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1, 

■ 

4 



7 i 4 3 . THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE, 

AND 

HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 

From JANUARY to JUNE 1830. 

VOLUME C. 

(BEING THE TWENTY-THIRD OF A NEW SERIES.) 
PART THE FIRST. 

PRODESSE \ DELECTARE. E IXURIBUS UNUM. 



By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 



Itmnsn : 

PRINTKD BY. J. B. NICHOLS AMD SON, 25, PAHLIAMEKT 



> SOLD BY JOHN HARRIS, 



LIST OF EMBELLISHMENTS. 



[1Tka$€ marked thus * are yigneiies printed with the letter-press ] 

PAGE 

View of the Huu&e at Paris, in front of ^vhicb Henri Quatre was a&sissinatetl. .. 9 

Plan of a Roman Villa at Pitney, co. Somerset 17 

Church and Tower of Dundry, cu. Somerset 105 

Paintinj^s on Panel from Tavistock Cliurch 1 13 

*Rf presentation of Capt. Clapperton's Funeral Ceremony ...» 132" 

^Specimens of African Tattooing 161 

Alms-Houses at Mitcham, Surrey 201 

Percy Monument at Beverley, co. York 209 

Remains of the Inn of the Prior of Lewes, Southwark 297 

Reprtsentations of ancient Seals and miscellaneous Antiquities ; viz. Seal of 
George Rygmayden, of Tho. Dene, Prior of Exeter ; one found at Winchester, 
Huddesden Hospital, and Framlingham Castle ; brass relic found at Minster 

Church, Thanet, t and an earthen vessel found in Ireland 305 

Lambeth Palace, as it appeared in the Autumn of 1829 393 

•Gate-house of Lsmbeih Palace 394*^ 

Gower*s Monument in St. Saviour's Church, Southwark 401 

«Stone Coffin in St. Martin's Church-yard, Salisbury 407 

^Painted Glass at St. Thomas's Church, Salisbury. 409 ^ 

Seal of Tavistock Abbey, Betsy Grimbald's Tower, and Sepulchral Vestiges pre- 
served at the Vicarage, Tavistock. 489 

Wanstead House, Essex 497 

St. John's Chapel, Walham Green, Fulham 577 

Holy Trinity Church, Broaipton, Middlesex i6 . 

^Norman Arches in the Chapter- house of Bristol Cathedral 609 ' 

f It has been suggested by a friend, that this is one of those clasps by which 
books were anciently fastened with a thong ; the ring at the end or the hole at the 
back might be placed on a pin fixed to one of the sides of the book, as required by 
the bulk or looseness of the contents. 



*-*•' 



The Binder will please to cancel pp. 531-532 of June JUaffazine. 



PREFACE. 



A task of greater difiicuity has seldom fallen upon the Conductors of 
a Periodical Publication than that which the Editors of the Gentleman's 
Magazine are now called upon to perform, by writing a Preface to the 
Hundredth Volume of their labours. 

On reaching a period in the history of that work, which has very few 
precedents in the annals of literature, it may be expected from its 
Editors that they should not merely present to their Patrons and 
Friends an account of the progress and general contents of the former 
volumes, and advert to the public and private principles by which all 
its Conductors have been actuated, but that they should speak of their 
present plans and resources. Were this, however, all which is in- 
cumbent upon them, they might hope to acquit themselves, if not with 
credit, at least without disgrace, for to tlie past tliey can allude with pride, 
and to the future with confidence ; but they are aware that it is their duty 
to state the honest exultation which they naturally feel at the long and un- 
interrupted success which has attended the Magazine, — to notice with 
delicacy the causes which have preserved it from the fate that has at- 
tended so many of its contemporaries, — to allude to the grounds upon 
which they build their hopes that it is destined to survive for another 
hundred years, — and, more than all, to express the deep gratitude with 
which they are impressed for the assistance of able contributors, and for 
the large share of patronage by which their exertions have been cheered 
and rewarded. In adverting to points of so personal a nature, egotism 
cannot be avoided ; but there are occasions when silence as well as 
speech may have its source in vanity, and if ever a modest allusion to 
literary sen-ices be justifiable, it is when gratitude dictates the assurance 
that every effort will be used to retain the patronage which those ser- 
vices have acquired. 

The able Preface to the <* General Index to the Gentleman's Magazine 
from 1787 to 1818,** contains so satisfactory a history of the work, that 
it is only necessary to refer to it for an account of its institution aqd 
progress, and for the names of the eminent writers who originally con- 
tributed to its pages. But it is desirable to notice briefly the valuable 



20644 



inforiDation upon the most interesting subjects which is scattered 
through the work, and which^ it may be said without vanity, because 
the fact has been universally admitted, render its numerous volumes a 
general repository of intelligence — a kind of inexhaustible store-house, 
as it were — of materials for History,- Antiquities, and Biography, even 
if Science and Art may not also be included. 

The collections for History may be divided into that which is con- 
temporaneous with the respective volumes, and that which relates to 
much earlier periods. For some time after the commencement of the 
Magazine, its character was more political than at present ; and the 
volumes were for many years remarkable for the Debates of both Houses 
of Parliament. To those Debated particular allusion is made, because 
the Gentleman's iVf agassine was the' first Journal that dar^ to risk the 
punishment of a breach of tlie privilege of Parliament, by reporting its 
proceedings; thus setting the sample of enabling Constituents to know 
how their Representatives speak and act. So important was the pre- 
cedent, that Newspapers soon imitated the plan ; and when more accu- 
rate reports were given by the daily press than the Ihrnts of the 
Magazine rendered |>ossible, the sjrstem was adopted of stating in a 
very abridged form the most material occurrences in Parliament ; but 
the honour of being the first person who incurred the danger of fearful 
penalties for printing the Debates, belongs to Cave, the original editor, 
and which is alone sufficient to entitle his memory to respect. 

From the appearance of the first nnmber of this Miscellany to the pre« 
sent time, scarcely a single memorable event, of any kind, domestic or 
foreign, has occurred of which a notice is not to be found ; and the value 
of such a general record, either for amusement or for higher purposes, is 
too obvious to be insisted upon. 

To History and Antiquities, and more especially to whatever is con^ 

nected with our own country, a large proportion of each volume has 

been dedicated. Upon various abstruse points in our annals, disserta^ 

tions and facts, more or less valuable, occur ; and those who are bo- 

quainted with the nature of historical materials can testify to the utility 

of collecting scattered memorials, many of which, from being local, 

might not have come to the knowledge of historians but for the 

publicity thus given to them. In plates and descriptions of Antiquities, 

by which is meant ancient buildings, carvings, iealt, rings, medals, and 

other remains of former ages, the Magazine is peculiarly rich, it being a 

common practice for the individuals by whom they were discovered, to 

transmit accurate drawings of the respective articles, most of which 

have been fully illustrated by other correspondents. The collection on 



nf 



i 



PREFACE. • y^ 

ihts sttbject may be safely pronoubeed unirivalled^ and ibmn dato'fbr> 
an important Tolume. On the subsidiariet, er as they are termed 
** handmaidst" of History, naniely» Arehkecfeiirer Heraldry, and Genea- 
logy, as well as in relation to the Arts, and Early Literature, much 
inforraattoB may be found ; and perhaps one of the* most interesting 
departments is that in which light is thrown on thedeseent of illustrious 
tiimtiies, where their rise, decline, and fall are traced, affording, in many 
instances, striking examples of the instability of human greatness. The 
Ltterary Antiquary has always found a source of amusement and instnic- 
tion in the nuiiierous papers on early writers, particularly Poets, the 
works of many of whom have been ehieidated in the most satis&ctory 
manner. 

It is for Biography, however, that the value of the Gentleman's Maga- 
aine is most remarkable. There is scarcely an eminent individual of this 
Country, about whom some information is not to be obtained ; and it 
may be said without iear of refutation, that there is^ not a literary person 
of the hist or present century, whose life could be properly written with* 
out reference to its volumes. Many of their earliest productions^ are con-' 
tained in them, and the poetical niches were oflen filled with the first, 
aspirations of a Muse, which afterwarda soared to the highest pinnacle 
of fame. Unfortunately the authors of many of the . beautiful pieces 
whieit occur in the first twenty volumes are not known, but the merit 
of the articles would justify their being collected and republished, leaving 
it to critics to assign them to the great names to which they unques»> 
tiomibly belong. The Obituary has long possessed the highest re- 
putation ; and the best evidence of its value is the copious manner 
in which the statements are transferred to other publications* rprom 
Politics the Magazine has gradually receded; but whenever political 
opinions are expressed, they indicate an undeviattng adherence to Churcl^ 
and State, a warm attachment to the Crown, Laws, Establishments, and 
Religion of our country, a distrust of theoretical experiments upon what 
the experience of ages has taught us to reverence, an abhorrence of the 
fanciful ravings of enthusiasts, religious or poHtical, and a desire to 
preserve unchanged those Institutions of our forefathers, under which 
England has acquired the highest renown among nations. 

To these remarks on the long series of past volumes, all whidi will be 
added is, that their contents are rendered available, and that the scattered 
information upon any one subject may be instantly collected, by means of 
the highly valuable Indexes, not only for each year, but which are di- 
gested into five separate volumes, ably classed, and arranged. With 
this assistance the Gentleman's Magazine forms in itself an Encyclopedia 



Yl * PREFACE. 

ofalmost Universal Knowledge ;— a Library of the most rational and de- 
lightful information, upon all which instructs or interests mankind; 
ranging from Science to Art,— from History to Poetry, — ^fr'om the Belles 
Lettres to Antiquities, — and presenting a fund of materials for Biogra- 
phy, which may be drawti upon without fear of exhaustion, and whichf 
from Its infinite vaf'iety, may be resorted to, either for the acquisition of 
wisdom, or to divert a tiresome hour, with the certainty of finding some- 
thing we did not know before. 

• To the various kinds of information, chiefly upon subjects of perma- 
nent interest, which distinguish the Gentleman's Magazine, and to the 
temperate spirit which has always actuated its Conductors, may be 
ascribed its having lived in security through the political and personal 
storms which have wrecked all its rivals, and so many other Journals. 
Works, which owe their existence to party spirit, or their interest to the 
bitterness of controversy, generally terminate with the motives that gave 
them birth ; but a periodical publication, which originated in the desire 
to perpetuate historical facts, to communicate information in which every 
literary roan is interested, to afford an arena for discussion on all questions 
excepting those of religion and politics, to record so much of passing 
events as posterity may desire to know, to prevent the merits of de- 
ceased personis dying with them ; and in which the drj'ness of historical 
or critical essays is relieved by Poetry and papers of a lighter and more 
popular kind, was likely to become, as it has, a permanent and valuable 
work. That personal feelings should occasionally have been brought into 
action in the animation of controversy was to be expected ; but on these 
occasions the'Editors have uniformly endeavoured to sooth rather than 
to exasperate ; and by firmly refusing to admit a word calculated to in- 
crease animosity, and pouring oil over the agitated waters, they have 
ofleh had the gratification of preserving friendships, and retaining valua- 
ble Contribtitors. 

'^ Of the future it is always wise to speak with diffidence. The Editors 
are not insensible to the lamentable change, which, within a few years, 
has taken place in the literary taste of their countrymen. They cannot be 
unconscious that the characteristics of the day are, a desire to peruse what 
amuses, without giving the reader the trouble to think ; an impatience to 
acquire knowledge without submitting to the necessary labour ; an eager- 
ness for novelty and excitement ; a contempt for historical details, which 
produces an unwillingness to read the annals of our Country in a more 
extended form than a volume of the size of Goldsmith's " History of Eng- 
land for Schools;'* abelief that language is almost intuitive ; that there is a 
fashionable, if not a roval road to knowledge ; and that Sc'ence, History, 



PREFACE. Ifli 

Art, as well as every thing else, may be profoundly acquired by reading 
one or two small volumes^ because they are written by persons of cele« 
briiy. That this erroneous taste cannot endure, notwithstanding the zeal 
with which it is catered for and cherished, is the hope of all who venerate 
genuine literature ; but its existence, even for a season, has an influence 
upon works which aim at encouraging more solid, and it may be said too, 
more creditable pursuits. In stating this, it is not to be supposed that 
the Editors are unaware of the r^/ improvements which have taken place 
in the last century, or of the rapid diffusion of a certain portion of kaon^- 
ledge among the lower orders, the efft^ct of which remains to be seen. 
But they have alluded to the attraction which is possessed by idle and 
vapid, if not dangerous novels, and. scandalous notices of persons of 
rank, either under the disguise of fiction, or as memoirs, in which pri- 
vate confidence is shamefully betrayed, in explanation of the difficulty 
of rendering their future numbers popular, without a total abandonment 
of the objects of the work. 

That such a change is out of the question need scarcely be said ; and 
the Editors flatter themselves that their resolution to persevere in the 
same course, without regarding the corrupt taste of the day, and to 
endeavour to render the subsequent volumes as useful to posterity as die 
previous ones are to the present age, will be supported by the long list of 
Subscribers and able Contributors, to whom they thus publicly, and with 
tlie warmest gratitude, tender their respectful thanks. ' 

The most strenuous efforts will be used to increase the Historical value 4- 
of the Magazine ; and as its columns afford the opportunity of commu- 
nicating discoveries, or making inquiries, to every classical scholar, every 
investigator of English History and Antiquities, every student of Lite^ 
rature, and, indeed, to every one who is able and willing to contribute to 
the amusement and instruction of his fellow men, it may be confidently 
hoped that the high reputation of a work which has been enriched by 
the lucubrations of Johnson, and by those of most of the eminent lite- 
rary persons who flourished in the last hundred years, will be preserved, 
even if it be not increased. 

To the interests of the Clergy particular attention has always been . 
paid ; and, as notices of peculiar value to that respectable and numerous 
body, are to be found in each number, the continuance of their support 
may be rationally expected. 

The Centenary of the Gentleman's Magazine appears in a new era 
of British History. It has been the melancholy duty of the Editors to 
record in its pages the death of George the Fourth, perhaps the most 
accomplished Monarch that ever sat on the Throne of these Realms, 



Vlli PRfiFACE. 

under whole sway the Empire acquired the most brilliant glory in war> 
and experienced perfect tranquillity and happiness in peace. But in com- 
mon with the rest of their countrymen they are cheered in their afflic- 
tion by the accession of a Sovereign who possesses to the fullest extent 
English feeling^j English taste, and Engh'sh habits, qualities dear to 
evei;y English heart. Throwing aside the pomp, and dismissing the 
^uardsy with which custom has long surrounded the royal person, 
William the Fourth trusts himself among his people ; and sensible 
that EogUshmen love their Monarch, not as a secluded deity, but as a 
man to whom they can personally offer the homage of their loyalty and 
attachment, His Majesty gratifies their feelings and his own by fre- 
quently offering himself to their gaze, appearing by this conduct, as 
well as by every other act since the Crown devolved upon him, to 
place his happiness in the applause of his subjects. 

Reposing the greatest confidence in his Ministers, and treading 
in the footsteps of his Predecessor, his Majesty justifies our reliance 
upon bis wisdom, firmness, and, above all, upon his desire to do every 
thing to merit the love of his people. The political atmosphere is con- 
jsequently free from clouds to excite alarm ; and the reign of William 
the Fourth is likely to rival his revered Father's in popularity, and 
to be no less distinguished than that of his illustrious Brother. 

The Editors flatter themselves that the venerable age which die 
Gentleman's Magazine has attained will be considered evidence of 
its worthy and secure the respect wluch it has hitherto enjoyed ; that, 
^dded to the wisdom and prudence which are ascribed to an honourable 
senility, the subsequent volumes will exhibit all the vigour of an intellect 
junimpaired by time,.aAd fully capable of directing the resources at its 
.disposal ; and they close this Pre^e, by pledging themselves that no 
labour shall be considered too great to deserve, and that no reward will 
be deemed so gratifying as to retain, the approbation and support of 
their numerous Subscribers and Contributors. 



Bccsrd.-Ut. Oik 



Bofliih GhniBleLB 
"«iirlpr d« Londrv* 



CiDMd|e-Cailii]r« 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



LMdso Owtti 





























































Bliton (TrlTho) 



J.ler.Ci>rin>»ll 

ConnlnS Cum bail. 
Dubf«-D«cui 
Dtvonpof I^Dev lic< 



JANUARY, 1830. 

[PUBLISHED FEBRUARY 1,' 1830.] 



Cristniil 4Iamniuniratianj<. 

CORRESPONDENCI S 

On the Dnmitlc WriMn who preceded SUk- 

ipeoinlJT of Cbriit. Miilawe ..3 

,be Mediol ProfeuioD 7 

AnacdoKi of Mr. Guiick lod Mr. Puke B 

of Henry IV. of Frwice 9 

Mr. Uphim'i Reply Eu Mr. Oodftey Hlggiiu 

on ihe chancter of MuluiniDied 10 

jOo Tnrkiih Ldberalitj It 

;De.th of Burckhtrctt 13 

Od the RemuviU of Burial Ornuuds 14 

in Churchei rondemned 16 

On Repura of Heihim Chnrcfa . . . ._ it, 

aod Prof;re» of Stage Coach Travelling IS 
Ptery of BriLiih Officen Dear Biyonne . . 29 
D. WilaOD'l Rep^y 



EiTora 



Lr W, S 



" PruYincial A 



Progreii aud DeEliae of Witchcraft, Ni 
Btyoiology of Midwife, Man Midwife, &c.. 
Auecdolei of the Rtr, Thos. Hatch 

if Che Piiorj u Sudwich ! 

D in Beau inarii Church 

Portbiiry,Tiekei>hani,uidPoreiiheiu9Clmrch( 

HrtifW of ^»w l^ublj cation^. 

'i Eiemplsn of Tudor Architecture . 
H"orhj'i Voc»bula7 of Ea»C Anglla 

EmbeUiibed oith a Vie- of the Houie I 



IV. ii 



Sir W. Scott's Hiator; of Scutliod . 

Hiitoiy of Maritime Diieovery 

Mcinlgomery's Satan, a Poem 

Flaninsn-i Lectures on Scufptun: . . . . 



Williams's GeugiBi 
Rbin.l'i Studies of 
Tales of F,,ur Nat 
Foreign Review, No. IX. . 



; of Louis XVIH.. 



Misc 



isRevie 



. 66,. 



FiKE Al 

LiTEDiiii; InTeLLiGCHCE,— New PublicatioDi 6: 

Royal Society.— Cliecolee Indiana, 1^ fit 

AnTiguiRiiN ReseiIRCHEs ei 

Select Pobtrv 68 

l@i^taricai CticanictE. 

Foreign Newi, 70.— Domestic Occur 



-Man 
1 Memoirs 



..76 



of the Earl of 
Kellia: Viic. Knrbertnu; Geo. I^ArdCha*. 
Fitir.>y; Hun. John Coventry; Ret. Sir 
P. G. Egerton, Barti Sir Rich. Beding. 
feld, Bart.; Sir J. H. Wiltianis, Bart. 
Sir R. B. de Ca[«ll Brooke, Bart. ; Sir 

Wm. Fowie Miildleton, Bart. &c. &c 7 

Bill of MurtBlity.~~Market9, 91 SbBrei..9 

Mecearological Diary. — Prices uf Slocki .,,9 



By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 

uested to be sent, I'osT-PiiD. 



L « ] 

I ■■ . . . „ 

MINOR CORRESPON^DENCE. 



Viator observes, *< In a mflinuscript at 
Oxford, written hy an acquaintauce of Mr. 
Hampden, Treasurer of the Navy, (grandson 
of the patriot, and who was living within 
forty years of his ancestor,) it is stated, tliat 
John Hampden died of a mortification from 
the wound received at Chalgrave Field. 
Comparing this with a statement in vour 
Magazine, and witii a report that a prmci- 
pal person present at the examination does 
not believe the body dug up at Hampden to 
have been that of the patriot, I cannot but 
enteitain a wish that one or other of the 
parties present on the occasion alluded to 
would candidly acknowledge the error into 
which the narrative ko widely circulated hat 
a tendency to lead the public and posterity. 
The body found, so remarkably perfect as is 
described, could not have been that of a per- 
son dying as has been related." 

An old SubscKiDER says, ** In the new 
edition of the very neat ' Annual Peerage,' 
the Bishop of Sodor and Mann is stated 
to be ' not a Peer of Parliament,' seem- 
ing to imply that he, like the Scotch and 
Irish Peers, though not holding a seat in 
Pailiament, is yet a Peer. This, however, 
is not the case. The Scotch and Irish Peers 
may, at any moment, be called by election 
to a seat in the House of Lords ; but the 
Bishop of Sodor and Mann could, in no 
casualty, be so called. In fact, our Bishops 
sit in Parliament not as Bishops merely, but 
as Barons by tenure of their lands. The 
colonial Bishops are, very properly, Dot 
styled Lord Bishops hy the editor." 

J. S. B. remarks, *' It is well known that, 
previously to the Marriage Act in 1754, 
marriages were solemnized at private Chapels 
and elsewhere ; that there was a Chapel in 
WeU^walk, unother atKoightsbridge, a third 
in Duke-street, Westminster, &c. &c. where 
marriages were perforined; and he is de- 
sirous of learning where the Rasters of 
these Marriages are now to be found. That 
of Duke-street is known to be in private 
hands, and so perhaps are many others ; hut 
as they no doubt contain entries of Mar- 
riages and Baptisms, the proof of which 
ma^r be frequently required, it is requested 
that those of your readers, who can give in- 
telligence of any of them, will have the 
goodness to do so." 

Mr. T. J. Brockett writes, «' I am per- 
fectly satisfied with Mr. Broughton's expla- 
nation (p. 488). I ncfjrtunately still reuin 
my original opinion as to the use of the 
word fool ; hut whether 1 am correct or not 
roust be left to the determination of others. 
In conipilln^ a Local Glossary, it is very 
difficult to decide on the insertion or omiMioii 
of the different provincial words that present 



themselves. The plan suggested by Mr- 
Broughton, even if practicable, would not, 
I fear, remove the perplexity. I hail wich 
pleasure the prospect which is held out to 
us of a Staffordshire Glossary." 

Mr. Carpcntbr, in reference to our re- 
view of his '* Scripture Difficulties," (De- 
cember, p. 5S2y) replies, ** I should have 
thought it impossible for any person to fall 
in attributing the remarks on 1 Cor. vi. to 
their real author, eonsidering the mode in 
which I have introduced them : * The ob' 
scurity of this passage has given birth to 
numerous conjectures as to the meaning of 
the apostle, which are thus ably summed 
up by Mr. Bloomfield.' Then follows Mr. 
Bloomiield*s note, at the close of which it 
a direct reference to Bloomfield in loco." 

A CoRRESPONDiNT inquires for "parti- 
culars relative to Captaiu Pretty, who it 
thus mentioned in Clarendon's Memoirit 
vol. II. pt. 1, p. 6, viz. 'eight full troops 
of hor^e under the command of Captsun 
Pretty.' He is probably the same person 
who is mentioned in the critical review of 
the Sute Trials as Colonel Pretty at the 
Castle of Dublin in 16*4.9. See Trial of the 
Regicides. There is a pedigree in the He- 
ralds'-office of a &iuily of the name, seated 
for many generntitms at Medborne (query in 
what county ?) the chief branch of which 
terminates in an heiress, who married into 
the family of Porter." 

C. S. B. savs, ** About the period of the 
expulsion of the Jesuits from France (1764), 
there were books publicly burnt at Paris, the 
productions of Hassambaum, Saurez, and 
Molina. The object of this inquiry ia to 
ascertoin the exact date of this transaction^ 
as it would probably throw light on the 
much delated question of *■ who was the au- 
thor of Junius.' 

Our Corres{>oudent in Dec. p. 4.99, who ia 
anxious for some information respecting the 
square piece worn on ti.e chest by the war- 
riors in the Bayeux Tapestry, is referred to 
vol. I. of Dr. Meyrick's Critical Inquiry, 
where he will find what he seeks. 

If our Correspondent the Tourist, who 
writes from Bath, has more in reserve for 
us, we shall be glad to receive it> in ordrr to 
give a longer portion at a time. 

We beg to acknowledge the receipt of a 
communication from Candipus, for which we 
are obliged. We think» however, that we 
mav not have the opportunity afforded us, of 
adopting his suggestions. 

U. R. D. is iuformed, that the MS. firom 
which he has found the quotation is the same 
as was printed in the 90th volume of Ar- 
cbiBC^gta, and is now well knewa to aati- 
qntries. 



THE 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



JANUARY, 1830. 

ORZOZNAXi COMMUNICATIONS. 



or THE DRAMATIC WRITERS WHO PRECEDED SHAKSPEARE, AND 
BtPBClALLY or CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE. 



Mi-T Siaffordsfure Moor- 

* lands, Jan. g. 

FEW periods of theatric history are 
more JDlereflting, few present 
piore copious materials for amusing 
narrative, yd none have been less 
carefully. enquired into, than that com- 
prised between the commencement of 
Khiabeth's reign and the appearance 
of Shakfpeare on the scene — the in- 
terval between the 6rst faint dawning 
of oar dramatic day and its arrival at 
neridian splendour. Incidental aJlu- 
^ioos to the principal individuals who 
thca wrote for the theatre are scattered 
llhrough various works ; but a collec- 
tion of those noiicei, %vith a disserta- 
tion upon the character of their writ- 
ings, continues to be a desideratum. 
J I has indeed been idly enough assert- 
<ed by many authors, and implicitly 
•believed by their readers, that till 
^hakspeare shed the lustre of his 
genius upon the stage, it was in a slate 
of inter barbarism ; that it possessed 
no compositions worthy a moment's 
Attention; and that he not only ele- 
vated our drama to an unequalled 
pilch of excellence, but was actually 
Its founder, its inventor, or, to use 
their favourite expression, "its crea- 
tor.*' Nothing, however, can be fur- 
ther from the truth. When Shak- 
apeare first arrived in London, a 
friendless unknown lad, the occupa- 
tion of writing for the stage was en- 
.groiaed, not by tasteless, obscure scrib- 
blert, but by men of wit and fancy, 
isost of whom had received the ad- 
vantage of a college education, and 
who, by the composition of plays 
adapted to the popular taste, had made 
the amusement of the theatre so at- 
tractive as to render their craft a most 
lucrative employment. Instead of de- 
rooting from Shakspeare's due cele- 
bnij, it appears to me that few things 



tend more sirikinj^ly to enhnnce it 
than the circumstance that by the 
magic of his unaided talents he outdid 
the achievements of this formidable 
phalanx, mastered them at their own 
weapons, and tore from their browi 
the wreath of popularity which they 
wore so proudly. •* Alone he did it !" 
and in the course of this article will be 
shewn with what bitterness of feeling 
thev regarded his triumph. 

The year 138U may jireiiy safely be 
fixed uj>on as the period when English 
dramatic poetry began to assume a 
settled form, and to be composed in 
some decree according to definite rules; 
for previous to this time litile had ap- 
peared upon the stage but tedious 
puerilities or low buffooneries, put 
together in a style of congenial rude- 
ness, — "wild without rule or art." In 
the interval, however, which elapsed 
before Shakspeare commenced writing, 
numerous plays were produced by 
Peele, Nash, Lod^je, 6rcene, and 
Marlowe, which, inferior as they may 
be to Shakspeare *s, (and what dra- 
mas are not so?) belong to precisely 
the same school, and completely nul- 
lify the assertion that he wns the ori- 
ginator of what is staled our Romantic 
Drama. A. collection of these rare 
pieces would be an invaluable addi- 
tion to our literature; while q narra- 
tive of what is known respecting their 
witty but profligate authors, their 
quarrels with their contempor.iries, 
their 'shifts and expedients to maintain 
a precarious existence, their dissolute 
lives, and for the chief pan miserable 
ends, would form a most amusing and 
instructive composition. The works of 
two of them, Pecle and Marlowe, have 
recently been reprinted ; the former I 
have not seen, and can therefore offer 
no opinion upon the manner in which 
the task has been executed ; but of 



Lift and H'rit'ingi of Chrittopher Marhwe. 



[Jan. 



the works of Marlowe I must say 
that, though the editor is entitled to 
infinite praise for thus placing within 
the reaeh of every one what was pre- 
viously accessible to but few, he has 
slurred over with a provoking degree 
of carelessness and brevity that part of 
his duly which required from him 
some account of his author, and the 
state of the theatre in his time. This 
omission it is the object of the present 
paper in some measure to supply. The 
facts it details were collected long be- 
fore the appearance of the edition in 
question, with the view to a similar 
performance, and may perchance be 
found useful, should a reprint be called 
for, or such a collection as 1 have sug- 
gested above be ever undertaken. A 
mere outline of them was printed 
some eight or ten years since, in a 
work relating to the stage ; but, as it 
was of very limited circulation, and 
has long been defunct, I look upon 
them, as Coleridge says, to be "as good 
as manuscript." 

The plays and poems of Marlowe 
cannot fail to excite, in the mind of 
every intelligent reader, a high opinion 
of his genius ; but the curiosity which 
will naturally be felt regaraing the 
events of his life must solace itself 
with very slender materials. Beyond 
the bare fact of his existence, little has 
descended to us, and even that little 
will scarcely abide the test of a close 
enquiry into its truth. Of him, as of 
the poet's ship, may almost be said 

** The sole memorial of his lot 
Is this — he was, and he is not." 

The current talc respecting him, 
which the compiler of every biosra- 

Cical dictionary and cyclopedia nas 
en content to copy from his imme- 
diate predecessor with confiding care- 
lessness, is this :— that he was born 
abo\U 1568 ; was entered of Bene*t 
CoQ. Cambridge, where he took the 
degrees of B.A..i58d, and M.A. 1587 ; 
that on quitting the University he 
repaired to London, became a cele- 
brated actor and dramatist, ran a disso- 
lute ^reer, published some blasphe- 
mous works oppugning the doctrine of 
the Trinity, and lost his life at last *< in 
a lewd quarrel," either with Ben Jon- 
son or*'a baudie scrvins^man,** about 
a harlot ; but the reader, who has 
doubtless often seen this libel confi- 
dently detailed in the *' Biographia 
Diaroatica," and books of that stamp. 



will be surprised to learn that eveiy 
circumstance here related of Marlowe, 
is, to say the least, uncertain, save that 
of his bein^ a popular writer, and 
being slain in a broil, which, how- 
ever, was neither with Ben Jonsoiit 
nor about a wench. 

In the first place, the date of his 
birth is entirely matter of conjecture. 
Malone * hazarded an opinion that it 
was 1565 ; £llis(" Specimens'*) takins 
for a guide the period at which he is 
thought to have entered the Univer- 
sity, supposes that he must then have 
been about eighteen years of age», 
which may be probable enough, bat 
still is merely surmise; while Oldys 
(MS. Notes on Langbaine) asserts 
that he was born in the early part of 
the reign of Edw. VI., a supposition 
neither plausible nor probable. Iii 
fact, of Marlowe*s age and origin no- 
thing can be told with certainty. Not 
even conjecture has busied itself with 
the latter, and I confess myself unable- 
to throw any light upon the subject, 
unless indeed a passage in Wood's 
*' Athenae*' may be considered as af- 
fording some clue towards a solution 
of the mystery. At p. 2l6, fol. 1721, 
I find mention made of one " John 
Marlowe, of Merlon College, Oxford, 
afterwards Treasurer of the Cathedral 
Church of Wells, and Canon of the 
King's Chapel of St. Stephen's, within 
the ralace at Westminster, who died 
in the beginnine of October, 15*3."* 
The name of Marlowe is but of rare 
occurrence, and it is therefore no very 
extravagant surmise that this might be 
the poet's grandfather. 

Tnat Marlowe was ever a member 
of Bene*t Coll., though it has been so 
positively asserted, is also very ques- 
tionable. With whom the circum- 
stantial detail of his progress at the 
University originated I nave never 
been able precisely to trace, but I 
suspect there is no earlier authority 
for it than the MS. notes of Old vs. 
Baker, the original compiler of the 
*< Biographia Dramatica, borrowing 
his account of Marlowe from Ant. 
Wood, merely says •* it is well-known 
that he was entered as a student at 
the University.'* In the next edition 
of the work, by Isaac Reed, the above 
dates are added, but without any hint 
of the source whence he derived the 

• MS. note^ on Marlowe's PUys 'm the 
Bodleian. 



isao.] 



Li/e tmd WriiingB of Chrittopher Marlowe. 



inforoiation. The lUtement, howerer, 
it pal forih with to auihoriutive an 
air, and from iu very minuteness bears 
so plausible an appearance, that it has 
passed from writer to wtiter, unexa- 
mined and undoubted : so prone afe 
men to place credit in bold assertions, 
without troubling themselves to inves- 
tigate their correctness. Yet, as I 
have already remarked, it is extremely 
questionable whether Marlowe was 
ever a member of Bene*t. At my 
request, the College records were very 
carefully searched in (he year 1821, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the 
truth of the matter, but the name of 
Marlowe did not occur ai any period. 
The lists, however, previous to 159O 
are in a very confused state, and the 
entry may have been overlooked. In- 
deecf, I am inclined to believe that, 
though not a member of Bene*t, he 
still did at one time belong to the 
University ; for, though no positive 
evidence of the circumstance may 
exist, yet the eeneral idea that such 
was the case should have its weight 
with a writer in forming his conclu- 
sions upon the subject, since it could 
scarcely have become so common 
without having tome foundation in 
truth. Moreover, every page of his 
works bears testimony to bin having 
received a liberal education, and hav- 
ing been deeply imbued with classical 
knowledge. In truth,so o^ttentatiously 
is this displayed, that he is doubtless 
one of the dramatists satirized in *' the 
Returne from Pernassus,*' where " the 
University writers'' are ridiculed for 
" smelling of that fellow Ovid and 
that fellow Metamorphoses." But the 
most direct and satisfactory testimony 
upon the point is afforded by Wooci, 
who, though he mentions no parti- 
cular college, espressly says that he 
was " sometime a student in Cam- 
bridge ;*' and in another place, enu- 
merating the jokes levelled there by 
Nash and others a«i;ainst Richard Her- 
Tey, Lecturer on Philosophy, and bro- 
ther to the antagonist of Robert 
Greene, he tells us that ** Kit Mar- 
lowe said he was an asse, and good for 
nothing bat to preach of the Iron 
Age." Thii I think affords decisive 
proof ihai Marlowe was a memtier of 
the University, where his intimacy 
with Greene and Nash probably com- 
menced. The puritanic Beard also, 
who was his contemporary, says he 
was of Cambridge. 



The date at which Marlowe began 
to write for the stage I imagine to 
have been about 1588, when was per- 
formed the tragedy of " Tamburlaine 
the Great," to which, however, hit 
title has recently been questioned. 
Nothing at least has transpired to shew 
that he commenced the trade of au- 
thorship at an earlier period ; nor does 
any proof whatever exist of his hav- 
ing been an actor, though his biogra- 
phers, drawing their inferences from 
the probability of the thing, have uni- 
versally pronounced that it actually was 
the case ; and Warton even declares, 
that " he was often applauded i>y 
Queen Elizabeth and King James the 
First, as a Judicious player." With 
respect to Elisabeth, this assertion, for 
which no authority is quoted, is pro- 
bably akin to the blunder which long 
confounded his tragedy of " Dido'* 
with the Latin piece of that name, 
acted before her at Cambridge ; and 
as to James, it may be sufficient to 
remark that he never was in England • 
till l()03, ten years after Marlowe's 
death ; so that his applause, if expressed 
at all, must have been bestowed some- 
what at hazard; unless, indeed, Chris- 
topher undertook a journey to Edin- 
burgh purposely to convince the Scot- 
tish monarch of his histrionic abilities. 
Tis true that Guthrie, in his " His- 
tory of Scotland," says that James, 
to prove how thoroughly he was eman- 
cipated from the tutelage of his clergy, 
desired Queen Elizabeth, in the year 
I.S99, to send him a company of Eng- 
lish comedians ; which she did, and 
he gave them a license .to act in his 
capital and in his court ; but as Mar- 
lowe had then been six years in hit 
grave, it is clear that he was not one of 
the parly. 

This erroneous supposition, that Mar- 
lowe was an actor, arose, I believe, 
from an equivocal expression made ute 
of by Greene in his " Groat's- worth 
of Wit,*' where he stlyes him a "fam- 
ous gracer of tragedians 1" but at this 
period the words tragedian and come- 
dian, which now seUlom signify any- 
thing but acior, were commonly pi;it 
for dramatist f and, in fact, a centunr 
after, they were still used in that sense. 
Tiius Ant. Wood styles Gager •' the 
best comedian of his time;'* yet he 
will scarcely be understood to say that 
Gagcr, Chancellor of the Diocese of 
Ely, was a player. Greene's words, 
in truth, let the epithet be received in 



Ufa mi WritmgM ofCkrittopher Marlowe. 



[Jan. 



whichever sense it nia^, simply, sigoify 
either that Marlowe did honour to the 
profession of a dramatist by the plays 
he was author of, or to that of the ao 
tors by the excellent parts he " graced" 
them with. A curious extract from 
Greene's book» in which the above 
})as9age occurs, I intend to print in a 
subsequent part of this article^ when 
it will be seen that it tends decisively 
le prove, by the terms in which itspeaks 
of the players, and the distinction it 
draws between them and his quondam 
associates, that Marlowe was not one 
of the fraternity. To this may be 
added the circumstance, that Hey wood, 
who must have been well acquainted 
with his history, and in the prologue 
to the '* Jew of Malta,*' styles him 
'* the best of poets," gives no bint 
whatever of his having been an actor, 
00 that the idea may be considered as 
altogether erroneous. 

That Marlowe came to a disastrous 
and untimely end, is, I regret to say, 
put beyond a doubt. The exact time 
and place of this occurrence, with the 
name of the person who slew him, had 
escaped the curious research of all 
preceding inquirers, and for the bint 
which helped me to these pieces of 
information I was indebted to a pu- 
ritanical work by W. Vaughan, called 
" The Golden Grove Moralized," 
1600, ISmo. which, enumerating the 
judgments that have overtaken blas- 
phemers and atheists, has this descrip- 
tion of poor Marlowe's catastrophe : 

*' Not infcriour to these was one Cbrii- 
topher Marlowe, by profession splay-maker, 
who, as it is reportM^ about 7 yeeres «^goe, 
wrote a buoke against the Trtnitie. But, 
see the effects of God's iustice ! It so hap- 
'iis«l that, at Detfurd, a little village about 
three miles distant from London, as he 
BMant to stab with his ponyard one named 
Ingram^ that had iouited lum thither to a 
ieaste, and was then playing at tables, he, 
quickly peroeyuing it, so aooided the thrust, 
toat, withall, drawing out hu dagger for 
his defence, hee stab'd this Marlow into the 
eye in such sort, thaty his brsynes conuning 
oat at the dasger^s point, he shortlie alter 
dyed. Thos doth God, the true executioner 
of dialne instioe, wotke the ende of impioiis 
atheists." 

The mention of Deptford in this ac- 
coiiDt induced me to imagine that tome 
record of Marlowe'a bunal might pos- 
sibly be in existcBoe there, though I 
cootcss that my expccutioos upon the 
subject were sot very sanguine. My 



ennuiry was attended with succett as 
win appear by the following tranacript 
from the church-books made in Fe- 
bruary 1820: 

« Extract from the Register of Bvriab 
in the Parish of St. Nicholas, Deptford : 

*< < 1 St June, 1 598. Christopher Marlow, 
slaine by Ffrancis Archer.' 

« A True Copy— D. Jones, Minister.** 

Vaughan therefore, it appears, was 
right as to the place and time of Mar* 
lowe's death, though he seems to have 
been mistaken in the name of s>ia aD* 
tagouist. This entry affords suCficictti 
contradiction, if any were needed, of 
Aubrey's blundering assertion that ic 
was Ben Jonson who slew Marlowe,* 
an imputation which Giffurd, in hit 
life of Ben, thinks it necessary to r^ 
fute ; but though his conclusion is cor* 
rect, he forms it upon erroneous pre- 
mises, and in detecting Aubrey's mis- 
take, falls into one himself, by asaert- 
ing that it was impossible for ' Jonsou 
to kill Marlowe in 1593, because Mar- 
lowe died " at least two years befone 
that period." 

I hope to be pardoned for thus put- 
ting in my claim to the luck, such as 
it is, of discovering what had. eluded 
the vigilance of far more acute aod 
industrious enquirers, because the edi- 
tor of Marlowe's Works, 1826, although 
he made use of the information, had 
not the fairness to meniiun the source 
whence he derived it; while in Mr. 
Singer's reprint of " Hero and Lean- 
der, ' 1821, the fact is noticed, and 
candidly acknowledged to be borrowed 
from the brief outline of this article 
which 1 have previously alluded to. 
It was not a little amusing, after the 
above certificate of Marlowe's death 
and burial had been obtained, but 
previously to its publication, to find 
the Monthly Reviewers gran-ly main- 
taining that no such ptrson had ever 
existed, but that the name was nierely 
one assumed by Shakspeare at ihe out- 
set of his career; a theory which seems 
to have been a great favourite with 
them, as they sported it more than 
once. See Nlontbly Review, vols. 89 
and 93. Jambs Brouobtoii. 

(To he continued,) 

* « He (Jonson) killed Mr. Marlow, the 
poet, on Bunbill, comeiog from the Green 
Curtain Pkyhouse." « Letters irritten bv 
Eminent Persona in the 17th and ISth 
Centuries,** 1818, vol ii. p. 415. 



18S0.] Dr. F^nier fmfaundiMg a FmeuUy of Medictfte. 



Collegium FACULTATitMsDiciifiB. 

DR.T. FORSTKR. of Chelonford, 
has addressed a Letter to W. 
Ijwrence, Esq. F. R. S. contatiiing 
" Observations on the Union which 
has become necessary between the 
htiherto trparated Branches of the 
Medical Prr>rf9sion, and on the Foan- 
datinn of a F.iculty of Medicine." 

Dr. Forster obserres, that England 
is the only country in which that 
artificial division of the profcMion ex- 
ists, which, by sepiratin^ the Surgeon 
from the Physician, diminishes the 
ntility of both, and places the pure 
Phtsician infinitely below the Ge- 
iTKiiAL Practitiombr in the quan- 
tum of u»eful knowled^ he posflettet. 
In France, Germany, Switzerland, the 
Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland, and 
every other state except South Britain, 
the two branches are united, and the 
I>icior of Medicine enjoys a diploma 
that enables him to exercise all the 
functions of Surgeon. Physician, and, 
in many countries, of Apothecary also. 
If. says Vyt, Forster, I were to re- 
commend any distinctions in the pro- 
fession, it would be in the cases of those 
who might choose to study the diseases 
of |>articolar organs, and to become 
referres therein, in the character of 
Oculists, Aurisis, Dentists, and Ac- 
coucheurs. But even in these cases, so 
essential do I belie%*e the general prac- 
tice to be, to any of its pnicular ap- 
plications, that I woulci have these 
men always and necessarily begin their 
career, as indeed many of them now 
do, by the study and practice of the 
profession generally, and in all its 
oranches. 

In that most useful and laborious 
class of men, the Apothecaries, all the 
three branches of Surgery, Medicine, 
and Pharmacy are unitt^J ; and this 
circumstance, together uiih that of 
their being more familiar with the 
constitution of their patients, renders 
them, it must be allowed, the most 
efficient part of the profession, as well 
•t the safest and most confidential 
Medical Advisers of the family, while 
the calling in a pure Phiftician, in case 
of extreme danger, is resorted to fre- 
ouently as a mere compliance with 
the etiquette of an old custom, which 
originated at a period when the Apo- 
thecaries were not so well educated as 
they are at present. For, as both are 
educated uuw, I confess I cao see no 



inperiortiy whatever which the pure 
Phytfcian possesses over the Apothe* 
cary; while the tatter has the advantage 
of much additional infcnnation, in 
which the former is frequently defi* 
eient, both in Anatomy and practical 
Chemistry. And, as the two branches 
•re now constituted in England, the 
General Practitioner seems to me to 
pr>ssess that sort of superiority, wh^i 
compared to the exclusive Ptiysiehin^ 
which common sense always allows to 
the practical, in preference to the 
theoretical part of any science what- 
ever. Dr. liunter, Mr. Hunter, and 
Dr. Baillie, all derived their eminence 
from a practical knowledge of the se- 
veral branches combined. And if I 
may allude to livina examples, without 
oflending the pabltc, has it not been a 
fortunate union of Surgery, with the 
knowledge of Physiology, and of sim- 
ple Medicine, which has enabled Af r. 
Abernethy to be so extensively useful 
as the instructor of the Physician? 
And has it not been the superadd it ion 
of the various adjutant sciences which 
has raised my friend, Mr. Lawrence^ 
to the most eminent situation which 
he now holds at the head of the 
Surgical Profession ? 

In proportion as sciences are certain, 
and founded on demonstrable facts, 
they are found to make a regular pro- 
gress towards perfection. Surgery has 
done so from its l>eginniiig, when its 
professors were Barber-Surgeons, and 
the Apothecaries mere druggisu, to the 
present day. Heister, Poit, Hunter, 
Abernethy, and Lawrence, ha\e in 
succession improi-ed its practice, and 
the art has steadily arrived at a great 
degree of perfection. But Medicine 
has from a much longer period been a 
wavering and uncertain science, and 
its successive Doctors, so far from pro- 
ducing a steady advance of its princi- 
ples, have exhibited, in their endless 
varieties of opinion and contradictory 
practices, the fullest possible proof of 
Its precarious and empyrical character. 
To strip it, therefore, of the solid base 
and support of Sur;;ery and Anatomy, 
is like taking the ballast out of a tot- 
tering bark, in a squally day, and set- 
ting it afloat, without a rudder, on the 
uncertain billows of the ocean. It is 
notorious thai, for ages, what one Phy- 
sician has recommended another has 
condemned : one forbids animal food, 
another recommends a breakfast of 



8 



Parke the Musician.'^Anecdote of Garrick, 



[Jan* 



roast beef; a third prohibits wine and 
beer ; a fourth warmth ; one says eat 
little and often ; another more justly 
prescribes regular meals twice, or at 
most three times a-day ; one ^ives ca- 
lomel for almost every complaint; an- 
other almost condemns its use alto- 
?|ether; even fire and fresh air have 
ound their enemies among our Pro- 
fessors ; and the most opposite sorts of 
drugs have repeatedly been prescribed 
in the same disorders, and with an ap- 
parent similarity of result; while m 
reality, as I have often discovered, a 
change in the state of the air has been 
the effective agent in the recovery of 
the patient. All this contradictory 
practice will be found to vary inversely 
as Physic shall be founded on rational 
views of Physiology and on a sound 
practical knowledge of science. 

I should therefore suggest the forma- 
tion of Medical Colleges, bearing the 
title — Collegium Facultatis Mb- 
DicivjR, In these there should be 
lectures given in Anatomy, Physiology, 
Surgery, Chemistry, Botany, compris- 
ing the medicinal properties of species ; 
Pharmacy, Meteorology, embracing 
the Influence of Air on Disorders, Pes- 
tilence, and Epidemia ; Theory and 
Practice of Medicine, Forensic AJedi- 
cine ; and, if required, on the particular 
branches, as Opthalmology, and so on. 
Such a College should be instituted in 
every large town where there is an 
hospital, to which the Students should 
have access, subject to certain regula- 
tions. T. FORSTER. 



M r. U RBAN, Richmond, Jan. J, 

THE Obituary of the late Mr. Parke 
(vol. xcix. ii. p. 568) does not 
contain any mention of his critical 
judgment in Pictures ; yet he was re- 
garded as a most correct detector of a 
spurious painting. The manner of the 
distinguibhed old masters he had rigidly 
studied, and readily could decide upon 
the genuiness of a picture, even in in- 
stances where masters sometimes differ 
from themselves. Numerous are the 
compositions of merit which Mr. Parke 
was the instrument of adding to the 
collections in England. 

I notice in iheObituarif the follow- 
ing passage: 

** About the saiiie period (1770), Garrick 
engaged him at Drury-Lane Theatre, on the 



most liberal termi ; and he and Garricik eter 
afterwirdi lived on tlie most intimate and 
friendly footing." 

Perhaps this is too strongly ex- 
pressed : but a cordial intercourse may 
oe said to have long subsisted ; and Mr. 
Parke, beyond all doubt, merited by 
his attachment the r^ard of Mr. Gar- 
rick. One little incident may deserve 
mention : Mr. Garrick, upon his en- 
tering at the stage-door, on a particular 
evening, when he was to appear in the 
character of i?ang£T, passed Mr. Parke, 
who stood in one of the inner passages, 
without at first noticine him. Upon 
Mr. Garrick turning suddenly round, 
Mr. Parke, bowing, addressed him, 
saying* " That it had been his object 
to obtain a passage to the pit, across 
the stage, that Mrs. Parke mi^ht avoid 
the pressure of the multitude in all the 
approaches to the pit." ** That I fear 
(replied Mr. Garrick) cannot, in fair- 
ness to the public, be permitted. But 
take my arm, Mrs. Parke, and let 
Strickland follow,*' alluding to Mr. 
Parke and the character which gives 
the title to the comedy ; and, proceed- 
ing towards his private box, he called 
to the keeper to place Mrs. Parke, and 
any company she might wish to Join 
her, in the box ; adding, " when Lord 
Rivers comes, let his Lardship be ac- 
commodated, with my respectful re- 
gards, in the large box, which will 
be more commodious to Mrs. Beck- 
ford and her fair friend from Turin." 
Mrs. Parke was, on other occasions, 
accommodated with the same indul- 
gence. She was at this time in the 
prime of life, and noted by Garrick as a 
striking likeness of Mane Antoinette, 
the young Queen of France. 

It is possible that The Suspicious 
Husband may not have been the co- 
medy of the night in question, but it 
must have been a subject of converse 
at the time, as the allusion to Strick- 
land, by Mr. Garrick, was related by 
Mr. Parke as a mark of the pleasantry 
and vivacity of the great actor, who 
was prone to acts of kindness when- 
ever an opportunity offered. And the 
writer of this article heard him say, at 
his table at Hampton Court, " that 
the saccess attendant on his establish- 
ment of < The Theatrical Fund,' had 
added down to his pillow, almost be- 
yond any other act of his life.*' 

Yours, &c. W. P. 



HOrSB IK THB RVX ^ Pa:-<IS . 



Aitoiiimation of Henrtf IF. of France. 



16S0.] 

Mr. Urban, Paris, Jan. I. 

IHAVli ihe pleatura of uansmilting 
lo )ou a skridi of the houtr, in ihe 
front of which Henri Qiiatre was as- 
•aktinated, and which is Itoih curious 
in iiseir, and iutrretting with regard to 
the event of ihe King's death. I have 
also addr«l a shght account of the par- 
ticulars ofthefuial occurrence, extract- 
ed from L'Etoile and other writers of 
the period, which uiuy serve to illus- 
trate the drawing. 

It is remarkable that the day oo 
tvhich Henri Quaire was murUercdj 
had already bet n predicted as one 
which was likrly to prove fatal lo himi 
this circumstance may, however, like 
many other prophecirs, have been the 
cause of its accomplishment, particu- 
larly as it was generally imagined lo 
have been the lesuli of a reg«ilarly or* 
ganized and long arranged cunsptracy. 
j'here are many things which lend to 
sup|)orl this belief, though in hit dying 
nitimenis the murderer Ravaillac moat 
strenuously denied having been insti- 

Saied by any one. Both L*Eloileand 
_ laiiiieu take notice of the day being 
conHidere<l an ominous one, and other 
writers beside make particular meniioo, 
of the King's restlessness and unettinev 
on that day, and the ni^ht preecdinj;. 
He seemed himself to have been ap« 
prehen»ite of some approaching cala- 
mity, and ap|)eared like the Highland 
Seer, to feel thut '* coming events cast 
their shadows before.*' The Queen 
too, like Calphurnia in her entreaty to 
Cxsar, earnestly l>esought him not to 
leave his palace ; but, as courageous as 
the Roman, he laughed to k'otd the 
thought of danger, and dismissing even 
his usual retinue of Guards, he aet (iut 
for the Arsenal, to visit the Due de 
Sully, at that time sick, accompanied 
only by the six noblemen who were in 
const.int attendance upon his person. 

"The c.irriage haxint; reached the 
end of the Uue St. Honor^, and on the 
point of entering thai of La Frrrooerie* 
which is there exceed ini^ly narroW, 
and still more confined by the fthopt 
which are built up agaiuii the wall of 
the Cemeti^re des Innucens, was IDi- 
p^'ded by encountering on the .right 
hand side a cart laden with wine^ and 
on the left a wain of hay, and was 
therefore obliged to stop at the corner 
of the street, npjiosite the office of a 
notary namtd Pout rain. The footmen 
in rear of the carriage went into the 
Gbnt. Mao. January^ ISSO. 



9 



cemetery, in order to pass easier along, 
and rejoin it at the end of the street, 
leaving only two of their number be- 
hind, one of whom went forward to 
clear the way, and the other took this 
opportunity of tying up his garter. 
Ravaillac, who had followed the car- 
riage all the way from the Louvre, 
seeing that it was stopped, and that 
no one remained near to guard it, ad- 
vonced on the side where he had ob- 
served that the King was sitting, his 
cloak hanging on his left shouhlers to 
conceal the knife which he held in 
his hand. He glided between the 
shops and the carriage, as did all those 
who wished to past it, and stepping 
with one foot on a spoke of one of the 
wheels, and supporting himself with 
the other on a boundary stone, he 
drew hit knife, which was double- 
c<lgf<i* snd struck a blow at the King, 
which penetrated his side a little above 
the heart, between the third and fourth 
ribt, at the moment when the Prince 
had turned towards the Due d*E|)ernon, 
reading a letter; or according to othem, 
at he was leaning towards the Ma- 
rescbal de Lavardin, to whom he was 
.whispcrina something in his ear. Feel- 
ing himsefr stabbed, Henry cried out 

* 1 ain'woanded,* and at the same in- 
stant the assassin perceiving that the 
point of the knife had been turned by 
the bone of a rib, redoubled his blow 
with such quickness that none of those 
who were tn the carriage had time to 
prevent, or even to perceive it. Henry 
in raising his arm, gave additional 
force to the second blow, which pierced 
him to the heart, according to Pere- 
fixe and I'Etoile, and according to 
Regniault and the Mercure Franfais, 
near the auricle of the heart, in the 

* veinecave,* which was cut. A quantity 
of blood rushed from the mouih and 
from the wound of the unfortunate 
Prince, and he expired uttering only a 
deep sigh I* or, as Mathieu says, ex- 
claiming in a faint voice these few 
words, * // it nothing.* The murderer 
attempted a third blow, but it was 
caught 6d the sleeve of the Due 
d'^emon.^ 

' Ao.L'Eioiit, Perefixe, Mathieu, 
Begmauti, and iha Memoirs if the 
Due de Sutty. 

Yours, &c. Dudley Costbllo. 



I 



Mr. Urbav, Jan, 6. 

F the manifold sorrows and evils 

which H'e see afflict mankind call 



io 



Mr, UphanCi Reply to Mr. Godfreff ffiggins. 



LJan. 



forth the sympathy of the feeling heart, 
how much deeper should be the senti* 
ment, when the stake is for such higher 
interests as the will of God and a 
future life present. Whoever ventures, 
either from a perverted will, or an un- 
happy course of thought, to put forth 
sentiments interfering with all that 
can sustain the soul in affliction, and 
carry it triumphantly over death, must 
excite the pity, and call forth the earnest 
counteracting eiforty of every lover of 
his fellow man. 

Grave as these thoughts appear, they 
are called forth by a recent publication, 
which, even in this age ot the march 
of intellect, has taken a stride beyond 
all the monsters of Swift's proliBc ima- 
gination ; " The Apology tor Moham- 
med the Illustrious I by Mr. Higgins,** 
cannot fail to excite wonder in all who 
have ever read the Ottoman Annals, 
or who know their own Scriptures. 
To those who have read either, tne pre- 
sent nublicntion may be safely com- 
mitted without danger ; but human in- 
tellect is now so advancing, that no 
one will blame a short succinct glance 
at some of the most extraordinary and 
self-confuted assertions with which 
the whole work abounds. Far from 
meaning any oflence to Mr. Higgins, 
no one esteems him more sincerely 
than myself, as far as the amenities of 
life may be safely carried ; for, as con- 
cerns man to man, I believe he desires 
sincerely to do them service. Put him 
in charge of the roads, to take care of 
the affairs of an hospital, he will spend 
hours and days to set matters right, 
regardless of all personal trouble ; and 
if Mr. Higgins would let the world 
know no more of him than in these 
and similar actions, he would deserve 
and receive the gratitude of hundreds. 

Indignant as every true lover of the 
Christian faith must feel at to unne- 
cessary an attack as that lerelled by 
Mr. Higgins, I scarcely think Ithoold 
have uken up my pen, had he not 
chosen to inscribe his olnectionable 
work to the Royal Asiatic Society, 
every member of which, I doubt not, 
will consider, as well as myself, that 
Mr. Higgins has taken a most unotual 
and unjustifiable liberty by so doing. 
I for one beg leave to disclaim any 
kind of approval or participation with 
a single statement in the pamphlet : — 
in fact, I know it to be full of errori, 
and that if the parts are substracted 
which are not reatonings, but Blc 



Higgins's glosses upon the pfacticet of 
Christians and Mussulmen, matlert cf 
no relevancy as areument, the facts on 
which he grounds his assertions can be 
easily proved to be mistakea and mit* 
conceptions; in fact ^^^fj statement, 
which the |>ages of Mr. Higgins*s e^^ 
traordinary pamphlet contains, nacj be 
readily confuted. 

Throughout the whole extent of the 
observations upon the life, mission^ 
and actions of Muhammed, contained 
in the lengthy passa^s from p. 1 to 
p. 42, not one tangible point it< ad- 
duced which serves to prove a single 
fact. All is upon supposititious grounds, 
and all deals in generalities, which 
make nothinjr either for or against the 
Impostor. F^ was gified with a grace- 
ful person ; he was faithful to Cadijah 
his first wife, for the twenty-two yean 
of their union ; he was affable and 
kind to his followers and friends. 
Granted that all these things are tree, 
it is equally true, that giving the 
full sway to his unbridled lust the 
same person afterwards penned express 
chapters for the Koran, to frame an 
excuse for indulging his own boundless 
sensuality, allowing to himself an unli- 
mited number of women, and declaring 
that it was a propensity which he 
could not controul ; he further pre- 
vailed upon his freed man and adopted 
son Zaid, to repudiate his wife the 
beautiful Zuiiat, whom Muhammed 
then took to his bed, a step considered 
incestuous, and which gave offence to 
many of his followers. 

Having ascertained the extent of his 
influence over the mind of his fol- 
lowers, what shall we say to the hu- 
manity which made the sword the in- 
strument of conversion, and which 
spread the flames of war and blood- 
sned over the whole East ; rendering 
it imperative on his followers to con- 
vert by the sword every surrounding 
state ; whereby Arabia, Persia, Syriar, 
Egypt, Armenia, and in fact the whole 
East, became one scene of blood and 
devastation ! To incite his deluded fol- 
lowers to these enterprizes, he de- 
clares in the 3d chapter of the Koran, 
•ectiQn viii. that " whoever falls in 
battle their sins are forgiven ; at the 
day of judgment their wounds shall be 
resplendent as vermilion, and odori- 
ferous as musk ; the loss of his limbs 
ahall be replaced by the wings of 
angels and of cherubim !*' 

Finding Arabia peopled with uu- 



18S0.] 



Lift and OjoMimu of Muhammed. 



merous tribes of Jews who fled thiiher 
for refuse from the disordered pro- 
vinces of the Roman and Persian mo- 
narchies, Muhammed vainly endea- 
voured to make them exchanse their 
faith for his Koran, and finding bia 
eflbrts ineffectual, be actually conti- 
nued a merciless persecution of the 
whole race, until be bad extirpated 
them from Arabia. This cruel and 
revengeful conduct was properly re- 
warded by a retributive retaliation, 
Tainax, a Jewess, being the instru- 
ment of his suffering and death, by 
the administration of poison, in re- 
venge for her murdered relatives. 

Such are a few only of the leading 
traits of Muhammed's life; and how 
any person, having before him the con- 
sequences of his doctrine and iastitu- 
cionsy can poitibly set himself down 
to pen an apology for his character, 
might well excite astonishment, if we 
bad not daily examples of the perver- 
sion of the human understanding, 
and its morbid and diseased propen- 
sities. 

If we analyze the Koran, it must be 
manifest to every one acquainted with 
iu tenets, thai tit sublimesi ideas are 
derived from the language of our Scrip- 
iurest that its doctrines are a compound 
of Judaism and Christianity ; of selec- 
tions from Talmodic Legends, Apo- 
cryphal Gospels, and fragments of 
Oriental tradition and doctrines. No- 
thing can be so apparent as this fact, 
if we compare it with the Misbckl-al- 
Masa^ih, or traditions of the Pro- 
phet's private life, actions, and sayings, 
supplied from the recollections of 
Ayesha and his otlier wives ; which 
vicious and exiraordinanf work is in 
fact made the basis of Islamism ; as 
it is held in the greatest respect by 
the whole class of Mussulmans of the 
sect of the Sunnites, that is, nearly the 
whole Muhammedan world. Now by 
accepting of these sayings and actions 
as the basis of their civil regulations, 
and not as supposed from the Koran, 
they evidence the superiority which 
they atuch to Muhammed's actions 
over his doctrine; and a more scan- 
dalous, profligate display of habits can 
scarcely be perused than in this extra- 
ordinary compilation. 

Properly to appreciate the opinions 
of Mahomet, which arise from these 
traditions being followed as matters of 
^ith, we must trace them io their 
devastating progress over the irhole 



11 

East» over the vast plains of Tar* 
tary, China, and almost the whole 
of the known world ; and when we 
reflect upon the vast and populous re- 
gions which their baneful influence has 
reduced to deserts, we may derive the 
most striking evidence of the misery 
caused bv this artful and unprincipled 
man. Muhammed never preteiuled to 
work miracles for conversion, although 
he evidently laid claim to them as 
means, — witness his night journey, and 
the attendance of the angel Gabriel. 
When, however, he was reauircd by his 
enemies to show a proof ot his mission 
by working a miracle, he, knowing 
bis own impotency over the powers <^ 
nature, artfully eluded the question, by 
saying, that as the miracles of Jesus 
had not worked conversion, so he was 
not commissioned to use them; an 
eyideiKe from his own mouth of the 
divine mission of our Saviour, and of 
the imposture practised by himself. 

Nothing can be more contrary to 
fact, than the assertion so bo/dly made 
by Mr. Higgins at page 29, that each 
Mussulman for his own person is in- 
vested with the character of a priest, 
and that the Muhammedan religion is 
destitute of priesthood ; Isiamism hat 
iis priesihooa. 

The Sultan is pontiff, legislator, 
and judge, as successor to the Caliphs; 
he is styled the Sultandin or the 
protector of the faith ; the Padishah- 
islam or the Emueror of Islamism ; 
and Til-ullah or the Shadow of God. 
There are also three classes of minis- 
ters of religion, the Imacems or priests, 
the Shieks or ordinary preachers, the 
Katibs or readers, or deacons. Each 
individual Mussulman has no further 
privilege than that of personal prayer, 
which must always be offered towards 
the Caaba, a privile^ which, to the 
shame of most Christians, they are far 
more observant of, than the latter are 
towards the injunctions and exhorta- 
tions of the purest and sublimest pre- 
cepts ever given to man. 

As for the parallel which Mr. Hig- 
gins has ventured to draw between 
the descriptions of the book of Revelo* 
tions, which are spiritual, and such as 
God only could disclose, and the sen- 
sual vicious colouring of the Koran, it 
only serves to establish the testimony 
of nis total want of genuine informa- 
tion 00 the subject ; the descriptions of 
Muhammed being borrowed entirely 
from former oriental details and fio- 



19 



On Turkish LUferality. 



[Jan. 



tions. Whoever will take the pains of 
casting his eyes over the doctrine and 
tenets of Budhism, published by Ac- 
kermann, from their own writings, 
will be able to trace every single linea- 
ment of Muhamnied's rewards, of his 
houses, and his paradise. 

As for the broad assertion, that 
"like the Gospel of Jesus, the Koran 
is the poor tnan*8 friend,'* all that can 
be said on the sobjeci is, that, if it be 
true that every man in authority, 
throughout the whole compass of the 
Mohammedan faith, totally disbe- 
lieves and acts contrary to its pre- 
cepts,) for it is upon record, in the de- 
tails of every traveller, that there is 
scarcely a Mussulman town wherein 
the wretched inhabitants are suffered 
to taste the common fruits of their la- 
bour,) it is certainly among the most 
singular of facts how any reflective 
mind can put forward such sweeping 
assertions upon facts which the expe- 
rience of all ages contradicts. Ask the 
victims of Ibraham, of Muhaaimed 
Vasha, of Dgirrar^ and all the tyran- 
nical despots of Asia, in what district 
the observance of these mild injunc- 
tions are to be found ? 

Of the same character is the asser- 
tion in page 44, which states the su- 
perior morality of most Muhammedun 
nations over that of Christian ones. 
Now were any one city in England to 
practise the habits which are common 
to the whole Muhammedan world for 
one month only, they would be ob- 
liged to fly their country, or sufler a 
just and merited death by its violated 
laws. 

Again, in page 53, Mr. Higgins 
states that the enlightened Achbar 
sent an embassy in I695 to the King 
of Portugal, to request that mission- 
aries might be sent to instruct him in 
the Christian religion, in order that, 
after he had fully inquired, he mi^ht 
choose the religion which appeared to 
him to be the true one ; they were 
sent, and after comparing their reason- 
ings, Achbar chose the Muhamme- 
dan faith: Therefore, Mr. Higgins 
reasons, "it is very evident that the 
followers of the prophet obtained as 
decided a victory by their pens, as they 
had previously done by their arms. 
Prideaux cannot conceal his vexation.'* 
A long paragraph follows, in Mr. Hig- 

J^ins's hasty and I -had almost said un- 
air mode of reasoning, whereio a 



sneer and a sarcasm against the learn- 
ed and exemplary Prideaux is unne- 
cessarily introduced, simI soperadded to 
an assertion; after which Mr. Hig- 
gins proceeds, " This whole story is 
very remarkable. When, among Chris- 
tians, shall we meet with an exaaipU 
of liberality equal to this of the Mo- 
gul?** &c. Now all this would per- 
haps have told for Mr. Higgins, as hr 
as the example of Achbar went, if 
Achbar had remained a Mussulman ; 
but Achbar, if he became a Mussal- 
man, did not remain one; he aposta- 
tized again, and actually became so im- 
bued with portions of the same learn- 
ing Mr. Higgins is pursuing, that, 
admiring the Pantheism of ine Bra- 
mi nical incarnations, in preference to 
Mohammed's Koran, he finished bj 
ikchun^ himseif a god ! And if Mr. 
Higgins will travel to Agra, he will 
be able to read the monstrous preten- 
sions inscribed at the present hour on 
the beautiful mausoleum which in- 
closes his remains. As to the compa- 
rison between the conduct of Chris- 
tians in war with that of the Turks in 
the conquest of Greece, and esi>ecially 
of Constantinople; in what Mr. Hig- 
gins calls leaving them in possession of 
their lands, &c. &c. a more iameniabie 
historical mis fake never was made by 
any writer ; for it is expressly on re* 
cord, that *< Muhammed made his 
public entry about the eighth hoor, 
that is, about two in the afternoon of 
the dOth of May, 1453, to the shouu 
and acclu (nations of his soldiery, bui 
not a single Greek remained in Qm» 
slanlinople !" The city was repeopled 
by violence, vast multitudes being 
dragjsed forcibly from Asia, and com- 
pelled to settle therein ; and long af- 
terwards, when the Greek patriarch 
was installed, the fugitive Greek popu- 
lation returned. Mr. Higgins makes 
the constant mistake of reckoning, as 
a proof of Ottoman lenity, what in 
fact is his pride; he lives among iiis 
Christian subjects now, as the Tar« 
tars did under Zingis Khan and Ti- 
mour/ namely, as among an inferior 
race, whom he looks down upon with 
contempt, and who breathe solely by 
his permission, for which the slave 
pays a yearly tax : but if the Turk his 
master has the caprice or cruelty to 
murder anv individual of this abject 
race, Greek or European, unless the 
judge were bribed by money, he wouM 



1830] 



Death of Burckhardt.^^Oitoman Murders. 



13 



go altogether unpunished ; a case per- 
fectly notorious to every one who has 
hern in these countries. 

The next fact brought forward by 
Mr. Higgins might well ha%e been 
spared, a» it concerns the death- bed of 
a most amiable and interesting man, a 
man who hu done more fot real learn- 
ing in his extraordinary investigations 
in Arabia and the East, than any other 
individual that can be named ; 1 allude 
to the honourable and ill-fated Burck- 
hardt. Yet in pge 105, Mr. Higgins, 
in pursuit of his present lucubrations, 
hesitates not to publish the statement, 
that he died a Mussulman, and volun- 
tarily desired to be buried as one. Now 
the fffutleman to whom Mr. Higgins 
alludes, 1 knew fully as well, if not 
better, than himself; and I am perfect- 
ly convinced, that whate%'er he might 
tell Mr. H. he would believe. But 
let the reader peruse the account of 
Burckhardt's death in Mr. Madden's 
interesting narrative, and then let him 
judge of the fact, it can, however, 
foe proved to be untrue; Burckhardt 
died in heart a Christian, but in a))- 
pea ranee a Mussulman, and request- 
ed Mr. Salt and his kind physician 
then present, who received his last 
breath, to permit the obstreperous 
Turks to bury him their own way, ra- 
ther than, by the real facts being di- 
vulged, that the safety of his friends 
around miRht be thereby compromised. 
Had he indeed ended his davs a de- 
aerter from the ranks of Christianity, 
knowing that he was now gone to his 
final account, it must have been con- 
fidered a mere mark of good feeling to 
have forborne the exposure; for Mr. 
Hig^ins*s aim gains nothing by its ad- 
miMion ; but the fact is not so, and 
the physician who was with him is 
oow in London to verify it. 

Having, as I firmly trust, shown 
the very serious mistatements of Mr. 
Higgins, and proved what Muham- 
mcdanism is not, I will devote a mere 
half side of paper now to mark down 
mJuU ii is ; and 1 shall herein solely 
take, from the researches which I put 
together for the Annals of the Ot- 
toman Empire, tlie acts of the diflferent 
Soltans of the Ottoman race, on their 
aeceasion to the throne, leaving un- 
noticed all the vast career of blood which 
waa shed at other times so profusely 
through their reigns. These protectors ! 
.t i ic ac shadows of God on earth ! (whose 
chief and most usual title is that of 



Hanker, a man -slayer) claim for 
themselves, by regular descent from 
the prophet Muhammed, the right of 
killing fifteen persons daily without 
any sin, as by inspiration ! 

Bajazet 1. began his reign with the 
murder of his brother; his son Musa 
destroyed Solyman ; and he perished by 
order of Muhammed I. Muhammed 
II. began his reign by strangling his 
infant brother of eight months in his 
cradle ; his son Bajazet drove his 
brother Tisimes into exile, and bribed 
the infamous Alexander Bugia to have 
him poisoned ; Bajazet died himself 
by the same fate, by order of his own 
son Selim, who murdered his brothers 
Achmet and Kecheed, and five of his 
nephews. The most distinguished of 
all the Ottoman race, Solyman the 
Magnificent, ascended his throne un- 
stained by fratricide ; but in the course 
of his long Tti^ii he put to death his 
amiable son Mustapha, and also Selim. 
Ainurath III. put his five brothers to 
death in hi^ presence, and compelled 
their mothers to be present : one of 
whom, becoming frantic at the sight, 
struck herself to the heart with a po- 
niard. Muhammed III. destroyed* 
nineteen brothers ; and not content 
with such blood, he drowned in the 
Bosphorus every Odalisk, or female 
slave, only suspected of pregnancy. 
Achmet I. was again an nonourable 

* Since peuDiDg this patMge I have ac- 
cidentally met with the fourth volume uf the 
History of the Ottoman Empire, by the 
Baron Von Hammer, alludiug to this very 
fict. This celebrated Orientalitt narrates, 
that out of one hun^lred and two children, 
twenty sons and twenty- seven daughters had 
survived their father Amurath ; and, in con- 
formity with the established law of fratricide, 
nineteen of the former were permitted to 
live until their parent's interment ; but 
within four- and -twenty hours of this solem- 
nity their own last rites were performed. 
Von Hammer further observes, that fratri- 
cide was not only deemed by the Octoroaa 
sovereigns a dictate of sound national policy, 
but thai it was prescribed by the canons of 
Turkish jurisprudence y as a duty exacted by 
the common welfare ; and I presume Mr. 
Higgins will hardly dispute the accuracy 
and deposition of such a testimony as Von 
Hammer*8 account. In Persia, and through- 
out the Muhammedan world, an>l I believe 
that only, this sanguinary policy prevails. 
Even the black tribes of burniug Afric pre- 
sent no such scenes, except indeed at Fez 
•ad Morocco, but Fez and Morocco are 
Mussalmans. 



14 



On the Removal of Burial-grounds. 



W 



exemption ; but Mastaph^ his son put 
his brother Osman to aeath» and suf- 
fered the same fate from Amurath^ 
Othman III. revived, however, the 
illustrious example of his race, b^ mur- 
dering two brothers, and attempting the 
life of a third ; and the amiable and 
enlightened Selim, in our own days, 
we have seen assassinated by order 
of his brother Mustapha, who perished 
in his turn by order of the present Sul- 
tan Mahmoud. 

1 have now gone ihrough every fact 
quoted by Mr. Higgins in support 
of his extraordinary work. I shall not 
reply to the passages wherein Christi- 
anity is so improperly brought in, be- 
cause, as a lover of the Scriptures and 
a believer in them, I can admit no 
other feeling than that of profound pity 
for the mind which can thus think and 
argue. Free discussion, and entire li- 
berty of opinion are open to everyliberal 
mind ; but it has ever been esteemed a 
maik of good taste as well as of good 
policy, to abstain from such outrageous 
remarks as Mr. Higgins indulges in; 
for they must create a distaste and dis- 
like to himself and his works with every 
Christian mind. 

I now leave Mr. Higgins*s remarks 
to the reader's own judgment, merely 
saying, that few events could give me 
a sincerer pleasure than to see Mr. 
Higgins more cautious of disseminat- 
ing his opinions (if unhappily he will 
still hold them), firmly believing that 
if he will only fairly read his Bible, he 
will find, what has long been testified 
by the most learned and distinguished 
scholars, that it contains more genuine 
and faithful history ihan all the books 
of antiquity put together. 

Yours, &c. Edw. Upham. 

Mr. Urbait, Jan, 1. 

THE commencement of the de- 
struction of St. Dunstan's Church 
in Fleet- street has induced me to offer 
a few observations on the shameless 
and indecorous violation of the sepul- 
chres of the departed, which has been 
committed in the Metropolis during 
the last few years, a subject on which 
the press has been most negligently 
silent. 

A feeling of respect for the rest- 
ing places of the dead has been in- 
herent in the human breast in all ages 
savage and civilized ; it ts a feeling so 
natural aod universal, that I fear pot 
to appeal to it, even in a heart which 



has felt and suffered from the chill- 
ing effects of modern liberalism. I 
should not fear to rely on the lo- 
lemn and excellent service of our 
Church, which is used on the conte- 
cration of churches and buryiug- 
grounds, did I not expect to meet the 
sneer of the infidel and the schismaticw 
and be told that such obsolete rites did 
not suit the improved knowledge of 
the day, — that tne march of tatelli- 
gence and the developement of intel- 
lect had divested such ceremonies of 
their charm, and that I must direct ar- 
guments founded on such a source only 
to the bigotted and the besotted. As 
the readers, however, of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine are, for the most part, 
churchmen, I do not hesitate to make 
even this appeal, and with this view 1 
vfill introduce a portion of the prayer 
used by his Grace the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, on the consecration of 
Trinity Church, Surrey Cmy own pa- 
rish church) ; 

*' O eternal God, mighty in powtr, and 
of majesty incomprehensible, whom the 
heaven of heavens cannot contain, rnvmh. 
leu the walls of temples made with hands, 
and who yet has been graciously pleased to 
promise thy especial presence in whatever 
place even two or three of thy fiuthful ser- 
vants shall assemble in thy name to offsr 
their supplications and their praises to thee ; 
vouchsafe, O Lord, to be now present with 
us who are gathered here togetner to oonse- 
erate this place, with ail humility and readi- 
ness of heart, to the honour of thy great 
name, separating it henceforth from ail vn- 
hallowedy ordinary, and common vses, dedi' 
eating it entirely to thy service, for reading 
therein thy most holy word, for celebrating 
thy holy sacraments, for oflfering to thy glo- 
rious majesty the sacrifice of prayer and 
thanksgiving, for blessing thy people in thy 
name," &c. &c. 

If a member of the Establishment, 
or perchance of the Church of Rome, 
(a Church, with all her errors, still 
apostolic on the main |)oints of reli- 
gion,) should read this prayer, I will 
not anticipate what his feelings must 
be when he hears -in what way such 
places are separated from unhallowed, 
ordinary, and common uses, and dedi- 
cated entirely to the service of the Al- 
mighty. Appealing to such a person, I 
could say that such a prayer as that I 
have quoted either is an idle form, 
amounting almost to profanity, or it 
creates an imperative duty to pos- 
terity to preserve the building so con* 
seer at ed to the uses to which it is de- 
signed to be set apart. 



18S0.] 



On ihi Removal of 



15 



It it not Bj intentioa to oo bejood 
a few ftmn back, or to traTel for acca- 
saiioos out of the verge of the Metro- 
polis, or I wookl call your readers' 
attention to the building a pile of 
warehouses on the file of St. Botolph's 
Churchf BillioffSgate, and the destruc- 
tion of a churchyard in York, to make 
an approach to an assembly room 1 * It 
is sumcient for my preaeot purpose, to 
notice the many which in this ase and 
in this Metropolis have fallen before 
the demon of Improvement. 

I will in the first place merely 
glance at the sacrilegious destruction 
of St. Katharine's Church by the 
Tower, on which subject you have 
already recorded my aeniiments (xcv. 
part ii. 39I ; xcvi. i. p. 105). I refer 
at the present time to this Church, as 
being the first and prominent among 
the various acts of sacrilege which have 
given rise to this letter. 

St. Katharine's Church was destroy- 
ed for the sake of improvement, and 
now St.Dunstan*s is called to share 
the same fate ; it prefects forsooth on 
the street ; it is an unsightly object to 
the eye, as it breaks the uniformity of 
the line of houses, and therefore must 
be built further back. Part of the con- 
secrated ground, with the bones of the 
dead accumulated during many centu- 
ries, must be laid into the street; and all 
this is done to please the eye, to gratify 
our modern notions of improvement, 
to which the temples of the Deity, the 
vestiges of former ages, all that is sa- 
cred, all tiiat is holy, all that is ad- 
mired, must ^ive way. If any act short 
of socinianizing the Liturgy of the 
Church, could disgrace the age, it is 
this utter contempt of consecrated 
things. I proceed, however, with the 
black catak^ue which I have to fill up, 
comprising the other acts of desecration 
attendant on every job, miscalled im- 
provement, which has lately taken 
place in the metropolis. 

First, then, for London bridge:— 
a bur)'ing- ground belonging to St. 
Magnus's parish has been disturbed 
and done away with on one side of 
the water; and on the other a portion of 
St. Mary Overy*s church (the Bishop's 
chapel), which covers the remains of 
the excellent Bishop Andrews, and 
many other respectable and distin- 
guished individuals, is intended to be 
sacrificed. 

♦"The fiot m neordsd io Alien^rifittory 
of Yorkshire^ now pvblishiog, vol. I. 4to, 
p. 4 17. 



The new Farringdon market has re« 
movedaburying-ground in Shoe-lane. 

The new Post Ofllice has displaced 
the site of the church of St. Leonard 
Fotter,over which the road for the mails 
now passes. 

For the purpose of making new 
roads at the sides of St. Martin's in-the- 
Fields, the burying-poond has been 
moat annecetsarily disturbed, and will 
be converted into a highway. 

When the Corporation of London 
determined on building new Courts of 
law, a chapel and buryio^-place attach- 
ed to Guildhall was totally destrojred. 

For the purpose of making a road 
from Broad-street into Moorfields, an 
old burying-ground was disturbed, and 
the bones were scattered about in the 
most indecent manner. 

These are the instances of which I 
complain, and surely this list is enough 
to raise the indignation of all who 
have any veneration for sacred things, 
or any feeling of respect for the se- 
pulchres of their departed kindred and 
countrymen. Every improvement (so 
called) has effected an act of desecra- 
tion, and if all the jobs contemplated 
in and about the city are carried into 
execotion, the catalogue will be in- 
creased to a fearful extent. That the 
hierarchy should have 4ooked c^uieily 
on, during the constant repetition of 
soch events, is a matter of painful 
surprise to the sincere churchman. 
The extent to which the destruction 
has been carried might not be foreseen; 
if it had I cannot but believe that its 
progress would have been arrested. 

Another evil of the same nature is 
so apparent in the Metropolis, that I 
cannot pass over it unnoticed ; in some 
parishes the burjring-grounds have 
been added to the highways and paved; 
over these places the passenger walks, 
little thinking that under his feet lies 
many a recently interred corpse. I 
have seen the common street pavement 
removed, a grave dug, a corpse interred, 
and the pavement laid down without 
a single trace to mark the inhumation. 
For tne information of those who are 
lest acquainted with the Metropolis 
than myself, I could particularly notice 
the church-yard of St. Mary Ab- 
charch, the site of St. Margaret Moses, 
and a piece of the pavement at the 
west end of St. Andrew Undershaft. 

Having pointed outNhe instances 
which eave rise to this complaint, and 
which I have done as the subjects oc- 
cnrrcd to me, and not in strict chroo 



16 



WardmoieM %n Churchet.^Hexham AhUy aturch. [Jan. 



nplogical order, allow me to call yoar 
readers' attention to the chief object 
of ihe communication, viz. to prerrnt, 
if possible, the repetition of the evil in 
future cases, which, if it in the least 
tends to eflftrct, will afibrd the writer 
greater satisfaction than the task of 
recording past evils, which can never 
be remedied, but which are still useful 
as beacons to guard against a recurrence 
of similar circumstances. 

A portion of the church and bory- 
ing-ground of Su Anne, Aldersgate, 
it threatened, and that for the purpose 
of making an unnecessary road lo the 
new Post Office, merely for show and 
effect, to display a building which had 
far belter have been hidden. 

The approaches to London bridge, and 
the new sireetsconsequent thereon, %vill, 
if made, interfere wiih more than one 
church. St. Michael's, Crooked-lane, 
is in danger, and the burying-gtound 
of St. Olaves, Souihwark, is not likely 
to escape. Join me, Mr. Urban, there- 
fore, and add your protest against any 
future destruction, and lei me hope that 
it will not be unheard in that quarter 
where the appeal can be attended to. 

I intended to have closed my letter 
here, but almost while writing it, an- 
other and more common desecration 
of existing churches has occurred lo 
my observation ; this is occasioned by 
the annual election of Common Coun- 
cilmen for the wards of the ciiy of 
London, a species of assembly which 
is perfectly secular, and at which much 
ill blood is usually shewn. These 
meetinesare generally held in churches; 
why, 1 would ask, is this allowed ? 
has the Lord Bishop of London no 
power to prevent the abuse, or, know- 
ing it, does lie sanction it. In one 
parish and one ward the evil has been 
prevented, but apparently more out of 
regard to the damage the pews sus- 
tained than to any respect for the vio- 
lated sanctity of the building. If a 
rule is made, why is it not a general 
rule ? is the church of St. Bride or St. 
Andrew more holy than St. Boiolph 
or any other ? If such a rule is made 
for one parish and one ward, why is it 
not extended to the entire city. The 
evil is likely in future to increase ra- 
ther than to diminish, inasmuch as 
many Halls (the Salters', for instance), 
in which such meetings have been for- 
merly held, having been rebuilt or re- 
paired, have been refuted to the elec- 
tors. A building dedicated to the pur- 
poses of feasting and excess is deemed 



too good to hold tnch atsemUtet in, yet 
the chorch it allovred to be profaned 
by the admission of an assembly whidi 
the halls of revelry have rejected. 
Yours, &c. E. I. C. 

Mr. Urbait, ^'T ^"^*'' ^^' 

N nam, Jan. 4. 

O buildins has suffered more from 
being " church wardenized,'* than 
the fine old Church of Hexham ; and it 
is allowed that no building in the king- 
dom presents so fine a specimen of the 
latter Norman style.* The good taste 
and liberality with which the present 
impropriator is restoring the great 
eastern window, induces me, through 
the medium of your valuable publica- 
tion, to suggest an improvement, and, 
as far as possible, to restore those paru 
to their pristine state which have been 
altered, or odded, by the bad taste or 
ignorance of those who had the direc- 
tion. I allude more particularly to 
the alur: this is formed by wooden 
panels, in the centre of which are two 
incongruous pillars of the Composite 
order ; on each side of these, the De- 
calogue is painted, and between, a fan- 
ciful wreath of flowers, which ill ac- 
cords wiih the solemnity of the place, 
and the whole with the grandeur of 
the building. 

Behind this screen, and supporting 
the base of the great window, are some 
fine Pointed arches ; and I beg to sug- 
gest to those who have the direction, 
to remove the wood work, and leave 
the arches lo form the altar,— it would 
then be in harmony with the original 
building, and they would elicit the 
thanks of every antiquary. 

It was slated by a writer in the 
Quarterly Review, that it was to be 
regretted there were no funds set aside 
by Government, for the restoration of 
our national edifices, when there was 
no church property for that purpose, 
or the parish was too much oppressed 
by poor rates to do it; and he particu- 
larized Hexham. To expect the Go- 
vernment to do it, under the depressed 
slate of the country, would be too 
much, and to expect it from indivi- 
duals whose taste or pursuits are at va- 
riance, is equally so; but, if the time 
come when the means can be accom- 
plished, I hope this venerable pile will 
not be forgotte n. The late lecturer, 

• S«« » w'mw of Hexham Church, io vol. 
Lxxvii. p. 1097 I tad aa accouat of it, ia 
vol. XXV. p. «97. 



?t - . '. 



f 



18S0.] 



H^ham Chwrchj^Rmnan Filla at PUneif. 



17 



the Rev. Rol>ort CInrke, did much to 
this building, and, had he not bcea 
"cut off in the midst of his days," 
much more would have beco done,— • 
his inchnation and hit means were in 
unison, and not only the church, but 
the poor, lost in him a friend and be- 
oefacior. 

The church suffered mteh in th« 
13th eeptary, from the incurtioai of 
the Scott, when the iwai wia^ or 
nave wm dcttroyttf; hot it hm nifiered 
more by the barbarism of the inhabiu 
ants ! The north trakiacpt wai made 
the entrance ; a door hat been placed 
in it, in humble imitaiion of CM Do* 
ric ! Galleries are placed without irai* 
formiiy, between the pillare of the 
choir; the capitals of the piilnrs, and 
the fine old oaken stalh, are cut to suit 
the couTenience of thoie who erected 
them ; buildings havo been surrrpti- 
tioufU placed against the church, so 
as to hide it from pubKe view, and the 
only entrance from tbc market place 
is through a pamgb which would 
disgrace a conmofi manufactory! 
About the Tear ]797« • bond was 
raised by a *' brief," Co build two abut- 
ments, ice, to sopporlthe tower to the 
west ; coold not ine tame be adopted 
at presenC'to reitore what the parish 
is unable to do ? * We Tenerate the 
character of thoio who added to our 
national building! in tllf middle ages, 
—is the present generation, who have 
the ability, indifferent to the praises of 

r»»teriiy? I am fearfal, Mr. Urban, 
trespass on yonr ?aliiable pages, or 
nnich might he said OA ihe subject. 
Yuors, &c. Hbxhamkxsis. 



Mr. Urban, 



Slourhrad, 
Dec, 10, i«s>9. 

SOME time ago (ace,Gent. Mag. for 
Aug. 18?7,) 1 communicated to 
you an account of a Roman mosaic 
pavement at Littleton, near-Somerton, 
CO. Somerset, discovered by Mr. H»selK 
«>n his own grounds, of which you en- 
graved the ground- plan ; and I now 
tend you an account of another villa, 
more worthy of notice, at Pitney, in 

* From (he dangerous suta of tlie eut 
end of the quire, it has been taken dowo^^ 
and a fine vindow placed in it liy Mrs. Beau* 
aaooK* the lady of the manor of Hexham. 
It is after the design of the late window, 
which VIS not older than the Reformation ; 
bat its ornaments correspond more with the 
style of the original building. 

OtiiT. Mao. January f 1 830. 



Um tame neighbourhood, of which a 
very imperfect account appeared some 
lime ago in the public papers. 

This fioa rilla extends above 300 
feet in length. lit form it an oblong 
square, turrotmded by buildings, officct, 
baths, &c. the principal apartroenta 
facing the west, and having an exten- 
•ivo affft-wilhin. 

Fivo affjoining roomi are decorated 
with noiaic floon, in yeiy food pre- 
iervatioOf No. I, 9. 3, 4, 5. The 
taoie tub|ect it cootinwd in 1,3, and 
4 1 and that subject it so unlike aap^ 
other that haa been chosen, that tt 
dcaervea oor particular attention. 

In almost all the mosaic pavementa 
hitherto discovered in Britain, we oe- 
nerally find figoret alluding to uie 
heathen mythology, with arabetooei 
of birdt, fi»h, beaau, and foliaae. Tho 
fignret of Bacchut and Mednaa ara 
the mott frequent, u in the fine pave- 
mentt at Bramdean, in Hantt, and at 
Thruxton, at the Utter of which ia 
an inscription.* But in the pavemtnt 
at Pitney we have a British story, 
alluding to the mines, smelting, and 
coining. 

It is generally supposed that the Ro- 
mans, after the conquest of Britaia, 
were very diligent in exploring the 
miiierals of our island ; and, aUboogli 
we know not of any mines in tiM im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Pitnay, yet 
they are found in great abuodanca ia 
the adjoining hills of Mendip. 

In the small room. No. 1, we arc 
a young man striking with fury at the 
hydra (v^vf), as we all know that 
teaier is the greatest enemy to mines. 

No. 3, contains an elegant arabcsqae 
pattern. 

No. 3, is the grand apartment, and 
I may safely pronounce it tifit^sie, for 
it contains within a square aint whole- 
length figures ^tn eoaapaTtmcnts), of 
abmit four feet in-heigbt. 

I imagine that the central figure ia 
ihe owner of the villa, holding a enp 
^ coivin hit hand to pay his depencl- 
ants. The figures are male and female 
alternate, holding in their hands the 
differenc instruments still in use for 
smeliini^'ore, such as rakes, forks, 
pineers, and long iron rods, crooked 
and straight ; also canisters, or smelt- 
ing pots, from which coin is dropping. 

Adjoining to this apartment is an- 

* See vol. xciii. ii. p. 280. 



18 



Ri$9 and Progress of Stage-Coach Travellmg. 



y 



other. No. 4, of smaller proportions, 
and differing in design though not in 
subject ; for the four square compart- 
ments (one of which has been de- 
stroyed), represent winged boys dancing 
and carrying along the canisters of 
coin, suspended on crooked iron rods, 
rake, pincers. Sec. 

There is another small apartment 
adjoining No. 4, which has only a 
simple mosaic pavement. The tessellae 
of those ravements are composed of 
white, buflr, blue lias stone, and brick. 

The village of Pitney adjoins that 
of Littleton, near Somerton, where 
numerous remains of the Roman sera 
have been found, and is situated at a 
short distance from the Roman road 
leading from Iscalis (Ilchester) to Street 
and Glastonbury; and the whole of 
these important discoveries, and their 
preservation, are due to the zeal of 
damuel Hasell, Esq. of Littleton, by 
whose means I have had very correct 
drawings made of all these fine mosaic 
pavements. R. C. H. 

S/affordihire Moorlands, 
Mr. Urban, December 28. 

IN Vol. XX. of the *• Archaeologia*' 
there is an interesting paper by 
J. H. Markland, Esq. on the early use of 
carriages in England, which traces the 
vehicular mode of conveyance, very 
clearly and circumstantially, from its 
origin. One branch of the inquiry, 
however, as it did not form part of his 
object to examine into it minutely, 
he has touched upon but slightly : viz. 
the rise and progress of those public 
conveyances commonly called Stase- 
ooaches: and the following materials 
may, therefore, not be without their 
use towards a further illustration of 
the subject. 

Stage-coaches (in the present sense 
of the term) seem to have been first 
used about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century ; for the earliest men- 
tion of them adduced by Mr. Mark- 
land (and I have met with none of 
remoter date) occurs in an extract from 
•* Dusdale's Diary," communicated by 
Mr. Hamper, in which he mentions 
his travelling to London by the Co- 
ventry coach, in l6^, and his daughter 
by the Coventry waggon, in \66o. At 
this period indeed, and lone after, the 
use of coaches was confined to people 
of the higher class, those of a meaner 
tort being content to travel more slowly 
by the caravans or ttage-waggons» spo- 



ken of by Stowe as a comnion mode 
of conveyance circa 1660» and which 
carried twenty or thirty persons. In 
the fragment of Dr. Johnson's Aoto- 
Biography, published by Wright, of 
Lichfield, he tells us, that " when 
taken to London by his mother, in 
171 1, to be touched for the evil, they 
travelled thither by the coach; but, 
from considerations of economy, re- 
turned home in a waggon*" This 
cumbrous vehicle, the appearance oC 
which has been perpetuated by Ho- 

farth (in his " Harlot's Progress.- 
'late 1.), continued to be generally 
resorted to, till towards the close of 
the last century, by the lower orders 
of country people who visited London; 
but I believe the stage-coaches, by their 
number and cheapness, have now al- 
most completely superseded it. 

How long after their introduction 
coaches remained without the luxury 
of springs, does not exactly appear; 
but that this addition was somewhat 
of a novelty in 1703, may be inferred 
from a passage in Baker's Comedy, 
called " iunbridge Walks,** published 
in that year, wherein Maiden, an ef- 
feminate fellow, observes, •• Some 
people are fond of a horse: £ wonder 
what pleasure there is in jumbling 
one's bones to a jelly ? But I love a 
fpring-chariot ! " In fact, a journey of 
fifty miles, over the roads of those days, 
in a carriage without springs, must 
have been no slight undertaking. Mr. 
Markland cites a letter from Edward 
Parker to his father, dated Nov. l663, 
descriptive of his progress to London 
by the •* coatch," in which he says :— 
** Y* company y* came up w*^ mee 
were persons of greate quality, as 
Knights and Ladyes; but my journey 
was noe ways pleasant, being forced lo 
ride in the boote all the waye, w^ 
hath so indisposed mee, )* I am re- 
solved never to ride up againe in }* 
coatch." 

The *' boote" here mentioned, which 
roust not be confounded with the ap- 
pendage so called at present, was a 
projection on either side of the vehicle, 
in which a pas«ent:er sat on a stool, 
with his face to the window, if, in- 
deed, windows were known in our 
early coaches. It is depicted in one 
of the plates accompanying; Mr. Mark- 
laud's Essay, and sf)meihing of the 
kind seems to be still retained in the 
state-coaches used by the Speaker of 
the House of Commons and the Lord 



1830.] Rue and Progren qf Siagt'Coaeh TrtnelUng. 



19 



Major of London. This inconmo* 
diout titoaiion, for which a lower fare 
wat probably required, gave place to 
the clumsy batkei, which many readers 
will recollect, and which thlote who 
do not, may tee faithfully represented 
in one of Middi man's \ iews " Near 
Bath, I786."« 

Previously to the consolidation of the 
various partial AcU for their repair, 
which h«l been passed at intervals 
from the time of Charles II. the sUte 
of the roads presented an insuperable 
obstacle to the swift progress of stages, 
three or four miles an hour being es- 
teemed verv resjiectable travelling, and 
a journey by night a thing unlhought 
of. The rise aiid progress of our high- 
ways, distinguished from the Roman 
roads, would be a subject of investiga- 
tion curious and almost untouched. 
The irregular and ill-judged course of 
the greater part of them, climbing hills 
which might have been avoided, and 
winding over morasses when solid 
ground might have been chosen, irre- 
sistiblv suggests the conclusion, that 
their nrst formation was entirely fortu- 
itous, and the completion gradual. As 
population increased, tracks were worn 
from one farm-house to another, and 
from one villaM to the neighbouring 
bam let : mutual convenience impelled 
those who traversed them to combine 
in improving their means of commu- 
nication, and thus by degrees arose our 
public roads. The most frequented of 
these were long kept in repair simply 
by rates, levied from time to time, 
upon the principal landholders of the 
neigh bournood ; but the inadequacy of 
this system, to insure a uniform and 
thorough repair of the highways, need 
not be pointed out. * The vilest cross- 
roads or the present day afford, I sus- 
pect, but a. faint idea of the state in 
which those most frequented were suf- 
fered to exist in the seventeenth cen- 
titry; and it is told in Lincolnshire, 
that even so late as 1760, when Lord 
Brownlow Bertie was a candidate to 
represent the county, he canvassed it 
entirely on horseback, many of the 
roads being quite impassable bv wheels. 

A lively notion of the delays and 
dangers to which travellers in carriages 
were formerly exposed, may be ga- 
thered from the details given by Mr. 

* Jonson, in " Every Man out <^ his 
Huasev/' ftykt FkHidums Brisk « a good 
property to parfuBM the tool of a coach?* 



Mark land ; and varioot additional par- 
ticulars will be found in some extracts 
from Lord Clarendon's Correspond- 
ence (Gent. Mag. vol. xcviii. i. p. 
999). Referring to his Lordship's Let- 
ters, I find one dated from Newport, 
in Shropshire, 93 Dec. iGSS, deUiling 
his progress to Holyhead, in which he 
safs:— " We are now uking coach for 
Whitchurch, where we are to lodge 
at night. It is but fifteen miles from 
hence; but the other fourteen from 
thence to Chester are so bad way, that 
all people tell me it will be a sufficient 
dava journey for to-morrow." In a 
subsequent letter, dated on New-Year*s 
Day, l68|, he says:—*' The coach 
carried us to Bangor, where we ferried 
over into Anglesey, and then put my 
wife into the litter again, for never 
was, or can come, a coach into that 
part of the country." Little did hii 
Lordship anticipate the wonders of the 
Menai Bridge, and the achievementt 
of the Holyhead Road Commissioners ! 

From his remarks, in a private part 
of the correspondence, we may gather 
that the roads in Staffordshire and 
Warwickshire (which he styles ** two 
noble counties**) were then in a better 
condition than in most other parts of 
the kingdom. And Dr. Plot, writing 
about the same time, asserts that those 
of the former were ** universally good, 
except in the most northerly parts of 
the Moorelandsi so that 'tis reported 
King James, speaking jocularly of the 
county, should say, ' Twas fit only to 
be cut into thongs, to make highways 
for the rest of tne kingdom ! " Nn- 
roerous additional proofs of the al- 
most impassable state of most roads, 
by vehicles, a century or two ago» 
especially in the winter season, might 
readily be adduced, but it is needless 
to swell this article with more. The 
subject will be found sufficiently and 
most happily illustrated in the ani- 
mated description of the Wronghead 
family's expedition to the metropolis, 
given by John Moody, in Vanbrugh's 
'* Journey to London.'' 

To return, however, tostag^-coaehes, 
the various conveniences of which seem 
to have been soon appreciated, for their 
nomben rapidly increased ; and, in ad- 
dition to the Coventry coach, 1659, 
Dugdale (Diary) mentions, on the same 
line of road, that of Aylesbury, l669; 
St. Alban's, 1663 ; Chester, 1&77 ; Bir- 
mingham, 1679; *nd Bedford, 168O; 
though whether lie alludes to distinct 



fp 



^iie and Pfagrcu of Stage^Cdach TrweUmg. 



[ijm. 



Y«hidci^ oir tnerely to one which passed 
through th« several townS» does not 
clearly appear. The fallest list of the 
early stages occurs in Delaane*s '* Ao- 
cotfnt of Londbo," 1671 (see vol. xcix. 
ti. p. 485), a comparisoo of which with 
one for 1839, presents a strange con- 
trast Under the head of Coventry he 
names hut one, which was, apparently, 
•two or three days on ihe road, and was 
fierhaps that by which Dugdale tra- 
Telled. " William Mitchers Coach- 
Wagon comfes to the Bell-Sarage on 
Ludgate Hill on Friday, goes out on 
Satorday." With the improvement of 
the roads, however, the coaches began 
to improve their speed, the progressive 
increase of which, and various other 
particulars, may be gathered from the 
aabjoined advertisements. The first is 
from No. 400 of " The Spectator," 
orig. edit. 

« A Coaoh & Six Able Horses will be at 
liie Ofie Bell ia the Strand, tomorrow, being 
ToMday, the 10th of this inttant June, 
n 71829 bound for Exon, Ply month, and 
Falmouth^ where til penons shall be Idndly 
lued." 

About this period, the dwellers on 
the North Road were surprised by the 
phenomenon of a vehicle which tra» 
versed the distance between London 
and Edinburgh in the brief space of a 
fortnight. The commencement of this 
iurprising novelty was thus announced 
in the " Newcastle Conrant/' October, 

«* Edinburgh, Berwick, Newcastle, Dni^ 
ham^ and London Stage-Coacb, begins on 
Monday, the 1 8 Oct. 1712. All that desire 
to pass from Ediobro' to London, or from 
london to Edbbro*, or any place on that 
voad, let them repair to Mr. John Baillie's, 
at the Coach & Horses, at the Head of the 
Ca&noneate, Edinbro', every other Saturday, 
'or to the Black Swan, in Holbom, every 
other Monday, at both of which places they 
nay be received in a Stage-Coach, which 
petrorms thto whob jonraev la thirteen days, 
without any stoppage, (if God permit) havioe 
aigh^ nUe horses to perform the whole 
atage. Each pMseaser paying £a, 10 for 
the whole journey, allowing each paseeager 
SOlbs. weight, and ell above to psy 6d. per 
pound. The Coach sets off at six ki the 
nomine. Performed by 

<'HiifRYHARaisoN, RoBT.GAaai, 
«« NiCH. SpiiouLj Rich. Croft." 

It has been noticed above that, in 
ibe reign of Charles IL, the York 
ooach was fourteen days on its way to 
the metropoUi, a statement perhaps 
fpmewhai exaggerated^ or apfdicable 



to the winter season only. But even 
so recently at 1734, 1 find the writer 
of a work, entitled ** A Journey from 
London to Scarborough,*' including 
among the remarkable things he met 
with, a coach which performed the 
distance in four days, the progress of 
which he thus circumstantially de^ 
tcriUes : 

** The York Coach coes from the Swan 
Inn, Holbom, & from the Red Lion Inn, in 
Oray's-lnn Lane, Mondays, Wednesdays, & 
Fridisys, in four days, at 4 Of. per Passenger. 
The fim stagey Biggleswade in Bedford- 
shire; the second, Stamford in Lincola- 
shire ; the third, Barnby Moor in Yorkshire 
[Notts.]; & the bst day you reach York." 

Thirty years later, a still further in- 
crease of speed had taken place on this 
road, as appears by a paragraph in the 
'* Scots' Magazine," Jan. I765, p. 54: 

** Flying Pott-Coaches have lately been 
established to go between Newcastle and 
London. A eoach sets out from either place 
every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 
fiiur o'clock in ihe morning, and makes the 
journey in three days t carries six inttde pas- 
sengers, each paying Sd, a mile, and allowed 
14 lbs. of baggage ; and they carry no outside 
passengers." 

The Shrewsbury coaches now reach 
London, a distance of I60 miles, in 
seventeen or eighteen hours ; but in 
the " Shrewsbury Chronicle," for 1774, 
frequent edteriisements occur of the 
only two coaches which then left the 
place, called *• The Old Machine," 
and " The New Machine,'* and which 
*' performed the jonrney (God permit- 
ting) in two davs and one night.** 
They stopped for Meakfast at Wolver- 
hampton; for dinner at Coventry; and 
oasaed the night at Dunchnrch. ''The 
New Machine" possessed the advtto- 
tage of ** steel sprinos." 

In Nov. 1826, died at Hounslow, 
set. seventy, Fagg, the great coach- 
owner, who was once the proprietor of 
the only Southampton coach, which 
then took two days to perform the 
journey, staying all night at Farnham. 

The advance, however, which has 
taken place in coaeh travelling, is not 
attributable solely to driving at an in- 
creased speed, but in a great degree to the 
improved system of changing horses $ 
and, above all» to the avoidance of on<- 
necelsary stoppages. As to the opera- 
tion of changing horses, it now occu- 
pies about a minute, the animals being 
kept in waiting for the arrival of tht 
coach, and put to with surprbiog dts^ 



X830.2 



Rite and Progresi •/ Siagt'Couch TfovtUing. 



^1 



|Miieh. Bui I well remeinber, m most 
many of my readers, whcOy in ploce of 
finding the norset ready, ihey generally 
oame crawling from the inn-yard, one 
•fter another, half-harnessed; and if 
ibc journey was recommenced in ten 
or fifteen minules, it was deemed a 
reasonable time. Of stoppages on the 
roftd, except to take up or set down 
passepprs, we now know nothing; 
oot thia, too, is a system of comparative 
novelty; though 1 cannot say that, 
within my recollection, delays were 
ever carried to the shameless extent 
described in the following extract from 
" The Universal Magazine'* for April, 
J 766, p. 188: 

" We liMT that the matter eoaebmeii of 
ionM Machines on the Western Road are 
under uroeecution of several geotleaicn who 
were their passengers, for atopping so often 
and %o long on toe road, to dupose of fish, 
Ste. which thej carry from London, instead 
of making that expedition tbej undertook to 
do, to the great injury of their passengers." 

From one extreme we have now 
arrived at another: from crawling at 
the snail's pace of three miles an hour, 
our coaches proceed with break-neck 
velocity ; and we daily read of steam- 
carriages, on rail-roads, impelled at a 
rate which it makes one giddy but to 
think of I The agency of steam, how- 
ever, is a branch of the subject upon 
which 1 do not intend to enter, hut 
shall close my illustrations with part 
of an advertisement from " The Morn- 
ing Herald** of Nov. 17» 1895, which, 
I suppose, records the iie piut ultra of 
the noble art of driving : 

** To he sold hj auction, Forty Machine 
Horses of that fmX Day Coach the Noririeh 
Times, the admiraSton of every person who 
has eat behind them, the genuine property 
of, and driven by, Mr. John Thorogood, 
ainoe April 1 880, who baa teen the cities oi 
jLoadon and Norwich daily, making 114 
miles a-day.— N. B. The greatest feat of 
driving ever known !" 

Upon the preceding subject, and upon 
the subject of internal intercourse gene** 
rally, much additional information re* 
mains to be gathered ; nor is it a mere 
matter of idle curiosity, but one cal* 
eulated strikingly to illustrate the pro- 
grese of society in civilisation and re* 
nnement* I have aeldom been more 
fofcibly imprcased 'with the change (I 
know not whether to term ii improve* 
•ncnt) that has taken place in the fre* 
queocy of commaniGatMin between in* 
nabitapu of dtsuot pans, than 1 was 



this moroing while examining aome 
copies of the early Visitation Books* io 
which about nine-tenths of the mar* 
riages recorded are between parties re* 
sident in the same or in adjoining 
counties; while, in our own time, 
marriages between natives of Cumber- 
land and Cornwall, Shropshire and 
Suffolk, are thought as little remarka- 
ble as between those of Westminster 
and Southwark. A treatise, embody- 
ing all the facts that can be collected 
upon the rise of roads and canals, with 
the various modes of conveying goods 
and passengers, from the humble pack 
and saddle-horses of cmr ancestora, 
down to the luxurions chariot and 
economical ommhus of modern daya, 
would be a compilation of no small 
val oe. M r. M ark la nd *s Essay preseota 
a solid foundation for such an under- 
taking, and a little industry would 
furnish the superstructure. 

The statistical tracts of Elixabeth's 
time abound with invectives against 
that efieaiinate novelty the coocA, some 
of which Mr. Markland has mention- 
ed, while others remain to be noticed. 

*' It was fbrmerly (says Nash) thought a 
kiod of solccisme, fie to fitooor of effeminacie, 
for a Tooog gentleman in the flourishing 
time of his age to creep into a eoatoh, & to 
shrowd hiAself from wind and weather. 
Coetches & Caroches we left unto them fbr 
wlioro they were first iouented— for ladieat 
and decrepit age, & inpoteat people." 

The Water-Poet Taylor, also, whose 
occupation naturally rendered him in- 
imical to any thing which he thoiight 
cAlcnIated to lessen its iinportance or 
decrease its profits, ia extremely bitttr 
against them. His remarks have been 
too often quoted to possess much no- 
velty, but the descnntion he givei of 
the sensation excited by the first ap- 
pearance of the new vehicle, is worth 
extracting. 

<* A Coach was a etraunge monsler hi 
those dayee, & the sight of one put both 
horse & man into aawxeBSCut. Some said It 
was a great orabbe-sheli broaght oaS af 
China % & some imagiaed it to be one of the 
Pegan Temples, in which the oanihalJs adaasd 
the direlU,'* 

This passage reminds me of one 
somewhat similar in the " Memoirs 
of Joseph Brasbridge,** 1824, who 
says : 

** I Tacolleet the first hroad-w h eslsd 
waggon that wae ased in OUbrdshire, and a 
woadering arowd of epeeiaton it attraetad. 
1 believe at that tiaw theia was not a poal- 



Ctmeiery of British Officen near Baponne, 



8S 

chsise |o EngUwd, exempt two-»rhaeIed ones. 
Lanps to cmrriagM are also a modern im- 
provement. A shepherd, who was keeping 
eheep in the vicinity of a village in Oxford* 
•hire, came running over, to say, that a 
frightful monster, with saucer-eyes, and 
making a great blowing noise, was coming 
towards the village. This monster turned 
out to be a post-chftise with two lamps !'* 

Post-chaises and post- travel ling were 
introduced into England by Mr. John 
Tull, son of the celebrated writer on 
husbandry, for the former of which he 
obuined a patent, in 1734. Mr. Birch, 
coach maker, of Great Queen-street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, pve, in Nov. 
1825, what he termed a jubilee dinner, 
to celebrate the circumstance of a 
workman having passed fifty years in 
ihe employ of himself and his prede- 
cessor. On this occasion, he men- 
tioned several curious particulars con- 
nected with the history of coach- 
building, and, among other circum- 
stances, stated that the first post-chaise 
used in England, was built at his 
house, within a century before : it had 
but two wheels, and opened in front, 
like the bathing-machines used at 
Margate and elsewhere. 

Hoping, Mr. Urban, that you and 
your readers have travelled with me 
thus far without fatigue, I here bee 
leave to terminate our journey, and 
assure you that I am 

Your's, &c. 

James Broughtoit. 



Mr. Urban, Kensingion, Nov, 6. 

ON my return from a tour in Spain 
with a young friend this last au-. 
tumn, I passed a week at Bayonne; 
and on the 24th Sept. we visited the 
sround which obtained so much un- 
happy celebrity in 1814. Crossing the 
long wooden bridge over the river, we 
came to what seems a detached por- 
tion or suburb of the town, though it 
is a separate municipality, called St. 
Esprit. This quarter contains a great 
many Jews. A fter atcendi ng t\ie steep 
road which leads to Bordeaux, we 
struck off into a side road along a 
hei2ht to the right. From this side 
road we had a most commanding pros- 
pect, which, in spite of the cloudy, 
gloomy, sullen atmosphere of a stormy 
nK>roing, appeared both grand and 
beautiful. The valley beneath us, tra- 
versed by the windins Adour, present- 
ed the whole town of Bayonne. The 



[Jan. 



narrow vale is begirt with woods and 
pretty hills ; and beyond, crowned 
with labouring clouds, arise the stu- 
pendous summits of the Pyrenees. Ad- 
vancing, we reached the small ancient 
church of St. Etienne. With tome 
difficulty, we found in the church-yard 
the grave-stone of Mai or-Gen. A. Hay, 
who was slain near the place of his in* 
terment on the 14th of April, 1814, in 
the action occasioned by a sortie of the 
French from the citadel of Bayonne, 
which the British troops then block* 
aded. The French officer who com<^ 
manded in the ciudel was extremely 
averse to this sortie, which he was 
compelled to make in obedience to the 
peremptory orders of Thouvenot, his 
superior officer, who commanded in 
the town. After many brave men 
had been killed on both sides, the 
French were repulsed. Thouvenot, it 
afterwards appeared, was previoasly 
aware (thougli not officially informed) 
that Napoleon's reign had ended t and 
two days after the sortie, the white 
flag of the Bourbons was displayed 
from the citadel. Intelligence of the 
meditated attack was carried to Gene- 
ral Hope, the British commander, by 
a French deserter; but the General, 
in galloping from his quarters to the 
front of his lines, was intercepted and 
taken prisoner by a French party, in a 
wood which we afterwards traversed. 
He offered his watch and money to a 
French seijeant as the price of his re- 
lease ; but the seijeant rejected the 
offer. On his way as a prisoner to the 
citadel, Hope and several of his captors 
were wounded by the fire of the British 
troops. He afterwards sent for the 
French gerjeant, praised his behaviour, 
and offered him as a testimony of 
esteem what he had refused to talce as 
a bribe; but the seijeant declined to 
accept any thing from a prisoner. This 
fine fellow was rewarded soon after 
with the Cross of the Legion of Honour. 
Returning to the Bordeaux road, 
we had to traverse another cross-road 
in an opposite direction to the last, in 
order to attain the main object of our 
peregrination, •— the cemetery of the 
other British officers who fell in the 
Bayonne sortie,— situated, as we were 
told, in the grounds of Monsieur Leon, 
a wealthy Jew. We engaged an old 
peasant to guide us; and he, though 
ne knew w^re, or at least whereabouts 
the cemetery was, had some difficulty 
to find it. We traversed foul, miry 



ttev. D. iri£fon*« Reply to Mr. Bowlet. 



33 



wsjty aodadvancing much farther than 
I liad expected, obuined a view of the 
deboQchemeni of the Adoor into the 
golf of Gaicony. Stri k i ng oflf from the 
toad into the grounds of Monsieur 
Leoo, we reached a most romantic se- 
qotttcrcd region, consistins of a muUi- 
tode of low furze and heath-clad hills; 
on the side of one of which, " with 
thicket orersrown, grotesque, and 
wild/* we beheld the cemeterv. De- 
ft|iite of rain and mud, we pushed on ; 
bm it was no easy matter to approach, 
for there is no road nor pathway, and 
hardly access through a wilderness of 
thorns, briars, and bushes. We went 
round and round the cemetery, tearing 
our clothes and skins, but long unable 
to reach or even nearly approach it. 
It seemed as if some stern guardian 
genius *' access denied** to all idle 
careless intrusion. However, at length, 
after toiling up a steep side less bristling 
with resistance than the rest, we gained 
the exterior wall of the cemetery, and 
entered it by a flight of rude steps. It 
is a small square space, enclosed by a 
wall, and surrounded by willows and 
poplars. A hw other melancholy 
shrubs are there: and a lovely Italian 
cypress ascends in the middle of the 
litile plat of honour's ground. 

" Here sleep the brsve, who tonk to rest, 
Br ill their country's wishes blest: 
When Spring, with dewy fingers cold. 
Returns to deck their hallowed mould. 
She there shall dress a sweeter sod 
Than Fancy's feet have ever trod.*' 

It is indeed (to pursue the fine strain 
of Collins) as " a weeping hermit," 
that Fancy must repair to and linger 
on this spot, which is rather a her* 
mitage than a temple of glory. But 
the place is as much neglected within 
as without ; and rank grass and weeds 
threaten soon to obliterate the memo- 
rials of the brave. On the few tomb- 
stones (seven or ei{(ht in number) are 
engraved only the initial letters of the 
names of those who tenant the gory 
beds below. All bear the date of 14th 
April, 1814. On one I remarked 
these letters, *' Sir H.S., Bl., Lt.Col. 
Coldm.Gd.'** Onasecond,"Honble. 
W. G. C, Cap. Coldm. Gd.**t On a 
third, " G. C, L..C0I. Coldm. Gd.'*J 
On a fourth, " VV. B., Cap. Coldm. 
Gd.**§ On a fifth, which is most 

* Sir Henry Sullivan. 

t Moo. WUUam Georges Crofton. 

X O. Colyer. f W. Burroaghs. 



beautifully wreathed with creeping 
shrubs, *' W. P., Ensgn., (x>ldm. 
Gd.*' II On a sixth, " J. H., Lt. (Joih 
Regt." f There are one or two other 
stones uninscribed, or having the in- 
scriptions obliterated. 

After a visit which we prolonged in 
spite of the rain that now fell heavily 
upon us, we plucked and appropriated 
a small braocn of the cypress — *' tnvt- 
sa$ cupressos** — and bade a reluctant 
farewell to this singularly wild, lovely, 
romantic, and interesting spot. 

We were obliged to set off for Bor- 
deaux next morning. But, a little 
before our departure, I was informed 
by a respectaole banker of B>iyonne, 
that the British Consul, who had been 
absent for some time, had just return- 
ed, and had announced his purpose oi 
repairing and improving the condition 
of the cemetery, in conformity with 
instructionswhich he had received from 
the British Government. It would he 
well, I think, in place of the present 
tomb-stones, to substitute others of 
more enduring qualitv : and as the 
idea (once emertained, I believe) of 
transporting the bodies to England, is 
now of course abandoned, surely, in- 
stead of the initial letters, the names of 
the dead heroes should be recorded at 
full length. J. G. 

Mr. Urban, Islington, Jan. II. 

AVERY few words, in reply to the 
remarks of the Rev.VV. L. Bowles, 
in your December Magazine, p. 489, 
will serve to remove any misconcep- 
tion arising from a note m my funeral 
sermon for the late Vicar of Christ- 
Church, Newgate-street. That ser- 
mon was written in great haste, and 
the notes in much greater, and under 
the excitement of a recent loss. Pro- 
bably the expressions are somewhat too 
strong, or at least not sufficiently 
snarded. Your correspondent, the Rer. 
W. L. Bowles (whose warmth I en- 
tirely excuse), misukes my meaning. 
He supposes that I refer to some eflects 
produced by external violence inflicted 
Knowingly oy the few individuals who 
are termed, I presume by way of dis- 
tinction, the elder boys, and involving 
a charge against those who happened 
then to be the seniors, if not against 
the distinguished establishment to 

n WiUiam-HearyFittyekiest SOD of Tho- 
mas Pitt, Esq. 
% J. HaaUtod. 



94 Inaccuracies in Sir Waliir Scolf$ " Provincial Antiquities."^ [Jan. 



which they belonged. If my words 
convey any soch idea, they were indeed 
ill chosen. The oppression I intended 
was that of the mind. I meant, by the 
term elder boys, all who were above 
young Crowther in age, and who, in 
a school of two hundred, constituted 
for some years a large body. And I 
never thought of preferring a charge 
against any individual youth, much 
less of implicating the great national 
foundation of Winchester. I merely 
wished to express, what my authorities 
appeared fully to warrant me in doing, 
that young Crowther *8 tender and sus- 
ceptible mind was little able to bear 
vp against the petty unkindnesses, the 
minor sallies of tyranny and imperi« 
ousness, the unthousht of rudeness 
and impositions which force or capricie 
inflicted, and which no discipline 
could prevent Your correspondent 
kimselt speaks of the protection af« 
forded by the elder boys to the younger, 
and yet he admits that one instance of 
oppression occurred in his own time, 
which ended in the actual expulsion 
of the offenders. How mocn then 
may have gone on of the same kind, 
in a very inferior degree, with respect 
to such a boy as Crowther, may be 
easily imagined. I am persuaded that 
strong and sturdy minds can form no 
idea of what a timid shrinking lad 
suffers in the midst of the unavoidable 
conflicts and concussions of a public 
school, from want of nerve, from con- 
stitutional irritation of feeling, from 
being placed, in short, in a situation 
for which he is totally unfit. Suffice 
it to say, that Mr. Crowther never 
shook off in future life the associations 
of dread which fie n«rt rated his mind 
when a boy, and of which his peculiar 
cast of character, like Cowper's, made 
him painfully susceptible. 

But I pause; indeed I have accom- 
plished my object, if I have removed 
a misunderstanding which my hurried 
words may have occasioned in other 
minds as well as in that of your re- 
spected correspondent. 
. Yoursy &c. Daviel Wilson. 

Mr. Urban, Jan. 13. 

YOUR correspondent W. S. B. 
having pointed out several inac- 
curacies in the novels of Sir Walter 
Scott, will you allow me to notice 
a part of bis writings that does not 
appear intelligible or correct. In "The 
Provincial Antiquities and Picturesque 
Scenery of Scotland,** vol. ii. is an ac- 



count of Fastcastle, once the residence 
of the unfortunate Sir Robert Logan, 
of Restalrig, which was forfeited for 
an alleged participation in " the Cow- 
rie treason.*' In order to shew that 
that individual was of a notoriously 
bad character, it is stated that a con- 
tract between him and the celebrated 
Napier, of Merchiston, exists, where 
the latter undertakes to discover certain 
treasure supposed to be hid in Fast* 
castle. This document is said to be 
dated 1694— Logandied l60l ! but this 
probably is a mere typographical error. 
The contract, however, refers to "John 
Logan's house, of Fastcastle ! " It is 
adduced as a proof of the Robert Lo- 
gan's suspicious character, that Napier 
stipulates, in the event of finding 
the treasure of which he was to get 
half, that he should be safely guarded 
to Edinburgh. This appears a reason- 
able desire, considering the troubled 
state of that country. Napier could 
not have had so hard an opinion of 
Logan's principles, supposing John to 
be the Robert to whom the Baronet 
alludes, when he voluntarily agrees 
to place himself and treasure in his 
power; and, if nothing is found, agrees 
*' to refer the satisfaction of his travel*' 
to his employer. These are immate- 
rial remarks; but if the historical mat- 
ters of this celebrated writer are occa- 
sionally so confused and apparently 
erroneous, we need the less wonder at 
deviations from strict propriety in those 
amusing fictions where truth is not 
intended to be scrupulously adhered to. 
Yours, &c. A. 

OV THB PROGRESS AND DBCLIKR Or 
WITCHCRAFT. — NO. IV. 

** Witches aod spoils in sntitDttciiie 
W«re saereil tu^cts ev'n in rhyne ; 
No wonder that •hoold be received 
Which laws condtmoed aod kings beliav*d. 
But now of late, since royal speeches 
Have kept to weightier things than Witches^ 
Since Parliament (whom Heav'n direct) 
Have treated Satan with neglect. 
The vulgar lemm to take the hint. 
And find the whole haa nothing in*t." 

Lines on the passing qflhe Repeal BUL 

THE next ciicumstance to be re- 
corded, in proceeding with our 
historical relations, is a curious docu- 
ment, being an account of expenses 
debited to the town and kirk sessions 
of Culross, in Scotland, for burying 
three Witches, who had been con- 
demned towards the close pf the 17th 
century. 



^«a] Progreit of WUchcrafl. J5 

tmiBii ToMr.J«inMMiUtr,»beii jf. «. fented that the devil, about ten years 

tot tKl ******* ^ *"*" *** P"^'^"*'/' "PPcaftt* to her in the 

- r^rk^hlw^^M^Jk! prom wed her money, and that the 

r),whcnhawniawa,tha^ ^^ .hould live gallanti/. and have the 

IlMi. For eoiib'for the Wiidlii'!.'.;.'." i 4 P'«?«^'e <>^jhe world for twelve year^ 

llm. In purcfaaung the conuniMion 9 3 "«"« would with her blood sign his 

lltM. For oBo to go (o Tumirath for Pf P^r, which was to give her soul to 

the Uird to tit opon their Msize at ^^^ ^^^ observe his laws, and that he 

J«a« B n"ght suck her blood. This, after 

Iitai. Forhardentobejompitothem s 10 four soliciutions. Style promised to 

lien. For makmg of tbem 8 do ; upon which he pricked the fourth 

Ittflu For a lar barrel u finser of her right hand between the 

Another remarkable transaction of middle and upper joint, where the sign 
thb kind is a case of Elisabeth Style, of the time or the confession remained, 
who was tried and convicted for ^^^ wi^h a drop or two of her blood 
witchcraft and sorcery upon her own the signed the paper. Upon this the 
confession. The circumstances which ^^'i' g^ve her sixpence, and vanished 
were deposed to by a variety of wit- with the paper. That he had since 
nesses, amongst whom was the rector appeared to her in the bhape of a man ; 
of tilt parish, are shortly as follows : ^^^ more usually he appeared in the 
A daughter of Richard Hill, aj^ likeness of a dog, a cat, or a fly, in 
thirteen, was taken with stran;^ fits, which last he usually sucked her in 
which lasted two or three hours or ^^^ poll about four o'clock in the 
more, and that in these 6ts the child morning, and did so 27th Jan. That 
declared that this Eliaabeth Style ap< when she had a desire to do harm nhe 
peared to her, and was the same who called the spirit by the name of Robin, 
tormented her. While in these fits it 'o whom, when he appeared, she used 
was sworn by the witnesses, that, <^c words, " O Satan, sire me my 
though held in a chair by four or five purpose.*' She then told him what 
persons by the arms, leg^, and shoul- 'he would have done; and that he 
ders, she would rise out of her chair should so appear to her was part of 
and raise her body above four or five her contract with him. That she had 
feet high, and that while in this state desired him to torment one Elizabeth 
there appeared to be holes in her flesh ^'ll* ^nd to thrust thorns into her 
which the witnesses considered to hie ^^sh ; which he promised to do. The 
with thorns, for the? saw thorns in n^>^ ^inic he apueared he told her he 
her flesh, and some they hooked out. h*d done it. Sne then goes on to re- 
Among the witnesses was one Richard count a variety of other extraordinary 
Vioing, who stated, that some time adventures between her and three other 
previously his late wife Agnes fell out persons, who also had made a similar 
with Elisabeth Style, and within two contract with the kins of fiends, and 
or three davs she was taken with a ^^^n acknowledses that the reason 
grievous pricking in her leg, which why she caused Eliaabeth Hill to be 
pain continued for a long time. Some <he more tormented was, because her 
time after Style came to his wife father had said she was a witch. And 
and gave her two apples, which Style that some two years a^ she gave two 
requested her to eat j which she did, apples to A^nes Vining, late wife of 
and in a few hours was taken ill and Richard Vining, and that she had one 
worse than ever she had been before, of the apples from the devil, who then 
and continued so till Easter eve, and appeared to her, and told her that the 
then died. apples would do Vining's wife's bosi- 

Before her death her leg rotted, and "css. 
one of her eyes swelled out. She de- This confession is certified to have 
cUred to him then, and at several been taken in the presence of several 
tiroes before, that she believed Eliza- Rrave and orthodox divines, before 
beth Style had bewitched her, and Robert Hunt, magistrate, and was free 
that she was the cause of her death, atid unforced, without any torturing 
But the confession of the Witch her- or watching, drawn from her by a 
self is a document of a very curious gentle examination, meeting^ with the 
and extraordinary kind. She con- convictions of a guilty conscience. 
GtMT. Mao. Jmrnary, i tso. 

4 



f6 



Pf^grU9 of W%Ukcrqf$.. 



£Jan. 



One Nicholas Lambert also« swore, 
thai after Siyle had been committed 
be and two others watched her, agree- 
ably to the magistrate's request ; that 
he, Lambertysitttog near the 6re about 
three o'clock in the morning and 
reading in the Practice of Piety, there 
.came from her head a glittering bright 
fly, about an inch in len|;th, which 
pitched at first in the chimney, and 
Aheo vanished. He looked stedfaatly 
then on Style^ perceived her counter 
nance change and to become very black 
and ghastly ; tlie 6re at the same time 
eh«aged its colour ; whereupon Lam- 
bert and the two others considering 
that her familiar was then about her« 
looked to her poll, sod seeing her hair 
«hake very strangely, took it up, and 
then a great By flew out from the place 
and pitched on the t(abie-board,and then 
vanished away. Upon the witnesses 
Jooking again in Style's poll, they 
found It very red, like raw beef. Upon 
being asked what it was weut out of 
her poll ? she said it was a butterfly ; 
and asked them why they had not 
caught it. Lambert said they could 
not ; she replied, I think so too. A- 
little while after the informant and 
others looked upon her poll, and found 
the place to be of its former colour. 
LamDeri demanded again what the 
fly was? She confessed it was her 
familiar, and that she felt it tickle in 
her poll, and that was the usual time 
when her familiar caoie to her. 

Elizabeth Tor wood then swears, 
•that she, together with four other 
women who also gave evidence to the 
.same effect, searched Style in the poll, 
and found a little rising which felt 
hafd like a kernel of beef; whereupon 
they, sospediog it to he an ill mark, 
thrust a pin into it, and having drawn 
it out thrust it in again the second 
time, that the other women might see 
it also. Notwithstanding which Style 
did neither at the first or second time 
make the least shew that she felt any 
thing ; but after, when the constable 
told her he would thrust in a pin in 
the place, and made a shew as if he 
did, she said he pricked her, whereas 
no one tlien touched her. 

Style was tried and condemned, but 
died shortly before the time appointed 
for her execution. 

Shortly afterwards, Alice Duke, one 
of Stylets knot, was tried for a Witch, 
and convicted upon the testimony of 
many witnesses ; and her own confes- 



sion, which contains a «iuvte account 
of many extraordinary and devilish 
tricks, which she, in conjunetioa with 
her oonCederaies and his Satanic Ma* 
jesty, pedbrmed ; she confesses that her 
familiar commonly sucked her right 
breast about seven at nif^t, in the 
shape of a little cat of a dunnish co- 
lour, and when she was sucked she 
was in a kind of trance. That she 
h4irt Thomas Garrett's cows because 
he refused to write a petition for her. 
That she hurt Thomas Conway, by 
putting a dish into his hand, whicn 
dish she had from the devil. That she 
hurt Dorothy, the wife of George 
Vininz, by giving an iron stake to put 
into her steeling box. That being 
angry with Edith Watts for treading 
on her foot, she cursed her, and after- 
wards touched her, which had done 
her much harm, for which she is very 
sorry. That beinj^ provoked by Swan- 
ton*s wife, she did before her death 
curse her, and believes she did thereby 
hurt her ; but denies that she did be- 
witch Mr. Swanton*s cattle. And 
then she gives this suitable informa- 
tion, which may serve to put us on 
our guard against having any thine lo 
do with this father of lies. That when 
the devil does any thing for her, she 
calls for him by the name of Robin, 
upon which he appears ; and when in 
the shape of a man, she can hear him 
speak, out his voice is very low. He 
promised her, when she had made her 
contract with him^ that she should 
want nothing, but ever since she 
wanted all things. 

And Conway, his wife, and Watts, 
also corroborated her statements, by 
describing on oath the injuries which 
they had sustained from tnia acknow- 
(cdeed Witch. 

The intimation above, as to the 
devil being a hard master, reminds one 
of a passase in an old translation of 
Bodinus^ from which it ap|)ears that 
in Livonia, yearly, about the end of 
December, a certain knave or devil 
warneth all the Witches in the country 
to come to a certain place. If they 
fail, the devil cometh and whippeth 
them with an iron rod, so as the print 
of his lashes remains upon their bodies 
for ever. Which circumstance has 
thus been preserved by one of our early 
bards: 

'* Till on % day (that day is everie Prime) 
Wlien Witches wont do peaaacs for (heir 
crimt." 



183a] 



Progriu oj fVUcherofU 



n 



la the State Trials ihere is reeofdcd 
the trial of Richafd Hathaway, on 
S44h March* 1102, o|M>n an indici- 
BieiU charginc him with eonlrivins 
and maliciooMj intending one Saran 
Mordock, who (or the whole coarse of 
her life was an hoaest and pions wo- 
man, and not a Witoh, nor nsing 
witchcraft, inchantment, charm, or 
sorcerv, to bring into danger of losing 
her lite falsely, maliciously, devilishly, 
and knowingly, and as a false im poster, 
did pretend and affirm himself, by the 
said Sarah to be bewitched; and thai 
he by drawing blood from the said 
Sarah, by scratching, shook! be freed 
from the said pretended witchcrafL 
Thai the said R. ri. did then and there, 
with force, &c. draw the blood of her 
the said Sarah. He was found goilty 
of this cknrge, and I merely refer tn 
the trial for the purpose of noticing a 
curious piece of evidence given by a 
woman who was examined on bis be- 
half. Lord Chief Justice Holt, *• Do 
Co think he was bewhched?** Eltaa- 
ih Wilknighby. «« 1 believe he was." 
** I suppose you have some skill in 
witchcraft ; did yon ever see any body 
thai was bewitched before ?*' <« My 
Lord, I have been under the same cir- 
cnmslances myself, when I was a girl, 
in Sir £dwafd Bramfield's time." 
** How doyoo know you were bewitch* 
ed?** <* There was a woman uken 
up upon suspicion for it." " For be- 
witdiing thee ?** «< Yes, my Lord.** 
" Did you scratch herr " My Lord, 
I had no power to do auv thing, I flew 
over them all ; one held me by one 
arm, another by the other, and an- 
other behind, and 1 flew sheer over 
their heads.'* " Can you produce any 
of these women that saw yon fly ? ' 
" It was when I was a child ; they are 
dead. 1 have been well ever since I 
was married.** 

In 1705 was published, '* A true 
and faithful account of the birth, edu^ 
cation, lives, and convictions of Eleanor 
Shaw and Mary Pliillips (the two no- 
torious witches), that were execntcd at 
Northampton, on Saturday, March 
17th, 1705, for bewitching a woman 
and two children to death, &c. con- 
uining the manner and occasion of 
their turning Witches, the league they 
made with the Devil, and the strange 
discourse they had with him ; as a£io 
the amazinc pranks and remarkable 
acu both before and after their appro- 
Ikension, and how ibcy bewitched se- 



veral peiaons to death, besides abnn- 
dance of ail sorts oTCattle, even to the 
ruin of many famiKes ; with therr fnW 
confession to the Minister, and last 
dying speeches at the place of execn- 
tion, the like never before heard of. 
London, 1705." 

In Clotierbnck's History of Herts, 
he says, " in this village (i.e. Walkern), 
lived Jane Wenham, a poor woman, 
who was accused in several instances 
of having practised sorcery and witch- 
craft upon the body of Ann Thorn, 
npon tne oaths of several respectable 
inliabitants of this neighbourhood, be- 
fore Sir Henry Chaoncey, of Yardly 
Bury, and by him committed to Hert- 
ford gaol. She was afterwards tried 
at the Assises on the 4th March, 17 It, 
before Mr. Justice Powell, and being 
found goilty of the charges brought 
aeainst her, received sentence of death. 
The Judge, however, made a favourable 
representation of her case to the Queen, 
wno was graciously pleased to grant 
her a pardon." 

1735. At Burlington, in Pensyl- 
vania, the owi>ers of several cattle be- 
lieving them to be bewitched, caused 
some suspected men aixl women to be 
taken op, and trials to be made for 
detecting them. Above three hundred 
people assembled near the Govemor'fl 
house, and a pair of scales being 
erected, the suspected persons were 
each weighed against a large Bible; 
but all of them vastly outweighed it. 
The accused were then tied hand and 
feet together, and put into a river, on 
the supposition that if they swam they 
must be guilty. This trial they oflered 
to undergo, in case as many of the ac- 
cusers should be served in the like 
manner ; which being done, they all 
swam very buoyantly, to the no small 
diversion of the specutors, and clearing 
of the accused. 

In the Frome Daily Joun>al, Jan. 
15, 1731, there is an accoom of a 
child of one Wheeler being seised with 
strange unaccountable fits; the mo* 
ther goes to a canafiig man, who ad- 
vises her to hang a bottle of the child's 
water, close stopped, over the lire, and 
that the Witch would thereupon comt 
and break it. The success of this ad- 
vice is not mentioned ; but a poor oM 
woman in the neighbourhood was 
taken up, and the eSj trial by water 
ordeal revived. They dragged her 
shivering with an ague out of her 
house, set her astride on the pommel of 



«8 



Progreu and Declmc of WUchcTofL 



pan. 



a saddle, aDcbxarried her about two 
miles to a mill pond, stripped off her 
upper clothes, tied her legs, and with 
a rope about her middle threw her in, 
two hundred spectators huzzaing and 
abetting in the riot. They affirm she 
swam liRe a cork, though forced several 
times under water. About an hour 
after she was taken out of the water 
she expired. The coroner sat on her 
body, but could make no discovery of 
the ringleaders, although above forty 
persons assisted in the fact, yet none 
of them could be persuaded to accuse 
his neighbour, so that the inquest were 
able to charge only three of them with 
manslaughter. 

We must now notice the statute 



into the church for security, the mob 
missing them, broke the workhouse 
walls, pulled down the pales, and de- 
molished part of the house, and seiz- 
ing the governor, threatened to drown 
him, and fire the town, having straw 
in their hands for that purpose. The 
poor witches were at length, for pub- 
lic safety, delivered up, stn|>ped naked 
by -the mob, their thumbs tied to therr 
toes, then dragged two miles, and 
thrown into a muddy stream. After 
much ducking and ill usage, the old 
woman was thrown quite naked on 
the bank almost choked with mud, 
and expired in a few minutes. Tlie 
man also shortly afterwards expired. 
The coroner's inquest returned a ver- 



which was passed in the 9ih year of dictof wilful murder asainst six of the' 
the reign of George the Second, c. 5. ringleaders, one of whom was after- 
whereby all previous statutes against wards tried, convicted, and hanged in 
witchcraft, &c. are repealed. And it chains. This affair seems to have ex- 
is thereby enacted, that all persons pre- cited much interest throughout the 
tending to exercise or use any kind of country at the time, 
witchcraft, sorcery, inchantment, or S2 June, 176O. At a General Quar- 
conjuration, or undertake to tell for- ter Sessions for Leicester, two persons. 



tunes, or pretend from his or her skill 
or knowledge in any occult or crafty 
science to discover where, or in what 
manner, any goods or chattels supposed 
to have been lost or stolen may be 
foand, shall, upon conviction, be im- 
prisoned for a year, and once in every 
quarter of a year in some market-place 
of the proper county upon the market 
day, stand openly on the pillory by the 
space of one hour, and also give secu- 
rity for good behaviour. 

The passins of this Act seems to have 
given general satisfaction to the com- 
munity, and at the time gave rise to 
several droll essays and poems upon 
the subject, which are to be founa in 
the Gentleman's Magazine and other 
periodicals of that day. But, although 
numbers rejoiced at the repeal of the 
obnoxious statutes which had so long 
continued on the statute book, to the 
terror of antient females, there were 
others who contemplated the measure 
with some alarm, and anticipated 



concerned in ducking for witches all 
the poor old women in Glen and Bur- 
ton Orery, were sentenced to stand in 
the pillory twice, and to be in gaol one 
month. 

88 Nov. 1762. A number of people 
surrounded the house of John Prit6hers 
of West Langdon in Kent, and under a 
notion of his wife having bewitched a 
boy 13 years old, dragged her out by vio- 
lence, and compelled her to so to the 
boy*s father about a mile from her own, 
where they forced her into the room 
where the boy was, scratched her arms 
and face in a most cruel manner to 
draw blood, and they threatened to 
swim her, but some people of condi- 
tion interfering, the poor woman's life 
was happily preserved ; and the persons 
concerned in carrying on the impos- 
ture, particularly one Beard and Ladd*s 
wife, being carried before a Magistrate, 
and compelled to make satisfaction to 
the unhappy injured woman, the mob 
dispersed, and the country, that was 



strange work from the circumstance of every where in tumult, aeain quieted: 



the devil being thus fairiy let loose. 

In April 1751, atTring in Herts, a 
publican giving out that he was be- 
witched by one Osborne and his wife, 
harmless people above 70, had it cried 
at several market towns that they were 
to be tried by ducking on April 28, 
which occasioned a vast concourse. 
The parish officers having removed 
the old couple from the workhouse 



The boy pretended to void needles and 
pins from his body, and his father and 
mother upheld the deceit, and collect- 
ed large sums of those whose compas- 
sion was excited. 

15 Nov. 1775. Nine old women 
were burned ^t Kaleck in Poland, 
charged with having bewitched and 
rendered unfruitful the lands belong- 
ing to a gentleman in the Palatinate. 



i8sa] 



Midwife, Man^Midwifo, Accoucheur. 



99 



I July, 1776. A woman at Earls fixed, therefore, to one of his philippics* 
Sbihon in Leicestershire, being some« an engraving representing a personage. 



time preriously seixed with an uncom- 
mon disorder, her friends took it into 
their heads that she was bewitched by 
a poor old creature in the neighbour- 
hood who could scarce crawl. To this 
miserable object the diseased, her hus- 
band, and son (a soldier), went and 
threatened to destroy her if she did not 
instantlY suffer blood to be drawn from 
ber body, bless the woman, and re- 
more her disorder. Hesitating a liltle, 
the son drew his sword, and pointing 
it to her breast, swore he would plunee 
it into her heart if she did not instantly 
comply* which being consented to, 
thej all returned home, seeminsly sa- 
tisfied ; but the part not being relieved, 
they raised a mob, seized the old wo- 
man, dragged her to a pond, cruelly 
plunged her in to the waist, and were 
procMding to practise some of the an- 
cient eapraients, when, fortunately for 
her, she was rescued from their hands 
by the humanity of the neighbouring 
gentlemen. 

(To be coniinued.) 



Mr. Urban, Jan. 11. 

^TX)DD, in the last edition of John- 
M son's Dictionary, speaks thus of 
the word Man-midwife : 

** MAN-Miowira, n. *. A strange com- 
poond, dtnotiog th« man who ditchvsts 
tha oilMt of a Midwife. It it now ue- 
<|iitntly converted into the finical Aecoa- 
ehenr. Bbhop HaII may be considered at 
giving riee in soum degree to the present 
ezpretsioa : 

This JfoR wu not their Midwife. 
Bp. Hali, Horn, rfUuMan. CUrgy. p. 100." 

The Sermon of Bishop Hall, here 
referred to, was published in l6^. 
The earliest dale at which i have found 
the word Man-midwife, is 1637, when 
it was employed in the preface to 
** the Expert Midwife." It is used as 
a verb, to manmidwife, in <' Wolve- 
ridge's Speculum Matricis,*' 1669. 

The dissection of this " strange 
compoand" has afforded no little 
amusement to those writers whose de- 
light it has been to vituperate and hold 
up to derision the Physicians and Sur- 
geons who have engaged in this branch 
of medical practice. Your old Corre- 
spondent, Philip Thicknesse, was not 
cooteoted with words only, but strove, 
by pictorial embellishments, 10 make 
his siicatiDS moie effective. He pre- 



half man and half woman ; the male 
half grasping a lever, and the female 
presenting to view a pap-hoat. 

This " strange compound " was early 
objected to, and numerous attempts 
have been made to fix upon a word 
less objectionable than this barbarism. 
Dr. ^laubray, a man of infinite pe- 
dantry and self-conceit, coined a long 
word from the Greek, to designate the 
man who gives aid tofemalet in child' 
hirih, and this whole sentence he very 
felicitously, as he imagined, comprized 
in the sesquipedalian compound, An^ 
droboelhogtfnisi, which appellation he 
took to himself, and bestowed upon 
his obstetrical brethren *. 

Douglas, a Surgeon, who published 
in 1736t» tays, it is absurd to call 
men, wives ; and not much less so, to 
use the word Midwife, when the offi- 
ciating person is either a widow or a 
maid ! He adds, " the French ex- 
press it very beautifully by the word 
Accoucheur, and I shall always express 
it by the word Midman, which though 
not so neat as the French, yet is much 
better than the absurd word complain- 
ed of.'* The female practitioners 
Douglas denominates ** Midwomen, 
which includes Maids, Wives, and Wi- 
dows.'* Subsequently, Douglas applied 
the word Accoucheur in a proposed 
dedication to his brother : " To that 
accurate Anatomist, and consummate 
Accoucheur, Dr. James Douglas, 
Physician Extraordinary to the Queen, 
&c.'* This is the first time that the 
word was so employed in England. 

Chapman X defends the expression 
Manmidwife. Midwifery, he con tends, 
is expressive of practice not by, but 
ttpofi a wife, and therefore he asserts 
that Manmidwife, and Manmidwifery, 
are words not chargeable with incon- 
gruity. 

This explanation of the meaning of 
the word Midwifery, is not incon- 
sistent with the derivation of the word 
as suggested by Todd. Johnson says, 
•• Midwife is derived both by Skinner 
and Junius, from mid or meed, a re- 
ward, and pip, Saxon.*' Todd, in ad- 
dition says, *' the interpretation of this 

* Feonle Phytician, 1730. 

t State of Midwifery in London and 



X Reply to Dooglas's Short Account* 
Sic 1787. 



Anecdoies of the Rev^ Thomas Hatch, 



30 

etymology, which Verstegan also gives, 
is • a woman of meed, deserving re- 
com pence.' But this seems a forced 
meaning. May not the word be more 
naturally derived from the Saxon pre- 
position med, with, and pip, wife, im- 
plying the wife or woman, who is at- 
tendant upon, that is with the woman 
in childbirth ?*' But if this be the de- 
rivation, it would apply equally, whether 
the woman was attended by a male or 
a female. 

Thomson, in his " Etymons of Eng- 
lish Words,*' gives another derivation. 
He considers the Gothic mid and 
Danish mil, analogous to wii, know- 
kdge, wisdom, so that Midwife, ac- 
coraing to him, corresponds with the 
French sage femme, and the Scots 
eannit wife. 

1 have often wondered that onr Lexi- 
cographers and Pbilologers have not 
looked nearer home for the derivation 
of this word. The natural etymology 
may, 1 think* be found in the old^ 
English word Madir, which it used 
both for the nvother and the womb. 
Midwife then, is the contraction of 
Modirwife, and is applied to the wife^ 
the good woman, whose dut^r it was to 
be in attendance upon this important 
part of the female system. 

Of the '• finical'* word Accoucheur, 
I have already mentioned the first use 
in the En^ish language. Astruc* tells 
us that the word was invented soon 
after the year l663 ; the first time I 
have noticed it, is 1 668 +. The Dic- 
tionaire de Trevonx traces its etymo- 
logy to the Latin accuhare. The femi- 
nine Accoucheure has been formed 
from Accoucheur; but vyiih an ab- 
8Ui[dity beyond measure ridiculous, the 
" finical" English, who have substi- 
tuted Accoucheur for the incongruous 
compound Man-midwife, are now dig- 
nifying all the old Midwives with the 
splendid appellation o( female Accou- 

chettrs. 

Instead of Man-midwife or Accou- 
cheur, to both of which words objec- 
tions have been largely made, some 
formatives from Obstetrix have been 
proposed; viz. Ohstiior, Ohttetricaior, 
and Ohslelrician. This last, as being 
analogous to Geometrician, Mathema- 
tician, Physician, &c. seems deserving 
of being adopted. Unquestionably, 
' — -^— ^— ^^— ^— — »^— » 

• History of tbe Art of Midwifery. 
t L'Accoudiear Methodiqae^ par D. 
Foumier. 18 mo. 



[Jan* 



Obstetric Surgeon, or Obstetric' Physi- 
cian, might appropriately supersede the 
ill-assorted Pnysician^-or Sorgeoo- Ac- 
coucheur, which appears to be the 
term at present much employed. 
Yours, &c. Obstktricus. 



I 



Mr. Urban, Jam, 10. 

N your Obituary of May, 18€8, vol. 

xcviii. page 474, yoii give sone 
account of the Rev. Thomas Hatch, 
late Vicar of Washington in Sotsez. 
As Mr. Hatch was my intimate friend 
during several years of my early life, I 
cannot but feel anxious to correct some 
errors in that account, of no great i«n- 
po^rtance I admit, except from the dia- 
like one feels to every degree of error 
in regard to a person one has known 
and esteemed. 

Mr. Hatch was the ton of a Clergy- 
man, Rector, or Vicar, df one of tne 
Burnbama in Norfolk, (an honour 
which he shared in common with the 
great Hero of Norfolk) and was, as is 
correctly stated, elected at an early age 
a Demi of Magdalen, and took the de- 
gree of A.M. in 1769 ; but much of the 
subsequent account is certainly erro- 
neous. It was not that this prospect of 
succeeding to a fellowship was remote, 
that he was induced to solfcit or accept 
a commission in the East India Com- 
pany's service ; but from tfie severity 
of Dr. Wheeler, then a very influen- 
tial member of the College, who wa$ 
so dissatisfied with Mr. Hatch on ac* 
count of some early eccentricities, thai 
he prevailed with the society to refoM 
him their ordinary testimoiiioflii. Be- 
ing thus driven from the profession for 
which he was intended, he was glad 
to go out as a Cadet to India. In the 
Company's service he remained long 
enough not only to attain the rank of 
Lieutenant (he was never Captain), but 
to be entitled to the liberal provision 
which the Company allows, according 
to the rank of their retired officers. It 
happened that, jnst about the time of 
his return to England, there was a va- 
cancy of one of the fellowships of 
Magdalen, which could only be lilled 
op by a native of Norfolk or Suffolk. 
There was then no Demi, no one at 
least of competent age or standing, 
from either ot these counties. A mem- 
ber of the college, a jrentleman-com- 
moner of the name of Urqohart (laldy 
deceased)* and Mr. Hatch became can- 

* Ste ow last voluwa, pt. i. p. an. 



1890.] 



Foiaufer of ike Pruny ai Sandwkh, 



31 



clid«tct$ bot* whatever ihe cUtmt of 
iht fortucc might be from hU literary 
•iJUiioiiieott. which were very consider- 
able, the lauer was elecUrd, as ii were 
by acclaiDaiioQ, from theslroog feeling 
cnienaioed tbat Mr. Hatch bad beeo 
▼ery hardiv used in liie inauiice before 
Mentioned. It wa»» I believe, about 
(his time that be received a Lieute- 
nant's commission io the East Norfolk 
fvgimeat of Militia. What I certainly 
know is, that he was acting io this ca- 
pacity to the month of Juae, in the 
year 1760, and continued in the regi- 
ment till the spring of 1783, in short, 
till it was disembodied. After this 
be retired to Magdalen College as his 
borne, when he again directed his at- 
teotioo to the pro&ssion of which he 
afterwards became an esteemed mem- 
ber. It is rather a curious fact, thai 
the 6rst sermon he ever preached wm 
io Lmiin, at St. Mary's, as part of bis 
bosioeas, for his Bachelor of Divinity's 
degree. I remember calling upon him 
one day about this time, when he 
amused himself and me, by displaying 
the various titles, [Thomas Hatch, esq. 
Lieutenant Hatch, Captain Hatch, and 
the Rev. Thomas Hatch,] by which he 
had beeo addressed on letters that had 
arrived for him during a short absence. 
In the year 1784 he obtained, as is 
stated, the livingof Washington. I have, 
indeed, one of his letters now before me, 
endorsed July 1784, in which he says; 
** I have been into Sussex on a pleasing 
occasioo to reconnoitre a living, &c.^ 
This was the living of Washington, 
to which he was afterwards presented, 
and which he was pleased to call, I 
trust with no very unpardonable levity, 
#wr/ Washington. I have mentioned 
his early eccentricities. They were, I 
belie\e, of a very harmless nature; but, 
unfortunately lor him, totally abhor* 
rent from the uste of Or. Wheeler. 
1 have heard him record many of his 
adventures with his friend Sir \Vhalley 
Gardiner. One 1 rcmembtr, — their 
onderukiog, upon some expedition, to 
personate, like Archer and Aim well, 
one the master, the other the man ; and 
I have lieard Mr. Hatch describe the 
horrors he felt when summoned, in 
the presence of the family with whom 
they lodged, to shave his master. He 
was resolved, however, not to fail in 
obedience. And shave him he did, 
regardless of his friend's t%v itches and 
snatches. He informed me too, that 
dining one eatreinely hot day with 



Sir WbaUey at Oxford, he obaerved ; 
*'tf we were now io Calcutta (this 
was of course after his return from 
India,) we should be stripped to our 
shirts.'* The idea was io such |>erfect 
accordance with the feelings of the 
party, tbat ihtj insuntlv agreed, one 
and all, to profit by the iiiot. 

To his equestrian feats I do not re- 
member to have heard him allude; 
but, as I have never felt much sympa- 
thy with knights of thmi order, he 
might very possibly think me un- 
worthy of receiving such commonicac 
tions. In a late publication, the Let- 
ters of Lord Chedworth, (see Gent. 
Mag. vol. xcviii. p. 139,) in a note to 
the sixth Letter, Mr. Hatch is spoken 
of by tiie editor, whose " companion 
he had been in arts and arms,' with 
much aflectioo. T. C. 

Mr. Urban, Jan. \Q. 

IN Mr. Hasted's valuable History of 
Kent (vol. tv. p. S67)> it is said of 
a priory at Sandwich, " that Henry 
Cowfield, a German, in the year 1872, 
founded a priory iti that town, of the 
order of frian called Carmelites, and 
afterwards, from the habits which they 
wore. White Friars; but his endow- 
ment of it was so small, that it seemeth 
Reynold, or more probably WtlUam 
Lord Clinton, who was a much larger 
benefactor, in the SOth year of king 
Edward I. was aiterwards reputed sole 
founder of it. He lies buried in the 
wall of the south side of St. Mary*a 
church, in Sandwich, which is now 
walled up.'* 

My inquiries into monastic concerns 
have related almost exclusively to man- 
ners and customs. But the difficulty 
here is, that there was no Williair 
Lord Clinton in the time of Edw. 1 
(only of Hen. IV. to Edw. IV. a dis- 
tance of nearly two centuries), and no 
other recognition of the name of i^ay- 
nald de Clinton. References ha\ e been 
made to the rtlatives and friends of the 
late Mr. Harted, for the authority re- 
ferred to. The answer has been (ac- 
companied with the most gentlemanly 
courtesy), that Mr. Hasted was in- 
debted for his information concerning 
Sandwich to the late Mr. Boys, the 
historian of that town ; and the answer 
of Mr. Garret, the town clerk, has 
been, that all the valuable records re- 
lating to Sandwich had been borrowed 
by antiquaries, and never returned by 
them f 



32 



Inscription in Beaumatig Churth.^^Chwrch Repairs. [Jan. 



I have not examined Tanner for the 
dates of the foundation o( Friaries (dis- 
tinguished from other monasteries by 
having no territorial endowments), 
but according to my recollection few, 
or even none, were founded so late as 
the time of William Lord Clinton, i. e. 
the 15th century. If any of your cor- 
respondents can oblige me with in- 
formation, viz. concerning the autho- 
rity of Mr. Hasted, Raynald de Clin- 
ton, and the date of the foundation, I 
shall be glad. 
. Yours, &c. T. D. Fosbroke. 



Mr. Urban, Jan, 20. 

IN the chancel of Beaumaris church 
is a stone which appears to have 
been erected by an Edward Water- 
house. As it puzzled Mr. Pennant to 
account for how it came there, or for 
what purpose it was erected, I request 
you to lay the inscription before your 
numerous readers, in the ho)>e that 
some one will throw light on its ob- 
ject, and on the individuals mentioned 
in it. Sir Henry Sydney had been 
I^ord Deputy of Ireland, but died in 
England in 1586. Sir Anthony St. 
Leger was another. The two others 
are unknown. 

1. Hbnricus Sydnby, ordinis Garterii mi- 
les, presidiens ex consiliis marchiis Wal- 
lia, Domlnus depntatus in Hihemia. 

9. Antomius Sbntlegbr, ordinit Garterii, 
miles, quondam depntatut in Hibemia. 

d. Franciscus Agard, armiger, ex consiliit 
in Hibernia. 

4. Edwardus Watbrhous me posuit. 

5. GwiLLiELMUs Thwaytbs, armiget, obiit 
90die Januarii, 1565. 

Noice Telmptum. — Fide et Tacituriattate. 

Yours, &c. MoNA. 



Mr. Urban, Bristol, Jan. 12. 

IT must be productive of great satis- 
faction to the friends of our vener- 
able church, and to the admirers of 
ecclesiastical architecture, to perceive 
a very considerable improvement taking 
place in the attention paid to those 
monuments of the taste and pious niu- 
niBcenceof our forefaihcrs— our parish 
churches, which have suffered so much 
through an unworthy parsimony. 

The preservers and restorers of sacred 
architecture certainly have a claim to 
our warmest gratitude, and I am 
therefore induced to lay before your 
readers a short nctice of some im- 



provements which have taken place in 
the immediate neighbourhood of this 
large city ; and, among many other 
instances which might be named, it 
gives me great pleasure to notice 
the improved state of the parish 
churches of Portbury, Tickenham, 
and Portishead, in the diocese of Bath 
and Wells. In the two former parishes 
the inhabitants have received the kind 
assistance of James Adam Gordon, 
Esq. of Naish House ; and in the latter 
parish, now coming considerably intc 
notice^ the parishioners have been 
aided by the very ample and munifi- 
cent benefactions of the Corporation of 
this City, who have given every sup* 
port to the restorations lately adopted 
in its beautiful church, and have dis« 
pla]^ed a most praiseworthy example in 
their desire to provide accommodation 
in this and other churches situated on 
their property, for the benefit of the 
increasing population more immedi- 
ately connected with them. 

The repairs of the church at Portis- 
head have also been considerably as- 
sisted by the liberality of the above 
mentioned James Adam Gordon, Esq. 
the lord of the manor of that parish, 
as well as of Portbury, a gentleman of 
great taste and classical attainments, 
eminently skilled in the early English 
architecture, a most generous promoter 
of every judicious plan for the restora- 
tion of the ecclesiastical beauties of 
the churches with which he is con- 
nected, and who, in addition to the 
other services he has rendered, recently 
presented to that church a fine-toned 
organ, built by a first-rate London 
artist. This church contains also two 
oak chairs of peculiar beauty, well 
worthy the attention of the antiquary, 
formed at the ex pence of the Rev. John 
Noble Shipton, B.D. of Baliol Coll. 
Oxford, who has been many years 
resident in that parish, and a great 
benefactor to that church, from the 
materials of the elegantly carved screen 
which once separated the church from 
the chancel, tne production of an age 
long since passed away, but which was 
taken down and thrown by as lumber 
upwards of half a century ago. These 
have lately been presented to the 
church, no expense having been spared 
in their formation, and are placed on 
each side of the altar. The venerable 
buildings above described are well 
worthy the inspection of every admirer 
of ecclesiastical architectare. B. C. 



ISSO.] 



[ 33 ] 



REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



^ Bxemplan of Tudor Archiieeture, adapted 
to modem HabiUUums: with iUustrative 
DttttiU, selected from ancient Edi/ieex ; 
and Obiervationt on the Furniture of the 
Tudor Period, By F. F. Hunt, Architect, 
Ato.pp, 800. LoDgxuan, and Co. 

OF domestic architecture it may be 
said, that its choice relics nave 
hitherto eluded public notice; either 
because their value, as connected with 
antient arts and manners, had not been 
duly appreciated by the local historian, 
or because, as isolated subjects, their 
comniitul to the press would hare 
been little likely to have recompensed 
the labours of the author or tlie ex- 
penses of the publisher. On this ac- 
count we cannot but own ourselves 
lomewhat disappointed at not finding 
in the elegant work before us, instead 
of a compilation, a large mass of ori- 
ginal matter, and, instead of a multi- 
tude of designs, some two or three score 
of ftood old models, whose various 
merits should have been pointed out 
in the text ; a work which architects 
might have resorted to as authority. In 
short, a book of antiquity, as full as 
IrJr. Pugin's, but better selected, and 
illustrated with remarks and quo- 
tations. 

But we must take Mr. Hunt's work 
as he has pleased to give it us ; and as 
a book of designs it meets with our full 
approbation. Mr. Hunt has profited 
more by the choice models of antionity 
than any other architect with whom 
we are acquainted. If we were in- 
clined to find fault with him, it would 
be for keeping too much in one style. 
There are nanygood styles of domestic 
architecture'; and when Mr. Hunt 
says the arch ought to be excluded, he 
is wrong. The pointed arch is the 
essence of Domestic, as well as Eccle- 
siastical architecture $ and this, we 
think, Mr. Hunt will hereafter allow, 
when he has a little more studied the 
subject. 

Section I. is a dissertation on the 
Domestic Architecture of the sixteenth 
century ; but its peculiar characteristics 
are not sufficiently pointed out, nor are 
we always referred to the buildiofls 
which the author supposes to fumiUt 
the best models for imitation. This is 
Gknt. Mao. January ^ ISSO. 



very desirable; for the - architects of 
the present day lack not models, but 
taste in their selection. 

** Domestic Architecture,*' says Mr. 
Hunt, *' like painting and sculpture, 
was greatly improved under the first 
and second Edwards.** (p. I.) We do 
not know whether this observation 
applies to the style of arch, or to the 
internal comfort of the houses of that 
period. If to the latter, it is not proved, 
and cannot be proved ; if to the for- 
mer, the relics of the royal Palace at 
Westminster afford a contradiction. 
The architecture of that Palace was 
exquisitely beautiful ; the dimensions 
of the apartments grand, and its en- 
richments, whetlier of sculpture or 
]>ainting, of almost uneoualled beauty 
and splendour. The style of architec- 
ture (Henry lllo excelled that prac- 
tised when the Palace was founded, 
however noble and commanding, and 
it was incomparably superior to any 
afterwards established. 

Mr. Hunt observes (p. 3), " Henry 
VIII. was a great builder ; and with 
him, and not on the dissolution of the 
monasteries, began that style of house- 
building which it is the purpose of 
this volume to illustrate.*' The King 
was certainly a patron of architecture, 
but his munificence was far excelled 
by that of Cardinal Wolsey, whose 
buildings arc amongst the most valu- 
able models of the age. 

The style of Henry VIII.*s reign was 
not altogether new, but only a modi- 
fication of that of Henry Vll. Do- 
mestic architecture rose on the ruins of 
Ecclesiastical architecture, which in 
the reign of Henry VIII. had reached 
its lowest and most disordered state. 
Just so much of the antient style might 
be applied to the design of a house as 
'suited the fancy of the architect; but 
he could not safely take the same 
liberty in the style of a church, nor 
depart either from the antient plan or 

general style of ornament, without a 
eparture also from beauty and good 
taste. 

" To the reign of Henry VIII.** ob- 
•enres Mr. Hunt, " we must look for 
models.*' Hampton Court and Hen« 
grave Hall are tiiost recommended as 



34 



Rbview. — Hunt*s Exemplars of Tudor /Irchitecture, [Jaoi 



"reducible to the wants of the present 
refined age.** This may be doubled, 
even if tne present were the original 
arrangement of these mansions. Many 
of the state apartments of Hampton 
Court have been destroyed, and Hen- 
erave has undergone so much altera- 
tion, in the total destruction of some 
rooms, and the enlargement or reduc- 
tion of others, that its present internal 
comfort and elegance are totally inde- 
pendent of antiquity. But, utter ail, 
there is no antient house which could 
be recommended for exact imitation 
(supposing such imitation desirable) 
in these days. This remark is equally 
applicable to plan and design ; both 
may be copied in parts, and the style 
of the latter ought to be preserved 
throughout, but ihc whole must be made 
to suit the economy of the age in which 
we live. Before we leave H engrave, it 
may be rematkcd, en passant, that Mr. 
Hunt has drawn largely from Mr. 
Gage's History, which is indeed a very 
valuable work. 

. There is no doubt of the use of brick 
as aa essential material in houses of 
the first magnitude as early as the 15th 
century, i. e. in the reigns of Hen. VI. 
and Edw. IV. Eltham Hall is of 
brick, with an external facing of stone; 
and the beautiful ruins of the gate- 
way of Nether Hall, Essex, are wholly 
of the same material, excepting the 
internal arches which are edged with 
^tonc. It was built under Edward IV. 
whose badges combined, are carved on 
wood in one an«le of the interior. 
Hurstmonceaux Castle and Eton Col- 
lege were erected in the preceding 
reign ; and it is difficult to believe that 
these are siiecimens of the earliest 
moulded bricks used in England ; if so, 
it would puzzle antiquaries to point 
out any improvement in that art from 
the above period to the reign of Hen. 
VIII. It may be noticed that bold- 
ness was not a common characteristic 
of the antient brick ornaments, the 
varieties of which, excepting on chim- 
neys, were few in proportion to their 
number. At East Barsham, in Nor- 
folk, there is a constant repetition of 
the same devices; the cornices are 
shallow, but the chimneys and turrets, 
as in most instances, are extremely 
beautiful. 

Cosse? Hall, Norfolk, is now build- 
ing for Lord Stafford, under the direc- 
tionofMr.J.C.BuctLler. Red and white 



brick are used in the construction of 
this house, the latter in the cornice, 
corbels, windows, and doorways, and 
from their colour and size they very 
closely resemble masonry. These bricks 
are in large masses, perfectly sound and 
even, and the arches of some of the 
doorways, four feet wide, consist of 
only two pieces. The brick field is on 
the edge of the park, and as the utmost 
pains are taken in the manufacture, it 
may be supposed that the material is 
of a very superior quality both as to 
strength and colour. I'he style adopted 
by Mr. Buckler is that of Henry VI II. 
and the arch (to which Mr. Hunt 
objects), except within a square archi- 
trave, is an excluded feature. The 
best examples have been selected for 
the building, and there is already no 
mean display of chimneys. 

The ground- plan in Section II. 
(p. 26.) somewhat resembles that of 
Lastbury Hall, in Essex. The cloister 
is an additional feature ; its open side 
partakes more of modernity than of 
antiquity, but its constituent orna- 
ments are correct and good. The 
chimney shafts are very handsome, 
and the gate-house simple and in the 
true spirit of antiquity. 

The originals of the pirate and curi- 
ously embossed dogs in PI. XV. p. 58, 
are at Haddon Hall, in the county of 
Derby. 

In p. 6l to 63, inclusive, is an in- 
teresting list of buildings, distinguished 
by heraldic ornaments. This species 
of enrichment was equally beautiful 
and valuable. It was also very com- 
mon, and it may be observed, that it 
was the almost boundless exercise of 
this liberty of decoration in architec- 
tural design that, while it contributed 
both beauty and variety, produced the 
continual changes that hastened its 
decline. 

« The frets and other fancifid forms 
which are seen in the fronts of buildingt, 
formed of vitrified bricks, were made for the 
purpose of employing in a manner the leMt 
unsightly, such as were discoloured by burn- 
ing. In a clamp, or kiln of bricks, a certaifr 
number must, from their situation, be more 
strongly acted upon by the fire than the 
general mass, and consequently becooMr 
darkly tinged. With the tact so peculiar 
to the old artbans, this, like other seeming 
disadvantages, was turned to account ; and 
what in other hands would have been blem- 
ishes, were converted by them into embel- 
lishments. Instead of allowing the work- 



jl83a] RiviBW.— Huttf* Exempian of Tadar Jrchiiteturtf. 



35 



mtn to utt feach bricks inditcrimioately, mod 
therebj disfigure the walls with spots, thej 
were selected, m being more Taluabie than 
ihe others, aod wrought into devices, re* 
lieviug the plainness of those piers or surfaces 
which had neither apertures or stone dress- 
ings. Many examples of this kind of oma- 
Dent could be given, but perhaps those in 
the boundary walls of the antient manor- 
house at Bermondsey, referred to by Mr. 
J. C. Buckler, in his interestmg < Account 
of Eitham Palace,' recently published, are 
the most striking. They consisted of lo« 
Senges, with crosses upon their upper points, 
two keys endorsed, toe bows interlaced in 
bend, a sword interposed between them in 
bend sinister [Mr. Hunt thus prints the 
blaionry of the arms of the see of Win- 
chester, correcting in this instance a mistake 
into which Mr. Buckler had falleu] ; the 
sacred cross, curiously constructed ; the 
cross of St. Andrew ; intersected triangles, 
in allusion to the Holy Trinity; the globe 
and cross ; the merchant's mark; the badge 
of the borough of South wark ; and the re- 
presenution of the west front of a church, 
with a Norman arch under a gable, between 
two towers whose pointed roofs terminated 
in crosses. Tliis rude figure was seven feet 
eight inches lung; and Mr. Buckler con- 
jectures that it preserved an imperfect idea 
of the sacred edifice of Norman architecture 
which once occupied the site. P. 71. 

Thif origin of the patterns forined 
of glazed bricks, ts given above by 
Mr. Hunt, is %'ery ingenious ; if it be 
correct, there must have been a great 
proportion of over-burned bricks, as 
scarcely half the number was used in 
the patterns. Those which were not 
were built up just as they came to the 
handsof the workmen. The selection 
now-a-days would add to the trouble 
and expense. 

The followingTcry judicious observa- 
tions cannot be too often repeated : 

" Great auentinn should be given to the 
colour of plastered houses. Mr. Uvedale 
Price, who seems to have deeply considered 
thb subject, observes, in his Essays on the 
Picturesque, that one * of the most charm- 
ing effects of sunshine is its giving to ob- 
jects not merely light, but that mellow 
golden hue §o beautiful in itself, and which 
when diffused, as in a fine evening, o%'er the 
whole landscape, creates that rich union 
and harmony, so enchanting in nature and 
in Claude : in auy scene, whether real or 

Cinted, where s«oh harmony prevails, the 
IS t discordancy in colour would disturb 
the eye ; but if we svppoee a single object 
of a glarbg white to be introduced, the 
whole attention, in spite of all our efforts to 
the contrary, will be drawn to that point ; 
if many such objects be scattered about, the 



eye will be distracted among them. Again 
(to consider it in another view), when the 
sun breaks out m gleams, there is something 
that delights and surprises, in seeing an ob* 
ject, before only visible, lighted up in 
splendour, and then gradually sinking into 
shade ; but a whitened object is Mreadj 
lighted up; it remains so when every thing 
else has retired into obscurity ; it still forces 
itself into notice, still impudently stares 
you in the face.— An object of a sober tint» 
unexpectedly gilded by the sun, is like a s^ 
rious countenance lighted up by a smile t a 
whitened object, like the eternal grin of a 
fooL I wish however to be understood) 
that when I speak of whitewash and whiten- 
ed buildings, I mean that glaring white 
which is produced by lime alone, or without 
a sufficient quantity of any lowering ingre- 
dient ; for there cannot be a greater or 
more reasonable improvement than that of 
giving to a fiery brick buildiug the tint of a 
stone one. Such an improvement, however, 
should chiefly be coLnned to ^ery brick ; 
for when hrick becomes weather stained 
and mossy, it harmonises with other colours, 
and has often a richness, mellowness, and 
variety of tint, infinitely pleasing to the 
painter's eye ; for the cool colour of tha 
greenish moss lowers the fiery quality, while 
the subdued fire beneath gives a glow of pe- 
culiar character which the fpainter would 
hardly like to change for sny uniform colour, 
much less for the unmixed whiteness of 
lime.** P. 74. 

" Halls are mentioned of a very early 
date, built with a middle and two side aisles 
like Churches : the original hall at West- 
minster is said to have been of this form. 
These observations of former writers, and 
men whose antiquarian r^earches entitle 
their opinions to respect, the author begs to 
say he notices incidentally, having no autho- 
rity of his own to adduce, llie nail of the 
Savoy Hospital was cruciform; its length 
each way was 926 feet, and its width 30 
feet." P. 95 note. 

The Guildhall at York, erected in 
the 15th century, is a fine building on 
the former plan. The Hall of the ancient 
palace at Winchester, at least two cen- 
turies older, is another existing ex- 
ample; and that Westminster Hall was 
originally subdivided by two rows of 
arches and pillars, there can be no 
doubt. The triple arches on the exte- 
rior, with lozenge-shaped masonry si- 
milar to the Chapter House of Wen- 
lock Priory, and of the same Norman 
character, appeared Avhen the stone- 
work of Richard the Second's age was 
removed to make way for the present 
noble facade. 

Ceiled rooms [nQi mentioned in 
Mr. Hunt*s book J are of remote in- 



M 



RsViftw.— Hunt's Exemplart of Tudor Architecture. [Jan. 



tiqaity. When the Hall occupied only 
the lower story of the house, as in 
the curious remains of the parsonage- 
house at Congresbury in Somerset, 
it was ceiled ; out in the majority of 
examples this noble apartment was 
distinguished for its height, and its 
chief architectural embellishments ap- 
peared in its raftered roof. The Painted 
Chamber, and the Prince's Chamber 
at Westminster, were covered with 
flat ceilings of wood, and adorned with 
figures in panels of great richness and 
beauty ; and the roof of the interven- 
ing room was arched in wood. Expe- 
rience has proved that flat ceilings are 
the best for rooms of common habita- 
tion, and that this opinion was early 
entertained, the above examples may 
testify. The Norman manor-house at 
Appleton in Berks, is too imperfect to 
be cited on the same account; but that 
at Winwal in the parish of Wereham 
in Norfolk, is ceiled after the manner 
of a modern house ; and the proof that 
the fashion in this instance is original, 
appears in the cornice of zig-zag which 
extends round the rooms. The choice 
of flat ceilings, therefore, in houses at 
a period when scarcely the aile of a 
Church, however small, was left with- 
out a groined vaulting, is a sure testi- 
mony of a system in domestic architec- 
ture, in which comfort and accommo* 
dation were mainly considered. 

The Section on Furniture is very in- 
teresting, but has little to do with the 
style of Domestic Architecture, of 
which the book treats. This kind of 
furniture is at best coarse and clumsy, 
—it will not bear imitation. Some 
articles of beauty would no doubt be 
found in the dwellings of the ancients ; 
but they were far inferior to us in do- 
mestic conveniences, and the fittings- 
up were by no means proportioned to 
tne magnincence of the building. 

The engravings, or rather etchings, 
are very neatly executed. Accuracy 
in the outline and detail has been 
chiefly regarded, and these are more 
valuable in works of (he present kind, 
than the most highly finished engrav- 
ing. The drawings are from the au- 
thor's own pencil. One of the sub- 
jects, if we are not mistaken, appeared 
in the last year's exhibition at Somer- 
set-house ; and several of the eneravings 
have been long before the public. 

The title-page is decorated with a 
beautiful wood-cut of the arms and 
supporters of Henry VII 1. tastefully 



designed and drawn by Mr. Wille- 
ment. 

As a work intended to exhibit the 
skill of its author in the adaptation of 
ancient designs to modern habitations, 
this is very valuable one, and likely to 
correct the bad taste which, with so 
many fine models for imitation, still su« 
perabounds in the profession to which 
Mr. Hunt belongs. We are glad to 
see that in these designs there is no 
slrainins after the picturesque — ^as if a 
confused outline produced beauty, and 
broken angles, variety of decoration, 
and irregularly shaped features, atoned 
for inaccurate detail, mixture of styles^ 
and mistaken notions of the system 
which governed the architects of^ anti- 
quity. 

Uniformity certainly is not incon- 
sistent with what is misnamed goihic 
architecture. It did not always extend 
to inferior features, which however 
were sometimes arranged with scru- 
pulous exactness. The west frimts of 
Christ Church in Oxford, and Thorn- 
bury Castle may be named ; the latter 
indeed is very imperfect; but in the 
splendid front of Hengrave Hall there 
once appeared, for the sake of unifor- 
mity, a window on the east side of the 
porch, exactly like the curious bay 
window of the Chapel on the other 
side. 

In another respect, Mr. Hunt's de- 
signs are highly creditable to his taste 
and judgment. They are not loaded 
with carved work ; he has trusted to 
general features, and has had but little 
to do with minute ornaments. He 
who tricks out a design with many 
carvings, l)etrays a want of sound taste, 
and fancies he supplies with enrich- 
ment the deficiency in the order of the 
plan and the beauty of its proportions. 
On the whole, it is better to have too 
few than too many ornaments. By 
simplicity we do not mean sullen se- 
verity, or a total absence of decoration, 
but only so much as will serve to in- 
crease the beauty of the design, the 
merit of which is always diminished 
by excess in this particular. 



The Vbcabulary of East Anglia ; tm Attempt 
to record the Fulgar Tongue of the TVmn- 
Sister Counties Norfolk and Suffolk^ as it 
existed in the last Twenty Years qf the 
Eighteenth Century ^ and stiU exists, toUh 
Proqf lif its AnUquityy from Etymology 
and Authority, By the jUUe Rev. Robert 



18Sa] Rkvibw.— Porby'6 Vocabulary of Eaii AngUa. 



B7 



• Forbj^ Rector of Fmeham, f vols, foat 
800. Nichols mod Son. 

ANCIENT provincialisms are like 
ancient coins : they form the authentic 
materials of history. They suggest new 
facts, and they confirm the old ; and 
they have the superior character of 
matters insusceptible of error, fabrica- 
tion, or opinion. If not an iota of 
history existed concerning the Roman 
conquest of Britain, coins and tesselated 
pavements would show it. It is, of 
cotirse, a natural conclusion that, if 
there exist, as here stated (Preface), 
" a remarkable prevalence of Anglo- 
Saxon nomenclature in the topography 
of East Anglia,'* the Anglo-Saxons 
had an eminent concern with that dis- 
trict, and that circumstances have not 
substituted others for the native words. 
But, as provincialisms generally obtain 
among the uneducated ranks, tne cause 
is not strictly local, but accidental. 
The authorise translation of the Bible 
is almost entirely genuine English, 
and we select from the Introduction 
(p. 17) the following demonstrative 
proof: 

" Then, wheo Marj w%% coma where Jetas 
was, aad mw him, she fell doim at hit feat, 
•aying unto him, < Lord, if thou hadst been 
here, 017 brother had not died.' When Je- 
•01 therefore taw her weeping, and the 
Jews also weeping, which came with her, 
he groaned in spirU and was troubled^ and 
said, * Where have ye laid him .>' They tald 
unto him, ' Lord, come and see.* Jetut 
wept. • Then laid the Jews, * Behold, how 
he loved him \ *" JoAn, x. 39—36. 

<* With the exception of proper namet, 
which either retain the same form in all 
lancuaget, or are varied only by tome 
slight roodificationt, tliis passsf^e contains 
seventy-two words. Of these all are Saxon 
but the two printed in in lulics, one of 
which is of Latin, the other of French 
origin. This is indeed the English of the 
earlv put of the century before the last. It 
is above two hundred years old; but it is 
also the English of the piesent day : not 
one of tlie words, as they suod in tliis pas- 
sage of our New Testament, is either ob- 
solete or in any degree unnsiul. If the pas- 
sage had been translated iu our time, we 
should indeed, very prol>al>Iy, Iiavc found it 
less purely Saxon. Passages, quoted from 
Robertson, Home, Gibbon, and Johnson, 
contain a much greater proportion of words 
derived from other languages, but wa must 
not conclude that the words which are not 
Saxon could not be supplied by Saxon. On 
the contrary, Saxon terms mijzht be sub- 
stitated for almost all of them. 

The adultcratton of the Saxou first 



proceeded from the French ; and from 
that nation also, says Mr. Forby (p.41)^ 
the Latin. But to that position there 
are many exceptions. Long before the 
Norman invasion, there were various 
monkibh works written in Latin, and 
that Latin was assuredly derived from 
Italy, through intercourse with the 
Romish see. Greek has been chiefly, 
almost wholly, adopted from works of 
science, and is of rect^nt introduction. 

The indispensable connection of pro« 
fane knowledge with the state of reason 
and civilisation, which is eoually in« 
dispensable to the support of the morals 
ana rationality of our religion, renders, 
in our opinion, clergymen who sup- 
port learning very useful men. When 
(says a trite anecdote) it was observed 
to South, that " God had no necessity 
for human learning** " Then (he re- 

Klied) he can have no necessity for 
uman ignorance** Nor is such learo^ 
ing incompatible with the sacred pro- 
fession, or unbecoming^ it ; for, in the 
first place, the illustrations of theology 
are in a great degree dependent upon 
profane science ; and, in the next, the 
exercise of the virtues do not require 
much expenditure of lime or previous 
study. We know that we are mdebted 
for almost all the learned works, likely 
to survive a century, to eminent eccle* 
siastics ; and, under the modern fa- 
natical prejudice, it is a counteracting 
medicine to laud and elevate indut* 
trious scholars. Upon this account, 
among others, we shall give a short 
abstract of the " Memoirs of our Au- 
thor," as written by that elegant an- 
tiquary Mr. Dawson Turner, and an- 
nexed to this work. 

Mr. Forby was the son of respecta- 
ble, but not opulent parents, at Stoke 
Ferry, in the county of Norfolk, and 
educated under Dr. Lloyd, at the Free 
School at Lynn. From hence he re- 
moved to Cambridge, where he gradu- 
ated in 178 1 , and soon after was elected 
fellow of his college, Caius. The late 
Sir John Berney, in an evil hour, in- 
duced him to resign his fellowship, 
and abandon his college prospects, for 
the sake of coming near him, and un- 
dertaking the education of his sons. 
Accordingly, he received from the Ba- 
ronet the small living of Horningtoft, 
in Norfolk, and settled himself near 
his patron, at Barton Bendish, whither 
he had taken his mother and sisters to 
reside with him. Misfortunes on the 
part of ihc Baronet frustrated all his 



38 



RfeviBW. — Forby'0 VocabulaTy of East Jngliu. 



[Jan. 



expectations, and he was obliged to 
have recoarse to pupils for his own 
sustenance. Schoolmasters are char- 
tered subjects of petty annoyance ; and 
Mr. Tomer justly says : 

" Every one who bu been eonversaDt, in 
however slight a degree, with edacation, 
knows that the daily and hourly annovances 
necessarily attendant on it are such, that no 
motive can ever thoroughly reconcile the 
mind to the irksome task, except the spur 
of some more irksome necessity." P. xxiii. 

The truth is, that an opinion that 
nobody would be a schoolmaster who 
could possibly help it, induces people 
to think that ihey must and will sub- 
mit to baiting with every kind of in- 
dignity ; and this licentiousness of in- 
tuit is savagely exercised by coddling 
mothers and purse-proud fathers. They 
have only the minds and feelings of 
cattle-drovers ; and it is useless to state 
the utility and convenience of the pro- 
fession, and the public good of avoiding 
such conduct, that respectable people 
may be induced to become tutors. 
In their opinion, pecuniary obligation 
ought to make only humble friends 
and upper servants. Poor Forby was 
more than once stung by such insects 
as to character. But though, upon 
the death of his uncle, the Rev. Joseph 
Forby, he succeeded him in the va- 
luable family living of Fincham, he 
still continued a schoolmaster. In 
1803, he added to this drudgery that 
of being an acting justice, deputy- 
lieutenant, and commissioner of the 
land-tax. As he had complained of 
being in the frying-pan, as a school- 
master, so it seems that, through the 
official labours, he had only jumped 
out of it into the Bre ; hacl got into 
roasting as well as frying; for he says : 

*' Of the fatigue of my daily domestic 
occupations you are a competent judge : 
this is to be added to the other ; and when 
I have left home, soon after breakfast, and 
return at five o'clock to a solitary dinner, 
which I abhor, with my head full of parish- 
rates, surveyors* accounts, vagrants, run- 
away husbands, assaults, petty larcenies, 
militia-lists, and substitutes ; tax-duplicates 
and distress- warrants, some or all of these 
jumbled together in fi horrid confusion ; and, 
my dinner dispatched, sit dowu to have my 
acirmg head split by prosaic verses, had 
themes, or abominable lessons, tell me is it 
wonderful if I take up any slight amusement 
that lies in my ways, kick off my shoes and 
lounge by the fireside^ or try to win six- 
pence of my mother at cribbage ?" P. xxvi. 

Mr. Dawson Turner ascribes his en- 



durance of this fatigue, after the ac- 
quisition of a living, to use becoming 
a second nature. But as he also 
wrote poetical squibs, essays, &c. we 
apprehend that he had a veiy active 
mind, a natural consequence of high 
cultivation, and active minds require 
perpetual excitement. Indolence is 
misery. 

His clerical duties were performed 
in a most satisfactory matnner ; he was 
a good reader, an eloquent preacher^ 
a comforter and benefactor to the poor ; 
in private life an excellent aon ; and, 
as Mr. Turner says, in his general cha- 
racter, a most valuable man. 

He continued to pursue, with the 
addition only of literary amusements, 
among which was this work, the kind 
of life which we have described, until 
December 20, 1825. 

«< Upon that day a gentleman called to 
see him, about one o'clock, while he was 
taking his bath, as utoal. After waiting 
a considerable period, the hmily became 
alarmed, and upon opening the door, they 
found that he had fainted in the water, and 
had been suffocated, and had evidently been 
dead some time.*' p. xiv.. 

Bishop Heber, it will be remember- 
ed, met with a similar death; and 
therefore we would recon^mend the 
more harmless substitute of a shower- 
bath. 

We shall now proceed to the work. 
It is hardly possible that words, pro- 
fessed to be purely Saxon or Old 
English, should be merely provincial, 
because the language was national. 
We shall therefore take for our ex- 
tracts certain words not of limited ap- 
plication. 

<< GuMPTiov, 5. understanding; Jamik- 
SOK and P£OGe. Common sense ; Jenvinos. 
Common sense combined with energy; 
BaocKETT. With us it seems rather to 
mean address and shrewdness. It is a good 
word, and may have many shades of meaning. 
Moes-g. gaumian, percipere. BaocKxrr has 
gttwm in this sense." ii. 145. 

This is ingenious and correct, for 
there still is a verb, io gawm, t. e. to 
mind. Watson says, *'In Halifax, not 
to gawm a man, is not to mind him. 
But in the next parish, within Lanca- 
shire, to gawm IS to understand or to 
comprehend, and a man is said to 
gawm that which be can hold in hia 
hands. For thia reason a person is said 
there to be gawmlets when his fingert 
are so cold and frozen that be has not 
the proper use of ihtm "'^(Watson*s 
Haliifax, in Face,) 



188a] Rbtibw.— -Forby's Vocahulafy of Easi AngUa. ^0 

That the origin is here correct is santry, and a mongrel in mjxed classes. 
beyond donbt; but, as Tyrwhit says. Genuine English will suffer an ex- 
French words were Saxonised ; so dpes tinction to an extensive degree, and 
it appear also, from the termination, books liite these will uhimately be its 
ion, that Saxon words were, vice versd, only preservative. Now for the proof. 
Frenchified, f^mpiion being made op The number of derivatives in Johnson 
out ot gawmlton, is stated to be, from the 

**TAWTnvM%, s. pi, tart; whims; abtiird . 

lirMks ; high ropes. Though the seutes do h^^'^. ®»^^* 

■oc seMB exaetlj coiacideot, it is probably French 4,81 2 

ffomFr. tranlrantr Wilbhaham Chesh. %^°^ J>665 

Gloss, and Bhockett, ii. 34«. "^*" ^>48 

Trantran is, in Colcravc, " the land * 

resoundinff, or sound of a hunter's 14,867 

horn." We have thought, that ian* The total number of derivati^ei is 

tomm (Lat) was the real origin ; but 15,782— deduct 14, 357, the remainder 

trantran^ the r being sunk for euphony, is only 1 ,4S5. 

iriio tantran, is far bettcn As, lo gwe Thus it appears that educated people 

ktmselfatrt: atr, a dissyllabic, is Fr. ^ally talk Uiin and French; and if 

Anger, from the Latin tra, and atr*, any of our leisurely correspondents will 

adj. IS angrjr, choleric , but the phrase, ,akc the trouble of counting the wordt 

dMner mr (i. e. atr the monosyllable or of a Bible Concordance, they will easily 

diphthong) i» to publish, reveal, &c. ,ee how much of the real English ton- 

On the Ai^A fo/»e#, is an obvious me- g^ js retained in memory. Perhaps 

uphor from funambulism. ihey will find that, were it not for the 

'* r? T** T. ^ *"^ ^V *: ': *^ translation of the Bible, and the Li- 

make bun lower bui to»e .nd be subm^v.. ^ngHsh would soon become a 

It mav posMbly be denved from the * am- ,u*^ u„™^ T» :. «.«i- 

ble. • WthTdJtr, which were the perquisite ^^^^ >»"?»««*• }^ » ^xilj now pre- 

of the buoumao ; and if so, it sWld be ''^-V'^J^Tnu " ^f '^V'*'' ^"^ <^'8- 

writun umHe-tHe, the food of inferiors." U. "'"~ "y/"*^ Church Service. At pre- 

48«. »«nt ^ 'fo^g (3 black-/e|^, or a black 

Umlle is certainly taken from urn- S^<'^^> ^^ ^^^^ "o^ which) is intro- 

bilicui. diiced into gentlemanly, though not 

These few specimens will show what official, diction. Such things are mat- 

a valuable accession this work is to the *^" o^ course, but they are nevertheless 

philologist and antiquary. disgusting. 

We ought further to observe, that Mr. Forby has, in this work, left a 
the Glossary does not form the whole legacy of very considerable value to the 
of this work ; there is also a copious philologist. He evidently was a man 
and elaborate dissertation upon the nighly qualified, by long residence in 
origin and history of our language, his native county, bv accurate obserta- 
which merits study; and Mr. Forby *s tion, and unremitted study, for the task 
remarks on East Anglian pronunciation he delighted in ; and it is to be regretted 
and grammar, stamp an additional va- that he did not live to complete his in- 
loe on. his work. But %ve shall not tentions. The present publication con- 
stop here as to the value of such works, tains between two anu three thousand 
Few people know that only one word words ; but Mr. Forby was of opinion 
in English, out of twelve, is spoken that, if a general vocabulary of all the 
by educated people. We have seen a English provincialisms were formed, 
fable in which the derivatives, as stated thirteen thousand words might be Col- 
in Johnson's Dictionary, are numeri- lectrd. This is still a great desideratum 
cally summed up. Though it is not in our literature, and we trust will ul- 
maoe %viih philosophical accuracy, we timaiely be accotnplished. Upon the 
are clear that, on a broad scale, it is whole, we can safely recommend Mr. 
sufficient ; for it is to be recollected that Forby's work to the attention of those 
we are not discussing all the words who are interested in the history of 
of a language, only those of the great their native tongue ; and it cannot fail 
lexicographer, who certainly did not to gratify particularly those whom bu- 
inclu(» vulgarisms. From hence it will siness or other caufcs may brinjg into 
clearly appear that, as education ad- contact with the lower orders in the 
%*ances, we shtll hare two dialecb, twin-sister counties whose peculiarities 
broadly marked, in the gentry and pea- of idiom arc explained in it. 



4Q 



RsviBW. — Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Qfclopiedia, 



[Jan. 



Dr. Lardner's Cabinet CydofMtdia : — FbL I, 

History qf Scotland. 5y Sir Wdter Scott. 

— Fol. 11, History of Maritime and Inland 

Discovery. 

THIS i» one of those new engines of 
instruction so peculiarly characteristic 
of the age of improvement in which 
we live. Its plan and arrangements are 
entitled to our best commendations; 
for, as intellectual food, be its quality 
what it may, is now as essential to 
our existence as our cor|)oreal aliment, 
too much praise cannot be bestowed 
on those who hgive adopted the best 
means of ensuring an abundant and 
cheap supply of the most healthful. 
The design of the Cabinet Cyclopadia 
is, the furnishing popular compen- 
diums of all that is useful and interesting 
in art, science, and literature, from the 
pens of the most eminent writers of the 
day. A twofold advantage is secured by 
the employment of none but the most 
profound and oractised writers in this 
undertaking. Cj^^e high reputation of 
such men, and the generous emulation 
to which their simultaneous co-opera- 
tion roust give birth, will be a guaran- 
tee of not only the intellectual excel- 
lence, but, what is far more important, 
the motal tendency of their produc- 
tionsj^ Tim* it is that induces us to 
augur well of the Cabinet Cyclo|}aedia, 
ana to hail it as a valuable addition to 
our literature. 

With reference to the two volumes 
of the Cabinet Cyclopaedia which are 
now lying before us, a few words will 
suffice to express our opinion of their 
very great merits. The^^ are both the 
fruits of the most extensive and pains- 
taking research, conveyed in a style of 
such unbroken interest, that the widest 
and loftiest views are as easily compre- 
hended by the reader as the narrative 
of the simplest fact. The History of 
Scotland, by Sir Walter Scott, is a 
beautiful illustration of the grace and 
eflfect which sober reality assumes when 
treated by the pencil of genius. In no 
work with which we are acquainted, 
is the progress-^in fact, the romance 
of manners, painted with more historic 
fidelity, or with half so much pictu- 
resque vividness of colouring. This, 
indeed, is the great charm of the work 
-—which will ensure it lasting popu- 
larity. 

The progress of manners is also in a 

treat degree the main object of the 
listorv of Maritime Discovery, but ne- 
cessarily on a more generalizing scale. 



" It has for its object,'' says the wri- 
ter, " in some measure the defining 
the species, but is more immediately 
connected with the advancement of 
navigation and commercial enterprise. 
Instead of confining the attention to 
the fortunes of a particular commu- 
nity, it carries the eye of the enquirer 
continually abroad, to survey all the 
nations of the earth, to mark the know- 
ledge they obtained of one another, 
and the extent of their mutual ac- 
quaintance.'* As the condensation of 
facts in a work of this nature is ne- 
cessarily greater than in that of the 
History of Scotland, the difficulty is 
increased of sustaining the interest of 
the narration. As a counterbalance, 
however, the individual sympathy with< 
wild adventure and herotc suffering ia 
more unremittingly excited, and the 
thirst of curiosity more constantly in- 
flamed to the end of the volume. We 
know not, therefore, which volume is 
the most interesting; for, if the His* 
tory of Scotland abounds more in pic- 
turesoue scenes of chivalrous barons 
and neroic knights, the History of 
Maritime Discovery, besides reflecting 
a philosophic light on the origin and 
customs of the various nations of the 
earth — enchains the attention more 
by the spirit of adventure, which from 
the birth of the human race has urged 
on individuals — here to explore Nature 
in her ** unmolested but barbarous 
majesty,** — there to unfold the charm 
which encirles every thing coooected 
with the splendid dreams of the an- 
cient kingdoms of the east,«-or« with 
Columbus, to dash over a trackless 
ocean to the possession of a new world. 

In our selection of extracts, we shall 
depart from the course usually follow- 
ed in the cas^ of eulogy, and, instead 
of an extract which we might submit 
to the reader with our unqualified 
commendations, we shall present to 
them our reasons for not adopting two 
new opinions which Sir Waiter Scott 
and the historian of Maritime Disco- 
very have promulgated in their re- 
spective volumes. 

It would appear from the following 
passage, that Sir V\'alter Scott inclines 
to the belief that Richard the Second 
did not, as is generally asserted, ter- 
minate his life within a short period 
after his deposition, but lived a cap- 
tive for many years in Scotland. 

<< There b a story told by Bower, or 
Bowmaktr, the contimiator of Fordan's 



1830.] Rsvisw.^Str W. Scott*8 MUimy of Scotland. 



41 



ChroiHcfo, which hat htthcfto htn tfMlad 
M fiibvloot by Um mora modern hittonant. 
Tht» tt^ry besft, thaC Ricbud 11. g«Q«r«lly 
Mppowd Co h«v« been m«rd«rtd at Pont** 
fmet CmOo, tiUmr by tho <• fitreo haMl of 
aSr Pion of BxCoa/' or by tbo ttovm- tmd 
moM ora«l dMth of fcmint, did in imdlty 
maim hit otenpa bv anbik^ from hi* plaet 
of eoafiDMMBt ; timt bo fled in disguito to 
the Soottask itU*, and was recocniMd in tho 
dominion* of th« Lord of the iMes by a ew 
tain fool or icater, who had baan ^miliar in 
the court ot Engbndf aa being no other 
than the dethroMd kitt|f of thu kingdom. 
Boarer nrooeedi to state, that the person of 
iUehardli. thas diacovered, waa delivered 
UD by the Lord of the Islee to the Lord 
Mootffomery, and br him presented to Ro* 
bert III. by whom he was honourably and 
beeeeminghr maintained during all the mra 
of thas prince'a Kfi. After the deatn of 
Robert III. this Richard is stated to hare 
been s nppo r ted in maenifioeoee, and even in 
roynl sUte* by the Dnke of Albany ; to hare 
ai length died in the oaatle of Stirling, and 
to haM been interred in the church of the 
Friars theie» at the north angle of the altar. 
This singular legend is alto attested by ano> 
thcr cnotemporary historian, Winton, the 
prior of Ix>chle««n. He tellt the ttory 
with some slight diflereneet, particularly 
that the fugitive and deposed monarch waa 
rec<^ized by an Irish lady, the wife o( a 
brother of the Lord of the Islet, that had 
seen him in Ireland — that, being charged 
with being King Richard, he denied it,— 
that he was placed in custody of the Lord 
of MontgoflMry^ and afterwards of the Lord 
of Cumbemanld,— and, finally, that he waa 
long under the care of the Regent Duke of 
Albany. * But whether lie was King or 
not, few,' said tlie chronicler of Lochlevei^ 
* knew with certainty. The mysterious per- 
sonage en hibited Tittle devotion, would sel- 
dom incline to hear roass^ and bore himself 
like one half wild or distracted/ Serle also. 
Yeoman of the Robes to Richard, was exe- 
cuted because, coming from Scotland to 
England, he reported that Richard was 
alive iu the latter country. This legend, of 
so much importance to Um history of botli 
North and South Britain, has Iwen hitherto 
treated aa fabulous^ But the reftearches 
and industry of the latest histortao of Scot* 
land (Mr. TyUer) have curiously illustrated 
this point, and shown, from evidence col- 
lected in the original records, that this cap* 
tive, called Ricliard II. actually Kved many 
years in Scotland, and was supported at the 
pubTic ex pence of that country. 

** It is then now clear that, to coonter- 
bahmce the advantage which Henry IV. 
postessed over the regent of Scotland, by 
having in hb custody the penon of Jamea, 
and consequently th« power of putting an 
end to the delegated government of Albany 

GtiTT. Mao. JamuaTy^ 1830. 

6 



whenever he should think fit to at! the 
voung King at liberty, Albany, on hia aida, 
ond in hia keeping the person of Richard II. 
or of some one strongly reeembling him, a 
praaonar whose captivity was not of laaa im- 
portance to the tranquillity of Henry IV.» 
who at no period poeseeaed hia usurped 
throne in such security as to view with in- 
difference a real or preUnded resuacitation 
of the deposed Richard.*' 

Sir Walter informf us that the evi- 
dence of this very inierestinc fact will 
appear in the third volame of Mr. Tyt- 
ler's History of Scotland. We have 
not yet seen that evidence, which must 
certainly be curious, but, we are in- 
clined to think, merely as demonstra- 
tive of the great pains ukcn by Albany 
to encourace a delusion, which he it 
alieady well known to have attempt- 
ed to propagate. In our opinion, dir 
Walter gives the fabrication too hidh 
a degree of credit, not, perhaps duiw 
considering the fact» that Richard^t 
body was exposed in London to the 
public view, in order that its identitaf 
might not he a matter of question. U 
should be considered that, notwith* 
standing that precaution of Henry, tha 
Scottish Regciit would certainly have 
sufficient reason to pursue his plan of 
deception, since among the norlhem 
English living at a distance from the 
Metropolis, and particularly those 
a nii* Lancastrians whose hopes would 
stimulate iheir belief, there were doubt- 
less many willingly credulous of so 
plausible a tale. 

In the notice of the Scottish palla- 
dium in p. 67, there are two or three 
inaccuracies of expression. The stone 
is said to '* form the support of King 
Edward the Confessor's chair;'* more 
correctly it should be described as con- 
tained within the seat of the Corona- 
tion chair ; which chair there is no 
other authority to call Edward the 
Confessor's, except that it usually 
stands in that part of the Abbey called 
St. Edward's Chapel, and near the 
shrine erected by Kins Henry the 
Third to his canonized predecessor* 
Its architectural ornaments are de* 
cidcdly of the age of Edward I. and 
that is remarkably confirmed to be the 
«ra of its formation by a passage in the 
Wardrobe Accounu of 1300, which 
mentions the **nova cathedra in qua 
Peira Scocie reponitur." In addition, 
— -notwithstanaing the abbey-church 
of Westminster contains tnis moat 



42 



Review. — LArdncr*s History of Discovery, 



[Jan- 



pre-eminent of chairs, it yet has no 
right to the epithet of " cathedra!," 
which is inadvertently besiowed upon 
it by the historian. 

In p. 173 it is mentioned that, on 
the expedition of Edward Baliol in 
1314, Edward the Third "prohibited 
the disinherited Barons entering Scot- 
land by the land frontier, but connived 
at their embarking at the obscure sea- 
port of Ravenshire, near the mouth of 
the H umber." This obscure sea-port, 
now lost in the waves, was situated, as 
the liistorian says, quite at the mouth 
of the H umber, whilst the present 

freat port of that river, Kingston upon 
[ull, is about fifteen miles inland. It 
is the same at which Henry of Lan- 
caster and Edward of York each land- 
ed on their successful invasions, and 
is therefore highly memorable in Eng- 
lish history. The chroniclers generally 
call it Ravenspurg, under which name 
it occurs more than once in Shaks- 
peare. Its still older appellation is 
Havcnser, from which comes the in- 
correct ** shire'* of Sir Walter Scott; 
but perhaps the best modern ortho- 
graphy is Ravenspurne, the adjacent 
point of land being still called the 
Spurn-head.* 

The writer of the History of Mari- 
time and Inland Discovery questions 
the truth of the opinion generally 
adopted bv historians, that by the term 
Cassiterides the ancients meant the 
Scilly Isles and Cornwall, then sup- 
posed to be an island. 

<< The Greek name for tin (cassUerosJ 
wM derived, it hat been supposed, from the 
Phoenicians, who originally nsurped the 
whole trade of the Mediterranean. It is 
not of importance to controvert this opi- 
nion, which, however, evidently rests on the 
erroneous supposition that the word Kasdira 
WAS a primary and original term of the Phce- 
nician language. Tlie name Cassiterides 
(tin islands) is evidently but an epithet, im- 
plying the want of particular acquaintance 
with ihe countries thus vaguely denomi- 
nated. But, as geographers feel peculiar 
pleasure in fixing the position of every wan- 
dering name, the title of tin islands was in- 
considerately bestowed by Greek and Roman 
writers, at one time on real islands in which 
there was no tin, at another on imaginary 
islands near the coasts abounding in that 
metal. Almost all these accounts refer the 



* See '*OcelIum Promontorium ; with 
Historic Facts relative to the Sea- port and 
Market- town of Ravenspurne, by Thomas 
Thompson^ esq. F.S.A." 8vo, 18S2. 



Cassiterides to the c6ast of Spain. Some 
writers place them many days sail in the 
Western Ocean ; others, nearly oj^site to 
Coruuna ; but they are never mentioned by 
ancient authors (with a single exception) 
with respect to their distance from the coast 
of Britain ; a circumstance which, to those 
acquainted with the ancient system of navi- 
gation, must be a convincing argument that 
the Cassiterides were not the Scilly Islands. 
Caesar and Tacitus, though they mention 
the gold, silver, iron, and pearls of Britainy 
take hardly any notice of its tin mines. 
Pliny, moreover, after discussing all the ac- 
counts relating to the Cassiterides, concludes 
that these islands had but a £sbulous exist- 
ence, and observes, that in hia time tin waa 
brought from Galicia«" 

Against this it may be confidently af- 
firmed that, without adopting Bochart's 
conjecture, that the term Brt/anntc is de- 
rived from the Hebrew Baratanac, or 
the land of tin ; or Mr. Turner's con- 
jecture, that it might rather come from 
the Arabic Bahrai Anuk, the country 
of tin ; the circumstances mentioned 
by Strabo and other ancient writers of 
the Cassiterides, apply only to the Bri- 
tish isles. They were ten in number; 
the largest was called Siluta or Sig" 
delis (hence Scilly). They possessed 
tin and lead mines, which no other 
island in the same track of the ancient 
navigators had ; they were opposite to 
the Aslabri (Galicia in Spain) with a 
bend to the north from them; they 
looked towards Celtiberia; the sea was 
much broader between them and Spain 
than between them and Britain ; and 
they lay in the great Iberian Sea; all, 
which circumstances apply only and 
entirely to the Scilly Isles. 

Pliny does not, as the writer infers, 
proclaim the fabulousness of the Cassi- 
terides, but his isnorance of their posi- 
tive locality. He tells that the first 
Phenician navigator who plumhum ex 
Cassiteride insula primus apporiatil, 
wns one Midacritus. (See his Hist. 
Nat. lib. vii. c. 37, and Camden's Bri- 
tannia.) 

StLUui, a Poem, By Robert MontgooMry. 
ISmo. ^. 891. Maunder. 

OF the previoas volumes of Robert 
Montgomery we have spoken in very 
fa\'ourable terms. In delivering our 
opinions, we have neither follovved 
the current of extravagant praise, nor 
have we interposed between him and 
a certain portion of the press, the seve- 
rity of whose criticism seems to par- 



183a] 



RBVfBW.-»Montgoaiery*6 Satan, a Poem. 



43 



lake of the character of personal hos- 
tility rather than of fair and liberal 
discussion. Judging for oorsehres, w.e 
shall now, as before, offer our unbiass- 
ed sentiments on the poem before us. 
The subject, as will have been seen by 
the title, is Satan ; and if we may so 
speak, the Satan of Mr. Montgomery's 
imagination, rather than the Evil Spi- 
rit of Holy Writ ; or he may be de- 
scribed as the *' Archangel ruined," at 
the moment when, weeping over the 
millions " amerced of Heaven," 

*' Wovds interwove with sighs found oat 
their vsj." 

We remember Lord Byron excuses 
the blasphemies of the apostate, in the 
poem or Cain, and remarks, that he 
nas not made the *' Devil converse like 
a cler^man.'* Now herein we pre- 
sume lay the difficulty of Mr. Mont- 
Komery in his choice of this subject; 
ne was either to make Satan an incon- 
sistent being, and talk *' like a clergy- 
roan," or he would have offended pious 
ears, by putting into the mouth of the 
only speaker he has introduced such 
language as the " father of lies,** and 
the arcn blasphemer, may be supposed 
to have uttered. It is evident that his 
good taste would recoil from such a 
monologue ; he has therefore preferred 
the more amiable course, and by so 
doing has fallen into many inconsis- 
tencies; in fact, there is a perpetual 
shifting between the poet and the ima- 

Sinary being he hascreated, — we would 
e understood to speak in a very re- 
stricted sense ; and frequently, instead 
of that natural exultation which the 
•* prince of the power of the air" 
would exhibit in witnessing; the va- 
rious instruments of his warfare against 
God and man, successfully engaged in 
his scfvice, he reasons with almost a 
seraph's pitjr on the vices and crimes 
bv which his own dominion is upheld. 
We have no objection that the Devil 
should be a poei, and that he should 
speak the language of his craft. We 

Jjuarrel not with him for his taste and 
eeling; all these are his legitimate 
weapons ; but %ve cannot reconcile to 
our ideas of good keeping the notion 
of our "adversary going about like a 
roaring lion seeking whom he may de- 
vour,' and the Satao of Mr. Montgo- 
nierr, rebuking sin, arguing against 
infidelity, and being like the Relzebub 
of tlie Jews, <* divided against him- 
self." Far he it frotn us to be so mis- 



understood as to be supposed to recom- 
mend the ofiensive part of the alterna- 
tive ; but, in short, a Satanic soliloquy 
is not in our opinion a felicitous sub- 
ject for a poem. Having thus discuss- 
ed the title somewhat too fully, wc 
will proceed without further preiace to 
the poem itself. It is divided into 
three books; in the first, Satan from 
an eminence descril>es the '* kingdoms 
of the world and the glory of them/' 
and various thoughts arise on the past, 
the present, and the "to come." In 
the second, the Evil-one proceeds with 
the science of a master spirit to unfold 
the mysteriei of the human heart, and 
attempts an analysis of its occult and 
complicated passions and emotions ; 
he shows who are his agents, and who 
have been his victims; hede5cribes the 
Creation ond the Fall, the IX*luge, — 
muses and moralizes on Time and 
Eternity, — descants on Redemption, — 
and with a demon's belief, " trem- 
bling*' as he •• believes,** confesses the 
Crucified, cekbrates the miracles, and 
admits the omnipotence of Truth. 

In the third book^ we find the 
Tempter on dangerous ground, — Eng- 
land IS the subject of his speculations, 
and it were well if England would be 
admonished when the Devil spraks so 
many alarming truths. The topics arc 
too various and discursive for analysis; 
but the more prominent «iccs of the 
"chartered clime of Heaven," are de- 
nounced with a severity which, beg- 
ging his Satanic majesty's pardon, is not 
a little ungrateful, seeing that the har- 
vest is his own. But we would desire 
to be grave on a serious theme, and we 
most readily admit that, saviug a cer- 
tain want of congruiiy between the 
speaker and his subject, the |)oem 
al)ou!ids in passages of beauty and sub- 
limity, which have few parallels in 
modern limes. The mind of Mr. 
Montgomery is in a healthy state, his 
contemplations are as soundas they are 
deep and |)octical, his fancy is as grace- 
ful as it is vigorous, and tender as it is 
elevated. Ho has treated a difficult 
subject, requiring the brilliancy of an 
ardent imagination to be kept in con- 
stant check and control by a severity 
of judgment, with a feeling that does 
honour to his genius, and a taste that 
reflects credit on the soundness of his 
principles and the goodness of his heart. 

The following extracts afford satis- 
factory evidence uf the justice of our 
praise. 



44 



Rbview.— ^ontgofuery'fi Satan, a Poem, 



[Jan. 



Satan has alighted in the darkness 
of a storm on the spot whese the Sa- 
viour of the world was tempted by, and 
withstood him. The tempest subsides, 
and then follows this beautiful descrip- 
tion of the new-born day : 

*' The tempest diet, the winds have tuned 

their ire. 
The seft-birds hover on encbftoted wing ; 
And, save a throb of thunder, fiuntly iieard, 
And ebbing knell-like o'er yon western deep, 
Tbat now lies panting with a weary swell. 
Like a worn monster at his giant length 
Gasping, with foam upon his troubled mane. 
No sound of elemental wrath is heard; 
The Sun is up! look, where he proudly 

comes. 
In blazing triumph wheeling u'er the earth, 
A victor in full glory ! At his gaze 
The heavens magni6cently smile, and beam 
With many a sailing cloud-isle sprinkled o*er, 
In sumptuous array. Yes, land, aud air 
Whose winged fulness freshens tree and 

flower, [skies ! 

Own tbee, thou shining Monarch of the 
Now hills are glaring, ricb the mountains 

glow, [pear, 

The streams run gladness, yellow meads ap- 
And palm-woods glitter on Judea*s plain ; 
Beauty and brightness shed their soul abroad ; 
Then waken, Spirit, whom no space can 

bound. 
And with thy vision let me span the world." 

P. 94. 

There is a ^reat power in Satan's 
description of himself, and of his mys- 
terious influence over the world : 

" Ere man was fasbion'd from his fellow dust, 
I was, — and since the sound of human voice 
Has echoed in the air, my darksome power 
Hath compass'd him in mystery, and in 

might : 
Upon the soul of sage Philosophy 
And Wisdom, templed in the shrines of old. 
Faint shadows of my being fell ; a sense 
Of me thus deepen'd through the onward 

flood 
Of ages, till substantial thought it grew ; 
A certainty sublinie, in that great soul. 
The epic God of ancient song, who down 
The infinite abyss could dare to gaze. 
And show imsgination shapes of Hell ! 
And in that Book, where Heaven lies half 

reveal'd. 
By words terrific as the h^ld flash 
That hints the lightnmg-vengeance of the 

storm. 
Am /not vision'd ?— as the Prince of Air, 
A Spirit that would crush the Universe, 
And battle with eternity ! " P. 35, 

The introduction of Napoleon is not 
in the author's usual good taste, nor 
can we refuse a smile when we re- 
lueaiber who the speaker is who reasons 



on the " splendid infamy of war," and 
celebrates the glories of an undying 
lame won by the greet and good. 
Throughout the whcde of this passage 
it is evident that the poet is the speaker. 
The sentiments are those of a virtuoos 
mind in its abhorrence of guiJt — it b 
not the soliioquj of one whose prin- 
ciple is that of utter and essential evi|, 
yet constrained by the mere force- of 
troth to do homage to the virtue he 
liates. The poem has too much of 
this incongruity. What can be finer 
than the following lines, depicting the 
feelings -of Culombus on his first dis- 
covery of America, and yet in whose 
mouth can they be more inappropriate 
than Satan's? After describing the 
ocean wanderers, amidst the doubt and 
distraction of their perilous enterprize 
hymning their Ave-Marias, he say^ 
with enthusiasm (p. 56), 

** But be was destined } and his lightning 

glance 
Shot o'er the deep, and darted oa thy world, 
America.— Then mighty, long, and loud. 
From swelling hearts the HalUligahs rang. 
And cbarm'd to music the Atlantic sales ; 
While, silent as the Sun above him throned, 
Columbus looked a rapture to the skies, 
And gave his glory to the God of Heaven." 

But we have yet two Books before 
us, and oar space is limited. We can 
only admire, on passing, the beautiful 
description of Egypt, Helvetia, Fran^, 
and the Island Queen. 

On the Second Book we would fain 
linger, but we can give but two quota- 
tions. Our female readers will be slad 
to know what the Tempter of Nlan- 
kind thinks of them, and how glow- 
ingly he praises what he cannot enjoy. 

** And thou. 
The star of homa, who in thy gentleness 
On the barah nature of nsarpiog man 
Benignenchantment eanst so deeply smiley- 
Soft as a dew-fiiU froos the brow ocete, 
Or moonlight shedding beaulj^ oo the 

storm, — [ing heart. 

Woman ! when love has wreck'd thy trust- 
What port remains to shalter thee ! — too 

fund. 
Too delicatelv true, thy nature Is, 
Save for the heart's idolatry ; and then. 
Thy love is oft a liffat to virtue's path. 
It dawns, — and wira'ring passions die away. 
Low raptores fitde, pure feelings bloesoai 

And tbat which Wisdom's philosophic beam 
Could never firom the wintiy heart awake. 
By love is smiled into celestial birth ! 
Tnos love is Wisdom with a sweeter name. 
But such is not for me I — I oaonot love; 



18M.] 



Rbvibw.— -MootgoBiary*8 &ri«i» a Potm. 



45 



For canm an Um ttstoot of oaob thooght, 
Wrilhiof mj if irii on a lack of fire." 

P. 186. 

The fblbwing is Tigoffoot and dut- 
raclcf ifiic : 

«* Thou an th« Glotioos* I tke £vU Oae t 
ThoQ raign'ac above } nj KmgdoB b bdo«; 
On aarth, 'tb ihioa lo toecoiir and adora 
Tha Mul, through Hiaa the intarcadiag 

Jodgf, 
Bj thoughtt djTlna» and agencies direct ; 
To cheer the gentle, and reward the good, 
And o'er the many waves and woes ot life 
To pour the sunshine of Alroightj love : 
Tis mine to darken, wither, and destrov 
Craatioo and her hopes, — to make them bdl. 
** Then roll thee on, thou high and 

haashty World, 
Aad q naen K bravely o'er the uohrerse ! 
Still be thy sun aa bright, thy sea as loud 
In bar suuiasity, thy floods and wiada 
As poleaty and tl^ lording elements 
Aa vast in their oraative range of power, 
Aa each aodall have ever been : baild throoae, 
And empires, heap the mouataia of thy 

crimes. 
Be mean or miehtv, wise or worthless stiU»— 
Yet I am with thee! and my power shall 

reign 
Until tha trumpet of thy doom be heard, 
Thtaa ocean vmnith'd, and thy heavens no 

more! 
TiU thou be tenantless, a welt'ring nsass 
Of fire, a dying and dissolving world : 
And then. Thy hidden lightnings are nn- 

sheath'd, 
OQod! the thunders of Despair shall roU; 
Mine hour is come, and I am wreck'd of all. 
All, save £temtty, and that is mine." P. 804. 

The third Book it perhaps io a raort 
iofiy strain of satire than the preceiltog. 
Here the Evil One oomes nearer home, 
and deals on us much bitterness. We 
can afford but one extract, and we 
prefer a passage of tenderness and 
beauty, to the general strain of inveo* 
tive which ucrvades the demon's re* 
flections on Engbnd. 

'* But lo 1 a vision lair as fsaey sees. 
Beside the deep, amboas'd with beaoteous 



An infrat standa, and views the living awa 
Of iu immensityy with lips apart 
Like a cleA rose hung radiant in tha sttn,-^ 
Hosh'd into sweetest wonder. How divine 
The tnnoeenee of Childhood ! Did it bloom 
Unwither'd through the scorchii^ waste of 

yeaia. 
Men would be angels, and my realm destroy *d ! 
With eyes whose blueoess is a sammar 

heaven. 
And cheeks where chembim night print a 

kiss, [fijrm 

And foraliaad fisir aa Baooalit soow,-«>tfay 
Might be epcra dl t d ia tha sosy cknids 



Ofeva, thatdrsam 

So gentle and so glowii^ thou appaar'st. 

And heavenly is it fi>r maternal eyas 

In their fond l^ht to mark thee ^awiogy day 

By day, with a warm atmosphere of lova 

Around thee circled with unceasing spell. 

While, like a ray from her own spirit shed. 

Thy mind shines forth in words of sweeter 

sound 
Than all the mnsic of thv manhood brings.— 
Tis now the poetry of Itte to thee ! 
With fimcies fresh and iunocent as fiowars, 
Aud manner sportive as the free-wing'd air» 
Thou seest a friend in every smile ; thy daya. 
Like singing birds. In gladness speed aloa^ 
And not a tear that trembles on thy lids 
But shines away, and sparkles into ioy !" 

P. 31t. 

But we must conclude. Wheo we 
think of the youth of Mr. Mont^mery, 
we stand amazed at the height to 
which bis ^nius and talents have 
raised him. There is a vigour of mind, 
and a maturity of thought and iotellecC 
*-^ moral daring united to the finest 
perception of all that is refined and 
delicate in taste, exciting at once our 
surprise and admiration. But above 
all, be has consecrated the gifu and 
graces of a youthful mind to the servica 
of Religion— he has placed his rare ta* 
lents on the altar of piety — and the 
offering has been thereby sanctified. 
There is no remorse laid up for his 
after-life, he has corrupted no principle, 
he has undermined no virtue. He hu 
" drawn empyreal air.** His laurels 
are unstained — long may he wear iheoi 
—and mav the path of his honourabk 
ambition he cheered by the consolatory 
thought, that the means which hu 
poems luve afforded him of pursuing 
his studies, are imconnected with a 
single compromise for which his man« 
hood will have cause to blush ; and 
that while reaping the perishable 
harvest of g;ain, he has gathered the 
more unfadmg and substantial rewards 
of a conscience void of offence, and 
the approbation of the wise and good. 

Ledum cnSeu^htre. By John Flazmaa, 
Esq, R^, RnftMSor ff Scubriwn in the 
Rmfol Aemkmjvf Grteti Brkain, Boyai 
Seo. PImUt. Pp. 899. 

*'PROXIMUS sum egomet mihi/' 
or "Charity begins at home,*' it 
a Tery reasonable adage oo many 
occasiooSy and may, we think, be very 
itiitably adopted oo the present occa- 
sion, emcciaily as Mr. Flaxman has 
chosen lor the subject of his first lec- 
ture ^ £ogUsh Sculpture." We shall 



46 



Rbvibw. — Flaxinan*8 Lectures on Sculpture. 



[Jan. 



therefore make the substance of this 
lecture our first article, and add some 
remarks.. 

Mr. Flax man commences with the 
Britons^ who, he presumes, had no 
sculpture at all before the Uoman 
times, and then of very bad execution, 
by inferior Italian artists. He adduces 
some bronze casts, bad copies of good 
Roman- works, and says, from a pas- 
sage in Speed, that the Britons cast 
magnificent statues in bronze for two 
hundred years after the departure of the 
Romans. (P. 7 — 9.) 

That the Britons carved monstrotis 
idols in stone, is evident from Geidas, 
"who calls them ** pene numero vin- 
centia ^gyptiaca, ouorum nonnulla 
lineamentis adhucdetormibus intra vel 
extra deserta moenia solitomore re^en* 
tia, torvis vultibus intuemur" (XV. 
Scriptor. S.) Now we do not recollect 
that any Penates or Lares have been 
found in Celtic barrows, and have read 
that the Celts abhorred any represen- 
tations of their gods in the human 
form. It is certain, too, that the figures 
of the Druids engraved in Montfaucon 
and Borlase have no other deformity 
than rudeness of execution 1 and the 
scroll-work on the ancient crosses is, 
though in fantastic . taste, not badly 
worked. As these are affairs only of 
curiosity, not of skill, we shall dismiss 
them with this cursory observation. 

The fine fragments of good taste of 
pottery, Mr. Flaxman pronounces 
importations from Italy, because, he 
says, counterparts from similar moulds 
are found in that country. P. 10. 

Concerning the tesselated pavements 
so frequently discovered, Mr. Flaxman 
thus spoke : 

** Id most of the Roman mosaics found 
in Britain, the principal object of the de- 
sign is a Bacchus, or an Orpheus playing 
on his lyre. Those mosaics with the Bacchus 
are of the best design and workmanship, for 
which this reason may be given — that the 
Bacchus Musagetes was ^quently intro- 
duced before the time of Alexander Severus, 
in sarcophagi and other works, that divinity 
being much liked by the Romans, as patron 
of the drama ; consequently those mosaics 
are likely to have been done in the coiuve 
of 170 Years, between the reign of Domi- 
tian, when the Britons adopted the build- 
ings and decorations of the Romans, and 
the year 240, when the Orphic philosophy 
spread its influence in the Roman empire. 
From this period to the year 386, the re- 
presentations of Orpheus may be dated, 
after which time they were succeeded by 
Christian characters and symbols," P. lo. 



' To this passage we demur. We 
know of an Apollo and Hercules called 
Musagetes, but of no Bacchus. It is 
true that Marcus Aureliut-and Alex- 
ander Severus did both hold Orpheus 
in the highest honour ; and it is pos- 
sible that the figure of that father of 
fiddles,* for the centre of pavements, 
was very fashionable in the time of 
those Emperors; but the mythologisls 
say that tne musicians introduced the 
worship of Bacchus, and that the Or- 
pheii were connected with the latter. 
The hypothesis of Mr. Flaxman has 
therefore a very slippery foundation. 

From the third to the 6fth cen- 
tury, says Maillott, "sculpture, to 
which we are indebted for the most 

Erecious conrmissances of antiquity, has 
arely left, us some gross and shapeless 
statues, ill calculate to illustrate the 
study of history" (Costumes et Usages, 
vol. iii. p. S.) ; and according to the 
coins of Merovec and Childeric, the 
imitation of the Roman style of that 
sera is palpable. (Idem, pi. i.) Fa- 
shions in the whole middle age tra- 
velled from Italy to France, and from 
thence to England. Mr. Flaxman 
therefore very correctly observes, that 
the, heads of the Saxon kings upon 
their coins were borrowed from those 
of Oioclesian, &c. upon the Roman 
money (p. 10). Their sculpture, he 
says (p. 11, lS)i was horrible and bur- 
lesque. But there are exceptions. The 
discovery of the coliin of Saint Cuth- 
bert has given us some carved figures 
from which we may determine the 
style. The drawing is exceedingly 
bad, fit only for sohooiboys (see Raine's 
St Cuthbert, pi. iv. &c.) There are 
other sculptures, especially of scrolls 
and drains; but we know from 
Olaus Wormius, that the northern 
nations annexed an allegorical mean- 
ing to monsters, and that ihey were in 
many instances similar to the ** armes 
parlantes'* of heraldry, and rebuses 
upon names. Mr. Raine, speaking of 
Cuthbert's coffin (p. I90), says, that 
** a sharp pointed knife, or some such 
instrument, certainly not a chisel, and 
a scrieve, or goodge, were evidently 
used.'* How sculpture in stone, un- 
der the desideratum of a chisel, could 
be executed, we know not. 

Concerning sepulchral figures Mr. 
Flaxman says : 

* Fiddles are only lyres with a neck, play«d 
by a bow instead of a ptectnim. — Rev. 



1S30.] 



Rbtibw.— Flaxman^s Leciures on Sculpture. 



47 



*' In th« beginning of the sixth rentarj, 
when the Franks and Genaans began to 
esublish themselves in Gaul, thej buried 
their sovereigns in plain stone coffins, with- 
out any exterior distinction or inscription. 
The name of the deceased was written on the 
inside of the cover. This was done to pre- 
vent the tomb being violated for the sake 
of Jewels and other valnables. In the reign 
of Charlemagne, who was contemporary 
with our king Edgar, the French began to 
decorate the outside of their tombs with 
statues «»f the deceased, and other orna- 
ments, bearing some resemblance to the 
Roman manner." P. 1 1 . 

No Anglo-Saxon sepulchral effigies 
is known, but, 

'* Immediately after the Norman conquest 
figures of the deceased were carved in has 
relief on their gravestones, exaroules of 
which roav be seen in the cloisters of West- 
minster Abbey, representing two abbots of 
that church, and in Worcester cathedral 
those of SainU Oswald and Wulstan." 
P. I«. 

Ofcourte these were not portraits, 
which, accordtns to Mr. Gough, did 
not commence till after the thirteenth 
century. Mr. Flax man proceeds: 

** The crusaders introduced the rich fo- 
liage in architecture aud statues against the 
columns, as we find at the west door of 
Rochester cathedral, built in the reign of 
Henry I." P. l«. 

He then adds, in explanation : 

*< The custom of carving a figure of tlie 
deceased in bas relief on the tomb seems 
likely to have been brought from France, 
where it seems to have continued in imita- 
tion of the Romans. Figures placed against 
columns might also be copied rrom examples 
in that country, of which one remarkable 
instance was a door in the choreh of Saint 
Germain de Pres, in Paris, cmitaining seve- 
ral sutues of the ancient kings of France, 
projecting from columns, a work of the 
UBth century, of which there are paintings 
in Montfaucon.*' P. 13. 

Badly drawn as ma^ be the human 
5gure, when in nudity, the drapery, 
thoogh stiff and stately, is commonly 
gracefbl. 

Mr. Flax man, proceeding to the 
thirteenth century, particularizes the 
figures at Wells cathedral, built in 
1S42, which he conceives were sculp- 
tured by Englishmen, because the style 
is different from the coeval Italian 
(p. 1 6, 17). These are well represented 
in Carter's *' Ancient Sculpture,'* &'c. 
Why the execution was necessarily 
rude and imperfect, he thus explains: 

** There were neither prints nor printed 



books to assist the artist. The sculptor 
could not be instructed in anatomy, for 
there were no anatomists. A small know- 
ledge of geometry and mechanics wu ex- 
clusively confined to two or three learned 
monks, and the principles of those sciences, 
as applied to the fifure and motion of men 
aud inferior animals, was known to none. 
Tlierefore these works were necessarily ill- 
drewo and deficient in principle, and much 
of the sculpture is rude and severe ; yet in 
parts there is a beautiful simplicity and irre- 
sistible sentiment, and sometimes a graoa 
exceeding more modern productions." 
P. 16. 

We cordially agree with this ealogy, 
for we are sure that the Greek chisel 
never produced two finer prostrate 
figures than those of the Crusaders in 
the twelfth century, engraved by Sirutt 
(Dresses pi. xlv. xlvi.), examples 
which appear to have been unknowa 
to Mr. Flaxman. They are carved in 
wood, and are justly called by SlruU 
••admirable.'' P. 117. 

Mr. Dallaway, the late editor of 
Walpole on Painting (i. 35), says, that 
the statue of Eleanor Queen of Edw. i. 
is said to have been modelled from her 

rers<»n after death, probably Ijy an 
ulian sculptor, and that the effigies 
was the prototvpe of numerous images 
of the Virain Mary for a century after- 
wards. Mr. FLxman is likewise of 
opinion, that the Queen's effigies was 
Italian work, because the tomb and 
sepulchral statue of Henry III. were 
executed by artists of that nation, and 
the figure p^artakes of the character and 
grace particularly cultivated in the 
school of Pisano, the great restorer of 
sculpture. 

Mr. Flaxman finds the foliage and 
historical sculpture of the time of Ed- 
ward III. surprising for beauty and 
novelty, and rejoices that the sculptors 
employed in St. Stephen's chapel were 
Englishmen (p. 18). He shows the 
beauties of the age in the following 
detail : 

*« The monuments of Aylmer de Valeoce, 
Eari of Pembroke, and Edm. Croucbhack» 
in Westminster Abbey, are specimens of the 
magnificence of such works in the age we 
are speaking «f. The loftiness of the work, 
the numberof arehesaod pinnacles, the light- 
ness of the spires, the richness and profusion 
of foliage and crockeu, the solemn repose 
of the principal sutue, representing the 
deceased in his lut prayer for mercy to the 
throne of grace, the delicacy of thought in 
the group of angels bearing the soul, and 
the tender sentiments of concern variously 
evpressed m the relations ranged in order 



48 



Review.— ilfetnoir« of Simon Bolivar. 



[Jan. 



round tbe bAsementf forcibly arrest the 
attention, and carry the thoughts not only 
to other ages but to other states of exist- 
P. «0. 



eace 



We refer our readers to the fij^ures 
of the two ansels in Carter's Glou- 
cester Cathedral, published by the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, in proof that this 
eulcffy is not too enthusiastic. 

Mr. Flaxman then proceeds to the 
fifleenih century, and Bxes upon as 
fine specimens, the statue of Hen. VI. 
holding the sceptre in both hit hands, 
at All Souls* College, Oxford; the 
Coronation of Henry V. at Wesmin- 
ster Abbey, and the monument of 
Hichard Bcauchamp Earl of Warwick, 
at Warwick. Of the former he says : 

** The sculpture is bold and character- 
istic, tbe equestrian group is furious and 
warlike, the standing figures have a natural 
sentiment in their actions, and simple gran- 
deur in dieir draperies, such as we admire 
in the paintings of Ri^hael or Massacio." 
P. ««. 

Of the latter, done by William Aus- 
tin, of London, 

** The figures are so natural and grace- 
ful, tbe architecture so rich and delicate, 
that they are excelled by nothing done in 
Italy of tbe same kind at this time, although 
Donatello and Ghiberti were living when 
this tomb was executed in the year 1489." 
P. 93. 

We shall now make the following . 
extract concerning Henry the Seventh's 
Chapel, and the extinction of our me- 
dieval sculpture: 

'* The building of all others most intended 
for. a receptacle and display of sculpture, 
was Henry the Seventh's chapel, at West- 
minster. It is founded on good presump- 
tion, that Torregiano was employed on the 
tomb only, and had no concern with the 
building or tbe statues with which it is em- 
bellished. The structure appears to have 
been finished, or nearly so, before Torregi- 
ano began the tomb, and there is reason to 
thiuk that he did not sUy in this country 
more than six years, which time would be 
nearly, if not quite, taken up in tbe execu- 
tion of the tomb and some other statnea 
about it now destroyed, together with the 
rich pedestals and enclosure. The archi- 
tecture of the tomb has a mixture of Roman 
arches and decoration very different firom 
the arches of the chapel, which are all 
pointed. Tbe figures ot the tomb have a 
better proportion, and drawing, than those 
of the chapel, but the figures of the chapel 
are very superior in noble simplicity and 
gra ndeur of character and draperv. 

** After tbe observations ou tfiis building 



we must take a lon^ farewell of such noble 
and magnificent effects of art, in raising 
which toe intention of our ancestors was to 
add a solemnity to religious worship, to 
impress on the mind those virtues which 
adorn and exaH humanity." P. 25. 

Such is the substance of Mr. Flax* 
man's first lecture. The subject is 
treated in deuil in Carter's elaborate 
work. The fact U, that people treat 
mediaeval sculpture in reference to the 
Grrecian, which regards only the hu- 
man figure in nudity, and is as differ, 
ent from the Gothic as calligraphic 
penmanship is from the black-letter. 
Both the design and the taste were 
toto coelo distinct. The display of 
breasts, legs, and arms, was not sought 
in the latter. The one object was the 
human figure deified; the other ex- 
eluded perfection of person, and con- 
sidered only religious efifect in the cha- 
racter and attitode; and that both 
admirably succeeded in their respective 
styles, is beyond question. 

(To be conlinued,) 



Memoirs tifSinum Boliomr, President Liber- 
ator qf the RefubUe of Colombia g and of 
his prineipdl Generals ; comprising a se- 
cret history qf thg Revolution, and the 
events which preceded it from 1807 to the 
present time. By Gen. H. S. V. Ducon- 
dray Hdstein, ex-Chirf qf the Stt^ of 
the Preside n t LOentor, Jn two vols, 

THE only means of retaining dis- 
tant colonies in obedience, are tbe 
exercise of Yinue in the GovemoEs, 
and advantages resulting from the con- 
nection* Our success in India has 
been owing to such conduct; it has 
conferred upon the people benefits un- 
known under the despotism of their 
native princes. Instead of acting with 
similar policy, the Spaniards made 
slaves of the people of Sooth America, 
and of the country, a soldeD apple of 
tbe Hesperides, of which they ex- 
tracted the aweet juice. As soon as 
the parent country was irrecoverably, 
according to appearance, strusgiing 
under the constrictions of the riench 
Boa, the auriferous colony seised the 
opportunity of proclaiming its inde* 
. pendence. This was the first step. 

It has generally been supposed by 
our countrymen, that Soutn America 
is another Paradise, in the state of 
Eden before the Csll, and its natives, 
noble-minded Greeks and Romans, 
combating for liberty. The tnuh. 



ia3a] 



Review. ^•Memoirs of Siwion Bolivar, 



49 



however is, that fine territories are ooly 
a waste, where there exist not morals, 
and the arts ap|)endant to civilisation, 
and where the natives are deini-sovaces. 
The country has not even arrived at 
that first physical token of civilization, 
passable roads throughoo I it,and though 
ihe want of turnpikes niav be natural, 
there are few bridges or ferries (see p. 
18)$ education is either totally ne- 
glected, or extremely defective ; agri- 
culture (though the soil can produce 
yearly two harvests) is in the same low 
state ufiih every other source of profit 
or comfort (p. 32) ; and if, as General 
Holstein says, the Colombians are at 
least 160 years behind the United 
States in the science of government (p. 
73), we think that the disunce be- 
tween the Colombians and ourselves 
must be considerably greater; indeed 
immeasurable, if knowledge and re- 
sources areconuected with »uch science. 
As to the warfare between the con- 
teodins parties, it does not resemble 
that of civilized Europe, nor even the 
improved form of savageness which 
distinguishes Turkey, but that of tribes 
of Indians, scalping and torturing. 
The book before us shows, that if the 
author has exaggerated, we have not. 

Bolivar, according to his accounts, 
is rather to be deemed an Indian chief 
than an emperor. He is a manifest 
imitator of Napoleon, with about as 
much real pretensions to the French 
Satan's magnificent talents, as the Frog 
of Eaop had to the bulk of the Ox. 
He has wriggled himself into power 
by cunning; in point of fact, he is not 
m lion, but a snake. He was bom at 
Caracas, Julv S4, 1783, being the se- 
cond son of Don Juan Vicente Bolivar 
y PoDte, a militia Colonel, and a Mon- 
toana, or Caragam nobleman. Ac- 
cording to the prevalent custom he 
was, io 179^f sent for education into 
Spain, from whence he removed to 
Paris, and returned in 1802 to Madrid. 
There, at the age of nineteen, he mar- 
ried a lady only sixteen. In I8O9 they 
returned to Caracas, and livefl in a 
very retired manner upon their large 
estates. Shortly afterwards his lady 
died without issue ; and as we know a 
parish pauper, who when censured by 
the magistrate for illicit connexions, 
said, that he ureferred concubines to 
wives, and pleaded the example of 
Abraham, so does it appear (1. 166) 
that this military Attorney, or Attor« 

GtKT. Mao. Jaimory, 1 880. 



ney-General (for his whole conduct it 
that of a clever lawyer) adopted the 
same patriarchisms as the pauper, and 
did not marry again. It would be 
impossible for us to state in detail, 
with what coniummaie craft he bobbed 
in and out, as to office, until, his 
enemies and rivals having been re- 
moved out of his way by circumstances, 
he was in 1813 nom mated Dicutor, 
and triumphantly entered Caracas, in 
a Roman consular car, drawn, not by 
horses, but consistently by 

<' twelve fine young lodiM, very elegantly 
dretied in white, adoreed with the national 
colours, and all lelected from the first fa- 
niliea in Caraoat. They drew hira, in 
about half an hour, from the entrance of 
the eity to his retklence; he ttandiDg on 
the car, bare headed, and in full uniform, 
with a tmall wand of command in hit hand/' 
i. 151. 

We cannot notice innumerable bat- 
tles, which ought to be styled battles 
not for conquest, but murder ; and |)0- 
litics, implyins not public good, but 
selfish aggrandizement. Fortunately, 
in point of the numbers engaged, each 
campaign, compared with those of Eu- 
rope, has been only, in Lord Thur- 
low's phrase, a storm in a wash-hand 
basin. 

We have before said, that the real 
character of Bolivar is, in our opinion, 
that of a first-rate Attorney ; but, be« 
cause according to our author (i. 76) the 
majority of mankind admire splendour, 
power, and success, and are little in- 
fluenced by truth or impartiality, tlio 
Dictator-Liberator has acquired a great 
name. A strong desire in consequence 
is felt, to know what sort of a man ho 
is. We shall therefore first obserre, 
that to judge from the plate in vol. i, 
he is in person hi^h-foreheaded, dark 
eye-browed, lengthily nosed, and peak- 
edly chinued, well made, but, accord* 
ing to the print, somewhat knock* 
kneed. Whatever his eneiniet may 
say, his coantenance indicates strong 
intellect. 

General Holsteio, who certainly is 
not an honest chronicler, like Grif» 
fiths, for he omiu all good qualities, 
thus speaks of him : 

'< General Bolivar occupies himself very 
little in studying the military art. He ua- 
derstanda no Uieory, and seldom asks a 
question, or holds any conversation relative 
to it. Nor does he speak of the civil adroi- 
niitratioo, unless it happens to (all withi^ 



7 



50 



Review.— Memoir* of Simon Bolivar, 



[Jan. 



the concerns of the moment. I often en- 
deavoured to bring him into serious conver- 
sation on these subjects, but he would al- 
ways interrupt roe ; * yes, yes, mon eher ami, 
I know that, it is very good ; but apropbs* — 
and immediately turned the conversation 
upon some dlfFerent suUect. 

« His reading, which is very little, con- 
sists of light history and tales. He has uo 
library, or collection of books, befitting his 
rank, and the place he has occupied for the 
last fifteen years. He is passionately fond 
of the sex, and has always two or three 
ladies, of whom one is the favourite mistress, 
who f(»Ilow him wherever he goes. 

** Dancing is an amusement of which he 
is also passionately fond. Whenever he 
stays two or three days in a place, he gives 
a ball or two, at which he dances in his 
hoots and spurs, and makes love to those 
ladies who uappen to please him fur the 
moment. Next to this amusement lie likes 
his liammock, where he sits or lulls, con- 
versing or amusing himself with his fa- 
vourite mistress, or other favourites, some 
of whom I have named in the course of this 
work. During this time he is inaccessible 
to all others. The aid-de-camp on duty 
says to those who have important business 
to transact with him, ' His Excellency is 
deeply engaged at present, and can see no 
one.* When he is out of humour, he swears 
like a common bully, and orders people out 
of his presence in the rudest and most vulcar 
manner. From his habits of life, or rather 
from his love of pleasure, it happens that 
many matters of business arc heaped to- 
gether, and left to bis Secretary, as his de- 
cree of 8th March, 1 897, fixioc the Custom- 
house duties of Venezuela, which is attri- 
buted to Ravenga, and which has destroyed 
the commerce of the country. When he 
suddenly recollects some business, he calls 
his Secretary, and directs him to write the 
letter or the decree. This brings more to 
miod, and it often hapi^ens that in one day 
he hurries off the work of fifteen or twenty* 
In this manner it often happens, that de- 
crees made on the same day are in direct op- 
position to each other. 

*' General Bolivar has adopted the habits 
and customs of the European Spaniards. 
He takes his siesta (noon nap) regularly, 
and eats his meals in the manners of the 
Spaniards. He goes to tertulias (coteries), 
gives re/reseosy and alwaya dances the first 
minuet with the lady highest in rank in the 
company. This old Spanish cnstom is 
strictly observed throughout Colombia. 

** Inasmuch as General Bolivar is the 
sport of circumstances, it is difficult to trace 
his character. Bolivar, in success, differs 
not circumstantially alone from Bolivar in 
adversity ; he is quite another man. When 
successful, he is vain, haughty, ill-natured, 
violent ; at the same time, the slightest cir- 
cumktances will so excite his jealousy of his 



authority, that he arrests, and sometimes 
condemns to capital punishment those whom 
bs suspects. Vet he in a great measure 
conceals these faults, under the politeness 
of a man educated in the so called beau 
numde. They appear in his fits of passion, 
but not however unless he is sure of having 
the strength on his side, the bayonets at 
his command. When he finds himself in 
adversity, and destitute of aid from without, 
as he often did from 1813 to 1818, he is 
perfectly free from passion and violence of 
temper. He then becomes mild, patient, 
docile, and even submissive. Those who 
have seen him in the ehanges of his fortune, 
will agree that I have not overcharged the 
picture." 

The representations of an enemy are 
distortions in caricaiore. Bolivar is 
plainly not a hero, saint, or philo- 
sopher, but he is a capit.-il managing 
fellow ; a finished man of the world, 
who has acquired the happy knack of 
disarming political adversity of much 
of its miscnief. He avoids irritation. 
Of his attorneyism, the following ex- 
tracts give more than suflScient attesta- 
tion. 

*' The predominant traits in the character 
of General Bolivar are, ambition, vanity, 
thirst for absolute undivided power, and 
profound dissimulation. He is more cun- 
ning, and understands mankind better than 
the mass of his countrymen ; he adroitly 
tnms every circumstance to his own ad- 
vantage, and spares nothing to gain those 
he thinks will lje of present use to him. Ha 
is officious in rendering them little servicea ; 
he flatters them, makes them brilliant pro- 
mises { finds whatever they suggest verj 
useful and important, and is ready to follow 
their advice. A third person suggests some- 
thing to him, or he meets with some unex- 
pected success— instantly he resumes his 
true character, and becomes vain, haughty, 
cross, and violent ; forgets all servieei end 
all ubligations, speaks with contempt of 
those he had just courted, and if they are 
powerless abandons them, but always maui- 
tests a disposition to spare those whom he 
knows able to resist hin.*' ii. 936. 

All this shows that, if Bolivar be 
not an invincible General, what man- 
kind deem a demigod, he is at least a 
deep Machiavelian. The ex tnct quoted 
shows only this, that he makes friends 
wherever and by what means he can, 
but crushes all who are likely to com- 
pete with, or to obstruct him. Philo- 
sophers know, that physical power 
alone (for nobody envies a steam- 
engine) can overcome rivalry, and that 
selfishness in con;iequence becomei an 
affair of prudence. Eocmies, or dan- 



ISaa] RwviRW.— Private Memoirs of the Court of Louis XFIII. 61 



gerous persons, must have ibeir claws 
extracted ; and nothing will deter am- 
bitious or envious people, but despair 
ofsuccess. Then they turn dissembling 
flatterers. 

English people arc unfair judges. 
There is not now a philosopher in the 
nation. People are split into lories, 
whigs, radicals, and fanatics. Abstract 
reason is unknown. The commercial, 
money-getting, fortune-making pru- 
dence of the nation, is the only thing 
which preserves its commou sense, at 
least what remains of it ; and the real 
political Machiavelism of this book is 
to favour the designs of the Americans 
as to a future uuion of the two conti- 
nents. Now upon the principle of 
" diamond cut diamond,'* we should 
heartily rejoice if the Americans had 
two powerful rivals, Colombia on one 
side, and Canada ou the oiher, because 
we thoroughly detest the unnatural 
feelings, with respect to trade and com- 
merce, which she tuauifests towards the 
mother country. 

In the view of statesmanship and 
history, this book is a very important 
one. People engaged in foreign trade 
must particularly understand the art of 
" holding candles to the devil/' and 
ve have only to observe, that the 
people are the stiffest of Catholics, who 
will not give even water to dying Pro- 
testants (see i. p. 53) ; and that emis- 
aaries of our fanatical societies can 
therefore only destroy the trade, and ' 
risk their lives to little or no purpose. 
Catholics, as they may learn from Ire- 
land, thoroughly despi:ic them, and 
what can overcome contempt, but 
reason addressed to self-interest ? The 
knowledge and arts of Europe will 
pave the way for universal civilization^ 
and interest will make toleration in- 
evitable. Such are our views, upon 
philosophical and political grounds; 
and these grounds are simply, as many 
markets, and allied nations, as is pos- 
sible. The preiscnt book we therefore 
recommend, as one from which all 
may derive multifarious and valuable 
instruction. 



FrivateMemnirs of the Court qf Louis XniL 
By A Lady. 9 voU. Bvo, 

BY a Lad^. Hem ! What sort of a 
lady? A Countess-— a Venus I fwe 
have her own authority for so calling 
her) aud the Adouls Louis XVIII ! 



A pretty piece of mythology ! * But all 
natural, because it is French ! French 
husbands and wives are, as to their 
conduct towards each other, mere bro- 
thers and sisters — not one bone and 
one flesh ! (There are no more green- 
eyed fiends in France than toads in 
Ireland! There may be a knowledge 
worthy of acquisition, as well as booK- 
knowfed^e; viz. knowledge of humap 
nature, in all its forms and shapes, as 
applicable to this or that country. This 
book, for instance, is one which is an 
exquisite specimen of French-ness. It 
is perfect both in odour, florescence, 
and fructification ! A Linnaean Ches- 
terfield would classify it as one of the 
Polygamia — male and female flowers 
on the same stem ; for he who marries 
a French woman, marries (intellectu- 
ally and morally) both a man and a 
woman ! 

Without going furthei into French 
conjugal physiology, we shall come 
to the work before us. No book, 
publibhed within this century, abounds 
with more delightful interest, or gives 
such clear conceptions of French cha- 
racter generally, or of the leaders of the 
Revolution particularly. The writer 
is, inier aiia, a vain intriguante t but 
not less able because sne is vain. 
Louis XVIII. was a man of excellent 
common sense, and superior tact (not 
a mere gasirophitist, as presumed) ; 
but quite an opposite character to a 
military projector ; a good man, not a 
hero — a renelon, not a Caesar. He was 
a bishop appointed to govern a mad- 
house ; and the lunatics soon got the 
upper hand of him. Napoleon, in bis 
wonderful policy, would not have left 
a man capable of opposing him and not 
in his interest : he had nought them 
all. The disposition and nolicy of Louis 
menaced their ruin ; ana the return of 
the ex-emperor was the last hope of 
ex-functionaries, ex- marshals, ex-offi- 
cers, and ex- soldiers. The people, who 
had only to suflcr, were passive. They 
were obliged to shuflSe, and shuffling 
is matter of trade with a Frenchman. 
Every man of that country makes 
life a game of skill. He holos in con- 
tempt moral and honourable character. 
He uses only his understanding. He 
is striving only to be the best chess or 
billiard-player with the men or the 

• See the Foreign Review, No. Vll. and 
our Sept. Mag. p. 248. 



52 Review.— Privaie Memoirs of the Court of Louis XFIIL [Jan. 

balls of fortune. He is, of course, Louis thought, that by giTing them 
without heart, and is insincere. Our the charter, he had done all that was 
authoress says of Talleyrand, the first needful r but how was he to satisfy 
inlelleclualist of the nation : soldiers without war, and functionaries 

without places ? There was a nation 
on fire, and he was a water-engine 
sent to quench it. He was insofficient, 
and the Allies were brought up, as 
more engines, and succeeded. 

The book before us commits, how- 
ever, the greatest errors with regard to 
the politics of this country and the 
Allies. The authoress charges them 
with the most impracticable, and, as 
such, insane projects ; vie. of dis- 
membering and parcelling out France. 
The real mtention was merely that 
suggestion of Burke ; viz. that it was 
in vain to expect France to be quiet, 
until it was either subdued by arms 
beyond hope of successful resistance, 
or ruined by exhaustion and devas- 
tation, like, in Burke*s figure, a dead 
horse in a field, skeletonised by beasts, 
birds, and insects. This, however, 
she could not understand; for our 
invincible Dnke was a mere man of 
straw; Blucher a savage; the King 
of Prussia no better; the Emperor 
Alexander somewhat superior, because 
he was gallant to the ladies; and 
the poor Austrian Monarch a cipher, 
a mere hon-homme. Want of head, 
or treachery on the French side, our 
authoress deems the sole cause of the 
success of these poor imbeciles ; and 
out of all her oobag^ed cats, as to 
foreign politics, there is only one that 
is probable ; viz. that the burnt child, 
the Emperor of Austria, had made a 
secret treaty with Napoleon, which 
covenanted to join him if he won 
the first battle. Now, we think that 
the direction of Napoleon's march to^ 
wards Brussels, does imply such a pri- 
vate understanding with his father-in- 
law. 

We have too little space for much 
remark. The book in our judgment, 
as we have before hinted, more than 
any that we have read, conveys the 
clearest idea of the state of France be- 
tween the first and second restorations 
of the old French monarchy ; of the 
then existing national feeling ; and of 
the great public characters; and we 
believe it to be substantially a most 
accurate picture of the events and per- 
sons. We think so, because every 
thing is probable and natural. Oor 
authoresa, in modesty (for even French 



'< He even boasted of having once made 
M. de Talleyrand speak the truth ; but this 
appears so extraordioary that I can scarcely 
venture to believe it." ii. 87, 88. 

Fouch^ is another incomparable fel- 
low ; and the fact is, that poor Louis 
did not know how to trust one of 
them ; while Buonaparte knew that the 
afiedion of the army elevated him 
above their power, and that while he 
could feed ihem they were faithful; but 
his power to do so ceasing, they railed 
accordingly. Principle had nought to 
do with their actions. This conduct 
may be found even among the country- 
men of Sir Robert Walpole, who said, 
that " every man had his price ;** but 
the difference is this : such renegades 
are detested and despised in Walpole*s 
nation, but not in the other. The 
patriotism of France is estimated by 
mere services to the sute, in a military 
or civil view, by the calibre of skill in 
war or policy ; and the understanding 
capable of administration is the highest 
in the graduated scale. Our authoress 
uses such a scale; and though Soult 
was second in command under Na- 
poleon at Waterloo, she nevertheless 
calls him one who had become a 
sincere royalist, and was a man of in- 
tf grill/' ii. 33. 

Louis was, in the same style, a 
thorough Frenchman — a good and a 
well-meaning man, but who, never- 
theless, deemed duplicity no vice of 
heart. He wrote to his present Ma- 
jesty to acknowledge, in gratitude, 
*' that, next to God, he was the bene- 
factor to whom he owed his throne ;" 
and he says to the Duke of Wellington, 
** that his birth, in the same year with 
Napoleon, was a counteracting pur- 
pose of Providence.'* Our authoiess is 
angry that these declarations should be 
considered as any other than mere 
compliments — not crateful acknow- 
ledgments of essential services; and 
represents Louis aw, in private, insult- 
ing the Prince- Regent and all the 
AUies. Allowances are, however, to 
be made for the poor King : he could 
not appear un-Frencht and nature had 
made of them a casle superior to the 
rest of the human species — the beau 
ideal of our race— children of Adnm 
born before the fall ! 



1830.] Rbvibw.— Williams's Gtographf of Andeni diia. 



women may have modesly in this 
Tiew), calls her work Memoirs t but, 
in fact, it consists of the essentials of 
real history ; and we willingly do jus- 
tice to the biue-Mlockitigum of her 
country, in saying, that it is not pe- 
dantic, but most liYely and interest- 
ing. 

Upon the whole, Louis was too 
good a man for the nation ; the frogs 
had a devouring serpent for a king, 
and yet they liked him ; they deemra 
Louis a log, though he was onljr a 
kind-hearted human being, that pitied 
them. But a king without an army is 
a carpenter without tools; and to sup- 
pose that Bonaparte's old army would 
supply the desideratum, was as rational 
as to think that police-officers could be 
made out of professed thieves, or the 
feline protectors out of rats. To add 
to the folly, it was supposed by the 
Uiiras that Louis could reinstate them, 
and replace every thing in the siaius 
anie helium t and this they thought, 
although he had not the means of even 
supporting himself upon the throne. 
It was only the exhaustion of France, 
and the unexpected return of Napo- 
leon, that saved him and his family 
from assassination ; and had he at- 
tempted to go the lengths which the 
Ultras desired, that would have been 
his immediate fate ; Bonaparte would 
have been recalled, and the nation 
have supported him with an enthu- 
siasm as great as that of the Revolu- 
tion. 

We have gone to this length because 
we respect the private character of 
Loois, and know that his conduct, un- 
der all the circumstances, had every 
characteristic of wisdom. 



TvDo Essays on the Geography of Andmt 
Asiai intended partly to illustrate the 
Campaigns <if Alexander f and the Anabasis 
rfXenophon, By the Rar. John Williamt, 
Ftcar ^Lampeter, and Rector of the Edin' 
burgh Academy, 8t». pp. 395. 

MR. WILLIAMS says: 

'* 1 think I can affirm, with Justice, that 
■JoMMt every thing that it valuable in the 
Ti|^ and Eaphrafies of D*AnviIle has been 
extracted from Gobios, and that what is 
wrong b D'Anville's own." P. 391 . 

And again, as to the Second Essay : 

*< Hitherto, all geogn4>hera who have 
attempted to traee the retreat of the Tea 
lliousaad, have been compelled to take it 



53 

for granted that their historian was guilty 
of great misrepresentations, espectallv with 
regard to what I may term the unknown 
paru of the route. In support of this, they 
alleged three grots mistakes, taid to be 
committed bj him on more known ground : 
the firtt, with respect to the dittance be- 
tween Thtptacus and the Araxes ; the se- 
cond, at ttated by Mr. Kinneir ; and the 
third, at stated bj Mr. Fortter. At I have 
reitored the mittakes to their actual owners, 
1 venture to reverte their ammentt ; and, 
from the accuracy of the Journal in the 
parU that are known, to infer itt aceuiacy 
in the unknown regiont. 

'<The line of the route it not ditpnted, 
and it accurately giren hi all mapt, with 
one exception : Xenophon did not cross the 
Sangarius, be tailed by the month of it." 
826. 

We shall now give a list of most 
of the places appropriated by Mr. Wil- 
liams. 

The first city which Mr. Williams 
professes to recover, is Ecbaiana*, and 
this he says (p. 57), must be at or near 
Ispahan. 

Colossce is presumed to have been 
merged in Chotue, which, the* aathor 
thinks, was in or near the large village 
or townof Gun^. P. 89. 

Apameia, still uncertain. 

Myriandrus, the modern Piks, the 
Pass Oemircape. P. 1|6. 

Thapsacus, on the western bank of 
the river, nearly opposite to the mo- 
dern i?acca (p. 129), now Surich. 

Nicephorium, now Racca. P. 133, 
seq. 

Anthemusias, ruins on the main- 
road, about twenty-six miles from Bir. 
P. 137. 

licsaina, the modern Rasal-Aln. P. 
140. 

Callinicum, either the same with 
Nicephorium, or a town opposite, on 
the other side of the Bilectra, near its 
junction with the Euphrates, no doubt 
the modern Racca (p. 142), Elini- 
cum, a recent name for Nicephoriuus. 
Ibid. 

Sura, the modern Sorieh (p. I46V 
Thapsacus. P. 147. 

Araxes, 1 River, the Kbabonr. P, 

ChaboraSfj 148. 

Carehemisk of the Scriptures ; Cir- 
cusium, or Circesium ; now Karkisiah. 
P. 154. 

Zenobia, Zelebi. P. IG3. 

Id Dara, or Da-Dara, now Al- 
Der. P. 164. 



^ i. €. The Median, one out of fViur. 



54 



Rbtibw.— Williams's Geography of Jnctent A$ia» [Jafi. 



Pcrisaborat, Birsahorat probably 
Kari Ebn Hobeira. P. 187. 

Siliace, the same a% the Sittace of 
all other ancient authors. P. IQO. 

Opist about seven miles above the 
Koote of the Map. P. I94. 
Zaies, \ River, the modern Diala, 
Zabalus, J or Diicla. P. 1 94 
Parasligris of Pliny, Shai-al-arab. 

P. 207. 

Samare, Sorrah-ManRa). P. 205. 

J^rissa, Bagdat. P. 210. 

Mespiih, probably Dokhara. P. 210. 

Burnadus (river), the modern Hazir 
Su. P. 216. 

Beled, or 1 Where Alexander 

Eske Mosul, J crossed the Tigris. 

P. 217. 

JIalrcp, Hoddur of the Arabs. P. 232. 

Pinax, the modern Mardin. P. 244. 

Niphafei river. Batman Su. P. 263. 

Niphafes mountain, Barema. P. 263. 

Tigris river of Pliny and Ptolemy, 
the Bellis. P. 273. 

Tigris of Strabo, llie Sest. P. 275. 

Martvropolis, Miafarikin. P. 275. 

Bezabde, or Phenica, Hesn Keifa. 
P. 278. 

Moxocne, possibly Moush. P. 280. 

Dascusa, Aizen-Gian. P. 286. 

Arsamosaia, Semsal. P. 290. 

Charpote, Karpoot. P. 290. 

Caluaia, Erzerom. P. 291. 

Carduchian Hills, Hamrim Range, 
the first ridge. P. 2g2, 

^ymm«5,orji j^^ P. 309. 

Saspara, J 

Gemish-Khana, in this neighbour- 
hood is the 8|>ot where Xenophon and 
ten thousand Greeks first saw the 
Euxine. P. 312. 

Every body must be aware that, to 
discuss such ancient geo^rapical ques- 
tions is no easy task ; and, whatever 
may be the opinion of travellers and 
scholars as to the success of Mr. WiU 
liams, ii is certain that the work evinces 
learning* industry, and acumen. It is 
professedly a scholar's book, but is oc- 
casionally enlivened by some curious 
matters; one is, the presumed origin 
of Vitrified Forts, Druidical 
B0KFIRK8, Nebuchadniszzar*8 Fur- 
nace, &c. 

<' Of the prevalence of fire-worship tX 
Fa-iarpu'Ia, we licve an interesting account 
in Appian's History of the Mtthridatic Wars, 
which, although long, I shall here insert, as 
it may tend to call forth souie interesting 
ioformation, and induce future travellers 
more nariowly to obseivc the summits of 



renaarkable hills in the East, where probably 
wiU ht fofund whatantiquariM call vitrifiio 
ports. ' MIthridates offered a sacrifice, af- 
ter the manner of his ancestors, to Jupiter 
Stratius, having heaped upon a lofty hill a 
loftier pile of wood. The kings themselves 
carry the first pieces of wood to tlie pile. 
They form anotner pile circular and lower. 
On the upper they place honey> milk, wine 
and oil, with every species of incense ; on 
the lower (or on the one in the plain) a ban- 
quet is spread for the refreshment of the 
spectators. They then set fire to the pile. 
The Persian kings have a similar sacrifice at 
Paaargada ; and the blazing pile, on account 
of its magnitude, becomes visible to sailois 
at a distance of 1000 stadia ; and they aay, 
that it is impossible to approach the spot fur 
several days on account of the heat of the 
atmosphere. Thus Mithridates offered a sa- 
crifice, after the manner of his ancestors.' 
May we not, from this description, conclude 
that the fiery furnace, into which the three 
children were thrown, was a mockery of the 
religious rites of the fire-worabippers, and 
tliat Ncbochadnezaar, by casting living be- 
ings into it, wished to pollute she god of 
Cm Medes and Persians, and add insult to 
conquest. The choioe to the gneber was 
terrible — either submission to toe tyrant's 
order, or to become the instrument of con- 
taminating the sacred emblem by a pollution 
which his soul abhorred. 

*^ Pliny fixes the position of the Syrian 
Ecbatana, by mfbrming us, that on Alount 
Gurnel there was a town formerly, called 
Ecbatana. Is it too much to suppose, that 
when Elijah challenged the priests of Baal 
to meet him on Mount Carmel, be did h 
because it was their own high place, their 
fiivourite spot for kindling the religious psle^ 
«nd making its reflection in tlie heavens 
visible from tlie borders of ^ypt to the cit/ 
of Tyre ? According to the 9or^>tllres, their 
altar was already made. My own firm con- 
viction is, that the Prophet intended to 
defeat them by an appeal to the very element 
of which they professed themselves the de- 
voted worshippers." P. 72. 

Concerning Goliath and the Philis- 
tines, Mr. Williams says : 

** Many commentators on the Koran, and 
other Oriental writers, affirm, that Thalulh 
or Goliath, was descended from ^e Curds ; 
or, more properly speaking, tliat the Philis- 
tines deduced by us firom the Egyptians were 
A Curdish race.^' P. fl46. 

Studies on Natural History j exUtiiii^ a 
popular View of the most striking and 
interesting Oljccis 0/ the material iForU, 
Jlluatrated by ten Engravings, By William 
Rhind, Member of the Royal Medical and 
Royal Physical Socidicx of Edssibtergh. 
Post 8ro. pp, C47. 



1S30.] Revibw.— Rliind*6 Studies of Natural Hkkrry. 



55 



IT has be«n remarked by eminent 
philosophers, that Natural PhiloeophT 
IS the most rfBcteiit ageiii of incuK* 
eating rational piety and the love of 
God. To this may be added, that it 
exhibits the analogies which exist be- 
tween the hws of Providence and 
the revelations of Scri|)ture. For in- 
stance, Mr. Granville Penn has, by 
[)hilo>ophical facts, authenticated the 
Niosaic cosmogony ; and in this work 
we may find a similar corroboration 
of the prophetic destruction of this 
planet by fire. 

" £v«r7 tolid substance oo the face of the 
globe, by means of strong heat, mi^ht be 
reduced into the ktate of vapour.** P. 299. 

It is also possible that the primary 
state of our globe was that of a ball of 
mere vapour, indurated by subiractiou 
of caloric * ; for, says Mr. Rhynd, 

** The air of the atmosphere itself, which, 
uttdcr tlM usual varieties of temperature 
always remaina a vapour, there is every ana- 
logy for supposing might also be rentlered 
Jiuul, and even a solid, under intense de- 
grees of cold.** Ibid. 

As the belief of a " Day of Judg- 
ment'* is one of the pillars of religion^ 
we add from Tzschiriier, that all ma- 
terial bodies av'e subject to the laws of 
mutation and di>s<>luiion ; and the 
earth having undergone the former 
more than once, it may be finally sub- 
ject to the latter. 

Of «11 the departments of Natural 
Mistory, the most curious is Entomo- 
logy. We shall extract some very ex- 
traordinary case. 

Insects, at least certain kinds, survive 
aniputjiion of limbs, decapitation, and 
evisceration itself, and even disregard 
such misfortunes. 

'< And what is more extraordinary, the 
headless trunk of a male mantis has been 
known to unite itself to the other sex. And 
all this is so hx a beneficial povblon of na- 
ture. Io9ect!i, from their diminusive sixe, 
and frai^ile texture, are contiDuallr exposed 
to injury ; ami had they been formed as 
sensible to thi^ injury as the lar^r species, 
the quantum of animal suffering would have 
been extreme.** P. 16J». 

Flics walk upon ceilings by the fol- 
lowing; means : 

*< Mauy creeping insects, esjiecially flies, 
have a curious provisloa of hollow suckers 
at the extremities ot their legs, with which 

* The earth still bacomes colder and 
colder. See .Amott*s Phvsics, vol. ii. pi. i. 
p. 190. 



they form a vaeonm, and the pressure of the 
external air, acting in a similar manner as 
the leathern suckers with which boys lift 
stones, &c. enables them to resist the bws 
of gravity, and walk on onr ceilings, and 
along perpeadieular sur&ces.'* Ibid. 

Insects also exhibit glimpses of a re- 
flecting faculty, and use conirivancet 
which imply reason (l63-l64). Their 
strength, compared with their sixe, is 
wonderful ; for a man or a horse cannot 
jump three times their length, but a 
flea a hundred times. U(>un this sub- 
ject our author says, 

*< Were our large animals endowed with 
the same strength of muscle, in proportion 
to their size, as the insect tribes, their 
power would be prodigious, and in the case 
of ferocious animals, dangerous in the ex- 
treme ; and it is a fortunate provision of na- 
ture that they are not so. Tlius a cock- 
chaflFer is six times stronger, comparatively, 
than a horse. If the elephant were power- 
ful in proportion to the stag-beetle, it would 
wit|i the greatest facility level mountains, 
and tear up the largest rocks i and were the 
swiftness and strength of some insects given 
in corresponding proportion to the lion and 
tiger, the viper or the rattle-snake, no beiag 
could escape their vengeance.*' P. 1 80. 

Ants fight battles in large bodiet^ 
with systematic human tactics j and 
carry the young of the negro ants, 

** Which they rear up as slaves, making 
them do all the buainess of the commnnityi 
feed, attend ufion, and carry tlieir mastwsy 
and uursc the young.'* P. 915. 

But the greatest curiosity is — they 
keep cows. 

'* Ants feed on auimal matter, the juices 
of fiuits and plants, and what is roost sin- 
gular, on a fluid which they suek, like milk, 
from insects, called yfphides, which live on 
the juices of the leaves and roots of plants. 

** These small insects have been called 
the cows of the ants, and not improperly i 
they afford a juice equivalent to milk, and 
tlie ants keep them in flocks near their ant* 
hills, and regularly milk tliera by applying 
tlieir mouths to their bellies, and pulling 
them wiiii their mandibles, till the juice 
fldws freely. Some species of ants preserve 
the eggs of these cows, and rear them up 
with as much care as they do their own 
young. These flocks too, of Aphidfty are 
often the cause of battles and contests be- 
tween different settlements; and the more 
numerous the flocks, the richer and more 
luxuriously sop|)lied are the various commu* 
niues. 

« < The greatest cow* keeper of all the 
ante,' say Mes»r». Kirby and Spence, * ia 
ona to be met with in moat of our pastures^ 



56 Review. — Tales of Four Nations, — Foreign Review, No. IX. [Jan# 



residing in hemispherical nesU, which are 
•ometimes of considerable dimensions, and 
is known as the yellow ant. This species, 
which is not fond of roaming from home, 
and likes to have all its conveniences within 
reach, usually collects in iu nest a large 
hord of a kind uf aphis, that derives its 
nourishment from the roots of grass and 
other plants. These it transports from the 
neighbouring roots, probably by subter- 
ranean galleries, excavated for the purpose, 
leading from the nest in all directions, and 
thus without going out, it has always at 
hand a copious supply of food. These crea- 
tures share its care and solicitude equally 
with its own offspring. To the eggs it 
pays particular attention, moistening them 
with iu tongue, carrying them in its mouth 
with the utmost tenderness, and giving them 
the advantage of the sun." Pp. 217 — 219. 
We have thas given extracts suffi- 
cient to show the curious matters 
found in this book. We have only to 
add, that Mr. Rhind has dressed thein 
up in a most eloquent and interesting 
style, accompanied with instructive 
delineations of the ineffable wisdom of 
Providence. 

Tales of Four Nations. In three volumes. 

NOVELS have an advantage over 
many other books, because tney are 
read through with a certain degree of 
attention. If they impress moraltruths 
and augment knowledge of life, no 
objection can be reasonably made to 
a perusal of them ; and if they do treat 
chiefly of courting (under prudent 
forms), and end in matrimony, cer- 
tainly that is the only moral and legi- 
timate object of courtship. They may 
indeed be said to stimulate courting 
prematurely ; but we doubt whether it 
would be possible to prevent youne 
people from this whether they read 
novels or not. Courting therefore is 
amongst the most natural of human 
events ; and these tales, like all others, 
turn upon the same pivot. The only 
mistake is, that the heroes of noveuT 
are generally in character real heroes, 
whereas the majority of lovers in actual 
life are very far from having such lofty 
pretensions; they are morally mere 
enthusiasts as to the charms of their 
respective mistresses, or cold calculators 
of their fortunes. 

The tale called the Ambuscade is 
the best; and the hero, a captain of a 
frigate, would not disgrace the Iliad or 
£neid. The character of the ** Cubs 
of the British Lion," i. e. our sailor?, 
and of some smugglers of all nations. 



are excellently drawn. There is much 
humour in the French smuggler 
Belitro. 

The character of Phil the sailor, a 
genuine Tom Pipes, is very interesting. 

Von Puffendorf and Fernandez the 
Mexican, are 6ne characters in the 
other tales ; but we trust that we need 
not say more in favour of the book. 

The Foreign Review, No. IX. 

THE great distinction of English 
and foreign literature is, according to 
the works noticed in this valuable Re- 
view, the preponderance of imagina- 
tion over reason. We have not seen a 
single foreign writer who can be called 
(to use the term out of the technical 
sense) a logician. If conclusions do 
occur, there are no premises; if there 
are feet, there are no legs. But we 
must proceed to the articles. 

I. biographyof Jean Paul Frede* 
rick Richter. This was a man of verv 
uncommon talents, but exhibited with 
such wildness of fancy as would be an 
exemplar to Englishmen of the truth 
of the line, 

** Great wits to madoesi nearly are allied.'* 

Every body knows the story of Gold- 
smith's contented Sailor ; but not how 
superior mind may prevent debase- 
ment of character, too usual under the 
severest extremities of indigence. For 
year upon year was poor Richter 
doomed to feel that, though an appe- 
tite is a certain thing, a dinner is not; 
but Providence flogged him into con- 
tentment, in the fine language of the 
Critic in this masterly article : 

*' On this forsaken youth, Fortmie teem- 
ed to have let loose her ban dogs, and hmi- 
gry ruin had him in the wind. Whiioot was 
no help, no counsel ; but then ky a giant 
force within ; and so firom the oeptha of 
that sorrow and abasement, bis better soul 
rose purified and invincible, like Hercules 
firom his long labours. A high cheerful 
stoicism grew up in the man. Poverty, pato* 
and all evil he leaned to regard not as what 
they seemed, but as what they were; ha 
learned to despise them, nay, in kind 
mockery to sport with them, as with bright 
spotted wild beasts which he had tamed and 
Iwmessed." pp. 17, 18. 

For many years did this eaglet open 
his mouth, and scream for food ; but 
his noble race was at last recognized; 
he was fed and patronized ; soared, and 
was admired. 

IL Finder's Uislory of the Dia^ 



1830.] 



RiviEW.— Foreign Retiem, No. IX. 



67 



momd. Another superior article. Of 
crystallisation the ancients bad no 
knowledge whatever i nor of examin- 
ing f^enis by weight, a process first 
employed by the Arabs in the thir« 
teenih centtirv. — Adamas among the 
ancient Greeks applied only to the 
hardest steel ; and diamat first occurs 
in Albertus Magnus, who died in 1280. 
The earliest author who mentions the 
diamond expressly is Theophrastus ; 
and the cause of this neglect seems to 
have been, that the ancients paid more 
attention to the coloured reflection of 
light than to the clearness and purity 
of the jewels themselves. Lewis de 
fierquin was the first, in 147(>, who 
polished one diamond with the aid of 
another; and glass was cut with red 
hoc steel, before the use of the diamond 
in the l6th century. 

III. The French Cahinei. Political 
prognostications, which we do not 
prefer to those of Dr. Almanack Moore. 
Prussia is soon to become the most 
powerful European Sovereignly. This 
information is certainly novel. 

IV. Sltid^ qfthe Civil Law in Eng" 
land, A curious fact occurs in p. 73. 
The most ancient law book in Eng- 
land, viz. Glanville's Tractatus de Le- 
gibus, &c. temp. Edw. II. is in a great 
part at least 'a servile copy of the pan- 
dects of Justinian. The latter were 
introduced into England in the time of 
Stephen ; Glanville was made Chief 
Justice in 1181; Vacarius lectured 
upon the civil law at Oxford about 
1150 (16 Stephen), and to the ISth 
century we may therefore ascribe the 
incor|>orjtion of the civil law with 
that of the old Saxon and Norman. 

V. Animal Magnetism. ^\i\ expo- 
sure of charlatanry, showing that, if 
one fool makes many, one rogue can 
do the same. 

yi. The Wolhers Slolberg. We 
think that ihefr |K)elry deserves more 
praise than the reviewers have awarded. 

VII. Dumonfs Uentham on Judica- 
ture, Mr. Beniham (see p. 154) oh- 
jects altogether to trial iyjury ! to the 
palladium of English liberty. Now, 
though there may be crooked \efp in 
law, which ought by reforming irons 
to be made straight, we should be 
sorry to see such legs amputated, and 
supplied by Mr. Bentham's wooden 
substitutes. The reformers whom we 
respect are those who do not mutilate 
statues, like Iconoclasts, but animate 
them like Pygmalion. 

GtitT. Mao. Jffiwary, 1880. 

8 



VIII. Niccoliiti^s IVorks. A man 
who wants to fly, but only makes long 
jumps. The most eminent Italians 
consider their language to be one 
formed from the old vernacular dia- 
lecu of Italv, not, as Niccolini, a cor- 
ruption of the Latin ; bnt the reviewer, 
in very proper castigation, observes, 

*<Tlut there was a language different 
from the noble Latin, called vulgarii^ qxuiti- 
dianuSfplebeus, rustiatSf miUtans, eastrentis, 
&c. in tbe timet of Cicero, as before.'* 
P. 186. 

It is very easy to compare the pure 
Roman with the Italian, by the mere 
aid of dictionaries, and thus settle the 
question. 

IX. Montaigne* s Essays. If a man 
be an egotist, his ideas are likely to be 
in consequence original ; and tnose of 
Montaigne we think to be deserving 
of very liij^h respect. 

X. Pohce. The critic thinks that 
the new svstein recently introduced 
into the Metropolis may be made a 
most dangerous instrument of destroy- 
ing the liberties of Englishmen. He 
acquits Government of any such de- 
sign ; and indeed the good may be ef- 
fected without the prospective evil, by 
leaving the patronage and appoint- 
ments in the nands of the people ; or, 
as the critic suggests, by muking the 
present Constabulary more enicient. 

Among the Continental intelligence 
arc the following curious things. A 
small library of books, all written by 
negroes, showing that there is hardly a 
science in which some negro has not 
been distinguished, (p. 2()8.) A sta- 
tue of Venus, found at Bonaira near 
Syracuse, said to excel the Medicean. 
(£69.) Greek inscriptions, remains, 
&c. faid to be found near Monte Vi- 
deo, but disbelieved. (2()6.) And to 
show how easily the discovery of hye- 
nas* bones in caves may be aN/e-dated, 
as we have before observed in our re- 
cent notice of Mr. Rutter*s Somerset- 
shire Delineations, we find that 

« At Erdrestrom two brick inuiges of 
Egyptian deiiies with rams' heads and am- 
rouo boms, have been found. They were 
lying far Iriow the surface tf the river's 
bed, amid a quantity df mud, under which 
uxu a large stratum qf clay, and conse- 
quently they must have l-een there far some 
thousands qf years.** P. 267. 

Are brick-making and Egyptian re- 
mains antediluvian? We shall believe 
so, when Adam and Eve's fig- leaved 
aprons are excavated. 



58 



Review. — Cox on tfie Liturgy. — ^Tunnard's Address. [Jan. 



The Liturgy revised^ or the Necessity and 
Beneficial Effects of an authorised Abridg- 
ment, 6fc, SfC. By the Rev, Robert Coxy 
4'M, ifc, Svo.pp. 136. 

Improvement of the Liturgy, sounds 
to us much like improvement ofWest- 
minster Abbey or King's College Cha- 
pel — nay, of the Bible itself! But we 
must do Mr. Cox the justice to own 
that he does not wish to alter, only to 
omit and modify ; and, most certainly, 
he exemplifies his plan with ability. 
It is most true that a bill of exceptions 
may be tendered, on the score of 
desuetude (see p. 17); but then the 
very same objection may be made to 
the Bible itself. Nothing can be a 
standard which carries with it a ne- 
cessity of variation, and which, in a 
matter of fact affair, is of course inad- 
missible. There is a holiness in the 
IJturgy which is not human. It is a 
book taken from the library of the 
recording Angel. Mr. Cox's motive 
is to reconcile the Dissenters to the 
Church. That philosophers know to 
be impossible. It forms the entirety 
of dissent that every man should be at 
liberty to make his own interpretation 
of Scripture; to make the possible, 
not the actual, meaning of the sacred 
text the real meaning ; to exclude con- 
text and contemporaneous application, 
and even the jubt literal construction 
of the words and phrases of the original 
language. Mr. Cox forgets that a Li- 
tuT^y is, in se, an extinguisherlof such 
notions; that it is both a legal adviser 
and a parental monitor, and that he 
who follows it no longer advocates 
what is called «* religious liberty." 
The idea of conciliating the Dissenters 
by such means, implies the grossest 
inexperience. Not a single sect (except 
the Methodists, who aflect the cos- 
tume of the Church) use a prescribed 
form of words for their prayer; and, 
when Bishop Marsh proposed a joint 
delivery of prayer-books, with bibles, 
was there not a clamour excited, and 
a schism generated ? If this fact will 
not satisfy Mr. Cox of the inefficiency 
of attempting to wheedle Dissenters 
into our Liturgy, does he forget that 
the very maintenance of dissenting 
ministeis is lost, if their followers are 
merged in Church people; that, if the 
holy orders of such ministers are re- 
cognized, then there is a virtual con- 
fession of mere unfounded assumption 
in the regular clergy. That Mr. Cox 
is any thing but a philosopher as to 



Dissenters, he will see from an excel- 
lent little work called " The Valleys,*' 
noticed in oar vol. xcvii. i. p. 604. 



Employment of the Poor. An Address to 
the Grand Jury qfthe Hundreds of Kir ton 
and Skirbeckf in the partt ofHoliandf in 
the County of Lineolnt at the General 
Quarter Sessions of the Peace, held at 
Boston, Oct. 20, 1829. By Charles 
Keightley Tunnard, esq. Chairman, pulf 
lished at the r&juesl of the Bench tmd rf 
the Grand Jury. Svo. pp. 1 5. 

MR. TUNNARD has very ably 
and judiciously exhibited the evils aU 
teiidant upon the allowance, system 
and parochial mismanagement, to 
which we have had occasion to allude 
in our notices of the Anti-pauper 
systems of Messrs. Becher ana Bos- 
worth. These, of course, we shall not 
repeat, but shall direct our attention to 
the valuable observations of Mr. Tun- 
nard on the abuse of parochial road- 
work. 

<* We natarally first turn our attention to 
the public works in our parlthes, and find 
the highways available to the employment 
of the poor ; not in the disgraceful manner 
in whicn they are at present carried on, for 
I will be bold to say, that with the same 
expenditure which now takes place in our 
different parishes for what is ndsely called 
the repairs of the highways, but which it 
nothbg better than a wanton waste of 
parish money, we might have good roads 
and full employment for a number of our 
labouring poor ; but the evil of the allow- 
ance system has found its way, even into 
this branch of our parish expenditure. An 
idle man applies for relief to the overseer ; 
he sends him to the surveyor, who directs 
him * to let the water off the roods, and chop 
in ruts (this is the usual language) ;' aaid 
there the parish labourer is left for weeks 
without the superintendence of any one to 
see that he has performed a single day's 
work. I have myself put the question to 
surveyors, and received for answer, ' Oh, 
Sir, It b only to keep him out of mischief; 
he is a drunken eood-for-nothing fellow, 
and always chargeable to the psri*h, so we 
put him on the highways.' This is a fre* 
quent and not an exaggerated case ; and I 
would ask you, gentlemen, if this is just to 
yourselves as charge-bearers, or just to the 
unfortunate individual, who is thus en- 
cmiraged to habitual idleness. I am con- 
vinced that, with proper attention, much 
might be accomplished for the good of the 
parishes every way, by the employment of 
their labourers at stated seasons on the 
highways. Let the parishioners view their 
roads and direct what shall bt done ; thien 



1830.] 



Misccllaneoiii Reviews. 



59 



mn BMaj roads waat even formioff, which 
«re DOW, from iMf^cct, nothing out bills 
•ad holes ; msuT would become excellent, m 
hi m the materiel of the eoontry will admits 
hj turaioig { and one^tenth part of the days' 
work which are now paid for u soch, would 
be*sn£5eient to keep them in constant re- 
pair." P. IS. 

7Vx> Leetura on the HtMiury qf Biblical In- 
terprelationf wiihan Jppendix. By Her- 
bert Marsh, D.D. F,RJS. and F,Su4. 
Lady Margart^s Professor qfDivimiy in 
the UmversUy qf Cambridge^ and Bishop 
if PHerbvrough, 800. pp, 63. 
IT would seem a strange deviation 
from common sense, if a person pro- 
fessing to state the factual words olaa- 
other, as evidence in a court of justice, 
should give only a coustructiou of their 



meaning made by himself or others, 
or, in other words, should substituie a 
comment for the text. Yet of such an 
absurdity the learned Bishop plainly 
shows, that the majority of the Fathers 
were guilty; for it seems that they 
used various principles of interpreta- 
tion, mystical, allegorical, &c. and 
which in Barrow's language made the 
Scripture a series of riddles. In what 
modes of interpretation the Fathers 
have so erred, his Lordship shows; 
and such a work, written by a prelate 
of such commanding erudition, in so 
convenient and concise a form, ia of 
no small benefit to the theologian ; for 
he might wade through volumes before 
he would comprehend the " principles 
of interpretation'* developed here. 



Mr. Ellis's British Tariff, shewing the 
JhUUs payable on Foreign Good* imparted 
into Gfeat Britain, Irdand, ^c. is a work of 
which the value is erident, and the execu- 
tion most BMritorious. 

Mr. J. H. Cuaris has published if j^ 
nopHeal Chart tf the Diseases qf the m-, 
showing their order, classification, seat> 
symptoms, causes, and treatment. This 
aiole and experienced aurist has here pre- 
sented to the profession and to the public 
at large, a highly valuable sheet for refer- 
eoee, expressed in a clear and satisfiictory 



Mr. J. Gorton, the Editor of the Gene- 
ral Btographical Dictiooary, has commenced 
pubishiog, in Monthly Numbers, a New and 
Comprehensive Topographical Dictionary. 
The whole will be comprised in 43 Numbers, 
and embellished with 48 maps. The first 
Number affords evidence of being carefully 
compiled ; and as the work is to embrace 
every place in the United Kiogdoro noticed 
in tne last Population Returns, with such 
other hamlets, &o. as can be otherwise ac- 
quired, the whole cannot fail of proviug a 
highly desirable and valuable collection. 

The Rev. G. R. Gray's Christian Patri- 
otietm d|r*ws an excellent line of distinction 
between the political and selfish patriot 
(see p* 18) and the Christian philanthropist. 

Dr. STtVBNsoM's Works, (1) upon Colds 
and Coughs f and (9) upon Nervous Affec- 
tioms, merit the attention of all prudent 
people. 

The Son and the fFard, by MARiiitiiB 
Parrott, is an interesting school-book, 
wisely celeulated to make a strong impres- 
sion, by e&habiting the aseanness and dis- 
grace of selfishness. 



We think M. Vintouillac's transhtton 
into French of Bishop Watson's Apology for 
the Bible a very valuable school-book. 

Mr. D. Guest's Inquiry into the Causes 
of the Decline qf Historical Painting is an 
oration which makes that style depend upon 
the mechanical exoellenee of tne Dutch 
school. We are among thoee who do not eon- 
sider drunken boors, cobUers, donkeys, pigs, 
and pigsties, subjects taken up in good 
taste, or matters demonstrative of any 
thing beyond execution. Hogarth was de- 
ficient in this skill ; but was he not an his- 
torical painter fisr superior to Wouvermans, 
Teniers, &c. as to the elevation and dignity 
of the art in the view of mind ? because 
there is iutellectualitv and genius in his 
conceptions; while Dutch painting is at 
the best but well-executed portraits. We 
mean no disrespect to Mr. Guest, but we 
solemnly protest against exaltation of the 
vulgarity and bad taste of the Dutch school 
into the beau-ideal pf the art of painting. 

Mr. HiooiNs's Introductory Treatise on 
Light and Optical Instruments is most edi- 
fying and satisfactory, so fiur as our present 
knowledge extends upon those subjects. 
We have had occasion to quote under our 
notice of Dr. Amott's Physics. 

Mr. Spencer's Plainfamiliar Lectwres on 
Confirmation we can conscientiotuly reeom- 
roend. We wuh, however, that in p. SS 
he had more precisely distinguished the 
temptations of the devil from those of the 
world and the flesh. He would have found 
in eminent theologians, that the terapta- 
tionr alluded to, precisely and exclusively 
considered, are the abstract vices of the 
mind, such as infidelity, &c. ; the pride of 
the eye and the lust of the flesh are more 
immediately connected with the paMions 
and the senses. 



t 60 ] 



[Jan. 



FINE ARTS. 



Mr. Rutter has published a Series of 
Twenty additional WustraHons to his Deli" 
nealions qf the North-western Division of 
Somersetshire. ITiey are dedicated to J. H. 
Smyth Pigott, Esq. F.S. A. Hif.h Sheriff of 
Somersetshire, to whom the original draw- 
ings beloogt and to whom Mr. K. is indebt- 
ed for considerable assistance in the expense 
of engraving them. The drawings are exe- 
cuted in a very masterly manner, chiefly by 
Mr. J. C. Buckler, the antiquary and archi- 
tect, and many'of which are views of fine old 
mansions in Somersetshire, subjects to 
which Mr. Buckler has devoted very consi- 
derable attention. Amongst others are views 
of Ashton-court, Barrow«court, Kings- 
ton Seymour Manor-house, Cleve-court 
and Toot (an excellent print), Clapton 
Manor-house, and Cleveden-court. These 
are all mansions in the Gothic style, and 
show how well that species of architecture 
b suited to domestic use. Brockley-hall and 
L«e-court are each noble mansions, in a 
more modern style. The exterior and inte- 
rior views of Yatton Church are very inter- 
esting, particularly the interior, which shows 
some very fine monuments in the D« Wyck 
and Newton Chapels lo that church. The 
inside view of the refectory of Woodspring 
Priory is a good subject ; and the painted 
glass from banwell Church, drawn by Mr. 
G. Bennett, a very curious one. On the 
whole these twenty Plates form a most de- 
sirable addition to Mr. Butter's well-com- 
piled volume. 



Select Fiews of the principal Cities qf 
Europe, 

Lieut. -Colonel Batty, to whom the public 
are already much indebted for various em- 
bellishments in European scenery, has here 
published the first Part of a new work with 
still higher claims to excellence. The city 
selected for the first Number is Oporto, 
which is illustrated by five views and a vig- 
nette title, engraved by Goodall, W. K. 
Smith, R. Brandard, W.Miller, R.Wallis, 
and T. Jeavons. These are finished in the 
highest possible style of line engraving ; and 
we do not recollect any plates since the 
publication of Turner's Southern Coast, 
that have delighted us more. A splendid 
sunset is represented in the vignette-view of 
the mouth of the Douro. The view of 
Oporto from Villa Novo, with the Bishop's 
Palace and Cathedral on the crebt (»f the 
hill { and the view of the Custom-house 
Quay, with the busy scene iu the fore- 
ground, and the Serra Convent on the sum- 
mit of the opposite hill, are two most charni- 
iog prints. Every engraving has a key- 
pUte, etched by Lieut.-Col. Batty, pointing 
out the names of the objects depicted. Ap- 



propriate descriptions in English and French 
accompany the prints. Each Part will be 
illustrative of one or two of the principal 
cities or places in Europe. Twelve paru 
will complete a volume; but each part 
being complete in itself, purchasers may 
possess those places they have visited, or re- 
sjiecting which they feel most interest. 



The Second Number of Characteristic 
Sketches of Animals ^ by Mr. Thos. Landseer, 
will be found equally satisfactory with its 
predecessor. The Musk-buU, the Bengal 
Tiger, the Elk, and the lb«uc, are etched 
with equal freedom of drawing and accuracy 
of representation, catching not only the ex- 
pression and fire of the animals, but also the 
grace and freedom of their motions. The 
hair in the different subjects is admirably 
discriminated. The vignettes, as before, 
add much to the interest of the work. That 
attached to the account of the Ibex, or 
Wild Goat, represents this hardy and bold 
mountaineer attacking a hunter on the very 
edge of a pathless precipice, and tbrowins 
Ifiigpself headlong on the man, so that both 
roilftd over into the abyss beneatli> and md- 
serably perished. 

Hamlet, the goldsmith and jeweller, pur- 
chased last season, in the sale of the late 
Lord Rivers's pictures, several paintings, 
which were represented as the works of Caoar 
letti ; but they were so defiled with dirt and 
filth, that their identity was dmibted bv all 
the dealers, amateurs, and artisu, who baa- 
pened to be present when they were sold. 
Consequently Mr. Hamlet obtained the 
whole at his own price, or, as the saying is, 
<*for an old song." These pictures have 
recently been cleaned, and divested of all 
their impurities, and, in their present state, 
are now considered the most splendid views 

Eiinted by Canaletti that are at present in 
nglaod, with the exception of those in the 
possession of his Majesty, in Windsor Castle. 

Preparing, 
A Copper-plate Engravings representing 
an action with the Spanbh slave-brig Almi- 
rante, captured by H. M. brig Black Joke, 
(tender to H. M. S. Sybille, Commodore 
F. A. Collier, C B.) commanded by Lieut. 
Heory Downes, off Lagos (Bight of Beain)» 
Feb. 1, 1899. From an original Painting 
by W. J. Huggins, Marine Painter. Abo, 
from a Painting by the same Artist, a Cop- 
per plate Engravings representing a Vieir 
of H. M. S. Winchester (bearing the flag 
of Edward Griffith Colpoys, Esq. Viec- 
Adroiral of the White, off the EddystOM,) 
in the act of taking in top-gallaat-Muls, and 
main-sail, in a squall. 



iKja] 



[ «i ] 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



Rtmiyjor PubUaUioH, 

The Argumtato lor PredMtiiMtion and 
NacMtity eoatfMted with the ettaUithed 
Priscfplet of Phikwophical Inqairy. By R. 
H. Gmvu, D.D. 

Cahrinittic Pradeftiaation repognant to 
the general tenor of Scripture. By the late 
Very Rer. Rich. Orates, D.D. 

Sermoet on various subiects. By the 
Rev. JusiPH Edwards, Curate of Wat- 
tishani. 

Sermons on several occasions. By the 
Rev. H. MooRi, Assistant for some yean 
to the Rev. John Wesley. 

The Political L;fe of the Right Hon. O. 
Caaninff, from hb acceptance of the Seals 
of the Foreign Department, in September, 
1899, to the period of his Death, in August, 
1897* By A. O. Staplbton, Esq. 

An Inouiry bto the best means of pre- 
venting trie destruction of the Aborigines 
usually incident upon settling new Colonies. 
By S. Bannistkr, Esq. late Attoruey-Ge* 
neral of New South Wales. 

Mr. Britton's History and Antiquities of 
Bristol Cathedral, with eleven engravings. 
Alto the Fifih Number of his Picturesque 
Antiquities of the English Gties. 

Poor Laws in Ireland considered, and 
their probable effects upon capital, the pro- 
sperity, and the progressive improvement of 
that country. By Sir John Walsh, Bart. 

Poetical Beauties of the 16ch and 17th 
Centuries ; from Surrey to Dryden. By 
the Rev. J. D. Parry, M.A. author of the 
Legendary Cabinet. 

The Biblic^raphical and Retrospective 
Miscellany, or notices of rare, curious, and 
useful Books in all Langtuiges, &c. Nu. I. 

Sir Ethelbert, or the Dissolution of Mo- 
nasteries, a novel By the Author of Santo 
Sebastiano, &c 



Preparing for Publication. 

Excerpta Historica, or Illustrations of 
English History, to be published in quar- 
terly paru. lu plan is tu elucidate public 
events domestic and foreign, our ancient 
relations with France, Spain, and other 
nations, the laws and constitution uf Eng- 
land, the state of the Na«y and Army, tlie 
economy nf the Royal Household, the 
splendour, magnificence, and personal cha- 
racter of our Monarchs, the history of Mo- 
nastic Establishments, the lifcs of distin- 
guished men, the costume, modes of living, 
manners and custopis of our ancestors, the 
moral and political condition of society, the 
state of Unguage and literature, the intro- 
duction and progress of the Aru, Heraldry, 
Courts of Chivali7, and Genealogy, &c. 

The late Rev. J. B. Blakeway, of 
Shrewsbury, devoted a great part of hia life 
to collecting materiala for the history of his 



native county, Shropshire. He had also pre- 

Eired a distinct work, which contains a 
istory of the SherifEi of Shropshire from 
the conquest to his own times ; and be had 
so fsr prepared this volume for the press, 
that it has been thought advisable to pub- 
lish it, in folio, with the arms of the differ- 
ent Sheriffs. 

Conversations upon Comparative Chro- 
nology and General History, from the crea- 
tion of the world to the birth of Christ. 

Raleigh, and his Times, ^y Mrs. A. 
T. Thomson, author of Memoirs of Hen. 
VHI. 

An Examination of the Monajjolies of 
the East India Coropauy. By the author 
of Free Trade and Colonization of India. 

The Causes of the existing Privations and 
Distresses amongst certain Classes ; with an 
effectual Remedy. By Captain Pettman, 
Author of the Essay on Political Economy. 

Negro Emancipation no Philanthropy ; 
being a Second Letter to the Duke of Wel- 
lington. By a Jamaica LAndholder. 

A short Analysis of the Criminal Law of 
England. By a Barrister of the Middle 
Temple. 

Essays on Superstition (originally pub- 
lished in the Christian Observer during the 
year 1829), with corrections and additions. 
By W. NiwNHAM, Esq. 

Social Duties on Christian Principles. 

Tales of the Five Senses; designed to 
explain and illustrate the Physiological Won- 
ders of Man's Existence. By the Author of 
«« The Collegians." 

A Treatise on the Principles of Hydrosta- 
tics ; together with a newTlieory of Hydro- 
dynamics. By Mr. MosELY, of St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 

Tlie Jew, a Novel ; depicting the charac- 
ter, habits, and peculiarities of the Jewish 
People. 

A w cries of Landscape Illustrations of 
tho Waterley Novels, to be published 
in munthlv parts. To be engraved in the 
most finished numner by Messrs. W. and 
E. Finden. 



Cambridge. 

Jan. 8. The subject of the Hulsean priie 
dissertation for the present year is ** Go the 
Futility of the Attempu to represent the 
Miracles recorded in Scripture as Effects 
produced in the ordinary course of Natwe." 

Jan. 14. The subject of the Seatonian 
prize poem for the present year is *< The 
Ascent of Elijah." 

Tbe subjects of examination in the last 
week of the Lent Term, 1 88 1 , will be, I . 
The AcU of the Apostles ; 9. Palsy's Evi- 
deuces of Christianity i 3. Tlie Prometheua 
of iEschylus; 4. 'tlie Fiftli Book of the 
Histories of Tacitus. 



63 



Literary Inlelligenee, 



[Jan. 



Royal Society. 

N<m. 80. This being St. Andrew's daj, 
the Society held its usual anniversary meet- 
ing, and elected members to serve in the 
new Council for the ensuing year. The 
President, Mr. Davies Gilbert, proceeded to 
inform the Society of the progress made in 
the sciences during the last year, and the 
loss that the Society and the world had ex- 
perienced in the death of three of its greatest 
ornaments. Need we mention the names 
of Sir Humphry Davy, uf Wollaston, and 
Young — names which will be transmitted to 
the latest posterity as long as science shall 
be respected by mankind. After detailing 
very eloquently the researches and discove- 
ries of these great men, the President in- 
formed the Society that he had received a 
letter from Lady Davy, requesting its ac- 
ceptance of a magnificent portrait of her 
husband, by Sir Thomas Lawrencie, as well 
as a portrait of the late Dr. Wollaston, by 
the same artist, from the hmWy of Dr. Wol- 
laston. The President then stated that the 
Council had adjudged the first Royal medal 
to Charles Bell, esq. for his profound re- 
aearches on the nervous system ; and the se- 
cond medal had been adjudged to Mr. Ma- 
jendie, for his investigation into organic 
matter. 

Jan. SI, 18S0. The Society held their 
periodical meeting. The President, D. Gil- 
bert, esq. in the chur. The attendance was 
numerous, probably to witness the experi- 
ments of the Chevalier Aldini, of Bologna, 
** for preserving human life from fire." The 
Chevalier handled red-hot pokers as freely 
as he would walking-sticks, and also supplied 
asbestos gloves, by which those of the com- 
pany who chose to make the trial were en- 
abled to do the same. He informed the 
company that he had succeeded in construct- 
ing an apparatus, or rather clothing, to pre- 
serve persons from injury who are exposed to 
flames, the efficacy of which had been proved 
at Geneva, where he showed the firemen 
that a finger, enveloped first in asbestos, 
then in a double case of wire-gauze,'inight 
be held in the flame of a spirit-lamp, or can- 
dle, for a long time before inconvenience was 
felt ; and then clothing them gradually, ac* 
customed them to the fiercest flames. A 
fireman having his hand in a double asbestos 
glove, and guarded in the palm by a piece of 
asbestos cloth, laid hold of a large piece of 
red-hot iron, carried it slowly to the distance 
of 1 50 feet, then set straw on fire by it, and 
immediately brought it back to the fomace, 
the hand not being at all injured in the ex- 
periment. Another experiment related to 
the defence of the head, the eyes, and the 
lungs. The fireman put on only an asbestos 
and wire gauze cap, and a cuirass, and held 
a shield before his breast. A fire of shavings 
was then lighted in a chafing-dish, and the 
fireman plunged his head into the middle of 
the flames, with his hve towards the foel. 



and in that way went several times round 
the chafing-dish for a period of above a mi- 
nute in duration. The Chevalier stated that 
he had an application before his Majesty's 
Minissen for a space of ffround, aad ade- 
quate oppoitanitiesf to OLhibit his experi- 
ments. He retired firom the room amia the 
plaudits of the company. 

Ia our Vol. zcvi. i. p. 601 , oar readers 
will find a venr carious article *•' on resisting 
the effects of fire," which was written in oon- 
sequence of the wonderfol feats then exhibited 
(June 1826) by Moos. Chabert, who, al>out 
ten years ago, was performing the same 
tricks in Pall Mall as a Rusaian, of which 
the public have been unaware. The writer of 
the above article says, that, about 1 764, a Mr. 
Powell obtained great celebrity m a fire- 
eater. He exhibited « not only before most 
of the clowned heads in Europe, but even 
before the Royal Society of London, and was 
dignified with a carious and very ample sil- 
ver medal, bestowed on him by that learned 
body, as a testimony of their approbation 
for eating what nobody else oould eat." 

Chesokie Indians. 

In our Vol. xc?iii. ii. p. 858, we stated 
that a newspaper had been establidied by 
the Indiana of the Cherokee nation, printed 
at New Echota, the capital of that repoblic. 
At that time we were entirely in the Sark as 
to the origin of the CherokM alphabet. It 
is well known that volumes liave been 
written on the origi^ of writing, and the 
learned have been perpetually engaged in 
the dispute whether alpiiabetic writing was of 
human or dhrine origiuy it being generally 
considered that so wonderfol an invention 
was beyond human ingenuity. The matter, 
however, receives considerable light from 
the details published by Mr. Knapp, in his 
Leetures on American Literature, who re- 
cords one of the most extraordinary events 
which has occurred since the original inven- 
tion of letters. It appears that an Indian of 
the name of See-quah-yab is tlie inventor of 
this Cherokee alphabet, and the inventor 
under such disadvantageous circumstances 
as render him one of the most extraordinary 
men that the world has produced. 

Mr. Knapp has given to the public the 
history of this invention nearly in the words 
of See-q\iah-yah, the inventor himself, 
then (in the year 1 898) about sixty-five 
years old. At the termination of a campaign^ 
towards the close of the war, it appears a 
letter was found on the person of a prisoner, 
which was wrongly read by him to the In- 
dians. In some of their deliberaticms cm 
this subject, the question arose among 
them whether the mysterious power of" the 
talking leaf" was the gift of the Great Spirit 
to the white man, for a discovery of the 
white man himself? Most of his companions 
were of the former opinion, while he as 
strenuously maintained the latter. Thb 



1H30.] 



Literatff inteUigenct. 



63 



ffBrnieoUy b«eniM t tubjaet of eontenplatioa 
wfto htm afterwards, bat be never sat dowB 
smously to reflect on h, until a swelling in 
his knee confined him to hb cabin, and at 
length made him a cripple for life. In the 
long night of his confinement) hb mind was 
again directed to the mjtterv of speaking hj 
letters* the very name of whichy of course, 
was not to be roand in hb language. From 
the cries of wild beasts, firum the talents of 
the mocking-bird, firom the Yoices of hb 
children and his companions, he knew that 
feelings and passions were conveyed by direct 
sound from one intelUgent being to another. 
The thoiq^bt struck him to tnr to ascertain 
all the sounds in the Cherokee laognage. 
Hb own ear was not remai^ably discnmina- 
ting, and he called to bis aid the more acute 
ears of his wife and children. When he 
thought that be had dbtinguisbed all the 
diffirent sounds in their language, he at- 
tempted to use pictorial signs, images of 
birds and b eas ts , [to convey thc«e sounds to 
others, or to mark them in bb own mind. 
He soon dropped thb method, as difficult or 
impossible, and tried arbitrary signs, with- 
out any regard to appearances, except such 
as might assist in recollecting them, and 
distingubhing them from each other. At 
first these signs were venr numerous ; and 
when he got so &r as to think his invention 
was nearly accomplished, he had about SOO 
characters in hb alphabet. By the aid of 
his daughter, who seemed to enter into the 
genius of his labours, he reduced them at 
last to 86, the number he now uses. He 
then set to work to make these characters 
more comely to the eye, and succeeded — as 
yet he had not the knowledge of the pen as 
an instrument, but made hb characters on a 
piece of bark, with a knife or nail. At thb 
time he sent to the Indian agent, or some 
trader in the nation, for paper and pen. His 
ink was easily made firora some of the bark 
of the forest trees, whose colouriug oroper- 
ties he bad previously known — and after see- 
ing the construction of the pen, he soon 
made one. His next difficulty was to make 
hb invention known. At length he sum- 
moned some of the moat dbtinguished of bb 
nation, in order to make his communication 
to them— and after giving the best explana- 
tion of bis discovery that he nnild, stripping 
it of all flupeniatural influence, he proceeded 
to demonstrate to tliem in good earnest that 
he bad made a discovery. Hb daughter, 
who was hb only pupil, was ordered to go 
out of hearing, wnile he requested his 
frbndf to name a word or sentiment, which 
he put down, and then the was called in and 
read it to them ; then the fother retbed, and 
the daughter wrote ; the Indians were won* 
der-strnck, but not tntonly satisfied. See* 
quah-yah then propoeed that the tribe should 
select several youths firom among theb 
brightest young men, that he might commn* 
nicatcthe mystery to them. Thb was at 



length agreed to, and several were selected 
for this purpose. The tribe watched thn 
youths for several months %ith anxiety, and 
when thej offered themselves for examinn> 
tion, the Melingt of all were wrought np to 
the highest pitch. The youths were sepa- 
rated from their master, and from each other, 
and watched with great care. The uninitiatad 
directed what master and pupil should writn 
to each other, and the teeu were viewwl la 
such a manner u not only to destroy thefar 
infidelitv, but most firmly to fix their foith. 
The Indians, on thb, ordered a great fimst^ 
and made See-quah-yah conspicuous at It. 
He became at once schoolmaster, profoasor, 
philosopher, and a chief. 

He did not stop here, bat carried hb db- 
coveries to numbers. He, of course, Imeir 
nothing of Arabic digits, nor the power of 
Roman letters in the science. The Chero- 
kees had mental numerals to one hundied* 
and had words for all numbers up to that $ 
but they had no signs nor characters to aaebi 
them in enumerating, adding, subtracting, 
multiplying, or dhriding. He reflected npoa 
this until he had croited their elementary 
principles in his mind, but he was at first 
obliged to make words to express his mean* 
ing, and then signs to explain it. By thb 
process he soon had a clear perception of 
numbers up to a million. His great difiioalty 
was the threshold — to fix the poirers of 
his signs according to their places. When 
thb was overcome, his next step was in add- 
ing up hb difforent numbers, in order to pot * 
down the fraction of the decimal, and give 
the whole number to the next place { hot 
when Mr. Knapp knew him he had overcome 
all these difficulties, and was quite a ready 
arithmetician in the fondamental rules. 

Thb Ingenious Indian is not only on 
admirable mechanic, hot Mr. Knapp stalea 
that he has also a great taste for paint- 
ing. He mixes hb colours with skill. For 
hb drawincs he has no model but what na- 
ture fumisned, and he often copies them 
with astonbhing fiuthfolness. Hb resem- 
blances of the human form, it b true, are 
coarse, but often spirited and correct ; and 
be gave action and sometimes grmce to bb 
representation ot animab. He had never 
seen a camel-hair pencil when he made ose 
of the hair of wild animals for his brusbtt. 
« Tlie government of the United Statea,** 
continues Mr. Knapp, <* hada fount of typo 
cot for this alphabet} and a newspaper, 
printed pnrtly in the Cherokee language, aod 
partly in the English, has been establbbed 
at New Echota, and b characterised by 
decency and good sense ; and thus many of 
the Cberokees are able to read both lan- 

AraicAM EzrEoiTJONs. 

Mr. Richard Lander, the attendant and 
only surviving member of Capi. Clapper* 
too s expeditioa to the interior of Anrioa^ 



Literary and Scientific InieHigence* 



fA 

ksB sailed in the merehaot brig Alert, from 
Spithew), accoropMied by his brother, for 
the wetUrn coMt of th*t hitlierto little- 
exi>lored continent. Tliese traveller* arc 
uttiret of Cornwall, and were both brought 
up to the printinjT businew at Tniro. 
Tbey are remarkably intelligent young 
men, and appear every way capable of 
accomplishing the object of their arduoos 
nnderuking. They uke with them a letter 
from the Secretary of Sute, addressed under 
a flying seal to the CapUin of the first 
King's ship they roaj chance to fall in with 
after leaving the Alert, which is destined 
for Cai-e Coast Castle. The orders in this 
letter are to convey the travellers to fiada- 
gry, aud to Introduce them, in the name 
of our Sovereign, to Adulee, the King of 
that country, as persons in whose wel£sre 
the British Government feel the most parti- 
cular interest. From thence we understand 
they will proceed to Katunga, the capiul of 
Yariba, and then to Boussa (where Mungo 
Park was lost,) with the intention of tracing 
the river Niger to its termination. Should 
the Niger l>e found to flow into the Bight 
#»f l^nin, the Messrs. Lander are to return 
by that route ; but should it be found to 
flow to the eastward, into the L«ke Tscha- 
dan Bornou, they are to return over the 
(ireat Desert to Tripoli, by way of Fexzan. 
in the preface to his narrative of Capt. 
CUppcrton's last expedition to Africa, just 
pulilifthed, Mr. Richard Lander thus feel- 
ingly adverts to the above expedition, which 
iiad l>ecn determined upon by Government 
at the time of hi* writing : 

<* If energy and |)crseverance can avail us 
any thing, i have the best reasons for be- 
lieving that it will prove as successful as my 
most sanguine expectations lead me to hope 
that it will. At all events, nothing shall 
lie wanting on our parts to accomplish the 
object in view. If we be so unfortunate as 
to faily I may say with confidence aud with- 
out vanity, that it shall not be attributed to 
a want of proper spirit and enterprise ; since 
we have made the fixed determination to 
risk every thing, even life itself, towards its 
final accomplishment. We shall endeavour 
to conform ourselves, as nearly as possible, 
to the manners and habits of the natives ; 
we will not muck their blind superstition, 
but respect it ; we will not scoff at their in- 
stitutions, but bow to them; we will not 
condemn their prejudices, but pity them. 
In fine, we shall do all in our power to ward 
off suspicion as to the integrity of our mo- 
tives, and the innocency of our intentions ; 
and this cannot be done more effectually 
than by mingling with the people in their 
general amusements and diversions. Con- 
fidence in ourselves, and in them, will be 
our best panoply; and an English Testa- 
ment our safest fetish* Clothed iu this ar- 
mour, by the blessing of God, we have not 
much to fear ; but if, by any casualty or un- 



[Jan. 



foreseen misfMtane, we parish in Afirica, 
and are seen no more, even then our fiiSc 
will not be more dismal than that of many 
of our predecetsors in the same pursuit, 
whoae gallant enterprismg spirito have sunk 
into darkness, witbont a voiee to record 
their melancholy end." 

Whilst the Landers seek the Niger 
firom the western coast, a young Indian 
officer (Mr. Henry Welford) is aboot to 
■ail for Egypt, and' proceed thence to Sen- 
naar, the Bakr-al-Abiad, and Mountains of 
the Moon, from which point he will pene- 
trate through the nnexplored countries 
westward to the lake T/ad, returning either 
by way of the Gold Coast, Timbnctoo, or 
the Desert. The Bahr-al-Abiad is now 
•apposed to be the real and most abundant 
source of the Nile, and some celebrated, 
geographers imagine that the Tzad is the 
reservoir from which this vast river is tnp- 
plied. The Monntains of the Moon have 
never yet been visited by any European ; 
and Mr. Henry Welford*s journey promisea 
to be oue of greater novelty and interest 
than any one since the first expeditions of 
Mungo Park and Denham. He goes quite 
alone, in the costume of a Desert Arab; 
and will travel with the greater facility from 
his knowledge of eastern manners and lan- 
guages. He is only twenty-one yeara of age. 

South African Colleoe. 
This College was opened, at the Cape of 
Good Hope, on the 1st of October last. 
The branches for which professors and 
teachers have been already provided, are — 
the English, Dntch, French, and classical 
languages ; writing, arithmetic, geography, 
astronomy, mathematics, and mecnanics. 
The professors are the Rev. Mr. Judge, the 
Rev. Mr. Faure, and the Rev. Mr. Adamson. 
The two latter gentlemen have offered their 
services gratuitously for on* year, to afford 
time for procuring suitable persons from 
Europe. 

Spots in the Sun. 

There has lately been a number of spots 
on the sun's disc, two of which were very 
remarkable, and might be seen with an or- 
dinary telescope. One of them was of an 
oblong form, broader at one end than the 
other, and iU length was equal to three 
times end a half the diameter of the earth. 
The other was nearly of a rhomboidal figure, 
and the disUnce from its eastern to the 
western edge was equal to four timet ai^ a 
quarter the earth's diameter. In other 
words, one was 98,673 mile* long, and the 
other 84,386 miles across. The brown 
shade encompassing six black tpoU mea- 
sured one-eighteenth of the sun's diameter. 
Thus, taking the diameter of the tun at 
886,149 miles, the spot mutt be 49,«»0 
miles. 



1830.] 



[ 66 ] 



ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



SOCIBTY OP AnTIQUARIU. 

Jan, 14. TttooMM Amjot, esq. TreMurer» 
in the chair. 

An abtiract wm read of the remaincier of 
Mr. Dukes' historical account of Wroxeter, 
the ancient UTiconium ; including a verr 
long lut of tlie various Roman remains which 
are almost annually found in the precincts 
of that distinguished tution. 

The Kev. Charles J. Bird, F.S.A. ex- 
hibited four teals, 1. of silver, found at 
Wallingford, in shape round, (1 iochdiam.) 
and conUining, within florid tracery, a shield 
hong on a tree, bearioc a chevron lietween 
three heathcocks ; the legeud, SigiUum 
Thomt d« Bokeby, 9. of brass, round ( 1 i ioch. 
diam.}, containing within tracery a shield 
(encircled by three dragons) bearing a lion 
rampant. The inscription is s. icabinor* 

VIBRfCARNE DB SBCHERI CAPCLLA BT DB 

sovLisBLB. 8. » gold ring, having a very 
l>eautiful antiqiie gem set in it, representing 
a female head enveloped in drapery, with a 
quibbling motto, tbcta lbob, lbcta tbob, 
(oval,tite 7-8 by 11-16). 4. of braw,oval, 
9 inches by 1^, representing a standiBg 
figure of a bishop, very rudely exeeuted, and 
surrounded by an inscription, partly in 
the Irish character, Sigilt dtmAnctntit dt 

terloati Utgala ep,' Mr. Bird also 

exhibited a meul box, of a loxenge form, 
gilt, and studded with stones, found at Ash 
Court, near Margate. It onent like a tndF- 
box, and ia tuppoaed to nave been a re- 
liquary. 

William Hosklngs, efq. presented drawl- 
ing* of two sculptured metopes, and other 
fragment* of a Grecian temple, explored by 
htm at Piestam; with some explanatory 
remarks. 

A model of an ancient bath, discovered in 
the island of Lipari, near Sicily, was ex- 
hibited by Captain William Henry Smyth, 
F.S.A. accompanied by an explanatory com- 
munication from tlie pen of tliat gentleman. 
This beautiful, and, to all ap|)earance, mi- 
nutely accurate model, conveys an admirable 
idea of the economy of an ancient Hypocaust. 
There were three pnnci|ial aiwrtments \ the 
first a kind of aote-chiBml)er, adjacent to 
which was a place for keeping vases of oil 
aad angoeots for the bathers. The floors of 
the other two were constructed of square 
tiles, restfatf on numertios short pillars of 
the same form ; the surface of the whole 
being covered with a mosaic pavement, 
com p oeed of black and white tesserm, dis- 
uihtttcd in squares, loxeages, circles, aad in 
the centre of the two floors fi>rmiBg fisocifol 
repe esea tations of sea monsters and fishes. 
Ob oae of the squares of the pavement, aear 
the eatranet of the firat sadaiory apartaeiit» 
GniT. Mao. •/caMry, ItSO. 



was represented a pair of clogs, which Capt. 
Smnh conjectures were worn by tM 
batners, to protect their ieet from the in- 
tense heat of the floor ; he states that clog! 
are used by the Turks in their bagnios, aC 
the present day, fur the vei^ same purpote. 
An aperture at the bottom of one of the Mi 
walls of the first division of the sudatorj« 
admitted the influx of a natural warm streanif 
which probably diffused itself all over th# 
hollow space between the square pilfarA 
under the tessellated floors, and found vest 
by another openiog quite at the end of th^ 
building. Tiie heat of this stream was thus 
communicated to the floors above, and mora 
completely to the whole spartment by 
means of perpendicular ranges of flue tiM 
placed all round the walls of the two inner 
rooms. As there is no appearance of a 
pnrfumium or stove among the details of 
this roodrl, it is probable that the hvpocaost 
was entirely indebted for its warmth to tha 
natural fountain, which Captain Smyth say* 
to this day maintains a temperature of lid 
degrees. The baths exist in a secluded 
spot, and are concealed by a fertile vineyara. 
The island of Lipari will be recollected aa 
the largest of a cluster of Yolcanic istandi 
lying north of the coast of Sicily. Sir 
William Hamilton sutes the circumferenoa 
of the island at 1 8 miles, the population at 
160,000, and says that it is celebrated for a 
robust race of excellent sailors, and for the 
choice quality of iu wines.* The Lipari 
Islands were supposed by the ancients to be 
the abode of Eulus and Vulcan, and it ap* 
pears that a tale was current among tna 
natives, that the flues of the hypocaust, aa 
closely disposed In contact as the pipes af an 
organ, were wont occasionally to emit wild 
and mournful sounds.i* Captain Smyth in 
his communication ob^rved, that baths 
were the frequent accompaniments of ancient 
temples ; and it ap|)ears that the present vesr 
tiges are situatea in contiguity to a temple 
(we believe) of Minerva. Tliere would ba 
certainly something very etaisical in tha 
fiction alluded to, if connected with a fima 
dedicated to Eolus. Vulcan and Eolus wara 
^ery naturally chosen u the toteUry daitiet 
of the Lipari group ; the first presided ovar 
the internal fires of the soil, the last over 
the storms dbturbing the seas by which it b 
surroun.led. 

Captain Smyth exhibited at the sama 
Ume a piece of pumice stone, which had 
been used in an ancient bath as a strigil. 

** I, poer, et strigiles Crispini ad ba ln ea 
defer." Pe rsic t. 

* Cam pi PhWrsei ; or. Observations on 
the Volcanoes of the two Sicilies : by Sir 
Wm. Hamilton. Naples, 1776. 

t Information of Capt. Smyth. 



9 



66 



jintiquarian Researches. 



[Jan. 



It is to be hoped that this geotlemao's 
highly interesting communication, with clear 
ow//i7ze drawings of these remainst the deco- 
rations of the tesselated pavements, plans 
and sections of the hypocaiist and its flues, 
will be allowed by him to occupy a place in 
the Archaeologia of the Society, if not 
destined for publication elsewhere. 

Jan, 81. H. Hallam, esq. V.P. in the 
chair. 

Four new members were elected, viz. 
Charles John Palmer, esq. of Yarmouth; 
Henry Hoare, esq. of Fleet-street; John 
Hulbert Glover, esq. of the British Mu- 
seum; and Samuel James Arnold, esq. of 
Golden-square and of Stanmore. 

Alexander Henderson, esq. M.D. F.R.S. 
communicated some remarks on two paint- 
ings lately d'lscovered at Pompeii, drawings 
of which were exhibited. Their subjects 
are, 1 . Two men employed in drawing off 
into vases wine from a covered waggon, 
which is drawn by two horses abreast; 3. A 
drinking party of four figures, apparently 
two of either sex, attended by a boy. These 
were also accompanied by drawings of two 
other paintings : S. A naked bacchanalian 
figure bearing a child, a very beautiful work 
of art; and 4. A sort of conversation piece 
in the yard of a house, of good design and 
correct execution, and little differing from 
similar scenes in modern Italy. 

Mr. Amyot communicated a copy of a 
MS. in the possession of John Payne Collier, 
esq. entitled, ** Certain Instructions to my 
Lord Privy Seal," being a defence of a repre- 
sentation made to Thomas Lord Cromwell 
by George Constantine, of certain verbal 
communications which he had with Johu 
Barluw, Dean of Westbury, and John Ikr- 
low. Prebendary of that collegiate church. 
In Mr. Amyot*s introductory letter some 
interesting particulars were given of Constan- 
tine, who was an attendant upon the Sir 
Heury Norris that was executed at the san^e 
time as Queen Anne Boleyn, and who after- 
wards became one of the most active of the 
minor instruments of the Reformation. But 
the reading of the document itself was de- 
ferred till a future evening. 

Several presents of books were received, 
and also a handsome donation by T. Crofton 
Croker, esq. F.S.A., of the original drawings 
made by Murphy for his magnificent work 
on the royal monastery of Batalba. The 
Society had likewise, for the first time, the 
satisfaction of seeing the wails of their 
meeting-room adorned by the valuable his- 
torical portraits presented by the late Mr. 
Kerrich, together with the splendid fac- 
similes of paintings in the royal palace at 
Westminster, executed for the Society by 
the late Mr. Smirke ; and a portrait it has 
long possessed, of old Humphrey Wanley, 
the industrious librarian of the Carls of 
Oxford, and author of great part of the Har* 
leian Catalogue. 



Druidical Sacrifices in Banoor. 

The North Wales Chronicle observes, 
"that in the city of Bangor there is a custom 
of killing pigs in the street, which no 
doubt had its origin in the sacrifices of the 
Druids. An assistant Druid puts a rope 
round the neck of the victim by which ne 
leads it into the midst of a circle of boys and 
girls, and the Chief Druid, who is dressed 
for the occasion in a red nightcap, and vest 
and breeches, which repeated coatings of 
lard has made to shine like armour, advances 
into the middle of the circle, and cuts the 
pig's throat with his knife. Upon feeling him- 
self wounded the piff runs about in all direc- 
tions to the extent of the rope by which he is 
held, sprinkling the spectators with his 
blood, until he fiills through weakness. He 
is then lifted on a block, and his entnula 
laid open for the inspection of superstitious 
worshippers, after which the carcass u re- 
moved by the priests into a house ad- 
joining. 

Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, 
southwark. 

The materials of Queen Elizabeth's 
Free Grammar School, situated in Church 
Passage, Tooley Street, in the parish of St. 
Olave, Southwark, were sold by auction on 
January 19th, the site being required for the 
approaches to the new London Bridge. 
This school was founded at the cost of the 
inhabitants, Queen Elizabeth granting her 
letters patent, in 1571» for the support 
thereof. The Governors are a body corpo- 
rate. About 300 boys are educated in 
these schools, under the tuition of seven 
masters. ^In 1609 the inhabitants erected 
the buildings now destroyed, on the site of 
part of the nouse which had- belonged to the 
Prior of Lewes. A good external south view 
of this school is given in Wilkmson's 
« Londina Illustrata." 

Under these schools, and the adjoining 
buildings, was the crypt of the ancient man- 
sion or inn of the Priors of Lewes, when par- 
liamentary or ecclesiastical du^ led tbem to 
reside in the metropolis. 

Anthony Monday, in his edition of 
Stowe's •< London," 1618, says, « On 
the south side of (Tooley) street was some- 
time one great house, builded of stone, with 
arched gates, which pertained to the Prior 
of Lewes, and was his lodging when he came 
to London : it is now a common hostelry for 
travellers, and hath to sign the Wabot- 
tree." 

A good north view of this crypt is en- 
graved in Wilkinson's «Limdina Illustrata,'* 
in which work it is thus described :— • 
** There are two entrauces to this oratoij or 
crypt, ia White Horse Court, leading nrom 
Tooley Street to Southwark House* for- 
merly the King's Head Tavero, and prior to 
that, the siffo of the Wahmt Tree. Ia en- 
tering by the northern entianoe, it is 7 feet 



18S0.] 



^iifi^iicrtaii Rmearches. 



6 iachet loiiir l>y 6 fMl wkk, which Iwdi to 
A Urp MtnieircuUr arcbad VAulty 89 fctt 

3 incbet long, by 1 8 fMt wide ; oo om tide 
at A wcU, t iMt 6 iaebM bj 1 £Mit» from 
which w»Ur i«at pretent eonveyed lo the 
hooeet ebove x towmrda the further eod ii a 
door-wmy, 4 ieet tf by 3 leei 6 ioohee, leediog 
to Another •enieirculu* vaulted arch» 31 feet 
loog by 13 leei 10 iaehee wide» from thia 
you are led iato a paMage> 7 feet by 6 feet* 
which lead* to the principal apartment of 
thi« aotieot building, the whole length of 
which it 40 feet 6 inches, by 10 feet 6 inches 
in width ; at the further [south] end are two 
windows, 8 feet 6 inches wide each, and on 
oae [western] side there are likewise two 
Bore of the sane dimensions, and a passage 

4 feet wide* whieh leads to another apart- 
ment, but is blocked np with stones and 
bricks. This antient apartment consists of 
four groined [circular] arches, suppoited oo 
curious [Norman] columns, 4 feet 10 inches 
in disnieter.* From this you enter into ano- 
ther vault of various diroeusions, but the 
length is 97 feet 4 inches : part of this 
vault is arched at the former, and part 
groined, over which the stairs leading to 
Queen Elizabeth's School are erected. On 
entering the southern entrance, you descend 
bv a gradual slope into the second temi- 
eircular apartment alreadv described : the 

{>resent flooring is of eartK and brick rub- 
>ish, which have accumulated from time to 
time, so as to half bury the pilUrs. The 
height of the roof is unequal, from the 
partial raising of the ground, but is in ge- 
neral from 8 to 9 feet.' An excellent plan of 
thb crypt, drawn by Mr. H. Gardner, is also 
given in Wilkinsou's work. 

Romaic Coins, &c. 

A remarkable discovery of antiquities was 
Isuly made by a workman in the quarry at 
Portan, Canton of Oyonax, department de 
TAim. Having inserted his lever in a fissure 
of the rock to detach a portion of it, he 
was surprised to behold, on tlie felling of the 
block, a recess which, on examination, was 
found to contain nu less tlian twelve hundred 
medab in gold and bronze, bearing the efli- 
gies of Maximian and Constantius Chlorus 
(father of the great Constantine), who 
reigned together at the commencement of 
the fourth century. These coins and niedals 
were probably deposited, in times of danger, 
in the plaot where they have lain buried 
dnrii^ fifteen centuries. The greater num- 
ber represent oo the reverse side tlie genius 
of the Roman people sacrificing on an altar. 



* These edaoinsare deseribed in lot 137 
of the Sale Catalogue, as <• Eight Gothic 
capitals, columns, and bases, supporting the 
irroiiied arches of the aotitot oratory o? the 
Priors of Lewes." 



«r 



and a personlfieatioo of wealth holding a ba- 
laaoa and a eonMOopia. Others have For- 
tune, holding a rudder in her right hand 
and a comoeopia in her left. On the ob- 
verse tides the inscriptions moat common 
are :— 

Constantius Chtoroi 

Furtunse rednci Cssss. n* b. 

or <* To the happy return of our Cmmrs." 

Maximian Heraclins 

Salvis Augg. et Ciess. auotaKart. 

or, ''Prosperity to our Emperors andCtesan^ 

from the acquisition of Carthage.*' 
The medals bearing this latter inscriptioo 
represent on the other side Ceres standing 
and holding corn in each liand, in allusioB 
to the rich harveste of Africa. Some few of 
the coins bear the effigy of Diocletian. 

A communication from the Carlisle Ms* 
scum gives an account of the discovery of 
several coins, urns, and other veitigia of 
what appears to have been a Roman ceme- 
tery of tome extent. These interesting iv 
mains have been laid open in the course of 
the excavations now in progress, for the pur- 
pose of removing the London road, at a 
place called Gallows Hill, about half a mil* 
from the town of Carlisle. A small nm, 
conteiniug sundry coins in fine presenratioa^ 
it also mentioued. Among them are some 
of Faustina, very beautiful. The writer 
adds : '* The bottom of the urn, in which 
were the silver coins, bears testimony to a 
very remsrkable chemical operation of na- 
ture. It exhibito a fine green glaze deposit* 
evidently the precipitation of the alloy of 
the silver, and in consequence the silver ap- 
pears fresh and free from alloy, the coins 
Having on their sur&ce but little appearance 
of metallic oxide. This fine, silent, and 
secret operation of nature has never hitherto 
been eitner discovered, or made a subject 6l 
speculation. No doubt it merits the besi 
attention of the chemist, the naturalist, aad 
the antiquary." 

Christ Church, York. 



Some curious relics have been dtscoverad 
in the foundation of this church in the 
course of the improvement n>aking in St 
Andrew-gate comer ; viz. two coffins of lime- 
stone, one of them formed to the shape of 
the bead and shoulders of the corpse, and 
both made with a hole in the bottom, through 
which moisture might escape ; two ancient 
tomb stones, with obliterated inscriptiuoSf 
and on one the figures of a male and femalo 
in the attitude of prayer; and also a scraare 
stone, hollowed into the fitrm of a largo 
mortar, or vessel for the purpose of lieatiup 
or crashing. An inspection of Christ Choieh 
also gives reason to suppose that thb is not 
the first time it has been reduced In size. 
The two arches, which appear on the ex- 
terior, feeing the Old Haymarket, betokmi 
its extensioB in that direction. 



£ 68 ] 



[Jan. 



SELECT POETRY. 



TRIBUTARY LINES 

TO THE MEMORY OP THE LATE 

SIR THOMAS LAWRENCE, P.R.A. 

Bij John Taylor, Esq, 

jr AWRENCE I knew io his bright youth- 
ful days, 
And then admir*d his noble thirst for praise; 
Saw him, with unafFected ardour, feel 
The force of filial and fraternal zeal ; 
I knew his brothers, and his aged sbe. 
Who all retum'd his love with kindred fire ; 
With Jot I saw old Time assist his aim, 
Mature his talents, and promote his hvae } 
And oft my humble Muse, with eager pride, 
To pay due homage to his merit tried. 
While he as oft, with all the gen'rous praise 
Of partial friendship, has receiv*d my lays. 
Ah 1 as he now has felt the mortal doom, 
What Worth, what Oeniusi iiuks beneath 
the tomb ! 

' When Death had struck the Macedonian 
chief. 
And Hope withheld all promise of relief, 
His Council stood around, a noble band. 
And ask'd who next should hold supreme 

command ? 
"Let him who is most worthy," he replied, 
And, with these parting words, the hero died. 
Since Lawrence, then, by Death's relent- 
less haste. 
Has left the realms of Genius and of Taste, 
May Graphic Chiefs the great example own. 
And <*him most worthy" fill the vacant 
throne. 



SONNETS ON THE SEASONS. 

1. SPRING. 

CEASON of promise \ ever smiling bright, 

£'en through the gentle rain, thy fruitful 

tears, [fears ! 

Blest Hope is thine, unclouded o'er by 

For we regard thy sweet and sudden showers 

But as the harbinger of sweeter flowers. 

With which Uiy rol)e all richly shall be dight. 

And which shall be the pride of summer 

bowers. 
When ardent Phoebus may too brightly shine! 
Sweet Spring ! the happy task is ever tliioe 
To call the flowers from out their winter 
sleep. 
And waken them again to life and light ! 
With thee the hours run swift their silent 
flight, 
And whether thou dust blandly smile or weep. 
We know thee so benign, that we some good 
must reap ! 

2. SUMMER. 
A LL hail ! the lusty manhood of the year, 
When Nature seems rejoicing iu her 
prime, [clime. 

When ri{>eniiig harvcsU gild our fruitf* 



And the Son saili more gladly through hb 
sphere. [time 

How sweet and soothing is that breathlete 
Of Summer, when eve's softest breexet 
blowing 
Bring to the ear the far off village ehhira 
(To the lone seaman's memory most dear), 
A tranquil sense of happinMs bestowing s 
And then how sweet the murmur of the 
brook, 
0*cr golden pebbly sands inceesaat flowing I 
Now is each tree clad in his gayest gear, 
Each flower most fragrant, green eaeh 
meadow's look, [Nature's book t 

And brightly radiant seems each page of 

a. AUTUMN. 
XrOW are the year's wild youthful pnlsaa 
•^^ still, 

And Age's cooler blood in all its veins ; 
The full ripe grain crowns every rising hill. 
Well pleas'd the husbandfnan beholds the 
gains [paint. 

Of wise forethought, and long-untiring 
Blythe Harvest yields his joyful tribute noir, 
£eeh well-cropp'd field does its dark rus- 
set suit, [bough, 
Pomona's sifb are tpm from branch and 
For Earth in Autumn yields her choicest 

firuit. 

Nor yet are all the little songsters mute 

That gUd our fields, bu( o'er the Western 

main [way i 

The swallow wends his long and unknown 

The yellow leaves fiUl from their parent 

spray, [wene I 

And every thing proclaims the year upon the 

4. WINTER. 
TII^INTER ! I love thee ! full of liroat and 
snow 
As e'er thou art, yet still of kindW feeling. 
That sheds into the heart its warmnest glow 
More redolent : whene'er I think on thee 
I think upon the clear and calm fireside 
Where Mirth doth ever sit, and Okee bright 
eyed ! [pealing. 

While still without thy wildest blasts are 
And icy frost o'er lake and river stealing ! 
All earth is voiceless now : each late green 
tree. 
Bare of all leaves, presents a'plteous sight ! 
Yet do I yield not up to dread or gloom. 
For well I know, sure as day follows night. 
Nature shall burst her temporary tomb. 
And Spring shall come again, with all 
his buds and bloom ! J. Wioitiad. 



ORIGINAL FABLES. 

By Eliza Bilfoub. 

THE GNAT AND THE SPIDER. 

A S a bold liule Gnat once extended kis 
^ flight, 
Some distant fine prosi>ects to view. 



189a] 



StUoi PoHry. 



69 



Bejoud whal in prodene* his paraoU thooght 
right. 
No woiukr thai ill thould tptut. 

With tome fmndi who ahode io m •yeunort 
vrtf 
At he wmader'd, incautiooa and gay. 
Ha ooBoeiT'd, while abroad, he might diiia» 
or taka taa^ 
Or at leaat laava hia card, by the way. 

Rctumiqg lata homeward, a maoaioo beaidf^ 
That roM near the skirts of a wood, 

A swift, hungry Swallow, his beak op'ning 
wide. 
Our little pright insect pursued. 

Many windings he made, like a poor pant- 
ing hare, 
From «Matruetion his life to secure. 
When a Spider oallM out, from his well- 
woven snare, 
** Hither haste, my asylum is sore ! " 

Anxious death to avoid, by a refuge so near, 
The Onat straight the offer embraced ; 

But aligbtine he found, as he shudder*d 
with fear, 
His body with trammels enlaced. 

At this the poor Gnat 'gan to weep and 

lament ; [peace ! " 

Whn the Spider evcUim'd, "Prithee 

'* Frqn the Swallow preaenr'd, in my web 

be eontent. 

Or existence shall instantly cease.' 

This saying, he gave him a desperate blow ; 

The Gnat fell, and, foreseeing hb end, 
" Far better,*' he cried, " is a brave, open 
Ibe, 

Than a wily and treacherous friend \ 



»f 



f* 



THE RIVER AND THE STREAMLET. 

A River, u the Tagus wide. 
Silent, majestic in its course,— 

Flowiog in all the pomp of pride 
Profound — resistless in its force — 

Reproach'd, with no mellifluous tongue, 
A gentle Streamlet, murm'ring near. 

Wont, flowery vales and woods among. 
The peasant's herd and flocks to cheer ; 

And though with sedge and alders crown'd, 

Tmnaparent as the solar ray, 
While Naiads frUk and Dryads bound,— 

Thoa spoke, hia triumph to display : 

<« BehoM, while you obscurely pour. 
On mv full breast what vessels crowd. 

While Omimerce to the distant shore 
Proclaims my consequence aloud I 

« To swell a Nation's dread commend, 

Riches and grandeur I unfold ; 
For, plentv spreading o'e i the land. 

My sands aie sprcnt with glitt'ring gold ! " 

"True," said the Stieemlet; *< yon were 



To sp eed your way in power and state 



But, though my humble waves you scorn. 
By streams like mine you re rcnder'd 
grfM* 

** And, though of rank and treasure vain. 
Much as your might and depth you boast. 

You but increase the boundless main. 
And in immensity are lost." 

Thus down the stream of human life 
The rich, the abject, and opprest. 

Float amid rocks ot woe and strife. 
And in one common haven rest ! 

Highgate, Jan, 1 829. 



LINES 

fVritUn in the TmueUer's AUmnit at the 
Grande Chartreuu, near Grenoble. By 
Moos. Ducis. 

Imitatioit. 

JJOW c^m! how des<krt! m this peeoe 
profound, [sound t 

No more I hei^ the world's tempestuous 
The world has disappeared ; time seems for 
Immerged in terrible eternity ! [me 

The presence of a God e'en now I feel. 
Who deigns in mercy my alarm to heal : 
A pitying father, He from every woe [law : 
Would snield his children, pilgrims here be- 
Why mar the works of his all-powerful 
hand, [land ? 

Who fbrm'd us to inherit Canaan's promis'd 
He wills repentance, yet allows the charm 
Of hope, the Christian's fiuthful heart to 
warm. 

Oh thou ! * who midst these mountaina* 
wintry gloom, [a tomb> 

Came — sought the hoar-frost — deserts — and 
Thy wondrous charity, ascendinc high. 
Seems to admit thee Inmate of toe sky ! 
I love to trace thee in this sacred place. 
Where, cradled in the clouds, thy holy race 
To God hymn praises ; as the strains ascend. 
They with the heavenly choir of angels blend. 

Sick, tired of worldly joys, ere scarcely 

tried. 
The pensive traveller here has often sigh'd. 
These rocks — these firs, to solemn thought 

give birth j [earth ; 

This torrent speaks, and bids me scorn the 
The earth, where happiness a stranger stnys. 
And where some worm in secret ever preys. 
Where'er I turn some form of grief appean ; 
Love has iu smiles, but oft'ner still its tears ! 
Of slighted friendship bitter is the pain ! 
Life's pleasures weary^abours are in vain. 
Ye, who for God have bade the world fiurc- 

well ! [shore — > 

Happy are tliey who seek your peaceful 
SUll happier fate in these retreats to dwell. 
And tempt the earth's delusive joys no 

more. 

* St. Bruno, the founder. 



C 70 ] 



[Jan. 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



FOREIGN NEWS. 



FRANCE. 

A decision, proDounced by the Ruyal 
Court of Paris, has given great satisfaction 
to the frieuds of the freedom of the press. 
It was in the case of an appeal by M. Bar- 
theleniy, the author of a poem entitled ** La 
Filsd* Homme," and M. David, the printer, 
M^inst the judgment of the Correctional 
Tribunal, which' sentenced the former to be 
imprisoned three months, and to pay a fine 
of 1 ,000 francs, and the latter to pay a fine 
of 25 francs. The Court confirmed the sen- 
tence of the Correctional Tribunal as to M. 
Bartheleroy, and pronounced for the free 
discharge of M. David, on the ground that 
he did not act, in printing the poem, with 
any bad intention. The principle laid down 
by the Court, that the mere act of agency 
in printing an objectionable work, does not 
prore the existence of a criminal intention, 
is hailed by the Liberal party as a rule by 
which future decisions will be guided, and 
not arising out of the peculiar circumstances 
of this case. 

ITALY. 

The King of Naples has been excommu- 
nicated by the Holy See. De Medici, the 
Finance Minister, left that ciu a short time 
since to join the King at Madrid, and on 
bis way was obliged to pass through Rome. 
Hardly was he arrived there, when a demand 
was made on him, as the representative of 
his master, of a tribute, which has been due 
a long time to the Pope. Medici demurred ; 
but Albani was not to be denied, and a rup- 
ture was the consequence. It is understood 
that the utmost extremities will be resorted 
to unless the sum demanded be paid. 

SWEDEN. 

Ghreat honours have lately been done to 
Ochlraschlaeger, the celebrated Danish poet, 
in Sweden. He was received at Lund as if 
he had been a conqueror. He was addressed 
by the students, honoured by the King, and 
crowned with laurel by Tegner, the author 
of **FrithiofF," and the prince of the living 
Tioets of Sweden. The Danes and Swedes 
have long lieen accustomed to regard one 
another with jealousy and hatred ; but, on 
this occasion* the' nations seemed to blend 
like brothers in common affection. 

GREECE. 

The following is a statement of the reve- 
nues and expenses of the state of Greece, 
from January 1 828 to May 1 829 : 



Revenues. Francs. 

Revenues of Sute .... 3,415,989 

Capital of National Bank . . 618,064 

Seizures not liquidable . . . 98,86ff 

Debts due to State .... 1 86,880 

Capital advanced by President . 682,630 

French subsidies 8,302,000 

Russian subsidies 1,758,200 

10,346,658 
Expenditure. 

Army and Navy 7,458,886 

Establishmenta for public service 273,734 
Salaries of Department . . , 751,947 
Interest naid by National Bank 15,512 

Orphan Asylum 366,603 

I*oor 142,753 

Advances made to state creditors 1 12,708 
Arrears of farmers of state . . 274,879 

Lord Cochrane 63,804 

Austrian Admiral Dandolo . . 46,832 
Ready money in Treasury . . 714,808 
Paymenta which lutve yet to be made 136,800 

10,258,36& 

RUSSIA AND TURKEY. 

The Russian General Kisselef hat issued 
an address to the Divan of Wallachia, upon 
his taking the office of President of the 
Turkish rrincipalities on the Danube, in 
which he promises an honest administration 
of the public affairs entrusted to him, tod 
an indulgent and kind treatment, in order 
to alleviate the miseries iofiiicted on the pro- 
vinces by the war. It declares that the In- 
tention of the Emperor Nicholas, at its 
commencement, was to render the occupa- 
tion of the Principalities as little oppressive 
to their inhabitanta as possible; but that 
the functionaries employed in that quarter 
had been guilty of great extortions. The 
system of forced gin had been resorted to, 
and the presence of a large body of strangers, 
instead of being a blessing, by supplying a 
market fur the productions of the provincety 
had been a curse. All tliese evils, he assures 
the Turkish authorities, shall be amended. 

An earthquake was felt in the night of 
the 35th of November, in Odessa, Jassj, 
Czemowitz, Hermanstadt, Kronstadt, and 
many other places in Transylvania and the 
Buckowina. It did considerable mischief at 
Bucharest, where 115 houses, among which 
is that of the English Consul, have been 
rendered untenable by ita effecta. Fifteen 
churches are so much injured that they o^h 
not be used. Tlie town of Kiupria, on the 



i6sa] 

nwd to KroiMCadt, hu vatknd, in propor> 
tioB, mora than fiuohvMl. 

A frightfol ttcckknt occurrtd on tht 19th 
at Ismail, in tha explosion of a ship, ladaa 
with powdar and other ammunition, by 
which two magazinet were totally destroyed, 
and the roo£i of aboot 60 houses blown off. 
In 400 more not a pane of class was left. 
Four vessels that lay near toe ship which 
had blown up were destroyed in an instant, 
and several others which lay at a greater 
distance sustained more or less daoMge. 
Fragments of timber and iron, and large 
blocks of ice, were hoisted through the air, 
and, fiJIiog on the rools of houses, com- 
pleted the scene of terror and destruction. 
It b ascertained that forty- two persons were 
wounded, and sia killed. 

On the 97th of November, by the cart- 
leesness of an artilleryman, an explosion 
look place in the grsat oowder- magazine at 
Shumla, which not only oestroyed the whole 
of the stone building. In which there were 
68,000 cartridges and 9000 barrels of gun- 
powder, but forty field-pieces, that were 
ready to be sent to Adriaoople, were for the 
most part melted, and forty-eight artillery- 
men killed. In the saoM building there was 
n magasioe of provisions, containing, it is 
said, 10,000 sacks of com, and a great 
ooantity of provisions, which were destroyed. 
The fire in this magazine continued the 
whole day, and as the bombs, grenades, &e. 
weie flying about in all directions, nobody 
attempted to extiogubh it. 

EGYPT. 

The Padia of Egypt steadily proceeds in 
the work uf political reforasatton. The pro- 
vinces have been divided into departments, 
•rroodtssements, and sub-arrondisements. A 
centnl assembly, or general divan, composed 
of deputies firom all the provinces, to the 
number of more than two nundred members, 
U to meet in the capital. Swme thirtv offi- 
cers, civil and military, attsched to the ac- 
tual administration, are to form part of thb 
divan. The viceroy will submit to the f»>n- 
aideratioa of the general assembly all puUic 
questions, of what nature soever they may 
be. The sending of young men to France, 
in order that they may he instructed in the 
different sciences, in Jurbprudeoce, and in 
tbenseftU arts, has not been discontinued. 
Six Egyptians have been seat to Toulon to 
learn uie art of buildmg ships of war. The 
oongar brother of Noureddin Bey, a ma- 
o r -g e neial in the service of the Pacha, and 
'§omM new popib, who are to npply themsdvea 
to tha studv of mechanica and various ma- 
Btt&etttrea, have been sent to Paris. Re- 
nently thirty* four scholars, from the ace of 
eight to fiftseo, have arrived at MarseiUea ; 
they are destined for the study of hydraulics, 
that of naval architeetore, and fifteen othar 
braaebai of irheniim. Thirty other pn- 
fUa m !• firilovlbMi. lafia*, ll6otkir 



NewM. 



71 



I 



tndividnab, lor tiallar pliiposea, are to arrive 
in Fruice, independently of those young 
Egyptians who are to proeeaite their studies 
in Eng l a nd . To finish the picture of these 
innovations which are casting their light 
over Egypt, we most not omit to add, that 
there is now printed in that country a peri- 
odical publication. The title of the journal 
b « News of Egypt." and it b inscribed on 
a pyramid, from oehind which the rbing 
sun hastens to shed its rays. 

Some time ago, says a Parb paper. Cap- 
tain Beaulbu, a French officer in the service 
of the Pacha of Egypt, sent off, for one of 
hb friends in France, a collectioo of anti* 
qoities and curiosities, among which w«ra 
some crocodiles' eggs. During the passage, 
or the quarantine, these eggs hatched, and, 
when the case opened at ttM custom-house, 
three small crocodiles ran out. On the way 
they had devoured several rolls of papyrus, 
and the bandagea and mummy oi an ibu, of 
which nothing remained but the claws and 
some of the feathers. 

EAST INDIES. 

Lord Wiiriam Beotinck, the Governor 
General of Indb, has iuued a proclama- 
tion at Benare*, abolishing the inhuman 
practice of burning Hindoo widows, whidi 
has so long prevailed in India. It was fo- 
vourably received by the Brahmins, the only 
class who were thought likely to make any 
opposition to it. Benares, the Holy City, 
as it is called, and one of the most ancient 
seats of Hindoo superstition, b one of the 
Sersmpore sutioos : and Mr. Smith, the 
missionary there, on the 13th of February, 
writes as follows : ** Went out by the river 
side, and conversed with a number of Brah- 
mins on religious subjects, and also brou|^t 
in the order respecting the prohibition of 
suttees, on hearing wnich a Brahmin as* 
claimed, <Whst! has government now arisen 
from sleep ? So many years has this crnel 
practice been carried on, and has compas- 
sion at last entered into their breasts ? lliey 
ought to have prevented this practice many 
years ago.* " 

The military letters from India represent 
the army to be in a complete state of insub- 
ordination on account of the proposed re- 
duction in the allowances ', but a little ex- 
aggeration U supposed to be resorted to in 
these accounts sent over by military man, 
with the view of intimidating the Company 
from carrybg their projects mto el^t. 

BRITISH AMERICA. 

lu Nova Sootia, under the patronage of 
Lord DaJhousie, a college, upon a iaiga 
scale, has been establbh^. By a beqnest 
of a Mr. M*Gill, the means for establbtiing 
a third college, of princely msgnificenoe, ta 
Montreal, have been provided. And for 
Upper Canada a truly rc^ endowment haa 
bMHB proeiuad fro«i tha Crown bj Afchdn^ 



72 



Foreign Neuj9,'^DomeitiQ Occurrences. 



[Jtu. 



con Stitchan, of Yovk, tu thtt proTinoe, ibr 
a unifenitj, upon a tcde worthy of the an- 
cient founders of the colleges of Oxford and 
Cambridge. The expense for the building 
of this college it not estimated at much less 
than that of King's college, London. 

Since September 1834, a Roman CktholSc 
church has been erected in Montreal, which, 
for magnitude, has not a parallel in all the 
ecclesiastical stnlctures raised in Christen- 
dom since the denunciation of the Jesuits. 
It is calculated to contain 10,000 persons ; 
is adorned with six lofty towen, three on 
each side ; and the two on the West front 
will, when 6nished, be nearly as high as 
those of Westminster abbey. The Eastern 
window at the high altar is 64 feet in height. 
In point of ornament, and curious carving, 
racn as adorn the cathedrals of the old 
countries, it is certainly inferior ; but in 
distant eflFiect, from its situation and its 
towers, it is equal to any of them. 



WEST INDIES. 



From an authentic rettlni of the SlaVA 
population of the Colony of Demerara and 
EsseqUibo, made on the Slat of MfcT, 1899, 
it appears that, up to that period, tbe num- 
ber of Slaves of both sexet amounted to 
60,368, the females exceeding the midei 
by about one-fifth. The mortality in th6 
Colony during the three last yean, up t6 
the date above- me ntioned, was id the pro- 
portion of one in twelve. 

In the course of tbe last twelve years, tb6 
most considerable importations of slaves in- 
to Demerara and Essequibo ftom 6ther Co- 
lonies took place between 1817 And 1890. 
They have since greatly decreased. Of thm 
whole amount ot Slaves above specified, Ik 
appears that 96,691 are Africans, aiMl 
42,677 Creoles. It Is remarkable thtt the 
number of deaths among the Slaves during 
the last twelve years has exceeded ihk% of 
births by about an average of 1 800. 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 



INTELUGENCE FROM VARIOUS 
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. 

Jan. 1 5. A meeting of the freeholders of 
Devonshire, relative to the Tithe Laws, took 
place iu tlie Castle-yard, Exeter , having 
been convened by the Sheriff on a requisi- 
tion signed by upwards of eleven hundred 
payers and receivers of tithes. The Hon. 
Newton Fellowes proposed the petition. It 
was seconded by C. P. Hamlyn, esq. in a 
speech of great length, in which he took a 
review of the origin of Uthes, their original 
appropriation, and entered into calculations 
to show their unequal operation, uuder the 
present mode of collection, upon the fiu-mer. 
The petition, which was adopted almost una- 
nimously, set forth — *< That, since tithes 
were originally established, all property has 
undergone material changes, and particu- 
larly agricultural, by the operation of these 
laws ; and, in consequence of an increase of 
public burdens within these thirty years, 
coupled with other circuro&tances, the in- 
conveniences of them have been rapidly ac- 
cumulating. That your petitioners have also 
to complain, that disputes respectlug the 
payment of tithes are determined in a Court 
constituted in a manner peculiar to itself, 
and without the constitutional intervention 
of a jury. That your petitioners ask for no 
innovations on the principles of the British 
Constitution, nor for any un&ir or impro|>er 
sacrifice from any party, but humbly pray 
that your honourable House will, at as early 
a period in this Session of Parliament as the 
business of the Nation will allow, take into 
its most serious consideration the present 
state of the Tithe LaWs, and the effects now 
resalting firom them," &c. 



The accounts from different parti ef the 
country are generally of a despimding ■»» 
tnre. At Huddenfield, a puUie iBeeiu:|^ 
was lately held, at whieh a most molaocbAly 
picture was given of the general distnts 
among the operatives in that qvartart where 
above 1 3,000 individuals onl^r had tma pm tt 
haypenny a day to subsist upon 1 

The accounts from Coventry represent th« 
state of the artisans, and other laboimn in 
that city, as moat deplonblt. The poor 
rates, and the number of panpen, art mp- 
fully on the increase. The directors of tho 
poor have thought prqwr to MOBoriftKie 
the Privy Council on this state ol thinga. 
Amongst other remarks, they o b e cr w that 
" the casual out-poor of Coveatry, in tha 
month of December 1 8979 amooatad to ttO 
£unllies, which number of lamiUia is nov 
augmented to l,dl9. In the month of Jar 
nuary 1828, the number of indi^oab to 
the House of Industry was 183| ia tha 
month of January 1880, it amounted to 466. 

The following is an extract fh»m the peti- 
tion agreed on at the fViUthin Sesaiona, 
and signed by every Magistrate p r ee e nt :-*- 
*< Tliat the most alarming distress parvadat 
both the agricultural and manaihetariBg die- 
tricts of this county ; that sneh distfaii oan« 
not, they fear, be attributed to taiporaiy 
causes, or be expected materially to ahaia 
wiihout Legislaiwe mierftrtnet ; and that 
they entertain moit serious appnitaukm ff 
the gradual f tnUnoless certem, wtimH im Ijf 
their property." 

Jan, 16. On this day a most nunierei 
meeting was held at the Town-hall, HwiMi 
ler. Sir W. Cooke in the chairi aad p^ 
tions were adopted, praying Fsrlitiail' to 
take mto immediate consideration tha dis* 



183a] 



Donkesfic Oecurrencn. 



tretted lUU of the country. The lineiuge 
of the ipefekert evinced a very etrong mliog 
on the •uhject. Mr. PilkUgtoD ttid a cri- 
iis liad arrived when tomethioc must be 
done : and Mr. Deofton declared oU opinion 
that OoTcraroent had only the choice of 
two thioct — the pruninff-lroife or the sponge. 
Mm »ri. Duncombe and Wilton, t«ro of uie 
Mf robcra for Yorlibire, were present. 

Jan, 1 6. Tlie freeholders and other inha- 
bitants of the county of Norfolk assembled 
at the Shire Hall, Norwich, the High She- 
riff in the chair, to 8|*ree to a petition for 
the repeal of the Malt Tax. There were up- 
wards of 1 ,500 persons present, including all 
the noblemen and gentlemen who usually 
take a part In the public proceedings of the 
county. Mr. W. Buluer moved a series of 
resolutions, one of which declared "That 
the repeal of the Duties on Malt wodd 
greatly lienefit the consumers generally, but 
more especially would it relieve the labour- 
iog and industrious classes, by placing with- 
in their reach the means of brewing their 
own beer, and baking their own bread ; by 
the want of which they are now driven to 
the use of ardent spirits, to the destruction 
of their health aud morals." They were 
secon<!cd by Mr. Coke, who declared him- 
self an advocate for the repeal of both the 
Malt and Beer Taxes ; but, as it was not 
likely they would obtain the repeal of more 
than one, he preferred the repeal of the 
Tax on Malt. The revolutionanr war had 
been the primary cause of all the (distress 
and liankruptcy which had taken place since, 
and of the present impendlug danger to t!ie 
country. He said the other coontics had 
to foHuw the example of Lincolnshire end 
Norfolk, and then he should like to see the 
Minister who dare refuse what was the Joint 
re<|uest of the pride of England. The reso- 
lutions were ultimately carried. 

A meeting has aI#o been Iield at Lnccs, 
in Sussex, for the purpose of pctHinntng 
Parliament fur the rci>eal of the Duties on 
Malt and Beer, when a series of resolutions 
to the al)ove effect, prepared by Mr. Her- 
bert Curteis, were unanimously |>af8cd. At 
the Lewes Quarter Sessions, the County 
Mag^iitratcs drew up a representation on the 
distresses of the county. It was forwaided 
to the Duke of Weliint^ton. 

Jan, If). — A fire brdkc out at a siiop- 
keeper's in the town of ShecrnesSf which, 
owing to the ficculiarly combustible nature 
of the buildings, destroyed 54 houses, be- 
sides tmt- buildings, liefort it could lie 
stopped. The lost Is estimated at 30,000/. 
whereof about one lialf u inaurc-l in the Sun, 
County, Kent, and Nomich offices. Only 
two or three yeah ago, a fire of simihr ex- 
tent occurred, the houses being almost 
wholly built of fir and weathef- boarding, 
and iMing frequtntly covered with tarpadtln. 
Jan. 1 f). A genera] meeting of the sub- 
CiCNT. MXc. January f ^M0. 

10 



scrlbers to th« Bath aid Bristol Railway, 
was held at the Bush Tlurem, BristJ, whaa 
it vAi uBtBimoaiitv rtsolved, " That the in- 
tended line of Railway from Bath to Bristol 
win lessen the distance between these citiest 
whereby passengers and goods any be con- 
veyed with perfect safety, at a raU not ex^ 
ceeding one>third of the present charge, 
and with sudi expedition and reguUritj at 
alT seasons, whether of frost or flood, at 
must maintain an uninterrupted commani- 
catfon between the two cities, and therel^ 
secure essential' advantages to the mer- 
chants, manufacturers, and traders of Bris- 
tol, and afford great convenience to the visi- 
tors of aifkon. Hot-wells, Bath, SontH 
Wales, and IreUnd." 

Mr. Kde, in a pamphlet on the Poor 
Laws, Just published, calcuUtet the number 
of Irish labourers who annually flock to this 
country at 100,000 ; that their sUy is from 
the end of March to the beginning of Octo- 
ber { during which i6 weeks their earnings, 
at 8f. a week, amount to 1,040,000/, of 
which they carry back from 81. to 4f. eac1i» 
or from 300,000/. to 400,OOOZ. ! the whole 
of which earnings are taken from the Eng- 
lish labourer at the most valuable time of 
the Year. 

The fVeather, — The severity of the present 
winter will be memorable in the annals of 
the seasons. In the course of one week we 
hate experienced all the alternations of win- 
ter weather — intense frost, deep snow, haavy 
rain, and rapid thaw. The snow which feU 
on the l!)tD of Jan. was drifbd by the 
North-easterly wind into deep masses in va- 
rious parts of the public roads, putting a 
stop to the |»a«sa<;e of carriages. In the 
low grounds of Wiltshire, the snow accumu- 
lated in some places to the depth of 1 5 or 
1 6 feet. 'V\iQ snow upon M^ndip has been 
in many places from Kf to 90 feet deep. 
Up**fds of 20 waggons and carts were com* 
pletcly blocked up near OakhlU, and so co* 
vercd with the snow that only a little of the 
top of one of the waggons was visible. Fifly 
labourers were einjiloyed in clearing away 
the snow, and the road was at Icngtli ren- 
dered in some degree passable. Since what 
is termed **the great frost of 1814," we 
have not cxperlvnced so long a continaanct 
of cold weather, nor has travelling been so 
much impeded. 

LONDON AND ITS VICINITY. 

Jan, 3. This morning a young man, 
named Ooney, went into the yard in th« 
Tower, round which the cages of the 
beasts are placed, for the pur]>osc of re* 
moviug this bones which had bcnn swept 
out of' the cages' after tlie beasts liad been 
fed, when one of the leopards^ the keeper 
liavihff neglected to holt its door, pounced 
upon nin, and stieking his immense rlhws 



Domestic Occurrences, 



[Jan. 



oa each side of his neck, grasped the hack 
of it with his tusksy and kept a fast hold. 
Croney called out for assistance) and reach- 
ing out his hand, endeavoured to force open 
the keeper's room door, but it was fastened. 
The keepers at length came to his assist- 
ance, and stunned the animal by giving him 
some tremendous blows on the head with a 
large fowling-piece. Croney*s neck and 
shoulders were seriously injured » and he 
was carried to Guy*s Hospital. 

Jan. 9. A robbery was committed at the 
Royal Mint to a great extent, and under 
circumstances of great audacity. A man 
named Keith, employed in the moneyer's de- 
partment, had eight journeys of gold blanks 
given over toliim, for the purpose of putting 
mto the regular process of stamping for 
sovereigns. He went away with Iialf the 
blanks (2008) and was not missed for some 
time afterwards. When inquiries were made 
fuir him, it was found he had decamped with 
the property. One hundred pounds is offered 
by the Mint for the apprehension of Keith, 
100/. upon his conviction, and 300/. upon 
the recovery of the whole property stolen, 
or in proportion for any part thereof. 

Jan. 14. A verdict was given in the 
Court of King's Bench, damages 50/. 
agains| The Times Newspaper, for a libel 
on Mr. Alaric A. Watts, a gentleman distln- . 
euished in the literary world, which arose 
from the police report of a ^cas with a Jew 
salesman. 

Jan, 1.9. The first annual meeting of 
the proprietors of shares in the St. Kathe- 
rlne's Docks was held at the Dock-house, 
Tower-hill, Thomas Tooke, Esq. in the 
chair. The report stated, that the total 
cost of the docks, and all the works and 
buildings within the boundary wall, was 
1,988,473/.; and an additional outlay of 
1 96,995/. was required, which it was pro- 
posed to raise by an . issue of debentures, 
reserving the rights of the holders of those 
already issued. Of such additional outlay, 
the excess upon the estimates is only 
45,891/. 15. id, the remaining sums being 
required to defray the expense of additional 
works, buildings, improvements, plant fix- 
tures, and contingencies. The directors 
recommend a dividend of one and a half per 
cent, upon the fixed capital 1,352,800/. 
(the interest on debentures, up to the 5th of 
October last, having been paid), which will 
leave a balance of 14,926*/. I9s. 9d. to be 
carried to the credit of the revenue account 
of the next half year. The report was re- 
ceived with stroDg marks of approbation. 
The Chairman then observed, that 80 ships, 
between 800 and 800 tons register, had en- 
tered the dock during the last year. 

Jan, iO, In the High Court of Dele- 
gates two appeal cases were dismissed with- 
out the Court ooming to any decision. The 
fira W9M an •|H>Md nom tbe sentence of the 
Judge of the Prerogitivt Court, by which 



an allezed will of Mr. J. Clopton, of Clop- 
ton-hul, Warwick, in favour of Mr. Henry 
Wyatt, was set aaide, on the gronud that it 
was obtained by fraiid and eircumvention. 
Mr. Justice lattledale, the prsses, informed 
the parties, that the Court had come to tho 
determination to adjourn their decision, 
witbout naming a day to deliver it. The 
parties might, m the mean time, consider 
whether they should come to any arrange* 
meot which would render it unnecessary to 
require the judgment of the Court. The 
other case was an appeal, like the foriuer 
one, from the Prerogative Court, whereby 
the will of Mrs. Sophia Harding, in favour 
of her husband, Mr. John Harding, was set 
aside on the ground of its having been ob- 
tained by undue influence. The Court deli- 
berated about half an hour, when the doors 
were opened, and the registrar read the 
order of Court, which was, that the Court 
was divided in opinion, and as neither of the 
three Common Law Judges concurred with 
the majority (the Delegates fntm the Civil 
Courts), their Lordships gave no decision. 

A Commission has recently been ap- 
pointed to remedy the abuses and delays . 
existing in the Ecclesiastical Courts. By an 
Act of last Session, the Judges of the Ec- 
clesiastical Courts are authorized to esta- 
blish tables of fees, and to regulate the du- 
ties of the deputy-registrars and clerks of 
seats : and it provides that, in future ap> 
poiotments, clerks of seats shall execute 
their duties in person. The Act aurhorizes 
additional Court-days and abolishes holidays, 
and it empowers the Court of Peculiars to 
sit in the Hall at Ductors'-commons, in- 
stead of the vestry-room at Bow church. 
Considering that these Courts originated in 
the usurpation of the Romish church ; 
that their forms of proceedings are at variance 
with the principles of English law ; that 
procrastination and ext^ense are so flagrant 
there, that even Cliancery practitionern 
point at them with the finger of scoru ; 
and, lastly, that the costs in an ecclesiasti- 
cal suit, instead of being the necessary 
price paid for justice, are avowedly an en- 
gine of punishment, — it would seem that, 
instead of reform, total excision would be 
the fittest remedy for the evils of a system 
of judicature, which makes up in vexation 
what it wants in power. 

Jan, 21. A numerous meeting of tlie 
parishioners of St. Andrew, Holborn, was 
held this day, to take into consideration the 
claims of the rector, the Rev. Mr. Bcres- 
ford, relative to tithes, when, after consi- 
derable discussion, it was resolved tooff<'r a 
composition in lieu of tithes and Easter- 
offerings. Counsel's opinion had been ol>- 
tained relative to the disputed claim for 
tithes in the Middlesex portion of the 
parish. It stated that the rector could not 
muntain his claim upon the parishioners 
generally who resided in Middlesex, and 



1830.] Theatrical Reguler.'^Promotioni and Prefer menii, 75 

« 

wlio had nrnfomly ratktod it. It michty object it to iaerMM lh« rMpMtabUitj of 

Itowever, be difftrtot with imect to tbott the profeettooy and to promote the geneitl 

ttarUhiooere ia that part of the pansh who eonvenieoce and advantage of ita memliers'i 

ltd been in the laabit of peyiog tithes ; and with which view it it propoaed to provide a 

in all tttch catet the rcctor*t book, in which boildiog, to eootitt of a hall, open at all 

i!ie receipu uf thoae tithes were entered, hoara of the day, and famished with desks 

would be sufficient evidence to establish hit or enclosed tables, in which is to be kept an 

right in that particular. account of the business connected with the 

Tl>e following b an Abstract of the Net profession ; a library, which it is designed 

Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain in shall contain a complete collection of law 

the Years ended on the 5th of Jan. 1889t books, an office of registry, a club*rooB, 

and tbe 6th Jan. 1 880. &c Lectures on the different branches of 

Years ended Jsn. 6. law are also contemplated. The new build- 

1 899. 1 830. ing is to be in Chancery-lane ; the site is 

CnstOHBS 16,195,118 16,093,860 now cleared; iu front will consist of a 

Excise 18,700,378 17f749>791 plain, but handsome, Ionic portico. The 

Stampe 6,666,863 6,644,635 total expense of it is estimated at 95,0001. 

Post Office 1 ,400,000 1 ,376,000 To carry these views into effiect, a capital of 

Taxes 4,849,309 4,896,566 50,000/. has been raised in 9000 shares of 

Miscellaneous... 564,166 449»091 95i. each. 



if48,805,399 i^47il89,873 
Decreesoon the Year, .£1,165,449. 

A new arrangement of duty has taken 
place in the Chml Royal at Whitehall, in 
ctmseooenee of which the monthly Preachers 
from toe two Universities are disnented with. 
The preaeherships were establitned by King 
Geo. I. for tbe purpoee of brinffing into no- 
tice resident Feltowt of the two universities. 

Jan, 91. The members of the Law Insti- 
tution and friends celebrated the commence- 
ment of their new building, by a dinner at 
tlie Freentason's tavern. This institution 
was projected in 1895, and is limited to 
attorneys, solicitors, and proctors, in Eng- 
land and Ireland, and writers to the signet, 
and solicitors of the courts in Scotland. Its 



THEATRICAL REGISTER. 

CoVCIfT-GARDBir. 

Jan. 5. A farce, entitled Tile Husbands 
Mistake, or the Corporats tVeddittgy was pro- 
duced, being an adaptation from the opera of 
La Fwnc^. It was partially successnil. 

Jan. 19. The PrenUogisit, a fsree, from 
the pen of Mr. T. Wade, author of Woman's 
Love, &c. was brought forward. It was a 
smart satire on phrenology, and excited 
much laughter ; tnoogh some of the scenes 
Were too eztravaffant and boisterous. 

Jan. 1 8. Mnrpny's tragedy of the Greeian 
Daughter was produced, for the purpoee of 
bringing forward Miss F. Kemble in the 
character of Euphrasia. Her acting was very 
fivourably received. 



PROMOTIONS AND PREFERMENTS. 



Gazxttb Promotions. 

Jan, 4. 3d Foot, Gen. Sir G. Don, 
G. C. B. 36th Foot, to be Col — 36th Foot, 
Lient.-Gen. Sir R. Hald SheaiFe, Bart, to be 
Col. — 48th Foot, Lieut.-Gen. Sir Tho. Hls- 
lop, Bart, and G C. B. 51st Foot, to be 
Col.— 51 St Foot, Mai.-Gen. SirBen.D*Ur- 
ban, K.C B. to be Col.— 14th Foot, to re- 
tain on its colours and appointments the 
word '* Cornnna " (which was granted to tbe 
late 9d Battalion], in commemoration d its 
distinguished coodnct in the action near Co- 
runna oa the 16th Jan. 1809. 

Jan. 11. 1 St Foot, Lieot.-Col. C. Stoart 
Campbell, 96th Foot, to be Lieut.-Col.— 
9d Foot, Lieiit.-CoL J. G. Baomgardt, 81st 
Foot, to be Lieiit.-Col.— 96th Foot, Lieut - 
CoU R. Armstrong, let Foot, to be Lieut- 
Col — 3 1 St Foot, brevet Lieat.-Col. Sam. 
MitcheU, RifU Brigade, to U Lieot.-CoL 
45th Foot, Capt. E. F. Boys to be Major.— 
54th Foot, Littit.-Col. MUdmay Fane, 98th 



Foot, and Maj. Rich. Murray, to be Lieut.- 
Cols. Captain J. Clarke to be Major.— 68d 
Foot, Mti. J. Logan, Rifle Brigade, to be 
Lient.-Cof.— 64th Foot, Capt. J.E.Freeth, 
to be Major.— 9dth Foot, Lieut.-Col. Edw. 
Fitzgerald, to be Lieut.-Col. — Rifle Brigade, 
Capt. Arch. Stewart, and Capt. W. «lobn- 
ston, to be Majors. — Unattached, Major 
Ralph Johnson, 64th Foot, to be Lieot.- 
Col. of Inf. 

' Member returned to $erve m ParkammL 

SoMiAomptoA.— J. Barlow Hoy, of Midea- 
bury, esq. vice W. Chamberkyne^ esq. dee. 

EcCLIfllAtTIClL PRiriKMiim. 
Rev. J. Storer, to be Principal Official ia 

the Royal Pleculiar of the Deaneiy of 

Bridgenorth, Salop. 
Rev. TTBgyddl, Minor Canon in Chester 

Cath. 



79 



Fromotiwu and Ptrfenrntmis. — Bhrtk^'^Mimlag/ti, . [Jau. 



Bcv. H. J. Todd, to Om Prcbad «£ H«|b. 

Bev. P. fi^Kiar, ToEnf Ok ia dw TnAj- 

tcffy Of UsBuoc 
RcT. H. J. fivtoa, LottoD ud ESsy R. eo. 



Rev. G. BoDBpr, to.be Mniitter of New Sof- 

fiA-aq. Ch. Cbeltenhein. 
Rev. J. Brmmston, Greet Beddov Y. Essex. 
Rev. T. CUrlooo, Beytoo R. Suffblk. 
Rev. F. Costaoce, Reppooilen P. C. iUfifiuc 
Rev. C. ruber, CJtoa R. Suffiilk. 
Rev. U. CK^M, Corbrid^ V. Nortfaamberl. 
Rev. C. ZMnmy, A>he R. Hents. 
Rev. R. Newcmne, Clocoeiioc R. Denbigb. 
Rev. P. Pooie, Frfidd R. Hants. 
Rev. W. H. Sbetfbrd, Preston R. Suffolk. 



Rev. J. S piff eon , Twyford R. Norfolk. 

•Rev. H. Taylor, Slokenbam V. Devon. 

Rev. C Tifpp, BnMlon R. Soquerset. 

Rev. R. WiU, Stanton R. Norfolk. 

Rev. R. WiHianis, Aber R. Caroanron. 

Rev. C V. H. Sumner, -Chaplain in Ordinary 
to the King. 

Rev. £. H. G. Willian^s, ChapL to tbe dow- 
ager I^dy Cawdor. 

Civil Preterm ents. 

J. I. Lockbart, esq. M. P. elected Recorder 
of Roinsej, vice R. W. Missing, esq. dec. 

Rev. W. H. Clarke, Second Master of Nor- 
wich tree Gram. School. 

-Rev. J. 'Hutchinson, Head'Mast. of Chelms- 
ford Free Gram. School. 



BIRTHS. 



Jtt/y 1^. At Sydney, the I#^ of Lieut.- 
Gen. Darling, Governor of New South 

W*lcs> a <li^u. 

Latdy. At Oakley-park, JLodlaw, Ledy 

Harriet Qive, a son. ^.\t Islington, the 

wife of Capt. fialchUd, ^M. a dan. 

At Bromptoo' barracks, Chatham, the wife 

of Capt. Beghie, 83d JEteg. a dan. At 

Portsmouth, the wifs of Mi^ Chiches^ir, 
£Qth Rifles, a son. 

Dec, 31. The Hon. Mrs. Feigasoo,adau. 

Jaru St. At Gonton-park, in NeiiuUc, Lady 
(Suffield, a son. 4 . At Mere, the wife of 



fFohn Chafin Morris, esq. Commander R.N> 
a son. 7» In Harley-street, .the wife of 
Dr. .Souther, a dau. 10. Jn York-pUce, 
^e iriCs of M^rLrfviogston, .£.LC. service, 
A son.— 19. In .George-street, Hanover- 
square, the wife of George Bankes, esq. M.P. 

asqn^ Id. At Beal-house, the wiie of 

H. W. Mason^ esq. High Sheriff of Bucki, 
a dau. — r-^4. In Green-fftmet, G^oavooor- 
jKquare, tbe wife of D. Barc^r, esq. M.P. a 
jK*n, since dead. \&, In iLi^Vfdoii, the 

wife of W. £. XauotoQ, eaq. Itroordw •£ 
Oxford, a son. 



MARRIAGES. 



Lately, In Carmarthenshire, J. D. Da- 
vies, esq. R.N. to Mary, eldest dau. of the 

Ute Sir William Maosel, Bart. ^At Braf- 

ferton, the Rev. B. Lunley, Rector of Dal- 
by, to Miss Howard, dau. of the late John 

Howard, esq. of Hull. The Rev. J. £. 

Daniel, Vicar of Weybi^ad, eldest son Qf 
Capt. Daniel, R.N. of Ipswich, to Mary, 

^d,es^ 4fu. of John Alarich, esq. At 

^utbec, the Hon* F. }N, Primrose, brother 
(0 th^ £arl of Rosebery, to Percy Gore, 
third dau. of the latie Col. j^. Goroi of B^ry- 
iitottJBt, in li^Iao^ and niece to Vice-A(UD. 

Sir John Gore. ^ Kfi«gravc, Wm. Page 

Wood, Fellow of Trinity CoUece, Cam- 
bridge, second son qf Matthew' Woud, esq. 
M.P. toCharlutte, only dau. of Edif. Moor, 
esq. of Great Beallngs, Suffolk. 

Jan. 4. At ManSkulI, Dorset, the Rev. 
F. Y. Ljuke, Rector of Frintoo, Esses, to 
Agnes Eliza, dau. of the Rev. W. B. Kiams- 

den. 5. At St. Mary's, Mary-le-bonc, R. 

Browne Clajton, only %on of Lteut.-Gen. B. 
Clayton, of Falweod-hall, Lancashire, to 
CatA. Jane, only dau. of the late Rev. R. 
Dobson, of Fumeux Pefbam, Herts. At 
Ot. Jamet^, Westminsler, J. Bowen Gum- 
bleton, esq. of Fort William, co. Weterfbrd, 
to Aun, eldest dau. and co-heiress of H. 
Everard, esq. of Spalding.^— 7. At Bath, 



the Rev. Wm. Coyte Freeland, of Cogges- 
hall, Essex, to Mary Cath. yoniigest dau. of 
the late Rear-Adm. Bingham, and srand- 
dau. of the late Vice-Adm. Sir W. Parker, 

Bart. At Lymington, the Rev. Q. Hardv 

Raven, of Boston^ to Jane Ac^gosta, fifth 

dau. of John Richman, e^q. 9. At Bath- 

§ot6, Col. Ptiillott/R.A. to the refict of the 
late J. Shaw, esq. and daughter of the la(e 

T. Lo%mdes, esq. ^At St. Mary's, Lam- 

betb, John Wright, widower, agwi 102, to 
Cath. Stringer, widow, in her 60th year. 
Tbe bridegroom appeared healthy and ac- 
tive. 18. At Clapham, the Rev. R. Dick- 
inson, Rector of Headley, Hants, to H. 
Maria, dau. of the late Capt. fietler, formerly 
of SBrrey-fooare. ■ 14. At Paris, the 
Viscompte Qias. de Mentqoe, Capt. of Gre- 
nadiers, to Miss Cproline Susanna, dau. of 
the Hon. John Spencer, nod niece of the 

Diiko of MarlLoroi^ii. At Lewiafiam, 

W. Dnke, Jan. esq, of Huttings, to Sarah 
Batley, only dau. of T. Cox, esq. of Black- 
heath.— At Chislehampton, Oxfordshire, 
V/, Bobart, esq. to Ellen, third dau. of Mr. 

J. Richmond. 19. At Brighton, the Rev. 

P. W. DoBgks, Rector of Bon^ and Hork- 
stow, lioeoinshtre, and nephew to the Bi- 
shop of Durliam, to Charlotte, dau. of the 
late John Barber, esq. of Denmark-hill. 



1830.] 



I 77 ] 



O B 1 T U A « Y. 



Earl or KBtviB. 

Dec. 3. At Airdrie Huum* co. Fife, 
Mrd 83, the Right Hon. Metbven-KelUe 
Enkiiie, t«iitb EatI of KcUie, Viscount 
of Fenton (ibe premier Viicuunty of 
ScocUnd), and Baron of Dirleion. oo. 
HaddinKton* and uintb Baronat of Cao- 
bo, CO. Fife. 

His locdthip wai tbe f ixib and yonnf- 
eit aon of David Ertkine, E»q. (fourth 
•on of Sir Alexander tbe second Baronet 
of Cemboy and brother to Sir Cbarhae, 
Sir Jubn, and Sir William, tbe tbirdy 
fourth, and fifth BArnnets) by bis second 
wife. Miss Vounf of £Uiubur|;b. David 
was fuurib in descent from Thomas 
first Earl of Kellie; and maternal. Kcand- 
tou of Alcaandtj' the third Earl; bis 
father Sir Alexander, »bo wi^ tKffd 
Lyon Kin^ of Arms, and Kn^bt in Far- 
iiameut lur Fifesbire, bavini^ married 
i«ady Mary Ecstuae, ibe third Earfs 
eldeat dau|;bter. 

Mr. MeUiv«n Erskine bad io early life 
•on^ emplov^nent in Henj^aU He ia«r- 
rird at Eduiburfb, July I0« I7al« Jo- 
Lauua, dauj;bter of Captain Adam Gor- 
don ol Arduebf and aiuer to tbe Lady to 
»bom bis elder brother Thomas (after- 
vranls tbe ninth Earl of Kellie) bad 
become uoiicd at Gouenburgb ten years 
previously. We believe both these ais- 
tars, a circumatance which must baaw 
appear^ rtry remote at tbe period of 
ibeir marriage, lived to be Countestta of 
Kellie. Anne^ widow of Earl Themes, 
died on tbe SOlh of las( March { and 
Johanna, we believe, now aurvivea bcr 
husband. 

Between tbe period of the SMtrriagc ef 
tbe auliject vf tbU notice, and bit accea- 
aieA to tbe earldom, the following elder 
male hrancbea of his family (if not 
etbcie) were removed by death : towards 
the close of 1181 died Thomas- Arcbi- 
baid tbe aixtbEarli in 1790 died Sir Cbai. 
Er»kine,6tb Bart, of Cafnbo(ibe eldest 
brother of Metbven) i in 1791 Sir Wil- 
liam Eftkiaa^ bit aon and successor $ in 
1793 David, Methven's fourth brother; 
in n9T ArvhibaW tbe seventh Earl; 
in 1799 CbaHct the eighth Earl of 
Kellie, aad Ibe vounftr brutber and 
aucoetaer of Sir William, and also boir 
of bit cousin fiaH Archibald i and i» 
1898 Tbootaa ibf ninth Earl, Meth- 
ven't, De«t elder brother. 

On tha dfiuh of the last-mentioned at 
Cambo Houtib Feb. 7, 18S8,« Matbveii 
Kfakitif , Etq. at the afe of 82, aucoeed- 



cd to a title, between whkh .and the 
tenant livini^ at hia birth, all the sibove 
malef,and three utbera whoHied youn^, 
had intervened. 

We believe that this peeriiKebat -now 
become extinct, it having been in errer 
that we ^considered in 1698 (the dien 
tucceasor to tbe title to have been la eon 
of David *Brskine, Esq. -who died tat 
Wareham in 1804, that pentleman (ac- 
cording te/DottgbM^a Peeiege, by Wood) 
having deceased unmarried. Stewart 
Erskiue, Esq. of tBromley Lodge, Kent, 
bis only yuungor brother, who ilied at 
Bromley, and bas a tcMnb in tbe chunih- 
yard tlu:ne, married (says tbe same aa- 
thorit.y) Miaa Reid, but .bad no atiflt*. 
Tbe Visco«iaty ef Fenton, bestowed on 
him in 1606, was tbe first eeeatrd in 
the Peerage of Seoiland. 

Tbe lamily of Ertkine, Earls ef KelKc, 
was descended from Sir Alcaander £e- 
akiae ef Gofar, fourth aon of Jefan 
fourth iford Erakiae, aiid hratberto tbe 
Regent John of Mari aad was raised to 
tbe peerage in tbe person of Sir Alexan- 
der, son of Thomas, a juvenile compa- 
nion of KingJeines VI.,Hhe courtier who 
slew AlcRUiiider Authvrcsi in tberencaun- 
tie denominated tbe Ooevy Conapiracy ; 
and who afterwards, acceetpanyinf^ hit 
«nyal master to finglaad, was eoe -of tbe 
most ftvoaeed of that Monaroh't entift- 
trymen. 



"TT- 



* A memoir of thit nobleman, who 



Viscount Harbbrton. 

^ov. S8. At hi« heme im Uppar 
BMofc^alffeet« haviag wearly eompletad 
hU 80th year, the Right Hon. Henry Ple- 
merey, seoond Viscount Harhertoti, aiKl 
Baren Uarberton of Caibery, co. Kal- 
dare; F.8.A. 

Hit Lofdthip wet horn Dee. 8, 1T49, 
the eldett ten of Arthur the firat Vit- 
oouMt,* by Mary, daughter and heiteaa 

wat a Repreteatative Peer ami Lard- 
lientenant of Fifethtre, wat given ia mir 
vol. Kcviii. i.S€9; isi the geneeJofieal 
particvlart are aoate errem, which it it 
hoped are corrected in the ttatement 
above. A hea«tiful portrait ef Earl 
Thofltat, painted by WUkie for the 
Couiity Hall, Cupar, wee eahsbited at 
Somcrtat Houte in 1889- 

* Thit branch of tbe ancieiU bafonlal 
fami^ of Pomeroy wat foanded io Ire- 
land by tbq Very Rav. Artbor Pomaray, 
DeaQ of Cork, whote anetatort were of 
Eogetdon, in Devontbirt. Hit fraod- 
ton, Arthur Pomeroy, on being raited 



78 



Obituary. — Gen. Lord C. FUzroy. 



[Jab. 



of Henry Colley, of Castle Carbepy, co. 
Kildare, Esq. and Lady Mary Hamilton » 
third daughter of James, siitb Earl of 
Abercorn. Mr. Colley was the elder 
brother of the first Lord Murninj(ton, 
and Lord Harberion was consequeni ly a 
seeoiid cousin of the Duke of Welling- 
ton, the Marquess of Wellesley, &i*. ; 
and ill fact the representative of the 
elder branch of the family of Colley or 
Cowley. 

The Hon. Henry Pomeroy tat in the 
Irish House of Commons, during more 
than one Parliament, for the borough of 
Strabane. He succeeded his father April 
9, 1798: and we believe was never a 
member of the British Parliament. 

Lord Harberton married, Jan. 20, 
i7B8, Mary, second daughter of Nicholas 
Grady, of Grange, co. Limerick^ Esq.; 
and by that lady, who died Jan. S3, 
1823, had an only child, the Hon. 
Henry Pomeroy, whom he lost at the 
age of fourteen in 1804. The Viscount 
is succeeded by his next brother, the 
Hon. Arthur-James Pomeroy, who is in 
bis seventy-seventh year. He is mar* 
ried, but has no children. The Hon. 
and Rev. John Pomeroy, the next bro- 
ther, has four sons. 



Gen. Lord Charles Fitzroy. 

Dec. 20. At his residence in Berkeley- 
square, aged 65, General the Right Hon. 
Lord Charles Fitsroy, of Wicken in 
Northamptonshire, M.A. Colonel of the 
48th Foot ; brother to the Duke of 
Grafton. 

Lord Charles Fitsroy was bom July 17, 
1764, the younger son of the first mar- 
ritge of Augustus-Henry 3d and late 
Duke of Grafton^ K.G. with the Hon. 
Anne Liddell, only daughter and heiress 
of Henry Lord Ravensworth. He was 
created Master of Arts of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1784, his father 
being then Chancellor of that Univer- 
sity. He was appointed Ensign in the 
3d foot guards in July 1782, Captain in 
the 43d foot 1787, and from that year to 
1789 was on half-pay. At the close of 
tbe latter year he was appointed to a 
company in tbe 45th foot, from which 
he was removed to the 3d foot guards. 

His Lordship served with the brigade 
of Guards in Flanders, during the whole 
of tbe campaigns of 1 793 and 1794. He 
was present at the siege of Valenciennes, 
and at every action in which the grena- 

to the peerage, took the title from the 
manor of Harberton, in Devonshire, a 
part of the extiensive pbssessions of the 
great honte of Pomeroy, of Berry Pome- 
foy, eo. Devon. 



dier battalion was engaged. In February 
1795 his Lordship wa« appointed Aid- 
de-camp to tbe King, and Colonel in the 
army \ and Jan. 1, 1798, Major-general. 
He served oq tbe Staff in Ireland from 
February that year till April 1799, when 
he was removed to the Siaif in England ; 
on which he continued, with the excep- 
tion of the year of peace, 1802, until the 
Ist of May, 1809* For several years be 
commanded the garrison in Ipswich, in 
which situation he was greatly and de- 
servedly respected. The 1st of January, 
1805, be obtained tbe rank of Lieut.- 
General, and was appointed Colonel 6f 
the 43d foot; and on the 4th of June, 
1814, he was promoted to the rank 
of General. 

Lord Charles Fitzroy was for many 
years one of the Burgesses in Parliament 
fur Bury St. Edmund's. He was first 
returned in 1787, in the room of his 
c&usin the late Lord Southampton, who 
then accepted tbe Chiltern Hundreds. 
At the general election in 1790 he was 
re-elected; but at that of 1796 Lord 
Hervey was returned in his room. In 
1802 he was again chosen, and be coil- 
tinued member during four parliaments, 
till 1818, when he resigned bis seat to 
bis nephew the Earl of Euston. 

Lord CharlesFitzroywastwice married; 
first, June 20, 1795, to Frances, only 
daughter of Edward Miller Mundy, Esq. 
(for many years M.P. for Derbyshire) 
by his first wife Frances, eldest daughter 
of Godfrey Meynell, Esq. ; and balf-sis- 
ter to the late Duchess of Newcaitle (tee 
the memoir of Mr. Mundy in vol. xcii. 
ii. 472). By this lady, who died Aug. 
.9, 1797, his Lordship bad one son, Lt.- 
Col. Charles Augustus Fitsroy, oow 
Deputy- Adjutant-general at tbe Cape of 
Good Hope, and who succeeds to his 
father's Northamptonshire estates ; be 
married in 1820, Lady Mary Lennox,, 
eldest daughter of Gen. Charles fourth 
and late Duke of Richmond and Lennox, 
K.G. and has a family. His Lordship's 
second marriage, March 10, 1799> was 
with Lady Frances Anne Stewart, eldest 
daughter of Robert first Marquis of 
Londonderry. Her Ladyship died Feb. 
9, 1 8 10, leaving two sons atid two daugh- 
ters : 2. Frances, married in 1824 to the 
Hon. George Rice-Trevor, M.P. eldest 
son of Lord Dynevor; 3. George, Capt 
1st foot guards, and now or late Aid- 
de-camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of 
Ireland; 4. Emily-Elizabeth, who died 
in April 1827 $ And 5. Robert. 

On tbe 30th Dec. his Lordship's re- 
mains were interred at Wicken j near 
Stoney Stratford, in which parish htn 
had resided for nearly twenty years. 
His death is deeply and deservedly re- 



1S30.] OmTUAEY.— //on. J. Cuvenirif. — Sir P. G. Egirion. 



79 



gr«ttrd ill liiJit neigbbovrbood, wbere be 
WM unircrtally beloved by all cUstet. 
On bit deaib-bed kit Lerdtbip ordered 
bUiikett and otbcr necettariet, witb a 
contiderable quantity of coal, lu be dit* 
tributed anonftt tbe poor of Wickeii, 
and alto anonpt tbe poor at Euttoo 
and I bat ncigbbourbood, nearly tbe last 
wordt »bicb be wat able to write brings 
a direction for a diitribuiion to be made 
on New-year't Day, wbetber be abould 
turvive to that timcy or, as be bimtelf 
anticipated, tbuuld bave quilted tbe 
tcene of tbit world. 

Hit Lordtbip*t will wat proved on tbe 
6tb of Jan. and ibe pertoiialty »wom 
under 100,0001. Tbe will ii written on 
parcbrocnCy in bit own band*writinp, 
partly on tbe 19th of October, 1829, and 
partly on a following day ; and tbcre it 
a codicil dated tbe 8tb Dec in a differ- 
ent writinf^. 



Hon. John Covbntry. 

A'ev. 19. At Burgate, Hnmpfbire, 
aged 64, tbe Hon. John Coventry, half- 
brother to tbe E^rl of Coventry. 

Thit gentleman wat born June SO, 
1765, the elder ton by tbe tecond mar- 
riage uf George- William thetixth Earl, 
with the Hon. Barbara St. John, fourth 
daughter of John tenth Lord St. John. 

He w«t twire married, fint in 1788, 
to Mift Anne Clayton, by whom be bad 
itsue two tont and two d^ugbtert : I. 
Caroline, married in 1894 to Hugh 
Mallet, of Ath Houte in Divuntbire, 
Eiq. } 9. Frederick, manied in 1819 to 
hit tecond cousin Louita, only daughter 
iif Sir Henry Halfurd, Bart. MX>. by tbe 
Hon. Eliaahetb-B^irbaraSi. John, fourth 
daughter of John eleventh Lord St Jubn, 
and bat teveral children ; 3. John, mar- 
ried to Eliiabcth, daughter of the Rev. 
M. Wilton, and hat alto teveral children ; 
4. Anne, married in 1893 to her firtt 
coutin Thomat-WiUiam Coventry, E^q. 
B^rrtftter-at-Uw, the «*nly ton of the 
late Hi*n. Thomat William-Covrntry, 
ber faiher't younger brother, who died 

in 1(116. 

The Hon John Coventry married te- 
cotid*y, in Augatt I809> Anna-Maria, 
widtiw of Eheneser Pope, £«q. and te- 
rond daughter of Franrit Evet, of Clif- 
ford Place in Herefordtbire, Etq. ; and 
bat left that lady bit widow. 



Rev. Sir P. G. EoRitTON, Bart. 
Dec. 13. At Oulton Park, Cbetbire, 
after only three dayt* illnett, aged 69, 
the Rev. Sir Philip Grey Egerton, ninth 
Baronet of Bferton and Oulton P^rk, 
Rector of Tarporlcy, and of tbe opper 



mediety of Malpat, both in tbe tame 
county. 

Sir Philip wat bom at Broaton in 
Cheshire, July 6, 1767> the tecond ton 
of Philip Egerton, of Oulton, etq. by hit 
■paternal coutin-gt- rman Mary, daughter 
of Sir Francit Ha^kin Eylet-St> let, Bart.; 
and titter and tole beireti to Sir John 
Eyiet-Stylet, the fourth and latt Baronet 
of that name. He wat formerly Fellow 
of Peterhoute, Cambridge, where be 
proceeded RA. 1790, MA. 1794. He waa 
pretented to the upper mediety of the 
rectonr of Malpat in 1804, by hit aunt 
Mitt Eliaabetb Egerton, patron for that 
turn; and to Tarporley in 1806, by bit 
brother Sir John Grey Egerton. 

Ou the death of Sir John, May 94, 
1895, tbit gentleman tucceeded to the 
title of Baronet, which bad devolved ou 
hit brother on the death of Thomat 
Earl of Wilton in 1814 (tee the biogra- 
phical notice of Sir John in our vul.acv. 
ii. 85). On tbe 15th of July fuUowiiig^ 
he reieivfd the royal license to bear the 
name of Grey before that of Egerton, 
and to quarter (he arrot of Grey de 
Wilton, and alto to ute and bear tbe 
tame tupportert allusive to that family, 
which had been granted to bit brother 
in 1815, in commemoration of hit de- 
tcent from Bridget, titter and co-heirett 
to tbt latt Baron of that name, who wat 
the wile of Sir Rowland Egerton, tbe 
firtt Baronet. 

Sir Philip Grey Egerton married, Sept. 
14, 1804, Rebecca, daughter of Jamet 
Dupri, of Whitton Park, in Bucking- 
hamihire, Etq. and bad ittue Ave tont and 
five daugbten . 1. Sir Pbilip-de-Malpat, 
born in 1806, (and to named from the 
B^iront of Malpat, tbe earliett proge- 
niturt of the family), who bat tucceeded 
to the Baronetcy, and it a Gentleman- 
commoner and B.A. of Chrittcburch, 
Oxford I 9. Mary- Anne-Elisabeth ) 3. 
Charlrt-Dupri ) 4. John-Francit | 5. 
William-Henry ; 6. Madelina, died in 
1813; 7. Richard-Caledon t 8. Eglan- 
tine ; 9> Fanny-Sarah ; and 10. Re- 
beccaXatberine. 



Sir Richard Brdingprld, Bart. 

Nov. 99. At Windtor, when on bit 
way to London from a vitit to Lord 
Dillon at Ditchley, of apopleay, aged 69, 
Sir Richard Bedingfeld, tbe fifth lUronet 
of Oaburgh in Norfolk ; father-in-law 
to Lord Pet re, and brother-in-law to 
Lord Stafford. 

Sir Richard wat the repretentatlvc of 
a dittinguithcd Roman Catholic family, 
which hat for teveral fenerationt formed 
alliancct with tome of the nott illut- 
triotia fanillet of tbt pecragt; and waa 



80. 



Obitua«y.— /?ir /?* BefHngfeld; Bart, 8(C. Stc. 



[Jan. 



tbeonly child of Sir Richard the fourth 
Baronet, by the Hon. Mary Brownei 
only daughter of Anthony sorenth Vis- 
count Mont aj(<i. He sucoeeded hns father' 
M«rch 17» 1795, and married on the 
ITtb of the following June, Charlotte^' 
Georgranai only dauf^hterof Sir William 
Jernmgham, the- fifth Baronet of Cossey 
in Norfollc, (by tlie Hon. Frances Dillony 
aunt to tlie present Viscount Dillon,) 
and sister'to the present Lord Staff6rd. 
They bad issue four •sotts and fdur daugh- 
ters t-1. Frances- Cli a riot te, married in' 
1815 to William- Francis- Henry the pre- 
sent and 11th' Lord PetrCy and died Jan. 
30,1823$ 2. Matilda-Mary, married in 
1820 to SMnleyCary, of FuUaton in De^ 
vonsbire, Esq. ; 3. Agnes-Mary, married 
in 1833 to Thomas Mulyneux Seele, of 
Hurst House in- Lancashire, Esq. ; 4. Sir 
Henry-Richard Bt^diiigfeld, bcn-n in 1800, 
who has succeeded to the Baronetcy ; 
he married in- 1836, Margaret-Anne, 
only daughter of Edward Paston, of Ap- 
pleton in Norfolk, Esq. ; 5. Charlotte- 
Eliza ; 6. Charles-Richard, an officer in 
the Austrian service; 7* Edward-Ri- 
chard, a midshipman, R:N. who was 
drowned at sea in 1833; and 8. Felix- 
William- George-Richard. 



Barbara, and died in the year I832r(iee 
vol; XfHX. if. p; 380) ; and' 6. Charlotte; 
married in 1819 to Sir Attbtin the prcH- 
s6nC and ceventb Buroiiet'of Ralfigh in 
Deronsbirei We are tiot sure whet her Sir ' 
James Williams's eldMt son Jamtss sur^ 
vives to succeed to bis title, or whethlsr- 
it has devolved on MMJof Williams^- mbo ■ 
married Lady Mary Port escue. 



Sir J. H. Williams, Bart. 

Dee. 3. At Clovelly Court, Devon- 
shircy aged 64, Sir James Hamlyn Wil- 
liams, the second Baronet of that place. 

Sir James was- the only surrivlng "son 
of Sir James Hamlyn, (whose paternal 
name was Hiimmett,) the first Baroner, 
and M.P. for Carmartheirshire from 1795 
to 1803, by habella, fourth daughter 
but at length sdle heir of' Thomas Wrl- 
liams, of Edwinsford, co. Carmarthen, 
E*q. and niece to Sir Nicholas Williams, 
Bart, who was Lord Lieutfnant and 
Knight in Parliament- for that county in 
the reign of George the First. 

"The deceased received the Royal li- 
cence-to assume the name and arms of' 
WHIiams only in 1798. In- 1803 his 
father resigned in his favour the repre- 
sentation of the cottnty of Carmarthen ; 
but ai. the nvxtg&ikeral eleetion in IB06 
Sir William Paxton »vas elected. Mr. 
Williams succeeded his father in llle 
Baronetcy May 38, 1811. 

Hfe married, July S3, 1789, Diana- 
Anne, daughter of Abraham Whittaker, 
of Stratford in E«st*x, £«q. and by that 
laUy bad 'issue ; I. James, who was for- 
merly a Major in the 7tb Hussars, and 
married Feb. 15, 1836, Lady-MaryFor- 
tcABcue, fourth daughter of- Eari Fortes- 
rue; 3. the Rev. Olrlando, Rtctor of 
Cr^Telly ; 4. Diana; 5. Arabella, whiVbe- 
came in ld3<y'the' third wife xif- Lord 



Sir R. B. db Capell Brooke^ Bart. 

J^ov.9rf. At Great Oakley in^Nbr-" 
thamptonsUire, in his 73nd year, Sl^* 
Richard Brooke de Capelt Brooke, of that 
place, Bart. Colonel of the Northamp- 
tonshire Mflitia, and r.R.S. 

The paternal name of (his gentleman ■■ 
was Supple, he being the only child of ' 
Richard Supple of Aghadoe, co. Cork, 
Esq. by Marf, daughter and heires< of * 
Arthur Brooke, Esq. the descendant of an ' 
ancient Northaroptonsbire family. On 
the death of his father in 1797 Richard 
Brooke Supple, Esq. obtained the royal 
licence to assume the name of Brooke, 
as directed by the will of bts great uncle 
Wheeler Brooke, esq. and at the- same 
time to change that of Supple to de 
Capell, that being 'considered to be the' 
orighial orthography of ' bit paternal 
name. Philip de Capell, who went' to 
Ireland with Robert Fitxstepben^ temp. 
Henry II. was rewarded "with the estate of 
Aghadoe, co. Cbrk, to be beld'by knight*! 
servrce, and the payment of a pair of 
spurs at Easter at Dubllh castle ; and 
that estate, subject to the same qiiit'-rrnt, 
bus descended in tb^ family to'tbe pre- 
sent time. 

Sir Richard was created a Bkronet by 
patent dated June :)0, 1803; be mar« 
ried Ang. 18, 1788, Mary, only child and 
heiress of Major-Gen. Richard Wbrge, 
Colontl of the 8th foivt, by whom he 
had two sons. Sir Arthtir,' who hat stio- 
ceeded to the Baronetcy, born in 1791 » 
and is a Lieutenant in the Royal borte 
guards; and William, borrl in*180l-; 
and four daughters, Mary-Aftne/$oi)hia> 
Louisa, and Augusta. 



Sir Wm. Fowls Mi odlbton, Bart. 

Dee. 36. At his seat, Shrubland Park; 
near Ipswich; aged 80. Sir William Fowie 
Mhldleton, Bart, a Deputy Lieutenant 
and Magistrate for Stlffulk. 

Sir William was a native of South 
Carolina, and was born on the 19th of 
Sept. I74J, the eldest son of Wflliam 
Middleton; Elsq.(son of AnUur,soitie>ifiie 
Governor of that Colony, and whotlied 
about 1737) by his third' wife Sarab^ 
daitghfer ol Morton Wilkiiiaon. At an 
early period of life, he was removed to 



imo.] 



Obituakt. — Sir W. PowU MiildUion, Bart. 



81 



this county* wbtr* bit family was reti- 
cent, and placed at the Free Granmar 
School of St. Edmund's Bury, then un- 
der I be able and Judicious superintend- 
cnce of tbat aeeomplished scbolar, tbe 
Rev. Robert Gariibaro. From tbeitce be 
was removed to Caius Colle|;e, Cam- 
bridge, «ibere be resided for some time ; 
and, on leavinf tbe Uni versify, was ap- 
pointed to a company in the Eatteni 
Battalion of tbe Suffolk Militia. In 1786 
be offered himself a candidate for the 
repreftcniation of Jps«irh, in which, 
after a slronf^ contest, he proved un* 
succes«rul. In I78S he served the of- 
fice of WigU Sheriff of the county j in 
which year it was unanimously resolved 
at a general meetioic, hulden at Stow- 
market on the Sth of August, to build, 
by voluntary subscription, a ship of war 
of 74 guns, for the service of goveni- 
ment. Ou Sir William, as hlieriff and 
Chairman, devolved the management of 
thi< public measure, and he received the 
thaoksof the Committee, " for bis noble 
and spirited exertions on the occasion." 
On tbe 3d of April 1784 be was elected 
a Burgess in parliament for the borough 
of Ipswich, by a vtry large and decided 
majority ; and, in the following year, 
was chosen one of its Bttliffs. At the 
general elections in 1790 and 1796, be 
Mood severe contests for that borough; 
but in both instances was unsuccessful. 
In 1803, however, on tlie decease of 
Charles-Alexander Crickiti, Eiq. he was 
again elected, without opposition, ai>d 
duriog that parliament be was cre- 
ated a Baronet, by patent dated June 
8, 1804. At the general election in 
1806, be was returned to parliament as 
a Baron for tbe cinque port of Hastings i 
but be closed bis senatorial career with 
tbe dissolution in I80T« 

Dtiring the late war. Sir William was 
Cor many years Major and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Commandant of the Bosmere 
andClaydon Volunteer Infantry i acorpe 
which was trained and disciplined undi;r 
bis immediate inspection. In 1881 he 
was chosen, a second time, one of the 
Bailiffs of l|»swieb. In IbSS the royal 
licence and authority was granted to 
him, and dame Harriot his wife, to as- 
auBM the name of Fowle, to be used be- 
fore that of Middleton, in rompliance 
with tbe last will of John Fowle, of 
Broome tn Norfolk, Esq. 

During tbe whole period of a long 
life, Sir WUliam was ;ilniost a constant 
icttdcnt in Suffolk { and, as a country- 
fenttemao, motC laiMlably devoted bit 
attention to agricultural pursuit^, and 
Uie improvement of bis estates ) to tb« 

GanT. M40. Jamtmrjft 1830. 

11 



employment of tbe poor, and tbe amelio- 
ration of their condition. As a pubUe 
man be was active and alert on every 
occasion that called him to tbe post of 
public duty t firm and consistent in bis 
support of tbe cause of liberty civil aitd 
religious, and sincere in his attachment 
to the principles established at the Revo- 
lution. In the discharge of the varloua 
and important functions of tbe magis- 
trate, bii conduct was 'prompt, impar- 
tial, and decided ; ever alive to the calla 
of Justice, and ready to listen to the 
poor man's complaint. To bis friends 
he was sincere and attached; and to bis 
numerous tenantry indulgent and con- 
siderate. As a Member of the House of 
Commons, his sentiments were liberal 
and enlirged, and his conduct firm and 
independent ; modelled on the priiiri- 
pies of Mr. Fox, fur whose great talents 
and enlightened system of policy he en- 
tertained the highest veneration. 

Sir William married in 1774, Harriot, 
dMiiKhter of the late Nathaniel Acton, 
of Br4mfurd Hall, in Suffolk, Esq. and 
had iuue one son and two daughters : 
I. Sir William-Fuwle Fowle-Middleton, 
who has succeeded to the title, born in 
1784, and married in l8iS to tbe Hon. 
Anne Cost, the youngest sister of Earl 
Brownlow ; 8. Harriot, married to Charles 
Dashwood, of Stanfield in Lincolnshire, 
Esq. and is since deceased; 3. Louisa, 
married in 1803 to Sir Philip Bowes Vera 
Broke, of Broke Hall, Suffolk, Bart, and 
K. C. B. a Captain in tbe Royal Navy. 



Sir W. C. db Crbspiqnv, Baiit. 

Dec. S8. At bis seat. Champion Lodge, 
Camberwcll, aged nearly 65, Sir William 
Champion de Cresplgny, the second Ba- 
ronet of that place, a magistrate for 
Surrey and Hampshire, LL.B*and F.S.A. 

Sir William was born Jan. 1765, tbe 
only son of Sir Claude Champion de Crea- 
pigny, LL.D. tbe first Baronet, (so cre- 
ated in 1805,] by Mury, sole daughter 
and heiress of Joseph Clark, Esq. He was 
riill hit death] amemberof Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, where bis father bad been a 
Fellow, and took tbe degree of LL.B. in 
1786. He succeeded to the Baronetcy 
on tbe death of bis father, who died at 
the age of 83, Jan. S8, 1818. He was 
returned M.P. for Southampton at the 
General Elect ions of 1 8 1 8 and 1 8S0 1 but 
at that of 1896 Mr. Dottin was chosen. 
Sir William was Provincial Grand Master 
of tbe Freemasons nf Hampshire} be 
also held the commist ion of Lieutenant- 
Colonel in tbe Surrey Volunteers. 

Sir William married Aug. 4, 1786« 



8^ 



Obituary. — Sir 9V. C de Crtipigny^ Bart. 



[Jaii. 



Lady Sarah Windsor,* 4th and youngest 
daughter of Other Lewis fourth Earl of 
Plymouth ; and by that Udy, who died 
Sept. 39, 1835, had issue five sons and 
as many daughters : 1. Claude, who died 
ft Lieutenant ItN. in 1813 ; 2. Wiliiam- 
Other-Robert, who died holding a simi- 
lar commission June 34,1816; 3. Au- 
gustus James Champion, a Captain in the 
tame service ; he married May 39t 1817> 
Caroline, younger daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Smijth, the seventh and late Baro- 
net of Hill Hall in E<8ex, and died Oct. 
84, 1835, leaving Sir Claude-William- 
Champion de Crespigny, born in 1818, 
who has now succeeded his grandfather 
in the Baronetcy ; and other children ; 
4. the Rev. Heaton-Cbampion, Rector of 
Stoke Doyle, Northamptonshire, and 
Vicar of Neatesbead, Nurfolk ; he mar- 
ried in 1830 Caroline, youngest daughter 
of Bishop Bathurst, and has issue ; 5. 
Mary, deceased ; 6. Patience-Anne, mar- 
ried in 1814 to the Hon. and Rev. Paul- 
Anthony Irhy, brother to the present 
Lord Boston, and Kector of Cottesbrooke 
and Whiston, co. Northampton ; 7. Fran- 
ces, who died an infant ; 8. Mar}--Cathe- 
rinei g. Emma-Honoria ; and 10. Her- 
bert, of the Inner Temple. 



Admiral Sir George Montagu. 

Dec, 34. At his seat, St o well Lodge, 
Wiltshire, aged 79> Sir George Mon- 
tagu, G. C. B. Admiral of the Red. 

Sir George Montagu was bcm Dec. 
13, 1750, the eldest son f of Admiral John 
Montagu, (great grandson of the Hon. 
Jam*^8 Montagu, of Lackham in Wilt- 
shire, third son of Henry, first Earl of 
Manchester,] by Sophia, daughter of 
James Wroughton,^ Esq. He went to 
the Royal Naval Academy at Ports- 
mouth in 1763, and thence entered (he 
Preston, of 50 guns, having the flag of 
Rear Admiral William Parry, and com- 
manded by Captain (afterwards Lord) 
Gardner. In that ship he proceeded to 
the Jamaica station, where be continued 

* Whose eldest sister was Lady Ca- 
therine, the wife of Sir James Tilncy 
Long ; this connection brought Sir Wil- 
liam de Crespigny's name so frequently 
before the public in the recent legal ar- 
rangements relative to Mjr. Wellesley's 
cbildreo, to whom, as a great uncle by 
marrtaei>, he was appointed a guardian. 

f His brother Bdward was Co!unel of 
Artillery in the Bengal Establishment, 
and died in I79d- Captain Jamet Mon- 
tagu, 'another brother, commanded the 
Montagu, "74, at the battle of the glo- 
rib'tir June f** 1794, and wai the ooJy 
officer of hit rank then slain. 



upwards of three years { and thence re- 
turned to England with the latter officer 
in the Levant frigate, in 1770. 

.Soon after his arrival, Mr. Montagu 
was made a Lieutenant, and appointed 
to the Marlborough, of 74 guns; from 
which ship he removed into the Captain, 
another third-rate, bearing the flag of hit 
father, then a Rear-AdminJy with whom 
he went to America ; where he obtained 
the rank of Commander in the King- 
fisher sloop of war ; and from that ves- 
sel was promoted to the command of 
the Fo^ey, of 30 gun*. His )iost com- 
mission bore date April 15, 1773. 

At the commencement of the conteti 
with our trans-Atlantic colonies, Capt. 
M. was employed in the arduous service 
of blockading the porta of Marblehead 
and Salem, on which station he cofiti- 
nued during a whole winter, and bad 
the good fortune to capture the Wash* 
ington, a brig of 10* guiit, the first vet" 
sel of war sent to sea by the American 
Slates. Her crew, 70 in number, were 
sent to England as rebels ; but, instead 
of being banged, as they were considered 
to deserve and expect, they were there 
well clothed and set at liberty. 

Capt. Montagu was subsequently en- 
trusted, by Vice-Admiral Shuldham, 
with the diflicult and important duty of 
covering the retreat and embarkation 
of the army under Sir W. Howe, at the 
evacuation of Boston. The enemy hav- 
ing thrown up strong works, command'^ 
ing the town and harbour, the Vice- 
Admiral dropped down to Nantatket'^ 
road with the line-of-battle ships, leav* 
ing the whole arrangement and eiiecu- 
tion of this service to Capt. Montaga» 
who received the thanks of the General 
in a very flattering manner, through hie 
brother. Lord Howe, when he assumed* 
the chief command on the coast of Ame- 
rica. 

We next find our officer serving in 
the rhrer Chesapeake, i»here he rescued- 
Lord Dun more and family, and also 
prevented Governor Eden, of Maryland, 
from falling into the bands of the enemy. 
The Fowey was subsequently stationed 
by Lord Howe as the Ndvanced ship at 
the siege of New York; toon after the 
reduction of which place, Capt. M. re- 
turned to England in a very ill state of 
health. 

In 1779. the Romney, of 50 gunt,- 
which ship, bearing his father't flag at 
NewfouncUand, he had commanded for 
a period of two years, being ordered to 
receive the broad pendant of Commodorw- 
Jobnttoiie,Capt.,Moiitagtt was appointed 
to tbe Pearl frigate, and hurried to sea,* 
on a pressing -and important tervice« 
before bis crew t<mld be either watched 



1830] 



Obiiuait. — Jdm, Sir George Montagu. 



as 



or quarttrcil, »iiU only ten men «bo 
bad been in a thip of war before. On 
tbe I4tb Sept. about four wfcks afier 
bU departure from port, be Ml hi wiib, 
and alter a K^ll^nt act iuii of too bourt, 
. vblcb ** stamped bis name «iib a eulogy 
far beynnd any ibiti|( tbat even a partial 
pen ouuld say," captured tbe Santa Mo- 
nica, « Spaiiiib frigate of 38 guns, 900 
tonSf and 980 men, 38 of wbum were 
•tain and 45 woundrd, 1*be Pearl 
MBoonted tbe same number of guns as 
ber opponent, but was only 700 tons 
burtben, and bad a eery small pro|ior- 
tion of seamen among ber crew, wbieb 
consisted of 990, officers, men, and boys. 
Her loss on tbis occasion was twelve 
killed and nineteen wuunded. 

Towards tbe latter end of tbe tame 
year, Capt. Montagu tailed witb Sir G. 
D. Rodney to the relief of Gibraltar, and 
was eonseqtfently present at tbe capture 
of tbe Caraeea convoy, with wbieb he 
returned to England, in company witb 
tbe Africa, 64. Some time after this 
ev%nt, he was ordered fo America, with 
intrlligence of a French squadron, with 
troops on biiard, being about to sail from 
Frxficf-, fur the purpose of making an 
-attack upon New York. The fleet on 
tbat station, uri'ier Vice-Adm. Arbutb- 
not, having proceeded with Sir Henry 
Clinton's army to besiege Charlestnwn, 
In Sooth Carolina, Capt. Montagu, on 
his arrival, found himself senior ofJScer 
at New York, and the security of that 
place necessarily dependent on bis exer- 
tions. From thence he went on a cruise 
off Bermuda ; and, on tbe 30tb Sept. 
captured TCsperance, a French frigate 
of the lame tonnage as bit former prise, 
with a valuable cargo, from St. Do- 
mingo bound to Bourdeaux, of 39 guns, 
and nearly 900 men. The ship made 
an obstinate defence, maintaining a 
close art ion of two buurs, in which, and 
in a running flght of equal duration, 
sbe had twenty of her crew killed, and 
twenty-four wounded. Tlie Pearl's Iota 
was only sia ilain and ten wounded. 

On tbe !6ih March, 1781 , Capt. Mon- 
tagu was in company with tbe squadron 
under Vice-Adm. Arbutbnot, when that 
officer encountered M. de Temay, then 
on bis way to co-operate wiih a detach- 
ment of tlie American army in an attack 
npon Brig.-Gen. Arnold, whose corps 
bad nearly overrun tbe whole province 
of Virginia. Unfortunately, a thick 
baae, together witb tbe disabled condi- 
ti«>« of the three ships, on which the 
brunt of tbe engagement chiefly fell, 
rendered it impossible for the British 
squadron to pnrsus tbe advantage it bad 
gained, and tbe cooictt was conse- 
^eeiitly intltctitve. 



Capt. Montagu's abilities and geal 
were by tbia time so highly and gene- 
rally appreciated, tbat when, in October 
following, Rear-Adm. Graves, who bad 
succeeded to tbe chief command of tbe 
naval force employed on tbe American 
station, meditated an attack upon tbe 
French armament under Count deGrasse, 
then lying at the entrance of the York 
river, be appointed the Pearl to lead 
bis fleet: unfortunately, however. Earl 
Cornwallis bad been obliged to capitu- 
late before bis arrival, and the ente^ 
prixe was contequenily abandoned.— 
Capt. Montagu returned to England in 

1789, in a shattered state of bealtb, and 
paid off tbe Pearl. 

During the Spanish armament. In 

1790, Capt. Montagu obtained tbe com- 
mand of tbe Hector, 74 ; and, at tbe 
commencement of tbe war witb France* 
in 1793, he accompanied Rear-Admiral 
Gardner to Barbadoes, and was subse- 
quently despatched, in company with 
tbe Hannibal, 74, to reinforce the squad- 
ron on the Jamaica station. Towards 
the dote of the year he convoyed home 
a large fleet of West Indiamen { and on 
bis arrival at Spit head be was placed 
under the orders of Commodore Pa«lej, 
with whom, and Rear-AJm. M'Bride* 
be cruiied in tbe channel till bis pro- 
motion to a flag, which took place 
April 19, 1794, when be joined tbe 
grand fleet, at that period commanded 
by Carl Howe. Early in the following 
month he was detached with a squadron 
to escort the outward-bound East India 
fleet, and other convoys, amounting in 
the whole to about four hundred sail, as 
far to the southward as Cape Finisterrt. 
After tbe performance of tbit important 
service, be cruised for some days to tbe 
northward of Cxpe Ortega!, and, pre- 
viously to bis return to port, captured 
a French corvette, of 99 guns and 140 
men, and retook several British and 
Dutch merchantmen. 

Early in June, he wat again ordered 
to sea for tl>e purpose of reinforcing 
Lord Howe, as well as to look out for a 
valuable convoy coming from Americay 
and hound to the western coast of 
France, the capture or destruction of 
which, at tbat critical period, wat deemed 
an object of the utmost importance. On 
the 8ih of that mouth, being off Usbani, 
witb eight 74 gun ships, one 64, and 
several frigates, be discovered a French 
squadron, consisting of one 3-decker, 
seven 74's and one other two-decked 
ship, which he pursued until they got 
dote under the land, and some of them 
into Brett Water, where two other ships, 
supposed to be of the line, were tbeaat 
anchor. At seven a. m. on the fpUe'w- 



64 



OBiTUARY.-^i^dm. Sir George Montagu. 



[Jan, 



ing day, the fleet, under M. VilUret 
Joyeute, appeared in tight to the west- 
ward, standing in for the land, with the 
wind about north. Rear-Adm. Mon- 
tagu, perceiving that the enemy had 
fourteen effective line-of-battle ships 
(one of which was a flrsi-rate) indepen- 
dent of five others which had been dis- 
abled in the recent battle with Lord 
Howe, besides frigates, &r. ; aware of 
the ease willi which those he bad chased 
on the preceding evening might have 
formed a junctiun with this superior 
force, and fearing that his stfrnmost 
ships would not he able to weather the 
French line, tacked to the eastward in 
order of battle, and then gradually edged 
away to the southward, with the view 
of drawing M. Joyeuse off the land, and 
getting his own squsdron in as eliphle 
a situation as possible to act against the 
enemy, if an opportunity should offer 
itself, but his adversary kept bis ships so 
close connected, and guarded with so 
much care those which were disabled, 
that the Rear-Admiral had it not in his 
power to take any step that was in the 
least degree likely to contribute to the 
public service.' The French commander 
stood after the British for about five 
hours, and then hauled to the wind on 
the larboard tack, whilst Rear-Admiral 
Montagu stood to the north-west in the 
bopei of meeting Earl Howe. His 
Lordship, however, was then on his 
way to Spithead, with his prises taken 
on the I St of that month ; and our offi- 
cer, understanding that it was his wish 
that the fleet should assemble at Ply- 
mouth, anchored with his division in 
Cawsand Bay on the 13th. 

Having informed the Admiralty of his 
arrival, and requested permission to 
come on shore for the recovery of his 
health, which was considerably affected 
by the tidings of the death of his brother, 
Capt. James Montagu, who had fallen 
in the late battle, he received that per- 
mission from the Secretary of that Buard, 
its President the Earl of Chatham, and 
the veteran nobleman under whose orders 
be was then serving, in some flattering 
letters which are printed in Marshall's 
Royal Navtl Biography. 

From this period, with the exception 
of his being promoted to the rank of 
Vice-Admiral, un the 1st June, I795, 
we find no fort her mention of this officer 
until March, I799> when Lord Spencer, 
then at the head of naval affairs, offered 
him the command at the Nore, which 
be declined, thinking it beneath his 
rank. In the following year, the Earl 
of St. Vincent applied for him to be 
attached to the Channel fleet; but, 
befort his application reached the Ad* 



miralty, the appointment was given to 
another officer ; and, although the gal- 
lant Nelson, with whom he was not then 
personally acquainted, proposed him aa 
his successor in the Baltic,his flag was not 
a?ain hoisted till the summer of 1803* 
During the ensuing fire years and a haK» 
' a period of active war, he held the chief 
command at Portsmouth, and executed 
the arduous duties of that office to the 
full and entire satisfaction of the differ- 
ent Boards of Admiralty. Whilst there, 
his present Majesty (then Prince of 
Wales) honoured that town, a secoml 
time, with his presence, and previously 
to his departure dined with the Admiral, 
who afterwards received the followlnf^ 
highly flattering letter:— 

« Sir, Portsmouth^ Sep] 14, 1803. 

I am commanded by the Prince of 
Wales to express the high satisfaction 
H. R. H. experienced in bis visit to the 
fleet yesterday. The great skill and 
undaunted courage which has been so 
brilliantly displayed by the officera and 
men in all quarters of the world, render 
any remark from H. R. H. superfluous,, 
but which alone has been produced by 
the state of discipline and subordination 
so Justly the admiration of all Europe^ 
The Prince of Wales further commanda 
me to say how sensible H. R. H. is of 
your and Admiral Holloway's attention^ 
as well as the Captains of the Fleet. 

*' I have the honour to be. Sir, your 
most faithful and obedient servant, 

B. Bloompibld.*' 

In Aug. 1810, a large body of Cap- 
tains, who had fitted out at Portsmotitb, 
whilst he commanded there, presented 
Admiral Montagu with a snperb piece 
of plate, as " A tribute of their respeet 
and esteem I" He was advanced to the 
rank of full Admiral, Jan. I, 1801 ; and 
nominated a G. C B. Jan. 3, 1815^ 
He subsequently published a pamphlet, 
dedicated to his Majesty, and entitled 
** A Refutation of the incorrect state- 
ments, and unjust insinuations, con- 
tained in CaptHin Brenfon's Naval His- 
tory of Great Britain, as far as the same 
refers to the conduct of Admiral Sir 
George Montagu ; in a letter addressed 
to the author." A perusal of the fore- 
going Memoir, (remarks the author of 
the Royal Naval Biography, from which 
it has been extracted,) will prove to the 
world that no demerit, much less dis- 
grace, is to be attached to bis professional 
character. To use the words of a former 
biographer, ** it has ever been free from 
stain, and bit actions, like himself, ever 
generous, brave, and praiseworthy." 

Sir George Montagu marri^, Oct. 9, 
1783, hit cousin, Charlotte, daughter 



ISSa] OBiTUJkmT.— G<»«ro2 NieoUi^f^Gmeral Garth. 



85 



and oo-btirt«« of George Wroiightoii« of 
Wileut, in Wilubirvy E«q. and by that 
lady, who tunrivet bim, bad four tont 
and firm daugbtcn: I. Georgtana, osar- 
ried Kng. 15, 1808, to the precent Viet- 
Adm. Sir Jobn Gore, K. C B. ; 9. Char- 
lotte, died in I8IS{ 8. Lt.-Col. Georf^e 
Wroui^hton, who bat a«tniiicd the »ur- 
name (»f Wrotij^hfoti ; 4. Jobn-William, 
Capt. R.N.; 5. Jamef, Cnpt. R. N. ; 6. 
Sophia t 7' tbe Rev. Edward, tiled at 
Bifthop^tmw, Wilts Dfc. 99, 1890; 8. 
Sutaiina, deceased; and 9* Anne, who 
died in 1807. 

Gbnrkal Nicolls. 

Dec, S. At Chirhrster, afped 87, Gen. 
Oliver Nieollt, Colonel of the 66th regi- 
ment of foot. 

Thit officer wat appointed Eniifrn of 
the Ut foot in 1756 ; and Lieutenant in 
1760. In 1768 he went to Gibraltar; 
in 1773 was promoted to a company ; 
and in 1775 returned to England. In 
1780 be went out to the West Indiet, 
and tcrred on hoard the fleet till the 
capture of St. Euttatiut, when he wit 
employed by the late Sir John Vaoghan 
to inspect and report upon the books of 
Cbott who styled tbemcelves Eni^lith 
mercbantsi he afterwards was sent home 
with bis report to the Secretary of State. 
He obtained a Mxjariiy in bis refriment 
in 1781; a Lieut.-Coloni*lcy in 1787; 
and in the tame yexr he was removed to 
the 45th. In Mxrcb 1789 he embarked to 
)oin his regiment in the West Indies; and 
he commanded the troops in the Island 
of Grenada nearly three years, under 
General Matthew, then Commander-in- 
Chief in the West Indies. He received 
the rank of Colonel in tbe army in 1794 1 
in the same year he visited England, but 
in December again embarkeil for the 
West Indies, where be was appointed 
BrigadierGen. and also Quarter- master- 
general. He was sent immediately after 
to the Island of Grenada, then in a state 
of insurrection, and which he succeeded 
in restoring to order and tranquillity. 
He was appointed Colonel of tbe 4th 
West India regiment in 1795 ; he ob- 
tained the rank of Maior-General, and 
was placed on tbe StafiT of the We«t In- 
dies in 1796. He shortly after returned to 
England, and was appointed to the Home 
Staff, in whirb be continued till he re- 
moved to tbe Staff of the E%st Indiet; 
where be fur some time held the chief 
command at Bombay. He received the 
rank of Lieut.-Gencral in 1803; and, 
having again returned to England, was 
next placed on th« Staff of the Kent 
District. He vat appointed Colonel of 
tho 54tb foot in 1807 1 of the 66tb foot 
ui I80»s andGtocna 1813. 



In a terviee ol upwards of seventy 
years, this officer was n^ver on half-pay« 
bit teal and talents baring constantly 
recommended him for active employ- 
ment, until his official duties were ne- 
cessarily suspended, at Arst by the hlgli 
rank he had attained, and afterwards by 
the infirmities of age. During the latit 
ten years of his life. General Nicolls re* 
sided in Chichester, univi* rsally beloved 
and respected. Although dying in tho 
fulness of years, he will be most sincerely 
regretted by his friends, both in his pub- 
lic and private capacity! tbe King bat 
lost a faithful servant, and tociety a good 
man. 



General Garth. 

A^ov. 18. At his house in Grosvenor- 
place, aged 85, Thomas Garth, Esq. Gc^ 
neral in his Majesty's service, and Colo- 
nel of the 1st or Royal Regiment of 
Dragoons. 

This gentleman was ton of Jobn Garth, 
Esq. R«*corder of Devif et, and who died 
when M. P. for that borough in Dec. 
1764 ; and great-nephew to tbe cele- 
brated Sir Samuel Ganh, Physician in 
Ordinary to King George tbe First. He 
had two elder brothers, Charles Garth, 
E«q. who wat Recorder of Devises, and 
M. P. for that borough from 1765 to 
1780, when be was made a Commif- 
sioner of the Excise, and who died at 
Walthamstow, March 9» 1784; and Ge- 
neral i;eorge Garth, Colonel of the 17th 
foot, who died in 1819. 

General Thomas Garth entered the 
army in 1769 as Comet in the 1st dra- 
goons. He served tbe compaign of that 
year in Germany, in the allied army, 
under the command of Prince Ferdinand. 
In 1765 be obtained a Lieutenancy, and 
in 1775 a Captaincy in his regiment. 
In 1779. he exchanged into the 90ih light 
dragoons, and went to the West Indiet 
in the intended expedition to the Spanish 
Main, which was anticipated by Lieut.- 
Gen. Sir James Darling, tbe Lieut.-Go- 
vemor of Jamaica. In 1799 Capt. Garth 
returned to this country, and was re- 
duced to half-pay with tbe other officers 
of his regiment ; but in the same year he 
obtained the Majority of the 2d dragoon 
guards. In 1794 be was appointed Lieut.- 
Colonel of tbe 1st dragoons; he served 
that year in Flanders, and was present 
at the greater part of the actions from 
the 17th of April to the dote of tbe 
campaign. He wat next appointed Co* 
lonel of tbe Sussex Fencibles, and after- 
wards, on the death of Viscount Field- 
ing in 17999 to the late S9d light dra^ 
goons. On tbe 7th Jan. 1801, he waa 
appointed Cokmel of bis original r^gi- 



•B5 



Obituaily^— GtfJMnrZ Garthj'^Ueut.'Gtu. 



[Jbn. 



menty the Itt dragoons ; be receired tbe 
rank of MA)or-Gen«ral 1798, Lieut.-G«- 
nerAl 1806, and General 1H14« 

Recent uiifortunatecircufnstiineetbfive 
made the marriage of Gen. Garth with 
A U'dy of illustrious birth, much more 
notorious than the parties desiri'd. Tbe 
issue of the marriage was one son, who 
•bears his father's names, and is a Captain 
in tbe army. He was the c bief mourner 
at his father's funeral, whieh took place 
on the Sitb Nov. at St. Martin's-inthe- 
Fields. 

Tbe will of General Garth was proved 
on the lOih of December in tbe Prero- 
gative Court of Canterbury. It is dated 
the l^tb of Septamher \S99, and de- 
scribes the testator as of Grosvenor-place, 
in the county of Middlesex, and of Pid- 
.dletown, in the county of Dorset* It be- 
.queatbs tbe fee-farm rents of his estates 
in Northamptonshire, devised to the tes- 
tator by. bis sitter Elizabeth Gartb, to 
his nephew Thomas Garth, a Captain in 
.the Royal Navy (who married in 1890, 
Charlotte, eki^st daughter of L4«*utenaiit- 
Gen. Fredierick Maitland), his beirs and 
asaigiii. An annoity of 300/. to bis niece, 
FranccA Gartb, spinster (who, we believe, 
was .one of ik» Maids to tbe King^ 
^Herbwoman at tbe Coronation Procea- 
•ion in 1890), but who is deceased, since 
ber uncle, Jan. I7> in Baker street, PorC- 
■lan-aquare. A moiety of an annuity 
or yearly pension of 3,000/. granted hy 
JUiig Charles II. which the testator, by a 
(deedof settlement, dated l7(h Nov. IdSO, 
bad settled on himself, and *< in certain 
aveiits," on his son, Thomas Gartb, is to 
be paid by tbe trustees to bis sun, and 
bis lawful issue t and, if be should leave 
oo issue, then to the aforeaaid nephew 
of the testator, Capt* Thomas Gartb, 
R. N. his heirs and assigns. He be- 
queaths the house, 3i, Grosvenor-place, 
which be lately purchased t*£ Sir Henry 
Hardliige, to bis said son, Thos. Garth, 
And also the plate, household furniture, 
and personal effects in tbe said bouse, and 
io and about tbe estate at Piddletown. 
The will then directs the payment of 
aundry legacies : *' from the great regard 
and affection which 1 have entertained 
for the late Charles Boone, Esq. as well 
as for his daughter Lady Drumtaond 
[wife, we believe, of Sir Gordon Drum- 
mond, G. C. B.] 1 beg ber Ladyship's ac- 
ceptance of 100 guineas, for tbe pur^ 
ehase of a ring, or any other thing she 
nay ehuse, as a mensorial of my aibra- 
t ion ate regard for ber ; '* to Col. Tbpt« 
Foster, lOOi. 3 per eeni, consols; to 
Mfcry, wife of Tbomat Legg, an annuity 
«f 301: 1 ttf Wni. LoveU, of Piddletown, 
10004 3 pir ecnff. ; to each of hie ser- 
tt«iil8 a year's waget; tb bii at^apt 



Henry Dtifall, 900/. t to Eiisa Lagg aid 
Henry Collier, 50/. each Spertemis* TIm 
residue of the testator's property^ rtal 
and personal, to bis nephew, Capt. Tbot. 
Gartb, R. N. who is appointed eiecntor, 
with another nephew, John PuUertoo, «f 
Thriberf-park, Vorksbife, Eiq. to wboti 
a legacy of 500t is left. 



LEitrr.-GBN. Bingham. 

Nov^ 18. In London, in bis 69d jwar, 
Lieut.-General Rich. Bingham, of Mah 
combe Bingham in tbe coonty of Dorset. 

This gentleman was the eUeat eon of 
Richard Bingham, E<q. Colonel of tbe 
Dorsetshire Militia (tee tbe pedigree of 
this very antient family in Hotobint't 
History of Dorsetshire, vol. iv. p. f03} 
hy his first wife, Sophia, daughter of 
Cbarlea HaUey, of Great Gaddesdm In 
Hertfordshire, Esq. ; and half-brother co 
Major.-Gen. Sir George Ridout Bingfaaoif 
K.C. B.and K.T.S. 

He entered tbe army an Ensign In tho 
17tb foot, Oct. 5, 1787 i «nd was pro- 
moted to a Lieutenancy and tba Ad|«- 
Uiicy in May 1790. He married at Kil- 
kenny, May 96, 1799, Miss PriicillaCar- 
deii, a relative of Sir John Canleny who 
was created a Baronet of the kiofdoMi 
of Ireland in 1787. 

In 1793 Lieut. Bingbam raised a com- 
pany in Ireland, with which be was Mnt 
to Chatham, where it was drafts. Ho 
obtained a Company in the I09d foot, 
Oct. 31, that year, a Majority in Feb. 
1795, and a Lieut. -Colonelcy loSoptci^' 
ber following. But the reglsieot w« 
drafted immediately after this last pn^ 
motion, and be remained onattaebed un- 
til plared on half-pay at tba begioninf 
of 1798. 

In July that year he was sent to iak« 
tbe command of the forces stationed III 
Alderiiey ; where he remained tintil the 
July following, and was then placed oa 
the full-pay of the 6tb West India regi* 
ment. In the ensuing month, bowevvr* 
be removed to the 9th foot, and joined 
tbe expedition under Sir tlames Pulto- 
ney, and afterwards that under Sir Ralph 
Abercromby. In December he returootf 
to Lislxm, and io March 1801 to Euf- 
land. He was again placed on half-pay, 
Oct. 94, 1809, and appointed to tbe 8d 
foot, July 9, 1803. In September of tba 
last-named year be obtained tbe rank of 
Colonel t in July 1804 was placed on tba 
Home Staff as Brigadier General, and to 
continited until June 1806. In 1808 bo 
was appointed to tbe Staff in Irelandy 
and reosained there until Mav 85, 1809* 
when ho «ae ramovod to the Suffof 
Malta. He.wassobacquontly emphiyod 



i8Sa] OteiTUAmT«^M^. Trtnchard, Ei^.^C. Goring, Esq. 



om Um 8Uff in tht SuMei dbtriet. Ht 
attained the rmnk of if A)or-Gciieral io 
1810. and that of Lieut.-Gcn in 1814. 

Having died without i<»tue, General 
Bini^faam it locceededin bit cttatet by 
hl4 iirpbew, Williaro-Winyard BinKbain, 
Eiq. bom in 1798, tba eldest ton of ibe 
late Rev. William Bio|fhaiDt Rector of 
Mclbury, who died in 1810, by Emily, 
daugbttr of General Winy aid. 



William TtENciiARO, Esq. 

Oei, 30. At Uicbet MaltniTert, Dor- 
■•tibire, afed 76, Wm. Trcncbard, Eiq. 

Tbe family of wbicb tbit gentleman 
was tbe last surriving male detcendant, 
wat one of tbe mutt antient in tbe 
coooty of Dortet, being traced up to 
Paganot de Trencbard, collector of tbe 
Danegeld in tbe Isle of Wigbt in tbe 
reign of Henry tbe First, l^be name It 
derived by Dr. Hickes from tbe l)ono« 
Norman *Dreng-b«rd* or * Drenc-bard i' 
U fie mum t mtlei, vei poiaior I For teveral 
general iont tbe Trenebards were seated 
at Hordbill in Hamptbire ; tbey beeama 
teated at WuUetun in Dorset tbire in tl)« 
reign of Edward the Fourth, and since 
tbe Rettorafion lisve resided chiefly at 
Litcbet Maltraven. Sir John Trenchard, 
great -grandfjii her to the gf ntleman now 
decf ased, was Secretary of State to King 
William and Queen Mary. There aro 
two portraits of him in Hutcbiiis's Hit<« 
tory of Dorsetshire, vol. iil p. SS, where 
also is a pedigree, cumpriMng twenty* 
four descents from Paganus to the gen- 
tleman whose death is now recorded. 

William Trencbard, E«q. was left a 
minor on tbe death of his father Geurge 
in 1768. He was appointed Sheriff of 
tbe county of Dorset, Jan. 31, 1778; 
and marrieil Aug. 6, 1790, Lady Hester 
Amelia de Burgh, dau|cbter of John- 
Smyth I Ith Earl uf CUnricarde, and aunt 
to tbe present Marquess; but by that 
lady, who died Nov. 15, 18S1, he had no 



HisjTonnger brother, the Rrv. George 
Treucbard, LU D. Rectur of Liichet 
Mallravert, married Anna-Maria, daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Reeves, Chiel Ju«iice 
of tbe Common Pleas, but also died with* 
out ifaue in 180tt { and his uncle, Juhn 
Trencbard, Esq. Comoiisaioner cf Taies, 
(of whom there is a portrait iu tbe His- 
tory of Dorsettbire,) died.uii married. Hit 
two aonta were married, Henrietta to 
Joeelyn Pickard, Esq. of Bloxwortb, 
who left iMuet and Mary to tbe eelo- 
bratod Ricb. Owen Cambrklge, Esq. and 
to their detcondants, ii Is preaumed^ 
tbe Treacbaid ettattt descend. 

It wuttkl boMijiMtiea to the mcmonr 
and chnnttnr of tbe dccnMcdoM to add» 



that blgb bononr and a liberal tp&rtt 
never tbooe brtgbtec than in him. Tb« 
gentry of tbe county of Dorset, and the 
poor in the neigbbourbood of bis reti« 
den'^e, will long remember bit unosten* 
tatiout and boapitable disposition { they 
have lost an old Englitb gentleotau and 
friend. 



Charles Gorino, Es9. 

Dec. 3. Aged 86, Charlet Goring, etq. 
of Witton Park, Susiex; half-uncle to 
Sir Charlet Furtter Goring, of Highdcn^ 
Bart. 

Mr. Goring was the only child of tbe 
second marriage of SirCharlcs-Matthewg 
Goring, tbe fourth Baronet, with Elisar 
beth, titter and heiress of Sir Robert 
P'ggTt <bc fourth and last Baronet of 
WiMun, who died in 1*40. He was a 
singular specimen of the old English 
geiiileman, of the bigtiest Tory prin- 
ciple*, uf a hearty vif^oruus constitution, 
active habits, and great hospitality. HU 
fortune amounted to I9,0U0/. a-year; he 
sat for the r;ipe of Bramber in the Par- 
liament which lasted frum 1774 to 1780, 
and bis ptdiiical influence wat alwayt. 
very coniiderable in tbe wettern part of 
Suttei. 

Mr. Goring was thrice married : first 
to S«rah daughter of Ralph Beard, of 
llurst|ierpuint, E^q. who died without 
issue In 1797 ; secondly, to Miss Eliia- 
beib Saxford, by whom be bad two 
(Uughters ; and thirdly, to his cousin 
Mary, d4U|;hter of the Rev. Dr. Ballard, 
Rector of Great Longford in Wiltshire,, 
and France*, daughter of Sir Harry 
Goring, the third Haronet. By bis last 
lady Mr. Goring bad a sun Charles, born 
in 1817, who succeeds to Witton, a 
daughter Mary, and Juhn, bom in 18S4, 
iftben bis father wat eighty years of age. 



Wm. Cuamberlaync, Esq. M.P. 

Dec. 10. Found dead in his bed, at 
Cranbury Park, near Winchester, Wil* 
liaro Cbambcrlayne, e&q. M.P. for Soutb-^ 
amptun i first cousin to the Earl of 
Li»er|>ool, and to the late L^rd Zuucbe*. 

Thi« gentlem'«n wat son of tbe late 
William Chamberlayue, Etq. Solicitor to 
the Treasury, who died in 1799 (see our 
vol. LXix. p. 1004), by Harriot, fourth 
daughter of Sir Cecil Bishopp, the fifth 
Baronet of Parbani, and widow of I'bo* 
mat Dummer, of Cranbury Park, Esq. { 
and which lady married thirdly Natha- 
niel Dance, Eu). R.A. the oelebrated 
painter, who asaumed tbe name off 
Holland, aud waa created a Baronet 
(tea ib« memoir of Dame Harriot Uid- 
land in vol. xcv. ii. 641). 

Mr, Chambtfflayne wat edncatod at 



88 ObitUaky. — fV. Chamherlaynt, Esq.-^JB, Tucker, Eiq. [Jan. 



Winchester and New College, Oxford, 
where he attained the degree of M.A. in 
1793. He was first returned to Parlia- 
ment for Cbristohurch about the year 
1800, through the infiuence of the late 
Right Hon. George Rose, and in the 
room of William Stewart Rose, Esq.; 
he sat only till the dissolution in 1802. 
He was afterwards induced, in 1818, 
in consequence of some political dif- 
ferences, to oppose that gentleman's 
son, the present Right Hon. Sir George- 
Henry Rose, for the borough of South- 
ampton, and he carried his return by a 
majority of one only. He was re-elected 
in ]8S0and 1836. 

With a mind stored with the richest 
vein of classic lore, Mr. C. possessed a 
roost correct and elegant taste for the 
arts. He was a speaker of talent ; 
though be never took part in the de- 
bates in the House of Commons, those 
who heard him on the hustings at the 
Southampton contested election, will 
remember the eflfect of his oratory. 

His property, including the large es- 
tates which bad belonged to Mr. Dum- 
mer, and which descended to him on 
the death of bis mother. Lady Holland, 
in I8S5, now devolve to an only sister, 
and eventually to a nephew. 

Benjamin Tucker, Esq 
Dee, 1 1. At the house of his brother 
in John-street, Bedford-row, aged 67, 
Benjamin Tucker, Esq. of Trematonr 
castle, Cornwall, of which Duchy be was 
Surveyor-general fur the last fwenty 
years. 

It was in the preceding part of bis 
life that be was best known and most 
distinguished for bis public services, 
having passed trhough the subordinate 
stations of the navy to that of Com- 
missioner, and finally of Second Secre- 
tary to the Admiralty. Without any 
other recommendation than his own ta- 
lents and industry, be first obtained the 
confidence of Lord St. Vincent during 
his command of the Mediterranean fleet, 
which he continued to enjoy more and 
more while that illustrious commander 
presided over the naval administration 
of the country, and until be died. 
Having retired with his Lordship, be 
resumed the same active office during 
the time that Lord Grey and Mr. T. 
Grenville were at the head of the Admi- 
ralty, ever zealously applying the most 
consummate knowledge of the service 
to establish and aggrandize our naval 
pre-eminence. Of bis public merits, the 
lanctioD of the eminent persons abovc- 
nmmed if the b€tt proof. His private 
worth it attested bv the warm affection 
of a numerous circle of friends^ and the 



deep sorrows of his family on the lots of 
such a husband and parent. 



Rev. £. A. Hay-Drum'mono, D.D. 

Dee, 30. At the glebe-boose of Had* 
leigh, Suflfjlk, in his 7Sd year, the Ri^. 
Edward Auriol Hay-Drummond, D.D. 
Rector of that parish, and of Dalham in 
the s^me county. Dean of Bocking, Pre- 
bendary of York and Southwell, and 
Chaplain to the King ; uncle to the 
Earl of Kinnoul. 

This venerable divine was born April 
10, 1758, and was the fourth son of the 
Hon. and Most Rev. Robert HayDrum- 
mond, Lord Archbishop of York, by 
Henrietta, daughter and coheiress of 
Peter Auriol, E!>q. merchant of London. 
He was educated at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, w here he attained the degree ■ of 
M.A. in 1780, and accumulated the de- 
grees of B. and D.D. in 1794. in 1784 
he was collated by Archbishop Markbam 
to the prebend of Hiistbwaite iu the 
cathedral church of York ; and in 1789 
be was appointed a Chaplaui in Ordinaiy 
to his Majesty. In 1796 he was collated 
by Archbishop Moore to the rectory of 
Uadleigh, a peculiar of the see of Can- 
terbury I and in 1806 by Archbishop 
Markbam to the prebend of Rampton in 
the collegiate church of Southwell. In 
1832 he was presented to the rectory of 
Dalham, by Sir James Affleck, Bart. 

Mr. Drummond was twice married ; 
firstly, Dec. 12, 1789, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of William de Visme, Esq. by 
whom be bad two sons and lour daugh- 
ters : I. Elizabeth, deceased ; 9. Edward- 
William Hay-Drummond, Esq. who has 
commanded a company in the 73d regi- 
ment, and is now keeper of the Records in 
the Lyon office of Scotland; he married 
in 181S Louisa-Margaret, only daughter 
of John Thompson, E^q. deputy Com- 
misf ary-general of the eastern district; 
3. Maria, 4. Sophia, and 5. Henry, all 
deceased; 6. Henrietta-Auriol. Having 
lost his first lady Feb. 14, 1790, Mr. 
Drummond married, secondly. May 84, 
1791, bis cousin Amelia, daughter of 
James Auriol, Esq. and by that lady^ 
who survives him, had two sons and two 
daughters i 7* Robert-Auriol, and 8. Wil- 
liam-Auriol, both deceased ; 9* Amelia- 
Auriol, married in 1812 to the Rer. 
George Wilkins, D.D. Prebendary of 
Southwell, Vicar of Lowdbam, Nettt. 
and of St. Mary, Nottingham i and 10. 
Cbarlutte-AurioL 

For thirty-tbrce years Dr. Drummond 
offidAted as Minister of the large and 
pppulous parish of Uadleigh, and whe* 
ther conMdcre^ at an elegant icholar 
or a aoond -divine, as a preaeber of very 



1836.] 



Obituary. — Rev. T. Brwon. — Rev. J. Jenkim, 



89 



imprcMivt powert or a sellout put or of 
ht« flork, Im will \on% live in the recol- 
lection of the ai»iiy «bo have been bc- 
neflfed by bit inttructiont, or conioled 
by bit tynpatby and kindnett. Nur 
should it be forgot ten» that io the rtrla- 
tiont of dumettic life, at a hutband, 
father, friend, and matter, be wat uni- 
forinty an eiample of all that was affec- 
tionate, eontideraie, and jott. He wat 
the Muibor of ** A Table of Catecbet ical 
Quest ioittf prior to Coufirmation> Lond. 
1813." l8tno. 

His remains were interred at Had- 
Irigb on Satnrdav Jan. 9> And a funeral 
sermon preached on the folloiking day 
by bis sou in law Dt. Wllkins. 



Rkv. Thomas BaowK. 

Dec. f 0. At Coiiiogton to Canhridge- 
•htre, agad 68, the lUv. Thomas Brovo, 
Rector <k that parish for more than forty 
years ; and a MagistraU for the coontiet of 
Qunbrtdge and Hants. Mr. Brown was third 
aod yoniigest too uf Lsocelot Browo, Esq. 
Head Gardener to his late Majestv at Hamp- 
ton Conrt, wlio was celebrated lo tlie last 
century (uoder the lietter known appellation 
of CapabiTicy Brown) for his skill and taste 
in laying out parks and ornamental garden- 
ingf by which he acquired a Urge estate of 
hb own, which passed to the subject of this 
memoir, alter his t»o elder brothers had en- 
joyed it in succession, snd had died without 
tssne, via. Lancelot, a BarritUr, aod some- 
time M.P. for Huntingdon; and John, an 
Admiral of the Royal Nary. The late Mr. 
Brown wm of St. John s-college, Cam- 
bridge, B.A. 1784, M.A. 1787; and was 
prssentcd to the RectorY of Conington in 
1789 by the Hon. Dr. Vorke, then Bishop 
of Ely. He married early in life, Susan, 
daogbter of Dr. Dickins, Rector of He- 
mingfbrd Gray, near Huntingdon; and by 
her, who survives him, he has left two sons, 
Lancelot, Rector of Kelsale in Suffolk, who 
sn e cse ds to hb estate: and Thomas-Chsries, 
Cnrattof Somenham, in the I«le of Ely, a 
living attached to the Regius Professorship 
of Divinity in the University of Cambridge; 
and one da«»hter Snsan. 

The remsinsof Mr. Brown wers dejMwited 
by those of hb &ther, under the monument 
in the chancel of Fenstanton. His charac- 
ter was that of an excellent parish priest ; 
and be will be sincerely lamented by the 
poor of hb neighbonrhood, to whose wanu, 
ooth sptrHoal and temporal, he never fiuled 
to admmisler. In hb fiHnily he wss warmly 
beloved i and the opea*Kearted sincerity ni 
hb friendship can be attested by the writer 
of tbby who experienced it for half a cen- 
tory 

«* Chore, vale ! at teevm, aim mode dig* 
nnSf em* 
Ganr. Mao. /emiery, itao. 

12 



Rtv. John Jrnkins, M. A. 

N9V. 90. At the Vicarage-hoose, Kerry, 
CO. Montgomery, the Rev. John Jenkins^ 
M. A. Vicar of that paiish, Prsbendwy of 
York and of Brecon, Roral Dean of Male- 
nith ultra Ithou, la the Archdeaconry of 
Brecknock, Cbaplab to hU Royal Hi^hnett 
the Duke of Clarence, and one of hu Ma- 
jesty's Justices of the Peace (or the oonntj 
of Montgomery. 

Mr. Jenkins was born at CU-yhroonan, 
in the parish of Llangoedmor, near Cardi- 
gan. He was collated to his living by Dr. 
Bursess, BUhop of St. David's, in 1 807 ; 
to £e Prebend of Mochtre, in the Colle- 
giate Church of Brecknock, by the saaae 
patron ; and to that of Oslialdwick in the 
Cathedral of York, by Archbbhop Vernon, 
in 1888. By bis learning and indefatigalde 
Kcal in the pursuit of Welsh literature, Mr. 
Jenkins held no mean station among the 
chief literati of Cymru. In fiict his exer- 
tions were more than common, aod deserv- 
ing of imitation by every one who has the 
lesst iota of patriotism for hb native land, 
since it was princi|>ally through his exer- 
tions thst the great provincial Eisteddfodan 
was revived in 1819; and, ever mindful as 
he was to further the dawn of rising talent 
in others, be hss left behind, as a proof aa^ 
monument of his own industry and rc|paid 
for hb country, a considerable eollcctaen of 
antieot Welsh MSS. and music, which are 
considered to be the most extensive now 
extant. 

His loss, therefore, will be deeply and sin- 
cerely felt, not only by the Bards and Literati 
of Cambria, amongst whom he was known as 
the Ivor Hael (or Iran the generous) of the 
present age; but by a numerous circle uf 
relatives and friends, to whom he was aSee- 
tionately endeared, as well as revered in the 
hearto of an extensive flock of parishioners, 
being courteous and affable to all, strict to 
his engagements and consbtent in bis prin- 
ciples ; and whether he be vbwed as an ex- 
emplary and conscientious pastor, deeplv 
impressed with the responsibility of his ot- 
flee, and even anxious to lead and point the 
way to brighter worlds, as an mtelligent 
and impartial magistrate, or in other depart- 
ments of hb active lifs, we shall find an 
example deserving of emulation ; and if pa^ 
triotism be a virtue, if liberality to whatmr 
seemed to have a claim on private ohari^, 
or pnblic patronage, be deserving cf record^ 
the Iste Vicar of Kerry was prominent in 
these particuUrs, and will be remembersdy 
probably, as long as the Awen of Cambria 
will be able to express its feelings in the 
figurative language of poetry. 

On the Friday subsequent to his deosate> 
hb rtmaiat were intened io the chancel of 
the venemble and highly picturesque ebnreh 
where he bad for nearlya ouarter of a etn- ' 
tory dispensed the Word of Ufe, we wonid 



90 



OuTVikRr. 



XmM' 



faiD hope mitkk muoh prufi^ to the touU of 
hU hef ren^ amid a l^uge ooficuurjie of ya- 
rishiooers, who had Maembled to pay the 
last, tkov\gh melancholy, tribute of retpect 
to their deceased pastor, oearlj two hundred 
of whom provided themselves wiUi iH^tr- 
1]#mds and gloves for jbhe sorrowful occasiaB» 
whilst the principal freeholdeis caosed the 
pulpit, readiog-Uesk, commouioo-tahle aod 
rails, to be covered with black cloth at their 
own expense. 

Mr. Jenkins married \a'l$9S^M\u Jones, 
of Cross wood House^ in the parish of iGuils- 
field, Montgomeryshire, a lady of estima- 
ble manners and a coosidexable 6tftuiici, by 
whom he had issue one son. 



DEATHS. 
London and its Vicinity. 

Oct, 6. At Lambeth, aged 59, Mr. Jo- 
nathan Wilson, die-sinker and medallist. 
He resided thirty years in SheffieM, during 
which his designs for cutlery and silver plate 
contributed greatly to increase the demand 
for those manufactures. Mr. Wilson was 
the first introducer of the art of embossing 
horo. He was a self-taught artist; and in 
the early part of his life atudied witii tlie 
cdebratedf Chaotrey. 

OcL 20. At Highbury-cottage, aged 87» 
Martha, widow of Mr. Philip Mallett, wine- 
n^erchant, and author of a pamphlet on the 
wine-trade; whose death in 1795 by being 
thrown from a chaiae when rid'mg with this 
lady« is recorded in our vol. lzv. p. 793. 

Oct Frances, widow of G. Gran- 
ville, esq. and grand-daughter of the Rev. 
Marshall Brydges, Canon Residentiary of 
Wells. 

Nov. 20. In Bruton st. Frances, youngest 
dau. of late Rev. S. D. Myers, Vicar of 
Mitcham. 

Dec. ... At HammessBiith, in his UHk 
year, Wm. Black, M.D. 

Ike. 1 4. Mr. Donald Spalding. He was for 
fourteen vears treasurer to the benevolent 
" Club of True Highlanders/* aod was an 
enthusiastic supporter of Celtic manners. 
His. zeal, indeed, led him to acts that were 
rather eccentric. H«* attended the Queen's 
fonsral in the Highland costume, and ren- 
dered himself much noticed ; and excited 
some displaaaure by his attempts to lead Uie 
procession. His remains were followed to 
t^ grave by about thirty of his countrymen 
in Um fill! g^rb of Caledonia, with three 
pipersy who didnot, however, in deference to 
the Lord'a-day, and the usages of this coun- 
try, play the Coronach of their departed 
friend. 

i>ec. 1 6. Jn Highbory-pk. W. H ogfaes» ? s^. 

Jpe^ ta.* In Bskff-stseety Thos. Arm- 
■trangy esq. turmNi. 

Jk^ 9d. At CoAQHicbt-temeei P. FiU- 
kerbtityesq. 



JLa^y. In <xower«stvaet, Hooom M«c- 
gnarite Fmocoise, wife of Dr. Spurzheinu 

In Ely-placcy Fnioces, yovifgeat dau. of 
late Rev. Sam. Crowther^ Vioar of Christ 
Church. . 

In Park-row, aced 54, Luly EUzibeUi- 
-Jane, wife of the Itsv. Riohard Brickeadoqy 
and sister to the Earl of Cavan. She w«e 
the ouly dau. of Richard the 6th Earl bjr 
his second wife Elizabeth, dau. of George 
Davis, esq. Commiasiooer R. N. ; was mar- 
ried first, Nov. 9) 1793, to Capt. William 
Henry Jervis, R. N. elder brother to ibe 
present Vise. St. Vincent, and by him had 
two daus. Martha-Honora-Geoipoa, mar- 
ried in 182& to the late Osborne Markham* 
esq. who in consequence took the namt of 
Jervis ; and Henrietta-Eliz.-Mary, married 
in 1817 to Capt. Edm. Palmer, ItN. In 
1799 her Ladyship's marriage wisli Mr. Jer- 
vis was dissolved, aod she was married Sdly, 
in March 1800, to the Rev. lUch. Bridcoa* 
den, by whom she had children. 

In Gower-at. aged 88, Mrs. A. lAoyd. 

In Finsbury, aged 68, W. M. WiDett, 
esq. the celerarated editor of the Statesman 
during the O. P. war in 1809* eobscqueotly 
of the British TraveHer, and other pe- 
riodicals. 

Jan I. At Fulham-lodge, aged 17 1 Ffed. 
Geo. youngest con of W. J. Leathall, eaq. 

Jan. 2. At Hampstead, in his i4th year, 
Mr. James White, late of Chohhan, S«nroy» 
aurgeon. 

Jan. 8. Aged 29, Ann, wife of Geo. Ro- 
bioson, esq. of New Broad-stie^ soKdtor* 
aod only aurviving dau. of Rich. Sonthem,«f 
York. — And, on the 13th, her husband Mr. 
Robinson. 

Jan. 4. Aged 67, Mark Moriey, esq. of 
Doctors'-commons. 

In Upper Charlcs-st. Fitzrny-«quafO, Jos. 
Hayes, esq. siurreon. 

Jan. 6. At Knightsbridge, agod 86, Fiaa- 
oes-AofOBta, relict of Wm. Howard, esq. 

In Parliament-street, the reKet of Capt. 
Dury, R. A. 

Jan. 6. Jane*Margaret, wife of John 
Holfbrd, esq. of York-place, Portmnn-eo. 

Jan. 7. At Whitehall, aged 7ft, the Rt. 
Hon. Mary- Jemima dowager Lady Grant- 
ham. She was the younger dau. and eoh. 
of Philip 2d Earl of Hardwicke, by Lady 
Jemima Campbell, Marchioness de Grey; 
was married to Thomaa 2d aod late Lord 
Grantham, Aug. 17, 1780, aod waa left hie 
widfjw, July 20, 1786, having luul issue three 
SODS, Tbos.-Phinp (he present Lord Grant- 
Itani, Fred.-John now Vise. Goderich, and 
Philip who died an Infent. By her Lady* 
ship's death, Lord Grantham haa become tho 
immediate hdr piwaumptive to the JSarldon 
of de Qnjt to which he will suoceed on tho 
death of bis aunt the present Countess, tho 
older co-heuoss of that branch of the bouse 
of Grey which produced twolvo Earls and 
one Duke of Kont. 



lasa] 



OBtWMfHr. 



9^ 



In Omt SteJimn tl>m, wgtA 79, lb# 

CounceM St. Mftitia d« Frnau 

faChsptl^t. GrotvtMr-pL agtd ft, ^n, 
nUct of Dr. Lectvoi*. 

Jim. t. In Davin-tS. Btrktlvy-wy. tgtd 

t7» dM Right Hod. Anm C«iBt«M doiMtr 

of Oaltowiijf. Slw «M th* 9^(ko. of Sir <fiit. 

DMhwooH, the 9d BaroDet of KirkliogCo*- 

parli io Oxferd»hire, tod M. P. for th«t 

couotj, br Eliabetb, <ka. aod coh. (irith 

Aoo* DoelitM of HMBiltoo) of £dfr. Spen- 

•or, o( ReodlMhtai, acq.) «id wm onoM« 

^•eotly float Io th« pmcBi Diikt of Moo- 

ehotter, IXiehflM of MoMroM, MflrehiooMi 

of Eky, lie. Sbfl twcMM dte ad miW of 

iohn 7 th aad kto Eflri of Oflllowiy, June IS^ 

1 764, flod iiO» loft hb widow, Nov. 14, 1 MM, 

hflring had m fiMily of sovea Mot aod flight 

4hm. of whom Ooorgo te thfl ptflfleot Eorl 

aod K. T., Charlflt-Jamet it BiflfHw of Qoo* 

bM^ aod Soiao '%• Dochflta. of MarlborooKh. 

Jan, %, Ja a dofll foosht mm tho Rad 

Hovfl», B«iaifle»-fifllda, Otivor Clajto«, asq. 

editor ol « C\mum'% Court OiMde." HU 

oppooeot wai Litot. H. LasriMflchc. The 

qwwfflltookDtorofltWoodVHottl, Pantoa* 

•i|Mi«, St. Jaaaea't, whei* Mr. Clayton Iwd 

n ai da d foraibont tiMroo jeaiv. Mr. Uanon 

WM the ao»of a* banlnr at Qdway, «id hit 

MlaCifW^ af» aH of thfl* Calholie roUtfioK 

Abovtfenr7«flfla«gi»lio pobKcly flAijflrad tiM 

GatiMsRo religioB, and aubaeyatly hfla bees 

•nyaflid in iri^tipg agmio>t-the elaiafl of thfl 

C!atholifla in various pflriodioal worka. Hfl 

wta also thfl anthor &i fflvflral pamphletfl, and 

•r a work oflNeA ««Ten Miiflt rooiid Lowfcm/' 

A Coroner'a jury bronght in a vefdiet of 

•• wilfoi nMfitor'' agMMt Lieat. LMnbr«<ibi« 

•hfl principal and Lieut. Cox aod Mr. BigWy, 

tiM aaoondfl, io tho duel. 



9. Io KflotiogtoiHflq. agfld 70, Mn* 



Sopliin 

In Ruaaoll-flq. William Pvatt, eM|. 

Jon. 10. Io Somerfet-ttr> Pottwan ty * 
aged 88, Mra. Abo llrooha* 

Jon. II. At Briatoo, i^ 78, Oabrtel 
Cohen, 9»n» 

Jwn, 19. In Ormood-at. in hit 97th ynar, 
Frod. Wiifimn Fmrnptoo, of Cliftoe, M.D. 

CaroUnfl Uwy, afloond dan. of Gflo. £. 
Bowar JAifliataot Chief Clerk of tfaeOrdaaote, 
Toflvr of Loodon. 

Jmk, 14. AtLambetli, aged 90, Adbo, 
of Tbomaa BuUock, eM. 

Jbi. 16. Matilda^ wUb of of Rev. John 
Mitchel, Reetor of St. Nieholat CoUnbbey. 

Jmu IC Afr KfloifaMEtoa, agad 76, Jane, 
widow ol M^or John Saoi. Torr^flnno. 

At ifindnyn» Miaa VtMon. 

Agii IKI» Mm Ifcflfh, oiq. of Qoflfln-aq. 

Jte 17* A»Chfllmirag«d 88, Mr. KSflgi 
frthar of Mr.H. W. King, aolieitor, BcUtnl. 

In thnOrtatOolalaffli Wai i w hitfr, Md 
98, Mfi» |jflB8an» moilMr of thfl* Itov. 
Riflhar^Landos, RMMaiof St« JBdmoodcho' 
King. 

\m B fl git IIP. Him g wi i Aiimi wift of 



IUf.ChMbD3faM>iMWilkim», wA 
tho late Right Hmi. W. Wiodham. 

•/on. 17. At- Walworth, Tho. Carte*', etq. 
fu w n flfly a; mrgoon and anothaeary, but who 
had retired from tho proraaaion mnny y«ari« 

Jon. 18. In Albetnarlo-etreet, agad 86, 
Fraocffl, relict of ktfl Sir Rieh. Nemro, fK* 
flnt ft^rt. of Dag»nhani*park, Eaaak, F.R.S. 
and F.d.A. Sha wia thfl 4tb dan. of John 
Briatow, esq. waa aaarried Feb. 18, 1781, 
and left a wMow Jan. 86, 1814, having 
had issue SirThoibM the present Baronot, 
three other aont, and five daugheera. 

At Balharo, Susannah, third snrviviM; 
dau. of bte Charlaa Pofli*^ flflq. of Chiatfli- 
hanpton-lodffe, Oxoo. 

Aged 7 1 , Wm. Dinwiddie, esq. 

Jan, 1 9. In Upper Berkdey street, aged 
80, Philip Perry, esq. of MoorhaU, near 
Harlow. 

Ac Kensington, aged 69, Edward Hfloj. 

Bwin, flsq. fnmieTly of Caleiltta. 

Ann, relict of firyau Rosser, esq. for- 
merly of Trindeo, co. Durham. 

Jon. 90. In Piccadilly, Lydin, widow fl€ 
John Board, esq. of TwickoDham. 

Bans. — Joir. 8. At Manlden Mill, Mr. 
Bdwntd Peimv&ther ; and Jon. 1 1, at the 
flanan phwo, Mr. Isflac Psuoyfithflr. They 
were twins, and lived to be nearly 77 ytnra 
of agfli 

BtiiKi.-^Nflar Randbg^ Mrs. Mitfeid, 
mother of the sutboress. 

A« Speeo-hill, EKxah^h, dau. of Rev. 
Jamaa Etty, laU rector 9^ Whitehurch, Ozfi 

Jon. 6. At Buckeu-hill, In her 19tH 
ytmr, the rsl'iot of Thonaim Cotaploo, esq. of 
Choldeftoo, Hants. 

Jan, 9. At Newbary, a^od 84, Mmi 
Mary Child, sister of \mU Edw. C. •tq.of 
Abingdon* 

BucKi.— i!>00. 17. At ChalfonModge, 
R. Hibbert, eaq. joo. 

Chishirk. — At Chmter, the widow of 
the Rev Charles Mainwario^, of Oteleypark, 
and mother of Chaa. K. Mainwafing, eaq. 
Hiffh Sheri£F ^ Shropshire. 

CoiiNWAiL. — Jan, 1 8 . Robert Bake, mq. 
ofDeUbele. 

Dbvon.— /)«c. 98. At Mount Radford, 
Baeur, aged 99, Eleanor Sophia, ekAstt 
da. of Nathaniel Trigoo StUl, esq. of Deao'fl 
Orchard. 

Lolfiy. Aged 54, the writ of Jnim 
Pybe, esq. of the North Devon Bnk, 
Barnstaple. 

At Dartmouth, agod 74, N. Blrooking, 
esq. 88 yetn coUefl. (Jooatuma at that pnit. 

Jan, 4. At the retidflnoa of bor ftth*r, 
David DflM, of HonitoB, Amelia, wUb of 
Josflph Lavleount. 

Joit. 8. AtPlymowth, a^ 78, Thotes 
Yaiefl, esq. lata of Devonshirfl-street. 

At Honitooi rt an advanced age, John 
Mumb, fliq. ' 

Jam, 14. At Liftoa*cottage, aged 61, 



99 



Obituaiy. 



[Jan. 



HuiDab, yoongett daa* of late John Betrd* 
esq. of Hallwhyddoo, Cornwall, and •Uter to 
late Mrs. Aruodal Harr'itt of Kenegie, Comw. 

Essix.— Jon. 19. Aged 83, Robert 
Daviet, esq. of Walthamstow. 

Gloucbstkrshirb. ^ Dec* 87* Mr. R. 
Edwards, many years printer in Bristol, but 
lately of Crane-court, Fleet-street. He was 
confidentially employed by Mr. Perceval to 
print the book containing ** The Delicate 
Investigation;" from a copy pirated, the 
work was afterwards publ'ished. 

Lalely. At Cheltenham, the widow of the 
Hon. H. Butler. 

Arthur M. Storkley, esq. of Wickwar. 

At Leamington, aged 73, Mrs. Roche, 
formerly of Stratford ufion Avon. 

Jan, 3. At Moorfield-bouse, near Bris- 
tol, aged 78, Samuel White, esq. deeply 
lamented by his aged widow and a large 
circle of friends. 

Jan, 8. At Leamington, Jemima- Ldttle, 
relict of Rev. J. Worgan, V. of Pebworth. 

Jan, 10. AtYate, aged70, Mr. Wm. 
Ludlow, last surviving son of Daniel Lud- 
low, M.D. of Chipping Sodbury, and uncle 
to Mr. Sergeant Ludlow. 

Jan. 14. At the Abbey-gate House, 
Bristol, Susanna, eldest daughter of the late 
W. Barrett, esq. surgeon and historian of 
that citT. 

AtCnarlton Kings, aged 61, Elizabeth, 
relict of Rev. Ben. Urisdale, A.M. Rector of 
Wittington. 

Jan. 16, At Clifton, the wife of James 
Graves Russell, esq. dau. of late Richard 
Lechmere, esq. 

Hants. — Dec, 97. At Ems worth, aged 
85, Miss Joan Coleman. In consequence of 
having slept in a damp bed when a child, 
this singular individual was deprived of hear- 
ing and speech, and, what is still more re- 
markable, her mind appears to have been 
stinted firom that time ; so that, with a very 
antiquated visage, and '< guise of ancient 
date," she teemed to possess the Acuities of 
a eprighUy girl about sU or eight years of 
age— such as fondness for playthings, love 
of gay sights and dress, and much attach- 
ment to children. But, though her under- 
standing was so defective, her memory was 
remMrkably strong ; she never forgot the 
person she had once seen, nor the appella- 
tion by which that person had been desig- 
nated in her vocabulary. She generally 
attended church, and turned over toe leaves 
of the book as if following the minister ; 
and on the day of her death she was heard 
firaqnently to maculate, in her own dialect, 
'< Onr Father,^' and *< Amen." 

Laiely, AtOouport, Miss Halsted, aister 
of Vioe-Adm. Sir Lawrence Halsted. 

At Wineheeter, Arthur Clifford, esq. 

Jan, 18. In Winchester, aged 98, John- 
Charles, MO of the Ute John Dietench, 
esq. etaiff-oflloer of the dep6t, Lymington. 

Jen. 17. At WinchMter, aged 33, Jas. 



Grabum* esq. formerW of Lincolnshire, and 
late of Easton, near Wiaehester. 

At Packham-hoiiae, (the reskienoe of 
Major Brice, her son-in-law,) aged 64, Cn* 
Tokae, wife of R. A. SaUsbnry, esq. late of 
Chap^ Allerton, co. York, and joongete 
dau. of the" late John Staniforth, esq. of 
Hull. 

Hbrep. — Aged 68, Isabella, widow of 
Thomas Nixon, esq. BillroilUlodge. 

Herts. — Dec. 80. Aged 78, John Barim 
Dickinson, esq. of Ware, for many years an 
active county magistrate, and grandson of 
the Rev. John Baron, of PatishsJl, co. Npn. 
' Dee. ... At Baldock, aged 72, Greorse 
Hickes, esq. M.D.' great-grandson of the 
nonjuriog Dean of Worcester, and nncle to 
Charles Hickes, esq. of Bath. 

Jan, 6. At Hoddesdon, aged 89, Joseph 
Beldon, esq. 

KsNT.— Oc/. ... At New Cross, R. Edl- 
monds, esq. a magistrate for Kent. 

Dee, 99. In U>e Isle of Thanet, where 
she resided dnrlns her long life, Mrs. Yeo- 
mans (formerly IVf iss Clunn) , aged 1 00 yeart, 
bems the only female bom in anv braneh of 
her Simily for a century. Mrs. Yeomans vaa 
once married, and had one son only, who 
died without issue. Her only brother, a fiur- 
mer at Birchington near Margate, had also 
one son only, who succeeded to his &rni, 
where his widow now resUee i be had eight 
children, all sons, seven of whom are 
now living, tradesmen in London. The 
eldest, Mr. JobnOunn, groeer, of GrayV 
inn-lane, after having been married ten 
Years and had four sons, has recently 
had a daughter (the only female since Mra. 
Yeomans was bom). Two of Mr. Clunn'a 
brothers (Mr. T. Cluno, a partner in 
Richardson's coffee-house, Coven t-gaiden, 
and Mr. £. Clunn, law stationer. Chancery- 
lane,) are also married, but at present they 
have sons only. 

Jan. 3. At Ramsgate, aged 77, Josiah 
Culmer, esq. fatlier-in-law to Captain John 
Wilson, of that place, late of Hull. 

Jan, 8. At Nottingham-lodge, Christian, 
wife of Joseph Carter, esq. of Lombard. st. 

Jan. 11. At Deptford-bridge, aged 80, 
Mr. Hubert Hoare. 

Jtn. 15. At the Vicarage, Wilmington, 
the relict of Rev. John Wall, V. of Daient. 

Lancashire. — Lately, At Little Bolton, 
Mr. Joseph Bolton, aged 109, and retaining 
his faculties to the last. 

Jan. 4. At Shepley hall, John Lowe, 
esq. a magistrate of Lane, and Cheshire. 

Jan. 6. At the house of her son-in-law, 
Mr. Thomas Fleteher, Liverpool, aged 81, 
Mary, wklow of Rev. William Enfield, 
LUD. 

LKicssTiRSHiRt.— Dec ... At Wigston- 
parva Hall, Hannah, dau. of Ute Jonathan 
Grundy, esq. of Lightwood House, Bir- 
mingham. 

Jan. 5. At Saaiettone, in her 70th jear. 



4630] 



OllTUAIY. 



93 



H«iuwh, widov of ThooMi Ckrty gml. of 
Hwthtr. 

Liiicouiihirb.^Om.99. AiCawthorpe, 
W. Dov€« Mq. 

Dm. 96. Al Boara, in kit SOlk tmt, 
W. LftwrtoMf esq fonntrlj of Haceoobir. 

L§k^, At Gruthaai, Med ^9, Mr. Par- 
kiot, conmooW cdlcd «• Dr. Parkiiw/' a 
otltbrMtd utroiogar md ibrtnoA teller. 

At AulMirn, tho widow of R. LAmbCf tsq. 

MovMOOTHBttiat.-— Jioa. 9. At BImda- 
vnoy Jaac, jouogMt dau. of tho bto Thot. 

Hill. tM|. 

NoRroLK.— Jion. 8. At Yarmouth, aged 
A4» William Armitafre, atq. 

NoRTUAMPTONtHiat.— Jaii.9. Aged 13* 
JoliBy Mcond too of W. Rom Rose, esq. of 
Chapel BrampCim. 

Jin. 9. Manr, eldest daughter of the late 
Tbomaa Leo Tooroton, etq. of BrockhalL 

NoRTHOMtiRLANo.— At Newcastle, aged 
M, Mrs. Cecilia Wren, la<t descendant from 
SirChnstofiher Wren, retaining hb name, in 
the north of England 

. Jon. 8. At Neweastle*npon*Tyne» aged 
66, Valentine Hntchinsoo, eto. 

Notts.— Jon. 9. Aged 79»rar.R. Frost, 
Nottingham, one of the Soeieiy of Frienda. 
Ha »aa a meehanic of the first order, hia 
name heing identified with the trade and 
poteot iaventioaa of the town. His mode of 
living was particularly singular \ &»r S6 jtax% 
he never tasted animal food, which pro- 
ceeded from a wish to avoid taking away life. 

OzoM.— At Black Bourton, In his 100th 
year, Mr. Thomas Kearse. 

Jan. 7. Benjamin Churchill, esq. one of 
the Aklermen of Woodstock. 

Jmi. 90. At OxfonI, Frederick, Infant 
SOB of the Rev. John Antony Craaer, Pub- 
lic Ofator. 

Salop^— %/air. 6. Aged 70, Mr. John 
Haycock, of the' Priory, Shrewsbury. 

bOMUiiT. — Dec. ... At Marstoo-honse, 
aged 94, Lady Isabella £liiabeth Boyle, el- 
dest daughter of the Earl of Cork and Orrery. 

At Boh, aged 76, Edward Paston, es<i. of 
Appleton, Norfolk, fitther of the pretent 
Lady Bedingfield (see p. SO). 

At Bath, advanced m age, the widow of 
Col. Bo wen. 

Eliiabeth, wifo of W. Rodbard, esq. of 
West Cokar-honse. 

At Bath, hi his 90th year, John Walmis- 
ley, eeq. of Wigan, formerly a Captain in 
the Army. 

Ok. 97. At Bath, aged 89, Mr. Bamee, 
of Weathwy, 

Jwn S. hX ShepCoQ Malletf, J. Brovai,^ 
eeq. mamher of the Rayal CoUega of Sv- 



Jtm, €. At Cmtk Oht, agad 78, Mrs. 
Anna Whim Woodforda, £■. of kta Heighe^ 
W. esq. of AaalMd. 

At Bath, agad 89, Bfifi. Sarah Cotton, 
aunt to Sir Vboani Cotton, bart. of Mad- 
higlay.naiMteiiavtw Sliawaal 
dcst dan. of Sir Jobi-Hynda tha 5th 



net, by Amw, Meond dan, of HmnpYuay Plsr- 
sons, esq. twioe Lord Bfayor of London. 

Jan. 19. At Bath, aged 73, Jaa. Sholto 
Douglas, kte Coosnl-gooeral at Tangier. 

STAFPORDaHiRB. — Lotefy, Al West- 
boame-crove, W. Q. Johnson, esq. of Port- 
way-hall. 

At Wedneabury, S. F. Crowther^ eeq. so- 
licitor. 

Su PPOLK.—Jon. 1. At Sodbory, aged 

86, Mary, relict of John Addison, esq. 
banker, and dan. of late Thomas Fenn, eeq. 
Receiver-general for Su£Fnlk. 

Jan, 19. At Ipswich, aged 87, Mrs. Ann 
Psge, mother of Kear-Adro. Page, the Rev. 
R. L. Page, Rector of Paofield, Essex, and 
of Samuel Page, esq. of Dulwich. 

Jan. 90. At Brandon, aged 46, Jas. Par- 
kinson Miller Keoyon, esq. late of the 9d 
regiment of Life Guards. 

SuRRKY. — Lately. At Epsom, Sir Jamaa 
Alexander. He was knighted when Sheriff 
of London, March 9, 1808. 

Jan. 8. At Croydon-lodge, Thos. Bain- 
bridge, esq. 

Jon. 10. At Snrbiton-pbce, aged \$p 
Ano-Hodson, dau. of Mr. Aid. Garratt. 

SvssBX.— Dee At Brighton, in his 

80th year, Alexander Davison, esq. of Swan* 
land Park, co. Northumberland, and for- 
merly of St. James's-eqnare, Ixmdon. Hb 
remains were deposited m the fSunily vault at 
Kirk Newton, co. Northnmb. 

Jan. 7. At Nyton House, near Chiehei- 
ter, aged 84, Edward Payne, eeq. 

At Brighton, Capt. C. R. Feed, formerly 
of 90th regiment of foot, son of late Lient.- 
Gen. Feed, R. A. 

Jon. 9. At Chichester, Philip Shallett 
Marett, esq. of the Inner Temple. 

Jon. 17. At Brighton, aged 69, Thomas 
Pediey, esq. of Huddersfield and London. 

Westmorsland. — Jan. 6. At Casterton- 
hall, afier extreme suflFering for eleven years, 
Elisabeth, second dan. of W. Wilson Cams 
Wilson, esq. 

Wilts. — Jan, 13. At Salisbury, aged 
71, Eleonora, widow of the Rev. Archdea- 
con Coxe. 

Jan. 14. Aged 14, Charles Brooghfam 
Hodding, third son of Thomas Davis, esq. 
of Portway- house, Warminster. 

WoRCtSTiRSHiRE.— Jon. 15. At Naplo* 
tun, Philippa-Elizabeth, wife of Mr. Rowland 
Henry LenthaL 

York. — Jan, 3. At Bishopton, near Rl* 
pon, Francis Wilkinson, in his 105th year. 

Jan, 4. At Ellonghton, aged 64, Mr. 
James Fleming, schoolmaster at that plaoa 
upwards of 30 years. 

Laiefy, At Barton-upon-Humber, agad 

87, Mra. Wilkinson, mother of Robert Wil- 
kinson, esq. of London. 

Jan, 6. At Daneombe Park, aged 90, 
the Hon. Adolphns Dunoombe, Commoner 
of Christ Church, Oxford, fourth surviving 
ami of tha £ari of Favenhaoi. 

Jan. 8. At Scarborough, agad 60, Mr. 



Obituary.— BiZ^ of Martalily. — Markets, 



M 

Gtorge WMdhottf e Pirr•t^ ^tpbnildttf, nd 
memlMar of tha Corponttioo. 
. Jan, ». At PoAtefnet^ aged Wt, Mary, 
lelici of Rev. M;Im Steodmaiu 

Jtm, la. At York, Thomaat yimnaatt ton 
4tf tho late W. H. HarriMo, M.D. of Ripon. 

Jan, 15. At Bererley, the widow of the 
Ber. Joha GHlby, Lt. B. 

Jan, 17. At Hull, aged 74, William 
WiboD, geot. late a comiderable corn-fiictor. 

Walks. — Sept, 9\, At Bangor, Anne, 
widow of Rer. John Williaina, Vicar of Pro* 
bus, Corawall, and dau. of the late Sir 
Wm. Eliai Taunton, of Grand Pcmt, near 
Oxford. To a highly cultivated and accom- 
plished mind were bieaded all those Chris- 
tian crscet that best adorn our nature, and 
which, thoughout her life, were exemplified 
lA deeds of active benevolence, and bj the 
submissive and meek endurance of a painful 
awl protraded illness. 

JD^ AO. At Eglwysfaeb, co. Denbigh, 
aged 80, Mr. John Owoi, many years Clerk 
In the Comm^eakuiera of Land Tax and As- 
sessed Taxes in the hundred of Uwchddulas. 
Ha mas » man ai very considerable talents. 
From hie tkomugh knowledge of parochial 
and other faMinosa,. his aid sod ass i ataie e in 
thetet mattera, as well aa in all things coa^ 
■eeted with hia officU situation, were in 
gnneral reqneat throttghoni that division of 
tha comneyk. 



[i 



Dte.%6, At DolgtOy, Meritecthih* W. 
Williams, esq. B. A. of Qneen's coll. Oxfiotfi* 

ScoTLAifD«— I>ec.ai. Ales. Murray Chith- 
rie, esq. younger, of Craigie ; and, Jtm. 14, 
in his 90th year, Jamea Gathrie, as^* of 
Craigie. 

LaiOy, At Edinbnrgh, DaHd Boation, 
esq. Keeper of the Council Recofda. 

Jan. 4. At Laagley Pbrk, to* Forfiav i^id 
8ft, Janses Cmikshank, esq. 

Irklamd. — Dec. 19. At the Deny Infir- 
mary, Jane Donnel, aged 106. Wbea a giil 
of 15, she crossed the river Foylo on the 
ice, in 1739 (the great frost which conti- 
nued for three muntlis) from. Giendermott, 
where she hsd purchased n wheel, which 
was the companion of her joomey to Aae- 
rica in 1 800, from whence Ae returned in 
1807, with the same wheel, beiug all her 
furniture. She possessed all her facultiee to 
the last. 

Latdy, At Clonmel, aged 103, Michnal 
Ivy, a pauper. Ha retained kit fiionltier.to 
the last. 

Aged 108, FfMiois Bryans, esq. of Moy, 
Tyrone. 

Abhoad. — Jimt 5. At AllehibnA, M^or 
Thomaa Aleundar Hepwwrth, S.I.C cMM 
son of laie Capt. Brodie HapwMth,r e£ ike 
Msnsfinld Indiaman. 

Jkme 17. At Chonacy Biigil» Majnr Hv 
Maxwali, 4ad rag; KLC 



BILL OF MOftTAU FY, horn Deo. 98, 1 889 to Jan^ 1$^ 183a. 



Chrietoned. 
Maier • 841 
Fei9|iles - 844 



} 



1685 



l.'uried. 
Males • 888 
tlemales - 850 



Wherefsf have died unvler two years oM 
Sail 55. per bushel} 1 id, {ler poimJ. 




8 and 5 145 
5 and 10 73 
10 and SO 55 
20 and SO 90 
80 and 40 118 
40 and 60 1 80 



50 and 
60 and 
70^ and 
80 and 
90fttid10O 
and 101 



0O104 
70 1«8 
80 174 
90 81 
15 
1' 





CORN BXCHANGB, Jaa 


1. 95. 


Whent. 


ISarley. 


Oats. 


Rye. 


Beans. 


s. d. 


s, d. 


s, d. 


r, d. 


8, d. 


78 


36 


28 


84. 


86 



Peat, 
r. d, 

36 



Kent 



Btar.... 
r0itta. 



St. 18f. to 8/. 05. 

5^ 55. to 6f. Si, 

df. 1«5. to Tti 75. 

Fknihaai (fine) XSlL Or. to 13/. 135. 



PRICE OF HOPS, Jan 25. 

Famham(secondfe}. 9t 

Kent Pockets eU 

Sossex 5t. 

Essex «.^ SL 



or, ea loL los. 

05. tDlOf. 0^. 

St. to $t: 65. 

er. to 8/. 85. 



PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW, Jao; 25. 
Sttitfafiddv ^uj: 91, 105. to 4L 105. Straw W. 105. to 2t 25. Clover 9l, 155. to 5L Or 

SMITHFIELD, Jan. 25* To sink the Offal— per stone of 8lbi. 

4d: iJamb M. 05. Oif. to 01. Od» 

6d, Head of CattMafr Market. Jan. 25: 

ed. Beasts 2,573 CalvM 100 

4d Shee|f and Liuuba 17,260 Piga 220 

COAL MARKET> Jan. 25, 325. Od. to 405. Od. 

] TALUYW, pcflr.cirii;— Town TJlow, 405. od: Yellow Ruatia, 38s. ed, 

^KP^Yt\\oM^.7(^M!MaA,m9. Civ4M5.->— CAM>LIS,7^.pirdic»<Moo]ib»0fc6A 



BMfl 35. }0d, to 45. 

^lttttoa . .••.«.« 45. Od: to 45. 

¥Mi....«... 45. &(. to 55. 

Pbck.... 49. 4i2. to 55. 



PSICES OP SHARES, Jutvaxj 18. 1850, 

At the Offic* of WOLFE, Rrdtuibi, 'Chuge A1I«j, Cmhin. 



LMttoa (Stack) 

WMla& [e«Ml>) 
- ■ - (Swek) 
(Scoek) 



WuotIm . . . 

im.afL . 

Aaa.«r7/. . 



S G<l». 


I 10 


1 1> 

1 


1-1 4 
II S 



Li.crpuol 

lUicliff 
Rochikit 






40 


W».uk 






M) 


»^^ 


! ;:,' 


Kim, «d c 






!§] 



METEOROLOGICAL DIARY, bt W.CARY, Stsakj 

From Dtaenbme, I BSD, to January 9S, 1 830, hilA iwrAuiV. 
Fthrenbcit'i Theim. '" 'mnlwU'i Tluim. 



\l 



!|d^ 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS, 

Pnni DtcembtriS, IStS, to January n , IBSO, telh inclmUt. 



South Su SUKk, Jul. IS, IMJ.— Nn Soutb Sm Abs. Ju. IS, 99}. 
Jib. 23, 91}.— Ju. 3T> 9t{. 
J. J. ARNVLL, Sti»k BcnUr, Buik-biuUiagi, CorotuU, 

late RlCHAUWOM, GOOBLVCS, ud Co. 



KI.I«MlHT-fTRUr. 



GENTLEMANS MAGAZINE. 



[. H>nl4-I 



•HiFirc «• LwdiM 
*mtl\T Nprri 



C.>krid|»CuliiltC 
C>rMRE.-CMB>r. 
CMNHMi 



tfrfffinal CunomnlcMlaa^. 

iMmoa Coiiunwduk;! 98 

lAddkiauiBdCatnetiMi taKniitOI>ituuiM((. 

iNcvTnmlMiMofZMhuHb, rh. ii 8S 

UtraalnCUqgjiBcB.EpiMiipdLiMrfereantOO 
PicMR of ■ wmciMtiMi Puiih fiicit . . . . 1 1 
Hob. iDd Rh. G. 6*nccr.-4:wdliul WsU lOS 
DcinwtiaB af Sc Mujr Onr^'i Cbneh... IM 
T.iittr, ChwA, ad Aot^uitiM orDaBdrj-lOS 
Di>M«M af Ika MawAcMring Otaai.. .. lOS 

PrograuadDMUMorWilclMnft. 107 

ChuicbofSMUbMM, MidiUtMi 110 

Mr. Hiniaa'a Rapt; W Mr. Vftitm IIS 

SuiMcripuoea for tu NafdMn Libnnci~>>ii. 

Notioa sfTaiBhMk aad ito Abba; 1 18 

lBi*aMt7if RaciKda iatha ChapiaiHouM 1 18 
Life aad WrlUua ofChriitophar Ma[lD«a..iai 

Walk tlira^h tbe Hifthhndi Iflfi 

Mr.HullilwFaaBdatarthaThMUicalFiuuLlia 

Hrtiira tr Jftcu ^tilcatitntf. 



FEBRUARY, 1830. 

[PUBLISHED MARCH I, 1930.] 




RaT. J.Giahaa _. 

{ CanD;aglun'iU*aiorBiiC.Artiua>Vul.if. 141 

Memnin uf tba Tower DfLaiuliu] 1 44' 

I Moon '■ Lift of Lard BjTon KG] 

{ GalrJimidoD tb«Di«4biUt!a*of tbt J«m...IM 
I BnuubT'* Hiitoi7 of Canwnon Ctidc... .ISlI 

HuDUr't Diarv of RWph Ttiombr. . 
I Mn. Br^'trmof nti-Ford.... 



..I68„ 

L1TII laV I NTILLiaEMCt. -N ■ ■ 

Sala of Lnid Bjf os'i Poemi.-FraDch Dmnklss 

Ahieui Tuudiiig. 

AansDiRUH HuHicHta 

SiLICT PotTBV 168 

Vi^ocical Cbronkle. 
Prneaediiigi in prcMRt Sauiuo of PaHiamcot 1 64 

DoBwitic Oecumuce* 

Pronotion, Ite. IGS^Martiuai 

OiiTUiRV; witb MiBoin of the Qoaan of 
Portugal ) Hun. J. HiiDcbUiD ; Gea. Sir H. 
Clinbin i Sli Thoi. Lanrtoc* : Geo. Daaa, 
. Tki Gerdd I Dr Wauon ; Rm. 



Lanlcr't Racunfa nf CUfqwrUHi'iEiKditlDa 1 2» I W. Birth 1 Mr. Lill; Wigs, F.LS. ; IT. 
Bun'iLibuidTian oFFrascHl IS3 £*biD Tmlie, Ev).[ Itc.fte 17] 



e*biD TiHlie, Km).[ Stc. ii 17; 

Kll uf MortaJilT.— MarkaU, IM.~Sbaml9L 
I Maiaoruloglcal Diu]r. — Prioci of Slo«la..lB9 



a Via* of th* Chdkch and Towi> at Dunnar, eo. Sonanat; 
bo *Ilh Bapmactatiani of aDioa ihcikkt Helici in TiviiToCi CHuacH ; 
CiFT. CLirpiaToit'a FuHsaiil: tad Spaeimau of Aivictv TiTTooma. 

By SYLVANUS URBAN, Gent. 



[ 98 ] 



MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



W« have commnnieated Mr. Beard's let- 
ter to the writer of the article compIaiDed 
of; and his answer is as follows: — <*Mr. 
Beard had certainly no idea of meeting with 
a raaor in the critic^ a Trinitarian Clergy- 
maa of the Church of England. The latter 
is bound by the canons and his ordination 
vow, to support the doctrine of the Church 
to which he belongs ; and that doctrine b> 
that unless Christ be God as well as man, 
the atonement is not eiBcaotous. The main 
point of Mr. B.'s letter is a denial, that the 
Unitarians argue di priori concerning Deity ; 
but how is it possiole for them to impugn 
the doctrine of the Trinity, without predi- 
cating, that there cannot be a Triune Ueity, 
the possibility of which even Hume admits ? 
As to other points of his letter, many Cler- 
gymen are ot opinion (and not without rea- 
son] that Unitarianism tempts Its follow- 
ers to commit the sin against the Holy 
Ghost; and therefore is the most perni- 
cious form of Dissent. Concerning the in- 
sults in Mr« B.'s letter, the Clergy every day 
meet with rampant sectaries of all kinds, 
and if they know their duty, only pray for 
the conversion of them, in common with 
Jews, Turks, infidels, and heretics.'* 

A. Z. A. is informed, that his MS. copy 
of Bishop Lake's dving Declaration, was 
copied from "A Dewnce of the Profession 
which the Ute Right Rev. John late Lord 
Bishop of Chichester, made upon his death- 
bed, concerning Passive Obedience and the 
new Oaths; together with an Account of 
some passagea of his Life, by Rob. Jenkins, 
1690,*' 4to; and that the said declaration, 
or ** profession,*' is quoted by Mr. Dalla- 
way, m his memoirs of the Bishops of Chi- 
chester, History of Sussex, vol. I. p. 91. 

A Constant Reader asks for <<some 
particulars relative to the pedigree, arms, 
&c. of the family of Bamham, of Boughton 
Monchency, Kent. Hasted mentions seve- 
ral of the family. The baronetcy became 
extinct some time in the latter part of the 
17th, or the earlier part of the 18th cen- 
tury." In the Appendix to the late edition 
of bebrett'a Baronetage, the baronetcy is 
stated to have lasted only fix>m 1668 to 
1685. 

The followmg are corrections of our re- 
cent Obituaries, Ike— December, p. 659, 
The family name of the Marquess ofHead- 
fort is not Taylour : all the family write 
their nauM Taylor. The former mode of 
spelling has obtained place in the Peerages 
probably from confusion wiih the Earl of 
Winterton's name. Tumour. In the same 
article» for Kello read Kells ; and for Long- 
ford, Viscoimteas LangfiMd.— P. 571. The 



late Archdeacon Heatheote lost his wife» 
the daughter of Dr. Wall, af^r the birth 
of one son ; and he contracted a accoad 
marriage with Miss Beadon of Stoneham, a 
relation of the lata Bishop of Bath and 
Welb, by whom he had fife children i who 
live to deplore the loss of both parents, 
-Mrs. HeatQcote having died a short time 
before the Archdeacon.— 'Ibid. The Rev. 
John Strange DandridgCy was M. A. of 
Worcester Colleige, Oxford, where he was 
formerly on the roondation. It was another 
clergyman of the same names (we presume 
his father), and who ia now Rector of Roaa- 
ham, Oxfordshire, and Slresham, North- 
amptonshire, that waa of Emanuel ColkgCf 
Cambridge. — P* 686, for the county of 
Roes, read RoacommoBd— P. 647. The Rev. 
John Wilde was son of John Wiide, esq. of 
Harnage, by Miss Dodd, a lady of an an- 
cient Mmily. Besides the third portion of 
Pontesbury, he held the minbt^ of Al- 
brighton Chapel near Shrewsbury; where 
lie was a forcible and energetic pitachery 
and had formed a Sunday School. He died 
on the 1 6th Dec. and his remains were in- 
terred in the Church of Cound.— January, 
p. 76, a. 19 from bottom, for Barrymoont 
read Barrowmount i b. 1 1 from bottMU, for 
Hon. John Spencer read John Spencer, esq. 
and for niece read couaia. — ^P. 77> b. ton 
three lines, beginning ** The Viaoonnty of 
Fenton," were mtended to cooolode the ar-« 
tide^— P. 79, b. 87> for James Dupr^ of 
Whilton Park, read Joeias Dopr^ of Wil- 
ton Park.— P. 87. Mr. Gorioj^s second wifo 
was Miss Luxford, not SaxnHdi and baa 
third wifo was not his cousm, befaig Am 
daughter of Dr. Balhurd by another wifo, n 
daughter of T. G. Waller, eaq. of Winches- 
ter.— Ibid. Mr. Chamberbyne died at Wee- 
ton Grove near Southampton t he never re- 
akled at Crauburv Park. He waa not the 
son of the late Ladv Holland, nor waa shn 
ever married to his father (into which mis- 
take we were led by Debrett's Peerage, un- 
der Zouche) t but only to Mr. Dummer and 
Mr. Dance (afterwards Sir Nathaniel Hol- 
land), by neither of whom had ahe issue. 
Mr. Chamberiayne the elder was solicitor to 
Mr. Dummer, and acquired the letter's mu- 
nificent bequest from personal regard, not, 
it is believed, from any affinity or fomily 
connection. On occasion of King George 
HI. visiting Winchester school in 1778, Vhm 
late Mr. Chamberiayne was selected to deli- 
ver a apeech to his Majesty. The last pa- 
ragraph, <m the eraaure of the worda " nb 
mother," will be correct. — P. 98. Lady Isa- 
lielU Boyb died Dec. 94. Mr.Kenyoo at 
hb death was Captain half-pay t5th foot. 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



FEBRUARY, 1830. 



ORIGIN All eOMMUNICATIONB. 



NBW TtAMSfiATIOV OF ZBCUARIAH, C. IX. 



Mr. UmiAV, Feb. 2. 

I HAVE frequenily obterred wiih 
pleaiare the maoly tpirit with 
which voo have stood (orwanJ in the 
cause oi fdigioa. This induces me to 
believe that what I have here to of- 
ler for a pasc of vour Miscellany, will 
be io accord with the general tenor 
ofiL 

It is not as a poetical composition 
that 1 wish to obtrude it upon notice. 
One who has attempted poetij in 
his joQlh, may be allowed to dwindle 
into a translator in adranccd life, and 
yoa will find me to be little more than 
a poetical commentator. With hints 
derived from Bishop Lowth, and some 
conjectures of my own, I would fain 
believe that I may have rendered in« 
telligible to your serious readers a 
chapter of Zechariah» who yields to 
few of the Hebrew prophets, for the 
awfulocsa of bis predictions, poeti- 
cal iaaagery, and tender and afftrction- 
ate appeals. The three events, the 
successes of the Maccabees, the de- 
sirucfion of Jerusalem, and the con- 
flicts which the Jews may have to sus- 
tain upon their restoration to their 
once highly favoured city, as also the vic- 
torious rcsok of them, and their con- 
version at that tim^ are sometimes ab- 
ruptly placed in juxta-position, and 
expressed in terms of Pindaric force 
and brevity $ so that it requires much 
attention to detach them, and discover 
the great richneas they derive from the 
comparison, or contrast observable in 
this arrangeoicnt. 

The dear understanding of these 
predictions becomes exceedingly iute- 
rcating in the present momentous timef, 
not nlefcly as a matter of curiosity, but 
as mo JudncfmcBt to sciioiuncsa. 



YoiifSy&c. 



X. 



ZiiniAaiAH, c. IX. 

The burthra of the Lard's portentoas word 
Oo Sjfisn Hsdfsch pretsetli heavily ; 
On proud Dunueoi too, a tardier prey* 
lu weight thaU rest;— ^he attoaislisd hea- 

theo, 
And Israel looking heavenward, iball expeet. 
Each in their torn, the advaacing punish- 

ment. 
On either confine Hamath, just where Syria 
Toucheth the district of enlightened Sldon, 
(Sidon, informed, tn all bnt heavenly wis- 
domO Pjre* 

Hamath shall fall. Thoa further distant 
Tremble; — for though thy bulwarks they 

be strong. 
Yet not impregnable, — thy gold and silver 
Be plentiful, and scarcely more resarded 
Than thy street sweepings, what shall these 
avail thee ? [Lord's hand, 

HurI'd from their heights thy tow'rs by the 
Shall roll into the sea, thy lesser buildings 
Devour'd by fire shall blaze and disappear. 
How shudders Askelon, how Gaza moomsy 
Ekron abashed, content to lay aside 
Her high pretensions, Gaza laments her 

King; 
Bnt none remain in Askelon to weep. 
One of strange race henceforth shall dwell 
in Ashdod : [tasted flesh 

There £ills Philistia's pride.— Ah ! have ye 
Of human sacrifice ? — I'll tear away 
The hateful morsel from your teeth and lips i 
And if a few be spared, they shall acknow- 
ledge 
The mighty God : these Jndah shall esteem 
As her own citizens, advance to honours 
In Sion or afiir,— in friendly union 
Shall treat them as the Jebusite-of old. 
Who dwelt where Sion and her temple stand : 
And as the tide of war rolls on toward Egypt, 
Or ebbing brinp the conqoeior back, my 

host 
Of angels shall encamp anmnd my temple ; 
And Maeedoa's vietorions king shall show 
Ualook'd-fiir finronr. Hence shall oppres- 
sion csase. 
With pityiac eye since I regard my people. 

Yet, dawiter of Jerusalem, rejoice t 
In coBisa ec tine a moit victorious King 



100 



Intrusive Clergymen, and Episcopal Interference, [Feb. 



lo pomp shall p«ss thy walls, and enter in. 
Shout, sbout aluudff Zjoo, behold, be curoes ! 
Ji«st, an4the ilnner'i juitifier, lovly, 
Borne on an ass'a foal, to thee He brings 
Salvation, and to all who own Uii sway. 
Jerusalem shall war no more, nor £phraim 
Direct the horse, the charioti or tne bow. 
Messiah's voice shall hush the world to 

peace, [nion 

Compose the heathen, and his vast domi- 
Sliall from Enphmtes reaeh eirtb'i diftaot 

bounds ; ['tea. 

Truth, peace, and bliss, prevail from sea to 
And as for thee, whose sons are prisoners. 
Deep in the pit of siBy to whoM parch'd lips 
The current of life's waters is denied, 
I call them fiorth. Hit blood has ransomed 

them ; 
With this red dye He sealed yoor covenant. 
Ah ! turn ye, turn ye, prisoners, in hope 
And strong assurance, to that safe defence 
By Him erected.— Yea ! have ya soffsred 

deeply ? 
With double blessinp 1*11 requite your painA. 
But tho' that time M distant, even now 
Shall Jodah fill the bow of Ephraim, 
Ai a w«og*d arrow drawn unto the head ; 
Tiiy i^ns a mighty sword shall with keen 

edge 
Fall on the ranks of Macedoo, while flashiiw 
Aa lightning firom above, the Lord's swift 

shafts 
Shall hasten their discomfiture, the blast 
Of trumpet, and the southern whirlwind's 

roar [own. 

IShall noark His presence, and protect His 

By the Lord's nelp 'twas thus the strip* 

ling Dsvul [vails, 

LaSd low his mightier foe. Their shout pre- 
The shout of heroes drunk vdth victorv ; 
For gore, not wine, shall fill their bowb, 

their foes 
As victims heap'd upon the altar lie. 
Thus shall He save His flock. Thus shall 

they shine 
As Jewels in a crown ; their radiant light 
From distant lands shall draw them prose- 
lytes. 
Jehovah, good as great. His bounty sheds 
On those he favours ; rich with com and 

wine. 
He blesses them. The lus^ harvest man, 
And vintage maid, who cuU what He bestows. 
With sparkling countenance bespeak His 

g»ft»> [praise. 

With joyous hearts and tongues resound hU 

. Mr. UiiRAir, Feb. 13. 

A RECENT narober of the Gen- 
ikman'a Magiftiiie (Nov. |i. 400) 
contnnt* a ftattment of two or three 
ntianeci, ta which psfocbial hiinb- 
ten are repreiented to have been in- 
oomremeoced by the intnMion of other 
Clergymen into their pariihes on be- 
half of the Bible Society. Oneofthew 



accounts relating to a gentleman " of 
high clerical aocomplitbmenlsy" iqay 
pcMsilily have been intended ai a de- 
scription of what lately occurred in 
the West of England, thoogh it doea 
not perfectly agree with all the facts. 

The case was this. At the request 
of several churchmen and dissenters* 
the respectable Curate of a market- 
lown attended a mceling in an adja- 
cent parish, to endeavour to fomi a 
Bible Association. This parish, thoush 
inhabited by many very respectable 
farmers, was pccoharly destitute of 
the Scriptures among the poor. It 
had scarcely a benevolent society with- 
in its limits, and happened at that time 
to he undergoing a change of Minla* 
ters. The new Curate nad.iott ar* 
rived ; he had been informed of tho 
proposed meeting, and invited to pa^ 
side ; and had expressed himself ob^ 
liged for the invitation, but deoliDcd 
being present, merely on the plea of 
argent business. He foaod time, 
however, to come with a gentlemaii 
farmer, and interropted the meetings 

Somised that the poor ahoold have 
ibles gratis, and did m much as bo 
could to prevent the establishment of 
the Association. To this day five Bi- 
bles have not been distribated. Tho 
Diocesan is known to be vnfavoorable 
to the Bible Society, and eompUiDt 
was quickly dispatched U» him (it it 
not said by whom) of tbts intmsioB. 
The consequence was, a atrong hint to 
the intruder from the learned Biahop, 
of the impropriety of soeh an ioaarfcr- 
ence. 

In the same town, a great wrestling 
match had been prelected to take plaea 
that very week, and large rewards wtie 
offered to the victors. The samerrc* 
spectable Curate, prompted by a seiMo 
of doty, exerted himself also on that 
occasion. His discourses were emi* 
nently calculated to discourage a smv* 
tade so unworthy of a Christian land 
and a civilised age ; and he had a rtm* 
sonable hope that few of his faeareta 
would attend. Bot what was the W9* 
suit ? The wrestling took place, a vast 
deal of drunkenness and profligaoy ehw 
sued I bad characters came purposely 
from a neighbouring sea-port ; and tho 
seene was— not indieed hoooared, but 
— <lisgrBced by the preaenee and conn^ 
tenance of a Clergyman from an ad* 
joining parish, and many of his peo- 
ple! No remonstrance from the Dio- 
cesan followed ihi$ intrusion; proba* 



i8S0.] 



Pkiure of a amicieniioui Pamh Prkii. 



101 



bly DO one thought it a duty to act the 
|iert of ao ioibrmer. 

Now let thcK two eatea be preacni- 
cd together to the readers of the Gen* 
tleman's Magiiioe, aoioiig whonip it 
appean, are a large number of the 
Clergy I and let them take a fair and 
unpre|tMliced view of the natural con- 
tcquencet of each* In the one caie, b 
a populous naritht very iU supplied 
with the Hoqr dcriptnres. without any 
efficient efibns being made to provide 
tbein i and a neicbbouring Cler^nan^ 
who lends his Jitinterestcd assistance* 
under peculiar circumstances, to esta« 
blish the means of supply, is denoune-i 
cd as an onpardonable inuuder. Per-^ 
sons well affrcted towards the Church 
of England are scandalised with the 
atteropit to frustrate such an obfect, 
and. with the want of candour dlsplav- 
ed^ln the other case, b an upright 
Minister doing his utmost to check 
ihe torrent oT immorality among bi» 
parishioners; but the flood-gates are 
iMnken down by an union of profli- 
gate and unthinking persons, counte* 
nanoed by a pastor, whose decided 
duty It is to exhort against " drunken* 
ncsa, revdlings, and such like." Thb 
is se/mfltea, with a witness ! Who can 
avoid applying the words of the author 
of the Task?— 

<* Frofli such apoftlet, oh, ye mitred beads, 
Frtttfvt the Chuccb ! sad lay not careless 

hsadi 
Ob tkaUt thss eaoiiot taaeh, aad will not 

leanir 

From the result in both instances, 
the cause of diiaent ineviubly receives 
additional confidence and strcnaih; 
while the Ministers of the Church of 
England, who adopt such courses of 
proceeding, are assuredly, whatever 
they themselves may think, amoont 
her most formidable enemies, '' the 
foe within her walU." 

Fairnett and impartiality will doubts 
lesa procure the insertion of this in the 
ne&t number of the Gentleman's Ma« 
tf^iinc, and prevent the necessity of 
Its .^ng introduced to public notice 
tbrai^ another channel. A. 

■ Mr. Urbav, 

HAVING pMrtioipated in the en- 
jo^rnient of some of those fissti* 
vitica wuich gUdden the social season 
of Chrbtmast in a country village re- 
mote from the great Metro|>olis, and 
in the hospitabk panonegt of a loiig* 



valued friend, I hope it may be exeiis- 
able, and not altogether nsuseful, if I 
endeavour to sprMid, through the mc^ 
dium of your widely circulating Mapr 
aine, a portion of tlie satisfaction which 
amoii^ numerous instanm of an mh 
propriate use of clerical ulents and cm- 
rical influence I experienced from the 
judicious exercise of the sacred officn 
by a man of great worth and learning, 
whose lot has placed him in retirement^ 
but whose example should be the ob- 
ject of neoeral imitation amongst bin 
more affluent and osore fortunate bre- 
thren. The amiable divine who, after 
the cessation of interconne of half a 
century, has been accidentally (or migiht 
I say providentblly) brought within my 
view, has been a constant resident duiw 
iug the greater portbn of that period 
of time amongst the woods and wiUa 
of a district but little freouented byrth* 
traveller, and surroundeo by a populftv 
tion perhaps as rude and unrefined aa 
any of equal extent in this improving 
country. My intention b not to write 
a panegyric on his character, but tor 
describe what I saw and heard i and 
to leave the unvarnished narrative t» 
|Koduce its own effect without any d^* 
sire to captivate by the glare ot misre- 
presenution, or the ostentatioua dis- 
play of virtues, whose mild radianen 
would be sullied by such an attempt. 

First, then, for what I saw ; which 
to me indeed seemed almost cqmlly 
unusual and gratifving,— I saw, Mr. 
Urban, a neat, onierljr* attentive cdo- 
gregation assembled in the perbh 
church, at the regular and a c cn atom ed 
timea of Divine Service on Sundays ; 
and several (certainly not many) de» 
cent aged and equally orderly and ai» 
tentive persons as regularly congre- 
gated in the same place on each oAhe 
Wednesdays and Fridays during my 
visit there; as also on an intermediate 
red letter day, which it b the custom 
of this same pastor (%vho perhaps nay 
be called eccentric as well as imfii- 
sliionable) to observe with the same 
reaularity as he found it to have been, 
when he entered upon his living. 

I saw thb same old*fashioned pastor 
diligently attentive to the duty ofSrirft- 
ing two or three sick persont whoae 
oonditioa required hb personal atten- 
tion at their respective habitationa,— 
saw him equally attentive to the doe 
superintendance of a small charity 
scnool in his village, upon which has 
btcD grafted a Sutiday school of 



im 



Pkture of a conscieuiious Parish PrieiL 



[P€b. 



dcrn establishroenty and for the accom- 
niod ation of which shaving refiised 
that his chancel should be converted 
into a school ropm« at he h'kewise ob* 
jecu to permit the use of his church 
for any but ecclesiastical |nir|X)ses,) his 
assistance has mainly contributed to 
supply an appropriate building. I saw 
the distribution of unostentatious cha* 
rities, and the interposition of mild 
persuasive advice, to reconcile conflict- 
ing opinions, and promote harmony 
and good neighbournood. I saw, too, 
all ranks, ages, and degrees of people 
in the village which I am describing, 
concurrent in their expressions of 
good will towards their minister; 
though entertaining extremelv oppo- 
site opinions with regard to nis rigid 
adherence to old customs and old fa- 
shioned habits, his opposition to mo- 
dern alterations, dislike of dress a- 
moogst the lower classes, and severity 
(as it was called by some) towards 
those customs which the neighbour- 
ing clergy permitted or connived at 
without censure. Without descending 
to more minute particulars of what I 
saw, I will proceed to what I heard. 
And as I have related with fidelity 
what I saw, I will mention nothing 
that I heard without a voucher for its 
truth. I heard that after several un- 
successful e£Forts to establish conven- 
ticles, and set up dissenting congrega- 
tions in this parish, not one had been 
successful. Not through the opposi- 
tion of authoritative influence, or the 
manifestation of a persecuting spirit ; 
but by the fair and effectual preventive 
of there being no room nor occasion 
for any such addition to the ministerial 
function, where at all the stated times 
which orthodoxy permits, but at no 
other than when sanctioned by si»ch 
aothoritj, the Liturgy, Sacraments, 
and ordinances of the Church, as by 
Jaw established, were constantly, dili- 

gently, and ably performed and cele- 
rated, without evasion, reluctance, or 
deviation, and by the minister law- 
fully appointed thereto. No corpse 
had been left unburied, or inconve- 
nient time assigned for the perform- 
ance of that solemn but certainly la- 
boiious part of the Clergyman's duty. 
No child left unbaptised because the 
minister was absent from home ; and 
as a due degree of attention was paid 
to the spiritual comforts of the people, 
so their temporal wants were not neg- 
lected, and the zeal of the sectaiian 



found no room for the intrusion of hit 
crude theology, nor opportunity of in* 
gratiating himself by decbtming aninat 
the sloth, negligence, pride, or aelftth* 
ness of the Vhurck Mimiier. 

« What shall we do. Sir," aaid a 
grey-headed old larroer, liyiog iip«i 
his own esute in the nirith, "ividi 
the travelling preacher ttiat is eomelo 
preach under tne tree?" (in th« middle 
of the village). ^' Ask him lo ge bone 
with you, and give him tome breed 
and cheese for his trouble; if I weie le 
hear him I should i" was the reply of 
this eccentric divine ;*^nd so, ate 
two or three haraneues mndir ike irtf^ 
the itinerant took nis leave, and left 
the villagers to go to chorch, aa their 
fathers had done, and as they coniinae 
to do, without a iingie mHkodi$i mt 
dittenier amongst t£tm /^ Not that 
the parson at all shapes his diaooonca 
to ttie accommodating topica whick 
perhaps may be supposed^ to have bed 
some influence in rendering bim po» 
pular. By no means. He depepda nol 
upon the will and pleasure ofbis bear- 
ers as the lecturer or the sectarian doci» 
for the opportunity and the right wbieb 
he possesses ; he exercises it with jdia* 
cretion, but with independent aii icer i y » 
as a true son of the Chureb. Rank, 
station, age, sex, all equally- bit beer- 
ers, are equally the objects of bb te> 
gaid in his discourses : and that I may 
not trespass too long, I wSl beg Icere 
to give an instance of it» fay addiob 
that in two of his sermoiia wbicb i 
happened to hear, the discosMoa waa 
in the first from a verse in Hoacay ** Ye 
have f>loughed wickednesa, te bare' 
reaped iniquity, ye haye eaten the fmit 
of lies, because thou didst tmat in tbr 
way" (ch. x. 13) ; and in the aeBOii^ 
from its accompaniment, "Sow to 
yourselves in righteoosneta, reap in 
mercy, break up your fellow groond | 
for it is time to seek the Lord, till be 
come and rain righteousness npoa 
you.*' (ch. X. le.) Now, Mr. Urban, 
the efl*ect of this sort of preaekmg mud 
living being exemplifled as I bare de- 
scried, I cannot help thinking that 
as similar effects are usually foniiPlb' 
be produced bv similar causea, tbm 
would be mucn less pride and cafct« 
ousness, and ill neishbourhobd and 
idleness, and quarrelling and disho* 
nesty, and infinitely leu cant and fii« 
naticism and hypocriqr amongst tbe 
people of EndUind, if such examplea 
as that which I have cited were 



183a] 



Hon. and Rtv. G. Spencer.— Cardmal Weld. 



103 



common amongit us ; and if there were 
fewer plomlitts and noo*retidcnis, and 
fox-homing, shooting* gambling, danc- 
ing, electioneering, and justice-hont- 
ing Clergy, than are frequently to be 
met with. Firz-DBACOM. 

Mr. Urban, Feb. 18. 

ACCORDING to an account piib- 
liihed yesterday in the Morning 
Herald and other papers, the Hon. and 
Rev. Gemrge Spencer, yonngeu son of 
Esrl Spencer, publicly renounced the 
principles of the Protesunt Church of 
England, in the Catholic Chapel at 
Leicester on Saturday last, and em* 
braced the tenets of the Catholic reli- 
gion, into whose service it is said he is 
to be received as a priest. The con- 
version of so amiable and illustrious a 
nobleman in these eventful days, is in 
itself not a little remarkable ; but what 
fenders it more so is, that by the 
change he will have to forego a very 
large and lucrative church preferment, 
amounting to near three thousand a 
year. This (act, whatever may be 
thoiicht of the change itself, is highly 
creditable to the honesty of him who 
has made so mat a pecuniary sacrifice 
for the sake <m his cmiseience. This \% 
the seventh or eighth person of conse- 
quence, who hasl)cen converted with- 
in as many years; among the number 
may be reckoned several scholars from 
Cambridge. 

If we credit the papers, conversion 
is going on at a great rate in some 
countries, in Germany, for instance, 
and in Pbland. The letter published 
in the Chronicle by the Rev. Morrb 
James of Ptombridge is certainly not 
calculated to dissuade men from the 
change from Protestant to Catholic 
religion. And indeed there is a some- 
thing in the tenor of the times, and in 
the course that religious politics have 
taken, that looks very much as if Ca- 
tholicism would again increase ; while 
the liberal sentiments entertained by 
all modern Catholics* and the esta- 
blishment of the great principle of 
civil and religious liberty, by the late 
enactments, will guarantee the public 
against the bimtted encroachment of 
any religious faction whatever, while 
charity and profbse munificence to- 
wards the poor and needy will spring, 
as hrrrtofore , cml of the pre^'alence of 
religious feelings, and society will be 
benefited. 

It i« remarkable that the Right Rev. 
Dr. Weld, the owner of Lulworth 



Castle, who was last month created. 
Cardinal at^ Rome by his Holiness, is 
the first Englishman who Ym held 
that elevated post since the days of 
Charles I.* This gentleman also has 
foregone the enjoyment of a large foiw 
tune, in order to become Prelate of the 
Catholic Church, and a more amiable 
or learned man there does not exist. 

I have travelled within a few years 
over a large portion of £urope, and 
I have been surprised at the man- 
ner in which the Catholic ChoKh is 
beginning again to prevail ; but unik^ 
out any of that intolerance which is 
said formerly to have belonged to ir. 
I am sorry to say that Deism is also 
gaining ground among many superfi- 
cial joong men at the German Uni* 
versities. These two facts put me in 
mind of what is said by the author of 
an old tract called « Body, Life, and 
Mind," published many years ago, 
via. <*That there were but two thiogi 
in religion. Deism and apostolical 
Christianity, and that a man might 
just uke his choyce between them.*' 
Absurd as this sentence is, I fear 
that piety and infidelity often produce 
each other by the re-actton of party 
spirit. Be this as it may, there is no 
ooubt, if we look at the number of 
new Churches aud Chapels, that at 
present religion is gaining a great 
march on scepticism, as men are now 
beginning to see that Christianity is 
u necessary for happiness here as it is 
hereafter; it may be fiiirly presomtd 
that the crimes of atheistical revolu- 
tions have been amply atoned for, and 
that the faith of the Cross will at 
length extend itself over the earth in 
peace. Theodorus. 

Mr. Urbaw, Feb. i. 

STRANGE and fearful rumours are 
once more afloat, that the venerable 
and noble edifice of St. Mary Overy's, 
now St. Saviour's Church, South wark, 
is about to be partially destroyed, 
through the sapience and economy of 
an omcial knot of %vorthy burghers, 
who, though they may be veiy excel- 

• We know aot wh j oor Corretpondtat 
omits to nentioB the Cardinal of York, tba 
Utt of the Stuarts ; who, though a forvigMr 
by liiflh, it ihoold not bt forgotten, (band hi 
hit d'lttretfl the Mhrantage «f hit dMCMt, 



from Ea^lith aad ProtMtut booaty. Car- 
dinal Ertkioa, alto a pentiootr of Gtofge 
the Third, wat a Seouroan, of the Earl of 
Kellic't fiiroiW. EniT. 



104 



Threatened DesiruciiQn of SI. Mary Overjf'n Church. £FeU 



Jent and prudent judg^ of nauere of 
busineaa behind their counters (I apeak 
it with no disrespect for commercial 
pursaiu), are certainly totally disquali- 
ned from their habits and occupations 
to direct repairs or alterations in our 
public edifices. I will consider (by an 
extension of charity) that these volun- 
tary desecrators of our fine old Gothic 
fanes are actuated by no puritanical 
hostility, arising from the assumed su- 
perior illumination of dissent against 
our national Church* although, alas ! 
constituted as parish authorities now 
frequently are, such a feeling, either 
openly or insidiously, may acquire in- 
fluence and prevail. I will consider 
them combined merely in a committee 
of economy, and that their intention is 
but summarily to get rid of such parts 
of the venerable edifice, as it would 
require a considerable sum to repair. 
But will it be believed or endured, 
that in an age in which the architec- 
tural improvement of the British Me- 
tropolis IS ao much sought and pursued 
at a lavish expenditure, that this noble 
and now almost solitar)^ remnant of 
ancient ecclesiastical architecture with- 
in the limits of the City of London, 
should be swept from the surface of 
the earth or disfigured, on the paltry 
plea of pecuniary expediency ? Is it of 
no importance to tlie effect of the mag- 
nificent Bridge which is now in the 
course of rapid completion across the 
Thames, that its southern approach 
should be seen in combination with 
ao splendid a monument of the piety 
of our forefathers? 

When the destruction of the Hall 
of £ltham Palace was meditated, some 
members of the British Senate thought 
proper to raise a strong and effectual 
protest in its favour; and will they 
suffer St. Saviour's Church, South- 
wark, to fall, or be mutilated, without 
a single word for its protection ? I do 
not believe it; it is only because these 
things are, in the first place, meditated 
ao secretly, and consummated so sud- 
denly, that they are effected without 
the interference of the members of th^ 
lef^islative and executive Government. 
I call upon them not silently to suffer 
this ancient and striking feature of our 
national architecture to be disfigured 
or destroyed. I call upon the Society 
of Antiquaries of London, as a body, 
once more to exert whatever influence 
tbcy mav posaeas, to arrest such a mea- 
sure. Be the parish of St. Saviour's 
really too poor to undertake the resto- 



ration of the building, surely a few 
thousands (whatever the state of pub- 
lic finance) would be cheerfully con- 
ceded by the City of London, or Par- 
liament, for so reasonable an object. 
Let the building be repaired as nearly 
as possible on the principles of the ori- 
ginal construction of its existing parts. 
A successful specimen of such an at- 
tempt is exhibited at the caat end of 
the Church, although I think it wm 
somewhat dearly bought by the de- 
struction of the ancient Chaipel conti- 
guous, and the monuments which it 
contained. 

The space cleared for the approaches 
to the new London Bridge most fortu- 
nately will throw the old Church com- 
pletely open to view ; the houses which 
surround it are for the greater part of 
an old and valueless description, and 
nothing could be easier to effect than 
a commodious square of handsome 
buildings surrounding the Church, 
which would be eagerly occupied by 
commercial men for their town resi- 
dences. Let those whose inleretU it 
may concern look well to this; and 
let all who love the history and an- 
cient monuments of th«ir native land, 
unite in any way which may lie within 
their power to forward the object of 
this appeal. 

For myself, Mr. Ufban, 1 am an 
old friend and acquaintance of this 
conventual pile; even in. my boyisk 
days 1 loitered in her long-drawn aiales, 
contemplated her embowered roof,lis^ 
tened to the swell of the organ, and 
the chaunt of infant praise, surveyed 
the martial traits of the mailed tem- 
plar, her benefactor, or paused at the 
tomb of the chaplet-crowned old Eos* 
I ish minstrel Gower. I shall still watch 
her fate, and if she must fall, or be 
dishonoured by the spirit of Vandal- 
ism, 1 shall do my best to ring her 
knell, without respect of persons, in 
the ears of those who are the authors 
of the violence. 

Yours, &C. SUTHBIEVSIS. 

P. S. Since writing the above, I 
have learnt that the transepts of the 
Church which have been so long in a 
ruinous and disgraceful state, are to be 
repaired, and that the principal feature 
of the proposed mutilation ia to be the 
lowering of the present roof, a design 
which will mucn injure the effect of 
the building, and at variance with the 
hiffb'poiuied style of Gothic in which 
it IS constructed. 



■- .•il/.-.tEHSETSMll 



IdSO.] Tower, Church, Aniuiuities, and Scetierff of Dundry, 



105 



Mr. Urbaw, Feb. 3. 

THE village of Dundry, in Somcr- 
tvt!ihirr, is tiiiiaietl on a range of 
hills, or rather one vast hill, Ji^li feet 
abo%'e the level of the tea, which may 
be said lo commence at Beil minster. 

Its name is derived, says Colli nson, 
from two Erse wonls, jDunand Dreach, 
signifying " hill of oaks," of which 
woo<l, no doubt, there was plenty in 
former times. 

The manor of Onndry was formerly 
unitrd to thai of Chew Magna, and 
held by the Bishops of Bath and Wells, 
tor a period of five hundred years, until 
the time of Edward VI., when it was 
alienated from the Church, and giveti 
to the Dnke of Somerset, on whose 
attdinder it rcteried to the Crown, and 
passid through several bonds, until it 
eame from the Popbam family to ilie 
Sunimerit who are its pretcni pot- 

SCt>B4in. 

This village has been honoured with 
a roost magnificent Tower, api»ended 
to a most insignificant Church. Dm 
th« former, which was erected in the 
reign of Edward IV. is a land-mark 
fi>r an amaaing extent, oiid migfit pro- 
bably have been originjlly intended at 
buch by the fotmderor foundt-rs, rather 
than as necessary for so cuntrniptibla a 
structure as that which shrinks be^ 
neath it. A turret crowns the north- 
east angle, and buttresses of eight 
gradations support three others. Four 
horiiontal strings separate the height 
in 10 as many stories, each of which con- 
tains pointed windows, with neat mul- 
lions. The upper string, or cornice, 
has projcciiDg grotesque heads of ani- 
mals on every angle but the norih- 
east, and one over each window to the 
canlinal points. The former support 
brautiful pierced flying buttresses lo 
the four lanirrns or pierced turrets; 
and the latter octagon columns em- 
baiilrd. The rich rH'ect uf the whole 
will be be»t exempli He<l by the an- 
nexed print, i^rr Piatc L) 

The ooiith-wr&i, or weaihcr-tidet of 
this fine Tower, have recently been 
ihorouably and judiciously repaired, by 
the subititution of sound stones for 
those which were deca^. 

From the summit of this Tower it a 
fine view of Bristol, with its nuuierotu 
spires, contrasted with the more solid 
lower of the Cathedral. More to the 
left, are tiie Crescents ni CliTion, al- 
most overhanging the Hoi Wclis ; and 

Gbnt. Mao. Fehvary, 1 880. 
O 



below the picturesque rocks of St.Vin- 
rrnt are occasional views of the Avon, 
bounded by (he hanging woods of 
SioiieleiMh. Rather incire to the west, 
is Sir John Smyih*s elegant seat at 
Long A»hion, over which are seen the 
waiers of ilie Severn, bounded by the 
WeUh cojst. To the south, the eye 
ranges over a rich and varied country, 
including Alfred's Tower, and the lux- 
uriant woods rising above Sir R. C. 
Ho3re*s sent at Sioiirhead ; also KnulU 
Hill, near Warminster, with the noble 
plantations at (^ngleat, belonging to 
the Marquess of Baih, and the Dukv 
of Somerset at Maiden Bradley | be* 
yond which are the high downs of 
Wilts and Dorset. 

The body of Dundry Church it of 
more ancient date than the lower. 
The columns of the nrchet are plain 
and massive ; and, at the west end of 
the nave, is a small lancet window, of 
the early English oira. The font ia 
octagonal, with a lur<;e rcoess, oiid it 
enriched with sculpture of an early 
age. 

' In the Church is a mononienl to 
William Symes, gent, and several of 
his succe5««irs. There are also memo- 
rials of the families of Tibbol, Hay- 
ihorne, and Baker, of Alwick C<»urt; 
and one to William J ones, of Bishpori, 
of whom it awerts, *' that his natnral 
abilities, unnided by ocademical educa- 
tion, enabled him to refute, with . no* 
common sagacity, the slaviih tyalcint 
of usurped authority over tlie Vighltp 
the consciencety or the reason of man- 
kind!!'* 

in the (-horch-yard it a crots, with 
a tall shaft, having an ornamented 
head, nearly perfect, fixed on a high 
pedestal, on five rows of slept. Near 
It originally tiood an immense tione, 
of al)oul five feel cubic measure, which 
hos been removed to the southern tide 
of the Church. It is called the " Mo- 
ney Stone,'' and on it the poor have 
been paid from time ini memorial* 
North of the Church are the inuiilaicd 
remains of an ancient stone coflBn; 
and contiguoni it an antique hoiMCi 
built by the Bishop of Raili and Welb. 
for the retidence of the officiating oo- 
rtte, but now convened into the parish 
poor*hoose. 

Dundry contains 2,800 acres of land, 
8S houses, 92 families, and 464 in« 
hnhitanis. The living it a curacy on- 
ncxcd to Chew Magna. 

Yourt, &c. A TR.\vr.LLEB. 



106 Disiresses of th€ Manufacturing and Labouring Classes, [Feb. 

lures and commerce, are intimately 
connected with successful agriculture. 



MI T« « . *• Summerlands, Exeter, 
r. Urban, ^^^ ^ 

AN Antiquarian Magazine, of such 
long and established repuleas the 
Gentleman's, records whatever may be 
of general interest and utility to future 
generations. Nothing, within the whole 
scope of the uncertain science of po- 
litical economy, has created so deep a 
sensation in the public mind, as the 
suflfcrings and distress so prevalent 
among manufacturers and the labour- 
ing classes of the people. Ascribed to 
a muliiplicity of causes, this dreadful 
visitation of Providence, apparently, is 
traced to none distitictly, while it is 
more than probable that all of them, 
operating variously, contribute to pro- 
duce the melancholy effect so much 
felt and lamented. At a recent Countj 
Meeting, a Noble Lord attributes agrt- 
cultural distress (it is thought truly) to 
not having lowered rents at the peace. 
Manufactures yielded the prodigious 
profits seen during the war, because 
the competition, if any, was feeble 
and unavailing. It is now far other- 
wise, as our own machinery is erected 
and in activity against us all over 
Europe and America; and inferior as 
the produce has comparatively been, it 
has approximated to an equality which 
has lowered the value of and demand 
for British manufactures. Buonaparte, 
that eminent destroyer of the human 
race, and whose inordinate ambition 
occasioned four hundred millions of 
the national debt, endea%*oured in the 
Netherlands to rival the manufactures 
of this country, and signally failed. 
The consequence was a distress among 
operatives, similar to what is now un- 
fortunately experienced here. That 
country abouncling in moors of an im- 
provable substratum, the government 
judiciously resolved to employ the 
starving and distressed manufacturers 
and labourers in cultivating these spare 
and unproductive lands, by spade, hoe, 
and mattock-husbandry, under the in- 
struction and guidance of competent 
persons. Sufficient habitations were 
erected, and government sustained all 
expenses, till a successful course of 
systematic labour and industry rendered 
such assistance unnecessary. The bar- 
ren ground thus brought into cultiva- 
tion is now among the most fertile in 
the Netherlands! while former dis- 
tress has disappeared, with a great in- 
crease of that national wealth and 
prosperity, which, through manufjc- 



Emigration has frequently been pro- 
posed as an efficient means of providing 
for manufacturers and labourers unem- 
ployed. When such proceed to British 
colonies, the public welfare is bene- 
fited ; but otherwise, they strengthen 
foreign nations to the injury of the 
mother country. In the present case 
of almost general distress, funds cannot 
be found (or the removal of a sufficient 
number for rendering adequate relief. 
Besides, when population is diminished 
by this expedient, the chasm is soon 
filled up, and su Bering rises rapidly to 
its origmal level. A permanent re- 
medy, of constant application, is want- 
ing; and, fortunately, it is obvious, 
efficient, and of easy application. The 
waste lands amount, at the lowest 
estimation, to five-and-tweniy millions 
of acres, to which may be added about 
six millions of meadow-land. Without 
loss of time, proper farm-houses ought 
to be constructed on the waste buds 
roost contiguous to the parts of the 
kinsdom where pauperism and want 
of labour ap|}ear to be most prevalent. 
Under the management and superin- 
tendance of persons skilled in agricul- 
ture, the able-bodied objects now re- 
ceiving poor-raies should be located on 
the pre|)ared sites, with all requisites 
provided for setting them to work, in 
the cultivation of their resMctive allot- 
ments, by means of apaae^huihandry. 
The females, furnished in the first in- 
stance with, the raw materials, will, 
ere long, furnish articles of clothing 
for their families. Thns, in a short 
time, these establishments will main- 
uin themselves, provide for the tenant, 
and yield a rent. Where is the ex- 
pense of carrying into effect so very 
eligible a plan to come from? It is 
manifest that a fair portion of the poor- 
rate cannot be more advantageously 
employed. The sale of the waste lands 
has been frequently pro|>osed, for dif- 
ferent tiseful purposes. To defray the 
first expense of the important and in- 
dispensable plan, imperfectly sketched, 
here are the ready means, as these 
lands would be purchased with money 
that cannot now be employed. It is 
quite unnecessary to point out how 
highly the national interests would be 
promoted by the sale and cultivation of 
at least a due proportion of ground 
now comparatively useless. The clergy 
have the same title to tithes that the 



1830.] 



Frogrui and lUcliMt of fVUeherqft. 



107 



landlord hat lo rent The bcti inte- 
rrats of Chritiianity demanil that ihc 
clencyman and tenant should not be 
brought in contact on the luhject of 
tithes ; and thrrefore, in the proposed 
sale, the purchaser must be bound to 
p»y this requisite lax, to be occasionally 
modlRrd by the average price of corn, 
throughout erery seven years, as equi- 
table io both parties. 

Si quid movisii reciiiu i»tis, candidut 
imperii — Si hoh, it must be allowed 
that what appears to be readily prac- 
ticable, and indispensably necessary, 
must be eligible. 

John Macdoiiald. 



OV TUB PROGRBSS AND DECLIVB Op 
WITCHCBAFT. — NO. V. 

'* fiehoM ihtB firoat Co front, aceiirieii both, 
SauI uA tha Sorctrest. Her inqaisitive gaxa 
GUr*d on liim ; and hit eyelid grsdval sank 
Beneath har ttarcliiog.'* 

Sothesy's **SaMV' 

(CamdmUd from p, 99.) 

AT the Taunton Assixes, 1811, 
Betty TowDKnd, aged 77, consi- 
dered by the superstitious as a witch, was 
tried for obtaining money from a child 
under the following circumstances. 
The prosecutor Jacob Poole^ a labour* 
ing man, had been in the habit of send- 
ing his daughter, aged thirteen, with 
applet in a basket to market. On 
Jan. 84, the old woman met with the 
^irl, and asked to see what she had got 
in her basket, which having examined, 
she said to her, " Hast got any mo- 
ney?" The child said she had none. 
" Then get some for me," said the old 
woman, '*and brin;^ it to me at the 
castle door, or 1 will kill thee." The 
child terrified to an extreme at such a 
threat from a witch, procured two shil- 
lings, and carried it to her, when the 
old woman said, '**Tis a good thing 
thou hast not it, or el.^e I would have 
ipade thee die by inches.'* She prac- 
tised this upon tne child several times, 
obtaining in all 2l. 6s. bd. This was 
at length disclosed by the child to her 
mother, who accused the witch, where- 
upon she swore that if any one dared 
accuse her» the would make them die 
by inches. "No," said Mrs. Poole, 
who coutidercd that she knew more 
about witches than her daughter, " that 
thee shall not; 1*11 hinder that;'* and, 
lakmga pin from her clothes, scratched 
the witch from the elbow to the wrist, 
in three diflerent placet, to draw her 
blood ; a process belierol to be of un- 



failing efficacy at an antidote to witch- 
craft. 

It appears, by the " A nnoal Register'* 
of 1808, that Ave %ifomen were irifd at 
Putna, in Hindotlan, on charges of 
torcery, and being found guilty, wera 
put to death. Tlie Governor-General, 
on being informed of the circumstance, 
ordered all the principal persons who 
composed the tribunals, to be appre- 
hended and arraigned before the Cir- 
cuit Court of Putna, on charges of the 
murder of these women ; and the Court 
ordered them to suffer death. It ap- 
i)eared, however, that this custom had 
been preserved time immemorial. Se- 
veral of the witnesses referred to nu- 
merous instances of persons having 
been put to death by the Brahmins for 
sorcery; and one of them, in parti- 
cular, |>roved that his own mother had 
been tried and executed at a witch. 
The Governor therefore pardoned the 
officers ; but, to prevent tne recurrence 
of a circumstance so disgraceful to hu- 
manity, a proclamation was forthwith 
issued^ declaring, that any one forming 
a tribunal for the trial of persons 
charged with witchcraft, or aiaing or 
encouraging in any act lo deprive 
such |)ersons of life, shall be deemed 
guilty of murder, and suffer the penalty 
aitacheil to that offence. 

On the nth April, 1827. at the 
Monmouth Assizes, William Watkiut, 
and three othert, were indicted and 
found guilty of an assault upon Maiy 
Nicolas, a decrepit old woman, up- 
wards of ninety, which they had com* 
mitted under a belief, prevalent in that 
neighbourhood, that she was a witch. 
The old woman deposed to the pri- 
tonert- and othert having teized her, 
and beaten her with thorns and brian, 
for the purpose of, as in days of yore» 
drawing blood ; and they also attempt- 
ed to force hrr into a pool, for the j>or- 
pose of trying the efficacy of the water 
ordeal. 

A witness proved the prisoners haviog 
taken the old %voman to a lane where 
three cattle had died, and charged her 
with being the author of their death ; 
and then, taking her to a stable where 
there was a colt, made her repeat te- 
veral times, " God bless the cohf 
They afterwards stripped her naked, 
and searched her, in order to find her 
teat, which they declared they had 
found, upon their ditcovering a wan 
or weo upon her head. 

Thit, in all probability, it the latett 
inttance to be met with of Englitb cre« 



108 



Pfogreis and Decline of fVUckcraft. 



[Feb: 



dulity as lo the existence of this sur- 
prising art, and it may be Questionable 
whether it will not be the last. 

From what has btren stated, it 
will be |)eTceived that the ladies, with 
but very few exceptions, have pos- 
sessed the honour of being the ex* 
clusi\e proprietors of this peculiar 
charm ; and it may be expected that, 
in a treatise of this kind, the writer 
should attempt to give some account of 
this, and explain the cause to which it 
may be attributed. The oracles of the 
ancient Sybils, who were all women, 
have acquired such an established re* 
putation in the world, that they will 
for ever do honour to the fair sex ; 
and then they can boast of Circe, 

** Goddess and queeo, to whom the powers 

belong 
Of dreadful magic and commanding song.** 

Odyssey f Book x. 

Their Siren sislcrs 

" Celestial music warbled from their tongue, 
Their song was death — they made destruc- 
tion please 1 

*Twas then, too, that 

« Witchcraft celebrated pale Hecate's o£Fer- 
ing ;" Shakipeare, 

The Queen of Witches, whose power 
extended over heaven, and earth, and 
sea, and hell. 

A Gipsey, or Egyptian, is a common 
name for a female fortune-teller to this 
day, which is doubtless attributable to 
the fact that Egypt was, as is well 
known, famous for the art of divina- 
tion, of which we have a very early 
instance recorded in Exodus, where 
mention is made of the Sorcerers and 
l^lagtcians exercising their enchant- 
ments in the presence of Moses and 
Pharoah ; and it is singular that, 
amongst Gipseys as well as Witches, 
the pre|)onderance on the side of those 
possessed of these endowments has 
invariably been in favour of the wo- 
men. By what means the ladies, in 
preference lo the other sex, became 
thus )>eculiarly gifted, I have not been 
able distinctly to ascertain. Certain, 
however, it is, that for many ages it 
was so peculiar to themselves, that 
they may justly claim the honour of 
being almost the sole possessors of it. 
One Hichnrd Barnard, however, a mi- 
nister of Batcombe, in Somerset, in 
1627, attempted to account for this 
singular mnnopolv, in a little work 
entitled, '* A Guide to Grand Jurymen 
about the Trial of Witches." 

" There are more women witches (says 



he) than men, and it may be for these 
sons : — First, Satan his setting upon thmam 
rather than on men, since his unhappie 
outset and prevailing with Kve. Seeondly, 
their more credulous nature, and apt to be 
misled aud deceived. Thirdly, for uiat they 
are c(*mmonlie more impatient and nore 
superstitious ; and, being displeased, more 
malicious, and so more apt to bitter cursing } 
and far more revengeful, according to tlicir 
power, than men, and so herein mure 6c 
instruments of the devill. Fonrthly, they 
are more tongue-ripe, and less able to hide 
what they know from others s end therefore, 
in this respect, are more ready to be teeehers 
of witcltcrafc to others, and to leave it to 
children, servants, or to some others, than 
men. Fifthly and lastly, because, where they 
think they can command, they are more 
proud in their rule, and more busy in setting 
such on woike whom they may oommand, 
tlun men, and therefore tlie devill labonretk 
roost to make them witches { beeaose tbey» 
upon every light displessure, will set him on 
worke, which is that whicb he desireth, and 
is sore displeased if he bee not set on worke, 
which women will be ready enough to doe.*' 

It is time now to bring this subject 
to a close; and, in doing so, it may 
not be altogether useless if we endea- 
vour to satisfy ourselves whether or not 
there is any foundation for the belief, 
which appears to have been entertained 
in every age and in every country, that 
this extraordinary power has been pos- 
sessed by our frail species. It ought 
readily to be allowed, that much im- 
posture on the one hand, and much 
Ignorant superstition on the other, have 
taken place as regards the practice of 
witchcraft ; but can it be supposed that 
our heavenly Father %voold re})eatedly 
comn)aii(l the rulers of his people, u 
wc find he has done, to punish with 
death a crime which never had any 
existence ? The existence, malice, and 
power of infernal spirits, are sufficiently 
declared in Scripture, atid their various 
arts minutely detailed. There can be 
no doubt that they have been both 
able and willing thus to interpose, if 
permitted, and that our nature is to 
corrupt and vile, as knowingly to com- 
bine with them. That witchcraft may 
be, and that it hath been until a late 
period practised, seems to be abun- 
dantly ca|)able of proof, were any col- 
lateral evidence necessary to confirm 
the truth of the divine testimony, a 
conviction of which appears to nave 
been deeply impressed u|)on the mind 
of the celebrated commentator Scotf^ 
as well as most other pious and intelli- 
gent commentators. But, as is well 
observed by Scutt, 



1830.] 



Program and Decline of f¥\iehtfafl. 



log 



** As liy cOTtaia dtgrett of oultivaikMi wild 
b«MU art banifthtd nr tstirpaled, so, in mim 
•U;:et of civilitatioa, the practice of witch- 
craft i« Marly ttdodarf. The troth it, hi 
Mich circwmetancei, it wo lonf(«r to well 
antwert Satan's grand piirpoees uf deception 
and destruction. He therefore shifts his 
griMiod, and vsrirs his attacks ; nor is he 
any kiser hy eschan|(tog ttie practice of 
witchciaft for the fNrcvaleoce of scepticism.'* 

The credit of inaitert of fact depends 
much upon ihr relaters, who, ir they 
can lint be deceived thrmseUes, nor 
supposed to be any way inieretted to 
inipoM? upon others, oii^ht lo be ere- 
ditrd, for upon these circumstances all 
human faith is ^rotiiideil. The rela- 
tions which have been sel«rctcd, may 
be ffelie<l U|>on as genuine and authen- 
tic: the irijis took place, the facts 
narrated, and many others which want 
of space required lo l>e omitted, were 
actually sworn to. Indeed, 1 look U|K>n 
it a« a S|)ecial instance of proviflence, 
that there ever and anon have been 
examples of witchcraft ; for thereby a 
strong confirmation of the truth of the 
sacred volume is afforded. I confess 1 
am not one of those who disbelieve 
erery thing which I cannot compre- 
hend or account for. I believe the 
account of the VV^itch of Endor for this 
simple reason — because I believe the 
record which contains it to be the in- 
spired work of God: but still, I must 
confess, that the arts and practices 
ascribed to witches in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, are not 
more extraordinary and unaccountable. 
The way pro|)erly to judge of the fact 
is by the evidence. Mat ten of fact, 
well proved, ought not to be denied, 
because we cannot conceive how they 
can be performed, or because we never 
saw the like. By the same reasiming, 
we may infer that there never were any 
robberies done, on Hounslow Heath, 
because we have travelled over there 
without bring robbed ; and the Spa- 
niard inferred well %vho said there was 
no sun in England, because he had 
been three weeks here and had not 
seen any. What is to be said of those 
renowned sages of the l.iw, such as 
Lords Chief Justices Coke, Hale, Uoli, 
and others, who, with all their learn- 
inz, gofwl sense, and solid judgment, are 
now to be recorded ns sad instances of 
human frailly. Sir Matthew Hale has 
said, that there were such creatures u 
witches, he made no doubt it all, for 
these reasoiM :— Ftrsl^ the bdy Scrip- 
tures have affirmed iu Scooudly, the 



witdom of all nations hare provided 
lavrt against such persons, which seems 
to imply a confident belief in the ex- 
istence of witchcraft. Can it, in short, 
be allowed that all the world have 
conspired together to cheat and juggle 
mankind on this subject; that every 
recorded instance is ulse; that every 
one of the many thousands who hava 
suffered death, had no commerce with 
an evil spirit, without whose influence 
it cannot be believed that they could 
have performed these astonishing feats ; 
that all the countless host of witnesses 
were, to a man, liars and perjurers; 
and the judges and juries of the ac- 
cused fools and murderers ? 

Upon the whole, the safest conclu- 
sion appears to be that which was 
come to by the enlightened Black- 
stone, doubtless after much reflectioo 
u|x>n the subject, who adopted the 
opinion entertained by a celebrated Es- 
sayist, in 1711. After a description of 
the crime of witchcraft, in the fourth 
volume of his " Commentaries," p. 60, 
Blackstone says : 

** To deny the possibility, nay actoal ex- 
istence of witchcrafi and sorcery, is at once 
flatly to contradict the revealed word of GhNly 
in various passages l>oth of the Old wtA 
New Testaments ; and the thing itself is a 
truth to which every nation in the world 
has In its turn borne testimony^ either by 
examples seemingly well attested, or by 
prtihibitory laws, which at least si^ipose the 
possibility of a commerce with evil spirits. 
The civil law punishes with death not only 
the sorcerers tnemselves, but also those who 
cou^ult them, imitating in the former the 
express law of God — * thou shalt not suffir 
a »tU:K to live.* And our own laws, both 
hefoie and since the Conquest, have been 
equally penal, ranking the crime in the same 
class with heresy, and condemning both to 
the flames. Wherefore (he adds) it seems 
to be roost eligible way to come to the con- 
clusion of an ingenious writer of oar own." 

The conclusion referred to will be 
found in No. 117 of " The Spec- 
tator,'* which, it is said, was written 
by the elegant and sensible Addi- 
son, and produced a great sensatioo 
in the vear 171 1* having materially 
shook tne popular credulity, no one 
having been put to death in this coun- 
try after that period, although one waa 
hanged in 1705, and several were af- 
terwards convicted. With the obser- 
vations of this estimable man, as they 
entirely coincide with my own humble 
opinions, I close this subject : 

« Wbni I hear the relatioDS that are 
made fron all paru of the worlds sol oely 



110 



Chitrch of South Mims, Middkier. 



[Wb. 



fiom Noriray aftd LApUad, from th« Etttt 
and \Ve»t loflieiy but from •very paitiealar 
DfttioD in Europe* I cannot Curbear dunking 
tliAt there U such an interconne and com- 
merce with evil Spirits as that which we 
express bj the name of Witchcraft. Bnt 
wlien I consider that the ignorant and cre- 
dulous parts of the world abound roost in 
these relatious, and that the persons amongst 
us who are supposed to engage in such an 
infernal commerce* are people of a weak 
mderstaading and cnucd imaffimUion, and 
m the same time reBect npon the many iro- 
poetures and delusions of thb nature that 
Dave been detected* in all ages, I endeavour 
to auikpcod my lieiief till I liear more certain 
accounts than any which have yet come to 
my knowledge. In short* when I consider 
the question — whether there are such per- 
sons in the world as those we call witcnea, 
my mind b divided between the two opposite 
opinions ; or rather* to speak my thoughts 
freely, I believe in several that there is* and 
has been* such a thing as witchcraft ; bnt, 
•t the same time* can give no credit to any 
particular modern instance of it." 

Yours, &c. I. P. 



Mr. Urbabt* Bqrnei, Dec. 14. 

HAVING passed' my schoolboy, 
days at South Mims* and being 
bare on a short visit, I made a pilgrim- 
age lo the old Church there* endeared 
to me bv many recollections. The 
tower and body of il were built not later 
urobablj than the reign of Henry II. 
Tlie chancel* and a part now inclosed 
bv a screen (the latter apparently about 
Henry VI. 's time), were evidently built 
at a different period. The whole of 
this pari of the structure is lower* both 
the roof and range of windows*. 

South Mims Church has been very 
rich in stained glass* as appears by the 
following entry, made A. L>. l62l* in 
the Register. Tliis volume, which is 
of vellum* commences in 1558, and 
reaches to 17(^« and is in fine preser- 
vation. 

"An'oDVi, IG21. 

** A eete of certoinc windowes in the 
Cliuroh of South Mims, taken out in the 
year above written, at whose cust they were 
made and in what >eare* as doth plainely 
apeare in the windows by the date of the 
Lord. 

" The firste grcate window on the north 
side abutting westward, was made by Richard 
Walter and John Boman* in the year 1 596. 

" TIm next window was made by the 
voung men and maydes of the same p'rish* 
m the year of o' Ljrd 1526. 

* A view of ttiia Church will be found in 
voL LXV. p. 545.~Edit. 



«Th« aesfe to thnS one, tKt Bonk aUt, 
wm made bj Richwd Haat* am thm y«r 
15«6. 

«• Tha fourth window om tU Mnh aida 
waa made by Thomas Fr a a ccit» ia tha jtmr 
of or Lord 1536. 

*' The fifth window oae the Mnh aid«» 
towards the east* waa made by the gond 
women of the aamc p'rish* in the year of 
o' Lord 1526. 

** One of the windows* one the south aide* 
waa made by Edward Jones* eitiaaa mad 
marchant taylor of London, in the year of 
o* Lord 1541. 

** There is no mention made of the odwr 
of that side* neither of the west end wu- 
dowes* nor the west windowes ; who mada 
them* nor when they were made." 

Four of the windows exist* in dif- 
ferent degrees of preservation : enough 
remains to identify those of the Ma^ 
dens* and Richard Walter's ; and one 
inscription is perfect : 

" Thys Wendow made be the good Ban, 
Thomas Francys* 1 596." 

The windows remaining are all of 
the same design ; a priest on one side 
kneeling at a plain table* on which is 
a book* praying* and a oongregation of 
men betiind. On the other side, a 
lady abbess* similarly occupied and at- 
tended* but the table very gaily decked 
with hangings and drapery. 

South Mims is rich in monumental 
brasses. In front of the commnnioo- 
table is a grave-stone* I presaroe about 
the time of Edward L On it are four 
shields* each bearing a chevron be- 
tween three leopards heads^ and in- 
scribed* 

** Henri Frowyk gist icy, 
Dieu d* Salme elt m'oy." 

This family was of great conse- 
quence heref* as in the porch, under 
the tower, is another grave-stone for 
Thomas Frowyk* on which are the 
efligie» of a knight (whose head lays on 
a hcrliiiet), and his lady. Beneath* six 
boys and twelve girls^. The brass* 
with the names and dates of their 
deaths* is lost, as also the shields with 
the arms; hut another remains, with a 
very curious epitaph* in these hexame- 
ter lines* written, says Wfcver* by John 
Whethamsted* Abbot of St. Albao't. 

** Qui jacet hie stratus Thomas Frowyk 
vocitatus, 

f An account of the Frowyk family may 
be seen in Lysont* '* Middlesex Parishes* 
p. 928.— Edit. 

I Mr.Omigh (u. 151) says, « thirtaen 
gtris."— Edit. 



ino.] Omreh mid MmumenU ai Smik Mim$, Mhddkiix. 



Ill 



Maribw, «l Bfttttf fwitt, vida — d eWi i 
Vir KtnenMoi tnt, gvMroMq** gMU oolr- 

Nam quod uMrt sok't gtne rot! pisiq** fr»- 

qucaUaty 
Aacnp'in volucra* viaatieiiiiiq"* fenmm 
Mttham tfltilt, Volptt fbveb tpoliftril 
Ao tasot aiveit; brtnttr qiMcumcjf* pro- 

piw|iiis 
lotolcnuil dMBprn pro poMe fbgcvetmt ipsa : 
loter ocM ttiaiD si litit eefoe wt uoqu'a 
AoModi fkcttlu, nwdiaas ci^tinxertt ip«M, 
Feconu tt paeon { cur nuae pacU tibi paauam i 
Det Daw oi rtquioB qoa Mnp" parmantt. 

AOMD. 

This aingalar epitaph on a man iU 
lutiriout in hit day, comnieoioratet hit 
love of fowling, hit homing of wild 
beatu, hit dririog away wolvet and 
badgrrty and other pcttt in hit neigh- 
bourhoi>d. It alto comtnendt hit ami- 
able qualitict as a mediator and peace- 
maker. The tradition of the place it, 
that he killed a wild boar that infctted 
tbete parts. 

In 1631 all the brattet on thit 
grave-tiooc were perfect, by which it 
appeared that Thoroat Frowyk died 
A. D. 1448; and that a chantry wat 
founded for the reriote of hit tool and 
Uiat of hit wife Elizabeth, which wat 
alienated in the reign of Elizabeth. 

In the chapel, tcreened ofT, and now 
terving at the vettry, is a superb mo- 
nument of a knight, in full and splen- 
did armour, hit head resting on hit 
helmet, and hit feet on a lion, under 
a canopy tupported by four columnt. 
The workmanithip can tcarcely be later 
than Edward IV. No inscription it 
vitible at present. It may be buried 
under the coatt of whitewath, by which 
the tomb hat been beautified t or have 
lieen on bratt, that hat been plundered. 
In front are four thieldt, and on each 
are the arms of Frowyk^-a chevron 
between three leopards* heads. On the 
first and fourth shields, thc^ impale 
three chevronels; on the third, three 
birds ; and on the second quartering, a 
cross voided, between eight crott crost- 
Ictt. 

Within the communion -railt it an- 
other canopy-monument, without effigy 
or inscription, supported by four co- 
lumns, which barbarously attempt to 
imitate Corinihian capitals, all the 
other work being Gothic, probably 
towards the conclusion of the reign of 
Henry VIII. In front are four quatre- 
foils : — io the fir»t and fourth are the 
united rotes of York and Lancstterj 
io the second, a loaten^ and a flourisb- 
ed 9 j and in the thirds an 9> which 



w« may prcsuoie are the initials of the 
person resting thtie*. 

Opposite to this is a tnblet-mona- 
ment, recording the death and an- 
cestors of Thomas Marsh, Etq. of 
Hackney, who died A.D. l667. His 
armt are— a horte^s head between tliree 
crotset fitch^, impaling those of his 
wife, a daughter of Jacob Horsey, of 
Hunninghaiu, Warwickthire— three 
horse's heads, bridled. 

Within the communion- rails are also 
these inscriptions on brasses : 

** Here lieth the body of Heory Ewor, of 
South Mims, in the oouatj of Middt.G«nt. 
son of Thomas Ewer, of Shealjburie. The 
said Henry aaarriad Joana, daughter of Ran- 
dal Marsh, of Heodon, and had issue by her 
one too and three daughters. He departed 
this life the 80th day of November, 1641." 

Arms — A wolf ttatant, showing his 
teeth ; in chief, three crosses; pii^ese«( 
impaling a horse's head between three 
fleurs de lis. 

" Here lieth interred the body of Sophia 
Harrison, second daughter of Thomas Har- 
rison, of South Mims, Etq. by Cathariae 
his wife, eldest daughter oi Sir Thomas 
Bland, of Kippax Park, in the county of 
Yorkshire, Kot. and Bart, who departed thit 
life the 90th day of June, b the ISth year 
ofberage, An« 1661." 

Arms— Three eagles displayed in 
fesse. 

Near Henry Fowyk's is a grave-stone 
of equal antiquity, on which only re- 
main two armorial brattes. One has^ 
Nebul^, on a bend dexter a lion pas* 
tant. On the other, a man-of-war 
with her anchor pendant ; and in 
chief a lion nasi^ant. A modern io- 
tcription hat neen cut on thit ttone, 
of which the word '* Rowley*' only 
remaint. Most likely another tenant 
of the old grave. 

Near this it another bratt, intcribed : 

« Here lyeth the bodie of Roger Hodsdeo, 
y« husband of Jone Hodsden. He deceaaad 
y« 16 day of Octob. 1606 s and y« saU Jooa 

deoeaeed tlie day of -^— . | ud they 

had itsue betwext thcfls 6 sonnet and 6 
daughters." 

I n the north aisle it a bratt, intcribed : 

*' Martha Ewer, daughter of Henry Ewer, 
Gent, and of Joaae his wife. The said Henry 
beioff son of Thomas Ewer, of Sheoleybury, 
w«^ Tbo* was son of Tbc^ Ewer of Hunton- 
bridge. The said Joaoe wee daughter of 
Raadoll Martha, of Heodon. Thit Martha 

« IMiabhr» says the « EodetHatieal 
Topogmpby,^ tha tomb of Robarl HiH, 
vioar, lass.—EoiT. 



» W Jlf r. Higgbu't lUplf to Mr. 

h«lli dioMB tU Utter put, fc, iho-h fc, 
bodjr !», her. lo dart «itli h^ti^Z^ 

K • ?*V*"u •«>»•««• in reu. with her 
.^LTfe^**^"'."!'*" »««« left l»r eldS 

■ ^- ''^' '» '•»• "'*'" rf thi. wSZ 
Obnt 1 9 Dec. len. Euri. is ~ 

menl.. but I .hall only nwice one 
which appear, ,o haw betn ertcwS 
about th« lime of Jam« I. lo^ih* 
centre ,. . deaih'. head. Two li,.« 
.re paimed black on . red groaiT 

0»er it ii the followinc coat — -S 
which name freq.iently occun in the 



Avexoi; Kai Awex»v. 

Mr. Urban, p^ , 

T 't^. '"'»"»«' Ihat. in your Mam. 
J. z ne for last nmnth, . re„„ i, ^. 
•erted from my friend Mr. Uohim 
re.l.eciing my 4le ,r«.i,e o . iC |^' 

•rticle, as religious controversy with 

A FRIBtTD IS not to mv lasie ' I . 

J«UndthaU.maT"d-by'hZ" 
teh'l7'"|-" -e*'"" (^hristlnity. 

aav th.. \l' "• ^ P"n>i«ed to 
My. that I have never, in anv work 

*"«««" • ««"d again.; our ?eliaron 
*I"^. """"h against the frauds of 

Tf r. '•'VJ'^P'* """• •"''I'""* rellRion 
of Jesus Christ has been overlaiif bv 

iiiJ .„.?•"!."""' "Pew'i'ions degr.d 
lOf to the character of the lieiii, «„j 

»«»rofChrXnTtv T*?*"" '" '"«- 
ob.erv.tioo.Txf;. fet„?' "^ 

P'fc:?.ieT,a,^l>rJi 
ranrwrtter.''"?"*'^^^^ 

o-ni,cJ,,.X''S,''tt.?g2- 



«**«i.-i«W*A«ri. LiAr«n«. . [Feb. 

«^^ havin, no.i;edrro'rr„r *" 

.11 w unforiunaie that roan» «» 
religious per,on, shnuW ™ j^ \Vl 
t«|ey^e promoting their o^^^^.^^ 

aidered a. .hero. . philoK,pher. and , 
Chrftiao the la.ter Sf whi5. ^ ^ij 
w«f. as he p«,f««| to believe iS^S 

'iu'^°".h':ir •"'~'' •••- 5^: 

him R... I *•»«•"•»« taught by 

lot, ,r."ii.^P ?• '.'»« '"ow hi.^ 



•obereWn^Ibl^forr^^-VtS 
Koran f„rg.j| by hi. follow^. ,ta?i 

<an wrmit Jesus Chritt to be t^^ 
aible for what i. nid in il.- /T^*^ 

wmaio. Sir, yours, &c. "'«*'"»«• * 
GODFRKY Htaoiiis. 



1*«V •.""u' , Somnsei Place 

.ion . '"*'"8 g"""" additional circul,! 
Norih^, 7- API.«»I in behalf of "hj 
Northern Libraries. 1 would now h^ 
to acquaint you. ,|,a, „,„ "^* ^ 
been sunported by the libJr.1 ^coi;^ ibT 
orr!n^ 1^'' ^r".?*^' «*•« Arrhbishop 

cSn: iTe' S?r' F b"'w"°"- ^''■"'«""« 
con B, h1, Vk "• ^^?'f""' Archdea- 
W?li; I .' T'"'^"* R'ckman. hj,. 

bv o?he?t''?*"" ^'"•""' «^- «^^ 
whose choice sefections of book, will 
open a „,de field of study lo theTn- 
dusinous inhabitants of those incl^ 
mem regions. A. the .mounU«W ) 
which I anticipate, is, however, fij 

fJdi f ."I •'" P"»?«»» of know. 

S Jht" \- '8 '" ••"•• 'hat 1 .hail 
Jeq> the sentiments expressed in niv 
former appeal ojK^n until 'the begionit^J 
of the month of April, af.er whilh "imf 

the ^^"'' r"''."?." *'" »« «>nfidei W 
he integrity and di«:reiion of Profesw 

"*'"• NiCH. Carlisle. 






. jf 



Yi 



; t 



:3t 

Li 
K 
J 

I"- 
1 



1 1'Z Mr^ Higgins'9 Reply to Mr. Upham. — Northern Libraries, . [Feb. 



hath chosen the better part, for thoueh her 
body lies here in dust with her earthly mo- 
ther, yet her soul lives in reste with her 
heavenly Father, and she hath left her eldest 
•ister, Mary, only child of the said Henry 
and Joane, to the trobles of this world. 
Obiit 16 Dec. 1638. Eutis 16." 

Theie are a varieiy of mural monu- 
ments, but I shall only notice one, 
which appears to have been erected 
about the time of James I. In the 
centre is a death's head. Two lines 
are painted black on a red ground, 
in the ledge, immediately under the 
" Memento mori :" 

'* You shoulde looke on : why tnrn away 
thyne Eyne ? 

Thia is no Strangers hce : th* pyesnamy 
is Thyne." 

Over it is the following coat : — S. 
three covered cups A. borne by No well, 
which name frequently occurs in the 
parish register. Yours, &c. R. S. 

Ave^ov Kai Air€\ov. 

Epict. apud Aul. Gell. lib. 17. 
Mr. Urban, Feb 5. 

I AM informed that, in your Maga- 
zine for last month, a letter is in- 
serted from my friend Mr. Upham, 
respecting my little treatise on the life 
and character of Mohnmed. I have not 
read, and probably never shnll read the 
article, as religious controversy with 
A FRIEND is not to my taste. I un- 
dersund that I am accused by him 
of having written against Christianity. 
Though 1 decline controversy with a 
friend, I may, I trust, be permitted to 
say, that I have never, in any work, 
written a word against our leligion, 
though I may have expressed myself 
with warmth against the frauds of 
priests, or the trash and nonsense with 
which the simple and sublime religion 
of Jesus Christ has been overlaid by 
various sectaries — Jumpers, Ranters, 
CaUinists, — with superstitions degrad- 
ing to the character of the Deity, and 
subversive of morality, filling our pri- 
sons with criminals, and our hospitals 
with lunatics. But I apprehend, an 
impartial reader will find in my works 
new and im|>onant arguments in fa- 
Toor of Christianity. For instance, my 
observations jon Mr. Hume*8 fine rea- 
soning on miracles, which 1 think (in 
my •• Celtic Druids,** ch. iv. sect. 22,) 
has, for the first time, received its re- 
futation. It is very remarkable, that 
those of my friends who have written 
against my works, are very clear-sighted 
iu seeing what they are pleased to call, 
or miscall, my attacks on religion. 



though they seem to be perfectly bliml 
to the passages which they contain in 
its defence, never, I have reason to be- 
lieve, having noticed one of them ! 

It is unfortunate that many very 
religious persons should imagine, that 
they are promoting their own religioin 
by running down the characters of 
the founders of those of their neigh- 
bours and fellow-subjects. But ge- 
nuine Christianity requires no such 
defences ; and I am quite satisfied 
that, though Mohamed was liable to 
faults, like every other human being, 
yet that the closer his character is can- 
vassed, the clearer it will appear that 
he was a very great man, both con- 
sidered as a hero, a philosopher, and a 
Christian, the latter of which he really 
was, as he professed to l)elieTe in the 
divine mission of Jesus Christ, and in 
the truth of the doctrines taught by 
him. But I can no more allow him 
to be res|)onsible for the whole of the 
Koran forged by his followers, than I 
can |)ermit Jesus Christ to be respon- 
sible for what is said in the (almost) 
scores of works, called Gospels, written 
respecting him. 

With the best wishes for the pro- 
sperity of your excellent Magazine, I 
remain. Sir, yours, &c. 

GODPRRY HlOOIMS. 

Mr. Urban, Somerset Place, 

MY best thanks are due to yon for 
having given additional circula- 
tion to my Appeal in behalf of the 
Northern Libraries. I would now beg 
to acquaint you, that my request has 
been sup|)orted by the liberal contribu- 
tions of Earl Spencer, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, the Rt. Hon. SirThomas 
Grenville, Sir F. B. Watson, Archdea- 
con Butler, Thomas Rickman, Ksq. 
William Lloyd, Esq. John Lee, Esq. 
LL.D. and Joshua Watson, Esq. and 
by other kind patrons of literature, 
whose choice selections of books will 
open a wide field of study to the in- 
dustrious inhabitants of those incle- 
ment regions. As the amount (S60/.), 
which I anticipate, is, however, far 
from being complete, I would again 
invite the co-oi>eration of those who 
are friendly to the piogress of know- 
ledge ; and 1 beg to add, that I shall 
keep the sentinirnts expressed in my 
former ap|>eal open until the beginning 
of the month of April, after which time 
the whole collection will be confided to 
the integrity and discretion of Professor 
Rafn. Nich.Carlislk. 



Is.M.] 



S'otin^ (if Tai'utock and its AUny. 



113 



Mr. I'i'p, *\, h\i. 4. 

II I A \' I". '»cn r.ivoiireil by M". Bray, 
fi! ihc Vicar J'^f Ilcj:ii«i', T:uisiCK-k, 
\vli« a<- jniifiti.iii MI \.\sw is well known 
l.v l5» r h:>t- rir.il r<iMi.ii)Ci-», wsih ihc 
nif'!''-r«l (Irtwm^ nl" iwo picct's of 

p.lll'l. Ml lljir I il" l-»-lOM of [111- Uc%'. K. 

A Ur.iv, I'.S A. lit r Im-h.Knl, relics of 
till" .iiuii'iK ilfror.iiioMi of Tu i>!c»ck 
cliijr»M. 1 lii*^ to t'lKr it in yoor .Mis- 
cill.iiiy, :)<-r(i!ii]Miiii'>l by «omc nnu'S 
wliwli h.j*i" lis- 11 ciiiU'riid by invH'ir, 
\Mi!i .1 \ irw lo rfliiiii;j[ an arcount of 
'r.ivi^iiiik Alilicy :mi(I its rnvir^Mis. In 
list M- iMXt's \()u will b.i\(' litilf more 
ili.iii • «k(li ton or (uii'iine (if micIi an 
ijiwIvTi ikin;:, .itvl whrihcr I ni.iy cvit 
fill (li< in iiji at 1 conUI tU'sirc, must tie- 
|it-(ul iipiYii ItvMirc .111(1 tlint t'nrour.ii;c- 
nit-iii whicli i-i nt<cs>;»ry to i-very liic- 
rjry undrrT.ikinj, wbicb the author 
il*M-!» not \vi>h iiltinintciy to prove a 
niiilct on his 7i-:il and c-xertionH. C\'r- 
tini it ii ih:it 'I\nist<ick :inil its i-n- 
«iroii< atl'onl hichlv bc.iinilul ol'iccts 
f"i)r ^r.iphu' il osir.iiion, ih.it ««<.'virji 
(-h.ir.uiirs (MiiiiKMii in hijforv arc fim- 
nocicd with the p!.!c*e, and ihnt the 
pari-ii rii("«t is ri'in.irkjbiy rich in an- 
fifjil <lti»!<, and riiiirfh warden's ac- 
roinii>, ooiiie ot' which I examined at 
'l'.ivi««i(i<-k ill the \ear IH'J7t but many 
more ^iiil rein.iin, wliicli I hope ere 
litn^ t>> iui\e an opijortiiniiy of pertis- 
m.'. In the mean time i hhall be 
ii.ippy i:' lite sidj>C(piciU cursory memo- 
r.iiKla ni ly be fuund acceptable lo your 
ri.-ad(-r<i. 

The chiirc'i, nKniaslic dwcliini^s, 
aiid pii-CiMCi of ihc Alibcy of Tavistock 
111 IXiiiii, Wire siiii.iied within a few 
v.irtii (if ihc ri^ht bank of the ri%'rr 
'I'axy, cm a nariow plain, very slijshily 
I'ievaicii .iiio\<- the bi-d ol' liiat river, 
and •'urriuindtil on the n.>rtli, soiilh, 
III'! '•t-''Tti 'id--- l»v •vniiUMicf'. 

'I'le 'I'jvy 1- .1 rapid •'in-im, and hat 
itN (-(ii.i- ■ it.rou^h a rocky channri; the 
ili-jiih '.f this i!*er u \cry variable, de- 
pt III!.:..' n.uch on liic qii.mtiiy of rain 
u!i!(ii drcendt from llic hii^li iaiids 
ab-iv iiii-niiont (!. When thii is ron- 
s-t'f.il-le ihc 'I'.ivy beronies an oiiject 
«il iiiK h inicn si, lr<uu iliceiloriN of its 
wdl and roaring w.ilers to surmount 
liie ('jip >'«:iion preneiiti'd lo their ronrjic 
bv i!i«- iiiiin'-rou^ fra^iiieiiis of rock, 
wiii'M lie 5C.*.!ured in the bed of the 
s:r>"aiti. 

I:i dry sr'i..)ii. the r.iml'.itT may de- 
scend into tiie rh.miii:! tvorn by the 
fiFNT. Mao. F'irunrij, l?aO. 



waters of the Tavy, where he will find 
beautifully piciuresrpie combinations 
at every step. The blue waters of the 
river making* their gnrj^lin^ " music 
with the enamelled stones,'* dark foli- 
age here and there ovei banking the 
b.mks, the stillness of the scene per- 
chance broken by the flight of the 
kinn- fisher, whose bright cerulean 
pluma;;c Hashes like a meteor across 
the sombre lints of the ircis.* 

It i> nio>t probable that the emi- 
nences Mirrouudinir Tavistock Abbey 
wi-re, in remoie times, thickly covered 
with wood ;f this must have greatly 
heightened the beauty of the swelling 
upl.mds, whii-h, as it were, Hank the 
conr>e td the river, and thus the site 
was admirably well cho5cn for a lif(ft 
of seclusion and holy contemplation^ 
" Locus amd'iius opportunitate nvmo- 
rum, captura copio.'-a piscium, ecclesias 
con^riienie fabnca, fluvialihu« rivis per 
oHicinas monachnrum dccurreiitibuii, 
qui suo iin))Ctu etfosi quicruiid inveni- 
rent supertiuum poriant in cxitum." 
Such is M.iliiu>biiry*s account of the 
beauty and con\enieiices of the pKice.J 

The eiymolo;;y of the name Tavis- 
tock does not ap|H'ar to be of dillicidt 
soluiinn. "The place on tlieTavy** is 
evidently implied by the compound ; 
but il ni.iy he ol)<i'Fvrd tlial by early 
writer* of the monkish a;je, ihe Tavy 
is c.illed the '/««, and that the Taw, 
ihe Towy, the Tay, and the Taf, arc 
commoti appellitivci of many Kritisb 
rivers. ThcTa\y discharges itself into 
the Tamar, a lew miles above Ply- 
mouth ; of which last mentioned riv^r 
it may be accounied a branch. There 
can be little doubt, ttierefore, that the 
Ta*y i"« an abbreviation of the Mriiish 
wiirds 7\iH vrffnifif or the little 'I'au, 
lhusdi»tinL>uifiinn'j[ ilie tribiiiirv branch 
from the 'J\ni Muirr (afurvvards 'i'a- 

* Til obtain nn idea of a Uovunsliire 
striMm, ill all its lieauty. the traveller ihouM 
\i>it ilu> Wdlkluim at Wurde liridge, .about 
four niilc« fruiu Tavistock. Ac tlii^ s|K)C 
tl.c !ttreuiit makes iu way ljflt»-c-eii thickly 
cludterin;; frai;iiiOiit.s of dark inoss-prnwu 
rix k^, and (m llic liaiik, c(Miti;;ii<i:iB, is an 
enchanting little womi, t^-Jirri: ilic nakf 
arc seen fljuiisliin:; aiuid.it liii^c iijahfea of 
granite, co%'Pr<>d wiLii lllfl^' nud liLtuMis. 

f Tlie Exi'ter Doinrsdiiy ais^i^^nii a large 
proportiun vf wmul in the manor tif Tavis- 
tock. 

I Malmosbdry de cstls INn'.ir. Ang?. 
apiid Scri|itorci post l);:(!.'*an, p. 9'f.'. 



114 



Notices of Tavistock and its Abbey, 



[Feb. 



mar), the great Tau. When the Saxons 
established their town and monastery 
on the banks of the Tau vechan, they 
M*ere content to aflix a short adjunct 
from their own language to the ori- 
ginal British words, and the abbrevi- 
ated form, so much sought by common 
parlance, easily moulded Tau-vechan- 
stoke into Tavistock. The Saxon 
Chronicle indeed strongly countenances 
this opinion ; in that venerable record 
it is called Mtepn^fcoke, which, 
without any distortion, may be read 
At-tavingsioke.* 

Ord^ar, Duke or Heretoch ofDevon, 
a dignity equal to that of permanent 
viceroy or petty prince, founded the 
Abbey at this place, A.D. qOi, in con- 
sequence of a remarkable vision which 
appeared, according to the Cartulary of 
lavistock, to him and his wife. The 
structure was completed by his son 
Ordulf, about twenty years after. It 
was appropriated to the residence of 
monks of the Benedictine order, and 
dedicated to St. Mary and St. Rumon. 

Leland found a M§. Life of Rumon 
in Tavistock Abbey, at the time of 
the suppression of monasteries. He 
appears by this account to have been 
one of many saints, who emigrated 
from Ireland into Cornwall in the 5th 
or 6ih century, for the purpose of en- 
joying the cieepest seclu:iion, and to 
nave erected for himself an oratory in 
what the author terms a Nemaean fo- 
rest, formerly a most frequented haunt 
of wild beasts. This, according to the 
MS. was at Falmouth, where he died 
and was buried ; but the fame of his 
sanctity still surviving, Ordulf, on com- 
pleting the monastery at Tavistock, 
was induced to remove his bones from 
their resting place, and to enshrine 
them in the Abbey Church, where they 
became an object of ignorant devotion. 
Malmesbury seems to lament that the 
miracles of Rumon, in common with 
those of many other saints, owing to 
the violent hostility of subsequent 
ticnes, remained unrecorded. No doubt 
this hiatus was amply supplied in the 

• The passage in the Saxon Chronicle 
runs thus : 

Opbulj^j- m ynpep cet -ffitepn^jroke 
fopbspnbon, 

the appareot pleonasm, by the repetition of 
the preposition 4Bt, does not militate against 
xny definition, as custom had incorporated it 
iu the compound, forming collectively the 
name of the place. 



volume found by Leland, and the la- 
bours of him who perhaps was really a 
zealous and fearless propagator of Chris- 
tianity in the primitive times, were 
converted into a series of ascetic mor- 
tiBcations, degrading to reason, and 
worse than useless, to society, while his 
sanctity became attested by the detail 
of miracle? more absurd than the wild- 
est of the Arabian tales. Of the re- 
puted saints, however, many were really 
such in their day; heroic soldiers, like 
St. Paul, of Christ's Church militant on 
earth, in perils and persecution ; but the 
purity of their doctrines becoming ob- 
scured durins temporal convulsions, the 
monks issued from their scriptoria new 
versions of their livies, which suited 
their own purposes for the time, but 
have had the eflfcct in these enlightened 
days ofclouding the memory of holy men 
with much of doubt and incredulity. 

In an account of Tavistock Abbey it 
is impossible to pass over the story of 
King £dgar*s marriage with Elfridn, 
the daughter of Ordgar, the Heretoch 
of Devon. I shall be content to relate 
it in Malmesbury's own words.* 

*' There was in the time of £dgar one 
Athelwold, a nobleman of celebrity, and one 
of his confidants. The King had commis- 
sioned him to visit £Ifthrida, daughter of 
Ordgar, Duke of Devonshire (whose charms 
had so fascinated the eyes of some persons 
that they commended her to the king), and 
to offer her marriage if her beauty were 
really equal to report. Hastening on his 
embassy, and finding every thing consonant 
to general estimation, he cooeeaTed bis mis- 
sion from her parents, and procured the 
damsel for himself. Returning to the king 
he told a tale which made for hi^ own pur- 
pose, that she was a girl nothing out of the 
common track of beauty, and by no means 
worthy of such trauscendant dignity. When 
Edgar's heart was disengaged from this af- 
fair, and em|)Ioyed on other amours, some 
tattlers acquainted him how completely 
Athelwold had duped him by his artifices. 
Paying blm in his own coin, that is return- 
ing him deceit for deceit, he shewed the earl 
a fair countenance, and, as in a sportive 
manner, appointed a day when he would 
visit this far fiuned lady. Terrified almost 
to death with this dreadful pleasantry, he 
hastened before to his wife, entreating that 
she would administer to his safety by attiring 
herself as unbecomingly as possible ; then 
first disclosing the intention of such a pro- 
ceeding. But what did not this woman dare! 
She was hardy enough to deceive the confi- 
dence of her first lover, her husband ; to call 
up every charm by art, and to omit nothing 

* Historia Novella, translated by Sharp, 1 54. 



1830.] 



Notices of Taviitoek and iU Ahhef. 



11$ 



tvhich could tUmiikte tb« dnira of ayoaag 
•ad powerful mao. Nor did evanto nappta 
cootrary to tier design, for ha fell to despe- 
rately in love with her the moment he saw 
her, that, dissembling his indignation, ha 
sent for the £ari into a wood at Warewelle 
called Harewood, under pretence of huntioga 
and ran him through with a jarelin ; and 
when tha illegitimate son of the murdered 
noblemen approached with his usual fami- 
lisrity, and was asked by the king how he 
liked that kind of sport, he is reported to 
have said, * Well, my sovereign liege, I ought 
not to be displeased with that wnich gives 
you pleasure.' This answer so assuaged the 
mind of the raging monarch, that for the re- 
mainder of his life he held no one in greater 
estimatiim than this young man ; mitigating 
the offence of his tyrannical deed against 
the fatlier, liy royal solicitude for the son. 
In expiation of this crime, a monastery, 
which was built on the spot* by £lfthrida, 
is inhabited by a large congregation of 



nuns. 



Elfrida bore Ed^^ar a son, Ethelred, 
and in order that he might be elevated 
to the throne, she treaclierously caused 
Kdward, his half-brother, who enjoyed 
the kingly office aliout three years and 
a half, to be murdered by an attendant 
at the gate of her castle, while he was 
on horseback, and taking from her 
hand a ctip of wine, which he reque«l- 
ed as a boon of hospitality, after the 
fatij^ties of the chase. 

Elfrida became penitent, after the 
fashion of ihobc days, and endeavoured 
to expiate the sin of blood, by a life 
of superstitious mortification and se- 
clusion in the nunnery which she had 
founded at Wherwell. False religion 
rather encourages than represses crime; 
it sets as it were a certain price on its 
|)erpetration, and holds out the dein* 
sive idea that the deeds of hell may be 
bought out and exchanged at a nxed 
rate, for the glory and felicity of 
heaven. 

To return to Ord^r, the founder of 
Tavistock Abbey, Malmesbury, whom 
we have ahore quoted, and who wrote 
in the time of King Stephen, tells ut 
that the tombof Ordgarwas to be seen 
in his day, as also that of his son Edulf 
or Ordolf, of whose remarkable bodily 
strength he relates an anecdote to the 
following effect. 

* For nuns of the Augustine order, at 
Wherwell in Hampshirt, This sets asida 
tlie claim which has been made for Hare- 
wood in G>mwall, the seat of the Trelawoy 
family, as the scent of the above traasae- 
tioo. 



Ordolf was one daj in eomptny with 
his kinsman King Edward ; approach- 
ing the city of Exeter, the porter in 
charge of the gate bv which tney were 
to enter was out or the way, and had 
secured the gate on the outside by bars, 
and on the inside by bolts. Ordulf, 
willing to give his roval cousin '' a 
touch of his quality,*' jumped off his 
horse, and seizing the bars with both 
hands, with a slif^ht effort broke them 
them in two. Warmed with the suc- 
cess of this first essay, with a single 
kick he burst the remaining fasteninss 
asunder, tearing the gates off their 
hinges. The surrounding attendants 
extolled the feat with expressions of 
the highest admiration ; but the king, 
calling to mind perhaps the demoniacs 
of scripture, who resiaed in the tombs, 
and whom no human bonds could con- 
fine, told his relative, half in joke, half 
in earnest, that his was the strength of 
no man, but of a devil incarnate ! Some 
circumstances are added to this story, 
concerning Ordulf's striding across 
streams ten feet wide; an useful ac- 
complishment in a country every where 
intersected by water courses, and in 
those davs doubtless but ill provided 
with bridges. 

Browne Willis tells us, that in his 
time the sepulchral effigies of this 
Saxon giant, of ^reat length, were still 
preserved by lying under au arch in 
the north side of the cloisters of the 
Abbey church. This identical arch, 
as 1 apprehend, still remains,* a soli- 
tary remnant of the immediate appen- 
dages of the Abbey church. The ar- 
chitecture of this recess is of the time 
of Henry III. and as there is no exam- 
ple extant which can lead us to con- 
clude that sepulchral figures were 
placed over tombs in the middle ages, 
until the twelfth century, and as it was 
usual to re-edify and remodel the mo- 
numents of saints and remarkable |ier- 
sons (of which custom the shrine of 
Edward the Confessor, now in West- 
minster Abbey, is a prominent exam- 
ple,) Ordulfs tomb perhaps underwent 
u renovation about this period, and was 
supplied with a sepulchral effigy. In 
diffging the foundation of the house 
calkd the Abl)ey house, on the site of 
which the Beoford Arms Inn now 
stands, a remaikably rude and small 
sarcophagus was found, not more than 

* A tolerably correct view of It b cn- 

Sved in the Antiqoarian and Topographical 
linet, vol. II, 



116 Notices of TatUtock and its Ahhef. [Feb; 

three or four feet in length, contaioing brief particulars relative to him and hU 

loroe large bones. Two of these, each son, which have reached these later 

belonging to a thigh, are preserved days, it maj be well to observe that the 

in the parish church of Tavistock, and account of the remarkable strength of 

the larger is shewn as appertaining to the latter need not be rdected as alto* 

the body of the founder Ordgar, the gether an idle tale. Most of these 

smaller to that of his wife;* the size magnified relations have, like the lives 

of the stone chest not more than three of the deified personaees of the Greek 

or four feet in length, and the dissimi- and Roman age, some foundation in real 

larity of the dimensions of the bones, circumstances. Modern times have 

seem indeed to countenance the idea aSbrded us indisputable instances of 

that the perishing remains of Ordgar individuals gifted with wonderful mas« 

and his wife, as benefactors to the mo- cular power. Ordulf might have re* 

nastery, might have been coUecied by moved in a manner surprising to the 

a pious care, and deposited in one com- ordinary race of men, some obstacle 

mon receptacle by the monks of St. which opposed the entrance of King 

Rumen. Am6ng several interesting Edward and his train, into the city of 

architectural fragments, which are £xeter, and possessed of a stature be- 

preserved with the sarcophagus itself, yond the usual standard, and of strength 

oy the good taste of the Rev. £. A. m proportion, might have excelled, in 

Bray, the present vicar of Tavistock, passins brooks, dylces, or other obsta- 

under a gothic arch in the Vicarage cles, all his competitors in the chase. 

Garden, (of which arch more here- The Abbey Church being completed 

after.) were two fragments of stone ta- by Ordulf, Aimer became the first 

blets, inscribed in a delicate Roman Abbat. Ethel red, the grandson of the 

character j one bore the legend, founder, who had succeeded to the 

svBiACET iNTvs English Crown by the death of Ed- 

coRDiTOR ward the Martyr, granted a charter to 

T|,e oiher : ^^^ Abbey J, exempting it from all se- 
cular service, except rate for military 

INDOLE ... ' J ^iJ • r 1. 'J 

cQNDiTOR A cxpcditions, aud the repair of brideei 

PRESTET ANiMA*.*..... ^°^ castlcs. In thc preamble to thia 

„. , , , instrument, he laments that certain 

The last inscription may perhaps be „^„ ^^^^^^ ^j^^ infidelity, bad 

a mpnitorv sentence to the visitor of ^^„ allowed, without his content (he 

the founder s tomb, that he should ^eing, as it might be said, in an infant 

exhibit as benevoent a disposition as ^^j '^powerless state, not more than 

Ordgar towards the abbey: «ut ille t^entV years of age), to drive the 

indolem sicut conditor abbatiae nostra ^^^^^ ^^ Tavistock from their sacred 

praestet animam.t ,^^^^ ^^^ possessions. This auin of 

Ordcar, the founder, IS said to have \^^^^x\iy wksT I apprehend, nothing 

residecTat Tavistock, and the «ite of his ^^^^ ^^in a disbelieYin the sanctity of 

house is still iradiiionally pointed out. n^onachism. and the expulsion of the 

Before I dismiss t he nonce o f the above jy^^^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^j, "benefice*, in 

* They have betn measured for me by ^»^'»c*\ they were replaced by the much 

Mr. James Cole, the sexton of Tavistock : more deserving and useful class of eccle- 

the larger thigh bone Is 91 inches in length, siaslics, the secular Clergy. The 8UO» 

5i in circumference; thesmaller 19 in length, cess of the artifices of Dunstan, in fa« 

4^ in circumference. If these were reallj the vour of the monkish order, is however 

bones of Ordgar and his wife, as probably well known. The Charter containt 

they were, it ia not surprising that their son the customary anathemas against all 

Ordulf should be tall. infringement, and is witnessed by 

t It is with regret that I record that Ethelred or Adelred, King of all Bri- 

some one has grossly abused the kindness ^^ Alflhrith or Elfrida his mother, 

of the worthy vjcar, who grants ready access Dunstan the Archbishop of CantCI- 

to every one wishing to view these rehcs, and t i ^i .^ ««j ^.« 

has cut off all further examination of the in- ^"^y* ^"1 numerous prelates and mag. 

scriptions by carrying them away. He must "^J^ ^[ ^"® '^**™- , t^ . . « 

beapitifiil antiquary indeed who ean stoop '" «hc year 997 the Danish fleet, 

to disgrace himself by theft? which cannot ""Jer Sweyn, entered the bevern, and 

long enrich himself, and who abstracts from __^_— ^^— — — — ^_ 

the pleasure and infuriuation of the public X Bee Charter of Inspesimus, Edw. III. 

at large in a present and future age. Dugdale's Monasticon. 



idso.] 



No^ctB of Tavktoek and Ui Abbey. 



117 



hating plandered and laid waste rarkMit 
places on the coast of Wales, Somer- 
setshire, and Cornwall, sailed round 
Penwihtsteort, the Land's End, and 
anchoring in the mouth of the Tamar, 
they ravaged the country as far as Ljd- 
ford, burning and slaying all before 
them. In this devastation the monas- 
tery of Tavistock, so lately completed 
by Orduir, was plundered and con- 
sumed by 6re, the Danes retiring laden 
with its spoils, and those of tne ad- 
jacent country, to their ships*. 

The Abbey thus destroyed, lay for 
some lime in ruins, but was at length 
rebuilt, probably by the exertions and 
munificence of Living or Livincus, 
who was nephew to Brithwald, Bishop 
of St. German's in Cornwall : he was 
at first a Monk of Winchester, after- 
wards Abbatof Tavistock, and in the 
year I03S was consecrated Bishop of 
Crediton (Kirton). He was greatly in 
the favour of King Canute, and ac- 
companied him in his pilgrimage to 
Rome. After the death of Brithwald, 
his uncle, he procured the See of St. 
German'sf to be united to his own, 
and held them both, with the Bishopric 
of Worcester, to which he was pro- 
moted, until his death. A heavy ac- 
cusation was brought against him of 
being concerned in the death of Alfred, 
the eldest son of King Ethelred. He 
was deprived of his episcopal prefer- 
ments for a season ; but, having cleared 
himself from impeachment, was re- 
stored to them, and died in the year 
1046. He was interred at Tavistock 
A bbey, to which he had been a muni- 
ficent benefactor. 

£dwy Atheling, a son of Ethelred, 
and great-grandson of Ordgar the foun- 
der, soQsht a refuge, I conjc;pture, in 
Tavbtock Abbey, from the jealousy of 
Canute, as he died and was buried there 
about this time. 

Aklred socceeded Living in his life 
time as Abbat, and at his death in the 
see of Worcester. In the reign of Ed- 
ward the Confessor, he was elevated to 
the see of York, and is said to have 
crowned William the Conqueror. He 
afterwards fulminated an excommuni- 
cation against the King for having 
broken the oath taken at his corona- 

* SaxoD ChroB. tab aan. 997. 

t The Church at St. German's it well 
worthy th^ attettiion of lli« antiquary. I 
have liule doabt of mmm of its architectural 
paru fflill extant are of tlio tame of 
AtbaUtao. 



tion, to dbpense indtacrimiiuite jnatice' 
and favour to his English as well as 
bis Norman subjects; but wanting that 
▼igour of character necessary to sustain 
a bok) step, he fell a victim to anxiety 
of mind, broosht on by fear of the 
consequences of the above measure, in 
the year \Q6g. Sithric appears to have 
ancc«eded him in his Abbacy of Ta- 
vistock, for he occurs as Abbat 1050, 
and died in 1082. Next came Geof- 
frey, who died in 1088. Wimund fol- 
lowed, who appears to have abused 
the trust reposed in him; for Henry 
the First, by his letters, commands 
the Sheriff of Devon to cause re« 
stitution to be made to his Church 
of Tavistock, of the manors of Rue- 
berge (Roborough) and Cudelipe (Cod« 
lip), which Wimund had unjustly de- 
livered up to his brother {. Wimund 
was at length, in 1 lOS, deposed for 
simony, and was replaced by Osbert, 
to whom King Henry the First granted 
the privilege of a weekly market, on 
Fridays, in the manor of Tavistock, 
and a fair for three days at the feast of 
St. Rumon. He confirmed to him and 
his monastery, and to Turold and their 
dependent monks residing in the Scilly 
Isles, all the Churches and their land 
there, as they or any other monks or 
hermits had neld them in the time of 
King Edward the Confessor. Reginald 
Earlof Cornwall, natural son of Henry, 
afterwards corroborated this charter, 
and also granted the monks in Scilly 
all wreck upon those isles, excepiins 
whales and entire ships. Osbert died 
in 1 13 1, and was followed by Geoffrey, 
to whom succeeded Robert de Plymp* 
ton, 1141. Robert Postell, ob. 1154. 
Walter, monk of Winchester, who 
died 1 174, had a charter of free warren 
for the Abbey possessions, from King 
Henry II. Baldwin, ob. 1183; next 
Stephen, then Herbert, ob. 1200. 
Jordan, ob. 1220. William Kermet, 
ob. 1224. John Capell, ob. 1233. 
Alan de Cornwall, ob. 1248. Robert 
de Kitecnoll, a monk of the foundation,, 
succeeded ; nextThomas,and then John 
de Nonhampton, ob. 1257. Philip 
Trenchfield, ob. 126O. Alured, the 
next Abbat, was succeeded in 1262 by 

X These mitappropriationt of Chureh pro- 
party wara not uncommon. See an instance, 
in Kenpe's Historical Notices of St. Marttn- 
le-Orand, London, of land and houses be- 
kinging to Uiat fbondation being alienated 
to the sons and daughters of the officiating 
priest. P. 57. 



118 



Inveniory of Records in the Chapter-house. 



[Pdi. 



John Chubbfy who was deposed eight 
years after his election. Robert, ob. 
1S85. Robert Campbell, ob. 1325. 
Robert Bosse, deposed 1333. Then 
followed John de Courtenay, eldest son 
of Hugh Courtenay, Earl of Devon, 
ob. 1349. Richard de Ashe or Esse. 
Stephen de Langdon, elected 1362, 
ob. 1380. Thomas Cullen, ob. 1402. 
John Mey, ob. 1421. Thomas Mede 
held the Abbacy till 1442, when Tho- 
mas Crispin, Prior of the Monastery, 
was elected; he died in 144?. Wil- 
liam Pewe, the next Abbat, died in 
1460, and was followed by John Dy- 
nington or Dymyngton, who applied 
to the King for permission that the 
Abbats of Tavistock should enjoy the 
distinction o^ wearing the episcopal 
habiliments, which was granted in the 
following terms, as they may be ren- 
dered from the Latin form. 

** Licence for the Abbst of Tavistoke to 
wear the Pontificalia. 

** The King, to all to whom these presents 
shall come, greeting : Be it known that we 
of onr especial grace have granted and given 
permisiion for us and our heirs, as much aa 
in us lies, to John Denynton, Abbat of the 
House and Church of the blessed St. Mary 
and St. Ruroon, to solicit and have per- 
mission from the sovereign Pontiff, the 
present Pope, to use the mitre, amice * (al- 
nucio), aandals, and other pontifical in- 
signia, and of blessing in the solemnity of 
masses, and pronouncing absolutions with 
the same authority, and in tlie same manner, 
as any Bishop uses. 

** And that the said Abbat may likewise 
prosecute any other provisions concerning 
the above matter, and enjoy the l>enefit of 
them for himself and his successors for ever. 

** And further, we of our greater fiivour 
luve granted and given licence to the said 
Abbat, that lie may receive A|>osti>lic Let- 
teis and Bulls for the aforesaid provisions, 
and all and singular therein contained, exe- 
cute, reail, and cause to lie read, and them 
and every of them altOj^ether, fully and 
wholly, quietly, peaceably, and without 
luirm, according to the effect of the said 
letters and bulls, and each of them, mav 
use and enjoy, forltiddiog that the said 
Abbat or his IVoctors, Fautors, G>unci)k)rs, 
Hel|yfn, or .Adhereuu, or any oihcr his Soli- 
citorf. Readers, or Publishers of the said 
Letters and Bulls, shall be bv ua or our 



* The anice has been erroaeously defined 
by glu«sari»u as a cap: it was an under 
rxt|>e made ^nermlhr of linen, cmrring the 
shouUer*% and lastenetl bv string r\>und the 
breast. See the Rev. J. Maine's in^retilng 
attd Waraid ** Aec^Hint of the fiadiag of the 
bodv and iwl*s of Su CuihWrt." 



heirs impeded, dnquieted, dtsturbedy mo- 
lested or oppressed, the statotea for Pio* 
visors. Ordinations, Provisions^ enacted to 
the contrary, or other thbga, couaes, m»tr 
ters whatever, which on our or any other part 
may be said or alledged, notwithstanding. 

** In witness whereof we have caused 
these our Letters to be made patent. 

« Witness the King at Westmtnatery the 
third day of February.'^— (86 Hen. VL A.D. 
1457.) 

Yours, &c. A. J. K. 

(To he continued.) 

Mr. Urban, Feb. 4. 

IT is one of the many disadvantago 
under which Historical and Anti* 
quarian literature labours, that the 
contents of some of the public reposi- 
tories are but little known to the world. 

The Chapter House, Westminster, 
contains muniments of the moat va- 
luable, but miscellaneous, nature ; and 
in 1807 the Record Commissioa or* 
dered an Inventory to be made of them. 
Three copies only were taken of it; 
and of the existence of these, %'ery few 
persons are aware. Having made ao 
abstract of the " Alphabetical Index" 
to the one in the British Museum, I 
send it for publication in the Gentle* 
man*s Magazine. 

It is but an act of justice to add, 
that the present Keeper of the Chapter 
House has always manifested a disposi* 
tion to afford as much facility to lite- 
rary inquiries as the existing regula- 
tions of that establishment will permit, 
so that by making your readers ac- 
quainted with its stores, you will pro- 
bably be the means of hriogiiig to 
light many historical facts. 

Yours, &c. N. H. N. 

General Inventory of all ike Record^ 
and other Puttie Documents, frt- 
served in the Chapter House at iFeU* 
IN :u/rr, made ty order rf His Ma- 
jesty^s Commissioners on ike Puh&c 
Records iff ike Kingdom. 1807. 
Folio, on parchment^ deposited in ike 
Library qftke Briiisk Museum. 

At a board of the Commiasionefi, 
held on Thursday, 30th July, 1807* it 
was ordered that Sir. lUingworthp as a 
Sub^Commissioner, together with Mr. 
Kilis and Mr. Richards, do proceed 
immediaielv to make a general InTeii- 
tory of all tKe Recoids, and other pub- 
lic documents, preserted in the Chap* 
ter House, the said inventory to be w 
the natuic of a pre»s catalogue, deacrib» 



1830.] 



Inveniarff of Records in the Chapier»house. 



ing the general coDtents of each apart- 
ment, press, and shelf, specifying the 
title and numerical marks now amxed 
to each Roil, Book, or Box ; and that 
two copies be made of it on vel- 
lum, together with a Catalogue of the 
several existing Indexes, one of the 
said copies to remain in the Chapter 
House, *' open to public inspection, 
and the other to be delivered to the 
Keeper of His Majesty's Records in 
the Tower, there to remain for the 
use of the public.'* On the 3 1st Oc- 
tober following, the Inventory was ac- 
cordingly made : and at a board of the 
Commissioners held on the l6th De- 
cember, 1807, it was approved. The 
gentlemen who preparea it were de- 
sired to authenticate the contents of 
the book by subscribing their initials 
to every page ; and a third copy was 
commanded to be made upon vellum, 
and deposited in the British Museum 
for the use of the public. Messrs. 11- 
iingworth, Ellis, and Richards, were 
farther ordered to report annually, on 
the 1st of March in each year, the 
alterations or additions, if any, m»de 
to the aforesaid Cataloeue; their first 
report to be made 1st Nlarch, ISOQ. 

Abbeys, tunrejt of — temp. Hen. VIII. 

Arregoo, treaties with, from the 18 £dw. I. 
to the reign of Henry VUI. 

Assize Rolls, chronologically arranged from 
the reign of Edward I. to Henrv VI. 

in counties — Henry III. to Hennr IV. 

Atuinilers, records relatine to ; vidt Crom- 
well, Wolsey, and Forfeited Esutes. 

Augmentation, Court of, bills, answers, and 
^positions in, also for grants of Chancery 
lands — temp. Edw. VI. 

Aulae Placita ; vide Marsbalsea. 

BeneToIeacet and Loans, Privy Seals for— 

ump. Henry VII. and VIII. 
Brittany, treaties with — from the 15 John, 

to 7 Henry VH. 
Burgundy, treaties with — from 8 Hen. V. to 

1 Ric III. 
Butleragt, aecounU of — temp. Henry VIII. 

Calais, the Treasurer's and Controller's ac- 
counts relating to, and abo of ibe staple 
of— tamp. Hen. VIII. 

CastUe, treaties with — ^firom the 88 Henry 
HI. to 91 Edw. IV. 

Catherine, Queen of Hen. VUI., papers re- 
lating to her divorce. 

Chnnuries and Chapels, particulars for sales 
of lands belonging to— temp. Edw. VJ. 

Charles I. Receiver General's accounu of 
lands late belonging to — anno 1643. 

Chivalry, Court of, Placita Exercitus — 94 
Edw. I. 

Clause RoUs^anno 18 Ric II. 



119 



Common Pleas, Court of, original and judi- 
cial writs— Edw. III. to Henry Vil. 

— Original and judicial writs, with re- 
turns, bail pieces, habeas corpus cum 
causa, and returns, Jac. II. ; jury pro- 
cess, records for trial, and poetess, write 
of execution, &c. — Hen. II. to Jac. II. 
' similar documente oeeur for the reigns 
of Ric. II., Hen. VIIL, Edw. VI., Philip 
and Mary, EJixabeth, James I., Charles I., 
Commonwealth, Usurpation, and Charles 
II. 

Placita de Banco— from 3 Hen. HI. to 

94 Hen. VII. 

—^ pedes finium in cur* regis, and in the 
Common Pleas — from Ric. I. to 4 Jac. II. 

writs of entry, summons, and seizin — 

from 1 Eliz. to 4 Jac. II. 

Counties, assize rolls, miscellanea, and forest 
proceedings, &c. relating to each county 
—Edw. I. to Hen. VIII. 

Coroners Rolls. 

Court Rolls of manors formerly in the pos- 
session of the Crown — various reigns. 

Cromwell, Thomas Lord, correspondence 
and sUte papers during his administration 

—temp. Hen. VUI. 

Crown, Pleas of the— Hen. HI. to Hen. VI. 

Curia Regis, fines levied, and placita in— 
Hen. II. Ric. I. and John. 

Customs, Receivers' General, accounte of— 
various reigns. 

Dioceses, bag of divers — rarions reigns. 
Domesday Book. 

Escheat Terrae Normannorum, Rolls of ac- 
counts of lands escheated to the Crown- 
Hen. 111. 

Exchequer Accounts — temp. Hen. VIII. 

Excise, receipts of Collectors for the stapdard 
measure — anno 1700. 

Exercitus Regis — vide Chivalry, 94 Edw. I. 

Eyre, Rolls of placita before the Justices in 
—Hen. III. to Edw. III. 

Fines, pedes finium in Com' Pleas, et ia 

Cur' Regis— Ric. I. to 4 Jac. H. 
Flanders, treaties with — 8 Hen. II. to 10 

Hen. IV. 
Forests, placita perambulations, and forest 

claims In various counties — Hen. III. to 

Car. II. 
Forfeited Estates, Surveyor's accounte of— 

various reigns. 
France, treaties with — Hen. III. to Jac. I. 
Funerals, orders for several Royal and other 

—Hen. VIII. and Eliz. 

Gaol Deliveries— Edw. I. to Hen. VI. 
Garter, statutes of the order of the^Hen. 

VUI. 
Germany, treaties with — 6 Edw. I. to 95 Eliz. 
Gold and Silver Mines — various reirns. 
Guernsey and Jersey Assize Rolls, Miscella- 

neons, 8ce. Edw. I. to Edw. III. 

Hanse Towns— Hen. VIII. 
Henry V. — his wilt 



ISO 



Inventory of Records in the Chapter-house. 



[Feb. 



Henry VII.— hit will. 

*i Chapel — books of the founda- 
tion of. 

»— VIII. divorce* letters, &e. of his am- 
bassadors ; his will and monameDt. 

Holland, treaties with— 19 Hen. Vf. to 89 
Jac I. 

Household, Royal, accounts of— Henry VII. 
and Hen. VI 1 1.; vide Wardrobe. 

Hundred Rolls in each County — Edw. I. 

James the First's Annexation of the Impe- 
rial Crown and Jewels to the Crown. 

Jersey and Guernsey Assize Rolls, miscel- 
lanea, &c. £dw. II. and Edw. Id. 

Jewels and Plate, indentures for the delivery 
of Edw. II. and Edw. III. 

Jews, Rotuli Judeorum — John and Hen. HI. 

Inquisitions poet mortem, transcripts of, in 
the Court of Wards— from S8 Hen. VIII. 
to 31 Car. I. 

Ipswich and Oxford Cardinal College, sur« 
renders of molwsteries for the endowment 
of, Hen. VIII. 

Ireland, State Papers relating to the affairs 
of — various reigns. 

Tuly, treaties with — 96 Edw. III. to 19 
Hen. VIII. 

Iter Rolls— Hen. III. and Edw. I. 

King's Bench, Court of, original and judi- 
cial writs, mesne and jury processes, 
posteas, &c. — various reigns, Hen. VII. 
to Jaq. I. 

— ^ Placita coram Rege — 4 Hen. III. to 
10 Hen. V. 

Langeton, Walter de, pleadings in com- 
plaints against — 1 Edw. II. 

Letters, Royal, to Cardinal Wolsey, Lord 
Cromwell, Lord Lisle, and miscellaneous 
•^temp. Hen. VIII. 

Liber Niger. 

Lincoln Assize Rolls and miscellanea — Hen. 
III. to Rich. II. and insurrections in, 
temp. Hen. VIIL 

taxation of the Clergy in the dio- 
cese of — a® 1640. 

Lisle, Lord, letters, &c. temp. Hen. VHI. 

London, City of. Assize Rolls, &c. — Hen. 
IlLandHen. IV. 

1 1 Roll of lands given in mortmain in 

— various reigns. 

Manors, rentals of various, temp. Hen. VIII. 
Marshalsea Court, Placita Aulae — Edw. L 

II. and III. 
Mews and horses, expenses of the King's — 

13 Edw. I. 
Michael, St. order and statutes of, sent to 

Henry VIII. 
Mines, I1n, in Cornwall and Devon-^va- 

rious reigns. 

Gold and Silver, m Gloucestershire 



and Somersetshire — various reigns. 
Mint, Assays, indentures, &c. — Edw. III. 

and Car. 1. 
Miscellaneous Records, bags of, in each 

county— various leigns. 



Monasteries, surveys and vlsitatiout, tie- 
ports of visitors and •arrendert — Hea. 
VIII. 

' pensions to abbota, tec of dlit- 

•olved monasteries — ^Hen. VIIL 

Mortmain Liceuses to Wolsey to endow hu 
colleges— Hen. VIII. 

-Musters of men at arma, bobilera, &r. ia 
various coimties— Hen. V. VL and' VIII. 

Navarre, Treaties with— I Ric. IL to 4 

Hen. VHI. 
Navy and Ordinance accounts— Hen. VIIL 
Normandy Ministers* accounts, -» a* 1305. 

Ordnance and Navy accounts— Hea. VIIL 
Oxford University, fbnndatioa aad endows 
ment of Cardinal College, temp. Heo,VIlI. 

Palaces, Castles, &e. aeeounte of expeasee 
of, vide Hampton Court, Wiodior, York 
Place— Edw. IV. to Hen. VIIL 

Papal Bulls, books of eaidmeat thereel^ 
Edw.L 

Parliament, petitions and pleadiage m$ end 
several rolls of — ^Edw. L 

Patent Rolls— John, Edw. IL end Hen. VI. 

Pips Rolls— John, Henry VUI. Philip and 

Placita Aulse— 19 Edw. I. 

de Assists— Hen. IH. to Ren. VI. 

- de Banco — 3 Hen. Iff. to S4 Hen. 



VIL 



Coroue, &c. in Eytev ftc^^-vaiioat 
reigns. 

Exercitus— 94 Edw, L 

Parliaroentaria — Edw. I. 

Cor' Rege— 4 Hen.nL to 10 Hen. V. 



Pole, Cardinal, letters and euminntions of 

—Henry VIIL 
Ponthieu, Montrieul, and Bordeanx,* Trei^ 

surers' accounts of— Edw. IlL Hen. V. 

and VIII. 
Portugal, treaties with— 47 Edw. III. to 6 

Henry VIL 
Privy Seal, Bills for patente— Heniy VIIL 

Elizabeth and Jac. 1. 
■ for loans— Heary VHI. 

Philippa, Queen, vide contents of Regtauui 

bag— Edw. I. 

Quo Warranto, rolls and abatraet»^£dv. I. 
II. and III. 

Rageraan's Baf. 

Rebellbns in Lincolnshire and Yoikahifi— 

Henry .VHI. 
Receiver^, General, accounts of revennce of 

the estates of Charles I. anno 1943. 
Rentals of manors — Henry VIII. 
Requests, Court of, affidavits, minntee, tad 

interlocutory orders, books of — diveif 

reigns. 
— ^ Bills, answers, depoeitioae, &e. 

mixed with those of the Couit of Wards 

— Eliz. Jac. I. and Car. I. and of variout 

reigns. 

Orders and Decrees— Hien. VIL 



to Charles I. 
Richard II.'s Will. 



1^0.] InvetUorif cf Recardi m the ChapUr-houfe, H^ettminster, 191 



Scoihuid, UMtieswUh— I Ric.l.totS Elis. 

■ eoot«st aiul award between Druoe 

and Baliol — Edw. I. 

daim of £dward I. aa tuperior 



Lord. 

Spain, treaties with — 8 Hen. VII. 8 Jaq. I. 
Stannariea, vide Mines. 
Star Chaoiber, bills, aaewers, and depoai« 

tions — Henry VII. to Car. I. 
Statutes, enrol nients of, de illis qui debent 

Dim'i in joratis et assisis, 8(e. Winchester, 

Wales, Gloticeeter» Wesiniinter — the 9d 

£dw. I. 

Act of Resanption — 98 Hen. VI. 

Sopreniaey, doenmeats relative (o^Henry 

Vill. 

Testa de Neirile, tianscript of, for seYcral 
counties — Edw. I« 

Wnle^, bag of mieoallaaca lelatiag to-« 

various f ei gn s. 

■ Statute of— Edw. I. 
Wardrobe, accounU— Edw. I. to Hen. VIII. 

from 91 to 23 Heo. VII. and 1 to 12, 

Hen. VIII. 

Wards and Liveries, Conrt of. 

Arreragia, books of — Elix. to Car. I. 
BiRs, answers, and depositions, mixed 

with those of the Coort of Requests 

— -Tarioaa reigns. 
Calendar to the bills and answers— 

97 Hen. VIIL to 14 Car. I. 
Evideoeea of Wards estates — Hen. VII. 

to Car. 1. 
Books of orders and interlocutory pro- 

oeediags — various reigns. 
Decrees— 15 Elix. 91 Car. I. 
Decrees and PatenU — 1 Phil, and 

Mary to 17iac. I. 
Dower, parUculars for — 9 Eliz. 9 Car. I. 
Feodartes accounts, in rolls and books 

—Hen. Vin. Jac. I. to Ur. I. 
Transcripts and books — Elix. to Car. I. 

and Tarious feigns. 
Leases, particolan for— <8S Elix. to 91 

JacL 
Finns for leases Elix. 
Calendar of leases—.^ Heo. VIII. to 

19 Car. 1. 
Entries of lease*-- 1 Hen. VIII. to 9 

Jac. 1. 
Liveries— 36 Hen. Mil. in 91 Car. L 
Special Liveries^! to 34 Heo. Mil. 
Fines for liveries -34 Hem III. to 4 

Edw. VI. 
Particulan for Kveiies— 1 Hen. VIII. 

to 5 Mary. 
Transcripts of indentures — Heo. VIII. 

Edw. VI. lEIix. l7Car. I. 
Inquisitions post mortem — 28 Heow 

111. to 91 Car. 1. 
Transcripu of inquisitions post mor- 
tem— 9 to 30 Hen. VIII. 
Cale n da r to ioq. pust mor^m — 7 Elix. 

15 Car. I. 

Gkmt. Mag. Felruary^ 1630. 



Abstracts of inq. post mortem— 10 

Jac. I. to 1 5 Car. L 
Marriajres and leases — 17 Jac. I. to 14 

Car. L 
Fines fur marriages — 16 to 86 Elix. 
Rates, books of— 5 and 6 Ph. and 

Mary, to 9 Jac. I. 
Receiver-(;eoerars accounU in Rolls, 
&c.— Hen. VIII. to Car. I. 

— in volumes — 1 Edw. VI. to 

17 Car. L 
Surveys— 5 Hen. VIII. to 18 Elix. 
Calendar to bargaius and surveys— 1 

Hen. VIII. to EIIe. 
Views of acoouou— 1 Ph. and Mar. 

to 8 Car. I. 
Wards accounts — Hea« VU. 
Sales and preferments of wards •-« k 

Hen. VIII. to 91 Car. L 
Wards Committees, index of— 81 Elix. 
to 8 Jaq. I. 
Westminster, account of building York 

Place, temp. Hen. MIX. 
Westminster Abbey, endowment and foun- 
dation of Henry VII.*s Chapel. 
Wills, of Richard II. Henry V. MI. and 

VHL 
Windsor Castle, expenses of rebuilding, and 

repairs, &c.— Edw. IV. to Hen. VIII. 
Wolsey, Cardinal, pensions to, correspond*- 
eooe with, accounts of hia plate, jewels, 
&c. colleges founded by, &c« — Hen. VIII. 
Wood Sales. 

York Place, Westminster, accoonts of buUd*- 
ing— Henry VIII. 

The greater part of these documents 
are staled to be unindcxed, and many 
of them are iu a confused state, and 
defective ; others are marked as uncer- 
tain whether complete or not, some 
as partly or much decayed, and not a 
few as being quite perished. 



Life and Writiitos of Christo- 
PHiR Marlows. 

( Continued from p. 5.) 

I COME noMT to consider the charge 
of blasphemy, with which Mar* 
lowe's optnious nave been unceremo^ 
iiiously sugmaiitcd. So often, indeed, 
and from so many quarters, has the 
impuKiiion been repeated, that fe^ir 
seem disposed to question its truth, and 
the title of Atheist has by general con- 
sent become part and parcel of his 
character : 

"Shame sits and grins npoa his loathed 

grave. 
And howling fomits up in filthy guise, 
'1 he blasting story of his infaniea." 

Rdurmfrom PemasmM, 



1^ 



Life and H'ritings 0/ Christopher Marlowe, 



[Febi 



This tale, however, has quite as un- 
stable a foundation as many others that 
have been related of him, though his 
biographers, kind souls ! have almost 
universally ukeu the thing for granted, 
and dismisse<l poor Christopher to per- 
dition, like his own Faustus, wiihout 
troubling themselves to inquire into 
the justice of his sentence. Let us 
see, however, with whoiu the charge 
originated. The reader has already 
|>erused the substance of it, in the ex- 
tract from the ** Golden Grove" of W. 
Vaughan, whose puritanical prejudices 
were not calculated to render him very 
nice in his assertions upon any subject 
connected with the Drama, since he 
devotes one of his chapters to an in- 
quiry *' whether Stage- playes ought to 
be suflfred in a wel-gouerned common- 
wealth i"and after discussing the ques- 
tion with all the amiable temper and 
impartiality usually displayed by such 
writers upon such subjects, he arrives 
at the sage conclusion, that, " being 
fraught altogether with scurrilities and 
knavish pastimes, they are utterly into- 
lerable.'* Vaughan, however, was not 
the first relater of the story; neither 
was Mercs (•* Wits' Treasury), as 
stated by the editor of Marlowe, 182G ; 
both of them having borrowed it from 
a quarto work called *'The Theatre of 
God*8 Judgments," 1597, written by 
that savage old puritan Thos. Beard, 
who, in his Sdd chapter, treating *'of 
epicures and atheists," gives the fol- 
lowing more circumstantial detail of 
Marlowe's imputed atheistical opi- 
nions, with a description of his death, 
which is so outrageously over- done, 
that it r.efutes itself, or, if true, merely 
shows that he died delirious : 

'* Nut inferior to aoy in atheisme and 
inipietie, and equall to all in maner of pu- 
n'uhment, was one of our own nation called 
Marlin,* by profession a scholler, brought 
vp from his }outh in the Vniversitie of Cam- 
bridge, but hy practise a play-maker and a 
poet of scurrilitie, who, by giuing too large 
a swinge to his owne wit* and suffering his 
lust to haue the full reines, fell (not with- 
out just desert) to that outrage and extre- 
mitie, that he denied God and his sonne 
Christ : and not onely in word blasphemed 
tlie Trinitie, but also (as it is credibly re- 
portrdj wrote bookes against it, affirming 
our Saviour to be but a dcceiuer, and Moses 
to be but a coniurer and seducer of the pec* 
pie, and the Holy Bible to be but vaine and 
idle stories, and all religion but a deuice of 
policie. Hut> see what a hooke the Lord 

* In the margin the name is given pro- 
perly, Marlou^e. 



K 



It in the oosthrils of this barking dogge* 
t so fell out, that, as he purposed to atab 
oue whom he ought a grudge unto, with his 
dagger, the other partie perceiuing, so auuidi 
ed the stroke, that withall catching hold of 
his wrest, he stabbed his owuo dagger into 
his owne head, in such sort, that notwith- 
standing all the meanea of targerie that 
could be wrought, he shortly after died 
thereof; the manner of hit death being to 
terrible (fir he even cursed and lUuphemed 
to his last gaspe, and together with his tretUk 
an oath fUw out qf his mouthy that it was 
not onely a manifest signe of God's jud|g- 
nent, but also an horrible and ieanful terr 
ror to all that beheld him. But herein dkl 
the justice of God most notablv appeare* i« 
that he compelled his owoe nana, which 
had written those blasphemiflt» to be the in- 
strument to punish him^ and that in hii 
brain, which had devised the 



This is the earliest mentioD of Mar^r 
lowe by name as a blasphemer; but 
Mr. Collier, in the *' Poetical Deca* 
meron," has given an extract from t 
volume printed in 15g4, uoder the title 
of "The French Academie/' by T.B. 
(doubtless the Thomas Beard jubt 
quoted), in which he 11 evideollv al- 
luded to, though covertly, u *'a t>li8- 
phemous hel-hound.** An edition of 
this book of an earlier date (1589), >> 
in my possession, but it hat not the 
passage in question. 

Beard's account, as I before re- 
marked, has hitherto pasied nnqnct* 
tioned. It has been repeated by nu- 
merous writers, as derived from un- 
questionable authority ; and though the 
exact coincidence of their stories, and 
even language, which shows that -they 
all resorted to the same doubtful source 
of intelligence, ought to have excited 
suspicion and inquiry, the warmest 
admirers of Marlowe's genius hare 
been content to believe that, in re- 
ligious matters, he was a sad reprobate. 
Bishop Tanner styles him '* a norrible 
and blasphemous atheist;** and Ant. 
Wood, who had little affection for the 
race of |>oets, has given universal cur- 
rency to the relation, by contriving to 
introduce it in his " Athene/', Art. 
•' Thomas Newton,'* where he says, 
that " Marlowe denied God and his 
Son Christ, and not only in woni 
blasphemed the Trinity, but also, at ii 
was credibly reported, wrote divers* 
* Discourses' against it, affirming 
our Saviour to be a deceiver and Moses 
to be a conjuror, and all religion but a 
device of policy. But see tne end nf 
this person, wnich was noted by allp 

ESPECIALLY THE PRECISIANS." 



1830] 



Li/f and fVrUingi of Chriitopher Marhwe, 



193 



I hare now enumerated all the an- 
thorities from which an estimate of 
Marlowe's moral character has been 
formed ; and it must be admitted that, 
so far as bare assertion goes, we hare 
here a formidable body of evidence 
against this Tom Paine of the sixteenth 
century : yet who was crcr before con- 
demned upon testimony so completely 
unsupported by pmof, and rendered so 
questionable by the reputation of the 
parties tendering it ? Every one knows 
that the Puritans grossly viliBed all 
those who in any way encourased the 
Theatre ; and it was not probable that 
Marlowe, who, in addition to being 
one of its roost acti%'e and successful 
supporters, had severely ridiculed iheir 
manners and attire, would escape their 
malicious aspersions. Writers, who 
numbered among the deadly sins 
health-drinking, hair-curling, dancing, 
church-music, and, above all, play- 
writing, would scarcely fail (like many 
Puritans of our own day) to term the 
premature death of such a person a 
special manifestation of divine ven- 
geance. That Marlowe's life was 
M>roewhat dissolute, cannot, I fear, be 
doubted ; and the language employed 
by Greene, in a letter hereafter (quoted, 
even warrants a belief that, in his 
thoughtless moments, he sometimes 
spoke lightly upon religious topics: 
but as fur the stories of his dreadful 
and unparalleled blasphemies, let due 
allowance be made lor the prejudices 
and palpible exaggerations of the par- 
ties from whom %ve have received 
them ; and we must hesitate ere we 
assent to the probability of their truth. 
It should, moreover, be observed, that 
not oue of the authors who accuse 
Marlowe of writing asainst religion, 
pretends to have teen his book, but, 
on the contrary, all give the story — 
" as it is reported." Now, had so 
famous a personage produced any thing 
of the kiiid, is it not very improbable, 
aye, impossible, that it should not have 
oetn known even to his contempora- 
ries, and that its very name should 
have perished? Yet who ever met 
with the slightest trace of such a work, 
either MS. or printed, or any mention 
of it, save in the fanatical ravinus of 
Beard, and the compilations of those 
writers who, unable or unwilling to 
investigate the truth of what they re« 
|»eated, have suffered themselves u> be 
influenced by him ; a circuoMtance of 
itself almost sufficient to prove that it 
iieter existed. No one, I refjeat, pre* 



lends to more than hearsay authority 
upon the point ; bnt in the <* Athens^ 
firiiannicas*' of Myles Davis, 1716, 
p. 377, there is a cunous though some- 
what obscure allusion to the subject, 
which should not be suppressed. The 
author, after remarking that there aie 
now circulated •• few libels of Arian- 
izing dogmaticks,** adds, " neither be 
there any memorials autographal of 
the Arian blasphemies of the stage- 
poet, Christopher Marlowe, now ap- 
|)ea ring since I5g3*." 

1 have, howe%'er, a theory upon this 
point, to which I would not be thought 
to attach undue importance, but which, 
if allowed 10 possess any degree of pro- 
bability, may perhaps serve to set the 
question at rest. I surmise, that the 
terrible compositions which procured 
for Marlowe the character ot a blas- 
phenirr, were not argumentative trea- 
tises, but simply plays and poems! 
Wood, it will have been observed, 
says, in his account of him, that he 
'* wrote divers discourses against the 
Trinity.*' Now it is %ery probable that 
these, afier all, were nothing more than 
the two parts of •* Tamburlaine the 
Great," which ihe bookseller's entry, 
in the Stationers' Register, I59O, as 
well as the title-pages of the first and 
second editions, style «« Tragicall Dis- 
courses,'* and which abound with bom- 
bastic speeches, bordering upon blas- 
phemy; insomuch that Greene, in his 
introcluction 10 " Perimides the Black- 
smith," 1688, upbraids the author for 
•• darine God out of heaven with that 
atheist Tamburlaine." I will cite but 
one from among numerous similar pas- 
sages, to show the freedom of tone 
which the language of the personages 
in this tragedy occasionally assumes : 

" Well, soldiers, Mahomet remains in liell; 
He cannot hear the voice of Tamburlaine. 
Seek nat another godhead to adore ; 
The God that siu in heaven,— (/^<m^ God.'* 

Act ii. Sc. 5. 
So. in his "Ovid," Lib. iii. Eleg. 3 i 

*' God Is a name, no sabstancei fear'd in 



vain; 



And doth tbe world in fond belief detain. 
Or, if there be a God, he loves fine wenches, 
And all things ton much in their sole power 
drenches.*' 



* It is a singular coincidence tlwt, « 
century after (1690), one Marlowe pub- 
lished «• An Eway on the Trinity," the 
title of which I met with in an oM bouk- 
seUer*s catalogue, but have never been abb 
to procore tbe work itsel/. 



W4 



Lif^ and H^itingt of Christopher Marloufe. 



[Feb. 



Af^ain, Lib. iii. Eleg. 8 : 
*' When bad fates take good men, I aro 

forbod, 
By sftcrot thoughts, to tliink there is a God." 

Other lines, equally objectionable, 
might be adduced, but these will suf- 
iice to illustrate my argument; and it 
is needless to swell this article %viih 
further quotations from pieces which 
now may readily be referred to. The 
bombast of the nero of •* Tamburlaine*' 
can scarcely fail to amuse*; but I must 
confess, that expressions occasionally 
occur in that play, which might rea- 
conably give offence to minds far less 
squeamishly constituted than those of 
Messrs. Beard, Vaughan, and the rest. 
Is it, therefore, by any means improba- 
ble, that it was this laxity of lan<j(uage 
which mainly contributed to blacken 
Marlowe's reputation ; or that these 
** Two Tragicall Discourses'' were 
transformed by puritanical zeal into 
set discourses against religion ? 

The reader, nevertheless, will judge 
for himself of a matter upon which 
perhaps, at this remote |)criod, and 
with the paucity of materials we pos- 
sess for forming an opinion, it is im- 
possible to arrive at any ))Ositive con- 
clusion. Let me not, however, be 
understood to assert that Marlowe was 
wholly free from that dangerous folly 
which esteems free-ihinkiiig to be a 
mark of spirit, and which frequently 
tempts men, for the sake of appearing 
witty, to handle sacred subjects pro- 
fanely. Thus far, I fear, he must be 
coni>idered guilty ; but, in the total 
absence of satisfactory proof, let him 
not be branded as a cold-blooded sceptic 
—a deliberate, casuistical blasphemer, 
who not only entertained atheistical 
opinions himself, but aimed at shaking 
the faith of others by disseminating 
them in his works. 

Before 1 quit the examination of 
this point, I must mention that, among 
the papers of the Lord Keeper Picker- 
ing, in the British Museum, there is 
preserved a most curious manuscript 
relating to Marlowe's imputed blas- 
phemies, which, with those who are 
inclined to credit the tale, ** may help 
to thicken oihcr proofs, which now 
demonstrate thinly.'* So much of this 
remarkable document as is fit to be 
printed 1 shall transcribe; but some of 
the passages must be omitted, for rea- 
sons which will readily be imagined. 
They who are desirous to peruse the 
whole, may consult that somewhat 
rare tract, ifie ** Observations on War- 



ton's Hist. English Poetry," by Riisoo, 
p. 40, where it is given entire. 

'< A Note, contayning the 0|)iaioB of on* 

Christoplter Marlje, coneernyoge hit 

Damoable opinions, and Judgment oC 

RelygioD, and Soome of Gud't word*** 

*< That the Indiana, and nuiDy Auihon of 

Antiquitei, have assuredly wriuen of about 

16' thowsand yeeres agone, wher Adam b 

proued to have leeved w*^ in 6 thoiratn4 

yeers. 

** He affirmeth that Moytet was but • 
Juggler, and that one Heriots eon doo pKnv 
(hen hee. 

<* That Mojses made the Jewet lo trsTill 
fortie jeers in the wildemei, (w^ lomy 
migh* have ben don in Letse then one yeer,) 
er they came to the promised Landoy to iht 
intente that those wnoe war privei to noat 
of his subUleteis might perish, and ao hi 
ever lastinge suPstieinn r e n wy ne ia the halts 
of the people* 

« That the firsie btginnyn^a of IU%io» 
was only to keep men ia awe. 

*' That it was an easye matter for Mmea, 
beini^e brought vp in all the vta m the 
Egiptians, to abvse the Jeweaj hmng a rvdf 

and grosse people. 

* * « 

«' That Chrut was the Sonne of a Car* 

penter; and that yf the Jewcs» among* 
whome he was borne, did crvellye hiss, ihel 
best knew liim, and whence he eaase. 

*< That Christ deserved bettar to die then 
Barabas ; and that the Jewes mada a good 
choyce, though Barabas were belli a tSeifr 
and a inurtherer. 

« That yf ther be any God or good Ro: 
ligton, then it is in the papista» bcoana dba 
service of god is Pfbrroeu wt^ mora ceremo- 
oyes, as eIevac*on of the masses Organs, 
singinge men, shaven crownes; ftc. That ail 
protestants are hypocritall asses. 

** That yf he wer put to writs n new re- 
ligion, he wolde vndertake both a more es» 
cellcnt and more admirable method; and 
that all the new testament b filthely written. 
4" « « 

« That all thei that love not tohneoo wd 
boyea, ar fiioles. 

** Tliat all the Apposteb war Bshomsn 
and base fellawes, neither of wict nor wordi, 
Tliat Pawie imly had witt. That he was a 
timerous fellow, in biddinge men to be snb- 
iect to magistrates, against his consetenet* 

** That he had as good right to cojnOy at 
the Queen of Encland ; and that be wsi 
acquainted w*^ one Poole, a prisoner In Nev^ 
gate, whoe hath great skill In mixtore of 
metuls ; and, havinge learned sooM thing! 



* Tliis title is partly crossed ottt» and the 
following substituted : 

*' A Note, deliu*ed on whitson eve hsl» 
of the most horreble blasphemes iHaied'bf 
X'pofer Marly, who w»u« i^j dayea after OMO 
to a sodeu and fearfull end of hb lifi.*' • r 



I«i30.] 



Life ajfd f^rtltn^ of Chrulophtt Marlowe. 



195 



uf bim, he ment, Uiroagb bclpof a cvooyn^ 
tumpe-roaker, to coyoe frencb cfownM> pit- 
toletu. and Eogluhe Sbillingt. 

»* Tbat yf CbrUt bad instituted tbe Sacra- 
roeou »**• more ceremonjall reverence, it 
wold bave lien bad in more admlrac'on ; tbat 
it wolde bate ben mucb betur, being admi- 
nistered in a Tobacco-pype. 

" Tbat one Riebard Cbolraelei hatb coo- 
fe»»ed tbat be waa p*««»»ded by Marloe't 
reaaon, to liecome an atbeiste*. 

" ThM tbingt, w«*» many other, iball, by 
good and honett men, be proved to be his 
opioiona and co'okoo spcecbe ( and that this 
Marloe coiuetbi p'swadetb men to Atbe- 
isme, willinge them not to be afirayed of bug- 
beares and liobeoblins ; and vtterly scomynge 
both God and bis ministers, as I, Richard 
Bame will justify, both by roy otbe and tbe 
testimony of many honest men ; and, almost 
all men ^ irhome ho had convened any 
tyme, will testefy tbe same. And, as i 
tbinke, all men in chr'isttantci ought to en- 
devor tbat the mouth of so dangerous a 
member may be stopped. 

<* He sayeth, moreou% that he hath 
coated a number of contrarieties out of the 
scriptures, m^ be hath geeven to some 
);reat men, wboe in convenient tyme shal 
be named ; when tbeis things shal be called 
in question, the witnesses shall be P*duce<l. 

" Rycharo Bami." 

Who or what this Richard Bame 
was, ii is now useless to inquire ; hot, 
according to the Editor of Marlowe's 
works (1826), the Stationers* Hegisler, 
u. 3l6, shows that he was hanged at 
Tyburn on the 6ih Dec. 1394. He 
was apparently some pitiful culprit, 
who strove to avert punishment from 
hini&eif by becoming the accuser of 
others ; or some cantins, malignant 
scoundrel, whose enmity Marlowe had 
provoked, and who aimed at wreaking 
nis revenge upon him by that common 
resource of weak minds, the blackening 
his adversary's character, craftily com- 
bining a charge of political delinquency 
with one of moral turpitude. The 
stroke of fate, however, interposed be- 
tween his vengeance and his victim, 
and Marlowe |)erislied by a less linger- 
ing doom than was intended for him 
by this sanctified slanderer. 

ilavins now expressed my opinion 
ureily fully upon the question ol Mar- 
lowe's imputed blasphemies, I hare 
litile more to offer upon this point, 
except to entreat that the reader, what- 

* Opposite to this paragraph there is 
written in tbe mtrgin, m a different band, 
'* he ii utydfatr;** which Ritson supposes to 
mean, tbatCholaelie hmd been sent after to 
f(tv« ioftirmaskm opoo the sobfect. 



ever he may think of my hnmble at- 
tempt to vindicate the poet's fame, will 
not form his conclusions without de- 
liberately reperusing and com|)aring 
the evidences upon which the charge 
has been grounded ; dispassionately 
weighing the probability of the several 
narratives ; and, abore all, taking into 
full consideration the circumstance that 
he who first broached the tale which 
others have heedlesslv adopted, was a 
fierce and viodicti%'e Puritan. Let him 
call to mind the rancorous malignity 
displayed by the members of that io* 
tolerant sect towards those who distin- 
guished themselves by encouraging the 
arts which impart grace and elegance 
to society; and, above all, towards 
those who upheld the enormities of 
the Drama. Let him recollect of what 
extravagancies this same spirit, tooie* 
limes dormant, but never extinct, has 
im|)elled man to the commission in 
our times, when the conflagration of 
one theatre has been styled from the 
pulpit a national blessing, and the sud* 
den downfall of another described (in 
a strain of impious buflbonery) as the 
triumphant issue of a contest between 
the Deity and the Evil Principle for 
the possession of its site*; when a 
writer, who probably would feel of- 
fended at being termed a fanatical fool, 
has ventured to assert, in print, that 
" thousands of unhappy spirits, and 
tlK>usands vet lo increase the number, 
will look back with unutterable an- 
guish on the nights and days in which 
the plays of Shakspeare ministered to 
their guilty delishisfr' Let him ask 
himself whethc( a writer capable of 
seriously, and perha|)s conscientiously, 
promulgating such a sentiment as this, 
would hesitate to go a step further, and 
blacken by any means in his power 
the moral character of the author whose 
writings he so earnestly decries? Or 
whether he would not deem the in« 
vention of any libel, having a tendency 
to deter men from the perusal of them', 
a mere pious fraud — a piece of com- 
mendable duplicity? That Beard, with 
whom originated the charges against 
Marlowe, reasoned and acted some^ 
what after this fashion, is mv firm 
conviction ; hut the reader, wno has 
now before him all the accessible ma- 
terials wheieoQ to form an opinion, 
will dispassionately weigh the probabi- 

* See « Tbe Ground of tbe Theatre," by 
the Rev, G. Smith. 1 898. 

t " Eclectic Review,'* Vol. ui. Pt i. 
p. 7«. 



]<26 



PValk through the Highlands. 



[Feb. 



lilies, pro and con, and assent or demur 
to the correctness of my conclusion^ as 
his judgment may determine. 

Jambs Brouohtoit. 
(To be continued.) 

Walk throi^gh the Highlands. 

(Continued from FbL xcix. ii./>.487.) 

THE following morning something 
of our listlessness remained ; but, 
after breakfast, thanks to the town- 
crier, with his red coat and his drum, 
things seemed to brighten upon us. 

Through the kindness of my friend 
.,,,, 1 had received letters of intro- 
duction to Mr. Owen, one of the pro- 
C'etors of the Cotton Mills at New 
nark, objects well worthy of atten- 
tion, and which cannot be inspected 
unless by persons made known in this 
way to one of the managers. We 
found Mr. Owen at the mills, and re- 
ceived from him every civility. He 
informed us that, at the present time, 
between two and three thousand people 
were employed at the manufactory. 
But a very considerable share of his 
attention seemed to be directed to the 
Schools, forming part of the establish- 
ment, one consisting of three hundred 
boys, the other of the same number of 
girls. He did not appear to follow ex- 
actly the system ot Lancaster or Dr. 
Hell, but rather united the two, in 
expectation, I suppose, of improving 
upon both. The Lancasterian system, 
however, appeared to me to be the 
basis ; and we saw the boys go through 
their manceuvres, by the sound of the 
nioniior*s whistle, with much precision. 
Mr. Owfn seemed altogether to disa|>- 
prove of the system of punishment or 
reward. Not so the master; for, in 
the corner, we obsen'ed a delinquent 
with some ticket of disapprobation 
pinned to his sleeve, at which our 
conductor appeared considerably an- 

The establishment is of thirty years* 
standing. Formerly, the people em- 
ployed were notorious for their extreme 
dissoluteness of manners and immo- 
rality; now, according to our in- 
formant, they are as remarkable for the 
opposite qualities. Many new regu- 
lations have been lately introduced. 
Amongst others, they have a public 
table, and a shop within the premises 
for the sale of all necessary articles of 
food and clothing. These innovations 
were at first very obnoxious, and ac- 
cofdingly resisted ; but tlic people arc 



at length not only reconciled to them, 
but fully aware of their advantages. 

1 was given to understand that the 
employment amongst the cotton was 
not so unhealthy as generally supposed ; 
and we saw a machine, lately invented, 
for removing the most injurious part of 
the process. The women and girls 
employed, with few exceptions, looked 
healthy and smart. 

The machinery was of fir, a good 
deal of it foreign, and appeared in ex- 
cellent order. In ihe lower stories are 
for^ for iron and brass-work, some of 
which had an excellent polish, and 
was well worked. Indeed evety thing 
appeared well rfguluied and most com- 
plete. 

The noise of the machinery is dis- 
tressingly loud, and, on the ouuide of 
the mills, resembles that of the Falls« 
for which it might easily be mistaken* 
Close to the mills a minor fall presents 
itself, which, in England, would lie 
deemed very pretty, perhaps maffnifi- 
cent, and ornamented most carefnlly< 
Sometimes, however, there is a de- 
ficiency of water. 

Mr. Owen has an excellent hoose 
in the neighbourhood of the mills, in 
a beautiful situation, surroaoded by 
somewhat lofty hills, and which are 
planted in very good taste. 

We started (walking) frooi onr inn 
at Lanark at half-past two, taking ihs 
road to Hamilton. This was our 6rsl 
day of walking, and I still did not 
quite like the idea of the knapsack at 
my back ; I therefore carried my tJi- 
dependent in my hand to the end of 
the town. I think my companion bad 
the ma<^naniinity to pat his in the 
proper place at starting. We had not 
proceeded far before we came within 
sound of the Fall of Stony Byers, oo 
our right, a steep p.ith leading down to 
it from the road. This fall is said to 
be only fifty-eight feet: yet it struck 
me as being superior in grandeur to 
any I had yet seen. Hitherto art had 
united with nature, and we had walk- 
ed to Corra Lynn and Boniton through 
shady avenuef, and on gravel walks, 
without a weed. Wetft Nature reigned 
supreme, and certainly appeared to 
greater advantage when unassisted and 
alone. 

The afternoon was delightfully plea- 
sant, and we lingered some time under 
the shade of beech and alder, while 
my coinpaiiion sketched the Fall. We 
rc-asi:ended by the sleep path lo the 
road, which still coutinuod very pic* 



1630.] 



Walk through thi Uighlandt. 



I«7 



turetqiif, winUing by ilie banks of the 
Clyde, aad afibrding a most dclighiful 
view of ihe hanging woods and river. 
About four miles on ihe right, we 
tame to a neat house, belonging to 
Coionel Gordon ; and, about the same 
distance onwar<ls, to a castle of Lord 
Steiofofft's, the latter most pleasantly 
situated. 

We arrived at Hamilton at half-past 
seven, thirsty, and somewhat fatigued ; 
and on the following morning ^Sunday) 
proceeded through rain to the Palace, a 
venerable pile of building, in some 
degree resembliug Holy roo<l- house. — 
The pictures are really superb* und it 
is decidedly the hrsi mlkctiun in Scot- 
land. We were urinciually struck with 
a paintins of Dan id in the Lion's 
Den, by Rubens ; by some inimitable 
Dutch |)aintinff«, and by some fine 
specimens of balvaior Rosa. There 
are also many excellent poriraits, par- 
ticularly one of the Earl of Denbigh. 

The drawing-room, in which the 
chief pictures are disposed, is extremely 
magniBcent, and a hundred and twrntj 
feet in lensth. At the further end is 
a throne ofcrimson and gold, with the 
royal arms, which had accompanied 
the Duke of Hamilton when ambassa- 
dor to Russia. This superb throne 
adds much to the magnificence of the 
room, which, notwithstanding its size, 
is, even in winter, very wurm. I'he 
furniiure throughout the Palace is ex- 
tremely handsome, and it contains 
some of the most elegant cabinets I 
ever saw. From the windows we had 
a view of Chatetherault, at thedisunce 
of about two miles, built for a hunting 
seat, which ap|)eared to be very plea- 
santly si tuate<l, and commanded, as we 
were informed, a most enchanting 
prospect. The ground and premises 
immediately adjoining the Palace did 
not appear in the best order, but the 
park is very fine, and contains many 
jioble trees. 

We had walked about three miles 
on our way from Hamilton, and it was 
again raining, when we were fortu- 
nately overtaken by a carriage, and 
arranged with tlie driver to convey us 
to Glasgow. 

We soon crossed a bridge over the 
Clyde, where one unaccustomeil to 
Scottish manners would have been 
surprised at the sight of two smart 
lassies, on their way to Kirk, in verv 
handsome white gowns and yellow silk 
spencers, but without shoes or stock* 
ings— at least on ihdr feet! Probably 
they had them in their pockets, ready 



to put on clean in the Kirk-porch* 
We had heavy showers the whole of 
the way, and arrived at Glasgow aboot 
four. Both chaises and horses, on thb 
road, appeared to be occuliarly good. 

The Cathedral of Glasgow has a fine 
and very venerable appearance, parti- 
cularly striking in Scotland, where so 
few of these edifices remain ; but, on 
entering iu doors, our veneration was 
by no means increased. The Church 
is ru>w divided into two places of wor- 
ship by the Presbytery, one of them 
lately fitted up with new deal pewt 
and wainscoting, ill according witli 
the other parts of the building. The 
smell from the new wood was vtiy 
unepitcopaip and rather served to re* 
iniod one of 

** Tha nasal twang 
Hvard at conventicle, where worthy nen, 
Miskd by euttom, smin celestial themes 
Through the iMren'd ooauil, spectacle bt- 
strid." 

The principal window is ornamented 
by some modern painted glass, sent 
from London about two years since. 

Under the guidance of a friendly 
bibliopole we visited the Canal, iu 
which were several large vessels; the 
Lunatic Asylum, a baiulsome and 
commodious building ; and the Ob- 
servatory, which is furnished with ex- 
cellent instruments. We also explored 
the Infirmary, of three hundred beds. 

The College has a very venerable 
and really collegiate appearance, in this 
respect differing altogether from that 
at Edinbtir^h. In the Courts at Glas- 
gow we might fancy ourselves at Ox- 
lord or Cambridge. The building con- 
sisis of two quMrangles. At the end 
of the second is the edifice built for 
Dr. Hunter's Museum, litis Court is 
open on one side to grounds, which are 
neat, and ornamented by several hand- 
some trees. The class-rooms for the 
students in humanity are spacious, and 
apppeared newly fitted up. Particular 
benches are ticketed with the name of 
the class which occupies them. The 
academical dress consists of a red gown. 
The Professor's reading-room it a good- 
sited, handsome, and very comfortable 
apartment, adorned by some good por- 
traits—one of their areat Mnefactor 
Dr. Hunter. The Librarv is a light 
and elegant building ; and, altogether, 
we were much gratified by our in- 
spcctioo. 

In the Museum, the anatomical pre- 
parations are invaluable ; the mincimit 
Deauiifnl, and in excellent order. Iu 
this room may be teen two autograph 



199 VisU to the HighUmdt.-^Aunder of th§ Theatrical Fund. -, [Mi 



lecterty one from Dr. Franklin, the 
other from General Washington. The 
far-famed Medals can only be teen in 
the presence of three Professors ; and 
here my letters of inlroduciioo were 
very serviceable. 

After bidding adieu to these gentle- 
men, we put ourselves under the di- 
rection of Cameron, the janitor, and 
inspected f the process for singeing 
moslin. The muslin is made to pass 
quickly over a red-hot iron cylinder, 
also in motion, and thus its superflui- 
ties and asperities are removed. It 
comes away discoloured, but is after- 
wards taken to the bleach- field, and 
(here obtains its snowy whiteness. 

It was now too late to think of 
walking to Dumbarton, yet we foond 
it very disagreeable to spend another 
night in Glasgow. After a hastv re- 
past, therefore, we made with all haste 
for the steam-boat, which was to sail 
for Greenock between five and six. 
We embarked on board the Princess 
Charlotte, and were speedily at Dun- 
glass. 

Dutiglass is about three miles from 
Dumbarton, and from hence we had a 
rery pleasant walk, as the evening was 
uncommonly fine, though very cool. 
The rocks to the right of the road are 
extremely fine, and the first appearance 
of the Castle very sinking. 

On the morning of Wednesday, the 
10th, some slight showers did not pre- 
vent us- from visiting the Castle. From 
the Church-yard the Rock has a noble 
appearance, but the buildings on it are 
but insignificant. They are by no 
means imnobing except from their si- 
tuation, wnich is altogether very grand, 
the hill, disjoined from all others, rising 
from an immense plain. Under the 

fruidance of a soldier, we ascended a 
ong and laborious flight of steps to the 
batteries, where the first wonder was a 
miserable iroUt in a well. This fish 
was nearly new to its prison-house. 
Its pncdecessor had lived in it for thirty 
years. We ascended still further, to the 
summit of the lower division. From 
this point there is a most extensive 
and varied view of the Clyde and the 
adjoining country. In a clear day 
it is possible to see Glas^w. When 
we visited Dumbarton it was hazy, 
and the view rendered much leas mag- 
nificent from the absence of the tide ; 
yet we thought we discovered Ben 
'Lomond. Near to this spot is a small 
building, in which General St. Simon 
was some time confined. 



We descended a little, in order lo 
come at the steps leading to the higher 
pinnacle, where a small party of the 
71st were on |>arade. 

Our last sight was the celebrated 
sword of Sir William Wallace, kept in 
the Guard- Room, and which, like the 
dirk of Hudibras, might be used either 
for civil or warlike purposes. We here 
left our friend the soldier, and were 
down in the plain in a few seconds. 

A« Old Subsgribbk. 
fTo be continued.) 

Mr.URHAW. Norlon-Mlrtei. Port. 
' land-place. 

THE high and merited reputation 
which your excellent Magazine 
has maintained from its origin^ renders 
it a duty in your readers iq correct any 
mistake of which it may have been the 
medium. Your correspondent W. PI 
(in your January Number) has no doubt 
stated exactly what Garrick said at 
Hampton ; but the word '' establish- 
ment ' admits of a doubtful meaning; 
and it might be inferred that Garrick 
was the original founder of the Thea- 
trical Fund. Now, Sir, the real founder 
of the Theatrical Fund was Mr. Thomas 
Hull, a learned man and a respectable 
actor. The Theatrical Fund originated 
at Coveni Garden Theatre, and a year 
or two afterwards was adopted at Drury- 
lane Theatre, and Mr. Garrick wrote 
and sooke an Address in support of it, 
which I had the pleasure of hearing^ in 
h is la tter days. By de^ re of M r. Richh 
ards, formerly scene-painter at Covent 
Garden Theatre, on the death of Mi;. 
Hull, I wrote the following Epitaph, 
which is placed on his tombstone it^ 
the Church-yard .of St. Margaret x, 
Westminster : 

EPITAPH. 

" On the Ute Thomas Hull, Etq.Founfe 

of The Tlieatrical Fiind. 
" Hall, long respected in hit Scenic Art, 
On life'i great itage snstain'd a virtuous parti 
And, some memorial of hn zeal to ihoir 
For his lov'd art, and shelter age from woa^ 
He fSorm'd that noble ruNO whioh guaids his 



£mbalm'd by Gratitude, enshrin'd by Fi 

Mr. Garrick might reasonably 
joice that he adopted, and by hit great 
talents supported, so benevolent oft 
Institution. 

I am, Mr. Urban, your frienil and 
admirer, Johh Tat2.or. 

P. S. It is somewhat hurprisiiig ihat» 
at the anniversiiry celc brat inns, the 
name of Mr. Hull is never uientionccl 



isao.] 



[ w ] 



REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



Rteordt ^ CapL Cktpperkm*t last Expedi- 
tim to Afiiea, By Riehtrd LMi<i«r, his 
faU^ful AtUmUnif and ike omly suroifring 
Member ^ the Bxpediium. mtkihetub' 
Mfquent Adventures tiflke Author. S voU. 
poti %vo, Colbara. 

WHEN we reflect on the many 
gallant ioolt, stimulated by the 
daring spirit of adventure, who have 
perished in this inhospitable and mor- 
tiferoos portion of the globe ; — when 
we recall to mind the ill-fated des- 
tinies of Park, Belzoni, Denham^ 
Laing* and innumerable others, whose 
names will be embalmed in the recol- 
lections of an admirins posterity;— 
and, finalU, when the dauntless Clap- 
pertOD and all his enterprising compa* 
nions, save the author of these volnmes, 
have shared the fate of their prede- 
cessors in the same perilous career,— 
wt cannot but feel a deep though me- 
lancholy interest in the deui Is con- 
nected with the above expedition. 
They are written in the most unassum- 
ing manner, and bear in every line the 
very impress of truth. Considering 
the subordinate capacit]^ in which the 
writer was engaged, it is really a mat- 
ter of surprise that he should have exe- 
cuted the task of producing these vo- 
lumes with so much fc^aphic ability ; 
but it is evident that his talents were 
far beyond the capacity of a menial, 
though his enterpnsing spirit induced 
him to accept anv situation, however 
humble, that mignt gratify his ardent 
thirst for foreign adventure and useful 
discovery. In confirmation of this we 
have only to advert to his late appoint- 
OMOt by Government to explore the 
Niger, accompanied by his brother, as 
stated in p. 64 of our last Magazine. 

In a neat " Sketch of the Author's 
Life," prefixed to these " Records," 
bis 6rst introduction to and engage- 
ment with Capt. Clapperton, are thus 
briefly suted. It shows the zeal and 
dauntless ardour with which Mr. 
Lander entered upon so perilous an 
expedition, though in direct opposi- 
tion to the wishes of his friends aiu) 
relatives. 

« Havieg beMd that it was the ioteatioB 
of the Britbh GovcruneM to send oat ano- 
OiiiT. Mao. Fdfmarjf^ IMO. 



ther expedition for the purpose of esploriog 
the yet uoditcovtred parts of oentril AfHee, 
and of •odcavooring to aseerUun the tooiee» 
OTugress, and tenniiMtion, of the nijrsterioes 
Niiper ; and the attempt eoiocidti^; esaetly 
with my loog-cberished wishes, I instantly 
waited upon the lau Captain Clapperton, 
who I was told was lo be placed at iu head, 
and expressed to (hat brave and spirited offi- 
cer the great eagerness I felt to become a 
party, however bumble, to the novel and 
hazardous undertaking into which he was 
aboot to enter. The Captain litteoed to 
me with attention, and after 1 had answered 
a few intefrosfationt, willingly eneaged me 
to be hit eoufidential servant. In tnii inter- 
view the keen, penetrating eye of the Afri- 
can traveller did not escape my ohservatioa t 
and by iu fire, enerey, and quickness, de- 
noted, in my own opinion at least, the very 
soul of enterprise and adventure." 

In pursuance of his engagement, 
Mr. Lander shortly after left the Me- 
tropolis with Capt. Clapperton for 
Portimooth, being then in the twenty^ 
first year of his age. On the 27th of 
August, 1825, they embarked in the 
Brazen sloop of war, along with the 
other associates of the mission, con- 
sisting of Capt. Pearce, R.N. ; Dr. 
Morrison, a Na«y surgeon ; Dr. Dick- 
son, a Scotch surgeon ; Columbus, a 
West Indian mulatto, who had accom- 
|)anied Major Deo ham in the previoua 
journey ; and Pksko, a black native of 
Housaa, who was to act as interpreter. 
The expedition arrived at Cape Coast 
on the 14th of November, and tailed 
for Cape Castle on the 17th. After 
touching at Whydah, they came to ao 
anchor in Badagry Roads on the 28th. 

<< The day after the arrival of the Brasea 
at Badagry (tays Mr. Lander), the gentle- 
men of the mission and the officers of the 
ship assembled on the quarter-deck to take 
a nnal farewell of each other t and some of 
the IstUr were deeply affwted, as with a 
faltering voice and agitated manner they 
breathed their hopes that sooeess might at- 
tend the perilous undertaking to which th^ 
enurprising friends liad so willingly devoted 
themselves. There was something so mov- 
ing in the pathetie spectacle of Eoglishflsea 
parting under a strong persuasion, almnet 
amoontiae to a eoovictioo, of meeting uo 
more in this world,— to see the meoHr rseo- 
latkm and stubborn indiflereace of Britasb 



130 Review. — Laadefs Records of Clapperton'i Expedition , [Feb. 



officen' combating with the tenderer and 
more amiable feeliogs of human nature, 
that I myself could with difficulty atifle ay 
emotion; and to dispel the gloom which 
hung upon my mind, I bade the officers a 
hasty and respectful adieui and shaking 
hands with many of the honest seamen on 
deck, I sprang into a canoe that lay along- 
side the firazeU) and as two of the natives 
were rowing it towards the shore, I took 
the opportunity of playing < Over the hills 
and far atvay,* on a small bugle horn which 
I had brought with me. This elicited the 
admiration of the sailors of the ship, and I 
landed amidst the hearty cheers and accla- 
mations of them all." 

After crossing the river Formosa, 
about a mile in width, the travellers 
arrived at Badagry, where they re- 
mained till the 27tn of December, be- 
ing comfortably accommodated at the 
dwelling of Mr. Houison, who had 
previously resided at this place. On 
quitting Badagry, they began to ex- 
perience the dimculties and extreme 
miseries of African travelling. 

"Captain Clapperton havine borrowed 
the horse of a Badagrian chief, he and Mr. 
Houtson agreed to ride htm in turns. We 
took a short route across the country, whilst 
Captain Pearce and Dr. Morrison proceeded 
to Dagnoo by a safer but more circuitous 
road. It was evening when we left Book- 
har, and it soon becoming dark, we bad to 
grope our way on a narrow foot path, wind- 
ing through a gloomy dismal forest, and 
rendered almost impervious toman or beast, 
except on the beaten track, by reason of 
thick entangling underwood. To odd to 
our misery, Captain Clapperton became so 
painfully galled in consequence of riding on 
the back of a lean horse without a saddle, 
that he preferred walking the remainder of 
the way, although wearing only slippers; 
these were soon Jost, and he was obliged to 
limp a considerable distance barefooted, so 
that his feet were swollen, and blistered 
dreadfully, and before reaching laako were 
literallv bathed in blood." P. 57. 

"Tne roads being rendered almost im- 
passable, in consequence of the rains that 
had fallen the preceding night, it was nut 
without experiencing cunsiderable difficulty 
that we could pursue our journey. The 
mud and water reached, in some places, al- 
most to the horses* shoulders ; and Daw- 
son,* who was ill with ague, was unable to 
retain his seat on the animal's bock, and 
fell three or four times in the mire, till he 
became so much exhausted by struggling to 
regain his seat, that, in despair, he at last 
flung his arms onlv across the horse's back ; 
and panting with his exertions, was in this 

* An English seaman, who had been en- 
gaged at Badagry as servant to Dr. Morrison. 



manner dragged to a considerable distance. 
At eleven o'clock we arrived at tlie village of 
Egbo ; and after partaking of a slight re- 
freshment, each of us being indisposed in a 
greater or less degree, we stretched our- 
selves at full length on our mats, in th^ 
hope of obtaining a little sleep. Dawson, 
however, was taken dreailfiilly ili, and his 
moanings of distress prevented me from 
closing my eyes. He pronounced the names 
of his wife and children, whom he had left 
in England, with a bitter emphasis, and re- 
proached himself repeatedly with having d** 
serted them, to perish miserably in a strongt 
country." P. 74. 

During his agonies poor Dawson 
swallowed a dose from a phial, by 
mistake, which caused his immediate 
dissolution. Captain Poarce and Dr. 
Morrison soon alter fell yictims to ex- 
cessive fatigue and the baneful in- 
fluence of the climate. 

After experiencing innnmerable dif* 
ficulties, the remainder of the party 
arrived at Katunga, the capital of^ Ya» 
riba, on the 15th of Jan. 1826', where 
they remained seven weeks, the King, 
on various frivolous pretcnoea, refaa« 
ing to grant them permission to de- 
part. The account which Mr. Lander 
gives of the manners and cusloma of 
the inhabitants, when residing there, 
is very amusing. 

On the 6ih of March the IraYellen 
left Katuntj^a; but Mr. Houtson, on 
account of ill health, was lefl behind, 
and died after a few days' ill nets thft 
party being thus reduced to two Euro- 
peans only, Capt. Clapperton and Mr. 
Lander. On quitting the Yaribean 
territories, they passecT through several 
viNages which had been burnt by the 
Falatahs, a powerful and increasing 
tribe, who are, at the present time, 
desolating the interior of this part of 
Africa, by conquest and spoliation. 
Some of these Falatahs profess tSM 
Mahommedan faith, and some wor- 
ship idols, like the natives themselves, 
whilst others have no outward form of 
religion at ail. Many of them are fotf 
ever wandering from place to place, 
like the Bedouin Arabs, and othera 
s|)end a tranquil existence in the occu- 
pations of pasturage and aprieultme. 
Several are suspected of stirring up thd 
minds of the people against their rulers, 
and treated accordingly with as mueh 
contumely and disrespect as the Jewa 
in some countries of clurope. 

The expedition passed thrptigh 
Wow Wow, the metropolis of a pro- 
vince of the same name, in the em- 



183a] RsTiBW.— Lander^B Reomrd$ of ClappertonU Expedition. 131 



pire of Borghoo, which is goTem- 
cd by Mohammed, a Mutsiilman, 
strongly addicted to fU|>ertlition, but 
of mild and uiiasiuming mannem. 
Boussa it a province contiguous to 
Wow Wow, the capital ot which, 
called alio Bouiaa, is situated on an 
island in the rirer Niger, or more pro- 
iierly the Quorr^, about three miles in 
len((ch, and one in breadth. It is 
chiefly remarkable as the place where 
the enterprising Park and his compa- 
nions experience<l their melancholy 
fate. Our travellers look some pains 
to ascertain the particulars of his death, 
and to recover if possible his journal 
and papers; but it appears that they 
had all been destroyed, or conveyed no 
one knew whiiher; and the inhabit- 
ants were extremely reserved on the 
subject. The following appears to be 
the most authentic version of the dis- 
mal story of the deaths of Park and 
Martin, which Mr. Lander waa able 
to obtain : 



CI 



The vojagtrs had raaebed Youri m 
nafety, and wart oa btimata awl ftuisiliar 
terniB with iu Sultan, ikther to the lel^ 
ing prioce, who tntreated theas to ianl^ 
their journey throngh tba eountiy by laad, 
instead of proceeding down the Quorra to 
the salt water ; obienring, that the peopla 
inhabiting the islands and borders of the 
river were ftmeious in their manners, and 
would not suffer their ctaoe to proeotd 
withoat haviag first riiWd it of its contents, 
ami evpoeed them to every speciet of indig- 
nity and insult ; tad that if their lives wert 
spared, they would infidlibly be deuined at 
domestic slaves. This evil report was oon- 
sidertd tt tht eflbct of jealousy and preju- 
dice ; and, disregarding the prudent eooasel 
of the Sultan of Youri, the ill-fated advea- 
tartrt proceeded down the Qoorrm at fkr tt 
the itiand of Boussa, from whence their 
ttntige-k>oking canoe wat observed by out 
or two of the iobabitaats, whose shoots 
brought nomben of their companions, arm- 
ed with bows and arrows, to the spot. At 
that time the usurpations of the Palataht 
had begun to be the general ulk of the 
Idack population of the country, so that the 
people of Bouttt, who had only hearti of 
that wariike nation, fancied Mr. Park and 
hia aiiocittt to be tome of them, coming 
with the incentioo of taking their town, and 
fufajugating its inhabitants. Under thit 
impression, tbty saluted the onfortunata 
Englishmen from the beach with showers of 
missiles and ixNsoned arrows, which were 
returned by the latter with a discharge of 
musketry. A small white flag had been 
previously waved by our countrymen, in 
token or their peaceable intentions ; but 



thit symbol not being understood by ihe 
people of Boutsa, they continued firmg ar- 
rowa, till they wert joined by the iniole 
male population of the island, when the un- 
equal contest was renewed with greater vio- 
lence than ever. In the mean time the 
Englishmen, with the blacks they had with 
tliem, kept firing unceasingly amongst tba 
multitude on shore, killing manv, and 
wounding a ttill gretur nnmbtr, tift their 
ammunition being expended, aad seeing 
every hope of life cut off, they thi«w their 
goods overboard ; and desiring their sable 
assisUnts to swim towards the beach, locked 
themselves firmly in each other's arms, and 
springing into the water, instantly sank, and 
were never seen again." 

Our author relates a curious adven- 
ture which took place at the city of 
Wow Wow with a widow lady of 
Arab extraction named Zuma, who 
was immensely rich, and possessed 
of so much influence, that she had 
ertn aspired at the government, by 
attempiiag to depose her sovereign. 
This lady, who was greatly celebrated 
for the piagoidity of her person, and 
waa a perfect beauty, according to 
African notiont, became desperately 
cnamoorad of Mr. Lander; and on his 
rejecting her anient suit, she made 
orertaret to his master— a circum- 
stance which involved the parties in 
some troubles with the reigning sove- 
reign, who was extremely jealous lest 
such an alliance might endanger hia 
throne! Mr. Lander's description of 
this sable Venus is truly amusing 
" Poor widow Zuma, (he exclaims) T 
almost fancy I see her now, waddlinc 
into our house, a moving world of 
flesh, puffing and blowing like a black- 
smith s bellows, and the very pink and 
essence of African fashion.** 

On the S3d of December, after a 
wearisome journey from Kano of 
nearly a month, Lander reached Soc- 
catoo, the celebrated capital of the 
Falatahs, where Capt. Clapperton had 
already arrived some time previous. 
This place has been very much en- 
larged by the present Sultan Bello, and 
appears to be the roost important citv 
in the interior of Africa. The svafl 
that surrounds the capital of the Fala- 
tah empire, does not indeed encom- 
pass so large a portion of ground as 
that of Kano, but its population it 
treble the amount ; and allowing the 
latter city to contain forty thousand 
souls, the aggregate number of inha- 
bitants in boccatoo will be one hun- 
dred and twenty thousand. 



132 Review,— Lander'i Recordt of Clapper ton i Exptdilion. [Feb. 

It was ai Soccaioo th^iL ilie lamented Htb flig ""ing "Io'It "^ mmimrollj am 

Cbppcrlun Lreatheil hi. lul. The th™ >t (h* •>«» momeiit Not m m^ 

nirralWc of hii lufferinits, death, sod """l H.ttmd lo thii pemlUilj dbtnuing 

funeral, a> relal«l by Under, i> truly ""nmaj j f..r tl>. .U™ w«. q»mll™ 

aBecimg. ,„^^ Thi. being d™. th. fl.g -• ukm 

" The iUtci fB-mg w!<iuni|>l»hed thn , „j ,f,g (^ ,]j,.] |o,„„j i^^ ,|^ 

U>k of digging the g««, the cut|»e wu „^ . ,^j j ^^^ hitwrf* u I nud, fur ■ 

bon» to (he briok of the pil, uid I pLnud ,„, jj^,^ „„ ^ ,i^^ rwiaiiwd of nj in- 

lh« fl>s «l"e *° "; '""•• "MO'e'ine ^T treuid and belored Dtutcr." 
\mi, and opeumg a pr.jer-booli, »mid«t ■ u r i 

•bonn of uan, T rod tin impniiKe fu- A vignellc, reprsienlmg ihe fmiersl 

nenl lenin of the ChHfch nf Engtind over ceremony, is introduced with very ap^ 

tha rtmuD* of 1117 valued m»ler— the £pg- prO|irUle effect. 



The author, hating esprriencrd a ThronaorMcrcT.— MihaOodorCUnlaBi, 

aevere JMneM and much iDfTertng, \th — and haitiljr avalloind ih* frtkh, daahiig 

Soccaioo on the 4th of May, and ma<le tbe polun-ohalic* to iha gmmd. A low 

lh« best of his way towards the Coaal, n"™"" ™ throogh tha avtnUy j tbm 

paaaint; through Kano, Wow Wow. •" th<.<.ght I .hould iutaotly hna npired, 

and Kalunga. After enduring much "' " '*"' We diieowrtd >pimoiH bT 

fatigue and aickneaa. and meeifng with "'•" "S""'^.' '^' *''*^,"'" "? "? ""^ 

tnany ..range »d«n.ur« he arrived ^''^^."r/.Tl.". Y,X ?>.'tS^Z 

atBada^t-yon the 2I« of No-ember, „p,„ ^,, i r„„^ raj poor ^T.7m mm. , 

having been a month on the road from thjy had come, they laid, to catch a laH 

Kaluiiga- glii»p« of tlieir maiUr ; but whan that mm 

Owing to the base insmuatmni of me alive lod at liberty, [hej leaped ^ 

Ihe Potlogueae residenli at Badagry, daaced fur joy, and prepuvj a path f(» M 

the author was compelled by the native thruugh the deax man of aimed pMpI*. 

ptietu 10 iwBtlow a liquid poi«on, 10 ThcH lel iip m uUiuading ahoot at ny 

prove that he was innocent of all irea- uneipected appearance, aad leamad graatly 

sonable deiigni. By n.iraculou. good f *•"«* (if 1 might ba alloovd to jadge) that 

fortune, he was aa«d from the fatal ' '"'' ""i^"'?: ""™ *? '^ "'"r-,?* 

effect, of the dreadful ordeal. iha.r fc.tfulfcti.h. Oo arrmog M my d-dl. 



.™g°. I 



_, , , . ,,. . ■ '"»^' ' ''™» innMii mua pnwinui an 

lh« bowl in my trentbliog hand, ,j,c, a^t .eoocioas potion from ay at 



Ined two moathi 



>k ofcompaHiua ihooe aixn aoT „"" »^"<'" remained two OlDatlH 

.-, a dead lileon pnniled in ihi '} B"d»nry. anxi^oiKiy waitmg the ar- 

glooiDj Moctuaty of tkulli; every eva irai ">■"' <>' >ome tnglitli trader, when, 

inienily fixed upon me ; and leeiBg no O >he £0l1i ofjaniiary, he receitcd ■ 

pni'ihility uf euape. or of evading the letter directed to " Tlie Engliihnan U 

piercing glaace of the prieiti and eiriert, I Badagry," fiom Captain JLdingr, of iha 

afiartd up, btcinally, a ibort prayer to tha brig Maria, ol Ij>ndon, wholiail pur- 



1830.] Rbvibw. — Bacon's Lift and Timu of Franm L 



133 



pcMcly come from Whydah, io convcv 
him from thence. He accurdinglj took 
hit immediate departure for England. 

The portrait vvhich Mr. Lander hai 
drawn of the African character, with 
the exception of the horrid cruchiet 
practised at Badagry, ii extremely fa- 
vourable; and, indeed, he preteius his 
readers with a lively |)ortraiture of the 
rcligioufl sects, governments, amuse- 
ments, manners, &c. of the natives, 
from Badagry to Soccatoo. 

<* N»tor« (savB he) has endowed tha 
Afriean with a \>uoyMit, cheerful, happy 
temper ; to that no calamity, however K'^^t, 
— nu grief, however poignaot, — ii capable 
nf making a deep or tafttog impression on 
hit mind. He does indeed display a lively 
natural feeling when bis infant children are 
•natclied forcibly from his embracei, or he 
himself torn from his borne, and kindred, 
and village^tree, to gaze u|Kia strange faees, 
and wander amongst foreign scenes ; but this 
emotion is as evanescent as a flash of light- 
ning i he kuows uo fixed laaiing sorrow ; 
pakt misfortunes are quicklj swallowed up in 
present eojcivment, while anticipations ef the 
future have no power to harass and perplex 
him, because it is painful for him to think 
at all, and he does not think." 

<• lilt Africans have less of semHment in 
their love affairs than Europeans ; they have 
no stolen interviews— no rsmbUng in verdant 
fields — no affectionate sqoeezes of the hand 
language of the e^res — no refined feel- 
«o moonlight reveries ; all is conducted 
the most unpoetieal basiness*like way 



ouire a knowled^ of ihete meanf* to 
tnat we may avoid or couoteract ihem, 
it the instructite object of the science 
of history. Our Henry VIII. has been 
commonly thousht an original genius 
the means alluded to, and an ac- 



\n 



cordant distinction has been conferred 
upon him which would not disgrace 
the devil himself. But contemporary 
history can alone explain coniemporary 
acts; and the royal author was, in 
certain eminent and as supposed notel 
depravities, only a plagiarist. 

vVc had scarcely opened the first 
volume, when we came to a " delicate 
investigation,'* which waa the arche- 
type of Henry*8 dissolution of his mar* 
riage with Catharine, ainl of the pre- 
vious discussions (.mutatis mutandis) 
concerning the quantum of intimacy 
which subsisted between her and Prince 
Arthur, her former husband. Henry 
found the following horse ready- sad- 
dled, and gliidly mounted it. 

•• Bjr the death of Charles Vill. Anne of 
Brittany, the object of Louis*! first pauion, 
was agsia free to dispoae of her band. He 
resulvoil upon annulling hia actual marriage ; 
and, allegmr that which was natrua *, so- 
licited the rojie ti» grant him a divorce from 
his wife Jeanne [daughter of Louis XI.] t 
and a dispensation to contract a marriage 
with the Queea Dowager. He alleged, that 
he had secretly protested, at the time of his 
marriage, acainst the duress under which ha 
was compelled to solemnise it : that Jeanne 
imaginable, and is considered in the light of was deformed, and uf so feeble a constitution 



in 



one of their least impfirtant coneerns ; the 
lover merely saying to his intended bride, 
* Should you I'dce to become my wife, my 
dear ?' To which the lady replies^ * I have 
no olijectioo.' ' Then come and live with 
me,* retoru tha mant and from that hour 
the couple reside tosather." 

\Vc have rarely experienced more 
pleasure than in the Perusal of these 
iDieresting volumes. The philosopher 
#ill be gratified by the fimd of^ in- 
formation they contain, and the seneral 
reader by the very amusing deuils with 
which tney are interspersed. 

A fine portrait of Mr. Lander by 
Dean is given as a frontispiece to the 
first volume; and the wood engrav- 
ings that embellish the second are %ery 
favourable specimens of the art. 



that it was impossible that sbe couU produoa 
an heir to the tlirnoe. Upon every princtpla 
of moral Justice, it is cloirly impossible to 
excuse such a proceeding, even if all tha 
circumstances opon which it was grounded 
had been as true as some of them were no- 
toriously felse. And yet such was the public 
feeling of that day, that it seems to have 
excited little disgust; nor is it mentioned by 
the historians of the times as auv blemitn 
opon the character of the King. With the 
excFptinn of some of the inhabitant* of Paris^ 
whf> etitertaiaed a respect fur the memory of 
Louis Xf. to them a benefactor, although a 
scourge to the rest of his people, and who 
did nut hesitate to express their disapproba- 
tion of the unworthy treataMut to which his 
daughter was exposed, no one seems to hava 
cen>ured it. Jeanne herself offered no ef- 



fectual opposition to the proceeding s hot 
her love uf truth would not permit her Io 
Life imd Times of Fnmdt the Pinit King tf |tt the King's depositions respecting her 

Fnnce. By James Bacon, Esq. « voU. : 

sro. Seamd Edit, • '• He swore, in the face of the Church* 

IT is an amusing part of history, to ^hat the marrisge ha<l never been consum- 

ohserve by what meant some people free mated, though the princess had sworn the 

themtelTes from the inconvenient feel- contrary ; iad published other matters not 

ings of right and wrong; and to ac- more pnAmhle.' i. p. 15, noU n. 



134 



Ri VIEW.— Bacon's Life and Times of Francis I, 



[Feb. 



marriage pais uncontradicted. Having dis- 
charged this duty to her conscience, she 
assumed the monastic habit." 

The people took all ihis patiently, 
and 80 did ihe English with regard to 
Catharine; but did they do so in the 
affair of the late Queen Caroline, where 
the question of solvent or bankrupt 
morality was far more deeply impli- 
cated ? But in those days, " Bshing in 
troubled waters" often ended in drown- 
ing; and now such fishers can swim; 
nor is it any other than real benefit to 
society that the people should be able 
to value and exhibit moral feelings, for 
upon these depend happiness and the 
well-being of families. 

Wobey's ejaculation — " If I had 
served my God as faithfully as I have 
done my king,'* &c. has been much 
admired, and is an ejaculation very just 
for the catVpaw of a sovereign, who 
was a des|)Ot and a voluptuary, and 
never exercised pity but from indif- 
ference, nor practis^ justice but from 
self-interest. The Nlarechal de Grh 
had offended the Queen of Louis XI. ; 
and u|)on his trral, when the Countess 
of Angouleme, to whose hand he had 
once aspired, gave rancorous evidence 
against him, he said to her : 

** If I had altvayt served God as 1 have 
served yoUf Madam, I should not have a great 
account to render at mj death." i. 46, 

People, in those days, valued most 
highly the sovereigns who did not tax 
them, and kept down the nobles. 
Elizabeth has nad the credit of origi- 
nality given to her for this policy, but 
we find that she was only a copyist of 
I^uis XI. 

" Louis, who, at the commencement of 
this expedition, bad been obliged to impose 
some additional taxes, no sooner found that 
he had terminated the enterprise without 
costs, than he ordered the collection to 
cease ; a proceeding which exposed him to 
the ridicule of some of his unthinking cour- 
tiers, but formed an additional claim to the 
affection of the people, who had given him 
the appellation oi father." i. 63. 

The King was ridiculed for this 
avarice in a farce ; but he replied : 

** I had rather my courtiers should iaugh 
at my avarice, than that my people should 
trcrp at my profusion." L 63. 

The manoeuvre of infantry lying 
down to avoid shot, is not new. At the 
battle of Ravenna, in 1612, a body of 
Spanish infantry did so ; but the French 
brought guns to bear upon them 
from an elevation, and with the aid of 



archery so galled them, that they rose, 
and could not be withheld from rush- 
ing into action, i. 84. 

« Louis," says Mr. Bacon (i. 118) « set 
an example of dignified morality and exalted 
virtue, which made his court one of the 
purest in the whole world." 

But this eminence of virtue, and its 
consequent public influence, could not 
secure him from the intrusion of 
" foxes who preach to poultry," and 
well know their advantage, when they 
can lay hold of a weak mind. He had 
married Anne of Brittany for love, and 
no man is a sincere lover who does not 
act weakly in consequence. Louis suf- 
fered much disquiet, becaurc " the in- 
triguing of the emissaries of the Pope 
induced his Queen to think that her 
husband had placed his soul in jeopardy 
by engaging in a war with the head of 
the church." i. 1 10. 

Every body recollects the famous 
reply of the French guard at Waterloo' 
—that they died — but never surren- 
dered. After the battle of Nfarignoo, 
certain Switzers, who tvert summoned 
to surrender, replied* " that their ene- 
mies knew that they were alwayt pre- 
pared to die, but never sarreooercd.'* 
They perished to a man : but of the 
vieilies mousiaehts those only who 
could not help it; for when a man 
has no alternative between standtng or 
falling, it is very natural thai heshoald 
prefer running away, braye as he may 
be under hope. 

Sham wooden cannon are exhibited 
in the Tower, as having been invented 
in stratagem. At the marriage of Lo- 
renzo de Medici with Madeleine de 
Boulogne, in 15 IS, a wooden fort was 
erected. It contained artillery, coo- 
sisting of hrfcfi, wooden canoon. iimt- 
hooped, which discharged balls filkd 
with wind. i. 201, 203. 

James I. when at dinner, used to 
converse with bishops, who then at« 
tended on purpose. The same custooi 
obtained at the court of Francis I. He 
never supped, dined, or took a walk, 
without the society of men of learn- 
ing" i. 814, 215. 

The JFhitehoys in Ireland are said 
to have been so denominated because, 
wanting uniforms, they put their sliirts 
over their clothes. It appears that a 
certain attack was called tne Camiiode 
of Rebec, because Pescara, in order to 
enable his soldiers to distinguish each 
other in the dark, had made them pnt 
their shirts over their armour, i. 44<9. 



1830.1 



lUviBw,— MilnuiD's Huiarn ^ IJU /cim. 



135 



Bayarri, JMt before he was killed, 
said, " 1 coiDiDfnd my soul to God 
—my life it my country's.** i. 461. 
There is no doiibt that the cele- 
brated Sheridan borrowed from hence 
his famous reply of, " my life is my 
Prince's," connected with another 
phrase, which we do not precisely re- 
collect. 

It seems that, in the year 1538, the 
following notion obtained concerning 
medical men. Mr. Bacon says i 

** Jtvt mod Araht wera then the notl 
reoowaad profFSSon of nediclaa, and the 
vulgar ooCirai had so coflfounded tbtir 
Imowladga with ihair religUra, that oaleia 
tbey profeMtd tha laith of tliair Mvcral na- 
tions, tbaj wcra not ralied on. When 
Francis 1. was su£f«rtng under a dangerous 
illness at Conpeign, in 1538, he requested 
the Emperor to send him from Spain a ce- 
lebrated Jewish physician. On the arrival 
of this medical professor, ha turned out to 
be a converted Jew, and was so well satisfied 
with the change of his religion, that he 
boasted of it to the King. Francis was 
eonvlneed that. In order to be effsctually 
cared, ha mast have tba aid of a real Jew, 
and ha thaiafora dismissed tbe auovart, and 
sent to GMatantinoula lor aa Israelite who 
adhered to tbe faith of bis fibers. The 
Jew caase and cured bim, but it was by a 
remedy which might have been prescribed 
with equal effect by a Christian : be simply 
told the King to drink ass's milk." ii. 109. 

We have not entered into narrative 
or incideot» thoush many parts of the 
work would vindicate extracts, if we 
had room. The history is a political 
one ; and, like manj such, refers chiefly 
to attempts and failures as to making 
new conquests. It shows that there 
were, in those days, better warriors 
than statesmen, and fewer good men 
than either. The execution of the 
work deserves high praise. 

TV Hulani rf iht Jews. Fob. 11. and JIL 
1 6mo, Murray. 
THE connection of the Hebrew his- 
tory with Christianity has given it a 
preponderating iinjwriance over other 
nisiories, because it is, in fact, an attes- 
tation of prophecy, and is indirectly con- 
nected with the doctrine of future life. 
Indeed, such a history as that of the 
Jews, is one which all persons should 
read, not as a mere matter of enter- 
tainment or interest, but as a study of 
the hijihest moment, and an indis- 
pensable companion to the Bible. A 
cheap and well-digested work on the 
subject is therefore to be deemed a 
public benefaction. 



It is difiBcult for an Englishman to 
separate the idea of Jews from pedlars, 
who cry " old cloaths,'* hawk sealing* 
wax, and have a peculiar physiogno* 
micul character. But whoever reada 
the S8th chapter of Deuteronomy, and 
the S4th of Matthew, will see that 
they were persons whom Providence 
consigned to Christians, that they 
might be treated much in the same 
way as anatomical subjects ; and that 
(till recently) they have been treated 
by the said Christiana accordingly, and 
have no otherwise been regarded aa of 
the human race. We are not, how- 
ever, disposed to review this Work 
theologically ; and shall therefore take 
other ground. 

The fortifications of Jerosatem at 
the time of the siege, seem to throw 
light upon militaiy architecture, and 
castramctation. Upon parts of these 
fortifications we shall therefore make 
some remarks. 

'* Jerusalem, at this period, waa fortified 
by three walls in all tbusc parts where U 
was not surrounded by abrupt and impassabla 
ravines ; there it had but ona." ii. p. 14. 

This practice of three valla, to guard 
accessible paru, and only one where 
there was a ravine^ is quite common 
in British camps ; though at Jeru- 
salem the walls were not concentric 
circles, but irregular, according to the 
nature of the ground, or arti&rial de- 
fences, and intended to divide the por- 
tions of the city into four distinct 
towns. 

The construction of the outer wall 
seems to explain the cause why the 
Cyclopean masonry was made to cooattt 
ot enoraioua blocks. 

<* The stooes were 85 fSMi loog, «e totii 
atnoitott ttuily shaken by battering engines, 
or wutermmed, Tbe wall was 17^ ImS 
broad.*' P. 16. 

Ttiis proportion of 35 feet seems to 
have been a standard, for the towera 
which guarded the circuit of all their 
walls, were of the same cyclopean mas« 
sinefs. The construction in drminish* 
ing stories, one above another, shows 
that the towers were of Babylooiao 
and Egyptian fashion. 

•* They were 85 feet broad, and 36 high ; 
b«t above this height were lofty chambers, 
aad above those again, upper rooms aad 
large tanks to receive the min- water. Broad 
i%huofsiepaledaptathen." P. 17. 

From the length of the stones, it 
appeara that the walb were not of the 



Rbvibw.— Milman's HUtorjf of the Jews. 



1S6 

earlier Cyclopean styles, but of that 
later manner, which is presumed to 
have subsisted between the times of 
Epaminondas and Alexander ; unless 
the fashions, prevalent in Egypt and 
India, are not comprised in the usual 
classification of the style alluded to. 

The Palace of the Kings was plainly 
of Egyptian character. 

« It was surrounded by a wall 85 feet 
high, which was adorned by towers at equal 
distances, and by spacious barrack rooms 
with 100 beds In each. It was paved with 
every variety of rare marble ; timbers of un- 
equalled length and workmanship supported 
the roofs. The chambers were countless, 
adorned with all kinds of figures, the richest 
furniture, and vessels of gold and silver. 
There were numerous cloisters of columns 
of different orders, the squares within of 
beautiful verdure ; around were groves and 
avenues, with fountains and tanks, and 
bronze statues pouring out the water. There 
were likewise large houses fur tame doves." 
P. 19. 

The cloisters and general fashion are 
the chief things which show that this 
building had especially an Egyptian 
character. The *' all kmds of figures," 
in the chambers, assimilate the hiero- 
glyphics on the walls of edifices in that 
country, though the prohibition of 
animal representations probably caused 
the figures, as in coins, to be of the 
vegeuble world ; or more probably of 
knops, open flowers, cherubims, and 
palm trees, as mentioned in the Book 
of Kings (1 Kin{rs, c. vi. 18, Sg). 
Wainscotting, deal floors, and wooden 
ceilings, are also particularized in the 
same chapter ; and we know that there 
were, in the middle apres, rooms floored, 
wainscot led, and ceiled with planks, of 
which one still exists at Lambeth. 

The tower of Psei)hina was an 
octagon (p. 18). We uo not recollect 
any such form in Egyptian, Indian, or 
Greek work. This is the earliest spe- 
cimen known to us. The fashion does 
not apitear before the Roman sra, in 
Fosbroke*s Foreign Topography (see p. 
35, 49, 88, &c.) 

Our early Castles, in the frequent 
fashion of a square with four angular 
towers, had an ancient origin. 

** The fortress Antonia stood alone, on a 
high and precipitous rock near niuety feet 
high, at the north-west comer of the temple. 
It was likewise a work of Herod. The 
whole hce of the rock was fronted with 
smooth stone for ornament, and to make 
the ascent so slippery as to be impenetrable ; 
round the top of the rock there was first a 



[Feb. 



low wall, rather more than &f feet hich. 
The fortress was seventy feet ia height. 
It bad every loxary and coDveaiance of a 
sumptuous palace, or even of a ci^ ; spacious 
halls, courts, and baths. It appeared like a 
vast square tower, with four other lowers at 
the comers ; three of them between eigh^ 
and ninety feet high: that at the comer 
next to the Temple above 1 80." P. 1 9. 

Adjacent, as in the Greek Acropolis, 
was the Temple, and from hence, in 
the primary origin, arose our custom 
of the Church near the castle and 
manor-house. The larger corner tower 
was the archetype of our keep, and a 
dwarf wall round the summit appears 
at Launceston, a British castle. 

Mr. VVilkins, in his Magna Grecia, 
assimilates, in correction of previous 
error, the form of the Temple of Solo- 
mon to that of a Greek one. 

The plan before tis, p. SO, pro- 
nounced to be most accordant with 
the descriptions, has a commixture of 
both Egyptian and Grecian forms. If 
the Porcn, Holy Place, and Holy of 
Holies, resemble the Ce//aof the Greek 
Temple in the disposition of the in- 
terior, the sides were not lined exter- 
nally, as here, with the Priest's cham- 
bers, but with columns or pseado- 
columns ; nor do we remember in any 
others than in E^ptian Temples, a 
division of the Hieron into so many 
courts and cloisters. The fashion of 
placing the houses of our Plrebendaries 
or Canons around our Cathedrals, had 
however its evident commencement in 
the ancient lodgings of the Priests 
around the Temples. 

The author (Mr. Milman) thinks it 
probable, that the later Jews first gene- 
rally adopted their commercial habits 
in Asia Minor and Alexandria (p. 
136) ; but, whencTcr and however they 
acquired these habits, to them |>reseff- 
vation, and such well-being as aiH 
happy circumstances permitted, have 
been owing; because Kings and Nobles 
took them upon these accounts under 
their protectiou *. Most happily does 
our author delineate the history of the 
Jews in the middle and modern aget. 

<< At one period, the history of the Jewa 
is written, as it were, in their Uood 1 thay 
show no signs of life, but in their cries oJF 
agony ; they only appear in the anaals of 
the world, to be o])pressed, robbed, pens 
cuted, and massacred. Yet still paUavt aad 
indefatigable, they pursue, under every dis- 
advantage, the steady coarse of indiutiy* 

* Sea Ducange, v. Judm, Rbt. 



1830.1 



Rbvibw. — Milman*d HUloty of the Jews, 



137 



Wb«reirtr they hsve be«o tllowtd to dwell 
uninolettedy or ttill more ia hnnoar snd 
retptct, they have Mided Wgelj to the etock 
of DAtiooal wrcalth, civilixfttioo, and comfort. 
Where, m hat heeo more otoallj the case, 
they have heeo barely tolerated, where they 
had been cootidered, io public ettimatioo, 
the hatett of the bate, the very outcasta 
and reftise of manktod ; they have ^one oa 
•ceuroulatiiig thoae treasures, which they 
could not betrey or eojuy ; in the roost bar- 
baroos periods they kept ap the only traffic 
and courouoicatioo which subsisted between 
diataot countries ; like hardy and adven- 
turous miners, they were always at work 
ander the surfiice of societyf slowly winning 
their way to opulence. Perpetually plun* 
dered, yet always wealthy ; mtssacred by 
thousaaids, yet sprinzing up again from 
their undying stock, tne Jews appear at all 
timet and in all regions; their perpetuity, 
their national immortality, is at once the 
most curious problem to the political en- 
qnirer; to the religious roan a subject of 
pruftioad aad awful admiration." P. 94. 

This is a just and a liberal character; 
but philosophers are not surprised at 
their inflexible pertinacity. If every 
Jewess was allowetl to marry only a 
Chriiiian husband, and the issue com- 
pulsorily educated distinct from pa- 
rental controul, the future generation 
would be unjudaized. We do not 
state a practicable, only a theoretical 
case. It does not ap)>ear that the 
American Indians have been amalga- 
mated with the settler:), nor tribes of 
gi|>sies been extinguished. The acqui- 
sition of riches, and private interest, 
appears to have been the most success- 
ful mode of conversion hitherto known, 
though it has been but partial. Perhaps 
some extraordinary providential change 
of circumstances can alone make it 
universal. 

The public are much indebted to 
Mr. Milman for this excellent work, 
because it is written upon those en- 
lightened principles which alone will 
be rezarded in modern times. Au resle^ 
says Mr. Milman, 

** The de.«tiniat of this wonderful people, 
at of all mankind, are io tlie hands of the 
All-wita Ruler of the Universe ; bis decrees 
will be accomplished ; his truth, his good- 
ness, and hit witdom, vindicated. This, 
however, we may venture to assert, that 
true religion will advance with the dissemi- 
nation of knowledge ; tha more enlightened 
the Jew becomes, the lett credible will it 
appear, tliat tha Univenal Father intended 
aa exclptive religioo, confined to one family 
MDong tha raca of mao, to be permanent ; 

Oknt. Mao. Petnuay, li80. 



6 



tha more evident that the faith, which em- 
braces tha whole haman race within the 
tphere of itt benevoleaoe, it alone adapted 
to a more advanced and civilised age." P. 
418. 

Thotc penons, therefore, who pro- 
fess to adrocate the conversion of iUt 
Jews, ought, we think, to recollect 
that it is the tendency of knowledge to 
extirpate prejudices, and that it is the 
best human instrument of eflecting the 
object desired. Yet the devotees who 
profess to have this object most at 
heart, are the oniif persons in this realm 
who depreciate knowledge ! 

For the purpose intended, the work 
before us is must satisfactorily executed ; 
and we fully truRi, that it will find 
that patronage which it so amply de- 
serves. 

FlaxinanS Lectures on Sculpture, 
{dmcluded from page 48.) 

WE shall How abstract .Mr. Flax- 
man's distinctive characteristics of an- 
cient sculpture. 

i^gyption. — No anatomical details, 
and total deficiency in the grace of 
motion. He assigns the cause (far 
more reasonably than VVinckelman) to 
imperfect skill in geometry. In their 
basso-relievos and paintings there is no 
perspective, and figures intended to be 
in violent action, are equally destitute 
of joints and other anatomical forms, 
as well as of the balance and spring of 
motion, the force -of u blow, or the 
just variety of line in the turning 
figure. 

Their historical representations are 
far inferior to their statues, which, 
though of general forms only, without 
particular detail, have simplicity of 
idea, breadth of parts, and occasional 
beauty of form. 

The cause of these defects was want 
of the anatomical, mechanical, and 
geometrical science relating to the arts 
of painting and sculpture. 

GrecO' Egyptian. — After the Ptole- 
mies, their sculpture was improved by 
Grecian animation and beauty. 

Roman- Egyptian, — Entirely unlike 
the genuine Egyptian, as the drawing 
and character are Roman in Egyptian 
attitudes and dresses. 

Pertepnlitan. Nothing in science, 
worthy study. 

JncUan,-^0( some resemblance to 
the Egyptian, but inferior both in 
science and likeness to nature. 



138 



Rbvibw. — Flaunan'8 Lecturet on Sculplurt. 



£Feb. 



Grecian iSctt/p/tire.—- Science rouit 
attain a certain perfection before the 
arts of design can be cultiratec) with 
success, and this progression is very 
distinctly marked in Grecian sculpture. 
Perspective and foreshortening were 
very imperfect, because optics were so; 
ana it was not until Hippocrates, De- 
mocritus, &c. made anatomical re- 
searches, that Leontius, the contem- 
porary of Phidias, Brst expressed nerves 
and veins. The geometrical improve- 
ments of Pythagoras, Thales, and Eu<^- 
clid, increased the knowledge of circu- 
lar and triangular power, and relations, 
a knowledge indispensable to perfectly 
understanding the curvilinear motion 
of animal bodies in different directions, 
and to ascertain its Quantity and direc- 
tion in the limbs. — Poetry, philosophy, 
and myihology, further influenced the 
art. When the figures of deities were 
ordinary and barbarous, symbols or 
wings (to show that they were not 
men) distinguished them. Homer's 
verses caused Jupiter and Neptune to 
be represented with beards ; and as 
the arts improved, the distinguishing 

Sersonal characteristics were added, 
iercury obtained a youthful figure, 
from his patronase of gymnastic exer- 
cises, and Hercules his extraordinary 
muscular strength, probably from the 
descriptions of the Greek tragedians. 
The winged genii on the painted vases 
were introduced from the Pythagorean 
philosophy, and female divinities be- 
came lovely and gracious in the time 
of Plato. 

Daedalus is the earliest sculptor men- 
tioned, at least of any note. He mea- 
sured the proportions of the Egyptian 
statues (whicn are seven heads and one 
third high), and in the British Mu- 
seum are small bronzes, supposed, with 
great reason, to be copies of the naked 
Hercules of Osedalus. They have the 
high shoulders, sti AT attitudes, and slim 
forms of the Egyptian style. There is 
reason to think that improvement in 
painting preceded that in sculpture, 
because oblique views of objects, and 
the veins of the body and limbs, seem 
not to have been attempted in sculp- 
ture before the time of Phidias, eignt 
hundred years after that of Daedalus. 

We shall now make an extract from 
the book, in detail, to show certain 
eradations or processes, by which the 
Greeks attained such wonderful excel- 
lence : 

"Pamphilus, the Macedonian painter, 



under whom Apalles studied ten jmn^ ms 
learned in all literature, particalarly arith- 
metic and geometr;, without whieh he df 
elared art could not be perfected. 

** How geometry rad arithroetio were ap- 
plied to the study of the human figure, Vi- 
truviut informs ut, from the writings ofitm 
Greek artists, perhaps from those of Pam- 
philus himself. A man (says he) may be 
so placed with his arms and legs eit ended t 
that bis navel being made the centre, a cir- 
cle can be drawn round touohing the ex- 
tremities of his fingers and toes. 

** In the like manner a man standing up- 
right, with his arms extended, is indoaed 
in a square, the extreme extent of his arms 
beioff equal to his height. 

« How well the ancients understood the 
nature of balance, is proved by the two 
books of Archimedes on that subject; be* 
sides, it is impossible to see the numevons 
figures spriDgini;, jumping, dancing, and 
f Jling, in the Hereulaneum paintiagay on 
the painted vases, and the antM|tte beaso it- 
lievos, without being assursd that the paini* 
ers and sculptors must have employed geo- 
metrical figures to determine the degrees of 
curvature in the body, and angular or recti- 
linear extent of the limbs* and to £x, the 
centre of gravity." pp. 195» 196, 

We shall not copy Mr. Flazman's 
rules in p. 1S6, for determinios the 
centre of gravity or graviutkin of the 
human figure, in standing, rootioQ, 
&c. nor his technical delineationt, 
though to professionists eminently oae- 
fiil. Taste is not an intuitive acquiai- 
tion. No barbarian could devise a aa- 
perior thing to the Parthenon or Bd- 
videre Apollo. But a master of all 
the processes of an art has nothing me- 
chanical further to learn, and improve* 
ment grows out of practice, ana taile 
out of improvement. Grandeur of 
sentiment may f;row out of heroiam^ 
heroism out of situation ; and the for- 
mer out of imagination in a poet, hoi 
he is obliged first to invent difficvlt 
situation. But imaginatioo, whcce 
the exhibition of it is dependent upon 
artificial skill, is only the conceptioii 
of an oration in the mind of a aamb 
man. In music, painting, and tcolp- 
ture, practice is the process of settatkn 
necessary to the birth of gemot; and 
if an all-perfect offspring ensue, it re- 
duces all future professors to the hum- 
ble rank of imitators only : e. ff . it b 
said by Hume, that Sir Isaac Newton 
has stopped all further advancement ia 
mathematics. The same may he uid 
of Greek sculpture. It cannot be im* 
proved, and *< f ennui du hemi^' only 
brings on** le gout de singmHtrJ* Bol 



183a] 



Rbviiw.*— *FUxiDtn*t Leeiurei on SaJptmre. 



•colptort cannot fortonately indulge in 
the tantittie, without, m in the E^tch 
taste, eleraiing execution abore de- 
sign, skill aboTc genius, the mason 
abore the architect. Of modern sculp- 
ture, as having no originalitfr, Mr. 
Flaxraan accordingly says litile. He 
lays his stress upon the mechanism, 
the practical part, and leaves attitude, 
gesture, and composition, to supply 
the desideratum of soul in the physiog- 
nomical and personal expression. Much 
is to be said in extenuation. Nudity 
save the Greeks advantage, in throw- 
ing character and expression into the 
whole figure, but the unfortunate mo- 
derns have only face and fmsture in 
their power, and what would be the 
Farnesian Hercules without nudity? 
The grand organ of expression is the 
eye, but to that neither sculpture or 
raintiiig can give the force of nature. 
There are only very limited forms of 
the visage, which can supply its place; 
and viotcnt excitement may produce 
distortion. The desideratum is to cha- 
racterize soul by portrait, to make the 
featorrs, whatever they may be, denote 
the mind of the roaA as well as the 
person. Hogarth was here especially 
eminent. He painted ethically and 
biographically ; and had he possessed 
or valued dignity of sentiment, he 
would have excelled in expression, be- 
yond past or future rivalry. But no* 
thing could elevate him aoove vulga- 
rity. Other moderns seem to have risen 
no higher than tame intelligence. No 
head of Chsist has ever equalled that 
of the Belvidere Apollo ; and the apos- 
tles of Raphael in the cartoons are 
sun-burnt Turks. The Last Judg- 
ment of Michael Angelo is a combat 
of gladiators, fighting naked, and mere 
dramatic attitude. In the antique, na- 
ture is not outraged, and yet the ex- 
pression is purely of an intellectual 
character. Nobody studies the details 
of a Grecian bust or figure, because no 
deformity or bad execution draws the 
eye to it ; but the attention is entirely 
aosorbed in the general character. In 
this pre-eminent characteristic, phy- 
siognomical expression, we do think 
modern sculpture deficient. Further 
apologies may be made. No genius 
could make a sod or a hero out of the 
features of a Mandarin, perhaps not 
out of any round face, pug nose, or 
smalt eyes whatever; and portrait is 
often a cruel necesMiy imposed upon 
sculptors. Nevertheless the bemm ideal 



Jd9 

may be indulged in alle^rictl fisures. 
But here u another fatlnre. Nearly 
all wo know are lanky thin girls, wim 
insipid oval countenances, or brawny 
porters. The Greek contour, round 
without obesity, seems to us in the 
former to be utterly lost ; and in the 
latter, muscle ought to be accompa- 
nied with colossal stature. At the 
same time, we beg to be considered as 
speaking from honest feelings only, 
from actual impression, and we wish 
that others as ourselves also spoke as 
they felt. For instance, in the famous 
meto))es of the Parthenon, the cen- 
taurs in combat seem to exhibit no 
more feeling, than men at dinner, not 
in combat. They seem also to be 
round-faced fellows, either in or be- 
yond middle age. Thus have we 
spoken, dangerou»ly we admit for our 
reputation ; but we are* not among 
those who confound execution with 
genius, mechanism with soul, or au- 
tomata with living beings, shadows 
with substances, and actors with the 
real persons. 

We cannot take our leave of Mr. 
Flax man without noticing his pallia- 
tion of the bad taste which disgraced 
the Greeks, viz. painted sculpture. 
The practice was intended, as he says, 
to enforce superstition, or, as we sup- 
pose, to give an idea that the figure 
represented was alive, or was better 
characterized as living, mere colour- 
less stone not being so perfect a re- 
semblance. Our author says, 

** We have all bean ttmck by the retem- 
blance of figures b coloured was- work to 
pertoni in life, and therefore such a repre- 
•entatioo is particularlv proper for the •imi- 
litode of persons in fits, or the deceased ; 
bat the Olympian Jupiter and Athenian 
Minenm were mtended to represent those 
who were superior to death and disease. 
They were believed inmortal, and therefiire 
the stillness of these statues having the co- 
louring of life during tlie tine the spectator 
viewed them, would appear divinity in aw- 
ful abstraction of repose. Their stupen- 
dous size alone was supernatural; and the 
colours of life, without motion, increased 
the sublimity of the statue, and the terror 
of the pious beholder." P. S96. 

Now let any man place the Farne- 
sian Hercules in full size beside one of 
the giants at Guildhall t or paint the 
eyes, eyebrows, hair, &c. of the for- 
mer. Perhaps he will see in the first 
experiment, that the eflfect is deterio- 
rated ; in the second, that the colour- 



140 



RBViiw.-'-GrahaiD*8 Poem$4 



[Feb. 



iDg annihilates the effect of the sculp- 
ture; that it is a rivalry which places 
Punch in competition with Garrick. 

In conclusion, we have only to ob- 
serve, that Michael Angelo does not 
appear to us to have improved the art 
of sculpture, and yet to have been the 
founder of the modern school. We 
mean that He has substituted attitude 
for expression, and given to his figures 
the character of tumblers. The es- 
sence of his art seems to consist in 
sprawling and stretching, and his 
grouping in a mob fight. The execu- 
tion we do not include in this stricture. 

Flaxman was a justly eminent man ; 
and the ideas of proficients are in every 
art instructive. Much elementary in- 
struction may be gained from this 
work, and of course it is addressed ra- 
ther to tyros than professors. Perhaps 
we are not fair critics, because we 
think sincerely that the taste in mo- 
dern sculpture wants improvement; 
but by so saying, we mean to derogate 
nothing from the high merit of Flax- 
man, or the value of his excellent work. 

Poems f chiefly historical. By the Rev. John 
Graham, M.A. Rector qfTamlaght^ard, in 
the Diocese (if Derry, Svo. pp. 358. 

TtlE Wild Song of Erin has been 
long proverbial ; and her minstrelsy is 
coeval with her earliest history. Her 
bards and her lyric poets have lived in 
traditional story, while history itself 
has failed to transmit to posterity the 
names of many of her ancient and 
illustrious heroes. The most honour- 
able deeds, or the most important na- 
tional transactions, connected with her 
early annals, had probably sunk into 
eternal oblivion, if the child of song 
hud not embodied them in immortal 
verse. " Songs (observes Lord Kuimes) 
are more operative than statutes, and 
it matters little who are the legislators 
of a country, compared with the writers 
of its popular ballads.*' 

The name of the author of this col- 
lection of poems is familiar to our 
readers, his productions having fre- 
miemly appeared in the pages of the 
Gentleman's Magazine. He has been 
long celebrated as a lyric )K)et in the 
Sister isle, and the assistance of his pen 
has often been invoked, on many po- 
litical occasions of great local import- 
ance. His effusions, as connected with 
the politics of the day, have usually 
l>een directed against the dogmas or 
buffooneries of 'Fojmtv and their abet- 



tors, which, as a matter of courae^ haa 
raised aeaiost him nomerous eaemiea, 
both religious and political. ** In a 
country distracted as Ireland hat been 
by the acerbity of party feelings (sayi 
tlie ' Londonderry Journal'), where po^ 
Htics have been used as a stalking- 
horse to conceal the ulterior designs of 
fanatical and ambitious ecclesiastics, it 
is next to impossible for the man who 
devotes himself to maintain the integ- 
rity of the glorious principles which 
have been transmitted to us by Re- 
formers and Martyrs, always to con- 
fine hiuiself to the weapons which the 
first promulgators of Christianity used 
against its enemies: if he would be 
found faithful, he must stand upon the 
tower of observation, and, watching 
every movement of an insidious foe, 
give the alarm the instant he sees an 
attack directed against any of the bul- 
warks of his beloved citadel. That 
precitely has Mr. Graham acted, and 
we are bold to affirm, that, with the 
exception of his statistical labours for 
the improvement of his coontry, and a 
very few of his lyrical pieces, oif a most 
innocent and useful descriptioD, the 
labours of bis pen have been all di- 
rected to subserve the interests of the 
Reformed Faith." 

Some of the poems in this collection 
have alread]^ appeared in our pagot; 
and, in particular, we notice the open- 
ing one of " The Wolvet and the 
Sheep," (see Vol. xcvi. ii. p. 356) 
and the concluding one, entitled *' The 
Popish Petition for 1829.". (See Vol. 
xcviii. ii. p. 2.) Both of these, at 
satirical productions, possess much hu- 
mour and talent. " The lyrical pieces 
in this volume (says Mr. Graham) are 
the author's own favourites, and many 
of them have been for some years po- 
pular in Ireland. During the intervals 
of graver studies, they served to re- 
create his mind, and contributed to 
keep him and those around him cheer- 
ful, at times when some little causes 
existed for their being otherwise." 

We copy the following little effosion^ 
as a specimen of Mr. Graham's satirical 
talents : 

AURICULAR CONFESSION ANALTSXD. 

« A mWj Priest in Eria*i West, 
With heavy, shriving care opprest. 
Resolved to ease his work distresaiiig. 
By thus arranging those confessiog :— 

On Monday, aided by hii Friars, 
He purposed hearing all the lian i 



1830.] 



RiTiBvr.— Graham's Poemi, 



141 



On ToMcky, doa« with truth-detpifen, 

H« aaoirooiied all lh« tordki mbera ; 

()n W«diiM<U7, (hoM who dealt in •kadtr— 

Thanday for libnition and pander } 

Friday for youths of bad repate, 

Aad Saurday fur prottitote. 

Whibt all this prudent plan commended. 

He gained hit point — for moni Amif did !*' 

but Mr. Graham's effusions are not 
confined to mere impromptus or sa- 
tirical productions. He is evidently 
endowed with that versatility of poetic 
tact, for which so many of his coun- 
trymen have been distinguished. The 
following stanzas are replete with po- 
etic feeling, expressed in truly melo- 
dious language : 

AN ADIBU. 

** Farewell, frail world, Tve proved thee well. 

And ever found thee vain ; 
Of all thy magic, not a sficU 

Remains to give me pain. 
I've been in camps, and glanced at Courts, 

Sought honour, wealth, and fame ; 
But> a« the wisest man reports, 

I found thee still the same. 

The soldier's joy, the victor's pride, 

Are transient as the gale. 
That blows their pliant plumes aside* 

While passing hill or dale. 
The thrill of pleasure, when the foe 

Begins in fear to yield. 
Subsides, before the victors go. 

From trench or tented neld. 

The Statesman's smile, meant to beguile 

The unsuspecting heart, 
I've seen, like sunbeam, shine awhile. 

And suddenly depart. 
The same devotedness to self, 

Beneath a cover frail, 
Tlie same sly scramble for vile pelf, 

I 've ever seen prevail. 

I 've heard the praise, that vainly sought 

A word to cause a fall" 
1 've seen the courtly smile full fraught 

With bitterness and gall. 
I *ve seen the Lord of rank and land, 

A victim to despair ; 
And those I who thousands could command, 

* A golden sorrow wear.' 

I felt the prompt, yet heartless hand, 

Grasp mine, ttnd heard the vow 
The giver made, yet saw the brand 

Marked on his braxen brow. 
I 've seen the Politician's eye. 

In well-feigned frenzy roll — 
Heard bow for friends the man could die, 

And thought he had a soul ; 

And yet, when tried, that eye I 've seen 

To sympathv quite deaid 
That heart, which once so hoi had been, 

As cold as froxen lead. 



So tanght, at last, perhapa too late. 

On wings of haste I fly 
To this fair valley's deep retreat — 

Unknown to live and die. 
Here, in the Bible's holy page, 

Some balm I hope to find ; 
While calm and happy tliooghts engage 

A renovated mind. 
In scenes all pastoral around. 

As ancient Eden fair ; 
Here on my pott may I be found* 

To give the flock my care. 

To the rich pasturage of Grace, 

With haste the hungry bring. 
And lead the thirsty sheep apace, 

Tu drink at Sion's spring. 
May we, refreshed by food Divine, 

Sink to our beds of clay ; 
And rise affain, like stars to shine. 

In redms of endless day." 

The following pleasine and sportive 
lines, with which we shall close oar 
notices, were penned in imitation of a 
|>oem written by the celebrated James 
Graham, Marquess of Montrose : 

" Unhappy is the man. 

Whose income is confined 
Within a narrow scope 

Uosuited fo his mind ; 

Who loves to live. 

To take and give. 
As other people do ; 

With o|)en door. 

To friend or poor. 
To each engagement true ; 

Yet still must bear. 

Distress and care, 
The rich fool's vulgar scorn. 

And every day. 

Find cause to say. 
He grieves e'er he was bom. 
Thrice happy is the man 
Who in himself can find. 

In every place. 

The cheering grace 
Of a contented mind ; 

Who looks above. 

In fear and love, 
For happiness in store. 

And reckons health 

As greater wealth 
Titan banks of golden ore ; 

With thoughu like these 
He blessings sees 
In every object round ;— 

With heart at reaty 

He hopes the best 
Of blessings will abound. 

The Lives of the most emnent BnUsk 
PamterifSculplartyandArchiieeU, 21^ Al- 
lan Cunningham. ybl,JL Murnj. ' IBHO. 

THIS volume forms the Tenth 
Number of •• The Family Libfafy," 



142 



Revibw.— Cunniogfaam's Lives of Bfiiish Aftists. [Fd>. 



and the second od the subiect on 
which it treats. It contains the lives 
of West, Bany, Blake, Opie, Morland, 
Bird, and Fuseli, written in that lively 
and agreeable style in which Mr. Cun- 
ningham excels. With a fine feeling 
for art, and with a moral sense in its 
healthiest exercise, the author, with 
admirable tact, steers clear of those 
apologies for the degrading aberrations 
of men of genius and talent, by which 
pure biography has been so much dis- 
figured. He knows how to separate 
the artist from the man; and while, 
as in Morland, he praises the painter 
with the nicest discrimination of his 
great and unrivalled beauties, he shows, 
by inferences drawn from the profli- 

fate habits of the drunkard and de- 
auchee, how the loftiest talents are 
debased and neutralized by the folly 
and grossness of his life. 

The life of fFesi, which commences 
the volume, is undisturbed by any of 
those associations of which we have 
spoken. He rose gradually, and with 
much of royal patronage, and an even 
course of auiet and not undignified 
conduct ana demeanour, to the high 
station of President of the Royal 
Academy. We fully coincide with 
Mr. Cunningham in his estimate of 
West's talents as a painter. His cri- 
ticism is as sound as it is beautifully 
expressed : 

'* His fiffurei seemed distended over the 
CU1VAS8 bj line and measure, like trees in a 
l^anUtion. He wanted fire and ioiAgination 
to be the true restorer of that grand style 
which bewildered Barry, and was talked of 
by Reynolds. Most of his works, cold, 
formal, bloodless, and passionless, may re- 
mind the spectator of the sublime vision of 
the Valley of dry Bones, where the flesh and 
skin had come upon the skeletons, and k>efore 
the breath of God bad informed them with 
life and feeling.'* 

The following anecdote is a curious 
account of West's first school of paint- 
ing: 

** When he was some eight years old, a 
party of roaming Indians paid their summer 
visit to Springfield, and were much pleased 
with the rude sketches which the boy had 
made of birds, and fi'uits, and flowers, for in 
such drawings many <^ the wild Americans 
have both taste aad skill. They showed him 
some of tbeir own workmanship, and taught 
him how to prepare the red and yellow 
colours with which they stained their wea- 
pons ; to these his mother added indi;;o, 
and thus he was possessed of the three 
primary colours. The Indians, unwilling to 



leave siich a boy in ignoraoce of their other 
acqoirementa, taught him arehery, in vhieh 
he became expert enough to thooi nliraetory 
birds, which refused to eome on mildtr terms 
for their likenesses. The future Praaidant 
of the British Academy, taking laesona in 
painting and in archery, from a tribe of 
Cherokeet, might be a subject worthy of ths 
pencil." 

The life of Barry is pregnant with 
materials for sad and solemn medita* 
tion. With a fondness for his art bat 
faintly expressed by the word entha- 
siasm, the infirmity of bis temper de- 
feated his highest aspirations ; and he 
who, but with common prudence and 
a manly compliance witn established 
customs, mignt have done more for 
himself and his art than almost any 
other painter of the last century, li?ed 
in sullen penury, and is now almost 
forgotten. Mr. Cunningham has se- 
lected wiih much judsment from the 
previous biographers oi this intemperate 
man, and has arranged his materials 
with skill. 

Of Blake, the visioiury, we hardly 
know how to speak: he appears lo 
have been an amiable enthusiast, on 
the wrong side of the line of demarce* 
tion as it respected his sanity. ** Hit 
fancy overmastered him,*' sm Mr.C; 
until he at length confounded *' the 
mind's eye" with the corporeal organ, 
and dreamed himself out of the sym- 
pathies of actual life. The followios 
absurdity is recorded of him ; end his 
friend, Mr. Varley, has authenticated 
the story by giving an engraving of the 
" Spirilualitaiion,** in his equally ab- 
surd volume on " Astrological l4iysi- 
ognomy." 

** He closed the book, and talung oat a 
small panel from a private dimwer, said, ' thii 
is the last which I shall ahow yon: hot it b 
the greatest curiosity of all. Only look at 
the splendour of the eolourfa^p aad the 
original character of the thing ! ' 'I see/ 
said I, ' a naked figure with a strong body 
and a short neck ; with homing eyes vliioB 
long for moisture, and a fiiee worthy of a 
murderer, holding a bloody cup in its elavad 
hands, out of which it seems eager to drialu 
I never saw any shape so strange, nor did I 
ever see any colouring so curiously splendid 
— a kind of glistening green and dusky gold* 
beautifully varnished. But what in Um vofla 
is it ?' <' It is a ghost. Sir— the ghoat of a 
flea — ^a spiritualization of the thing !' * Ha 
saw this in a vision, then,' I aatd. * I'll 
tell you all about it. Sir. I called on lilm 
one evening, and found Blake more than 
usually excited. He tokl me had eeea a 
wonderful thing— the gliott vf aflea.' ' And 



ISSOl] Rituw. — Cunningham's Lioa of BrilM Ariitis, 



H3 



did TOO makt a dnviiig of him ? ' I iaqnirtd. 
* Nn, indeed/ idd he j < I wUh I bad; hoi 
I shall if he appear* again ! ' He looked 
earnettlj into a comer of the room, end 
then said * Here he ia— >reach me mr thinct 
— I ihall keep my eye on him. There be 
comet! his eager tongue whiskint; out of 
hit mouth, a cup in hb hand to hold blood, 
and covered witli a tealj tkin of gold and 
green ! ' At he described him so he drew him." 

The Life of O/ne it well compiled. 
The anecdotes of hit e«rly life are ft* 
miliar to all our readers. Against that 
in which Opie is represented, when a 
boy, as kindlinfi; the indignation of hit 
father that he might paint Mm with 
^ '* eyet lighted op,'* tne moral tense 
which we hafe praised in Mr. Cun- 
ningham recoils, and he rebukes the 
offender in a fine tone of calm expostu- 
lation. 

Mr. C. tomt up the character of 
Opie at a painter, in the following 
passage, and it is just. 

' " He is not a leader, perhape, but neither 
I it he the tenrile follower of any man, or any 

school. Hit original deficiency of imagina- 
tion, no labour could ttrengthen, and no 
ttudy raate. Hit model mattered him, and 
he teemed to want the power of elevating 
what it mean, and of tubttituting the elegant 
for the vulgar. Opie taw the common but 
not the poetic nature of hit tubjectt : he 
htd no vitioot of the grand and heroic. 
Hit pencil could strike out a rough and 
manly Cromwell, but wat unfit to cope with 
the dark tnhtle tpirit of a Vane, or the 

Krincely eye and bearioff of a Falkland or 
lootroee. Hb ttrength lay in boldness of 
effect, simplicity of compotition in artiest 
attitudes, and in the vivid portraiture of in« 
dividual nature.*' 

"The annals of genius record not a 
more deplorable story than Mor land's.*' 
It is a sickening detail of gifts and ta- 
lents, which might have raised their 
possessor to companionship with the 
magnates of the land, employed but 
as the ministers of folly the most 
egregious, and rice the most detesta- 
ble. Mr. Cunningham has recorded 
the following anecdote, we are sure 
as an apolo^ for the artist seeking 
occasions for hit pencil in the lowest 
grades of society ; it is evident that the 
man*s taste lay in this road, and out 
of such associations he extracted ma- 
terials for the exercise of his art. 

" A friend once Ibvnd him at Freth water- 
gate, in a low poblic-hoose called 7^ Cabin. 
sailors, rottict, and fithermen, were teated 
round him m a kind of ring, the roolbet 
rMg viih Hogbter aadsoBg ; aad Moriaad, 



with nantfeat rehietance, left their oom- 
pany for the conversation of hb friend. 
' George,' taid hit monitor, ' you most have 
reatont for keeping such company.' ' Rea- 
sons, and good onet,' taid the artbt laogb- 
iog, *tee — where could I find auch a picture 
of life at that, unlete among the originalt of 
The Cabin ?' He held op hb tketch-boolc 
and thowed a correct deliueation of the very 
tcene in which he had to lately been tha 
presiding tpirit. One of hit bMt pictaret 
contains this ^-simile of the tap-room* 
with its guests and furniture." 

Bird is best known by his pathetic 
picture of *• Chevy Chace.'* We re- 
member to have seen it at the British 
Institution, and many bright eyes, at 
they rested on the mournful story, gave 
the best proof of the triumph of^the 
painter; it is a picture over which the 
eye can scarcely " wander dry.'* Bird 
was a Bristol man ; he was misled br 
evil admirers, aiul deserting the patn 
of his early success, he followed '* the 
will o' the wisp of pageant painting* 
which led to the slough of despond, to 
despair, and the grave." 

The last in the volume is the life of 
Fuseli, and contains more of original 
matter than either of the former. Fu« 
seli had more learning than any artist 
of our country, and what it not alwayt 
a concurring quality, he had more ima- 
gination. He was not displeased to 
be termed " Painter in ordinary to the 
Devil." "The wings of his fancy," 
says Mr. Cunningham, " were some- 
times a little too strong for his judg- 
ment, and brought upon him the re- 
proach of extravagance, an error to 
rare in British art, that it almost be- 
comes a virtue.'* 

Fuseli had a sovereign contempt for 
portrait painting and connoisseurs ; he 
had imbibed too deeply that spirit 
which had shadowed the startling pro- 
ductions of Michael Angelo; his ima- 
gination was too fervid for the age in 
which he lived, and while the paint- 
ers of the realities of life were reaping 
the harvest, the conceptions of FuseU 
remained on his hands not altogether 
without admirers, but the purcnatcn 
were few and far between. 

The life of Fuseli has been carefully 
written, and contains many passages of 
great and striking beauty. 

We recommend the volume at one 
of great interest to the general reader, 
and as a manual to be studied by the 
artist, not lets for his moral improve- 
ment than for his advantage in the 
panuil he hat chosen. 



144 



Review.— Af«woir« o/ the Tower of London. 



[Feb. 



Memoirs of the Tower of Londoriy comprising 
historical and descriptive Accounts of that 
national Fortress and Palace; Anecdotes of 
State Prisoners, of the Armouries^ Jewels, 
RegaliaSy Records, Menagerie, ^c. By 
John Britton, andE, W. Brayley, FF.A.S. 
EmkeUished with Engravings on fVood, 
Post 8fo, pp, 875. 

THREE years have expired since 
we passed over the decapitating quarter 
of Ix)ndon ; — visions of headless trunks 
flitted before our eyes, and we instinc- 
tively put our hands to our chini, to 
feel if all was safe. The fortress, too 
-—once it was the man in armour in 
Lord Mayor's show — once with its un- 
encumbered circuit of walls and towers, 
and noble keep, it had the aspect of a 
real castle*, as grand as Caernarvon or 
Conway, as superb and picturesque an 
ornament to the eastern end of the me- 
tropolis, as the Abbey is to the western. 
So it might have remained without 
impairing its utility, had there been a 
tasteful and consistent disposition of 
the interior. Oh ! that another Samp- 
son would arise, and carry off all the 
modern incongruities on his shoulders, 
like the gates of Gaza, provided he 
first put the records in his pf»cket. 

^ e have gone amply into the sub- 
ject of this memorable fortress, in our 
notices of Mr. Bayley's original His- 
tory, and Messrs. Allen and Brayley's 
respective accounts of London. We 
continue to believe, that it was origi- 
nally a British fortress of succeeding 
Roman occupation, and retained by 
the subsequent Sovereigns of this realm, 
as a citadel, to which they might fly 
for refuge, and by which they might 
overawe the intractable Londoners. 
It is true that there is an hialus in part 
of the historical evidence of these facts 
during a certain period ; but it is a 
rule in evidence, that where written 
documents do not exist, usage is to be 
received ; and as Fitz Sieplien, in the 
time of Henry II. calls it ** Arx Pala- 
tina," so we would not aflirm that 
there had not been a Roman castle 
here, like that of Colchester ; for be- 
sides the ingot of Honorius discovered, 
and the adjacent Roman wall, it is 
known that Cold harbour is a term in- 
dicative of Roman stations. Now there 
was a place called Col-hirborutce, near 
the Wiiile Tower (p. 322). And on 
the south side of the latter, have been 

* Ste Ag^as's View of London, temp. 
Eliz. 



excavated old foundations of stone 
three yards wide. 

« The non-existence of such a ttnictiire 
(say our authors), after the estincUoa of 
the imperial power iu Britain, may be pre- 
sumed from tne silence of the writer of the 
Saxon Chronicle, and other early annalUta* 
who, although they make frequent allusioii 
to the City, Port, and Walls of London, 
during the wars of the Danes and Saxons, 
do not mention the Tower, or any fSortreas 
in that situation, previous to the time of 
the Norman Invasion.'* P. d. 

Now this cannot be admitted ; for 
the Saxon Chronicle says, that in the 
year 886, jefette ^Ippeb cynin^ 
LiOnben-bup^, i. e. King Alfred re- 
stored Lundenburg ; and fixed a gar- 
rison there. Castles, among the Anglo- 
Saxons, were called burgs, not castles 
or towers. Whoever consults the 
Chronicle, will find that between the 
years 912, and 915, nine castles are 
mentioned, and that they are alt called 
burgs or burhs. Indeed, the Latinism ^ 
castle was not used by them ; at least* 
not in the seras alluded to. If it be 
said that burgh or burh, merely implied 
a walled town, we reply, that we 
never heard of any such town without 
a castle; and that here the Roman 
wall ioined on to the Toveer, which 
completed the communication with 
the river. Our authors seem to have 
understood the word burgh, in its mo- 
dern sense of borough, that is, a cor- 
porate town, not in that of the Anglo- 
Saxons. We now give a curious in* 
stance of their distinction of Lunden/^ 
burgh, from Lunden (without burgh), 
though the same town. 

Lundenbyrig or Lundenburght oc- 
curs under the years 457t 861* B?^, 
886, 894, 896, 9l«, 992, c^, in con- 
nection with military matters, alnioat 
exclusively, but there are one or two 
instances of a civil application. 

In the year 101^, a parliament is 
said to have been holden at Lunden- 
byrig, after which Lunden only appears 
to have been used. 

Lunden, down to the years 839. ia 
limited to Ecclesiastical concerns ; but 
in that year, and 883, and 1013, ihera 
are exceptions connected with the mi* 
litary history ; nevertheless, the eccle- 
siastical application occurs again in the 
years 898, 957f and 96 1. 

In the year IOO9, )>a buph Lunbene 
appears. 

In short, we think that the Tower 
was included with the walla of ibc 



1S30.] RiriBW.-*Jlfafioir« of the Tower of London, 



145 



Citj, under the generic term hurfht 
for the tilence of ancient bistoriantt u 
to anj specific dbiinction, amounts to 
nothing, because they never used any 
such discriminating term as cattle; 
and as to omissions, Simeon of Dur- 
ham mentions conflagrations of the 
City, under the jrears 7g8, 80 J, Q%9^ 
which the Saxon Chronicle does not 
notice. 

Histories of the ToWer, of course, 
consist of accounts of the different 
buildings ; of the officers and prisoners ; 
of events connected with the National 
history ; and of its present stale as an 
arsenal and garrison. In all these 
matters, the book before us is most sa- 
tisfactdrily written. 

Three events are matters of contro- 
versy, oamelv, the murders (if they 
were such) or Henrv VI., the Duke of 
CUreoce, and Euward V. and his 
brother. 

The first is supposed, upon rea- 
sonable grounds, to have died a na- 
tural death, his constitution being 
sickly. The singulariiv of the drown- 
ing story has awakened suspicion con- 
cerning Clarence ; aud writers of suitable 
qualifications have presumed that Per- 
kin Warbeck was actually Edward the 
FiAh. Great difficulties attend the 
latter story. The fullest and most ac- 
cordant evidence concerning the secret 
asaasainatioo, ia collected by our in- 
dtmrtoas authors; but this b again 
eoaoterbalanced by the reception whifeh 
Perk in naet with, especially his mar- 
risM with the daughter of a powerful 
nobleoian. James III. who made the 
match, according to every rational pre« 
sumption, would not thus have pntro- 
nizcd an impostor, because such a 
measure implied more than |x>liiical 
feeline, was unnecessary, and an un- 
provoked insult to a noble relative. 
Nothing therefore is certain, but that 
the story is still involved in apparently 
irretrievable perplexity. — Of the murder 
story further i>of/ea. 

It seems from p. 327» that the De- 
vereux Tower was, in the reign of 
Henrr the Eighth, called « Robin the 
Devyrs Tower,** of the oriffin of which 
epithela no account has been given. 
Robert the Devil (a Duke of Nor- 
mandy) was a favourite metrical ro- 
mance in the days of Henry the Se- 
venth, but be lived before the Con- 
quest, and was an immediate ancestor 
of William the First and Second. 

QiMT. Mao. Peirumry, 1 130. 



Under the article «« Bloody Ttmer,** 
we have this paragragb : 

<* Not the IcMt cradit it due to the lagtnd 
which repretcott this tovar as the scene of 
th« murder of Edward the FifUi aod the 
Duke of York ; nor yet to the tale of the 
booM of those ill* fated yoothi having been 
fouud in Charles the Second's reign, beneath 
the little ttair-caie that leads to the gloomy 
chambers of the superstroetnre. That bones 
were found is true; yet die discovery was 
not made here, but at the depth of several 
foet below the stairs leading to the Chapel 
in the PfliUe Tower, The propriety of as* 
signing those remains to the yonog Princes, 
was in the highest degree questionable." 
P. 847. 

Now SO far from this appropriation 
deserving so severe a remarit, it is the 
only circumstantial evidence which 
supports the murder-story, and was 
very fairly used. Sir Thomas More, 
who wrote about two hundred years 
before the bones were found, says, 

'< They [the assassins] laid the bodies 
out upon the bed, and fetched James Terril 
to see them, which when he saw them per- 
fectly dead, he caused the murtherers to 
burye them at the stayrt fooU^ metely dtepe 
in the groumle, under a great heape ofshmtSm 

<* Tyrrel, having performed his task, rode 
to tlie King, and snowed him all the manner 
of the murther, who gave him great thaokes» 
aud as men saye, there made hym Knighte, 
but he allowed not their bnriall in so vile a 
corner, saying that he would have then 
buried in a better p1ace» because they were 
a Kynges sonnes. Whereupon a priest of 
Sir Robert Brakenburies tokt them up and 
buried them in such a place secretly , as by 
the oeeasMMi of bis death (which was very 
shortly after) the very tnieih could never 
et be very well and perfightly kaowea." 
p. 44, 45. 

Now Sir Robert Brakenbury being 
Constable of the Tower, and this Priest 
in his service, what improbability is 
there (under admission of the uict) 
that the staircase leading to the Chapel 
was not the place to which the priest 
removed the nones, especially as inter* 
ment at the feet of stairs seems to have 
been deemed an unsuspected plaecj 
and therefore more secret. 

We have before spoken of the cha* 
racter of this work. The book is ele« 
gantly got up, and the wood-cuts are 
numerous and interesting; but in that 
of the trial of the Seven Bishops there 
ia an anachronism. They appear in 
modern wigs. Among the portraits at 
Lambeth, Archbishop Tillotson is the 



f 



7 



Review.— Moore's Life of Lord Byron. 



146 

first who appears in a wig. It re- 
sembles his natural hair, and is with- 
out powder* 

Letters and Journals of Lord Byron, with 
notices of his Lfe. By Thomas Moore. 
9 vols. 4/0. Murray. 
SUCH is the modest tide given to 
these volumes, accompanied by a pre- 
face in the same spirit; and indeed, 
throughout the work, there is a careful 
and an almost ovcrsiudious design of 
keeping down the biographer, and 
elevating the subject. The book is an 
(entertaining one, abounding in anec- 
dote, and for the first time the noble 



[Feb. 



greater his sins against decency and 
decorum, the more pointed were hb 
attempts to make decorum and decency 
ridiculous. 

The " rool of the matter was wiihm " 
— he hated Religion because the de- 
nounced his vices — he was an infidel, 
but it was the *' unbelief of an evil 
heart,'* not of an inquiring mind. Hb 
poetry, with all its beauty, might well 
be spared, if we could so remove the 
mischief it has effected, and we are 
now unhappily to lament another of- 
fence to morals, b]^ this elaborate <spo- 
sore of his most irreligiout life. We 
will not shrink from this avowal of oor 
honest and deliberate opinion. With 



bard is fairly arraigned at the bar of 3^ ii^e kind hearted ness which Mr 
public opinion. When we say /air/y, Moore has brought to his labour, and 



we would not be understood as speak- 
ing of the impartiality of the advocate, 
for there is neither vice nor failing 
which Mr. Moore does not refer to 
some extenuating circumstance, but 
out of his own mouth, as it were, the 
character of Lord Byron may now be 
estimated, and we can now speak of 
him from " his own showing.'' 

It is not our intention to add an- 
other to the many dissertations that 
have been written on the moral and 
poetical character of this celebrated 
man. Well has it been said, 

" that all the pious daties which we owe 
Our parents, friends, our country, and our 

God, 
The seeds of every virtue here below 
From discipline alone, and early culture 

grow." 

This moral discipline, this early cul- 
ture. Lord Byron never knew. His 
first years were without that firm yet 
gentle guidance which might but have 
restrained his sullen and passionate 
temper, a temper indulged until it be- 
came his master — and, borrowing a 
phrase from his classical recollections, 
he is perpetually complaining of" eat- 
ing his own heart." His warfare was 
a(^ainst established customs and opi- 
nions ; there was nothing too sacred 
for the exercise of his sarcasm ; morals 
and religion, man's honour, and wo- 
man's delicacy, were perpetually the 
butt of his wit or his humour. His 
splendid talents were prostituted to the 
worst purposes, and the most demo- 
ralizing opinions were supported by 
the worst example. If tried by the 
standard of reason or religion, his 
career must be pronounced to have 
been one reckless profligacy 3 and the 



with all that cunning web of sopbisUy 
by which he has sought to hide Lord 
Byron's vices, still the author of Childe 
Harold's own handwriting is aajUMl 
him. Many of his letters are the re- 
cords of opinions and pursuits deroga- 
tory alike to his birth, his station, and 
his talents. It is worse than idle-— it 
is wicked to cry " peace where there 
is no peace." The charity for which 
Mr. Moore contends, ought never 10 
be employed in making the ^ worse 
appear the better." Our hope is, that 
the God whom he denied, and the re- 
ligion he despised, may have reached 
his heart before he exchanged time for 
eternity. This is our charity, and if 
oor hope were realised, then would 
this volume be an offence to hia aie« 
mory, and nothing but a meFcenary 
feeling could have induced its [mblicaF- 
tion, at least in this shape. Yetoot of 
the jarring elements of which it is 
composed, there is much to excite oar 
interest and our admiration. As the 
poet said of his own Corsair, " all is 
not evil" — and after delivering oar gpe* 
neral opinion, in which we feel our- 
selves borne out by the contents of the 
volume, we will not return to this 
part of our subject, but content our- 
selves with passages which may be ex- 
tracted without onence, and comment^ 
ed on without pain. 

Respecting the childhood of Lord 
Byron, Mr. Moore has been more than 
sufficiently minute in his researches. 
The anecdotes recorded of him during 
his probation in Scotland, are no other* 
wise interesting than as partaking in « 
degree of that mixture of wilhiliicas 
and generosity which characterised hia 
after-life. The title descended to bin 



1830.1 



Rbvibw.— Moore*8 L%f9 of Lord Byron, 



147 



in his tenth year; and we agree with 
his biographer in thinliing tnat, had 
he been left to struggle on for ten 
years longer as plain George Byron, 
he would have been the better tor it. 
Soon afier his arrival from Scotland, 
he was placed under the care of Dr. 
Glennie, a schoolmaster of Dulwich ; 
and from thence he was removed to 
Harrow, in his 14th year. Of his 
studies and employinenta at a public 
school, he has himself afforded some 
Ycry lirely sketches. He does not re- 
present himsdf as having been popular, 
nor were the friendships he formed 
there of a very permanent character. 

Of that romantic attachment which 
in his own opinion tank so deep as to 
give a colour to his future life, Mr. 
Moore has given a very pleasing ac- 
count. The age of the lady was 
eighteen. Lord Byron was two years 
younger ; that he drank deeply ot the 
fascination, there can be no doubt ; 
bnt an ** idolatrous fancy** had great 
share in the homage paid to the divinity 
—-she was the subject of many a poeti- 
cal dream, and what imagination has 
thus sanctified, he believed to have 
been influential beyond its real power. 

At seventeen he entered at Trinity 
Oollege, Cambridge. His feelings to- 
wards his Alma Mater do not amtear 
to have been very affectionate. There 
are some of his letters published about 
this time also, in which his natural 
parent is treated with much coarseness. 
She was, to be sure, a woman of 
violent temper, and their disputes at- 
tained a height which could only 
6nd an appropriate similitude in the 
•• tempest *' and the •* hurricane.** 

*< It ifl told at ft curious proof nf each 
other's Tioleoce,'* Myt Mr. Moore, " that 
after natrtin^ ooe evening in a tempest of 
this kind, they were known each to go that 
night privately \n the apothecary's, inquir- 
ing aoxiouslj whether the other liad t>ecn 
to purchase pobou, and cautioninj^ tlia 
vender of drugs not lo attend to such an 
application, itnada." 

The idea of printing his poems, is 
stated to have first occurred to him 
thus : 

** Miss Pigot, who was not before awara 
of his turn for vcraifyinz, had been reading 
aloud the poems of oums, when young 
Byron said, * that he too was a Poet some- 
times, and wouki write down for her soma 
veraes of his own which he rememberad. 
Ha tbta with a peacil wrose three liaasf be- 
giaaiagy * la tbaa I ibodlj hoped to clasp«' 



which were printed ia hia Urst uapablisKed 
volume, but are not contained in tlie edi^ews 
that followed. He also repeated to her the 
verses * When in the hall my father's voice*' 
so remarkable for the anticipations of hia 
future fame, that glimmer tnrough them. 
From this moment the desire of appearing 
ia print took entire poeacstioo m him, 
though for the present his ambition did not 
extend its views bevood a small volume for 
prirate circulation. 

The notices of Lord Byron at this 
period are animated and interesting, 
but are more so perhaps when read 
with reference to what he afterwards 
became, than as varying (with tlic ex- 
ception of his poetry^ from the life of 
any other man of fasfiion. He affected 
an indifference to his volume, which 
he did not feel — and he evidently 
and naturally relished the encomiums 
which private friendship and profes- 
sional criticism bestowed upon his 
poetry. 

We have expressed our intention of 
abstaining from any further allusion to 
that gloomy scepticism which took 
such early root in the mind of Lx>rd 
Byron ; but we mention it now, to 
state that the subject is noticed by Mr. 
Moore in a very affecting way, ho- 
nourable alike to his own principles, 
and to that friendship for Lord Byron 
which refers with a true feeling of 
sorrow this melancholy temperament 
to the absence of that controul which 
his mssions and his pride most required 
at tnis period of his life. The passage 
is somewhat long, but we will give it, 
in justice to all parlies, entire : 

*< It is but rarely that infidelity or seep* 
ticisro finds an entrance into youthful minds. 
Tliat readiness to take the future upon trust, 
which is the charm of this period of lilci 
woukl naturallv, indeed, make it the season 
of belief as well as of liope. There are also 
then, still fresh in tlie mind, the impressions 
of early religious culture, which, even ia 
those who liegio soonest to question their 
faith, give way but slowly to the encroach- 
ments of doubt, and, ia the OMan tiBMf ex- 
tend the lienefit of their atoral restraiat 
over a portion of lifi whea it is ackaowledgad 
such reatiaiats are nMst a a ce ss aiy . If ex- 
emption from the ehecks of rsligton be, aa 
iafidcla theaiselves allow, a state of freedom 
from reapoosibility daageroos at all ttaiea, 
it must be peculiarly so in that season of 
temptation, youth, whan the passions are 
solBeiently deposed to usurp a latitude for 
then»selvea, without taking a licence also 
^m infidelity to enlarge their range. It is« 
theralbre, fin tanata that, tan the causae joat 
ttatad» the inroads of scepciciam and disbt- 



148 



Retibw. — Moore*8 Life of Lord Byron* 



lief should be teldom felt in the mind till a 
period of life, when the character, already 
formed, b out of the reach of tlieir disturb- 
ing influence, — when, being the result, 
howerer erroneous, of thought and reason- 
ing, they are likely to partake of the so- 
briety of the process by which they were 
acquired, aud, heaae considered but as mat- 
ters of pure speculation, to have as little 
slutre in determining the mind towards evil 
as, too often, the most orthodox creed has, 
at the same age, in influencing towards go<)d. 

*' While, in this manner, the moral qua- 
lities of the unbeliever himself are guarded 
from some o£ the mischiefs that might, at 
an earlier age, attend such doctrines, the 
danger also of his communicating the infec- 
tion to others is, for reasons of a similsr 
nature, considerably diminished. The same 
vanity or daring which may have prompted 
the Youthful sceptic's opinions, will lead 
him likewise, it is probable, rashly and irre- 
verently to avow the in, without regard 
either to the effect of his example on those 
around him, or the odium which, by such 
an avowal, he entails irreparably on himself. 
But, at a riper age, these consequences are, 
in general, more cautiously weighed. The 
infidel, if at all considerate of the happiness 
of othere, will naturally pause before he 
chases from their hearts a hope of which 
his own feels the want so desolately. If re- 
guardful only of himself, he will no less na- 
turally shrink from the promulgation of 
Sinions which, in no age, have men utter- 
with impunity. In either case there is a 
tolerably good security for his silence, — for, 
should benevolence not restrain him from 
makmg converts of othen, prudence may^ 
at least, prevent him from making a martyr 
of himselr. 

" Unfortunately, Lord Byron was an ex- 
ception to the usual course of such lapses. 
With him, the canker showed itself ' in the 
mom and dew of youth,' when the effect of 
such ' blastments ' is, for every reason, most 
fiital, — and, in addition to the real mis- 
fortune of being an unbeliever at any age, 
he exhibited the rare and melancholy spec- 
tacle of an unbelieving schoolboy. The 
same prematurity of developement which 
brought his passions and genius so early into 
action, enabled him also to anticipate this 
worat, dreariest result of reason ; and at the 
very time of life when a spirit and tem))era- 
ment like his most required controul, those 
checks, which religious prepossessions best 
aupplv, wera almost wholly wanting. 

** We have seen, in those two addresses 
to the Deity which I have selected firom 
among his unpublished Poems, and still 
more strongly in a passage of the Catalogue 
of his studies, at what a boyish age the au- 
thority of all systems and sects was avowedly 
shaken off by his inqnirmg spirit. Yet, 
even in these, there is a fervour of adoration 
mingled with hb defiance of creeds, through 



[Feb. 

which the piety implanted in hii nature (as 
it is deeply in all poetic natures) unequivo- 
cally shows itself; and had he then fiUIen 
within the reach of such guidance and ex- 
ample as would have seconded and fostered 
these natural dispositions, the licence of 
opinion, into which he afterwards broke 
loose, mieht have been averted. His scep- 
ticism, if not wholly removed, might have 
been softened down into that bumble doubt 
which, so far from being inconsistent with 
a religious spirit, is perhaps its best guard 
against presumption and uncharitableneta | 
aud, at all events, even if his own views of 
religion had not been brightened or elevatedy 
he would have learned not wantonly to cloud 
or disturb those of others. But there was 
no such monitor near him. After his de- 
parture from Southwell, he had not a single 
friend or relative to whom he could look up 
with respect ; but was thrown alone on the 
world, with his passion and his pride, to 
revel in the fatal discovery which he imagined 
himself to have made of the nothinneas of 
the future, and the all-paramoont claims of 
the present. By singular Ul-fortune» too, 
the individual who, among all his college 
friends, had taken the strongest hi^ on his 
admiration aud a£Fection, and whose loss he 
afterwards lamented with brotherly tender- 
ness, was to the same extent as himself if 
not more strongly, a sceptic." 

In spite of all this, beaotifol u it it 
in language, we doubt whether Lord 
Byron had at this time settled princi* 
pies of any kind ; bis passions were hit 
masters, he had generous impoltet and 
benevolent feelings ; but of anj thing 
that could regulate or restrain, whe* 
thcr it be called philosophy or religion, 
he was destitute. He was the creature 
" of the minute ;" and any statement 
of his creed, by himself at least, is uo 
more to be depended on than are those 
exaggerated pictures of his vices with 
which his letters and poems abound. 
The well-meaning but injudicious 
friends who attempted his reforma- 
tion, he loved to *' mystify*' and to 
confound, and so tenaciously did this 
spirit cling to him, that when, in 
Greece, he had those conversationt 
with Dr. Kennedy on the subject of 
religion which are announced for 
publication, there was hardly a per* 
son acquainted with him there who 
did not insinuate that he was amusing 
himself at the doctor's expence. 

So much has been already said on 
the article in the Edinbursh Review, 
which it has been contended awaken- 
ed the poetical energies of the subject 
of it, that we will dismiss it with thit 
observation, that we agree with Mr. 



1830.] 



Rbv IB w.— Moore's Life of Lord Byron. 



Moore that it was rather the contemp- 
tuous tone in which it was written, 
than any mistake in the critic's es* 
timate of Lord B.'s |)oems, that de* 
serves our reprehension ; for, as Mr, 
Moore elegantly says, 

" Th« early verses of Lord B/ron^ how- 
ever disttoguubed by tenderness and grace, 
give but little promise of those dazzling 
miracles of poesy wiib which he afterwards 
enchanted toe world; and, if bis youth- 
ful verses have now a peculiar charm in our 
eyes, it 'is because we read them as it were 
by the light o( his subsequent glory." 

The article was speedily followed 
by the satire, a proof at once of his 
genius and of the ferocious spirit by 
which it was influenced ; it is evident 
indeed that the foundation of this 
poem was laid long before the appear- 
ance of the oflcnsive review. There 
is scarcely a philippic in that satire 
which either his after-position in so« 
ciei]ir, or his own generous nature, did 
not induce him to retract ; he used his 

^ best efibrts to suppress what his ill- 
humour had urged him to publish, and 
there is no severity that can be pro- 
nounced on the recklessness of this at- 
tack that can equal the sentence pro- 
nounced on it by himself. 

In a state of mind over which Mr. 
Moore throws the protecting shield of 
his ^enerout coiDpaationy and which 

^ in his Maal elegant excolpatorp style, 
he refers to tlie accidental circum- 
stances of a disappointed life, Lord 
Byron now proceeded on his pil- 
grimage. His letters during his ab- 
sence from England are excellent spe- 
cimens of epistol«r)r descriptions; they 
give a very interesting account of his 
travels, and are written in an agree- 
able, lively style, with scarcely any 
traces of that moody temper in whicn 
he had left his counirv. His return 
is annoanced in the following charac- 
teristic leuer : 



i< 



To Mr. Henry Drury. 



t€ 



€t 



f^oUigt/rigaU, of Uihant^July 17,1311. 

'• M V dear Dniry, — AfUr two years' ab- 
seaoe (on the td) and sense odd days, I am 
approaching your coontry* The day of our 
arrival you will tee by the ouuide date of 
my letter. At present, we are becalmed 
eomibrtably, close to Brest harbour; — I 
have otver been so aear H siaoe 1 lefi Dock 
Pvddle. 

*' We left Malta thiity-lbvr days aro, 
and have bad a tadMMS passage of it. Yoa 
will either see or hear froas or of ase, soon 
after the icceipl ol thiiy m 1 pasa thceagh 



149 

town to repair my irreparabla t£fair«i and 
thence I want to go to Notts, and raise 
rents, and to Lanes, an^ sell coUierias, and 
back to London, and pay debu, — for it 
seems I shall neither have coals or eomfort 
till I £o down to Rochdale m person. I have 
brought home some marbles tor Hobhoose; 
— for myself, four ancient Athenian skulls^ 
dug out of Sarcophagi,— a phial of atUo 
hemlock, — four hve tortoises, — a grey- 
hound (died on the passage), — two live 
Greek servanu, one an Athenian, t'other a 
Yaniote, who can speak nothing but Ro- 
maic and luiian, — and myself, as Moses in 
the Vicar of Wakefield says, slily, and I may 
say it too, fur I have as Utile cause to boast 
of mv expedition as he bad of his to the ^r. 

*• I wrote to you from the Cyanean Rocks, 
to tell yoo I liad swam from Sestos to Aby- 
dos— >hiave you received my letter ? 

<* Hodgson, I suppose, is four deep by 
this time. What would he have given to 
have seen, like me, the real Parnassus, 
where I robbed the Bishop of Chrisssof a 
book of geography;— but this I only call 
plagiarism, as it was done within an hour's 
ride of Delphi." 

His avowed intention of leaving 
the *' whole Castaiian Sute" was as 
speedily abandoned as oiost of his re- 
solutions. He returned to England 
with two long poems, the one a satire, 
in imitation of Horace ; the other, the 
two first cantos of Childe Harold ; the 
former appears to hare been his fa- 
vourite. 

** la tracing the fbrtones of men," says 
Mr. Moors, " it u not a little earioos to 
observe how often the conrse of a whola 
life has depended on a smgle step. Had 
Lord Byron now persisted m his original 
purpose of giving this poem to the press, i| 
is more than probable that he would bave 
been lost as a great poet to the world." 

But we cannot thus track the foot- 
steps of Lord Byron ; the most promi- 
nent features of his life are well known 
to our readers, for there are few men 
whose minutest acts have been so 
blazoned. 

His letter to Lord Holland (whom 
he had abused in his satire), on pre- 
senting him with his new poem of 
Childe Harold, exhibits much good 
feeling and candour. 

"My Lord, -». JWi-Krert, 

^ * March b, 1818. 

" May I rsqoest yoor Lordship to aocept 
a copy oif the thing which aocoaspaaias this 
note? Yon hava abeady so fidly proved 
the troth of the first liae of Popa*s couplet, 

* Forgtveaess to the iaivftd doth hekog,' 



150 



Hevjbw,— Moore's Life of Lord Byron, 



[Feb. 



that I long for an opportcmity to give the 
]ie to the vene that foliowa. If I were not 
perfectly conTinced that any thing I may 
nave formerly uttered in the boyish rash- 
ness of my misplaced resentment had made 
as little impression as it deserved to make, 
I should hardly have the confidence — per- 
haps your Lordship may give it a stronger 
and more appropriate appellation — to send 
you a quarto of the same scribbler. But 
your Lordshipt I am sorry to observe to- 
day, is troubled with the gout : if my book 
can produce a laugh against itself or the 
author, it will be of some service. If it can 
set you to sleep, the benefit will be yet 
greater ; and as some Sections personage 
observed half a century ago, that * poetry is 
a mere drug,' I oflfer you mine as an humble 
assistant to the * eau midceinale.* I trust 
you will forgive this and all my other buf- 
fooneries, and believe me to be, with great 
respect, your Lordship's obliged and sincere 
aervant, Byron." 

The public adulation which follow- 
ed this poem did not tend to improve 
his character ; he was proud and re- 
sen'edj he had drawn his poeiical por- 
trait as that of one of melancholy and 
sadness, and he appears to hare worn 
such an appearance in vindication of 
his consistency. To those behind the 
scenes, his manners, on the contrary, 
are represented as frank, social, and 
engaging. There was too much of 
this masquerading for a strong or ho- 
nourable mind to have practised ; it 
was a species of hypocrisy too that flat- 
tered his pride, ana amused his vanity. 
During the three following years, hit 
poetry was poured out in rich profu- 
sion of talent ; — but we have no space 
to particularize. 

His marriage and the unfortunate 
circumstances that succeeded, are 
treated by Mr. Moore with great deli- 
cacy, and in a way which scarcely anv 
other pen could have managed so well. 

In a letter to Mr. Moore, Lord By- 
ron thus expresses himself on the sub- 
ject of his separation, an avowal ho- 
nourable to his candour and to the 
character of Lady Byron : 

<' I must set you right in one point, how- 
ever ; the huh was not, no, nor even the 
misfortune in my choice, unless in choosing 
at all ; for I do not believe, and I must say 
it in theTery dregs of all this bitter busi- 
ness, that there ever was a better or even a 
brighter, a kinder, or a more amiable and 
agreeable being than Lady B. I never had 
nor can have any reproach to make her 
while with me. Where there is blame it 
belongs to myself| and if I cannot redeem^ 
I mukt bear it." 



A prting word, and we have done; 
We should deem it little less than blas- 
phemy to be told, that if I>ord BWon 
had been a better man, he would nave 
been a worse poet. What hci mieht 
have been, had he drank of that liTinff 
founuin which would have healed his 
sorrows and purified his iniellectp it 
were now in vain to inquire. The 
following thought of a writer less 
known than he deserves to be, tells ns 
in language as elegant as the sentiment 
is just, how a taste for the beaaties of 
the natural world with which the 
poetry of Lord Byron is rife, is qoick- 
ened, improved, and elevated by reli- 
gious feeling : 

''The sun may beaatiQr the fiuse of m- 
ture, the planets may roll in oiaJcBtic order 
through the immensity of spac«, aprii^ 
may spread her blossoms, fammer may ripa 
her fruits, autumn may all to the baaqeety 
the senses are regaled ; bat in tlio heart thrt 
is not purified by religiom asatnaants, than 
is no perception of spiritual beanty, no mowa' 
roent of spiritual delight» no rafrrenca to 
that Hand which is acatteriag aronnd tha 
means of enjoyment, and, the IneeBtiffaa to 
praise. But let the heart La toaclied with 
that etherial spark which is eficiled bj tha 
Word of God and the proniaaa of his Son ; 
let the sinful affections be removadf aad the 
influence of a devont spirit be diarlghcds 
let intellect and refUetian heeome ike hmi" 
maids of Piety i tlien we shall saa God ia 
all that is great and hentilai hi oreatioat 
and feel him in all thai is chaasM. aiid 
happy io our own minds." : . 

The volume before as brinies the 
life of Lord Byron down to the period 
of his final departure from Engfamd. 
We cannot help thinking that some- 
thing too much has been afloMcd; 
and we cannot conceal onr apprehen- 
sions that, as the poetryof Lord Byron 
produced a generation of sceptical mi- 
santhropes, so the details of his fashion- 
able excesses may provoke a spirit of 
imitation in the thoughtless, thcg^kldj* 
and the young. 

Remarks on the Ciml DvuUnUUti qfBHiUk 
Jews, By Francis Henry GoldsDild. Cal- 

bum and Bentley. 

THE argument of Mr. Goldtmid, 
for the emancipation of the British 
Jews, is founded on an investigation 
of the Statutes. Hcl first disposes of 
the objection that they are alienst, 
by citing very competent authoritica 
against that doctrine, and then procaeda 
to an examination of the variom Acta 



1830.] RiviBW.— Ooldsmid on ihi Gvil DisabiUtie$ of the Jews. 161 



of PaHiament by which iheir ciril li. 
heriy it invaded. It appears to us that 
the case of the Jews was not originally 
aiuicipatrd by tlie framert of the laws 
of England, beeaoae ihey were consi- 
dered a strange people dwelling amongst 
us, by permission or by sufferance; 
even now, when we speak to a Jew of 
those of his own faith, we term them 
those of his nation. The case may have 
been altered by subsequent Statutes. 
The Jews, however, have not been 
disqualified by particular enactments 
directed against them ; but ihey have 
been involved in the various sacra- 
mental and other tests, for the exclu- 

^ sion of dissenters; and the annual Bill 
of Indemnity absolved them from the 
penalties that 'might have been incur- 
red, equally with the Unitarians and 
others. But the repeal of the Test 
and Corporation Acts has rendered the 
situation of the Jew worse than before. 
A Declaration has been frame<l, to 
which he cannot possibly subscribe, 
and he is now without any other re- 

^ niedv than the direct interference of 
the Legislature. 

England was certainly meant, at the 
time of the Reformation, to be a Chris- 
tian Protestant country. The multi- 
plication of sects in Cromwell's time 
did not alter this character of the Con- 
stitution. Our modern liberals have 
violated its integrity ; it has ceased to 

# be ProtesUnL Therefore, Mr. Gold- 
smid*s arguoients are, in our opinion, 
fair; and Jews have as just a claim to 
sit in Parliament as Apists, and so 
have Mahometans. 

It remains to be seen whether our 
nobles and country gentleiuen, who 
are of oure English blood but are poor, 
will allow the landed estates of this 
country to be bought up by the Jews, 
who are rich and equal to the purchase. 
In a religious view, the settlement 
of the Jews in freehold estates in Eng- 
land would impede their return when 
Messiah shall call them home; but 
this is a consideration for them. In 
the same way many settled at Baby. 
Ion, and would not return after the 
publication of the edict for rebuilding 
the Temple. With all this wc Chris- 
tians have nothing to do. We only 
wish that their learned men would 
turn from the legends oi" the Talmud, 
And consult their Bibles. 

If there be any thing galling to Eng- 
lishmen who love their country and 
its institutions, in the prospect of a 



mongrel Parliament, to be composed 
of «• Jews, Turks, infidels, and here- 
tics,*' let them answer for it who 
framed the Trinity and Popish Eman- 
cipation Bills. 

Mr. Goldsmid's pamphlet is written 
in a lone of moderation, which must 
insure it a respectful attention, and his 
argumenu display the sincerity of his 
intentions, and the acuteness of bis 
research. 

A Sketch of the History qfCamarwm Castle. 
By James Hews Braosbj. Poole and 
Harding, Carnarvon. 

THIS volume has more merit than 
many larger publications. As a pleas- 
ing Cicerone to transient visitors to 
Carnarvon, Mr. Bransby must hence- 
forth be a sine qua non t because his 
book will tell of things which cannot 
otherwise be known, except by an 
immense labour of consulting many 
others. 

The author modestly denominates 
his book a Sketch of'^ History, that 
" aims at no pomp of language, or 
brilliancy of colouring. He has stu- 
died simplicity, and left objects and 
circumstauces to make their own im- 
pression.'^ In this aim he has com- 
pletely succeeded. Witness the fol- 
lowing picture of Llewellyn's heroism, 
on Edward's proceeding into Wales, 
with a^ determination to exterminate 
that Prince's power s 

** The royal baaoers were oooa oiora ua- 
furled upon the mountains, the tnimpeS 
called to battle, acd Uevdlyn, around whom 
Lit countrjmea always flocked at the soand 
of war, preimred to defend himself against 
the invaders. While the tide rolled on with 
contiouallv increasing impetuosity, though 
he must have had hit aaxioot doubtt and 
fiMrt, be took cart to betray no want of the 
most deliberate and tranquil telf-pottettioo i 
and many a combatant of dtttinction fell be- 
fore hit vigorout arm. But that arm was 
toon to be unnerved. The hour approached 
when bit heart wat to yield iu expiring sigh, 
and hit glory to he shrouded in impeuetia- 
ble darkoett. On the 11th of Deeember, 
1989, he wat ilaio at IJaadweyr n Radaor- 
thire, not far from Bualth, having received 
hit death- wound from the spear of one Ste- 
phen de Franktoo, a common toldier. 1% 
wat not till he bad been some time welter- 
ing in bb blood that he wat known { lor ha 
bad entered the fieU without armoiir and qa 
ftiot, and on that fiual day there wat no pe- 
culiarity in hit drett or appearaaoe to iadi- 
cato his raak. The atoment his pale and 
ghastly but ttiU nobla featares vtia disceta- 



152 Review.— Bransby*8 History of Carnarvon Ca»tle» [Feb. 



r 

ed, a thout of surprise and joy burst from 
the English troops, and the cooflict was 



over 



i»» 



The fate of Llewellyn's brother is 
tragical indeed, and pathetically nar- 
rated. Passing from thai event to the 
incorporation of Wales with England, 
Mr. Bransby (as an Englishman, -who 
seems to have adopted Wales as his 
chosen residence,) manages the deli- 
cate subject with peculiar address, and 
by no means at the expence of truth. 

** To viodicate the motives which led to 
this important conquest, and the means by 
which it was achieved, — to prove that it 
was founded in justice or in necessity, would 
perhaps be a difficult as well as an invidious 
and unprofitable task; yet who can doubt 
that great good was accomplished by it ? 
who will deny that the result has proved 
eminently beneficial ? An end was put to 
the sanguinary disputes in which the two 
nations had been so constantly embroiled, 
the olive of peace was planted on the moun- 
tain side, and both the victors and the van- 
quished saw that it was their interest no 
less than their duty to cherish a pacific and 
friendly disposition towards each other. They 
became one people ; enjoyed, in after years, 
the protection of the same laws ; and have 
oow the unspealcable privilege of calling 
their own the same political institutions — 
institutions not surpassed in grandeur, in 
beauty, or in usefulness, even by those 
which adorn the fid)led realms of Utopia and 
Atlantis." • 

But as conquest over such a people 
as those whom Edward had subju- 
gated, — a people accustomed to diffi- 
culties, ana fearless of daneers, — could 
not be achieved without leaving a la- 
tent, untamed spirit, ready to burst 
forth and cast off the yoke, unless 



* « Though every one must honour the 
fiseling which leads the well-educated Welsh- 
man to look with affectionate pride upon 
his native language, and to be anxious for 
its preservation, yet many advantages would 
arise from its ceasing to be a spoken lan- 
guage. It presents a serious obstacle to 
the intellectual and moral improvement of 
the lower classes. They have not the means 
of keeping pace with their fellow subjects, 
or of being emancipated from the prejudices 
and superstitious inseparable from igno- 
rance, which impress upon them the cha- 
racteristics of a distinct and separate tribe. 
Who that has a heart in his bosom but 
would rejoice to see them universally and 
fully participating in the blessings which 
the improved forms of education and the 
diffusion of science are conferring upon the 
other inhabitants of this Aivoured land?" 



watched and overawed,— the *• roth- 
less king,*' as Gray terms him, built, 
for the twofold purpose of iotimida* 
tion and safety, the castles of Carnar- 
von, Conway, and RhuddUn. Of 
thnese, Mr. Bransby justly observes, 

" Carnarvon Castle has a cUim to pre- 
eminence, on account both of its original 
grandeur and of the place which it oecii- 
pies in the page of the historian. Its ran, 
formerly so glorious, is set — the pride of its 
strength is gone ; but, even now, amidst ttie 
devMtations of time, it is Impressively ma- 
jestic. — So beautiful a ruin must stribt erea 
the idle and listless spectator, while ao -»» 
of genuine taste can approadi it withoai be- 
ing deeply interested. There is spread av«r 
it a certain tranquil gloom which ia fSsvoar- 
able to meditation ; — a soleflanity whicfa ap- 
peals to the heart, suggesting pare and ele- 
vated thoughts, and teaching the bkmI sa- 
lutary lessons. — Most of our princely and 
baronial structures, now cnimbling Into dost, 
are composed of diffisrsnt portions, vhidi 
exhibit specimens of the arcliitflctare of dif- 
ferent ages. But such is ael the case with 
the huge pile at Camarvoa t it was Wgua 
and rendered complete by Edward, and faas 
received no additions from aay of its sabaa- 
quent possessors." 

Many of the notes are extremelv ca- 
rious, and demonstrate Mr. BransDj to 
have a discriminating mind and a kind 
heart. 

To the reasons, specified by Mr. B. 
in a note, pp. 8, 9, for plaatiiu jeiv- 
trees, &c. in church-yaitlib and inin^ 
dieting their prostration, migfit he not 
have added the martial met to wlikli 
the wood of the yew-tree was applied, 
— that of bows, before the inTentioo 
of fire-arms, about the year 146O? 
When invasion or sudden attack was 
apprehended, — to the chnreb-yard 
might simultaneously resort the inha- 
bitants of every parish, and there 
speedily supply themselves with wea- 
pons, as from a common armoaij.* 
The lopping of branches for anch a 
purpose would not come within the 
interdict, " Ne Rector arhorti M cr- 
meterio prosternat ;" because no tree^ 
perhaps, sustains so little injniy by 
lopping, as the yew. Loppecf, more- 
over, under such patriotic circmnf* 
stances, the severing of some of tU 
branches would be done hy the 



* Mr. Ritson says, " it may be 
ed whether a body of expert archers woaM 
not, even at this day, be suptrior to n 
equal number armed with moskaCi."'— NaM^ 
page 55. 



i8aa] 



Riviiw.— Diary of Ralph Tlhort^. 



153 



tivct with care, and even with Yenera- 
tion ; considering it almost as a sacred 
beneficent guardian, that was at every 
future crisis to yield them and their 
children a further supply. 

The Diary md Carrufandenee rf Ralph Thy 
resty, F.ILS, Author qf\^ The Topography 
<tfLettU^** 1677— ir«4. NowJirU pib- 
Hthed from the Orininai ManuMcriptf by 
the Rev. JoMph Hunter, FS.A. fbur 
volt. Boo. Colburn and Bentley. 

ANOTHER diary of a life devoted 
to literature has escaped the accidenu 
to which all writings of this kind are 
exposed, and some peculiar dansers of 
iu own, and after the lapse of more 
than a century is now ottered to the 
public. We rejoice to see remains 
of this kind brought from their hiding 
places s they are most valuable deposi- 
tories of authentic information, to be 
used hereafter in histories of the litera- 
tore and science of England, and in 
the biographies of the distinguished 
men who have raised so high the cha- 
racter of our nation. Many a fact be- 
fore unknown has come forth in the 
Diaries of Evelyn and Pepys, and a 
glance at the minute index which is 
added to those volumes, will show that 
we have here a work which in these 
vrspects is not behind former diaries. 
They present also faithful, and often 
▼erv agreeable pictures of the manners 
of life^ the haoits and studies of the 
perton who makes the record of his 
life. And there are no writings which 
equally with these cany us into times 
long passed away, and give us a distinct 
impress of the "manners living*' as 
th^ were. 

The name of Thoresby has been 
long familiar to the public ear. His 
Ducatos Leodiensis, or Topography of 
Leeds, has always been a oook prized 
and popular. It is distinguishca from 
all books of topography which pre- 
ceded it, and from most of those which 
have followed it, by having the dryness 
of its antiquarian detail! relieved by an 
occasional intermixture of moral senti- 
ment, or rather of those details having 
received an impress from the amiable 
and devotional spirit of the writer. 
The name of Thoresby is found in the 
writings of manv of his antiquarian 
contemporaries, u>r he was ever ready 
to assist in every attempt at illustrating 
the minute points in the history of the 
country. But perhaps he is h<>st Itoowu^ 

OaifT. Mao. Pfknmy^ 1S80. 

8 



and now most frequently mentioned, 
OS the possessor of a very extensive and 
curious Museum, in which were de- 
posited rarities both of nature and art ; 
fossils and shells; books, manuscripts, 
prints, coins, and autographs. A de- 
scriptive caulogue is annexed to the 
Ducatos. We see in this Diary how 
a private person, in a country town, 
and with a small fortune, was able to 
amass a treasure which may excite the 
envy of the nwre opulent but less for- 
tunate collector of tnese times. 

Thoresby was pre-eminently a col- 
lector. He was one of the fathers of 
that still increasing and fknirishing fa- 
mily. Like some of his successors, he 
had stored op some things as valuable 
rarities, which better judgment and 
superior knowledge would have led 
him to reject. But compare his Cata- 
logue with that of the Tradescants, 
and how superior was his Moseom to 
theirs ! There was in it very little to 
be despised, and a great deal to be 
coveted. 

Thoresby was a man of insatiable 
curiosity. As we read his Diary, and 
observe the topicsof his correspondence, 
it strikes us that this was the most dis- 
tinguishing feature of his mind. The 
subjects on which his knowledge was 
profound are few ; but there are few 
subjects which interest mankind, to 
which his was not at some time or other 
directed. The natural bias of h'ls dis- 
position wu to antiquarian and histo- 
rical inquiry. This seems to have been 
given him in his youth. He tells as 
that his mind was directed to one par- 
ticular subject of antiquarian iiiquiry, 
by a Sermon which he heard in the 
Cfhurch of Leeds when he was a boy ; 
and perliaps the general bias of his 
mind to antiquarian pursuits, he might 
owe to a cabinet of coins, part of the 
furniture of his father's house, which 
his father had purchased of the family 
of Fairfax. 

But he was no less aMiduous in re- 
cording than he was in inquiring. We 
have heard of an eminent antiqoary of 
the present day, who said that he did 
not think the man deserving the name 
of an antiqoary who did not every 
night minute down what he did, what 
he heard, and whom he conversed with. 
Thoresby 's pretensions would bear be- 
ing submitted to this test We see in 
uhat is printed how he descended to 
maitcis the most minute in his personal 



154 



Rbvibw. — Diary of Ralph Thoreiby. 



[Feb. 



chronicle. We may guess from what 
is published how much ihe editor has 
found it necessary to omit. 

Indeed, to say the truth, valuing as 
we do records such as these, we can 
well dispense with much that must oC 
necessity find a place in a book which 
is to contain an account of what any 
man did erery day of his life. It i» 
also evident that it is due to the dead, 
and in many cases due to the living, 
that every thing which may be insert- 
ed in Diaries such as these, should not 
?;o forth to the world to minister matter 
or reproach, or for the comments of 
ill nature. But it is evident that he 
who sets out upon the principle of re- 
cording every day what he did and 
saw, must live in very unfavourable 
circumstances indeed, if he do not leave 
behind him a work from which much 
may be expected that will amuse, in- 
struct, and inform. 

In many respects the situation of 
Thoresby was favourable. His home 
was, it IS true, in a provincial town, 
but it was then, as it is now, a town 
of great resori, and the fame of his 
museum attracted to his house the per-' 
sons of distinction who visited the 
place, and especially Artists, Naturalists, 
and Antiquaries. But Thoresby was 
fond of travelling. His Diary contains 
more instructive notices than any book 
with which we are acquainted, of the 
facilities and means for moving from 
place to place which our ancestors pos- 
sessed, at a time when steam-carriages 
and mail-coaches were alike unknown; 
and when on these journeys, he often 
admits us to the acquaintance of i)er- 
sons more eminent than those whom 
he saw in his native town. He fre- 
quently visited London ; and, while 
sojourning there, his whole time was 
passed among the Philrjsophers, the 
Antiquaries, and the more eminent 
divines of the time. He was for ever 
at the libraries and museums. He 
omitted no opportunity of attending 
the meetings of his brethren of the 
Royal Society at Gresham College. 
And he sometimes, as when he relates 
the conversation which he held with 
the antiquarian Earl of Pembroke in 
that nobleman's cabinet of medals, 
preserves remarks on scientific subjects, 
which are useful and important. 

There is scarcely an Antiquary, or a 
distinguished Naturalist of the time, 
with whom Thoresby was not more 
or less acquainted ; and there was no 



one with whom he was acquainted 
whose name does not appear in hit 
Diary. With many he was upon terms 
of close intimacy. Not inferior in in- 
terest or in value to the Diary, are the 
letters which accompany it. Among 
the naturalists whom Thoresby had the 
honour to reckon among his friends, 
and whose letters are found in the cor- 
respondence, were Lister, Evelyn, 
Ray, Woodward, and Sloane. cut 
the band of Antiquaries of the time 
whom Thoresby numbered among his 
friciids, and whose letters grace this 
collection of original correspondence, 
consists of the distinguished names of 
Nicolson, Gibson, the Gales, Smith, 
Lhwyd, Hickes, Strype, Heame, and 
Baker. 

The attention of Thoresby was not 
so dissipated over the wide field which 
his curiosity induced him to explore, 
as not to be brought to settle on any 
particular point. In fact, there were 
two subjects to which his attention 
seems to have been more particolarty 
directed, and which serrea as points 
about which to wind the information 
which he collected in his reading, in 
his journies, and by the conversation 
and correspondence of his friends. A 
taunt of the Romanists that the Eng- 
lish Protestants had not encouraged 
virtue, piety, and charity as their fore- 
fathers had done, early roased a spirit 
of inquiry into the justice of the charge/ 
and he exulted in the numerous list of 
Protestant benefactors he was able to 
collect : he was ever in the pursuit of 
them, and wherever he found them, 
he not only held them in high esteem, 
but he transferred to his paper the re- 
cord of their liberal deeds. The his- 
tory of his native town, Leeds and the 
district surrounding it, the lioidis and 
the Elmeie of Bede, was another point. 
The Ducatus contains the results, bat 
it is in this Diary that we learn how 
he collected the information which 
that volume contains. We see some 
of his topographical theories in their 
rudiments, and persons interested in 
these inquiries may have the same gr^ 
tification from these volumes which is 
aflbrded by the sight of the earlier ef- 
forts of the artist before he produces a 
finished engraving. 

This subject, however, led directlj 
to another. The field of his topomr 
phical inquiries became extended oe* 
yond its original limits. The whole oP 
the great county lay before him Ibea 



1830.] 



Review^ — Diarg of Ralph ThoresLg. 



wholly undcscribcd. It <lo^ nol ap- 
pear thii he ever mediiaied a work 
upon the history of the county at large; 
but his ccplleciions had a hearing unou 
that object, and particularly his bio- 
graphical collections, for it is et ideut 
that it was enough that a maa was 
Eboracentit, to be entitled to more 
than the ordinary curiosity and the 
derotion ofThoresby. 

We should think that this work 
must possess very peculiar claims upon 
the attention of the inhabitants of the 
county of York ; but we are sure the 
people of Leeds and its neighbourliood 
will 6nd it • work of very surpassing 
interest, exhibiting as it does in such 
minute detail the studies, the habits, 
and the pursuits of their own anti- 
quary, whom we here find to have 
lieen also a useful townsman, taking 
an active part in all the aflfairs of the 
borough, intercstint; himself in erery 
thing which tended to advance the 
welfare of the place, and sympathizing 
in all the private sorrows of his neigh- 
bours. 

The peculiarities of Thoresby's own 
situation and character afford in these 
pages an agreeable subject of contem- 
plation. His father was a merchant, 
and he was trained to merchandize. 
In the early part of his life he was sent 
to Holland to complete his mercantile 
education ; but be ne%'er made, as he 
sjys of himself, a merchant worth a 
farthing, nor ^t back in profit the 
money which it cost him to become 
free of one of the commercial compa- 
nies of the time. He sustained in this 
character great losses, and it was not 
till he was free from trade, and had 
retired u)>on a small, very small, inde- 
pendence, that he was free from many 
harassing anxieties, and had much en- 
joyment of life. We see him also em- 
iKirjssed still more in his religions pro* 
fession. There is no more prominent 
feature in his character thnn n deep 
and earnest feeling; of reli;4ion. It 
sometimes appears in the Diary ex- 
pressed in lam^uagi.* whi'^h is almost 
eloquent. It had been wrought into 
his mitid by his pious father, who was 
one of the Puritan branches of the 
great Protestant family, and who had 
borne arms in the Parliament service. 
The family of his wife, whom he 
married early, were also zealous Par* 
liamentarians and Puritans. Her 
grandfather had sat in judgment oa 
ine King, and sufiercd death. Thoret* 



156 

by was entering life when the great 
struggle was making against the con- 
solid;ition of a nonconforming interest 
hs the remains of the Puritan jiany. 
He and his father were among the 
princiMl persons at Leeds who con- 
curred in the creation of a plan set 
apart for Nonconforming worship, as 
soon as the effurts of the Court were a 
a little relaxed in 1672, and to the 
Nonconformists for nianv years he ad- 
hered. But time passecl on, and new 
views entered the mind of Thorcsby; 
and perhaps, as far as what relates to 
himself, the most interestinc parts of 
this Diary are those in which the 
struggles are exhibited of a very de- 
vout and consclcj)tious mind, and the 
arguments are here exhibited, prepara- 
tory to his return to the bosom of the 
Church, in which he remained to the 
conclusion of his life. 

Thoresby was eminenily the reli- 
gious character. His devotional exer- 
cises arc so piquant as to excite sur- 
prise in such an ape as this. His de- 
votion lost none of Its fervour when he 
became a conformist. In the concerns 
of the Society for Promoiins Christian 
Knowledge, and of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, he was 
deeply interested. Those who do not 
peruse these volumes for the value of 
the curious information they contaiti 
respecting the more eminent literary 
characters, or the manners of the 
lime, may be edified by their piety, 
while they follow the reflections of 
Thoresby's own mind, accompany him 
in his recollections of religious dis- 
courses to which he had attended, or 
peruse the letters of men distinguished 
among the pious of an age gone by, 
Ileywood, Henry, and Boyse ; or the 
prelates, Sharp and Burnet. 

We cannot close this notice without 
ol)8erving that we have no where seen 
accounts equally minute of the pro- 
ceedings of a community of Dissenters 
in the most interesting period of their 
history, with those which are here 
exhibited of the Nonconformbts of 
Leeds. 

We have a good portrait of the 
worthy man who^e life is here so 
plainly mapped out before us; and 
there are a few useful notes by the 
very able Editor, who has some* 
times introduced original notices of 
persons, chiefly the Yorkshire anti* 
quaries, who are leas known to the 
reader, and who formed the literary 



156 



Rbtibw.^Mts. Bray'f FUz of Fitz-Fwrd. 



[Feb. 



circk in which, when at home, 
Thoresby was often to be found. 

FUt of FUxrflofnIf a Lq^ cf Devon. By 
Mn. B»y , AiUhor <^ De Foix, The frhiie- 
hoodtt Protatanif dCe. dfc. Dedicated hy 
permutkm to his Grace the Duke of Bed" 
fird. 8 voU, pott 9vo, Smith and £lder. 
18S0. 

IT has been somewhere, and we 
think with great truth, observed, that 
if a man would become a poet he 
should take up his residence in a 
mountain-country t and as we do iK>t 
mean to quote this remark as if re- 
stricted to writers in metre only, tve 
may assert that " Fits of Fitz-Ford '* 
will form a striking example of its 
truth. This is now the fourth Ro- 
mance, from the pen of Mrs. Bray, 
which has been noticed in these pages. 
Characteristic and instructive as the 
others are, to this, for the reason above 
assigned, depending on the circum- 
stances under which it has been writ- 
ten, we are disposed to give the palm. 
Mrs. Bray is evidently a Keen observer 
of nature, whether in the varied per- 
sonages, of all degrees, " who strut and 
fret their hour on the staee of human 
life,** or in the scenery of that magni- 
ficent theatre in which they act, 

" — the forms eternal of created thingi. 
The radiant Son, the Moon's nocturnal lamp. 
The mountains, woods, and streams, the 

rollmg globe, 
■ the green earth, the wild resounding 

waves. 
With light and shade alternate, warmth and 

ooia. 
And clear autumnal skies, and vernal showers, 
And all the fiur variety." 

Placed in a situation where these 
beautiful features are continually be- 
fore the eye, the most callous and in- 
sensible heart must, in some degree, 
acknowledge their influence. What, 
then, must he their efiect on a pure 
and polished imagination, in which, as 
by nature's mirror, the glassy lake, each 
surrounding object is reflected, if in a 
new position, still with the strictest 
truth — a truth which the writer stu- 
dious of nature will find acknowledged 
by that universal responsive fethng 
which her great Author has implanted 
in the< human breast, accordant with 
bis works. 

The scene of Mrs. Bray*s Romance, 
as she tells us in the Introduction, is 
laid in the immediate neighbourhood 
ofher own residcuce, Tavistock. The 



traditions of the place have afforded 
her, it appears, some slight gtoond- 
work for her story ; one otwhich my*, 
that Judge Glanvile, who flourished in 
the reign of Elisabeth, condemned his 
own daughter to death. And Prince 
has told us, that Sir John Fitz, cooo- 
sellor-at-law and sheriff of Devon, io 
the above-mentioned sera, was much 
addicted to the study of judicial astn^ 
logy, and that casting the nativity of 
his child, even at the moment of its 
taking place, found by " these artf 
inhibited and out of warrant*' that he 
would come to an unlucky end. It 
fell out indeed as the astrologer hadi 
predicted : this son having attained tp 
manhood, killed his neighbour. Sir Ni- 
cholas Slanning, in a duel, and sub> 
seaurntly ended his days by soicklc. 

VVe should infringe oo the miMd 
limits appropriated in these colDmos to 
a review, if we should particularly d^ 
tail the plot which Mrs. Bnj baa con- 
structed on the above hioti, or ahottii 
attempt to describe all the chanctert 
introduced into her Romance. Her in- 
timate acquaintance with hiatoiy, and 
ancient manners in general, and her 
local experience in Devtm, hat afibrded 
her great advantages in Uie fonnatkm 
of her tale. Thus we hare bold and 
masterly sketches of cavern acencf, in 
which the bands of oatlawed niinen» 
who infested Danmoor in the time of 
Elizabeth, are the actors. Levi, a 
Jew, an agent for the ilknal traflk of 
these men, is a particulaily wdl-cM^ 
ccived and finely-sostained character. 

The scene in which Mrs. Alice 
Phytic (a proper name, by the bfe, of 
frec^uent occurrence among the De- 
vonian commonalty) details to Master 
Barnabas, the instructor of the LdBtin 
boys in the Schola Regia Tavisiacbi 
ensis, Mike of the Mount, the Min- 
strel, &c. seated round the kilchen-fira 
of the knightly mansion of Fita-Fonlt 
the ule of Judge Glanvile condemnit^, 
in his legal office, h:s own daughter to 
death, is such, as we conceive, may be 
fairly paralleled with Corporal Thin*s 
relation of his young master's death to 
the inmates of the kitchen, in the 
pases of that great master of the eoids 
of human sympathy, Sleme. (See voL 
i. p. 229 '^ '^0 We extract a portion 
of the death-bed scene of Sir Ha^ 
Fitz (Mrs. Bray seems to bavo taken 
the liberty of designating him Una||i 
instead ofJohn, his real nama» IbrSo 
sake of distinguishing bin from his ill- 



1830.] 



Rbvibw.— Mn. Biay*8 Fitx of FUz-Ford. 



fiijetl ton), as we think this psssage 
fairly illustraiite of hrr talent for ine 
pathetic, and as it turns on the final 
melancholy catastrophe of the tale. 

*' Sir Hagh now lay ntcDcled oa hit bed, 
hit heaA aaid amt propped up by piUovt, 
drmwiog hit breath vitn pato, sod oov sad 
then rsJtiag tbosa evat to heavtOt io which 
tha watary rheum oi dittolution htd already 
tattled, randeriog din avvry remaioing tpark 
of light aod animataoo. The dainpt of death 
hung oo hit hro», at these, with piout care, 
were from time to time wiped off by the hand 
of that beloved ton who bow ttood fixed, 
with a cmiateoaace all torrow, by hit tide. 

*' Hit wife wat not present i fpr Lady Fits 
wat one of thoeepertont whote refinement of 
feeling* anaiont to tpare ittelf, but lett care- 
fnl of the feelinffs of the djing, could not 
bear the tight ofdeath. She had therefore 
thuaned the partner of years, of weal, and 
woe, whiltt the vital tpark yet glimmered era 
it espirtd i and, but for the filud luve of Sir 



John FiUy the death-bed of the old 
would bare been Uh to the attendance of 
menialt and that of Savegrace, a puritanical 
ntnitter, who, during the latter yeart of Sir 
Hugh't life, had managed to find oonti- 
deraUe fiivour in hit sighs.** 

" John Fits supported Sir Hugh in hit 
anns, and the old man's head rested on the 
bosom of bis son. * John,' taki be, ' my dear 
boy, whtltt I lived, I (eared to tell you what I 
would BOW reveal in my last momentt { for it 
most not go down a secret with bm to the 
mve.— At thy birth there was an evil in- 
luaoce of the liaavaBa» that foretold a fearful 
•ad to thee, and that by vioUiU meant. — 
Yoa have a hot temper, apt to ttir at strife. 
^PhNBise ate, before I die, that you will 
shun to draw your sword on occasions of 
quarrel ■ ■ p romise it, and I shall die in 
peace.' oir Hugh spoke these wordt with 
so much effort, and in such a low tone, that 
it was only by the rivetted attention with 
which John Fits Usteaed, that he coukl un- 
derstand their unport. He did so however, 
and replied in a vmce fuU of emotion^ ' I 
will promite thity my dear fiuhar ; yon shall 
be obeyed.* 

*' Toe fiither csQght these expressions of 
obedience to his last couatel witn eager Joy ; 
fur an instant his eye brightened, and life 
seemed to revhre like the flame of a lamp 
which is seen to leap up but the momeat 
before iu total eatJactioa. He proaooaced 
the words, ' God bless you, my soa !* ia a 
ditttnet voice ; hot* ia aaother moment, the 
trantient aaimatioa of hb eouateaaace was 
cone, and the rigi£^ ofdeath ahowed itaelf 
la every faatare. fu soak back ia a swooa^ 
from which ha 



In closing these brief ooticcs we 
would obaenre, that we think the cen- 
sure of Mrs. Braj oo the love of family 



157 

pedigree (vol. i. p. 89), howevei keenly 
pointed, somewhat hard opon us as 
antiquaries : a respect for a long line of 
distinguished and honourable ancestors 
is, or ought to he, some incentive to 
virtuous conduct. It may be also re- 
marked, that notes, whether personal 
or illustrative, which have a tendeo^ 
to bring the reader from the illusion to 
which he has willingly submitted his 
imagination, back to the present time, 
had much better be incorporated in 
the introduction, or at least be placed 
at the end of a work of fiction. It is 
in our opinion, and wc care not what 
authority may sanction a contrary prac- 
tice, very erroneous judgment to let 
the reader too frequently behind the 
scenes. We conclude with expressing 
our hearty approbation of <* Fitz of 
Fitz-Ford,** whether for the sound 
principles of religion and morality 
which it every where incidentally ia- 
cnlcates, its lively delineations of cha- 
racter, its faithful pictures of ancient 
manners and Devonian scenery, or the 
simplicity of style with which it is 
penned. Indeed the last is a point 
which we think worthy of peculiar 
commendation ; there is nothing of 
pedantry and aflfecution in the diction 
of this tale; none of the Hellenism 
and Latinity which learning is often 
tempted to engraft on the English 
tongue. We sospect that Mrs. Bray, 
while composing these volumes, has 
kept her eye fixedly on our own great 
Shakspeare, ainl on Cervantes, as he 
appears in the excellent translation of 
his Don Quixote by Jarvis ; and we 
will venture to predict that her reivard 
will be a permanent name among the 
first class of the writen of amusing and 
instructive fiction ; and that when the 
numerous works, depicting the in- 
trigues, the follies, and the habits of 
fashionable life, in the present age, 
.shall sleep in undisturbedT repose and 
oblivion with the real characters whieh 
they pretend to delineate, Mrs. Bray*a 
Romances will sorrive, an example of 
the permanence secured by an adhe- 
rence to the simplicity of nature. 

These volumes are interspersed with 
several pleasing pieces of poetry from 
the pen of the Rev. £. A. Bray, to one 
of which, a ballad on the superstitious 
custom of looking throagh the key- 
hole of the church-door on Midsummer 
eve, we have given a place in our 
" FdetVCorner." 



[ 168 ] 



[Feb. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. ' 



Just Published, or Nearly Ready. 

Stuart and Revett's Antiquities of 
Athens, Part 10, with Supplement, which 
completes Vol. IV. and the Work. 

The whole Interior of King Henry the 
Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, consisting 
of a Series of Practical Drawings of Plans, 
Elevations, Interior Perspective, Views, 
Sections, Details, Mouldings, Ornaments, 
and Sculpture of the Chapel, dmwn from 
actual admeasurements. Bjr L. N. Cottino- 
UAM, Architect; with Observations on Go* 
thic Architecture, &c. 

Travels in Russia, and a Residence in St. 
Petersburg and Odessa, in the years 1827, 
1828, and 1829. Bv Edward Morton, 
M. B. Member of the Royal College of 
Physicians, London. 

Nineteen Sermons on Prayer. By the 
Compiler of « The School Prayer Book." 

Memoirs of Sir James Campbell, of Ard- 
kioglaas, written by himself. 

Sir Rjtlph Esher, or Memoirs of a Geo- 
tlemea of tlie Court of Cliarles II. 

Personal Memoirs of Pryce Gordon, Esq. 

Tlie Private Correspondence of John Pin- 
kerton, Esq. Edited by Dawson Turner, 
Esq. 

The Correspondence of Sir John Sinclair, 
Bart. 

Musical Memoirs, or an Account of the 
State of Music in England, from the first 
Commemoration of Handel in Westminster 
Abbey, in 1784, to 182S, with Anecdotes 
of the Professors. By W. T. Parki. 

The Life of Sir Thomas Lawrence. By 
T. Campbell, Esq. 

The Life of Titian. By James North- 
cote, Esq. 

The Life of Henry Fuseli, R. A. By 
John Knowles, Esq. 

Personal Memoirs of Capt. Cooke. Writ- 
ten by himself. 

Life of Sir Joseph Banks, with Selections 
from his Correspondence. By a Member 
of the Royal Society. 

The Life of Jolm Hampden. By Lord 
Nugent. 

History of Modem Greece. By James 
Emerson, Esq. 

Private History of the French Cabinet, 
daring the period of the Directory, the 
Consulate, and the Reign of Napoleon. By 
M. BouRRiENNs, Private Secreury to the 
Emperor. 

An Account of the Subversion of the 
Constitution in Portugal by Don Miguel. 
By Lord Porch ester. 

Commentaries of the Life and Reign of 
Charles I. Vols. 3 and 4. By I. DTsraeli, 
Esq. 

A Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's 
Strait. By Capt. F. W. Beecuev, R. N. 
in which Pitcalrn*s Ireland, Talieiti, Kamts- 



chatka. Loo Choo, and other places in the 
Pacific, were visited. 

Travels among the Bedouins and WaliA- 
bees. By the late John Lewis Burk- 
HARDT, Esq. 

Travels in various Parts of Pern ; com- 
prising a Year's Residence at Potosi. By 
Edmund Temple. 

Travels in Poland and the Crimea, and 
various Parts of the Turkish Empire. By 
the late James Webster, Esq. of the Inner 
Temple. 

Letters from Nova Scotia ; or. Sketches 
of a Young Country. By Capt. W. Moor- 
som. 

Notes on Hayti, made doriog a R^idence 
in that Republic. By Charles Mackenzie, 
Esq., late Consul-General at Hinrti. 

Four Years Residence In the West Indies. 
By F. W. H. Bayley. 

A New Novel, from the pen of Mr. Ho- 
race Smith, entitled <' Walter Colyton," 
a Tale of the Court 4»f James IL 

The Barony, a Romance. By Miss A. 
M. Porter. 

The Verb of the English I«ogiiage Ex- 
plained. 

Preparing fir PubHcatim. 

Letters on the Phrsicsl History of tihe 
Earth, addressed to Professor BlniDefliheeh. 
By the late J. A. De Luc, F.R.S. Pirofcesor 
of Philosophy and GeolcMty tt Ooftiago. 
Translated horn the Frenco. ^ 

Notices of Braxil in 1828*9. Bjtht Rcr. 
R. Walsh, LL.D. &c 

The three Histories : the History of w 
Enthusiast ; the History of an Enerv^ ; the 
H istory of a Misanthrope. By M aku Javi 
Jewsbuiiy. 

Essay on Superstition ; being an Inquiiy 
Into the Effects of Physical Influence on the 
Mind, In the Production of Dreams, Vbions, 
Ghosts, and other supernatural Appearances. 
By VV. Newnham, Esq. Author of ATribatc 
of Sympathy, &c. 

Oxford English Prize Essays, aow finl 
collected. 

Dr. Lardner intends to devote eight tro* 
lumes of his Cyclopeedla to the Lives of the 
most illustrious literary and scientifio Cha- 
racters, since the Revival of Letters in Sn- 
rope to the present day. Mr. T. MoORB 
is engaged in writing a Life of Petnreh. 
Lives of the most lllostrions Naval Cha- 
racters are to be written by Mr. Southet, 
and the Military ones by the Rev. O. IL 
Gleio. The Bishop of Cloyne contribotee 
to the scientific department. 

A fiunlllar Treatise on Life Aasnnncen mad 
Annuities. By Robert Rankin, Se c iet M y 
to the Bristol Union Fire aad Lift Ii 
Company. 



1H30.] 



Literary Intelligence, 



159 



A dMcriptivt Road-Book for tht Um of 
Travellers la CrennMy. By £. A. Domeiu. 

Ciiropielet of m School-Room ; or, Cha- 
nicicrt ia Youth and Age. By Mrt. S. C* 
Hall. 

Arcaoa of Science attd Register of tho 
useful Arte» for 1830. 

The Livlog Temple, in which Man is con- 
sidered in his true relation to the urrlinary 
Occupations and Pursuits of Life. By the 
Author of ** The Morning and Evening Sa- 
crifice," &c. 

Discourses on the Milleooiom, the Doc- 
trine of Blection, Justification hy Faith, the 
Assurance of Faith, and the Freeness of the 
Gospel, &c. By the Rev. Michael Rut- 
BEL, LL.D. Author of ** A Connection of 
Sacred and Pro&oe History/' &c. 

A Second Series of Stories from the 
History of Scotland. By the Rev. Alexan- 
der Stewart. 

A complete History of the Jews, in An- 
cient and Modern I'imes. By the Rev. 
Georoi Ckoly. 

Cambridge, Feb. 5. 

Dr. Smith's annual prizes of 95/. each to 
the two best proficieois in mathematical and 
natural philusopy, among tlie commeuciog 
Bachelors of Aru, were on Friday last ad- 
judged to Mr. Steventon, of Corpus Chri^i 
College, and Mr. Heaviside, of Sydney Sussex 
College, tlie third and second Wranglers. 

The Norrisian prize fur the year 1899 
was on Monday last adjudged to Wm. Sel- 
wyn. Esq. B A. Fellow of St. John's College, 
for his Essay on the following subject :— 
** The Doctrine of Types, and its influence 
on the Interpretation of the New TeaU* 
ment." 

Lord Byron, Mr.Morray, and Mr. Col- 
burn. 

At a Trade Sale, Feb. 19, at the Albion, 
amongst other things submitted to the 
hammer, were the copy-riffhts of 65 of Lord 
Byron's minor poems. Mr. Hanson, one of 
Lord Byron's executors, and tlie two great 
publishers, Messrs. Murray and Colburn, 
uere present. Upon the lot being put up, 
Mr. Murray was the first biilder at dOO 
pounds : the bidding went on till it amounted 
to the enormous sum of 3,700 guineas, when 
it was knocked down to Mr. Murray. At 
this moment Mr. Colburn claimed the pur- 
chase, and much altercation ensued, when the 
room became in a state o( complete confu- 
sion, the Company conteuding on tlie one hand 
tlutt it was Mr. Murray's, and Mr. Colburn 
on the otlier that It was hie. It was a very 
considerable time before Mr. Colburn could 
get a hearing, when ht submitted tlie case 
to the company : he stated tliat lie had given 
tlie auctMineer unlimited authority to go cm 
bidding till lie desired him to stop, which 
the auctioneer did not deny. Finally, Mr. 
Colburn wrj handsomely gave the puichaee 
up to Mr. Miarray^ whkh informRtioo waa 



received by the company in terms of accla- 
mation { when, afier an hour's altercation, 
the business of the day went on. 

The following is a list of the poems, most 
if not all of which have been already pub- 
lished : 

On leaving Newstead Abb^-« Epitaph on 
a Fried— A Fragment — ^The "Tear — An 
Occasional Prologue — On the Death of Mr. 
Fox — Stanzas to a Lvly with the Poems of 
Camoens— To M.— To Woman^To M. S. 
O. — Song— To «— . — ^To Mary, on re- 
ceiving her Picture — Damsetas— To Marion 
—Oscar of Alva— To the Duke of D.— 
Adrian's Address to his Soul when dying — ' 
Translation — ^Translations, from CatulTos, 
— of the Epitaph on Virgil and Tibullos-— 
from Catullus — fmiuted firom Catolhii — 
Translations firom Anacreon. To his Lyre; 
Ode HI.^FragmenuofSchool Exercises-^ 
Episode of Nisus and Euryalus — ^Translation 
from the Media of Euripides — ^Thoughts 
suggested \y a Colle/;e Examination — ^To 
the EaH of . — Granta, a Medley — 

Lachin y Oair — To Romance — Elegy on 
Newstead Abbey— The Death of Calmer 

and Oria— To E. N. L., Esq.— To .— 

Stanzas — Lines, written beneath an Elm in 
Harrow Church-yard — English Bards and 
Scotch Reviewers — Notes to English Bards 
ami Scotch Reviewers— Waltz : an Apoetro- 

Ehic Hymn — Farewell to Englaod-*To my 
Uughter, on the Morning of her Birth—i 
To Jessy— Son|( to Inez — lAnn to T. 
Moore, Esq. — Ode — Curse of Minerva- 
Lord Byron to his Lady— Lines found in 
the Traveller's Book at Chamouni— Child- 
ish Recollections— To a Lady— «* On this 
Day I complete my Thirty-sixth Year."— • 
Lord Byron's Reply to Lines written by Mr. 
Fitzgerald — Windsor Poetics — Werner- 
Heaven and Earth — Vision of Judgment— 
The Island — Age of Bronze — Deformed 
Transformed^Mortgante Maggiore— Par- 
liamentary Speeches — Eight Poems printed 
in Mr. Hobhouse's Miscellanies. 

The copyright of eleven cantos of Don 
Juan, (V. to XVI.) was the next lot sold, 
which was bought in hy the executors of 
Lord Byron for 3 1 guineas. 



French Drama. 

Katice of Gustavus Adolphus, a Tragedy in 
Five AcUj by Lucien Arnault* 

Historians, poets, orators, et hoe gcimt 
omnCf have made Gostavus Adolphus the 
subject of their lucubrations ; we are not, 
therefore, aatonished, that the event which 
terminated his career has been introduced 
at the Theatre Fran^ais. The Rev. Walter 
Harte, about seventy years since, wrote the 
history of his life ; in which, if he had de- 
voted aa much attention to style and eom- 
iM>si:ion, as he has to profound research, 
le would have produced a master>piece : he 
has, liowever, fulfilled the more imporunt 
branch of his duty as a biographer, and has. 



lOO 



ArnaulVt Tragedy of Guttaoui Adolphiu. 



[Feb. 



in consequence* coosidenble claims upon 
the public gratitude ; at any rate he has the 
approbation of those who can duly appre- 
ciate laborious inquiry, although unaocom- 
panied with the graces of rhetoric, or the 
tinsel of fiction, that essential to the popu- 
larity of a modem work. Mr. Harte s ac- 
count of the death of Gustavus may be 
summed up as follows : — 

On the 39th Oct. 1639, Gustavus took 
leave of his queen, at Grfurt, and set out 
for Naumburg : his rapid advance from Ba- 
varia was unexpected by Walstein, the Im- 
perialist general, who had then detached a 
division under Pappenhoim, to take posses- 
sion of Halle. Gustavus having intercepted 
a letter to an Imperialist officer, ordering him 
to hasten to H*lle» and come on with Pappen- 
lieim to join the main body, he immediately 
decided on attacking Walstein while hit 
forces were scattered. The 5:.h Nov. was 
occupied in advancing ; and by die evening 
of that day, the armies were in presence on 
the plain of Lutxen, separated only by the 
high road from Leipsicy on each side of 
which was a deep ditch. Gustavus passed 
the night in his coach. His intention was 
to attack the enemy before dawn, but a 
thick mist prevented him. He had divine 
service performed early ; and at nine o'clock 
he rode through the lines, and haraneued 
his troops ; he then put himself at the head 
of the right wing, accompanied by the Duke 
of Saxe-Lauenburg, several aicb-de-oarop, 
and a few of his household. When the 
action had commenced, he observed that 
some of the brigades did not advance, like 
the others, to pus the ditch ; he rode up 
and called out to them, to stand firm at least, 
and see their master die. The king's ad- 
dress had the desired effect; he advanced 
against the enemy, and soon received a mor- 
tal wound. Pappenhetm arrived during the 
engagement, but with only a part of his 
^vision : he took his fiivourite post, (tlutt 
opposed to Gustavus,) but while giving 
some orders, he was struck by a falconet 
ball, which caused his death. Piccolomini 
nroained on the field till the last ; he re> 
ceived several wounds, but would not retire ; 
he even attempted to carry off the dead budy 
of Gustavus. 

Lauenburg Is accused of being concerned 
in the king's death. A story is related of a 
personal affront he received from Gustavus, 
and which excited his resentmeut : this 
anecdote may suit a romance, and is thought 
to have had iu origin south of the Alps ; 
se nen e vero, c bm trwato, Riccio {de 
btlUs Germanieis) declares it anUemfabeUam, 
tnuiiercularem deliramtntum. As all who 
%sere near Gustavus peruhed, except Lauen- 
burg, who immediately rode out of the 
batUe, without communicating tlie circum- 
stance to Duke Bernard of Weimar, or the 
Swedish general Kniphauseo, the Swedes to 
this day believe that he gave some signal, 
and WIS thus accessary to the event; but 



whether his motives be founded on a privUe 
injury, or In fanaticism for the Imperial 
cause, cannot at thii distance of time be 
determined. 

To confine a dramatist to historical fiiet 
would be unreasonable, for some latitnda is 
necessary for the play of imagination ; but 
in the present case, the uncertainty which 
attaches to the king's death, justifies the 
introduction of even doubtful cireomstanoea. 
Mr. Arnault represents Lauenburg as smart- 
ing with a recollection of the injury he haa 
received from Gusuvus, who generously 
apologises to him. This maenanimity placet 
the duke in a dilemma, as he has be«i or- 
dered by a secret tribunal (a tort of Fldimjf 
to kill the king. While in a ttate of tnt- 
pense, he is reminded of hit duty by Fre- 
deric, a fanatical student, who ftering the 
duke's irresolution, decides on committing 
the act himself; he advances to the tent 
where Gustavus is asleep, and fiiet at him, 
but without effisct: he is then arretted, tried, 
and condemned. On the trial it appeara, 
that the pistol he had used belon^^ to 
Lauenburg, then presiding ; but the yoong 
enthusiast, in order to serve hit cante, finds 
an excuse, and congratulates himtelfy that 
he leaves behind him cme who la boond to 
attempt the same deed. While Fftdtrie it 
awaiting the order for hit rseeotioii, the 
king enters and givea huB a firee nanioii ; 
which act maket him at eethotittUc in his 
fiivour, as he wat befbie b the enoae of hia 
enemies. 

The next inoident which Mr. Amanh hat 
invented, is the arrival of a depntttioB firott 
Sweden, exhortmg Guttsvnt to pnl en end 
to the war. He decieret bit intention ntber 
to abdicate ; which to movet the deprtke 
that thev cease to oppose hia viewt : the 
young Christina is publicly declared hit tue* 
cesser, and the crown is solemnly phioed on 
her head by her fisther. Publie prayer it 
then made; the signal for engagement b 
given ; and Gustavus is soon after brought 
in mortally wounded, Lauenburg hamng 
given the concerted signal to the enemy. 
The king continues to give orders, Uvet to 
hear the shout of victory, and diet b the 
embraces of his wife and daughter. Afker 
his death Piccolomini it introduced, and 
surrenders his sword to the TonX corpse; 
this anecdote is borrowed from Dugueeemn, 
but though quite unfounded respecting Que* 
tavos, is pernctly consistent with the per- 
sonal respect entertained for him by many of 
his enemies. 

The play is decidedly of the cUtuMd 
school, excepting of course the tnbatitntion 
of a pUUd for a dagger. Without a tingle 
change of acene, the whole tragedy it re- 
presented in a lai^ tout, decorated with the 
Swedish arms. It is true, that bj oaoa 
cionally drawing a curtain in the tant» n 
camp is rendered visible ; but with tiiat en- 
ception, we find the convenationt «Ddhi* 
terviewt of Gustavus, the c o niuha tioni ef 



1830.] jf'^ictni Tattooing. 161 

compinMn, th* trial of aeiiBilul, pnp*- m toba ludcntood. llii being doM, tS« 

niioa bi bit dntti, puUie pimjcn, lad mui out eight otber deep gubcs on th* taft ' 

fiullf Um dntb or Quiutui, elt xikia^ ctiHli i ud [he onJj meui bj which ooa 

pbc* is tlw uid Wnt. The luigwg* u could then Judre of the chlld'i diitrcN wm 

digoifiadwtd bamMioui; muj fin* teiti- bj obHrving ■ luj;s pool of mingled blood 

BMnU tro eabodM i end ic U wnelbiog in and teui on the giound, M bj t eoplou 

fiiour of the ^*o», thit w« nnt Hilh noM ttreim flowing from th* fua <» th< littb 

of thoH Udioua ipMchM in rhymtilmu, inoDcent 

which to tn^atuiij maooj w in r naeh Tb* pnlientt an ionnablj left to blaad 

plaji. Howarai tha ptiDcipal buutiai of till thej btcoma ioKuible ; and death tra- 

ibii tiwdf bear » much raMmbluica to qtMntlj necun in wealilj ouei. After eome 

approred parte tt aarce«rul dnmai, parti- daji. when their itrencth ii in a tnaania 

cularl]' Epiebarii and Marina Falairo, (the Tailored, ib» art pririlegad to b«e in ihn 

frriKjt pitcaa H) BBmed are allnded lo,) that itraiti tit) their woundi coDpletelj btal) 

withoDt pcivlHlj io<nirTin|f the cha^ of and thii doei not uite place oncntimei for 

plagkriia, tba uthor can icaroal; elajm four or Ere monlhi afCtr the opention, lb* 

th* Mrll of origlnalitj. It wu wall n- children, during that loog period, eanjr 

ceitiil at the fint nueMnlation (Ju. 93), iltndtr braschei of tttet in their hiodt, in 

bnt th* Fnnch eriltoi an divided in thaii order to (cat* vnj fliei, which, on alijtbt- 

opbiioat Mpevting it* mtrit. W. S. B. ing upon the laceiated &e<, cauea contider- 

. able pain, ud occaaioo it to ■well prodi- 

AraiCiK TtTTOOIBO. giooilj. Thii imparti to the countenance 

^ExIratUd finm Lamtcr'i Rtcanb 1^ jffiieai " uoiighll]' appearance; one than which 

Ttviaotdiitp. I39-) nolbing can Iw man irulj dliguiliur i and 

The operation of taltnaiag, b* which th* maoT of thete pitiable object* >a obumd 

diSartnt racai in Africa ar* diitinniiehtd in Uie deepeet miierj. waodeilDg thrangti 

fiwn eaeb oihat much nor* aaiilj than 1^ the ilreete of Kaiunga, and other citiet, 

anj natnra] poeqiiaritv in the eolonr of th* and dmoet itarving for want of food* 
akin, or that pncnl ^>pmr*nc*, ii per- Whan a Yaribean perpetratet erer lo trt- 

(ocned bj a ibarp IroD laitruiiwBt, aaDi*- lial a crime, the tattoo mark of hie nation 

what largvr than, but ccnaiDljr agt uulik* it lo croaiad bjr other inciiioni, inflletad 

th* bbd* of a oommoo Engliih ptB-knifa g upon him by the miniiten of Joitica, thit 

•■d ehitdrra gnneralljf, at tb* aga uf iti or it becomai utterly uadiitii^iibabie, and 

•ana jean, nndaigo thit paiuol pnccu, tha imprtnioB of asotbar people ii aubati- 

which iadted cannot b* cDeetwl without tutcd on th* other tide of th* {to* in it* 

potting tb* poor ereatum to aicraciitiog ttead. With thii brand, which can navn 

torture. I law two girli tattooed at Katun- be *ra**d, h< quit* hii natin conntrj, In 

ga. In th* fallowiog manner; Tha haadi whiuh ha wai looked upon ai 

and Knt of each b*ing Gret bonnd, the bead " < A nark tot Seara 

■* h*IJ hj th* blb*r, and th* opcrUor ha- To point hi* ilow oDBoriDg Sugar at," 



gaa hii work bj n*Uag &Te incitioo* ud aad diai 
th* fcr«h*if wfah lb* it 



. . it*ba**d»- known. 

•crib*dt ih* Dttl* (ufftrcr aturlag th* Dio*t Tha mbjiMiMd ir* th* t*ttoo marki of th* 
jii*nili| tiirwim. till tnm boaneo*** th* natitea of the mott eooiiderabl* comitrt** 
VM uaiUt kngtr In '7 aloud, ot ip*Bk loinWeileni and Central Africa. 



9- 



OfVT. Maa. Atrury, I MO. 



E i«« ] 

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. 



[Fi^. 



Society op Antiquaries. 

Jatu 98. Thomas Amjoty Esq. Treasorer, 
in th« Qiair. 

Tht statement of George Constantine 
(noticed in oar last report, p. 6(})) was read 
to the meeting. It relates the particulars of a 
journey he took from Bristol by theAust pas- 
sage to Chepstoir, and so into Wales ; and 
details very nilly the poliUcal discourse he 
had with his clerical companions, the Dean 
of Westbury and his brother, disclosing se- 
veral particulars of historical importance 
relative to the period, which is that when 
Henry the Eignth was contemplating his 
marriage with Anna of Cleve. 

Ftb, 4 and 1 1. Hudson Gumey, Esq. V.P. 
in the Chur. 

An elaborate essay by the Prince of 
Canino (liucien Buonaparte), was received 
through the Earl of Aberdeen, the Pre- 
sident of the Society, to whom it had been 
transmitted (in the form of an Engl'ish 
translation) by Lord Dudley Coutts Stuart 
(who is son-in-law to the Prince) \ and its 
pemsal entirely occupied these two meet- 
ings. It u descriptive of some hypogea of 
Etruscan vases, unexampled in extent, 
which have been recently discovered on the 
Prince's estate at Canino. The first ex- 
cavations were made in 1838; they were 
continued during last year for four months, 
and at one time a hundred labourers were 
employed. Within the space of a rubeo of 
land no less than 8000 vases were ex- 
humed, of which about 900 have inscrip- 
tions. The general execution of the pMnt- 
ings is of admirehle beauty ; and is consi- 
dered by the Prioce to assert the constant 
.superiority of lulian over Greek art. It 
appeara that the site is that of Vitulonia, 
" the seat of Italian grandeur*' before Uie 
foundation of Rome, and which the Prince 
appean to consider had no longer any ex- 
istence afier the foundation of that city. 
Upon this presumption he rests his com- 
putation, that the deposits must have been 
made before that epoch, which, lie proceeds 
to observe, was 400 yeara previous to the 
sere of the perfection of the arts in Greece. 
To maiutain the hypothesis of this greatly 
anterior superiority of Italian art, a long 
series of ingenious arp;uments is employed; 
whilst, to reconcile this opinion (which has 
been entertained only by Buonaroti and 
one or two others) with Winckelman and 
a host of codflicting authr>r8, it is remarked 
that, as a colony of the Pclasgi, the Etrus- 
cans may by some have been termed Greeks, 
without any intention of confounding them 
with the Heileni. It appeared, however, 
to l)e the general opinion of the Members 
of the Society present at the reading, that 



the Prince of Canino has assigned too early 
a date for the formation of these hypogea ; 
in consequence, as it seems, of having dis- 
regarded the probability that the town to 
which they belonged, whether known as 
Vitulonia or under some other name, may 
have existed for a considereble period poste- 
rior to that at which its extinction has been 
dated. Among the inscribed vases,on1y one al- 
ludes to the nameVitulonia ; the city is repre- 
sented upon it as a matron, assisting at a sa- 
crifice to Bacchus. A member of the Socie^ 
showed to his friends a letter he had re- 
ceived from Italy, containing copies of some 
of the inscriptions (none of which, we be- 
lieve, have yet been received firom Lord 
Dudley Stuart ); part of them consist en- 
tirely of Etruscan charactere, (of which 
alphabets may be seen in the " Celtic Dro- 
ids, by Godfrey Higgins, esq.'*^ bnt otbcn, 
of Greek letten, of very perfect and appa- 
rently modern fbrmation. 

On the 1 1 th, Samuel Pront* Esq. «tf Brix- 
ton, (the eminent landscape dniwhtsmui,) 
and William Hoskings, Esq. of ramhral'a 
Inn, architect, were elected Fellofrs ; and 
to the foreien list was added tb« name of 
« M. Louis Francois Petit Radel, Member 
of the Royal Institute of FVaaoty la the elaas 
of the Acmdemy of Inscriptions and Bellea 
Lettres ; a gentleman well versed in the his- 
tory and antiquities of various parts of Eu- 
rope, and who has particularly distln( 



himself by his researches bto the early his- 
tory and antiquities of Greece tad Italy." 

Feh, 18. Wm. Hamilton* Es^ V[P. in 
the chur. 

Edward Orme, Esq. of Fitzroy-sqaare, and 
Austin Cooper, Esq. of Dnbtin, were el«ettd 
Fellows. 

Dr. Ingrem, President of Trinity Collig*, 
Oxford, F. S. A. sent an ateount of sobm 
Norman tiles in the church of Rotbeifield 
Greys, Oxfordshire. 

Croftoo Croker, Esq. F. S. A. oommui- 
eated three interesting letten liv Mr. JaoMS 
Murphy, arcliitect, (author of Tmvels in 
Portugal, &c. see vol. Ixv. p.848), addreiaod 
to his patron, the Right Hon. Wm. Borton 
Conyn^ham, whilst employed in Portugal in 
1 789, m making his elaborete drewinga of 
the church and royal monastery of Pfitalhag 
which have lately (see our last Magazina) 
been presented to the Society by Mr. Qnd- 
ton Croker. 

Mr. Ellis then read ffrom the Cottoniaa 
collection,) arnwmorial of the Levant mer- 
chants to King James the Pint, detailing 
some curions particulan relative to Uie in« 
tereourse maintained at that period between 
this country and Turkey. 



8ao.] 



1 K» 3 



SELECT POETRY. 



MIDSUMMER EVE : 
A Ballad. Bt the Rbv. £. A. Bkat, 

Cf Tavitioek ; from Mrs. Bray't Ronumee <f 

Pitt qfPitz-For<L 
SCARCE stiedf th« Mood, through rollbg 
clotuby 
A fiuDt and flickering light ; 
Looff ha* the wearied viilacer 
Shared the " deep •leep'* of night. 

Slow o'er the eburcb'Tard't looelj p*th 

Young Edward beom hb way* 
Where bodice, from life's caret and toile, 

Rett till the Judgment day. 

YewB, drear as death, in lengthening rows 

Spread a chill gloom aroand ; 
Beneath the verdsnt vault, his steps 

In startling echoes sound. 

The bat in cireles o'er his heed 

On leathern pinion flits. 
What time, 'tis said, the wailing ghost 
His narrow mansion quits. 

With heart undaunted he proceeds 

To where, amid the skies, 
The spire uplifts his haughty head. 

And wind and storm defies. 

He enters now the frowning porch 
That guards the hallowed door ; 

And, seMed on its smooth-worn benehy 
Thns coos his purpose o'er. 

'* Here, till the hour of midnight sounds 

With patient heed I sUy : 
Such is my Emma's fond command. 

And gladly I obey. 

** Long though so ooy, the yielding maid 

Has snuled on my reouest ; 
To-morrow quiu a mother's care* 

And seeks a husband's breast. 

" What Joys were mine, when thus she cried* 

' I know roy Edward 's true : 
My mother and my home 1 '11 leave 

To live and die with jou ! 

** ' By arts, which now 1 blush to own, 

I ofi your love have tried ; 
And, if your courage be as strong. 

Yourself shall now decide. 

** < Midsummer's awful eve is near. 
When they whoee hearts are bold 

May, at the great church-door, 'tis said. 
The train of death behold ! 

« 'There, through the key- hole (snob the 
tole). 

At midnight hour, the eye 
See« those slow pacing through the aisle 

Who in the year shall die. 



" ' Learn whether, theo> the viigia tfiia 

(If you the sight can brave) 
Shall lead me to the nuptial bower. 

Or bear me to the grave. 

<< < For why, short Joy to either heart. 
Should wedlock Join our hands ; 

If death, to pierce each heart the more, 
So soon shall break the bands?'" 

Now through the sacred pile resounde 

The long, last hour of night ; 
To the broad keyhole bends the youth* 

And through it darts his sight. 

Bright through the windows bursts the 
Moon 

And pours her beams around ; 
He hears, re-echoing through the aitlet* 

Slow footsteps tread the ground. 

Instant he sees a numwous train 

Approach in solemn pace i 
A saUe shroud surrounds each limb 

And pale is every face. 

He watcb'd ; and, ere to ailes remote 

The spectres slow withdrew. 
Must, if not ail the ghostiv train* 

Tbe youth with horror knew ! 

Some, doom'd in manhood's prime to frdi i 

Some in the pride of charms ; 
And mothers, with their new-bom babee 

Reposing in their arms ! 

The feeble forms of hoary age 

Pass on with tott'ring kncM : 
A cold sweat bathes bis shudd'ring limbi 

When, lest, himself he -^ • 



Another Edward meets his eye, 

And ends tbe horrid train ! 
Hb breath b stopp'd, hb eyes art fixed, 

Hb bosom throiis with pain. 

His locks are stiffen'd with affright, 
Hb breath distends with sichs. 

Scarce can hb liinbs support nim home-* 
He enters — fidb — and dies ! 



fVrUten far a Lady*i AWvcm^ 

Autograph of the Duke ^fykttingtm. 



TJ17HEN Freedom, half vanqnbhed* 
^^ ybldiug to Fate, 
Whose iMwer, intorpoeing, dark Deetioj 
braved ? 
The darker the tempest, more firm and elate 
Rose Wellington's spirit— -and Europe 

was saved ! 
London^ Fd:, 1 5. H. F. 



t 1«4 1 



[feb. 



HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. 



PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT. 



HousB OP Lords, Fd\ 4. 

The fourth l^ssion of the present Parlim- 
ment was this day opened by Royal Com- 
m'usion } when the iMrd Chancellor delivered 
the following Speeoh : — 

'* My Lwds and Gentlemen, 

*' We are commanded by his Majesty to 
inform you, that his Majesty receives from 
all Foreign Powers the strongest assurances 
of their desire to maintain and cultivate the 
most friendly relations with this country. 
His Majesty has seen with satisfaction that 
the war between Russia and the Ottoman 
Porte has been brought to a conclusion. 
The efforts of his Majestv to accomplish 
the main objects of the Treaty of the 6th 
July, 1837> have been unremitted. His 
Majesty having recently concerted with his 
Allies measures for the pacification and final 
settlement of Greece, trusts that he shall 
be enabled^ at an early period, to communi- 
cate to you the particulars of this arrange- 
ment, with sueh information as may explain 
the course which his Majesty has pursued 
throughout the progress of these important 
transactions. His Majesty laments that he 
is unable to announce to you the prospect 
of a reconciliation between the Prioces of 
the House of Braganza. His Majesty has 
not yet deemed it expedient to re-establish« 
upon their ancient footing, his Majesty's 
diplomatic relations with the kingdom of 
Portugal. But the numerous embarrass- 
ments arising, from the continued interrup- 
tion of these relations increase his Majesty's 
desire to effect the termination of so serious 
an evil. 

» 

** Gentlemen of the House of Commmut 

*' His Majesty has directed the Estimates 
for the current year to he laid before you. 
They have been framed with every attention 
to economy, and it will be satisfactory to you 
to learu, that his Msjesty will be enabled to 
make a considerable Reduction in the amount 
of the Public Expenditure, without impair- 
ing the efficiency of our Naval or Military 
Establishments. We are commanded by his 
Majesty to inform you, that although the 
National Income, during the last year, has 
not attained the full amount at which it had 
been estimated, the diminution is not such 
as to cause any doubt as to the future prm- 
perity of the Revenue. 

** My Lords and Gentlemen, 

*' His Majesty coAimands us to acquaint 
you that his attention has been of late ear- 
nestly directed to various important consi- 
derations connected with improvements in 
the administration of the law. His Majesty 
has directed that measures shall be submitted 



for your Miberttlon, of wKieh aoiM we cal- 
culated, in the opinion of his Maies^, t» 
facilitate and expedite the eonrte of Justic* 
in different parts of the United KingAon, 
and others eppear to be neceeaary prellmiii»- 
ries to a revision of the pmctioe aad pro- 
ceedings of the superior GMRtt. We arm 
commanded to assure you that hit Majcatj 
feels confident that yon will give your best 
attention and assistance to evbtecta of tiieb 
deep and lasting concern to the wcll-bdng 
of Lis people. His Mi^^ commaodi va 
to inform you that the Export io tlic last 
vear of British Produce and Maoulaetarea 
has exceeded that of any fonaer yoar. Hia 
Majesty laments, that, ootwithslMidiBg this 
indication of active commcitCf diitrcee 
should prevail among the AgricolUiral and 
Manufacturing clasees in some parte ai tlio 
United Kingdom. It would be motX grati* 
fying to the paternal feelings of kit Mijettj 
to be enabled to propose for your coneidenr 
tion, measures calculated to remove the dif- 
ficulties of any portion of hb imbjectSy mod 
at the same time compatible with toe geacial 
and permanent interest! of hit pecnw. It 
is from a deep solicitude for thoee intereite 
that his Majesty u hn pr e as ed vHli tlie ne- 
cessity of acting with estreaie eentioit in 
reference to this importanl t«h)eet. Hb 
Maiesty feels assnreil, thai yon wMI eoociir 
with him in assigning due wdgfat to the 
effect of unfitvourable seasosft and to the 
operation of other cause*, which are beyoul 
the reach of Legislative cootmul or renedy. 
Above all, his Majesty is convinced that no 
pressure of temporary difficulty will iod«ee 
vou to relax the deteminatioD which yo« 
have uniformly manifiBsted, to niaintaia in- 
violate the Public Credit, and tboa te a^old 
the hieh Character and the pemieneut l¥el- 
fare of the Country." 

The Duke of Buecleugh moved» and Lord 
Saltoun seconded, the usual Addreta to hb 
Majesty, for his cradous Speech.— fieri 
Stanhope expressed nimself dissatisfied with 
the Speech. He would ask if it conteiaed 
a real and true representation of the ateie 
of the country ? If it was any other sp e e ch 
than that of his Majesty, he would m thai 
a more inapt speech, or one more niU of 
misrepresentation* had never been writtai. 
The Noble Earl, in conclusion, moved ae aa 
amendment — "That this House sees with 
the deepest sorrow and anxiety the aeveri 
distress which prevails in the coontry, and 
will immediately proceed to exaniue ita 
causes with a view to a remedy."— The 
Duke of Richmond could not aopport the 
Address. The Noble Duke dibtedat 



1830.] Proctedingi in the preuai Senion of Parliament 



105 



length npoo th« drc«dfbl1j diftnswd ecmdi- 
tioo of the wool grofTOTt.— £ffrl, Can t armm 
nerer heard such cold-blooded lilhitioiu to 
the dbtretset of e kiogdom as those eos- 
taioed in the epeech that day delivered. The 
Minittere of hit Maiettj had said that the 
dittreuet were hot partial. That he denied 
— they were general. — ^The Dvkt of fFel- 
Ungtan said, that the speech which had 
been deliverad recommended that the die- 
tresses should be inquired into. No man 
could poesiblj feel more than he did upon 
the subject. Thoee dbtreeses he contended 
were owing principally to the badness of the 
seasons* which occasioned an enormous addi- 
tional expense to the agriculturist in parti- 
cular. The Noble Duke then remarked that 
the great introduction of machinery and of 
steam would neoeesarily tend to lessen khnur, 
and to that circumstance it was to which his 
MajeetY*s speech alluded. He was tokl by 
Noble Loffds that there was a de6oiency in 
the circulation. Now, upon looking over 
the retomst be found that there had been 
an increase. After some further discussion 
the House divided, when the numbers were, 
for the original motion, — Contents, 71 ; 
Noo-oontsntSy 9; Majority for the Ad- 
dreesy 0f • 

In the Housi op CoMMOifs, the same 
day, the Eari of Darlington moved the 
Address to his Majesty, which was seconded 
by Mr. fi^ard. — Sir B. KnaiehhUl expressed 
his dissatisfaction at the speech, on many 
accounts, but particulaHy with that part in 
which the national distress was adverted to. 
The Hon. Bart, concluded by moving aa an 
amendment, <* That the d'istress was general 
throughout the country, that it extended in 
some paru to a frightful extent, and that 
the Houee should adopt immediate measures 
to alleviaU it."— The Manfuisof Blandford^ 
Mr. fFntem, Mr. Protheroe^ Mr. O'ConneUf 
Mr. Huskiuont an<) Mr. Brougham, supported 
the Amendment. The ChatuxUor cf the Ex- 
ekequer assured the House that Ministers felt 
as acutely as men could, the distress which 
prevailed, but they were not bound to exag* 
gerate. He believed some parts of the coun- 
try were labouriog under great difficulty, but 
there were other parts of it in which no such 
distress existed.— Mr. Perl thought it would 
be OMire wise to wait until it was known what 
measure was intended to be proposed by 
Government, than for Gentlemen to pledge 
themselves to inquiry, the extent of which 
they could not control. Ministers were de- 
termined through good and bad report to 
pursue what they considered the interests of 
the country. On a (fivision there sppeared, 
— For the Address, 158 — For the Amend- 
ment, 106— Majority, 5a. 

Feb. 5. On Lord Darlington bringing up 
the report to the Address, a long discussion 
eosocd on the distresses of the country. 



The Biarquis qf Blandford moved an amend- 
ment to the eiacty that the lower classes of 
the country had been plunged into abeolute 
misery in consequence of the pressure of 
taxation and the burden of the poor-rate»y 
and that the House, as then constructed, was 
not in a proper Mtuation to act. On a divi" 
sion there appeared, for the amendment, 11; 
against it, 96, 

Housi OP Lords, Feb, 8. 
The Duke qf Montrote brooght up the 
answer of his Majesty to the Address of th« 
House, which was as follows : — <* I thank 
you for Tour loyal and dutiful Address, and I 
rely with just confidence on your zealaoe 
co-operation in all measures calculated !• 
improve the condition of my subjects, and 
to maintain the honor and high eharacter 
of the country." 



In the Housi op Commons, the saaM 
day, Mr. Fed communicated the answer of 
his Majesty to the Address of the HoosCy 
which gave rise to a very lengthened die* 
cussion on the causes of the national distress. 

Mt, Greene moved for leave to bring in a biR 
to enable Rectors and Vicars in England and 
Wales to enter into a composition lot titheew 
The present Bill went to authorise the ap- 
pointment of Commissioners at once, instead 
oS requiring a private Act in every Instance. 
Leave was then giren to bring in the Bill> 
which was read a first time. 

Feb, 9. Mr. Peel moved for the appoint- 
ment of a Committee to inquire into the 
affairs of India, and the trade between Great 
Britab, India, and China. He proposed a 
Committee, not for the purpose of ratifying 
any engagement previously entered into be- 
tween this Government and the East Indies/ 
but that the financial and commercial aAurs 
of India might be revised, according to the 
result of their investigations. — Sir J, Mae- 
donald was glad to hear from a Minister of 
the Crown, that the welfare of the milliona 
under our rule in India was not to be lost 
sight of in the inquiry. — After some discus 
sion, the question was put and carried witb- 
out opposition. 

Mr. Aid, JVaxthman moved for accoonCe 
of the exports and imports of British and 
Colonial produce from 1 793 to 1 880, speci- 
fying the ofiicial and real value, and the 
increase and decrease in each year. He 
suted, that from 1798 to 1814 the rsnl 
▼alue of the exports had always exceeded the 
official value, and the gross amount of the 
excess in those years amounted to the enor- 
mous sum uf 340,000,000/. From 1 8 1 4 to 
1819, the real value b^o to fall below the 
official, but still the official value was conti- 
nued. From 1819 to 1838, the official value 
rose above the real, from 36,000,000/. to 
59,000,0001. The excess of the official 
abdve the real, in those years, amounted to 



166 Proceedingi in the present Session of Parliament. 



80,O00,O00Z. being«differeDoe of 8,000,000/ 
per annum. Under the operation of the pre- 
sent system, our export trade had been fidiing 
off, and it was now less bt eight millions and 
a half than formerly.-— After some remarks 
from different members, the question was 
agreed to. 

Feb. II. The question relative to the 
disfranchisement of East Retford was intro- 
duced by Mr. N, Calvert, and Mr. Tennywn, 
and after some discussion the proposition of 
the former was negatived by a majority of 
1 54 to 55.—^ division also took place on an 
amendment by Lord tiowick, who proposed 
a number of resolutions against brii>ery ge- 
nerally ; it was lost by a majority of 97. 

The Solicitor General, after an alile speech 
on the necessity of effecting various . l^al 
reforms, obtained leave to bring in the fol- 
lowing bills : — a bill to facilitate the pay- 
ment of Debts out of real estatos ; a bill 
to amend the law relating to the property of 
lufantSy Femes covert, and Lunatics ; a bill 
for amending the law relating to Lunatic and 
In&nt Trustees and Mortgagees ; ani a bill 
for amending the law reUtiug to Process of 
Contempt imd Commitments for Contempt 
of the Courts of Eauity. 

On the motion that the House do resolve 
itself into a Committee of Supply, The Mar- 
quis qfBlawlford declared that he would not 
consent to vote one shilling of the public 
money until the question of public distress 
had been considered, and tlie grievances of 
the country redressed. It was of little mo- 
ment to him whether he was called a factious 
person. He should do his duty. — ^The House 
divided, when there appeared, — For going 
into a Committee, 1 09 — Agabst it, 9. 

House or Lords, Feb. 18. 
Lord Holland tote topro|K>s« the following 
resolution respecting the affairs of Greece, 
— ^That there should be no pacification or 
aettlement of Greece, which would not give 
that country an extent of territory sufficient 
to enable her to preserve her independence 
by land and by sea ; and that no government 
should be imposed on b.er which was not 
consistent with the wishes of the people. — 
Tht Earl of Aberdeen entreated the House to 
negative the resolution of the noble Lord, 
as contrary to any proceeding which had ever 
taken place on such subjects.— >The Duke of 
WelUngloH never heard any thing more un- 
parliamentary than the courae proposed by 
the noble Lord ; the object of it was to 
manifest a want of confidence in his Ma- 
jesty's Ministen. Resolution withdrawn. 

In the House of Commons, the same day. 
Sir James Graham^ after expatiating on the 
national distresses, and the depreciated value 
of all commodities, moved the foll(»wiog re- 
solution: — <* lliAt whereus the salaries of 
public officers had Iccu augmented, in con- 



sequence of the depreciation of the cmrencj, 
it was expedtenr, now that the standard waa 
restored, to reduce the salaries of officers to 
what they had been in 1797." — ^By way of 
amendment, a resolution, '< That every •»▼• 
iog ought to be made without the vicilation 
of existioc engagements, and witboat detii* 
ment to the public service," was moved bj 
Mr. Dawson. After several members had apo- 
ken, the amendment was carried by cooseuft. 

Feb.\5. The ChaneeUor of Ike Exchequer 
having moved the order of the day for ibt 
House to resolve itself into a Conunittee of 
Supply y Mr. Hume moved as an aoMiid- 
ment, ** That tlie House will forthwith pro- 
ceed to the repeal and modification of taaee 
to the largest possible extent that the cirili 
military, and naval establlshmenta of tbo 
country will admit, as the means of affonUng 
general relief to the country." — ^The Ckmt' 
cellar of the Exchequer replied; and after 
some observations by Mr. Maberiy^ Mr. 
JVestem, Lord Jllhmrp, Mr. C. fFbod, Mr. 
C. Grant, Lord Howick, Mr. Pedf wed Mr^ 
ffhdehouse, the House divided— For iha mo- 
tion, 69; against it, 184. 

Feb. 1 7. AfUr several petitions had be«i 
presented, Mr. Peel obtained leave to briog 
in aBill to abolish all fees heretofore payable 
bv penons on their acquittal, or other diir 
charge from anv criminal charge. 

The House then went into a Committae 
of Supply, and the fblloviag roolatloiit 
were agreed to without disonsaioB :— Thai a 
sum not exceeding 9,500»00(M. ba giaatod 
to his Majesty to dischaige the liln anoimt 
of supplies granted in the yeaia 1628, 4, ft, 
6, 7» 8, and 9 : — ^A anm aot exceediog 
85,438,800/., to pay off and diacbarga Ex- 
chequer Bills issued in 1889 and 1880 : — ^A 
sum not exceedug 168»8002. to pa| off 
Exchequer Bills issued on aoooont of ad> 
vances for carnring on PaUio Worin and 
Building New Churehea. 

Feb. 1 8. Mr. Peel obtauied leave to brisg 
in a Bill to regulate the appropriation m 
fees payable to officers in the Courta of 
Common Law. 

The Marquis of Blan^fbrd, in a speech of 
great length, brought forward a motion for 
Parliamentary Reform. The Marquis 
recommended the going back to the old 
mode of paying our representatives for their 
labours and loss of time. The representir 
tives of cities and boroughs to have ft2. per 
day, and county memben 4^ He akw re- 
commended a reduction of electioneeripg 
expenses, and proposed a complete chanM 
in the right ot voting, excluding non-rasi* 
dents. The motion, <* That leave be given 
to bring in a Bill to restore the Constitntiooal 
influence of the Commons in the Parliainent 
of England," was eveotoally lost by a oft- 
jority of lOS. 



1830.] 



[ 167 ] 



DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES. 



INTELUGENCE FROM VARIOUS 
FARTS OF THE COUNTRY. 

SHEiirn ton \9S0. 

Beifordth J. T. Davion, of CUpham, esq. 

Berks. — John Walter, of Bear- wood, esq. 
BucJb.— R.W.H. H. Vjsc, Stoke-place, esq. 
Comb, if HunL — J.G3coU,Someribaro, esq. 
Cheshire — G Walmsley, Bcleswurtb-ca. esq. 
Cumberland. — C. Parker, Petterili-gr., esq. 
Cornwall. — Edw. CoUius, of TrothM, esq. 
Derbyshire. — RL.Neirtoo, Boir.bridge,esq. 
DewM.—^. B. Swete, Oxton hoose, esq. 
I>orM<.— John Bond, of Grange, esq. 
£sser.'Capel Cure, of Biakehall, esq. 
Glouces. — D. Ricardo, Gatcombe-park, esq. 
/2rr{/&r(2.— R. Blakemore. of the Leys, esq. 
HerU.—Vi. Hale, King's Walden, esq. 

A'eitl.— Edw. Rice, Dane-court, esq. 
Lancaster. — P. Hesketh, Ro&ll-hall, esq. 

Leicestershirt.-^it G. U. W. Beaumont, of 
Coleorton-faall, bart. 

Lincolnsh. — W. A. Johnson, Wytham, esq. 

Mtanmoulh, — W. Jones, of ClYiha, esq. 

Ni/rJUk—Hon. G J. Milles, North Elmham. 

Northan^onshire. — R. Pack, of Floore, esq. 

Nor thumb. — Sir J.Trevelyan, Wallington, bt. 

Nottingham.-^, Coke, of Mansfield Wood- 
house, eso. 

OxfimL^R, Weyland, Woodeaton, esq. 

/{lifloiMf— J.£agleton,Sottth Luffenham, esq. 

ShrD^hire. — R.Hunt, Boraatton-park, esq. 

Somerset. — J. A. Gordon, Portbury , esq. 

Stafford.—T. Twemlow, Peauwood, esq. 

Southampton. — G. P. Jenroise, of Herriard- 
house, esq. 

Suffolk — J.W.Sheppard, Campsey Ashe, esq. 

Surrev.^S'tr Wn. Geo. Hyltoa Joliffe, of 
Merstham, bart. 

Sussex. — ^Thoe. Sanctoary, of Rusper, esq. 

ffarwick. — E. B. King, Umbertlade, esq. 

JfiUs. — E. W.L. Popbam, of Littleoote- 
park, esq. 

fforcest^ John Sooit, Stourbridge, esq. 

ybrUtrr.— -Hon. £. Petre* Stapleton-park. 

SOUTH WALKS. 

Cardiganskirt.'^T, H. Jones, Noyadd, esq. 
Pfm^/oteAi— A.A. Oower, Kilderweon, esq. 
CsmurftAfii.— R. G. Thomas, Llanon, esq. 
Radmr.'^'R. B. Price, Downfield, esq. 
.Orcoon.— Wm. L. Hopkins, Aberanell, esq. 
GJiamorfon— .W.WiUkms,Aberpergwm,esq. 

MOUTH WALU. 

Angleaeif'-^'V. Williams, of Gleorafon, esq. 
Carnarvon-'^. Wtlliamt, of Bryntirion, esq. 
Merioneth. — J. Puiton, of Llwyngwem, esq. 
Montgomery. '^•H, A. Proctor, Aberhafesp- 

hnll, esq. 
TVttfiigft.— W. Hanroer, of Bodood, e%Q. 
Ftintshire.^Sit U. Brown, Bronwhwylfii, kt. 



A discovery has been made recently, in the 
neighbourhood of IVorcesUr^ which has ex- 
cited a great sensation in that county. A 
murder was committed so finr back as J line, 
1 806, at the village of Oddingley, in Wor- 
cestershire. The victim was the Rev. Mr. 
Parker, Rector of the parish. The reported 
perpetrator of the deed was a man named 
Heming, but at the time he was considered 
only au instrument in the hands of others, 
who formed a combination, in order to take 
away the life of the reverend gentleman, he« 
being on bad terms with some of his pa- 
rishioners. In the afternoon of the 94th 
June, in that year, his assassin was seen in 
the act of shooting him by two butchers 
who happened to be on the road, one of 
whom pursued the murderer, while the other 
went to the assistance of the dying man.— 
The butcher had nearlv overtaken the assas- 
sin, when the villain threatened to shoot his 
pursuer if he followed him a step further ; 
the bttteher, although he relinquished the 
pursuit, had sufficient view of the man t6 
believe him to be a person named Heming, 
a carpenter, of Oddiurley. The inquest had 
returned a verdict of Wilful Murder against 
some person unknown, when the sudden 
disappearance of Heming strengthened the 
suspicion against him, and Ivge rewards 
were offered for his apprehension, but in 
vain. Years rolled on, and the subject com- 
paratively died away. But, contrary to all 
■nticipanon, afier the lapse of upwards of 
three and twenty years, the body of the 
murderer has been discovered. A man who 
was employed to teke down a bam at North- 
erwood, in the parish of Oddingley, found, in 
a comer of the bam which was not flagged, 
a skeleton, on one side of which was a car- 
penter's rule ; and the shoes, tolerably en- 
tire, with some remains of dress, were also 
found. The man who found the skeletos 
was Heming's brother-in-law, and that the 
skeleton was his, both the brother in-law 
and Heming's widow agreed. That the 
wretched murderer had been murdered, there 
could be no doubt ; on the \oh side of hu 
forehead, and in other parte, the skull waa 
fractured ; the blows must have been violent, 
as the skull was broken into more than 
twenty fragments. An inqnest was held upon 
the body, at the Talbot Iun» near Worcester, 
when a number of witnesses were examined!. 
In order that all the circumstances slunild 
undergo the strictest investigation, the in- 
quest was adjourned ; when, in consequence 
of certain fiscte which were elicited, Francis 
Clewes, of Netherwood Farm, was teken 
into custody. Clewes afterwards made a 
confession, which implicated himself, Capt. 



168 



Domestic Occurrences, 



[Feb. 



Evans, Mr. George Banks, Mr. Bamett, 
and a farrier named Taylor, who resided at 
Droitwich, but is now dead, with the mnr- 
jder both of the Rev. Mr. Parker and of 
Heming. The latter was murdered by them 
the day after he had perpetrated the deed 
they had employed him to commit, and bu" 
ried in the barn, where he had concealed 
himself. Clewes, however, denied that he 
was the actual perpetrator of the murder, aU 
though present at the time. Captain Evans 
died in May last, aged 95, and was for many 
years a mt^istrate at Droitwich. He had 
retired from the 89th foot on half pav. — 
Bamett is a farmer of Oddingley. The three 
prisoners have been committed for trial. 

Jan, 29. This morning, Hinchinbrook 
House, near Huntingdon, the seat uf the 
Earl of Sandwich, was destroyed by fire.— 
The mansion was left in charge of a few ser- 
vants ; they happily succeeded in saving 
nearly the whole of the family paintings, va- 
luable library, articles of taste and vertu, 
(many of tkem but recently brought from 
Italy by the Countess of Sandwich,} and a 
considerable part of the furniture ; but the 
fiunily writings, title deeds, and other valua- 
ble papers, tell a prey to the flames. The 
damage is estimated at about 10,000/., and 
the house and furniture were insured in the 
Sun Fire Office. The Earl of Sandwich, who 
is yet a minor, was in London. The Coun- 
ts, his Lordship's mother, and lier daugh- 
ter, Lady (Proline Montagu, are in Italy.— 
Hinchlubrook House was built on the site 
af an old priory founded by William the 
Conqueror, which in 1537 was granted by 
Henry VIII. to Richard Williams, alias 
Cromwell, whose son Sir Henry, styled the 
Golden Knight, erected the fiunily mansion 
here, and In which he had the honour of 
enterUlning Queen Elizabeth, after her vult 
to the University of Cambridge, in 1564. 

Feb. 3. This night a fire broke out in the 
iwnservaiory of Rradlesham House, Suffolk, 
by whicli this splendid mansion was entirely 
destroyed. The conservatory is warmed by 
flues, which pass under the suite of rooms, 
a«d to this circumstance the sad catastrophe 
is to be attributed. Lord and Lady Iten- 
dlesham and &mily were at Paris, and the 
steward and three female servants were (he 
only persons in the house. The damaf^e is 
computed at 100,000t, no part of which 
was insured. 

Feb. 3. This morning, the engine boiler 
at United Hills Mine, in the parish of St. 
Agnes, Cornwall, burst with a tremendous 
explosion. Nine men, a boy, and a girl, 
were in the boiler house at the time, and 
one saan in the engine house. Nine were 
so dreadfully injured by the concussion of 
ateam, scale'* ng water, and blows from the 
atone and bricks,whieh were scattered in every 
<UEection, that they died within a few hoars. 



LONDON AND ITS VICINITY. 

Feb. 10. Judgment was ffiven to the fol- 
lowing effect, in the Court of King's Beneh, 
against Alexander, Marsden, and laaacaon, 
for a series of libela in the Morning Joamal, 
(see Dec. Mag. p. 556). — ^That upon each 
of the three indictments, Mr. Alexander be 
imprisoned in Newgate for four calendar 
months ; and pay a fine of dOOl., and give 
security for his good behaviour for thna 
years. Mr. Isaacson to pay a fine of lOOL 
— Mr. Marsden to give security for his good 
behaviour for three years, himself in 100/., 
and two sureties in 50/. each. Mr. Guteh 
had been previously discharged on his own 
recG^uizances. 

Nlons. Chabert, the « Fire King,** is at 
length discovered to be an impostor. Mr. 
WiS^ley, the editor of the Lancet,had chal- 
lenged him to take prussie acid, to be admi- 
nistered by Mr. W. nimself, which challenge 
he accepted ; but when put to the test he 
positively refused to take it. So enrand 
were the company, that the dethroned ** fin 
King" was oblieed to ran do%m an avea for 
protection, and nide himself. 

Fd;, 12. The Argyll Rooffli, Regent- 
street, were wholly consumed by fire. The 
accident is attributed by aone to tlie heet- 
iog of the Fira-King's oven, and by others 
to preparations for a coooert bj neatbg 
the rooms. 

Feb. 15. In the Court elDekgntesy the 
suit of Free v. Burgoyntf which has so often 
been before the public, Matte on in tfaie shape 
of an appeel, andtheJodMBent of the Archa' 
Court, which directed (hat Dr.' Free sbonld 
be deprived of his Ihrtng et l^^on, in Bed- 
fordshire, forthwith, was co n fir m ed. 

Feb, 16. Between one and tero o*clocl[ 
this mornmg, an alarming fire liroke Ml in 
the English Opera-house, in the Strand. 
— So npid was its progress, that» in a 
very short time, the whole body oif the 
theatre was on fire. One after another 
the houses in Eaeter-street se emed to be 
embraced by the flames, wktU nearly the 
whole side of that street became a b«m)ag 
mass. At about a quarter before four, we 
roof of the theatre, together with tlie liemrj 
beams, fell in with a lood crash. Mr. Ar- 
nold estimates the building itself, inth its 
fittines and properties, tQ.be worth 90/KkiL 
The front of the English OpeimlMNise« m^ 
the Courier office adjoining, in the Stnm4^ 
escaped with little injury. 



THEATRICAL REGISTER. 
King's Thbatu. 

Feb, 18. This house opened for tlw sea- 
son, with Sendrandde and the Ctndoti et 
Femce, The new prima donna, Medemoiielle 
BUsb, sustained the part of j^iwinrwii with 
spirit and propriety. 



1830.] TheaMcal Regitier.'-^Promotioni and PrefermenU, 



169 



DtuRY Lami. 

Feb. 4. A Btw openh fiom the pea of 
Mr. Pl«acli^» entiiled The Natimial Guard, 
or, Pridr tmd No PruU, wm produced, and 
met wtUi decUed tuceeM. Ine mueic aod 
•eenery were dtligtilAil. 

Feb, 99. A new after^pieoey ibuaded on 
the French lUvoliidM, aid adepted from tlie 
Fmach by Mr. Poole, entiUed, Past and 
Pri9mi,mpTktBidimTnasure, wm pro- 
diioed. It wee perleetlj tucceMfuU and eo* 
nwmced lor mpetitioa aaudst uaeoimoue ap* 
pbi 



CovBNT Garden. 

Ftb. 1 . A translatioa of the French roelo- 
drame of ** L'Aaoeau de la Fianc^/' was 
brought forward, under the name of RobeH 
the DeviL It was a miserable prodnotion, 
and UDanimonsly eonderoned. 

Fe6. 8. A piece translated frodi the 
French of « Pierre le Convreur," aliitera- 
tively entitled Teddy theTiler, was acted with 
unboonde<l success. It was replete with 
drollery and nouitte hnmoor. 

Feb. 11. The opera 6f La Gazza LadrOf 
ad«p«ed to tlM Bogllsh ftage, waa auocess- 
inlly preduoed. 



PROMOTIONS AND PttEFERMENTS. 



OazBTTm Promotions. 
Jam, 96. Cba. Goddard, of CUpton, co. 
MiddloMx, eaq. td take the surname of 



#M. 1. 49th Foot» Capt. H. Smidi 
Omond, to bo ilaJor^Brovet, Col. R. 
Hooetom £. L C. to bo Col. in the army. 

Fkb, 9. Tile Right Hon. J. C. Harries, 
to bo Pfoaiioat of tbo Committee of Coun- 
cil far TiUf and Foreiga Plantations. 

Aft. 1 »• Tho Boa. Ceeil Foreater, to be 
oao ol tho Qrooaia of hii Majesty's Bed- 
chamber} vice Mai.-Gen. Hon. H. King. 

J^. 17. Tho Right Hdn. T. Frankknd 
Letfh^ to he Treamrar of the Naty. 



Mhrnbennfunedt^Mrvt in ParUamenU 
C^m ^Tha. Babiagtion MaeauUy, esq. vice 

tko Rigl* iko. JodMe Abercf ombie. 
Amesdk«--ThoRkU Hoa. J. C. Herriee. 
JTa^eilninaii:/! tlaarj Bronghai, eaq. vtet 

Righft Hoa. Goo. Tierney, dec. 
FitilSiMffr fnha Waitl, of Holwood, esq. 

•ice B<ov1aad Stcybeneon, esq 
iMwridk^Ck— Iieat.-Col. Standiah aGrady 

of Cahai«BiUMMi9, vu» Tho Uoyd, esq. 



mu Zeee.— Cha. Bnller, tho younger, of 

Fohrolleay m^ via Chn. Bailer, esq. 
Whtck^m JnhaWiHiama, esq. of Groeve- 
•iee Henry Brooghan, eaq. 



BOCLIMAOTIGAL PrIPERMENTS. 

R^ Rev. Dr. C^, Bp. of £xeter, to be 
1%!. of St. Asaph' 



Ron J^ WallKr, to be a Bishop of the Epia- 
aonl Ckm of Scetlaad, tice Bp. Sandford. 
Ro«^Dlb Cktt^lor, Deaa of Chichester. 



Ror. Dk 9ialtfy, Prob. in Winchester Cath. 
R«r.J. Jflcfcaoa, Pkob. in Brecon Coll. 

CiMKh 

Ron Dr. J. fiall» Ca^a of Christ Ch. Os* 

fcvd^ ascr Pett. 
Rav. VL W. M^ (Pnoeptor to Prince Geo. 

of CamberlMd) Ce«« of Christ Ch. Oaf. 
Roe. J. Boilow, Little Bowden R. co. North- 



Raewfa. & Dt Brott, Broughton R. near 
Blia|. en. Laneoln. 

Qnnr. Mao. Fetmary, 1 430. 

10 



Rer. Jas. Edwards* Newington R. Oxfordsh. 
Rev. W. Farwell, St.IVlartm*s R. near Looe, 

Cornwall. 
Rev. T. Guthrie, Church of Arbirlot, co. 

Forfar. 
Rev. A. B. Haden, Brewood V. StaflBnnlsh. 
Rev. W. Y. C. Hunt, D.D.Tamerton Folliott 

R. Cornwall. 
Rev. J. Heath, Wigmore V. co. Hereford. 
Rer. A. R. Irtine, Ch. at Foss, co. Perth. 
Rev. C. James, EvenTade R. co. Worcester. 
Ror. J. James, Eyton P. C. co. Hereford. 
Rev. J. M'Donald, Ch. of Rannock, Perth. 
Rev. H. Mode, Box V. Wilts. 
Rer. J. Natt, St. Sepulchre's V. London. 
Rot. Ld. C. Paulet, Walton Deiril R. and 

Wellesboortieand Walton VV. co. Wanr. 
Ror. D. Pitcaim, Ch. of N. Ronaldshoy, 

in presbytery of North Isles. 
Ror. R. J. Rose, Hadleigh R. Suffolk. 
Ror. S. P. J. Trist, Verran V. Cornwall. 
Ror. R. Walpole, Beechamwell St. John, 

and Beechamwell St. Mary RR. Norfolk. 
Rer. T. Wangh, Ch. of Deemess, in presby- 
tery of Kirkwall. 
Rer. J. WilKaros, Lbn&ea and Penman 

P. C Wales. 
Rer. E. Bobes, Chaplara to Earl of Buchan. 
Rer. G. W. Straton, Chap, to the Dowager 

Comiteet of Massereene. 

Civil PRtrBRMEMTS. 

Rt. Hon. James Abercrombie, to be Lord 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer, Scotland. 

J. Wm. Jeffcott, M.A. Barrister at Law, 
to be Chief Justice at Sierra Leone. 

C. K. Murray, esq. to he Secretary to 
the new Ecclesiastical Committee. 

Adey Ogle, M.D. FJI.S. of Trinity Col- 
legev Cambridge, to be Clinical Professor. 

Dartd Wilkie, esq. to be principal painter 
in ordinary to his Majesty. 

M. A. Shee, esq. to he President of the 
Royal Academy ; and Mr. Eastlake R.A. 

Ror. W. Cape, to be Head Mast, of Pe- 
terborough Free Gram. School. ^. . r* 

Rer. E. ChurtAu, Head Mas. of HaekAy 
Church of England School. 



[ iro ] 



[Feb. 



BIRTHS. 



Dee, Id. At Wortham Hall, Suffolk, the 
wife of the Rev. Tho. D*£ye Betto, m son 
•ad heir. 

Jan, S8. At Salisbury, the wife of the 
Rev. O. T. Pretyman, Preb. of Winchester 

Cath. a son. 80. At Westhorpe, the 

lady of Sir T. F. Fremantle, Bart. M.P. a 
son and heir. 

Lately, At Holdemess-honse, Park-lane, 
the Marchioness of Londonderry, a dau. 
In St. James's-square, the Baroness de Rut* 

zen, a son.— ^In Fitzwillism-iquare, Dub^ 

lin, the wife of Geo. Hume Macartney, esq. 



of Lissanoure Ca8tle> co. Antrim, a son and 
heir. 

Feb. 3. In Great Surrey-st. the wife of 
John Donkin, esq. of twin daus.——^. At 
Paris, Lady Oakeley, widow of Sir Charles 
Oakeley, Bart, a dau.— 7. At Bath, the 
Lsdy Georgiana G. Ryder, a son. \3. 
At Whitton-park, the seat of her father Sir 
B. Hobhouse, Bart, the G>untess Ranghjasct 

Brancaleone, a dau. 18. In John-street, 

Berkeley-square, the lady of the Hon. 6. 
Talbot, a son and heir. 



MARRIAGES. 



Jan. 5. J. G. Welch, esq. of Broadway, 
CO. Wore, to Anne, dau. of Edw. Blox- 
some, esq. of Dursley.—— James Quilter, 
esq. of Hadley, Midd. and Grav's-inn, to 
Amelia Coweli, dau. of G. C. Julius, esq. 
of Richmond.— 5. Rev. B. R. Perkbs, 
to Sarah, dau. of Mr. Clode, of Bishops- 
gate-st i e ct R ich. Hill Miers, esq. of Ca- 
doxton- lodge, co. Glamorgan, to Eliz. Jane, 
dau. of J. Bonnor, esq. of Bryry Gwalie, 
CO. Denbigh. ■ 6. Hen. Kirk, esq. of 
Clapton, to Martha, dau. of late T. Bird, 

esq. of Bath. 9. At St. Mary's, Mary- 

le-bone, Gea J. Twiss, exq. Cambridge, to 
Laura Maria, dau. of late Money Hill, esq. 

of Waterden, Norfolk. 1 1 . At Waloot, 

near Bath, R.B. Buller, esq. Nether Stowey, 

to Eliz. dau. of late C. Poole, esq. IS. 

J. B. Harris, esq. of Peers-court, co. Gloac. 
to Helen, dau. of W. Moor Adey, esa. of 
Wotton-under-Edge.- la At NewtNit- 
tle Abbey, Mid-Lothian, Col. Sir W. M. 
Gumm, K.C.B. Coldstream Guards, to Eliz. 
Anne, eldest dau. of the Right Hon. Lord 

Robert Kerr. 14. Rev. Rob. Gibson, 

jitn. of Firfield, Essex, to Anne, dau. of Mr. 

W. B. Morgan, St. James's-place. At 

St. Margaret's, Westm. Rich. Bohun, esq. 
Beccles, Ut Jane, dau. of late J. Elam, esq. 

Chesterfield 1 6, At Kensington, Fred. 

son of W. Taylor, esq. of Worcester-park, 
Surrey, to Frances ^Iary, only child of D. 
R. Warrington, esq. of Waddon, same co. 
—18. At East Barnet« T. Crosthwaite, 
esq. of Dolly Mount, co. Diibltn, to Emma, 
dau. of late Rev. Philip Castell Sherard, of 
Glatton, and of Upper-Harley-st.— 19. 
At Carnegie- park, Port Glasgow, Geo. Car- 
ter, esq. to Eliz. dau. of the late James Car- 
negie, esq. of Penang, E. Indies. 93. 

At Brighton, W. H. Covey, esq. of Uck- 
field, Sussex, to Emma, eldiest dau. ; and at 
the same tilne, Liwb Cubitt, esq. to Sophia, 
■cooad dau. .6f 'H. £. Kendal], esq. of Suf- 
Ib)fe4tfnet, P«U MaU. 85. At Sal- 
ly Devon,, ibe Hon. Fred. J. Shore, 
ion of L«rd Teignmouth; to Char- 



lotte Mary, second dau. of the late Geo. 

Cornish, eso. 35. At Louth, J. Tatam 

Banks, esq. M.D. to Susanna, youngest dan. 
of the late Rich. Bellwood, esq. 86. At 
Hutton, the Rev. Cha. Hall, Rector of Ter- 
rington and Routh, to Mary, second dra. of 
R. T. Stainfbrth, esq. 88. At Brighton, 
the Rev. Mr. St. John, to Henrietta Franoeay 
only dau. of the late Maurice Magnth, esq. 
of Dublin. 

LaUly, Sir John PhiUimore, K.C.B., to 
Baroness Katharine Harriet de RaSgersfeld. 
<^— -At Plymouth, James Cottle, esq. to 
Sarah Wilmot, eldest dao. of the late John 
Harrington, esq. of Bathw At Fairfoni, 
Gloucestershire, the Rev. F. W. Rioe, eldest 
son of the Hon. the Dean of Glooceater, to 
Harriet Ives, dau. of the late D. R. Barker, 

esq. At Tuam, Capt. H. Gaeooyne, 84th 

Foot, son of Gen. Gascoyne, M.P. to Elix« 

dau. of Dr. Trench, Abp. of Taam^ 

At Coggeshall, Robert, second son of Chas. 
Barclav, esq. M. P. of Groaveaor-plaee, to 
Rachel, third dau. of Osgood Hanburyy esq. 
of Holfield-granee. ^ 

Feb. 8. At St. Mary's, Mary^le-bone, 
Russell Elliot, esq. Commander RN., son 
of the late Sir W. Eliot, of StoU Castle» 
Roxburghshire, to. Bythia, eldest dau. ti 
Dr. W. Russell, of Gloucester-place, Port- 
man- square. ^8. At Bath, A. MuraSnK, 

esq. to Marg. Eliz. dau. of the Ute Peter 
Sherston, esq# of Stoberry-hill, Someraet. 

9. At St. Margaret a, WestmiBsttr, 

Wm. Heatrell Dowse, esq. of Lincola's iaa« 
to Frances Lesage, dau. of David Claptent 
esq. of Parliament-street.— ^11. At St. 
Mary's, Bryanstoo-square, Capt. Pattoa, 
Iffth Regt. only son of the Ute Adna. Pbt* 
ton, to Rosina, dau. of the late Joieph 
Neild, esq. of Gloucester-plaoe, PortowH 

square. 1 8. At Poplar, R. Rising, Jna. 

esq. barrister, to Miss Parish, eldest dau* of 

Cha. C. Parish, esq. of Blackwal». 16. 

At RulU Park, Essex, Cul. W. C Eostane, 
C. B. to Emma, second dao. of Adok Sir 
Eliab Harvey, G C.B. and M.P. for 



1830.] 



[ ni ] 



OBITUARY. 



The Queen of Portugal. 

Jan, 7. At tbe palace of Queluz, near 
Lisbon, aged 54, her Majesty Carlotta- 
Joacbima, Queen-dowager of Portugal. 

Sbe was born April 25, 1775, tbe 
eldest daughter of King Cbarles tbe 
Fourth of Spain, by Louisa- Maria-Tbe- 
resa. Princess of Parma. Sbe was mar- 
ried Jan. 9t 1790, to tbe late King Jubn 
tbe Sixth of Portugal, who left her bis 
widow March 10, 1826. 

The activity of *« the old Queen " in 
the administration of tbe Guvernment 
of Portugal during many years past, is 
well known. Her character has long 
been highly unpopular in England, and 
her death was announced in the Times 
newspaper in the following terms of un- 
measured censure:— •*' Tbe only fact of 
importance which the Lisbon papers re- 
cord—and it is enough for one arrival- 
is the death of the Queen Dowager of 
Portugal^ the mother and adviser of Don 
Miguel — tbe fanatic plotter against tbe 
peace and freedom of Portugal, and tbe 
unrelenting instigator of general perse- 
cution and violence. Few persons in 
modern times have enjoyed such exten- 
sive means of mischief on so limited a 
stage of action, and none have ever ex- 
ercised them with a more eager instinct 
of crnelty and vengeance. Reflecting in 
her last moments on the distracted con- 
dition of the Portuguese monarchy, 
groaning under usurpation and oppres- 
sion, with its trade destroyed, its in- 
dustry paralysed, and its best subjects in 
dungeons or In exile, she could leaveihe 
world with tbe proud satisfaction that 
its delivery into tbe bands of despotism 
and anarchy was mainly ber own work. 
Though for a long time called * the old 
Queen,' she was nut far advanced in life 
when sbe became tbe victim of ber dis- 
solute habits and ravenous passions. 
Some curious stories are told of tbe 
means employed by the doctors and di- 
vines who surrounded ber death-bed, to 
prolong tbe life of this worthless prin- 
cess. Medical skill confessing defeat, 
they sent from Queluz to Lisbon for a 
little miraculous image called our Lady 
of 'the Rabbit-bole/ to tbe fame and 
wealth of which sbe had so largely con- 
tributed on its first discovery in 1823. 
But this image, which mainly contri- 
buted in that year to overthrow tbe con- 
stitution, and which has since nearly 
filled the Cathedral of Lisbon with vo- 
tive offerings, was found to have no effi- 
cacy against tbe Queen's malady." 



" When, shortly before her dissolution^ 
pressed by one of her confidants to re- 
ceive the last rites of religion, she re- 
plied, < Do you imagine 1 am already at 
my extremity ?* Sbe had previously or- 
dered that Azevedo, ber physician, should 
not be allowed to approach tier any more^ 
for having given at second-hand the 
same advice. A few hours before ber 
deatb she expressed a wish to see pon 
Miguel, who manifested tbe utmost in- 
differefice to tbe situation of his mother. 
Upi)n being told that he had gone out 
with the Marquis de Bellas, she is re- 
ported to have said, < It appears that 
Don Miguel takes more interest in the 
daughter of the Marquif than in me ; 
but he will soon regret the death of his 
mother.' She retained ber faculties and 
self-possession to the last ; in proof of 
which she ordered several letters written 
by Lord Beresford to be brought to her 
and consigned to the flames before her 
eyes. Tbe correspondence of another 
Englishman, under the name of Major 
Dudswell, met with a similar fate."— 
(Contiituiumnel.) 

Tbe family uf which the Queen was 
mother, consisted of at least three sons 
and six daughters :-« 1. Maria-The- 
resa, now widow (from 1812) of the 
Infant Don Pedro Carlos of Spain, first 
cousin to King Ferdinand \ 2. Carlos 
Prince of Beira, who died young; 3. 
.Isabella-Maria, who was the second wife 
of ber uncle. King Ferdinand, and died 
Dec. 26, 1818 { 4. Pedro d'Alcantara, 
now Emperor of Brazil ; 5. Maria-Fran- 
cescina, married in 1816 (on the same 
day as ber sister to his father) to ber 
cousin Don Carlos, tbe heir-apparent 
of Spain, and has several children ; 6. 
Miguel, now King of Portugal ; 7. 
Anna -Joanna- Josephina I 8. Maria- 
Anna ; and 9y an Infanta born Dec. 
13, 1806. We believe it was the 
youngest of these daughters who in 
1828 formed a surreptitious roateh with 
tbe Marquis de Loul^, a nobleman not 
related to Royalty; the newly married 
couple shortly after visited this country^ 
and are now resident in France. 



Hon. John Monckton. 
Jan, 2. At Fineshade Abbey, North- 
amptonsbire, aged 90, tbe Hon. John 
Monckton, a Gentleman of tbe King's 
Privy Chamber, formerly Lieut.-Colouel 
in tbe army, half-great uncle to Lord 
Viscount Gal way, and grandfather of 
the Earl of Harborougb. 



172 



Obituary. — Hon, John Monckton. — Gen, CVmion. [Feb. 



He was born Aii^. 2, nSO, the eldest 
son by tbe second marriage of Jubn, 
tbe first Viscount Galway, witb Jane, 
only daughter of Henry Westenra, of 
Dublin, Esq. and Elinor, daughter of 
Sir Joshua Allen. He served in India, 
under the first Sir- Eyre Coote, and 
brought home the dispatches conveying 
the intelligence of the capture of Pondi- 
cherry, in 1 761. Having attained the 
rank of Lieut. -Colonel, be retired fruni 
tbe ai:roy ; and in 1795 was appointed a 
Gentlemaix of the Kiqg's Privy Chamber. 
Having married tbe sister and heiress of 
the gallant Major Adams, with whom he 
bad served in tbe East Indies, be settled 
at Fineshade Abbey, «%bere be resided 
for sixty years, and died universally re- 
spected and beloved. His wife deceased 
Sept.^O, 1803, leaving issue three daugh- 
ters : 1. Mary-Anne, married in 1796 
to Gen. Sir George Pigot, Bart, and has 
a numerous family ; 2. Jane, deceased; 
3. Eleanor, married in 1791 to Philip, 
fifth and late Earl of Harborougb, and 
died in 180£|> having given birth to tbe 
present Earl and six daughters. 

Col. Munckton'a elder half-brother, 
Robert, was a Lieut.-General in tbe 
army, and second in command to Gen. 
Wolfe at Quebec. He was shot througk 
the body, tbe ball being extraQt«Hl from 
under bis shoulder-blade ; but be reco- 
vered from his wound, and commanded 
the expedition against Martinique, which 
he succeeded iu capturing. General 
Moi^cktun WM afterwards Guvernor of 
Portsn^outh, where there is a fort which 
bears his naraei and wai also Represen- 
tative of that Borough in Parliament. 
He died May 3« 1789. 

Tbe Hon, Henry Moncl^ton, next 
brother to tke gentleman now deceased, 
also recovered from a shot through hi< 
body during tbe American war, but waa 
killed in i^ subsequent action, 

Tbe Hoi». Edward Moackton, the 
youngest brother,, still survives, at tbe 
age of eighty-five; at^l recently, not 
many days before hls< brother's death, 
resigned bis cgmmisiiou as Colonel of 
the Sts^ordsbire regiment of Yeomanry 
<?avalry. He married the Hon. Sophia 
Pigot, daughter of G/sprge, Lord Pigot, 
and first cousin to his brother's son-in- 
law. 

The Hon. Mary Monckton, tbe young- 
est of tbe family, was the second wile 
of the late Earl of Corke (\nd Orrery : 
and al$o survives, in ber eighty-se«oiid 
yeaif, in the enjoymeat of unusuid |ww«n 
both of body anil npAd. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir H. Clinton. 
Dtc. U. Ax bia seat io Hampsiure, 
Lieul.-Geii. Sir Heury CUul9n, (^ C. ^ 



K. M. T., St. G., and W., and Colonel of 
tbe 3d regiment of foot. 

Sir Henry Clinton was the younger 
son of Lieut.-Gen. Sir Henry Clinton, 
K. B. (grandson of Francis, sixth Earl of 
Lincoln) who died in 1795, (sec notices 
of him, Tol« Lxv. 1060,] and brother 
tti Lieut.-Gen. Sir William- Henry Clia<^ 
ton, G.C.3. tbe present Lieut.-Gencral 
qf tbe Ordnance, and Culooel of tbe 
55ib regiment. 

Sir Henry commenced bis nilUaiy ca* 
reer Oct. 10, 1787> at fin&ign ii) tbo 1 lib 
foot, from which he was rBqioYed.to th» 
1 St Guards, March 1 9, 1 799. Fron Oct. 
1788 to Aug. i789» he served in tfa« 
Brunswick Corps, under LicaU-Geun. die 
Riedesel ; and on the 85th of M^rcb, 
1790.joined his regiment, tke IttGu^fdt. 
He received a company in th« l&tb loot 
on the 6th of April following, fron wbkb 
be exchanged into tbe Guard*, Nov. tko 
aoth, 1793. In January, 1793, h« was 
appointed Aid-de-Camp to bit Rcgrai 
Highness the Duke of York, ia wblck 
capacity he served tbe campaigiii of 
1793 and 1794, in the Netherlandtt b« 
was present at the action of St. Amaadj 
battle of Famara, siege of Valeadenpti^ 
action of Lidregbem, battles of WaftUc- 
nies and Maubeuge, aod action of Vuuk 
Qu the 22d of April, I7»4, h» «^ ape 
pointed Major by brevet, and witk that 
rank was at the action of Canphin go 
the IQth of May followuAi^ ip whicsh . 
being wounded, be wa« absent ipom thm 
army to tbe lOih of Anffwit, tilMnbn 
j(»iQed near Breda. 

M^or Qinton next terved ft ^ !!«&• . 
qf Nintegi^en by tbe eneaqy, Ila c«- 
tuffied to England witb tbe Duke of 
York, nnd remained Aid-d^-Cani^ t« bin 
Rvof^ Hicbnesa, qntU pcoesoted tM tjkvn 
LieHt.-Coloneky of the 66tb VfCioWAt* 
Sept. 30. 1795. 

lu tbe following iponth LUut.-CoL 
CUpton proceeded to join that regiaien(t 
in tbe West liuJies. He was preaeot a| 
tbe landing in St. Lucie, under SirEalpk 
Abercromby, an4 at the siege aiid. anr- 
render of Morue Fortune ; after which 
Kp jaiived tbe 66tb, at Port-au-Priace,^ 
in St. Domiugo. Tbe SOib of OeUber, . 
1796, be again exchanged to the let 
Guards, and sailed from St. Domingo tO 
join that Corfi,^ but w«s mn4e pcifpncr 
on tbe passage^ and did not arriire in 
England, entilJune, 1797. He i qg wi d 
witb t^e Gnarda in IreUnd in n9B« and 
in that yjear waa appointed Aidrde-Canip 
to. Lord Cornwajlif, tkn Lord-Lient/toanft 
and Comniander-io-Cbief iu that cemnr 
try, under w^om be aerved tbe short 
camp^gQ in Gonnaugbt, and was pre- 
sent at tbe surrender of tbe French fovcn 
under Gen. Unmbert ai BaUiiiairnirkp 



1830.] 



Obitvaay,— -. 



.-Gm. Sir H. ClmUm. 



tad 



lu Apnl, 1799* Licut.-C«l. CUotoD, 
beiof atucb«l to Lord W. Bcaiiock» 
empluyed od a mittioD to tbo Aiutro- 
RuttUn army io Italy, was pretcot at 
the bat tie off Tr«biaf ticfct of Aiexaa- 
dria and SeraYalle» and at the battia of 
Nuvi; after wbieby being appointed to 
aiiend Marahal SiitirarroTT, on bit march 
into SwitMriand, he euit present at the 
actiuo in forcing the passage of St* 
Got bard : at those of tbeTeufels Briicky 
Kluntbaler See, and Glarus. Early in 

1800, being employed oo a mission to 
the AMttrian army in Swabia, he was 
present at the battles of Engen and 
Mocskirck) and during the retreat from 
the Upper Paouhe to Alt Of ting in Ba- 
varia. At tba end of the campaign he 
Juined his battalion io England ; in June, 

1801, be was appointed Assistant Adju- 
tant-general ill the eastern district; 
and In Jone, 180S» Adjutant-general in 
the Eaat ludict. He received tbe brevet 
off Colonel, Sept. S5» 1803, and in Oct. 
he Joined the army under LorJ Lftke, at 
Agra. He was at the battle of Lasswar- 
ree, on which occasion he was entrusted 
by his Lfordship with tbe command of 
the richt of the army ; be continued to 
serve in Hindostau, until October, 1804, 
and then he resigned the appoiutment 
of AJjutanl-generaL lu Blarob follow- 
ing be sailed from India. 

lu November, 1805, Col. Clinton was 
emplo>ed on a mission to the Ruuiau 
army in lloravia» under Gen.KiUusovv; 
aud at the eeoclusion of the peace be- 
tween Russia aad France* returned to 
Eugland. In July, 1806, he embarked 
fur Sicily, in command of the flank bat- 
talion of the Guards. He commanded 
the garrison of Syracuse from Dec 1806 
to November following, and returned 
with bis battalion to England in Jan. 
1808 i the 85th of which month he was 
apiHAJnted Brigadier-general, and as such 
Commanded a brigade in the armament 
that, sailed undec the late Sir John Moore 
to Sweden. On bis return from tbe Ut- 
ter phK-e, he was appointed Adjutant- 
general to tbe army in Portugal & he 
was present at tbn action of Vimiera, 
and with Sir John Moore during the 
campaign in Spain, and retreat through 
Gallicia, to the embarkation ai Curunna 
io Jan. L809. On his return (rom Spain, 
he publidied a pamphlet, entitled ** A 
Few Remarks eaplanatory of the motives 
which guided tbe opetatioaa ol the liriu 
ith army dujiog Ibo late short campaign 
in Spaiu i** the object of which was to 
justify the rctreaft of Sir John Moore, 
and ** to dear hia repotation from that 
shade, which by some has bcoo caa( 
over it." 

The tttU oC Jan. 1809t Cot Uintoa 



was appointed A4jtttaai general in lie- 
land, and on the S5(h of July, 1810, « 
Mi^or-GeneraL lu 0«t. 1811, he waa 
removed from the Staff of Ireland to 
that of the army noder Lord Wellington 
in Portugal, and was appointed to tbt 
command of the siath division. In June, 
1812, he waa charged with tbe siege off 
the fo^s of Salamanca { and he was pre- 
sent at the battle fought near that city 
on the $Sd of July. When Lord Wel- 
lington marched against Joseph Buona- 
parte at Madrid, Major-General Clinton 
was entrusted with the command of that 
part of tbe army left upon the Douro, to 
observe tbe enemy in that quarter. He 
was present at the siege of the Cutle of 
Burgos, and in the several affairs which 
happened in the retreat from theilce to 
the frontiers of Portugal Mi^or-Gen. 
Clinton received the thanks of Parlia- 
ment for his conduct at the battle of 
Salamanca; on tbe 99ih of Jolv, 1818, 
he was appointed an extra Knight of tho 
Order of tbe Bath, and, on tbe enlarge- 
ment of the Order, nominated a Knight 
Grand Cross. In April, 1813, be was 
appointed a LieQt.-Gen. In Spain and 
Portugal I he was present at the invest- 
ment of Pamplona in July, and at tho 
actions which were fought upon paaslng 
tbe Nivelle in November, and the Nive 
in December of that year. During tbe 
winter be was employed in the blockade 
of Bayonne ; was present at tbe battle 
of Ortbes on the 97th of February, 18I4| 
affair of Cacerea, on the JTd ofMarebj 
affair at Tarbes, rni the 90tb| and at 
the battle of Tontowae, on tbe 1 0th of 
April. Lieut.-Gen. Sir Henry Clinton 
received tbe thanks of Pariiament for 
hia serrkea in these several actions (see 
onr vol. ULXXiv. ii. 70.) 

Sir Henry waa appointed Colonel- 
Commandani of the fimt hattalioii, 60tb 
foot. May SO, 1813; Lieut .-General iw 
the army, June 4, 1814; the same year 
Inspeetor-gcneral of Infantry; and, sub- 
sequently, seoofid in oommaiid in tbe 
Belgian army. He commanded a divi- 
sion of infantry at tbe battle of Water- 
loo ; aud for his coitdwct on that occasto* 
waa appointed Knight of tbe Auocriao 
Ordw of MariarTbereia ; Knight of th» 
Third Qass of the Ruasian Order of St. 
George ; and Knight of the Third Clam 
of the Wilbeim Order,. oC the Kingdom 
of the NctberlaiidK 

He afterwards commanded a. diviaion 
of the British coaiingeut in Fcancei On 
thedtbof August, 1815, he was mmoved 
from the sixth baitalion, 60ih (out, to 
the Colonelty of his Into regiment, tbe 
3d foot i aed on the SOih id May, 1816, 
be again rwceived in> penou %he tlmiikft 
of the House uf Commons. 



174 



Obituauy. — Sir Thomas Lawrence, Prea K. A. 



[F«6; 



Sir Henry Clinton married, Dec. 83, 
17999 Lady Susan Charteris, sister to 
the present Earl of Weroyss, and to the 
Countess of Stamford and Warrington. 
Her Ladyship died without issue, Aug^. 
17, 1816. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence, Prbs. R. A. 

Jan. 14. At his house in Russell- 
square, aged 60, Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
Knt. President of the Royal Academy, 
Principal Portrait-Painter to his Ma- 
jesty, LL.D. Fits, and Knight of the 
Legion of Honour. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence was born at 
Bristol, April 13, 1769. His father, 
Thomas, who had been a Supervisor of 
Excise, took possession of the White 
Lion Inn, in Broad'Street, on the 3d 
of June following Sir Thomas's birth.* 
Mr. Lawrence in person was tall and 
rotund ; and to the last wore a large 
bushy wig and a cocked hat. His 
manners were mild and pleasing, and 
his countenance blooming and grace- 
ful. He made some pretensions to 
literary taste, and was fond of reciting 
poetry, particularly passages from Shak- 
speare and Milton. In some satiric lines, 
by Chatterton, entitled '* The Defence," 
be is lashed as an admirer of one of the 
contemporary versifiers of the boy-bard, 
whose resplendent genius was undistin- 
guished through the Bceotian fogs that 
then enYcloped his native city— > 

** Say, can the satirising pen of Shears 
Exalt his name, or mutilate bis ears ? 
None but a Lawrence can adorn bis 
lays, [praise." 

Who in a quart of claret drinks his 

Sir Thos. Lawrence's mother was the 
daughter of a clergyman, the incumbent 
of Tetbury in Gloucestershire ; and Sir 
Thomas had two brothers and two sis- 
ters. His elder brother, the Rev. Andrew 
Lawrence, was Chaplain of Haslar Hos- 
pital, and his brother William a Major 
in the Army; both have been dead some 
years. His elder sister, Lucy, was mar- 
ried in March, 1800, to Mr. Meredith, 
solicitor, of Birmingham. She died in 
February, 1813* leaving one daughter, 
married to Mr. John Aston, of St. Paul's- 



* As Mr. Lawrence became an inha- 
bitant of the parish of Christ Church at 
so near a period to Sir Thomas's birth, 
the registers have been searched for an 
entry of his baptism, but it is not to 
be found in it. The register con- 
tains entries of the baptism of Littleton 
Colston, son of Thomas and Lucy Law- 
rence, on the 18th of Dec. 1770, and of 
their daughter Frances, on the 10th of 
Dec. 177«» 



square, in Birmingham. His jomiger 
sister, Anne, married the Rev. Dr. BIok- 
am, of Rugby, and they have six aooa 
and three daughters living. 

We will nuw quote from Mr. Barring- 
ton's Miscellanies, (which were printtti 
in 1781,) a passage In whieb be noticct 
the future President. After speakinf^ of 
the early musical talent exhibited by the 
Earl of Momington, be prueeedt,*-^' As 
I have mentioned so many other proofs 
of early genius in children, I eannot bers 
pass unnoticed Master Lawrence, tun of 
an innkeeper at the Devises in WUtshlrs 
[whither his father had tlien reoMvcd 
from Bristol.] This boy is now (vis. Fobw 
1780) nearly ten years and a nislf oMi 
but at the age of nine, witlwat tlie OMSt 
distant instruction from any one, be was 
capable of copying historical piotores in 
a masterly style, and also soc ce o d od 
amasingly in compositions of his own, 
particularly that of Peter denying Christ* 
In about seven minutes he scarcely ever 
failed of drawing a strong likeness of 
any person present, which bed generally 
much freedom and grace, if the sali)eel 
permitted. He is likewise an exoelleoc 
reader of blank verse, and will imnw- 
diately convince any one that be both 
understands and feels the striking pas- 
sages of Milton and Shakspeare.** This 
last talent it is probable the boy Is- 
bibed from his parent : Sir TbomM 
Lawrence was always dktingolslied for 
skill, taste, and feeling In recitation. 

Failing in business at Devises Mr« 
Lawrence returned to Batb, where Im 
took a private residence in Alfred-street, 
and for some time owed bis own sop- 
port and that of his family to the talewls 
and industry of his son Tbonutt, tbea 
111 bis boyhood. 

Without favouring cireomstanoss, 
therefore, it may well be ateribed to In- 
nate genius (hat young Lawrence at a 
very early period of life manifested a de- 
cided talent for the fine arts, and parti- 
cularly for portraiture. His predilee- 
tiuns and abilities in this pursuit led to 
his being placed as a pupil under tbe 
care of Mr. Huare of Bath, the father of 
the much-esteemed Mr. Prince Hoare, 
and a crayon-painter of exquisite taste, 
fancy, and feeling. Under such a mas- ' 
ter, it is not surprising that Lawrenee 
should acquire those qualities of gracey 
elegance, and spirit, which rendered 
him so truly the artist of patrician dig*- 
nity and loveliness. At first he exccotml 
crayon likenesses in the manner of bis 
instructor; and two of these portraits 
have been seen of ladies in red faekets* 
with hats and feathers, the then un- 
sightly costume of the fashionable of 
Bath, for which he was paid Urn skUim^ 



1830.] Obituary. — Sir Thonuu Lawrence, Prt».R,A. 



175 



and tixpimie each ; yet in ibeir AnUh 
tbey pmrtftke of the extreme delicacy of 
hti latest productions. 

The Hod. John Hamilton^ a member 
of the Abercorn family, wbo resided on 
Lansdown-biil, contributed greatly to- 
wards tbe cultivation of tbe young 
artist*s talents, as well by pecuniary en- 
couragement, as by affording bim access 
to some rery fine scriptural pieces, tbe 
production of tbe old masters, in bis 
possession. Anotber of bis early patrons 
was Sir Henry Harpur, a Derbysbire 
baronet of fortune and liberality, wbo 
even went so far as to offer to send tbe 
lad to Italy at bis own expenie, and de- 
dicate \000L to tbat purposes but tbe 
proposal was declined by tbe fatber 
(wbo was naturally very proud of bis 
son), on tbe alleged ground tbat <*Tbo- 
mas's genius stood in need of no such 
aid." Personal motives of a less disin- 
terested nature might, it is to be feared, 
have bad their share in producing this 
decision ; his son*s pencil being, as we 
have already seen, at that period tbe 
main prop of the whole family. 

But tbe most remarkable incident in 
tbe life of young Lawrence during bit 
residence at Batb, was bis receiving the 
great silver pallet from tbe Society of 
Arts— an event of which be spoke at a 
recent anniversary of tbat Society in 
terms of the warmest gratitude, ascrib- 
ing to this encouragement and honour 
much of tbat enthusiastic feeling and 
luve of his art which bad raised bim to 
his eminent station. As the documents 
respecting this transaction are very in- 
teresting, we copy them from the pro- 
reedings of the Society. Tbe first entry 
appears under the date of March 9t 1784, 
and is as follows :— •* Resolved, Tbat, as 
the drawing marked G appears, by a 
date upon it, to have been executed in 
tbe jrear 1789, it cannot » according to 
tbe ctinditions, page 197, be admitted a 
candidate.*' 

In consequence of this difficulty, it 
appears that inquiries had been iiisfi- 
tuted : and on tbe 30th of March we 
find the annexed record : — ''Took into 
consideration the drawings of tbe Trans- 
figuration marked G, and opened tbe 
paper containing the name of tbe can- 
didate, according to the directions of 
tbe Society, and it appeared to tbe Com- 
mittee that the candidate was T. Lsw- 
rence, aged 13, 1783, in Alfred-street, 
Bath. — The Committee having received 
satisfactory information that the pro- 
duction is entirely the work of tbe 
young man ; Resolved,— To recommend 
to tbe Society to give the greater silver 
pallet gilt, and five guineas, to Mr. T. 

Lawreuce, as a token of the Society's 

approbation of hit abilitiet." 



Tbe grant of five guineas was a very 
uncommon thing at this period of the 
Society^s history, and shows how highly 
Lawrence's performance — the Transfi- 
guration of Raphael, in crayons— was 
appreciated by bis judges; one of whom, 
the Chairman of tbe Committee, was 
Valentine Green, the celebrated engra- 
ver. Mrs. Cocking, tbe well-informed 
housekeeper of this institution, remem- 
bers tbe occasion perfectly, and tbat ber 
mother, as every body else, was much 
struck by tbe extraordinary beauty of 
tbe young artist, whose light hair hung 
in profusion around bis fresh and charm- 
ing countenance. 

Before Sir Thomas had attained bit 
teventeenth year, tbe family removed 
from Bath to London i and In these 
days tbe fatber used to sell pencil 
sketches and portraits, the early draw- 
ings of his son, for half a guinea eacht 
many of which have since been re-pur- 
chased by him, at a high price. Sir 
Thomas, during his obscurity, and want 
of eroploymeut as an artist, lived much 
on what is called " the Town," and im- 
proved himself in the aceomplishmenta 
requisite to form the gentleman and the 
man of fashion. He was a scientific and 
successful billiard player} but one of 
bis friends expretted regret that be 
should have become celebrated for hit 
skill at the game, and be relinquished 
it altogether. He plaved the violin 
admirably, and danced with infinite 
grace. He recited poetry, and de- 
claimed with taste and discrimiiui- 
tion. His performances in the private 
theatricals at tbe late Marquis of Aber- 
corn's, at Stanmore, evinced to much 
dramatic skill and knowledge of stage- 
effect, as mtitt have insured to him pre- 
eminence, had he adopted the stage at 
a profettion. He wat once to have 
married a young lady of great beauty 
and aceomplitbmentt, the daughter of 
Mrs. Siddons t but at tbat period hit 
own income was extremely limited, and 
tbe father of tbe lady, wbo was then 
living, refused bis consent. He subse- 
quently ever remained single; but tbe 
noblest efforts of his art have been ex- 
erted in perpetuating various real and 
historical resemblances of tbe different 
brancbet of tbit family ; and it is re- 
markable that his last work wat a 
sketch of Miss Fanny Kemble. Thn 
object of bit addrestet died of a pul- 
monary complaint many yeart ago. 

Lawrence's first appearance as an ex- 
hibitor at Somerset-House was in 1787, 
(when six hundred and sixty-six pictures, 
dec formed the collection) ; here we find 
T. Lawrence, at No. 4, Leicetter-iquarey 
with teven product iont, one a portrait 



1J6 



Obitvakt.— Sir Tkomag Lawrence, Free. R. J. 



pWi. 



of Mrs. Est en, In tbe ebsncter of BelTi- 
dera, four other poftmitt of ladles, a 
Vestal Vir^ii, and a Mad Girl. Next 
year the arthrt resided in Jermyn-street, 
and sent six or his performances, all por* 
traits. In 1789 he exhibited no fewer 
than thirteen pieees, and was evidently 
advancing rapidly in his profession, as 
three of the portraits are " ladies of qua- 
lity,** besides his Royal Highness the 
Duke of York. In 1790, among twelve 

£ietures, occur tbe Princess Amelia, her 
lajesty, a Nobleman's Son, a General 
Officer, and a Celebrated Actress. The 
last was Miss Farren, whose beaatifal 
whole-length was hung as a pendant to 
the eelebratedf one of Mrs. Billington, as 
8t. Cecilia, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. In 
1791, Lawrence's address was S4, Old 
Bond^treet ; and Homer reciting his 
PoeBM is the first subject we find with 
bis name. In the next Catalogue the 
prusperous record runs, ** Thomas Law- 
rence, a Prindpal Painter in Ordinary 
to His Majesty ;*' and his chief pictures 
are, a Lady of Fashion as Barbarossa, 
aad a portrait of the King. He subse- 
«[ucntiy nu^ddhf several years in Greek- 
street, Soho, wbese we hare understood 
WiMtall occupied part of the same house. 

The peaee of 18*14 was an auspicious 
ssTCi for Lawrence. He received a mag^ 
niftcent commission from hie royal pa- 
tron, tbe Xing', to paint the Allied So- 
vereigna, their miaisters, and the most 
•Kalted p»rsonagea off Europe, inrloding 
the Pope, Metternieb, Blucher, Platoff, 
Cardinal Gonsal¥i, Ac. For this purpose 
be visited Paris, Vienna, Rome^ and the 
other principal cities of the continent. 
He iwceived tbe bonoiir of knighthood, 
April «0^ 1815. 

On- the death of Mr. West In 18S0, Sir 
Thomas Lawrenoe was elected to the 
President's chair, in tbe Rojral Academy. 
Hto was then at Rome, employed* on his 
portrait of rhe Pope, but be speedily re^ 
turned to: England. In his high and 
honourable office, hie elegance and sua- 
vity of manner, united with a strong 
impression of bis general benevolence 
and liberality, rendered him eminently 
popular. His lavt public duty at the Aca- 
demy was tbe delivery of the biennial 
medals about a month before bis decease 
(see our December Magaxine, p. 544), 
when the ailbctlonate eloquence of bit 
address waa such at will never be forw 
gotten by tbe students. Two or three 
of bia similar addresses have been print- 
ed, but only for private distribution. 

In 1886 Sir Thomas Lawrence paid 
another visit to Paris, for tbe purpose 
of painting Cbarlee X. and was reward- 
ed with the croM of the Legion of 
Honour. The acceptance of foreign ho- 



nours is generally denied to Brftfslr tirb* 
jects by tne English government eseept 
for military services. A few etceptiont 
are to be found undier peculiar eiream- 
stancrs, and the case of the late Presi- 
dent is one. 

His death was unexpected, occurring 
after a slight illness of five days. On 
the previous Saturday be dined, in com- 
pany with Mr. Witkie, Mr. Jackson, and 
some other artists, at tbe bouse of Mr. 
Secretary Peel. On Sunday he ftrtt 
complained of pain fn the neck and 
lower part of the face. From that dny 
till Tuesday his malady seemed to In- 
crease and remit at intenralt, and mwM 
considered Inflammation in tbe boarelt. 

So late as tbe Tuesday bt was bosl^ 
employed in the Committee of the Atb^ 
nsBum, making arrangements Ibr the 
opening of the new botttCy where be .was 
paniculariy animated on tbe subject of 
internal decoration, and took a great 
interest in pfucuring works of art to 
adorn the interior. He had hinuelf pro- 
mised to paint and pivsent a portrait of 
His Mi^esty, to be placed in tna library t 
but tbe accomplishment of tbif pmiaiae 
was unhappily prevented by hit d^tb. 
He was also at Messra. Conttt, the ban- 
kers; and the subject of conv e rsation 
now remembered, was that of an exqui- 
sitely written letter of condolence went 
by him to one of the partnen, on the 
decease of bis daughter. On tbe evening 
of the same day„ Mn.Octley, the wife 
of tbe distinguished writer on the Fine 
Arts, and a part of her young fVimily, 
spent the evening with bhn, when be 
appeared cbeerM. On Wednesday even- 
ing he was worse, and Dr. Holland was 
called in, who immediately saw tbe dan- 
ger of hie patient, with whom he sat op 
all night: be was relieved and better 
during Thursday, so that towanll even- 
ing he received two other old frlendi, 
one of whom read to him, at bis own 
request, an article in the New Monthly 
Magazine, in answer to tome obser- 
vations in the Edinburgh Review on 
the life of Flaxman. They had re- 
tired, perhaps to take tea in anotber 
room, when they were suddenly alarm- 
ed by cries fbr anistance : they were 
those of Sir Thomas's servant, bat 
when they reached the spot whidl 
they had so recently quitted, his nMster 
had ceased to breathe. An examination 
made by Mr. Green, in the presence of 
Dr. Holland and Mr. Foster Reeve, as- 
certains death to have ensued from an 
extensive and complieated ossification of 
the vessels of tbe heart. 

Thus died the most distingulslied 
painter of the day in one branch of tbe 
art, that of portrait-painting; In this 



1830] Obituary.— Sir Thomai Lawretue, Pret. ILJ. 



117 



he wmi cf rtainly without a rival ; and 
bit reputation and torcMt were not hi- 
ooinmeniurate with hit merit. He wai 
called on lo paint all the rminent cha- 
racter* of bit daj, whether dittini^uithed 
by personal attractions at beaut iet, hv 
rank or ttation, or by tatenti which 
were likely to render their lirinjf linea- 
wientt objecii of curiosity with posterity. 
The charaet eristics of hit style were 
brilliancy of colour, and a delicate mode 
vf conveyinf a faithful resemblance, with 
an eaquititely beautiful sense of grace 
and effect. This perception of beauty 
and grace was combined with a strung 
sense of individualitv of character — and 
nrely, indeed^ did he fail, whilst con- 
eeyinf the oMst accurate resembUnce, 
to iflnpart also ioine of those graces, 
umted with iboee iflB|ifovements which 
aprin^ from a mind having the perfect 
tion of art always present to his recol- 
lection. No painter who ever lived 
aaemed to dive deeper into individual 
character, as conveyed by the conform* 
Ation of the ritage, and the expression 
of the features by the motion of the lips 
and eyes I and none knew more skilfully 
bow to avail himteU of the changeful 
appearances which they betrayed in those 
convertationt which were dexleroutly 
introduced during thesittinf;, and which 
destroyed or relaxed a rigidity of muscle 
assumed on tuch occatiunt, and which 
frequently bafllet the utmost ingenuity 
of the artist. 

His portraits in the last eshibition 
were the fulk>wing:^The Duke of Cla- 
rence ; Duchess of Richmond ; Marchio- 
iictt of Salisbury; Lord Durham ; Miss 
'Macdonaltl } Mrs. Locke, son.; John 
Soanc, Esq.; and Robert Southcy, Esq. 
At the perio<l of hii dcmiie he wat en- 
gaged on many .interesting personnge^; 
among others, Sir George Murray, M.P. 
for the county of Prrth ; and the follow- 
ing engravings from hi« works were pub- 
litbedlduring the latt tucUe months;— 
the King, whole length, in linCf by 
H. Findcn, (18 liy 27] ; ditto, mcizo- 
tinto, by T. Hodgctit (««im«t tizt); hy 
R. L^nc, in htbography (19 by 16); 
Pope Pius VII., whole length, roczso- 
tinto, by S. Cousins (?0 by 31); Lord 
LyneJocb, whole length, mczz. by T. 
Hod^etts (17 by 98) ; Mr. Canning, 
whole length, by C. Turner (16 by 96) ; 
Earl Grey, and tue Right Hon. John 
Wilson Croker, both roezf . by S. (Ton- 
sin< (11 by 16) ; two daughters of C. B. 
Calmady, Esq. under tlie title Nature, 
in line, 1^ G. T. Doo (14 hy Mi) ; Eliza- 
beih Duchess of Devonshire (19 by 14); 
Mist Bkntam, a study (II by 14), in 
chalk, by F. C. Lewi* ; and, finally» Miss 

Gent. Mao. FHruary, 1830. 

11 



Fanny Kerohle, in lithography, by R. 
Lane. In theprogreuof this latt dratt- 
ing the Pretident took great interest, 
and Mr. Lane worked on it for several 
days at Sir Thomas's house, and under 
his eye, frequent touches and improve- 
ments lieing added by him, and at his 
suggestion. This beautiful print may, 
therefore, be considered as affording a 
specimen of a master-band applied u|»on 
a material hitherto strange to him. Had 
he lived, the world wouhl probably have 
been dt4ighted with a drawing on stone 
entirely of his own production. As it 
it, the print will lierome additionally 
vaUiable, from the circumstances under 
which it appeared. We are happy to 
announce that the same excellent litho- 
graphic artist hat Just completed a simi- 
lar print of Sir Thomas, from a drawing 
by himself. 

But the late President was ambi- 
tious of the still higher honours of his 
art ; and if we recall to memory the evi- 
dence which he gave to the Committee 
of the House of Commoiit, t<iurhing the 
Elgin marbles, we shall find that he 
ardently aspired to the glory of an his- 
torical painter, though the calls of an 
inferior branch held him bound in tram- 
mels through which he could not break. 
Some of his early copies and designs 
have before been noticed ; and it is 
stated that his attention had lung been 
engaged in a grand composition from 
Milton. 

« The President has left many pictures 
nnliniihed, which throw much into the 
hands of his survivors. Hit prices were 
very high — 600/. f jr a whole length, of 
which a moiety was paid at the Artt 
sitting. Among hit latest portraits thus 
painted, is one of Moore, for Mr. Mur- 
ray. But, with all his immense re- 
ceipts, it is understood that SirT. Law- 
rence has, from early incumbrances and 
a profuse expenditure, which dilBrulties 
always aggravate, died puor. His will baa 
not \«t been proved ; but we understand, 
that, in pursuance of iis directions, the 
invaluable collection nf drawings hy 
Michael Angelo, Raphael, Rul>ens, Rem- 
brandt, Leonardo da Vinci, Guidu, and 
the other old masteri, which .cost the 
President upwards of thirty-seven thou- 
sand poundt, is to be offered to the Ring 
and, in case of refusal, to some other 
patrons of art and public iusiitutions, at 
ld,000il The pictures, thirty -three 
or thirty-four in number, painted hy Sir 
•Thomas for the Waterloo Gallery, at 
WiiuUor Castle, have been removed to 
their dettinatiun. Mr. Peel pOfctestes, 
from his luind, all the portraits of his 
colleagues excepting that of the Lord 



17« 



Obituaat.— Sir Thamaa Lawreuce, Prei, R. J. 



XFeb. 



Chancellor, who had agrted to lit a few 
^ayt before the fatal attack came on. 

The King it said to have i^nted per- 
mission to the family, pablicly to ex- 
hibit, for their exclusive benefit, all the 
-portraits painted on the continent, by 
Royal command, for the Kinf^. His 
•Majesty has likewise granted permission 
to engrave these works, and in conse- 
fftienee uf this gracious signification, the 
relatives announce, «they are making 
arrangements for the immediate publi- 
cation of a series of engravings of the 
most distinguished characters, from the 
works of the late President." 

No portrait of Sir Thomas himself had 
previously to his death been published ; 
except that his figure, with those of his 
two brothers and his sister, exists in a 
well-known series of prints, after West- 
all, illustrative of the ceremonies of the 
Thurch. About three years ago, be told 
Mr. Acraman, of Bristol, that he never 
painted a portrait of himself but once ; 
although he intended to do it, and to 
present it to his native city. " But," 
said he, ** should I fail to do so, and yon 
can find out the portrait that I painted 
of Curran, the barrister, one of m3rself 
might he found under it." This por- 
trait of Curran is in the possession of 
the Rev. John Taylor, of Clifton. In a 
letter to J. S. HarfonI, E^q., written 
about two years since. Sir Thomas ex- 
pressed his Intention of presenting his 
portrait, through him, to the Bristol 
Institution. The same intention is also 
mentioned in letters to Mr. Acraman, 
at whose request, his friend, G. Moranty 
Esq. recently called on Sir Thomas to 
inquire if the portrait was likely to be 
finished in time for the Bristol exhibi- 
tion in the present year. Sir Thomas 
showed that gentleman the portrait in 
a very forward state, and said, it was 
his intention shortly to finish it and send 
it to Bristol ; at the same time be apo- 
logised for the delay that had occurred 
in the fulfilment of this intention. 

Tbe Monday in the week following 
that in which he died, had been ap- 
pointed by Sir Thomas, to sit for a bust 
to his friend and fellow-townsman, Ed- 
ward H. Baily, Esq. R. A. Under this 
circumstance Mr. Baily was allowed to 
take a cast of the President's face after 
death ) the same privilege being granted 
to one other person only — Mr. Chant cry. 
Mr. Baily intends to proceed immediately 
with bis bust, as well as with a model 
for a medal, to be engraved by Mr.Scipio 
Clint, the medallist to the King. One 
of the first copies of the bust is intended 
by Mr. Baily to grace the siatuary-room 
of the Bristol Institution, and thus fulfil 
what is known to have been one of tbe 



President's wishes. We will not leave 
tbe subject of Lawrence's birth-plaee 
without inserting one of his letters tethe 
above named Mr. Acraman, which hw^ 
been recently published. From tbe n. 
spect entertained in tbe placo of bis 
birth for Sir Thomas's character* as 
well as for his talents, he was preseotcd 
.wiih the freedom of the city in the 
spring of last year, at the same time 
that a similar compliment was paid to 
Lord Eldon. Tbe folk>wiiig is bis reply 
to the communication. 

<< RuiteH-^ifumr^, Jjprii 9, 1899. 
<' Mv DEAR Sir, 

'* Your kind assurance now con- 
firms to me, that I have received from 
my native city the very highest honour 
(the protection of Majesty eicepted) 
that could have rewarded my piofet- 
-sional exertions ; I beg 3^00 to expren 
to those of your friends who, with your- 
self , have generously assisted in -pro- 
curing it, (be sincere gratitodeand re- 
spect with which it has impte s ged me, 
and the attachment it has strengthened 
to the pktet of my Hrthf as weH as the 
seal with whidi I shall attempt- to for- 
ward any measure conducive to its I10- 
nour, and the improrement of Its leAned 
establishments. 

*' I shall gladly take advantage of 
your offer for tbe exhibition of my two 
other pictures. 

** Pardon some baste in which I write, 
and believe me to remain whli tbe high- 
est esteem, My dear Sir, yoor very faith- 
ful servant, Thos. Lawrincb." 
•*Td D,^. Acraman^ Esq. Brittti.** 

In another letter, very recently re- 
ceived at Bristol, by Mr. John Hare^Jun. 
Sir Thomas, in enclosing a donation 
for tbe Anchor Society, expressed him- 
self warmly interested in the welfaie 
of his native city. He was elected an 
Honorary Member of the Philosophical 
and Literary Society at the Bristol In- 
stitution; and to tbe Exhibition of Pic- 
tures in the Institution he often liber- 
ally contributed, as a loan, some of his 
most beautiful performances. 

Sir Thomas's characteristic benevo- 
lence, and tbe prompt and liberal man- 
ner in which be came forward to patro- 
nize Danby, on his leaving Bristol for 
London, drew forth the following affec- 
tionate tribute from another of the 
gifted sons of that City— 

In genius vigouroup, yet refin'd. 
Noble in art, yet more in mind--- 
SweeMemper*d, gifted Lawrence, great. 
In singleness of heart innate^ 
Pleas'd others* genius to commend. 
And kind a ready hand to lend 
To merit, when it wants a friend. 



iUSO J OaiTUAftT.«-^5ir Tkmnm Lawnmee, Ptrm. & A 



179 



In rtfertac* to this patMft» Sir 
Thonncy in a letter in tiM po«e«i<Mi of 
the eoniDoiiieaot of these notice^ tpeekt 
of the coo flatterinf mention of Ml 
naae. *' I with," be fayt* •• I coald 
feel that I detenred it ; jet I may tmljr 
tav, that tbe natural tendency of my 
thoogbtt and #iibef k to do to, and to 
■bow tbat fratitude to Providence fur 
my own tueorM, wbicb tbould lead me 
to assist otbera, wbo with equal talent, 
tbou)[b In other dejpartments of art, 
have been less fortunate in their eareer." 
Whilst quotinf Sir Thomas's letters, it 
may be notieed tbat his hand-writing 
was peculiarly neat and elegant. 

We have now shown, at some length, 
the many exeelleneies of Sir Thomas 
Lawrence's iMrivate character, as well as 
tbe tufMriority of bis professional ta- 
lenta. His mind, indeed, was stored 
with a combinatiun of refined and grace- 
ful qualities, seldom found united in one 
person. He possessed all the qualities of 
a perfect gentleman ; he was kind-heart- 
ed, liberal, and honourable. Hit appeaiw 
ance was attractive ; bia manners bland 
Mnd polite, and hit countenance more 
than ordinarily handsome. It bore a 
strong retemhlaoee to tbe late Mr. Can- 
ning, with this difference, that tbe ea- 
preuion was not, perhaps, so highly and 
perfectly intellectual. As a speaker be 
was clear, free, easy, and graceful, at- 
tempting no fiight of oratory, but always 
leaving an impreuion of great neatness 
and propriety. 

Tbat Sir Thomas ever indulged in a 
passion for play is a calumny which, to 
those who knew his habita and feelings 
on the subject, requires no refutation} 
at the same time it will not excite sur- 
prise, that among others wbo heard of 
his Urge receipts, and were aware of 
his occasional embarrassments, an opi- 
nion should be unadvisedly adopted, 
affording a ready solution to tbe ques- 
tion— what became of his money i His 
ardent passion, however, for the fine 
arts in general, and especially for that 
branch of them to which his own time 
was more particularly devotcil, caused 
him to expend immense turns in their 
encouragement, and in the purchase of 
the works of the first masters, of whose 
drawings he gradually accumulated his 
anri vailed colleetioo. Hit benevolence 
towards the sons of genius. Jets favoured 
by fortune, was alto dealt out with no 
stinted allowance. Numerous instances 
of this we could adduce and substan- 
tiate, were we not restrained by motives 
wbicb roust be obvious ; it is, however, 
gratifying to know, that since his de- 
cease, the right feelings of many of those 
who profited by bis kindness have over- 



come the natural ralttctanct to piibUfb 
their obligationa. 

A Life of Sir Tbomaa Lawreoee It 
preparing for publication by Mr. Camp* 
bell, tbe poet. 



[The fkmerai vf Shr Tkt mm 
see are iatdmeed te deeeribe mi a 
wkai ummntal kngthf firom kmirimg 
beenfawmred with am original aeemmtj 
wUek fwoy he eentkUred at aeemraie 
asiiie mmaie.'] 

Soon after the lamented decease •f 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, the Council of 
the Royal Academy signified to the Ri- 
ecutor their wish to pay every possible 
mark of respect towards the memory of 
the late excellent President, by the at- 
tendance of the Members of the Aetf- 
dcmy at his funeral. That tbe last sad 
honours should be observed in a manner 
due to his eminent public merits and 
private worth, the requisite arrange* 
ments were made for the interment of 
his remains in St. Paul's Cathedral, with 
the same public ceremony that marked 
the feelings of the Academy on the In- 
terment of his distinguished predecessor 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

Accordingly, on the evening of Wed- 
nesday, tbe SOth of January, tbe body 
of the President was conveyed from 
his house In Rutsell-square, (followed 
by four members of hit familv and 
the Executor, attended by an old and 
faithful tervaot,) Co Somertet House, 
where, on its arrival at tbe rooms of the 
Royal Academy, it was fceeived by the 
Council and oAcert of that establish- 
ment, and deposited in tbe Model-foom, 
which was appropriated for its recep- 
tion. Tbe room had been previently 
bung with black cloth, and lighted with 
large wax tapers and numeront wax 
candles dispersed in silvered teoncet. 

At the bead of the eoAn wat placed 
a large atchievement * of tbe armorial 

• Argent, a cross raguly Gules* Crest, 
a demi-turbot Proper. Motto, Loyal an 
mort. I n the hatchment in Russell-squafe 
is suspended from the bottom of the 
shield, on tbe dexter side, the chain and 
badge of the President of the Royal Aca- 
demy s on the sinister, the cross of the 
French order of tbe Legion of Honour. 
The medal and chain worn by Sir Tho- 
mas Lawrence as President of tbe Aca- 
demy was presented to him by bit pre- 
sent Majesty as an especial mark of 
royal favour, and be was tbe first Presi- 
dent upon whom the distinction was 
conferred. As, however, it was in the 
character of President that be was so 
honoured, these Insignia have been re- 
turned into tbe royal handt. 



fto. 



OdiTtiAEY. — Sir Thonutt Lawrence, Pret. R.A. 



[F*. 



beariogs of the deceased, and the pall 
over the ccrTiii * was also decorated with 
silk escutcheons of the arms. 

The Members of the Council and the 
family having retired, (he body lay in 
state all night, the old servant of the 
President sitting up with it, at his own 
particular request, as a last tribute of 
duty and respect to a kind and valued 
master. 

The following morninf:, Thursday, the 
21st, being appointed for the coitvey- 
ance of the remains to St. Paul's, the 
family of the deceased assembled in the 
Library of the Royal Academy soon afti^r 
ten o'clock, and the mourners invited 
upon the occasion, with the members of 
the Academy, in the great exhibition 
room. 

The hearse, mourning coaches, and 
carriages of the Nobility and Gentry oc- 
cupied the great square of Somerset- 
bouse. By half-past twelve Mr. Thorn- 
ton, the Undertaker, had completed the 
various arrangements, when the exten- 
sive line of procession, consisting of 
forty-three mourning coaches and se- 
venty-two private carriages, besides those 
of the Lorl Mayor (who was prevented, 
by serious indisposiiion, from attending 
in person) and Sheriflf::, moved in the 
following order :^ 

Four Marshall's men. 

Two of the City Marshalls on horseback. 

Carriage of the Lord Mayor. 

Carriage of Mr. Sheriff Ward. 

Carriage of Mr. Sheriff Richardson, 

The Undertaker, Mr. Thornton, jun. on 

horseback. 
Four Mutes, followed by Six Conductors, 

on horseback. 
The Lid of Feathers, supported by a 

I'age on each side. 

The Hearse, drawn by six horses, with 

five Pages on each side. 

The eight Pall-bearers in mourning 
roiiches — The Earl of Aberdeen ; the 
Earl of Clanwilliam ; Earl Gower ; the 
Right Hon. Robert Peel ; Hon. George 
Agar Ellis ; Right Hon. Sir Geo. Mur- 
ray, G. C. B. ; Right Hun. John Wilson 
Croker ; R. Hart Davis, E«q. M. P. for 
Bristol. 

Mourning coache<*, containing — Rev. 
Rowland Bloxam, chief mourner} ReV. 
Thus. Lawrence Bloxam ; Mr. Henry 

* Inscription on the cofii n- plate : — 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, Knt. LLD. F.R.S. 

President 

of the Royal Academy of Arts in London, 

Knight of the Royal French Order 

of I he Legion of Honour. 

Died 7th January, mdcccxxx. 

in the LXi. year of his age. 



Bloxam; Rev. Andrew Bloxam; Mr- 
Matthew Bloxam ; Mr. John Ruutie 
Bloxam; Mr. John Meredith ; Rev. Du 
Bloxam ; Mr. John Asron ; Rev. Roger 
Bird; Archibald Keightley, jun. Es^. 
Executor; the Rector of St. George, 
Bloonisbury (Rev. J. Lonsdale) j tbe 
confidential Servaitt of the deceased. 

Officers of the Royal Academy— W. 
Hilton, Esq. Keeper ; H. Howard, E^q. 
Secretary; R. Smirke, Esq. Jun. Treft» 
surer; Joseph Hen. Green, Esq. Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy. 

Council of the Academy— E. H. Baily» 
E<q.; A. Cooper, Esq.; W. Collins, Eic^-; 
J. Constable, E«q. ; W. Etty, Esq.; D. 
Wilkie, Esq.; J. Ward, Esq. 

Royal Academicians---Sir W. Beechey ; 
Martin A. Shee, Esq.*; J. W. Turner, 
Ekq. ; Ch. Rossi, Esq. ; Tbo. Phillips, 
Esq. ; A. W. Calcott, Esq. { R. Westma- 
cott, E^q.; H. Bone, Esq.; W. Mul- 
ready, E^q.; John Jackson. E>q. ; Fra. 
Chantery, Esq.; R. Cook, E^q. ; W. Du^ 
niell, Eiiq. ; R. R. Reinagle, £m|. i Sir 
Jeffery Wyatville ; C. R. Leslie, Esq.; 
H. W. Pickersgill, Esq. 

Associates — J. Gandy, Elsq. \ A. I. 
Oliver, Esq. ; G. Arnold, Esq. ; CCIiut, 
Esq.; J. J.Chalon,E<q.; G.—> Newton, 
Esq.; C.R. Cockerell, Esq. ; Edwin Land- 
seer, Esq.; J. P. Deering, £<q.{ F* 
Danby, Esq. ; H. P. Briggf, E<q. 

Associate Engraven— John Liindteer, 
W. Bromley, R. J. Lane, C. Turner. 

Students— G. Patten, W. Pktten, W. 
B. Taylor, Cafe, Vulliamy, J. Webster, 
Ainslie, \\, Behnes, W. Bebnes, Fair- 
land, C. Moore, Andrews, Hayter, D* 
M*Cligp, Kearney, S. C. Smith, Black- 
more, Rouw, Leigh, Grant, Redgrave, 
Hughes, Pegler, Solomon, Wood, Sass, 
Johnson, Smith, Mtddleton, Brorkedon, 
Wright, Boxall, Carey, Freebaim, Rots, 
Mead, Stothard, Moore, Cary, Milling- 
ton, Brooks, Watson, Panorme. 

Private Mourners — ^The Hun. Charles 
Greville; Sir Robert H. Inglis; Mjjor- 
Gen. McDonald; Col. Hugh Baillie; 
Washington Irving, Theodore Irving, 
and L. Ramsey, the three Secretaries of 
the .American Embassy; Horace Twiss» 
Esq. M. P.; John Nasb, Esq.; Wn. 
Woodgate, Esq. ; Herman S. Wulff»Esq-, 
Cha. Kemble, Esq.; Joseph Gwilt, Esq.) 
Tho. Campbell, Esq. ; Archer D. Croft, 
£«q.; Dr. Sigmond ; Sir A ntb. Carlisle; 
Henry Ellis Esq.; Rev.Josiab Forsbslli 
Ed. Hawkins, Esq.; Geo. Morant,Esq.| 
Tho. Fullerton, Esq.; Tho. Boddiagtom 
Esq.; P. Hardwickf, Esq.; Dedmus 

* This gentleman has been since elected 
to succeed Sir Thomas Lawrence in the 
Chair of the Royal Academy, aud ap- 
proved of by the King. 



1890.] OBiTUAtY«— Sir Thowuu iMwmut, Pra. R* A. 

Burton, E«q.i John Knowlet, £sq«t J« 
W. Scivier, Esq.; R. Evani, Efq.; Cbn. 
I>«nham, E«q. ; S. Woodburn, £Uq. ; 
Mr. Moon; John F. Reeve, E«q.s G. 
Simpson, Esq.; J. Simpson, Esq. | G. 
R. Ward, Esq. ; John Irwine, Esq. \ Mr. 
F.CLewis} Mr. Hoieartb ; £. HulmaOy 
Esq.; Tho.Robson, Esq.; W.Y.Oulej, 
Esq. i Warucr Otiley. Esq. 

The Officers, &c. of the Society of 
Painters in Water-ettlours — Mr. George 
Barrett, Cba. Wild, R. HilU, P. Dewint, 
G. F. Robson, J. Varley, F.Nasb, A. 
PuKin, F. Mackensie, F. O. Finch, W. 
Nesa«rld, S. Prout. 

The Society of British Artists — Meu. 
Davis, Hulmef, Dawe, Hufland. 

The Society of the Artists' General 
BenevoUot Institution — Messrs. Davi- 
son, Curbould, Stan field, Robertson, 
Roper, Davis, Lahre, Tyou. 

Carriages of the Nubility and Gentry, 
following after the carriage of Sir Tho. 
Lawrence:— 

Carriages of the Pall-bearers— Earls 
of Aberdeen, CUnwilliam, and Gower; 
Right Hon. R. Peel ; Hon. George Agar 
Ellis ; Right Hon. Sir Geo. Murray ; 
Rt. Hon. J. W. Croker \ and Rich. Hart 
DavU, Esq. M. P. 

Carriages of— The Lord Chancellor; 
Dukes of St. Albaii*s, Bedford, Devon- 
shire, Wellington; Marquises of Staf- 
ford, Londonderry, Bristol ; Earl of 
Esses I Cuunteu of Guildford ; Earls 
Spencer, Bathurst, Listowel, Rosslyn, 
Cbarleville, Dudley, and Mountcharles; 
Viscounts Granville, Beretford, and Go- 
dericb ; Bishop of London ) Lords Hol- 
land, Hill, Stowell,Beiley,Famborougb, 
aod Seaford ; Prince Esterhasy ; Barou 
Bulow \ the American Ambassador ; 
Sir Henry Hardinge, M. P. ; Sir Abra- 
ham Hume; Sir Rob. H. Inglis, M.P.) 
Sir Henry Halford ; Sir Charles Flower; 
Right Hon. Sir John Beckett, M.P.; 
Sir W. Kuighton; Sir Ed m. Antrobus; 
Sir Astlt-y Cooper; Sir Coutts Trotter, 
and SirFra. Frerlin^, Barts.— Sir James 
Endaile, and Sir JrflTrey Wyatville, Knts. 
J.Planta,E^q.M.P.; —Fuller, Esq.; T. 
Hope, Esq. ; Carrick Moore, Esq, ; — 
Lyon, Esq. ; C Kern Lie, Esq. ; — Fair- 
lie, Esq. ; MaJor>Genenil M'Donald ; 
Colonel Hugh Baillie; Messrs. Smirke, 
Chsntery, Wllkins, Grt- en, Nash, Soane, 
Dunlop, Boddiugton, Fullerti>n, T. Bar- 
ber Beaumont} Dr. Sigmond, and Dr. 
Holland. 

The hear»a arrived at the great west 
door of St. PaoPs about a quarter before 
two, and about half past two the body 
reached the cboir, preceded by the dig- 
nitaries of the church, and the members 
uf the choir, singing the sentences at the 
commcocemeni uf the burial srvice to 



IHT 



the solemn and affecting music of Crofc. 
The body being placed on tressells, the 
chief mounter was seated iit a chair at 
the bead of the coffin, attended by the 
old servant of the deceased. The mourn- 
ers being also seated, on either side of the 
Choir, the funeral service proceeded, the 
proper portions being cbaunted. The 
lesson was read by the Rev. Dr. Hughes, 
the Canon Residentiary, whose feelings 
were more than once so overpowered as 
to prevent his proceeding without a 
pause.* Green's fine anthem, **Lord, 
let me know mine end !*' was sung by 
the choir, accompanied hy the organ, 
after which the body was removed into 
the crypt, and placed under the centre 
of the dome, when the mourners being 
summoned, and preceded by the clergy 
and choir, went in procession to the 
centre, and turning to the righ^ formed 
a large circle, which during the time the 
music continued, fell into a double line 
round the perforated brass plate, where 
the remainder of the service was read by 
the Bishop of Llandaff, Dean of Su 
Paufs, in a most impressive manner. 
The whole concluding with part of Han- 
del's matchless Funeral Anthem, *< Their 
bodies are buried in peace." Here the 
voices of the young choristers, strength- 
ened by the addition of the children 
from the Chapel Royal, produced a de- 
lightful effect. After the pathetic and 
solemn, though somewhat lengthened 
and monotonous effect of the mournful 
strains which had preceded it, the 
words <'but their name liveth evermore,'* 
cheered the senses, and produced feel- 
ings the more pleasing from being unex- 
pected. 

The ceremony having concluded, the 
mourners retunied to their carriages. 
The executor and some of the family 
of the deceased went down to the 
crypt and saw the body deposited in 
the grave prepared for it, at the head of 
the late President West, and not far 
from the remains of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
The solemnity and decorum which pre- 
vailed throughout the whole proceedings 
upon this melancholy occasion, has been 
a subject of general remark and appro- 
bation. 

By the order of Mr. Secretary Peel a 
strung force of the Metropolitan Police 
under the direction of Mr. Thomu, at- 
tended and preserved order ibroughooi 
the line of route, from Somerset- Hous« 
to Temple- Bar, and in consequence of 
orders issued by the Lord Mayor, the 
City Police had kept the whole line of 
Fteet-street free from the intermptioo 

* Dr. Hughes was an old and intiiaate 
friend of Sir T. Lawrence. 



183 



OBiTVkur. '^George Dawes Esq. R.A. 



[FA. 



of carriages from an early hoar in the 
morning, by which meant the mournfal 
cavalcade preserved due order, and 
reached the church wKhout a tingle in- 
terruption or break of itt extensive line. 
The shop wiiidowt were every where 
closed. The streets were crowded t in- 
deed, the Strand and Fleet-ttreet may 
be said to have been lined on both sides 
by the people, who preserved the most 
respectful order ; and the windows of 
the houses in the route of the proces- 
sion were filled with spectators, who 
witnessed opon this occasion the just 
tribute paid to distinguished merit in 
perhaps one of the most extensive atten- 
dances of persons that has been paid to 
the memory of the dead since the public 
funerals of Nelson and Pitt. No acci- 
dent happened, nor did any untoward 
event arise to interrupt the decorum 
and order of the scene. Much praise is 
undout>tedly due to the very excellent 
and effective arrangements of Messrs. 
Thornton and Son, under whose sole 
control and direction the funeral was 
condaeted. 



George Dawb, Esq. R.A. 

Oct, 15. At the house of his brother. 
Sn-law, Thomas Wight, Esq. in Kentish- 
Town, George Dawe, Esq. R. A. Mem- 
ber of the Imperial and Royal Academies 
of Arts at St. Petersburg, Stockholm, 
Florence, &c. , First Painter to his Im> 
perial Majesty the Emperor of all the 
Russias, &c. 

Mr. Dawe was the author of ** The 
Life of George Morland, with Remarks 
on his Works 1807/' 8vo. In this work 
(of which a critique will be seen in the 
Monthly Review, N. S. Ivi. 357^370) he 
states that his father, Mr. Philip Dawe, 
was articled to Morland's father, who 
was a painter in crayons. We believe 
the elder Dawe was afterwards an engra- 
ver in mezzotinto, employed by Bowles, 
of St. Paul's Cburch>yard, &c. 

From 1809 to 1818, Mr. Geo. Dawe was 
a constant exbibiter at Somerset Huuse, 
of many portraits and a few historical 
subjects. Among the portraits were Dr. 
Parr, Lord Eardley, the Hon. S.E. Eard- 
ley. Prince and Princess of Saxe Cobourg, 
the Archbishop of Tuam, Bishop ol Sa- 
lisbury, &c. &c. Among the historical 
subjects were, Andromache imploring 
Ulysses to spare the life of her son; Ge« 
uevive, from a poem by T. Coleridge, 
Esq. ; a Child rescued by its mother frum 
an Eagle's nest ; and a Demoniac, which 
be afterwards sent as a presentation, and 
it now adorns the CounciURoom of the 
Royal Academy. He was elected an As- 
socinte in 1809| and a Royal Academi- 
cian in 1814. 



In the year 1816 he painted aUm 
whole-length picture of Miss O'NelllyTn 
the character of Juliet, which «m ex- 
hibited by lamp-light, in order that it 
might be viewed under the sane elir- 
cumstances as the original was teen on 
the stage. This portrait was eagvaved 
in meaaotinto by Mr. G. Male. 

Mr. Dawe has for the last few yaart 
entirely practised hit art upon the con- 
tinent, particularly at St. Petersburg, 
where his talents were held in the high- 
est estimation by the Imperial Family. 
He had arrived in England only about six 
weeks before his death ; at which tine 
the following paragraph appeared in the 
newspapers t " Mr. G. Dawe, R. A.,' who 
has recently arrived in this country from 
Warsaw, where he had been engaged in 
painting the Emperor and Emprest of 
Russia as King and Queen of Poland. 
and also the Grand Doke Conetantinc, 
went to the Royal Lodge, in Windsor- 
park, on Sunday, by command of the 
King, for the purpose of showing his 
Majesty portraits of the King of Prusiia, 
the Duke of Cumberland, and other 
works executed since hit lastTlsit^otbk 
country. His Majesty was gmeloutty 
pleased to express bis approbation of 
tbem, and honoured Mr. Dawe with 
some flattering commissions." 

It has been stated that Mr. Dawe 
realised 100,000/. by painting the prin- 
cipal Sovereigns of Europe. 

At the time of his arrival, be was In 
an ill state of health from a diieaie of 
the lungs. His remains were interred 
In St. Paul's Cathedral, attended by ^ 
long cortege of artists and IKeranr meni 
the Russian Ambassador and SlrTbom^ 
Lawrence (the latter of whom was ao 
soon after .to be borne to tiie same spot) 
acting as pall-bearen. 



Mrs. FitsGehald. 

Jan, 11. At her house, St. James*s- 
square, Bath, deeply and deservedly la- 
menied by her family and friends, aged 
82, Mary, widow of the Right Hon. €2ol. 
Richard FitzGeraUl, of the Queen's Co.. 
M.P. 

Mrs. FitzGerald was daughter and co- 
heir of Fairfax Mercer, E^. of Dublin, 

by , daughter and heir of William 

M'Causland, Esq. of Dublin. Fairfax 
Mercer was son of William Mercer, Eaq. 
of Dundalk, by Anue-Sarab, daugbcer 
of John Baillie, of Inishargie, co. Down, 
Esq. M. P. From a pedigree in Uisier't 
oflSce, it appears that the issue of the 
said William Mercer, by his wife Anne- 
Sarah Baillie, was Fairfax Mercer, aa 
above, and two daughters, Dorothy, tba 
youngest, wife of Ross Moore, Esq. Pro- 



1830.] . OBVTVAmrr^Mn, BUQtrald^^. Wa^mi. ILD. 



189 



pri«lor of x\m borough of CarUn^ord, 
beforeikcUnkmiMidAlieU, bom 1791« 
wife, first, of Bcfijamifi Honf, Eiq. ((o 
wboiB tbo was aMrrivdy Jyne I, 1741), 
luida stcondly, of 8tc|>brB Catsan, £tq. 
of SbeAeld, Queen's County, Barritur 
at law of LiiicolH't liHi, 1750* Hifb 
Sherif of Quei*n't County in 1763, died 
April <?9, 1773, (will pruved Dec. 10, 
fullowinfc, ill virtue uf a comaiitsioo of 
the Hig;h Court of Cbanrery in Ireland,) 
•Iticat ion at>d beir of Matthew Cataan, 
E«q. of SbffBeld, Barrister at law, who 
was ton and beir of Stephen Caatan, Esq. 
<»f tbo saaie pUnce, who died 1750-1, 
afped OO (admin i<t rat ion granted from 
the Prorofative Court of Irelaud, May 
5, 175S). Mrs. Cassan, furmeriy Alicia 
Mereer, aunt of Mrs. FitsGerald, died 
Fob. 6, 1789, aged 68, tearing issue two 
cons and one daughter, Alicia, bom Nor. 
90, 1755, married the Rev. Geo. Howte, 
Rector of liichy co. Wexford (%un uf 
C^urge Archdeacon of Dromore) ; Mrs. 
Howse died llf^, learing, among other 
issue, Alicia Hnw%e, mrife of the Rer. 
Peter Browne, Dran of Ferns, half-bro- 
ther of the Iste M^irquess uf Sligo. Of 
the sons, I. Matthew Castan, Esq. of 
Sheffield, born Oct. 18, 1754, was Gen- 
tleman Commoner uf Eieter College, 
Oxford, Nur. I, I77d, High Sheriff of 
Queen's County in 1783, and an acting 
magistrate for the same, (liring 1830,) 
married, first. May 18, 1776, Sarah, 
daughter of Cot. Forde, of Seaforde, co. 
Down; and, secondly, Sept. 15, ]8I9» 
Catherine, daughter of John Head, of 
Ashley, co. Tipperary, Esq. by Phcsbe 
his wife, sixth and >oungest sister of 
John Toler Earl of Norbury, tate Lord 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas in Ireland. 8. Stephen Cassan, 
bora Jan. 9, I757» of Trinity College, 
Dnblin, Nor. ], 1773; Barrister at law 
of the Middle Temple, Nuv. 15, 1781; 
died January 26, 1794 (administration 
granted in the Prerogatire Court of 
Canterbury, March 18, 1795), married 
March 4, 1 7 86, Sarah, only daughter 
and beir of Charles Mears, Esq. a Bro- 
ther of the Trinity House, and bad iaeue 
the Rer. Stephen Hyde Cassan, M. A. 
F. S. A. of Mere Vicarage, Wilts, born 
at Calcutta, Oct. 37» I789» married at 
Frome, co. Somcrtety Dec. 27 1 1880, 
Fanny, third daughter of the Ute Rer. 
William Ireland, M.A. Vicar of Frume, 
and an acting Magistrate for the county 
of Somerset, and has issue. See IVdi- 
gree of Cassan, Heralds* College, 13.D. 
14. fo. 181. 

Mrs. FitiGerald was the secoi.d wife 
ol the Colonel.* She was mother of 



Gmrald FitiGerald, Em|. of St. James'f 
square, Bath, and ihree daiightart: of 
tha latter, Margaret, is the widow of thm 
Hon. John Jocelyo, fourth ton of tlit 
first Earl of Roden, and b«s a daughter, 
Ann Chariotte» married io 1880, to Ro- 
bert Bourke, Esq. eldest son of tbe Hon. 
Richard Bourke, Lord Bishop oJfWator- 
ford» who is brother and beir protump* 
tive to ih« Earl of Mayo. 



Joseph Watson, LL.D. 

Nov. 23. At the Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum, in the Kent Road, aged 64, 
Joseph Watson, LL.D. Teacher of thu 
•siablishroent. 

Dr. Watson acquired his skill in the 
tuition of deaf and dumb at the private 
academy kept for that purpose at Hack- 
ney by Mr. Thomas Braidwood. ** It 
was here,*' he says, «< in tbe year 1784, 
that my reso1uti(»ii was finalfy taken, to 
embrace the instruction of the deaf and 
dumb as a profession." He assisted by 
bis counsel and adrice in forming tbe 
London Asylum, f and superintended the 
instruction of all the pupils admitted 
from its commencement, in 1798. During 
this long period of thirty-seren years ho 
exerted an underiating attention and 
lodiclout energy, in the arduous task of 
successfully instructing the objects of bis 
care, and leading them to an acquain- 
tance with written language; through 
which they have been conducted to aQ 
the arts of common life and to tbe hopes 
afforded by Christian revelation. The 
cliildren trained under the doctor's care 
preserved a high degree of affection to- 
wards him through life, and he lived to 
witness a great number of his scholars 
providing for themselves and families 
with comfort and respectability. One 
of the most striking instanoes of bis 
successful exertions occurred a few digrs 
after his lamented decease, in the cii^ 
cumstance of one of his private pupils 
being called to the bar, by the Honour- 
able Society of the Middle Temple. 
Nothing can more strongly point out 
the benefits which have resulted fnm 



* His first wu the Hon. Margaret 



King, only child and heir of JaoMS 
fourth Lord Kinpton, and by her he 
had issue an only daughter, Caroline, 
who married her cousin Robert^ second 
Earl uf Kingston. She died, 1883, leav- 
ing issue the present Earl of Kingston, 
the Lord Viscount Lortoii, the CouAteas 
of Mount-Casbel, and other issue. 

f See tbe memoir of the Rev. John 
Townsend, one of the founders, in our 
vol. xcvi i. 878i and a full account of 
tbe Asylum, accompanied by a view of 
tbe building, in vol. xcii. i. 305. 



Id4 OBiTVAiELY.—Rev. Walter BWch.^Mr. Lilly Wigg, P.L.S. [ [Feb. 

the Parish Church of Trowbridge, WHtehira, 
on the 95 th day of Octobier, printed at ihm 
request of the Congregation ;" in 1810, 
without hit name, " Verset spoken aC iba 
Encseoia, by Mr. Smith, Demy of Magdalen 
College, Oxford;" inl8l6, •* ChrisHtmiiy 
literal according to the genuine itndfuU tm^ 
port of the term, a Sermon, pleached at the 
Visitation of the Archdeacon of Wihs, hbl- 
den at Marlborough, July £8, publbbed at 
the request of the Clergy present;" and in 
1818, ** A Sermon on the prevalence of 
infidelity and enthusiasm, preached in the 
Parish Church of St. Peter, Colcheetar, 
July 98, at the Visitation of the Bbhop of 
London, published by command of the 
Bishop and at the request of the Qeisy.'* 

He married Elizabeth, eldeat dangttter of 
Nathaniel Dimock, of Stonehouse, inOleu- 
cestershire, by whom lie has left fonr 
and two daughters. 



Dr. Watson's peculiar talents, than this 
singular and interesting fact, which pre- 
sents the first instance on record of a 
Barrister being deaf and dumb. . 

Dr. Watson published an account of 
his system in two volumes 8vo. 1809» 
under the title of ** Instruction of the 
Deaf and Dumb, or a View of the means 
by which they are taught to understand 
and speak a Language." (See our vol. 
Ixxx. ii. 635) His remains were interred 
at BeroMndsey. 



Rev. Walter Birch, B.D. 
Dec. 8. Aged 65, the Rev. Walter Birch, 
B. D. Rector of Stanway, Essex, and Vicar 
of Stanton Bernard, Wilts. 

He was the third son of the Rev. Tho. 
Birch,Rector of South Thoresby , co.Lincoln , 
(by Mary, only daughter of Mr. Edward 
Wright, of Algarkirk, in the same county,) 
who, on the slender means, which usually 
&11 to the share of our parochial clergy, 
brought up a family, consisting of eight sons 
and two daughters, in such a manner as to 
render them useful and respectable mem- 
bers of society. After a competent prepa- 
ration at home, he received his education at 
Rugby school, under Dr. James, by whose 
excellent method of instruction, together 
with the valuable friendship of the Assistant 
Master, Mr. George Innes fnow Master of 
the King's School, Warwick), he improved 
his naturally coud talents very highly. He 
was distinguished at school for humane feel- 
ings and great simplicity, united with con- 
siderable energy of character, qualities 
which he retained unimpaired to the end of 
life. At Oxford, as a Demy and Fellow of 
Msgdalen College, where he proceeded M.A. 
1798, B.D. 1805, he was respected by 
many good and literary men, not only for 
these virtues, but for the purity of his man- 
ners, and for his classical taste and acquire- 
ments. Having been appointed tutor to the 
present Earl of Pembroke, who was then at 
Harrow School, and whom he accompanied 
to Oxford, he was presented by the late Earl, 
in 1813, to the Rectory of Sunton Bernard 
in Wituhire. Afterwards, in 1817, he also 
took a valuable College liviug, Stanway, in 
Essex. 

As a Christian, those who knew him best 
will acknowledge that none C(»uld better de- 
serve the encomium of l>eing *' an Israelite 
indeed, in whom there was no guile." As 
a clergyman, he was firmly attached to our 
National Church, but without any bitter- 
ness towards those tl^t differed from it. As 
a scholar, he was remarkable for that keen 
perception of the highest beauties in the an- 
cient writers, which it is the lot of so few 
to attain. With these endowments, it is to 
be regretted that we can enumerate no more 
than the following writings which he pub- 
lished: in 1809, " A Sermon, preached in 



Mr. Lilly Wioo, F. L.S. 

March 39, 1838. At Great YamMmth, 
in his 80th year, Mr. Lilly Wigg, F.L.S. 
a man of no ordinary talents and aoquure- 
ments, nor so entirely unknown to fiune 
that his death deserved to have passed thna 
long unrecorded. 

He was a native of Smallbofgh, in Nor- 
folk, where he was bom on Christmas day, 
1749. His father, poor bat respectable^ 
was a shoemaker, and brought op his bod for 
the same trade ; but the young man left it 
before he was twentv years ok^ and havai^ 
received a respectable village education, and 
being always fond of books, removed to 
Yarmouth, and established himself aa a 
schoolmaster. In this situation, more coo- 
i^enial to his inclination, but very little pra- 
^table to his pocket, he continned tall the 
year 1801, when he was pennaded to re- 
linquish it for the place of a cleric in the 
Bank of Gurneys and Turner, and theie he 
remained so long as he lived. Mr. Tiamtr 
and he had been brought together aome 
years previously by their mutual taste lor 
botany; the same cause had before that 
time procured Mr. Wigg the acqnalntanee 
of Dr. Aikin, long a resident in Yarmouth, 
of the Hon. T. Wenman, of Mr. Woodward, 
of Dr. Smith, of the Rev. Norton NichoHs, 
and of many other gentlemen of similar pur- 
suits, who were in the habit of visiting the 
town. At wluit period nf his life Mr. Wigg'a 
attachment to boUny first manifested itaclf 
is not known ; but it is believed that it traa 
very early ; and, so long as he had beakh 
and strength, few men pursued the study 
with more cnerg}', or, as fir as hb limited 
means would allow, with more success. The 
neighbonrhood of Yarmouth was necessarily 
his great field of action ; and this he in se a - 
tigated with uncommon care, and made in it 
more than one addition to the list nf Britia 
flowering plants, besides many among th 



1S30.] Obituary.— iWr. L. mgg.^PV. Eyion Tooke, Esq. 



1S5 



tem weedBy to which for • coottderable part 
(if liis life he paid the cloeett attentloo. Hit 
cullection of them wee rich, ttid showed 
grret care iu tke lelectioo aod enquisite 
Dcatnett io the dnpUy of the tpeclneni. 

The Mme properties were chancteristie of 
all be did. lie was siogularlj laborious and 
•iDgularly exact ; neat and clean in his mind 
and person; fcnipuloosly honest In word 
and deed ; modest, retiring, and diffident, 
in the extreme; but, when stimulated to 
action, uniiAuncedlj and UDwearie<ily perti* 
nsciout in his defence of wlut be l>rlicved to 
he ri^fit. In politics he was a republican ; 
in religion a Baptist ; bat, from private rea- 
sons, he, for more thin thirty years of his 
life, frequented no place of worship. His 
i>rejutiices aga'nst the Catholics were pecu- 
liarly stronc ; they were what he had im- 
bibed with nis mother's milk, and were what, 
at Uie period of his birth, were entertained 
by a considerable pttrtion of the community, 
who remembered with infinite gratitude the 
Kcvuluiion uf 16B9, and with corresponding 
horror the narrow escape which the kingdom 
had fct that time from ropery. Occupied as 
was his time, and small as were his resources, 
Mr. Wigg, nevertheless, by dint of great 
industry, acquired a competent knowledge 
of Latin, and made himself, to a certain de- 
gree, acquainted with the French and Greek : 
what is less to 1>e wondered at, with the 
higher branches of arithmetic he was rerv 
conversant I and his hand- writing was of such 
beauty that it might easily be mistaken for 
copfierpUte. About the year 1 800 the Li- 
nean Society elected him into the number of 
its asMiciates ; and nearly at the same time 
lie was gratified by ooe of the new fuci, that 
he had discovered, being called after hia 
uame, and published so in the Transactions 
of the same Society, lliese were a!l the 
honors he ever received from his love for 
science ; except being occasionallv men- 
tioned, and always with respect, in tne pnb- 
licatioot of Sir James Smith, and in Mr. 
Woodward's, and Mr. Turner's. Botany, 
however, though his favourite department 
in Natural History, was far from being the 
only one he cultivated; be also bestowed 
considerable atteotioa upon the birds and 
fishes of the coast and neighbourhood of his 
residence ; and, aa the investigation of the 
productions v^ the divine hand constituted 
the great source of his tojoymeot, he left 
no portion of the field of nature untrodden. 
As an author he never appeared before the 
public; but it was hit inteation to have 
done io ; and, with this view, he had de- 
voted the priodpal part of the leisure of 
nearly twenty yean of h'tt lifii to collecting 
materials for a history nf esculent plants. 
Deatli, however, overtook him iu the midst 
ij4 hit pursuits ; his hunp, afker maintaining 
a regular and almost naioterrupced fiame for 
GcnT. Mao. FH/nmiyt 19M0. 

12 



the spac« of mors than seventy- nine years, 
was gradualhr and gtntly estingnithed by 
the pressure of a raw days ; and tlit great 
mass he had laboriously got together re- 
mains in a rude and undigested state, equally 
useless to perpetuate his own name, to in- 
struct the worid, or to benefit those for 
whose assistance be had principally Intended 
it. Thus, always accumulating and never 
arranging, though continually intending to 
do so, he has afforded another sad exam|de, 
at once of the folly of procrastination, under 
the belief that death is never near, and of 
the importance to every man to finish his 
own work; sure that his mental labours, 
like his bodv, deprived of the particle of 
divine breath, which equally gave life to 
both, will otherwise, like it, only be doomed 
to neglect, corru{)tion, and forgetfiiloess. 



W. Eyton Tookb, Esq. 

Jan. 37. At his father's in Richmond 
Terrace, on his 24 th birth-day, William 
Eyton Tooke, Esq. B. A. 

This much lamented young gentleman was 
the eldest son of Tho. Tooke, Esq. F.R.S. 
the eminent Russ'an merchant, the well- 
known author of several standard essays on 
trade and political economy ; and graodsoo 
of the Rev. Wm. Tooke, F.R.S. author of 
« The Life of Catherine H." and of other 
popular pnblicaticms relating to Russia, and 
also of several valuable Works io Theology 
and general Literature. 

Mr. W. Evton Tooke was educated at 
Westminster School, and finished his stu- 
dies at Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he soon so greatly distinguished himself by 
the depth and extent of his inquiries into 
the several branches of Moral and Political 
Philosophy, and by the acute and able ex- 
pression of his sentiments on those subjects^ 
that he was elected President of the union 
Society, an Institution for inquiry and de- 
bate, consisting of a numerous and highly- 
gifted portion of the Students of the iJnt- 
versity. He quitted Cambridge on obtain- 
ing his degree of Bachelor of Arts, and, by 
his own free choice, entered io the mercan- 
tile establishment of his &ther; still de- 
voting his unremitting attention to the same 
studies, into connexion with the great topics 
of commercial policy in which hie was now 
more immediatelv interested. He had beea 
for some time a Member of the Committal 
of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge, and actively engaged in revising 
and preparing treatises for publication. The 
over tension of mind — occasioned by these 
absorbing contemplations, which were not 
only unrelieved by the ordinary relaxations 
and recreations of'^youth, but too frequently 
allowed to trespass on needful hours of rest 
— there is every reason to snppose, caused 



186* 



Obituary. — Clergy deceased. 



£Feb. 



tlutt moriuJ fttftto of the brain* whlch» ag- 
gravated ami accelerated by the anusual se* 
verity of the weather* produced the deplor- 
able event — thus prematurely quenching all 
the fotid hopes which his parents were jus- 
tified in entertaining, but which constituted 
the least portion of his claims to their attach- 
ment* as his high attainments were all sub- 
servient to the better feelings of duty and 
affection, by which every part of his domes- 
tic conduct was influenced. 

The following tribute to tlie memory of 
Mr. W. £. Tooke appeared in the Morning 
Chronicle : — *' The loss of this amiable, 
able, and accoir.plished young gentleman, 
produced a great sensation yesterday. He 
was a youth of great promise, and, by all 
who had the happiness of knowing him, he 
was exceedingly beloved. A more generous 
and benevolent heart than his never beat 
within a human bosom. His range of in- 
formation was unusually extensive fur his 
vears, and his judgment was excellent. He 
had already written several treatises which 
were much esteemed; and, with his research 
and sagacity, and uncompromising love of 
truth, liad his life been spared, he could not 
have failed to become one of the chief orna- 
ments of his age." 

His remains were interred on the following 
Tuesday, in the church of St. George, 
Bloomsbury ; and attended to the grave by 
his immediate relations and by many sin- 
cerely sorrowing friends, as well of those 
more matured in life, whose confidence and 
approbation he had, by his many amiable 
qualities and andeviating correctness of con- 
duct, conciliated, as also by several young 
men who were treading equal steps witli him 
in the paths of usefulness. Of the former 
description were Sir J. W. Lubbock; W. 
Astell, Esq. M. P. Deputy Chairman of the 
East India Company ; Pascoe Grenfell, Etq.j 
Isaac Solly, Esq. ; M. A. Shee, Esq. Presi- 
dent of the Rcyal Academy ; and Dr. Hoget. 
The younger cart of the attendants consisted 
of Mr. J. W. Lubbock, Mr. W. H. Ord, 
Mr. J. Romilly, Mr. E. M. Fit/gerald, Mr. 
Hildyard^ &c. 



CLERGY DECEASED. 

Oct. 31. At his residence at Shrews- 
bury, aged 48, the Rev. Thomas Ostcell, 
Rector of the first pc»rtion of Westbury, co, 
Salop. He was son of the late Alderroaa 
Oswell* of Shrewsbury, by Mary, daughter 
of the Rev. Stephen Pyrethrick, Vicar of 
Much Wenlock and Leighton. He was of 
St. John's college, Cambridge, B.A. 1803, 
M. A. 1 806, and T-as presented to his living 
in the latter year by Mr. and Mrs. Pemher- 
ton. Although for several years prevented 
by ill health from performing his clerical 
duty, he was highly respetted by his parish- 



ioners, and in his private character it amy b« 
truly said, that lie « walked with God.** Hit 
remains were interred at St. Alkmuad'si 
Shrewsbury. 

Nov, SO. At Ealing, aged 65, the Rev. 
George Nicholat, LL. D. Head MMtor of 
Ealing School. Dr. Nicholas wat fbrmerW 
a member of Wadham college, Qxfimlt 
where he attained the degree of M.A. ia 
1791, and proceeded B. and D.C.L. in 1793« 
He was the author of « Ao Easy lotrodnc- 
tion to Latin Grammar," ISn&o. 1793 ; and 
his school has long been celebrated for the 
number of his pupils. Dr. Nicholas wee in 
excellent scholar, an almoet unrivalled dis- 
ciplinarian, and remarkable for his benevo- 
lence and urbanity. He has lefk sons to 
carry nn his establishment. 

Dec, 26. Found dead on a mad, havio|^ 
fallen from his horse, the Rev. John Jonetf 
Vicar uf Minster-lays, Salop, (to which he 
was presented in 1822 by the above Mr. 
Oswell, as Rector of WestbtvyO umI CuFite 
of Habberley. 

Jan. 1. At Qif^on Hotwells, seed 87» 
the Rev. Thomas Buckley^ PerpetBalCiirato 
of Measharo, Derbyshire. 

Jan. 2. At Wickham, Berks, aged 73* 
the Rev. Henry Sawhridge, Rector oi Wel- 
ford cum Wickham. He was of Queen's 
coll. Camb. B.A. 1782, M.A. 1789; and 
was admitted to his living on hia own pe* 
tition. 

Jan. 18. Aeed 68, the Rer. JVblAomel 
May, Vicar of Leigh, Kent. He ins of 
Lincoln, coll. Oxford, M. A. I786« end wee 
instituted to his living in 1811 on his own 
petition. He was the aothor (^ ** SOTmone 
on the History of Joseph, piceehed in tho 
parish Churches of Hemel Uempsted and 
Greet Gaddesden, Herts, 1793," Umo. 

Jan. 24. In Sloanc-st. the Rev. Janet 
Stuart Freeman, D. D. Vicar cf ChalfentSt. 
Peter's, Bucks. He was formerly Fellow of 
St. John's college, Oxford, where be pro- 
ceeded M. A. 1787, B. D. 1799, D.D. 
1799; and was presented to his living faf 
that Society in 1 808. 

Feb. 1. At the Vicerage-hoose, St. Bl«r- 
garet's in Leicester, afker a short illnetet 
aged 68, the Rev. Tkomtu Burtuhi^ M. A. 
Vicar of that parish. Rector of Mlstertfln, 
one of the senior acting Megistmtes, ead 
one of the oldest incunil^nts u the conntf • 
He was the eldest son of the Rev. Robert 
Bumaby, LL.B. who was Vicar of Sfeliw- 
garet's, Rector of Wanlip, and Pnbendaiy 
of Lincoln, bv Katherine, only child of 
Thomas Jee, Esq. of Leicester. Hewai 
of Clare hall, Cambridge, B.A. 1784»MA. 
1 787* and was chosen a Dixie Fellow of £«•- 
nuel college. In August 178A he manied 
Lncy, fourth danghter of RichaidDrctt* 
Esq. of Freeford, in the coanty of StB^Mdy 
bv Katherine, only daughter of ThoflMS 
Henick, Em^, second brother of th« bCe 



1S30.] 



Obituahy, 



187 



William Herrick, Esq. of Bi«utuftnor-i>&rk» 
and bu left a Httcoofalato widow and ten 
children to lamtnt their irrcparabU lots. He 
was iirctentcd to Miftertoo in 178^, hj 
hi« fuaWj, and to St. Mamret'i, Leicet- 
ter, in 1789» bj hit father in virtue of his 
tult at Liocolo. In 1795, when the 
country was in a moat disturbed state, ea 
alarroiog riot broke out at Barrow-upon- 
Suar in this county. Accompanying the 
I^icestcr troops of yeomanry cai^Iry, the 
siiliiect of tliis memorial, by his firmness at 
a Magistrate, aided by the good conduct of 
the yeomanry, was mainly inttrumcDtal in 
qoelliog the disturbance. For this service 
he publicly received the thanks of Govern- 
ment, tlirough the Judges at the following 
aseUet. He wat the rondest and best of 
husbands, the kindest and most affectionate 
of fathers, whose greatest hapfMoess was in 
the botom of hu family. Those who knew 
him best esteemed him most. Totally free 
from hypocrisy or guile, he endeavoured to 
do hit duty to God and man. Could eppn- 
rent health and ttrength ensure continusnce 
on earth, it might liave been looked for in 
him ; but at the doec nf a dav spent in the 
utmoat cheerfulness and vigour, he was, in 
less than half an hour (after lying down 
upon his pillow) summooed to rMi;;n his 
li£e into the hands of Him who gave it. 



DE-\THS. 

LoWDON AND ITf VlCINITY. 

Jaiu 9. At Woolwich, MaJorTsylor,R.A. 
•/on. 19. In tapper Groavenor-st, Major 
Thoa. Otway Cave, brother to Rnbt. Otway 
Cave, esq. M.P. for Leicester. He was tlie 
eecood son of the late Heair Otway, esq. of 
Stanford Hall, Leic., and Castle Otway, in 
Ireland, by Sarah, sister and heiress to Sir 
Thomaa Cave, tlie seventh Bart, of Staufortl. 
He was Captain in the 97th foot, and pur* 
chased the rank of Major in 1836*. 

Jan. 30. In Devonshire-place, Ricliard 
Chichely Plowden, esq. a Director of the 
£ast India Company. 

Jan, 91. In Henrietta-st. Brunswick sq., 
aged 36, Geori^e Huntington, esq. of Hull, 
youngest son of late Wm. |{.e»q. of Kirkella. 
Jan. 93. In Harley-st.,agrd 38, thehon. 
Henrietta Maria Petre, sister to Lord Petre. 
She was the third dau. of Roht. Edward, 1 0th 
and late Lord by Mary Bridget, daughter of 
Henry Howard, esq., and sister to the Duke 
of Norfolk. 

Jan, 93. In York terrace. Regent's Park, 
Isabella Mary, wife of John ■Fairlie, esq. 

At Chelsea, aged 75, Robert Barker, esq. 

Jan. 96. Aged 69, Augns. Robt. Hankey, 
esq. of Fenchurch-st. banker. 

Jan. 97. In Great Ruttcll-st. Alexander 
Murray, esq. 

Jan. 38. Aged 71 , Mr. Willoughbv, of 
i«<rjfaats* Inn, a confidential clerk in 



Messrs. Hoares* benking-honse, and for- 
merly of West Knoyle, Wilts. 

Jan. 99. In Bernard St., aged 78, Samuel 
Pryer, esq. of Gray's Inn. 

Laiely. At hb son's, the Rev. W. H. 
Rowlatt, in Eutton-sq., aged 84, John Row- 
latt, eso. 

At Cliaring-cross, Major Henrv Marlay, 
half-pay of 8.id rtf^. late of the 8d Buffs. 
In HilUst., Col. Burrows, in hb 84ch year. 
Fel\ 9. In Brook-st , Margaret Emma, 
wife of Dr. Holland. 

In Warren-st., a<;ed 80, Wm. Lake, esq. 
uncle to Sir James S. W. Lake, Bart. He 
was the youngest and last surviving son of 
Sir Atwell, the 2d Bart, by Mary, only dau. 
of James Winter, of Mile-end, esq. 

Fel\ 3. In £bory-st., Pimlico. aged 84, 
Mrs. Byerley, many years attendant on the 
Princess Aucusta. 

Feb. 4. In Lambeth, Mr. W. H. Parys, 
who during the late war served in the Bra- 
zilian navy under Don Pedro, and was subse- 
quently employed in the Commissaiy-gene- 
lid's office, in Canada. During the war, he 
acted as clerk and interpreter to the various 
ships that were engaged, which situation 
he obt;iined througn the influence of a 
noble lord. At the conclusion of hostilities, 
a reduction took place, and Mr. Psrys was 
discluu'ged amonffst others. Upon his arrival 
in this country, he, with the utmost persa- 
verance, endeavoured to procure employ- 
ment suitable to his talents, but all his efft»rts 
proved unavsiling. He was reduced to the 
most deplorable distress, and at length driven 
to self-destruction by poison, leaving a wife 
and three children. 

Feb. 5. In Millman-st., Chas. Davis, esq. 
only son of late Mri Lnckyer Davis, of Hoi- 
born, bookseller, who died in 1791 (see 
memoirs of him in Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, vol. iv. p. 436'). Mr. Charles Davb 
was remarkably short in stature, a misfor* 
tune he very sensibly felt. He was a very 
amiable man, much respected and beloved. 

In Stanhope-street, May -fair, Alexander 
Montagu, only child of W. Bingham Baring, 
eso. M.P. 

In Harley-st. in his 80th year,VVm. T\nn. 
Welsh, esq. Some years back he returned 
from India with an independent fortune. On 
the 90th of Jan. he was knocked down by a 
cart, and the wheel went over his body ; he 
was able to walk home, but several ribs be- 
ing broken, he gradually tank until hit 
dissolution. 
fW^ 6. At Clapton, aged 90, Mrs. Brewster. 
Feb. 7. At Claremont-terrace, Cordall Tho- 
mas, esq. of the Bank of England. 

Sarah, 9d daughter of late Wm. Blosam, 
esq. of Hiehgate. 

Feb. 9. Henry, eldest son of late Lt.-Co]. 
West, R. A. 

At Kenniuston-green, a^red 49, Chas. Arm- 
strong, esq. mm-merchant, of S<nitliwark. 
Feb. 10. At Hountditch, the widow of Mr. 



188 



Obituaky. 



John Parker, cork manufacturer, having tar- 
vived her eldes^ dau (Mrs.GKbbs) onlv 6 days. 

Fd\ U . At Hackney, aged 59» fhotnas 
Giover, esq. who for many years was princi- 
pa] of tlie Investigators-office in the Hank 
of England. 

Aged 57, Lewis Charles Miles, esq. late 
of Epping. 

In NewBond-st. aged Bd,Wm.L!oyd,M.D. 

In Queen Anne->st. Sophia, widow of Wm. 
Bowen, M.D. of Bath, and sister to Thos. 
Boycott, esq. of Ridge Hall, Salop. 

Feb. 12. In Montagu-square, Mrs. Geo. 
Thomhill, sister to Sir John Gfesar Haw- 
kins, of Kelston, near Bath, Bart. She was 
<lau. of John Hawkins, esq. (son of Sir Gesar 
the first Bart.) by Anne, eldest dau of Jos. 
Colbume,esq. and was married in Aug. 1780. 

Feb, 18. In Guilfurd-st. aged 32, Alex. 
John Wallace, esq. 



Derby. — Feb, 16. At Derby, in the huute 
bf her son-in-law John Bingham, esq., 
Martha, widow of Daniel Rogers, esq. of 
Wassel Grove, Wore, (brother to the poet, 
Samnel Rogers, esq.) whose death was re- 
corded in our last volume, part ii. p. S84. — 
They have lefi a numerous fiiroily. 

Devon. — Jan. 16. At Torquay, Capt. Lu- 
cas, late of 2d Royal Veteran battalion. 

Jan. 25. At Whiteford House, Lady 
Louisa Georgiana, wife of Sir W. Pratt Call, 
Bart, lialf-sister to the Earl of Granard. She 
was the 3d dau. of George, the 5th and late 
Earl, by his second wire. Lady Georgiana 
Augusta Berkeley ; was married to Sir Wm. 
June 19y 1806*, and had several children. 

Jan, 29. Eliz. wife of the Rev. James 
Longmore, of Yealmpton, Devon, and sister 
of late Sir W. Young, G.C.B. 

Lateiy, At DawHsb, aged 45, Eleanor, 
wife of the Rev Jolm Norcross, Rector of 
Framlinghamy Suffolk, and third daughter 
of Robert Bell, esq. of Humbletou. 

At Plymouth, Comm. John Davies. 
. At Koowle Cottage, near Exeter, Lady 
Collier, widow of Rear- Adm.Sir Geo.Collier, 
Bart, and K.C.B. She was Maria, daughter 
of John Lyon, of Liverpool, M.D. ; was 
married Mav 18, 1805, and left a widow 
without children, March 21, 1824, when 
the Baronetcy expired. 

Feb, 5. At Fulford Park, near Crediton, 
the Right Hon. Susan Countess of St. Ger- 
mans. She was the 6th and youngest dau- 
of Sir John Mordaunt, the 7th Bart, (and 
grand&ther of the present Sir John,) by 
Elizabeth, dau. and coh. of Thos. Prowte, 
of Axbridg^e, esq. ; she became in 1814 the 
fourth wife of the Hon Wm. Eliot, (who 
succeeded his brother in the Earldom in 
1883,) and had no family. 

Dorset. — Jaw. 19. Aged 70, Anne, wife 
of Robert Bridge, esq. of Piddletrenthide. 

Jan. 28. Wni. Windham, infant son of 
the Rev. Wii^ Berry, Tarrant Hiutuo. 



[Feb. 

Feb, 5. At an advanced age, Mr. John 
PercT, an eminent surveyor and auctioneer 
of Sherborne, who conducted an exteotive 
business for nearly fifty years with the strict- 
est integrity. 

Feb. 9. In his 92d year, Thos. Young 
Bird, esq. the oldest burgess of the corpora- 
tion qf Poole. 

Feb, 1 8. At Okeford Fitzpaine, aged 82, 
Mr. John Longman, only sarviving brother 
of the late Mr. Joseph Longman, Master of 
the Free School, Sbroton. 

Gloucestershire. — At Norfolk-terrace, 
Gloucester, the wife of Lieut.-Col. Mason. 

Feb. 9. At the house of bis brother 
Wm. Weare, esq. Bristol* aged 75, Henry 
Weare, esq. of Clifioo* 

Feb. 10. At Codrington, aged 95. Han- 
nah, widow of Rich. Orumond Oseland, esq. 
attorney, of Malmeabury. 

Feb. 16. At Didmarton, aged 70, Robt. 
Dyer, esq. M.D. late of BristoL 

Hants. — Jan. 88. At Southamptoo, 
David, second son of the late Capt. Wm. 
Baird, and grandson of Sir Jas. Gardiner 
Baird, Bart, of Saughton Hall, Mid Lothian. 

Jan. 89. In his 48d jear, Augustus At- 
kius, esq. of Shidfield Honse, near Wtck*> 
ham. 

Feb, 6. Aged 1 6, Eliz. Stewart, niace of 
Dr. Stewart, of Southampton. 

Feb. 7. At Lyroioeton, aged 75, Eliz. 
wife of the Rev. Ellis Jones. 

Ftb. 8. Aged 76, Lieut. John Watkios, 
for 17 years of the S. Hants Militia, and 
previously of the Wilts. 

Feb, 14. At Southampton, aged 78, Wm. 
Smith, esq. late Collector of the Custoau of 
that port, and one of the senior Aldermaa of 
the Corporation. 

Feb. 19. At Wincliester, in the house of 
her son-in-law Sam. Deverell, eaq. aged 67, 
Mrs. Lechmere. 

At Avon Cottage, near Ringwood, aged 
66, James Tyrrell Ross, Esq. 

Hereford. — Jan. 9. At HerefNd, 
John Goise Rogers, -esq. formerly a com- 
mander in the E. I. C. He was one of the 
few who was saved from the wreck of the 
Haswell East lodiaman in 1786. 

Jan, 26. At Hereford, Ann, wife of Wn. 
Radford, esq. R. N. 

Herts. — Feb. 5. At St. Alban*s, John 
Harrison, esq. Ir-te a Commissioner of tho 
Victualling Board. 

Feb. 14. Aged 78, Tho. Hope Brde, ea^ 
of Ware Park, for many years neeeivtr- 
general in Herts. 

Hunts. — Feb. 12. At Stangronad, from 
pulmonary consumption, in her 17th Tear, 
Margaratta, eldest dan. of the Rer. Wm. 
Strong. To a frame already beyond tho 
ordinary stature of womanhood, ahe addad 
an understanding equally mature, aod dis- 
played a conscientious demeanour itt every 
reUtion of life. 



Obituary. 



vl89 



Kknt.— Ffi*. b*. At Frant, ftged 74, Wa. 
Ilftily, e%q. 

LricKSTCMiimt. — F<sb. 3. At Bath House, 
aged 4b*, tha Rt. Hon. Rob.-Wa. Shirlaj, 
Lord VitcouDt Tarn worth* only son of Earl 
Ferrers. He married Anne, otAj dan. of 
Rich. Wetton, eio. and luw left two aont, 
Wathiogton-Sewailit, now Viicoiiot Tam- 
worth, horn in 1832, and Robert- WilUam- 
Dererenx. 

Feb. 9. Aged 81, Mrs. Carver, of Prtnae 
Thorpe. 

Feb. II. At Eoderby, aged 81, Samud, 
•on of Mr. Rich. Hernck. 

Feb. 13. Aged 73, Thot. Walker, gent, 
of Earl Sbilton. 

Ftif. 15. At Whatton House, the seat of 
her brother-in-law Edward Dawson, esq. 
Catlierine, wife of the Rev. J. H. Hamilton, 
fifth and youngest dan. of the late Thos. 
March Phillips, esq. of Garendon Park. 

LiNCOLNfHiaE.^Jon. 91. At Wisbeach, 
in his 80th year, John Marshall, esq. 

Jan. 96. Alex, eldest son of Dr. Fraser, 
of Wisbeach. 

Latety. In his 52d year, Tamberlain 
Qwillim, esq. of Sleaford, and of Welling- 
ton, near Hereford. 

Feb. H. At Lincoln, aged G5, the relict 
of Dr. Rockliffe, of Homcastlc. 

Middlesex. — Jan. 29. Aged 72, Benj. 
Fuller, esq. of Homscy. 

At Fincliley, in her 82d vear, Mary, relict 
of Edw. Homer, esq. of West Town, Back- 
well. 

Norfolk. — Jan. 21. Tlie wife of Andrew 
Fountaine, esq. of Narford Hall. 

NORTHAMrrONtMlRE. — Juju, 1829. At 
Oundle, aged 70, Mr. Thomas Haynes, au- 
thor of an « Improved System of Nursery 
Gardening," 1811, royal 8vo. ; ** A Treatise 
on propagating hardy American Green-house 
PlanU« Fruit-trees," Sic. 1811, royal 8vo. { 
'* A Treatise on the improved Culture of the 
Strawberry, Raspberry, and Gooseberry,** 
1812, 8vo. 

Jan. 22. At PeUrborough, aged 67 > Ka- 
therine, wife at Christopher JeflFery, esq. 

Jan. 27. At fiyfield Rectory, aged 40, 
Cbarlotu, wife of the Rev. Cha. Wetherell. 
Norf^^Fet, 12. AtMirfield Hall, near 
Tux ford, aged 92, Mrs. Catherine Cart- 
wnght, dau. of Wm. Cartwright, esq. of 
Mamham, by Anne dau. of Geo. Cartwright, 
esq. of Oesington. She was sister to the late 
Major Cartwright and the Rev. Dr. Cart- 
wright, FJLS. ; and, like her distinguished 
brothers, preaerved to extreme old aga an 
extraordinary degree of quickness and men- 
tal taergy. She waa, in her manners and 
accomplishmtPta^ one of the moet perfect 
•pectaMoa of a geatlewomaa of the old 
achool, af which Uitrt art now but few ex- 
amples left. 

ihcoK. — Feb, 5. At Ifilev, ared 80, Mary, 
wife of John IraUiidy eeq. M.D. a nagi»trate 
of tht CO. of OxuB. 



Latdjf* In bit ttot at Lauatom i^pad op- 

warda df 100, Jamaa Smith* a weU-kaowa 

character, conaidered a Uag^af the Gipaies. 

Salop.-^^M. B. Rieh. Hayaai )«Ma« 

esq. of Bishop's Caatle, lata senior Captain 

nth Foot. 

SoMBtSET.— Jon. 81. At Martoclfo in 
her 2dd year* Mary, third dau. of Wm. Cola 
Wood, esq. { and on the following day, at 
Coate, in her 80th year, £Us.-Cole, Ma 
eldest dau. and wife of Wm. R. Warn, t^f^ 
Lately. At Bath, aged 69, Major Godlirey, 
formerly of the 1 1 th Dragooaa, and Soaier- 
set Fencible Cavalry, and a BMgiitiata af 
the county. 

Feb. 1 . At Taunton* Susanna* widow of 
the late Rev. H. Hj^man* of Halstock* in 
CO. Dorset. 

Fe6. 2. At Bath, ag«l aearly 70, the 
Hon. Vesey Knox, brother to Loid Visa. 
Northland, to the Bishop of Derry* aad 
the Dean of Down* He was the third of the 
seven tons of Thomas the first Viscount, by 
the Hon. Anne Vesey, second dau. of Jolm 
first Lord Knapton. Ha was formerly Cap- 
tain in the d2d Foot ; and having marriad, 
Oct. 23, 1792, Catherine, dau. of Gen. Gis- 
bome, had one dan. and two sons \ 1 . Ma- 
risnn Diana, married to the Rev. Richard 
Nugent Homer; 2. Thomas* Gisborae s 8. 
the Rev. Edmond-Thomas. 

Feb, 14. At Bath, aged 27, Mr. J. Pavty* 
painter, author of a treatise on the Bane in 
Sheep, whieh met with the highest appro- 
bation from the Hath and West of England 
Agricultural Society. 

Lately. At Stanton Drew, Mr. Paint, 
farmer, aged 102. 

Jan, 1 3. At Alford-House, aged 76, John 
Thring, esq. a deputy lieutenant and acting 
magistrate for the county. 

Feb. 15. At Bath, Maria, relict of Robert 
Batharst, esq. formerly collector of customs 
in Bengal. 

Stappord. — Jan. 23. At Stafford, aged 
65, Henry Somerville, esq. M.D. 

Sufiolk. — Dec. 26. Aged 6fij Susanna, 
wife of Milesoh Edgar, esq. of the Red 
House, near Ipswich. 

Jan, 20. At Capt. Warner's, Layham* 
Artemkdorus-Cromwell, son of Tho. Arte- 
midonis Russell, esq. of Cheshunt Park, and 
grandson of the Ute Oliver Cromwell, esq. 

Surrey. — Dec. 30. At Surbiton-plaoe, 
Bged 17, Emma, dan. of Mr. Aid. Garrett 
(see the death of a younger sister in our laat 
number, p. 93). 

Jan, 17. At Egham, aged 8 1 , Mrs. Jane 
Wetton, formerly of Chertsey. 

Sussex. — Jan, 25. At Brighton, agad 
87, Silvanns Bevan, esq. late of Foabury 
House, Wilts, and of Gloucester-place. 

FeX), 1 . At Worthing, aged f years, the 
Hon. Arthur-Dudlay Law* only child of Ld. 
Ellenborough. 

Feb. 4. At Brighton, aged 83, the Hon. 



190 



Obituary.— BtZZ qf MortalUy.^^MarkeU. 



[Feb. 



QwrloUey widow of A. Chapmiii, esq. of 
Gmnrille Howoy Dorset. 

Feb, 8. At Hutiiigi^ aged 69^ John 
Aoetesy otq. 

WiLTi. — Jan, tl. At Eut Harnham, 
need 96y Mary Ann, only daa. of the late 
Mr. John Gou, of hit Majesty's Chapel 
Royal* and formerly of Salisbury. 

Jan. 95. At Salisbarr, aged 56, Rachel 
Frances, second dau. of the late Rer. H. 
Hawes, Rector of Little Laogford and Dit- 
teridge. 

Laieiy. At Langley Burrell, aged 80, 
Nicholas Ponting, esq. 

Feb. 17. Aged 6t, Thelwall Maurice, 
«sq. of Marlborough. 

Aged 68, Oeorge Moule, esq. a respect- 
able solicitor and hanker, of Melksham. 

Feb. 99. At Calue, Mr. Robert Bailey, 
woolstapler ; a worthy upright man, and a 
member of the corporation. 

YoRKsHiiis. — Jim. 91. At Westwood- 
ball, near Leeds, aged 74« Ann, relict of 
Lieut.-Col. Lloyd, of Kingthorpe-house, 
and dau. of late Walter Wade, esq. of New 
Orai^, near Leeds. 

Jan. 99. At Ripon, aged 69, Githerine, 
widow of W. Harrison, M.D. 

Jan* 96. Aged 81, John, eldest son of 
Tho. Cadman, esq. of Leeds. 

Lately. At Sheffield, aged 105, Dorothy 
Jones* She was the mother of eleven sons, 



all of whom fell in the service of their 
try, nine in the army and two in the nainr. 

Fa, 4. At Eccleshill, aged 78, the Rer. 
Zechariah Yewdall, Methodist Preacher. 

Feb. 8. Aged 59, Mr. Lancashire* book- 
seller, Huddersfield. 

Feb. 9. At Leeds, aged 99, Edward San- 
derson Oeorge, esq. F.L S. Hiji attainments 
in chemistry contributed in a hiffh dc^ret to 
the prosperity of the respectMile firm of 
Thomas George and Sons. The Philoeo- 
phieal Hall, in Leeds, exhibits many meaM>- 
rials of his knowledge in geology, ornitho- 
logy, and various other departments of aci- 
ence. 

Feb. 11. At Scarborough, aged 69» tlie 
relict of John Fowler, esq. naany ytan na 
eminent shitHbuilder. Mrs. F. is the eighth 
of the family that has died within the Jeat 
nine months. 

Wales.— Jon. 93. At Welfield-hoiiae» 
Radnorshire, aged 46, David Thomea, ea^ 
a Magistrate and Deputy LieuteBBSt oif co. 
Brecon. 

Feb. 15. Edw. Aug. Phillips, «iq. of 
Slebech-hall, Pemb. 

Scotland. —' At Arbuthnot-house, eo. 
Kincardine, aged 80, the Hon. Charlotte 
Arbuthnot, aunt to Vise. Arbuthnot. She 
was the eldest dau. of John, the 6th Viae.» 
by his second wife Jane, dau. of Alex* Ar- 
buthnot, of Fiudourie. 



^» 



BILL OF MORTALiry, from Jan. 90, to Feb. 16, 1830. 



Cliristened. 
Males - 628 
Females - 645 



} 



1978 



l!uried. 
Males - 807 ) 

Females - 999 J 



1799 



Whereof have died under two years old 
Salt 65. per boshel; 1{</. per poonJ. 




9 and 5 141 
5 and 10 59 
10 and 90 55 
90 and 30 108 
SO and 40 1 13 
40 and 50 175 



50 and 
60 and 
70 and 
80 and 



60 15^ 
70 904 

aoirt 

90 9t 



90 and 100 II 





CORN EXCHANGE, Fel 


u 92. 


Wlieat. 
s. d. 


Barley. 
s. d. 


Oatf. 
t. d. 


Rye. 
s, d. 


Beans. 

s. d. 


75 


34 


99 


39 


36 



Peas, 
s. d, 
88 



PRICE OF HOPS, Feb. 92. 

KentBm 5/. 19f. to 8/. Os. 

Sussex Uitto 5^ 55. to 6L 65. 

Essex 52. 195. to 7l 75. 

Famham (fine) 191. 05. to 13^ 135. 

PRICE OF HAY AND STRAW, Feb. 99. 
Smithfield, Hay 91. 105. to AL 155. Straw 9/. 05. to 9Z. 145. Qover 32. 1 5s. to 61. Oi. 

SMITHFIELD, Jan. 95. To sink the Offal— per stone of 8lbs. 



Famham (seconds) 9L Of. to 102. lOs. 

KentPockets SL Os, to\OL 0«. 

Sussex &2. 165. to 62. 6s. 

6L 65. to 8^ iff. 



Beef 35. \od. to 45. 

Mutton 45. 9(2. to 45. 

Vad 55. 0(2. to 65. 

Pork 45. 542. to 55. 



9(2. 
8(2. 
0(2. 
6(2. 



Lamb 05. 0<2. to Ot. Odl 

Head of Cattle at Market . Feb. 99 : 

Beasts 9,443 Cahea 79 

Sheepaod Lambs 14,540 Pigi 160 

COAL MARKET, Feb. 92, 925. Od. to 365. 6d, ^ 

TALLOW, per cwt.— Town Tallow, 405. Od. Yellow Russia, 385. 6d. 

OAP.— Yellow, 74f. Mottleil, 805. Curd,825.— -HANDLES, 75. per doz. Mouliki 85.6^. 



I 191 1 
PRICES OF SHARBS, Fchruarj83, 1830, 

At tbt OKn (/WOUi:, BanriiMi, Stock & "da^* AH*}, ConhiD 



t 11* 1 

MElEOROLOGlCAr, DIARY, by W. CARY. sViakd, 



Fdimihcit'i Them. 

Si 



to FdiTaary 9S> 1S30, talk inetutitr. 
'iTIicim. 






33 1' 



lObir 



Icluudj 



17 jo 

18 I 4li ' 



I 33 i !9, R7:cliMiHj 

9 i 33 '. , 70&ir 
Q . 30 ': , G4'&ir 

D ; SO :. , so'bir 



\\%> 



DAILY PRICE OF STOCKS. 

Pnm Janattry 4B, la Fetruarg 35, 1830. Irolk in 






11 its 



J. J. ARNULL, Stuck Broker, Buk-buiMiDgi, CnnihUI, 

Ute ItlCIIARMOH, GoODM'CKi (Sd Co. 



GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 





MARCH, 1830. 



pr/A 



[PUBUSHED 

«Tf|lnil tftnmnnfcitlon^. 
iR CoaiupOMDiNCE. — Ld. BloomfitU 194 

DcKclptiTc Account of Migdcborg 193 

Tlic CliolflB FvnilT 197 

Wdl Ihrough (he H'lghUwl* 19S 

.Mill Tm'i Almi Hautci tt Milchu 101 

JudIiu, Sir P. Fnncii, Burka, uhI H.Tooka, il. 

Anwricu EtuJuU en Juaiiu SOS 

Drhcu in tb« Court of Cbioccnr it. 

Kciwki on Peuicburch, ». HinToid . ..(OS 
VVhuplodi.HHlum. & PortUhexiChurcbe* 904 

Auti»l U<tl of WiMhM»r Cutl* it. 

-Sir KcmIoi llubr'i McDoin SOS 

SitT.MulMwipicIiiKDfliifkiiUafSpaiDlOr 

AnlicDt EpiUph ia BroBlei CKunh SOS 

Percjr MonunraU U BtttAej 109 

Ru-reliari ia Bavtiltj MiotMr IIS 

Mr.Upham'tlUpUtaMr. Higgio 914 

ll.>n. ud Hit. O. Spmnt'i CoBienion . . -Sia 

Oo th* Dunrt of Popcit 918 

Naiic«tofT»UtackuuliuAbhcT. ..91S-9S1 

Hriuih MoaumcaU uil SuoD School 919 

Lifr tad WriiiDci afChiuUphcr MulDn..lS9 
Puiphraw OB Zieimith, Cbap. X 9S4 

Riwm of turn Ipubdcatigii^. 

'• LihofSitThoaMMunro 996 

Sir H. Dstj'i CouolUioal ia Tnnl 999 

Itibri'i Lhuum OB Uiriidu Eduntioa. ..931 
i^ballUlMd aich k Vin of Alm> Houiu at Mi 



APRIL 1. 1 830.] 

DiDbaaj'i Onid* to th* Charcli 9SI 

Popolu Vongn wd Tnnli — Tutkor . ■ . ■ Ul 
Sir J. Wiltli OB Poor Uwi ia IraluJ . . . .UE 

Bp. Mul'i Clenrmu'i ObUgMiooi SS7 

Dr. TowBioo'i Pnctiul DiicounM 93S 

.DBual Obiturj for 1830 . , 



JJ.S4S 

Bi bl iognphioai ud Rotroipoct it* MlM«lhof94 G 

NmbU Hiitori of Iuhcu .917 

MikcIIbwoiu natifwi. 948-950 

Fmi Abti 930 

LiTiRimvlKTtLUOEi)ci.-N«i>PoblicatioB*933 
AMTianiRitii RuiiacHU 9SJ 

SlLtCTPOITIT 937 

Ki^todtal €tiaa\tU. 

Proccsdian in pteicat SMiioaof PuIiuacDtSSB 
Fonigo tttn, 9fl3.--DosiaticOccnrr*acM9e4 

Promotioaa, &e.S63.— Mardun 9(i6 

OarrujtmT) *ilb Mcmoin of Lord Rodc*- 
dal* ; Lord On^tt i Right Hoa. O. T\n- 
B*T ; Bp. of St. Anph ; Bp. Sudfixd ; Sir 
C.BnnoDi Sir H. C. MoBUonwni A. Ctlf- 
ford, M. H. B<wb, J. Smilhioa, Mai*., 
0*a. MrtBcrieffi Gaa. Slawvt, of Owtb i 

Adm. FriMri Capt. Fol*]', &e 9S7 

Bill of Monditr.— Muksu, 996.— ShaiHSBT 

MatwRological Diar;. — Priw of Stoeki.,988 

rcHiM, lata!/ tndcd aad (odoBod bjMiw Tin; 

MOKUMUTT U BlVEKLIY. 



By SYLVANOS URBAN, Gimt. 



[ 19* ] 

MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. 



Oar Corretpondent Tiibooorus, to p. 
103, however correct he may be in other 
tnore Important }>oiDtt relative to the Hoo. 
and Rev. George Spencer, must stand cor- 
rected with regard to the value of the Church 
frefermeot relinquished by that nobleman. 
t consisted only of the living of Brington 
(his father's parish) in Northamptonshire; 
which it is true u a rectory, but which, it 
must be well known in the neighbourhood, 
produces not a fifth peart of the annual in- 
come stated by our correspondent. 

£. Y. remarks : ** Before yonr Old Sub- 
scriber attempted to nnfrock Lord Bloom- 
iield (as he does, p. 498j, he should have 
looked at the articles ot the Irish Union, 
where he will find the very case provided 
for, and will perceive that the only effect of 
the allowance of the Roscommon Peerage 
is, that the Crown must await the extinc- 
tion of Jour peerages instead of ihreCf before 
a new Irish Peer can be created." — If £. Y. 
had referred to p. 290, he would have seen 
the same law laid down by our Old Sub- 
scriber hinMelf ; and the first paragraph of 
his letter in p. 498, tends to the same point, 
— that, as the Earl of Roscommon was not 
acknowledged by the House of Peers until 
1828, and no new creation has since been 
made, the case is without difficulty, pro- 
vided that the Roscommon peerage remain- 
ed unclaimed for twelve months after the 
late £ari;s death in 1816. Tliis, we are 
now enabled to state, it did ; as, although 
the present Earl perhaps assumed the title, 
neither he, nor any other claimant, nuule 
any .'such legal claim before the House 
of Peers as alone could be regarded by 
the Government. The right of the Crown 
to avail itself of the presumed extinction, is 
therefore indefeasible, and Lord Bloom- 
field's patent holds good. It is true that 
his Lordship has not yet voted at the elec- 
tion of a Representative Peer, and this be- 
cause he has not proved his right liefore 
the House ; but it is merely a voluntary de- 
lay, prol>ably arising from his absence from 
the country. Our Old Subscriber was 
not strictly correct in stating that the pre- 
sent Earl of Roscommon's name was in- 
cluded, pending his claim, in the annual 
list of Ulster King at Arms; the title was 
returned, but the name left blank. The 
consideration of these circumstances will, it 
is presumed, a^ain restore Lord Bloom- 
field's patent to the favourable impression 
under which our Old Subscriber pre- 
viously virwcd it ; and it will be evident 
that the Crown has merely to quote four in- 
stead of three extinctions in the next pa- 
tent conferred. We presume, indeed, that 
the delay which has taken place in the 
creation of Mr. James Daly to the title of 
Lord Dunsandle* has Arisen from an inten- 
tion to wait till the legal space of a twelve- 
month lias expired, after the date of a fourth 
extinction. 



Mr. W. Hortok Llotd says, '* Yonr 
Correspondent W. S. B. part ii. p. 484 » of 
last vol. in correcting Sir Walter Scufct'a 
errors, appears to have &llen Into one him- 
self. He objects to the Dominicans being 
called by Sir Walter Scott black friars, and 
asserts that they were called white friars. But 
the Dominicans certainly were called Heuk 
friars, wearing a black dress ; and the Car- 
melites were those called White Friam, ae 
see (if authority be necessary) Bonanai'e 
Religions Orders, — Burn's Bccles. Law, art. 
Monasteries, — and Dngdale's Warwickshire^ 
p. 1«2." 

J. G. N. observes, that our correspon- 
dents, on the biography and literary lalmiin 
of the Rev. William Ains worth, in our laet 
volume, part ii. pp. S90, 498, 600, do not 
appear to have been aware tliat a bibliosira- 
pnical account, with eatracts, from toat 
author's " Medulla Bibliorum, 1659,'* was 
communicated to our vol. zcvii. i. 599. 

Carthusiemsis is desirous to supply an 
omission in the Obituaries of the late JSiahop 
of Crlcutta (Dr. James), and that groat 
and excellent man Dr. WoUaston, by eUtlng 
that they were both, though ** loogo in- 
tervallo, educated at the Charier H<m»e, a 
school which he could prove by nnouotiooa- 
ble documents, has produced witbin the 
last century more distinguished Churchmen, 
Lawyers, and Statesmen, in proportion to 
the number of its scholars, than any other 
public school in the kingdom. 

Mr. Cliristopher Irwin, of Downend, naar 
Bristol, having noticed in onr July Man- 
zine, p. 2, the inquiries of W. B. re a pectuig 
the Irwins of Devonshire, sends the fiMlowinx 
information : — John Irwin (who is suppoeed 
to be the eldest son of Christopher Inrin) 
who removed from Scotland into Deroo- 
shire, was buried March 5, 1768; a atone 
was erected to his memory in Kenlesbory 
Church (near Barnstaple), bnt in the re- 
pairs which the chureh underwent laat sum- 
mer, it is lost. His wife Mary died in 
1796, aged .93. This John Irwin had three 
sons and one daughter, John, William, and 
Christopher. Chrihtopher (my grandfather) 
died Nov. 30, 1768. William Irwin, the 
brother of John Irwin, sen. died Jan. fil, 
1779, aged 60; and Elizabctl) his wile, 
died Dec. 7, 1773, who had three eont, 
John, William, and Joseph. 

Errata. — Vol. xcix. ii. p. 491, b. I. 40, 
fijr Pt4)linus, read Ploiinus. — P. 493, a. last 
line, fiir communion, read connexion.— P. 
495, a. I. 33, for deemed read deem.— P. 
595, b. line 16 from bottom, ^br compli- 
ment read complement. — Ibid. Pig. !• fifr 
34«§ read 20*> 57'.— P. 5:18, last line, fir 
34® 30' rsad «0* 67'» 

Vol. c. i. p. 90, a. 1. 20,Jvr 1899 read 
1893; p. 184, b.l. 93,ybr L898« read 1899. 



THE 

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. 



MARCH, 1830. 



OBZOnVAXi COMMUmCATIONS. 

DBSCRimVK ACCOUNT oF MAODBBURO. 

Mr. Urbav, of the north aiile, north porch, and 

AS thecitT of Magdeburg (a trans- west end, with iu towers, whieh are 

latioo or its more ancient appella- Gothic) promiscuously of those two 

tion, Parthenopolif) does not come styles of architecture which, when 

within the course ^nerally pursued by found in this country, have been lately 

Enf^lish travellers m Saxony, the fo(- denominated Norman and Early Eng- 

lowing account of it, imperfect as it is, lish. The profusion of ornaments, 

may not be entirely unacceptable to chiefly foliage, lavished all over the 

some of your readers; more es))ecially as interior, is truly astonishing; and the 

it has now been, for several ages, one execution of it is beyond measure de« 

of the most important places in that licate. The greatest display of sculp* 




beauty, and the number of its churches, statues of saints, which are in them- 

and remarkable for the great strength selves sufficient proofs of the very great 

of its fortifications. The form of it is ability of the artists employed upon the 

nearly that of a circle, whose diameter buildmg. To the south side of the 

is about an English mile. The prin- church is attached a quadrangular 

cipal part is on the western bank of cloister, chiefly in the Norman style 

the Elbe ; there are also a suburb, with of architecture, in which are several 

the citadel, on the eastern, and a few monuments to former dignitaries of the 

small streets, on an island, united to see. In a chapel, to the south of the 

both by bridffes. The fortifications are choir, is a small altar-tomb of white 

kept in excellent order i and the glacis, stone, to the memory of the Empress 

being generally planted with trees and Edith above-named, with a represcn* 

shrubs, makes tne immediate neigh- tation of her upon the top or it, of 

bourhood of the town extremely agree- which, though much mutilated, enough 

able. remains to give the specutor an idea of 

It seems to have arrived at its hiahest iu having been a faithful portrait, and 

gMnt of eminence in the reign of the of one to whom had been allotted no 

mperor Otho the Great, who in the common share of personal charms, 

year 930, at the desire of his Empress On the margin of the tablet, on which 

Edith (accordinf( to Speed, a dauahier the figure reposes, is the following in* 

of omr Saxon kins Edward the Elder) scription, which remains uninjured : 

built the cathedral church in honour " dive . rxginb . ro^nor" . bdit . 

of St. Maurice, and transferred thither anolib . rbois . bdmVoi . filib . uic 

one of the ten bishops' sees established ess a . ccTdv'^tvr . cvivs . rbligiosi . 

hy his ancestor Charlemagne, when he amoris . imptlsv . hoc . tx^plV . 

had completed the conouest of Saxony, ab . othokb .^maovo . Divo . cab- 

lliis church is (with tne exception of sarb . fv'datv* . est . obiit . a^jio . 

the screen to the choir, the windows christi . Dcccc . xlvii." * f 

* S«venl of the Ittten of this iatcriptioii (aeoordiog to a praettce which wts oommon 
io tlie decline of the Roman empire, mod which was imitated by those who had adopted, In 
a degraded form, Ronao arts aad literature) are placed (io sroalh within the preceding 
letter, aa I within D, in the word " DIV£,' &c. The mention of an ejffigy on the tombt 
aiHl the figures io Goikic niches placed round ity indicate that the tomb must have been 
erected at a period much posterior lo the death of Edith. As to the iascription round the 



196 JccouiU of Magdehurg. [ftfarcb« 

The tides of the tomb are occupied burnt in 1631 • doriog the thirty jcars* 

by Gothic niches, which have small war, are Su U]rica*Sy St. John's, St. 

statues in them; and the north end Catherine's, SuJames^Su Sebastian's, 

has a representation of some part of Sl Nicholas's^ St. Peter's, the Walloa 

the legend of St. Elizabeth. The south Chorcb, and that of the Holy Ghost. 

end, from the position of the mono- These are uniformly in the same style 

ment, is invisible. of Gothic architecture, which has beea 

At the west end of the church there designated perpend icolar Engliih. It 

is also another altar- tomb, very large, should, howerer, be obsenreo, that the 

and of bronze, to the memory of four firstrnamed have each two lofty 

Ernest, a bishop of the see, who died square towers at their western ends ; 

in the early part of the sixteenth cen- those of St. John's being in the Nor- 

tory, but by whose order it was cast at man style, having apparently, with the 

the latter end of the fifteenth. Upon areater part of the cathedral and Sl 

it lies a figure of him, in the episcopal Marv*s, escaped the otherwise giencral 

robes and mitre, with a richly-worked conflag^tion. St. Mary's is of an 

Gothic canopy above the head, having earlier order of architecture than the 

the crosier in one hand and a staff in cathedral, and is, to all appearance, 

the other. At the angles are the em- the roost ancient edifice in the citT. Il 

blems of the four Evangelists, with the is built of red brick, and is siggplar at 

exception of that of Sl John, which having two round towers at its west 

was destroyed by the Freneh, when end. The nave is flanked t^ nine 

they took the town, under Marshal plain semicircular arches, resting opoa 

Ney. The sides and ends are com- massy square pillars, the capitals of 

posed of Gothic niches, in which are which are generally engraved with 

statues of the apostles and other saints. Arabesque work : from thence apwarda 

Behind the choir are two slabs of the building seems to be of later date, 

bronze, with figures of bishofis upon other arches having been erected onon 

them, in relief; one of Frederic, who them in the early English s^le. The 

died in the twelfth century ; and the transepts and chancel are sifluiar to the 

othei^— which is extremely beautiful, nave. The windows to the aialea are 

and has the two first fingers of the merely narrow highly chamfered opciv- 

light hand elevated, as in the act of ings, with semicircular heads, 
giving the benediction — of Albert, who The square, of which the cathedral 

died m the tenth. Possibly this last forms one side, is planted with tree^ 

may be to the memory of that prelate, and has upon it the ropl p^ace, pa* 

mentioned by the Noremburg Chro« laces for the superiora of tiie cbnicb, 

nicle as the first of the see. The a building for the administration of the 

church is at present under repair,. so aflbirs of the province, and a laige 

that two monuments are boarded op, newly-erected barrack for anillery. 

to secure them from injury. It does The number of military now stalioQed 

not, however, appjcar tliat either of here is about 4000, chiefly consisting 

these is that for which it was formerly of artillery and infantry; and there are 

famous— of Otho himself. I suppose, extensive barracks for then under the 

therefore, it perished by the hands of the western ramparts, besides the qnarteia in 

French. There was once here a large the ciudel and those above-mentioned. 

collection of reliques, and, amongst In the market-place, in front of the 

them, one of the water-pou, the con- town-house, is a small equestrian statoe 

tents of which were changed into wine of the Emperor Otho the Great, opoo 

by our Saviour, at the marriage-feast of a lofty pedestal and under a stone 

Cans in Galilee; but these have dis- canopy, with those of his two wives, 

appeared since the introduction of Lu- Ediin and Adelaide, 
theranism into the country. There are From the easy communication by 

ten other churches besides the cathe- the Elbe with Hamburg, this bat 

dral ( one only of which, Sl Mary's, now become a very busthng commer- 

belongs to those of the Roman Catholic cial town, and the handsome quays to 

persuasion. The remaining nine, all the river have very large warehouses 

probably rebuilt since the town was upon them. There are manufactories 

— — ^ t 

▼erge of the tablet, we cannot judge, withont oenlar intpeccion, whether the tablet be the 
sime which, at a simple flat stone, might have on^nmWy covered the £ropren*t tomb : cr 
whether the whole has been renewed, and a more aacieot inseriptien imitated.— Eorr. 



1830.] 



Th$ dintcm Family. 



IW 



for difimnl trtidet of doihing ; but 
that for which the place it particularly 
eroinenty it a tubttitate for cofllce from 
the root of the wild toccory (Ciehoriam 
lotybat), a plant to be foand on watte 
grouDd every where in thit country, 
and eatiW recognised in tammer and 
autumn oy itt beautiful blue flower. 
In a ttate of cultivation the roott grow 
very large and flethy ; and the prepara- 
tion of them, when oted in combina- 
tion with the coffee ittelf, it taid to 
add very much to the agreeablenets of 
iu flavour. X. Y. Z. 



Mr. Urban, Osjord, Feb. l6. 

YOUR Antiquarian Corretpondent, 
Mr. Fot broke, in p. 31, complaint 
of certain difficultiet which he findt 
concern ins one Reynold de Clinton, 
mentioned in Hatted't " History of 
Kent," vol. iv. p. 3(>7* Hatted, How- 
ever, had in tome degree corrected hit 
own error, by taying " Reynold, or 
more probably William Lord Clinton." 
There wat a Reginald or Reynold de 
Sandwich, of tome eminence, con- 
nected with the history of thit town, 
in conjimetioo with some of the Clin- 
ton family ; which probably led to thit 
misapplication of the Christian name : 
but the great benefactor to the Houteof 
the Carmelite Friart at Sandwich, wat 
certainly William Lord Clinton. The 
date of hit benefaction, neverthelctt, 
was not the twentieth of Edward I., 
but the tenth of Edward HL There 
were, iodeedy tome grantt to the Priory, 
conBrmed by letiert patent of the eighth 
and thirty-murth of Edward L; but 
theae, it it pretumed, were inferior be- 
nefactions, though the very ezitteoee 
of them it tuflicieot to account for thit 
variety and ooofutioo of datet and 
namet. Hatted*t " Hittory" it truly 
characterited by Mr. Fotbroke at " va- 
luable;*' but in the pretent inttance, 
whatever relaiet to the Priory at Sand- 
wich, Hatted copied from Boyt, the 
bittorian of the town. Boyt copied 
from Tanner I Tanner from Weever; 
Weever from Bale, Ldand, See. The 
most valoable and isteretting part 
of << The Hittory of Sandwich," by 
Boys, it eatracted from the town- 
recofdt, many of which are now lott, 
not entirely it is to be hoped, from 
the unwortny caute oMntioncd by Mr. 
Garret, the town-clerk— that antiqua- 
riet liave b^rrwced them, and nave 
forgotten to return them. Thit it a 



terioot aceniatioii, which all true aft- 
tiquariet are bound to repel i and Mr. 
Gariet should be called upon eitlier to 
substantiate the charge, or retract it. 
They might probably have been used 
by Boys, and not replaced. 

Mr. Fotbroke is uot quite correct in 
stating that friaries haa no territorial 
endowments, though such endowments 
were rare, particularly in the early 
history of such establishments. The 
Dominicans, or Black Friars, are said 
to have come into England in 1921 1 
the Franciscans, or Grey Friart, in 1 224 ; 
the Carmelites, or White Friars, about 
1240. The latter were to far from 
being popular at first, that in the forty- 
teventn of Henry III. about three-and 
twenty yeart after their lirtt introduc- 
tion, we find a writ from the Crown 
for arresting all vagabond Carmelites. 
Hence, by decreet, arote their fixed 
habitations, with occasional endow- 
ments, some of which were considera- 
ble, as this at Sandwich. Henry V. 
it taid to have taken up hit abode 
with this fraternity, in the year 14l6, 
before he embarked for Calais ; a pre- 
sumptive proof of their opulence and 
importance. 

The Bernardines were only a re- 
formed branch of Friart, brought into 
England so late as 1452, whose most 
sumptuous foundation was in Oxford, 
from the munificence of Archbishop 
Chicheley, part of whose establishment 
may still be seen in the outer quadran- 
gle of St. John's Collure. 

To return to the (Jlinton femtly, I 
am quite tatisfied that there was no 
William Lord Clinton in the time of 
Edward L though there were many 
eoDateral brancoet of the family of 
that name, both before and afW that 
period; and the 6rtt William Lord 
Clinton wat created Earl of Hunting- 
don in the fourteenth century, and not 
so late as the period of Henry IV. and 
Edward IV. at tUtoB by Mr. Fotbroke* 
L e in the fifteenth century. Tkete 
particolart are of importance, as eoiv 
nected with the hittory of an illottriout 
family; aiKl at your Aepotitory, Mr. 
Urban, it remarkable for itt genealogi- 
cal at well as other treaanret of ai^ 
tiquity, I have trantmitted thetc notices 
for iotertioo in your pa^. Mr. 
Fotbroke himtelf, on examination of 
Dogdale and other aothoritiet, will tee 
elearly the real ttale of the eate, and 
will be the firtt to correct any mistake. 

J.I. 



198 



Walk through </ie Highlands. 



[Marcby 



Walk through ths Highlands. 

{Continued from page 1S8.) 

IMMEDIATELY on quiuingDum- 
bartou, we crossed the Leven, and, 
according to some, entered on the 
Highlands. Generally speaking, how- 
ever, they are said to commence at 
Loss. Soon after this we passed the 
monument, by the road side, erected 
to the memory of Dr. Smollett, and 
were within view of the family man- 
sion. I do not recollect that there is 
any thing particularly elegant in this 
monument, neither is the situation of 
it happy, except in as far as regards 
publicity. The roads here are un- 
commonly good, and the neighbour- 
hood populous, with several bleach- 
fields. 

At this spot we were joined by a 
dirty and right villanous-looking fel- 
low, with a pack at his back, who 
seemed determined to favour us with his 
company. At first we were shy; but he 
persevered, and, in the end, we gained 
from him some nsefol information. He 
was a Highlander, and had a perfect 
knowledge of the whole country and 
Its inhabitants, in high or low land. 
He had travelled repeatedly over the 
borders, and been as iar south as York. 
Finally, it appeared that he was a 
whiskey smuggler, and with this de- 
lightful beverage he travels all over 
Scotland. If this is found upon him 
by the government-officers, 

*' Thae curst horse-leeches o' th* Excise, 
Wha mak the wbitkey-itills their prize," 

he is instantly deprived of his whole 
cargo. But this is the only punish- 
ment ; " for as yet," says he, *' there is 
BO transporting in our country." He 
now spoke English well, although at 
the ase of twenty-five, he said he was 
unable to utter a word of that lan- 
guage. 

The first view which we had ■ of 
Loch Loinond was infinitely more 
bcAutiful than I have words to express. 
The day was fine, and very warm, 
though not without a refreshing breeze. 
The waves of the Lake rolled stilly and 
placidly to the shore, reflecting, in the 
most vivid manner, heaven's blue con- 
cave. We had a view of several of 
the Islands, clad in the freshest ver- 
dure; of the house of Cameron, most 
romantically situated on the water's 
edge, yet " bosomed high in tufted 
trees;*' and of Ben Lomond, at the 
further extremity of the Lake. At the 
spot where we rested, the wild flowers 
from the hedges dispensed the most 



grateful fragrance; and, altogether, I 
^It the scene highly exhilarating; 
Here, too, the sides ot the road were 
adorned with foxglove in great abun- 
dance, and in full bloom, with varioos 
other flowers, which, without being 
rare, were notwithstanding beautifuL 

" The droopinc Ash, and Birch, betvrceDt 
Hang their nir tresses o'er the giecoy 
And all beneath, at random grow 
Each coppice dwarf of varied tbow. 
Or round the stemt profusely t«riiied» 
Fling summer odours on the wind." 

Before parting, our Highbnder told 
us, that in the Loch were as many at 
thirty islands, on one of which, be- 
longing, I think, to the Duke of Mon- 
trose, there were deer. He also pointed 
out to us Inch Murren, on which, he 
informed us, there is an asylum for the 
** daft people.'* He moreover lold us 
that the water, within a certain number 
of years, had encroached considerably 
on the land ; and, at some distance in 
the Lake, pointed out to ut a spot 
where there was formerly a church, 
parts of which are, ai times, still 
visible. 

The Islands of Loch Lomond are 
supposed to form part of the Grampian 
chain, which termiiuttes here on the 
west. The depth of this Lake, on the 
south, is not above twenty fathoms | 
but the northern Creek, near the bot- 
tom of Ben Lomond, is from sixty to 
eighty fathoms. Pennant makes its 
length twenty-four Scotch miles; its 
greatest breadth, eight miles. 

We arrived at LjSm about four ; and, 
because we wished to be at the foot of 
Ben Lomond, ready to start for iu 
summit in the morning, procured a 
boat to cross to Rowerdenan, a solitanr 
house, which we reached about hafi* 
past seven. The mountain looked mora 
frowninglv than ever, still thicker mists 
majestically sailing along its sides ; and 
it appeared that we had little chance 
of a fine day for our ascent on the 
morrow. The mist had the appearance 
of vast columns of steam ; and, on 
some parts, it seemed to hang suspend- 
ed like a water-spout. Altogether the 
phenomenon, to an inexperienced cfe, 
was very striking, and right melancholy, 
and I already fancied myself in toe 
land of heroes, listening to the songs of 
other limes. 

We had thought Loss miserable, 
and we scarcely found ourselves better 
off here. We requested some tea, that 
soother of all sorrows, and retired to 
bed. My room at the time was under 
the hands of the masons, and covered 



1830.1 



WM ihraugh ih€ H'^hiands. 



wiih splathcf of white- wash, and of the 
most iu»aflerable closeness. '* There 
was the most Yillanous compoand of 
rank smells that ever offended nostril.** 
'* He that would have his window 
open/* says Johnson, ** must hold it 
with his hand, unless (what may some* 
times be found amongst good con- 
trJTers) there be a nail, whieh he mav 
stick into a hole to keep it from falling/' 
Here, howcTcr, there was no nail, and 
I was under the necessity of propping 
the window open with my knapsack, 
which, in the morning, I found sa- 
turated with the dews of hearen. At 
Dumbarton I had Chinit hangings. 
At Rowerdenan I had none. What 
would be the pleasure of travelling, 
were it not for mmV/y, 

*' the very soice of life. 
Which gWcs it all iu fbvoor ?" 

The morning of Thursday, the 1 Ith, 
had a still more unpropttions appear- 
ance. Thick and impenetrable clouds 
had gathered on the nead of Ben Lo- 
mond, and the wind howled mostpoe/i- 
cally. Strolling into the woods, which 
are here very extensive, and covered 
with the most beautiful heaths, we re- 
enjoyed a view of the Lake. On our 
return along its shores, we observed 
two boats making for our hoiei; the 
one containing a sentleman and two 
ladies, the other tneir carriage. We 
rejoiced at the sight, thinking that, if 
they were companionable souls, they 
would serve to dissipate the solitade of 
Rowerdenan. In this we were not 
disappointed. Having commenced an 
acmiainunce, we found that the ladies 
had crosaed the Lake, like ourselves, 
with a view of ascendint^ Ben Lomond. 
The gentleman had performed this feat 
before, and had no with to repeat the 
experiment. We were therefore to be 
the ladies' conductors, and we com- 
menced our ascent about mid-day. 
One of the ladies was placed on an 
old and steady gray charger, well-used 
to the rocky and uneven road over 
which he was to past; and his rider 
seemed to proceed without much ap- 
prehension. The rest of the party 
walked. Having ascended somewhat 
nmre than a mile, we had a tolerable 
view of the Lake and its Islands. 
Shortly after this it began to rain, and 
every object was suddenly snatched 
from our view. At length, after an 
hour's march, we were completely en- 
velo|>ed in the thick mists hovering 
near the summit, and very speedily 
wet through. We fiaascd several mo- 
rasses or springs on the side of the 



199 

mountain, when we were frequently 
ankle-deep in the mire, or in the gnu 
ters made by the torrenu, and often 
concealed by rushes and long grass. 
We bad thus not only to encounter 
wet and din, but some danger. The 
day was, in fact, most miserable ; yet 
we determined not to return till we 
had gained the summit. At the last 
suge, we left the old horse, took 
some refreshment, and proceeded. Our 
clothes were, at this time, on the side 
from which the wind blew, completely 
covered with a hoar frost, and it was 
intensely cold ; yet we heeded it not, 
but arrived at the hishest point in 
safety. Storms and thick darkness sur- 
rounded us on all sides. We bent 
over the well-known precipice, but 
could only behold the thick mist sail- 
ing below us. The sight, notwith- 
sunding, was really grand, and the 
gulf below horrible. 

After resting a sufficient time on the 
summit, and congratulating ourselves 
upon attaining it, we prepared to de- 
scend, and came down right merrily 
till we observed our guide to waver; 
and, long before he confessed it, we 
felt ceruin that he had missed his way. 
At length he was obliged to stop and 
reconnoitre. We could see but a very 
few yards before us, and our situation 
was any thing but agreeable. We 
wandered altogether at random for a 
very considerable time, and in a direc- 
tion, as it appeared to me, quite dif- 
ferent from that by which we had 
ascended. We did not, however, think 
it expedient to interfere with our guide, 
who yet seemed very ready to take any 
advice. At length we came to a moun- 
tain-stream, and followed its course 
downwards. The walking, for track 
there was none, was now really fright- 
ful. At one moment we were in a 
morass, the next enungled in the 
heath ; and though we fought our way 
with much resolution, yet were we by 
no means sorry when we got a sight of 
the Lake, and finally of our inn. 

The height of Ben Lomond is com- 
monly stated to be 3,86f feet above 
the level of the sea, and it is said to 
be composed chiefly of gneiss, though, 
in its neighbourhood, micaceous schis- 
tus is very abundant. " Ftarmagans,'* 
sajTs Gilnin, " are fonnd on the summit, 
and roebocks in the lower regions.'* 

On Friday, the I2ih, we crossed 
the Lake to Invernglass Ferry. The 
bieadth at this spot is, I suppose, not 
more than a mile ; yet, when we were 
aboat midway over^ we met with a 



wo 



Walk through the Highlandi. 



[Marcby 



coDtiderable swell; and at licpes our 
guide ID formed us, ihe navigatioD was 
very hazardous, owing to the squalls, 
or sudden goats of wind, from the 
mououios. The water was beautifully 
clear, and transparent to a very con- 
siderable depth. 

From Invcrn^lass Ferry the road 
was excellent, wmding along the bor- 
ders of the Lake, and partly cot oui of 
the huge masses of overhanging rock, 
not without an immense expenditure 
of labour and money. By the side of 
the road we did not fail to observe, 

<< Coptou of flowers, the woodbifie pale 
and vrsD, 

Bat wfill compenMtiog ber sickly looks 

With never-cloying odoart." 
Few, however, were the passengers to 
enjoy its fragrance. I believe, on this 
day, we had it all to ourselves. I do 
not recollect encountering even a shep- 
herd or his dog. The admirable sute of 
the roads in these solitary wilds at first 
surprised us coosiderabfy ; but, when 
ooce made, they are indestructible. 

Between one and two we arrived at 
Arroquar Inn, a house standing alone 
at the head of Loch Long, and sur- 
rounded bv a thick and gloomy grove 
of pines. It has greatly the appearance 
of the abode of a Highland cbiefuin ; 
and on entering the house, I think 
we learnt that it had actually been the 
residence of a Highland family, and 
not very long relinquished. The rooms 
were large and gloomy, the furniture 
of every description corresponding ; the 
wainscoting oif oak ; the tables, win- 
dows, and fire-place, truly baronial. 
After a sufficient rest, we proceeded. 

It now occurred to us very forcibly 
that we %vere in the Highlands. The 
hills, the roads, the lakes, were such 
as we had anticipated. A few misera- 
ble firs, here and there, served to point 
out the abode of man ; or, perhaps, a 
solitary and half-blasted pine waved its 
branches, in undisturbed melancholy, 
over some tall clitf. Loch Lonz, by 
the side of which we were travelling, 
is a salt-water lake, dreary, cold, and 
comfortless ; and we could not avoid 
contrasiing its shores with those of the 
beautiful and highly- favoured Loch 
Lomond, which we had so lately 
quittetl — the latter gently rolling its 
pellucid waves to the shore, over peb- 
bles without a weed, and hidins them 
under its banks, fring^ with alder and 
hazles — the former, disturbed, salt, and 
boisterous— iu shores, from the filthy 
and collected sea- weed, resembling the 
sweepings of the Augcdu stable. 



Hastening our steps, we toon arrived 
at Glen Croe. We had thought Loch 
Long horrible, but this spot far sur- 
passed iL Besides, .it was now raining 
very hard. The swollen streams were 
continually crossing the road, and were 
at first vexatious, because they prevent- 
ed us looking for stepping-stones. At 
length they became so namerons, that 
we walked through them without fur- 
ther trouble. 

The road was here aocommonly 
steep, almost overhang by the huge 
mouDUin-masses bounding its sides, 
and we now seemed altogether ex- 
cluded from the haunts ot men. A 
dismal rivulet foamed by tbe side of 
the road, into which hastened nom- 
berless mountain-streams* causing a 
noise of many waters. A few wan- 
dering sheep were sdUtered Ofer the 
sides of the mounUio. With a good 
road under our feet* in Minuner, and 
without a possibility of missins oar 
way, the scene was tremendoni. What, 
then, must it have been in older limes* 
without a road, and amidu the dariL- 
ness of a night in winter } 

At length we reached the sammit 
of the hill, and arrived at Bcsl^nd-be 
thankful, which is a stone* with a 
suiuble inscription, placed bv the sol- 
diers of the sbd regiment, by whose 
labour the road was began sind finished. 
Here we at last rested for m short 
space, and reviewed the toad we had 
passed. We appeared to have arrived 
at the end of all things ; and I think 
my friend remarked, that the adjoiniiiE 
rocks, and scenery altogether* appeared 
to him as the offiil, or rubbiah-aiaterials, 
thrown aside after the creation of bap- 
pier parts of the world — and whico, 
stubborn, unwedgsbic* unmalleable^ 
must ever continue to frown in this 
their primaeval and chaotic slate— 
without form and void. 

From Rest-and-be-thankfnl nothtna 
auracted our attention till we arrived 
at Ardkinglass, a eood hoote on the 
left, immediately before enfeertn^Caim- 
dow ; the end of oor peregrinations Ibr 
the day. As we passed, it appeared lo 
us very snug and comfortable* for it 
was in a sheltered sitoation* snnounded 
by policies of tolerable jDOwlh. We 
arrived at the inn at Gurndoir* on 
Loch Fyne, a quarter after six* wcL 
and much fatigued; hut we fooni 
civility aud comfort, and what more 
can there be in the mansions of laivdi 
or chicfuins ? 

An Oij> Soucmbbb* 



1830.] AlmskoHset at Milcham.— Author of Juniui. SOI 

Mr. Urban, potsikiliCy that Jushit ihouM have been In 




coiiniy of Surrey, lauW creeled and ^S,,„„„; , fi„j there Imve been teTefml 

endowed by ihe munificence of MiM ctrnflngwlions of bii works: one on March 

Taie, -for iweU-e poor women, frpni ,o, 1768 ; alio S«.|ii. d, 1757 ; proUbly m- 

dcfiigoi and utidrr llic direclioii of Mr. vemi other times at an earlier period. • The 

Buckler. Ttwse Alms- Houses occupy JSdhibuf|;h KcTiew/ Nov. I8i7, telb us, 

the tilc of an Ancient mansion, formerly that Fmnots was merely a clerk in the 

the residence of the Tate fainify, many Foreign Office in 1756, remained uatil 1768« 

of wbimi are buried in the parish when he went with Oeneral Bligh, as se- 

churoh. A iiioniiinent« beaulifnlly ex- cretary, to the expedition to St. Cae; ne- 

ccuied in while marble, has lately been w landed j returned home ; in En^snd 

erected in the north aisle to the father «»«' '7(fl, when he went with Lord Kin- 

of the Ibundieu of these Alms- Houses, J?"»^ V.^°' ^ •" » «;j°'-«* ^"^"^ 

ui tii« Mi«H^.«^ ^, !„„.,„ , r «»,: October of the same year, and was appointed 

Gcofge Tate, Esq. a gentleman of ami- ^ ^ ^^^^^^ .^ ^J War-Office j .rth«, 

able and acconiDhshed manners. admitting Jnnius, af^aimt all prolmbility. 

Yours, &c. ♦. ^^ in p„i, in Aug. 1 761 , it h evident Frau- 

^ ■. CIS was not there, being tlien in Lisbon.'* 

Joiriui.S«PHiLipFRAKcis.BuRKE, ^ Thc dale of the burning of the 

JoHll HoRMB TooKE. Jesuitical books at Pans,in Aug. 176I, 

.. ,• rri <i* ^ r* I to furnishes a most decisive fact against 

Mn.Vm^AlK, rhetfard. Feb. 13. ^^^ ^^^.^^ „,^j^ j.^^ ^^^^^, j.^, ^n 

REFERRING your correspondent reference to the biography of Burke 

" C. S. B." to your Number for (which I have not at hand), I think it 

September, IMTf p. 283, for an ac- ^ill appear that he did not visit Paris 

count of the Imrning of the Jesuitical i\i\ 1772. 

l)o<)ks of BuKmbaum and others at 1 ^jh take the present opportnily of 

Paris, Aug. 7» I7^ilf I beg to present doin^ justice to the memory of Sir 

you with an extract from a letter • phihp Francis, as I have been unin- 

which. loon after the insertion of that tentionally instrumental in pro|Mgating 

article in ^ar Miscellany, I rcceifcd gome calumnious and false statements 

from my'friend Mr. George Coventry ; respecting him. In p. 89 of my book 

the aottaoTj it will be remembcn-d, of Thave quoted the fdlowiiig passage 

the Euay in which thc claims of i«rd f„in Capt. MedwinV" Conversations 

George SaekvlUe were very ably at- with Loid Byron :*' 
"^rted. ^ «<<DoyoatbiBk(«kedI) that Sir Waher 

<' I have Bov ' Tlie Gentleman's Map- ScoU's Norsls owe any part of their rtpuU- 

zioe * for October before me. ItsUtesthat tioa to the eonosalntat of the autnor'a 

the Jesniliosl books, twenty-four in namber, hum ? ' * No,' saki Lord Byraa, < soch 

w«*re barat by the common hangman In works do not esia or Jose by it. I am at a 

1*arii, oB Aug. 7, 1761. The question is, ]ou to know his reason for not giving np 

whethtr this eonflaeration is the one aHnded the ineognUo, but that the reigning family 

to by Jaaiosy nr whether it was one of an could not have beien very well pleased «ntn 

rarliar Hate? Tliat it cannot be the one Wavcrley*. There is a degree of CharU- 

alluded to by Junius, is, I think, evident tani^m in lomc authors keciiin^ up the un- 

from the ciraumslance that we were at open known. Junius owed much cf his fame to 

hufttility with Fiance at tlie trra in question 2 tliat trick ; and now tlist it is known to be 

su tliat it would lia*e be*-'n neat to an im- 

~ iw_ ~ * On this point Lord Byron's sentiments, 

• 1 quote it frimi the Prefsce ^ " Th« („ suted bv Capt. Medwio,) have long since 
C'lsims of Sir Philip Francis, K.B. to tl\e j,r„v»a erroneous. Some of Bynm's alleged 
Aulhorshipof Junius' Letters di»pro*ed, and „5«rtions on the subject, particularly re- 
some Inqniry into the Claifni nf thc late tj^ctin:: an interview between his i^>rdBhip 
diaries Lloyd, Esq. to the (.(impositimi of ^j Sir Walter Scott in iMumy*s s»iop, have 
them, by E. H. Baiktr." I^nd. 1 !)28.— 1 |^„, denied by the Novelist, in his late Frc- 
*rniuretoaasursyourcorres|>oudent tlwt, if f^^. .nd Byron's ridiculous notion, that 
l.n will caainine tliis lMw«k, lie will find a Waverley gave off, iice to the reigning family, 
gieat variety of new rostlcr on ll»c whole f^^^^ ^\^^ „,^j couiplctc nfuUlioa iu the 
ipiffttion, wiiliout the ftmallc&t Lia» lowaids aeilicatii'n of th« new eJ.tiou t<» hi. Ma- 
fcny parixulai u|Mr.ii>ii. icaly.— JiJiT. 
li...NT. Mai-. .Vi.»i. r, 133-.' 
t} 



SOS Sir Philip Francis. — American Essayists on Junius, [Marchi 



the work of Sir Philip Francis, who reads it ? 
A political writer, and one who descends to 
personalities, such as disgrace Junius, should 
be immaculate ss a public as well as a private 
character ; and Sir Philip was neither. He 
had his price, and was gagged by being sent 
to India* He there seduced another man's 
wife. It would have been a new case for a 
judge to sit in judgment on himself in a 
erim, con. It seems that his conjugal felicity 
was not great ; for, when his wife died, he 
came into the room wliere they were sitting 
up with the corpse, and said, < Solder her 
upy solder her up !' Ho saw his daughter 
crying, and scolded her, saying, < An old 
hig, the. ought to have died thirty years 
ago r He married, shortly after, a young 
woman. He hated Hastings to a violent 
degree. All he hoped and prayed for, was 
to outlive him. But many of the newspapers 
of the day are written as well as Junius.' ' 

This passage was extracted into va- 
rious periodicals at the time of its Brst 
appearance in Captain Medwin's book ; 
and as there v^as no public contradic- 
tion given to the slanderous statements, 
no doubt, in many quarters, they were 
regarded as true. But a friend, who is 
acc^nainted with the daughter of Sir 
Philip Francis^ made the following 
communication to me, which I am 
happy to make public : — " The story,** 
she says, *' is an infamous falsehood ; 
that she was with her mother during 
her last illness, and remained in the 
house subseouent to that melancholy 
event, and that her father never con- 
ducted himself with the monstrous 
impropriety, never uttered the barba- 
rous expressions there imputed to him ; 
and he did not marry again for seven 
years after the occurrence in question. 
Air. Francis (the son) had intended 
prosecuting Captain Medwin and his 
publishers ; but ill health, and a domes- 
tic misfortune (the loss of an amiable 
and beloved wife) have prevented his 
making any kind of exertion.*' 

It may be interesting to some of 
your readers, to know that the question 
about the authorship of " Junius's 
Letters** has been much agitated in 
America. I have received from that 
distant region three works on the sub* 
ject, of which the titles are : 

1. ** Junius Unmasked ; or Liord George 
iackville proved to be Junius. With an 
Appendix, showing that the Author of the 
* Letters of Junius' was also the Author of 
« The History of the Reign of George III. ;' 
and Author of * The North Briton,' ascribed 
to Mr. Wilkes. Embellished with a Print 
of Sackville. — Movel uma rzom€M.**"Boston, 
1828. 13mo. pp. 187. 



9. '' Memoirs of John Home Tooke, 
together with his valuable Speeches and 
Writings. Also containing Proo&, identi- 
fying him as the Author of the celebrated 
* Letters of Junius.' By John H. A.Graham, 
LLD. — JustituB generisque humani adooca- 
tus," — New-York, 1828. 8vo. pp. 942. 

3. <* The Posthumous Works of < Jhnius ;' 
to which is prefixed an Inoaiiy respecting 
the Author. Also, A Sketcn of the Life of 
John Home Tooke.— iVbn vuliutf mm color 
t<72u«."— New-York, 1899. 8vo. pp.498. 

In ** The North American Retiew," 
No. 65, Oct. 29, 1829, there ii a very 
long article, which takes for iu text 
the first-mentioned of these books, 
"Junius Unmasked," and in which 
the pretensions of Sir Philip Francis 
are refuted at much length, and those 
of Lord George Sackville are enforced. 

My intelligent correspondent. John 
Pickering, Esq. in a letter dated Boston, 
U.S. Nov. 30, 1829, writcito me thus : 

'* I perceive a work on ' Junins* just 
announced as coming out this winter, 
which I will forward to yon. This is 
announced with some pretensions, as 
demonstrating ' JaniiM* to bare beea 
the work of an Engluh Peer, to whom 
it has never been attributed/' 

Youn, &c. E. H. Barker. 



Mr. Urban, Summerlands^Exeier, 

PUBLIC attention is beneficially 
elicited to lamentable defects in 
leading Institutions, by attempts to 
state them, and to suggest remedies, 
or some alleviation of a positive and 
crying evil, through the channel of 
widely-circulating periodical publica- 
tions. The Court of Chancery, 
originally intended as a court of con- 
science and equity, to soflen and tem- 
per the asperities of common liEiw, 
corresponded, during a long period, 
with the beneficent design of its in- 
siitution ; but, in process of time, an 
unfortunate disposition (o litigation, too 
generally prevalent, removed to a court 
distinguished by the fairness of iu de- 
cisions so vast a multiplicity of cases, 
as to exclude all possibility of the. more 
early or speedy determination. In this 
state of things rules and forms, un-i 
avoidably of a tedious and vexatious 
description, were introduced, ostensi- 
bly for the maintenance of due order, 
method, and regularity, but very de- 
structive of the properly unfortunately 
involved. A just and slow decision, 
on a comparatively few number of suits 



183a] 



Defecli in the Court of Chancery^^^Remediet^ 



903 



long in abeyance, affords no cootola- 
lion to the muUiiudc of wretched 
suitors, whose properly lying in Chan- 
cery, amounts lo between ihtrty and 
Joriu miUiom iierling. It is but loo 
well known that numbers of families 
mid individuals, wliose means are thus 
locked up, and who would otherwise 
be wealthy and independent, are re- 
duced lo extreme misery and suflfcriog, 
ill utter liopelessness of ever emerging 
from a coiiaiiion frequently terminating 
in insanity, arising from excited feel- 
ings of despair. Deeply impressed 
with a just sense of such a^&gravatcd 
circumstances, many benevolent and 
eminent legal characters have, at va- 
rious limes, brought this heart-rending 
subject liefore I^rliamcnt. pro|)osing 
ameliorations of a system the source of 
so much solid miu'rv. 

The only essential improvement in- 
troduced, was that of appointing an 
as$t$tant judge to the Lord Chancellor. 
It was foreseen, as appears to be the 
fact, that where there was such ac- 
cumulated evil to be remedied, this 
inadequate assistance could have but 
an inconsiderable effect. The measure, 
feeble as it was, sufficiently evinced, 
however, that the appointment of ad- 
ditional Chancery Judges was the pre- 
cise remedy wanted ; with, also, the 
abolition of useless technicalities, and 
modes of proceeding, fully proved to 
be good for nothing more than to pro- 
duce delay and an unnecessary increase 
of expense. It then clearly appears, 
that a principle has been practically 
admitted and established for obviatina, 
in future, a national reproach, which 
has existed, is prevalent in the Court 
of Chancery, and which it concerns 
the public credit to have diminished. 
All this bein|; unquestionable, the 
mode most desirable and least expen- 
sive for efTecting a great good, and re- 
moving an intolerable evil, remains to 
be considered. It is evident that all 
our learned and excellent Judges are 
sufficiently occnpied ; and he must be 
but a superficial and shallow observer, 
who has not noticed the zeal, labour, 
and ability with which these excellent 
men, in advanced life, discharge their 
most important duties. Our learned 
Scrjeants-at-law are generally men of 
distinguished talents, who, after long 
practice and experience,become Judges 
.IS \acancicb occur, and therefore they 
.lie adri|uate lo every duly required on 
the Iknch. The Augean slalfc re- 



quires to be cleansed; or, in other 
words, aii the cases in Chancery ougki 
io be decided. To achieve this, let six 
of the legal Serjeants best calculated 
for the task be, with an adequate al- 
lowance, nominated to act as Judges 
under the auspices of the Lord Chan- 
cellor. Probably two of the Exche- 
quer Judges, who have least to do, 
might be conjoined. Where is the 
allowance to these temporary Judges to 
come from? In favour of a measure 
which promises the only chance of 
recovering their property, now despe- 
rately situated, the much to be pitied 
suitors would readily acquiesce in hav- 
ing the enormous sum in Chancery 
assessed, in order to accomplish the 
great object in view. This once ef- 
fected, the temporary Judges will be 
no longer reouisite, and in future all 
cases will be decided without delay. 

I write very imperfectly, Mr. Urban, 
on an interesting subject, and with a 
view of inducing those better qualified 
to propose something better, in a case 
of inr|is|)ensable necessity, and impli- 
cating the national honour. 

The philanthropic investigations of 
the Solicitor-general into most dis- 
tressing cases of unintended severe 
sufTerings in prison, and the Lord 
Chancellor's humane resolution to ob- 
viate such in future, give additional 
interest and force to wnat cannot fail 
to arrest the attention of every feeling 
mind. John Macdonalo. 



Mr. Urbaw, March 10. 

PERMIT me to offer a few observa- 
tions which occurred to me in 
reading some of your recent numben. 
Yours, &c. E. I.e. 

PETERCHURCH, CO. IIBREPORD. 

If your correspondent Mr. Sawyer, 
(in your last volume, page 4g6,) had 
given the dimensions of Peterchurch, 
or added a scale to the plan, he would 
have rendered it of more utility ; and 
I could have wished your correspon- 
dent had minutely described the ar- 
chitecture of the building, which I 
should judge from the place to lie a 
structure of more than ordinary inte- 
rest. The portions d and c I consider 
formed the first church ; b was then 
added, the small arch between b and c 
being in all probability the original en- 
trance. A,lhe present nave, was then ap. 
peiided to the structure ; which, if 1 



204 



Architectural Remarks, 



[March, 



am right in my comectores, must war* 
rant the character I have attributed to 
it« The church of Eust Ham is very 
similar* ; it has an eastern chancel of a 
semicircular form, then a second chan- 
cel more westward, and then a nave, all 
ancient and in the circular style ; and 
lastly, a tower of pointed architecture. 
—The existence of the ancient altar is 
very singular: the destruction of altars 
was one of the excesses which reflected 
little credit on the reformers of the 
church in the l6th century. 

WHAPLODB CHURCH. 

The device mentioned by the Rev. G. 
Oliver, (p. 59O) as existing on a stone 
coffin in Whaplode Church, is a thun- 
derbolt^adeviceevidcntly borrowed from 
ihe Romans (vide Gough, In trod, to 3e- 
pul.MonumeutsinGreatBritain,vol. I, 
plate 3). The devices inscribed on the 
other stones are probably incipient he- 
raldic ordinaries, which, with the va- 
l^ieus crosses found on the grave-stones 
of ecclesiastics, (the Whaplode speci- 
mens appertaining, I consider, to lay- 
men) were matured into a science by 
the heralds, at a subsequent period. 

HEXHAM CHURCH. 

Hexhamensis (page 1 7 of your pre- 
sent Volume,) asks, *' could not (a 
brief) be adopted at present to restore 
what the parish is unable to do ?" viz. 
the ancient priory church at Hexham. 
— It is to be regretted that the old and 
approved mode of raising money for 
such laudable pur|>ose8 has been done 
away with by one of those sweeping 
acts of legislation for which the present 
age is likely to be remarkable : m lieu 
of a brief for each individual church, 
collections are now to be made by what 
is called a ** King's Letter," and the 
amounts are directed by the stat.yGeo. 
4, cap. 4S, sec. 10, to be paid to the 
treasurer of the *' Society for enlarging, 
building, and repairing churches and 
chapels,*^ to be applied towards carrying 
the designs of the Society into cflecu — 
However laudable the exertions of the 
Society may be — and it is certainly de- 
serving of great encouragement — it is 
much to be regretted that the old s;fs- 
tem has been done away with. If a brief 
had been bonH fide issued for the repair 
of a church which had become a sub- 
ject of interest, many would have con- 

* The Church at Dunwick, in Suffolk, is 
of similar cpnstructioo. See Archsologia, 
vol. xii. — Edit. 



trihoted liberally towards the individual 
case. As the royal letters are like aii- 
gePs visits, the Society is likely to have 
enough upon its hands in the manage- 
ment of its fundi, which, from the na- 
ture of the case, must be far fr.om ade- 
quate to the purpose of it, and as the 
object of the Society is rather to gain 
accommodation than the preservation 
of a piece of antiquity, I fear Hexham 
church will derive but little assistance 
from the new mode of makins; the col- 
lections. If the destruction of old sys- 
tems, good in the main but abosed in 
the management, so fashionable in the 
present day, be not timely itonped, some 
of our fairest institutions of antiquity 
will tremble for the consequences. 

PORTISHEAD CBURGH. 

The gentleman, who presented the 
chairs made out of the materials of an 
ancient screen to Portishead Church, 
(see page 38,) displayed in the do- 
nation more munincence than good 
taste. Are the chairs any better for 
their materials having once formed an 
ancient screen ? It reminds me of the 
construction of a bridge by the vain 
Duke of Chandos, out of the remains of 
a Roman pharos, and his inscribing the 
circumstance on the structure. If the 
sarcophagus of Alexander had fallen 
into the hands of any Vandal, who had 
exclaimed *' the pavement of my fine 
court is formed out of Alexander's cof- 
fin,*' his barbarity would have received 
enoi^h of censure. If the gentleman 
had expended his money in restoring 
the screen either to its original use, or 
to some appropriate situation in the 
church, he would truly have deserved 
applause ; but as it is, I cannoc help 
regretting the misappropriation. 

WINCHE8TBR CASTLB. 

Your reviewer (p. 35)8peaks of the an- 
cient hall at Winctiester Castle as being 
divided by pillars and arches, and Mr. 
Buckler asserts the same in his clever 
essay on Eltham Palace. That the 
building now used as a hall is so di- 
vided, is certain ; but I much question 
whether the present is the original des- 
tination of the structure. It has every 
appearance of a chapel j a supposition 
which is confirmecl .by its being situ- 
ated according to the ecclesiastical ar- 
rangement : and, until some evidence 
is adduced to shew that it has always 
been used as a ball, L should rather be 
inclined to consider that the present 
building is the chapel of llie Castle. 



.. >k 



i83a] iSif KeMlm Dighy^i Memoin,^Hi» Spanuh Amour. 905 



Mr. UftBAK. Fe6. 10. 

YOU hare already indalged me to 
full^ in the intertioii of mv coU 
lections illustrative of the " rrivate 
Meinoics of Sir Kenelm Digby,** that 
1 have little hesitation in intruding 
apoa yon with another document, be- 
cause I (latter myself that it will not 
be considered as otherwise than " ger^ 
mane to the matter." It will be found 
to throw further light on the romantic 
amour of Thcagenes with that paragon 
of the Spanish court, that '* greatest, 
richest, and noblest lady in £gypt," 
the fascinating Mauricana, whose real 
name — Donna Anna Maria Manriauc, 
it was the object of my Iast(Nov.Mag. 

r. 990) to disclose ; and it will fornisn, 
conceive, a further proof, in addition 
to the many other parts of Sir Kenelm *s 
natrative which nave been brought 
to the test of history, that, however 
freely the imaginative writer may have 
indulged in tne flowers of embellish- 
ment, still the outline of his facts 
throughout is that which it was the ac- 
tual experience of his wayward fortune 
to encounter. The passage fromHowePs 
Letters, which I before adducetl, has 
proved that Mauricana was a real in- 
dividual, and that her name was Man- 
rique ; my uresent discovery is a letter 
of Sir Kenelm himself,whicn, therecan 
be no doubt, alluded to the same lady, 
although the name is suppressed. 

Whilst, however, the actual founda- 
tion of these *' Private Memoirs" is 
proved by these real -life e|)istles, so also 
by the Utter may the poetioal flights of 
the former be estimated ; since 1 think 
it will be allowed of both thefollowioK 
Inter and that of Howel, that, though 
they show Donna Anna Maria to have 
honoured theEnglish gallaot with a cer- 
tain degree of her regard, they are for 
from justifying the supposition that her 
heart was so acutely wounded as The- 

genet has had the vanity to state. Un- 
as, indeed, her sending for him, and 
employing (as he describes) such ear- 
nest personal intreaties, was subse- 
quently to his writing the following 
epistle, it would even appear that he 
departed from Madrid without enjoy- 
ing the privilege of uLing a personal 
adieu, and was obli^ to leave his fare- 
wellcomplimentslo be made by deputy. 
The fnend on whom this task was 
imposed, was another chevalier, who, 
though not equally ulented, yet pos- 
sessed ooDttdcrable abilities aa a writer ; 



but who iKrhape surpassed Sir Kenelm 
in eccentricity, and is doubtless chiefly 
indebted to the whimsicalities of his 
conduct for his share #f immortality.—- 
This was Sir Tobie Mathews, son of 
the Archbishop of York of tlie same 
name, but himself a papist and a Jesuit, 
and long a rceidentin Madrid. The 
letter occurs in a collection which bears 
the name of this personage, and which 
was printed in 160O, under the superin- 
tendence of the celebrated Dr. Donne: 
" S. KD. to S. T.M. 

** A Letter qf a CaoaHer to a fiiendy fir 
the doing t^ an humbleoffice to a great Laaiy : 

*' Sir, if I durst prwomt to ■•nd iiiy 
thaaks to say lady A.B.* for her &roiin to 
BM bars, I shoald oot trouble joa with thia 
latter. Bot the eminaneie of oar condition, 
which makes her able to sow blessings 
wherever she passes, makes it nnmannerlie 
for snch as I am, to acknowledge themselves 
immediately to herself. I beseech yon there- 
fore. Sir, let her ladiibip receive from yoor 
tongue the follett expressions it can make of 
a deep sense in me of the very great obliga- 
tions end honours she was pUsaied to beep 
upon me, whilst I had the happioasse to wait 
upon her hero. I most coafiHse it u ia^os- 
sible that her ladiship sboold settle greater 
upon aaj man ; for soeh are to be mnasnrod 
by the daim which ooe ought make to them. 
And I am sure that, inmy behalf there was 
nothing to tempt her to this ejcercise of her 
goodnesse but m^ absolute want of all title 
to it. Whereby it became meerly an act of 
her own generotitie without any ouier motive 
to share in it. I ever honoured and esteemed 
this noble creature beyond expression ; but 
henceforward those actions ot reverence 
mostgoastepforther, and become a perfect 
devotion in me, to do her all the service in 
my power; for such sweetaasse aad eivilitie 
as sne is mistresse of, miagled with all other 
exoelleneiee, I never yet met with in any. 

** I make bold to cbuse your conveyance, 
rather than any other's, to deliver my sense 
to her ladiship, beoanse I am sure it will gain 
most advantage by your means ; and you 
have so much goodnesse and friendship to 
me as you will, 1 know, pardon my importun- 
ing you in an occasion wherein I am so justly 
earnest. And I am also confident enough 
that it will not displease you to oarrie in a 
prize to a lady to whom you are so much a 
servant, and particularly since it is a heart 
which had bidden a long farewell to the of- 
fering of all devotions at ladies' altars. 1 
kisse your hand, and rest your, &c." 

The little volume from which (p.Sl6) 

* The name being wholly suppressed, the 
first initials of the a^ihabetare inserted ; and 
the same in other letters. 



206 



Sir Tohie Maihews not a ** painter J* 



IMsitth^ 



this has been extracted, is entitled " A 
Collection of Letters made by S' Tobie 
Mathews, KS With a character of the 
most excellent Lady Lucy Countesse 
of Carlile, by the same author. To 
which are added, many Letters of his 
own to several persons of honour, who 
were contemporaries to him." 1660. 
12mo. — A large portion of these letters 
are comprised in other " Collections," 
-particularly many of Bacon, which ap< 
))ear in tne Cabala, Bacon's Works, 
&c. Of the ** Character" of the blue- 
stocking Countess of Carlisle, parts 
are quoted in Wal pole's Anecdotes of 
Painting, and Lodge's Portraits, with 
the remark that its rhapsodical adula- 
tion might be understood as ironical 
satire ;— -though such probably was not 
the intention of the writer, wnose sim- 
ple extravagance was a subject of gene- 
ral ridicule. It was a similar character 
of the Infanta Maria of Spain, written 
by Sir Tobie when at Madrid in l62d, 
that, from its having been styled ** a 
picture,** obtained the admission of his 
name into the former of the works 
mentioned ; and, although (as remarked 
by the recent editor, Mr. Dallaway) 
Horace Walpole " Brst suspected, and 
afterwards proved, that Sir Tobie Ma- 
thews had not the slightest pretension 
to be included in these Memoirs*,'* yet 
he seems to have been considered too 
amusing a personage to be dismissed 
from the second edition, and this elo- 
quent illuminator of the splendours of 
the female character was retained, 
principally to exhibit his own buffoon- 
cry, but ostensibly " to throw as many 
lights as possible on the manners of the 
age." It may be added, ihat Walpole 
has misled several other writers, parti- 
cularly Granger, who has classed Sir 
Tobie with Kubens, Vandyke, &c., 
among the painters of Charles's reis^n, 
and not only states that " he di^ a 
portrait of the Infanta," but also that 
** he attempted, at least, to paint the 
Countess of Carlisle ;*' nor in the last 
very imperfect edition of the ** Bio- 
graphical History" is it noted that both 
attempts were merely descriptive. 

^ It is somewhat inconsistent, however, 
with this explanation, that in this last edi- 
tion the article of Tobie Mathews is one of 
those selected for the introduction of a 
wood -cut portrait, and he is thus made to 
rank not merely with the artists who form 
the subjects of the work, but even with 
those who wear a mark of [leculiar distinction. 



Whilst turning over, a short time 
ago, a volume of the Harleian MSS*. 
(No. 1576) f accidentally met with a 
copy of Sir Tobie's " oicture," and, aa 
I believe it has never been engraved, I 
will now request you to undertake that 
task, as I doubt not the daubing; (such 
as it is) will be represented with suffi- 
cient accuracy by that unusual species 
ofsfipple, the types of your letter-press 
printer. 

In the first place, however, I inust 
quote the royal correspondence which 
became the undesigned cause of enrol- 
ling Sir Tobie Mathews in a catalogue 
of painters. His pictorial fame, then, 
originated in a postscriptadded byPrince 
Charles in his own hand to a letter 
which the Duke of Buckingham had 
written to the king, in the joint name 
of 4he Prince and himself, at Madrid, 
June 26, 1G23. It is as follows : — 

*' Sir, In the medest of our serins busines 
littell prittie Tobie Malhew evimw to intreKt 
us to deliver this letter to your M. which is, 
as he eals it, a piclur of the Infiuita*B,draweD 
in blake & whyte. We pray you let 00ns lafe 
[laugh] at it but your aelfe and honnestKate 
[the Duchess of Buckingham]. He thlnkea 
he hath bitt the naille of the head, but you 
will fynd it [the] foolisliest thing that ever 
you saw*. 

In a letter written to her lord on the 
16th of July we find " honnest Kate" 
thus alluding to the production : — 

** I have sene his Ma^* latly, but hath not 
seen the picktnr toby mathos ded, but I hope 
the next tim I shall. I do immagen what a 
rare peace [piece] it tis being of dib doing." 

The Duchess then goes on to men- 
tion a real painting (which may have 
contributed to mislead Yertue and 
Walpole) : 

'< Sence the Prince keep* that cerbere 
[Gerbier] has done for the Infimta, I hope 
nobody shall have th^ next he dos from me, 
for I do much desier to see a goodnicktur of 
hers, for I here her infinitely com ended. — 
She had need prove a good on [one] that the 
Prince may think his Jorney and delays well 
bestode for her ; for I swere he desarvea her, 
be she never so hanssom or good, to under- 
take such a jorney for her ; and she had 
need make us pore wifs some a mens [amends] 
for being the cause of keeping our husbands 
from us. But I thioke it tis not her fitnlte^ 
for I warant she wood fane have it dis- 
pacht to." 

There certainly seems reason to sup- 
pose that the marriage was not disliked 

* From the original in the Had. MSS.6987. 



laao.] Sir ToffH Mulhewi' Charatter of the Infanta. 



S07 



by tlie lofanla, frcmi whote '< ptcV* 
tur** I o<Mv will BOi longer detain Uie 
reader : 

«• Infmnlas Character and DescriptUm, ly 
S' Toby Mathew. 

«« Madrid, June 98, 1693. 
«< Hm IttfimU Dooa Maria will have 17 
yean of aga y* next August. Sbee teema 
bal low of statura, for akee uMih no helpe 
at all t y* woBMo of thia country are not fp' 
nerally tall, bat tlia In&nu \m much of the 
same stature w<^ these ladyes have, w^ live 
b )• Court of Soayo, 8t are of >• same yeara 
w*<> ber. Shee M fiiyr in all p faction ; her 
favour* Is very good and fiiyr, far from hsv- 
hig any odfc ill feature in it. Her counte- 
sanee it sweet in an extraordinary ma'ner,& 
•howt ber to bee both kingly bom, «c w«k all 
y* abee plaeetk no great felicity in that : for 
there seems to sbnie from her soull through 
ber body aa great sweetnesse & goodnesse as 
ean be desired in a creature. Her close ruff 
aad eofU are said by them who know it best 
to bee greatly to her disadvantage : for y' 
both her head is rarf ly set on her neck, & so 
are ber excellent hands to her arms ; and 
they say that before she it dressed shee it 
uicomparably better y* afierward. 

** But y* virtue of her mind is held to ex- 
ceed J* beauty of her p*son v«ry far. In ber 
leiirioB she is very pious and devout ; she 
iftyly speadeth 9 or 3 houres in prayer; she 
coowssetli & comnnicatetli twice a week, 
aamely, upon VVedneaday and Saturday ; she 
carryeth a most p'ticular & tender devntioa 
to y reverent sacrament and y« im'aculate 
conception of our B. Lady. Shee doth usually 
make some little thin^ w*^ her own hands 
day by day, w<^^ may &e for y* use of sick 
or wounded p*aons in y* hospiullt, & m^iY 
times it is but drawing lynt out of linnen ^ 
may tervc for wounds. AH v' w«*» y« King 
ber Brother giteth ber for play or toyt, ac- 
cording to ber fcncy, w«fc comes to about an 
\oa*^ a month, shee in<pIoys wholy upon y« 
poor. Shee is generally of few words, but 
yet of sweet k. easy conversation w^ she it 
private w*^ *• Ladyes. 

«« Her miade, they say. Is more awake y" 
they y^ know ber not well would easily be- 
lieve. Tliey who have studied lier most tell 
inee y* shee is verv sensible of any reall un- 
kindnetf , but y« this costetb no body any- 
thing but herselfe; for shee makes no noyse, 
expostulates not, but only greives. Of bir 
p son, beauty, «t dretting shee is careless, 
Ik takes w^they bring ber w*^out more adoe. 
S!iee is thought to be of great courage for a 
woman, and to despise danger : for, besides 
y» ibee never staru as many women do at 

♦ That is.in mwlern languace, the <a:/>re4- 
iion of l»er countenance. Shak>pearc writes 
in Measure for Measure (iv. «), «* Surely, 
Sir, a pood faimiT you Imtrc, save that you 
luixtf a lumping h»tk .'** 



tnddea 'tbingt, nor b frighted by thunder 
and lightning or the like, they obterve how 
^t wkB y« )|^ ««Ar at Araminet, where )* 
Queen made a shew or puUick enterteynment 
for y* Kins into w<^ themselves did enter 
w^ many oUier Ladyes, and w^ y« fules* and 
bought fell into a sudden fire \ & w^ y« 
company was much frighted w^ y« imminent 
danger thereof, U. were flying from thence 
at foil speed, y* Infanudid but call y^Conde 
de Olivares, & willed him to defend her from 
J* press of y* people, tk so shee went of with 
ner usuall pace, & w^ut being in any disor- 
der at all, even so much at by y* leatt change 
of her colour. 

'* Many virtues are sayd to live in y< heart 
of this Lady ; but y* w^^ reigns and is sove- 
reign in her, is a resolution w<^ sliee hath 
mainteyned inviolable from her very infimcy, 
never to spesk ill of any creature, & not 
only so, but to show a plain dislike of them 
who speak ill of others, saying sometimes, 
* P*hapa it is not so,' or else, ' A body can 
believe nothing Init w^ they tee,* or els, * It 
is good to hear botli sides,* and the like.-— 
The world in Spayn doth all conspire to ho- 
nour, love, and admire this Lady ; but y* 
King her Brother doth make more proofe 
thereof y" they all ; for there is no one even- 
ing wherein he goeth not to court her in her 
lodging. He will sit by her somtimes while 
shee is making herself ready, & hee is often 
giving her presents, & would have her co'- 
mand him to giveber more,but as for v* there 
is no remedy : for shee would never bee in- 
treated to ask any thing for her self, & w^ 
thee it importuned by others to ask this or 
that p'ticclar favour of y* King for them, it 
is strange to see how respective & discreet 
shee is, and indeed how carefull not to meddle 
in any bnssiness ; & forasmuch at concemi 
p*sOnal suites, unJest y* thing detired be tone 
toy, the will p'fett not to name it, 'till sbee 
may finde by tome meant or other how y« 
king her brother stands affected to y* p'ton 
more or lest ; ' for,' saith thee, ' I Know 
how much y* K. my brother desires to give 
me gust, & it is not reason becans bee desires 
to give me gust, I should suffer my self to bee 
p*s waded to give him disgust.* 

« She hatn been often heard upon severalf 
occasions to speak with great sens & tender- 
ness of)* King our soveraine, Sehow deeply 
•he holdeth her self obliged to him for y* 
great bono' and favour w«>> shee understands 
his Ma*' to have don her, & for y* tender care 
hee vouchsafes to have of her ; & 1 have p*ti- 
colar retsons w^^ make roee thinck y* I know 
y» y« loving reverence w«^ she will bear to- 
wards him, and v* hearty obedience w'^ shee 
will p'form to his Ma**, will give him soch 
nnff|)eakable comfort as p'haps nee did never 
look for in this kindc, in his life. 

** How much y InfanU doth Iionor & 
esteem y« Prince )• vulg ar ca*not say, but 

• Leavea? 



906 Infanta Maria of Spttinj^ Epitaph in BromUff Church. [March, 



tlMTObee enough in y« world who know f 
thee doth it ezticmelT much, according to 
her great obligation. Y* time if not }*t arrived 
Ibr her to make thow publick expreMioni 
thereof w«^ arc not warranted by y* atile of 
thia court till the treaty bee abaolutely at an 
end, yet I have no doubt but thia time ia 
neere at hand, & my heart is foil of joy to 
thinck how happy our excellent Prince shall 
bee In t« sweet society of such a wife, & in ]j« 
mean wme a man may guess howy« InfcnU'a 
puis beatedi towarda his Highness, since by 
myl/'AdmiraH's* indisposition this last week 
through y« swelling of his fece, eaused by y« 
drawing of a tooth, y« Infimta hearing of it 
did expresse to have much greife, for y* sbee 
would not for any thing of this world y* any 
ill accident should lay hold on him, especially 
in this journey bee had undertaken in y* ser- 
vice of y< Prince upon her occasion. 

«* FINIS." 

After tliis singular eulogy it may not 
be inappropriate to quote another de- 
scription or the Infanta Maria, made 
by an indiflferent observer. Previously 
to the Prince of Wales*s visit to Ma- 
drid, James Howel thus described, to 
his friend Mr. Arthur Hopton, the 
Princess and other members of her 

family : — 

'< llie treaty of the match betwixt our 
Prince and the Lady Infanta is now strongly 
a-ibot. She is a very comely lady, rather of 
a Flemish complexion than Spanish ; £ur 
hair'd, and carrieth a most pure mixture of 
red and white in her face ; she b foil and big- 
lipp'd, which is held a beauty rather than a 
blemish or anv excess in the Austrian Family, 
it being a tiling incident to most of that 
race ; m goes now upon sixteen, and is of a 
tallness aereeable to those years. The King 
b also of such a complexion, and b under 
twenty ; he hath two brothers, Don Carloa 
and Don Feruando, who, though a youth of 
twelve, yet he b Cardinal and ArchbUhop of 
Toledo, which, in regard it hath the Cban- 
cellorship of Castile annexed to it, is the 
greatest spiritual dignity in Christendom af- 
ter tlie Papacy, for it is valued at 800,000 
crowns per annum. Don Carlos is of differ- 
ing complexion from all the rest, for he Is 
blacke-haired and of a Spanish hue ; he hath 
neither office, command, dignity, or title, 
but ii au individual companion to the King ; 
and what clothes soever are provided for we 
King he hath the very same, and as often, 
from top to toe. He ii the better beloved of 
the people for his complexion ; for one shall 
hear the Spaniard sign and lament saying, 
* O when snail we have a Kiog again of our 
own colour Vf " 

* The Duke of Buckingham. 
f £ptstol« Ho-elianae. 



The Infanta Maria was subsequently 
married to Ferdinand, King of the Ro- 
mans, who became Emperor by the 
tiile of Ferdinand the Third, in l637 ; 
she was the mother of Leopold the 
First, and consequently ancestress to all 
the subsequent emperors ; and she died 
in 1646. As Donna Maria never set 
her foot upon this coonlry, she it not 
admitted byGranger into his Biographi- 
cal History of England ; but, as a per- 
sonage who received so important and 
singular a visit from many of the most 
illustrious English, and who so nar- 
rowly lost the honour of becoming the 
first female in Great Britain, I coDceive 
she might with propriety be introduced 
into that work. I have seen portraits 
of her, both as Infanta and Empress, 
which convey a favourable impressioa 
of her countenance. Her hand-writinff 
is engraved in the recently published 
work on Autographs, plate 4o. 

In conclusion, I will only further re- 
mark that Sir Tobie Mathew returned 
toEngland in thetrain of PrinceCharles, 
aud, (how far in reward for bit pictorial 
skill it does not appear,) wn the very 
first knight dubbed byjthe King after 
the Prince's arrival. This distinction 
was conferred on him, five days after 
that event, at Royston^ on the 10th of 
October, l623.* 

Yours^ &c. J. G. N. 



Mr. Urban, March 12. 

IN the late refiairs of Bromley church', 
Kent, a brass plate has been found, 
which commemorates the wife of Rich- 
ard Lacer, who was Mayor of the 
city of London in 1345. His name 
is in some lists printed Leggett. 

Wt facet 3ira(»ena 9'nla' u%* mkH 
Hacer nup' Jttaiot* Honlioii' ^ur Mit 
q'rta W Hug'ti a\ t*i m.€€€.W* 
Cut' aie p*picUtuv DetiiT. Km*. 

Lacer*s arms were. Ermine, a lioo 
rampant Gules. He was probably the 
same individual, whn, according to 
Lysons, held lands in the |>arish of 
LXeptford in 13--. 

Yours, &c. R. S. 



* See Niclioi&'s Progresses of King James 
the First, vol. iv. p. 930. 



issa] 



Percy Mmuments at Beverley, co. York, 



tot 



PbRCT MoVUMBirrS at BtVBRLBT. 

WITH the accomfianying plate of a 
singular nionumtnt at Beverley 
we hare been faroured byM r.Scaum,ihe 
publisher of the handsome work on the 
History of that town, which is noticed 
in our present month's reriew. The 
plate is a very favourable specimen of 
the advance made by the art of litho* 
granhy towards rivalling the delicacy 
and finish of line engraving ; it is from 
the press of Mr. R. Martin, and la highly 
creoitable to his abilities. 

• The finest monuments in Beverley- 
Minster are three belonging to the ii- 
lustrioufl family of the Percys. The 
most perfect otthem, on account of its 
magnificent and highly enriched cano- 
py, is usually called the Percy Shrine, 
and was probably erected to the me- 
mory of Idooeade Clifford, wife of the 
second Lord Percy of Alnwick, and 
grandmother of the first Earl of North- 
umberland. She died in 1365. A 
mutilated altar*tomb is that of Henry 
the fourth Earl, who was slain in an 
insurrection atThirsk in 1489- The 
third is that represented in the accom- 
panying plate. 

These monuments appear to have 
been particularly unfortunate in suffer- 
ing by removal from one part of the 
chapel to another, an operation which 
is seldom effected without mutilation 
or misapplication of pans. We are in- 
formed by Mr. Gough, in his Sepul- 
chral Monuments, (where four folio 
plates are dedicated to the " Shrine*' 
and its carvings, and one to each of the 
other monuments,) that that of the 
fourth Earl " stood at first against the 
sooth wall, and had a rich stone ca- 
nopy over it ; but, the wall being con- 
siderably oat of its perpendicular, the 
canopy was broken down, and the 
tomb removed into the middle of the 
chapel. Fragments of the canopy lie 
by It.** The Beverley historian says 
that the tomb represented in the an- 
nexed plate " has been removed per- 
haps more than once.** It will be per- 
ceived that tlie i'Qigy is not of sufficient 



lensth to cover the cavity of the tomb ; 
and, although it does not teem to have 
so struck either Mr. Googh or the au- 
thor of* Beverlac,*' we have little hesi- 
tation in thinking that the effigy ami 
tomb were not originally one monu- 
ment. This supposition u, we think, 
supported by the description which Le- 
lana has left of these monuments in his 
Itinerary. He describes them as 

" three tumbet most notable on the north 
tide of the quier. 

** Yd one of them, with a cbipel arehid 
over it, is buried Percy £rl of Northumbtr- 
kuid, and his sun, fiuher to the last Erie. 

" Yn another it buried Eleanor, wifr to 
one of the Lord Percys. 

'* And yn another of white alabaster Ido~ 
nea Lsdy Percy, wife to one of the Lord 
Percys. 

'* Under Eleanor's tumbe is buried one of 
the Percys, a preste." 

It will be perceived that Leland dis- 
tinctly describes the '* three tumbes," 
besides that memorial (not specified, 
but doubtless this effigy)^ by which he 
was informed that a priest was buried 
" under Eleanor's tumbe.'* To our 
apprehension, therefore, it appears evi- 
dent that the priest's effigy was then 
placed on the floor, and that by the ex- 
pression " under,'* the venerable father 
of antiquarian tourists means on that 
part of the floor contiguous to, or as it 
might now be expressed, — helow, that 
monument. 

The first tomb mentioned by Leland 
is indisputably that of the fourth Earl. 

The second we conceive to be the 
altar-tomb represented in our plate, but 
then surmounted by either an effigy of 
Eleanor Lady Percy, or by a slab and 
brass, probably the latter, which may 
more readily have incurred its entire 
destruction or concealment. 

The third we consider to be that 
now called the Percv Shrine; and 
which, though the author of " Bever- 
lac,'* has admitted such various claims 
for its appropriation, is attributed to 
the same Idonea as Leland names, by 
the high authority of Mr. Gougb.*— 



* The grand mistake of Bishop Percy in bringing it down more than a centnry to the 
lady of the fourth Earl, and which wu corrected by Mr. Qongh (though witli delicacy, in 
deference to the Bishop, who was then alive,) had better been passed oanoticed by Mr. 
Poulsnn, particularly as he found the opinion of Mr. Googh, as to the ^a of the monu- 
ment, supported by those of Mr. Rickroan and other architectural critics. The Bishop was 
led to ascribe the moooroent to the Countess Maud, in consequence of a MS. memoran- 
dum in the copy of Ducdale's Baronage in Wororster cathedral library, which records the 
opening m 1671 of *< Site grave wherein the bod^ of Mand Countess of Northumberland 

GawT. Mao. March, ISao. 



210 



Perof Monuments at Beverley, 



[March, 



We are aware that Mr. Pooison may 
probably object that it is not made of 
alabaster ; as he says in p. 695, " there 
is evidently no alabaster monument, 
nor any traces of one left." This very 
circumstance, however, — that there are 
no traces of alabaster left,— contributes 
to prove that Leland mistook the free- 
stone of the " shrine," for alabasier, 
which he might easily have done from 
the delicacy of the sculpture, and per- 
haps from tne substance being concealed 
by colours. 

In this manner we distribute Leland's 
description ; and, although in conse- 
quence of the movement of at least two 
of the monuments (the first named and 
the priest's effiey), it is undoubtedly (as 
remarked by Mr. Poulson) *' much at 
variance with the Beverley monuments 
as they now stand,*' yet, we think it 
will not thus beany longer " difficult to 
reconcile his (Leland's) statement with 
their present appearance.*' 

As it is not necessary, on this occa- 
sion, to describe more particularly the 
Percy "shrine," we will now refer our 
readers to the History of Beverley, or 
the more fortunate of our readers who 
have access to the Sepulchral Monu- 
ments, to that work, in order that it 
may receive a further portion of that at- 
tention, of which, as a beautiful speci- 
men of ancient art, at the most florid 
period of pointed architecture, it is so 
fully deserving. We will only notice, 
for the information of those who may 



remember the monument in times past, 
that during the recent repairs ot the 
Minster, when the choir was fitted up 
for divine service instead of the nave, 
the tomb under the *' shrine** was 
removed, 

" when the contents exhibited a atone 
coffin joined with mortar, 6 feet 6 inchea 
long, 1 foot 6 inches wide, and onlj 16 
inchet deep ; the body was closely enveloped 
in lead, so much so as to leave the impression 
of the body in it, and enclosed in a wood 
coffin [which appeared to have been (Pon- 
dered of the ornaments which decorated it.*] 
— Dr. Hull, who was presenty supposes that 
the arms, legs, and bones, from their magni- 
tude, did not belooc to a person above the 
age of 19 or 14. [it is shrewdly suspected 
that the account in Gough had tempted the 
cupidity of the plunderers.f] It seems that 
this altar-tomb liad been a subsequent intro- 
duction under the canopy, as the mouldings 
had been cut away for its admission, from 
which it may be inferred that the orisinal in- 
terment was below the floor of the ehnrch." 

We will now proceed to our main 
business, to describe the subjects repre- 
sented in the plate. 

First, with regard to the tomb, its 
architecture agrees with the style of the 
commencement of Edward the Third's 
reign, which was the period at which 
Eleanor Lady Percy died. She was a 
dauehter of John the second Fitz-Alan 
Earl of Arundel, and wife of Henry the 
first Lord Percyof Alnwick, who died 
in 1315, and was buried in the Abbey 
of Fountains. It is probable that the 



was interred at Beverley minster, near unto the before-specified monument*' of her has* 
band; but this memorandum, it will be perceived, mentions no monument of the CooBtass, 
but« on the contraiy, describes the place where her stone coffin was found as a '* snave."— 
It appears that Gttharine widow of the fifth Earl, by will in 1549, \e/h her body to be bariad 
at Beverley. It is possible that the remains found in Dugdalc's time may have beloaged to 
this Countess. — We are sorry to see that Mr. Dallaway, in his account oic the.Perey fiunilj, 
(under Petworth, in the History of Sussex,) has copied the misappropriation of the mooomcBt 
to Maud, notwithstanding he refers to Gough's Sepulchral Monuments. He adds in anotot 
« For the preservation of this monument a small stipend is still paid;'*— we hope iS will 
continue to be so. 

* t We have marked these passages, because they refer to the account mentioned in the 
preceding note, of the investigation made in 1671* at which time a corpse was found with 
several rich ornaments, and which Mr. Poulson has hastily considered to be the same as 
that described in the text. To shew the impossibility of their identity, we will now quote 
the description of what were considered the remains of the Countess Maud : ** Her eorpae 
was found in a stone coffin, embalmed and wrapped in cloth of gold, with slippers embroi- 
dered with silver and gold, a wax lamp, and a plate candlestick with a candle. Aocovding 
to Mr. Poulson's account, the recent resurrectionisU appear to have expected that the 
resurrectionists of 1671 were so considerate as to leave all these in statu quo ; and that, if 
the curiosities were gone, it must have been by plunderers since Mr. Gough's advertisement 
of the hidden treasures ! But it appears so obvious that a body *' closely enveloped in lead" 
could not be the same as had been seen 150 years before, not inclosed In lead, but merely 
«'erobahned and wrapt in cloth of gold, with slippers," that we wonder how the seppoaStiea 
that the two corpses were the same could be entertained for a moment. — We cannot, more- 
over, pass unnoticed the carelessness with which, in the extract,*' embroidered" u vasgAabti ' 
for '< embalmed/' and « Baronetage" for « Baronage." 



1830.] 



Percf/ Monuments at Beverley, 



211 



manor-house of Leckonfield near Be- 
verley was asti^aecl to her aB the resi- 
dence of her widowhood, and that she 
was thus induced to hestow the honour 
and proBt of her interment on the 
neighbouring Minster, instead of re- 
posing by the side of her husband at 
Fountains. The indenture recording 
her obit at Beverley is now 6rst printea 
in p. 693 of Mr. Poulson's rolume, 
from Dodsworth's manuscripts at Ox- 
ford ; and, at the period ot Lcland's 
▼isit, the monument probably either re- 
tained itsinscription,or was well known 
by tradition. The indenture is dated 
in 1336; butitappears that Lady Elea- 
nor had deceased in 1328, when the 
Earl was appointed constable of Scar- 
borough castle, on the death of his mo- 
ther, to whose custody it had been 
committed in the preceding year.*— 
In the plate in Gough is a sketch of 
the east end of the monument, giving 
through the hole a peep of the stone 
coffin inside. 

We will now speak of the statue. — 
Mr. Gough correctly attributed it to 
George, a son of the second Earl of 
Northumberland, 00 the mere ground 
that he was a Prebendary of Beverley ; 
but we have now a positive confirma- 
tion, in the party's own direction to be 
buried at Beverley, of which we are in- 
formed by the catalogue of "testamen- 
tary burials,'* formed by the antiquary 
Torre from the wills to the prerogative 
office at York. 

It appears that Leckonfield near Be- 



verley was the favourite residence of 
the second Earl $ since we find by a 
curious list of his progeny, made bv his 
chaplain, Robert Cavell, that, ot hit 
twelve children, six at least were bom 
at that manor. t — The mother of this 
numerous family was Lady Eleanor 
Nevill, daughter of Ralpn Eari of 
Westmoreland, by his second wife, 
Joan Beaufort, halt sister to King Henry 
the Fourth. It was to this marriage that 
the heir of the Percys was indebted, 
through the mediation of the Countess 
Joan with her nephew Henry the Fifth, 
for his reconciliation with the house of 
Lancaster, and consequent recall from 
banishment in Scotland, and restora- 
tion to his Earldom and estates, which 
were forfeited by his father the celebrated 
Hotspur ; and, to judge from that excel- 
lent criterion, the tiumber of thie off- 
spring, th