. Wilkie, the Guards 
were at the battle." Upon which Wilkie 
answered, " A' weel, come of them might 
ha' been left at home to recruit." Uow> 



OBirnAEY. — Jamet WaJmore, E$q. 



[Joly, 



I 



Wtm, W1Ikl<! tkoBiht on Mr. Wtdmore't 
r*n>rk, mil the fignraof > U(ht Dnfoon 
»*! luliftliutcil. A« tbcra lecmed little 
ehMM of otitalnlof ■ pletnre, Mr. W>d- 
mon ialil be ihooM Uke the orlfpatl tketch 
l^r Ik. «...,- ../ .1.. I .r. Giurd<man, uul 
\V. 1 it to Cbepel. 

•Iir mentloDlof 40A 

M Ilia |iric«. A few ilajt aftenrardt th« 
picture wu KDt, no longer the unllDUbMl 
•ketch of one figure, but beaatif ally fiaitbed, 
and another flgare introduced, together 
with a dog, "to break the hor»«'i left," 
M Wilkie laid. On Mr. Wadinore'aMeiog 
how much had been done, he at once uid, 
" But I miut gite you aometbing more, 
Mr. Wilkie, for it ii a picture now— not 
the ikctch you aold me." — " No," nid 
Wilkie, " it wu all cootempUted at the 
tinu>." Thia picture, tinder the name of 
■ "Trumpeter of the Life Guarda," wu 
told at the recent sale of Mr Wadmore'a 
collection at Cbristte'i for 214/. lOt. 

But, whilat coTering bit walla with the 
prodnctiont of modern artiits, Mr. Wad- 
more alio directed hii attention to the old 
maatera. Ilariog been introduced to Mr. 
Brjan, the author of the Dictionary of 
Paiotera and Engravers, he with him be- 
came a pnrcbaier of the pletnre of " The 
Virgin and Child, with the figure cf St. 
Rocb," by Annibale Caracci, together with 
the " Mars and Venus " by P. Veronese, 
and the " St. John " of L. da Vinci, from 
the collections of the Duke of Orleans and 
Marshal Ney. Subsequently the cele- 
brated picture by A. Caracci became Mr. 
Wadmore's alone, and it hu now been 
(Old for 336/. 

He did as much for water-colours u for 
oil, and bis carefully selected portfolios, 
eight in number, attested the extent of bis 
purchases and his tute. He wu by no 
means a purchaser for the sake of names, 
but appreciated the beautiful wherever be 
met with it, and thus assisted many young 
men in the commencement of their struggle 
for fame. .Still his collection contained 
some — nST, many — specimens of the first 
painters, by Turner, Stanfield, Roberts, 
Cox, Copley Fielding, Stothord, Chambers, 
Wright, Denning, Hart, J. Nasb. In- 
deed, Mr, Wadmore sought the fine arts 
in all forms — in prints and etchings, of 
which he bad a large collection ; in books, 
of which he had a well-selected library, 
containing some very rare specimens of 
medieval MSS. and early pnntiog. He 
was for many years a member of the As- 
tronomical Society, and of the Club, con- 
sisting only of twenty-one members ; also 
of the Numismatic Society, with which he 
wu some time connected. He wu a 

■ber of the Graphic, and oftentimes a 
Ibntor from his stores of art. He 



gratiutOBalr eontribated to R«ei*i Crdo- 
pedia an artide oa the niei of the n«o- 
dolite aod Sorrcying. Towards tbe doM 
of fab life, wh«a be had ranored flvat 
MarTfebooe to Uipper Cbptoa, he fdt a 
mtier disiiidiBatioa to Bingle in society. 
His latter Tears paaed by oilmly : in the 
Boraing, reafing ; in the CTening, telling 
itOfiei of tbe put, mingled with pleasing 
aneedotca of painters with whom be had 
aasoeiated. Towards tbe close of last year 
he wu evidently more in£rm, aod on tkt 
night of tbe 23rd December he became 
rapidly worse, and towards moming quite 
insenaible, aod, after lying in that state 
three or four hours, quietly breathed bis 
but, attended by bis children. A plain 
poliabed granite tomb corera bis grare In 
Highgate Cemetery. 

His pictarra were brtjoght to sale, by 
Messrs. Christie and Maosoo, on tbe 
Sthand 6tb of May. They were 186 in 
number, of which 75 were by ancient 
muters, and tbe remainder of tbe English 
school, put aod preaent. The former, 
though among them were several of good 
quality and character, were but little 
sought after, and, with the exception of the 
three following, did not reach an average 
of fifty pounds each : these were, a charm- 
ing Landscape by Ruysdael, which realised 
142 guineu; the Jewish Bride, by G. 
Dow, 140 guioeu, and the picture by 
Annibale Caracci, already mentioned. Tbe 
preaent demand for works of eminent 
Eogliah artists, and the increased value 
attaching to them, may be gathered from 
the large sums paid on this occasiou for 
tbe pictures of those painters whose pro- 
ductions sre just now most in request. A 
Landscape by Creswick wu knocked down 
for 55 guineas, and Danby's Enchanted 
Island for 46 guineu. Greenwich Hospital 
from Blacknall Reach, by 0. Vincent, a 
deceased artist, whose name never ranked 
among our foremost men, realised 246A 1 5t. 
There were several other pictures by the 
same band; among which, a Fair on Yar- 
mouth Sands brought 65/. it. a View of 
Yarmouth Jetty 29/. 8«. 6d., and a View 
near Norwich "SI. A Sea-shore, with 
Fishermen talking and sleeping, by G. 
Morland, sold for 33{. ; and The Coronation 
of Robert Bruce, by W. Fisk, for 67/. 4«. 
Three small and early works of Webster 
were run up to prices that are not likely to 
be sustained in another generation ; they 
were, II Penseroso, a man sitting in tbe 
stocks, sold for 2G2/. 10*.; Tbe Dirty 
Boy, 346/. 10s. ; and Sketching from Na- 
ture, 353 guioeu ; the Ust represents tbe 
interior of s cottage, and the artist hu 
introduced into the work his own portrait, 
and those of his father, mother, and sister. 
An admirable specimen of David Roberts's 



I 



I 
I 



1854.] Obituary.~V. W, Hlggins, Esq. — John Holmes, Esq. 87 



pencil, the Interior of Bayonne Cathedral, 
fold for 141/. Id*. Bat the great inlereit 
of the sale was reaerved for the three 
pictures by J. M. W. Turner : Cologae 
fold for 2000 guineaa, the Harboar of 
Dieppe for 1850 guinea*, both large ean- 
T«nes, and the Guard Ship at the Nore for 
1530 guinea*. Then pictures were ori- 
ginally painted for Mr. Broadhurst, and 
parehased from him by Mr. Wadmnre in 
1828 for about l.lUOf. The lait is con- 
siderably smaller than the other two, — 
Coadensed from the Art Journal. 



3. W. HiooiNB, Eta. 

A^ed 71. James White Higgins, esq. 
who for many years has occupied a promi- 
neot position in the profeiaion as a 
tarreyor, ralner, and referee. 

Mr. Higgins commenced his profea- 
tiooal career in the office of Mr. Bush, 
where he was a fellow pupil with Sir 
Robert Smirke. He bought ofT a portion 
of the term of his apprenticeship, and be- 
came at once fully employed in measuring 
the extensire Government buildings then 
erecting by Messrs. Copeland, Rolls, 
Holland, and others. The history of his 
career in life, properly written, would be 
most instructive, and to the hard-working 
most encouraging. He went to work 
early, and although married before he was 
twenty-one, had built a house in Sloane- 
street — now a part of his estate — out of 
money tared before he was twenty-two 
years of age : his occupation at this time 
was that of a surveyor, mainly employed 
in measuring, taking out quantities, and 
valuing. 

Dunng the l»st thirty years he has been 
chiefly engaged in condocting the purchase 
of property required for opening the new 
ttreeta which have improved the thorougb- 
hie* of the metropolis, in valuing pro- 
perty for railway and dock companies, the 
City, the Office of Woods and Forests, 
the Dnchy of Cornwall, and the Boards 
of Ordnance and Admiralty. He held, 
with Mr. Hosking, the first appointment 
of official referee under the Metropolitan 
Buildings Act (1844), with a salary of 
1,000/. a-year; from which, however, be 
retired after the first year, not liking the 
confinement of official life. 

The reputation he had acquired and the 
coBfidenee which he commanded every- 
where, from the soundness of his judg- 
ment and the sterling integrity of bis con- 
duct, induced the Duke of Newcastle, 
when Earl of Lincoln, to pass by many 
applicants for this office, and unsolicited, 
not only to offer it but press it upon him. 

No individual ha.'; been more largely 
employed as tn arbitrator, for which office 
h« wt« pecoUarly fitted by the qualities 



jntt now mentioned. Few men haT« 
passed seventy years in this busy world, 
enjoying through life a higher position in 
the good opinion of their fellow-men. 
He commenced his business purtuitt when 
practitioners were few in number, and 
kept the lead in his own particular de- 
partment of the profession, when time had 
fille.l it with an army of competitors, and 
when increased facilities for its study — 
ind extended field fur its practice — and 
higher developements of its principles had 
recruited the ranks of its professors with 
men full of zeal and ability. 

Mr. Higgins never aimed at distinction 
OS an architect ; and had honesty enough 
to hand over to others, any important 
architectural works that fell in bis way. 
He did much to raise the character of his 
profession by an upright and high-minded 
discharge of its duties, and maintained 
the respect aa well as the regard of all 
who knew him. Three daughters survive 
him, who are severally married, — to Mr. 
T. E. Owen, Dover-court, Southsca ; the 
Venerable Archdeacon Allen ; and the 
Rev. J. B. Owen, Vicar of Biliton.— TAf 
Buildtr. 



John Holmss, Eta. 

April 1. At Highgate, aged 54, Joh 
Holmes, esq. Assistant Keeper of the 
Manuscripts in the British Museum. 

Mr. Holmes was bom at Deptford on 
(he 17th July 1800. He was brought up 
as a bookseller in the house of Mr. Lepard, 
of the Strand, and was afterwards in 
business for a short time on his own ac- 
count at Derby. 

An admirably constructed catalogue of 
a collection of Oriental books and moon- 
scripts, and another, of the Battle Abbey 
charters, compiled for Mr. Cochran, book- 
seller, of the Strand, recommended him 
to the notice of Lords Bezley and Glenelg, 
and through their interest he was in 1B30 
appointed to the British Museum, where 
be was highly esteemed as one of the most 
intelligent and useful of its officers. 

We are not aware that he published any 
Tolnme with his name in itt title-page ; 
but he was the writer of some valuable 
contributions to periodical literature. We 
believe that the Quarterly Review was on 
two occasions indebted to bis pen, one of 
which was an article in the number for 
}iIaylB43, on the subject of "Libraries 
and Catalogues," which exhibited great 
acquaintance with bibliography. In 1840 
he contributed to our Magazine a bio- 
graphical list of the French ambassadors 
to Englood from the year 1396 to 1700 (see 
our vol. xiv. pp. 438—487, 608—610). 
To the Italian Relation of England edited 
for the Camden Society by Mitt Saeyd, 



88 



Obituary. — Mr. W. Pickering— Mr. U. Harriton. [July, 



Mr. Holmfli luppUed ii Hit of the Venetian 
tmbiuidors to England, with an account 
of their varioui Relationi of thii country 
eziiting in print or in manuacript. He 
flipplicd Dumerous additional notea to 
the laat two editions of Wordaworth'i Ec- 
deaiaatical Biography, and alio to Pepyi'a 
Diary, and Evelyn'a Life of Mrs. Go- 
dolpbin. 

In 1B53 be edited a new edition of 
Cavendiib'i Life of Cardinal Woliey, with 
Dumeroua hittorical and biographical 
notes (tee our vol. ixxrii. p. 49-1). 

Mr. Holmes was the adviser of the Earl 
of Athbiirnham in the formation of his 
valuable collection of Manuscripts. 

" Mr. Holmes," says a correspondent 
of the Athttitum, " was distinguished by 
a rare strength of memory, combined with 
great general capacity and activity of mind, 
which he had especially eierciied in his- 
toricul, biographical, and bibliographical 
atudiet. It may euily be conceived with 
what advantage he wai able to use 
these powers in the service he had under- 
taken. The catalogue of the Arundel and 
Barney collections of manuscripts, com- 
prising works in theology, classical litera- 
ture, hittory, civil law, and other subjects. 
Is a witness of his abllldes. Completeness 
and precition of description distinguish 
this work among others of a similar nature ; 
and these etcellencet may (without dis- 
parngement to the able officers concerned 
m the publication) be referred mainly to 
the example and the exertions of Mr. 
Holmes. He continued the habit of 
minute Inquiry during the whole period of 
bis service in the British Museum ; and 
this principle of thorough investigation, 
combined with rare bibliographical in- 
formation, has been of permanent nse to 
the department. He had been of lata 
chiefly occupied in compiling a catalogue of 
the manuacript maps and plana dispened 
among the different collections, which have 
hitherto been either imperfectly described, 
or altogether unnoticed. Of this im- 

ftortant and extensive work he was engaged 
a revising the Anal sheets when death 
snatched him away from amongst us. 
Never man had a kinder heart or a more 
candid nature ; and the memory of his 
worth will be preserved with ihe sincerest 
aflectionbyhiscaadjatoraiu the Museum." 
Ho married Mary-Anne, eldest daughter 
of Mr. Charles Rivington, the late highly 
respected bookseller of St. Paul's Cburch- 
jifil and Waterloo Place, and has left three 
■ana and two danghters. The eldest son 
is at the university of Cambridge. The 
■econd ton has been since his father's 
death placed in the Manuscript department 
of tha Rritish Museum ; and the third is a 
n OQ board the Neptune in the 




Baltic. The small private library of Mr. 
Holmes was sold by Metira. Puttick and 
Simpson on the ISth of June. 

Mr. Williau Piceerino. 

April '21. At Tornham Green, aged SB, 
Mr. William Pickering, lute of Piccadilly 
and formerly of Chancery-lane, bookseller 
and publisher. 

Mr. Pickering was, in 1810, apprenticed 
to John and Arthur Arch, the Quaker pub- 
lishers and booksellers, of CornhiU. In 
IB90 he commenced business for himself 
in a small shop in Lincoln's-inn-flelds, 
where he published the first of a tcrlei of 
miniature Lntin and Italian classics so 
beautiful and correct as fairly to entitle 
him to adopt the Aldine device on the *J 
tillet of his future publicstioni, tvhich in- 
cluded the carefully edited Britifih Poets, 
Bacon's Works by Montngiie, the Bridge- 
water Treatises, Walton's Angler illus- 
trated by Inskipp and Stotbard, theworka 
of Herbert, Taylor, Milton, and many 
others. The ujipliootion of dyed cotton 
cloth instead of paper for boarding new 
books was first made by him in I82o. 
The experiment was continued in the issue 
of the Oxford classics, as also in the re- 
prints of Hume and Smollett, Gibbon, 
Robertson, and Johnson. 

Mr. Pickering's taste and judgment in 
printing and bookbinding were only ex- 
ceeded by his extensive knowledge of rare 
ond curious books. This knowledge, rarer 
in booksellers than it was formerly, united 
to the most perfect integrity, gained for 
him through life the friendship and etteem 
of all classes of book-loving people. It 
may be sold of William Pickering — aa Wil- 
liam Pickering remarked when hit friend 
Thomas Rodd died — that he took much 
knowledge of old books out of tbe world. 
His death was preceded by a long and 
painful illness, produced originally by 
mental anxiety anting from a tedious liti- 
gation which ended in his ruin, and from 
severe affliction in his family. Although 
it is expected that his estate will pay 20(. 
in the pound, hia three daughters are left 
totally unprovided for. — Athtnaum. 

Mr. Pickering has left one son, who is 
about to enter into his business in con- 
nexion with Mr. Toovey, who baa suc- 
ceeded to the book-establiahment in Picca- 
dilly J and we are happy to report favour- 
ably of the subscription which has been 
entered into for the benefit of Mr. Picker- 
ing's daughters. 

Mb. Hknrv Harrison. 

Dtc. IG. At New York, aged 40, Mr. 
Henry Harrison. 

The subject of the present brief memoir 
was bom on the 30th of April, 1813. He 



1854.] 



Obituary. 



89 



wsi the lecooJ son of the Rev. William 
Harrison and Maria Kclsal. His grand- 
father, the ReT. Ralph Harrison, formerly 
preached at the Dissenting Chapel, Cross 
Street, Manchester, in comhinatioo with 
Dr. Barnes, who was a popular preacher 
in bis day. His father coudactcd public 
worship at a small Dissenting CImpcl at 
Blackley, near Manchester. 

Mr. Harrison's early life was charac- 
tised by the lirelinesa of his disposition 
and the quickness of bis intellect. When 
yet very young he displayed coniiidcrable 
powers of memory, which, united with a 
readiness of perception, gave promise of 
nnnsual ability. He was first educated 
by his father, who, like muoy others of 
his prufe»sion, Diiited the business of a 
srboolmaster to his ministerial duties, 
Subicquently he was placed with Mr. 
Oiion, a respectable tutor, who still con- 
ducts a commcrcini academy in the oeigb- 
bourhood of Manchester ; and at a later 
period he was instrocled by the Rer. Dr. 
Beard, who hnd recently returned from 
the Unitarian College at York. 

Dr. Beard endeavoured to include in his 
instmctiooa a more extended course of 
education than is imparted in the majority 
of schools, particularly wishing to excite 
in bis pupils a taste for literature, and to 
encourage the practice of English compo- 
sition. Mr. Harrison, even at this early 
period, evinced a remarkable facility of 
writing, and the poetical compositions 
which he began to tend to the Manches- 
ter newspapers and the Christian Teacher 
(a journal then conducted by Dr. Beard) 
display a nice appreciation of the delica- 
cies of this department of letters. Un- 
fortunately thc*e fragments of poetry are 
too widely scattered to be easily brought 
together; nor did Mr. Harrison seem to 
attach any value to them so soon as the 
occasion which prompted them had ceased 
to interest him. They embraced variona 
subjects and styles of composition, some 
lieing translations from the Greek and 
Italian authors, and otberit uriginnl com- 
positions or imitations of our classical 
writers. They were for the most part 
simply signed with bis initials, H. H. 

But Mr. Harrison did not merely dis- 
tinguish himiclf in compositious of this 
nature : he ^howed himself possessed of 
that versatility of mind which finds com- 
parative rase in most mental exercises, 
and to which a powerful memory no doubt 
largely contributes. In the study of lan- 
guages he made large proficiency, reading 
the Greek and Latin classics with a degree 
of facility nhich is seldom acquired. He 
also possessed a competent knowledge of 
t'reoeh and Italian literature. 

At the com|itrt on of his educational 

UiMT. Mao. Vol. XI-II. 



pursuits Mr. Harrison was apprenticed to 
Mr. Atkinson, a solicitor, in Manchester, 
with whom he passed creditably through 
the usual period of appreuticeiihip. Id 
1830 he went to London to be admitted aa 
a solicitor, but returned immediately to 
his native town, where he commenced the 
[iractice of his profession. 

Tlie talent which Mr. Harrison pos- 
sessed was united with a vivacity of dis- 
position and confidence in his own ability, 
which led him to underrate the importance 
ofassiduity and energy. Eitherheneglected 
the advantages which his position presented 
or did not sufficiently roiLse himself to over- 
come its difficnitiea. In IH.I7 he left hur- 
riedly for Dublin, without any sufficient 
motive, and without the knowledge of hii 
friends. Here he maintiiincd himself in a 
stale of obscuiity unworthy of his talents, 
apparently devoid of that ambition which 
is so necessary to stimulate industry. Ho 
was at length induced to return to Man- 
chester, but being still unsettled, he even- 
tually tailed to New York in 1844, and 
from that city he never returned. It must 
be admitted that ambition has a large share 
in stimuUting the industry of the most 
devoted student. That which is supposed 
to be done for the love of letters, is, in 
reality, often dictated by a love of appro- 
bation. If Mr. Harrison had possessed a 
larger share of ambition he would bava 
done more for himself and more for others, 
and in seeking honourable distinction be 
would hsve exchanged obscurity for honour 
and affluence. J. B. U. 



DEATHS, 

ASaANOED IN CUIIONOLOaiCAL ORnCB. 

Jan. ... fn Van Dteroen's Land, Lnry, wifr of 
Jolin Brooks Jannan, ewi. ; alsu tiis mio, aged G 
montlkff. 

Jan, \%. In .\UftTalla, a(;cd 34, Augusttit-Am- 
bro>c, hiurth wn of the lulu Kev. Henry Arttiur 
llMkwitli, M.A. \'lrar of ColliliL'liam. 

Jan. 37. At WelUiifrloii, N>w /rJilsnd, n^KNl 
S"*, ilr. Charlw Henry I'iiier, oiil> Min'tvlDg mou 
of Itie Inle 'Jlioma^ ri]«er, t-j)<i. of Dorking. 

At MellMrame, ii;tcil 37, Mr. I'ranclft(iruin\V}'att, 
lilte surgeon of tl'C ftliiji Nirorod, youngc< fton of 
the late llolxrt ^Vyiit, exi. of Krcwcii liidl, 
CuforU. 

Fik. i. At Callsn, Aeni 33, Cai)t. It. B. Mac- 
kenzie, youngest ron of the late Andrew iJohn 
Msckcnzle, cMj. of London. 

Feb. 12. At 9^n, ouU>ard tlic ITotfimr, Capt. 
OiarlcA Itlchiinl WmHthoiiM:, ()3<1 Uenfrnl X. Inf. 

JJarrh 17. At (ieelong. In Aiistnilia, (iniham 
Colvlle, etq. late of itie 43d l.ij^ht Inf. N-oond .iir- 
vivlng son of Frod.C A. Colvtle.ofBiirton IIoum, 
Warwickiihlre. 

At Mellwunic, Amtralla, aged 39, John Holdcn 
(lliver WlUhims, only Mn of Uic laic William 
iirowno \\ illlauit, Ciorcrnor of the UudiKtn'* Bay 
Coini»any. 

Marrli 36. At Calcntlii, ogrd 2K, Mr. .Tunies 
Allen TiUTter, eldc»t mu of Mr. Turner, .stui-ki-y'a 
Itiink, Chard. He vu, an t-uten'rlsiug youug luan, 
Olid dcTulcd hilt leisure honra to literary jiursulta. 
He hii>K*fl ti widow. 

N 



90 



Obituary. 



[J«iy, 



Manh 31. At Cskntte, need 44, Jehu I*«nl 
Thorntan, eag, lata CoIqnUI Secretary «t Tobuo. 

April 1. At Koliat, Punjab, aged SS, John Ed- 
wbi Cathcart, M.O., AaaWuit-SnrKiwi 4th Panjab 
CtTaliy, jonngnt inn of Ella* Catbeart, aaq. of 
Anehendrane, Arndiln. 

April 4. At Jamaica, WtlHam Oeorge Nann, 
taq. late Commissioner of Stamin, after a public 
mrrltt of Ibrtj jream In the colony. 

April 6. Aged M, at St. Thome, Kast Indies, 
Hmrietta, the wlfi: of Uent. F. V. R. Jerrts, Kth 
Bengal N.I. 

Airlll. On board the mall-steamer Indiana, 
on Eer passage fk-om Calratta, of wBlch be was 
Senior Ifldshlpmao, aged ao, Mr. Frederick Wct- 
mn Sanderson, of Bndllngton-<inay. 

Apra II. In Jamaica, aged 23, Selina-Uarla, 
wttt of Capt. C. n. Kingston, 8d W.I. Rc^tlnent. 

AprU 13. On his road to the KellgherrK Hills, 
J. B. Janncejr, eaq. of Madras, and son of tin late 
Capt. Janncer, R.N. 

A^tl . At Chatham, rrpor Cunada, aged 46, 
Artbnr Aeland, of the Inner Temple, esq. late 
Jndge of the County Coort nf the District of 
Bnron. He was called to the bar Nor. IR, 1831, 
lod (bnnerly pracHsed as an eqnltr draoghts- 
nan. 

At sea, on board the Hotspur, on Ms passage 
Ihna Calcatta to England, WUIIam Stalkartt, esq. 
esq. second son of Harmadnke Stalkartt, formerly 
ofDorer. 

Apra n. At Haripoaa, Canada West, Roger 
Klngdon, esq. 1t.J>. son of the Rer. Roger Klngdon, 
Beelor of Holswortliy, Deron. 
, Apra tt. At Elmwood. near Hontreal, Canada, 
at an adranced an, Mary M-millTray, sMer of the 
Ute Hon. W. M-GUIirmy, of St. Antolne Honae, 
Montreal, and renlsliael, Argyleshlrc. 

Jfait 1. At Madeira, John WIntle, ean. eldest 
son of the late Rot. H. WIntIo, Rector of llatson, 
Olonc. 

JfovT. At Sunbury, Middlesex, aged 76, Char- 
lotte PiiscUla Atwood. 
At Balmakewan House, nncardlne, Kn. Charles 

^ Ifay 9. At Clifton, Bristol, Job Cooper, esq. 
fltnnsrlTofShertan >lallct. 

At St. JohnN Vicarage, Worcester, aged 6.), 
Roger .lames, esq. formerly ofl.'lrcrstonc, Ijinc. 

OirSi'bastcjpol, William J. Jubnntone. mate on 
board the (Jueen, third son of the Rov. C. John- 
stone, Canon Residentiarr nf York. 

Jfijlt 10. Ocorglana-Charlotte, youngest dan. of 
Major Thomiu Askew, of Cheltenham. 

At Bath, Elliabeth-Iaabella-Cottnam, eldest dan. 
of the late Col. Maclean, Lieut.-Goremor of the 
Tower of London. 

At I.anraster, aged 76, Agnes, widow of the Rer. 
Pajrler Matthew Procter, Vicar nfyewland,aionc. 

Jfof 11. At Stonehonsc, IJcvon, while on a risit 
to his son, 8. R. Chapman, esq. JOth Hegt. aged «», 
Frederick John Chapman, esq. only son of the 
late Llent.-Clencnil iniapman, H. Art. anil for 
nearly 70 years In H. M. Ordnance Department. 

At Eilinbnritli, Mrs. Isabella Hepburn, relict of 
James I.nw, esq. 

Ifay I'i. At Sunnlng-hlll, ageil 76, Elisabeth, 
relict of Richard Ulrt, esq. formcriy of Kallgrore. 
Surrey. • 

At ljin«lowne Villa, Finehley-road, aged 71, 
Miss Ann Margaret Campbell. 

At Wimlwlcb, aged 41, MaHlila, wife of Mr. 
C. A. FIcling, Assistant German-Master of the 
Royal Military Academy ; on the IWh Inst, aged 
11, Matilila-.Icssie, cldot dau. of Mr. FleHng. 

At Liverpool, aged 89, Mary, wMow of John 
Qregson, esq. of F.verton. 

At St. OeorgeVtcrrace, Hyde-pait, aged 76, 
Captain It. Ilayi-s, K.M. ■ ■ -o 

At Trnsthorpe, Line . aged 66, WllHam Ixift, esq . 
. At Kensington, aged 34, Susan, relict of Henry 
de Michele, eaq. 

Charlotte, wlfr of Samval Kaylor, eaq. of 
Coedfa, Deiibigh.hlrc. / i «-i »■ 



At Dynes Hall, Essex, aged K>, Itaniet, th« 
widow of Jolm Sperling, esq. and yonngeat dan. 
of the tata Hon. WlUlam Boehftirt, of Clontarf, 
Ireland. 

At CanL wntatalM^, Ctaptiam-liark-niad, aged 
44, Maria, aacond dan. of Mr. Wlnstanley, Ute tl 
tlie Poultiy. 

Jr<iyl3. Aged 6»,tho Ron. Mary, widow of Sir 
Btephan Richard Olymia, the 8th Bart. Sbewaatbe 
second daughter of the second Lord Braybrooka, 
17 the youngest dau. of the Rtglit Hon. George 
OrenvUle. Shewumarrlad In 1306, and left a 
widow In 1316, haling tiad tasuo the present Baro- 
iwt and athar cbfldren. 

At Bombay.agad 37, Oeorga Fredolck Hotham, 
esq. 6th Bengal Car. and A4|. lAth Irregulars, 
eldast smrlTlng son of Captain the Hon. O. F. 
Hotham, R.N. 

At Carrlngton's, near Lymlngton, Hants, aged 
13, Sydney Bowden, sereath and yoimgaat son of 
Richard Jennlns, esq. 

At Blnnlnghan, WDUam SInttel KelsaU, eaq. 
kite of MancSealer. 

AtOlasnavln,eo.l>ablln,aged 76, Martha, reUa 
of John Knox, esq. of Villa Park. 

At an hotel at Olasgow, ag«d 30, Mlaa Jessie 
Laoder, of a raspeetabia flunttr la Xdlaboigta, 
wko eommlttad Mictde from dlsappntnteil lova. 
She appears to bare written to an krrer a few 
days prcTlonsly, and a letter which tba serrant 
gin took up to the deeaasad'a mom whan she 
found her dead was an answer to it. He apole- 
glsea for the delay la writing to bar, and ascribes 
ttils delay to her letter baring been mlasent to a 
town three milea distant from hla proper address. 
In proof of which be encloses the enrelope aurked 

"missent to G ." 

Drowned, in the Rhiae, near Canb, on bis pas- 
sage to England faftcr between nine and ten 
years' residence in Uie East Indlea), by HUItng 
orarboard the Mannheim steamer, agad 37, Ben- 
jamin Rolls Stroud, esq. of Calcatta. 

Jfov 14. Ilerr J. Dellns, of Bremen. Harlng 
aacendcd Mount VesBTlua with a party of hla 
eoontrymen, he went too near the edge of the 
crater, and, the ground glrlng way under him, ha 
foil Into the abyss. His groans were heard from 
Ota bottom, but when some persona deeeanded by 
means of ropes he waa dead. 

At Dublin, Ralph Arthur, eldest son of Sir John 
Dillon, llart. of Llsmullen, co. of Meath. 

At Edinburgh, aged 76, .lobn Farqnharson, esq. 
of Hangblon, AbenteenslUro. 

At Shoreham, aged 66, Mra. (Mod, wifo of tba 
Rar. J. E. Good, late of Ueaport. 

At Kepler House, Stalnea, Middlesex, aged 66, 
Sophto, widow of WllHam Harris, and flfth dau. 
of the late and sister of the preeeat Thomas 
South, esq. all of that place. 

At Edinburgh, Mrs. LUIiaa CampbeD, reUct of 
James Ker, esq. of Blacksliiela. 
At Kenn, aged 94, Mra. Soaan Mann. 
At Clifton, Elizabeth-Onle, widow of the Rer. 
Albany Wade, Rector of Elton, Durham, and dau. 
of the late Capt. Dutton, of Hylton Orore. 

At Croydon, agud 16, Mr. Thomas Smith Wykes, 
solicitor. 

Man 16. At Leyton, aged 63, Maiy, llfth dau. 
of the lata Joseph <,'otton, esq. 

At Stoke Newlngton, aged 70, Benjamin Jen- 
nings, esq. one of the Senior IVmastcrs of tbo 
Royal Nary. 

At Sandgate, Kent, aged 43, Maiy, relict of 
John Lae, esq. of Urcrpool. 

At Tunbrldge, at an advanced age, OharlotI*, 
relict of Thoa. SImpaon, esq. of Bralntree, Essex. 

Aged 33, Frederick, youngest son of WUIIam 
Warner, esq. of Oxiey, near Wotrerhampton. 

Uaf 16. At Mount Calverley-lodge, Tnnbridga 
Wells, Anthony St. John Baker, esq. many years 
Secretary of L«gatUn and Coosnl-Oeneial in tbo 
United States. 

At Lyons, agad 34, James Bacon, Jus., esq. 
second son of James Bacon, esq. ().C. 



1854.] 



Obitoajit. 



91 



AX Ipswicli, Somfa-EUulMitlt, (rib of Sdwanl 
Wttk.iLD. 

At LoBcliboninffli, t/ti 11, tarah, nUtt af 
Aansk liluut, cv*nt. 

Jt dUlBiiU. MMT itei*. igaa K, lUiT. the wife 
or John Hadwen Wli«rl*T«|ibt, tan. miX aUlat 
dan. of CUrkMii SUnAold, mq. It.i.. 

M Wart TeWtnmimtli. aced ta, Danmel Bart, 
aMaitam of tiia Bar. John KloboUa i^lmec, of 
Onat TDrrtngton. 

At IlMian, li«y, wife of rndatick Banrell, 

a^CnaMaa. of iiawy "■■■- *. mq. at 8«r- 

wlek-apea-Twccd. 

la Laai i *M « L uad Mt, EdMvd Uaac Hob- 
baaia. aaq. !■» Wajiar of Iurt Jtroaelitim. Ha 
waatbaeldeilnrrtvlngaon Iqrtliencood nuirriage 
artbe lala Shr BaqJ. UOMagoaa. Bart. «tlh Amalia 
daa. af the Hm. Joihiu Fiut) . Me wan a SesUa- 
Baa Uilier to her M^otr ; and maniad ta IU9 
lla aoB. Hartv Chailsna <lcara^ IHh dan. of 
Tluiaua.liarth tel Ixicd Ormw, bf vkon b* haa 
M !■■* on* aw, Hdanrt tag. Sl u a ait Hob- 



AaSaad! 



. Jtarr, a««d », Franoaa, (Ma* 
r gf Itic lato Kar. GUbort Jackmao, DJ>. 
p«(MMlpartah. 
Atnailalgli BrilMlrw. ^iil 9, Pianoea Lacy. 
*a. aC W. MTMm, aa|. itf BaBtOaid UoiiMi. 

At memum, ymy aoMnlr. agad M, Wm. 
WaMon,a»j. 

Jd M, Loalaa, wMov af 
Mallow (rrirmerly of Ilia 
mi A^ayaaet). and motbar of Sir Daabam Jeph- 
awJhoiro. Sha «u the daaiEbtar of Cbai-lea 
mmtiafim, —i. of Ulackhaath. 

At Ifiialtiaaiiiliia. XIaaaar, ftraHh daa. of tha 
■■L and Srr. Slahard riugaald Dag, and 
naite ta Uta Carl of Klnolea. 

Jfe OMnai^, a«id TSs Col. Jospb Dam Lacj-, 
k.p. M Oarr. BaO. 

A*Mnai[taa^ Samr. a«ad 61, WilUan Bv- 
lelflb toeka, cm], lata of Soham, HartMk. 

Al (tia eoa<M, St. BMv«t. WtaibaMr, i«eU 
«l, L>«)- AM«a tfandaaald ; Atabaa « _ 
tba Int annrtvor of tba commnnltjr, wte * 
4llaui iKm Wnmtit In the Fraucb 
lalTM. 

At Hards Omiata. Martrhaatfc, ^ad M, Mr. 
tUrhanl Naav* Maiiiwiwn 

ifar I*. M Aiebartt, Urtnoel. EDaa-Mark, 
ten. of tha lale Tbomaa Aaftliuli, e«|. 

.11 Plymoutti, Mr. J. C. BqIIuidv, roan(t«flt son 
«f Ltar. fidUuiy. Mr. Uclluajr waa a con^derablo 
aaMrtkatar *> tiae lacal fcaa, oa ml^aoti con- 
■Mal tiMt atateolocT i aad aeranl ^aan aiiwa 
■■UMMd" A Tbeaaand FaeU eoaaaclid «M| tba 
lUatary of Flriasath.*' 

Al Toi^nar, acad 9*. lin. JohanBd Bowdan. 

At Cliff C'aatle, Sealon, Hvvon, a«ad M, FlorenM, 
•alydau afT. G. W. Caraw, ai» af Orawaoarto- 
caort, Somcncl. 

At Robin Hoort-D Bar. ••«>•>. Wtnmt Oaar- 
ka«, aa. aarc«on. 

At Wakat-larrace, Raarx Greao. aa^. Armrljr 
of the Sun FIk Office. 

Jaaa, wtti tt Xr. W. T. nendarvtn, ai*M(<r of 
fhe Landon ami WeatuUiHter Bank, LoChMrry. 

Al Dl»». >g»d 77, FraiuTH. fld(»t «tirv(Tla( daa. 
4#lba laie Hrr. W. Manning, Kactor of DIaa. 

Mr. J. H. MDm, lata of Sburitr-llatMi. aUert 
aaa of J. MUaa, evi. U.D. uf Iba Cluu-ierhooao. 

la Xartl»-pl. aiccd HI, Mary-Ann, ralict af tiaotce 
■awioct, aaq. af tha aama place, and 'fwfeknt- 
haia. 

Al nowialow, lUnnab, wli^ of K. Soon, oaq. 

At Kxater, Jaine» Southtoniba, e»q. 

if«r la At 1.«imlnKiun. iik»1 TV, Maite-B&r- 
ban. ' ■ ' ■ - Duniel Baylcy. 

A -irah, rtdlct of Paolol Carting, 

At .■>ii..«.-r.i nuiua, Somanet, a«ad M, JOiui 
Ooilld, aaq. 



Al Oronqiton. frain the «tllBets of «z)>o<ura and 
privation f\]-". ' " .rliij; four year* Arctte 

lun'loo In si'i!: lai PrirakJlii, aged 2T, 

lieutenant ^^ . Hiyit^wr. It.N. author 

uf ■' Tefi Munlli. .iiii'-n^::.! I'l " ' "ic TuaW, 

and Incldunlfi of a itoat 1-'- .liu llai:- 

kenzic Kiver." Heuwntuui :.aciit1flr 

in Uie n*nutrkutilo voya^ (ii liic i.oiti^ m Har Ma> 
Jest^» shit> IMovor, flrom lo'*<^l>e to the Mackan. 
lie. On ortH occaaion ha wiu loitt for tbroo daya 
in a now atonn, and ha paawd two lonaljr arlntatii 
uway Amid bis atatp in log b«t>, vMi a »« of Ma 
boat^ «i««, near Uia aonhani aborat of America, 
lirinit chiefly iqion oflHl UbIi. 

At Wardour Caatia, tba Boa. Laara lUedeDell, 
wlfv of Lii>ut..Col. aearge Macdonall, C.B. and 
•inar of Lord Anaidett of Wardoar. She waa 
married In 1890. 

Maar Seatari.OoaatsnUaople, Lieut. W. L. Mao. 
ni»h, of the 93d Ilii^hloudors. Ue waa oroasing a 
rarfcnb near Scntarf borractu, wtien a beary itorm 
camo on, and It hi faiLPOd that be waa washed into 
tba aaa. 

At Lsamint^on, aged 77, Dorotbaa, reltcl of 
Gdaiand Tusar, aaq. of Pantaa IlooM, and Stoke 
llocliford. Line. M.r. fbr Uidbamt, and aalbor of 
the HIatot; of GranUiam. Stae waa Itia dau. of 
UooL-CoL Tacfcar, aad the aeeond wtfii of Mr. 
Tumor, but the laadMr of hb lieir, the prnent 
Cbriatopher Tunior.aaq. and many other cbfldran. 

At Totuo«, a^ed Ht, Ann, rclirt of Mr. Jwdaa 
Wbltaway, fonnarty of tbe ChawtianMnrpa Arms, 
Darlington . She waa Ibe moOiar of W ddldroa, 
•e*on of oiioin. and a Urge nimbar of her M 
grandchildren, followed ber to tbe grave. 

Jfoy 90. At Brixtuun, in oonseqaonoa of aavara 
lalnriat canted by accidentally (aUbic down aoina 
■lept la hia aardm, W. Bbtckroore, eaq. abipowncr. 
Be waa la Ine army npwanla of twenty yrars, and 
aa a matter tailor tu tbe Eanlidiillen Draeoona 
had ebtalaat Ike roapeot and ftiendihtp of his 
inperlor otBcera. Sioea tali rctiremeat he hai 
•BoeeaaHaly fillad the oMeea of gurdian , ovineer, 
coamlMkiaar, aad at tbe Hue of bit dsatb waa 
chairman of tM board afaarTeyora. 

At Cospanala Han, Bawx, aged M, Mr. TboiBu 



At SoBlkaDplea, aged X2, after laodln*; from 
ttw Bi^-«leaiBar Badettna, 0>pt. Courteuay Tho- 
aaa RaaunOl, l«l West India Rest. <4de>t ^u^■ 
TMag mn af Ltaot.-Col. HaramOl, late PreroM 
Uanlial of Britlih Galaoa. 

^ed 71, Robert BapUna, eiq. of Bowrtock 
Bonae, Berks. 

At Ilomaey, aged 3«, EUee, wUe ol Aafuana T. 
Krily. eaq. 

Aged B8, Vn. Baiy Le««rid(e, of Acton-plaor, 
Kbig<tand-roed. 

At Herkmofldwike, Yorkahiro, aged 51, Oeoi«a 
Aolay Hacaolay, onq. fuurtli mo of the late Ber. 
AiUay Macaulay. Vicar of Rothlry. co. Lotc. 

At Wbadden llouae, Bruion. Somerset, aged OS, 
Chaa. Henry Sampaon ItltcheU, eaq. 

At Stoke Damerel, Ann, wldnw of Mail Lnkl 
XottLs, j^vntleman. ._ 

At Pukliorstmcad, Kent, Laora.Oertr«de, »» 
of Fre'lerl'-h Mowv, eaq. 

Ai H ■' V Shafteatmry . ■ ' :' Viv. 

Clittil. . late ArclidPii i. 

Vli'n' ■ i.nnfl dun '-' v. 



>■ miir1.cL, 
v!li5,«q. 
,Mio «us tnc dan. of 
1, Essex; was married 
V In IMH. (See onr 



51, r 

.lotlll I 

In \-. 

vol. XI 

Mr 

bain. ^ 
ho wn' 
door M 

At I.. '■"'■ 

Olooe. auou B wiuimu Menrv. cmw m'm "■ I'le 
R»T. ▼mhm Calrert. M.A. Rtiol or of St. .\nthottn 



• mertUant of Blrmlng- 
trinrailwuy '•""''»«». 

- ■- • the 



92 



Obituabv. 



[July, 



nid St. John the Baptttt, and Ulnar Canon of St. 

In London, «(«d 47, Thomu Hontiua Cwinui, 
rttlrad miveon Uadni N.I. eldart wn of tb« 
Me DtTid Cuinin,eM|. 

At WUtlqr, ued 18, Mr. Fnderic Charlton, of 
tiw tinn of Charlton and Angaa, Kewcaatla. He 
wa* drowned whilst bathing. 

At the reddenee of her ion, Crojdon Common, 
Snrrer, aced Si, Mn. Amelia Chown. 

BeiOaimn WlUetti Holden, eiq. of Henlejr-on- 
Thamet, formerly of Staffordahlre. 

At Chesterfield, Mary-Ellxaheth, ncond dan. of 
J. Jell, esq. of Dorer. 

A(«d SI, Blchard Kneeahaw, Mcond son of 
Blehard Kneeahaw, eeq. of UtotmoI. 

At Birmingham, aged M, Richard Proaser, 
esq. C.K. 

IIar7-Ann, wife of C. T. Rimer, esq. Soath- 



I Porohester-pl. aged 80, Samnel Skinner, eeq. 
ftormerlT of the E.I.C.'s Ciril Serrlce. 

At Kenilworth Lodge, Warw. aged 71, WlUlam 
Spewing, eaq. 

Mag n. Ulas Andrew, of Flaa Kewjpdd, Llan- 
gonstt. North Wales. 

At EdInlmrRh, aged 91, Idas EUiabeth Dick, 
dmghter of the Ute Rer. Dr. Robert Dick, Utnls- 
tar of the Trinltr Collage Chnrch. 

At Torqaar, aged 49, C. R. Harrlaon, eiq. late 
ofHnll. 

At Hanworth Uooae, Middlesex, aged S4, Anne- 
Xanr, eldest danghter of the Ute Rev. WlUUm 
Jephaon, Haator of the Onunmar School, Cam- 
berweU. 

At Flaahwood, Stowmarket, SulT. aged 61, WU- 
11am Skinner Marshall, esq. late of Hyds Park-aq. 

Athlsfluber'a, Alphington, near Exeter, Michael 
Wallace Porter, Uta of H.M. Ordnance, third son 
•rtlw Rot. Dr. Porter. 

At Kaading, aged 74, Mrs. Simmons, Ute of 
Wokingbam. 

Mat ft. At Totnaa, at a rerjr adTaaoed age, 
Mary, relict of the B«t. Mr. Bmch, and only sor- 
rlving dau. of Adm. Epworth, of Totoea. 

At Qneeoatown, Martha-UiUlgen, wifii of Raar- 
Adm. Sir William F. Carroll, K.C.B. Commander- 
in-chief on the Irlah sutlon. She was the eldest 
dan. of the Ute Vice-Adm. Sir Richard Dacrea, 
K.C.B. She waa married in 1813, and bad laaue 
two sona (of whom the eldeat was killed in Simon's 
Bay In 1846), and aeren daaghters. 

At Conglcton, Cheshire, and 77, Rd. Clogg, esq. 

At Brighton, OIIto, wife of Dr. Uanaard, eldeat 
dan. of Mr. Tucker, Exeter. 

In BerkelcT.iq. aged 44, Robert HargreaTes, 
eeq. of Bank Honae, Aocrington. 

After giving birth to a daughter, CedlU, wifb of 
Jamea Haywood, eaq. of Hardwick Houae, Edg- 
baston. 

At Canonsgrore, near Tannton, aged 70, John 
iTle, eaq. 

At Cole Park, near Malmeabnry, Charlotte, 
widow of Peter Harrey Lorell, eaq. 

At Newcastle-on-Tyne, aged 4S, John Ridley, 
esq. of Bedford-pl. Ruaaell.sq. London, and fcr- 
merly a member of the Newcaatle Council. 

At Aix-U-Chapelle, Harriet, only chUd of Wil- 
liam Slonnelt, eaq. of KeiKate. 

At Benton End, HsdUlgh, SutTuik, aged 70, 
William Stmtt, esq. 

At Hackney, aged 77, Ann, relict of William 
Thompactt, eaq, formerly of Dover. 

At Liveriiool, Mr. Jamea Wiaeman, brother of 
Cardinal Wlacnun. He Itad realded for many 
yeara in Liverpool, and waa at one time connected 
with a mercantite Ann of high aUnding. Lat- 
terly, however, ho became an interpreter of 
foreign langnagea, and waa the peraon who waa 
engaged to interpret tlie evidence agalnat Captain 
Horner, who waa committed aome weeks ago for 
the wilful murder of two of bia crew on the high 
aeaa. While attending the court in connection 
With tliia caae, he took a aerere cold, from th« 



elhcta of wliteh be never recovered. He waa 
abont five years older than the cardinal, with 
whom he studied at Uahaw College, and anbae- 
qnently In Spain. Mr. Wiaeman was an able 
llngniat, apeaking all the modem langnagea of 
Europe with lusncy and accuracy. 

ifay 14. At the Priory, Edgbaaton, aged 76, 
Oeorge Attwood, eeq. 

At Dublin, Henry J. Baldwin, esq. Commis- 
alaner of the Insolvent Court. 

At CItfloo, aged 74, Jnkea Coulaon, esq. 

In New Burlington-at. aged 59, Qeorge Oold- 
smith, esq. Ute of Southampton. 

At Okahampton, aged 18, Henry Montague 
Hawkea, yonngest son of Henry Hawkea, eaq. 
aoUdtor. 

In Bryanaton-st. EUiabeth-Anne, wilk of Joseph 
Hnmpage, esq. dau. of Oapt. Robert Warren, Ute 
of 4tb mgoon Onarda. 

At Qlouceeter, Jane, Uat anrvlTing dan. of the 
Ute John Oakeley, eaq. of Oakder, Salop. 

At lUkacombe, Lionel Read Plaea, eeq. Llent. 
R.N. He entered the aervtce in 1899, and waa 
made Lieutenant 1841, on oeeaaton of her M^Jeaty 
vUtlng the Qncen 110, on the daparture of that 
ship to the Mediterranean with the flag of Sir Edw. 
W.O. R.Owen. He waa aubaeqnently reappointed 
to Oa Queen In 1849, to the Amphton ateam Mgalo 
la 1846, and the President to, flag ahlp at the Cape 
ofOoodHope, in 1847. 

At Wannlnater, at the rsaldance of her nephew, 
Mr. Charles Cmae, aged 89, Miaa Mary Stonea, 
alatar of the late John Stones, esq. of Uayea, Mid- 
dleeex. 

In tbe City-road, Mary-Mnrrsy, aeconddaa. of 
the late Uent.-CoL Tod, of Maidatone. 

At Southampton, agod IS, Laura, dan. of the 
late Sir John De VeulM, Knt. of Jeraey. 

JKay 36. At Btdefcrd, aoddenly, aged 89, Mrs. 
Arthur, mother of tiw Kev. B. Arthur. 

At Stralfan House, Ireland, aged H, Hugh 
Barton, eaq. 

Aged 39, Eleanor, wife of William Brookea, eaq. 
of dmesti«e, Olouc. 

At Canterbury, aged 68, Hiaa DeUaaux. 

At Tnnbridge, CamilU, youngeat dan. of Henry 
Larking, eaq. 

Atlvy Honae, Stranraer, Anne-Campbell, aecond 
dau. of the Ute LleuL-Oen. John M'Nalr, C.ll. 

At Newport, I.W., Oeorge AbarcromUe Robert- 
son, esq. Ute Capt. 16th liusaars. 

At RuUand-gate, Harriet MarU Wlllock, of 
Brighton, widow of Alexander Charles Wlllock, 
esq. RArt. 

Jiroy 96. Aged CI, the wife of J. H. Ball, esq. 
of Portland Villas, and the only surviving child of 
the late Rev. Dr. Hawker, \letr of Charles' 
Church, Plymouth. 

Aged 91 , Mary, relict of Peter Bowers, eaq. 

At the Vicarage, Hatfield, Herta, aged 80, Mrs. 
E. W. Bncknor. 

At Pembroke, aged 86, Mlaa Martha Cook, of 
Tenby. 

In Bnnawick-aq. Miaa Froat. 

At BUndibrd, aged 76, Henry WilUam Johna, 
eaq. Solicitor and Deputy Regiatrar of the Arch- 
deaconry Court of Dorset. 

From injuries auatained by a Ikll tnm bia horae, 
WHliam Hudleaton Macailain, oaq. only aon of Col. 
Macadam. 

At Newmarket, Cant. Edward Francia MoynelL 

In Devonitaire-at. Portland-pl. Sarah, widow of 
Raar-Admiral WlUUm OgUvy, Bart, of Baldovan 
Uoase, N.U. ; and mother of Sir John Ogilv)-, 
Bart. Her maiden name waa Morley, and ahc waa 
left a widow in 1894. 

At Hertfcrd, aged 69, Lucy-Sophia, relict of 
Rev. John PoUard, late Rector of Bennington, 
Herta, dan. of Major-Ocn. M(nrgan,by Lady Krancea 
Sherard, dau. of Bennet third Earl of Horborough. 

Map 97. At the Sparrowe'a Nest, Ipawlch, aged 
36, Sarah-Emma, wife of O. D. Badham, eaq. 

At High Croaa Houae, Benwell, Northumber- 
land, WiUtaai Bowlam,ei<q. 



1854.] 



Obituary. 



93 



in inmlk-o. atKod M, Chmr)ti BruUhwoUe.eMi. 

At Uu%lMn4'a Ikuworth, Lmce«torithfn, o^il 7d, 
Ann, relict of rho». Tiury 0<ive, ti^. 

Al Newton BoslK'l, Col. Jo>tepli Chilili. K.M. 

Al ttydttntuni, itL'ett Tl. WiUUm Cowhum, eiiq. 

In Holfonl-«i. l'tnt>imllii, J^{ed 17, KattaerUic, 
ynun^vdi dau. of T. II. Dt- vunAhlrc. 

At Pftn- ii-ii'- "'f- ■■< Jnine* Durham, e«q. 
OftiluUK 

At Till- .itCoril- upon -Avon, 

a^iKl Hh. t , oi -loJia (UwkCA|C«(]. 

at Norton Uoil, buuH. 

In Keatuh Tnwn. ai:c<l IH. Aiin-lMbcllA, only 
«xir.*vm- .1... ..» II"'"' »....-,- il'iMen, u«q. of 
tti J. 

I llorno HuU 
1"M i. ...i.i ivunty. 



M^afEcd ai.Lioul. 

MojrlH^iul, 3rit We*t 

wjn ui AtuxiimUT Juneii 
-iry and llugUtrkr uf ttio 



Ii. 
M. 

. Ju^opliino, Mfilo itf 
ti^ i.uftheKf?. W.J. 

11. 1 . .. .:. , -l.iiaiiwc^. 

A,->: t, i.iHrvuGu i(uHtroti, chq. of J^vden 

r>..MM-,. > ,,, .i.,r.-. 

,. ,r i».v,...,..,r(^ thu wife of Capt. 



Si' 



■ >/.' 



I .'tM, >L4jor Ctuirltfa 

'^lit Infonlrv, 

. ngvd U, Uiirriet. 



Al '-_...; ^., ... i.obrrt'&lwanl, only 

Hmuf A. lu KcnincktOaq. of Notticrton.Nurthum- 
bPTUnd. 

Al CUyt4»n f"'"" -ii— "i ■•-"■■I 9, ConirtAoce 
Klruniir, joniitjT ' ; rh. Uurbett. 

At Slouifh, .1 ;l1iaui, ulilekt 

•am wf tbc Ilcr. u. .- 

LlUuboth, rt'liL-t <ii Juiut i:iu(«-i-, em]. Ute of 
Alive imliurv )lilU, Miti-hiuii, .^urri'v. 

At farliHli'. oiicl ^4. Mary- Xl'W ton, wtfo of 
Ucut. Syrnn, K.N. uf Sundcrlanfl. 

lu Atton-stn^t, <ir*^S Iim-riNul, «««! 61, Mr. 
jnhii \ir.i,r..w.. u ,111 ,,.,-. lie wan tlie Hnit edttnr 
aiv Durlmu) Clironlcle." which 

li' s vtkn. 

'!« l.ouUii, lister of the 
U' Admn. Lord Chief 

I- .It of ».ollui»d. 

1 - ... .A I*. Cuthbert, *uKi. 

iii iorriiixtuD-Mt. uKcd OH, Mr*. MiirthA C. 
Ft'niiltii;. 

At r(urh.ini iiged 77, WiUUin Tbunuui Grc«n- 
^' r^ OrcfiiwoU Turd, a nuLiri'^trotc and 

>!• ihat coanty. Ilu vaa thu win and 

111 ..|iu.-ii .«. i.f Uus same |Ui»*:f, by 

All I'^j. nf l.juichr4ter ; 

«'i o.i. He nurrletl. lu 

1"^!^ ■ '•• >'nii|lc5, C'Ml. of 

(■uiluuii, and hi 1 DTit! diiu. 

At BrixHin, :<. v of Cli«rlc% 

ivltt, esq. of l-i^.„ ...1 i-'^udon Uridjxp, 

i Ufnaexiy of Uanweli. 

i\A Longmorc, ewi. of tJio Uytbo Iluu«o, 
IiiwLi'xliiirv. 

• Ii. PnrHeet, afcoil !tfl. Ma-M«ctarc- 
^^ I'.- II. K. Xacnajnara, cvi. yountfe»( 

tti'i . ^ ._:.: [honta* Ua^futiti. esq, uif kanln- 
kilWu. 

At Morton, Derltyaliire, Mi-. Oldliain, fUTKCon, of 
Alfriiiiit. \\ it'-it driving liihlnidiir (luriu;:u llmiuli'r' 
"f- ••truck ty Uio t'lcctric tliiid ari>l 

ii it'oakly. lib liorae wa-« mj initcti 

liij ' - I '1 iHYaiut* ni^-ttsMiT)' to i>ut luiii tu 

iltikUi t liUt A littlf> boy who vu rkUiiK with Uim, 
Mill WHS cutcrcl by tho Mine arobrulla, ev.-itpi<d 
Uuliurt. Ur. OUIkaiii leaven a widow iind eleven 
younff cliildrvn. 

At lIiintiiiKdon, at an advanced aec. Mudiuno 
Itu(4et. fiirmcrl) a i^m vmea* in nevcral biiuiUc-'i of 
dUUootlon. 



ifiiyftO. Affcd 70, Mr«. Fcrrand.ufSt. lve».near 

Binttley, Yorkshire, widow of Cnrn-v KothpTBtU 
Butfelld, cftq. She wax Surah, Mvond ilau. of .lohn 
Kerrand, eM(. of Stockton -upon -Toe a, wb« ioarH<>d 
iu iHQ.'i. and left a widow in IH3a. She nuccrcdM 
licr brbtiier Edward Ferrund, cmi. in the eitatr of 
St. Ivea, in 1637. She hu left i.une the prtwent 
..«, ,i,t ^.^ m J. ijif Knnre»lK>rough, 
m1 ti% daualiters. 
' d 31, Jaiucs ArtUibatd Forroot. 
' ■'-'''-(•r.'t, 

Ak.^1 GA, Charlottc-RoMina, 



WllH 
fuui 

Ai 

a; 
wife 

At ;,... 
H.M.'a Auo 
lative Com 

At t- - 
Hlii. 
leli. ; 

Al ,, 
lii* i>-i 
Sa'IIh- 



., e«i. for many yean 
ihI mcnibf r of tiia Lo^a- 
..'1 of .Maiirlliufi. 
. .^, .Urn. Ord. WtiiCcomU, of 
. a^'cd 04, Mr^. Harriet Itobortt, 
ry UubtrU, K.N. 
1 -wtT Bdmontun, a week after 
11 >iit ^i.t l< '.t.i. ii<od23, Alexander IIom 
|. ..I ......M. - .ifk. 

AiiLil </>, \Vm. 6>*iidci wu, ffcut. of Uic Kew-walk, 
Lciicstcr. 

At \Vi»bech, Agtd 6S, Capt. i^eor^e AujfriutuH 
Si-buUi, K.N. Ue entered the wrvTie in 170C. 
on bo<u*d tho Sandwich ^M ; and wa» niado Lieu- 
tenuni In 1H06. Uo M.-n-od for sixteen yeorb on full 
p«iy. He accepted the rank of retired Comtnander 
tn 183^, iiitd held an appidntment in (be Stamp 
OiHcedt Wi.iboch. Ue married iu IM 11, and hat 
left Iwiue. 

At Shephcrd'«-btub, suddenly, Cbarloite, widow 
of Jauiea .Simmon!*, crfj . of Canterbury. 

At Howdon, EUzabeih, relict of Jjubcxt Woatlier- 
ley, eM]. 

At Tnabrid>(e Wells, a^ed 16, Fanny, eldest d«a. 
of Major W. K. \Sctuy». 'Jth Kent^nl Co*-. 

At Uarkslone, I.inc. MarK'arvt. wife of the Kev. 
Edmund WillM, Jind third iluu. of the Ute Stc{du;a 
Gillum, Citq. MiddleUjn lla.ll. KorthumLierUnd. 

i/ifiy 31. Al Bownew. Windt-nuere, a«ed Go, 
Mark Boaufoy, eMj. fonnerly of the Coldtdreani 
(j nurds. 

At litLxby, near York, Aim, wife of Andrew 
Chittenden, ojiq. of Bulney, Susmx, and daa. of 
the Ute Mr. L. Smith, of York. 

A^ed 4H, John Gill, cm]. relireil &nr);eon of the 
Jlou. Eii»t India Comiuioy'k Service. 

At Moimt Vernon, near Kseter, Cb«rle*worth 
Ttiumas liray, H'cond itnd lu»t nurvivlnic wa of the 
late Tlioiiin* Gray (the Kailway prt'Jeclor). 

At Ijut BerKb4>lt, ICwex, FrEntx-ni-Klixaljeth, 
widow of Jamea Deacim Iluine, esq. of the Board 
of Trade. 

At York, Capt. Edward JoneA, ktc of 2ilth Reg. 

At Bridiji'lown, TutncM, ii;;cd S7, Annie-Kniily, 
uldcit dau. of Witltaui Kcllock, enq. Nur^e<in. 

The Hon. Alberta Deiuaun, iiiiaut dun. of Lord 
Londe«l>oroufch. 

Magdalene, wife of WUUaiu Lund. ei>}. of Havor- 
btock-lodfire, ilum)>iiteail. 

At Newca»tle, Staff. Capt Wm. Arthur Main- 
waring, 3rd Staflord UiUtia, Ute CaptaUi 7t»th 
HlKhUndern, and Mxth aon of Captalu Kowtand 
Uatnwariug, K.S. of WhKmoru Hall. Id tho »aine 
county. 

Juiu 1. At the rehideuco of her son, F. Brook- 
man, esq. WinchoAtcr.ai au advoncod ago, Mrft. 
Brookman. 

Al BoUo-saI^i. Ink* of Miiii. aLCcd tl2, Katberine- 
Elizabeth. i i^ Follows. 

At Hiicl. I id, fur many year* 

an inhui'L' . ■ -■■-. 

A: 17, VSUIuuii-Thouiaft, only Hon 

of II' t.reenc. 

A;, 1-1 rtiUlips Hitchcock, etq. tolU 

dtor, of Mi4uchu*t«r. 

At St. L.crmard*B. atiod I'i, Charlotio, douebter 
of the late Col. llonnor. 

At UoulotfiK'-bur-Mer. n^ced 9, Sophla-Sarah- 
Geraldine, youn^^ea dau. of Sir John Muir Uiic- 
keiule, Barl. 

At Oadogau-pl. Hester, Mcond dan. of Ute Ulo 



Obituary. 



[July* 



WLMmtlm, aotta Rtct. tt mUaw of Uw Uts 
UmL'Golantl Pxtsaii, Mnl B«(1. 

At 8hljpalan-<)«.jitaar, agwt 70, Ana, rtUcI of 
TlwuuH Ivrr, mi|, 

At Ot, ll«l*n'».plw«, nUh«M(»t»^. *««l 14, 
Mr. W ip h ro I'mcudi. Uo of S*ll«)>urr-«|, nwU 
MHMLpOtkat-bonk iiuuiuftiiitimr. 

At Vmasy, C<>rk, and u, c«pt. Julin Toncu*. 
Uto of tlm aotH lla(l. Iwrtni > wliluw, dau. uf 
t^• taU Jobo Uoore, oq, of New|K>rt, ■•la "( 
Wlirht, milt MTto cliUilna. 

At BonngblirMgs, aged 70, Uis rtllcl ot Hugh 
Stott, nq, rargaon. 

At DaoUtn, (oa M, Jane, wife of ll«ai7 Wal- 
Itr, «M, tonnwlr racgMa ol that nlaoe, and dau. 
o( Uia Ula Joaepli WlUian, aiq. of Nmrark, NoOa. 

JWH *. In Biicklii«taaa)-at. Strand, acnl Vi, 
JOMpb Court, <tq. R.N. Pajnnaatar and Puner to 
hU kilo ro^aaty (laotM IV. 

At Watloa.iio.Uw-MU. aa«d 3H, Joatata, UUrd 
M» of' loa lata Joalalt Kearalaj, aaq. o( LWar- 

MOl, 

At BrlKbUao. Anballa, nlkt of tha R«r. J. T. 
Wlliin'*', Jnciunbcnl of (tlv«rhea4l, KanI, and 
•latar of tha lata lUnrj StnalfiUd, aaq. uf Clild- 
tUn4[iiU)nQ. 

Jmtt. Id Loundes-at bi bar Utb jwar.tba 
Bon. rUllpM-Elb».»y<lna]r, «U*o( Itairy Jaiae* 
Bambi,a«t.M.P.«WInT«niaa»4hir«. Tlibamlabia 
lady wan the laat larTtvlng ilan. of VliL-ount 
StriuiKford, and waa bora at Stockltnim, diirtnir 
bar nolilo bither'i K^ouru Uiero. She baa loft 
Are cbUdron, of whom tba vonngaal WM bom on 
tha linh of laat numb. Hn. BaiUla baa only 
atirvlTad a fcw mootbi bar jroonger alatar, tba lata 
Marclilonaw of Sll^o. 

Al Orenrllle, axed 76, Ann, widow of the Rev. 
Newton DIrtba, A.M. Branlna. 

At Enter, a<ed 7S, Manr-Freacw, relict of 
Hanry Bjma, eiq. of SattorlMcb-boua, and dau. 
of the late Proolor Tbomaa, aaq. at WelUniflon. 

At niackluMth, axed ST, Ulu ElUa Ooatea, 
•Meal lUii of the lata WUllnm Coaiaa, eat), of 
Oroyilon an'l Whiiachapel. 

At Voiitnor, I.W., a(ed 41, Cbarb>tt»<!. widow 
of T. H. OrahaiD, eaq, (nrgeon Bombaj Pra- 
ildency. 

At Ibe boiua of Jobn Uendenon. ok), Lee, 
Blackhealb, (i«ar||« Bayward, eati. of IleadlnRly- 
ball. Vorkililre, tbe onnr broUier of Jobn Uay- 
ward, aaq. of Browfort, DevixeJi. 

At the Crammar School, Ipiwiob, uad 9, 
Cbarlaa-Wllllani, only ion of tha Ror, FraiMla 
Tbomaa UacDongnll, nf Sarawak, Borneo. 

Al the njfltileni-o of tlio MUaea Becka, Balman. 
gu, KIrkcndbrlght, Charlotte, yonnmtit dau. of 
tba lata Martin lUwIlngaOabom*, etq. of St. Ire>, 
Unnllntdonihire. 

At Mole-wood, Itertfbrd, a«ed MS, WUIIam John 
Palmer, aaq. Mcond ton of the Ute Edward 
Fbliaar, aaq. of SnallwaU,0>mb. 

At Tunbrldge WelU, axed 46, Siuannah, wifc of 
Air John Dean PanI, Bart. She waa the dan. of 
the Ijtte John Ewen.^, o^q. and became tbe aeeond 
wife or Sir J D. Paul in I84». 

Axed ^9, Caroline, wife of Oeome SUIiraU, eaq. 
of llie Admiralty, Somanet Home, and Sprlng- 
Aald, Wandaworth-road. 

At 8lreatham-blU, aged 6i, JameaTnroer, eaq. 

At Southboronch, aged 89, Charlotte, widow of 
Riebard Wallbew, esq. of Cbertaey. 

At Ullllown, CO. Cork, Mr. WUIbtma, Scripture 
Reader, nf Injnrlea recelrad when beaten Mmo 
month* Aifo at A^hada. 

Jun^ 4. Aim 49, Jeniima-ltebecca, wlfb of 
John niilillucumbe, eaq. of Sidney tloiue, Harare 
Btnrk.hlll. 

Aitrtl 76, the Rer. Jaince Caitleden, Baptiat 
MiniMcr, for 36 year* iiaalor of Bethel Cbnpt'l, 
llulljliiuli-hlll, lUinpatead. 

At Shlrlpy Warren, near Sonthamplon, tgti 
T7, Capt Voiilaton.Uteof latb Ll(bt Inf.and Card 
root, 

U BwlAird, aged 41, Emoia-Nott, relict of 



Jobn Hnrdon, aaii. of Sw 
only child of the lute Rer. 
brut of SwyiQbridm and Laodkey 

At Oiuenwlcb, UmllyrAnn, hUo uf lh« Bev. 
C. P. Indailoa, and aacond dau. of CapU Thaaaa 
Potter, of fjoaport. 

Tbeododa, aldeatdaii.oftlwlataG«»t CkatM 
Jonaa, of Ruaalu, co. Femanagh. 

Wllliain PrioKlc, of KInit'a-raad, lledford-row, 
wJlcitor, eon of tbe lata Robert Prlnifle, of Aln- 
-wtck, M.l>, 

Al Klnb"«lo\m, rirlitol. Tboaaaa Saneamba. atq. 
auditor of tba UrlnUil and Exater BaUw«r Cam- 
pany. 

Jau y Agat 7S, at tlM ProToet'a lodgtnga. in 
Ofial GaUtf*, Quart. Maty Pry«r Backia, wMow 
of tba lata Biahard Bnvkk, aaq. of Clifton. 

In l/ondon, aged M, I'bUip Button, eaq. lato of 
Sarangsta, a Joattaa of the peace for i^aaei. 

At Bia uoaM af ber dauchur, Mr> Howie, 
<irava.«od-rDad,agodiiO.C:iit '>ra,wifa 

of J.B. Oowe.avi. U. U. M in Nor- 

way, and dau. of itoar-Adiu^- . ' :. 1 .S. 

At Brigbloa, aged U, Ja»j;>h Henry Seity 
'Wakalard, aMaat wo of Ueut. Wahaford, lata of 
tlie Weat Kent Bm. 

At Alchlioii'a Bank, l>urolriaiililr», Qtergis 
Waneii, aaq. 

At Waitbonm-grcen, aged 77, Anna, rallot of 
John White, eaq. formerly an aminaal ttabai^ 
morrhaut, In Cannon Row, Weatintnatar.aAA tea, 
of Uio laic r:i.'hiir.l Down. <aq. Of IlirtbblfllllT 
lanean! . iKor, 

At I niaa WUIeuient, aan. 

Coauu": I'.aon of llioinBa WU- 

lement, c&>i. 1- S.A. ul (>icui-<t. iiroaveaor .aq. and 
of Da^'in|,^un Priury, Kent, lie waa thrown from 
bia bone and Idlled on the apot. 

At Ctaoltanhaui, avad 77, Suaan, relict of Ralph 
Toung, eaq. Ute of Oatlandt, LeUarkenny, c«. 
Donegal. 

Jwu 6. At Paria. aged 51 , Wllllani Chalk, aai]. 
Iiarriater, of the Home Circuit, liiird aon of I'bo. 
inaa Chalk, aaq. Cbelnufbrd. 

At SouU>i>ort, aged 6*. Jamea Dilwortli, eaq. 
mercbant, of lallngton Hoiiao, Salfbrd, Man- 
cheater. 

Sarah, wife of Tboa, Onat, eeq. of Ocrwick. 
Cobliani, Surrey, lata of Calvarton, Bnckt, 

Al Eaal Uarptrae, Som. aged tt, John Rogan 
Laurence, eaq. Capt. In tha Hon. E.LOo.'a Naval 
Service. 

At Market Weigbton, aged 31. Ricbard-Hewell. 
aecond aon of the Rev. Tboa. MItcliell, Vicar of 
Sancton. 

At Tralee. L«titbi, relict of Uenry Ollrar, e»i. 
of Laltrim. 

At Tralee, aged 34, Ifenry Thompson, eatj. late 
of tbe Connaught Rangera, only aon of the late 
Blennerliaaaott Ttaompaoa, eaq. of Oaklanila, co. 



At Halnaby Hall, Darilnicton, aged GO, John 
Todd. aaq. formerly of Tranby Hall, Hull, a ma- 
gtatrata of the aaat rtding of Torkahlre. 

While on a viait to ber brother, William Slob- 
bing Sadler, eaq. Old Uouae, Great Uorkaiey, aged 
M. Anna. wUk of tha Iter. Richard Marab White. 
M.A. Vicar of Aveley. Eaaex. 

Junt 7. At the rectorv. Evelelgb. SaaaD-Lonlaa, 
4au. of the Hon. and Rev. P. P. Baareria«and 
wife of the Rev. benjamin B. a. AJllay. She waa 
married In 1D60. 

Aged as, William Beaumont, Jan. of Whaddon, 
naarRoyaton. 

Aged 61 , Alexander Bremner, eaii. 

At WUburloD.Camb. aged 78, Edward Campa. 
aaq. aecond aon of the late William CaniH. eaq. 
formerly high ahoritfof thecountiea uftjainbridga 
and lluiiUnirdon. 

Harriet, dau. of the late Jobn Cballo. eaq, of 
Canonbury-aq. 

Eliia. aecond laniTing dan. of tba lata ViUlam 
Young ICnlgbt, eaq. 

Aced M, John MaifBD , eaq. aurgeon , of StamNDl. 



1854.] 



Obituary. 



05 



In IVriHubuv, wKilll.WllUsmlVrkliuI'cmiT', 

nlyoiilt' • '■•■■' •-■; ■' l.ccd.i. 

Anrtfl UifcBud, 
fOiroril. 
i..<.<..i><n, «q. eldwt 
I'landell.U.D.Beclor 



!.■> IVi 
ilrtct. ■ 
At III 



Wctuiel John nts- 



M.ri ulfo irf Fnutrii Oarfonl, Jnn. 
- ■ 'Tick CUrkJoQ, Mq. o( 
> viiniDoiu. 

urrey.afnd I), John- 
l.i. II I'.xri-iiiiui.ii.Ni. .>ui> wn of the R«r. Ro- 
liurt CTtimn. 

Ai it\AcmMle, €«. Mcalli, John MuldooD.etq. 

■' - 1 lUu. or the Ulr Iter. Joakh Pntt, 
\ ■' phen'i,Colen«ii-*t. 

lioose. near t.e«tl«, tped 49. Ajine- 
.•dii4, wfftof JohnSnitUi. mi|. tunkcr. 
AI Chanlen HonM, I'ilton, «ge<i 3U, lane, wife 
^ Vlncmllo Cortwtt Tsylur, eji). tale Cai>t. 3nl 
ant LIkM Inf. cMeit dsa. «r W. K. ItvbuisoD, 
I), ornill Uoue, Alton. 
JUHt 9. At ShonI KouM, Kortli Petli«rlon, 
_ I 7■^. the wife or C. CUapuion, eaq. 
'At Lennlncmi, igtd 7t, Anne, relk-t of Tho- 
Bua UarbrMac, tiq. ot PeUcnon Heney, Www. 
and mather m J. Salrio Haitirtdite, eai|. of Rath. 
In London, aged 01, 0. O. llrathcote, aq. ot 

BtttMdoi. 

Amd a*. John lllndle, ex). of Stoke Kewlngton. 

At HaveringHtlie-Bower, ag«d A3, Fnncia 
Toraee, m4). nriteon. 

At .iMTCntoka nviary. HanK, and C Penyvtl- 
liuniiM, roiinKt>9t son of the Rev. Thoa. Wolpole. 

Aged SO, Alraander, eldeat aon of Tbomns 
%aiigh, «q. of the Grove, Caoberwell. 



At Bath, ^itcA 77, Emuut, widow of Jamea 

Wtj*t, e!k|. 

Jyr 10. At SoMttawIck, aged 27, Eliiatieth, 
wife of the Ucv. K. Addc»bn<oke, and eldest dan. 
of U "- -'rny, esq. Brondwatrrs Uotiae, near 

■\ i loose, Uibrldgv, a^ed 60, Cap- 

talu ,j,-u,i^^- i>!iiii>n, of tlM Uoyal Eng. fourth son 
of the late John IMton, oaq. of Sleningford Park, 
Vorlcshire, and FlUtngham Oaatle, Lincolnshire. 

At hla reaidsnoe, in tb« Close, Saliabnrjr, seed 
(M, Thomas Daria, e.iq. 

At LiveriKiol, Kleanor-DU-keftMiii, wife of tho 
Rot. William Conton Hntrhlnn, late Ciinits of 
St. Mary Deronport, and of St EnddUon, Oom- 
wall. 

At Lymington, aged M, Liu;, relict of John 
King, L*M]. solicitor. 

In the MInories, Mary-Anne, wlfc of F. Bawle, 
esq. f urgeon, onlf dan. of the late George Eacbus, 
ew}. ntirgx'on, Saffron \Valden. 

At \MItlngbaiii, ut tbu liouso of tier mother, 
aged 98, Elir.Rbeth, wife of tlte Hot, John Rootliam, 
of Canterbory. 

Juna II. At Gtastoiibury, aged 86, Mary, relict 
of Roliert Uatta, eaq. 

At Milton House, aged t», CsniariDC, wlft of 
Edward Joscelyn Baomgartner, of Milton tiooac, 
and of the Middle Temple, barTl9t«r>at-law. 

AI Ryde, W. J. Berens, esq. lale Cupl. 6th 
Dragoon Gnsrda. eldest son of tlto Utc Joseph 
BereoK, eaq. Kevington, Kent. 

At Snttm CoMleld, Warw. aged 81, James 
Bourne, aaq. formerly of Somersct-M. Portiuan-sq. 

At Welliogton, Somerset, sgol 69, Maria, relict 
of William Bnck. of Alston Lodge, Lane. 

In Gnd>icli;h-at. agni 13,MBria-Moacley,dan.of 
John Mcllor, esq. Q.C. 



TABLE OP MORTALITY IN THK DISTRICTS OP LONDON. 
{From tki Relumt iinied by the Rtghlrar-Gmeral.) 





Deaths Registered 


Birtha 
Registered. 


Week ending 
Saturday, 


Uiuler 
15. 1 


IS to 
60. 


60 and 
upwarils. 


Age iiot 
8peci6ed, 


Total. 


! Males. 


Pemale*. 


May 27 . 

June 3 . 
.. 10. 
.. 17 . 


559 
527 
559 
400 


362 
352 
328 
347 




210 
180 
209 
216 


12 
26 
12 

22 


114S 
1085 
1108 
1085 


i 

! 583 
558 
566 
576 


560 
527 
642 
509 


1647 
1524 
1625 
1652 



Wheat. 
t. d. 

78 3 



AVERAGE PRICE OF CORN, Jdnb 23. 

Bsriejr. 
*. d. 

37 3 



Oats. 


Rje. 


Beans. 


Peas. 


*. d. 


«. d. 


.. d. 


t. d. 


29 5 


4« 11 


49 10 


4ti 6 



PRICE OF HOPS, JcsB 26. 

The accounts from the plantatioos are still of a very unfavoiuable character, the 
Termiu iacreasing rapidly. The duty is Tariously estimated at from 90,000/. to 100,000/, 

PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW AT SMITUFIELD, Ji;mb24. 

Hay, $/. 0*. to 5/. Of.— Straw, 1/. 10». to 21. Oj.— Clover, 4/. 10s. to 5/. 15». 

SMITHFIELD, Jo.NE 2G. To sink the OSal— per stone of 8Ibs. 

4(/. Co5«. Od. I Ueadof Cattle at Market, J DHK 26. 

4d. to 4t. 10(/. Beasts 3,434 CaWea 507 

8(i. to 4s. lOif. Sheep and Lambs 30,100 Pigs 310 < 

Od. to 4t. ad. I 

COAL MARKET, Jdne 23. 

Walls Ends, Kc. ISs. M. to 2Ci. Od. per ton. Other sorts, 18<. Oif. to 20>. Od. 

TALLOW, per cwt.— Towa Tallow, 65s. 6<<. Yellow RuwU, 66*. Od, 



OCCl ts ••*••■••••■• OJf* 

Mutton ..., .^. 

Vctl ■•«•«•«*•••••• at. 

• of* ■*••■•■■■••• •• "'• 



96 

METEOROLOGICAL DIARY, by W. CARY, Strand. 
From Mag 86, to Jtmt 25, 1854^ iolh incluHve. 



JFVbraobeit'i TLerm. 



OS 



86 

87 

88 

29 

30 

31 

J.l 

8 

3 

4 

A 

6 

7 

e 

D 
10 



1-5 



2 ^a 



A 





;35 


es 


4@ 


58 


50 


60 


48 


5ft 


.W 


m 


50 


&i 


50 


05 


4« 


6t 


47 


57 


4fl 


60 


48 


57 


48 


5fi 


W 


56 


49 


64 


^ 


G-l 


M 


06 



e 

9 



in, pts. 

80, es 

, 65 
,59 

I S6 
,71 
,75 

30,05 
.11 

,a5 

,06 
.05 

20,98 



VVcatb«r, 



rain, fiir 

do. bail 

lieivy min 

do. dck Ihodr. 

do, dn. Tair 
I clondf , do. 
"do. do. rain 
I'coiut. ra. fiair 

'nlouity 
, do. ftir 
I do. do. 

do. du. 
I do. 
JIdo. do. 

Ido. 

raiD, do. 



Pobrenheit'i Tberm. 



Jqm 
11 
IS 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 

ia 

19 

83 
84. 
S5 i 



51 I &i 



' !in.pt». 
57 ;29, 85 
! 52 I ,58 



57 
54 
55 
54 

56' 
53 
52 



.77 
,69 
,73 

,m 

, 77 
,01 



58 I ,97 
57 a), Oi 



I 



I 



G8 
03 
01 
57 



,08 

, 15 

, 15 

20,08 



Weather. 



cloudy 

do. fair 

heiTf rain 

clondf, fair 

rain 

do, 

cloodf, fair 

fair, cloud; 

do. 

do. do. 

do. da. 

Aae 

do. 

do. 

I fair, raia 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS. 



»;<3 ,« ;« :s? ^°^i s 



Ex. BUIs 
jflOOO. 



m on 

89} 901 
90i 91| 

9l| 



90i 

m 

91 

9U 

92l 



92 

92| 

92{ 

94 

91* 1 93f 

92 , 

91i 

91f ' 

91« ! 

911 i 

914 

9l| 

9U 

9U 

93} 

931 

93# 

94 

94 

9*i 
93} 
94i 



m — 

gOf 4} 
91 4} 

911 4i 
91f- 



93 I 4( !- 

92] 
92i| 4f 



i2| H 

'4, H 



L 



I 



92* 

92 

92 4| 
92 I 

91l'— 
9U' 

934 4j 
93} 4( 

i4^:t 

9*1 

I 



- ,— 3 pm. par. 4 pm. par. 

-236 2 4pm.3pm, par. 

- 233 Idit.3pm. I dia. 3 pm. 
'230 4pni.iwr. 1 dig. 3 pm. 
-— — 4p[a,p«r. pnr. 4 pm. 

-i 1 5 pm. 

-' 5 pm. I 1 5 pm. 

- ■ — ■ S pm. 1 5 pm. 
'232 uar.4|ini.par, 4 pm. 

-' par. 4 pm. par, 4 pm. 

1 par. par. 4 pm. 

;par. 5 pm. 

-, par. 4 pm. 

par.4pm. par, 4 pm. 

par. 4 pm. pnr. 4 pm. 

1 4 pm. pur. 4 pm. 

-j— par.Spm. par. 3 pm. 

par, 3 pro. par. 3 pm, 

-^ 3 pm. pnr. 3 pm. 

3 pm, par. fi pm. 

2 dia. 12 dia, I pm. 

-| Idis.Spm, 2 dia, 2 pm. 

2dii.2pm, 2 dia. 2 pm. 

2dia.lpm,2 dia. 2 pm. 

.|-^. 1 pm. |2 dia. 2 pm. 

-' 2 pm. 2 dia. 1 pm. 



J. J. ARNULL, Stock and Share Broker, 

8, Coptbtll Chamber*, Angel Conrt, 

Throgmorton Street, Loadoa. 

J. B. Kicaou Attn tana, rumrsma, 25, p^KLtAKKUT aTKBBT. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 



HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



AUGUST. 1854. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
MINOR CORRESPOjrDKN'CE.— Defoe and Pslcnion— Richard of Cirencester— Storey's Oato 

and ttie Blrdca«;e Walk—" Solitude Is aweot "— Pattern Piece of Churlu 1 9R 

History of Oliver Cromwell and the English Commonwealth : bj M. Guizot. ... 99 

The Political Conititntion of Finlaod (eoniinued) 107 

Mr. Roach Sofiitli's Collection of London Aotiqnitiei 116 

Sketch of the Earlj History of the Jews, derived exclusively from Heathen Wrileri 120 

Undesigned Imitntions — The False Knights and the Unruly Brides of Erasmus 

and ShakKpere 138 

Memoirs of Joseph John Gurney , 134 

•' Our Udies of St. Cyr," 1686-1793 139 

Sale of the Manuscripts of the late Sir William Betham , Ulster Hi 

COERESPONDENCK OF SVXVAN'US UHDAN.— Our OM Tabllc Libraries; Book CaUlofrnea : 
und Special Ubraries. U9.— Portraita of Sir Philip SirlncT, 152— Uatrow Church and Dr. 
Butler's Monument, 163. — Portr&lta of John Hales, Founder of the Free Ofamnur Scliool 
at Coventry IS* 

NOTCS OF THE MONTH.— Removal of the Learned Societiea from Somerset Uonae— BrIUah 
Mii»eum- Royal Society — lllu'^trationf of Ne-wlon and his Contemporaries- Pari* Exhi- 
tiitlun of IS&6— Centenary of the &)ciety of Arta— Edacational Eshiliitlon— Indollrial 
Museum m Edinhurult— Litcmry and Scientific InstitntionH Act— Architectural Museum — 
Ciimmemoratir.n at Oxforil — Ilouorary Dejrree* at Cambridge — Entertainment given by the 
Mayor of Oxfortl—Hlstrthc Society of I.ancaAliire and Cheahiro — Sale of Library oi .lohn 
Donii Oardner, cji*}. — Numhimalic Collection) of Mr. J. D. Cuff — Pictures boajilit for the 
yatiunal (tulltiry. antTother recent Picture Sales— Roublllac'a Statue of Handel — Stained 
tilaaA Window matte for thu Kinf; of Denmark — Tlie 3MHh anniveraar)* of Printing at Brca- 
lau— Mew materials for Paper— The mystery of Spirit-rapping wWed IftT 

HISTORtCAL AND MISCELLAhfEOHS REVIEWS.- Notes on the Architecture and Hlftory 
of CaMlci^t Caatlc. 162 ; Niebuhr's [^ccturea ou Ancient Ethnography and Oeo^raphy, 163 1 
liiir. TruTeli un the Sliorea of the Baltic, IGS: Neale'a lalamism, li!>. Dr. Uruce'a Bio- 
graphy of Samson, The Darkncia and Doom of India, The Old Teatament Pocket Com- 
mentary, IM i The Work* of Apulelas, 107 ; Thomson's Bamplon Leetnre, 167 ; Uontco- 
mcry'» Popery as it exiats In Great Britain and Irehuid, 16a ; !langeuer*a Voltaire and nls 
Times. IW ; History of the Minor Kingdoms, 168 ; Adderley'i Eaaay on Htuuan Happiness, 
169 i De Burgh's Early I'rophoctea of a Badeeiner IG9 

JUrriQUARIAN RESEAKCUES.— MecUng of the Archawloglcal losHtnte at Cambridge, 169 ; 
Susssii Archieological Socialy, 179 i Norfolk and Norwich Archeologlcal Society, W ; 
St. Allnn'a Architectural and Arclicologlcsl Society- Nomlsmatic Society 169 

HlSTOmCJa CHRONICLE.— Foreign News '. 189 

Promotinns and Prcfcrmenia, 184; Births, 186; Uorrlages 187 

nprrUAIir ; with Memoirs of Tlie Earl of CaaUeatuart : Sir Charles Wolwley, Dart; Sir T. 

^■^ E. M. TurloD, Bart. ; Lieut. -(ien. Sir Richanl Anmtrong ; I.icut.-Oeo. Mercer Ueuderson, 

^1 CO.; Rcar-.UnUral Sotbeby; Itear-AOmlra.! Wemyia: Licul.-Col. C. A. West ; Lieut.- 

Col. UamlcDck ; Oodfri-y Meynell, Esq. ; Rot. S. O. F. T, Dtmuinbray ; Arthur Aikln, 

Esq.; ricorgv <:'ilnt,Es<i . A.R.A.; Richard Proiser, E<q., C.E. ; Madame Sonlag ) Mr. 

John Folton; Mr. William Laxton 190— SOO 

CtxaaiDaeaaaaD , MO 

Dbsibb, arranged in Chronological Onler 900 

Begislntr-Genend's netoms of Mortality In the Hetropolls— Uarkeb, 207 ; Meteorological 

DUry-DoUy Price of Stocks »» 



Bt SYLVANUS urban, Geht. 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



Mr. S. BnaMUr (imlr >te. p. S).la4Bni 
i«CTs ftmfUM pobBiUd in 1717 <•• 
tWcd. "VUr FtiTMnt m g >tB <r ." I 
fommt it, lad tsve rafarred to it in • 
■otiOT ia " Notes ml Qanin," toL tU. 

B, S7<. A< I hire then (tated, I dunk 
eiortf writtea bj Defoe sod Mt b; 
fitmMt, to whose vritinc* I h 
MB* etteatioB aa well u to thoi 
gf t eoat empo t aiy . It will (ire ma i 
planare towe Pttenon'i woriu itfiabliiiiod 
M a eoUcctad fonn, and •one juKee done 
at iut to bia extraoriliDaf? mcrita. 

Yoan, ftc. Jas. CaoanLtr. 

It<n«knttr, Ul July, 1854. 

Ma. UaaAM, — Yoar raliuble and lon;- 
citcndcd periodical cnottin* manf nfe. 
reoee* to, and commenti on, the doubtful 
orifio (lid lutbenticitf of ** the Itinerary 
of Rirlnrd of Cireoceater." It ia time all 
auch doubta oa thii lubject be uttled, and 
I think it may be Mtitfactoriljr done by a 
aeriea of eleren Icttcri, from Bertram to 
Dr. Slukeley, in my poiieaiion, and whicb 
I troat will come under the co^izance of 
the Wiltahire Archaological Society, at 
ita fitat annifenary meeting at Saliibnry, 
In Au(uat neat. 

Youra, &c. J. Brittox. 

July 12, 18S4. 

Slorii/i Oate. The atone gate-poaU at 
the entrance of St. Jaroet'a Park from 
Great George Street, Weatminater, hive 
been puUed down during the paat month, 
in order to widen the road-way, the iron 
gate» themielvea hariog been remOTed 
aome yeara ago. An abiurd paragraph 
baa been going the round of the newa- 
paperi, aaking who the Storey could have 
Deen who built thit gate lo inconTeniently 
narrow : whereaa, (ince we ounielTea have 
raatdcd In Wcatmintter, the laid galea were 
kept conatanlly cloaed, and only oiiened 
on very unfrequent occasiona for objecta 
eonnrrted with worka in the Park, — Uird- 
oage Walk being then literally a walk, and 
not a roadway, except for the Royal Fa- 
mily, or, ai we bare taid, for neccsiary 
worki. It waa entirely by royal favour 
that the poblic waa permitted to paaa along 
tfaie road, wblob li now become the great 
highway from Belgravia to the aenale-houae. 
The queation oa to the origin of the name 
of the Gate ia auiwcreil in I'cter Cunning- 
' am'a Handbook fur Loiulun, thui : — 
llorey'a Gate waa ao called after Edward 
' fey, who lived in ■ booae on the aite of 



:i^?tsi^ 



ILiBlbci 
■ade ia St. Jnaa'a ftofc." Mr. i 
died in 1661. and aM bnM ia lWaM««r 
Si. Maagaret'a. Wtmmmmtr. TW ▼•tor, 
or Biricfe, of wloeh he ana Ac kaepar, 
iraa aa aviary ao large ■• lode* haida to 
dy aboat withia it. See ikr Scv. Mack- 
enzie Walootf a Hiatancal Nalaea of Sc 
Marprrt'a, Wealaiaalcr. 

J. T. M. iaqaifca. vka b Ik P^mtk- 
■•a, to whom Covper refcn ia hii ** Ka- 
Umacnt," ai aayii^ that "SaGtada i« 
awael," bat reqoiras to hare aome one to 
tell u ao ; Some ediliona give La Bniyire 
aa the aothor in a note. Bat Bonboura 
qaotca it as Balxac'a. " Selon Balzac, la 
aoUtnde eat eertainemeat one belle cbose, 
maia il y a plaiair d'avoir qoelqu'sn que 
•i;ache repoudre, i qui on puiiac dire de 
tempa en tempi, qoe e'eat one belle 
choae." (Peoaen des Asdena et dea 
Modernes, ed. 1737, p. 311.) 

Some account of the prices for which 
the late Mr. CulTa coina have been aold 
will be found in our Notes of the Month. 
One of tbem, the pattern gold-piece of 
Cbarlea I. wa< sold for the largett aom 
ever given for a aingle coin. Tbia highly- 
intereating medal waa intended, it ia 
thought, for a bl. piece. It waa never pub- 
liahed. It bcara the King'a buat to the 
left, bare-headed, and over hia armour a 
lace collar. Its history ia curious. It was 
purchased by Lieut -Colonel Drummond 
of the Rev. Mr. Cammeliae, of St. John's 
college, Cambridge, a collateral descendant 
of Bishop Juxoo, to whom it was presented 
by Charles I. a little before his death. 
The bishop devised it by will to Mrs. 
Mary Gayters, from whom it descended to 
her grand-daughter of the same name, who 
married the Rev. Jamea Commeline, the 
grandfather of the Mr. Commeline fi-om 
whom it was bought by Colonel Drum- 
mond. Mr. Till, the late worthy coin- 
dealer in Russell-atreet, Covent-garden, 
bought it from Colonel Drummond for 50/. 
He then offered it to the British Museum 
for 80/., but the trustees refused to piir- 
ohaae, and it was immediately sold by Mr. 
Till to the late Mr. Cuff for 60/. At the 
recent sale the agent of the Museum ooD- 
tended fur it at thrice the sum the trustees 
might have bad it for some twenty yeura 
ago. The enthusiastic gentleman who has 
given 2liO/. for a single coin is Mr. Brown, 
of the emineut publishing firm of Messrs. 
Longman & Co. 



1 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 

AND 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 



GUIZOrS CROMWELL. 

Hittory of OliTer Cromwell and the EngUth Commonwealtb from the Eiecation of 
Charlet tbe First to the Death of Cromnell. By M. Guizot. Translated by Andrew 
R. Seoble. S toU. 8vo. Bentlcy. 



TIIE contents of M. Guizot's book 
would ha described more accurately in 
this titlc-pnec if " the English Com- 
monwealth and "Oliver Cromwell" 
were to change places — that is, were 
to occupy the relative positions which 
they occupied in fact and in chrono- 
logy. M. Guizot begins his history, of 
course, not with Oliver Cromwell, but 
with the rain endeavour of the Parlia- 
ment to erect republican institutions 
upon the ruins of the monarchy, and 
in the midst of a people the vast ma- 
jority of whom were sincerely attached 
to the ancient constitution. This por- 
tion of the subject runs through the 
finit volume. As it proceeds, the grim 
shadow of the successful soldier rises 
gradually over the scene : it soon 
Begins to overtop his so-called masters. 
They indeed exercise nominal autho- 
rity ; their ordinance takes the place 
of the king's proclamation ; but the 
■nldien, the sinews of actual govern- 
ment, are moved by Cromwell. The 
Parliament holds the purse, but, with- 
out his consent, they dare not <Iraw 
its strinw with reference to the victors 
of Dunbar and Worcester. Such a 
state of things could not last lung. 
Disicnsion arose between the Parlia- 
ment and its loo powerful servant, and 
Cromwell openly assumed the power 
which he had long in fact possessed. 

M. tjuizot's seconil volume comprises 
a n.irrutive of the strong and in muny 
tttpecU glorious protectorate of Crom- 
well; — rising out of what seems like an 
unjustifiable usurpation, dazzling all 
Europe with the force and brilliancy 



of its majestic course, setting amidst 
the louring indications of a coming 
tempest, but leaving behind it a trail 
of stormy splendour, which has exer- 
cised a curious kind of fascination 
upon all historical inquirers. Those of 
them who condemn the most strongly 
the means by which Cromwell ac- 
quired his anthoritv, and rejoice the 
most sincerely that it so soon came to 
an end, yet cannot forbear to admire 
the way in which he wielded what was 
in their estimation his ill-gotten power. 
Something of this kind seems to have 
taken place in his own day, even with 
reference to the personal qualities of 
the man himself. The courtly young 
gentleman who observed with con- 
tempt, and recorded with foppish par- 
ticularity, the "plain cloth suit made by 
an ill country tailor," the linen plain 
and nut over clean, and the hat with- 
out a band, for all which Cromwell 
was noticeable in the early sittings of 
the Long Parliament, was yet com- 
pelled to bear witness to the fact, that 
at a subsequent period this same rustic 
sloven " appeared of a great and ma- 
jestic deportmenti and of a comely 
presence. 

In the present state of our historical 
knowledge in reference to the period 
often years comprised in M. Guizot's 
present work, we nre struck with 
astonishment, that, in the face of a de- 
cidedly hostile people, the parliament 
should have succeeded in establishing 
n republic at all. It must be admitted, 
in explanation, that there were at 
that time amongst the parliament 



100 



Guuot'n Cromwell. 



[Aug. 



leaders some entirely sincere adrooates 
of republicanism, men of the purest 
characters and most liberal and bene- 
volent intentions. Nothing but the 
most Tiolent partisanship will deny 
this clear and certain fact. But these 
men, however exemplary iu reputa- 
tion, prominent in talent, and eminent 
in station, were few in number, and 
comparatively devoid of the semi- 
feudal territorial influence which at 
that time was so necessary to persons 
in authority. Under such circum- 
stances it speaks truropet-tongucd for 
their ability and energy that tlicy met 
with even momentary success. M. 
Guizot sees the difficulty, and explains 
it, not perhaps without an eye to the 
illustration it has derived from a simi- 
lar modern instance with which he is 
peculiarly familiar. But there was one 
important circumstance in the English 
case which finds no parallel in that of 
of France. England had then been 
recently exhausted by a war iu which 
much of its noblest blood had fallen 
in the field. The country wns olso 
but just recovering from the terrible 
consequences of the spaiimo4lic eflTurts 
— foolish and in every way fatal — 
which had been made to succour the 
king in 1648. But, even although 
smarting under the fatal results of 
those ill-judged risings, although with- 
out com [ictent leaders, and split up into 
■ variety of party divisions, the neces- 
sary consequence of the state of em- 
bninglement into which every thing 
had been reduced by the weakness and 
impolicy of the king, it is still difficult 
altogether to underst.ind how it came 
to past that the friends of monarchy, 
who comprised, be it remembered, 
many of the most strenuous of the 
original opposers of the king, felt them- 
selves constrained to submit to the 
government of a party numerically by 
far the i^inollest in the state. 

The parliament, which was now re- 
duced to less than lOU members, 
met with no physical opposition in 
their eatablinhment of a republic, but 
they Imd to encounter moral op[io- 
silion at every turn. One of their 
first acts was to appoint a Council of 
State which was to be the depository 
of the executive authority. It was to 
Coneist of 41 incml>ers, eachofwhimi 
Was to take an oath which contained 
ruval of the king's trial, and of 



the abolition of kingship and the House 
of Lords. The persons appointed a«- 
.semblcd. Nineteen look the oath; 
twenty two refuse<l. As a compro- 
mise .Sir Harry Vane suggested un 
oath of fidelity for the future. Crom- 
well eagerly expressed his approval. 
The new oath was adopted by the 
house, and the Council of State was 
then ushered into the world. 

The necessity for thus submitting 
to the private consciences of the mem- 
bers of the Council of State should 
have taught the iiarliamcnt to respect 
the scruples of all their subjects ; but 
their very next public act brought 
them into a simitar collision with the 
city of I^onilon. The lord mayor was 
ordered to j)roclaim, not tlie republic, 
which OS the proclamation of a fact 
might have been so worded as to avoid 
collision with the prejudices of any 
person, but the ordinances for the 
abolition of kingship and the House of 
Lords. The lord mayor refused to 
obey. M. Guizot shall tell us the re- 
sult, and we select the passage not 
only for its contents, but us an illus- 
tration of the way in which be has 
brought the despatches of foreign am- 
bassadors to bear upon the facts of his 
narrative — one of the special merits of 
his book. 

When summoned to the bar, ten days 
afterwards, he alleged the scruples of bis 
conscience in justilication of his conduct. 
The House condemned him to pay a fine 
of two thouund poundi, aod to be im- 
pritoned for two inunlha ; and ordered the 
election of another lord mayor. Alder- 
man Tbomai Andrews, one of the king's 
judi^efs was elected; but, though the Hoose 
did not think it wiie to require of him 
iminedialrly that official proclamation of 
the Conimoawealtli which his predecessor 
bad refused to make, it gave intiinotioti of 
more rigorous inteiiiions with regard to 
the city. "They believe they may make 
■are of the metropolii," wrote the Preai- 
dent de Bcllievrc, the French ambaaudor 
in England, to M. Srrvien, "either by 
cauiiDg the eleclion of other magiatratcs 
who are devoted to their Krvice, or by 
absolutely auppreuing the form of govern- 
ment which hat hitherto been observeil, 
and establishing one of tlie officers of the 
army us governor of the city — as it i< be- 
lieved they intend to do. But, according 
to all cppearance, although it may be their 
intentinn to do this at kume time or other, 
they will be contented for the preaeol with 
establishing their authority tbereio, with- 



1854.] 



Gutjeot"* Cromwell. 



lol 



out iny disploy of viulence." Oa (he 
lOtb of Mot follotring, more thnn amontb 
after the decdun of the new lord mayor, 
and more than threo months after the 
death of Charles I., the nnthority of the 
HoQM ymt not eitablithed in the city, for 
the Commoaweslth had not yet been pro- 
claimed tben^ Inqairy was mode into the 
cause of this delay, and twenty days after, 
on the 30th of Nlay, the proclamation at 
leiigth took place, in the absence of several 
of the aldermen, nho declined to take any 
part in the ceremonial, and amid the 
strongest manifestations of popular dis- 
approbation. " It was desired," wrote 
M. de CrouU^, the secretary of the Pre- 
sident de BellicTre, to Cardinal Muzarin, 
" that (his act should be eflected in the 
ordinary form of a simple publication, with- 
ont the mayor and aUcrmcu being sup- 
ported by any soldiers, in order to show 
that no violent means had been resorted 
to ; but a quantity of people having as- 
sembled around them with hoolings and 
insults, compelled them to send for some 
troops, who first drove away all the by- 
standers, and thus they fuiished their pub- 
lication. 

The aldermen who had absented them- 
selves were called to the bar of the House, 
and (bey unhesilatingly confessed the 
motives of their absence. Sir Thouios 
Soamea, who was also a member of the 
House, stated, " That it was against se- 
veral oaths which he bad taken as an alder- 
man of London, and against his judgment 
and conscience." Alderman Chambers 
said, " That his heart did not go along with 
the work, in that business." They were 
both deprived of their municipal functions, 
and declared incapable of holding any 
public oRii'e. Sir Thomas Soaniea wok 
even expelled from the House. Hut when 
it became necessary to replace them, it 
was found very difficult to obtain persons 
willing to be their aaccessors, and seven 
successive refusals attested the ill-will of 
the eitisiens. A dinner offered to the 
Hoote, by that faction in the city which 
was ilevoted to its cause, was a poor com- 
pensaliin for these checks ; and, iu order 
to put the municipal body in n position to 
discharge its functions, it was found ne- 
cessiry to give to forty, and even, in 
certain eases, to ten of its members, the 
right to act in its name." 

The same sort of opposition was met 
with everywhere. Besides the attach- 
ment which was felt to the Inte king, 
and which was ro(tA<ed to n pitch of en- 
thu9ia<iru by the publication of the Eikuti 
Boiilihe, the notion of a nionarcliy was 
so thorough!}' woven into the language 
and usages of the people, that even the 



most custotuary business was seldom 
transacted without some breach, often 
undesigned, of the republican theory 
or practice. Several years elapsed 
before the parliament could ellt;ct the 
removal of the royal arms from the 
churches, and even in ho smiall a mat- 
ter as the slating of parochial accounts 
in remote district?, we find continually, 
for many years after the execution of 
the king, that the people ran into mis- 
takes founded on the supposition of a 
continued royal authority ; for ex- 
ample, in the accounts of a parish in 
Gloucestershire which chance at this 
moment to be before us, the court of 
" King's" Bench is so named, with one 
exception, even throughout the whole 
of the protectorate. 

The republic, even when established, 
took so slight a hold of the regard of 
the people, that it would probably 
have died out (juickly, from mere ex- 
haustion, but for the attempts made by 
the royalists to bring in the heir to the 
throne. But Cromwell's victories SHved 
the republic only to overturn it. Mili- 
tary genius is always highly paicl by 
popular enthusiasm, and that of Crom- 
well r.iised him to so much eminence 
that it would have been more than 
mortal for any man placed in such cir- 
cumstances to have withblfjod ambi- 
tious promptings ; especially as the 
reputation of his masters of the parlia- 
ment seemed to decrease exactly iu 
proportion as he achieved the greater 
glory. It is curious to mark the rise 
and progress of his ambition. The 
indications are but few anterior to 
Worcester. From that time the course 
of bis thoughts was obvious. On bis 
I'eturn towards London he received % 
more than royul greeting, and accepted 
it in n truly princely uiatmcr. Com- 
missioners delegated by the parliament 
met him beyond Aylesbury with on 
address. On his entry into Loudon 
he was 

met by tbe Speaker and a large number 
of members of the House of Commons, by 
the president of the council of state, tbe 
lord mayor and aldermen of the city, and 
many thousands of notjible citizens, who 
accompanied him to Whitehall, amid sa- 
lutes of artillery, and popular acclama- 
tions ; and when, four days afterwards, be 
made hi< appearance again iu tbe Huuse, 
the Speaker reiterated to him the solemn 
thanks of the Parliament and country. 

Cromwell received all these honours 



102 



Gvizots Cromwell. 



lAag. 



with niotu modesty, saying bat little of 
UimHcIf, and ascribing first to God and then 
to bin soldiera, the whole merit of his 
luccesa. Through hia hamility, however, 
glimpsea of nn irrepressible internal eiul- 
tatioD occosionaliy manifested thcinselves : 
hia affability towards the commissioners 
whom the parliament had sent to meet him 
wore on air of magnificence and grandeur : 
be presented to each of them a fine horse 
and some of the prisoner!) of ruak whom 
he brought with him, niid who would cer- 
tainly redeem their liberty at a high price. 
To Whitelocke he gave two of them, and 
be liberated them without ransom. Crom- 
well proceeded slowly towards London, 
receiving the homage of the population 
on hia route, and sometime* even halting 
to share to the hawking; expeditions of the 
gentlemen whom he met. At Aylesbury, 
it was remarked that bo remained long la 
private conversation with the Chief Justice 
St. John, uiie of the parliament's commis- 
sioners, and also one of Cromwell's most 
intiinnte confidants. His air, his language, 
and hia manners, seemed to undergo a 
natural transformation ; and Hugh Petera, 
a clear-sighted sectarian preacher, who had 
long been used to underatand and serve 
him, said, as be noticed his altered ap- 
pearance : " This inaa will be King of 
England yet.'' 

In considering the conduct of the 
parliament ofYcr the buttle of Worces- 
ter, when, the country being reduced 
to quiet, they set themselves to the 
work oC social atnelioratlun, M. Gui«<it 
fOiircely iloes them justice. Again, we 
think, he is misled by n modern instancf* 
of whicli his mind la no doubt full. 
They cflected, during a compiiralively 
brief period, nn'T amidst many inter- 
ruptions, n number of useful improve- 
ments, and laid the foundation Ibr 
many more. In »<imo of these they 
were assisted by Cromwell, and we cer- 
tainly cannot agree with M. Guizot 
llint his conduct in reference to these 
and the other public questions which 
were then in agitation was unguided 
by principle. " Cromwell," s.iys M. 
Guiiol, "had no fixed principles, and 
no unalterable determination. No 
mind could have been less systematic 
than his, or less governed by general 
and preconceived idciis," We totally 
dissent from this view of his character. 
It is conlrndiutetl by all the actions of 
bis life. " lie had an unerring instinct 
of popular feelings and wishes," con- 
tinues M. Guixot, "and, without rauch 
ing to inquire how fur they were 



legitimate or capable of satisfaction, be 
boldiy became taeir patron in order to 
make them allies." The ouly evidence 
adduced in favour of these broad asser- 
tions goes the length of shewing that 
even from the time of the battle of 
Dunbar, Cromwell urged upon the 
parliament tlie reform of the low, by 
making litigation less costly ; and that 
after his return to Loudon from Wor- 
cester, petitions were addressed to him 
and his ollieers, urging them to pro- 
cure the abolition of tithes and the 
excise, as well as the reform of the law. 
M. Guizot adds, that in religious mat- 
ters Cromwell aimed at " tlie regular 
preaching of the Gospel and liberty of 
conscience," by which means he con- 
ciliated all varieties of sectaries. Uut 
In all this where is the proof of want 
of system, of absence of principle, or 
of a mere desire to please the popular 
anxiety for change, without reference 
to the practieubiRty or the reasonable- 
ness of the changes desired ? Do un- 
systematic men moke good generals, 
or win great battles r Are cheap 
justice, a settled provision for the 
preaching of the Gosficl, and liberty 
of conscience, objects which cannot be 
advocated, and consistently advocateil, 
a.s WB« the case with Cromwell from 
the first, without subjecting their sup- 

Sortcr to a suspicion of bemg a mere 
emagoguef On these points, AL 
Guizot fails, as it seems to us, to esta- 
blish his view of Cromwell's character. 
Hie theory wantM support on two vital 
points, neither of which does he en- 
deavour to establish, nor, as we think, 
can ost.iblisb. First, he must shew 
that Cromwell's character was variable, 
which is the infallible result both of 
want of system and ab.sence of prin- 
ciple ; and, secondly, he must shew that 
the measures whicn he indicates were 
in his sense of the word popular mea- 
sures, measures which a demagogue 
would support with a view to the ac- 
ijuisition of mere popular applause. 
Wc do not think this can be done with 
respect to any of the suggesteil mea- 
sures, certainly not with reference to 
the last of them, lilierty of conscience. 
In those days such liberty was no more 
popular with the two creal parlies, 
those of the Church of Kiighmd and 
the Presbyterians, than reform of law 
was popufar with the lawyers. Oy the 
advocacy of such measures, alt that 



1854.] 



Guizot'i Cromwell. 



103 



ein be said of Cromwell is, that he 
alienated great and potrcrful interests, 
but goiuea the favour of a few despised 
and uninlluential sectaries. 

The final dispute between Cromwell 
and the Long Parliament came, as is 
well known, not upon any of the ques- 
tions before suggested, but with refe- 
rence to 11 new electoral law. The 
parliament would have had a new par- 
liament elected by the country at large, 
but by a greatly enlarged constituency. 
The particulars of their scheme are 
not accurately known, for Cromwell, 
when he turned out the parliament, 
put the bill in his pocket, ami it has 
not yet been found. Cromwell and 
the army deemed, and perhaps rightly, 
judging upon their principles, that the 
country was not in a state to be trusted 
with a re-election. A free parliament 
returned in the way proposed would 
unquestionably have restored the mo- 
narchy. They contended that certain 
great and crymg reforms were neces- 
sary, which would be better accom- 
plished by a smaller body of some forty 
well-selected persons, to whom it was 
advisable that the necessary power 
should be delegated. The parliament 
was uuiversally unpopular. The army 
cry was that tho scheme proposed, 
etuorced as no doubt it would be by 
certain tests, would merely perpetuate 
the present worthless body, iind that the 
required reforms would thus be inde- 
finitely postponed. These were the 
allegations u[X)n which Cromwell acted, 
and certainly no coup tTetat was ever 
more entirely popular than his. M. 
Guizot prints a letter from the French 
ambassador in London which mentions 
the event thus. He reports Cromwell's 
speech, in which he concluded with 
declaring them to be no longer a par- 
liament — 

Utving finuLed bin brief discourse, be 
put ou bis bat and walked twice or thrice 
up nnd down the parliament chamber. 
Seeing that the members did not budge, 
Oxt General ordered Major Harrison to 
briog io the soldiers who formed the 
gaard. Tbey entered without sajing a 
word. Then the Major, bat in band, with 
all poisible respect, went up to the 
Speaker's chair, and kissing bis hand look 
it in bia own, and led him out of the hall 
as a gentleman does a lady, the whole par- 
Uameot folloning. General Cromwell took 
the mace and gave it to the soldiers. . . . 

Ail the people everywhere are ilcligbted, 



and so also are the gentry, with this noble 
action of General Cromwell, and tlie fall 
of the parliament , which is reviled in the 
mouth of everybody. There is written 
upon the Parliament House 

Thti boiue ti now to be let unftimlihed i 

Aod songs are everywhere sung against 
them. One was publicly sold, whieb Ge- 
neral Cromwell out of his great modera- 
tion has ordered not to be sung again, and 
has suppressed 40,000 copies which were 
seized at the printers. Tbey are not al- 
lowed to be sold underhand. 

" We do not hear a dog bark at their 
going," was Cromwell's exclamation 
on the dissolution of the Long Parlia- 
ment : the fact was literally so. Not 
the slightest impediment was thrown 
in his way, and he proceeded at leisure 
to select and summon what has been 
called the assembly of Puritan Nota- 
bles, but is better known by its nick- 
name of the Barebones Parliament, In 
the meantime an executive council of 
thirteen was appointed with Cromwell 
at its head, and the whole business of 
the country was transacteil by them. 
We cannot follow the narrative of the 
events of the protectorate minutely. 
Nor is it necessary. Every body re- 
members them, and wo do not find any 
great deal of novelty in the version 
presented to us by M. Guizot. We 
turn rather to some pleasant remmis 
of the information we possess respect- 
ing Cromwell's general conduct and 
bearing. In these there is great fair- 
ness and liberality, the facts are plca- 
sautly grouped, and the impression they 
produce of the character and spirit of 
Cromwell's government is on the whole, 
we believe, most accurate. 

In those days (he universities were 
in considerable danger. Many of the 
lower class of sectaries deemed the 
learning which they did not possess 
altogether unnecessary, and the Bare- 
bones Parliament would have made 
root and branch work with the schools 
ill which it was taught. Cromwell, 
more enlightened, took them under hia 
protection. He sent amongst them, 
indeed, new men >rho modifaed much 
that was obsolete; but energetically 
defended the institutions themselves. 
Amongst these men were Goodwin and 
Owen, the latter of whom stands com- 
memorated amongst the vice-chancel- 
lors of Oxford for wearing a grotescjue 
costume, of which Spanish boots, large 



m 



Guizot'i Cromwell. 



[Aug. 



I 



iknots of ribbon nt his knees, and a 
I ctKlccd hut, funned condnicuoua parts. 
I Such nn outrn)>c upun clerical custom 
[excited no little temporary gossip. It 
i wus thought by many people that such 
I beteroiloxy in ecclesiusticikl tailorism 
[ irM absolute ruin. But it was by such 
[men that Cromwell saved the univer- 
gitios "from the attackii of the revo- 
I lutiun which hud raised him to the 
•overcign iMjwcr." 

The instances are innumerable in 
which he showed his resjiect lor >;enius 
and learning. He presented Greek 
MSS. to Oxford, gave etrectiial en- 
couragement to Walton's I'olyglot, and 
decreed the foundation of a great col- 
lege at Durham. The wits were ol- 
moat all royalists, but Cromwell forgot 
their [>ol!tics out of respect for their 
talent : 

AV niter rvaidvd h hia couiin at bis court ; 

CowU'y and Hobbcs wcr« allowed Co return 
I from exile ; Butler meditated in the hou<e 

of one of Croniwcir* officer* his grotesque 

atirei tgaioit the fanatical or li]r|iocritical 

I lectarics ; Davearirit, on hit liberation 

I from prison, ohtnined jicrmission from the 

Piirituit dictiitiir to n|it!n ii litde theatre at 

Rullnud House for llie |inrformniice of 
I hit cutnedirs. . . . llodireolcdThurlue to 
^■pply to Cudwnrth, who wu liviog in 
tlMrned retirement at Cambridge, for in- 
IfurcBstion regarding pertnna educated in 
kthat university nhn osplred to public ein- 

Slojments ; to llobbes, whosu poUtii:nl 
oclriiics ]dea<ed him, he otl'i-red the poit 

I of B secretary m his household ; Seiden 
•nd Meiic CasBubon were iavited by him 
to write, oae an ai>swer to the " Eikon 
^unilikc," and the other a history of the 
recent civil war. Both of them deolined, 
tnd Casaubon even refused a purely gra- 
'nttoils pension ; but Cromwell took no 

FelTenoe. Un the death of .\rchbi>liop 
Usher he wasantious that he thould have 
1 solemn funeral m Westminster Abbey, 
and purchased his library, that it might 
not be sent to the Continent. 

Amongst the literary men of his own 
pnrtv who were actively engaged in 
1 with his govenunent, be* 
• 111, the names of May, Mor- 
nd, I'cll, Owen, fioodwin, Nyo, will 
borne in mind. II:irriiigton iind his 
lotn, although watcheil by him, were 
fcot persecuted. He indeed seized the 
S. of Oce.uin, but it was restored 
'ho writer on the interposition of 
Clayjiulc and ultijnatcly pub- 
. with a dedication to Cromwell 



himself. "Few despot*," coucliidei 
M. Guizot, " have so carefully confine" 
themselves within the limits of practical^ 
necessity, and allowed the human mind 
such n wide range of liberty." 

M. Guizot enters at considerable 
length into the proceedings of Crom- 
well in the latter part of his protec- 
torate; his parliaments of 1GJ7 andl 
16^8 i his desire to take upon him thsi 
title of King, and the suggestions madol 
to him in his periods of perjjiexity to'] 
effect the restoration of the SluarU.3 
One example of this kind which hat] 
Intely been brought forward by Lady'] 
Tbereso Lewis is well introduced byj 
M. Guizot. The Marquess of Hcrt>] 
ford, who had been one of Charles't] 
friends, lived in retirement after tha.j 
death of the King. He had the mis- 
fortune to lose bis eldest son by death. 
Cromwell sent Sir Kdward Sydenhaial 
to the old nobleman with a message of I 
condolence and sympathy. The aolj 
was one of intended kindness, and waai 
kindly taken. It was in accordancaJ 
with Cromwell's usual ]>olicy to keep] 
unclosed such u communication thuaf 
opened. After a little while the Pro- j 
tcH'tor invited the Marquess to dintt j 
with him. From motivesof jmlicy th6 I 
invitation was occcpted. After dinner 1 
Cromwell took the Marquess aside and j 
told him that 

He had desired his company that h«.] 
might have his adfice what to do. " Fur,*' j 
Hid he, " I am not nble to bear the weight! 
of business that is upon me ; I sm weary 1 
of it, and you, my lord, are a great and a j 
wise man, and of grcot eiptfricDce, and! 
have been much versed in the business of 1 
government, I'niy advise me what I shall T 
do." The Martjuis was much aarpriaed j 
at this discourse iif the Protector, and de> i 
sired again and again lo be excused, Celliof j 
Kim he had served King Charles all alonji 1 
and been of bis private council ; and that j 
il was no way consistent with his princi- ' 
pies that either the Protector should ask« | 
or be ^tbe Maniuis) adventure, to giva < 
him any advice. This, notwithataDdiny, J 
would not satisfy Cromwell ; bnt be pressed 1 
him still, and told him he would receivaj 
no eicoses nor denials, bat bid the Mar« I 
quis speak freely, and whatsoever he said j 
it should not turn in the least to his pre- I 
judice. The Marquis, seeing himself thoa j 
pressed, and that be could not avoid giv- 
ing an answer, said : " Sir, opon this ai- | 
Burance you have given me, I will declare ' 
to your Highness my thoughts, by which 
you may continue to be great, and eita- 



1854.] 



Guijiot't Cromwell. 



105 



bliih your name and funilj for ever. 
Our joung muter that U abrosil, that is 
mjr muter, and the master of as all — 
restore him to his crowns ; and bj doing 
th« jroa may have what you please. " The 
Protector, no way disturbed at this, an- 
swered very sedately, that he had gone so 
far that the young gentleman could not 
forgive. The Marqnis replied, that if his 
Highness pleased he would undertake 
with his master for what he had said. 
The Protector returned answer, Ihal, in 
his ctrcumitances, he could not trust. 
Thns they |>arted, and the Marquis re- 
ceived no prejadice thereby as long su 
Cromwell lived. 

Cromwell'ii aiuwers to sucli sugges- 
tioDS seem to have been baaed upon 
two distinct ground.^. First, the one 
whicb was suggested to Lord Hertford, 
that Charles II. could never forgive 
the death of hi» father ; and second, 
that he was a person so debauched and 
idle that do confidence could be placed 
in him. Both these reasons were na- 
tural enough in Cromwell's circum- 
stances ; .ind it cannot be doubted that, 
although individually Charles would 
have forgiven and foi^otlen almost 
cverytbing to secure his own succes- 
sion, it would have been very difficult 
even for kiui to have kept down the de- 
sire of Ills followers to wreak vengeance 
u[K>u those who had defeated them. 
Cromwell himself never seems to have 
doubted that he could maintain his 
authority during his life, nor to have 
given any encouragement to the idea 
that he meditated any compromise with 
Charles, although, as time wore on, 
the difficulty of trausmitting his power 
to a person so unambitious and in 
every way so incompetent as his son 
Richard, must have been painfully ap- 
parent to him. But be evidoutly lived 
under the common deception in refe- 
rence to the approach of death. He 
bad no idea that his life was near its 
close. He probably thought there 
would be time enough fur him to make 
new dispositions at some future day, 
some more convenient season. In re- 
ference to the lait arrangements of the 
protectorate, M. Guizot prints, we be- 
lieve for the first time, an important 
letter from Thurloe to Monk, commu- 
nicated by Dr. Travers Twiss. It an- 
nounces to the Governor of Scotland 
the scheme of govcvnmeut contained 
in the " Humble Adilress and liemon- 
strance," under which Cromwell was 

Oc.NT. Mao. Vol. XLII. 



ibr the second time advised to assume 
the title of King, and clearly proves 
the just fears entertained at court of 
the intrigues to which such a step might 
give rise in the .army. 

We have said that this letter makes 
mention of the fears entertained " at 
court," by which we rather mean by 
Cromwell and his family ; although, as 
Protector, be had a modest " court," 
und surrounded himself by something 
like the trappings of royalty. His wife 
was " a simple and timid person, less 
ambitious than interested, anxious 
about her future fate, careful to secure 
resources for every contingency, and 
jealous of her husband, who, although 
he lived on good terms with her, fur- 
uisheil her more than once with just 
cause for complaint." M. Guizot points 
out Lady Dysart afterwards Duchess 
of Lauderdale, and Lady Lambert, with 
" perhaps others whose names ore not 
so certainly known," as lailie.'s who were 
" on terms of intimacy with Cromwell," 
and by whom " he is said to have had 
several natural children." Much of 
this suspicion, for we believe it is no 
more, was probably based upon royalist 
libels, or upon wild sus|>icious jealous 
fancies likethat which CromweU's wife 
entertained of Queen Christina of 
Sweden, who, in her admiration for 
the boldness of Cromwell's character, 
me<litated a visit to England for the 
purpose of seeing him. 

It was more on his children than on his 
wife that the Protector relied for the di- 
rection of his court. He summoaed his 
son Richard to London, and obtained hit 
election as a Member of Parhament, a 
Privy Councillor, and Chancellor oF the 
University of Oiford. His son-io-law, 
John Claypule, was a man of elegant taatei, 
and, like Richard Cromwell, was on 
friendly terms with a great many Cava- 
liers. After the marriage of his two 
younger daughters, with Lord Faucon- 
berg and Mr. Rich, Cromwell had about 
him four young and wealthy families, de- 
sirous to enjoy life, and to share their 
enjoyments with all who came near them 
in rank and fortune. The Protector him- 
self was food of social amusements and 
brilliant ossemblte* ; he was also passion- 
ately food of music, and took delight in 
surrounding himself with musicians, and 
in listening to their performances. His 
court became, under the direction of his 
daughters, numerous and gay. One alone 
of them, tbe widow of Ireton and wife o( 
P 



• 



I 

I 



Fleetwood, WH B lealoai and tnttere re- 
publioMD, and took but little part In their 
ieativitiea, and deplored the moDnrchictl 
and worldly teodeuciea which preiailed io 
the houDehuld as well a> in the policy of 
the Proteotor. 

But it was in liiii dealingawitb foreign 
courts that CromweU'a assuntption of 
the splendours of royalty was most 
nppareiit. When he Imcl concluded 
Lis nllianee with France, ho sent his 
«on-iii-liiw Lord Fauconberg to Calais 
to \>ny his respects to Louis XIV. and 
Carilmal Maxarin. Two ships of war 
end three smaller vessels conveyed the 
representative of the Protector and his 
gaUaut train of one hundred and fifty 
eentlemen. The elements were un- 
favourable to thcni. A tempest scat- 
tered the little fleet, and, " to the great 
disappointment" of the Protector, Lord 
Fauconberg and a small retinue were 
thrown in very unceremonious con- 
Aision on the const. To make the 
nintter worse, their ignominious land- 
ing took place in front of a tent placed 
fur the King and Queen of Fninee on 
the sen-shore, and from which they 
were its witnesses. But it was not 
then the cue of the French people to 
triumph over the small misfortunes of 
the represcnlttlive of the new English 
dynasty. On the contrary, as if to 
cvmipensale for the incivility of imturo, 
every honour that courtly etiiniette 
{could devise was heaped upon him. 
l£uyal cnrriayes without number were 
ila<< ' ■ ' ' ' Swiss Guards 

iiigs, nn<l the 
Mxv>i Mun uiiu ii>r more than 
his gurilcQ tiUr'it-lrli\ and 
Muzuriii even uttundud 
our of Wit carriage, " u 
ch lio iliMK'osed with not 
:i to the King 
■ 15 were not 
if.ilu.iion of sworils, and 
tiiii'Hry was dliowcred 
bis tif'Wcrt'iil t;illKi-in- 
n« if I'oii^fious 
wallow 
:iH-;iilor 



.1 which 

<ion of 

it the 

'. 1 timwoll, 

iVicndship, 



[Aug. 

and how dear to him were all Crom> 
well's interests. Not to be behind* 
hand in these ceremonials, Cromwell 
dispatched Fleetwood, another of hit 
soDs-iu-law, to Dover to meet the 
Duke of Cro<iui, the ambassador, who 
couie accompanied by a nephew of 
Moznrin. Twenty cerri8ges,each drawn 
by six honic.4, were in reatlineM to re* 
ceive them, and wherever they wMJt 
an escort of two hundred soldiers, 
with drawn swords, accompanied them. 
At the ambassador's public reception 
"Cromwell rose from his chair, and 
advanced two steps to meet him, and 
anerwards seated him on his right 
band, while his son Kichard sat on nis 
left." On his departure the .tmbassador 
was loaded witli costly presents both 
for himself and his masters. 

But all these pompous and expensive 
forms were reserved for state occa- 
sions. In Cromwell's dealings with 
the persons with whom he had long 
been accustomed to maintain habits of 
intimacy, he continued as simple and 
as familiar as ever. AVhitclocKe tells 
UK that during the protectorate he and 
n few other persona whom he names 
were frequently shut up with Cromwell 
for three or four hours together, during 
which none were admitted to intrude 
upon him, " He would sometimes," 
AVhitelocke say,«, " bo very cheerful 
with us, and laying aside his greatness, 
lie would be exceedingly familiar with 
us, and by way of diversion would 
make verses with us, and every one 
niii^t try his fancy. lie comntonly 
caUe/l/or tobacco, pipen, and a etiiuBe, 
ami would now ami thru take tobacco 
himself. Then he would fall again to 
lii» serious and great business, and ad- 
vise with us in those aflitirs : and tki* 
he did oflcH with tt»." 

All accounts agree in representing 
him thus free and jovial in his private 
nnil familiar moments, especially until 
after SyndercoUlbe'^plol; but it should 
always be borne in mind that the pic- 
ture had another side. AVhen con- 
tinual attempts to murder him had 
uoed him that his life was in 
r, he sought safety in a variety 
cii Miatagems and precautions which 
betrayed the unquiet and suspicion to 
which he had fallen n prey. He wore 
a steel shirt. He never made his ap- 
pearance in public without )>eing sur* 
rounded by a crowd of attendants and 



1854.] 



The Political Conttitulion of Finland. 



107 



a nnmeroua escort; he carried fire- 
arms coastantly about his person ; he 
trarellcd nt full speed ; he diverged 
from the ordinary roads ; he returned 
by a dificrent route to that which he 
irent; he used aevertd bedchambers, 
each of them having a secret door ; he 
bad a body-guard of one hundred and 
sixty picked men, selected from dif- 
ferent cavalry regiments, all well- 
known to him. They had the pay of 
officers ; and two troops of twenty 
men each, in rotation, were always on 
duty near his person. "To make more 
sure he was faithfully serveti, he fre- 
qucntlv made the round of the sentries 
at Whitehall, and changed the guard 
himself." A well-known anecdote re- 
presentj him, on an occosioa of sudden 
suspicion, as drawing a dagger and 
being about to use it. It is certain that 
(luring the last year or two of his life, 
the period during which his health was 
rapidly breaking, he was haunted by 
suspicions which were too reasonable 
to be easily suppressed. In his position, 
his life was everything to his family and 
his cause, and he was not a man to 
disregard any reasonable precaution 
ajjaiiist the dangers by which he was in- 
disputably threatened. When he gave 



audience it was remarked, that " he 
sternly watched the eyes and gestures 
of those who addressed him ; ' and if 
any one would know the power of that 
inquisition, let him look at the portrait 
prefixed to the Cromwell Letters, 
edited by Mr. Carlyle. 

Mons. Guizot's work has the great 
merit of being a clear, well-written, 
and interesting narrative of this most 
i mportant period. It is especially va' 
luable in reference to foreign transac- 
tions, and adds to our historical mate- 
rials some important extracts from the 
disjiatches of the ambassadors of France 
and Spain. In reference to the cha- 
racter of Cromwell, some people will 
think it occasionally incorrect, as we 
do ; and the incorrectness will be at- 
tributed to the difficulty which all 
foreigners must feel in dealing with 
a subject so entirely English, and also 
to the misleading influence of the 
recent parallel in M. Guizot's own 
country, which it was impossible for 
him not to bear in mind ; but, whatever 
almost trifling drawbacks of this kind 
may be found in the book, as a whole, 
it may be safely commended for con- 
taining a calm and lucid detail of events 
of undying interest. 



THE POLITICAL CONSTITUTION OF FINLAND. 
(Continued from p. 9.) 



WE now approach the important 
question. Had Finland, while yet a 
Swedish province, any " constitution" 
or had it not? Did Finland, on its 
occupation, or purchase, or conquest 
by Russia, obtain or retain any such 
or any other " constitution," or did it 
not? If Finland actually retained 
any such '* constitution," has the same 
been respected by its present (Kussian) 
government, or has it not ? 

Questions like these, so intimately 
connected with the barbarian progress 
of Russia south-west in its German 
provinces, and north-west in its Fin- 
nish provinces, its two great points of 
contact with the civilisation, and laws, 
anil religion, and liberty of Teutonic 
Europe, cannot but command our uni- 
versal and undivided attention. 

Wc will proceed in the order marked 
out above ; — 



I. Had Finland, while yet a Swedish 
province, any "constitution," or had 
it not? — It had. In common with the 
rest of Sweden, it had long enjoyed 
the most extensive political privileges. 
When faction on the one hand and 
ambition on the other had led to the 
famous coup dHut of Gustavus HI. 
Finland then shared in the fate of the 
rest of Sweden, and was governed 
by the constitution of 1772 — 1789. 
The act of the former date was en- 
titled " The Form of Government of 
the21st of August, 1772." The latter 
and supplementary declaration was 
called "The Act of Union and Security 
of the 21st of February and the 3rd 
of April, 1789." Of course it cannot 
be our intention to quote here these 
two political documents, which extend 
through a great number of pages. We 
would merely mention that, in spite of 



108 



The PoUHeal Cojutilution of Finland. 



[Aug. 



the inroads made thereby upon the 
old popular rights of the Swedish 
nation, this constitution of 1772 — 1789 
still left lu Sweden and Finiaiiil the 
right of representative diets, the right 
of self-taxution, the right of giving 
their consent to nil new acts liefore the 
same could become law, and naany 
other privileges of immense ami viud 
importance. 

II. Did Finland, on its occupation, 
or purcliase, or conijuest by Russia, in 
1808-!), obtain or retain any such or 
any other "constitution," or did it not? 

In order to aniwer this question we 
must historically cinmine how Finland 
obtttincd its jirCM^nt form of GoTernment, 
snd what fundamental laws ought now to 
be in force in that country. 

This province was conquered by the 
Rauian arms in the course of the year 

1808, and was immediately declared by an 
Imperial manifesto of the Atb of June, in 
the same year, " for ever united to the 
Russian empire." On the Istof February, 

1809, the Chambers of Finland were som- 
mooed to a Diet in Borga, and on the 27lh 
of the following March the Emperor Alex- 
ander voluntarily gave his royal assurance 
as follows : — " As, under the guidance uf 
Providence, wc have taken possession of 
the Grand Dnchjr of Finland, we have been 
pleased hereby to assure and confirm tlie 
religion sod fundamental laws of the 
couutry, and all those rights and privi- 
leges which each class in psrticalsr iu this 
said duchy, and all its inhabitants in 
general, high or low, hsve hitherto en- 
joyed according to the Cnnstitution : and 
we promise to preserve all these advan- 
tagea and enactments Arm and unchange- 
able and in their full force." When the 
Emi>eror Nicholas ascended the throne be 
puhlisl.c.l, oil (In- 5^lh of December, 182.',, 
a grni-iuut u.s^iititnce tu all the inhAl)ttant8 
of Fiutsnil, wtird for word tite same as 
that niiw given alKive, the only cliaoge 
being, th.tt, in the ingress, the phraseology 
is as follons : — " As, under the guidance 
of ProviHrniT, we have succeeded by in- 

'itap' iiid duchy of Finland, 

I. .1 hereby,"* .Vc.t 

unit I'ifthcr asserted that the 

•xistence of Finland, as a state 

.nt of the Russioo system of go- 

•t. ts only ima^nary, and has no 

Its continuance in the future. 

.aly no guarantee other than 

ince" of the Emperor ; but 



this it possesses, and the nation haa good 
grounda for confidiag therein. It was 
given, as declared above, at the Diet of 
Borgit — thus before Finland was renounced 
by Sweden, and has been several times re- 
newed since the peace. In the ingress to 
the rescript regarding the Finnish military, 
dated the ^fth of March, 1810, we have 
the following declaration : — " From the 
moment when, by the guidance of Provi- 
dence, the fate of Finland was entrusted to 
our guardianship, our resolution has been 
taken to govern this country in a manner 
which should correspond with the freedom 
of the nation and the rights guaranteed 
thereto by its Constitution. The proofs 
of attachment which, after the oath of 
fidelity, they voluntarily ofirred us, we 
have received at their hands through their 
deputies assembled at the Diet, could only 
confirm this our resolution. All the regu- 
lations we have hitherto made for the in- 
terior government of the country are 
nothing but a consequence and applicatioa 
of this principle. The preservation of its 
laws and religion, the assembling of its 
Chambers to a general Diet, the forma- 
tion of a Council of Regency in the bosom 
of the nation, and the unchanged retention 
of the legislative and executive power, 
constitute proofs sufficient to convince the 
Finnish people of its political existence, 
and of the rights belonging thereto." 

In the proclamation respecting the 
change of name of the " Imperial Go- 
verumeut Council" into the " Imperial 
Senate for Finland," dated the ^nd of 
February, 1816, we have these words ! — 
" Still further to mark our views in the 
creation of the above-named local govern- 
ment of this Isnd (Finland), and its im- 
mediate connection with our person, we 
have found good — in accordance with the 
denomination borne by the highest branch 
of government in our own empire and in 
the kingdom of Poland lately united 
thereto — to give to the same the name of 
Our Senate for Finland, without any 
change, nevertheless, in its present organi- 
sation, and still lets in that constitution 
and those laws which we have guaranteed 
for Finland, and which wc now still fur- 
ther confirm iu all their extent." .... I 
now ask, are not all these promises suffi- 
ciently clear, and pronounced with suffi- 
cient decision .' And whether it is not 
evidently to misunderstand or turn aside 
the plain words of official documents, to 
repeat, that the Emperor of Russia by 
these assurances has not actually under- 
taken the obligation to keep up and protect 



■ af Placater, &c. t. i. p. I!) ; t. v. p. 56. 
mwanndc Slatt-ffirfattning, pp. C, 7. 



1854.] 



The Political Constitution of Finland. 



109 



tbe nationality of Finland, and not merely 
" has not omitted to show bis interest for 
tbe same ?" * 

Finland has thus, ihrougb a real, though 
not a compensatory, contract (that is, 
through a pactum gratuilum I. donalionu 
reale), received a confirmatioa of its elder 
cnactmeDts and fandomeotsl laws, or, if 
one so will, it has obtained them as a gift. 
In both cases it baa gained possession of a 
right, guaruDteed by clear compact, to 
hare nod to use tbe Constitution developed 
In the form of Government of 177'2and 
tbe Act of Union and Security of I7H9. It 
is evident that all this is perfectly unde- 
niable ; the only question which remains 
is, to inquire what binding force the 
■parance of these two noble Emperors 
lint ; in short, whether they are 
ely a guide for their own persons, or 
whether their obligation extends to their 
posterity also. 

Whatever we may conceive to have been 
tbe origin of states, whether throngh the 
social feeling inherent in tlie human bosom, 
or through tbe force of arms, or through 
some compact between the governors and 
the governed — whether we suppose his 
power belongs to tbe Regent, as delegated 
by tbe Oeity himself, or as delivered to 
him by tbe |ieople, it is at all events clear 
that the Regent must make all such com- 
pacts as are not merely personal in the 
name of that state in which he wields the 
sceptre of authority. He forms the con- 
necting liuk for the whole will of tbe state; 
its power is centered in his hand as in a 
focus J he is the executor of power, for he 
if its possessor. No one nation can en 
maut arrange anything with auother ; it 
most in this caw be represented by him to 
whose care its government bos been en- 
trusted. But from this it also follows that 
what the Regent thus grants or decides is 



agreed to not in bis own name, but in that 
of all his people ; for it is only on this 
ground tlut be is entitled to draw up any 
such agreement at all. On any other con- 
ditions, no such contract could have auy 
meaning or durability. If the iuhabitanta 
of a country could do away with what their 
governments hove decided, all legal rela- 
tions would then cease at once, and a con* 
dition of dissolution or of continued war 
would arise among all states. If, in his 
transactions with other nations, any Regent 
has broken those laws which ought to have 
controlled his conduct, he must then ar- 
range the conee<)oencea with his own 
people ; but the contract with the stranger 
must stand fast and unshaken. We see 
at once that any opposite doctrine would 
soon lead to tbe entire dissolution of all 
state agreements, and even of all societies 
themselves. 

But, as the Regent thus enters upon 
agreements by force of the united power 
in his possession, or because he therein 
represents the state of which he is tbe 
bold, so this also is bound by tbe treaty 
he has drawn up. Such a compact trans- 
fers to the people tbe same duties or obliga- 
tions as the farmer has contracted. From 
the people this binding energy goes over 
to those who may succeed the former in 
the government, for they have in all things 
the same rights and the same duties as the 
land they govern, and can have none dis- 
tinct therefrom. Thus, a Regent makes 
treaties in the name of his people and in 
bis own, and his duties in the same 
manner as his rights are transferred, like 
as the ruling power over the people, to 
those who may succeed him, in uninter- 
rupted succession, till the contract shall 
have bceo legally abolished. 

Writers on the law of nations are all of 
one opinion on this head \\ but in refe- 



• Hwasser. Om BorgA Laodtdag, 5cc. pp. 31, 32. 

t '' Paulo diatinctitts videtur deduci posse, quatenus antecessoris regis foederibos 
sacoessor teneatnr. Nam primo constat, pace ab antecessore facta successorem quoqne 

teneri Deinde dubium non est, quin successor teneatur ser\'are illas 

conventionea legitimss, qnibus ab antecessore suo in tcrtium jus fuit collatum." 
Pufeudurf, De Jure Nat. et Gent. lib. viit. c. ix. § 8, j^c. — " Siquidem cum populo 
libera actum sit, duhium non est, quin quod ei promiltitnr sua natura reale sit, quia 
lubjectum est res perinaneos. Imo etiamsi status civitalis in regnum mutetur, manebit 
fcedus, quia manet idem corpus, etsi mutato capite." Grotins, De Jure Belli et Pacis, 
lib, ii. c. xvi. { II). — " I'actio pacis etiam ubiignt genlem, sive populum, et sncceasores. 
Evidens est, pactionem pacis utilitatis publicie munentis causa fieri et esse foedus 
reale." Wolf, Jus Gentium, &c. 5 1017. — "Tout Iraiti'- public conclu pur un roi, ou par 
tout autre munarquc, est un traite de I'ctat ; il oblige I'^tat entier, la nation, que le roi 

rcpn'seiite et dont il exerce Ic pouvoir et Ics droits. — Les traiti's pcrpf'-tuels 

sent des traitcs n'-eU ; puisque leur iatke ne peut dependre de la vie des contractans. 
— Puisque les traiti^-s publics, m<!me personnels, conclus par un roi, ou par tout autre 
sooverain qui en a le poavoir, sont Iraites de I'rtat, et obligent la nation entiere, les 
traits reels, faits pour snbsister, ind^pendamment de la personne qui les a conclus, 
obligent sans doute les sucoeasenrs. L'obligsrion qu'ils imposentik I't^tat passe succes- 
ttTeoMOt * tous sea conducteurs, h mesure qu'ils prcnuent en main I'autorit^ publique. 



110 



Tht Political Conttitution ofFMtund. 



[Aof. 



ranee to Finland we have one other cireani- 
•tance. Two Eoiprrort of Rauia hiTO 
"guaraDlvrd and confirmed" the " funda- 
meutal lawa" of Finland, and bare " pro- 
miwd to pmerre all thrse adrantagei and 
enactments lirm and onchangnble in their 
fall force." We hare seen abore that 
tbeae are " The Form of GoTrmment of 
1774'* and '■The Art of Union and 
Seenrity of 1789." The former is de- 
clared to be [sec the ingress to this law] 
" an inriolable and sacred fundament^U 
law, which wr, far ourseWe* and for oar 
saccesior*, born and to br born, promise 
to obey, following the literal contents of 
the same, and holding him or them to be 
the enemies of ourselTcs and of our king- 
dom who would wish to lead us to turn 
aside therefrom." We find the latter [see 
the cloee of this law] " adopted for our- 
scItcs and our successors no the Swedish 
throne, as an innolable and unchangeable 
fundamental law, whose literal contents 
shall be obserted without any change, 
modification, or interpretation of the 
same;" it being added, that " there shall 
nerer be permitted anr proposition or 
attempt to be made fur the least change, 
interprvtation, or correction in the literal 
contents thereof. .\nd in cise of the ex- 
tinction of the rojal house, the King who 
maj then be chosen shall succeed to all 
these rights, and shall biuJ himself to the 
obcenrance of the same, without the least 



alteration." As the Raittan Emperon 
haee "guaranteed and confirmed ttaa 
etuctmenta in thrir whole extent," tbqr 
hare at the same time taken npon them> 
selves the obligation laid by them OB tha 
kings of Sweden, and have therefore " eon* 
firmed " the same " for themselraa and 
their succestors, bom or nnbom." In 
these, therefore, Finland posaeases — both 
according to clear national lawandtfarongh 
the diatiQct confirmations of those who 
haTc hitherto been their Regents— two Ai>- 
damental laws, whose "literal conteati 
shall be obserred without any change, 
modification,or interpretation ofthe saaae," 
ofcourae until they are volnntarily changed 
by both the contracting parties. This alio 
proTcs how incorrect is the assertion of 
Prkka Kuoharinen, " that the represea* 
tative Gonftitution of this country ought to 
be renewed by every sorerdgn who may 
succeed to the Russian sceptre."* No 
Russian emperor who may hereafter aaoend 
the throne of his fathers can lefuia to 
confirm or protect the fundamental laws 
of Finland, without insulting the glorioaa 
memory of his illustrious predeoeaeon, 
and openly treading under foot all aa- 
tiooal right and erery holy obligatioB. 

If we now draw into one riew all that 
has been thus adranced, we shall find that 
the fundamental laws which ought to hafa 
force in Finland form a representatiee con- 
stitution ; that they have been otrnfinned 



— Ptffruiaif nous donne pour regies : I". Qne les successenn doirent garder lea 
traitfi de paix fsits par leur predrcesseurs. 2". Qu'un snccesseur doit garder toatea 
k* conrentions legitimes, par lesquelles son prMecessenr a Iransf^r^ qoelque droit k 
an tier*. C'est Tisiblement sortir de la question. Qui en doute ? l,e traits de paix est, 
de sa nature, bit pour durer perpetnellement ; des qu'une foit il est dnement conda 
et ratifie, c'est une aflaire consommi^; il hut I'accompUr de part et d'aatre, et 
I'obserTFr srlon sa tenrur." Vattel, Le Droit des Geus, t. i. 1. ii. { 18(>, 7. 191. S. 
— " Le traite de paix, conclu par une pnissance legitime, est sans doute un traite pnbiie, 
qni oblige toute la nation. II est encore, par sa nature, un traite rM ; car s'il n'toit 
fcit que pour la Tic dn prince, ce seroit un traite de trere, et n-it pas de paix. D'aillenia 
tout traili, qui, comme relui-ci. est ftit en rue du bien public, est un traite recL II 
oblige done les successrnrs ausai fortement qne le prince m^me qui I'a sign^ ; pais- 

2a'il oblige I'Aat m^mc, el qne les successeurs ne peuTent jamais aroir, a cet ^gard, 
^ntica droits qne ceux de I'elat." Idem, t. ii. 1. ir. § 35. — " L'Etat, etemel daaa 
sa fin, s'enoncc per la personne de chaqne gouTcmant. Les chanfiemeaa qui sar- 
Ticnacat dana la constitution, uu dans la personne du souTerain. on dans les dynastiea, 
ae saaraieat ceoe porter atteinte a la vaUdit^ des traites. Cependant. il coaneot 
d'ftabiir ane distinction : dans la regie, lea traites na lient pas les soarerains comma 
iadieidas et pour leur {lersonne: its lea obligent seulement pour I'Etat et la nation." 
Garden, Traite complet de Diplom. t. L p. 420.—" In der Regel rerbindea die 
Vertrba der SoBTeraine nicht sie fur ihre IVrson, als fikr ihre Person, sondem den 
Staat, da* Tolk. — Dass der SouTerain and der Staat einrs sind, darf urn so weniger 
Wigenen werden in Europe, wo meistens die iilrsten allein es sind, wclche ihre Staates 
sa cinem Ganxea eerbinden," Schmali, Das Enrop. Viilker-rvchl. p. 59. — " Dia 
Daaer der VSlker-and Staatenrertrage wird nicht beschriinkt. durch den Tod des Re- 

Eaten, der den Vertrag ratificirt hat, sobald der Vertrag nicht rtn-fmiiilieh, and die 
at seiner Dauer noeh nicht abgelaufm war. Pi>liu, Die SlaatswisseDSchtftea, &e. 
X. T. p. 189— 191. — See also Qagem, Critik des Viilkerrecbt*, p. S)^— ll>3: and 
Neyroa, "De Vi feederam, speeiatim de obligatioDe tuccessomm ex fiadere Anieccak*' 
* riadlowl och dsM Fiamtid, p. 99, Srd cd. 



1854.] 



The Political Conttitution of Finland. 



Ill 



bf two Emperon of Rutaia ; tnd that this 
ronfirmatioD mDat be binding upon all 
fntnre Cztn nntil the inhabitants of Fin- 
land bare given tkemselvei a new form of 
government, bj • voluntary agreement 
with the bead of the Rusiian empire. Fin- 
land baa accordingly the right, founded 
upon formal contract, to be governed in 
unison with a repreaentative constitution; 
and, In areordance with the enactments of 
the same, to partake in the administration, 
the legislation, and the taxation, He. of 
their country. If these rights bnvc not 
jet b«cn enjoyed, the clear dictates of tlie 
eontraot in question have not been carried 
into effect.* 

HI. If Finland actnnlly retained any 

lucb " constitution," Lis the snnie been 

respected by its present government, 

or lias it not ? 

This Tttally important query can be 

rered in a double sense: first, as to 

I Rpirit ; and secondly, ns to its letter. 

On all sides it vrill naturally be ad- 

iaitted, ns a iuatt«r of course, that a 

STemment like that of Kusain, with 
e eyes of all the North, of all Europe 
Wxed upon it, would carefully avoid 
liny infraction of the Utter of the law 
present, except where it imagined 
lircumBtaiices might iin[)oratively re- 
aire such a dangerous step. We 
tmight expect therefore to see no signs 
Ifif any actual infraction of the Finnish 
iconstitution. On the other hand, some 
Ifnch sijrns might be expected in the 
'etails, the tendencies, the gradual 
rking and minor changes of the 
government system in general. And 
m reference to both these points, and 
taking n lar<re and comprehensive view 
of the whole question, an impartial 
observer must decide that neither the 
letter nor the spirit of tlic Finnish 
law.s has been observed by the Finoisli 
government. 

In all such organic changes, how- 
ever, the letter of the law cannot 
always be evaded, and must sometimes 
give way. There will be certain salient 
points, certain overt acts, cert.iin cir- 
antial enactments, which will 
eiently betray the recklessness and 
he designs of any cabinet. Accord- 
lingly these ore not wanting in the 
|fcistnry of that of Russian Finland. We 
rill mention a few of the most con- 



sirlerable. That the list is not yet 
very long need not astonish us ; it is 
so much the more weiglity. Prudeuco 
dictates caution. "Time will show" 
a very diflerent catalogue some years 
hence, if the same system is permitted 
to progress, and if the whole silent 
Russianising machinery is not at once 
and imperatively checlce<l, and con- 
trolled, and countermanded by the 
united voice of Euronenn diplomacy 
and of European moral opinion. 

1 . " The Form of Goveniiuent of the 
year 1772," apart of the present funda- 
mental law of Finland, in its first 
section, enacts as follows: — "Here- 
after, as heretofore, all placeholders 
and all subjects in this our kingdom 
shall, above all things, continue in the 
pure and clear word of God, as it is 
contained in the prophetical and the 
apostolic writinjis, the Christian sym- 
bols, and the Catechism of Luther," 
&c Accordingly, only Lutherans can 
legally fill any post or office in Finland. 

The Imperial Ordonnanceof the 14th 
of August, 1827,t decrees : — that "anv 
member of the Greek-Russian Church 
who is already, or may hereafter be- 
come, a burgess of Finland," may enter 
the civil or the military service of that 
country, and that similar land-holdinp; 
peasants may become jurymen, and 
may be appomted to any office requir- 
ing the votes of bnrgesses. 

2. The said Form of Government, in 
its 20th section, declares that " no one 
shall be punished in life or honour, in 
lirob or property, until he be legally 
convicted or condemned." 

This enactment has been violated in 
several instances. Among others, " a 
nniversity teacher, on his return to bia 
own country, was seized at the last 
post station, transported to a distant 
.spot in the interior of Russia, held 
there in banishment a number of years, 
afterwards removed to Willmanstrand, 
and is now in a town near the Prussian 
border."^ 

3. In the same Form of Govern- 
ment we read, section 40 : " Tlie king 
shall make no new law, nor shall abo- 
lish any old one, without the know- 
ledge and consent of the diet." 

When was the Finnish diet last as- 



* FinUnda mwaraode Stats-fOrfattning, pp. 33 — 40, 
t Samling af Placater, Sec. t. v. p. 208. 
X Finland och dess Framtid, p, 85. 



TTie Political Conttilulion of Finland. 



112 



sembled ? At Borgii, in 1 809. Have 
no new laws been enacted, no old ones 
abolished, since that period P Many. 

One of the most important and diiii- 
gerous of these "new laws," enacted by 
a ukase not by a diet, is ihe Law ol' 
Censorship, issued In 1829. This Inw 
18 excessively severe. Nut only are all 
books, pamphlets, and nc\7spapcrg 
rigorously exam!ne<l on iiiiportntii)ii, 
and the lorbidden tomes or articles or 
pages stopped or cut out, but the 
same may be confiscated in whosevcr 
Land they may be, and oireuces against 
the some are punished with great bit- 
terness, although thei-e oxists no public 
list of forbidden publications, nndcon- 
8e(iuently it is impossible for any one 
to be always sure that he ifi not otFend- 
inc against the censorship-statute.* 

Pekka Kuoharinen archly adds on 
this subject : " The professors in the 
Finnish universities are allowed, with- 
out examination by the censors, to im- 
port any works not containing any- 
thing relative to the political subjects 
of the day."t No one can deny that 
the professors of history and politic.-i 
must, at least by law, most admirably 
keep up with the march of ihcir a^e !| 

4. The Form of Governniciit, m its 
50th section, declares : " The condition 
of the liuances shall be laid before the 
committee of the diet, in order that 
tbey may examine whether or not the 
money collected h.is been employed 
for the service and advantage of the 
kingdom." The Act of Union and Se- 
curity adds, paragraph 5, " As true 
liberty consists in freely giving for the 
support of the state whatever may be 
reiiulred thereto, the Swedish [and 
Fiiiuiah] |)eople enjoys the undoubted 
right of counselling, modifying, re- 
fusing, and agreeing to the same, in 
conjunction with the king." 

As no Finnish diet has been assem- 
bled for about 3d years, this enactment 
is of course a dead letter. A veil of 
deep mystery hides from profane eyes 
the whole question of the finances of 
Finland. It is true that well-founded 
rumours speak of a continually in- 
creasing Finnish national debt, of the 
most extraordinary jobs, anti pension- 
ings, and intrigues, and all the other 
etcetera of a system founded on bribery 



I Aug. 



and corruption ; but nothing exact, 
nothing official, is known on this sub- 
ject. Kussian state loans to Finland 
are, it is feared, the dreadfully certain 
millstone which dexterous hands have 
hung about the neck of this "free 
state," and which may at any moment 
sell her, bound liand and foot, to the 
great pawnbroker in the winter palace ! 

Several scandalous acts have come 
to the knowledge of the jiublic of large 
sums from the Finnish treasury having 
been Hijuandcrcd in gifts to Uussian or 
Finnish officers of rank, for secret ser- 
vices or purposes. But we forbear to 
enter further into this disagreeable 
chapter. 

5. Many iUegalities have been com- 
mitteil, which it would be difficult and 
usclesis to classify. Among the rest : 
a poor peasant, illegally driven from 
crown land, and who had escaped to 
the forests rather than appear in the 
Ilusso-Fiunish court, was shot down by a 
Cossack at the command of a rather too 
eagerly time-serving bailiff. The bailiff 
was twice imprisoneil by inferior courts, 
but was set at liberty by "a power 
lower than the Emperor," and, on his 
being at last condemned to a severe 
punishment, bis sentence was graciously 
remitted by the Emperor himself I 

The I'lnnish regiment of the line 
was guaranteed by Alexander freedom 
from foreign service for fifty years; 
but, notwithstanding this, a request for 
that purpose having been first com- 
man<led or otbenvise obtained from a 
convenient colonel, this regiment of 
brave freemen was illegally sent into 
Poland, to share in the laurels and the 
glories of that ever-memorable cam- 
paign I 

By a tate ukase, when two or more 
aspirants to any office in Finland have 
equal merits, he who is acquainted 
with the Russian language shall im- 
mediately have the preference. 

Curious economical ordinances have 
lately issued from the Finnish govern- 
ment J among the rest, one compelling 
the re-ex.immation of ail unstamped 
goods wherever found in the whole 
country, and enacting the stamping of 
the same, with payment of a forced 
duly of 'i per cent.! 

And this reminds us of the Finnish 



* Samling af Placater, &c. t. iv. p. 283 > t. v. p. SOS. 

f Idem, t, V. p. 379. ' t Finland och dess Framtid, p. 90. 

•2 




1854.] 



The Political Conttiluliun uf Finland. 



113 



Uriff; but we refruin. Meusurus of 
this sort, tbougli their tendency is un- 
happily but too apparent, are often of 
minor iinportnnoe when con^iidcred 
aepurntcly, nrc dini(!uit to relate and 
vspiuiu in a few words, and are i<eIdom 
interesting to the general render. 

We have thus, at gome lei\gth, gone 
through the principal features of this 
great Finui:sh question. Its import- 
ance is our apology. 1'hat Finland is 
in many respects at this moiiient highly 
proafterous in a material point of view 
M a (act which we gladly acknowledge, 
and which it is not dillicult to explain. 
The value of this province to the llus- 
sian empire is iuiuiense ; consequently, 
«hc is willing to jiuy a heavy price for 
its continued occupation. She is there- 
fore here more than usually active in 
developing — what would also have 
been vigorously encouraged under the 
Swedish rule — the agriculture, the ma- 
nufactures, and the shipping of the 
country. Be.sidcs this, the adoption of 
*n almost prohibitive turitf, uuiteil with 
»n extensive system of government 
manufacture loans, has caused the crea- 
tion and extension of many branches 
of production formerly little cultivated. 
The lavish increase ulsio in the numlter 
of public olUccs and olHcers, and the 
lurge amount of their salaries, the sys- 
tem of jiensious and gratifications now 
•o common, the showers of " fulling 
stars" and of all kinds of decorations, 
and lidos, and distinctions which are 
allowe<l to descend upon all who please 
to become notorious for a |iroper zeal 
in the execution of their duties, whe- 
ther civil or military, or ecclesiastical or 
literary, and the attempts now making 
lo weave all kinds of visible and in- 
visible connecting -tbreails between 
Petersburg and llelsingfijrs, — these, 
and many other things tend to favour 
and plethorize Finland, and are nil 
parta of one great system, whose in- 
evitable tendency cannot be misunder- 
stood. 

But there is yet another cause for 
the present prosperity of Finland. 
From tho side of Sweden, nl^o, she 
enjoys commercial and other a<lvan- 
tages BO considerable as to have ex- 



cited bitter opposition among a large 
body of the Swedish trading cla-sses. 
But the fact is, the Swedish govern- 
ment is unwilling ojienly and legally 
to break with that country, and, con- 
sequently, to treat it at once os nothing 
eitlier more or less than simply a Rus- 
sian province with a Ilussian tariff". 
Ten thousand old teelings and remem- 
brances and half-unacknowleilged in- 
Voluntary hopes, and the love of 
freemen to freemen, and of brother to 
brother, mingle themselves perpetually 
in the protocols of the statesmen and 
the grave calculaliims of the relentless 
customs taker. What the future has 
in its womb none can know ; therefore 
Sweden treats Finlnml as much as 
possible in such a manner ns to " make 
to itself friends of the manmmn of un- 
righteousness," and thereby retain the 
good wishes and allection of the Finnish 
people. All this may be literally un- 
just, it may be even m some respecli 
hard towanis similar trading and pro- 
ducing classes in Sweden itself; but 
it is natural enough, and scarcely to 
be blamed or avoided. 

Thus Finland is yet in her honey- 
moon, or rather she is like some young 
beauty between two lovers, flattered, 
complimented, serve<l, enriched on both 
sides, Russia treats her with all 
imaginable tenderness allowing her to 
retain her old laws lo a very consider- 
able extent, and only slowly and silently 
undermining them, nominally guaran- 
teeing her "constitution" itself, and 
scattering over her coasts the "bar- 
baric gold" of her thousand lands.* 
>>he knows the im|»rlance of counter- 
acting and negativing the Swedish 
tendencies of the Finnish jiopulation. 
She will not that they shall have any 
longings to the free balls of the West, 
and therefore attempts to drown and 
intoxicate the higher and nobler feel- 
ings by a llood of material advantagcfl. 
Sweden U-hoUls in Finland only a 
frienil and brothcr-in-orms ''y adverse 
fates te]iar<itfil hut fur a time. She 
cannot believe that the whole dread 
change is more than one dread dream. 
Soon will she wake! Then will all be 
restored again ; Finland will then be 



* Finland daring the summer months awarma with Ru><iaii touriats of the highest 
clue Their number increases aonually, in cooseqacnce of the eitreme difficulty of now 
obtaining the Kmperor's permitsion to travel abroad. Ilclsingfors is now a fashionable 
watf^riog-phice. 

Gent. Ma.j. Vol. XLU. U 



114 



The Political Constitution of Finland. 



[Augf. 



Swedish once more ; therefore it is that 
the policy of Sweden is conservative 
of the aflections of the Finlandcrs. 
She will not that harsh practical mea- 
sures shall suddenly quench the flurne 
of ancient love. She will not that 
Russia shall in every thing outbid her 
for the heart of the sought one ! 

Of course all this must sooner or 
later come to an end, and that on both 
sides. Finland innst remember that 
the faster Russian titles are showered 
from St. Petersburg, the sooner will 
they lose all reasonable value. She 
need not be reminded that high-pres- 
rare rewards and employments cannot 
possibly bo kept up. She must re- 
member, that the more unbounded the 
iavisbuiunt of rubles on her higher 
class, the sooner must be reached the 
bottom of the chest. Every extreme 
is met by its own re-action. Taxation 
will increase, and oppression will also 
increase, in order to stifle the com- 
plaints of the sufferers. The Russian- 
magnate element will unite with the 
Finnish high-cmploy6 element to pro- 
duce a caste or class of powerful 
families interested in the system, and 
unfriendly to the bulk of the people. 

Tlien will commence, on a larger and 
more open scale, (as has already been 
the case in the kingdom of Poland and 
elsewhere,) the serious and determined 
and rapid Russianizing of the Finnish 
Grand Duchy. At present this is nei- 
ther practicable nor advisable. Motives 
of prudence, caution, fear, hold back 
the thunders of the sleeping ukase. 
But, besides, the Russian government 
and its agents are even yet very igno- 
rant of the languages ot Finland, and 
has only of lute arrived at a sufficiently 
exact knowledge of the calibre of dil- 
ferent classes and individuals, and of 
the proper method of laying siege to 
their integrity. The Finlandcrs must 
also be ma<le more acquainted with the 
language of Russia, before any exten- 
sive mousiircs can be taken for this 
purpose ; but in this they are progress- 
ing. The ukase illegally favouring all 
who may possess something of its lite- 
rature, we have already noticed. There 



are now professors of Russian in Abo 
and Ilelsingfors, as well as in other 
Finnish cities ; and a certain number 
of Finnish students are annaally sent 
to St. Petersburg for instruction in 
the language, free of expense. In 
short, a oeginning is made ; the ice is 
broken, and, " by the guidance of Pro- 
vidence," and of*^ the Emperor and his 
guards, this policy will doubtless ad- 
vance to a happy conclusion. 

Among others of those re-agents 
against Swedish recollections and in- 
fluence which have been encouraged 
by the Russian government, is one 
which happily coincides with the real 
advantage of the Fins themselves. 
The Finnish language has cautiously, 
and to a certain extent, been patro- 
nised by itd rulers. This is, as is well 
known, contrary to the whole policy 
of Russia, which wages exterminating 
war against everything not Sclavonic ; 
but it is, in this instance, justiflable. 
Nothing has so much influence upon 
any nation as its mother-tongue. The 
tones of chihlhood are connected with 
ten thousand recollections of happi- 
ness and of the past. The speech is 
therefore the type of the nationality. 
Now Russia knows, that Finland will 
not be Russian, at least for a period 
too fur distant to be at all safely cal- 
culated upon. But, rather than that 
it shall continue to be Swedish,* — it 
shall be itself! She thus gains the ap- 
pearance of approving and guarantee- 
ing the national element, and in some 
degree excites the gratitude of the 
Fins on the one hand, and detaches 
them from the free literature of Sweden 
on the other. But we need not point 
out that this whole policy is exceed- 
ingly dangerous, and is in fact a kiosk 
reposing on a volcano. 

We have proved above the right of 
Finlan<l fully to enjoy the free re- 
presentative constitution of 1772 — 
1789. 

Should the Russian Czar continue 
to acknowledge this right, and yet 
practically to swamp and deny it, and 
persist in Russianising this ancient, 
and free, and noble race, the Treaty of 



* Our readers are doubtless aware that Swedith is the language of all tlie educated 
and biglicr and middle classes in Finland, that it is the organ of the whole Finnish 
iture, and is employed in education, and by the church, the bar, and the stage, 
ighout the country. 



1654.] 



7%« Political Constitution of Finland. 



115 



Vienna will be grossly infrlngeil, the 
laws of nutiuiis will be glaringly vin- 
luteJ, the civilisation of the whole 
North will be ularmingly periled, the 
brightest eye of Uusoiu liurdelt' will l)e 
put out, and eventually in cuse of any 
etrugKle between the Sclavonic and 
the Unno-Swedish elements, and in 
such ca.tc this struggle will undoubtedly 
come — Fiidund herself, with or with- 
out foreign aid, will rise up and drive 
out her tyrunts, or, to prevent her 
eiimplete enserfnient and Polish mas- 
MCrc-rcpose, the great European 
powers will at last lie conipeUed to rc- 
meviber their uaUm ut Vienna, and to 
redress her many and increasing griev- 
ances. 

AVhat will b<» the iMilllieal fate of 
Finland when this period shall have 
■rriveU ? 

But who can penetrate the mists of 
the shrouded future? Still, analogies 
may as.si.st us in forming our reply. 

If not Russian, Finland must either 
stand alone, or be united to some other 
power. 

That she cannot stand for herself 
requires no proof. Kxposed to the 
mighty arts and arms, the all-engross- 
ing " arma virumi}uo" of the on -press- 
ing Sclavons on the one hand, quite 
unable to resist the Cossack-hordes 
and perpetually plunder-filled war- 
chest of the lui|jcriul Government, 
and necessarily wavering in her policy 
to the rest of the North on the other, 
she woulil soon fall a victim to her 
rash leiirus-lliglit. This, it is true, is 
Mot the opinion of every Finlnnder 
with whom we have hud the pleasure 
of conversing on this head ; but it 
most, we think, be the conviction of 
every foreign and disinterested ob- 
server. 

Hut, if Fiulanil must be nniled to 
some other power, that power can be 
no other than her old and kindly free 
neighbour and mother-state — the gal- 
lant Sweden. 

Hero, however, we meet with for- 
merly unknown and unexpected dilfi- 
cullies. The long period which has 
«lap»ed during which Finland has sub- 
sisted, in a nominally and to a certain 
extent independent form, under the 
wing of the lius^ian eagle, h:is de- 
Telo[>ed a decided spirit of self-know- 
ledge and political unity and perso- 
nality umongthe people of that country. 



The province of Finland expired under 
the walls of the falling Sveaborg. The 
kingdom of Finland arose with the 
declaration of Alexander at the diet of 
Borgii. 

Thus is it that Providence deals 
with the perfidy of its foes. They full 
on their own swords, they are trapfted 
in their own nets, they stumble into 
the pits they had digged for others, 
and ignomiiiiouf^ly yield up the ghost ! 
That momentary phrase, that famous 
deirluration, so artfully framed as a 
military engine and civil bait for se- 
curing the adherence of the young and 
wavering slate, ends in hurling Russia 
herself from the ivory throne of the 
long-sought Grand Duchy it had so 
unexpectedly conquered ! 

In shorty the kingdom of Finland 
actually exists ; and this nation, which 
even now scarcely brooks the protec- 
tion of Russia, will still less ever sub- 
mit to be incorporated into Sweden 
again. Its native inhabitants, the great 
bulk of its population, sprung from a 
dillerent race, its independent material 
and intellectual progress has been too 
rapid, its social development too de- 
cided, its new-wakened energy too 
strongly supported, its young and soil- 
bom energies too clearly understood 
by its own citizens, ever to permit the 
realisation to Sweden of any such 
flattering dream. Finland is now too 
great, and its nationality too decided 
and (leculiar, for it ever to become the 
far-off goverue<i province of any power 
whatsoever. 

What then is to be its destiny ? 

The extraordinary, magnanimous, 
and successful Revolution in Norway 
in 1814, to which Charles XIV. John 
was forced to consent, and very wisely 
and vigorously consented, as the price 
of its alliance with Sweden, has ended 
in the formation of a great and power- 
ful northern confederution. Sweden is 
independent, and enjoys its own laws 
and constitution ; it forms a part of 
this Scandinavian " Unite<l States," of 
which the President is an hereditary 
monarch. Norway is also indeiiendent, 
and has also its own laws and consti- 
tution ; it is the other moiety of this 
happily king-governed republic. Den- 
mark, we have no doubt, will in a very 
few years remodel its long-since worn- 
out goveinmcnt and constitution, and, 
also preserving its own laws and inde- 



116 Mr. Roach Smith's Museum of London Antiquities. [.Ang. 



pendencc, will take its place as the 
third member of this three-crowned 
but one-Rocptred remarkable body. — 
When the proper time shall have come, 
and not be/ore, why should not Finland 
follow their example, and range itself 
as the fourth member of this great 
Scandinavian Union ? 

This armed northern confederation, 
■til its individual states perfectly inde- 
pendent, but nil govemetl by one 
common hereditary chief, will then 
prevent the bristlmg front of eight 
millions of hardy freemen, and will 
hold a country almost impregnable, a 
sweep of coast stretching from tlie 



North Cape to Petersburg and to 
Ileligolanil, will command the Baltic 
and all its harbours, will grasp in 
hands of iron the keys of the Sound 
and the power to defend them, and will 
mount and roau a navy that shall hold 
even that of Russia in the most per- 
fect awe. 

Then, at lust, shall we find a safe- 
guard for the rest of f^urope, an effec- 
tual, unshaken, ever-anchored, north- 
western barrier against the further 
encroachments of the moving, stifling, 
overwhelming sand-ocean of the great 
Couach-winff'd barharian iHeasion! 

DET DEUS, LinKRTATIR Sl'MMl'S ACCTObI 



MR. ROACH SMITH'S MUSEUM OF LONDON ANTIQUITIES. 

Catalogue of the Masenm of London Antiqnitie* collected by, and the property of, 
Charles Roach Smith, Hon.M.R.S.L. &c. Printed for the Sobscribers only. 
1854. Royal 8to. 



WE have already, in cmr June 
number, briefly introduced this volume 
to our readers ; but it is one of those 
publications which we should not feel 
justified in passing over without a more 
dctailol notice. The musenm of Mr. 
Roach Smith is well known to every 
antiquary, who nee<l hardly be told 
that it consists chiefly of antiquities 
connected with the City of London. 
Through many years has Mr. Smith 
laboured zealously, and painfully, and 
patiently, to rescue from loss or de- 
struction at least some portion of the 
relics of the ancient capital of Britain, 
which are so constantly met with in 
the course of excavations. None but 
those frien<ls who have watched the 

Emgress of his collection, kn'iw the 
ibour and expense which it has cost 
him, and the difficulties with which he 
has had to contend, not only arising 
from accidental circumstances, but 
often from obstacles designedly thrown 
in his way. The contrast between his 
activity and the ignorance and supine- 
nesa of the citv authorities gave rise 
sometimes to bitter jealousies, with all 
the unenviable ft-elings which such 
jealousies produce, and not only were 
direct means taken to thwart Mr. 
Smith in his researches but we have 
even heanl of such things as the de- 
liberate destruction of an interesting 



ol^ect of antiquity to hinder it from 
falling into his hands. The city au- 
thorities now profess to take an in- 
terest in their antiquities, and to col- 
lect them, and we may venture to 
hope at least that tbn destruction will 
not be so great as in former times, 
though we must confess that as yet the 
improvement in this respect is not 
very visible. Had an intelligent feel- 
ing on the subject existed many years 
ago, the City of London might by this 
time have possessed one of the richest 
and mast remarkable museums of local 
antiquities in the world, and that of 
Mr. Roach Smith would never have 
existed ; and, even with a common de- 
sire of preserving what is curious, a 
considerable localmuseum might have 
been formed by the authorities, for 
which they would have deserved the 
thanks of the public. At present we 
can only feel grateful to Air. Roach 
Smith that so much has been pre- 
served, and that there is a private 
museum in Liverpool Street accessible 
to all intelligent inquirers, in which 
they may study to a certain degree the 
history of this great city, and the man- 
ners of its inhabitants, from the time 
when it was first raised by the Romans 
to modern times. 

Possessed of such a treasure, and 
conscious of the difficulties of bringing 



1854. j Mr. Roach Smith's Mmeum of London Antiquities. 117 



it together, Mr. Smith naturnll; wishes 
to give it a permanent existence, as 
far U! that lies in his power, iind to du 
what he can lo avert the danger of 
uUiiimte dispersion, which threatens 
all private collections. This is the 
primary object of the " Cntiiloguc " 
now under our notice, a catalogue, be 
it observed, which does as much as 
can be done in such a form to transfer 
the museum to our shelves, and to 
make it useful and available to those 
who cilher now or in future times will 
not be al)le to consult the museum 
itself. We have heard that a proposal 
WAS once made to purchase the whole 
collection for the city, and establish it 
as B public museum. If such a pro- 
po«<)f were made we cannot but regret, 
with the public in general, tliut it led 
to no results; and wc still inilulge the 
hope that the time is not far distant 
when it may become public property 
in it8 pre«ent entire form. Wo have 
now, however, to speak more esfwicially 
of this printed catalogue of its con- 
tents, with its numerous illustrative 
engravings. 

Mr. Smith's collection is not re- 
atricted to any particular period, yet 
in number the Itoman antiquities of 
London far exceed the others. They 



consist of articles of almost every class 
that we could e.xpect to find. Frag- 
ments of sculpture in stone, of con- 
siderable interest, and among them a 
figure nearly entire in a Phrygian 
costume, anil one of the remarkable 
groups known as the Dea Matres, are 
mixed with monumental inscriptions 
to Koman soldiers. There is also a 
rather numerous collection of intcrest- 
injj Roman bronzes, some of which are 
of fine workmanship. In Komnn pot- 
tery Mr. Smith's collection is extremely 
ricn, especially in that cla^ of red ware 
known as Samian, which is so remark- 
able for its figures in relief. Among 
his extensive collection we find subjects 
illustrative of almost the whole range 
of the Roman mythology, besides the 
multitude of domestic and miscella- 
neous subjects, such as games and 
sports, hunting-scenes, animals of dif- 
ferent kinds, burlesques, and ara- 
besques. Engravings of some of the 
principal types and of many of the finer 
specimens are given, and a complete 
list of the names of Roman potters on 
the pottery found in London is added. 
One of the specimens of the rarer kind, 
which forms the first of the cuts that 
by his permission we tranfer to our 
columns, represents in very high relief 




Flinirt* oi »n Kmperor, in samian ware. 



a figure of an impcrinl personage in 

embroidered tunic and pal.idninenlum, 

uwl oHcrs several points of interest. 

Our second cut represents another 



fragment of this Samian ware, wK 
figures in high relief, its subject being 
a winged genius, or ciipid. 

Mr. Smith's collection of Rouniii glass 




A WiiigiMl (fi>niii.<, in Samliin var«. 



ia also rich, and contains iiotnc vcr^ 
remarkable fragment*. Next in order 
comcii a long series of examples of 
Koman tiles, manjof tlicni ornainente<l, 
and sonic liearing inscriptions, with 
fragments of wall-paintings and tes- 
■ellatcd pavement;!. 'J'lie cliisses of 
personal ornamentH, and of domestic 
and other utensils and iniplemunts, are 



extremely numerous and full of in- 
terest. Among the former is a very 
extraordinary ctillection of leather 
sandals, some in an almost perfect state 
of prei<crvation, and all more or lesjs 
omameulal. We can best convey ft 
notion of them to our readers by bor- 
rowing two of the cuts, whiuh repre- 
sent the two most jicrfoct s[>eciiiiens in 




A Konimn Ssndol. 



the collection. The first is stamped 
into a kind of barre<l and net work, 
which covered the whole foot, and 



seems to have been laced down the 
middle. The other covered only the 
bock of the foot and the toes, and was 




A Itnliliiil Siiiulnl. 



1864.] 3Ir. Ranch Smith't Museum of London Antiquities. 119 



tied over the instep. We may also 
mention some very lino spt'cimens of 
Roinnn ennniel. 'I'lie Rotiiun division 
cluavs with u oatalngut.< u( Koinnti coins 
foiiiiil In London, iind |iruserved in 
Mr. Smith's museiiui. 

The Anglo-Saxon period presents a 
less numerous list ; but, so far as it 
lioos, by no means less interesting. 
Among the weapons of this perioti, 
which are rather niimerons, is an ex- 
tn'mcly fine example of a rare class of 
articles — the knife-sword, or cutlas, of 
the Saxons. A very remarkable ena- 
Hiellod ;;i)ld brooch, of a circular form, 
with a figure of a fu1I-face<l head and 
bast in the centre, heads the list of 
personal ornnments of this period ; it 
was obtained from the Thames. There 
are also some specimens of Suxon 
fibulicof lead, of an uncommon charac- 
XtT, one of which is ornamented with 
letters re5euiblin<; those I'ound on the 
Saxon coins. Of these latter articles 
there are some uni(iuo examples, and 
aioonjjlhcm a proof impression, ortrial- 
pieoe, on a tliii;k piece of lead, of the 
din for one of the coins of Kin;; 



Alfred ; it wag found in St. Paul's 
churchyard. Two handsome cop^ier 
bowls, orniimented with engraved 
figures, and belonging to the eleventh 
century, preserved in Mr. Smith's col- 
lection, were made the subject of a 
paper some years ago printed in the 
Arcliajologia. 

The medieval division of Mr. Smitb'« 
collection is numerous and rich, espe- 
cially in one or two classes of articles 
which from their great interest have 
attracted considerable attention among 
archieologisls. One of these consisti 
of articles of embossed or stamped 
leather (citir-liouilli), especially shoes 
and [Hirtions of saddles and horse-fur- 
niture. The collection of medieval 
shoes is of the most remarkable kind, 
and spreads over a long period of our 
history. They are often ornamented 
in a manner too elaborate to be de- 
B<Tibeil, atid in a style of the greatest 
eleitance. One of iheni, of the reign 
of bdward III., which is made the sub- 
ject of a plate, is covered with figures 
from the romances and other medieval 
popular literature, accompanied with 




l*art of 11 Mv\Ua:vti1 Suditlu. in LuitutooJ Lealtier. 



120 



Early ffutoty of the Jewt. 



[Aug. 



mottoes In Nnrman French, chiefly of 
an amatory character. As an illustra- 
tion of this ornamental work in leather, 
we f;ivc a cut of a portion of a saddle 
of the fourteenth century. Another 
very nunierou.s class of articles in this 
collection consists of julgrims'and other 
signs in lead and |)ewtcr. There are 
also some curious seals, and a number 
of personal ornuments and articles of 
ft miscellaneous kind ; and we must not 
forcet to point out the very instructive 
series of examples of medieval pottery. 
The catalogue concludes with perhaps 
the most choice collection in existence 
of early leaden tokens, and a consider- 
able one of rare Loudon tradesmen's 
tokens in brass. 
This brief enumeration will give our 



readers a very slight notion of the ex* 
tent and interest of Mr. Uoach Smith's 
Museum of London Antiquities, and we 
can only recommend those who have not 
seen it to endeavour to obtain admis- 
sion to the collection itself. Those who 
are fortunate enough to obtain a copy 
of the catalogue willirassess a more per- 
manent memorial of it, and one which 
is calculated by the excellence of its 
classification and desuri])tions, and by 
its numerous engravings, to remain a 
permanent text-book among arclueo- 
logists. AVe can only repeat our hope 
that before long the collection itself 
will be lodged in some permanent 
establishment where it will be pre- 
served for public utility. 



SKETCH OF THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE JEWS, 

DRRIVID EXCLUSIVELY rROlt REATREN AUTHORS. 



SOME years since, when reading 
the historical epitome of Justin, a 
Latin author of the second century, 
the account given b^ him of the settle- 
ment of till! tiews in Canaan forcibly 
attracted my attention. Though a 
strange inixlure of truth and error, it 
carried with it a great degree of in- 
terest : for, being n liealheii vl;r^•ion, it 
was not likely to Iw prejudiced in fa- 
vour of the Jewish nation, and yet, m 
many respects, it corroborated the ac- 
counts given in the sacred history. 
Since that time various jmssages in 
other heathen authors, relative to the 
same subject, have come under my 
notice; anil iit length it nppeareil to 
me, that it might be a mutter of in- 
terest to incorporate the whole of 
these passages into a connected story, 
and thus to shew what an intelligent 
heathen of the second or third century, 
if not of a much earlier date, might have 
learned of early Jewish history, with- 



out any reference to the sacred volume. 
The following paper is the result of 
this attempt.* 

There has been considerable difli- 
culty in weaving into one narrative 
the relations of so many different 
authors. Though it is very evident 
that many of them must have received 
their accounts from the Hebrew re- 
cords, either directly or indirectly, yet 
they arc so distorted, and in many 
instances so completely at variance 
with each otlier, that it has been no 
easy matter to determine which to se- 
lect ; they have, however, been treated 
precisely like any other ancient his- 
tories; the most probable accouutji 
have been selected, the most improba- 
ble rejected ; and any account involv- 
ing manifest errors in chronology has 
been omitted, unless some peculiar in- 
terest was attached to it. This plan 
appeared to be the only one by which 
it was possible to form a connected 



* After the Ki^ater part of tliis hkelch had been committed to paper the Horee 
Mosairo! of the Rev. G. S. Faber fell into my hands. From the title, mj impression 
was thiit the whole of my labour had been prrvionsly performed; but on examination it 
appeared that, though the woric is highly valuable and intete«tiiig, and though most of 
the authorities cinploycd in the present paper are referred to, yet in many casra tlic 
extracts given by Mr. Faber arc very brief, and all of Ihem ore iniertcd separately, »o 
that the interest attending a continuims narrative is totally lost, and the oj>portunity of 
comparing the general similurity of the heathen with the scripture version is very much 
-hed : the present paper wan therefore re-written, and in several instances ad- 
'as derived from Mr. Faber's notes and references. 



1854.] 



Early History of the Jewt. 



121 



nnrrativc from such discordant nm- 
terialii. 

The authorities which hnvc been 
followed are exclusively honthun. They 
are either those authors whose works 
have come down to us entire, or nearly 
so, or those whose works are now only 
known as quotations in other itulliors. 
In the Intter clnss nn objcctiun niny 
possibly be raised, that in mmy in- 
stances the (juotntions hiive boon made 
by either Jewish or Christian authors, 
and at first sight there appenra to be 
weight in the objection ; but, ou con- 
sideration, it will be very evident that 
ir» distinguished Jew of the lirst cen- 
tury, or aiLcminent Christian bishop 
of the fourth century, wrote and puh- 
liahal works against the heathen, there 
is the strongest presumptive evidence 
in favour of the correctness of any 
heathen (juotations they may bring 
forward. The strife which at that 
lime was carried on between the pro- 
fessors of the rival religions was so 
severe, that any n\is<piotation wuulil 
have been instantly iletected, and 
would hikve rebounded with tenfold 
damage against the one who had made 
use of it. In fact, many of the quota- 
tions given by Josephus and Kusebius 
lu-e declared lo be in the very words 
of the heathen authors. Similar evi- 
dence would almost be adrailteil even 
in our own courts of justice, and there 
leeros to be no reason why they shoulil 
be exclmled. Without further preface, 
therefore, we will commence the uar- 
mtive. 

•In the early ages of the world, the 
most noted province of Syria was 
called Damasecna ; it was the birth- 
place of the race of Assyrian kings, 
and also of the Jewish nation. The 
first recorded king was Damascus, in 
fact the city was named after him. 
He a|ipears to have been nmch be- 
loved, lur after tlie death of his wife, 
Arathis, he raised a monument in her 



memory ; and it is said that the Sy- 
rians, out of respect to him, reverenced 
it as a temple, and jmid to his wife 
divine honours. ^^ hy they should 
have worshi|)ped the wife, to do honour 
to the husband, is not very clear, but 
this is what the story states. The suc- 
ceeding monarchs were Azelus, Adores, 
and Abraham. Nothing further than 
the names is recorded of the two first, 
but it appears from the context that 
the monarchy was hereditary.'' The 
contrary is to be inferred from the 
accounts given by other authors; for 
Abraham is mentioned by Nicolaus of 
Damascus, an author quoted by Jo- 
sephus,' as a foreigner residing at Da- 
mascus, who bad come with an army 
out of the land above Babylon, called 
the land of the Chaldu.-ans. Eupo- 
leinus, an author quoted by Eusebius, 
and who wrote a work expressly con- 
cerning the Jewi!, says ■* that Abraham 
was born at Caniarina, a. city of Baby- 
lonia, called by some people Urien, 
and by the Greeks Chaldwopolis, — at 
least this is the interpretation of the 
woiil. The same author states that 
he livc'il teu generations after the flood," 
in which he is borne out by Berosus, 
an author cpioted by .Josephus in his 
Antiquities of the Jews.^ On the con- 
trary Melo,' who wrote a whole work 
against the Jews, states that he lived 
in the third age after the Hood. But, 
though there may be some difference 
ill the evidence as to the iige in which 
he lived, there is nunc as to his cha- 
racter; every author who mentions 
liiin (and there are many who do so) 
speak of him as a man of no common 
order. He is said by one to have 
"excelled in wisdom;"' by another, 
" to have surpassed all others in no- 
bility and intelligence;"'' to have in- 
vented " astrology and the science of 
the heavens ;"*■ and to have conciliated 
" the divine favour by his great piety." i" 
Ilis name when interpreted is said to 



* Jastiuas, xxxvi. 11. 

' " Post Dsmnscum Azelus, mox Adores et Abraham et Itrahel reges fuere. Sed 
Iirthdem felix decern filioram provcntos majorjitu mis clariorcm fecit." — Juitinai, 
xixrj. II. 

' JoiepliUf, Aatiq. L 7, quoting NicoUas of DamascDS. 

' Eupolemus, quoted by I'olyhistor Alexander, in Eusebii Praparationei Evangeliete, 
lib. ix. c. 17. 

* B«rosu<, quoted bj Josephus, Ant. book i. 7. (Abraham is here not mentioned 
by name, but referred to in a manner which cannot be mistaken.) 

' Melo, quoted by Eusebius, Pr. Ev. ix. 19. 

< Melo, in Euscb. ix. 19. i* Eupolemus, in Euseh. ix. 17. 

Gbnt. Mao. Vol. XLII. R 



122 



Early JBUloiy of the Jetoi. 



[Aug. 



si^ify "dear to his father,"* and from 
bim tue Jewish nation was said to be 
called Hebrew.** In short, so famous 
was he, that an author called Hecatasus 
wrote a work respecting him, which is 
mentioned by Josephus <^ in such terms 
as to render it probable, though not 
certain, that it was extant at the time 
he wrote the Antiquities of the Jews. 
By the divine command Abraham 
removed, with all his people, and went 
into the land then called Canaan, and 
afterwards Judsa.'' He there taught 
the Phoenicians the celestial sciences, 
and many other arts, which greatly 
endeared him to the king. \Vnile in 
that country the Armenians, having 
made war with the Phoenicians, over- 
came them, and made his nephew pri- 
soner, on which Abraham, with his 
servants, pursued after them and res- 
cued him ; the wives and children of 
the enemy, whom he had made pri- 
soners in this battle, he restored with- 
out ransom, merely requiring the prey, 
which he gave to his soldiers. He was 
hospitably entertained in the sacred 
place of the city, called Argarizin, < 
which being interpreted is " the mount 
of the Most High ;" and he received 

a'fts from Melchiscdec,' the king of 
at place, who was also the priest of 
Grod.' In course of time a great 
famine having arisen in Canaan, Abra- 
ham went into Egypt, together with 
all his family,' and became a great fa- 
vourite of the king, Paretho ; ' who, 
as well as the priest-i, were instructed 
by him in astrology and some other 
sciences. He remained in Egypt 
twenty years. During; his stay there ' 
Paretho, struck with the beauty of his 
wife, who for precaution sake he had 
called his sister, wished to marry her ; 



but a grievous pesUlence having spread 
amongst the people, and the royal 
house, the king inquired the cause 
from the priests, and being informed 
that the woman was actuuiy the wife 
of Abraham, he restored her to her 
husband. On his return to Syria many 
of his retainers remained behind, being 
induced to do so by the fruitfulnest 
of the climate.'' Abraham had two 
wives, one of whom was a native of 
the country and a relative of his, the 
other was an Egyptian slave.' By the 
latter he had twelve children, who_ be- 
came the lords of Arabia, and divided 
that country amongst them. By his 
other wife he bad one son, whose name 
in Greek was Gelos ; such is the ac- 
count given by Eupolemus. Polyhis" 
tor, however, mentions him under the 
name of Isaac, and relates how Abra- 
ham was commanded by God to offer 
him up as a burnt offering ; " in obe- 
dience to this command, Abraham took 
him with him up a mountain, prepared 
the wood, laid Isaac upon it, ana was 
about to slay his son, when his hand 
was stayed by an angel, who showed 
him a ram to supplv the place of the 
victim; on whicn Abraham unbound 
his son and offered the ram upon the 
altar. After these things Aoraham 
married Cheturah, and hiut three chil- 
dren by her, Afer, Asur, and Afran. 
From Asur the Assyrians are said to 
have derived their name; and from 
Afer and Afran, not onl^ the city 
Afran but the whole of Africa.* 

When Abraham was dead ° Gelos is 
said by Melo to have had twelve sons, 
of whom the youngest was Joseph ; but 
moat of the authorities give a different 
version of this genealogy. No other 
particulars are given of Gelos or 



* Melo, in Euieb. ix. 19. >■ Artapanus, in Enieb. iz. 18. 
' Jotqihua, Antiq. i. 7. 

' Nicolaus of Damaicus, in Josephus, Ant. i. 7, and Eaieb. iz. 16 ; Eopolemas, in 
Enseb. iz. 17. 

* " Anflice ' of Mount Gcrizim,' a circumstaoce which seems to shew that Eupole- 
mus had received this part of his narrative at least from the Samaritans," — Faber'a 
Hors Mosaicte, i. 226. 

' Melchi-Zedech, " The King of Justice."— Milman's History of the Jews, i. 12. 

* Eupolemus, in Euseb. ix. 17. ** Artapanus, in Euseb, ix. 18. 
I Eupolemus, in Euseb. iz. 17. *■ Artapanus, in Euseb, iz. 18. 

■ Melo, in Euseb. iz. 19, from Polyhistor. *> Poljhistor, in Euseb. iz. 19. 

* Cleodemus, quoted by Polyhistor, in Eoseb. iz. 20. — The account given in Josephus, 
Ant. i. 15, where be also quotes Cleodemus, is lomewhat different in the names : he 
'ill* the three sons of Cheturah — Apher, Surim, and Japhran ; they are however 

iDtly meant to be the same personi. 
Uelo, in Euseb. iz. 19. 



1854.] 



Early History of the Jews. 



123 



■ 



Isaac except that he was the father of 
Jacob.* 

When Jacob was 75 jcars old* he 
fled to Chnrran, a city of Mesopotamia, 
being sent there by his parents, partly 
to obtain a wife, and jyarlly to avoid the 
hatred of Esau his brother, on account 
of having by fraud stolen their parent's 
blessing. After a seven years' resi- 
dence, he there married Leah and 
Rachel, the two daughters of Laban, 
his maternal uncle, and in seven years 
he had twelve children ; namely, Reu- 
ben, Simeon, Levi, Juda, Nepbthnlim, 
Gath, Ascr, Isaachar, Zebulon, Dan, 
Dinah, and Joseph. After this he 
wisheil to revisit his father, but at 
Labnn's request he remained there six 
years longer. At length having set 
out, an anpol of God met him by the 
way, wrestled with him, and struck his 
(high in the broadest part, so that being 
Vicnumbed in that member, lie became 
lame. The angel also told him that 
in future his name should not be Jacob 
but Israel. 

The account given by Justin''is much 
shorter and differs in some slight mat- 
ters. Israhel is said to have become 
king after Abraham, and to have had 
ten song. He therefore divide<l the 
country into ten principalities, assign- 
ing one to each son. Soon .after this 
division, one of his sons died, whose 
name was Ju<Ia ; Israhel therefore di- 
vided his share amongst the other 
brothers, and, having a strong affection 
fur his memory, he gave directions that 
the name of Juda sJioulil always be had 
in honour amongst the people, and that 
from him they should take the name of 
Jiidni or Jews. 

This account of the origin of the 
name is far more probable than any of 
those given by Tacitus,' some of which 
however it may b* well to mention ; 
he imagines that the original country 
of the Jews was Mount Ida in Crete, 
whose inhabitants were called Idu^ans, 
and by the barbarians " Judiei." He 
appears thus to rely solely on the simi- 
larity of the names, and this in very 
nutay eases is sure to mislead. The 
nine reiuArk applies to another uf hi« 



accounts ; the similarity of name be- 
tween the Solymi, a nation mentioned 
by Homer, and the city of Ilierosolyma 
(Jerusalem), led some of the histori.ans 
of that day to imagine that the Solymi 
were Jews. Another tradition, still 
less likely, aflirmed that the Jews were 
originally .Ethiopians, who had been 
compelled to migrate. 

Leaving however these varying ac- 
counts of the origin of the name, let us 
return to the history of the family of 
Israhel. His youngest son Joseph (but 
who, according to Melo's account, was 
the son of Gelos, and the grandson of 
Abraham,) was a person of great 
worth,'' and on that account was hated 
1)V his brothers: when he was 17 years 
old he was sold bj' them, according to 
the testimony of Demetrius* and 
Justin,' to some foreign merchants who 
were on their way to Egypt. Accord- 
ing to Artapanus,' Joseph, finding that 
his brothers were conspiring against 
him, besought the neighbouring Arabs 
to convey him to that country. He re- 
mained in prison thirteen years; but 
his great talents could not long be 
hidden. He is said, in the words of 
Justin,' to have been "endued with 
great wisdom respecting prodigies, and 
was the first who established the right 
understanding of dreams ; nothing 
either of the divine or human law 
seemed unknown to him." At that 
time Egypt was famous for the magic 
arts, which were bo well understood 
by Joseph that he became a great 
favourite with the king, and at length,' 
on account of a h8pj>y interpretation 
of the royal dreams, he was made 
governor over the whole of Egypt 
seven years.' He married Asenetb, 
the daughter of Pentephra, the priest 
of Heliopolis, and by her had two sons, 
Manasseh and Ephraim. His abilities 
were of infinite service to the country, 
for he foresaw a grievous famine many 
yeai's before it came to pass ;"■ and all 
the ijeople would have perished by 
hunger, if the king, by bis advice, had 
not laid up in store the produce of 
seven previous years.' lie re- arranged 
the tuuure of land throughout the 



• Demetrins, cited by Polyhistor, in Knseb. ii. 21. 

' Judtiaus, xxivi. S. ■■ Taciti Hist. v. 2. * Justinns, x«»i. 2. 

■ DcniL-lrius, in Euscb. ix. 21. ' Art^jmnus, ix. ?3. ' Justinus, zzxvi. 2. 

' Ormetriiu, in Eoteb. ix. SI. ■ Artnpauus, in Euscb. ix. S3. 

^ Juiiliuus, xxxvi. 2. ' Ai't«pauu£, in liu.^b. ix. '23. 



124 



Early Hutory of the Jew*. 



[Aug. 



whole country, fixing certain boundn- 
ries and iiasigning to tlie priests their 
proper portions, nml he was tiie in- 
ventor nlao of fixed riieiisurcs, on which 
accounts he was much beluvcd by the 
Egyptians, and in fact they IniJ sn 
high oil ojiinion of him, that it was $aiU 
of him, that " Iiis answers seemed 
given by God ratlier th:m man."* It 
uppears that he liesituled for some 
time about hiinging his father and 
brothers down to Kgypl, on account 
of their [jcculiar occupation ;'' tlie life 
of a shepherd being lield in nboniina- 
tion by llie Egyptians; but nt length' 
he brought them down with nil their 
substance, and settled them in the 
land of Caisan.'' 

In the course of time the King of 
Egypt died, and was succeeded by his 
sou rahnanothcs,* who behaved harshly 
to the Jewish peo[ile. llis daughter 
Merrhin, who was married to Chene- 

iihren the king of the country above 
dcmphis, having no chihlren, adopteil 
the sun of a Jewess ; this child was 
Moses, who, according to Justin,' was 
the son of Joseph. He is the same 
person as the Greeks call Musieus,* who 
instructed Orpheu.s, and invcnleil many 
things highly useful to mankind. He 
was also of \ttTy great service to the 
people of Egypt, and greatly increased 
their knowleilge of navigation, of build- 
ing, of instruiiieiits ol war and agri- 
culture, as well as of irrigating the 
country, and even of philosophy also. 
He was considered by the priests as 
dmost cqu.al to the god.s, and was 
named by them Mercury. On account 
of his great popularity he was hated 
by Chencphreii, who wished to destroy 
him covertly. When therefore the 
Ethiopians invaded Egypt, he appointed 
Moses to the command of the army 
sent against them, thinking that on 
account of the smullness or weakness 
of the force he had with hiiu, the 



enemy would be certain to dealroy 
him : the case however turned out 
contrary to his expectation. Moses 
was successful in the war, alter having 
carried it <m ten years ; he then built 
the city called Hermopulis, and conse- 
crated there the Ibis, because it de- 
stroyed noxious animals. The Ethi- 
opians, although enemies, held Moses 
in .inch r!»li?em that they adopted from 
him the rite of circumcision. After 
the war was ended, Clicnephren still 
continued his dislike to Moses, and on 
the death of his wife Merrhin, sent 
him, jointly with Chanethoth on a 
jouriH'y to bury the body beyond the 
frontiers of Egypt, having previously 
arranged with rijanethoth, to kill 
Moses. He was however made aware 
of the danger, and by the advice of 
Aaron his brother (led towards Arabia. 
Chanethoth endeavourtnl .still to per- 
form hi.i purjiose, and personally at- 
tacked him with the sword; but Moses, 
as it appear.', by superior skill destroyed 
Chanethoth. lie then continued bis 
jDUriiey into Arabia, and spent some 
time wit)i Kaguel the king of that 
region, whose daughter he married. It 
appenrs that at this tiuie, probably on 
account of his hatred (o hloses, Che- 
ncphrcn treated the Jews with great 
severity. He would not allow thein to 
wear woollen garments, but comjielled 
them to use those made of linen, so 
that they might be more easily distin- 
guished and might be more exposed 
to in.^ult. On this account he is said 
to have been one of the first who died 
of leprosy. 

Aller hiin Ainenophis* reigned over 
Kgyj>t ; or, according to Lysimachus,' 
Uocchoris. Amongst the native popu- 
latiiiti there was a large number of 
foreigners,^ who, it appears, escited 
the hatred of the inhabitants on ac- 
count of the various religious rites 
which they followed ; this was particu- 



■ Joitinos, xxxvl. 2. » Demetriai, in Euieb. iz. 21. 

' Artapinus, in Euieb. ix. 23. 

* " The Goshen of Scripture."— Faber, Hor. Mos. i. 231. 
' Artagianua, in Easeb. ix. 27. ' Justin, xicxvi. 2. 

' Arta|)nnD8, in Euteb. ix. 27. Also Niimciiias, in Euseb. ix. 8. The Egyptian 
names of Motes (for he had two), were Tisilhen and Osarsiph (Chereroon, in Jos. c. A. 
i. 32, and Manetbo, in Jos. i. '.(i), and that of Joseph was Peteseph (Cberemon, Jos. 
c. A. 32). Bishop StiUingflcet thinks tUat Clicremun, when speaking of Joseph, pro- 
bably meant to refer to Joshua.— Originca Sacric, ii. 2. 

' Josephus contra Apion, i. ]2fi, gives long iiuotations from Manetho. 

' Lyiimacbun, in Jusepbai cont. Ap. 34. Tucitus, v. 3, cillf the king Occhori*. 

* Diodorus, xl, 



1854.] 



Early History of the Jews. 



larly the case with the Jews, who being 
leproiis, and siiliject to distempers, fled 
to the tcm[>Ies, and live<l there by 
begging ; and at length the number of 
those who were in this cose became so 
largo, that (probably Crom the want 
of sufficient worlciiion) there arose a 
scarcity in llie land. The king, upon 
this, sent some of his servants to con- 
sult the oracle of Jupiter Hanimon,' 
and the answer of the god was, that 
all the lepers were to be drowned, and 
all the impure and impious men were 
to be expelled. Such is the account 
given by Lysimnchus : a similar story, 
but with some variations, is given by 
Alanetho,'* Cheremon,' and Tacitus.'' 

The lepers, having been seized by 
the priests, according to the king s 
command, were wrapped in sheets of 
lead,* and drowned in the sea ; the rc-it 
of the people who were to be expelled 
weregalhereil together in a large body, 
and sent awiiy to work in the quarries 
which were situated to the ea»L of 
Egypt.' After having continued to 
work nt these quarries, in a most 
wretched condition, for ii great length 
of lime, llie Kinj» Amenophis, who for 
fear of the gods durst not send his 
armies against them (especially as it 
was predicte<l by his namesake the 
prophet that these exiles would be 
joined by certain strangers, and rule 
over Egypt thirteen years,) was in- 
duced to set apart the city Avaris* for 
their habitation. This Avaris was ori- 
gin.illy the city from which the shep- 
herd kings had lieen expelled in pre- 
vious ages, and who then migrated into 
Csnaan and built Jerusalem. 

The number of those who were thus 
ei[)elled by Amenophis was 'ioO.OOO.'' 
They were there joined by Joseph aud 
Moses. Both of them are spoken of as 



125 



scribes;' Joseph is called a sacred 
scribe, and Afoses a priest of Heliopolis : 
he may possibly be referred to by 
Manetbo, when he speaks of some of 
the learned priests being polluted by 
the loprosy> 

The exded people, finding Avaris a 
place of defence and security, chose 
AIiLses for their leader, and took an 
oath to be obedient to him in all tilings. 
By his direction the city was strength- 
ened with Avails, alliances were made 
with the other e.xiletl priests, and war 
was declareil with Amenophis.' Not 
content with this, he sent ambassadors 
to the shepherd-kings, who formerly 
were expelled from Avaris, and now 
dwelt at •lerusiilem, informing them 
of the state of nifairs in Egypt, and 
asking their assistance. He promised 
in return that he would put them in 
possession of their ancient city Avaris, 
and amply provide for their sustenance. 
They accepted his invitation, and joined 
bim with :200,000 men. 

Moses was not content with making 
war on the Egyptians in the ordinary 
way ; his prayers are said, by Nume- 
nius. III have been most imwerful with 
(iod ;" and Pliny oientiuns him as one 
of the leading magicians." He was 
thus enabled !o bring on the Egyptians 
very heavy calamities ; but he was op- 
posed by Jiinnes and Jambres, men 
who, by common consent, yielded to 
no one in the knowledge of magic arts, 
and who brought to nothing the de- 
signs of Moses. It may be well to 
mention that I'liny makes the mistake 
of calling these two magicians Jamnes 
and Jutapes, and of classing them as 
Jews, together with Moses. The ac- 
count given by Artapanus° does not 
speak so highly of the performances of 
those who were ojiiioscd to Moses. It 



* Alio Tacitni, Hist. v. 3. 

* Manctho, in Jnsephas, cont. Ap. i. 56. — ^The king .Kmenophis wsa told b^ a name- 
aske, who appeared to partake of the divine nature, that if he would purge the country 
of leper*, he might have his wish gratified of seeing the gods. 

* Cheremou, in Josephns, cont. Ap. i. 32. — The goddess Isis appeared to Ameno- 
phii in his tieep, blaming him for the ruinous state of her temple ; and he was in- 
formed by Pbitiphrantea, a sacred scribe, that if he would purge the country of lepers, 
he should not be again tronbled by these apparitions. 

' Tacitus, Hint. r. 3. ' Lysimachua, in J09. cont. Ap. i. .34. 

' Manetho, in Jos. c. Ap. i. 26. > Manetho, in Jos. c. Ap. i. 2B. 

Cheremon, in Josephus, c. Ap. i. 32. ' Clieremon, in Jos. c. Ap.1. 32. 

Manetho, in Jos. c Ap. i. 'i6. ' Manetho, J. c. A. i. 26, 

''* Namenias, in Eiueb. Pnep. Eran. ix. 8. ° Pliny, xxz. 1. 
' Artnpanus, in Euaeb. ix. 27. 



126 



Sarfy Hittorjf of At Jtwt. 



[Aug. 



my eridentljr admiti Uutt it wu only 
in • few instances that they were able 
to compete with him. 

Moses, feeling Iceenly the calamities 
of his countrymen, prayed earnestly 
to God that they might cense ; his 
prayer was heard, and suddenly there 
started from the ground a iiame of 
fire, which continued to burn though 
there was neither fuel, nor anything of 
wood, in the place. Moacs was terri- 
fied, and about to fly, when he was 
arrested by the divine voice, and wna 
commanded to undertake an expedition 
•gainst Egypt, to liberate the Jews, 
and to lead them to their ancient 
country. He was thus encouraged to 
ffo into Kgypt, and he associated Aaron 
his brother* in the enterprise. 

The King of Egypt, hearing of the 
arrival of Moses, sent for him and in- 
quired for what purpose he was cume. 
Moses replied that the " Lord of the 
world" required him to send away the 
Jews. On this the king threw Moses 
into prison ; but at night, all the prison 
doors opened of their own accord, and 
the keepers, partly from sleep and 
partly from fright, offered no obstacle 
to his escape. He immediately went 
to the palace, where he found the doors 
open, and the guards asleep. He en- 
tered and awoke the king, who being 
stupified with what had passed, and 
hardly knowing what he did, com- 
manded Moses, as if in jest, to tell him 
the name of the God who had sent 
bim.^ On this Moses leant forward, 
and spoke it in his ear, when the king 
All speechless ; but he was supported 
by Moses, and again revived. Moses 
i* also said to have written this name 
on a tablet, and sealed it ; and one of 
the priests who endeavoured to efface 
the letters on the tablet died in con- 
Tulsions. 

The king then demanded of Moses 
that he should perform some miracle 
M • sign of his mission, on which he 
threw oown the rod which be held in 
bia hand, and it became a serpent. All 
who beheld it were terrified, but Moses 
took it by the tail, and it became again 
• rod. A short time ailerwards he 
•truck the Nile with his rod, and the 
river, immediately rising, covered the 
whole land t)f E^^pt ; and again he 
made all the water m the land ferment, 



so that the fishes died and the peopls 
suffered much from violent thirst. The 
king, terrified by these prodigies, pro* 
mised that in a month he would send 
the Jews away if only Moses would 
restore the river to its original state. 
Moses therefore struck the river with 
his rod, and the unusual flood subsided. 
The king then called the priests who 
dwelt beyond Memphis, and threatened 
them with instant death, and with the 
destruction of all their temples, unless 
they were able to perforin some similar 
miracles.* They succeeded by sleight 
of hand and by incantations in pro- 
ducing a dragon or snake, and in 
chansmg the colour of the river, by 
which the king was made more perverse 
than before, and harassed the Jews 
with all kinds of persecution. When 
Moses saw this, he performed other 
miracles, and by striking the ground 
with his rod brought up certain winged 
animals which tormented the Egyp- 
tians, and their bodies were covered 
with sores. The physicians not being 
able to heal them, the Jews bad at 
length some respite. Again Moses, by 
means of his rod, brought up frogs, 
then locusts, and gnats. None of these 
calamities, however, affected the king; 
he still raged against the Jews ; and 
Moses then brought on the land a dire 
storm of bail, which occurred at niuht, 
together with earthquakes, so that 
those who fletl from the earthquake 
were destroyed by the hull, and those 
who escaped the hail perished bv the 
earthquake. By this calamity all the 
houses and very many of the temples 
were destroyed, and the king at length, 
having suffered so very severely, deter- 
niine<r to allow the Jews to depart. 
They procured from the Egyptians, 
wlui were probably too glad to get rid 
of such dangerous people, many valu- 
able cups, garmcnta, and other trea- 
sures; and, baving passed the rivers of 
Arabia and gone over a considerable 
tract of country, they arrived on the 
thin^ day at the banks of the Ked Sea. 
It is amrmed bv the inhabitants of 
Memphis that Moses, who was pre- 
viously well acquainted with all that 
region, and had observed the times of 
the rise and full of the water, led the 
multitude through the dry parts of the 
sea; but the account given by those 



him his sod. 



^ Artspanas, as before. 



1834.] 



Early IlUlofif of the Jews. 



127 



of neliopoli!) is that the king, taking 
with liim the sacred animals and n large 
army, pursued the Jevvsi, who were 
carrying away with them the ilnugs 
they had got from tiie £gyptiuns. But 
a divine warning was given to Moues, 
and he wns cunuimnded to strike the 
sen with his rod. Mosos obeyed, and 
stretched liis rod over the waters, 
when (he floods separated, nnd the 
multitude went through on dry l;uiil. 
But when the Egyptians ciiiue up tiiid 
pursued the Jews, lire flashed before 
them,* and the sea closed upon them, 
so that the whole of them were de- 
(troyed, partly by (he lire and partly 
by (he ruith of (he waters. Such in the 
account given by ArLipanus. 

The story as given by other authors 
is Very delicient in most of the pre- 
ceding particulars ; but (he fuct that 
Moses led the Jews from Egypt to 
Syria is nicntioned by Miinetho," Che- 
remon,' Lysiniachus,'' Diodorus,' Ta- 
citus,' and Justin.' The ac'(;oun[s given 
by Manetho and Cheremon agree in 
stating that the exiles from Egypt were 
joined by a large army of shepherds 
from Jerusalem, and that their united 
army then overran the country, com- 
iDitting great barburitie.", burning the 
cities and villages, destroying the images 
of the gotls, and using them to roast 
the sucred animals worshipped by the 
Egyptians. Ameuophis the king was 
obliged to fly into Ethiopia, but after 
some years returned with his .son and 
a great ormy, engageil the shepherds 
and exiles in batde, aud drove (hem 
to the frontiers of Syria. The whole 
of these facts may perhaps be recon- 
ciled wi(h the narrative given by Arta- 
paiius, but the version of the escape 
of the Israelites given by Justin seems 
to contradict this author ; for he states 
that Moses, being appointed (he leader 
of the Jews, stole the sacred things of 
the Egyptians, who sought to recover 
them by force of urms, bu t were " com- 
pelled to return home by tempests;" 
whereas Artapunus states that the whole 



of the Egyptians were destroyed, so 
that of course there were none to re- 
turn homo. 

This cxpuliiion of the iTews took 
place about the time that Danaus and 
Cadmus'" were exiled from Egypt for 
the same cause, and took refuge ia 
Greece. 

The Israelites having passed the sea, 
and being delivei'ed from the fear of 
the Egyptiunf, iH'gan their journey 
under the guidance of Mo.ses. After 
wandering about some time, they suf- 
fered much from the want nf water,' 
and ill all probability the whole army 
would have perished in their encamp- 
ments if they had not fortunately dis- 
covered a herd of wild asses feeding. 
These oniiuuls being disturbed, as it 
appears, betook themselves to a rock 
Covered with foliage. Moses having 
noticed the fact, and conjecturing, 
both from this circumstance and also 
from (he verdant appearance of the 
place, that relief was at band, he fol- 
lowed them, and opened to his country- 
men large springs of water. 

The Jews then continued their jour- 
ney for seven days, till they reached 
Mount Siiia.' They are .«aid by Justin 
to have suflered much from hunger 
during this period, but on the seventh 
day (liey fnund abundant supplies, at 
least this is to be inferred from his 
statement that Moses dedicated the 
seventh day (called by them the Sab- 
bath) to be observed m all future ages 
as a fast, for that day hud put an end 
both to their hunger and their wander- 
ings. There is a great discrepancy in 
the accounts given of the time spent 
by the Israelites in the wilderness. 
'Iacitus,> like Justin, intimates (hut 
(heir wanderings continued only seven 
day!!, but he atiimis that at the end of 
this period they arrived, not at Sina, 
but at Judffia; for he says that they 
obtained lands by driving away the 
inhabitants, and (here founded their 
city and dedicated their temple. On 
the contrary, Artapanus" slates that 



* "The drcaiostsncc of the Egyiitisns bcm^ struck with lightaing ai well u being 
OTenrhclinrd by the waves is mentioned in the 77th Pialm, although unmeutioncd In 
the Pentateuch,"— Faber, Horae Mosaicte, i. 237. 

' Manetho, in Joteplius, c. Ap. i. 26, 27. ' Chcrcnion, ib. i. 3S. 
' Ljsioiacliaa, ib. i. 'M. ' Diodorus, hb. xL I. 

' Tacitut, Hist. v. 3. • Justinus, zxxvi. S, 

^ Diodorus Siculiu, xl. ' Tacitus, llist. v, 3. 

' Juttinui, xxxvi. 2. ' Ticitiu, Hist. v. 3. 

* Artapanus, in Euseb. ix. ^7. 



128 



Undesigned Imitations. 



[Aug. 



the Jews wamlered about for thirty 
years in the deseit, and that during 
the whole of this period thuy were fed 
by God with a Icind of liiriiiii like 
milliit-si'ud, nearly as white as snow. 

On the arrival of the Jews in the 
land of Canaan they found it,aocijrding 
to Diodorus,' very niueli depopulated, 
and they immediately occupied it ; for 
Moses IS said to have founded many 
cities, one of which was . afterwards 
most famous, ealli'd ilierosolyma. lie 
also paid much altentinn to the military 
affairs of the Jews, and gave orders 
that all their youth sliould be regularly 
brought into training, so as to be able 
to endure fatigue, and to be patient 
under every kind of evil. Having by 
these means formed a powerful army, 
he made war with the surrounding 
nations, and subdued a large region. 
These lands he divided by lot, assigning 
eipml portions to all the i>eople except 
to the priests, who had a larger share 
thnii the others, that as they jKjssesseil 

{To be couliHUed.) 



broader lands they might continually 
be engaged without hindrance in the 
service and sacrifices of God. He 
made a rule that none of these portions 
shoulil be alienated ; however poor the 
owner might be, he wus not allowed 
to sell his land. This rule was made 
to prevent the rich from becoming the 
exclusive owners of the soil, and thus 
tending to diminish the jHipulatiun. 

Tlie personal appearance of Moses 
is said by Artupanus" to have been 
exceedingly dignified. He was tall, of 
a ruddy coni])lexion, and had long 
white hair ihiwiiig over his shoulders. 

After the death of Moses, according 
to the account of Ju.stin, his son Aruas 
succeeded him, who had been one of 
the Kgyplian priests;' and from this 
time it was the custom that the chief 
ruler of the nation should be one of 
the priests, and this union of the civil 
and liierarebioal powers greatly fur- 
thered the well-being of the Jewish 
nation. IscA, 



UNDESIGNED IMITATIONS. 
The FxtsB Kniohts and the Ukruly Beides or Euasmus and Sbakspbhe. 



IN our Number for July we threw 
out a conjecture that the Colloiiuies of 
Erasmus had introduced our great 
national dramatist to a knowledge of 
Latin, and that the impression they 
made on the mind of the boy might be 
traced in uuinerous passages of his 
plays. Gaiuing con6dence as we ad- 
vance, we now venture, though with 
hesitation, to bring forward an opinion 
which will at fust sight startle — if not 
astound — the devout admirers of the 
bard of Avon. In a word, we conceive 
that the character of the ficetiuus 
knight Sir John Falstalf is not wholly 
original, but is founded in some degree 
on a dialogue of Krnsmus entitled the 
'Iirmw aj'ciTjroc, sive Ementita Nobili- 
tas. In it we are introduced foonc//ar- 
pnliix, who, being a plebeian, is consult- 
ing It person whose name of Neatorius 



suflicicntly indicates his ngc and expe- 
rience »s to the means of palming him- 
self on society for a knight ; and certain 
it is that most of the directions given 
to Hurjmlus for his conduct arc strictly 
carried out into practice by Sir John 
ami his followers. We proceed to sup- 
port our oliinion by extracts from the 
Colloiiuv and from the four plays in 
which lalstaffand his men are intro- 
duced, viz. the two]>!ntsof King Henry 
the Fourth, King Henry the Fifth, and 
the Merry Wives of Windsor. 

Nestorhu'a first injunction, " Inge- 
rcte in convictum juvenum vere nobi- 
liuni," it will be admitted, is observed 
by Falstalf. A little further on Nes- 
toriua says, "Si quisex Hispaniii veniat 
luwpes, roga (|uomodo conveniatCiEsari 
cum Pontifice, (juiil agat aflinia tuus 
Comes !l Nassaucii,, quid c»teri con- 



* Diodoms, xL ^ Artapanus, in Euieb. ix. 37. 

<' Justiouj, xixvi. 2, where he saja that, " Araai wu made king," contrary to the 
statement of Diodorus (wbicli will be hereafter noticed) that Monies did not appoint a 
king, but cooiiiiitted tUe chief power to one of the prieats. After all, this difjercnce 
may be more in the word than in the fact. — See Strabo. 



18^4.] Jlte False Knights of Erasmus and Shakspere. 



129 



gerrones tui." With tbis we would 
compare the Second Part of King Henry 
the Fourth, Act v. Scene v. : — 

Fa/.— What, is the old IcinK dead ? 

Pitl. — As uail iu door : the things I 
speak are just. 

Fat. — Away, Bardolph, saddle my horse 
— Master Robert Shallow, choose what 
office thou wilt in the hnd, 'tis thine. — 
Pistol, I will doable charge Ihee with dig- 
nilies. 

Bard. — O joyfal day I — I would not 
take a knighthood for my fortune. 

Fo/.— Boot, boot, Master Shallow. I 
know the young king is, sick for me. 

There is much more to the same 
purport, which we omit, and return to 
the Colloquy. 

Ne. — Sit annlas in digito cum gemmft 
tignatoriA. 

Ha. — Si quidem locuU ferant. 

tfe. — At parvo constat anulusKreni in- 
aaratus, cum gemmfk factitiA. 

Every one remembers FalstafTs " seal 
of my grandfather's worth forty mark," 
which, on being inspected, proves to 
be " some eightpenny matter." 

Nextuhus then gives this direction : 
" Fingito litteras li magnatibus ad te 
missas in quibus idcntidcm nppcllaris 
Eques clarissimus." On this jKjint Sir 
Jonn docs not trust to a forged letter, 
but bruits abroad his knighthood for 
himself. Thus, in King Ueury IV., 
2nd part, Act ii. Scene ii., we have 
Poins reading Falstafl''s letter, " ,John 
Folstafl', Ani^A<,— every man must know 
that, as oft as he has occasion to name 
himself." Again, the subscription of 
the letter is, " Thine by yea and no. 
Jack Folstafl' with uiy familiars, John 
with my brothers and sistcm, and Sir 
John with all Europe." 

Further instructions are given with 
respect to the forged letters : " Inter- 
dam insoe vesti aut relinque in cni- 
menft, ut quibus sarciendi negotium 
dederis, illic repcriant. lUi non sile- 
bnnt : et tu simul ac resciveris, com- 
ponei vultum ad iracundium ac mies- 
titiam quasi dolcnt casus." The ira- 
cttndia and mifatitia of Falstaff, when 
bis pocket is picked, will occur to the 
mind of the reader. 

Nesiarius proceeds : "Deinde sodales 
aliquot adsciscendi sunt aut etiam 
famuli, qui tibi ccdant loco, et apud 
omnesleJonchcrum'appellent." Here 



we have the prototypes of Messrs. 
Bardolph, Nym, Peto, and company. 
To this Inst precept of Nestoriiu, llnr- 
/w/ui objects, "At famuli suntalendi;" 
and his adviser replies, "Sunt, at non 
ales famulos (ix"V""'r 6t ob id (ixptini'C- 
Alittantur hue et iltuc et invenient 
aliquid. Scis variaa esse talium rerum 
occasiones." Compare with tliis Fal- 
stafTs description of his recruits, — 
"There's hut a shirt and a half in all 
my company, and the shirt, to say truth, 
stolen from mine host at St. Alban's, 
or the red-nosed innkeeper of Daintry. 
But tliat's all one : theyU Jlnd linen 
enough on every hedged 

Nettorius then proceeds to touch on 
the conduct to be observed towards 
creditors. " Primum creditor observat 
te non aliter quum obligatus magno 
beneficio.vereturque ne quam prwbeat 
ansam amiltendte pecuuiffi. Servos 
nemo magis habet obnoxios quam 
debitor suos creditores : quibus si quid 
altquando rcddas, gratius est qnam si 
dono dones." 

The air of patronage which Falstaff 
assumes when borrowing, will occur to 
the reader, — 

Fd/.— Let it be ten pounds if thou 
can'st. Come, an it were not for thy hu- 
motirs, there is not a better wench in 
Kngland. Go, wash thy fore und draw 
thy action. Come, thou must not be in 
this humour with me ; dost not know me ? 
Come, come, 1 know thou wai't act on to 
this. 

Hoifeti. — Pray ihee. Sir John, let it be 
but twenty nobles : i'faith I am loath to 
pawn my plate, io good earnest, la. 

Fal. — Ltl it alone, I'll make other 
ih\ft : yov'll be ajool ttill. 

Hoitet: — Well, you shall have it, though 
I pawn my gown : I hope you'll come to 
supper : you'll pay me all together i 

Fo/.— Willi live.' 

We return to Nestorius, who con- 
tinues his admouitious as follows : 

Scis quantum apud nos liceat equitibus. 
Ergo famulos ale non eegnes, ant etiam 
aanguine propinquos, qui alioqui forent 
alendi. Occurrit negotiator quern obvium 
spolient. Rcperient aliquid in diversoriis 
aut in tedibus, aut in naribus incosto- 
ditum. Tenes i memincrint non frustra 
datos homini digitos. Jam illnd tquestre 
dogma temper erit luendum. Jut Jatque 
etie equili plebeivm vialorem exonerate 
peeunii. Quid enim indigniut quam igno- 



' Joneherut, i. i, Jooker or Jung Herr. 
Gbkt. Mao. Vol. XLIl. 8 



1^ Undtngntd Jmitationt. 

^U*tH negoliatortm attrndari *ummi$, emt 
Mffrini equet non haitat quod imptndtl 
fcortit tt a<e<s / 

These seatimenU are alio entertained 
•nd improved on by Fal»t«ff: on at- 
tacking the travellers at Gadthill, he 
•xclaimt— 

Strike i down with tham : out the Til- 
Una' throaU. Ah I wboreaoncaterpUUrtt 
tmean-ftd knmu/ Iht^ halt m ji<nUhi 
down with thtm : fleece them I — Hang ye, 
gorbellied ItniTei i on, baconi, on ; what 
tf* tnatt$ I fotmg wun miut lit*. 

To return to the Colloquy : 

Nt. — Prcitat in celebri quopiam loeo 
vltam agera pata in tYkttmitfJriftimtUmi 
4h*rtoriii. 

Sir John's partiality for the Boar's 
Head at Eastcheap and other fre- 
quented places of entertiunmcnt will 
be in the memory of our readers. 
Nettoriu* then goes on. 

Pnta hie aut ille reliqnit ernmenam : 
ant oblitoi reliquit clavem in terk promp- 
tnarii. Cetera tenes. 

Htt.—M— 

N*. — Quid metuis ? de tic cnlto, de tain 
magnifice loqueate, de eqnite ab aarei 
rape, qnis aadebit saspicari ? Et li quia 
forte tarn improbui exstitcrit, quii erit tain 
andaz at te appellet : interim auipicio deri- 
vabitur in aliqaem hospitam qui pridiedii- 
eesierit. T^trbabttHturfmuliliaeumpttH- 
dscAro. 7^ tranquillut luam pertonam 

tffitO. 



[Aug. 



With this compare Merry Wives of 
Windsor, Act ii., Scene ii. 

Fttl. — I will not lend thee a penny. 

PM. — Why then the world'i mine oyster, 
Which I with iword will open. 
I will retort the sum in equipage. 

till. — Not a penuy. I have been con- 
tent, Sir, yoa ■honld lay my conntenance 
to pawn : I have grated upon my friends 
for three reprieves for you and your coach- 
fellow, Nym, or else you had looked 
through the grate like a gemini of baboons. 
I am damned in hell for swearing to gen- 
tlemen my fnends you were good soldiers 
and tall fellows: and when Mistress 
Bridget lost the handle of her fan, I tookt 
npon mine honour thou had'tt it not. 

put.— Diiat thou not share? had'st 
thoo not flfteen pence ? 



And again, King Henry IV. 1st 
Part, Act iii. Scene ii. the indigutnt 
exclamation of Mistress Quickly, — 

Why, Sir John I what do yon think. Sir 
John ? do you think I keep thieves in my 
house. I have searched, I tiave inqnired, 
so has my husband, man bf mm, top bp 
bofftervant bp itrvani, tht lilkt if a hair 
tmw iMMr Uut te mp hous* btfor*. 

Ntttoriv* then proceeds. 

E famnlis tuis interdam aliqnsm emandes, 
In helium scilicet. \» tpoliatU ttr^lU tuA 
monuteriis quibnsUbet, redibit onostus 
pnedl. 

Of this kind are the exploits of Fal- 
itaflTs followers in the French cam- 
paign. 

Pi$t. — Fortune is Bardolph's foe, and 
frowns on him ; 

For he hath stolen a pis, and hanged 
must be. 

Fill. — I think the duke hath lost never 
a man, but one that is like to be executed 
flir rcbbtnp a Church; one Bardolpb, if 
your Majesty know the man. 

King Henry V. Act Iii. Scene vi. 

Nestorhu goes on to direct his pupil 
to seize occasions for offence against 
quiet and timid persons with long 
purses. 

His per feciales tuos davovtov roXi/tov 
dinnntia. Sparge minaa atrooes, excidia, 
exltia, wavoXiBptag meras : territi venient 
ad componendam litem. Ibt fac magno 
BStimes taam dignitatem, hoo est, ini- 
qunm petas ut Kqunm feras. Si postulas 
tria miUia, pudtbit minui t^trr* ;iMni 
dMcea/ot ovrsos. 

How well Falstaff had imbibed the 
spirit of this lesson appears from his 
treatment of Sir John Colevile. 

Co/e.— Are not yon Sir John FalstafT? 

Fal. — As good a man as he, whoeVr I 
am. Do ye yield. Sir, or shall I sweat 
foryou? ^I d» netat, thtp art droptiif 
thp lovtr; mtd thtp wtep /sr thp dtath : 
therefore rouse up fear and trembling, and 
do observance to my mercy. 

Colt, — I think you are Sir John Fal* 
staff; and in that thought yield me. 

King Henry IV. Act iv. Scene iiL 

So again Pistol deals with the French 
Soldier at Agincourt. 



Pitt. — Come hither, boy ; ask me this slave, in French, 
What is his name. 
'.— liscoutes : oommsnt eates vous appelli ? 
L— MoDsienr le Fer. 
He says, his name is Master Far. 

futer Fer I I'll fer him, and firk him, and ferret him { diacoss the same 
mlo him. 



1854.] The Fake Ktightt of Eratmut and Shaktpere. 181 

Bay. — I do not koow the French for fer, and ferret, ind firk. 
Pitl. — Bid him prepare, for I will cut hii throat. 

Oujr, cooper gorge, par ma foy, pesant, 

Unleu thou giTC me crownc, brave crowns; 

Or mangled ihalt thoa be bjr this my (word. 
Boy. — He prajs you to sare his life; he is a genlleman of a good house ; audybr hit 
rantom leill give yau two hundred eroiem. 
Pitt. — Tell him, my fury shall abate, and I 

The crowos will take. — King Heury V. Act iv. Scene ir. 

will carry't ; 'tit io his bnttoni : he will 
carry't. 

Pttfe. — Not by my consent, I promise 
you. The gentleman is of no having: he 
kept company with the wild Prince and 
Point : he is of too high a region. 



In thm sceae, besides ha geaerni cha- 
racter, there are two minule pointji ol 
retenibUnce to the passagu in Lrasmua, 
which we would indicate in parsing, 
that Pistol here employs a fecialis, 
and that the ransom ofTcred is rtitcenti 



Nettitriia then goca on to recommend 
a wealthy marriage. " Sed heus, Har- 
pele, pene exciderat quod dictum in 

Srimis oportait : puclla i|uaipium bene 
otata in matrimonii nasaam illaque- 
•od* est." 

In the Merry Wires of Windsor we 
find Sir John availing hiuiaeli' of this 
advice, oidy rejecting the shackles of 
matrimony as unsuited to his erratic 
spirit. Thus in Act i. Scene iii., con- 
versing with bis followers, he says, 

I am about tbriA : briefly, I intend to 
auke love to Ford's wife. 1 spy enter- 
tainment in her. . . . Now the report 
Cthat the hath all the rule of her bus- 
's purse : the hath legions of angels. 
... I have writ me here a letter to her, 
and another to Page's wife, who even now 
gave me good eyes too. . . . She bears 
the parte too t abe ia a region in Guiana, 
all gold and bounty. I will be cheater 
to them both, and they thall be cxcheqaert 
to me : ibey shall be my East tod West 
Indies, and I will trade to them both. 

The remarks of Neitoriwi, which im- 
mediately follow that last given, though 
cot applicable to Falstan, bear some 
resemblance to another pass^e in the 
same play. He thus contmues his 
exhortations: — "Habesapud te phil- 
trum : juvcnises, cnndidulus es, lepidus, 
nngator es, rides blond um. Sparge te 
magnis promi!>ais aaoitum in aulam 
Ccsarts. Amant puells satrapis nu- 
bere." 

With this compare Merry Wives, 
Act iii. Scene ii. The conversation 
turning on l^Iistress Aim Page's suitors, 
mine Host suys, — 

What say you to young Master Fenton ? 
he cnpert, he dances, he has eyes of youth, 
he writes veriei, he speaks holyday, he 
tmcUs .\prii and May ; be will carry't : he 



To return to the Colloquy. Har' 
palui objects, that, however skilfully 
ureditors may be treated, their patience 
will at last be exhausted ; in reply to 
which NetUiriut first advises subter- 
fuges and audacity, and then says, 
'' Fostremo ^i nihil aliud, profugiendom 
est aliquo in helium, in tumultum. 
Queniadmodum xXtnCti ^&\aaau -ravra 
T nv0piiiriuv nata, ita bellum operil 
omnium scelerum sentlnam. Hoc erit 
extrcmum asylum, si cuncta fefel- 
lerint." 

How often Falstaff and his followers 
find a convenient refuge from the effects 
of their misconduct in the civil and 
French wars, we need not remind the 
reader. If, however, adds Nestoritu, 
all arts foil, "Tum mature tibi de 
migrando cogitandum est, sed tiifuga 
tfitnina nou leporina," in which last 
a<lmonition we perhaps have the germ 
of the following passage : 

P. Hen. — Mark now how a plain tale 
shall put you down : then did we two set 
CD you four . . . and, Falttalf, you carried 
your guts away as nimbly, with as quick 
dexterity, and roared for mercy, and alill 
ran and roared as ever I heard bull-calf. . . 

Fal, — By the Lord I knew ye, as weltl 
as he that made ye. Why, hear ye, my 
mastcri, was it for me to kill the beir- 
apparcnt } ihould I turn upon the true 
prince .' Why, thou knowest I am valiant 
B« Hercules, but beware instinct : the Ii 
will not touch the true prince. . . . 
shall think the better of mytelf and thee 
during my life, I for a valiant lion, thou 
for a true prince. 

P. Htn. — Now, sirs : by'r Lady ye fought 
fair:— to did you Psto, so did yon Bar- 
dolph : you art lioHi (oo ,- j/ou ran away 
upon inttinct : you will not touch the 
true prince : no, fye ! — First Part, .\ct ii. 
Scene iv. 

An expression in an earlier part of 



Undesigned Imitations. 



132 

the Colloquy, "Nl sia bonus aleator 
.... vix quisquam te credet equi- 
tem," will bring to mind the fontastic 
knight in Love's Labour Lost : — 

AloiA. — You are a gentleman and a game- 
ster, sir. 

Armado. — I confess both : fliejr are 
both the varoisb of a complete man. 

■\Vc now turn to the Colloquy termed 
the Uxor /u/jjd'yn^joc, in which a young 
wife Xaiithij>j>e, whoic lite is embit- 
tered by her husband's misconduct, 
asks the counsel of an experienced 
friend named Eulaliu, and the latter 
endeavours to impress on her the 
truth which, though often repeated, 
will ever need repetition, that uiiirricd 
life can only be renderetl tolerable by 
mutual concessions. She illustrates 
her do(nna by instances, one of which 
it as follows : — 

Est mihi familiarita* cam homioe quo- 
dam Dobili* docto siagulariqae momm 
dexteritate. is duxemt paellam virginem 
annos nutam decern et septem, run in 
pareutum ledibuH perpctao educatnm ut 
nubilcs fere gaudeiit babitare ruri ob ve- 
natum et aucupium. Kudero volcbat ille, 
quo facilius illam ad suos mores tingeret ; 
CKpit earn institucre Uteris ac musica, 
puullatimque asiuefacere ut redderet ea 
quK audisset iu concione, cKterisqae rebus 
formare qan post essent usui future. 

The only return which iLe husband 
gets for his pains is a cuutinuul we ep- 
ing and wailing on the part of the 
indocile pupil ; but, instead of having 
recourse at once to harsh measures, he 
proposes a visit to his father-in-law's 
nouse, to which his refractory spouse 
gives a willing assent. The narrative 
then proceeds as follows : — 



[Aug. 



Ibi iubmotii teitibus denarrat socero, 
se eperasse jucundam vitn sociam, nunc 
habere perpelua laerf/manlem, ae ttit 
dlierueiantem nee utiii moaitis sana- 
bilem, orat ut sibi adsit io medendo Hue 
morbo. 

The father-in-law reconuuends the 
husband to assert his rights, and by 
main force to reduce the unruly woman 
to obedience. The son-in-law, how- 
ever, begs the old gentleman first to 
exercise his authority, and the result 
we give in the words of Erasmus : 

Socer pollicitus eat ae curatumm. Pott 
unum atque alterum diem capiat tempus 
ac locum, ut solus estet cum fiUa ; ibi 
vulta ad scTeritatem composite, iocipit 
commemorare quam ilia essct iufelici 
forma, qoam non amubilibus moribus, 
qoam tcpe metaisset ne nullum illi possit 
inrenire maritum. At tgu meo maxima 
labore inquit, lalem inoeni libi, qualem 
nulla non oplaret sibi, quanlumeit ftlix. 
Et tamen tu non agnusceiis quid pro te 
fcccrim, nee intelligeus te talem habere 
maritumqui nisi esset humanissimus eir/e 
ilignaretur habert in ancillarum nuntero, 
rebellas illi. Ne longum faciam, tie iu- 
caudnit patrit oratio, ut n'jr viderelur 

manibus lemperare Ibi puella 

partim metu, partim reritate commota 
aeeidil ad patrit genua, rogans ut prs- 
teritorum vellet oblivitci, te io posterum 
memorem fore officii tai. Ignovit pater, 
pollicitus te quoque fore patrem amaDtia> 
simum, ti quod jiolliceretur prtcttaret. 

To us it appears that in inditing 
the scenes between the headstrong 
daughter of the house of Capulet and 
her equally headstrong father, this 
narrative must have been floating in 
Sbakspere's mind. 



Cap. — How now I a conduit, girl ? What, still in tears.' 
Evermore showering ? 

How now, wife I 
Have 70U deliver'd to her our desire .' 
X^. Cap. — \j, sir ; but she will none ; she gives you thauks. 
I would the fuol were married to her grave ! ' 
Cap. — Soft, take me with you, take me with you, wife. 

How I will the none } Doth s/le not give us thanks t 
Is she not proud J Doth she not count her bitss'd. 



* It leemi likely that the person here alluded to was Sir Thomas More, who, 
though not noble in our sense of the word, was of tach rank at to entitle him to that 
appellation in the eyei of a foreigner. Of Sir T. More Eratmus says, in one of his 
Epistles, " Virginem duxit admodum puellam, claro geoere oatam, rudem adhuc 
utpote niiii inter ptrentes et torarea semper habitam, quo magia illi liccret ad auos 
uorea fingere. Hanc et Uteris inttruendam curavit et omoi motices genere doctum 
reddidit." Roper tells us of the father-in-Uw, that be was a " pleattnt-conceited gen* 
tlcioan, of aq aucient family in Essex, one Mr, John Colt of New Hall." 



1854.] The Unruly Brides of Erasmus aud Shakspere. 

UnxBorthy ai the it, that we have nrought 
So worthir a gentleman to be her bridegroom ? 

Jul. — Goodfttlher, I beteeeh you on my kneel. 

Hear me with patience but to speak s won]. 

Cop, — Speak not, reply not ; do not nnswer me. 

My fintjers itch. — Wife, we scarce thought us bleis'd 

That God had sent us but tbia only child ; 

Bat now I see this one is one too much. 

God's bread I it makes me mod I Day, night, late, early. 

At home, abroad, alone, in company, 

Waking or sleeping, etill my care hath been 

To have her maleh'd ; and, haviiii) now provided 

A genfieman of princely fjarentage, 

Of fair demesnes, youthful , and nobly tr&in'd, 

StulT'd, OS they say, with honourable parts, 

Proportiou'd aa one's heart could wish a man ; 

And then 

Jut. — Pardon, I beseech you ! 

Henceforward I am ercr ruled by you. 

Cap, — Why, I am glad on 't. This is well. Stand up. 
This is aa 't should be. 

My heart is wondrous light 
Since this same wayward girl is so reclaim'd. 



133 



The analogy, mutatit mutundis, will 
indeed hold tiirthcr; Cor in Erasmus 
we read that " puella digressa e col- 
loquio parentis rediit in cubiculuiu," 
which may answer to .Juliet's " Nurse, 
will you go with me into my closet 'r'" 
That the ensuing scene is laid in Juliet's 
bedchamber, or cubiculum, we need not 
remind the reader. 

It must be admitted that any siugic 
one of the coincidences here pointed 
out between Shakspere and Erasmus, 
if taken unconnected with the rest, will 
not convict the later writer of acquaint- 
ance with — much less imitation of — his 
predecessor. The united force of them 
■11, however, when taken together, 
carries to our own mind, though not 
perhaps to that of the reader, an irre- 
sistible wcigitt. Wc uiust also remark 
that there arc many points of resem- 
blance between FalstafTand the 'Inirtvi; 
avir-Kot, SO slight as to be scarcely 
perceptible. These we have not cited, 
but leave them to the investigation of 
tbosewho may liud the topic auUiciently 
interesting for further imiuiry. 

Whichever way the decision may be, 
one point is certain — that iii no case 
will i>hakspcre be a loser. Supposing 
our cise fully made out, his cnaplct 
will remain blooming perennial, without 



the loss of a single flower. The cha- 
racter of Falstan; iu our opinion, beai-s 
about the same relation to the 'Ii-irnif 
aviTTirof: that the Faust of Goethe bears 
— we will not say to the Faustus of 
Marlowe, but — to the Faustus of tra- 
dition. Of Erasmus wc would speak 
with all honour: his vast stores of 
learning, his eleg.int taste, and unvary- 
ing good sense, his modesty and sweet- 
ness of temper, must always entitle him 
to the respectful admiration of pos- 
terity. Wit, fancy, and humour, how- 
ever, he possessed in a very slight de- 
frce, his attempts in that line rarely 
isplaying more than what may be 
termed a scholarlike facetiousness. He 
could indeed as soon have burnt the 
pope's bull at Wittenberg as have con- 
ceived the character of the witty com- 
panion of Prince Henry, such as we 
find it portrayed in the four plays from 
which we have made extracts. In the 
dreams of the middle ages the baser 
metals emerged from the crucible of 
the alchemist transmuted into pure 
gold ; and such, in our opinion, is the 
process which the ideas of the Dutch 
scholar have undergone in passing 
through the mind of the Englisu Dra- 
matist. 

F. J. V. 



134 



MEMOIRS OF J. J. GURKEY. 

Memoira of Joaeph John Gnrnejr : with Sdeetiooi tmm hia Jonnul aad CoiTH|iandeDee. 
Edited bj JoKph Beran Bntfawaite. Norwich. 2 toU. 



AT length, seven years baring paaied 
away since his decease, we hare what 
we suppose is considered as a complete 
Memoir of Joseph John Gume/. It 
will meet with respectful attention 
where it is read at alt ; but it must be 
owned that the Tolumes look heavy and 
wearifome, and it does not seem to us 
that the contents are of a very rousLog 
kind, or that they will bare much in- 
terest for those who have not learned 
beforehand to esteem and feel fellow- 
ship with the benevolent and energetic 
Fnend here commemorated. They 
who have will be sure to find much 
that will please them. They will bring 
their goodwill to the subject, and 
will follow the indefatigable labourer 
through his life's work with untired 
(pirits and sympathising hearts. 

Others there are who greatly ho- 
noured and respected the character of 
Mr. Gurney, in whose mind deep traces 
of his goodness will always be found, 
yet who will read with a smaller amount 
of sympathy. Nor does it follow that 
they should be condemned for this. 
Christian benevolence is a many-sided 
various thing, and will not endure that 
a fixed model should be pressed on its 
acceptance with bigoted eagerness, as 
if that and that only were a represen- 
tative of its highest manifestation. We 
know too well the propensity of the 
world to make idols of good men. For 
ourselves and the public, let us ear- 
nestly crave permission to admire and 
lore what is excellent, with such re- 
serrations as truth, conscience, and 
candour may oblige us to make. 

Mr. Gurney's life had little in it of 

an eventful kind. What rariety there 

was was owing to the series of "calls" 

in which, revcrentlv believing, he was 

led to exchange his business pursuits 

and domestic enjoyments for foreign 

and home travel. His early career 

was chiefly signalised by the large 

amount of ancient learning which he 

^"\ made his own, and which was in- 

80 considerable as that, had he 

'< to follow it out as an object in 

irould probably have brought 

I renown of being one of the mvt 



scfatJars of his day. What he had 
made hia own before attaining the age 
of 23, wonld have rendered ererything 
aa yet undone easy to him ; bat even 

S' that eariy time ho had greatly lost 
e desire of cnltirating any talents or 
tastes, except as means to a religious 
end. His boyhood at school, and af^- 
wards under prirate tutorship at Ox- 
ford, seems to hare been rery irre- 
proachable. He accepted and followed 
the earnest counsels of his eldest sister, 
who (the mother's office having been 
early bequeathed to her) watched over 
the younger members of the family; 
and we cannot divest ourselves of uie 
idea that, while his timidity and scru- 
pulosity were fostered, there was not 
enough done to promote the growth of 
a manly character. An amiable, con- 
sdentious boy, habituated to confess 
and talk over bis faults with his sbters, 
would learn to regard all with a mi- 
croscopic eye, and would, through ex- 
treme care, necessarily grow up in 
great ignorance of large sections of 
human society. His weakness appears 
in too great dependence on others. 
Sometimes he takes counsel with the 
Church members of bis household, 
sometimes with the Quakers ; but these 
gentle waverings to and fro do not, to 
us at least, present the idea of any 
severe combat, and at all times we 
think he required friendly support. 

Meanwhile, at little more tnan 17, 
his father sends for him and gives him 
a place at the bank in Norwich. The 
borne life at Earlham is pleasant and 
luxurious; there is a tolerable cer- 
tainty of wealth ; and he has reason to 
anticipate, what indeed occurred only 
four years later (when he was 21), 
being lefl master of the paternal house, 
and the responsible manager of the 
bank in Norwich, the two elder sons 
being already provided for. 

Before the death of his father, how- 
ever, in 1809, the destroyer attacked 
one much beloved member of their 
circle. His brother John, on whom 
the care of the Lynn Bank rested, had 
married his cousin, the daughter of bis 
uncle Richard Gomey. She was the 



1854.] 



Mevtoirs ofJoieph John Gumey. 



135 



favourite of tliem all, adored by ber 
biuband, whose overwhelming woe at 
bis loss laid the foundation for the 
illness which terminated fatally a few 
years later. Their union had lasted 
only about a year, and the shook waa 
Tery dreadful. Josepli describe.*) his 
feeliDjis on seeing the hearse, bearing 
the beloved remains, slowly advancing 
to Earlham, through the avenue of 
lime-trees. This terrible check to the 
life and caiety of that houde had de- 
cided euocts on all the inmatc.i. It 
led them to cultivate the friendship of 
the most serious — almost austere — 
among the Kvanj^elicals of the day, 
and several, indeed the larger propor- 
tion of the family, became devout 
members of the Established Church. 

The "set of people who call them- 
selves Evangelical," to use his own 
words, did not however at once com- 
mend themselves to Joseph John 
Gurney. lie s.iys, " Pain 1 certainly 
have felt, in the inclination of our 
family towards Calvinism and Cal- 
vinisls. At the same time 1 deeply 
fe«l, that so long as the grand thing, 
practical Christianity, is kept in view 
Dy us all, we have no reason to be dis- 
contented at differing from one another 
on .secondary points.'* 

Probably, this " inclination towards 
Calvinism, ' on the part of those whose 
personal influence pressed very closely 
upon him, might turn his own mind 
more willingly towards the comparative 
liberty of the Quakers. Uis sisters, 
Mrs. t'ry and Pri.«cilla, were now mi- 
nisters among the Friends, the former 
first publicly speaking at her father's 
funeral, in Nov. 1809. Of the four 
unmarried sisters, who were loft to 
share the Earlham home with him, 
three were churchwomcu ; but Pris- 
cilla's influence was the one most con- 
genial to his state of mind. 

May we be forgiven if we utter here 
a little involuntary speculation, which 
we trust will not be thought deroga- 
tory to the early motives and noble 
after career of this excellent m.nn ? 

The state of religious society iu 
^nglaod, froui about 1810 to 1830, 
~Hs perhaps that which may be cha- 
_ cteriscd by the predominance of deep 
■erioasoess as to individual belief and 
practice (wherever religious views were 



at all earnestly entertained), and of con- 
siderable laxity as to church discipline. 
Some of the most celebrated evangelical 
clergj-racn of the day made it their boast 
that personal unity in doctrine was all 
in all. They cared little for ordinances ; 
they hardly seemed to be seusiblc of 
the value of belonging to a church. 
What appeared to them adapted to 
their own personal religious wants was 
to be considered, without taking into 
the account some previous questions 
of fact, which were to be aalced and 
answered; as, whether there was al« 
ready a Christianly constituted church 
in the land ? and whether they were 
not bound to look well into thai, before 
they helped themselves to something 
not in accordance with it 't In fact, 
they really seemed to give themselves 
very little trouble on the subject ; but 
did, each clergyman, and by conse- 
quence each layman, pretty much what 
was right in his own eyes ; and freely 
stigmatised the High Church as cleav- 
ing to mere forms, regardless of the 
substance of religion. While this 
frame of mind prevails in the religious 
world, any personal peculiarities, the 
more marked perhaps the better, are 
likely to be acceptable in society, or 
to individuals, if they do but wear the 
appcarauce of self-sacrifice, and bear- 
ing the Cross. Mr. Gurney's family 
had strong dissenting tendencies, and 
several members were born Quakers. 
If a young man like J. J. Gurney took 
a dislike, as we have seen, at one pe- 
riod to the Evangelical Church, qua- 
kerism was the inevitable alternative. 
And it must be obvious to every one 
bow particularly adapted it was to his 
form of character. Had his career 
been now, in 1654, commencing, we 
doubt greatly whether the same results 
would have taken place. Such a pro- 
fession would now give him no weight 
for religious purposes, and he w.is far 
too sagacious to take such a line at all 
hazards, in that early period, before 
bis real and deep attachment to the 
Friends' principles had been confirmed 
by habitually acting ujion them. Very 
iLflicult indeed it is to decide how far 
the feeling of outward circumstances 
and personal character may decide a 
man's mind in a iieculiar vocation. 
It is scarcely possible but that Mr. 



■ 



• P. M, vol. 1. 



136 



Memoirs qfJoteph John Gurney. 



[Aug. 



^ 



Gurnejr must b&ve felt how com- 
pletely Quakerism fitted the objects he 
wished to accomplish. He must have 
discerned that lie, he hiraselC, could 
work them out in no way so well. To 
eo and come — a minister, and yet a 
layman — to have the prestige of in- 
creasing wealth always attending him — 
to be eathering with one hiinu, while 
libemlly strewing with the other; 
could aoy ecclesiastic of any Churrh 
do what he did ? Where was the dig- 
nitary who could enter private houses 
and palaces like him, calling lords and 
monarchs by their familiar names, and 
summoning them to be still and to 
listen while he, tlic appointed minister 
of the .Spirit, spoke to them ? 

These proceedings were really suc- 
cessful then — would they be so now ? 
We more than doubt it; however it 
may please an Emperor of Russia to 
sham mildness and candour before a 
Quaker deputation. 

Ueturning, however, to matters of 
foct, Mr. Gurney, thoujrh early decided 
as to membership with the Friend.i, 
did not appear as a minister among 
them until he was twenty-nine; his 
first marriage and the beginnings of his 
ministry being nearly simultaneous. 
With this l.idy, Jane IJirbcck of Lynn 
in Norfolk, Mr. Gurney lived four-and- 
a-half very happy years, during which 
he was made the father of a son and 
daughter. Previous to his niarriago 
the establishment at Rarlhara Hall had 
included his four unmarried sisters ; 
and still three of them, Catherine, 
Rachel, and Priscillo, had their own 
apartments beneath the same roof. 

The uninterrupted and delightful 
harmony indeed of the whole family is 
very remarkable. At those large anni- 
Tcrsary meetings of the Uible Society 
(of which Mr. Gurney had first estab- 
lished a branch at Norwich) this band 
of brothers and sisters was i|uite one 
of the greatest attractions and most 
beautiful spectacles. There, on the 
olatform, would be seen at one time, 
Mr. Gurney, Mrs. Fry, Priscilln, Sir 
Fowell Buxton, Samuel Iloare, escj. 
and the Uev. F. Cunningham, the 
husbands of three of the Gurney sisters, 
and when the meeting was over, and 
Earlliam Hall opened wide its hos- 
pitable doors to the numerous clergy- 




men, Dissenting ministers, and friends 
to the Uible cause, who came ns a 
matter of course to Mr. Gumey's 
house, we do suppose that it was al- 
together a scene of comprehensive and 
frank carrying out the religious spirit 
into the social intercourses such as is 
rarely witnessed. 

TliOQgh my father (njt his daughter) 
steadily maintainrd bis own views u a 
Friend, be wos nlwnys ready to give ■ 
warm welcome to the individuals who 
CAme down to attend the meetings of 
the Missionary and Jens Societies; which 
were beld in the same week with tbit of 
the Bible Society. He treated the mis- 
sionaries and agents with the greatest 
kindness, and helped them in those parts 
of their objects in which be could do 
BO consietently with bia principles, especi- 
ally in the distribution of the Hebrew 
Scriptures to the Jews, and in the schools 
of the missionaries. He certainly had a 
remarkable power of showiog love and 
friendship towards his fellow-christians, 
while be always openly acknowledged and 
maintained bis own opinions on particular 
points. A more complete illustration of 
this part of hi> character there could not 
be, than in his mode of conducting the 
very large parties at Earlham of which I 
am speaking. There were always three 
dinner parties' on the .Ird, 4lh, and /ith 
days of the week of the meetings. His 
brothers-in-law (my uncle Buxton and my 
uncle Cunningham) were generally his 
helpers on such occasions, nod invited 
whom they pleased ; and certainly the 
dining room Ailed on those days was no 
common sight. There were persons of all 
denomioations ; among the rest, many of 
the Norwich Friends, most of tbem in- 
deed, on one of the three days. Itwosao 
different from a party called together for 
mere amusement — so fine a feeling per- 
vaded the whole; while he, as master, was 
wonderfully enabled to keep up the tone 
of conversation, *o that I should think it 
never sank to a mere chit-chat level. My 
impression is that while he greatly felt the 
responsibility of these occasions, be most 
truly enjoyed them, having often around 
him those whose conversation was a feast 
to him, such as WilbcKorce, Simeon, 
Legb Richmond, John Cunningham, and 
many others. I never saw my dearest 
father look more beautiful than be did at 
the bottom of those long tables. As soon 
OS the cloth was removed he would extract 
from bis guests their varied stores of in- 
formation in the most happy manner.* 
Thus the time was turned to account, and 



* " I recall one day," writes one of his nieces who was frequently present, " when 
5 



1854.] 



Memoirs of Joseph John Gurney. 



187 



I hare no doabt these dajri were often 
Tcry profitable to manjri >• it irts bis 
moat earnest desire they should be. He 
was careful to be attentive to guests of 
everj degree, and was particularly kind to 
those whom, from their position ia life or 
otherwise, he thought liable to be orer- 
looked. 

We cannot follow Mr. Gurney 
tJirougb his vurious ministerial jour- 
nies, and can only glance, very inadc- 
fjuately, at his career of benevolence. 
He was a man whose zeal never inter- 
mitted — morning, noon, and night 
found him ready, Bible at hand, for 
what he thought his Master's business. 
Take him for all in all — looking at the 
varie<I concerns which had his interest 
— we know of no such instance of a 
man of business who did so large an 
amount of missionary work. It is an- 
other (juestion whether such a perpe- 
tual exercise of this or any other such 
"ministry" i.i really desirable. Fancy 
such a conviction of the duty of mutual 
exhortation and leaching to be widely 
spread abroad, and we must confess 
we can conceive of few things more 
disturbing. In Mr. Gurney himself 
it mi^ht sometimes well have been ex- 
cused; but in other and inferior bands 
it would be intolerable; and the repose 
and thoughlfulness to which a quiet 
journey is often favourable, would be 
almost annihilated. 

Admiring much of his work, we value 
him most in his domestic circle. The 
following passages are from recollec- 
tions of Earlham by one who visited 
there much in his youth : — 

Acti'ity of benevoleDce, practical kind- 
ness, seemed to me to be the rnliug spirit 
of Eurlham. I did not bear mnch of great 
schemes, but I saw much of real acts of 
charity; and these recollections, on that 
account, are both pleasant and profitable. 
The whole household seemed imbued with 
the fame happy feeling. As 1 sat ponder- 
iog on how little I had erer done, and 
making, in my inmost heart, first excuses, 
wd then resolutions, I caught sight of 
some lady's maid, or up|>er servant of the 
family, cheerfully crosbing the scarcely 
tracked path, amidst the driftiog snow, on 
some errand of mercy to a poor neighbour. 
I hare forgotten many and many a sermon 



and lecture on the duty of benevolence : 
that one little act of self-denial has re- 
mained in my memory for a long course of 
years. • * ♦ 

One night— I remember it well — 1 re- 
ceived a severe lesson on the sin of evil- 
speaking. Severe I thought it then, and 
my heart rose in childish indignation 
against him who gave it ; but I had not 
lived long enough in the world to know 
how much mischief a child's inconsiderate 
talk may do, end how frequently it hap> 
pens that great talkers run ofi' the straight 
line of truth. I was talking ver/'fast 
about some female relative, who did not 
stand particularly high in my estimation ; 
and was proceeding to give particulars of 
her delinquencies, failings of temper, &c., 
to the amusement, I suppose, of one or 
two of my hearers. In a few moments 
my eye canght an expression, in that of 
one of my auditors, of such calm and 
steady disapprobation, that I stopped sud- 
denly short. There was no mistaking the 
meaning conveyed by that dark, speaking 
eye; it brought the colour to my temples, 
and confusion and shame to my heart. I 
was silent for a few moments, when Joseph 
John Gurney asked very gravely, 

" Dost thou not know of any ;oo({ thing 

to tell us of ? " I did not answer, 

and the question was more seriously re- 
peated. " Think, is there nothing good 
thou canst tell us of her?" " Oh, yes, 
I know of some good things certainly, 

but " " Would it not have been better 

then to relate those good things, than to 
have told us that which must lower her in 
our estimation ? Since there is good to 
relate, would it not be kinder to be silent 
on the evil ;' ' Charily rejoiccth not in 
iniquity,' thou knowest." » * • 

It was our custom every morning, — that 
of Miss Guruey and any little visitor she 
might have with her, — to go before break- 
fast into the room adjoining her father's 
dressing room, and recite certain portion| 
of Scripture, either of onr own choice or 
his selection. There was a pirticuUr 
appropriateness in the 13th chapter of 1st 
Corinthians, which, on the following 
morning, I was desired to read, and after- 
wards to cCimmit to memory. There wai 
no comment made oa what I read. It was 
unnecessary ; the reproof was felt even to 
the shedding of tears ; but the kind voice 
and silent caress soon spoke love and 
peace, and I was comforted. " A word 
spoken in season how good it is." • • * 



4 



the sitting at the breakfast table was prolonged half the morning, by a deeply interest- 
ing conversation, and comparing of notes between him and the present Bishop of Cal- 
cutta, on the important subject of the Christian ministry, the late Sir Fowell Buxton 
also taking a lively part, and pointing out the defects to which he coiutidered the 
delivery of the message tbi! most liable." 
GxKT. Mao. Vol. XLU. T 



188 



Aftmoirs o/Joieph John Gumey. 



[Aug. 



• 




Children are to obierraot of incon- 
futenc; io tliose who reprore, that htd I 
erer found mjr mentor guilty of the lin of 
uncbaritabkiieu, I nhoald not have failed 
to put it dowQ in the note-book of my 
heart ; bat I can truly uy that the force 
of that beautiful precept wai nerer weak- 
ened by a contradictory eumple. I never 
beard a centoriout word pats thoae calm 
lips, nor knew a cloud of unworthy las- 
picioii Io darken hia bright truating liope 
of the bett of every one. Mott eminently 
waa that grace bi», which " bopeth all 
tbingi." Every one who hu viaited Earl- 
ham, mutt have been impreiited with the 
Buperior tone of convrriation there ; with 
the abtence of icaodal and tmall talk ; 
and when pertont, rather than thingt, 
were a little loo prominent in the dincourac 
of the juulurt, how ingeniously and yet 
how kindly hot the lubject been put atide, 
and tome other matter of innocent ioterett 
introduced in iti itead. 

Mr. Gurney'i greatvst, it mieht nl- 
moat b« said, only, outward triiih were 
in the Iom of those most dear tu him. 
Hia first wife, tbc mother of bis chil- 
dren, died after a short illne«8 in 1822. 
To hilt second, Mary Fowler, many 
years his junior, he was united in 1827, 
an<l he lost her in 1835. His own cha- 
racter of her it us follows : — 

Never have I known tuch a combina- 
tion as 1 found in her of a atrong and 
lucid intellect, a sound judgment, great 
amiability and generoiity, and deep abid- 
ing piety. Her views of religioui truth 
were of a very comnreheniive and well 
balanced kind, and it wat her joy and 
ength to abide under the teaching of 
le Lord's " anointing." This, in fact. 
It the grand iccret of her excellence, 
connected ai it was with a daily and dili- 
gent study of the Holy Si-riptures. She 
waa admirably verted io the Greek Testa- 
ment, and used to read it to me with a 
fluency and beauty of pronunciation, and 
with a nice tplrituiil and critical discern- 
ment of its meaning which I have seldom 
known ecgualled. A more adapted com- 
panion It was impossible for any man to 
have found, and the blank and loss mutt 
be in proportion. I am, however, most 
thankful for having enjoyed her society 
during more than eight years, and undue 
sorrow is precluded by tome living sense 
of the fulness which is in Christ. 

But those near and dear ties were 
not the only ones severed by death. 
In 1821 he lost his sister Priscilla, be- 
loved for her own sake by all who Icncw 




her, and particularly precious to kini- 
self as sharing his ministry. It is of 
her that Sir Fowell Buxton has said, 

I never knew an individual who wat lets 
one of the multitude than Princilla Gur- 
ney. In her person, her manners, her 
views, there wat nothing which wat not 
the very reverse of common-place. There 
wat an air of peace about her which wat 
irrettitible in reducing all with whom the 
converted under her gentle influence. This 
wat the cflect upon strangers : and In no 
degree wat it abated by the clotett inti- 
macy No less remarkable wrre 

the powers of her mind. I have seldom 
known a person of such sterling ability, 
and it is impottible to mention thote 
powers without adverting to that great, 
and, in my ettimation, that attooithing 
ditplay of them which was afforded by her 
minittry. 1 have listened to many emi- 
nent preacliert, and many apeakert alio, 
bat I deem her at perfect a speaker at I 
ever heard. The tone of her voice, her 
beauty, the tingultr clearness of her con- 
ception, and, above all, her own strung 
conviction that she was urging the truth, 
nnd truth of the most vital importance ; 
the whole constituted a species of minis- 
try which no one could hear, and which I 
am persuaded no one ever did hear, with- 
out a deep impression.* 

Uachel Gurney, too, a much-beloved 
sister, followed Priscilla in November 
1827; in 1835 he lost his sister Louisa, 
Mrs. Samuel Hoare; and ten years 
afterwards botli Sir Fowell Buxton 
and Mrs. Fry. 

Thus they who had been the ever- 
welcome guests and residents at Earl- 
ham dropped off around him ; while 
tiic eldest of nil, she who had presided 
over the house in his childhood, the 
first-boru of this distinguished family, 
Catherine, still remained to survive 
him also, and only to be gathered in 
at last, a sheaf of ripened corn, in the 
year 1850. 

We find him (and confess we bad 
rather have been excused finding him) 
entering the marriage slate for the 
third time in 1 841 , when he had reached 
his fifty-fourth year. In these con- 
nections he seems to have shared the 
good fortune of Dr. Judson — having 
found companionship of a high and 
valuable kind with eacii of the excel- 
lent women united to him. Before 
this marriage he had visited America 
and the West Indies, and the record 



* Memoirs of Sir Fowell Buxton, p. 100, First Edition, 




1854.] 



" (hir Ladies of St. Ct/r," 1686—1798. 



139 



of his travela occopies n considerable 
portion of (he second volume. 

Here, ii»ain, we doubt. Ilia children, 
bis household, his various religious 
Bocielies, grestly needed him, »nd he 
left hII to drop words of spiritual coun- 
sel over a vast extent of surface, nei- 
ther understood nor appreciated, as we 
believe, bv strangers as he was by 
friends. It is nut ensy to ascertain, 
amid many very sincere expressions 
of humility and self-distrust, how fnr 
be really relied on any native gifts ; 
bat he probably was not wholly with- 
out self-deception in this matter. Yet 
h« was surely not gifted in himself 
with anything which could be called 
genius. lie had n kind of moderate 
pnetic sensibility, a fluency and facility 
of speech ; but, with no direspecl to 
his admirable intentions, we never 
could find more than the most common- 
place ideas in his writings, and can 
scarcely conceive that his preaching 
woold be much higher. A level, calm, 
orderly tone, — a habit of arrangement 
carried almost to excess — bringing up 
proofs and texts in a sort of strict 
regimental order, which seldom, we 
suspect, converts those irregular un- 
systematic spirits among whom most 
of our unbelievers are found, — this 
was bis favourite fonn, and, in an evil 



hour, thus did he persuade the good 
careless Amelia Opie, whose forcible 
words were almost always chance 
words, to drill her later works into the 
proof aud inference line. She found 
out the mistake, and rued it when too 
late. 

We return with a sense of relief 
to the home ministry. Here, indeed, 
Mr. Gurney was almost unrivalled. 
Beloved, revered, almost adored in 
Norwich and Norfolk, there was no 
good work which did not go on the 
better for his presence; none which 
did not feel the benefit of his sagacity, 
his gentleness, his zeal, and his bounty. 

What a day was that when it was 
announced in the old city that its be- 
nefactor was dying — was dead, How 
did business jtand still, and pleasure 
])ause. How did tears gather in the 
eyes of men who had scarce ever been 
seen to shed them, and a sad and 
mournful silence pervade the most 
crowded places. These are the testi- 
monies which never can be falsified — 
the dumb utterance of looks of con- 
iiternation cast one at another, the 
feeling of a loss never to be repaired. 
The volumes that speak of Mr. Gurney 
may be little read ; but the traditionary 
remembrance of what he was cannot 
pass away. 



_ " OUR LA.DIES OP ST. CYR," 1666—1793. 

Hiiloirc lie la Moisoo Royale de St. Cyr. Par Tbeophile Lavallee. 8vo. Paris, 1 853. 



THE foundation of the "' Maison 
Royale de St. Cyr" is a pleasing chapter 
in the history of the reign of Louis 
the Fourteenth. The characters of the 
King and of Sladame de Maintenon 
are here seen in graceful contrast. 
Royal munificence, good feeling, and 
a truly noble condescension combine 
with clear judgment, sincere piety, and 
a strict sense of duty, in a work of 
great soiial good. 

At the close of the civil war of the 
" Fronde " the influence of the feudal 
system as regarded the great vassals 
of the state ceased. The nobility might 
still command the services of their 
retainers, but they could no longer 
summon them in battle array against 
the crown. Loyalty was now the point 
of honour, as formerly dis.itTection the 
sign of patriotism. To the hatred of 



Mazarin had succeeded the love of 
Louis, and with the latter was asso- 
ciated also that love of France, that 
earnest ambition for her glory, which 
is so honourable a characteristic of her 
citizens. 

The whole svstem of warfare wa« 
also changed. Tlie land was no longer 
overrun or occupied by the titled 
chiefs of predatory bands, mustered 
under the banners of the Duke de 
Guise, the Prince de Cond^, or of 
d'Espemon. A standing army, sub- 
ject to the strictest discipline, kept on 
active service, was now formed. This 
service wag the sole profession, the 
sole ambition of the French nobility. 
The ceaseless waves of death have en- 
gulphcd generation after generation of 
their race, but not one has witnessed 
the decline or the decay of their chival- 



140 



«« Our Ladies of Si. Cyr," 1686—1793. 



[Aug. 



rous spirit. As it was in the days of 
Charlemagne so it was in the days of 
Napoleon. Averse as they were to all 
other professions, unequal to the culti- 
TBtiou of their estates, war was also to 
them necessary as a means of support. 
To the higher classes the monarchy 
oflered hotix wealth and honour ; but 
the lower were seen either in daily 
attendance at Versailles, soliciting the 
aid of their superiors to obtain the 
gifts of the crown, or else pas.sed their 
live* as the "hoberau.x" of the pro- 
vinces, occupied in field snorts, still 
nourishing their love of mditary ail- 
veuture by the daily perusal of the 
romances of Scudery and of Calpre- 
nede, amid the wasted grandeur of their 
ancestral " manoirs." Louis respected 
their poverty ; he recognised their 
claims alike from gratitude as from 
policy. He desired to attucli all classes 
of the nobility to his service. Their 
devotion was the chief means towards 
the gain of what he deemed glory, their 
dependence the security of his despotic 
power. He attracte<l them therefore 
to court, sought to maintain them by 
pensions, assignments upon various 
revenues, ond the increase of patent 
places, lo an incredible extent. In ad- 
dition ho founded the Hotel des In- 
vaiides, for old or wounded officers; 
the Company of Cadets, wlierein at least 
4,000 sons of the higher classes were 
educated ; and, finally, St. Cyr. The 
establishment of the latter is due ex- 
clusively to the generous charity of 
Madame dc Maintenon. About 1G74 
two ladies, Mesdames de Brinon and 
de St. Pierre, hnd endeavoured to 
establish a school for a few daughters 
of the nobility at Montmorency. They 
failed, and in their distress applied for 
aid to Madame dc Alaintenon; it was 
. liberally given, and in 1G80 she fur- 
nished a house for them at Ruel, de- 
fraying the cost of education also of 
sixty pensioners. The expenses, how- 
ever, soon exceeded her resources, and 
she applied to the king for aid, on 
the ground of the assistance Ruel 
would alford to the families of the 
nobility and poorer gentry. Louis 
willingly complied; he assigned the 
Chateau of Noisy, allotted a sum of 
30,000 livrcs for its adaptation to 
this purpose, and promised to supply 
the funds requisite for the support of 
one hundred inmates. The removal 




from Ruel to Noisy took place Febru- 
ary 3, 1684. The success of the at- 
tempt was soon rumoured nt court, 
and the ladies besought Madame de 
Maintenon to be allowed to witness 
her triumph. She refused until, from 
their favourable report, she argued the 
means for future success upon a larger 
scale. They visited it therefore under 
her escort. Praise resounded on nil 
sides. The dauphiness next went, and, 
finally, the king. He came suddenly, 
almost unattcmled, stopping only, with 
rare delicacy, and as he subsequently 
always did, to change his hunting 
dress for " uu habit decent." Louis 
entered fully into all the details of the 
establishment, and expressed himself 
so satisfied, that Madame de Maintenon 
was at once induced to urge him to 
erect a royal house for the maintenance 
and cduciitionof the daughters of those 
noble fiunilies who were the support 
of his throne, and witb whose names 
the great events of his reign were 
associated. Pere la Chaise seconiled 
the application, Louvois opposed it, 
Louis hesitated; " Never, he said, had 
a Queen of France indulged a similar 
project." 

Madame de Maintenon was firm; 
she recalled to Louis what he had done 
for the sons of these families, and 
shewed how much more their daughters 
needed his support. "Good example," 
she said, " is the result of good educa- 
tion ; those feelings of devotion to the 
crown, that identity of personal interest 
wilh the throne, that habit of de- 
pendence upon him so requisite to 
maintain his power, the piety he de- 
sired to establish, would," she added, 
" be largely cucouriiged and deve- 
loped by these means.' Louis yielded 
royally ; St. Cyr never from that day 
was deprived of the protection of his 
race. Prodigality to St. Cyr was one 
of the criiiics charged against Louis 
the Eighlucnlh. It wns determined 
to support, until twenty years of age, 
250 young ladies, and for this end the 
house and the estate of the Marquis 
de Brisson were purchased at a cost of 
91,000 livre-s and on the 9th April, 
1 Gm5, the new establishment was com- 
menced after the designs of Mansard, 
and the grounds were laid out by Le 
Notre. But Mansard's selection of 
the site was ill-advised, and St. Cyr 
has always suirere<l from the results 



1854.] 



"Our Ladies of St. CS/r" 1686—1793. 



t4t 



of his oversight. The most difBeult 
^ point to overcome were the constitu- 
Ltions. Louis disliked the conventual 
life, especially at the gates of Versailles. 
He despised its education, which con- 
' sisted in the cultivated idleness of em- 
broidery, and the perusal of the lives 
I of saints, leaving its disciples void of 
the most common knowledge. After 
: much discussion, the rules and regula- 
, tions of St. Cyr were drawn up by the 
' Kinjj, Fere la Chaise, Racine, Uuileaii, 
Uadame de Maintenon, and Maduuie 
t de Biron. They provided the course 
' of a sound and useful instructiou ; and 
' the ladies of the council appear to have 
I been equally urgent for rules to secure 
I a becoming touet to develope the 
charms of graceful manners and of an 
1 attrictive figure, as the others were to 
extend education to the cultivation of 
I the mind and the imagination, whilst all 
I Aimed at the inculcation of the highest 
I moral purity. Madame de Mainlcnun's 
' letters, in this respect, reflect the highest 
liionour on bur memory. She had 
1 (ounded the ground upon which the 
( throne of France rested ; she saw it was 
\ built upon that which would become 
I the crater for the outburst of the lava 
j of human passions, and she sought to 
Lprovide a channel for its conduct from 
the land. She failed : it is not less her 
honour to have attempted. 

UponAug.2, 1686,St.Cy^wa8defini- 
. lively opened. Soon after the court 
iTisits commenced. The first that came 
waa Madame de Montcspan, accom- 
panied by Mademoiselle dc Blois and 
the Duke de Maine, her children by 
Lthe King. They were followed by 
.loais, who minutely surveyed the 
_ Bouse and gj-ounds. As he passed 
through the Tatter he was greeted with 
the following hymn, sung by three 
, hundred of the " Demoiselles de St. 
uyr," of which the words are by Ma- 
"»rae de Urinon, and the music com- 
«ed by Lulli, — a composition exhibit- 
^Ing a curious similarity with our God 
BBve the King : — 

Grand Dien, saavet le Roi ! 
Grand Dien, veDge: le Roi ! 

Vive le Roi ! 
Qa' ii jamais glorieox 
Louis victorieox 
Vojre ae» ennemia 
Toujoars soumis I 
Grand Dieu, uuvez le Roi, he. 

The hymn sung, every young lady 



was presented to the King. Louis 
shewed the interest he felt by the 
kindest inquiries in all matters rulatiug 
to their education, their health, the 
means for their social pleasures, and 
material comforts; "and this man," 
says St. Simon, " the exhausted to\i& 
of pIea^are, whose heart was so rarely 
sensible of a pure feeling, thanked 
Madame de Maintenon, with much 
emotion, for the good she had securcd- 
to France, and the pleasure she hud 
ensured to' him." During the next 
six years the education of St. Cyr was 
gradually developed ; but the produc- 
tion of "Esther " is so interesting a point 
in the social history of the court of-J 
France, and is so associated with the 
literary fame of Racine, thatwepropose 
to trace its history. 

It has been shewn that Lonis dis* 
liked the conventual institutions of | 
his day. Madame dc Maintenon, still 
under the iniluencc of the pulii>hed 
society she had known at the Hotels J 
Uichelicu and D'Albret, shared thia-' 
feeling. Her clear judgment was mis- 
led ; she strove to combine the sup- 
posed purity derived from conven- 
tual discipline with those somewbat>^ 
mundane accomplishments she so highly ■ 
prized. Her fault was that of self-* 
reliance ; conscious of her own powers, 
she argued too favourably of those of 
others — it is the weakness of strong 
and liberal minds. "To induce oup 
pensioners to love virtue," she wrote, 'i 
"we should impress their minds with" 
elevated feelings ; they should be edu- 
cated Chrislianly, reasonably, nobly; 
taught to be unselfish, generous, and '■ 
compassionate towards the poor andl 
the afllicled, aflfable and courteous to-^ 
all, observant of the strictest probity^ 
of thought." With this she enjoined^ 
also the charms of a refined iniugina-J 
tioD, grace in manner, appropriate- 1 
ness of costume, and a pure style of 
easy conversation and writing. In fact, 
her demoiselles de St. Cyr were to 
combine the innocence of sisters Agnes 
or Theresa of the Ursulines of the Rue 
St. Thomas, with the manners and ac- 
couplishments of the ladies of the court 
of Versailles. Such a system has ita3 
di£Sculties ; it had, as we shall see, its^ 
dangei's, which entirely change<l the 
origmal intention of the institution ofj 
St. Cyr. 

In order to cultivate a f nste for pore 



142 



• Our Ladies of St. Cyr," 1686—1793. 



[Aug. 



composition, and to impress her pupils 
witli the resources of tbeir own lan- 
guage, <leclamation:i from the works of 
tbe best writers were encouraged. 
Portions of Corneillo and of I^cine 
were performed; and, pleased with the 
talent displayed, but fearful of the 
results of the eloquence oi' amatory 
poetry, Madame de Muintcnon solicited 
from Racine a plaj upon some purely 
moral theme, in which both song and 
recital should be united. Esther was 
the result, — a play remarkable for the 
beauty of its language, but devoid of 
sufficient individual interest to excite 
the feelings of the reader. Madame 
de Maintenon resolved upon its repre- 
sentation ; Boileau and Racine selected 
the ladies for the parts, and rarely has 
a poet's genius been rendered more 
impressive, by the union of beauty, 
fine voices, and the most careful elocu- 
tion. Louis honoured the first public 
representation with his presence, Jan. 
26, 1689, accompanied only by a few 
of the royal family. Ills apfu-obation 
became of course the conversation of 
the court. Asecondrcpresentationwas 
now earnestly solicited. He consented, 
but limited the auditory solely to some 
of the highest dignitaries of the Church, 
and to Madame de Miramion. To 
withstand further solicitations after 
this was impossible. Esther and the 
dramatis personie were (he themes 
of all the saloons of Paris ; to have 
witnessed a representation was distinc- 
tion, to obtain nn invitation the ambi- 
tion of many months. The strictest 
etiquette wus observed ; the King actc<l 
olVen OS door- keeper, stood there with 
his curie uplifti^^d, and pi^rmilled none 
to enter without the cui'd of invitation. 
Upon his taking his seat, the doors 
were closed, Uoilenu and Racine were 
alone allowed behind the scenes. The 
most brilliant of these representations 
was that of Feb. 5, 1689. James the 
Second had just arrived, and to this 
Louis invited him, showed him over 
the establishment, explained its pur- 
pose, and received him amid the circle 
with the most attentive consideration. 
Here also was present ^ladame de 
Sorigne, as we learn from her Letters. 

We went on Snturda^ to St. Cyr, Ma- 
dame de ConUngcs, Madame de Ilagnols, 
'adame de Teitu with me. Madame 
•ngei was seated by Msdime de 
m; "foryon,"sbe>aid,addressiDg 



me, " select the seat you prefer.'' So I 
placed myself with Madame de Bagnoli 
in the second row behind the ducheSMS ; 
the Mar^cbal de Bclleronds was on my 
right, and before me Metdamrsd'AuTcrgiie, 
de Coitlin, et de Sully. I cannot describe 
the pleaiurable emotioni excited by this 
play. It i< a combination of poetry, 
mufie, of situation and dramatic imper- 
sonation 10 complete, that both the mind 
and the heart aie i^ratilied, and the imagi- 
nation feels no lingering desire. I was 
charmed, the Marshal also, who left his 
Beat to express to the King how much we 
had enjoyed the favour he had extended. 
The King, with that " I'air chex lui qui 
lui dunnoit uae duuceur trap aimable,'' 
came immediately tonardt me, intimated 
moit gracefully hia satisfaction at my pre- 
sence, and warmly applauded Raciue and 
the performers, 

St. Cyr was now the fashion, the 
theme of the courtiers' adulation, and 
ita inmates the objecti of that excited 
and olt undignified interest we aaso- 
ciate with those who promote our 
public pleasures. Eatber, Racine, and 
the demoiselles of St. Cyr became the 
u|)era of Paris to tlie Parisian of that 
day. The bad influence of this waa 
soon apparent. The " demoiselles," in- 
stead of practising the virtues of hu- 
mility, or self-denial, of contempt of 
personal charms, and of worldly plea- 
sures, instead of devoting their minds 
to the perusal of the saintly works their 
ronfeason recommendeil, instead of 
employing themselves in works of in- 
dustry to ameliorate the sufferings of 
the poor — virtue.s nt which Mndime 
de Maintenon aimed, the practice of 
which she daily enjoined — lost at once 
nil desire for such spiritual perfection. 
Pride, vanity, and love of the good 
repiitu of the world made their appear- 
ance. They became solicitous aboat 
dress, imagined they formed a part of 
the court, and affected in conversation 
the tone of the saloons. The comedies 
of Moliere and the romances of Made- 
moiselle de Scudery were clandestinely 
read, and prel'erreii to the " Bible Ex- 
tract " or the " Spiritual Exercincs of 
St. Francis." They avoided the study 
of the usual class-books, lest they 
slioulii incur the danger of an impure 
style, and ceased to join in the hymns 
of the Church for fear that choral sing- 
ing should injure their voices. Nor 
was this all. Love, if not really an in- 
mate within the walls, fluttered around. 



1854.] 



« Our Ladies of St. Cyr" 1686—1793. 



143 



and powerfully influenced their young 
imaginations. Dreams of conquest, of 
great niatrimonial nlliances, disturbed 
the eren tenor of their wny. Muny of 
the actresses in Esther had been se- 
lected for their beauty ; and this, com- 
bined with the charms of a fine vuic6. 
and grace of manner, soon led captive 
some of the leading nobles. A few 
fortunate marrio^cji, the realisation of 
their dreams, excited the minds of nil 
the rest. Could Madame de Main- 
tenon be surprised ? " Car de songer," 
tayi Mademoiselle de la Fayette, " de 
songer que trois cents jeunes filles, qui 
y demeurent jusqu'a vingt ans, ct qui 
ont a leur porte une cour reniplic lie 

fens eTeill6s, — ile croire que de jeunos 
lies, et de jeunes hommes, soicnc si 
pres les uns des autres sans sautcr les 
marailles — oela n'est pas raisonnuhic ! " 
She was right; but the demoiselles de 
StCyr must not be judged nevertheless 
as pictured by Alesai\aer Dumas. 

The necessity of an imraediutc re- 
form was evident. The representations 
of Esther were slopped, the visits of 
the court nuide more mfrcquent. The 
occupations of the inmates were next 
defined by strict rules. Instruction 
was limited to the perusal of religious 
bookaormere technical manuals. Sing- 
ing was confined to the choral service 
of the Church, or an occasional ode in 
honour of Louis. The Abbe Gobelin 
was directed to preach to the sister- 
hood upon the dangers and sinfulness 
of vsnity, love of dress, ond worldly 
pride, which he did with such success 
■a to endear the past by contrast more 
effectually to their imaginations. In 
the meantime Racine produced his 
"Athalie." The hope of court homage, 
of the King's approval, and of tlie 
honours of the dramatic representation 
revived; but, olaa! Athalie was acted 
once only before the court, Racine 
withdrew from St. Cyr, and his muse 
was succeede<l by a few wretched pieces, 
such a< the .Jonathan of DuchiS and 
the Judith of Boyer. A change so 
groat could not be effected without 
murmura, and a somewhat femininely- 
expressed resistance. The persuasive 
reason, the winning kindness of Ma- 
dame de Maintenon, easily overcame 
the discontent of the demoiselles ; but 
Madame de Brinon, their superior, a 
woman natorally fond of the elegances 



of life, and whose vanity waa excited 
to a ridiculous excess by the conde- 
scending notice of the King and the 
imprudent favours of her benefactress, 
openly refused obedience to the rules, 
declined to listen to the advice of the 
Bishop of Chartres, and endeavoured 
to form a party among the inmates of 
St. Cyr. As the peccant part could 
not be cured, it was sharply excised. 
On the 10th Dec. 1688, a lettre de cachet 
arrived, commanding her instant re- 
moval into a convent. She retired to 
the abbey of Maubuisson, where her 
great intellectual powers were enga<;ed 
as the means of communication between 
Leibnitz and Bossuet for that fabulous 
project, the reunion of the Roman Ca- 
tholic and Reformed Churches. Hence- 
forth opposition was silenced, and every 
measure was adopted to conduce to 
the settlement of St. Cyr as a religious 
institution. The process was so strin- 
gent that the minds of the inmates 
were nearly reduced to a state of stu- 
pidity. They became so innocent, and 
so simple withal, that Mademoiselle de 
St. Etienne said with truth, " Nos 
tiUes u'ont plus lo sens commun." 
Aladamc de Maintenon now enjoined 
a relaxation of the rules. A more 
liberal course of instruction was per- 
mitted ; but, to guard against the pos- 
sible influence of any future mundane 
temptations, the establishment was 
placed under the religious guardian- 
ship of the priests of St. Lazare, who 
undertook it with great reluctance, 
as men fearful of its temptations and 
its troubles. 

For a time matters progressed 
xmoolhly, but an influence was now 
exerted which entirely changed the 
constitutions of St. Cyr. Notwith- 
standing her firm judgment and unim- 
passioned sensibility, Madame de Main- 
tenon wa.s singularly under the influence 
of her own vivid imagination. She 
desired earnestly — she executed tho- 
roughly what she willed ; but she ex- 
aggerated both good and evil, and advo- 
cated opinions ofttimes not so much 
from her own conviction of their im- 
port, but because they were those of 
others whom she too much idolised, 
or to whom she too much submitted 
her judgment. It happened that at 
this time the Abbe Desmarets had by 
his rigid piety obtained a great as- 



144 



' Our Ladies of St, Cyr," 1686—1793, 



[Aug. 



oendsDcy over her mind. Loni«, never 
oeanng to further the permanent pros- 
perity of St. Cyr, hiul recently endowed 
It with the a^batlol revenues of St. 
Deois. Innocent the XI. refused his 
eoDseot to this donation of church 
property for secular purposes ; but his 
sticcessor, Alexander VlII. conceded 
the point. But Desmarets, the Bishop 
of Chartrcj, could not sec with satis- 
faction the funds of the church so ap- 
plied. Lie resolved to make St. Cyr a 
MMtTentual instiCutiuD, and, notwith- 
■Unding the reluctance of Louis, he 
finally sucoeeded, and the Maison de 
St. Cyr became a monastery of the 
order of St Augustine, Dec. 1, 169*2. 

For many years St Cyr knew peace ; 
but it was destined to be disturbed by 
a cause which, tridiog in its origin, be- 
came important in its eflects, by the 
ereatness of the champions it enlisted. 
Madame Guyon, a young widow, a 
woman of some considerable talent, of 
irreproachable mnrals,butinlluenced by 
an exaltc<i imagination which umounteil 
almost to lunacy, had spread among 
a circle of her admirers the opinions 
now known ai " Quietism." This con- 
sisted, so far us its airy nothiugs could 
be collected and defined, in mental 
abstraction, the absolute repose, the 
ideal perfection of a soul absorbed iu 
the love of God, — iiidifferent to the 
world, abnegating all vulitioii, neither 
by the fear of punishment nor 
niraated by the hope of rewai-d, and 
' which has no necessity to be sustained 
by good works, active only in contem- 
plation. Iler real piety, the winning in- 
fluence of her manners and of hi^rcon- 
rersatioD, obiuined for her the protec- 
'w uf Madame de Maintenon, who 
eleaaed her from the cloistered im- 
Tiri5unment of a convent to which she 
had b-""i '•••T'Oned for her opinions 

S' iLo ]) of Paris. Throu;^b 

fill' -, her celebrated cousin, 

-^ ' Miiisotkforl, tbe was intro- 

li . - Cvr. 

Here lie: 'rim, the mingled 

nubility uu -^ of her man- 

ners, the iuUueuue of a flowing culti- 
vated elo(]ueoce, expressive of the 

~ '^ £uioies »he iuuuleed, soon won 

minds. Her doctrines 

■ ad, her mystic po<"try be- 

Mguagefor their utterance. 

was now heard but dretUBj 




descriptions of the unutterable plea- 
sures of pure love, of the bliss of spiri- 
tual abandonment, of holy indiflerence 
to the earthly occupadons of life, and 
the duty of resigning the faculties to 
seraphic contemplations of the i 
In fact, religion became the indu _ 
of a sensuous spiritualism ; its syn 
mystic poetry, its obligations iiUe me- 
ditations. ' True, acts of piety were 
enjoined; but all spiritual excellence 
was taught as iitspired and jierfccted, 
not so much by faith, devout reason, 
or the sense of moral obedience, as by 
the mystical exaltation of the ima- 
gination. These doctrines, perhaps, 
would have passed away as the ae- 
cline of a transitory enthusiasm, had 
they not had the support of Feneloo. 
Madame Guyon bad been encouraged 
by his approbation. Uis manners * 
grand seigneur," his eloquent tiit 
the tendencies of his imagination 
of hik feclingg, his acknowl^ged purity, 
all led him early to appreciate her 
qualities, and to associate himself with 
her ideas. But it was otherwise with 
Bossuet and Desmarels the Bi&hop of 
Chartres. They warned Madame de 
Maintcnon of toe heresy of these doc- 
trines. Amazed, she found that all St 
Cyr was Quietist ! Once to be alarmed 
was once to be resolved. Madame 
Guyon was forbidden to visit St Cyr. 
Madame de Maisonfort was induced 
to retire. But their influence was not 
immediately overcome ; the writings 
of Madame Guyon, her letters, and 
those of Fenelon, were copied and 
surreptitiously read. At length tiia 
" Maximcs des Saintes" of FeneUm 
challenged public attention. They were 
denounced by Bossuet to the King. 
Louis, who hated mysticism, banished 
Feuelon to his diocese, and deprived 
him of the place of tutor to the Due de 
Bourgogne. The writings of Madmme 
Guyon, aud their authoress, were un- 
relentingly pursued by Bossuet. After 
imprisonment in the Bastille, M^H^hm 
Guyon retired to Blois, where she died 
June 9, 1717, after many years spent 
in the practice of the sincerest piety. 
The troubles connected with Quietism 
nearly lost iladame de >laintenon the 
affections of the King: his anger threw 
her upon a sick bed. 

Finally St. Cyr became to both a 
■ouroe of iwppiiteas snd of consoUtion. 




1854.] Manmcvipls of the lute Sir JVilliam Betfutin. 



145 



It was here that Louis (Iclighted to nar- 
rate the victories of Lis armies. It was 
before the altar of St. Cyr, that, when 
stricken with severe doaiestic cainmit^r, 
broken by the adverse results of his 
state policy, his armies defeated, bis 
kingdom wasted by famine, Louis 
obtained the inward strength which 
enabled him to endure reversci. In 
August, 1715, he died. Henceforth 
St. Cyr was the asylum of Madame do 
Maintenon : there she found repose, 
August 15, 171D, aged 84. Her body 
was buried with great rcligiou.<< so- 
lemnity in the choir. In 1704 the 
workmen occupied after tlie suppres- 
sion of St. Cyr as a monastery, upon 
its alteration to an hospital, discovered 
the tomb: it was violated, and the 
body, still i)ei'fect as embalmed, was 
ordered by a wretch of the name of 
Delaunay to be disinterred. A rone 
WAS put round the neck, and, amid 
Mvage cries, it was drawn through the 
streets to a public grave in the neigh- 
bouring cemetery. In 1802 the body 
nupin exhumed, and laid beneath 
^^VioDaing monument before the 
ftxttisishc had occumed. In 1805, by 
orders of General Dutueil, the body 
was a;;ain taken up, and the remains 
thrown into a broken chi^st in an ad- 
jacent outhouse. lu 1830 Colonel 
' '^nrnguay d'Hillicrs erected a monu- 
ment in the chapel to her memory : 



the remains were collected, and thus 
inscribed : — 

Ci gitMiilame de Maiiitenoo, IG35 — 1719. 

Such were the iiuliguities, such the 
late respect, paid to the foundress of the 
Muison Itoyale de St. Cyr, the bene- 
factress of the daughters of the no- 
bility of France. In thone words are 
all that now recalls the munificence of 
Louis, and the affectionate goodness of 
heart of Ikladame de Maintenon. Not 
one memori;U remains to remind the 
youth which occupies the rooms, once 
tenanted by so much beauty nud by 
so much virtue, of the other grateful 
associations of the past. The spot 
honoured by the genius of Kacine, 
the church endeared by the preach- 
ing of Bossuct and of Kenelon, the in- 
struction which has had so important 
an influence upon French society and 
the French language, all have been 
allowed to fade from the sweet me- 
mories of life by the ingratitude of 
modern institutions. 

Wo owe to ISIonsieur Lavallee a 
work of great interest on this subject, 
and reconnnend its perusal ; and are 
glad to be able to strengthen our com- 
mendations by ihe valuable authority 
of Monsieur do St. Beuve,* t-o whose 
agreeable paper upon this subject we 
now make our acknowledgments. 



MANUSCRIPTS OP THE LATE SIR WILLIAM BETHAM, ULSTER. 



Ix the memoir of Sir William Betliam, 
in oar tlogazine for December last, we 
fife some pnrticulars of his Urge Manu- 
script Collections, a portion of which he 
trutsferred bj sale to the Royal Irish 
Academy. The greater part of those which 
were in bi^i poase&iion at the time of his 
ilcaih were dispersed by auction by Messrs. 
Solbeby and Wilkinson on the 1st of 
June, Of these we proceed to give some 
■couuDt, with their prices and purchasers' 
names ; attempting some degree of claasi- 
ficttion, iuslciul of proceeding directly in 
the order of the Catalogue. 

Ancient ilanuacriplt. 

Opuscola S, Fulberli Epitcopi C'aruo- 
Irnsii, on vellnm, Htb cent. 5/, British 
Museum. 

Hare B. Mariie Virgiuis : with illumi- 



nations, lith cent., on vellam. 85/. 10*. 
BohQ. 

Liber Pronosticorum de Futaro Secalo, 
Juliani Epiacopi Toletani, on vellum, 
15th cent. 3/. 10». W. 

Officium S. Trinitatis, nn English ser- 
vice-book of the lath cent., on vellum. 
10/. Upham. 

Orosii Inlcrrogantis et Aagustini Re- 
spondentis Dialogiu, on vellum, ISth 
cent. 10/. 10(. Upham. 

Patrum Sanctorum Traolatus varii, on 
vcUum, 13th cent. 11/. lit. Upham. 

Rogeri de Waltham, Canouici Londi- 
uensis, Compendium Morale de quibua- 
dam Uictis et Factis exemplaribua anti- 
quorum Regum, I'rincipum, et Philoio- 
phonim, on vellum, of 14th or 15tb cent. 
27/. Upham. 

Concilium Genersle, coataining the 4th 



* Cauaeriee de Lnndi, tome viii, 1854. 
Gmt. Mao. Vol XLU. U 



146 



MaiHueript* of the late Sir William Betham. [Ang. 



lAteran Coaneil, in which th« Albigeniei 
were eondemncd, on Tellmo, 14th cent. 
10/. Upham. 

Original Records. 

Minute Book of the borongh of Ba- 
nagher, from 1693 to 1749. 3/. British 
llnsenm. 

Boyle Papera, chiefly relating to the 
Iriah Con«piracy in 1598. 6l.6t. Boone. 

Book of Letten to the Duke of Ormond 
at Dublin Caatle, 1712. 5<. 15«. 

▲cconotf kept bj the Troateei ap- 
pointed by act of parliament for tale of 
Sir Thomas Hackett's estate in I'OR. 
1/. 10s. Boone. 

Liber Begalis Visitationis in tribns Pro- 
vineiis Uibemise, Tirtnte Commissionis 
Bagis Jscobi, 1615, apparently the fair 
eepy of the Commissioners' Report, of 
wUch the original draft, in a mutilated 
eondition, is in the Prerogative Office, 
Dublin. 31/. British Museum. 

Entries of Recognizances in the Cliancery 
of Ireland, from Eliz. to Cliarles I. These 
(being lots 80 to 85 inclusive) were all 
pnrchased by Mr. Boone, for sums 
■monntiog in all to 30/. 1 5«. 

Irish SUtutes SUpIe from 1639 to 
1663. 6/. Ibt. Boone. 

Tb« Uke from 1C73 to 1678. 10/. 10s. 
Boooe. 

Order* in Council for the Aflairrs nf 
Inland. 6/. 6«. British Museum. 

Oopiet o/Reeordi, l(e. 

He Domesday Boke of Dyrelyn Citie, 
tmnscribed firom the original in the pos- 
leision of the Corporation of Dublin by 
Sr W. Betham, and illustrated by several 
Baps and plans, including one on vellum 
dated 1610, and Brooking's rare Map 
1788, which hat been sold by auction for 
U.\U.6d. 19/. Halliday. 

CoUecUnea de Bebni Hiberaids 1173 
—1600, a thick folio volume, supposed to 
i* aopfed from the Lodge collection. 
l«l. 16*. Boone. 

Aanals of Ireland, from 1559 to 1686, 
Am. of the latter date. 8/. 8s. Boone. 

Mte. Mtrvfm ArekdaWt CoUeelimu. 

It o a n rt c a n Hiberaicnm 1786, 4to. in- 
talMnad with a dditi oas for a new edi- 
1km.4L 

Cella rt loM for the HittorT of Irish Cas- 
d«, AbUes, &e. S/. 10s. 

CoB e e ten ea Honaatica Hibemist. 2/ 1 5t. 

CoUeedons relaUra to Irish Topogra- 
fl^ IL lis. "^ 

ThMe wan an pnrehased by Mr. Boone. 

Mr. Jthm Ladgt-t CoUtetima. 
«ript, in sixteen folio volnmea, of 
kal CoUectiont of John Lodge, 
fidand. 155/. Boone. (For 



the originals of this serie* an annnity of 
500/. was granted by government to the 
widow of Mr. Lodge.) 

Parochiale Hibcroicnm, being an ac- 
connt of the Churches in the different 
Dioceses of Ireland : with a corrected copy 
of the Valor Beneficiorum Ecde*. in 
Hibemia, printed in 1741. 7/. 7s. Boone. 

Sir Jamtt Ware's ColUclioni. 

The original MS. of his Antiquities of 
Ireland. 6/. W. 

Writers of Ireland, original MS. SI. 
lOs. W. 

Annals of Ireland from 1168 to 1319. 
Ss.— The like, from 1485 to 1558. 7s.— 
The like, from 1558 to 1586. 5s. In the 
handwriting of Robert Ware. Neligan. 

Sir William Betham's own ifSS. 

Abstract of the Irish entries on the Rolls 
in the Tower of London : and the Chartn- 
lary of the abbey of St Thomas the Mar- 
tyr in Dublin. 6/. 15s. Boone. [Here it 
a copy of this chartulary in the possession 
of Charles Hsiiday, esq. of Monkstowo 
Park, near Dublin.] 

Abstract of the Statutes of Ireland, from 
Hen. VI. to Rich. III. and of the Pro- 
ceedings in Psriiament 10/. lOs. Boone. 
[Probably taken from Harris's Abstract 
of the Statutes in the Library of the Dublin 
Society.] 

Extracts from the Chancery Recogni- 
xances of Ireland; and Statutes Staple. 
21. 6: Boone. [The originals were also 
sold in this sale : see under Reeords."] 

Historical Notices of the county of 
Dublin. I/. 4s. Hsmilton 

Historical Account of the Royal Regi- 
ment of Foot of Ireland, now the 18th 
Foot. 3/. 6s. Boone. [See Brigadier 
Stearoe's MS. mentioned hereafter.] 

Historical Memoirs of the Geraldine 
Earls of Desmond. 3/. 5f. Boone. 

List of all the Knights made in Ireland 
from 1565 to 18.^9: with their arms 
painted. 8/. 15s. 

Inrollmenis relstive to Counties Pala- 
tine or District libeitiet in Ireland. 81. 
Boone. 

Syllabus Chartarnm et Literarnm Pa- 
tentinm de Rebus Hibemicis. 13/. 13s. W. 

Tnnslationt of Iiiah Poems. 2/. 8s. 
Boone. 

The Death of Conlaeh son of Cucnllen, 
and other Poems, translated from the 
Irish. IBs. Boone. 

Remsrks on the Sovereign Roman Pon- 
tiffs from 1148 to 1659, with reference to 
the prophecy of St. Malachy archbishop 
of Armsgb, translated from the French ol 
Michael Gorgen, and continued by Sir 
WiUiam Betham to 1847, under the at- 
nimed name of Walter Butler. 4/. W. 

Dnwinp of Irish Antiquities, with 



1854.] 



Manmcripli of the late Sir William Betham. 



147 



2 



■ 



tntograph descriptions by rariotu aott- 
qnariea. f)j. 8>. W. 

Irish Glossaries. 10/. Boone. 

A transUtion of Gioseppe Micnii on 
the Ancient People of Italy, that is, the 
Etruscans. T»o rols. folio. W. 10. Ha- 
milton. 

A tnosUtion of the Poemi ucribed to 
Oisin, or Ossian, with notes. 21. 18«, 
Boone. 

The Works attributed to Saint Patrick 
translated, 4/, Boone. 

Sanasan Cbonnaic. Corumc's Glossar 
of the Irish language, with an Engli: 
transhtion. 6/. fit. Boone. 

Woman's Parliament, nod other Pieces, 
tranitated from the Irish. H. ir». Talker. 

Avlngrap/i Maniitcrijih. 

Several Iboasand autograph letters ad- 
dressed to Sir W. Betham, bound in 35 
quarto Tolumes. 3J/. 

Lives of the Reformers, Geae.ilogies of 
Dillon and Bath, and Notes on Irish His- 
tory, by Andrew Uath of Coipe, co. Meatb, 
21. 10*. Boone. 

Tlie Common Place Book of Ralph 
Brook, York Herald. 17/. 

Rrgnum Corcagionsc, a description of 
the kingdom of C'orke, by Sir Richard 
Cox, 1687. IW. Us. 

Oion-Seanchtts-Ercnn, n histoi'v of the 
names of the most remarkable Doons, 
Ralha, Palaces, Muuutains, Hills, Lakes, 
Rivers, Wells, Stc. in Ireland, transcribed 
by Owen Cunnellan, esq. Professor of 
Irish at Queen's college, Cork. 17/. 

O'Rcilly'u Iriih-English Dictionary and 
Grammar, interleaved, and filled with 
numerous additiono in the handwriting of 
ProfessorConnelliiu. 29/. BritiahMuacnm. 

Certaine Chroniculary Discourses for 
the yearea of our Lord God lUli', lb'13, 
1614, 1613| by William Farmer, Cliirur- 
ginn. 3/. it. Boone. 

Historical Treatises collected by Richard 
GrosTCDor, son and heir of Sir Richard 
Grosrenor, Bart. 16:17. 3/. I0>. 

Autobiography of General Joseph Holt, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Irish rebels 
in i:9H. it. I0». 

Translation of the Innisfallen Annals, 
by Edward O'Reilly. 1/. I8«. Boone. 

KcBlioice's History of Irclonil, trans- 
lated by Walter Hurte. 5/. 5s. W. 



The same transcribed by Sir W. Betham, 
and prepared for publication. 5/. 5s. W. 

Ninety-five original letters of the Abate 
Luigi Lanzi, author of the History of 
Painting. 3/. W. 

K letter of Oliver Cromwell to his son 
Henry, April 21, 1656, signed "Y* lovinge 
Father Oliver P." 17/. Mr. Monckton 
Milnes. 

Fancies occasionly written on leverall 
occurrences, a volume of the poems of 
Poyne Fisher, Poet Laureate to Oliver 
Cromwell. Small quarto, il. W. 

Divine Fancies, digested into Epi- 
grammes, Meditations, and Observation!, 
by Francis Qnorles. hi. lOs. W. 

History of the House of Ormond, by 
William Roberts, Ulster King of Arms. 
17/. 17s. Butler. 

Collections, Sacred, Newc, and Won- 
derfull of the Catholiqu:s' Sufferings in 
Ireland; by David Rooih, R.C. Bishop of 
Ossory, 1615. II. 1 5s. Boone. 

[This is the original of the rare book 
printed under the title of Analectn Sacra 
Nova et Mira de Rebus Catholicorum ia 
Hibernia per Fide et Religione gestis, &e. 
1617, 19. S vols. Svo. The original Eng- 
lish has not been printed.] 

Account of the most remarkable trans- 
sctioDS which Brigadier Steame has been 
engaged in with tlic Royal Regiment of Foot 
of Ireland, from 16;» to 171ti. 4/. I7«. 6<f. 
Boone. 

Humourous pocuis (unpublished), in 
the handwriting of Dr. Jonathan Swift. 
10/. 10s. Bohn. 

Personal Narrative of an Irish officer 
named Thompson who served from the 
year 1761 in the wars of Germany, with 
Diary to 1798. 5/. I. is. Tasker. 

Notes on the Holy Scriptures, &e. by 
Ebcnczer Warren, Dean of Ossory. 5f. 
Neligan. 

Religious Treatises, by Bishop Tlioroai 
Wilson, il. Neligan. 

The whole day's sale produced the sum 
of 85J/. IGi. It did not include Sir Wil. 
liam Betham's Extracts from the Wills in 
the Prerogative Office at Dublin, nor those 
which were made by Mr. William Lynch 
from the Exchequer Records, and which 
ha purchased for 200/. These, we pre- 
sume, have been sold by bis family to tlie 
Lords of the Treasury for public use. 



148 



CORRESPONDENCE OF SYLVANUS URBAN. 

(Hd Pnbtic l,ibr»rie»— rortnrfto of Sir P. Sldncr— lUmnr Cbnrcb : Dr. Bntlti's Honument— Portnlt 
of John Ilaleii, the Fonniler of Corentry Scbool. 

Oiui Old Public Libhakiks ; Book Catalogues ; and special Librabiks. 



Mr. Urban, — The working ont of the 
recent Acts of Parliament for the establish- 
ment of new Public Libraries has drawn 
attention to our old ones, the mins of 
which are scattered over the whole country. 
These striking proofs of the intelligence of 
oar forefathers are intrinsically valaable ; 
often oootaining, as they do, early editions 
of rare books. But they are iavalaable as 
the nuclei of imprOTed institutions adapted 
to the wants and taste of modem times. 
Scarcely a year has passed since the 
Gentleman's Magazine first appeared, 
without its pages presenting some notices, 
more or less in detail, apon these libraries, 
•nd John Bagford's report of those of 
London has been twice published by Mr. 
Urban. But the subject deserves a more 
elaborate discussion, with the express 
object of directing the Charity Trust Com- 
missioners to abases which seem to set 
common exposure at defiance. It is in 
Uiese stores that the rttrotptctive learning 
is accomulated, latply shown by Admiral 
Smyth, inhis History of the Mediterranean, 
to be of great nautical importance. Old 
tharU are to be found there which ex- 
kibit rocks and shoals correctly marked by 
nsTigators in the middle ages, but which 
the modern Admiralty draftsmen carefully 
IMDOTC from the face of their official 
ekarts. This is proved from a detail of 
mthentic facts recorded by Admiral 
Smyth to have occurred, at the cost of 
irfUions of money, and hundreds of lives, 
ia Uie last SO years in the Mediterranean 
doo*. The modern charts of the Black 
8lRi now so interesting to tu, are remark- 
Ahr incorrect in this respect. 

Its. Leiceater Buckingham* has done 
jnatiea to the more ancient col- 
I thrao^iont Europe ; and he has 
I by a proforion of details, that to the 
ih in the middle ages Europe was 
IIImIj indabted for preserving books of 
wHlil the mere mins are the pride and grief 
of ooUeotors of all opinions. But Mr. 
I niewt w Buckingham has esUblished 
l^at seems to be a new point as to the 
Monaatie libraries of the middle ages. He 
Amis that they were lending libraries. 
They belonged he says " not to the monks 
e, but to the praple ; " in support of 



which view of the case he adduces corioos 
proof in the solemn rebuke issued by the 
Council of Paris in 1212 against certain 
abbots who had discontinued loans from 
their libraries on pretence of injuries done 
to the books. " The lending of books," 
said the Council, " may justly be reckoned 
among tlic most eminent of the works of 
mercy." 

This important fact of the share enjoyed 
by the people in the educational institu- 
tions of Roman Catholic times is illustrated 
by another to which Mr. Buckingham, 
in his wish to do honour to the ecclesiastics, 
has not paid sufficient attention. The 
laity, as well as the churchmen, con- 
tributed largely to the public libraries then 
as since. The will of the Lord Mayor 
William of Walworth shews he possessed 
books. Richard Whittington, the other 
famous Lord Mayor, left his library to 
the Grey Friars, now the Blue Coat 
School. Part of the building remained 
till lately, and even bis books might be 
traced. So Good Duke Humfrey had a 
noble collection at Greenwich ; and sent 
some of it to Oxford, where it is not lost 
sight of. So Judge Littleton in the 15th 
century gave a fine MS. to a village in 
Worcestershire, to be read by all in the 
open church at their pleasure : and the 
examples might be much extended. The 
British have never been a people of castes 
and classes. All of us have a common 
interest in the common wral ; and the only 
thing now needed is to make all capable by 
fitting intelligence to share it. 

The reformers committed a sad error in 
destroying enormons collections of books 
in the monasteries, so justly eulogised by 
Mr. Buckingham. But Protestants since 
the 16th century have done much to repair 
the damage by founding newer public 
libraries. As if however it were the 
destiny of all human institutions to be 
sapped by the under-current of selfishness, 
these have again been exposed to enormous 
dilapidations. 

A sketch of the ruined condition of a 
few of tbem will suffice to shew what the 
Charity Trust Commissioners have upon 
their hands in this department of their 
work. 



"Tk« Bible in the Middle Ages, with remarks on the Libraries, Schools, and 
•d Religions Aspects of Medieval Europe," by Leicester Ambrose Buckingham. 
18S3, p. 136. 



1854.] 



Corre»pondence of Sylvanut Urban. 



149 



CloK to London, at LewidiBni in Kent, 
is a public library attached to the Gram- 
mu School. The rounder'a will, 1657, is 
expi%u as to his intentions to spproprlate 
" all the nppcr rooms over the Grammar 
School for a public library," to which he 
gave his own books, and for its increase 
in " diTinity, history, and other matters," 
be appropriated '^Oi. a-year out of his 
estate, with 5f. per quarter for its 
" keeper." The schoolmaster and the 
iDoambent of I^wisham were to appoint the 
keeper of the library, to which free 
admission was to be allowed for " all well- 
known ministers, for the gentlemen of the 
Hundred of Lewisham, and for all other 
godly students that would frequent it." 

The will of the founder contains other 
proTiaions for the increase of the books, 
and the perpetuity of the benefaction as a 
public library. 

The governors of the charity are a 
powerful London Company, the Leather- 
tellers, who twenty years ago caused a 
Tery cIcTer catalogue of the books to be 
compiled by an able antiquary, Mr. Ulaok ; 
and among tbem are many valuable 
volumes. 

Here seem to be all the conditions of 
locre^s to an important institution— a 
prudent foundntion; a populous neigh- 
boarliood ; and independent supervisors. 
Nevertheless the public character of the 
library is utterly gone. There is no 
keeper of it, as carefully arranged by 
the founder ; and the most intelligent 
iuliabilants of Lewisham do not even 
know of its existence. The schoolmaster 
iuu got it into his own hands, and refuses 
the beat qualified student admission to its 
stores. It is his private properly us 
master ! 

Id Shoreditch, according to Sir H. Ellis 
in hia History of that place, one Dawson 
gave 800 or 9U0 volumrs in I'G:! tu the 
ebun^h ; and the will exists. Mr. Ware, 
in his account of Shoreditch Charities, 
gives tlie catalogue of this library. Dut 
after being carried from pillar to post in 
the last sixty years, it has at Inst got back 
into the church, verifying, as is believed, 
the proverb, that two removeM are worse 
than a lire. The catalogue has entries of 
valuable works not, it may be hoped, lost. 
At Guildford in Surrey things arc in a 
worse rendition. A library attached to 
the Grammar School for more tlian two 
centuries has been libcrully increased by 
the most distinguished men of the day. 
Hales of Eton is amoi>; the benefai'tom ; 
and the Onslows of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries contributed to it. 
Tradition says, like the Lewisham library, 
it ia by right public. Bnt a former master 
turned the room, fitted up originally from 



tbs oaks of a neighbouring pirk, into a 
dormitory for bis boarders, and piled the 
books up in bales out of the way. Here 
once might be seen rare black letter 
volumes, and among them was a Coxton of 
great price, which is believed to be now 
deposited in safer handi iu a neighbouring 
private collection. 

So at Lewes in .Sussex, the incumbent 
of St. Anne's parish in 1707 gave some 
hundred volumes, also to the Grammar 
School, but in trust for public use. The 
original catalogue exists ; but the books 
hove disappeared. The late master turned 
them over to the town constables ; and 
they were at Inpt sold for 57/., to buy a 
fire-engine. 

At Stcyning, in Sussex, the late master 
of the Grammar School was himself 
allowed to appropriate the olJ books, which 
were sold at the disposal of his elTects by 
public auction. Some competition took 
place on this occasion for an Isaac Walton^ 
given by the sage angler himself to that 
school some 200 years ago. 

In Sussex this whole subject is under- 
stood to have been zealously taken up by 
the Archteologicul Society, whose elfortt 
will doubtless be snccetsful iu bringing 
many more of these institutions to light in 
that county. 

In Hereford there is quite a group of 
them in the worst cuiiiiition possible. 
The Vicar.i Choral are the keepers of one 
founded early in the 17th century by 
numerous subscribers, at the head of whom 
was Lord .Scud^more, distinguished in his 
day as a scholar nad a statesman. Not 
loug ago this collection was rolling in a 
deserted chapel. So in the vestiyroom of 
the chii'f church in thii city, another col- 
lection of n later date, and chnincd — 
a circumslauce which seems to imply 
the miscellaneous admission of readers, 
amounting to the public use of the books, 
whenever tlie libr.iry is open. Here, 
however, as in the Vicars Choral Chapel, 
the books had, when seen by the writer, 
melancholy marks of nejjicct. In the 
Cathedral at Heieford is to be seen one of 
the maps of the middle ages traceable to 
remote antiquity, on which the acute 
observations of \dmirjl Smyth may be 
justified. 

I3ut perhaps the worst case is that of 
the Aldrich public lendlug library of 
Henley on Thames, founded in 1727. Dr. 
Charles Aldrich, nephew to the celebrated 
Dean of Christ Church Oxford, was rector 
of Hculey, uud the author of some good 
books recorded in the catalogues under the 
better known niime of his uncle. He gave 
his own library to the inhabitants of his 
parish ond to the ministers of the adjacent 
parishes, to be read in the repomtory and 



150 



Corvetpondence ofSt/lvanui Urban. 



[Aug. 



•Ito to be lent Not long ago this col- 
lection was in the wont possible state ; 
and nearly unlcnowo. 

To arcumuUte the lilce cases erer; 
where, would fill a volume ; end it is a 
gross error to suppose these libraries are 
mere collections of " musty dirinity." 
They abound in good books in all branches 
of learning and science. 

It is also quite an error to suppose that 
ovr hands are tied by the founders to a 
anperstitious obserTSnce of their rules go 
■a to be unable to improve the constitution 
of these libraries. Sir Thomas Bodley, 
when be founded the noble institution in 
Oxford which is graced with his name, 
wrote to the trustees, that the scheme of 
regulations he sent them was not meant 
to be binding on their judgments, like a 
law of the Medes and Persians. He was 
talXj conscious of his own infirmity be 
■aid, and only wished to contribute some- 
thing towards a structure which others 
most complete according to the wants of 
posterity. 

So in the former case, the excellent public 
ItiuUny library of Dr. Charles Aldricb ; 
the founder did not pretend that bis cot- 
lection of 1 7iJ would suit posterity. He 
accordingly, like all other founders of such 
libraries, anticipated it would be increased 
and improved in after times. 

The statute of 7 and 8 Anne provides 
la the same spirit for the improvement of 
pnblic libraries under tlie visitation of the 
bishops and clergy ; altlioogh it may be 
qnestioned whether that statute has not 
been a dead letter these 80 years. 

The Committee of the House of Com- 
mons, whose reports led to the passing of 
Mr. Ewart's I'ublic Libraries Act, pro- 
duced valuable details on the subject ; 
bat it left the great mars of cases un- 
touched ; and the Charity Trust Commis- 
sioners will fail to take proper measures 
for the reform of the abuses which at pre- 
sent destroy the Dserulncss of our old 
libraries unless the subject be sturdily 
discussed. 

Since the publication in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, in 1*88, of the complaint, that 
" public libraries are wanting in England," 
many have been founded by societies, by 
individuals, and by tlic State. It only 
remains to take a suitable survey of our 
stock in this kind, and to complete it 
according to the public wants. 

The proper steps for these ends are, Ist 
tomakeoutalistofall our pnblic libraries ; 
and then to prepare catalogues of them all. 

Upon the much-debated onestlon of 
catalogues, permit me to offer a few 
remarks. 

Iq the United States, a Cointnlion of 
irians last year undertook to settle the 



form of a good catalogue, and a committee 
was appointed to produce a model. The 
labours of that committee are waiteck for 
impatiently. An expression has been re- 
peatedly used on the subject in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, which seems to point 
sensibly at what is wanted in this matter. 
A good catalogue ought to be t finding 
catalogue. To find a book in a library u 
is surely enough to use in the catalogtie 
only just the words which point it out. 
To give the whole title, as is often done, it 
waste of space, and sheer loss of time. 
If this single point be properly attended 
to, the extent of a catalogue wiQ be much 
reduced, and the facility of consulting it 
augmented. The name of the author and 
the aubject, or distinctive signs of an 
anonymous work, the size, date, edition, 
and place where printed are all the facts 
wanted. Most long titles might be reduced 
in the works themselves; and certainly 
otwht not to swell a catalogne. 

The reduction of quantity to be secured 
by attention to this capital point will lessen 
the objection to the increase of the bulk 
of a catalogue by adding chapters of nti- 
jeclt to the chapters of names of authors. 
The ablest scholar is unaware of all that 
hu been published on some subjects ; and 
the most diligent student must depend 
solely upon the information of others re- 
specting the hooks which have appeared 
upon many. To both the catalogue of 
authors will be a meagre help ; whilst that 
of the contents of the library according to 
subjects will be a most instructive and ac- 
ceptable guide. 

It would not be difficult by actual trial 
to test the facility of constructing finding 
catalogues of this character. Lord Sey- 
mour and other Members of the House of 
Commons have proposed to make cata- 
logues for all the libraries in London— < e. 
all the public librariea, not including 
doubtless the joint-stock collections, such 
as the London Institution, the London 
Library, and the like ; the corporation libra- 
ries, such as that at UuUdhsIl; and as the 
companies' halls, thescientific libraries, the 
professional libraries, the missionary libra- 
ries, the parochial libraries, the tract 
libraries, the Bray libraries, the mechanics' 
libraries, and even the libraries of indi- 
viduals for Ufe and sale. Even excluding 
all these, the labour and expense of the 
general catalogue asked for would be 
enormous upon any plan yet settled. 

But an actual trial may be made of an 
improved plan on a moderate scale by 
taking the collections of the great public 
offices, including those of the two House* 
of Parliament, as the subjects of experi- 
ment. Printed books and MSS. of the 
most valuable sort are to be found In 



1854.] 



Corretpondtnce of Sylvanua Urban. 



the Treuury, the Home lad Colonial 
offices, the Admiralty, the Horae Guard*, 
Ordnance, and Woolnricb, in both Homes 
of Parliament, at the Privy Council, in the 
State Paper Office, at Ibi: Board of Con- 
trol, and eUewhere, conceraing logiahition, 
■dmioutration, and statistics. .\t present 
e«ch department probably m quite ignorant 
of stores neit door, most urgently needed 
by it. A general ^ii</j»7 catalogue of tbe 
authors and subjects of ihe books in these 
public departments would have tlie best 
effect, and its supplement would shew Ihe 
deOcieocies of each department in what 
could be obtained from its aeighbours 
or might be supplied by purchases. 

The form of this catalogue of official 
collections might become a model for 
others, snd lead to the general catalogues 
so much dciired. 

The Public Libraries Acts of Parliament 
seem to be defective in not providing for 
ilie cumbination of several small towns 
into one body. 

Under the title of a Special Library of 
Trade and Finance, it has been proposed 
to revive Ihe Institution of Industrial Lite- 
rature and .Science, founded 1 Jt» yenrs ago 
in Westminster by one of the ablest and 
most enlightened men of his lime — William 
Fatertan of Dumfriesshire. 

The Committee of the House of Com- 
moos on Public Libraries recommended 
the formation of " Special" Libraiies in 
our great commercial towns ; and sup- 
ported the wise recommendation by the 
example of Hamburgh, where a eommrrcial 
library, o[>eoed in 17'iO, now contains 
40,000 volumes. Our far-seeing Scotisb 
coanlrjmao, Paterson, gave nn older and 
better example of this good thing ; and he 
of alt men was entitled to counsel studies 
which h«d enabled him to lead both English 
and Scotch, with various success, to the 
ocoomplishment of the greatest deji:;os. 
An eminent merchant, a sagacious banker, 
on enterprising colonist, no mean engineer 
and navigator, be might well recommend 
tbe sciences he was perfectly versed in, as 
the fittest ioslrumeols of success to the 
man of business. His view's combined 
landed with trading interests ; and his 
estimate of Che value of all the branches of 
knowledge that ensure the due develop- 
ment of national industry and wealth, 
public and private, is the best vindication 
of such knowledge. He has expressed 
that estimate in a few golden words prefixed 
to tbe catalogue of his own library, wheu 
be dedicated it in bis life-time to Che public 
ase. 

Uis library was limited to works on 
" trade, revenue, and navigation," and to 
whatever illustrotes those subjects, of 
which be observes as follows : 



151 



"This catalogue has been extracted from 
a collection upon those subjects to give 
some better idea than is commonly con- 
ceived of the books necessary to the know- 
ledge of matters so deep and extensive as 
trade and revenue ; Ihe which, notwith- 
standing Ihe noise of many pretenders, 
may well be said not yet to be truly me- 
thodised — nay, nor perhaps to have been 
tolerably considered by any. 

" Trade and revenue arc hero put 
together ; since the public, and indeed any 
other, revenues, are only branches of the 
increase from the industry of the ]>eople, 
whether in pasture, agriculture, manu- 
factures, navigation, extraordinary pro- 
ductions or inventions, or by all of these. 

" So that to this necessary, and it is to 
be hoped now rising study of trade, there 
is requisite not only as complete a collection 
as possible of all books, pamphlets, and 
schemes relating to trade, revenues, navi- 
gation, inventions or improvements, an- 
cient or modern ; but likewise of the best 
histories, voyages, and accounts of the 
states, laws, and cutCoras of countries. 
From these collections it will be more 
clearly understood how the various effects 
of wars, conquests, fires, inundations, 
plenty, want, good ur bad management, or 
influence of government, and such like, 
have more immediately affected the rise 
and decline of the industry of a people, 

" The friends to this study are desired to 
contribute what they can towards rendering 
this small collection more complete, and 
fit for public use ; and for this purpose to 
communicate the titles of such books or 
papers as they have heard to be extant on 
these and tbe like subjects. 

"Some of the MSS. belonging to this 
collection being at present dispersed, and 
others not yet brought into order, the 
catalomne thereof is deferred. 

" Weilmiiuter, Auguit 23, 1703." 

All that is yet known of Ihe result of 
this remarkable invitation is, that the calt- 
logue of Patersou's own books so given to 
the public,isiu the British Museum, Horl. 
MSS., No. 4564. It affords an interesting 
view of the donor's acquirements ; his 
extensive acquaintance with modem lan- 
guages ; and the enlarged idea he bud of 
the intelligence to be expected in an 
accomplikhrd merchant. 

William Paterson is well known as the 
founder of the Bank of England ; sod of 
the great Scotisb enterprise in Durien, 
after the disasters in which he is generally 
thought to have entirely retired from the 
world — to Scollaud ; " pitied and neglec- 
ted." 

The fact is quite otherwise. These 
disasters occurred in 169B — 1*00. But 
after the latter year he was elected mem- 



152 



Corretpondence ofSylvanu* Urban. 



[Aug. 



ber for Damfriea. He reaided in West- 
miniter from 1701 to hia death in I7I8 ; 
oonaulted by the most eminent minister* 
— Godolphin, Harley, and Walpole ; as 
can be proved by positive evidence. As 
a writer he was classed with Defoe; and it 
ia extremely probable that he was the type ' 
of Sir Andrew Freeport in the Speclator. 
It is certain that William III. had held 
bim in fai|;b etlcem, and that Paterson's 
enlightened views were adopted for the 
guidance of our commercial policy when 
the King suddenly died. 

What an incomparable man he was, may 
be inferred from the two last events of his 
life. After a long straggle, carried on 
indeed with the support of many zealous 
friends, he compelled a reluctant adminis- 
tration to pay him a large indemnity for 
bis losses in the Darien colony. The 
proofs of the fact are found in the Jour- 
nals of Parliament, in the Statute Book, 
and in the warrant* for the formation of 
tbe Royal Bank of Scotland. This tardy 
jttitice enablod him to pay his own debts ; 
to provide liberally for hia numerous rrla- 
tivea ; and, what must have been a source 



of deep utisfaction, to make a manificent 
acknowledgment of tbe Oriendship of the 
generoos Daranda, his ezecntor. The 
probate of his wilt establishes these facts. 

It was a far more important event, that 
in 1717, the year before his decease, hia 
advice lead Walpole to bring forward the 
great measure of paying off the National 
Debt, then SO millions sterling only. He 
defended that measure by his Wtinttdtty'$ 
Club Con/erencet. It was attacked by 
Broomo in the Wednesday' t Club- Lam \ 
to which " Paterson or Defoe," says tlie 
cotemporary authority from whom these 
curious facts are derived, wrote a rejoinder, 
entitled. Fair Paymmt, no Sponge. 

Paterson's writings, however little 
known, are still valuable historically, and 
for their bearing on the most important 
questions of trade and finance. 

It is proposed to establish a Paterton 
Public Library upon the basis of his col- 
lection, as a fitting monument to a great 
man ; and as calculated at no distant time 
to provide the means of public instruction 
on matters of national interest. 

Yours, &e. S. Rannistib. 



PonTRAiTB or Sir Philu- SinNKv. 



Mb. Ubban, — Hubert Languct, writ- 
ing to Sidney from Vienna, Ut Jan. 1574, 
remarks — " I sometimes gratify myself at 
cor kind Abondiua'a with the sight of 
Tonr portrait, and then forthwith I suffer 
for it, because it only renews the pain I 
felt at losing yon." 

In another letter from Lauguet to Sid- 
ney, dated Vienna, 22nd Jan. 157-1, is the 
fbUowing passage : " I foresee what pain 
I shall suffer in parting from you, and I 
wonld gladly find some remedy for it ; 
bat nothing occurs to me, unless a por- 
tnit of yon might perhaps be a relief to 
me. And, though your likeness is so en- 
gnven on my heart as to be always before 
My ligbt, yet I beg you kindly to indulge 
■M 10 fir ai to lend it to me, or bring it 
wl w u yon come back. One reason why I 
viih to have it is, that I may show it to 
Aaw flriendf to whom I say what I think 
of jOW vrorth, and what hopes I entertain 
tt ym eharacter ; for they feel that no 
a*n ou posteM socli a gifted mind with- 
OWt ihowing marks of it in his person, and 
iqjeeiaUy in hia face ; and, therefore, they 
daiire greatly to tee yon. But I hope you 
will consider yourself at liberty to say no, 
without offending me; for I should be 
wurrj to make a requeat that could be dit- 
igt'—hle to yoo. The sight of your por- 
tndt at onr friend Abondius's wrought 
^aoo me so that when I came home I 
te tlwee vetee* which I tend to yon, 
A from my etrlieet youth I hate 



never tried my bund on anything of the 
kind. I venture to expose myself to your 
mirth, and to say that I do not consider 
them altogether from tbe purpose, and to 
request therefore that they may be written 
under tbe portrait which you will cause 
to be painted, if there shall be room for 
them." 

Sidney's reply, dated Padua, 4tb Feb. 
IS74, is in these terms, — " I am both glad 
and torry that you ask mc so urgently for 
my portrait ; glad, because a request of 
this kind breathes the spirit of that sweet 
and long-tried affection with which you 
regard me ; and sorry that you have any 
hesitation in asking me so mere a trifle. 
For, even if there were not between us 
that true and genuine friendship which 
throws into shade all other feelings, as tbe 
sun obscures the lesser lights, still I have 
received that from you which gives you a 
right to demand from mc as a debt greater 
things than this. As soon as ever I return 
to Venice I will have it dane, either by 
Paul Veronese or by Tintoretto, who hold 
by far the highest place in the art As to 
your lines, nlthuugh it is a thing to boast 
of, ' to be praiseil by one so full of praise,' 
and though they are most welcome to me, 
at testifying your most undying affection 
for me, yet I cannot think of sinning so 
grievously against modesty as to have such 
a proclamation of my praises, especially as 
I do not deserve them, inscribed on my 
portrait. Therefore in tiiis thing I pray 



1854.] 



Correapondenct of Sylvanua Urban. 



158 



yoa to pardon me, in all else comnmnd 
me, and I will nXitfj you as far a> I can ; 
the will at any rate shall not be wanting." 

In another letter from Sidney to Lnn- 
gnet, dated Venice, 56 Feb. 1574, be says, 
" Thi9 day one Paul of Verona lias l)egau 
my portrait, for which 1 must stay here 
lome two or three days longer." 

Languet, writing to Sidney from Vienna, 
Ilth June, 1374, obserrefi, — "Master 
Corbett showed uic your portrait, which 
I kept with mc some hours to feast my 
eyes on it, but my appetite was rather in- 
creased than diminished by the sight. It 
tetmi to me to represent some one like 
jou rather than yourielf, and, at ftrit, I 
Ibooght it was your brother. Most of 
your features are well drawn, but it is far 
more juvenile than it ought to be ; I 
should think you were not unlike it in 
your 12th or 13th year." 

In another letter to Sidney, from Prague, 
6th June, 1576, Langoet says, — " Now 1 
am going to confess my own clownishness, 
to use no harsher term As long as I 
enjoyed the sight of you, I made no great 
account of the portrait which you gaye 
me, and scarcely thanked you for so beau- 
tiful a present. I was led by regret for 
TOO, OD my return from Frankfort, to place 
it in a frame, and fix it in a con^ipicnoug 
place. When I had done this, it appeared 
to me (0 be so beautiful, and so strongly to 
resemble you, that I possess nothiug which 
I Taiue more. Master Vulcobius is so 
struck with its elegance that he is looking 
for an artist to copy it. The painter has 
represented you sad and thoughtful. I 
should have been better pleased if your 
face bad worn a wore cheerful look when 
JOQ iat for the painting." 

I infer from these passages that there 
were two portraits of Sir Philip Sidney, 
one of which, on or before the 1st of Jan. 
1574, was in posscision of Abondius, but 
by whom painted does not appear. An- 
other, by Paul Veronese, began 2Gth Feb. 
IS74, and presented to I.,angiict. 

The aboTe passages are from the Cor- 
respondence of Sir Philip Sidney and 
Hubert Languet, published in 1845 by 
Steuart A. Pears, M.A., Fellow of Christ 
Church College, Oiford. 

Harrow Church — Dr. 

lif our Obituary of the past year inser- 
tion was given to a very just and well- 
written memoir of tlie late Dean of Peter- 
borough, Dr. Butler. It first appeared in 
the Times, and the author was known to 
be Dr. Vaughan, the present Head Master 
of liarrow School. We have now to put 
opon record the fact of the recent erection 
in Harrow Church of a monument to the 
Dean's memory, the tribute paid to his 

G«^t. M.tc. Vol.. XLII. 



Desiroui of knowing somewhat of Abon- 
dius, I turned to Mr. Pears's Index and 
found " Abondins see Hondius," turning 
to Uondius in the Index I found " Hon- 
dius, painted a portrait of Sidney, 21." 
The only artist named Uondius of whom 
I can find any account in Pilkington is 
Abraham Hondius, born 16.18 or ICSO, 
and who died at London io 1G95. It ap- 
pears, however, from Walpole's Anecdotes 
(ed. Wornum, ii. 441, iii. 871) that Abra- 
ham was grent-graiidson of Oliver de Hond 
or Uoudiiu, an ingenious artist uf Ghent. 
Prefixed to the second edition of pouch's 
Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Sir 
Philip Sidney (York, 4to. 1809) is a por- 
trait of Sir Philip Sidney, "engraved by 
C. Warren from an original painting by 
Diego Vela.sipiez de Silva, in the possession 
of Henry Vernon, esq. at Wentworth 
Castle." Ill thir portrait are these arms 
(not those of Sidney), two bars each 
charged with three roundels, in chief three 
roundels. Now, besides the negative evi- 
dence afforded by these arms, it may be 
remarked that Sir Philip Sidney died in 
158b', and that Velasquez was not bom 
till l.'>94. 

With regard to the picture at Woburn 
engraved in Lodge's Illustrious Portraits 
as a portrait of Sir Philip Sidney by Sir 
Antonio More, Mr. Dallaway, in a note 
on Walpole, obsenes, "This portrait has 
been attributed to More, but unluckily 
for that aeserlion, Sidney was born in the 
year iuiinediately following the painter's 
arrival in England." Now, although Sir 
Antonio More quitted England at the 
death of Queen Mary, he survived till 
157.'>, and therefore might have painted 
the portrait of Sir Philip Sidney. But I 
cannot help tlunking that the Woburn 
picture if by Sir Autuuio More is not a 
portrait of Sir Philip Sidney, or ifitba 
his portrait, that It was not painted by Sir 
Antonio More. 

I trust it may be in the power of some 
of your Correspondents to give some de- 
tails of .\hondius of Vienna, and above all 
to furnish further inforraation respecting 
the portrait of Sir Philip Sidney by Paul 
Veronese. C. H. CoorKB, 

Cambridge, lOM July, 1854. 

Buti.kr'8 Moniimi:.vt. 

distinguished worth by the contributions 
of those old Harrovians who were under 
his care, and who appreciated bis invari- 
able kindness to them. It may be added, 
that they are indebted to Dr. Vaughan for 
the admirable inscription, which we shall 
shortly notice. 

The monument, executed in marble by 
Richard Westmacott, esq. R.A., is placed 
within a moulded recess of C aen stone, in 
X. 



154 



Corrupondence of Si/hanus Urban. 



[Aog. 



cbancter with the windows, on tlie east 
side of the sonth transept. 

On either side of the table l>eariog the 
inscription is a small statae. One repre- 
sents a female reading an unfolded MS., 
and baring at her feet the terinium, filled 
with rolls of MSS., and who may be con- 
sidered to impersonate classical literatore. 
The other, also a female figure, is repre- 
sented ss in deep thought, and regarding 
a tablet supported hj the left hand, while 
in the other she holds a pair or compasses. 
She may be held to designate mathematical 
science. The npper part of the mono- 



ment exhibits a medallion portrait of Dr. 
Butler resting against an open Bible. Hm 
college cap is partially shown behind the 
Tolnmr, breaking with its tasad the Hue 
of Gtothic moulding orer the inacriptioB 
Uble. Books, rolls of MSS., Slc. fill op 
the composition. It is nniTersally ad- 
mitted that the work and design do Tcry 
great credit to the accomplish«l scnlptor 
whose talents hare been employed to carry 
out the wishes of the subscribers. The 
inscription, written aa we hare statnd by 
Ur. Vaughan, is as followa i — 



Viro admodum reverendu 

Gkobgio Butler, S.T.P. 

Ecclesite Cathedralis spud Petroburgenses Decano 

SchoIsE Harroriensis per annos xxiv Prcsidi 

Erudito Diligenti Humano Munifico 

ejusdem per aiteros xxiv annos 

ajqoe ad extremum vit« diem 

Fautori Amantissimo 

hoc monumentum 

Pietatis qnantulumcunqne est indicium 

memores dicant discipoli 

Decessit Prid. Ksl. Mai 

A. S. MDCCCLIII. 
jGt. LXXIX. 



It may be obserred that this monument 
ii placed almost immediately under that 
of Dr. Sumner, who died Head Master of 
the School in 1771, and which bears a 
rather verbose inscription from the pen of 
Dr. Parr, communicated to this Magazine 
in l^T.*). Some amusement may be anti- 
cipated for our arcliseological societies a 
couple of centuries hence by the rariety of 
titles conferred upon tlie different Head 
Masters, and the pages of some Magazine 
may hereafter become the arena of a lite- 
rary conflict as to whether the parties were 
Head Masters at all, or, if not, what they 
really were. For instance, we have no less 
than four dilTerent designations for these 
dignitariea — Archididatculut, li^fomtalor, 
iMtUmafiiltr, wad now Prant. Ifthefirat 
it the moat expressire term, and we are of 
opinion that it is, the latter is decidedly 
the least open to criticism. Objections 
kave bean made to the word Archidiia*. 
mUm u not being Latin ; but surely it is 
M geod a word aa ArtMdiaeomu or Arehi- 
^theeptu, and for which words, conaUntly 
wed, there can be, of course, no classical 
mbority. If the word be not Latin, " it 
dieerres," aa the French would say, " to 
Wm." We confess, with all respect for 
■Nn where it ia in use, that we look npon 
ttw word htformator aa ntterly obnoxiona, 
■ad the only authority given for it in 
ViBooiolati ia Tertullian, who is sud to 
dMorilie Moeea as " popnii infbrmator." 

Utihmagiiltr haa better daaaleal claims. 
■ay. pcndTaBtaiv, tignify a school- 



master (we almost doubt it in onr sense of 
the word), but it confessedly does not 
mean the Head Schoolmaster, and which 
is the term wsnted. The far-fetched 
medieval Latin, draggrd out of Domesday 
Book, the "apud Hergttuti" on Dr. 
Drury's monument, had better have been 
omitted. It is too much of a conceit. 
Tlie Hergenscs of those days, that is the 
inhabitants of " Herga tuper moniem," 
having consisted, in all likelihood, of 8 
tillani and 3 bordarii. It was known aa 
" Harowe at Uille" in the time of Richard 
the Second. 

The church at Harrow has been recently 
repaired and much improved, but there la 
one mutilation of a monument against which 
both aa ArchKologists and Harrovians we 
must be permitted most earnestly to pro- 
test — wo mean the removal of the brass 
of John Lyon and of his wife from the 
stone which covered their remains, in order 
to place it against the wall, while a seat 
and a flue were introduced, in desecration 
of the burial-place of him whom we are so 
proud to honour as our Founder. This 
removal, moreover, has not been effected 
without injury to the brass itself. A part 
of the left foot of the Founder, and both 
the feet of his wife, have been torn away 
and lost, as will be seen by an examination 
of the lithograph made by Mr. Nether> 
clift before the removal took place. The 
evidence alao of there having been the 
braaa of a child no longer exists. 

It wu very qoestionable taste in 1813 to 



1854.] 



Comtpondence of Sylvanui Urban. 



155 



•net the paltry moral monument to Lyon'i 
memory, which we confe» ve coniider 
ntlerty unworthy of the name of Flsxin>n, 
•nd whoM only merit ii the inscription by 
Dr. Parr. The proper and the becoming 
cottrae, and the one in the best taste, 
would have been to bare raised the slab and 
it* braai on the tame spot, and on what is 



usually termed an altar-tomb, and thus, 
while protecting the brass from .the fric- 
tion of the shoes of the congregation, to 
have preserved as sacred the spot of the 
Founder's interment, and this at the sacri- 
fice of sitting room for perhaps some half- 
dozen persons ! We own that we think 
this should even now be done. L. 



POKTRAIT OV JORN HaLER, FoDNDIS OF THE PsEE GSAMWAB SCHOOI. 
AT COVKNTBT. 



» 



Ma. Urban, — Asanative of Coventry, 
■nd a scholar on the foundation of its Free 
Grammar School some fire and twenty 
yean ago, I have perused with much 
interest the notices which have appeared 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for May, 
June, and July last respecting a Portrait 
of John Hales the eminent founder of that 
institution in 1545, 

Ic appears that a portrait of John Hales, 
painted by Holbein in 15.14, has been pur- 
chased b) Henry Butterworth, esq. P.S.A.of 
Fleet street, London, at a sale of paintings 
belonging lo the lute George Arnold, esq. 
of Ashby Lodge, Northamptonshire, with 
the intention to present it to the Free 
School of his nitive city where he hioicelf 
was educated ; and which I have no doubt 
will be highly valued as the gift of a mem- 
ber of a well-known Coventry family; 
his uncle, Benjamin Butterworth, esq. 
having been Mayor of the city in 179<>, 
and his uncle Joseph Butterworth, esq. 
then resident in London, having repre- 
sented Coventry in Parliament from 1812 
to 1818. 

In your last Magozine the name of my 
father, the late Mr. William Reader, of 
Coventry, has been mentioned in connec- 
tion with a portrait of John Hales, and 
therefore it devolves upon me, as his re- 
presentative, to supply from his MSS. 
some particulars respecting it, which a few 
yean ago he would have communicated 
with much pleasure, and, from his ex- 
tensive knowledge of the antiquities of 
Coventry, with far more efficiency than I 
can pretend to do. 

lu I7UI a portrait of John Hales, the 
founder, wan presented to the Free School 
by Anne, widow of Sir John Hales, of 
Coventry, the first Baronet, of which the 



following is a description : — The figure is 
a three-quarters length, with full face, 
standing apparently in a thoughtful alti- 
tude, and closely attired in a collegiate 
dress— a black gown and cap, the sleeves 
tight from the elbows, and the cufTi termi- 
nating in ruffles ; a small portion of the 
rufT is visible on the left side of the neck ; 
the beard long and full, of a brown colour 
or haicl ; the right arm bent at the elbow, 
the hand, holding a small book bound in 
red, placed on the chest ; the left arm is 
extended, the hand resting on a table. 
The backgiound on the right of the figure 
is dark ; but through an opening on the 
left of the figure is seea a distant view of 
the east end of the Free School situated in 
a field, (which until a few years ago 
adjoined the Priory mill-dam, now the 
site of the recently formed Hales-street.) 
Beneath this picture, whilst in the pot- 
session of John Hales, esq. i<t Coventry, 
in 1G50, (the first Baronet, and the fourth 
in descent from the founder's brother 
Christopber), the following Latin verses 
were painted, as copied by Sir William 
Dugdale* in the MSS. of his friend Sir 
Simon Archer, Knight, of Tanworth, War- 
wickshire. 
Debite dnni tnum morfi demit, Haleile, corpus. 

At Tnu po«t obltum fAma perennis ertt. 
Kon moritur virtus, pietos non fnterit unqnaia«^ 

Te eotebrem probltoa iD^nlumii' fticlt. 
Omnia Ubrwti qua aunt iiOK«nila peritis 

Miuos, bittorlas, Jnra neimq' Ubros. 
PerdiiUt eilmlum >i noawret Anglia tnmmo 

Conrillo lunlfcTicm Jodlctoq" rlmm ; 
Has tOj^uta ticet vU'tutea Pstrla fiprevit, 

Glareacent tandem, pneinU dlgna ferent. 

The following is a translation: — 
Tho', Hsleii, we're wlmesa'd Iby departed tiraaUl, 
Thy fame shall Lrimnph o'er reuioneleM Deatb. 



* I give this on the inthorily of the late Mr. Thomas Sharp of Coventry, the Latin 
Ttraes appearing in his account of the Free .School compiled from unpublished MSS. 
and of which a very few copies were printed for him by Mr. W. Reader in 1818, for 
private circulation only. There is no acnjunt of this portrait, nor copy of the Latin 
verses, mentioned in any of Dngdale's works. I have in vain searched his History of 
Warwickshire edit 165(i, Dr. Thomas's edition of 1730, the Monasticon, &c. and also 
Dogdsle'a Diary, Correspondence, &c. by Mr. Hamper, edit. 1H27. 

Sir William Dugdale, the great historian, and Garter principal King of Arms, a 
native of Warwickshire, was educated at ("oventry Free 5>chnol in 161.')— lO'SO, James 
Cranford being then Head Muster. 



Mil 



Coii'espondencg of Sylvantu Urban. 



[Aug. 



Vinue itUI Urn I snd, wlUi true pletjr, 
[XcomljiK uiil honour did oxlit in tlioa. 
i Inttsperlenc'il youth Uiou UUUt unfold 

s lurnod vorks wroto In (he day* of old : — 
r Uw, rellitlon, knowlAdtcv luro wu faln'd. 
« llnvlund know tb« lou It hu iiutlln'd ? 
Cncruti'ful ooantry t but yet from thy touili 
{"hy fdine khAll ilourLih nud eterniil hlooin [ 

Thii portrait was certainly in the Free 

[Scliool in the year \''.ii, as the mayor, 

iGrorgc Honlette, etq. Mr. John Nickaoa, 

|(liil Mr. Tbomai) Sharp, then the Coventry 

tliti<|uariea, employed a resident artist, Mr. 

ISenry Jeayei, to make sketches of the 

Iprincipal objects of interent in the city and 

Donty, and consequently he made icrerol 

rawings of this picture (ouc of which is 

I my possession), and the tnro belonging to 

fessn. Nickaoa and Sharp are now, I 

lilielieve, in the fine collection of the late 

VWilliam Staunton, eaij. of Longbridge 

(fiouse, near Warnick ; Mr. Howlette's 

opy probably is in the family of Mr. 

K'iUon of Exhall, near Covcnti^, who 

married the niece of Mr. Alderman How- 

lette. This portrait of John Halo* also 

appears on one of the Coventry tokens, 

with the east end of the Free School on 

the reverse, being one of the series of 

L4wcnty-three tokens Htruck nt Uirminghnni 

Ud 1797 for Messrs. John Nicksoii, Thoniua 

ISIinrp, and Kdmund \V. Percy, for which 

|XIr. Ji-aypii made drntvings of the vsrioiiK 

public buildinns — the rcver>ie, with a (eve 

t-^ceptions, bring the city arms. 

As Mr. Butterworth stated that no 
Bortrait of the founder had been in the 
rrce School for luore Uian hnlf a century, 
1 llinnaht it prohnbli: that il Miii;lit have 
"ved, an. I perlmps •<u)>..)C{|nfully 
••■»ved. when the itiicirnt front 
«u and a new one was 
by an undo of my father, 
~ esq. moyor of Coventry 
Sharp, well-known for 
-ertrd it was in the 
I liuvc always had 
', although I have 
ig it thrie. The 
• damp and most 
3D0f]>aintings, 
lln thnt it was 

I,:, ■ . ,■ 



i; 



bicb vener- 
is a worthy 
.rinorials of 
.t,:h ilecomte 
T" . -it 

e 
... .lie 
d and 
It mca- 
in>,-riptIon>, 



&c. preserved in his MSB. relating to tbe 
hall, which certainly would have beea 
tbe cose had any portrait of a Hales been 
there during bis residence in Covenlry ; 
u I know that be made several visits for 
tbe express purpose of copying them : but 
when speaking of this portrait I have 
frequently heard him say that it was at the 
Free School. 

Mr. Butterworth appears to have been 
misinformed with respect to tliis portrait 
when he makes the following observations 
iu your Magaxinc for July last : — 

" The St. Mary's Hall portrait is at best 
but a fancy porlrail q/ Ihi founder, of a 
late date!" and "lam also inclined to 
believe the picture presented by - Ivsdy 
Hales to the scliool to be identicol with 
the portrait in St. Mary's Hall ! " 

Although I cMinot mention the year io 
which this portrait whs painted, or tlie 
name of the ortiot, il is quite certain it 
was in the possession of tlie first baronet 
in IG50, who might have inherited it from 
hi< grcat-Krandfatbrr John Hales, who 
was the heir of his uncle the founder of 
the school; hut ut any rate it is not at all 
likely that Sir John Hales would have 
possessed a fictitious or even a doubtful 
portrait of his eminent relative, or that 
Lady Hales would have presented it as a 
memorial to the school, which building 
n|i)>ears on the picture as an identification 
of this portrait. As a work of art it may 
not now be equal to the picture by Holbein, 
possibly from tbe injuries which it might 
have received from damp during the yean 
it was most certainly in the school, from 
noi to 1791 ; but I submit it is equally 
cotill;d to be coniiidered .is on original, 
there being nothing improbable io the 
supposition that so t^lebrated a man at 
the founder sat for more than one portrait. 
This portrait ap|ieari> to have been etched 
bj Mrs. Dawtun Turner a few years ago, 
but, as a private plate, it is now scarce, at 
any rate in IjOndon. At Mr. Butterworth 
affirms that his picture " differs in every 
particular from the St. Mary's Hall por- 
trait," it is to be regretted that he has not 
given a defcription of it. 

John Hales, the founder, died un- 
married Jan. 5, 1&72 : and was buried 
in the chancel of St. Peter Ic Poor, in 
Broad Strtet, Ixindon. 

I fear that I have already trespassed too 
ranch on your valuable apace, and there- 
fore will defer to a future opportunity, if I 
any such should arise, tlie particalara of 1 
the eventful life of John Hales and of tha 
foundation of bis Free Grammar School at t 
Coventry, which has lately been the subject 
of a Govenimcnt Commission of Inquiry. 
Yonrs, &c. William Rkadkr. 

tAtnion, jHlp ?4, ISM. 



157 



NOTES OP THE MONTH. 

Bamornl ot tlic LcamM SocieUet (torn SomeraFt Honae — BriUili Muieum- Koyul S<X'icty— lUnitrsUiS 
ofNewtoa luid hia Cuiitumporarlea — Porii Exhltiition of 1856 — Centeuorr of Uio Society of Art«— 
EdacsUimal Exhibition —Indiutrial Hueom iu Edinbort;))— Literary and Sciontldc InatitutionB 
Act— AnhJbeetunU Mmenin — Commomontion at Oxford — Honorary Degrees at CanibridKe — 
BnteHafausenlgirao by the Mayor of Oxford— IlittoHc i^octety of Laucaihire and Cheshire — Sale 
of Litjrary of John Dann (tanlncr, eaq. — Numbmatic Collectiona of Mr. .1. U. Cuff — INclnrcj bonght 
for the National ngllisry and other recent IHcturr Salet— RouhilLic's Statue of Handel— Stained 
Glaia Window made tor tlii< King of Denmark— The SAOth anniversary of Printing at Ilreslau— New 
inaterlaU for I^jtcr — Tltc myatcry of Sjiirit-rapping solved. 

, deputation of the Presidents of the 

Dua learoed Socictiea of the metropolia 
bas wailed U[iod Sir William Moleawortb 
in reference to tbe future plaus of the 
GoTerninent for the accommodatioa of 
the Societies at present in Somerset 
House, and of others having claims to the 
like measure of public encoiu'sgemeDt. It 
it btUered that as soon as Burliugtoo 
House comes into the possession of Go- 
verameat, which will be iu September 
next, it will be pulled down, us it is not 
suitable for the requirements of the 
■cieulidc Societies in ijuestiou. 

The Trustees of the BrilUA .Muteum 
have received from the Hon. Edward 
Cbittjr, Chairman of Quarter Sessions, 
Jimiica, tbe handsome present of a col- 
lection of 3000 specimens of shells, illus- 
traliie of the land and freshwater molluscs 
of that island. Mr. Cbitty has been en- 
gaged for some years past in investigating 
the conchology of the hills and plains and 
of the rivers and streams of Jamaica, in 
company with the well-known American 
luturaliit, Profesaor C. U. Adams, who 
suddenly died last year, and the many new 
species resulting from their researches 
have all been carefully described and 
named. 

The Council of the Roi/al Soeiely has 
granted Mr. Huxley 300/. from the Go- 
vernment Grant Fund for the publication 
of bis zoological investigations. That gen- 
tleman has been delivering courses of lec- 
tures at Morlboruugh House and at the 
Inatitote of Practical Science — at the 
latter, in the room of Prof. E. Forbes, 
translated to Edinburgh. The appoint- 
ment of the professorships in Jcrinyu 
Street lies « itb tbe Doard of Trade. 

Mr. Oliveira has placed fiO/. at the dis- 
posal of tbe Cooocii of the tloyul Society. 
This sum, with a farther sum of lOU/. 
from (he Donation Fund, will be appro- 
priated for the purpose of erecting a pho- 
tographic apparatus at Kew, for register- 
ing the position of the bpots on the sun's 
disc 

Tbe late Elcv. Cbarlea Tornor's " Illut- 
trttiotu nf NewtOM ami hii Conlemfo- 
rariei," which were be<)ueathed to the 



Royal Society in an unfinished state, hare 
been put into satisfactory condition by 
Mr. Weld. This unique work consists of 
six magnificent folio volumes. Tlie first 
volume contains all the known portraits 
of the great philosopher, which are nume- 
rous, together with a manuscript account 
of his life and labours, very valuable for 
the accuracy of its dates and facts. The 
other five volumes are devoted to his con* 
temporaries, about four hundred in num- 
ber, of whom also there are portraits and 
manuscript biographies. Such a work, 
besides being a very proper one for tbe 
Royal Society to possess, cannot fail to be 
of use to all future biographers of New- 
ton, illustrators of coDtemi>orary life, and 
historians of science. For his pains in 
the arrangement of the collection the So- 
ciety has presented Mr. Weld with a pe- 
cuniary mark of their satisfaction. 

In regard to the Parii Rxhibition of 
lBo5, the Deparlmeot of Science and Art 
of tbe Hoard of Trade ore now making 
arrrangements to carry into effect the 
wishes of the French Government, by 
providing for on adequate representation 
of British art. With this view tbe repre- 
sentatives of the various public bodies in 
iirt have been requested to give their as- 
sistance and advice in framing proper 
preliminary regulations. For Painting, 
the Presidents of the Royal Academies of 
Loudon, Edinburgh, and Dublin, the Pre- 
sidents of the Society of British Artists, 
of the Old and New Waler-Colour So- 
cieties, and of the National Institute of 
Art, togetlier with the Art-Supcrintendrnt 
of the Department of Science and Art, on 
the part of the Board of Trade. To make 
suitable regulations for Sculpture, Sir R. 
Westmacott, Mr. C. Marshall, and Mr, J. 
Bell, have been requested to form a com- 
mittee. For Architecture, Prof. Cockerell, 
Prof. Donaldson, and Mr. Scott ; for En- 
graving and Lithogiaphy, Mr. J. H. Ro- 
binson, Mr. Lane, and Mr. Wornum. 
To represent our manufacturing industry, 
effective committers have been organised 
at Birmingham, Sheflield, Leeds, Man- 
chester, Bradford, Aberdeen, Dunferm- 
line, &c. and all our principal towns. Tbe 



136 



Notes of the Month. 



[Aug. 



Council of the Civil Engineers has ad- 
dressed a letter to its membrrsi arglog 
tlicir co-operation, and tlie Rojal Agri- 
cultural Society has formed a special com- 
mittee. Tbe Corporation of Lifcrpoul, it 
is said, is preparing to exhibit illuitratioua 
of its shipping in all its branches, A. 
report will be made to the Iinpcrial Com- 
misaion, as soon as possible after the first 
of August, of the total space likely to be 
wanted for exbibiling the industry of tho 
UnitL'd Kingdom. 

A huuilred yean haTinK now eUpiCiI 
since the fouoilatiun of the Society n/Arlt, 
the fact was commemorated on tlie 3d July 
by a public dinner in the Cryttal I'aUre at 
Sydenham under the presidency of Earl 
Granville. The meaibers seemed to enjoy 
the good things of nature and art with the 
strong relish of men who had earned them 
by good deeds. On tbe following da^ 
Prince Albert met the members at St. 
Martin's Hall to inaugurate the Educa- 
tional Hjrhiiilian, — where, on Monday. 
July lU, Dr. Whcwell gave a lecture "on 
tbe Material Helps of Educatinn." Whiit 
these principally are, ttie Exhibition witli 
its display of models, maps, plans, spcci- 
mani, and all manner of objects addressed 
to the senses, auflicieotly shows. There ia 
no doubt that in recent times great im- 
provements have been introduced in the 
external machinery of ioslrurtion, greatly 
to the comfort of the teacher and the be- 
nelit of the pupil. Dr. Whewcll placed the 
principles of tbe«e educationul aids in their 
most favourable light. Many other Iccturea 
have since followed, and will be continued 
during the month of August, by Professor 
Dc Miirgaii, Dr. Arnott, Professor Ryraer 
Grant, the Rev. Professor Daden Powell, 
Professors il unt, Trnnsnt, and many other 
learned men. 

In the Civil Service estimates for tho 

r«r ending 31«t March, 1854, the sum of 
.&00/. 19 ptoposcd for the orw Induilrial 
iluirum in Eilmburgk. This sum ia in- 

rliv ' " iiOO/. for a site— 5,000/. bcins 

1 the purchase of the Tradts' 

M 'itsi, and 2,000/. for Hie pnr- 

< I I iidcprndcnt Chapel (Rev. Dr. 

A ; ;UiO/., salary of curator; 

75/. liir u resident attendant ; 70/. for an 
attendant and messenger ; 700/. fur speci- 
mens. &C. ; '200/. for ordin.iry rcpaiis. 
s, /kc. ; and 1,'>5/. for inciilcrital r.x- 
I. Dr. l.yon Playlnir, in a Idler tii 
Lords of I he Trrasury, rs plains thi> 
•ds on which Edinburgh «a» pre- 
.J to Glasgow, ns the srat of ihc mu- 
ui, which appear to be chiefly two — 
-t. h- ' 'iiiburgh is the capital; 

lasc extensive mnteriala 

: . .cd in that city, which 

• ma<ln available to the pnrpoM* 



of tbe museum. From tbii letter we 
learn, that " should Parliament aftrrwarda 
decide on erecting a suitable building for 
tbe museum on this site, it is eitimated 
that this may be done for about 20,000/." 
Tbe museum to be under the superiotend- 
enoe of tbe Board of Trade. 

Under the name of The Literary end 
Scientific Inetitutiom Act, a bill has been 
introduced into Parliament, and passed 
the Commons on tbe :^Uth of July, the ob- 
ject of which is to afford greater facilities 
for the propolion of literature and science 
and the fine arts, and lo provide for their 
better regulation. Tbe Bill makes pro- 
vision for the favourable and safe convey- 
ance of land and property for such instf- 
tntious, with forms of grants, trustee- 
ships, and other arrangements necessary 
for their establishment and perpetuation. 
Separata clauses provide for the manaer 
of the property being vested, the liabilltiat 
of members, the mode of suits being 
brought by and against such institutions, 
with other rei;ulation8 sITecting their man- 
agement and theadjustmentnf their affairs, 
either during existence or in case of a 
dissolution. The act applies to any insti- 
tnlion for the promotion of acieoee, 
literature, and tbe fine arts, or the diffu- 
sion of useful knowledge, for the founda- 
tion of libraries for general use among the 
members or 0]>en to the public, of public 
museums and galleries of paintings, and 
other works of art, and of collections of 
natural history, and mechanical and philo- 
sophical inventions, instruments, and 
designs. The Bill was brought in by Mr. 
Hall and Mr. Meadlam. 

Avery interesting canperiazionewat held 
at the Archileclurat Mueeum, in Canon- 
row, Weitminster, on the evening of the 
29tli of June. Karl deGrey preside<I vrilh 
that frank cordiality which diatinguisbcs 
him, and Mr. G. G. Scott, the treasurer, 
read ihe report. Various votes of thanks, 
including an appeal for assistance, were 
moved and spoken to by the Bishop of 
Oxford, Canon Wordsworth, Lord Nelson, 
Dr. Biber, Mr. Clarke, Mr. Powell, Mr. 
Godwin, Sir William Ross, and others. 
The speeches of Ihe Bishop and Dr. Biber 
were particularly efi'ertive. 

At the Ogfard Vommemoration held on 
tho 24lh of June, the customary oration 
was delivered by the Public Orator, and 
the prize compositions were recited by the 
successful competitors, vis. : — 

Latin Verse — " Snis et ipsa Roma viri- 
bus ruit," Mr. A. Blonmfleld, B.A. Scho- 
lar of Balliol College. 

The Latin Essay — " Quiensm fuerint 

firsecipue in ciusa qiiod Aristotelis in echo- 
isjprKvaluerit,'' was not awarded. 
English Essay— "The effects nf Com* 



1664.] 



Notei of the Month. 



159 



■ 



merce upon Cbriitunity," Mr. T. P. Fre«- 
maotle, B.A. Balliol CoUrge. 

Eogluh Verse (the Newdigkte^— " The 
Martyrs of Vienne and Ljods, ' Mr. F. 
O. Lee, Edmund Hall. 

The Honorary Degree of D.C.L. wis 
eoofcrred on — Hit Highness Prince Lnuia 
Lucien Buonaparte ; the Right Rev. Dr. 
Colenso, Lord Bishop of Natal ; the Right 
Hod. Joseph WHrnir Henley, M.P., M.A. 
Magd. Coll. ; Sir Cbarles George Yonng, 
Garter Ktagof Arms, P.S. A.; John Fane, 
Etg. High Sheriff of co. Oxford, Lieut.- 
Colonel of tbe Oxfordshire Militia; Sir 
O«orge Grey, C.B. Governor-in-Cbief of 
New Zealand ; Sir George Back ; Renr- 
Adm. Fairfax Moresby, C.B. ; the ReT. 
JimM Grant, D.D. Edinb., Moderator of 
the Ut« Genenl Assembly uf tbe Church of 
Scotland ; John Disney, E<q. ; the ReT. 
Franei* T. M'Dougall, M.A. Magd. Hall, 
of Sarawak, Borneo ; and the ReT. Henry 
CaswaU. 

One of the above gentlemen, Ur. Disney, 
the founder of the Disneian chair of Ar- 
chaeology at Cambridge, was on the 3rd 
July admitted ad eundem gradum in that 
university, wbich he lirst entered as an 
under-gradaate fifty-eiglit years ago, but 
did not tlien proceed to a degree. On the 
6th (be aame honour was also conferred 
on the following gentlemen of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford, most of whom were drawn 
to Cambridge by tbe meeting of the Ar- 
cbKologlcal Institute of Great Britain : — 
John Wilson, D.D. Pre'ideot of Trinity 
College, Oxford; William Dyke, B.D. 
Jeans CoU.; Hon. W. T. H. Foi-Strang- 
ways, M.A. Ch. Ch.; Sir Charlea H. J. 
Anderson, M.A. Cb. Cb.; John Henry 
Bigge, M.A. Univ. Coll.; William Heury 
Blasuw, M.A. Ch. Ch.; John Earle, M.A. 
Oriel Coll.; Thomas James, M.A. Cb. 
Cb.; Thomas Bailey Levy, M.A. Uueeu's 
Coll.; Henry Reginald Chondos Pole, 
M.A. St. Mary Hall ; John Montgomery 
Traherne, M.A. Oriel Cidl. ; Levcson 
Vernon Harcourt, M.A. Ch. Cb.; Henry 
George Stoddart, M.A. Queen's College. 
— The Barney Prise Essay has been ad- 
judged to Thomas Wade Powell, B.A. of 
8t, John's College. Subject, " Faith in 
nalnral and revealed religion is necessary 
for the purification and perfectibility of 
man." 

At Oxford, Mr. A. 1. M'Coul, of St. 
Jnhn's College, has been elected to the 
Hebrew Scholarship founded by Ur. Pusey 
and Dr. Ellertoa. It appears that of eight 
Hebrew scholarshipa (two Keiinicotts and 
six Pnsey and Ellertoo) which have been 
af^udged from IH49 to 1854 inclusive, 
•even have been attained by schoUrs of 
Merchant Taylors' School. 

Following the example of some recent 



chief magistrates of the metropolis, the 
Mayor of Or/ord, Mr. R. J. Spiers, a 
citizen well known to the circles of art and 
literature, has sigaaliied bis year of office 
by a public entertainment which will not 
soon be forgotten. Having issued invita- 
tions to more than a thousand persons of 
eminence in their res|>ective prufessiooa, 
and provided for tbrm every facility for 
visiting all the chief objects of interest in 
the town und neighbourhood of Oxford, 
ho held n public reception in the Town 
Hall ou the evening of Tuesday tbe 22d 
June, rit wbich nearly hfteen hundred per- 
sons were present : a large asitemblage of 
works of art of all descriptions was brought 
together for their entertainment. 

The Hutoric Soeirty of Lancmhirt and 
Chfthire are making preparations, at 
Liverpool, for a grand evening entertain- 
ment to the Britiab Association, during 
their visit in September. They propose 
lo give a toirie in the largest rooms pro- 
curable in tbe town, at which the whole 
uf the FauBsett Collection of Anglo-Saxon 
.ind British Antiquities will be laid out, 
Mr. Mayer, their owner, being honorary 
curator, and one of tbe founders, of the 
Historic Society ; and it is expected that 
numerous other objects of a similar kind 
will be lent by their possessors for the 
same purpose. Mr. Thomas Wright has 
promised to read a paper on tbe occasion 
specially descriptive of the objects, and 
of their value as illustrative of the arts, 
wealth, manners, &c. of our forefathers. 
The paper will belong to the division of 
Ethnology ; but no ordinary section-room 
would afford accommodation for tbe dis- 
play of objects and illustrations, and for 
the large number of auditors who would 
probably desire to be present. 

The recent sale of the Library of John 
DuHH Gardner, esq. by Messrs. Sotbeby 
and Wilkinson, has realised prices which 
recal the palmy days of the " Bibliomania " 
of Dr. Dibdin. Many of the scarceat books 
have returned to tbe owner a large profit. 
For in<itance, the original edition of Boc- 
caccio's II Decamerone (1527), cost Mr. 
Gardner 28/. and sold for Ml. ; Caxton's 
Black-letter Historic uf Reynard the Kuxe, 
cost 150/. and sold for 195/. ; the some 
printer's Golden Legends cost 135/. and 
sold for 230/. The last named may be 
considered as one of tbe most perfect 
copies known, it wanting only tbe fifth 
lenf, on tbe recto of which is in seventeen 
lines the close of the table. The copy in 
the British Museum wants tbe same leaf, 
also leaves cv. cvi. cvii, and ccxii. The 
Spencer copy wants all the introductory 
matter. A Urge wood engraving, repre- 
senting tbe murder of St. 'Fhooias a Beo- 
ket, occupies the upper part of one of the 



160 



Notei of the Month. 



[Aug. 



pa^ef. That leaf in generally wanting, 
and atone coit Mr. Gardner 15/. 15*. 
Cazton'i Cathon, which coft Mr. Gard- 
ner 40/. and sold for 81/. wai bought for 
America. Lot 649, a black-letter Chancer, 
The Canterburr Talea, coat 120/. and lold 
for 245/. ; lot C50, Boecina de Coniola- 
tione PhiloBopbi, black letter, no date, 
eoit 55/. and sold for 70/.; De Bry't 
Collection of Voyages and Travels, cost 
180/. and aold for 2iO/. ; lot 1137, Jo- 
liannis (Sancti) Apocaljpsis — a rare 
book, not hitherto in the British Museum 
— cost 91/. and sold for ICl/. It was 
bought for the National Library. Among 
other works bought for America were 
Tyndile's translation of the Pentateuch, 
Oothic letter, " the finest and tallest copy 
known," 159/. ; Cranmer's Bible, black 
letter, 44/. ; Mathew's translation of the 
Bible, black letter, 1551,45/.; Caxton's 
The Bookeof the Hoole Lyf of Jason, 105/. 
Some of the Bibles sold for remarkably large 
prices. The Znrich Bible, the first Pro- 
testant translation of the whole Bible, and 
the joint production of Tyndale and Cover- 
dale (usually termed Coverdale's Bible), 
printed in double columns, in a foreign 
Moretary-Gothic type, with woodcnts by 
Hans Scbald Behaim, was a copy which 
came from the library of Mr. Wilson, and 
WMta the title-page and the first part of 
the dedication, which are supplied by 
Harris. It sold for 365/. The first edition 
of Mathew's translation of the Bible 
brought 150/. ; and the first edition of 
Cranmer's Bible brought 121/. The first 
edition of Shakspere, 1623, was sold for 
350/. being more than 100/. above any 
former price; the second, 1632, for 18/. lOs.; 
the third, 1663, (of which the greater part 
was burnt in the fire of I»ndon), for 35/. ; 
the fourth, 1685, for 13/. The fint edition 
of The Merchant of Venice, 1600, 32/. ; 
llidanmmer'a Night Dream, IGOO, 1 3/. 1 5t., 
Heary the Fifth, 1608, H/. 10*., King 
Leer, 1608, 20/., Pericles, 1609, 21/. Sid- 
aejr's Arcadia, first edition, I5!)0, 34/.; 
Ui Faerie Qoeene, first edit, two vols. 
1M0.I596, 16/. Ariostu-H OrUndo Fn- 
lioM, 1585 (one other copy only known), 
48/. The same, Vinezia 1539, with auto- 
grapha of Uarpe Rychtmond, wife of 
Hoary Dnke of Richmond, natural son of 
King Henry VIII., and of Sir Henry 
JPtettrinft, Queen Elixabeth's ambassa- 
dor and suitor, 18/. 15t. The first edition 
or Walton's Angler, 1653, 10/. 17*. 64. 
Pkyane's Collection of Records, three toIs. 
I6A5-70, 100/. Purcbas his Pilgrims, 
6 Tola. 1625-6, 55/. lOt.— The aile occu- 
pied eleven days, and the gross amount of 
tkeS457 lota was 8171/. 

.The Nmmitmalte OolUetioiu rfiht late 
MBr. J. JMMtf Cuff hmtt been dispersed 



by the hands of Messrs. Sotbeby and Wil- 
kinson. The most remarkable coin in the 
sale was a pattern in gold of Charles the 
First. It is believed to have been pro- 
posed for a five-pound gold piece, which 
was never struck. On one side it has a 
bust, bare-headed, in armour, with the lace 
collar; reverse, a fine boldly-struck gar- 
nished shield, with the royal armsinacribed, 

FLORENT CONCORDIA RSGKA. This COri- 

oos piece is said to have been presented 
by Charies the First to Bishop Juzon on 
the scaffold on the morning of ezecntipn. 
It sold for 260/., the highest price any 
single coin has ever brought. A quarter- 
sovereign of Charles the First, pattern in 
gold, sold for 27/. lOf. ; a half-crown of 
the Commonwealth, pattern in silver, by 
Ramage, 1X1. ; a pattern shilling of the 
same, by Ramage, 30/. lOr.; a half-crown 
of the Commonwealth, by Blondeau, 1651, 
13/. I."!*.; a crown of Oliver Cromwell, 
laureatcd bast to the left, 28/. ; two-shil- 
ling piece of the same, pattern in silver, 
18/. 5(. ; a shilling of the same, 9/. ; a 
sixpence, 35/. ; a fifty-shilling piece of 
Oliver Cromwell, pattern in gold, 41/. lOt.; 
a half-bn>ad of the same, pattern in gold, 
31/.; the famous Petition Crown of Charles 
the Second, by Simon (it had unfortunately 
a slight scratch of two or three letter* in 
front of the bust), 56/. lOi. ; the Reddite 
crown, from the same die as the lost, hot 
the inscription on the edge ridditb naa. 
CiBSARis CiKKARi, &c. 74/. ; a pattern for 
a crown, in silver, of William the Third, 
the portrait different from (be usual ones 
(IC96), 14/. lU. ; a proof of a shilliog of 
William the Third (1699), 11/. ; a five- 
gninea piece of Anne, a splendid bnst to 
the left, reverse four shields crowned, 16/.; 
a proof of a shilling of Anne, in silver, 
fine and very rare, 14/. 5f. ; a )>attem for 
a guinea of Anne, bust with a lock of hair 
over the neck, which is bare, reverse the 
shields with the royal arms and sceptre* 
between, an>l the letters a r joiued in the 
centre, extremely rare, 51/. ; a George the 
First pattern for a half-crown in silver 
(1715), 1 1/. ; a five-guinea piece of George 
the Second, 10/. ; George tlie Third five- 
guinea piece, bust, with young head, 1770, 
19/. 5f. ; a pattern for a five-pound piece 
of the same, by Pistrucci, 20/. at. ; pat- 
tern for crown of George IV. in silver, 
1829, 10/. 5:; a William IV. pattern 
crown in silver, by Wyon, 10/. ; a proof 
from the crown die, struck in gold, 10/. ; 
proof crowns, in silver, of Victoria (I<!l44 
and 1847), 10/. 10*. Among the Irilh 
coins were, — the Cork groat of Edward 
the Fourth, 10/. ; Mary groat, bust, 
crowned to the left, reverse, harp and 
M.R. crowned, inacriptian, viritas tbm- 
POKie FiLiA, 39/. 10*. ; siege money. 



IS54.] 



Notes of (he Month. 



161 



I 



luchiqDin lixpence, 10/. 10«. ; a niae- 
pence, nine aauulets within a circle, 27/. ; 
a sixpence, six auuuleU, 10/. 10«. ; ■ 
groat, four annuleti, 10/. 16r. Among 
the Scotch coins, a testoon of Mary, bust, 
croffDcd to the right, reverse, shield with 
arm* crowned, da packm oomine (1553), 
11, ; a half-testoon of Mary, 8/. it. 6d. ; 
a half-lion, in gold, obverse, a shield 
crowned, reverse, M.R. crowned, 10/. bt. ; 
a James VI. forty-shilling piece, in silver, 
bust In armour crowned, sword in hand, 
reverie, shield with the Scotch arms 
crowned, inscribed honor bbois judi- 
eiCM DiLioiT (I5H2), 13/. 5t. In the 
Anglo-Gallic series, a Henry VIII. Tour- 
nay groat. It. 7*. ; Mouton of Henry V. 
reverse, a cross with the fleur-de-lis and 
lion in .ilternate quarters, a flower in the 
centre, '23/. lOi, Lord Baltimore's shil- 
ling, sixpence, and groat, struck for Ma- 
rylaad, 11/. Si. — The sale produced, in 
the aggregate, 7,054/. 8r. 

On the 12th June, from among fifty- 
eight pictures by old Italian Masters, 
forming the collection of M. Ue Bauime- 
ville, sold by Messrs. Christie and Msnson, 
and which realised 3,105/. in the mass, 
four were bought for the National Gallery : 
— A Portrait of a Senator, by Albert 
Dnrer, 147/.; The Madonna, by Pachie- 
rotto, 93/. 8*. ; Head of Christ, by Niccolo 
AUono, .%5/. I3i. ; and a Madonna, by 
Lorenso di San Severino, 393/. I5s, 

The collection of the late W. Cave, esq. 
of Brentry House, near Bristol, also sold 
by Messrs. Christie and Manson, con- 
tained, amongst a crowd of Loutherbourgs, 
Tenicrs, Zuccarellis, and other works of 
ordinary occurreuce, two or three pictures 
deserving mention. Turner's Kilgnrvan 
Castle, formerly in Ix)rd De Tablcy's col- 
lection, — a very misty raoniing effect, sold, 
rather from name than intrinsic worth, for 
535/. The two most valuable pictures 
were by Murillo, The Assumption of the 
Virgin, from Louis Philippe's Spanish 
Gallery, and Joseph in the Hands of his 
Brethren, brought from Spuiu by Mr. 
Buchanan. The first sold fur 7'25/. lOit. ; 
tbeiecond for 1,76-1/. 'I'he Virgin is clad 
in white, with a blue flowing robe; her 
hands clasped upon her breast, and a 
choir of infant angels hovering below. The 
Joseph is a landscape, with a composition 
of ten figures. " The Canal Boat," by 
Constable, and an " Abraham and Isaac," 
■id to be Andrea del Sorto's last picture, 
railised indifferent prices. 

A collection, said to be that of a country 
amateur, was sold by Messrs. Christie and 
Monson on Saturday the 17th of June. 
The following were the highest prices 
realised — n Hayfield.by Linnell,477/. I5«.; 
a Beach Scene, by Collins, 336/, ; a View 
Gent. Mao. Vol. XI.ll. 



of Roverido, by Stanfleld, 16}/. IS«. ; an 
excellent picture of a Seotish domestic 
life, by Phillips, The Spae Wife, ,357/. ; a 
Fruit Piece, by Lance, as rich in colour as 
usual, 94/. lOf. ; The Stolen Interview, by 
Webster, very full of character, 338/. 10». j 
a View near Holyhead, by Creawick, 
143/. 17«. ; some Cows, by Cooper, 
1:)67. IDs. ; a good picture, by Johnstone, 
though rather wanting in concentration of 
composition, Twas within a Mile of Edin- 
burgh Town, 273/. ; Mother's Hope, a 
pleasing Leslie, 304/. 10s.; Goodall'a 
well • known Raising the Maypole, a 
Cavalier Scene, 845/. 5«. ; another Cattle 
Piece, by Cooper, 409/. 10». ; MOllcr'a 
Acropolis of Athens, 230/. lUf. ; a scene 
from The Faerie Queeue, by Pickersgill, 
called Dance to Colin 's Melody, fetched 
325/. lOf. ; Hilton's Lear disinheriting 
Cordelia, 147/. ; a view by Callcott, 
near Hampstead, 354/. 18f. ; Wandering 
Thoughts, by Millais, 64/. The tale in- 
cluded a few works hf Tadolini, and 
Wyatt : a Venus and Cu]iid, by Tadohni 
brought 315/. 5>. ; a Maiden Fishing, the 
same sum ; Wyatt's Ino and Bacchus, 
378 ; and a Gladiator, by Ootto, 126/. 

Roubiltae'i ttatue of Handel, com- 
manded from the sculptor by Mr. Jona- 
than Tyers, which long occupied a place 
of state in Vauxhall Gardens, has been pur- 
chased by the Sacred Harmonic .Society, 

An elaborate stained-glass window is on 
view on the premises of Messrs. Ballantine 
and Allan, at Edinburgh, which has been 
designed by Mr. John Thomas, the well- 
known sculptor of the New Palace at 
Westmin!>tcr. This magnificent work of 
decorative art will shortly be presented by 
Mr. Peto, the honourable member for 
Norwich, tu his Majesty the King of Den- 
mark, and is intended fur the altar window 
of the Chapel Royal at Fredericksburg. 
Its upper portion has fifteen upright com- 
partments, in the centre of which is a 
figure of our Saviour as the Good Shep- 
herd. In the upper central compartment 
the dove is seen descendinj;, amid golden 
rays surrounded by clouds ; while the 
lower central and the dexter and sinister 
lights contain exquisitely coloured medal- 
lion heads of the Apostles, with deep blue 
backgrounds, surmounted by their em- 
blems, and surrounded with richly diapered 
and ornamental work in varicus colours. 
The lower portion of the window is filled 
with heraldic, emblematic, and national 
devices. The central light contains a like- 
ness of the King of Denmark in white 
enamel on a ruby ground, surmounted 
with a laurel leaf. The royal arms of Den- 
mark, environed with the ensigns of the 
order of Dancborg and of the Elephant, 
ore introduced with excellent effect. The 
Y 



162 



Mitcellaneou* Review*. 



[Aug. 



nutiouol motto of the Danes, with the ttate 
■word aad (ceptre, are alio effectivelf 
given. 

M. Bartb, printer, of Breslau, lately 
celebrated the 3S0th anniveriarr of the 
firat book printed in hii eatabliibmrnt. 
Thin book ia a German legend of aome 
rank. M. Bartb 'a printing-office is the 
oldest in Europe, and baa been uuinter- 
ruptrdly in the bands of hi* oncestora and 
hiiiiaclf. 

To meet the inconvenience which has 
been recently felt in the want of materials 
for Paper (for which a premium of 1,000/. 
baa been oflered), patent* have been rc- 
ceotljr aecured for the proceaa and machinery 
Doceaaarr to convert Ike librea of varioui 
pUnta, grown in our own colonial poaaea- 
■ions witkin the tropica, into material cal- 
culated to aupply the place of tlu, hemp, 
and raga, for the uae of textile manufac- 
turera, ropcmakcra, and papermakera. 
Such materials are atated to exist in un- 
bounded quantity ; yet we have been con- 
tent to rely lor such important raw pro- 
ducta upon foreign atatea, and eapccially 
upon that country with which we are now 
aerionaly embroiled ; and which, we are 
told, haa drawn from ua, " within the prv- 
■ent century, nearly 100,000,000/. aterlin^ 
for flax and bemp alone."-- Afiniii; Journal. 

The myatery of" Spirit-rapping" whicU 
baa cauaed such extraordinary senaatiun 
both in the United Statea and thia country , 
haa been discovered by Dr. Scbiff, of 
Frankfort-on-tbe-Maine. Being present 



wlicn a " medium" was eo(aged in pro- 
ducing the rappinga, aa the girl aat perfectly 
isolated, and made no perceptible move- 
ment, it struck him that the noiae might 
be occasioned by atrainiog the tendons and 
muacles; and be immediately set to work 
to contract hia feet and haiida, and make 
other eiperimenla with hia limbs. At 
length, ihc " rapping " atrnck bis ear; and, 
after a few trials, he found that he could 
create it at will as easily as any " medium." 
The effect is produced by displacing the 
peronaui lungut which passes behind the 
ankle op the leg ; such displacing being 
accompanied by a loudiah snap. In per- 
sons in whom the fibrous sheath contain- 
ing the peronaut is weak or relaxed, the 
movement is more easily e6fected and pro- 
duces a greater uoise. Having made this 
discovery. Dr. Schiff practised it until he 
got to be a tirst-rate " medium," and then 
he battened off to Paris to make it known. 
In a recent silting of the Academy of 
Sciences, a paper on the subject waa read; 
and the Doctor, in presence of the learned 
body, ahowcd how the feat was aooom- 
plished. Over and over again be created 
" rappings" asdiatinrt and as clear as any 
" tpirit" has done yet. His simple, yet 
scientific, explanation of one of the greatest 
of modern impostures, cauaed both grati- 
fication and amusement to the .\cademy ; 
and we take it for granted that henceforth 
" biiirit-rappiog" will be as much scouted 
as Professor Faraday has caased " table- 
turning" to be. 



HISTORIC.VL AND MISCELLANEOUS REVIEWS. 



Kotti on thi Architeeluri and Hiiiory 
(if Caldieol Catllt, Monmoulfithirt, by 
Octuvius Morgan, Riq. M.P., F.R.S., 
F.S.A., and Thomas Wnkeman, Eif. 
Imp, bvo, (Publithed by the Caerleon 
Antigvarian Attoeialion.) — These pages 
contain the substance of two paper* which 
were read at a meeting of tbe Aasociation 
above named, in the ruins of Caldicot 
caatle, on the 18th Aag.4853. Mr. Wake- 
man diaeusaea the hiatoriual portion of the 
snbject, and Mr. Morgan tbe architectural, 
tbe latter being further illustrated by 
thirteen plates, etched by Mr. Edward 
Lee, tbe zealoua and indefatigable Secretary 
of the Auocialioii. Caldicot caatle waa 
probably erected in the reign of Henry I. by 
Walter FitzRoger, Constable of England, 
and hereditary aberiff of Glouceaterihire, 
who aliio built the cattle of Gloucester 
about the year 1122, and, according to 
some accounts, those of Bristol, Rochester, 
■nd part of the Tower of London, There 



is no reason to anppoae that any more 
ancient fortress bad previously stood 
upon the spot. The situation is totally 
unlike those chosen by the Britons of an 
earlier age for tbe sites of tbeir strong- 
holds, which were placed on the summit! 
of lofty bills, or tbe apura of mountain! 
difficult of acceas, nay often inacceuible 
except on one aide. It haa been atated by 
various autliora that the castle of Caldicot 
waa held of tbe King by the service of 
Constable, but Mr. Wakeman ha* been un- 
able to find any authority for that atate- 
ment, tbe records merely affirming that it 
was held, with its lands, per barouiam. 
However, it was from its founder that the 
great office of Constable of England de- 
scended to tbe Buhuna, and thence to 
Tbomaa of Woodatock, Duke of Glou- 
cester ; to whose abare Caldicot waa aa- 
sigoed on the partition of the Bohuneatates 
in the reign of Edward III. It afterward* 
was held by the Staffords, and during tbeir 



1854.] 



MitceUaneoui Reviews. 



103 



diagnce in the reign of Eilirird IV. wot 
granted to William Herbert Earl of Pem- 
broke, by whom it i* auppoaed to have 
been diimantled. From hia second aon 
Sir Walter Herbert sprang tlie family of 
Herberti of Caldlcot Court. Mr. Wakc- 
mao add* that " In aorae recent publica- 
tions it baa been stated that King Henry 
VII. was born at thia castle: but there 
does not appear to be any foandation for 
this. It is tolerably certain that he was 
bom (t Pembroke." After the forfeiture 
of Edvrard StaflTord, Duke of Buckingham, 
is ISSI, Caldicot became permanently 
annexed to the Duchy of Lancaster. At a 
sarrey held in 1613 a jnry presented 
that the castle was in ruins, and bad been 
so before the memory of any of them. We 
must now tnm from Mr. Wakeman's 
enay, after pointing oat two mistaken in 
hia pedigree of the Uohuiis, the first where 
be marries the second Humphrey to Ma- 
tilda, widow, instead of daughter of Ed- 
ward de Sarisbur}-, sheriff of Wiltshire j 
and the other a misprint of Bladesniere for 
Badletmere (pp. II, 15). 

Mr. Morgan informs us that the Castle 
•landi on a bank which raises it just abore 
the lerel of a low meadow, through which 
flows a brook called the Nedem ; and it U 
surrounded by a moat. The circuit of the 
walls is nearly entire, and there are six 
KTeral towers or mosses of building of 
Tarioos forms and dimensions. The most 
remarkable of these is the round tower or 
keep, which Mr. Morgan is disposed to 
regard aa the oldest portion, and erected 
aa a defence of a pill or creek, which pos- 
sibly extended as an estuary further into 
the country than it now does. This keep 
stands ou a small artificial mound, and 
would be perfectly circular, but for a 
•mailer snpplemeutal tower which grows 
OBt of it as an excrescence. As our limits 
will not permit us to enter more fully into 
Mr. Morgan's very interesting architectural 
details, we absll content ouraelrea with 
quoting the remarks which have been sug- 
gested 10 him by this supplemental turret, 
which, excepting in having a vaulted 
dungeon at its base, and a small recess or 
chamber communicating with the third or 
highest story, is believed to be a solid mass 
of masonry. "There are many instances, 
cs|)eclally in Prance, of tliese keeps having 
sncb supplemental towers, but tbey usually 
contain the winding stairs: that at Seen- 
frith is oneiutance, where the small tower 
is a solid mass up to the original entrance 
story, where the winding stairs begin. At 
Caldicot, however, no use seems to have 
been made of this toirer; there is no access 
to it from any part of the interior, and the 
dense mass of ivy entirely conceals any 
external loops, if they exist. It wilt also 



he observed that the walls on that aide of 
the main tower are thicker than on the 
opposite or entrance tower, where they are 
weakest, owing tn the stairs being within 
their thickness. This very curious arrange- 
ment has a parallel in Rochester and soma 
other early castles. Rochester castle i* 
square ; but at one angle it has a circular 
turret from the bottom to the top, having 
all the appearance of a staircase turret, 
whereas it is a solid mass of masonry 
throughout, and the stairs are in another 
part of the building. The only way in 
which such extraordinary worka have been 
accounted for is by the supposition that 
they were intended to delude an assailing 
enemy, by making him believe that the 
turrit, inasmuch as it seemed to contain 
the stairs, was the weakest portion of the 
wall, and consequently to direct his attack 
to that part of the castle, whereas in fact 
it was the strongest ; and this hypothesia 
is to some extent confirmed by the fact, 
that sham arches representing blocked-up 
doorways are occasionally met with in such 
castles, as at Canterbury, built in the most 
solid portion of the external wall, where 
there never was any entrance." 

We can oidy add that the greater |>or- 
tion of the other buildinga of the castle 
seem to have been the work of theBohuni, 
in the fourteenth century. Tlie Earls of 
Hereford doubtless lived at Caldicot in 
great splendour, and when the grand gate- 
house, walls, and towers were entire, it 
must have presented a bold, picturesque, 
and itnposing appearance. 



4 



Ledum on Ancient Bthnography and 
Geographj/. By B. G. Nicbuhr. Tram- 
laled by Dr. L. Schmitr. 8ro. 2 voir. 
Walton and Maberly. — These volumes are 
a valuable, indeed a necessary, addition to 
the author's other works, and may justly 
be called the geographical portion of an 
historical cyclopaiJia. The lectures were 
delivered at Bonn 1«27— 1828, and pub- 
lished by Dr. Isler, at Berlin, in 1851. 
Tlieir publication had been previously 
suggested by Dr. (now Bishop) Thirl wall 
to Dr. Schmilx, from an inspection of his 
notes, which are now incorporated with 
the translation. The form of lectures if 
abandoned for that of subjects, which hai 
some obvious advantages in a work of this 
nature. 

These volumes comprise, besides pre- 
liminary observations on the history of 
ancient ethnography, the geography of 
Greece and her colonies, Italy, Gaul, 
Spain, Britain, and the North of Africa. 
The Oriental part of the subject may have 
been designed in full, but it is dismissed 
with a few particulars about Cyprus and 
Phoenicio. Happily the most valuable part 



164 



Miscellaneout Jievieiv). 



[Aug, 



of ■Dcient gcogTipbjr is the moit com- 
plete. 

But of all the author's works tliit Icnat 
silmita of aaalyiiugifroin the nature of the 
auhject ; andthe ttudent must examine it at- 
testively for himielf to arrive ot ita results. 
Niebubr layi he began studying etbno- 
graphj early, and, though interrupted for 
many years by other avocations, he never 
lost sight of his favourite iui|uiries, but 
cherished them io his walks and travels, 
and even in the din of war. (ii. 30.) 
Wherever it wai possible he tried to make 
the acquaintance of country people, who 
often know aooiething about the ruins 
which are mentioned in old books. (JO.) 
Speaking of Hannibal's passage over the 
Alps, he says, " The description whirli 
Livy gives of the storms in those parts is 
certainly not much eiaggeratrd," and he 
thinks he has found " the district where 
the Goths of Radogaisna perished." (I!l.) 
He says, with admirable enthu.sloijn, " I 
would readily give part of my pniperty as 
a prize to any one " who should discover 
the Etruscan language ; " on entirely new- 
light would thereby be thrown upon the 
character of the nations of Italy." (209.) 
BnC he could only carry home a small 
piece of pottery of Arretiam as a relic, 
not being " rich enough to purchase oa 
entire Arretiue vase." (i2ti.) 

The generality of his knowledge must 
luiTe struck his readers from the first. And 
be mainlains that it ought to be general. 
" Mineralogy, metallurgy, and technology- 
are studies which no philologer ought to 
neglect ; they arc extremely instructive to 
him." (i. 178.) He anticipates much from 
the growing acquaintance with Oriental 
languages; for " historical knowledge is as 
capable of extension as physical know- 
ledge, and great discoveries yet remain to 
be made." (i>- °*^) What would he 
have said if he bad lived to see the results 
of the researches at Nineveh I 

His assertion " huw little we know about 
the Bucieot history of Greece" (i. 124) 
is startling ; but be goes eveo further, and 
maintains that "in general, ancient geogra- 
phy, thirty or forty years ago, was treated 
with extreme recklessness," (ii. 331.) Of 
course, with these views, he in not very 
compUmenlary to individuals ; for instance 
hn treats l-'ca as making great pretensions 
trrithiiut having correspondiug abilities, un- 
faithful to truth, jnd ready to crush and 
calumniate others, to preserve a dictatorial 
inrturnce. f70.) But he speaks feelingly, 
fi l>ecn thwarted by him in local 

t'- Of uther uiodfrm writers he 

I *=„... .,>u " the unrivalled " (i. lii'i), 
jovestigatiuos on Plialaris imil 
odels of iuquirieK " {'-•>'i). 
jt pleasaut to read, but vague 



in coDeeptian (ii. 19(i), Salmasins, unfor- 
tunate in his emendations (IG5), Perizo- 
nius great (i. 7), D'AnviUu brilliant (9), 
and Eichhorn " a man of the greatest 
merit in matters of German law." (ii. 119). 
Of the ancients he considers Aristotle as 
perfectly acquainted with mathematical 
and physical geography (i. IG), Stralxi as 
poasessing a genuine historical mind and 
a true historical tart (-i^O), Homer " a 
mythical hero " (213), Uiodorus thought- 
less (ii. 15?), and Pliny's account of na- 
tions confused (ICH). 

In history, his favoarite people are the 
Rhodians, and his favourite person Pyrrhut. 
He suspects that the Homeric catalogue of 
ships was composed at Sparta (i. 'M), that 
" Lycurgus is probablyno histurical person 
at all ■' ( I e«), nor even Minos (191), though 
he allows the Cretan labyrinth not to be 
fabulous, but " a mighty palace-Uke build- 
ing of the heroic age." (19-1.) He con- 
siders Alexander a hidfov character, and 
undeservedly glorious with posterity. (2C4.) 
He believes the Iloninns " have drawn a 
veil over the Saronite wars." (ii. 12-3.) He 
calls Agathoclea "a bold but oriental mis- 
creant of unprincipled impudence. " (261.) 
He places the doubtful date of the battle 
of Sngra in Olympiad SO. (197.) He re- 
gards the Pythagoreans as aristocratic ; 
the downfall of that sect coincided with 
the development of democracy, " and was 
not so much the consequence of its re- 
ligious as of its political cliaracter." (ib.) 

Niebuhr's geographical remarks and 
conjectures must be studied, for no selec- 
tion of passages will set ibcm duly before 
the reader. In Arcadia the mountains 
can hardly be divided with majis, " whence 
it is a vain and useless attempt to fix the 
definite names which are mentioned by the 
ancients." (i. 29.) All maps are miatakea 
in representing Olympia as a town ; there 
were oo Olympian citizens, and it wis 
only a place for games. (79.) In identify- 
ing Pirnes and Brilesaus in Attica, all is 
arbitrary. (93.) A town named .Magtiesia 
is marked in U'Anville'a map and others, 
but it never existed. (168.) Wemayhere 
observe, that Bnrbit^ du Bocage (ed. 1819) 
omits it in his map of Thessaly, but as he 
strangely omits Phera;, the fact is not con- 
clusive as to his anticipating our author. 
The name Italia was at first restricted to 
the southern half at Brutlium. (ii. 1.) 
Nothing can be more erroneous than the 
plans of Agrigentum. (262). The ex- 
istence of such a town as Salleotrum, so 
conspicuous in "Telemachiu " cannot be 
proved. (178.) The topography of Rome 
is a chaos, through referring all statements 
to the same period, (i. .3U6.) What would 
Mr.Sharon Turner have said to Niebuhr re- 
jecting the ArmoHcsn migration of the fifth 



1854.] 



Miacellaneoua Reviews. 



165 



eealarf ! He eouaiiien that the Cjniriiui 
element was preferred by local uausris 
■gainst the influence of the (Jauli. (il.318.) 
These Tolumrs arc edited with his usnal 
diligence and ability by Dr. Schmilz. A 
few typographical errors have crept in. 
We do not know what is meant by the 
allusion to Jrrtty at i. 173. Are the 
family of the Ceoci etill existing at Rome ? 
(ii. 91.) The text quoted from Scripture 
at ii. 196 should have been identified ; it 
Kcms like Job rii. 10. We do not under- 
stand •• the Alps in Wallis." (i. 2«2.) 
He confounds the Clan Maci;regor, in an 
incidental allusion, with the Klaedonulds 
(i. 266,) a subject of which Mr. Burton's 
recent History lias lessened the romance. 
These Tolumes are freer from Sitbuhrums 
than any of the former. Wc only observe 
one passage which can be called offensive 
at ii. 337, on Scriptural chronology, 
where the more moderate language of 
Seller would have been preferable. But 
our task is now performed, and we leave 
these volumes to the student, assuring 
him that he will find thcDi a valuable re- 
pository of geographical investigation and 
biilorical criticism.* 



Travtlt on Me Shorn qf'the Bailie, tx- 
lended to Moicaw. By S. 8. Uill. 1 vol. 
8*0. — Mr. Hill's record of his journey 
through Siberia has procured for him the 
reputation of being a very agreeable narra- 
tor. The present volume describes the 
first portion of the tour, which ultimately 
extended to Siberia, and the publication 
of that portion appears to have been re- 
solved ujion simply because the public are 
iotereatrd in the locality through which 
our traveller took his way. It was evi- 
dently not originally intended for publica- 
tion. It is agreeably enough told, but it 
is very meagre in detail, and affords no 
new intelligence touching the places whose 
names are growing so familiar to us. We 
will cite a brace of paragraphs not without 
interest. The first shows the character of 
British ieamea as it is disphiyed and esti- 
mated in the Baltic : — 

" It seems beyond a doubt that the pro- 
portion of British ships that leave their 
oaken ribs npon the strands, or their float- 
ing fragments to wear the rocks in the 
coves of this sea, during churlish autumn's 
storms, is greater than that of the ships 
of any other nation that navigate these 
waters. 

" The British tailora," said the Nor- 
wegun, " are bolder and more adven- 



turoiu than any others, and the case ia 
exactly this. Six vesseU arrive at the 
point of danger altogether, three of them 
are British, and three of them are of other 
countries. Rocks, bars, shoals, or tem- 
pests, orall these dangers together, threaten 
Uiem. ' The occasion is not favourable 
to prosecute our voyage,' say the masters 
of the three vessels of other countries, 
and they haul off (o wait another oppor- 
tunity. But the British captains, in the 
face of the saute perils, ' crack on,' and 
will rather risk tlii-ir ship and their repu- 
tation fur prudence, than lose time and 
their character for bold seamen, and either 
one or two of the three perish." 

The origin of the Russian navy is a sub- 
ject of interest. It is owing to England, 
as also are the few Russian triumphs at sea, 
where her vessels have been comuianded 
by Englishmen, or by Russians who had 
leanied their profession under EngUeh- 
mcn. 

" The origin of tho fleet, which has 
perhaps contributed more than anything 
else to raise Russia to the rank which she 
hold^ among nations, originated with Peter 
the Great. It is curiously related that 
the first vessel possessed by Peter was an 
English shiUop that had been wrecked 
upon the coast, and, after being covered 
and repaired by the Czar's Dutch friend 
Brand, was transported to the river Ja- 
vusa, which falls into the Moskva at Mos- 
cow, This vessel, from being used as a 
yacht, gave birth to several others of more 
capacious burden, which, after manoeuvring 
in the lake Percyiaslavi, passed to the 
greot lake Peipus, where they encountered 
the Swedes with alternate success and 
defeat. But the first decisive battle gained 
by the Ru^ifeians was upon Lake Ladoga. 
After this the fleet entered the Baltic, 
from which the Swedes were entirely driven 
after the battle of Poltova." 

There are not many anecdotes of equal 
iuterest in this volume, hut the book, 
nevertheless, is not without a certain 
degree of merit ; but readers must not 
expect in Mr. Hill's " Shoresof the Baltic" 
the graphic touches which constituted the 
great charm of Mrs. Rigby's (now Lady 
Eastlake's) clever volume of " LeMerg'' 
from the same locality. 



• For a review of Niebuhr's Lectures 
on Ancient History and Roman History, 
see lient. Mag. Dec. ltio'2, July, lii47, 
ud May, 1844. 



Itlamimn — 17» Riie and Progrtti ; or, 
the Present and Patt Condition of the 
Tttrkt. By F. A. Neale, Author qf 
" Bight Yean in Syria." 2 volt. 8«io. — 
Mr. Neale is already very favourably 
known as a writer who deals, and that very 
agreeably, with Eastern subjects. In the 
volumes before us he has accomplished, ai 
far as could be done in a very brief space, 
what has been long needed, a complete 



166 



lUiiceflaneou* Revinbt. 



[Aug. 



bUtorf of IsImnUm from the dayt of the 
fonnder thereof, through the splendid 
caliphates in Asia, Africa, and Europe, 
down to those more degenerate times 
when a mightier and a more unprincipled 
roffian than Holagou Kbau, whose mace 
■tnicic into fragments the throne of the 
Caliph at Bagdad, is knocking, and that to 
little purpose, against the defences of the 
Saltan Abdul Mcdjiil. 

We have only one fault to find with 
Mr. Nealo : — he is occasionally somewhat 
two flowery and imaginative ; and he 
seldom details an incident without painting 
a hypothetical scene representing sky, 
clonils, sun, earth, trees, and flowers, to 
gire it additional reality. In this word- 
painting there is much ability, and pro- 
bably the author is conscious of that 
pleasant circumstance; but there is a 
inperlluity of it, and one objects to die 
even of Ion much rose in superabundant 
aromatic pain. 

With this exception, the book is a good 
book, — affording, what even good books do 
not always furnish, very mucli that is 
noTel and original. Tbose venerable old 
tomes in which onr grcot-graiidfathers 
■tadied " Universal History " — and we 
mean nothing but respect for the volumes 
and their plodding compilers, — both did 
very excellent service in their day, and had 
lome bright pages among their masses of 
dry chronological detail. These bright 
pages were those, and those only, which 
were devoted to the history of the Caliph- 
ates, and the excellent rnume there 
given has often been resorted to, without 
acknowledgment, by subsequent historians. 
We think Mr. Neale might hove profiled 
more largely by this labour of his pre- 
decessors than be has apparently cared to 
do. He, however, may have felt his want 
of space. It is a difficult task to give a 
history of some twelve hundred years in 
two thin volumes, and yet to produce a 
work that shall not be a mere outline, and 
consequently unsatisfactory. This diffi- 
cult task die author has accomplished, 
though he perhaps would have more 
lacoeaafully accompliahed it had he occa- 
iionally curbed his imagination and kept 
to the chronicling of facts. 

But what to US appears a defect may 
not seem so to others ; and, however this 
may be, the work itself may be safely 
recommended to all readers who have a 
taste for what we may call a wholesome 
literature. The book is not only well- 
timed bnt itis on an interesting theme, and 
it is, on the whole, exceedingly well 
executed. It carries moreover with it an 
excellent consequence, not only telling 
much of itself, but inspiring a desire to 
acquire more ; and we always hold that 



author to be worthy of his croft who knowi 
the difference between satisfying and sa- 
tiating. We may add that there are some 
details toncbiug domestic life among the 
Turks, from a study of which Christian 
families ought to profit We cannot read 
some of them without feeling rather 
ashamed uf the brotherhood to which we 
belong, and certainly, if the details given 
at page 272 of the second volume be 
"fact" and hot poetic imagining, why 
then the Turks are generally better practi- 
cal Christians then the Christians them- 
selves. We have some doubt, however, 
about the authenticity of tb.e details. 



Thbolooy. — The Biography of Sam- 
ton illuttrated and applied. By J. Bruce, 
D.D. fcp. «t>o. pp. 141. The author of 
this volume is " Minister of Free St. An- 
drew's Church, Edinbnrgh." To discuss 
the separation implied by this designation 
is beyond our province ; but any Church 
might gladly produce this volume as a 
specimen of its literature. Chapter vi, 
presents one of the most awful delineationi 
of religious declension we have ever seen. 
It should be read, if happily not for cure, 
at least for preventite. The general effect 
of the volume is rather weakened, we fear, 
by the ecclesiastical allusions at p. 140. 
Simpler Ungaa^e, too, would sometimes be 
preferable. — The Darkneu and the Dawn 
of India. /'Icp. 8fo. pp. 126. This vo- 
lume comprises two missionary Otseourses, 
preached at Bombay, in behalf of the Prea 
Scottish Church Missionary Association. 
The first is by a converted Brahmin, who 
" testifies tu what he has seen and felt 
since his merciful deliverance from the de- 
lusions of Brahmoiiism, both speculative 
and practical." The second is by Dr. John 
Wilson (Missionary), and " notices the 
origin and progress of the Missionary 
cause in India." The incidental statistics 
of Indian missions were supplied by the Rev. 
Mr. Mullens of Calcutta. Two articles 
are appended, 1. on Government Educa- 
tion in India (from the Oriental Chritlim 
Spectator); 2. on the use of the .Sanskrit 
language and literature in native education. 
The reader will find himself informed, if not 
impressed. — The Old TTtMlament Poekel 
Commentary. ISmo. 2 vols. This is a 
companion to the similar work on the New 
Testament, published some time ago by 
the Religious Tract Society. The notes, 
which are professedly brief, are condensed 
from Uenry and Scott, with verbal expla- 
nations of particular passages. For in- 
stance, at 2 Kings xiii. 20, the expresaioo 
inta thy grace in peace is explained as 
" promising that he should be peaceably and 
honourably buried in his own sepulchre, and 
not witness the punishment foretold." It 



1854.] 



MUcellaneout Reviewi, 



167 



if, we imagine, the most conreoient work 
of the kind, from itx portable iize and 
compendious nature. 



Thi Works o/ApuMut. A nne trant- 
latio*. Pott Bdo. pp. XX.. 533. {Bohn't 
Clatticttl Library). — This work might 
bare been left out of the series, as being 
(to quote Dr. Dibdiu) " in some places 
nnpardonably Licentious," or have been 
consigned to the class which the publisher 
calls bii Extra Volume. The editor 
appi^ars to have bad some misgivings, for 
be bas left whole pages of "The Meta- 
morphoses " untranslated, though the prin- 
ciple of omission, which be thus recog- 
nises, ought to have been carried much fur- 
ther, to answer its purpose. Yet with such 
a character as an author, Apuleius was first 
edited (in 1469) by Andrea, Bithop of 
Aleria, and again (in 1C88) by Julicn Fleury, 
Canon of Chsrtres " in usum Oelphini, " 
and translated (in 1 707) into I'rencb, by 
the Abbe de St. Martin, who howerer bad 
nconne to the expedient ofomissioos. Of 
bis principal work, "The Metamorphoses," 
Harleaiays, " Ineptiie mogorum, sncenlo- 
tamflagitia,furumcRtervie,&c-. satirice per- 
ttriognntur" (Not. Lat. p. 205). Warbur- 
too argnes that he meant to exalt the Pagan 
mysteries, as morally mure efficacious than 
the doctrines of Christianity (Uiv. Leg. 
ii. 117 — 131), but, as Harles thinks, iacon- 
clusiTely. Yet it is not unlikely that the 
baker's wife (b. Lx. p. 175) who, " instead 
of the true religion, aifi-cted to entertain 
some fantastic and sacrilegious notion of a 
God, whom ahe declared to be the only 
one," was meant for a Christian, though the 
srriter has chosen to make her a paragon 
of wickedness, a species of sectarian defa- 
mation by no means extinct. At the same 
time the account of the mysteries and the 
vision of Iiis, ore calculated to create a 
solemn impression. But if it were in- 
tended to serve the cause of Paganism, a 
Burer vehicle would have been necessary, 
for though Chaudon terms it " une 6ction 
all^oriqne, pleine de lefons de morale," 
it is calculated to destroy more than it 
leaches. One such lesson is indeed in- 
sinoated, where Lucius after bis disaster 
calls his paramour Potis " that wicked 
woman," and is only restrained from kill- 
ing her by fear» for his own safety (b. iii. p. 
63), thus inculcating how brictle is the 
tcoore of evil intimacies. As a tale " The 
Metamorphoses "wants completeness, for 
we look in vain for punitive justice on the 
abandoned Pauphile and her servant 
Fotie. The " Florida " are called by 
Hsries "orstionum suanim exoerpta; " 
but the editor considers them as a col- 
laetioa of passages, to be introduced on 
\ into harangues. His " Apologia " 



against his wife's relations, who accused 
him of gaining ber affections by magic, is 
a masterpiece of defensive oratory. In re- 
gard of style, Harles says, "dicendi genere 
usus vario, turgidoetvere Afiricano." Nie- 
buhr, who has spoken of it at some length, 
asys the Apologia " shows what an able 
writer he was, when he did not attempt to 
bs too artificial; " and classes him with 
Tertulliao, as representatives of the 
African school. Their chief peculiarity, 
lie thinks, was taking so many expressions 
from ancient Latin writers, of which their 
works " are real storehouses." (Lect. on 
Roman Hist, ii 271). As a philosopher, 
Apuleius is reckoned by Tennemann 
among the Neo-PIatonicians. Crevier 
observes, " Dans le fond, tout son fait 
£toit pure cbarlatanerie, par laquelle il se 
proposoit de relever son savoir et de se 
rondre un objct d'admiration '* (Hist. 
Emp. iv. 559). Harles qualifies his 
praises by adding, " a vaniloquentia, 
ineptiis, et supenorum aduUtione non 
alienus " (Not. Lat. p. 20.')). To thia 
volume are appended the able metrical 
version of the story of Cupid and Psyche 
(from b. vi.) attributed (we believe justly) 
to Mr. Hudson Gurney ,- and the poem 
of Psyche, by Mrs. Tighe, which once en* 
joyed a considerable share of popularity. 

The Atoning Work of Chritt, mewed 
in relation to tome current theoriet. By 
W. Thomson, M.A. Fellow of Queen's 
College, Oxford. (Bampton Lecture, 
1853). 8»o. ;)/>. mil. 311.— This volume 
is entitled to a respectable place in it* 
class, though we should not assign the 
very first to it, or place it in the same 
rank with the celebrated lectures of Dr. 
White. As a whole, it is exoelleot, while 
its defects are partial. It discusses the 
need of mediation ; the heathen ideas on 
that subject, the Jewish views, and the 
Christian doctrine ; and the theories of 
atonement in the early church. If it doei 
not contaiu anything strikingly new in 
the way of argument, it combines the 
standard ones ably, and presents them 
lucidly. The first lecture opens indeed 
with a metaphysical heaviness, redeemed 
however by subsequent moral beauty. We 
refer with pleasure to p. 1^:2-3, on the 
need of a religious temper for studying 
the doctrine, and the caution required in 
nsing new terms and extending old ones ; 
to p. 179-80, on the "redress" of mis- 
conceptions by the Reformation, which he 
colls " a return from speculation to prac- 
tice, from barrenness to fruits ;" and to 
[). 203-4, for some powerful practical ) 
sages. The work has two faults; namel]r,| 
occasional negligence of style, which maf 
br th» result of histe, in prrparing IhaJ 



168 



Miteellaneou* Reviews. 



[Aug. 



lectures for a given time ; and the uie of 
expreHioni that are calculated to excite 
controversy, without adding anything- to 
the main argument. We might offer in- 
Itancea, bnt to do no would look too much 
like searching for blemishes. In quoting 
Dan. ix. 2li, for "(ha cutting off the 
Messiah for the tins of the people," the 
common version seems to be adopted ; 
bat Dr. Pje Smith admits that it " must 
be given up, as not reconcileable with 
the Hebrew idiom."* The Notes, which 
occupy a considerable part of the volume, 
contain a large variety of citations and 
criticisms, which the student will find use- 
ful, whether as directing his researches, or 
saving him farther trouble. We would, 
however, observe that the extracts on 
piaealar aocrilicet from Lasaulx, which are 
eopions and important, ought to have 
%eea paged the American translation is 
quoted (aa the original could not be pro- 
cured) ; but the references to that might 
have been given with precision. 



Popery at it txiah in Great Britain 
aii<f Ireland. Ily the Rev. John Mont- 
gomery, A. M. of Innerleithen. — Tlie 
French first published a serial history of 
people " peint par cui-m4mes." Mr. 
Montgomery has followed the good prece- 
dent and produced a history of Popery as 
it exists in our own Country, as regards 
its doctrines, practices, and arguments, the 
entire materials for which he has drawn 
from the writings of Romanist advocates, 
and from the roost popular books of 
instruction and devotion which have the 



sani'i. 
Ti 



a very extensive 



novel, 
'tir nh|i* 



,it 
,klld, if 

19 upon 



without being either diioourteoui or 
angry. He investigates evidence in soma 
thing of tlie spirit of a judge ; and we i 
hardly fancy that even a member of th 
community which he condemns would I 
bold enough to deny that he had prorei 
his case and decided righteously. In the 
days of excitement so to speak of a boo 
is high praise both for the work and ~ 
author. 



Voltaire and Ait Time: By L. PJ 
Bungeiier, Author qfHulory of the C'ou«J| 
eit qf Trent. — Were it not for a littl 
German dilfusenass and obfuscation, 
should be inclined to rank this work i 
next in -ability to the same author'l 
famous History of the Council of Trent 
As it is, we may rank it as the ablest work 
which has yet appeared against Vollairai 
and among the most interesting of thoM 
which treat of the period in which Voltair 
lived. The pseudo-philosopher who ha 
■o little philosophy, lies in M. Bungener^ 
bands like a malicious dwarf in the graifl 
of a good-natured giant. The latter ( 
amines this little minister of evil with 
microscopic eye. He examines him 
he appeared before the world; strips hia 
of covering after covering; expose* him f 
his naked hideousness; and, then thms ~ 
bis critical knife into the very bowels ( 
the inhdcl, he rips the latter open, displav 
an interior at which humanity 
aghast and disgusted, shows what i 
of venom he had for a heart, and, ( 
the mangled mass to the earth, be puts lifi 
foot upon it with an air of mingled con 
tempt and commisemlion. This is wha 
is substantially done with the Idol befuit 
which so many du|>es have knelt in daJ 
votioii; and if it had only been accom* 
pliahed more briclly, the volume would 
have been all the more popular. Popularij 
howfTcr, it is sure to be, ami we may adfl 
me of its plrainulcst details are Ihuai 
ted with tlie singe of the period 
ire adiuirshly told, iind the autho 
<lc these dctoiU his own by a recoa 
. . Liju nf the materials be has found 
the Mimfiirsof Grimm, .\ltogclbcr, 
volume ii one that will plciuc the piditiciaaji 
the historian, the Christian phiiosophefX 
and the general reader. 



Iliitory nf the Minor Kingdomn. Royt 
Xfo. yf. Uti.— Tills is a sort of sequel I 
l.e " Ancient History " published by tba 
Heligious Tract Society. It contains i 
veral supplementary histories — e.g. of th 
Phcrniciana, Bactriaos, Sicilians, SyrianfJ 
..iane, Ac. While it is intended I 
•' the same moral effect as " Rollin," 
li. ....^ the advantage of introducing tha' 
later historical contributions of travellen 



18S4.J 



ud eritici. The subject o( Bactriao his- 
tory, for inftaoce, differs widely from what 
it was before tlie late uumiimatic diico- 
veriea. We hare one point to luggest for 
reTiiioD, aa the author at p. 19 hat given 
too wide an Eautern extent to the Roman 
dominion. The language of Sir John Mal- 
colm, that the Parthim monarchs " were 
the only aovereigna apon whom the Roman 
arma in the zenith of their glory could 
make no permanent impre«iioD," ia more 
justly conceived. At a tipecimen of the 
diligence employed in other retpccts in 
proenriog materials, we need only remark 
that the hittory of the Arabians it illus- 
trated by the romance of Aatar, which 
presents so striking a picture of their 
naooert. 



Antiquarian J^^^^^H^ 169 

citly followed ; and this objection it par- 
ticularly weighty at the present day, when 
the division into parties is to plain that to 
disguise the fact to ourselves it impoetible, 
and few are so dim-sighted as not to per- 
ceive iL 



SsMy ois HumBn llaypintu. By C 
B. Adderley, J/.P. ISmo. pp.96. Second 
Editiom. — ^Thc publishers of this volume 
propose issuing a series of small works, 
under the title of " Great Truths for 
Thoughtful Hours." This essay, though 
not exactly adspted in respect of Umguage 
10 the simplest chtsa of readers, contains 
lome important ethical truths, based upon 
Ibe higbeit motives. We only object to 
the class of writers to whom the references 
■le made, as the reader may thus be di- 
rected to guides who are not to be impli- 



The Early Prjpieeiet of a Redeemer. 
{Donnellm Leclurei, 1853.) By W. De 
Uurgh, B.D. 8ro. pp. ai. 178. — This 
volume consists of six discourses preached 
before the University of Dublin. The 
subject of the first, viz. that the promise 
of Gen. iii. l.'i, is fulfilling, rather than 
fulfilled, may startle some readers, ex 
novitale vocit, but it is ingeniously treated. 
In the third the author argues with pro- 
bability, that Job lived before the Exodu 
l)ut he takes bis stand with equal cooj 
fidence on firm and on tender ground, bjf 
placing the " prophecy of Enoch " (Jude|] 
vcr. 14 l.*!) on par with the promit 
to Abraham (Gen. xii. 3) and aimila 
passages, as if the character of the one 
were as dear as that of the others. The 
view adopted by Liglitfoot in his Harmony 
of the New Testament (Works, 8vo. iii. 
3S8) ia extremely important. That of Dr. 
Henderson, in his lectures on " Divine 
Inspiration" (pp. 23G 5.'>4), we must 
admit, coiDcidea with our author's. 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



MEETING OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AT CAMBRIDGE. 



The Arcbcological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland has held its annual 
meeting within the venerable walls of the 
University of Cambridge. The office of 
President bat been ably sustained by Lord 
Talbot de Malabide ; and the presidem-ies 
of Sections were allotted at follow: His- 
tory, Edwin Guett, eiq. LL.D., F.R.S., 
Matter ot Gonville and Caius college ; 
Aatiquitiet, the Hon. Richard CornwallJH 
Neville, F.S.A.; Architecture, the Rev. 
WillUm WheweU, D.D., F.R.S., Master 
of Trinity college. The opening meeting 
look place in the Town Hall, on the evening 
of ToMday, July 4, when the proceedings 
eommeooed with an address of welcome 
from the Mayor and Corporation ; which 
wu followed by a speech from the Vice- 
Chancellor to the like purpose. The Pre- 
aident next offered tome remarks ou the 
objects of the association ; and the Rev. 
John Howard Marsden, li.ii. the Dis- 
neian Profeator of ArchRology, was then 
oUled npoo to read a di^L-ourte which he 

OexT. Mao. Vol.. XLil. 



had preparr^l for the occaaion. It com« 
menccd by defining Archseology as ona 
form of the study of History. It is th 
study of history from Monuments : no 
from liter.iry records and written docn-1 
oncnts which were originally prepared andj 
given to the world as history, but from 
naaterial objects, visible and tangible nio- 
numentt, works of art, the productions of 
ancient coinage and sculpture and arclii>j 
tecture. After pointing out how entirely ' 
we are dcjwndent upon such evidences for 
the ancient history of Egypt, Assyria, and 
other eorly nations, and for bow large a 
proportion of the history of even Greeos-j 
and Rome, of whose written history two- 
thirds have been lost, the Professor pro- J 
ceeded to notice briefly the remains of - 
Greek ond Roman art which are in the 
postetsion of the University of Cambridge. 

" At Trinity college arc several Cireek ( 

inscriptions upon marble of some import- 1| 

ance. The principal is one known as the 

Sandwich marble, having been brought to 

Z 



AntiijuariuH Heaeurches, 



Gnglund by tlie Karl of Sandwich from 
Athens in 1739. It contains a list of con- 
tributions to the expensei incurred by the 
expedition for the lustration of the island 
Delos, in the third year of the S^th Olym- 
piad. Another is a decree made at Ilium, 
and brought by Mr. Edward Wortley Mon- 
tagu from Sigeum in I7ti(j : it was pre- 
sented to the cotlege by his son-in-law tlie 
Marquess of Bute. 

" lu the vestibule of the Public Library 
■re certain inscriptions and pieces of sculp- 
ture, the principal part of which were 
brought to England by Dr. Edward Daniel 
CUrke. One of the inscriptions, which 
was brought from tlieTroad, was believed 
by Poraon to be nearly as old as the Ar- 
chonahip of Eucleides, the era at which a 
well-known change took place in Greek 
PaliKugraphy, about 403 B.C. Another is 
a sepulchral one, brought from Athens, to 
the memory of a certain Eucleides of Her- 
mione, whom Clarke believed to be the 
celebrated geometrician; and nnder that 
impression he thought that he had found 
for the tttla a congenial re8tini;-plnce 
among the mathematiciana of this uni- 
versity. But there is no evidence whatever 
that the Eucleides of Hermione wai the 
geometrician, and the probability is de- 
cidedly against it. 

" One of the most remarkable of Dr. 
Clarke's marblci is a mutilated .statue of 
Pan, which was found in a garden close 
by the grotto sacred to Pan and ApoUo 
below the Acropolis of Athens. As it is 
knovra that a statue of Pan was dedicated 
by Miltiades, in gratitude for the services 
supposed to have been rendered by him in 
the battle of Marathon, and as this statue 
IB of a style of ort corresponding to thot 
date, it is by no means improbable that 
this may be the identical figure dedicated 
by Miltiades, upon which Simontdes wrote 
an tKiyMLftftm which is still extant. 

" I am sorry to say that, in so positively 
pronouncing the colossal marble bust (o 
he a part of a statue of the Ceres of Eleusia, 
Dr. Clarke went beyond the bounds of 
cautious discretion which are so properly 
prescribed to the archoeologist. That the 
figure was brought from certain ruins near 
the site of the temple of that goddess at 
EleUiiis there is no doubt, and some of the 
older travellers who observed it in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries be- 
lieved it to be the goddess herself. But 
more recent travellers have been of o con- 
trory opinion, thinking, from the position 
in which it was found, and from certain 
appearances on the surface of the marble 
itself, that it may have been a Cistophora, 
or architectural decoration, like the Cary- 
atides of the Erecthcium. 

"The Malcolm Sarcophagus, in the Fiti- 




wiUiom Museum —described by Mr. Pasb- 
ley in his Travels in Crete, and afterwards 
brought to Engbind by Sir Pulteney Mal- 
colm — was presented to the museum in 
1834. The subject, which seems to be the 
return of Bacchus from India, is treated 
in a manner spirited and original. The 
date of its workmanship is fixed by Dr. 
Wsagen in the last half of the second 
century of the Christian era. Possibly it 
may be a little earlier. 

" In the last place, I may mention certain 
Greek inscriptions recently presented to 
the university at the suggestion of Colonel 
Leake by Captain Spratt, the commander 
of one of her Moje»ty'« surveying ships 
stationed on the coast of Greece. Three 
of these were discovered by him in the 
island of Crete, and one of those three is 
of very early date, the inscription being 
read from the right hand to tlie left. Got 
the most interesting and valuable of Cap- 
tain Spratt's marbles is an inscribed slab 
from the Troad. This inscription t< valu- 
able on two acconntji. In the first place 
it is valu.ibte as having been discovered 
among the ruins of a temple, first pointed 
out by Captain Spratt, which is satisfac- 
torily proved to be a temple of Apollo 
Smintheus, mentioned by Strabo and others, 
but altogether unknown to modem tra- 
vellers until lighted upon by Captain Spratt 
within the last twelve months. That it is 
the site and remains of that temple Colonel 
Leake, than whom we can have no higher 
authority, has professed himself to be 
perfectly satisfied. In fact an inscription 
copied by Captain Spratt places the point 
beyond all doubt. The second point of 
interest connected with this inscribed slab 
is the subject of the inscription. It com- 
memorates the fact of a certain Greek, by 
name Cassander, having been presented 
by each of eighteen or twenty cities and 
states of Greece with a goiilen eroum. 
Each city is mentioned separately, and 
underneath the words ^(tnift rn^a>a> in 
each is a reprrsentation of the crown itself, 
which was in the form of a cbapletof olive- 
leaves. 

*' Of the numerous and interesting col- 
lection of ancient marbles presented by 
my friend Mr. Disney to the Fitswilliam 
Museum, it is unnecessary to enter into 
any minute description, as be has already 
done that himself in a most able and lucid 
manner in his valuable work entitled Mu- 
seum Disneianum ; and I congratulate my 
friend on having, by coming forward when 
the space was yet unoccupied, secured for 
them a position to which the noble example 
which be was the first to set (upon so ex- 
tensive a scale) so justly entitled him." 

A second paper was resd by C. H. 
Cooper, esq. F.S.A., the Town Clerk of 



IBM.] 



The Archautogkal InsHlule. 



171 



Cambridge, opon tbe aneieat Hoosn of 
the King at Hoyitoo and Neirmarket. 
TbcM were erected by King Jamcii I. for 
bil accommodation when bunting. Each 
was situated on the extreme edge of tbe 
eoanty. Neither of them wns in the leas 
Itmarkable Tor its stately arcliitecture, the 
boiiljr of the neighbourhood, or the extent 
of Ihe attached domaioi. On the fall of 
the Mooarefaf , by the death of Charlea I., 
one of tboe houaes ceaaed to be tbe reai- 
deDce cf royalty, as did the other (with a 
few occuional exceptions) on the death of 
Charles II. Mr. Cooper entered into a 
lonf detail of the Tarious occosioos upon 
«hich these boaiet were occupied by our 
kirua, on their way to and from New- 
market, and upon other occasions, inter- 
iperaed with notes of the royal expenditure, 
and aereral important or amusdng histo- 
rical aaaedotei characteristic of Ihe man- 
sen of the times. Charles I. was brought 
from Newmarket to Roystoo, in custody 
of tbe army on the 24th June, 1647, and 
Dfoeaeded to Hatfield on the 26th. Tlie 
Un^a goods and personal estates were 
sold under an ordinance of Parliament. 
The palacM of Royston and Newmarket had 
been previouily 8tripj)ed almost bare. The 
few goods remainiag in the former palace 
were in 1651 sold, in 10 lots, by appniise- 
ment, for only S3f. ITs. The site of the 
palace was in 1753 leased to John Mincbin 
(or fifty yean ; the lease was subsequently 
aligned to Mrs. Anu Wortham. Tbe 
lilewas at length, in 1813, sold by tbe 
CoamuaaionersofLand Revenues for :)00/. ; 
tbe annual ralne by surrey on oath being 
only 12/. 12r. It consisted merely of a 
qsarter of an acre of land, with five old 
eottagea thereon. — Mr. Cooper's historical 
notices of Newmarket were deferred to 
another occasion. 

Wednetday July 5. Sectional meetings 
were this rooming held in the Schools. 
In the Section of Antiquities the Hon. 
R. C. Neville, the President, read a paper 
on the antiquities of tbe earlier periods in 
Cambridgeshire and tbe Northern parts 
of Enei : in the investigation of which 
be has, ilaring the last ten years, been 
continually engaged. He had prepared 
for exhibition to tbe meeting sections of 
the Ordnance maps, in which the Rntnan 
and Romaoo-Bntish sites were marked in 
red, the Anglo-Saxon in blue, and the 
early British, evidenced only by the coins 
of Cunobeline, in yellow. The first were 
decidciUy predominant. The ancient roads, 
though they must have been vtry nume- 
rous, are now nearly obliterated and diffi- 
cult to trace, frequently only appearing at 
intervals where their direction suits the 
eoarsc of the mo<)ern track. Of this kind 
is the one ii|)on Sireetwsy Hill, connecting 



the road from Six-mile Bottom to Little 
Wilbraham with the village of Great 
W'ilbraham ; but the most perfect and 
extensive in Cambridgeshire is that marked 
in some maps as the Wool-street. It 
originate* in Cambridge, and from the 
Gogmagog- hills proceeds in a south- 
easterly direction, crossing tbe turnpike- 
road from Newmarket to London, near 
Worstead-lodge, and ruuning to tbe north 
of Hildersham and Abiugtou, at the back 
of Borlcy-wood, within a mile of Bart- 
low, to Horseheath lodge, and thrnce to 
WithersAeld, Haverhill, aud Colchester. 
The roads leading from tbe important sta- 
tion at Cheiterford into Cambridge are 
not very evident ; the principal one pro- 
bably took the modern way into Ickleton, 
and so on to Duxford (where there is a 
very Romau-Iooking branch westward to 
Tri|>low), and proceeded behind Whittles- 
ford towards Cambridge. Another, pro- 
ceeding from the north side, was joined at 
Stumps-cross by the short track from 
Ickleton, running by Bonmbridge to the 
Fleam-dyke. Tbe lines from Cbesterfurd 
into Essex are more distinct ; from tbe 
east side an old road runs below Burton- 
wood, over Chesterford and Hadstock 
commons, into Hadstock village, which it 
unites with Bartlow, the three-quarters of 
a mile between these two vilUge* being a 
perfect specimen of a Roman way. To 
the west, the old way fiom Strethall to 
Ickleton branches into Chesterford near 
the railway-station ; and on the southern 
side, truces still exist of a road connecting 
this point with Littlebury village, and 
through it with the old Camp at Ring- 
hill in front of Audley End. Still further 
southward, signs of its progress are very 
faint, though no doubt " Quendon-etreet " 
and " Stanited-strcet," os their names in- 
dicote. were in the line of way. 

Mr. Neville next proceeded to notice 
the earthworks of the county : first of 
which he mentioned the Devil's Ditch 
on Newmarket heath. Another, of like 
nature, crosses the highway aa the Eight- 
mile ditch, but it takes different names in 
its progress ; for while on th'* left of the 
turnpike-road from Fen Ditton to Ful- 
bourn, where it joins the Caudle-ditch, it 
is called Fleam-dyke, on the right hand 
aide it assonies the appellation of Balsham- 
ditch, in its eastward course from tbe 
iieighbooriiig village so named. Five miles 
to the south, on the property of Mr. Ha- 
mond at Parapisford, there it a third ditch, 
one termination of which it marked on the 
Ordnance Map as " Brent Ditch-end," 
close to Pampitford Hall. It runs appa- 
rently in a parallel line with the line last 
mentioned, crossing also tbe Newmarket- 
road between the "Two-tnile Hill" cut- 



17a 



Antiquariart Retearchet. 



[Aug. 



ting aDil Ab'mgtoD Pirk. There is still 
another fosse belonging to thid vicinitji 
though rather furllier removed than the 
three already enuiuerateil, which com- 
meoces immediately below the high ground 
of HeydoD nnd Chiiihall-ilowns on Lord 
Braybrooke's property, and may be traced 
for a considerable distance running lower 
than Heydon Grange, across the Barkway 
and Cambridge-road, till it loses itself on 
Melboum Common. Tlic frequent inter- 
ruptions in their course, to which for 
agricultural convenience these great earth- 
works have been subjected, increases the 
difficulty of ascertaining them exactly, and 
indeed there is little duubt that in many 
places they have been thereby wholly obli- 
terated. 

The surface of opea country between 
Newmarket and Royston, iit the vicinity 
of these dykes, is studded with tumuli. 
I have examined thirty of them, all in the 
neighbourhood, some close to and others 
actually upon the earthwork. Mutlow 
Hill, the last openei), of which an account 
is given in the luititute Juunial for 1852, 
affords a fair criterion of the general con- 
tents of ell — the same rude suu-burut 
vases, except in one near Triplow, where 
a good Koman am was found, the same 
interments by cremation, one caae again 
only excepted, near Chrishall Grange, with 
perpetual third-brass coins of the lowest 
empire or their rough imitations. Bow- 
shaped bronze Roman fibuls were taken 
from several tombs, and in many there oc- 
curred small nests of the chipped flints 
commonly mis-called arrow-heads, but of 
which the Abbt- Cocliet bos given a very 
simple and satisfactory explanation in his 
" Normandje Souterrain," where he details 
their discovery in graves along with the 
iron for striking a light. This accounts 
fully for their being fomid amongst the 
necessaries provided for the dead, as well 
as for their universal occurrence with ge- 
neral remains whether of early or late 
antiquity. 

Mr. Neville enumerated the following 
sites in Cambridgeshire which have been 
prodactivc of remarkable antiquities : Dul- 
lingham — whence I have a small Roman 
vessel : Hare Park — a fine leaf-shaped 
whitf silex spear-head, ploughed up there. 
Cambridge— abundance uf Roman remains 
of all kinds ; a gold coin of Cunobcline 
from the backs of the Colleges, in the pos- 
session of Mr. Litchfield. Bottisham — 
Romano- British tumnii in the vicinity. 
Great and Little Wilbraham — Roman coins 
of both empires and remains, and the ex- 
tensive Saxon cemetery described in the 
" Saxon Obsequies." Fulbourn has pro- 
duced two leaf-shaped yellow bronze swords, 
with Roman coins ; and the late Richard 



Manning, a pensioner, residing near the 
spot, described to me, to use his own 
words, " a square brick grave in which were 
some glass and pottery vessels which he 
saw broken into, several years since, by 
workmen, who destroyed them." Mutlow 
Hill and Fleam Dyke we have already no- 
ticed, lu the open country between Rals- 
ham and Worsted Lodge I opened several 
Roinano-British tumuli, as well as the n- 
mains of two or three on the Fulbourn 
Vulley farm. A gold linger-ring set with 
an intaglio on sardonyx, dug up in the 
garden at Gogiungog, was shewn me by 
the late L^rd Godulphin ; and Douglas in 
his Nenia details the excavation of barrowi 
there. Notice was given me some three or 
four years ago that a Roman hypocaust had 
been plonghed into at Stapleford and might 
be explored, but I was not able to attend 
tu it at the lime, and am not aware of ita 
having been disturbed. Many horseshoes 
and skeletons arc found in the low grounds 
about Babraham, but I have never seen 
and cannot therefore give their description. 
In the gravel pit at Bourne Bridge, Ro- 
mano-British poitery has been turned up ; 
at Hildersham I have si:eii Roman pottery; 
at Pampisford there arc Roman coins. 
Whittleaford and Dusford arc Roman, as 
their names import. From Hinxtonlhave 
a coin of Olfa. Ickleton boasts the re- 
mains of a Roman villa, which partook 
lai-gely in the numismatic yield of ita neigh- 
bour, Cbesterford, in Essex. A hoard of 
denarii, discovered at the latter place nearly 
thirty years ago, is still in the possession 
of Mr. Batson, of Horseheath Lodge. Lin- 
ton, though producing Roman coins, it 
better known to the British Museum ai 
having furnished a very rare Saxon Sceatta 
(vide Hawkins' Silver English Coins). 
There is Roman pottery in the heavy 
lands at Little Linton, and on Linton 
Heath I had Iht^ good fortune last year 
to full in with a second Anglo-Saxon 
cemetery, the details of which will be 
given in the next number of the Institute 
Journal. That this place should be pro- 
lific in remains is not surprising consider- 
ing its close proximity to Bartlow, which 
latter village being situated in both coun- 
ties, enables me to pass over the border to 
the celebrated tumuli there. As is natural 
in such a vicinity coins of the whole serie* 
arc to be found, but my own experience 
has produced them in the greatest num- 
bers of the very lowest empire, Theodo- 
sius, Honoring, and .Arcadius in particular. 
A denarius of the first of these emperors 
was sent me from Castle Camps, aud f^om 
Shudy Camps I have seen a bronxe ladle. 
All this locality teems with vestigia of the 
Romans, and it is only surprising that the 
smaller building shoiilil have been at Bart- 



1854. J 



The Archceological Institute. 



173 



low, whil« the extensive ruins snd infinite 
Tsrietjr of remains scattered all over Sun- 
ken Church Field, Hsdstock, paint out 
that place as the residence of Llie chief of 
the Kttlement. Coins from Uomitian 
doimirards are abundniit, particularly 
those of Carausius and Allectu3, with de- 
natii of Sevcrus, Alexander, Gallienus, 
and Postumus. In Ashdon, a village nearly 
adjoining Btrtlow, Roman pottery and 
early coins have been met with. Chester- 
ford is so well known that I need only 
remark respecting it, that a perfect aeries 
of coins might have been farmed thence, 
if all those removed by antiquaries at dif- 
ferent periods were now available. The 
nnmerous other remains and houses round 
it, prove it to have been a jilace of import- 
aoce. Littlebury occasionally produces a 
Roman coin, while from the Ring Camp, 
though we have the evidence of our own 
eyes as to it* nature, and Stukeley mentions 
that a gold coin of Claudius and silver 
patera were found there, I have never seen 
any traces of Roman occupation, except a 
coin of Titui and one of Curausius from 
the next field. In the flower-garden at 
Aadley End fragments of pottery have 
been turned up, and also a coin of Vespa- 
sian, amid the dibris of mediieval build- 
ings. The interesting museum at Saffron 
Wslden displays many coins and Roman 
ficiilia, brought to light near that town. 
From specimens in the valuable collection 
there, I am enabled to add Lindsell to my 
list of places which have furnished me- 
mentoes of our con(iuerors ; and in the 
more immediate parishes of DebUeu, Wim- 
bish, and Widdington pottery and coins 
have been discovered. Dcbden, .Stan- 
stead, and Dunmow may also boast of 
having each produced a gold coin of Cuno- 
beline. Retracing my steps by Qnemlon 
Street, Rickling, and Arkesdeo, itll Roman 
sites, to the west of the house recently ex- 
cavated at Wenden, Elmdon and Cbrishall, 
with their store of bronze spears and pal- 
staves, mast not be omitted. Laugley and 
Heydoo give furtlier proof that the county 
of Essex was tenanted to its borders by 
the Latiiu, and the open country between 
the last named place and Royston, Mel- 
boom, and Trlplow, is filled with the tu- 
muli of their contemporaries or successors. 

The Hon. and Rev. Samuel Best read a 
paper on some recent discoveries of a 
Roman station and pavement nt Abbot's 
Anne, near Andover. 

in the HiBToaiCAL Sectiu.n, which 
was presided over by the Very Rev. the 
Dean of St. Paul's, the Rev. C. U. Harts- 
borne read a paper on the Parliament$ of 
Cambridge. The greater part of this coo- 
siited of a review of the state of the Kng- 
hsh constitution and government during 



the reign of Richard II. It was in the 
I2th year of that sovereign that a parlia- 
ment was held at Cambridge. The Clause 
Roll has preserved the writs of summonses, 
and shows that the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, the Keeper of the Spiritualities of 
York, eighteen Bishops, twenty-three Ab- 
bots, including those of Ramsey, Croy- 
land, Thorney, and Bury, fifty-three Ba- 
rons, other judicial functionaries, besides 
Knights from the different counties, and 
Burgesses from Bristol and London, were 
summoned to attend according to the usual 
form. The Parliament sat from the Hth 
of Sept. tu the 17lh of Oct. during which 
time the King watched the proceedings on 
the spot. A search amongst the Public 
Records has failed to produce any new 
evidence of historical importance touching 
the subject before us, so that we must be 
satisfied with simply knowing that this 
great council of the realm enacted a 
Statute tliat still remiuns unrepealed, the 
original of which is preserved amongst the 
Rolls of Parliament in the Tower : and a 
copy is printed amongst the Statutes of 
the Realm. The Statute of Cambridge 
coutoias sixteen clauses ; three of which 
are remarkable. The second provides for 
the impartial and incorrupt appointment 
of the various officers or ministers of the 
King, and that none of them should re- 
ceive their situation through gift, favour, 
or alTeclion, but that all such should be 
made of the best and most lawful men. 
The third relates to enactments previously 
made concerning labourers and artificers, 
confirming those regulations that were un- 
repealed, and ordaining that no servant or 
labourer should depart out of the district 
where he dwelt without bearing a letter 
|iatent, stating the reason, and if detected 
lie should be put in the stocks. The fourth 
clause regulates the wages of servants in 
husbandry. This seems to have been an 
amplification of the Statute passed with 
this express object, called the Statute of 
Labourers, in the 23d year of the preced- 
ing reign (1349). The same subject was 
coiuidered in several succeediug Acts of 
Parliament, down to the 1 Itb of Hen. VII. 
(U9G), when, as it is slated, for many 
reasonable considerations and causes, and 
for the common wealth of the poorer arti- 
ficers, as free masons, carpenters, and other 
persons necessary and convenient for the 
reparations and buildings, and otlicr la- 
bourers and servants of liusbaudry, those 
regulations should be void and of none 
effect. 

There it but another cUnse in this 
Statute of Cambridge that seems to call 
for remark. The thirteenth may truly be 
ronsidered as the earliest notice takeis by 
the legislature of the health of towns. It 



174 



Antiquarian Renearchet. 



[Aug. 



ii a lewtge, naisance, or lAuitarjr cUuie, 
prohibiting, under n penalty of 'iOI. any 
person from catting annoyances into the 
ditcbet, rirers, or wateri, or laying tbem 
Digb diTCrs cities, borougbs, and towns of 
the realm, by which the air is greatly cor- 
rupt and infect, and maladies and other 
intolerable diseases do daily happen. This 
attests, contrary to what has often been 
aiaerted, that England was behind oilier 
countries in Europe in the provisioDS made 
for the public health. 

Before the Parliament was dissolved it 
granted a fifteenth and a tenth, which was 
perhops I he chief reason for its being 
called together. It is singular that not 
any petitions should have been presented 
to it, at least none have been preserved. 
And there is but one illustration that has, 
after a diligent search, presented itself for 
notice, namely, that the Issue Roll of the 
Exchequer gives the expenses (W. it. id.) 
of two individuals for conveying charters, 
rolls, and other memorials to the Parlia- 
ment ; another alao received \6t. id. that 
the King ordered to be paiil him for red 
wax for the office of his Privy Seal, boui;ht 
from divers pertions at London, Oxford, 
and Northampton, when the Parliament 
was held at Cambridge. 

A second Parliament was summoned to 
meet in Cambridge in the IStb of Henry 
Vltb. (H37), but the place of meeting was 
afterwards changed to Westminster. 

And a third Parliament trns summoned 
here in the S5th of the same reign (1447), 
but by a re-issue of the writs it was re- 
moved to Bury St. Edmund's, and held in 
the Refectory of the Monastery. The 
town first sent representatives 26tb of 
Edward I. (1298). The University not 
until the reign of .lames the First. 

Mr. Hardwicke then read a paper on 
Bleanor Cobham, DuehtMt of Oloueetter, 
chargid in'/A Sorcery. This was founded 
upon a MS. poem in the Public Library 
(Hb. iv. 12), written in a hand of the ISth 
century, bearing no title, but being a 
Farewell put into the mouth of Eleanor 
Cobham , Ducbes.s of Gloucester, after she 
was doomed to perpetual imprisonuient in 
1441, for attempting to compass the de- 
thronement of Henry VI. and the eleva- 
tion of her husband, by resorting to the 
black art. The author of the poem was 
supposed to he John Lydgate monk of 
Bury, who was a favourite and protegi^ of 
the Duke of Gloucester.— The Dean of 
St. Paul's, who presided at the Section, 
urged upon Mr. Hardwicke the publica- 
tion of this curious composition, which 
has greater poetical merit than most pro- 
ductions of its age. 

At twelve o'clock the I nsti tute assembled 
in the Senate House, and wns honoured 



by the presence of its Patron, H.R.H. 
Prince Albert, the Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity. Two lectures were delivered be- 
fore him — 

The first was by Dr. Guest, the Master 
of Gonville and Caius college, On the 
Great Boundary Dyket of Cambridge- 
thire, and the probable dates of their con- 
struction. He commenced his discourse 
by pointing out to his audience the features 
of a large map which he had drawn of the 
supposed state of the south-eastern coun- 
ties in the time of the Britons ; exhibiting 
the three fertile vales of PewBey,the White 
Horse, and Aylesbury ; the various ex- 
tensive patches of forest land ; and the 
open ranges of chtik down. One of his 
first remarks was npon the etymology of 
the Ickneild street. This in one early 
Saxon charter is termed the Ic/ienilde wtrg, 
but so in Dr. Guest's opinion by a clerical 
error ; in another charter, forty years later, 
it occurs us the Icenhilde uurg, and the 
latter orthography he interprets thus : 
hitde is a narrior — Icen-hildewcg, the 
military way of the Iceni. The existing 
names of many pbioea in its vicinity, as 
Ickleford, Ickleton, Ickington, Ickenham, 
and Htckling, all tend to support this 
interpretation. It was the great highway 
across the chalk country between the fens 
and woods. The dykes which cross this 
country Dr. Guest refers to the boundary 
lines of the British princes. From the 
cursory notices of early historians, and 
from numismatic evidence, he has arrived 
at the conclusion that these princes were 
probably of one royal race which originated 
from Belgic Gaul ; and be marshalled in 
presumed genealogical array, or suceeisioD, 
the several names of Divitiacns, Casaive- 
launus, Tasciovanus, Cunobelinus, Carac- 
tacus, Togidunus, and others, which occur 
in the scanty memorials of that era. Di- 
vitiacns is stated to have effected his con- 
quests in Britain by means of the subject 
races : and it appears probable that these 
princes grndually subdued nearly the whole 
islaud during the period immediately an- 
terior to the odvcnt of the Romans. When 
Uunovelaunns king of the Trinobantei 
was driven from bis throne by the Cate- 
velauni, whose capital was at Yerulam, hs 
was received by the emperor Augustus at 
Rome. Though Cunobeline is recorded 
by Dion Caaiius to have established bis 
palace at Camoloilnnum in Essex, it was, 
in Dr. Guest's apprehension, as the con- 
queror of the Trinobantes, not as their 
native prince. Dr. Guest assigns the Brent- 
dyke to about the year 90 B.C. ; that of 
Pampiaford to about a.d. 20 or 30 ; a third 
to about A.D. 100 ; and two others to a 
period considerably later. 

The Rev. Professor Willis next delivered 



1854.] 



The Archeeologicul Inttilutv. 



176 



■ leetara Oa th* Colltgialt and olhtr 
Buildingi nf Cambridgt. Tbey are, be 
uid, a collrctioD of buildings an|iaralcll«(], 
except at the tJBter UiiiTcraity of Osford, 
■nd which furnish ucaiii|>le9 for studying 
the architecture of every luccessivc period 
from the thirteenth century to the present 
day. Some are to be admired for their 
magnificence or their beauty, and otbera 
for the reflected light they throw upon the 
history of tiie university and the nation. 
In the varying style* of architecture we 
may read the habitt and motives, and almoit 
ditcem the tboughtt, of mankind at certain 
periodi, whilst, independently of the in- 
formation thua conveyed by their plans 
and arrangementi, there is ever in ancient 
bnildingi enough of artistic beauty to 
create a high interest in the mind of the 
ttodent. Even in their successive repairs, 
it is curious to observe the different types 
of beauty which have formed the prevailing 
standard of various aenu. 

In order to elucidate the growth and 
history of the buildings of Cambridge, the 
Professor had prepared two plans, which 
were presented to view : the one repre- 
senting the town as it was in the year 
1646, when Trinity college was erected, 
sad the other as it now stands. The 
baildingt be had assigned to their several 
dates by several tints, of which one showed 
those anterior to Henry VIII., another 
those between Men. VIII. and Elizabeth, 
a third those down to Charles I. a foarlh 
those to the close of the last century, and 
a 6fth (by far the largest division) the 
erections of the present century. In early 
times tlia town consisted of one long 
street, nearly in a line with the ancient 
Roman road, out of which there branched, 
at an acute angle near St. John's college, 
a road which is now called Trumpingtoa 
Street, but formerly High Street. 

The original plan of a College very 
closely resembled that of a Benedictine 
mufwstrry, the arrangements of which 
w«re dictated by the rules of the Benedic- 
tine order, The monastery had its church 
on one side of a large quadrangle or 
cloister, a chapter-house, a refectory, dor- 
mitories, and other offices pertaining to 
the moiuistic system of life. Thus, the 
college hsd its quadrangle, its chapel in- 
stead of the monastic church, its hall for 
the refectory, the master's Iodi;e in place 
of the abbat's house. Cloisters wree added 
to only a few of the larger colleges. 

At the beginning of the university 
system, the students were lodged at Cam- 
bridge in boitcls — places where they had 
la pay a price for their own maintenance. 
Those hostels were governed by university 
officers ; and no student could benefit from 
the university, or tnke a degree, Doless he 



lodged at one. At these hostels, which 
corresponded with the halls of Oxford, the 
students appear to have bad a common 
boll; but, instead of a chapel, they were 
directed to attend their parish church. 
When a college was to be founded, some 
tenement was taken and converted into a 
lodge, and builditigs were added ; next the 
ball ; until a quadrangle was formed. He 
would now show how the different colleges 
at Oxford and Cambridge succeeded each 
other. Merton college, Oxford, was founded 
in 1274, and Mory hall in 1239. In 1257 
Pcterhouse, Cambridge, was founded by 
Hugh de Balsham, who copied the statutes 
of Merton ; and at the same time he esta- 
blished students in St. John's hospital. 
At Oxford, in 124!). was founded University 
college ; and in 13'2G Oriel. Then came 
at Cambridge King's hall and Clare hall ; 
after which Oxford took the lead, until 
the foundations of Pembroke in 1347> 
Coins in 1348, Trinity hall in 1350, and 
Corpus in 1 351. We next come to New 
college, Oxford, which was founded by 
William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winches- 
ter and Lord High Chancellor of England, 
iu 1386. That was a great era in the his- 
tory of collegiate buildings, all college* 
up to that time having grown up in tbe 
manner he had described ; but New Col- 
lege had a plan, was designed by nn eccle- 
siastical dignitary who was an accomplishod 
architect, and carried out under bis in- 
spection. New College has its quadrangle, 
ball, chapel, library, and other adjuncts, 
all in their proper places, which rendered 
the building the most comfortable and 
convenient of any at Oxford. After the 
erection of that college, we may expect to 
find it exercising a great influence on build- 
ings that suc-ceeded it, and those were at 
Oxford the colleges of Lincoln and All 
Souls'. At Cambridge, within about 70 
years. King's College was founded in direct 
imitation of New College. King's was a 
college planned from the begirming, in 
which every ofiice was set out with the 
most consummate skill, and faithfully 
copied from the pUn of William of Wyke- 
ham ; in that way, this college was most 
carefully described in the will of King 
Henry VI. ; but the King's plan waa 
never carried out, although tbe mag- 
nificent chapel attested his beneficence 
ond the splendour of bis ideas. King's 
had the first collegiate cloister built in 
Cambridge; it was built distinct from 
the chapel, as in Wykeham's colleges at 
Winchester and Oxford. 'Queen's also 
had a cloister : this college was buUt by 
the Queen of Edward IV. upon a former 
foundation established by the Queen of 
Henry VI. We next come to Magdalen 
college, Oxford, founded in WhT , and 



176 



Antiquarian JRetearchet. 



[Aug. 



whicli was followed by our Catharine hall, 
1475; Christ's, 1505 ; MngiUlen. 1519 j 
the noble roundation of St. John's, 1511; 
aud St Oxford the colleges of Trinity and 
St. John. In 1502, .Magdalen hall was 
founded at Cambridge. Then came that 
magnificent Oxford foundation, Christ 
Church, a large college on the site of a 
number of small ones. That was not the 
first instance of a large college taking the 
place of a number of small ones; for at 
Jesus' college, Cambridge, something of 
the kind was done, by a decayed nunnery 
being converted into a college. But for 
Christ Church there was wholesale de- 
struction. Christ Church was f^o founded 
in 1 53'^ ; and at the foundation of Trinity 
college, Cambridge, in I54C, the same 
thing was done : a number of small 
foundations became extinct. Wc are now 
at the period of the Reformation, after 
which we have Emmanuel and Sydney at 
Cambriilge, and Pembroke, Worcester, 
and Wadfaom at Oxford. 

Turning to his plan, the Professor next 
pointed out the remains of ancient build- 
ing which lie concealed behind frontages 
of more modern dote. During the preva- 
lence of the Italian style, a practice was 
adopted which had done much mischief. 
The outside and inside of courts were 
covered with a new casing of stone in the 
fisshionable style, giving them an appear- 
ance which would not lead any one to 
suppose that ancient buildings remained 
behind, until the interior was examined. 
This practice had been carried out at Tri- 
nity hall, Caius, Christ 's,and other phices; 
and the former aspect of such buildings 
can only be recovered by consulting the 
prints of Loggan. Pembroke college, as 
at present existing, had been erected at 
Tarious periods, and certain new arrange- 
ments were designed by Sir Christopher 
Wren. The buildings which connect the 
chapel with the old court were aloneerecled 
in Wren's time, and they gave us a lateral 
court; and, on asking for the library, we 
were shewn into rooms which were the 
original chapel. In the college of St. 
John, the ancient aspect is preserved. 
There we see the rows of gables that suc- 
ceed each other in the mont reguUr and 
picturesque manner all round the court. 
In Queen's college there were gables that 
have been destroyed in the upper story, 
■nd their place supplied by one straight 
parapet, according with the Italian style 
that was then in vogue. This practice of 
motilation wa< going on during the greater 
part of the 18th century. 

la the colleges that were founded after 
the Reformation there are some very 
curious characteristics. Sidney and Em- 
manuel colleges were both formed od litea 
10 



previously occupied by monasteries. They 
were provided with chapels, as usual; bot 
those chnpels were purposely set north 
and south, so as not to follow the ancient 
practice of placing them to the east. In 
the time of Charles II. the position of 
these two chapels so shocked the princi- 
ples of the time that new chapels were 
erected in the courts by Sir Christopher 
Wren, and were placed due east and west- 
The old chajieU are now used as libraries. 
Some remarkable transformations of mo- 
nastic buildings were effected by the same 
architect, lie had the ingenuity to con- 
vert the original refectory of the prior at 
Sydney into a chapel, and the original 
church of the Blackfriars at Emmanuel 
into the hall. Jesus' college is the only 
complete instance of the transformation of 
n monastic establishment into a college. 
The nunnery of St. Rhadegnad formerly 
occupied this spot, which had been patro- 
nised by kings, and frequently increased. 
In the I5th ceutury, however, the nunnery 
had so declined that there were only two 
nuus left, and the building was in ruins: 
it was at this jicriod that Or, Alcock, 
Binhnp of Ely, determined to coDvert it 
into a college. Excavations made a few 
years ogo have led to the discovery of the 
original plan of the church, which shewed 
how that extensive building was con- 
verted into a college chaja»l, next in beauty 
to tliat of King's college. 'The church was 
cruciform, with a central tower, a nave 
and aisles, and a presbytery flanked by 
chapels various in style, extending from 
the time of the foundation down to the 
latest period of the Karly English. Bishop 
Alcock pulled down the lateral chapels of 
the presbytery, the greatest part of the 
uave, und the aisles of the remiiadcr; he 
filled up the pier-arches that communicated 
with these chapels and aisles, and inserted 
in each a perpendicular (or rectilinear) 
window. He also repaired the south tran- 
sept, rchuihiing its gable, and inserted a 
large perpendicular window therein, and 
another in the east gable of the presbytery, 
and raised a story in the same style ou the 
tower. A new flat roof of oak was con- 
structed, and the original character of the 
whole was thus as completely disguised as 
possible. The master s lodge and some 
college rooms occupy the site of the ori- 
ginal nave. The aisles are completely 
obliterated. The college hall stands on 
the walls of the old refectory. The cloister 
is the same in site as the ancient one, but 
is larger by the space formerly occupied 
by the north aisle of the nave. In the 
course of recent repairs the north-west 
chapel has been rebuilt, and the presby- 
tery has received a new high-pitched roof, 
with a restoration of (he Early-English 



1854. J 



The Archieological Institute. 



177 



triplet Bad blind arcbet of the eastero 
gable, and a complete act of elaborate fit- 
tiogi, org:*n, and stall-work; the latter 
imitated (rum the ancient stalU which are 
(till preserved in the parish church at 
Landbeach, The luteral lancet windows of 
the presbytery (cii on one tide and four 
on the other) have thofta and rich mould- 
ings of the best character. Ou tbe south 
side are arcades forming sedilla and a rich 
double placina. 

The Colleges of Corpus Christi and Pe- 
terhouse next claimed attention. He had 
intimated that it was usual for the student 
to attend the services at his own parish 
church. They would accordingly find the 
church of Fetcrhouse was given to the 
college for the accommodation of its stu- 
dents : it now stood in tbe college, and 
over an archway there was a dry approacli 
from the chambers to the church. In 
monaatic times a dry way was insisted 
upon, becBOic in attending the nocturnal 
and numeroos daily services the monks 
mi^lit luve been put to great inconvenience 
without one. The church of St. lienedict 
stood in the same position nitli regard to 
Corpus college ; and here the church was 
connected with the college. Pettrbouse 
had a very curious chapel of the Jacobean 
period ; and a new chapel bad been more 
recently added to the college of Benet or 
Corpus Christi. St. Benedict's church is 
the most ancient in Cambridge. It had 
long been known as having a Saxon tower, 
which exhibits at its angles long and short 
stones alterDKtely, the characteristic of 
Saxon building. But the body of tbe 
church was supposed to have been erected 
in the thirteenth century, beini; sc)iarated 
from the side aisle by arches belonging to 
that period. Last year it was determined 
to rebuild the north aisle, and place It a 
httle further to the west, when, on divest- 
ing the north-east comer of the nave of 
what turned out to be a screen, another 
angle of long-and-ahort masonry was dis- 
covered, of which the stones are clean and 
fteab, with the pUster upon them. This 
showed that the nave was of the Saxon 
period, and gave them an idea of what 
was considered a handsome parish cbnri-h 
at that lime i it was a curious fragment 
of the past, and one of the best specimens 
of Saxon architecture in this country. 

With these remarks the Profeiisor closed 
his discourse ; and subsequently, at 6 
o'clock, be accompanied a very numerous 
parly over Jesus' college, and there ex- 
plained the architectural peculiarities to 
which he bad referred. 

K.R.II. Prince Albert, after lunching 
with the Vice-Cbancellor at Trinity hall, 
returned to London. 

At an evening meeting in the Town- 
UtNT. Mai.. Vol, XLII. 



Hall Lord Talbot de Malabide presided, 
when Mr. Norris Deck read a paper upon 
Rtiutea, or the \ame Derieet eitemitely 
lued in the Middle Agei. After showing 
that they were employed as early as the 
days of the Roman Commonwealth, and 
also by (he Early Christians in the cata- 
combs of Rome, he proceeded to mention 
some of those now remaining in England, 
commencing at Canibridgi: with the well- 
known device of Bishop .Mcock, at Jesus' 
college, a oock and a globe ; Lady Marga- 
ret's, at St. John's and Christ's collegeSi 
a daisy (Fr. Marguerite) ; Bishop Fisher's, 
a fish with an ear of wheat in its mouth ; 
Asbtoo, an ash-tree growing out of a tun ; 
and the seal of Dr. Robert WoodUrk, 
founder of St. Catharine'^ Hall, a wood- 
lark with tlie word Robert! above it. He 
then mentioned several remaining at Ox- 
ford, and adduced examples of a large 
uurobcr existing in the architectural de- 
corations of our cathedrals, abbeys, and 
churches, such oa Ramridge, Islip, Silk- 
stede, Golditone, Winchcomb, Nailhcart, 
und others. He next noticed the rebiiies 
remaining enseals personal and municipal, 
mentioning among many others the very 
curious instance of Saffron Walden, three 
sprigs of saffron aurrounded by a fortified 
wall, — saffron walled-in. He lastly called 
attention to the whimsical devices adopted 
by the early printers. 

Edward Frcemau, esq. M.A. read a 
paper upon the Arehiltcture qf Witbeeh* 
Church. This church covers an unusualljfj 
large extent of ground, but with littlal 
of the distinctive characters of a larg«j 
church ; broad, bare, and sprawling, withj 
nothing first-rate, and few portions eveal 
good. It resembles Leominster oiull 
lligliam Ferrers in having a double nave. I 
Having given a general view of the various] 
elements in the building, Mr. PrcemattJ 
proceeded to trace the sequence of the] 
more important architectural changei|J 
from the original Norman church, througu 
the Transitional additions, up to the De> 
corated period. 

A long conversation took place upoal 
the subject of presen-ing inscriptions upoa] 
tombstones and monumental brasses, iaJ 
the course of which some curious facttJ 
were elicited, and tbe preservation ofj 
copies by individual exertions was slre-f 
uuously advocated. 

Thurtday, July C — In the Sectiok o» j 
Antiquities Lord Talbot deMalshidede-j 
scribed the recent discovery of a remark* 
able mass of treasure, brought to light in 
railway operations between Limerick and 
Ennis. It contistcd of a large number of 
collars and braccUts of gold, of various 
sizes, deposited in a small chamber of 
stones, constructed to receive them (and 
2 A 



i;» 



jiMitifffUSntM MU$tOTCh4$a 



hM »irt»if bet* MUtieed i* tpsr i«ac lb> 
pziM, p. (19 ,. Lord Talbot h»4 hnm^ 
trtm IrelasdUw chief part oftbewrcaark- 
•fcie cmnaent*, •■4 p n im t tA tbca tir 
nMnmation. He fvre s (ietnied Aaaif- 
Hon nf tlieir ebarae««r, (be p toil U r fm* 
which *on>« of tb«m pnaeat, bdag 4i«> 
tfanilar to anj Of the trpe* bttberto t<ma4 
in Ireiaod. Id rrgard lo the aappoailiaa 
•dtanoed b/ the hie Sir W. Bcthaa, that 
ontimeat* of thii claa* tertti ia fiea of 
Bone7 tt a remote peiM, the in bi e iy al 
•rgament iriies from the aoUon tbat theae 
annletn art all in weight nrahiplea of 19, 
the grain being taken aa tbe aait. Dr. 
Todd, howerer, ba* aataalaetarily aaeer* 
tained that no gradoated aeale of vcigbu 
for regulating tbe commereial or earreat 
Talne of tboe eariona omamenta coald 
ba«e existed. The collection now pro> 
dated comprised fibolK, armleta, iog^ta 
of nnwronght gold, twisted nrcb-oma- 
menta, and gorgeta of the same fHi i mm 
material. It ia probable that in a twit 
•tate of aocietjr anch ornaments might 
form convenient articirs for barter, and 
•erre manj of tbe parpoaea of money ; 
bnt it ia certain that their primary object 
waa that of peraonal decoration ; and it 
ia remarkable that in all notices of the 
Celtic people, their lore of gold and their 
nsc of golden rings and collars are spe- 
cially mrntioned. Ornaments of this de- 
■cription appear indeed to be almost cha- 
racteristic of the Gaelic or Celtic race. 
Dr. Todd considers it probable that this 
remarkable hoard, one of the most im- 
portant on record, waa made in the Ilth 
century, when a great straggle occurred 
between the Danes and the natire clnns, 
in the locality where it waa ditcorerrd. 
Lord Talbot stated some curious details 
in reference to the gold mines of Ireland, 
which at a remote period appear to hare 
been rery prodnctive ; and, although it 
may be concluded that golden ornaments 
were often brought Into the country by 
the Dnnrs and others, it ia scarcely to be 
doubted that a Tcry large proportion of 
the prcciona ornaments found at various 
times were made from native gold. 

Richard Wcatmacott, esq. R.A. F.R.S. 

read a paper on Colouring Slahtti. He 

said the fact that there was the authority 

of classical writers for this practice among 

the greatest sculptors of antiquity, aa weU 

as evidence of the existence of colour in 

some rxiating works, waa admitted ; bat 

he utterly condemned it in point of taste. 

The province of sculpture is to represent 

by form : whatever la expressed by any 

'' than form, is not sculpture. 

("troiluced to assist in giving 

'M a mixture of the two 

relief of scnlptnre were 



[Aug. 



I in lo give leaKty to parta of a pie> 
tae, it woald be bo laager a paiatiBg, ia 
Ihc coaaow acceptation of the term. Hit 
ef arEamcDt waa approved by the 
at, Mr. Octavioa Morgan, Mr. 
of the Britiah Maaewm, the 
Vtm of St. Pad's, and Mr. Scharf ; and 
Mr. Wcataaaeott, in ooDClasioa, ezpieaaad 
Us aaliafaction that ■• ooe liad ven tt ed 
to advoaee aay atgaaacsta in drfrnee of 
coioer : bat we believe tliat tUi waa raOcr 
bom tlie want of line and opportanity, at 
the boatt waa reomed with many mtvaiBn 
of diaaeat. 

Ia the SacnoM or ABCBrrtCTVBB • 
paper waa read by tlie Rer. Edmand 
Venablet, on the Chardi of Ort^a 81. 
Jfanrhi CSeaiM^,wUGfa kaaed by the 
Uaivenity for ita tennODa. He apoka of 
"the evil day" when Mr. Worta left 
■nney to boild tbe galleriea ; and ataled 
that the Heads formerly aat in atalia rooad 
the chancel before tlM preaent " Golgotha " 
•r eaatem gallery waa erected. He alto 
prialed oat that within a few yeara the 
tower waa ornamented with balla intended 
to correspond with the front of Clare liall, 
which had been thus ornamented by Kr 
Jamea Bnrrongfa. He lastly co m mented 
npon the " heathen doorway " lately palled 
dovm, and replaced by a more characterittie 
one from a design by Mr. 8cott.^Pro- 
festor Willis, ia proposing thanks for the 
paper, remarked that the proper apology 
for the preaent state of the chnrcb reMed 
in the fact of its being, so far aa tbe Vni- 
▼eraity waa concerned, merely a place for 
the delivery of sermons, the congregation 
being supposed to have already attended 
divine service in their college chapels. It 
would bf difficult to supply the necessary 
accommodation if tbe galleriea were re- 
moved. Aa for the balls on tbe tower, 
they had been removed by a Society ca- 
tablished for Ecclesiological objects, who 
had taken the opportunity of doing to 
whilst others were asleep. For his own 
part he was sorry they were gone, as they 
formed the last page in the history of a 
chnrcb which was so long building. — Dr. 
Whewell added that the balla were removed 
without authority by the membera of a 
society who professed tbe greatest vene- 
ration for authority. He should be sorry 
to see any alteration in the preaent 
arrangement of St. Mary'a Church. 

The Rev. John Hailstone, Rector of 
Bottisham, then read a paper, historical 
and descriptive, npon Anglesey abbey, in 
the parish of Bottisham, near Cambridge, 
and upon the pariah church of Bottiaham. 

Mr. Alexander Nesbitt read a paper on 
the Architecture of the North-East of Ger- 
many. 

In the afternoon an excursion was made 



1854.] 



Antiquarian Researches. 



179 



to AagleMy abbfy, uiil the chorohes of 
Bnltiahim, Palbourn, ani) Cherry llinton. 

At an evening meeting, the Rev. Col- 
linfwood Bruce, LL.D. read a paper upon 
tbe Roman antiqoitiei preierred in the 
oniTenity of Cambridge, partianlarly tbe 
inscribed stones nhicli were brought by 
Camden and Sir Robert Cotton from the 
Roman Wall in Northumberland. Theae 
Itooea have nothing attractive about them, 
bnt in an hiitorical point of view they are 
moat Tsluable. One was aet up by tbe 
Fourth Cohort of the Gauls, showing that 
tbe Romans used one portion of their eon- 
qoered proTioces si instruments to aubdue 
another. Many of the Roman soldiers 
under Vespasian, who encamped under 
the walla of Jerusalem, came from North 
Britain. On another of these altars the 
name of Caraealla appears, that of Geta 
having been carefully eraaed. The lecturer 
obaerved that he saw tbe same thing last 
year at Rome. Mr. Freeman said he naw 
another instance in the south of England. 
Theae beta show the remarkable unity of 
the Roman empire. After Caraealla had 
murdered hia brother Gets, his name was 
erased in Home and the remotest part of 
the empire. 

The Rev. J. I.,ee Warner read a memoir 
npon certain illuktrations of Walsingham 
abbey exiatiog in the university of Cam- 
hrid^, and chiefly upon a poetical version 
of the Walsingham legend which is pre- 
aerred in the Pepysian library, in the 
form of a ballad printed by Richard Pyn- 
lon. It was composed about the year 
1 460, and oommencei, 

" Of this Chappel see here the foundatyon." 

Mr. I..ee Warner also gave aome account 
of the excavations which have been re- 
cently In progress in the ruins at Wal- 
singham. 
(7b be eohetudtd in our ntst Magaiine.) 



UVMKX AKOH^OLOGICAL BOCISTT. 
yi/y 13. The annual meeting of this 
Society took place at WincheUea and Rye, 
VMthcr 300 ladies and gentlemen were 
teyeil from different partaof thecounty. 
r entered the town of Winchelsea from 
the railway station by the Pipcwell Bridge, 
built over the ferry on the ancient road to 
Rye and Kent, and which was the only 
road before the military road was formed 
nearer the sea during the last war. They 
then passed under the Land or Pipewell 
Gate, which was built in the reign of 
Henry IV. after tbe last grievous attack of 
tbe French, the gate bearing the name of 
John Helde, who was Mayor in 14U4-i. 
Tbe party then proceeded down the longest 
way or street, from the east to the western 
or New Gate, passing the ash-tree on tbe 



north of the church-yard under which John 
Wesley preached his last open-air sermon 
on the 7th Oct. 1790 i the Hospital of St. 
John, formerly used for decayed freemen 
and their widows, but of which tbe gable 
end only is now standing ; and the site 
of the Hospital of St. Bartliolomcw ; 
leaving on tbe north the site of St. Giles's 
Church, of which the last remains have 
Ijeen removed ; and also the field on which 
gallows were erected undrr the licence of 
Edward IV. when the custom of executing 
criminals by drowning them in the harbour 
ceised. 

Mr. W. Ourrant Cooper, the historian 
of Winchelsea,* here pointed out tbo 
features of the New Gate, which is in 
tolerable preservation, stating that it was 
an original gate, built with tbe town be- 
tween 1280 and 1290, and waa the only 
means of land communination to the 
county westward, the town having been 
built on a peninsula; the estuary on the 
south-west of tbe town being used for the 
tbe smaller olasa of fishing boats, as the 
remains of anchors and other relics found 
io what were now marshes clearly showed, 
whilst the larger class of trading vea- 
sels nse-d the quay, which, as at Plymonth, 
was in the eastern chaunel. On the land 
side, from the New Gate to the weat, 
north, and north-east, aa far as the Land 
Gate, the town was fortified with strong 
walls, the foundations of which could be 
distinctly traced ; whilst on the south and 
east sides, where tbe rock was almost per- 
pendicular, and the water flawed close up 
to the cliffs, there were no stone walla, 
but simply high earthworks, the harbour 
being commanded from above, at the 
south-east angle of the town, by an open 
space now called Cook's Green, on which 
the archers ami bowmen oould be brought 
into action. On the land side the road 
led from Fairlighl, where tbe French 
landed in 13B0, and, passing through the 
New Gate, on the laud side of tbe town, 
which, like other more modern fortified 
towns, was most capable of attack on that 
side, burnt the town and put to flight the 
gallant Abbat of Bnttle, who three years 
before bad nobly rescued the town. 

The company then crossing the market 
square, where, at tbe foundation of the 
town, the tradesmen resided, repaired to 
the ruins of the church of the Grey Friars, 
of which the chanrel arch is still perfect, 
having a span of 2ti feet The cloisters 
led out of the chapel on the west side, 
and the refectory and dwelling rooms stood 
where the present mansion was erected in 



• Mr. Cooper's work is reviewed in our 
vol. uxiv. p. 613. 



180 



Anlitfuarian Reaearehet. 



[Aug. 



k 



$ 



1819, in the place of ■ brick boiue, which 
wu not older thui the time of June* I. 

WbcD the cumpany bad assembled in 
the ruined chapel. Mr. Cooper gave a 
short sketch of the town. It was built 
between 1281 and 1^88, aodcr the direct 
iaapection of the Bishop of Eljr, acting as 
Commisiioner for Edward I. ; the old 
town, which stood on the eastern side of 
the modem Rye barboar, baring been 
much injared by the influx of the sea, and 
ultimately snbmerged by the great storm 
of •4th Feb. 1287. The new town was 
built at one time from a general plan, 
with itreeU at right angles, like New 
Tork and other American towns, and in- 
cluded 41 squares, all of which could now 
be traced : 39 were built on for the in- 
habitants ; aul of the other four (not 
uumbered in the original return still ex- 
isting at Carlton House Ride), two were 
appropriated to the churches of St. 
Thomas the Klartyr and of St. Giles ; one 
to the Grey Frian, who had had a house 
in the old town, which must hare been 
one of their first houses in England ; and 
the fourth to the Black Friars, the only 
remains of whose house are the crypts 
nader a barn on the north of the town. 

The attacks of the French on the new 
town in 1337, 13S9, 1360, 1377, and 
1380, did it great injury : and, indeed, it 
Dcrer recorered after the last attack, for 
the sea began to leare it ; and though, in 
14?7, when a set of ordinances were made 
for it* goremmeat, it is certain that there 
was a large trade in wine (the cellars or 
crypts for storing which exiiit to this day 
in large nnmbers ou the east or merchants' 
side of the town), and that the harbour 
was frequented by the fishermen of Picardy, 
yet the cloae of the loth century saw all 
the tnde lost and the town in decay; for, 
in a supplemeotanr tale to Chaucer (Percy 
Soe. edit. iii. 216), are lines alluding to the 
decline of Wynchelse and Ry. And, not- 
witbjtaniiing the compliment of Qoeen 
Elixabelb, who, in her ri«it in Aug. 1 J73 
•■lied it "Utile I>ondon," it had only 
Ibea 70 houses; and in the rrtnm of 5th 
VA. 15«<-7, by the Mayor to his Lord 
Wardea, daring the preparations for re- 
^ktiag tke Spanish Armada, it is distinctly 
itttti tiat llMte " are not belonging lo 
Ike tamm of Wiachcbcm my ship*, barks, 
, aor yet aay m ai tifTi or aMe 
I Ifciiiiii, bat only one sailor, by 
Waa. Baxtonc, who is now on a 
TOysge fo RackeOe ; " and in the rrtnm 
of all Ike 214 Cinqoe Pott ship*, with 
Atir aa aiaHrri utd 96i able-bodied 
lifhilaiB hmi bat one, the 
* 30 teal, irilk tve (aastenaad 
^wnea ■■!■■*■■ 

r ant fiaH«4 tte bentifal 



choir of the chnreb of St. Thomas, the 
transepts of which are in ruins, and the 
nare wholly destroyed : but which con- 
tains effi|;ics of three croas-lrgged knights, 
a female, and a young man, all in Sussex 
or Purbeck marble, resting under richly 
carred canopies. 

Its architectural features are admirable, 
and they hare been repaired and restored 
by Mr. Gough, the architect, at the ex> 
pense and through the great liberality of 
a gentleman then present, Mr. Thomas 
Dawes. 

An inspection of the Strand Gate on the 
south-east, which formerly communicated 
with the harbonr only, but through which 
the road now led lo Rye; and the preci- 
pice down which the hone of King Ed- 
ward I., in Aug. 1297, jumped, nearly 
killing the king; and a riew of the road- 
stead where the battle with the Spaniards 
had Ukeo place on the 39th Aug. 1350, 
the English fleet haring been commanded 
by Edward III. in person, asai«t<id by the 
Black Prince, whiUt the Qneen looked on 
from Ike heights, terminated this part of 
the eicursioD, and the company prooe(«M 
to Rye. 

On arririog at Rye, they were reodred 
by the Mayor, Recorder, and Council, and 
proceeded to the Town Hall, where C. U. 
Freweo, Esq. M P. for the Eaatem Diti- 
fion of the County, waa called oa lo 
preside. 

Mr. Blaanw, the Hon. Secretary, after 
stating that the annual volume of Traos- 
actioiu was delayed in order that it might 
include a report of the proceedings of the 
British ArchsFological loctitate held at 
Chichester last year, and that the Society, 
withoat the present additions, amonnlel 
to about 664 aieabers, then read a copy 
of an ioterecdBl maauacript rrceotly found 
in the Bodleian Ljbrary, Oxford, being a 
report from the then Bishop of the Dio- 
cese (Guy Csrlrluo) to the Archbishop of 
Conterbnry of a risit paid by the Duke of 
Monmouth to the city of Chicbefter ia 
1678. 

Mr. HoUoway, the historian of Rye, 
then read a paper on the history of that 
ancient port. Ue stated that, wiiea the 
Romans arrired in Britain, the spot oa 
which the town of Rye i>ow stands was aa 
iBaaiatiri roek, stiading ia tlse madtt at a 
watoy aarte wUeh iitaailaJ Craai Fair> 
light ia Sasaot to Uyllw ia Keal, iaan^ 
np into rarioua bays aad MMHairira. the 
two principal of whieii ran back, aac sa 
far as Robatafetidge, Iha ether mf to 
Battle, coreria( alMfiiWr a an n iii ttf of 
■pwards of auty Iheaand aesML At a 
&taaceof aboat two ■Ocala 
ward by the kill oa 
WJBchilaea has sinee 1 



I 
I 



1854.] 



Antiquarian Researches. 



181 



to the sottth appeared a long, low iiUnd, 
cTteoding three or Tour miles from eusC to 
west, on which stood the original towu of 
Winohil<ea; four miles to the NNlil. was 
1 loftier and a larger island, called Oioejr, 
or the Uleuf Oxen, and towards the east, 
at the distance of twelve luilea, was " The 
Island of the Romans," first eoibanlced 
and inhabited by tliem; a place destined 
to become, in after ages, the Queen of the 
Cinque Portji; the nucleus, too, around 
which all future embankments were to be 
gathered, until the whole liquid plain of 
waters should become, as we see it at this 
day, a solid plain of rich alluvial soil, 
Edward the Confessor bestowed the towns 
of Rye and Wincbilsca on the Abbey of 
Fescamp in Normandy. Richard I. 'in his 
5th year, granted to the Barons, the Mayor, 
and Commonalty of the town of Rye the 
liberty of walling their town, by a charter 
of which Mr. Hulloway exhibited the ori- 
ginal. Previous to this grant, the only 
artificial defence the town had was Yprea 
Tower, still stamling at the south-east 
angle of the cliff, and which wa:> erected 
by William de Yprcj, Earl of Kent, in the 
twelfUi century. The wall w.is erected on 
the east side of the town, where probably 
the sea had partially receded, so as to 
render additional fortification necesaary. 
But, in spite of this precaution, Rye was 
taken by Louis the Oauphin in the reign 
of John. According to Camden, " King 
Edward HI. walled it (Rye) where the 
eliOs defended it not." And this indicates 
the part which was then walled in, namely, 
from the north-east corner to the sontli- 
weat. Then it was that beautiful gateway 
was erected which is still the ornament of 
this ancient town ; and Rye may be said 
to have arrived at the zenith of her glory 
when Edward III. with his Queen, Phi- 
lippa, landed here on their return from 
France, after having signed .a treaty of 
peace with that conntry at Ureligiiy, in 
the year 1360. But the dnratiou of its 
prosperity was short; for, in 137H, one 
year after the death of Edward III., the 
town w.is sacked, and iiguin in 1148. Rye 
partially recovered tbeie heavy disasters, 
out she never did recover the loss of the 
Bordeaux fleet, which happened in the 
reign of Henry VII. 

The reading of Mr, HoUoway's paper 
being concluded, the Chairniuu exhibited 
■ miniature of Charles I., which was pre- 
sentCil by that monarch to his ancestor 
Archbishop Frewen, when chaplain to 
lati Bristol, after a sermon by the chap- 
lain dissnading the King from his intended 
marriage with the Infaula of Spain. 

Mr. M. A. Lower exhibited aapeaking- 
trampet found at Romney a few months 
Bgo. below high-water mark, and belong- 



ing to Mr. U. B. Mackeraon, of that town. 
It is six feet long, and made probably at 
the latter part of the fourteenth century. 

In the school-rooms were exhibited some 
highly interesting and curious antiquities 
belonging to the Frewen family : a picture 
of Archbishop Cranmer; one of Lady 
Guldeford, wife of Sir H. Guldeford, con- 
troller of the household of Henry VIII., 
who lived at Hempstead Park ; a portrait 
iif a French Judge in the time of Louis 
XIV. ; Henry VIII.'s Prayer Book, and 
Queen Elizabeth's ditto ; Nautilus shell, 

C resented by the Skinners' Company 
cfore the groat firo of London ; n Romao 
spur, dug up in a garden of the Frewea. 
family in Leicestershire by Mr. Freweo'e 
father ; a sword used at the battle of 
Doyne by Captain Hay, bia great-great- 
grandfather i a pair of Queen Elizabeth'* 
shoes, which she exchanged at Northiam ' 
oo the occasion of her dining under any 
oak ; a silver cup, presented by Sir Edw.H 
Frewen, of Brickwall, to his grandsoil 
Thomas Frewen, on the occasion of bit] 
christening in ITIC, filled with 3260 gni«jl 
neaa ; an embroidered silk shoe, supposedf 
to have been worn in the time of James I.,l 
and a pair of embroidered velvet sUpperd 
supposed to be of a later date. 

The dinner aftertrards took place in the 
Augustine Friary, now used as a wool- 
store. 



NOnrOLK AND NOKWICH ABCH.COLOGI. 
CAL SOCtETV. 

July 19. The annual excursion of thii 
Society was commenced at North WaU- 
liain, where Sir Willoughhy Jones, Bart, 
the President, took the chsir. A con- 
siderable number of Roman relics, found 
nt Threxton, were exhibited by 'riiomaa 1 
Barton, esq. of that place, together withal 
others of the Saxon age found at Sporle {if 
and many other curiosities were exhibits' 
by Mrs. Spurdens of North WaUham^ 
the Rev. C. R. Manning, and others. Tbe;1 
company visited the church of Trunch, ( 
upon which a paper was read by the Hon.J 
.Secretary, the Rev. C. R. Manning if 
Knaptou church, the peculiarities of which 1 
were described by the Rev. John Gunn;;f 
and Poston church, where Mr. Gunn alsA'j 
described the Paston monuments : and! 
Bromholm Priory, where a description of,l 
the remains was read by Henry Harrodni 
esq. The dinner was held at NortliJ 
Walsham ; and in the evening were rea~ 
papers. On the antiquities of the valleyi7 
of the Yare and Waveney, by Mr. GreviUe 
Chester; On antiquities recently dis- 
covered at Humpncll, by the (lev. S. 
King; and, On the Felmingham antiquitiet,., | 
by Mr. Harrod. On the next day an 
pTcorsion was made to the churches of 



18a 



Foreign News, 



[Aug. 



Wontnd, TanitMd, Sadlburgh, Btrton 
Turf, and Irttatd ; and the company waa 
Mttrtatned at Intead reotory by the R«t. 
John Gunn. 



The annual meeting of the St. Alban** 
Aboritictuhal and Arohjiolooioai. 
SooiBTy took place at St. Alban'a, on 
lltanday the loth of June, being a joint 
meeting of the St. Alban's and Bedford- 
•hire AroliKoIoglcal and Architectural 
Sooletlea. The Earl of Verulam, the pre- 
■tdent, occupied the chair. The Rer. J. 
Taddy read a paper " On the Condition, 
Local and Political, of the Ancient 
Brltoni," and Mr. R. Grove Ix>we one on 
" The Second Battle of St. Alban'D." 

NUMIKMATIC ROCIKTT. 

Ilof 35. Mr. J. B. Bergne in the chair. 

Mr. Shaw, of Andofer, made a com- 
mnnioation to the Society "On a rare 
Coin of Beorcbtric ;" who haa been con- 
■idered by Mr. Hawkins and Mr. Lindiay, 
in their mpectiTe works, to have been 
one of the kings of East Anglia, Mr. Shaw 
if of opinion that, during the liretime of 
hii father Athelstan, Beorcbtric governed 
Bast Anglia with the rank of deputy. The 
coin itself would appear to hare been struck 
•t a later period, as the monogram on it 



la all probability expresaes the initial Iet> 
ters of Meroia and East Anglia, but so- 
cording to tome numismatists it is a com- 
bination of the letter* alpha and omega. 
Mr. Vaux read a letter from Prof. Holm- 
bo«, of Christiania, " On Coins of Etbelred 
the Second, with the Cbtx on the rererse.** 
Jmu 22. The anniversary meeting was 
held, J. B. Bergne, esq. Treasurer, in th« 
chair. The following gentlemen were 
elected to serve as Officers and Council 
for the ensuing year; Prttiiutt, Hie Lord 
Londesborongh, K.C.H., F.S.A. ; Fie«> 
Pmidmti, Edwsrd Hawkins, esq. P.R.S. 
P.S.A., F.L.S. ; Horace Hayman Wilsoa, 
esq. F.R.S., F.R.A.S. ; Trtaiur*r, John 
Brodribb Bergne, esq. F.S.A. ; Stert- 
Uarin, W. S. W. Vaux, esq. F.S.A. 
F.R.A.S. ; John Evans, esq. F.S.A. ; 
fbrtijf* Seertlary, John Yonge Aker- 
man, esq. F.S.A. ; lAbrarioH, John Wll. 
liams, esq. ; Jiemitri qf ike Ootmeil, 
Berlab Botfield, esq. Rev. Thomas Frede- 
rick Dymock, F. W. Fairholt, esq. F.S.A. ; 
W. D. Haggard, esq. F.S.A., F.R.AS. ; 
John Hnxtable, esq. John Lee, esq. LL.D. 
F.R.S., F.S.A., F.R.A.S. ; J. G. Pfister, 
esq., R. S. Poole, esq.. Rev. J. B. Reade, 
M.A., F.R.8. ; W. H. Rolfe, esq., W. D. 
Sanll, esq. F.S.A. ; C. Roach Smith, esq. 
F.S.A. 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



FOREIGN NEWS. 



The reported answer of the Russian 
Oovemment to the Austrian commnnica- 
tkm mentioned in our last number proved 
to b« an invention. The reply did not 
Wrive until the Sth July, and was, as had 
buen antioipatad, of an evasive character. 
Thu Bmperor was willing to withdraw 
tnm WallaohiB, but would onl^ leave 
XColdaTiu peri jMSsti with the reurement 
tt Mm eombined fbreea of France and 
■oriand from the territories and seas of 
Vmej. Ha would acquiesce in a joint 
Proteotorate of the Turkish Christians by 
m five powcn. This answer was com- 
auaieBlM to the representatives of France 
•ad Bngbnd, who replied that it did not 
aotttaitt the basis of a negociation. The 
•OMetud ^try of the Austrian forees into 
VAiImWI* Ims not taken place, though we 
'>«aed that it ia the intention 
'Ha Government to occupy 
Ha, and, if necessary, expel' 

feroe. 

I PrkKlfeHHte.—'nn 



intelligence which had reached us at the 
close of Jane of the general retreat of the 
Russians from the principalities turns out 
to have been premature, although for a 
time the whole of their army appean to 
have been in motion in that direction. 
The general result of these movements may 
be thus briefly summed up, — the siege Of 
Silistrim has been abandoned, the Do- 
brudscha evacuated, and the whole of the 
right and the greater part of the left bank 
of the Danube is in possession of the Turks. 
The Russians continue in considerable force 
at Bucharest under Prince Gortschakoff, 
who has again taken the chief command, 
Prince Paakiewitch having obtained per- 
mission to retire. 

The fiulure of the siege of Silistria hat 
been a great triumph for the Turkish arms. 
In the course of it the Russians had aa 
army of 60,000 men on the right bank of 
tlM Danube, they had aixty guns in posi- 
tion, thraw &0,000 shot and shell, and eon- 
itncted thre* milea of approadiea, and y«t 



1854.] 



Foreign News. 



189 



pined not one inch of ground in the 
oovne of 40 dijta, and lefl the petty out- 
worlc of Arib Tabia, against which their 
■rioeipal attack had been directed, a sbape- 
MH mau, bat still in possession of its de- 
ftnden. The defence of this fort was 
conducted bjr C'apt. Butler and Lieut. 
Nasmjth, two English officers who hap- 
pened to be in Silistria at the commence- 
ment of the siege. The former lost his life 
from the result of fatigue and exposure 
iggrsTBDn^ otherwise slight wounds. 

The bullc of the Turkish army moved 
forward from Sclmmla to Rustchuk about 
thf lir..>iiiiiing of July. An attack on the 
iuds before Giurgevo was com- 
I I tbe 2nd and continued till the 

ith. On the Tth and 8lh the town of 
Giargero was attacked and taken. The 
Turks are said to have lost in the action 
1700 killed and wounded, the Russians 
$00 killed and 2000 wounded. The Turks 
immediately commenced strengthening the 
fortilications. The Rusoian General Chru- 
Irtr, who was wounded, has since died. 
Further contests are said to hiTe taken 
place on the 16th and 19th, but it it re- 
porird that it was the intention of Omar 
Puha for tbe present to avoid a general 
tetlon. 

Gen. Aurep, who was defisated some 
month* back in Little Wallschia, has com- 
mitted suicide. On the !)th July Halim 
Ptiha and Said Paiba attacked the Russians 
ander Oeoerali Pagoff and Biboutotf near 
the mouth of the Aluts, and defeated 
Ihem ; both the Russian generals were 
wounded. 

It ia slated that the loM of the Rus- 
tiags since tbe cros.iing of the Pruth has 
amounted to 50,000 men. Princes Stir- 
bey and Gbika hare been reappointed 
Ho«po<Ur« of WalUchia and Moldavia by 
the Tttrlnsh Gnrernment. 

The main body of the British force is 
•till in tbe neighbourhood of Varna. 

The Ulaek Sra.—Oa the 1 1th of June 
the Furious and Terrible, in company with 
the French frigate Descartes, exchanged 
some shots with the Russian squadron off 
Srljistiipol, but could not draw out the 
Rus«iau steamers (tilx in number) to leave 
the protection of tlie forts and ships of the 
line. By the Russian account two of their 
Steamers were damaged and twenty officers 
woDoded.and several men killed. None 
of the vesaela on the side of the allies were 
■txnek. 

Un the 'J8lh and 29th Captain Parker 
of the Firebrand, assisted by the Fury, 
completely destroyed the batteries at the 
Solina mouth of the Danube. Tbe Russian 
commauder wa* taken piisoncr, but tbe 
guard esc.ipcd. On ttie Tth Capt. Parker, 
with Capt. Powell of the Vesuvius, were 



proceeding on an excursion up the rirer, 
when they were fired at by an ambu*cad« ■> 
of Russians. They landed and dislodged 
the enemy, but in the attack Capt. Parker 
was shot through the heart by a muaket- 
ball. 

Omtlttntinople. — Redachid Pasha hai 
resumed his duties as Foreign Minister, 

The Rosaians have gained some succestel \ 
over the Turks in Aida, and the army undef 
Selim Pasha ii said to be reduced to 7000 
men. 

On the 18tb June the Turkish troop* ' 
under Fuad EITendl attacked the Greek ' 
insurgents near Kalabaka in Theasalyi 
commanded by Uadji Pelros. After a 
combat of three hours, the Greeks were 
completely beaten. They had a consider- 
able number of killed and wounded, and 
lost their baggage and artillery. 

This victory, together with tbe cbanga j 
of policy on the part of the Greek court,.i 
has completely extinguished the insurreo> ] 
tion, which waa already at an end in Epirui. | 
The Porte has communicated by a nob 
dattrd July 6 to tbe Greek Government! 
that it is willing to permit the vessels of] 
the latter country to enter the Turkiihil 
harbours, on condition of compensation 
bring made for the deslmction of property 
in the late insurrection. 

Abbas Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt, died 
on the Nth July, and is succeeded by 
Said Pasha. 

The Bailie.— On the Slat the HecU, 
Odin, and Valorous attacked the fortreai 
of Bomarsund, uhich they bombarded. 
After a few hours the magaxine exploded, 
and the buildings were in flames. No 4 
landing wa* elTccted. No men were killedj 
on board thp steamers, and only fi?*! 
wounded. On the 25th the main body of] 
the fleet was ofl" Cronatadt, but retired bT 
few days later on account of cholera havinfll 
appeared in some of the vessels. 

FVoBCf.— On the 15th July, 10,0 
b'rench troops, under General Baraguayl 
d'liilliers, embarked on board Englisbl 
vessels at Calais for the Baltic, after being'* 
inspected by the Emperur in person. The 
following ia tbe list of the vessels em- 
ployed : The Hannibal (screw), 91, Com- 
modore Grey; Algier* (screw), 91, Capt. 
Talbot ; Royal William, 120, Capt King, 
come; St. Vincent, 101, Capt. MantelH 
Sphyox (paddle), G, Copt. Cliflbrd ; Jann('< 
(paddle), 6, Lieut.-Comm. Kane; besides 
several transports. 

On the 24th this fleet arrived in Kiog« 
Bay. Large bodies of French aoldiers i 
moving to the north. 

Cholera has been very bad at Marseillet,] 
and tbe formation of the camp of tha , 
South is coniequently poitpoord till .Sep- 
tember. 



184 



Promotiom and Preferment*. 



[Aug. 



(iffrmmy,— Th« Bund acceded to the 
Auitru-PruMUn treaty 00 the 23d of July, 
with only one diMentient voice. This 
tingle diuontient wat Mecklenburg. Di- 

elomatic relatioio Imre been re-opened 
etween Auatria and Switzerland. 
Spoilt. — On the 2!)thof June the ioaar- 
rectlon under Orn. O'Donnrll, which ha« 
been for (ome time expected, broke oat. 
The general had been for a considerable 
time concealed in Midrid, and the utmost 
exertions of the minislnr of M. Sartorius 
were unable to procure his arrest, although 
the secret wat probably known to a large 
number of persons. A portion of the 
garrison, with Gen. Dulcc and the caralry 
regiments under his command, were the 
first to declare for O'Donnell. No po- 
pular movement took place in the first 
instance, and the general retired from 
Madrid to Canalqa, a Tillage about four 
miles from Madrid. Troops were tent 
against him by the GoTcrument, and some 
fighting took place, but nothing decitire 
resulted, and some days later O'Donnell 
left for Araojuez. At this period success 
or failure seemed to hang in the balance, 
•nd no popular feeling had been mani- 
fested on either side ; but the proclama- 
tions, of a Liberal character, put forward 
by the leaders of the reTolt appear to have 
decided the people to join the morement. 

About the 15th of July, the Captain- 
General of Catalonia declared for the in- 
inrgents, and nearly at the same time most 
of the important proTiacial towns, either 
with or in spite of their governors, also 
joined the insurrection. On the 1 8th of 
July, Espartero left Logrono for Sara- 
gosta, to take the command of the in- 
turgents. 

Daring this interval the revolution had 
broken out in Madrid (on the 17th), and 
the ttreets were everywhere intersected 
by barricades. Attempts were made to 
put it down by force by Gen. Cordova, 



but without tuccets. The houses of the 
principal Ministers were ransacked and 
destroyed by the mob. It was then an- 
nounced that the ministry had resigned, 
and that a new ministry would be formed 
under the Duke of Rivas, a Moderado, 
which was to combine the respectable 
members both of that and the Liberal 
party. This coDcession was, however, 
obviously insufficient, and on the l9th the 
new ministry resigned, and the Qaeen tent 
by telegraph for Espartero, who was ex- 
pected in Madrid on the S3rd. The 
troops sent under Gen. Blaser, the late 
Minister of War, to act against O'Don- 
nell, went over to the enemy, and Blaser 
has fled to Portugal. The patriotic Junta 
at Madrid does not place confidence in the 
intentions of the Queen, and retains a 
hostile position towards the Court. On 
the 2Uth the soldiers in the Gobernacion, 
about 200 in number, surrendered to and 
fraternised with the people. 

The Infant Fernando, brother of the 
king, died on the 17th July in his 22nd 
year. He was of an extremely weakly 
constitution and all but idiotic. 

Cmiada. — The administration which hat 
conducted the affairs of this colony for the 
last six years under Mr. Hincks, was 
defeated in the Lower House, by a majority 
of 42 against 29, on an amendment pro- 
posed on the address at the opening of the 
Parliament on the 13th of June, in which 
the ministry was censured fur " not snb- 
mitting to the Legislature during the 
present session a bill for the immediate 
settlement of the seignorial tenure, or one 
for the immediate settlement of the clergy 
reserves." The house was adjourned to 
tl>e 22nd, and on that day prorogued with 
a view to its immediate dissolution. The 
electiuiu under the New Representation 
Bill will take place in August, and the 
Parliament will probably meet in October. 



PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS. &c. 



GAtETT* P>ErCBMSNTS. 

Jmit 9. Knighted, Colonel Josias Cloete, 
CB., K.H., ItepotT Qusnermaster-tieneral to 
the Fonm at the t^pe of (jood tiope. 

Jiuwll. Royal Msrinn, Col. SrcoodComm. 

0. B. Bury to tieU>loael Commandant ; Lienl.- 

001. J. Ashmore to be CAjbnel Sfcond Comm. ; 
hravrt MiOor B. Rea to be Ueut.-Colonet 

Jtm* 30. Scots Fttsileer Guards. Major and 

brevet Col. <] ■ Moncrieffe to t>r Lieat.-Colonel ; 

Otpt. and U«ul.-0>l. and brevet Col. Sir C. J. J. 

Hamiiloa, Bart, lo be Major ; Lieut, and Capt. 

" " "-"iwni 10 beOapl. and Ueot.-ColODeI. 

•» be Oslonel in the \mj, Lieot.- 

S. anatt.— Ta be Maton in the 

1. Mano<ell, 1st W.I. Regt.; 



Capt. D. C. A. Darroch, SIst Foot ; Capt. H. A. 
Stracban, Kth Foot ; C^l. G. Mein, h. p. list 
Draff. (Urifrade-Major ai York); Capl. G. B. 
Hillier. h. p. SOth F<)Ot, Dep. Assist. Adjutant- 
Gen. Oublin. — To t>e Geueral in the Army In 
the F.ast Inclirs. Lirot.-Gen. ^ir H. S. :icott, 
K.C.B.— To be .Major in the Aroiv in the East 
Indies, Capl. II. B. Lnmsden, 19lh Bengal 
Nacirv Infantry. 

Hampshire Militia Artillrry, the Karl of 
Malmesbury to be Honorary Colonel Com- 
mandant.— .Mid-L<>lhi.\n Yeomanry Cavalry, 
Capt. K. Trottrr to be Major— Nortfaampton- 
abire Militia. Lord B. T. .<U. Cecil, lute or:Scott 
Fnsileer Guards, to be :$econd .Major. — Slaf- 
fordshire Yeomanry Cavalry. Major the Right 
Hon. Karl taranville to be Lieut.-Coloael ; 



ido-«0 



PfoiniitwHs and PreJ'ernumli. 



185 



Ctpl. G. H. Acker, to l>r MMor.-^alberUiHl- 
sbirr Mitili*. J. Home, nq., late Capl. 99d 
Hifffalauden, tu b« Mnior, 

JutyX. Iliellun. JoliD Henry Tliotuis Mm- 
neni Sutlon to \ie Lieut-Governor of New 
Brunswick.— .Mnjor-Geo. W. T. Knollya to be 
Ueut. Governor of Guernsey, we Ueut.-Gen. 
Sir John Bell, K.C.U. 

/H/y 3. Earl Granvilte, Cliancellor of tlie 
Duchy of LincMter, to be a Member of tbe 
Committee of Council on Education. 

Julf *. Jane, Latlv Churchill, to be one of 
the Lftftir^ of the liedchamber in Ordinary 
In h' r " f icr the Counters of Mount- 

BilK'- "t)ne-Aujru»ta, Counti-as of 

Mouc. lobe lUtraLadyof the Itod- 

chauil-i I" lnT .Majesty. — Royal Artillery, 
brevet .Major J. II. Franclilyn tobe Lieut.-Col. ; 
brevet .Major G. Gambier to be Lieut -Colonel. 
J»ty i. Lieut.-Cien. the Hon. Cieorge Anaon 
to be Commander-in-Chief at Madras, and 
Second -Member of Council. 

July!. Srd West India KeKinient, Major 
G. A. K. IVArcy to be Lieut. -Col ; Capt. C.E. 
Ijiw, from S7th Foot, to be Major.— Ilrevet, 
Lieut.-Col. Sir V. Abbott, C.H.. K. I. Cn.'s .MiL 
Seminary at Addiscnmbe, to be Colonel in the 
Army in the Past Indies ; Captain \V. V. Hay, 
Adjutant, Kast Indta Depot at Warley, to be 
Major in the Army in tlie Uast Indies. — To be 
Majors and Ueut -C'olonely in the Army, Opt. 
^V Humbley, Kille llrirade; Capt. E. C, Wll- 
ford, 19th KoiJt ; to be Major, Cupt. FitiWil. 
Hnni Watker,5Srd Foot. —Royal Marines, Itreret 
M^jor A. Aniler»on to he Lieut. -Colonel. 

July H. l/ird John Ku^^ell to bi- the unpaid 
Charity CominiH!tioner for En[;taod .snd Walefr, 
nee the Ki^hl Hon. Sir George Grey, Bart. 
O.C.ll. resigneil. 

Juty 10. Colonel H. D. Jones, K. Kng. to be 
Bngadier-Gcncral of the forces employed on a 
partlcolar service m the Italtic. 

July II. Robert Cracroft of Hackthorne, 
Line. esq. and \u{;usta his wife, eldest surv, 
dau. of SSrJubn lng^ilhy,or Ripley castle. Hart, 
by Elitabeth only dau. of 8ir Wharton Am- 
cotts (formerly W^harton F.merson, esq. of Ket- 
tlethorpe, co. Line, by Mary, sister and coheir 
of Cbarlea Auicotts of Kettlethurpe, esq.) to 
take the name of Amcotts instead of Cracroft, 
and bear the arms of Amcotts. 

July u. 3nd LifeUuai-d.s, .Maiorand Lieut.- 
Col. and brevpt Colonel L. I>. Williams to be 
Lieut. -Colonel and (.>>lonel ; Capt. aud brevet 
Lieut.-Col. F. M. Martyu to be .Major and 
Lieut.-Col.- GrenadierGuarda, tu be Captains 
and Lieut. -Colonels, Lieut and Capt. R, Hrad- 
fr.r.i i.i..iir ftnd Capt. .M. Bruce, Lieut, and 
' ' II. C. H. Lindsay, brevet Lieut.- 

I ;<nay, C. II.— Coldstream Guards, 

L- ,.....ii> and Lieut -Coloneta, Lient. and 

Capt. I). v\ . Carleton ; Lieut, and Capt. I.,urd 
A, C. L Kilirov; brevet Lieut -Col. A. St. 
(; II «i„...... frim 54th Foot; Major J. T. 

't.— Scots Fusileer Guards, 

Lieut -Colonels, Lieut, and 

Lieut, and Capt. the Hon. 

r Lieut. -Col. F. Lushin^tun, 

< ot ; Major L I.. .Montgo- 

n.r,,, ., .-,„„ loiii.— Staff, Capt. W. M. I). 

WiMan, It. p. K. Art., to be P.iymaater of de- 
tacbmeiili at Portsmouth; I'aymasler M. U. 
Campbell, from 71st Foot, Faymaster of the 
UepAt Itaitalion at Templemure. — Hrevet, 
Lieal.-Col. F. Graham, H M. to l>e Aide de- 
Camp to the Queen, with the rank of Colonel ; 
Capt J, K- lleaion, S7lh Foot, tu he Major in 
the .Vnny; Lieut -Col. t>ir F- Abbott, C.U , 
B.l.t.'o.S .Mil. Seukinary at Addiscnmbe, to 
Itare the local rank of Colonel in the Army ; 
dpt. W. F. Hay, on the Staff at Warley, to 
have tbe local tank of .Major in the Army.— 
Brevet, to be Major, Ueut .-Colonel, and Cnlo- 

Gn.sT. Mao. Vol XLII. 



nel in the Army, Capt. T. Warringlun, «th 
Fool ; to be Majors aud Lieut-Colonels, Cap- 
tains C. Cox, 71nd Foot, C. T. I'attenson, JUI 
Foot, D. Davie*. «th Foot, G. Newbery, TStU 
Foot, G. Schreiber, SStli Fool, T. I. W. Free- 
man, 13th Foot, W. II. Northey, Ist Foot, H. 
Connop, S5th Foot, C. l'ear^o^, 9Ih Foot, Hon. 
It. Hare, 90lh Foot, II. lAlmouds, 7th Foot; 
to be .Majors, Captains F. J S. Hei.burn, COth 
Foot, K. 1*. luce, Rifle HriKade, J. J. Greig, Sd 
W. I. Regt.— Mil Foot, Major J. T, Airiy to be 
Major.— Ilrevet, Capt. J . L. A. Simmons, lloyal 
Kng. to be Major, and to have the local rank 
of Lieut. -Colonel in Turkey ; Lieut, and T^pt. 
J. A. liutler, C^uldstreain Gunrds, tu be Major 
in (be Army; Lieut. C Nasmyth, UombayArt. 
to have the brevet rank of Major, when be 
jihall have been promoted to tbe regimental 
rank of Captain. 

JulylX. Ilrevet, tube Majors, Lieut. -CaiIo- 
nels, and Colonels iii the .\rniv. Captains A. 
Kyle, acth Foot, W- U. Saunderson, 4lh Foot; 
to lie Majors and Lieut. -Colonels, Captaini , 
VV. Ruyda, S3rd Foot, W. Toole. SSnd Foot,J 
J. R. (!k)lthurst, 18lh Foot, K. Uarretl. SfilliJ 
Foot, J. A. Itidgway, S91h Foot ; to be Majoivf 
Capt. V. W. L. Hawker, IJnd Foot.— Capt. \»;| 
Mayne, Ist Foot, to be Major and Lieut.-CoVfl 
in the Armv.— Staff, .Major-General Ixird D0f 
Ros, from Deputy Quartermaster-General, to I 
t»e Quartermaster-General on a particular scr^ j 
rice ia Turkey. 



Richard Garl of Bantry elected a Repraeot \ 
tative I'eer of Ireland. 

Henry .Muggeridge, esq. and C. D. Crossley^.j 
esq. elected SiieriO's of London and Middlesex. J 

Wro. Anderson Rose, eat], elected Aldcrmaa>j 
of Queenhitlic Ward. 



Naval Pbefermbnts. 

Vice-Admiral the Hon. William Gordon to \ 
beCumuiander-ln-chiefatSheerneas. — Captain j 
Hie Hon Fred. W. Grey, C.U. of HM.S. Han. 
nibal. to be L^minodnre of the second class. 

July 13. Opuins R. A. Yates. K. Le Cra* 
Thornbrough, C. G. Randolph, anil*; R. Wil- 
llama to be Rear-Admiral-s on the Reserved 
Half-pay List.— Capt. H. U. .Martin, C U. to bo 1 
Rear-Admiralofthe Blue.— To be Retired Rear- ' 
Admirals on the terms proposed Ist Septem- 
ber, 1846, J. Fakenham, F. A. Wetherall, H. 
Litchfield, W. Webb, C. Simeon. 

Oiitain Sir Baldwin Wake Walker, K.C.B. 
Surveyor of the Xavy, to be .Naval Aide-de- 
camp lu the Queen. 

Cap" George R. Mundy(lM7)lo the Nilej ■ 
Capt. William Stewart to command the Fire- 
brand, rice Hyde Parker, slain at Sulina. , 

Commander Vincent .\. Massiugberd to tba 
Neptune. 

Lieutenants, Richard H. Risk (I84«) to com- 
mand (he Wrangler; Kdwsrd G. Ilorc (ISIS) 
to coniniand the Beagle. 



ECCLKSIASTICAL PkBITEBIIKNTS. 

ReT. T. Dowdier (Canon of St. Paul's), Rev. 
J. O. Caienove, Rev. J. A. Kwing (R. of 
We.Mn.ill, Herts), Rev- P. Freeman, Very 
Rev.S Ho.Hl(Ueanof Argylll, Rev.J.Kehle 
(V.of Hurslevl,and Rev. J. Keigwin.Canona 
of the Collen'inie Church of Cumbrae, dio. 
Argyll and the Isles. 

Rev. L. Foot (R. of Long Rreily, Dorset) Ca- 
nonry of .Selherbury-in-Terrli, in tbe Cathe- 
dral Church of Salisbury. 

ReT. K. Hallam, Prebend, and Kilnianagb R, 
din. Ussory. 



18(1 



JiccUtiuttical PrttfrmenU.— Births. 



[Auk 



I 



lUv. 1. 0. Whitley, remplcbfTtii Preb«nii iml 

V. dia. Rmt. 
1U«. 1 K Adaint, Afihniorr R. Doreet. 
RtT. i:. K. Allen. Millom V. CumbcrUna. 
Rev. J. V. Ililllnr, HuUiIi KpiKopI n. LkiiK- 

{lort C. Duincraet. 
Rev. K. Hoyle, St. Peter PC Huamcnmilh, 

MuiairMi. 
Bev. J. li. Uroughaffl, Dunrourc R.and V- diu. 

Osiorv 
Rev J' U. Uurue, Aldermuton V. llerVn. 
Rev. T. Ctnon, LL.I) , (.'luoii K. dio. ArtliiKli. 
Rev. J.U.Cobhnm, Dttiicley H. Nortliiitnptuiisli. 
Rev J. Kvans, St. Mary 1* (\ Gr-iBsefidjile, tjiric. 
Hcv. F. Flizjiitrick. raiuitonti U. dio. Mcalli 
Ki-v H.T. Yrexf. llurst.iii R Norfolli. 
Hcv. T. Fuller, Cbalvin|rtuti It. Suaiex. 
Krv. U. R. Urren, Farnlitm lUiyil H. Hnckii. 
Her. J. A. llamiUon, Uiui;hi:rc« R.tndV.dio. 

!tt»tb. 
Rev. 1 lUtk'iil, E>Ht llarkwith R. Mncnlnali. 
Kev. H. Ml John Howard, Laurencekirk PC. 
' diu. nrfclim, N.U. 
Rev. K. i:. Hawtrev, D.U. (Provoat of Klon 

College) to Maiile-llurham V Oirorrtahirc 
Rev. R. C. liulibenity. Carltiiel P.C. Lane. 
Kev. A. II. Hult.m.Cliriatcliurcli P.C. Aahton 

under Lyne, Lancashire. 
Rev. R. W. T Hunt, II) Ion R. Hrrefurdalilrr. 
Rev. H. !>. Jenuer, rrcaton V. Kent. 
Rev. W. Jonea. Be<Ua« R w Kuddry C.UIani. 
Rev. H W. lawn,. IliliHTtoii R Wilt*. 
Rev. C. II. Lowry,!'uuIli Weston It. Oxfurdili. 
Kev. G. Lucaa, iii. Lawrence K. w. St. Jobn K. 

Soiiihamplon. 
Rev. L'. Luanioorc, Kverdun R Nurtliiniptuniili. 
Rev. W. H. Lyon. iHiorne V. and I'aatletim 

P.C. Doraet. 
Rev. H. II. Miles. Allielhanipton R. w. Uurle^i- 

ton H. Uurael. 
Rev. 1) L. Morian, Cwmyoy P.C. and l.iaiil- 

buny-Abbey P.C. ilcrc^>rdaliir<i. 
Rev. — Moreton, Sherborne V. Doraet. 
Ilev, T. Nolan, \. ' '" lilre. 

Kev, C II. I'eni , h R Norfolk. 

Rev. H. I'inL'k, t : Yorkalilre. 

Kev. T. 11. I'lalt, iiiiiy innity P.C. Parties, 

lianta. 
Rev. C P.. Pricliard.Houth Lnirenliam K. Rnll. 
Kev. K. A. Sanders, Cnallemneadaiu R and V. 

archdlo. Dublin. 
Rev. 11. A. Seymour, Holy Trinity I'.C. Win. 

clio«t«r. 
Il*v. K Smith, KIrkhv-Fleetbam V. Yorkali. 
Kev. K.J iileele. Arncline-lnrlebyP.C.Vurkab. 
Kev. V. Slorr, Hrenrhley V Rent. 
Kev, T. U II Thompson. Weyhlll R. Hanta. 
Kev, 8. L. Townacnd, D.U. Uiutb K. dio. 

Armagh. 
Kev. T. Walker, Kikdale-Slde P.C. w, Dcfk- 

liarnby I' C. Yorkablie. 
Kev. C. B B. Walah, Uinaled PC w. Kinnler 

C. Hanta. 
Rev, J, II. Wheeler, Coppenhali IM'Staffunlab. 
Ilev. C T. Whitley, llrdlini^lnn V. Durham. 
Rev.J.St.U. William", •llioniaatuwii K ami V. 

din. Kitdnrf*- 
Urv, It. V, .larlhennb. 

R<v.J.W liV.Willa. 

lU'v. U. \'. : ! ^iilin. 

To CAuptaineitM, 

Kev. 8t. V. Beerh ■ <■■ >'• '•■■< ' "••"•-■nirc. 
ilev. U. W. llr. , i'.,a- 

mininx to thr i 
Rev. W. \ I" . ,„ ,.,„^,... ..„.ka), 

(Urrtnt [ r. 

Rev. II. J : Dockyard. Malta. 

Rev. H. \i Iliaby linlon, U-(c. 

Ucv.T. (luthwaiiiMo the Cemetery, Highgate, 

Midilleaex. 
'li'v TbAiicellor of Kiidjrel to the 



Colhjialt and Sekolattte Af poMmtnti. 
Rev. J. Ij. I'atenove. TuUinhip m the Cullef* 

ofCumbrte 
Rev. J. 11.11. n.-.ti. II r.L. WardenshlpofTrioily 

Cot. I -iiire. 

Kev hip of Oailley 

Gi.v -hire. 

Rev. I i.i-iriTsliipof Harlinf. 

Ion 
Rev I 1 Mastriahip of Ba- 

sin. Itatit*. 

Prof' •!> of Natural 

Sci' uine.AuatralU. 

R<:v. S. A. : liip of Kept«B 

Gramrani 
Rev. I" " . ilnhip of LUb- 

do^ , 
Rev. I lor Uiuler-Muler of 

Cl.i .'ion. 

E. H •: \. .Vaaiataul M**tenlli|l, 

Gr I. L:iMcaeter, 

Rev <|isoN, Head-Maalenhip of 

Hti'. :..ir Sl-IiuoI, Devon. 

Itcv S<.'Con(l-,Ma«ler of Cbrlil'a 

II.-, n. 

Rev. J. Lilluili, PriiiripilaLIp of SL Man'* 

Ckillege, St. Andrew's, 



Rev. H. Allou fP.C. cf St. Jude, Whilecbapel), 
Wedneadny llivinity Lecturer, St. Olave'a, 
Southwark. 

Kev. J. Hamilton (C. of Bcveratone. Olooco- 

ler»!.lrii. Asii.rj: li,.ci Soi-rrlary of theColo- 



ni.'i 



tv. 



ir Of Man), dlo- 
lio. of Sudor Aud 



Rev. 

cc> 

Man. 
Kev.J. R. HojfKlP.C of Lower llrithi)m)Se<'re- 

tarv (iM 111.- .-< I' (, F 1'. for the aribdeacuury 

ofi 
Rc\ ; .ir.siino«ce«ii«), Secre- 

larv . for the aicbdcacotiry 

ofljcwe!.. ■■'■{. 

Rev. II. Jo. -inolbcrley), Secretiry 

lor ii..- ' .1 the arcuneacuniy or 

CI.. 'i.itk. 

Rev . ...aMlationat the Ponjaob. 

Rev. I i„....iuinbc one of her Mi\)caty's 

Prearhern at Whitcliall. 



IlIRTilil. 

Maj/ 1» III CadoKan-pl. tbe wife of Chadra 
Moritan, eai|. a dan. (Aliir). 

June \h. At the rectiirv, (Irent Stanmore, 

Lady Hllen tinKkm. a -■•■ >' !'■■' rtli 

reclory. Lady Francca i^ . n 

aon. 17. At I'au, I. 

Bynm Cnry. a dau ., ... ..c, 

the wifeof Trcbawke Kekewu i — 

IB. InPuillaiid lil. the wife . \U 

'•' ■■ Ml", a dau. 1». li. .....I, -.n-ct. 

■ f Airlie, a dau. JO. At llxted, 

wife of Oipl. Itnr<lelt, f.'oldairram 

I liin At Ellhani.thewlfeof CapL 

I'licalrn ()n^luw, a dau. 'H At Blelack 

liouau. Abeideeitkhiie, Ijidv t'nclirane, a dau* 

». At C'l«r.' • •■ • ■• -ley 

Uailiurst, a dnu.- iiie 

»idt>w of (leorge . . lat 

CIlU. A dan, ai n.ic. m.is, .-i.uolk, 

the. wife of I)r, Hooker, F R,». a dau 

31. Lady Rivers, a dau. AI Ijin^tliam hall, 

tbe wife of Fuller .Mallland W 1'- . Ua, 

— M. At Poilman a<|. the \^ .: ..ce 

Palk, eiii. M.I', a ton AI ilie 

wife of t ol. R J. Hnaacy Vimi.. t< .laii • 

}?. At llloom^l>ur) s<| the wife of John Which- 

coid. FS.A. a eon. JH, At CuniberUn>t 

lodre, Windaor, Lady .Vary Hood, a aon, 

At Siblon park, Suffolk, the wife of J. W. 



1854.] 



Mar»'iage*. 



187 



Brooke, ctq. t dio.— M. At the Rylinds, 
Ramlwtrk, the wife of T. 3. R. B«rrow, esq. 

R N « son «nd heir. At Fopsharn. ihe wife 

of Capt. A. T. rophini, > son At the rec- 
tory, Hertinirfordbury, the wife of the Hon. 

ftnd Kev. (iu«lolphln Haiiin};9,aaoD. 30 At 

Thurnycroft hiilt, Cheshire, the wife of the 
Ke». i. Thornycrofl, s ilau, 
Jttti/ \. In South 9t. the Counteis Vane, a 

■on. In Soothwick cresc. Hyde park, the 

wife of Money Wijjrain, Jan. ovj. a dau. At 

the ricara;{e, Croydon, the wife of the Uev. 

John (jeurge Hodj^non, o dan. At Wollaton 

rectory, Notts, Mrs. Charles Witloni^tiby a son. 

i At Guernsey, the Hon. .Mrt, ^Dmarei, 

adan. 1. In London, the Hon. Mrs. Col- 

borne, a son and heir. 3. At Lifermore 

park. Suffolk, the wife of Capt. Ponirlas Lane, 

a too. At Kileiton house, CO. Kerry, thewife 

of William Creagh Hickle. esq. a son. At 

Thirkleby park, near Thirsk, Lady I'nyoe 

Gallwey, a dau. 6. At Invery house, near 

Aberdeen, (he wife of Capt. George Kanisay, 

R-.N, of H..M. ship Kuryalus, a son. 8 In 

Uoeen .\nne at. ibe wife of Dr. Jackson, the 

Bishop of Lincoln, a dau. In Somers place, 

Hyde park sq the wife of V. Crake, esq. a soa. 

10 At Kainlhorpe hall, Norfolk, the Hon. 

Mra. Frederic Walpole, a son. At Iloby rec- 
tor) , Lcic. the wife of the Rev. Gilbert Beres- 

ford, * dau II. In UelKrave sq. Ijiiy Ucta- 

Tia Shaw Stewart, a sun. In KenaiuKton 

Palace icardeni, Hyde park, the wife of S. 

Morton Peto, e«q. .M.l*. a son. In Jersey. 

the vih nf Lieut. .(3ol. Delawaine,C.K. Bomhay 

Caralry.a dau 17. At .Marino, lAdv Clon- 

curry.a son. 19. AtTrafalipir, theC'onniess 

Nelson, a son and heir. ao. In Upper Gros- 

tenor street, the wife of John Walter, esq. M.l". 
lion. 



MARRIAGES. 

Uarck M. At Calcutta, Lieut. J. Nowell 
Tauig, 3ii Uenjtal Kur. Ret^t. to Francn- 
Jemima-Brskinc, eldest dau. of Mr. and the 
late Lady (rancea Jemima Goodeve. 

April iH. At Upper Hardres, Keut, the llev. 
Henry tiodfrey FaiuteU. .MA l'eri>. Curate of 
Littleton, Wore, third son of the late Godfiey 
Fauasett, L>.1>. of Heppinjfton, to Helen-.MeU 
tille, younfT'st dau of ihe llev. Kdwin Sandya- 

Liiutsdaiiie, M.A. At .St. ilrooke, Cornwall, 

Ihe Kev. Klilred Grren, to Elizabeth, youngeat 
dan. of the Kev. Dr. ilenson. Rector. 

10. At .Nether 'iV.illop, Hants. Rcar-Adin. 

CtjofiTf Frtderick Rich, to Caroline-Golds- 

infrcst dau. of the late William 

ind widow of A. L. .MassinKbcrd, 

I , t.y. Line. At Skelty, uearSwsn- 

ici, Cluiles Stau»ifeld RawiOH, esq. of Glan- 
henwye, (.Usbury, to Fleanor. second dau. of 
Sir J. E. Leeds, llart. and |;randdau. of the 
late Sir George Cecils, Bart, of Croston park, 

Camb. ,\l Vevey. Fhilip, youngest son of 

Capt. ConlllTe Oictn, K.N. to Jenny, eldest 
dau. of ii.e late Uaron von Iteitzenstein, Col. 

In the Kinit of PrUMia's llody Guard. At 

Ki'ihI. i.Mil.. Glouc. the Rev. lieorjfe Krneat 

'."Ctor of li.irnslcy. Glouc. to .Mary- 

tl dau. of the late G. .V. Fullertnii. 

L-. , . . . ^..ini^on. Glouc. and Ualiiutuy castle, 

Ireland. At Felsteil, Essex, John Rir/iard- 

•«•. esq. ol Denmark hill, Surrey, and Si. 
Helen's place, l.ondon, eldest snrvivini; son of 
the late 'I'homas Kicbaril.ioo,esq. to Kliubttli, 
fnurtb dau. of the late William Ridley, esq. of 
FcUteil. 

ita^ I. At :)hirley, ^uthampton, the Rev 
Kdsar Silver, It.A. Curate, to Isabeila.Oiana- 
Kmma, dau. of Ihe late Cumm. G. E. Davis, 
B.N. of Tremona, Shirley- Warren, and f^rand. 



dau. of the late John Sperlinir, eaq. of Dynes 

liall, Essei. At Prislon, Snasex, Georre 

Varnham Macdonald, esq. late l>ipt. H.M. 
IDth Rejt. only son of the late Col. Donald 
Macdonald of the 19th Ref;:t. to Eleannr-Uon- 
lai^ue, widow of Wm. Stanford, esq. of Preston 
Place, Sussex. 

a. At Hemel Hempstead, the Rev. J. C. 
H'Aarfiin, Vicar of Gillin?, near Hichmond, 
Yorkshire, to Elixabeth-llarriet-Ai^tley, eldest 

dan of Sir Aatley I'aston Coofier, Uart. 

At Ulverstone, Lane, the Rev. J. .S. PaiUey, 
11. .\. to Marfaret, sixth dau. ; and the Rev. J. 
Park, B.A. to Harriet, youii«:cit dau. of C. S. 

Kennedy, esq. J P. At .St. Pancrn-s, Wni. 

Critkam, esq. of Queen's road, Kefceiu's park, 
to Citherine-Eliubcth, elder dau. of the late 
Robert John I'ackwond. e.sq. of lluahand's 
Bosworlh. Leic. ear}, and ste[>dau. of Henry 
Thornton, etiq. of Aloert road, Re^nt's park. 

At Norlhamptnn, the Uev. Geo. F. Tamp- 

lin. Curate of Purleii;!), Essesf, to Maria, younr- 
esl dau. of Henry Terry, esq sureeon, Nortu- 

amptou. At Henbury. Audley Mertyn Arch- 

dall, Capt. It.A. to Sybilln-Mary, dau. uf the 

late P. J. Miles, esq of Leieh court, Som. 

M Bath, the Rev. Francis Ramlolpli, .M.A. of 
l><ilton, Devon, second son of the late Rev. 
Herbert Randolph, Rector of Letcombe Baa- 
sett, HiTks, to Louisa, dau. of the late Capt. 
>Vul. Robliiiis. of Poole. Dorset. 

S. At Devoiiuort,SirJaiues Alexander Dun- 
bar, Bart. R..'V. of Boath, Nairn, N.U. to 
Louisa-Peroble. third dau. of the late Lieut.- 

Col. Parsons, C..M.G. .^t St. Marytebuue, 

the Hon. William Napier, youiiijer son of the 
late Lord Napier, to Louisa-Mary, youngest 

dan. of J. H. Lloyd, esq. bnrri&ter-at-law. 

At Huntley lodge, the seat of her Grace the 
Uucheas of Gordon, Charles Gotdtmid, esq. 
second son of .M.A. Gotdsmid, esq. of Pahs, to 
Caroline- H.-Brodie, youngest dan. of the late 
Francis Whitworth Russell, esq. BennI Civil 

Service. At Hambledon, Hants, Thomas 

CuHiter, esq. M.A. barrister-at-law, to Maria- 
Susan, third dau. of Edward Hale, esq. of 

Hambledon. At Tonnarlon, Glouc. Uan- 

(lolpU liobintOH, esq. of St. (jatheriiie's, I'or- 
quay, to Diana- .Matilda, dau. of the Kev J.S.M. 
Anderson, Rector of Turmartou, and Preacher. 

of Lincoln's inn. .\t St. George's llanoveff 

square, the Rev. .\dolphus Leiehton Wkitt, j 
second son of Ihe late Vice-Adm. Sir J. C. 
Wbile^ K.C.U. to Mary, second dau. of the 

late Sir Sandford Graham, Bart. At Earl- 

ston house. John .S/utnd, e<>q. M.D. Kirkcud- 
brifrht, to Mary-CIiri^tian-iitirdoii, second dau, 
of the Ule Sir John Gordon, llart. Earlston. 

4. At St. George's Hanover »q. Lord Sif^ 
field, of Gunton park, Norfolk, to Ceciliaid 
Aouetta.dau. of the late Henry Baring, esq.^— i 
At St. Mary's Bryanstun si| Henry Spencer 
Srhilk, esq. of Sussex gardens, Hyde park. 
Senior Assi.^tsnt Surgeon to St. Mary*a Hos- 
pital, to Loui^a-Theopnila, dau. uf the late iter. 

Uibson Lucas, Rucior of Filhy. Norf. At 

Christ Church Maryleboiie, William Meaden^ 
esq. of Dorchester, to Isabella-Douglss, dau,% 
of the late Lieut. -Col Gale, of Ihe H.E.I.C 9.1 

At Swinburne castle, the Rev. James .4(1*4 

ffood, second son of R. L. Allgood, esi^. of .VuihJ 
wick park, to Inabrlla, third dau ot the lata'] 
Charles A. Williamson, esq. uf Balgray, Duni-| 

friesshire. At St. John's Nolting hill, JanietJl 

Yale, esq. of Kensington, to I'ordelia, nidowj 

of Richard Long, esq. of Peiiaance. Atl 

Baling, Frederick-llenry-Pakenhani, only aoal 
of Capt. Welherall. R.N. to Charloite-Jsn».| 
Kliza, second dau. of Robert Thornhill, esq,! 

At St. James's Piccadilly. Wm. llornbjiJ 

esq. of the Hook, Hants, to Charlotle.youngeiti 
clan, of the late Capt. James Bradsbaw, R.N. ' 
MP- of Ababot house, Hants. At Mickle- 



188 



MatTtaget, 



Ion, Muntcll Uamillou, tiu\, at Mcrrioo «q. 
Dublin, 10 Mary-John, younccr dau. of the Ute 
John Uraves, f«q. of Mickleinn .Minor houae, 

Glouc. In TniM, James Sletrarl, esq. Cipl. 

S7th Rr(t. eldest son of the late Lieut. -Col. 
James Stewart, to Kliiabeth-Cbutc, eldest dftu. 

of William John Nelii^an, esq. of Trmlee. 

At Crewkerue, J. M. Uoiuif, esq. of Crewkeme, 
to Jane, second dan. of the Ule Kev. R. 8. 
Bradley, of East Tei^oiouth. 

fi. At Pa4ldtn)^on, Francis Woodward^ ttvq. 
of Itrickleliauiplon hall. Wore, (o Eliaa, widow 
Of Robert Monro, ei^q. of Wiaibledon, and djku. 
of J. J. Chauipante, esq. lalcof Belmont, Sam. 

, At Winktield, Uerks, the Rer. Cbarlea 

Saltren ffitUtt, Vicar of MonklciKh, Devon, to 
Marianne, eldest dan. of John Forbes, Capt. 

R..\. of VVinklleld pi. At !-t. I'anrras, Thoa. 

Edward CAi7/y, esq. of the Inner 'I'emplc, to 
Mary-.Aune. youn|;est dau. of the late Jamea 

Willes, M.D. At St. I'etersburi?, Richard 

M'LotAliH, Major of the lnii)erial (itiard, to 
Maritaret, eldest dau. of Thoiuaa Theaistone 
and Mary Woodhouse, of Rasincstoke, Hants, 
and i^randdaa^hter of the late Samuel Lewin, 
esq. of Woinaalon hoase, Radnorshire. 

9. At Knockin, Vincent Roland CorAef, esq, 
eldest aon of Sir A. V. Corbet, Dart, of Aclun- 
Reynold, Shropshire, to Caroline-K.-.\. -Acnes, 
third dau. of Rear-.Vdm. tbeHon.C n. Bridee- 

inan, of Knockin hall AtTring. Herts, tlie 

Ret. W. S Retcf, of .Vudenshaw, Lane, elder 
•on of .Major \V. Keece, H.K.I.C.S. lu Maria. 

Louisa, third dau. of Mr. Thnmas Rlliman. 

At St. Pancras, .' ' * ■ • ^.j,, „f Joseph 
JJattby, es4|. of M. . : yard, and -Vd- 

rilr%tnoe toO^e, .^ .. .abcth, second 

dau. of the late Wiiii.^Eii >'> n 1 1 ,-, esq. of (,|ueco 
a<|. Hloomsbnry. .\t St. Geonp^'s Blooms- 
bury, Henry Margamt, tM\. of Lincoln's inn, 
barnater, to Catlterina-binma, only dau. of 

Samuel Beale, esij. of Russell sii. At. Steeple 

Aahton, Archibald Sturroek^ esq. tn Helru- 
Mary-Sophia, dau. of il.c Ule Ambrose Craw- 
ley, es<i. of the Madras (?ivil :*erv. .\t Nor- 

woo<l, John Like fl/iAr-r, e*.] second son of the 
Re». W. L. Bak.r ■ ' llarrrave, co. 

M'p'n '■> Adelal'! t, efdest dan. 

of the He*. S. V ,'iaplain to tlie 

Central London lii.<'i.i:t >• iiool, Norwood, and 

Chaplain to the Earl of Miltown. .\t Cli«l- 

tenham. thr It'*v AIpt, W^hhmr, yt.A. Virar 
, ^ ■■■ ■. 1 ■• . ", ■ F — 



ford, the Rev. Ahiatbar Itatekct, eldest soo of 
Major Hawkes, to Ualiel, yonngist dau. of tlie 

Hon. and Kev. William Capel. At Wslcnt,J 

Bath, the Rev. I. Rubles fiiker, aon of th' 
late Rev. Charles Fisher, Rector of Ovu " ' 
Basel, to Jane-Louisa, dau. cf llie Ut« J 
Trarers, K.H., of the Rifle Brigade.4 
Slinnby, the Rev. Thomas Watktr, " 
cumoent of Eskdsleside, to H. -Honor, ] 
est dan. of the late \V. Whylrhead, 

citor. Thirsk. At Oifon) 'i- H" 

Wrjf. M . A. Curate of Barwi n 
KmniB, elde.stdau. of the U' 

II. At St. James's, We.ii 

II. W. TuUock. son of Oil. Tulloch. C.H. Coia^ 
iiiiasary-Gen. Madras, to Rosa, dau. of the latl 

C. aarkson, esq H K.l.C.S. At St. T 

PImlico, Sir MasM-y Lopfj, Hart' of Uui 
to B4Tlha, only dau. of Sir John Yardel 

Bart. M.P At ?-i m---' M-.-.fa 

John-illiver, eldest - '/« 

esq. of Doihet sq. to ■!• 

the late 1 human Hall > i.> 

park, Middleses — At ^^ .iijmt^] 

rise, Geo. Fred. Lane, e*ti ' I", Vf*, 

Lane, eS4) of l,eamir,r' •" ' 

only child of IVtri 

(fate — -At St. Uevj 

youngest son of the im i,ji.ivi mrf. 

Tooting, Surrev, toSarah-.\Iary-Arnes, 

est tlau of the Ule J.ihu Welch, e«.i. of 

inn, ar. ! ' ' ' ■' '*■ ^' 

Armeir . 0«t 
At ' R'».' 

Henry luiiirn / '-fcy. *im ' te ' 

Sir William Youiie^, Bart, i 

surviving dau. of the late li 

Rector of Wirkliatii Bi- 

Walcot. Bath, Addinfton 'J 

Inf. only son of John 1'svi 

Mary-Anne, *> 

(ten. .Strovcr - II 

WoMrf, M.A.. 

Corrie, i^IJest oiu '-r uir ki-v ^.u.uel 

dork, MA. \icar of Ropley. At i:>ml 

well, John liendaU, es<i, of the Inner T'e-mpl 
tn Fanny, eldest dau. ; and, at the same tliDi 
Kdward Urosier Itudge. esq. M l>. of Fak 
ham, Norfolk, tn Anna-Loutsa, second dao. 
Laurence l>esborouj[h, esq. of Camf 
At Dartmouth, Capt J. R. llcmry. Mi 
nmrnnr.s, to Pliia-Msry- \finr. aim. '^ 



■Its, to Kranees-Ancie, 

B. Aslley, Rector of 

K*f: _ ford. . — At Arreton, 

Cbaii I St. West, H)<lei>k. 

vyti '■■ of the Charterhouse, 

iin II. Jacolis, esq. of 

— At Bakewell, Herb. 

t son of Samuel Lvans, 

-;, 1,1 ^u«an-Kliu,youufeat 

'rue, rs(|. of Holme hall. 

Frarrn A)ei- /Jair#on, eaq. 

. R. Dawson, of 

^.dau.of Joikah 

csik-s-Kdward, 

ymiiA, .jf \Ve»ton-saper- 

nsett dan. of the late John 

I ; . I'eoritb. At Lfamitqrton, 

(be Ket Jobn Ard» Boflif, B.A, to Mary- 
Aaae-Clan, jn wu g iit ian. of tbe late Major 

Ckimm. »lri Ltebl laf. At Giaagosv, the 

K«T. Jamea CnU, U.K. KpiaeopaJ derfyman 
" ' snark, to liary-Sophia, eldeat dao. of Ibe 
hii James, eaq. of ftwitb. 
I TBabridR, Kcst, Ibe R«t. John 
U. Uiauter d the Caocretatiofial 
Mttncbjtolawua- Maria, yeaiintt 
m* J. E. W««l. t»|. At w«t- 



Ar(l,,!.,,i I lliji.bsr, Hurl 
Madron, O^niwall, John n 
,M.D. to Susanna-Uabclla, 

(•jpl Allen, Mil. Kiiirlit <,l v\,i.,i,.r. .\f| 

W hithy, Beiijsmm llV'xfer, Ml) of Lm<1>, H|I 
Kleanor, youngest dau. of the late C. Wbltr 
eaq . of Morton f range, and niece to An ~ 
Wbit*, e*4. twice President of Ibe Cull«(( i 

Barraona. At Ruabon. the Bev. H« " 

WjadtUf, of Siratton Audley, Oioii. to J 
Roper, younitesi dau. of the late Wro. LAVtoa 
eaq. of Overton lodf^, Fliniahire. 

II. At Genoa, .•'ir Cbarlea Wmt—m. But. < 
West Wrattii,;psik,Cainb.toG«ocKiaa,l 
dao ofthe late Kev. RobertTredcn>ft,afT 
mere, Soaacx. 

IS. Atfll.Georce'aHaiiorer*!). LofdJ 
■ail, to Axnes. yooaceat dan. of tbc Oca. 
Edward Kerrison, Bart. 

U. At Cbrist cburcb MarjrMoae. 
William Jfa^aajr, Bart to Amelia, a imiii^ 
of T. Clarke, esq. of St. Joba'a wood. 

15. At Tnnily rburrfa. Cbdaca. MMar I 
Hon. H. R. Hamdfort. Wth itfl. to — 
Georcina, das. of Ibe late Lient.'Col. 
Williams. R. Art. 

16. AtTw>ckcahiB.tkcKcT.JaB«*TMaii4b^ 
lacnaibart af Trteitr (tank. Tvickrobaa, 



1854.] 



Marriageg. 



189 



trcond ion of Jotao Aldrcd Twining, esq, of 
Bildock, to Miry-Elliabctb, eldnl daa. of the 
Utc Rev. Thomas tievan. Iticumbeot of the 

■ame cliurcb. At Uath, the Rev. H. A. 

Grtattt, Vicar of Charles i'lymouth, to I^nisa- 
Yoonf, eldul dan. of the late Rev. a. Y. Set- 
rrave. Rector of Weatcott Etartoii, Oson, and 

vicar of Tyjoe, Wnrwtcksh. At St. George'a 

Hanover so. the Rev. I. Spencer, M..\. Vicar 
of Arumb, Vorkah. to Harriet, nidow of W. K. 
Gilbjr.M.A. of Uevorley. 

17. At St. George's Hanover sq. the Rev. 
Geoniv Uecher BtoMfield, Canon of Chester, 
and Rector of Sterenai{e, Herts, to Elizabeth- 
Ellen, lerond dau. of John Feildin|r. esq. of 

Monini;tuQ hall, Cheshire. At Ulshop'a- 

Teii;iiton, Devon, the Rev. Edmnnd Lane, 
D.C.L. Rector of St, .Mary's, Manchester, to 
Sclioa-Francea. youngest dau, of the late Hev. 
f. Diudnck Hartwell, Vicar-nen, and i;h«n- 

cellor of Soilor and Man, At Antrim, the 

Rev. .\. A. yiehion, Incuuibeiitof Charlemont, 
and Chaplain to the Uarri.-ion. to (Jrice, third 
<lau. of the late Francis Whittle, e»i|, of Mucka- 

IDOre lottee. At Oavenlmm, Cheshire, the 

Rev. David Jone^, M A. Rector of Maiiarroon, 
Denb, to Hannah, yuuni;osi dan. of the late 

Joteub Lea, esq At SherilT Hutton, Geori;o 

Barlr, esq. M.i). second son of the late fr-incis 
Karle, esq. Ml), of Ripon, to Mary, eldest dau. 
Of Wm. Linton, esq. 

18. At Sandirate, Kent, GenrKC Soaut, esq. 
of Earlswood, Kci)irate, third son nf the late 
&. V. Somea, e^q. to Caroline- Mary, second 
dau. of the Rev. B. V. Layard. Rector of 

L'IfiuKtoo, Lmc. At Paris, Frederick I>ewis 

Watton, Capt. Itengal Service, second son of 
Joseph Watson, esq. of neaumaris, to Anna, 
ynunfer dan. of the late Robert Lucas, esq. of 

Clifton, llristol, At Tamwortli, Edward 

Vrifipt, esq. of Cirencester, to Fraiicea-.\u- 
fusia, ynnneest dau. of Charles Hardiiii;, ei<|. 
of Hole hall, ne.nr Taninnrlli. At Chelten- 
ham, (.'linrles Waterloo lliitrftiii'toii, esq. Heu- 
nl Enr. to EhMbcth-Montier, eldest dau. of 
the lale Lieut.-Col. G. Hutchinson, r.U.S, 

Bengal Eng. At Ware, OeorRe, son of the 

late Rear-Adin. K. G. Middlelon, of Lymps- 
4eld. Surrey, to Mary-Woolstone, d.iu. of the 
late Rear-Adm. Sir J. \\ . I'. MarshsU, C.U. 

At Copdock, Snn'olk, WiUi.im I'carioit. esq. 

of Hill house. ICast Uergholt, !Sui)ulk, to Eliza- 
beth, dau. of James Josselyn, esq nf tVip^lock 

houAc, SulTolk. At St. George':, Hanover »|. 

the Kev. Charles Cary Barnaril, to Charlultu- 
Alinirloa, only dau. of H. A. I'ye, esq. of 
Louth. 

ao. At 8idnionth, Henry Alington Pye.nn. 
of L<jiith, Line, second son of the late Rev. 
Slaruiaduke .\liuj;ton, of .Swinhope house, to 
l.r.'.i <ii,,r,i,i Frances Hobart, eldest dau. of 

Huckiughamsbire. .\l Leicester, 

. esq. of the Middle 'i'einplc. to 

c. dau of G. A. Macaulay, esq. 

M.HCa. and |{randitau. of the late Rev. Aulay 
Uacaolay, Vicar of Rothley. 

Tt At Douglas, Isle of Man. Mr. R. Hey- 
tiolds Htiiee, architect and surveyor, of Cani- 
bridf^e, to Isabella, dan. of John Moore, esq. 
•^At St James's Piccadilly. Henry-(.'harics, 
sou of the late Kev. John lieiilet, IliTtor of 
XVilliuKsle, l^s*c-i. to Emily- Esther, third dau. 
of Georite ^ulivan, esq. of^ Wilminf^ton, I.W. 

33. At St. George's Hanover sq. the Ut. 
Hon. the Bart of Durham, to Lady Ik'alrico 
Hamilton, .-iecond dau. of tli-* Manpies-j .\ber- 

eoin. At Dohlin, John Tauffe, esq. J. P. 

only sun of the late John Txilfe, esq. of Gle- 
neask, Slnro, to Isabella-Catherine, sixth dnu. 
of the late Walter Clerk, es<|. uf East Herg- 
bolt. Sutl'. — -At WaltUamsiow, Humphrey 
OWWi esq of Brimfleld Conrt, Heref. In Kliia, 



eldest dau. of R. P. Jones, esq. At Pelers- 

fleld, Thomas-llenshaw, eldest son of the late 
Lieut. JattieM, R.N. ol Chichester, 'to Kate, 
Igranddau. of the late Rear-Adm. Bulterfield. 

24. At St. George's Hanover so, Tliomaa 
Bowen Skeri^e, esq. only son of the Rev. 
Thomas Shenffe, of Henstead hall, Suff to 
Madeline-Eli'tabeth, onlydau.of Richard .Uan- 
ftel Oliver Massey, esq. of Hill st. Herkcley sq. 

At llath, the Rev. 'I'honias Mordaunt 

Kosenliagen Barnard, Jl..\, of Exeter college, 
Oxford, to Charlotte, dau. of the late Sir 
Codrington Edmund Carrington, Chief Jus- 
tice of Ceylon. At Ralhkeale, Philip GaU- 

•ery, esq. son of the lale Sir William and 
Lady Harnett Payne Gallwey, to Fanny, 
youngest dau, of the Yen. Archdeacon War- 
uurton. 

•a. At Dubliu, the Rev. Robert 0. Monck 
Ma4on, Curate of Christ church, ilatlersea, 
son of Henry J. M. .Mnson, esq. LL.D. to Jane, 
uoly dau. of Espiue Batry, esq. late counsel to 
the Irish ojlice, niece of tlie Baroness t/astle- 

maine. .\t Hull, the Rev. George Henry 

Franks, Rector of .Mistertun, Lcic. tu Geor- 
eianaCaruline, second dau. of the late Alcx^ 
Gordon Carte, esq. (;)rdnance storekeeiM-r.— -1 
At Chertsey, Surrey, Col. J. B. Hearsay, C.BA 
Heugal Cavalry, to Emma, dau. of the late T^ 
Ruraball, esq. of Friday Hill house, Essex. 

27. At Brighton, the Rev. Charles Frederick 
Norman, U \. Rector of Foriishead, Som. J 
eldest son of the Rev. C. Norman, to Jane^ 
eldest dau. of T. G. Kensit, e.iq. of Skinnen 

tiall. At Claines, Wore. Edward Vincent'^ 

Wheeler, esq. of Kyne-^vood house, to MarUl 
nnoe, only child of the late Rev. James VolaotJ 
Vaahon. 

20. At Much CowarnCi Ueref. Augustu 
Richard, fourth surviving son of the lateTho 
h'ltrest, esq. of Benfield, Berks, to JessiA 
Frances, only dau. of the Rev. E. G- Moak^l 
Vicar ut Much Cowarne. -if 

30. At Gislehani, Suffolk, Charles BiihofiX 
esq. of Doctors' coninions, and Km;; st. :$t^J 
James's, llfth son of the lale John Bisho|y,l 
esq. to .Mary, only dau. of the late Edwan(;l 

Jodrell, esq. of Bracunball, Norf . At Pari*, f 

G. J. Edward Broten, esq. of Tostrck plBce|] 
Suffolk, barrister-at-law, to Catherine. Mary,.] 
tinh dau. of William Mills, esq of Great Saxr| 

bam hsil. At St. Mark's Kenningtoii, Edw^ 

A. Fourtf, esq. Madras Eng. eldest son of Lieut.* 
Col Foord. MBdras-.\rt. to KBchel-S|iencerj-l 

(lau. of John .Mullins. esq. of Unxton. Am\ 

Wallasey, Cheshire, Williani Haf/tun, esq. 
Ameabury, Wilts, and .Ma£;daleM hall, OxfordH 
to Ann, only dau. of the late T. A. Tennantt'1 

esq. of Stockton-upon-Tees. At Kilkeel, co^J 

Down, the Rev. J. D. Uarfarlane, Rector I 
Staveley, Derb. to Ellen, eldest dau. of Edvl 
round Hallenetl, es<|. of .Morne park,co. Do^^Oa.f 

At Ribhenhsll, Hie Kev. William Uallen,] 

Vicar of Holywell, co. Nortbampion, to AnOf] 
dau. of the late John Bnker, esq. of Wribhea^l 

hall. Wore. .\t Holinn'ouil, William, eldeatT 

son of the late John Wood, esq. of HorshatDg \ 
to Elixabetli.eldestdau.of Richard Attlee, esq. 1 
of Dorking. 

31. At Ecclesall, John William Ogte. .M.B. 
Trinity college, IJxf. of Queen st Mayfair, tu 1 
Hluabeth, second dau. of Mr. .\lhert Smith, L 

solicitor, Sheffield .\t St. George's Hsnuver>| 

square, the Rev. Henry Alfred Barrett, Kectop 
uf Chetlerave, Norf. to Jane-Frances, yoniigeatll 
ilau. of Vice-Adm. Sir W. B. Proctor, Bart. — 
At Norwood, Henry Danee, esq of Duppu 1 
bill terrace, Croydon, Surrey, to Amelia. Fanny^j 
third dau. of James Robinson Sanders Cox, I 

esq. of her Miyesty's Office of Works. -J 

Lieut. W. Arthur. U..\., II. M.S. Hannibal, ttttl 
Miss Louisa Bond, of the Priory, Leatlierbead, 



190 



OBITUARY. 



Tbr Eabl or Castlistcart. 
June lU. Ac bit seat, Sluut Hall, co. 
Tyroae,inhis70tli year, from an attack of 
broDubitU, the Rii;iit Hon. Hubert Stuart, 
Kcond Earl of t'jBtlestiinrt (1800), Via- 
count of Cutlcstuart (1797), sod 7tb 
Baron of Cantleatuart (ltil9), a Baronet of 
NoTaScotbi (1037). 

His lordihip wai bom in Dublin on 
19tb Aug. WH-t, tbe elder 90n of Andrew 
Tbomaa Stuart, esq. of Irrj, co. Tyrone, 
(who estublL^bed his right to the old barony 
of Ca<tleatuart,and was eventually raised to 
tlis dignity of on Earl,) by Surah, daughter 
and coheir of the Hon. Godfrey Lill, a 
Justice of the Common Pleaa in Ireland, 
His anoestori, sprung from a ion of King 
Robert II. of Scotland, were for levcral 
generations Lord<i Arandileand Ochiltree, 
in the peerage of Scotland. 

He succeeded to the peerage on the death 
of his father, Aug. 2C, 1809; and had never 
sat in Parliament. 

lie married, April 23, 1606, Jemima, 
only daughter of the late Colonel Robison, 
R.A. ; and by that ludy, who survives him, 
be had Issue five sons and tno daughters, 
of whom three ions only are living. Their 
names were: 1. Edward now Earl of 
Costlestuart ; 2. the Hon. Charles Knox 
Stuart, who married in 18:i5 Charlotte- 
Raffles-Drury, only dsughter of the late 
QuiotinThompson, esq. of the Hon. E.I.C. 
civil service, and has a numerous family ; 
3. the Hon. Robert, who died in 1833, 
aged twenty-one; 4. the Hon. and Rev. 
Andrew Godfrey Stuart, Rector of Cot tes- 
more, co. Rutland, ami an Hon. Canon of 
Peterborough ; he married first, in 1835, 
the Hon. Cnthorinc Anne Wingfield, only 
daughter of Richard fifth Vi-:counl Powers- 
court, and secondly, in 184U, Mary-Pcnc- 
lope, second daughter of the Hon. and 
Rev. Leland Noel Noel, and has i«suc by 
both marriagei ; 6. the Hon. William- 
Hamilton, wlio died in January last, aged 
thirty-eight ; 7. the Hon. Julia Frances, 
who died in 1837, in her 20th year ; and 
8. L,ady .Charlotte Octavia, who died an 
infant in 1819, 

The present Earl wai born in 1807; and 
married in 1830 Emmeline, only surviviiig 
daughter of tbe late Benjamin Bathurst, 
esq. and granddaughter of Dr. Bathnrst, 
Lord Bishop of Norwich ; but has no issue. 



27th Oct. 1813, the third bat eldest lor. 
viving son of the late Sir Charles Wolselej 
the seventh Baronet (a well-known public 
character, of whom a memoir will be 
found in our vol. XXVI. p. 53C), and the 
eldest by his second wife -Anne, youngest 
daughter of Anthony Wright, of Weald- 
side, CO. Essex, esq. 

He succeeded his father on the 3d Dot. 
1846. 

He married, in 1834, Mary-Aooe, 
daughter and coheiress of the Iste Nicholas 
Selby, esq. of Biddleaton.Norlhumberl.ind, 
and Acton House, Middlesex ; by whom 
he had issue five sons: 1. William-Henry, 
died 1852; 2. Sir Charles Michael, burn 
in 184C, the present Baronet ; 3. Edward- 
Talbot;4. Robert-Michael; and 6. Henry- 
Oliver. 



Sir Cuarles Wolselry, Bart. 

Atai/ 15. Aged 41, Sir Cbarlea Wolse- 
ley, tbe eighth Baronet (1628) of Wolse- 
ley, CO. Stafford. 

He was bom st Wnlaeley hall on the 



Sir T. E. M. Turton, Bart. 

April 13. At the Mauritius, on his way 
to England for tbe recovery of hie health, 
aged G4, Sir Thomas Edward Michell 
Turton. Bart. (179i>') late of CalculU. 

He was born on the 8tb Nov. 1790, tba 
only son of the late Sir Thomas Turton, 
Bart, of Slarburough Custle, Surrey, for 
many years M.P. for Soulhwark and Clerk 
of the Juries in the court of Common 
Pleas, by Mary daughter and heir of the 
Rev. John Michell, Rector of Thornhill, 
CO. York. 

He was called to the bar by the Hon. 
Society of Lincoln' s Inn on the 6th Feb. 
1818. He was an unsuccessful candidate 
for the borough of Sudbury at the General 
election of 1837. He was Registrar of 
the Supreme Court at Calcutta from 1841 
to 1848, having previously practised in tbe 
same as nn advocate. 

He succeeded to the baronetcy oo the 
death of bis father in 1844. 

Sir Thomas Turton was three times 
married; first on the 2d Nov. 1818 to 
Louisa, second daughter of Major-Geoetal 
Browne, from whom he was divorced 
in IH31 ; seooiidly, to Adeline-Maria, 

daughter of , who died at Calcutta, 

July 14, 1841 ; and thirdly, in 1843, Maria- 
Louisa-Hume, second dnughtcr of Cspt. 
Edciiund Denniaii, R.N. 

Hit eldest daughter was married in 
1842 to Francis Bullcr Templer, esq. only 
ton of F. J. Templer, esq. of Columbo. 
His third daughter, Alice-Trevor, in 1844 
to Lieut. Ouchlerlony, Madras Engineers. 
.\iiotber, Constance -Trevor, in 1x46 to 
James Forlung, esq. of Miliiuth, Kishoa- 
ghur. We believe he has also left a son 
to inherit his dignity of Baronet 



1854,] Ll.-Gen. Sir R. Aiinttrong.—Lt.-Gen. D.M. Henderson. 191 



Lt.-Gkn. Sib Ricbaud AaMaTBONO. 

March 3. On board the ihip Barhom, 
on Ilia Toyage borne from Madrai, aged 
7S> Lieat. -General Sir Richard Armatrong, 
K.C.B. Kniglit Commander of the Porta- 
gneie order of tlie Tower and Sword and 
St. BcDto d'Avis, Colonel of Her Majesty'! 
S2d Regiment, and late Commander-in- 
Chief at Madrai. 

Sir Richard wa< the only aoo of Lieut.- 
Colonel Richard Armstrong, of Lincoln. 
He entered the army as Ensign in 179t>, 
and was made Captain in the 9th battalion 
of reserve July t>, 1803. On the 3Ut 
Jane 1805 be was appointed to the 8tk 
Veteran battalion, and on the 7th July 
IR08 to the 97tb Foot. He served during 
the whole of the Peninsula campaign, and 
received a medal with two clasin for the 
battles of Busaco, Vittoria, and the 
Pyrenees, at which be commanded Portu- 
guese regiments. He continued in the 
service of Portugal for six years after the 
conclusion of the war, and he is still re- 
membered with affection by many friends 
in thnt country. 

Me attained the brevet rank of Major in 
the British service, May 30, 1811 ; that 
of Lieut-Colonel Aug. 26, 1813, and that 
of Colonel July 22, 1830. 

lie served as Brigadier during the first 
Barmese war ; and on the staff iu Canada 
■a Major-Gnieral, having attainedthat rank 
in 1841. 

He was made Colonel of the 3 2d regi- 
ment iu 1850. In 1861 he was appointed 
Commander-in-Chief at Madras ; and in 
November of that year be ottained the 
tank of Lieut.-General. Having resigned 
bis command in Madras from impaired 
health, he died on his homeward voyage. 

Sir Richard was nominated a Knight 
Commander of St. Bento d'Avis of Por- 
tugal iu 1850, and a Knight Commander 
of the Bath iu 1852. 

Sir Richard Armstrong married in 1803 
a daughter of John Champion, esq. of 
Bristol ; she died in 1833. 



Li«ft.-Gen. D. M. Hendkhson, C.B. 
Marth 21. At Naples, Lieut. -GcnemI 
Douglas Mercer Henderson, C.B. of 
Vordel House and Sea Bank, Aberdour, 
Pifeskire, and Queen Anne Street, Mary- 
leboue, Colonel of the 68th Foot. 

This officer, who formerly bore the 
name of Mercer, was appointed Ensign 
in the 3rd Foot Guards, March 24, 1803. 
In 1805 be accompanied the brigade to 
Hanover, in the cipedition under Lord 
Cathcort. He returned with it, and in 
March, leoti, obtained a Lieutenancy. 
lie next accompanied the light infantry of 
his battalion to BeveUnd, in the Walcbe- 
reo expedition. In the spring following 



be was appointed Aide-de-camp to Major* 
Gen. Dllkes, and went with the brigade of 
Guards under that officer's command to 
Cadiz. Ill the following autumn he visited 
Lord Wellington's army in Portugal, 
shortly after the battle of Bossco ; and 
whilst attending on Sir Brent Spencer, aa 
Aide-de-camp, near Sobrat, he received a 
gun-shot wound, which caused his return 
to Lisbon ; from whence, after his reco- 
very, he proceeded to Cadiz. In the fol- 
lowing spring he was present in the battle 
of Barrosa, and was again wounded. The 
brigade of Guards was shortly after ordered 
to England, where be remained a month, 
and then joined the first battalion of his 
regiment in Portugal. He was afterwards 
present at the affair of El Boden, the 
sieges of Cuidad Rodrigo and Badajos, 
the battle of Salamanca, the entrance into 
Madrid, the siege of Burgos, and subse- 
quent retreat, the passage of the Bldassoa, 
and the battle of the Nive. Having ob- 
tained a company in the spring of 1614, 
he was ordered to England to join his bat- 
talion there. 

He subsequently served in Flanders, and 
was present at the battles of (luartre Brai 
and Waterloo, for which, having com- 
manded the battalion of Guards, he was 
nominated a Companion of the Bath. He 
accompanied the British army to Paris. 

He has left a widow, with two sons and 
two daughters. One of the former recently 
quitted the Guards on account of bis 
health. The General's body was interred 
at Naples. 



Rf.aii-Admiral Sothkby. 

Jan. 20. In Lowndes-square, London, 
Charles Sotheby, esq. Rear-Admiral of 
the Red. 

He wos the elJest son of William So- 
theby, esq. F.R.S. of Fairmead Lodge, 
Essex. He entered tlie Royal Naval Aca- 
demy in 1795, and embarked in 1798 as 
a first.class volunteer on board the Alex- 
ander 74, Capt. A. J. Ball, attached to 
the force iu the Mediterranean, in which 
be was present, as a midshipman, at the 
battle Df the Nile, at the capture of Le 
Gcnereox 74 and Ville de Mumeilles store- 
ship, at the blockade and surrender of 
Malta, and on shore, as aide-de-camp to 
Captain Ball, at the siege of the castle of 
St. Elmo. He removed on the 12th Dec. 
18O0, into the Foudroyant 100, the flag, 
ship of Lord Keith, in which he took an 
active part, in 1801, in the operations in 
Egypt. On the 21st Oct. 1«01, he was 
nominated acting Lieutenant of the Pene- 
lope S6, and having beeu confirmed by a 
commission, dated Jan. 25, 1802, be con- 
tinued in that ship, in the Mediterranean 
and North Sea, until transferred in 1803 



192 Oritv AH\.—Rear'Adm.Solheb^. — Jtear AJtii. Wemi/as. [Aug. 



to the Princess Ro;al 98, the flag-abip in 
the Channel. On the 2Sth April, 1807, 
be wus nppointed to the Thetis 38, in 
which he took part in a vnriety of opera- 
tioDi Dgainst the Turlcs ; on the 18th Oct. 
1808, to the Trident 71, as flag-Lieut, at 
Malta to Rear-Arim. Sir A. J. Ball ; and 
in March, IHU9, lo the acting command 
of the Pilot 18, which, on her return from 
the Mediterranean, formed one of the ad- 
r.iDccd squadron in the eipediliou to the 
Scheldt. He wis confirmed in the rank 
of Commander Jan. 8, 1810 ; and on the 
Gth Juljr fulloiring was appointed to the 
Lntona 38, employed off Lisbon and in 
the Mediterranean, until the end of Feb. 
181 S, when he was promoted to post rank. 
On the 31th Aug. IHl'l, he was appointed 
to the Sluncjr 20, lying in the Medwsy, 
and on thelst Oct. I8H, tothe Tamar 24, 
in which he served, on the Hulifax, South 
American, and Cape of Good Hope sta- 
tions, until .March, 1816. On the 18th 
May, I8S4, be was appointed tothe Se- 
ringapalam Hi, fitting for the Mediterra- 
nean, where, during a stay of more than 
three years, he was rery active in the sup- 
pression of piracy, and on one occasion, 
in May, 1H26, by his spirited conduct 
forced the Bey of Rhodes to acknowledge 
on insult which had beeu otTered to the 
British Consul. He attained Hag-rank on 
the 20lh March, 1848. 

Rear. Admiral Sothcby married, first, 
Feb. 15, 1819, the Hon. June Hiimiltoo, 
third daughter of William seventh Lord 
Belhaven and Stenton ; and, secondly, 
Nov. 18, 1830, Mary-Anne, daughter of 
the late .\dmiral Thomas Sothcby, by 
Lady Mary Anne Bourke, daughter of 
Jnscph-Dcnne third Earl of Mayo ; by 
whom he had issue. 



Rkar-Aumiral Wkmvsh. 
Afiril 3. At M'cinyss Castle, in his 
65lh year, Rear-Admiral James Erskine 
Wemyss, of Wcmyss and Torrie, Lord 
Lieutenant of Fifeshirc. 

He was bom on the llth July, 1789, 
the eldest son of Lieut. -Deneral Williain 
Wemyss, who died in 1822, descended 
from the filth Earl of Wemyss, by Francei!, 
eldest daughter of Sir William Erskine, 
of Torrie, Bart, cousin to the Earl of 
Buchan. 

He entered the navy in 1801 as a volun- 
teer on hoard the Unicom 32. Capt. 
Chsrlea Wemyss, nith whom he served in 
the Channel until the following year. 
After hoviug been for some months em- 
ployed with Sir Edward Pellew, off Fcrrol 
Dd Corunna, in the Toanant 80, he sailed 
Ith that olBcer in 1804 for the East 
Indies, in the CuUoilen 74, from which 
he was trausferrrd on his arriv.il to tlic 
2S 



Victor. In her he was present, as acting- 
Lieutenant, 1.5 April, 1807, in a desperate 
affair with an armed proa, which in the 
course of half an hour was repulsed with 
the loss of eighty killed, the Victor sus- 
taining B loss of six killed, one of whom 
was her First-Lieutcnatit, H. Ulaxton, 
and 2(> wounded, among whom was her 
Captain, George Bell. 

Rejoining Sir Edward Pellew, about 
July 1808, in the CuUodeo, Mr. Wemyu 
continued to serve with him os bis flag- 
Lieutenant (under commission dated 14 
Aug. 1808) in the same ship, and in the 
Christian Vll. ttU, and Caledonia 120, on 
the East India, North Sea, and Mediter- 
ranean stations, until April 1812, on the 
12th of which month, having been pro- 
moted to the rank of Commander on the 
1st Feb. preceding, he assumed command 
of the Pylades 18. He subsequently, on 
the Sth Oct. 1813, assisted in silencing 
the fire of several batteries at Portd'Anzo, 
where a convoy of 20 vei>sels full into the 
hands of the British squadron ; and in 
April 1^14 he received the thanks of Capt. 
Josias Rowley, of the .\merica 74, for the 
assistance he rendered during the opera- 
tions connected with the reduction of 
Genoa. On the S.'ith of the same month 
he was nominated acting-Captain of the 
Rainbow 28, which ship he bronglit home 
from the Mediterrnnesn, and paid olT in 
the following December. From that period 
he remained on hiilf-pay. His post-coni- 
missiun bore date July 1, 1814; and ho 
was promoted to the rank of Rear-Ad- 
miral on reserved half-pay in 1850. 

At the general election of 1820 Captain 
Wemyss entered Parliament as member 
for the county of Fife, and he held his 
seat till 1830, when, having voted for the 
Reform Bill, he was ejected by the small 
body (if electors who!>e monopoly was about 
to be destroyed. In 1832, at the first 
election after the Reform Bill, he was re- 
seated by the new constituency, and repre- 
sented the county until the dissolution of 
1847, when he retired from Parliament. 
He was nominated Lieutenant and Sheriff 
Principal of the shire of Fife on the 83d 
Dec. 1«40. 

.\dniiral Wemyss married, on the 8tl» 
Aug. I8'.'l>, Lady Emma Hay, sixth daugh- 
ter of William 16th Earl of Erroll (her 
elder sister Lady Isabella had previously 
married bis brother the late Lieut.-Ge- 
nerol William Wemyss,) an.l by that 
lady, who died on tlie 17th July, 1841, 
lie had issue one daughter and two sous: 
1. Frances-Harriet, married in 1850 to 
Charles James Balfour, e«q. Comm. R.N. ; 
3. James Hay Wemyss, esq. born in 
1829, who succeeds to the family estates ; 
and 3. Edward. Pellew, born in 1834. 



1864.J Lt.-Col. yVett.—Lt.-Col. Hatidcock.—G. Meynell, Esq. 193 

parts of the world for upwards of twenty 
yfars ; and his able defence of La Colle 
mill, an important pojt during the American 
war, ii recorded at a brilliant exploit in the 
aauali of the 13th Regiment. 



LtEOT.-CoLONBL C. A. WeST. 

Jmt 20. At Maida hill, aged 88, Lieut- 
Colonel Charles Augustus West, Lieut.- 
Governor of Landguard Fort. 

Thi< gentleman attended King George 
the Third as page of honour for tweWe 
years, and received bis commission as 
Ensign in tbe 3d Foot Guards in March 
1794. In tlie roUowing July he was ap- 
pointed Adjutant to the Second Battalion. 
He served the campaign in HuUand from 
Nov. in the same year to May 1790, and 
in Feb. 1797 obtained a Lieutenancy. 
From June 179a to the following June be 
served in Ireland ; and in July 1799 be 
enibiirked fur the second campaign in 
Holland, where lie was engaged iu several 
actioiu, and wounded on tbe advance to 
Alkmaar. In March 1800 be again em- 
barked for Ireland, where he was appointed 
Major of brigade On the staff. He next 
accompanied bis regiment to Egypt, and 
partook in all the affairs of the campaign 
until tbe surrender of Alexandria, when 
be returned to England. On the 6tb 
May IbUt be obtained a company, with 
tbe rank of Lieut. -Colonel. From Oct. 
1805 to Feb. I80ti he served in Germany ; 
from July to Nov. 1807 in Zealand ; and 
he was present at the siege of Copenhagen. 
In Dee. 180U he joined the army in tbe 
Peninsula, where he was engaged at the 
passage of the Uouro, the expulsion of tbe 
French from Oporto, and at Salamoode on 
the 1 7th May lkj09, when tbe French were 
driven out of Portugal. He was also 
present at the battle of Talavera : during 
which, in a charge of the brigade of guards, 
be fell into tbe hands of the enemy, but 
was rescued by the advance of tbe reserved 
coqis. On the 20th June, 1811, he was 
appuintrd Lieut. -Governor of Landgusrd 
Fort, and on tbe 13tb August following 
Lieut. -Colonel of tbe late First Royal Ve- 
teran Battalion. His rank was stationary 
(1804). 



LlEUT.-CoLONEL Ha.NDCOCK, 

Maf i. At Pisa, in his 7'ttb year, 
Richard Butler Handcock, esq. formerly 
Lieut.-C'uloucl in the 13th Light Infantry. 

He was the son of Matt Handcock, esq. 
Deputy Mustcrmaster-general of tbe forces 
in Ireland, descended from the Ven. Matt 
Handcock, Archdeacon of Kilmore, tbe 
son of William Handcock e.sq. M.P. for 
Westmealh, a common ancestor of the 
Lord* Castlemsine. Hsviui; graduated in 
tbe university of Dublin, with distmguished 
honours, be joined bis regiment in 1798, 
at tbe age of eighteen. His first campaign 
was under Sir Ralph Abercromby at tbe 
memorable landing in Egypt in 1801, 
when be was severely wounded. He was 
■fterwards on active service in rariooB 

Gent. Mag. Vol. XLU. 



GoDFBEr Metnell, Esq. 

June 13. At Meynell Langley, co. 
Derby, aged 74, Godfrey Meynell, esq. a 
magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant of that 
county. 

He was born on the 19th July, 1779, 
tbe son and heir of John Meynell, esq. by 
Susanna, only daughter and heir of Joseph 
Ward, esq, of Little Chester, from whom 
be derived tbe Langley estate. His grand- 
father Francis Meynell, esq. of Anslow, 
CO. Stafford, was the great-grandson of 
Francis Meynell, esq. who purchased that 
estate in 1633, be being the second son of 
Francis Meynell, esq. of Williogton, co. 
Derby, from whose elder son are de- 
scended tbe Meynells of Temple Newsam. 

He succeeded his father in his estates 
on tbe 6tb Feb. 180-i; and served the 
office of Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1811. 

He married first, June 14, 1803, Mary- 
Anne, only daughter of Avery Jebb, esq. 
of ToptonGrove, CO. Derby; and secondly, 
April 33, 1816, Mary, only doughler of 
David Balfour, third son of William Bal- 
four, esq. of Trenshy, co. Orkney ; and 
became a second time a widower on the 
S9th July 1849. By tbe former lady be 
had issue one son, John Meynell, esq. bom 
in 1807, who married in 1842 Sarah, only 
surviving child of William Brnokas John- 
son, esq. ; and by tbe second six sons : 
2. Godfrey ; 3. Edward-David ; 4. Francis; 
5. Genyd-Coke ; 6. William ; and 7. 
Henry J and two daughters, — Marion, 
married to tbe Rev. Henry James Fielden, 
M.A. Rector of Langley ; and Harriet. 



Rev. S. G. F. T. Deuaikbray, B.D. 

July 6. At the rectory. Broad Somei^ 
ford, Wilts, the Rev. Stephen George Fran- 
cis Triboudet Demainbray, B.D. Chaplain 
in Ordinary to Her Majesty, and formerly 
Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. 

Mr. Demainbray was born 7tb August, 
1759, and consequently at bis death was 
in tbe 95th year of bis age. He was the 
only son of Dr. Stephen Triboudet Demain- 
bray, who was honoured by being invited 
in 1753 to deliver lectures on natural 
philosopby to George IU. (then Prince of 
Wales), and tbe Duke of York. After- 
wards he gave private courses of lectures 
to other members of tbe Royal Family, 
and 00 tbe arrival of Queen Charlotte in 
this country instructed her in experi- 
mental philosophy and natural history. 
In 1768 Dr. Demainbray was appointed 
Astronomer to the Royal Obiervatory at 
3C 



194 Rtv. 8. G. F. T. Demainbray.—A. Aikin, £sq. [Aug. 



Iliobmond, where he died in I782> Hia 
father (the gnindfsther of the subject o f 
oaf preient memoir) euaped from Frence 
to Holland upon the RcTOCttion of the 
Edict of Naotet, and came over to thi« 
country with William III. 

The late Mr. Demainbraj was educated 
•t Harrow, whence he procerded to Ox- 
ford, where he graduated in 1778. At the 
■gv of 10 he wai elected Fellow of Kxeter 
College, and on the death of hi^ futher in 
17B2 wu appointed to succeed him ils 
AatroDomer at the Richmond Obaervatory , 
rhich appointment he held until the year 
^1840, when the Obaerratory waa cloaed. 
Mr. Demainbray howercr waa compen- 
aated for the loa« of hia appointment by a 
penaion, which he enjoyed up to the lime 
of hia death. In 1774 he waa appointed 
■ Whitehall Preacher, and in the lame 
year waa presented by Exeter College to 
the living of Long Wittenham in Berk- 
■hire, which preferment he held until 179!>, 
when he removed to Broad Somerford in 
Wiltahire, which waa also in the gift of 
Exeter collFKe. In 1802 he waa appointed 
one of Hia Majeaty'a Chaplaiiii. 

The urbanity of Mr. Demainbray 'a 
' nannen, together with much aweetoesa of 
natural diapoiition, the intereating nature 
of the studies to which he was devoted, 
and the position which be occupied, caused 
his society to be much sought afterduriog 
bis residence at Richmond. Hia Majesty 
George III. frequently paid visits to the 
Oboervatory, and honoured hia attached 
•errant with many proofa of his regard. 
Throughout life Mr. Demainbray enjoyed 
almost uninterrupted good health, and 
continued to perform his clerical duties 
until the lost four years of bis life. He 
has left a widow (now in her U.'ilh year), 
ind t son and doigbter to deplore bis loss. 
Another son, the Rev. Francis Demain- 
bray, late Rector of Barcheaton in War- 
wickahire, died in lti4C. 

The late Mr. Demainbray waa ■ great 
promoter of the Allotment System to the 
Boor, and in 1830 wrote a very useful and 
iDterestiog little pamphlet on the subject, 
entitled *■ The Poor Man's Best Friend.' ' 
Me and Dr. Law (late Bishop of Bath and 
Wells) are considered by " The Labourers' 
Friaui Society " ss the first promoters of 
the Allotment System, the succesa of 
which that excellent society is daily making 
known. 



Abtiuk Aikin, Esq. 

jipril \i. In Bloomsbury square, aged 
80, Arthur Aikin, esq. F.L.S. P.G.S. 
corresponding member of the Academy of 
Dyon, &.C. &c. 

Mr. Aikin was the eldest son of John 
Aikin, esq. M.D. a neU-known literary 



character of a former generation, and woi 
brother to Miss Lucy Aikin the historical 
writer, ond nephew to the celebrated Mrs. 
Barbauld. He was born on the 19th May 
1773, at Warrington in Lancashire ; where 
his father was at that time settled as a 
medical practitioner. At an early age ho 
%as placed under the care of the Rev. M. 
Oweu, master of the free school in his 
native town, and one of the trau^Utors of 
Juvenal, In 1784 he was transferred to 
the tuition of the Rev. Rochemunt Bar- 
bauld (his aunt's husband), who then kept 
a school at Polgrave iu Norfolk. Mr. Aikin 
studied the liigber branches of classical 
learning under Mr. Gilbert Wakefield, and 
waa initiated into the science of chemistry 
by Dr. Priestley. 

Ill 1796 he settled in London, where hia 
quiet unambitious life waa subseguenUy 
devoted to the Ubours of scientific litera- 
ture, as an author and lecturer. The first 
publication to which bis name was attached 
was The Natural History of the Year, in 
12mo. 1797. Tliia work was founded on 
Dr. Aikin's Calendar of Nature, and was 
intended for the use of young persona. It 
haa been more than onoe reprinted. 

In the same year he pubUsbed the Jour- 
nal of a Tour through North Walea and 
parts of Shropshire, Hvo. containing some 
particulars of the geological structure of 
that district. 

The next four or five years were oc- 
cupied in various unrecorded literary em- 
ploymcnis, and in lecturing on chemistry 
in conjunction with his brother Charles R. 
Aikin. 

In IHOS he published, in two volume* 
(|uarto, a translation from the French of 
M. Denon'sTraveU in E^ypt ; nnd he also 
commenced The Annual Review, which 
remained under his Buperiotendence for 
four years. 

In 1807 he contributed to the formatioa 
of the Geological Society, of which he 
acted for many years as one of the sec- 
retaries, and for many more as a member 
of the Council, contributing several papers 
to its Transactions. 

In 1807 also, in conjunction with his 
brother Charles, he published a Dictionary 
of Chemistry and Mineralogy, in two 
volumes quarto, to which a Supplement 
was added in 1814. 

In 1814 be published a Manual of 
Mineralogy, of which two conaiderable 
editions were sold. 

In 1817, on the death of Charles Taylor, 
M.D., Mr. Aikin was elected Secretary of 
the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, 
Msnufactures, and Commerce ; and be 
remained for twenty-three years resident 
at their bouse in John Street, Adetphi. 
He contributed several paper* to the 



1854.] 



Obituary. — Oeovg-e Clint, Etq. A.R.A. 



195 



Society's TraiuactioDs, and on hit retire- 
meat in 1840 was appointed Chairman of 
the Committee of Cbemistry. He was 
tlao for thlrty-iix years a Fellow of the 
Linniean Society, but bit only contribution 
to its Transactions was, in 1U17. a List of 
Indian Woods collected by Dr. Wallich. 
Mr. Aikin was a gentleman of mild and 
amiable manners, and quiet habits of life. 
Late in his long career a pleating tribute 
wai paid to the substantial merit of bis 
scientific acquirements, and the useful nnd 
inofTensive tenor of bis life and literary 
lDciibration5, by being elected by the Com- 
mittee of the Atbenocam Club to be one 
of its specially selected members. He 
btterly resided in Bloomsbury Square, 
and even at hit advanced age freqiirntly 
attended the eTcnlng meetings of the 
learned tocleliet. His portrait was en- 
graTed in octaro by J. ThomHon from a 
painting by S. Drummond, A.R.A. and 
published in the European Magazine for 
May 1819. 



GsoKOE Cmnt, A.R.A. 

May 10. In Pembroke square, Kensing- 
ton, aged M, Mr. George Clint, formerly 
an Associate of the Royal Academy. 

Mr. Clint was born on the 12th of April, 
1770, in Brownlow Street, Dmry Ijine. 
His father, Michael Clint (one of a family 
IWng at Hexbam in Northumberland), 
was a hair-dresser in one of the passages 
leading from bombard Street, but for tome 
reason uucxplained gave up Ills house and 
business, and with the proceeds of the 
■ale embarked as inpercargo of an East 
Indiaman ; some years after he died at 
Caicatta. George Clint, after receiting a 
plain education at a Yorkshire school, was 
apprenticed to a fishmonger, but the early 
hours, loose habits, and disagreeable na- 
ture of this business, added to the brutality 
of his master, caused him to leave his 
serrice, when he found employment in an 
attorney's office, and there be acquired a 
legible, firm handwriting, and considerable 
knowledge of common law. But the office 
in which he was employed was in the 
habit of doing dirty work ; and, being 
required to go to one of the courts of law 
to give false evidence, and pondering at he 
went along upon what he was obout to do, 
that rectitude of feeling which was ever 
(trong in him revolted from the crime he 
was required to commit, and he never re- 
tamed to the office. He now found em- 
ployment as a house-painter, and whilst 
to engaged be married a kind-featured 
last whom during a ttorm of rain lie saw 
at a window in St. George's Fields. This 

Slrl made an excellent wife, and her 
erotion to her husband formed for many 
yean his loluce through bit early struggles 



in art She wot the daughter of a imall 
farmer In Berkshire. After bearing him 
five sons and four daughters, she died In a 
fortnight after giving birth to Alfred Clint, 
who is now to well known as a landscape 
painter. 

After alteroatiog between house-painting 
and hit love of art, Clint's innate con- 
viction of talent determined him to abide 
by art. A series of frightful family pri- 
vations followed, but in the end they were 
triumphantly overcome by the rapid ad- 
voncei he made as a miniature painter. 
In these works great manual excellence 
was united with that chaste delicate feeling 
for female beauty which characterised aU 
Clint's portraits of ladies. He was now 
fairly started in professional life, and took 
a painting-room in Leadenhall Street. 
About the same time he became acquainted 
with John Bell, who published the beau- 
tifully illustrated edition of the " British 
Poets," and by Mr. Edward Bell, hit 
nephew, a roexzotint engraver, ha was 
initiated into the mysteries of engraving. 
Clint's ready comprehension of art in every 
branch, the wants of bis family, and hit 
steady and determined sppliratiun, caused 
him to try his hand successively at se- 
veral art-occupations. He not only painted 
miniatures, but made drawings of ma- 
chinery and philosophical apparatut, en- 
graved in mezzotint, in the chalk atyle, 
and in outliue. Amongtt his early works 
are " The Frightened Horte," after Stubbs, 
a chalk engraving ; " The Entombment of 
Christ," alter Dietricy ; numerous por- 
traits in the chalk style ; a large bold 
engraving in mezzotint of the " Death of 
Nelson," after the fine picture painted by 
W. Drummond, A.R.A., and a set of 
Raifaelle's cartoons in outline. His first 
attempt in oil was a portrait of his wife ; 
this was pronounced by them both as a 
most wonderful effort, but after the first 
burst of triumph was over, Clint felt that 
there were many deficiencies, and having 
heard of Sir 'William Beechey's liberality 
of feeling towards his professional brethren, 
he longed to have that artist's opinion 
upon the picture, but could not venture 
to face the great man ; upon which bit 
affectionate wife undertook to show the 
pictuteto Sir William. Arrived, as a |)oor 
but honest woman would, on foot, with a 
child on one arm, and her husband's pic- 
ture under the other, Sir William Beechey 
received her in his kindest manner, ordered 
wine nnd refreshments uj) for her, com- 
plimrnted her on her teslons exertions, 
and the talent of her husband, requested 
that he would call on him immediately, 
ordered a coach for her to return in, and 
faid for it. To this forinnate interview 
Clint owed a long and most friendly inter- 



106 



Obituary. — Oeorgt Clint, Etfj. AM^. 



[Aug. 



i 

I 



oourio with tlist excellent iind truly Engliih 
artitt, which terminated nnlj at Bcechey'a 
dnuth. lljr hii friend Mr. SuDiticl Rejr- 
iKildn, the incziotiiit cograTcr, Clint wii< 
alai) indiined to make water-colour por- 
trnit» ', Ihrnugh hlin Clint nraa introduced 
to the cvlebraled Samuel Whithread, whom 
he painted, aud visited frc<|ueutl]r at 
Southall. 

With all thrie resourccn Clint had attU 
intervala without cmploymeat. At aoch 
timea, when neither commiiaiona in paint- 
ing nor engraving came in, he filled up hi« 
time bj copying aubjecti from printu, 
principally from Murland and Teniera ; 
the moat lucrative of these were after Mnr- 
liod, and he painted plcturea of " The 
Enraged Dull,'' and " The Horae Struck 
by Lightning," by the dozen. 

Ilia introduction to Sir Thomaa Law- 
rsDOe aroie from engraving a plate after a 
copy from a picture by I^wrcnce. Thia 
Lawrence law.and waaso much pleased with 
it, that he gave him the picturon of Gene- 
ral Stewart, Sir Edmund Anlrobua, Lady 
Dundaa, and several other pcriona of rank, 
to engrave. One of the moHt fortunate 
ereota of Mr. Clint'a life waa his being 
commiisioaed to engrave "The Kcmble 
Family." This beautiful picture — con- 
taining portraits of John Kemble, Mra. 
Siddona, Charles and Stephen Kemble, 
Blauchard, Wewitzer, Conway, Park (the 
oboe player). Miss Stephens (afterwards 
Countess of Essex), and other celebrities 
— bad been painted by Harlowc for Mr. 
Tom Welsh, and had created an immense 
aeosaiion at (he Royal Academy. To 
Clint's practice both as a painter and en- 
graver, the execution of this print is en- 
tirely attributable. No mezzotint engraver 
has ever given the toucA of the painter so 
truly aa Mr. Chnt; and, although in ex- 
quisite finish, in delicate tones, and other 
aubtlelirs of art present works may surpass 
the print of the Kemble family, yet for 
richness of colour, variety of texture, bold 
execution, nice adaptation of the chalk, 
line, and etching styles to enrich mezzotint 
— this print still stands alone. Its popu- 
larity was so grcati that the plate was en- 
graved three timet. 

Clint's painting-room (he had removed 
from Hart Street, Itloomsbury, to Gower 
Street) nun becamed thronged with all the 
distinguished actors and actresses of the 
day, and with the supporters of the drama. 
The re>ult of this pupulsriiy was a scries 
of line dramatic pictures, which will pre- 
Bcrve to posterity the name of Clint along 
with that of Zoflfany, to whom, in many 
respects, Clint waa very superior. Tlie 
first of these theatrical subjects waaa picture 
of W . Farren, Farley, and Jooes, aa Lord 
', Canton, and BrusM, in the Comedy 




of Tlie Clandestine Marriage. Then fol> 
lowed Mundcn, Knight, and Mrs. Orger, 
in "Lock and Key," painted fur Mathewi 
the older. For this picture Mr. Clint waa 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy. 
At this time Welsh proposed to Clint to 
paint a companion subject to the Kemble 
ramily; but alas! there was no other family 
au distinguished. Kean, however, was in 
hia zenith, and drawing immense house* 
by his fine acting in Sir Gilea Overreach, 
The last scene was selected, and Clint pro- 
duced an admirable picture: Kean, oa Sir 
Gilte, baffled in his villany, draws his 
sword to kill his daughter; and at this 
moment the byplay and expression of the 
different actors are exunisitely portrayed. 
Munden, Oaberry, Hariey, Holland, Pen- 
ley, and Mrs. Urger are all introduced. 
These and many other pictures by Clint, 
some of the best of which are at the Garricli 
Club, perpetuate the celebrities of tba 
English drama during its last age. No 
one could vie with Clint foi pictorial 
grouping, richness uf colour, expression, 
and dry humour. The loleut he displayed 
procured him the friendship of Lawrence, 
Becchey, Mulready, Stanficld, Roberts, 
Baily, Cooper, Witbcrington, and other 
members of the Royal Academy. Uut, in 
spite of all, Academy politica, the war of 
parties, in which the talents of men be- 
came secondary to the defeat of the adverse 
faction, conspired to keep Mr. Clint for 
sixteen years in the rank of an Associate, 
until bis popularity had passed over, with 
the htage itself upon which he raisi^ his 
reputation as an artist. Younger men, 
whose claims could not be resisted, rose 
over his head, and some also less worthy 
of the honour than himself. .\t last, find- 
ing the efforts of his friends useless, he 
determined to resign his rank aa an Asso- 
ciate, which be did most respectfully, feeling 
that he was only keeping out some oUier 
dciierring artist. By a curious coincidence, 
the vacancy Clint cuuscd was filled by Mr. 
J. P. Knight, his pupil, the sou of Knight 
the celebrated actor. 

In portrait-painting Clint was eminently 
eurcessful: his men were gentlemen, and 
bis ladies modest and charming. Hepainted 
Lord Suffield and his lady, Lord Egrrmont 
twice or thrice: one picture of the latter, 
a whole-length, is in the Tun-n Hall at 
Brighton. For this the inhabitants voted 
Mr. Clint a handsome gold snuff-box valued 
at one hundred guineas. Lord Essex, 
Lord Spencer, the daughter of the Duke 
of Newcastle, General Wyndhani, Admiral 
Windham, and numerous other persons of 
distinction sat to him. For Lord Egrc- 
tnont he painted three scenes from Sliak- 
tpere, and he bad tbe gratification of know- 
ing from bis lordship, that be was limplj 



1854.] Obituauy. — R. Proster, Eit/. — Madame Sontag. 



197 



indebted to bii own talent for bu introduc- 
tioa to that munificeut noblemaD. 

For Mr. Griflitbii of Norwood, Cliat 
commrnced and paiutcd many portraits for 
a theatrical gallery, viz, ,Munden,GriiualJi, 
Fawcctt, Knight, Cooper, Listou, Mathews, 
Bannister, Harley, Tom Cooke, Kcan. 
Some of these pictures were entirely de- 
stroyed in a fire that broke oat in the 
residence of Mr, Griffith.s: the half-length 
of Bannister, a remarkably fine portrait, 
wait the greatest loss. For Mr. Veruon, 
Clint painted a scene from Shakipere, 
which it now in the National Gallery. 

Mr. Clint from his earliest time was 
thorimsihly a gentleman in his feelings: 
the highest nentiments of honour and in- 
tegrity were chmabed by him almost to a 
Quixotic degree. He had felt pof erty, and. 
Knowing the value of prufcssional advice, 
wu It bU times a friend to young men. 
Associated with Mulready, Cooper, and 
other distingniihed artists, he laboured un- 
ceasingly and succcsiifally to establish the 
Artists' Benerulent and Annuity Fund, one 
of the greatest comforts to the artist who, 
by the exercise of prudence, can put by a 
small sum annually, so as to raise his moral 
character above the debasing necessity of 
soliciting charity. His sincerity attracted 
the confidence of all with whom he was 
acquainted: the advice he gave was always 
honest, straightforward, and auch as could 
be safely acted on. 

Of his sons, Luke, the eldest, died young, 
after givinggreat promise asasceoepainter; 
Raphael wb:> a gem-sculptor, and possessed 
considerable talent; Scipio distinguished 
himself as a medallist, and died just as 
patronage was about to be bestowed upon 
him; his son Alfred speaks for himself as 
a landscape-painter on the walls of our 
numerous exhibitions of art ; Leonidas, his 
youngest child, graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, some years since, has 
taken his Master's degree, and is now 
the mathematical professor in a college in 
one of our Indian cities. Mr. Clint had 
as pupils, and consecjuently as friends, 
Messrs. Lupton, J, P. Knight, R.A., K. 
W. Buss, T. Colley, besides hi* own ions 
Alfred and Luke Clint. 

For many years he had retired from his 
profession and lived at Peckham, and ulti- 
mately in Pembroke Square, Kensington, 
upon some property he derived from hia 
second marriage, added to that raised from 
his practice as a painter and a mezzotint 
engraver. — Condeiufd from a Memoir ij/ 
Mr. R, W. Buu in Me Art Journal. 



Mr. Proner was one of those men who 
carve out a path for themselves. In early 
life he was employed in the extensive 
brass-fouudary establishment of Peon and 
Williams, Broomsgrove-slreet, Birming- 
ham. Here he spent his leisure hours in 
the examination and study ofthe principles 
of mechanics and drawing, and by such 
means qualified himself for the profession 
of a civil engineer, in the active duties of 
which he was engaged until his death. 

On matters relating to inventions or the 
processes carried on in the manufactures 
and trades of the town of Birmingham, 
Mr. Prosser was a high authority. He 
was appealed to on the occasion of the 
trials of several important patent cases ; 
and seldom, if ever, was hia aid sought in 
vain. The late agitation respecting the 
Patent Laws, which secured the now im- 
proved law of property in inventions, found 
Mr. Prosser among the most earnest advo- 
cates of patent reform. In the summer of 
1851 he was examined before the Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons, and gave 
important information as to the defective 
state of the Law of Patents, and it was at 
bis suggestion that the Government was 
induced to purchase the invaluable Indexea 
of Patents compiled by Professor Wood- 
croft. 



n 



RiCRABD PHOnnKR, Eso. C.G. 
June 'J8. ,\t bis house near King's 
Norton, Richard Prosser, Esq. on eminent 
civil engineer. 



M.^OAUE SONTAU. 

June 17. At Mexico, of cholera, aged 
49, the Countess Rossi, better known as 
Madame Sontag. 

Henrietta Sontag was bom at Coblentx 
on the 13th of May, 1805, the child of an 
obscure German actor and actress. She 
was destined fur the stage from her cradle, 
and when she was only six years old she 
was brought forward " on the boards" at 
Danu>'tadt, as Salome in the Donau- 
wcibchen of Kaucr, in which she is said 
to have excited a sensation as a prodigy. 
In her ninth year, on the loss of her father, 
tlie little girl was placed in the Conserva- 
tory of Prague ; and, because of her re- 
markable gifts, was admitted as student 
three years before the period fixed in the 
statutes of the institution. She there was 
made an excellent musician; and the name 
of her singing-mistress, Madame Czezka, 
is worthy of record, since in few artists, 
dead or living, t:an the voice have been 
more perfectly developed. On leaving the 
Conservatory, she went to Vienna, and 
commenced her career there by appearing 
alternately in German ajtd Italian opera. 
In 1821 she sang, at a moment's warning, 
in Prague, the part of the Princess of Na- 
varre in Roicldieu's Jean de Paris ; and 
her reputation must have been as high as 
it was versatile within a short period of her 
arrival in the Auitrian capital, since, In 



4 

4 



198 



Obituart. — Madame Sontag. 



[Aug. 



1823, the wu (elected by Weber, in the 

full outburit of hii popularity, to loitaiD 
the principal part io his Euryanthe, and 
in 1824 ibe wai chosen by Bcethoten a* 
■olo loprano for bia Choral Symphony and 
Mlaia Solennia — both alio then produced 
for the firat time; and neither of them 
" chflJ'i play." In the aame year, 1821, 
Mdlle. Sontag't cnga^rmenti at Leipiic 
and Bcrliu were the coinmcncemcnt of half- 
a-dozen yean of triumph, cntbnituni, 
popularity.and emolument, tuchai, in tho«e 
clayi, bad hardly been won by even the 
queinly Catalaui beraelf. Mdlle. San- 
tag'ii innocent lovelineaa aoi) natural tveet- 
neis of manner donbtleis aided the rharm ; 
but the reality of her voice, the perrcction 
of her method, and her loond mnsical 
(kill, had the largeit ihare in the popular 
eocliantment. She wai toon tempted to 
Pari! and London by offertdremedfabulaua 
in amount; and tbii at the time when 
Paita was in full glory, and Gnrda'a eldest 
daughter (Malibran) was all but ready to 
appear. Without commanding any force 
or orieinality aa an actress, Mdlle. Sontag 
eatablikhcd her position and confirmed her 
German triumphs on the Italian theatres of 
Paris and London, io spite of riralry so re- 
duububle. In London itaeems snch waa the 
excitement that n fanhionAble publisher, apt 
■t bubble-blowing, announced among the 
intended books of the season Travelling 
Sketches by Mdlle. Sontag. As to the 
alliances proposed for her by rumour — 
without end as without beginning — there 
waa hardly a conceivable grandeur, short 
of crown and sceptre, for which the new 
Roaina was not laid out; but the wonder 
wn< little more than " a nine days" wan- 
der," since, after one or two seasons of 
success and adulation, it became under- 
stood that Mdlle. Sontag had been for 
some time engaged to n foreign gentleman 
of noble family, and that the two were 
merely waiting till her fortune was as- 
sured. In due time her marriage to the 
Count Rossi look pbce ; Mdlle. Sontag 
waa presented with a fictitious escutcheon 
and ancestry by the King of Prussia, in 
order that she might be eligible for conti- 
nental high society ; the artlit ditappeared 
into the diplomatic world, and MM. Scribe 
and Anber wrote their charming Ambasia- 
rice (with ou retuote reference, rumour 
Int on to say, to the lady's ttory), in 
^bicb lienriette, the heroine, was sung 
1^ Madame Ciuti-Diimoreau. Bui, though 
nplMcd in the upcrn-boiiBes of Europe, 
tht Sontag was not forgotten, — nhe was 
beard of from time to time singing in the 
court circles of Prussia and Russia, or as 
lending her talent and her rank in aid of 
some charitable perrormanees. 

Almonttwent years had cinpsed, when, 



Of one of the eonseqneocei of the ftcrola* 
tion of 1848, Madame Sontag waa com- 
pelled by ricissitndes of fortune to return 
to the opera-houses of Europe, and began 
by replacing Mdlle Lind at Her Majesty's 
'liieatre. She proved herself little worse 
for the caprices or decays of Time, and 
was not only able to cope with the real 
and exaggerated reputation of her prede- 
ceasor, but rose superior to the charlatanry 
which tried to make up another " sensa- 
tion " for her, as for " a Countess in diffl- 
culties." She sdventured with ss much 
courage as skill io a new and very vride 
repertory, which had no existence when 
she left the stage. No girl— eager to win 
a reputation for usefulness, obli^ngneaa, 
and rersatility — erer studied so many nn- 
hmiliar works io so abort a time as Madame 
Sontag. In the "Piglia" of Donizetti 
(to instance) her archness and brilliancy 
carried off the palm in the lesson-scene 
against the youthful ingenuousness and 
great vocal execution of Mdlle. Lind. Id 
the " Prodigo " of Auber she fairly " sang 
down " the ihen " Sontag " of the Op6rtt 
Comique of Paris, Madame Ugalde. She 
saved " Lc tre Nozze " by the airy vivacity 
of her dancing song. She carried through 
the ungracious part of Miranda in " La 
Tempesta." Her success, in short, was 
no caae of " allowance," loyalty to a former 
farourite.and the like, — but a newly gained, 
honestly maintained triamph, under cir- 
cumstances of unexampled peculiarity. 
After such active service in England and 
France — including festivals, concerts, 
everything, in short, that the freshest and 
most vigorous artist can be called on to ac- 
complish — Madame Sontag passed to Ger- 
many, and subsequently to America, where 
shesang at New York in the autumn of 1 852. 
The resolt encouraged her to form a tra- 
velling operatic company of her own, with 
w hicli she successfully visited Boston, Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, Richmond, Albany, 
Buflalo, Cincinnati, Louiivillc, St. Louis, 
and New Orleans ; and in every city that 
she went to, the high reputation that pre- 
ceded her ensured her the most satisfactory 
pecuniory results. In New Orleans afae 
entered into an engagement with M. Mu- 
son, the director of the principal theatre 
in the city of Mexico, to play in opera for 
a fixed period of two months, with the 
privilege on his part of continuing the ar- 
rangement for three months longer, at a 
salary of 7,000 dollars a-month. Before 
she started for the Mexican capital she 
despatched her agent, Mr. Ullman, to 
Europe, with instructions to secure all the 
available talent that could be procured for 
the formation of a fresh opera company, 
whicli was to meet her in New York on 
her return. She was to appear in Mexico 




1854.] Obituary. — Mr. J. Fulton. — Mr, William Lcueton. 199 



I 



on the 1 Ith Jane, in the opera of Lucrezia 
BorgU, bat the performance wai post- 
poned io coiuequence of a sudden attack 
of cholera, which terminated fatalljr on 
the nth. At her iuterment, which took 
place in the church of San Fernando on 
the 18th, an ioiDienie concourse of persons 
was present, including all the foreign mi- 
nisters, the members of the Philharmonic 
Societjr, and moat of (he artists resident in 
the citf. Three of her children, from 
whom she had been long separated, were 
on the point of leaving England to visit 
her. 

Considered with reference to her art, 
Madame Sontag claims the highest place 
ai a conaummate vocalist and musician, if 
not a* a woman of genius. Noture had 
been prodigal of charm to her voice ; but 
art had given it its wonderful execntivc 
6uenc]r. Her taste, though leaning towards 
the florid and the delicate, was mostlj ju- 
dicioos— always so in the great music of 
the great musicians. In particular, her 
haodliag of Mozart's music wai incom- 
parable. Her demeanour on the stage was 
alwaja attractive — her attention to the 
basinesa of the scene sedulous. She was 
as modett as she was self-possessed ; never 
impassioned, bat never affected — rarely 
dull, sometimes gracefully tender, often 

lietly cheerful; once or twice (byeiccp- 
1 it seemed) heartily gay. 

As a woman, Madame Sontag was cour- 
teous in manner rather than lively in con- 
versation or acute in remark. Totally 
unaware, it seemed, of the distinction nhicli 
her artist's name reflected on those around 
her, gently acquiescent in all the ennui 
and ceremony which belong to the life of 
a great lady, curious in the " pomps and 
vanities" of the toilette, — "a Beauty," in 
short, in many of her ways, — it was re- 
markable to observe how strong a hold, 
after all, her real life (which Has the life 
of s singer) had retained npon her, — how 
she had kept the facts and interests of her 
old profession warm and quick is pello, 
ready to reappear, for her own guidance 
and enjoyment. Her most genuine talk 
was that of the green-room ; and, devoted 
as was her desire to bnilJ up the fortunes 
of her family, we still believe that the 
steadiness with which this was carried 
through had a strong sinew, not merely in 
the duty of the wife, but in the conscious 
pride and pleasure of the great vorolist. 



admired, several yesrs ago, in the principal 
towns of England and Scotland, where it 
was exhibited. He was a working shoe- 
maker in his native Tillage, of scanty 
means and education, yet by dint of appli- 
cation during his leisure hours he executed 
his undertaking with the greatest accuracy. 
He afterwards went to London, where he 
resided for a considerable time, and was 
employed in the establishment of Mr. 
Bates, mathematical instrument maker. 
His abilities were fully demonstrated in 
making theodolites for the Pacha of Egypt 
and balances for Her Majesty's Mint. 
Nor did his genius develop itself merely 
in the mechanical arts. He also applied 
himself, almost unaided, to the study of 
the hinguagea. He was a good French 
scholar, a proficient in German, a student 
of Greek, witli a considerable knowledge 
of Italian. Uis modesty, unassuming 
manners, perseverance, and piety obtained 
for him a high place in tlie estimation of 
all who knew him. His health failed him 
through excessive application, and a linger- 
ing illness brought him to a comparatively 
early death. 



Mb. John Fdltok. 

LaMy. Mr. John Fulton, an eminent 
utronomer and mathematician. 

He was a notive of Feuwick, in Ayr- 
ihlre, and ftrat made himself known by 
cooatractiag an orrery, which was greatly 



I 



Mr. William Laxtom. 

May 31. Aged 52, Mr. William Laxton, 
surveyor, and late editor of the Civil En- ^M 
gineers' Journal. ^M 

Mr. Laxtou was bom on the 30tb March, 
1802, and received his education at Christ's 
Hospital. His father was a surveyor, and 
he was bronght up to the same pursuit. 
In bis youth he was an active member of 
the " City Philosophical Society," who held 
their meetings at a time when such asso- 
ciations were rare, at the house of Mr. 
Tathom, in Dorset-street, Dorset-square. 

At an early period Mr. Loxton took a 
part in railways. He surveyed and laid 
down several lines at various periods, but 
did not obtain the construction of any line. 
Among other undertakings, he was con- 
nected with the Hull and Selby, City and 
Richmond, Surrey Grand Junction, Hull, 
Lincoln, and Nottingham, Gravesend and 
Brighton, Lynn, Wisbeach, and Ely, and 
Thames Embankment Railways. He also 
designed a viaduct to overcome the difll- 
cultiea of Holborn Hill. In connection 
with hydraulic engineering he designed 
and laid out the water-works at Falmouth 
and Stonehouse, and designed works for 
Penzance and Brighton. He was also 
concerned with Mr. Robert Stephenson, 
M.P. in the promotion of the Watford 
Water Company, for supplying London 
with water from the chalk formation. 

In 1837, at which time the only archi- 
tectural periodical was the Architectural 
Magazine, edited by the late Mr. J. C. 



:J00 



CUrgy Deceeued. 



[Aug. 



I 



Loudon, Mr. Laxton eitabliahed the CWil 
Cngineera' Journal, and edited it till very 
rccciitljr. A few year* ago lie |iurcliii«rd 
a weekly publication called tliu- Architect, 
whicli had been isiiued in iiiiitntion nf the 
ijuildcr, and bad very hmall succei!4. After 
carrying thia on for a abort time ho united 
it with his Journal. The " Price Uook " 
whicli bears hia name wai originated by 
bia father. In counectiou with his brother, 
Mr. Henry Laxton, he inaued thia, with 
luch additions and corrections aa were 
from time to time necessary, for thirty 
years. Amongst other appointments, Mr. 
Laxton was cntmsted with the surveyor- 
ship to the Baron de Goldsmid's estate at 
BriKhinn, and was surveyor to the farmer's 
Fire and Life Insurance Company, 

He has left an only sim, Mr, William 
Frederick Laxton, barrister. at-law, and 
F.S.A. 



CLERGY UKCEASED. 



s uuMfe home from Calcutta, 
ifm Kcv. Ji<An Ui>jh lijt^Kfr, 



Hay 14. Ou ItU 

In the MaurltluN, 

lloi'ti'i' of Uarfri]>ti>n, Ki'iit (1X47). Ilo wu a( 

WunMlrr lUllfKP. Ovrnril, U .K. KM, MA. IH3(i. 

li/uy lu. .\t tiiri'linl, .M'»U<lr,i. ii,(ril .ty. Ilic 
Iter. Miu-tin Slfi>lim C'tlc. art'lirUt'ieuUvKO, Caiu- 
lirl<liic. II A. l».vj. M .\. im-- 

.'«.!.■ «. M i..uii.">L-i. ". iii.^ n.'v nv;;;..«, 
II . , , . , 






Ut, IS.A. 131S. 

lie llnv. JiAn Cvopti't Hector 



JuiU 11. .V! 

iMfcil &1, tilt; I:- 
tliiit i>Arl5h. I|. 
U.A I«i1, M..\ l^iT 

Jyiir n. At SuiiJDii. Iii-.l«, Ok^iil .^^, tlio Rev. 
Jo/in LtttU, \lc-nr of Minuloii iiii'l .^irt iit!'-v {1^41). 
lie uah of Ma,:iUili'iiK hull, 1) ; ~:i^'. 

JuiifW. At LMiJ'i.tlw lto> , lU). 

June Hi. Afciil 'i". tho I I '^M, 

CiiratB (if I'eiitrlcli, ricrhy.hin:. 

Jkm 10. At Kctti'hiih', lUi'.l AO, tliu Iter. 
FruHcit Joifn, Ito'tui "f I .iriun near dunfllc 
(ixiti), and (iiruitTly llu<;l>luiituun 

(1797). 

J,„i. i.l ,M hi. 111. T.l. the l:,'V. 



GouviUuaitU tJikiuALuikt^u, L'lAuili. 11. A. Ihi4, M..V. 
lalN. 

Jvne 3a, Agol HI, the Iter, Ofonjf ItuihttaHf^ 
tteclor of Ailol, Vorluhiro (laoO). He wu of 
Quoon'* collF«e, Oxiuti, HA. 17M, U.A. 1797, 
Ud). lailA. 

./uar 2fl, At Torqiuiy, th*' I 
ClialiUiri tu the .Mllitiiry I'li- 
llo w.ii (1 1 rmitv , ..111',.-*' ' ... 



LI, till] 

rem- 

\'lcur 

'. Cu- 
1 , ftijil 



ul ■'. 



. :,. lii 111 I l.dl 
twu tiuaU uicuiu. 
11, near SlicrUinir. 



Uo qualUled oa a naclalnta la l*U : and to laM 
ho waft iiromotod liy the Cro«m to the ricArs^re of 
SliHrlMinte. IIu wuti ovor illllifiint and zeoloiu In 
tliH iicrfiirinaiic<- of tib diitlCA, nml wii* uil excel. 
U-nt iircntlior. UU fuiirrnl wa« attetidrd by nuarly 
thlny of the nelifhtioiirlni; clurtfv, iiiid IiIb tHiUy 
WAb ilC'))U»lti-d hy that uf IiU Uhi wife iu the chJiDCCl 
(if Ca%tli-t<in I'hiiiYh 

July C. At Vork, aged 7'i. the «»». Jolm AeoJUr, 
Vicar of St. Ilcliii Stoiiivatv In tlial city (t«l&). 

a: ' ■ • " - ■ ••■■■■■■' ... . ..... i;^. 

J,J>., -43). 

He 

Juiy I.. jiiv.i.f.t.y iliJU.v, I. uiiiix I irtiii), ag«d 

4U, the Itov. Thomaa /asy lMga lln'^y. of St. 
,iotinVcoUege,Camtirtil(«, B,A. li>Sa, M.A. IsS... 



DF-ATHS, 

ABBANOBD IN ClIRONOLOUICiL OIUDEB, 

July 17, \<Mti. At Pananu, aned an, Chsrles- 
CloIIicr. «M"ond hoit of luvid Chark.* Porter, esq. 
of I'ark'lilucc, lIcui'iitV-iLirU. 



Juiu W, ISU. 
mouth, elder hr. 
Ieavifi|[ foiir ^.ti- 

inilKat. Ii 
tilt. Ami. 

of I" 
I'm 
of 1. 
II,.. 
of I 
/ 
Eh. 
of ti 



leh Bryant Way- 
Col. WsjTnoutJi, 

' llAD- 
■ lOf 

.ctul 

Tl to 

•...ly 

','Uin 

.- l.iu Mi^Jut -' .cu. liarry. 



, r. 



iri I'l.illi., a, «1 17, 
I lau. 



...Ill lltiit. 

Ill Van Dlemcn't Land. Sarah, »Ub 
■ lite. c«ij. dau. of the Uto John tlowlby, 
u:.ij. ul iiurliaui. 

VorrA 4. At Svdiiey. N S.W „ William C'arr. o«). 
« .llili,.! . only wii of the Uto Mark WUlUw Carr, 



l.uirlttiu, John t'Innljut, esq , Uto UiKpee- 

,.f l'..H,i- In ll...t .„l..in. Al^,.. aivl- 
- nth 
iiid. 
..en 



(Ic... 
All.: 
son 
Hunl.u, I -.< , 

Uarfk .. ..m. 

bay. New ^ itol, 

aon of Uie lute \S l ' 'ify* 

Kent. 

Uardi II. At . i i;ib. 

ion, M.D. only uni ...v Mr, 011>. 

son, of Ayralilro. 

ilurch Vi. Llii ( ak'utta to 

EiijiUnd, Anlillula Viiuii,i, u«|. UU! Lieut. 9t)) 
Lanneni. 

Auril n. Ou his pawiir from Swatow to Amvy, 
aKeu i;i, J-^licaa Jauica Macksy, esq. only non of 
tile late Cnpt. l^oiiald .tuoas Mockay, Bengal Art. 

At llarbajloa, ai^cd 21, AUelo, widow of K. J. 
Wataoii. e*(|. of Ituniuiiflcld. 

Apnl 'H. At Maittat, fl4;ed 3S, Captain Arnold 
W'.ini. 1.1 Mailraa I luillers, yotuigest ton of ttte 
Uard,e«). of Dover. 

At I'mbalU, aged 21,Alliert Tolle- 
I. helical Art. second son of tlie lata 
1 It'll. Arthur Cwaar Tollemadie, and nepbew of the 
l^rl of I>y«rt. 

Uay \. Near L'hun^-ar. agcul 41, Capt. Henry 
1 cniitnK. Hat Uoniliay N. 1. lato Acting Colleelof 
at llyderutuid. 

ri.-r.i 1/3, Andrew James Lamb, 
- f. youngest son of David 



At Mallli. 
KnklKn 'i'l-.' 
Lamh. cvi 

ifiiy 6. .' 
Temiile Hyajii, 



.>.'dll,LlOTI. Willouffliby 
f th Mudiaa Light Cavalry, eldest 



iw>n (if Mijor-fien. Uyoui, of WarMlngton Lodge. 



1854.] 



Obituary. 



201 



JfwS. AtCullAO, Peru, aged 91, Ur. Henry 
Gnj, late solicitor of Ipjiwich, yuuiiKe^t non of the 
Rev. Thorow Uny, Vimr of Ilowilen, Yorkahlro. 

Ifap 10. At llumbay, agcii 31. Wm. K. Ihibln^- 
ton, esq. Staff-Surjfi'oii'at roonali, «on of tlio lalo 
Bteplioa BttlilDfflon, c*i. Itombay Civil Service. 

At Spaniali Town, Janinicu, a^cd 53, lildward 
CborltM Uuunvtt, the youngest wn of Henry Jones 
Bannett, U.V- 

May 1 1 . At itcljt^iim, nt her futlicr'it the Ttcr. A. 
BtTnon, aceil til, Atine, nilto of Lleat. V. S. Kem- 
boll. Ilorabay Art. 

Uwf 14. At WhUchurcli, HantH, oKcd 8U, Mr. 
B«tl. rMUent lorgeon ftr more tUon twenty years 
«e tiM Ka«UD« DUpenaory. 

Misjf 16. Enoch Danberley, ohi. of Green Acres 
Moor, Oldlum. F.R.c.S. (lHd3). 

ifay 16. On his peouge Arom DarbtdOf , aced 3a, 
D. A. CommlBsvy-GenenU Patrick Nagle Telfer. 

Mti)/ 17. At KinKston. ueor Dublin, at^ed C5, 
ForbcfcCniufonl, M.I), for more than forty years 
fUTKeon to the Lnni^onl militia. 

At l>anse. co. Bcnrlck, Mr. Andrew Darling, 
ffurgeon U.N. 1H06, a llcentlatu of the College uf 
Sorffeons of Edinburgh I7<JA. 

May 19. At Bordeaux, on hU rttnm from India. 
Capt. Colin Campbell Scott. 39nd Bengal Native 
InCtntry. 

iTay SO. At Gateshead, tn bis S5th yoor, Mr. 
Oeorgv Strahan. He wa* bom of hamble parents 
at the North Shore. Kcwuutle-upon-Tyne, in Sept. 
1769. He WHS for many yean ataca, and became, 
from a commander, an ovner of Teasels; nor 
when he retired IVom a lea-fifcring life was be less 
s mjwufl il as • fbrmer and grufer. He beld Und 
at Hmbead under Lord Karensworth, and lubse- 
qsMtlyatGlouceitter Lodge, near Scaton Delaval. 
and hl« prize ox. wna publicly exhibited both In 
England and Ireland. IIIh bitter yeant were 
■pent in MewcditUe and (Jatotdieail ; and of the 
former borough he became a town-connciUur in 
1830, and remained In offlee for nx yeant, which 
was marked by ceaacleas activity in the perform- 
anca ofbiA public duilL-i, and remarkable energy 
in many slonny debatai. He was also Iho writer 
of many (>clitlcal lottcr» in the newspapers, ad- 
Tocating measQn» of conuuurcial reform. A silver 
aiUT«r was presented to him by tiln fcUow-towns- 
mcn in U45. His body won interred in St. Cuth- 
Imfa cemetery, (iatesheod. 

At ChlngLepttt. Jsnies Alexander Wedderburn. 
asq. Madras Clvtl Service, son of tlic iatc John 
Wedderbum.csq. und Qf the Lady Helen Wed- 
derbum (annt to tltc Kiirl of Airltc, and sbter to 
the Vbtcounten Arbuthnott). 

MoyVi. At Ponte dc fialU;, ngoi 01, UciU. 
Samuel Hood llemuiant, UN. Admlnilty agvni on 
tKNRd the rrnin^niur and Oriental Company's 
flcsm-4likp Singapore. Ht: entrrud the navy lu 
ISOGas Rnt-cliwi rnhintoer uf Uic Boreas, which 
WRM lost off <)UenL«ey in I>ec. IHI7. Hewosoflor- 
w»rd« in the Kesnlulion and I'umpt'c 74'«. Victory 
too, Vutugc'i'J.iuid keiil;4tiince:iri,aiidmuite Lieut. 
In Ute i:ndauuted :ia, Feb. b, Ittl.S. Itiat frigutc 
conveyed Napoleon fiom i-a-Ju* to Klba, and oa- 
ristedat Ibe caplun; of the THniiti btlund. He 
■lt«rwards served in several ships until In34); 
and was fi>r some time Ijuigratlon Agent at 
Greenock. 

At Barbados, aged 31 , Agnci*. wife of H. Stanley 
Jones, of Llynon, Anglutca, cm], Aȣ.tittani-Com- 
mlManr-(feu. and dan. uf Uobcrt Muter, esq. for* 
merty Lleut-Cul. Muyul CunciiUan lUtltiS. 

May'iS. At Sowerby, near 'lltlrBk, nged 38. 
U. M. Milbum, esq. Und agent, and Secretary of 
the Yorfc-hirr Agricultural Socictr. He was the 
OliI: , ' .:!. who livctl 

nm . iL small pa- 

ten, nvar Tlurak» 

An«r lea\-ini; ^owcrtiy i»rain;c academy, ho be- 
came a frcqaeut contrtbator to the Conserrative 
local newspapers, and after gaining several prizes 
fcr flauys on sut^ects conm-cted vntb agriciiltDre, 
be cotitinned to write In the leadiiiir agricultural 

Gent. Mao. Vol. XLII. 



newspapers and magaxluos until Ida doatli. Ho 
was a xeaIon» supporter of the Church MUsbioasf 
and other religious soi-ieUes. 

May 20. At iHJWdbury, aged 47, Richard Uot- 
tomloy NowoU, esq. surgeon. 

May 28. At StMinbdi Town, Jamaica, aged 44, 
G«orge Brookn, M.D. of chulora, leaving only one 
medical man to attend the Kick. Of scventy-olgbt 
cases fifteen had proved btal. 

Mayn. At Gibraltar, aged 74, William Hac. 
ket, ewi. M J). Ins|>ector-<jen. itilitary Honpltals. 

At Funchal, Madeira, aged 29, Benunl Wit- 
llam Francis Drake, eeq. M.A. of Wookey 
Honse, Somerfietsbire, and Fellow of King's col* 
li^ce, Cambridge. Ur. Drake was editor of tiia 
*'De Corona" of Demofithones, and also of the 
" Kumenides" of ^whylu^. He was Captain of 
Monteui on tbe last occasion (in 1M44} of the cele- 
bration of tliat festival at Eton. 

Mayyi. At Clifton, ogod 48, Mr. Kobcrt Jo- 
seph ltlgg», trnrgeon. 

May ax. Aged 45, Cliarles lloMilyne, em. of 
liarrt^sate, some Umu {ihyilcinn to the Leeds Dis* 
pensary. 

L<iUly. At Liverpool, aged ^S^ Jolm Bell, esq. 
M.lt,C.S. 

At Blackrock, Dublin, Dr. Buckley. 

At Cbi*p!ftow. Huddenly, J. Ellv. esq. surgeon ; 
and u ' ' r his wife. 

A: re he had resided many years, 

Wm. p (lam, M.D. 

At iliiMiiMi^c, :tiiropshire. aged 71, Mr. Mat- 
thew Webb, nirgcon. 

Junf 3. At Tenby, Dartmdos, aged 90, Benja- 
min Mayers, esq. formerly member of the Qenor«l 
Assembly of that lalsnd. 

JuHf 4. MbMi Charlotte Finch Raikei. 

At Uie Camp, near Vurna, otcuMoncd by an a«.*~ 
cidcntal full from lii» horse, ajicd 33. Capt. Al- 
bany French Wfillace, 7Ui iCuyAl Kutdlicra, Udrd 
sou of Col. KolKrt Wull:icQ, K.H. 

Juneh. In Wlmpide-ftL aged &1, Mary, widow 
of Major Hollund, Bumb. Inf. 

At Brigbttm, Louisa, Uilrd daa. of the Istc Rev. 
Ttiumiifi Uuwnrd, Uoctor of lluggc»ton, Bucks, and 
of Bittcring Pan a, Norfolk. 

At the Croft, Invcmess-sblre, Margaret Hack- 
intofdi, relict of Wm. Cameron, esq. and niece of 
tlic late Sir Lucas Mackintosli, of ilackintosh, 
Bari. 

Aged tt4. John Mcndlium, esq.ofClophlll.Bods. 

At Masham, Yorkuliire, aged Gk, Major liar- 
court Morton. 

June 7. Henry Atliorpc, nddi>bipman of H.M.'s 
ttilp Odin, tbird son of J. C. Alhurpe. eni. of Din- 
niu^'t<Jn-ball, lorkKbirc, frum a wound In the 
lungit from a rifle bsll, in Ulc attack on Camla 
Carleby, in 1- inland. 

On the ftiime occoiiiun, A^e'l 'i'i, Ctinrlcn Frede- 
qiek Ilcnuon Montagn. 11. M. 8. (Klin, yuungeat 
von uf tlio l£ov. Vt. Montagu, SwafTtiam. 

June 9. Very auddnnly, aged 4G, Mr, William 
Carter Clsyden. His body was bnrifd near the 
tomb of 111* former friend iiii'l >oneiL'ne, Mr. Wm. 
Clialk, whom he curvlvci n mimfba. 

The funeral wasattended i principal 

iiUiabltants of Linton an>i 'I. 

At Brighton, aged 84, Mi-.> i.n' y i.cvcridgc. 

Junt 11. At Blackheath,inh«r3:klyear HlUa, 
eldest daughter of Jaiues Bunco, e«q. of BUick- 
heath. 

Aged 31, Mar>--Anne, eldcjit dan. of Chadea 
CloM'Cfi, esq. Dclaford, Iver, Bucks. 

At Sonnlng, near Heading, aged 83, Ostberine, 
widow of Col. Joseph Buckerldge, of Binfleld- 
grovc, Berks, dau. of Uio late Tliomas Hatcbkin, 
OMl- barrlstcr-at'law. 

At Langton Herring, ogod C3, Lucy, youngest 
sister of Uio late Jolm Down Kcllaway, esq. of 
Wlntcrlwme Abbas. 

At Greeuford rectory, Middlesex. Miss Catherine 
Middletun. 

Aged h3, William Ormo, eaq. of the Cnrtaln- 
road, 1 in^bury-«i. 



202 



Obituary. 



[Aujf. 



I 



\Vtiiluii)r\\ tM^ 
JdM. Wiuinmrv 



h, 




Tn QuMn-«i. Blooaubniy, nUUam AiuUu 

l!c-'-'-> -: 

"I lloojo, ILijnlun Bridge, Joha 
.illrltor. 

' ' — - I CO, Ttumw 

iiT uf Ibe Ula 
11. (8Mp.lt.) 

<iui>iv. <M ,, MM, ua while, «4. 

WvwMkrtlre MIUIU. 
::rUlff«, «4t«d 44. Anne, daa. of thu 

- "'"^ : -: 1'-i- '■•■■, Vmo.. 

I 'erou- 
r.dUi. 

ke Altlenon, 

i„ ;M.i,.N.,-.., I.M/H, IMl- »M.- Ml 1. H. £sle<. 

At llulinwtMxl, niutr Dorking, luiny, yt\U of 

Ai I'riulr.iii^l (W, Ur. Jubn L«nilrr, Unrbour- 
biii%tc'r III tliMi port. 
At Kyili!, IkIj or Wl^t, Mlu rniicM sarali 
ivell, ft,rmcrly uf Ctievterton, Wtnr. «nd mauj 
ir» rviMcQl lit L«itjnintlton. 

AffuU 1^, AdA-l.ouma, dau. of J. Tbomton, ohi. 
'iBf ti«ftVttr lUil, Suutti^tti, And of KctUeUiorpe, 
Yorkihlre. 

Ag*l 70, after iljoul • lbrlni|[lit'i Ulneat flroni 
tb« cffDcti of a nt of parsljfalu, Junot WbUUn, 
«K|. of I'pprr Bedlbrd-plu*. Ue had been Ibr- 
merljr a tmildcr of eminence, hut bad retired from 
boaino*. He waa fbr loaie time a director of tJir 
Loudon, Brighton, and laoutb Coaat hallway ; anil 
waa a IHrector, and one of the TreiuorcrB, of tlic 
WeatmlAiter Ftre OOcA Mr, Wblakin waa (n the 
commlalon of the peace kr HlMJem, ud mu 
highly reapeeMI. 

.'•-- 1 ' ■ • "Igbjr, LUm. B(ed M, Oeorge rercy 
t' itliliegt. 

.\s^ 76, Carolina, dau. of the latv 
•II.MMH,, ,,i,„M, caq. 

AI <<reen«lch, lluirtctta-Caitirrlne, relict of 
Isaac hrUtnw, caij. 

At Tretirehan, L'omiraU, aired ts, Anna-Maria, 
wilt of Col. Oartyon, uliUwt ilau. of the late Adm. 
Spry. 

At Uarrow, ai|«d 14, Frederick, youoKeit ion ol 
Capei Cure, oaq. 

At Eiiderby, aged IT, Mary, reUct of the Kev. 
Bciijiimln Kvani. 

At Moreen, co. buUin, liaTlng inrrivai lib 
wtfti li^ia than vovcu montlu, Maiineri M'Kay, erni. 
■ lin MUlUa, formerly of the ikl 



J I 



Hampton, John Hunter Mu.^het, 
e>i. ni. . iij.i -aih Kact. 

At llounnlow UarFackt, aoed 'i I , KreJerIck Wil- 
liam liiign, aou of Lieut. PiiUipa, of tlio Caralil- 



At the naidenca of her loii, Eietar, aced 7a, 
Catherine, rellet of William PInder, eao. Mllellor, 
Waabtn. 

And 91, Charlotte, relict uf llui lier. Rogeri 
Radlug, B.I>., K..S.A.. Vlrar of Maldon, Surrey. 
Thia renoralile lady wi ■ - -i .laughter of 
John lending, cm). wIim .i%\ Indlca In 

I7H7, 'ind murrltHt li<<r ' ..^ the aeconil 

g^P ^ I. M .:. ,, iwiitMii 3, cn. LeIc.eaQ. 

Til i: waa an ciulnciit nnnila- 

Bi'i ' Ulo " Aininli of UrlUah 

C< UK II,' ,iu'M I vi>. IC, lii'iu. See Cienl. Mac, 

Vol. «C. 1. 2711. 

AI Hamilton, Canada Wail. Grace, wife «( Mr. 
OeorKv Shoppanl, formerly editor uf the Eaalem 
Counilea ileiittd, ami |in-vlnuily of Uie Nowcattle 
Courant. 

In llolleii-iit, Ca<cnili>li-«). the wUa of Joilaa 
Bonrr Stracoy, cn). uf Bogaor. 

Jiait l«. AtManlen Aih, High Ongar, Earn, 
Mian iJvtontiaanx. 

Aged M, Uenrietlo-rark. wUk of Themaa Jen- 
Blima. ei4i. of Tho Abbey Koregalo, Shrvwabury. 

AI Weat MouBtoa, a«d «, Mary, relict of Ro- 
tol Mewbnm, eeq. oTlogleby UlU, near Yarm. 



At Uttch Uaabam, llerta, agtd 69^ Tbobaa 
Samuel Molt, e«]. aoUcltor. 

At Oaklanda, TorQuay, aged Til, Chuta tsi' 
lenr,eai]. late of Liverpool. 

Agod U, kidiard Welib, (ei). of Brtghton, hi* 
of BeUnont Castle, \mkl. 

Jtau IS. At York, Ulu Batluw, eldeal dan. of 
the late Samuel I'raocla Itailow, e^. of Mlddl*- 
thorjie Hall. 

In Uark-laoL-. a«ed M, Jamea Kendle Browne, 
^ ,,.,,..,.,-,.,„...,. vv '■■,..„ 

v. lift of 

Weil 1.1. 

Al UIM.HAIMM AlKliUI ilVU-v, iltxll v.liU.ibalB, 

Gregory Ijregory, etq. 

At Kamliutoa, agod 70, Ellxabeth, eldeat and 
only unmarried dan. of the lale Sir John logUby, 
Bart, of lUpley-i>ark, Yorkthire. 

At Wealbourne-i>ark \'Ulaa, Harriett, widow (t 
Jainr ^•■" ^- '■•.-'♦'■" !"Mii llouae. 

A' 'tMUler, caq. 

A lic, etq. 

Aid. < l'>ula,wtlD«f Capl. 

Matthew I K-al ami7, i 

dau. of i: WallMO, ' 

anny. ^•li« ,*iu imhiiiw.. .>. ,ad7. 

At Bdlerue, KoBe^iMre, a(Od U, DoMta Onp* 
stm, o«|. 

Al swiufen Hall, Staff. Henry John SwIiibD.caQ. 

Aged 77, Jolin Tattam, ca^. uf Whlldiuvh, near 
Aylc»bury. 

At IVkkeiiliaui, UlM .Sarah Warwick, 

At ria> Hclllii, Kortbop, lllouhlre, aged tt, 
Jaipe* W 111... CM). 

Al Bldofor.!, aged G7, Mary BortU, relict oT 
Jolm Wlao, ea«j. uf Maidhtonc. 

Jwu 16. At I'uruwuud-lodgv, uoar SonlhaiQp- 
to1i,aae«l .'■• '^ " " ' m'I'c of Wm. Abbott, oeq, 

Al E«ei i^ol lli dayii, Sulllran, 

auiiofthol ' A'tley, 

At BriiliiMM. "Lu .-, " ■■■ -' ■■ ■ lier, 
John Ballard, of Cropn- 1 J. 

John Dallun, raq. of V 

Aged 80, Mn. Locy ll;ii . i < . mi ;n..'i hi ijiixIOH, 
I'Ollct of Dauiel Uorvcy, 1-914. ul Lewea. 

Agtid 74, Capt. William Howard, of Chelouford, 
Adjutant of the toit uiloi\l UlllUa. 

At Croydon, Lleut.-Col. Milllam Jacob, lale of 
Uie Bombay Art. 

At Amciiliun, Outka, aged e7, Mra. Ann KIIm- 
both Ijiwrence. 

At Weat Hackney, aged G7, OomaUu Mat- 
calf, ««). 

At Southampton, aged M, Capt. lioberl Moreahy, 
I J(. late Commander of ttio l^enluaUr and Uri> 
untal Comptny't ihlp lUpon. Capt. Morciby at- 
tended the oponInK of ihc Cry-Mai I'alace, and 
whilat there waa aelxcd with tuddeii Uidltpoftltioa ; 
ha Immediately haatifued to ^utliampton, wliere 
he died on the fifth day after. Ue wua a von of 
the late FalrAu Moivaby, eaq. of UcbHtUd , Colouol 
of the Lkblleld Yeomanry Caralry, and brother 
to Rear-Adm. Falrfkx Moreaby, C.U., H.N. 

JuM 17. At Cheltenham, aged bU. bopbia-Anne, 
wllb of .luhn Wlillcomb Bayley, eaq. F.lt.S. and 
F.S.A. Chief Clerk uf Uie Hocord iittce, dan. of 
Uie lato Hon. and Right Hon. Col. Kobert Ward, 
of Bangor Cattle, cd. Down, gtoat-uucle to tho 
preaent Lonl VlK-uunt Bangor. 

Drowned (with two atteurtants) at Dmutafruage, 
Argylaihlre. aged 11, William Campbell, eeq. lata 
efue Md HlghUnden, tliird eon of Uie late Sir 
Donald Campbell, of Dunetaffnase, Bart, and 
brother of Sir Angoi Campbell, uf Dnnstainiag*. 

At Hampiload, aged 7S, Matilda, relict of Lowil 
Cooiier, eaq. of MalaatoBe. 

Hart bavU, eaq. iMl.S. of Uere-hill-Uonae, 
Whltchurvb, llantt, hue Deputy Chairman of tho 
Board of tlxdeo. 

Mlaa Martha Uait, alelcr of the late Kl^t Boa. 
Sir Edward Hyde Eaet, Bart. 

At raFtonMown, Ireland, Julla-EUohoUi, wite 
of Colonel Ho«, of Wolrarhamplao, yoongwl 
dan. of the lata Bobert Kelly, eaq. M.D. 




1854.J 



Obituary. 



203 



At Soatliwoli), Satfulk, Annt-MiirUi, the vib of 
Alfnd LUIui^xUiu, e*i\. iind ilAa. of the Ute Johu 
ThArp, CA). of CtUppenhom Park, Cambrid£9- 
sbire. 

At Exetsr, aged 69, Mary, relk-t of Mr. W. Nut- 
worthy, daa. of the luta Uobert Brutton, caq. of 
Foxhoyoa. 

At Maini, N.B., Anna, rcUct of Lleatenant Wm. 
WiUoi, K. Art. 

At ilio hoOAO of her wn-in-law John Kuck, OHq. 
Cruydun-loiltte, tn b«r 'J2i year, Mary, rcJIet of 
John Windiior, eM\. of OUL Shelve, I,enhiun, Kent. 

Jiuu l». At Ryilo, ui;<Hl », Wllllain Joseph 
Barker, cm. of Tokenhoiufi-yur j, aud of the Stock 
Exchange. 

In the Catliedral Precincti, Canterbury, aited 
Tl, Charlotte-Frelian, relict of tha Ber. Tbonua 
Bennett. 

At Kxeter, suddenly, aged 6D, George WlUlam 
Bmnde, esq. late of tJ» nvaanry. 

AT KrclolidU pantonage, near Sheffield, Marga- 
ret, wife vl tlie Ker. Ueitty Farlah, and dau. of tho 
late Jaiuei Upton, etq. of Or«at UiuaeU-etniet, 
llloonisbury. 

Ai llolpcrby, rorkataire, aged 78, WlUIam Lam- 
bert, ejH|. 

AKed 71, Mr. Charles UUbank, land lurreyur, 
of Colchester. 

At tdUiburgh, aged 47, Capt. Septimoi Henry 
Palairet, of the Orange, Bndftird, Wllta, lalc of 
19th Kegt. 

At Kenalngtoo, aged 46, Jane-Ann, chlest sur- 
ftrlng dan. oif George Wimgh.eaq. hite of GuUd- 
tbrt, Surrey. 

At Port>e*,ajmdU, W. White, e»|.Comni. R.N. 

JiMt 19. At LWerpool, aged 63, Ueorge WlUIam 
Bbrhoir, aq. formerly of Leeds. 

.A- '•'••■' Snrrey, aged 43, Charles Jami.'D 
Fr Ire, eaq. Ute Capt. 4tb Itegt. mn 

or ' I OeniJilre, 7th Uuaurs. 

ulit at Uor lon-tn-law's Mr. Buck, 
Ci: 61, Mary, wife of John Oosllui;, 

t»i 

Agvu u I , << iiiiam Oolborn, eaq. of Camberwell- 
gion, ud OemliU. 

At Braadatalra, aged in, Mr. Stanlslaoa Keene. 

At Newark, aged 78, Sam. Pearson, esq. surgeon. 

At Tuphulmc Hall, Line, aged 69, Paul France 
PeU,esq. 

At Kltham, aged 18. Arthur WUIhun Sannden, 
of Braaeiiow college, Oxford, yonngeat son of tho 
Ute Robert John saunden, esq. 

At Drayton Lodge, Salop, aged 6, Jomea-Mans- 
fleld, eldot 4011 of the Rev. F. ftpedding; and on 
the 'ilit last, aged 4, Henry Klplilnatonu Sped- 
diug, hu youiigeat M>n. 

Aged H, Mr. WOUain Taylor, aorgeon, of Upper 
Sl»m»>rd-«. 

>.■ • - "»nce, Gfosrenor-pl. London, Char- 
loii •• of the Rev. V»ur Bomvhler 

V . it dau. of the late Rev. Dr. Slo- 

Mll. li'.'^r.T •>! lujsaiugton. 

June 'Jii. At Kolyhaam, Uant^, aged M, Ed- 
mond (iideon Bounlillon, esq. 

At Southampton, Cstberine-Eliaabeth, wtfb of 
Capl. h. F. Ilumey. R.N. 

AI Longfloet, Poole, aged it, Sarah, sUtcr of 
the late Tlumiaa Gaden, esq. 

At Twyford, Berks, aged 13, Henry CHildimllh, 
eeq. former! V of Great Morlow. 

,\- '■ ■: riory, Anna-Maria, wUb of Rov. 

Jl: llch. 

.'. , road, aged »7,J. Hope, ijq. M.I>. 

i.K.i-..-i. 

At Brighton, Jane, wMow of Ralph HuldUnaon, 
fliq. of Dnrhem. 

,, . .... .._.._... , ,. j-rirttn- 

C..' 

... :.iird«, 

esq. }<iiLiigexi 5<>ii u[ iiio uiie Lor>i • uivi bjirou 
Rlchortla. 

AI fSom-eommoo, aged 66, Mary-Anue-Marttta, 
third dau. of tho late JomeA Scott, e*M]. of \VU1»- 
borongh, co. Londotnlcrry. 



In St. Panoras workhouse. D. Sptllan, UJ>. 
tranxlator of Andrei's ("■'■.■■..• viXfii,.^!^^ j„^ 
author of several eleiiK . leaving a 

widow and children In u ■ Moa, 

At Cape Breton, by tbu u,^.;...k»< » initt, E. B. 
Sutherland, esq. eldest son of ludward Sutherland, 
esq. Fort Major, and grandson of tlie lute Rev, 
James Coffin, Vicar of Liuktnhornu, l^ornti-all. 

At Leamington, a^cd Ho, Anne, relict of W. 
Watson, etq. of Alcastor. 

At East Uorllog, aged 75. Mr. Robert Weat, 
many years steward n>r the late Earl of Albe- 
marle. 

yiine il. At £xetcr, aged 83, Wm. Bosley, esq. 

At Galnford, aged 68, Elisabeth, wife of the 
Rev. W. Bowman, formerly principal of Galnford 
Academy. 

At Brighton, Sophia, dan. of the late P. Ding- 
wall, e.<iq. 

Aged 72, Susanna-Whitmora, third dan. of the 
late Joseph GUI, c«). and sister of Gamer GUI, esq, 
of Thetford. 

At Bumslde House, Morayshire, Miss Jean DttlT 
Grant, dau. of the late Duncan Grant, etq. tl 
Linguistone. 

At the Collegiate Sdiool, SheiBeld, aged S3, 
Adelolds-Wnhelinina-Sophia, wife of the &»y. 
WlUiam S. Qrlgnon. 

At Uie residence of his nephew Henry Hawoa 
Pox, eaq.ln Piul!i,aged60, WUUam Charles Jones, 
Lieut. K.N. of Ambolso, near Toora. He was the 
younger son of the late Rev. lUcliard Jonea, Rector 
of Charfleld, Glouc. He entered the Navy in 
IK06 as flrst-cJass volunteer in the Dragftn 74, 
Aud two years after become midshipman of tho 
Achillc 74. Uc was employed in a gunboat at tho 
siege of Cadiz, und afterwards bcIOUfied to Ibo 
Marlborough and lllustriuus 74's, the flagihliis of 
Sir Samuel Hood, hi Feb. llsia he was tnadeflnt 
Lieut, of tho Victor, but upon being paid off in 
Uie following September, lie obtainKl no furltaer 
employment. 

Aged 40, 0. B. Ust, esq. surg. of Southampton. 

In King-at. Covent-gardan, aged 49, Geonce 
WlUIam Lyon, oaq. of Exeter, only snrviving child 
of late Edm. Puaey Lyon, esq. of SUplake, Devm. 

Major James 1*. Naylor, formerly of the lit 
Dragoon Guards. 

In Eaton-terr. aged 10, Uie Bight Hon. Rachel- 
Kothariue Vjocountess Polllngton. She was the 
elder dau. of llaraUo present Earl of Orford, by 
Mary, eldest dau. of Wm. Auc. Fawkener, esq. 
She was married hi 1849 to Viscount PolUngton, 
son and heir apparent of the Earl of Mexborough, 
and has left Issue one sou, bom In 1841. 

Ai Brighton, aged id, Peter Treterant, esq. of 
Chesler-terr. Uegcnt't-park, lata of Chorlatton, 
South CaroUno. 

JUHfVi. Miss Addams, ofYork-pl. I'ortman-aq, 

A«ed 91 , WUUam Bircli, cj<|. of Wanstead, Eaaex, 
second son of the Rev. Iiirliord litrcli, late of Rox- 
well, and Rector of Doddlngburst. 

In Mlle-cnd-road. London, Henry Byron, esq. 
late of Scarborough. 

At Win wick. Lone, aged 86. Richard Cortwright, 
esq. late of Bloonubury-«|. 

At Maidstone, aged 84, Mrs. Harrison. 

At Canterbury, a^ 77. Mrs. Elisabeth lllg- 
gleden. 

At Wimbledon, aged 31 . the youngest sou of tlio 
late William Newby, c«|, of Wonnley House, 
Herb*, and Southampton-row. 

AI hii brother'!) at llcruc-liUl, Mr. WUUam Uea- 
lop Powell, of fialchelors, Edenbridgc. 

At Soothuwtun, aged 88, Mrs. Susan Salter. 

At Wast Brook House, near Harvale, Henrietta- 
Field, relict of II. P. Vallti, esq. of Northumlwr- 
liind Hou»e, Margate. Tliis lody for luany years 
corresponded with the Ketit Hpfold, and IhroUiih 
it* columns gave !■■ '■ .' ' -iiou'rous piece* of 
poetry, written wr ncc ; a voluna o( 

her poems was p: i poldished, and 

very spartBgly ctrpuiaicu, h lew years liacc. 

A I Hasting*, aged 46, Mist EUia Washington, 



I 



204 



Obituaiiy. 



[Aug. 




Ula o( Kiutbounui, oul/ turvlvlnsdta. of the Uta 
■lev. .tnhn Wmklaglon, M.A. of Wlnebwtn'. 

At NortluiUcnan, n«e<l 30, hue WUwa, ow|. 
■oUciior. 

Atrrfl 41, HannAlt, wifu of Arthur Wood, e«q. 
BUr((«tiii, of Ktrbyniijoriide. 

yww )3. At Calfit', Surnncl Ariloll, c^v 1ut«) of 
the Itcnfiiil N. Inf. clUoit wn of Uie UtQ M^Jur 
Arik'ti, of tllAt arn-lwi. 

On limirJ II. M.S. St. Qeorgc, Btltlc Hwt, Ueal. 
ThofiMatifMhaiti, r, N. ITo wil« tlio only ion of 
Tboniat OruhiiT! > ' : onlarod the 

U»T7 in 111.16, nil i-iloil in IMl, 

«nd hu MubMciii. , i I •>riiUdabl«H4, 

Vsmon M), and Moluiii|>iu u. 

At SnaJIwcll, ('smb. aged 83, Francw, wife of 
the Kcv. N. I'. Hill, lt«:tor of Uut iwriih. 

At lliwi'liln Hall, near Uverpnol, Id,t-Diiincli><, 
youijjri'^t tluu. of Vr. Slicridmi Miupnill. 

Al •i.illliiil'.lltli. :i,i"ni.. \\llll;illl l'aill,l!K], 

\ "'ypool. 

. '(OIM It4m- 
• • or. Ho hud 

W 

ii Tacl&or. 
li - . • ■ • • .1.1. T, rt. Wll- 

lluiii.viu, ll.L.l.C.b. autliur ut lliu " Wild Siorti of 
the 1-^uAt." he, only turn oftlie iutc 'I'. WliUaiiwcin, 
c«^. S<*o<ntU in Council at Ooiignl. 

Junr 34. [It Drouiptou-Mi. a^jtyl H4, Ann-Frftiic<«, 
el^lait aunririiiK d«M. of Itio inlo .Icrningliain 

CLiH.'Iiy, ....1. 

It, near tivorpotd, Aoed 7ft, 

. I. Mr. It. ir.vda, IWIticr uf 

'iiltrl.iKit. 

I HI, Ur. Cliarlcs Hlll>urn, 
ti. ,: Wll or tlio lute ll»v. Thu- 

II < llnxrcth, Khu. 

I MilM Uliny, wi. flUIII- 
hi' 

Al i.:.ii.ii.i, u„uii 11., I 'f Mr Samui-I 

MorrlJi, TorimTly of I. I iid rutiiriiod 

from I.cWc«U'r llto i-i. n^, wlicrc liu 

had tiCiMi nltondlntf thu (uiii^i'.il uf liU mother. 
Mm. Morrla, widiiw of Mr S. r. Morria, aiir- 
gton. 

At h|ii roaldcnco,Newin{;tou-)iliu.-c, KrtitilnRlon, 
not)ert Uogvn, u(|, of i.'nlun-i-tntrt, (lid Uroad-st. 

•OlIt'll.M . 



lU ..>;>t'iiig'liUI, ill), Loa- 
iii iHl4,and liu left a 



t'l.- 

Lou.t.t ' 
donilerr\ 
very nm,.. 

Jmuji. Al bi.iii:' llooM, nwr 

Soutlminpton, ;ij{rd f^Ci, '.-f^kftird, 

AKBd 74, the liov. ■ »ii, tor torty- 

•tnn ycon i«itor of the atij|i..,i cUi;(rci;allon at 
T«olg. 

Ased C7, Mr. V. CafDerl, nntlve of SI. Oiiior, 
In early ilia an offli-ox in Si.ult'n amiy, and 
woundnl in several of tlio encaueinentii of tlio 
raniiuula. On the return of N'niHilonn lio Joined 
the Imperial army, luid waa in cliartro of a rcaerve 
delacluiient on the roiul to Waterloo when that 
teiiioii^ l.,ittl.> \».-ti fixiulit. After tlilit, cITcctlnii 
h' ' ' ' lio iHicanio a teacher of hia 

'I' T inuny year4 obtained an 

hi. Ill dolnjf ao. SutiMiiucntty 

*' I ' iiiiitia aa a wino inerctiont, hia 

III t and aound Jndffwcnt in tho 

>r (or hlni the roapect of a large 

i*>ctli,onlydaQ. of thu Kor.Jauea 
1' \H. Minister of tho Kpiacopal 

Ji ' thnai'i^rerit. 

M'thur Kills, tnotchant, Wimbonio 

Jli, 

Al In. I relict 

of Mr. li V and 

ttakley .\I.. '. .ward, 

vaq. UraailMui ll.iU, ^aaSioU.. 




At PialalflW ilali, Kent, agod in, nioniaa >MI- 
Idnaon ICerfhuw, eatj. 

At Ciiltuii, aii«d »i, Uary, widow of WiUiam 
Maakell, e«<]. 

Anne, Mifo of A. T. Mattliewa, eaq. of (/neon'a- 
road, Itetfent'a-iiark, and formerly of Bracondole, 
Korwicii. 

At l/ruat Yarmoalh, Eliialictti, ilau. of the late 
Joacpli Miinkctt, oati. of Kuaton tlnii, and wi(» ot 
Wlillain Vetl<. c*l. 

M lircat Yiiruioutli, aged Oi, Thomu r»iae, 
eK|. li.N. 

EUialiFtti, wife of T.,1. I'sltigrew. eaq. l'.It.S. of 
SaTlllsrow. 

At Chea.vl IIoui^, llatitA. Kll'aticth-Lanxford, 
widow of Sir Wliiluni iluliry iCichardaon, Kfit. 
formerly SherllT of i^indon and Middiwiox, wiio 
dl(Mi In latH. She woa a dau. of the late Itoltcrt 
Hunt, oa<). 

At AlKinleeti-jiarli, IHiflihury, agod m, Wm. 
SteTCnv»n, ea<i. 

At Muchall Hall, Widrerlwiaptan, aged «7, 
Wiiiiaui i'liaelier, cai]. 

June'iO. Atfeil l-J, ucorice-Jaiiioa, only aon of 
George AidcrMin, e*j. of Vorit. 

Ott«t Treili.Ticii llichner, cmj. bnrrlNtGr-at-law. 
He waa cuiltyl (0 the Har at Uncaln'a-luu, May I, 
\H'i3, anil pracliHvi na an c<|uUy dtaftaiuan aful 
ronvnyanrer. 

At Truro, aged 77, lanbolla, widow «( Inward 
liudd.ev). 

M lixford. In till <iiiirM' uf II nulling race 
lunong Oie mum'. -Heiic, Mr. 

W'illloni fjirle. II iiegii. He 

waa iln-MiH-.i III'. In con- 

aeijii' ' plMCaaiOh of tlie 

lio., I 

At I :y noil of Uio late 

Itttuc I'Utll ' . "ttj. 

AtShrcn ,. Oi1I,e«|. 

■urtreon !■' 

Al- ..Ic.cMj.uMIer Uojeity'a 

Aii'i "t Nnlhaiilei lloaric, QMj. 

of » ( ' 

At cliialMui, o^c.l ;'.!, Siirali, relict of lliomaa 
llilia, o~|. 

Al liiiill'-i.;!, ^.lll^• 1, rii;\.iii. Mr». .t.ino Be- 

liC<'<-:> ' I'OlIU 

lliil:. 111. 

.\ 1 ling, 

. lieiirletta-CuUtc- 
I ■■"rris. 

At CliUaca, aged 71, Mjiry-.Vniie, relict uf tlie 
Itev. John Oualey, Chaiilain tii the Maginlrotca of 

Middleaex. 

At the reoidont I ' ' >rgo 

Iloiiuea, 0941. of 1 :i'Uii 

Ilnnt rearaon.e*'! I'.irt- 

iior in tile linn oi l;i ov\ ulo\t , I'cu -k'H, -ii'd Co. 

At Morirate, ac«i :<i, i;wnia-Murgaret-Morcy, 
accond duu. of the lutclolin I'ringle, cmj. 

At nnrlon-terroce, near \ui)n, aged (•«, Henry 
Tlioiniison, oa4|. 

Jutu l"!. At llrouipton, a4;ed 3a, Thunuul Kot- 
hin ! Iiitc of llrtatnl. 

I : ' K. (I. Itarnai'd, oaq. H.l'. of 

i.e.: ' K. 

A .1' Yeovil, a(i:od7'J,.lohnUaUen, 

t-Mi It. fur Sooioraot. 

ii 1 i4.'rt iliailiie, eaq. of Langlanda, 

Itcnfrewatdio. 

Agnl 76, Henry Hanaon Doanly, wq. of Shes- 
fleld, Eoaez. 

In Ilioinlieid-at. Wi •■ no Norlli, 

Bgcd3(i.Chariottc*Anni-. . <'.-land,aa4. 

In St Helen**, atred 111, ... iinld. 

Wiien iMIliing ut Kiikt„ii:, iicoi' £lie, tOUHIy 
Flic, Mjaaes lanticl iiud Mary i{u»ell. 

Junt 'tH. At lllnmnuhaJu, atfcd H4, Mary, rrlirt 
Of John fiufton, Eiq. Itrlifham, Cuuilierlaud, and 
moUier ol iter. Jolui Uultun, Hector of Warvhome, 
Kent. 

At Oogor Uoiinl, near Edlnhiirgb, Waa Dimloji, 



1834.] 



Obituahy. 



205 



^^^. 



eldnt ■nrvivingiiiia. of tbe Ute Junes Dunlop, 
M]. uf Giiinkirk. 

At Uh(li;ctowii.TuCoeH, uffcU 40, JiuaeJt EUUitt, 
Jan. liUid-ftuncyor, leavii^r a wUlow und Ave 
dtildrvn. 

At .Viawell 't(«ruvL<, llvrU, ogeil 25, Mary<Ann, 
thlnl dtku. of the laio Thonia.'* EUwiinU, mq. q( tbs 
CrvAccnt, Cluphou Cummuu. 

At St. U'onardVon-Se*. Kdwuril WUlUin-BuU, 
inbnt Mm of KdwArU BiuU Famluun, Cant. M.P. of 
*;•'■■■■--'■■■' M..M-". I-*'-. 

. .r<>ci>h Sclby, Miu of Joeefih 
I If lisle. 

... ^<>, Daniel Plnkncy HuwctI, 

cr. ot niiihco. 

r ['erth, ag^-d 17, .lolin, only M>n 

of i .'. Mkrth, esq. of Lodytbgrn, avar tior- 

wk-k. 

At Diu-tfurd, and .U, Mr. Charlei UodM>U^ 
v - - » -r the lute William IlodaoU, eaq. of 

S' :;t. 

: ittfvd 7H, Mr. Uwbi Kni^'ht. fbr- 

ui> t ,;, r. . ..vliAh, Alul futliur of ilr. ShuiucI 
KiiMiUi, uf lALttT, 'tutiwry. 

Accldi^nity tirowiifd by liiUui^' Into tlic (taay, At 
SoutLiHn; ' '< ■ '< M-<( CIi)Lrli» Luurd, ti Jesus 
CoUrjji , I ilv aoii v{ the Ilor. Kilwunl 

Liuird. ■ . \Vilt*. 

At Ij;....., :.,.^t| uol, very tudduiily, a^rcd 4d, 
Geor^i* ^la.rtm, eiwi. funuurly (if SandiUl ijruve, 
UCAT Doiinwitcr. 

VI 1;, ,1, ,.r '.' /-.I 7<i, Mnry, youn»(vst dau. uf tlu3 
I . <:n\. foniierly c»f TCktiuiuiid. 

1.,'cil 74, fliurU'S QuartU-y 
1 -. .., .... . ...it Surgroii iv. tbfr Army. 

At bvi brotlicr>Ui.Uw'» bouM! (Gcorifu Lawton, 
c*q. uf NuiithoriH:. near York), at lui odvamcd 

«r... Mf.. \n., r..'.>'lk01l. 

\, ttie Ht. lluu. Sarah dow. 

• - nil. Slu: Will* thii vuUHffeAt 

• L., .,,. Aiitbony Brubtuon, Bart, by 

Aiji I ' . : • i-iu. of fit. Hull. SirCajwl Mulyntux, 
l\uy :i .1 the ficcoiid wife ol Hfuij-ltoi^T- 
C 11 :r I lUtrun Tevubam iu l»'i8. aud wiu 

\v<: ■. ■ ■■M—, la iH4y. 

AC lliiy JliUit, itjUdt-nlwad, a^ed 66. 



Id ttuflolk-st. I'all >Ull. 



, Capt. Harry Altluun 
Caiiilierlt?;,^, (i4th KcKt. 

At Uri4{ht4m, Mory-Anu, wife of \l. E. lUrria, 
eaq- 

At Kalrford, Glouc. aged 79. WilUam Uiggoa, 
ctq. 

At Uampatead, aged 38, Siunuel Ueid, eaci. eldest 
aon of the Ute Tbm. Whitehead Reid. 
AT brichton, Ellxabetb, wlTo of John FuIUar 

ler, CM). 
At Dumlf V, u^d 23, Jutin, eldest ion of Jobii 
-..licltor. 
i;:cd 67, CharlCA Carui> WilNjn, c«q. 
\y > I ctie lute W. W. Coma Wtl.-H)n, c>»q. 

". .,....., .,.*U, \Ve«itmiirbuid. 

Attho ^ iiaraf^e, llflen-F.Ju-ttiin, wtfcof ttie iUiV- 
fobn Wordsworth, Vuur i>f iirtijhaift. 
Jund M. At 1 uitiiiduii, a^ed 7A, katliarinp 
irrance, widuw of tlte lUiv. !■'. T. ConujKo, Vtrnr 
Groat GU-n, Lclc. 

Jit Triotf, Aged 33, Mikry-.Vnne, viitv uf Mr. 
Lot'ktoii hiUlifull, tulkitur; tiwijuiyti, 
16, Uenrictta, tiie duuA. <if Mr. Ttiuiua^ Kltl- 
tOfTnnx- 
Al Gaiitun.ogcil 13. Emily, yuuiigwlUiiu. uf^ir 
Tbtia. l>icby Legard, Ilmt. 

' At iXuiLJAtL-r, af;(>d 34, UarborU'EHzabeth, wifo 
at K. <i. O'lfelUcy, cm|. and dau. of Jobii Ualtfuv, 
|. Duifleld. 



At 1 .: 

ftiu ; 

Al S 

Siwii.i. 
At i: 
^ At 1 ■ 
Tlolwrt*.... :-..» 
Of Kowuaatte. 



■■■■"y. o«cd 13, Fwiiiy, Ihinl diiii. 
i 11. It. tisl«m,Ucnirikl iVruiy. 
' , Geoif;tna. lUc wife uf Cai>t. 

iltj, Cliftnu, >Um Hem 111}: ton. 

.Ndiu-Mar} , wliiow of William 

..a. of tlu! lute K. B. AMii, ruj. 



At TwickoalUBn« Mffsd til. Henry Young, ead. 

Latrlp. At Cowea. Ule of Wight, ag«d G8, Wm 
Uaynord. 

At i'arifl, tbo widow of MarKlial Ner. 

At bcrliamp<^<re. tjvut. Henry Godfrey Sbu, 7lh 
Bengal K. I., second ftOii of the Uttc Willlau Sim, 
eui- of Xortb Kiid, llauijMftvad. MtddU-«ex. 

Juljf 1. At Maltdiiiporgina, wife of Lieut. -Gen. 
BalDoavb,C.M.t;.. K.H. 

A^ BO, Ouu-lulte, widuw of Jo«ph BcrcDs, 
owi. of Kcviiij^on, ,St. Mary's Cray, Kent, 

At Si#enhaiuhind, Uerkji, Mao'< rcllrt uf the 
Kev. John Uovtniun. Curate of Wukiot; and Lee* 
liirvr of Speen Chain-l, Newbury. 

Suddenly, at Darlfncton, ttKt»l 56, l-raniMA Jan. 
Craw. c*q.of IVworth Uoiuw.Ciatebliead, (ixvcntty 
of Park Houne, and uiauy years re«ldent at Uuufcb- 
ton-le-Skemc.) Mr. Crow was a eounty moii;!*- 
trate fur titc GutcAticud diviiion. lie wa* a 
partner nf the tlnn of Gray and Crow, propriutors 
of cxtcuidve cliemica] works at Gato»head ; a 
dinfctorof the Joint Slock bank in DarlloKlon, 
and one of liiu cliurL-hwardcat of thv pariah In 
whii.li bo re?Jded. 

At An^ty Irilb.Leicaffed 6<>, Saud. Kirby.oM. 

At Wardie, Edinburgh, Elizabeth, wife of W. 
I'ittairn KhomIcn. ewi. of Hottcrdain. 

At Ilur»t-]'><^n'<Jhit, SuMicx, a^ed 37, Harriot. 
Uic wiff of the Rev. Alfred M. l*Te»ton. of Cbc»- 
iiunt, UertH, and cidf st dim. uf Chiirle* Eley, c«Q. 
of Hove, Hriffhton. 

Atted M, Jacob Widler Sniitli, eBQ. U^., of 
Kh-klev, ni-ar Lowestort. 

At Videtta, Malta, a^cil 21*, Win. Goo. SuttOD, 
e«ri. of Ktlon Hall, co. of I>urbaru. 

At. Ilurt-M. BloomAbury-w|., u^^vd &4, JnlU, ro- 
lict of 3Iidiael Sweeny. o»<|. M.l>. Deputy InsiMs:.' 
Gen. of Anny lionititaLi. 

At rimllco, a(!:ed 71t, 'I'hnina* HoN-rt Iwynam, 
eaq. late uf Cr^>wil-Iilll. IUnt«. 

At Gla9i;ow, Kreemll Wm. VaodeikeJde, Q'ni, 
CoUeelor of H. M.* Custom* at that i>ort. 

July 3. At Uftoii, l>evon, ai^*<l 64, Mary 
Millet, wifu of Ktchai^ Bluet, cm}. 

In i'urk Villa^rc EoM, lU*KentV]*ark, a^ed 77, 
John Freu(.)i Burke, vmj. 

Aired r.*!, Siuiuel Buxton, ejwi- late of New-rTfMa. 

Al C<jlehe-<ter, aifod 70, Mariit. M'idow of t-feor^'Q 
Corwllln. f-»i|. K.I. Civil service. laM surrivint; 
j(si„^ ..i VI,.-. lu.,.. .■.,rv/-iii- .— intu of Layer 
Mil "f the Lito 

Cji iMfd-bridge. 

A;. ].....- ..i -,-' I.-. ■..- larrand, a 

member of tiiu aocicly ol IrirmlA. nnd for many 
years a resident in Clare, afterwards of Wulton- 
on-t»'"-V....- 

\ ;iv, aK«l 24. Gforge I'ocoeke Har- 

rl "f the late George UarrlMin, eMj. 

of i-.v,.. ., 

Aged 7b, Mr. Bedo Hobbs, Earl's Culue, father 
of W. FUlier Hobb-, e^. 

Cli&rlotie, wife of Horatio J. Monlefiore, esq. 
of Westbounie'IcrrnLi?, Uvde-park, dan. of the 
late Abraham Moni^iloie, e»(|. 

At Leioeatcr, uaiA (i3, &tr. John Tailby, late 
fttiiff M-rKeant of the LelecxiershLre Yemnaiiry 
Cavalry, and fonntTly AerKeunt of the 13th Koyol 
Loiu-ers. He ncrvcil hi ''-"" "- ')- ■■"-■Mtiuu to 
l-lu«hinft; in IHli, kt t; a; in 

|K15. at Vittorta, uud u the 

I'onlnvula. for which in- iv..i.,im .. . *•■ *^- 

warda at Waterloo in IhIa, and rcci 
medal. 

Juiy 3. At Haiiunrraullb, a«»l 74. :'.. . i n-j,„um 
liakcr, late suiwriutendeut uf thu M. .Ianic»'a 
division ot muiro]*otltuu jKillfr, und fonucrly 
ftcrKeaiit-iuiOor nt the CohUti-eain Guards. 

At rj>i»er llollowuy, u»:cd 7G, Geo. Waller, osii. 

At Froino, Jhalnd, ilau. of the Ute Thonuu 
Wo*lt'hou*r, ctq. of Stjiinowe, Norfolk. 

./uVy 4. At liarrotnite, nt>'^l 34, I'eter Oarkeft 
CMj. Milicitor, and mayor of ilurtleiKwl. 

At CUphniit-iOtninon, a{;ud K7, Mrn. KlilOheth 
Dyaoit, 



206 



Obituary. 



[Aug. 



At n»th, aged 7(1. Andrew Dn Moulin, Mq. 

AitiHl *'. Loul-n I >' - 'MMtiUu. of Tbomiu 

Hjtbkoy, vMi. in ' i 'Ct. 

At IliMliiii R< I ro, ngti 40. Eliza- 
beth, wlfo of M. v. : .^ > :. 1^^]. tecond d*u. of 

the Ute .lolui t'ullurtoii, toq. of IlirlWrgh-pirk. 

In Ocon[p-»I. lIanovcir-«q. Ctiarlolle-I'lneli, 
cMext ditu. of the Ute Thouiu lialkci, uq. of 
Upper timarenor-nt and Klthuu Lodice. 

At UUnrton, i«ed AT, fiitcUU, wUe of Uout. 
Wnvert, R.N. 

Jul) i. At KentUh Tovn, iged 7.t, Ttiomu 
Aaatlo, «9*q. of Bererlef , 

At (ionport, aged 60, Catlurloe-UranI*, fonrtti 
dau. of tite Kev. Canon Dlngbam, lucombent of 
Trinity Church. 

At St llcUer'a, lenex, aged 60, Henry Tbomai 
druaa, enq. late of Her IlAJeety'i Ordnance Uflkc, 
Tower of London. 

In Oeorge-it. Dcronport, aged 03, Major-Oen. 
John rolfEtue Jamei, H.K.I.O.S. He was a cadet 
of IMM, and waa formerly Ltent.-Coluncl of the 
4&lb Ma<Inii N. Inf. (laU). 

At Urcrnwieh, at the realdenc* Of h«r aoU'ln- 
law William Henry LadgroTC, eaq. aged M, Allc«, 
rellot of Jnhn Mammond, aaq. 

At llidc(uril. aged 31, Hiia Lang. 

Aged aii, Jamea Oaacolgne Lynde, of Foreat 
Lodge, Lnughton, Eaaex, eaq. Ibrmeny of On*t 
({nacD-at Weatminater, and many yearn Secretary 
of tha Cboliea Walerworka. 

At Leadi, aged M, Oeorge Place Roblnion, esq. 
of Waat Dtirtou, Wcn.iloydalo. 

Mf 6. At Ellowt Mall, .Scdgley, W. Oaldwla, . 
eaci. Iron-master, and the oldest county maglatrate ' 
In thai district. 

Aged 4 1 , Dr. Cooper, of Appleby, Leic. 

At SwalThast, Norfolk, aged ft7, HIaa Dalton. 

Age<l at, Edward Whitolock Homer, oaq. ol 
ScarlxirouKh. 

At Udlinora, Susaex, age<l 37, Kraderick Lang-' 
fonl,etq. 

At Wateringhury, Hary-Krancea, wllb of the 
Ber. Henry Stanns, Vicar. 

JMfl. At Malditona, aged 31, Thomas Hugh, 
eldest son of Thomaa Boorman, oaq. nf Kingston- 
Bpon-Thainea. 

At Deptford, aged 44, Tliomaa I>raka Flinch, 
oaq. of the Audit OtBce, brother to the Rer. U. 
Flinch, Rector of St. Paul's, Deptford. 

At hla cbamben in Vcralaui-baildings, Oray'a- 
Inn, aged 63, WlllUffl Ftaher, esq. 

At the Dttan of Liromore's, Newry, Irelanil, 
Anne, relict of T. Flood, ttq. and eldest <lau. of 
the late Rosa Moore, esq. of Csrllngftird. 

At Stoughlon CuCtagv, near l.«lceater, MIm 
Mary Hole. 

Ai Bayawii«r,a(ed AT, Thomaa Rowley, esq. 

In nolywell-atreet, Mlllbonk, aged TO suddenly, 
AJIiie, wlfc of J. B. Sale, esq. tho etninont mu- 
rioian and Vicar-Choral of Wesmlnster Abbey, 

In Bucklngham-at. Strand, age<l 94, Thoniat 
ataOOrd, esq. eldest son of the lata W. Slaffurd, 
esq. solicitor. 

In aiouceater-pl. aged SI, Andrew Trevor, (u<|. 
formerly surgeon 33d Regl. 

At Lewlsham, tha wifc of Lieut. Veluh, R.N. 

AI Chard, aged 71, EUuheth, relict of SauiucI 
Ware, eaq. Iu*d-liaaler of Chard Gnunmsr 
Bcbool. 

Julf i. At Mexk», where he was dnl Atlarlu! 
to the British LegatiOQ, In hla 30th year, Alei- 
andt-r Henry Hastings Berkeley, second aon of 
Oen "'- '■ ' Berkeley, K.C.B. 

.s i«ed eu, Hary-EUubeth, widow 

of A .11, eaq. of Focd-place, Eaaex. 

At V, uiuiiiit, Unaaex, Lucy, wIM of Theobald 
Bntlar, eaq. of KemMy. 

At Cromwell Hall, nnchler, aged 34, Henry, 
second son of Edward Rot»ert Butler, esq. 

At the ralilcnco of her uncle Jolm Morrla, esq. 
The Until, Warwick, Elliabetb-Julia, wife M Mr. 
H. Collier, ol Keoslugtoa. 

At Oateaiieed, aged «4, Mr. William Dongbu, 




poatmaster of U>al town, a memlier of tlie Town 
Council, and printer of the Gateshead Obaorar. 
He shot himself whilst suflTerlng under aberration 
of mind, brought on by an unfortunate rereree ta 
hla busineM. In consequence of a large aecwalon 
of railway printing within the hut twelve months 
he had incraasod his plant and appUancea, when, 
in April laAl, a lower tender deprived him of the 
contract, and lelt his nuchlnery Idle. 

At Southampton, aired 31 , Monsieur Duffay. 

In lUnnver-tcrr. Itc^'cnt's-iiark, Mary, wife of 
Henry Etrenon, of Llocoln'*-lnn, esq. 

M llloxliutQ, near llanbury, Mdjy, widow of 
Lieut. WiUlam llewett, K.N. 

At Aahby-de-la-Zouch, of apoplexy, aged 3j>, 
W. N. Ingle, eaq. surgeon. 

At Brighton, William Palmer Knight, eaq. of 
St. JohnVwood, London. 

At Bawtry, aged 68, the Hon. Frances Jane 
Monrkton, last sunrlvlng sister of the Ute and 
aunt to the present Viscount Galway. 

Aged AO, W. 8cotl, esq. for ST years nroftsaor of 
raatbemaUcs at the Royal Military ColLSandbamt, 

AtSnndridgo, Kent, aged ee, William Walker, 
eaq. of Gloncester-gnrdens, Hyde-park, fbr many 
yeara connected with Australia. 

Juif 9. At Venice, on Uls way from India, 
Adam Bell, esq. M.D. 

In Cavendish-sq. Harriet, youngest dan. of the 
late Thomas llardwick, ewi. of BeroenMt. and 
Hampton-court. 

At Oallington, aged TA, WlUlam Hender, eaq. 
surgeon. 

At Soutli Brent, aged 00, John lUngaton, esq. 

At Poole, aged A4, Miss Lucy Kendall. 

tlalTex Mencv, eaq. of Brighton, Lieut, of BJt. 
32nd Regt. 

At Clapham-lodge, Clapham-common, aged (6, 
John Wild, eaq. of St. MartloVlane. 

Mn 10. At Sandgate, Bophie-Catherlne, wifb 
of Oeocge Barber, esq. or Walton-on-Thames,and 
ytmngest dau. of Capt. Slson, of RalUford. 

At Belle Vnr, Masham, aged 74, George Cuitt, 
eaq. well-known Ut the world of art by his nume- 
rous etchings of " Old Buildings," " Abbejs in 
Yorkshire," fcc. His cjcellcnt tIcwj of the old 
buUdings In Chester are favourable specimena of 
his art. 

At Driilllngton Quay, aged SI, Jane-Ellnbetli, 
wife of Capt. H. H. F. Fisher, of Monkweamxmth. 

At Torrlngton, aged ill, Simon, second son of 
T. a. Lake, esq. 

In Cllflnn-pl. Sussei-sq. Hyde-park, the rerf- 
donce of her (alhcr Gen. M'Leod, aged 41, Hen* 
riotu- Peach, widow of Capt. Robert Bolleao Ptm- 
tterton, Bengal army. 

At Bradley. Mary, wife of the Her. H. Flow, 
Rector of Bradley, and Incumbent of Wield, Hanta. 

Agol 8a, Ladv Marianne l^tnrt, widow of Charlea 
Stnrt, esq. of CritchlU House, Dorset. She waa 
■later to the filth and sixth and aunt to the prceest 
Earl "f •-'-'■■ -' • ry, being tlie only daughter of 
Anil h Earl by his second wifto the 

Hon iL\ second daughter of Jacob 

llrst \.--.>ii.; i-uilkuatone. She wa.t married In 
I7»M, and left a widow in IftIS, luvlni; had Imue 
the present Henry Cluu'lcs Sturt, esq. who mar- 
ried in 1820 Lady Charlotte Penelope Brudeoeil, 
sister to the preaent Earl of Cardigan, and other 
ridldren. 

At Longfleet, Poole, aged 10, Mary-Murray, only 
dan. of the late A. Sutherland, eaq. 

At l.ymlngton, aged 76, WlUiam Towaey, esq. 
M.D. 

,/ufy II. At Taunton, aged 68, William Blnn- 
dell, esq. of Crosby Hall, co. Lane. 

At Dagnalla-nuii, Crtqrdou, Jane, wlh of Alex- 
ander Horace BurUtt, esq. 

Annie, wIfc of Dr. Sidney Ilanaon, of Cunon-st, 
MavFair. 

Mf It. Suddenly at Parts, aged 4A, Cashnlr 
Count Batthyany, the celebraled Buogailan. Ills 
estates, coollK^ted liy Austria, amuootrd to from 
I8,000,000f. to 'ia,aon.cHKif. He died ponr. 



I 



1654] 



Obituary. 



207 



Aeed K, Suniul, yoangttt wn of tka Ute Bar. 
JanwA Jociuon, of Ureenlumuierton. 

Aced Tl, Frances, tlu wlf> of waiUim Onuit 
Bom, an. of Dover. 

JuigH. At t:x«(cr,John Ferffniionnacon,eM2. 
late a surmuu on the Bengal Eiitati. 

Ai TeiKnmouth, aced 73, Jolui Cockram, oq. Of 
Higher SoiiuiicrUndi, Exeter. 

At Hncltley-ltouje, aged 83, Amelia t'harlott«, 
relict of Samuol Silver Taylor, eitq. u{ Hockley, 
IlaoU, and rormerly o< Sootliampton. 

yai/y 1.^. At rortawood, near Sonthaiupton, Uie 
residence of tier brother John Dyno, eaq. Lucy, 
relict of John Cooke, om]. barH«ttT-at-law. 

At Topahain, Capt. Samuel lfo«kln>, It.N. He 
entered the hervlce In 1^03, on board the Amazon 
3B, Capt. Wm. Parker, witli whoiti be lervBd for 
nearly wren yeant, cunuiiauded a boat at the 
cnttlng out of a brig from the batteries of Falma, 
aaelated at tlic capture of llarenf(0 80 and Belle 
Foule, and co-oiicr.ttcd with the patriotM on the 
coast of Galllcia. Ho woa made Lieut. In ISIO In 
ttie Rota 80, and van wounded when engaji^ug n 
BilTaleer oft UibanI In 1819. Having oSldatod 
Ibr IH montlu ui flag-Lientenant at (ilbraltar of 
the San Joan 74, be wasmadeCuinmander July 4, 
1814, bat was not afterwiu>l< employed. Re mar- 



ried In I8i0, Uary Anna, youngest Ian. of Com- 
mander Ftilllott, R.N. and bad iMua. 

At Bath, aged 64, Jolin MUes, esq. late of Wat- 
ford. 

At Bern bridge, I.W. aged>77, the Hon. Ang. John 
Ftands lfOT«tun, ^eat-uncle to tbe Larl of Dude, 

At Cowes, Kliia Helen, wife of Tliomas Williams, 
esq. eldest dan. of the late Uajor-Ocneral Hay, of 
Montblarie. 

Julf It. In OuUdfbrd-itrcet, aged 90. William 
George Jennings, esq. late of Bralshflcld House, 
HanLi. 

At Callington, agedsi, John Martin, esq. soli- 
citor, of that town, youngest son of the Ule Robert 
Martin, professor of music at Laonceston. He 
KU for many years clerk to tbe magistratas, 
ctimmlAsioueni of taxes, and to tlie trustees of tha 
tomiUkc roads. 

/«/)> 17. At Torquay, aged 71, Hr. Thomas 
Bustow, late of Totnes, where he was a surveyor 
of Ucr Majesty's Inland Revenue for tweuty-aix 
years. 

Julf 18. At Faton-tq. aged 31, Catherine, eldest 
dau. of Sir Kdmnnd Fiimcr. Dart. M.I'. 

AI liaiusgaic, aged (M, Capt. £dward Uodges, 
Foreign Consul. 



TABLE OP MORTALITY IN THE DISTRICTS OF LONDON, 
{From the Relurni iiitted by the Reghtrar- Genera I.) 





Deaths Uegiatered 


4 


W eek eading 
Satorday, 


Under 
15. 


15 to 
60. 


60 and 
upwards. 


Age not Total, 
apecified.' 


Malei. 


Pemalea. 


.ha 

"1 


June 24 . 
July 1 . 

„ 8 . 

,. 15 . 

,. 22 . 


566 
606 
521 
502 
497 


380 
457 
293 
333 
329 


207 
221 
170 
1G3 
171 


— 1153 
6 1290 

— 984 
12 1010 
11 1008 


563 
' 703 
516 
493 
509 


590 
587 
468 
517 
499 


1633 
1764 
1470 
1495 
1597 



AVERAGE PRICE OF CORN, Jplt 21. 



Wheat. 


Barley. 


Oata. 


Rye. 


Beans. 


Peas. 


«. d. 


». d. 


*. d. 


a. d. 


I. d. 


«. d. 


74 6 


3ii 10 


29 8 


il 1 


iU 10 


45 9 



PRICE OF HOPS, JD1.T 24. 

The accounts from the plantations coDtinue to be very onfavourable, and tbe duty 
ia now estimated at from 60,000/. to 70,000/. only. 



PRICE OP HAY AND STRAW AT SMITHFIELD, July 24. 

Hay, 3/. 0#. to 4/. 13».— Straw, II. 10«. to 2/. 0».— Clover, 41. 0*. to 5/. 12#. 

SMITHFIELD, July 24. To sink the Offal— per stone of 81bs, 



Beef ,..,......'.. ..3r. Orf. to 4t. 9d. 

Mutton.... 3«. 4(f. to 4«. lOd. 

VeJ 3#. 2ii. to 4«. lOd. 

Pork 3*. 0<t. to4«. Sd. 



Head of Cattle at Market, Jolt 24. 

Beasta 4,032 CalTes 580 

Sheep and Lambs 28,390 Pigs 310 



COAL MARKET, July 21. 

Walls Ends, &c. 18«. Od. to 2U. 3d. per ton. Other sorts, ISf. 6d. to 20<. Oif. 

TALLOW, per owt.— Town Tallow, 67». Orf. YeUow Russia, 68». Orf. 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

SEPTEMBER, 1854. 



CONTENTS. 

PAOE 
MIMOR CORRESPONDENCE.— The Preoepton of King Edward the Sixth— DliUncUre mean- 
ing of the terra Signet ?— " OecMio calra "—The Shrine of Saint Edmund —Mr. Steranaont 
Ivory t'Mltet— Uequests oftlie Poet Montgomery jlO 

Charles tbe Second in the Channel Islandi 211 

He Tailors measured by the Poets 218 

Early History of the Jews, derived excIusiTely from Heathen Writers {eameludtd) 226 

Tbe Novels of M. Alexandre Damas 230 

The Fathers of the Desert — Hilarion , 235 

The Byzantine and Greek Empires ,., 242 

Beoent Discoveries at Gloucester {loith on Etching) 248 

The Stanleys, Earls of Derby 250 

OorLady of Hal 258 

CORRESPONDEKCE OK STLVANUS URBAN.— Mr. John Lodge't MSS. and the Uber Mmie- 
nun ilibemis~Ba3-rellef of tlie Danco of Death at Dresden — The Inunacnlate Conception 
—The Harr>- the Fifth Club, or Tlio Uang— Epitaphs of John Chapman at Elmler Caatle. 
and of OeorKC Shipside at liedmarlcy, co. Worcester- The earliest Paper used in England 2CS 

MOTES OF THE MONTH.— Literary and SdentMr Pensions— Ilarlington House and the public 
acoommo<lation for Official and Scientitic purposes — Tiie National Gallery— National Gal- 
lery for Irvlaiid — The (iuild of Literature and Art — Ueqnests of W. Ford Stevenson, esq. to 
London Societiex, and of Mr. II. It. Hartley to the town of Southampton- MSS. of the Poet 
(;my— Sale of Mr. IMdcering's Books— The Beclier Collection of Coins— Relics of the 
Mutiny of the Ilnunty— Junior Cnitod Service Club— Portrait of Joseph Hume, esq., M.P. 
— IVofcssor M'Coy- Reli